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(I^ U '£ l£i iBi .£) „,GoOgk 

Htp^ eHlm, tdUidtn Anaen. 


C I C E R O. 







. 1847. (vGDOgk 



EaterHf, iicconiinjr to Act ot Congreu, In tha yeor 1S30, tay 

in tba Clert'i Offii» of the Southern Dmttict of New-Vork. I,GoOgk 








Tb« present editior of Gicero contains lh« finn 
orationB against Catiliiie, together with those for Ax' 
chiKB, Marcellus, the ManiUan Law, and Mareoa. 
In making thia Belection, the editor has been gutded 
by the statuteB of Columbia College, 'which requiro 
all the orations that have just been enumerated, with 
the ezception of the last two, to be read by candidates 
for admission into the Freshman Class. As the Btat- 
utes of otber collt^s differ, in this respect, but little ■ 
from our owii, and aa the orationB against Catiline are 
almost uniTersally read, it is hoped that the work here 
presented to the publie will prore a useful auxiliary 
to the youth of our conntry in general. The orations 
for the Maitilian Law and for Murena have been added 
ts &TOiirable specimens of Cicero*» more elaborale 
*• T 

ityle of eloquence, especially the latter; and they 
may, it is coDceived, be read with adTantage at the 
beginning of an under-graduate couiBe. 

In fonning tfae tezt of the pregent work, the editor 
has taken Emesti*s for his basis, but without any 
slavish adherence to the opinions and decisions of 
that distinguished commentator. WhereTer a readii^ 
piesented itself, oalculated in the editor'8 opinion to 
throw more light oq the meaning of Cicero than the 
leceired lection could impart, he haa not besitated 
to adfipt it; and he flalters himself that the result 
of his labours, iu this department, will proTe accept- 
able to all who are qualified to paBS an opinioa 
uptai his efforts. 

The conunentaxy, it will be perceired, is far {rom 
being a scanty one. If there be any author that 
- stands in need of full and copiou& illustratioD, it un 
doubtedly is Cicero in the orations which haTe come 
down to us. The train of thought must be coDtinu- 
allj laid open to the young scholar, to enable him 
to appreciate, in their fuU force and beauty, the» 
brilliant memorials cf other days; and the alluBions, 
in which the orator is .so fond <tf indulging, must b«,GoOgk 

carefully and fiillj explained. Unless tiris be done, 
tfae speecbee of Cicero become a dead letter, ud tima 
ii <mly wasted ia tbeir perusaL 

The edilor is ioduced to make these rematks, ftom 
tbe con7ict!on, that the system of commeoting, wbicb 
he hai puTsued tbrougbout tbe present work, will, as 
in tbe case of his previoua efforts, be condemned by 
Bome on the ground of its affording too much aid 
to the leamer, The truth is, howeyer, the editor 
bad no altematiTe left him. If tbere be any one 
cause, which has tended more powerfully ihan the 
test to bring . classical studles into diarepute among 
UB, it is the utter incompetency 6f maoy of those 
who profess to be clasBical instructerB, It is very 
natural tbat such pieceptors should be strongly arerBe 
to bestowing too much assistance upon their pupils; 
and perhaps it is lucky for tbe latter that sacb a 
slate of tbings sbould ezist; but certainly, for the 
credit of our common countiy, it is high time that 
some change should be effected, and that if tbe 
learner cannot obtain from oral instroction tbe inform- 
ation which ought to be afforded him, he may procure 
it at leaat from the nctes of his lezt-book. We may 
be rery sure of one thing, thal the stjrle of claBsica] 


instniction whicli prevails at the present day in bo 
mway of our colleges and semmaries of leaming, o£ 
tiaoslaUng merely the langnage of an ancient autbor, 
■without any attempts whatcTer at illuetration or anal- 
ysia, will iiever produce any &uits either of sound 
leaming or intellectual improTement. 

C. A. 







H. Omd nwtnmg, tny d«u Baetar, I luTa wut«d apon 7011, it diw 
mHj hanr, to diapUj' ■ purcbue which I receDlJf mide, •nd to «ak joar 
0{niiiDii tMpecting iL I htre here the eatira woik* of Cieen, io on* 
otout octSTO, bj t Gennen icholat or tbe neme of Nobbe. 

Di. B. I b*Te ■eea the edition, Hanij, uid un ditpoied to think veiy 
faTonnblj of it, boCh >t legirdi the tsxt itteH^ >nd tbe tfjiognphictl •>• 
•mtion of ths Tolome. I eiunined it at PiAei'e, yetteidtj, in compai^ 
«rith Athton, of BnteD-Nose. — Biildotell me, how tttndt jour ■cqDunl- 
•nce with Ibe Ufo tDd writingt of "the mto of ArpinDinr' 

H. I im not 11 mDch ■thranethera, DoetoT, u I ODgbtto be. Vfiih 
Am general ODtlinee of hie cbtnctei uid lebonre, I un ■■ well •cqDaiiitod, 
|Rob*bl;, u mott yonng men of mf age tra ; bnl ttilt thera tie naaf 
pointt ■bont wtuch T woutd like 10 eontult ;oa, wben jon trt peifectlj 
at leinue for iIh Ittk. . iDdeed, Docloi, to be outdid, I wiah foa wouU 
fkTotii me with > conTemtioa tbout Ciceio, timilir lo the one in whicb 
Stllaet wu ouT theme. 

Si. B. With ill mT hent, Henry, foi I htppen to be qnite tt leiiun 
jntt now, ■• the delegetee ot tba pieet will not meet to-d^, owing to t)M 
inditpoiition of tbe Cunbden Piofeuoi of Hiitoiy, Sr. Ctrdwall. 

H. I n^l Ihe ctDie, my dev Boctoi, aad ;et cinnot bnt deem mj- 
■df eitiemelf foitnntte in Gnding jaa tbot dieengiged. With joor 
pennitrion, I will oecnpj tfait eomfoit^hle, old-fuhioned ■im-chtii, ■nd 
will [daee mj Cicen) on Ihe teble between ua u ■ •ort of connectiog tja. 

Di. B. Ilere it no need, mj deu boj, of eDj tach tie in the piBtent 
eiae, u ■ bi mora powerful one tlieidj eiittt. Betidea, I know noc 
how it it, but whoeTei occopiet Ihtt pliin old teit where jou tra now 
nclining, •eemi endetied 10 me b j iriitt GBiifbid would cill the " ^«Tiiit* 
Miitit," foi it wtt Ihera that mj old friend Copleeton of Oiiel Died U 
•rt, ind dieconne of " hi^ phikMophj," befon he wu tmitfeiTtd b> thrt 
aiara okmod ^lMia of ■ction, which he hiKioun bj hia tduit*, anA,GoOgk 


•donu bf hJB Dameiai]) Tiitooa. Gad gnct, mir deu Hsniy, thit yow 
oira eanm nuf ba u diitinguiahed uid lucceiBful ■ one. 

U. If pkLleiit indoatij, uid * canecieatioui dlscbuge ofdut;, ongun 
fw me ui bonooiable n&me, I tiuit I ibiU nwer dinppoiiit joui eipecl> 
■tioui, my owd and mj filbei'i fhend, iltboa^ I c*n neTer bope Ut 
■ttain to thtt lofiy gDperioiily, nhich bae been leBched by tbe «mineat 
indiTidual vihoie nema joa hiT« juat menlioned. — Let ua proceed, now, 
mj deu Doctor, to Ciceto. 

Dr. B. Mueae Tultiua Cicera nu boin in Ihe 103d jear before tbe 
Cbliatian en, U Aipinam, a Lilin city, tbe inbabitBnti ol which enjojed 
Ihe li^l* of Rcmin citiieiuhip, uid the priTilege, conaeqnently, of Toting 
■t tbe comicia. Tbe biitb-yeir of Cicero waa ilao tb«t of Pompej, who 
wu B fen montba tua junioi ;i wbile Aipinum, Cba oiatoi'! natsl place, 
wik Ukewiae ftunoua' for hmLng pioduced tbe eelebnted Miriua, tha 
well-kaown opponent of SyllH, uid tbe deliTeiei tt the asme time ■nd 
■courge of hie countiy. 

H. Wu it not Pompey wbo made aome alluaioa to ihia cinumatince, 
Doclor, of Aipinum') baving produced botb ■ Ciceio and i Meriua. 

Dr. B. It w«s. He look occseioD ouce to remark, in a public ipeedi, 
that lUima waaundei ibe «Uongest ubligatione Co tbia nluniciiihini, be- 
euue two cilizeuB bad came forth from it, wbo had eacb in hia tum pie- 
■srTed Italy fmai lum.^ And Valeriua Maximua makes b similu lemaik 

H, I lemembeihia wordi : " Cotajncuiu /clicUatii Arpiiaimuraaini, 
iht lilfTanm gloriotiMMitmim conttmiorcm, nne aiundantitiimian/orUtm 
nUutri velit."* 

Di. B. Yea, tbat uaed to be a faTourite quDtadon Tritb RucBell, of 
Magdalen. Tbe conltmtor literanim is MBrius, Iht/ont olnaidaHtiin' 
nOLi, Cicero. — Our oiBtor wbi of a family, wbich, tbough it had neTer 
borne any of Che great officei of the republie, waa yet Teiy ancient and 
bonounible ;* of principal diaCinction end Dobility in ihat pait of Italy ia 
which it leiided, and of equestiian lank &Dm ita SiaC admisaian lo tha 
&eBdom of Rome. It appeBia, tbat the fathei of Ciceio, hanng bie 
■mbition piobably eicited, by the aucceiafol caieei of hia fellow-townB- 
Dun MuiuB, WM the fint who thought of obtaining aome degree of lustre 
for hia &iaily, by beHtowing a careful edncation ou bia two ■oni Maicoa 
•nd QuintUB, and one wbich migbc enable tbam Co enjoy the bigbeat 
officOB in (be gift of the Roman people. 

1 aeara wbi bom dd Ihs thlrd of Januarr, (Ep. adAIL7,<UtBA Poittptl <■ 
Ihs lan of Bepiember folkiwlnf. Pith. Atm. Fllti.3r,2. ' 

S. CCs. ile Ltg. Z2.3. ■ 

8. rat.Mas.%Z,i. 

*. ' natc tit mea, tl hajiafiatrli md gtrmatnpalrla! IdnetalmatHtlirtt 
*Kilg<ii,ttmaimmi: Utiaeni,iiitfemit,McmMmmmiiUaviillgta." C<& 


H. Bat hon canld Qkj piDcmB thii edacUion it ArpinnmT 

Dr. B. Tbe; obuined it at Rome, m the dwelling of Cuw Aenlaak 
Iheir malenul unele, uid >a emiiieDt lanyei of tbe day ; and tltnr ccmh- 
im, tbe young Aculeov wecft-edaeated mlh them, tccoiding to ■ metbod 
■ppioved of b; Cranua, the celebiUed oistor, and bj tfae \etj inBtiDct«n 
whom he himaelf hod emplojed,' The languige iDd litenlaie of Gieec» 
fbrmed, of couree, s piomiaeut piit of theii eirlj «tadie*, siid in this 
thejr were csrefulij insliucled by ihs poet Archia*, who ume to remde 
•t Rome nben Ciceio wu anlj Gve yean of age, aad to whpie (atiiiang 
earo Uie latlei beautiTully aliudea in the memoiable oraOoii wbere ha 
defeuda Ihe poet's citizeasbip. 

H. Do you oot Ibink, Doctor, Ibat be latei ■omawhat too hl^ij &a 
meriti or thta Acchias 1 Dodgson, ol Chmt-Chuicli, one of Dsan Ii»- 
land'a gcbolaia, inuBta Ihal the poet was oolj an indiTidual of ■acond- 
mie abihtiea. 

Dr. B. Why, raminclinedtaEIuiikKimjKtr. Bat vanilj, jou know, 
ww llie great failing io Ciceio'e charactei, sod Archiae moat probablj, in 
the true spirit of hia country snd his ago, had miiiistered so abundantlj 
lo Uie peisanal feelings of tbe Romin oraUir, ■■ lo enime him in the ejes 
of the latter to a more thui ordinarj retum of the languigo of piaiaa. Be 
thii, howevei, ae it maj, we cannot but admiie the kind feeling ao ationglj 
displajed in hia apiiiled eulogium upon the ehanetei and ■bilitiea of hij 
eirlj preceptor. — But let db proceed. Cieera is MJd to have atUacted, 
mt ao eailj period, Ihe attention of the two greatesl oiatoia of theii itij, 
Licimus Ciassns and Miicna Aatonius, who did aot diidain to intsieit 
IhemBelves ia behalf of ■ joutk te conspicucnu for zeal and tha eailj 
development of tsleat. He bed aliead j given ■ pioof of thia abilitj bj 
his poem of -PoQtine Qlaucos, which he ia aaid to have composed while 
•till almoet a boj, and which eiisted as late as Uie time of Plutaich.a 

H. Bni, Doclor, jon snielj woold not coniidei Ciceru's poetrr « 
Tery nfe staodatd bj nbich to estimate his ialelleclnal eiceUence. 

Di. B. I im well awue, my young fiiend, of ihe difference of opiiiion 
which eiista in lelation to ihe poetiy of Ciceio, and Ihit it is veij mnch 
Ihe fuhion wilh modem aeholara to deaj him aaj meiit in Ihit speciei of 
wiiliag. He has been ofien ridicnled on accoanlof aaunlDckjline, dut 
eeeuired in s poem wbich he composed on the nibject of bis coninlsh^ ; 
■nd I have no doubt jou cin quote it for me. 

H. " Oforhaialarx nalam me contnU RoBUim." 

Dr. B. Rigbt Totirememberprobably thaaaieasmorJuTeQsl,*that, 

1. " OHnfiHna eum tenictrinii nttirit, AcuUiTiit JUHm, tt to Jitctritim», 
fwi Oratie platemii, datniAicliirihit, TH^taKiHttiMrtlM- •nuKmnr." Dt 
OnU. ^l. 

2. PW.,GoOgk 


S he hid ntlned eieij thing in this w*;, he would hftTe Wn Hfe hm^ 
(he iwoid* oF Anlany'! follonerB ; snd ilw) Qain(ihaii'i UagiMge, who 
cenaurH iha liaa u ui Bzunple of defectire Teraifieation ;l atill, I cai^ 
nol, I coofeve, eee (be JD*ttce of «ondemning ■ writei foi ■ ungle line of 
poeti7, Kti it q)pcara to me, thit, tf oot modem tnidi wera tiied b; thu 
oidstl, & Urge aambei, who htTe ^taioed Terr conifaitible qnanen on 
Pimuiai, noatd be eompelled to detcend to tbe [dun. Toltaiie, in th« 
piefaee to bii Catilinl, placei Ciceio bj the nde of the beet poeta of hia 
time, ■nd tiuofu he auj OTeii diapnle the palm with Lueietiaa himaelf 3 

H. Allow TDS to lak, Doctot Bacton, whether you woold conaidor 
Voluire u a Tei^ atlDDg aoUioritf in the preaent eaae ! 

Dr. B. I know wtut jod mem by yaot qneition, HuUT- Hie wodci 
which mj Ihend Sr. Wjntei, of 8t. Jdui'a CoUc^, lecommeaded jou 
lo lead, haa giTen joa i Teij low opinioo of VoItute'B genenl accimcf, 
and I conresi, Ihst, in mitteia of leal echalanbip, bie lulboiitj it of na 
weight wbilerei. Aa a poet, howeTei, he maj be idlowed to give aa hia 
opiniOD leapecting & biolhei poet, and maj be conaidered ■ much aafer 
guids in matteiB of teale thui wheia leuning and re>e«ich aie deminded. 

H. FerhipB, Doctot, sonie l^bt mij be thiown upon thia anbject bj 
the eBtimation in wbicb Cicero'B poetiy tvbb held emong hb contem- 

Dr. B. Sttange aa it maj ippeu to jou, Cicero'E cantempoiaiiea lO 
iDOught thst hii poem entided Meiiua, an eitnct from nhich appaUB in ' 
the tieatSae on IKTination,* and 011 nbich bj-the-bje Toltiire'* opinioB ii 
founded, waa ■ prodoclion tbat bod ihe fiireit cbance of deecending la 
poatetitj. — Indeed, tbe alliBnce between otatoij end Ihe poetie att js eo 
■trict, tbat it ie difficnlt to eicei ia one, withoat haTing it Ibe ume tims 
eocie diapoaition foi the othei. Both demuid, in hct, the tbij aaina 
qualiliea, an aident imigiaiiion, ■ fertile tnTention, aiid grudeot uid 
elention of itjle. Thui, foi eiuaple, tbe geniue of Demoethenea waa 
eieentiallj tiagic, snd hs ■ppetis ta mocli oT s poel ae ui onloi, in bdibb 
of Ihoae atiUDB af coatinDad eloquence, which no humui efibit his jet 
BnipiBBed, fuid which hive eoTeied bia nune witb one andjing btize of 
glraj. — We mntt beu in mind, too, tbit, in Ciceio'B daji, tba ancient 
inflticilj of the Latin mnae wbb onlj begiiming lo (Hume ■ moie poliihed 
•itehra, and to bniliuiia itaelf ineenaiblj widi humoaj of aumben aod 

3. " Ce qne peu da panoanaB aaTen^ o>eit qne CHBSnn iMt encors on dM 
premleiB pD^lea d^nn aldela ojl li betle po^ala eDmnwDeaiU uSl». H bilu(tt 
.a teputation de IJicr^s. T-i-t-llrlen dopluB beau que eet nn qm dou km 
nitlt de lon poSuie loi MuIiiJ, al qnl Ibnt Unt f«|ntlar It ptita da eM 

S. LettTeidcqnelqiua Juifi^iK deViiIlBlie. Slom.lSon. 

4. (Xt.diiNe.LV,GoOgk 


Ab othor embelliduaBDU of uL The perTaBlJaD, ba w erer, to idudl 
poeDj WM uiried Bflei the deBth of Cicero, hsiiiig shwilntelr Biclnded 
dl loediocritf, it ueed iwt siupriBe vn that he letaiiKd eo liltle leputatkni 
iu B Bpecies of wriciDg «hich he foand in eo uncultiTaled umI ilmoBt haT- 
buona a, Btate. Oui jadgDieDtB of thinf^ e» fcoiaed io thia itorld «olelj 
bj compariion. Cieero paues irilli ninij for > b>d poet, beotoe hedoea 
not enjoy tha «ame niik aa Vi^il uid Honce, TibuUuB ind Ovid, iiid 
ItiB manncf of jndgtDg him Boems to haie oiigiaBted at the eoart of An- 
guitoB, nhete, to throiT ridicale od the lifiBiBctec of a pBtiiot like Ciceio, 
waa Bote lo be receited with faTour bj him who sal upon the thTone. 

H. I find • good deal of truth in 70111 lemariu, my deai Doctoi, and 
wiil gite llie aubject, oiw daj, m; attentiTe consideiatLon ; meatiwhilo 
aHow me to aak wbat poitioiu we baTe lemaining of Ciceio'* poetiy. 

Di. B. Bot few. There ue fngmenti of hie tnnslation, into Laliii 
heiameteis, of the HiaenoiBeDB of AntuB ; the eitiact ilreadj inentionBd 
&oin hie poem entilled Maiim, and another liom that on the Bubject of 
hia consalsh^), logBthei with a faw Bcattered lineB fnnn olbei peiAmii- 
wice«.> — Bat I am afraid T baTe indatged too much ia the ganoli^ of age 
onthii paiticalar lOfHC^Iet ua tetimi tothe mne immediale hiatoi^of the 
Boman oiator. It was tbe cuBlom, in thoBa dajs, fbi jroang petsoD* of 
good familieB, after they hid aBsumed Hie maalf gown, to itUeit tlmi- 
eelves to some diatinguisheii raeiDber of the Beoale, wbom die^ accom- 
pBliied to all ptacea of public reaort, the tbmm in paitieular, and &<m) 
whosa ezample thej leamed to occupji themselves with tbe aBaiiB of Iba 
iqiublic 01 tboae of piiTate iDdividuala. The SBnator, to whoni Ciceio 
ABd been leconuDended, was tbe cetebnted lawyer, Qnintua MutJue 
SoeTola,* Barasined the Aagur, by way of diatiDction fiom one of hia 
lebttTea wbo wu Fontifoi Maiimus. How mucb he pioGled by tha 
Bociety and the wisdom of Cbis exccllenC man, is ackDowledged by liim 
in gnteful temu, in the beginning of the diBlogae on the BUbject of 

H. Did the itudy of juiiBpiadeaee fima at thii tiioe bis sale emplcif^ 

Dr. B. Il did not. Tbe great objecl «liich he had io TJew lendared it 
■bsolutely necesmy foi him lo otCain a peifect acquaintBnce with tha 
TiiioaB wrilaia ihat adamed the litentun of Gieece ; and IbiB conrse of 
teading fornied, duiing che wbole of bis life, Iuh faTourite relaxation afler 
tfae laboom of ^e senale and Ihe bar, and hia chief consolation amid tba 
poUiical conTulaioiis of tbe repablic Among the Qredis, who, at thia 
peiiod, gare InatnicciaD at Rome ia their national litenlare, beaide* ki* 
cld precBpWr Arciuas, wfl» Fbaedrus the Epicutean, and he w*« in p«t> 


xn Lirs ino writinus or ciciro. 

lienliT the Gnt Grsek philninphrr whoM loctun* irna ittanded bj tha 
youthful Cicero. 

H. I hnt heud it lud alao, Docloi, that CicMp in nilf life p«ifoiiDed 
militiujsarTice.. la the ■taCenient ■ coirect one 1 

Di. fi. It is. Two eareera, tX Ibii period, preieiiled IbeonelTae to 
thoee of ihe Romin joDth irbo «ere poaeeaMd neilher of forlnne dot 
SubHj inflaenee ; the path of irou *ad tbat of etoqaence. OnioiicU 
talente were auiB of finding at Rome ■ thoarand opportomtiee of diiylay- 
ing tbemielTei, eilher in Ibe defence of fiieads, oi ia the accuntion of 
poweiful ofleadeie ; tnd tbej cODducted theii posseuor to honoan and 
publie (aTODi ae piomptlj end u effectaillj ai tbe «ueer of militarj 
eiploils. Sucb, bowerer, vna Ihe pecaliu conatitntion of ^ie republic, 
(bit the ebleit genenl wu compeUed lo cultivete, in lome degiee, dw 
Mt of public Bpeiking; aiul, on ibe otber hind, the moit eloqnent ontor 
could nol leauin a itnnger to the eit of «ar. Etcij jouog mao. des- 
tined Ibr the moTementi of the bu, had to commence bj making Bome 
CBmpeigni ihioid, and Ciceio made hie in the war of the alliea, undei 
CnBiai Pompeiui Strabo, fathei of the well-kDown Pompey, and nndei 
SjUa, ihe celebnted competltor of Mariui. At the conciuaion of Ibie 
peiiad, ibe r^Uic wbb endiDgered wiihont, bj tbe contegt with Mithri- 
datei, and wilhin bj civil gtnTe. Five jean of trouble thua eniaed, 
duting which Ciceio, wboae youtb entitled him to ibe piiiilege of remain- 
ing neutial between tbe two factions, deToted all his time lo rfaeloric ind 

H. Undet what initiucten, Doctot ! 

Dr. B. He had now for hia precepton niaiij leamed Greeks, whom 
the war wilh HithridBtes had compellod (o abandon their coontrjr. Tbe 
duef of these waa Fhilo,l of Larissa, who had been it tbe heid af ibe 
Aeademj tt Atbetu, aod wbo wbs ndw aveiir BucceHfal teacher of phi- 
lOBOphj in Ihe RomBn capiCaL The ardoar wilh wbich Cicero enibiaeed 
the Academic leoets ib eaiilj eiplnined bj tbe utili^ which Le wu likelj 
lo derira ttom tbem in tbe discassions of the forum, Fbilo howcTer vni 
not luB onlj maBlei. The Stoic Diodotui^ taugbt bim bow to wield the 
■Inu of dialectic Bcience, Bnd undei thiB ihetorlciBH, who liTed and died 
beneilh bii loof, Cicero dul j exercised himielf in eitsmporBneoai deela- 
mation. Tbeie eieicises weie in tha Oreek langnage, Diodotus probablj- 
being not well acquainted irilh the Litin ; but biDI tbej were no doubt 
of tbe gieiteit adrintage lo Cicero, in ensbling bim to enrich bii ntiln 
'diom wilb tbe treBsures of the Hellenic tongue. 

H. I thank jou, DocCor Buton, for tbua dwelling upon Ihe eulin 
Itudiee of Cicero. The nuntiTe maj aerre to BnimBte the jDJtbJu 

' -.■C<„wlc 


uf^nts or oni own iij. How roiciblr ire wa itnick b; tlie eontnat, 
wben we compate llie prepaltMrj toil of > Demosthenei snd ■ Cicen> 
with that of tbe onlon o/ aat own tlmet. ThBfn wu the heroic ogo 
of ehMjuence, in ige destined neTGi 10 letnm. He ument caodidaie 
fbi the prize of oratoiy deroled hii wbole bculties to a oMtetj mer Uw 
insliiiments of penauioB. He neglected none of the meuu t>f ■dccob, 
howerer aligbt OT innignificBDl in ■ppeannce. He eiplored everj aTenuo 
of tlie mind, and look posgeenon of all ths inleta of deli^t tbtougb ibe 
mediuDi of the aeniu. If he figured ti ■ stetesmin, the atiidj of eto- 
quenee includad the wbole menlsl diecipliae. If he appeired ai an adTO- 
cate, and won the eme, it ww lo the ute of penuuioa ba owed the 

Dr. B. Trne, Benij, but then how diffeient i> tbe tiwiung of tba 
modein, whetbeT he ■ppen in the ■enate oi the fonun. Hii path 1* 
crowded ind encumbeie^ witb tbe iiMtBriali of ■baost UDluoited eitent 
and Tarietj, which the biboiin of cenlujiea haTB ■ccumulited, oihI wbicb 
be ie lequiied to ah^pe to the ends of judicioua speeeh. He ia thrown on 

■ scene of bDaineie, and into afiaire of complciitjr, from the moment of 
hia enliance on a public caieei. He haa to combine and amnge a Taat 
numbei of detaila, inconaiilent with all unit; of ■pplic^lion. Ha cannot 
pumie eloqtience u a Bepsnte bniich of inteHeclual discipline, a»d of 
prepanlion foi the conflicta of life. The ■ncienti, haTing in tbeir polil- 
ical ■■aembliea no bebuicing of inteieata, no ctnnplicatsd adjoatments, no 
cDiiipRnniaea of poltcf, no achemea of concenioo, gaTe tbenuelTea up to 

■ lingle point of diBcuaaion. Thejr were never diTeited from ■ eertain 
unilj of intellectual TJew bjthe diBtraetioni uid diTuriona whicb pervade 
our miied aaaemUiea. Thein nu ■ nu^eneg* ef parpoie eSecled by 
aimplicitf of meine. Wbat weapons of signal powei ind pioof did nol 
(heae Girenautances lend lo the etoqnence of anliquitj.g 

H. I perceiTe the fbice of youi lemariu, mjr deiiDoetor, and ihaltbe 
labonn and etfoit^ of modem oratoiy ought to haTe been nted more 
tti^y hy me. — But let ub pioceed with Ciceio, 

Di. B. The fint oration which Cieero pionouncod, at leut of thoa* 
eztant, tiu deliTered in the presenee of fonr judgea appoinfed bj the 
pnatoi, and with the celebnled Hortensiua for his ogiponent. It w^ii in 
tbe CBse of Quintiua, and ths ontor «■■ at thit time but 36 jean of age. 
Tbe fint public oi ciimiDal tiid on wbicb be spoke, wu tbat of RoicinB 
of Ameria, tbe sncoeeding yeai, when he appeand on tbe defence, ind 
diqilijad great counge in ittaeking, datiag his ipeecb, b ceitun Cbrr- 
K^onui, a fiTonnte alaTe, ta «hom SjUa, then in the height of hia powei, 

n Jttttat, Wi.lOipafaSB.,GoOgk 


bul gWen frMdam, uid nbom he hid penmttod to 1«; Ihe pmpei^ of 
llie fithei of Roaciua as ■ rDrfeiture. 

K. Thli wu cenunlf beld canduct ia m joung sn idvocit& 

Dr. B. It wii indeed. Fiom drrad of llie powei of Sjila, the ■cciuod 
had difficulty in praruling on tny pation to nndenike hii cwiae, bot 
Cicero eageily smbiaced tliis appDrtanit; lo give ■ public testimonial of 
hiideteBtalion ol oppieMion uid (jnimj. The ontion, howsTei, wsa too 
much in ihe Sorid Asiatic nunnei, nbich the eMmple of Hortenoius hsd 
Tondersd fubioualile in the forum. IIib iplrit diaplajed bj Cicero in 
conducting this defencs met wilh g;eneial spplsuse, snd naa lemembeicd 
by hioueir in his old age wilh s feeiing of auch delight, tbst he recom- 
menda to his aon, sa the ■urest patb to tiue lionour, to defend Iho** who 
■ra dnjuallj oppiBBfled, as he himgelf hsd done in msnj eaases, bot pu- 
uculatlj in that of Roaciua ef Ameiis, whom he bsd piotected aguiiM 
Sjlls in tbe height of his authoritj.i 

H. And did no evil conseqnenceB lesolt to the oiatoi &om tbia couv- 
ageoQS defence 1 

Di. B. Nons wbatever. It musC be confeswd, iudeed, that Oicsra 
quilted Rome soon sltei (hie, pai^j it is >aid on account of his heslth, 
which had suSeied by his close spplication to itnd;, and paitly foi im- 
piDvemenL PethB|iB he deemed it but common prgdeoce to withdniv 
for a seBBon from the immediste preeence of tbe ■11-powetful SjIIb. Ha 
tiavelled ioto Gieece and Aaia Minoi, wheie he spent two jeals in tba 
SBsiduons study of [^iloBophy, under the ablest instiucten in eitber 
eouDlij, sud wheie he ako acquired, under Grecian mastars, the srt of 
cammsnding his Toice, and giTing it grenter compus and Tariety ihaa it 
had hitherto sttained.a — The firat cbubs nhtch hs plead aflet his tetuCD 
lo Rome, waa tbst of Rasciua, the ceiebrated tiagedisn, wbich inTolTed 
a mere mattei of ciTJl light, and wsb of no peculisi inteiest oi importance. 
All the orstions whicb he deliveied during the five following jearB sts 
loal, of nhich number nere those for Msicus Tulliua and Lucius Vsienui, 
whicb Princian mentiona aa being extant in hia time. 
. H. I peiceive, loo, that even the speech for RoBcius, the actoi, ia not 
complete, siDCB the ill-omened worda, " Dtnderantur fum pmca," sn 

Dr. B. Thej Hre indeed wordB of evil import, bot ne eluU bsTe pre- 
■ently to apeik of loBseB far more aeriouB and deplorabls. Let us go oo 
meanwbile with the biograpbj of oui iHvtoi. — Cicero had attuned iha- 
quBSstorBhip st the aga of thiitj, an office fDrming the firat step in tha 
■scent to coniulsi bonoorB. His election waa most bonourable te hiia, 
■a he was chosen by the unauimouB suffiHges of the tribea, and sUiod fint,GoOgk 


on tl>e list of competiton.' Tbs prorinces of the quieston being 
■Iwire discributBd bf lot, the islend of Sicil; fell to the ahuii of Cicero^ 
whBre be diapl&jed so mnch pmdence aud sagtciqr, so much utiTiCf in 
the diecbarge of his official duties, and, nbil wu moet raie io Ihoee tinies, 
M> much integntjr end dinntereatedneBe, u to eicite ibe «Iminitioa of tU 
the Sieilians. 

H. Wae it noC dunof; hie goreinmBnt in Ihii uland that he diKorend 
Ibe toiiib of the malhematicieD Archimedee I 

Bi. B. It wis, Heoiy. Befbre b« lefl Sicil;, ot the cloee of hij qnaea 
toiship, he mide tbe toui of Che istiuid, lo aee •nhsteTei it coDtuncd tbtt 
WBs worthy the atteaCioD of a libeial and coltiTated miod. On leiching 
Syiacuu, hia fint leqnest wu, lo be shown Ihe lomb of Archiinede* ; 
bat neithei magigtialee noi psoide eould indicate its ponlion, uid Ciceio 
hims^ naa the fint to diacoTei it, bj the sidien and cjlindei engnTed 
OQ the maible, and bj s bilf defaced inscription.i— ToD agb, Henij. 

H. I >m thinkiGg, Doctoi, of (be prond boast of him, who eogigcd to 
more the uniTene, if s foolhold weie aflorded him, and of Che iiegleeted 
tomb wheie diat same individual, aflei little moie than a centnij, WM 
dtnnbeiiiig foigotten in hia nanow lesting-place. 

Dr. B. Tiue, but hia name haa uerei died, aiid it wa* this Traj imniw> 
tatitj Chat led the Roman qnaoatoi to Iub neglecled gnTe. — At the age 
of thiitj-aeTen, Ciceio obtained Ihe oSce ol aedilo. Befbie enteriiig od 
the functiona of tliiB magistiacj, a gloiious oppoitunity waa afKirded fm 
Ihe dieplaj of hia oloquence, iu tha pioaecutioD agaioit Tenes, the piM< 
toi of Sicilj, sccaaed bj the inhabilants of that ialand of maoj AigiaDt 
•cta of iujaatice, rapiQe and eiueltj, nhile he eieicised soioag tbem tba 
limcticuis of the pnfitonhip. Apf^icatioDA fbi redieBs, bowerei, in csifif 
of this kiod, niely biougbt anj leltef lo the oj^neasod nationi bowed 
dowD benesth the tyiannj of Rome. The decieion in aoch eaiea dopended 
npoD jndges genetallj tmplicatod themselTes in similai enoimitiefl, Hid 
bettet calculaled therribie lo afibid impunitj ta the guiltj, tban relief lo 
tba a^riered. Thia Dndae bSaenea lecdved additHnal weight in tba 
case of Venes from tba blgb tank and c<»meiioas of die culprib Unap- 
palled, boweTei, bj ihese difficultjes, Cicero enlsred bddly on Iba matt- 
igement o{ the piosecation. He had been ndicited lo atideilake Ihs eaaa 
l^ a petition bom aJl tbe towns of SicHj, eic^l Sjncnse and Messin*, 
bolh of whieh bad becD occawoasllj allowed bj ibe jdandeiei to shsre Ihe 
qioits of tbe ptovince. Ilie isaue wss completely succaisliil, snd aftai 
Ibe opening speech of Ciceio, and tbe depositiona of the witnessa^ 

L "Metmjuattlanninp ilBii i t uH eUfHtFraglSM popuha Bem 
loL" Or. JnPit. l.—CompsrsSrul.aXi 
a "MtJaaeitorentSlciUtntitltteplta nm *.'' Em.ta. 
3. nuc. Qaattl. 5,3. 



TeTTM, driren to deipiir, mbmtlted,witbDnt iwuting hii * 
TShlDUrj eiile. 

H. BqI whftt i> tbls ontion against CiecDiua, whteh, I find heie, on 
opeDing mj Cicem, has baen pliced it the liead of the ontioDs igeiiiat 
Tsirea, Bnd why ia it ealled " Dinniitio T" 

Di. B. Tbere wu one CieciliuB, e meis creitQie of TerTsa, wba h>d 
been hji quaFatar in S^cily, and who pietended to hiTe leceiTed ceitaia 
penonal injuriea from b.111, and to hiTe ■ Tety intinute knowledgo of all 
hii crimes. He claimed, on theae gitmnds, to be appointed >ccaser, in 
pieference to Cicero, intending of courae to mantge tbe ploBecutiini in 
*Dch > way that Terres mi^t eaailj escape. 

H, An ingenloui contriTUiee certainly. 

Dr. B. Yes ; but it emanaled from HortensinB, who wu coonsd fbr 
Ibe lecuBed. The lival dlaims, theiefore, of Ctwciliua and CicMO bad 
fint to be deeided, ind tbia mode of deeiding was lechDicaHj (ermed 
" Dicinalic," becavBe, as Ihere were no facts in the caae, the judgea, 
without the aid of witnossea, difined as it weie nhit wts '^roper lo b« 

H. But, Doetor, did 70D mean le be nitdanrtood aa eaying, dat onlj 
One of Ihe ontione againat Teiief wai erei pronoimeed 1 

Dt. B. I dtd. Of the aii apeeehea againat (hta iodiTidnal, onlj ona 
«aa sctnaltj deliTered. Tbs remahiing fire, which he intended (o pio- 
Doance al^r (he prDof was completed, wete anbaeqneQtlj puUiBbed in iha 
stme ahape, as if Terres had acnallj stood his trial and mads a regMlar 
dsfetice. Of these, (be moat intereiting ia thst " Dt rignit," where bd 
seconnt ia giTsa of the statnes and painCings and voAb of art wbjch 
Teires plundered ; while the Gneat is UDdouhtedlj &»t " De tuppliciit," 
which is fliU of Btriking pasaagea and Ehe moat Tehemsnt pathos.* 

H. Theaa □rationB, howeTei, Docior, muat MHmd t^ oddly m lonw 

n asanre jon. Tlma, in Uw begii^ 
ning of the seeond omtion, Cieero speaks of a leport haring been apiead, 
tba( Venes waa to abandon bis defence, but tiiat theie be sat bnTing hia 
accusen and judgea wilh his ehaiacteristie impadence. Tbe effiiet oi tfaia 
is Terjamusing, when we reeollect thatTenes had abaeoDdsd beforaana 
woid of all this could be pronouuced.' 

II. Still, Doctor,iti»Teiycomfortable,fi«u»oidinBi7mortals,tokDOW 
thil BO muct of the biilliant eloquence of Ciceio wa» oaTefbHj elabontcd 
Bnd wiougbt out in priTate, befaie the occasion aniTed fbi ita being 
Sashed fortb upon a dazzled auditoij. The moie I am aHawed to hxik 

1, Aicm, in Or. coiUra CatcS. 

S. ntmliip. Ram. IJI.ttjli,p Se^ttn. 

a Td. Uld.,GoOgk 


bahmd tbe cnrtuD, md to ■urrej Irom k neam ptnnt of tmw the iiatk> 
•hopt oT great miDila, the more I sm incliiied to think Ibtl " Subliaiit;," 
ta, at we oughC mon coirectlj to Tendei it, " EleTition of atjle," i« ID 
lealitj B veiy mechanicil kind of opentlon. 

Dr. B. Yei ; mj old frieod PaiT ihought that SuHiinU came &oia 
ntpcr linnim,' but I lathei tbink lub Hma ibe mora ntional etjmologj, 
•od ihat tbe Gneal paaaagea in tbe bteiatore of eveij natioa, aie preciHlj 
tlKwa nbicb baTB been moat carefallj lubjected to tbe ]sirale appUcation 
of tbe iile. — But lo letuin. At ibe eipirtliOD of ths two jeaia wbiclt 
weie leqniied bj Isw to intemDe betweea the Bedileabip and the offic* 
of praelor, Ciceio waa elecled to this lattei atatiim.i II waa while in- 
TOted with Ihii magiitncj, th&t he adrocated with aU bji etoqueoca, 
■jiinat Ihe Tiewi of the aenate, to vrbom he waa aioceielj attached, ind 
againal Ihe Iidb iDtemta of the lepublic, M> cbniahed idol, tba famoDt 
bill of Ibe trSmne Mtniliua, whtcb gTanted to FODipej, for enablJDg hira 
to teniuDate the Mithiiditic wu, i power thal seemed incompatibte with 
public freedom. 

H. 1 bave DeTei liked the charactei of Pompej, and it would deligfat 
me, Doctoi, if your Bentfmeals leapecting bim wete to piove in accord- 
■ncB witb mj awn. Do tell me wbat you tbiok of tbe man. 

Di. B. SaUuit painta his chaiactei in a reiy few woida : " Orii probt, 
ammo intsercaaiio," meaning lo implj, tbat hii piobitj waa moie npon 
oia toDgue tban iu his hesil. Pompej, in fact, lespected Tirtos suffi- 
cientlj, not lo offec it anj open outiage or inault, but he oeTei loved it 
enoagb to sacrifice lo iC in aecreL Heuce aroae thst piofound diMimu- 
Islion, !□ which be alwsja envelaped himself, and llist ■jitein, so well 
■Dppoited bj him, of Deiei wiabing appaientlj to become posseesed of 
anj objecl, eicept bj hi* owd ment, while id resli^ he wu grs^HDg st 
snd besiiDg 07 eTcij IhingbjdintDf piiTsleintiigue. If be wss infeiioi, 
howeTei, to Caessr in militsij Isleote, be wsa alwijs snpeiior to him in 
Ihe compaistiTe puritj of his morsla, snd in tha madeiatioD of hia aenti- 
ments. Caeaai wiahed to be the mutei ot ibe woild, Pompej oolj iha 
£ist citizea of Ihe lepubUc. He wia conetant in bii friendabips, ■ mod- 
crsle enemy, and pesceeble citizeD, as [ong ss he bad oo riTal \o fesr. 
Intiepid ia conflict, he wss alwsjs geneions aAer nctoiy, snd benee b* 
gare to Mithiidstea ■ aplendid funeral, aad bnmt sU the coireapoadenc* 
belweea Serteiius snd the chief mea of Rome. — To letnin to ibe point 
bota whicb your quealion cslled me o^ Ciceni, st the peiiod allnded to, 
Waa nudwsj in bii csieer of public bonoura ; tbe conauUhip wai before 
him, eod tbe hope of sttaitiiQg to Ibis dailing prize of bi> ambition, thiou^ 
Ihe iDfluenee of Fnmpej, must bsTe eieiciaed Bome degree of cotitrol 



•m the iDOvem«tiU of tie onlor. At «ll «Tmti, tka Roinani of Uirt 

dij gBTO him little credit for BiDceritr in his eitnragint ealogiuDu apoK 
thal fBTOorite commindei. 

H. To vrhat foieign pioTince, Doctoi, wm Ciceio lent on tbe ei[Hn 
tion of hJB pneConb^ f 

Dt. B. He would not tccept of inj gOTemnieiit,! but remuDed at 
Rome, wheie he ■tioTS moie and moie in rreij wtj lo conciliste tha- 
laToui of the peopte. He tvu now piepiTiiig to ene foi the conmilahip, 
the gieat objeet of all hie hopee, end hie whole >tlenlion wae emplojad 
how to obiain it In hia ptopei yeu, ond withoat > lepnlee. There wem 
two jeirs neceiBarily to inMrrene betwees the pnetoishtp Biid consal- 
ehip ; the firat of which waa nsuiillr ipent in ftinning «■ gBnenl inteTeat, 
uid eoliciting ea it vieie in ■ piiTste manner ; Ihe second in euing fbi It 
□penly, in the proper form snd habit of a candidate. The of&rta of 
Ciceio were ciowned with euccesa, and he wu choeen consul with almott 
Ihe eainB honouis u in hia antecedent elec^ona to mBgiatiHcj. Sm 
piincipal oppoDent waa Catiline. 

H. And hiacolleague in office, Antonias. WaeitnotBol 

Di. B. Yea ; the same Antonioe, who waB in aeciet league with tlw 
piity of Catiline, and bsd lo be bonght off by Cicero with the apnlent 
[mTinee o( Macedonia.i 

H. I will not occupjr yooi time, Doclor, by eny quealione lelatifa lo 
the conspiiacj of Catiline ; of that daring mOTeioent T haie obtalned tn 
«ccuratB idea from the pagea of Sallnst. I will merely reqnBst of you lo 
gire me i brief aketch of Ihe subseqaent life of Cicero and thsn pssB to 
>n eiamination of his writings. 

Dr. 6. I Ihink thia nill be our moie sdTiEable coorBe, Heniy, as time 
woutd fail ns wete ne lo endeaTOUi to da liill jnitice to both ; and, besidee, 
«Ilusion will oecasionally be made to the hialoty of his laler yesre in onr 
ramsrfcs on his liteiaiy eilbits, — The extiaoidinaiy but well-merited hoD- 
onrs confeired upon Cicero foi eruahing thie formidable eonapiracy, could 
not fail to eicite againsl him the oppoaition of the onrions, as wbII as the 
jeslouay of the mors ambitiona poition of his fellow-citizens. 'Diey took 
care not to reproBch him at Eral nith any act of injuetice in his publie 
caieer, buC meiely eipresBed themselTea fatiguedr and indeed compIetelT 
wom ouC, by his continual eutogiums upon hie own patriotic eSbrta. la 
the fomm, at Ihe ineetings of the senate, hefon the tnbimalB of justice, 
nay OTeil in the priTate circles which hs Erequonted, the names of CatilinB 
■nd Lentnlus were consiantly on his lipa. He introduced his own praiBef 
«to hia writings. Almoat eTsiy treatise of his, composed sfter Chis erent, 
tontsins some sIlneioD to hia pnblic BBrTices. £Ten his speecbei lost ia,GoOgk 


tbii vny, thioii^ tbe Bxcnnia nnitj of llui nun, ft luKe portuni of dut 
pleuing iind persuiaiTB inflaeoca bj irhich thej onea wns chuaetcnied. 
It wu like a knid of fstatitr. 

H. Whendidbefint eiperieDeethaerilcLSectiofthiBliiwof condoctt 
Not iurelj' duiiiig tus connilahip J 

I>. B. When he wu aboat to tetire rnnn iL Od «och occtiions, it 
wu uiud for ibe mogistnte, who wu lajiog down hi* office, to nuke • 
i^>eech to the usembled peiqile, debuUiig the vuioiu pablie eenice* 
which he hed rattdeied dniing ite continuince, aiid nhawing tlul bia die- 
chuge of the dutiee of hie megistne}' had beea ■ faithful and conKien- 
tioos one. The tribuae MetelluB iDlenupted Cicero, when oii the pMnt 
of making auch an banngue, and commanded him to be ailent. The onfj 
altemBCiTe left theoialor, was to sneu in a loud voice tbat he bad laTed 
the city from conSagiation, and hls feUow-eitiiens from the awoid. In 
Ihis oalh Ibe populace joined with one accord, end Cicero was canductel 
bome by them in triumph, amid the mortificUion of hie enemies and IIm 
joy of his friends.l 

H. A noble trinmpli, Doetor, and.wetl eroithj of tbe man wbom Cati»- 
hu had atyled, in sfull eeiute, the fathei ofhie country 

Di. B. Caeiu, Fampejr, and Ciaasna, who, three yeais sftei, foimed 
tbe coalition known in history as tha first trhimTirate, aecrellj lavoiired 
the deaigns of Cicero'e eBemies, whose numben ihe laller had incieaeed 
by his Qojielding uid ligid dlechuge of da^, ■«! to whoni was DOir 10 
be ■dded the profligaCe Clodius, that l>old aai bad man, whoae tribnoe- 
•bip waa Cmught with loin to the peaee end wtVate of Ibe deliietei t^ hti 
eoontrj. Gi«r since the period of hii ■cqmttal from ihe charge of su- 
ril^e, ihe maligoant etai of Clodiae was in tbe aecenduit, and that e' 
Ciceio began to wane. SoiiDg the piogiesa of the aecnaatiOD a dea.l/' 
animositj had grown up tietween tiiem, and Clodine waa not a ouj ta 
neglect anj laTaniable oppoitniiitj of lerenge.^ 

H. Was DOt thie man a deeeendant of the baught j lace of ihe Clandii, 
wb> bad eiei ehowa eotitlle legaidfoi the libertiee of thejxtoplel 

Di. B. He waa ; bnC piofligacy and niin had compelled him to taln 

. lefoge aiDOng the Tery clasa oa whooe ligbt* hi* patrieian (biefatheie bad 

so repeatedlj tiampled, imd the cormpl Bod imporerished noble, tha head 

of the Claadian familj, Toliintaiilj degiaded himaelf fiom bii lenk, and 

elitained idoption into a plebeian honae. 

H. Bnt wbat weia his objectB ! 

Dr. B. The j wBie two ; to hnmble the anstociacj aiid take Tongeanc* 
o^n Ciceio.i Beiog elected to tha triboneahip, tbia pealilent doBl*- 

I Or.tnPU.3.—Ep.adFam.S,^ 

S. Ltmlai QaarUrlyRmt»,St.lia,p.ltL 

k. nu. 



gogue obtaiiled thBpun((lorftlmi>, oukiDg hciiininil inuiyonnlobtTW 
puC to d«th & Roman cilizen without a Dial befare the poople, uid iit- 
Gicting the penaltj of eiile, The blow wbb liined st Ciceto, who, boir' 
STer, in oideting the paaishmeat of Citiliiie'* ■ccomplice», bad only 
obejod the mandiite of the Benate, and the illmtiiinu Roman waa com- 
pelled lo bend to the ■toim and go iato Toliiatarjr baoiihoMait. Inua»- 
diateljr aftei hia depaituie a law wa> pasnd which eiiled him lo th* 
dialance oT five hundred milei &o[a Rome, and declved all hia propei^ 
to be confiicated. Hia rUlaa, accoidiugly, were pillaged sud bumt, hia 
dwelUog U Rome nas demoUahed, and i temple to Fieedom waa eiected 

H. Bnt nheie wu tbe aid which he eipected, uid oo^ to hara 
leceived fnun Fompej ? 

Di. B. Aa long aa that pnjfound dinemblei belieTed that theie wsa 
dangei lest Ciceio might throw himsalf ioto Caeeai'» haods, ha gsTe him 
the Btrangeat assuiBnces, coDfirmed bj oaths u>d ibe mosl solemn piot- 
eatstiona, Ibst tbere wu oo daDger, ind Ihat he would rathei loee his 
own life, tbin suCer iQj harm to sppcoscli the penon of tbe oiatoi. But 
giowing cool uid reseired, bb the plot against Ciceio diew towaids s 
ciKis, uid pietending to belieTe tbat tbe latler hsd foimed deeigna agaiDst 
hia safetj, he wilhdiew to hia Tills, SDdabsndoaed him to his &te.l 

H. Whj did not Ciceiodemand 8 peisonsl iDteiTiew,sadiipbnidhim 
with his monstroQS duplicitj t 

Di. B. He did obtain such an inteiTiew ; but as for upbisiding tbe 
wily hjpocnte, he watUed fiimness Ibr that. He tbiew himseU at ihe 
feet of Pompey, and aupphcated for aid. But the aoawer he tecelTed 
waa pcrfectlj in charactiir : Fompej felt himaelf compelled to sct in 
DOthing igainBt the wiahes of Caeear.v 

H. And where weie hi» other friends 1 

Di. B. AIl zealous foi his welfue, but, as might nataialljr be eipsbted, 
divided in opinioD as to the course whicb he ought lo pnnae. LuedJu* 
adTiaed bim to lemsin, and dofend himtelf bj foice. Cato aod Horten- 
Biug niged him to jield to the stoim, and thia advice, cinnciding with th« 
opiaion of Atticus, tni being soppoited bj the fean and eotieaties orhii 
own faiDiIj,' made him resolTe to leaTe the 6eld to hia enemies and go 
into Toluntaij eiile. Withdrawing in the night seuon, eecorted bj a 
namerQUB tiamoffiieada, who, aflera daj'* jaiimejni two, lefthim wilh 
BTeij demODitiation afiegret, be tumed hi* couise towaids Sicil/, inteiid- ' 

1, Ot. pro Dom- 11- 

S. Bp.adAll.lO,t. PlnlBreli i^ llut Pisiper B» 
and wauld not Bee Min, bul 11 It esRikt thim Clc«i*'s i,GoOgk 


mg 10 make it hiB plsce of nfuge, ind lure oT finding in tha boMm» oT it* 
inhabiluita Ibst gntefiil afection eiluc)i had been deoied him at homa. 
But wben he wm come within siyrit of the islattd, the RiKiiBn pnebH 
■erit him word th&t he muat not iHt fmt within it, lod what midB th« 
Bbock etill more cruel hbb tbia, Ihai the magiitrais in queatiDn bid been 
an sld and familiu iiiBDd, wis under imporlBQt obbgatioDB to CjcBM, iod 
belmifed lo the eBms paitj in the «late,' 

H. Bat wby dtd the praetoi lake tbiB itep T 

Dr. B. ThiDugh fear of Clodina, wboae enmitj he had BlieBd; exp«tl- 
eDCi^, and Lhe weij;ht of whoBe powei he now diesded to encounter.*— r 
Retiring to Gieoce, Cicero now took reCnge in TbeMalonica, wheie the 
haod of fiiendsbip wbb citended to him bj Planciui, Iben qoaealoc of 
Macedonia, and wheie Ihe praelor Apuleiua, ibougb he dand nat lentuiS 
to ^nt iiim openiy his protection, yet connived at the acla of hii qnieS' 
tor, and look a liieiy interest in bia bebalf.i Two montha had haidly 
el^ned befOTe hia friend the Iribune Ninniusi mada a molion in the Benite 
fat his recall. Fompej also, lOoBed by the idbuIIb of Clodina, whoee 
power wbb now on the decliae, and BniiouB lo letrieTe hia own credil 
Bnd ingratiBle himself with the senale and people, began to eieit himaelf 
in his behair. After a long and Blonny interral, after eTsry e&il had 
been made bj Clodius and hii faclions adherents, tbe unss of jOBtice 
triumpbed, and Cicero wbi lecalled from eiile by the unaiumoua auffingea 
of ihe centories, and 10 the great joy of a vaat majority of hk coan- 

H. I baTB heard it aaid, Boctor Baiton, that Cicera'a eonduct while in 
ezile, was not auch as one would canaider either nunly or ipiiited. 

. Dr. B, II waa worse. It waa actually puaiUaniDioni. Hs defilored 
bii fall in ths moet desponding and lamentable lemu. He complaiDed 
of blae fiienda, of Bn nngrBtefnl coentry, of ihe utter luio of bU his woildly 
pnMpecta. His fiiends were foiced to admoniBh him BOmetimea lo loaBe 
hii couiBge, and lemembei hls fOTinei chaneter. Nay, to sucb an exlent 
was Ihis feeling carried, that Allicui BTSn wrote bim woid, of a repoit 
banng reached the Roman cspiial, tbal hti afflicIiOD had diiordered bjs aen- 
•B*.' Tbe tmth is. the eiceaaive TBnity of tbe min had receJTed ao rude and 
WTere a shock, as almost to unaettle hie inlellect ; and be who bad fondly 
Iwped, tbat hia name and aenicea would remain eTer freah and andjing 
b tbe memoij of hiB countiymen, coutd hardly belicre UkBt be waa now 
■n exile and liigitiTe from tlia lery coimtiy he had BaTod. 

~-PBtt rtd. tn am. U.,,GoOgk 

zxvi. I.I7I AND wRiTiNfla or cicbko. 

H. Bathiintiini,I>oeloT, de MHmeor llikt. 

Dr. B. Ah ! t)wt wu indMd b gloHaiu em in bii eiiUeac* Tkm 
■cconnl o{ it ii giTm by Cicero himaelf. Ths nbnle Ai^iin Wi^, 
tnKa BrBndiuiuD lo HiHiie, ■ppeued but one caotinoad etraet, Uiwd xm 
botb lidce with ccowdi of men, wooiea, >Dd childmL Noi ma tima 
■ pnefeoture, town or goIodj, which did not auDd d^Mitatian* b> con- 
gntnUte him on hii letam. Wbat Cicero hiDuelf nje, wu, ■■ Flaluch 
rrauHu, e*ea lesi than tha tnilh. that all Italy bronght him back apon iti 
■honlden. Thit one daj, obeerre* the oi^tor, w^a worlh u imiDOTtali^ ; 
wben, oa mj epproech towude the citj, ths «enete cuue oat to receiv* 
me, foUowed bj the wbols Dumbei of citiien», ■■ if Rome itieif bad left 
ila foDnditioni uid mucbed forward to embrace ita preaerTei.^ 

H. For wbat leogth of tims had Cicero reiouDed in siile, Doctor 

Dr. B. He w^a recilled eixteen nusllheifler hi> depaitote fnm RtHoe , 
bnt he did not ■ctiullj re-eDlei tbs citj UDtil ■STSnleen lud slapsed. Tbe 
Uw for hia iceall fram exils was piswd od the 4th of AnguBt, and tbe 
dsj (^ hie retutn na Ibe 4th of SepIenUm. 

H. And where wa* Clodini, Doctoi, duiing the peiiod tbat el^ieed 
■fler Ciceio'! natontion t 

Di. B. Doing ereiy tbing in hia power to raiae &e*h tannilta ■geiiiet 
him, snd dailj commilting new outregei, until an end wu put to hia eiil 
cinei bj the iwoidi of Milo'! rollowers. — Oicero, ■fter hii relum fniBi 
eiile, defoted himeelf for asTeml jeara to the affain of hia nnmerous 
clianta, and it was dniing thia psriod that the celebroted trial of UUo took 
place, Ibi the kilting of Clodiua, whan the ontor, intimkdated by the dia- 
plaj of a mititaij foree, and the outciiea of the faclioua, made bnt ■ wmIc 
and inefiectnal defence. 

H. Cieero waa no Teij gieat admirer, I belieTe, of warlike moTementa. 

Dr. B. Whj, when an occuion oflered, and he vna coD^ielled to act, 
he conducted fainuelf in a inaniur fu framdieeieditable. I will cile yoo 
■D inMuice. Poinpej, in oidei to chedt more efiectually ibe [»actice of 
biibei;, bad piocuied Ihe paaaage of a law, bj which all futnre conauli 
and piaeton wero disqnalified liom bolding anj piorinee, till fiTa jein 
aAec tbe expiiatioD of theic niigiatraciea ; and, that Ihere might be a lupply 
of garecnon duiing this inteiral of Gre jean, the ■soalon of eonaultt 
aod pnetoiien rank, who had neTsr held eny foreign command, were u 
diride the Tacanl piOTioces imong IhemaelTee by lot. Cicsro, in cooss- 
fUBDce of tbia, obtained the gOTemment of Cilicia,* a prOTiiice whtch 
■ncluded also Fisidia, Pampbjlia, and three dislricla of Aaia, logetber 
with the ialaDd of Cjpiua. At the head of two legions, he defaated tha 

ta m. IS.— Pn Sut Kt,GoOgk 


Partliiuia, who bad idnnced h fu u Antiach, uid thso tmniiig lui un* 
■guDst thB inlubitaDtaof themouatuns,aaDntuiiednce of buditd, wbo 
bsd neTer «cknowledged tbe Rotuan iwa;, he took two of thair tonni, 
E^iuu and PindeniMns, ^e latter tbeir cipilil, uid which ciMt hini i Ml 
weeki' iiiege, uid in teitiman; of bi> mccaw wu selnted bj hii ■oldien 
«ith ihe xille o( Imperalor.i Hewoa1db>igabtaiiiedatiiiimph>l*o,h>il 
uot tlw troubled «lUe of a&in at home pnTenled ona froa being coo- 

H. TIm traublflB to which yoa allnde nera thoM no doabt wkich 
ftlteoded the commencement of the eiTil eonteit. — How did be act dn- 
(ing theilcoatiDaance t 

Di. B. la the GnE ontbieaking of thia memonble war, Caeeu uid 
Pompa; were both aaxioua to gaiu OTai a man whou good i^union wu 
■a imponaal >a Ciceio'!. Ilie anitai leguded Iba caow of Pampej u 
tbat of the lepublic ; be dia^ipioTed of ereij thing which bad bton doDa 
loi the inciBaoe of Caeau'! powei ; but jet bs plaiolj fbraaaw, tbal ■ 
cnUiiion betweea thete two eommandera vrould end in tbs luin of tha 
republican paitj. Hence the indecision nbich marited hia eaiMliicl, uid 
neceasaritj embKnled him witb botb. Duiing the ipace of Gte montlM 
b» wu debuing within himaeU' whelhei he ibonld foUow Pompej and tlw 
■enale Inlo Epbns, ot muaia in Italj. At laat he decided fai tbe Gral 
of iheu counei, Bnd joined Ponipej at Djnbuhimii.* Scucetj, 
howeTei, had he laken Ihia step, when he begaa lo rapmt of il.l ^e did 
Dolpreaenthimselfat the batlle of Phaisalia, a aicknesa, raal oipralended. 
hniiig confined him at Djiriiacbiam, nheie Calo waa Micamped nilb 
fifteen coborts. "When the iatue of the conSiet vrsa known, Calo oSerad 
Ut Ciceio, u a personage of conaulai lank, ths command of iba forcM. 
R* declined, and recommended en aeeommodalioii, ■ alep nhich bid 
Deulj co^l him fais tifs at Ibs hands of Ibs lon of Pompej.' Retuming 
Dpon Ihil, ■biuptlj lo Iialj, he fonnd m liua caoatTj a lafe eonduct •ent 
"mbj Oueai, who wu tbeD in Egjpl, and couchad in tba moM 

H. Ab,it nulhia that Qiuil,ofNewCoUege,ahof»dm«jeMerdaj, 
■l tha Bodleian, intTolamaof FBbriciiu,b«gJaiiiDg wiihlbe worda, " M. 
Tnllium Cictnman, ob egrtgioM ejuttiTMti" &c.* — Hie c^nei of tbo 
oiatoi ia iiow drawiiig to • clou, Doclar, aiMl I wiQ onlj beg of joa M 
gne me a npid eketch oT hia hisloij, Ihat we maj paas on to hia WMfco, 

Dr. B. Well then, it ebsll be a repid ana u joa reqiMaL — CinsiOi 

L Bp.adT\aa. U, 1.— JMA O, i. 

%. Bp. ad Fam. 6, B.—Or. pro Mareta. & 
9, Ep.adFam.7,3.—PbU. W. Oica.X, 
4. PluL Fit. CUc. c. 3». 


t. O. mrie. AnHf. Sljm. balg. 



nlio h*d wuted it Bnmdiiinm, foc tbo retQm af CteBu-, Fro^ the bet: u 
ning af the jeu to the monlh of Oclob«r, nu lery kindly receiTod trf 
tbit commindei «then he retehed tha *hoT« of Itilj. Reluniing npon 
thU 10 Rome, he took no pait whiterer in pablic Bflein, and onij brtdl* 
thioDgh the Img lilenee nhieh he had preeerved, when rendering thsnka to 
C&eeu for ihe reciU of Mucellue, and derending Ligiriue, and king Det- 
otuui. — Tbe luiiHinBtion of Cseeu to<A pUce on (he I5th of March, 
A. U. C. 710. AlthOQgh BnilaB wu on ternu of ihs greateet inttmacy 
with Cicero, he had neverthelees conceded from him the pUn of the con- 
■pincy ; uid je< ihe moment the dictator feU, raiaing an high hia blood- 
■tained deggei, he congiatuUted the RomBn oratoi on the leetoration of 
tiie repubtic. But Ihe Uttet aoon perceinng, thst, ineteiid of & mild ind 
clemeat master, hie countij nn the riek of pseaii^ under tbe awaj of the 
ambitiona uid proOigBle Antonj, iTailed hunaeir of the priTilege uf b frea 
legation, and embaiked foc Greece. The repieaentations of his fHend», 
howBYBi, iBSpecting Ihe fBTontablB atste of Bffiiia »t Rome. induced him 
to lettim Ut llaly, snd he le-enteied the capital on the Ust dayofAo- 
guet.> Fnim thiamoment to the dsj of hiB deBth, he aethimaeirin oppo- 
eition to the designs of Marc Antony, sgainst whom he pronouneed or 
publiahed from Ihe second of Septembei, 710, to theS2d Apiit, 713, four- 
teen harangUBB, known bj Ihe name of Philippica. In ordei lo bsUnce 
tbe authority of Anlony, Ciceio fsToured with all his influence the young 
OctaTisnuB, wbo appeaied sttiched to him, snd fiequently applied lo him 
for sdrice. The indifference, however, if notactual contempt, which the 
•enste diBplsyed towsids thie youthfnl and aspiring leader, droire him 
eventustly into a union with Anlony and LBpidna. Thus the second 
triumTirate wbb formed, snd one of its conditiona waa Ibe head of Cicero. 

H. And how did OcUvUnua aet 1 

Dt. B. Hiatoiians^ infono us that he did not gire np Ciceio to Qw 
■words of Ant«Dy'B hiielingB, without the giettteal reluctance, and only 
■fler a stroggle of two days to preserre him. Bul all thia aficction fti 
the orator waa probably nnreal, and only SBBumed for the purpose af 
excoung in aome degree hia anbBequent abandonment of (he aged pslriob 
Cicero waa at bu TuscuUn vills, when the newa of the pcoacriptioa 
readied him, seciet inlelligeDce having heen sent him by some of hii 
liiendB. At flcst he MBoIved to ssil foc Qiecce, whore Brulus wss saaeni- 
bling sround him Ihe Buiviving Ibtlowers of ihe psTty of tbe republic 
Contrai; winds, however, prevented (he eiecutioi. of this dcsign, and he 
luided agiln on the Italiui coaat, snd spent the night neai Circeii, in 
gteat amielyBnd iiresolntlon. On Ihe fnlowing day, tbe importunity 
of hi* domeaties pievaited opon him to ssil foc Caiets, wbeie he went 



Mgun OQ eban, to lepoaa biinKir m hia Foimiin tU1>. Here ba ri«pt 
■oundly fbi secenl houiB, whea bis inendiDU, hsTiug heud of the uiinl 
of a putj of Boldien, wha wece in qtietiC of him, comejed their >ged 
Diutei IowbiiIb the alwre, Ihioagh t piiTate pait of the wooda ; bnt befbia 
tbeT coold Bucceed in leaching the Bhip, the Bo]di«B heideil bj ■ tiibuiM 
whom Cicani had once defended in b cBpital cauBe, omtoak ihe fn|p* 
tives, and execiited the hloodj mandBte of Antonj.l 

H. And was no efibrt made lo aavs him on tbe part of hii foUowen ^ 

Dr. B. The Bttendanta, u aoan u Ibe Boldieis appeared, pmpaied 
themselTea for sction, being lesolred to defeiid tbeii maBtei^B lila at the 
bazaid of tbeii own : buc Ciceio commsnded them lo aet down tbe UtMr 
in «rhich Chej weie convejing him, tmd to make no lesistance.* When 
the Toffians spproached, giirTaying tbem «ith a look which almoat dro«a 
them fioin their bloody purpoBe, he hade tbem Bxecute tbe eiiaDd oa 
which ^y nere aent, and eitended his neck from ibe littet to leceiT* 
tbe blow. His head and bandg were severed &cun hia bodj, conTejed to 
Rihae, and fiied upon the loetra, the bead between Ihe Cwo handa, bv 
the ordcis of Antonj ', 

H. His age, mj dear DocUir. 

Dr.B. Within one month of iiitj foni. He nis killed on the wTeDth 
of Decemoei, ten dajs afler the establisbment of ttie tiiuniTinte.l — Shall 
I non piDceed lo detineate bia chaiactei, or wiU yoa fint baTe ■ bD>f 
■DBljflis of bia literarj eSbits ! 

H. The lattei. undoubtedlj, willbe tbe prefeniUe coone, fbi I Bball 
then be bettei able to appreciate yooi delineation of the man. 

Dr. B. I think bo mjse]f. Now, open youi Cicero, and name to mo 
in succeBBian the aeveial pioductiona of tbe Romaa, bb you wiU Gnd 
them arianged theie. I will gJTe yoa a biief acconiit of eacb. Biit, 
mnember, onlj a biief ooe ; Che nxit is lo be inpplied from youi omi 
piiTate leading. 

H. I accept your teiniB, mj deai Doctor, and wiU do my best to faUl 
my part af the sgreement. — tifm, beie we baTe fint ia oider, a Ireatisa 
on Rhetoric, in four booke, addreBied (0 Hoiennias. 

Di. B. Wbich tieatiae Cicero never wiote. If yan atk me tbe niiiia ' 
(.f the true authoi, I can on]y leply, that tbe matter is involved in nttel 
nneertainly. You will see, by the hesding, that some of Ibe leamed haTO 
ascribed it to OoinificiuB. Thia was the opinion of Aldue Hanutins, 
SigouLUB, and Mnietus, wba made ibe wiitei tobaTBbeenQ. Coiuifieius, 
the eldei, Caesai'B quaeBloi dniiug tbe civil war. Goiaid Voasiua, OD the 
Btbei huid, contenda foi the youngel Comificina. Scaliger attiibuteB tb* 

L IVut. Vii. Oic c. la 

Z Liv.fragm. ap. Smet. Stuu. 1. 

a. F«U. Palerc ^ «. -Pigh. Atm. adA. U.aTlO.,GoOgk 


mA to OfHio, ■ rtiBtoriciin in tbe time of Nera. Sehftti a in fnodr 
of H. AnUmiin Gnipho, who w*a boni in Ginl, A. U. C: 6i0, ■tndiBd 
ti Aluandri*, lud tinght t)i«toric in Ibe boaM of Ihe blher of JaliiiS 
Hmeai. Bat thers ue difficultiei attending all theae opinkins, eepeeiallj 
the laaC, and the point mnat be atill left open to conjcctuie. It ■[fwus, 
llo«e*er, that tfaii wotk «u one of the fint treetiaee on riieloiie enc 
pnbliBhed in the IdLin Ungnage, eince it> Buthor citoi BO previoiu I^tia 
wriler, and imbtU that he hu been the Ent to give Litm nunee to ihs 
figures of ihetoric. Tbe Grat and lecoDd booka ue eTCieniel; di;. yb» 
third, more engaging ; ujd tbs fourth, whicb tnms npon Ibe thne kiid* 
ol style eoitatde for diacounei, i> decidedlj tbe bm of the wbole.> 

H. Neit cDDui a tiea.liee '■ De Imeniume Rhetariea." 

Dr. B. On thst part of Aetoric, whicb reUiee lo inTenlkni. Thia ia 
Ibe worit iQnded to b<r Cieera, in the coiDinencemeat of hii tnetiM 
" Dt Oratore," u hiTing been pabliibed by bim in his joath, It u 
genenlljr beliered to hiTe been written bj him wheu twenlj-four yesr* 
of age, snd lo have originallj contsined four booka, of wbich but two 
nmsiD. SchSti, howeiet, msLnt^ns Ibal he never wrols, or at least 
neTei publiahed, more thsn tbe two booke, wUch we poeaeB. In com- 
posing this work, Cicero, aa lar as an opini<m maj be TenCured,.wouId 
qipear to hare hsd before him noles laken Irom Ihe prelections of some 
insCmctsr, «hom ths snonymoas author of tbe treatise addressed xo 
HereDniua hsd also attended. For a nombsr of pssuges, in the two 
books "De JneTUiotu," coiDcide in * lerj nuiked manner with otfaets 
in tha wqiIe to Herennius ; onleas, indeed, the anlhor of tha UUec wu 
Ihe ptBceptac of Cicero.* 

H. To the •noA on iBTenlion sncceed ths thcea diotogoes " De Orar 
tort" inscribed to hia bmther Qninttta. 

Dr. B. These were wricien, A. U. C. 09S, wheo Cieera, di^:ual«i] 
willi the pohlical disaensioD) of tbe capital, had retired during patt of iba 
•Dmmet to Che ■ecloiion of ihe coantry. Hie spesksrs in thsM dialogues 
are the oratori Anlonias and Ctaaaus, (the Uttec of wbom naa •Uended 
bj the jDung Solpicius and CoCta, at that tima the two moflt pcomiung 
qieakei* at Rome,} tbe eminent Uwyei ScseToU, snd CaCulus and Julioa 
Cuur, (gnnd aocle lo tba Dictator,) the last two disCinguiahed aUo fiw 
thaic eUquence, snd wbo jcuned the paity m the inleird beCwoen ths fint 
snd aacond disloguea. Tba princijMJ part in tfae convemtion, howeTer, 
is bome by Crasaaa «nd Antoniua ) tha former adTacBtiDg, what w*s in 
fkCt Ciearo'a own opioion, that an alnioat uniTensI knowledge is esaen- 
tisllj cequiute to pecfeelion in oiatotj ; tbe laCtei, wbo wu a man 

I. An ucoucl nf tba wbole eontnTenj mkf ba saeo 1n Danloft Jlm. Ut. 
«i E, p. 368, aqq. uid In Bathr. amh. Roni. IM. p. SS, teq. 
i. D<n<lnp.Jtm.L<t.taL2,p.3K—Kcluttt.Bitl.IM.Saiit.m}.Q,p.m.,GoOgk 


pnctkol pbada, mBinUining, ihat tlw Tsiiow ■cconndiihmBnt» iiMktod 
upoD by CiaiiBin, neia tglslly distincl fioai the prope) offica Utd dutie* 
of a poblic «peakBi. Aecrading to hlm, nloqiienci) ia not «n ut, beooM 
it depends not on knovriedge. ImiUtion of good loodels, pnctice, md 
iDimite oUeation lo eacb puticnUr cue, aie liid down bj him u the tnM 
fooDdetioiu of foreoeio oloqueDca : the great objecla of en ontoi being, 
in Ibe fint ptsce, to lecommeiid himeelf to hia clienti, uid then to pr*- 
po*MH tbe jndgee in hia laToar. CnHqi, in nplj, enten <>a ibf 
embeilishmenle of ifaeuiic : prOniiDciation, elocutioD, hunuMij' of peiiods. 
meUphan, »)ntimeDU, sctiim, tnd in ahoit, whiteTei CSD impeit a finiahad 
gtnce uid digriily to & pnblic dLBconies.i 

H. Eicuae my mtenoptiDg yon, Doctor, bnt how eonld Cicero if ha 
ware noC present at theae canTenatioDg, obuin aach aecunlo informafion 
of (he TuiouB topic* thit weie diecnHed \ 

Dr. B. He ie euppoud lo hais baud tbem from CotU; uid thit 
Sction ta the more coaTenient, eince it entble* him to ebeltei hia own 
opiniom uoiler tbose of two ntch eminent mDBten of orstoij u CnsuM 
■□d AntODius. — Cicero enUitained ■ Terjr high opinion of thla woik, and 
hia fiisDda considwed it one of bi> beit. It ii pecoUsriy Tstoable to ns 
■C tbe pieseat day, u contiining erery thtng of impwUDce in tbe Gieek 
mnks on ifaetoiic, while tbe cDpiouinen, snd esse, SDd giusefiil poU^ 
of the Btyle aie aboTe all commendstion.i — 'Whst haTO we next 1 

H. A dialogue entilled "Brvtiu, tnt de clnrti Oraioribiu." 

Dr. B. Cicero eopposes, tiist, sflei bis retum from Asia, H. BintiM, 
tbe ssme «ho subsequentiy eonspired sgsinsC Cseesi, psye bim s viiit, 
■ecompsnied by Atticus, snd ihst these two requeBt him to remme « 
CMiTBrsstion nhich he had prsTionsly held widi Attinu ilone, *nd in 
whieb Ihey bsd been discouiung of the moat emineat onUora. CicBro 
conipliea, snd, aAct a few slight, but maaleily sketches of tbe mou 
celebnted ^peakan of Oreece, eoten upon ■ fall deUil of the Rotnan 
onton fitim tbe eailiest pcsiod* to hU owd tinw. Tbi* woik ii of giast 
Taloe, u reguds the biiiorj of UomsD eloqaence, but it i* nat u intenst- 
ing u iu title woutd lead yoa to eipect. It contain* loo manj nsmea, 
•nd loo liitle ts said af escb, lo thil ti leMinbtM in aune dcftoe a di; 
Mtt ^ caCatogue.s 

H, To the •' Brnta*" neceeds Ihe " Oraiar." 

Di, B. In this praductiao, which ia sddrBBsed to Biatas, uid wia 
inilleD st bis leqneat, Ciceia tresU of tlw quBlificBtians Ibat eonstitate • 
petfect orelor. It is tnleDded to comptete tbe iqIijocU exunined io tba 
dialoguM "De Oratart." Cicero'B peifect oretoi, you wQl beaiiD miDd, 

1. jpMilop. Ran. JaI, toI, 2, p. 363, Hn- 

2. Oiailap. uUniprB. 

1, DitnlBp Ram. Lil. Tol. Z, p. ^.^adatO. Lil. Rom,GoOgk 

xam Lin ans wAiTiiraa of ciouto, 

uicMd DowlMn bnt ia hi* owii iougiiMtiaD. — Coma, turo orcr. 'Whtf 
do foii Rnd neit in oideil 

H. A trcatiM mitled " Tepiea," utd uidnned lo C. TtetMtiaa. 

Di. B. It pjf ta tceoimt oC the vuiou» lopi», er commoD-plmeas, 
which ue tbe foundation of ifaetoiieal ugunwnL llw woik ie, in bcl, 
en sitncl from that of Ariilotle on the ume lubjeet, accompuued bj • 
commetitary fiom the pen ef Cicero, the nhole t>eing unalgimated inU 
one tmtise. It wia piGpired foc the aae ef TiebBtiui, the etniiteDt 
lawyei, wid hencs Ctceni tikee hia eumplee cbieajr from ibe RomiD 
civil liw, Bi moie inlelligible to Tiebedu* iben illuitiUioiii dnmi &am 
the pbilotophy of Arietoile.' 

H. We fc«Te tben a di«logno, " De Parlitiotu Oraiaria." . 

Di. B. Thi* i> a production of ntbei infenoi vilue. It i« a dialogae I 

bfltweeD Ciceio uid hie eon, ci^iceining tbe principlee umI docth]>d of 
■loqneDCe. It ippeM* lo hive beon written A. U. C. 7<I7, nhile Ceeeu 
vru piaeecnting tha wu in Africa. — The woikwbichyou nill Gnd ctoiing 
the Mriee of Cicero't ibetohcil noilu, ii thit entitled " J)e Opiima 
gaien Omorvm," uid wu originallj intendad ta ■ piefua to > truuU- 
tion nbicb Ciceni had made from tbe ontione of Demoatbenea uid Aea- 

B. May I Bak, Soctor, wbat wu Cicera'i object ia maldiig thii 
ttaoalation 1 

Di. B. To cociect > falae impreaaian, at that tima rei; pnralent 
unong hia countrjmen, Ibat atlic eloquence wu limited lo s piain and 
■lendeimodaofeipnsaion, dialinguidied bf purityof atyle aad delicacj 
of taale, but void oT all omimenl and ledundaoce. He Dndectook, 
tbocefore, a fro* tianalaliou of the two maatei-piecea of Athenian 
eloqueace ; the one being an eiample of Tcbemi^t and enei;getic, the 
otber of patfaetic and ornamental ontory. — Now foi a lapid aurrey of tbe 
apeecbe* of Cicero. We bave atready toucbed opon iboie foi Qnintiaa, 
Roaciuaof AmBni,and Rosciua tbe actoi, and likewise upon the oisticm 
■gaiiut Cascilius, SDd Uw aix aguDat Veitea. Whil do jiou find aftar 

H. Ilie apeecb deliTeied in defence of Fonlelua. 

Di. B. Thii wu pionoitnced wbile Ciceto wu aedile. It U tfa* 
defence of an unpopulir gOTemor, accused of opprenion bj the proTince 
entrjBted to bii care. Much boneTei ii toal ; wbicb is die moie to b* 
l^ietted, aa it woold bave faimed an inlereatiDg eontiaat to the ■peecbe» 
■giinat Veirea. 

H. Tben comea the otation for Aulua Caecina.,GoOgk, 


Di. B. A men qoMtioii ot cnil Tight, tnrning od id edict of ■ RoBwa 

H. The ontioa for the Miniliaa Lan foUavi, bnt m I h>*e joM 
Gniihcd the peniul of thie, I will not tronbte jdd fot «i uuJjii*. TIm 
■paech !cx Claentine raeceedi. 

Dr. B. Aod ■ poweifal utd aplendid produetioB il ii, ind ons of th» 
most coirect and bneible of ■!! ihe jodicial ontioiu of Cieero. ClneotiDS 
had beon ■eeuied bjr on nnDiinnl mothei of hsTing poiiaiied hia itep- 

H. ThrH ontioDs •gainat Ihe Agruien kw of RolJna ■» nait in 

Di. B. The hiitorjr of the ■^ ii bii^j this : RaDni,i tribaaeof tbe 

commoni, broaght io a Uw, thM tbepablic doniui» in the pToiincea dnaU 
bewld, uidthitthe BpoilBecq;aiiodb;Roauuiconuiiuideninfonignwm 
■hoald be tiksn from theoi, in ordei thit, bj tbas two meaai, ■ ram of 
■nonej mightbenieedforlhepDicbueafUDdiia Ita]f,peiticQkt(;C*n)- 
pania, which luid* mre te be diTided unong the people. Cicero delirered 
bia Gnt oiBlion egunBt Cbis prc^ect, (the beginoing, bowevei, of which if 
nnting,} the vgi; day when he enleied oo the dntiea of tbe eonralibip. 
Hia oppoaition wu effeetaal, and the law was njected. The tiibDnea, 
boweTer, hanng aubsequently inatilled aDnie mapiciona into the minda «t 
the people, witb regard M> Cieeio'* motirei in oppouDg thia pioject, he 
foond ii necea»>7 to deliisr tbe wcond ind thiid ontloni □□ tbe nme 

H. Theontion foi RabiiiiiBBacceedi. 

Bi. B. Hb naa ■censed of having been concemed in the dsath <f 
Satnininaa, ■ •editiona tiibune, who h>d boen iliin b; ■ paitjr in the 
intereat of the Benate. Thirty-sii jears had intervsoed, ind the iccaMt 
«■■ LabieaoB, ■fteiwaid well known IB Caesai'! lientenint in GauL 
RabijiDB, notwitbstanding tbe effmtB of Cicero, wonld in ill piobabilily 
baT» been condemned, had not Ua &ierid, the pnetoi MetcUoa, Caken 
down the nuidud from the jBniculum, which disaolved the caaiitia and 
tHiAa off the trial. The Uonhlea connected with the ■flair of CatQina 
oecDpied (oon ■flei tUa pnblic attenlioD, snd the chuge igiinaC R^tnriDa 
wa> nerer leTiTcd. 

H. Yea, here are the apeecbea agBinat Catiline, whicb roimed pait of 
mf Hanow reiding. ind che oration foi Muiena, anothei otd acqnuntuice 
of mine, comei alowjj afler. I will nottniDble jou >t»at thera, DoetOT 
Baiton, but will thank you Co give me •ome iQfoimation sbout Che iwxt, 
tlw ■peec)) n behalf of Flaecus. 

Dr. B. Thi» is the aame Fleccus of whom jou leed in Salhiet. He 
waa piMlor at tha tims of the coDBinracj of CatiUne, and uded in thc 

I DwijBp, Jl«n.mTol.Il,p. W,GoOgk 

SEST hm AND wRi iiiM or cicbxo. 

«HMt of iIm AllotaagM. Cicero heie dafend* btm eguiMt k chugft of 

eiloRioa ■nd peculttian, biought by vuioui itaMa of Atia Hinoi, whicfa 
tm had gorarned u piopiutoi. 
H. An ondoii foi Fubha* StIU- 

Dt. B. Ue wu lelated lo the dicMtor, uid wm ucnted of hniag bsMi 
engiged ia Citiline'i ctMnpincy. Cicero (ueceeded in pTacnring h» 
M/)Ditld. Tbe cauM wm tiied the yea aSter hii conaulship. 

H. ADOlhei old faTonrilfl of mine, ibg ontion foi ArcliiM, which i« 
fbllowed b; one eutitled, '' ^tij Cfuirilei pmt Teditum." 

Di. B. If >on tum ovBT » lltlle hithei, yon will find thtee others, enti- 
tled leipeetirely, '> Fatt rcaUum, in tciutu," " Fro inmo lua ad PonU- 
fieti," >nd " De HarntpKim Tcafontii." I im eonj lo •■j, th»t Ihsee 
foni ontioni 4re now generallT reguded u (potiDui, snd u haTing bsen 
compoeed by the tbetoricien» of & Ulei tge u e»Btci»ei in declamstioa. 
Ciceio did indeed delivei bur ■peaehu, >liiiaet iiDinedistelj slW hie 
ntain from eiile, on subJMtls ■imilu to theee. Tbe finl wu ■ddisBied 
to the aeute, Ihe ucood to ibe people, ibe thiid to the CoUege of Peo- 
til^ 10 obtiiti reslitutien of Ibe gtound od which his bouw had atoed, 
■nd which bad been msde the lile of ■ Mmptei uid the fouiA in sniwer 
to a deehntion of Clodins, thit cettain ■'■""'"g prodigiu whicb ha4 
Utefy «ppesred, weie occuioned bj the desecnlion of Ihis «tme piacc 
«f grouud, which Ibe Pantib hsd discbtiged from Toli^oiu aaes. Bul 
Itw Cbur speechM that bsve come dowii lo us, sfiiid ibmtdant iateiBal 
aTidouce of theii oeTei haiing proceeded frotn Cicero.i 

H. Biimissing these, we bsTe neit in oider the ontiDa fbi Planeius. 

Dt. B. This ii the Planciua oT wbom I made msntion u baving been 
qaautQr of M^cedouia wben Ciaero came Ibilbar m an exite. He ■■ hras 
defeadBd by tbe orator, in letiun for ibe Itiodneu thowD on dtat ocewioni 
spiDst ■ cbtrgs of biibnj in miag fot ths oSce ef i«dile. 

H. Tben comM the oiation for Seitini, 

Di. B. Hers Bgiin Cicero laquitu iJie ■Btiicu of a fiieod. SutiO^ 
whila tribmiB, had eiBited bimaelf to precuie Ciceio'* leesU, snd th* 
Utter now dereuda him in an elahwate haisngue agttnet * chtlge ti 
szciting B Umult in the ctpitsl. 

H. An oration agaiait Vitiiuus. 

Dt. B. Thi* Valiniua wm produeed od the (^q^ite ude in tke tii^I of 
Seitius, u ■ witneu ■guntt him. This g*TB Cicsro «n oiqiartaiiiqr 
(rf iBtenggating bim, uid the whole speach is one cMtinaed inTeotiTSt 
ntteted in s ■eri» of queitions, without wtiliDg bx ■ nplj. Raow it if 
•ometimM cslted, not onino, hut inlm^aiio. 

H. An ontion for Coelius. 

Di. B Coelius, a gBj^nd ratber dissolnte joung mtn, wu •eeuMd 

1. nMlrip.i;iim.£(t.ToL9.p.S»— fiMHtt£« Jlen. toL B, p. IM.,GoOgk 


hf Ck>du,lli« ir^kDown ■iiter of Clodiiu, ofui attMiipt to poiaon hK, 
tnd of tuTing buminBd numej bmn her lo pioniie tba ittminiriini of 
Dio, ihs AleuDdiiin ambiuidoT. TioM ontioa, nhich is bi^l; coib- 
iDBiided by Middletoai Cor ita oceuioiullf plijliil muum, wu «iMt • 
puticnUi' bvonnte nith the cekbntsd Fai.> 

H. It ii eucceeded bj ■ ipBecli '■ Dt prwineiU eouailanhu.'* 
Di. B. Thii ontion ie indead ■ remukeble oiie. It procniod ftr 
CuiM • contiiiautce of hii goveninieDl io Qtal, uid thie kK tBMj b« 
nguded u one (rf the inunediata craaee of the niin ol Iba lepnblie. 
Ckeio ■dToc&ted the eantimiuica of thii coDUDuid withoDt in t)M leett 
degree penetnting tbe daiign* of the iiDbitioui Cueu, whoea oDhr otjeet 
waa tob>Te Guil u the tnuDing-pUco of hie legioDa aatil he coold twn 
dieir umt tgunat hii coontiir. 
H. The oratioD fbi Balbua. 

Dr. B. Pompe^, bj e apedal law, had giantad tba &eadom oT Rame 
to Balbua, B n^ve of Cadii, wbe bid peifnmed aoina impoilant aurioa» 
foi bim in Ibe «u ageinat Seitoriue. Tha Ttlidi^ of Poa^pa;'» aet «■» 
now quattionad, bot wii niceeitru% dnfeDded b;r Ciearo. 
H. An ontim ■guuat L. Calpaniiaa Piao. 

D7. B. Piao had beoD lecalled fmn hia gore mn ient df HtoadoniB, ■ 
conaeqaenee of Cicaio'a oiatioD od the caninlu pnifiueee. Takiiig al 
•uij oppoitnnitj, be comjduned beToie the aenite of the tnatmant b> 
bad receired,, aod indalged in an attack ni the onlal, rtdic»i6ig in pnr- 
ticnlu hii poatic effauona. Cieeia^t replj ■■ lemukible lor ili coana 
■nd bittsr iimctiTe. 

H. What, in Ibe pieaence of tba aenile 1 

Di. B. Yet, be indulgaa, befara ihit gnve bodj, io luignige uid *Sa- 
aiona \iat mit onlj the mendiaa <>f & taiem ; and thie too ■gaintt ■ man 
of bmilj aad dittinction. — Bnt whj do jon thtke joni bnad ! 

H. Ah ! beia it ihe funaaa qieech foi Hilo, vrhiehwi* naw 
d^TBMd. What ■ pitj thu no ona took down tba ofitioa wUcta Cice» 
•etaallj nttered, tbat we might haya campand ita fMUeDeaa with tba 
betntifiil buingne which hia cooie down to odi timea. 

Di. B. It wu Ukeo down m wiiting, and ttiU aiitlad in tbe daja of 
JUconiuii bat maithaTebeeD,ai jonromaifc, &riiileiioi.lglluone wfaidt 
w« Bow btTe, aiDGe the Ittter waa acconBtad, both bj Cieeie hioiMU' and 
bj hda coutemponiiee, •■ the Gneat eSnt of kia gauiui.* 

H. Tttt ontion wbich I Gad aeit b orier ia entitbd " Pre JtaKne 

Bi. B. He waa pioaeeatad fot TafjmtBl of a tam lAidi he ww «ap 

I. £(A^aansToL!l,p.B8.-i>ifliJop.JlMi-Z4I.T^lLP-Sia 
a. OnAp. Xam. £A. toL B, p. St3;,GoOgk 

zxm Liri JLND wRiTiifoB or giczbo. 

poMd to luTt racuml, ia conJDnctiaD wiLh the pRMoiuuI Oalniuua, ftas 
King Plolamr, for twnDg [dacod him od CIm thmne al Egjpl eeaata t> 
tba injunetioM af ths mwIs. Bnt why ihat look of plauura ! 

H. Thii onticHi, vhich inccBada, I bave resd of in Plataich. It i 
ILb one Sar Liguiua, ■ccaied oT having bomo unu igtiDit Caerai, ttUi 
tha battlc of PbuBlia, and of haiiDg rsneosd tbo wir in Africk. 

Dr. B. Tes, tha dietttoi' himself pnwided &t Ihta trial, m«ch prejndicK 
•giioit Liguioi. But tha elo^denca o{ Ihe advocate aitoited t, paidon 
It wH during thii ontion that CaeMi'* caantenaDce i* sud to biTS 
ohuiged, uid the papan which he held to hsTe diopped ftom his luuid.t 

H. We b*Te bat two rBmiining befbra we leach ihe Philippici, Ihe 
qMech for Deiotuns, ud that in behalT of MaiceUns. Wilh the lattei '. 
■m too well acquaioted to trouble joa foi anf ezpIanitioD. Of the EOb 
j«ct oT the forraei I uo ignonat. 

Di. B. Wh;r< this was s dsfence of Beiotuni, tetruch of GnUtiB, 
eluiged with an attempt lo poiton Caesai, during the Umj which the 
lUIer nude ■[ bia conrt 'Hie cise wa* beard in Ihs priTate apatUnenXi 
of Cieair, and ths isane wu suecanfu) for tbe tccnaed. 

H. I will Dot tiouble 70U, my deu Doctoi, to «ipliin far ma the aab- 
jsct of each of the Philippica. 1 hsTe leid that tbe; were aimed igBiDst 
Antoi^, that tbey were so entilled in imitation of the splendid eSusiona 
oT Demoalbenes, and ihat, like tiie latter, theif deriTe ibeii ehier beentj 
&om tbe nOble eipreiaion af juat indignatlao which is so apteDdidlj diF' 
fiised over ill. AUow ma te ■ak, howerer, wliich one, in joui opinioi^ 
ii entitled to the palm. 

Di. B. Undoiibtedlj the rourteeDth, «hieh waa dellTeied Bfter the 
intdligence had becn recaired of the total defeat of Antany, beroie the 
mlla of Modena, bj the umj under GctaTtanua ■nd ths connils Hirtin* 
•ndPuiu. ThiisuccegswaetboughtlohiTedecided^efiteof Anlony 
tnd the repablic. and Cicero gties loosa to hii pauiotic feelinga in ■ flow 
of the noblsBt eloqnence. 'niia too wss the laal oration that Cicem 
dsliTBied, loi the Dniro of OctaTiums md Antanj wts cemented bj hii 


H. Aod have we novr gone throngh all tha ontion^, Doctoi Baittm, 
Of the mui of Aipinnm 1 

Dr. B. A1I itiat have come down to db, Heniy, Manj, boweter, havo 
ttitiiely peiiihed, and of theie the one moit dBserving uf regiet is thal 
Art Comelint. Hehod beenacensed of practices tgainattiie etateduting 
hls tribnnesbip. The BpeBch wae divided into two gieat paitt, ind wat 
coatinasd duiing fbar nicceuiT* dtirt, before an imnienae conconrse of 
•odilora, nho are uid to btTo laitified theii ■dmiiation by lettanled,GoOgk 


■pphaM. Tlia ontoi himiolf freqii«nllj nfan to it «■ ■mong Um moM 
finiiibed o( bU compoaitioas, ind the old ciilica citc it u u eiampla of 
genuiiM doqueDce.i — Of many of the lott q>eeehM of Cicaro, we bive 
hiHenr, liagnMut* remainiiig, titi the nnmber of Iheaa TemDuiti baf 
beaD leceDtlj incieaaed by the Teseuchea of Haio, of ithieh we wiil cod- 
Tene oa (ome otber opportaiiit;. Hauiwhile, bebra «re pait, baod nia 
ihal Dumber of Ihe Weatminiter Reriaw wbich liaa at yDot elbow. It 
contaiaa a ■ketcta of Cicero'i chtncter, wbieh I wi^ 1« leid lo JOO. 

H. Befoie ws put, Doctoil — Whj I hBTC aat gM ihrangb with non 
tliaa one balf of mj Tolumo. 

Dr. B. Aud that i* the veif niaon wbj we (oght mw lo alop, leat 
■ny farthet accouQt of Iha «litiiig* of Ciceio onl; coDfaaa aiid ba. 
wildei.a Dlgeat nbat I baTc thua fu ■tated, ud, whwi w« n««t tfm- 
Ibe othor productioiu of Ciceio will leiTe n« 1« ■ Ibenui. — >Bendea jca 
will wsDt to ■ttaod Uhity ihe Tiaitation of ibe Bodleian Libiaij, aiid 1« 
beu tbo Latin ipeech in tba *clioat of Natunl Fhitoaaphf . 
H. Who appoiiitt the •peaJur. Doctmr t 

Di. B. The Dean of Cbiist-Chuicb.— I wiU now ratd fiam tbe Waat- 
•Dinitei » " CioeionaB Ibe ISrat of the aecond OTderafgreat minda. An 
azlnoidmaij Taiia^ a( talent, lathei than anj pie-anunence of onginal 
genina, ia hit ebanctaiitiic. It ia atteatad b; a wondarful aitant and 
diTeiaitir of inrormidan, scqaired unid ibe dtilf occnpttioni of ■ reiy 
UboiioDa lifa, tnd thnaat •nabbng him to teeompliab tba gratt object of 
hit aiobitiaD, wbich waa tn bia nogle peiat»! lo maintain the cauae of Ko> 
nan ■gainat the whote of &ecian liteiatnra. Hia wiitten ccmtiibntioBa 
lo tite infonnttion tnd delight of mankind, an tlmott aa eztemiTa aa 
Aiittol]e*a. ETarj ptge ia tba effloieacence of t etptcioua mind, wbidi 
embiaced the whole circle of aitt and BCLeneea, vihich aunejad life with 
tlM CDmpiehBnaion of a philaeapbei, and the ■hrewdneH of ■ Tun of tbe 
wntd. But Cicero't mind wtt not of pnmitna fannation. He wit Iha 
ioTeDtcnr of no gmt ttjle, he wat Iha bold and original inTsatigttor of no 
ODe deptitmant, doi ia tlieie uij one in wMch aupranacj could t» 
daimed for hun. He retembled tbo tthlete hi LtHiginua, who wii infe- 
lior to bia competiton reepectirely in llieii pecutiar pTOTincea, but wa* 
on the TAote, tnd wilb iBgard to tlie oniTemlitj of hia tcc<Hnp1iabmenle, 
■npcnoi to inj. — Aa i politicitn tiiadefecta tn moat ttriking, fbi tiia tum 
Itj bBat fbi ■pBcnlation, aod nothing ao claatly and deeiaiTelj detecla 
Imking fltwa in a mui'fl judgmaDl ■■ the eondoGt of pubtic tfikiia, dniing 
"Ihe jointt ind fleiana" of tioabted timee, wliea the opetation of new 

L OuJop. Jlgm. UI.ToL^p.S3L 

& Anaceoimlorilieelhlcia uidiitdk»o|Atul witlliiciof^^leerawm ba ftrn 
In m eiilloD of Uia woA "D* qfitHt," laMitolii ta,-^ -^' '— " — 

S Me. A p. lO, Hfi',GoOgk 

xtxnil Lira AND WKimfSb or oi jko. 

friBci|da it MmtLlang weietf , or Iba deeiy of aSi onei k naoln&g ■■ 
Isto thair origiiiBl etniimt». For MKh • •hinge ba potie—tl Dcitber Ih* 
Mf DiHtB moni or phjaieil «Mta^, Ibe •olidi^ ot piJDcipls ■od pwpcMe, 
■or th« f W ptitode orjiklgniaat irhieh i* neoMnrj lo ile eieciitioii.— 
The natunt ■•■kBOH of Gicera'i mind, the wint of great uid Mriid prin 
e^ilea of oondiict, •• well •■ hi* limidi^, inM Bot onl; mnKnu lo Ibe 
■Uta, bnl en^HWBd the *rh«ta tf bia life. In tbe conlict o( pablic •fijur^ 
tb« ml oatliDee of ■ nan'i ctunctet *re ineriubly diM»Tered ; dengo 
oc tccideDt b^tnj* hi^ weak (iid ■tiODg' pnnti. Tbe bD^tting tif ■ ratita 
BUnediitelj proTaabolhhia-iniiidand bodj, Cione wi^ perfeetlj knowa 
to •Tetj Dun in Rnse. Sonie, iriwn Ihej bid uij ot^t lo gain, pnc< 
lieed on hi^ mni^, •ome <ni hit timiditj. From llie dij of liii buiiib- 
■MBt bia •piril wu broken, end norer rMorered ile aU^lieitj antfl, in liia 
old«g*s fae we* c^lted OD to oppoM tbe profligate Antonj. Tben eoma» 
llung hatter eTsn ttun bis fbrmer •etf " flactwd forth ■ ■Ima of beroio 
nji." The cuH, the ocoaon, uid tbe p«non, nnned iU lii* &cultis>. 
Ile (poka fbr libertj — tlw magninide of Ibe indiTidaU denger in «tiich ba 
■Mad f:Dt off alt iseulutian, ihe ejaa of ibe world were on him, tbe SZ' 
■mple o( Bratni, gkuiaiu Kt UaM in ik pimciide, wu before bim, uid 
■coeidinglj, wi^ ■ coang^ • dignhj, ■nd en doqaenca to i^b tbana 
ja no panJlel in tiia ollier efibrta, h« ■teod OTor hw lallen Mnnttj •nd 
defended ber &om ber doedlieit fM." 
n. Do jon sgrec, DocUk, wilh •tl llut ii imm •dTinoad 1 
Dr. B. Veij naulj, Hnuj. We tniMt ■twaja in eMJmadng dte ebao 
taut of Giciro, uke euo nol to bo dautod by tbe liHniy t| 
tfcal ia thn>wii •nund bi* nama.,GoOgk 








I. >QiTO(7a4UE tandem ^butere, Cidlms, ptttientis no- 
ttnt Qnaradiu etiun fuior ^te tuue nos ^ludet? Quem 
ad finem sese effieuata jactabit audacia 1 ^Nihilne te 
nocturaum praeBidium 'Palatii, nihil ^bis Tigiliae, nibil 
Uiaot populi, nihil *concureuB bonorum omnium, nihil hic 
'^mnitissimua habeudi senattun locus, nihil '>borum ora 
Tultuflque movemnt? >^Pateie tus consilia non Bentis' 
Constrictam jam honun omnium conscientia teneri cou- 
iurationem tnam non rides T Quid '^roxima, quid supe- 
riote nocte egeris, ubi fueria,' quos conTOcaveria, quid 
cousilii ceperis, quem nostrtlni ignorate aibitraria T O 
tempora, O morea! Senatus liaec intelligit, consulvidet; 
hic tajnea Tivit. Vivit ? i^immo Teto etiam in Benatum 
T^iuut. Fit i^blici consilii pardceps : notat et designat 
oculis ad^caedem uuumquemqua nostnlm. Nos autem 
^Mri fwtes, satisfscete teipi^IicBe ridemut, si istius fuio. 
Tem ac tela vitemus. Ad mortem te, Catilina, duci jussu 
consulia, jan^iridem opottebat'; ''in te confetti poBtenc 
iBtUi, quam tu in noB onmes jsmdiu machinaris. '^Aa 
■ vero Tit ampliBsimus, "P. Scipio, pontifex maximus, Wb. 
Gracohran, '"mediocrritet labefactantem statnm teipublicae, 
privatus interfeoit : "Catilinam, orbem terratum caeds at- 
que incendiis Tastote ci^entem, ooa couBules petfew-,GoOgk 


nraa l ^Nam illa niinis antiqua praetereo, quod *C. Set' 
vilius Ahals Sp. Melium, norb rebua studenwin, nuuia 
aua occidit. Fuit, fiiit ^ta quoadain in luu; rapublica 
Tirtua, at Tiri fortes actioribus sup^ciia ciTem pemici»' 
auin, quam acerbissimum hoatem coercerent. *HafaMmis 
senatusconaultiim in te, Gatilma, *TeliemenB et graTc: 
*non deeat nqmblicae consilium, nequ« auctoritaa tiujua 
ordinis: noa, noa, dico aperte, ^nos consulea deanmus. 

II. DBcasTiT ^quondam aenatua ut L. Opiinius consul 
■videiet, ne quid respublics detrimenti caperet : nox nulla 
interceasit; interfectus est propter '"quasdam seditionuin 
Buapiciones C. Gracchus, ^'clarisainu) patre, avo, majoribua : 
occiaus Bst cum liberia '^M. FulTius, consularis- Simili 
Benatuaconaulto, '^C Mario et L. Valerio, consulibns, pei- 
miua est lespublica : num unum diem poetea i*L. Satur- 
Tiini iribuni plebis, et C. Serrilii {metoria mortem rcd- 
publicae poena lemorata est? At '^nos vicesimom jam 
diem patimuj hebeaceie aciem honim auctDiitatiB. Hab»- 
mus enira hujusmodi senatusconanltuia, Terumlwnen incln- 
stmi in tabnlis, tanqnam ^^gladium in Tagina lecoaditum : 
qno ex senatnsconsulto i^confestim intaifectam te esse, 
Cadlina, conTenit. ViTia: et Tiris noii ad deponandam, 
sed ad coufinnandam audaciam. iK!!iqiio, patiM con- 
scripti, me esse clementem: cnpio in tantia reipnUloa» 
periculia me non ''diasolutiim Tideri : sed jam me ipse 
inertiae ^equitiaeque caudemno. Caatra aunt jn It^a, 
contra rempnblicam, ^>in Etrunae fancibus collocata : crea- 
cit ia diea singulos hoatium numems : ^^eomm auteiB im- 
peralorem cBatroram, dncemqne faostium, intra moeaia, 
atque adeo ia sraatn Tidemua, inleednam «liqasm quoti- 
die pemiciem lejpnblicae mohentem. Si te jam, Catilina. 
cMnprehendi, si interfici jussero; cisdo, erit TerMdnm 
niihi, ne non hoc potius omaes boni serius a me, quaiii 
quisqnam cmdeliDS factom esae dicat. Verum ego hoc, 
quod jampridem facttmi esse oportuit, ^certa de cauas 
iKmdnm adducor ut iaciam. Tnm denique inteificiam (e, 
(sum jam nemo tam improbiu, tam peTditaa, ■Ham tid ai- 


ORATIU I. II) L. MTttltUlC. 3 

inilia iiiTeniri poterit, qni id non jore faetnm essa fates- 
tur. rQDajndia qaisquam erit, qni te defendere Bodeat, 
vivBs : et vivea ita, ut auac TiTis, mnltia meia et firmia 
praeBidiis 'obsessns, ne commoTere te contra rempublicam 
possis- Moltorum te etiam ocuU et anies non sentieii- 
tem, sicut adlinc fecenmt, speculabnntur atque custodient, 

III. Etenim qnid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius ex- 
speetes, si neqne nox tenebris obscurare cuetua nefarios, 
nec ^iivata domus parietibus continere vocem conjura- 
tionia tuae potestT fsi iUustTantiiT, ai eruinpiint omniaT 
Mnta jam *istam mentem ; tnjhi ciede : obliTiscere caedia, 
stqUB incendioram: teneris undique: luce aunt darioia 
nobia tua coasilis omnia: quae etiam mecum licet reco- 
gnoscaa. Meniimstiue, me ^te diem duodecimam ka- 
lesdas NoTembris dicere in senatu, cerlo die fore in 
aimis, qui dies futurus esset 'ante diem sextum kalendas 
NoTembris, C. Manlium, audaciae sateliitem atque admiu' 
istrum tuaeT Kum me fefellit, Catilina, non modo rea 
tanta, tam atrox, tam incredibilis, verum, ^id qnod multo 
raagis est admirandiun, dies ? Dtii ego idem in senatii, 
caedem ^ optimatum contulisse *in ante diem quintum 
kalendas Novembris, tum cum multi '"piincipes ciTJtaiis 
Roma, non tsm aui conaeiraiidi, quam tuorum conBiliorum 
"leprimendoTum causa profugerunt. Num infitiari potes 
te iUo ipso die meia praeaidiis, mea diligentia circumclu 
amn, commoveie te contia lempublicam non potuisse 
cum tu, discBssn ceteromm, >%ostra tamen, qui reman 
sissemiis, caede contentum te esae dicebas ? ^uid ! cum 
tute FPraeneste kalendis ipsia ) Norembris occupatunun 
noctumo impetn esse confideres .- senfiiatine, illam coloni- 
am meo jusau, '*praesidiis, custodiis, Tigiliisque ease aar 
nitajQ? Nihil agis, niliil moliris, nihil cogitas, quod egt 
■hion modo non audiam, sed etiam non Tideam, planeque 

IV. Recognosce tandem mecum '*noctem illam superi» 
rem : jam inteUiges multo me Tigilars acrius ad salutem 
guam te ad pemiciem leipublicae. Dico t« priori noct*,GoOgk 


venisse 'inter falcarios, (non &gaiD obacnre,) m M. Lae 
cae domum : conTeoiase eodem ^complures ejusdeiB 
lunentiae scelerisque socioB. Num negare audes 7 Quid 
tacea ? couTincam, si negas. Video enim esee hic ia 
aeaatu quoadam, qui t^cmn una fuere. O dii immortalea! 
ubiuam gentium aumua t in qua urbe Tivimus I quam rem- 
publicam habemuB ? Hic, bic suut, noslro in numero, 
patres cooscripti, %k hoc orbis terrae sanctissimo grsTis- 
simoquB consilio, qui de meo, nostTQmque omnium inte 
ritu, qui de hujus urbis, aique adeo orbis terramm exitio 
cogitent. Hosce ego video consul, et de republica sen- 
tentiam rogo ; et, quoa ferro trucidari oporlebat, eos non 
dum voce vulnero. Fuisti. igitur apuil Laecam illa nocte, 
Catilina : ^distribuisti partes Italiae : statuisti quo quem- 
que proficiBci placeret : delegisti 'quoa Romae relioqueres, 
quos tecum educeres : ^descripsisti urbis partes ad incea- 
dia : ''confirmasti, te ipsum jam esee exitunun : dizisti 
pauUulum tibi esse etiam tum morae, quod ego viverem. 
Geperti sunt ^duo equites Romani, qiu te ista cura libe- 
rareat, et sese ^illa ipsa nocte, pauUo ante lucem, me meo 
in lectulo interfecturos pollicerentur. Haec ego omnia, 
ris dum etiam coetu vestra dimisao, '"comperi: domum 
meara majoiibus praesidiis munivi atque firmavi : exclusi 
eos, quos tu mane ad me salutatum miseras, cum illi ipsj 
venissent ; quos cgo jam multis ac summia viris ad me 
id temporis venturos esse praedixeram. 

V. "QnAE cum ita aint, Catilina, perge quo coepisti , 
egrcdere aliquaudo ex urbe : patent porlae : proficiscere : 
nimium diu te imperalorem "illa tua Manliana castra de- 
aiderant. £duc tecum etiam omnes tuos : '^si minus 
quam plurimos : purga urbem: magno me metu liberabis 
dummodo inter me alque te murus intersit ; nobiscum 
vorsari jam diutius non potes : '*non feram, non patiar 
non sinam. Magaa diia immortalibus, **atque huic ipsi 
Jovi Statori, antiquissimo custodi hujus urbis, ^^Jiabenda 
e9t gratia, quod hanc tam laetram, tam horribilem, "tara- 
que infestam reipublicae pestein toties jam offiigimus-,GoOgk 


Nim est saepiua *ia uno hoiniiie snmiiia Balns periclitut 
da leipublicae. Quamdia mihi, ^conauli deaignato, Cad* 
lina, iuaidiatua es, non publico me praesidio, sed privata 
diUgeDtia defendi: cmn ^prosimis comitiis consulahbua 
me consulem in ■'campo, et competiloies interficeie to- 
Inisti, compressi tuos uefarios conatus amicorum piaesid- 
io et copiis, nuUo tumultu publice concitato : denique 
quotiescuuque me petistl, pei me tibi obstlti ; quamquam 
Tidebam, permciem mcam cum magna calamitate reipub- 
licae ^esae coujunctam. Nunc jam aperte rempublicam 
muTersam petis. Templa deorum immortalium, tecta ur- 
bis, Titam omnium civimn, Italiam denique totam, ad esi- 
tium et Tastitateiu vocas. Quare ^uoniam id, quod pri- 
nmm, atque bujus imperii disciplinaeque majonim propri- 
um est, facere nondum audeo : faciam id, quod est 'ad 
seTeritatem lenios, et ad commmiem salutem utilius : 
nam, si te interfici jussGro, residebit in republica ^reli- 
qua conjuratorum manus : sin tu (quod te jamdudum hor- 
tor,) exieris, *exhauriotur ex uibe tuorum comitum mag- 
na et perniciosa reipublicae sentina. Quid est, CatilinaT, 
Num dubitas id, me imperanlo, facere, quod jam '"tua 
spoDte faciebas ? £xire ex mbe consui hostem jubet ; 
intenogas me, "num in ecsilium? Non Jiil)eo: sed, ui 
me consuliB, suadeo. 

VI, Q.CID enim, Catilina, eet, quod te Jam in hac uibe de- 
lectare possitl Inquanemo est, "extia istam conjuiatio- 
nem perdiionun bominum, qui te non metuat ; nemo, qui 
non oderit. '^Quae nota domesticae tuipitudinis non inusta 
vitae tuae est? '^Qiiod priTataium rerum dedecus non 
haeret infamiae ? "Quae libido ab oculis, '^uod facinus 
a manibus umquam tuia, quod flagitium a loto corporo 
abfuitT Cui tu adolescentulo, "quem conuptelarum ille- 
cebria irrelisses, non aut ad audaciam femim, aut ad libi- 
dinem '^facem praetulisti 1 Qnid Teio 1 nuper, eum motte 
superioris uioris novia nuptiis domum ''vacuefecissea 
nonne etiam alio incredibili sceleie hoc scelus cumulasti 1 
Quod ego pneteimitta et facile padoi siLeri, ne in hao 


S OK«nO !• IN L. ClTtLtltAK. 

ciritate Hanti faci&oris inuiiEuutas aiit exstitime, a«t Don 
vindicata eaBe Tideatur. FraeteTmitto luinas fortnnaniiD 
tuarum, qna* omnes impendere tibi 'proxiniiB idibnB sen- 
ties : ad itla Tenio, quae non ad privatam ignomitiiani 
vitioium tuornm, non ad 'domesticun tnam diScnltatem ac 
tnriMtudiiwm, sed ad Bumm&m leipubUcae, atqne ad onud- 
nm noatrOm vitam saluteiDqne pertinent. Fotestne tibi 
«higiiB ritae lux, Csliliiis, aut hnjus coeli spiritus ease 
jucundns, cnm scias, homm esse neminem, qoi nesciBt. 
te '[«idie kaleDdas Jannarias, 'Le[Mdo et INillo consulibas, 
^stetisse in comitdo cum telo 1 Manom, consnlum et prin- 
cipmn ciTitatis interficiendorum causa, paraTisse T Sceleri 
BG forori tuo "non mentem aliquam, aut timorem tuom, 
sed *fonnnam reipublicae obstitlaBe T Ac jam illa omitto : 
Uneqne enim snnt am obecora, aut non muba poat com- 
miaaa. Quoties tu me designatnm, quoties consnlem in- 
terficere conatus es? "Qnot ego tuas petitionea ita con- 
jectas, ut ritari non posse Tideientui, parTa quadam de- 
clinatione, et, nt ainnt, corpore e£Fugi ? '^Nihil sgis, nihit 
assequeris, nilul moUris, quod mihi lateie Taleat '%i tem- 
pore : neque tamen conad ac TeUe desistis. '*Quoties 
jam tibi extoita est sica ista de manibus 1 Quoties vero 
excidil casu aliquo et elapsa cBt? "Ttunen ea caneie 
diutiua non potea : '^uae quidem qoibus aba te initiala 
aacris ac devota ait, nescio, quod eam necesae putas con- 
anliB in coipoie defigere. 

VII. NnNC Tero, quae est ista tua Tita? Sic enini 
jam tecum loquai, non ut Podio permotua esae videar, 
quo debeo, aed nt misericordia, quae tibi nulla debetm. 
Venifiti '^paullo ante in senatum : quia te ex hac tanta 
frequentia, ex tot tuia amicis ac necesBariis, '*saliUaTitT 
Si hoc post hominum memoriam contigit nemini, '"rocia 
exspectas coatumeliam, com Bie gTaTissimo judicio taci- 
tumitatiB oppressuB ? Quid, quod adyentu tuo ^'ista sub- 
aellis Tacuefacta sunt 1 Quod omnes consukres, qui tibi 
peraaepe ad caedem constituti fuenmt, aimul atque asse- 
diati, paitem istam subselliorum ^udam atque inanem,GoOgk 


nliquenmt 7 Quo tandem Bnimo lioc tibi fereudum putu t 
'Servi mehercle mei si me iato paclo metnerent, ut te 
metuunt onuies civea tui, domum meam relinquendun pn- 
tarem : tu tibi uibem noa arbitrsris ? Et, si me meiB 
civibus %ijiiria stiapectum tam giaviter atque ofiensnra 
viderem ; careie me aspectu civium, qnam infeatis omni- 
ma oculis coospici mallem : tu cum conscientia acelerum 
tnotum agnoscaa odimn onmium justum, et jam tibi din 
debitum, dubitas, quonmi menteB sensnsqne ^vitlneraa, 
eorum aspectum praeaentiamque vitare t Si te paieutes 
timerent atqne odiaaent tni, neque eoa iiU& Tatione pla- 
caie posses ; ut opinoi, ab eoium oculis aliqno concede- 
lea : nmic te patria, quae eommunis eat ^omnium nostrfun 
pB.Teaa, odit ac metuit, *et jamdiu te nihil judicat nisi de 
*panicidio buo cogitaie. ''Hujua tti neqno auctoritatem 
verebere, neque judicinm aequeie, neque vim peitimesces 1 
Quae tecom, Catilina, aic agit, et quodammodo "tacita 
loqnitur : — Nnllum aliquot jam annis facinua exstitit, nisi 
pei te ; nuUum flagitinm sine te : tibt uni *multoTum ci- 
vinm necea, tibi vexatio diieptioquB '"Bocioium impumia 
fnit ac libeia: tn non eolum ad negligendae legea ac 
''quaestioaea, verum etiam ad eveitendas pei&ingendas 
que yaluisti. Supeiiora illa, quamqnam ferenda non fue 
runt, taiuen, ut potui, tnli : nunc veio me totam eaae in 
nietu propter te unum ; '^uidquid inciepuerit, Catilinam 
IJmeri ; nuUum Tiieri contra me conailiimi iniri poese, 
'^quod a. tuo acelere &bhoneat ; non est ferendum. Qoamo- 
biem diacede, atque bunc mihi timorem eripo : '*si est 
veruB, ne opprimar ; ain faleua, ttt tandem aliquando time- 
re deajnam. 

VIII. Habc si tecum, nt diri, patiia loquatur, "nonno 
impetrare debeat, etiamai vim adhibere non posait ? 
'^Quid, quod tu te ipse '''in custodiam dedisti T Quid, 
quod, vitandae auspicionia canaa, apud '°M'. Lepidum te 
"habitaie velle diuBti ? A quo non leceptus, etiam ad 
me venire ausus es : atque ut domi meae te asseiVBiem, 
togasti : cum a me quoque id leaponaum tnliBBeB, m»,GoOgk 



nullo modo posae iiBdem 'paiietibus tuto esse tedim, >qai 
magno in periciUo easem, quod iiadem moenibuB conti- 
aeremuT ; &d Kl. Metellum praetorem Tenisti : a. quo re- 
pudiatua, ad sodalem luum, *Tirum optimum, M. Marcel 
lum demigrasti: quem tu Mdelicet et sd cuBlodieadum 
te diligentiBsimum, et ad auspicaiidum Mgacissimum, et ad 
vindicandum foTtiaaimum fore putaatL Sedquamlonge Tide- 
tnr a carcere atque a viBCulia abesse debere, qui se ipee jam 
dignum cusiodia judicarit 1 Qua^ cum ita sint, Catilina, du- 
bitas, si hic ^morari aequo animo non potes, abire in aliquaa 
teraas, et Tilam istam, multis suppliciis justb debitisque erep- 
tam, fugae solitudinique mandare 1 ''Refer, inquis, od aeu^ 
tum, (id eoim postulas,) et, ai bic ordo placere sibi decreTe- 
rit, te ire in exaOium, obtemperaturum te eaae dicis. Non 
referaoi id, ^nod abhorret a meis moribns : et tamen % 
ciam, ut intelligas, quid hi de te sentiant. Egredere ex 
m-be, Catilina : libera rempublicam melu : in exsilium, d 
'"hanc Tocem exspectas, prohciscere. "Quid est, Catili- 
na? ecquid attendis, ecquid animadTeitis horum Bilentium? 
'*patiimtur, tacent. ^'Quid ezapectas auctoritatem loquen- 
tium, quorum Toluntatem tacitorum perspicis t At si hoc 
idem huic adolescenti optimo, i*P. Sextio, si fortissimo 
viro, '^M. Marcello dixissem ; "jam Tnihi consuli, hoc 
ipao in templo, jure optimo aenatue Tim et manus intu- 
liaset: '''de te autem, Catilina, cum quieacunt, probant; 
cum patiuntur, decemimt; cum tacent, clamant. Neque 
hi solum, '^juorum tibi auctoritaa est videlicet cara, vits 
vilissima; '^d etiam illi equitea Romani, hcmeatiaaimi 
atque optimi Tiri, celetique fortissimi ciTes, ^qui circum- 
Btant senatum, quorum tu et frequentiam videre, et atudia 
perspicere, et Tocea paullo ante exaudire potuisti: quo- 
rum ego vix aba te jamdiu manus ac tela contineo, eoa- 
dem facile adducam, ut te haec, quae jampridem vaslare 
«tudea, relinquentem, ''usque ad portas prosequantur. 

'QuAiKinAH ^uid loquor? ^e ut utla res frangat' 
lu ut unquam te co^rigaB? tu ut ullam fiigam meditere* 
tu ut uUum exeiliuir. cogites ? Utinam tibi Istam menteiu,GoOgk 

OKATIO I. IH 1. CA.Tn.UtiM 9 

(lii immortales Mnint! Tametsi video, si wea. roce per- 
territus ire in ezBilium animum indaseris, <iuants tempe- 
stas inTidiae nobis, si minus in praeseDs tempua, recenti 
memoTia scelenun tuorum, at in posteritatem impeadeat. 
'Sed est milii tanti ; dummodo iala ^piiTata sit calamitas, 
et a reiprublicae periculis sejnngatur, *Sed tu ut Titiis 
tuis conmioveare, ut legom poenaa pettimescas, ^t tem- 
poribiia reipublicae concedas, qon est postulandum : neque 
enim ia ea, Catilina, ut te ajit ^udor a tuipitudiae, aut 
metu3 a periculo, aut ratia a furore unquam Tevocarit. 
Quamobrem, ut saepe jam dixi, proficiBcere : ac, si mihi 
iniinico, ut praedicaa, tuo conflare vis ■ invidiam ; ''recta 
perge in exsilium : vix feram 'sermones hominum, si id 
feceris : vix %ioIem istius invidiae, si iu ezsilium ieris 
jussu conaulis, BustJuebo : ain atitem ^'terTiie meae laudi 
et gloriae mavis, egredere ''cum impoituna sceteratorum 
manu : confet te ad Maidiimi : concita peiditos cives : 
seceme te & bonia : infer patriae bellum : exaulta '%n{Ho 
latrocinio, ut a me non ejectus ad alienos, sed invitatus 
ad luos isse videaris. '^Quainquam quid ego te invitem, 
a quo jam, sciam esse praemissos, '*qui tibi ad Fonun 
Autelium praestolaientui annsti 1 "Cui sciam pactam et 
constitutain esse cum Manlio diem t A quo etiam '^aqui. 
lam Ulam argenteam, quam tibi, ac tuis omnibus, perni' 
cioBam esse confido et fimcstam iuturam, '''cui domi tuae 
*>acrariuiii scelerum tuorum constitutum fuit, sciam esse 
pTaemissamT "Tu ut illa diutiua carere possis, quam 
TCnerari, ad caedem proficiacens, solebas 1 A cujus alta- 
ribua saepe istam impiam dextemm ad necem civium 
'ninstulisti ? 

X. Ibis tandem aliquando, quo te jampridem tua ista 
cupiditas eflrenata ac furiosa rapiebat. Neque enim libi 
'*liaec lea aflert dolorem, sed quandam incredibilem volu^ 
ptalem: ad hanc te amentiam natuia peperit, volmliaa 
exercuit, fortnna servavit : niunquMnt tn non modo otium, 
aed ne bellum quidem, "nisi nefarium, concupisti : nactus 
e« ex perditiB, atque ab omni non modo fortuna, verum,GoOgk 

10 nUTlO I. IM L. CATII.n(AK. 

«tiun Bpe derelictia, confiuun improbonon nuuiiim. ^Hm 
ln qua taetitia peTfrneTe 1 quibiu gKudiis ezsnItafaiB 1 qnaH' 
■a in Toliqitste bacchabere, cum in tanto nnmeio toonim 
nwpie avdies Tinim bonnm quemqoun, neqne videbis? 
^Ad hnjos vitse stDdhnn meditad illi annt, qni fenmtDr, 
laborea tui: j&cere humi, non modo hA obeidendnm slu- 
^nm, renmi etiun sd &cinii8 obenndum; vigilare, noa 
B(dum inaidiantem scnmMi maritonun, Tunm etiam ^ois 
oocisonun. *Habea ubi ostentes illam )»seclanm tuam 
patientiam &inis, fngmia, inopise lerum omninm ; quibiu 
te brevi lempore *c<mfectnm esee senties. Taidnm loo- 
feci tum, cum te a consnlatn repuli, nt ^szul potiua ten- 
tare, qnsm eonsul vexare rempubhcam posses: atqne ut 
id, quod easet a te sceleMte ausceptom, iotrociniwm poti- 
ua qnam bellian nominaretni. 

XI. "NiiNC, ut a me, paties conacripti, qnandam prope 
jtiatam patriae quaeiimoniam detestei ac depiecei : ^rci- 
pite, quaeso, dihgentei, quae dicam, et ea pecitus animia 
*estris mentibnsque mandate. Etenim, si mecum patiia, 
qnae mihi vita mea multo eat caiior, si cuncta ttsdia, si 
omnis respubhca sic loquatnr: '"M. TiilU, quid agia! 
tune entn, qnem esse hostem compeiisti: quem ducem 
belh futanun vides : quem exapectaii impeialorem in cae- 
Uis hostium sentis, ouctorem sceleris, principem conjura- 
tioniB, ^'erocatoiem Berforum et cirium perditamm, exire 
patieiia, ut abs te '^n omissus ex inbe, sed immiBsus in 
nrbem esBe Tideatnr? Noime hunc in vincnla daci, non 
lortem rapi, non summo supphcio '^mactari impeia- 
V Quid tandstf impedit te i. ^*Mosne msjoium T At 
) etiam privati in hac repubhca pemicioBoa cives 
morte multarunt. "An legsB, quae de ciTium Romano- 
rum BUppUcio '"rogatae simt? At numqu&m in hac urbe 
ii, qui a repnbUca defeceniiit, ciTiuin jura "tenuorunt 
An inTidiam posteritatis times T '^PraeclsTsm veio populo 
Romsno refen gratiam, qui te, homiaem per te cognitum, 
nulla commendatione majonmi, '*tam mature ad summam 
imperium per orones honarom Kradns extnlit, si piopter,GoOgk 

ad moitei 
bis 1 V Qu 


iBTidiaai, uit alicnjiiB pericnli metniii, Mlutem cmum tai^ 
nun negligis. Sed, ei quis est invidiae metua, nmn es 
veihementius ^ereiibttia ac fortitudiiiis inridia, qoam in- 
ertiae ac nequitiae peitimescenda ? An, ciim bello Taata- 
bitm Italia, TexiU>imliir urbeB, tecta ardebunt: Himt te 
noD existimas ioTidiae incendio conflagraturom T 

.XII. ^f^jg Qgo Mitctissiinis leipidtlicae vacibna, et 
eorum hominum, qui idem sentiuiit, mentibus, panca re- 
spondebo. Ego, %i lioc optimnm iactu judicaTem, patrea 
conscripd., Catilinam morte multari ; ^uniua usunm borae 
^adiatori isti ad -viTendum noii dediasem. Etenim, si 
sommi yiri, et clariBsiini civeB, Satnnuni, et Gracchonim, 
et Flacci, et siqteriomm compiurium sanguine non modo 
ae noa contaminsrunt, sed etiam ^oneslanmt j certe mitu 
veiendum non erat, ne quid, hoc ^parricida civium inter- 
fecto, invidiae nuM in posteiitatem redundaret. Quodsi 
ea mihi maxime impenderet: tamea boc aiiiino sempei 
fiii, ut invidiam Tiitute paxtam, ^riam, non invidiam pu- 
taiem. Quamqaam nonnulli sunt in hoc oidine, qui aut 
ea, qoae iuuninent, non Tideanl ; aut ea, quae vident, dis- 
Bimolent : ^qui spem Catilinae moUibus sententiis alue- 
tunt, conjuratioDemque nascentem non ciedeodo conobo- 
raTBmnt. Quorum auctoritaiem secuti multi, non aolum 
improbi, Teium eiiam imperiti, *Bi in bunc animadvertis- 
aem, crudelitei et '"legie factum esse diceient. Nuiu: 
intelligo, ei isle, quo intendit, in Manliana castra peire- 
nerit, neminem tam alultum fore, qui non videat conjura- 
tionem esse factam; uemiaem tam improbnm, qni non 
fateatui. Hoc autem uno interfecto, intelligo hanc rei- 
pnblicae pestem "pauilisper leprimi, non in peipemum 
comprimi posse. Quodsi ^'ae ejeceiit, secnmqne suoa 
ednxerit, et eodem ceteias undique collectos naufragos ag- 
gregaTerit ; ezstinguetui, atqne delebitoi non modo >%aec 
tam adulta leipnbUcae pestis, veium etiam sliipa ac se- 
men maloium omnium. 

XlII. ETBNni '*jamdiu, patres consciipti, in his pericn- 
Ija eonjuratioiiis insidiisque Tergsmur : Bed neacio '^iio,GoOgk 


pacto omnium BCBlemm, ac veteiia furom et aadaeia« nw- 
turitas in nostri consutatOb tempua enipit. Quodsi 'ex 
lanto latiocinio iate imns toUetui; Tidebimur fonaaae ad 
breve qnoddam tempus cura et metn esBe Televati : peri- 
culum autem residebit, et erit iit(.lusum penitus ^ Teni^ 
utque in visceribus reipnblicae. Ut eaepe homiaes aegii 
morbo gravi, com ^aeBtn febrique jadantur, si aquam ge- 
lidam biberint, primo relevari videntur ; deinde multo gra- 
vius vehementiusque afflictantui : sic bic motbua, *qui est 
in repqblica, relevatus iatius poen^vehemeittius vivia re- 
liqnis ingTaveecet. Quaie, paties conscripti, secedant im- 
probt, aecemant se a bonis, unum in locum congregentur, 
muro denique, id quod aaepe jam dixi, aecemantur a no- 
bis, desinant insidiari doini suae consuli, 'circumBtare 
tribunsi praetoria urbani, "obsidete cum gladiis cuiiam, 
''malleolos et faces ad inflaimnandahi uibem comparare. 
Sit denique incriptum in fronte nniuscujusque civis, ^uid 
de repnblica seuUat. PoUiceor hoc vobis, patres con- 
scripti, tantam in nobis consulibus fore diligentiam, tan- 
tam in vobis auctoritatem, tautam in equitibus RomaniB 
virtutem, tantam in omnibua bonia consensionem, nt Ca- 
tUinae piofectione omnia patefacta, illustrata, *oppTeBsa, 
vindicata esse videatis. Hisce otniiubus, Gatilina, '"cnm 
enmma reipublicae salute, et cum tua peste ac pemicie, 
cumque eorum eiitio, qui se tecnm omni scelere parrici- 
dioque junxerunt, pioficiscere ad impitnn bellum ac nefa- 
rium. Tum tu, Jupiter, qui iisdem, quibus haec urba 
"auBpiciis a Romulo cb constitutus ; quem Statoiem hujna 
atbis atque impetii veie nominamua : buuc, et hujus so- 
cios a tuis aris ceterisque templis, a lectis uibU ac moe- 
nibus, a vita' fortunisque civium onmium arcebis : et om- 
nes inimicos bonoium, hostea patriae, latrones Italiaa. 
'^scelerum foedere inter se ac nefaria societate conjimc 
in». aetemiB snppliciis vivos mortuosque mactabia.,GoOgk 






I. ^ANDEM aliqoando, ^uiritea, L. Catilinaii], fi^ 
rentem sudacia, ^scelua aohelaiiieiii, peBtem patiiaA 
uefarie molientem, robis atque h.uic Mibi feirum flam- 
mamque ^minitaDtem, ex urbe ^el ejecimus, vel emi- 
aimuB, Tel ipsum egredieatem ^verbis proaecuti sumus. 
"Abiit, excessit, erasit, enipit. Nulla Jam pemicies *a 
monstro illo atque prodigio moeuibua ipais iatra moenia 
comparabitui. Atque hunc qnidem unum, hnjus beUi do- 
mestici ducem, aiae controTeTsia Ticimua. Non enim 
jam inter latera nostia ''teica iUa voTsabitur: "non in 
campo, '*non in foro, non in curia, non deniqne intra 
domesticos parietes pertimescemus. '^Loco ille motus 
est, cum est ex uibe depulsns. Palam jam cnm hoste, 
ouUo impediente, ^'bellum justum geremus. Sine dubio 
perdidimua bominem, magnificeque Ticimns, cnm illum 
ex occultis insidiis ia apertum latrocinium coDJecinnis. 
■^uod rero noa cruentum mucronem, nt Tolnit, extulit, 
qnod viTis npbis egressus est, quod ei feimm de mai^as 
eitorsimus, quod incolumes ciTes, quod stantem uAem 
leliqait : qnanto tandem illnm moerore afflictum esse et 
piofligatom pntatis? Jacet ille nunc prostratus, Quiri- 
tes, et se ^«perculsum alque abjectum esse sentit, et re- 
torquet ocnlos profecto saepe ad lianc uibem ; qnam ez 
•uia fancibns ereptam esse lugel: qnae quidem laetari 



piihi Tidetor, quod tamam peMam aToimieiit forssqaa 

II. At bI qfOM eM talia, >quales esse omnes oportebat, 
qnl itt tioc ipeo, in quo exultat et triumphat oratia mes, 
me TeliemeDter accuset, quod tam capitalem hostem non 
comprehenderim potiua, quam emiBerim : lum est ista mea 
cnlpa, Quirites, sed tempoium. Inteiemtom esae L. Ca> 
tilinam, 'et graTiBaimo auppEcio afiectom, jampridem opt»- 
tebal : idque a me et moa majoTnm, et hujus imperii 
sereritu, et reapublica postulabat. Sed quam mnlb» 
fnJBse putatis, ^qui, quae ego defenem, nou ciedeient ? 
qnam multos, *qiii proptei stultitiam non pularent! quam 
mnltOB, qui etiam defenderentl quam multos, qui proptei 
improbituem farerentT 'Ac si, snblato illo, depeUl a 
Tobia omne periculnm judicarem ; jampridem ego L. Ca- 
tilinam non modo inTidiae meae, verum etism Titae pe- 
riculo BQBtulissem. Sed cnm Tiderero, "ne Tobia quidem 
onm^nu t» etiam tum probata, ai illnm, ut eiat nierituB, 
morte multasaem, fore, nt ejua socioa inTidia oppressoB 
petsequi non possem: rem huc deduzi, ut tum palam 
pugnare trassetis, cum hostem aperte Tidoretis. Quera 
quidem ego hoetem, Quintea, 'quam Tehementw foris 
use timendmn putem, licet hinc intelligatis, qood illad 
etiun iDoleste fero, quod ex uibe parum comitetoa ezie- 
rit. Utinam iUe omnes secum suaa copiaa eduxiBBet! 
"Tongilium mihi eduxit, ^quem amare in praetexut coepe- 
rat : '"FubEcium et Munacium, quorum aes alienum c<hi* 
tiactum in popina nullum reipublica« motum afferre pote- 
rat; ^ireliquit quoa Tiros? quanto alieno aere, quam ts- 
lentee, quam nobiles ? 

III. iTAquB ego illura exercitom, '^>rae Gallicsaia 
logiombns, et hoc delectn, quem in ^ro Plceno et Gal- 
lico Q. Metellue hsbuit, et hia copiia, quae a Dobis qoo 
tidie GomparantuT, magnopere conienmo; i^collectum ex 
senibuB desperatis, ex agresli luxuria, ex rusticis decoo- 
toribus, ex iis, qui '^radimoma deserere, qoam illum ex- 
•tcitnm, malnenmt: quibuB ego non modo ai '■scimb,GoOgk 


«ancitds wwtri, Tonim otitun si edictom fnetoim oates* 
dero, concideBt 'Hoa, qnoa Tid«o Tolitare in foro, quoi 
Btara ad curiam, qnos eiiEim *is senatum Tenire: iqni 
nitent nngnentis, *qui fnlgent parpura, m^em eecmn *snos 
mmtos edmdsset: qoi si hic peimmnent, mementote UHt 
tam exercitom iUimi eese nobis, qtum hos, qni exeTcitom 
deseraenmt, pntimescendos. Atqne hoc etism aimt timen- 
di m^is, quod, quid cogitent, me scire sentiunt, neqne 
tamen pennorentnT. 'Video, cui Apulia eit attributa, qni 
faabeat Etnniam, qm agnim Picenum, qni Gallinim, qni 
■ibi hu urbanaa iiwidiaa caedia atqne inoendiorum de- 
pi^KMcerit. Onmia ^superioTis noctis coosilia ad me de- 
lata eese eenttnnt : patefeci in senatn heslenio die : Ca- 
taioA ipee pertimuit, profiigit : hi quid exspectant ? *Nae 
iUi Tehementer erTaut, si iUam meom pristinam lenitatem 
perpetoam apennt futmam. 

IV. Qnon exspectari, jam sum asBecutns, nt tos om- 
nea factam esse apeite conjurationem contra rempublicam 
Tideretis. *Nisi Tero si quia eet, qni i^atilinae similea 
cnm Catilina sentire non putet. Non est jam lenltati 
locns: seTcritatem res ipsa flagitat. Vnmn edun imnc 
concedsm : exeant, proficiscuitur, ne patiantni "desideiio 
ani Cadlinam misemm tabescere : demonstrBbo iter : Anre- 
lia via profectiw est : si acceleraie Tolent, ad Tesperam con- 
Beqnentur. O fortunatam rempublieam, '^i quidem hanc 
■entinam faujus nibiB ejecerit ! Uno tnehercule Catilina 
**exhai]eto, releTata mihi et recTeata respublica Tidelur. 
Qnid eium mali aut sceleris fingi aat excogitari potest, quod 
non ille conceperit T Quia tota Italia >*Teneficus, quis gla- 
diator, quis latro, qnis sicarins, qnis parricida, "quis lesta- 
mentonim eubjector, ^*qnis circnmscripUir, qnis ganeo, 
tTqnie nepoB, quis adnlter, quae mulier infamis, quie cor- 
nptor juTentutJB, quie comptns, qnis perdituB inTeniri 
potest, qni se cum Catilina non familiarisfiime Tizisse 
lateatnrT ^^Qnae caedcs per hosce annoB oine illo factt 
est 5 Qood nefarium etaptum non per illum ? "Jam Tero 
qou tanls in nllo umquaiu homine joTentutia illeeebr» 



^ fiiit qnuUa in illo ? qm aliis fiiictum libidimun, aliis nmp- 

^^ Um parentum, non modo impellando, Tenmi etiam ftdju- 

'sf rsndo, pollicdwtur. Nnnc rero quara subito, ncm Boluni 

V^^ ex nrbe, Temm eiiam ez agris, ingentem numenmi per- 

^ ditoium hominnm coUegerat? Nemo, non modo Romae, 

S^ sed nec nllo in angulo totina IloUBe, oppressno Bere alie- 

no fuit, quem noa ad hoc incredibile aceleria foedos 


T. Atqde, nt ejua diversa studia ^in diaaimili rstione 
perapiceio posaitia, nemo eat ^in ludo gladiatorio paullo 
&d facimia audacior, qui ae non intimum Catilinae esse 
fate&tur: ^emo in acena levioi et nequior, qui bs non 
ejusdem prope eodalem fuisBe commemoret. Atque idem 
tamen, *etupiarum et scelenuu exercitatione asBuefactus, 
'frigore, et fame, et Biti, ac TigiliiB perferendis, fortis ab 
istis pisedicabatur ) 'cum industriae eobBidia, atque instru- 
menta Tirtutis, in libidine audaciaque consumerentur. 
Hunc Tsro si sui fiierint comites secutij si ex urbe 
exierint deaperalorum hominum flagitioai greges ; ^O no9 
beatos, O lempublicam foitunatam, piaeclaram Undeni 
conaulatus mei ! Nou enim jam sunt mediociOB homiaum 
■Ltbidinea, noa humHuae sc toleiandae audaciae: nihil 
cogitaut, nisi caedea, nisi inceudia, nisi i^inas : patii- 
monia sna piofudenmt: "fortunas suas abhgurierunt: les 
eoB jampiidem, '"fides doficeie nupei coepit ; eadem ta- 
meu illa, quae eiat in abundantia, libido permanet. Quodai 
in Tino et alea "comissationes soium quapreient, eBseni 
iUi quidem desperandi, eed tamen essent ferendi. Hoc 
Tero quia feire possit, inertes homineB foiCissimis Tiiis 
insidiaii, Btultissimos piudentisaimia, ^'ebriosos eobriis 
donuientes vigilantibua ? Qui i^mihi *^cubautes in coa 
Tiviis, vino languidi, '"confecti cibo, •*seitia ledimiti, 
ungueutiB obliti, "eiuctant sennonibiis suis 'caedem bono- 
rum, atque urbia incendia. Quibna ego confido impen- 
dere "fatum aliquod; et poenaa jamdiu impiobitati, no- 
quitiae, sceleri, libidini debitaa, aut inatare jam plane, aut 
certo appiopinquare. Quoe si meua conaulatus, quoaiam,GoOgk 

ouTio II. m L. ci.TU.urui. IT 

•^aaxaie non potest, snstiileiit ; 'dou brere nescia qnod tem- 
pnSiSedmuhasaecuUpiop^BiilreipnblicaB. NuUaBsteaim 
natdo, qusm peHimescajans : nuUus Tei, qni bellum populo 
Romano facere possit. Onmia sunt extema 'uniuB yir- 
tute teira marique pacata: domesticnm bellnm manet; 
iiitus insidiae snnt: intus inclusum pericnlum eet: intua 
est hoBtis : cum luxuria nubis, cnm amentia, cmn scelere 
cett&ndum est. Huic ego me bello, Quirites, profiteoi 
ducem : suscipio inimicitias hominum peiditomm. ^u&e 
Banari poterunt, quacunque ratione sanabo: quae rese- 
canda eruut, non patiar ad pemiciem civitatis manere. 
Froinde aut ezeant, aut quieBcant: ant, u et in mibe, et 
in eadem mmt* pennaneut ; ea, quae merentur, ezspec- 

VI. At eliam snnt, Quirites, qni dicant, ^ me in ez- 
eilium ejectnm esse Cadlinam. Qnod ego si Terbo asse- 
qui possem, btos ipsoa c^icerem, qui hsec loquuntur. 
*Homo Tidelicet timidus et pennodeBtus vocem consulia 
f«re n(»i poluit : simul atque ire in exsilium jussus est, 
paruit, "irit. Hestemo die, cum domi meae paene inter- 
fectus essem, senatnm in aedem Joris St^ris Toc&ri : 
rem omnem ad patres conscriptos detuli. ''Quo cum 
Catilina Teuisset, quis enm senator appfillarit T quis salu- 
taTJt? ^uis deniqne ita aspexit, ut peiditum ciTem, ac 
non potiuB ut unportunissinium hostem ? Quin etiam 
piincipes ejos ordinis partem illam snbseUionuB, ad qnam 
ille accesaeiat, nudam atque iaanem leliquerunt. Hic 
ego *Tehemeiis ille consol, qui Terbo ciTes in ezsiliinti 
ejicio, quaesivi a Catilina, an noctumo conrentn apud M. 
Laecam fiiissel, necne. Oum ille '"bomo andaciBsimas, 
coDBciemia conTictus, primo reticaiBset: patefeci cetera. 
'^Quid ea nocte egisaet, qnid '*in proximam constituisset, 
qnemadmodum esset ei ratio totius belli descripta, edocui. 
i^Cum haesitaret, cum teneietur ; quaesiTi, quid dubitaTet 
eo proficiaci, qno jampridem paxarat : cum arma, *cHin se- 
corea, cum fasces, cum tubas, cnm signa miliiaTia, cum 
Aquilam illam aigenteam, eni ille etiam aacianum aoele-,GoOgk 


nim diKni aim foeent, KiTam mm pcMiniMaiii. ^In es* 
■Uium ejiciebam, qnem jam ingreasmn ene in beUom n- 
dcbwm ? Etenim, ciedo, Muilin> iate eentuiio, ^qni in 
agro Fesnlano cwtra poauit, bellnm pt^inlo Romano aiio 
nomiM indixit : et illa caatra nmic ntm Catilinim ducem 
ezapeoiaiit: et tlle, cijecta in ezailimn, i 
in Imec caatra conferet. 

VII. coNDiTioiiEK miaeram, nen mc 
Tenm etiam conaerrandaa reipoUicae t Nunc, si L. Cs- 
ttlma, GimaiUiB, laboribiu, peiicnlia meia 'circmnchuiM 
ac detulitatiia, tubito pertimueiit, sententiam mutaverit, 
desenerit ■nos, couulium bellmn racinndi «l^ecerit, ez 
hoc cnrau aceleriB ctbeBi, iter ad Aigam atqne in exsilium 
couTerterit : nou iUe a me ^poliatos amiia andaciae, noB 
obatupeiactua ao^ perterritns mea diligentia, non de spe 
conatnqne depiUsna, aed *indnnnatat, innocens, in exai- 
lium ejectns a conaule vi et minia, ease dicetut : et enmt, 
qui iUum, si hoc fecerit, non inq^robum, sed misemm ; 
me noa diligentisumnm consnlem, aed cradelissimnm tjr- 
nimnm exiBtimaii Tclint. ''Est mihi tanli, Qnirites, btt- 
jns inTidiae falsae atque iniquae tempestatem snbire, dnm- 
modo a vtrijia hnjua horribilis belli ac nefarii periculum 
depdlatur. Dicatur sane ejectus esse a me, dnmmodo 
eat in exsilium. Sed mihi ctedite, non eet iturus, Nnm- 
quam ego a diia iBunortalibna optabo, Quiiites, inridiae 
mese leTandae cansa, ut L. Catilinam dacere exercitnm 
hoatium, *alqne m annis Tolitare andiatia : sed triduo ta- 
men audietis; multoqoe magiB illad tiineo, ne mihi sit 
*inTidiosum aliquBndo, quod illnm emiserim podus, qnsm 
quod ejecerim. Sed ciun Bint bomines, qui illnm, '^mn 
profectus sit, ejectum esBe dicant, iidem, si interfectUB 
eseet, quid diceient t Quamqiuun iati, qni Catilinam Mas- 
oiliam ire dictitant, ntm (am hoc quenmtm, quam reren- 
tui. Nemo est istoram >'t^m misericora, qoi illum ntm 
ad Msnlium, qnam ad MBsailtenBeB iie malit. Ille aittem, 
ai mebercole '%oc, quod agit, nunquam ante cogitassei, 
tamen UaocinBotem se inteifici msllet, qnam tnmlirm 

«KAYIO n. Dt t~ CAmUtAM. M 

rimTB. Nano rtao, rum «i aihil adhuc pruter iprini 
TOlimiAtem oogitationemque sVciderit, niri quod 'viri* no- 
bis Koma profeGta8 eat ; optemus potiua, ut eat iu e^ 
ulium, quam qaeramar. 

VIII. Sbd cur tamdia de uno hoste loquimur: et d« 
oo lioste, qui jam fuetur ae esae koatem ; et qoem, quia, 
quod semper volui, muius 'interest, uon timeo: de hiS) 
qui dissimulant, qui Romae Temanent, qui Dobiacum aant, 
nihil dicimus ? Quos quidem ego, ri uUo modo fieri poa- 
flit, %(m tam ulcisci studeo, qutan sanare, et ipaos pl&- 
caie reipublicae; ueque, id quue fieri non possit, bl me 
audiie volent, intelligo. Exponam enim *obis, Qmiitea, 
*ex quibua generibus hcKninum istae ct^Hae comparentur ; 
Meinde aingulis medicinam CMiailii atque orationis meaei 
si qoiun potero, afieram. Unom geuus est eorum, qui, 
^agno in aere alieno, Bwjores etiam paaseaaiones habent : 
quarum amofe adducti, diasolri nuUo modo poesunt. ''Ho- 
Tum h<»ninam species eat-honestissinia ; (sunt «um locu- 
pletes :} *Toluuias vero, et cauaa impudentisrima. 'Tn 
ajpris, tu aedificiis, tu argento, tu familia, tu rebus onmi- 
l^ oniatus et copiosus sis: et dubitea de possessione 
'Metrahere, acquiTeie ad lidemt Quid enim exspectasT 
bellum ? quid ? ergo, in vaatatione omnium, tuaa possesu- 
cmeB "sacrosanctas futuraa polaa ? '^aa tabulaa novaa I 
enant, qoi iatas a Catitina exspeclsnt. >^Meo faeneficio 
tabulae novae pioferentm, verum auctionariae. Neque 
enim iati, qui posaesaiones babent, alia ratione ulla aalri 
esse possnnt. i*Quod ri matoriua faceie voluissenC, '^ne* 
que, (id quod stultiasimum est,) certaie cum usuris liu- 
ctitauB piaedioTum; '^ locupletioiibus his et melioribus 
civibus oteremur. Sed hosce homines miniitia ^ao pei. 
timescendos, quod aut deduci de sententia poeaunt; aut, 
■i pemaoebunt, "magis mihi ridentur vota factnri contni 
fempnblicam, qoam arma laturi. 

IX.^ALTBBnM genus est eoium, (lui, qnamquam pie* 
tpuntni aera alieno, "dominationem tamen exapectant : ra- 
nnn potiri volnnt; honores, qnos quiea republica desp» 

20 OBATIO n. Ilf L. C*TIL1I(AH. 

lant, peitiiTbata conseqiii se posae sibitrantnr. >Quibii9 Iioe 
praecipieQiliim videtnr, lutum scilicet et iden), quod ceCe- 
Tis omnibus, %t desperent, se id, qnod conantur, con- 
sequi posae : ^rimum omnium me ipsum Tigilue, adesse, 
providere reipublicae : deinde *niBgnos animos esse ia 
bonis viris, magnam concordiam, maximam multitudinem, 
magnas praeterea copias miUtum : deos denique inunortales 
huic invicto popdo, clansnmo imperio, pulcherrimae urbi, 
contra *lantam vim acelATis, praesentes atixilium esse 
laturos. Quodsi jam etnt id, quod cum aummo furore 
cupiunt, adepti ; nmn iUi in cinere urbis, et sanguine 
civium, ^quae mente conscelerata ac nefaita concnpienuit, 
consuies se, ac dictatores, aut ettam reges sperant fiits- 
rosT Non videnl id se cupere, quod si adepti fuerint, 
fugitivo alicui, aut gladiatori ^concedi necesse sitT Ter- 
tinm genus ^est aetate jam afiectum, eed tamen exerci- 
tatione rotniBtum : quo ex genere est ipse Manlius, cui 
nunc Catilina succedit. Hi sunt homines ex iis ccdoniis, 
*qua3 Sulla constituit ; "Npias ego nniversas civium esse 
optimorum et fortiesimorum Tirorum sentio: s6d !amen 
Iii snnC coloni, qui se in insperatis repentiitisque pecuniis 
sumtuoBioB insolentiusque jactarunt. Hi, dum aedificant, 
'^tamquam beati ; ^om praediis, lecticis, familiis mag 
nis, conviviis apparatis delectantur; in tantum aes aJienom 
inciderunt, ut, si '^salri esse velint, SuUa sit iia ab in> 
feris excitandus : qui etiam nonnullos agrestes, ^^homines 
tenues atque egentes, in eandem illam '^em rapinantm 
Tetenim impnlenmt. Qiios ego utrosque, Quirites, in 
eodem genere ptaedatonun direptommque pono. Sed eos 
hoc moneo : desinant furere, ac "proscriptionee et dicta- 
turas cogitare. "Tantus enim iUorum tempotum dolor 
inustos est civitati, ut jam ista non modo homines, sed 
'%ie pecudes quidem Tni>ii passntae esse videantar. 

X. "Qdartum genue est sane varium, et miatum, et 
tnrbulentnm : ^ui jampridem premmitur ; qui nunquam ' 
emergent : qui partim inettia, *'parlim male gerendo nti- 
godo, paitim etiam mmtibus, ^n retere aere alieDO t»,GoOgk 


villaBt : qni 'TuUmoiuu, jodiciiB, pn»criptiofi9nu bcnKnmi 
def«tigati, peimolti et ex oibe, et ex agtia ae in ilU 
cMtn GOBierro dicnntuT. Hosce ego noa tam militM 
Bcres, quam ^infitiuorea lentoa ewe arbitHH'. Qui luiiiii- 
nes, ^jjwiinuin, *ai ataie non poanmt, conmant :awd ita, ut 
non modo civilaa, eed ne Ticini quidem pioxiiBi sentianL 
Nam illud non inteUiga, quamobiem, *8i viTeie honeato 
non poaaimt, peiire tyipiter Telint: aut cm minore do- 
lore peiituios se cum multis, quam ai aoli peieant, atbi- 
trentur. Quintum genus est parricidanim, aioaTioruiii, 
deuique omnium faciooiosoium : quoa •go a Catiliua *iu>n 
revoco. Nam neque diTcUi ab eo poasnnt: et pereant 
aane in labociuia, quoniam suut ita multi, nt eos capere 
carcer non posait. 'Postremum autem geniu est, non 
aolum numero, rerum etiam genere ipso atque Tica; "quod 
pr<^um eat CatiliBae, de ejns delectu, immo reio >de 
complexu ejus ac sinu : quos pexo capillo, nitidoi, aut 
imbeibes, aut '°bene baifaatos TidetiB : "manicatia et ta- 
laiibua tunicis ; '^elis BmictOB, non togia : quorem omnia 
industiia vitae, et vigilandi labor in >^telncania coeuia 
expromitui. In bis gregibus oumes aleatorea, ooinea adul- 
teri, omnes impun impudicique versantur: U pueri taoi 
lepidi ac delicati, uou solum cantare et Baltare, aed etiam 
aicas vibrare, et Bpargere Tenena didicerunt: qui niBi 
exennt, nisi pereunt, etiamsi Catiliua perierit, scitote hoo 
in iepiU)Iica ^^Beminarium Oatilinarum futurum. Verum- 
tamen quid sibi isti miseii Tolunt ? Quo pacto iUi ''Apen- 
ninuin, atqne illas pniinas ac niTes perfereiLt 1 Nisi id- 
circo se facilius luemem toleratuToa putant, quod "oudi io 
COUTiviis saJtare didjceiunt. 

XI. O BEI.I.UII "magnopere pertimescendum, cum hano 
sit habituius Catilina- scoitoium cohorlem piaetoriam! 
Insbuite nunc, Quirites, conlra has tam praeclaraa Cati- 
liuae copias veBtrs ptaesidia, TestroBqne exercitua: et 
primum gladialoi) illi '^confecto et saucio consules im- 
peiatoreaque Testioa opponite : deinde, contra i>illam oKOf 
Snfftpm ^ecum w detHlitataoi oiaown, Smm Kitiw,GoOgk 

33 nuno ii. i« v. mtilihah. 

luliae itc robni oducite. *Jam Tero nibes col( itanuD, 
ac mnnicipia, respondebtmt Catilinae cumuliB Bilreatribns. 
Neqne Tero cetenu copiaa, ^mamenta, praeBidi& Testni, 
oim illius latroms inopia atque egestate confeire debeo. 
Sed si, omitaia his rebus omnibne, ^juibua nos auppedita^ 
mur, eget ille, seaatti, eqnitibua Romauis, populo, uibe, aera- 
rio, ^rectigalibuB, cuncia Italia, proTiuciis omnibus, exte- 
lis nationibus : si bis rebus omissis, ipsas causas, xpjae 
inter se confligunt, 'contendere Telimus ; ei eo ipso, 
quam Talde illi jaceant, intelligero possumus. Ex hac 
enim parte pndor pugnat, illinc *petulantia : hinc pudicitia, 
iHinc stnprom: hinc lides, illinc fraodatio: hinc pietas, 
iOinc scehis : hinc 'constantia, ilhnc furoi: hinc hones- 
tas, illinc turpitudo: hinc "continentia, illinc libido: ds 
niqne aeqoitas, temperantia, fortitudo, prudentia, Tirtutes 
onmes, certanl cnm ioiquitate, cum luxuria, cnm ignaTia, 
Ctun temeritate, cnm Titiis omnibus : postremo ^copiao 
cum egestate, '"bona rado cum perdita, mens sana cum 
amentia, bona denique apes cmn oixmium rertun despe- 
ratione confligit. la knjusmodi certaniine bc praelio, 
noime, etiamsi ^'hoininum studia deficiant, dii ipsi im- 
mortales cogent ab his praeclarissimis Tirtutibus tot et 
tanta Titia superari? 

XII. Qdae cmn ita sint, Quirites, Toa '^uemadmodmn 
Jam antea Testra tecta cnstodiis Tigiliisque defendite : 
mihi, ut ''urbi sinii veatro motn, ac sine uUo tnraultu, 
satis eaaet praesidii, consultum ac proTisum est. Coloni 
omnss "muuicipesque Testri, certiores a me facti <^e 
hac noctuma escursione Catilinae, facile urbes suas 
finesque defendent: gladialorea, quam sibi ille maximam - 
manum et certissimam fore putavit, '"quamquam meliore 
■nimo simC, quam pars patriciorum, potestate tamen nos- 
tra contioebnntur. ^^Q. MeteUus, quem ego proapiciens 
hoc in agrum Gallicanum Ficenumque praemisi, '%ut op-. 
primet hominem, aut omnes ejus motus conatuaque pro- 
lnbet»t. ^^Rehquis autem de rebus conslitnendis, matur 
tndis, agendia, jam ad BenBtnin referemns, qnem vocari,GoOgk 

&RATIO II.. 19 ■> CX-tlLlSiM. 3S 

fidelis. 'NonCillos, qni in mbe remuLrcrinit, mque adeo 
qiii costTK uibis salutBin, onmiuinqae Testrfim, in -nrbe s 
Cadlina relicti simt, quamqnam simt hostea, tamen, qnia 
iiati Bunt dves, %ionitoa eos etiam aique etiam voio. 
Mea lenitas adhuc ai cui ^lutior vfea est, hoc exspec- 
tavit, ut id, quod latebat, erumpeiet. ^Quod reliqaum est, 
jam non pussiun obliTisci, meam hanc eese polriam, me 
bomm esse consulera ; mihi aut cum his Tivendum, aut 
pro his ease moriendum. I^ullus est portae custos : nol- 
]us insidiator viae : si qui exiie volimt, consulere aibi 
possnnt ^Qui vero in urbe se coinmoverit, cujus ego 
^on modo factum, sed inceptum nllum conatumve .contra 
patriam deprehendero : sentiet in hac urbe esse consalea - 
vigilantes, esse egregios ''magistratus, esse fortem sena- 
tum, esse arma, esse carcerem, quem vindicem nefario- 
Tum ac manifestorum ecelerum majores nostri esse to- 

XIII. Atqd£ baec omnia sic agentor, Quirites, nt res 
maziinae minimo motu, pericula summa nullo tumultu, bel- 
lum intestinum ac domesticum, post hominum memoriam 
crudelissimum ac maximum, %ne uno togato duce et im- 
peralore, sedetur. Quod ego sic adminisirabo, Quirites, 
nt, si ullo raodo fieri poterit, ne improhus quidem quis- 
quam in hac urbe poenam sui sceleris sufferat. Sed si 
vis manifestae audaciae, si impendens patriae pericnlom 
me necessario de hac animi lenitate *deduxerit ; illud pro- 
fecto perficiam, quod in tanto et tam insidioso bello vix 
optandnra videtui, ut ne quis bonus inteieat, pancorumque 
poena vos jara omnes salvi esse possitis. Quae quidem 
ego neque mea prudentia, neque humanis consiliis fietua 
polliceoi vobis, Quiritee ; sed multia, et non dubiis deo- 
mm immortalium "'significatlonibus, quibus ego ducibus 
in hanc spem sententiamque snm ingressus : qui jam non 
procul, nt qoondam solebant, "ab extemo hoste atque 
longiaqjna, sed hic '^praesentes suo nmnine aiqne anxilio 
aua templa atqne mbis tecta defendunt : ^^qaoa voa, Qm- 
rites, precari, venerari, atque imploiare debetis, ut, quam,GoOgk 


ub«n inlclMmiiMiD, floraBtiuimun. potniliaBuiiuiiqa* 
•SM nJuenint, Inuic aiimibu* boBtium copiis tcrm utaxi- 
qna siqMntiB, a perditiasifiKHnm civinio iwEuiQ loelere 

:„-,:., ..Goo^ll^ 





I. RxnmBLicAM, Qulrites, Titsnique omnium TeBtrOo^ 
■bona, foitmas, conjugeB, liberosqne TeBboa, atque 'boc do< 
nuciliiim claxiBsinu imperii, fortauatiBBiinaiii pDlcheTnmmiii* 
que mbeiu, *hodienio die, deorum immorUlium summo 
erga Toa amore, laboribua, conaOiiB, periculiaque meis, 
ex flamma atque feiro, ac paene ex faucibus foti erep- 
tam, et vcAua coDserrstam ac lestitutam Tidetis. *Et, ai 
non minus Tiriiis jucundi Uque *iUusties sunt ii dies, qul- 
buB conaerTBmnT, quam illi, quibns nascimur; quod aala- 
tis ceita laetitiB BBt, nascendi inceita conditio : et quod 
^sine Bensn nascimnr, cmn Toluptate aerramur: profecto, 
quoniam ^um, qui Iiauc uibem condidit, ad deos im- 
moitales *beneToIentia famaque Bustulimns ; eBss apnd voa 
posieiosque Testios in honore debebit '''is, qui eandem banc 
urbem' conditam ampUficatamque Benravit. Nam toti urbi, 
iitemplJs, delubris, tectis ac moenibus Bubjectos prop« 
jam ignes cilcnnMlatosque restiiiziinuB ; iidemque gladios in 
rempublicam destrictos retudimus, mncronesque eoium ab 
jugulis TeBtria dejecimus. '^uae quoniam in senatn illns- 
trata, patefacts, compeita snnt pei me, vobis jam ezpo- 
nam bieritei, Quiritea, ut et quanta, et '^juom manifesta, 
at qua ladone inTestigata et compiehenaa Bint, vos, mi 
ignontiB, >*ex actis scire posaitis. Fiiitciplo, '"ot Catfli* 



niL panci» ante diebns eropit ex urbe, cum Bceloris ■n^ 
BocioB, hujusce nefaril belli acerrimos dncea, Rom&« i«- 
liquiaset ; semper vigilavi, et providi, Quiiitea, quemad- 
modum in tantis et tam Bbsconditis iiuidiiB Balvi eBae 

II. N*M tum, 'cum ex uibe Catilin&m ejictebam, (non 
enim jam veieor hujns veibi iariiliam, cnm ^la iuagis 
sit timeoda, quod vivDS ezierit,) sed tum, cutn illum ^x- 
tenninari volebam, aut leliqnsm conjnratomm manum ai- 
mul exituram, aut eoa, qui restitlssent, infirmos Bine illo 
ac debiles fote putabam. *At ego, ut vidi, quos m&ximo 
ftiToie et Bcelere esae inflsmmaloa sciebam, eos nobtS' 
cnm esse, et Romae leitiBjtaisse ; in eo omnes dies noc- 
tesque conamnsi, ut, 'quid sgerent, quid molirentur, seuti- 
rem ac viderem : ut, quoniam auribua veatris, propter in- 
credibilem magnitudinem sceleris, minorem fidem fsceret 
orstio mea, *iem iia compreheuderem, ut tum demum 
anitnis aaluti Teatrae provideretis, citm ocitlis maleficium 
ipsttm videretis. Itaque ''ut comperi, legatos AUobiogum, 
^elli Transalpini, et tumulcus GalHci excitandt causa, 
■a P. LeiUulo esse soUicitatoa, eosque ia Galliam ad suos, 
cires, '%odemque itineie, "cum liteiis mandalisque, ad 
Catilinam esse missos, comitemque iis adjunctum Vul- 
turcium, atque ttuic datas esse ad Catilinam literaa ; facul- 
tatem mihi oblatam putavi, ut, quod eral diflicillimum, 
quodque ego sempei '^ptabam a liiis immortalibus, tota 
res non solum a. me, sed etism a senatu, el a vobia ma 
nifesto deprehenderetur. Icaque hestemo dte '^L. Flac 
cum et C. Poratinum praelores, fortissimos aCque aman- 
tissimos reipublicae viros, ad me vocavi : rem onmem 
exposui : quid fieri placeret, ostendi. llli auCem, "qui 
omoia de republica praeclara atque egregia sentirent, sino 
Teciisatione, ac sine nlla mora negotium susceperunt, et, 
tscum advesperascetet, occulte ad '^ntem Mulrium pet- 
Tenerunt, atque, ibt, in proximis villis, ita '''bipaitito fue- 
runt, ut Tiberis incer eoa, et pons interesset. Eodem autcm 
et ipsi, sine cujusqnam auBpicioue, multos fortea viros,GoOgk 


«dtaxenmt, et ego >ex praefectora ReatinB comphirei de- 
lectos adolesceates, quonim opera in repubUcs assidue 
utor, praesidio cum gladiis iniBerani. Interim ^ertia fero 
/igilia exacta, cmn jam pontem MulTium ^magno comi- 
tatu legati Allobrogum ingredi inciperent, imaque Vultnr- 
cius, fit in eo9 impetus : educuntur et ab Ulis gladii, et 
B nosttia : les erat praetoribus nota aolia : ignorabatur a 

III, TcM, Interventu Pomtini atque Flacci, pugna, quae 
erat commissa, sedatur. Littetae, quaecunque erant in 
eo comitatu, integris signia, praetoribus traduntur : *ipei, 
comprehensi, ad me, ^cum jam dilucesceret, deducuntur. 
Atque borum omnium scelerum ^improbissimum machi- 
natorem Cimbrum Gabinium, statim ad me, nihiidum 
suspicantem, TOcavi. Deinde item arceasitur L. Statilius, 
et post eum C. Cethegus ; tardissime autem 'Lentuha 
renit, *credo quod litteris dandis, '"praeter consuetudinem, 
proxima nocte rigilarat. Cum tsto summis ac clarissi- 
mis hujns civitatis Tiris, qui, audita re, frequentes ad me 
mane couTenerant, lilteras a me prius aperiri, quam ad 
aenatum ^^deferri, placeret ; ne, ^'ai nibil esset inventum, 
temere a me tantus tumultus injectus ciritali videretur; 
negavi me esse factorum, ut de periculo publico non ad 
consiiium publicum rem integram deferrem. Etenim, 
Quiritea, si ea, ^^qnae erant ad me delata, reperta non 
essent; tamen ego non arbitrabar in lantis reipublicae 
periculia mihi esse nimiam diligentiam pertimescendam. 
Senatum frequentem celeriter, ut vidistis, '*coggi. Alque 
iaterea statim, admonitu AUobrogum, C. Sulpicium, prae- 
torem, fortem virum, misi, qui ex aedibus Cethegi, ^^a 
quid telorum esset, efferret ; ex quibus ille maximum 
sicarum numerum et gladiorum extulit. 

IV. InTBODnxi Vulturcium sine Gallis : ''iidem ei pub- 
licara, jusBu senatus, dedi : hortatus sum, nt ea, quao 
Bciret, sine timore indicaret. Tum ille, cum vix se ex 
magno timote "recreasset, dixit : a P. Lentulo se habere 
ad Catilinam i^tetodata et litteras, nt servoTum pruaidiv 



'nleratur, et ad mbem qaaiDpriiiiam cnm exercita accede- 
ret: ^ autem eo consilio, ut, CQm urbem ommbus ex 
poTtibua, qaeiiiadmodum deaciiptum diatiibidumque eiat, in 
cendissent, caedemqne iiil iiiitn.m civium fecissent, ^praesto 
esset ille, qui et fagienlea excipeiet, et se cum bis urba- 
nia ducibna conjungeret. Introducti antem Galli, ^usju- 
Taadum sibi et litteias a P. Lentulo, Cetbego, Statilio ad 
anam gfeutem datas esse dixerunt: atque ita aibi ab his, 
et a 'L. Cassio eBse pr&eBCiJptmn, nt equitatum in Italiam 
quamptimum mitlerent: "pedestrss aibi copias noa defii- 
turaa: Lentulum autem ''sibi c<mfirmasse, ex fatis SibyU 
linis anie^cumqae reapoosis, se esse ^rtinm illum Cor- 
nelium, ad quem legnum hujua urbis atqne imperium 
perTenire esset necease : 'Cinnsm ante se et SuUam 
faiaae : eundemque dixisse, ^°fatBlem bunc esse aimum 

£kt ■d iuteritum hujus uibis atque imperii, qui esset decimua 

I ^_ annus "poet Tirginum absolutionem, ^'poat Capilolii autem 
. . incensionem Ticesimus. Hanc autem Cetbego cum cete- 

Vj l-VltiB contioTersiam fuisse dixenmt, quod Lentulo et aliis, 

caedem »Satumalibus fieri, atque uibem iucendi placeret j 

Cetbego nimium id longum 'Mdeii. -V 

Y. Ac, '%e longum sit, Quirites, tabellas proferri jusai- 

. mus, quae a quoqne dicebantur datse. Primum osMndimus 

* ''***Cetbego '"signum; cognovit.^^Kos linum incidimus: legi- 
tnj/tr miTrt £nit scriptum ipsius manu AUobrogum aenstui et 
populo, sese, ^^quae eorum legatis confimiasset, esse fac- 
tnmm: craie, ut item illi facerent, quse sibi legati eorum 
recepisseut. Tum Cethegus, qui paullo ante aliquid 'Ha- 
men de glsdiis ac sicis, quae apud ipsum eiant deprehen- 
sae, tespondisset, dixissetque se semper '^bonorum ferra- 
mentoium studiosum fiiiaae, '"recitatis litteris debilitatus 
atque abjectus, conscientia convictus, lepente conticuit. 
Introductua Statilius, ''cognorit signum et manum suam. 
Recitatae sunt tabellae in esndem fere senleutiam : con- 
fessus Bst. Tuiu oslendi tabellu Lentulo; et qusesiTi, 
''cognosceretne signum? annuit. Est vero, inquam, signum 
notuq), imtigo vi t^ "QUrimtni Tirii qoi smftTit ■^opioo 



patiiam et ciTes boos ; quae qoidem te a tanto icelen 
etiam' mota revocaie debuit. 'Legtmtur eadem latione 
ad senatom Allobrognm populamqne litterae : si quid de 
hia lebos dicere reUet, feci potestatem. Alqae iUe primo 
qoideDt %egant : poet antem aliquanto, loto jam indicio 
expeaito alque edito, Bmrexit : cjuacBivit a Gallis, ^quid 
sibi esset cum iis : quamobrem domnm suam veniesent 
itemque a Vultnrcio: qui cum illi bTeviter conatanterquo 
respondissent, per quem ad enm, quotiesque Teniasent, 
quaeBissenlque ab eo, *nihilne secum esset de fatiB Sibyl- 
linis locutns : tom ille subito, 'sceleie demena, quanta 
vifl conacientiae esset, ostendit. Nam, cnm id poaaet in- 
filiari repente praeter opinioaem onmium confessus est 
*It& enm non modo ingeniUm illud,jet dicendi exeicitatio, 
qna semper raluit, sed etiam, 'pioptoi vim sceleris mani- 
festi atque deprelienei, impudentia, qua superabat onmes, 
improbitasqne defecit. Vultuicius Teio eubito profeni 
litteias atque aperiri jussit, quas aibi a Lentulo ad Cati- 
liuam datas esee dicebat. Atque ibi ^ebementissime per- 
turitatns Lentulns tamen et signnm suum et vaxmia cog- 
novit. *£mnt autem scriptae sine nomine, sed ila: "Qui 
sim ex eo, quem ad te misi, cognosces. Cura, ut vii 
sIb, et '"quem in locmn sis progressus cogita, et vide qmi 
jam tibi sit necesse. Cnra, ut omninm tibi auxilia ad- 
jnngas, '^etiam in&nomm." Gabinius deinde introductos, 
cmn primo impudentei respondere coepisset, ad extremum 
nihil ex iis, quae GaUi ^'insimnlabBiit, negavit. Ac mihi 
qnidem, QuiiiteB, >^cum illa certiBsima sunt visa argn- 
menta atque indicia sceleris, tabellae, signa, manns', de- 
niqne nniuflcujnsque confessio ; tum multo illa certiora, 
cfdor, oculi, vultus, tacitaiuitas. '*Sic eoim obetnpuerant, 
aic tenam intnebantoi, sic fnitim noimumquam inter m 
adspiciebant, nt non jam ab sliis indicari, sed indicare sa 
qwi Tideientnr. 

VI. Indiciib ^xpositis atqne editis, Quirites, senainm 
cimsului, '^B Bumma repufaUca quid fieri placeret. Dictae 
nnt *'a principibns '*accerrimae ac foitissimae senteatiM,,GoOgk 

80 OIUTIO m. J» t- UTnJHAM. 

qnM Miuttna BiBe tilla nrieUte oM «MueoBtna. Bt 
quoniam aondum eat ^pencriptum senati» cooBiiltiiiii, az 
memoria Tobis, Quirilea, quid HnatuB ceiuuerit, szponam. 
Primuni ^mibi gmtiae veibia ampliaaimiB AgautuT, qood 
viitute, consilio, pioTideiitia iiie&, iMpnUica perimlia sit 
mazimia libeiata : deinde L. Flaccua et C. Poomiiiia 
[vaetoieB, quod eorum opera forti fideliqu» usua eaBem, 
merito ac juie laudantui : atque etiam ^viro fbrd, coUegae 
meo, lans impeititui, quod eos, qui hujus conjuiMionia 
parlicipea fuiBBent, *a suia et reipnblicae consilua remo- 
risset. Atque ita cenBuernnt, ut P. Lentulos, ^com m 
praetara abdicasset, tum *in custodiam traderetoi; Item- 
que nti C. Cethegna, L. Slatilius, P. GabiiiHiB, qni omnea 
I^Msentes erast, in cnstodiam traderentur: attpi« idem 
hoc decietum est in L. Caasium, qui aibi ^procnratioaem 
incendendae urbia depopoacerat : in M. Coepanum, ciu 
ad soUicitandos pssloies Apnliam esse attributam, erat 
indicatum: in P. Fnrium, qui eat ^ex bia colooua, qnos 
FeBulaa L. Sulla deduzit ; in Q. Manlium Cbilonem, qid 
ima cnm hoc Furio semper erat °in hac Allobrogum aoUi- 
citatione reiaatua: in P. Umbrenum, "^libertinum homi- 
nem, a quo primnm Gallos ad Gabinium t>perdnctas esstt 
coBBlabat. ^^Atque ea lenilate Benatua est uBua, Qniritea, 
Ut ex tanta conjuratione, Isntaque vi «c multitudine do- 
jQeBticonmi hoBtium, ''ooTem horainum perditissiiiiormn 
poena republica conserrata, reliquorum. mentes suiari 
poBoe arbitnretm. Atque etiam ''suppUcatio diia immor- 
talibuB, pro singulari «aeim merito, mea nomins decreta. 
est, Quirites : quod mihi primum post hanc uibem con- 
ditam '^gato contigil : «t his decreta verbis eat, " Quod 
urbem inceadiie, caede cives, Italism bello libeTSSsem.'* 
Quae Bupplicatio si eum ceteria oonferstui, Quirites, "hoo 
iDteisit, quod ceterae bene gesta, haec una, conaeirsta 
repubUca, conatituta est. '^Atque illud, quod fsciendum 
primmn fuit, '*fectum slqne traiiBsctnm eet. Nam P. Len- 
tulns, quamquam '*pslefactiis indiciis et confeaaionibuB 
KiiB, jadicio Bcnatijs, noa roolo praetims jns, Teinm etiam 



ciris uniMTSt; tameii magistTata- sa ■bdicsril : ^ut, quM 
religio C. Mario, cl&riBsimo Tiro, ixm fuerat, quo minus 
C. Glaociam, de quo mhil nomiaatim erat decreium, pTa»> 
torem occideret, ea nos leligioiie in privato P. Lentulo 
puniendo libeiaiemur. 

VII. NuNG, quoniam, QoiriteB, scelentisaimi periculo* 
aisumiqne belli nefarios ducea ^aptoa jam et compre- 
heiuoa tenetie, exiatim&re debelis, onmes Catilinao copias, 
omnea apet atqne opes, his depulsis uriiis periculis, ccnci- 
diase. >Quem quidem ego cum ex urbe pellebam, hoc pio* 
videbam animo, Qairiles, remoto Catilina, nec mihi esao 
P. Lentuli *Bonmum, 'nec L. Caasii adipem, nec Cethegi 
fiirioeam temeritatem pertimescendam. 'Ille erat unua 
tjmeiidns ex Iub omnibua, eed tamdiu, dum moenibus urbis 
contin^MtuT. Omnia norat, ''omniDm aditus tenebat; (^h 
pellare, tentaie, sollicitaie poteiat, audebat : "erst ei coa* 
silium ad focinus aptom : consilio autem neque lingna, ne> 
que manua deeiat. *Jam ad ceitas les conficiendas ceitoa 
hgmines delectos ac descriptos habebat. Neque vero, 
cum aiiqoid mandaveiat, confectam putabat. '"Nihil erst, 
qnod non ipee obiret, occmreret, vigilaiet, laboraret : >'fri- 
gm, sitim, famem fene poterat. Himc ego hominem, *^tajn 
acrem, tam paratnm, tam audacem, tam callidum, tam is 
scelero vigilantem, tam ^Ha perditis rebns diligontem, nisi 
ex domesticis inBidiis in castrense latrocinium coropolia» 
■em, (dicam id, qnod sentio, Quiritea,) non facHe hanc 
tantam molem mali a cerricibus Testria depulissem. **Noii 
iUe nobis Satumalia constitmsset, '^eque tanto ante ezi- 
tii et fali diem reipublicae deauntiasset, '%eqne commi- 
sisset, nt signum, nt litterae snae, testes deniqne maai- 
festi Bceleris deprehenderentm. Qnxe mmc, illo absente, 
sic gesta sunt, ut nuHnm in privala domo furtum nmquam 
ait tam palam inventum, quam haec tanta in republic» 
conjnratio manifesto inventa atque deprehensa eat. Quodsi 
Catihna in nibe ad hanc diem remaoBiaset ; quaxaqnani, 
qnoad fuit, omnibus ejns conailiis "occurri atque obsttti, 
nmen, nt levissime ^eam, dimicsitdiiiii nobia oob iDo,GoOgk 

33 ORATIO Ilt. IN I. CAmiNAM. 

fiuaBet, neqne nos nmquani, dom ille in ucbe noetis fiijs- 
aet, tantis periculis rempublicam, tonta pace, tanto otiii, 
tanto aileatio, libeTuaemus. 

VIII. QcAHQDAM haec omnia, Quiiites, ita Bunt a me 
administrata, ut deorum immortalium 'nutu atque consi* 
lio et geata et proTisa esse Tideantur. Idque cum ^n- 
jectuia consequi possumus, quod vix videtur bumani con- 
silii tantanim letum gubematio esse potuisse : lum Tero 
^ta piaeseiitcs his tempoiibua opem et auzilium nobis 
tnlenmt, ut eos paene oculis videre pOBsemus. ^Nam, ut 
illa omittam, 'visas noctumo tempoie ab occidente faces, 
udoremque coeli, 'at fuliniDUm jactus, 'nt tenae motus, 
nt cetera, quae tam multa, nobis consulibus, facta snnt,' 
Ut baec, quae nunc fiunt, ^canoie dii immortales vide- 
rentur: hoc certe, Quiritea, quod sum dictuius, neque 
praeLeimittendum, neque lelinquendum est. Nam profecto 
memoria tenetis, ^Cotta et Toiquato consulibus, iBcggj. 
plurea in Capitolio res ^'de coelo esse percussas, cnm 
et i^imulacia deorum immortslium '^epulsa sunt, et 
Btatuae veteium bominmn dejectae, et '^legum aera lique- 
facta. TactuB est etiam ille, qui hanc urbem condidit, 
Romulus : '^uem inauiatum in Capitolio paiTum atqne 
laclentem, ubeiibus Inpinis inhiantem, fuisse meministis. 
Quo quidem lempore, cum aruapiceB '*ex tota Etruiia 
coQTenissent, caedes alque incendia, et legmn interitum, 
et bellum civile ac domesticum, et totius nrbis atque im- 
perii occasum appropinquare dixeiunt, nisi dii immortales, 
omni ladone placati, "auo numine piope fula ipsa floris- 
aent, Itaque illorum responsis tunc et '^udi decem pei 
dies facti sunt, neque res uUa, quae '^ad placandum deos 
peitineret, praetemiissa eet : iidemque jusserunt, simulacium 
JoTis facoie ^majua, et ia excelso coUocare, et contra, 
atqne onte fuerat, ad oiientem coaTertere : ac se aperare 
dixeiunt, si itlud signum, quod Tidetis, solia oitum, et 
foium, cuiiamque couspiceret, fore, ut ea consilia, quae 
clam essent inita contra aalutem urbia atque imperii 
»illustraientur, ut a senatu populoque Homano peispwi,GoOgk 

0K1.TI0 III. IK L. CATU.U(A1I. 39 

|KMeot. Aique illud ita coOoc&ndnm ctmntles. iUi 'loc&> 
Tenuit ; sed tuita fiiit operis tardiUs, ut neque a ^qierio- 
ribus consulibua, neque a nobia ante bodiemum diem col- 

IX. Hic quis potest eBse, QniiiteB, ^tam aversua b vero 
lam piaeceps, tam mente captus, qui neget, baec omaia, 
quae videnius, praecipneque banc urbem, deorum imtnor- 
"talium nutu atque potestato administrari .? Etenim cum 
esset ita responsum, caedes, incendia, iuteiitumque Teipu* 
blicae comparori, *et ea a peiditis ctvibus ; quae tum propter 
magnitudinem scelerum nonnuUis iuciedibilia Tidebantui, 
ea non modo cogitata a uefariis civibus, verum etiam 
suscepta esse senaistis. ^lUud vero uonne ita praeaena 
est, ut nutu Jovis Optimi Mazimi factum esse videatur, 
ut, cum hodiemo die ^maae per forum meo jusBU et cofi- 
jurati, et ^eorum indiceB, iu aedem Concordiae duceren- 
tur, eo ipao tempore sigaum statueretui ? Quo collocato, 
alque ad vos senalumque converso, onmia et Benatus, et 
ros, quae erant coutra Balutem omnium cogitata, illustrata 
el patefacta vidistis. Quo etiam majore aunt isti odio 
Bupplicioque digni, qui non solum veBtris domiciliiB atque 
tectis, sed etiam deorum ^roplis atque delubiis sunt fu- 
nestos ac netarios ignes inferre conati. «Quibus ego si me 
restitisse dicam, nimi u'" Tpibi sumam, et nou sim ferendus. 
'"lUe, ille Jupiter restitit: ille CapitoUum, ille baec templa, 
ille hanc uibem, ille vos onmes salvos esse voluit. Diis ego 
immortalibuB ducibus '-'banc mentem, Quiiites, volunta- 
temque auscepi, atque ad baec tanta indicia peireni. '^Jam 
veio illa.AllubiDgum sollicitatio sicaLentulo ceterisque do- 
mesticis bostibus suecepta, tanta res tam dementer credita et 
iguotis et baibaris, commissaeque litterae numguam essent 
lUDfecto, uisi a diis inuuortalibus fauic tantae audaciae 
cousiliom esset ereptnm. Quid vero ? '^ut bomines Gallif 
ex civitate male pacata, quae gens uua reatat, qua».i>a-- 
puio Bomano bellum faceie et posse et non, nolle videa- 
tur, "spem imperii et rerum amplissimaium ultio sibi a 
patriciia hominibus oblatam negligerent, restiaiiique salu-,GoOgk 

ou.Tn> ni. n i_ oatiukaii. 

I Um >suis o^bi» ant^xnerent ; id non dirinitiiB fkctOBi 
esse pntatia? 'praoaeitim^ui noa noa pn g aando, aed t&< 

w Uimaio auperarent 1 

X. QuAMOBRsx, Quiritea, qnoniam 'aA omnia pulrinik» 
lia BupplicatLO dacreta eat, *celebratote illoa dies cuib 
conjugilnia ac liberia Teatria. Nam molti aaepe lumoieB 
diis immoHalibuB juati habiti annt ao debiti, sed profecto 
jnstiotes numquam. Erepti enim ex crBdelisaimo sc mi< 
aerrimo intsritu, et erepti aine caede, une sangoine, sioe 
exercitu, sine dimicstione, ^gati, me uno togato duce 
Bt imperatore, Ticiatia. Etenim tecordamini, Quirites, 
omoes civiles diaaensionee, neque aoluoi eaa, quas audis- 
tia, sed et hss, quu voametipsi meminiatis et Tidistis. 
*L. Sulla P. Sulpicium oppreBsit: ez utbe ejecit C. Ma- 
riom, ^cuatodem hujns uibiB, multosque fortes TiroB par 
Um ejecit ez ciritate, paitim interemit. "Ca. OetaTios, 
coDBu], armia ez uibe coUefam sunm expnliti ■omaishio 
locuB ftceiriB coipomm et civium sangnine TednndaTit. 
Snporavit poBtea Cinna cum Mario j tum Tero, i^telariaai- 
mis Tiris interfectis, lumina ciTitatis ezadncta snnt. Ultns 
est hnjna Tictoriae crudelitatem poetea Sulla : nec dici 
quidem opna eat, '^uanta deminntione ciTinm, et quanta 
calamitate reipublicae. Diasentit '^M. Lepidns a claiia- 
simo et fortiBsimo Tiro, Q. Catulo ; sttiiUt nan tun ipeius 
interituB reipublicae luctum, quam cetetomm. ^Atqns 
illae diflflenBiones, Quirites, qnae non sd delendam, sed 
ad commntandam rempublicam >*peTtineTeat : (non >*illi 
nuUam esBe rempuUicam, sed in es, quae esset, se esss 
principes: neqne hanc nrt>em conflt^rare, sed se in hao 
nrbe florere Toluenmt;) atqne illae tamen omnes dissen- 
siones, quarum nulla ezidnm Teipnblicse '*quae8iTit, ejno- 
modi fnenmt, nt non teconciliatione concordiae, sed inter- 
necione cirinm dijndlcatae sint. In hoc antem uno post 
hominum memonam maxima cmdeliBsimoqne bello, qnate 
bellum i^nuUa nmqnam batharia >"cnm sua gente gessit, 
quo in bello lez haec fnit a Lentulo, Catilina, Cassio, 
Ceihego ''constituta, nt onmes, qni sslra nrbe salTi essA,GoOgk 

eft&TIO tn^ tH L. eAtTLIMAH. A 

possent, in lioBtiam namBio dacerentni; ita me gesd, 
Quirites, Tit omnos aslvi conBemremini ; et cum hosies 
Testti 'tontum ciTiom Buperfiitunmi putaesent, qosntum in- 
finitan caedi leBtitiBeet, tantum autem utbia, quantum flun- 
m& ^bhe non potuieBet: et mbem, et civeB integroB in- 

XI. QmBHB ■pro tanliB tebnB, QtdiUeB, imllQm ego a t(h 
bis pisemiam TiitittiB, nollum insigne hoooiiB, nullum monu- 
inentum laudis poetnlo, praeterquam liujus diei memoiiam 
sempitemam. In animis ego Teatria onuiea tTinmphos 
meoB, omnia *ornamenta honoriB, monumenta gloriae, Isi^ 
dia insignia, condi et coUocari Tolo. *Nihil me mutoni 
potest delectare, nihil tacitom, nihil denique hnjusmodi, 
qnod eti&m minus digai assequi possint Memoria Teatra, 
Qniritee, *ao8^ae res alentar, Bermoaibas creacent, litteia 
nim moanmentia inTeteiaBcent et cwroborabantui : ^eandem 
qoe di«m inteUigo, et ad saltitem utbia, quam spero aeter 
nam foie, et ad memoiiam consalatos mei propagandam : 
anoqae tempoie in faac repoblica ^uoa ciTes exBtitisse, 
*qnoiam alter fines Testri imperii, uon terrae, sed coeli 
regionibas terminsret; alter ejosdem impeiii dcmiiciliiim 
■edemque seiraret. 

XII. Sed, qaoniam eaxum lerum, quas ego geaai, non 
^''est eadem foituna atque conditio, quae iUorum, qui ez 
tema bella gessemnt; quod mihi cum liia TiTendum Bit, 
qnos Tici ac aubegi ; ^'iati hostes aut interfectos aut op 
pieaaOB leliqaerunt : Testrum eai, Qaiiites, '*ei ceteris soa 
facta pTosunt, mihi mea ne quando obsint, proTidere. 
'■Mentes euim hominam aadaciasimorDm sceleratae ae 
nefariae ne vobis nocere possent, ego pioTidi : ne mthi 
noceant, TeBtmm est piOTideie. Quamquam, Quiritee, 
tnihi qnidem ipu nihil jam '%b istis noceri poteat. Mag 
nnm enim est '^in bonis praeaidinm, quod mihi in per- 
petoum compBratum eat : magna in repnblica dignitas, quae 
me sempei tacita defendet : magna tIb est cooacientiae, 
qnam qui negligent, cum me violaie Tolent, t*se ipsi iih 
dicabunt. Eat etiam in boUb ^^ia animns, Quirites, ut non,GoOgk 


modo nuUiua audaciBs cedamuB, aed etiaia omnes impro- 
boa ultTO semper lacessunufi. Quodsi omnis impetHB 
domesticorum liostium, depulsus a vobis, se in me imimi 
''conveneht; vobUeritpiovidenduin, Quirites, ^us condi- 
jiane posthac eos esse velitis, qui se pro salute Testr& 
obtuleriut invidiae pericolisqne omnibus. Mihi quidem 
^i quid est, quod jam ^ad vitae rnicbun possit acquiri, 
praeBertim ctmi neque in faoaore veatro, neque in ^ria 
virtutis, ^uidquam videam altius, quo quidem mihi libeat 
adscendere 1 Illud perficiam profecto, Quiiites, ut 'ea, 
quae geaai in consulatu, privatus tuear atque ornem : ut, 
si qua est invidia in conaervanda repubiica suscepta, lae- 
dat invidoa, "jnihi valeat ad gloriam. Denlque its me in 
republica tractabo, ^ut meminerim semper quae gesserim, 
curemque, ut ea vjrtute, non casu, geata esae videanbn. 
VoB, QniriteS, quoniam jam nox eet, venersmini ^um 
Jovem, jcnstodem hujns uibis ac vestr&m, atque in vestta 
tecta discedite : et ea, quamquam jam periculum est de- 
pulsum, tamen aeque ac priori nocte, custodiis vigiliisque 
defendite. Id ne vobis diutius faciendum sit, atque ut in 
perpetua pace esse possitia, proridebo, Quiriteg,,GoOgk 






I. ViDSO, patres conscripti, io me omniuin TestrAm 
■ora atque ociilos esse conTersos: Tideo tos non soluni 
de TestTo ac reipublicae, Tenun etiam, *ai id depulBum 
sit, de meo periculo esae Bollicitos. Est mibi jncunda in 
inalia, et grata in dolore, ^estra erga, me Toluntas : sed 
eam, per deoa immortales ! quaeso, ^eponite, atque, obliti 
salutis meae, de Tobis ac de liberia Testris cogitate. MiM 
qnidem si *haec conditio consnlatns data est. ut omnes 
aceibitates, omnes dolores ciuciatusqne perfeirem ; feram 
non solum fortiteT, sed etiam libenter, dummodo mets la- 
boribns Tobis populoque Romano ^digmtas salusque paria- 
tur. Ego Bum ille consul, pattes conscripti, cni "non 
forum, in quo omnis aequitas contineiur ; "000 campns, 
i^consularibus auspiciis consecratus ; non curia, "summum 
Buxilium oiDuiiim gentium; '^ou domus, commune per- 
fugium ; ^^on lectns ad quietem datus ; non denique 
"haec aedes honoris, umquam Tacua mortis periculo atqne 
inaidiis fuit. Ego ''multa tacui, mnlta pertuli, midta con' 
ceasi. multa meo quodam dolore, '^in Testro timore, sa- 
naTi. Nnnc, si huuc oxitum consnlatus mei dii immor- 
tales esse Tolueruat, nt vas, patres conscripti, popnlumque 
Romanum ex caede "miseirima ; conjuges, liberosque ves- 
tios, Tirginesque Veslales *«x acerbiasima Texatione ; 
tenipla alque delubra, hanc pulcherrimam patriam omnium,GoOgk 


nostram ex foedissmia flamma; totam Italiam ex b«llo 
et Tastitate eriperem : 'quaecunqDe miM uni proponetur 
furtuna, subeatur. Etenim, si F. Lentulus suum nomen, 
%idttctu8 a vatibuB, ^fatale ad peniiciem reipublicae fore 
putavit i cuT ego non laetei meum consulatum ad salutem 
reipublicae prope latalem exBtitissBT 

- II. Qdare, patres eonscripti, conatilite vobis, *piospi- 
cite patriae, consetraie tos, conjuges, libeios, fortunasque 
vestras, popuL Komani nomen salutemque defendite : mihi 
parcete, ac de me cogitare deainite. Nam primum debeo 
spoiare, 'anmea deoB, qui huic nrbi praesident, ^pro eo 
mihi, ac merear, relaturos gratiam esse : deinde, ^si quid 
obtigerit, aeqno animo paratoque moriai-. ^Neque enim 
turpis mors fom viro potest accidere, 'neque immatura 
consolaii, uec misera '"sapienti. Nec tamen ego snm. 
"ille ferreua, qni '^ratria cariaaimi atque amantissimi 
praeaentia moerore non movear, borumque omninin lacry- 
mis, a quibns me '^circumsessum videtiB. Neque meam 
mentem non domum saepe levocat "exanimata nxor, '^b- 
jecta metu filia, ei ^^arvulus fiUus, quem mihi videtur 
"amplecti respublica tamquam obsldem consnlatus mei: 
neque ille, qui, ezapectana hujua exitum diei, adstat in 
conspectu meo, '^gener. '^Moveor his rebiis omnibus, sed 
in eam paitem, ut salvi Bint vobiscum omneB, etiamsi via 
aliqua me oppresserit, potius quam et illi et nos nna cum 
repnblica pereamua. Quare, patres conscripti, 'oincumbite 
ad reipuUicae aalutem: circamspicite omnes procellas, 
quae impendent, nisi providetis. *'Noa Tib. Gracchua, 
qui itenim tribunus plebis fieri voluit: non C. Gracchus, 
qui agranos coucitare cooatus eat: non Ii. Satuminus, 
qui C. Memmium occidit, in discrimen ahquod, atque in 
veatrae severitatia judiciura adducitur. "^Tenentur ii, qui 
ad urbis incendium, ad vestram omnium caedem, ad Ca- 
tilinam accipiendum, Romae reatiterunt : tenentur Utterae. 
signa, manus, denique uniuscujusque confessio : ^soUici- 
tantur AUobroges : Beiritia excitajitur : Catilina arcessitur ; 
id est initom consilium, ut, interfectis omnibus, nemo ne,GoOgk 

ORATia IV. IN L. CAmiNAK. 39 

«d deplorandnm qnidem reipublicae iiomen, alqae ad la- 
inentandam Unti imperii calamitatem relinquatur. 

III. Haec omoia indices detulerunt, 'rei confeasi simt , 
Tos multis jam iodiciis judicastis : primnm, quod mitii 
gratias egistis ^singularibus vetbis ; et ^mea vinute stqne 
diligentia perditorum hominum patefactam eaae conjn- 
tationem decieristis : ^deinde quod P. Lentulnm, ut se 
abdicaret praetura, coegislis ; tum quod eum, et ceteios, 
*de quibuB judicaatis, ia custodiam dandos censuistis. 
maxiioeque quod meo nomine supplicationem decievistis, 
qui hooos *togato babitos ante me est nemini: postremo 
hesteino die pia^nia legatis Allobrogum, Titoque Vn]- 
tercio dedisiis amplissima. Qnae simt omnia ejusmodi, 
ut ii, qui in cosiodiam nominatiin dati stini, sine ulla 
dubitatioiw a vobis 'damnati esse rideantnr. *Sed ego 
insdtui refeire ad ros, patrea comcTipti, tamqiiam inte- 
gmm, et de facto, quid judicetis, et de poena, quid cen- 
seatis. *Illa pTaedicam, quae sunt cousulia. Ego magnum 
in republica '"versari fuioiem, et nora quaedam nusceii 
et coucitari mala jamjBidem videbom : scd banc tantam 
tam exitiosam habeii conjurationem a civibus, numquam 
potaTi. Nuac, quidquid est, ^iquocunque veH^ae mentes 
inclinant alque sententiae, 'Htatueudum vobis ante noc- 
tem est. Quantum facinus ad tob delatum sit, videtia ■ 
i%uic ai paucos putatis affinea ease, vebementer enatis 
Latius opiuione diaseminatum eat boc malum : i*manavit 
noa solum per Italiam, verum etiam tianscendit Alpes, et, 
iBobscuie seipena, multas jam piovincias occupavit. Id 
opprimi ^^susteutando ac proktando nullo pacto potest. 
Quacunque ratione placet, celeriter vobis vindicandum est. 

IV. ViDEo duas adhuc ''esse senlentias ; unam D. Si- 
lani, qni censet, eos, '°qui haec delere cooali sunt, morte 
esse mult^dos : alteiam >^C. CaeBaris, ^°qui mortis poenam 
Temovet, ceteiCTum supplieioium omnes aceibitatos amplec- 
litui. Uterqne et 'ipro sua dignitale, et pio rerum mag- 
nitudine in snrnma aeveritate versatur. ^Altei eos, qui 
noB omnes, qui populura Romanum vita privare conati,GoOgk 

40 ORaTIO I^. <N 1, CATILIXUf. 

BUQt, qui delere imperi>iiii, qui populi Romaiii Qomen vx- 
Btinguere, pimclum temporia frui vita, et 'hoc communi 
spiritu, noii putat oportere: atqua hoc gcnus poenae 
saepe tn improbos cives in hac lepublica esse nsurpatum 
recotdatui. ^AIter iutelligit, mortem a diis immortalibus 
non esse aupplicii causa constitutam : sed aut ^necesstta- 
tem natnrae, aut laborum ac nuseriarum quietsm esse. 
Itaque eam Hapientes numquam inviti, fortes etiam saepe 
Ubenter ^oppetiverunt. 'Vincula vero, et ea sempitema, 
certe ad singularem poenam nefarii sceleris inventa snnt. 
'Municipiis diBpertiri jubet. ^Habeie videtur ista res ini- 
quitatem, si imperare velis ; difficultatem, si iitgare : de- 
cematur tamen, si placet. "Ego enim suscipiam, et, itt 
speio, Teperiam, qui id, quod salutia omoium causa sta- 
tueritis, non putent esse suae dignitatis recusaie. '''Ad- 
jungit gravem poeuam munlcipibus, si quis eorum viacula 
niperit : "horribiles custodias circumdat, et digna scelere 
hominum perditorum sancit, ne quis eanim {>oenam, quos 
condemnat, aut per aenatum, aut per populum levate pos- 
sit. '^Eripit etiam apem, quae sola hominem in miaeriis 
consolari aolet. '^Bona praeterea publicaii jubet : vitam 
solam retinquit nefariis hominibus : '*quam si eripuisset, 
multos, uno dolore, animi atque coiporis, et omnes scele- 
rum poenas ademisaet. "Itaque, ut aliqua in vita formi 
do improbia esset posita, apud inTeros ejusmodi quaedam 
illi antiqiu suppLcia impiia conatituta esae voluerunt : quod 
'"videlicet intelligebant, his lemotis, non esae mortem jp- 
•am pertimescendam. 

V. Nttnc, patres conscripti, ego "mea, video, quid 
inteisit. Si eritis secuti sententiam C. Caesaris, quoniara 
'^hanc is in lepublica riam, quae populaiis habetur, secu- 
tus eet, foitasse minua erunt, i^hoc auctore et cognitore 
hujusce sententiae, mihi ^'populaies impetus pertimescendi. 
Sin *ti2iam alteram ; ^escio, an ampHus mihi negoiii con 
■ tiahatm-. ^'Sed tamen meorum periculorum rationes uii- 
Utas reipublioae vincat. "^Habemua enim a O. Caesare. 
sicut ^ipsius dignitas et majomm ejus amplitudo postula-,GoOgk 


bat, s«nteDtjain, tamquam obBidem perpetnae in rempab- 
licam volimtatis. 'Intcllectum est, qtiid intersit ioter 
levitatem concionatorum, et animum vere populkrem, sa- 
luti populi conBulenlem. Yideo de ^ialis, qui ae popa- 
lares haberi TolunC, abease %i>n neminom, ne de cafate 
ndelicet civium Romanorum sententiaiQ fcrat. Is et *xvo- 
diustertius in custodiam cives Romanoa 'dedit, et suppli- 
cationem miLi decrevit, et ^jndices heaterno die mazimis 
praemiis aiTecit. 'Jam hoc nemiiii dubium eat, qui reo 
custodiam, \iiaesitmi gratulationem, indici praemium de- 
crevit, quid de tota le el cauaa judicarit. ''At vero C. 
Caesai intelljgit, legem Semproniam eaae de civibus Ro- 
manis constitotam : qui autem reipublicae sit hostis, eum 
civem esse nuUo modo posse : denique '"ipstmi latorem 
legis Semproniae jussu populi poenas reiptiblicae depen- 
disse. "Idem ipstmi Lentulum, largitorem et piodigum. 
non putat, cum de pemicie populi Romani, exitio hujus 
iirbis, tam acerbe, tamque cnideliter cogitarit, appellan 
posse popularem. Itaque '^homo mitiasimua atqtte lenis- 
simus non dubitat P. Lentulum aetemis tenebris vincu- 
lisque mandare ; '^et sancit iu poatenun, ne quis hujus 
supplicio ievando se jactare, et 'Hn pemicie poptili Ro- 
mani posthac poptilaris esse possit. i°Adjungit etiam pub- 
licalionem bononmi, ut omnea animi cruciatus et cor- 
poris, etiam egestas ac mendicitas conseqaatur. 

VI. '^QuAHOBREM sivo hoc statueritis, dederitis tnihi 
comitem ad concionera, populo canira atque jucimdum : 
sive Silani Bententjam sequi malueritia, facile me atque 
vos a crudelitatis vituperatione defendelis, "atque obtine- 
bo, eam mulCo Icniorom fuisse. Quamquam, patres con- 
scripti, quae poCest esse in tanti sceleris immanilate puni- 
enda crudelitas ? '^Ego enim de meo sensu judico. '*Nam 
ita mihl salva republica vobiscum perfrui liccat, ut ego, 
quod in hac causa vehementior stun, non atrocitate ani- 
mi moveor, ( quis enim est me mitiox 1 ) sed singulari 
quadam humanitate et miaericordia. ^Tideor eiiim mihi 
hanc urbem videre, lucem orbis terrarDm, atque ''aicem,GoOgk 


omiiiiim gendmn, subito imo incendio concidentem : cer- 
no animo 'sepnlta in patria miseros atqne insepoltoa 
acerros cinum : ^erBEttui mihi aate oculos aspectiis Ce- 
thegi. et ^uot i]i Testra caede bacchantis. Gdm vero 
^mihi propoaui regnantem Lentulam, sicut ipae ae ez fatis 
sperasse confessuB est, ^puipuiatum ease hunc Gabinium, 
cum ezercitu Tenisse Catilinam, tum lamentationem ma- 
tnunfainilias, tum fugam Tiiginum atque pnerorum, ac 
^ezatiunem Tiiginum Vestalium perhonresco : et, quia 
mihi ■rehementer haec Tideotur miaen fttqae misenuida, 
idciico in eoa, qui es perficere Tolnenmt, me seTemm 
Tehementemqne 'praebebo. Eteuim quaeio, si quis pa- 
teifamiliafl, liberis auia a aerro inteifectis, uxore occiaa, 
incensa domo, aapplicium ^e serriB noa quam aceibissi- 
mum sumserit; utnim is clemens ac misericois, aa in- 
humaniaaimus et crudelisaimus esse Tideatui ? 'Mihi 
Tero importuDus ac ferreus, qui non doloie ac ciuciatu 
'"nocentis sunm doiorem ciuciatumque lenieiit, Sic nos 
in his hominjbus, qui nos, qui conjuges, qui liberos nos- 
tros tnicidare Tolueiunt : qui singnlas tmiuscnjusque nos- 
trtuu domos, et "hoc uniTsraum leipublicae domicilium 
deleie conati sunt : >^ui id egerunt, nt gentem Allo- 
biogum in Testigiis hujus urbis, atque in cineie defla- 
giati imperii collocaient : si Tehementissimi iiierimRB, 
misericoidea habebimur : sin renuasiores esse Toluerimus, 
summae nobis crudelitatis "in patria,e civiumque pemicie 
fama subeunda est. Nisi Tero cuipiam '*L. Caesar, Ttr 
foitissimua et amajitissimus leipubUcae, ''crudelior nudius- 
teitius Tisus est, cum i^Bororis suae, femiuae electisBimae, 
"Tiium, pioeaentem et audientem, Tita priTandum esse 
dixit ; '*cum sTum jussu consulis interfectum, filiomqua 
ejuB impuberem, legatum a patie miasum, in caiceie ne- 
catum esee dixit. '"Quoium quod simile factum ? Quod 
loinitum delendae leipublicae consiliumT '^Largitionis 
Toluntas tum in lepublica Tersata est, et partium quaedam 
contentio. Atque illo tempore ^ujus avus Lentuli, cla- 
r, armatus Giacchimi est persecutus : iHe etiam,GoOgk 


gtave tnm thIdhs accepit, >]ie quid de ffamma repiiblick 
minneretiiT: ^c ad eTertenda fimdameuta leipiiblic&e 
Gallos atcessit, eeiritia concitat, Catilioam Tocat, attribnit 
Bos trncidandos Cethefo, ceteros cives interficiendos Ga- 
binio, nrbem inflammandam Cassio, totam Italiam Tastan- 
dam diripiendamqne Catilinae. 'Yeremim, censeo, ne in 
hoc eceleie tam immani ac nefando, ^aliqoid BeTeiiua 
Btatmsse videaioini; cnm mnlto magis sit Terendum, ne 
^missione poenae crudeles in patriam, qoam ne sereri- 
tate animadTeiaionis nimis vebementea in aceibiasimos 
bostes fiiisse videamm. 

VII. Sbd ea, *quae, exandii)) patres conscripti, dissimu- 
lare uon poasnm. ^ Jacimitiir euim voces, qoae perTeninnt 
ad anres meafl, <eomm, qui vereri videutur, nt habeam 
aatis piaesidii ad ea, qnae tos staUeritis hodiemo die, 
tTansigmida. Omnia 'et pioTisa, et parata, et constitata 
smit, pattes conacripti, cum mea Bumma cura atqne dili- 
gentia, '"tum multo etiam majore popuU Romani ad snm- 
mum impednm retinendum, et ad communes fortuuas cou- 
Berrandas, voluntate. Omnes adsunt omnium oidinum 
uomiuee, onmium denique aetatum : plenum est forum, 
pleua templa cbca forum, pleui onmes aditas "hujus loci 
Bc tempU. Cansa enim est poat nrbem conditam baec 
inrenta sola, ia qua omnes sentireut unum atqne idem, 
i^raeter eoa, qui cnm sibi Tiderent esse perenndum, cum 
anmibus potius, qnam aoli periie Toluerunt. Hosee egohom- 
jnee eicipio et secerao libenter : neqne enim in impro- 
borom ciTJum, sed in scerbissimorum hostium snmero 
habendos puto. Geteri vero, dii immoTtales ! qna freqaen- 
tia, qno stndio, '^ua Tirtute ad commuuem dignitatem 
salotemque cousentiunt ? Quid ego hic equites Romanos 
commemoremT '^Qui Tobis ita eummam ordiuis conailii- 
que coucednnt, ut Tobiacum de amore reipublicae ceitent : 
quos, i»ei mnltomm annorum dissensione ^^ad hujus ordi- 
nis societatem concordiamque reTocatos, hodieTUUB dies 
vobiscum atque '''haec causa conjungit : quam conjunctio- 
nem si, in consulatu >^onfinnatam meo, perpetuam in,GoOgk 


republica tenuerimua ; coafimio Tobia, 'uolluiu posthao 
malum civile ac domesticum ad uliam reipublicae pattem 
esse veaturum. Pah atudio defeadeadae reipublicae coa- 
venisse video ^tribuuos aerarios, fortissimos viros ; ^cribos 
item universos ; quoa *cum casu liaec dies ad aerarium 
frequeutasset, video 'ab exspectatione soitis ad commu' 
nem salutem esse conversos. °Oiimis ingenuorum adest 
multitudo, etiam tenuissimomm. Quis eat enim, cui non 
baec templa, aspectus uibis, possesBio libertatis, lux de- 
niqu« haec ipsa, et hoc commune pairiae solum, cum sU 
carum, tum vero dulce atque jucundum 1 

VIII. Oferae pretium est, paties conscripti, libertino- 
rum hominum studia cognosceie ; ^qui, virtute sua fortii- 
nam civitatis coaBecuti, hanc veie Buam patiiam esse judi- 
cant ; quara ^guidam hinc natt, et summo nati loco, non 
patriam suam, sed urbem hostium esse judicaverunt. Sed 
'''quid ego hujusce oidinis homiaes comraemoiem, quoa 
privatae foitunae, quoe communis reapublica, quos deni- 
que libertaB ea, quae dulcissima est, ad salutem patriae 
defendendam excilavit ? Servus est nemo, "qui modo 
tolerabili conditione sit servitutis, qui non audaciam civium 
perhonescat ; qui iion haec stare cupiat ; qui non tantum, 
quantum audel, et quantum potest, confeiat ad communem 
salutem, '^voluntatis. Quare si quem vestnlm '^orte com- 
movet hoc, quod auditum est, lenonem quendam Leatuli 
■^concuisare ciicum tabeiuas, pretio eperare sollicitari 
posse animos egentium atque imperitorum ; est id quidem 
coeptum atque tentatum, sed '^nulli sunt inveati tam aut 
foituna miseri, aut voluntate peiditi, qui non ^'ipaum illum 
seUae atque operia et quaestus quotidiaai locum ; qui noa 
cubile ac lectulum suum ; qui denique non "cursum hunc 
otiosum vitae suae, salvum esse vellent. Multo vero 
maxima pars eoium, qui in taberais sunt ; immo vero, {id 
enim potius est dicendum,) genua hoc universum, aman- 
tissimum est otti; etenim '^mne eorum iaatrumeatum, 
omnis opera ac quaestus, frequentia civium suatiaetur, 
ahtur otio : quorum si quaestua, '^cclusis tabemis, mjnui,GoOgk 


Molet, iquid tandem incensia futimim est? Quae cmn 
ita sint, patres conacripti, vobis populi Romani praesidia 
DOtt deaunt; ros ne populo Komano deesse videamini 

IX. Habetis ^onsulem ex pluiimis periculis et insidiia. 
atque ex media morte, non ad vitain suam, sed ad salu- 
tem vestram reseiratum : omnes ordines ad conservandam 
rempublicam ^mente, volimtate, studio, virtute, voce, con- 
sentiunt: obsessa facibus et telis impiae conjurationis, 
^vobia supplex manus tendit patha communis : vobia se, 
vobia Titam omuium civium, vobis arcem el Capitolinm, 
Tobis ^aias Fenatium, vobis ^illum ignem Vestae perpie- 
tuum ac 'sempitemum, vobis omnia templa deorum atque 
delubia, vobis muros atque urbis tecta commendat. Prae- 
terea de vestra vita, de conjugum vestrarum ac libero- 
Tum anima, de fortunis omnium, de sedibus, ^e focis 
vestris, hodtemo die vobis judicaiidum est. Habetis *ducem 
memorem vestri, oblitum sui ; '°quae non semper facullas 
datui : babetis omnes ordinea, omnes homines, univeisum 
poputum Romanum, id quod "in civili causa bodierno die 
primum videmus, unum atque idem sentientem. Cogitate, 
quantis laboribus f^ndatum imperium, quanta virtute sta- 
bilitam iibeitalem, quanta deorum benignitate '^auctas 
eiaggeratasqne fortunas '%na nox paene delerit. Id ne 
nmquam postbac non modo confici, sed ne cogilari qui- 
dem possit a. civibus, bodieruo die providendum est. 
Atque haec, non ut vos, qui luilti studio paene praecur- 
ritifl, excitaiem, locutus sum: sed ut mea vok, quae debet 
i^eaae in republica princepa, odicio fnncta consulari vi- 

X. Ndnc ante quam, patres conscripti, ad aententiam 
ledeo, de me pauca dicam. "Ego, quanta manus est con- 
juratorum, quam videtis esae permagnam, lautam me in- 
inucomm multitudinem suscepisBo video : sed eam esse 
jadico '"turpem et inttimam, contemtam et abjectam. 
•'Quodsi aliquando, alicujua fiirore et sceleie i^concitala, 
manuB ista plus valuerit, quam vestra ac reipublicae dig,GoOgk 

46 OKArio IT. IN 

nitas ; me tamen moonun facttmim atque consilioniin 
numquam, patres coasciipti, poenitebit, Etenim inars, 
quam illi milii fortosse miniiantur, (xnnibus est parata : 
'rilae tantam lauclem, quanta Toe me vestris decretis ho- 
nestastis, nemo est assecutus. Ceteris enim ^emper beoe 
'gestae, mihi mii consetratae reipublicae gratulationem 
decreristis. Sit *Scipio clarus ille, cujus conailio atque 
Tirtute Hatmibal iu Africam ledbe, atqne ex Italia dece- 
dere coactus es>; oroetur 'altei eximia laude A&icanus, 
qni duas uibes hnic imperio infestisBimas, Carthaginem 
Numantiamque, delerit: habeaiut vii egregius, "L. Paullus 
ille, ^cujuB currum rex potentissimus quondam et nobilis- 
simUB, Peises, honestaTit : sit in aeteraa gloria Marius, qui 
>biji ^'aliam obsidione et metu aerTitntia libersTit : ante- 
pouatur omnibus ^Pompeius, cujus rea gestae atque nrtu- 
tes, '"iisdem, quibus sotis cu»us, legionibus ac terminia 
contineatQi. Erit proiecto inter honun laudes ''aliquid 
loci nostrae gloriae : nisi forte majus est patefacere nobis 
proTinciaa, quo exire possimus, quam curare, ut eliam ilii, 
qui absunt, habeant, i^uo victores TaTeitantur. Quam- 
quam est '^o loco conditio melior externae Ticloriae, 
quam domeslicae ; quod hostes alienigenae "aut oppressi 
Berriunt, aut recepti beneficio se obligatos putant : qui 
autem ex numero civium, dementia aliqua depraTati, bos- 
tes patriae semel esse coeperunt, eos, cum a pemicie 
reipubhcae repuleris, nec vi coercere, nec beoeficio pla- 
care posais. Quare mihi cum perditis civibus aeternnm 
bellum susceptum esae Tideo ; quod ego veatro, bonotnm- 
qne omnium ausilio, memoriaque tantorum periculonim, 
quae non modo in hoc populo, qui servatns est, sed etiam 
1n omnium gentium serroonibtts ac mentibus aemper hae- 
refait, a me atque a meis fscile propulsari poaae confido. 
Neque nlla profecto tanta via reperietur, quae conjunc- 
tionem vestram cquitumque Romaaorum, et ''tanCam con- 
^irationem bonorum omnium periVingere et labefactare 

XI. QoAB cura ita sint, palres conscripti, '*pro tmperio,GoOgk 


pra exercitu, ^pro piOTincia, quam neglezi, 'pro trinmplio, 
ceterisque laudie iiuignibuB, quae sunt a me, propteT uibis 
i-estraequp salutis custocUam, repudiata, •pto clientelis hoB- 
pitiiaque provincialibus, quae tamen nibania opibus non 
minore labore tueor, quam comparo : pro hia igitur omni- 
bus rebus, ^ro meis in tos siugularibus studiis, proqiie 
hac, quam conspicitis, ad couservandam remputlicam 
diligentia, nihil aliud a Tobia, nisi hujus temporisj lotius- 
que mei consulatus meniDriam poaCulo : '^uae dum erit 
vestris mentibus infixa, fiimissimo me muro aeptum esBe 
sit>itrabor. Quodsi meam apem ris imjjHroboium ^fefellerit 
atquo superaTerit ; commendo vobis pamim meum filium : 
■cui profeqto satis erit praesidii, non solnm ad saliitem, 
reium etiam ad dignitatem, si ejus, qui haec omnia sno 
■olus pericido conserraTerit, illum esse filimn memineri- 
tis. Quapropter 'de summa saiute Tfistra, popnlique Ro- 
mimi, patres conscripti, de Testris conjugibus ac liboris, 
'^e aris ac focis, da fanis ac templis, de totine urbis 
tectia ac sedibns, de imperio, de libertate, de sBlnteltat 
iae, deque ''imiTersa republica, decemite <*diligenter, ut 
instituistis, ac fortiter. Habetis enim eum consulem, qui et 
parere vestris decretis non dubiiet ; et ea, qoae «atueritiB, 
qnoad vivet, defendere et ^^per se ipsmn praestaie possR,GoOgk 

ORATId. ' 

(. 1. ^Si quid est in m« ingenii, jndiceB, qnod sentio 
qtkUD sit exiguum ; aiU si qua eserciutio dif^endi, *in qua 
me non iii£tioi mediocriter esae versstum ; ftut si *huju3- 
ce rei ratio aliqua, ab DptimBirum artiLun studiia ac dis- 
cipliii& profecta, a qua ego nulliim coofiteor aetatis meae 
lempua abhonuisse : eanun rerum omnium vel in primis 
'hic A^ Liciniua fructum a me ^peteie prope stto juie 
debet ''Nam quoad longisaime potest mens mea re- 
spicere spatium pra«teriti temporis, et ^uentiae memo- 
riamrecor^ari ultimam, inde usque lepetens, hunc video 
mihi pancipem, M ad suscjpiendam, et ^ad ingrediendam 
ratiqrLem horum studiorum exstitiBBS. Quod si haec vox, 
bujns hortuu praecepttsque "*coDformata, nonnuUis ali- 
quando saluti fuit ; ''a quo id accepbnus, quo ceteris 
opitulari et alios servare possemus, huic profecto ipai, 
quanUim est situm in nobis, et opem, et salutem ferre 
debemus. 3. "Ac, ne quis a nobis h«c ila dici forte 
rairAuT, quod aUt^ qnaedam in hoc feoullas sit ingenii, 
iloilue i%aeo dicendi ratio aut disciplina, i*ne nos quid- 
em huic luii studio penituB umquam dediti fiiimus. ' 
i^Etesim omnes aites, q^ ad '°humanitatein pertinenl, 
habent quoddam eommune vlnculum, et quasi cogoatiooe 
quadam inter m eontinentmr. 

TT. 3. 3bd ne cui reitrtlm rairum esse videatnr, me 

:„-,:., ..,G00^ll^ 

URATlo.rito AKCHU 70BTA. 49 

*in qiueatiDne legitinia, et in judicio pnblico, 'cum lei 
agatuT apud ^raetorem popnti Romani, lectiuimnm vimm, 
et apnd sererissimcie ^udices, timto conrentn honunum 
ac frequentia, hoc uti genere ' dicendi, ^jaod non modo 
a conBuetudine judicioTum, venmi etiam a forcnBi aermo- 
rid' abhon-eat; quaeao a Tobia, ^t in liac cauaa mihi 
detis hanc Teniam, accommodatam huic reo, Tobis quem* 
■idmodum spero non moieBtam ; ut me pro anmBio poeta 
att^ue emditissimo homine ..dicentem, hoc concumi hom- 
inam literatissimonun, %>c vestra hunmnitate, hoc- deni- 
que praetore exeicentb judiciuifi, patiamini ^e itndiis 
humanitatis ac Uteranim patdlo loqui tiberius, et ^ ejn»- 
niodi peraona, quaef prgpter otium ac stntfiom, minime 
in judiciis pericolisqne tractata est, uli prope "*noro 
quodaiar- et imiaitato genCre' diceftdi, 4.. Quod si mihi a 
Tobis tribiu concedique' sefitiam, ^'perficiam piofecto, ut 
hunc A. licimant non mod» dou BegTtfgandnm, cum sit 
civis, a niuneio ciTiuu, Terum etiam, si non esset, pnt»- 
Us adscisceudum.fuisse. 

III. ^^^AH ut . primum ex pueris exceasit Aichiaa, 
atque ab iia artibue, quibus selas pueriiis '^ad humanita- 
tem informari aolet, ee '*ad acrjbeadi studium coatnlit: 
primum Andochiae, (nun ibi natus eat ''toeo nobili ;) 
celebri qOondain urba et copiosa, atque '°erudttiMimia 
hominibus bberaliaBimisque studiis affluaoti, celeriter "ei 
antecellete onmibus ingenii glotia coati^t. PoM in cete 
ris Asiae paitibHB cunctaequa Graeciae '^ii? «jus ad- 
Tentus celebiabantur, at famam ingenii exspectatio homi- 
nis, exBpectationem fpsiua adrentus admiratioqne yupenret. ' 
5. Erat Italia tono plena "Graecamm artium ac dis- " 
ciplinamm, studiaqtie hwc et ia TJatio. Tehemenuus tiBQ 
colebantur, quam nimc ^'^dem in o[>pidis, et hjc Roraae, 
propter tranquillitalem reipublicae, .^'non negUgebantur. 
Ilaque hunc et Tarentini, et Khegim, et Neapotilam, 
- civital^ eeteijsque praeuiiis donaiunt: et •omnes, %pii 
aliqoid de iiigeniis poterant judtcaTe, cogutiona. atqtfe 
ho^i^o dignum existimarunt. ^'Hac taota «eleliiitata 


50 oa^I» MO AKDttU 70KTA. 

fkmae oum enet jeud' abgeatibiu notus, Rontntn Teiut, 
'Msrio conBule et Catolo. *NaetuB est priittam consnles 
eos, quoTum alter res ad scTibendum muimM, alter cuni 
res geataa, tum etiam sfudimn aliiue ^aoTes *adlubere 
posset. Statim 'Luculli, cum ^praetextatos etiara tum 
Aichias esaet, eum domum suam receperunt. Sed boc 
'non Bolum ingenii ac liteianun, verum etiam natuiae 
atque TJTtutis, ut domua, quae hujna adolescentiae prinia 
fuerit, eadem easet familiaiiwima senectuti. 6. Erat 
temporibus Ulia jucundus Q. MeteUo, ^iUi Nmnidico, 'et 
ejus filio Pio. '"Audiebatur a M. Aemilio: •'rirebat cnm 
Q. Catulo, et patie, et filio : a L. Ciasso ^colobatur : 
"Lucnllos Tero, et '*Drusum, et "Octavios, et Catonem, 
et totam Hoitensioium domum, devinctam consuetudine 
cum leneret, afficiebatur summo honore ; quod eum ncm 
Bolum ''colebant, qui aliquid peicipeie atque audire stnde- 
bant, Terum etiam, si qui f<»te simulabant. 

IV. "Ihterih satis longo intermllo, cuiti esset cum 
L. LucuUo i^in Siciliam ptofectus, et cum ex ea pnmncla 
cum eodem Lucullo decederet, Tenit '*Heracleam. ^H^nae 
cnm esset civitas aequissimo juie ac foedeie, adscribi 
se in eam ciTitatem Toluit : idque cum ipse pei se dignus 
putaretur, ttmi auctoritate et gratia Luculli, ab Heiacle- 
ensibns impettavit 7. *^Data est ciritas "SQvaai lege 
et Caibonis, " Si qui fbederalis civitatibus adscripti fitis- 
sent: si tum, cum lex feiebatur, in Italia domlciUum 
habuissent :" et, "si sexagints diebns apud praetorem 
sssent piofessi." Cum hic domicilium Romae ^^mullos 
jam annos habeiet, piofessus est apud piaetorem, Q. Me- 
tellum, &miliaris3imum suum. 8. ^Si nibfl aliud nisi de 
ciritate ac lege dicimus, nibil dico ampIiuB : causa dicta 
«st. Qnid enim hoium infirmari, "Grati, potestT He- 
racleaene esse *%im &dscriptum negabis? Adest rir 
"Btfmma auctoritate, et leligione, et fide, L. Lucullus, 
Hqui se non opinari, sed scira, non audirisae, sed ridiaae, 
noD interfuisse, sed egisse dicit. Adaunt Heracleensea 
(egati, nobilissimi hcmiines ; (hujus judicii causa ^cum,GoOgk 


maBdada et cum publico tettiiiMnuo venemiit ;) qui hnna 
adscriptum ^Heiacleensem dicmit. Hic la 'tabulas de- 
eideras Heneleensium poblicas, qoaa ^ltalico bello, in- 
censo ^tabulario, inleriase scimus omneb. Est lidiculum, 
^ ea, quae babemus, nibil dicere ; qoaerere, qoae baber* 
non possumus: et Me bominum menions tacere, ^tera- 
nun memoriam flagitare: et, ^cmn babeas amplissimi 
viii religioaem, integerrimi mnnicipii jasjurandmn fidem- 
que, ea, qnae depravari nHllo modo possunt, repndiare, 
tabnlas, >quas idem dicie eotere conmmpi, desiderare. 
9. ^"Al domicilium in Italia nou babuit. Is qui,tot annis 
"anle ciTitatem datam, sedem omnium rerum ac fortuns- 
nim euarum Romae colIocaTit 1 '^At non eU professos. 
^mmo Tero iis tabulis profeasus, quae aolae ex iUa 
professione collegioque praetorum obtinent publicamm 
labularum anctoritatem, 

V. "Nak cum "Appii tabulae negligentias asaerTatae 
dicerentur; GabLoii, qnamdiu incolumia {iiit, leTitas, poat 
damuationem calamitas, omnem t^ulatmn fidem resigiuis- 
set: MeteQua, homo aanctJsaimus ^%iodeBtiBsinni8que 
omnium, tanta diligentia luit, ut ad L. Lentnlum prae- 
torem et ad "jodices venerit, et. unina nDminis litura se 
cominotum eeae dixerit. i^His igitni tBbnlis >*md]am 
liCaram in nomea A. Licinii videds. 10. Quae cnm ita 
aint, quid est, quod de ejua civitate dubitetia, praeaertim 
cnm aUis quoque in civitatibns fuerit adscriptus ? Etenini 
cum ^OmediocribaB multiB, et aat nnlla, aut bumili aliqua 
ute praeditia, gratuilo ciritatem ^>in Graecia homines 
impertiebantar, ^Rheginos credo, aut Locrenses, sut Nea- 
politanos, aut Tarentinos, quod ^^aceaicis artificibus largiri 
eolebBnt, id huic, anmma iagenu praedita gloria, noluiste. 
'*Quid T cum ceteri, non modo poat civitatem datam, sed 
etdam poet "legem Papiam, aliquo modo ^in eonnn mn- 
nicipiomm tabulas ^inepserint : hic, qui ne ntitur qnidam 
iltia, in qiiibus est scriptus, quod semper se Herscteen- 
sem «se voluit, lejicietur ' 11. ^Censua nostros Teqniris 
Bcilicet. — ^Est enim obsciunm, proxiinis censoiibns,,GoOgk 


'hunc cum clariBsimo imperEitoie, L. Lucnllf), apnd ex- 
ercitum fuisse ; ^superioribua, ^cum eodem quaeslore fnisse 
in Asia: ^piimis, Jnlio et Ghlsso, ^ullani populi paitem 
csse censam. ^Sed, quoniam cenans uon jus civitatis 
confiimat, ac tantuinmodo indicat, enm, qui ait -censua, 
'ira se jam tum gessisse pro ciTO ; 'iis temporibuH, quae 
tu ciiminaiia ne ipsjus quidem judicio eum in civium 
Romanorum juie esse versatum, et ■testamenium saepe 
fecit nostiis legibus, et adiit hereditates civium Romano- 
rum, '"et in beneficiis ad aerwium delatus est a L. Lu- 
cullo '*procoii8ule, 

VI. '^Qdaere argumenta, ai qua potes. Nunquam enim 
hic neque suo, neque amicorum indicio revincetur. 

12. Quaeres a nobis, Giati, cur tanto opere hoc hom- 
ine delectemui. '^uia suppeditat nobis, ubi et animua 
ex boc forensi strepitu reiiciatui, et aures convicio de- 
fessae conquieacant. An tu exdstimas aut "swppetere 
nobis posse, quod quotidie dicamua, in tanla varietate 
rerum, '^si animos nostros docuina excolamua ; aut ferre 
animos tantam posse contentionem, '^nisi eos doctrina 
eadem relaxemus 1 Ego vero fateor, me '''his atudiis essc 
deditum : ceteroa pudeat, si qui ita se literis abdiderunt. 
'^t nihil pussint ex hia neque ad commimem afTene 
fnictum, neque in adspectum lucemque proferre. Me 
i:iitem quid pudeat, qui tot annos ita vivo, judices, ut '»ab 
nuUius umquam me tempore aut commodo aut ^otium 
meum absb^axerii, aut vtrfuptas avocarit, aut denique 
somnus retardaritt 13. Quare quis tandem me repre- 
hendat, aut quis mihi juie auccenaeat, ai quantum ccteiia 
^'ad auas res obeundas, quantum ad fesios dies ludorum 
celebrandos, quantum ad alias voiuptates, et ad ipaam 
requiem animi et corpoiis conceditur tempomm ; quantum 
alii tribuimt ^empestiris conviviis, quanium denique 
^aleae, quantum ^*pilae ; tantiun mihi egomet^ad haec 
studia recolenda sumpseroT Atque hoc adeo mihi con- 
cedendnm eat magis, ^°quod ex his studiia haec quoque 
censetui oiatio et facultas. quae, ^quantacunque est i«,GoOgk 


me, nanquara amiconim periculis defuit. 'Qnae n ^ui 
leTior Tidetur, iUa quidem ceite, quae summa eunt, ex 
quo fonte haunEun, seutio. 14. ^Nam, nisi %iulu>rum 
piaeceptis multisque litetis miM ab adolescentia aua- 
siaaem, juhil esse in Tita *magno opere expetendum, nisi 
laudem atque bonestatem, 'm ea ^autem persequenda 
onmea cruciatuB corpoiis, omnia pericula morUB atque 
exailii, parvi esse ducenda ; nunquam me f)io salutci 
vestra in tot ac tantas ^dimicationes, alque in hos piofli- 
galorum hominuiii quotidianos impetus objectBBem. ''Sed 
pleui omnes sunt libri, plenae ^sapiendum voces, plena 
exemplorum TBtuBtas ; quae jaceient in I^nebria omnia, 
"nisi literaium Inmen accederet. '"Quam multas nobie 
imagines, non solum ad intuendum, verum etiam ad 
imitandum, fortisaimorum virorum expressas scriplores 
et Graeci et Latini reliquemnt! quas ego '^mihi semper 
in administranda republica proponens, animnm et men- 
tem meam ipsa cogitatione hominnm excellentium con- 

VII. 15. Qdaeket quispiam : " Quid 1 "illi ipsi atunmi 
Tiri, quorum virtutes literis proditae sunt, istane doctrina, 
quam m laudibus efieis, eruditi fuenmt?" '^Difficile esi 
hoc de omnibus coofirmare ; '^d tamen est certum, 
quid respondeam. Ego multos homines ^^excellenti ani- 
rao ac Tirtute fuisse, et sine docU^ina, '°naturae ipsius 
habitu prope diiino, per se ipsos et moderatos et graves 
exatitissB iateor. £tiam illud adjungo, saefuus '''ad laudem 
atquo virtutem natmam sine doctrina, quam stne natnra 
valuisse doctrinam. '^Atque idem ego conteudo, cum ad 
naturam eximiam atque illustrem accesserit ratio quaedam 
conformatioque doctiinae, tum illud neacio qmd praecla- 
rum acsingulare solere exsistere: 16. '^ex boc esse huno 
numero, qusm patres nostri viderunt, divinum bominem, 
^^Africanum : ex hoc ^'C. Laelium, L. Furium, ^^modera^ 
tissimos homines 4t condnentissimos : ex hoc fonissimum 
nrum, ^et illis temporibus doctiasimum, "M. Catonem 
illum senam' qiii profecto, si nibil '''ail iMicijMsndsm 


colendunque viituteni literis adjurarentuT, unnqaam ae ad 
eanua studiuiu coutuliBBent. 'Quod si non hic tantui 
fiuctua ostenderetui, et ai ez his studiis delectatio sola 
peteretur, tamen, ut opiuor, hanc luiiini sdversioaem hn- 
maaisaimam ac liberdiasimam judicarelis. ^am cet«rae 
neque temponim aunt, neque aetatum <Hnmimi, neque lo- 
eorum; haec studia adc4escentlam alunt, senectntem ob- 
lectant, stcondaa res omant, adveraU perfagium ae ao- 
l^um praebent, ^delectant domi, aon in^tediuot foria, 
pemoctant nobiscum, peiegrinaatur, msticaatnr. 

VIII. 17. *QuoD ei ipai haec aeque attiag«e, neqae 
aejisn nos^ gustare possemus, tameo ea mirari debere- 
mus, etiam cum in aliis Tideremus. Quis oostrftm ^tam 
animo agreati ac duro fuit, ut 'Roscii moKe nuper non 
commorBretur T 'qui cum esset senex mortuiie, tam^i, 
propter excellentem artem ac venustatem, videbatnr omm- 
i non debuisse. Ergo ille 'corporis motn tafitum 
1 sibi conciliarat a aobia onmibua; noa auimorura 
incredibilea motua celeritatemque ingeaiorum ae^gemus I 
18. Quotiea ego hunc Archism vidi, jodicea, (*iitar eaim 
reatra benignitate, quoniam me iu hoc noTO genere dicendi 
tam diligentei attenditis,) quoties ego hunc ridi, ^^^cum 
hteram scripsisset nullam, magaum numerum optimoram 
versuum de iis ipais rebus, quae tum agerentur, 'Miceie 
ex tempore ! quotiea lerocatum eandem lem dicere, "com- 
mutatis verbis atque sententiis ! Quae veio "accurat* 
cogitateque scripBiaaet, ea sic ridi probari, ut ad reterum 
scriptornm landcm pervenireat. Hunc ego non diligamt 
non admiiei ? non omni ratioae defendeitdum putem * 
>*Atqui sic a summis hominibua emditiaaimisque accepi- 
muB, "ceterarum terum atudia et docbrina, et praecepda, 
et aite constare; poetam natura ipaa ralere, et mentia 
riribus excitari, et quasi divino quodam sioritn >^n£ari. 
Quare ^'suo jme noster iSe Eoiuns i%ancto8 a|^1Iat 
poetas, '*quod qnasi deomm aliquo dono atqne mnnera 
commendati nobia esse lideantur. 19. Sit igitui, judi- 
oee, aanctum apud vos, '"hmnudsaimoe homilles, hoe,GoOgk 


po^tae nom«n, qnod nnlla nnquani baibaria TiolaTit. ^Saxa 
et eolitudiuea voci respondent; beatiae saepe iminaDea 
cantu flectuutuT atqne conaietunt : noi ^instituti leoua 
opdmiB oon poetaiom Toce moTesmui 1 Homerum 'Colo- 
pfaonii drem osse dicnnt euum, ^Chii snnm rindicant, 
■Salaminii repetunt, Smyniaei Tero aunm esse conSnnant, 
itatjne etiain Melubnim ejus in oppido dedicaremnt : per- 
mnlti alii praeterea pugnaiti iatei se atque 'contendnnt. 

IX. Eaoo illi ^enum, quia poeta fuit, post mortem 
etiam ezpetnnt; nos hnnc TiTum, qui *et Toluntate et 
legiboe noatei eat, lepudiamuaT praesertim '^mne 
<dim Btudium atque omoe ing^nium contulerit Aichiaa , 
ad popuU Romaoi gjoriam laudemque ceiebrandam ? Nam 
"et Cin^ricas res adolescens attigit, et '*ipsi illi C. 
Mario, '^qoi dnrior ad baec studia Tidebatur, jucundna 
ftat 80. Noque enim quisquam eat "tam aTerans a 
Moaia, '^qui non mandari Teraibua aetemnm snorum labo- 
rum facile piaeconium patiatur.' ''Themistoclem illum, 
Bammmn Athenis Timm, dixiase aiunt, cum ex eo quae- 
reremr, "qnod acioama, aut cujns Tocem libentiaaime 
nn^ret: "e]us, '^ qup aua Tirtua optime praedicaretur." 
Itaqne iUe Mariui >*itein eximie L. Plotium dilezit, cn- 
ins ingenio pniabat ea, quae gesaerat, posae celebrari. 
21. '"Mithridaticnm vero bellum, magnum atque difficile, 
et in multa rarietate terra marique versatum, totnm ab 
hoc expressum est : 'Viui libri non modo L. Lucullum, 
fortiBsimum et clariaaimum virum, Teium etiam populi 
Roraani nomen iiluBtrant. ^^Popidus enim Romanua 
a^niit, LucuUo imperanie, Pontum, et regiis quondam 
optbns, et ipsa natura regionis Tallatum : populi Romani 
exercitOB, eodem dnce, *^on maiima manu innumerabi- 
les ^Armeniomm copias fiidit : ^''popiili Romani laiis 
eat, wbem amioissimam Cyzicenorum, ejusdem conailio, 
**ex orani impetu regio, ac totius belli ore ac faocibua 
ereptam esse alque serratam : "noatra semper feretui et 
praodicabitnr, L. Lucullo dimicante, cnm interfectia duci- 
bns depiessa hostium clasais, et incredibilis apud Tenedum,GoOgk 


[mgna illa navalis: 'noatia sunt tn^paea, noatra inunii> 
meuta, nostri tiiumphi. Quare, qnorum ingeoiia haec 
%nmtui, ab iis populi Romaui fama celebratur. 22. Ca- 
nis fuit ^Africano supetiori noster Ennius ; 'itaque etiam 
*in sepulchio Scipionum putatur is esae constitutus e 
marmore. At ^ejus iaudibus cerle non solum ^ipsi, qni 
laudantur, sed etiara populi Romani nomen omatur. Is 
coelum ^hujua proavus Cato toUitnr ; magnua honoa pop- 
uU Romaoi rebus ^adjungitui. Omnea denique ilii Maxi- 
mi, Marcelli, Fulvii, non siue communi omnium noatrflm 
laude decorantur. 

X. Sroo '^illum, qui haec fecerat, Rodinum hominem, 
majoTes noatri in civitatem receperunt ; nos ^'hunc He< 
lacleensem, '^uliis civitatibua ezpetitum, ^in bac autem 
legibus constitutum, de nostra civitate ejiciemusT 

23. "Nam si quis '^minorem gloiiae Iructum putat ex 
Graecis versibus percipi, qnam ez Latiais, vehemeuter 
errat: propterea, quod Graeca leguntui in omnibus feis 
gentibua, '^Latina sujs finibus, eziguis sane, continentui. 
Quare si res eae, quaa gessimus, "orbis teiiae legionl- 
bus defioiuntuT, cupere debemus, '^uo manuum nostia- 
rum tela perveneiint, eodem gloiiam fai^amque penetrare : 
'*quod cum ipsia populis, de quoium lebus scribitur, 
haec ampla sunt, tum iis ceite, qui de vita, gloiiae 
causa, dimicant, hoc maximum et peiiculoium iucitamen- 
timi est, et laboium. 34. ^"Quam multos scriptoies 
lerum suarum magnus ille Aleiander secum habuisse 
dicitur ! Alque is tamen, cnm ^'in Sigeo ^ad Achillit 
tumulum adstitiaaet, ^^" O fortunate," inquit, " adolescen», 
qui tnae virtutis Homerum praeconem inveneris !" £l 
veie. Nam, nisi '*IIias illa exstitisBet, idem tnmulos, qui 
co^us ejus contezerat, nomen etiajn obiuiBBet. Quidl 
'^nostei hic Magnus, qui cum viitute fortunam adaequavit, 
nonne ^Theophanem, Mitylenaeum, acriptoiem rennn 
Biiaium, in concione militum civitate donavit? ^'et nostri 
illi foites viii, sed rustici ac milites, dulcedine qnadam 
i^riae commoti, quasi participes BJusclem laudis, magao 


Dlnd clamore approbaTenint ? 29. 'Iiaqne, credo, si civjs 
Romanus Arehias legibus non esset, ut ab aliquo impe* 
latore civitate donaretur, peificerenonpotuiBset! ^SuUa, 
ciun Hispanos et GaJlos donaret, credo hnnc pelentem 
repudiasset ! ^nem nos in conciooe Tidimus, cum e> 
^libellviin malua poeta de populo iubjecisset, qnod epi- 
gramma in eum fecisset, tantunimodo altemiB TerBibus 
losgiusculis, Btadm 'ex iis rebus, quaa tunc Tendebat, 
jubore ei praemium tribui Bub ea conditione, ue quid 
poBtea scriberet. 'Qui sedulitatera mali poStae duxeril 
aliquo tamen praemio dignam, hujus ingenium et virtut«m 
in Bcribendo et copiam non expetissetl 26. Qnid? a 
Q. Metello Pio, familiarissimo suo, qoi civitate multoa 
donaTit, neque per se, 'neque per Lucnllos impetraTisaet ? 
qui praesertim nsqne eo ^e suis rebus scribi cuperet, 
ut etiam "Cordubae natis poStis, '°pingne qmddam so- 
naadbua atque peregrisum, tamen anres snas dederet. 

XI. NEonB enim eat hoc dissiimtlandum, quod obecu- 
rari nOD potest ; ''sed prae nobis feTenduin ; i^trabimur 
omnes laudis studio. et optimua quisque maxime gloria 
dncitur. i^Ipsi philosophi, "etiam illis libellis, quos de 
contemnenda gtcnia scribunt, nomen suum inscribunt : 
t^a eo ipso, in quo praedicationem nobOitatemque de- 
Bpictunt, praedicari de se, ac se nominari Toluut. 27. 
'^Decimus quidem Brutus, BummuB ille Tir et imperator, 
'^AHii, amicissinii sm, carminibua templorum ac monu- 
mentoTum aditus esornavit suorum. Jam vero illo, qui cum 
Aetolia, Eonio comile, bellarit, '^Fulvins, '*non dubitavit 
Mards manubias Mnsis consecrare. Quare, in qua nrbc 
imperatotes, -^prope annati, poetarum nomen et Musanmi 
delubra coluerunt, in ea non debent togsii jndiees ^'a 
Musarum honore et a poetanmi salnte abhorrere. 

28. Atque, ut id libentius faciatis, ^jam me vobia, 
judices, indicabo, et de meo quodam amore gloriae, nimis 
Bcri fortasae, Terumtamen honesto, vobis confitebor. Nam, 
i3qaas res nos in consulatu nostro Tobiscum simul pro 
ealuto hujus urbis atque imperii, et pro Tita cirium, proque 



UDireTU tepublica gesBimna, ^attigit hic Tera^us atqiic 
inchoarit : quibus audius, quod mihi magna Tes et jucuada 
riaa eat, %unc ad perficieudum hoitatuB ewii. Nullam 
enim virtua alisuu mercedem laborum periculorumqne de- 
siderat, pneter hanc landis et gloriae ; qna quidem de- 
tracta, judices, ^quid est, quod ia hoc tam exigno ritae 
curriculo, et tam bien, tantis nos iu iaboribns exercea- 
mus 1 29. Ceite, ^si nihil animus praesentiret in pos- 
terum, et ai, quibiia regionibus vitae spatium circumr 
Bcriptnm est, eisdem oznnes cogitationeB teiminaret suas, 
^ec tantis se laboribus fiangeret, neque tot curis vigi- 
liisque angeietui, Dcqae tcuea de rita ipaa dimicaiet. 
'Nunc insidet quaedam in optimo quoque viitus, qnae 
noctes et dies animum gloiiae stimulis concitat, atque 
edmonet ^non cum Tiiae tempore esse dimittendam com- 
memorationem nominis nostri, sed cum oaau posteritate 

XII. 30. "An vero tam parri animi Tideamoi esse 
omnes, qni in lepublica, atqne in his vitae periculia 
laboribusque Tersamur, ut, cum usqne ad eztremum 
spatium, nullum tranquillum atqne otiosum spiiitum duxe- 
nmus, nobiacum simul moritura onmia aibitiemui T 'An, 
cum statuas et imagines, non animonun simulacia, sed 
corpoium, studiose multl sununi homiues reliqneriut, 
'"consiliorum relinqueie ac riitutum nostiaium effigiem 
non multo malle debemus, summia iageniis ezpressam el 
politamT Ego vero onmia, quae gerebam, '^jam tum ia 
gerendo spargere me ac disseminaie arbitrabar in orbis 
tenae memoiiam sempitemam. ^'Haec Tera sive ameo 
sensu poat mortem abfutura est, Biv», ut sajMentissi- 
mi homines putaTerunt, '%d aliqnam niei paitem per- 
tlnebit; nuuc qnidem ceite cogitatione quadam speque 

31. Qnaie conserTate, judices, hominein '^pudoie eo, 
tjuem amicoinm ridetis compiobari tum dignitale, tom 
etiam '^vetustate; iDgenio autem tanto, qnantum '^id con* 
venit existimari, quod summaium htmiinnm ingeniis ex- 


pedtum esse vide&ds: cauaa Tero ejuflinodi, 'quse bene- 
ficio legis, ^uctorilate manicipii, tefltimonio Luculli, 
tabulia Metelli con^obetur. Quae cum ita aiiit, peti- 
mu3 a Tobis, judices, si qua non modo Iminaiia, Tenim 
etiam divina in tantis negotiis commendatio debet esse, 
ut enm, qui tos, qui TeBtros impeTalores, qui populi Ro- 
mani res gestas semper omaTit, qui etiam Ms recentibuB 
nostris, Testiisque Momesticis periculis aeteniuin se testi- 
monium laudmn datorum ease proGtetui, quiqne *eit eo 
numeTo, qui semper apud omnes sancti smit babiti alque 
dicd, sic in vesbam accipiatis fidem, ut *hnmanitate 
Teatra leTatus potius, quam aceTbitate Tiolatus esse ridea- 
tur. 32. Quae ''de cauaa pro mea consuetudine breviter 
simpliciterque dixi, judices, ea confido probata ease omni- 
bus : quae ^on fori, noque judiciali consuemdiae, et de 
homiiiis ingenio, ^et communiter de ipalus atudio locutus 
sum, ea, judices, a Tobis apero eaae in bonam partem 
Accejtfa ; ^''ab eo, qui judicium exercet, certe sciu. 






I. 'DiCTORNi silentii. patres conscripti, "quo eram hia 
i«inporibus uaus, *non timote aliquo, sed ^pactim dolore, 
^krtim verecundia, finem hodicrnus diea attulit ; idemque 
initium, 'quae vellem, quaeque senlirem, meo pristino 
more dicendi. Tantam enim ^niansuetudinem, tam inusi- 
tatam, inauditamque clementiam, *lanCum, ii 
testate, renim omnium modum, tam denique incredibilem 
'°sapientiam ac paene divinam, tacitus nullo modo prae. 
teriie possnm. M. enim Marcello vobis, patres conBcripti. 
reique pablicae reddito, non solum illius, sed meam etiam 
vocem et "auctoritatein, et Tobis et reipublicae 
lam ac restitutam puto. 

"Dolebam enim, patrea conacripti, et vehomenter ange. 
bar, cum videtem, virum talem, '^in eadem causa in qu: 
ego fuissem, non in eadem esse fortuna : '*nec mitii 
suadere poteram, nec faa esse ducebam, versari m 
'*nostro vetori curriculo, illo aemulo atqi 
studiorum ac laborum meomm, quasi quodam socio a mo 
et'oolnite, diatracto. Ergo et mihi "meae pristinae vitae 
con^etudinem, C. Caesar, interclusam aperuisti ; "et bis 
omnibuB, ad bene de omni republica sperandum, quasi 
eignum aliquod suatulisti. '*Intellectum est enim, mihi 
qu:dem Li multis, et maxime in me ipso, sed paulo ant« 
omTiibii», cum M. Marcellum senatui populoque Romano,GoOgk 


conceBQiBti, commeinort^ praeBertim loffensiaiiibus, ta 
auctohtatem liujua ordiniB, dignitatemque reipi^ticao, Huim 
vel doloribus Tel suapicionibus antefeiie. 

'llle quidem fructum omnia ritae snteactae hodiorno 
die maiimum cepit, cum aumnio coiisensu senatue, tnm 
praetorea judicio tuo graviaeimo et m^zimo. ~ Ex qno 
profecto intelligis, quanta in dato beneficio sit 'laus, cum 
in accepto tajits sit gloria. ^Est vero fortimatus ille, 
cnjuB ex 9alut« non minor paei.e ad omnes, quam ad 
ipsum 'ventura sit, laetitia pervenerit. Quod ei quidem 
merilo, atque optimo jure, contigit Quis enim est illo 
sQt 'nobiiitate, ftut probitate, auc optimamm anium studio, 
atn innocentia, aut uUo genere- laudis, piaeHtanlior t 

II. ^NuLLTus tautum est flumen ingeuii, nuIJius dicendi 
But scribendi tanta via, tanta copia, quae, non dicani 
exomare, sed enarrare, C. Caesar, res tuas gestaa possit. 
Tamen affirmo (et hoc ^paco dicam tua,) nullam in hia 
esse Isndem ampUorem, quam eam, quam bodiemo dle 
cooBecutuB es. Soleo saepe ante ocuIob ponere, ^°idque 
libentet crebris usurpare sennonibus, omnes nostrorom 
imperatorum, omnes exteramm gentium, potentissimomm- 
qne populorum, omnes clarissimorum tegtim res gestaa, 
cum tuis nec contentionum tnagnitudine, nes ^'numeio 
proeliomm, '%ec Tarietate regionum, nec '^eleritate COS' 
ficiendi, ^%ec dissimilitudine bellorum, posse conferri: 
'^ec Teio disjunctiesimas terras citius cujusquam paksi- 
bus potuisse peiagrari, quam tuis, non dicam cutsibus, 
aed victoriis, ^^uatratae sint. 

iiQuae quidem ego nisi ita magna esse falear, nt ea 
viz cujusquam mens aut cogilatio capere possit, amena 
sim : sed tamen snni '^a majora. Nam bellicaa laudea 
■olcnt quidam ''eztenuare verbis, easque detrahere imd- 
bu9, communicara cum multis, ue propriae sint imperatonun 
Et certe, ^n armis, militum virtus, locomm opportunitas, 
suxilia socjorum, classes, ^'commeatus, multum juvant; maz- 
imam vero partem, ^'qnasi buo jure, Foituna sibi vindicat; 
•t, quidqiud est piospeie gesttmi, id paene omne ducitsuuoL,GoOgk • 

n oa^Tw Hio M. lujiaxixo. 

At Tero ihajns glonae, C. Coesftr, qoaai es puilo snto 
adeptus, socitun habes nMninem. Totmn hoc, ''qiiantiim- 
fainque est, (quod certe maximam,) totum eat, inquam, 
tumn. ^Niial. sibi ex ista laude cenmHo, niMl piwttsc- 
tuB, nihii cohoTS, nihil tunna ^eceipit. ^Quin etiam 
illa ipm rerum hnmanaium domina, Ftwtuna, in ialius se 
Bocietatem gloriae non offert : tibi cedit : Hmun esse totam 
et propriam fatetur. Nunquam enim temeritas cum ssp- 
ientia conuniscetur, 'nec sd consilium casus admittitiir. 

III. DonirisTi gentes *immanitate bsrbaias, multitndine 
Htnmnerabilea, *locis infinitas, onRii copiaium geaere 
abundaBtes : sed tamen ea vieistd, "^i^ naturam et ct»- 
dititmem, ul vinci possent, babebant: nulla est enim 
taata vis, quoe non ferro ac Tiribns debilitari Irangique 
possit. "Animiun Tiiicere, iracundiam cohibere, nctoiiam 
ten^raie, i^rersBriuiD, nobilitate, ingenio, -nrtate pne- 
stantem, non modo extolleie jaoentem, sed eliam saifih- 
6care ejus pristusam dignitatem; faaec qni UatX, non 
ogo eum CtOi sumuis viris ceumaio, sed ^^aimillimum 
Deo jndico. 

ttaqoe, C Caesu, *^ellicae toae Isodes cdebrBbvntur 
ffine quidem non solum nostris, sed psene omniiun goa- 
tiua literis atque lingiBs ; neque Ttlta nmquam aetas de 
nis taodibns conticescet. Sed tameu '^jusiimdi res, 
noscio quomodo, etisin cimi leguntur, obstrepi clamore 
niQnun videaaiT, et tubaram sihio. At tmo, cum abqnid 
dMnenter, msnsuete, juste, moderate, sapienier fsctnm, 
(in "iracundia praesertim, qnae eat inimica ccwsilio, et 
m victoria, qiiae natura insfdens et anpeiba est,) aut 
«ndunus, SM legimus ; quo atudio iucendnimr, *'iiob modo 
Ja gestis rebus, sed edam in fictis, nt eos saepe, qnos 
nunquam vidimus, diligamus! Te vero, qnem prMsea- 
tmi intoemuT, '^ujus menWoi senBtisqne eos cemimus, 
&I, quidqnid belli fortuna Teluprora reqmblicae feoerit, id 
ease '^alvum velis, qmbus Isndibns efferemus? ^uibus 
sludiiB proseqnemqT? qna benevolenna coi^ectemur! 
Parietes, >ime dioB idius, (ut ndhi videntni,) h^os -ooriM 



tibi graUas i^re gestiunt, quod breTl tempoie Adaii» sit 
iUa &uctoritas in his majorum ntniin et suii sedibua. 

IV. EQniDEM, cum ^C. Maicelli, viii optimi ^t cog^ 
memotabili pietttte praedili, lacrymaa modo volouumvid- 
erem, onminm Maicelkmun menm ^ctus memona ob 
fudit. Quibus tu etiam mortuis, M. Marcdlo cmerr&to, 
dignitatem suam leddidisti; ^nobiliHimamqae ramUiun, 
jsm ad paucos redactam, paene ab inteiitu nndictML 
Hnnc ta igitnr diem ^tuia nmTinii» et inaomeiabilibiia 
giatulationitws jure antepcmes. Haec enim res unina 
^eBt {«o[Hia Caesaris : ceteiae, ^duce te gestae qoidem, 
sed tunen multo magnoque comitatu. 'Hujus autem rei 
tu idem et dux es, et comes; ^quae qnidem tanta est, 
nl tropaeis monmnentisque tuis allatara fiuem sit aetas 
(nihii enim est '"opeie aut manu factom, quod aliquando 
non oonficiat et ctmsDmat vetustas) : at veio haec toa 
1'justitia et lenitas animi florescet quoddie magis, ita '^, 
quantum opeiibus tois diutninitas detrahet, tantum afferat 
laudibus. £t ceteios qnidem omnes 'Mctoiea beUoium 
civilium jam ante aequitate et miseiicordia Tic«a8:hod- 
ieino veio die te ipsnm vicistL '*Veieoi, ue hoc, quod 
dicam, ^'non perinde iutelligt audita possit, atque ipse 
cogitans aentio. Ipeam victoriam vicisse videm, cum e«, 
^uae tlla erat adepta, victis lemisisti. Nam, cnm ipsius 
Tictoriae conditione juie '''omneB victi occidiasemiM, 
Uclementtae tuae judicio conservati sumus. Recte igitw 
imnB invictus es, a qno etiam ipsina victoiiae cooditir 
visque devicta esL 

V. "Atqde boc C. Caesaiia jadicium, pstres canscrijtti 
quam late pateat, attendite : omnes enini, ^qni ad illi 
arma fato sunros ^'nescio quo leipublicae misero fnnesto 
que compulsi, ''etsi aliqua culpa tenemm enoria irnmani 
■■asceleie certe liberati sumus. Nam, cum M. MaTceUum. 
deprecantibus vobis, leipublicae conBeTTavit ; memet mihi, 
»*et iterum reipiiblicae, nullo deprecante, "leliqnoa ampliij- 
■iiBos viios et sibi ipsia et patriae, reddidit : quoimn et 
fr«q[aeiitiain et dignitatem hoe pso in consessu videtis 


'Nou iUe hostes indujdt in cnriam ; aed ^dicavit, & ple- 
risque, ignoratioae potiuB, et falso atque inani metu, 
*quiim cupiditate aat ^cnidelitate, beUum esse eusceptum 
Quo quidem in bello 'semper. de pace &udienduni putavi 
semperqoe dolui, non modo pacem, aed ^orationem etiam 
civitun, pacem flagitantium, lepudiari. ''Neque eaim ego 
illa, nec ulla unquam, secntue sum arma civilia; seniper- 
que mea consilia pacis et togae ^ocia, non belli atque 
armoTum, fuenmt. ^Hominem sum secutus privato oflicio, 
non pubiico : "Hantumque apud me grati animi fidelis 
memoria valuit, "ut nulla non raodo cupiditate, eed nc 
spe quidem, prudens et sciena, tanqimm ad interitum 
ruerem voluntarium. 

"Quod quidem meum coneilium minime obscurum hut. 
Nam et in hoc ordine, integra re, mulla de pace diii : et 
in ipso bello '^^eadem, etiam cum capitis mei periculo, 
sensi. "Es quo jam nemo erit tam injustus reTum ex- 
istimator, qui dubitet, quae Caesaris voluntas de bello 
fuerit, cum "pacis auctores eonservandoa statim cenauerit, 
'^eieris fuit iratior. Atque id minua mirum fortaase tum, 
ctmi esset incertus ezitus, et ancepa fortuna belli : qui 
vero, '''victor, pacis auctores diligit, is profecto declarat, 
'^e maluisse non dimicare, quam viucere. 

VI. "ATanE hujus quidem rei M. Marcello aum teatla. 
'"Nostri enim sensua, nt in pace aemper, sic tum edam 
in bello congruebant. Quoties ego eum, et quanto cum 
dolore, vidi, cum insolentiam ^'certorum Lominum, tum 
etiam ipsius ''victoriae ferocitatem, exlimescentem ! Qno 
gratior "tua liberalitas, C, Caesar, nobis, qui illa vidi- 
mus, debet esae. ^Nod enim jain causae sunt inter se, 
sed victoiiae, comparandae. Vidimus tuam Ticloriam 
proelionim exitu terminatam : gladiura vagiua vacuum in 
Urbe non vidimus. Quos amisimus cives, eos ^Marlis 
via perculit, non iia victoriae ) ut dubitare debeat nemo, 
quin multos, ai fieri poseet, C. Caesar ab inferis excita- 
ret ; quouiam ^ex eadem acie conservat, quos potest. 
"Alterius vero partis, nihil UBpliiu dicam, quam (id, quod 


onmes Tersbaunir,) 'nimia iracimdaiD Aitnnin fiiiase Ticto- 
riam. Quidsm enim, non modo ^&rmatii, aed interdum 
etiam ^tiosia, minabantnr : uec, ^quid qniaque sensiaaA, 
aed ubi fuisset, co^tandum esBe dicebant ; ut mihi quid- 
em videanlur Dii immoTtaleB, (^etiamai poenaa a populo 
Romano ob aliquod delictum expetiTerint, qui cirile bel- 
lum tantum et tam luctuosum ezcila*emit,) vel placati 
\ain, vel aatiati aliquando, "omnem spem salutia ad cle- 
mentiam Tictoria et-sapientiam contulisae. 

''Quare gaude ttio isto tam escellenti bono ; et fhiere, 
cura foituna et gloria, tum etiam natnra et moribus tuis ; 
ex quo quidem maximus est fructus jucunditasque sapienti, 
*Cetera cnm tua recordabere, etsi persaepe Tirtali, tamea 
plerumque feliciiati tuae congiatulabere. De nobis, qnos 
in republica tecum simul salToa esse Toluisti, quotiei 
cogitabis, toties ^''de maximis tnis beneficiis, toties de 
incred^li liberalitate, toliea de singulari sapientia tua, 
cogitabia : ^'quae non modo summa booa, sed lumimm 
andebo vel sota dicere. Tantua est enim splendor '^ 
lande vera, tanta in magnitudLae aniiui et consilii dig- 
nitas, ut haec a Tiitnte donata, cetera a fortima com- 
modata esse ndeantur. Noli igitur in cdhaerTandis 
bonis Tiris defatigari, nou cupiditate praesertim aut pra- 
vilate aliqua "lapsia, ^*sed opinione officii, stnlta fortasse, 
certe non improba, et specie quadam reipublicae. ^'Non 
eoim tua ulla culpa eat, ai te aliqui timuerunt : contraque, 
tnmma laus, quod plerique minime timendnm fnisee sen 

VII. "NtiNC vero Tenio ad graTissimam querelam, et 
■trocissimam suspicionem tuam ; ^^quae noa tibi ipsi m^ 
gis, quam, cum onmibus civibue, tum maxime nobis, qnl 
a te conserrati smnus, proviilendtt eei: quam etsi spero 
esse falsam, ^aunquam tamen Terbis exienuabo. Tua 
enim caniio nostra cautio est; '"ut, si iu alterutro pec- 
candum sit, malim videri nimis timidus, quam parum 
pmdens. ^Sed quisnam est iste tam demens 1 ^'de tuis- 
neT tametsi qui magis sunt tui, quam quibus tu saluteiD 



insperantibuB leddulistiT an ez eo numeio, 'qni naa te- 
cunt fuenint l Non eat ciedibilis ^tantua in ullo fuior, 
nt, quo duce omnia Bumma tAt adepnw, tiujua vitam non 
antepoaat au^. At, si toi nihil cogitant aceleriB, ^ca- 
vendmu est, ne quid inimici. Qui? onmes enim, qui 
{uenint, aut Bua peitinacia vitam amiBenmt, aut tuamis- 
ericordia letinueiunt ; ut aut nuUi supeiaint de inimicis, 
aut, qui 'aupersimt, Bint amiciasimi. 

Sed tamen, cum iu aniniis hominum ^tantae latebrae 
unt et lauti recessus, augeamus aane suspicioDem tuam : 
simul enim augebimus diligentiam. Nam quis est omnium 
*t8m ignarus Terum, tam ludis iu repnbllca, tam nihil 
umquam nec de sua nec de communi salute cogitans, qni 
non intelligat, tua salute contineri snam, et ^ex nniua 
tua vita pendere omnium i Equidem, de te dies noctes- 
qne (^ debeo) cogitans, ^casus duntaxat fiumanoa, et 
inceitos eventns raletndinis, et natuiae communis fiagi- 
Utatem, extimeBco : '"doleoque, cum lespublica immoitalis 
esse debeat, eam in unius morlalis anima consistere. 
Si rero, ad humanos casns, inceitosque eTentus Taletur 
dinis, '^sceleris etiam accedat insidiarumque consensio; 
qnem Deum, si cupiat, c^itul&n posse teipublica« cro- 
damna ? 

VIII. Ohnia snnt ''excitanda tibi, C. Caesar, uni, 
qoae jacere sentis.belli ig^niua impetu (quod necesse fint) 
peiculsa atque prostrata : ^^constituenda judicia, revocaa- 
da Mee, '^comfHimendae llbidines, '"propagajtda soboles : 
'*omnia, quae dilapsa jam fluxerunt, aeveris legibna vin- 
cienda sunt. '^Non fiiit recusandum, in tanto civili bello, 
tsatoque animoium ardore et armoium, quin qaassttta 
lespublica, quicunque belli eTentua fuisset, multa perd»- 
ret et OTnamenia dignilatis, et piaeaidia atabilitatis snae : 
multaque uterque dlEC faceret '^armatus, quae idem U>fa^ 
tus firai piotubnisset. Quae qnidem tibi omnia belli 
vulnera curanda sunt; '^quibns, praetei te, medeii nemo 

'^ltsque ilUm tuam praeGlarissimam et swientiMimBm 


ottATM PKO u. mscui^a- n 

rOAWn iuntua aodin : " Satis diu Tel natone Tizi, vel 
gloriae." Satis, si ita tib aatuiae fortaMe ; addo eUam, 
si plac«t, gloriae: at (quod maximum eat) ipatiiae ceite 
parum. ^Quaie, omitte, quaeso, istam ^doctonua bomi- 
uum in coDtemuenda moite pnidestiam : noli oostio pe- 
riculo s^>ieas esse. Saepe enim Teoit ad anns meM, 
te idem i^d *nimis crebio dicere, satia te *tibi Tixisae. 
*Credo : Bod tum id audiieni, ^si tibi aoli viveies, ant 
si libi etiam soU natus esaes. ^Nuac, cum cmaiual 
salutem civiuai cuactainque rempnblicam ^es tuoe ges- 
tae con^exae sint; ''Hantum abea a peifectione maxi' 
moium opeium, ut fundamenta, quae cogitas, aondum 
jeceris. "Hic tu modum tuae vitae, non salute rei* 
publicae, sed aequitate animi, definieH J Quid, si "istud 
ne gloriae quidem tuae satis est? cujus te esse avidis- 
simum, quamvis sis sapieas, non negabis. 

"Parumae igitui, inquies, gloiiam magnMn lelinque- 
mus! Immo veio ''atiis, quamviB multis, satis; tibi uni 
paium. '^Quidquid enim est, quamvis sjnplmn sit, id ceite 
parum est tujn, cum est aliquid amjdius. Quod si "le- 
rum tuaium immoitalium, C. Caesar, hic ezitus futuius 
fuit, Tit, devictis adveisaiiis, lempublicam in eo statu le- 
linqueies, in quo nunc est ; "nde, quaeso, ne tua divina 
virtus admiiatioois plus sit habitura, quam gloriae : '°ei- 
quidem ^oria est illustris ac pervagata multonuu etmag 
nonun, tcI in suos, vel ia patiiam, vel in (Hnne genus 
hominiun, fama meiitoium. 

IX. i^Haxc igitui tjbi reliqua pais esti '"hio restat 
actus, ^^in boc elaboiandum esl, ut rempublicam constii- 
uas, eaque tu in primis composita, ^cum summa tian- 
qvillitato et otio, perfruare: tum te, si roles, cum ei 
p8tria«4 quod debes, solTeris, ^et natuiam ipsam eKpleve- 
ris satietate vivendi, satia diu vixisn dicito. '*Quid esl 
enim omnino boc ipeum diu, in qno est aliquid exliemum ; 
qaoi^caia vonit, omnia Toluptas praeterita pro nihilo esi, 
quia postea nulla futuia est ? "Quamqiiam iste tuus atii- 
mus nunquam ^bis angustiis, quas natura nobis ad viven-,GoOgk 


duM dedit, c<Hiteiitas fnit; Bemperqne nnmortalitatis &iiii>- 
re flagravit, ' ■ 

'Nec Tero haac tua vita docenda est, quae corpore et 
spiritu continetuT. llla, iUa, inqnam, ^vits est tua, quae 
vigebit memoria saeculorum omnium ; quam posteritaa 
alet, qoam ipsa aeternitas semper tuebitur. ^Huic tn in- 
servi&a, huic te 'ostentes, oporiet : quae quidem, qnau 
miretur, jampridem multa habst ; nunc, etiam quae laudet 
exspectat, Obstupescent posteri certe, *imperia, p«H 
rincias, ^Rhenum, Oceanum, Nilnm, pugnas innumerabi- 
lea, incredibiles victorias, ^monnmenta innumera, trinm- 
phos andienles et legentes tuos. Sed, nisi Iiaec urbs 
''stabilita tnis consiliis et inatitutis erit, ragabitur tnodo 
nomen tuum longe atque late ; aedem quidem stabilem 
et domicilium certum non habebit. Erit, inter eos etiam 
qui nascentur, sicut inter nos fuil, ^magna dissensio, cnin 
alii Taudibus ad coelum res tuas gestas efferent, *aUi 
fonasse aliquid requirent, idqae vel maximum, nisi belli 
ciTilis incehdinm '°salute patriae restinxeris ; ^iut illud 
fati fuisse Tideatur, hoc consilii. '^Servi igitur iis etiam 
judicibus, qui multis post saeculis de te judicabunt, et 
quidem '^haud scio, an incorruptius, quam nos : nam et 
Ljine amore et sine cupiditate, et rursus sine odio et 
aine invidia, judicabunt, "Id autem etiam si lunc ad 
te (ut qnidam falso putant) non pertinebit ; nunc ceite 
peitinet, esse te talem, ut tuas laudea obscuratuia ntdla 
uraqaam sit obUvio. 

X. i^DivERSAB Tolunt&tes civium fuerunt, distractae- 
que senteniias : non enim ''consiliis solnm et stndiis, 
sed axmis etiam et castris, dissidebamns. "Eiat autem 
obscuritas quaedam, erat certamen '^inter clarissimoa 
daces ; **multi dubitabant, quid optimum esset ; multi, 
quid sibi «xpediret; mulli, quid decetet ; nonnulli 
ctiam, quid liceret. '"Perfuncta respublica est hoc 
misero fataliqne bello : vicit is, ''qui non fortuna ia- 
flammuret odium sinini, sed bonitale lenirel ; nec qiii 
onmes, q'jibus iratus esset eoadem etiam exsilio aul,GoOgk 


'ntoTte dignos jodtcsret. *Aniia «b «liia posita, ib 
aliis erepts suut. Ingmtns «st injustosqne civis, qni, 
'annonim periculo liberatas, animnm tamon rotinet «nna- 
tnm ; *ut etism ille sit melior, qui in acie cecidit, tfu 
in canea animam profiidit. Quae enim pertinacia qni- 
busdam, eadem aliis constantia, videri poteat. 'Sed jam 
onmis fracta dissensio est annis, ^t ezstincta aequilate 
viclorifl : restal, ut omnes ^um velint, qui modohab- 
ent aliquid, uon solum sapientiae, sed etiam sanitatis. 
Nisi te, C. Caesar, salvo, et in ista sententia, qua cum 
autea, tum hodie vel masirae usus es, manente, salvi 
esse non possunus. Qaare omnes te, qui haec salva 
ease Tolumus, et hoTtamur et obsectamuB, ^ut vilae, ut 
saluti tuae conaulas : onmesque libi, (ut pro aliis etiam 
loquar, quod "de me ipse sentio,) quoniam "subesse aliquid 
putas, quod cavendum sit, non modo ezcubias et cus- 
todias, sed etiam "^terum noBtromm oppositus et cor- 
poram, poUicemur. 

XI. "Sed, uude esE orsa, in eodem terminetur oratio 
Maximas tibi omnes gratias agimus, C. Caesar : '^ma 
jores etiam habemus. Nam onmes idem Bentinnt ; quod 
ex omoium precibus et lacrymiB sentiie potuisti. Sed, 
quia non est '^tantibns omnibus neceese '^dicere ; a me 
certe dici volunt, cui necesse eat quodammodo, et 
quod volunt, et quod decet, et quod (M. Marcello 
a te hnic ordini populoque Romano et Teipublicae 
reddito) ''praecipue id a me fieri debere intelligo. 
Nam laetari omnes, >"non ut de uuius solum, eed ut 
de communi omnium salute, sentio : ''quod autem sura- 
mae benevolentiae est, (quae me erga itlum omnibus 
semper nola fuil, ut viz C. Marcello, optimo et aman- 
tissimo fratri, praeter eum quidem, cedetem nemini,) 
cnm id soUiciludine, cura, labore tamdiu praeatiterim, 
quamdiu est de illius salute dubitatum, certe hoc lem- 
pore, magnis curis, molestiis, doloribus liboratua, prae- 
staie debeo. '^llaque, C. Caesar, sic tibi graliaB ago, 
nt, omnibus me rebus a le non conservato solum. 



sed etlam omato, lamen i,il tna in me ' imuin umumer»* 
bilia merita, (quod fieri jam poase nou aibitrabac,) maxi- 
muB hoc too facto cumulns KocesMrit.,GoOgk 





1. 1. iQTiAifQrjLH mihi aemper freqnenB conBpectna 
Tester, multo jucundisaimua, ^c autem lociu, W agen- ' 
dum %mpli3simus, ad dicendum omatiHimus est vifius, 
QuiriCes ; tamen %oc aditu laudie, qui semper optimo 
cuique maxime patuit, nou ''mea me voluntas, sed ^eae 
vitae rationes, tit ineunte aetate suaceptae, piobibnenml. 
Nam, cum antea ^r aetaieiA nondnm ■(^ujus anctori- 
tatem loci attingere audeiem, statueremque, nihil huc, 
'^uisi perfectum ingenio, elaboratum industria, afierri 
oportere ; i^omne meum tempua amicorum temporibua 
transmittendum putavi. 3. Ita neque hic locua vacuna 
unquam foit ab iis, qui '^vestram causam defenderent; 
i*et meus labor, in privatorum periculis caate integreque 
versatUB, ex Testro judicio fmctDia. est amplissimum 
consecutus. Nam cum, '^pTOpler diiationem comitiorum, 
*Her praetor primus. '^centuiiis cunctis rennntiatiu sum, 
facile inteBexi, Quiritea, et ^uid do me judicaratis, '^et 
quid aJiia praescribereda. Nnnc, cum et antntMitatis in 
me tantum sit, '^quantum voa honoribus mandandia eaae 
voluistia ; '''et ad agendum facultatia tantum, quantum 
homini vigilanti ex forensi usii prope quotidiana dicendi 
exercitatio potnit afferre : - certe, et, si quid auctoritatia 
in me eat, ''ea apud eos utar, qui eam mihi dederunt ; 
et, ai quid. etiam ^dicendo consequi possum, iis ostendam ■ 



potiiiBimuin, ^qui ei quoque lei iiiictum suo judiuio bi' 
bueodum esse censuenmt. 3. ^Atque illud in primiU 
mihi laetandum juie eaae video, quod ^in Iiac insolita 
mihi ex hoc loco ratione diceiLdi, cauaa talis oblata est, 
iu qua ^oratjo deesse nemini potest. Dicendum est enim 
de Cn. Fompeii singulari eximiaque vjrtute : hujus autem 
orationia 'difficilius est exitum, quam principiiun inveniie. 
Ita mihi non tam ^copia, quam modus in diceudo qoge* 
lendus est. 

II. 4. Atque, nt tnde oratio mea proficiscatur, ^undo 
haec onmis cauaa ducilui: bellum giave et perioilosum 
'vestiis veciigalibus atque sociia a duobua potentissinUB 
regibus infertur, sMithridate et Tigrane ; '"quonim altei 
relictua, '■'alter lacessitus, occaaionem sibi ad occupan- 
dam "Asia.m oblstam esse arbitiatur. ' '^EquItibus Ro- 
manis, honestissimis viris, aOeruntui ex Asia quoiidie 
literae, "quoiuin magnae res aguntui, in vestiia vectiga- 
libus exercendis '^occupatae : '^qui ad me, pro necessi- 
mdine, quae mihi eat cum illo ordine, causam leipublicae 
'^periculaque lerum suanun detulenmt: 5. '*Bithyniae, 
quae nunc vestia piovincia est, vicos eiustoa esae com- 
pluies : '^egnum Ariobaizanis, quod finitimum est ves- 
tris vectigalibus, lotum esse in hoatlum potestate : Ln- 
cuEum, magnis rebus gestis, ^ab eo bello diacedere : 
>'huic qui succeaserit, non satia esse paiatum ad tantum 
bellum administiandum : ^^unum ab omuibus sociia et 
civibus ad id bellum impeiatorem deposci alque expeti : 
eundem hunc unum ab hostibus metui, piaeterea nc- 

6, "'Causa quae sit, videtis : nunc, quid agendum sit, 
considerate. Primum mihi videtur ^^de genere belJi, de- 
inde de magnitudine, tum de imperatore deligendo esse 
dicendum. — Genus est belli ejusmodi, quod mazime ves- 
tros animos escitare aique inflamraare ^^d studium per- 
sequendi debeat : '^in quo agitur- populi Romani gloria, 
qnae Vobis a majoribua, cum magna in rebus omnibus, 
* tm Bumma in re militaii tradita est ; agitui sdiia sncio-,GoHglc 


nnn «tque aaiicoram, pn qna moU» iiuj<«m Teotri m^w 
0t. gravia bella gesfenmt : aguntur 'certiHimsi populi Ro 
mani Tectigalia et mazima: quibus amiasie, ^t pacis 
omameiita, et subBldia belli requiretia: aguntur boua 
multorum cinmu, quibus est ^a vabia et ipsorum et rei- 
pnblicae causa coaBulendum. 

III. 7. Et quoniam semper ^petAutes gloriae praeter 
ceteraa gentea atque avidi hiiidis fuistis, Slelenda vobi* 
est illa macula, Mithridatico bello superiore suscepta, 
quae penitos jam insedit atque iaTeteravit in populi-Ro- 
mani nomine : ^]uod ia, qui 'uuo die, tota Asia, ''tot in 
ciritatibus, imo nnntio, ^atqae una literarum aignificatione, 
*cives Bomanoa aecandos trucidandosque denotavit, non 
modo adhuc poenam nullam buo dignam scelere suscepit, 
^"mA ab illo ten^re annum jam tertium et TJcesimiun 
rognat ; et ita regnat, ut se non Ponto, ''neque Ca[^- 
dociae latebris occultare velit, sed em^ere ^*e patrio 
regno, alque in vestris vectigalibuB, lioc est, in Agiae 
hice Tersari. 8. Etenim adiiuc ils Testri cum iUo reg» 
coatendemnt imperalores, ut ab illo '^aigoia Tictoriae, 
non Tictoiiam lepottarent. TriamphaTit L. Sulla, triunf 
pharit '*L. Murena de Mitbridate, dno fortissimi riri, et 
snmmi impeiaMiiea : sed ita triumphaiunt, ut iUe ■^pulsuB 
superatusqae legnaret. Venuntamen illis imperatoribuB 
lans eat tribuenda, '*quod egenmt : Tenia danda, quod re- 
Jiquerunt : propterea quod ab eo bella SuUam ia Jtaliam 
"respobljca, '^Murenam Sulta revocaTit. 

IV. 9. MiTHinDATEB autem i>omne reliqmim tempus, 
BOD ad obhrionem Teteiia belh, sed ad comparationem 
itoTi contulit: ^ui posteaqnam mazimaa aedificasBet 
OTTissBetque classes, ezercituique permagnos, quibnscun* 
que ex gtmtibuB potuisset, comparasset, et se ^'Baspora- 
aJM, finitimis suis, beltum inferre simulasset ; usquo ia 
Hispaniam ^^egatos ac "^iitejae misit "ad eos duces, 
quibnscum tum bellum gerobamus : ut, cum, duobus in 
locia disjnnctisBimia maximeque diversis, ^'^o consilio 
4 bin» boMinm oc^iis beilnm terra maiique gereretur. 


'4 oRiTio p»* hBa* 

>TOs, Bnoipiti omtontione durtticti, deiolpetio dirniektelisi 
10. >Sed bun«n olteriuB partiB perlcidiini, Sflitoriamii 
lUque HiapanienaiA, quae mnlto phis *finnUDenti ae ro- 
boria habeb&t, *Cn. Pompeii dirino conoilio sc Bingiilari 
Tiitnte depulBmn est: ^ Hten, pturte it« rea a L. Lt»- 
cuUo, Bununo Tiro, est administrata, rtt *imtia illa geBts- 
nun remm magna atqae praeclara, non felicitati ejue, 
sed Tirtnti ; '^haec antem extrema, quae nnper acciderunt, 
%on cnlpae, sed forhmae tribuends esse videantur. Sed 
de Lncollo dicom Wo loco, et ita dicam, Quiiilei, ot 
neqne vera laiu ei detracta oratioae soBtira, neqne fiblMi 
"aActa esse videatnr. 11. De Testii impeiii dignitste 
atqne - ^oria, qnoniam ia est "ezorBns onUionia nete, 
videte, quem robis animnm Bnscipiendum putetis. 

T. MiJOREB Testri saepe, >%iercataribns ac BBTicnla- 
riis injnriosiHS tractatis, bella gesMrnnt : tos, "tot crrinni 
Ronunomm millibua nno nnutio atque uno tett^cnnve- 
atis, qno tandem aainKi esse debetiB? '*Legati qnod 
erant appellati Bnperbins, Corintlinm patres restri, totiaB 
Graeciae lumen, "exstinctum esse Toluemnt: tm esm 
regem innltum esse psdemini, qni >*legstuai populi Ro- 
msni, conaulaiem, vincnlis so vetberibiu, atqne omtu 
Btq>plicio ezcruciatnm necaritl '''illi bbeitatein civinm 
Romanonmi imminntam non tulerunt : vos vitam ei^itani 
negligetlB ? Jns legatioais "reibo violstam illi pezsecnti 
tont : '^os legatom omni supplicio interfectum relinque- 
tis! 12. Yidete, ne, nt iUis puldierrimum fiiit, taniam 
vobis imperii gloriam relinqaere; aic vc^ tuipissimum 
sit, id, qnod accepistis, tueri et consemje non posae. 
"^uid, qnod salns sooioium anmmum in periculum bo 
discrimen vocatoil Regno expulsus est Aiiobarunea 
res, BOciuB populi Romani alque amicns : imminent '^oo 
reges toti Asiae, non solum vobis inimicissum, sed etiam 
veatris eociis atque amicis : civitatee antam omnesi^^eunc- 
ta Asia atque Oraecia TesOum auxilitun exspectaie prop- 
ter periculi magnitndinem cognntnr: ■'iinperatoiem avo- 
bis certum d^Kncere, cnm praeaertim voa slinm miseritis.,GoOgk 


neqae audent, neque m id foceie 'ssmmo aiite pericnlo 
posse Euliitraiitiir. 13. Vident et sentiunt hoc idenL 
quod TOB, ^unnm nnun eue, iu quo •luuiDa sint omnia, 
et eum *prope eHe, (^uo etiam cuent aegriuS)) cujus 
adrentu ip»o atqne nomine, tametsi ille ad 'maiitimuin 
bellnm Tenerit, tamen ^impetns hostimn lepressos esse 
intelligunt ac retaidaios. Hi vos, 'quoniam libsie loqui 
uon lieet, tacite logant, ut se quoque, sicut celemum 
paoTiiiciarnm socios, dignos existimetis, 'quorum salulem 
tali Tiio commendetis : 'alqne lioc etiam magis, qnam 
cetetos, quod ejusmodi in proTiDciam homines "*cnm im- 
perio mitlimas, ut, etiam si ab hoete defendant, tamen 
ipsorum adrentus in urbes lociorum non multom ab hos- 
tili expugnalione differant. >^Hmic audiebant antea, nnnc 
praeseutem vident, ^taiila temperantia, tanta mansuetu- 
dine, tanta hnmanitate, ut ii beatiBBimi esse TideajHur, 
dpud quOB ille diutisaime commoratur. 

VI. 14. QuARE, si propter socioB, miUa ipsi injuiia 
lacessiti, majores Testri ^^cum Antiocho, cum Phllippo, 
cum Aetolis, cum Poenis bella geBBeiunt; quanto tos 
atadio conTenit, '^juhis proTOcatOB, sociorum salutem 
una cmn imperii Testri dignitate defendere ; "piaeBertim 
cum de TestriB maxiniis vectigalibus aganir? Nam ce- 
teraium |»onncianun Tedigalia, Quirites, '^tanta Bunt,i)t 
iis ad ipsas proTinciaa tulandaa tix contenti esse possi- 
mus: ''Asia toto tam Ofama est et fertilis, i^ et uber 
UM agioCTun, et Tarietate fructuum, et magnitndine pas- 
tionis, et*nHiItitiidiiui eanun remm, qoae exponantiv, facile 
omnibua tenis autecellat. Itaque haec Tobis piOTincia, 
Qnii^es, si ^et belli utilitatem et pacia dignitatem sus- 
tinere Tuhia, non modo calamitate, sed etiam a metu 
calamitatia eet defendenda. 15. Nam ceteris in rebus, 
^'cum Teait calamitaB, tum detiimentnm acci^tui : U in 
Tectigalibna mm Bolum adventus mali, sed eiiam metns 
ipae afiert calamitatem. Nsm cum hostium oopiae non 
longe absuBt, edam ai irniplio facta nulla sit, tamen 
"pecora lelinquuntur, agricultura deseritur, ^meicatonun,GoOgk 


navigatio coiiqui«Bcit. >Ita neque ex portn, neque ex 
decuRiis, neque ez scTipturs ^ectigal ooaserTEiri p6test. 
Quare saepe totius anni fnictus uno mmoie peiicnli, 
atque uno belli lenore amitticur. 16. Quo landem ani- 
mo ease existimatis aul eos, ^qui vectigalia nobis pensi- 
tant, aut eos, qui exercent atque exignnt, cum duo reges 
cuni maxiniis copiia frope adsint ? cum una excursio 
equitatuB perbievi tempore totius anni vectigal suferie 
possit! *cum publicasi familias mudiaas, quas ia 'sal- 
tibus habent, quae in agria, quas in portubus atqne *cns- 
todiis, magno periculo se habeie aibitrentui ! Putatiane 
voH ''illis xebuB frui posse, nisi eoB, qui vobis fructui 
suut, cooservavcritis, non aolum, (ut antea dixi,) calaml- 
tatc, sed etiam caJamitatis foimidine liberatos ? 

VII. 17. Ac ne illud quidem vobis negligendum est 
^aai mihi ego ^xtremum proposueram, cmn eseem de 
belii genere dictunis, quod *ad mullonun bona civinm 
Romuiomm pertinet : '"quonmi vobis pio Testra sapien- 
tia, Quiiites, li^enda est latio diligenter. *'Nam et 
publicuii, i^homines et honestissimi et omatissimi, ^snaa 
lationes et c<^bs in illam [Hovinciam contulerunt : quo- 
nun ipsorum per se res et fortunae curae vobis esse 
debont. Etenim ei rectigalia, '^ervos esse leipubllcae, 
sempei duximus ; eum certe ordisem, qui exercet illa, 
fimumentuni ceteiomm ordinum recte esse dicemus. 
18. Deinde >'ceteria ex ordinibus bomines gnavi et in- 
duslrii partim ipsi in Asia "negotiantiir, qnibns^ absenti- 
buB consulere debetia : ^'putim suas et snoiuro in ea pro- 
vincia pecumas magnas cdilocataa habent. Erit igitnr 
ttumanitatis vestrae, magnum eorum civiimi nnmenan 
calamitate '^rohibeie; sapieotiae, videre, multomm ci- 
vium calamitaiem a republica sejunctun eese non poese. 
''Etenim ^ud piimum parvi lefert, ros pnblicanis amiasa 
. vectigalia postea victoiia recupeiaie. Neque enim iis- 
dem ledimendi facultas eiit, propter cEUamitatem, neque 
aliis Toluntas, propter timoiem. 19. Deinde, quod nos 
eadcm Aiia, atque idem iate Mithridates ^^inilio belb 



Asiatici docidt ; id qnidem certo calamitate docti memoN 
ia relinere debemns. Nam ttrni, cam in Asi& 'lesmag 
nas pennulti amisBTant, ^cimue, Roinae, solntione im* 
pedita, fidem coaddiase. Non enim poMunt nna .'n 
civitate mttlli 'rem aiqae fortunas amittere, ut non plures 
■ecBm in eandem c&lamitatem trahant. A qno periciilo 
prohibete rempoMicam, et, iriilii tredite, [id quod ipsi 
«idetis,) ^haec fides atque haec ratio pecuniarum, quae 
Romae, quae in foro Tcrsatur, impliciia eat cuin illie 
pecDniis Asiattcia, et cohaeret. %uere illa non poasunt 
ut baec non eodem tabefactata motu concidant. Quare 
Tidete, num dubitandum vobis sit, omni studio ad id bel 
lum incumbere, in quo gloria nominia vestri, salus soci 
orum, rectigalia maxima, fortunae plurimorum civium 
*ciim republica defendantur. 

VIII. 20. QnoNiAH de geneie belli diii, nunc de 
m^nitudine pauca dicam. ^Potest enim boc dici; bell: 
genu9 OBse ita necessarium, ut sit gerendum; non esse 
ita magnum, ut sit pertimesceadum. In' quo maxime 
laborandum est, *ne forte ea vobis, quae diligentiesime 
proVideoda sunt, contemnenda esse Tideantur. 'Atque, 
ut omnes intelligant, me L. Lncuflo tantum impertire 
landis, quantmn fbrti viro, et sapientissimo hoinini, et 
ms^o impeiatori debeatur ; dico, ejus adventu maximas 
"Bilithridati copias, 'kimnibus rebus omatas atque in- 
structas, fnisse ; '^bemque Aeiae clarieaimBm, nobisqne 
amicbsimam, Cyzicenomm, obsessara eaae ab ipao n»ge 
i^axima multitudine, et oppugnatam vebeinentisainie ; 
qoam L. Lucultus virtute, sBBiduitale, consilio, aummia 
obeidionis periclilis liberavit : 21. ab eodem imperatore 
"classem magnain ei omatam, '^quae ducibns Sertoria- 
nis ad Italiam atodio in£ammata raperetur, superaiam 
osso Biqne depresBam: '^magnas hosiium praeterea co- 
pias multis praetiia eeao deletas : "patefactumque nostris 
legionibns esse Pontum, qui ante populo Romano ex 
omni aditu clausus esset: Sinopen aique Amiaum, quib. 
ns in opfodiB erant 'Momicilia regis, omnibns rebui 



omat» atqne Kferu; ceteruqne urbes Poati et Ca.-pp^ 
dociae peiiDiiltas, 'iiao aditu atqne adveatu esM c^nas : 
legem spcdiatum legno patrio ftlque avito, 'Hd alios se 
reges atque ai alias gentes BDpplicena cwtuUue: Uqoo 
haec onmia, 'salTiB populi R<»naiu sociia atqne inlagris 
vectigalibns, ease gesta. Satis opinor boc esse ludis; 
atqne ita, Quiritea, ut,hoc yos intelligatis, a nnllo *isio 
rum, qui huic obtiectant legi atque causae, L. LucnUnEu 
similiter ex hoc loco esae budatum. 

IX. 23. RfQiriRSTiJii fMtasBe nujac, 'qaemadmndnm, 
cnm haec ita sint, leliquum possit esse magmuit beUuoL 
CognoBcite, Quirites : non Qnim hoc sine causa qvaeri 
Tidetui. Primum ex too regno sic Mithiidates profugil, 
Qt ^x eodem Ponto ^Medea illa quondun profiigiase 
dicitur : quam praedicant in fnga, %atiis sui membm ia 
iis locis, qoa se {Nureiis peisequeietur, dissipansBe, ut 
*eonim collectio disperea, moerorque pcttrins, celeritatem 
persequendi retard&ret. ^°Sic Mithridates, fagiens,"max 
imam Tim auri atque srgenti, pulcherriai&rumqne rerum 
omnlimi, quas et a majoribus acceperat, et ipse, bello 
Bupcriore ex tota Asia direptas, in snum Tegnum conges- 
serat, in- Ponlo omnem reliquit. Haeo dum noslri col- 
ligunt omnia diligeDtius, rex ipse e mMiibus efiiigit. 
Ita "illum in persequendi studio moenur, ttos laetitia 
letardavit. 23. >^Hunc in illo timore et tiiga Tigranes, 
rex AiBenius, excepit, diffidentemque tebus suis ctmfir- 
msTit, et afflictum erexit, peiditumque recreavit. Cujna 
in regnum posteaqoam L. Lucullns cnm exercitii Tonit, 
i^ures etiam gentes contra impeiaiorem nostnun con- 
citatae sunt. Erat enim metus injectos iis natioiubuB, 
qma nunquam populus Rotnauus '^eqne laoessendas bello 
neque tentandas pntaTit. '^Eiat etism alia graTJs atque 
Tehemens opinio, quae per animos gentium boibaiaram 
perraseiat, "fani locupletissimi el reUgioeissimi dinp- 
iendi cansa in eas oias noettiun exercitum esse adduc- 
tum. Ita nalionsB multae atque magnae '^novo quodam 
teirore ac metu concitabantur. Noster autem exeicitno,,GoOgk 


etsi 'mbem ez Tigrams legno cepent, et proeliU wiu 
erat secundis, *tamen ninii& longinqnitate loconim ac de- 
sidetio aooram commoTebatar. 24. °Hic jam plont nm 
dicam: ^fnit esim illnd eztremiim, at ex iis locis a mi- 
litibus nosttis reditus magia matmvs, quam poeessia 
longiar quaereretor. 'Mithridates anlem et auam manum 
jam coa6nQaTat, et eonun, qui ae ez ejus regno college- 
laat, et magoia adventitiis multorum Tegum et natitMium 
copiis jurabatiu. Hoc jam feie sic ^eri solere accepi- 
mua, nt regnm afflictae fottunae facile mnltonmi opes 
sUiciant >d miaericoidiam, maximeqno ecmim, qui aut 
nges sunt, aut Tirunt in regno ; qnod legale iis nomen 
Tmagnum et ssnctum esse Tideatui. 2i. ^taqne tantnm 
fictas efficeie potuit, quantom iucolumis nuaqii&m est 
anaas optate. Nam cimi se in regntun recepisset suum, 
BOt Init eo cootentns, quod ei praetei apem accideiat 
*iit illam, poMeaqnam putsus erat, terram umqoam at- 
lingeret : '"sed in exeicitmn Testium, clarum atqae Tic- 
toiem, impetmn fccit. Sinite hoc loco, Quiiitea, (aicnl 
^ipocMe B<dent, qoi res RomaDas sciibunt,) piaeterire me 
Bosttam calamitatem: quae tanta fuit, ut eam, ad aurea 
Jj. Luculli, ^on ex proelio nuntius, sed ex seimone m- 
tnot affeiiet. 26. *^Hic in ipso illo malo, giaTiasimaque 
belli offenaicme, L. LucuUns, qui tamea, aliqua ex parte, 
iis incmninodia medeii fortasse potuisset, Testro jusan 
coactus, i^qnod impeiii diutamitati DBodtmi itwnendiim 
reteri exemplo pulaTistis, paitem militmn, ^ui jam aii- 
peodiia confeclis etant, dimisit, paitem Glabiitmi tradidit. 
"Multa praetereo consulto; sed ea tob conjectnra per- 
■picitis. "Quantum igitiit illnd beUom fsctnm putetis, 
(piod conjtmgant regea potentiesimi, renoreat agilfttae 
natioiies, sasctpiant iutegrae geutes, '^tub imperatoi 
veater kccipiat, Tetere pulso exercituT 

X. 27. Satib mihi multa Terba fecisse rideor, quare 
hoc bellum esaet genere ipao neceBssiiuni, magnitudine 
peiiculoaum : lestBt, ut de iroperaloie sd id bellam deligen- 
do, "ac tantis rebus praeficiendo, dicendum eBse Tideatur. 



Utiiuun, Quiritea, Tiroram fortimn atqne 'innocentium 
oopiuai tanum haberetis, ut haec vobis delibentio ditiS- 
cilis esset, quemnam potiasimmn tantifl rebu8 ac tanto 
bello praefieiendmn putaretis ! Nunc vero cum sit mnia 
Cu. Pompeios, qoi lum modo eorum homimmi, qui nnnc 
nunt, gloriam, aed etiam ^tiquitatiB memotiam virtute 
EUperarit ; quae res est, quae cujusquam mnimnm in hac 
causa dubium facere possit t 26. Ego euim sic existimo, 
^in aumnKi imperatore quatuor has les inesse oportere, 
scientiam rei militaris, virtutem, auctoritatem, felicitatem 
Quis igitur hoc homine *acientior umquam aut fuit, aut 
ease debuit 1 qui 'e ludo alque pueritiae ^ciplina, *bello 
Biajjmo, atque acerrimis hostibus, ad patris exercitnm 
atque in militiae dieciplinam profectus est ; 'qui extiema 
pueritia miles fuit summi imperatoris, %iennte adoles- 
ceotia maximi ipse exercitus inqwratoi ; ^ui saepiua 
cum hoste conflixit, quam quisquam cmn taimico concei- 
tarit, plura bella gessit, quam ceteii legenmt, '*>plDrea 
provinctaa coofecit, quam alii conciqiiverunt ; ''cujus ado- 
lescentia sd scientiam lei militaris non alienis praecep- 
tis, sed suis imperiis, non oETensionibus belli, aed victo- 
riia, non stipendiis, sed '^umphis est eiudita. Quod 
denique genuabelli esse potest, '^in quo illnm noH ex- 
ercnerit fortuna reipublicae ? UQifiiQ_ i^Africanum, '*Tians- 
■Ipinum, '^Hispaniense, miztnm ex ciritatibus atque ex 
beJIicosissimis natiombus, '^errile, "navale bellum, varia 
et diversa genera et bellarmn et ^hostium, non solum 
gesta ab hoc uno, sed etiam ^'confecta, nullam lem esse 
declarant in usq militari positam, quae hujus viri scien- 
tiam fugeie possit. 

XI- 29. ^Jah vero viituti Cn. Pompeii qnae pote» 
pai oratio invenin t quid est, quod quisquam aut dignum 
illo, aut vobts liovum, aut cuiqnam inauditom possit af- 
fene? ^^Neque enim illae sunt solae virtutes imperatoe- 
riae, quae vulgo exiatimaiitiir, labor in negotiis, fortitudo 
lu. peiiculis, industria in agiado, celeritas in conficiendo, 
consilimn in providendo: ^uae tanta sunt in boe uno.,GoogJe 


quanta in onuiibaB reliqnis imperatoribiia, quos aut vidi- 
mua, aut audiTimus, non fuenmt. 30. 'Testis est Ilalia, 
qnam iUe ips« Tictor, L. Sulla, hujus viitute et subsidio 
conressus est liberatam. ^Teatia eat Sicilia, quam inuU 
tie uudiqne cinctam periculis, ^on terTore belli, aed 
celeritate consilii, e}[plica?it. ^Testia eat Africa, quae 
magnis oppreBsa hostium copiis, eorum ipsorum sanguine 
redundavit. ^TeBtia eat Gallia, per quam legionibus nos- 
■ Iris in Hiapaniam iler, Gallorum intemecione, patefactum 
flst. ^estis eat Hispania, quae saepiaaime plurimos 
bostes ab hoc aaperatod prostratoaque conspexit. Teslda 
est iterum et saepius Italia, qnae, cnm aervili bello ^tetro 
periculosoqiie premeretur, ab boc auxilium absente ez- 
petivit : ^quod bellum exspeclatione Fompeii attenuatum 
atqne imminutum est, adventn sublatum ac sepultum. 
31. TeBtes vero jam *omnes orae, atque omnes eMerae ■ 
'"gentea ac nationes, "denique maria omnia, tum univer- 
sa, tum in eingulis omnes ainua atque portus. Quis 
enim '^to mari locus, per bos vmos, ant lam firmum 
habuit praesidium, ut tntus esset, aut lam fuit abditns, 
nt lateret? '^Quis navigarit, qui iion ae aut monb ant 
servitutis periculo committeret, cum aut Meme, aut referto 
[medonum mari navigaretur 7 Hoc tantum bellum, tam 
turpe, "tam vetus, tam late dispereum, quis umquam 
arbitrafetur aut ab omnibus imperaloribus uuo anno, atit 
'^omnibus annia ab nno impetatore confici posse T 32. 
Qnam provinciam tennistis a pisedonibus liberam per hos- 
ce annos t '"quod vectigal vobia tutum fuit ? qnem socinm 
defendistis t cui praesidio claBsibua Testris fuistis ! quam 
nmltaa ezistimalis insulas esee desertas 1 quam multas ant 
metn reliclas, aut a praedonibus captaB orbes esse socioniml 
XII. Sed quid ego "longinqua commemorot Fnit 
hoc quosdam, fuit '^proprium populi Romani longe a do- 
mo bellare, et '^propugnaculis imperii sociorum fortunas, 
non sua tecta defendere. *"Sooiis vestriB ego mare clan- 
smn per hosce annos dicam fuisae, cnm exercitus nostri 
k "Brundisio nmiquam, nisi ^umma hieme, transmisp-,GoOgk 

rint!' Qui ad ros ab exteria nationibus Tenireat, captott 
qnem, 'eum legati populi Romani redempti siiLtT mer- 
catoribuB tutnm Riare non fuisae dicain, cnm Mnodedm 
^ecurea in praedonum poteatatem pOTTeneiint ! 33. K/ui- 
dnm aut Colophonem, aut Samnm, nobiliasimsa nrbea, 
tnnomerabileBqiie aliss, captaa esBe commemorem, ciun 
Testroa portOB, >alque eoa portua, qmbus ritam et apiri- 
(um ducitia, in praedonmn fuisae potestate aciatiaT An 
vero ignoratia, portnm Caietae, celebeirimom atqae plenis- 
simum navium, ^inapectante praetore, a praedombua-ease 
direptum! Ex Miseno antem, %jnB ipeins liberos, qni 
cum praedonibus antea il» bellnm gesserat, a praedonibns 
essB sublatos! Nam qnid ego 'Oatiense incMnmodnm, 
atque ilbun labem atque ignominiam Teipiiblicae querar, 
, cum, prope inspectaiktibus vobis, classia ea, cui ^CMiaul 
• populi Romani praepositua easet, a praedonibus capta 
atque opptessB est ! Pro dii immortaleB ! tantamne *nninB 
hominis inciedibilis ac divina viitus tam brevi tempore 
lucem affene leipublicae potoit, ut vos, qui modo ante 
oBtiun Tftterinnm claasem hoatium videbads, ii nuoc 
nullam '"intra Oceani oatium praedonum 'navem esse 
Budiatis! 34. Atque haec, qua cel«itate gesta siut, 
quunqnam Tidetis, tamen a ma in dicendo praeteretmda non 
sunt. QuiB enim omquam, a:nt i^obeniidi negotii, aut con- 
seqwidi q^aestus studio, tam taevi tempore, tot loca ad- 
ire, tantos cursBS conficere potnit, i^quam eeleriter, Cn. 
Pompeio duce, belli impetns navigavit! qui '%(Hidum 
lempastivo ad navigandnm mari '^Siciliam adiit, Airicam 
exploravit : inde Sardiniam cnm clasBe venit, atqne >*Iia0c 
tria frnmemaria snbsidia reipublicae finmssimis praesid- 
iis classibnBque munivit. 35. Inde se cnm in Italiam 
recepisset, daabuB Hispaniia et Gallia Ciaalpina prae- 
sidiis ac navibna confirmata, misBia item in oiam ''Uly- 
rici maris, et in Adtaiaxa onmemqne Giaeciun navibuB, 
i^Italiae duo maria maxinna claasibus finnissinaaque^prae- 
sidiis adomavit ; ipse auteni, '*ut a Brundisio profectns 
eat, undequinquagesimo die '*totam ad imperinm populi 



Romani Giliciam adjunzit: omnes, qui uUqne pratfdoDoi 
fbenint, p&Ttim capti interfectjque snnt, partim ^nniu 
hujns impeiio ac poteatati ae dedidenmt. Idem ^Cieten- 
sibns, cmn ad emn nsque in Pamphjrliam legatos de- 
precatoreBfpie misissent, spem deditionia non ademit, <A>- 
sidesque imperaTit. Ita tantum bellum, tam diutnniuit, 
tam loDge lateqoe dispersuin, quo bello omnes gentes ac 
nationes premebantur, Cn. Pompeius extrema hieme %p- 
panvit, inennte Tere siiscepit, media aestate confecit^ 

XIII. 36. 'EsT hae^ divina atque incredibilis Tirlus 
imperatoris. Quidl ceteroe, qnas panllo antecommem- 
<xan coepenun, qoantAe atque quam mnlme snnt 1 'non 
enim Boltmi bdlandi Tirtns in summo atqus 'perfecto 
impeTafaire quaerenda est ; ^ed multae sunt artes eximiae, 
hnjns administrae comitesque virtutia. Ac primnm, ^quanta 
innocentia debent esse imperatores T quanta deinde oiq- 
nibtu m rebns temperantia T quanla fide 1 ^nanta fadli- 
tate ! quanto ingeHio T quanta hnraanitate ? Qua«r breviter, 
qualia sint in Cn. Pompeio, consideremus. ■^umm& 
mim omma ennt, Qiurites ; aed ea magis '««x ftliomm 
ContefitiOBe, qnam ipsa per sese cognosci atque intelligi 
pOsniBt. 37. Quera enim ^'possmnns imper^rem aliqno 
in mmiero putaie, '^ujns in exercitu veneant centmianw 
Uqne Tonierint? i^uid hunc h(»ninem nu^nm «ut am- 
{dnm de lepublica cogitare, qni pectmiam, ex aerarto de- 
pramptam ad bellum administrandum, ant '^roptercupid- 
itatem prorinciae magistraubns ^TisMit, aut propter 
araritiam Romae '*in quaestu reliqueril ? — "Vestra ad- 
mnrmunttio facit, Quirites, nt agnoscere Tidesmini. qui 
haec fecerint : ego autem neminem nomioo ; qnare irasci 
mihi nemo poterii, nisi qui '''ante de se voluerit confit- 
«ri. Itaque, propter hanc avaritiam imperatorum, qnan- 
las calamitfttes, qnocimqne vcntnm sit, nostri exetcitns 
ferant, qnis igaoiatT 38. ^^ltiuera, quao per hosce an- 
nOB in Italia per agros atque oppida civium Romanorum 
nostri imperatoies fecerunt, lecordarajni : tura faciliua 
itatuetis, quid apud exteras nationea fieri ezistimetia* 



Ubufti ploies Brbitramini per hoace aimos militant tmJ^ . 
troruni smiie hcwtium uibes, an 'hibemia Bociomm ciri- 
tates eaae deletas t Neque enim potest ^xercttiim is 

- coatineie impeiator, ^qui se i^um uon continet: neque 
Nverup -esss ^in judicaado, qui alioa in se severos esse 

., ^«lices non vult 39. Hic miramur^ huoc' bomiiiem tsn- 
tuin excellere ceteria, oujus iegiones sic in Asiam pet- 
Tenernnt, ut non modo manus tanti exercitua, °sed ne. 
Tesdgium quidem cuiquam pacaito nocuisse dica^ 1 ' Jam 

, Tero, "quemadmodum milites hiberrient, quotidie aeimones 
ac literae perfenmtur. Non modo, 'ut sumptum faciat 
in militem, nemini via afiertur : led ne cnjpieiiti quidem 
cmquaM pennittitur. ^Hiemis enim, Doa aTariUae pei- 
fugium majores noatri ia sociorum atque amicorum tectis 
esse Toluerunt. 

XIV. 40. AoB vero, ceteris in rebns 'quslis sit tem- 
peraBtia,' considerate. Unde illam tantam celeritatem,' 
el tam incredibilem cuisum '"inventum putatia ? "Non 
enlrn ijlum eximia .vis remigum, aut ars inaudita quaedam 
guberaandi, aut venti aliqui novi, tam celeriter ^" in ulti- 
mas terraa pertulerunt: sed ea« res, quae 'i^ceteros re- 
morari solent, non letardarunt : non avaritia ab inatituto 
euiBU ad praedam aliquam ^^devocavit, '%on libldo ad 
Toluptatem, non amoenilas ad delectationem, non nnhili- 
tas urfais ad cognittbnem, non denique labor ipse ad quie- 
lem. Postremo ''signa, et tabulas, ceteraque onuunenta 
GraecoruB o^Idoium, quae ceteii tollenda esse aibi- 
trantuT, ea eibi ille iie visenda quidem existimavit. 41. 
Itaque omnes quidem, nunc in his' locis Cn. Pom- 
peium, aicut aliquem non ex hac urbe mlssuifi, sed 
de coelo delapsum, intuentur: nimc denique incipiunt 
credere. "fuisse homines Romanos hac quando absli- 
nonlia : '^uod jam nationibus «xtvris incVedibile ac 
falso memoriae pioditum videbatui. '^Nunc imperii 
vestri splendoi illis gentibna lucet : nunc intelligunt, 
Qon siae causa majoies suos tum, cum ^%ac lempe- 
■rantia magintratus habebamus, aerrire popido BcHnano. 


^i^aiit -imperaN aliia, msluisae. *Jun vem ita facUei 
Rditus od euin priTatorum, its liberae querimoniae da 
aliorum injuriia eaae dicuntur; ut ia, qui digoitate priucip- 
ibua excellit, ^Jacilitaie pai iofiinia eaae vi4^ur. 43. 
Jam quantum ^consilio, qaanuun dicendi gravitate et cApift 
raloat, ^n quo'ipso inest quaedam dignitaa imperaioria, 
vus, Quirfte», 'lioo ipso in loco aaape cognostia. Ftdem 
veio ejus intei socios quuttam ezisuman puiatia, ^quam 
hostes omaium geudDm Banctissimam-judJcarint 1 HumEL- 
nitate jam tanta eat, nt difGcile dictu sii, utnun hoatea 
inagis virtutem ejus pugaantes tionerint, aa mansuetndi- 
nem victi dilexerint. Et quisquam dubttabit, quin liuic 
'tantum beUum i(B[urmittendum ait, qui adomnia^oaliae 
memoiiae bella conficieoda divtno quodam c<HLsiIio mtius 
esse videatui ? 

XV. 43. Et, quoniam *auctoiilas mtdtum in belll* 
qooque admltiistiandia atque iA imperio militm "Vaht, 
certe nemini dubinm est, quin es le idem ille iraperalM' 
|durimum poaait. '^Vehementet sutem pertinfefe ad li^s 
adminimanda, quid hostes, quid socii de imperalofibua 
veetiis ezistiment, 'quis ignorat, cum sciamus, hominea 
in tantis rebus, ot aut contemnant, aut metuant, aut ode- 
rint, ant ament, opiuioM non minua 'Wt fama,' quam 
aliqua certa ratione commoveri? Quod igitui nomen 
umquam in orbe terrarum '^claiius fuit % cujus res geatae 
pares? de quo homine vos, id quod maxime '^facit ad 
ttnctoiitatera, '^lsnta et tam piseclsia judicia iecistis? 
44. An vero uUam uaquam esse oram lam deseHtm pu- 
tatis, quo noik ''illius diei f^ms petvaseril, cum univei- 
Bus popolus Romanus, referto foro, lejdetisque omnibus 
templis, ex quibus ''hic locus conspici poteat, unum sibi 
ad commune omnium gentium bellum Cn. Fompeium 
.impeistorem dnpoposcit ! Itaque, ut pluis non dicam, 
neque sliorum exemplis confirmem, ''quantum anctontaa 
Tslest in bello ; ab eodem Cn. Pompeio 'Boronium lerum 
egregisrum exempls sumantur : qui quo die a vobi» ms- 
ritimo bello prsepositus est impeistoi, tnnta lepeiM 



>vi]ita9 aoaonae ^ex sumina inopis et carltate lei frii- 
mentaiiae coDsecuta est, iinius homima spe et nomine, 
quantam vix ex «nmma ubertate agTomm diutunia pax 
efficeie potuiBset. 45. ^Jam, ^accepta in Ponto calami- 
Ute, ex eo proelio, de quo tos paullo ante inrituB ad- 
monui, cum socii pertimuiBaent, lioiitium opea animique 
crBTiseent, satis fiimum praesidium piOTincia non ha- 
beret : tunisisaetis AHiam, Quiiites, nisi ipsum id tem 
poTis ^diviDituB Cn. Pompeium ad eas regionea fortuna 
populi Romani attulisset. Uujus adVentus et Mitbrida- 
ten *ittBolita inflamroatum victoria contiauit, et Tigra- 
aem nagnis copiis minitantem Asiae letaidaTit. £l 
quiBquftm dubitabit, quid virtuta ^profectuius sit, qui tan- 
tum auctoritate profecerit 1 aut quam facile impeiio 
atque exercitu aocios et vectigalia conservaturuB sit, qui 
*ipso nomine ac rumore defendeiitl 

XVI. 46. Aoii Tero, *illa tes quantam declarat ejuS' 
dem hominis apnd hostes populi Romani anctoiitatem, 
quoil ex locis tam longioquis, tamque dtversis, tam 
bieii tempoie onmes uni huic Be dedidernnt 1 quod 
>0CtetenBium legati, cum in eonim insula noster impe- 
latoi exercitusque esaet, ad Cn. Pompeium "ia ultimaa 
prope terras venerunt, eique se omnes CretenBinm civi 
tates ^edere velle dixerunt ? Quid idem iste Mithri* 
datesT nonoe ad eundem Cn. Pompeium, legatum us- 
que in Hispaniam misit ? ^^eum quem Pompeius lega- 
tum semper judicavit: "ii, quibus eemper erat rooles- 
tnm, ad eum potissimum esse missum, speculatorem, 
quam legatum judicari mal^ieiunt. Potestia igitur jain 
constitaeie, Quiiites, hanc auctoritatem, >%iultis postea 
rebus gestis, magnisque vestri^ judiciis amplificatam, 
qaantum apud illos reges, quantum apud ezteias nationes 
Talituiam esse existimetis. 

47. Reliquum est, ut de felicitate, "quam praestaie de 
se ipso nemo potest, memiuisije et commemoiare de 
aliero possumuB, sicut aequum est homini ^*de potestate 
deorum, timide et pauca dicamus. Ego enim eic pxis* ' 


aaATio Fao LEax iiAHn.u. 87 

mno ^Maxinio, Marcello, Scipioni, Mario, et ceteria 
m^nis imperatoribus, non Boluni propter «irtulem, sed 
etiam propter fortnnani, saepius imperis mandata, atque 
ezeicitus esse commiesoa. Fuit enim ptofecto quibus 
dam summis viris quaedEim ^ad amplitudinem et gtoriam, 
et ad res magnas bene geiendas divinitus adjuncta 
foTtuna : de hujus autem bominis felicitate, quo de nunc 
agimus, %ac utar raoderatione dicendi, non ut in illiDS 
potestate fortunam posttam ease dicam, aed ut praeterita 
meminiase, reliqiia sperare videamur, ne aut iavisa diis 
immortalibus oratio noatra, aut ingrata esse Tidsatur. 
48. Itaque *noD sum ]xaedicaturus, Quirites, quantaa 
ilte res domi mititiaeqne, terra marique, quantaque feli- 
citate gessOTit: ut ejus semper voluntatibus non nwdo 
cives assenseiint, socii ^obtemperarint, hostes obedierint, 
sed etiam venti tempeatatesque 'otnecundarint. Hoc 
brevissime dicam, neminem tuiqaam 'tam impudentem 
fuisse, qui « diis immortatibus tot et taT.aa tea tacitus 
auderet optare, quot et quantaa dii immortalea ad Cn. 
Pompetum detulenint. ^Quod ut illi proprium ae per- 
petuum sit, Quiritea, cum communis aalutia atque im- 
perii, tum ipsius hominis causa (sicuti facitis) *vel]o 
et optare debetis. 

49. Quare cum et bellum ita necessarium sil, u 
negligi non possit: ita magnum, ut '"accuratissime ait 
administrandum : et cum ei imperatorem praeficeie pos- 
aitts, in quo sit eximia belli acientia, singularia virtus 
clarissima auctoritaa, egregia forluna: >>dubitabiti8, Quir< 
ites, quin hoc tantum bom, quod Tobis a diis im- 
inoitaiibuB oblatum et datum eat, in rempubticam con- 
seivandam atque amplificandam conferaiis ? 

XVII. 50. "Qdod ai Romae Cn, Pompeius privatiis 
esset hoc tempore : tamen ad tantum bellum ^^s erat 
deligendus atque mittendus. )*Nunc, cum ad ceteraa 
.Bummas ntilitates haec quoque opportunitaa adjungatur, 
IK In iis ipsia locis adait, ut habeat eseicitum, ul ab 
iif, qni habent, accipere Btatim possit: >^iuid eZBpoc<,GoOgk 


tamiuT aut cui non, dncibDS diia immortalibus, eidflm, 
cui ceteTa summK cnm salute reipublicoe commiaM Buut, 
hoc quoque bellum Tegium committimus ? 

51. ^At enim' vir clanssimus, amaiitissimtts reipublic&e 
'-'estris beneficiia smplisBimis afiectus, Q. Cstulua ; %em 
que summis orDsmentis honoiia, ibrtunse, virtutiB, ingen- 
ii praedituB, Q. Hoitensius, *&h hac ratione dissen- 
dimt : *quorum ego auctonta,tem apud vos mulUs locis 
plurimum valuiase, et ralere oportere Gon6tB0i; sed in 
hac causa, tametsi cognsacitis auctoritates contrarias 
fortiasimonim vironim et olarbBimorum, lamen, omissis 
snctoritatibns, ipsa re et rstione exquirere poasumns 
veriistetn: stque hoc facilius, quod ea omnia, quae 
adhuc a me dicta sunt, iidem isti vera esae concedunt, 
et necessarium bellum esse, et msgnum, et in imo Cn 
Pompeio summs esse omnia. S2. Quid igitur ait Hor- 
tensius! "Si uni "onmia tribuends sint, unum dignis- 
simum esse Pompeium : sed ad unum tsmen omnis 
defeiri non oporteie." Obsolevit jam ista oratio, ^rs 
multo magia quam Terbis lefutata. Nam lu idem, Q. 
Hortensi, multa, *pro tua summa copia ac siugnlari 
facultate dicendi, et in senatu contra, *vinui) fbrtem A. 
Gibinium, ^"giaviter omBteque dixisti, cum is de imo 
impeTatore contra praedonea consdtuendo legem promu}- 
gasset : et ex boc ipso loco permulta item contra legem 
eam verba fecistl. 53. Quid ? tum', per deos immorta- 
lea ! si plus apud popnlum Romanum auctoritu tua, 
quam ipsius populi Romant sbIus et 'Vera causa valu- 
isset, hodie han<f gloriam atque hoc orbis terrao imporium 
leneremus 1 An tibi tum imperium ease hoc videbstur, 
cum populi Romani legati, praetores, quaestoiesquff 
>>capiebantnr "( cum ex omnibus provinciia commeatu, 
et privato, et publico prohibebamur ? cum ita clausa 
erant nobis omnia maria, '^ut neque privatam rem trans- 
marinam, neque pnblicam jsm obire possemus t 

XVIII. M. QuAB civitas antea umquam liiit, '*non dico 
AihBniensium, quae satis lite qnondun mare tennisM 


OK^rio Pfto LKOK iiANit.u. 69 

dicitni, noD 'Caithaginieuitun, qni pentniltiua sUms ma- 
ritimiBque Tebns Toluerunt, oon ^Bhodiorum, quonim us* 
que ad aootrun memoiiem diaciplina nariiia et gloria 
lemanait: quae civitaa sntea umquam Ham tennis, qoac 
tam parva insula fuit, quae non poitus buob, el agroi, et 
aliquam partem tegionis atque orae maritimae per m 
ipsa defeoderet? At hercle, 'aliqnot annM continnos 
onte legem Gabiniam, iUe populus RomannB, cnjua) 
usque ad nostiam memoFiam, nomen inrictum in nara- 
libuB pugnis permanserat, 'magna ac multo maxima 
parte non modo utilitaua, aed dignitatu alque impeh' 
cunit: 53. noa, quorum majoies 'Anliochum tegea 
cliksse ^Persenque superaiuut, onmibusque naralibus pug 
nis CanhsginieBses, homines ^in maiiiimia lebus exerci 
tatissimoa paratiasimoaque Ticeruni, *ii aullo in loco 
jam praedonibua pares eaae poteramua : nos, qui antea 
non modo Italiam tutsm habebamuB, sed omnes eocios 
in ultimis oris auctoritate noslii imperii BalTos ^"praestar^ 
poteramus; tum, cum insula Delos, tam procul anobis 
in Aegeo mari posita, ^'quo omnes uodique cum msrci- 
bus atque oneribu^ commeahanL rqferta diTiliis, parva, 
sine muro, '^nitul timebat; '^uaem non modo provinciis, 
aique oris Italiae maritimis, ac portubus noetiis, sed 
etiam '*Appia jam via carebamus ; et his lempoiibas 
non pndebat magistratus populi Bomani, 'Hn huoc 
ipBum locum escendeie, cum «nm vobis majores res- 
tii "exuviiB nauticis et classium spoliis ornatiuii le- 

XIX. 56. "BoNO te animo tum, Q. Hortensi, popn- 
lus Romanua, et ceteros, qui erant in eadem sententia, 
dicere exiatimavit ea, quae sentiebatis , sed tamen '^in 
salute communi idem populus Romanus dolori euo 
maluit, quam auctoritati vestrae obtempeiare. Itaque 
"una lex, unus vir, uaus annuH, non modo noa illa 
mberia ac turpitudiBe liberavit ; eed eciun efiecii, ut 
aliquando vere videremui omnibus gentibua ac nationi- 
bns tem niariiue impenie. &7. ^no mihi etiai^,GoOgk 


indigniiu videtur obtrecUtum esse ailbuc, G&binio dicom, 
anne Poropeio, aa ntrique t (id quod est veiiua ;) ne le- 
gaieCuT A. GabiniuB Cn. Pompeio ezpel«nti ac postulantL 
Utnim ille, qui poBtulat legatum ad tantum bellum, quem 
velit, idoneus non est, qui impetret, cum 'ceteri ad ex- 
pilandoa socios diripiendasque provinciaa, quos volue- 
nint, legatos eduxerinti aa *ipse, cujus lege salua ac 
dignitas populo Romano atque omnibus gentibns con- 
Btituta est. expers esse debet glotiae imperatoria alque 
V ejus execcitus, ^ini conailio ipsiua atque periculo est 
constitutua? 58. An C. Falcidiua, Q. Metellus, Q. 
Caeliua Latiniensia, Cn. Lentulua, quos omnea 'bonoris 
cftusa nomino, cum ttibuni plebis fuissent, *anDO prozi- 
mo legati ease potuenint ; ^in hoc uno Gabinio eunt tsra 
diligentes, qui in hoc bello, quod lege Gabinia geritur, 
in hoc imperatore atque exercitn, quem ^per vos ipae 
constitiiic, etiam praecipuo juce esse deberet? ^de quo 
legando spero consnles ad aenatum telaturos. Qni si 
djtliitabunt, aut ^gTavabuntur, ''^ego memet pra&teor rela- 
turum; neque me impediet cujusquam, Quiritea, "inimi- 
cum edictum, quo minna, fretus vobis, vestrumjus bene- 
ficiumque defendam : neque, "praeter intercessionem, 
quidqnam audiam ; de qua (nt arbitror) iati ipsi, qui min 
antur, etiam atque etiam, quid Uceat, considerabunt. 
Mea qiri^m sententia, Quiritos, unos A. Gabiniua, belli 
maritimi rerumque gestarum Cn. Pompeio '^sociua ad- 
Bcribitur ; piopterea quod "alter uni id bellum auscipien- 
dum Testris sufiragiis detulit ; alter delatum suscaptumque 

XX. 59. Relii}itt7k est, '^t de Q. Catuli auctoritate 
et aententia dicendum esae videatur ; qui cum ex vobis 
quaereret, ^"ai in uno Cn. Pompeio omnia poacretis, ai 
quid de eo factum esset, in quo spem essetis habituri; 
"cepit magnum suae virtutis fructum, ac dignitatis, cum 
omnea, prope nna voce, " in ipso voa spem habitunn 
esse" dixiatia. Etenitn '^lalis est vir, ut nuUa res tanta 
■it ac lam difficilis, quun ille non "et couBilio regerti,GoOgk 


et iutegrit&te toeri, et Tirtute conficere possit. Sed in 
hoc ipso ab eo irettementiaaiine diaieatio, qtiod, quo 
minu3 certa eat hominum ac minua diutuma vita, hoc 
magis Tespublica, dum per deoa iromortaleB Ucet, fnii 
debet summi hominia Tita alqne virtute. — 60. 'At enim 
nihil novi fiat ccntra exempla atque instituts majorum.— 
'Non dico hcc loco, majores noatros semper in pacs 
coasuetudini, in bello utilitati paruisse, aemper ad novos 
caaus temporum, novorum coDBilionim rationes accomo- 
dasae : ^mm dicam, duo bella majuma, Punicum et His* 
paniense, ab ^tmo imperatore esae confecta ; duas urbet 
potentiasimas, quae buic imperio maxime minitabantur, 
Carthaginem atque Numantiam, ab eodem Scipione esse 
deletaa : 'non commemorabo, nuper ita robia patribuaque 
vestris esse visum, ut in uao G. Mario apes iniperit 
poneretur, ut idem cum Jugurtha, idem cum Cimbris, 
idem cum Teutonis bellum administraret : 61. ^in ipso 
Gn. Pompeio, ia quo novi constitui nihil vult Q. Catu- 
lua, quam multa aint nova ^umma Q- Catuli ToluDtate 
coastituta, recordamini. 

XXI. QniD *enim tam novum, quam lOadolescentulum, 
privatnm, exercitum difficili reipublicae tempore ''confi- 
cere ?— confecil ; — huic praeesse ? — praefuit : — rem "op- 
time ductu suo gerere? — geasit. Quid tam praeter con- 
suetudiaem, quam homini peradolesconti, '^«q^ua a seoa- 
lorio gtadu aetas longe abesset, imperium alque exercitura 
dari ? Siciliam permitti, atque Africam, bellumque in 
ea adminiBtrandura ? Fuit in hia provinciia aingulari 
ianocentia, gravitate, viitute : beltum ia Africa maximum 
"confeeit, victorem exercitam deportavit. Quid rero 
lun inauditum, quam "equitem Romanum triumpharet 
t^At eam quoque rem populns Romanus non modo vidit, 
aed eiiam studio omni viaendam et concelebrandam 
putavil. 62. Quid lam iDusiiatum, quam ut, cum "duo 
consulea clarissimi forlissimiquo essent, equea Romanus 
ftd bellum maximum formidolosissimumque pto conside 
BiiterBRir 1 Misaus eat. Quo quidem tempore, com e»et 


83 «SATIO FRO UflE llAflU.U. 

■noimwna ia Benatu, qui diceret, "Non opoiWr* i^ltl 
hotniaoin priT&nun ^pro GonBule'," ^L. Philippus (lixisae 
dicitur, " Non se illum aua Bontantia pro consule sed 
pro conaulibua mittere." Tanta in eo reipublicae bene 
gereudM spes constiluebatur, ut duorum consulum mimua 
unius adoLescentis rijrtuti committeretur. Quid tam sin' 
gulare, qitam ut, ex scnatuscoiLsullo *legifaui solutus, 
consul aot« fieret, quam ullum alium magistralimi per 
leges G^re iicuisset? quid tam incredibile, quam ut 
*iterum eques Romanus *ex BenatuBConBuIto tiinmpliaret ? 
''quae in omnibus bouunibus noTa post hMniuum mentoi- 
iam cooatituta Bunt, ea tam multa non sunt, quam baec, 
quae ia hoc uno homioe vidimus. 63. Aique liBec tot 
exempla, tanta ac tam aova, ^prorecta Bunt in eundem 
hoiuinem a Q. Catuli atque a ceterorum ejusdem digni- 
tatis amplissimorum hominum auctoritate. 

XXII. QuABE Tideant, ne sit peitniquum et non feren 
dum, illorum aucioritatem 'de Cn. Pompeli dignitate a 
Tobis comprobatam Beinper esse : vestrum ab illis de eo- 
dem tunnine judlcium, populique Rmnani auctoritatem 
improbari : praesertim cum jam suo juie populus Roma- 
Qus in hoc homine suam auctoritatem vel contra omnes, 
qui '°dissentiEtDt, possit deiendeie : propterea. quod, iia- 
dem istis reclamaotibus, vos unum illum ex omnibua 
delegistis, quem bello piaedonum praeponeieiiB. 64. Hoc 
ii Tos "lemeie fecistis, et teipublicae parum consuiuis- 
lis; leeie isti sludia vestia suia coosiliis regeie conantur: 
>^sla autem vos plus lum '^in lepublica vidistis ; tos, bia 
repugnantibus, per vosmet ipsos digoitatem huic imperio, 
salutem orbi lerraium attulistis: aliqaando isii priocipes, 
et sibi, et ceteris, populi Romani universi aucloriiati 
paiendum ease fateanlur. Atque in boc bello Auatico 
et rogio, non solum ^*inilitaria illa virtus, quae est in 
Cn. Pompeio Biogularis, aed ^iae quoque Tirtutes aniiui 
roultae et magnae lequinmlur. Difficile est in Aaii, 
Cilicia, Syria, regnisque '*inleriorum nationum "ila ver- 
«aii vestrum imperatorem, ut nihil aliud, ^oaiu d* luww,GoOgk 


ac de laude, cogitet. Deinde eliam 'si qni sunt piidpn 
ae temperanUa moderatlores, umen eos eese talea, prop- 
ter niultitudijiem cupidomm hominum, nerao ■ibitratnr. 
65. Difficile est dictu, Quirites, quanto in odio simns 
&pnd exter^ nationea, propter eoram, >quos &d eaa 
per hos annos cum imperio misimus, ^iDJunaa ac libi' 
dines. ^Quod enim fanum putatis in illis terria um- 
tria magistratiboa rcligiosum, quam civitatem aaoctam, 
quam domum satis clausam ac munitam fuisse l wbes 
jam locupleles ac copiosae hequinmtui, quibna causa 
belli, propter diripiendi cupiditatem, inferatui. 66. *Lib- 
enter haec coram cum Q. Catulo et Q. Hoitensio 
disputarem, summis et clarissimis viiis ; nDvemnt enim 
sociorum vujuera : vident eorum calamitates : querimo- 
nias audiunt. Fro sociia tos contra hostes ezercitum 
mittere putalis, an, ^hoatium aimulatione, contra aocios 
atque amicos ? quae civitas est in Asia, ^uae non modo 
impeiatoris, aut legati, sed unius tribuni militum snimoa 
ac spiritus capere posait ? 

XXIII. QviKE, etjam si quem hsbetis, qui, *coIlati8 
sjgnis, exercilus regioa Buperaie posse videatur: tames, 
"'oisi erit idera, qui se a pecuniis sociorum, qui ab eonun 
conjogibua ac tiberis, qui ab omamentis fanoram atqne 
oppidomm, qui ab auro gazaque regia, masus, oculos, 
ammimi cohibere possit ; non erit idoneus, qui ad bel- 
lum Aaiaticum regiumqoe mittalur. 67. ^'Ecquam puta- 
tis civitalem pacatam fuisae, quae iocuples sit? ecquara 
ease locupletem, quae islis pacata esse videatur ? Ora 
marilima, Quirites, Cn. Pompeium non solum propler 
rei militaris gloriam, sed etiam pTOpter auimi continen- 
tiam requisivit. i^Videbat enim populnra Romanum non 
locupletari quotannis pecunia publica, "praeler paucos ; 
neque nos quidqaam aliud assequi "classium nomine, 
nisi ut, detrinienlis accipiendis, majore affiei turpitudine 
videremur. Nunc, "qua cupiditate homines in provincias, 
quibu» jacturis, quibus conditionibus, proficiscantur, igno- 
rant' videlicet isti, qui ad unum deferenda ease onmia,GoOgk 


BOA wbitrantuT Quui Teio Cd. Pompeium oon ^;iim 
niis rinutibua, iwn eliam alieois Titiis, maguum «sae 
Tidesmus. 68. ^uan Dolhe dubitaie, quia huic uoi 
credatia omuia, qui ^ioter amtoa tot unua inTeatua ait, 
quem Bocii ia uibea suaa cum exercitu Teuisse gaudeant. 
^Quod ai auctoiitatibus hanc causam, Quiritea, coBfiiman 
dam ptltatts : e^t vobia auctoi, vii beUorum omnium max- 
tmanimque renun peiilissinius, P. &e[Tilhia : cujua tan- 
lae i;cB gestae tena nmique esstiterunt, ut, cnm 'de bello 
deUbpTetis, aucloi Tobis giaTior esse uemo debeat : est 
*C. Cuiio, aummis Tcetris bene&ciis, maximisque rebus 
geatis, summo ingenio et prudenlia praeditus: est ^Cn 
Lentulns, in quo omnea, pro amplissimis Tealris bonon- 
buB aummum consilium, sunupam graTitatem esse cogno- 
Tiatia : est *C. Cassius, integiitate, Tiitute, constantis 
aingnlan. *Quare Tidete, num horum auctoiitatibuB ilto- 
lum oiationi, qui dissentiunt, respondere posae videamur. 
XXIV. 69. Qdab cum ita aiat, C. MaoiLi, primuni 
'"istam tuam et legem, et voluntatem, et sententlam laudo, 
Tehementissimeque compiobo : deiode te hoiloi, ul, "auc- 
toie populo Romano, maneas in senteutia, neve cujus* 
qnam Tim aut minas peitimescas. Primum in le aatis 
esae animi '^peiseverantiaeque arbitior : deinde cum tan- 
tam multitudinem cum tanlo studio adesse videamus, 
■^uantam nunc iterum "in eodem homine piaeficiendo 
Tidemua: '*q>iid est, quod aut de re, aut de perficicndi 
facultate dubitemus? Ego autem, quidquid in me esl 
**studij, consilii, laboria, ingenii, quidquJd "hoo beneQcio 
populi Romani, atque hac poteetate piaetoria, quidquid 
auctoritate, fide, conslantia poaaum; id omne ad hanc 
lem conficiendam, tibi ei populo Romano polliceor ao 
defeio. 70. Teatorque omnes deos, et eos maxime, '^ui 
hnic loco temploque praeaideat, qui omnium nientea eo« 
Tum, '*qui sd rempnblicam adeunt, mazima pernpiciunt, 
me hoc neque rogatu facere^ujusquam, ^Onequa quo On, 
Pompeii gratiam mihi per hanc causam ccnciliari putem, 
Beqne quo niiht ''ex cnjuaquam unpliludine, aut praeaidia 



pericuIiB, aut adjamenta honoribus quaeiam : propMiBa 
<juod pericula facile, 'at hominem praestare oportet, in- 
nocentia tecti lepellemuB: honoreB autem neqne ab uno, 
neque ex hoc loco, sed eadem nostra illa laboriosissima 
^tione vitae, si Testra Tolnutaa feiet, consequemnr. 71. 
Qnamobiem, quidquid in hac caosa mihi susceiHum est, 
Quiriles, id omne me leipublicae cauaa suscepisse con- 
firmo : tantumque abeat, ut 'aliquam bonam giatiam mihi 
quaesisae videar, ut tnultas etiam simultates partiin ob- 
scurss, paitim q>ertas intetUgam, ^mihi non necessariaa, 
Tobis non imitiles, suscepisse. Sed ego me 'hoc honors 
praedicum, taotis Testria beneficiis affeotnm, ststui, Quir» 
ices, Testram voluntatem, et reipnblicae dignicatem, et 
salutem pioyinciaium atqne sodonim, ■ eis omnibus cotn- 
■lodis et rattonibus praefeire oporten. 


PRO ■ 

I. 1. *QvAE deprecatus a diis jmmorialibiu siim, fju- 
dices, more instituioque roajonun, iUo die, quo, 'snspi- 
cato, *comitiia cenniriatis L. Muienam consulem rentm- 
tiaTi, ut ea res mihi "magistratuiqne meo, ^populo plebi- 
que Roroanae bene atque feliciter eveniret ; eadem precoi 
ab eisdem diis immortalibus, *ob ejusdem hominis consu- 
latum una cum salute cbtinendum, et ut vestrae mentea 
alque sententiae cum populi Romani roluntatibns sufirai 
giinque consentiant, *eaque res vobia, populoque Romano, 
pacem, tranquiUitatem, otium, concordiamque afTervt. 
lOQuod si illa aolemnis comitioruin precatio, consularibus 
anspiciis conaecrata, tantam habet in se vim et religionem, 
quantam reipublicae dignitas postulat : idem ego sum 
precatus, ut eis quoqne hominibus, quibus bic consulatus, 
>'me rogante, datus esset, ea lea fauste, felicilor, pros- 
pereque eveniret. 2. Quae cum ita sint, judices, et cum 
i^mnis deoram immortalium potestaa aut translata sit ad 
Tos, aut certe communicats vohiscum, idem consul cum 
vestrae fidei commendat, qui antea diis immortalibus 
commendavit ; tU ejusdem hominia voce et declaratus 
consnl, et defensus, '%eneficium populi Romani cum 
restra atqne omnium civium salute tueatur. Et quoniain 
**in hoc officio studinm meae defensionia ab accusatori- 
bua abpie «tiam ipsa snsceptio causoe r^[)Teheaaa e«t: 


xntequam pro L. Murena dicere iustitno, pro me ipso 
pauca dicaDi ; 'aoa quo mihi potioT, hoo- quidem ia tem- 
poie, Hit officii mei, quam hujusce sEilutia defeoHO, aed 
ut, meo Cacto Tobis probato, majore auctoritate ab hujiis 
%onoTe, fama, fortuniaque omoibiu ioimicorum impenia 
propulsare possim. 

II. 3. £x prtmum ^M. Catoni, ^ritam ad certam latiu- 
lus normam dirigenti, et diligentisaime peqiendenti mo- 
meuta officionun omnium, Me officio meo respondebo. 
Negat fuisse lectiun Gato, me et consulem, 'et legia 
amtttus latorem, ''et tam aeTeie gesto consulalu, ^ausam 
L. Muienae attingere. 'Cujus leprelienBio me vebemen- 
ter moret, non solum tit vobis, judicea, quibDs maximo 
debeo, vetom etiam ut ipsi Catoni, gTarissimo atqne 
integerrimo viro, rationem facti mei probem. A quo 
tandem, M. Cato, est aequiua consulem defendi, quam a 
consule 1 Quis i°mihi in republioa poteat ant debet eaae 
coajnncaoi,.quam is, coi tespublica a me uno traditur 
Busdnenda, magnis meis lafaoribus etpericulis sustentatat 
iiQuod si in iis rebtm repetendis, qnae mancipi sunl, 
is periculnm jodicii praestaie debet, qui se nexu obliga- 
vit, >^jm>fecto etiun lectius in judicio consnlis designati, 
is potisaimum consul, qui consulem declaravit, i^auctoi 
beneficii populi Romani defensorque pericuU esse debe- 
bit. 4. i*Ac, si, ut nonnullis in ciTitatibua fieri solet, 
.^^patrosus huic csiUsae publice constitueTetur, is potissime 
honore afi^eclo defensor daretui, qui. eodem honore prae- 
ditus, non minns atreTiet ad dicendum auctoritatis, quam 
faeultatia. '^Quod si e portu solventibua ii, qui jam in 
portum ex allo inTehuatur, ^'piaecipere summo studio 
solent et tempestatum lationem, et praedonum, et loco- 
mm;. i^uod natura feit, ut eis favGamus, "qui eadem 
' pericula, qnibua nos perfuncti snmns, ingrediantur : ^uo 
tandem me animo esse oportet, prope jam ex magna 
jactalioae terram videntem, in bunc, cut video ^'maximas 
teipublicae.tempestates esse aubeuudas ? Quare si est 
boni consubst iu>i> Bolnm ^dere, quid agatui, veruDi,GoOgk 


•ti&m pTOTidere, quid futurum sit, ostcndam alio loco, 
iqusntwu ululia comtnunis inteisit, ^duoa consules in 
republica kalendia Januahia esae. 5. Quod ei ita eai, 
non tam me ^fficium debuit ad hominis amici foTtunas, 
qnam reapublica conaulem ad commmiem ealutem defen- 
dendam vocare. 

III. *iijM quod legem de ambitu tuli, cerle ita tuli, ut 
eam, ^iam mihimet ipsi jampiidem tulerim de cinnra 
periculis defendendiB, non abrogarem. Etenim si 'laigi' 
tionem factam esse confiterer, idque tecte factum ease 
defendeiem, facerem improbe, "etiam si alius legem tn< 
lisset: 'cum vero nihil commissum contnt legem esse 
defendam, quid est, quod meam defensionem lacio legia 
impediat t 6. ^Negat esse ejusdem seTeritatia, Ca^nam, 
exitium r«ipnblicae intra moenia molientem, "reibls et 
vawe imperio uibe expuliase, >^ nunc pro L. Murena 
oicere. "Ego autem has partes lenitaUa et raisericor- 
di^, quas me natora ipsa '^docuit, semper egi libenter : 
'^am vero graTitatia aeveritatisque '*peraonam non ap- 
petivi, sed ab republica miTii impoaitam sustinui, sicut 
faujua imperii dignitas in summo periculo cirium postu- 
labat. uQuod si tum, cum respublica rim et seTeritatem 
desiderabat, vici naluiam, et tsm Tehemens fui, quain 
cogebar, non quam volebam : nunc, "cum onmes me 
causae ad misericordfam atque ad tmmanitatem vocent, 
quaato tandem studio debeo ^'naluTae mese conauetudi- 
niqne Betrire ? ^*At de "officio defensioois meae, ac de 
TStione accnsalionis tuae, fortasas etiam alia in parte 
orationis dicendura nobis eriL 

7. Sed me, judices, non minus *<%ominis sapientiBBimi 
atque oTnatiesimi, 8er. Sulpicii, conqaestio, quam Cato- 
nis accusatio *'commovebat: qni '*gravissime et acerbis- 
sime ferre dixit, rae '^familiarilatis neceasitudiniaque 
oblitum, causara L. Murenae contra se defendere. Hnic 
ego, judices, satisfacera copio, vosque adhibeTo **arbi- 
tros, Nam cum gTsve est, vere eccnsari in amlcitia, 
tum, ettsm si falso accuseris, ■■iKiik est ne^gendunu. 


'Ego, Ser. Su][nci, niB in petitiane tua tibionmiK undu 
itque officia, pro nostra neceMitudine, et debuisse eon- 
fiteoi, et praeatitissa arbitiot. Nihil tibi, conauliLtiaQ 
petenti, ^a me defuit, ^od esset aut &b &mico, aut ■ 
gratioso, aut a consule postulandum. Abiil illud tem- 
pua : 'mutata ratio est. *Sic exiatimo, sic mihi . penua- 
deo, me tibi contia honorem L. Murenae, qoantum tu a 
me postulare ausus sis, tantum debuisse : contrt salutem, 
nihil debere. 8. Neque enim, ai tibi tum, cum peleiea 
conBulatum, adfni, idcirco nunc, *cum Murenam ipmun 
petas, adjutor "eodem pacio esse debeo. Alquo hoc 
Bon modo oon laudari, sed ne concedi quidem potest, 
nt, amicis noBtris accusantibus, non etiam aJieniBsimot 

IV. MiHi autem com Murena, judices, et fetos, et 
magna amicitia est, quae ^in capitia dimicatione a Ser. 
Sulpicio ^non idcirco obruetur, quod ab eodem in honoris 
contentione superata est. *Quae ai cauaa non esset| 
tamen vel dignitaa bominia, vel honoris ejue, quem adep- 
tua est, amplitudo, aummam mihi superbiae crudelita- 
tisque famam inussisset, si bominis, et suis et populi 
Romani oniameiitia ampliasimi, causam taati pericidi 
repudiassem. Neque enim jam mihi licet, '"neque esl 
integnun, ut meum laboiem homiaum periculis siUaley- 
andis noii impertiam. Nam cum "praemia mihi tanla 
pio hac induatria a)pt data, qnanta antea nemini : '^abo- 
res, per quos ea cepeiis, cum adeptus sis, deponere, 
esaet hominis ct astnti et ingiatL 9. ^^Quod si licel 
deainere, si to auciote possum, ei nulla iuertiae, nnlla 
supeibiae tuipitudo, nuUa inhumanitatis cuipa suscipitur: 
ego Tcro libenter desino. Sin autem fuga laboris deeid- 
iam, repudiatio auppiicum supeibiam, amiconun neglec> 
tio '*improbitatem coarguit : niimrum haec causa est cjus- 
modi, quam nec induatrius, nec miaericors, aec ofiiclosus 
deserere possit. Atque hujusce lei coojecturam "de tuo 
ipeius studio, Sarvi, facillime ceperis. Nam si tibi ne- 
(OfMo putas, '^«ttiam BdTenwnia amicwimt tuoiwadfl jur* 

100 aKATia pmo I.. ncBBMik. 

eonnilentibuB rtppondeie ; 'et, ai turpe exisdmaa, He ad 
TOCftto, illuSt ipBum, quem contra vdueiia, ^ausa cadete 
noli tam «sse mjuBtns, ut, cum *tui fontea vel inimicia 
tuia pateant, noatroa liruloB etiam amicis putea clauaoa 
eBsa oporteie. 10. Etenim, si me *tDa familiaiitas *ab 
hac cnaa removisset, et, ei hoo idem Q. Hortenaio, 
M. Craaao, clarissimie viriB, ai item ceteris, a quibua 
inleUigo tuam giatiam magni aestimaii, accidisset: in ea 
cJTitate consul designatus defensorem Don habeiet, in 
qua nemini umquam ^iufimo majoies nostri patronnm io' 
esse Toluemnt, Ego Teio, judiccs, ipse me exislimarem 
'nerarium, si amico, crudelem, si misero, superbum, si 
consuli defuissem. Quare *quod dandum est amicittae, 
laige dabitui a me, ut tecum agam, Seiri, non secus, 
ac si meuB eeset frater, qui mihi est carissimus, "isto 
in loco. •'Quod tiibuendura eat officio, fidei, "religioni, 
)d ila moderaboi, ut meminerim, me contra amici atudium 
pio amici periculo diceie. 

V. 11. '^Intellioo, judices, ties totius accuaationiB 
paitea fuisse, et earum unam in reprehensione ritae, altei- 
am in contentione dignitstis, teitiam in criminibus am- 
bitus eaae lersatam. Atque harum trium partium prima 
illa, i^uae graTissima ease debebat, i^ta fuit infiima et 
leTis, ut illos lex magis quaedam accusatoiia, quam vem 
maledicendi facultas de rits L. Murenae dicere [liiqnid 
coSgerit '■Objects est enim Asia: ,quae ab hoc '^ncnt 
ad voluptatem et luxuriam expetita est, sed in militari 
labore peiagrata. UQui gi adolescens, patre auo impei- 
atora, non meruisset ; aut hostem, aut patris unperium 
timnisBe, aut a parente repudiatus videietui. '^An, cum 
sedere in equis triumphantium praetextati potissimum 
filii Boleant, ^irlc donis militaribus patris triumphum 
decorarti fugiendum fuit, ut, lebus communiter gestis, 
paene simul cum patie triumpharet ? 12. Hic Tero, ju- 
dices, et fuit m Asia, et tIio fortissimo, paieati suo, 
magno adjnmento in perictdis, solatio in laboribus, gn- 
tulationi in vichnia fuit. si£t, u bsbet Asia ■uBpicioneu 

ORATIO nO !■■ M^KKN^ 101 

nxuriae qnandam, non Asiuu aunqaEUU TidisM, ud io 
Asia continenteT rixisse, iBud^um eet. Qiiamobrein 
Don Aaiae nomen objiciendum Murenae fuit, ex qua laiu 
familiae, memoria generi, honos et gloria nomini consti 
tuia eat : 'sed aliquod aut iu Adia aueceptum, ant ex Asia 
deportalum flagitium ac dedecus. iMeruisse Tero stipen- 
dia in eo bello, quod lum populus Rotusnus non modo 
maximum, sed etiain solum gerebat, riitutii : patre im- 
peiatore libeDtiaaime meruisse, ^pietatis : fiaem etipendio- 
nun, patris victoriam ac triumphum fuiaae, feUcitatiB fuit. 
«Maledicto quidem idciico nihil in hisce rebua loci 
est, quod omnia laus occnpavit. 

VI. 13. ^Saltatoreh appellat L. Murenam Cato. 
'Maledictum esl, si reie objicitur, rehementia accussta 
ris: ain falso, maledici conviciatoria. ^Quare cum iata 
sis auctoritate, non debea, M. Cato, arripere maledictum 
'ex triTio, sut ex *8curranim aliquo '"conTiria, neqne 
temere consulem popidi Romani Bsltatorem rocaie : 
sed conspicere, quibus praeterea vitiia affectum esse 
uecesso sit eum, cui veie istud objici possit. Nemo 
enim feie saltat sotniuB, nisi forte insanit: neque In 
aolitudine, 'ineque in couTivio modersto atque honeBto 
Tempestivi couTivii, amoeni loci, multarum deliciamm 
comes est extrema ssltatio. "Tu mihi arripis id, quod 
necesse est omnium vitionim esse poBtiemum : ■*relin- 
qnis illa, quibus Temotis hoc Titinm omnino esse non 
potest. ^«NuIIam tuipe convivium, non amor, non com- 
isaa^o, non libido, non Bumptus ostenditur. Et, cum 
ea non reperiantur, '^juae voIoptaUs n<nnen habent, 
qnaeque vitiosa Bunt: in quo ipsam luzuriam reperire 
non potes, in eo te '*umbram Inxuriae lepemuinn putaa t 
14. Nihil igitm in Titam L. Mnrenae dici polestl 
Nihil, inquam, omniuo, judices. Sic a me cooBul de- 
Bignatus defenditur, ut ejas nulla fraus, nulla- aTkritia, 
nulla perfidia, nuUa crudelitas, "nuUum petulans dic- 
tum proferatuT. Bene habet: jacta ^vnt fnndamenta 
defenBionia. Noodum enim nostris laudibus, qulbus viMt,GoOgk 

tOS OftAflO PRO L. iiitbena: 

pOBtet, Bed pTope inimiconim confessione, Tinun bonina, 
Mqne integrum bomiiieai defendimus. 

VII. 'Quo constituto, fticilior est mihi wlituB ad con- 
tentioneni dignitatis, qu&e paia alteia fuit accusationis. 

IS. ^Suminain video esse in te, Ser. Sulpici, dignita- 
teni geseria, integritaiis, industnae, ceterorumque otna- 
mentamm omnium, quibus ffetum ad consulatus petitio- 
nem aggtedi par est. Pari& cognosco ease isla in L. 
•Muiena, alque ita paria, ut neque ipse dignitate vinci 
potuerit, neque te dignitate euperaiit. 'Contempaisti L. 
Muienae genus: extuUsti tuum. *Quo loco si tibi hoc 
sumie, iiiai qui patilcius sit, neminem bono esse genere 
Batum : facis, ut nirsus plebes in ATentinum sevocanda 
eue Tideatur. 'Sin autem sunt amplae et bonestae fk- 
miliae plebeiae ; et ^pioavus L. Murenae, et arus, piae- 
toies fuenmt, et patei, cum amplissime atque- bonestis- 
sime ^ex piaetuia triumphasset, hoc faciliorem buic grad* 
um consulatus adipiscendi reliquit, quod is jam ^patri 
debitus, a filio petebatui. 16. Tua vero nobilitas, Ser. 
Sulpici, tameisi Bumma est, tamen 'hominibus literatis 
et hisloricis eat notioi, populo Teio et BuffragatoribuB 
obscurioi. Pat^ enim ">fuit equestri loco : arus nuUa 
iUuatri laude celebratus. Itaque non ex seimone honiin- 
nm tecenti, sed "ex annalinm vetustate ernenda est 
memoria nobililatis tuae. Quare ego te semper in nos- 
tnmi &umeTum sggiegare soleo, quod rirtute industiiaque 
peifecisti, ut, cum equitis Romani esses fitius, Bumma 
tamen amplitudine dignus putarere : nec mihi umquam 
minus in "Q. Pompeio, noro homiae, et rortiasimo viio, 
virtutis esae visnm est, quam in homine nobilissimo, 
"M. Aemilio. Eteoim ''ejuadcm animi atque ingenii est, 
posteris suis, quod Pompeius fecit, amplitudjnem nomin- 
is, >'quam non acceperat tradeie ; et, ut Scauros, memor- 
iam ptope intermortuam generia Bui TJitute lenorarB. 

VIII. 17. QiTAiranAH ego jam putabam, judices, 
multis riiiB fortibus ne ignobilitas objiceretut generis, 
ismeo labore esie perfectum ; ^'qui non modo '"Coriis,,GoOgk 

OKATia PKO I.. XDUNl. 103 

Catombna, Pompeiis, uitiquiB illia, fortiaaiims riris, noTia 
hominibus, eed lu8 lecentibns, Mariis, et Dtdiia, et 
Caeliis commemoraDdis 'jacebant. Cnm ego vero ^tanto 
intarvallo ^clauatra iBta nobilitatis Tefregiaseni, ut aditus 
ad consolatam postb&c, sicut apud majores noatros fuit, 
non ma^s nobiJitati, quam Tiituti, pateret : rton atbitntbar, 
cum *eK familia vetere et illustri consul designaius ab 
equitis Romani filio, consule, defenderet;», de geoeris nor< 
itate accusatores esae dicturos. Etenim mihi ipsi ac- 
cidit, ut cum ^nobus patriciis, oltero improbissiioo stquo 
audacissimo, altero modestissimo stque optimo viro, pet- 
erem : supetan tamen ^digniiate Catilinam, gratia Gsl- 
bam. ^Qiiod si id ciimen homini novo esse deberet, 
profecto mihi neque inimici, neque inridi defuissent. 18. 
Omittamus igittir de genere dicere, ^ujua est magns in 
utioque dignitas : videamus ceteia. 

*" QBaesturam una petiit, et sum ego factus prioi." — 
'"Non est respondendum ad omnia. Neque enim quem- 
quam vestrOra fugit, ^^cum multi pares dignitate fianl, 
unus autem primum solus possit obtinere, uon eundeni 
esse oidinem dignitatis et renuntiationis \ propterea qood 
renuntiatio gradus habeat, dignitaa autem sit p>eraaepe 
eadem omnium. >^Sed ijuaestuia utriusque propemodum 
pari momento soitis foit Habuit hic '^lege Titia pio- 
vinciajii tacitam et quietam: i*tu illam, cui, cum quaea- 
tores sortiuntui, etiam accLamari solet, "Ostiensem, non 
tam gratiosam et illuBtrem, quam negotioaam et moles- 
tam. "Conaedit utriusque nomen in quaeatuia. Nullnm 
nim Tobis sora campum dedit, •'in quo excunrere virtus" 
ognoscique posset. 19. t^Reliqui temporis spatiiun in 
contentionem vocatur. Ab utroque dissimillima ratione 
tractatum est. 

IX. Servius hic nobiscum '"hanc urbanam militiam 
lespondendi, scribondi, cavendi, plenam soUicitndinis 
ac stomacbi, aecutus est : jua civile didicit : muhum 
vigilavit: laboravit : piaesto multis fuit: multoium stul- 
titisoi perpessas est: anogsTiriam pertulit: ^odifficultatem,GoOgk 


exBOibuit ; rixit ad olionim aibitrium, non ad ■. sumn 
Magna lans, et grata honunibus, nQum bominem elabo 
rare 'in ea Bcientia, quae sit multis piofutuia. 20. Quid 
Murena intoiea? Foitissimo et sapientisaimo viio, sum- 
mo impeifttori, ^egatus L. LucuUo fuit : qua in iegatione 
duxit exercitum : ^signa contulit: mauum conaerait : msg- 
naa copias hoBtiom fudit: uibes putim vi, partim obsid- 
ione cepit : ^ABiam iatam lefertam, et eandem delicatam, 
sic obiit, ut in ea neque avaiitlae, neqne luxoiiae tbb 
tigium reliquerit: maximo in bello ^ic eat Tersatus, ut 
hic multas les et magnas sine impeiatoie gesserit, nullam 
aine hoc imperatoi. Atque haec, qoamquam piaesente 
L. LucuHo loquar, tamen ne ab ipso, piopter periculum 
nosiniin, ^conceasam Tideamui habere licentiam fingendi, 
publicis liteiis testata sunt omnia; quibua L. LucuUus 
tanrum laudis impeitit, quantum neque ambitiosus impeia^ 
toi, nequB invidus, tiibueie alteii in communicanda gtoiia 
debuit. 21. 'Summa in utioque eal honestaa, summa dig- 
niCas : quam ego, si mihi pei Seirium liceat, pari atque 
esdem in laude ponam. Sed non licet. Agitat rem 
mililaiem: insectatui totam hanc legationem: assiduitatia 
et opei&ium haram quotidiaaaram putat ^sse consi^um. 
" Apnd exercitom °mihi fueris, inquit, tot annos ? 'forura 
non atdgeris ? abfueris tamdiu ? et, cum longo inteivalla 
veneris, cum iis, qui in foio habitaiunt, de dignitste 
contendas T" Primura ista nostia assiduitas, Seivi, nescis, 
quantum inteidum affeiat hominibus fsstidii, quantum 
satietatia. Mihi quidem vehementei eipediit, "positam 
in oculis esae giatiam. Sed tamen ego '^mei 8B.tietatem 
iBagno meo laboie superavi, et tu idem foitasso : rerum 
tamen utrique nostiQm '^deaideiiuni nihil obfuissel. 22. 
Sed, ut, hoc omiseo, '*ad siudiorum atque artium con- 
tentionem leTeitamur : '*qul potest dubitari, quin ad 
consulatum adipiscendum '*multo plus affeiat dignitatis 
rei militaris, quam juria civilis gloria ? Vigilas lu de 
nocte, ut tuis consultoribus respondeas : ille, ut eo, qno 
iiu<iiidit, msture cum exercitu peireniat. Te ^''gaiiomm.,GoOgk 


iUum 'bnccinanini cuitns exsosciiat. Ta sctiwiein in- 
atituis, ille aciem inBtniit ; tu caves, ^e tui congulloies , 
ille, ne nrbea ant castra capiantuT. *llle tenet et «cit, 
ut bostium copiae; tu, ut aqaae pluviae arceantar: ille 
*eiercitatur *in propagandii finibua ; tu ^in regendia : ac 
ninuTum, (dicendum eet enim quod sentio,} *rei miliia- 
lia virtuB praestat ceteria oranibus. 

X Haec nomen populo Romano, hoec huic uibi 
aetemam gloriam poperit: haeo orbem teTTanim parere 
huic imperio coegit: omnes nibanae les, omnia hae.c 
nOBtm praeclara studia, *et haec forenais laua et indusliia 
latent in tntela ac praeatdio bellicae vittutia. 'oSimul 
atque iDcrepuit auspicio tumultus, '*artes illico nostrae 

33. *'Et, quoniam mihi videris istam scientiam jnris, 
tamquam filiolam osculari tuam, non patiar te ia tanto 
enore versari, ut '^islud neacio quid, quod tanto opero 
didicisti, praeclarum aliquid esae arbitrere. Aliis ego 
te virtutibuB, ''continentia, gravitate, justitia, fide, cete> 
ris omnibua, conaulatu et omni bonore aemper dignis- 
simutp judicavi. '*Quod quidem jua civile didicisti, 
non dicam, operam perdidiati : sed illud dicam, nullam 
esse **in illa disciplina "munitam ad consalatam viam. 
Onjnes enim artea, quae nobis populi Bomani studia 
conciliant, '^et admirabilem dignitatem, et pergratam utili- 
tatem debent habere. 

XI. 24. Summji dignitas est in iis, qui militari lande 
antecellunt ; omnia enim, i*quae snnt in imperio, et in 
ttatu civitatia, ab iis defendi et fiimari putanlur: summa 
etiam utilitaa : siquidem eomm ^consilio et periculo, 
cum lepublica, tum etiam nostris lebns perfrui possumus. 
Gravis etiam illa est, et plena dignitatia, dicendi faeul- 
las, {^'quae saepe valmt in consule deligendo,) posse 
consilio atqae oratioae, et senatus, eC populi, et eorum, 
qui les judicant, mentes penbovere. Quaeritnr consul, 
qui diceado nonnunquam comprimat '^ibunicios furoies 
qui concitatifm populum flectat, ^ui largitinii ie»ia(»t 


100 - OUTIO PRO 1.. «OKENA. 

Non minim, si ob hanc facultatem Imimnes saepe etiaro 
non nobiles consulalum oonsecuti sunt: pTaes«itim cunt 
haec eadem rea iplurimaa gratias, firmissimas amicitiast 
maxima studia psiiat. Qutmim %i isto veatro artiScio, 
Snlpici, nihil est. 25. Primum, dignitas ^in tam tonui 
Bcienlia qoae potest esse t *Res enim sunt parvae, prope 
in singulia literis atque interpunctionibus verborum occupa- 
tae. Deinde, etiam si quid apud majores nostros fuit in 
isto atndio admirationis, id, 'enuntiatis vestris mysteriis, 
totum est contemptnm et abjeotum. 'Posset agi lege, 
necne, pauci quondam Gciebant. ''Fastos enim vulgo non 
babebant. Erant in magna potentia, qui consulebantur : 
a quibue etiam dies, *tamquam a Cbaldaeis, petebantur. 
Inrentus est scriba quidam, *Cn. Flavius, ^"qui comicum 
oculoa confixerit, "et singiilia diebus ediscendos fastos 
popnlo proposuerit, et ab ipeis cautis jurecuusultis eorum 
sapientiam compilarit. '^ltaque irali illi, quod sunt reriti, 
ne, dierum tatione pervulgata et cognita, eine sua opeia 
iege posset agi, *%otas quasdun composuerunt, ut om- ' 
nibus in rebus ipsi iateressent. 

XII. 26. "Cdh hoc fieri bellissime posset : " Fundus 
Sabinus meus est :" " immo meus :" deinde judicium ; 
nolueruDt, " Fundua," inquit, " qui, est in agro, qui Sa- 
binus vocatur." Satis verbose. Cedo, quid poslea? "Eum 
ego ex jin-e Quiritium meum esse aio." Quid tuml 
^'" Inde ibi ego te es jure '^manu consertum voco." 
Quid huic tam loquac!ter litigioso responderet >'ille, unde 
petebalur, non habebat. '^ransit idem jureconsultus, 
tibicinis Lalini modo: '*"Unde tu me," inquit, "eijur» 
manu consertum vocasti, iode ibi ego te revoco," Prae- 
tor interea ne ^''pulchnim se ac beatum putaret, "alqus 
aliquid ipse aua sponte loquerelur, ei quoque '^cannen 
compositum eat, cum ceteris rebus absurdum, tum vero 
in illo ; " ^Suis utrisque ^superalitlbus istam viam dico : 
inile viam." ^Praesto aderat sapiena ille, qui intre viam 
doceret. " Redite viam." Eodem duce redibant. ^Haec 
iaa tom apud illos barbatos ridicula, credo, Tidedantuii,GoOgk 

oftATio rao L. mrxnTA. 107 

homiiies, cxm recte atqae iB loco constitissejit, jubeii 
abire : ut, unde abissent, eodem tlatim rediient. lisdem 
ineptius facata sunt ^ills omnia, " Qnsndo te in jure c<Ht- 
spicio :" et haec : " 'Anne lu dicis causa Tindicaveri» 7" 
qvae dum eiant occulta, necessaTio ab eia, qui ea tene* 
bant, petebsntut : poetea yero peividgata, atque *in man- 
ibus jactala et excussa, ^ioaniasima pnidentiae reperta 
suDt, fraudis autem et Btultitiae plenissima. 27. 'Naiii 
cum pennulla praeclaie legibus essent constituta, ea jure- 
consultorum ingeniis pleraquB corrupta ac depravata sunt 
Mulierea onuies, propter 'infiimitatem conailii, majoies 
in tiUorum poteetate eese voluenmt : hi invenenmt gen- 
eia tutonim, ^uae potestate muUerum contiuerentur. 
*Sacra interire illi noluenmt: horum ingenio senes '*ad 
coemptiones faciendas, interimeQdorum sacionmi causa, 
Tppeni sunt. >Un onmi denique jure civili aequitaiem 
reliquenmt, veiba ipaa tenuerunt: ut, quia "m alicujus 
libiis exempli causa i^id nimien invenerant, putaiunt, 
omnes mulieres, '^uae coemptionem facerent, Caiaa 
vocari. >^Jam illud mihi quidem mitom videri solet, 
lot homines, tam ingeniosos, pei tot annoa etiam nunc 
statueie non, potuisse, '^trum diem tertium,>an '^per- 
endinum : jitdicem, an arbitrum : rem, an liiem dici 

XIII. 28. iTinrE {ut dixi) '«dignitas in ista scien- 

. da consularia nunquam fuit ; quse tota '*ex lebna fic- 
tis commenticiisque constatet: gratiae veio mnlto miu- 

' oies. Quod enim omnibus patet, et aeque promptum 
est mibi et adveraario meo, id esse ^"gratum nullo 
pacto poteet. Itaqiie non modo beneficii coUocandi 
spem, '"aed etiam illud, quod aliquandiu fult, " Licet 
consulere," jam peididistis. Saplena existimari nemo 
potest ^n ea prudentia, quae neque extra Romam 
usquam, neque Roma.e, rebua piolatis, quidquam valet. 
Peritus ideo habori nemo poteet, quod in eo, quod 
■ciunt omnea, nnllo modo posBUnt inter se discrepare, 
Oit&cilis autem res ideo non putatur, quod ^at . per 



paucis ei minime obscuris Uterii continetur. Itaqne, sl 
oiihi, 'horaini vehemnnteT occupato, stomachum moveritis, 
tridno me jnreconsultum eseo profitebor. 'Etenim qnae 
de scripto aguntur, scripla siut omnia: neque tamen 
qnidquam *tam angnate acriptum eat, quo ego non pos- 
•im, " Qua de re agitur," addero ; ^quao consuluatur 
autem, minimo periculo respondentui. Si id, quod opor- 
tet, responderis ; idem videare respbndisse, quod Servius : 
sin aliter ; ^etiam controversum jus nosse et tractare 
videare. 29. Quapn^ter non' solum illa gloria militaris 
TBBtria' fonnnlis atque actionibus anteponenda est, verum 
etiam dicendi consuetudo longe et multum ^isti vestraa 
exercitatiom ad bonorem antecellit. Itaque milii viden- 
lur plerique ^initio multo hoc maluisse ; post, cum id 
assequi non potuissent, ^istuc potissimum sunt delapsi. 
Ut aiurtl 'in Gfaecis artificibua, oos '"auloedos esae, qui 
citharoedi fieri non potuerint; sic nonnullos videmus, 
qui oratores evadere non potuenmt, eoa ad juris studium 
i'devemre. "Magnus dicendi labor, magna res, magna 
' digniias, summa autem gratia. ^tenim a vobis '^salubri- 
tas quaedam: ab iis, qui dicunt, ealus ipsa petitur. 
Oeinde «estra responsa alque docreta et evertuntur 
saeps dicendo, et sine defensione oraloris firma esse non 
possunt : "in qua si satis profecissem, parciua de ejus 
laude dicerem : nunc nihil de me dico, sed de iis, qui 
in dicendo magni sunt aut fuerunL 

XIV. 30. DuAB Bunt ^*artes, quae possnnl locare hom- 
ines in amplissimo grada dignitatis : una imperatoris, 
altera oratoris boni : ab lioc enim pacis ornamenta roti- 
oentur : ab iUo belli pericula repelluntur. '^Ceterae tamen 
virtutes ipsae per se multum valent, justiiia, fides, pudor, 
lemperantia ; quibus te, Servi, excellere omnes intelli- 
gunt: '''sed nunc do studiis ad honorem dispositis, non 
de insita cujusque virtute disputo. Omnia ista nobis 
studia de manibus escutiuntur, simul atque '^aliquis molos 
noTus. bellicnm cancre coeplt. Etenim, ut ait, "•ingenio- 
auB potifa, et suctor valde bonus, proeliis promulgalis 



'''pellitur « nfedio," non solum ^isU v«stra ««boMdm- 
ulstto prud«nuae, sed «tiam ipn ills domtns lenmi, 
"upientia; vi geritur res; spenutuT onlor," ^a «olDm 
odioBua in dicendo, ac loqusz, *«rum etism "bonus- 
bonidus milaa amstui :" vestrum vero stndium totnm jaceL 
" tioa ex juie manu consenum, sed %iagfl rerro," inquit, 
**rem lepetunt." Quod si ita est, cedat, opinor, Sulpici, 
fbnim castris, otinm militise, 'stiluB gladio, *umbTa soli: 
eit denique iu civitale es 'prima res, propter qusm ips» 
est ciTitoa omnium princeps. 31. Venun 'itaeo Csto 
nimium n«s noeb^is verbis msgna facere demonatcat ; et 
oblilos esse, bellum illud omne Mithiidsdcum cum muli- 
erculis esse gestimi. Quod ego longe secus ezistimo, 
judicea: deque eo pauca disseram; *neque enim caiiss 
in iioc continetur. 

Nam, ai oomia bella, qiise '"cnm Graecis gessimns, 
coatemnenda sunt,.derideatur de rege Pjrrriio triumphus 
M' Cuiii : de Pbilippo, T. Flaminini : de Astolis, M. 
Fulvii: de rege Peree, L. Paulli: de Psendophilippo 
Q. Metelli: de Corintbiia, L. Miunmii: sin haec bells 
gntvtasima Tictoriaeque eoium bellorum gratiBaimae fue- 
nmt; cur Asiaticae nationes, stque "ille a te hostia 
contemnitui ? Atqni, ex Teterum renun monumeatis, tbI 
maximum bellum populum Komanum cnm '*Antiocho 
geasisse video : cujus beUi victor ^^T^. Scipio, psitila 
cum Publio fratre gloria, quani laudem ille, Africa op- 
presea, "cognomiue ipso prae se ferebat, eandem hic 
sibi ez Aeias nomine aasumpait 33. Quo quidem in 
belle virtua enituit egregia "M. CHtonia, pioavi tui: qoo 
ille, cum esset, nt ego mihi etatuo, talis, qualem te esse 
video "nunquam esset profectos, si cum mulierculis 
bellandum csse aibilraretur. "Neque vero cum P. Aiitr 
cano BenatuB egisaet, ut legatus fratri proficiaceretur ; 
cum ipse, pauUo ante, Hannibale ez Italia ei^iilso, ex 
Africa ejecto, Csithsgina oppreasa, maximis pericnlis 
rempublicam liberasset, uisi illud giave bellum et ytJM' 
ment putaietur. 



IJO rauTio FIIO L. 

XT. Atqui, si diligenter, >quid Milhridates potaerii, 
et quid effocerit, et qiii vir fuerit, consideTariB ; onuiibns 
TegU>u6, qitibusciun populus Romaous bellum gessit, hnnc 
regem nimirum antepones; quem L. Sulla, maximo et 
fortiBsimo exercitu, 'pugns excitalum, hion nidie impe»- 
lor, ot aliud nihil dicam, *bello invectum totam in Asiam 
^:uin pace dimisit : quem L. Murena, pater hujuace 
▼ebementisBimB vigilsntissimeque vemuai, repreBsnni 
magna ex pajte, noo oppressum leliquit : qiii lex, sibi 
aliquot aunis sumptis ad confirmanda» ^r&tiones et copias 
belli, tautum ipse opibus constuque invaluit, ut se Ocea< 
sum cum Fonto, Sertoiii copias cum suis conjunctarum 
potaret. 33. Ad quod bellum ''duobus consulibna ita 
missis, nt alter Mithridatem peraequeretur, alter Bithy- 
niam tueretur: "alteriua les et terra et mari calunitosaa 
Tehementei et opes regis et nomen auxenmt: L. Luculli 
▼eio res tantae exstiterunt, ut neque majus bellum com- 
memorari possit, neque majore consilio et viitute gestum. 
*Nun, cum totius impetua belli ad Cyzicenorum moeoi& 
constitisaet, e&mque nibem sibi Mithridates '^Asiae jaouam 
fbie putasset, qua effiacla et levulaa, tota pateret pio- 
Tincia : perfecta ab Lncullo haec sunt omnia, nt uibs fide 
lissimorum sociorum defendeietur, "et omnes copiae 
«Vgis diutuniitate obsessionis consnmerentur. QuidT 
illam '^pugnam uaTalem ad Tenedum, cum contento 
curau, sceirimis ducibus, bostium classis Italiam spe 
aique animis inflata peteret, mediocri certamine et parva 
limicatione commissam arbitiaria ! Mitto pioelia : prae- 
teieo oppugnationes oppidoium. Ejqtulsus legno tandem 
aliquando, tantum tamen consilio atque aucloritate valuit, 
ut se, lege Armeniorum adjuncto, ^aovis opibus copiis- 
que ronoTarit. 

XVL Ac, si mihi nunc d« rebus gestis esset uostri 
exercitus imperatorisque dicendum, plurima et maxima 
pioelia comraemorare possem. ^*Sed non id sgtmiis. 
34. Hoc dico : si bellum hoc, si hic hoatis, si ills lex 
contemneudus fuisset, neque tanta cuia "senatus et ptH,GoOgk 

oKiTio pfto i_ inntiitA. 111 

puliia RomamiB suacipiendam putaraet, neqno U>t anaos 
geBsiBBet, nequB tanta gtoria L. Luculli : neque tbk 
ejus belli conficiendi curam tanto studio ipopuluB Ro 
manuB ad Cn. Poropeium detulisset: cujus ex omnibua 
pugnis, quae sunt innumeiabilea, ^el acerrima mihi vid- 
etui illa, quae cum rege commiasa est, et Bummii con- 
lentione pugnata. Qua «z pugna cum se ille eripuisset, 
et ^Bosporum confugtsset, quo exercitus adire non posset : 
*etiam iu extrema fortuna et fuga, nomen tamea retinuit 
regium. Itaqne ipse Pompeius, regno possesso, ex om- 
nibus oris ac notis se^libus hoete pulso, ^men tanlum 
in unius auima posuit, ut, cum omnia, quae ille tenuerat, 
adierat, speiarat, victoria possideret; tamen noa ante 
quam illam lita e^qfiulit bellum confectum judicarit. 
Uimc tu hoBtem, Cato, coatemnis, quosum per tot annos, 
tot proeliis, tot imperatores bella geBseruntl cujua ez- 
pulsi et ejecti vita tanti aeatimaia eat, ut, morte ejus 
nuntiata, tum denique beUum confectum ^arbitrareronr ! 
.Hoc igitur in bello L. Murenam, legatum fortiaaimi ani- 
mi, Bununi conailii, maximi laboris cognitum esse ''de- 
fendimus: et *lianc ejus operam non minua ad consola- 
tmn adipiscendum, quam hanc nostiamforensem induatriam, 
dignitatis habmBBe. 

XVIL 35. " »At enim in praeturae petitione prior «• 
nuntiatus est SerTiuB." — '"PergitiBne tos, tamquam ex 
^^yngrapha, agere cum populo, ut, quem locum semel 
honoria cuipiam dederit, eundem '^eliquis honoribus 
debeatl '^Quod euim fretum, quem '*£uripum (ot moIuB, 
tanCas, tam varias habere putatis agitatioDes fluctnum, 
quaatas perturbadones et quantos aestus habet ratio 
comitiorum t Dies interroisBus nnus, aut nox interposita, 
■aepe petttubat onmia : et ^^tam opinionem parra non- 
nunquam conunutat aura Tumoris. Saepe etiam sine nlla 
aperta causa fit aliud, atque existimaniua, ut nonnunquara 
ita factmn ease etiam populus admiietur : quaai vero 
non ipae fecerit. 36. Nihit eet incertius vulgo, nihil 
sbscurins Toluntata horoinum, '^nihil fallaciua rUton*,GoOgk 

lia ORATIO FRO 1. miSCMA. 

tota comitioTum. Quis L. Ptiilippuin eannno ingenlo^ 
'opera, gratia, nobilitate, a M. Herennio tupecari poaM 
arbitiatoa eat? quia 'Q. CaUilum, hDmauitiUe^ sapientis, 
integritate anteaMI^it^i*!! ^ ^°- MaUio ? quis M. Scan- 
ram, %oniinem graTiseimum, ciTem egreginm, foitissimam 
aenalorem, a Q. Maximo ! Non modo borum niliil Ita 
foie putatum est, sed ne c<^ enet factum quidem, qu»- 
re ita factum esset intelligi potuit. Natn ut telhpestates 
Saepe ceilo aliqno coeli signo commoTentiir, eaepe im- 
proTiso, nulla ex certa rstiime, obscura aliqiu ex canaa 
concitantur: sic, in hao comitionim tempeBtate populari, 
eae^ intelligu, quo signo commota sit ; ^saepe ita ob . 
■cura cauaa eat, ut casu excitata esse Tideatnr. 

XVIII. 37. Sed tamen, Hi «st r^enda raUo, ^inae 
TBB Tehementer ia praetura deaideratae sunt, quae ambas 
m consulatu Murenae profuerunt : una, 'ozspectatio mmie- 
lis, quae et rumoTe nonnullo, et stodii* urmonibiwque 
competitoTum creTerat : ^altera, quod ii, quoa in provincia 
ac legatione omniB et liberalitatis et Tiituti* soM.testea 
habuerat, nondum deceaaerant Hoium ntrumque ei 
fortuna ad consnlatus petitionem TeserraTit. Jfam et L 
Luculli ezercituB, qni ad triumphum conrenerat, idem 
'"coniitiiB L. Mureaae praesto fuit ; et >'M^us ampHsai- 
mum, quod pecitio praetuiae desiderabat, praetura rediluit. 
38, Num tibi haec paira videntur adjumenta et Bobaidia 
consulatua t i^VoIuntae milictun 1 quae cum pbi se Talet 
multitndine, tum apud buob grada, tum yero in consule 
declarando mnttum etiam apud uniTerBum populum Ro- 
manum auctoritatis habet. Sufirkgatio militaris ? impera- 
jorea enim comitiiB consulsiibuB, non ''verbomm inter- 
pietes deliguntur. ''Quare graviB est illa oiatio, " me 
Baucium Tecreavit : me praeda donaTit : hoc duce caatra 
cepimua, 'AignB contulimtra : nnnquam iate plus militi 
aboriB iraposuit, quam sibi sumpsit ipae ; '^cum fortie, 
tum etiam felix." ^^oe quanli putas esse ad famain 
oonunum ac ToIuntai«m 1 "Etenim si tanta illis comitiis 
laJigio est, nt sdhuc semper i*omen Taluerit praeiogUi-,GoOgk 

OKATIO rao I.. MDXENl. 118 

wma- qiiid minmi «st, in boc felicitatis famun Bwmo- 
aemqu« r^lG^ueT 

XIX. Sed, si baec 'leTton ducia, qaae Ikmt gTBviasinia, 
'ei hanc nrbaQam •ufiiagatioiiem milita» antepoius, noll 
'ludorum hujus elegantiam, et scenae magiu£c«itiam 
valda coDtemneiB ; quao huic admodum ^profueiuat. 
Nam quid ego dicam,'. populum ac Tulgua impeiitonmi 
todi* migno opeie delectaii t Minua est miraDdum. 
'QDamquam huio cauaae id aatia eat : aunt enim populi 
ac multitudinis comitia. Quaie si populo ludorum mag- 
nificentta vduptati est, non est minmdum, eam L. Mu- 
jenae apud-populum piofuiase. 39. Sed si nosmet ipai, 
qui et ab delectalione omni ^negotiis impedimui, et in 
ipsa occupatione delectationes aUas mullas habeis pos- 
sumus, htdis tameu ''oblectammr et duoimui ; quid tu ad- 
miieie de midtitUdine indocta? 40. "L. Otho, yji fbrtis, 
mem necessatiuA, equestii ordini reatituit non aolum 
dignitatem, «od etiam "voluptstem. Jtaqne lex haec, 
quae «ft -ludos pertinet, est omnium gratiasima, quod 
honestissimo oTdini '"cum splendore fiuctus quoque ju- 
cunditatis- est restitutns. Quaie deleetant homines, mihi 
ciede, ludi, etiam iUos, qui disaimulant, noa solum «os, 
qui fatentui : ^od ego ^'in mea petitione senai. '^Nam 
noa qnoque babuimus scenam competitncem. Qnod •» 
ego, qui '^aos' ludos aedilis feCBram, tamen Antonii 
iudis t«conunoTebai : tibi, qui casu nuUos feceias, '^ihil 
luijus istam ipsam, quaA imdes, aigenteam sceoam, ad- 
Tersatun putaa ! 41. Sed haec sane sint paris ODuiia: 
^it par forensie opeia'militari: sit par mihtaii sufiraga-' 
tio urbana: sit idem magnificentisainDa et nuUos nm- 
qiiam fecisse ludoa ; qnid I in ipsa praetara nihilne 
existimas ^^inter tuam et istius sortem interfiuaset 

XX. >"Hujns sors ea fuit, quam omnes ^necessarii 
tibi optabamus, juris dicendi : in qua 'igloriam conciUal 
magnitudo negotii, gratiam aequitatis laigitio : qua in 
Borte sapiens praetor, qualia Ise fiiit, ofiensionem vitat 
Waeqnabilitate decsrnendi, benevolentiam adjtmgit lenitat* 



SDdiendi. Egregia et ad conBuiatum apta piovincia, in 
qua laus aequLtatig, integritatis, facilitatis, 'ad extiemum 
ludonim voluptale concluditur. 43. 'Quid tua aoni T 
*tristi8, atxox : quaestio peciilatns, e> altera parte, lacri- 
roanun et *squaloris, 'ex altera, plena catenarum atque 
indicum. ^Cogendi judices inviti, letinendi contra toI- 
untatem : ''scriba damnatus, oido totus alienus : ^SuUana 
gratificatio leprehensa ; muhi viri foites, et ^pfope pars 
civiiatis ofiensa eat: '"lices aevere aeatimatae; "cui 
placet, obliviscitur, cui dolet, memlniL Postremo tu ia 
proTinciam iie noluisti. Non possuni id in te repre- 
bendete, quod in me ipso et praelor et consul probavi. 
Sed tamea *^L. Muienae proTincia miiltas bonas giatias ' 
Gum optima existimatione attulit. Habuit proficiscens 
delectum iu Umbria : dedit ei '^facultatem respublica 
liberalitatis : qua usus, mullas sibi tribus, '*quae muni- 
cipiia Umbriae conficiuutur, adjunxil. Ipsa auten io 
Gallia, '^ut nostri bominea desperatas jam pecunias exige 
rent, aequitate diligentiaqile perfecit. Tu inteiea Romae 
'^cilicet amicia piaesto fuisti. Fateor : sed tamen illud 
cogila, nomiullonun amicomm studia minui sdleie in eos, 
a quibua provincias contemui intelligant. 

XXI. 43. £t, quoniam ostendi, judices, paiem digni- 
tatem ad consulatns petitionem, "disparem foilunani 
prorincialium negotiorum ia Mureoa atqne in Sulpicio 
fuisae; dicam jam apeitiua, in quo meus neceesarius 
fuerit inferior Servius, et ea dicam, vobis audieatibus, 
'*aaiisao jam tempoie, quae ipsi soli, re integia, saepe 
dixi. Fetere consulalum nesciie te, Servi, persaepe tibi 
dixi : et "in iis tebus ipsis, quas te magno et forti ani- 
mo et agere et dicere videbam, tibi solitus sum dicere, 
magis te fortem senalorem mihi videri, quam sapienlem 
oandidatum, Primum ^accusandi terrores et minae, quib- 
as tu quotidie uti solebas, sunt fortis viri; sed et pop- 
uli opinionem ^'a epe adipiscendi arertunt, et amicorum 
studia debiliiant. Nescio quo pacto semper Jioc fit: 
neque ^in nno aut altero animadrersum est, sed jam in,GoOgk 


pluribua; ■imnl atqne candidatua accasationem mcdiiari 
visiia est, ut honorem despeiasBe ndeatur. 44. *Quid 
ergo t acceptam iiijuTiam persequi non placet ? Imma 
vehem«nt«T pUcet> sed ^iud lempus est petendi, oliud 
peisequendi. PetitoTem ego, praesettim consulatHs, magna 
■pe, magno animo, %iagnis copiis et in fonim et tn 
campum deduci tdIo : non placet mihi 'inqnisiiio candi- 
dati, praeoantia repulaae: non testium potius, quam auf- 
&ag3tonun comparatio: non minae magis, ijuam blandit 
iae : non Meclamatio potius, quam perBalutalio : praeser 
tim cum jam, hoc novo more, omnea fere domos onmium 
concusent, 'et ex vultu caadidatorum faciaot, quantum 
qnisque animi et facultatis habeie videstur. 45. " Vides 
ne td illura' tristemT demissum ! 'jacet, diffidit, abjecit 
hastas." Seipit hic rumor: "Bcix tu illum accusatiooem 
cogitaie 1 inquiiere tn competiiores ? testea quaeiere 1 ^AIi- 
imi faciam, quoniam sibi hic ipse desperat." Ejusmodi can- 
didatonun amici intimi *debilitantiiT, studia deponunt, ant 
testatam rem abjiciiuit, aut snam ^Ooperam el gratiam 
judicio et accuBattoni leBervant. 

XXlL-AcCEoiT eodem, ut eiiam ipse candid^us "to 
tnm animnm, alque omnem curam, operam, diligentiam 
qne auara ia petitione non possit ponere. Adjungitur 
eaim accusatioaia cogitatio, "non parra res, sed nimirum 
onmium maxima. Ma«nuin est enim, le '^comparare ea, 
qnihus pssais hominem n civitate, praesertim non inopem; 
neque infirmum, extucbsre ; qui el per se, et per suoa, 
«t veio >*euam per tdienos defendatur. ORines enim ad 
perienla propnlsanda concurrimus ; et qui non aperte 
inimici aumus, etiam alienissiinis, 'Hn capitis periculu, 
amicianmorum officia et Btudia praestamus. 46. Quara 
ego esperlus et petendi, et defendendi, et sccusandi 
moleatism, **flic inlellesi : in petendo, studium esae scei- 
rimum ; in defendeado, officium; in-accusaitdo Isborem. 
Itaque "sic atatno, fieri nnllo modo poaae, '^ut idera 
socusalionem et petitionem conBuIatus diligenler adornet 
alqne instmat. '"Unnm suatinere psuoi possunt, ntrUBi-,GoOgk 

- 116 OCATIO PRO L. nnixM. 

que BMito. Tu, ■cnm t« 4e curriculo petitioni* ieBmiw 
' ma, animumqu» ad accusancium transtuiiuea, existimuti 
le ulrique negotio eatisfacere posse 1 Vehementei enulL 
Qui» enim dies fuit, pofiteaquani hn istam -•ccuM.ndi de- 
Buntiationem iogieeeua ea, quem tu noa totwn in iata 
latione consumpseris t 

XXIII. 'Lbqem ambitsa flafita«ti, quae tibi am de> 
eiat. ^Erat enim sererissime scripta Calpurnia. ■Gestoa 
est moi et voluntali et diguitati tuae. *Sed tata illa Ux 
accusatifmem tuam, ai habeiea noceatcm leum, fortaaatt 
nmanet : petitioni vero refiagata eet. 47. Poeoa ^grar- 
ior itt plebem tua voce efflsgitata eit ; — ^commoli animi 
tenutorum; — ^exailium in noBinim ordinem: conceMil 
■enattts poatulationi tuae, '"sed non Jibeoter dKrioreni 
ibrtunae communi condiiionem te anctore, constituit. 
■iMori» excusationi poena addita est, 'Voluntaa offeoM 
muliorum, quibus aut contia valetudiuis commodum Ubo* 
laadiun est, aut iBcommodo moibi etiun ceteri vitaa 
fhictuB relinqueudi. Quid ergo? '^haec quLi tulit? "la, 
qui anctoritati senatus, voluatali tuae puuit : denique 
is tuUt, qui minime probaiat. '^llla, quae mea summa 
volunlale eenalus frequens lepudiavit, mediocriter adrer- 
•ata tibi esse ezistima* 1 "Confusionem sufiiBgiorum 
flagitasti, "pioiogalionem legis Maniliae, i%equatianem 
giatiae, dignit&tis, sufiiagioium. Graviter **bomines hon- 
esti, alque in suit Ticinitatibus et municipiia giatioai 
lulerunt, a tali viio esse pugnatum, ut omnes et '"digai- 
taiia et giatise gradua toUerentur. ^'Idem ediliciee judi- 
ces esse voluisti, ^t odia occulta civium, quae tacida 
nunc diacoidiis continentui, in foituna* optimi cujusqu* 
•rumperent. 46. Haec omnia tibi accnaandi viam mimi* 
•bant, *^adipiacDndi obaaepiebanL 

Atque ^x oainibus illa plaga est iajecta petjrioni tuae, 
wm tacente me, maxima: de qua ab homine ingenio- 
sissimo et copiosiasimo, Hoilensio, multa gTavissime 
dicla sunt Quo etiam mihi '^duiior locua dicendi 
datuai «t, Gum anta lae et ille dizinet, et vii awmu 


OBATio rKO L. HHRairi.- 11T 

dignitato, et dUigeiUia) et funiltBte dicendi, M. CTanm, 
'ego in extTemo Don pattem sliqu&m Bgeiem caosM, leS 
de tota le diceiem, qnod mihi videretui. 'Itaque ia iia-' 
dem lebns fere veisoi, et, qaoad possum, judtces, oc> 
ouiTO Testrae n^ieutiae. 

XXIV. Sej) tamen, Servi, ^iuani te secmim putw 
injecisse petitioni tuae, cum tu populum Romanom in 
eum metum sdduxisti, nt peitimesceiet, ne Gonsul Cati> 
liiia fieiet, dum tu accusationem conqiarajes, *deposit& 
atque abjecta petitioae t 49. Etenim te ^iDqmieie vide- 
bant, tiislem ipsum, moestos amicos ; observationes, 
*testificatione8, seductiones testium, 'secessionem sub- 
sciiptomm animadvertebant: quibuB lebus certe ipsi can- 
didatorum vultus obscuiioies videri Boleat; Catilinam in- 
teiea alaciem atque laetum, stipatum choro jaTeutntiB, 
Tallatnm ^iudicibus slque sicsriis, inflstnm cum spe mi' 
lUum, tum *Gollegae mei, quemadmodum dicebat ipse, 
promissis ; circumfiuentem colonorum '"ArretLoonim el 
Fesulanomm exercitu; qnam tuibam, dissimiHimo ez 
genere, distinguebaut homines ''peiculsi SuUani temporis 
calamitate. Vullus erat ipsius plenua fnroris: ocult 
sceleris : seimo, anogautiae : sic ut ei jam explwatus 
«t ><domi conditoa considatas videietni. Muienam con- 
teomebat : Sulpicium ''accusatoiem Bunm numeiabat, 
non competitoiem : ei vim denuntiabat ; reipublicse 

XXV. 50. QuiBUS lebus qul timor bonis omnibns in- 
iectns sit, qilantaque desperatio '^ieipublicae, si ille factus 
esset, nolite b me commoneri velle : Tosmet ipsi vobis* 
cnm lecoidamiuL MemiDistis enim, cnm iUius nefarii 
gladiatoris Toces ''percreliaissent, qusB faabuisse in concio- 
Be domeaticB dicebstui, cum miseiorum fidelem defensorem 
negasset inveniri posse, nisi ■*enni, qui ipBe miser 
Bsset: "integioium et foitunatormn promissis Bancioa 
et misenn credeie non oportere : qnaie qui ^^nsumpta 
nplere, erepls recnperare vellent, apectaient, quid ipB« 
ieberet, quid possideiet, , qoid anderet : minime tipidnnb,GoOgk 

118 ftftATIO ?R0 I.. MnUMA. 

et vaJde calomitosuro esse oportete eum, qul ewet fiitiH 
'niB dux et signifer calamitoaoTum. 91. Tum igitnT, his 
tebus anditie, memiiustjs fieri senatusconsultum, 'referente 
me, ne postero die comilia haberentur, ut de his rebus 
in senstu agere possemus. Itaque poatridie, &equenti 
senatu, ^Catilinam excitavi, atque eum de his rebus jussi, 
si quid vellet, quae ad me allatae essent, dicere. Alque 
ille, ut semper fuit ^apertissimus, non se purgavit, sed 
indicaTit aique induit. Tum enim dixit, *duo corpora 
esBe reipublicae, unum debile, in&rmo capite : alterum 
firmum, sine capite : buic, cum ita de se meritum esset, 
caput, se vivo, non defuturum. ^Congemuit senatus 
frequeos, neque tamen satis severe pro rei indignitale 
decrevit. Nam paxtim ideo fortes in decemeudo non 
erant, quia nihil timebant ; partim, quia timebant. *Tum 
enipit e senatu, triumphans giudio, quem omnino vivum 
Ulinc exire non oportiierat; praesertim ctmi idem ille 
in eodem ordine ^paucis diebus ante Catoni, fortissimo 
viro, judicium minitanti ac denuntianti, teepondisset, si 
quod esset in auas fortunas incendium excitatum, id se 
non aqua, •sed ruina restiuoturum. 

XXVI. 53, His tum rebua comraotus, et quod homi 
nes jam tum conjuratos cum gladiis in campum deduci 
a Catilina aciebam, descendl in campum cmn firmissi 
mo praesidio fortissimorum Tirorom, *et cum illa lata 
insignique lorica, non quae me tegeret, (etenim sciebam 
Catilinam non latus aut ventrem, sed caput et coUnm 
solere petere,) verum ut onmes boni animaarerterent, et, 
cum in meta -et periculo consulem viderent, id quod est 
factum, ad opem praesidiumque meum concurrerent 
Itaque cum te, Sorvi, i^remissiorem in petendo putarent, 
Calilinam et spe et cupiditate inflammatum viderent, 
omnee, qui illam ab republics pesteni depeUere cupiebant, 
ad Murenam se statim contulerunt. 53. "Magna est 
antem comitiis consularibus repentina voluntatum incltna- 
lio praeaertim cum incubuit '%d virum bonum et multis 
aliia adjomenUs petitionis omUom. Qlii einn honeati«,GoOgk 


tiam patn atqne majorilnis, imodestuaima sdolncentia, 
ciariseima legatione, >praetuTa piobata in jure, grata ia 
mimere, ornata in proviocia, petiseet diligenter, et ita 
petisset, ut neqae minanti cederet, neque cuiqnain mlna> 
letur : huio miiandum est, magno adjmncnlo Cadlinaa 
■ubitara spem consulatus adipiscendi fuisse ? 

54. Nimc milii tertiua ille locus est oiationis de am- 
bitus ciiminibus, ^perpurgatus ab iis, qui anle me dixe- 
nnt, a me, quonism ita Murena voluit, letractandtu : quo 
in loco *PoBtumio, familiaii meo, omatisaimo nto, >de 
divisonim indiciis et de depiehensis pecuniis, adolescenti 
ingeoioso et bono, *Ser. Sulpieio, ^de equitum cemuriis, 
M. Catoni, bomini in omni rirtute excellenti, de ipeino 
accuaatione, de senatusconsulto, de lepublica respondebo. 

XXVII. 55. Seo pauca, quae meum animum tepeote 
movenmt, prius de L. Murenao ibrtuna conquerar. Nam 
cum saepe antea, judicea, et ex alionim miseriis, et 
ex meis curis laboribusque quotidianis, fortunatos eoK 
homines judicarem, qui, remoii *a smdiia ambitionis, 
otinm ac tranquillitatem vitae secuti sunt: tum veio in 
his L. Mnrenae tantia tamque improvisia periculis ita 
sum animo afrectus, nt non queam satis neqne communem 
omnium nostrAm conditionem, *neque hujus eventum for- 
tuounque miserari : qui, primum, dum ex honoribus con- 
tinuis familiae majormnque suorum '°unum adscendere 
gradnm dignitatis conatus est, venit in periculum, ne, et 
"ea, quae relicta, et haec, quae ab ipao parta sunt, amil> 
tat; deiude, "propter studium novae laudis, etiam in 
veteris fortunae discrimen adducitur. 56. Quae cum aint 
gravia, judices, tum illud acerbisBimum est, quod habet 
eos accusatores, non qni "odio inlmicitianim ad accus- 
andum, sed qui studio accusanJi ad inimicitias descen- 
demnt. Nam, ut omittam Servium Sulpicium, quem in- 
teliigo '*non injuria L. Murenae, sed honor'% contentiono 
permotum, sccusat '^paternua amicus, Cn. J'oB'.umiaa, 
YetuB, Qt ait ipee, vicinus ac necessariua ; "qui necessi- 
%^li ni i ii ooiisas conipluies protulit, simullatis nnUBja c(»a,GoOgk 


niBDior&iB potuit: accastU 'Ser. Sulpicius, >od»tis filil, 
'cujiiB iagenio paterai omoeB necessaiii munitiores esse 
debefauit : Bccustit M. Cato, qui quamqaam a MurBOfi 
nvila re untquajo ^alieniu fuit, tamea ea conditione nobis 
erat in hae civitaie nBtus, ut ejus opes et ingenium 
pniesidio multis etiam alienissimis, tix cuiqwun inimico, 
exitio esSB deberent. 57. Reapondebo igitur Postumio 
primnm, *qui, neecio quo pacto, mihi Tidetui praetorius 
candidatoB in consulatein, quaai desultoriua in quadriga- 
Tum cumcttlum, incunere. 'Ctijus competitwes si nihit 
deliquenmt, dignitati eorum concessit, cum petere de- 
stitit ; sin antem eomm aliquis largitus est, expelendua 
amicus eat, qui Blienam potius iajuriam, quam suam 
peisequatur. •••••• 

XXVIII. 58. *Venia nunc ad M. Catonem, 'qnod est 
fiimamentum ac lobui totius accuaationis j ^ui tamen 
ita giavis est accusatoi et vehemens, ut multo magts 
ejus auctoritatem, quam criminationem peitimescam. ^ln 
quo ego accusatore, judices, primum illud depiecaboi, 
ne quid L. Murenae dignitas illiua, ne quid ezspectatio 
tribunatus, ne quid totius vitao splendoi et giavitas noceal: 
denique ne ea sali huic obsint bona M. Catonia, quae 
ille sdeptuB est, ut multia prodesBO posaet. Bia consul 
liieTat ">P. Afiicanus, et duos terroies bujos imperii, Cai- 
fltaginem Numaatiamque, deleverat, cum accusaTit L. 
Cottam. Eiat in eo Bununa eloquentia, summa fidea, 
BODmia integritas, aactoriiaa tanta, quanta *'in Ipso impei- 
io popoli Romani, quod illius opeta tenebatui. Saepe 
boc majoieB natu diceie audivi, banc accuaatoris eximi- 
am dignitatem plutimum ^'L. Cottae p^fuisse. Nolue- 
niot sapieiUiBsimi bomines, qui tum rem illam judica- 
bant, ita quemquam '^cadere in judicio, ut nimiis ad- 
Tersarii viribus abjectua videietui. 59. Quid t '*Ser, 
Galbam (nam Uaditum memoriae est) nonne pioaTO tuo, 
foitiseimo atqne fioientissimo viro, M. Catotii, inomi- 
benii ad ejus pemiciem, populuB Bomaiins ''eripuitl 
Sempei in hac civitate nimis. ntagiiis acGUsatonuii,GoOgk 

ORATIO PSO t. HTOIir^ 131 

Cfiibiu flt popultu oiiiTennB, et upiestea u 'nnibiiiii 
in postOTDm prosprcientea judiceB iBBtitenmL INolo 
■ccuaator in jndiciDm potentiam affent, non vim ma- 
joiem aliquam, ooa aoctoritstem excellentem, non "{"■''^m 
gnuiam. 'Valeant haec omnia ad salutem innocentium, 
ad opem impoteatiiun, ad anxilium calamitosorQm ; in 
periculo Ten>, et in pemicie cirium, repudientnr. 60. 
Nam ei quia hoc forte dicet, Catonem deBcenaurnm ad 
Kccnsandom oon fuisae, *iiisi priua de cansa judicssaet ; 
iniquam legem, judices, et miieram cooditionem in>^ 
aet periculia hominnm, si existimafait, ^udicinm accusa- 
loria in leum pro aliquo praejudicio Talete opoitere. 

XXIX- £00 ^um consilium, Cato, piopter aingn- 
Ure animi mei de tua virtute judicium, Tituperare non 
audeo; nonnulla in re foraitaa 'confoimare et leviter 
emendare poseim. ^'Non multa peccoa," inqnit ille 
fortisaimo viro Benior magiater ; " sed, ai peccas, te 
regere poBsum." At ego te Terissime dixerim peccare 
nibil, neqne vUa in re te ease hnjosmodi, *ut cotrigen^ 
dos potius, quun leviter infiectendua esse videare 
Finxit enim te ipaa natura ad honestatem, gtBTitatem, 
temperBntiam, magnitudinem animi, jnstitiam, ad omnes 
deniqae Tutntea magnum hominem et oxcelsum. '"Ac 
ceaait isinc doctrina non moderaia, "nec mitis, sed, nt 
inihi Tidetnr, panllo asperior, et dnrior, quam aut reri- 
taa ant natnra patiatur. 61. Et quoniam non est no- 
bia haec oratio hiUienda aut ^^um ^^imperita mullitudine, 
ant in aliquo conrentu agreatium, audacius paullo de 
>*8tadiis hnmanitatis, qnae et mihi et robis nota el 
jncimda sunt, dispntabo. In M. Catone, jndices, i^baeo 
boBB, qoae ridemns, diTJna et egiegia, ipsins scilole 
ease {nT^^iria. Qnae nonnunqnam reqnirimua, ea snnt 
onmia non a natura, eed a magiatro. '^Fuit enim qni 
dam snmmo iBgenio rir, '^ZsBo, cujuh inT^ntonim aemnli 
^^Stoici nominantiur. Hujus ''sentenuae stuit et pras 
«epta ejusmodi : ^^apientem ''gratia nunquam mOTeri, 
mtBqnBBi cujusquaia delicto ignoscere : neminom nUMii* 

i23 OKl.TtO FM I~ KDltKMA. 

«KteaesM, nisi Btnltum et Iflvem : nii noD «ase, n»' 
que «xonri, neque placari: 'solos sapientes eaae, ei dis- 
tortissiOu sint, fonnosoa; si mendiciasimi, diviteaj ''si 
semtutem serviant, reges: noa autem, qui eapientes non 
sumns, fugitivOB, exBuiea, hostes, inaanoa denique esae 
dicunt; ^mnia peccata esse paiia : omne delictum acelua 
esse nefarium : nec minua delinquere eum, qui gallum 
gallinaceum, cnm opus non fuerit, quam eum, qui patrem 
sufibcaTerit: sapientem *niliil opinari, nuUiua lei poenit- 
ere, nuUa iu re falli, sententiam mutare nunquam. 

XXX. 63. Haec liomo ingeniosissimua, M. Cato, 
^uctoribiu eniditisaimis inductus, ampuit: neqne dispu* 
tandi causs, ut magna pars, aed ita vivendi. 'Petnnt 
aliqnid publicaniJ ^" Cave quidqnam ttabeat mofflenti 
gratia." Supplices aliqui veniunt, miaeri et calamitosi? 
" Sceleratua et nefarius fueria, ai quidqnam, miaericordia 
addnctus, feceris." Fatetur aliqois se peccasse, et ejna 
delicti veniam petit 1 " Nefarium eat facinua, ignoscere." 
At lere delictum est. " Omnia peccata snnt paria." 
^l^sisti quidpiam t " Fixum et statutuoi eat." *Non le 
ductus es, sed opinione. "Sapieos nttiil opinatni." 
^'^Erraati aliqua in re. Maledici putat. "Hac ex dia- 
ciplina nobia illa aunt: i^<Dixi in seoata me nomea 
consularis candidati delatunim" Iratns dixiBti. "Nun> 
quam, inquit, sapiens iiascitur." '^At temporia causa. 
"Improbi," inquit, "liomiais est, mendacio fallere; mutaia 
aententiam, turpe est ; exorari, scelna ; iniseTeri, flagitium." 
63. '*Noetri . autem illi, (fatebor enim, Cato, me quoqne 
in adolescentia, diffisum ingenio meo, quaesisse adjn- 
menta doctrinae,] nostri, inquam, illi a Flatone et Aristot* 
ele, moderati homines et temperati, aiunt, apud aapi«i- 
tem "valeie aliquando gratiam : viri boni essa misereri 
distincta geneia esse delicionim, et dispues poenaa*. 
ease apud '^kominem constanLem ignnscendi locum: ip< 
Hum aapienteiii . '^aaepe aliquid opinari, quod nesdat . 
irasci nonnunquam : exoiaii eundem et placari : quod' 
dixecit, interdum, si ita racdus ait, nuiuie : de ■ 

omiTio PKO I.. nrKBtri. ISS 

deceden aliquando: *iimneB Tirtutea mediocriuu ^n- 
dam essfl moderatas. 

XXXI. 64. *HDa ed magistros n qiia te rortima, 
Cato, eum iala natura detnlisaet, nou tu quidem vir 
melior eases, nec foitioi, nec temperaiitior, nec justior, 
(neque enim esse potes,) sed 'paidlowl lenitatem pro- 
pensioT. Non accusares nullis addnctns inimicitiis, 
nnlla lacessitns injuria, 'pudentissimum hominem, sDmma 
dignitate atque honeBtate praeditum: pntares cnrn *in 
ejusdem anni cnstodia te ^ue L. Mnrenam fortuna 
poanisset, aliquo te cum hoa reipnblicae Tinculo ease 
Gonjnnctum : quod atrocitei in eenatu dixisti, ant non 
dixisses, aut "aeposnisses, aut mitiorem in partem inlei- 
pretarere. 65. Ac te ipsum (quantum ego opinione angn- 
ror) nunc et aninii quodam impetu concitatum, et n 
naturae alque ingenii elatum, et recentibnB ''praecepiomm 
Btudiis dagrantem jam oaiiB flectet, dies leniet, aetas 
mitigabit. Etenim isti ipsi mihi videntnr vestri prae- 
cepiores et virtutia magistri fines officiomm *paulIo lon- 
gius, qua,m natura Tellet, protulisse : *nt, cum ad oltimm 
uiima contendissemus, ibi tameo^ nln oportet, cons&te- 
remus. '*'Nilii] ignoveria." "Immo aliquid, non omnia. 
" Nihil giatiae causa feceris." >^Immo resiatito gratiae, 
Gum officium et fides postulabit. " Mieericordia com- 
motus ne siB." "Etiam ; in diflaalrenda aereritate : eed 
tamen eat laus aliqua humamtaus. '*>' In aententia pet- 
maneto." Vero; nisi sententiam alia riceiit melior. 
66. Hnjuacemodi >*Scipio ille fuit, quem non poenitebat 
facere idem, quod tu : h»bere eruditisstmum hominem, 
et paene dirinum domi : ''cujus oratione et praeceptis, 
qnamquam ennt ^^eadem isla, quae te delectant, tamen 
asperior non eat &ctus, sed (ut accepi a ssnibns) lenis- 
simus. Quie vero C. Laelio comior ? quis jucundior, 
eodom ex studio isto 1 quis illo gnTioT, aapientior t Pos- 
aum de >'L. Philo, de C. "OaUo diceie haec eadem: 
aed te domum jam deducam tuam. Quemquaome eziB^ 
^»fi ■'Catone, ptoKTO Vao, commodiorem, *<comioTem, 



>mod^ntior«m faisae ad omaem raUoiiem bumuutatial 
De cnjua pT&estanli Tiitute cnm Teie gravit^ique diceieB, 
domesticum He habere dixisti exemplum ad imitfmduffl. 
£st illud quidem exemplimi tibi propositum domi : aed 
tamen naturae similitado illius ad te magis, qui &b illo 
oitus es, quam ad untimqaemque noatrdm perveniie potuit : 
ad imitaudum veio tam mibi pioposilum exetnplar illud 
est, quam tibi. Sed, si illiua ^comitstem et focilitalem 
tuae giavitati sereiitatique adspeiseiie, non *iata quidem 
enmt melioia, quae nuuc sunt optima, aed ceite condita 

XXXII. 67. QuARE, ut ad id, quod inatitui, leToitar, 
*toIle mihi e causa nomen Catonis : remove ac piaetei- 
mitte aucloiitatem, quae in judiciia aut nihil valeie, aut 
ad salutem debet Talere : congredeie mecum ciimioibm 
ipsis. 'Quid accusas, CatoT quid afieis injudiciumt 
quid arguis ? Ambitum accusas 1 Noa defendo. 'M« 
lepiehendia, quod idem defendam, quod lege punierim 
^Punivi ambitum, non innecentiam. 'Ambitum Teio ip- 
sum Tel tecum accusabo, si Toles. Dixieti, ■enatns 
consultum, me referente, esse factmn, k"' si metcede 
"coirupti obTiam candidatis isseat, si conducti secta- 
rentui, '^i gladialoribus rulgo locua tributim, et item 
pnmdia si Tulgo essent daLa, coutra legem Calpuniism 
iactum videri." Eigo ila seiiBtus judicat, cootra legem 
facta haec videri, "si facta sint : decemit, quod nihil 
opus est, dum candidatis morem gerit. '*Nam factnm 
sit, necoe, Tebementer qnaeritur. Si factnm ait, quiA 
coDtra legem sit, dubitare nemo potest. 68. Est igitnr 
ridiculum, quod est dubium, id relinquere iacerlum; quod 
nemiui dubium poteat esse, id jndicare. '^Atqui id de- 
cemitur omnibus postulaniibns candidatia : ut ex sena- 
luscocsulto, neque cnjus intersit, neqoe contra quem 
sit, intelligi possit. Quare doee, a L. Murena illa 
esse commissa: tum ^omet tibi, conQ« legem com- 
missa esse, concedam. 

XXXIII. ""MoLTi obviam prodierant de proTJDci» 


decedenti, coDnlMam petoDti." Solet fieri. ^Eccm tn- 
tem Bon prodituT leTertenti ? "' Qvae fait iata unilti- 
nido 1" Primum, si tibi ^istam ntionem non poeBim 
leddeie: quid liabet admiratimie, tali Tiio ftdrenienti, 
candidato cooenlaii, obnam prodisee miiltott qnod niri 
eseet factmn, magis miimndum Tideretni. 69. Qnid t 
u etiam illud addam, *quod a conanetudine non abhorret, 
logatoe esse mulloil nom Etnt ciiminomun eit, aui mi- 
laadam, qua in civitate ^gui infimonun hominum 6Iios, 
|«ope de nocte, ex ultima aaepe utbe, dednclnm Teniie 
Boleunut, in ea %on eaee graralos hominei prodiie 
hoia teitia in campnm Maitium, piaeseitim talis Tiri 
nomine rogaU» t Quid ? ei 'omnes eocietatea Teaenmt, 
quarum ex nomero multi hic eedent judices T qnid ? ri 
nulti homines nostii oidinis honeBtiMimi? quidT si ill» 
officiosieeima, quae neminem pstitor ntm honeste in 
uibem introiie, ^tota natio casdSdaiorum 1 si denique ipse 
Bccusalor "nostei Pofitumins obnam enm bene magna 
CBteTTa Bua Tenit : quid habet ista mnllitudo admiiatio- 
nis 1 Omitto '^clientes, ricinos, tribnles, exercitum totmn 
LncuUi, qui ad tiiumpbum pei- eos dies Tenent: hoe 
dico, "frequeatiam io isto officio gratuitun, non modo 
dignitati- ullius nmquam, sed ne Tolnntati quidem defnisae. 
70. '^*At BBctabantui mnltd." — Doce, mercede : conced- 
an) esse ciimen. Hoc quidem remoto, quid repiehendis 1 
XXXIV. '»" QuiD opuB ett, ioqoit, Bectatoribns V— 
A me tu id quBeiis, quid apoB eit eo, '*qno Bemper nsi 
nimusl >'Homines tenues nnum habent in nostrnm 
oidinem utt piomeiendi aut tefeiendi beneficii locum, 
haoc in noetiis petitionibus operara atqne aeBecta&mem. 
MNequB enim fieii poteBt, neqne postnlaDdam est a no- 
bis, aut ab equitibuB Romanie, nt bbob necesBsiios can- 
didaloB sectentui totos diea: '''a qnibns ai domuB Itostr» 
celebialur, si iaterdum ad fomm dedncimnr, si uno 
uboailicae spatio honestamui, diligenter obsenari vide- 
mur et coU: '*tenuionim et non occnpatomm andcoium 
est isU ■Miduitaa, qnorum cojda bonjs et benefioia,GoOgk 

*M oai.Tio pxo t. inraxiM. 

dtwiise Doa Bolot. 71. Noli igitnr eripere ^hnne iorerinf 
geaen homiiiam fractom officii, CaIo: sine eos, qni 
omnift a nobis Bperant, babeie ipaos quoque aliquid, 
qaod nobia tiibDere pouint. 'Si nihil erit, praeter ipso- 
tum sufiragium, tenue est: ei, ut BuffragBntuT, nihil 
Taleot gntia. Ipai denique, ut soleut loqui, *non dicen 
pro nobis, noa spondere, non Tocare domum Buam poa- 
«int: atque 'baec a nobia petunt omnia, neqne ulla ro 
alia, quae a nobis con»equnatur, oisi opera sua, com- 
penaui putant posie, Itaque et 'legi Fabiae, quae est 
de nomero sectatorum, et BenatDSCousuIlo, quod est *L. 
Caesare conaule factum, restiterunt. ''Nulla eat enim 
poena, quae possit observantiam tenuionun ab boc vetere 
instituto officiorum excludero. — 72. ^' At apeclacula sunt 
tiibutim data, et ad praiidium Tulgo TOcati." — Etsi hoc 
factum a Murena omnino, judicea, non eat, ab ejus ami 
cis aulem *aiore et modo factum est ; tamen admonitus 
le ipaa, lecoidoc, qnantum hae quaesiiones in seDatn 
habitae '*^UDCtorum nobis, Serri, detraTerint. Quod 
enim teinpuB fnit aut nostra aut patrum noatiornm memoi- 
ia, '■quo haec, aiie ambitia est, sive libeialitas, non 
fnerit, ut locus et in ciico et in foio daretur amicis et 
tiibidibus? '^Haec homines tenoioies primum, nondum 
qui a snis trihfdibus Tetere inBtituto asaequebanlur ' ' 

XXXY. 73 *** '^PRAErECTUn fabr^ semel locum 
tribu^bns «uis ''dedisse : quid statiient in tima primarios, 
i>qui in drco lotas tabeinas, tribulitun causa, compant 
mnt T "H&ec «amia sectatoium, spectaculorum, prandio - 
lum item crimina, a multitudine in tnam nimiam diligen- 
tiam, Serri, conjecta Bunt : in quibus tameo MDiena ab 
senatjia auctcritste defenditur. Qnid enimt Senatns 
nnm obriBm piodiie criinen putat? " Non ; sed mercede." 
'''CouTince. Num sectari najlp» T " Non ; sed conduc- 
tos." '°Doce. Nimi Iocum'ad spectandum dare T aut 
ad prandium invitare T " Minime ; ''sed Tulgo, pasBim."— 
Quid est vnlgo ? " UaiTerBOB." Non igitui, si ^L. Nal- 
ta, snmmo loco «doleSGens, qni, et qoo Bnimo jam att.;Googk 


flt qtnlis *ir futnniB ait, Tidemus, 'in eqaitnm centnriit 
Toluit essfl et ad lioc officium necesaitudiniH, et &d TeUquum 
lempus, gratioBua, id erit *ejus vitrico fraudi, aut cri- 
mini: nec, si '«irgo Vestalia, hujos propinqua et neces- 
saria, locum suum 'gladiatoribua concessit huic, ^oo et 
iUa pie fecit, et hic a culpa est lemotui. K)maia baec 
simt officia necesaarionun, commoda tenuionim, mimia 

74. At enim agit mecimi ''sustere et Stoice Cato. 
Negat TeTum esse, allici benoTolentiam cibo : negat, 
^udicium hominum in magiairatibus mandandis eorrumpi 
Toluptatibiis oportere. Ergo ad coenam, petitionis causa, 
si quis vocat, condemnetnr. *" Quippe," inquit, " tu mihi 
summum imperium, tu aummam auctoritatem, tn gnber- . 
nacula reipubticae petas forendis hominum sensibus, et 
deleniendis animis, et adhibendis voluptatibus T '"Utrum 
lenocinium," inqmt, " a grege delicatae juTentutiB, an orbis 
terramm imperium a populo Romano pelebas ?" — "Hor 
ribilis oratio ; sed eam osus, vita, mores, ciritaa ipsa 
respnit. Neqne iamen Lacedaemonii, iHuctoies istiua 
ritae atque orationis, qui quotidianis epulis in roboie ac- 
cumbont, neque veio '^Cretes, quorum nemo gyHiavit 
omquam cubana, '*melins, quam Romani homines, '^ui 
tempora Toluptaiis laborisqne diapertiunt, respublicas suas 
retinueiunt : '*quoTum alteii uno adren^ nostri exercitus 
deleti sunt ; alteri nostri imperii piaesidio idisc^linam 
anam legesque conBBrvant. 

XXXVI. 75. QuARE noli, Cato, nmjorum institota, 
quae '''res ipsa, quae diutnmitas imperii comprobat, nim- 
ium serera oratione leprehendero. Fuit '^eodem ex 
studio Tii eiuditus apnd patres noetros, et honestus homo 
«1 nobilis, Q. Tnbero. Is, cum *»epulum Q. Maximus, 
*°Arricani patrui sui noBufte, populo Romano daret, loga- 
. tne est a Muimo, ^nt triclinium stemeiet, cum eseet 
'fubeio ejusdem Africani eororis filiua. Atque ille, homo 
omilitissimue, ac Stoicue, ^traTit pelliculis haedinis 
tectulos Pnnicaaos, et expomiit Tasa Samia : qnasi Tera,GoOgk 

189 ofUTio no h. mtmiirA. 

e«Mt DiogenM Cynicus nKntuns, et non dinni homini» 
Africoni mora honeslarelui ; quem cnm lupremo ejUB di» 
MaximuB laudaret, gratias egit diis immottalibua, quod 
ille vix in hac republica potiaBimum natue esset ; necesse 
enim luisse, ibi esse teirarum imperium, ubi ille easet. 
Hujus in morte celebianda grantei tulit poputus Roms- 
nus ^hanc perversam sapientiam Tuberonis. 76. Itaque 
%omo integerrimus, civis optimus, cum esset L. FauUi 
nepos, P. Africani, nt dixi, eoiocis filius, ^bis haedinis 
pelliculis praetura dejectus est. Odit populus Romanus 
privatam luxuriam, publicam magni&cenliun diligit : *non 
amat profuias epulas, sordes et inhumanitatem multo 
minus: *distinguit ratiooem officionun ac temponun, vi- 
cissitudinem laboiia ac voluptads. Nam, quod ais, nulla 
re allici hominum mentes oportere ad magistrauim man- 
dandum, nisi dignitate; *hoc tn ipse, in quo summa est 
dignitas, non Beiras. Cur enim quemquam, ut studeat 
tibi, nt te adjuvet, rogast Rogas tu me, ut mibi prae- 
sis, ut committam ego me tibi. Quid tandem^ iatuo 
me logari oportet abs te, an te potius a me, ut pro mea 
■alute laborem peiiculumque suscipias T 77. Quid? quod 
habes ^nomenclatorem 7 iu eo quidem ^fallis et decipis. 
*Nam, si nomine appellari abs te cives tuos honeatum 
est, turpe est eos notioTee eaae aervo tuo quara tibi. 
'''Sin, etiam ai noris, tamen per monitoiera appellandi 
sunt, '>cui ante petis, quam insusurravit ? aut quid, cum 
admoneriB, tamen, quasi tute Boris, ita salutaa? quid, 
posteaquam es designatuB, mullo salutas ne^igentius ? 
'^Haec omnia ad rationem clvitatis si dirigas, lecta sunt: 
mn perpendere ad disciplinae praecepta velis, leperian- 
tar pi&vissima. Quare nec plebi Romanae eripieudi 
'^lructus isti sunt ludonim, gladiatorum, convivioium, 
quae omnia majores nostri compBravenmt : '*aec caodi- 
datis ista benignitas adimenda est, quae Ubeialitatem 
magis significat, quam largitionem. 

XXXVn. 76. >'At enim te ad accusandum reapublica 
addnxit. i^Ciedo, Cato, te isto knimo atque ea opinione,GoOgk 


rmiase. Sed ta impnideiitia laberis. Ego qood facio, 
judices, cnm amicitiae digaitatisque L. MnienM gratia 
facio, tum me p&cis, otii, concoidiae, libertatia, aalutis, 
Titae deniqae ommnm nostrfim cauaa facere 'clamo atque 
testoT. Audite, andite conaulem, judicea, nihil dicam 
anrogantiuB, tantom dicam, totos dies atqne noctes de 
Tepublica cogitaatem. - Noa naqne oo L. Catilina rem- 
publicam deapexit atque contempsit, nt ea copia, qnani 
secum eduxit, se hanc ciritatem c^pressDrmn atbitTaretDT. 
^LatiuB patet illius sceleria contagio, qnann qnisqnutt 
putat; ad plnres pertinet. Intus, iutua, inqu^, eat 
'equuB TrojanuB : a quo nunquain, me conaule, dormien- 
tes opprimeminL 79. Quaeris a me, quid ego Gatilinam 
metuam. NiM ; et curaTi, ne quia metueret : sed *cepiaa 
illius, quas hic video, dico ease metuendaa : nec tam 
timendna est nunc exercitns L. Catilinse, quam iati, qni 
illum exercitum deaeruisBe dicuntui. Non enim deseru- 
erunt, sed ab illo in apeculia alque inatdiis relicti, ^in 
capite atque in cerricibus nostiis restilerunt. Hi et 'inte- 
^m consulem, et bonum imperatorem, 'et natura, et fortn- 
na cum reipnblicae salute conjnnctum, dejici de urbia prae- 
sidio, et de cuBiodia civitatis "restris sententiis detuibajt 
volunt. Quorum ego fermm et- audaciam rejeci 'in cam- 
po, debilitavi in foro, compresei etiam domi meae saepe, 
judices, Mb tos si alierum consulem tradideriiia, plus 
multo enmt Testris sententiis, quam aoia gladiis con- 
aecuti. Magni interest, judices, id quod ego muItiB re- 
pngnantibus egi atque porfcci, esse '"kalendia Januariii 
in republica duo couaules. SO. Nolite orbitrari, medioc- 
jibuB consiliis, aut nsitatis *iu, ^'aut** Nm lex in^ 
proba, non pemiciosa largitio, non auditnm aliqnando 
aUqnod mslum '^eipubticae quaeritni. Inita sunt in bac 
ciTitale- consilia, judices, urbis delendae, ciTinm truci- 
dandomm, nominis Romani exstinguendi. Atque haec 
ciree, ctTeB, inquam, (ei eoB hoa nomine appellaxi foa 
eat,) de patria sus et cogitant et cogitaTerunt ; h<Hiim 
ego qnotidie consiliis occniro, aud&ciam defailito, acelen,GoOgk 

180 oa^TIO FSO L. MlrRENA. 

resiBto. Sed Toa moiieo, judicea : 'in exha est jam 
meus cousuIeUus : nolite mihi eubuabere ^vicaiium meae 
diligentiae : nolite adimeTe emn, cui rempublicam cupio 
badere iucolumem, ab bis tantis periculis defendendam. 
XXXVIII. 81. Atiiiie ad haec mala, judicea, quid 
accedat alind, non ridetis? Te, te appello, Cato: nou- 
ne proepicis ^mpestatem aoni tiH? jam enim beaterna 
concione intonuit vox pemiciosa *designati tribuni, ool- 
tegae tui : contia quem multum *tua mens, multura 
omnes boni piovidenmt, qui te ad tnbunatus petitionem 
TocaTeiunt, ODinia, quae per boc tiiennium agitata 
Bunt, jam ab eo temppre, quo °a L. Catilina et Cn. 
Pisone initula consilium senatus inteificiendi scitis esse, 
in hoB dies, in lios menees, in hoc tempus eiumpunt. 

82. Qui locus est, judices, quod t«mpus, qui dies, quae 
nox, cum ego noa ex istoium insidiis ac mucronibus, 
noQ solum meo, sed muito etiam magis dinno consilio 
«lipiai alque evolem ? Neque isti me ^meo nomine 
interiici, eed vigilantem coneulem de roipubLcae prae- 
sidio demovere Tolunt: neo minus vellent, Calo, te 
quoque aliqua ratione, si possent, tollere: id quod, mihi 
crede, ^t agunt, et moliuntuf. Vident, quantum in te 
bH animi, quantum ingenii:, quantum aactontatis, quan- 
tom reipublicae piaesidii : sed cum ^consulaii auc- 
loritate et auxilio spolialam vim tiibuniciam videiint, 
tum ee facilius inennem et debilitatum te oppressu- 
103 arbinantur. Nam "hie sufficiatur consnl, non tim- 
ent. '^Vident te in tuorura potestate coQegaium fore: 
eperant '^ibi Silanum, clarum Tirum, sine collega, te 
■ine consule, lempublicam sine praesidio objici posse. 

83. His taotis in lebus tantisque in periculis, est tuum, 
M. Cato, qui non mihi, non tibi, sed patriaa natos es, 
Wdeie quid agatui, letinere adjuloiem, defensoiem, socium 
in lepublica, consulem '^on cupidum, consulem (quod 
maxime tempus hoc poatulat) foituna cODstitutum ad 
junplexandum otium : scientia, ad bellum gerendmn : "ani 
oo et usti, ad quod velis negotium.,GoOgk 

OKATIO Fsa L. HnKMA. 1>1 

XXXIX. QtrAKQDAK 'hnjusce r«i potestas omnit 
ia Tobis eita eat, judices : totam reinpnblicam vos in 
hac cauaa teDetia, voa gubematie. .Si L. CatiUna cun 
SDO coQsilio nefariorum hominnm, quos aecum eduxil, 
bac de re posiet judicare, condemnaret h. Muienam: 
si iateificere poaaet, occideret. ^Petnnt enun rationea 
iUius, ut oibetui auzilio respi^lica: nt miniiatUT contra 
suum futorem imperalorum copia: nt majoi fscnltas 
IhbuniB plebis detui, ^depulao adveraario, Bediiionia 
&c discDidiae concitaodae. *Idemne igitor delecti am- 
[disBiiDis ex ordinibua lionestiBBimi atque sapientisBiini 
viii judicabunt, quod ille impoitunissimuB gladiatoi, hos- 
tb leipublicae judicaiet ? 64. Mihi ciedite, jndices, 
in hac causa non sohim de L. Muresae, Tenim etiam 
de vestia salute sententiam feretle. lu discHmen e:t 
tremum veoimus: nihil est jara, unde nos leficiamu^ 
aut nbi lapsi leBiBtamna. Non solnm minuenda nn 
Bunt auxilis, quae habemus, sed etiam nova, si fieit 
posBit, compaianda. Hostis est enim non 'apud Ani- 
enem, quod bello Punico giaTissJmum visum est, sed 
in nibe, in foio : (dii immoitales ! sine gemitu hoc did 
non potest :) *non nemo etiam in illo saciaiio leipub- ' 
Jicae, in ipsa, inqoam, cnria dod nemo hostis est. Dii 
Tfazint, ut ^eus collega, vii foitissimus, hoc Catilinas 
nefarium Istrocininm atmatns opprimat! ego togatuH 
Tobis bonisque omnibus adjutoribus, hoo, quod concep. 
tum leBpnblica peiicnlum paituiit, consilio discnliauf 
et compiimun ! 65. Sed quid tandem. fiet, si %seo 
eb{>sa de maoibus nostris, in eum annuni, qui conseqni- 
tui, ledundaiint? Unoa eht consu], et is non in ad- 
ministcando bello, sed in sufficiendo coUega occupatus 
Hunc jam qui '%npedituti sint, * * illa pestis immanis, 
"impoitona, pronimpet, qua poteiit : et jam populo Ro- 
mauo minatui ; in agios Buburbanos repente advolabit : 
"versabUur in caBtria fuior, in curia timor, in fonr , 
conjuiatio, in campo esercituB, ia agiis vastitas : ont 
ai autem in eede ac looo feirum flammamque meti»,GoOgk 


enuu Qau janDdiu comparanttir, «&dein iat& omnia, 
'si oraKttt suii prMsidiis erit lespublica, facile et 
magistiatuum couaiiiis et pTi*atonim diligentia con^i* 

XL. 86. Qdae cum ita aint, judicea, primum rei* 
publicae causA, qtu DuUa res cuiquam >potior debet eaae, 
vos, pm mea summa et vobis cognita in rempublioam 
diligeatia; moneo, pro auctoritate conaulari hortor, pio 
tnagnitudine periculi obtastor, ut otio, ut paci, ut ssluti, 
nt vitae vestiae et ceterorum civium consulatis: deindo 
ego fidem vestram, ^fensoiis et amici officio adduc- 
tns, 010 atqne obsecro, judices, ut ne homiais miseri, 
et cum *corporis moibo, tum animi dolore confecti, L. 
Muienae, lecentem gratulationem novs lamentatione 
obruatis. Modo mazimo heneficio populi Romani or- 
natus, fortunatus videbatur, quod primus- in familisjit 
veterem, primus in ^municipium aatiquissimum conau 
latum Bttulisset ; nunc idem Nqualore sordidus, confectua 
morbo, lacrymis ac moeioie perditua, vester est supplex, 
judices, vestiam fidem obteatatur, misericordiam implo- 
nt, vestiam potestotem ac veetias opes ''intuetur.' 87. 
Nolite, pei deos immortales! judicea, %ac eum re, qus 
se honestiorem fore putavit, etiam ceteris ante partis 
honestatibus atque omni di^itate fortnnaque privsre. 
*Atque ita vos L. Muiena, judices, oiat alqne obseciat, 
si injuste neminem laesit ; si nullius aures volnntatem- 
ve violavit ; si nemini, ut leviBsime dicam, odio, nec 
domi, nec nulitiae, fuit, sit apnd vos lOmodeBliae loc- 
ns, sit demissis hominibus peifugium, sit auzilium 
pudori. ''Misericoidiam spoliatio conaulatus magnsm 
habeie debet, judices. '>Una enim eripiuntui cum con- 
■nlatu omnia. Infidiam vero his temporibas habere 
consnlatns ipse Bullam potest. '^Objicitur enim con- 
cionibus seditiosonun, insidiis conjuratorum, tells Cat- 
ilinse : ad omne denique periculum, atqno ad omnem 
invidiam solas opponitut. 88. Qnare quid iavidendum 
Hnrenae, ant cuiquam nostriun sit >*iQ hoc praeclars 


oitATro PKO L. mmsMA. ISS 

eoiUDkta, non video, judicefl. Qnao Teio niisonnda 
Bimt, ea et mihi ante ocdIob TersaDtiiT, et tos Tideio 
et petspicere potostis. 

XLL Si (quod Jnpiter oraen aToitat!) 'hoDC Testni 
senteatiis sfflLxerilis, ^no ee miaei Teitetl d<MintmneT 
ut eam imaginem cl&rissimi viri, parentiB sui, quam 
paucia ante diebus %uireatam m soa gratalatioae 
conspezit, eandem deformatam ignominia ^lugentem- 
qiie Tideat T aa ad matrem, quae 'misera, modo con- 
Bulem osculata filium suimi, nunc ciuciatai et BOllici- 
ta est, ne enndem pauUo post Bpoliatmn onmi digni- 
tate conspiciatT 89. Sed quid ego matiem, aut domum 
appello, quem *nova poena legis et domo, et parente, 
omnium suorum consuetudine conBpectnqDe privat I 
Ibit igitur in exsilium miser ? Quo 1 ad Orieutisne 
paitea, in quibuB annos mnltoa legatns fuit, et exerci- 
tus duxit, et res maximss gesaitT ^At habet magnutn 
dolorem, tmde cum honoie decesBeiis, eodem cnm 
ignominia rcTerti. An se in contiariam partem tena- 
nmi abdet, nt Gallia TransEiIpina, quem nupei ^ummo 
cum' imperio libentissime Tiderit, eundem Ingentem, 
moBieutem, exsulem Tideat T In ea porro pioTincta, 
quo animo *C. Murenam, iiatiem auum, adspiciet ? '"qoi 
hujus dolor 1 qui illius moeror erit 1 quae utriusqne 
lamentatio t ^'quanta autem peitorbalio fortunae atque 
Beimonis, quod, quibns in locia pauciB aute diebaa 
factum esae consulem Mnrenam, nuntii literaeque cele- 
braasent, et unde hospites alque amici giatulatum Ro- 
mam concunerint, lepente eo accedat ipse nuntins 
suae calamitatial 90. Quae si acerba, si miseia, si 
Inctuosa Bunt, d alieniBsima a manauetudine et miBeri- 
cordia Teatia, judices, "conseirate populi Romani bene 
ficium : reddite leipublicae conaulem : date hoc ipsins 
pudori, date patri moitno, dale generi et familiae, date 
etiam Lannvio, municipio honeatissimo, quod ia hac tot& 
causa frequens moeatumque vidiatis. Nolite a saciis 
patriis 'Uunonis Sospitae, cui omnes cousules '*faceie 


fSi^ OUTIO PKO I,. HntSIfil. 

IMcentt est, 'doineMicam ai Bniim consnlem potiaaiimmi 
aTetlera. Quem ego Tobw, ai quid habet momwiti 
commendatio, aut auctoiitatis 'coaSinuuio' mea, consul 
coDBulein, judices, ita 'commendo, ut cKpidisaimum \>tii, 
■tudiosissimum bononioi, accenimum coutn seditionem, 
fortiBsimum in bello, iuimiciBaimuni huic #onjni»ti(mi,. 
quae nunc rempublicam labBfactBt, futiBimi aaa# *pn> 
mittun et spondeani. 





1. M. TuLLii CmBDHii, &c. "Fint Ontionof U. TttUh> 
Cicno ■gBitut Lociui CititiDfl, dalireied in tha SamlB." — Caliltne'* 
iiitaiitiini «Ba lo Itma Rom«, uhI join hii urnj, tlien iMefflbliiig tn 
difiecHit poits of Ital; ; wbA» th« otber conqnnton mauntd within 
tbe mlli, lo butchei the ■enstora ■nd fiie Ibe cipitoL Ciceio, hsT- 
ing diacoreted thiB deHgn, minmaiied Ibe aenUci to meet in Ihe 
iBmple of Ji^iiter Stator, wilh the inleiition of Uying belbie it the 
iriwle dfcanutaiicei of the [doL Bot Cidline haring lUMzpectedlj 
qipeu«d ta the midst of.Ae lawmUj, hii udicilf impelled tha 
«maalu oralor to ui abrupt imeetiTe, which ia directlf addiefaed t 
lo the Dulor, and comineDceB witbout Ibe preanible br nhich Enoat | 
of hii othar haruiguea aie inttoduced. 

Infioint of eSect, Ihia oratkm itniit bne been peifecUy electtic. 
Tbe diaclonie to the ctinunal himaalf of hia tnoat Beciet-paipoBaa : 
tbair flagiliaaa nature, dueatening the life of eTery one preaent ; the i' 
nbola eoime of hia T€laniea and tieaaona, bbaoned isTth with the 
fiie of incenaed doqaence ; and Ihe adjuiation to bim, bjr Beang 
_ fiom Rome, to fiee bia country from mch a peat, ware a H ifo nia- . 
fbllj 'Ti'™''''"' to evite aitenidunent, idmiiatioii, and boiTOT. 

Hie ^eat^objecf^the wbote ontion, waa to diiTe Cstilina into 
banidunetf ; and it qipeaia aomewhat nngalai, that *o dangerooa ft 
pencmage, and one nho migbt have beea ao elsilT cotiTicted, iboold 
Ibiu bare been imeed, ot eren allowed, to withdiaw to bia aimj, 
inatewlof beiiigiecareduidpvnisbed. nom the language of Sal- 
loat, lCal. C.31,) tbia otation woold ^qMal to hiTe been otigiiWUj 
altogetbei eitemporaiieoua, and to LaTo been aubaequenllj eominit' 
ted to wiiting bj Ciceta 

3. QwnitqUM tandfm, &c. " How far, then, Catilme, wilt thon 
trifie with our patience ? How long, Coo, will tliat .fruttic wickad- 
trm of thine baffle ihii eSbita I To what eitent will thj unbiidled 

13* 137 


l mndtcil; inidleiitlj du[)ti<r itwlfl" — 'We nu^ mppaM Ihe wboie 
•enate M have lemiined, foi & time, bnried in Ihe deepeet lilaKe, 
ereiT eye diiected towaide CaCOine ; uid Cicero, (t liM, dowlj 
riaiiig troia hia ciinile chaii, and pointii^ tlie fingei of indjgnaat 
aeoni>CfiMgmlt;j]itradei,tahaTelnmtfbithinto(hii ittitliiig ind 
impawioDed emdimii. 

3. Aiulirt. Liienl^, "will (liaa 111118«." — Cieero piefei* Ihe 
; ' ' eoftei and more poetic tenniiielioa re, in the impeifect uid fatare 

indicatire, and pmoit and inqieifect eubjunctiTe. In tbe pnmit 
indicatiTe he nielf emptoja it. — Palunlit nmtra. Tlie lefeience 
in noitra ia lo Umaelf uid the Beaate generall;. 

4. IiU (lou. Tbe piODoan ute la heie emplojed to maik indi^ 
nmt econi and eontempt. Ic moit be obeerrad, «ilh i^aid lo itle, 
diat it ia, eliictlj ^pe^dng, need, togetbei witb ila denratiree, in 
raference to tbe penon addieaeed. Tbm, Utt lociu, " (hat [dece 
wbera jou aiej" iita verba, "thaee wtnda wbidi Jtn nneTed." 
Wben Ciceia addieaied hia uitigDniet, in ray inttance, be nfteD 
oaed tMte, in accordance with the piiociple jaat laid down ; end, ai 
he geDenllj nnd iC canfaiinclioiuly, it acqoiied a leproactdnl raeao. 
ing. Bat Ihia u bj no ineana nniTnnl^ tba case. !□ the piewiit 
pBMage, hawerei, itte bm tbii ecomful mealiiiig, end ttnu ia mei^ 
■dded in otder lo atieqgtlien ita geneial itieience to tbe peraon 

0. Elxitt. A metaphoT bomiwed &om tho inaTeaHiDta of-^ad^ 
atsra, in avoiding e blow fiom aa Of^aent. (_D<mat. tn Ter. Eun. 
1, 1, 10.) So Catiiina ie aaid, hj the otator, to balSe sTeiT eSbit, on 
the part of good citiiena, fbr pmernag llie public lepoee. — Qmem 
adfincn. EqniraleDt, in Oiceiiniian Latinitj, to quoaMipit or ^IUHH- 
dut. (Enuiti, Clm. Cic: s. T. Snie. — Slhitx, initx haX. n. T.) — 
Jaetabit. Tha stodeat will maric the foiee of the &eqDentatiTe. Il 
i* eiinirelent to nusIniMr M gertt. 

8. Niiilne ie, &c. " HaTo llw gotidi eiuioned ni^)6j on tba 
lUatJne liill produced no impieaaion upon ihee 1 HsTe Cbe wucIm* 
[dinCed tbiDu^toat tbe cltj pioduced oone I Noae, the coneteni»- 
tion IhBt perradei tU claaaee 1 None, the Chrouging togetber of tU 
good cicixena 1" &c. Iiteitll7, "Haadwnightlr gusidof the Ptl- 
alinin tn no reqieei mOTed tbee 1 In no leqiect htTO Ihe watche* 
oflbacitrr' dcc. 

7. PaUiiL 1110 Palatine waa the moat cenCral one of Ihe eeten 
lulle of Rjime, tnd tbe mott impoitant to be gusrdod in cue anj 
pnblic cUatnibance tioae, aince a foe, m ^poaatpmoa of it, nught eaeOy 
mike hinuelf mBstei of the rest of the cit^. Hence Che neceantj 
of iti being ■ecared on Ibe pi«aeDt occteioii. Tbe Palatine hill w«a,GoOgk 

AOAINBT rATiLtn. 139 

Ibe leaideiKe of Romnlni, uid in fkct, the firat put of Ihe city thte 1 
mi inhabited. Here, in b Iilei age, ■tood the imperia] mansioi' of 
Augualue uui hi* euccesKiia, and hence the ongiri of tbe modeni 

8. UrbU rngiliae. When thele vrae uiy alum or dietuibanee in 
ihe city.or wliea uiy eaepicion wae enlerlained of pubhc coounation 
or eeeret conipiracj, the infeiioi magiitnteB (the udilea, qnaee- 
toia, and tribunea,) ivere entrueted bj the senata with the cire of 
the pnblic peace, and [Jsnted guards and walchei in pic^er plicee. 
Compug Sailttit, (Cot. e. 30,) " Vl Romae ptr lelam urbcm vigi- 
Uai haUretUur, Otjae minoret magittTatui prattiitnt." 

9. Coneuriu*, Sereral edilioaa hsTe caRientu* (" tbe ntuon,") 
•rtiich ia also giTea by Quintiltin (9, 3, 30) in citing frun thii punge. 
rhe inore ipirited reiding, bowever, is undoubtedly con^urnu. 

10. JlfiiniftHRRut. In dangcroua emeigencies, the lenate weie 
Qiiwlly cODveDed in tb« teai^a ot aoiae tutelary diiinitf , and nol in 
K atria, or lenato-boase. The pUce Mlected, on Ibe preaent oce«- 
non, w» the temple of Jupiter Stator, M Iha foot of the Piktin* 
hill ; ind it is lience cil[ed " niURi^unniiu Uieuj." {roai the ciiciun- 
■tance of there being ■ guard, it the time, on Ihe Palatine. Wilh 
leepect to the tme poeition of the templo of Jupiter Stilor, (which 
*Ome editois veiy emmeauilf nuke to hire been in the eaptol,) 
consult Lh. 1, tS. Ovid. Ftut.6, 704. ffardim, 6, 12, 

1 1 . Hantm era tmUtujue. " The luoki snd countensncea of 
IheiB who sre here sasembled." Ora refera to the looki af sTersion 
direcled sl CstBine b; the great mtjority of tho» preeent ; mjftu 
to their caumerances, in which weia dqiicMd ■Diietjrind slaniL 
Murelaa ivfera the words to the lyeraion minifBited by tbe leniton 
on tbe entnncB of CitiKne inlo llie inemblj, when sU quitted ihsl 
part of tbe benchei where he had takan hia leit. Thej wooid nlhei 
aoBnt lo refei lo the deportmsnt of tbe lenate during aU tbe time 
AtX he hsd been present. 

12. Palire. " Lie open lo new," i. s. are bran|^t fully to ligfat 
— Caiulriclan jam horum omRtKtn leneri. Literslljr, " is now held 
JnnlfgiBiped by the koQwtffilgeof s]1of.ti)^" i, e. is now becon» 
s mattei of Blm conTiclion to all wtio aie here ssaembled, Coit- 
ttrictui ia elegintly qiplied to whiteTSr ii firmly held in, snd cin 
tM bngec eacipe, Oui grssp, WbUe the eompDond teim conacimia 
(initesd of Ibe limple ttienlia) ia omDloyed to denote that nisny 
sre icquainted with the conapbvcy. Compire tne explanition of 
8chiiti,(/i«lM: IM. a, v,,) " Commatiit ivttr tomplu.ra rei alieu- 
jlu notilia." — We hsve giTBn Asrunt mninini with Grserias. 
instatd of tfae eommon iesdinj[ amnMUH ItanM,,GoOgk 


H) RE mBT 0K4.T10N 


18. JVtoMUt. Cicaro delirBred lliu ontion aa tlie 8th NoreiD. 
bef. A meetii^; of llis coaapjniton faul laken plice on the nigbt 
«f tha eth, >t Um bouw Of Lmcb. TIu» ii whM Cicem ciUb ma 
mi^enor. Tbe maniiiig of ths 7th wu Ihe tlme fiied for his ssbbb- 
HnUkiit br die two RomaQ knights. Dniing lluit day, Cicsro cuuett 
*11 (bt moTement* of the conipirUora to be cloeely wuched, uul 
uceituiied ■!«>, by his secrat agenta, lU tbst wu done od the 
Djgtit of tbe 7tL Thia wu the nra p-oitnut. Conqive cbipler 
«£, iDd J^D Sail. c. IB. 

14. /nuno <terB— " Nay, indeed." Gneritu omita wra, bnt ite 
preeence impaiti edditional atieDgth to Ibe cUiub. Con^Hie £p. 
»i AU. Vi, Vi: " Ferendtu tibiin Itoe €rTar! femdui t tnana 
vtra ttiam, adjuMiiitt." And alio TuTnUmiu dt Fart. Lat. %. t. 

15. PiMid cinaSii particept. " A aharaT in tbs pnblic dehben- 
lioiK." Cicera'B object ia to eioile the indigDUion of Ibe aeDate 
egeiiist Citiliiie, foi hi< haTing come iuto Uut ueemblj, not to 
inqoite oi ■edt fbi uijr thing, but actnalty lo talte part in tbeir de- 

Cicaia cliBTgea bimielf uid the •enate witb cowerdice, in not bning 
befbie ibii biou^t Catiline to pumBhinenL — SatUfateri Teipvilieat. 
."TobadaingaQidiit<rtoti>e*lBte."— XwnM. "Of that wretch.*' 
Fointing at Catiliite. CMnpeie note 4, pago 1. 

17. Jh fc cmfaTi, dce. Underatuid /mipnilmi, fiom the pnri- 
ona clanae. "Long sinoe onght that luin to biTe been bei^ed npon 
Ib; owa heeil," ^. The piODOun atam laeitly JRqiliea Ih&t tbe 
nin in qoealion ie the worii of Catiliiie, atid thi* idea i* immediatdj 
•nlaiged opon in what fbllows, jiuun Ai in m^ oinw*, du. 

18. AKeero. Tbe pnmitiTe maaning of on ia "or,"«nd, when 
oeed intanogatiTelj, the aeDtence it alwajs ell^iticel. Tbna, im 
dteeTtan mteum v<ibiit 1 " Bid he wish to cmitend wilb me V 
thi», Trboi leeolTed, ii nolbing mon iban, " Am I wioag in mT 
■aimiaa, ■n' did he wiib to conleiMl nith me !" Bo, in tbe praeent 
inatance, an vtTO •tr ampUttimut, du., Trhicb we tnualale, " Did, 
in bet, that veij itlDatiioua indiTidaal," dcc, ia, in leali^, nhen liilly 
«({m«Md, "am I wimig in mr inertion, sr did, in Isct," ikc 
Hie eams ezplanation will a{^j to the Oiedc t, wlien uaed as sn 
intsinigatiTe paiticle. 

19. P. &^o. The lefeieDce ii to P. Seipio Naalca. He is 
called}inMtiu becaun tho office of pontiftz. mciimiu waa noc a 
■aagiatncj ; and hence tbe aame peison conld be pontifex and also 
consul 01 pneior. Compaie Ibe lenuika of MniMua, ail Joe. Hn,GoOgk 



(etm priastiu buj, therefon, be raDdeied, "althou^ fiUing t>a 
oSice of magutiaf;." A> n^wda Scipio NBBJct, connilt HiatoricKl 
Indei, B. T. Scipio. — Graeehvm, Connill Hietorical Indei, i. T. 
GiacchUB, Bnd LegBl Inde^ b. t. SempcDiuB I.ei. 

20. Mcdioeriler Uitfaelanitm, &c, " When oolj diatuiUng, tn 
■ niodenta degiee, Ihe aettled oidet of (hingB in the itaU." The 
idea lileiallj invalTed ii the cuudng nhat wbs before Gnnlr fiied 
to tottet, «nd «weiTB &0111 iti plue. Staltu u beie figundTelf 
employed, in alluian to the pootaie 01 attitude of a gtadiatoi in* 

combat I( wiU be obeeTTed, thu CiceiD deaignedly axtenaitss the 

o&ence of Tibeiiat Giacchna, in oidei tb&t (he rigoui, with wbich 
be waa poniihed, might be. conuuted tbe more sttongl; with &e 
imponity eojojed by Citiline. 

31. CatHinam. The eommon teit haa vtre aftei CatUinam; 
bat eince this Blreadf ocmn widi on, in (he pievious pait o{ the 
eentenco, and does not Bjipeai in the piwent punge ■■ cited hj 
QuiDtilian, (S, 4, 1 3,} we haTe lejeeted it with Minutnu, Lambi- 
mu, Bsd othei editon. We haye abo giien, with Schutz, ierraniin, 
in place of the common leading lerrae, tiifl fonnei Ukewiae occnning 

1. JViim ma, &c. Ciceio heni auigni a reuon for othei enm- 
pka not being cited, in pioference to that of Tibehui GTBCchui. 
'ntej weie of too lemote a date ; wfaa«aa the moTemeQta of Gne 
dnu had occumd at a companliTBlf tecent period. 

S. C. Strmliat Aluiia. Connlt Hiitoriol Indei, a. t. Ahala. 
He waa magiiter equitom (o the dictatoi T. Q. CiDeinnatiM. 
Emeati Gnt giTe the trne leading C. Strmluit, fbi tbe common 
laetion Q. StTvUmi. — Sp. Matlium. Maeliua Traa the ticheal pii- 
We man in the commonwealth, and more than mepected of aimiiig 
tX the ■orereign powei, in coneeqnence of hie libcnd donatione of 
cran among the lowei otden, doiing a ■eaBoii of gieat ecaidt;. 
Coneult Histoiical Indei, a. t. Maeliua. — Nimi nbut thUUitlan. 
"Aimingat achmgeinthe^tmniment," i. e.plottingaierolation. 

9. bUvirtat. "Thit degree of pnbUc Tiitne," i. e. of tiue 
patriotiim. In onr lema^ on tbe pmnoun itlt iM ita usage bjr 
Cicen,weob«eiTed that Ihe distiDclion tbete laiddowndidnot bdd 
good uiuTeraally. {note 1, page 1.) 3Tie pieaent paasage fomi^ 
a caae in poinL Itta h beie used nmpij m the aenss of tUo, ■nd 
thelatteiiHOnounitselfwauldnodaubt haTO been actusHj emploired, 
had ti not occaiied just belbie, in the e^qiresdian " rtam iUa ntmu," 
&C. Compaie, ■■ legards (he eiception* to tbe rule about uti, tho 
lemariii of Hanatius, ad. Cic. Ep. Fam. 8, 10, (toI. 1, p. 161, ti. 
Orttv.) ud Laui. Talla,^ L. L. RUg. S, 4, p. fil.,GoOgk 

4. Hahtau». We hiTS njected nnm ■Aar Aoimuu, irilh Qne- 
Ttoi, Einead, Schiiti, &«., on tbe suthoiity of •oma of Ibe htat 
MSS. It appeoia lo hsTe foond ita wi; into the tazt fiom ioicnutf 
«nni, in Ihe aeit chaptei. 

6. SaialuMcimMiiltitn, Bj which the ctninila neie enjoiiied, " ul 
mjcrcnt H quid ieiiimaUi TUpitblica capacl." A deciee of thii 
nalnre aimKl the coiuula witli diciatoiisl pOHei ta the time being, 
•nd, by Tiitae of it, fiitj could pul te deetii nbomsoevei thejr 
pleued, widiouk tlie (bnnaticj ot > trud. (Conqiere Sillnat, Cal. c. 
S>, uid Ptotuch, Vit. Cie. c. 15.) Ouiline ind his kccomplices 
mif^t bne bewi Kized uid puDiahed andei Ihii deciee, but Cicero 
imipaaely ibateiBed fiom luch \ codim, uid aonght ntbei to induce 
tbem to quit tbe citj. 

6. Nm deat reipubtitxu, &j:. " Neitber the conntel nor tha 
MnctioB of ihii oidet ia wenting to the lepnblic." i. e. the decrea 
wbich tbe Mwte bad paaaed agatDst Calihne conCeined " couniel," 
01 tentUium, aud wsa a " aaoctiDn," or aiularitai. Cocopaie Taci- 
tua, Germ. 13. " Centttii rimgiUi* ixpUbt comita, amtHiam tt 
mtcttinUu, adnoU." 

7. Not catauUt dttumut. " We consula ate wantiiig in our 
dutj." Wfl hare ioaerted a third nu before denuniM, *a given bj 
PliBcisn, hb. 17, p. 1076, cd. Puuch. (Op. td. Knhl. toL S. p. 53.) 
— CiCRD meaitii, that tbe eonaula hat e not done theii duty in allow- 
ing Catiltne lo go lO Long unpuniflbed. Hia object ie to intinudate 
him, and induee bim lo leaTe the ci^. 

B. Qumdam. A. U. C. 633, B. C. ISI. Fillj-ei^t jein be- 
fore Ihe time when CJcero utteied tbia. — L. Opimiut. Ha wae 
conml, witb Fabina M>:rimna, A.U. C. 633. Conault Hiatoiical 

5. Vidtrct, dtc. A deciee of ibia killd waa ealled dtcrclum vJH- 
MHm, (a lUtiraat ntcettilaiii. ConiuU DOte G, page S, Samelimea 
bodi ctmauU were named in it, st otbei times oiihr one. 

10. Qutdan leiitiaTaim nupiciotut. " Cenain sni^iaD* of 
Mdilioua iwo)ecta.'* Clcem here pniposelj naes mild language, ss 
in Um instance of Ihe elder Giscchus. (Nots 30, page 1.) Consult 

II. Clannimo patre, Stc. The Gncchi hsd foi thui fstber 

liap, twice with the consolate, snd bsd enjojed two trinmpbs. 
Hieit roalemsl gisndfstbsi wis tbe eldei Scipio A&ksnoa, the con- 
qneioi of HsnnibaL 

13. M. Fnlviut. One of Ibe thiee oommiasieBsn nsmed foi 
cwiTiDg into efibct tlie sgniisn Isw, br diriding the pDUie IsDds. 




H< waa tha putieBki faaod of C. Oncchu. Considt Hlstmiol 
bidsz. — Tha aldast aon of Fnhnu ww ilun witb hia btber daimg 
tha t&ty i tha jom^ aftK ths Mnflict. 

19. C. Maria. 'nii ctfciiiied duiing the liitb ' coimlabip of 
Mariiu. The ciima of SituiiiiDiu md Serriliu* wai leditioQ» uid 
tnibulHit conditct, and cqieciBllj tbs hniog «iwiwnnited C. Hem- 
miu^ B ranilHatii tot ths coaatdstiip, in tbe Canqnu Maithia. Con- 
anlt HiHaiical Indei, i. t. Satimiimia. — Tba indiridiu], wfaom 
Cicero bei« caHs C. Seir^ua, ia elaewbete atjled 0. SerriliQa 
Gbocia. Cicero papomif emploja tbe n<;mcR menlr, u it be- 
longed lo a &niilj of diatiactioTi, uid be adda to tt the title oT ptae- 
toi, in oidei that it mvr be aeen, tbat neithei tnitb aoi offidal dignttf 
could BaTB hini foim tbe prompt TBngeuico o! tha lawB, wliicb Citi- 
liiKi bad fol ao long b tbma been bnnng. 

14^ L. Satamiiti, &c. Ths trne leading of tbia pasaaga ia id. 
TolTed m coDtideiiUe doubt. Tbe coDJeclanl emendalion, whid) 
we haTe given in tbe text, q^xiBTa the leaal objectitmable, and wa* 
Gnt suggested, we belisTe, bj E. H, BB^ei. " Did tba puiusb- 
ment doa to tbeiepublic,delay,fbrBsiD^edBj theTeBft«,the deatb 
of L. SBlonuinw," &c., L e. did L. Satiiniuiiu, tbtnigb a tnbnDe of 
ihe conunMi*, and 0. SeiTiliiia, altbough iuTeated witb Ihs pnetor- 
■hqi, eacq» the puniahment of death, ao juttlf tbeii: dufi, foi a ting^ 
daj B&er tha decne in qneBtion had been paased 1 — 11» cMDmoo 
teil haa, niim uRKm diem pOMtea L. Satarninam fnhfnttm pUt*, 
tt C. fServiliiim j/raeloreni, tnori ae reipiMittu poena rtmontta 
ttt 1 " Did death, and tbe punisbiDeiit due to the ispnblic, lail, toi 
« ain^ daj tbneafter, to oreitake L. SatuRiiniu," &o. It ia ez- 
tiemelj queslionsble, bowerei, wbetbel we cBn sbj, in coirect La- 
liiu^, pocTW remoratur Aomtnem, ^* puniflhment fkilB to Oferta^ 
tbe num." CJerao, daewbeie, nsea remttrcri in ita ordinBij sense, 
" to dslaj," OT " lelBid." Thni : " hae ra qtat caeteTM lemoiui 
telenl ilium nm TtUTianuU." {Pn>. Leg Manil. li.) Althon^ 
P iupani ns, od the otbei hasd, baa a paaaage which Beemg at firat 
TJeiT to &Toni tbe e<wnmoawi{d»iwtion, " Qiiamrit tt longae itaai>- 
lentm /ala teneelae." (!, 19, 17.) Bot tbeis is notluDg beie, in 
rsali^, to prsrent oni making Ttmortntur equtvalent la Tttiatanl. — 
Emeati grrea tbe («dnuij leadmg, in the paaaaga of Cicero midei 
cnuidentiini, bnt lecommeiids L. Saiuntini, (rihini ptebit, el G. 
SerMO, fraetorit, letaining, howerei, nuirt ae, («bicb we have 
ebanged lo nurtm,) and giring to renwreta ett the iatnnsitiTO 
meaning, " to d^j," oi " lingei-" Bat mora ae •potna ii exUemelj 
£rigid — As mgBids the reBding which we bsTe Bdopted, it will be 
bnns in mmd, ihat pic^t mUDeB, and titles of office, aie &«quen(tv,GoOgk 

;4 TBi rniiT outiom 


writtsn m ths IiISS. witli mon oi len ■bbreriatwTi, and lliU, la 
coDBeiiiience of thu, the gnnmatical cue cui ofteiitiin« be diKOT- 
end only from the eonleiL 80 thal, in facC, morlen foi nori ot 
k the ooly tlteretion thu *ppe>n at efl Ticdent, if it erea be M in 

15. Not. " We coneuls." Rereriinglohinuelf endedlei^e. — 
Viiaitmiim diem. It wea, in ful, onlj the 18th dey eince the 
•enate had decreed tbat Ckera and Antontus ilMnild aee that the 
npublic receiTed no inJDij. The onlor, boneier, ealla tt, in mund 
' Dumbera, the SOth. 80, in the oration agiuM Fi« (c. S), in placa 
of Ihiity-iiz yean, he aaji Ibrty. In tbe eame way, the one hun- 
diedand Grejudgea at Ri»ne wwe called tmftuwnK, " the Imndred." 
Conpare the lemaik» of Aeconiua, tn Pitan. l. e., and tboee of 
Hiitetaa on the pieaeiit paaiege. Caneall eleo Manutina, m he. 
(Vol. 1, p. til,td. Kichltr.) "InUgTum mmerum amai orater," &o. 

IS. Oiadium. Omitted in nianj MSS. and editiona; bnt de- 
ftnded by Eineeti, becaoae incbaim inecede*. 

17. Cmfalim ijtterfectvm, Ilc. " You On^t, Catilioe, to haTe 
betn immedialel; put to death." ConvAof ia heie the peifbct Cenaa. 
Muretna doubts, whether Chia ueage of tomenit be in accordance 
wilb coirect Latinitj ; bnt nuny eiamptee ml|;hl be adduced in 
eonfinnation oT it. Oneatonewill hereioiEce ; " Quo «onuiu miran 
ementt tot." {YtiLPaterc. I, 3.) Compare Boaduir, and Bor- 
mann, ail i<K. 

IB, Cupio. Render tbe finC nipia, " I am deairoas, on.the ooe 
band,"aDdlbewc(md,"Iamaniiaus, ontheothei." Ifeipieaeed 
k Oreek, tbe Gial of theae cluieeii would haTe fJr, and the aecotvl, M 

19. DitsBbttam. "Culpdilj negligent," i. e. too uidulgent. 
Conqiare theTHnaikorEmeeti, B. t. "DuwfiiJua.niinianegligena, 
opfoitUiiT •eTen et jueto," (Cdie. Cie.,') and ihe «oida of Ciceni 
hiiiiMlf, on ■noChei occaaion : " Mabattc Donali-um crttdateni in 
tmmadtertetido, fuoni m prstiermitttnie dtMoIutmn viitri.'' (in 
FwT. 5, 8.) 

iO. Neqmtiaejnt. The tann «ftnfio, diau^ genenHy emploj«d 
to denote, "worthl e a mo i," "wickedneee," "depiitity," ic., k 
bere naed tn a mildei aenBe, fbr " utter ranuHnen." Compan tbe 
lingaage of Ciceio, in the elevenili chapter of the pieaeQt oimtion : 
"niim ttl vtKementiiu ttveritatii at Jartituiinit imiiia ;uam 
nurlioa ae nequitiae ptrtimttenUUil" Hbi« mjuitia a oppond 

31. Jn ElTvriat faueibat. "Intbe tnonntain-defilea Ihat open 
OD Etnria." (^. Manliua bad then near Faendi*^ in Etnnia, u 
toff, which he had coltected from ths TCleiin aotdien of 8tlla>,GoOgk 

MAIKbT aiTtLlHJt. 14fl 


imdm whom he hsd himBdf memi. FMsabe itood «t tbe foot of J 
Ihe Appeoitiei, not fai &om whit u now the ci^ of Florance, >»d 
the caiop of Manliiu wu pitched neu i nurow deGle leading ioto 
Etmria. Tba trani fauti ia «fleii employed to denote s inomi- 
tain-pui, diEle, Mrait, &c., leading lo some plaee or rBgion. 
CoD:^«ie lArf, (43, 54,) "vilra^i appide m faDcibai nml, quMC 
Ttmpt adeiait." 

S2. Eonm auttm imperatorem. Alinding to Citfline. — Atque 
aito, Ac. " Aye, snd even b the «enste." — Creio. " I preminie," 
iiwiically. — Seriai. " At too late aperiod." i 

33. Certa de etuia. " Foi a ceitain reason." Cicem ia mora \ 
ez[4icit on thie bead, *X the close oT Ihe piennt ontion (c. IS.) Hia \ 
feai wa*, leat, if Cetiiine wera punished at an eaily et^ <tf tbe pn>. I 
ceedinga, beTora his guilt became fnlly dereloped, he migfat pui / 
Yrith many fbr an injuied mui ; nnce theis were not ■ fe» in tbe V 
ei^, «nd even aome in the •enate, wbo belieTed Caliline ranocent, 
aiid wiio wonld have called Ciceio a tjTsnt if he had pol him to / 
death. And Ihen, sgain, eien if Catiline himaelf wera c^itaUy \ 
puniihed, the conqtintcj wonld W>t be ciualtBd, stnce bo man j of the \ 
guil^ paiticipaton in it wonld adH lemiin BliTe. Ciceio's object 
was lo compel CatSine to lesTe tiic ci^, snd cairr with him all hie 
diandoned eonfedetatea ; snd benee, in oider to intimidate, and / 
drire him to this coutse, he speslu hnmedistel j ■fler of soon putting z 
bim to death ; " Tum ienijue inteTficiam It," &c. 

S4. Tam tiri nmtlit. *■ So IQm thee in cbancter," L e. ao liks 
tbes In utter want of piinciple. Similit and dittimitit, genen% 
q^SBking, ara naed with s dative of eiternil resemblBnce ; but witii b 
gemtive of reesmblance in nituie m intemBi conititution. (Zuffljtf 
1, 0. p. 370. Kenriek') tranal.} 

1. ObMttttu. ''Bese)." Fioia ebtiio, ire. Ciceio had iramer- O 
ooa gnards on llw alert, both from Ihe &eB lowne of Itatj and from ' 
tbe capital itself. — Ne comnumere tt pattii, &c. A metapbor bor 
rowed frDin the aituation of a condntanl, wbo is hemmed m m> 
cloeelj' hj hii o[^>onent as to be ooable " to mske mj fuOuc 

3. PriBala domui. . AUnding porticularlj to Ibe honse of Lseca. 
— Voeem conjtiraliiinit. Cic«ro Dbtained fuU information of the 
■ecret meetings and p1an« of Catiline, thiougb Fulna aDd Curtos. 
Conanlt Histnricsl Indei, — Giseriua and olhera teed vocii instead 
of vocem, but llua deatroys the personificatioQ io canpiTttiomi. If 
Ciceio bad wriKen tiii«», he would bave pnt cimjutaionim m pJaco 

t{ COKJUTOtUmm. 

8. 9imu»tranl>ir,*itnmpanlomim. "If ^TonrwtretpUns 


H« Duda muiifnt, if Ibsj *U bunt fnth into pnbbc Tiew." fifui 
franMr lolera bock to tmebrit, and mim^M ta paritMiu. 

i. Iilam nunUn. " That dBls»table purpoM of youiB." Com- 
pue note 4, page 1. — Milii crtde. " Tika me for yonr ■dtiMr." 
Belyanirtiatltdl joa. — Quiu efum nwcum, du;. " And lLe*s yan 
m^ eren lonew tjong witb me." Tlie «tndent nill olnerve tbit 
we h»Te lendered gmie by ef hiuc. WhotBret Ihe conneiion ia 
di^ between tbe uitecBdeiit uxl iBlatiie, the Uttei msj be leeolvGd 
mto Ihe Gonjanction imd demoDBtmtiTe oi poBoiut pio&oun. (Com- 
pm OrDinMe, Gyooiamaa, toI. 1, p. 162.) 

5. Anlt dtim itiodeeimim, &c. " On Iha tneUUi d>j befoie 
tl« kalendi of Norembei," i. e, on the Slit of Oetobei. Thie ip- 
peieQtlj ■nnmwlft nn mode of e^Meeuon probebly uofte fiom a tiane- 
poeitioQ of onte. HsTing once wiitteD mttt iit iauiiianai kaUndat, 
Ihey wonld euily be led to change dit into Htm, u if it hid been 
gOTemed by ante. (Zvmpt, L. G. p. 436. Sairiek'* frani2.}~The 
d>te aQaded to in tbe teit requuee eotne explanstioa. Oa the SOth 
Oclobei, Ciceio gave notice to the seiiUe of the eiiotence of > cod- 
ipmcy aiceinet the stste. Tbe consulu election «m to hne been 
hald Ihe nezt d&j, the Slat ; hut ihe •enete, in coneequenee of Ibe 
""IWf*!^ dingei, put 07 the comitis, ind leetdTed to meet on Ihal 
d^ foi the poipaee of dehbeiUing more fuUy on the eubject ; (bi. 
olheiwiaB, thej eoold not bave done eoj bneinees on a coDutiBl dej. 
On the Slst, theiefbie, Ciceio, in a full houBe, called npon Catiline 
lo eleai himoelf bom the chuge ellc^ igainat him ; wheieopon 
the lattet, withoul donyiog or eieuaing it, bluntly replied, " that 
thete WBFB two bodis in the repubUe," mBaniog the lenate and 
pM^le, " the one of them intinn, with a weak head, the olhei firm, 
nitbout a liead ; end that tbia iaat had so well deBDrTBd of bim, Ibsl 
tl ahDuid neTei want a head nhile he lired." Thii declai^on 
Mutled the «enate, uid Ihej imnMdiUclj decieed, that the consuln 
dumkl aee that the iqiuUie leeerred no bjuiy. The iiett daj, tha 
pot^wned comitia took place, and Silanus and Murena nere elected 
CMwile for the jreai 691, Catiline being one of the unauccessful 

9. AMt Hm «etlum, &x. " Tlie aizlh day belbie the kaJends 
of Novenibei," L e. the STUi Oclober. 

7. li fuod nullo tnagi» tit adnurandim. Emesti legaida thBse 
wokU ai a gloBa, hnt without eufficient reaaon. It wu, in fact, a 
«nfficient malter of amprise and wondei, Ibat Cicera ahould bave 
been eo well infoimed, aa to be ible to piedict, in the •enB.le, the 
wj daj on wblch Hanlius would be in aims. 

6. Te amtuliMie. "That you had com^ired," i. e. confBirad 


MAmsT CATU.IMB. 147 

■bout Confem u "^ b> deGbante along with otbera," not ma^tf 9 
" la deUbflnts." CooipBra Cic. ad Atl, 16, 8 ; " Coram htc Mn- 
feremuM, atque ie kac Jel^ieraiinmt." 

9. Jn ante iiim jTiiiKiim, &e. " Fm Ibo fiiUi day bdbn th» 
luleods of Noreaiber," i. e. had 101 down Ibe iDtmded muncra^ 
tb>t diy. The phraseology a/ile diem, &c., bu abwdy been noticed, 
(nate S.) Ilie ptepOBtiaa tn ii bere empkiyed to goTem the enti» 
dauu, Bnd de«gnBte> the time /or whicb the inteiided Ktion ie Hl 
down, and m nbich it ie to be perfbrmed. 

10. Frindpet eailaiit. " Leading men of the etata." Bj 
pnnsipo cmbUu, Cicflro bere meani prmdpct eptimatium. {Coair 
psre Fro Sext. 45, 48, &c. Fro red. 3.) Tbe term optimattt wHh 
Cieeto genenllydeagiiateeperaoni dUtingDiEhed by nnk, ocpoliti- 
cbI merit, and eometimei tbe foimer ooly. 

11. JUprinundortun, Ueed beie m the eeiue of «npeduiuliinim. 
— Pnfugerunt, Among thoee nho qaitted Rome, wu M. laciiiiui 
CtuBtu, nho hkd leeetied > letter &om Citiline, wuning him to 
dqiwl, wbich Iflttot be ehowed to Cieeio. {Plut. Vit. Cie. e. 16.) 

12. Nottra qui Temantitiemut aude. " Witb tbe blood of tbora' 
ut' Ufl thit bad lemaiiied." Hie elegsnt conrtiuction bsie emplojed 
ia deeerring of being noted. The'ielatiTe ie msde to refel to on 
entecedent in^lisd m the poeseesiTe. Compaie Terence, [Andr. l. 
I. 70,) " Oamet landim fertunat meaa, qm gvatum inierem laU 
itvenio praedttnm." 

hZ. JVuncfleJ^., Nenter accne^iTe ungular. TUa place im 
ainiate in Latima, aboat 23 mileg S. E. &om Rome. Ita citadd ts 
described try Stiabo aa temaikablfl fbr ita Btrength of poeition, and 
ms tbeielace an impoitaiit place for Catiline to seize npon, and An 
Ciceio to endeaTOur to leciiTe. Conaolt Geogiapbiciil Index. — Ea- 
lendit ipiit Nocemtrit, " On tbe lulends of NoTember," i. e. on 
the first day of ibo monai. — Oecupaturum. Muretu» «ays, thst 110 
other initflT ftiakea mention o( tbia attampt. 

]4. Praetidiit. 1^080 praetidia, cutlodiae, and ■Bigiliae Trera 
compoaed of tbe iiibibitDita of PiaeDeste, but Ihe irtiole smnge. 
meiit was Cicen>'s. 

16. AoB moda non, &c. ■ We bsve bere iba fiill eipression. It is 
Tfliy conunon, in dus consCnictiDn, for the MCODd non to be omittad. 
Conqon Corftu, oi Pli». Ep. 8,< 7. Muret. Var. Ltet. 10, 7. 

16. Noettm iUam tuperiorem. " Tbe tEaiuBetionB of the ni(^t 
bofore the !>■(.*' The nigfat4iera meant waa tbat of the 6tb Norem- 
ber, irhea d» meetiDg was held *t Ibe bonse or Lseca. Compan 
lMtel3,pags 1. — Priori nocte. "On that fbrmer night." Hefer- 
tiDgagatn to Ihe nij^ of tbe Oth.,GoOgk 




1. Ato- /afcariM. 

"Into the 

•tiTCt." Thia 



loet piobiblj the 


ita name fiom the rasidence of theM 

attiBena. The 

Pliaeun ii mueardu^e «ith thi... 

" DicB U MnuM inier /ofca- 

riot, id Mt, in Joeu»! bU 


^" (Op. ti. KtM, Tol. a. p. 

(96,43.) "P<»^(M»«. 


1 mj, DM tbe 
sum iBjer ligm 

mot ficenmt," 

irtteie Cierier midentuidi opiJiaM, bot Eniestt (CJov. Ctc.) rxfa- 

3. Com.pbina. Solliuit (Co/. 17) girei the namea of eleTeii 
■eutmra, v^ weie pteaeot on thu occuiaii. Compua Pto Sulia. 
e. 18, iiq. — Cmetluam. " I wiU [soTe (be bnth of what I aey." 

8. Jii Aac orbit tarat, &c. " In thie, ib» moat Tenented aiid 
•ngiut UMmbly of earth." — Cogitmt. " A)« plotdng." Tbe nib- 
jonctiTe mood ii OMd in this conitractioa foi tha ake of peiipicuitj', 
MBce the indicetive would be en^iguoue, ind wonld pieeent & doo- 
Ue meening. Huu, ninf qtii eagtlant, meun not only, " theie ue 
thoee who fdot," but «leo, "ibejwbo plotexist." Tho BubjunctiTe, 
therefrae, ie preferred for the fbfmor of Uuwe meamnge. So, iteni 
qvi iicattl, nait qvi legMBl, Su:. 
* 4. DittribaiMti parta Italioi. SiJbut (Cof. 37) infomu ui, 
that C. Maoliiu wu aent lo Funlie ud the edjecent puti of 
Etiuria ; Septimiiw, & nsIiTe of Cuneiiimm, into the Picene tem- 
toij ; C. Juliua, into Apulia. 

6. Qaot Romat rsUnpuTit. Aocoiding to Sdlnet, (Cat. 43,) 
StaliliDB and Gabimna weie to Bie the eitr, and Cetb^a to laiBa- 
■inate Ctceio. Lratnlna wu to haie bid, accoiding to PiDtaich, a 
geneial n^ieiinteiideDce of the «riHde afikii, and wu to haTe apared 
nena, in tiw gcneial maaaacre, bnt tbe boui of Pompey, wliam he 
mtended to ataza, and hold u houagea for a peace witk thal ctno- 
miiidei. FoT tben was « i^KHt, about thia tima, Ihat Pompey waa 
[Biuniing with his nimj &om Ihe Mithridatic wir. (I%i(. Vit. Cic 
c, 18.) 

6. Deter^mtti urbii parlit, dcc. Salluat Btataa, (Ctl. 43,) that 
the conqnntois were to £re tnelTB paita of the citj at ona and the 
eame time. Platarch, howeTei, iofDntia ue, that the; bid diTided 
RoBU into a hnndijd patti, and had MlecCeJ the aame number of 
loen, to each of wlwm wai allolted hia quaitei to be aet on Gie. 
Ae thia waa to be done b; them all at the aame moment, thej 
hnped tbeC the conflagcatioa WDnld ba geneiaL Othen weie to 
ntercept ths naler, and kill all who went to ««k it. (^111. Vit. 
Cie. c. 18.) 

7. Con/iniMUli. "Yoaaaauiedtban."— DKCMli^JfitJtiM,^,GoOgk 



" Ytm U)ld &am tlwt jm atitl, eren dwn, wen in 101110 liule degna A 
hiDderod from departmg." IJterall;, "tlut there wu itill, ereti 
then, BomG little ciaw of delay nnta ;o«." 

S. Dao tqviUt Somani. SaJliut {Cal. 38) gtvea the nune^ 
C. C ^dinB tnd L. VHrguntMDB, bnt ha cbUi (he Utter k •eutcc 
Vaigonteiiu was probablf of eqoeMnBn origin.. 

9. Ela ipjs ruwte, &e. Thejr nere le pay ttieii intaaded Timt 
eaily in Ihe nuiniing, k tiiae idwn tbe diiliiigiiiElwd RonuiiB, md 
bigher msgiitistee, hetd thsii levaes, aikd vritea clientB uMd to mit 
upoD Iheii pationa. Compare HartiBl (4, 8, 1,) •■ Prinia t^mtO^ 
tet, atjttt oJtera eonlerit kora." 

10. Cimperi. He obtaioed hia infonQBdiMi &om CariaB ^imgh 
Fntvjs. iStU- Cai. 28.) — Exclmi eot, &c. Flntaich inibmis na, 
that the aBBasuns canie aa aODD bb H ma light, snd, being denied 
entrsnce, giew veir insolent asd chunanns, nbicb oude tbem the 
moie su^ieeted. He calls them Moidas snd Cettiegus ; Imt Ciccio, 
Salluat, Appisn snd Plntarch bib loo mucb Bt Tiiiance wilh each 
othei, te enabls us to givB, wilh piecision, all Ibe minor featuiea of 
llw consfuiacy. Whj the two indiTidnals in qnestion were not ad 
mitted, and then dJMrmBd and pnt ia cnstoify, is difficult (bi ntto 
ioiBgiDe, -ttie more especiallj sa CicBio tiad [oadicled ttieii uiiTSl to 
mjj^-flf tiia ftiends, ~ /^ 
( 11. JiaaegMtmilttiKl. "SnehbeiDgthecBae." Cicen>'B obubI 
unnrfll eipieeuon, m leferencs to thinga that bsTe been eiplsined 

t<T tiim, and msy now be legaided bs settled and cleBr ; aa, foi ez- 
ample, in the praBent instanee, ^e exiateace of a tieaBOnBble desi^ 
Dn ttie pait of Cstiline. 

13. lUa lua Manlima eaitra, Compaie note 21, page 2. 

13. Si min-ut, qvam ylurivioi. "If not aU^aamanyaapossiUe." 
— Jlfunu, stiictlr BpeBking, tlie wbH of a city ; tiuMRia, batlle- 
mentB, <h fortiGoBtione ; pariet, the wall of s Iioubb. (Crontbie 
Gymn. Tot. 1, p. 3.)-^lVsitn:uni tfraan dtaHut. " To lemsm anj' 
hniger among ns." Litenllj, "to t>e occnpied," 01, "engHged, 
ikmg wrlh ns," &c 

14. Wonftran, &c, " I witl nol endure, I will not Bnflei, T will 
not pennit llus." The gradation here is woithy of notice. As a 
nian I will nol nultira thj presence ; ss s good eitizen, I wiU not 
nifn- ttiee to lemain nnojq^Eed ; aa a magiatnle, I will Dot jwrmit 
lhe« to continue among na. 

15. Atqtie huie ipti, &c. " Atid to Jnpitei Statoi, in paitienlar, 
ta wltoBe lemple we are heie assembled." The atadent wiO obserre 
the foice of hme in dengnating the [dace, 'VVith legaid to tp*i, it 
msT be ramaAed. tliat thia prououn is not, in fsct, ledectiTe, bn 



•STTM etaptutically to diatb^ish tiut Co which k 'a «pplied frolQ 
(U othen. — Slalori. Jopitei Stator waa u) eilled Irinn his htTing 
atopped ihe llight of the RomanB, whea hard ptessed br the Sabines. 
Jd tha memonble iictioQ which waa broughl to an end bj the hecoic 
caoduct of the Sabice fcnulea, RomuluB and his follDwen had berai 
driTBn haci lo the bsse of Ihe Pakline hHl, when he msoked, in his 
ertiemi^, the aid of Jupitei, ind Towed s ten^le te him on tke ipot 
nfaere he wu atuiding, if that god would it<^ Ibe disgreeeful fli^ 
of the Romani. The aclian took a hToanible tom, and a temple 
wu ■ccoidiiiglj etecled, at tha foot of Ihe Falatine, to Jitpitct, aur- 
nained, from the ciicurostanceg of l^e cBae, Siafor, becanse be had 
caiued the Romins to meke a tland (Slnra fscit) in thi> quartet, 
sgainit theii porauerB. (Ltn. 1, IS.) Some editoFB indutgemtha 
ungalai eitor of making the temple of Jupiter Stator lo haie beea 
tn the c^iitol, thos coafoaiiding it with that of Jupiter Ca[N(oUnui. 
— Jqiiter Stoloi is ealled bj Pluttrch £rj)noi, and by Dio Cania* 

le. HaieTtiUi al graiia. The conunon teit places kabaida i»t 
graiia afiei rftti ininHTbiKhu. GneriiiB, on the aulhority of eome 
«f hi> MSS,, lemoTes gratia, and placea it ailei hiijuM tirbii. We 
hBTB adopted the anangeiaentncammended by Scbiiti, aa the moi» 
etegant and forcible. 

17. Tamqiu infatan rripublicat. "Acd eo franght with ruia 
hi the lepnblic." — ToUei. There ia lomethiag of the eiaggeiation 
of oratoi7 iu this, sincB Catiline had onl^ once before conqiiied 
agvnst the ■Cate along with Cn. Pi«i. (SoU. Cat. c. 18.) Tha 
leference, however, may atso be a geneial one to his acthit; in 

I. Ik unc Aomiiu. " In (be persen of a sio^e indlTidaal." Ci- 
eeto ineaii* that tbe publle weal ia oo tooger to depend on hia own 
Hfe. Some commentatorB apply theae wonls leu coitectlr to Cati- 
line. — Samma laiii: The best MSS. have this ordei, in phice of 
tbe ccmmon «afiu tumma, and so GiaeTiu* and otliera read. 

S. Contuli dengTuUo. The eoneula elect were ao called duiing 
the inteiTal that etq>sed betweea the period of tbeii eteetion and 
diat of tbeir entrance npon office. Tliese magiatiates, from A. U. 
C. 600, were slected about the eod of Julj, or beginning of Auguat, 
and installed on tha fitat of Janoarj. — CiceiD and Catitine bad bolh 
l>een eandidates ibr the consutsbip, uid, when tlia Ibcmer succecded, 
Catiline endeaTouied to muider him in tbe Cunpus Maitius, and 
dtewbere, tfj hia piinle emiBaaiies, (" i/mmbttt modit imiditu 
paraim CitiTOlB." Sall. Cal. c. 26.) 

8. Frosamit comittu anmlaribiu. Referring to the SSd of,GoOgk 

Munrr oATn.iin. 161. 

OetoUr, U» piBnoDs nxnnh. (Cocqiuo Dote 6, page S.) On Iha g 
dij of olectioa hera tUuded to, Cieero, as Flutaich infonni ua, put 
00 K cou of itaA : dle pnncipal penma in Rome coudocted hini 
bom his hooae, ■od greit iramben of ihe jnnUh «ttendBd him to Ibe 
Camptu Mutiui. Tbtm he thiew back hii robe, ud diqilajed 
poit of the coU rf jnail, on paipoie to poiiit out hia duigei. The 
peo[Je neie inceDeed, ukd inuuediat^ gkthend about him , tbo 
conwquence oT whieb nu, thst CatiliQ* mm igun lejected, uid 
Silunu uid Uniens weie choien eonmle. {Vit. Cu. c 14.) 

4. Campo. Tbe connlu' cemicis weie beld in the Cunpua Hu- 
tia*. — Comptlila-ca. Siknn* and Hoiena. — AmuoniM frttndM, 
&c. Coniuit Qote S, — Mi ptlitti. " You umed ■ IhiuM it ms." 
A gladiatonal teim. Compue C)ceio'i Imguige towudi Ike doaa 
of chapter 6. ". Quot tgo tnat petitimei," &c. 

6. Etie coi^vatelam. "Wae intimatelj connected." — Pttu. 
" You aim a Uow at." Compue noM i. — Ad tiitiam et vntit^ 
tem voeaa. "You ■uinmoti to luin and^deeolatioa" Eleguitlj 
UMd inateod of the mi>ie commoo phtuBnk^, " Ewrrttre et teto 
acfiura nMciiurM." 

6. Quoniam id, guod priimim, Sk, " Since I due noc jet pa> 
■ne that couise whieh fitgC Boggeats iCseif, aod is in itiieC acooid- 
uice with the prineiplss of thia goreroiueiit, and Che idniimitnlian 
of oui ibrehtbece," L s. inflict capilal punishment upon you. — Some 
c<H<iniei>luw« lelei the sipieaNOD hujtis tn^wm to the consuUr 
effice, C Bnd i* m stiict iccorduics with Iha natitie of that office 
whidi I now fill,"} bnt ihe othei (oteipietatian aeema prefenhle. 

1. Ad letKritaittit. " In point of sereiitj." — Et ad etmmanem, 
&c. " And, as iBguda tbe ctHnmon safetj, piodaetiTe of more de- 
cided sdTuiCsge." 

8. KeUqua cmjuratenm mamu. Emeiti ihinks nliqiia loo 
&igid, uid suggests aUqua, irtdcb ippBan to ni still moie ftipd 
tban rtliqua. 

9. Exhaurittur ex urbt, &e. "Thatfout gathecii^ o! AyMf 
lowejs, large in point of number, and fniigbl with luui to the atate, 
will be draiDed awsj from our eitj," L e. UutnoitUMs crewof thj 
sbai^oned fbllswen, ao Uige in numlw, a»d wbo sm ploCtliig onlj 
luia to ihe atate, wdl be dnreD fu away &CHn om dty. Saidna, 
propsitj means that psrt of tbe ibip where the bilg»-wateT collecta. 
It i* iaea taken le denota tbe bilge-water itaelf ; and finsUj anj 
woithless and inqmte c<rilection of penoni. Cicao, in tbe foUowing 
paasage, emploja ibe term in speakiiig of tbe kiweat of tbs peofJs, the 
voy di^ of tbe citj : " Hoe eiam verba at lUiu, quaei dt aSqta 
snttno, ■£ iian dt optimcrum et*ntm gtatre loqutrtltir."—lt <mO 




bt pwCTJred boca «n «mniMlinn of Ibateit, tlM we hne ■&■& a 
ehnig* in IhrB uniigemeiit of tbe littei part of Ihe cluiw. TIm 
cogunon nading u ^(rTiiciaH »n<iu rn^uUicH, uid rnfaUicof 
ia thiu raguded *■ ■ genhiTe, fonung irilh emulam ■ double geni- 
IJTa, in imitatiai) of Iha Oraak. {Gotrm, U Cie. Leg. S, 17, 4S, 
p. 169. ItcllJtiat, a. a. 4B80, Toi. 3, p. dOS,.Eenntk'i (raiul.) 
Enwni, bawe>er, wtth TG17 good leaaon, aoapecta thi* gmitiTe rn- 
fuilit** l» be B men inleipdation, aince tx tiTbt, whieh ia euS- 
eieiil tor tlw aeiiaa, piecedea. He leUina it, notwithataiidii^, in 
bia tait. We bsTe alap retuned Teipuiluae, bnt hare placed it be- 
fbie Mentina, aoA hne nude it depend, aa a datire, on ftmieiata. 
It maj ba Ihat inilitu reipatlicai, w>a wiitten oiiginally by aome 
GOpriit for TtifuNieae «HJttu, (a cmuHm biiot iu H3S.,) and the 
tn» poaiticin of the worda aaj at Gnt baT« been deaignated t^ 
■nall Dumben placed OTei tl>em, nhich oinnben weie omitted li^ 
■ n ba o qnent copjiata, and tha GiroDeona otdet aBowad to nmain. 
(Cuapiue PoTtm't Letter lo Dtlztl, Mut. Crit. vol. I, p. 336.) 

10. Tiia rpoiite facieiai, " Tou weie inclined te do of ;roai 
own accoid." Faciebat a heie eqniTBlent lo faetre eolciiu. — £xtri 
ts nrti, &Q. How mndi atrongai ihan if he had laid, " txirt tx 
urtt Cieere Catilitum juitl," 

1 1. Nim m txiiiium t Ciceio pmpoadf aToida ordering Coti- 
Inw to go tKto txUe, Hiia wonld Iuto heen, in the pieaent alaga 
of &a eaaa, a hazaidoua experiment, aa il might bve eipaaed him 
lo ihe cbaige of an odioua and tyiamncal eieieise of antharily. Tbe 
Bomana weie aTeiae to Ihe naiiig of ibe woid exiU, even in their 
jodkual aentencea, and honce the punidimont of eipattiation waa 
called igjoi tl a^uae tMerdielio, "inteidictingfromfiieand water," 
hj Ibe force of whieh a peiaon Trea compelled to leaTO Italf ■ It 
waa a aetUed piincqde. Ihat no Roman citizen oould loee, wittout 
hia own conaeDt, the light of citlzenahip, and hence, when a penoo 
waa lo be baniBhed, he was, b; a Gctian of law, inteidicted &om fiia 
and w^ei. (/fnnccc. Anliq. Rom. 1, 16, 10, ed Haubold, p. lU.) 

IS. ExlTa iMtam confanaionan, dK. " Unconnected nilli tbat 
coaquncy of joun uid jonr abindoned followeia." The piononn 
mm ben maika Ihe panan, and aloo denotea acom and conCempt 
4m ike put of the apeaker. CtHnpannote^, page I. 

13. Quae nola, &£. " What mariE of domeatic taijHtnde haa not 
been toanded on jonrchaiacteil" Nbta waa applied by the Ro- 
mana 10 the madi l«aoded 00 a fogitiTs alaTo Triien rataken, (Cte 
Off. 3, 7,) and alao to the sljgma in^poaed bj Ihe cenaoia loi im- 
moial condoct. {Pro. Cluenl.iS.) So tbe Toico of public acom had 
hnnded, with infiynj, ibe chanctei of Catilino. Ac<~wdiiig to Ftn-,GoOgk 

tuch, SiDiut, tui Ajconnii, CatJlme had datn hk ovfn bratlM, 
bai muidered hu crnn son, thst there migbt be do obstscle to hia 
nurriage with Anrelia OteitiUB, snd had indolged >d inceMooai 
hiteccoane nith tn iliegitiniate diiight«' of hia. 

14. Quod jnitaiamm Temm, &c. '* Whit ■hameftal condtict in 
privBie hfe clingB not to yon for jonr Ueting infuQf 1" litenllj, 
" Kdherea not to joar inlam^." Thia cUnge is stronglj' snipeeted 
of being a mere intatpolBtian, since the >HDe ides is alreadj ei 
preased bjr ihe word» " Qust nola," &c. It wa* Toiy probably, it 
fiiBt, a mere nuTginel inteipretBtion, gtven hj lome scholiut to the 
words qaae nola, Ik,, and grBduall; (buDd it> wsy into ihe teit. 
The LatiQi^ of m» baeret infiimiat is Ttxj questionBble, snd 
Mvonrs strODgl; of the style of b BchoIiBit. 

16. Qant libiJii. " WhBt Bcenes of impoiitj." Compire Ibe 
lemBik of Doeiing, ad. loe. : " Ocuiit «nRpc iomina itMdnton 
vtnari nUnt l&idinit aUmenla." 

16. Quod faamu^ "What duing deed." — Quoi fiagilBiilt. 
"What infBmouBpoUution." The diatJDction botween /a™» «nd 
fagitiam Bhonld be noted. Faciwm denotes s bo)d oi dinng Bctian. 
Bsd nnlen it be joined with a (sTDursble epithet, oi the sction be 
prerioiialy deaciibed as ctmuneitdable, tbe teim ia aiways to be im- 
deistood in B TitupeiatiTe setiae. Flag^um lefers chieflj to di»- 
giacefiil and hutfiil eiceai, though it sometmies denoleB anj fault, 
ertur, oi oiime, that leflects dialMmonr on tbe ofieader. ( Cronibit 
Gymnatian, vo!, S, p. 163.) 

17. Qutm eormpltlaTmn Hltetirii itrtliiti». " "Whom jon had 
entatigled amid the allarenteikts of yom corraptiiig aits." Compaie 
Salluat Cat, c. 14. " Std naxumt adoUicentiiim familiaritatei 
adpitebat," &c. 

IB. Facen praetulitti. Alhiding to Catiliue'a iniciating the 
jnnng into Ihs niTde oC Ihe mglit, aitd beiiig, as ilweie, their goide 
to scene* ofdebaocheij. 

1 9. Yaaufieiiia. Oatilina Traa said to Yan poisoned his filtl 
wife, m oidei to nuke wb; for AnreliB OrestillB, and,'beBide this, to 
iiiTe muideied his son bj the foimei maniage, tbat he mi^ tu) 
be Bji obslacle to his aecond uniou. — Alio vurtdibiH letlert, The 
muider of his (011. Compare CatuIIua, (64, 403,) " Oftavil gemtm 
primaevifiineTa gntti," ico. 

1. Tanli faeinerii immaiutsi. "So monatioaBapieceof wick- 
edness." litaallf, " Ihe enonnity of bo gceat a enine." 

3. Praximii id^iui. His cleditoTs woold then be entitled to call 
lor the intdrest on tiieir adTaiiceB. Among the Homaos, tbe Calsnda 
and Ides weie tbe two peiiods of the montii, when manof was sither,CoOgk 

TBB rtmn oitA.TioN 

irtat wu OB loMi. Compue Honcfl, (5aJ. 1, 3, 87,) " Qtmm 
Iritlit muera rcurt kmliUat," ind «Iki, {Epod. 3, 69,) "■bnmem 
rttUgit idiiat pacuiunn, &c.— The pHteirt ontun was ddivend 
on the 8lli of Nvreniber, and the next Idea wonld be on the thir- 
teenlh. llu Idn feU ob tha IGth of Huch, Mtj, Jdj, lod Octo- 
bor, knd tbe 18th of the other months. 

3. Amerttemi taam JtjtaJtalnn. " Tonr domastie difBcaltieB,'' 
i. «. jroot dsbts. Compan Var: 3, 38 : " OtUniit tt in nsima 
affiaiUalt itit numaria." 

4. ihijtu vitat Ua. Onevins alid othe» md metely hate bix, 
bot Ibsn, ss Einesti comcttj nmsAs, tbs whole reUtioii i* lost 
bMween kujut vitae Inx, tni tttjut eotU tfiriliit. 

&. PriJit kalmiai Januariat. The tiine bw<e meint is tbe Slst 
December. SsHast giros s biief scconnt of tbia euiier eonqrincj, 
(Cai. 18.) mie plsn waB,to mnidortbe conenli in tlie cajHtoI, snd 
tben, fbi Cadline snd Antronius lo auie iq>i»i tbe connilu' sutboF- 
i^. Soetoniiis (Vtf. lul. Catt, e. 9) infbRna lu, on tbe ftilb of 
oonten^Knaiy wiiten, Ihat Csesai and Cranms had Cakeo pait in 
this conspiracy, and tbat it &iled from Caeaar^a mt haTing gireti 
the pieconceited signal, in conseqnence of CiaaaQs'a nol appealing 
at the ^ipoiQted time. Accoiding to Sallnst, the plot failed s second 
time, on the noiu» (Glh) of Febmarf, in cOQaec^aeiicB of CktiliBe's 
hanDg given tlie aignal for ictjoa befbre a anfficient miinbei of COD- 
qiiratora had assembled. 

5. Ltpide tl TulU) tmtidiiiu. A. V. C. 087. CatiUne, beipg 
•censed of eitortion, was nnable to stsitd osndidato fbr Ibs consul' 
■hq>, and benca, inflamed witb hatied and diB^KHntnwnt, he lesolTod 


ia eui» ttlo. " Took yom station in the comi> 
The cDDutiiuii «aa that psit of the Ibnim 
. — It viaa foibidden by one of the laws of the 
twelre tablss, to cairf si^ weapon witlun the city. 'Dis alhuiaii 
in the teit has alieadjr been expUined niider nots S. 

B. If<m nttnttm tUfuam. ."Tlat no change of mind." Hiii le 
Ae intsipretatiaD oommoulj giren to Ihe claase. It ie mBcsplible, 
bowerer, of a diSorent meaning, " th«t oo letnm nf mind," i. e. no 
(^impee of leaaon, and conseqnent remoiae, amid hia pbienif . 

9. FvrtunoM. "The WQiited good-fortime." CtKnpaie SalhiaC, 
(CaL c. 41,) " Tandan vieil fortitna rt^uUieai." 

10. Itequi onm lunl, &c. "For nsither sn lb(; concealed 
tnm the knoiriedge of all, noi have only a few be«n tommitted by 
dwe aobseqiiam ta ibat event." Hie common text has mull opott,,GoOgk 

jlgainst CATanis. 195 

* ng». 
•u emnMKKU reaiiBg. Ilie beU editimii pfe multtt iiutaad of ft 

11. (^fitot tgo tuat jKtitiona, &c. *^How TTumj tliruflta of thine, 
aimed in soch ■ vsj tbat tiiGf eeemed impoMiblG to be shunned, 
hare I iioided by & slight tuming swsj, ss it nete, ind, to boirow 
(he Unguage of the ghuhitorial schoole, bj Che moTementi of raj 
bodj." Petitia, dedinalio, carjm», and effugib, &n bH gladiatoiial 
temiB, puipoael; emfdoyed \tj Ciceio, Ibat be maj Beem to legud 
Cuilliie B> no better Ihen one of Ihis clue of peiKuu. Cnnpue 
Ihe IkngnBge he useB in the second oiation sgamst Catiline, (c. 11,) 
" Gladietori Hli amfecli) et laueio eoiuulet </pp<mile," &c. 

12. liihU agit, &c. "Yon do nothing, jon c<>ntriTe notbing, 
jou meditBte nothing." The BtndHit will obBeire the legulu grado- 
lion of ideu. — We Iibtb letained tbe common reuHng mth Emesti. 
Some edilon reject nSal molirii, qimd miM laten tideai in teti^ 
yore, bnt witbont bt^ pioprietj. Tbe words from quod \o tempore, 
both incloaiTe, ore wanling in «ome DunnBcripta. 

13. In tmpore. " At the veij momeot nhen it is of adTBDtige 
to me to know Uiem." EqniTalent to Uio tempore qw> iUa teire 
miU uhb til, Con^am the Gieek foim tt tiupa, aiid Draiehb. ad 

. Uv.8,7. 

14. Quoiiet jtan, dcc. " How often belore (his haa Ihat dagger 
nf thine been wiested &om thj grasp 1" 

It>. Tamm ea earere diuJnu tum potet. Tbeae «ronls an omit- 
ted bj lome edilois, aa aoC leqoiied bj the conteit, and aavoaiing, 
theiefrae, of inteipolation. Th^ are susceptihle, howevci, of aa 
easj defence : " Still jon cannot be depiired of it for a longer period 
than d>e mere instant," i. e. oo matter how often it be wiested, or 
fall, &am jonr giasp, it is sure, the veij neit inatant, to be in jour 
hands sgain. — tbrsj who leject Uiis clause do noc seem to haT* 
paid anfficient attention to the (bice of tbe eompuBtiTe dtuftiM. 

16. (fvM qaidtn, &c. As tiw rdstiTe bc^w the clause, «nd 
the conneiiDn between it and Clw antecedent ia cmnparativelj sligb, 
iC must be rendered bj the pronoun haee. (Comparetiote4, pageS.) 
" With wbaC unhatlowed lites this same dBggei bas been eonseeiated 
bj Iheo Bnd devoled to jta pmpoae, I ia noC know, Ihat jon detnn 
it ■ msttei of aolemn obhgation to plunge it into the bosom of e 
conBu]." Cicero » tlrau^ to BUude bere to tbe bonid SBcrifice of 
s humsn bnng, at the houae of Calibne, Bn accoual of wfaieh is 
giTeii bj SaUust, (Cnf. c. S3,) and Dio Canua, (37, 30— Tol. 1, 
p. 131, ed. SeimaT.) — The sacriQcial knife wae coosecntad to liiMi 
puipose alone : Cicero iniinusteB tbat Caiibne had s WeajMn dedi- 
talsd to tbe BolepmpoaecrfslajiiiK thacoosoli.,GoOgk 


17. OHo. "BjthedeteHatioiL" — QnttlilkwtSuitbtair. "N« 
panion of which ia juMlr jour dae." 

18. Poul^ aatt. " A moment igo." — Ei luu: tajUa freqvenluL 
" Of thia H) %rawded ■ honae." lUfsning to the fuU nmnben of 
tbe •eoBte, wboni Ihe intaUigeace of ibe coospincj had dnwn 

IS. SaJufavU. Whan Cetiliiie cuhb inlo thU meeting, end UMk 
lim eeat, eH tbe eeiutofe ebendoned thtt part of Ihe niiiiUut, oi 
benches, iriiere fae hid pUc«d himeelf, uid not one of hie piinte 
fa«Bi* deied to ednte him. 

30. Voeit <»rpec(M eoRfHfneliant, &c. "Do joa weit loi an 
«JWD iffiont coaTeyed to jour eua bj the TOicee of tksM preeen^ 
lAeD jba heve been oruponered l^ tbet moet e^neeaiTe eentelKS 
which their Ter; eSeoce hu pnnad upoa yoat" A peiapbnee bu 
beea hete en^iloyed, to gJTB what a litetal tcaaelation woold oal; 
■eire lo obacure. — The emtunulia voat is thecame ai if the eeaa- 
lor* hid opanlr ca^ed Catiliae a pobUc memj ; tbe juHenm tad- 
tttntUalu refen lo the inBsiiei in wbich he waa received on coming 
tato the eeniite. — Tbe itndent will maA the force of the aabjaoo- 
tiTe opprttniM tit, u denoting whM i>, to aU appeaiance, paaoing in 
the miDd of CatlUiie. 

Bl. Jtta. 'Hie omtor faere pointa to the pUee wheie Catiliiie ie 
■eated. Compare note 4, page 1. — Suht^ia. Hie seata of tlie 
■enalora are here called tubteUia, in 0|^K»itioD to tfae elevated place 
wbeie (he connil faad his cnrtile ciuiii. SvittUiiim prt^^eri; meaoi 
a low bencfa oi >e«t. 

33. Niidam aijKe «UMaa. "Com[deteI}r here." The Latm 
writeii &eqiioat!y ea:q>loj two epidteta, of afanoat tfae aame impmt, 
to gire additional atrengtfa to tfae idea. 

1. Servi meherculi, &£, Maietiu puMi a bigh B&d liGfaljHle- 
eerred eDcomiiim on tfae force and sloll wfaich chuBctarixe tbia pa*- 
■age. It ia, io trutfa, an eicelleiit iUuatration of tbe aigament a 

i. JbyHria. ''Wltfaont jnn caoie." — Offmtim. "Odiona." 
Oraqnre Caaauboa, aii Sutl. Jul. 19. — ODiniMnt oeu^. We baTe 
adcfitad Ibe aider of Gnerina, aa loore in accordaoce witfa eiqihonj'. 

S. Vnintrat. " Tou aie eTerj daj woundii^." FUiuro ie faKS 
aeed Boioewfaat in the aenae of lud». Compera cfaaptm 4. "£m 
poiubtm veet nUnero," 

i. Ommuiii neilmm parent. Compaie the beaQtifol paaaage ni 
the tieatiae di OJiait .■ " Cort tunl parentit, cari Uberi, pro p it i^ , 
Jkmitimret, led onni* oninaun eariltUi paMa itna eompUrt eit.',GoOgk 


B. EljaMJiu le nihil jitiiaU, &£. Thecomnum tszt haa it It. 
We hi*e t^ted ^ pispaaUoit, Mcoidbg U> the «aggeation of 
Lunbiaiu, nfaich u «ffiroved of hj Muietui uid Oneviiu. If dt 
be ralsined, the leiue lequim the inaeition of uiatbel tc, in tha 
iccusatiTS, belrae a^lare, whtch would be eitreDiBl; twkwaid uid 

S. ParrieUia ttut. "Heriuin." Tbfl (eimfiimnifiun, uoong 
Ih* Ronun «rrite», mdicites not meiely the muidei of puenti, bol 
*Im, of tbsae witb wfaom one ituidi in uiy neu uid ■"'""-'■> n]m- 
tian. Conqten the Unguige of one of the old tawTsn : " Ligi 
Ponpeia it parrieidit ImitiLr, qtU paireni, «tuJren, ontni, ovum, 
fralreat,mnirem, fatmmtm, palronam acdderil." (Psafi SaUenl, 
Ub. 5, tit. Sl.) 

7. HltivM lu n«gv(, Jec, " WiU yon neither nwpect hor «nthoiily, 
Bor be guided hj her <if&uon, oar atuid in awe of her power V* Ju^ 
dtciim a hen eqnivUent to ttnteyitiam. Hii coaiitT h>d come to 
Ihe eoncluiion, that CBtiline ought to depeil bom bei uid go fatto 

' e. Taata l>qjtitnr. Wh^ (h* gwimnnrim* uU ta otymervn, 
•n appwnt cootndiction b teimi. Sa fai Ibe followfaig cb^iter, 
" fvbn laetni elamani." 

9. JfWfortM» nrniM nku. ADudfaig to thc mniden conunitted 
hj Citiliiie, u • putiv^ *<x! dmiiig ihe pioieiqitiotta, Dl SjUa. 
Conauh HietoricBl Ipdai. 

10. Soeiontm. Catilfaie hsd, is pnelor, obtuaed AJiici foi hi< 
govranment, »llere he wu guil^ of gieat eitortion uid i^ana. On 
bii leluiD <o Rome, be wu lecnied b^ Pabliiu Clodiiu, bat ac^Md 
bj biMig bi* wenMi uid Ihe judgei who tried him. 

Jl. (jMuifKnu*. "Pnblie pnwecotioiu." ComU Legal lodax. 

15. Quiilgtad increpaerii, tu, " For Catiiins to be feared, on 
ereiy «lum." Ijlenlty, quiiquid nterepaerit, "Whi.tsv«i Doue 
miy beva be«n mide." Compen Liry, 4, 43 : " Si futd imripit 

18. Qimt « tuo tttUre abhorteal. "Ilut is fi«e fiom yoat 
p^tf paituupaUon." la whicb yon do not beai s part 

14. 8i ttt iKiKf, Ac. What HenDOgstwa «•Us a 'xlf 
i,\lifptnr, 01 fotm of a dilemma. 

16. JITmm is^etrart iAtat. " Onght riie not to obtam bsr ra- 
qseet," L e. ongla ihe not to [ter«3 npon ■jaa to depart. 

16. quii,qwituipie,&t:. " WhU di^tl isj of lUa, diat joa 
B&ied t« nDiendei youiielt uita the ■«& feei^ang of »ome private 
indiTidual V The phnM quU qaoi, irfneb ein ooly be nsed when 
• ynfa socceedi, is eUiptical, snd to be completed as followo : Qidi,GoOgk 


aaan dt ea qmJ. It gBnBiallr m^ ^ *>»* «"^ ■*^<^ ^ 
moro «iitpiiui^ or deciwvs tliui what wont bafore, «Dd hencB it » 
tequentlj rendereii mlo En^h by '• ibj," ot "mj BTBn." Com- 
pue 2umy(, L. G. p. 41B.— Smirln Jfm- TOL S, p- SIO, (ei 

IT. Jn euttodiam. TIub ia whit WM cSHed (liera aMfa&4. 
\tlwn an iDdiiidual of nnk uid &mi1^ labonfed ■ndei the aiupt- 
cion of ao]' trauonalilq pracltci», he «omelinm BUnendeied hmuelf 
blo (be band* of uiother peraon, diMiDguidied fm priTBte worii, 
ind ■ttachment to tbe eute, to be guarded, m it were, by the lattet 
Dntil hia gnilt (H innocoice migbt be eitaUiahed I7 tfae leauk of m 
public praMcntioa. Thie Mep wm gnerallr Wlwn in OTdw to im- 
preea the people wilh in opioion of hi» innocence. On lome occ»> 
aoiH, tha pcnon sccund wa> giren orer inCo Ihe nfe keeping of 
■ootbeT, widiout bemg «llowsd to eieiciie any will of hi* own, ■« 
in the cua of Lentulus, Bnd the oChei confedentea of Catiline, M- 
coided b; Sallual. (CnJ. c. 47.) DJo Caanua (68, 3) uHi llua 
fpeciea of cnslodj', by > TBiy appropriate name, ^oXiici iStvfH. 
Conipaio Lipaiua, ai. TeiM. Aim. 6, 4. 

18. M'. Ltpiivm. Wb naTe pTen the praenamen sa W., (i. o. 
JHonnw») mateid of tho commo» reading M. {Mareum.) The Lep' 
dnB beie msaBt ww Huuua, nol lAarcQB, Lepidne, wbo hrid tbs 
conauidiip with Volutiui ToUa*. Compxe Manutiiu, ad. loe., snil 
slso the reoiadu of Morgenetem snd Beck. 

19. HabUart. "To lake up yoni leridence." 

I 1. PanelibuM. The tsim ptritt moet commonlj denotes tbs 
wtll of s bouM. Its piimitiTe meaning appesrs to hne beeu s 
pu^, 01 «epBiation, wsil. In the foUowing pMsige il siguiies ■ 
wsU Ibi uphcidmg 01 n][qiOitiiig. "Parielet /anaam ferjmx 
UTbmpaltftcemiti." (Z^B. 44, 11.) 

5, Qvietim. "Sincslwas." Qu> is jraned to the ml^mie- 
tire mood, when Ibe lelstiTS clanea atates lome cii<cnmatauce oe- 
Imgii^ to tbe anlecedent, ss sccountnig lor the princlpal Cul, 01 
■s coDltibudiiB to it« produelioiL {Crimiie, Gymnattum, vd, % 
p. 38) 

3. Q. MtteUtim. Cieero lefers to Q. CaeciJius MeCelhls Cder, 
who wu subsequentljr despstcbed by bim lo niie >ii unied felc* 
■gunit Catiline iu the Qillio utd Picene tenitorie*. (Conqtan 
Oral. S, m Cat. cb^nen S, and 13.) He was consul wicb L. 
AfiumM, two jrean aftetwatd. 

4. Virvm aptuRHin. Uied ironicaUy. Compsre Qiiintilim (9, 1.) 
— ilf. Mareattim. The lithei of Marma MaiceUut, nne of Ihe ac- 
compUces of CatiUiw. (,Pre Stxt. 4.) OroBiu«, ia tbe Mowing,GoOgk 

pusBgfl, ntakes meation of both fatber anl Mm : " JVofu eliani iit Q 

Felignii orltu a Xarcctlit, palrt ct fiiio, ■ptr L, Vcciium prijdittu, 
pale/acla Calilinae canjuToticnic, guasi lUfcini radia, eompritnu 
ttt," fcc. (6, 4.)—Wb musl be careful, however, not to confound 
the Majcettus heie qwQtionwt' wilh the one named by Ciceni a litlls 
■fter, and whwn he atylw rir /or(iMiHiM. Thi» latter vu tho 
One whom he defended befoni Caesor. 

6. Ytdclicel'. Ironical. "Nodoubt." — Ad laspicandanL "Jn 
«pying ont your aecret moyeizienla.""jl(( vindicandnm. "Inbiing- 

ig jou to justice 

'. XorarL Vfe hnTO letained the commou reiding. Many 
oditiona bavB (iRcri, and tbey who give tbislection thinkthat Ciceio 
probably meant U> wam-Catilins, tbat hla renuuning in Rome would 
bat lead to a apfiedy dealb. Cicero, hDwerer, ia not apeaking of a 
doath to be patienlly endured by Catiline, but of the otter in^joaai- 
bih^ of that indiyidual's lemaining tny lcmgei in a city, wheie eveiy 
object must lemiDd him of hia own guilty «chemea, and of tha 
bttred god contempt which tbeae bad broo^t npan bim. Beaidea 
nioniri and aiire are in diiecl o[^ioaidon, and ths piesence of the 
Uttei leqiiiieB the Ibimei aa a matter of coune. 

7. Reftr, isqjoM, ad lenatam. " fja.j the mstter, ;ou saj, before 
the aenate." Rtferre ad lenatam was the ububI phcase for (he 
layutg of any matter befo» the Boman lenate. If tbe conauls 
weie in the city at the tbne wheo «ny Bnch reference waa to b« 
made, ibey, by virtue of theii oAice, conaalted the aenate on ^ 
tnaUei in qaeation. If they weie abaenC, ioB lefeience waa mada 
by the other magiatiates, aceoidiiig to their reapecciTe lanlc. {AuL 
QtU. 14, T.) 

B. Quod abhorrel a mat maribiu. " 'Which is repngnant to my < 
chanctei." Aa Ci cero waa natnraPy «veree to harahneM an4. 
•ereiity, he wai unwiUing to laj the anau ai i.AauDe 'otmally 
Beiore the aenata, aiiicB he knew that tbe Utter woold, mott 
eeitainlj, condemn him. Hia object waa to induce him to qnit the 

9. Fdcimn, ul tntelHga». " I wili act in snch a way that you 
tnay cleaily peiceire." He means, that he will tell hlm openly to 
^ into eiile, and that the seiuite nilt aanctioD this bold Itep an the 
pirt of Cicera, bj tbBir total sdence. 

lU. Hanc vocem. " This word." Conault note 11, page 6, 

11. Quid ctt, Catilina! Cicero probably made i pause al tha 

end of the previons sentence, tbat Cstiline might obserre the moia 

cleaily, Irom the total sdence of the aasembled seDaton, bow com- 

detely iheil sentiments ascoidrd witb tboae of the speakei. Bo,GoOgk 



then adima, la nflBieiica to Ibe «lenee »hicli pRnil» on ■0 
«de* ; " Wbt M thii, CuUine t" 

13. PdAuitAu-, buMl. "Tbe; «uflol me to addiem joa m [hii 
liDglBge, ther ue «ilent," i. o. they pemiit me to dm tbis bo!d 
Ungo*ge towards yoa, and to bkl ;oa go inla eiile, becanse thej 
bdiere, with me, thU jou aie an eDemj to jom coimtiy ; uid no 
one reiees his Toice tn your bebalf. 

18. Qitid txtptctat auctBTibutm, Ac. "Whj do jon wait for 
Ibeii' anlbotiiiDg lh>a bj tbeir vokeg, when yon cleuij perceiTS 
their wiabeB ellhough thej aie ailentl" Cicero refer» to tbeircon- 
Gmiing, bj word of month, the oidei iriuch he had given Gatilii» 
to deput into exile. 

14. P. Sntio. P. Seitioa GaHas, nho wae quaestor to tha 
. eotnul Antoniua, and wbom Uicera Bubsequenllj defended in an 

ontiaii whicb b«« come down lo na. 

Ifi. M. MaTctUo. Thia ia Ibe HaiceUna wboni Cicera anei- 
mide defended before Csesar. Coinnlt Mistoncil Indei. 

16, Jam. "Eie now," — Yim tt nama. "Ths buidof Tio- 
tatice." Liteially, " violence and thrir henda." A ipecies nf ben 

17, Dt U. "With regaid lo you." — Own gvitteunt, &c, 
*■ Wben tbef lemam quiet, thej ectagllj ^ipioTe of my condiict ; 
Kben ihej pennit me to nae thi* Isnguage, thej, in tiutb, deciee to 
tliit elbct ; wfaen thej keep silence, Ihej, in fict, piDclum londly 
duir sendineiits." PrDinn/. The senate eppiOTe of ths couim 
irtiidi Cieero haa joat punaed towaide Cstiline, in ordeiing him into 
eoile. AecemM. They actua% deciee that ba go into eiile. 
CZinuRf. Tbt^ loudlj piodaim, as it w«e, theii decided eonnC' 
boD of Catilii>e's being a foe to his coonlrr, 

18, QB«nin lti> ttaetoritat, &£. " WboM Butiiority, it seema, 
i* hi^ily req>Bcted bj you ; whoie liTee uo most cheap m jooi 
«jf." Catiliiie[Hetendedgrealieipect ftn theantiioiityandBane- 
tion of the senate, bnt beld theii lires, in luA, aa eheep, as lo hsTS 
mariied out the majoiitj of them for deBtiuction. 

15. Sti ttiamilU tjailtt RonvaB. "ButeTen those Roman 
kni^ita do the esme," i. e. nltntio jrrobant. 

SO. Q^ circumtianl ttiialam. A bodj of Roman knighta, and 
Otoer patriotlc citizena, were in arniB around the temple in which 
the eenau wete conTenad, in order to pmtect them from eny eudden 
■ttack on tbe part of tbe coDiipiFKtors, in cue mcb, er was stnmglj 
i^iIHBbended, abould take pbiee. — Voctt. Refeiring to Ibe palriotie 
diei a( tbase issembled witbout the ternpte. 

fl. Vtjiie ai portat protegwintur. 'HkOBe wbo went inlo nilu»,GoOgk 

tttj eiile were generall; iceompuiied U> tiiB citf gntes bj lugs Q 
nmnberaoftheirfriendii. CicBTOpnnDiseauieacortofWnigiiUtoCaCi- 
line, if he wiU ibKndon Rome, The orator means, tbaC, thnragh joj to 
rid IhemeelTeg of him, Chej wiil aee him saJel; M Iba gates of the eitf. 

33, Qaamquam. "Andyet." Compue Ibe teinBiki of Foreel- 
lini, on thia tua|^ of ^iuun^ani : " VeioiMMim haiet, eum qta* tt 
ipmm corrigil ;" and coniolc die foUowing paasagea wheie it oecnia . ' '{, 
in the same seiwe : Ck. N. D. 3, 16 : Yirg. Aen. fi, 19S. JE 

33, Tt ul uOa rtt frangatl &e. <■ Is it to be eipeetad Chat v; 
U1J ^iing cui erei hisak liat obetinate ^arit oT Toon ! that fou 
cnn eier refoim 1" We muat aupply befbra lU, in thia paaaage, tbs 
woidi iperandtmnt nt fort, or aomethingeqniralent. Diakenboicb 
{ad Liv.. i, 3, 13) bae coUected examples of thia eleguit aod ellip- 
tical nsage of Ibe paiticle «1, — Frangat. Aa iBgaidj the pecoliar 
force of this TGib in ineh passsges u the pieeent, compoie lAt. S, 
SS; snd consult SrotKUoKt, oil TibuU. 1,6,71. 

1. Duint. Aq aichaism for deni. Thie foim oecds also in Q 
Ltvy, aa foiming part of the langnage of a tow : " Beliona, n iodit 
Rdta victorian duit, ael ego templum libi voveo.'' (10, 19.) Be- 
sidea being nsed on snch aolemn occiaioija, it is &eqnen% mst with 
smong the comic miten. 

3, Sed ett miAt tatUi. " But it ia worth thia sacrifiee," Ai if 
ho had said : " Seipuhlieae lalut ett mhi tatiti momaiA, ut Auu 
imptTidmti tmiHiu tempttlati me objieiatn." 

3. Privata tit, " Be private in its cbusctei," i. e. coneeni me 
indiTidnallj ; fall only on mj haad. 

4. Sed tu M ntiu tuit commiKeare. " Bat tbal jrou ean be at 
■U afiected by the conacioiunesa of jQin ciimea." Yitia ia bem 
nsed to denote any eyil deods. 

5. Ul ttmporibut reiptJilieae cimeedat. " Tbat yoo can yidd to 
tbiB inteteala of the repnbUe," It ia diesame aa if Cicero had aaid: 
" Ut a cantUia tuo reetdat, el ea, qaae praetau reifiuilicae ttatia 
foitulel, fieri paiiaril," — We haTe giren ametdat wiUi the gieata 
number of editionB. GiBerins, Lallemand, Beck, and Sdmta, ptaftc 
ttiat, wbich is foDnd in aome manusciqjts, and thia retuliiig is slso 
defendedby Ooeienz, ad Leg. 3, 11,36, p. SBl. But eao- 
tedo a oftra nsed by Ciceni fbr the simide eedo, Conqiaie, Ef. ad 
Fam. 4, 3 : adAlt.U,l»: Yerr. 3, 44 : Roit. Am. «0. 

6. Puiar. " A sense of shame." — Unjucm. ThiB woid does 
nnt appBir in ihe common tezt. Quintilisii, (9, 3, 63.) in qooting 
the piBuge inaerts iC afCer pudar, ■ iBading wbich Schiiti and Mat' 
thiae adopt. We haTe lemorBd it lo ita present place as glTiiig m 
hllar «outd to the aenteiice- 




g 7. AMte. Supplj ma. Thaa TnwDce, Jiiir. 3, 4, SI ; " Qua 
Anc reeU in puInnKin prD^'.Kar sia." 

8. Smnmui AinntBuni. "Tbs renuri» of men," i, e. the ceo* 
■DiM Ihat will Iw hesped npon me for my tjntinical conduct. 
Ccuiq)ue Cie. Ytrr, 4, 7 : " I» »«niKnieni Aojnwnim aljtu vitKpcra- 
liaum wnrE," aud Ep. <uf ilff. 3, 14: " Vapuiart teTmtmibiu." 

9. Melm utitu imriiiat. " The weigbt of thit odimn which 
foa wiU thni hling npon me." The itudent will tnuk ihe force of 
d»B pioimin iile, tai conmlt note 4, pago l. 

y' 10. Stnirt mtat Ittudi tt gtoriae. " To Bubeerre the puipoees 

( of mj piaiM ind 017 gloij," i. e. to sdTince m^ leputation ux] 

\ ^MT.— Ciceio teaoit» toutenflil dilemms, CstitinemH; entenuD 

S eitbei hoitile 01 &iendlT feelings towude Ckeio, just u he |Jaue«, 

1 fin the pmpoae eithei of eiposing bim lo odium, oi contributiag tO 

V bia leBown, but in eithei event he muil letTfl ihe citj. 

\ 11. Citm imfortana letUrcUomm maiut. "With thy lawle» 

band of miecieant*." ItKportmuu beie denotea a total disregaid 

ibi wbal time, placa, ciicDnutiince luid penon demand. Hence il 

obtainB (be agiuficatioii of " mihridled," "outisgeoue," "iatolenr. 

Ide," &C. Compeie F«rr. 6, 60 : " ImfortiaifMimat Ubidimi," 

" Ihe nunt unbridled deaiiBe," and Cii<. S, 6 : ImportumMiima* 


18. Imfio lalradnio. " In your impion» «cbeioo of robberr." It 

rii callad " impious," or unhaUowed, becansa directed agiinst hi* 
natiTe countiy. Laireelitium, in ita eariteat acceptation, meant 
meielj the aerTtce of a aoldier, and the pnmitiTe meaiung of liUrt 
itaelf waa the aune aa milu. 'nw idea of lobbeij and plunder wu 
aaeociated with it at a latei peiiod, from Ihe plundecing habita ol 
diabanded aoldieia. Featna detivea latro Erom the Gieek >si-^te, 
"aeirice," where othere, bowerer, bf acbaoge of reading, make 
XiTfay, " pay," the toot. {lAndemami. Corf. Gram. Lat. ToL 1, 
p. 86.) Varro's deiiranon of the leim tiwa tatiu, because tbe 
lalroTu; at first, hke a kind of bodj-g^iard, piolected die n4c of thi 
bing or cODunsndei, (" cireum latera erant rtgi,") 01, becauae ther 
Bwordabj Iheir aides, {"adtatera haitbata femim T') ia now 
s.doaBrredlj rejected. 

18, Qttamquam. "Andyet." Compat» note 2S, page 8. 
14. Qai libi ad Fomm AureHvm, &c. " To wait Ibt tbee in 
•nu near Fomm Anrelium." Tbe piepontion ad, with Ae iwme 
of a place, denotea immediate praiimilj, bnt not tha bung in the 
ptace itaetf. — Towna weia cajled Fora bj tlie Romana, wheie Iha 
praetor beld what wa wouid temi his ciicuits, foi Bdininiatering jus- 
tice, aod where alao maAeta weie eatabliahed. The town of Fonmi,GoOgk 

AnTriiaiii, (now Monlt Allo,) wai utnUe in EtnrU. •nd took the 
btter pait of ita nome fkHn tba Via Aun^lis on whlch it stood, 
■nd which ied from Reme to Pisa. Th« Aimlian «a^ «as con- 
tiimed from thia latter plaee, A. U. C. 639. by the conBnl .\emitiui 
Seannu. onder the name of Via Aemilia, bb rai aa Dettona. <now 
TWdmo,) and at alaterperiod waicHiTied fnimVadB SabBia(whBre 
it had lelt the coail ror Denona) lo the Maritime Alpa, and eTen 
bejond tbem mto Gaul aa far aa Arelate (now Arlet.) Cnneult 
Cramfl-'* Anct. Italy, toI. 1, p. 35, Bnd AiUm. Itia. p. 288, ei. 
Wemlhf. — 5^011. Ant. Jvr. IlaL 3, 6. 

Ifi. On* tdtm. The cnnmon teit haa THtm leiam, Emeeti 
meielf teiam We baTe inserted «wt wiUi Beck and Schiin, 
" amneinitttalit grralic." 

16. Aquitavt illavt argeTiliam. The aame nhieh Mariua had in 
hil vniy in the Cimbric wai. Catiline fell beaide tl in the battle 
iHiich ended the conspiracf . (Sall. Cat. 59.) — Among the Ramans, 
a ail*er eaj^e, wilh eipanded wings, on ibe top of b apear, »me- 
dmea holding ■ thaTiderbolt in ita ctana, with tbe Ggore o[ a amalt 
ehapel ahore it, and occauonally also haTinj; the chapel OTer it. waa 
die main nandaid of the legion. Il was anciendy eamed hefore the 
Triarii, or third nnk, compoaed of the oMeal aoldien ; but, nfter i 
the time of Mariua, in the firat line, and near iC was the ordinary 
pUce of the genersl. Tlie reason of Ihii change of place sppeais 
to haTe been, becaDae, in tiie time of Mariua. the best troapi hegan 
M be plaeed Gnt, Conault Salmat. de Re Milil c, 6. — Lipi. it 
Mil. Rrm. lib. 4, iial. 3 and 5. — Raiehe, Lex. Rei. JVum. a. T. 
Ajnila Legionaria, 

17, Cui diwii twae, &c. " For which a Bbiine was ealabliibed ' 
at your own bome, where your crimes «ere offered np as apiiropriate 
incenee." We haTe been compelled to regorl to a paraphraKe. 
order lo eipreBa mora clBarlT Ihe meaning of Ihe oi»tor. — It haa 
been atated in the preTioiis note, that the eanle of the Iretoi 
sometimes placed in a kind of chapel, oi aedicvla, and at olher 
WBs represented either without any such chitpel, or aa haTJ 
aboTe the winga. Dio CaBaiua (10, IS) is tcry eipiieit reajiecting 
the Grst of theae : tvii fi ttCa iifpir, •nl li alrn drtis xl"'f"^ 
fera. So Catiline, in 6ie liguratiTe language of Cicen, had, by 
keeping Ihe Marian eagle at his own home, eatahliahed there, in ' 
a kind of •anctuary for it ; Bnd, as the Roman soMiers were ai 
tomed lo pay adontion lo Iheir ■landarda. so he. according n 
ontor, might be said to haTe adored the one in hi* iiossesiion, and i 
to hBTe inToked it bb tbe tutelatj deity of intended tiolence and ' 
■fJDe. — With regard to Ibe diSiilent fonoa of ihe legionuy ttaiidttd, / 


THK rntST 0B4TtON 

g ilmdf lUoded to, ccmniU Slevmh. ad Vegtt. R. M. lib. S, c. S, pL 
ISl, ud the aothoritie* cit«] by Rsiniu, iJ INon. Cax. L c, 
•ihue tbe erTOT of tipeiii* is cofncted, who confoimd* the enid 
ten^jle meottoned by Dio wilh the leDctau; of tbe cau^ whne iD 

IS. 7V Bt tUd, dtc. "le it to be bfJOTed thet JM c«li tsj 
)oaga," dcc. SiinilT ertitndMmu »it fore, tad coneiilt note 2S, 
pe^ B, — J/hatK tinpNln it^aam. " Hiet ii^tioai ligfat bnd of 

19. Haicra. i. e. lix hifuM ewfra yatriem, l^ rie tMn e«aJ««. 
It ia tncDmct to applT dieee woidi t« Citjlhie^a iixeed depaitan 

eaieer of cnme that nators g>ve jou bein^, indinatitm tnined, fUe 
lewirTcid jdd." 

SO. Niti ■Kifanu.n. "Unleea of an nnbellowed chaiaetei.'' 
BtUuta «/oriunimeanea weraguiialhianatiT«oOQDtrr,andheiRe 
inipioa) and mduJlowBd. — Nactia it. " You hare got togethei." 
Alpu tb onad, dcc, Tbe ordei ia, otfiw (ex) itrtlielU ai nmt 
moile oBBa /ortitna, tenm tttam (■) tfi. 
in 1. fi'^' i- 0. inla' ejuMmoii Aonnwm grtgem. — Qiu loeMia 
ftrfrvtrt, &e. " What gntification will jou expeiience, with what 
joy wiO joa emlt, in what ddight wiU jou rerel." Cmtiui, <h1 
i*!)». £f . 4, Ifi, coniectoiei ftrfiMM in piace ti ferfrxitrt, bn: 
the emmdation ie of no gieat Talue. If any chaiige be nasded, it 
frauld ba to leject tbe woida qu* liutitia ferfrutre, a* an eipkoa- 
loiy gtoei of nW followi, Tiz. : quibue gtauUit exnitabit } 

S. Ad hujuM vitae iludium, Ac. " It wis to [«cfieie jou, no 
doubt, Idt tbe walooi pnnutt of (uch a hfe as thii, Ihat aD tboae 
Ukhu* of joniii, u thej an ceUed, weie gone thnm^ with." 
jr<HUanisbeieaeedpa«dTdj,tn theeenaeof ofior eiRtm. The 
wbide paaeage i» liill (^inH^ aad tnttei aciini. 

a. Ad olndeitdia» tti^rtu». " For tbe poipoae of witdiing an 
eppDitnni^ foi debmieheiir." Tbe Uteial meiiiing ia, " to be in 
irait foT debaacheij." Conqiaia Vtrr. 1, S r •■ Qw mam lempuM 
litidertt." — Ad faeimu «iamAn». " Foi tbe eiecnlion of eome 
deiing «id wicked eoleipiiee." 

4. Bonit oceitorum. Oraariaa and eome othei editon gira 
alietontm from a few MSS. But thia deain^s the fiace of Ciceio'* 
nmalk. Tbe onlor meana, that Cattline eniicbed hiniBelf bj plun- 
Auing tbe picfieitf of tboee wbo had beeo pioacribed Juiit^ the 
ciTil conteits of Sjlla aad Matiua, be being a paniaan of the foimei. 
• Oonnilt HiMoncil Indei, t. t. C&tilioa. 

A. .Hoiu uH MenUM. " You baTo now i glohou* fieU ba di>- 



phymg.'* Ironicil. — Patitniiam /<unM, dce. CompUB Salhirt, }() 
Cat. 6, and Or. pro. Coel. 6. 

S, Cmfettam. "UodoM." — C^m te a catwuiaAt rcpnli. Cieeni 
-BWBi», nhen hii mflueaae pieTented Cttiline &om beiiig elecMd V> 

7. Ssui. We haTe giTen thk, and aliio amnl, m ItalicB, to 
matk the fonmomttit. So likevriM latreeinhM &nd kUufli. 

S. iVuMT, viame, &e. " No«i CoiuGi^t Fitben, tiuJ I nuj, 
in the DNet eanmt uld aoleiiui nnnner, remore &oia me whkt 
■emu, le il weie, in ahnoM irdl-gToimded complaint on the put of 
vr] coaDtrr." Qiiam^am (lilenlly, " a cwtain") ie pmpoaely em 
ployed to quali^ fropt jtutam. — ^e veiti ielettari here denote^ 
" lo seeh to lemoTe uij tbing fnna ooe, nKli u blame, accnietian, 
&£., hj the Dtinoet euneiliiasa of manner, adjniiag, caUJng to wit- 
neai idl that oac holda desii" while itpncari liaea npon it ia 
ineaning, " lo jnj in the dkmI ecdenm mumei, to entteat feiTently 
to ■uppUcate, that one mij be fieed icanx ceitain conaeqoencea.' 
Canqiaie Bntati, Clat. Cie. t. t. 

9. Perdpite quaaa, quMt Ham, fic. The ontttical riull irilh 
nhich Ciceio biingi thie aistiea to a closa, i« idmiiaUe. He hcd, 
alnadj, in the eariiei pait of the diiconiee, lepeatedly aaeeited, that 
it wu fuU; in hii power to put Catiline to death if he felt ioeliiied. 
1b oidsi lo enpport tbis Bsaatiiin once mon In Qie strongeal nBDDCS 
be iDtroducea tbe itiikiDg pBtaonificBtioa of bia oim countiy, Gom- 
plainiiig tbat he had nol i«noved Oatiliiie froia eiieteDea, when it 
waa hi* dn^ to baTe done ao. Tbe three gKnuid* of ezcuie, which 
lni^t hSTe eionentad him fros& ceDme in tbe ca«e of an oidinaiy 
B ulteily ii 

hia inaction. 1. Tltt eiuUm of early iey: — Wbj, in euliei di^ 
nphee hia countiy, eTSn indlTiduBlB nniiiTeBted with atagiattacj, aa, 
ftn eiample, Sc^iio Namca, pot to death with theit owd handa Ihe 
diatoiben of the poblie lepoen. 3. Tht laa tohah forhade mmf 
Xomtm dttsett'* Itting ftU lo itath. — But, lepliea bii canntqr, no 
man who Me iu hia dutj ae a citizen, can claim Ihe pBTilegee of 
ime. — 3. TheirtadofpMitoiiitn.fortBluUtiii^httt*mtao]i»»k 
an ezercitt of atuhoriiif. — A inaa, like Ciceto, irtiem Ihe iqMbhc 
had elSTaled, in eo extnoidimij manner, to the highot office in ber 
fptt, u boond, vhaa the aafety of that lepablie ia at Btal^ lo eonaid- 
K panoDal odinm oi danger bb of onbr aeeondaij impoituice, — All 
thlB famn, aa Haietu* nouiiks, " cratimttHi mcratam." >' 

] 0, Jir. TulU, quid agi* 1 Craiqwn tlie iddreM^of hia coanttf 
toSoeiBtea,m theCrilooof FUto,tt ll,)«iirf(w, a Sat fBiw. ri*»,GoOgk 

[1 II. EmaUonm i«m>rNnt. ThoM Kiliiiera who had wrrsd ant 
theii tbne, (emmti,) Bnd tb«B wbo, &diii 8jlk'i time downwaid, 
btd rMnred, initeid of * militu; peaaon, a piece of groond to cul- 
thtte uid dnell on, weie ■Iwnya, in cue «f »I\J >ndden ind dinger- 
oag emergenc^, conqMlIed igiiD to enter ibe nnka «nd peribrm 
nulituj ■errice. Vhen thii wu to be done, peraons weie lent to 
nmimon them, eilled amqiatitora oi ttceetore*. {Dio Catt. 44, 
13.— Ztp*. de Jtil. Ram. 1, S.—Timub. Advart. 1, 9. — Sleaech. 
ad Vegel. S, 8.) We lee from thia, with «hol bitter Bcom Cstillna 
ia csUed etoeaior tenoram, u if be bad gone iDto tbeii ve^woik' 
■hope iDd mmmoned them fbith to inniirection and deeda of blood. 
13. JVon mumu «I vrie, dcc. On the piinLiple, that, if allowed 
toMO^, be witl onljietuin wilhiniernieuui^deitniction. 

13. Maetari. " To be vinted." Used bere fbi o^ 'Hte verti 
mactare ia the official teim, propeil/, foi i]s;ing ■ victim at ■ •aclt- 
fice, aftei tbe ealted meal lud been ipTinUed between die hORu, 
■nd ■U tbe other ceremaniea perfbrmed. In ita primitiTe ■en«e, 
bowever, it ia eqnivalBnt merely to magie augere, and hence, when 
■j^ilied lo ■ «acii6ce, meana in itrictnos, to go on and coainmanate 
wh^t b^a been already b^un, i. e. to al^ the victim. It ii io tbis 
wajr onlj we can ezplain Rieh phiaaee aa tbs fbllowing ; ■' mactant 
lumoribui," " ^»7 adTance witb hoDourB," i. e. heap &esh hononra 
npon: iCic. ie Re^. ap. SoA. c. 4, n. 391.) — " LAervm palrem 
fanorim cotuearaiiime vuu>lalii." " Ye do hoDoni to fathet Bbc- 
chns," •)oc. {Amob, I, p. 34.) Compaie ■Iso the foitna macti vir- 
talc, maete ingemo, &c. — 1116 pn^niet; of Ciceio** phiBBS will tiow 
be fully ^ipanint. Hia cooncxj tells tlim thal something mote muit 
be done ; tbe lut ect, the finishing blow to the conqiirae}', most 
Dow be Btteiided to, in putting Cetiline to death. 

14. Mbene inajorttm. Their fbiebtheis wonld not put ■ Romim 
citiiai to deaUi withont the oider of tbe Romis people. — Al per- 
taepe etiam prhdli, dtc. Ciceio aUndea paiticnUil; to the ease of 
P. Scipio Navca, triio bsaded the part]r of tke nobilitj wheti Tib»- 
lins GracchuB waa ijain. The eipreasion perMoepi fidla uDdei the 
bead itf whst m^ be deaomiaated oiatorical eiaggmtion, ainee 
)uitiGabIs instanceB of thia natuie were bj no means fiequmit. 

10. An legei. Tia Pofcian and Sempronian lawa in psrtieiihu'. 
nB foimer oidainBd, th&t 00 Roman citiien should be bonnd, 
Momged, 01 put to destb. (,Pto. Bab. 4.— Verr. 6, 03.— Liv. 10, 
0.) Tbe lattu enjnined, tbai tio Roman citizen Bhould be pnt lo 
death withont the eipresa oidet oT ths Raman peo;de ; which waa 
only lenTing oue of the piOTisions of the tweln tablea. It waa 
intended, honeTei, in Ikct, ■■ « leriTal of tbe Poician liw, iriiich 



hidgTDwniniomedegreeobBolete. Consait Si/roti. dg Antiq. Jur. |Q 
cn. Aixa. 1, 6, uid Hemaeiiu, Antiq. Sim. Appmd. I, 1, S7, p. 
M7, ei. HnttM. 

16. Rogatiu tunt. " Hbtd been eiiBcied." Tbe peopK m tlw 
coniilB, wera uicil tbeir plBuure rBspecting Ihe pamige of Wg. 
IIm Qsuil fona oT ^plicsiion, on ihe pan of the preaiding inagu- 
tnte, WM, "tefi/w, juieaiit {fnirtlet !' " Henco rof«r< U^em 
nUeh noold stiictlj mean, " to aek tho people ■boul the paeaage of 

• liw," gete the meuiing of " lo enut b law," end ao alto rognrc 
magittTMtiu, ' lo elect casgigtralea." On the nme piinciple, befbie 
« Uw wis curied thnn^, and wUle it wu uill pending, it nai 
toimed Togaliii, "a bill." Henee, too, when the people were to 
Tote iboat ■ bw, two baUoti were giTon ihem, on one af which 
WEie Ibe letten U. R. (i. e. vii Togat,) and on the olhei A. (i. e. 
tMtiqiio, itBtifiM probo.) The fonner was the affinnatJTe boUot, 
ind wi» eqniTalent to, " nolo legan ette uri TogoM." 

17. Ttnuenint, " Hsve retained." i. e. haie been allowed to 
Mllin. — Irnidiain poileTilatit. "The reproachea of poaierilj." 
LitenllT, "Ibe odium," or "dielibe." , 

18. PraeeloTcm vero, &c "Yon are nuking a fine letnm, \ 
bdeed, » tha Roman people." Iionicil. — Hmunem pn- te cagni j 
twN. " A peieon broiight inlo Dotice b]i jonr own ejeitioiu l 
IDBrelj," i. e. what ths Romana nere accuslomed lo call " s new f 
man," noriM homa ; ineaniDg one who hajl been the Gnt of hia I 
fomilj 10 isim hiroself lo anj cnnile offica, or, in other worda, lo \ 
emoU hinisetf bj bis petsonal mehta smong the nobditj. CieetD J 
wa* fond of alluding to this feature in his b>*«^i ■b^ ■( **■ cei- 
tunlj > OMMt paidoQabU kind of pride. 

Ift. Tam nuAn-E. Cicera wsa ■leeted cooanl Ibe nrr jesrhe 
wss ISnt pennitted, bj law, » offei htmeelf ss ■ esndidsM. No 
one coold pieeent hiraeelf ■< an sspirsnt foi ttw comnlahip. ontil he 
hsd eompleted his 43^ jeai. The oistoi boaata of hsnng ebtamed 
■II Iho infoiior oVoeB in the aame wsj ; each in tbe jeir when be 
Waa fint alldwed to ^lj foi it. Hence ihe eipTeaaion in the 
presenl paesage, per emtiei hononim gradiu, " thiouga ah toa 
ffTadations of oJfice." 

1. Seoerilatit tc fortitudinit imidia. " Tha odium ariaing from 1 f 

• stiict iIkI Gim dischsrge of datj." — Quant iturHae ae nejniliae, 
"Thsn Ibst whieh ia sltendant apon indotence and remitenesa.'' 
Con^Mie note 20, p*>^ 3. 

S. TVm tt «m exiiHmat, &c. A beaiiliful Ggore, beet eipiesaed 
bj ■ ptR^rinuB : " Do jou not imagine that joo jourself wiU be 
iImd «i ^rtoye d uiid t^ 8udm whicli tbe indigiiuiaa d ^nnr,GoOgk 


1 1 cmnitiy imS iane Uiided iguiist jou 1" LiMntbf, ' Do 700 >ik 
diM IfaU joQ wiU tbMi blaza viiid tlw conflagratton ^ odnun V'~. 
Ttta fignn ui*e* vei; utunlly &0111 tlie pcBriouB ujininoD, " Ittta 

S. StM tgo mctittimir voeiha. " Ta tbcM moat TeTered cx- 
poetukCioDi on tba pan of atj csuati^." Soncfunaiu ii bere 
■^oinleDt to lamtitntai r«i«n^.— Jtfentihw. " To (lia ucrel 

4. Si jaJiatreiu. " Conld I have tbotigfat," In canditiond 
fnipoeilion, it ii not uncnnDun tm ti» eonaeqasnl clkiiee 10 eim- 
tain tbe plupeifect •ubjuDctire, wbile tbe eomlitioniil cbnM centaiiie 
die in^wrfect mbguoelive wilh n or tnn. Tbus in the ptBHUl 
ineiucB we bne JKdicaTtr» uid dcdinem. Ths prabebility ii tbm 
qioken of genenUir, wicbout being atiictlj nfened t» Ibe time M 
which it eiiiited. (Ztinipi. L. G. p. 331.) 

5. Vtaut luaram Anrai ad titendum. " Tbo eujujuieut of a 
Mig^ h<iui for the purposea of BiiBteDce," — Oladialori tMli. Cem- 
pen BOte 11, page 6. — EteKini. "Ani wdl maj I ineke thi> 
>Mertian,/or.'' Cmipan tbe Gieek foim of exfoeiHiDn nl yif. 

B. jypMitanntf. "Gneed." Equinlent taieeoranmt. — Cerlt 
mili, &«. Emeati nupecte miM of beiiig uimeceeeaiy bcn. Bul 
itieneeded toin»dE>kiDdo(a^MntiDi]townniHnri,({ clariitimi 

1. Ptrricidti Bimnn. Conviilt wne 6, pego 7. 

6. Qm tptm CaiHimiu, dce. " Who hare tbttefed tfae Uopee of 
Oetililie, by theii feeble eipreaeioTB of qBnioii." — Non ertdtndo 
" Bf not belicTiiig u iu eiiateDce." 

g. Si in hiaie cinjmoflsn-riwnn, " If I bad pnniahed Wm." Un. 
Aenttod taf^ieio. The veft. animadverltri, wlMn nsed witti sn 
•UipBB of tnppiido, in tbe seiiee o[ poiiigbiiig, denotea to punish by 
tnO<e»itj, and tben nferk 10 Ibfl vlgilaDce of tbe nngialnte, in 
Buiking ofiendea eommitted. The um ot the prepaMion ta, on 
■nch occuiona. befoe the name of the culpiiu, intimatw mon 
■tTong^ tbe ■lod; ettention diiected towards the eoMtoct finmd to 
be nfaeheiuiMe. (,HiU't Synanf/nu, p, 80, 4to ed.j 

10. Eegie. " TyiannieaUy." Aher the eipoleion oT Taii{Bia, 
nothing waa mon httefiil toa Boman ear dian tbe mmeof "king," 
rex, ma bence Ib^ eoniMcled nilh tbe espreaeiona regnare, ngit 
iliquidfaeere aul dietre, the ide« of tTiuiMcal ud cpprenuTe cod- 
doct, and eneh m wu hoatile to IreedonL Compue Cie. Agrat. 
%, 6, wheie, in ordei to eicite ^ hatred of tbe people agaioot 
Uw euthorBof theAgrahaii lsw,he ciUs them "ita»rtgtt^a.iu, 
««rf^uftum, pTOTnictanim nmniM," ft«.,GoOgk 


II. FsnSitfa reprimi, mm m ;p«rp«fiuini eonpnmt ^(e, || 
"May *>e repieaMd for s Beuon, bul ctnnot b«^ ?Ter aupfireaMd." 
CiKnpare Ihe renuriu of EmeMni AnMnioi : " Qui nprimitnT, «I 

JempBf (anftim con(tfwt»r t fuj compiimitnr, pliriw cmjioHir." 

13. 5« ejeetril. Equiralent in eflect to praaept tx vrbe tximt. 
— CcUtoi naufragoi. " The reat of hii tUpwrecked bind of fol- 
lOHen." Emesti BOBpectB that runtJragOM is a, mare interpolatioo, 
irtiich has Ibnnd its tray into tbe text liom haiing been mentiiMied 
in the aecond eratioa againit Catiline, c. II. He miatakea, bDwarer, 
• TSiy foiciUe Ggnre. 6y naufragi Cicero meBni thoee Trho ue 
■hipwrecked in chaiacter and ftiTtDne b; reaaon of thcit flHgilknn 
oiceaaM. Compaie ^rro SuU. o. 14, where tbose who haTe loat 
Ibeir privUe patiimon; are ciUed j/airimon ii i naiifragi. 

13. Hate tam adnUa retpuiiiciu ptelit. " Tfais »0 ripe a pbigoe 
of the republic." As if be had aaid ; "Hie Caiilint^ tam Tdbiuttu 
tt carToboratia TetpubUfae nerter, UaiUoa robori» ti viriian jam in 
ettrtenda repubHca nactut." 

14. Jtttiuiiu, For the epace of three jeara, L e. erer aince tbe 
conanlship ot Lepidua and Tullua. 

16. quo pacla. " Bj what meana," i. «. by what fatali^.— Om- 
mtm lettemn, &c. " Tbe matuiity oC all (beae crimea, and of Ibis 
IiHig-contimied madneaB and andaciCy." — Eraperit, The metaphoi 
appBBta 10 be bonowed ftiim aii nlcei, breaking when ripe. Com- 
paie Fliny, H, N. 23, 33, 49 : "vltera matureicentia," and (89, 
10, IS,) "ukera erunpentia." 

1. Ex lanto iaiTOcinio. "From BOtinmerouB abBndof robherB," |0 
tnfrocTOai» is hete uaed for latTmei, s« itTvitiian often ia for »erri. 

3. 7n venii atque in Tiieeribui reipubticae, " In the Teins and 
Titsls of the lepublic." The viieera aie the cppei enlrailB or Titala, 
inctiiding the lungs, heut, liTei, &c, The imeitina are Ihe loner 
entrails, Compoie the iHngoago of Cebras, " a siiceribiu ad inlei 
lina wnittndum eit," (4, 11,) and BgBJn, " Septum id guod trara- 
w(uin a iupeTioribiti viictribui inteiHna diicernit." (T, 4, 3, p. 
854, ed, Targe.) The caireBpondiiig woid in Greek is nXJ^^^ta, 
frhich were Ihe paits slwajs eiamiiied by the soothmyen, 

3. Atitu febrigue. "UndeiabomtiigfeTer," 

4. Quitil. " Which eiiflte." — Relevatui. " After being mili- 
gated iit «otOB degiee," — ritnt reliquii. '' While tbn other con> 
apiiBton TemBJn oliTe." We haTe adopted this nading in place of 
Ibe cammon one, civibui Ttliquii, wliiish doea not Buit the conteit. 
Ciceio meana, that the deBth of GBliltne will not sufGce foi ciushing 
the eril engendered by the conBpiiacy, aa ioi^ oi hi» accoiqilice» 
ue ailowed U> reiDBiD alii e. 



12 fi- CwamMrt fnlMwl Tnwftiru «rta». L. Tileriiw FbcoDi 
wu Prttlor VTbawu it thii tiioe, tnd Ihe putiwi» of Cuiline 
qqwu to bare pUced IbemMilTee, M diflereut timee, uound hi* td 
bimal, to delet him, if poeubte, bma idminieteiiiig jiutice. 

8. ObtiiXrt. " To beeet" A Teib ot tbe tluid coijiigetion. 

'. Maileplot. "Tkxj vran." Adeeci^tion of [hii qieciee 
is giren by Ammiunu Mucellinue, (23, 3,) &oni which it 
qipeaie, that they ncae ■ kind of uiow, with ui iiou gnting betow 
Ibe hieed, ewelting ont like & clew ia apimuBg. Thie iirai leecpuclfl 
«TM filled «ith combnedUee, which, on beiog ignited, buini fieicelf , 
atid coold onif be eitiaguiabed bj duit thnwn cpou Ihe. flune. 
Wuei meielj MTied to incnue iti TebemeDce. The uune mal- 
Ueliu (" little mailet") wae giren to Ihie mleeile, liom the raaem- 
Uance irhich the [Hojecling oi ewelling pait boie to the head of a 
melltf , (^ompaie Lipt, Palwre. S, 6, uid tbe aathoiiliea cited bj 

8. Qaiii ia rtpuUie* laHUl, " What hii ■entimenla aia le^wct- 
ing tbe tepoblie." 

9. Ofprtttt, •iHdfaalc " (^ioabed, poniahed." 

10. Camwmma ratpnificu tolitfi, &c. " Wilh tfae beet inter- 
•eta of Ihe t^inblic Gimlj eatafaliihed, and wilh Jtmt own calamitj 
Mid rain Mf ueuied, tod with the deatiuetion oT thoae, who hare 
ioieed themeeliee with yoa in eTeiy aet of wickedneaa tnd pairi- 
cidfi, Mw radoced to abaalute ceitainij, go fonh to yoni impioue 
and unbaUowed wai." We haTe inlioduced a paitial panphiun, 
b ordei to convejr the oraU>i'a mBaoiag moie cleady. The idaa, 
moie biieflj eipnaied, would be aa Ibllawi : •' Go fonh, fbr ilta 
■efetjr of the rapobUc, Ibt jonl own luin, aad fbi the deiliuction of 
jooi Bceomplicea. 

11. Aiitpiciit. Mattbiae wbH lemuki, that oot oolj tamplea, 
bnt al*o (tatuei weie cojwecnled bj tiking tbe auipicee. — Sla- 
lartnL " The 111.7." Cooiult dDIs 16, page 4. 

13. Setlenm/otitn. " Bj ■ compict of wickedncM." — Mmc 
ttlw. "Wiknait." (knunie iwu 13, p^ 10.,GoOgk 


1. M. Tnun Cioimon», Aec. "Seeond Ontioi 
TuUhu Cicera ■gaioat LQchu CatilbM, delheTed beKn 
peoj^." — CitiliDa baTing eacsped unmoloted to the i 
liiu iti Etniiia, thfl conduct of Cicero in not appn 
■endhig tmj, Chis rotnudible enemj, had piobabhr 
cenKne uid diacontent. T bo «eeond Catilinaiim oi 
consHjuencB, delirer ed by Cicero, in »n aaB embly 0!^ 
ttn\er tiTiiWIHff Bl^i dri^nu ik. M^( rnT'~IW ^ 
opilal puniehment, he admita, ought long aince to hE 
Citilioo, but such wu the ^irit of the times, that tbe 
Ihe conipincy Hould not have beeo belisred, and he hi 
reeolTed lo pUce hia goitt io ■ point of Tiew (o cooa 
Tigonraa measuie* might, without heaitation, be u 
ageinM Catilioe snd hii accomplicei. 

He aleo tskee thie opportanity (o wain his audience 
baode of conapiraton who atill loiked within the city, 1 
dtndes into Tahoiu claaae*, deaciibing. in iha (trODgt 
the difleieDl degrees of guilt and ptofligac;, b; whic 
■OTeiallT chanctenied. 

S. Tajiien aUquanJe, &e. " At length, thcn, Rom 
eithei caat out, 01 eent awaf, or acconqtanied with e: 
hie TotaDluy depertuie Aom our cit^, Luciua Catiline, 
■odaeitj, breathh^ fortli ciime, wickedlj plottmg thl 
lountiy, eTeiy inataut ihrealening you «nd thia cilj ' 
«word." The commeDeemenl oT thi* oration makea ■ ] 
Blion to Ihe Qtunitqut tandcm wi& wbich Ihe fiiat beg 

3. QuirUtt. An ^pellatiini gJTen to the wboje R 
when iddieaaed on tnj public occasion. The leim i 
JetiTed hom QuiriTaa, s name giTen co Romulua, or 
. Ifiwnof llwSabinea. Th^ who &T0U1 theUtteretyn,GoOgk 


]3 *^ ^° Sibinra wen oHBd QniritBi btfore their jmictiini wiLh Ibe 

Ranuna, ud that it iflerwiid becune tbc coiDEnOD i^ipenBtion of 

tbe nnil«d people. The fonnar deriTition, lioweTer, appeim preferB- 

ble. QutriHiu wu e title of jBnni, tiie god thal opeoed tbe year, 

vibea «Tniee tnOTB fonh on campiugne ; Hid tbe mot t> Qtiiru, the 

Sibine tena foi " > ■pesr." Hencs tbe eeiuite could find no eppel- 

iBlion Tnors gloiiooe thui Hat, 10 beatow oa the Tihuit Romalna 

«ftei he h&d dieappeared &oni tbe eenh. 

/ 4. Scelut anheUniait. A. stnmg and beautiful eipraarion. One, 

1 who i> deeply sgitated, bisUhea deeplj (anhtlat) ; and CHtiline i» 

\ thas said to umd foith crime with STery-eupiration &oai hia troubled 

V beeom. Hia whole Ibooghti ue idetitified with wicliedDeBe. 

6. Jlfiinlsiiteni. Tbs etudent will muk the nngulu pioplietj 
Hld foTce of Ibe irequentatiTe. 

6. Fd tjtdntut, By coaiulsr snthoii^ Ciceni peihaps alhides, 
bj Ibe Dse of Ihia woid {gicio) to iome complsints on the put of 
Cetijiiie'* &jends, of hb biTii^ been deelt with too btrahlj. — Pel 
tmiiinnu. iH^Ijing peimiseion to dcpart. — fynm. UtBraHj, 
"«ri^his own accord," CoDsuIt Emali, Cla». Cie, s. t. fyte. 

7. Ytrhi». Refening paiticDlulj to Ibe eipiessions uiied at the 
elose of Ihs pTariDuB oretion. It wss customsij, at Rome, foi tbenr 
filBDdi to eBcoit to iHe gates of the citj anj distinguigbed penonB 
idiBn leaTing tbe citj on afiaiia of in^iortance, aod to aGCon^ianj 
Chwn with Iheir wisbes and piBjetB {cvTilei ad fortat prtae^i.) 
CicBTO, here, bj a tgij itiiking fignre, gppties this custom to the 
case of Catilins, but the veTta, with which eTeij good eitlien is sup- 
posed tohaTeaccoii^iuuedhiin,aTe wiaheBand jHajera foi hia luin. 

B. AbUt, tictnit, &c. " He is gons, he hu lelt os, be haa 
escqied, he haa broke awaj." Thig beaiitiful end strilung elimai 
appears to be couched in terms borrawed from the operations of the 
chaH. Abiit applies to the wild besBl, wfaen be has left bia Dsual 
haunti and retired to another part of the foreat ; exeetsil, when, 
after haTing been tracked out, be leaTea the apot befbre the nets can 
be prepared for him ; eviail, wben he has been surrounded bj the 
loDe. bot eBcapea bj «prnging forth ; and empit, wben bo hurst» his 
■Waj througb eTerj inlerrening obslaele. 

9. A nunutro itlo atqut prodigio. " Bj that monster and prodigj 
of wickedness." CompBie Pro Coel. 3, IS, itq. 

10. Sieaiila. Compue chapter 6, of tbe flist onttou ; "Qamiet 
f«m tiH eilorla etl lict itla dt martihae" dcc. 

11. JVbn ui ciHnjio. Conault note 3, page S. 

12. Ifen iit fero, The forum bdng the {Jace wheie much publie 
buainBH was tnnsacted, the magistrales weie heie moie eiposed ut,GoOgk 

4be imiidBriRii dengn* of CbUIIiib. — Tntra domatmu p 
Refeiring lo tbe attttnpt made br Hm two Roman knigbta ti 
liaate him U bU own hoiuo. 

13. Loeo ille nmftw itt, " He wu diBkidged &om hia 
hold." SoinB Kpply the eipreuion lo the Dunnaenta of gh 
widrendBiit: " He wai driTsa fron hia poaition." Thii,hi 
mnla foicc. 

14. BeUatn jKaAun. " A legulai wirikie." Opposed I 
cintun ocailtuni, and dcQotiiig ■ IbniiBl tai legalsr wu. 

1G, Quod non tztulil. " That he did not cuij ouC with i 
ASUetum et frafiigatmn. " Afflicted, &nd aa it were diahec 
veiy gromid." 

16. Peradnrn atqat ahjectvm. " A itrickeii and a w 
thing," — Retorqua eadoa, &c. Another figure bonowed f 
movnneata of ■aTBge uiimala. Catilioe b cmnptred lo aoi 
beaat lODkiii^ b>ck at tbe pn? trhich h» jiut be«n lom I 

1 . Quaiu att ovtne» opertetat, All good citiiena thonj 
Catililie ongfal lo hsTe been pat lo death. Ciceio heie n 
Ihia ahouJd bsTe been the ^inion of Hl citiiena indisaimini 
Trhmphal, As if otbt « common foa to all.— ram m 
bulan. "Sodeadlja fbe." Capitalit ii bera uied forp 
jiu, or, in othBr worde, " Miinujn bmorwn capitilnL» qitoi 

S. Et t^tetmn. " And to baTe been Tinited." — Hujua 
teteriia*. " Tlie atiict diacbuge of the doliec of m; mngD 
With imperii bu[^ cimniari*, — RetpuUica. <* Tha mtn 
the i^ubhc." 

3. Qai juae ego ^errem, &i:. " Wbo wonld Dot bne 1 
wiut I migfat haTe alteged againit bim." The itudent will 
ia tluB cUute, uid in ■etbibI tbat foilow, the nae oT tbe in 
mbjimetiTe fca the phiperfect. Thia ii doae, in oidra to ■ 
piDlnfaili^ in genenl teimi, wilhout taj atnct Fefeietuw to I 
■t T^h it ectoilly exiated. iZtmpt, L, Q. p. S81.}— Hk 
tfae pnHioan ege is wortfaj of notiee beie. Ciceio meaiu Ha 
noM not hive belieted tbe aceqaaiion agaiaat CotSiM, 1 
lc, Catiliae'1 piiTate fbe, u waa auppoeed, hed aeea Gt to i 

4. Hiti proftcT ittdtiHtm non jmtarenl, " VTbo, fiora ■ 
jadgment, would haTe deeoied the cliaigea imtrae." Eq 
lo putarent iwn vtra me quae ego deferrein. — De/enJerm 
(dj enM, tdi, CatiHnam. — Qtiam mtltoi, ;iii prepter impri 
fttteraa. ' How man^, wlw, &am attei wortUeaaneaa, Tim 
feTOnrad bia caaae." 



14 i. Af li, &e. "ADd ir«i,e(nil<l I hsv* «appo««d, Ihat, if ba 
««• iMkm oS, aD du^ wonld Iwva been diiTen twsj frmn 7011, 
bng liDce would I," &c. iOa ntUofc ia twie eqoiTalent to nurf* 
CatiliBM. — IntHiat mtat. " Of penonil odiom." Tle ume in 

6. JVf w£u fvutmi emuiiu, &e. " Iliat, if T EJloDld ptmiah 
him with death, u he deferred, while tbe i^ir wu Kill u jet 
Mt eleulj ucertained hj yoa tH." The teim re tefen to the 
wdetence of the conipincj, uid the gnilt o{ Catihne. 

7. Quon atktmaittr. Ironiollj meint. — Pantm eimilatai. 
•' Shg)^ Utended." Aecoiding lo Plutuch (Fil. Cic. c. 16) he 
wu ■ccon^uiied b; three hundted umed fbHowen, tii>«iir ptrl 
rpiuHfw hXt^ur, (. t. X. He eUo had with him the fucea and 
otiier badgei of anthoiilj. (Compaie rSoUiut, Col.e. 37. — Appian, 
B. C. 3, 8.— Dio Cunu, 37, 33.) 

8. Tmfiiitim nala tiuxit. " He hu led ont with him w; 
TongihnB." Tlie pronoun fntii i> heie of pecultai and idiomitic 
«legUKe, and •■ mide U> answer ibe puipoee of biiter innir. Toiv- 
gilini wu, u maf teadilj be inleiied ftom the eonteit, in infuDoni 
cbatacter, and a boaom-fiiend of Catilioe. 

B. Quim amart in prattexla eotptrai. " To whom he hod be^n 
lo be aHached in eailjr jouth." TIm pratlexla wu Ibe gown, 
wychthe Romaa jonlhwareanlillheT weie ITjeuaofage: it ia 
here pot, tbeiefbie, Ibi ihat peiiod of Ufe. — The comnum leit hu 
cafnMina added aftai procfcxta. It ie, boweTei, a meie maigiiul 
nota, wMch foniid iti waj', at last, ioto the toit. It qipeui to hava 
bem iamted in th« inugin of a nunnacript, bj •oiiie penon dia- 
poUng tbe tmth of ihe chsige. If to be IiuwUled, it mnat be reo- 
deied bj a kind of peientheaia, *' a mera calumnj," and mnat be 
tegaided u inmical. Lambinue, ManntiDB, HenmKuius, Schoti, 
Bnd othen, tejeet ic &oia 6m leit, imd we hiTe followed theii 
anthoiitj. Oantoni, in tbe N^ea ed. pit^iea the fbllowing : 
"fHflB aimara tn pratltzla aUianitia uKpemf," making ama/e 
eahamda go logether in conitiuctioD, uid giving llie phtue tbe 
meaning of " ad omnem caJunnitinuIi artan fonnart," bnt thia ie 
Dot Ciceienian pluueologj. (Compue Odin. Miee, Obt. Bat. 
ym. Tol. 18.) 

10. PuMicnun el Mttnaeatm. Siipplj pariUr eiuxit. Tb« 
indiridQali here mentioned nece two tt the worthlau conqieiiieiii 
sf CatilinB. — QuiTrw» au aliaum, dic. " Whaex defata oonlnctad 
in a laTem." Pofina a a tavem, 01 eatiBg hoote, the leeoit of 
intatnpemte and glnttonoue peieona. Compare tbe luiguagB of 
PUntua, (PimL 4, S, 18,) " B^iiiitr, tetur, jaaei in papiiu."—,GoOgk 

'ILIME. 179 

CicsiQ leEm to tha tBvenMlebtB of PuUiciiu and Mniiwnu, not, |^ 
u Bome ezidun U, to taaaej boirowed fioin them by Catilme, snd 
■pent hj him tn riot uid debuicherr. The oiiBtai BtignKtizeB them 
Bi mere taTem-biewlen, uid m no lespect dai^eioae to Ihe rtete. 

11. Rcliqial fNoj oirot, Alc. CiceRi meuu, thM tbe penoiw 
left behind b; CetBine weie moch moie lo be dieided thia thoee 
whom be hed euned foRb nith him, unce thej possened gieat 
inflaeiice, were nten, in genenl, of good fiunilieB, and bj leeeon of 
the preemn» of debt were leckleee oT eoneequencee. 

12. Prae OaUtcaniM legiombtu. "In eompnjiiion with onr GaUic 
legions." The ontor refera to tbe legnlu Ibrcea in Tnnaalpiiie 
ObqI, which, is Moretiia tliinke, wele et thet time in winter-qoar- 
ten. The nenal leading ia et GaUicanU Ugioniiut, but in pkee 
ol elm heye iilopted p-oe, the emendation ot Leiiibinae. — /n agro 
Pietno tl OalliCB. Consult Geognphical Indei. The Gellic tec- 
ritoiy meant heie, ia that of Ciaalpine Ganl. Aa n^uda Q, Metel- 
Ine, whoee lUl name wu Q. Melelhie Celer, and who wu one of 
the pneton ot this ; ear, consult Historieal Indei, ai^ aleo tbe 13th 
chaptei af this oretion, uid Salhut, Cal. 30. 

18. Collutum tx ten^nu dapcratit, &c. " An aim^ compoeed 
of deapente o!d men, of debauched lustics, af buikrupt lumen." 
The nnei itiptrali consiated piincipany of Ihe veteiana of SjBa. 
By itceetBT is properlj meant one wl» liae nin thiou^ bis propei^ 
acd become banknipt ; oi, in oAer woids, s rnined ependthiift. 

14. Tadimnua dttrrtrt. "To sbuidon theiibail." To forfeit 
theii cecognisance. Vaiimom«m a ^ie bail-bond, or recogniEanee, 
Oj wbich a person faindB hinkBelf to a^^eax in couit at a eerlaiu dajr. 
If one ^Mndoned hii bail, he wu Bdjodged infunouB, and hia 
creditocs were put in paBBesuon ot tds propeit; bjr an ediet of the 

15. Acitm txercitat noitri. " The Bin; of ont ajmj," i. e. our 
annj dnwn np in amy against them."~.-£drchUB jrrattori^. " The 
meie ediit of Ihe praetor." Cicett) iromoallj userta, that they will 
be oreroome bj the mele sigfat of lb« piaetor'» decree, by which, in 
eonieqnenee of tbeir non-attmdBnce, their creditora had obtained 
iodgmeDt agatMt them. — Ceimdtnl. " T^ wiQ, lo a man, IsU 
inostrate to tbe ground." 

1. Ho* fwu vidto, &e. TlieBB ara thoi^ht to be tbe Bame 14 
wfaom S^ust cbHb " fiHi fammanim." (Cat. e. 43.) — Volitart m 
foro, "nitting ibont in the (brnm," i. e. seeking Ibr loens of 
tnoney which Ihey Jta.J eipend in theii cueei of eitiBTigance. 

3. In Miuftin venirt. Tben weie eleren senatot* imphcated ta,GoOgk 


Ig S. Qut nilenl luvwntu. " Wbo *ie deek wilh paJunM." 
Tbe BofDui, like the Qreciui, perfmnes, voe gsDenllj tmgaenU, 
DOt rak M witli ue. PerfiinuDg tlie hair atid pcnon ma teguded 
w ■ meik of gieet efiemiDie;. 

A, tfui fidgent purpw*. ADOtfaei illuBion to tlie waMon wiia 
were implieited in the conapncy . 'Hie eonalonaD tnnic, celled 
htni ilaau, h&d ■ bnwd ptupie botdiir, (dcnu,) whence iti attt». 
"Tite tnnic of the Gqutlas bod t nunnr border, ■od wu e^lled 
aMf)(*(iu clttvu*, or (ihuu Myni firi ai i a. 

6. Smoi mUiUf. " Ai hii inldien." 

0. VUto ad lit Apuli» dfnit^a. Campu« SaOiut, Cat. 37, 
wbo inframs db, ihst ApoUs ww " ■edgned" lo CainB JolioB, EtiuiiB 
(o Maoliu», the Pieene district to one S^iiniiiu, ■ Cuurtiui. Tb» 
n^me of the iDdiridaal to wbom the CUIic diatiict we« enigDed, is 
Dot giTon by him, 

7, Saperierit naclit. Not the night iriiich had jnat gone by, bul 
the One on wliich the cinu[MnlOn Dtet at tha boose of Laeca, oi, in 
othei woidi, tb» lut mght bnt two. 

B. Nat iiii vehtmenier m-unl. "l^Mjare indeod much ou* 
taken." Nae &om the Oieek rat. 

9. ffin tere n qMi eel. " UdIbm in tnith tbera be u^ ODe." 
Tje UM of «i ftftci niai oHea occuib. Compoie Drsienborck ai) 
Lte, 6, 30, Tol. 3, p. 8TS. — Si fsii in genenl imphee the poea- 
bihrr of ■ r^ct not eiiiting. 

10. CalUirute limiU: " Ara Eke CstiiinB al chwnclei." Coti- 
Jiiutc ia beie tlie genitiTe. Sinulie, tM ba» tbmij beoD lenieiked, 
ii QMd with ■ d^tiie of eitranel leiembluice, but with ■ gcnitife 
of leeemUiDce in netuie oi intemal conjtituUDD {Zttmpl, Z,. G. p. 

11. Deeideria «ui tabeteere. "Topineawsy Ibnnigh legiet lot 
theii ■bsence." — AvriliBt tno. Compele Dote 14, page 8. 

IS. Si qmdem luttie nnfiium, dcc. " If it ^ull h^ve caM fotth 
thu foul erew that ue pothiting oui atj." CooqNue Bote 9^ 

13. £iJi(iiittB. " BMngrenoTed." £xinw(a ii hera emph^ed 
^ontivelT in alluiion to itntimt. So, Or. tn Cat. 1, c. G. " Es- 
iourufur ex wbe," dtc. 

14., Yeyufictu. " Poiionei." Secret poiaoning wea nnich prac- 
tiaod It Rome. CoDsuIt Bedanastt^i Hiilory nf hreentimi, nd. 
1, p. 74, leqq. — TheiB »u ■ Bpeoiai Uw ogunat tbii praetica, aad 
atlwtnuideaof>wMdDUion.enlitled2.cxCanK^ (Pro Cbunt 


iA. Qidt ttHamen/entm ifijedm. •• Vfbat foigei of wilU ",GoOgk 


Litenlljr, onc who gabatitUM & fU«a wQI, "ItiUmentam tutjidl." Jg 
Snch Bn otfendeT ii cslled by Ciceio, iMlammlarmt (Of. 3,.ie.— 
Pra<$er^ 17); hj SiHaH, ligwUor faUua (Cat. D. 16); br Sns- 
tanioB, /oJiarnu, (Vit. Jf<r. c 17.) There wes & lew agaiiut thia 
pfictice sIm, eatitled Ltx Conulia Tcilamaaaria. 

16. ^u cirnmumptiB-. " Wli*t frMidulent peraon." Circtm- 
KriptoT is pnipeilj one, nbo, oiidBr carer of the law, defrBude 
uiothei by uiy utfiillj-woided wiitiiig. Conqnie tbe vonle of 
Senec», {BioTft. 6, amlTot. 3.,) " Circiiniteriplio wmper er™*» 
*u( tpecic Ugit imolvil." It ii tben taken geneially foi any fnndn- 
lent peraon, oi ckeat. Tbe lec Lattoria waa enected sgainBt aoch 

17. Qiiii nepot. " What ipendthtift." Thie meaning of nfpo* 
■ppeue to b>T* ■riwn, from Ibe ciicnmitanee of grandcbUdien, 
wben brougbt up l^ theii graudpuente, being geDerallj' ■poiled, 
eitbei trom too mucli indnlgeaee, or elee tnm too litlle cue bcing 
taken of them. 

18. Qaat catdu, &c. "Wfait deed of mnid» hss been eom 
mitted during tbese lallei jeue, withoul his paitieipation t VfhaX 
act of abBndODedlewdneaabasitot beenpeipetiated t^ himt" 

19. Jam vtro. " Naf, too." Equiralent to imo vero tlittm.- 
QKOt tanla jutmtvtit {^ctbrlL " What ao grest talent Ibi allnring 
the yonng to theii Toin." Compaie Or. tn Cai. 1,6: " Cw fu 
adnletcmtuio, quem cerrvpldiirvm SUctbrii irretitict," dcc. 

1. In diiiimili ralioM. " When contraated with each olber," |A 

a, In laJii glaJialoria. >' In taj achcxii of gUdistoi»," Tlwee 
Bcboola weie each undei Ihe cbaige of • person called lamila, wbo 
pnicbaaed and tnined up ilaTee Ibi thia emplojment, 

8. Ntme n tetna, Sce. "No one on tbe atage, moie worthlen 
■nd prealgate than ocdinaij," As legsrde tbe tbice of itvicr in fins 
jiuBage, eompaie the lemsA of Auhui Qelliua, (7, B,) " Vilenim 
ADMMium, qui proprit atqtie iatigTe locuti luat, levtt iiztrutit, fnM 
mUga miiu vilti tl nuUo frctio dignai didnmi." — Plajera, unleaa 
Teij eminetit, were not miich leapected among tbe Romant. Tba 
Oieeka held than in bi^ier eatimstion. Among Ihe Atbeniana, 
*h^ weis not imfieqiiMitlir seDt, sa tbe TepceaentatiTM of the repub- 
lic, on embasaiea tnd del^stioiu. As s bodj of men, homerei, 
thej weie, eren among the Oieeka, of loose and diiaipated chsnic- 
lei, and aa anchwraeiegaided with an nn&Toniable eye bj moraliila 
and pbiloaophen. Aristotls atigmatiiee Ibe plajen of hit daj as 
ignonnt, intemperale, and onwoili^ of a teqiectatda man^s com- 
panj. ^TlieatTe af Ihe Oreeki, p. l!ta.) 

4. Stuprorum el leelerum, Su:. " Accnato-jied to the eonlimtBl 



J0 mccueorimrdiMMUtdciinia." AnMc/acfir* oecoTB, in like maal 
oei, with tbe ibktnc, Ortl. 3, 10, and lieqBenil; ia lirj, 
Ceaailt GiDDOvio* asid Dukei, ai Ub. 34, 48, uid 48, S1, ind 
oompwa tU maoA of H. HanoBt, in hie Giai: Uv. i. t. 

6. Frigvrc tt fami, dtc Compu* SeUuM, Cal. fi : " CorfM» 
fhtiu ifudiac, mgiiiat, atgoru, tupn qaam caiqiii cTEdiiiU aV 

6. Cianiiiivitlnu tvhniia, bji. " Wban ill ihii time the uls 
of botieM indiutiy, umI Ibe meeni of nitoe, weie onl; wuCed b^ 
bim in debuicbeijr uid duing wickednsae." Tbe nitiiia tnAv* 
Itm< m tbmi ponen of peticait eDdamice, wbicb, if properiy di- 
lected, woaM haTO eniUed tbeii poBeeesei to leid ■ life of utire 
DlilitT ; tbe tnilnnntftCa mrditti ue tbe meuM foi peribimiiig di>- 
tingniihed uid pnisBwoithj eetioiM, , wUch Ca^liae poeaeaeed in 
tbnnduice, bnt wbiRh, b hia cue, weie odj peireited to potpeeee 
of • directlj oppoate nitoM. — Hnt«tui, I^mbinui, Giwiviiw md 

7. O OM htatn, &o. Mora eipreenve tbin tbs common fbnn 
woold hsTB been : " <^m \tati not ernnu, ftuun /Drliuiata tril 
rttfiMica, qnam ptatciara lau» eoiaulalut mei," 

B. Litidiiui. " llie in^niie desiiee." — Auiaeiat. "llw det- 

Q. Fortunat tua* o^igurieTmU. " HtTe wuted tbeir (brtonea 
m laiuiioui liring." Ligitrire ie laid of tboee wbo eat nicetj, pick 
ou( the choicMt bit*, feed delicatelj, &c. And benee ita geoenl 
nferBoce to [niaitoui liTii^. Thui, in Teience, Pumana, in de- 
■ciibing the maimeii of dieeolute fem^ee, (Eunuci. fi, 4, 14,) 
ttjt, " Quac cum ainalore nio fuum eontaiU, UgvrimU," which ii 
tbe lune uif beludieid, "mamaTt tt idieatiora tamtammeia 
itgvtlml." Bonatoi bu ibe foUowing tonaik on tbi* pisnge of 
Teieace : " Ligvrximt, iw» Tvt \iy%pta, quod icamibtm OroeMa 
Muane inttUigititr. Liguiiie dicinir, ^ lUgmter it viori muim 
mullo fattiHo nunora ipiaefat itguttat." Tbe [oimitiTe meu- 
ing of Ugurio ii well kept op alao in tbe following painge &ani 
Ciceio, (/n VeTT. fi, 7B,) " Non riperielii AomtnMi timidt, net 
Ittiter A«e im^<ii>tnm<i btera t^vrieitlem: ieiereTi omiuia 

10. Fiiei. " Cndit." — bi abamdaiilia. " In Ibe da^ of llmi 
ibunlance." L e. while tbeii pmpeitj atiU remtined. 

1 1 . ConiinefiMut iiiluffl qaatreTeiU. " Thej hid meielj lerd- 
Ungi m Tiew." Coniinaria piopeilj denotBi ■ makiDg meirj 11101 
(upper, ■ DOctnniBl rerel. It eometimea lefen to the moTementa 
of jonng men, wbo lall j foith into th« atieeti dDiing the ni^t, aftei 
bsiig beeted nith wine, ind aeieiiede tbe objecti of theii ■flectiaa&,GoOgk 

AttAmn CATILIMK. 179 

Compare tbo Onek lafat, ■nd Ibe rama^ of Spuibeim, li Arit- |g 
topk. Ptul. T. 1040, In the pteMnt instaiice it appean to be con- 
£lied to inKioor retelluigi. 

12. EbrioMDt. "The intempetiite." SomB niBmwciipt» gJTB 
ebrioM, which Giseriiu piefen. But the hebitusUj inlempeiste ue 
he™ cefened to, not iDBrelj the ioloiicated. — Domtienlet, " The 
drawBj." DormientciiM heie equinlent lo ntgligaiUt, oiincii 

13. JlftAt. Elegsntly redmviant, and indicative of etrong con- 
lenqit. Compam the leinaik ot Mannttiui : " Mihi, qaod ad ttnUn- 
tiam tllinel, ahundat i ttd omaiian qTiemdam, el vim JUicf, a con 
UmneTile projmjidalum." 

14. Aeetiianui. " Lolling." llie teim lefen in BtrictnesB lo 
the Ronuo mode of " reclining" al banqueta. Oui woid " lolling" 
coDTej* ita mesning better lo an Engliah eai. Conqnre the Gieek 
foime, dvdicfiai and ■rar^ifiiii.— On each coDch ttiere weie com 
monly thiee. Tltej laj with the upper pait of the bod; reclined on 
Ihe isfl aim, the head a little laised, the back aiippoited t^ cn^iioiw, 
and the limbi atietched out at JoU lengtb, Oi a liltle b«at ; tbe feet 
of the fint behind the back of Ihe ■econd, and hie feBt behind die 
bBck of the third, with a pillow between each. When thej ate thef 
laiied theneelTea ini Iheir elbow, aod madB uie of tbe light haiid, 
•ometimei of both hands, fbr we do not read of .^ieir using kniraa 
or foikM. Conault Ciaeamiia de TricUnio, snd ITisinus, Appejid. 
ad Ciace. ^ 

10. Conftclt cibo. " Oveitoaded with food." Compaie the ex- 
Dlanation of Dttring : " Confecti cibo ila diainiur, qtii lanla c^o- 
nMi le ingttt-gilatitrMit eopia, tit nequt ments ntque corpore libert 
titi poiiint." Xttrctat piefeis emjerti, "gorged," but confeeli m 
Diors forcible. 

16. ^crlM rtdnuii The Roidstib wsie aecnMomad, like the 
Qroeks, to «eai gsitsnds of flowen at thui leiliTe meetingL Tbej 
wen tttDught to be pieTentiTos igainst intoiication. — Ungatntit 
aUid. " PeiAimes," in the sbqw of unguents, weie piofiiaeljr naed 
■t tbe sndeat enteitainmentr 

17. Bnuuitt. " Belch foith." This teim is ptopoself med in 
nfersnce lo tine latignidi, confecli eiio. 

18. Fatum alifuod. "Some dresdfnl btaU^." — Impreiiiati, 
tifjwffHTf " Theii woithlessness, Iheii abandonment of aU dntj." 

19. SannTt. " Bring baek lo a aouiid mind." 

I. iVon brtve nttcio qtiod, &c. "It wiU add. DOt Bome shoit l^ 
penod n other, but manj sgea of dutation, to Ihe repiiblic." Pra- 
f^wrilishn* eqoitalent tOfrordfavml, eontimutvnl. lliasM,GoOgk 


17 SS, 3B : " C. Terenlio amttUi prOpagiri i* «wnii 
Compue Gronoviiu mi loc. ind Emati CUn. de. b 
3. I7mw. Refemng lo Cn. Pompeiiu, «ho had 

3. Qkw MNcn ftOtnat, Ae. " WhUem riall h* cquUa nf 
baiDg haded, I will befl b^ ■11 poMible mMM : wh^t ooght to b* 
Giit o^ I wiU not nfier to nmun foi &e nin of tba M>te." The 
body polittc i*-beie conqiand to the humui fnme. Cicen |iiiiiiii«« 

, U Deat tbe more dugeioae memben of tba eonqiiiacy ta ths >aT' 
\ gMn doei Iboee put* of tba bodj irtiioh eie dieeued, Mid iriiieb, 

' if Dot ampottted, will ifaeed dinaie tbna^ioiit tbe whole ijstem. 
A limiki puaage ocimn iu the Second Phibppie, e. 6 ; " in cer- 
fore n jMid tjuMiodi at, quad TtUquo tttipori ■notMt, kti ucanqa* 
pafimir, vf fxn^Dnm afijHod potiu*, yiuim lotiuii eor^tw ialereal; 
ne tn Tm^diicat corport, nt totum talmm tit, ;iHc;tiid at pc< 

\ ttiftnm ■mpyJBJiir." 

4. A Bu. "Bj ma iDdividnallj." L e. bj m^ (liceeta. — Qiwil 
lyo Jt Mrio, dcc. " If I couid, iudeed, efibct thii hj ■ icne word." 
Qitoi, begtmuDg Ibe cbuM, ii to be leDdend u if wiittea lux. 

6. Homo ndtUctt, &c. " Tbe limid and veiy modeM mm, lo 
be ■m«,coald Dot eoduntbi menecceDlaof Ibe couaa]." VuUHetl 
ia inDiceL Some editians haT* ntim ■fier Jbmw, whieh Eniead 
ver; pioperiir lejeeti. 

a. hil. TUa itading if ■dopled bj Oraerina, Bmsiti, uid mw7 
odici editon, iiuteid of tbe common quiaiit, wbich i* heis entiidj 
out irf pleee. "nie HSS, uid euff editiom mj m this put to ■ 
eoniidaable d^iee. Fei Ktl aome teed qvid, othen ^tiod uid 
partit. Soilao>A«rAu(Awdtc Giunuauid 1111117 oibeiediton 

7. QuooM Catiiina vtTottet. Compara I, 6, 19. 

8. Quit dei^qut, &c. " Who m fliw regeided him ta ui tbui- 
doned dCixeB, uid not nthei in IbB light of > moat intolueble eno- 
tnjy ImpoTliinittiRam ii hare eqiiivilBiil to nuinnia fertjiduM 
Coi^am 1, 9, 11 : " Egredert ixm inpgrtmf taleratantm 

B. ytieMoit illt ctmtitL •'Tiai Tioloirt conanl" So be wu 
calledbythBpirldBBiia of Ca^e. — Vtrie. "By» aiii^ woid." 

10. Homa audadttimut. " Allbongh ■ miB of Ibe moBt coD 
■ummale effiontaij." 

11. Qtad ea noclt egiittl. After (beaa woids iha common teil 
haa uii fuittet, which Mmetaa d>d not find in hii beat MS., and 
whicb ia hen nM at oll needcd, aa il hu alieady baen compiehaDded 
taiat (ba wprda " on nocfttnul conmtfti opud M. Loteam faittet.,GoOgk 



^paan U hsT" ctept ia&om the fint Jf 

" Foi the aBit." Undentand noetem, "Dat 
retfing ii mdopted bj EiDMti, Beck, Schiitz, uid oUien. Ths 
eommon tsit hu tn froivna. — Ralio teliut bdli. "The |<lui of 
the whole vnr." 

13. Cvm kiuiitarel, «um Itnerttar. " On hia i{^>eBting diccon 
ceAed, oa iua rameining silent." ConipBre, u rBguda Inerttur, 
the eipluution of Dartng : " leneri eieganier dicutUur, jm laim 
tUrit MrgmwUie eimnicli tarU crimiRii cujvtdam, u( ru eerhini 
qnidan eimtrt ea proferre pMciRt." Coniult aiao Emesti, Cba. 
Cic. ». T. 

14, Cy.m ttatra, ctm ftMcet. Tite tteuret ai^ fatcet tre bem 
hiigea of m^tirr inthcaity, Citiline inlendiiig b; these to •name 
Ihe nnk e{ imperalar. Compue Silluet, Cat. 36. — Aqvilam iilam 
argtateam. Coniult nole 16, pigs 0. — Citi HU etiam tacmittm, 
&c. Comnlt note 17, pige 9. 

1. /n txiiiiam ejidebam, &c " DH I wieh lo eut him Di 
esile, nha, I pliinlj percaTed, had elleady Milared uponopen ' 
The (todent niU miil the elegaat uee of Ihe impeifact ^ieieim, u 
miting in iction b^mi oi conlempliled, but Dot jet ctHnpleted >t 
the time ip^un of. Coiopue MaUtaae, G. O. i 4B7. Oit. e. toL 
a, p. S34, Stb ed. 

5. Qui in agro Fimlano, Sk. Compue note 31, page 3,uid 
canmU Geognphiul Indez. — Suo nominc, " In hii own nem»," 
uid 0« in thit of Cuiline. 

3. MtutiUtM. Tte madem MarteiUet. Consult GeognphiMt 
Indez. Onhiejauinef, Citiiias mote ■eTBial letten lo penom of 
dietinctioQ, etatmg thit Im wee Ihe vicdm of wrongful accueitiotii, 
■lad wu then pioceeding, x TolonUij eule, to teside ti MattiOm. 
(,SaU. Cat. M.V— We haTO rejeetod al aiunl tftn MatHiam, u > 
men ^ot* ; fot rrtio preeedee, vriiich ■ufficientlf indicUe» tbM ell 
thii i* eud in iionj. The woida io qneBliiu u« «uqnated bj 
geumemi tiid EnMli, iDd amitted by Scbuli. 

t CtmuBebMH* ae dehHHitf*. " Hemmed in, aad ciii^Jed in 
rt^nzee»."—StjUenliai». "Kii puipoee." L «. ot nnJtiBg Tier 
on hie countiy. — Ex Iuk cur*u, &c. '' Shall h&Te tumed iwaj hia 
«t^a, &om Ihia cueer of guilt aod wu, to fli^t uid Tolnntuj 

6. SpoIiaJiii armtt aadaciae. " Stripped of the eima of hia 
• idacitj," i. e. diiTen bick fiom thme dsiing deiigna whiiA be 
had formed egainai hi« eaaiia] .—Obtmfefaetnt ac penetnHtt. 
"AalonDded and diimajed." _,GoOgk 


13 0. JwbmnXu. " WiCbaul mea the foRiu] i; oT & trial." l. » 
condemind Dnheud. Cicero, at > auinequent penod, feh the fuU 
fbrce of thii nnudc, nlieii Cloditu broaght in hii hw, Ih^ nhoerer 
bad GODdemDed anbwid n. Romao citizen ahould be intwdicted &om 
^ fini uid water, l •, «ent into eiile, Th« omlor ma compelled ts 
bend to the itonn uid go into baniihment. Coiopara Or. pro. Jetno, 
18 ttgg. uid VeU. Paterc. 3, 45. 

7. E>t milii lonfi, &c. " I am peifectlj willing, vrj cmntiTmeo, 
to enconnter ihe Monn of this unmeiited aod nnjuBt odium." i e. 
it ie north ihe ncrifice foi me to encoanter, &c. Conntlt note 3, 
pigG 9, — FalMue ia hero equlTtlent to immeriiai, i. e. ex /tiin* 

S. AtfUt tK orntM volttart, " And is moving to uid fro-m umB." 
L e, ii tnTening wilh m umed foice the tenitorie* of Ihe repuhUc, 

8. JnvidMntm. "A gionnd of much ceneure." — Quai iihtm 
rmittrim. " Tbat I alkiwed bim to escipe." 

10. Cttni profMtut lit. "Now that he hu gone fwth," 

11. Tan mitenairi. " 8o compunonate od hie aceoant." 
Eqoinlent to " CtUiUnae, tatiqMun tnjuria ejteli, ita aftttua 
nuitricDTdiA.'' — Malil. With ill their pretended eompeiiiaa fbi 
Catiline, u uiinjnTed mui, the; would be M>nT lo beei of bia gOBif 
to Manitia, fyt \iiBj Inow fuH well bow much «Dbeequent troutto 
they would bave (o eipect from him, weie he to take luch a it^, 

IS. Htt qatd egil. AUudhig to hii making wu od hi* connlry. 
—FrmtttT. •' Againat." Fiom iti genenl «enie of eiclneion, lhi« 
prepontion esailj comea to eigm^ bei/CTid or alovt ; and &om aignt- 
^ing btfoni, it obtaina the mesning of eonirary io Bnd agiaatt. 

u other pkita fbimed sg«net bim, 

B. Inltrttl. " InteiTeneB between him and ue," — DittmtittiaU. 
" Diuembfe tbeir real inlentioEU," Altudjng to thoae who woi* 
•ectetlj implicated in the coo^iiacy. 

B. Ifon tcm uUitei ttudeo, &g. " Do not m mnoh deaira to 
biflict .Teageaaoe upon, a* to restore lo ■ better mind, and nconeile 
to dieii countrj." Placare ie equiTaleat (d "jiacalo torum fitreit 
TteoneSian reipublicax." 

4. Ez qmiat getttribat komimim. " Of what clueea of penMM." 
t—ComptTeiitar. " Are made up," 

b. Dtmlt tinguUt, &c. " Then I will apply ta each the lemedj 
sf mf adrioe and eihortation, if T ehall be able in fact to offiit aiqr 
mch," L •. the lemedy of mj sdvice conreTed tn the itraigeat 
•nd mM panuutT* language. GraeTin) cu^tei^tvrea rafiiiM* te,GoOgk 

louiTBT o«n[.iKB. . 183 

«ratimii, Init Enmli veiy utufustoiilf defimda the latter leading -. JA 
" Jlf idicinain cimnlii afjtM nnUianit nuae. L s. Coiuiiii Dratimu 
ezplica^ it (ul onifflum ddmomuli." 

6. Itagno in aer< o^inui, &<:. " Altlxnigfa iiin.lTed in gnat 
debt, Ime tttU gieotei poaMSUOoa, iodueiiced by Ihe love of which, 
thej CBn iD no w&j be aepanted from them." CoicuDentaton differ 
in opinioD tegpecting the meuiiiig of iiualvi !□ this pusage. Mu- 
letns ei^Jiuiu it \tj tilerari aere aiierui, " be fieed &om their debt*," 
i e. bj Ihe wle of their beloTed poeBessioDS. Thi> eiplanation ie 
idopted, ind eoaght to be elncidaled, b; Emeati, bat with little 
■ucceH. SchelleT, on the othei hand, condemna this mode of iDtei- 
piedng the woid in qneatian, u not in «ccordaoce either nith ibe 
conlext or Ihe idiom of tke Latin tongne. He nukea ditiolvi 
«qnivalent meielj to leparari. And in thia beia undoubtedlj coi- 
lect. Ciceii) meana, that the indiTidaala alluded to, although deepty 
inTolred in debt, and altbough owneia of eitenaiie poeaeauona, ara 
oDwilling to aell the Utter (be Meparatti frim then, be leoeetitd 
bmn the tin that bind Ihem to theae objecta) and in Ihie way psj 
Aeir debta. Tbe fotlowing paaaage of Ciceio wiU nire to con&m 
Ihia eiplaiutioa : he ia speaking of thia aame clasa of penona : 
" Slad erat gema homiraim horT^iiU et fertimeecenivm, qai tanto 
mmore eaai poimisionei atnplexi ienciant, ui ab Mi metabra ineU^ 
ciltui Bc diitroM poite dictrei." (Pra SvU. SO.) 

7. Harvm henamtm, dcc. " Thia in appeaiance ii Iks nwat 
hvfuiureble clua," Liteiallj, " the iqipeaiance of thia elaaa of pei- 
aoni ia Ihe most bououiable, i. e. tfaejr enjoy by iheii eipenaiie moda 
of liring, uid their lank in aociet7i no amaU degiee of eonaideration 
in tlie eyea of the wodd. 

8. Volv,-nttt*teTO,lu:. " Th^ intentioii, boweTei, and die cauae 
in which they have emlniked, aie moat abameleea in their chai- 

9. Tu. The ontoi now apoatrophiies one of ihi* doie. — Agrii. 
"In landed pn^ieitjr." — Argmlo, "Inplate." Undentand «u^a/ii. 
— Fonuiia. "In a letinueof alaTea." Fann/iii here, ii frequentl^ 
•bewheie, denotea all the houiebold aemDts of a mastei. 

10. Delrai^e, " To lake eway," i. e, to aell aome poition of. 
TUt aeiTes to eiplain ths nae of diitolm in the paaaage which 
we have just been comidering. GQnsult note ^.-^Acqitirere ad 
fidem, "To add to thy eiedit." -The full aipreaaioQ would be, 
•'ac^irere picuniam ex f.tidiiii poeieesiBniluM ad fident tohen-,GoOgk 


JQ <UM( h mMHt ■ compnlioiT unngemaiu liy Un> ftncing Hib 
credikii eithat to >cce|it a put of hu debt, in fbll tar tbs whole, or, 
MJa ths pieacnt cue, toreceiraiiaputof tbedebt iriialeTBr. Hdf 
bttai meuaia CitiUne bad pnmiwkl to idopt. (SaUtuI, Caf. SI.) 
Tta phnaa rafeia, u bi sa leguda ita ptiticiilu loim, to the Bo 
man moda of wiitiDg on tibleta, {lahuiat,) coreied orer with wu, 
tha cbanctcn beiiig muked od tba mi bj meaiia of a atjilaa. 
HeDce, lAan the old acon wu oblitanted, ud tha wai inHMthr^ 
«rer, the tibleta were csUed tun«i, and wera leadr Ibi *, nta icare. 
— An euUn abolition of debt* wu narer greQted to tha pec^Is. At 
Mie tiine, bowever, by ■ law of Vileiins Fliccna, a fouith put of 
the d^ wu allowed to be paid foi the nhole. {SalluMt, Cal. SS.} 

13. Xto letufido, &c. " An obolilioD of deht* ihell ba biongfat 
hmti thnngb mj kindneaa, bnt it tiuU Iw the reault of adea 
•1 aiietion." Litenlly, " new tableta ahaQ be bron^t forwud, bnt 
thej ahall be anctioD-ones," i. e. «vctioit.Uats, eonlaining an account 
of IhBk propertf u oSersd fbr sde. Cicera mean* th^ theii picp- 
tttf, ot ■ ■nfficient poition of it, will be eipnied to •&]». aud their 
debta pud wilh Ihe pioceeda. — Emeati objocta to the praeence of 
noau in the teit, u oot pn^ to be eonDocled nith awtwnariaa 
Ittu l a t , nmuking, " aaelionarUe talndat miUa meilD «c wntu 
nme dUi foamm, ut ophor." Be appaen, bowevei, to loiget 
tbat Cic«TO )• hen indulging in ■ [ueca of plewantiy, oi nhu nuy 
ba denominated ■ qieciea of pnn. llie tablea, irtuch be piomiaea, 
■n to be. nne, in ■nother Mnee, uid one fw whleb tbey wera not 
pRfjaied. It ia wiiit tbs gnmmsiians teim sn nnexpeeted wHti- 

14. Quod n matuniu facere vDhUMMait. " Hsd thej been 
willing to poiaae ttiia aoinM aooner." Quvd k bera lo b« randeied 
hj k«c,u it commencea ■ duue. 

16. Neque, (u( faoi ttvltitnmiM tit.) &c. ■< And iwt, whtt 
ia most fbohab, atrog^ ■gaiiiat beaTj pajmenta of intereet by the 
lenti snd piofila □/ tbeii datatea." Cicera meuia, thst thej oo^t 
to wll ■ pattii»! of their Isnded prspertj, snd pay their dabts at 
ODce, uid not adapt the initKHumeainte of psjii^ the intamt of 
Ihe la^ (tmu thej had boirowed witb the piodace of tbsii estates. 
lUs Isttra eonne would keep Ibem alw^ poor. Id otlur woida, 
fliej ninat not )M hesvj moitgigea eit up theii estates. 

15. Et beMpletiorihu, &c. • " We woold find in them both 

17. Magit mtU miaitaT, &c. Thej ai^ieu to Cieeia mon 
likelj to entertuD hoadle aentiiiieDta igiinat their coontrj, than la,GoOgk 

Asumr oATtLctx. 1B5 

IB. DmnnaltMnn taptettnl, Sk. "Kopa fe ink, wiib to ]^0 
tMCOme p.iases*ed of dia nunagsnient of *^n," L e. to get IIm 
goTflTnment in their itndt md exeiciM unbmited ■ulboiitf. 

1. Quibui liec ^nueipMwIum vufetw. *< To thii elue thoM- JO 
k-Wtng piece af vuning ■eema prapsr lo )>« giTCH." (jHhw to bo 
nodficd la it*. — Qiuieelaii orl^almi. SnppljjiraKijnciuluin «it. 

5. [7l dtiptrent, dce. " To ^e OTer hoping thtt the^ gm 
■ccompltih wfatl the; ue endesTouiing to effect" 

3. Primam imiiiium m« ipium, &c. One MS. ineerti teiant 
befoie HK, bnt theie ia no need of thia, aa the cl>u» dependi on 
the genenl idee of WBinii^ iniplied in pruc^'«ndiim. 

4. Magma ammot. " Gn«t courage." — Jtfimiiuim tmdtitvH- 
Rem, Uadentuid cornm. Theie ^^^iein lo be wKnething infing m 
HuB put of tbe eentence, «Dce nsitbei noximam mNZCtftuJiiKm VM 
magTiat eopiai itiiUlum cui nelt be lefened beek to bomt ririt. 
Schuti BuggeaB the pleeing of a aemicoioD aflei eeneorditm, end 
d>e leading micnmamt^ttiimmuifiturltium, ftc.,the£fii((<tbeiiig 
■rambeiad bj Ciceio imong tlie rafsgniiids of the iqnibhc in th» 
^nttfa ontioD ■gainet Catiline, c. 7. 

6. Tattfom nm tteliris. ■> Sucb duing wielcedneae." — PrM- 
itBtit. " Bj theii immediate inteipoeition." EqutnleDt to 
"praeienti imxilio praatntiam iMom itelaranU*." Compuc 

6. Qtuit, "A. itste oT things, wfaich," litanUj, "thinga 
«iiich." — CtmiuUt it. We lure elteied (lie ■naDgement nf rhriM 
leOTdi with Lamhinua. The common text hu n cmun/ra. 

7. ContiH nteatt tit. Tba ontor meana, that, if tbe cooapir- 
■cj aoeceeded, die mon aetiTe putinna wauLd dnre inlo tb* biickr 
Biound Ihoee wbo had meielj aided Ihem bf tbeii wiahe^ and IWl 
ij theiipenonal co.^>pention. 

8. Ett telate jatii ^ielvm. ■' 1« by thi» tima ao n lPn h tt ■drtn- 
eed in jean." Serenl HSS. iDd eariy editiona hare eaw/nftm, 
which ia loo atreng. 

5. Qm* BuiU Miutitait. The common laxt hu J%n£>a 
maeited afiei guat, but it qipeuB to hsTS crqTt in &on tlie 0di 
chipter of ihe thiid ontion. It ia altogethei ermam» hera, m 
Peealio waa onhf one of die placaa Tvhen SjllahadplantedKmil»- 
taij' colonj. VpoD the conclumon of the eiril conteat betweeD hia 
own and Ihe paitj of Haiina, Sytla aettled manj of bii officen uid 
■oldien, in diffeient }!aita of Ttaly, od laoda wbich hid bekmged U 
tha oppoaite hetion. Not ■ few of Ib 
wimj tfaaiiiD-gottaa propeitj, sjid beiiea wem •; 
erril Tnr, in iriiich to emidi tiiemselTei u,GoOgk 


. " 'Wluch, tiketi ciineetiTclf , 1 
•m wbO twue coatain tci; eicellait cidienii ud nrj bnT* 
meii : tai Jti theas ue aoiDe of tbe meii^wn of thoee colo- 
nie*, itbo, uiud Iko oneipected md iDddeQ posseniDn af wealth, 
Imre oetentitionBlj indulged in too oipennTO uid sitimTBgint a mode 
ofliTing." Moce litenllj, " luTe booated theouelTe* in loo e;q>ei»- 
MTO ud nmiwal a nunner." 

II. Tamquam htaii, " A« if they wete poHesMd of opnlence.'* 
Btatiu freqneatlj hu the lignification of divet in tha LBtin miten, 
•epeciallj in Honce, iiid the otW poete. Compaie the lenurk of 
TuTO, L. L, 4, 17, " Btaim, jui nwlu hma poiiidel." 

13. DnDi fTotiii*, Ay. " While thej teke deUght in sitensiTe 
domains, i)ililten,iiilugehou*eholdiof BUTee,inBumptuouBGnter- 
tMiuDenta." — Thelecltca Tnu >HpeciesofUttei, or sedan, supponed 
on Ibe ilioulden of etaTea. The use of thia conTejance ii nid to 
harecomeiii Eiom Bittrrnia- {Schet. adJuv, 1, ISI.] — Murettu, in 
plice of iccficif , leeda UciiM,ia be joinedin conitiuclioii viilhjiraediu i 
odien propoee laiit. The chuige ia altogetliei oimeceBsarf . 

13. Salti. " SsTBd from niin."— ,Sil excitandut : " Miiat be 

14. Homiiui iatuei atjue tgcntet. "Indigent andneedjmen." 
16. Spei» rapmarum tttenm. Tbej lioped to »ee, under 

Cetiline, & leTiTii of those acenea of plundeT and misrule which had 
[seTailed diuing the ascendencj of tbe par^ of SjUa. — /n eodm 
faieri. " In one tai tbe aame claas." 

16. PrMcriptiomi tt dictatariu. Cicero wuns them to giTe up 
all hi^ of erei seeing tboie •cenes renewed which mariEed the 
cueei of SjUs, e pTOsciiptian namelj oT tbe estates of all who hod 
tsken the 0[))o«te aide, and i, peipetual &t>toT and second S^Ia 
^ipearing once more in the peisoii of Cktitiiie. 

17. TaMui enim iiiorum lenporum, dtc. "For so deep ■ 
fi)diiig of iDdignant giief, st the eicesses of thoee timen, has been 
bnint into the Teiy state." The uae of the Teib inuro, m this 
passsge, is beaatifallj figuntiTe, and iuTOlTeB «n allusion to the 
pTOCSss oT enamelHng, m painting bj means of fire, which BerVDB to 
Ex the coloun. TiM uicieiits cslled it Enaataiica, lyKavmtt 
The botnin of the sangiiinarr peiiod alluded to were buml, in liTing 
coloun, into Ibe vei7 aoul of tiie Blate. 

15. Ne peeuiel quidetn. "NoteTentheTeijboaals." Slronglv 
fignntiTe. Weilke offendB in a Teiy BingnlKr mumei againat good 
tasle, in supposing, tbat the omtoi heie lefen to aome inddent 
dniing ^Ila'a proscriptioDi, wbere gieat baibeiitir wu pnctiMil 
towudi animals I,GoOgk 


'S. QiMr/sm goBit t)l, &c. "Tbe foanheliMu nned, indJJQ 
tniied, cod tnibulent in iU charactei." Fiirtinn alludes to (bs 
TuiiHis cBinefl whicb hid reduced them to Tuin ; >nd tKriuUjUum 
to their being no better than a. mcre noisj mob. 

20. Qiu jampridem prtnanUur, Sui. " Wha ha*e long dnc» 
been veighed down bj luin, who nill Dever emerge &oni it." 
Then ia commonlj Bupposed to be en eUipsiH beie of ocrc elieno, 
{" hf debt,") bnt we bave >n BlInBitai to debt immediatelj after. It 
ia bellei to make maln, oi eome othet equiralent teim, undentood. 

SI. Partiai maU gerendo ntgolio. " Paitlj thiOD^ ihe iU- 
man&gonent of their piiTBte aSiiis." NegoHo ia hete a geneial 
teim for bunneaa m emploTment of any kind. Compue the remaric 
of Doiing : " Male negotium geiere dtcuntur, qtd in rc fatitilien el 
dometHca oiyninittTanda negligenlioree *uh1." 

S3- In vtlere atre idieno vaeiilant. " Staggci ondei a load of 
long-contnctsd debta." 

1. Vedivunaii, jadiciis, &.C. "Weariedoutwiththegiriiigofbafl, 91 
with judgmente, wilh confiscatioiui of theii piopeilj." Thetegulat 
legal ordot of proceeding against debtors, in Rome, ia heie obBeired. 
The debtor ts aiiwrted Hnd compelled to give bail foi bia appeai- 
ance (muIimoRnni darc). The caee comea on and judgTDent (jadi- 
CBBn) is givcn againet him. The credilor is put in poBseaaioQ of bi* 
ptopei^ as seeuritj for the jadgmeiit lendeied ; and ajtei he has 
Ihus held posaesaion far tbiitj dsjra Ibe piopcrt)' is sold and the debt 
paid from it. 

2. Injltiaiarti Itniot, "Dilatoi? Bndlyingdebtors." Infiiiator 
meana one w&o deniea a just debt, — Lento» is bere equiralent to 
lardot. Compaie the eiplanation of Em. Antonius : " Lentus de , 
(0 dici, ipi nDn factia fottit adigi «t loival peeuniam debitam, 

ioeet Ciuaahomu. Inhttatoree voeantnr, ^, cwn dthtant ■pecimi- 
am, negant koe lamen, ntc vf^mU toivert." — Scbuti, withont aoy 
BecesaiCf , lecalls Ihe old reading imidialorte, fbr infiiiatorei. 

3. Prinaim. We haTe bere an inacotuthon, aa Muretiu lemaAs, 
(ince, oflei prinaan, we haie not deinde, aa we would natarallj 
ezpect tofaaTe, — Someeditoia lecommend Ihal comaril bechanged 
to camient, and priwam joined with it in conatruetion : ^'tnufn 
carnctnt, " wiU be tbe fiiBt lo M ;" but tben tbe «st of the sen- 
(ence comes bi Teiy tamdj. 

4. Si itBri non pomni, AUuding to «hat bBs juat pieceded, 
"in vtttre ten ^imo vacSla.nt." 

5. Si mcTS hoiuttt non pattunt. " If theycaniiot UvO bonoan- 
Uy bere," i. e. bj lasOD o( Iheii debts. CoiDpaii ' ' -- 
df Hmntins, *' iii ur^jn-opter aa tUtteim, fuo nunftiant en,GoOgk 



I fl. jronrtMcs. " SeA sot lo nedL" — In Utneime. "latbnr 
tMtta of robbeiy." 

7. Pottrtman aalem, du. " Tbs Ust chBi, himanr, ii «>, ia 
hct, ta tegudi not mly DumltR," &c. Cicuo qmi Iba in>d ^(»< 
irtnun ia ibs fint cliuM, ■■ meidf munane^ while in tbs kttet 
put lrftbeanitaDceithutliBfbmofionert,nl«t,dc4s. Tkii lul 
dw i* tba feeUeat «i nuinlisi, lod tlie niert in dnneta ud BMde 
efbie. TbeJiillcoiHtiiicti«]wiabe"fatlT«>MnMaHJnB £'«■»« e*t 
fottmmm, nm mlimi tuaurn," &c. 

8. Quoi prtfriita ttt Catitimu. "Tbese ew CstiliM*! own." 
IdtenUf, " thie ie CuiliDeV owd," L e. ctiM. Tba hogiMge ht 
tke tett leiiiitidi tu <rf tbe modem fona of eipnaaoB, irtMB qieek- 
»g cf ■ peniculw legiDtent or bodj (tf troope, " Iba luBg'e mra," 
tbou^ of cmne, in a i ei^ di&leat ernee. 

&. De emnplaca ejiu ae nnu. " Of bu Teiy enblace >nd boeaat," 
L e. coDuoting of hi* most intiioate fiienda, and tbe eanpnuou of 
hii debancbeiy. Tbe ■ipieaaion, " bosran-fiieiid," ie tobo npleiBed 
Vf Ibe Romui ciut«n ti laclinHig at meala, elieady aUudad te in • 
prarioaapait of ttoa eominenlarr (note 14, pege 16.) Aa Ibe goeata 
by oo tbe eouch, the beid of Ibe lecoDd <raa ia i bae with the 
bniaat of tbe fint, eo Ihet if he waoled lo qieeb witb lum, capeciellif 
if tha thing wu ts be iBciet, be wu cUiged lo lean iipon his baMm, 
H Pbnj eipreaaee it, " in tmn ricmnAert." (£p. 4, 33.) Hw 
■eme iBB|r bo aud of tbe tbiid «id ■eeDsd gueeta oo tbe concb. 
Bence tbe fignntire alluBion of CicBm in tbe teiL 

10. Bcnt baTialot. " WeH mppliod wilb downj beeii." By 
thia eiq^raeeien aie te ba undentood ibe fooi^ cleae of pananB, 
wbo had alreadj o loleiablj-iiied beud, whidt tba; wne fbnd ol 
^gfkjias. Ui^ A. U, C. 464, all tbe Bmiuu won baude. bnt 
fioiii ^ peiiad, wbicb muka tbe time when P. Tieiniu* Mena* 
fiM btodgfal beiben iUtumt) &nm Kcilj, tbey b^an to lemore 
tbe baii bixa Iba cbin. (Pti». H. N. 7, fi».— Fnrs, JL Jf. 3, 9.) 
Tbe yonng, bowever, itill raUiDed tbeii bearda «ntil tbvr leacbed 
A» ega oT twen^-one, (JTaerai. in Somn. Sof. 1, S,) eoBeetiinee 
■Mtdj BDtil tbej ■■■(uned tho lega ■mriHt at tbo efo of ■arenteeii. 
And tbe da; on nbick they Gnt riiared wu lagerded u • fMtiTol 
b7 tbe membei* of Ibe Imily. (Ae.a.lSS.) Tbefiiet giewib ol 
tbe beitd waa coDeeeiated to some god.^ — We eee tben frem all 
thia, tbal b; ttnt itriati in tbe teit aie niBant tbose af tba yonng 
wbo had neulj leBched tba period of maidMKid, and wew (Dpplied 
with tcdeiably-Bzed beaida, wbile b; the imicTtti aie maau tbMa 
wbo we» u yei too joung tn baTa anj. In etiw woide, ib* teti» 
*vM aie Ihor wbo h«,*e eiwngaiideHiljdDwiHthe initihtthe»,GoOgk 

wfao eidm bivi unw, or on irluw ehiiia it is jbeI nwkiiig ita ip- 2] 
pauanca. Hunce, too, we ue how enoDeons it ia lo tnniUta Ib* 
woidi bau lariat«*, u Kims do, " with beaide tucelj tiimnied,'' ar 
** ■pmcelj &ihioaed," ■ince this woald implj th^ thef lud beea 
•liBi^; putiill; nibjected t« llie hands o( Htv Imtcr. 

1 1. Maiaailit ti falariiiu hiiucu. " With tooica hnii^ kng 
■lefiTSi, Bnd temcluDg to iha inktea." Taoica of thi* kind wera 
deemed aBwninite bj the Ronuuia, and •eemed beltei mited fot 
wmnen Ihan men. Tlie ordioai}' tmiie h<d bo deerea, uid eima 
down > little below the knaea belbre, «id to the middJe <ti Ihe lega 
b^nd. Caiuiilt Avl GtU. 7, 12, Hid coDipara Virf. Am. 6, 610 
— CoAiU. 3, 10..— SoArw. m tli*l. iug. 3, fifi6. 

13. Ve^ antclu, non logU. " CoTBrad with veilB not with 
togaa." Ha HUuaiiii ia to logu made ao fiill, uid ol wa fine lod 
o leaonble Teila wnt^ed ■raond tbe 

13. Amthteamt comm, " Snppen protracted tiH the dawn." 

14. StiHiurwn CaftiiiwrwR. " A niineij oT Caliliiiei." Sonia 
leid CatUnunum, bnt «mincrnini CutiHnarian woidd nther ng 
nify " ■ nvnerj' eatiUidied by Cetiliiie." 

16. ApcminuM, &e. " Tha Apemiine nnge, end Ihe fimt mi 
■nowa tli^willfind tben." TliaatDdenlwiUnoteltiefbrcBof iZfoi. 
Wltb Apanaiaim nndentand mimlmi. — Thia otition wai deltmed 
«■ the nxlh dar befbra the Jdea d NoTembec, tn the eih of Iba 

15. Ifuii in comhui, dtc, Daociiig itadf waa deemed diabon- 
omable unong Ihe Romani, moch mara lo the dancing in ■ etate of 
nndity. Compaie Or. pro Dtiol. c. 9. 

17. Mmgnoftn ftrtnMiceiiAm. Ironicil.— Kmc Mortonun 
tohorltm fratloHm. " Tbii bodT-gnaid ^ miunoiu wratchaa." 
AnuDg the Romana, tbe genenl wu UMiaUj attended bj a leleet _ 
band, called eohoTM prtioria. Tbb diffen eMcUiitbr, howerer, 
liinn tbe pnetoitan coboit in the biotn? of tbe oiqiire. 

IS. Confeelo it taMae. " Wom-oot and wovnded." llie ■Dn- 
rioB !■ to Cotililie. Conqara iiotelt,page fi. 

IB. SUm luaifragwnm, &c. ■■ Tlut outcart and enfeeUed he^ 
of meo, ih^iwTeeked in liope end fbitmie." Hoie lilenllf, "of 
Aipwracked wtetebev." Compam Or. 1, 13. 

1. Jan acra, &C. " Nb.7, indeed, the veij citiea of yooieotoniea, 23 
■• well M jour mmiicipal tOWTta, irlU ptoy^ a ■□fficient maleb Ibt 
Ae niatic nuaeea of Calhine." The tnle lea^ng Iwra !■ raj nmcb 
jiqwtad. Ha common tait hu nrba ca l amani m ae man i o if ier n m 
rafoiUtiinl CalQnm MaivJii t ik m lrt at. For ■ UMOfiram W,GoOgk 



2 )l*TSgf/M),«ncMiJEctun^*nnnctpM,andnlm>(Iif foi limulU. TIm 
a^aaiaioil wiei nmmdjnormn i» b manifEBt solecism, dot, in &ct, 
i) urfto coJinitsrHm itself fiae &aiii niifHcioD. Mnratns conjectnrM 
MTo, wbich makea x hanh iIlitentioD wiUi tero. Ganlaa giTCS 
4nx«. Thej Vbo letd fiinuiiu tilieirri^ mike Iha eipiesdoii 
lefai 10 tha " woody beigfata," ia which tlmie Ca.liline'* adherenta 
CMld l!nd ihell«r. Oot own iniding eumulU, which ia found in 
mne MSS , is meant to applj to Csti]ine'a fbrcea u being composed 
in gaoenl of iU-unied lustica, snd being, in lact, rnde msnes ra 
kfpl, ss it weie, of men ndier thsn well-otganized and diaciplined 
troopa. Craapara SaUusfa sceoont of Ihii ssme slnlT. Cal. c. 69, 
3. Ornaaunta, prattUM viilrc " Yoor prepsntioas, jodt 
defences." OrJtainmte is hete eqoiyalenl to apparatum bdlicitm. 

3. Qmbut mu tupptditemiir, du:. " With wMch ws aie aapplied, 
DTwhicdi hs stands in need." We hare sdopted nippeiitatMa; ths 
Tesding of sereial MSS. and editions, inetesd of tbs common 
lection twppeiiitaiau. Xbnj who give thii latlei form make it 
eqnitaleDt to ahuniannu, for which thej haTe DO good autiioiit;. 

4. VtUigal^nu. " Puhlic lerenues." 

6. ConttndcTc. "To compiiro." Equrvalenl to tomparart m 
emferre. Thoa we hsve, (jtd Rojc. c.SS^^^Quiijuidemlraiiterit 
ii cun defennone noitrt emtenditB." So also Hoiace, (Ep. 1 , 10| 
Se,} " ^i Sidmae amlendtre eaUiditt vitro Ntidl Aquinatem 
fOtanlia tdlera fueum." And again, Tscitua, (Amt. 13, S,} 
" Velera el praeieniia eontendere," and Aalua Oelliua, (2, 33,) 
" Graeea eomparBre ci cantenieTt." 

8. Pcbelantw. "Efiontety." — Scaprwn. " Pollution." 

7. Conatantia. "BigbtreaBOn." Conq>»e the eipUnation of Ei- 
. neiti; "EitTectarttlioeju*^eum,cKioppmitaTfvTor,inquohtm- 

inei capli menii tibi non contlant." {Clav. Cic. ■. ».) So too in 
theontion pToRoic.c. l4,tlieTOn;fln»(iHi*isopposedlothBain«u, 

8. Continentia. " Modoration," — Libiio. "Dnbiidled licen- , 
tiouanesg." — Denique aequiiai, dtc. The foui pnmar; Plalonio 
Ttttaee are here eDnmenited, temptrance, pruience, forlituit, and 
juttict, thou^ in a difleient oidel. Compsie Cie. it Off. 1, 6, snd 

Btetatut, Ed. Blh. p. 166. Tbe Gieek □amaa an irufpHe>>q, 
^yn'it, (»#(», »•*,) iviplii, ilMurffl. 

9. Copiae, "Abundant leBources." Compore ie Im. 3, I, 
" CToloiaciae qwan fiorerent omiaiiut copiii," uid pro Boit. Am. 
15, " CopHt rei fatniliarit locupUlei el pecunioii." 

10 Bana raiio eun periita. " Jadgment with foll;." With 
periita int^f ratione. — Boiit dantfM tpet, &c. " In fine,wslt- 
tnmtod bii» wilh nttaa dBspir.",GoOgk 


II. Hontlnum rOtiia. •'Tlie tMloto ttlat» of mNi." Le. 2 

•Aeii lesloiu co-operalioi) m tlM laiue of Tiitae. 

13. QutmadmodHrii jam cnlea. The commim tezt hu ilm afier 

mntttt, nluch is ernniecins, aa he bes Danhera befbra ttid ao in tiis 

coDne of tlie oiatioiL Emesti aDd othen conteqiieiillj tbiow it 


13. Urbu The cit^ collec^Tel; (urh) i> bCie oppmed to ihe 
individiial dweDinga coo^ung it {nngTda tecta.) llie latteidMir 
le^xictiTe poseesMie Bie to suard, the tbimei will be mtched orec 
bj the coiuul himeelf. The emendBtion of QiaeriDi is theiefcn 
■mneceeaaij, mtki tt urbL 

14. Miaadjietjue vtttri. " And the iohalHtuitB of 71)111 muni 
dpal towne." Ilie muntdpet enjoyed difleieot pdTilegea. Soma 
posaeased aU the lighta ot Roman ci^ena, eicept auch aa conld not 
be oblained without ledding at Rome. Olheia had onlj tha light 
of aeiring in the Roman tegion. 

16. De hae nBciuma txctcriiimt, Refening to the depaitme of 
Catiiine on the prerioiia night. 

15. Qtuimqiiam mtliort animo tunl, &c. " Altbongh thej aie, 
in (ict, better diapoeed towaida the atate than a pait of the piiii- 
ciana, atDI will be kept in check bjr onr poflrei." inieTeij^adi' 
aton, accwding to Ciceio, im betler aSecied ihan aame of the 
nobilitj. Still no nnguarded ictiance will b« placed eren T^en 
theae, bot, in order to ensuie peifect «afe^, Ihey nill, erea if em- 
plofed tn the Berrice of lbe'atale on tbis occastOD, be BDbjected 
themBelTeB to Btiict watching and control. EmeaCi thinka thal tha 
reading should be QKamjuam non metiiire animo rwU, Hm negatire 
being required in hia opinion bj the presence of tamtti in tha latter 
clausa of Ihe sentence. Fiain the ex[danation we b»*e gEren it 
will eleailj appeal Ihst Ibe emendation U nnnecessalj. Ilw gladi 
atonweie distiibnted bj Cicetn IhronghDnt tbe DMmicipal lown*. 
(Saa. Cat. 80.) 

17. Q. Mettlhii. Menttoned elnady in the 3d chqtter. OoDnll 
Hietoiical Indei. — Agrum GaiUcaJmm^ceimmque. Coaaalt Qs- 
ographical Indei. 

18. Aut epprimet liamintm. "WiH eElher craBh the man." 
Hamimm nhn %o Calilinc, and is putpOBel; tlsed, inatead of 
einim, lo donote contempt. — Proh^tbit. *' WiU &uBlr»te." 

19. Retijuia atOtm de rtbtu, &c. ■■Whlle aa regardB Ae 
detennining upon, tiie eipediling, ibe perfomiiag of wbal lemain* 
to be done, we are now going to conBuIt the senBte, whicb jou sea- 
1» mlbe Bct of bemg »ummoned." The senatoi* weis seeit paMing 
ilong, tt the tim^ 10 dieii plac* of roMtii^,GoOgk 


23 !■ '^*"* •'I''- <*Jfow, u l«i M eo»e«nw duM," S<qipl7 
fKMl <i 01 ■omathing aqOTiluit. Tb« cm kficr tnmatiu fau beea 
iMtond to Ihe tait b; Beek, &om Mverd MSS. iud edhHnu. It 
ii >dded in oidei te gire graitBi foice to tba eluiBe. CoD*iik the 
nmuk* of Mtmtioi, «1 £pMf . F«m. 13,36. Itienet inMOedat 
Ihe edition of Enimti, lod ba iiqnite altat tbaat iL 

t. JlfKtnlca. ''*Ornthai." Eqoinleot to mw ^DftM. Cmt- 
Mtt Enmti, Clav. Cic a. r. atqut. 

S. Mamtat m», &<:. " I wirii tb«m agaiii iQd. ■gBia to be i«- 
«jgdBd." CoBHilt note I. 

4. SdalMr, "Tooiemiu." L e. to esTOni too anieh of lemi» 
wtm. — jHm txiftctamt. " It hu hid tbu m Tiaw." i. e. it ltt« 
bMix onl; veitiug foi tfaia. — Mnm^tt. " Migbt bmt (Mtb into 

8. ijitod rdijBWm eK. " A» to wbit wmiii»."— Jam km^ &c 
* I ew no longei Ibtget," &c. 

8. Qm' *f OMMuMril. " 'Wbo ahaU make Iba letst etil."— 
Ctjut. " On wboM put." — Factjin ''Anjopenact." — Sentut, 
«Shdl fral." 

7. Mtgulrattu. Sefeiriiig to the infaliei migiMnte*, bnt e*p«- 
raHj to the ■Dbnnei. — Farlan tcnatHm. " A leaolijta eenata."— 
Mttjartt aaatri. Accrading to IJyj, tbe fint Roman piiwn wu 
hdlt b; Ancne Muthu. <1, 33.) It wu aflernud enlaiged bj 
Zmitta TnUio*. CMUpue aaUvat, CaL 65. 

B. XfimatBgaio,lLa. ■■ B; me yoni onlj leadei and cominuidei 
UHj^ in the nd>e of ^titae." 'When tbe codidI* ut out on ui; 
Milituj ezpeditioD, they clwiiged theii gowiw oi f(V*> ti" the lob* 
«f mx, 01 M^m. Tbie con^iincj, howem, Cic«ia ptomieei, 
AiU ba qnelled whibt be wcan tbe gaib of petce. 

B. DtiMXcrit, Thii i* undoubladfy Iha trae leading, u girm 
b7 SdiSu and olhen, initead of Ae commDn lection itiaseml, 
It ia adToeated alu bj Goeienz, ai Cic. Acai. S, I. The nik 
^ipean to ba u &llona : ■* 'Wben MretBl noona oie employed for 
Ae pmpoM of ezpnuiiig one ind tbe mne ide& the vedi shauld be 
fnt io the lingulu nombei." Or, u Goeieni eipieisea it, " Flurt 
MitMRIna, ad itxam eduf noliimani jitncta, HBipIici vcrbi numero 
tcnprdandualur." Imtancei of tbe epplicatioD of ibie lule woi^ 
be mon Inqnent m the ■ncient wiiten, weia it oot foi the iU-JDilgBd 
Mnectione of editoia. 

10. Sigmfiaitiombia. " Deelaiationa." Eqturelent to ominiiut, 
aafroiigiit. BnoUiuiia* (ai TilmlL 3, 1, 10) •bovu, that *igvi- 
fcMio and i^nifiatTe ue teimii boirowed ftom the biif[Dege ot 
"Tiution, aiid peculiar ta di* liuoqMcea, &c. Cc^mo tbe woida 

:„-,:., .,G<)0.^ll^ 

d Cicaiii, {it Bantif. TOf. 13,) " Q»tii igitar «a i£g*e ••••• tt 
tuiulrc ngnifitatim covcrnnu," &c., tnd thou of Ond, (MiL 
16, 67B,) " Quid nbi ngn^icml, trepidaatui mmUt al»." 

11. At alaneietlt. The conmiDD nading ii altro. HralnTB 
giTen ateme wilh EiDMti, wh> nmuki, " Hoatis sitana ntme 
diiit, al iwtiDDeB eileiu, itgnB eiten, rtcle iieimhiT." — Im >lht- 
noD in exWmo hoite >ppeara to be pBitieulul; ta Mitlnidales. 

13. PraitrateM. "Aa pieeeiit deitie*." — Svp. nmtw. "Bj 
&ax ciineBs iDte^awtioii." • 

13. Qai». EqniTBleDt to Et lier. "And Ibese."— Oaitifaw 
Wnt» eefHt, &c " Now tbat aD," &c. — A ntfrrie *tUtn,,GoOgk 


25 1- VL TcLLn CiciKoini, &c. "Third Ontibii tt Hucu 

TuHiu Cicero iguuat LnchiB Cililiiie, deliTerad befora the Romui 
pm^le." — Cililine haTing joined tbe anaj of Muiliiu. the cmuipin- 
ton who ranuined st Bome, conHiating of LentuloB, llieD pnetor, 
Cethegui, uid othere, jsepued to eiecDte the inatmctiana nhich 
bul beea giTen them. It hippened that tbe Allobrogea, k Gallic 
netioD, had eMne enrors, at thia penod, in the c^iital, aent thither 
to coit^lun oC, umI obtsin redmui ibr, iDJniitw inflictcd by Romui 
eommuiden. Lentolui Ivnpercd irith UieM sinbusadon, uid 
Mlicited Ihem to join the connpiiic;, but ther reTeeled to Q, FebiTU 
Suiga the overtnres which bad been mads to them. The letten 
wiitleD to tbe senate uid people of ibe AUabtoges, snd lo CstiliiM 
hinuelf, bj the conBpnalon, were, bj s mibseqaent snsngemeiit 
oT Cicero'e, intetcepted, snd the Tniten spprehended. Thej ttom 
sftetimd eonfronted witb the GaUic delegation before the M)nale, 
^ind coramitted lo safe cualody. 

Cicero then sssembled the Roman people, ud, in the ibUowing 
Mrstian, ^ipcizes thcm of the occnnenceg which had Isken [daca 
during the twenty-tbnr dsya that had interrened sii>ee the deliTeiy 
of his laat speech, paiticululy those of the Isat ds; and night. He 
invitei tfaem to Join in celebratiHg a tbsnksgiriDg, whicb bsd b«Ml 
decreed bythe senate lo bia bonDui, foi Ibe [oeseiTation of faia 


congiatDlsiea them OD tbeir escqie &om so din « 


eslimi^ u hid nesily bsfaDen them. 

2.,-Boiut,fartvna: " Yoni pro pe rty, yonr fiatnnes." Bj bona 
we bere meuit ponesuonB, by fortuniu pecwnsl propetty. 

8. Hoe domidlmm, dcc. " This dwelling-place of s moet iUus- 
trioiu eaqiite." Compare the Imguage of Nepos, lAttie. 3,) " Qtioi 
tn ta poiisiimum labe notuf ai, tn jtta dmnteiJiunt otUm urranifn 




4> BpHenu H*. On tiia diy iriwQ thii ontioQ ww ddiTend, gg 
the dnclomn* of the AlloluogBs had boen nudc in ihe Ronun 
■eute, «id the conefnntori imrliceted bj them coniigned (o coe- 

6. Et, ti, du:. Et ii hera nioiB^ar la inceptive than a eonneetiTa 
ptlticle. Compere TersDce, Pherai. 1,3,19, uid the retouk of 
Dointne, <ai ^.,) "Et nutde nm «wuxna, wd mctftaliaa par- 

6. Blailre*. "Memonble." — SalaHt Uttitia. "Tha joy 1.1- 

7. Kne fmra. "Withoit cmecionnBee." — Crmi Kiluptalt. 
" With poeitive pleaKue." 

8. Bbim. Afkec the woide writm cmiidil, tha comnum tezt hae 
Ratnubam inMited, wiuch we haTS thnnm ont u e meie gloee. It 
u not fonnd in Mrenl of Ihe beet HSS., and ia lejectad bj Utm- 
tiDa aod Gnetiae. 

8. Bmnolmtia /tmo^iu. " By oat gnleM feelinge, and Iba 
Toiee of tnditiaii,'* L e. onr gnleiiil fcnefilhen deified him, «iid 
we their deecendanta, eqmily gnteful, hiTe confiimed Ifaa Toiee of 

10. It. AHnding lo himaeU'. — Wa hne a dooble compeiaon : 
one batneen the dijB on wbicb we et« bon, tnd thoae od which 
we eie pieeeiTed &am duger ; and the other between Romoliu, 
&a fbandei trf' Rome, eiid Cicera ite pneerTra. 

11. TimpUi, ittuirit. "lU lemplea,ile dviiM." Ttmpbim 
ia [«operlj tba whola adifice : itbibnim, the pUce wheie Ihe «tatne 
ie eiacted. Compue tbe woida of Nolteaina, (Lex. Anlibarb. toL 
1, p. 901, :) " Detuimm prBpric til atdi ca la,in jaa itat iti cwjiu- 
iam linadaenaK. Ttnpbm xtn> t»t atiijiciiim Dto mcnUun. 
Xta de&i&rum ttt pamm lempItBHi mI frt lenpli : ut Capitaiiam 
fiat Itmplum jn 7W1 Inii iltlwira canmn paricle elaudtirnitur, 
Jatit, J-itKonit, el Mintrvat." \ 

IS. Qiuu quoniam, &c. " And einee theee tbiDge bave been\ 
mide manifest, laid open to new, fidlj uceiUined, in tha aentte^ 
thioagb m^ meane, I «ill now pioeeed, Romans,-») nnfold theml 
brieflj to T^" "^ ezpieMioiiB iihtttrata, fattfaala, tomptrta 
nn(, foim what ia called an inTOited gndation ; foi Cieero Gnt 
■eceituned tha daadly deiigne of the coDipiiaton, then iaid ^em 
open to Ihe viaw oF the 100110, and bj Ihia meuH modeied Ibem , 
pedeetlj ap p eieu t and deir. 

13. Quom mamjeila. "How pilpable." — huittigata et cam- 
pnliaua mt.- " ITiqr h«Te been tncked oat and con^iletelj,GoOgk 


35 li. Ex metit. "Fnro wl«t hs» beeodooe," i. •. on the p«t 

nf iIh Miute, u iboiit lo be related br me. ConsLdenble doubt 
•liils with r^aid to tbe tnie leadiug hen. The HSS. niy, >oma 
giring et exiftetatu in pUce of ex aetit. We biTB Klopled tba 
Utter, boneTn, wilh ill ths eei^ edilJOB*, uid e* Bf^nned of uid 
nceiTsd br Etneati. Weiske slao regMtb tz octi* m (tw tnie lec- 
tion, bnt be illen tbe pmietiiatioii, ]du:ing % comnu aflei acM, >Dd 
Kmoring tbe one before ez, lo tbat ignoratU ex acti* will b« iotned 
in ccHMlnietioD, " jaa, who hsTe not tbe meane of ucertaining the 
fact*, t^ reference to tbe seiute's recorded {HVceedingi." 

IS. TJL "ETer «nee." Twentj-ibar Axjt bid elnpMJ lince 
C&tilioe'B depertore. ' 
2g 1. Cuia epdtbaoL. " When I wu lecUng to drtve out." The 
Mudeot will note Ibe fbic* of Hie inqiecfaet.— 'Ah]Ii* verhi iiwuIuiR. 
"The odinm Uteudant tipan tbii woid," L e. the adiam inlo whieh 
I msjr falt wilh some, for openl; eTOwing tbat I irisbed " to driT« 

1. Ma. Understuid tnsiiiic, sod rander the clHiie u (bllowe : 
" Sinca ibat other i> the more to bo dreaded bj tm, becwln be hae 
gme foith ihTe," i. e. unee 1 deserTe moie ceDsure, I un mfraid, 
Ibr not hiring Brreoted utd pmiiibed Catiline on tbe «pot. 

3. £z(srfiuiiiiri. " To be eipelled fiom Rome." More lileiaUji 
" &aBi oui boideis." Compue, as regaida Ibe nMtning of this Tetb, 
FkiL 13, I : " Hune tz finilnu hiiKanat tttiurat ezltrmiiiaiidim 
pute," and N. D, 1 , S3 : " PTetagorat ■■ • ■ Alhemtitiiam pam 
mrbt ttfat agra tHeniunaiiti ett." 

4- At ego. Tbe eommon text has Atqat ege, wbich we biT* 
cfaanged to ai egD, as leqoired bj tho aense, and u found in ons of 
hia MSS. bjr Giaeviua. Emesti aleo comiders ai tgo preieiable, 
thoogh be letaiiMthe eommoDTeading.— I7l ndi. " Whea I aaw." 

B. Qutil agrrent, qmi neUreniiiT. " What ibey weie doiog, 
what thej weie planning." 

B. Mem ila eomprehendtrtm. " I might geC possenion of the 
whole aflaii so cleaclj." 

7. VtemHptTi. "Wbsnlaaceitsinsd." — Hs rseei<sd his mfbmiar 
tian from Fabina Sanga, to whom Ihe ambeesadon of iba Allobio|tee 
had cammamcated it. — Legttot Ailohogum, It tppears from 
SaOiut {Cai. 40) tbat thsBe ambaesadois had coma to Bome to 
GomDliin of tbe oppVBiion and eiactiona of tiieir gorenion, which 
had bioaght upon them a heavj buiden of debt. — Aa legarda Ihe 
Alltdnogea, consoH Geogiapbical Indei. 

8. BiUi Traiual^iu. " O/ a war beyond Ibe Alpe," L c. in. 
"nansalpina, oi raithei Gaul. Tbe eoaatrv i^h,GoOgk 



Ibe MWt of JdUui Cww'* opentioH. — Et htniiitiu Oa^ici. <m 
"And &1mi of a Gallic toiiiiilt," i. a. in CiHlpina Guil, (n Gviil 
IfiBg to ths Miath of Ihe Alp*. — Tha RoiBaaa meant b^ litmiUtut 
Hij «uddeii uid dugeioai wu, nbni tbe «Mnij were neu U huid, 
■nd tba «tlet; of tlw cipital at etike. Strictlj Bpeoking, thie 
iiivi>lTed mly tm cawa, ■ wu jn Ital^, M one wich the Quila, Ibeit 
ircaiiediite nei^iboiiia. Caaqiue PhU. 8, 1 : '' Mayeru nottri 
AOMiInun JlaHcam, quod trat imntihnu, Amuufun OaUicam, 
fuci trat IltJia* fisUinail, frittrM nuiUih luBnilltm «uxmw- 
loKf " A tumult wu reguded es of fu mois thieateniiig GOuecta 
than a wu, uid, theiefoie, whea obb occuned, no eicuiee &om 
■unng wera allowed to be Ttlid. 

9. A P. LttUalo. He «iii[dojed u hii agent, in aoniiding the 
Allobragea, eae P. VmbtaeaB,b^bielLe met them iupeiMin. (SaQ. 

10. Eodtmpu iUiurt. The smbaawdon btendikt to retom 
home thron^ Etnnia, and of CDune would meet with CuiliDe, who 
vw wtth Manlina neu Feaulae. (tn Cat. 1, 3.) 

11. Ciim Uttrit tiumiititqiit. " With letten and inatnittiana.'* 
— FuZlurctani. Sallnat calta him P. Yaltotciua, •cd mak** bmi to 
hkTO beeu in inhabituit of Ciotona. (Ca(. 44.) 

13. Oftaham. Bnieeti thinka epfanuii [nelcTBbJe. "BoX^i^tm 
Bunt be Tetaiiied, aa it expmaea the aetion (p>iiig on »t the ttme 
qieeified, " I waa aceiiatamed to hope." 

13. L. FUeeuM, tt C. Pamtima». Casnilt Hiatorieal Indei. 

li. Qvt ■)»)»<, ^. "iBMinacb w Ibey entettained ereijr 
Boble Bod euhed ■entimenl leqiectiiQ tbeii countiy." 'lia nb- 
tJTO pnmoon ia jomed to the mhimictiTe mood, iriMn IIb lelaliii» 
danae oqtreaaei the naaon, m canae, of tlie actiOD, etate, oi ereBt. 

16. CnM oiwetfiratttrtL " 'Wbon it waa beginiiiiig lo dnw 
towaids eremiig." Tlua i* DOt in impenoiial Teifa, bnt a veib oaed 
■qwnoBallr. The naaanaliTe, in fact, i* dicf , wfaieb ia ondantood. 
C«ii4iueTadtoa,.£Kt(.S,49,8: " Foreruccnfe dfs, fMn ikttni 
fiUiat aquae ledamt," ind Corodins Ncpoa, 16, S, 6 ; " Ut, w»- 
ftratetntt eeda, T^tior pottent y e n t mr e." 

\t. Panttn Muiiiiitm. No*r Pcm« MbBi, one of tbe bridgM 
OTei the TibBT, aboat thiae miles fiom Kome. It wu bnilt b; M. 
Aemdiua Scaunia, &Dm ■ comptioD of whoae wmm (AemiliuB) 
dw appeiiation of Holriua ii Ihmght to l*Te onginated. At IhH 
Mdge coBmaneed Ibe Yia flaBitiiM, whieb led frem Rooia to 
Aiimiiium. Coo^^aie Junl. Yiet. ia Ttr. lU. c. TB, and AmtiB- 
■oa •iiee, 

17. JqMrtito. ThawimtBMXeU W M|Mr<i<t lAiek ia Mta 



g LatiBmd, ilAoasfa l^vttn m inidTntsstlr idmilted iola ■ 

jy 1. Ex fTotfectm Bntin^ " fWi the prwjfectnre of Rarte,' 
JVw/lKfnnu were ibiMa cJlie* utd tanitoiin in the Romui jniit^e- 
liiHi, whieh bul DehhBr uugiati tle» nor Uwi of thur awn, bot wem 
gonstned bj > Romui pnetor, or, in hii atead, bj ■ pratftetiu. 
The; did noi eDJoj the ligfats eilher of Aee towna oi ccdomee, bot 
diffetsd littlfl &iHn tbe fbnn of pRninees. 11011 piinte lighta 
d<f>«iided on Ihe edicta of the pnetor or pnefect, uid Iheir pnblic 
li^ila on ibs Mmtta, whoimpoeed on tbem.Iuei Hid •ance in wu 
■t plmme. 8ome prcuftttarae, boweTEi, poeeessed gmter jtan- 
lege* Ihut oltiei*. Towns weie commonlf ledaced lo this fbim, 
whick hid becD ongnletal to the Romu», u fiir exuople Capoi, 
■ftei the sscoDd Funic wu. — Wilh legud to Reate, eonnJt Geo- 
gltphial Indez. 

1. Tertia fert ngilU tzaett. " Nsiirij it Ihe cIom of the Otiid 
walch," i e. aen threa o'eloc1c in ibe momiDg. ThB Romuw 
dtrided ths nigfat into fooi wstches of thiee bonn eich, commeDcing 
■tdxoVkid tntheereDii^. The third wilch, thnefore, wonld ba 
Ihim twdre tothiee. 

8. Magno eonutata. "Wilh « luge tatiinie." "We hne 
lejected am with Enissti snd otheis. Msttbise, howeTsl, edduces, 
b tta ■nppmt, fro. MU. 10, 38. Gcxnpue OrakenbMch, ad Lm. l, 

4. AlerMnM. " On the interrention." — Integrit tignir. 
" With the sesls niihloken." Letlera, unong the RoEnuu,wen 
tied lomid with ■ stiing, the kaot of which wu seslsd. The eeel 
ifM genmUj ■ beid of tbe lettei-wiitei, or of some oob of bis 
•nceslon, inqtraeeed on wsx oi chilk. Henca the phiuas fbr 
" to open ■ lettei," tie tnetda-e Umm, muvliim (Hbcre, cpistolam 

6. Ipti. "Tbe pBnoTw tbmiselTea compoHag it," L s. Ihe 
MiaQe, incktding of coaise tbe unbaaaadoiB IbamaelTee wbo hsd 
been thiie eecoited. 

6. Ounjaiaiibtetecent. " When it wsa nowbeBiiiiiii^ tobe 
dawn." (^mpeie Dota 16, page S6, uid Peiatrefi Laiitt Eli^ett, 
f. 80, ed. Buker. 

7. Iti^tniii ttimu m tRaeliRdtDrsni. " Tbat nKat in&motia con- 
liiTer.'' — Cimirin» OtUnntnt. Consnlt Kiatocictl Indax. 

8. Lentubie. Hs wsa tben praetor, iDd ■ mui of shitfifiil md 
>uiirioo> hibiti. Cooiult Hietorieal Tndex. 

9. OtUb fuei lilterit iandit, Sk. " I ani^iase, beeuise he faad 
k«M 19 Itta tho pnrioua ni^ oonliu7 to his nsiwl cnalcm, fii tht,GoOgk 

pmpOM of gtting tbe tat(«n," L e. Kn flw paipiMt «f niikiiig ont 27 
■nd d^eimg Ihe deipetcbe*." LitenDy, " in giTing ttte letten." 
B7 praama mcle is metuit the night «ihich had juet gene bj, mod 
DB themimiingeAei whicfathe iireat toci place. 

10. Practer cmmttudittem. Cicero epedu, m the eevoWh 
chapler or thia oiaticm, of llie »ontmm Lentidi, " the dioniineu 
of Lentulue," 

11. Deftrri. The common tsxt hu n/mi, «hicb ii enDneoui. 
Tben «u no fanDol nierence, but the leiten were tnentj lo be 
laid befare Ihe eeiiate. HiBic opinion raapecting them nonld be 
uked in > ■ubsequent stege of tha pioceedingi. 

12. jSi mkH (HCI iitvnMm. UDdentand m tffir, icfcniiig lo 
the letten. — Tantu ftunuUu*. ** So gmt ikim." — Ntgam nt 
tntfactantai, &c. With facttinm vag^y ita. "I declkied tbst 
I wooldDotut inmcbewerunottobr," &o. ; L e. leipieeaed 
nvr fiim detenninstion of l>7ing, &c. 

13. Qiat eranl ai ne i^ttta. " WUch had been commnnicsted 
tome." — Rtperta non tttaii. "Had not been foand in the let- 
ten." — iVimiam diUgtnliam. "Hiat anj excess of Tigilsnce," 
i. e. Ibe blune of biving bsen orei-TigilaM. 

14. Coigi. The >eiwte wu coineiied on thii oecaaion in the 
temple of Concrad. (_SaU. Cat. 46.) Thii b«ildiDg was aitoala 
on the lowei ilope (>n raiieibiu) of the C^itoline hiH, oTeiloaking 
tbe fonmi, and wu a place of gicat seeuii^ fiom its nstuial sitoa' 
lion. The Eqoites, monoTei, stood gusid aioaDd ic lliis tenqile 
of Coneoid had beensiected by Ihe consnl Opimins, >ftei the delth 
of Cains Oncchns. {FbiL C. Grateh. 17.) 

16. St pUd tdonm ttitt. " WhiteTei Treapons might be 
ibeie," L e. mightbe fbnnd dwn an ■ntchingtbBbaildiiig. 

16. FiJm ei fuUtcom dcdi. " I pledged nnto him the pnUio 
Ituth (br tus nfatj," i. e. I aiBoied him o^ impniiity in tbe name of 
tha eemle and the people. — Ea qiuu leiitl. " AU that he knew." 

17. RtBrtaMtt. Gratsi snd eome othei eailj editon [oefer 
ncepitiet, which oceun in one of the M^S. of Muietui. Tta 
piesent leading, howeTBi, is mon forcibla. Btereare m k " to 
legain counge," rccipen le meielj " to recovei aiH's self." 

19. MaiBiata tt hlterat. " A Terbal message and ■ lettei." 
1. Ultrttar. " Shoold aTai) himself." Aa leguda Ihe cdcddi- Ofl 
■tance ben mentJocad, eompate tfae lugnigB of SalloBt : " Ad iot 
mandala verhit dai 1 Qinim ah ttnatu iiottia jitdieaiiit ail, que 
coutilio itrntia rt p nditl t tn urbe parata eite ^uat juiitril ; tu 
eiMeltliiT ipitpiopiut aeeederi." (Cot. 44.) 
%. UcalnL Snpplj/iwr<<. — (hmitu tx forl^ita. Aeatir,GoOgk 

200 THK TBIBD «BJITielt 

28 i>V to SiDiMt, (Cai. 49,) Iba citr wM ta b« foed in Iwelra daemit 
qnnMit U tbe mne tUM. Flntucli, howeTu, »Mm, tbrt the 
coHpintiKB b>d dinded lt«iiie inlo e hmidTed puts, ind wtBcted 
the niiH nDmber of men, lo each of lAma wta ■UoOed hia quutat 
te b» eet I» Gra. Otben wera to inteicept tha witai ud kilJ ■!! 
(hu woit to eeek it {Vit. Ck.e. IS.) 

8. Praalo intl UU. " Hb migbt be qcst st hsnd." Rerenriiig 
to CitiLiDe. — Qnitlfiigieiitafxdptrtl. " Both to inteic^ th««e 
who fled," i. e. frran tbs citjr. Exeipert 'a here boMwed friHii tho 
ncTtnmits ef the chise, snd ii beintiAiItj figuntiTe. Conqtara 
the Gieek iiJf ;(iitVsi. 

4. Jtujttriaiium. Tbis wu in wiiting, tnd bid the wals and 
Mgnslim* of Ihe leeding coiUi(Hntoii uineied. (Sni/. CoJ. 44) 

0. L. Cattic. Conq)etit(n Tiith Ciceio foi the GonsDlBhip. — 
Ai nguda the piopei nimes mBntioned in thit untMKe, coobuII 
HisCoiicsI Icdei. 

t. PiJtMlTtM tibi tupiat, &e. •' Thst foot-l<H«ea woold not be 
wsntiiig to them," i. e. tbat tbe; woldd be joined, «4ieli the; had 
croaaed tbBAIp«,bf ■ ntfficient nnmber of iniuitij. 

7. Sibi emjmtaite, &c. " Had ■■aured them, tbat, m secoid- 
soce «ritli Ibe Sibjliine pradictioaa, and llw ■nnreie of the dJnnen, 
be Tns tbst thiid membei of the ComaUui line, onto wlsHa it we« 
&ted fbr tbe «aTeraigntir of thii citT snd lh« i^e empiiB to cwiie.'' 
Hie Sibjnine prediction alhided to waa ss follows, that " C C C 
Tronld r^n at Rodm." Tbese thiee cqiitalB Trere thDoght to 
daDOta Uiraa ComBliL Aa ngaids the SibjUiiM onclsa, conBuIt 
Histoiicil lodei, a. T. Sibjl, — The onupea esuninedtheentivLa 
o( the netiina, aiid fcom the ippesnflce <rf theae ■■ well ■■ &oin the 
flame, •aioke, and otbei ciKmnitaiicee, pretended to draw unens af 
Tifaat wsa to happen. Romsn divinstion wis of Etnuisn oiigin. 

8. Tanbtm tUtua Conislium. The piDnoan tUum hst ben tba 
ftoee irf the Ondc ■lUela.— The foll nme of Lentalna wss Publias 
CofMlids Lei^iit Son- B7 his ■emen IheiefaTe ba belonged 10 
dw gau CenuUa, Ae Comdian line, clan, 01 hoasa, — IliBra 
^ipesn to bsTa been no tSa.'cj between tbe difiaient msinben of s 
BiKnuiboaae m gau. II boie this btlei name oalTfoiaiitaDDion. 
Tbe Oofnelii, as a gena, bad cammon lehgioBB litsB ; but we sra 
not, on tbat accoantt to aasaow th^ an on^nil kindied eiisted 
bolWMD, f« ezample, Iha Sc^iioa sad lh« Sjlk*. Tbe uulogy of 
tba Atheman caintitution con&ima Ihis opinioii. NitliJa , Aan. 
Stt. To[. 1, p. m aod S67, Cambriige trmtL 

fl. CixMm ante te tl Stdlam fiUt**. Bolh Cinns snd Sjlk,GoOgk 

uf Jfia fli» ^ff TfirAitfflvtHr r^ XP^^'i K'**" Tt ttl Lt^XXnr, rpfr^ ^ 
\>iinf Ki^jrlkiu l«i>v. Cmnult «Iw S«lliut, (CcJ. 47.) 

10. .FiUrilnn <H«. "Wh filed." Conqtue "nbuUin, (1. 8, 
fiS,} " Quviti /aitJa jon nxnc txplammu oniuu." — Qut uxf. 
" Smce il wai." Compm noM 14, page 36. 

11. Poti Virgimm aiioliUimum. Tlw name* «f Iba two Tei 
tal Tugin* here nUuded to wera Mucu •nd liciaia. They we» 
BCCQSsd ot EuYing vioUted the tow bj whicb Ibe memben ol thia 
oidsi weie boimd to petpetail chsatitj, wbich m tbe cue of VeMilt 
wu ciUed n£Mtu(, or unhBllowed inteicoiuee. The wbole nutter 
i» cleulj let fbith m the Ibllowuig conuneat of AKODin> on tha 
oration foi Milo, (c. 12, 4 S2,) whicb Wei^e fint addaced in illii»- 
tntiOQ of tbiapunge ; " ObtntriUtem (fuiim CnMiiu ni judicio 
atttHderai) juottm^t Scx. PtTiaetaa,Mbaitutpitbit,crimiiiatitt 
ttt L. Melcliam, jHmtifictm maiimim, latnmqtK ctUegiHm ponliji- 
eam malt judictuia dt inealu mrgiiaim ral^iam, quoi vnom 
nuiia Aent^ian dannttterat, abtoiverai aultm dutti, JKareiam rt 
Idtimam, pepiiiut kvne Cattiam ertaml, ;u( de eitiem mrgvatnt 
juatrtrtl : itque et utratqua Hiaa et praelerea evnpltrti aliat, 
Muma, vt eiiiHmaaa eit, aiperitatt vm, damnatit." 

IS. Patt Capitoia autem ineentioHea. The bnmtiig of Ih* 
eapilol hera dluded to, took plKe A. U. C. 670, in tbe coiwilehip 
of L. Scipio and G. NoitnniiB. Ths building had itood 419 yean. 
{Sigon. Fatt. Cont. p. 43S, td Oxon.) Tbe confliigntion wu 
owmg to tbe eueleMnea of the keepen, ind wu ■nppowd lo 
poitend eome gieot eriL The Roman cqutd wu buint thrae 
menl timM. Finlt, A. U. C. 670, wbeu it w*> lebuilt by Sjlls, 
■nd dadictled bj CituhB, (A. U. C. 676.) A eecond time, A. D. 
76, bj the loldieii of TitelliDe, i^en it wu lebmlt bjr Teepeuu ; 
•Bd a Ifaiid tinw, at the death of dw httei. It wu raatond hf 
Daaiitun, hii Mm, irith gneter magBi£eence dian ever. 

IS. SaiumaHiitt. " DDiing' the Satnnulia." Tbe Satuinaha 
m: liMlinl of Satuiri, wu Um mcct celebmted in the Roman Calen- 
du. It took pbce iii the motith of December, begioning on the 
.7th u>d lutii^ for •eTenl daje. At fint it wia for one daj, afteF. 
witd for Ihree, (wbich wae the cnae in Ciceio'i time,) and hf the 
ordei ef Caliguli for five daya. Duriiig ila contiDaaiiee, tll oiden 
were deroted to mitth uid feuting, fiieode nnt praeent* to cme 
■DOlhei, and the ilma weie entertained, uid aven weited upon hj 
their muten. AU thii wu dooe in commemontk»i, uid u em- 
blunatic, of tbe goUea age, when men weie peifectlf eqnl, «id no 
livmj u yet «ziMed. The liceme allowed at thii lMiiT«] wemed,GoOgk 


^ to the eoiuipinton to ifiiHd ■ tknninU« ^tpotonily foi ezMoln^ 
Iheii munUnnii design. 

14. YultTi. Ths conitractioii ii heie dliglidj cbu^ed, iriach it 
DOt nDun»] m Ckeio. Compin CtU. i, 3. Sotne «11110» hsva 
■iicrenir, to wtucli EniMti inctine*. Bnt tbe •nteDdBticB i* unns- 

16. iVcinifURnl. " Not to be tedions.''— T^oii^M. "llte 
letten." Tfas teim labtllat lefera to the pecnliu' foim uid ■wnm 
of theee letlen, thej being; wiitten on " tablvte" coreied wilh wix. 
Catnpua note 4, page S7. 

16. Sifimm. " HieeBil." — CagwwiC. " He icknowledged it 
Mbehie." — Nn ttRnn mculniau. "We cnt theitiing," L •. 
openlhelettel. Compaie oote 4. p«ga ST. 

17. Qute tavrtt Ugatit coii/irmatKl. " 'Wbit he hid UBnrad 
their "-*TTT"'"^ he wonld." — RtcefititiU. " B>d taken npm 

le. Tamtn. We b«ve reoHed thie pnticle with Beck. Deriig, 
■nd Schntx, u reqnked bf ihe contflit. It is omitted bj EmeitL 

19. BomnaitftrramentenanMtvJioium. " FaodofgiMilanne.'' 
FtrTomtiUitm ie pnpeil; enj iiutiaiiMiDt of inni, > nd, UxA, &c 
Tbe a>e orthetenn, on thii occuion, b; Cetliegue, inaiy bkTSbota 
inlmded u » ^ieciBi of witticiim, paitiy enou^ it muet be cMir 
fened, foi the puipoee of hiding hie agiliUon uid ■-«■""■"e ui lii 
of compoMne. 

30. JUciUUi* Hairit, &c. "'When Ihe lettatr bidbeenraad, 
diapirited ecd confonnded, convicted bj tbe foice of conedenc*^ 
becsme *1I of a ludden aitent." 

31. Cognatil rigMan tl nunum luam. " AckDonledged Ht 
wetl tad hend-writiQg." — TabtUat. " Hi» letter." — SmOaititm. 
" Puipoit." — Canfatit* ett. " He eoofeeaed thU it wu hii." 

22. Cogwitcenlne nfnumt "Whothei he knew the («al 1"— 
jlmuHl. " He made i sign with hi* head in the afflimUive." — Ett 
Mro. " It ii, indeed." Vtro is hen eqmialent to imu or frafttlo. 

33. Clorurimi viri. Hie gnndfatlier of Lentulus, hora illiidad 
to, bad been prinetf» tnatitt m bie diy, sod hmd ileo raceiTed a 
«round, while combuing on tbe nde of the paliieiaii* againet th* 
ibUowen of CaiuB Gneehue. 

3i. Ujiict. " Deuly," i. e. u tho ont tide object of all hi* 
■ficctiona. — £tiam muU. " Eten iboug^ mitte." 
QQ 1. LcfwMur, eodeni roAone, &c. :; The lettei iteelf, whieh «■■ 
iddresaed to the aenate and people of the Allobiogee, and of llM 
■amo unot wilh ihe otber two, ia ihen lead." 

3. Ntgamt "Deelined tbe oSei." EqtiiveleDt to ntgmit m,GoOgk 

MAtNIT CimilTK. 303 


wwwB eui /atiit Mi iictndi j)oiflati.SarrexU. All wln) ad- g^ 
drencd Um ■enate hid to iJM, imieH tiw; merehr eipieaed tbui 
M«rat Wb qwdwr who liul piecedcd UuDi. 
■ ■ a. Qutil liH e»»e( eam ti*. " Wbat ho erer lud to do irith 
thapL" — ^idcamUli,fK. " And when tiiey h»d lold Mm biiedy «nii 
fiit^; in leply."— Pir guML Nimely, Umbienna. (SoU. Cat. 40:) 

4. Niltttiu naia, &c. "WhetheT lie hod Mvei ^luD wilh 
Ihem coQcenuQg the SibjUine pre^tioDa." Compan note 7 

5. SeeUrt dimau. " Deprived of iU jodgment hy ■ lenBe «f 
gnilt." Amenlic denotea the totil andcoDtimied ibfence of leuon ; 
danailia Ihe want of jndgment on paiticnlu ocoaktni. 

6. Ila. "To ■ach ■ d^iee." — Ingatium iJInJ, &e. "Ilat 
alntity of hie, and thit eipeiience in publie epeaking foi wfakh he 
vraa elw^ diitinguiehed." Ciceio(£m(. 64)iaokaLeiitulnsaiD0iig 
Ihs eqnale of Hoitenaiua ; and oa aaothei occaaioD (Ibii. 66) aaya 
of him ; " Ifeque mallo teait P. LentiUat, eapit et exeogittndi et 
ufiundt tariitatem tegtbat formae HgmtoM, carporit aotat plemu 
trlit et EfflutaJi*, voei» tt tuavitat tf magTtUudo. Sie in hac nHit 
fraeter aetitniem fiat." 

7. Propler vira tcelerit, ikc. " Fiwn the fone of (ijwnly-detecteil 
guilt." Xamftiti alqtu diprthetui, by bendiadya i<a ammfetl» 
iefrehenti. — Lnpudentia. "That effronttny." 

8. Veliementittinie perturbatut. " Thoagh Miy TOlently agita 
led." Aj if ifTuinivfi were eipieiaed ; and hBoce the piaamce 01 
lamen, " etiU," in the ■nceeeding claDse. 

S. Eranl autem, &c. " Now it wu wiitten withoot any namet 
Mil totbefdlowingpuipoit." TheteniuinUiialetteidonot enclly 
tgiee wilh Sdluit (CoJ. 44.) Tbe one in the teit probalily ia tbe 

it progTtitat. " Into what ■ atnation yoa 
haTeadnDced,"Le. iritata atepyouhave laken ; how fer, by going 
to tbe camqt of UanIiDa, yoa hsire declaied yooi raal inCaottona. 
SalhiBt, in citiog thia aame letter, hai in puaia calamilale lii, " ia 
how diogeioaa ■ aitnatioD yon are." 

II. Btiam infinierttm. "Eren of the loweat" Meuui^ lb« 
■lavea. S^uet haa, " atixilium ptlai ah omniitu, etiam ab inAtii. 

IS. Intinialabfint. " AUeged againat him." Donatoa nukea 
Ihia Teifa baTO the Dieaning of to frame a chaige Bgninat anolhai, 
lAethei it be tme oi falae. Thui, " Innmulare ttl trimeji ingertre, 
iDaimuIatio eil et falii il veri crirninTt iiuutatio." [Ad Terent, 
PAonn. 2,3, 12.) So aJao Feetux : " Iuaimulaie, crrnm tk a^t^tM,GoOgk 

t04 tHI TffUtD nXATIOU 

29 19. Onm HU, Asc. ■■Altbou^ tba foaawing vipMtad M ba 
watt mnifnt tndictcknu mi pronli of guih." — 7W mtiito, &c 
■' Still theM ■eenud fii mora conTincing, thait chtngii^ eolonr, tb* 
•ipnMoa of Ibeit «7«!, theii look, their liloiM." 

14. Sic tmt cbttuptuTarU. " Foi «0 ubiaiHkd wvn thej.'* — 
&t/mtim nmmitmjMiM, &c "TbajfiomlinM to tiiiie eichingnd 
•od> ata!» ^uicm with eaeh othei, m to *ppeu no longei to be 
JDlimed igiiittt bj othen, but to be inTDiming igiinM tbemeel*ea. 

16. Expotili» ttjfte tiitit, " Beiiig unfalded and mide knmrn.'' 
Bxfetitia iaiwieoeed fbi expAoUu. Compira Orai. 11 : " Diffi^ 
eiOimm trtfarmm txpeiun ofiimL" 

15. Dt tmmmt rtfMitt. " For tha nietr of Oe rapoblio et 
t*^." Snmnuu ia eleguU; joined to Boone fol the ptnpoee of 
denoting th>t on which Ihe whole thing indicstad t^ the Uttei 
depandM. Tbua, nonma Tttpuiiiea i» the public nfa^ ud areiy 
Aing on wliich it dependa. Compua Cai, 1,6;" Suntma lolu* 

17. A jninciptku. '■ Of tbe leading men." Hie frmeipt itHM- 
tita wM ilwBire uked hi> oiunion fint, Dnleaa cooanii eleet weia 
preaaat, who hid on auch occBaioaa the pieference. Aflei thaM 
b«d eipieaied tfaeir lentimBDta, tiie cjitmiartt, Or men of eonnkr 
nDk, were uked, end tAer Ihem the otbai leniton, aceording lo the 
office* thej hed GUed, or wera thrai filliug. Sometimee, wilh the 
eieeption of tbe prine^ ttnnliu, uad tbe conaula eleet, no legulu 
Mdei wu obaored. Tbe prindpei, on tba pnaent ocuaion, wan 
thay wba had the ligbt of eipreeung theii opiiiiaQ fint, ind who in 
llut aenae might be eilled leeding men. 

18. AaniTttae te fcrlitiinidt itnlinHMt. ■'Opiniona fiill of tpirit 
■nd fiimDeaa.'' — Sine ulZs wittglt. ■■ Willwmt t, diawnting TOice " 
Lilaimlly, '■ without vtj di»er»itj- of aentiment." 

30 ^- Pirteriptum. "Whtten out," or engroaaed. The deoreea 
of the lenita wete wiitten, or, more coiractl; apeaking, engnTed 
on tableuafbne*. So tiat pericripliim u faeiaialaet equiralent 
to aert indium. 

3. JlfhU gratuu, itc. " Thinka ai 
tenna." — Qued- eomm optta, Ab- 
TigDtOQi and faithfbt ciMjpentioD." 

S. Fira /crtt. RefaniDg to C. Aatonina, hia,eoUe^p]e in the 
eonaDUi^ who bad been on ^ieDdlj tenna witb Catiline, bot w>* 
dikwn orar bj Cieeio to the cauae of Ibe rcfmblic. Conauh Hie- 
toiical Indei. 

4. A nit it riipublicat contHiit. '■ Fmn hia ewn and tha cmn- 
•el* of Ibe repnblic." Anloniua ia here praiaed fbr not biving aided (vGdogk 


hii tbrmer friendi, tLe eoiHpinton, wilh hJi printe idnce, and fur 30 
nol haitng impaited to them any of the meuuiei ■ecrellf lakeD bj 
hta colleagUB and ihe senste for the suppteHion of ihe connpirety. — 
Emceti makei a difficulty about the meening of TeipHblicac connfni, , 
which we traat our explanation haa letnoved. / 

5. Ciim le practura ahdicatttl. "After he had abdicated liia{ 
piaetonihip." No perttm at Rome could be punished while holding V 
anjr offiee. Thi> seeniB to have arisen from Ihe eaored cKaracler f 
imparted, in s gicater or lese degtee, Jo all Matiom of magialtacj, f 
by the aui^es havicg been taken, and the pleaaare of tixe gods j 
u it were consulted, before thejr were confened. Hance Ihe per | 
eoDa of magiaUatee were deemed aacred, and 'they could not bo 
given into ciutod; until they had laid down Iheir office and become 
priTate indiyiduaU. 

6. Jn evtlodiam, Not to prison, but inlo what wii cilled t&tnt 
eutledia, Thia was resorted to td the caae of indiridaals of rank 
when accused of anj crime. Thej' were either, as in tiia preseat 
instaoce, giren orer to the eare of diating^uished persona, who thu* 
bccame lespoosiltle for their qqiearance when it wai required, or 
elss were detained in tbe dwellings of tfae magiatntei. Cotmill: i^ 
tnu, ad Tacit. Ami. 6, 3, and compare Sallutl, Cal. 47. TtiB 
writer laat raferred lo giTes ua Ihe niimes of the indiTidual* into 
wbOM hands ^e conspiiators were deliTercd. 

7. JPriKurcUiimem, " The ta^."— Gassina and the penoD* afler 
Mined had probabty oot been Ihen qjprehended. 

e. Exiit eslmit. •' One of thoee colonists." Tha M3S. and 
«arly editiotH read eelimiit foi eolimit. This latter, bowBrer, ia 
without sny doobt tbe true lection, ajid is giren ai luch by Aldus, 
R. Stephni*, Emesti, Schutz, and othen. In adopting it, qtuu, 
«hich foUowa aftei cBlosiit, must of courae be changed to quei. 

8. Inliac AOolinigTm loaicitatime, "In thia tampering with 
the AUobroges," 

10. liierifmtni \(mincm, " A freedman." The Romin write» 
DBO tbe term liUrtinat when designaling a freedman generalty, bot 
tilcrAu wlicn diey name tbe master to whom he alands in ihe nU- 
timi i^ a &e«dtnaii ; thus, iiitriu* Catiartt, but iile trat libertirau. 

11. Ftri-actot. Porposely naed inetead of dedvclot, to couTef 
theideaof thsirbeiiigbiou^t toGabininsforeocTUpt purposes, i. e. 
tor fliB Tuin of the state. "Inetl «rim Tcbo pCTduceio notia 
tujvitiat,nammerelrieetjieriTiciiiaintuT." (Ern*«(» Ciao. Cw.) 

IS. Atqne ca lemlate, ic. " And thna, Romans, the «enale 
•sereiaed such lenitj, a* to tbink, &c. Alqve is here partij inlen-,GoOgk 


30 » »»' 

{Sali. Cat. 66.)—SiaiaH ynit. 
■oand Mite." 

li. Siipflitaiio. "A thaulugiTmg." Thia ttx&plue, orcourae, 
iu all the teoqilei. Coochee weie >)iieail b tliem foi tbe godo, ar 
if eboat to feeet, umI Iheii imegM weie laken doTrn &Dm theii 
pedeetale, and placed upoa them uouiid Iba allan nhich nere 
lowled vith the nchieet diehee. Thii wH called a Iiecttifcmiiia 
(i e. Ictti «(cmtionAir.) The authoi of tlw decree ordiuDiiig e 
«KHplwalto iu the [ueeeiil inetaitce wee L. Cotta. {Ck. PkiL S, 
«.-14, 8.) 

16. Togato. " Amjed in the robe of peace." A mpfUcattf 
imi Derei b^ore thia beeii decned eicept fbi aoma eiicceaa ia mi. 
— The militai? cloak or Ihe Romaiu wia the lagvai, abmt, futaiNd 
in fonit bj * cUsp, uid of a led coJour. 

16. Hoc inba-tit. " Will bs found to difiei m thuL" The m» 
of the eubjuuctiTe muat be here uoted, aa iodicative of modeet; and 
leaa poiitire than the iudicatiTe nould have been. Conqieie tto 
Greek foim of eipreauoD, niiTt liaflpai Ir. 

17. Atqiu ilZtid. Conqisre the language of Emeati, " EitfarmA 
eaiuiuiatii loci ht»e Lalina. Sic stque haec dicta soDI, it timili^" 

18. Fatlmi alqat traxiactian at. A fbim boircnrBd eitbei &om 
Ihe lechuicslitiee of tke law, oi iiom the Ungiwge of the Koman 
■ecied lilee. — 'Whenerei two veriM aie nsed, ueailj ii seC piecieelj 
nmilei ia meaning, thsy aie, geDen% ^ieekiiig, Co be nnd«Md *■ 
uoe leib, with an adveib oi aome otbet teim to etieugthen ihe 
meaikiiig. Thue, in tke pieaent instance, the clauie maf be Inne- 
laled, " Traa fullj sttended to." 

IS. Fatefactui. " Completety e^osed," i, e. fiillj detected. — 
Tamtn nagittTata, dcc. Ciceio eomoieiids the wioe cautJoD of ibe 
■enata tn not punieluiig an indiiidusl while in>aat«d Tnth sn office 
of magiitiacj. 
J^l I. Ut, quM rttigio, &ti. " la oidei that we, ip puniriiing FuUiue 
I^nQiluB aa a meie priTale indliidui], mighC be &eed liom Ihat ler 
ligioua sciuple, which, bowevei, bad iwt pieTenCed Cuua Haiiu* 
Eiom pulting to death Csius Olancis, conceining whmn iwthmg hsd 
been decteed bj name, while actusUj ioTested wich Ihe ofliee of 
piaetoi." — Aa r^aids the hiatoncsl aUuuani in thia paasBg«, eoiuiilt 
Indei. The BlegBQt conatiuction of ntm fiterat C Mario qtil) 
«inui xcideret, &c., muat be noted bj Ihe eCudent. UteiaUj, 
" had found no eiieCence nnla C. Marius, (L e. in llie bosran of C. 
Mstius,) Bo IhaC he migbt tbe leea on that accounC put to death," dcc 
S. Captoi a cimprthauoi. 'Aneitedsndincaalod;." — £» 



timirt iAttit. " Toa oo^ to rcst iMnred." — iJiu dcpnZrif, Slc. 3| 
<■ ThMe duigen thmt tfaiMtaned <mr c&;bemg now nuded ofll" j.i 

5. Quem gaidaB iga, &c. "Wltm I ww eadeavouring to dnTS 
thU iDdividaal ftom Ihe city." Qiter», coamBacing t clauie, ii 
hers eqninlait to JUiim, releniiig to Citiliae. 

4. Sommim. " Hie droweioeM." Equiialent to ttmmUniiam. 
Lenttdiu, illhoii^ a, man of peita, wts Tsma^able foi hia iudolsnt 
kod loxDiioiia habita. In piinciple hs was a comj^te piofligata. 
Coiuiilt Histoiical Indez. 

6. tfec L. Caitii adipem. " Noc the lazj coipulence of Lociaa 
CaniuB." .Aiiep« is lileiall; " &t-" IC ia heie equiTaleat to eorpiu 
obetiuie et jiingwtudine (ardum et tlolidtim, conTsyixig ttw idee. of 
luioess and dalnees. The Engliih exprenion, "fat-head," (if it 
be not &iim ths Fieoch fal,) is somewhat enslagoaa, 

5. m*. IWeiiiiig to Catiliiie. — Std tomiltu. "But ki limg 

7. Onumnn aditut tetiebat. " He was acquaiDled with Ibe avB' 
naes of ifiproach unlo all." — Appillare, ttTtlart, &c. "He waa 
■ble, he daied, to addieu, aoaiid, tampei wilh." Heamann aua- 
pecta audttat of being aupeiflucnia beie, but it lefeia, in ftct, lo 
what comea inunedialoly afiei, " contiHo ntjne ling«a ntjut mamu 

8. Eral ti coiuUiam, &e. " He had a head wsll.6lted foi the 
planmng of crime, nhils neithei was s tongae nor a hand wantiiig U 
it." lAngua refeis to Catiline's powers of peraussion, mamit to 
hia laboriooa peraereiance, ind bis duii^ eiecutiOD of what he had 

9. Jam ad certat rw, &c. " Nay, too, he had particulBr penona 
aelected aod aaaigned for tfae BecompIiBhment of paiticulai objecta," 
L a. BBch one bad his diatiact aod tllolted qihers of sction, Cerlin 
hHHUiu in thia pasaige ii coaunoiily rendeied " tnuty idharenta,'.' 
" men on whom he conld rety," and thia ia certainly maifl lo accaid- 
ance with Ihe genetsl meaning of e«r(iM ; but Ihe prBoeace of <trM« 
TM Id Ihe suiiB sentsDce >eemi nataisUyto call for Ihe meaning wa 
hkre giren. Ciceio, beudea, elaewheie nsea tertat m the Bame 
•enie, i. e. fbi the pionaun ptiiam. Thns, De Clar. Or. c. 16 ; 
"Haiet etrlet tidtladioto*,qtU,"&v.,ttiS.proMarceU.6: " Into- 
lcBfian certarum hominum eztimttcere," 

10. Sihil trat, juod, &•:, "Theie wu iMthiag in which he 
nimaelf did Dot engage, lend aid, watch, labDm." Occurro here baa 
&e meaning of to heatentalend aid, lo BrriTe seaBODBbly or intime, 
and xiaea in aignificaliDn abore obeo, vbich ia employed in ita priou- 
tt*«B(QMa, "tocoma b emtot with,"(si, "againat," andir<,)*'lo 



31 a^lga m.* Comptn, 11 regtrd* Iha meuiiag here uaignsd to 
tCMrre, Plaut. Poe». jiral. 43 : Cie. PkiL l, 4, ic. 

11. Frigiu, ntiBi, Sce. Coaiftn the acconnt «liich SiQiiit 
gJTM of CitdiBe, (c. 6,} " CoTyiu patiau ituiiM, vigiliae, algerit, 
ntfTtt jii4m (unpMm cr«i£tiile wl." 

IS. Ton urcm. " So keea," L e. u keea-ughted in whtt n- 
gHdad hii owd intereiU. CoD^ue Ibe ezplaiution of Doiiiig, 
" tuHu*, jtui libi expedial, pertpidtnUm." — Tam panUtmi. " So 
pnpued," i. e.^paied to ict on svvrj eiamgeacj. Faratiu Ib 
often put, u in the pnaent iiuUiice, withaut mj tbing aipteuad 
to which it aiMj diiectljr lefei. Compiie Gneiiiu, ad loc. 

13. /« perdM» rtbit: "In s rainou» canes." litenUy, " io 
ihe midjt of luined aSuii." — Domettiei* tiuiiiM. " SBCret plata," 
L e. plota tt bome, 01 in tha citr, u oppoeed to the cunp. 

14. Son iile noiie SatuTBaiia, &c. " He would bBve Gied npoa 
DO fettiTBl of Satam foc ub," L a. Ibi' our deaUnction. He wenkl 
not haie put ofi* ao loDg the day of eiecution. Coniolt nota 13, 

15. Nejitt comnumiel, &c. " Nor h»e illoned bii aail, hi« 
iMlen, io ■ woid, muiifeat pfaofa of hia guilt, to be wized." 

16. Oeetmi alqiu ebititi. " I met uid obatiucted." llie taeui- 
ing of ocaari i» beie ileo, u b e pievioui puaige, to uiive aes- 
■ODibly, ud in time foi action, bat thii action ia now of ui oppoung 
chamclar, u ii fkrthar denotad bf tba praaaoce of obetiti. 

33 '- ^"tn atpu coniitiD. " By tbe lerf will uid desigii." IfutitM 
ii here equiT&lent to volanlai, uid bu ■ Gguiatira leference to iba 
eipieeiioD of one'* ■aient by noJdittg the hBBd. Compaie tba 
weU-knowQ pemge in Homer, {S. 1, C38, leqg,,) and the tcK 

3. Conjectura aiieqai. " Coujecture." Lilenllj, "ittBin to 
bj coDJectuie." — Quoi vis videtur, &c "Because Ibe direction 
of e&iiB ao impoituit in theii cbutctei, ■eema ecaicelr powible to 
h»T8 fdlleQ within the iMgB of bnm»n wiadom. " Bj tanianm 
rerum gubemalio he mewis the piloting of tiie Teoael of the (tUe 
amid the dangenbr wbicb il hDdjust been eononDded. 

3. Ila pratimtte. " In ao mBiiifeit > w&j." So mnch like 
^eaeDt daitiu. — Hie lemporibiu. " During tbe present ciisii." 

4. JVom lU iila omitMm, dcc. " Foi not to dwell upon the foL 
lowing circnmatuieaB." Ciceio pasui orer, wilb onlj 1 alighi 
mention, Iheae nuuufeatitiona of the will of tbe gods, in ordei to dweU 
with more loice on the omen BETorded bj tbe ecectkin of the stBtue. 

6; Vit/a noctumo tempore, ikc, Theae were metaoiic Bppeu- 
•ncea, connected prob^blj with the Aurota Baiealis, uid reaembliDg,GoOgk 


winnig torehes. — Ardorenigiie coeH. " ADdlhBblazingof the ■ky." gj 
Ilie phenomena beie alluded to bj Ciceio displayed thBmaelrea 
durii^ hi* coDsulehip, «id wei« regaided aa poitending the con- 
quncy of Catihne. Tha orntor makes mention of Chem in faia 
poem de ConjuJaiu, a. &vgmeDt of which haa come dowa to UA, (dt 
Div. 1, U):— 

" Qiiid ncro Fhotbifax tnitit lamiia belli, 
tfuae magTmm ad cvimcn JUaraiiato ardort volabai, 
PraeeifiUi OKiiparUt, oMtutqtu pelittel," &c. 
Compara the account. of Dio Caaaius, (37, SS,] \aiinditf i>iiji( h 
rdv vvfiarir -dTA tuv Svaiiuy dviSpoitor, So also JuliuB Obaequana, 
(c. 122, p. 205, aeqq. ed. Oudend.,') in enumerating tbe piod^;Le> 
that made their appeanuce at thia period, BpeakB of a " trabt ard*m 
ai occara ad coeiun exlenta," wblch luita veTj' wsll ooe of the 
aapecla of the Auioia Borealis. (Compare Senee. Quaetl. tfal. 7, 
6, Bnd Hardauiji, ad Plia. H. N. 2, 36.) Aa r^aida the Auioni 
Boiealig la ancient times, conault the woik of Ideler, " Meleortiogia 
Vet. Grace. et Rom.," c. 10, p. 49 : "Aurorae Boreaiit apud vete- 
"et vettigia." 

S. Ut fulmtjotm jactut, "Nottodwell npon Ihe thundeibcdtB 
huiled &ODI on.high." Siq^j omitiam. — The aUnaion ia to thua- 
dei heaid from a sereoe skf , nhicb tba uicienta alwaja i^uded u 
a Teij Bpecial omen. Compara Cic. de Dit. L c. : — 
" AtU cnnt terribiU percuitu* /ulmiiu eimt 
Luce lereiumti nlaiia lumirm Unquil." 
So Dio Cuuus, (L c.) in aUuding to thi« Bama occuioii, lenuAa, 
ttfonral ir tiBflf wcWtl Iwinr, and Julius Obiequeiu, (L c.) " Pui- 
minf pieraqttt iecutia. Sermo YarguailAtt Patapeiiu ie eoelo 
. ixanimatut." Compaie Honce, Od. 1, 34, 7. 

7. Ut terrai wutui, So Dio OaaaioB (L e.) luna^ Kal >) y9 
texffitt 1«Mji, asd JnUua Obaequeai (L c.) " Terrae mofu Spdi^ 
titm lotuiK coniwmn, <l quaedam eomicnivi. 

S. Canere. "To foietell ;" a teim bonowed fiom the languaga 
of ptepbecj, and deiiring its meanuig ia the pieeent inatance &om 
Iha eatlj cnBtom of piedictmg in Teree. 

E>. CotUt ei Torquato eojindibut. Tno yean pieTiouglj. 

10.. Cm^iirei rei. The comnm tezl haa taTrei in place of 
rei, but Ihia lattai reading ia adopted bj Emesti, Schiltz, and 
otben. ;. Among the objecta aAeiwaid enumeialsd aa aCiuck wilh ' 
UghCningi.towen are not named. . Neithei ia auy mention made of 
them in Ihe Teiae» of Cicero, where he deacribea the eTenta ot hi* 
oontulihip. . ThecB were, in tkct, no lowera in the CapitoL B5tti- 
ger tlao aaacDts to the piopiiety of Emesti^a emendatioD, (which >»,CoOgk 

210 THI TBIftD OKXTVm • 

SchJt» und SclalUehrtr, toI, S. p. 2. 

II. Dt cotla. " With lightning." 

13. SirKMlacra dtanm, tLc, Compm Cic. 1. c, "ElHviM 
«MUiiscra pertmit fidmmU arior," TJot onlj IbB ■tatm of Jnpi' 
ler, but tlw imigM »Isa of othei deitiM were ttnick m OoM occaaioii. 
Conqwn Dio Caaoiu, »: dyJX^oTn ilUa ti, (nl AiM, lil ii(sn>( 

13. DtptJta ntnt. " Wara diilodgod fi(»n tludi padeatiU." — 
Staluai ttltntm AimWmun. Ciceio, in the Terses Bhvad; iBnded 
to, Dukn meatkm af tlie etUiie of N*tt>, oue of Ihe Pinuii, b 
prieit of Heicolee. 

14. Legmt aera U^tfatta. " Tbe bruen taUea of tbe hw8 
were nwlted." The Uwi wan engmmi on biuen tiblete, wliich 
were hept in the CipitoL 

15. Quon inauratuvi, rJcc. "A gQded imege of trbioni jou 
wnembei ww in thc C^itol, muU o( stze, uid in the let of being 
■DoUed, opening wide its lipi to receiTe the duga of tbe ahe-wolf." 
Tliia gioap wu tJiTown down &om ila base. Compaie the lai^m^ 
tt Ciceio, 1. e. : — 

*' Hic tHTtitrit trat, Somaiii tunninti aitrix, 
Martia, jaat parvet MamrrUt innM tviloi 
Vherihu grmidit mtali rore rigabal ; 
Quat fufn mm pittrit Jlammalo fiitminit iel» 
Ctmadit, at^ue avidati pedam vttligia UqMit.^* 
Mlie tenn inauratiint veij piobiblj relBni to a atctue Oi inuga af 
tHoate gilt. Ab regaida tbe mode of tepresenting BiMDnlaa end 
ReBnu, hen Tefeiied to, eoniult SateAt, Ltx. Rei, JVum. (toI. S, 
p. 1BS6-9a 

H. Es (Ma Etnaia. The RomBoa deriTed ell tbni knowlei^ 
of dtrinationfrDm Ecnuia. llne became, oi conne, t. Tsrriuetti) 
ei^iDe of itate wilb the patiiciuu, as it angmentsd Ae eiib- 
tnrienee of tbe maltitiide to thoae wbo clumed the eicIUBire 
knowledge of the metkods \ij whieh the go^ m^t be pnqutiiled 
OoDqiaTe Cic. dt Din. 1, 41. 

17. Sue nantint propt fala, &c. " Sbonld hj theii expt«ea 
JDteipoeitioo alnunt bend the btM themselTea." Aceording to tba 
ptgan cieed, the deciees of &te weie «tbei eondilionBl or uncondi- 
tional. The (brmer conld be altered and eoftened dowB, the littet 
conld DOt be changed, (Yirg. Atn. 3, 76,) bnt merelj dd^ed ot 
pDtoGTfor aseaaoti. (Am. 10, 6SS, and 7, 816.) 

18. Laii. Publie gamee aud scGnic eilutntiona weia the nsoat 
noitei of pn^tioting tbe gods. Compara liyj, 7, S ' " LuM,GoOgk 


fnofue Mcenici inttr tdia axleiHt ir 

19. Ad placandum dtot, Most MSS. have pleeatidoi Ibrpli- 
candam, uid EmeBti tnclinea to give it tbe [oeference. Hm 
gerund, hovreTer, ia wbU defended b; Beck, uul ie more dinct tiwt 
the jasBiTe paiticiple, ot gBrandive, wouM hoTe been. 

20, Maju; " Larger ^mn tho forraer ono." — Qaod tidetit. 
"Which jon now «ee erected," 

31 . IIIiuiraTmlar. " Would be brou^t M clearly to ligbt."— 
Alqac Hlud, &c. '* Now tbe conniilii or that Teiir miide unng»- 
menlB lo ha.Te this itatue placed in the mamier directed." Locgre 
i» "to bargain," or, "make airangementi," to haTe a thing done, 
amductTt, " to contracl to do a thing," Vbo persona tiIio uoder- 
took gji; auch tuk or emploTroent were «llad Ttiempir^a. Tbe 
Terl» mciptre utd rtdimore sre aSao employed in the senBe of 
cimdacere, especiallj Ibe latter. 

I. Locmtrvnt. Some MSS. read eMocirtentrit, bnt IncoRcctlf . 33 
The true lection was fiiBt si^ested bjr Gruter, and idopted by 
GreeTiuB, whom Emesti and otberi follow. 

S. SuftriorilHit tonttdibut. L. Caesai at>d C. FiguhiB. — A 
TuMt. Refening to hinudf and C. Anlonin* bia calleagne in Iba 

3. T«m flner™» * vero. " So gioal ui enemy to Ihe truth." 
An expteHion bommed liom the ciutom of «bowing aTBision by 
hnning tvnj from an object. — Tam jrraecept. " So inconeidraate." 
Tam menle eaplue. "Soblind." 8o depriTed of all mental Tiaion 

4. Et ta. " And that too." The Oreek uuge ia «milar in ntt 
Ta3ra. — A pcTdilii ctnftui. ThiB ia the resding adopted b; ElmettL 
Gmler lecommendB per cioe», Tvhich GrseTius admils into the texl. 
Emesti ia very probablj conect in aospecting tho notds ei ea » 
periilit «wJw of being a meto gkiaB, Ihe idea of whioh waa taken 
from a ntficriia dnibia lowards ihe lattar part of tlie Benlencs. 

5. JHiuJ vere, *e. " I» not tiie fiillOwing ctrcnmstance, howoior, 
30 manifest in ite cbaiacler u lo seem," dcc. Tiin lepetiticKi of at 
in this sentence is extrcmel; inelegaot, and was neTor written m> 
by Ciceto. Emesti makes tiie first ut eqniTalcnt in aiHne di^iee 
to quod, bnt il is ntote than piobable, w Daring temarks, thatsome 
woide haTe fiillen ont between mAeahir and the Becond vt. 

6. Mane per fonm, &«. This of coune waa all a matter of 
preTKnis aTraugementa on Ihe patt of Cicero, and inleiided w pKh 
duce ao i m pi ea iion upon the soperetitiouB belingB of tfae popukM. 
tt BppeatB lo haTe answeied its end admirabty. 

7. EonnH indiee». The AUobrogea aad Vi..tiin:in< — Jk aUim,GoOgk 



33 CmceriiM. Tlua templa itood in tbe ininiriitbi neinily oT tt» 
fOTum, *t tbe foot of the Ca.piIoUiie biU. {DotuU. U Aon. Mt. Ui. 
«, c. 8, p. 103.) 

S. TemfiUatqMi^tKbn: Coraultnate Il,piigs3S.— fVa«*<4* 
t nifarioi igjut: "DeitnictiTe uid UDhalkmed GrM." ...... 

9. Quibiuigo,&e. " Were I to nj tlut it wu I nbo •«££«» 
Aillj leaiMed them," L e. who de{eMed-theii atteiupta. 

10. Iltt, tiU Jupiler rttlilil. " Yon JujHter, yon Jupiler de- 
feeled tbeir;Bttein|)tB." JUc dsDotei tha gmture of ths. or&toi. 
poinling to ths nswlf-erected >t>tue. TheLptonoun iiU, in the reec 
of tbe •enteucei ii lo b« lendeied bj tbe sin^e pronoaa " be," with 
an emphuii reeting upon iL 

11. Hant mtnltm voiifiiUtemjtu ttuetjH. ■ " Hsre I fbrmed tbii 
dengn mnd irkh," i. e. of eipoaing to view the pUn* of wicked 

13. JamttrOi&iC, The tiue leading of thia passage ie eitieinelj 
doabtful. We hsTa iiuened ttucepla tliet hotHbttt, on the suggea- 
tion of Eiiieati, aioceolherwiie A)ij(citiUi0,Ailib>TenoTerbtonhich. 
itean bo lefecred. 'Vfiihfutctpla and erciiM rCBpeclivelj. wemuit, 
aupply ftuflfuam etiil. Hie whole maj be [cndenid u lollowi : 
" Still faither, too, that tBRiperiag witb Ibe Allobrageg would never 
bsTe been andectaken, in tbe way tbU it bu, bj Lentulua, luid tbe 
reet of our domeaticfoe».; « aeorBt-of »o mucb . impoitance woold 
Derer hsTe bcen ao nablj conGded 1« atnngen snd bubaiians ; 
nn inoat saanredly woold anj leLlen baTe erei bcen entiuated to. 
thsii banda ; bad not all judgmenl been tBken swsj bj ths immoital 
goda frocn thiB so audHciouB^bcorilpLracy." 

18. Ul hominet Galii, &c. Supplj before vt the woida anntf 
putandum tit, oc aometbing equiTslent. . " la it to be LmigtDed 
thu Gsula," dtc. — Mcltpacata. " Haidlj •vbjecijon.". 

li. Spa»imperii,lic. "TbebopeOifdomjiu<»iuidoflheinoBt 
eitensiTe sggnndizemeDt.'' — A patrieiiM ioinmiiu. AUoding to 
I^ntulua, Celbegiu, uid otbeis of Ibe clHupintoia. 
g^ I. Suit opilmt. " To Iheir owninteieBt." — Jd lum, Ac. The 
eommon leit hu norme. We baTO giTen Boa with G(»eTiua, on 
MSS. authorily.— iNniuliu. " Bj tbe inleipOBition of HeeTen." , 

S. Pru»r{im ^' lu», &e. " £q>eciallj dnce thej migbt haTe 
«reicome ub, not by fighting, but bj remBining dIgiiI," i. e. bj 
hsepii^ the seciet of ihe consiuiHcj. Saptrarent ia beie.eqoiTelent 
to tnperart peluiaient, end Ibe subjunctiTe tnood ia tequiied bj tbe 
paculiai fbice of tbe idatiro, whicb ti bere the Bune u ;v«ni illi. 
Hie commoQ teit bu luperare potuemnl. .... . . 

8. Ad oBvtia puivimuia. " At sll the ak,GoOgk 

MAurar CATiLiNi. 213 

BMHUng of thi* tuiB i* » cnahioD, or pillow, for a cmcli. It is 34 
thau tikea to dsiiote the cooch itcelf ; utd Gnillf it BignifiBS, fnHn 
Ihe operation of i. pecnliu' caalom uoong the Romuu, a temple or 
■htiDe of tfae gods. Whm ■ Ihuikaginng wu decreed l^ the 
■enite, whot wos cilled a I^clUtemium to<A placa, concLea beiog 
qaead for the godo, ae if &bant to feut, and iheir ■lataee being 
tak«n down fram theii pedestals and pleced upon theM couchea 
uound Ihe altin, wfaich were loaded with ibe richeat dighM. 
Hence the mBBning attsched to ^nnoria in ttie text. Compara 
Ena$ti, Cltn. Cie. ». y. and Sduilx, hid. Lat. a. t. 

4. CeltbraMe. Boji crowned with gerlanda, virgina, and aa- 
tcone, moved in procesaion thtoogfa the atnieta ainging hjmna in 
henom of tha goda. — iUoa dw*. A Ihankaj^Ting oflen, aa in ths 
pteseDt inatance, laated ibr ■ayeral daya. 

0. Tagati, mc «mt tagato, dte. " Wearing the toga, with me 
■lone, likewias weaiing it, fbcjonr Isader and commiinder." More 
fieelj, " arrajed in the g«wn of peace, with me alone, aimilai^ 
■n^ed, IbrToat leader,"&c. Cooanit oole IS, page 80. 

6. L. SitiU P. Sn^ieiam eppreeeit. " When Sylla had aet out 
lo join tbe k^ioM which he had lefied in Ital; for the Mithridalic 
war, P. Suliuciua, a tribune of Ihe commons, and a violent paitiBBn 
of MaiiuB, atiOTe to bave SylWa. commimd slm^ted snd MsiiuB 
^^>9inted in hia itead. Sylli, in conaequence of thia, retnraed with 
hia tieopa to ftome, pnt to deatb Sulpiciua, and drove Mariua into 
ttrile. {FlvT. 8, ai.—VeU. Pet. 2, 19, 19.) 

7. CuMladem Impit vrbii. " The pceesiTer of the lame." Al- 
lodii^ to lu* victoriee over the Cimbii and TsDtone». 

5. Cn. Oetamu. Octavius, apaitisan of Sylla'B, whsn conBo], 
drove oal Cinna hia coUeague, becauae he would not bIIow eeitain 
bwa lobe.puaed. The Uttei, )iB.viiig ccUected an aimed force, 
retumed along with Maiin* to Rome, aod the ecBiiea of alangfatei 

9. Omntf kie leau. Ths fanim, wheie Ihs contendk^ &ctioin 
had met in eonflict, and muchblood faad been apilt. — Sedioidmil. 
Thia verb haa bare two meaninga, one tor aeenie coponan, (" waa 
filIsd,")Bnd uother Ibr langiitna eivnin, ("dowedi"} Gnunms- 

10. Claritritine nri/. Referring to Q. Catulua, Scaevola, and 
dw OTslora Crusua, ADtoniua, and C. Cbgbbi. Conault HiatoricBl 

11. (faaHttt iemittutieni civtvm. If we may credit bo declama- 
I4)TT a wiilai aa FIoius, the number bUId on tfaia occwm aieeeded 

(3, Sl, 24.),GoOgk 


34 13. M.LifiJat. Lqudui ai^ hk coUb^w CXnhia M at Gnt 
m mnn coDleit ibout tlw mterment of SyUt, the imtaei andmToiu- 
ing to pniaat bi» beiiig buried ia tba CaaifnM Mutiiu. Afterwaid, 
{riavTig himaelf at tha bead of the Mviin (ution, he BtinTe to pn>- 
cme Ibe X>oUtion of all SyIU'> pnUic mcts, ■ad wu driTen oot in 
conHqoence bj Calaliu, afkai tha two paitiec hid cooie iota opn 
and Tident coUision. 

13. Atftit Siat duwnttoiu*, &c We haTe adopted, with Mat- 
thiae, Ihe eiuBDdatian prcpoaed bj Eineati, dmming ont tha «oi^ 
tiant htijuMmodi befoia Quiriitt, wbBin thcy a^Mtai in the common 
teit, intiodDGing a paienlheBia fiom «m ilU to valumnt, and ma- 
ciiig atftu iUat lanwM a lepatition fiom tha fint elauae. Tmus, in 
(tKh cfm^riKtiaiu, eftet a pwreBihaaia, haa the£»ceof tRfiu»,«c 
igiliir. CoDialt Eineati, Cloe. Cic. a. t. 

14. Pertiiureiil. Tha eabjaiictiTe ia bace enqdDyBd Bfter th* 
lelaliYe, aa atating, not aa aaaaition of Ciceio'a,^(it of tha indiTidDal 
aclois thBiDaalTBS, aa it had c<Hne down to hia limei. Henee jMot 
ptrtiiurmi maj be lendered, " lAicb tended ■■ waa aUagad." Aftar 
thil comea Ihe declantion of tbe aiatoi iiimaelf, bBaad npan tluB 
aUegBtton, when tbe indicatife ia egi(dojed. 

15. M. " Th« acton ia ihDBe sceneB."— £t*c prrtun^. " To 
be the leading men." — Hiiic «ricni emflagrart. " Tbat tbia oit^ 
diould be impt in Bamea."— fHonre. . " ahoold tole." Thii meait- 
ing ia deiiTod fiam (he intenaediate one of oiceUilig, wbtcb fiert» 
ofien baa in Ciceio and otbet wnCet*. 

16. Quatthil. "Had in Tiew." — nitmt neoadHatiaiit em- 
eordiat, &c. " HiBt thej wen tenninated, not by tfae leconeiiutitm 
which concoid ia wont to bring wilh ii, bnt bj the iinwinini iiP dli- 
MM," L e. not bj roeoneiliatioa and conooid, bot bj tiie losa al 
aaaj liTes. — Cieeio'B meaning, aa it ii camed oat in the aDe> 
fnndinji; clanse, ia Ihis; ihat Itae OTil diseBnakiiis eninBantad bj 
Um, though tbej had in Tiew menlj a chaiige □( aBBim, im» 
nevBttheleaa onlj tamiiBaled afier nnicb blondsiiad ; wlieiaas 
Ibe conapinoj of Catiline, whitji unied ■! the lolal mbTacBina 
of the goTenmient, ■itd tbe de^traction of sU, liad been bioiqfat 
to in end bj him witboat tha kiai of anj IiTBa m Ihe panof hja 

17. Sulla barbari». " No baibariaD Uiid," BartaTia meifis 
anj teiriliwj inhabited bj baibaiiama. Tha Romana am^jed. th* 
teno in genBisl lo denoM any connttj eicept Gteece and Italjr, 
Compate Oit. dt fin. 3, S6 : " J ftio non itiun Oraeeia tt Ifalia, 

18. Citm Mua fente. " Wthit* owti iMe.",GoOgk 



lU. OmuMHa fial. "Wu laid donn."— SofM arbe. " In ^ 
oH the city wera nfe." 

1. Tanfuni ctntum, &c. "That only «o msnj dtizaiK woiild 3 
surnie, u iiuny u ahoDld remain sfter boundlea muwcie." IJt 
erallf, "aa muiy u ihoiiM hsre withilood boundUea muaacie." 
BQmunti, oJ JnCAoI. Lal. tiA. 3, p. 180, nigjede in^ini/ii e caalc 
ia pkce of tnilnitee ««(ii. bi thie ceee, rtilitiiMtt wmld cooM bota 
rtatare, «nd the literal meuuDg wonld he Ihe sune with what wa 
hore fint given, " efaoalil ranaia aftet," &e. The common leidiiig, 
boweTer, convejs tiie un» efniM, ond ia better in point of Leliiii^. 

5. Oiart na» fotmta. "Migfat not hive bem able to leach." 

3. Pro. " In letam for." — Rebui. " Seiricee." — Iniifiu **- 
nDTii. "Muk of hononT.'' Aa, for emnple, a tiinn^ih. Tfaae, 
a litde (fter, he Eeniiika, "tn animii vtttri» oaiMt» tnnmpkot 
meoMj" &c. 

4. OnumetUahmiorU. " Badgea of bomnn." — LaaJit iiuigmt. 
The trophiee of my renown." 

6. NikU fnuAim. " No nmle memoiial," u fbi oxsmple ■ etttoe. 
6. Sottrat rtt aUntur. " Hy aetiDOB will be foetciod."— S<p- 

manAtt. "la jotir dail;^ eoiiverBe." — lAtttrantrn moKmunti», 
&c. " They mH 5eoome idratified, thiough Iqtse of tims, with, 
uid will be leodeted mora ind mon eadining by, joor nalioiBl 
BHBli.'' AtrOenueo meua litei^jr, "togiowotdin," "togUhei 
■dsngtfa by age or time," " to become deeply looted," &«. 
Conqiai», ee tegkide the fbiee lA momuntntit in thts puuge, frt 
Stxt. 48 : " Httc mmtimeMu amtaliam tnandiNtAir, puurtlMI 

7. Ettidtmfu* £nni dce. "And I fecJ coaTiHced, that lU* 
nme daf nill be peipetaated," &c., i. e. will ever be cdebiBted ■■ 
> iMlftl d^ by pwteiil?. We hara odoptsd the reading giTSn bjr 
Beck with tbe ud of MSS. Tba eonmion leit U oltogether ucm». 
<iaaiu|niiinleUigiUe,vtz. : "EiaidtK^iuiitm'inttUigo,qiiiim»pm 
atlenitm jvrt, it ai taiMttm nriu, et ad memariam conaulalua 
i»fi prafogaMm." £veB, bowetei, tn Beck't reddiiig thers ie 
•emBlfaing in tnttlUgo tbat appean eoqiiciein, utd 10 stand in need 
of eniaodatioii.. Bnt Ifae M8S. afibid no aid. 

8. Dm emt. ^f™^ ■ad Poopey, who had ]»OBght A» 
pnticil wu to * chw toi •iao conquered MkbndatBi. 

9. QwmMt ^ter. Ponipej. — Nm tarrae, led coeU rtgiomtui. 
An oratnied hypertiole, by wfakh Pwr^ey ia desciibed u haviaf 
eanied the RanuB uma to Ibe veiy limita oi ewth aiid >ky, i. e. M 
hwe fiOad even tbe diatntf facoiwD wilh tbe funa oT Bmuia power, 
BwdtJ. " nol by^^ nponi «f Malb, bol by ^ veiy bMino itMtf.",GoOgk 


3g 10. Eittadtmfert«naaljtuemiiha. IIm wti ia ii Uaui^- 
lu, u th* two noutu aipren menly diflenmt iludea of &e nma 
idea. — QaatiUorum. " Ai ii thit of thoH." ' 

II. /iti. Thii pronODn don not danolc lOj coataai^ hete. bnt 

li uaed in itrict Kcavdiuice with ita piiinjlJ*e metuiiag. JUnder, 

" tboee cominendeie of yonn," In tha preriou» eleuee, iUimm i» 

^lied to tbem with leferance to their distant «penitiona, CoBiait 

/" not« 4, psge 1. 

13. Si aterit, &e. The indintJTe mood u here ei^lojed te 
' deDotb^ cotaintj, and rafening to wiiat hu ■clnillj taken plaeo. 
Bj ceCmi ara meant tbe Ronun commaDdera wbo haTe been 
J «agtgti in fonign wan. 
/ 13. MtMtt. «'Deaigna." 

' 14. Ai utw Tbs pKmaan now denotea contanipt. " B; thoM 

men," i. e. b; tbaee poor wretchea, 

Y li. In iont. Underatand tm&ut. — DipataM. " Mejeatf " 

' Befeiiiif to the autboritjr of tbe aenate and the power of tbe lawe. 

18. Stipii indicaiuM. "Will onljbe eipoaing tbemeelTea," 

i. e. wiD onlf be taming infbimeia agBibattbemaelireafandeipoaili^ 

ID new tbeir leciet ■enlimenta. Thtif will be dtiren t^' the lorca 

of eonM;ience lo make die eame diackmma, and to iM in tbe nma 

waj u I«ntiiluB did befora tho Romui aeoate. 

17. It an»M(. " Sucb a detenoinatioii." /■ d^antly need 
lat talit. 
^Q 1. Cemtrterit. We have herB grven the leading of HaDnthu, 
Gi«eviua, aad Back, wbicb Scbflti aiaa adapli, Tbe common teit 
baa cmaerterinl, and foi onaat and iejniltiu reade onmat and 
iefmlti, maliing tnipetiu plonl of coone. Iliere ia len ipirit, 
howetei, in thie. 

S. Qna amditiont, dic. " In whit eitaation jon maj wiah tboaa 
to ba in fDtuTB daja," dtc., i. e, what effect yomaclion m Ibe pteaoi- 
en maj hive npon lliB aitualian iri' Iboae in aftei daya, wbo ahaU 
«taiid foith n the asaeitaia of yonr fnedom, and the defisnden of 
jour liva ind fbitunee. — Hie meaning of Cicero ia Ihia : that if anr 
•ttack be made npon him by bia private fbea, for ttte pait be hu 
taken in crusbing tbe conapiiacy, he looka to Iba people hn tbeir 
piompt inteiferonce in bia bebalf ; not becanaa he ■ctnally etanda in 
need of thia, aince tbe bigb bonoun thue hi coufemd upon him by 
bii countiymen will alwaye be a ■uffieient defence agalDBL aiich 
OppDnenta, but in oider tbai a bad eflect may not be prodnced upon 
othetB, by hia being eipoaed unaided to tbe onuta of (he wicked, aiid , 
tbat those who may wish, hereafter, to serve theii conntiy, naj not be 
disconnged Irom doing no bj eenng w!ut hu heppened 1« himt^fl 


AOAHf^ cAmiHE. 317 

■• ■ ■ rigo. 

9, A4 vilae jTvttum. " For Uw enjoyment of .eiiitence." — h gn 
iDMirt Milra. " Amid (h« honoiira in yooi gift." 

t.- Quidq%aiK sUhu. Ciceio bad dow ttbiDed to the ■tunroit of 
* tne Romui's uabitiisi, tbe coimilihip. He had tnti his comMj, 
■nd > IbuikigiTiiig had be«n declued in bia nafie, allhoa^ he wu 
fCnjed it tbe'time in the robe ofpBBce, or, in other woidi, Kting 
morely aa & ciTil magiBtrate. The office of dlctitor bIodb hs hid 
DOt oblained end did not deaiie. 

6. Ea ;uiu gari tn eonrulaia, " Tk* principle* on which I 
Bcted daring my con»uIsbip." — PrnnUui. " In [riyatelifB." 

6. Mihi nalau ad gtoriam. " May but adTance my gloiy," L e. 
may only ledonnd the moie to my dwd fame, by maldng n^ pnUic 
■efiii^B, if poeaible; moie conapicuous. 

.' 7.. Ul.nttmiyurim, dcc. " As evei to be mindful of nvf pwt 
•ctioii*." — VtTiute. " Fiom patriotic motjrea." Frcm the diclatee 
oC pnbtk: viitue. Compaie £p. oi Funi. 6, S : " Hujat tga Umeri- 
tati iiiVfrhM alqiu aniina non rttlilitMm, juit ttttt qta nu mn 
fAiUprfBu eiitttmaretj qwm eontitio fortem /uitael" 
1 B. Sivm Jovem. "Yon;JqTe." Fointing in the diiectioi! of tha 
lenqjtq of Jupittlr Statoi, in whicb he htd deliTeied hia finf ontioii 
agsiDit CatiliBB. — FTOBidebo. WhateTei the deciee of the aenal* 
■haU be, he will, aa coninl, see it fully eiecated, «nd nill place tb« 
nfUy of bi* :feUoi^-citizei», boyond Ihe reach of the wickA bf 
wlliotii^ on the latter a weU-meiited puniehmenl.,GoOgk 


1. M. TiTLUi Cicikoin*, A«. "FWdi Ondoa of M. T 
Cicno ^dut L. Catiliiis, ddmmd in tbs Seata." T||j. ■».(}»■ 
W M prononnced imba eonwe of di« drt»t« coneai"' "g **- BP"^-'^ 
nwnt to ba j n jiclail on the eona piratprn. ^Ubbm htd ptQpooed tbs 
inflktion of iiutuirTB^^Wtule CaesarhodiiiolMQ-m&raaraf (Im 
mora lenient Mnilenee of peipetml imjaieooiDent. Cic«m doe« 
not precieebr deekrs for iny particDlki puniahiiMn^ bot be Avn 
thit hia raiDd sridenflj inclined to tbe eeTereit, Iff dmlLi^ on ib* 
eDOimitf of &» eonqiitaton' gnilt, uid >f^raTating iH tlMir dime 
widi mnch BeiinMinf and art. Hia ■entnnentB GbJIj' pnraiUd ; 

5, Ora atque ocaio!. Ereir sys.was fiied i^n Ciceio tn 
•nlioua sqieclatiQD, to ese whethei he wonld idvocate the o^anion 
of Stlanoa. llie aenUe wss conrensd, on thie occaaioii, in th« 
tenqile of Jnpitei Statoi. 

8. rSi id depuUum tit. " If ifaat be wanlsd off," L e. t^ Ihe 
pnnidunent of tboee in cnetodj. — De meo ptrieatii. Eipeeially if 
fScero abonld haTs idopted the o[Hiiion of Siluu. 

4. Vetlra erga ne volunlta. " Yonr kind «riahea in mj bebalf." 
Tbe generoDi inCeisBt yoii tike in mj weUais. VoiiHitat is heie 
used tar favor, benewletilia, oi canUu. Con^ius de. Ep. ai Q. 
Fralr 3, U, B : ad Fam. 6,\3:pro lAg. i.fin. 

6, DepoitUt. He ia afraid leat, pnuqited by & wish to idten 
bim from ths buidsn of pnblic odium, for the sumnuij at^ he m&y 
htre taken egtuut the accoied, ttie >Bnate puiBoe aoiat couns 
tnsjddieial to ttw atate. 

6. Haee amiitv) aMiuiatut. " TtuM condilion of cDJojicc tie 
wmaulehip." — Oninei aetrbiUUet. " Ev«j bicior infliction." 


7. I^inUa joJaafiw. " Signitj' aad afatj." Br iivK><u >■ ^} 
Iten cMSiit lh*t BxereiBS of aotbaittj vtiich i* leortMt/ of ■ paoide , 
enjffriiig ■ legtilir (arm of goreinnwnL Campue Cieaio'i defliii- 

Lmi, (D< Jmt. S, 66,) " DigTiitat tit tdia^ AdRMta awlontat, tt 
aUtu, tt hotwri, et tereeiaiiia iigna." 

8. Noit fanm. He bid beeu in duger bvm Cttiline eTen b 
tlte fomm. — Jii pui ammi aejuiut tetitmettiT. In the fonnn iht 
coiin* of bw nera beld, uid jiutiae, •ccrading ta Cicno, had haie 
heribode. As i^;ud> the distinctiini betwasn jiuitei* uid ae;Hlu, 
itnuTbareiaHked, thit the Utterii Ibe geneiic teim, iDclading 
«^ we owe to Ood end muL Cieaio couiden it, in iti piiiicfte 
Mt fooildetioD, u lnp«-t>(a,diTiia>le iMo thna ptiti, (ITiipwa, e. 
S3,) " JJva fOTt UgUvM tet," " vfait ie foondad in Inr ;" — 
" oftcni ocfiatafi eemetiUni,*' " iriiit ia eoBBonuit with eqnity, ac 
fbunded aa oai own lutaial peiceptioni of wtut ia rigtit uid wiong ;" 
— " (crlia marti ««MtMte enyimutd," " whiit i« foimded in knig 
Hld eatabliahed imga-" 

9. Nbh ciinpK*. Ciceto bid appeared in (he Ctinpui Haitios, 
dniing the conaulu elaction, when SikmiB uid Mniena weie ebqeen, 
with \ coat of mail nnder bia lobe, to guard ^inat tha risk of 
imniiinntTnn &oni CatHiiie. (PlaU. VU. Cie. c. 14.) 

10. Conmlaribut atufieni totutcraiui, At the comitia ceu- 
tniiats, the auipicaa wete ilws^ Gnt taken baiore Ihej pioceeded 
to tbe eleebou of ttw conaola and the faigbei magiatiate*. Henee 
tbe Can^KiB Maitiiw ia nid to be " hallowed" by tha " coneDlu 
uqiicee" taken tn it. 

11. AmtnnnB ouMtiinn. " Tbe chief nfbge." 

13. Nm iomui, temtmmi fetfugiufm. " Not mj own bome, 
■ iiuii's commou aaflom." According to tbe pnnciple* of tbe 
Rnnin tiw, it vaa nnlawfnl lo entec any min's dweUiiQ foi tbe 
pnrpoae of fbrcmg him to cnrt, becBDie hia bouee was eeteanied 
hit sanetnu;. Bot if aoy ona hnked it home to dods s proeecn 
tion, he wts ■oninxined tlnee tiraes, with ui bterrBl of lan dofr 
between etch sommona, by die Toice of ■ bemld, or hj lettcn, or 
bj the ediet of the pisetor, snd if itill he did not i^>peu, tbe pra s» - 
entor wsa pot in {Msaaatioii of his efleeta. {Htineee. Antiq. Ram. 
4,6, 18, p. 671, td. HauiM.) A> reguidB Ihe asnctitr of a maa^a 
batae, eompan &e eloquant lanpiage of Ciceio, (pro. Dm. c. 41,) 
" Qiai eit tanettue, quU «ntn religieiu mumtiu», jium immu 
taauiaijuijue ciiiuml Mc arae nnt, JUc faei, hie iei Pmatti, hie 
lacTt, re&gvmet, tterinuinae cenUnetiUa; kx perfugium eM tM 
umettm oaatSiui, vt inie abripi neminm fn eii." 

13. Ifmlielui. AUndmsiatbeatteiaptinBdetDBasassinBtefaH,GoOgk 

' 320 ' TU rODRTH ORATION ' 

37'>t Ui own bnne, «utr in tbe monuog, aixl befan bv had ^ tiMn 
CorapiTe Silhut, Cot. c. S8, nnd Or. in Cx. 1, 4. 

14. Saee tidei kontriM. AAel theee woida ibllow itlia amlit, 
which, thmi^ tdoai m ■!! HSS. ■!« nereitbelen lejacted with 
£Te«t propiietj hj Emeiti, u ■ mne glon. Neither i> it ■ ■mj 
CQtnnt inteipietuioa it*elf of tba expiexioa ' luuc itda jkmorti, 
«iuce bj thii latter is meant noC bo loach the ciiinle chiii, ti tbe 
pUce in tbc Hnate whe» he ikt ■■ cooni], uid which wu tiime- 
whU elented ■bore Ihe olhei ■eita. 

- le. ilulla laem. Huretns leiy oomctlj iniqHMea, th*t thia 
pndmt ailence, on.Cicem!e pm, might be dietBted by tbe nupi- 
cion, thit menj penons of luik, auch m» Caeeu aod Cnenw, tar 
MUDple, wete in^ilicated in Ihe conspincj. 

15. Jn vtilTa timort. " In the midit of elum on jroui p^it," 
L •. whikt yom Blum ptevuled. Lipeias {V. Jj, 3, SS) coqec- 
toie*, " tine valro timart," of which Henmumue ^i|KOTet. 

17. Jtfunrinu. We baTe given this, on the autboiitr of ooma 
MSS., in plece of the common leading niu^ra. The emendation 
ii ^piOTed otbj Gouenz, ad Cic. defai. 1, 4. 

18. Exacerhiitinnipexaliime. " From ihe moEl cniel outnges " 
— Tenipla atque debibriL. CompBie nale II, page 96. 

OB 1. Quaicunptt feTlHJi4. " Wliatevei lot." 

5. iTiductui a vaiHmi. Refcning to the SibyUiiie booki and tba 
udnpietation of tbe uuepice*. Compate Or. tn Cal. 3, 4. 

3. Falale. " Fgted." The faied □vne w«e Coinehu», which 
wfta the mmen of LentulnH, hiH full appellation being Fubhus Co - 
nelhii Lentului Snnu ConiuU note 7, page SS. 

4. Pretjneile pairiae. "FiOTide foi tbe welfue of youi coun- 

6. Omnti iitat, ta. ETeiy city, m uicieDt tJmes, bad ite 
pecuhu deitj oi deitisB, who pioHided ovoi ll, and undei wboee 
i^>eeiel piotection it wu coiuideied lo be. Hence, whan ■ lown 
vrae beai^ed:, Bnd an the point of being t^en, the besiegen alwaje 
uaed lo eall out (nwcure) in aoleiDn fonn the god Oi godi who exer- 
cieed i guardiBnabip oiei it, while tbe beeieged, on Ibeii pait, iii 
oldei to pievenl Uiis, weie wont to chaia the aUtua ot itatuM to 
the pedeetal. (Conault lHaerabiui, Sat. 3, 9.) 

6. Pre to miAi, &c. " WiU reviraid roe according to my 
deeeite." . la point of l^tiuity, ut would be bettei heie than ae, 
and poriiq» we onght to lead bo. 

7. Si qidd obligtTit. "If anjr thing adverse ahall befaU nre." 
An euphemiam, foi ti noriair. The piepoailioD ob here denDtes 
lilenll} " ■gainet," eiid tbe atnwt meuiing of t)ia phiue ie, " if,GoOgk 


•ov Ihing ahall tiq>pen againat, oi adrene to, 1117 niahe»." Com- 38 
pace Plautus, Mmacckm.' 5, 6, 1 , " Atdtpol nae kU mtii iie* 
fereoriutalqneadwTwutBbtigit."-~-Y,iaet£\tegaiiM sAti^mf, tn tbs 
t/Kti, aa of doubtful ■nthDrily, the more ubiuI fonn ^xmg.acdiet^ 
Bntouc ai[dsnBtton of obligerU is ■ ■afficient uiswac to llta abjeo- 
tion, aiid beaidea dl the MSS. give thia luter form. 

8. Ntqut tnim, du:. Desth can bring with it no diignce lo B 
bnTe man, «jnce even in death he will find <Ai1y additioinl giory. 
Soioe, Dn the authoiitj of Quintilian, (fl, 3, 109,) lead gravU 
inatead of btt^, biil it is too geneial an epithat. 

9. Ntqnt immatuTd cJHUutori. " Nur a ptematuce ona to a maii 
nho luB been gifted with the oSice of consul." Tba comutafaip 
waa Ibe highest of Ut the oiGcea in tbe gift of ths people, and 
heoce one, nho enjoyed it, might be aaid to deieend to tbe giave 
[ipe in pnblic honoora. 

10. St.pitnii. " To ane acquainted.with the leacHia of. phiJaBO- 
.ghj," i. e. thcae leaaona whieb teach na to legud death aa Ihe load 
merehr to 1 better and happiei land. Thii idea ia beantifnlhr f(ri- 
lowed oot in the Giat book of the Tuscnlan diaputationa. 

- \l' lUe fare*» qui. " So iron-heuled as," i.e. wilh aheaitBO 
ateeled ■giinBt aretif gentleemotion. IUe ix hare uied fer talit oc 
■^iunuKfi, which ia moie commonly Ihe ciae wilh tba pionoun u. 
< 12. FTatrit. His biothei Quintua. — AmaMiitimi. " Most 

13. CtmifueanHn. Tlie lefeience hece ie to aome of tba 
Eqnilea, uid othei friend* of Ciceio, wbo atood aTound hia cbaii, 
and in ^t encompiiBed tbe whole senate both within tbe tcsnple 
aa ' well ' as withont, foc tbe aake of theii peiaonal aafrtr while 
debating on the pDnishment of theconsptcatoTS. 
* 14. ExaianuUa uior. " My wife half dead with tNlor." Ilie 
•Uosiiin is lo Tsrentis, whom be Bnbsequently diforCed for infiddJ^ 
dniing his bani^hment, scd who msnied the biiloriui Sallual. 

Ifi. Abjeeta mttu filia. "My daughtei diamajad by feaifnl 
■ppcehenaione'." Alludiog to Tullia. 

16. Parvillut Jiliut. Maicns Cicero, Ihen two yeare M. Be 
waa boro in the conaulahip of Cotla snd Toiqualiu. lEp. ad. 
Au. 1, 8.) 

17. AinrtteH. " To bold in iU a»na." The teim ia beuitifidljr 
■ppli»! to Ihe cuie of a jeung child, and is ussd foc tbe comman 
tenert. — Tnmquam tAiiian, &c. " As tbe pledge of n^ eonsol' 
■htp," L e. as ■ pledge, Ihat I will do ereiy tioB^ m mjr powel fbf 
prBBetTing the public aafe^, if nol on m; own, jel on n^ Mn'a 
accoant .^^,GoOgk 

38 IB. OtMT. C. Cilpnrniu PiHt. HaUdbeMtnntedloTuDiB 
ttfO jaan tetoa, >iid «■■ ttw fint of tlm* hndxnd»- iriMm d» 

19. Mofurr Idi raiu vnioiiM, dcc. *■ I «■ DWMd by ill ttaMe 
Unoga, bnt it ia to thi* effecl meietr, diit they i/Ma I hi*» meo- 
lioiud m^ iU bc Mved «kmg «ith yon, even dxn^ ■oine ttX of 
Tiolenca mkj hwe cnubed me," &c. 

30. JiieamUlc. " Bend ■!! yoei emaigice.'* — CirnwiijeriW. 
*■ Lo(A ■nrand utd bcdiold." 

31. ^m 7%. Graeelau, dce, "It ii do Tibehna Gnccho^ 
«faa haa widted to become ■ Becond time tnbaue of the coimiioiu : 
Do Cenu GneehnB, nho h&B siideaToumd ta exeita the pailieaiia oi 
bi* Agniiui biT : no LaciaB Satuniiniu, TCbo hia il^in ■ Cuna 
Hemmias, dut i> mm eipoied to Ibe liiill of ■ inoaeeiitioii, ind to 
Iha eentonce whieh yon in yonr ji»t »8181111 ™'y inflict." — For an 
•cconnt of Ibe indmdiuli hen illDded U caiiaalt HiMorica] Indai. 

Sa. TtneHt^r u. " They m held in ciutadj."— TnumMB- 
iiturae, &£. " Thaii lettan, theii ■esls, &c., oni in oor poei»i 

28. SidlidlaMhiT AUiAroget, &c. •• The Allobiegee inf tnit- 
pKed with, oor veijr ■liTea ■te eicited to iiiniiTection." 
3^ 1, Rti amfttn mnt. "The ■cenBed haTO tbemeelTee confeae- 
ed." — Vnt ninitu, Au:. " You youradTea htm a3retij dedded 
upon by jnany eipreeaions of opinion." 'We have ado|pted tnAnie, 
the nwliDg of BBdios, ■Dd which is ■ppiDTsd of bj Bjnkenboek, 
(Ob. Jur. Ram. 1, 6,) and Vonk, (Leet. Lal. 1, 7.) Tfae common 
lezt hss jtiiuiit, letening lo tlie " detenninationa" of the umate oa 
the eerenl occeaioiu enamerated immcdiitelj ■fiei. But Cicero 
hul too nice ui e&i to nj judidit juditatlii. 

3. Singtilariitit verbit. " In Ungn^ge singularij honoanhle." 
Alluding to tbe tupflicatio decieed in bie itime, " QmmI whtm 
ineendiis, caed» eivtt, Italian beilo l^atiel." (A Cot. 8, 0.) 

3. Jf«a virttitt atque dHig^Mia, " Bj mj pnUio qiiiil eod 

i. Dtiiide piod P. htntiUim, &e. A Teij duigeions sumnp- 
tion of ■Dthoritj on the pait of the •enate, uid onlj to be neoited 
loin eitieme caesa Uke the pieeeiit. 

fi. Pe gittiiu /udicutM. " On nhoae omos jod haTe pio- 
ncnmeed «n opinion." 

8. Togaio. Coneolt iiote 16, pa^ 30. 

T. Denmstt mj« ndeanAir. Compara Sallnst, (CoJ. BO,) " Eat 

B. Sti ego inititui, itc. " I haTe lesolTed, boweTei, C 


Fallien, as if Ibe mBtlei weie iliU antouclied, to consult you ^ 
in >«IUk>D« bodi to the nSfka itaeil, whit irou nay deCemine 
req^ecdng it, utd ihe poniahment to be inflictsd, what 70Q m&f 
ihink that oaght to be." 

9. Blaprtudiccm, jnaa imU eoiuuiu. " Bot befora I do llm, I 
wiU MMe whU it i> the datf oT > cooBot to tDenlioB." TheilDdeM . 
will obaeiTe the (bree otpnu in compOBition with di«). 

10. VeTMrL " To be pnralenf—Ef noca quaeiam, &«. 
" And thet certain evils, befbra nnlutawn, weie unnned ind cilled 
into BCti(Hi." He ■llodeB to ibe prerBlence of diufleetion, ani Ihe , 
intioduclion of piinciples of insuboidin^iDn hostile lo Ihe weD-bong 
of ^e sute. 

11. Qaaea.mqae vutTme mtiUtt iatliKanl, &c. Enieeti thinki 
that fuocum^uc is heie put fbr ^uo, mnd thal for inclinvit we ought 
to rekd vaiinau. It ia niuch flimpier, howerei, to cODnidflr tbe 
wi«dii qnocumque veitrae, &b. u merelj expiaiiUoiy of qtUdgmd 
e#f, flnd reqnirmg of conne the indicatiTe inclin^ni. 

13. SlaliUndum pobi» ante lufclem eat. Both becaufle no decTeo 
of the flen&le wu legal if piononiiced before uinriM 01 flfter nmaet, 
{Avl. Geli. 11, 7,) fliid becnne Che Tiek ma also grealer of a 
foreibte raflcne, orof ui eecspe aftheprisonen,bynightthuib;dB7. 

13. Hvie n pracu, &c. " If jon muguie that odIj > few uo 
iin[teMed in thia." For othei inBlancea of afimi with the datiT*, 
eoiopue Ot. jira Cbtent. 46. " a^nii tarfibtiini ;" iM ha. S, 1<^ 
" hmatat raJiom a^iMU." 

H. Maiiairit non mliim, &e. ''Ithas not imlj qawd *lo<riy 
tiirmghoat Ilalj." JTmtant beeotifbUy ei;»enss Iha alow bnt 
ateai^ pnignea t^ die conqMncy, like a ahnrij-rtriling aCrenin. 

15. Obtcttn ttfftia. " Creeping onward nnpeiceiTed." 

16. SattetiUBiii) ae ymUltMia. " Bj deUy and inreaohition." 
Litenllf , " bj still endniing it, and Btill putdng off (the mDmant i^ 

17. Ette. " Aia b^fore joa,'.^i. e. baTO been propoMd.— 
Utum D. Siiaiu. " The ooe, that of Decimot Silanua." Oon- 
tnll Hialoacal Indai. 

18. Qui hate deitre, &c. " Who haTS endaaTOUied to blot ont 
Ibis faii atate of thinge 6001 eiJBtNice." Saee lefen to the Roman 
eilj and fltate, ind Ihe gBsture of tite onloi coireaponds u be point* 
alonlj atonnd. Emeflti ia jn faToui of cmati onf , and Qeck has 
adi^led the emendation, bnt Ihe tme nading Ib undoubtedlj conaH 
niflf, aince there was no longer anj doubt lespecting tlw cdme 
itaelf 01 ila intended peipetraton. Compaie HeHiingtr, 
Cic. d* Qff". p, 63, uqq.,GoOgk 


39 1». C. CaeuTu. JuBmCieimi. 

SO. Qui matit poaum TtntoHt, itc. " Wbo puta lude tlM 
pmudunent o( dMlh, Init emlmcM all the WTeiilie» of lemuniDg 
punislutMnta," i. e. nho i* agaiiut tlie pviiighmeiit of death, but in 
faTour of tbe ■ereieBt one IbU lemuM dUr thi< ii eicluded. 

21. Pto rua digmtate, &c. " Coiuiiteiitlj nith hia owa higfi 
nnk, oiid tbe.inqKutuiee of tbe ciiai*." — Vtrtatur. "Iiuiete." 

9S. Alur. SibniDs. — Ceiuti tunt. BnieHi here ipaa mcom- 
mendi caiAti mt. Bnt eonmlt nots 18. 
4Kt 1. Boe coMmm iprilu. "Thii eii tbit we ilt bmllM." — 
JZanrAtfnr. <■ He leniinds ni." 

3. Atttr iiueUigit. " Tbe othei 1> deariy of ofHnioii.** Jnlini 

Ceemmunteii>ed,inhieiemuk« belbn the een&te caithi* occiuon, 

tbat the loiil wai moital, aud death an etetnal ateep ; coBMquentl;, 

tbat 1« of lija wai a Ueeaing iBther Ibu » pimiihaMiit, lanca it 

fi«ed I» &um all the evtls of eitalenee. Cao^aie tbe ^peech 

which Sallait aaaigns him in tbe debats on thii aaiiie qneetiaB 

ralitiTe to the eontpiiatoia. 

3. Ncctttiialtm naiuTat. " A> a neceiaiTjr law of natuie." 

/ 4. SapimUi. By the " wise" aie here meant tboae imtmed 

/ whh wbat Cseaai legaida aa the irne principlee of philoaophy ] The 

( ^i^ eipecially, althotigfa th^ beliend in « futora itate, regaided 

V death u an; thing latbei than a aouice <rf teiroi. Aceoiding to 

Ibam, a wiee mtn migbt juatlj and leaaonat^ withdiaw &am life 

/ wbeneTei he fbund it eipedient; not only bBcaoaa Ufe anddeatb 

\ aie among thoae thinga which are in theit Batare indifferBnt, bid 

' abo becauie life maj 1» leaa connatent wilb virtue tbui deatb. 

Caeaar, irtio waa an EpicursBn, if he waa any tbing at aU, artfuUj 

svails himaelf of tbe foct of manj of the Stoic aect baTing actaallf 

put in end to theic eiiatence, and qipliea it to tbe eatablisbment of 

\ hii pecalisrdoctriDe, 

6. OppitiveruHt. "HBTBcoqited it." Amonglhe •'fortcM"au.j 
^ be enmnerated Codme, tbe Alhyiin, the Romsn Decii, Cuitioi, &c. 

d. VinculavfrOj dcc. *■ JmpnaoDment, boweTer, and that too 
for life, wu inventcd in hii opinion for the eqiress pniushmept of 
abandoned gnilt." 

7. Xunieipiit. " Throughout tbe municipal towns." Equira- 
( lenttotRnunictpta, Cteear^s proposilioD wai, tbat the coufiiralon 
., nho had been ureated diould be " distribnted" tbioogfaout these 

lonfined for life. Hietnie (4iject naa tossTe 
ir liTei, and tiust lo some futuie cbance fot theii pardon. 

8. Haiert tiittiu; Ae. The naa of itta in thii aenience ahowa 
onloT, who u> makin£dM Raudc tonia lowiri* 




Cimr. ' * TIul pnipoaitioii of jtmn nems U e&nr willi it iti ^ 

anjuil bDidm, if joa wish lo demand it of them ; ■ difficulty if yoQ 

we only iDclined lo uk it u i fafour. HowsTer, let a decree be 

p»s«ed lo tluB effect, if euch iie ymir pieuure." C 

ii thifl : if yoa exerci» jour power uid demuid of the free townB, j 

tbat they receiie tbeie ptiMmen and keep them ii 

yon will be iiDponag ui anjuHt boiden apon them ; 

ol]ier huid, if too only leqaeit it u > fkTOur, you msy meet wilh a ^ 

difficnl^ ia tbeir declining to aceede to jour reqaest. 

S. Ego tjtim iU3Cipiam, &e. " Tor I wiU take it npon mymlf 
lo see, Chit what you wish ahill be Bceonipliibed, and I will find, tt 
I hope, thoH wha will uot think it consietsnl with tbeir dignity lo 
refmie," L e. I will find municipal towne Ihat will have no dt^ee~ 
tionB, I iTuat, to receive tbem. — VTilh tiucipiam undentind rem, 
Bo that the lileml traOBlition wiD be, " I will atidsrtakB the aSair," 
alloding lo the eiecutlan of the decree which ahall be paHsd. 

10. Adjungit. Tbe DrBtor letuina to Caenr, and girea the rest 
of hiii i^iiuon. " He is for ndding a heaTj peiulty on tba iii 
tants of the municipa! towns." — Eonim. " Of the c ' 
Referring to the conipiiatorB. 

1 1. Horribilci autodia» etrcumdai. " He ii foi lliiDwmg uattnd 
ibem s fiightful impriBonment, foi decieeing in solemn form iriiat- 
ever is woithy of tbe guilt of abandoned wretehea, in order Ibat no 
one may heieaftei be able, either Ibrongh the eenale or people, to 
mitigate the puiiiBtunent of Ihoae whom he is in laroui of eondam- 

IS, Eripil iliam ipem. " He eren depriree them of hope," L & 
by making their conGneinent One for life. — Quat lola Aomtfun*, dus. 
Conqure tho beautifiil language of Tibnllae (S, S, 26) - — 
" Spei etiam valida lotafur eontptde vinctum, 
Cmra lOTaiti /cttd, led eanii inter opiu." 
13. BoTia praeierea, dce. As legardi Ciceio'8 account of the 
opiniou held by Caeiar, on thii occafion, before the Roman aenala, 
compare Ihe longuage of SalluBt, (Cal. c. BI,) ■' Sed illa etluee, 
pailicandat eonim peeuniai, ipioi tn vinailii hatfidoi per mmiei' 
pia, qtiae maxime opibut valent, ne juit ie ]iit potlea ad ten^Uktm 
referal, nme mm populo agat," &c. 

' 14. Quam li eripidiiel. "Fur had he taken iwar thii," — JfaL< 
101, uno iolore, &c. " He would haTS ended, by a rnigle pang 
mBny enSeiinga of mind and body, and all Ibe pmushments due lo 
their ciimei." Theie is some doubt u to the tiue reading of diii 
paissge. EmeEiti giTU muilat m plaee of muUoi, makii^ Ihs gani- 
tJTas annit and eoryorit depend npon jnmm* andenhwdi in tlM 



^Q MiM of " Kifiniiga." Iliu, howarer, mppem eatnmelr Ib^ 
Hia MS8. in geswd gira muUvt, whicb induced OiaaTBu •• aug 
gMt, •■ ui emenUtion, muiloi, hiu dtUre, deiera ontnt Mjfiu 
earforU, ct, dcc. 'Hua conectiMi bu bwn ncened by Mstthiae, 
Sehob, OieUhu, «iid otiwn, but in nuth tha juitapoaitioa of iiidor* 
(UsrM ■oimd* like 107 thing elie nliier thw UicNOaiMi Latiiiity. 
We hEva idoptad, Iherafoie, > middle couiw, 101 hiTO Bop^secl 
lUoru to be ondentood with mnM at^\u corperu, aa ma; euilj 
bo implied fiom muitat, uid the pisMiiee of deiort, 

15. lUqtia w aJiquA, &c, " Henee, ou thii accomit, that tbBra 
mii^ bo watM baz lamaiiiiiig Ibi the wicked ia tiie, the men of 
eariiac time« &Tonied Ihe idaa, tb>t cettun paniebmentn, of ■ nature 
BalcnlBled to pioduce llos efieat, wen ■jqiMiited fbi the wickcd in 
tha k>mi wcrid." We hne pven Qiufnodr (" of Ihtt kind,"} a 
ftee Imulalion, ae moie diieetly ezplanatoij of Ihs metiiiiig of tha 
natoi. — It ia erideDl, fiom what we aee heie, that Ciceio himaelf 
g**e no dedit to tbe populii behef leqMcttng the natuie of tba 

hi ■nothra woild. And lhi> ie qipaient alio Erom manir 
W of bia wiitinge. He wae a belioTei, howerei, in a fliCiue 
witbout directlj attacking the ac^iticiem of Caeiar, ba 
Eeoaona it, bj eTpneeiiig his opinion, that i. belief in 
i futun woild had the adTiintage at leaat itf 
ie lifa tlw evil pu«ona of the wicked. It t> tbis which 
he Dna connaiioa between Itaque, &c,, and the uloaa 

16. Vidtlicet, "Nodoubt." Thera ie t elighl tingeof inn^ 
in tba UM of thi> wtod, oa tbe pnaent occaBiaD, bnt it i> an iiotrr 
dii«cted «^aiiMt tbe faUea of lh> Tulgai ieqiectin{ the puniilimenle 
of anothei wrald, not agdDat a fotnra Btate itself. 

17. Mta quid inltrtil. " How my imeieBla ara concamacL" 
More twij, " on wbicb >ide mj liue intereat lies," i. e. u reganb 
the canSicliDg opinioiH of Siluiua and Caeaai. 

18. Hane m rtputtiea viam. " Soch a caieei in public aSain." 
— PBpalaris. "A popular one," L e. cilculated to giin tho fayoul 
of Ihc pw^ile. Thece is heie ■ luiklng succawn against Caeaar^a 
lan of pc^krity. 

19. Hoe aaclore el cogititore, &c. "With bim u Ihe Buthor 
and nqipintter of Ihia opiiuDii." By auttore ttrtUntiat i> meant 
tb« otiginal piopoaei of a meaaura ; b^ eogmlor, one who ac- 
knowledgea iC to be tui, lad exeita himaeir to defend tnd aubalan- 

3tO. Pnfuiaxet itrtpttitt. " A17 onseH of the p^ople," i. e. anj out- 


CicBTD'a meuung ii, diBt Cw)hi'i popiiluitj will ihield him fom ^^Q 
thia qslc, uid Uut cn Ibia mda hia Crue inteieit liea. 

Sl.' JUam altcrtm. "The Dthec." JUt here uinTen to om 
defioite srtiole. IJtenllT, " thu othei oite," i e. ihe opinioa of 

35. Nacio as, &c. " I know not «rhelhei «^■<itwni^1 tnmUa 
will BOt iitlhat BveDt be iociined by me." .^ptiiu «^vtii, hter- 
all^ " more tioable." Ic i> ■ Teiy me tbing <ar onqifiui U imn 
eftec it > genitiTe cue. A ninilu cimrtnietim occim in Cau. B. 
6. 6, 9; " AmfliM cbtiitm." — Cicero ij^tnduHidi Mime trauUe 
on Ihe peit of Che lowei oidenif the o;NmoD of SilUuie be adopted, 
hat etill be ia in &toui of it. — A> leguda the eipieeaioii n«eta an, 
(otbwwiae, uid moie commooly mitteD hnui tao an,) it roarj be 
lemariud, Ihat the "unu lojwnijt" UDODg the Romaiu loade it 
•quiTsleid to nocta on fum. It ia empkTcd to eqneM ■ mDdeet 
degiee of ODiibt, &e., aiid mij often be lendeied bj mt EngliA 
teim "peihi^," EiDeati goea too &i idWD he mthea it equiTakol 
to ■ aim[de affiimatioD (Cfot. Cie. a. t. haud.') 'Yha moie coiiect 
doctrine ie laid dowD bj Schellei {Praeapt. Slfl. toI. 1, p. 480.) 

33. Sed lamtn «uorutn ptricalarum, &e. " Still, howeTei, let 
the iDleieeta of the atate overcome a]l conBideiBlioiu of bij owa 
indiridual dangei," i. e. let tiiB welfua of the atate tiinmph orei 
eTeiy peiaoDsl cauaideiaUoD. The common GxpTeaaioD would ba, 
" aJlamm lalvt Teipublicat anteponenda ttt meit periailit," 

34. Ha&eBtat enim, &c. The coimeiian ia th« lain of 
ie ■■ foUoiTB : Ciceio haa juat been lema^iiig, tliat conaidentioiia 
of peraonal aaTe^, od hie pait, Dmat yield to the poblic good. Now, 
aa hia peraODal safety would baTo beeo in ■ gieat meaanie aecuied 
bj adopting the opinion of Caeaai, it might be inieiied b; M 
slchough Teiy enoneoasly, that he regaided Caeal'! o^uuion >■ 

■'clashing, in eome degree, wilh the public welfare. In oidBi, ti 
fore, to avoid luch m infeience, ha immediately addi, tbat tba 
opioion eipreaaed by Caesai, Blthough the public intereita wiU not 
alkiw him, peculiarly aituBled bb be ia, lo embraee it, yat Beema W 
b Jn worthy in eTeiy nay of (be high lanli of its authoi, and ■ aan 
pioof of hia sinceie Btlachment to tho' atate. Ilie con^iliment ia 
reiy utrnllT tumed, Bnd ehows gieat policj on tke pait of Ciceio. 

36. Iptittt dignilat, " Hta own higb nnk." — Amplitaio. "Tba 
lHiietiiouB cbuBcEer." — Tamquam eitidem, &c. " Ab b piedge cf 
h)B lasting BttBchment to the etate." 

1. IntelUelum ett, &c. "By thia haa it been lendeied fulZy At 
■ppaieot, what dlfieiencc theie ia between che insincerily of meie 
|H]Uie declaimera, utd ■ boBom tnilj attuhed (o Ihe people, uid,GoOgk 


fot ibeir welfire." Anothw irtFnl camfdinutil. Cicera 
lemulu, thal Cuiiiai's opinion ebow» the tiue itiend of tbe people, 
j( the bollownen of tLe denugogue, wbo ti Tneielr Beeking 
UM(r bTDnr foi bii own privits endi. It will leMtily be perceived 
thu Cicero> object ii to iivoid inilating Ceeau, uid tlieieb<r to pis- 
ib difficnlliea. The ptaiM beetowed, bowerer, it of i'Terr 
cbuiclei, (ir^, lo lu it leut, B Tein of lucuiii ^pei» to 
m beneitb, xid yst it ia otie 10 utfollf mtuaged Ibat Cbsmi codU 
t > ciQMi of o0ence. 

Tbe pionoiDi beie denoteB cODtempt. — Fopularts, Id 
' Iha wiong eenee of Iks leim. 

9. Nm HMtnwm. " A ceitain peiaon." He meuis aome eenUOT, 
wfao, in radei not 10 vote npon Uie cepitBl paniebment of Romui 
eitixeni, uid &om tbe wiih of becomiag popular with ibe lower 
Oiden, b>d ibwnted bimHlf Irom thia meeCiiig oC tbe BenBte. To 
ihiB one he oppoeee Caesar, aa a true fricnd of Ihe people and anx' 
iooa fbr tbeii welfire and the Bafelj of the atate. Tbe nime of Iha 
aenatar in queation ia unknown ; aome make bim to bave been Q. 

4. tfaiuulerthi*. " The daj before jesteidsf." A contrBctioa 
(ac nunc iftM tfrlhu, (i. e. eil. ) 

5. DidU, " Coiudgned," i. e. was in faToor of conaigniDg ; voted 
to that efiect. — Civa Ainunaa. The CDDipiTBtorB wbo bad been 

6. Itidiet: Ths Allobioges and TuttaicioB. — Afftcit. " Recom- 
penaed," L e. voted for [Bcoa^nung. 

7. Jam. Maiking the coiiclnaion to whicii Cicero fgiily ajiivea, 
thst one, who bsd gone aa fu aa i}ub peiticalu aenatoi, bsd Blreadj' 
cipiessed hia opinioD, in fact, on Ihe meiits of the caae at la^e. 
aad ought, therefoie. to bave been preaeot, since he gained nothing 
bj sbeence. 

6. Qwuntari gratulationeBi. " A TOte of thanka 10 the individ- 
nal who fint inatituted an inquirf," t. e. wbo firet inquired into, aad 
saceitained, Ihe eziitence of b conspiTacy. Cicero uBea the teim 
quatniar, here, in ui unuaual sense. It genenllf signiGes, when 
^lted to a public officer, a peison appointed hj Ihe senate ot 
people to preaideat publie tiiala of a capitil naturt. 

8. At vem, &c. "Cuus CaeBu, howeyet, plainly peicsiTes, 
Cbat the Sempronian law waa enacted for tbe beneGt of Roman citi- 
zena," &c. Cicero Bcta the conduct Btid aentkiients of Caesu, on 
Ibe present occasion, in oppoeiticn b> thoiB af the ■enator jnst men- 
Itoned, and, in so doing, very artfully tums a pait of Caesar'B on- 
tion agaiml tbe apaBkar bimaelf. Caessr bad laid gieat atreas jpoD,GoOgk 


II UwB, the iBlter of which oitlercd tbit ^J 
uo Roinu) citizen ahould be cipiully puniahed witiiaut thg CDmTnuKl 
of the people, utd tho fonner, that no citiien ihould be pui to death 
U all, bnt ihat the alteniiUive of exile ehould be allowed him. 'ftu* 
put of Caeeai'! qieech becomei completety refuttHi. if Ihe latter 
eui ba made lo ceDfeea, th>t a pnblic enemr is uo longei a citizen, 
and Ciceio. tbeietbie, biinga (brward ihia propoailion in ao sitful > 
wsf that Caeaai cannot posaibly conlradict it. 

10. Iprum lalorem, &c. " Thal Ihe veiy piopoaar himeelf of the 
Sempronian law rendeted atonemeal to the atate by the ordei of tba 
people." The meaning of Cicero ia thia, that eren Caiue Giacebua 
himaelf. who brouglit in the Sempronian lan, waa not allDwed to 
ayail himwlf 01" Iba proTiaiona of thal law, bul Bnffered Ihe puniah- 
ineni ilue to the TJolation of public oidei, on ihe giound of hia being 
a public enemy, and thal loo by ai^ e.tpreaa decree of the atate. The 
principal foice of [he remaik liea b ihe eipreaeion jitttu jxrpuli, tha 
people IbemselTea haTing, according to Cicero, eanetioned hy thsii 
ordei, in the caae of Caiug Gracchus, the distinction drawn b^ him 
between a cittzan and a pnblic foe. — All the MSS., and all ihe eadjr 
editiona, without a aingle exception, tead ;ujiu, ind ao the tezt 
romained until Eioesti ihougbt fit, on mera conjeclure. to «ibalituta 
iii^m. Hia acgument is, that Crscchua, tbe prapoier of the Sem- 
pranian law, nae not put to death hy the order of the people, but 

, by an act of ™Jence on Ihe pait of ihe nobility headed by Scipio 
NaaicB. In Ihia roinaik, howeyec, ihBre ia »n hiatoiical error, aince 
Caiua Grsechoe was alain by the parq o( ihe consul Opimiua, sft«t 
s decree of the senite hsd been paased, entniating the lepublie lo 
his caie. The only difHcalty to, lo aaceitsin in what way ihe »en- 
lence of tho eenate may be said to have been rstiGed by Ehe petqile, 
or how their sssent wai in any form obtained, Cicero appesra 10 
hsTe inferTed Ihia Bs«ni from Iheii tiot having interfcred to preserve 
the life of Giacchua, and peiiiaps from Dlher circumstancea to ua 
nnknonn. Al ill evenla, it ie too bold a piGceediog (o allei what 
has thui fu been regaided aa ihe establi^ed taii, snd uiake it apeak 
a direcily opposite meaning. The beat edilors, Eince £mei>ti'a time, 
oainety, SchilU, Weiake, Matthiae, Wetiel, &c., have rejoctsd ihe 

11. Idmt ipttm, iu:. " Tlie same IndiTidual is of opinion, diat 
Lenirilua hiinseLf, though laTish and prodigal in his eipenditurce 
npo' the people, cannot be called Iheir Iruc friend, when be hai 
wilh BO bittiM Gioelty been plotting ihe dealiuction of ihe RomaH 
people, the ruin of thii city." The reference in largitortm and 
BToiigum ia to public alMwa, and athei entertsmmanla, gireii fdr 




^J ftapoipoMof ueming popoluity. CaD^ma, u ragw^tbB {otc« 
alprntUgit*, th« definltiOB of Cic«re, d( C^. 3, 16. 

IS- Himo nnfunmiu a(;iu Imunliiu. " Attbongfa ■ Tcrf 
mitil tnd mstciTul nun." Rvfnring to Cmnt. — JVon ibiiilat. 
"Hd heiititea DOt." 

18. G( Mncil m piufennn. " And tw i* iu hma of gnndiiig, 
faj ui eipi«n decree, tgtiiM the dme to eome." — St jaeUirt. 
" Td eiert hiniHlf." Mors litenU^, " lo bnay himBelf.'' Eqoir- 
•lent tieie U> conmavert Mt. CaniDlt &nMti, Clm. Cic ind 
Scldti, Inda Lat. ad Cic. Op. i. v. 

14. In ptrmcie popuii Rmuini. "ItiamMterilut mTolreitlte 
luin of tlie Romin peai^e." 

16. Aijmgit cMam, &c. Cicero patpoealy l^a gieet Btresa od 
Am MTed^ of CaMir. Tbe Utter hed sud that he wu in fsTonr 
of the moet rigofoae pnniabmml. llie caoeal nndenlood him 
mll, and lekee him >t hia wm^. Cush eannot retncl, snd tf • 
■till mote seTers pmnshment can be dleeoTerad duo thit abes^ 
thou^t of, (be senita maj dectee to that efieet, aad Ctsm mnst 
of eoDne approTB. Cicero adioilly managei to draw tini inferenee 
fiom Iha «ords of Caesar, and inTolTU the Ulter in his own Bubde- 

le. QuMiTuirtm *n» kae, &a " Either thsn, if yon ■ha)] bBTO 
decreed Trhat Ciesn lecommeDdi, joa will bsTe girea me, in Um, 
a comptnion foi ihe pnblic aaaembly, deai and acceplable to th« 
people," i. e. jon wiU hsTe adopl«d an opinioo, whicb will &id t 
■eiloiu and succeaBfnl ftdTWate, bebte the anembled peoide, in &» 
penon of tho one who proposed it. 

17. Atjtu obtijubo, &c. '• Aod I wiU maliB it appeai lo baTe 
been the fii milder epioion of tjie two." 

15. Ego tmm dt mto iiruu jadieo, " For I jndge &am n^ own 
ferfkgs," i. e. in what I am going to saj, I will gire nttennee 
&ank^ to nif real and bonest feeUngi. 

19. Wam ila Piihi, &e. " Foi so may it be allowed me to eajojr, 
•tong with jon, Ibe lepubljc ia a state of saTetj, u I ain now, 
becsDie I sbow more eeTeiit/ than dsdbI in dw preaent affiiir, not 
InBoeuced bj anj cnieltr of qiiiit, (fol who i* in fact miiaei than 
myself 1) but bj specaliarfeetingaaitweie of humanity atid pity." 
i. «. maj I nevei enjoj, in common with jon, the benefita tesnltiug fiom 
l^ eomilij's safelj, if Ibe eagemera whicb I dufilaj in Ihis affiur pto- 
ceeda (iom anj erael siriiit, (fotftoonehailewofthat thanarrself,) 
bot &om a fedii^ of hunianitj and pi^ towards mj coontijmen. 

SO. Vidmr tnila mdtn. " Melhinta I aee." The orator ia hei» 
enlatinf on tho Ggan wfaicb gnunmaiitai call Hatypont.,GoOgk 


81. Arum Dmniuni fn^nun, "Tho e^t&l of iiU nalioiiB."^^ 
Arcem i» here «juiTaJeDt W coput. — Siibila uno iiunuiio cffnctdc»' 
Cem. '^ Qd* ■uddBn «^^nk^T^g Bjuid cme umveftwl con£agration '* 

1. StpaUa in fwJrio. " !□ m; luined couatij." Sepalla is ^Q 
beio equiTBleat to tDcrta or Tiulatii. — JMueTM o/^tM ini(pu'f«. y 
No *nicle of popuki belief was moce itrotigly establUhed in the N 
■ncieiit mnld, tfaui that the Mul wandeied foi a hundied ;pears ( 
Uooiid the banki of tJw Sgi oi the deu! body itadf, whenerer th> / 
Uttei was depriTed of Ihe lite» of buiial. HoDce the pecnliail; l 
motiJmful ideu atfacjied to the ciicametaiics of ■ corpee remainiiig V 
iwtlected ud uiibuded, aod of which Ciceio heie lufi^iy aiaili J 
himaelr, in oidei to heig^ten the effect of the gkioiD; pictme ' 
whick he diawi. 

2. VerMvr mila anle oculot. " It ofteu pieseDt befoie mj 
Tien." — El/urorin vatra catde bacchaniit. " Aod tii* wild fiuj 
as he rereli amid joni blood." 

3. MiH prajHtmi. "IhaTe pictaied to mjself." — Ex fiUt». 
" From the SibjUiiw predictkms." 

4. PurpuTolvm eitt, &c. " Tbat tbia Qabiiiiua beie ii un;«d 
io pniple." Hune lefen to Gahiniua aa haTiEg beea befate theia 
oo » lecent occaaioD, not as actuallj' pieeeat at the time. Compais 
Ot. in C«t. 3, 8, inil. — GSabioiua ia called ^nirpiiriMiij, as one of 
tbe titled atteodanla io tbe futm^ loyal couit of Leutulua. Coio- 
pue Cie. Tute. Qaaetl. 1, 43, Flor. 1, 10, Lic. 30, 43. 

6. Vesaiiimem virgimim Vtttali>i,m. " The ontrage* ofieied 10 

6. Veltementer naicrit atqut macranda. " In the higheat degree 
dqiloiablB and noith; of compaaaioiL" — Eaftrficcrt. " To bciiig 

7. FTatbtbo. We haTe bere given the readjng which GiBeriu* 
adoptcd ftom >ome of his MSS. and whicli Giutei faund in thioe 
of bia. It imput* a moie sodoioub and CiceroDian ending to the 
seDteuce. The commoD text haa jrd^fen. 

8. Dt eerrii. We would natuiBll; eipect heie de lervo, aiate 
the jTigiihiT eerm piecedes. But ttte alluaioD heie is ft> the Ro- 
msD law, b; which it was oidaii:ed, that if Ibe mastei of tbe boaee 
oi ai^ msmber of bia &mil; were murdered, sDd the murdeiei Dot 
disooToied, all ibe alsTea componng the honsebold Bbould be pat to 
deatb. Hence we Gnd in Tacitus {Ann. 14, 43) no less than 400 
tn one (amil; puniahed on this iccount, 

9. Jlfiftivera,&c. WbatCicsroherejustilies.Tiz., toseektoles- 
■eDlbesmait ofaoguiBh bj Ibe sufieiiDgsBndtoitiiieofhimwbobss 
eccauoMd it, he Trotild on «ootbei ocessioD, whers greatnets of 



43 *ool *■■ tli* thRne, hue openlj cODdamiicd. Heie, howeTO, tt 
mits his potpon to usert w)ut he hu in Om teiL 

10. JVbentu. Hiu imuld appeu mt fint view to clii^ with da 
MTBii. But it in &ct confinn» thu leading, «nce " tJiB guilty onB" 
wanld be eure ef beiog pnniibed, if tdl Ihe aUTei compoong the 
bonwbold were pnt to ibs toitora. 

11. Hoe vmvernm, &c "And this eommon dfrelling-placa 
(rf the lepoblic," i. e. thii cit;, tbsdw^ing-pUce of s^iatepeople. 

13. Qai id igertmi ut eoUocartnt. " Wbo heve limed at eslab> 
Gahing." — Si. " ETsn if." — Mutneordtt. BecaiiM'iU'p(inidt- 
nwnt i* ideqoite to their cnme, snd snir laflictioa of -it tbenfan 
will onlf ■n>w merejr. 

19. Inpatritu, dcc. "Inecuethat inTolTca the rain of Onr 
eoantij ind fellow-cilizen»."— fanMt. " The impntation." 

14. L. Csaar. L. Jnlius Ciesar, wha waa conaol wilh C. 
Maicina Pjgtilaa, A. U. C. 689. He waa nncle lo Julhia Ciesar. 

IG. Craidiar, " Too crasl." 

IB. SoTOrit niae. JnliA, wbo had maiiied Lentulua, aftet hav- 
fng been Ihe widow of M. Antonias Cralicaa. Bj her fint mu- 
tiige ahe had bscome the mother of t/l»A Anlany, Iha triuul T lr. 
The punishment of her eecond husbend, Lentuliu, wea Ibe oiigin, 
■CGOrding lo Plutuch, oT the enmi^ Ihlt proreiled betrnmi Antoi^ 
tnd Ciceio. (Vi(. ^lnfon. c. 2.) 

17. Fimm. Lentulus. 

18. Cum oium, &c. L. Coeur, m Ma remuta, before tha 
■enate, on the occasion alluded to by Ckeio, in oider to shieM 
himielf fiom the impuU^on of nndue ■everit7 in Toting far tbe 
ptmishment of Lentulus, had obsened, that " his oim gnndfuher" 
wea once put to death bj ordei of a Roman conaul, and Ihe aon o( 
Ihe formei, allhough sent to ane for peaee, waa impriMned and 
■lain. Caeau alluded to M. FulTioB Flaccui, who was hia giwtd- 
bthei on the mother'8 eide, and who waa alain by Dtdei of the con- 
■ul Opimiua, togethei with his Bon, durrng- Ihe a^ir of Caiua Giac- 
chna. Consult Vetl. Palerc. S, 7, 2, Yal. Maz. 9, 13, B. Plut. 
Yit. C. Gracck c. 16, »tyj. 

19. Qiwrum guod limiU ftclanif "And yet whal act on tbar 
put was U bII like the condnct of theae conapuators 1" Lilerally, 
■'Ornhom, what sct was Bimilarl" i. e, what compiriBOn nill Ihe 
offente of FulTiuB Flaccu» and hia »on bear with that of Lentulu» 
uid hi* colleaguea T 

20. Inilum. "Waa formed hy Ihem." Referring lo Flaccus 

Sl. LargitimU vdtmUu, ie "A dtiii* lo gtatiff tha peopla,GoOgk 

Aousn CATiLiNE. 233 


br lMg«»««ii ud • certuD Tiolence of psrtiea, weie then piera- ^ 
lent in the ittte." The allusioa in larjtitiemt volunlat ia ta the 
«OTemenM of ibe Giacchi, ia conciliiting the favour of Ihe peoplo. 
C. Greechne, for ei^ple, mi the Bnlhor of e lei ffvmenlana, for 
> dielriNatioa of com uoong Ihe pecple, eod he aiid hie elder 
Hnlhei Tibeiiiu wete the weO-luiowD advacatas of llie Agmiui 
■lur. Connilt Legnt Inder. 

22. Hujui omu Lenluli. Alluding ta P. Leotului, nboM 
tnvige wee on the eeHl of his gnndnoD, and to whom Cicero aIbo 
refera in Ihe third oration, (c. fi,) " Eii vero, itiquani, lignum 
nebim, imttgo ori tut," &e. Ae regaids the occanence mentioned 
in tbe lail, compato the woids of Valariu» Maiimna, (5, 3, S,) 
'^ P. LerUuluM, ciaritnmuM et amantiaaimuM reipubticae civit, cum 
« Aventino C. Gracchi nefarioi cmatuj, cl aciem, pia el forli 
fugna, rnagma vuiarribiLi exceptit, fugatseC," &c. 

1. f/c quid de iHinnu, &c. " Tliat no pvlJoa of the pnblic A9 
eafety migbc be impaiied." Summa repubkca ia here eqnivakent to 
what ifl elaewhere giTen aa junima reipi^liciu, and thia latter [Jiieee 
ie Ihe laine as "re* a qua laJiu umereae Teipuiliau pendel." 
Coinpaie note 16, page S9. The cominoD teit haa de lamma 
TeipuAHcae digTottUe. Oni reading ia that of GiaeriuB, flnieeti, 
Beclc and Scbiiti, aiii^iorted bj good miiinsciipla. ■ 

2. Hic. "Tbia hie deecendant." — Aliribuil noe. "Giree ni 

3. Vcrennnt caiieo. " You aie afraid, X BUi^Mwe." The cam- 
nunrteit hos vereainim. Oui reading is thal of Emesti, who ibnnd 
tbe woidi Btreenim cenieo inone of the MSS., &oni whichhe eon> 
jectnred Mremin'. This would be rathei feeble authmitj, it is uue, 
Ibr tbe emendatioD, did not Ihe aense require the indicative. 

4. AUquii teteritti. The common teit haB mmii aliqmd teBtr*, 
fbi Tihich we hsTB adi^ited one of tbe emendaUonB of EmenL 

6. Renultione poeriae. " By anj relaiatioD of puniahment." — 
Severilale ttmnuidteriimit. " By anjr Beverity of inflictioD.'' 

6. Qmte exaadio, EmeBti remarke, that exaudio ie rarely ein- 
plcnred wben q>e*kilig of mmoui or meie repoit. Cicero, howoTer, 
eipceMlj nees ibe compoand Ibim on the preient occaaion to impait 
additioinl etiength lo tbe claiue. Il is the Bame as ■lying, that ha 
bean tiw lepocts aUiided to eo distincllT is te be iiicapable of anj 

editiona have jadanlUT, hut GceeTiai slteied Ibii 

on ihe authoiity of manj MSS., aod as required bj the coi 

JaaaattUT would denote s freqoent and actiie ciicolslim of rum,GoOgk 


^3 kuch u «onld mit tbs enemi«, not dte frieDdi, of CicsM ; j « ri wi 
IHT, on Ihe coaaij, rafen lo wtuJi ia nid by the wsU-dupoaod bitf 

8. Enrnm, qai, Ac. '* On tbe put oF tboM, «ho MOm to b« 
qqirEheaiiiTe ibit I hne not ■ nfficieiit Ibiee," &e. Afta tho 
TObe nufiio, (tnuo, Kreor, ri ia lued ifheQ we ara &fniid leat > thing 
mif take pUce wbich wB do DOt Wknt to bepptni, Kid nt wfaeii ws 
wi^ it to hippen, but m ■fnid it will Dot. Thoa, ■Ntw ncftcuu 
ia, " I un tlaiA leit jm wiU do it," bnt mttHO ut faeia*, " I un 
■fnid jron will Qot do it." The lolntion of tiiii ippanot uhmihIj 
■i a foDowi : tiutiui nt fatxaa ii tha sum u •MfKO ii( «im ftm, 
" I «m iftud in ardfl' (io/ jon idkj Dot do it," i. •. I do not wiili 
you to 3o the thing in qoeation, bnt feu leit jan wiU ; wbenu 
fnauo ni fiuiat ii htenllj, " I un afnid in onfai' liat jon maj do 
it," L e. I niih it done, bvt un efiiid jou will not do it. 

9. Etprmtt,&e. " H>Te berai both pMrided for, lod pnpned, 
■nd follj wttled."— CtuiL " A» wall."— D»%nK»a. " VigiUiice." 

10. IVm nuilte ttiani, &c. " Ah bj the etiU gieatst lail, di» 
pUjed onthe pMt oftbe Rimiui people, foi," &c. 

11. A171U hci « tfifb. llie eeaUe WH unenibled in tba 
taiqde of Jopitai Stuor. 

13. I^mtteT tot, qui, &c. He refen to tbnea wlMm tntlw lOth 
ebiptei of tbe MeoQd ontkm he coiii^oheiided m tne fooith clue 
itfdisafiected penons, men wbo ue weigbed down bj debt,uid 
iriw lee bnt too eleu^.that theae dehte will pitwe thui inin. 

15. Qmvirtiiu. " With irtiat courage." — CemttMmiUI "Da 

14. Qui voH* ita, &c. " Wbo jield to jon die pneedeaoe m 
nnk and cooiiBel, onlj to ne with joa in lore fcu tbs npoblic." 
Cimnltt lefe» to tbe adiniiiieUtion at pMia afiain. — The lua of 
•KflMum, in tbia puuga, in tbe aeiue of eqMiiohtj, oi taldi^ ths 
leid, ia of TOij nra oocunence. Hence Scballei amfiect*, tbat pai 
hspa auetoritalem hu beon dropped finm tbe teit. 

16. Ei nHiltifnim atBUnan ditit ■tiant. Jndge* wen £nt 
■elected fimn tbe «10*10. In conBeqneDcu, howem, of tba Tenalitj 
of ihit order, the ligld of jndging wu takea fnm Ibem bj tbe Suo. 
pioniui Uw, tnd giron to the eqoitea. It wae iMCoied lo tha «eittta 
hj ■ Uw of SyIU'a, and aabaeqiisiitljiby ■ liw of Cotte,the pnalot, 
in tbe conaulahip of Pompej and Cistsnk, it wu iliaied between 
Iks leute, equilee, and tnbanu of ibe trasBQij. Tbb lattei ordi- 
lunefl pioduaed ■ Telj powetfol effeet, in heilhig tbe difierucu 
which tbe olbeR lud canied botween tbe tm) oiden, Bnd Cieeni 
enrtedhimMlfTHjuilouily in comjdeting^rocoiiciliUian. Ob,GoOgk 

JlOAIMST catiline. 335 

th inMnf acctuon, tha two oiden tfqxiu spea mora aniled, uid A^ 
thu loo in Che beit of cuum, the pieseriBCian of tbeii coontcy. 
(Cannlt Legal lodei, a. t. Lcz A-uTeiia, tnd ilso A«ui«ec. Antij. 
Sim. i, 18, 16, p. 764, «L HeuioU.) 

16. .Id hijiw ordinu, &c. " To an olliBnce ind union with this 
mdBr." AUuding to the chuge of feelii^ whkh had been piodoced 
bjr the Auieliui bw of Cotta. 

17. Htue emita. AUndii^ to the coiHpincy. — Coigvngil. " Ra- 

IS. CenjCniufani. " Ftsced on ft «uis buii." — Confimu) vobU. 
" I confidently deeleie lo joo." 

1. JVuUum ^NWl&of nufiim, i&c, Ciceio imagined Ihat he had AA 
pUced tiia uitbDri^ of the ■eoUe on i «olid buie, bjr unitiDg it wilh 
tbs equeatiiui arder, thus coiutitatiiig whu be caUs " oplinM rtt- 
puMica," uid he udibes ths luin of the rqmblic U) tbot coaiitkia 
DOt being jneseired. The onrc of the tupture, whicK wu & tcij 
^ieedj one, wu tbe ■enUe'B lefunng to leleue the equitei tniin ■ 
disBilTantageaui contnict conceming the AiiUic reTenues. (Ctc. 
tf. U AU. 1, 17.) 

S. TWiwiuw atrario*, HleM were of Plebeiut oiigin, uid 
thnMgii ibeai the pa/ puced to the vwj. (pro PUmc. S.) Compaie 
Yarro, L. L. i, {5, IBO, tp.) " Trihua quoqut qui&in auribiUtt 
trai peamia, nt mtltfi rtddermt, TriiHini aerani dicli." 

3. Stribat ittm umvtrtoe. " And hLewiae the wbJe bod; of 
aciibe»." ' Among the Ronuni theie wara two kinds of Bcnbsi, 
pnTate tnd public ; the focmeT wera the elBTes of piivUe indiTidiuli ; 
tbe latlef were fiee, but of ptebeian isnk, aDd genenltj &eediDeii. 
nieae laat wen diTided into decuriae, utd lecaiTed pay &oia Ibe 
puhlie tieaauiy. The; weie dietiibuled iyj lot anioi^ tbe different 
migiatntee, and bence were called, ammUaei, praelorii, aedilita, 
juaettorii, &.C. 

4. Ctaa catu haec diu, &c. " When thiB dsj had, bj cbance, 
aaaembled tbem in gieBl numbeiB," i e. at tbe public, trsBauiy. 
Frejueniart ia bera emplOTed in *n uiuunal senae, for /requenitt- 
eoafncare. Campaie pro Dom. c. 33. — The acribes wera aBsetn- 
tded on this dttj, the imMB of December, oi Sthof tbe month, at 
the puUic tieBvuij, to dJTide among themielree, bj lot, the officea 
of the ensuing jeai, that ia, to deteimine who ehould be secietBriaa 
to die conaula, who to the piaeton, &c. TMa was done amiuaUj. 
'While tbus emplojed, thej aew tha piisoneii led by to the seBate- 
Ihouse, and immediatelj, abandoning all their piiTste concenv, tbej 
came and mado sn offei of theii «ssistaiice, fol secnriiig tbe puUic,GoOgk 



^^ S. Jt (xi7Mt>(ioiu mrfi*. " Tma aD BipeeUtiDn of Ibe cffiGea 
10 be lUoUed to them." CoiWuU pneeding nata. 

6. OiRiiu >i^niiianMi, dic. "Tbe wbola bodj of fteehoni 
-«itizciu ii here, Even tiKMe of tbe harobleat degree." Bj jiifmu 

tbe lUinuua meant thaee who were bom of parentathU hul ■Iwijpa 
been frw. Sucb it lcut ■nonu lo h>*e been the cue origitMlly. 
In the InetituCe* of Juetiniui, bowerei, Ihe nTKIneB of the ■TicicDl 
Tole on thu eubject is verj conaideniblj modiGed : ** Iiigettuia t*l 
U, fui, tlaiim al tuUat til, liber ttt i tivt ts dwibtit ittgtnuia 
ina/rinuniio tdilta at, tiee a Witrtimt ditidMt, tivt n alura 
UherUiu/, et aUero ingaaU), Sed et ti qais ex matre naiciJtir fiiero, 
fotre vera tereo, ingenuut «Hiilomtau tiatcilvr : ftuTHadmoJim 
jui tx tnatrt libera et itietrlo patre tuitut ttt, qvomnM nign 
coiietjitut itl. Siiffial aulcm libtram fiaiit matrtm io tempar* 
' jue nateitar, licet aiiilla coiueperii," Ac. (/iu(. I, tit. 4.) 

7. Liberlinonim hominuiti, 6lc. Thc RomHni distinguiihed be- 
tween the Lerme tiberlut snd li&erlinuj u followe ; when referTrng 
to ttae patron or fDnner msBier, thej uscd liierliii, Ihue, tiberlut 
Caeinrii, " Cgeeu'B freednun," liberiut Cteeroiat, &c., but when 
thej meint to dBBigniLc ■ freedmati gciierallj, Ihej emplojed liher- 
linu*, u libtrlimt erai, " he waa a frecdman," /iierliinim oiifi, flcc 
Compare the renmrka of ErneBti. Clac. Ck. a. t., ind Tajlor, Ele^ 
mentt o/ ihe Civit Law, p. 430. 

8. Qui nirliUe tua, &c. " Wbo, baTing ty Ibeir nterit ettuiied 
to tbe condilian which Lhe tight of citiicnahip beatowe." Bj tirlittt 
u DieanL theii fidelitj anl attachment lo thcir maBten. There k 
great vaiialion heie in the MSS. We have adoptod tbe reeding 
of Giulei, Oiaeviue, and Emeetl. Muielua piefQii, " ^ /orMna 
tiia hujut cinlalii jui eBnieculi," which ia ■upported b]r Bame 
HSS. LambinuB givea, " ;ui lua virlule ac /orluna hujui cimtati* 

9. Quidam. Rofeiring nol onlj to LentuloB, Celhegus, and tbeii 
colloagaee, bnt to other and more iccrct partiaana of the conepiraej, 
vihoae naDies he could mctitlon if he felt inclined— ^idsm diffen 
fiom aligiHi, bj impljing thit the object deiiignated ii delinitelj 
kDonn, though indefinilelj deacribed. Tbis indefinite deaciiplioa 
ii Bometimoa leaorted to fot the puipoeea of oblique aaicaam 
(Zumpl. L. G. p. 241 ) 

10. ^uirf commemorem. " "Whj noed I mention," i. e. «rhj 
mate tiine in apeaking of. — MatLhiae, Weiske, Schuti, &e., read 
cemtHemero, on the authoiitj of aome MSS. 

11. Qui modo toterabiU, icc. " Pnmded he enjoj onl; a toleia- 
Ua eooditian of eemtode." Cieero means, that dd alaTe, whOH,GoOgk 


banlBn o( «rrittide ii ia snj wsj ttdenbte, will feel inclined to ^^ 
■bandon hie present Btele, uid obtiin fieedom undei the aiispicea of 
CatiUne, eince nnivenial nun must leeult from the enccesg of hii 
dAiiiig BchemeB. v 

12. VoiiaiUtis. Tha choice of words here ie extmnelj eppio- ^ 
priftta. It belongs not to bIhvsb to intetmeddle in the at^n of / 
citizen» ; IhBy c«n, tbeiefore, onlj indulge io good-will (voluiUala) \ 
for the pieseiration of the etete. And tbey daie not even indulge ( 
in this feeiing, wilbont boaiing in mind, at the Bame time, ibeii teal 1 
coTidition, ( juanftim «udel,) foi they wall know how little thBj OD j 
e^ct by theii own nDudad lesouiceB, {qujmtam poial.) 

13. Fortt eommovet. *' HBppens to BlBim.'^ — Lenonem qumdam^ 
" ThBl B. cenain worthlem tool." 

14. CtHUWors^- &c. " Ib Tunniii^ Bronnd Bmong the ehopB of 
tbe ■itirana." Compue SaJInst, Cal, c. 60 : " Liberti el pauei «a 
eliaiiiiiu LaUiJi, dieenit itineribu», opifiea tt eenilia in nicu ad 
taoi tripiindam tolUcilaiant," &c. 

15. IftiUi nait invenli, &c. Appian, on the contiuy, Btatee, 
tbat tbe elaTee and fieodmen of Leiitulue and Cetbeffua, hsving 
been joined bjr a laige munber of working-people, Ix"?"'^^"' "^' 
Asif irpw)iaSi¥Tri,^ endeavonred to Iveak into the houses o( the 
pnelon, b; the lear. and rescue theii mBBtera who weie coiUiiied 
within. The momenC Ciceio was infoimed of this, he haatened 
from the senBt»'honBe, BtBtioDed guaida in di^ient qaaiters of the 
cttj, wheie any BttBck WBB to be eppiebended, «nd Ihen retumed to 
tbe eenate and eipedited the debate. {Appian, B. C. S, 6.) 

16. Ipmm iilum, &c. " That aame Bpot nbeie hi> aeaC ie liied, 
Mtd hia laboon aie peifonned, and bia datly biead le euned." — 
OkUU ac leclulum nmm. " Hia doimitoiy aod humble coocfa." 
Cubili ie hore equivalent to cabiailiim dormilorium. 

17. Curnim hunc, &c. " The peacefnl life whioh he at present 
le»da." MoiB lilorally, " thia hia pesceiul courae of life." 

18. Otnne eorun inttmmenlum, Su!. " Every thing with which 
dwy parsue their daily employment, all theii industi; and daily 
geine, aie (upported by a crowded population, are fostered by > 
Mate of puhlie lepDse." For mlinetur eome editions luTe nufen- 
tatur, which sinoaiit* to tbe same thing. 

19. Occhni laiemiM. " When their ehops Bre cloaed." Tbe 
diope at Rome were closed dunng tlmea of public confusion and 
■lann, and bIbo of public bottow, by an edlct of the consul. Con- 
■Dlt EmBBti, CJao, Cic. a. v. Tabema. 

I. Quidtandtm, fic. " What then wil! ba tbs resnit nhen tbejr ^g 
■>«bointt" If Catiline succeed, Ibe whole ci^ wQl b« «nf^,GoOgk 


^g in flioM*, tud the diepa «f tbe uliMia, «tid flnn^ tb^ teniuc 
U* cwiw, «iU limn tha «cnuiim) nin. Soma MS8. uid editii»* 
lmeyi(<vwii/iit<. EramtipiBfiMfulmmtintt^tatManBfittm- 
nim ctf. Beck Uiinka tfaat Cicero wrote meielr fvtvnmt, uid 
hmce he enckaea Mf in bnckete. The foim /lUKnun ttt ia 
ODdaubtcdlj prefenble, uid u lued fai the puipoM ot ■tnDgthening 
iriut ii nid, u if tlw fiiv weie dow ■ctuilty aboat to be ^ipliad. 

3. Cantidan. Heuung binwelf . — JifM d fwdia, &c. AUnding 
in puticolu to the ■ttempt made to twiiiiiiali him it lue mn) 


3. IStnte, mibtiUatt, &«. " In «entimsnt, in inelinetien, in zad, 
in counge, in open declantiona of iHachmanL" 

4. Fb^ (upjilei, dtc, To prodnce ■ itrongei inqineaion on tlw 
minda of hii heueta, tbe ontor hai lecoona to % moat beaatilnl «iid 
atliking penoiii£catioii. 

6. Artt Ptttoliim. The Lartt wwe tha oidinuy Itanaabald 
deitiei, the Ptnaiti weie god> of ■ bi^ier clas*. Hie Uctei waro 
of two kinda, pnblie and phrate ; bnt m bct the nme daitiea, thit 
ia, tha aune gods, wera wotabqiped u Ptnaitt by boA an entin 
cigr, with public honoun, and by tbe indlTidual funiliea in tbat eiqr, 
wiCh printe oi domestic offeringa. The Ltra weia woiahipped 
in the afnuTn, oi hall, ibe Ptnela inan innei paii oftbadweUu^ 
called itnpJutiiuni, and, foc tbe moat pait, open lo llie uppei aii. 

fl. JQia» ig^aem, &£. A aacrad fite w>a alwaya kopt huming in 
Ibe tenqiie of Veata, and it wss one of iha officaa of tbe Veatal 
liifpua lo watch thia dre day and nigiit. 'WhoeTer dlowed It 10 go 
ont w«a scDuigad by tha Fontiiei Maximus. Thia accident w»a 
alwaya eateemed unlucky, and eipiatad by offeiing eittaorfinaij 
■adificea. Tbe £re waa lighted np agsin, not &otD ■nolher fiK) 
but from the raya of tbe lun. Conault lA^iiiu, " Dt Vetfa tt Vtt- 
totilu SyKlagma," c. 8, ttqj- 

7. Sempitemii-m. Many MSS. bave merelj tluB vmA, omittin| 
ptiytluum ac whicb precede, aad Lamtiiniia snd Gr^ciius h>v* 

- adqMed the leadiug. But ptrpeliHU and itmpiienuit aie nothel* 
qinonymoua, Igmi perptniiu denoteg a fiie that ia fad by a «■)»• 
stsnt anccesaioii of Eroeb fuel i wheieas by igni* itmfiientui ia 
meant one wtiich is to be canlinued to fiituie agea. We aay 
thersfore teuder Ihe two epilhets in queetion by " eTei-buining .anil 

8. Defoai. By/onuisbere meant tbedomesticbeaitb,thatia, 
the heBTth in the airium, oi jilace «here'lbe family geDenll)' aaaem> 
eled, and uound which stood the inmges of Cbe I^ni, WbsD 
/deiii anil gra aie joined in the same sentence, as in ibe phnae. 


* fromi*itf<Ku pugnart," than ara daiMitw flui tlUrof the f CT>- ^ 
aUi, nhils/iKiu Bt31 le&is to Ibe Larei. 

9. DiKnu. Reraning to himidf. 

10. Quu non «mpsr, &c. " A piinlege that ii not ■Imjs 
■Sorded." Compuatlie npUiiationofHmLDUiiniM, " eajiu gtncrU 
iuetm tum imtpn- haia» contingU." 

11. Jn cmii caiua. "In a caae of ■ pnbtic nttun," i. e. in 
triuch ■!! etltuRi ■» tDoie or leH concemed. 

15. Auetat ixaggeraiaiqiie, " iDcreued, aje, ■nd eteo heaped 


13. Vna nae. That of tlia S^tnnulia. Conipue ch^ptei 4 of - 
Ihe Sd ontiou. — Paent ddiriL Ciceto •aaea itleril not deleiitlet, 
becaoie if he h>d nmplojed the dinct foan ai eipnaBion, i^ut the 
gnmmineDi eall the araiio Hrecta, he wonld hars nid d^eoit, oot 

14. Ein princepM. " To be the fint hesid," L «. to tike the 
leed, — Offieio eontuiari. It being the dutj of ■ coniul to mtcb 
o*er the pablie ufetr, uid to be the fint to gire the ilann trheu Ibit 
lafetr a AteatBDed. 

IG. Ega video. " I un well swaie." — Quaai videtii, dce. 
" Which.yoa lee in jaet ii Terf gre&t." 

16. Turpim. "Baae." Alludiog lo Iheit flegitioiu codim of 

17. Qnod li aiiqiuatic. He gnmmuiuu ky it down aa ■ lule, 
thst the ^lUbtea oli (hnuld neTBi follow the woid li. The leuon 
of tbe Tule tbej do doI giie ua. It sppeaig, howerei, lo be ■ good 
DDe, witli tbie excwtioa odded to it, tJist whenerer eoqibeu*- i> 
raqnirad we aie to wiite ti aliqidd, foi eum{de, but to adbeie to 
the nniD nde m othei occieioDs. 

18. Cmdtala. " Annued into ■ctirai." — Itia. Denotitig con- 
tempt. — PIhi tuJuml, juam. " Shiil triuniph OTei." 

1. Titae tititam laadem. " So gtoiioaa sn eiiiteDce." ^Q 

3. Semper. Gratertliiiikg tbta this woid ou^t to be Mjecteal, 
■nd GiumDa BCtuallj omiti iL Emeili, howevBr, lucceaBfijltr 
defendB ita pieseDce b tha teit, bjr sbowing Ibat it Btimda oppoeed 

3. Gtitae. Grutar iscommends geila aiid coniervala Tepuiiea, y 
which GtMTinB Bdopta. Bot die ablatiTe, u Emesti coTrsctlr ( 
tenvadu, wonld on^ b« ptoper bete, if Ciceto weie eq«waiog b^ l 
own ■SDtinimts. He sTiHds tliia (^ecies of Taia-basating, Bnd uiea \ 
die genitire, ■■ conreying meiely the sentUDHita of tbe sanita, J 
Mqiecting the lesalt iIlDded to, not his own. 

4. Seipio. Tbe eldei A&ieaBua, wiio dafested Hsonibd in Ihs,GoOgk 


40 Wlb a ZuM.— j4ffM «s lutu itaitn. IfainuM h>d m«t» 

UiDcd ■ footii^ in Itoly ror neuly liitBea yeui. The 'atnmoa ol 
AfiicB by Scipio campelled him U> ratum hDiop. 

6. Aller Afrit»tuit. Thf joungor Scipio, or Aiiicuni* Minor- 
He WM the *oa of Puillui Aemiliui, «id wu mdcyted inlo Ih* 
Scipio funily bj thi aon of ttin elder Afiksoiu. 

6. L. PtoiHut. Refening to P&ullu* Aemiliua, wbo teiacti 
Micedonia to ■ Ronun pmrince, lAet hning ooDqueted Fones 
dw lut kingof Ihkt eountij, in the butle of Pjdiu. 

T. Cujui ciuT-uni, &e. An lecount of tiiii liium^ ia giveD by 
Li*j, *6, 3B, jcff . 

8, BU IltUam, &£. Bj hi> tRO Tictoriei, otM oter &e Tsn 
toiiai uhI AmbroncB, ■! Aquie Sextito in Gallik N^ibonenmi, uid 
6m other over the Girabri, u ihe RAudii Campi, in Ciaalpine Giid. 
Coniolt VtlL Palerc. 3, IS, Ftor. 3, 3. 

S, Pampenu. Tbe erplmta of Pompej (re enUrged opon in (he 
Ontion for the Manilian Lnv. 

10. Eidtm quilmi lolu, &e. Equindeiit to " per lettim tena- 
nm erhem ceUirantur." 

tl. Atiquidloci. " Some loom." 

13. (^M victBrii rewerUBtur. In iHaHtntionof whatieheie md 
«• maj cite tho reiiufk af Cicero, in the trestiw lU Qfidii, 
(1, SS.) " Mihi quidtm Pompeau hae trihuit, ut Oetrtl, fiutr^ tt 
triumphlm ItTliiint ikparlatHrum fiaiie, niii iiuD in Ttmfnbiieam 
teMJieio, tiit Iriumpkarel, eetet kahttuTvi." 

13. Vm ioeo. " In one fespect." — Eitemat. "In foiogn 
Undi." — Domeitieae. " At homa." 

1*. Aut eppreiti leTrivnl, &c, " Eit^er bKie heen eompletdj 
crushed and ■re become alaTce, or bave been adinitted to tiTOUiable 
tenns of luirender, and cDnaider thenuelTCa bound to ui bj the 
Kindnesa ihui confened," 

16. Tantam cmipiratumen bonontn omniuta. "Sogieatuna- 
mmitj on the p^it of ■!! good men." Ctmipiralio i* uaed bj Cicera 
in bolh ■ good Bnd a bad senM. In the former meaniog, it occuia, 
beaide* the pieKnt inalance, Ep. ad Fam. IS, 16: it Qff.3, IB: 
it Fin. l, 30 : in Che Utter, Ep. ai. Fim. 11, 11 : " SceleraUtti- 
MB eoatpitaiio." 

16. PrD imptrio, &c. Atluding lo Am pronnce of Macedonia, 
tolhe goreniment of which be naa entitled on ihe ciiHmtiDn of hi* 
conuilihip, bul whicfa he had innendered to bii colleague Antoniua, 
in onler lo keep him firm in hu atlichment to the itaio. Compaie 
Sdlu», Cal. c. 26. CUalpina GauJ bfl fallen lo the loc of AMo- 
mt, bul Maccloiua wia bj lar tbe richei proTioce of tlw tw» 


Cicero ^tanrard Iiiil donrni Um goreRnaant of Ciaalpina Oml, ^a 

wbich be hid tboa received in eichrage, uid Q. Metellui Csler. 
al Ihil time praetnr, wu chomn m hia placo. {Ep. ad Fam. IS, 
i.~~Or. m Pii. U.) 

I . Pro exercilii. The umj nhich he wonld. bave ccanmuided in ^^ 
tbe province of MacedoniB. 

3. Pto prmincia, &c. AUading, not ta Cisal|iina Gaul, u Ma- 

9. Pro Iriumpko. He meana the pnblic chaneea of atriomph 
for (^wrationa abroad. 

4. Pro dimtdii, dcc. " In retnm for the nnmerooa clientihipa 
. and cotmeiioni of Mendiduj) Triiich I might have fbrmed in mj 

prorince, ind nhicli, notwilhBtanding, I here ■upput witb do lea 
labour, b; moiuiB of thoaa rCBOuices which the cit^ afitMda me." 
To pioTe the Talne o( the Baciifica, he confeanM how cBger be ia to 
estBbUah clientsbipa and conneiiona of fiiendahip at home, hj eyeij 
means which hia atanding and infiuence ia the cily enable him to 

6. Pro ati* Hi voi mgitiariha iludii*. " In return for mr 
CDnspicuoua proofa of zeal in your behalf." 

6. QtLOt dum eril ijijixa. " For aa tong aa it aball be firmly 
fiied." — Firvutiinui maro. " By one of ihe elrDngert of nunparls," 

7. FtftUerit alqttt laptraserii. " Shall have disappoinled and 
triumphed orer." — Pa,nnim mtnmjitittm, Hia aon Marcua. 

8. Citi pTofecto, &c. " Who will find in jou assuredly aufilcient 
aid, noi only aa regarda hia penional Bafely, but alao hia future ad- 
TBDcement, if you shBtl beBI in mind thal ha ia the >on of tbat tnan, 
wbo preserred from min, at his own individuBl liik, bU these tlungs 
t>y whieh yoa are now anrronnded." 

9. De ntmtiu laltilt veitra. "In a caas thst concemB yoar 
reiy eiieteiice.'' Literally, " your higheet eafety." 

10. De arii ac fodi. "That concems your homeB." Eniesti 
coireclly lemaiks, that, in the eipresaion trae ae foci, botli leimt 
have a united refeience lo piiTBle dwellingi, the ant releiTing ta the 
altar of tha Fenatea, and the foeut to iho hetrth of Ibe Lami tn 
oach dwelling. Oui EngUsh phiaae, " altan and bomea," ie aho- 
getber inapplicable, in the senBe IhBt we attach to it, by "altara" 
being meant public placee of worship. — Cotnpaie Emesti, Clar 
Cic. a. T. ara. 

I I . UnivfTia rejn^lica. " Your countty »t large." 

13. DHigeiHer, iit imtituiftii, &c. " Promptiy and firmlf, a* 

jou hsTe «lieady begim to do." The eipression \U initituiatii 

refen as well to the piomptueaa and energy dispUyed by Silanna 



47iDi otb» Mmlon m tlia ematt of tlw]mM)td«Wa,H 1« to* 

•t te pmwM iDMtiag. CoinpuB Or. b Cat. S, 6 : " Dieta* 

IS. f <r M tpfH» priMlan. " Ttka on hiinaslf uid asBente." 
Qwiad » mtrodDced bafbra poMif ia aomo HSS., umI GnoTioi and 
&iiaati bollk apjaore of it, on tbe gnmnd of ila bang nute modeat 
than IhB radinainr laading, and diqtUjing uun ^ tha " ctmanmtm* 
CietnmuM." Botb maaom m weali. Tlu Ui^iwgB of Cicao, 
'0 haTe giren it, ahowa the Grm lesolTo and canTktiim of an 
id «ad pWnotie miiid, 1111« of ac«<Mi^iliihiBg iti otjact, and 
1 bjrlhit Tarr ^ipainiica t^ iWiaioii. Aod u 
'*t Cicarvmaiia,'' U ma; be mtn^ tMnKkod, tiM 
no dinet nlation vhiWTer batwMD famd nwl aDl fiMad 
ii between daliUI and potnt. 

Vvntrmnunam the etieiinoiu eflbit» of Cicero, in thii onbon, 

M haTB pnKqit and Tigonnia measiuei taken againit tho conqniitan 

irtn mte in e mtody, a luge nujoritj of Ibe aenaton, and among them 

j Cieen>'a own brothei, Qninlna, weie diipoaed to lide wilh Caem, piob- 

/ Mj Erom th« fear, lert leren measoiee mi^ piore injmioui ifter' 

mid to Cicero htmself. At laaC, Lulaliai Catnlua, CaeBU^a mTeleiate 

/foe, and Cato, wbo ttbi then tribune of Ibe conunoni eleel, inteipoaed 
theii eflblta. The eloqnence of Ibe lattei prored triumphanl, uid the 
. coDne he lecommendad Wl* ■IdmbI miaiumooalj adopled. (Conaull 
\ naareh, YU. CU. c. 90, ttq.—Ii. VU. Cttt. 0. 7, ttq.—Ii. K«(. CM 
\ JGk. e. 33.— 5u«i. C«m. \K.~A^ii.. B. C. J, S, tiqq.) 




|. H. Tdimi CicuoHiB, &c " OntioD orM. l^iUius CicHO ^g 
io defence of the poet Aichiu." — Thie ii one of tbe Ontioiu of 
Ciceio ou wUcb bs hu laeceeded in bettowii^ Ibe fiDCat poliih, 
4iid it k pediqn ihe maet pleuiiig of «11 hi* baiugaee. 

Aichiie, ■ DitiTe of Anlioch, oine tc RonM wben about ei^iteeii 
a twentf yeue of ige. Re wu lewerded, hi bie leaniiiig eiid 
genins, with the frieiidebip of the Gnt men ic the sUte ; uid, nndei 
the patioBsge of LucsUiu, with wbDin Jie tnvelled, be obtuoed ths 
n^tj of citizenebip st Heisdet, e confedente Biid eiiiinaciiiaed 
lowD oC Lncaiua. He aesumed opon tbis, as was euatMraurf, tu> 
p*tn>n*s &inihr-nBme of Liciiiins. A few jeais aAerwaid, a law 
wes enacted, confening the lighta of Roman dtiiena na >U wbo 
bsd bem admitted to Ihe &eedom of fedente statea, pRnided tbiy 
bad ■ settlement lu Italj at the time when tbe Uw waa passed, and 
had aaserted the pririlege, befoia the pnetor, nithio aiit; daya ftoia 
Ihe period at wbicb it waa pramDlgated. Witb ttua faim Alchlas 
com^ied, and foi incre thaa twenty ;ean hia claisu weie nerei 
caUed in queatiQQ. 

Al leagtb, a ceitaiii individaal, named Gratiiu, occased him of 
nol haTing airr jnBt tille t« tbe Gbancler of ■ Rom^n citizan, aad 
■tlemptcd to drire him &om the citj, oadei the enactment e^eUing 
■11 faietgnelf wbo oeaiped, wilboat dae ri^t, tbe Bame and attri- 
bulet of Roman citizeiu. 

The lecordi of Henclea haTiog beea deBliojed during Ihe SocU 
wai, Bnd tha oame of Aicbiaa oot sppeaiing ia any cemnu of Homaii 
citiieiis, ceitain doubta were tbiDwa on tba legal ligbte of hia c^taii. 
Ciceio, theiefon, eolaigea on the dignity af liteiaCnre and poetij, 
Bad tha TarioDt occiMiipUilHaeiiU of Aicbiai. which gtTe him eo jait,GoOgk 

244 DKATIOK FOK mit 

JO ehmctai wid condact. He h>d Ihenee niibibed the princ.ple, thst 
glorf utd Tiitae ihould be die diriing objecCi of life, ind that, to 
■ttuii Ihew, all diSciiltiBm and dmngen nere to be deapised. 

The prmelor who prended □□ thia occuioD hid beea nippoied lo 
be Quiatas Cieero, brotber of ths □ntoi : tbe ancieat c^mmentuj 
oo tbii ontioo, di^coreiod bj Miio, foiljr cn*bli*ha &iBpoint. — Tbe 
dtte af tbe tpB»th i> A. U. C. eSil, B. C. 63, «nd Ciceio wm tlmt 
ia Iha foily-u:nIi jeu of bia >ge. 

5. Si juid ittinnt ingenii, &a. " If thera be eagbt of taleat 
ln w^ Judgei, nad I im well aware how ecuitf thit ia ; oi if tnj 
•zperience in public apeakiog, ia wbich I do aot deny tbit I am 
tnodente^ lened ; oi if uiy icquuntuice with tbe tbeoiy of tbia 
■una ut, reaiilting from Che lealous cultiTstion snd disciplining 
inBueoce of Ibe moaC liberal atudiee, from which I ickncwledge tbat 
Do portion Af m; life hae ever besn estrsnged," dcc. M6nige tells 
% cnrioua story, thtt the finl seatence of thii oration coat Patni foac 
jpean to tranalate, and tbaC, afier all, he ooiitCed " quod ttniio qium 
til ci^iiiR." (Maiagiana, S, 19.) 

3. /n jtic, dcc. " Cicero, aa Moltoaiin leiaulu, baa here acci 
dentally fsUen upon an heiuaeter, from tn jva lo eite incTuBira. 

i. Hvjtutt rd ratio aiiqna. The expreuion knjiact rei nfeia 
to pobbc Bpeaking ; frfiile bj ratio is meant theotetical and ciitic»! 
■kill. Compare &e definition of Che lattei tem, aa given by I. C. 
EniBati, 10 lOB Lexicoii, Technol. Lai. Rhet. p. 330 : " Rnio 
dieenM, imniioR eariuii Terum, quae ad arlem dicendi vtl eloquta- 
tiam tradendam ptrlintnl, aceariilam doctamqiit injtitaliimtnt 

6. Hie A. Licimut. "ttj fiiend Aului Liciniua here." TTte 
■tndent will note the force of the pronoaa hie ia ihia clause. — Two 
MSS. aubjoin Arehiat, but tbe oae wbicb we haTe giien ia nndoubt- 
oHj Ihe liue leadiog, since Cicero would puiposety, at Iha com- 
menceiaent oT his apeech, employ only tbe Komaa pait of bis cllenC^a 

6. Repttert. "To claim ia letora." As the farmer seek* ■ 
nlDtn of produce, ftir the labout of cultiration. — Prope tuo jurt. 
"By a right almoat pacaHarly his own." 

7. JVani quead Umgitnmt, &c. " For as fu b&ck as my miod 
cin posaibly look orei the paiiod of the paaC, and lecall the noet 
distant reminisconcee of bojhood, reviewing taj caToer ETen ftom 
Aateuly day, I aeethisone tobsTsbeenmy cbief adTiacr andguide 
for Bltempting, and for entering on the psth of theie oratorical 
■tndiea." The meaiiing ofprineipem here ia beat giTCn by Ihe two 



EngU^ temu, "■dTiiei ind gnidB.' 

ineuit tbe theoretical puisoil ef private ■tudtee. 

8. Ad tngrediendamj &c. Cicero here meana to allude to bia 
eerlier etudieBj «nce bia later onee were pumied aiideT other 

9. Fverituie. picero wu about Gre jean old, ar^ieD he wn 
fint {daced oader the «eie of AnbiH. * 

10. Canfomata. " Moulded." Compaie Eraeeti, Ltx. TteXn. 
f. 82, " ConfoTttuitie Hdtrn; aim TtM informis fil eUgani et for- 

11. .4 fuo id «Kepiniiw, ic. "Froinwhoni we received th(t, 
by which we might he en&bled to lend aid to ttwi reit of our fbilow- 
creitureii, uid prenerTe othere &om injury." 

12. Ac nf qiat a na&u, &c. " And lc3t uij' one iliej chanee to 
woitdei, that luch & Temaik bb this ie nude bj tOB, beceuic tbere U 
in ibis indiTidual s difierenl kind of genius, and nol thal iIAoMticel 
Or pnctical acquuntance wiLh pubiic ■peaking to which we aepire, 
not eren we ouiaelTee have erei been eiclueiTely devoted to thia 
one punuit." Since Aichiaa wae a poet snd not an ontor, Cicero 
thought it might pertiBpa appear etrange to aome of lt>* auditon, to 
heai him useit thai he bad derived ao mnch bentfit &i>iii th« 

18. Jfoec iticettJt rdfii), &e. Obeerre tbe pecnliarroica ofAocc, 
utd Goaealt, ai regaida the meaning of rnfio, whal ii lemBriced 

U. iV« Bfli fHtilen uni, &c. The M8S. aitd ealljr editiom 
h>Te acneli in place of uni. Thia iBttar readina ie alt emandUioa 
of Emsiti'B, Bod haa been verj generally adoptod bjr aubMqnent 
editor*. It ie eridenttj required bj t^ contett, aod Btand* 
oppoMd lo fcm^. — By htic uni «luilio ie meant orstoiy, 

15. Eltmai onuat arUt, &c. "For all ihote arta, that luva 
telation to liberat knowledge, posBase a kind of commoD bond of 
union, and are connecled togethei by ■ spectee ofnatuial affinity." 
Tbe bheral arte ate meant. 

16. Htmaialatem. The term Aumanifai is applied by the Latin 
wiiton lo b^beral lai polite studies, from Iheir humaniiing influem 
on tbe mmd, Compare tha language of Aolua Gellina, 13, IS : - 
" tfnivtTia Latina ftcentnt, quigtitlni prolie uri «unl, hnmaaila- 
tem aj^llmeranl id propenuidiim qaod Gratti miliUr Bocanl, not 
eraditioium inttiluiimemque tn banai arlei dieimai ; guai qui 
tinttriler cupivnt appetuntqm, ii ntnt vel maximi haaaniitimi." 

I, /n ^oottonc fe^fnita. " In tha diBCuamon of amerel^al^J^ 
qoeetion," The pMnt mvolTed in the iBoaent oie, r '" ' 


946 ouTUm foi tbi 

^ rMwnJiTp of Anhiii wi» a rtnethr l«f[«l oae. 

Itwuinfut ontjft cue «d«nt tba ptmla rigta of cil 

IbsB Ilie qucMion tunwd oa ttw intaiprBlstion of ■ puUic Uw, 

whidi connqaeQtlj gsTe the tiiil s public upoct. 

3. Cum ru agatiiT, &c. "Wlien & eise ii pleid befiH» m 
pneloi <rf tbo HoinBii people, ■ moit accmiqdiihed ioilindim], uid 
betbie judgei of tbe gn.Te9t chenctei." fiaKruriBuu, u ibie Mn- 
lonce, i> reguded bj eome canuneDMIon, u lefening to tlie'>tiict 
imputialitf of the beneh whiKa Ciccio ii iddneMDg. Ie ceitwolj 
hu this ineuuiif. eUenheie, but in the pteeeiit instuKe tlie ono 
tfiiich we h>Te usignod lo it ii andoabtedly prefenble. Ciceio 
meuB, Ihat Ihe mode of defsnee, wbtch lie ii gmsig to ■dopC, mtf 
peili^ ot fint Tiew, ■eam niimutad to tha gnre chuicCear of IfaiB 
jodgea befoie wbom he i> to ipmk, who woold eipeet mere^ a 
fbnnal and technics] discussion of s dtr leg^ pwnt, uid not ■ flight 
of onteCT' sbont the beneficial efiects of libenl stodiea, 

8. Prattmtn. It used to be ■ wumlr-coiMested point yrio tita 
pnetoi wu thst piesided on this occuim. Tbs old comnieDtu^ 
diicOTered t^ Msio settles the queition. The pneloi wu Ciceio^a 
biother, Q, Cicsio, himself an epic uid tn^ poel. The woids of 
Ibs commenlkrr ■re : " ifnnc ennii coiuani, lege Pa.fia, dt dtitaU 
SontaHa, apad Quintum Ciemmem dixit," &c. 

4. Jvitta. iDfionlotmitjwith tbe AnieliaDl&wof L. Aoidins 
Cotts, pssssd during tha comiilshq) of Pompej ■mi Cnssus, the 
jodges on pablic triBla were selecled, st the tims tbis csse wss 
{daid, (roin tbe seneton, equitos, uid tribnnea of tbs trBancrr. 
(Consult note 16, psge 43.) Tbeie pidicci fonaed s salect conn- 
oQ, iriio lasiited liiB praiitor wilh tiu^ sdrice. They sst b; him 
m subeeUis, or benchea, uid u« bence often csUed liis atttttoret. 

6. Qaad nm tneio, &c. " Wbich i> st Tsiiuiee wilh not onlj 
Ae cnitom of puUie trialB, but eTsn wilb the mode of pleading that 
knsulsl tbebar." Hence be feu«, teat it iiii.j nat ■eem to 
compan widi the gnTe cbuicter of tbe coiot bdbre wfaicb faa is 

0. EA in hac etsiua, Scc, " To gnnt me thia indolgaDce in tba 
pnaeDt ciae, aB indulgence well-auitod to the chaisctei of llw 
■ceuaed, sud, u I hopa, not diiwgreeable lo jooiaslTee ; thiA joo 
peimit me, iwmelj, wben pleiding in bdielf of," &c 

7. Hae tittra knmamtatt, &c. "Befoie- ■ bendi u distln> 
guisbed u yoanolres fbc libenl knowledge, utd wbils luch s 
pnetoi, in ftne, u the preeent one, pieaides st Ihia tiial." Hee 
frattart aaits well tbe ianguage of one biQtber to anolliei ; ■ 
bJ^MH stnio of aomplimuU would hare bean ottl of plaoe. 


. rt» 

8. De ttifHit Axnumftiu, &c. '■ To aiittge, with BOBMwbt ^ 
more freedom thm ii tuoBt hera, on libm] studies «nd litentnn in 

in genenl, and, in tbe case of luch en indiTidaal ai this, who, on 
■cconnt of hk rebred end etadioua mode of life, bw beea bj tto 
meang contmenl Trith public triale, and the riike thtt tttend ihaD, 
to employ t novel and miuaue] mode of q^eakit^." — TToeiata at 
it bere eqnirBlent to ixadtati tit. Compare Ihe explsnation of 
noHng . " Traclmmi r«m, quam atlitigiiluu,vel m qwt no* tter- 
cenaa ; el tie ipiat ret, live perionae, quae in aUjua re eitreeH- 
(itr, in ea tTaclari iicanlar. Consult also Eme^, Clav, Cie, t, t. 

9. in eJHimodi periona. Relerring to Aiehiu. PuaenUia 
makes the altusion to be to the orMoi hinuelf, of whicb ei]d«iatioa 
Bunoinn (riil Ov. Sem. Am. 361) sf^TGe. ' SoOt, boweTer, era 
mong. CoDBDlt Emeeti, Ctm. Cie. e. t, iraetare. 

10. Noco qiiedam, &c. The navel kind of Bpetkii^, to irincb 
Ciceio elludee, a the intioductioa of Uteiary lopics iiita the diecu*- 
■ion of a legal point. 

11. Perficiam pro/ecto, &c. " I wiH assuiedlj csuse yoa to 
enteitain the cooTiclion, that mj friend Aulus LiciniDS bere, not 
ooly on^t nol, sa ha is a citizen, to be oicluded from their nnmber, 
but eren ought, if he were aot s cidzen, to be sdnutted MliODg 

15. ITam ut primttm, fcc. Tiont his being snbeequentlj caHed 
praelexialut, Arctiias muet st the time beie alluded to haTe been 
sbout li or 15 jesrs of age. 

13. Ad kumanitaiem informari. " To be tnuned up (o libeml 
knowledge." More literally, " to be moulded." Compaie the 
eipluution of Manntluii, " Quaii fortnae tni/tuTR a literii aeeipiat 
paeritii aelai, quae per le infarmii cisel." 

14, Ad teribertdi itadivm. " To poetio componition." More 
literally, "to die study of compoaition." Some of tlio epigrame of 
Archiae are preserTed in the Antliology, vol. S, p, 80, leqq. ei. 
Jacobi. His poetical merite aie eTidently oieirated bj Cicero. 

16. Loco Tiotili. " Of a distinguished family." — Cclehri quonr 
damitrbe. "Acity once populouH and flonriahiag." As regnrds 
the force of eeleher compaie Emeeti, Clae. Cic. s. t, "AhaniaMi 
incetit et frequeni." So ai Heretm. S, 4, " Locui ceUbrii an 
ieterliit."-~-The worda urJi, oppidum, locui, wheii in sppositioa to 
names oftowns, bs the place where anj Ihing occurs. msy be in the 
ablalive withoul in, thotigb the name of (he place be ia the genitiTS. 

16. Erudilitiimii iominiiut, icc. "Abounding in the moo 
Wned men, aod conspicuoiis for an atlachment M> Ihe most hVnl,G00glt^ 


17. Ei. Ws bHe ioKrted Ihii pnmoan inta the teit oa Uia 
■v^Mtion of LMnbimii *nd Enwiti. It i> iIh given bjr Schlits. 

18. Sie tjui adtentm t^eirtbaiiliir, &c. " Uia BmnlB wer* 
«Uended intli eo inuch eclst, \iai the eipecUtkai foimed of tha 
iDdividuileiceeded thebmeof bi* ulenu, biB uiiTKi itMlf, uid tba 
admintion it eicitad, suipaued tbe eipectititm to vhicb lie himaeU 
hid giren liM." 

19. GTauantm arttum ae diteiplinanim, " Of Gneciin uu u>d 
cukure." — StvJiaqae hate. Ileferriag to libaral itudiea in genenL 
—YihenttiUmt. " Wilh mora irdout." 

20. liidm in oppiiit. He osea (iu term oppiiit puipoBel;, m 
indieiting places of infeiior rajilt to ths capit*!, lUnne, which wu 
piopail; cilled vrbt, 

SI. Nbh negli£/bai7ilur. A litotea, for maxivujiortlani. 

S3. Qai ^iquid de ingtniit, dcc. " Wbo nera able to form aaj 
MlimiU of talenti," i. e. who were intelligent enoi^ to maik tha 
enstence of talent in uiother, 

S3. Hae tanta ceUbriiali famite, " Amid thia M briHiant t 
lepuUtion." — AitetUi&ut, Rerening to thoae who were ihaeat 
at the time, and, of coarae, peiaanally unicquainted with him. 
gQ I. JHaTioamnile et CiUulo. C, Muiua waaaeieD timesconaul; 
thia waa hia fourth consulahip, A, U. C. 650. Of Catulua Cicem 
qMiaks in bi^ tetms, Orai. 3, 7, and elsewhere. 

S. Nactitt at primum, &c. " He foand, iq tbe Gnt place, ihoir 
iDdiridaals in the consulahip, of whom the oae conld fumiah the 
DoUeat auhjecU for poelic cmqiositioii, the other both memaiable 
ac^ona, and alao aa attacbmeiit to liberal etodies aad a pracliaed 
eai." Bf ttie Gist of tbeae ia meant Mariua, whose eiploiu otoi 
Ihe Tealonea uid Cimbii were celebrated in Tetse b; Archiaa : the 
othBi ia Catulua, wbo abared with Marius the gloij of the Cimbiian 
Ticlory»«nd was also, as Cicero stjlea bim, {Bmtiu, c. 35.) " tnr 
itelut II diterlui." Hs wrote the hiatoi; of his consutship, afUl 
Ibe mannei of Xenophoa, and dedicated il to A. Furius, the poet. 
Cicero, elaewhere, (de Off. 1 , 37,) aacribea to tbe CaCuli, fathei and 
■on, " txgvtiilam litleraram judicittm." 

3. Aurea. Keferring, not merelf lo hia liateiiing with attention 
to the leciutions of Aictiias, but sleo to his being enabled. by good 
luu and a {-iHCtiaed ear, to pass an accuiate opinion on Ibe pro- 
ductions of the baid. Gompare tbe lemaric of Manutius : "Auni! 
Quae, fuod audiTiat judicare potieru," and olso that of DSiing 


" Anra adlahtre, h. s. ftreiptn li d^vduar 

4. Adiiitrt. We h&ve Tendered thii veib b; aar Eagliah teim 
" lo funiiab," i. e. eihibit or di^ilaj, iMher than bive ncoaiae to 
Ml Rwhwud leugms, aa recoDUUGDdad t^ Dorisg, 

6. iMcuili. The two brotlien, L. LiciniuB and Mucua Lnculliu. , 
"niB foimer wu Ihe eminenl comnuodei, whoee biogrq>hy ia giTen 

6. pTatleitatiu. " A mere jou^l"' A Ronun t«tm ipplied to 
e foreigner. Among the Romaiu, ycmiig parsoiu wore the tog^ 
jiratltxCa until thef were 10181119611 jean of oge, when diey aamimed 
the toga virilit. Ciceio, most pmbBbly, doei not mean to deugnate 
vei7'claael]r tbe Kge of Aichiu, uid the lattra peihipe may, st Iba 
timB here alloded ta, JuiTe acluajly poaaed tbe period of HTenleen : 
he only meuui lo speak of him aa poHemilng attBiniaenti tha mon 
lemaikahle on iccODnt of hia enreme yonth. 

7. yoa aoljim ingeniij &c. " Waa owing, not only to hie geiucu 
and Utervj acquiremeQU, but alio to hle anuahla temper and viitit- 
OUB diHpOflition."-^iJ(nnuj. Refeiiing to the &miij of the LucuUL 

8. JUi t/amidico. "The celebrated Nuroidicm." The pnraoon 
SU haa heie the faice of ibe Greek uticle when uaed BmpbaticaUj. 
Hetellue receired tbe title of NamidicoM, &T)m hia baving defetted 
Jnguitba in two batdea, and made himself macter of neulj all 
Numidis. Juguitha, howeTei, waa finaUy takeo captire and tha war' 
aided by Mariua. StiU MeteUoe was, in &ct, the tiiie Tictor, haTing 
been rscaUed nhen on the ere of terminating ibe conleBt. 

9. El ejnt filui Fio. " And to his Mid Fjna." The aon of Q. 
HeteUua Numidicus leceired the cognomen of FiuM, fiom his haviDg 
obtained, tij bia eatieatiea, &om the Roman people, the lecali of hia 
father fcom eiile. Compare Cit. Or. tn Senai. poti rcd. c. 16 : 

"Pro imnon utpro Q. MileUo, tummo el clarittime viro, 

tptctata }am adoletetntia fiHttt depreaUm ett." — Amot^ the Ro- 
mana, Ihe leima pint and pietat indicated nol only dnty lowuda 

. (he goda, bnt alao 10 oi>e's coantiy, puents, lelatioiis, fiiende, dte. 
Hence, in Ibe present instance, tho q^Uuion Pitit conTeja tlit . 
idea of filial datj. Compaie Cic. de Off. 3, 23 : " Ipti patriae 
cmdueit pioi hiiere eivei in pttTtntes." 

10. .^idiebatuT a M. AenaUa. "He fonnd a heaiei in H. 
Aemfliue," i. e. M. AenuUna naa one of hia lieaieis. Tha sUoBion 
la lo ihe poet's reeitations in priTate ehcles, — Tho Aamiliua heie 
tnMnt ia the bmoaB M. AemUiua Scaurua. Cooault Hiatoiictl 

11. Yittbat. "HehTedonteiiMorbtinBcy." 




U) ». CM-ar. "HamahigUjMtMMd." ' ' 

18. LueuOM ttn, &c. " Wlulc, holding u he fid du LDaaU^ 
ud Dnwu, uid the Odnii, uid Ctto, uid ths Whole iuB^ of dia 
Hortenoi, attMbed to luinMir by hitnla of mtiiiiK;, ba wia hon- 
onred bf them witli nBtki of th* higfaeM regud." 

li. Dnmuti. M. Uniu Dnuu*, tribiun of Ihs conimoiM, ikbo 
Iwd proQiued ibe people » bw KboM tdmitlii^ the lUliM iHiM la 
the lighli of dliiBDihip. He wu ilun at bia own bome bj Q. Ti- 
m*. CoBTOlt WMotM Indei. 

IB. OeteviM. Tha two Octarii, Ciwiui uid Laeioi. — CSatamm. 
TlobMf, M. Cato, tha fethet of G«lo Uticsniia. Compere ifvnc 

IS. CoMaM. '• Conited hie «cqnwnluiGe." — Qiti^ijmi,Ac. 
" Who w«re rMllr deiiraiu of making «ome litrauy icqnintiODa 
and becnnii^ hii bauen," i. e. of impnning thnnaetTe* bj beemB- 
ii^ hii udili»!. — Si quifortt mm^aiaM. " WhoereT chanced t» 
affaet tina deaiie." 

17. fiitern> tutit Imga itilervtUo. " Some conaidenbla tioM 

18. A SieUiam. Son» <^ the aaity editors hare CUiciam, utd 
Bgen attempta lo defend it aa tiw tnie raading. Moa^of die 
H8S., boweTer, gir« SitUiaoi. — Thia jonniey of LccuUaa da«* not 
tppetr to have bean made in vaj public capaciiy. ngen, in attenqit- 
iDg to pnne Ciliaani tbe tiue leading, thinka it piobaUe ihat Xa- 
«ollm, in oider to qnaliiy hiinMlf for publie tSuTa, Ibllinied in 
die traiii of SyQa, when the latter wu Mnl u pTopraelot to ibU 
CMntij. Thia ia all, howflrei, a pnrely gntuiloiia inppoailiML 
{Bgtn. Anmaiv. Hitl. ei. Cril. tn Oral. pro Arck. p. 13, Mff.) 

19. HertKUam. In LacaiUB, betwewi tha man Aciria and 
Sirie. Conanlt OeognphiCal Indei. 

30. Qnac aun ctiel, &e. " And since this itate enjoyed reij 
ALTOonble pririlegea, and a Tery adTantageoDa alliaoca witb aa," 
i. e. TeiT fiiTOaiabte priTD^ee t>T leaaon of an adTantageana lUiaDca 

, wilh na. The aOiaiicB here Tefatred to wu mada with Rome, at 
fte time Ihat Pjnba» waa in Italy, A. U. C. 47S.— A zeugma, a« 
wiH be percoiTed, opentas in ttfuiititM. 

31. Drtca ctl einiat, du. " By tbe law of SitTamis and Caitxt, 
the ligiita of Roman citizenihip were granted to stnngeia, in caM 
any of them had bun enroUsd u citiiaiu by the atates in aSianea 
widi Roma, piondad IhBT Ivd a domicil in Italj at ibe time when 
tfae law was passed, uid joorided alao they insde tbeir claim nDdar 
the ta«, t>efore the piaetoi, williin siilj days aftei Iha psfnge of 
tba Mme." Cicero qnolM Imm, in put, tha Tciy Isngaage of tt»,CoOgk 

law, irfth "llie chaiiga nMrely fiom tbe preunt to die pait traiKt OH QQ 

moiily pnnte^ ia ci^tali, but incocTectl;, auice the change or t«DH 
pmclidea, of comM, Ibe idea of theii beiiig tbe ipntjima le^ia of 

82. BHvam lege tt Csrbomi. TbB individiiikli hare meuit wen ^ 
M. Fluitiua SDTsnas end C. Pq>iiiu3 Cubo. They nere tnbmwa 
of tiu) cmiiDoiia trhen the law in qmation vru propoeed bf tfKm, 
A. U. C. 661. It u eometimea caUed lex Plaatia, from the nemat 
at Silrainu. CtWNdl Legel lndex. 

53. MalloM jam nnnDi. " Kuij yeui befbia tbis." He om> 
lo Rama A. U. C. AfiZ, iind bence boid been lesidmg there twdfa 
jetn beloce the pungs of the liw. — Q. McttUitm, Maiiuliiu 
tfainki Itot Q. Metellna CceticHe ie here meant, but Femtiua, with 
more piotubility, Metelliu Fiju. 

54. iSt niAiI alitii, &c. " If ws ue to treat, on the p reacn t 
occuion, of nothing elee eicept of hii citizenship at Henclea, nid 
the q:f>lication of the Isw in that case, I hsve Dothing bithei lo 
at.y ; n^ eeuee ia plead," i. e. if I am to confine mj leniaikB, oa 
tha pieaent occaaion, to the lact of hia being an admitted eitiieD of 
HamctM, &c. — Tbe Uw tefeired to is that of Silvamii and Caibo. 

55. Orati. Some edilkini nad Grate/u, but Graii leale on 
beltei MSS. aQthoii^, and ia giren b; Eniecti, Orelliua, ikc. Hgen 
lUnka, that, ai ibs gau GriUia ii imkaowa to ua, the individual 
hanmemtwaaDUMt^aebabtf Nnmeriui Qainctiue Ciiacchiu, triboiie 
afthaoommoDa,A. U. 0. 697. But doea il foUow, a> a roatter tf 

berof abiiBl; thatiakiiawi] to usl 

26. T\m. " At the time alieady mentioned," L e. the period of 
bia Vieit lo Henclo* io coiopaDy wiUi LucdIIus. 

37. Staama atictorilale, &.c. " Of Uie highest credit, the moot 
aernpDlonB regaid fbt tmtli, and tfae BUicteBt inl^iity." R^igw 
here lefna to the actupuloua cantion that On^t to ba obferred ID 
givinf teatiinony, ao that the whole tiuth may be told but nothing 
beyond. Compan the geneial dcGnitioD of Emesli, " Rttigio M 
nmnui in quaeunfot re diUgmtui, >» juid piitae rectt jUf." 
(Claa. Cie. %. \.) 

38. Qut n nmt optnori, &c. " Wbo atates, that be doe> DOt 
think it waa ao, bnt knowa it aa a &ct ; that he did not heai it fnm 
otheii, bot aaw it with hii own eyee ; that be waa not preeent 
merely, bat was blmself an actot in Ibe aflau'," i. e. uded ArchtM 
in obtaining the ri^ts of citizeiuliqi at Heraclea, by Ip* penoiul 

2tlft OPITION ¥0% THK 

KQ SS. Cuin nuaidaHi, tu. " With writton daeimienta tnd pntdit 

toitimonj." Tha deputie» ftrjm Hor»clea brought with Uwm nich 
wRlteii daenineiitt and proofa u mi^t, in the Klwence of ibe oiigi- 
nal re^iHen, tend to fumish die nezt beat meaiu fin sabetantiatiiig 
Ihe cUinu of Aichiai. 
5} 1, Heradajiiem. " Ai a citizen of Henelea," i.e. tha Etcedom 
of the citj hid been confemd on him, not beiiig ■ citiien by biith. 
Lunbinus uid Emeeti ^qmia HeraeUac att, coniidenDg adicr^ 
hm u ■ mere glou. 

E. Taladiu jmilKei. "Thepnblic legisten." The lists coo- 
ttining Ihe nunes of Ihe citiiens. 

3. Ili^Ue btlta. The wsi nudo b^ the Itslian sllies (hsnes oned 
likewtBe the Kicial wu) upon Ihe Ronun lepnbUc, in onlei to eitoit 
ftom it, by foice of umi, the li^ts of citizenahip. Frnm tbo Musi 
hcTing b^un tt, this vai ii >ometimea denominated the Music. 

i. Tabularii). "The regietiy." Hie offico wheie the public 
recoids weie kept. Compue note S. 

B. Ai ea, ipiae fudienaii, niAil Hctre. "To way nothing wtdi 
regud tn the eiidence thftt we hsve." — Qiuu Aairre nan foiianua 
The pubhc le^ster which hss been deetrojed. 

6. Dr. kotmniim memoria taeert. " To be nlent is to the teati- 
monj ol men," i. e. ss to whit is lestiBed, in tfie presenl CMe, ly 
LucuDns Knd the Hencieuis. 

7. lAteiamm numonsm ftagitiiTe. " To inust on thtt of M- 

8. Cum hahtai. " Although you hsTe." — Inttgerrimi mmeipa. 
" Of ■ fiee city of tho stiietest honour," When thia oralioD wia 
deliveied Heraelea wu > rnuntn^^Knt ,- when Archiu obtained iTDm 
it the rights of citizenehip, it was i eivitai foedeTala. 

fl. Qwu idtm iicii, fts. " Which even you jourself confess 
sTB aecustomcd to be falailied." 

10. At domicilium, &e. " But, j>au will -aij, he hnd DOt his 
domicil in tlaly.'' Cicero aere Bnticipateg a friToIoua objection oT 
Cintius, that Archias had not fiilfilled the firat requinte of the law, 
The common le:it hu RmruLt, for which we hsve ■□bstitnted fit 
Italia, a conjecture of Lambinus, whieh Emeali and others adopt 
Ths law reqoired a domicil in Italy, not at Rome : this iatter pn>- 
riaion would have been absurd. Cioero's ugument, Iherefore, is 
orieHy thia : if Archiss Uved at Rome many yeais before he was 
enrolled u a citizen of Heraclea, hc must neceasarily have hsd ■ 
domicii ir> Italy. Now, ihat hs so dwelt at Rome is wdl ucertamed ; 
conBOquently he fullilled, u tegarded a domicil, all Ihs pKmsioilt 

]K>ET AXCHIU. 3a3 

II. Ant» eintatem ialan. Htmeij, at Henclei. — Sidimon- g| 
Mnm remnti&e. " Thc seal of all his efEbrts uid all his rortunes." 

the law." Anticipaling a sBCond obJBction from his opponent. 

13. Immo rero, &c. " Niy, indeed, he did do so, in those Tciy 
re^teni, wbtch m Ibe onlj onei cotitiected with thit claimiiig of 
the righti of citizenahip, snd witti the college of praeton, that 
poeseis the authority of public docuinenta," Cicero means, thit 
Archiaa not onljclaimed in dufl Beoioii the righis uf citizenship, but 
had liis tume eniolled in thase icgitlen which were considered tha 
Inost Bccuiately kept, These weie die regisleis of MelellDs, thosa 
of Appius and Gabiniui being regardsd, foi Ihe leasons which he 
■pSciEcs, u of liltle or oo autharity. 

14. iVnin cum, &e. " For, wheieag the registeni of Appius wera 
•ud to have been kept in too caieless a mannei, while the coirup- 
tioD of Gahiniua, ai long ai he eacaped impeaihment, the ruin that 
OTertook him aftei condemnstion, dcpriTed his registen of all ciodit ; 
Metellu*, on the othei hand, of all men the moat scrupalous and the 
most obaerrant of ths Isws, diaplayed ao much eiactness in his 
own, as lo have come bcfore Lucius Lontulns, the praetoi, and the 
judge» who were «itting with him, and to have daclared ihat he was 
rendered areaiy by ihe crasure of a eingle name." — Cicero hera 
[decea ihe registere of Metellus in direct oppoaition to those of 
Appius and GabiniuB, ard citea a little anecdote lo show how care- 
ful and Bciupnlous a man the foimer waa. HiB argument then be- 
eomea a leiy strong ons. If the name of Archiss be found in the 
legiaten at a praolor so famed for hia exactneas as Metellus waa, 
this ciicumnance famulies the best possible proof in support of Iha 
poet> clum. 

15. AppH. Appiua ClaudiQB atid P. Gabinius Capito weie pta»- 
Ims along with Metellos, in the year when Aichiaa was legisteied, 
GBbiniUB, aftei retuming frOiD bis govemment of Acliaia. waa ac- 
cnBed of eitoition by Luciua Piso, and condemned, inc! hence bis 
diagraeBfiil fall destroyed the ciedit of hii legiatet, which his piwi- 
Oui corTuption had aliead)' greatly impaired. 

16. Modttlittinaii. Equivalent herc to legam observa.ntitnmia. 
CompOTfl tbe remark of D5iing, '^ homo ettim modeatus tet maxime 
modetliam luam pToiiU diligenter Bbaenmndo ea, guae evm o6>er 
vare deeel.'" Hence, Or. poil red. i« Sea. e. S, the ciprtmion 
medeili crmmlet ia tf^ied to magiittatea who ahtink from the ide* 
of doiiig any Ihing inTioUlion of the lawa." {BmeaH. Ctnv. Cic. i.T,) 

17. JudHei. Tho attetMoret of Ihe pnetor. Coniult nole 4 



g| 18. HU igittir latuUi. Th« itndeat will obierTs Oe foice oT 
Ihs pranoan Au m this cknse, rsfeniag to the great cite uid dili- 
{ence wi^ which the regiiter of MelelluB wu kept. 

19. NuUam iilnram, &e, " You see dd enuorB in llie Dime ol 
AqIiu Licinius." We hiTe coneidered tn Tionm, with Emeeti, u 
equivilent beie to in nomtTU. It nuf elso be diSeieDtlf coostnied 
bf eui^ying iniu£tan.- — Cicero^fl a^uiaent is a Bim[Je but cooclii- 
■ive one. If the dbiiw of Archiu wu canUiaed in the Tegister of 
Helellu« ; if there wbb no eiuuie eboot tbis nsme ; and if MetelliiB 
wu BO BciupnloaB a maji B9 lo hsve been rendeied uiieaE;, on ona 
occBaioo, by an actusl eiasure, snd to haTe opeiilf atated this in 
conit befbie the praetoi a>d his associale judgei, bU thii roim* the 
stningeet poBsible Brgument !□ favoni of ArchiaB, 

30, Medioeribut mtdCu, &c. " On manj indiTidusla of meielf 
modeiats shilitiea, and hsTing eithei no piofesaion at aH, o( else 
■rans humble one." 

Sl. £1 Gratda. Refeiring to Magna Giaecis, in Southem Italj, 
(■ qjpeuB st once from the namea inunedi&telj aftei subjoioed, 
IVitgiiiD*, Locretuti, &c., deaoting comoiiinitieB in that quaiter. 

SS. SArginot, erido, dLC. " I am to take it fbi gianted, thot the 
iohabitanti of Rhegium, 01 of Locn, or of Neapotis, or Tsreotum, 
weie unwiHing to boitow thal [ivoai on this indlvidnBl, though 
enj<^ing at the Bsme time the higbest leputation foi talenta, whios 
tbey were »ccaBtomed lo laTiah on mere aclors." Tho whole sen- 
tenee is iionical, of which crede u the indei. 1116 ISTOnr alloded 
b> is tbe ligbt of citizenship. 

M. Sccnicii arlificibua. EquiTaJent to /dilriombat. So Ihs 
Greeka aometimes denominBted actore, ol rifl rdr Ai6rvrsr TijfrTTmi, 
and Aignoiuul nx-!"». Compare Waseling, ad Diod. Stc 4, 5, 
Tol. 8, p. 453, ei. Bip. 

Si. ^HuI J eum eeltri, &c. Ciceio aaks, whether Arcbiai can, 
with sny jusUce, bs depiiTed of his citlzeoeliip, who waa actuaj^ 
•moUed in BeTeial cities of Mggna Graecia, bul profeired beiog i». 
gsided ss s citizen of HaiBcles, wben so msny fbreigneis havB 80l> 
toptitioaalj had tbemselTea legiBtered in theae eime citiea not onlj 
■ BDbsequent lo tho Plautian, bat also to tbe PapiBn law. Thej 
escape with impunilj, whateaahe who acted with peifect good rajlh 
is BOught lo be injuied. 

35. Legem Papiam. Bj tbe Papian law, named from ita pro- 

..." po»Br, iLe trlbnne C. Papiae, A. U. C. 688, ia the consulahip of 

Cotta and Toiquatua, it was ordained, ihal a!i foieignais ahould ba 

eipelled &om Iho citj : "ut pertgrim arie peUeTenlur-." In con- 

•eqaonee of thia «naelmeai, many frawgnei* maniged lo hare tbea,GoOgk 


tmaet Minqitttioiuly uuertad in Ihe r«gi*t«ra of the &ee lowns of 5| 
Ilil]', e* citizena of tbe eame, by nhich means tltey eTaded the law. 
!!6. Ii% eonm municipierum, &x. AUuding to Bliegiutn, Locri, 
&e. Ttaeee were now municipia, uader the Jalian lan, bu( had 
been enitatet fotdtratat when Aicliias obCained fiom them tha 
(ights of citizenahqi. Coiunlt Legal Indei. 

37. iTTepterint. B; cluidestine means. AUnding moat ptob- 
ablj to tbe comiptiiin of the magistiales who bad chugs of thew 

38. CtKtut nottroM, dcc. " Tou ask, fotBooth, Ibr Ihe liate oi 
our consoni," i. e. you d^nand that Ihe cenBiu-luta be pMdaced. 
Giatius mainteiDed thU the name of Anhiaa ira* nat opon the 
bocdu of the caDaora. Ciceio lephea, Ibat, at thoae llmes vibsa tho 
cenaua waa lakon, Aicliiaa was abaent &om Rome nilli LucuUua, 
■nd Uiat when he waa piesent ia Rome, at censua foi tho jear 
wu made. 

S9. Ett mtm niicuruni. •' For it is, il seeine, a hct Dot genei^ 
■11; lcnown." Iionical. — Priaimit eauor^nu. " That, nndoi the 
laat cenKns." The cenaoia lefened to weie L. GeUius and Cn. 
LenlDliu, A. U. C. G83. 

1 . Hiaic. Releriing lo Aichias. gJJ 

3. Supmoniiu. " TbaC undei the censora immediatelj pia- 
eediag the last." Thesa weie L. Maiciua PbiUppua ind M. Pei- 
peins, A. U. C. 667, aftei wbom the eensua waa ibi a loi^ time 

8. Ciini eodtm quactlari. " With the aame individnal, ttten 
fiUiag tks offiee of qoaeitar." 

4. PrimU. " lliat, undei ^ie fint censon afier he receiied tbe 
li^its of cilizenahip." Theae weie L. Julioa Caesar, and P, 
lidmas Ciossna, A. U. C. 661. 

6. JVvZian jmpuU parttm, dro. " No pait of the people waa 
nled," L e. no census was taken of any poilion oi the people. 
In coneeqnence of no census haTing been taken on this occaaion, 
Phili]^B and Peipema weie choaen CBnBon thiee yeats after, 
ioatead of tira, tbe uaual iDtarval, ia ocdef lo remedy the omission 
The cenai» bad not been beldr.bec«usa tbe cenaon weie toe much 
oecnpied wilh the aiiangement of Mght new tribea, compoEed of 
hieignen who had juat been admitted to tba li^ta of RDman 
citiimiB. Aiehiaa, naiding in Rome at the time, waa consequently 
notnted. ' 

6. Std, quimiam comw, &c, " But atill fanher, liace Iha mEre 
oiliy o» the booka of H» cenaon doas not, of itadf, estsbUah th« 
riglitof d,GoOgk 



g2 '■ Akw/oM (um, &c. " Condaeted Mmialf, it thil pnioi, m 
iniicii like a dtizen, u lo be iblo to tuve hia name ennilled unong 
them." After ila aapfjy ut tnum piUKl. 

8. Ht ttmporibitt, &c, ■' At tboee veiy timee nbeii, a< yon 
■Dege, he wu nol, ereii m hia own apinion, in the enjoymenl of tbe 
lighte of Romia citizene," More liunlly, " U IhoM timH, with 
lefeTenee to which (quoed jtiae) you ■Uege thlt ha," &c. Thie 
camtmclioD of qtuu, u depeDding on juoad, oreomething eqnirb- 
lent undentood, will n.Ye ub Ibe neceBsit; of Teading gutii with 
Oneriui, in plice of quae, or of BU[^1jing, witli Emeitj, *ftw 
«nmtMru, eome euch eipreeuou u iicendo, or cwn iici». 

9. TeiUtnenlitm feeil, &e. Cicero ihowe, ftat Aichiu, >t Ibe 
time ■llnded to, wu nctailly > Roman citiien, from the thrae 
foDowing eircumetsncee : 1. From bia miklDg ■ wiU according to 
Ihe Romui Ibwb, which iKme but ■ Romni dtimi conld <to. %. 
From hia Bucceeding lo iDhent>ncea left )xj R^HHSii citiMna, Tdiioh 
■ fbreigner conld not do. 3. From his hsTiiig obtsined ■ lecom- 
iDeiidstian 1« the state fbi good condnct. 

10. Et in beaeficna, &c. "Aod his nune was culied lo dw 
pnbUc treasoiir, in Ibe Itet of the beneficisnee, by L. Lucallaa &x 
pioconBul." WhenoTer any indiTiduil hsd distinguidKd himadf 
in the publie ■eirice, he wsB lecommended bj tbe insgististe, oi 
goremor, undei whom be acted, to the goTeniment at tioine. A 
Uit, containing the nsme* of soah penona, was mBde oul bf -tha 
one who recommended then, snd wss depoeiCed by him in th* 
pnblic treasuiy, or snbiTea of the slate. Tbe peisona tlin notieed 
weie called itntficia, (i. e. ienc^ciarii,) beesnse (uteanfaf^t oT same 
kind or other were slwsys suie to ba laaped by Ihem. Thia bon- 
our, howBTer, could of cooraa only be enjojed bj Roann citiioiiB, 
■nd hence Archias must bsTe been one of the Utler. (Consult, «b 
regards Ihe betuficia of the Romaiw, tbe remarks of Orooonai it 
Ptaiti, vet. 3, 17, snd Manutios aH loc.) 

11. Praeotmle, The common teit hu yrsttare et tminile, tei 
which WB haTC given proeoimU with OiaeTiue. The lesam of ihe 
dlBHge is nmply Ihis ; the lists referred to in the text were madl 
slmMt slwBja by tha pnmncid magistrsteB, siid u oiie of Ihs 
MSS. cdlsted by GrseTiua bBe B. R. timtult inBtead otpraetort d 
tonfaie, Iha chsnge to proemMuU seems s rtrj n.timisl one. 
'E^nesti obMrree of H, " Veriteitne Ord«nii« oorrtirtt /'raoMuuk." 

13. (luaert argwnetUt, icc, " Seek fbr other praofa of Anhiss*! 
DOt baing s dtlten, if yon can find sny. For neTfli will he be 
refiited hy any Ihing sppeuing eilber tn his own conduM or thsl of 
his &iends." Tbe common t«it hss iudieio, ft wttth we km,GoOgk 


giTBD ntdtna, on Um conjectura of Ilgeo. — Suo lefen to Aicluu'! gj 
hiTing M&Ued ill Ibe iBquiBitima of tbe iaw, and amiconBB lo tlta 
Gooduct of LucuUdb in puticular, in h>Ting added (he name of tb« 
poet lo the Ust of tbe pubUc baneficlanee. NotluDg, uguei Cicen), 
cin be detiTed from thMe tnt) eoutcea unf&TOunblc lo Itia cluBi 
of Aichiae, but, oa tbs contmy, eTery tbing iu eupport of it. 

13. Qaia rupptiiiat iid£u, &c. " II ia beuute he ■oppliea u> 
witb tbat, by «hich boiit oai loiDdi ean be re&e*had aller emerging 
fiom thi* din of (he fonun, and vnid whicb our evs, ■tnnned by tha 
iTianghng of htigation, may begia to taate of n^oge." A bewiUfi)! 
alluaioD lo the chainw of liteieiy eoeielj imil leinm, aflec Ubo- 
lioaa piDfeuuHul laboun baTe been brought ta thek dailir cloie. 
Ubi iii to be repealed with tt aura, uid tskee ■ oen meaiung in 
thia Uttei clauae, being heia equivalent to in gtto, wbeieu in the 
beginning of the aentence it haa tha foice of a qiio, or lathei tha 
Bimple caae of the inMiumeut, gvo, 

11. SuppeUri «obit fottt, dcc. " That wp can have what to 
aay," &c. — Rarvm. " Of matten that piesent IhomsaiTeB," i. e. 
ctset, BubjectB foi plaading. 

16. Niti txeoianutt, " UnleBa we BieiduouBlf cullirale."— 
TanlaiK eonttTifununi. "So long-contiiiaed exertion." More 
UtetaUj, "tobtkepttoloaguponthestntoh." A mata^uctakan 
Einm the bending of a, bow, oi any thiag of « pUable naton, wfaieh 
leaee ila [diability in eome degiee by being too long bent. 

16. Ifiti relaitmiu. "UnleM we imbeDd tbaniL" — Rtltxo M 
heie diractly opfoaed to conUniio, and ia elegantly amployed fot 
rtjida ox rterto. Ttia cnmpiog and nanowiog affect of men 
ptolaieioaal MndiB* ■• Taiy pithilx aUndad U> in Iha waU known 
sayiDg, sl timl ntfi rur ti<Rjr rait aints ri airi, aa waU aa in tha 
A( tfiliSi UtMTtt. 

17. Hii ttiUm*. Refatringtolitaniy " puisnits." — Ilatieiillerit 
Miierunt. " UBra buiied tbemeelTe* to such a degiee amid 
Uteniy sCndies." Cicani meBHB, that (Iwy only ara to be censnnd 
{fa theii atCichiaeDt to lilanij pniaiiite, who allow tbe wnid to nap 
□0 b«iefit from thta tabonis ; tlwt in his caaa they Ibtm a souice 
<J adrantage to hii fdlow-men, and oaa o/ Iha pomt aiid tnust 
delight to >i™«iilf, csJliiig eff his miad fiom aU tiie blandishmeata ot 

19. Ul miUi fotmt, /m. " As to have been able neilhei to 
contnbnts any ihing &om theae svne slndiea to Ihe coinmo& good, 
noi lo bring forth any thing inlo tbe view of their feUow-men and 
the open light of day." Adtptclutn aod tucen ue hen oppoaed ta 
B obacuri^ of the atudy. 

398 ORATioN roR ths 

52 "- ^ mtUiMt ttmpon aut coHimeda. " Tiota nn mut'* daoger 
or intaBrti." TempuM ii bere eleguitly Dsed in tbe mua of 
ycriciifw*. Cicflio Din tba iitter, & little fanber oi, m thia wtij 
chapter, " maiqvam anuconun pirimlu dtfuit." Tbe meuiing 
here «asigiiei] to temjnu U deriTcd from anothBC elegsnt nsage in 
Ciceri), by irtiicb tba vroid in qoeetion i> eniplojed to eigiiiiy tbe 
■t*te oi condition of in individiu] ti uij psiticulsi tiDM, nhelha 
IkToiinble I» uiilknitinble. Hence eiiBee tli second meaning in 
Cicero, wbicb ia ilmja caDtiolled bj the conteit, denoting b Ibo 
loeaeQt initwice "daDgei," wbile in otben it hu Ihe foice of 
" iDlerati," "sdTuitage," dcc. — Some edicior» hsve ciimmailMin, 
coDDeeting it with nhit foUowi. This seems qnite infeiioi. 

50. Olniiii mtuai. " A legaid foi my own leisuie," i. e. the 
wisb to demte mj momenti of leieora to liteisi; relsistion and 

51. Ad nuu r» oieundtu. "For attending to their prirale 
sSain." — Ad fatot dU*, &c. " For celebialing featsl dijii, and 
ODJojiDg the pablic spectacles conitected nith them." Publio 
qmctsclss, loch ss games, theatiicsl eihibitionii, &c., fbimed sn 
iaipoitsnl pait of featal celebTBtionB, 

S3. Ttmptttiint eomhoM. " To the TeTcliiea of llia t^e." 
Bj cPnrtvnHn ttmptttimim, the Romana meBnt sn enteitaimnent 
wfaich commenced balbra ths luual time, aod was continiied Uta 
hto Ihe night, or piotaiiged till momiDg. The oidinaij time for 
Begmniug tbe «mta wss tbe ninlb honi oi thies o'clock aflemoon 
in sniDiDer, and the tenth hooi in winlei, — Id the eipieasion f«R- 
ftttiman cetamum some prefer iiUtmptttimim, ss accoidii^ betler 
with Ibs seDM ; the opposite, howerei, is SDCccBsfnllj Disintained 
bj Gisevius, GioDonDB, Callaiiue, Salmaaius, and othei ciities. 

3S. AUae. " To gaming." All gameB of chance went noder 
flie geneial denonanBtion of aJai, snd were foibidden bj the CoF- 
nelisD, Publicisn, and TitJan lawa, eicept at the SatumaliB in De- 
oembei, ITieee lawB, boworei, weiB not aliictly obserred. 

34. PUat. "TobaU-plajing." Tbis was a bTonnte eierctsa 
wilh Ihe Roniana, snd tbeir moat dietinguished men engaged in it. 

tfi. AdhutctttUtitrieaUada. " Foi renewing tbese studies of 
mj eailiei jesn," "nie allnBion is to Uteiatj atudies. 

SS. QitoiaMt tiudiii, &c, "Becanee it is &am tbeeessms 
■tDdisa, thal thia &eultj of pubtic spesking, wfaidi I cnltiTsts. ia 
estinuted Jij othem," Cicero mesna, that eioqiience leceirea ita 
tiueit luatre fiom literaij atudiea, snd tlnt the moie one is sttachad 
to tbe latler, tho mora complatalj will he ba regarded aa baring 
■ttained to tbe fbrmer Oroiiii el faadlat ia hera aqniTslelit t«,GoOgk 


ftatUat oratiimiM. Soine lead eritcit tot cautlur, bnt ewiellir i* g<2 
mcm el^ant. 
S7. Qtuuibtainfiu CM tn me. " Tn w)utiioe>ei degnm it Biwla 

I. Qiuu n cui Uviar, &a. " Aixl if thii ippean to knj ddb too K4 
trifling ia its niture to tw here illaded to by me, I eeitainlj faioir 
fiom wliat foantain-head to derire those quali£cUioni that aie moat 
important in their chuacter." Cicero, fearing leat his pnnoiu 
remaj^ might nvour too mnch of Tanity, subjoina thia modest 
obaeiratioQ. If the &cnlty of pnbHc 0pefl.king which I poaeew 
appeaiB to any, as no donbt it doei, of loo trifling and limited » 
natuTB for me to mikB anj bOB<t of it, atill I biow in wbal Btndiea 
to flnd thoae ajda to otatoiy whieh nill enable mo to attaia to the 

5. Ifam. Ciceio now proceeds to ahow, ia moat beanliflil laii- 
gnage, vrtut ire those aida, fniiuidied bj literaiy aladie*, whieh lead 
to emineoce in oiatoiy. 1116; tn, accoidiog to him, thoae piinci- 
plea of tiDe wiedom, aod tbat Iotb foi fnenda and caDntij, which 
nerer fail lo lead him wbo i> gOTemBd bj tbem lo the ftiieM hoiioan 

8. MtitUncm praieqitii, Av. The leim priueeptii letleta lo die 
lenona of philoiophjr, and tiiierii to the peiuaal of tha poets, histo- 

4. Magno opat exptta^rn. " DeiernDg of being eimestlj 
■onght aftei." — jfmataUnt. " An hoaoniable name." 

6. 7n cn aufmi pa-ttfuatda. " And Ibit ia ita aUaiiiment." — 
Parni aM iutaida. " Are to be regudBd >a compaiatiTel; trifling." 
Parvi ia what tha gianunariana call Ihe genitiTe of priee or eetim»- 

6. Dinacationet. Refemng here, sod in what inmiBdiatdj fU> 
lowB, to the conapiiacj of Catiline. 

7. Sei pUm onuw* noK lifrri, du. " FoU, howBTBr, ue lU tl» 
IbB booka, ^ are the woidi of the wibb, fiill is utiqnity of gieat 
eiBmplBs ; eiamplea that would all lie hid in obacnii^, did not Ibe 
li^t of iBtteis appioach to iUmnine tbem." — The lore of «0011117, 
iigneB Cicero, in foiterod by the tore of hteratnrs, for it ia the tatter 
that haa reeoued &om obhTion tbose fair examples of derotion to 
eounti/ and to fhendi, wilh which all anliqnitf aboiinds. 

8. Sapienlitim vocet. Analogoua to ou; EngUsh eipreasion, " the 
Tiriee of the wtae," and refBiring to the writinga of the philoaophBta. 

B. Niti literarttm Ivmen accederel. This aama idea i» tbij 
beanti&illj tonched upon bj Hoiace, Odt 4, 8, 19, tejq- 
10. Quam malta* iimuiinei, &c. " How maay d(",GoOgk 


K3 ibe ImTMt of meo, wmigkt Dot Dot onl; Gir o 

but ■lao foi 1» to imitste, have bath the Graek u>d Lttia writora 
left bebind them !" Imagina reftn to the deUiieitiODe of moml 

II. Mihi projnmtii». " Hwing belbn tivr view." — Airiman tt 
mtnlim nkWH, Scc. '■ Stnne to mould mj leclinge uid mj thoughle, 
b; teflecting on tba ehancten of thoee illDstnoaa men." 

13. lUi ipii iwmmi nri, &.C. •' Were Ihoee gremt men them 
•elTea, whOH merit* haTo been huided down to leinembrance by 
the lid or lettecB, vened in thil leuning wbicli you eilol by yoo) 
encomiumar' Lilenlly, " leuned inttalleuiiiiig." TheiUiuion 
u to hbcnl end polite acquirement*. 

73. DigiciU ett hoCt Ju. Cicero will nol Dodertake ta eij, Ihot 
■1] tbe eminent men alluded iji by bim were Crutked up in tbe pethi 
•f lilentiue, On the contm^y, he ftcknowledgee, ihit many of them 
wers Hlf-tuight men, ind owed their anccen, in > grett degree, 1« 

he unaided force of naturel talenla. ¥ct ho it c<Hi*inced, thet 
tbeu nitire powen wauld liATe produced itill Jkinr leeulte uiid«i 

be foetenng inQuence of libeial studiee. 

14. Scd lamtn cat cerlum, &c. " And yet wtut J un going 
,0 anewer may be leUed upon wilh ceilunty," LB.ii ao» 

15. ExcelUnii animo ac virtule. "Oraupeiiorabilitj ■ndnurit." 
—'El tine doetTrna, ftc. " And thac, wilhout tbe eid of leunir^, by 
tbe •tMoil diTine influence of neture itaelf, tbey bave bccome, \/f 
,beii Dwn exertione, diecreet md influenlial mea." 

16. Naltttat. Referring lo natutal abililiei. — Maienilot. Cmu 
pen Iha eiplana^on of Doring: " lHedtratoi, h. e. Irmptraiittt, 
tenlintntit, jiu aidmam ad normam ncli modtrari el ttmperMTt 

17. Ad laudem atqai virtattm, dce. "Thet natDnl abililieei 
«rillHnil tho aid of leaming, hiTe oftenec iTailed mora tbi the pui- 
posea of fame tnd of Tirtue," i. e. fbr ettabliibing a rqiuUlioti Sot 
What ii honourabla and vinuoui. 

19. Alfue idcm tgo conitndo, &c, " And yetl at tho Miiw time 
Mnteod, that wben to netural abditiee of an exaltod and biilliuit 
diaraeter there iie added tbe direcling inSaeiice, u it wete, aid 
tnoulding powei of leanving, then BDmething or otber great aixl ez 
trwrdinaiy iaBccuslomed to reiult." — Ratio refen to the tnethod 
which leuning genenlly imparti, md by which oui montal move* 
tnants become syBteinatized. — lUad nacio quid. Uleially, " That 
I kitow not ithat." Something or other. Compaie, u regiuda tiia 
liwning of Cicero in thia punge, the nmaiki in nola 1&,GoOgk 


l». Exhacut6,&e. "Th*t of thu nombec wu," CnUMulo 33 
eitetkl* itt rone to tbu uid the aucceeding cUaiea. 

30. AJricaMmi. Tbe jounger Afneuiiu. CodbuU Hialoncil 
lodex, ud coD^iue Ctc. if« Of. I, 83 : "Hie idtm AJritttnt do- 
quenlia 'v.aivlinit beUicatn glortam." 

31. C. Xuiiuni, WeU known ftom Cicfao^s tnatiBe on Friuid- 
^up. — L, Furium. L. Fuiiiu wia con«al A. U. C S17, uidi k- 
cocding to Ciceio, (_BnU. 38,) "peritnt latine jwnAm ett, et Uur- 
aHut quan teUri." 

2S, Moder^ittintot lnmintt, &c "T^ moit diaei«U ud 
cimtiiient of men." Conuilt nots 16. 

53. Et iUit Itmporiiiit ioeliitimum. " And a vtizj leuned nuii 

54. Jtf. Cafoiuiii lifuiii wn«n, " Mucub Cito, ths eldei." 
MoiB corojnooty known u Ctto tbe cenaoi, tnd the gieU giutd' 
bthei of Cilo UttceRiis. 

S6. Ad percipiendam, &c, "At lef^uded tbe kno*r!edge snd 
piacCiee of nitue.'* — Adjtt^rmtiir. Foi adjalifiiiMttiii. 

1. QxHl.n, &c. " But ev«n if m grMt idruiiaeea >b theM 5^ 
wBie gbowii nol to lOMilt." — JlaiK onintt aiternimeni, &c. " You 
would legaid this emplojment of the mind es moet worthr the dig- 
nit/ of 1 thiiikiiig beii^, and moat libeial in ita ehuacLei." Com- 
pate, ai regudg htmanittimim, Dote 16, pege 48, lod alao the ei- 
pluiBtba of Doiing ; " Humamttimam, b. t. Aomiiu dt^minnuuii 

3. Nam celtrae, dcc. " Fdi olhec mental emplojment)! ue oot 
■uited eithei lo eveij peiiod, or to ereiy age 01 place ; theae ■tmjieii, 
howerei, Ibslei om eaiUei jcua, aflbrd delight to onr declintDg 
ones." — The HSS. all agree iu reading agmt foi aJitiit, lMit wa 
haie giTsa atitnl viilh Lambiiuu, Manntiui, Orelliui, and othen, aa 
more in accordance with tbe spirit of ^e pusagB, Emeati haa 
agujit, and eiptsin» it bj ■cttiiiu, L e. exciiattt, 

3. DtUclant dtymi, dcc. "Hiej impart gratiGcatian iit hom*, 
thej emburass tiot abcoad, iImj aie with us during tbs Tig^ <tf (h* 
night, thej iDam nith us in fareigo lands, thej BM OW ccmpuiiiilM 
unid tbe retmniant of luial Bcenes." — Nm imptdiiint forit. Lil- 
emj stDdiei lami no impedimaiil to tbe Bacceuful diaebBige of 
publie duties, bul nthei an >id. — RatlicanluT. The attachment of 
tbe Rooians lo • countrj life. and Iheir ceaOitiDg to tbair linaa dm- 
mg the beats of Bummer, ai» loo well known to need cumment. 

4. Quoi liipti, &e. " And eTen if we could neitl er ourtel™» 
pmtecnte tbam, nar taste tbe pleasurea thej ■fioid bj onr own pu- 
c^doitf." AUtngtTtithen ueedin the luae ot iraelart.,GoOgk 



RJI fi. Ta)B«i»u<vrw(ia«Airoyit>(. " Wu poManad of ■ boMin 
■0 rads mnd K> dsroid of lU feeling." Agmti u bera eqoinlent 
b> niuiMnd, i. s. if tba Unn be dlowed, " nnboniaiiiEed." 

8. JiMcn. Roiciiu, tbe celebnt«d ictoi. Coiwull Hiitoricil 

7. Qnt atm ttiet, ftc. " Wki, ■Ithongfa be died ■di inced in 
yean, jel «eeired, on ■ccatmt of bia iiupiuing «kill and gnce, to 
hkve been illogelbei andeurnng of deitb," L e. 10 biTB been 
worlby of living for btbi. YenoMtatm ii hera equiTalsBl to " c^ 
gaiUnt corperu agUittiitm, ceiuinnai cDrporM bi0<iu." 

8. Coiyorit molu. " By tbe meie moTenienla of bia penon." — 
t/a* anMiantm, &c. " Sball ne licU witb neglect the moTGmenta 
of ibemind, auipaning alt b«li«f, uid tbenpid pLiy of tilaDtt" L e. 
■hill wa pniie Roacina for the mere moramenli of hii peTacin, uid 
n^eet Arehiaa nhen ao mucb more eonapieaoni fbr tbe moTemeata 
of ihe nuod ? — Emesti think* Ibal we ougbl to tead W for noM. 
Bnt the [■tter is far more empbatic. 

9. lltaT enn witrd ttnigTulaU. " Foi I wiU aTail myaelf ■ 
little fulbec of jooi tndnlgenee," i. e. I >nll Deapaas ■ little longei 
npDD jrour nttentioa. — /n hee Mw gatera JtcmJi. Con^an nol« 

10. Cum littram tcriptiiitt nuUom. "Altboogb he bad not 
commilled ■ ■ingle ctutftcler to viriting," L e. witbaBt uatng hia 

11. Dtetri tx Itmport. " Utleiing on tbe apur of the iDDmaDl." 
Aichiaa, in tiiii, resembled the Italian imfvaTmioii. — flmimtiim. 
*■ When leqoested M lepeu." Litenl^, " wben recalled," ■ met- 
tphtn bMiowed trom tbe coatom of IbeitieB, when an aetoi ii 
ncalled bj the audience, aiMl lequested to lepeat hia p^rt. 

15. Cemnutlalit verbiM atjtit itntenlii*. " Wilh ■ lotil cbinga 
of «rmd^ uA ideu." 

1 3. AcaiToti cagilategue. " With esn snd on leflection." — Ut 
ad vtttnm, Ac. " Aa lo bsTe Utained to Ihe pnUe beetowed on 
Iba writiin of old," i. e. to bsTe eqnallad tbe productiona of tbe best 
dajra of Orscian litersture. 

II. Aljui lic aectpimui. " Wbf, we hava leceiTed thia," i. e. 
hiTe leunt thia. Ilgon leada at^ on coajaetun. Bnt atqtti iwU 
bMter whU {HecedeB, and is in<nB apiriled. 

16. Cc(<riiritm rcnim ttuJia, &c. " TbU Ibe ■nccesaful puiiBit 
(rf' otbai matteia dependa on acquiiements, snd pncepta, and ut ; 
thit tbepoat, on the eontrai;, deiiTea hispowerfromnatun benatf, 
■od ii touHd iiUa ■ction bj tbB eneigisa of tbe mind, and bivUbad 
tolo. sa il were, bj s kind of lacnd iDSuenca.",GoOgk 


16. Atjlan. Campwe Uie Onek Mttriii<t, lfin(«, Ac,, U tp- ^ 
plied ID poeM, uid lUo the Itngusge or Orid, (Fatt. 0, 5) .^ 

" Bil <leiM tn nabit, agUaiUe tatadmut Hlo i 
Js^wtw Uc «ocrw lemtna moiJu Itabtt." 

17. Si»}itre. >' Bj » nght pemliaily hin owD," i. e. on •ceonnt 

18. SaiuUa. ■' A hallowed race." 

IS. Quoil fiMft, &e. "Beeaiue they wi oiii to come lecom 
meiided to lu in the li^t u it were of a lich ftToar froia the 
god(." The Lttiii wrilen, in ordel to conTey ui emphatie 
meamiig, &eqiieDtlj jain two woide, lh>t ue eiulljr or twir^ 
BjiMinymoiii, in the conipBiiB af the asme eentence, ea, in the pieaent 
inetuMe, dotuim ond nniRiu. 8omB wiiten, iDdeed, on LatiQ 
Btjle, endeaToai to diaw a diatinction between these two teima, 
making damtm a poie gilt, no obligation being unplied on the pait 
of the girei, and muniu, a pieaenl whicb Daage or oUigakon 
requiiee, (Crombie, Oymtuuiiaii, yol I, p. 97.) Bnt no aueb 
diatinction ^ntea in ttia preeent cue, and eeitainly mme in the 
followingpaaBageofOTid,(^, ,<1, 3, 6S3):— 

" Jtfinura, credt mihi, eayiunt itontnKifiia demqiit. 
FlaaUUT domt Jupiter ipie dalit," 
In the Pandecta, aleo, ioman and muniM ue &eqneiit]7 joined Trith 
each other, aa, fbi raample, lib. 38, tit. 1, leg, 7, 37, 47, Ulpian, 
howerer, inaUls, Ihat dimum ia the genetic lenn, and nuuBM Uie 
^ial, (L. IM, D. ie verh. tigiaf.) 

30. ,Hui>i€Rif nmiM Kiminet. " Men tnoet eonspicaona for CiB 
cultoie of libenl knawledge," — Iftdla barbariA. "No batbatoua 

1, Saxa el tolitvditut, &c. " Rocfal ind deBettBKspond to Ibe Qg 
roice tf the baid." A beautafhl allnaion to echo, ■■ ihe applanaa of natnie. — Batiat laepe itnmatia, &c. " SsTage beaatB 
aieollen ewayedbj the inflnenca ofBong, aod bk^ in their career. 
An alhiBion to the fableof Orphens. Compve Honce, Od. 3, 11, 
IS, " Tupolet tigrtt comiietjueriiviu," &c. 

9. JiulitiUi Ttbat eptimit, " 'Hained np bj the beet aTStemB 
of matraction," i. e. who haTQ enjorad the beat educationi. 

3. OoiofluiaL " HiB inhabilanta ol Cokiptkon." One of the 
OnA citiea of lonia. For thia and tha other namea Ihat occni in 
tbe ■entenca, conanlt Oeognfdikal Indei, 

4. CAti nium mndieant, "The Chiuu claim bim foi theii 
Dwn.'' Tlie inliabitanta of the laland of CbioB, now Scio. 

B, SaZammn rtpetunt, Ae, " The peiqile of Sdamis demand 
bhn baek, the Smjnieaiu, haweiei, aasure ns Ibat be is duus.",GoOgk 

264 ouTiON rox tbb 

gg TIm Tut- •'^«fo, u ben emploTed, i* naiiriwMy liTely ud atn- 
king — Ibe commoa line, reqiecting Iba citie* U»t clainted tba 
boiiaur af being Hoiner'a natal [due, ii u foUow* : " iStiiynia, 
JUodiu, Cd^Aon, Sa^anii, Cilii», jlrfM, Ailuaat." Tbere ia 
iw ■grevaent, bowevei, ■moiig wiiten, M xt^id» iImm nuaee. 
Sorne Iot Silaniii lubMilute Cuniie, olhen tor Sdunii end 
. Rbodei btTe Fyloa and Itbue. AntipUei oT Sito bw Uft tbs 
fbUowing epignm in tbs Anthologir : — 

" •£iirl WXiit fifHUTO rtptir iii ^f» 'Ofi V»r 
IVifH.XlN, EoXd^w, 'IBio), DiiilK, "ApTXi 'A04'u.'' 
Leo AUaliue, binuolf & ouiTB of Chios, in ■ wotk wiitian on Aa 
Nb)ect of 'Homet'1 tutiTe couniiy, uguee «nMigly iu fiToiii <A 
Cbio*. One of Iba nuin eoppoiti, howeTei, of thi* theoij, nundT 
tbe line m (be Hfmn to Apollo, nbeis menUon ii inade of tba 
" Uind man" who " dweUe in ncky Chios," ii now lemaTBd, that 
poam Dot being Hoiiiei'i. Of all tbs placea Tsfecied to, Smjnia 
qipeais to bave Ihe besl eltim. 

S. Dclulmitit ijiu, &£. " Ther h>Te dedicated a tample la 
him." Literall;, " ■ Bhiins of bia." Caiualt tbs leaiued noric ol 
Giibert Cuper, lAnut. 1083. iu>.) on ■ maible which hu eome 
down to UB, wilh i ra{ireBentition an it of Hoaiei's ApolhBOBiB, 

7. CmlendmtU, WeiBlie thiaki, Ibat dt to, m aome aimiUi 
WDrda, b&Te been diopped froai ibis clause. Hiii ■uppoaitioa ■eeiu 
btldljr necessuj, canndering ill thst pi«eedea. 

8. .^Mtmi. " A meie «Cnnger." RefaniaK te Boiatl. — 
Hiau: tivtim. "ThiBone while Btill BliTe." Alluding to AicUaa 

0. Et volunldlt el UgibuM. •' Bath from inclination ead bj tbe 
!■«■." TTie liw» af Rome raapecting ciliienship. — RepudiaiiiMt, 
" Aie we rejecting." Same editions bsTG rfptidiniiTMii, but th< 
pieseiit is more empbMtc, aad ii ■■Dctioned by tbe gietiar inimbei 

10. OmM ttudrim aCfni ohbw tivMiMa. " AIl hi* Mal abd «Q 

11. Ec Cimhriciit ret, /cc. " He botb, wben ■ jooi^ Ban, 
treated of tb* operatiooB Bgiinst the Ciuib'[i," i. e. die wai wiib 
thst inT^ding boat. — AlHgil. The veib utingo ineuu, to toocll 
•ligbtlj iqwD, to eiigBge in ■ thing in part, ■od hance ic iaa bean 
■appotsd tbst Arrhias meiely commeneed ■ po«m on the CioibDii 
•mi, espccisUT bb Ciceio, in tha lltli etuptei of tluB ■bidii onlion> 
Mea altigit and incAiUBil togethei. 

12. Ipti illi C. Mario. " To the eelebrated Caini HBiiiu 
., Umaeir." Tbe coiujueroi of the Cimbii. Tbe pioaoui) iUk hM 

Un tha liuce ofthe Gnek ■nicle when snudMtic,,GoOgk 


13. Qw ditrier, dw, "WIm ■Mtned caat i 
lo fHoat tbaw ■tudiw,*' i. •. ti> pUnwM (n tske «9 intanM ia 

14. Tam aatrtiu a Mmm. " So naue lo tbe locitt; of the 
Huaea," L e. m> graat > foe to litecu^ pmaits ; poMemiiig ■ mind 
•o uneongenial to literai]' BtudieB. Conipue itw Oieek JSfiomt. 

16. Qni (uni «toMjiin, &c. ■' A> Dot lesdiljto allow tliaetwiul 
heralding of hii Uboan U be consigiied to tbim," i. «. u not 
leitdily to iUow Ibe po«t to conaigii hii Ame to the immartalitj of 

16. T/umiHDclein illum. "Tbat tbe well-kiwnni Themuto- 

17. Qiiod oerDania. "Wbit peribrmer." Aeroamm prgpedj 
denocsi U1J liaag agTiieible to beu, (from the (jieek >iipBagfiai,) > 
iDUHul sjniphDny of piayen, '&c. It is then, a« in the prOiNtt 
ioatiiQce, taken to tigniij B monciui or perfoiaKl. Coaqnie CU. 
fre Stzt. c. M : " Ipic ilU Ruximiu Mnt', non ttlunt tpttMm", 
ttdactartt acroama." So Suetonius, ..Inj', 74, " Bl atU acroai- 
mala aat kittTitmtt aul tliam iTitiala tx drca Iniioi inltrpoiu- 
bal." EroeBti, in ui Bieumia to tbii Utter pwMge, Biin goeii M 
fu u to uHit, tbat, unoHg Lmin writen, aertam* \* tXiiKj» uied 
of ptnoBi uid never of tbinga. Thii poeition, hewefei, is 4> 
enoneoua oac. StiU hie eipluutioa of tbe nord itaeir mij not ba 
uniai in tbia plice : " Acromtiiala, qui «tif ia Iktalrit, tivt tn 
eonvtvic, wZuptoJii cauta uuiiunfur, mutici onntt fui ■ cnnAi 
Hetntnun. fiMorum tt voetm, dtUctanl atiTtt." 

18. A quotuavirtiit, ttc. " B; whom bia ments migbt ba beat 
celebntad." The love of ^oiy waa Ibe nUii^ pugioo of thia 
Hlaatiioue Atiieniui. Compue, m reguda the uiacdotB beie 
teUted of him, the Ungnage of VaUriu* Huimuii : ' ' ThaiattBeUt, 
i&eatmm ptttnt, cum interTOgaretMr, cujut eof auJi/n iili Jaiura 
tttct gTOiittim^ cUxil ; ejvt a }uo arUi mtae catimAir oplimt." 

8, 14, G.) 

19. Ittmeamit,iic. " Was, for & like reMon, stnm^ attachad 
to LncioB Fbtiua." Emeati reguda Plotina ea ■ poet; bnt 
Weiake, witb Um ptobabilitir, makea him a rfaelorician, and ideH' 
tiul with ihe ono named in SuelMihi*, de cltr. rhtl. c. S. 

aO. Jlitkridaiieam ttra liilurit, &e. " Tbe iriMU Hilhndatic 
<nr, however, t, gieat ond a liffieull eonteet, uid oite ctnied tm 
«ith leif Tuied ntceeH ij land asd aM, hM been deaciibed m 
WM by tlua my fiiead." Tne puticle »tro ia heie oiiq*>jed m 
denDtmg oppoiitiDa to wbat precedea. Tha axpkiitajuat alludedto 
waie gieit Hid vUndtd, it U tnie, bnt Iha miue of AicbiM •al«ct«d,GoOgk 

266 ouTinH roR tkk 


^ a «till naUar dMma.— Ilii Mittiridatic «ni wh eoiiad on b; tbs 
Scqun*, ■gaiuM Miduidatw tha 7lh. niranMd Enpator, ktng ^ 
Fontiu. It wa> ta impoitant tnd difficalt cimteat, owing to tho 
pwt tiOmt* uid -naai n«inicei of Hitfaiidttoi. Tba wu wu 
•ntand opoa b; SjU», wbo wM fbllowed bj Loeulhu, ud it wu 
Imagfat lo ■ chiae bj Fonqwj. 

31. QNttfM. *■ And thii poem." The tern) itbi nfan litei 
■I^ to tt« » bo(^" of wfaicfa tfaa poam in qtieatiMi wu cMnpnnd. 
— SbulmU. " 8M» hutte npon." 

XL Ptpmba «nm Aonumu, &c. " For the Roman people, with 
XjBBoDna Ibi theii commaoder, Uid opan Pontni, ■Ithongfa bitheito 
•tran^ defended bj both the Tewnrcea of ita mooaKfa ind the 
bMmb itaelf of Ibe connlij." Of ihe mBtita of LDcallni, in thia 
wai, Ciceio tiaita et Uige in the Sth chi^lat of tbe MBtion fbr the 
M.nilJTi Itw. — A> teguda Oie fbice of apenui in the pteaent 
paaaige, conqiue the ontioil jnat lefened to, (1. e.) " Patefactial^- 
fw imlrit UgiamihiM Panliiat, fux aMi Papaio RomaM) a otimi 
adiM tUauma met." 

S8. JTim mozMis mami. "Wilh M 'mtf laige fbtce." Tbe 
RmiMn inbnU;, on IhiB occuioii, cra^Med of abont 10,000 meo. 
Thafe weie ilao aboat ■ tboaauii] alingera. Tha wfaole csnlrf 
w«» likewiae preeeni, which Appiui makea SOO in nnmbei. {PbU, 
Vtt. LaadL c. iT—Appiii. Bell. Mithnd. c. 8S.) 

S4. ATmtMomm. The battla wu fbnght widi llgnuiee, king 
of Aimenii, tiid «OD-iii-Uw of Milhiidate*. Hia ■imy ia nid lo 
hne been 260,000 mSiitij, tni 60,000 civah}'. (Appian. L c.) 
Accofding to the eiicient writen, Tlgnnae lidiculed the ■mall mun- 
bei of Ihe Romui troope, lemnfcing, " if thej come u nintnanilnr» 
then an loo muif of them ; if u aoldien, loo few." (Pbii. Vit. 
Luei^. 1. c. — Appian. Mbi nipra. — Memnoti. Hitl. c. GT, p. 8S, 
ad. Orea.) 

Sfi. PcpuU Rmiam, Stc, " To tlie Ronun people belongi the 
pnJtB, thtt the tcij fiiendty citj' of theCjiieeni nuieBcued," &c., 
i. e. tbe iHHH of htving leacned. Compue the Sth cl^iter of ihe 
ontion foi the Muiiliui law ; and coiuult, foi an accoont of 
C^BcuB, Oeogrqihical Index. 

30. Ex «nmi impetu ngio, &c. "Fnnn ereij attaek on the 
put of Ihe mMiaich witb wbom we were wuiing, and liom the 
derouring jawa of the irtiole wu," i. s. frem the fhtj of ■ fbfmldable 
monaicli, uid from «U tbo diaaater* uf * mercilen wai. — Tbe kins 
lefened to ia Mithiidatea. — Ore ae faaeitiie. A metaphor bonrowed 
from the appearance preaeuted bj ■ furioua monetei abotlt lo apvne 


■VI. Ifertrt lemptr feretar, tK. " The Seet of the enemj sonk gg 
Uld il* letdere eliin, Loeiu Lucullui contenduig oa onr lide, u>d 
thet incredibte naTal eonflict oW Tenedoa, wilt iJnByi be spoken of 
■nd celebiUed as our own pecnlisr eamce of praise," i. b.u ■ 
memonlile eouice of prai« to llie Romnn anne. Witli walra :«- 
peM lntu fioin the prerioua Mntence. We b»e prefeired tbis to 
the Tei7 liuih constnKtioD of Brneetl : " Nostra maxime eutn 
pogne naTalie ; per irofiiyia» tum damtjtaigituT." 

1. Notln fiaU trepoM, Ac. "Tbese ue our tropbiei, bot 50 
mDDnaienta, otir triampb*," i. o. peculiailj our own ; peculierfy 
gloiiooa to Iba Ronun luune. 

S. 'FeruntUT. " Are apmid kbiosd." EqoiTBlent to di^erunfur, 


3. Afriea-no luperion. " To the elder Aftieenu*." Commonly 
ealled AfncuiUB Major, (eciL netu.} — Nnltr Etmiit. Ennius, 
illbougb s netiTe o! Rodiae in Calsbiia, jet obtsined by bis meiita 
tbe fteedtHn of Rome, snd bscama in Ibe stiictesl sense, by hia 
metiicsl annsls, the nalionsl poet of the Roman people. Hence tha 
eipiesaioniuuttr, " our omt," tn the teit. 

4. Ilaque eliam, &c. "And hence be is BTeit Ihought to be 
pUced of niaitlB oa the «epulcbio of tbe Scipios," i. a. the maible 
■tatae, which we see slong itith otheis on the tomb of the Scipio*, is 
thonght to be that of Ennina. Compais tfae eiplanation of Emeati : 
" Qued eimdaerum niarnwnuit at >n nuna^ntii Africam, id 
plUajU valgo ttee £nnii." Foi Africam, hawoTBr, Emesti onght 
to bsTO writlen Scijmmu?n, oa will appeu' &om the neit DOte. 

5. /n icpiickro Scipionum. We muBt DOt rBnder thie, " in the 
sepulchre rf ibe Scipioe," but " on ihe aepuichrB," &c. Compais 
Livjr, 38, 66 ; "Wamrf Ltfen«n«Bii™ien(uni(Afncani,)inoTrum(n- 
ioque etatua ntperimpotilii fuil, guatn ItTnpesliile itjectian nuper 
vidtnuf ipti. Et Romae extra portam Capenam in Scipimiim 
moRumenfo Iret elatiuu *vnf ■' giurum dvae P. et L. Sdpiinaim 
iiaiittur etie, ierlia poelae Q, Eroai." Consult slso Pltn. .ff. iV. 7, 
30. So&'n. e. 7. Tai. Max. 8, 14.— Tisconti tbought he had diacoT- 
ered thia tomb, not fki from tbe Cqwnian gite, foi tha particulm of 
whicb discoreiy Miio refen to Ihe Antohgia Rpmana, toI. 7, p. 3T7. 

6. Ejut, We hsTB adopted tbe Teij neal emendstion of Hgeo, 
aa rafeiiing to Ennius. The common lext bss iit, whicb bad 
alrsady bsfoce baen mapected by Gniliehnus and* Eineati, who 
Ihoug^ that ■omething had been diopped from the teit Theie ia 
notbiDg in Ibe pnTioua sentcnce to irbich ti* con refei. 

7. Ipii. Refening ss well to AfiicBnns, as to Ibe indiTiduals 
mentioiied tmiiiediale]]- sftei, Calo, the Maximi, Ac., sll of wbom,GoOgk 

268 ouTiov roR thi 


Kg w«TeUud«d in thcpoatiy of Enniiu. — By *'tlw Huuu, MutMIi, 
FalTii," are meaut in bct odIj Ihna indiiiduili, Q. Fibiiu llixi- 
mu, M. CUudiui MucbUii*, uid M. Fulnai NotBliw, ill of wh«n 
diftinffuiihed themidiB* in the iBoai Poiue wu. Th* plnnl fonn 
M ulqpted ibc emphuii. — Caoialt HiaUiiicd Indfti. 

8. Hujtu fToaxiu CaiB. "CUo, the gmt gninirithiji' of him 
«bo Dow heui me," oi " of him wuo is hera pmeDt." Tbe tefei^ 
•Dce in preatiu ii to Ceto tha csnaoi. Hujut lefece lo C«o 
Vlieauit, im, u be ii mare comctly ealled, Cato the joungai, who 
WM pnaent in couit, end peifa^ia one of ib« jwticw. 
0. AdjutigituT. " 1b thereliy impuled." 

10. iUw». Refuring te Eaaiu». — RuiimtMMctmium. "AldKiagti 
ft Mtire of Kudiie." Rudite, the natal pUce of Emuut, wu m citj 
of Celilm, in M>gm Gneeim. Coamlt Geogni^iieal Indai. 

11. Ham UeraicUaum. " Tbii Henoleui." Refeninf to 
Aichiu. — Cicero meaiu lo contiMt the campuatii* ineignificence 
of Jtudiee witb tbe qileiidoui of Hendea, whiDce Aichiu dsiited 

13. MtUli» ctvit^ibiu. Khi^um, Locii, Neepolie, TuentDm. 

13. /n hac. " In tbii one of oun." — I^gSnu. Raluiing, in 
peiticulu, lo the Uw ot SilTinus and Ceriw 

14. JVon n ;u4(, &c. Cicero beic meeta en objectitHi, if it 
deaerTe Ibe nuM, whicb MHne might periwpt utge, thit Enniu wti 
hooauied beceuee he wiote in Latin tciw, wheieM Aichiu com- 
DtMcdin Gieek. 

16. Jfiiu>r«n gleriae frvctum ftrcipi. " Tbet • U« abuiduit 
laiveit of gloij ii icsped." — Graaa. " Graciui productioa*." 

16. Laiina nui fatibut, iie. " Wheicei Letin woiki ue cod- 
fined withiD Iheit utunl limite, eud theee contncMd indeed." By 
the natural limila of Latin wMke Cicem lowiu ttae coaGaBe of 
TjtinTi. wheie the Latln Unguagc wu q»oken. In Oppei Italf 
the Etnucui uid CUlIic dialecta pierailed ; in Lowqi Italf, CSieek. 
■ Utei age, lUnun litentun becuna of cootM nwn wtdelT 

17. OrUt trrrae rcgioni&ut itfiMuutur, " Are onl j bounded bj 
Ibe limits of chs world," i e. hsTe icaebed the &rtliMt lioiiti <^ 
eanh, h&re bad tha whole world foi theii thsatn. 

18. Qwi nunaum, &«. "Thst, whilhu tba weapou wielde4 
bj Dui banda haTe leichcd, tbitbei aUo ooi ^017 and our &ine mif 

19. Qiuiii cntit, &c. " BecaoM, whiU tbeee thii^ aia ful] of 
gloij for the paople themaelTea, &£. — Tum tti etrlt, &c. " 8« 
doei «11 tbia anundlj loim tha itioi^^ fiKitNMiil," dic,GoOgk 


M. Quain ntaUot Kriplartt, tcc. "HownwnjluitaiiuwathiagQ 
Biploiu ia Aleiukdei the Gieai wid to hare had in hi* tmo." 
FabriciiiB (£>&. Gr. 3, 18) giTBs ■ long liit of wtiten wha treUed 
ol the hinMij and eipioiti of Aleiuidei, ol whom only & few haie 
come dowD to ua. 

Sl. In Sigto, " On the promontoiy of Sigeaia." Sigeum end 
Rhoeteiiiii weiethe tnofaioouaprouiontoriei of ihe Tioad. Coiuult 
Geognphical lodez. 

33. Ai Achimr iiaimlum. Accimliiig to Plutarcb, ae eooa u 
Aleunder luided at ths Tioad, be went op to Ilium, wbeie ba 
■urificed ID MineiTa, and offsied libationa to the heroea. He 
alao anoinled thepilluupoD Uu tomb of Achillea «itfa oit, aad lu 
tODnd it naked wilh hia frienda ; aftei whicb be placed a crown 
upon it, declaiiDg " Ha thought thil henj eitremel; Ibrtunate in 
baving Ibund a laithful Iriend while he Lved, and afiei hi< deilh ua 
oicellent heraM to proclaim hia jHiiae." ( Vil. Alez. c. \5.) 

23. /oriuntle adotacou, &e. "Ah ! jouthliil wamai, fsvouiite 
of fortune, io having fouad a Homer ai ihe heiahl of thy fame."— 
Qui ia joined nitb ihe lUbjuiictiTe inxnerit, ai lefeiring to iha 
reaaon, &c. Literallj, " aince ihou didat fiitd." Compsre nota 14, 

34. iliiu iUa. " Thal lUad." lUa heie tikea the place of the 
articla in Gieek, and ii etroDgl; emphatical. 

35. Noiltr hic MagToii, iu:. '• DiA not oui own Pompe; the 
Oreat." Literallj, " thia Pompey the Gitsat of ouci." 

36. Thcophantm. 'RieophancB waa a natiie of Mitylese, in ihe 
fstand of Leaboa. We have only a iew epigiama of bia reraaining. 
He ta mentioned ia Or. pro Bajb. o. 35, Ep. ad Au. 5, H, and 

37. Et noatri iUi, &c. " And did not thoae countiymen of oun, 
brsre men it ia tnie, yet of luetic babita, and mere Boldien, am- 
mated by a ceitain •eccel cbum of gloiy, appiove of tlial act by 
loud ehouta, u if tbey weie ahann oT the esme praise with Iheii 
commaDder V The Roman Bimiea were geiieraUy reciuited from 
the couDtiy. Henee the epithet ruitici here applied to them, 
which carries with it ihe idea of snmelhing rude and unpolished. 
Tta the moio gemral meaning of the term, consult Emaali, CUx. 
Cic. s. V. 

1. Itaqvs crtdo, dtc "Wheiefbre, Aichiu, I aoppoea, if he g^ 
hid DOt been a Roman citiien, tecording to oui Uw*, xoutd not 
bava baail able lo bring it to pus tl at bfi shoutd be pcaienLed witb 
dte cigbli of cilixensbip by some commandei of oan !" Webara 
cbuiged polmi, which is the commonly-receiTed ceading, lo pot»- 


gf ittti, on tbe ■agggatimi of EmMlil, h rtpudiMiel {aOaws. TIm 
MS9. oftni bavB potuit u > cmitiac^aD fin pohoMtet, ind hencs 
the omc mtf Ime uiMin. 

5. Adfo, fKMm Hitpani», Sk. " SjlU, I mppoiie, iriien pre- 
■antmg iud>e> of Sptin uid nf Osul nith tbe ngbta of cilueadiip< 
troDld luTfl leluHd Archiu seekiDg tbe eame faTour," i. e. hti hs 
■ooght, &c. Scbutz OEDite tbii Hcoiid crtJ/), ind plscea * nuuh of 
intenogetioa lAei rcpudiatiit. The &]laiBtioD ie qnite uuwceS' 

8. Qnm not, &e, " That SyUa wbom we onee nw in open 
MBMnUiT' '"ben & wretcbed poet, liom (be lowel oider, hid fm- 
■ented nnlo him a petitioD, cnTing eome McoinpeiiM (br haring 
compoeed ■ ihoit poem m bia pniie, mciehr in Tenea altenuitelr 
loDg tai duit." Literallj, " io Tenes sltenistelj eomenhBt 
longar thin tbe prarioiu one," i. e. in the alteinMiDg beiunetei gnd 
peDtunetei. Tlie lenn epigTatmA a heie employed m its andent 
Mgnifintioti, (ixit ia thu of oui modem epigram,) a> denating ■ 
■hrat piecB of poetry, commonlj in ibout four Eines, occssioDallj 
eiceedinf thst number, and in ■Itemate henmetei and pentsmeter 

4. XtieUwii. Thfl teim libeliat pmpt^ meana a, wntten appU- 
Mtion, fUded in ths fbim of a fnutii book, wbence the oime. In the 
pnMDt instance it deaotea an bumble petition foi some maik of 
fiTOiu, and the idea of bomilitj on tbe pait of tbe appUceDt ia still 
Autbei eipreHed bj tbe veib ntijeeitiet. 

6. £i ns Tcbtti quai tune tenielai. DSiing thiDks Att itaa 
lefen to tbe eSects,ofpraBcnbed penooa. 

6. Qui leduHtaiem, &c. " Wonld not be, wbo thooght ihe zeal 
of ■ bod poet wonbj nereitbeless of eome lecompense, baTO esgerij 
•oo^t to boDour the geoius of (luii one, and bia ilnlitj in composi- 

ion, ss well as the lich Btores of bis inlellect V 

7. Ifeque per Lucullet. Tbe two Luenlli weie cooMns to 
Metellua Pina. Tbe &tbei of tbe IstteF, MelaBua NumidiciiB, wis 
biother to tbe mother of tbe Lacnlli. 

8. De luit reiui icriii. " Of hsnng hia actions commemmo- 

9. Corduiae. CoidubB, now Corima, wss s eitj' of Hiapania 
Baetica. Coosult Geogi^bical Index. 

10. Fingue quiJdam, &c. " Thougb ntteting somelbtiig in dull 
■nd barbaiou* Btnin." Pingue obtains ita meaning of " duUnen" 
bmn tbe idea of mental iDeitnesa being alwsjs, in eome d^ree, 
■wtcisMd Triib Ihat of giossiiess of bod;. Conqiara note B, 


11. Sttpnu no^ffmubim. " But maK b» opeiilr icknow-gij 
lei]g«d." EquiTalent to apertt profilaidum. 

15. TrtUdmiT am/na. &c. " Wn ue ill dnini onwsid by ^ 
loTOof pniie, snd dieb«M ofus aie nuwt poweiftdlT indaenecd b; 
Kpunon for gloiy." Optimiu ynuyw, litendly, " esch beat 

13. Ipii phUasophi. Ths common teithuipniUi ^lotophi, 
but we bare rejecMd iUi with Schati, ai it noiiM BDDnd ill beibra 
ii^ in Che neit clmse, snd ie, moreover, not required by tha 

14, Etiam ilUt liieUit, &c. " Eyen inKiibe their names in the 
Teiy tTeBtJ«B which they compcno on the contempl of glory." 
MoreUtenlly, " on gloiy aa deierring of contempt," i. e. 00 the 
proprtety of contemning ^ory. Tho idea here eipreesed is given 
in Blmoel tbe aame Unguigeln Tuie. Ditp, 1, 15. — lAbcUii. The 
term litellat herB denolea " a lilUe book," i. e. s Bhort woik or 

16. In ee ipto, dcc. " In Ihe Teiy eue in whicb tbey ■fiect to 

deepiae >1I praite and lenown, they actuiHy wi*h themeelTee to be 
tslked of (uid mentioDed." 'We haTe sdopted h before rummari, 
with Weiske, ftom Amniianae HatcetlinaB, (S9, 7,) wbo citei thia 
passage of Cicero. The common text hae merely nc nomman. 

16. Decimtti qvidan Bruiiit, Thi> indiTidual aignalizad himself 
bjrhia «nccEBBea in Spain. CociparB VtU. Falere. S, S,andcoaaalt 
Hiali»ical Indei. 

17. Alta, amteittimi mi, &e. "Adomed llie appnacbea to the 
lemplea and monuments wbich commemmarated bia eiplaits, with 
the veriea of Attiua, his moat intimata friend." Attiua, oi, as the 
name is olheiwiBe wiiltsn,' Accius, wbs a tiagic poet, of wbaaa 
piodactions only a isw fiagmentB remiin. Accoiding to VeleiinB s. 
Maiimaa, {8, 14, 2,) Biulaa erected a temple with the apoili he 
had taken fiom the foe. 

18, Fulviiu. M. FalTins Nobiliot, who look the poet Enmai 
along with him Into Aemlis. (7\itc. Ditp, I, 3.) Conanll His- 
loricil Index for bolh names. 

19, Kon duiitavit, &c. " Heaitated not lo conaecnte to Iho 
Hueea the spoila of Haia." By nunufriae ars meant tboae of IbB 
apoila irtiich the commaiMler eet epart to defny the eipenaa of 
ereeting some monnmenC of the Tictoiy. — The eiprssBion Martit 
(fbr betlt) is a Teiy elegant one, atanding as it doea in direct oppo- 
Bitton to Xutit. It ia not known what act, on the part of FulTinn 
ia beie refeired lo, 01 what memoriBl he erecteiL 

30. Pfopa onuti. "Ahnoat with arroa m Iheir banda."—,GoOgk 

07 TagalL " Aiajai in ilia lobn af pMCa." Tlw tag» wu Uw 
civic nihe ai gown. 

31. ^ Jfiusnua Sonart, Sui, " To be mne to bmioiiiiiig ll» 

3S. Jam mt vMt iaJieaba. " I «ill >ow Iqr open to jod 1117 
OWD ■ocTU fedlags," i, s. I wiU Dubosom mfself unto jod. — Da 
mta jvodam anan ^^«rtat. " Reqiectiiig m esnun puaioii Ita 
glaiy bj whiclkl mjnelfim iodueDced." 

33. Quat Tt*. Baf«ning to hia having cnuhed the cDnipincy 
oT CaUliDe. — Foiucunt liauiL The alluiion hen ia eiliemely 

53 ^' ''l"V^ i^ ttrnbuM olfiu jnc&iunf . " lli* ooe hu toncbBd 
npon ud bagua to li»t af in tbcib." AUigil «hen pUced, u in 
thfl preeent inetance, in conjunctKJn witli intiaamt, lefen DOt to 
»07 iliglil huKUing of e ■nbject, bnt (&thw to the makii^ of k 
begimuag morelj. 

3. Hune a^ perfidaidum hortatitt nnt. " I hxte eihortsd him 
lo eompLets the poein." la muif HSS., tnd eaAj editioiM, we 
find Aorjoei, U whicb £niHti veiy juBtlj expcewea hia euipiiM, 
Tlie f eib Aorlar, it is tiue, me; have been uied by the euij whten 
in ui ictive fomii, w miuij of Ihe deponenli aie, but ceiUunlj thii 
wu not the caatoin iotha igeof Ciceio. Ttae anoient annotauii in 
the Ambnuiiii MS. resde adanmi, and useiti that thie wu ueed 
in the unse of WloAu (itnt hj Ciceio. " Hae verhuai adoiari 
mgmfieat coliorlatv tim. Aionvit auiem orare tl peieri ligmficM." 
Thil oiaj bU tbtj hgU be, but it is, nereltbelau, not the cuatom 
nitb Ciceio, and we twTB tbeiefore. prefecTed tbe leadiug in the teit. 

3. Qmd tH jvei. " WbBt leuon ia tliera whj." Liteiallj, 
" what i* thare on accoont af which." With jitod Bnpplj yroplrr. 

4. Si nitiZ niumui fractaUirtt in jiotterumt. " If tbe mind bid 
tW pnaentiment of the futmo." — RegiaiiiH». "Linuta." — 
Termmarit. " It were Co boond." 

5. JVsc ttfrangtrtt, " It wauld neithci tneBk down its powsn." 
Coiopan the lemiik of Doring: "Fmngi eUgoMltr dicunt» 
taiantiu, qiti omnn tiret in Hi perfemdit eoarumuiU." 

. e. Nme imijel, &e. " Oo Ibe contnij then dwelts in bU tb« 
mUsat bosoms a kiiid of geneioai iiqinlas.*' 

7. NoK cum vilae lempore, &c. " That tbe nmembianea of out 
nams is not to be aent awaj into oblivioii along with the peiiod of 
<RU moital existoDce, but b to be made eqnal with bU pasteii^." 
We hare nCained dimitlendam, Ihe leBdJDg of the common teit, 
Lambinns conjecCuies ilinwfwiidam, nbich Schiitz Tiolentlj alten 
iuto mamtlimdam. 



B. AnverolampaniiAt:. >• ShdJ we, iride»(l, *rtw ■!• ang^ad 5g 
m pDbiie aSairs, uid amid theae penls of liie, and beafj liboon, 
^>Iieat to b« all poraened of ■□ litlle elevBtkm of ^t, ■», aftai 
haniig diBwn, eran tc the taet peiiod •>( oni liTea, not om tnDqnil 
awl peueftd breath, tt imagine thst e*eiy thing connected «ilh ni 
ia deatined to periih willioui fratneil" i. e. ■>, lAei hsving during 
Ihe nhale of am Gna enjored not one monient of tnnqnit iqiote, 
to imagine thtt death u to elose the scene fbr btbi, ukI Out no 
recompenee amita na amid the pisiaee of poateiity. 

9. An cum ttalvat, &«. Cicero sjifieBn hers to btTe had in 
Tiew Ihe Gne pasugo of Isocratea, iEttag. c. 30,) 'Ej* f, & 
NurfiAiit, fygi^ai mXi lOt ilrm yini^ta «■) rli rijr *»fuimr (iiAnif, 
loXt ffrrsi irkirnoc iif(<i[ Til n» >7liilur lui tDc iitntiK, <c. r. X. 

W. CDtw^ionm reitnfiKre, &c. " ODght ire not to be mach 
mote desiroua of learing behind ue ■ ddineation of oor thOBgtM 
and oni Tiituee, traced oiit avd peifected b; the moit oninent ge- 
ninsea of ooi day?" — All tbe editioDi befoie Emeati's hare nmau 
mu^, foi n^iich l^s Tei^ coirectly leads nm m 

II. JiMi Itmingermdo. "At IbeTatydme I t 

13. Hatevero^&e. "WbetherthisTemembnDceiadeed, isdaa 
tined, ■(ter deafli, tobefslaw^ fiom all contciousDeia on mj pait, 
erirbsther, la tbc iriaeat of men haTe tiion^t, it will contoae to 
eieicise en inflaeice on aome portion of m; being, I certainly ncnr, 
indeed, delighl Dijaelf with the teBection and tbs hope tliit it may 
be Bo." — Miue lefen lo memoriam ia the prsTiODi lenteDce, and 
denotes tiie lemembranee of Cicsro bj his £Bi1ow.meii, and po»- 

19. Ad nlifwun mti, &c. Tfae comtnoD text bs« dn^ «ftei 
aiiquam, Tthich makea mri a posseaeiTe pronoan. Il is omittad^ 
howeTCi, in •ome M39., and tqected bj Beck, SdtSlx, snd o&sta. 

14. Fvdm-e m, &c. "Of Ihat degree of modeat marit, tite 
eoalraice of lAJch ;m se« plainlr ptoied, u vtD by tlM higl> nnk 
of his fiienda, u br Ae long continti^nce of dna inttmwy ; aad of 
a genius as eleTalH, aa it is right that his ^iould bo legsided, &oin 
yooi aediig him, ir conaequencs, eagerij sou^t aflei t^ sndiTidnils 
of ttie higheat ordei of iBlents." — Compaie, as legaida ibe Gnt psit 
of ttii* aentence, 'iie exptanatioD of D$iing : " fuem qvidem (*c. 
pqdorom) vere ei meMte, argwamla vebit tttt folttl, qatd nn,GoOgk 


Kfi ilfll IIm rrmlinfl tehuUlt i» m> moch «npenai, uid lo ^tttaSadf 
■di^iUd lo tha eoDlait, thu Etneiti uid tbt beit editon bne not 
heaitated to iecBi*e it. The edTocilee tai smuloM uuke it equiT- 
■leot to ntontt» ^tgtniia, bnt Doiing tuj jneUj uke, " guamode 
■unuK (lcfoMiB aiionnit jniiartm aijiudmi cDinprcierc poteit}" 
16. U. Sajiply iwutt tnj^nuunt. " Tbit gemuH of hie." 

g^ 1. Qme benefieie lesu, &c. " Which ii beeed npoa Ihe pnTi- 
lega gnnled by tn eipieei I&w," dtc. He meaiie the pnvilege of 
citizenehip a* graiited b; tbe Ibw of SDTtuiia tnd Ceibo, 

5. Aucloriule nmnuipa. Rofening lo Heraclee. 

3, Hiaaiata. " Oik Ibe peltoT inei)." The (ecOmmeiidatioD of 
meo uiaet fiom Ibe poeCa hning celebnted iu Tene theil fimie tnd 
■chieTemenli. — Dinno. " Oa Ihe pert of ihe godi." Tlw gode 
wiU intercede in hie behilf, becuwe thrjr inqiiied hhn with poetic 
terotii', end hence he ia imder theii ■peciil piotection. 

i. Demeelieit periealit, Occuioned b; Ihe conepiracj of CuiliDe. 
— Aeltmmi le, &c. RefeniDg to the conqtletian of hie poem, 
■keadj '•'""""'■^1 on the sobject of Ciceio'e coneuUhip. 

6. Eet eo manero, qai. *> Is of Ihe numbei of those, wbo," &e., 
L e. ■ poet, — /n neetrtmfidein. " Uadei joui piotecCioiL" 

6. Hummiliile vetlra. " Bj joui kiDdneu." — jUerbitaie naU- 
Mu. " Injiued bj joai tigoui." 

7, De eMua. " Iq relation to tbe meiite of the cue." — Simpli- 
aurq*e. " And plainl;," L e. withonl anj attempt at ontotical 
di^sj, — PrabaU ttte onuibut. " H»e been ^^nored of bj jou 

S. Ifon /ori, nejue juditiali amtttetudiTie. " In accoidanca witb 
Iha nMge neiCbBi of the bat, norofpublic CnalB," He lefen to bia 
ealogium on letten and Utenij men. 

9. Et eonuniatiter, &«. "And the natnie of hia aTaeatioa in 

10. At ee, f«i, &c. " Bj him who preaidea at Ihit tnal I am 
■me tbej h>Te," i. e. been taken id good pait. — Hia brotliet Qaintna 
Cicero pnnded ai pnetot. CoiuDlt uote 8, page 49. It mnaine 
» of Ciceni wu Buccewfnl.,GoOgk 


1. M. Tui.1.11 CioiRDinB, &X,. " Oiolion af Miueiu TuUiiu fi 
Ciceio m behoU of Marcns Maicclliu." — Thii t> not lO mucb t 
■peech in dcfeoce of Marc^iu, *a & panegjric on Julioa Caeur. foi 
haiiag psDted the paidon of the foimer >t Ihe inteneuion of the 
■eiiBle. Mucelliu had been one of the most violent oppoaenta of 
llie Tiewa of Cteui. He hod reeonuneDded in the saiiate, thsl he 
■hould be deptived of the prorincA of Gaol : he h&d iiualted tbe 
Duigietntes of ooe of Caewii'a new-fbanded calomea, ond had been 
pTBsent at PhoisBtiB on tbe ude of Fomper. Aiiei that biltle he 
retiied to Mi^lene, wbeie lie was obliged to leniam, being one of 
his adTermieB Co wbom the conquerei leSued to be leconciled . 
The oeaate, bowBTBi, ona daj, wben Cusu wa> pieaent, wllh a 
onited voice, and ia an attitada of soppUcation, having imploied his 
deraencir in &toui of Maicellaa, aod theii lequcst haring been 
gnnCed, Cieero, tbongh he had leKdred to jaeseire etemal silence, 
being mored by the oceaaion, delireied, in Ihis oiation, one of thrs 
hi^ieat-attained eocomiama that ba* eTei beea priHiaimced. 

In (fae £nt pait be eitota Ibe niilitaij e^qiloita of Caesai ; but 
■howa that his clemency to MuceQua wa* more gloricnu tban airr 
of hia othei actiona, as it depeaded entirelf oa faiauiilf, while foitnne 
and hii aimj had theic ahaie in tiie BTente of the wai. lD*tha 
•Bcond part, he endeaToon to diq>e] tbe saBpidone wbich, it ^qjBsR, 
Caeaai stiU enterlained of the hoatile intentions of Mareellai, aod 
ttkaa occaaion to aMnire t)ta dictatoi Uiat hia lifa waa nuM deu and 
TBtaabla lo all, aiace on it depended tha tnDqmllilr of the alale 
snd the bopea of the reMoiation of Ibs GOmnumwealth. (J>iailop'i 
Rm. Ut. TOL S, p, 339, LmL td.),GoOgk 

V ORATioH rom 


[) Tbii ontKm, nliich Middleton decbna to be ■upeiior t« ai^ 
thing eitint of tbe kind iu all antiquit]r, coDtiaaed ta be dM Ooly of 
unduputed Bulhenticity, but one of Cicen>'a moet (dauced prodoc - 
lioni, liU Wolf, in tho prefure ind notos to ■ noir edition ot tt, 
pnnted io 1802, Utempled to (hOTT, th>t it wu ■ ipoiiaiu (soduc' 
tion, totell; nuwoTthy of the onloi whoee nuna it boan, and that 
it ins writlen by *Dnie declunier, aoon afkei tho Auguatao age, 
not a< an impoaition on the pubUc, bul u an cierciae ; aceoiding to 
Ihe pnctice of the rbetoriciuis, who wece wont to ebooBe, as a 
thenje, aome eubject on which Gicero had ■pokeo. In hie letten to 
Atticue, Cicera nj», ttwt be tud returned thanka to Ciesir, pluri 
tiu Mrfrii. Thia Middleton tnnilates, " ■ long speech;" bat 
'Wolf aJleges, it commooly rneuie b few words, nnd never cin be in- 
laipreted to denote ■ iiill ontion, «nch u that which we now possesa, 
Ibr Marcellm. Tbet Cicera did not debrer ■ long or formal iqieech, 
.'a eiident, he conlenda, fiom tlte teatimony of Plulirch, irbo men- 
liens, in hii lifii of Cicero, tbai, ■ (hort time afleiwud, when tlM 
ontM- wai abont to plead Tor Ligariua, Caeeu adied, how it iup- 
pened tha) he had nol beafd Cicero apnk. for ao long a period ; 
iriiich would haie been abeurd, S he had heard him, ■ lew monlla 
Defare, pleading for Marceltaa. Being an eitemponnaoaa effasion, 
called forth by an Dnfomeen occuion, it could not (he continues to 
■mgt) have been prepited mkI wiitten beforelumd ; nor ii it at eH 
pmtablo, thai, like muiy otber onliona of Cieera, it «■* rarieed. 
•nd nwde pablic, after hiiing been delivered. The caosea whteh 
indaced the Roman cnton to write oat their speechea al IftiaDte, 
•ren Ibe mlgnitude and importuice of tiie sabject, or the wiiAe* of 
IImm in whoae defence thcy wwe madE, and who were iniioQa 10 
pnaiifnn a eort ot lecord of tbeir viiidication. But none of theaa 
motivea eiHted in Ihe present cue. The maltai wia of no import- 
aoce OT Afficutty ; and w« kiiow thBt Marcellui, wbo wu a ■len 
npoblican, waa not al alt gratHisd by Ibe inteicession of tbe aeaa- 
lats, or coneiltalad by tbe clemency of Ceeifai. 

Aa 10 inteiml evidence, dedaced ftnm the ontion, Wolf «idnHta, 
Aat ibaM aie inlenpened in It some Ciceioniati tentences ; ukI haw 
MheiwiBB could tbs teuned have been m> egngioaaly decMved t 
lut tbe TearaaUaiKS ia mora in the vamiBh of the MylB, dian in At 
■libetsiKe. We havs die wotdi nther than Ihe tbooghle of Cieero ; 
ai,d Ihe rounding oT lua pariods, vritboal tbMr energr and u^ment- 
■tive eonneiion. He adducea, also, inany inalances o! phnsei 
Dnusoil amang the clasaica, >nd of conceits which betny the 
ihetoriciBD 01 BOphist. Hia eitoDing tbe act of that day on whith 
Caeaar pardooed MaicenaB, u bigher than all hia wariike eiploita,GoOgk 

H. MAtOtLLV». 377 

«ould lut hiTB nieed t Dnila oa the l^ of the dlcUtoi ; Hid ibe g() 
eligKting way in which the esnee of the pubhc md Pompey iie 
muiuoned, ii tot^y diflciei)^ fiom the nunnci in which Cicera 
eipceiEeB hiioiBlt on tbeia dehcate tt^iu, evea in preseuce of 
Cieeu. in hie euthendc ontione fcn Deiotaiua tnd Ligaiiiit. 

It i< CTideDt, et fiiat Tien, tbit many of Wolf 'a obBeiraliani ue 
hypecciilical ; and that in hia argunient coQcemiiig ths eocoDiiuin* 
(m Cacaai, and tho ayonaled importanee of liiB clemeitcy to Hai- 
celluB, he doei not make Bufficient allowance loi Ciceia'a habit of 
ozaggeiation, and the mameDtuy enthiuiaam produccd by one o( 
tboae tiansactiims, " Qaat, dum genaUuT, ptTCcUitnl anttniM." 

Accoidinglv, in the yeai roHmring ^iat of Woirs edition, Olaun 
Woimiua pubUehed, at Copenbigen, a TindtcalioD of tbe authen- 
ily of Ihis q)eech. To tbe ■igoment adduced fiom. Flutiicb, he 
aniwera, ibat some maatbq had elspsed between the omtiane bc 
Haicellus aud Liguiua, which mi^ readily be calted a long peiiod 
by one accustomed to heu Ctcero baisngue slnKist daily in tlw 
•enate oi fbium. Beaides, Ihe phiase of Plutaich, \lytms, may 
tnegii pleading Ibr Mmie ooe, which waa not ths natuie of the 
■peech Ibr Hvcb1Ii)b. Aa to the mt^ve wbicb led U wiile and 
pttUiib tbe orotion, Ciceio, above «11 men, wu delighted with hil 
owQ ptoduetions, and nothing can be more probable, than tbal be 
shauJd havc wiabed to pietetre Ihe lamembrance of thst loranoiable 
day, wbich he calli, io bis lettoiB, " dim illani pu!eKerrima-ni." It 
wu nBtunl (a Bend the aratjon to Marceilui, io onlei to haaten hia 
letum ta Rome, and it must have iieea an accepIihlB thing to 
Caesai, thuB Ut lecocdhis feBileaanesa uidbenigDily. With tegaid 
to the msoDeriii nhich Pompey tnd the reputdiean paitj aie talked 
of^ it il «vident, from hia letten, that Ciceta was disgutted with 
tije politieal meuure* of that hction, that be wholty disappioved of 
thnii fbm of Uw campaign, and, foreseeing a lenewal of Sylla'* 
pnMcliptiane m the tiimnph of tfae aiialocratic power, hs did not 
ezaggeiat^ in eo bighly eitolhog the homiuiity of CaeBur, 

Tbe aigniDeni* of WormiDS' «eie expanded and illustialed by 
WeiBke, in ■ conuseDtBiy on the Mation fbr Majcellus, pubhshed 
at Leipaie, m 1606, while on the othei hand, Spalding, in a di^u- 
Ution published in 1808, suppotted tbe opiniona of Wolf. 

The contioTeisy wai in this ■tate. and wa* considend aa involv- 
•d kl much doobt s&d ohscuiity, wben Ang. Juiob, in an academi- 
caleietciae, printed at Halle in 1818, adopted s niiddle coune. 
Fioding BUch disBimiluity in the diffeient pasiages of the oiation, 
•omB being most poweiCuI, eleginl, and beauUfol, while othen 
weio latiUy fudle tnd frigid, be was led to bc)ic\-e thnt pait had 

378 oxiTioN rOR 

AA tctatHf flowvd liam tba lipi of Cicero, bot dat nmot had baen 
lulMequeiitly iateTpolBteil bjr M>me riietoriciia oi decUimei. In tha 
proeecalion of hii inquiiy, the lat^ «uccoMToly reriew» tho 
i^)iiuone ind jndgnHDU oC his predecesson, eoiDetimee ^reeiiig 
. with W^df ind hi> Mo«an, U othei timee, tnd inare fieqneiUljr, 
with theii oppoaen. Hs thinlu, tbBl Ihe nmch couteitad j^nM, 
phtT^nu verbit, nay meui s long ontioo, u Cicere Bl«ewhn<B talka 
orhinng pleided for ClueDtiiu, pturibiu verbit, tlMDgh tbe ^ieech 
in hie dafetice coneiite of 56 chipteti. Beaides, Cicera tmif »*j», 
Ibat he hid retanud Ikanki to Csesar, ^anlnu verbit. Now the 
whoU apeech does not cqnsist of Ihsnks to Csem, baing paitlj 
occopied in remaTing the luspicioaB whlch he entertained of Mai- 
ceUns, With regudtothBencomiams on CaeHr, wbich SpaMing 
hss chsiacteriziid u sbject ood fdleome, and lotBlly diflerent ftODI 
^e delicale eon^timents addreaaed to lum in tbe oiaCioti foi Deio- 
tsius 01 Ligsnui, Jacob remtDdB his readerB, thst tha hstangaee 
conLd hBTB no reBflmbisnce to each o^i, tbe latter being fdeaded in 
behalf of Ihe tccueed, and Ibe fociDer ■ prt^Baed panegyiic. Noi 
can sny ono estaNU the eulogieB i»i Cschu' Ioo eitmngant fm 
Cieero, when he rememberB tbe teima in which ths oraloi had 
foimeriy apoken of Roscius, Aicbise, and Fompey. 

ScbaU bai labBCDbed to tbe opinions of Wolf, and hss pub- 
Mied tbe Bpeecb Ibi: HuveUaa, skmg with the other foui doubtfhl 
haiangiiea at the end of the genuiue ocBtionB. l_Dunlcp'j Btm. 
LU. Tol. S, p. 840, njq.) 

The diecoreiiea of Haio at length thiew new ligbt upon the quea- 
tion, Ibat leamed Uliraiiui uid scbolai hanng aacceeded in bnDgii^ 
to h^t paita of an ancient commentaiy, ■ eollectiOD of ecbolia oa 
aeveial of the oiationi of Cicero, snd among tbem ^t fbr Maicd- 
Ine. Thia cammeDtarr ^ipesn te hsTe eitbei bera written bf 
Asconiui PediBDUB, or selected fiom hia moie eiteuBiie scbi^ ; 
■od, u tbe psit reUting lo Oie oriLtion wo sra conaidering, altboDgb 
biie^ makea ao menlion of luiy othei author foi tbe i^>eech, Uiis 
ciicnmatauce, together witb tbe hci of Ihe onticHi being joined lo 
othen of andiHibted aulheiiliclty, will foim no weak ■igument in iH 
b(iuU'. Indeed, Ihe Istest edilor of Ciueto^B wo^ Nobbe, (iiips. 
1837.) considen tbe qaeBtion u now conclaBively setded, reraaifc- 
ing ; " Sed *cce nava et paene inipenua lax arta etl, itueTitii a 
Maioveteruminlianc oralioiiemicholiorumfi-agneHtU,iiMi[MMeii- 
olani (I8IT)edifu. Vnie tatit eertim fit, ai ipta Cicerme aaeton 
luaicgTatianmMtwntmprafectam etie.",GoOgk 

II. UUl'.ELLVt, S' 


5. DrufBmf tSenlii " Cicero tud ivoideil tokuig sny letrre g 
part in publie tffuii, and min^iig in the debues of Ihe Benate, 
tioce (be periad ot hii retuni lo Roiae, tStei hsTing been pirdoned 
by Ceeeu. ~ Tlw Tesaon of Ihti ulence he giTes ue with mOTe 
openneu in ■ letter to Sal[Hchi9, (_Ep. ad Fim. 4, 4.) "I hnd 
leEolTed to obeerre ■ peipetiul sileDce, not from inj feeUng of indo- 
lence, bnt &om OM of Tegretat the Itaa of mj fonner dignit^." 

3. Qao eram lii limporiiat lotu. " In nhich I hsd indulged 
dmiDg theae Istter timei." 

4. Ntm timon aiiqao, Complimenteiy to Caeeai, and impljing 
that even if Cicero had fdt inclined to eipieu hia seDtimenW on 
pnblic a&aiii, with boldneH uiil fniedom, he notild hare beea 
allowed by Caesu w to do, wilhonl any inlerrnption. 

6. Parlim dolori. Grie/ fot ^ tbKnce of hia friend Mareellm. 
Compeie wbal roHoire a litlle ifler ; " DoUbammim," &c. 

6. Parlim veTtcuniia, " Paitly frlHii» fBeling of relf-ieatiaint." 
Ctceio mesoa to eipieaa bj Terecundia the awkwudnesa he felt st 
ipeaking m ths pieeence of one whem he hsd oppoeed in the civil 
conteat. Compare the etpUnation of Manotiue : " Conlra juMi 
etam armii pugtuuiem, eo praeitnit in itnatii tcrba facert vere 
mruiia prnkUiebal." 

7. Quae tellem, &e. " Of giving ntlefance, VFilh mji former 
wontad &eedom, to oij winlieB and mj Benlimenti." 'Compare 
Manatina : " vt, fro mee lenju, faemaimodim aitea >/4ebam, 
tibire laquar." 

5. Xantuetudinem. " Humanitj." Aa displayed by Caenr m 
pardoning MBjcelloa. Comjnre, bs legaids the force of moniue. 
ludo, tlie oistian fbt the MDuIian law, c. 14, wbere Cicero, speiik- 
ing of Pompey, remoiks ; " Htinianilai jam lanta til, u( diffidU 
diclu lil, utnim hoiiei magia virtuttm ejai pugTiatilti timnerinl, 
an maniuttvdinem vicli diltxtriTit." 

9. Tonlutn, in loninu poleitate, &c. " Such botuidleaa model- 
Btion in the midst of nnlimited power." 

10. Sapienliam, As ahown by its controlling the diclateaof 
piinle animoaitjr, and reatoring a ueeful citizen to hii countiy. 

11. AiteloTilatenL Compare hia words to SulpiciuB, alieady 
roferrcd to, (Ep. ad Fam. 4, 4,) " StaitteTam, non mehereuie iner- 
lia, iid desiderio pristinae dignitatia, in perpetimm laetre." CiceiD 
bsgins now to peiceire a restoration in some degree of his (anoKi 
" influence," in consequence of Ihe mildnesB and geneioeitj of 
Cbbsu- lowards his friend. 

IB. IMebara. " I u»ed to grieTe." — rirun laim. Refening 
t» MircelluB.,GoOgk 



18. /■> MUnd «NM, &o. "Wbo Iwd been mgtpd in tba 
■una caoM with nij«eU'," i. e ths ptitj of Pompej. — JVtm in 
Mdcm MJc/iirlinis. " Wm not STijoring the Mme good rartDne." 
Ckeio, t&ei the butle of Phuwlia, tccepted pirdoD Irom C&eear, 
uid retnnied to Rome ; Maieellui, cm tbe othei bind, too «tubbom 

■ lepaUieiii to ■ekMwledge » loMtw, retinal to MiPrleoe in tha 
ieknd ^ LeabM, «ben be wn iwidiiig wben Ihs □ewe o/ bis pai- 

14. JVec nia ftrnudtrt poferani, &c " Noi could I pienfl 
upon myedt noc did I deem il in accorduice with tbe haUowed law 
oC liieDdefaip, that I ehouid engige in odi old caieer, when be, tbo 
rival and Ihe imiMtoi of m; punnita >iid laboiira, mj aaeociate and 
companion aa it were, wat tom frtnn me." Tbe uae offat ia bei* 
etronglT empbatic, «hich muet be onr apologj for giTing il a 
p*n|dir*ae tatbai than ■ lianalation. — Fat hasreference to tttegodi 
■nd thiiige of ■ laGnid ■■tuie, jut to wtut it of tuimau origia oi 
ebUKlw. iSem. ad ViTg. Gtorg- I, S69.) 

15. NoilTa Kiiri atrriatlo. Forenaie punoit* and pnblie 
qiealdng iu geDenl.--'jl<iRK2« «ffM nulafari, &c. Harcellua nu 
dietu^uiabed loi hia ^ilitj a* ■ ipeakei Conault Hiatatic^ 

16. Mtat frittiiite mtat, &£. " TIib habila of nij former life, 
which bad been long cloKd npon me." We hue adopted the reid- 
jng of Laoihiiuu, WoU^ Weiake, &«, Tbe conmuui teit iiaa U 
miti tt ntat prittinat, dic. 

. 17. El hit emnibiii, &c " And bave niaed a ■gual, aa it were, 
fai all wbo an ben preacBt lo enleitaiD faTounble hi^ieB of tha 
aWeat hige," L e. of all that i» connected wiih the welbra of theii 
catmtiT. — Sigmim aHquod txtuUtli. A metaphor bonowed &om 
militaiy opentiont. 

le. tnttUectum etl enim, &<:, "Fot it wu reDdered plainlj 
q^Mnnt, to mjaelf, kideed, iu msnj initaDcet before uu.., and 
etpeciallj in mj own case, but, a momen' ago, to tll who an ben 
^Bssnl, tha^ wben joagnaled Marcot Mi.rcellnt lo the tenate and 
people of Rome," lus. 

1. QfMmaniiue. Marc^ua, when conaul, hid moied in tbe 
t»Mi*, tbot CaeBai'8 eaminiad m Gaul bs abiogated, when be 
httei, aner having piU an eod to tbe Oallic wai, thaugh bii com. 
miMcm waa neu eipiriQg, songht to letaiu hia ctHnmaiid, pielend- 
tng that he could not posaiblj be aafe, if ha pirted with iiit annj, , 
wL:'d Pompej held the prOTince of Spain. Maicdlui aflerwud 
e n dea T Qured to get Ctesai proclaimed an enomj to bii countij ; in 

■ puUic tpeech he called iJm a lobbw ; aad &iallj lan^ ■gaintt,GoOgk 

hnn b tlie citfl contest. TheM wete •mmig hii ■' offimcai'' aguut ^| 

5. Tni* vtl doloribiu vil mtfidaTahu. " To jonr own feelingi, 
vrbetherof reMntmeot oi *iupicioa." Resentnieat foi Ibe ptitt, 
■OHpickin with legud to the fuluie conduct □( Mucellu*. Caenr 
feiied leet Mucdlu» might plot agunit bia life. 

3. SU juiimfhietani, ite, " He, indeed, ha* tbis d>y leceived 
>he licbeat lecompenee foc ill his pul life, botb in the uninimoui 
inteicesaian of the Moate, end tlao in youi moet BolemD and genai- 
ooe detenBinatioD." Cicen) meum, Ihit this dij hia iiilly iepiu4 
tbe seiricee which the pial lifn i>S MarcellDi had beatowed upOD bie 
coantij. He now obtaini gloij together wiih ufetj, becuiee tha 
nnammoui inteicaeaion of tbe wnate, and Caeeai'e gtneioui coo- 
duct, piove coaclaairelj that Haiceilue ia a nnlj vinuoiu man. 

4. Laai. Suppty libi. — Glaria. Supply liii. 

6. Bit tere fortiaiatat ilU, &c. " Fortanate in tnith ie he, 
eince bardly leea jay will accme nnlo aU lioai hie aafelj, tban k 
likdy lo be felt by bimeelf." Ilie lelative, fiom itaaeaigmt^ tba 
Ttatm, tikee hera Ihe stibjuactiTe mood, Compaie itote 14, p^« S8. 

6. VentuTt til. Becuiae Maicellua ia at a diatawe, aud C^eeiD 
cui orAf BuinuBe wbst liia fBelioga will ba oa the leceipt of tbe 

7. NBUhlale. " Fot binb." Tbe line of tbe MaicelU wm di»- 
liagniabed in Roman hiatoiy.— Optimantm ariutm tlnMo. " Foi 
ualooa ■nachmsnt to tbe moat libcol ponnila." — ^MocMtia. 
"BiamelBiBneB of liJe." Moial paiitj. 

B. HiiUiiu laMtam, &c. " Ib do ona ia tbere eo great ■ flow cf 
genroa, in no one bo gteat powai, ao great eopiouBneaa, of apeakii^ 
oi of wnting, >■ cui, I will not ray, follj amballiah, boC even faiily 
lecount, Caius Caesu, yoiii eiploila," i. e. aU the creBtire powac 
of tbe £iwet genmaee, ■!] tbe effoitB of aloqaance U)d bialoiy, will 
ba found inadequitB eien to give a aimple and ninultiiiied nimliTe 
of yooi ■^eyemenla. 

9. Faet ttu. *' Wilh ycnii pmiiaaiaii," i. o. with aU deferenct, 
— Aaptiarem. " Moia glorious." — Ea. We haTe bera adopted 
the emendation of £^neeti. The common tait bae eom. 

10. Idqite UbaUer, &c. " And to make it ■ tbaaw ot &eqiicinl 
«ooreisstionB." Wenka reada t£nii7>u fiii idqut. . 

11. Numero pmeUarum. FUnj (^. iV. T, SS) etalee, Iba CMetr 
fingbl Gftj pitched battlea, the neareBt qijnoach ta wbicb nninbar 
wu in tha eaaa of Maicellua, who fbt^t Ihirtj-niiM. He alaa 
iofbnna lu, that, indepaadently of tfae cainage of the citit wan, ba 
bad alaia 1,193.000 man, "Idem tifpiit eailatit jainfaatitt 



S83 otLXTjon lOR 

^ 2 Hmictwil .- Mbu tf. JfarraUwn Irmm^mna, jui mitjttJrmgic^ 
ijimieascraj. ffain praeur dwiUt netoriiu, unitdtt emleitm et 
mvmginlm ima m i lti a ieiMtBHii Bcdta pnttiit ai la." 

IS. Ntt KrKfOJc Tegiaiam. Ct^mr bad curied on war in Gotil, 
Britun, Spain, Gernwny, Qnt/x, Egjpt, A6icB, ind Aaii- Ha 
OTeicune Pompey at Fhuwlia ; PtolNnT in Egypt ; Fhainaces, 
•on of MithtidilH, in Pontin ; uid the >ana of Fompej in ^nin. 

13. Celeriltle caitfidtmdL This U weU iUixtnted b; bii hamam 
deipUch M t]>B RjHnan eenato, afkei hia Tlclory OTer Pbamaces, 
" Fetii, ndt, vici." Tbe commenUiiea on the Oallic wai aie alao 
tiill of eiainplea. 

14. Ifte iiatimiiititdiM hiilanm. " Sot in 0» nnlika chancler 
of (be wan thenQwlTea.'* OccukKMd bj.the nnlike chancten of 
the nationa *nth whoni, (nd tbe caiinlriea in iriiich, ^hej weia 

15. !tte ■Btm, &e. " And that, in tnith, lande the moat wideij 
nmote liom each otber conld not tuTe bem tnToUed orei wilh 
mon nptdil; bj the fbotilqM ef any one, tban tbay haTe been 
tniened, I will niM aaj hj ^at maicbes, but bj youi TicUtnea." 
A ■omewhal ■nuUt meaaan t^ pniae bad abeadf been pooied oot 
hj Ciceio upon Pompeir, in the ontion tai lb« Maniliui «ar, (e. 10,) 
" (^t taepiut cvm liotle amfiixil, juam fnufuom ciin tRinte* 
amcertanl : flura htUa gettit, fiuMi eOtri legenuU : ylmet pro- 
•netu emfedt, fum eturi cmmpiertml." 

IS. Itatralat tinl, Compue Ihe nouA of Mamitttu ; " Xou- 
trare plmt ttl qtum peragrare : nam jui feragrat tmhf ; jm 
jMitrafafflM.- fwt jitu lemparit Tejuirilter." 

17. Qmat qi^iem ego, du. " Now, weie I not to coitfeaa Ibai 
thaee Ibjnga in ao eilnaidiDaiy,'' &c. — Atnau lini. "I wouU 
be ■ tnadnian," i. e. it wen madneea not to confiiBi, &c. 

18. .Ifta «>arara. Alluding to Uw gloir be bu acqoired by hif 
gmeioiia condocl in pordoning Marcellua. 

19. Bxteytttare rerbit. " To depreciate by Ibeii lemaika." — 
Cmmumcare cKm mu^. ■' To ahan il with tbe many," i. e. 
wifli thogreat bodyof thaaoldieiy.— iVopriiw tmperaiiirMii. "ITie 
eiclnaiTe priipanj of commioden." 

30. /n armii, " In militaiy opentionB." — Lpcomm apportmni- 
tat. " The adTBUtaga of utualion." — Auxiiia todornm. "The 
aid al lUitia." 

31, Commcatut. " OonTc^a,"!. e.atti^eaofmilitarrBtona, &c. 
33. <iu«ti tae jitre. " Aa iTb]' a right peculioriyhera." — Fttrn 

•m» ointm. " Aaalmaet eatiraly bei own." Compaie, BBtegaida 
Ika idea intetried lo be conTeyed bj tbe wbole paaa^, the laiigiMge 



1. Hajui gJeriat. The gloiy at paidaoii^ ■violeot poUticai Q 

2. Quaatii/mamque at, dcc, " How greit MieTei it U, (and il 
certMDly is moit gceal,)" i. e. aod nothii^ certainly c»Q be greater. 

3. Nikil tibi, 6tc, "No canturioa, do ptefect, DO cobort, na 
troop, tnke unto themselvea any pojtion of Ihia praiae </( thine," i. e. 
Do comroander of in&nCrr or cavaliy, do bod; of foot or bwae. 
CetUiirio properiy meana a coznmaadeT of one hundred infantiy. 
Fraefeclua denotea a leador of cavalry. Both tecms aie naed here, 
however, in a geaeral Mose. 80 again, coJlori and furnu sie etn- 
ployed, in thia aentence, with a general teference to any body of 
fbot or horae. In atiictneiiB, cohart means a band of 600 foot-sol- 
dieiB ; and lurma, a troap of 30 hone. 

4. Dicerjnl. The peculiar force of thi» verb ia beet expresaed 
by B paraphiaee : " Fluclt foi theoiselvee a aingle leaf from thy 

G. QutR eiiam, &c. " N*j, even fbrtnne, (hat veiy mittresa of 
hatnao a&iia, preeeDls not berself for sny share of this thy glory," 
i. e. lays claiia to no shsie in tbis thy latest and moat gioiious act, 

6. Tuani etMc tolam cl prvprimi. "Thal it ia all and peculiarij 

T. Ncc od amtHiuin, &c. " Nor ia cbancQ admittcd to the 
eounsels of pmdBDGB," i. e. noi do tby plans ever loolt to chanco to • 
aid them in iheii fiillilmBnt. If, therefore, fortune conlribulea no- 
Ihing 10 the auccesa of tby plans, in geDBisl, but if they all owe theii 
coDtpleliiHi lo Ihy sagacity ind pnideDce, she ■ muat aurely ba ei- 
cluded abo from Ihis last sct of thine, in which wisdom and foieaight 
ue ao h^pily blended. 

8. Jnaiuatilate iarbarat. " Fiercely barbarous." Tbe Gsnla, 
Geimana, Brilona, &c. Wilh renpect to Ihe Geimsns bjmI BiitOQS, 

9. Locit infiralat. " Spread over ui inliiiile variety oS regions." 
— -Omni cqpkin™ genert. " In all luDds of lesouicoa." 

10. QuM naiuram tt omMiimem, &c, " Which pOBeased iha 
Mloie and condition of being sble to be oveicome," i, e. which by 
dieh: rei; nsture, and Ibe coodilioD connected with tbem, wero capa- 
ble of bemg oveicome.-:— llie common leit hss vinci n, but ttM 
hnoi word iaomilted by Lambinns, Gnevius, Wolf, knd otliers. 

" To conquer one's feelings, boweTer.'* 
'To malte a modeiate noa of victory.",GoOgk 

Bi mtlTtON POK 

,0 IS. JJMiMrtimi fum maitB nlD&cn jtttnttm. " Not onljr M 
nise K hlleii roe." JactnJttn, IHenJlT, " lying priMtnte." — Ant- 
fbjittrt ijut ^riiliBaiN Hgmlatm. " To enl«g« bii fomtei dif^ 
■icj," i 0. to eIbtiM him to ■ (till lughei nnk thui be prenooaly 
•ajo;ed ; lo beigfatBn uid increase hie penookl contidention. 

13. SimUlmtm DcQ j\iiiix. Thii Kuads to moderneui ■■ tli* 
grouesl Oillerr. M>ddletim,boweter, mideitakes CiceiT>'> defeitca 
■gunit the cbup: cf iDunceritj. " It muet be teiDembered," n- 
■luks be, " Ihet the ontor wh deliTeiing ■ spoech of thuika, not 
odIj for hiDuelf, but in the lume «nd Kt the deaire of tbe ■emte, 
whcre hii tiibjeet netunll)' required iJI the embeHiahmenta of elo- 
qnence ; and thet ill hii coni|4inienl< ue groanded on ■ nippa«- 
lion, ihit Cieiai intended to icstora the lepublie, of wbich h« 
eolenaiaed rto imalt hcpce it tlua time, ■■ he aigiuSeain ■ latter to 
ODC i/ Caesar^a piincipil frienda. {Bf. ad Fm. 13, SS.) Thia, 
tbarerore, be mcommends, enfbrcM, and reqnirea rrem bim in hi> 
■[■iiiih with Ihe qiirit of tn old Ronun ; uid no leaaonalte lout 
wilt tfaink it stnnge, tbat ao free ta ■ddreas to a conqueror, in tbe 
keighl of all bia powei, should «Hit lo be tenipered with some few 
■tnkee of flattenr." ILi/e ef Cicero, ted. 8,— To). S, p. 999.) 

14. Belltcae tuat tauilei illae. "'HiOBe wutiko pnisea 'of 
lliine," — Lilerii alque hngvii. " In tbe lilentnre uid taDguagea." 

19. E}u*atnii rei. The fttiat» ittenduil upon wulika aehieT- 
ments. — Oittrepi elamore miliAifli, A.c " Seem te be iIiDwied 
unid the Bboats of the soldiere, and the blast of the tmn^ta." 

15. TrociiniJia praHCTYim, jmae ttt inimica cimtUia. Cocnpaie 
tbe languige d" Honce, Ep. I, 3, SS, " Ira _/urar irevtt u<." 

17. JVon mado in gttti» Te}nu, Six. " Nm onlj in tbe eaae «( 
mI occutreneeB, but ersn in thoee of a fietitioQS nacare." 

18. Cajaa mtnlem, &c. " Wheea ■entimenta uid &e1iilg« «• 
••■ pliinJir to be of «uch ■ natore, thit," &c, Tbe commra leil 
has cajiu mentem etrtiutgae tt m etnona*. For el m (" uid 
wbosa Tery look,") we hsTe idi^ed the deguil emeuditifRi a( 
Faermu, tn, in the ■ens* of talti, and «hieh hu tbe additioiial 
■dTBntige crf randeiing the conneiion of nl nan ■jipaRnl. — • 
Weiske mskee tbe ■sms chu^. 

19. Sa/eun. " Securad to ber." Compm Middelim^B le- 
marks, ODder note 19. 

90. Q»iiiu ttuint, &.e. " Wilb whal denMnKntionB of zeal 
■hall we bonaur ; wilh what gnteful leelings rhall we dasp lo our 
boeoDul I do ■ssnre tou, tbe Tcrr walU i^ Ibit ceRate-boiwo are 
daeimu, aa Ihey seem to me, tf retunung llnnks to jtoo, beeaisae 
Qm ■DlhMitr of tbia be^ ia ■oon ■boQl lo ba re-Mi^tiilwd in tbea»,GoOgk 


HbA -fcliMn' fecU u vniU u thair own." We IntTe giTcn tba Q 
ktter pait of thii pisng« ■ccording lo ihe common text, iltboii^ 
Muiatinii uid othen «uspect eome coiraptioii. Om intsipTatBtioD 
ia thu of Eiuaali, wbo Temuka : " Stnnu ett, guod ilU prittma 
a.vetoritf tenatia nox rurnu haMtatHTa nt tn Aoc eiina, tn gua 
tt Kpnd msjortt tt Wi-per tmatera pJnrimlHii otic(orit«ie wJu- 

Sl. Mt diuf fidi»t. The term Htti a the «une u ituM ta 
£ni*, uid jUiur ia sn >djectiTe fbimed fitMn fide*. Hence, iMt 
jUtui, " the god of honour," oi " good fsith," will be tha mme 
M the Zticniirriocof the Greeka; uid, if wefoQontheHitharitfof 
Vuio, (Ii. L. 4, 10,) identicBl vitli the SBbine Suteoi, ind Ro- 
iiiin Hercnles ; ao tWt me diiu ;Unu ia noching moie tban nu 
-iau fiiei (i. e. Herenlea) adjmel, or, in olbai worfs, nuAcrcub. 

I . Cati MtretUi. Caiua Hateellua ma tbe brothei of Maicoi Q 
Haic^na. — Hiia qi^ieara to be tbe propei pliice fM introduciDg 
Ciceio'8 aeconnt, in bis letter to Solpiciaa, (Bp. sd Fam. 4, 4,) of 
what look place on tbia occiwni : " Caeaar, aftei baTing een^plaiii- 
ed of Ibo moioaeiKaa of Mareelint, foi ao be called it, and praiaed, 
in Ibe atrongest terma, the eqnitf and pmdenee of toht condnct, 
preamtlj declaied, beyond all oui hi^i, tbat, whatever offence ba 
had recaved liom the man, be coald leliiae notbnig to Ibe inter- 
ceeooa of ihe aeiuCo. What the aenate did waa thia ; opon Iba 
mentioti of MuceUna by Piao, bia btotbei CaJos baving Ihiown 
himself at Caesar'a feet, thof all maa, and went Ibiwaid, in ■ anp- 
(dicating manner, towiida Caeaai, In iliort, the pioceeding of thii - 
dsj appeaied to me ao faii and becoming, that I could oot help 
&lieiring I nw che imige of the old republic leriTing u it weie. 
Wben all, therefore, «bo wele t^ed Ibrai opimons before me, bad 
letnined thanki to Caeau, excqit Tolotina, (fbi be dechtied Aat 
he woold not hara done it, tboogh be had been in Maiceltoa' ^aee,) 
I, aa eoon aa I waa ealled apon, ehanged zaj mind ; fol I bsd leeotr- 
ed wilb myaelf to obaare an etemal aileiiee, not &«)m ai^ feelingi 
of inddance, bat framiegTSl for theloaaof my-fonnv dignity ; 
Caea*r'«gi«stnessormiDd,lioweTer,ai>d the laudoble zeel of tbe 
MDate, got tbe bettei of laj leeduCion. I gaTe tbanki, tbeielbie, 
to Caeaai, jn a long epeeeb, and bave depitTed mraelf by it, I feu, 
on other occaKoni, of tbit honest qoiet which wss m; onlj comfoit 
in these nBbqipj timee," &c. 

9. Et eenimmuiraHfi, Ac. " And poaseesed of a degiee of 
frateinal sffeetion that is deserTing of all mention." Compaie, aa 
T^rdapietat, note 9, page 60. 

a Ftenm BbfiM. •• Oama gndnng orar rae." The coenNk,GoOgk 

386 0U.TION wox 

ftO tnH la» ^M, i«liich it &i inlciiai. Tlw gieatei manbMruf HStl. 
ffn lb« Utlai, but Iha bettei cliH the foniiei retding, 

4. KabHui iwiiipK fmiUiam. Ciceio iwei the teim famili» lo 
deootc iIm iudinduil (unilj of Ibe HuccDL Thej fbinied ■ bmnA 
c( tlia gtmt Clmdia, m CUadian boiua. 

5. Tuit wuunmit, &c. "To the gre&leat of joni eoandea 
leliciUtionH," L e. to tbe gmtut of tboM mui; victoriu, on wbich 
jroa hwe been iUiciteted bj othen. Some cnnmeiitaton conbond 
gTmiutatie beie witb Ihe nme lenn wben denoting ■ IhuilngiTiiig 
te tbe godi. It refen, on Ihs conlnuj, meielj to the printa feel- 
ings of Cuur, and tbe feUcit«tioni oflerad him by fiieud* fbi hia 
tmmena* (nd enuiiMit loccenes. Foi Cieero lo hiTa lud, tbat 
Ceeai noDld legtid tbii dsj u ■ ■oune ^rf' highet [Jeuim thui die 
gnateet of the menj ikaidugitingt whicb hid beea decieed in hi> 
nam*, «nrald h^re ibocked tbe religioui leeliiigi of hii ■udilori. 

6. Ett propri» Cattarit. " I* tiia ■ct of Csbhi ■lane." lUt- 
•nllj, " is pecaliu to Cieeu." 

7. Dua u gttUt fwinn, dcc. We hsTe ngacted, on the aag- 
gertioo of Emesti, the «ladi itugna* ilUu, wtiicb nfpeti in tbe 
commoD l«it betwean gttlMi uid fwJm. 

8. Hujtt taiUm To. " In the preaent a&ir, bowarei," L o in 
Ihe aet of Ihia dij, the pardoning of Mateellui. 

9. QtUM ^atm tanta ut. "And 10 greit indaad ia it." — 
T^oftat mnaimai^tjiu tmt. " To jour othu InjJiiea uid mon- 

10. OpcTK skJ monH. " By the [■boui oi tlie huid of nun." — 
Tttuttat. ' ' Length of deji." 

11. Jnttili* U laattt oimi. The teim ptttitia, baa lefareiKa 
Mntetbelulk ■nd meiila of Maicellui. Tt would hiTa beeo 
anjait in Caeau to h>Te kefit >acb ■ mui uij longu iwaj tiDm hii 
eouBttj. — Laatat atami, umI not demctUia, ii emplojad, in otdu 
tbkt Cmar maj not appeu lo liBTe been ipehng ■ foe, uid tba 
MmembfuKe of foimer eumiliea be in lliia <rsj lenewed. 

13. Ul qvanlum, &e. " That aa mach aa length of tima iliall 
taka from jour monumenta, eomucb wili jouigloij." 
Cpmtut i^isn bwk to tropatit mammentitftu. 

13. FicJoru MfDnini dvtlinm. "Ticton in onr ciTil mn." 
j^HiiiliTig to Sjtta, Huiua, Cinna, &c. 

H. Tertar M. We b>Te adopted Ika omendation of Emaati. 
The common teit bu tcrtor ut, bat thi* cu onlj be ■Howed it 
noR be IhioTm ont befbre jKrindt, CiMnalt uote B, p*ge 43. 

16. Noi ptrinde, &c. " M^j not be imderalood, oa ihe men 
.bmiiig of it to tbe noiB deg»a thtt I, lefiectiiy Bpon it, fed it 


M. KAKCXLLra. 887 


ta miiKl to b»," L«. Ie«t »[iat I ny nuy bdl &r ■hnrt orwh&l T feel. g^ 
Pcrinda a here equi»a]ent lo o^jtK. Compare TuriiUiimt, de Part. 
Lat. c. 176. ' 

16. Qwu tUn alcfla. efi. " Wbicb H Ud obluiied for you," 
L e., the ebeidnte pawBi wUcb it give biin OTer bie pi>UticiI oppo- 
.nenW, end tba means whieh it efrarded him of gnlifyiiig piivate 

17. OmMt m^ KcUitnma. " All of us the Tuujuished mlgfat 
beva lallea," i. a. been eut off bj the Bword. Cicem meara, thst 
tbia would haTB been ibe caee if Caeaai had followed the usual 
couise, and taken Mahu> oi Sylla for bie modela. 

13. Ci«nun/iiu tv,o,t pidicio. " By ihe decieion of your clem- 
ency," L e. by youi marciful datemiination. CUmeniit i» now em- 
, ployed becsnee ocddUtenBu precedea, and more beaidea Maicelliii 
■le meant. Consult note II. 

19. Atfus hoe C. Cattarit, &c. "And maik, Conacript Fa- 
tbon, bow widely this detennination on the pait of Csius Caeaar 
extendi in ite influeDce," i e. Mwcellu» alone ia not the onlj ooe 
beneGted bj thia generous conducl of Caesai. 

20..^adiUaarnM,&c. " Who were driven by eome wietched 
uid luDentabte &lali^ oi othei, on the.put of the lepubltc, to take 
up aims in that conteat," The conleat lefened to Lg the civil wsi, 
■nd the opposition made to Caesai, bybis poUtical antagonLSle, ia 
dslleiingly aacrihed hy tbe Bpeakei lo meie blind fatallty ; Implylng, 
of coune, that, had they eierciaed uiy judgment or reSeclion, thej 
would never have reslBtGd him. 

21. Nttcio quo. EnmvaiaDl to quo falo id facivn fitcrit nticio. 
In tntnskting, howevei, it ia to be regarded ae analogaus meielj Co 
oui: pbtases, " or olhei," " I know nol whal," dcc. — Nttdo qvit, 
ftnd iti otlier fonna, netcio guid, nticia qutn.jiitcia qua, &c., ate 
mpkiyed 10 denota something oiore or leas obecuie, oi ovei wbich 
we wiah to pase bj coneidering il as aucb. It is used alao, eapB' 
cisllj in Ibe case of peisona, lo indicate contempt. Tbe ellipeii ig 
worthnoung. Tiiaa,neKio qait fttil is pul foi, aliqiiii ftcil, ncide 
juit tit ; and agam nesdo qiuia vidi Is equivalBnt lo, aUguent n^ 
tietcio qtiem vidtrirM," &c. ConsuU SelicUeT, Pratetpt. Slyl. voL 
1, p. 339. 

SE. Etii aliqua eulpa, tic, " Althou^ we sra in some degree 
Hable to the impulation of humau Inlirmity," i. e. blindueas in not 
peiceiving the true couise «hich we oughl to have puisded. 

»3, A iccliTt certt ItbeTali lurnui. " Ha.e, by ihis »oi of 
C*eau'a, been evideolly acquitted of any wicked intentione," i, e. 
n fMBdiming MuceUos, Caeaar iat cJearij shown, that he ■cqoil»,GoOgk 

cntATioit rom 

03 mt odjr HmI ■ndttMiiiI, bol ill of « whs fbtWad (1 

Pnnpey, of M^arilfMliDgatowudB tnn*rif, ud rnitr Enisidtn na 
to bsT« bem actDaUd by ui bmnt tbougb miMaktn Ivre nf cauDtiy. 

U, £f iternm. "And once nwra." 'n» aartief retding ■ 
>t itn*, fbr Hhicb OncTiua fiM «ubatitutiid tl (terHTC, en. tba 
■Dthoiitir e( a MS. He ia fi^onad by Efneali snd othen. 

3A. Ktliqiuii antplirrimitt mnn. " ThoM olhf T Teiy Iluetiioas 
■M*." RefeiriT^ lo ibe elher i&di*iduili of the otd Fampeiui 
partj, wbo, liko himaelf, had been puduned bj Cacair, acd Tcitotnid 
U tbeir nnh and pritilega aa Mmtora. 
g^ I. JTon illt hoMlei, &e. "He ho braoght Jioimmnt» into tho 
aenate," i. e. tbe indiTiduaia, wbom be hu thus leetored, he ha> 
■cquitted of aH hoatila fecHnga towtKb bimaclf Had he tbongfal 
ibi.t ibBj cbeiiahed auch reeTiaga, he woutd nerer baTO re-adnutted 
tbeDi. Alt whicb ia cleutj abinni, if it uacd additiead eonfiimB 
tion, by tbe pardon of Marcethia. 

%. JuJicami, " He conchided.'' — JfTiorafiane, Ae. ** Fiom aii 
ignonDce ndm of Isa real intentiona, and finni ■ blee and ground- 
leaa feu." The flaUeiy bere begina te be verjr appnenl. Jnat aa 
tfCacaar^a real intentiona weiefor tbe good of biB couDtry, nd la 
H tbe fean of aD gooi patiiota loi the ■afetf td' tbe lepnbbc wei* 
Tinonaiy and grovndleai! 

S. Qaam eu^i^ate. " Tban from «nj feetergB of CTrfJdi^," i. o 
■n; desiiB of gnlifjii^ ■ iq>aciou* fpiiit, and aciung upoD tbe piop- 
■rty of «hen, 

*. Cntdtliuit. "Aapiiilof lOTengo." A fijoling of ctocI haired 

S. Semper de patt, &c. " I alwaja waa of opinion that ytnpo- 
aaliofpe^eo ooght to be liatened to." CAem h>d done eTefj 
tlnng, in the b^nniog of Uie eivil troatJea, te pnTent ■ niptnte 
betiveen Caeav and Pompej. He wea CBDTinced Ihat »n inteatine 
irai wonld beTitabt^r end in ttte eBtabliafament of dwcdate poWer. 
Hii letlcn. whicfa mafce iia acquainted with hia seciel tboughts, 
fnllj anbatantiale tbia : " Paet epiu cil i tx victoria jaum matla 
mata, tiia certe fyramii exniltt." (Ep. nd Ail. 7, 6.) So again : 
•' EjtiiilCTi ad paeem hyrlari Mnt dtriito, qvae, vel vifKila, utilior 
ttt jaam putiiiiTmnt tetlum." lAd. All. 7. 14.) Heforeaawall 
Ihal happenedt end it i> with Ihis vicw befare him, ihit he writee to 
Attieua and hie othei frienda. CBcsar. who ■flected gieat niodera- 
tion, mado some Teiy pliuiible propoanla of peice, and Ciceio waa 
deiinius that thcjr ahould lie iitlened to, iHit Pompej alMolatel; 
reruaed. Wben Uie latterhad heen cutDpelled toquit Romeoaa 
fogitive, Cicero, afUr some delaj, followed him liom attachnienl 
R, bnt Mill fbll of gltMunr Ibnbodinga, ud foiweroig,GoOgk 

H. XASCBLLn. 299 

MQght bot InneTTtable residt^, nnea on onc «.ie mi ill Oa light fU 
uid OD ths othcr aU Ihs power : " Valuil ajtud me ^tu pudnr 
mtui, fuam timor. Veritm mm dcefie PompcH talati, ft«fu» 
vtl qffieio, otI /ania ionoTnm, vel pidere mcttu, w in fabaliM 
Amplaaraiii, nc tgo, ^raient tl nitnt, ad petitm antt otulot pori- 
lam tum proftctaf." {Bp. odFam. 6,6.) 

6. Oraliimtm ctiam civium, &c. " Thit even the entreatieB of 
thoae citnene wbo esmestlj begged for peice, weie totallj rajaet- 
ed," :. e. by Pooipej. Conault preeeding uote. 

7. Ifeque tnim ego iiio, ic. " For I neTer took ui tctire pnt 
eithei in these nranj olhBr clTil coBimotions. 

8. Soea, " Ailied lo," i. e. in faToar of. — Compa™ the En« 
ghsh fom) of expression, " went haiid In huid with." 

9. Hominem miii Meculiu, Scc. " I foLowed ■ certain iirfiTidutl 
from ■ nnse of piiTste, not of pnhlic, dut;." Ilie Bllosion is to 
Pompey, nho ie irlencioned lo guuded terma, noC from mj few 
if Ibe conaeqnerwei in eise he had called hini by niime, bot 
tom ■ beconung senBe of propriely. Cicero meBni to conTej 
he tdea, lliBt he foUowed Pmnpey nther u ■ frieod (bu ■ 

10. Tantamjue apud mt, &c. " And bo powerfiil in inflaenes 
did the bithful reniembnince of b grBlefQl mijid eiercise orei me," 
I. e. so ttrongtj was I influenced by gratitude foi the Ttrious Untm» 
I hid recdved from him. 

11. Ulmiila, Sk, " That not onlj wrthout Bny desne of per- 
lonal idraitcement, bat OTen withoot my hope, Blthough follj 
•wure of mj •iCua.tion «nd well knowing what ws* Bboul to bappen, 
I rushed on «b it were to Tolunt»rj min." 

18. Quod qiadem meum eOTHilium. " And thoBe Tiews of mina 
indeed." — Integra re. " Before hoelilitiei broke oot." Literallj, 
" the aSui being u yet entire," i. e. no part haTing as yet been 
Kled Dpon, no bostile Btepa hHTing bs jet been taken. The prjnu- 
ttre meaning of intrger ii " unlouched," &om in snd lago, the oU 
folm of lango. 

13. Eadem lenn. "T entertained the sanie senCimenls." — 
Eliam cum eajntii periculit. Wben Cato the joanger, who {nd 
been left at DjrHCchium, hj Pornpej, lo guird the arma and treas> 
nios depouted chere, had, sfter the ba.tl1e of Fliaraalia, paesed orer 
intiT Corc jn, where the fleet wbb HLBtinned, he theio oflered Cicera 
the comniand of ihe force which he had broughC with Iiim, consiBt- 
mg of Sneen cobons. Ciceio, hoveTer, declined il ; which bo 
jmsperated ibe jounger Pompej, that he waa «bout to Uj violent 
htai» tnXK) da crator, wfaau C»lo mterinad lOd MTcd bia Gfc, 

3S0 ouTiOH ro* 


Q^ (Pba. Vit. Ctt. Min. c. fi6.) It m U IhM cu<Kto>tanea tmt pnib- 
a% th>t Cicero illtidn in tba text. 

14. £zfua. " And benca." — Tammjuitut Ttrvvi csuMiaior. 
" So tmiui a judgs of punng eienlB," L b. lO imlaii mi biuaod 
io tha eonclouODi which ba dnm fnxu eTenla.— Onerim Gnt 
gne Enftimalor, tiam MSS., in placa oraMtinu^,theieadingaf 
ba commOD text. It i> adopCed b; Emeati and otben. 

16. Paeu autura. "Tbe idTisen of peaea." — Suiim. 
" Fnim Iha toj Gnt," i. e. &om tbe Teijr commencemrat of bot- 
lilidea ; in the Teij begimiiiig of the cinl wai. 

16. Cailerit fueril iratior. "■ But diaplafed incieaaed lesent. 
ment tomida the leal." Tbe object o! tbe wbola a^ument is 
10 duw, tbat Caesai's wishes weie ■Iwajs ia rarouc of peace, and 
ihaC, in conaequeiice of Ihia, hs waa alwajs well dispoaad lowards 
tbose of tba oppoaits put; who endesTOured tobnngabouta rocon- 
ciliatioti, while he diipUjed encieaaed resentment sgsiiut those wbn 
were bent on cOQtinuing hoslilitiei. Hiis, of couiae, is Ibe meie 
langnage of flattei;. 

17. YicMr. " WbenTictoiions,"i. B. aaCaaaainowia. — Fadi 
aueUmi. Muding to himselT, smong othen, and to tlie kind tiest 
menl be bsd leceiTed btm Csessi. 

18. St taalaitMt, iK. " Tlut be would nthei oot baTS con- 
tended at all, thaD hsTe come off Tictohons," L e. tbst gisat as Ihe 
gloijr of the victorr hadbeen, he would nlhei bare bad do ciril 
coateei at ell, aa lus feelings had alwaja been in Ibtdiii of poace. it 
is needless lo couiment on the inainceri^ of Ckeio in msking thia 
«sseition of Caesai. 

19. Atqut hujuM pudan Tti, itc. " And OD Itiia paiticnlat pomc 
lam endencs m faiDui of Msicua Maicellas." The point reCHiTod 
to i> the wish fbt peace duiing tbe civil contest, which Ciceia 
aaaeile Mvcellus felt in common witii bimaelf. 

20. Ifotlri tmin tetuut, &c. " Tot ouc senCiiienta, as tkej 
alnayi had in ths aeason of peace, lo tbeii slso coincided duiing 
tlie wai." i. e. ooi sentunenta, namelj mme and tbose of Maicellaa 
nere alwsjs in anison dnring bolh the civil coutest and tha times 
*^b komedistelj pteceded iL 

31. Ctrlarum &»iu>niiit. " Of ceitain iDdjriduDlg unong ua." 
Cn:(»i» eir is genenllj uaed lo denote "a auie," ot "tiustj pet^ 
B(m " Heie, howeTer, cerlui hai the force of f tuiam. Com- 
paie note 9. page 31.— The indiTiduiU slluded to ara thougfat, bj 
Manatias, lo tiSTe becn, m paitieulai, L. Lentolus and L. Domitina 
Abenobaibua. Con^iaie Ep. ad Fam, 6, SI. 
33. Victmmt feraeUata*. "The cruel ucessea of TictODr,GoOgk 

M. MAXOBLLtrg. ■ 391 

itnlf," L e. IbB ferocioiii qiint thit wodIq, id tH piobBbiUtjr, chu-- g^ 
■cterize thoputy af Pompey,ir BUCceBsviere to crown tbeir effoiti. 
Hid Pompe; pcOTed viclorioiu, the pnMciiptioiu of Muiiu and 
StIU would iDeiilablf bave been leoewed. Compan tbe lai^tga 
of Cicero's leUet to MBicellu^ {Ep. ai Fam. 4, 9) : "Antu nm 
videhtu mccum nmid, qnam iUa cnuUiU attt /utHra mctoria 1" 

23. TtKi libeTalilaM. " Youi generouty," i. e. joai geneion» 
conduct tonudi joui Ibiiner ftwi. — lUa. AUudii^ to tbe iiMaleQt 
conduct uid the mepaces of Fompcj'B fUlowera. 

24. Nm enin jam eatuae, &c. " Fai tbe two cbubsb ue oo 
longer to be compued, but Ibe coaBequeaceB of vicloiy oo eithei 
Bide." Cicero meuu to tt,j, thBt he Trill be ulent oow iMfieetiDg 
tbe menta of tbe two CMua*, Damel; Ibat of Caesai aiid that of 
Pompcj. The time foi diKUHiDg thia point haa pawed bwbj . He 
will merely inatitute a eompatiaOD between ihe veiy diQeieDt mode* 
in which either paitj would bave made uae of victorf. Ba iheu 
pioceeda lo ahow, bow Caeau bu actod aiiice bia mcceea, «ad ibtn 
biiefl; ■ketcbei vrbst would btve beea tbe lesulta of victoiy od ihe 
(ide of Pompej. 

36. Martit nt ptratUl. "Tbe violenoeof wunDotedovnL"— 
Ira ncteruK. " Thia tligrj feelioga genenllj «"'^«"t upou vic- 
uiif." Ciceto mewu, Ihat wboever fell ia that conflict, fell witli 
Bmia in dieii buids. No one wu put to death, aflei tbe victtt^, bj 
u^ muidala oi prosciiption. 

SS. Ex tadtm adt. " Fiom tbat nme timj," L • tbe txtaj of 

S7. Alteriat xero pariit. " A> legudt tbe c^ipoeite pai^, bow- 
evei." The genitire is beie uaed in imitttion of tbe Gieek idinn. 
The Gieek lule it ai toUowi : " To woide of tU kindt otbar woidi 
BTO tdded in the genitiTe, which abow tbe leqwct in which the 
«ente of thnse woidt muet be talum, iD which caae Ihe genitive 
propeilj aigDifiea ■■aiegudi,' oi ■ wilhiegaid to.'"' (JfnUAut 
G. G. Tol. 2,p. 655, KenrieVt tramtLi 

1. ^tmii traaindaM, &c. "That viclorf woold bavebeeDec- Q^ 
companied bj loo mach of uigiy feeling," L e. tbtt thej would 
baTe made in tagrj and cnel dm of victraj. 

3. AnHaiit. " Tboae wbo weie aetua% m anm." RelBliii^ 
lo the fbUvwen of Ctem. Compaie Uaiuitiot : " ArmMtit, h. a. 

3. OHiutt. " Thoae who took no put io tiie conflict," L e. wbo 
wiabed to lemain DeutnL Comptie tbe luiguage of Cicero'i lattei 
to Vairo, (,Ep. ad Fom. 9, 8) ; " Cmdeliler otiotit laituiiailin 
tTOtfiu iitettua imitz toliuttat tl «m matio." And tgain, Ep.,GoOgk 


02 ai Au. 11,0: ** OtMUM, jia m AalM flunnnMl JkKfnm n 

4. Qttii jnifue ttnMittel, Ae. '• Wlst ■eDbhiiBnta raeh W 
aiUsctiiiMd, ba( wbrari ba hid bseii dniing Ibc contnt," i. e. nhetfaa 
«ith ths unij, ind ttking u ■clne p«n igiiuat the foe, or rtmun- 
idg ioaetive uid nentnl U bome. 

B. Btiamti ]»<iut, &e. " Eren tixnigh tbej may heve Mraghl 
■ beSTj ■tonflment ftom the Romui people, on account OC MMna 
oBeoce, by tbeii bering ruHd lo gte>t tad *o monnirii] ■ ciTil ym," 
L e. VTeQ Ibougl) iIhj mij hiTe raiied thiji destmctiTe ind moam* 
fol ww to pniiieb ifae Romm ptapla fbi KMne iggnTeted oflence, — • 
We b*Te glTen expeliverint, witb Eneiti, !□ pUce o! expetirerKnt, 
Aa letding of Ihe cominon teiL llie rolatire qui, it will be pei>> 
eeiied, tekei tbe eobjunctiTe excitaverinl, becKuee equiTtlent ben 
to " eince tbej," or " inaemnch u tiiej." 

II. DnHum tfem icbitit, &e. " To have refened ooi ereij liope 
of ufety to Ihe clemeDcj >nd wisdom of Ibe eonqnerai," i. s. lo 
have nude lU om' nfet; depend upon, &e. 

7. Qatre gsude, tic. " RejoicH then in thie wi eulted ■ piin- 
legfl," L e. Iba priTilege of heTing tbe nfetj of Ibe whote Romu 
pBOple depeoduit OD thj clemencj and Tiiiidam 

B. Fortwnt. "Yourgood fortune." — Natvra el norilmt Ivit. 
*' Yooi kiod diapontion uid noblecIurujteT." — Ez quo juiJtm, &ie. 
" Fiom b11 wfaicb > iriH min deiiree hii highe«l lecOmpeiiH uid . 

S. Cttilera. " The other u:tioDiof jooilife." — YirtKli. "Vpon 
wot tJonr." — Congratalahere. "You Tiill hsve occMion to ftli- 
eitate joonelf." Some nad gratviahtre, whicb ie much inferior. 

10. Dt vuxhti» tvit beneficiit, *' Of die boundleae faioun jon 
h>Te beetOTred npon na." 

11. Qitat rum maio, &e. " Virtnei nhiob, I ynU renture to 
tffiim, conetitiita not onlj our higbeat, tmt in bct oni onlj triM 
■Qorce of gntifiwtion," Litenllj, " which, I wiil Tenlnre to 1^1 
«n Dot ontj ihe greiteet, Iml in flict eren the ontj goodi." 

13. /n laiit ven. "In well-merited ap^euaa.'' — AnoU. 
" BeatoTTod," Jbr « !»»ting po^»<wiion ; cmintimioW, " lenl," onlj fiw 

13. Lapiu. "Wbo baTe been led aEtnj." lilenllj, "wbo 
h>TB elipiied." — Aat prmilale aUgva. " Oi hj »nj coiript niotiTB." 

14. Sed opiitiant, tLC, " But l^ an idei of dal;, fooliih poifaapt, 
eertwnlj not criminsl, snd bj whit ippeiied to be the public good." 
Moie liteiallj, " b; i eertain ^peannoe of public benefit. OoiDpen 
tta luvtat* of Oieaio'1 lettw lo Torqaanu, (_Ep, «i Ftm. 8, 1.,GoOgk 

■Qk«UMi «iKi ^lewipipMaim, tt pnm, tl itUttm Ttiyaibeae gjj 
tmlraejue digmMi ruUcnmr lejuL" 

Ift. Aim (iinB luo, &c. "Foi it is do finlt of fluDe." BecKus 
IIm; hsTe nnataken tl^ chancler. . The rnlt a tbeira tbr not kiKnr- 
ti^ thee betlei. — Stnterunt. " Hne felt," i. «. ■Itei btviDg bMH 
coDqneied bj thee. 

18. JVWne etro temo, &*, " Bat naw 1 coma lo tl«t moel btsTj 
complaJDt ud boind mupicioil of thine." CKseir had compUiDed 
befbn tbe (en*te sf the hoetile feeHnge and monMeneaa (aceriita*) 
oTMirceltDe, ind had eipiened !ub ■uipicioru that tha IbEIM >till 
huboarod e*il deaigns agunaC hia pereonal safetr. 

17. Qa^ nan tibiijmj '6lc. ^* A Buapieion, tho lealiziTig of wbicb 
ou^t Co be guarded againat not moie bj your onn ■eir," Slb. Oeta- 
paie Hanauoa : " Prandenia etl, ne vera lii : ^emdetiia muem 

18. Ntnquam ttmen verbie exlenuabo. Cicere*a meanuig ii 
tbia : AlthoD^ I tiuat that 700T euapicion ii a gioundtese ime, etiU I 
will nol seek to " iesesn" it b; tnj tbing tbat I can sa^. For wen 
I Co leseeD it, I wonld al ths sams time be tbnming y<ya mwe off 
rotn goatd, nbnreaa we all wiab jon to be eaielnl abimt toui own 
uSttj, ame oun is deeetj connected, iiid ia bcl idoDtified, with it 

19. Ut li in akerulro peeeandun lit. " So thst if I muat en id 
one 01 the otber eitrenie," i. e. of too nnich or (00 litlle piecsnlion. 
— Paran prudent. "Not infficiently pnident." Or ainiplT " im- 

30. Sed fninun ett ute, &e. " Bot nbo is that one eo W M 
■S jnd^ment 1" i. e. itho is the in&lnated nun wfaom you saqiecl 
«f haitKmniig tbla deaign againat jon. — Hm atadent wiU m»A tbs 
foice of i*lc. Compaie dDIs 4, page 1. 

31. Dt lainuJ "U he i»te of jonr ownl" i, e. ooe of jouT OWD 
liieDda. — Qitt magit mil luit " Wbo ara moie 70UI owd V 

I. Qaiuiiateeimfiiemnl. "Wbo weie with 700 in tbo mi.'' ^ 
Refening to hii followsn generallj. 

H. TanliufitrBr. " Sogrsatmadnesa." — Omnia eitmma "Emj 
Ibiag thst wu moot deginble," i. e. Ihe liill eomjJelion of hia 

8. CaeenAun eit. " Ton mnst take ciie, I snppoae." — Qm f 
"Who aie diejl" i. e. wheie are thej now to be foandT 

A. Superiml. We hsTa Bdoplfld ben the coBJeetora of Lamhl- 
fma, whidt issppiondorbjEroeiti. The eommon texl h» njw 

S. TaiUae Uteirae, A*. " LuAing pbee» so daep, and rS M Ssse 
■o UUsn in Anr nalitn."— AiipaiiMi " Ynnr eJien Tniperti afc* 


9M OK&TtON roE 


gg S. Tmm V'*<''W i wk w, ^. " So igMiu 
MMtti, aa toUl ■ «ttaogec to the lUte of puUic i 

7. Ex mmt Ium vtfa. " On jooi indiTidti*! < 
■Uj, "OD tbe life of tbee ■lone." Tbe genitiTa vm* ia pat m 
■iqioation with tlu genitiTe implied in thc pueeueii i u tu», — Onaaum. 
Stip|dj niat, 

t. Vt ifbia. " A< I oo^t lo do," i. e. u I un in do^ boimd, 
UKindering the Buajt javaun jon hare hitherto beMowed npon ma 

9. CatuM iMMiat iaatuiMi», tuB. " I diead meielj tha coimtian 
McidonU of life, uid the nncertaiii iacnei of beelth," dce. 

10. Doiaiqu» «m TafnUicu, dtc. Tbe lepublic, nnuAi Cicsm, 
oa^t to be imraortel ; but it depende BDtirelj on joni eiiBtence . 
Toa, tbsraroTe, ought to be u immoit&l ■■ the lepublic ought to be. 
Bnt joa ue ■ moitel, uid I mouni, therefbie, a> w^ on •ccoiutf 
of ita de«tiiuee u tbe ahoilneeii uid limituiaa of jonr atra cueei. — 
Hie UDgoige of aitutj ceu haidlj go fitther. 

11. Scdirit iiuidwntm^ cotuenno. "The cODMpaa^ taraa 
of guilt «nd tieecbeij." 

13. JEKttmJa. " An to be ni*ed lo Ibeii foniieT «Ute." As 
■droit exhraUtion unto Cieeu to reetoie Ibe foimer et^ of IbiiigB, 
■nd ooe, too> eo mmged u lo render it impoesibU ioi hkn to teke 
(fence. — Jaccrt. "Lie piMtrate." — BtiU iptiui impcttt, &c. 
" Stioek down (nd liid low, u wu of oeceuitj to be eipectad, 
bj tbc Teij ehock of the wu." 

18. CmMtitutnda judida. "Joetice l> to .be i&««tabli>bed." 
Litenl^, " tiiek," i, e. the diepenaing of jnilice maet be placed 
l^NHi ■ fUie beiii u tbnneriy. — Smiea.tidajidtt. " Public ciedil 
ii to be re-inotatad." Litsnllj, " ia to ba recalled,*' L a. lo tha 
poiition it fbimeitj oceupied in the opioioni of ell. 
. 14. Cetttp n mnito liiiditict. " LicentioDnieei muet ba n- 
pneeed," i. e. the hcenee ■ttendua npoa ■ etue of wsi&ie. 

IS. JVapofaiuIa toMct. " FopuUtion be incieeeed." Litenllj, 
" o&pring be pn^wgKled," L e. in incieue of popuktioD encooi- 
■ged, to repur tbi loeeee oeceeioned bj the euaage of the cM wui. 
Campuii Dio Cuaini, (48, 3S,) ImiH n itirh tUyatefialt, tii t* 

TcJ. in\a\«rat tX^, »X«ni JU( AXa W Siw». So 

•lao AugUBtus, ■t the cloaa of the ciTfl conteat batween bimaetf u>d 
Antonj, cwued the bmom LexJvlia, it nuriUitdu erdaaiiu, to 
be anocted. CoDnill Legal Indei. 

18. Omniit jute aiafia, &^. "All lluee tbinga, i^h hive 
&Uan ■wlj end ue now grang fut lo luin, aia to ba bDund Aimlj 
io Iheii fbnnei placee bj rigoious Uwi." A inet^ibDr taban &om 
llia con^oimit puUof ■ thiiqbecmniDgdieaDited^Htd tha triiol* 



fcHisg to nimt. Soeh, kccordiag to Iha oniox, hu bMn tbo infla- QQ 
tott of cnil war (m the uutitudana of Koiub, *a evil wliicti Coeur 
U ontieated to imun^ bj .TigiHDiv ■od tKlutaij oidinEncea. 

17. Non fuil reciuuHbim jutii. " It wu DOt to be denied but 
Ihel." — Ardert, " Eicitemeut." — QuattaU rttpaUica. " Tho 
■battered Tepnblic." — Praaiiia litliUiiatit tuat. "'TiatappoiU 
of iti eubilit;," L a. iti Mb]t enpporte. 

18. Armalut. " When in sinu."— Ti^aMe. " If enejred in 
Iherobeof peece," i. e. if actilig in ■ ciril ciptci^ end if oo intet- 
tine wer hed been nging. Cimipm note 16, pege 30. 

19. Quibat prstttr tt, &c. "Foi uo one cen heil them nve 
yOD," i. e. the powei, whieh yan nOw enjoy in the etUe, m*Le> yon 
the &tte*t person to reetore peace iiid bi|^Hnete to jour canntijt 

30. JilafiK iUoia tuam, la. " And heHce it wte with i fedlng 
of coDceni I hend thtt Teiy remeiktrble tnd philotofte ■tyini; of 
yoiira, ' I h»e lired long enougfa for tbe pniposee either of nitnie 
t» of ^oiy.' " The remttk hue tlluded to formBd ptit a[ Cietar' 
obeemtiont in the lentte, whea the mSai of Mticellui wti brau^ 
befbie tbem. Afler hinnf compluned of Ihe nndiiiuiuthed hoatil- 
'Wf ot thit indiridatl towudt him, and iitsted bit own ■nqnciont of 
■ecret tretcheiy fiom MticeUat in ctae he weie perdoned, he went 
Mi lo remtik, thtt, ifter iU, tbit Uit wit ■ imtter of little rooment 
to hioiaelf, since hs hed thetdjr liTed long Numgfa tnd enjoyed 
■nfficient of gloiy. When he mede this remaik he wtt in tbe lilth 
yetr of bit tge. 

1. P»tria,ttrtt param. " Not long enoQgh cettiiDly foi jout A'} 
comitiy." Hit comitij 11111 wuite ^ preeence of Cteiti to gire 
her titnquilli^ and t eettted Oider of thbigi. 

S. Qiutrt OBdiU, dcc " Diicud then Ihtt pietended witdom 
■hown by eaiiie pbilow^en in conteiniiing de*th ; do not wiib to 
be wite tt oor ri^k," L e. letre to ite tuthoie thit itoical iadifier- 
•Dce Ti4iich noald ineolctte Ihe contempt of deeth ; rach pretMided 
wiedom wonld be &ai]gfat with the inoit minom canseqQenGei to 
onnelret, triioM liTet depend on jonit. — Iilam iieie deDolet con- 
teinpt,ind,inteeoidu>ee witb thit tdee, we htTe rendered it by the 

8. Doetartm lumimaa, IJtenlly, "ot Ihe lemed," Doeli 
tMMMU* i* here, howerei, only t perifJuitit fbi jMUlonipM, ind tfae 
■laic eeot iie peiticDltrly metnt. The followere of thia ichool 
teugfat tfatt U« tnd dettfa tie tmong tfaote tfaingt wfaicfa «e ia 
tbeir netm« indifierent. {EnfidSt FhiUiKgiiy, toI. 1, p. SfiO, 

i.' Nmii artbro Jieert, Ax. SnBtoniDi infoimi ni, tiitt CwMr,GoOgk 



y had, m fitet, bd Mma of hii fiwndi ta «wWmii dia opiniaa, Ibil 
be did iiM wiA to Iitb urj long«i, ud did not itgn^ dks fecUo 
hedtb undeT 'lAich ho wu tbni kboDtii^ i " Sm*fiaoitti Caamr 
pt^nuiam numm rtUguit, MfiM mlituic n Jin hi i i nMn, liefiu 
(wojii fHod vabtHiItM mnwi pPMpcrm «tfrMlir." (Aut. Vf(. 
Al. c. M.) 

6. Tiit. •■ For TOoiMlf," L •. fbTill thM jon cinMliT*fin ; 
£» in that jow oira r<uliiigi tidd 700 wu wortli enjOTiiig la UIb. 

S. CV<iD. " I btfiere it," i. e. I hare no doobt thU mich ia the 
■tate of jooi pment Iselingi, tnd that jon fteqaeDtlj indn^ in 
mch lemuki la tbea«. 

7. SitHi leli vivrrtt. " If yon ware Unng fcr jasneir akme," 
l a. fiir jroonelf alone iiid not fcr roar coontrj alM. 

8. Ntate. " But now." EijiuTalmt 10 td. Campan jrro 
Arek. c. II : " Ifuitc intidtl ftuudmi n •pcno quofiu Rrhu," 

9. Ret IMU getlae tiynpltzat tint, "Toar actiaiu biTe em- 
biaced," t e. hBve been ind contimieto be oloaelj kieotified irich. 
Faeniua lejeale gatae, et which emendaoon Emeati iffnorea, on 
the gnmnd that rci btae gtttae oo^t lo be at leaat ret *tt gtttae. 
He retain*. howerer, fhe common icaijiiig rti tuae gettet, becanBa 
the aame Ibnn occun agaia in th* Bth ehaptei. 

10. Tim/um itfo*a, dcc. "You are ao &r froDi tbe cofnpletiaB 
of jrour gieateat woika, that jou haTe nat jet lojd ^ reij foonde- 
(ian* which jon thinli jou haie." Quae eegilai aaj alao be len- 
dered moie fieelf , "aa j«a tbink yaa ban." Saagsis ibe pbn- 

■eologT lanAiiit abtt vt, amj be aiea tianaUted, " yoa nst 

oidj haTe not completsd, ifcc. but hsTe not eren bud," dcc Codi- 
paie, aa regaida ttia fbim of eip r ee ji en, ibe lemaika of Sebrilei, 
Pmecept. Stfl. jol. 1, p. 6fi. 

11. Hie ta fliadiim (naa ntac, Ao. " WiQ jon bsie boandjom 
exietence oot bj tbe eafeqr of tba atato, but bj tba modeiatioD o( 
janr mm feeUnga." Compan the axplanation nf Bodaeaa : 
" Palanu It proptere* eatit rauw, quod oaf uo «idmo tt ti^ra 

13. Ittud. " Tbat poition of eiietence whii^ jrou have thna fai 
enjoyed." Witb iilui we maj aupptj nlai. LiteiaUj, * that of 
liie whieh ia joun." 

18. Panmru igitoT, Stt. " Will we lbeTi,-jon will aak, leaT* 
bebindua, at tbe^eeent moment, nogreat degieeof ^«jl" i. a. 
T^ I, if mj eiiatenea now tenniiute, leave bebind me na gnal 
dagne of &me foi poeteritj. 

14. .^liit, ipunint midfta, tu. "Eneo^teothMiibomMTai,GoOgk 


u Huj ' aaj ba ; fbr yoDnelf ilona not «11011^" L •. tbe Qy 
gloij joa hkTa Ihui (u aeqaind mij^t niffica for uij otliei but 
CHBar. His deMiiiias, intsnroTen u the^ en «ilh tlwBe of hii 
eoiuilij. dsHiend 1, itiga ihtra. 

16. Qaiifuid emm itt, dcc " Foi whiterer theia ia, huw 
eiteiuiTe eoerer it nuj be, Ihi* certeinlj ie but unell, tihen thera 
ie tnj diing (tiU mois exlauiTe then itself," L e. jour gknj, Ct^ 
Mi, i> now luidoabtedlir gieit, bnt MiU it Knk* inKi coai|ientiT* 
iaBJgni&cuics wben oonipind with th>t highei gkij to nhich jou 

" Of thjr immortal ubiere- 

17. Yiie, fiu*», &c. " BewuB leit jaoi diTioe TiitDBi be 
Utelj to eajoj mon of BdmintiDn theo of glorj," likdj lo 
excite the edminbm of Mben, ntber thui edd to joni own glnj. 

18. SiqiiiiUai gleria (d, &c. " Sioce gloij ii ihe biilliint aod 
wido-cpieid niDown adeiiig bmn inu^ uid in^ioituit lerncM, 
ailbei to oiie'a &iBnd*, 01 coDiilij, or tha whoje bunun nce." — 
Soma MSS. hsTe vel in ne* emM, bnt tbia would be [Jeoiiulic M 
in palriam ibUowi. 

19. Haie igilur ti^ rtiiqua part ttt. " Tlat chanctei, theie- 
fore, jet reouiDi fbr jon to auiUin." A metsphor bonowed &0D1 
tbi luguage oT Ihe atige. Compue Enwati, Cim. Cie. 1 " Pert 
in icen» ett ftma» qttgat jui* metfit «f nufoni." Hence Ihe 
expmnoiu in tho Latin writen : " Qctaru friaanim yariiuni," 
" uloru wnMderiMi ftrtimu," &e., L e. fiiat-nte acton, eecond- 

W. IMe mt*t «cliu. " Hiia act lenuiiv to be peifomed," L o, 
Ihie Bct in tba dnm^ of jooi gloty. 

31. Jn hae elaiarandimi ttt, A£. " Foi the attuniaent of Ihia 
«id moat jou eiert jom baa( endeaTmm, Ibat joa maj pUce ool 
iqTDldic on a fiim biaia, and maj be unimg the £i*t to eajoj it, in 
ita ■eltled atata, amid peifect tanqiliJUlj and reliiemeiil." In aomo 
good H 36< tbe woid coaipojtla doee not appear, aiid bence Fiamus, 
Lambiliua, and Gnenai hBT« ejpungod it fnHn the teiL It ia 
Mtaioad, bowarei. bj - Eineati, wbo thinka ton^OHia too good a 
tann to bava owed ita ongin lo a meie ^oea. 

33. Oam aiutaM (raHfailUrila et alia. Of which Caeaai bul 
Ibua fn eajojed ao littla. Con^iaie Manutio* : " Nam adkvc tron- 
fmlHtale Camr it otio eanirrMi, perjnlmt heiUi, Pharialica, Aiez- 
■mlniw, Afrieaaa eeEC/iu." 

S3. Bt RoAnwn ipiam «xplnwru, &a. " And ahoU haTe *a'Ja> 
iad NaUac hnetf with a anfficient taim of eiialeiMa," L e. when,GoOgk 

298 osATioiT roK 

ffj Nitnn IwmU' bBtted witb liTing; ittwDyoa ihtll IwniaMlMd a 
goodoU igs. 

t4. (t»ii ttt min, &a. " For, tfler ill, wh*l i> Au nniB Ining 
loDg, m whieh tiieie is ■Iwaja •omething thU okiwa tbe ■cene, ud, 
wbeo thii has uiiTed, ell put pleunra geee fof mChiDg, beoatiBe 
tikere ie none to be thereafteil" Ciceio'i iTgnnuat i> tbu. What 
u 1 img UTe, conaidered merehr tt lochl It i> onlj ■ wpH^ of 
time which erentaiD; i* lo hare en end, iDd, wlien thii iDd utnes, 
■U ^t went befora pauei fof ■ ment bluk, beeiuee ■ meie Uuk 
comee after. How mach botter (■ it to leid ■ gtorkne UGs, wjkich 
knowi no limitv, bat wiU be psrpetuitsd unid Ibe pniiea of po>- 
teritj. Sa; not then, Cieni, tiiMl joa bne now tired fat ■ Buffi' 
cient period, bot nthel tain yani Tiew lo the cwe«r of giny which 
(wdte yoa. 'Wben TOn hftTe compfeted Ihie, then ivr thet joa 
hera lired long eDOugii, fbc than 7001 bmB will be immoMaL 

Sfi. QiMnftMm i»U, dcc. Cicero heie conecta himeel^ ia oider 
thit Oaew mej not take afiencB ■> what piecedee. 

S6, Hit «Rgvtttu, Ac. " With theee nuiow limiti irtiichiutnra 
hu preici9>ed anto ni fbr Ihe mera poipoeei of exiitaiee," L e. 
with ibe nuTow limitt of life which lutmre hu [«eeenbed. 
gg 1 . Ntc vero luue tua nto, dco. " Nor, in tnth, cen thie be le- 
guded u joor life which ii boanded bj the bodj u>d tha eoul," L a. 
b; At» ataon Ot tlte eool with the bodj. — Some MSS. hiTe Heaida 
nt in pUce of dneeiidc Mt, eiid it ii adopted ako bj I^mbina^, Wtrif, 
SchStz, ■nd othen. 

5. Tiila etl tiw. " Ii jonr tiae eiwlence." — SmvJavm mtmt- 
«m. " OT ill coming egee." — AUl. " Shell cbeiiiL" — 7WitnB>. 
" Shill gaud n ita own," i. b. ■hiU preeeiTe. Eqniralmt to am- 
tervaiit or tuilintbit. 

8. Huie lu interviat, dcc. " It ie fbc thia eiiilence that it be- 
booree yoa now to labonr, fbi thia to ahow fattfa jonr gioij to tbe 
woitd : ui eiiitenee, which hee long aince paeaeewd loinj dniigB 
Bt which to wondei, which now looka Ibi IhoaB tlut it maj jatitK," 
i. e. an eiiitence which alreadj poeeeeaee nunj clnnM to our woQ' 
deT, which Dow lookB fbr cleime to oar ^ipluiBB. 

4. Lnpena, pmiiiciat. " Youi eommuida, joor pnrineee," i. e. 
tbe Tinetj of important militBlj commande which jon t«Te fiUed, 
Ute nmnecoui coanlrieB which b&Te been the theiaee of thoee oom- 

, S. Shemim, Refemng to Caeiu'i Tictoriei orer tbe GuJa iDd 
Germani. — Oceanun. Alluding to hia inTanan of Britain. — Nilaat. 
His opetatloni in Egypt. 

6. Momimenta iiiiniiiunf. "l^e cMmtleaa monmneiilB dMl 


pMpetails thoae -nctanei.' We hsTe ■dopted rmtunera, tbe lead- gg 
ing of seTeisl good M3S, Bod eulj editions, id jdace of ths eammon 
lectjoc, mmHmenta, tmmtra, The term munero, u Tefenring to 
men gladialorial ahows, Bnd public exhibitioas, seemi out of plsce 
here, the more flapeciallj u Iriamphoa fbllows- 

7. SUbtiila (uu coiutlui, &c. " ShaH be plsced OD ■ nue basis 
bj jDui counsels uid kws." 

8. JK^Rii dUtentio. " A great diffeisDce of <^|Hinoa." 

9. AUifortiute aliquii rtjaireta. " While othen, perbaps, wiH 
misa die pieMoce of ■omething' etse." LiteraDr, "wO ae^ Ibt," 
i, e. will >eek hat find nol. — This " something" is eiplsined imme- 
distel; after. It is the eitingnishing of the flunes oT civil wsi, bj 
giTiiig pesce uid safety to hia eauntrr ; or, in othei notda, Ihe te- 
moTing of ereij tiace of roimei diBsension, and tiie iDtroduetioa of 
good aidei and pnblic prospeii^. In oidei to Isiag ibout Iheea i 
deainible lesnlts, tbe piessnce of Cieni is neoessaiy, snd he has, 
thetcfbie, not jet lired long enough. If hs st4^ dow, thete ii a 
chance lest poeteii^ maj asilgn bis loccesses to Ihs meis operatioii 

af the deciees of detiiny. He must do someUiing sdll, which Bhill 
tendei his wisdom and souDd policj cotis[Hci]ODS to aftei-ages. 

10. SahUi palriae. " Bj the safetj of jooi coantij," i, e. l^ 
placing on a Gim baiis the safetj and h^j^uneu <^ Ihe Itonun atate. 

11. Vt Hltid, &c. " Tbat the foimei maj appeai to bsre ba«n 
tbe woik of fata, Ihe Istter of wisdom." Bhid lefen to Caesar^s 
pterknu ■cbienne&ta, hoe to what CSceto and poEtetitf eipect 
from him, in secuiing the lepose of hia countij. 

^S. Servi ifiittr, &c. " Have legud iheo fbi (he opiniona of 
(hoae jadges, who, manj ages after this, will decide conceming thes, 
and pedi^is, indeed, moie impaittat^ tbaa we oiiiselTes." Servir* 
is heie equiTalent to rnltawn habert, »kl catriea with it tike idea of 
labouiingstiennaasljtoiecutesame>dvantage,ot logatn tbe|[ood 
' opinion of anolhei. (Compaif Sch&tz, Indez. Lat. s. *.) — Tho 
JDdges to wbom Ciceto alludes ate posteii^, and theit tribuns] wM 
bo anj but a paitial one. 

13. Haudedo an. Conault note 3S, page 40. — Et evu amare 
el mt eupiditale, &c. ' " tfnbiassed \yf bolh il&cCiOD and a love of 
■elf, and froe on tbs otber hand &om hatied and enTj." Cupidilae 
cofeis hete to achemei of persotial adTancemeDt, whieh maj be 
furthered bj fiattering the feelings of the pawerfal. 

14. Id aulem iliam, Slc. " And eren if Ihia ahall, (aa some 
filselj imagine,) m no reapect concem jou tben ; it cettoinlj con- 
cenis jou noff," &c,, i e. and eTen if ths prauea of poaterttj ahsll 
in 00 leapect tllect jou, (aupposmg that siioneoias 4t>ctrine to b* 



B. bojODd diB gmO 
' Mill, du. — Thfl eipreniaa ut fkidam /«Zto puitml aipceMea 
Ciccro'i di*belief in ihe doctiine of milfrriiliini which wm than 
preralant it Rom» uaiag the niyer eltnBi. Tha nmeil comee in 
baie with graat bwulj, tai itill gtettei force, UDce Ctoui hiiDMlf 
wu ■ belioTei in lln DaD-eiidence of ■ fnCnn ittte, uid hid openlir 
■rawed thii opiiuoD, OD ■ fbimei occuion, duiiog Ihe debUe in tha 
■enkte — TTlirg tba paaiBhment of the accompticea of CitiUiH. 
The future glDi7 of Cibbi, ■> fai aa he hinuelf ihiU be aana^le of 
H, ia hen fdiced iD full oppoaition to hli own daik ud chilliiig 

16, iXacrwc volumtatlt, &c *' The inclinationi of the eiliieiM 
wara mioiia, uid thaii opiiuon whoUj divided." AlLadiog to (ha 
paiiod of Iha ciiil coDtaat. 

16. CantHiU tl ttuJiu. " In toDtimeDta and wiilwa." Com- 
para Mumtiua : " eoDtiliii ad Mottttiiiat TtftrtvT, atodiii oi vobin^ 

IT. BtoI nUtm oiMatriUt juatiam. " Tlieia wu elM «d ail 
of obacnii^ thnwn, u it werai orer the whcde a&ii," i. e. tha 
DHiiita of Iba cauae were dubioua, and il wai haid lo aaj, on whicli 
nde tha juatica of the conteat laj. — An adioit eilemutioD, tm tha 
pait of Cicem, of faia owd enoi ind that of hii liienda m eapooung 
the ciuie of Pompej. 

18. bter ctanttiniat iuctt. " Between two noat illuitiioaa 
laidMa," l e. Caeiai aod Pooipej. 

19. llidti ditbitabBat, &G. " Manj were in doubt, what ww of 
Ihe two cauKia Dii^t be Iha mo>t juat; mmj, whoC Diight be me* 
■ipadiaut for theoisBlTe* ; Diaaj, what Diight ba becoming iD theit 
caaa ; ■onwoTea, wbatit migbtbe pennitted tbem to do." Cicem 
kara gtrea ua loui diitiiicl cltaBea of peiaoDa, all engaging mora oi 
leia in the ciril conteat, and ilt actuUed bj diflerant aeDtimentl. 
In dia Giat claM ara tha tiua p&triota iDd loven of theit coimtij, 
wlwae onlj objaeC ia to aKeiuin what nuj ba moat condnGiva ta 
bai «eUue. In the aecond claai iie the pratended patriola, wbo 
hive a liDgle «je te theii- own intaraita. The tbiid claaa conaiaC* 
of thoaa who ais under paiaonal Dbligition* U> oae oi olbei of the 
two leadeia, and who, in Mlecting ■ aide, ara to be gorenied in a 
freat meunra bj tba claima of preTioua attaehmenC, oi, in olhel 
woida, bj irtiat ia becoming b tbeii caaa. Tha lut clasa an Iha 
plondaen of piitj, whou odIj objecC ia to aaceitaJD how tu thef 
inaj go with impuoiBf . 

SO. Pafunctt ttl. " Hu at laat goue through with," i e. ia at 
laat jfrtaA ftom. Arcoidiiig tn tJie Tule of tha aDciant giammunDii 


itfimger ugmmOjiMioriilaXu bad, unl pcr^ffiyvr oT nilst ia gf^ 
good. Wb hsTB bere, hDwerer. la eiception U Iha leinuk. Com 
ptn Har. Bttp. 8, «od luf Fam. &, IS. 

3L. Qni nan/ortvno, &c. " Wlio would not influiui hii rciMiit- 
nMbt bf >uccew," i. e. nba would not ut >■ ticIot* aie sccub- 
Uimed lo kct, >nd mske victoiy tho occtsion and meuu for indul- 
ging in fieieei leaentmenl thaa eiei igainit hii politiol foea. — 
Sed boiatate Itniret. " Bul wauld «often it down bj damenejr," 
L e, woutd mike s mild >nd merciful uae of it. 

I . Marte. C&eur, afler pronng Tieloriou*, ii uid lo luTe pDt AO 
IMne lo dDath eicept Fausnie 8f Ik, Afnniui, and L. Cseul. (Sm- 
toi. Vit. JhJ. e. 75.> 

S. Arnu oiiiiu, &«. "TheiiscmS were lud down b; ■omt^ 
WEis foreedtram otheni." GnenuB cendemDs Ihe nae of oi in tbi* 
■entence u violating coirect Latinily : bul it is employed in • 
■imikr aray b; the bett wrilsrs, snd hj Ciceio hiinself in ihe fol* 
lowing iiuUnces : in VW. 3, 48, in ViUix. 13, 5. Compere Gr>- 
tuiti, ad Uc. snd Daier, ad Iav. 41, 14. 

3. Amumm periaih Itberataa, &c. " Aftei havtog beeo fieed 
Ironi the dsnger of war, letsiiu s spirit of wsrfue," i. e. wbo sftsr 
luTingbeen fargiTen, 11111 ctieiishea hiMliie lieelingi. 

4. Ul eHam iUs tit melior. " So thel eTcn he is Dton woithj 
ofexeuse." — Inauiia, " In dafence of tbe csuts whieh he hss 

5. Sed jam nnntit, Ste. " Now, howevH, iS ciTil dimnion his 
beencOmplBleljTOTerconieby emui." CompBie Muiutius ' " Frao- 
(■, h. e, ruMaXB, tpBliatii wiribiu." 

tt. UmunveliHt, " Unite in theii wishes." — Hin. "Foi im- 
leu." — Qua u(U> ei. " Which jtm hafe eipFsesed." 

T. Ul vilae, &e. Beewse on Cseaai'>~>*fely, snd on ihs md- 
linnkDce ofhis life, depend the liTes ind ssfotj of all. 

8. Demt. " Ai fsi se legsida mjself." 

e. Subetit aJiqaii, "Thst ■omsthinglieaeoncesled." Suim* 
U here equivtlent lo latere. Compun Ep. ad Fant, 10, 18 : " Sm 
potivm Tnm txlwrretctre, ti qvid iKtr» euiem rubeit vuliierit, qtud 
priitt «oetre patttl, jtiain itiri earariqut potiil." 

10. IjtleTv.m niwfniruin eppoiittuj &c. " The inteiTenlim of 
oui sidca snd of oui bodiea," L e. we sie willing to preunt ourown 
hodies as s lampait between you ind yoar foes. 

II. Sed unde ett orta, &c. " Bot lel my lemsik» teimmste as 
Iboy bogan." Lilerally, " let my ipeech bs ended in ths ■une 
plscewhMKai;b^ui," i. •. let me end si I b^pn wiUi sa eifns 


O oKiTioii roB 


} IS. JTajonf eOom JUimnu. " W« 1wt« itill gTMl«r onu, wbicl 
bngiugs cumot eipiow." Compuv Huiatiai : " Pbu cmm 
aiHmii* cm^tktndil, ftiam qwid txMtqui virbit heial." 

18. Slantibut. Wbeu taj aeiMor apoka he itood np, ozcepl 
wh«n he merak Hnntad touioCbei. Cicen) meuu. tlierafoPB, that 
it ii not necei^iy fbi «U tbe utembled Bentttn te eddiB» Cum 
•' ituidiiig," {. B. peraoDtUj oi individasl^. Some of Ihe eutj 
•ditiaM tAT* wlonfihu, «hicb eppeus in > {ew MS8. 

14. Dictri. " To gi-reDtlanDce to thoaa feelii^ in words." — 
A nu ctrlt dUi vebmt. " lliey wieb tbem to be ezpreaied bj nte 
■t leHt"— £l quod. " Botb becmeo." ' 

16. Praeeipiu O, dcc. Emeid lejecti pratdpiu id a wufien, 
«nd cbugei debert to deheri. fiut tbU !■ too bold, tltboogb nsting 
in tome d^iea on MS. entboiitj. 

16. JVm nt. " Not u it weie." 

17. Quod aKtn» Mimnu^, du:. "Wbat conetituta», moreoTer, 
■ pmof of Uie moit intiuute fiiaDdehip, (eneb u mine towaidc him 
wai known bj all oa eTer; oecauon to bsTa bean, ao diat I acarcelj 
yialded to Caina Mucellna, hie moat excdlent wid afiiKtkinate 
fantbar, exeept him, indeed, Ut no ooe,) thia, aAsi baTing diaptajed 
it aa bng aa tbere wu waj doubt about bia penontl aafety, bj mj 
aolieitnda, my caie, mj axertion* in bii bebiir, I ceitainlj ougbt to 
•ihibit oa the pieaent occaaiou, fiead u I now am from Bniieties, 
OOublei, aoiTOwi of no ordmuj mignitude." — In tbe legolHr gmni- 
matical conatrnctian of thii leDtence tbe antecedent id, uodentood 
befbre juod, ia goTemad bj jnaetlari, We baTe pieleiTed, how- 
aTer, in otder to leodei the wbde moie intelligible, to considei 
faed u ellipUcal foi juod attinel ad ii quod, and lo undaiatand 
inotber id beToie proMlari. 

18 Lafue Cai Caeiar, Ac. Tha elegioce of Ihe idiom ne 
■ ■ • ■ tit,'m tbie paaatge, is woithj of puticulu notice. It ii 
dta ame, in affaet, aa ob hie, juod, " Wherafoie, Caini Oaeear, 
I Tetmn jon mj thtnlu far tlat, beeaMue, afler htTing been not 
on^ nttored bj joa in tll teapecta to ■ ttate of nfetj, bot eTen 
gitced wiih honoun, a eiowning frmoi hu nerenbeleaB beMi 
added, bj joui condnct on thia occaaiMi, lo jomcouitlcm aeta of 
H™!''™ ■tietdj confened npon tne indiTidntUj, a 
iriiieb I Cbought no longei tble lo be brougbt tboot." 

la buCto add a few woida relatiTe lo Mucelliu. Theitoijof 
t tii^ulu eM. AAor being paidoned bj Caeaar, be kit 
oi had coma u fir u Iba Pineaa, or baiboui oT Atbena, mi,Googk 

H. KARCELLaS. 303 

hu viMj to Romo. Hera be «pent ■ diy nith hia M rriend iiul col- 

leigue, SeoiOT Siilpiciue, inlending Co puTsue his journej tha following 
day bf aea. But in the night, afler Sulpicius bad taken of him, 
ths 23d of May, he waa killed bj hig friend tnd cLient Magius, wbo 
■tahbed bimaalf initantty with tbe >ame poinard. Sulpicius seat ao 
accounl oT tbe whole aSair, to Cicero, {Ep. ad Fam, 4, 12,) of wlucb tbe 
following ia an oitniet : — 

" On tbe S2d of Maj, I cune bj ses liom Epidauruatothe PiiBeaa, to 
nieet mj coUeagiie MacceQus, uid, for llw rake of h>* company, Bpent 
tbat dsf nitb bim tbeie. The neit day, when I took m; leave af bim 
witb the inlention of going fiom Alhens inlo Boeotis, to Gni^ the 
ronuuning put of my juiisdiction, be, aa he lold me, intended to aet Mil, 
at tbs same limo, fof ll&ly. The daj roLLowing, about foui in the mom- 
ing, nben I waa prepBrin}; lo eet out foi Alheni, his &'ienil P. Potto- 
miua caine to let me know that Marcellus waa atabbeil by bia companioii, 
P. Magiua Cilo; liiei aDppei, and had received IwQ waiinda, the one ia 
hia Btomach, ^e otbec in hia bead neac tbe eu ; but he was in bopea etill 
that he might liTO ; ihat Magius presenlly kJUed himeelf ; and that Mal- 
cellua sent him to infocm me of the cose, and to desire that i would biing 
some physicians 10 bim. I got aooie together immediately, and went 
away with Ihem befbre bieak of day. But when I waa come near tbe 
Picaeus, Acidinus' boy met me with a note from bis master, in which 
it was signiGed, that Marcellus died a Uttle befoie day." 

Msgius, wbo killed bim, was of a family wbicb bBd.bome some oT the 
pnblic officea, and bsd binuelf been quaealor. Hariiig attacbed hinuelf 
to tbv foclunes of Maicellua, and followed bim ihrough ibe waii and hia 
eiile, be waa now cetucning wilb bim to Italj. Sulpiciua giTes no bint of 
sny csuse ibat indnced hirn to commit thia honid act, wbich, by ^s 
mmiodiato destb of Magiug, could ncTec be cleaily known. Ciceco's 
conjecture wan, tbaC Magius, o^^reaaed witb debla, and appcebending 
iome tronble, on Ihal scoro, upon hia celucn, had been ucging Uaccellus, 
wbo vnu bis suiely foi aome pait of Ibem, to furniih bim witb monej to 
pay the whole, and, on leceiring a donial, was piOTaked to the madDSsa 
of killiag bii patron. ( Att. 13, 10.) Accoidiog lo olheis, 
bowerei, hs waa prompted to Ibe deed, hy seeiag other &iends moia 
&TDniedby Maicellus (bui himaelf. [Yai Max. 9, 11.) 



rri 1. M. TmLii Ciotioini, Ae. "The Oralion ofMuei» IV:!- 
Ihu Cicero in fkToiiT of Ihs Muiiliui 1*w." — "nn* ontion, whicb !■ 
■ecouotedMioof itMDMt ■plmdidafhiipradaetioiu, waa thefint 
in which Cicen iddnsaed the whole people &om tha nwtn. It 
WM pniMMiacad in ftToor oT ■ Uw [HOposed bj Mddlia», ■ triboiia 
of tbe cmnnion*, (A. V. C. 6S7,) for conitituting Pampej >ala 
genetal, wiih eitraoidinuj powers, m the wv Bgainit Mith^le* 
■nd Tignnei, in which Lucullu* tud prerioarij comnwoded. Tle 
Mithiiditic wu hul now eo&tinued foi the space oT twentj-thiee 
jean, with ■ome mteiminioii, ind with grett eltenntioiu of foitune 
anbathadei. ^ 

The chiefi of the ienete T^arded the kw in qoeition u i din- 
genmi piecedenl in the republic ; ind all the ■Dthority of Citnliu, 
■nd eloquence of Hoitensiui, neie directed agunit it. Clceto, in 
idTocUing itt paenge, dividee bia diecouiM into two piiti, — ahow- 
iag, finl, tbit the importuiee snd imminent dangen of the conteet, 
ia wlucb the atate wu engBged, requiied the unueuel temedy pro- 
poaed, uid — ■eCondlf, that Fompey was the £Cte>t pereon to be 
entituted witb the emiduct of the wu*. lliiB leedi lo i eplendid 
puil^TTic on thit cemmiDder, in whicb, while he doe* jDstice ta 
the meiits of Lucalliu, be eDUrgee on the mibtu]' ikilt, TBlour, 
■alboriir, uidgODd fbctaDe of his fiTouiite chief, with ill ihe (brce 
■nd b^Btj' «rhich luiguege can ■Sbni Bf dwelUng on tbese 
topice, umI b)' ■ddacing eiunplei Irom tD uiiiquitf, of the Bt«te'e 
b>nng been beneiiled, or eiTed, br entniatiiv unlimiteil power 
to ■ lingle penon, he ill^ ell fean of the dutgeiB, «rhieh, il wei 
^ipnheDded, niighi reault to the conKilalion 'nnu nch eileiMM 
mthorilT being Tened m one iadividMl. 



Tlu MMliliiD Itw WM pMwd, uid tbe nieegBa of Fomp«T WM 'J'] 
onlliuit uid deciuTe, without uir ot Umw evil sffecM rewltiiig to . 
llw Mate whicb tike roei of lln meuDie btd pradicted. 

2. Quamquam tniii, &c. "Altbough, Rooitiu, llie «^ of 
youi ciowded ueembliea bai ilvrays qipeaied to mo bj far the moet 
pleuing of specticle«, ud tbia place, moreover, tha moit -tigp-i^ii^ 
foi Creating wiLh yoii, tbe moet bODoiirBble Ibr huuigniiig." 

3. Jhc auttm laeui. Alluding to tbe TotlTa, nhere be wu 
Blaoding st Ihe time. The roitra (mon commonlir, but Uh correctlj 
c9.Ued riulrtDn) wa> a pu^it or tiibiiiial, in lite Romau tbium, wben 
ihDse who addrened tiie people etood. It nu eo cdled, bocwue 
■dorned with the btakt of (he veeeela nid to baTO been takeo &om 
Ihe AntiUes, (Lto. 8, \i.—Yatro, L. L. 4, 32.) Tbero wen at 
Hoiiie tbe old and new roatra, ^vcitra tl noia,) the formu, whicb ara 
bere meant, sCood tn the centre of tbe Ibnim, (J/jnan, B. C. 1, 
M,) the latier at the bsse of llie Palaline, in Ibe ■oulbem u^la of 
the forum. This lasl was eiected b; Cuuar. {Ifanlini, H. V. 6, 
3.—fiiuclui Ltx. rei nutn. toL T, coI. 1386.) 

4. Ai ageTtdam, The phitae agtri am popWa ngnifiaa, "U> 
treat with the pet^le," i. e, to addioaa tbem, ioliciting tbeir ToMa 
fbi or affainac a psnicular metaura. Thna Auloa GelliDt laaiadct, 
(13,15): " Cum poyiUo agtre ttl Togart quid fopaliua fmod ȴfi 
fiagiit tuiM laU juieat auf vilti." 

6. AmpIittiBiui. This epitlwt ia here apidiad to tbe KMCra, bom 
Ibe ciicunutance o[ oiagiBtiBCeB alone, OT Iboaa whcHn they pst- 
micitid, beiog iBowed to addreaa the people fcoiii thia pUoe. So 
alao, Ihe eipieaaioa ad Hcendiaii omaliwim»' indirjtea bow bon- 
Ooimble iC waa cDnaidered to haran^e Che people iirotD tbe nMn. 
COTipm the eiplanttiDn of Hocomannui : " Ad ageadmB ampUaai- 
miuo apptUat, quoi nu^u nin aai^itadiiu fraediltM «tria agirl 
cum populo licerei { ad diceodum oniBtiMHaUUD aulem, fitod sra»- 
vunto eiiet xii qm cviKionaimluT." 

6. Hoc aditii iaudii, dcc. " Fiom tbia tToiue lo piaiaa, wUch 
bai always lain &eely opeD Co eacb moat metiCoria{M indiTidual." 
HMehtenlfy, "whichhaa alwajaluiopeniiipaiticuhr," &c. Bj 
oplittu) atique ue maant tha wiae and good. — 'Wlth.a mgiatnlB^a 
permisaion, priTaCe penona were allowed to addreaa Ih^ peoplo . 
fiom tbe roatn, 

7. Jfn^voJunMi. " My awn inclinetiona." 

8. Miae vUte raitona, dcc, " The rulea af coDdocl finmad bj 


3M oEATiow m MTOOk or 

q'1 "ray w>f oflib,** &c. CicoiolMTenftntothe nfe, nUehbabad 
, kid dowd lor himself, oS UtMidiiig lo the printe cODcerns oDd caaea 
ef hii InBnde, Qntil age md eipeiieiiee ibonld qnalif; blm fbr ^i- 
peutng in pabUc Bod (ddraMing tbe people &odi the «Mln. — Bj 
tetaU iu thii MDleDce is meuit, not borbiKid, but tbe period ot 
CiceiD'i entering on eetiTe utd pnfeeeion*] paisidtB. 

9. Per MtefenL Cicero hid elreidy held the officee of qnaeetar 
«Dd icdile befdra be iddnwed the pe<^le on thie occaeioiL Ha 
*ivu Dow ia hi* 4lBt yBBr. 

10. Hujv» aiKiwititta» lod attmgen. "To biTB uight to do 
with Ibe ■ntboiit; of Ihii pUce," t. e. Ui Bipire, m the iligyeet 
degree, to the bononl of iddiBesing joo from Bucb ■ plice ■■ Ihia, 
wbeie DODe bnt tbe moat eminent iDdiTiduils ought to be beeid. — • 
jllttHfcn piopeiij meBD*, " to tooch genllj," " to comeineligbtcoD- 
tBct with," Bod ia, therefbre, the ytxj teim to employ in the preeent 
eeae. Tt is BBDCtioiMd bj ttie •ntboiitj of mBDj MSS., Bod ia 
■dopted bj Gne*iu*, Emeati, end othen. Tha common reading 
ten^Kgtre ie too BtioDg, faiipljiiig, " to come in fidl conteet with," 

" to TBBcb," &c. 

11. Niti ftrfacnaaingeiaa, &c. " Bnt iriiat had been perlected 
bj mBtodtj of talenC, carefoltj wiooght oat bj Baddnaai ■ppUc*' 
tioii." Ciceni aagigns thiee leBaoni fbr his not ■aceDding tbe roatrBi 
*t (n eailier peiiod : GrBt, tha lale of condaet which he had pia- 
Msdbed (b himeelf, in deroting hii chief ■ttention, it fiiat, to the 
prirate c>«e of hii fiieDda : eecondlj, the modeetj and diffidsnce 
aiiainf; fiotn l^ cmucioaineei of the want ofe^rience ; and thinllj, 
the cODTicljon, thet no ene on^ to ■ddreea the pe(q>le {am Ihe 
]dec*^ieie he then itood, eicepl Bftei hia ibilitiaB bed becooie 
m^tuied bj ege, ind duirpeiied bj «{^CBtion and eitenuTS e^ie- 

13. Onuu tMUffl Utnfiu, tu:. " I tbought that ■!! mj tiaie 
onght to be daTOted to tbe concema of mj &ieDda," L e. to mj 
&iendi atandmg m ueed of mj iHiituice uid ■drice. Aa legard* 
tiia pecoU^i foice of ItmforOnu, in Ihis pueege, coiiaiilt note 19, 
page 63. — TVanraiReiMltnii. Moie litenllj, " ou^ 10 be tnna- 

19. Tatram cmutm. " Yonr mtsreeta." Compaie the lemuk 
of Mmatiiu : " Sottra aam, tiano nui pra popaio Hetitrut ■»- 

11. El nuiu labar, ftc. " kiA mj eiertimi, Ikiilj uid faitbfaUj 
emplojed iraid the duigers of priTale ladividueU, b^To reqied from 
jour ■u&eges ■ moit imple rew^id," i. e. ao^ilojed bj me in ward- 
iof off tha dBngBCB wbieh threBtaied mjolieDta. Soma commenta- 


inl^Tejue m bwiiig nfBKDce ^ J 
Lo iue Ciodan Isn, by whidi sdTocatea wero not lUowed Ut tiks 
tny feei or pieHnla fioni theii clienti, (Dtd. Legel Indei.} The 
elhiiion, hawem, ■eenig nthei to be a geneni one, to profeanonBl 
fidelity ind cue. 

16. PropCtr iilncionim cOiMtliorvm. " Oo *ecoDnt of ihe •djonm- 
tnent of Ihe cnnitie." Hie comitia were edjonrDed, L e. etiqiped, 
utd pDt offtouiotheiday, for rarioDs reuone. Any migiatnu of 
sqnal or greater mutboritj than Ihe oDe wbo [^eeided, mi^t, aa well 
u the [ittei, take the uupiceE belbre Ihe roeetiDg wu beld, eap». 
cially if he wiebed to hindei an eleclioa, or preTsnt a Uw fcom 
being puud. If mch magiitimte, thenfore, decliicd that he bod 
heud tbniidsi oi •een ligfatniiig, the comitim weie biukeii oS, ud 
defened lo iDotbei day. llie ume leenlt n^ produced if unr 
penoc, iriula thej wera holdiog, waa anied wilb epilepaj, if a lem- 
peat aioee, if a tribnne ot Ih» commons inteipoaed hia veto, Ae. 

16. Ter praHor jirimut, &£■ " I waa thiice dedaied firat piaa- 
toi by (U tbe eenlniiea," i. e. twice at the two comitia that wera 
bioben ofi| mi lAare Ihe pe<qils had alieadj maoiieated Iheii good 
wiahMlowaidahim, andtl» tbirdlilDewhenhewaaactuaUyelectad. 
The nnmbei of piaetora at thi* time wu e^t- He wu cilled 
prattor prmau, oifintpnetoi, wbo had the laigeit number of TOtee, 
and tha nsult of Iha election was always [ODclaimad bj the Toice 
of ■ henld, who waa aatd rcinmnitrc, " lo dedaie" the leeolt, joet 
te the anccesaful candidates weie .siid rmiinciari.—Plutaich in- 
fbime n>, that, on tbia occauon, Cicero had manj penons of die- 
tincCion fbi conqietiton, aod jet lie waa ratuined fint. {Vit. 
de. c. 9.) - 

17. Catturat atnctit. Tbe piaelon were cboaen aC the Com- 
uia eaitmaU, u wera also the consnlo, eenaon, dcc Tbe 
mfenoi magiatntee, anch aa tba aedilea, triboaea, qaaeMoia, dce. 
wen etect«d at the eomi^ triiau. At Iha lattm of tbeee e(xnitia, 
the Tote of each dtiien caBirt«d, wbereaa at tha eeMtunaU Iba 
centurie* of the diOeieDt diaaeE Toted as auch. Tbua, Ihera wem 
IBS centuries, faRDing ■!! claasee, and of Iheee ihe fint and ticbest 
ctass coiuisted of ninetj teien centunes. If tlie centuriea of iba 
fint daas agieed, the a^it waa decided. Thia anai^nient, whicb 
dated back aa br as the timB of Seiriaa TulUua, »■■ intended tq 
place all tlu powei in the huds of the upper claaoes. 

18. El q^Ui aia* fraeti;nbtrtlit. " And whatcourae ofcOndacC 
jna pieaciibed to othen," i. e. in case they wish to ■tiain lo jva 
ft,nat in >a ngnal a mumsi aa I had. The couih preaciibsd WM 
th« OM whidi Cioeio had ponued, namely lo dcToM theii ai«9iM 

308 ouTtON m rkron or 

■J'1 eflbrts to tlu caicmii of Meab lai cbenti, antil d-a exfxnmc* 
«Uch thia bnngtit ikmg with it eatiiled ihcm to come fenvuil wiih 
etnng eleinia an tbe laiiNii of tbe peo(4«. 

19. Quasittim tei kimBribHt, lic. "At joa )WTe wUled Iboe 
ihouiil be in the circam*tm«a of yoni confening bonoun upon me," 
1. e. ee jon biTe w^ed ibould be umoied to tbe office* which jrou 
biTe bcvtowed upon me. — Mosorihu vundaniU. liierally, ■* ia 
* eeeieiuiic bonoDn." Compere the eiplinition of Ftbricius : 

" Ain hotmra miii man^ofu." The cooiition teil hu matidan- 
Aun, ib[ which we faeve givan manimUii with Fabiiciue, Emeiti, 
md olben, oo the luthotitj of «Teni MSS. 

M. El ai agtnium, iic. " And u much GlnB«a fbi eddreniiig 
JDQ, Mthe olmoil deily eierciH of ipeaking hu been ible lo biing 
with il to e aaa of iDduethoua hBbite, fnim the preetice of tbe 
ber," L e. to ooe who hu thuc fer been merehr e pleader u Ibe 
bei. — AiagtTiiitm. Lilerellj, " rortreetingwitb jou," Cmipu* 
B0(«4,pege 71. 

St. £il apud eet ntar, dcc. " I wiU eieit il with tbo»," du:. 
Le. "in the pteenico oC," or, "before thoae," . Tbe eUuaion ie to 
ihe Ronun peoj^ ueemUed in coniilia. 

n. Dicniv. T^» eeiTee to eiplein td agtni»m, in the pnri- 
ODi peit of tbe eentence, wilh which it ie ■ynon^oae. 
^ 1. Qm ti fHOTtu Tti, &c. " Who luve Ihought thet ■ome 
lecompenee for tbie iIm> ehould be ■wnrded me bjr theit ■ufflragei." 
Bj the eipreeaion n rei, Ciceio mearui, nol so much ihe meis hibit 
of qieiking at the bir, coneidered in iteeif, u tbe fect of hie heving 
ilweje eierted bimaelf there rn defendiog the wetliue and mtereeta 
tl bi> biflnda ■nd clieDti. — Pmctum. The lecompenee elhided te 
wu ibe pneton}iip, which ha hul obteined Ihet Teiy yut. A. U 
C. 887. 

S. Altv* miut, Ae. " And I eee thet the fbllowing cii«am- 
Btance, in peiticuUT, ought wilh good leuon to vBari me ■ gioanit 
of lejoking," L e. that I Dogfat, with gdod leesoo, to congntolite 
HTaeiron 0» {Ulowii^ occount. 

9. £i Aoe intaUu mHu, ^. " In thie, to ra« nraienel, modo 
of ipeektiig ftom tbe plece wheie I now «twid," i. e. nmccaa- 
tomed u I em to benngue m thii maimei, end from Ibii pUce. 
Thepoaoen ke, with 'ogo, iodicatea tbe geetnre ortbe cmtoi. 
. 4. Oretia. " An eloquenta)^i«Bl.'' Litentif, " in ontiori," oi 
• heiengae." 

S. Diffieilmt ttt txitnm, &c. On «ccoQnt, namelj, of tbe licll 
■biituUnce of meteiiels, with which tbe meiite of Pompey cMUtol 
U te enDidj the •peekei. Cioato'e banngiM beie wffl renund lb«,GoOgk 


MDdent of tlM «nndimn oT I^au< m dM «pMoh tf^mt ElvtM- ■JN} 
tbenei: 0«i I^udgf^oi iKtt l»^r t'm, 2 IrV Anm) 

r ctf mkteriBk." — MaAu. 

7. Cni(< Isce oinnu coiua JiiaAir. " Whonce tba vbole of Ibe 
«Aii now aiidei canidentwo M deiiTcd." Wa h*Te adoplad 
dkeiltir, tbe retding of tbe bM edi^ioiu, in ;doce of Heitiir, which 
i> exhtbiled by the cohudod teil. 

8. Vatrit vietigiMiu «(ftM *mbi. ■' Ajiant 70111 tnbotuiee 
■nd illiea." The vtetigaUt wece liiej yibo peid tuee or tiftats 
in the prodDce oT their bndi ; tfae ttiptnHarii, on the eotitiarr, ia 
mon^. The faniier were in ■ betlei conditioii Ibui die lellei^ 
«Dce Ibe piopoitiini of prodace peid b^ dwm dqwnded elirafe on 
the ntture of the ciop, bwng leee in jeen of ecucitf thui in thoie 
when tbe hureete weie ebnnduit ; wheieu, in the o«e of ths 
«(i^Kfiiiiam, the uuouDt wu ilwaje the ume (hm yeu with iDolhar. 
Comult EnuMi, Ctat, Cic t. y. MipmdianaM, tai Ibe Hithontiee 

9. Miiiriiait et ISgrtm. THm fbtmer, king of FoBtDB, the 
Ittlei of AimeniB. Tignnee wu eMi-in-lew lo MilhiidUee. Coi>> 
■nlt HistoiicBl Index. 

10. (Juamitt olter relidiir. " llie one of wbom baing lefl anino 
lOBted Bftardtiait," i. e. not being poshed Bfter defcBt ; dienctOTfon 
ibe pert of tha Romene not being fbllowed op. Tbe BllaBton is lo 
Milhiidatee, wbo, ■Aer being i^ieatedlj oTsicome by I^ncullui, hed 
•gBio bacome powerfbl, tbe Romen genenl not being eble to fbUow 
np Ue mc«e>aeB, in coneequence of the mntinone t[niit of hiB 
troope. Peit of hiB taaj hed been dieehBTged Bnd dieembadied, 
the remwnder tnnBfemd to Gltbfio. Compare the end of chapler 
9 : " /fic tn tpM iHo Biob," &o. 

11. AUer lactttittu. " Tbe othei pioTokad bji yonr Bnu," i. e 
TODeed to BClion b; Ibe mnrementB of Lueullai. Tbie ie ■ mers 
piece of ontolical eujgeratian. 118 trath wib, Milhridetes ind 
Tignnss were on ibe point of sntsring L^cBOdit (ad Cilioia wiA 
Iheir whele Ibrce, wben LDcnlhu meiched into Annetiii. (PIm^ 
rH. LaaOl. c. M. ttq.) 

)S. Atiam. Tbe Roman proviDce of Aiib ii hsrs msDM, com- 
pnbending Hyeis, LydiB, CBiis, snd FhiygiB, Consalt Oeognph. 
icel Indei. — The isTSnneB of ttaiB pnninee weie extremdjr lich, Bod 
heius ths lempUng luturs of the priie. CompBre tbe lemaA of 
MsddUub : " AsiBm, eujni etTtittinui el nufRa vtct^tiia.." 

IS. £fKttihu RoMsntf, The Romnn knigfaU, or equita%,GoOgk 

810 ounON iK iAVom,or 

■jn^ Anwd Ibe paUk mtaam &am fbm c«naon. — SiniuiunaiH nrw, 
" A Toy boDonnbU clu« of inBa." Ctcero, bimaelT of «quMtiiu 
otigin, tlw>j> UM« Ihi* ud limilu hnguage io •peaking of tlia 

14. Qumin nujfNU ret ofwUur, &c. " Luga sunu belougmg 
to wban in doo mt ■Ulce then, beitig Itid out hj tbem in Jb* 
fmBiogoC joot tvrenaea." T)m aqoitee, ot, u tbe/ weie nune 
commoDlj olled, ^KifiHin, bid porcbued the rereDuee <^ tha 
[aOTiDce of Aiift from tbe cenion, (bi m large ■moODt, and were to 
look tatbeectuilcaUactionor ibou rerenuee' Ua teimbumDHHit 
and pmfit. "nM liige emoe of DiODej, tboo idTMiced bj tbem to 
Ibe Mite, weie eDdingend bj tbe pioepect oT wti, eioce >ucce*B 
M Ihe pait «t Ibe fbe, tai tbe ccmiequent nrtgiDg of tbe Gekb, 
wonld ioipur of coone ths prodoGtiTeneai of tbe pcoTince, ud 
loeoeo DuUliillj Ihe chaiieee of rc^jment. 

15. OceufoUt. EqniTeleal ben to caUoealat. CompuB fn 
PUlt Sl i ■'Poumata adoleMcaitiiia, grgnJi femire, fiduda lame» 
•cctpfs, ecatparuli i" uid ■bo, tn Ytrr. i, 3S ; " Pceumat occu- 
parat apul popuiot, tt tyitgrap^aM fecerat." 

16. Qia. "Thete." — Pro «sceitilii^iu, /ce. ■ On eccaatit 
^ tbe mttnate conneiion wbich eiiita between me tnd tbU oider." 
Oicero, *■ we bete ilieuly ranuked, wu himeelf of equettntn 
tmSj. Canfue pn Sai. S: " Fat ijialtiltonuimvidtle : ■ctfu 
«11 ortwK II twiu." 

17. iVloJaf Ke rerun tuanm. " And tbe dangen to which 
Ibeir owd {HiTMa foitniM* eie expoaed." 

18. BitlofiUe. ConaoH Get^i^ihied ItidBi. — Quattaauvttlra 
frmnaa ttt. " 'Wbicb i^ dow ■ prorince of joun." Nicomedee, 
tba laat aoTeieign <d Bithjiiid, b*d, bj hi* witl, nude tbe Roman 
paople bii hain. Tbe osteneible caaee of Ibie bequeat wai gnti- 
tude lo tba RonuDa, fbr baTing beea ratlored lo bi« dominiona bj 
SjUa aftei b&Ting been dhTeD out bj Mithiidatea. [Eutr^, S, S. 
—A^itto. B. M. 7.) 

19. R^mm Ariobtrxaiat. Cappadocia. Ariobananoa waa 
ihiice driren fhmi bia throne bj Mitiuidatea. The £ial uid aacoDd 
Cme ba waa raatmd b; iMnllui, the thiid by Fomp^. Tbe 

- peiiod, aUnded to in tbe leii, is thn which intenened betwaan bie 
aacond ezpiilnoa ond Goal teBtoistioD, and during which Hitbiidalaa 
bad igiin become poweiful in eontequence of tbe reeallof I^oeuUue. 
{Aji^an, B. S.43.— Jif. B. M. 10 aegq.) 

20. Ai eo btiio iiictdtTe. it wsa tiow about dgbt jaara iince 
Locullui wu leat to tbe Mitbndstic war, aud he bad duiiog thia 
peiiod, bjaaeiiBa irfbiilliuit mcceiset, acqaiiedlbi hitnaelf ■ hif^,GoOgk 

TBI lUMLUN LaW. 311 

aBiltrj tvpatatxta. Ra tud driTen Milhrid^eB ODt of hu kingdom ij^ 
of Pontiu, 4Dd gained seTozil momonbtfl TictoiioB otot hini uid hia 
Mn-in-lM' TlgiBiiM. Hi« «ncc «, howerar, occiaioned onTion» 
faaliiig* ■( Rome, uid it wu ■ leged igunii him, that ho had oot 
poidwd the vru with Tigoui igunit either Mitiicidtto or Tigruisi, 
Ihat he migiit fiunirii ■ pratext foi hii being iti!] continaod in eoin- 
muid. Hii umy, beaidBa, hul become leBtien uid mutinoiu, &om 
tbe poipetat] hdgnee to whieh thuj weie eipoecd, bnt piincipilly 
fiom tbe liclioira aite of Clodini, biotiwi-in-law to Lnculhu, who 
wu ut officoi in the Bimj, uid cDnsBiTed himnlf ne^Botsd I7 Ibe 
cocomuidei. Tha dinfbctiiRi of the tioopt wu Mill futbe». 
ineieaMd (7 ui anluel^ dofiMt of Tiiuina, Mw.of the lieulanuue 
of LQcaHni, who, in ■ n«h engigemcot with Hitbiidatee, wn 
deatrojed, with tho ioaa of bia cunp «nd the beit of hia tioopi. 
Ab ■ood, thnefbie, u tbej heud thit QUbiio, tfae coml of Ibe 
pieTioaa jeu, waa ■ppoinled to aaeceed him, «id h*d *otiiillf 
■iiiTod in Aait, the; bn^ ont into <^n mntmj, nd reliiaad to fbl- 
low LacuUna uiy longei, dscluiag ihat tbay had ceued to be hia 

31. JfMUfai tuttttttrit, &ti. "Hut tiie indiTidaU wbo hM 
meceedad bhniabatiil pr^>sred fbi Ibe muugement of ao impotv 
tuit ■ wu." The ■Uunon ii te eiabiio, wbo waa ■ppointed to 
rocoeed LncnUna. The woria iim talii tttt parnftMii o>t«iabIr 
tefel to tbe inadeqnBte atale of bia reaonicea ; but thay contun ■]■• 
■ cDTUt ■llucicai lo hii mentat iiHupacity. Ciceio Ifint. 68) da- 
acribea Glabiio, u " Saeort iptbu natata, ntgligentpt*." — Tlie 
■todent wiU muk the foica of the aabjanctiTB mood in tutcttttrit. 
'Die apeaker giTu mu^ the langaage ol moioui, tnd doea dM 
atate, u a het inlbin hia own knowledge, tb*t Glabiio haa, by Ihia 
time, actoaUf ■■anmed tbe cnmmuid. So tbat fui racEuurit 
meana iu Inith, " wbo ii thii lime, 10 have ■uceeeded bim." 
— la place of luctftcril aooM lekd nccnrrcnt, which lut HotO- 
mum eodeaToara to defendt u ex]aaamg the eagemeu with wlkiclt 
GUbiio aeiied tho coounuid, when aaperaediiv LocaUos. Bnt 
iuatsMrit ia emj w«j piefenMe. 

33. l^inim. " Tliat one indiTidnaL" AUuding to Pompcy. — 
Staiitin Avne iiiwm, Ab. " Thit diiB Moa oae iodiTidual ia feand 
by ihe eoamy, do one bende*." 

SS, Cauta fiwa tii. " What ia the nuure of the afibir befbn 
nm," i. e. wbit ia tha tutuie of the diacaauon whicb now daima 

Si. Dt gaure IeUi. " Of the duncter of ihe wu." 

W Ai tluiium ftrttqiundi. " To tba deaiie of infiictinga 


S13 oxATiaM iN FAvmrx or 

^ lenn nulxioii.'' ThcM wnd* «« «mttad in Iha eananon tut 
bal nipidiad bf GFMriai ud Enmti fRim HSS. 

M. In fna agititr, ^. " For in it tbe giray of Ibe Roinaii peopl* 
watMake," 7ii}iu>,bagiiuuiigtba cluM,i«equiTalaDtlaMMmM 
93 1. CtrtiMMtniK «elifolut tt nMiiiu. " Tba auTcat aiid moat 
inportant rereiKiM." We bara b«e Bnotiiei apeeitaen of onloiiol 
enggentiaii, ane» alaawhere (li* Ur- Bgr. S, 9S) Cican) wpnka of 
dia Campafiian mU^vJ» h tbe Mlnat nid baat : " Am igiuintu, 
tilMraiUa aiagniJUa pepfili Ramani mcHgalia, perUti tatft mo- 
MMCe frmoitt, tKdfiuJieiw ttmporit pt»itrt! ffyid lun Aiim* 
f tr t a t , qnU Sjrruc nra, qnid mitna ironMianiw vidifftlia jup^ 
Hnt, umiittima iittficimM pnuioiatn aat ketthtm injteia J At 
MTO hae agri CcmpaiB tettigal atm tjutmoH at, *t rioait tit, at 
ammhat frattiM* opjnianait ttgatwr: (vm Ktfut UlUi inftttiiai, 
tme fnictiint tariHm, ruc cttte ac lota ealMm.ilatim ttte toUt." 

%■ Et pxeit omamtiUa, ius. " You «tll ba.n \a oeA ■new Sor 
bolh tba onuunenta of peace, uid tbe ■inawi oT wn," L e. 700 will 
miia, yoQ will fMt the want of what con^ate the oniainaata of 
|Mice, dce. The aame idM ia eipreaaed ia the ■econd cnliaa 
againat tha igmnan Isw of RuUoa, (c. 39,} tinaiij leraiiad to in tbc 
pnnOBaDOte: "Pai»t irrFiamOiAiiii, nibt£iiniMli,yiinJaflm(iiiB 
MCijv^Btm." Compare cbiptar 8, ef tbe pfCMM apMch : " Si tt 
ImU ntilitattm tl paeii-iigmtattm tMtmert mltit." 

8. A wfrii et iptonm, tte, In ihe aaity editiona, and in mo* 
MSS., we find a robit it imperalorOiu rcipiibtiea* eonniiendiim 
Lambiaui obtuned the readiTig in the tait Irom three MS3., and n 
hu bMn adopled bj OneTiDi, Emeeti, uid Othen. Ernaati le- 
naika : " Ego ttro mUiant cniuiim iioimm video quari lae imptra 
torci popnU Bovuini commMiomiAiT, cvm it imo dtligeaio agalv, 
tt qmiem per popiduni Ronumim. 

4. OtUiula soMi, &c. "lliBt atiin, cantncted in ibe pnrioiu 
Mlthhdatic wu, inDat be eSaeed bj yoa, itMch bu oow aaiik 
deeplj in, and become identified by l^ne of time wilb the name 
of the Roman peojde." Imttenuce, which ws htTe bere nlber 
panphruad tban Innalated, means tilently, "to gn»f old in," "to 
pthei atrengA b]r age m time," " to bacome deaply raoled," dic. 

8. Qttoi it, &c. "Tha he." Ac. Refening to Hitbiidatea, 
' and hia ladiaciiniinate ■laughter of Uie Romana in Aais. Tbia 
nonarch aent ■ecrat orden to aU tbe gevomon of. hia Asiatic pn»- 
initoi, onjoining oa thBm lo maaaaen, on tbe Uiiitielh dajr tStei Oie 
raceipl of thcM ioetructione, aU the Romaaa and Itaitau in tbeir 
•orenl di^crieta, withonl regaid to i^ or aei, and tO lecfe Aeir 
bndiM wilbont tbe lilaa of buiial. LAppian. B. M. 99.) PtutaKh 

' -.■C<,„glc 

THB ■itm.IAir UW. 31> 

BMM Ihe mnnber riun on imi oceuioa M bwra boen 160,000. ■jr^ 
r.Ki/. 8)ril. «. H,) VtJranu MuimuB (9, 3, 3) gina it w «0,000, 
irtiich ii pnhtbfy aeuei tba tnilh. liiii arant oocnmd in Um 
eoQnilslup of S]rll& tnd Q. Ftnnpeias Roftu, A. U. C. 600, B. C. 8«. 

6. Dfi» dM. Tbe mMiicra took plaee oa tbe «me d>y diroagb- 
oat Ibe ^ties Of Aos. The intervsl of thirty dajia wu preecnbed, 
m oidei Ihat tbe aeoTet intelligeDce migbl be DommDDJcatad in timq 
to ibe tnote distuit ciciei. Tite mesaengei would hive time to wl 
»31 in tbiity dairB, utd lil would tbta he prBpaiBd lo act in cODcon. 

7. Tal in cMWifcu. Apfua (B. M. 33) enDHiente* nTenl 
ol tha Gieok citiea of Aeii which obeycd tfae cTvel dinietiDDa si 
Hithriduee, uid Dienliima UiO ibe diferent ways in which Ihe oritK 
ma eiecuted, Templea end ■ll*n effinded na nfuga. Thi oidy 
two ntalet thtt remuDed EulhTDl lo the Romuii, utiid the geoBil - 
delecuOD which followed Ihia dinuter, note MegDeeia utd Rbodei. 

8. Aiqu» ii?u titeriBTim ngnificatume. "Aod hr tbe import . 
of ■ nngle lettei." Tbe coiAlentit] nieateDgeT hid » Itttaii at 
gensnil ciiculd, which he •hewed to eicb of llu goremoti of Ifas 

e. Cicet Ramana», &c. " Mufcod out Roisaii sitiaeM jar 
Iratcherj uid deuh." We baTs ■lleivd, id trDNdaiing, d» ponlioQ 
of tTiKiianio» tnd tueandot, in otdei to tdapt tbe metning moie ta 
tbe Ei^ish idiom. "Fneido i* to pat lo death wilfa ciicnraitBBBtB 
•f eiuelty, lo bntchei, &e. 

10. Sti ah iUo lempore, &,a. "BDt ii ddw leigning ibi.lba 
tweDly-lhtrd jeu from Ihit pened." Thia onltan wta ddiTend 
A. U. C. 687. ThemtatwretookplKeA. U.G.888. 

11. Nejue Cappaioeitt laletrit. " Nor in tbe lioling pUcai of 
C^itiedocia." The teim latehrae lefeie to Ihe inlind sitiutiaii of 
thie eoantry, cempued with tbe olhei legiODt thu bo«dei upon 
Pontot. Coinpm the remaik of Muiettua : " Quia gmtrian %ni* 
vertanun, juae Ponlum aceUimt, vna naiime intranitt nctdil :" 
•nd ilBoClceTD, (AgT. S, 31,} ■'fii PaplilagBniat ttnehit, «futa 
Caypadodae totitudint.'' 

IS. E patrie Ttgno. PoDtnB. Mithiidatae wat the «emith 
monaich <j' tbe name thct niled orer Ihi» coBntrr.— Jt^KC m eeilnt 
ttetig^iha, Ac, " And to cuiy on bis operttiana in tbe midst of 
joor tnbntiTieB, Uwtis, nndsr the Terr ejes of Ant." Tba finea 
•f htce, ia tiiis c1«n«e, is tppuent from itt baiDg conliaaMd wilta 
Utehrit occnltBTe. CompKre Bp. ad Quint. fratr, 1, 1,«: "/«(«« 
sn-lsfm mn latfrt in tenebrit, ntque u» abiitant, tsd tn lutt 
Atiat, tn Pnilif liarittimtu prtnneiae, aJ^Ke tn «arthw B maiim 
ftmmm uii potittm," ■ 

87 , 


^ tS. Mgmtmttanm. "ThsbtdgMof nctMr,"!.*. Mndnds 
■nd othar «bIiImih of loccaM. Some coguuenUtoa coMidar IIm 
•IhukHi (o b« lo trini^bi, but maaaootij. — Nan wielariam. " NM 
veUxj itMlf." 

li. !>. Mmms, L. LKUin» Uonu wm tha 1ieBt«Miit of Sjlla. 

, lA. Pdiui npmaufM rtfimrU. "Iluagh iqolMd ■nl 
TCDqiwlMd itin nignid." 

16. Qnod v«nMt. " Foi whit Ib^ did," i. e. fn^fUr U quot 
tgtnmt. — QueiriHqiuTttiU. " Foi wbM tbej lefl DiidODe." Hit 
thiu eoMtden qtei ■ eonjoikcliaa bece, ■nd ■fter rcIifuerMif under- 
Muid» JfttiTHlaJra. The eoMtnKtion we hkn ■dopled ii moeh 
■iiijillli IffKadbemconjiuiclioii withrcUfiimmt, itmMt tima bo 
■ conJDnotion with v'">"'i ^u i^ich nolbingMi b« mns kwk- 

17. RttfnUkc. " The itkte oT pablic «ffiun at bome." Ths 
•neoeieM of Ifas Huiui fMlioo tt home indoced SfUa lo letom to 
Vaij. Ha meiin one tnetj wkh MidiridelM ; uid Muibm, hie 
ItmilMWM, wben leraDed bj him, nude ■nothei. Hence, in ■tiict- 
IMH, tba pnwat wh Ibe Ihitd Mithriditic wu. 

18. Jfnmm Siiila moMMt. Sjlk bsd |iiMiin; occuuii, 
ytrf piofadiljr, fin ■!! thsM ttoop* in Itatj. Accoiding to Flutiich, 
(l^ obltins hia inJonuition bvm the oommentuiM of Sjlh,) be 
bid lo enMHinlei on hii letnm home, upen thii ocMaioii, Msea 
gaMab, irtia had ondei tbem not Ism thui twentj-fira legioiia. 

19. Omu Ttliqatim Itmpnt- Refemiig to ihe mterril between 
Ihs dqisitute of Minen W Ibe Mnewil of bostihtiH bj the Ro- 
Bsns. — Ad tamparaHaiun mm. " To |»cpsntioiu foi s new ons." 

SO. Ifiii potUaqMam, itc. " Forsfleihehadbniltiiidequi^fad," 
Ac. Qui befpuuiiig ■ cIbum ii heie eqniTelent lo iUe. 

31. Botfariaat. " Against the inhstHtente of ths BMpoius." 
Tlie peopla of tha Thnciin Bospt^a (tlrailt t/ Csn»t>nJiiu>^) 
■n maant, who bid levolted &om him lo ihe RoouM 

33. Ltgtiot. L. Migios uid L. Ftnnius, "r**"'"^ citaeoa 
of Aorae, uid beloqging lo the Muian laetioD, wbo lad fled to 
Milhiidstes, uid iud pemuded him to Mod them m ■iiiliawniliiiii lo 
Sanorius, ihe besd of the Maiisn paitj, who ww now tbij power- 
fiil in Spein. {Affia». B. M. S8.) AsconiQi, in hia eoaunanta on 
tba fint onlion ■gsinii Venes, (c. 84,) isniariu m Ibllow* : " Jfi 
frsiu/tVM /o^ <■ Jfiinano exiTeiiu, afud Miiiridattm agtnttt, 
ai todtm Ttgt ad Strtoriuni HBjn ertat dtfaeueenda tonetale MH 
adtrtut SomaHOt: juat iif Ileha jtm fotitat, ti ad Strtonum,GoOgk 


fytlinaiiia, tt iMltt JMdicaaeral, it tnjiifciniat cutHtavirral 'J'3 

23. Ac Jilero», " And iBttBm," i. «. propaulB or dBspBtcb», 
Tlie MSS. nrj camaidenblj here. Some hive Bcbalamt, wbiclt 
ii the reading mdepted ia the commoib text, otheis Eleclatiit, EUe- 
tariu, I Lclntanu, ac Uttiat. Thii lattei leeding hu beec -MloptAd 
by Matthiae, OrEUios, uid othen. It it ceitunly fu pAferBbls tQ 
Echatatia, unce Ecbduia, in Media, doea nol ^^i«« lo haTG been 
nuted \t] Hilhiidatea, or eTBQ Tigiaue*. 

34. Ai eat iuett. Refsimg to Seitoriiu tai his followetB. . 
Thia ooauoiDdei iaA foimed * ■enate, compoeed of llie BeiutoiB 
piaKiibed t^ &yO», u weU u othen of hie owa choouiw, uid 
endasToaied, m vrvrf poBuble isipect, to imitate the foim m-gov- 
eiiiment tt homn. Tbe leaden lefemid to ware, beiidB» himieir, 
hia lieateDanta ind othei officen, — Duoiat in loei*. Pontiu ind 

2£. Uaa eoiuiiio. " In tccoiduice with one eommon plin of 
operatiooi." — A hijBi hotlium eopii*, The dietiibu^e nunHnU 
m nsed with wi»dB which have no lingalu, or whoie lingnUi, u 
in tbe praent iaatutce, hOB s diffeieat aigniGcation &qid the plunl. 
[Zumpt, L. G. p. 7S.) Hus mle ia of nie io tianglitiDg; thua, 
•iuM lilerat, " two letten of Ihe tlpbBbet," but Uaat liltrae, " Mo 
^idlea." THa vtMlimatla, " thiee piecee of ctothing," but ttrm 
mUtneTiia, " thiee auila of clothmg." Quatuiir cattra, " Ibai foc 
liene>," or *' CBBtlea," but iptatem» eatlra, " fbui CBnqia," Ac. 

I. ViM, atieipti ctaUtiaiottt dittrieli, &c. " You, embanBaaed iJA 
bj ■ conteit pieiung •joa oa both aidea, .piight hiTe to contend for 
ampn« itself," L e. fot tha Teij enateDce of joui enqnn. Dttlnctt 
ii heie equiralent to in anjtufiM niaeti. Some lead ieitrieli, 
odien diMrocfi, but both ue infbnoi. 

3. Sei tamm alterim parlit, dcc. "Ilie duigei, howeT«, ■ 
whicb thraBtened od ODeaide,&om Seitoiiua and Spain." ManntiuB 
BDqieola the woid* Serlor^nae atgue Hiipaitiaitit of being ■ men 

' 3. FtrmameTUi ae Toioru. "Of endanng atnngth." LitenllT', 
" of Btabilitj ind atieagth." Owingi nuneiy, to the militu; talenta 
■r SeiloitDB. 

i. Cn. Farn.peH iinno eannlio, ice. " Waa waided □0' bj tbo 
godlikB wiadCKB and DDaqniUed Taloar of Comub Pompeina." 'Dua 
ii the laaguBge of gioat Bdulation. SertoriuB wbb incompanUj 
the betl«i genenl of the two, and, had he not loat bia life bj ^ 
(nacb«j oi aome of hjB foLloweia, would oioat ceitainlj haTe proved 
■Dpuioi in the conteat. — Cicero h&d the conaulship in Tiew, and iim 

„,,.,, Coogle- 


74 afejtM, tbanfon, wu t« gun iIm food wiB of Ae pMpla bjr •itdlii^ 
ibes &viniiita, uid MCtn «Iw b^ tliu tnaum the (rieiiddup of 

6. £i aitcr* f«rM. •■ In tbo «pponte qnncr." ReronBg to 
Am*. — Aa r<* a L. IiiKaKa, dcc. (Scera'1 lAiiect i* t« depraciita 
LocaUin, in propoitioD u ba Meki to riente tbe chanctei df 
Pompey. He managei tfaii, hoHrereT, witfa giect ■droitiiew, fsf ao 
■ppanntlj elknn gmt pniie to LneuUua, bnt tiien there ie aiwajo 
■ametlung &dded which dimintriiae iti fone, Wheraee, in Pompey'a 
eaae, tue ■DmmendEtiaDi are nnboanded, uid eren fnlnniB. LocdI- 
hi>, libe Sertoiia*, wu bx eoperioc to PooipBr ui mitiiUT telenta. 

6. Ltilit gttUnm remn, "Beginning* of exf4oJta." AHndiBg 
(• tbe aulier maTetnanti of Lncallin in tbe Milfaiidatic war. 

T. Htuc Hl«ni extrtmt, "Thaee httaf Tevcma*, boweTei," 
Hitbridalee hid, eii tbe dep u t ur a of LtKallna, itot onlj regained 
poeaeaeioR or Pontai, but had even made en inroad inlo Ihe Romin 
pNcmca of Ami. Ke had defeated bIm tiia healeMnta of Lacallna, 
HtdmadelMmi^niaeteTef alaigepaMof AnaMinoi. Compaie 

8. JVan etUptu, tei ferttaiat. " Not to inj &aH of hi«, bat to 
hia iU-fbTtane." Thia, thoogfa appannthr Eur, ia in fketveij inridt- 
ooalj otteied. CiceiD afteiward, in eniimerating Aa qiiatificationa 
of aa ible getierel, giiea goed fortane « veiy coiiapicnoiiB [jBca, 
■iid findi, of coona, a Teiy gieat Bbandance of it ia hie laTounle 

B. AUcleco, He retnnu to LncuUus in the 6Ui cheptar. — Qra 
timu noMra. " B^ uij ncuika of mina." 

10. j^fficuttit. "To be beatowedupon him." AfingtnUtet' 
■Ur meuiB, to >dd b; &Bming, derising, or inrenting. Campaia 
praCliitnt,t.i: " FaeiamutinUlUgmlit • gnii trnr «fiaae- 
rt(, fvid iinridia oan^irtt." 

11. Bimtut, " Tbe tine beginfting." — Qiien wiw, dcc. "WbU 
IMiiigB ymi aie to Uiink ought lo be enteitained br jon." 

13. MercstorUni» ae naviaitariie, dcc. " Becauae theii tnden 
■nd 'propiielon of TseselB wen trreled in too wiongfal ■'nunner." 
Hte manwteFBi, among the RoniBna, remaBMd ■ rery ahoit time in 
■ place, *)Biled mBny counbriee, and wen Blmaat conalBntlj olcu- 
{ned witb eqxMing (nd importmg articIeB of mercbuidiee. The 
ntfolialereti ob the other hand, temwnad fbr ■ome coneidenate 
tima in ■ .pBiticnlBT «pot. — JVanculanu. ThiB is tbe reading of 
LBmbinua, and ia adupted aiao bj GiBorius, Emeati, and othen. 
[t is fonnd in good MS3. The euij editionB hare itamcufofopi^. 


15. Tnt ntHUiiu. Flutnch, u wb hns slnadj renuriiMl, makM ■J'^ 
dje BUnttar IBO.OOO, bnt Vslent* Muiraii* 80,000. 

U. X^h juod erani apptSati nferbiitt. " BeeintB dnir 
Ambundon werQ addrenKd in too bnughty k muiner/' Cioero 
{IDipoaBlj lesMni the nataTB oT ths oQence, Ihat it inaj be contnuted 
the mora farcfi>ly with the conduct of MithridUeL He niBkeB it 10 
have been ratmij ui -employnient of bioghty luigaiige on the put of 
the Coiinlhiaai. Wbtt tbe inmlt reilly wea » diSisientlj repre- 
nnled bj tbe uicient wriCen, snd Dowhere eleariy B[q>ean. Stnbo 
(8, p. S8I, Catttnt.) u,ya, thet fi)th wu thrown upon the Romin 
ainbusatdon &o[n one of the houwe of the dtj, as tbey wne pu> 

■ing bj : ri>h nal n9l' irlsdEuii, «pid.rur rlp. oiVa. a«r<]}r, IBiflniimi 
iitTarr),!imgtfllaftr. Livy, on the othefband, (Epif. lib. 53,] atates, 
thet peraonal Tiolenee was oSered Ihem : " Carinllaim iz ienatut- 
coimila diniil, jvod iti Itgali Anuint vialali mmf." 

16. Eztiinetttm. Refening giainmiliciJlj to lumeTi. Some reai! 
latirultnt, agreeing with Corinlhum, Corinth wae destroyed bj 
Mamnhu, the Rooun consul, and with it fell the Aehaean teagug. 
Coniak Oeographical Indei. 

tO. Legalvm popvli Romani, dte. Tbe Bllnsion is lo Maniue 
AquiliuB, who had deliMted Uie slares in Sictly. He waa eent at 
the bead of the Roman commigsianers to restore to tbeii kingdolns 
Nicoiaedei and Ariobarzuies, who hsd been driien out by Mithri- 
dstes. Hta haughly danteanour soon biaught malters to an c^n 
nipture wiili tbat monarch. who defeated alid took hiin prisonet. 
The conqueior led him ^ut ihe conntty on an m. and obtiged 
him by blows uid scouiging lo proclaim, Irom lime lo time, lo ibe 
iseembled speclaloit, that he waa Manittl Aqnilius. At length he 
bronght him to Pergamus, wheie be CBnaed melted gold to be pomed 
down hi> duoftt, as > earcaam opon tbe eupidity of the* Romana 
{Ap^B. B. M. ai.— Pitn. H. N. 83, U.) 

17. ^ Hbtrlalem etvium, Ac. "They biooked not eren an 
hfringement of the perKinsl priritegee of Roman eitiiena." 

18. Verto, " Only hy woid." Compare the language of ttie 
qieeker juat aboTe : " Legali quod eranl appellali tupeAiiu." — 
JUi peratati nad. •• They iTenged." 

19. Vot ligatiim, flce. " Wil! yoQ leaTC unnoticed an ambaas»- 
doi put to deatb by ereiy speeiee of torture V Before rtlinqiulit 
•ome edition* baTe tmilltini eipreeaed, but it aroae pnbably fnm a 
marginal glosa. Jiefinfuefu ia fai better without the preaence «f 
tmltun, and ia elegsntly qipoaed to pertemti tunt. 

20. <tuid, quod taiat toeiormn, Sui. " Wbal Bball I say of this, 
Ibat the Mfetr of yom alliea t* inrolTed in the moat immiiMnt dan- 



oKATion iN rAVonii or 

[" dufu" uid " hazBnl'') 
ra taiflojti br Cicaro, iccoiduig to tS« 
CDMom of ths lAlin wiitan, to indiote « bigli degiH of duiger, 
ind wa hna raudand ibam, tccoidiiigl]', oa oiw wofd. — ThB eUq>tiB 
in fnidi iwd, i» lo ba anffdiad u Mlow* ; Quul lUcan dt Itae, 

31. Dko rtgt». Milhndatn utd hu >od-ii>-Uw Tigium. 

XL CiMciA Atia elfiu Graeeia. Wcieke coniiden Aria iud 
Oratati u (blitivei, " ihiDnglHHit &11 Aait *nd Giesce." Tha 
DomiiwtiTa, howsvei, ({qiBui otaiei, " the wbola of Aut ind of 

38. Imferalm-tm certvm. " A puticulu commwidei." Pompej. 
— Alium. GUbno, tha codidI of tbe praviaiu jeu, now, oT cinine, 

w pcricido. Tbs liak «Uoded to ii Ibat of ofieDdiiiK 
u ■ctnallj qipointed. 
S. UmimtimHi». Pompejr. — In guo nmma' linl omaia. "Id 
wbom the higbed quilitiei centre," i. e. tbe higbeat qnBlificstioDi 
foi Ihs Euccsuful nuuiageiiient of ^ wu. 

5. Propt. Pompej hsd just brought the wu with the pintea to 
■ ■uccenfol ianie, letlling miDy of ihem in tbe Uttle lowna of Cili- 
eiL He wu now employed iD Tiaiting gome of tbe citiea of tbe 

4. Qua itiam carBnt aegriut. " On which ■oconnt tbaj eren 
feel the wut of biin tbe more eeDsibly." I 

6. Mariiimum btUum. "Thowu with tl 
Tho powei of the pintei, is Plataich rem&Aa, (i 
ita foandstion iD OiUcia. Tbeii [KDgiess wu i 
becsuse at Gnt it wu little noticed. In tba ] 
■nuRied new confidence and coonge, on sccoi 

which (hey bad rendeied the king. AfteiwBid, in the inteiral 
between tha fint uid second Mithiidatic wus, tha Ronuins being 
«igaged ia civil conleata at Ibe veiy gates of thaii capital, ibe aea 
wu Icft luiguarded, and the pmles by degiees Utemplad bigbei 
Ibings ; iwt only attacking ehipg, but laliDda, snd muitime towns. 
They had, in vuioui pUces, sneoals, potts, and watch-towers, itl 
■lioiigly forUGod- The numbei of theii galleyi Btnonnted to a 
tboniand. and tbe cities taken to fonr hundied. Tbey not only 
insulled ths Romans fiequently, but alao inteicepled theii convoys, 
oiid made piisonsn of theii geneiajs. Nay, Ihey not only attacked 
tbs Somana at aea, but iofested the great roada, and plundeied the 
viDu neai tbe coaat Two pneton, Seitilius and BelliDUt, wera,Go0^k 

THE HANILUir UW. 3] 9 


e>tried«ff wuhiH tbeir Mrnnt* «nd licton; uid tlu daoglitei of ^5 
ADtoDiD*, K DUD wbo lud baaD boDound wilb ■ tiiamph, was leiied 
b; thein ei she wu going to bei countcr-baiue neu Miaenum, and 
Ibfl fitber wu foreed to paj ■ lerge nnBOm for ber relaise. At . 
lenglb, bj tbe Gabintui liw, Pompej wu MU ■gaiiiBt tbem, uid 
■peedilj reduced thoDi to itibjeeCion eud broko op their huinta. 

6. ImpeKu bulium. RdeiiiDg to the fbieea of Milhriditee, 
nhoM movements, ■ecordiug to Cieeio, weio " cheefced mi te- 
t^nled" by ibe mere knowledge thet Ponipej waa in Asis, thongh 
in ■ difTeieDt pait of the couDtiy. 

7. Qiumum tiiere U>qtii non Uctt. llnoagh feai, iiamel; oF 
oSending riw Ronun comnunder wbo tben bad cbuge of tbe Mitb- 

8. Qaantm tatulent foJi nra cammendetit, "Ot haviDg thek 
nfety entniated by jfod 10 aach an individoal." Liteiall;^, " whoie 
■afsty you may entnist, &o. 

S. Aijue hoe ttiat» laagiM fUMA eelerat. " Aod on tbu ■cconnt 

TtuigiM iignot quatn eeterot toaot, &c. 

10. Cum tmperio. "Wilh mililaiy comaund." — Iptormn tA- 
tenttit, dtc. " Tlie entnnce of theHi euiie individnale into tb* 
eitiei of oui aUies diSeis," dcc. LitenllT, "the sntnneeB," &«. 
Advenlat bnng die nomuuljve ptnial. Among Ibe Latin wrilen, 
■bettact uid veibel DOQng ore often pot in the plonl, to nuik lh*t 
tb tea pUce at vaiiona limeB, nbeie in ' B F^ fa h 

mlta. Alludtng to hia pnviODi i^ientiou 
M Stc. Conmlt Hiatoricil Indei. 

ia. "Of 10 muchself-contiol." Tbii viitDe 
ia I fint, tbBt it may ba contr^eted in > more 

m i^iBcitv that characterixed the othai Ronui) 


13. Cum Antiacho. The oider of time ia not obserred. Tba 
wer with the CutbaginiBDB Bhoold, striotly apsaking, bBve been 
■umsd irst. It bioke ont A. U. C. 489, and tiie oetenaible eania 
w*a tbs lending of eid, on ths patt of the Ronuna, to Ibe Mamar- 
tineB, in Maitana, who hnd entiBBCed their aid ■gainBt the foicea of 
Carthage. ThetniemotivetolbewBrwBetbeipiritofriveliybetwaen 
Romi tnd CBiUuge. It ii csUed in biuoiy ^e FiiBt Punic Wsr.— 
Nell in order wbs Ibe contoBt wilh Pbilip, king of Micedonia, 
He w»« the third of tbat namo, and must not bo confoundod witb 
tbe fBlber of Aleunder, who lired loug befoie. The RomaoB mule 
«ar npon him btcaute he had attacked tbe Alheniuia, the tJliee nf,CoOgk 

330 OKATmw Df WArooM. am 


75 (ba npaUw. TfaM occnnd X. V. 0. fiSS.— TIw edlliwn with 
Astioeh» tbe Omt, took plaea A. U. C. BSR, tni IhB contaat wm 
temuoated bj hi* dBfMl uid mbmiuion cba Bnwiing yaai. It ma 
coniwctad witli tha mt iguDac tba Aetdiun, wbo had niied coid- 
DotioQi in Oraocs «giiiut tbe illia af BomB, aad had inTitsd An- 
tiochaa, BMHiaich of Sfii«t to theii aid. - 

14. Itguriii fmactto*. ■* Inilaled bif a aetiaa of penoiB] injii- 

Ifi. Frmticrtimi «nm, iix. " Eq>eeiallj wImii jmu raoat im- 
poituit rateauea an at atake." 

16. ITuM atinf. "Are *o incoDaidanbla." Toabi ia here 
•qainleDt to tatUiila, or, mon comctlj apa^ing; ita liMnl mean- 
ing in Ihia pMaage ii, " aD gnat, and no gnatei." Hence aiiaea 
te idaa of acanliDcn uid dimiDDtion. iDalaDeea of aaimilai uaage 
aeeni in Caeaai, B. G>. 6, S4 : Praanda UMmh t*t (" Ibera ia ao 
■auU a ganiMni") %U iu nKnw juidim cingi fotttt," umL Cic. Ep. 
ai Fmt. S, 10 : " 5i ielbmm UaUm tril 

IT. Atia. Referring to tbe Roman pioriiKO of tlM nama. Con 
aait oote 19, pige 73. 

II. Ul tt uhtrUU tgTvmm, &e. Ckoni hm euunwntea tb* 
ontbaij aouice* of Romui nreDue, the pradnetioiia of tbe earth, 
Iba paatura^gniuDdB, and the eipotta geiHnllj. 

19. El itiU nlililaien, ifce. "To np(uld buth tbe meana ot 
uaritabiasa in nar, and of dignitj in paaoe." Wa hBTs leluned tba 
coDimon raading wilh Enieati ind manj othen. OiBaiiui girea 
«4 UJi, &c., imtaed of « iilU, fram one of hia M8S., uid make 
nufHifl-c nfei to eam undentood. Tbe comnuHi lection is mora 

80. Cum tmt eaJ«mtU«. "Wben eahmitj hae utaallr 
eoDM." — la vtctigatilmt, " Id the c«ae of joni nrenueB."— • 
Aftrt cetamilatem. " BriDga luinoua coiueqneDCsa ah»^ witb 

Sl. PeeoTa Teliitgiiimtiir. "Hie flocka ara abandiMwd." Ser> 
Ttna, in hia commenCuj, (ad Virg. Oearg. S, 04,) cites Ibia psauge 
^ipanntlj, uid leada ptcna, iampeai. But fteua doea Dot occnr 
in anj of the-M^S. 

32. jtfereatomni nmigatio tMtqiaittit. " Tbn tnding of tiw 
meiehuita begini to inbaide." Men &»ij, "commeiee atag- 

"HQ 1. IlOijm ntqtu ex portit, &£. Cieeio hera eDumerate* tbe thiea 
piincipal jource* of ths lereDue obtained Irani tha Roroan piovin' 
cet: — 1. Ei fortu. "Fram tha luibmr," i. a fiom diitie» im- 

m iuMn.uif uw. 331 


fotai OD npwt* Hid n^Kta. — 8. E» iccmnu, " fna tiChi*." 'yQ 

TbeJtcumat went t, lenth putofcom, and b fiflh of other fEoduce, 
pud b]' thoM «ho tillad the pnblie haia. — Bx icriphiTa. " From 
Ihe public wooda >Bd putBia*." Stnplara wu the tu paid from 
public woode uid peanueo, uid was ao callad, bacww thnae, who 
wiahed t« feed IheiieaUla tbare, labecnbed (acniibiail) theii oiiibm 
befcoe tbe bnnai of Ihii branelk of iMeiun, Bad pud a certaia Mm 
foreach beaaL 

S. Veetifal t m ue iv t n peUtt. " Can aiqr in^oata ba obtaiiMd." 
— Tofttw anm/nictut. " Tba reTeaue of ui eirtire jaar. 

3. Qni Met^oiis no^ pnuiMHt. " Wiia fnj diuiaa nnto 
ue," — Qiii tatretM abptt exigitiit. " Who lum uid coUect 

4. Cmn fuiltcam, &c. " When the fumera of the teTnme 
thiok, Ihat Ihay hotd, at gnat liak, ihe verr nnmerona bodiea of lU^vea 
whom the; hne empl<^ed ia tliB putnre-groundi, in tba fieldi, in 
Ihe haibaun, kA cuttcni-haueM." FtmiUt a bare uaad in ita 
primttiTe eenee, aa deQating a body of alaTea belonging to a paitic- 
nlar maater. Compare tbe lemaA of Featua : " Famuli erigo ti 
Otdt dtpatiet, tpnd put tervu Jusd nonwiuhUiir, utiit tt 

It. Saltiiut. The commim teit haa laiimt, (" aalt-woriu,") bot 
noother tnce hu baen diacOTeradof b leTenna deriTad &odi «ak ' 
woib, in Aii> MiDoi ; ind, what ia of atill greater weight, if wa 
letaia ttie common lectiaii, mantion wiU enl; be mide, in (hiB paa- 
aage, of Iwo branchea of lerenue, the dteumac and Ihoee ex jwriB, 
whila the thiid branEh, tcriptura, ynO be paaeed OTer in eilence. 
Inflnanaed b; tbeea caowlerMiOQa, Ijpeine £nt conjeetived taltHnit 
foi ttiinii, aod bia amendation haa been eppiored ot }yj Gronoriai, 
Bnimann, Emeeti, Schnti, and otheia, and admi^ted b; aome of 
them into the teit. We haTa fbUowed theii authoritj. One M3. 
of Lamtnnna' ha* tiluit. Aldua conjeelured iiUielit ai refetriog to 
tha piatQie-groimda, iriiich aboDnded with grotei of wUlow. 

5. Cittlodiit. Bf ti utaJ w i Bte b«n meiiit b kind of cnatom- 
booee*, ^eia i cnUBbei of peraani, geianlly ibTe*, weia atationed 
by the pNilieafit, tognaidagaimt amog^lig. SotQelimie*, tha tana 
ii spplied to Ihe peraona thsmielTea, and ii diea Bnalogona to oat 

7. JUii TeiuM friU poiie. "Can la^ anr adTanl^ Iroin time 
thinga." — Qui vobii fnuMi «wif. " Wbo are the authora of thi* 
edTantage unto jou," i. e. ^Kne ezwtion* en*Ua yon to re^ Ihis 
adTvitaga. Tlw coramoQ teit hia frnctimti, fai which wa hira 
gt*enyVactm,dMM«diii(of Meof IbeMSS. ItWBBfiratadopUd 


333 OBi.TioK m TAVomi or 

JQ bj lamboDt, Bnd likaT him hj OiaaTioa ind odMn, u mM* «le- 

B. £itrnmuiL *' Ai tbe Uit pmnt on which U) (oaeh." — Otiat 
—*tm ikt¥m. " Whco I itianld cMna to ipnk." 

0. AJi mdtanm bona avtKin. Tba iudj^ridoili hets mMnt aze 
At RoDun knight*, who &niMd tba Aa«tic lerMniM, kA tboos 
tradm who wen cuTjiiig on moKuitilo opantiDns in thtt qnuter, 
bDihafwhicbclHMBof pcnom hkd lugs nima of DioiM;latd oot 
in tho pionDce, uid nfaieh weie cnueqnMlj endangered bj ttui 

10. Quomm Botu, dce. " For whom jou, in joni wisdom, Ro- 
mani, ou^ lo h*ve ui eipBciil regud," L e. ovei wboM interaeta 
jva oo^ cuefiillj 10 witch. 

11. Nam tt pMUam. Ilie puticle M, (" botb,") i* ban oppo^ 
•d to iMait, (" utd in tbe naxt pUce,"} et the coniineDcemeDt of 
the 18ib ■ection. 

13. Bamatia cl tiMtartiitntia, dce. " Veij bimoanbte u weD 
aa inl^igentBUD." Omafunni ie cQDudorad bj «oma to refei 
han to mnk in Iba atala. It hu leUlion ratb^ lo genenl infona- 
■tion and inteHigeitea on tbe put of tbe jndividiiili aUuded to. 

13. SvM ratiatat, doc. " Han> .^uiafeirad all theii biuineaa 
opentioiii uid meana to tbat pminca." Rationa uid nopiae ate 
eipiaiDed inunediatal]' tftei bj ru and /«rtiHUK, " efbiii and foi- 

14. Ntmn. " Tbe ainews." — Eva .ordinsffl. llie eqnestiiui 

Ifi. Clitn* €x prAnhu. Eicepting of coiina (be ■esate, tbe 
memben of whicb oidei weie nat ■tlowed to eiigage in tTsde. 

16. NtgolitMur, " Cuif on tnde." Ae legude llie diatiac- 
tion l>rlween ihe Tiegoliaiiira uid tbe ntreatoret, coniult nole 13, 

17. Partim taai li niontn, dcc. Tbe eulr edilionB end the 
MSS. giTe fartim «orum, foi ivhieh vn h»e eubatitnted Itie lead- 
iag in oor teit wtth Emeeti, Schutz, uid otiwia. Pomm «oriin 
ii ■ good Ciceiotiian jihnM, but it imdna an awkwaid collocation 
bera afiei komina gnm tt inAulrii porttm ipti ■ • ■ ■ mga- 

19. Proiii*". "To ■hieW."— ViAre. "To foreaee."— J 
Ttpuhliea ttjmwlam att non pottt. " Cannot he aepaiated liom 
lliat af de atate," i. e. caoDot fail lo affect ttie public prHperitj. ' 

19. Ettnim ^bii prinaiim, &j:. " Foi, in ttie fiiat pltce, it ■nila 
bol litlle, Itiat jou afteiwnd lecorei bj a Tictoij tlie lereiuiet Uiet 
Un baeo laei br fw bnnen of tbem ; fin nMther wiD tbe miot 


lndindails ptMMH tbe niesni of inakmg ■ new coDinct, bj reuon ■7g 
of tlwir loflHa, por wiU otheiv hi¥e tbe inciniatioD to to do, (m 
•cconnt of Iheii fears," i, e, theii few» of boing inTOiied m Bimilu 
rnin with ths preTione conttaclon. 

30. boiio btUi Aiialid. He refen lo the peiiod of the genenl 
muucra of the Ronuni !□ Abu, bj onler of MithiidBtee, Aboot 
lwautj'three jeuii h»d el^ned BiDce that eTSnt. 

1. Ra magtiaM. " Loige unouiite." RefeiTing lo the ixigt ^yy 
■nin* of monej which. reij manj bimen of the leTenoe hid loit in 

Ihe tioubles &nd confmion thet enEued. 

2. &iiniu, Somae, &a. " We tnow, thit, pejment* becomtng 
embairas«d, ccedit fell ot Rome," Verr nwnj of the pMkani in 
Aaia btTicg loet large enms of monej there, in eonaeqoeDce of the 
diautcoua Btate of pabtic a&in, aod othen haTJng been tdUed duc- 
ing the mseaacre of Che Rcnani, there ennied of conna a DOn- 
pajment of luge anuHuiti dne to the bmken at Rome, and which 
bad been loraed ths fbrmer to eneble them to meet their cuntncte. 
Hence a geaeinl KabBaaaemenc wai fek in the monej-maiket, ud 
public credit fell. 

3. Rtm aiqiu foThmat. " Theu' propettj and tbrtnneeL Bj 
Tem it hsre meant tbeir iictual pmpn^ and reeomiEea at the time, 
bj /ffrftinM, tlieir proapecta in bnsineea. 

4. Haec fida atqut luae raiii) ptaaiiarmt, &c. " lliii ijitem 
of pnblic credit, tnd theaa monejed opeation* that ue cuiied oa at 
Bome, and in the fomm, ue CDnnected nith Ihoee mime laid oat in 
Aua, and Ibim B cloee iinion with them." Liteisllj, " ars booud 
apwilhandcliiiglathem." ,TheofficeaortbsbBnk«i weismtaata 
■lound the finum, which heocB became their usnal place foc msedng 
■od trsnsacdng bnsineas, 

6. Ruert Uia tum pottimt, 6x. " Tbe lattet caimot faliwidmit 
the fbnoei'» being ■haken bj the eame morement and falling slong 
widi Ibsm." lUa and haec becoms teie, when adaptsd to aor 
idiom, " tbe lattei," sad . ■' the fomui," bat in 1111011)«« iOa refen 
to nhat ia moie r^mote, the mcnwjed opendona in Aua, and haee to 
what ii nsuei bMne, dM itate af boaineH in tbs BomaQ fomin. 

6, CvBtrepuiliea. "Togelhei wilh ths bert intenMa of the 
itate," Thrse MSS. haTS aim r^nibliea emjtniclae iefeniantvT, 
bat eonjtmctae eaTOun of a gloei- Gruter, Gneriua and otbe» 
resd dtfaiJuntur, hat Emeati defendi tbe common form : " Defen- 
dantut recepi, qnommlo CiceroTiem icriptitic teti^ier jnilavi, nam 
ita ratia lalimlalii poitulat." 

7. Polttl cnim Aoe dici. "- Foc thia maT be iffirmed," L s. thii 
iMertiaD maj ds made wilh peifect uielj. 



7^ 8. N» fm.t m. Ttw e«BmMi tot hM m Jwrtt m, tb» pnmtt 
«nding i* oonJKtanL Soma USS. &■«• iu/arwa«,wliich SdiOtt 

9. ^(^ nl omiut, tce. 

)0. jribbiiUh. Tha caBunou Isit hu MiHridttu, fbr iriueh 
wa hkn giveD tha datiTe, h occmniv in on* of tbe HSS , oDd 
dipwiilinfl oa faiiti i " Mithiidita* wu in pnoMMioD of Tuir gieat 
flmaa," Fiiiinri ifipnTM of MitlBriiaii, thangh b« gJTea tbo 
imiitiT* iD hia teiL Schati adi^iti tha ditiTO u we haTO 
diMM. 8aaM<rf' tho Mitigr «ditiOM 'iim*t ^tlttt alua fuiMn, od 
MqoelmB, hot IhaD «iMMai «wi miut b« «buigod to httralam 

11. Ownhu refa», dcc. " Eqn^iped uid nip;died witb ill thiags 
nqoiaCe," i. e. loniiihod witb una uid pmTiuoni of ill kind*. 
Thii ia nid wilh eaiiM degne ot ontonc*! enggention. Aecont- 
i^ to Appiin (B. M. 73), uid Ptutucb f.VU. LuciUI. c. 8, w?f.), 
tha fbicM of IilithiidBtM w«»i tbi^ eeuitiljr nippiied witb prorisioDe, 
wbicb wu one of ths pnDdpal cuuet of bii abuidoDiiig Ihs mge 

IS. Urbttmfut Cftictnmm. CoMiilt BiMoneil Indu, a. v. 
LocuUi», uid Geognphical iadez, s. Ti Cjiioiii. 

18, Mtximamillilitdini. Accotding to Plalueb, ( 7i(. ImchZL c 
7,) tU annj of MithndatM conuted of 130,000 infuittj, 18,000 
Mnli7, *nd 100 disriot* •rmed with sejthM. Appisn ( B. M. 73) 
giTU ihe wbnle unoant, in Riiind nambera, u aboot 300,000 muL 
Ths Romui simr, DDdei Lncnllu*, wu 30,000 foot uid 800 bons, 
aeeoiding to AppisD ; but Plutsrcb makaa Ihe bone to bare beea 

14. CUtttm nttgnam, &c. Ws hsTe hera anolhei iDstsnce of 
ontoriul eiigfientiini. Aftw CjEieus hid been relieTed, uid tbe 
foicea oT Milhridiles defsated st the riTcr Gnnicai, LneoIIas M- 
uiTed inldligence, that thirtaen of the king'a luge gillejs bad been 
•eonoS^tbecout of TnwB, ateering towuds liemnos. He instuidjr 
wenl in pnnnit, look theni, lud killed their adminl Isidoms. Whaa 
thn wu done, he mads all uil aftar aoma otben, which were ia 
adTinee of them, snd were lying al anchor by tbe iaUnd. Hegp 
■gain he wu aucceasfnl, and among Ihe jHisiHMn tiksD wu Marins, 
(or, u Aj^n calla him, Vuros,) an officer aent by Sertoiiaa. 
{PluL Yit. LacuU. c. 13 ) Appisn imAea tbe nnmbei of Teuala 
leEt bf Mithndatea nnder ibe coinmand of Vuiu* ind Uie othet 
iMden lo baTe been 6Stj. (B. M. 77.} 

16 Qttae dacilrat, dce " Whicb, ioaanied wtlh an t»ga 



Atme {ai teng«ance, wai geitn^ htulud tomidl In>r, uBdei ^^ 
leidBn Bent bj Seitoiius." It doe* Dal a^ppm ttotn mj otbei 
■Dlborilj, eicepl Cicero'i oim Dnertion, in tbe oMtkm for Murana, 
(c. IG,) thit tlie jertinetioii of tbe fleet wu Itilj, md u (bi tbe 
leBden ■enl bj Sertoiini, tbeie wu k ftct but ooe. Coneolt pm- 
oeding nole. 

16. Magnai iMliMM, &c. Plntueh make* the eneiiir lo haTi 
knC ic tbs whole can^iugn neeilj S0O,00a men, including tbe eei- 
nnte of the taaj. In tbe bettlo of ths Oitnicue eloiM, 10,000 w«i* 

17. Ptltfntuiiiqiu, &c. Compiie tbe onitiaa Ua Aicbiae, e. B ■ 
"PepnlMa EommiBU opendt, Laeullo imfertnie, Ponlim, Ae. — 
(fui tTUe, &c. *'Wbicb hed hitheito been ahat on ereij aido 
eguut tbe Romin people." Liteiellj, " fhni (i. e. in) eveiy aiemie 
of ■ppRiacb." Compeie Ihe kngnBge of' Cteeio, in tbe peeeage 
joit refened to, fnm tfae oietion foi Aicbiu : "ti rtgiit fauHiiam 
«fiha, et iptt Mtura TtfieniM taUatam." 

18. Domicilia. " P^ee." — Omniw rcbu, &£. *■ Adomed 
■nd licbly •Umd w^ ■]! tfainge." RsftrlA hoia Teftrda. 7S 

1. Uno aiitit alqiu advenlu. " Bj his meralj muching igunet, 
■nd uhTing befora, tbem." Thia (g(ia n ontoneal auggenlion. 
Lncullai apent, fbi eiun[de, a loiig time befbn Amiaus, uid finillf 
kft Ibe eiege ia tbe hujds of Mmena hle lienteouit. (Pbtt. Yit. 
LmU. e. IB.) 

S. Ai diat rtftt. To Tignnee, bing of Araenii, hia eon-b> 
Iiw, uid to othei neighboaiiDg monaicb*. 

8. aaimtfopiiliRimaiiiiaciiM,&c. " 1110 eHie» of Ibe Rooiui 
poopte being at tbe ume tune iMe froiB injurfi "^ V'^ revenoee 
in thal qneitel unimpiiied.'' 

4. Ulanan. Citulna uid HoitemiuB ue heie puticnlul}' meant. 
It waa mcambent on tbem, in theii ipeecbee ■gainet tba pn^Nieed 
b«, to do Jaatice io LucuUnB, Bnd to ibow thit he wu ■bundaotljr 
qiieliGed by hii pnnoDB eihibllion of mililuy taleat lo bling ftm 

5. QuanadmoJitm, Ac. " How, if tbeae (bmgi m ta, whlt 
r^mum oi Ibe wu etn be tt b11 iiiiportanl." 

e. Et «MbiR Ponto. Medea fled fiom CoIoUh, bnt it k bm 
heladed omlei wie eomnum neme with Ponlu, on tccoDDl of it* 
noxtmitjr, uid fm tbe nhe of ibe flgnra, 

7. MtdtailU. •Thefar-lunedMede*." Lileielbr, "thilM»- 
iM." i. e. of wbom we tll bave heud, 

S. F*atri» mii. Abayitua.— PeTWjwrMiir. "'Woald ponoe 
bei," L e. wonkl hare lo p*ie b panntl of hai.,GoOgk 

336 OKATiAN iN rivotix or 


7g 9. Etnim i«littt\» iu^M. " The coIlBslin of Ihetn m &am 
■eallemd ilata." GatmKiiad Cie. dtfi3i.^i) raggutt iUperf 
nim for duptrn i ind Schiitt ulqita the mwDdBlion b hu text, 
c«Uing »t tba «1110 tinia the common nadil^ ■!> abaaid aae. He 
wsUkai, hmeTw, an alegioc* Ibcan abtuidi^. 

10. Su MWiridalu, &c. Flutuch BUtes, {Yil. Luna. 17,) 
Aat Mithiidatea, being haid praseed Id hia fli^it, wu oeailj laken, 
irtien ■ mole leaded with gold, eilhei h; aeeident. oi tite kiDg'i can- 
ttinace, eaiue betweea him uid bie piii«en. The eeldieia imme- 
diaulj begui to riSe the load, u>d quurelled aboat the coatemto, 
which gave HitbtidetB* tune to eecipa. Appiu (S. Jtf. 63)iiifoniia 
W, |>»' tha kiiig'i putaoiin happened to ■trilce the loed of ono of 
tlM mulas th^ weie canyiog awaj the tnaiate, ind tlut the gold 
in cMeaqoeiiee feU on Ihe groimd. 

11. MtMum aim eniun. " All Ihat viat stoie." DirepUt 
ttagfttral. To be rendBied ■■ two verbs with the GaDnecliTa : 
" hid phudered &om the whole of Aei* end accmnnlated in his 
Mn Ungdeiii." 

\». JUum. " The Ibimer." AOuding to Aeetee, ihe fkthei of 
Medaa. Conanlt Or. Triit. S, 9, Sl, and Cic. Tutc. 3, 13.— Haa. 
" Tbeee lattar," i. e. tbe Roinan eoldieiT. 

13. Huiic. " Thia Mitliridetee."— £xup>l. " Took in," l e. 
ifiiMded him ihellar. — CmfirBimt. " Eocounged luou" — Et 
afflictHm irexil, Slo. " And Taised him Irom hia fallen itate, md 
■npplied him «idi fieah reeonrce* in bia min." 

14. FluTtt ttiam gmlei. Alluding to tha nnmerona natioaa tlul 
■wellod the nnki ot Tigranei, Ihe Medea, Aiabiuu, Albuiian^, 
Iberiua, dus. (PJiu. Va. ImoM. e. S6.) 

16. Nejut taeeiiendu, &c. "Onght neilhei lo be attacked 
DIH ercn menaced witb wbt." TVntnre itaatf ie Irequently emplojed 
in ihe ■enaa of ■tlecking ; here, howersi, it yields that mBaning to 
UeeiK. The idee of menecing uieeB Tciy niturallj &om the geo- 
cnl iinpoit of the Teib, vii. : " lo mike triil of odg." 

16. Erat etiam alia, iLc. " There was sIbo, beudes Ihie, ■ itnmg 
■nd poweriully-eiciting opinion." 

17. Fani Imxpletiaiimi, iic. " For Ihe pnipoee of pdundeiins a 
ytlj rieb aod lerered lemple.". The templs here meant w«s tljit 
of Bellom, at Cametu in CaiqMuiocie. (Coneull Qeograpliical In- 
dei.) — The ■pprehensions iBleriBd to in the teit were far froo» 
baing ill-faunded, since thii ■■me ■hrine had been ekead; pluadered 
by Murena. (Appian, B. C. 64.) 

18. Ifino leTTore ae nulu, " B; ■ new canse of tenoi aiid 
■laim." Tlieii leligiou* fean we|e now eicited.,GoOgk 


1 Vrbem. Tlgnnoceito, the e^lal Ot the kingdom. ComparB ^Q 
Pi^- fil. ImcvU. S6, «;;., and cimniU Geogmphieal Indei. 

3. Tameii ninu, &c. " Weie, nevenhelesa, ■trongly inSuenced 
bf the Teiy great ^timce fnim home of ^ Teg;ioai in wbich thef 
theo were, u «ell u bj- a longing deon to Tetam to their couatiy- 
msn." nutarchitttee.thuLncalliuwuuuioaatomch Actuats, 
in Upper AnoenU, bnt that hie tioopa neie divcounged b; tbe 
■ereritT-or the elisute, aod refoeed loproceed. t.Tit. LucvU. 3S.} 

8. Hia jam phra kok ditam, &c. Cieero puqMweljr avoid* 
entering npon tbe queetion, reepecting tbe mavanents of LdcuUim 
m hta AuBtic campBign. The merits and demeriti of that eommand- 
er wete coDTwed Tery &eely about thi* time at Bome, and the 
ontor is caiefnl, Iberefbre, to giie oflbnce, if posuble, to DBither hi* 
fiienda dot hia ensmies. One tbing ie Tery certain, that Lucullua 
eTentaiDy kat Ibe good will of hii soldiera, ■ result wbicb Plutwcb 
aocribM to hia baogb^ dlepoaition, aad othen to bi> cupidilT and 
avaiiee, Ilteie ia dd doabt, howeTer, bat th&t the intriguea of tbe 
in&moni ClodiHa, hia . biDther-tii-liw, wbo wts aa ofGcer in bia 
army, operated Teiy powBifolly b producing Ibia unfbrtunate result. 

4. I\it enim Ulud extramm, &c. " For the iieus of all was 
tbia, tbai a epeedy rotora liom thoae TegioQS waa rather ■oogfat bj 
our loldieis, Uian ■ &itber adTUkce," 

6. Muhiiiaia autm, &c. " Mithridates, howsTer, had hoth b; 
lliii time roTiTed Ihe couiage of his immediste bet>d of foUowen, 
tnd na* atiengthened by Vm namben of thoie nho had gathered 
ihemtelies togethei fiom hia kingdom, ts well ta b; Itige foicea 
that bad come unto him from many kings and nationa." Wilh 
mnnii aq^j capiit, ia Ihe ssnse of mmero. 

6. Pitri. In Ibe sense of acn^cre, " to happeo." — Rtgumaffiie- 
lat foTtiauu. " TiM fallea fOTtanet of montrcha." 

7. Magwnvt tt lonctuni. " Somethiiig great, tnd woitl^ of 

B. liaque lantnra, /ir.. " Accoidioglj, ho wts tUe to eSeet 
moie »Rer hii defett, thui hr OTer dtred to bope for in the ■aiMHi 
of proaperity." /ncoJKmu, Uteially, " when ■ife," i. e, fiom ths 
atttckiafiny foe. 

0. Vt illam fotteaquam, tic. " Thtt he abould erei aet foot 
sg«n in thtt Itiid aftei he bad been once driTsn from it" Tbs 
allUHon ia lo Pontna. 

10. Sed tn etereitwm wtrum, &c. Mithridatei, once tnom 
entering Pontos, fell npon Pabiui, Trbom Lucullus hid left ia ctan- 
nitnd then), and wu on tbe point of defeating bim, whea he tuai 
•^ wu wonnded and eompeUed lo letiie from the fight. Aita a 


338 OKATioN iK rjiTotni ia 

i^fQ ciMtion of hoidlibn fbr Mrenl ivft, Triuini, iBodieT of tba 
IwuleinntB of LdcoUi», cuoa lo the lid irf Fkbis*, who rmigned 
Ae GOniramiid to hha. Tiiuina, theieupan, bemring that IacoUiu 
mi upOQ tbe miich hiiDHlf to join tbe ■imj, uid deuring to e&- 
graee llie whola gloi; oT the Tintoij, gmTS bUtle lo Hilhiidstea. 
The RomaiM, howerer, net wilb b Bgnal (neithniw ; ■bore eereB 
thoaMDd wera ■lain, unoDg wbom wet« IBO ceiilQrioiie uid M 
taibnnei. Thii wa* Ibe inoel ««¥01« deleet which tbe Raatam 
eipeiieaeed ui lU their wii* egiinet MithiidBlae. Coo^iaie the 
■eeoniil of Phitareh, ( Vil. Liuuil. 8B,) with th*t of ApfHin, (B. IH. 
BB,) where it i> ttated, Ihat, in coiwequeDce of x wonnd nceiied hj 
Mitbiidmtea. hii rrieudi «eie on the pomt of lonnding a nticat, 
when the le-appeennEe of tbe monanji in Ihe fight aeemed to hiDi 
die isf. 

11. Pottae. Vaerioi, who wrate a inetrioal cfannicle of tha 
inl Ponic wari and E^i» who compoMd Annak, UkBwiee in 
Tene, comprtMng the hiatoij of lUiine, btim the cnriieal pedoda 
dowit 10 the doae of the teeond Ponic, 01, more eoinictlj ^miking, 
dw latiiui war. Naerina Bouriihed &oin B. C. S36 to 304, and 
EnniDi liTed liom B. C. S39 to ISV. 

IS. Nan tx fredio nuiiftiu, du:. "No menengei from tb* 
ftald of batde, but tuiiunir piHing Irom lip to hp." litanUy, 
** miDOBi fiom tbe conTeree of men." I^, of coone, li ontoiical 

la. ilic m rfm SlematB, Sai. " Here, in tbe inidet of dua tb^ 
intiroRline tteelf, tnd beaTieel diculej of ihe ww." 

14. Quoi imperii dd^tunnuti, dtc. " Beeanae jon thon^it 
tbal, in accoidaoce with uicient pmcedent, a Umlt abonld be ■•t M 
Idi^ continnance of conumnd." The umj had beea imdei tbe 
comniand of Lucuihii foi tbe ipace of WTen jeue, fiom A. U. 
«30 to 63(1. 

15. ^ui jam ilipeniiie, &c. " Wbo had aow eeiTed ont tbeit 
tin»." Tbe oldoBt of the lioope, inchlding the Fimbiiao legione, 
a* tbej' weiB called, weie tent tiome by Laculloa. The peiiod ti 
their lepal aeirica wu niiN yean, and thej btd now eeired nearif 

16. Mnltt friulera) conniUo, &c " I pnrpotetf patt OTei matij 
ttttngi. bnt jos youneh^et eleulj pcrceiva them &om meia eonjee- 
tme," i. e. bat what thej ue y ou yaanelTet can •taiij ean)ectaie. 
— We hiTe iltemd the puDctuttion of tbia aentenee, with Emeeti, 
eieept tliat ne haTC pltced ■ period ituteed of a coIod aftei ftrtpt- 
atit, The conuDon teit iut ■ colon (1101 etmnilo, and a. eomma 
■fUi ftrtfUttit, conneoting, of coane, tbe cluiie iti ea VBt, Ae.,,GoOgk 

ma MAntLux h 

wUh iriut fbllmn : Init «• id tbe plani cra imn rebl lo tlw nmple ^Q 
idu •ipisMed in jiiaiiAim ilUd itUam, Sk. 
17. Quntum tgituT, iti:. " 01 hon moch impoTtiDM, than, «n 
B that wai hu become, wluch two T(ii7 pownfnl 

a in mguig, wbich iint>t«d ■wlkm* raiMw, whkh 
« hithetlo niitODched bj ytnic umi ue tdtfaig op u iheir 
□WD, which 1 new commuidei of joun receiv» ia chuge, ihe foi* 
mei umj hiTiiig beoD driTen bom the Geldl" — We b*Te com- 
■Denced a now wDteiice heie, coDtiuy to the poiating of all Ihe 
editioQi, tnd h«Te ibo ineeited i^iir, on mere coojectaie. The 
whole pBBUge biboui* imdei Teiy Miong eaaptcion of beuig conupt. 
A* we haTe anaiiged it in oui teil, it ceminlr luit* betlei tbe ides 
of I. concluding ■entenee to qdo of tha heada of & epeecb. 

1B. liemii imferaUr. Alluding lo Glabiio. The epithet Hom* 
tjipean to bsTB heie ■ coTeit meuiing also, in leUtion to Glabrio'1 
wanl of eipeiience con^iaied wilh LumllDa, wbo Ind been *«tod 
jean m commtnd. 

19. Ac tantit rehuM frntfidejido. '* And the ■etCing him OTOi 
*a imponant opentJaoi." 

1. /muciRfiuin. ■' Upiigbt," 1. e. men of itncl piobi^, of piin- Sfl 
ciple* giipeiioi to tiX conuplioD, and who woubl not coDTert ihe 
(acilitioa. wbich «upieme command migbl ifibrd, into tho mean* of 
eniiching themielTes ind opprenii^ otbeia. 

3. AMiqvitatiM nienufrum. >■ Tbe remembnnce of aU antiqnitjr," 
i. e. tbe btigbteit eiamplea diat anliquit; c*ii lecall to our tenieia- 
bnnce. — ",By bi» meiit." 

8. In funimo inperatore, dcc. ■■ Tbtt in a cODmmmate geDenl 
tbe*e fbui qualities oughl lo eentie, a fuU acqnaintance with the 
militaijr ait, Taloui, lepalation, and good foitune." Bj catteriUUtn 
■a heie meant Ihat weight of cbanctei wbich a eeiie* of eucceaafiit 
opemtion* beatowi. 

4. SciaUior. " More profoandly Teiaed in nulil*ij •cience." 
6. E ludo. " Fnim Bcliocd." On leanng scbool, at the age of 

17, FoDipey eeiTed undei hi* fatbei, Cn. Fompeia* SCnbo, ui tho 
Social waT. 

5. Bdli) maximc " Duiing a moat dangerou* war." Tbe Social 
war ifl meant. Tt aiDse from tbe refiuid of tho BOnate and people to 
giant &a tighta Df citiiensbip to the Italian allie*. Ttu* wa* the 
mOBt dangeiDus wai in whicli Ibe Ilom*a* had eTei been eng*ged, 
■ince tbey were compelled to contend with those who weie well 
*n)i]UDled witb their discipUne, and bed hilherto fbmied Ibe miin 
■lieDgth of tbeir umiee. 

T. Qui tiirtma vutiilia, &.C. " Who, at the ckwe of hu bof> 

^0 bood, wu > HiUicT imdm' ■ TC117 abla coimmnfet." Tl» kDiiaKM 

u the ■una u io the praceding cUui«. Ta. : to bis tBmag ni tbe 
iimj of bi> btfaar, >t Ihe Mity iga of IT. ScRne cmninenUtOTi 
Traj eiToneaudj iiippiMe SylU to be meint bj ibe woide nmmi 
impenleru. Pomper, howerer, repaiied to Syll» u the leeder of ■ 
luge body of fbices, not u ■ ■imple eiddier. — Ezlrtma pturitia. 
AmongdieRiKiMiUibajboadiOrjnimtia, ended u IT yesrg of ige, 
iriieii aitlttctnta, or joutb, conunenced, uid eonbniied od nntS 
dmnt 80 or orer. Fiom Ibe end of mdaUicailia antil t5 or 60, 
Ibey «eie called juvena. Tbe piecue limit, boweTei, of eacb of 
theee periodi, i> £u fiom bnng cleulj ■aceituned. 

6. InaaUt adoUKentiii. "Inthebef^inningoFhii jonth," Cicem 
allDdes to FOiiipej's b*Tiiig, at die age of S3, bj hii own ■atboritj, 
rueed ihiee legiooi, uid muched wilh ttiBm to tbe lid of Sjlls, de- 
feitingaD Ibe wtj tbe leaden oTlhe oppoeite paitj. SjUi leceired 
bim wid) gntl bonour, uid •tlated him with Ibe title of impeTotor. 
Thi* eomplimeat vns tlie moie nmaiksble u Pompej wu not jet 
old enough to be ■dmitted into the eenate. 

0. Qui taiyitu cum luilt OMifiixil, dcc. " Who hai ei^aged 
more freqaentlj with > publie foe, (hui >nj ona bu eODlendo] with 
> priTBte enemj." Hottii, "> pablic foe," ■<« enemjto one'B 
countij." /ntflunu, " • priTUe foe." " ■ peiaoiul eitemj." — Tlia 
diffscence muet slso bs nuiked betweea amJUgtri uid amartaTt : 
tbe (bimei meuu " to engtge," " to come into ■ctual collision 
wilh," " to %ht ■gwiut wilh ■imB ;" Ibe l«ttor, " to contood in 
worda," " lo quanel witL" Cooipsre Muiatin* : " Ctmcirtmit, i. e. 
^trbit, nam emJUgtrt eil ormi* emltndert." "niaB, Cic. ep. ad Atl. 
3, IS : " Quia mmqnttm aeeiJit, ul eum ee terlcana coKeeTlarem.'' 

ID. Phtrii primiteiai etmfteit, ^" Hie eettled tbe ■fiuia of moie 
pNTincee." Coitfteil hu heie, in eome degree, thoagh not eiectlj, 
tbefHceof(uImtiu»raml. Comp>ie £]i. a^.;lH.4, IT: " Cimfeeta 
Brittmia, obridibitt aeeepHi," iu!. 

11. Cujui aMeieeitlia, &c, "Who«e joatli wu tnined lo > 
knowledge of tbe militely ut, DOt bj tbe precepte of othere, bat bj 
hii own diecbaige oF tha daliei of ■ commindei ; not bj diB>Btaia 
in wn, but bj Tictoiiu ; not bj ■ leiiei of ompugns, bnt bj a 
■ncceauon of trinniphi." 

la. Triumphii. Pompejhul alreadj enjojed tiro tiinmidia, oiw 
for the OTeTthrow of Hiaibu, king of Nomidia ; uid tbe otber for 
biinging the wai ia Spain to a cloee, Some commentatora mtka 
him to h>Te b>d, bj thi> time, tbiee tiiumpbB. Tbia, bowsTer, ie 
quite eitDnoODs, sitice hi> tbird and inoat Bptendid triumf^ wu at 
tbe end of ifae Mithrid>[ic war. (Piw. Pil. Pomp. «. 46.),GoOgk 


13. /n fu0 iffun, &<:■ " Ta i^ch the good foitmis of Ibs n- QQ 

public ]iB9 not eiercised his talsnta," i. e. has not givpn him ui 
opportunity of diapl&ying tua iMltiei Cor tbe good of liis countiy. 

II. Cietlf. Bstween Sylls, on the one hind, uid Uiniia and 
Cufaa, with the nmuni of ths Hui&a puty, on chs other. Pompsir 
lidsd with SjUb, 

15. A/riaumn. Agiinat Cn. Damitioi, ind olltsl piOKcibed 
rosmbsn of tbs Manen bction, who hid anited dieir faicn wjth 
thoee of Hiubu, kiog of Numidis. Oa Pompej^s letuni Irom this 
wsr, SjUi nlntad tom with the litle of Magma, oi " the Gieit." 
{PbU. Vil. Pmnp. c. 13.) Pompey wu then ooly ia tbe 24ih yeu 
of hii sge. 

16. TVoui^ninHii. Seitorius hod pnbibly fomieil lUiuices with 
Ibe indepsBdeiit GaUic tribes beiween tho PyreDee^ and the Alps, 
and theie ii^eai tn hiTe roaisled Pompey on ht> nuich inlo Spain. 
Pompey girea an aeeaont of hia opentions against tbsis tiibes, in 
hia letter to ihe asnale, which has come down to ns uimm^ tbs 
liagments of the thiid book of Sallusfa Rjiman Hiatoiy : " t/omint 
modc intperii ■ KiiiM acceplo, iiibia ^Modragtnla txeratiuH paravi ; 
hotUiqttc, in cereinihu Italiae jam agenla, oi Alpibtu m Hitpti' 
ttiam (iMimoin. Pir eai iter almd atqse Hanniiai, nobu opportU' 
niua patefect. tteeepi Oaltiam. Pyrnuuum. Laleta-niain, htdigttu." 
Compara Appian, B. C. 1, 109. 

17. Hiiptvieiue. The war wiih Seitorius, which biMed from 
A. U. C. GT8 lo eeS.—jrfUtini « nmtalib<u, dcc. " Where »■ 
volted ■tales and Ihe mosl wailike communiiiei were oniled agiinet 
ua." literally, "compoaed ofievolicd statea," &c. By ciituiiiu* 
ara bece meaM tfaiMe Bisles, M liibfle, in Spein Ihtt bed gone uvsi 
fiotn the Romsiii lo Seitoiins. Campare Manntiua : " civitatHiut j 
qnat a popido Ronuoio ad Sertoriian defeitrant." — As regaidi Ihe 
exprassioD, ex b^ica*iiti»ua nationibat, il may be remarked. Ihit 
Ihe anuy ef Senorioi eonsisted piincipiUyof itae moet wulike tnbea 
of Spsin, whom he hsd disc^ned in a great degiee afler the Romia 

18. ServiU- The wu •gainst Spartaens, tbe wd-kDown leadat 
nf the gladialon and alatea. Ciaaaus deserved the credit of teimi- 
mtoig tbis wai, having defeated tbe enemy, and ilaiQ 18,000 of 
Ihem ; wbenu, Pampey mersly eneonDteced ibe fugitives fiom the 
field of hatllB, and kiUed 5000. Still the popnhr voice aangned 
the chief pcaiie to Pompey ; snd Cicero, in oider lo flatler bim, n- 
ectuea the opinkn. <CoBsult Plutaich, Viil. Panip. e. 31.) 

IB. K^mle. Tbewsragainst ibeiwates, ealltdaba,ii)tbep» 
liODs put «f thia omioii, flurifHMMt tefbu».,GoOgk 

tS3 ouTioN iK FAvouR or 


fiQ tO. HottiKm. HwM ue BDnmenMd u ioDowi bj tbB Diupldn 
•dilot : king», axiln, prowinbBd penoiw, puiM*i (iid «Una. 

31. Coa/ufa. *• Brougbl Lo ■ eloM." — /a ww miJtJan. "Within 
dia nnge ef niliUij cipctienec." 

t). Jam Mra wirMi, tte. ** lo tiie next plaee, wbM (tnin of 
onuiVT can bo found, commenninte widi ^ wailtko THtim of 
CneiiM PooqMj V Jam mtp b eleguitl; omploTed b; Cicov, od' 

M» b««d Of • di«CMU>e 10 •DOthCT. 

S3. JVcfw nnm. dcc. " Fot ncithet ue Ihoae tbe oiij Tiituaa 
«f B commtndef, tbM ue coaunonjj Tegaided U cueb." Tbe oUmi 
nrnifci imptTttariiu ue mentianed, after i long digreaaion, in thc 
' bcgiim t ng oS tba 13tb cbcptcr, viz. : nitaanlia, lemftrmitia, JUa, 
Ac. — Ttae eipreMion virtvUM mfrratariat ma; &!■) be lendeted 
moie fieel;, " dntiiiguiabcd ■Mributei tt( * camiMiider." 

34, Qhu lanta tniU, dtc, " Wbicb eiirt in a greatcr degne m 
tiuisDeindivjdual, diuitbajhaTeinlU theatheicommaiidai wbniD 
we biTe either «««1 oi beud of." Tbe uudent will muk die b1« 
guit [riineBcdog; of lenM ' ' - ' quMa ■ ■ ■ Hn, in |dtca eS ihe otdi 
nai; compBntine wilb ftum. 
S| 1. Tulij al Htli». "iMly ii b prooT of tbe Uutb of uij n- 
muki," i. e. ■ pnwf of the conaummate mihUrr ■kill of PDmpej. — 
Qiiam illc ifi, &c. The iUusiod !■ to the in^rtuil «erricei reD- 
dend l^ Pon^ey, ia uding to eraah tbe power o{ Iba Mthin fietioo 
» Ita);. Comptn Plulucta, Vil. Pomp. c. 9 : llifiiti'» « ^i-i{ 
«* A' ifolit, ibI fiU* HfifjiMi ^Xu utoi r*t| U*Tii4 rpiffmnr, 
■. r. X. 

3. Ttilit ttt fiiciiia. Hb wae mecesalu) 'm ta expBftion aguDat 
Faipanni uid Caibo in tlwl ialuid, A. U. C. Sn. {PhU. Vit. 
Ponp. e. ID.) 

8. Nam Umrt UIH. &.e. " Not bjr tbe tem» of hk ui» bm 
Ihei^Mdi^of hi*^entioD>," i. e. not wmuchbj tbe tenotot hii 

4. Teilii ttl AfricA. AUuding to the wu ■gaint DomiUD* uid 
Biutiu. Conmilt nota 16, pcge 80. 

6. TuHi iil Oallia. Cooiull oote iB, pcgc 80.— A«-. PorapB; 
Bi bii letter ta tbe leDUe, «Irecdy cilod, (oote 16, pege 80.) midief 
Mntian af. c dbw loed whicb ha had opefwd orer Uw Alpa ; wid 
Appianffl. C. 1, 109) infoiim in, tbtt it wb^ vooDd tbe ■oureea a« 
Iha Bliaiie u>d Po, ^^i Tats urrtU ni n 'Ptiim» «i 'Hfiimne. 

& Teitii iit Hiipama. The pni*e of Ciceni bei« ia DMre flu- 
tarr. A* loog oi Saitoriue lived, hit eupenu militBrr talenlB com- 
fietdj eclipaed those of Pompe;, ■od made Spain u^ thilV elM 




knt 1 Aieitn oT gloijr fbr tke Utter. Poiopey onl; becuns Tictoii- g 
«u &fter Seitoriai wh ■avBntiiUad by bia own officen. 

7. 'Tctro^MTicnfonifiu. Tba irat i> called f clnim, " di^nceful," 
Eram the chancter of tbe ibe, wba weie priocipa]!} i^BdiUon uid 
■Utcs ; utd it is (tyled jwnculiuiim, " duigeraoa," from tbew 
^adieton' biviag been tninad la ihe piofewioD of unu, uid, alao, 
fn>m the ibilitiea of theii leider Spaitacua. Conqiaie tba wotda of 
Plntucb { VU. Crat: c. ») : Oiili' tir ri maf' Jff u wi i-J alaxfir 

Jwv, £fF v^4s ffd ralr dvaiEDXcdrircH' «tXJ^ur val ^tfy^rrur, d^ffrtfnt 
^hiifmn ro^f iirlimc. " It «ae u) loagei tbeu tbe indignit; ind 
diagrace of tbis rerolt Ihat afflicted tbe aanate ; but now, on account 
sf tbe feu aod duigor, thej aeat foith both the consid* to thla, u 1« 
one t£ Ibeii most difficult aiid uiqiottuit wan." 

8. Qiui htUMm, &c. All niers onlorical eiaggentioa. The 
ciedit of eading the wu wu doe to Ciusna, bat pqiulai fiToni 
g*Te it lo Foaip<7. The UttBi, ■ftei heving defeUec! the liigiliTea 
&OIII the Gsld of bsltle, wtieie Crassua hid pioTed Tictoiions, nriDts 
lo lie senats, thal Crasans had indeed gBioed a Tklorr orsi Ibs 
runawa<rs in a pilchsd battle, but that he hiouelf bad cnt np Iha 
wai ij tbe toola, tn fixr f l* r^ if-ilTat fntfS Kfimt rtrlnar, 
*iT»! ii ni n\lfn THr fli-a ivifm- {Vil. Croft. c, 11.} 

9. Ontnat orat. AUuding to tbe power of the pintea, befoie 
Ihey weie redoced b; Fompar, «nd tbeii infeating ali the iboraa of 
Ihe Medilenanesn. Coinpaie the woida of Appian, B. M. 9S ' 
•4 firtx I" r*( i<^c OAUns bifimr, iX\i tal rfi irrii 'H^^diov 
miViJr htQK. 

10. Genta me lutiana. "Nations uid eoaunuaitisB." Qtiu, 
when contntted nith Katio, nuy ne csUed the geneiic tanii, and 
im|dies ■ whole rKe. Thua, Ihs Genoaiu aie a f «>i<, the Ssxons 
■ tMio. (Cromiu, Gymn, toL 3, p. 26«.} 

11. i}oU{M naris Mintd, &<:. " In a noid, sU aasa, ss well 
Ihe whole tskeD coUoctiTelj, >a the baja Bnd bsiboati in each." 

, By «MMna mant aie here meant ■!! tbe teas composlng tlu Medi- 
tenaaean, aucb aa the Jforc SiixJMn, tbe Jfora Hairiatieam, 
Mart Atgaam, Mart Creftmm, &e., and bj umterta t/te. maria) 
tbe wbole MedilsiTaneaii, of coatBO, i« imphed. — The common teit 
hu OTM aflar titigtilii, bnt QnoTius tbit properiy lejected it on 
tho authonV ^ <niB of ^ MSS. Singiilii (k:. surihu} ia opposed 
to univcria. 

IS. Talomari. " Throaghout theffhole Hedilemnesn."— ^ 
immfuU tttdiliit, icc. " Or waa ao laliied ■■ t* eaeape Ib* notiM 
of ibe Ibe." Bj tbs Ibe srs msant ths ^ntea.,GoOgk 

SU oKiTioN n rvnv% of 


gj IS. 9k» Ksvvnnl, &c. " Wbo suled •bm*d, dut £d not ex - 
pon hiinwlf to tbe rak eitber of dratb, or of Altiij, itiice hojnost 
eitliai tnTona tbe eB* daiiiig tba winlei •eaaao, oi nliQD ita *ai<kca 
vu nnmiiDg with pnted" Inthe wintai Iha •ei woaM be &pa 
ttom [Hnla. — Tho common text hu uangtrtt, bnt Henmaiuim 
iMtored mmgaretur ftom Ibe eulj editiODB. NangaTttar ii lo bs 
tikeii impenonillj, in the Miue of ndn^dniluni «lel. 

14. r«M vcfiu. " Of eo lol^ condnnence." Theeo dopied»- 
tiatM h>d continBed fioiD ebout A. U. C. Ses. The pioeent oration 
mi ponaoDced A. U. C. 68^, ao that tbe wfaole praiod bid boen 
lAOQt Sl reu*. — Tam lati dUptrnm. " So wide^ dineminated." 
ConmiU nole 6, pego 70, wbeie an Bccoont i« giveD of the eitenaiTa 
power of tbe piiatei. 

16. Omtabnt aitnU, &e. Pompe^ bioke the power of the pintes 
in Ike ipKO «r ttoitj-nine dajB, md tenniinted Ihe whole war in 
■boat tbiee moDOu, (PfuC. VH. Pimp. c. 38, end 3S.— Compere 
Fbnu, 3, 6.) 

16. Qued vletigtl. " Whst brtmcbof leTenno." — Cia praeriiU 
tUn^t veilrU fuitlit. "To whom luTe you been i souree of 
piotection witb yoor fleeti t" 

17. Lmigiii^a. " Things st a diitinea." Opposed to Ihiiiga 
neater bonie, in whicb tha Romuu waie peisonsUy concemed, and 
bad been petsonil auScieis. 

18. Praprium populi Ronam. " "nie pecnlisr chmeieriatie of 
Ihe Roman peo[de." 

18. Fropugnacuiit imptrii. "Bj im forces of theii ompitH." 
Br prapugruada ve here meant alt tbe mesns of defenee at tbe 
command of the repnblic. Etnesti thinks, that tbe teim rofol» to 
the Roman coloniei planted in conqneied countries, ind which 
would fiiniiah the means of defence sgainst foicign a^reraion. In 
tbis, boweTor, he ia deeidedly wnng. Schutz takei a more coirect 
Tiew of the snbject, nhen he temuks ; " clatta, tt «xerctdu hud- 
hgi paitt tx antettdtntibut tt ttguentibiit." 

SO. Sodit vittrit, &c. " Noed I tell ^a that Ihe ses hu been ^ 
rfiot, during Ibese latler yosii. opon your alliea, wUen oui own 
■nmea hsTe norer ciosaed over from Bnindiaium unleas in tbe depth 
ofwinlerl" — 1^ seaa boingclosed upon their allies ia one of tha 
longin^na, on nhidt tbers is no need of dwelling, wben tbo ontct 
can U41 of other thingi so mDch Deaiei bome. 

31. BruTtJitio. Brundinom was the uanal seapoit ^m nhich 
tfiey sailed (br Greece. Consult Geognphical Inlei. — The Ro- 
man siauM slhded tO in tbe t»», wo» those aent Bgaioat Uiiim- 



n. Aunma liimt. Wlite Uw pmiM wmild be nnj. Oonsalt g | 
Dota 18. 

1 . Cum Ugati, &c^ " Wben imbanadon of &i» Ronnui peopla QO 
wen niaaamed fiom csptiTitj," i. e. nben yoai avrn unbBmdnn 
wera mula captiveB by the piiate», and a laasam bul to be paid fbt 
them. — Wbo ibese «mbaiaedors were i* nat kDown, noi at whBt 
Cinie, noT uBdei wbat circumstsncee ihey wera taken. 

S Dtuidteim ttairtt, " Two piaetDiB with Ibeii licton." Litet- 
lUy, ■■ twehe ues." Evih praetoi had in Rome Iwo liclon ; in 
Iha proTinceB aix. The pneton taketl on tbiB occaiion oie called 
by Flutarch, Seitiliu* snd BfUtnuB. {Vii. Fomf. c. «4.) 

5. CniJaim a.iU ColophKmtm, iu:. ConKilt Geogtaphical IimIbx. 
— lBBinMT«iiZ«(ue oltu. Plutarch makes the nambei of citin 
talleB bj tbem amoant to foui hnndred : ■! f iXnitti r^u fa* 

4. Atqae co* portut, iic. " Aye, tnd UioBe huboun loo, (ioni 
whkh you deiJTe the Teiy brealhings of exietence." Liteially, " Ufe 
ind re^iraliaa," i. e. the very means of suatenance. Tbe alluBtoB 
14 to ibe bBibourB af Sicily. SardiiUB aod Africa, whence Ihe me- 
tiopali* waa supplied witli ctan. In conaequence of tha pinUet* 
being nueten of t2ie ees, the nuikets at Ranie were ill-Bnpplied wiL 
grain, end hence aiose «eiious Bpprehensions of fsmine. (Plul. Vit, 
Panip. c. 36.) 

6. IiuptclanU ptaitart. "Under the Tery eyee of b pneun-." 
Who this preetor was is not clcaily sscertained. He ia tbought by 
•oma to haTfl been M. Antoniua, aon of iIib famous orator of that 
noJne, aod faiher of Mark Anlony, Ibe IriumTir. He waa afterwaid 
(A. V. C. 679} sent againsl the plrales, and atlacked ihe Crelan* 
who bad harboBied and were connected with them, but wbb defeated 
aff that iiland with tbe loss of raost. of his ahipi, which were takea 
by ihe eitemy. (Flarvt, 3, l.—Lir. EpU. 99.) 

6. Ejui ipaut liierot. " That thn ehild of this a»me pnetor." 
Accordingto Plulatch, (Vit. Pomp. c. 24,) b daughtm of M. Anto- 
niu9, tbe piaelor, was laken by tbe piiatcH. snd rBnsomed from them 
ftn a laige sum. — Libtroi. The lerm titm is not unfrequentiy 
HDployed by ihe Latin wiiten, wlien tbe refereoce is oiily, as in 
the present cue, Co a eingle child. The authorities on this fmni 
aie very ably adduced hy Schcller. (Lat. Deulick. WbTttrb. toI. 
3, eol. Sees.) The onlyone which we will here cite is ihBt of 
Caios (ad Dtg. lib. 60, lit. 1(1, leg. 148) : " Ifaa ttt tine />i*n», 
cui vel unus fitxut, unaM fiiia ttl, haec eaim enuncialio, hahet 
. liheros, temper ptamtito namero pro/ertur, tteut tt pugillaies tt 
eodicillL" — Daciei falla itUo an unosing «mi, throu^ too mneh 



ao Iwta in tmHlating tfa* pnwiit puMS* rf Ck**». M» nrtikM 
£2«rw for tti™», «nd ™!ib» the fluaiui piMtof to htT» k>* li« 
iMrlf J DMliichild: " I|[iion>-TOU( qa* ■« /nru onl M railcTta 
pi k« eonunal" (fWarfw, f«r fliKMr.— yit it Pawpfif, t» 

7. CWi»i«« Bieemiwiditm. " Tbe di««tot «t Orti»." Oirtkw— 
• •e.-port, »1 tbe moulb of the Tibor, «id wm regwried •• Ib» b». 
bMn of Ronie. Tb* pintM toirii uid plundered it, d^rtioyiDg tb« 
teM tbere. So greet, iDd«id, wu iheir duing «m tl» oo ■— 
tlwt tber «en renuined tbsie ■ mmaidenble tku*, aai e 
didi bootr lo nle. (Oio CMsiui, 3^ 6.) 

». CeMnJ tpHi HimiBtB. Tha nune of tWewJiwid doM «ot 
tff»u, frem HiT HiciBm writei. IKo C«<nue (1. c.)niakee bo dhb 
«m V> iny it eU.— Cayio a/f»* ejyreiea t*l. " Wm teken oDd 

9. ^ioiu iaemni. Pooiper' 

10. /iifr» OcMm' «<(iBni. " Wkbin the «tnite of lh« ooe«» 
L a. th* (tnita of Gibnhir. "nKWB it gnti plopnBty in tbe □» ol 
Ae eifn«eeion octini ettium, Oiterall;, " mouth of the oceeB,") M 
dcHgnu tbe itreit» in quenion, .inee ■ etiong Bnd conslent eunent 
lowi into the Meditefnneui IhMn the Atlutie oeeen, in Ibn middle 
•f ihe etiwta. 

11. ObeimdintgiitB. "Of tnnetclinglraeineM."— Taii«Mn«tk* 
." So long *OTtgm," 

13. QiuM ttUriltr, fte " Ab npi^ se, nndor Ihe gmdence o( 
Pompey, the wer on our pert eped il» nnpetoons way orar the 
deep," Imptltu heUi ia ■ poalic form of eipTeniDn, fof ^ ample 
k/Ium, witb tbo »«»ci«te ide», howerer, oT inipetuoeitir end pmrer. 
Thu» w8 hBve in LiicretiuB, (5, 101,) " impelv eotli," tor «oeftmi ( 
■Dd in Acciu», (ap, Cic. i* Dnin. 1, 33,) "floMarntu im^Btiti," 
for nex. Compare tha following iTOwrk of EmeMi : Tataf armt, 
belli impetns RtTigiTii, ^iea ttt. Sentnt ttl ; jaanf etlenlau 
Pempeivt btBtHn, tl quarn Mtremii geiiirit." 

13, KondKm lemfeiHro. dtc. " Before the eea wu JttiBi tot 
aaTigUion," i. e. before the iuneon for •s^ing wu eome. Ttmpe— 
<iM> U here eqoiTalent lo temport oypor/une, " fil by reason of tbo 
laaeof;eir.'' The «e»on f« Mvigation uiaally conDnenced about 
ibe rising of the Pleisdea. on the 32d of April. 

14. Sietliam adM. I'ompej dlrectod his oulieet ■ttenLion to 
Scihr, in order to eDcuiu tbat important granaty of the lepatJic 
Be Ihen proceeded, witb tbi «ame liew, (o Aftici and Suditua.- 
Tbe nunigement of t)ie war agwiiat the pirates waa confeiTed on . 

* JNxqiej I7 tbe OsluHisn Uw Thii l*w iaTsMed him with tbe oam> 



■miid of Ihe nhole M«ditaTUM«i, and with powM orar ttw hDd for gj 
four bundred sMdik (ibont 4S nuln) from tb* couta. He wu nm- 
pomim) alia to choou iNit of tba ■enalon Mmq Iwntsnajit* t» ut 
ander bSn ; ba wu to take liifm ttas qouMon, and ot]Mr publiit 
Ncerven, what moiw; he pteind, mnd eqnip m Seet of SOO bIL 
The number oT marine fcnciii, oT mBiinen aod iiTwen, wu bft ea- 
lirety to hii diKietioa. Tbg d&; afW thia law wu puaed, Pumpej 
■uminoned in aa<<Hnblj, ind ohloined a gnnt ot almoM u mnc^ 
more u the fint deciee hid beatoned. He wu mpowcred te St 
oot 600 gBBeja, snd to niH an amij of 130,000 fbot and 6006 
bone. Twcntj-fcmi Mmatoia were aelectad, trho had all been gan - 
enla or piaelon, and weie ■ppointed hia lientanaata, and he Imd 
two qniiemon allowed. (Plut. VU. Pomp. c. BG, Mf.) 

IS. Haitc tria fnimaUaria tubtidia. ■' Thear thiee gfmBriaa.** 
— Daabitt Hitpmtiit. " Tbe two Spaine," i. e. hitber Hid liitber 
Spain, Ottrrior ind VUtrier. Ceraalt Gei^raphic^ Indei, 

10. lUyrid flurta. Tlie Mtrt lUyrieum wu ihil pwt of tlM 
Adriatic, which Iij along tba [ItjiiBn eoaat, — Ackaivi. Tbe Reraan 
proviDca of Achaii included aH ibe PeleponnBana, and ■ put of 
Greece nMth of tha iathimia oF Corintb. Bj omnen GraeeUcm ia, 
tlmefbre, meant all ihe leat of Oreece. 

n. Italiae daomaria. Tlie upper ind [ower leia, or the Adrialje 
and Taeean. — Adaniamt. " Hs fuiniabed," i, «. anp{died. Aioma 
ia here eqnivalent to intlnie, witb the conaterel idea of decking ot 
adoming. Coinpeie Caet. 8. C. 1, 36 : " Bedeai «huIu, apparo' 
luftM, Ofant opulenlia intigniuiB armnnini Mlum adonia.virani." 

18. Ut a Bmvditio, &c. " On the foitr-ninlh daj after he aet 
ont fn>m Brandisinm." ft la heie elegan^j uaed tai potkpituii 
Conault TurtelUiiut, Je Farl. IM. e. T. f 1, 33. 

10. Totam CiHciam. The power of ibe pintee had ita liae in 
Cilicia, and this counuy eventnally became their centre of opeii' 
liona, and chief ationghold. — Pompejr defealed them in a naTa] 
batlle off Concesiam, on the coul of CiKeia Tnchea. 

1, Vimn hujut imperio ac patetlali. "T> the abadnte control gj • 
of thia one indiTidnal," i.^e. thej Buirendeied tbemaelvu nmondi- 
tionally to Pompey. — Whon tmperium and potetlat tie oppoeed to . 
each D^ei, the fonnei denotee militarj power, the latter ciTil ; and 
when hoth ire combiiied in ddc claose, u iu the present inatBnee, 
the idea intended lo be FOniejed ia that of fuU and abaotute as 

a. Cretemiiui. Cnrte, neil to Cilicia, waa Iho graalaal nunerj 

of the puatce, and one of iheir chief leceptaclea. The tiBnsaction , 

■Uuded to m tbe lezt, howerei, notwithitanding iha eommfadltiona 


itS ouTUHf iK FAvoint or 

3 al Omn, wu ki fiDm hooounble lo PoaapKj. MMcBoa, ■ raia- 
tion of the om who hkd commtDdod in eonjunctiDn vrith PompeT 
in Spun, h>d bMD aaot inlo Cieta, bj tha Romui people, Boma 
tima befan Pompay wia •mployed in thie <rai, MeteSi» hul bn>k«i 
Vf «Ml]' ilMnghoU» ^ ths pinlM in thot ialud, when ths nmaiD- 
itr, «rbo weie beei^ed bj Um, mpplitnllf addreaaed themHUea to 
Pnop«r, ind iniilad him into tba iiUnd, ai included ia Ui commia- 
■on, aiid blliDg within that diatance fiiun the aei to which he wu 
MthemBd to canj hb anna. Pompej liaCanad to theit apptiotion, 
«od bj ■ lettei direded Metelliu to taka no fulber elfipa in the wai. 
At tha nme tinw, he oRleied tba citin of Creto not to obej Matel 
lua, bnt Laciua OctiTiua, one of bis Dwn liealeiianta, whom ba Mnt 
to tike Ihe commtnd. OcU.Tiui went in unang the beeieged, aQd 
loaglit ua tbeit aide ; ■ cireumatauce, aajri nutaich, which nndered 
Pompej nol onlj odioua but lidieuloua. Metellua, howerer, pui- 
•DBd hii iqierUionB, lill ha tooli the pitataa, and put Ihvu all to 
dMllt. M Ibr OctiTiui, he eiposad him iu ihe canqi ■■ an object 
of contampt, and louled bim wilh repKBchei, aflei which he di>- 
miiaed hiin. {Pbu. Vit. Ftimp. c. 29.) 

3. Apparmil, "Frepired foc." — Media ttilatt, Flatanhaaja 
Ibe wat wu biou^l lo a cloae in Ibree montha at faitheat : ait it 
■libn xr*^ rfiur imni,. (Fii. Foti^. c. Sa.) 

i. E»t haec dinna, &c. " Tliia degree of militaty talmt ou lito 
pait of a comnunder ia diTine sod iDciedible," i. e. ie diTine in ita 
cbaiaeteT, and lurpaaaei ■!! the ««ttuiy poTran of belief 

6. iVpn «ntm lohau, dcc. Cimialt uota 23, page 80. — BeOanii 
tirlut, "Ahiti^iunu." 

8. Btdnuitte niit, &e. " On the cfHitraij, there ate manj' 
glbar enlled qualitiea, Ihe hondmuda uid attenduita of this nr 
tua." HiyiiM Tirtutii, K. tm^oftTuu. 

7. QnaitJa iRKDceiUia, dcc. " Of how much moial poiity oo^ 
cotnmuideia to be." — Ten^trantia. " Self-caDtiol." — ftda 
" Good faith." Adheimce to their Tiord. 

8. QkW» fteilitau. " How ■fisble uxl ecaj of aecaaa." — 
.QuutUo itigcmo, icc. •• 0! how macli penotiation, of how mneh 

ImmaDi^ t" 

9. iSuflinia «nni lanl omma. " For there all eiiit in the high- 
eat degrte," i. e. in the character of Pompej all tbeM quilitiea m 
fbund in the higheat perfeclioD. 

10. Ex aJitrum coMenMM. " B; a campannut with olho*." 
Thna,<Se, it Off. 1, 17: " Si amtenlni qiiaedam tl eemparttia 
Jut," and Fartii. Cr, 3 ; " Rtntnt amtmlitmei, pud mtjiu, jttU,GoOgk 

THi ifauaaui) law.' 8B 


Pemmut altgiu m iiBnum pufdrt. '* Cui ws hold m uiy ^ 
Ijlenl^. 'i^cui WB leckon in Hi; numbei," i. e. oT 
icuenli i uB we legud u ol aU &t lo be nuiDbeied emong gen- 

1 2. Cufiu ts etercitu, &c. " In wboM umj commiMioQe fbi 
rioD ue now end hive beFetofoie been sold." 

I Lncnllni, on nhom be hai ■breedT 
1, but, fnun the nse of tbe pMent 
it Olibiio, — Tho Kudeat will maHt 
ihe foice of the eobjanetiTe mood in tbii uui the ■ncceediDgclsnHi, 
■a indieUiiig, not wbel OiceiD uieitB on bie OKn aulboiitj, bul fiom 
tba nunoui of the def. It ie equiTtlent, in feet, dieiefora, to " in 
whcae umy, u ia Kud," &c. 

13. Quid kmc ionwnnn, dce. " WbU lofl; oi gdneioiu wnti- 
meoU cui we inugiDa Ihat mia lo enteitain leipecting his eouo- 
tiy." Suiifilj kftei qtid, the vnKde potmmMt putare froin the ple 
ceding cluue, but in a eomewhit difieient eeaie. 

14. FiBpttr cupiJiiattm pnmnaae. " Frooi Ibe deehe ot 
nlaiaiiig bis proriace fiii x \aagez paiiod," j. e. of twldiiig ovei in 
bie eamDHnd bvfond tbe time eppoiiUed. The moiiqr wu giTOn, 
ODt to piocnre ■ ptOTiiice, buc lo induce tba magiatntea at boma to 
iDlerfere, and joeTent any lecaU, a( Itia end of the yetx, from Ihe 
proTince wheie the indiTiduel wu tben acting. Compue Iba ez- 
pluution of Enieati ; " Aon ut pr«viiitiam iecenurail, ted ut 
impidireni nc atina exaeto ietedert de pnmndt juieTtlur." — Ei> 
oeati ■nppoeei LucuUna to be the peisoa HKant. Thii, howerei, 
eanoot poniblj be cairect. Lucullui hid ael out >gunat Mithii- 
dtles muiy jean befbis ths peiiod when thia apeedi wu delireied ; 
wheieu, ftom the Ungnige of Ckero, the tianaaclion lefened to 
would ■BBm to liaTe been of a Tei]r lecent dato. So ^ein, in 
ch^itei 33, the oiatoi apeaka of Ibe hijwiae and lAtdinei of Ihe 
Roman commuideia aent oot tbit Terf yeu, wbieh of conise cuv^ 
not in any naj a{^j to LDcullaa. Acilina Glabiio ii nndoabledlj 

16. In juaettu. "At inteieit." Compeie Or. tn J^u. c. S&. 

16. Vtttra tinmrtimratia, &c. " Yooi munnuia, mj coantij^ 
men, make il ^iparHit, tbot joil lecc^iiiae tbe indiTidiail» wbo biTt 
■eted tboa." Lileialij, "joui moimaiiiig maliet il that jon 
■ppear to lecoguiae," dcc. — Cudintl Maoij, in bia Etiai tnr 
* BitfiieMt, f 69, thinlia, that Ciceio met wiUi M>[ne intenuption 
Mie liom ceitain indiTidDala, wbo had appiDpriaUd a partion of tim 
jHiblic moDaj ta theii own piiTale pmponB, and whe consequenUj 
(lk*ugbt, Ihat the nowkt of tbe aiieaker wcm ia auoa doftea,GoOgk 


g3 diiMtad «pnMl IhemwlTB 
alencc «u afun okuiDsd 
tnption, to ■ipren it u hii eoDrictioB thtt thait ootcria wcre otdj 
«1 muj bdicuioiu of ■ conaeioaaneii o( gni!!. Thit ia ■ mMt 
luifoniiDMa^uecB «f ciitiBiui. Tha «iiiipl* tmth tppMia to be, 
Ihtt Iha mnimon w», w Cicmu bimadf [duiilj peicci*u, frma 
th* iniutod populice, who «ere ginDg tbiiI in this w>r to tbe indi^ 
nMiMi which tii^ felt, in coauDim Witfa Ibs ontor, at tbe cxnidiict 
•f the indiTidiiil* to whom he «lladee. 

17. AaU, " Previoiulj." — Avnium. "Bapicitj." Coai- 
pue tbe lanMik tSI ScboUel, (iVoeCf^ Sufl. Tiri. 1, p. 69) : " A^ 
anu «OK «I, fwi f^amitil m n u i fareti ; iat lenu dKtfiir : enl 
ftODOAt cmKftMfuJu ttuna CNptdM." 

18. Jtnurs. "Ttw Kuebes," — Per itee ttam. "Dniing 
IbMO Uttei yeui." The «Iliukio i« to tba norwnBiU of tbe Ro- 
Bui CHcae, aeol, Dndet difleniot cwuiiaaden, ■gmiaM Milbiidatee, 
Seiloiiiu, Speitecui, dcc,, u>d whieta tnnqM bid to peee tbnNigli 
diflannt puU of Itelj, befoie tbej reacbed iheir dratiiied •cenee oi 
actioa. Fiain tbe luigiiige of Cicen, tliej wadd eppeu to haTe 
baenguiltj of aiceeeea, bj the waj, igaiiut tbaii«wn connti^nuL 

fl^ I. /Uemu. " Bj IbeiT winlering unong IbeBi." Releiiing to 
the lioeilM uid nqndtj eierciaed bj tbe Roman eoldieiy agaiuat 
Ibeii owp ■Uiea, wbile u wiDlei-qaartan Ihioo^wal tbaii citiet. 

%, £xerci(iUB ciHitiiwa. " To itatiun bis umj," L e. from tha 
plnndeiing uid deqMilii^ of oul alliea. 

3. Qiu M i;inin nm tonlxneL " Who dou not leatnin hiia< 
■df," i. ■. wbo in tbeaa ■une nutten praetiaaa no iMnint om 
binaalf. GneTiua giTaa « i^t, Irom one of hn MSS., bnt, ■• 
EmaMi eonectlj nwiert^, tha ojqioeitkiii to aiiM reqniiee »t ifvtm. 

4. /b JKJieando, "Injudgingof otben." Sapply dftiit,al 
■Im the ainipla tliot. 

6, Sti nt vttUgum qviitm, " Bot aTui iM t«ij Ibotalapa." 
Tha meanii^ of tbe whole claoM i^ Ibat the umj led bj Pompej, 
■o fu fram plundedng uij thing, did not eTen eel foot in uij plac* 
whera it waa uidawful foi them to eome : i. & Tiolated tbe auictilj 
<rf no ■hiiiie, u had bHn the cim, fm czunple,. in fbmel jeeiih 
wth th^t of Comana. Con^ue tba eipUnition. of HotomanB : 
" Smaoia niAtl rapi«M«, Md n* peitm fudtn, uU bdh fi«d«l 

8. Qumudaodvm pititH MbtnuM. "Aato tbe w^ m which 
ODf Baldien oow conduct themMlna in wintei-qQaiten," i. e. u U 
the reguluitj of Ibeir depoitineiil lu irititcr-ijQaiten nmr that thu 
bcTS Fompej arer tham. 


7 Ut inwflvni facial itt mliUtA. '> Tn ordec tbit he n»j go to g^ 
Bzpeiue uj oa 1 soldiei," i, e. to compel Uid to eipeul anjr part of 
ht< meuu in the inuDleiiuc* of our Boldieia. — CujiUnti. ." Whea 
desiiing ao to do." 

8. Bitmit «um, Ac. " That theca ahould be & reliiga liiiin tba 
HTerity Df winUi, DOt fbi the indulgence o( i^wcitj, iu tbe dvrel i 

&. QtuUii. The euif editiona haie qvaH. 

10. hventum, " OiigiDsled." Hoie liten%, "wereobtain 
ed." Some of the eailjr editions haTS iniAim, wiuch uoee Tei^ 
piobiblf from ihe copyiats not underManding heie the pecuUu force 
of imentam. Even lAmbinus hsIui to >lter tbe teit, >nd giTea 
natan foi ths tcue leiding. The use of incejitum, in thia puaage, 
ii conectljr i^led by EcneBti, " txquititau gmai lequettdi," 
Compue the Gieek unge of emplojing the lecb lijiiirri», on minjr 
occasionB, in the Muse of parart, cmueqiU, &c. 

11. tfoti eximia TJi remigum. " No eitiaorduuuj eiertitHif on 
the pait of lowBO." 

12. Jnullinuu lenat. The allaeion ia lo Pamphylia and Cilicia, 
Compaie chaptai 16, where Ihe Cretan smbuHdon n% siid to 
bave come diUo Poiope;, wbo wu then in Fampbjlia, " ■■ iiffinHU 

13. Celerot. "TbenstofyoaieoDunaDdeTs." Soed*nintha 
neit paragiaph, — Nm relaTdamnl. " Retaided aol bia piogren." 

14. DetixamL ■' Called tum 1«^." Thia ii the teading of 
■U ibe euliei editioni, eicept the Ald^e, wheie rcrecaRt appeu^ 
jmibably by id eiroi of the pieea. Fiom Ihia laot edition Ibe fami 
revocaxit fbuod iti way inlo ibe latei □twe, ontil Gmtet leetoied 
Ibe tiue lectioa. 

19. Ifm libidv ad miluftalem, dcc. ' " No lieeiitioae feeling to 
an indulgence in pleunie ; iu> chaimB of ecenei^ to gratiGeatioo of 
Ihia kind ; no leirawa of any citj to a Tiaitiag and bee<»iuag > 
icquainled with it ; in a woid, not toil itself to npoee." 

16. Signa tl laiulat. " Statoee and paintmgB." With laiulat 
eupplj fielai. — <}uae celeri loUtnda eiie, &c. Stetuee, and psint- 
inga, and wocks of aitin geueial, weie faTourile objecta of lapBcity 
wilb the Roman commutden, and were canied off wi^toot anj 
■cmple. The etatnee uid pictuiea which MaceelluB tnnapcfftad 
fiom SyncuBe to Roma, fint eicited that cupidity, which led ibe 
Roman pronncial magiatiiles to pillage, without BCiuple oi di*- 
tinction, Ihe bouaeB of piiTate mdividualB and the templeB of tb* 
gode, Maicellue andMummiua, howerei, deqisiledonly ho^leilid 
conquered connbiee. Thej had niade orer ibeii plonder to tka 



g^ poblic, Mid, ifter il wu conT^vd lo Ronu, d«Ti}t«d it to tlw «nt 
bclli>)uiieiit of thc cq>iti] ; bnt gabHigiient goTemon of proTiQcea, 
iMTiiig ■cquited ■ tuta for woiks of ut, begin to appropnite to 
IhanuelTe* thoM muteipiec» of Oreece, which thej had iarmerif 
neitheT known dot esteeined. Same eontrired pUiuible preteita 
for honowing Telotble wqits of art from citiea uid ptiTste personi, 
withoot aaj intentiDn of lesloriDg tbem ; wlule othere, lesa ceo- 
tioa*, oi iDora shuneleM, seized iduteTei pleued tbem, whether 
poblic 01 piiT&te propeilj, withoat excuse ot remanenilion. Bat 
thongfa thts puuon wss conuiion to most proTincisl goTemors, none 
ofthem BTel cnine ap to Ihe full metsuie of Ibe iqiacity of Venee, 
when pnelor of Sicil;. He seiind t^Mntiy, pietures, gold and 
■Brei jkl», nses, gems, ind CDiinthiui broniea, tiH he litenHj did 
not Isare i siBgle siticle of Talae of thesa deKripCions, in ihe whola 
Uand. {DKiUojft Rmtun LileTature, loL Z, p, 334, itq.) 

17. Fuutt jtutvU. " Thit there once weie." Iliej now belie*« 
ihat iDch men as Curias Dentatoa, Fabiicins, and olhen, ooce ao 
toallj edsled. 

18. Qaodjamnctiomiiu ttttrU, &e. T\m aceounts which Iha 
Ilomaiks gaTe them of the coDtioence and Tirtue of their falhers, hact 
■ppeeied QDwortby of belief to foreign natioiu, when coatraElcd 
with the iipacilj ind eitortioa that characteiiiad their desceaduits. 

19. JVkiu imperii veitri, &c. "Now (he tiue Instre of yout 
«mpira ibines leiplendent among those natians." Pompey reTiree 
in lus ungle self all tbs gloij of the good old Roman timee, and 
that gloij is •haied bj his coanlijr. — Luctt. In the palimpseat fng- 
ment of thie oratioa, leceDtlj diacoTered, we havo lacan afferre co»- 
pil, wbich also appeaia in two othei MSS., bat il i* eTidBntl; a 
meie gloss for liutl, and noc ■ toit good ons eilhei. 

SO. iifite Itmperanlia. " l)islingiiidied foc hia self-contiol," L e. 
chaiactariied bj that lame modeiation which Fompej now adiibils 
— Imjyerere aliit. " To lale OTec olben." 
QK 1 . Jam tera ila faciUi, dcc. " So eaij, too, is said lo be tbe 
accesi of priTate indiTiduals nnto him, >o unehackled their tmrj 
complaint respecting tbe wcong* done them bj olheia." At legaids 
tlie force of jam vero, coninlt note 8, page 8S. — Faalti. No fonns 
snd ceiemonj «re leqoired in appioaching Pompejr. — Liitrat. 
There are no leitrainta wbaterer Dpan the freedom af compUinC 

3. Facililalt. " In a^bilily." 

3. Cimnlio. "In wisdom of counael," — Ditmdi grantalt It 
eopia. "la poweTfuI and flowlng eloqneace." Ab legaidi ihs 
peculiar fbrce of ^otfo*, aod gratii, m aibelorical point of view 
ONDpara ibe renudc of J. C. EmesCi, in bii Lcz. TtiiMot. I^ 


JUft. p. 191 : " Scd nint mtnM orftin »t, gtiTBm ontkHieTn ap- g5 

peUoUm Latinii RhtiorUmt au, qitat nagTtu, ipUniUdu, ailugui 
ttnaibiu anmw itgeniiumMiiipltTtt ; tl iptam gnTJUtem tn^ufam 
■M ordlOTiiiu tcI (eriptonAiu, ftu iaitt ittaut fatile omaptreTit, 
oCfuc onaano tiImi aMgtndii, exafgeToniiiqut pani eiitnt." And 
•gua : " Nequt dubium til, qian Cietn,(di tmml, l, S,) nns 
gnTilote tl ■lUTiUte oratianii onmtmMaqittntiai ambiluni omim- 
tcTittrel, iilam ad lenlentiarttm vt» it tplendorem, jtonc «f Mrio> 
riHn onM>it«i(o rehiiCTtt* 

4. iii ;iH> tpi D, &G. " Id wliich itxj tilent jtMlf there «dili • 
kind at dignitj, nell «daptcd to Ihe chuicter of one wlio eoiD- 
mvKU." Tlie lefareaca ie to the tdent of hBnnguiDg, which (aiti 
■0 weU Hk chuactei of > commuklei. Some editon lefei in quo 
ipto to Pompej ; bnl then quatdam, joined to dig^ilat, tt not tat- 
ficientlj complimentuT- 

6. Hoe ipio ni leco. In the fbiDin, wlwte the; bare ofteli beud 
Pompej haiuigne- 

6. Qiuun koittt, &e. " When liw eommon enuniea of >11 ns 
twns have leguded it u innoUble," L e. le mafirf of (he moet 
inqilicil leliuiee. Quam a here equinlent to cwn tam. — By hoilet 
ramiiitn jtniiiim ue meuit ibB pintes. Ciceni enqilo^ the *am< 
eircamlocntion, in ipeeking of Ihis cltsa of penone, on two other 
occuioni ; iti Verr. 6, 30, uid ic O/. 3, 39 : " Pirata etl eommic 
1UI iattiM omatiiim." 

7. Tantum bdium. Tii» ie dia leading of the «■riiei editioDi, 
which EiDBBti fint reitoied. The commOQ teit hu (aiUwn belium 
koe, wbicb Gneriiu tniHpoaed, reading Aoe untitni Idbim. 

8. Itottrae ntmoriiu. " OC oai tme."~VidtaDar. The nee of 
the ■abjimctiTe heie is woith noting. The meuung ii, " who nenu 
u Eir >■ ne cui peiceJTe," i. e. u &i u it !■ iHoned meie moittle 
to ecui the conneila of onanpoteace. Tlie indiutiTe wonld hm 
been too Mrong. 

9. .^HcloriUe. "High iepat)>tion." AiioforifM i* bera eqaiTin 
leot to " opittio iatigmi dt aRiMJiu virtiite," du:. (_Eriteiii CUn. 
Cie. ». r. i 8.) 

10. Veketunttr ptrtiitere td iella aimimilTiinda. " Intiiimtel; 
pertain* lo the muuganeDt of foieign wui," i. e. exeiciBU > pow- 
erful indiieDce npon the racoeei of 7001 umi abnwd. — Veitrit 
The pslimpieet fngment hu wwlri*. 

11. Elfama. We btre hen idc^iCed tbe leediag of the pdimp. 
■eat bigment, u fu prefenble to Ihe oidinu^ one, apiniime «aw 
mvnu famat. — Quam B&qua tcrta To^oBt. " Thui b; lome fiiad 
ud reuonalile motiT».",GoOgk 

S44 «UTioii nt rATODK or 

g5 19. CJarnu. "HoraillMtRoa* |]mbk,"i. a. Ponp*)'*. 

18. Faeil nt mutlehtim^ " OonOribDtM lo hi^ rapuiatiMi.'' 
W* h«a iiwutvd «i bdini MKtcnMMi, on tLe eoi^Ktiire of 
Weiake, wbo eoDuden tho eommni iMding, /acil sic/anfatiiii, ta 
doQbtliil in point «t lAtinitf . 

14. Tantt tt Itm frOicUn, Ac. ■* Havo }mi made lo distiD 
gsiihad aiid faoDouiabla axpreanaiia oTopiiiioii." Tb« Unn juiiaa 
ia bate qtpliad to ttia boDouia and leward* baatowed apaD merit. 
Compaie tbe ranuiii of EniMti(CIav. Ctc. a.T.J : " Jodicia dtc»»- 
Mr tliam Amoru, pran wi a, fvta doiifiir hU qui ti* difu judkan- 
a(r."--iPompaj oblainad Iha hDDODia of a tiinniph, whila he waa 
C^ an cfVM , or kni^t, and nol jet (tf an age lo eDtitle him to a 
M«t in Ihe leDate. He vas aeDl againat Sertoriu^ wilh praconn- 
lar -fmmf^i thon^ but a aimple quaaalra ; and ba «btiinsd the 
conaulabip belbie he waa full thirty-aii yean oU, aod withoat hav- 
ing gdoe IhioDg^ tha mboidinue offieea. In tbe lagnlai eoone of 
tbingi, be wu, at ihiitj-Bii, mBrel<r old enough to btTe been mada 
aadile. The tegal age fbi the cannlihip «aa foi^-tliree. 

10. JUnt* dtd. The di; wben Ihe OabiniaD law wu paawd. 
CoBButt DOta 14, ptga 8S. — Citm lunrcrnu popuitu Romamu. 
" WboD tbe wbele Romm people wilh one voice." Tfao stodent 
«rill maric ihe foice of untpcrnu bece. 

10. Htclecttt. Tbe loatra,— I/nitm oi mniiRiiiu animtmgt»' 
toM Ittbm imfeTalorem. " Ai >ole coinniandMr lor a war that 
iDTolved the common intanati of aH natioiu." The rafeience i> to 
Iba wai ■gaimt the pinta*. Compaie note fl. 

17. QtMttmmiittriM. The commOB texl bu fiMntum iuTil* 
tuittoritat. But AtiyiM ii not needed bere, iince tlie remark a a 
genenl one, and doea not lafer to anj iDdindoal in partieiilu. £r- 
natti thinka that Ahjhi ninit elther ba rajected, or elae dunged uMo 
iadt. He piefen the foimei cooiaa, aod aceoidingl; tbiowi it oat 
of hii teit. 

18. OnnKm rvnim tgTigiamm. " Of everj thing enllad.'' 
^g 1. VilitaM anyumtu. " A cbeapnau orproniions." A* Iwig la 

the pirUea held poaseeaion of the Bea, eiportation fiom tba com- 
bearing proTincea wu checked, and laige atores moit neeeBsaiilf 
hate accumalaled tbeie. Pmapey'a ippointmeDt reatotad poblic 
coDfideiwe, and ■■ Ihe powei of the plnlea waa now Ibonght lc be 
aooD about lo end, and laige Bhipiiienti were expected 10 be ■hait!;^ 
made ftom tha cora-countriea, the piiea oT giain fell, of eoone, at 

S. En nmnta iimpia, iLC. "Fioa tha giBalot ■caiclt}' and 
daimnii of grun." — Utoui hominu apt tt nomnw. Corapare tha,GoOgk 


fangruge of Plntudt, ( Tii. Ptmp. e. 36,) ol Jl Ti/nl rd* £rt«», (Wf gg 

3. Jam. " Slill fiilber." CompBie ttie rcnuil «f FoiceHiiB 
(£«1;. B. Y.) : " JuD Mfpunnw amjmtgendi otTUionai nm ioltt, <t 
(rnuittONihu inicrrif, jiro pnelem. 

4. Acctpta tii Pmfp eaUmiUUs. ADndiiig to tbi cMiwt or Tik- 
rios. Compare note 10, page 79. — Ctnn. To be lepMta^ b tnii»- 
Utii^, bafiire eub Df the' tno saccuding claiwei. 

5. Divinitut. " PiovidentiBliy." 

S. Iiuolila injliifflmatuin vicloria. " Fiied irith anaccaftoiiied 
^ictoij.** 7n>ob*ta leTen to hii hBving been eo Mten defeatBd 
befon (bie bj SjDi, Moreoa, ind LaciiUua, — Cmtimit. " CtMck- 

7. PrafeetuTat til. Ws bive adoptad pro/rictiinu nt ind pre> 
feeeril, vritb GneTnu, Emeiti, ind Scbuti, &0D1 manf HSS. rad 
eariy editionB. Tbe conunon text baa per/ectttntt tit aod ptr/»- 

8. JjitD nimine ae mmore. " Bj bis *eiy nenM M)d npotatioii.'' 
B. IUaret. "The foQowiiig circDniiitance." 

10. Crelemittm Itgati. For ui nccotint of tbii leillj diecreditB' 
ble &ffui, which Cicero bere aeelu to meke ■ gtanDd of pnioe, con> 
ndt note S, page 8S. — ICotler tmperater, MeteHne. 

11. In uUimat pTBpe terraa. To Pubph^i*. Conmlt Iin. 
Ept. 09. 

tS. Eiim quem Potaptmt legatum lemper judicaml, Pompc^ 
of conne nonld eDtemdn thiB opinion fram motive* of Tuity. 
Then ii erely Muon to beliere, bowevet, thU the indiridiul 
■liuded lo wu s meie apy. 

18. Jt jttHut, &rc. IMeRing in pqtiealu to MetdfaM, wbe 
wu commuiding in eonjnnctioa witb Fompejr in Spaiu. He wm 
B letation of the Metelhia jiut mentioned, wltfl 10. — Ai tum 
fiMttnmum, 6lc. 'What gsTe oSfaDce, if tbe tu^ be tin*, 
mB tbst tbe indiridi»] ■boold hsTe been •enl to eo yoBng ■ maiL 
m Pompef , uid OQe too who wu onbr ■ qneaetoi with [Hi>-contatir 

14, Mtillit poititt rehut geetit. "B7 tDuiy labaeqaeDt ei 
ploits." Poelta refen to the period after tbe Spoiiki war, aiid t 
Pompey'» opeiatioiu «gsinit tbe pirates. — Veetm judieHt. "Ei 
preaaions of opinion on yoarpait." Compaig Dola 14, pBgeSB. 

15. Quam praatare it le ipio nemo poteit, dcc. " Wbicb ni 
one can exiiibit at pleBSure in bia own cue ; bnt wbich we can CiJ 
to miod and make mention of in the case of inother," i. e. no msi,GoOgk 


gg cni ba ■neomfo] wbni ha pUuei ; thii lie* Kitinlj' willuD Cb* 
pown, md ii ngnktad bj tbs wiU, of Iba goia, But be nuj teU 
withoQt Miii|ile of the luccen with wbieh olhen haire been 1*- 

1S. D» feUtUlt ietnim. ■> lo reUtioD Id ■ thing thu lic* 
wbollf vithin the powerof the godi," L e. nwceee, v good fm- 
tane ; of whicb, eccoTding to CicoKi, we moat tptak ceationely utd 
Ineflj, leet we be foDDd eeenbing loo innch t» humui igeiic;. 
Conipue the eipluetion of EnisetL '< De poteetete deocuni, L e. 
iiT€ em, fiHu Mt toia tn feleiliut d*ttnm, ut aaatdum *U «t in 
•■ fbtt tamtM trilmamu." 
g^ 1. Jltuima. F^ne KfuiinDe.— ITaFedt*. The celebnted 
ofiioDeDt of p"»»*"! — Seipima. Il ie nnceitein nhelbei Cicers 
meena the eldei or joni^M A&icuuu. MtnDtini thinka it Ii the 
latler, and hie opbiion ^)peen to be Ihe cnract one For bd 
aceooiitafdieiiidiTidneWbeie alluded to eonaull Hietoiicel lodez. 

X Ai «eiytihiJimw tt g^oriam. *' For their daration and 
glarr." Aa aeiyfihido and glarii, tm here oaulj aynonymoai, tiiB 
jiii|«iiiiiiia ia oot repeated befbn tbe IiUer. — DtBtnhM. '* By tbe 
feronr of Hearen." 

S. Bae. ToruU. — /h iltiiu pott^i. "TJnder hia coqIidL'' 
Oieeni meane, Ibat he will employ luch modeiatiaa in ■peikiug, ■■ 
DOt, on tbe one bud lo aesert thit Pon^ty it maatat of eventi, Soi 
■Dcb laufiiage nonld be (^euaiTe (a the gode, (tnua iiit ivimor- 
laUhiu ;) aitd, on the other, merely to nuke il sffiereiit, tbet be haa 
iMt GxgotUn tbe paetexploila of that commender, bot ragHd* them 
u an eeineet of futuie eucceea, for to foigel Iheoi would be lauk 
ingntitnde egainit the bemgi wbo bave Ihui hi [«eeided oter hia 

4. JVm* nuK yraeiittinna. " I am not gaiiig Tumtingly to 

fi. Oilt mpam nl. " Tielded to." OUiiTe denotee more of 
litenl end abeolnle obedience than BbUmptroTe, aud ia therelbre 
need iu tha neit danee, wheu epeaking of enemiea. Ohumftiiirt 
taloobey Ibe apiril of a comnuod ; asaaoD,ibr eiample, obeya ■ 
fatber. Compere Ci£. fre Catan. IS : '•Imfoium dmutticum 
miUnm tril, n ttnmlit nialrit hoc amettterimui, tU ad ve^ 
mibit obediaut, tton ad id quod ex veitua intelligi pouit obtem- 

B. Obttaindarint. "FaTonied." Refeiring in particulai lo hls 
lapidi^ m chasiiig tbe pintet tom Ibs amface of the Mediteini- 

7 Tarii nlpHdenfmi. "So [««snniptDOui." — Taalut. " In,GoOgk 

TRB 1UMU.UN iJiW. 84 

hu heirL" — Delulmait. Id totitf MSS. «nd euiy «dittoiii ne g 
find eimbi/enMl ) but dttaknait uprsawa nMm of cotideKaiiKni 
•Dd faioui: on tbe pvi of the godB, 

8. Ctuod ul iUi, &c. " And tlul tbia lnmj bc Iub pecnlkr iiid 
luling {sinl^," i. e. iLat tbeie (pBeul &Ti>an may evei be 
Toncheefed nnlo him. ProprmM hen kqriiei, Ihu ■ no Ranwn 
conunaodei hu erer been m> pecnliBiI^ &Toured u Pompej ; ud 
(ite assembled people >n reqaeeted to pn;, that thiise ipecial icti 
«f kindneu, on the pvi o( tbe goda, ma; be contiDDed lo hiiB 6^ 
ihe time ta eome, Bnce the; wiU onlj proTe a Ireah eonica of hoa 
oni utd h^ipineea to hia count!;. 

9. VcUe a optare, " To enteitain and eipiaaa tbe wiah." 

10. Aeeuratutiim. " With Ibe otmoit wb." 

11. Duintaiitit fsni, dcc. " WiD joa bentale, BomBna, ta 
emploj >o braniabla an opportnnitj ai thii." Mote liteidj, 
"tfaia Bogieata good." Manj of the Oxfbid MS9, haT* duMoJu 
bnt die pieeent tenaa ia too etiDiig haie. 

IS. QiuMtai, "£Tenif Iben," '^iHid, in mcb eaaea aa tfaa 
pn)«Dl, commenciag a «entence, alwaja lefeia to •omething going 
befoie, and ia not lednndant a* aome cntica imigine, It i> beie the 
aame In lact aa preplfr quod. . Compare the lonaA of Schnti, 
{Ind. Lal. t. T.) : " Quod ci iniiio ptriaii tatpt ponUitr .- tti 
imper rcfertar ad anltcednu aliqiad, el Iraiuitiom lervit." Coi>- 
rnlt also PcritOTitiu, ad Stnct. Mia. i, 5, — (toL S, p. 337, «t 

13. Ii tral dtligtndu*, &c. 

w &equeBtl]r pot in tfae indicatin^ to giie moie liTeliDeaa 
lo the lepreeenlaUea, althongb, in the cooditianil claoae, the im- 
peiTeet oi plaperfect Bubjniictiye has beea naed. (Znnjrt-, L. 
p. 827. Ktnriek'! trantV} 

14. ,^iiiic ctun, &o. " No», howeTei, nbeB to Ibe o&a «nt 
nent adTantagee eiiBtiiig in his case, the foUowing bappj dicnni- 
alBDce is likewise added, that be ia preaent in tboae toij paita," 
Sk. Bj 0* iptit loeit is meant Asia, ibe aeal of Iha wai. 
PiHDpej biTiog ended the pintical Trar, wu engsged, al thia 
lime, in settling the affaiis of Cilicia aod lli* adjacent coni^ 
tiiee, and in —^gnmg hebitationa to tbe piistea wlio bad mieD> 

iS. Quid estpeetatmaJ "'What Tirait we rorl"— Sibimm am 
taiuu Ttipubliriit. "With tbe gieatcst adTamigs lo thestala:." 
—Hoe MImh rtgiam. " ThiB wai oT the kingi." Refemng to 
MHhii^teB aiid Tigiaoea 



fi)3 l. Ai uin. Andagow ta Ih* Qrtiak JUi yif. !■■ Om eoiakt- 
miica, tmm iulndiKM ■ rfWi fbr the oppcnitiaB, direnitj, or 
objeclioo to ■omethii^ praceding, which ia aitnified bf «t. Rob- 
in. " 8mt thit, it wwiw, joB miMt not do, /ar," Ac. 

3. f wlru btn^/iau amflmiimt tffftetmi. " Aod mo i>bo haa 
bMDbcHioiiced with Iha moal diilmgiijahod praoft t^jmn ngtii." 
Tho ■DwMi ia W Iha faBOua Q. LotttiDa OMoln. CooMilt His- 

8. Jtwff fHMMW, A& " And likewise QDJBtas HottenahiB, 
p3MMe>)ig Ihe hi^Mat ■dnnMgM that paUie homMin, fKtnne, tv 
tm, Hid talanU cati bealoir." Hie alliuion ia to Q. Bortanaiaa 
the oelebnted oMot. Hehideniojedthe«OMiiilehip,hnd«p Mi « n d 
■ liTge foitDDe bj tb« legtl pcoftMion. «« ■ tMn of tq)rig;ht cher- 
•cter, eBd ■ t^lenled uid popolii, thoogh nrj Aamj, deolaiiDer. 
Conanh Hi^uriMl Indez. 

4. AM kte relMM diiMnliimt. " DiflM from me in tbe Tiew 
trtiich I hnTa teken of thie ■nbiect.'' lilenlly, "didfl fiom thia 
Tiew of Ihe nil^ect." CatahM uid Horteoeina led Ihe oppoeition 
■(■mat the bilL Conanh Inlnidaeloi]' Remario. 

5. ^nanHK ■Mctsrttnten, du. " I om wiUii^ te own, thal tbe 
Mrthoiity ol Ihne iodiridiu]* hM eieieieod ■ mj ■tnmg inflDaneo 
with jaa on menr oecuiiKie, uid oogfat mi (o do. In the piHBnl 
<•■■, howergi, althoDgfa joa^ie woUawueoftheaentimeitti ofthe . 
bniert end moet iUimhaiu mra, u being in diiect iq^ioattion to 
their^, Mill,puttingauthohtjoneith(sudeeatiiet<r oat of tb« qoee. 
limi, we een *acBrtui tbe tnilb (rom tbe ccm iMelt and £nm tbe 

iriio ihink with Cicera, ind whoM cbaiBCtai eDd Manding >n fidlj 
eqnd to tboeo of Citnhu Hid HoitcDains. 

9. OxMia. " AU tbiDgt," L e. ■Dhmited powei. The Huuliaii 
Uw piDpoaBd, in effect, lo iniMt Ponqiaj with onlinuted powet 
•gHiut MiCkndatfli uid Tignnei. Compua the lugu^ge of 
Philuch (ril. Pmi^. c. 30} in ifieAuig of Ibo prenae» of the 
«cl : n«n rh If' ^' "i^i^HBh' yabOtt rtv 'Pufialui Irf^otla*. 

T. Ri. " Bj fkett." The alhinDa ii to tbe prapei uaa mmde b j 
Fooipaj of tlie extewiTB powar coofeired npon him in Iha pintiea] 

S. Ft» fiM Himu co^a, &c. " Witb tW ttsb toeocj uid 
aminent talent for ■peaking thit ue joun." The eloqaBuce of Hoi- 
teiMH wat of the kmd ceUed Aiiatic, being nltiK ■howj aDiI 
dedunitoij thui oolid uid poweif uL 

0. VtruK farttn A. OoAtnnn, ftc, Cicuo ciUe GabiniM ■ 
ni fiom tha apirit lie diiphijeJ in ttirjitg Ihaia^ hi^"(,GoOgk 

TRi: lUiTituN Llir. 349 

lin uBia die «rennans oppOntion of the senite. One of h!i eol- gf) 
leignes in the tribuncship, L. Trebelliua, interposed hii Telo, and 
auured tbe «entte that he ivould nthei loie bii life thin luGfer (he 
kw to pass. Gabiniui theieopon propoaed to the people to deprhe 
TictwUiu» of hii nug[iitracj, ind the tiibes hiTing made greit prog- 
len in voting upoD tliis pioposttlon, ind ibe populai vmce eppeu- 
bg decidedly againK him, Trebelliui became intimidated lod wilb- 
drew his inteicesnon. An leeoDnt of (he whote proceeding ii giien 
bf Dio Cassnu, (36, B, ttqj.,) and by Aiconiua, {ai Cic. orai. X, 
pro Cornelio, p. 06i,) fram wlHch it ti^ate, thit Tiebellius pei- 
■iated efW eeienteen tnbes hid declaied >igunat him, ind onljr * 
jielded when the eigfateenCh, which woald hsTe mide a majoiity, 

10. GTBviler om^eqiu. "ForciMy andeloquentlj." Compue 
note 3| page 65. 

1 1 . Vera cevia. " Tbe eaUKi of truth," i. e. the trne inlereHa 
of the elate. — Tiiitremvt. " Would we ftillbe retiining." 

IS. Capiciaitiar, " Were accaatomed to be nude CBptirea," 
i. e. b; the pint«i. — Cimmtalti, " From BoppUei." 

13, E7( jwjue prioaftim ron, &c. "Tbat we could no Iwiger 
triJiBict inj buMnes», ei&er of i privite or A pnblic mture, beyond 
the lee." The re» trmtjmaritiae privaiae refer to the private opoi*- 
tiou of the Roman tradeia ; the publieae, to Ihe rerenuei ia tha 
traruiniiiine piovincei. 

wide domiaion orei the sea." 

1. Carlkaginimtiiim. The oitiK^nphy Carihago aod Carlha- O 
ginieniei ii more correct Ihtn Karlhago and Karlhagiiiieiuet, 
Coneult Raperti, ad Sil. lial. 1, 3, Var. leet: 

2. Skodiomm. The Rhodians were atill cele^ted for theii 
nsTil nliill and diacipline, and theli fonneT glorj wai atilt fieah in 

8. Tam iemiit. " So feeble." — Aliquam parlem regimi». 
" Some ponion at leaetofher terrilorj." 

4. AHqimt annet eantimira. " For tevenl «ucceseive jeira."— 
jKrietu,m. " Ai ever awociated wilh viclorj-." 

8. ItagBa at widlo mOxinuL, &c. " Felt themselvei depriTed 
iif a liige, «ye, «nd bj fv Ihe leigeit ahire, [jut onlj of their leve- 
Duea, but of theii dlgnitj ind their empire." UtHiliitit, mam liler- 
a]]y, " ef wbit migbt Aontribute to their adTiiitage." 

B. Anliochtm. Poljienidai. the admirBl of thi« monarch, wai 
defeated in two naTalei^igementa bj tha Romana, tn tlx fiiri,GoOgk 

350 ojuTioii in rATOtrK ov 


AQ ictilHi, which wu foogfal dm bi &(ira FhiKM, Ihi Samui fleet wm 

conunuided hj C. LiTJus. (£■(. 36, 44.) Id the lecoDd, irhich 

laak plice off Che promonbny of Mjoneaas, oeu Teos, the RLodiKn 

fleet wu united to the Romui. TIm conunuider of Ihe Utter, on 

thi* occuioo, vna L. Aemiliui Regilltu, (,Jm, 37, 30.) 

7 PfTMttjiu. No tnce Bppetn in histocjr of eny nivtl nctorj' 

OTei' Penea. Aftei his defeat at Pjdna, bjr Paulu* AenulibB, Iib 

took refnge in ihe island of Sunothnce, where he suDeadend hiin- 

■elf to the pimetoi Cn. OctsTiua, wtio had been eent ihither with a 

leot b; the Roicui eoniul. A nsTsl triampfa waa decned to Oct» 

» Tiui, bat it ippeuB to hiTe been bealowed upon him for recerriug 

Pbthb u hia priuuier, not foi any actual engagement ; and benc* 

lirj (W, 13) CalU it : " IriumpJiut tine caflnit, «IK foliit." It 

ia mon Ihtn piobable, however, that Ciceio illudei \a hhiib ■ctoal 

eonflict, an aceouDt of which hu not ccsoe donn to u«. 

8. In mantimM rehM, dic. " Moit eiperienced, utd ibulidanllj 
BOl^ilied with eTei7 tbing leqtUHta in maiitime aflun." 

9. S. We baTS nothing m oui own i^iom analagoua to thia eteganl 
imge of ti foi Ihe fint peiaon. In renderiiig, we mij cDnaidei it 
eqiuTalent ben to nn taUt, (i. e. nuf, f nJei cufn entmai,) " We, - 
though thui ffprung," i. e. we, tbough descended froai sach &thers. 

10. Prattlart pottrtmut. " Could gliow foilh lo thv woiid." 
Pratttart is here equiTileDt lo txhiberi or atltndtre. — Tum cum. 
" In Iboee da^is, when." 

11. Quo omntt, &c. The poit of Delos wu a conTenieat atop- 
ping-plaee for tbose who ssiled fiom Ital]' oi Gnece to &m. — Jts- 
ferladivitiit. " Hioiigh Glled to OTeiflowing with liebeB." Liter- 
ally, "crowded," &c. 

1&. Hihii timtbat. Because the Roman power wu then whit il 
■boald be, snd Delos wlied aecunlj on this for protecllOD. 

13. Edem, &c. " We, that suiie people, wen deprired of Ibe 
Dse of Dot only our [HVTinces, and the whole aeacoest of Iialj, and 
our Teiy haibour», bul BTSn now at length of ibe .^pan waj." 
TheuBtge and positionof jan,inthelatterjuemberof thisseDteDce, 
ia eitTBniBly el^ant. It is equivalMt hen lo jm tandem. 

14. Appii via. TioM nwd led, throngh Capus, to Bmndisium. 
(Conaolt Geogiaphical Indei.} The put of it whieh ^iproached 
the ses ^pevs to bave beea infested by the pintes, wbo piobiblj 
bad aeconiplicea on Bbora. 

Ifi. 7r kune tptun iociim. AUuding 1« the rostia. — EicendtTl. 
The old fonn for aicendiTt. GraeTJui fiijit gsTe Ihia readuig bxm 
one of his MSS., ind be bu been foltowed bj Eruesti, Rchuti, 
Onllius, and otheri. — llie orstoi msj paiposelj haT> iW rbs old,GoOgk 


lim bsn. lo tcmB aady time* to tha miiKta of hii hscran, tnd 1110« fi 
bow tbe Roniuu o! tbe Utter day U which h« ■Uiidea {Ut Umpori- 
hut) hid degeaentod from tlie praeliee oT tbeir fetben. 

10. Exiaiit naaticU, &c, " Adomed wilh nanl tnphiei ind 
the ipoils of deeta." Tbe rMfra wh *d(iiiud wilh Ihe be>k*-(n»tm) 
of Iha ehipa taken in eerij time< bam Ihe Antiale*! Connill XA». 
6, H, utd nole 3 page 71. 

17. Boai) animo. " Tn the nnceiitf of jonr beut," i. e. Tritb a 
hir uid boneet intenlioD. Ciceio sUode* lo tbe 0[;fNiutiDD mad* bj 
Horteiuius and otben to Ibe puaige of tha Gabiniui Uw. He 
■Uowe them the utmoet >iiicehtj m tbsii oppoiitiOD, bat adda, dwt 
the Roman people, Itiough fuUj awin of the honeatj of their iDlao- 
tioDi ia eadeaTounng to defeat that law, took tfae tnie new ti Ihe 
caea aiid pieaed iL And eo (tbie U the tacit iafennce lo ba dnwa 
&am wbit he aqra) wiU tbc^ agaia aet od Ibe preasDt occaaioiL 

18. Jit talaU eommani. "In a «aad iaTolTii^ tbe eommon 
Bfetj." — Dolori twi, ".Hieir own fediDga of indignuit grief.*' 
Doler, jn iti piimiliTB lignificalioD, maaiia Ihs muit attODdaiit npon 
a wouDd. It becomes, tbMMTore, ■ veij 1110112 ^^'"^ ^^° wW, 

' in ■ GgnntiTe •eme, to (be monl feelingi^ 

19. UnaUx. The Ciabiniin U». — I7iiiurv'. — PonqMj. — Uiuu 
a,iaau, A. U. C. liSfl, the jear prsTioua to that in which thU on- 
tion «■■ delireied. — Cicero ioBi not, of couno, mean that it topk 
tbe enlini year lo bring ■bout Ibe cbango aUiided to, bat tbat a 
■ii^e -jraz tstt the power of the piiUea at ita height, and Ihat ■una 
powei annihilated bj Pompej. 

30. Qito mU, &c. " On wbicb ■ccoimt it sppetn to me «Tan 
the iDora UDwoitbj, ^il oppoBitioa ^iould bare been bitbarto inade, 
■baHI Bsjto Gabiniua, 01 to PompeiQa, oi to boChof theml (whatia 
neun tha tmtb,) in ordei that Anlas GiUnluui mlght doI bo ap- 
pomted s lisuteDaQt to Cneius Fompsins, though eaiDeatlj denring 
and io facl demanding bim foiono." — Viim tnntactiDn to wbich 
Cicero ber« ■llodei vrae ■implj tbis. Aulua Gabioius piocure* « 
law to be pasied, inveating Pompej witb suprame commuid. Wben 
Ihe latter obCains thU qqHuntntent, he wiabes te have Gsbiniua aa 
one of hls lientenanti, but meeli wbh eo decided an q^ioutionaa 
to be con^Ued lo abindon tbe idea. Ciceio compUini of Ibis o|>> 
potition to Pompej'i wisbea, uid inoi^ts, ihat Gabiniai oogbt to be 
pielemid to eTeij otbei indiiidoal. It buuI be erident lo anj one, 
wbo will take the tiouble of leflecting odIji moment on ibe «ubject, 
Ibat tbe oppodtion 10 Gibinin* wh periecllj picqwr, and thtl Ciceto 
doea hinuelf tcij UttU cradit (7 tbe coune wbicb he Cakas in rala^ 
tioD to it, Tha iriiole tSm had loo moch |h« aj^ieanncQ pf a cor-,GoOgk 

383 oraitAn n rATouR or 


AQ n^ jobMpg-liumctioii, m man mittsr of btrgiln ind Bde, aod tbe 
pacBdent wonld h*Ta baan ■ diligenHii ona fM the mtereMa of Ae 
Mala, and tba poiitj of legiilMliaiL OabiniiH «ras, in hct, « nun Ot 
ioboMu cbanctK ; and it ia """""g to we, bow cleai-atgfated 
(Scan> anbaeqoHitljp became, myif ting Iha maiila aiid ■tanding ot 
tbia indiTidDal. In Iba (peecb daUnnd bj tba Roman ontoi' b«' 
fae lb« laDate, aftai bia letum &ombuiidnnKit,b«pet))l* tbe char- 
■elaa of Qabiniua b Ae i tiopgeit and moal ler^lilig cobnm. Ha 
daaeiAea him la ■ roan pollutad bj eTei; elceaa ; aa ona, wboa« 
onlj Tefage fiwn impiiaonmeDt, fbi numenxia deUa, waa t(a innolm' 
bilit; of hii pwKm ■■ bibune. He alladea alwi ta Iba Uw whicb 
dM «UM O^iiiiiua bad proetmd, nipectiog Ihe ^iobtment ot 
fca^Bj againH the pinlea, aiid tben adda, tbat had ba ml csuaed 
ttaa law to be paaaed, Mt «m neccfnttu wouU A<m drnai lam U 
lnni firati Unu^ft And jst thia is the «ety mau, wbam Cicenii 
ewtain^ mlh t fuU knowiedge iif bia chaneter, reeommendB to fb» 
notice and apptobatbQ of bia c«DntiTTiien ! 

Q0 1. CMrri. "Yonr olheieomnunden." — Ai expUandat toaim, 
dkt. Cieera Imaw petfaetty welt, notwiibatandii^ all that he a>ra 
bere, Ibat Qabinhiii, if aii ot^iianil]' iboiild i^r, woolil do tbe 

I. Iptt. RefeiriDg to Oibiiuua, — Cmutitutaat. "HaTebeea 
I^eoed on a aute b*Ba." 

3. Qtd ctmtUia iftiuw, dcc. " Wbo h>Te been caHed inlo actlaii 
bj hia own eoDnBats, vid at Ui own iDdividuil riak." Litenlljr; 
"nha hiiTB becn ippointed," oi "let Dq fmt." — Feriealo. B4- 
eanee, X»aj flung adTerae ahould beM Pompef , flte btBQie wimld 
Ml on Oabinlua. 

4. HoMrit ctuta. "WiA tbe atmoet leapect" SmnrU 
et»ta mWB ftvqnentlj meiiu, " ont of leipeet," and la tben equiT< 
lleM to JWnioriiwii eaw*a. 

0. Ame jn o ti m e. No ooe, who had' been a tribune of tlig coDt- 
inma, coutd ffll Ihe office of tiaDtenaiit undai a geneial Kppmiilei ■ 
lo • eommand during the tnBglstnicj of iha farmet, untit a jeU bad 
■lapaed aitKe tha peiiod oT his letiriag fToin the tnlwieship. Ilie 
•bjept qf thiB legulation waa to pteTent btitieij ind intrigns. C9 
eaio, tionetei, citea aoma imitaneeB bere of a TioktiDn of thiB int^ 
■nd ef •x-tribDnea haTii^ been Bppointed tteutenanta tl» Teij nett 
jeii ifioi tber had laid down llieir tribuneahipa. 

6. iia iee biui Gahmo, &e. " Are people ao aeliTe «ilh tliair 
«^ipoaitiDn iD tlw caae of Ihia Qabtnius akme, who, aa Ib' aa legsrda 
tUs wM, irfiKh ifl WBgod in accordance witb a 1«w of hb own pro- 
fwing r** ^ ■• fBiJwJi tliiB conmiander and ani^, lAMft U,GoOgk 

TBK lUNa.U>» uv «9« 

tanwrif bu called bto «ctioo tluoagh joar watbtge», M^tt ta Mijiv Q0 
eTen «0 e^cciat light of bsing ippoiBted," i. «. ought to b« |aB- 
fened to all otfaei spplicuita, — Fcam the langutga of Plutirca, and 
Ibe piaiiiiDDS of ths Gibioian law, it would af^xu tlut Pomiicj' 
lud the ri^ to lelccc hii owa lieuteiiants. If h>, th* (^ipaeitioa M 
Qabiniue must have been ^iuided os the pnrioualj BiuMag 
Aebutian law, end the intkm; of his piinta Gbancler maat Wtb 
made thia opposition ihe more farmidable. Tbe Aebutieo, iriiish 
t^aa lo bare baen the tame with Ihe ^jciniiui I»r, foibads tbe 
pCopoKi oif a law, Goucenune Wf c^ut^ or powti, aeaaming thel 
ctiacge orponec, 01 deiiiii^ ui^r adiuitige frOBi iC The Miiia 
prohibilioa was eiteDdod alio to his colle^guei, raUtiOM, &c. Tba 
piiuciple sa which ihia law waa fouDded, i* 1017 neatlji itated bj 
Ciceio, {AgT. 2, 8, in RiM.) : "Blenai, m fopaio ettixiiM, 
remmie U a. nupcirnu aiiciiptj tui comtiuidi : fac fiitm, tt takU, 
mn* poptdi lUUiiafem it /nMhun quairer^ ; jnu ai «Jta» peUtUh 
lem, ad U graiiam beiuficii lui peneBirt." 

7, Ptr vot iptt. Gruter fint pmpoaed ihi» n 
MSS., and it b«a been fdiqited bj C 
manj other editom. Emeali, bowerei, le 
pcr le ^te, makiDg jkt 11 lefei to Ibe hw whkh GahiBiuB pcopeMd 
aod eieited bimaelt lo haTo pwMid. He doubtii the laiinkf of ^ 
BM in conjunction with ipte ; but tUs is, In &cL the m7 tingiiii([i 
lequiied t^ tha oocauoo, iptt tefening to tbe indindDal exertion* 
of Gabinius, aad per nx to Ibeir bsing crowDad wilh ■nimss l^ 
tbe Bnffiiges of ibe people. 

9. Dt jfio legaadc, &c. " I b^ tba cMsab will oonaiU Ike 
lenate nlatiTe lo hfs ^pointioeal a» liaaleBniit," L ■> wiH l^ tbk 
wbole maltM bofins tbcm, and get tbat bo<^ 1« inteipoBs tb» 
autboiitjr and sanction ths qipointment. Tb* contaU of tfcia jm» 
wcce Lqiidiaf «nd VoleaUBB Tullna. (Gonaoll Sigoniiit, Fatt 
Cpru. p. 4M, ei (hm.) 

9. ^ gmialnaUiir- "Oi ebeUnuae an; dificnltisB." Or» 
nri is beie oied in a deponenl Beaae. 

10. ^o sunKl pr^eor Telaiurmm, " I openlf dedue that I 
mjvdf will ^ the mattei befo» thsm." Li jdaca of Iba coBmo* 
nadiBg mc, we bsTe gjrea neauC aa Uis sDggeildcai oS Goeienz, 
ed Cie. Acad. S, IS. — Nothing coold be laid beiats Ihe •sBats 
against lb« vriU of tbs conaak. Ilis prastoia, of wiiich clis; of 
m^pMnls* Ciceio «b* bI diii time a membei, could aalj EonTene 
tbe «enale wImd. the counila weie d>«ent from tke eity, uid coaU 
at tbMBtimes onlj U7 mch mBttsn befbre diem u Ibwp pleusd. ^ 
It will be perceiTed, thecefore, ihat the iBogaags of CSocMi, ou ib» 

30* ■ -,GoOgk_^ 

S&« ouTioM nf wtvon of 

OQ pnwrt atcanon, p«t*kM of Iha Datiin of ■ mere boiat. tad k 
iaUDdad lo ooiMilkla the laToar of tbe nrallitude. He deelarea, 
tkat, if tha eoaauk beM beck, ba hinMelf wiU nwke tbe lequiaita 
■ppbcatiaa to tbe ■eoate, in aiiila of Ibem eiid of (117 ininuciDs 
tiichim which Ihaj Duka in oidet to ttt^ him ; and that nothii^ 
afaort ef Ae inteieee«on of tbo tribiinet wonld keep him back. Ha 
knew mrj well, howerer, Ibat 'be eonauk hid the poner to re- 
■tnin him. 

11. AiflBntili «AeAifB. *'Tbe imfiieadtj ediet," L e. oa tta 
pait of Iho conmla, and ■imed U hia intended motian in Ihs oenata. 
~~Vatnmjitt ttiuficimqiit. " The right «nd the fnoiii ndnch 
joa hne eoDfeired." Tbe Oebiniui Ikw gne l^psy tba li^t ot 
■(iBctiDg bia own lieuleainla. (Connilt note SO, pagc S9.) Bj 
tiiujteiitm ia maant tbe miifc of ^toui which tbe gnntiDg of thiB 

19. Frmtltr iiUtrttituKum. " £boit of inteiManon," L e. tl>a 
tnbimitian veto. — Dt jna, Refeiiing to tbia interceeaion. — Quid 
HtMl tmaidtrabiaii. " Wilt do wetl to coniidei, how far theii 
pvwei ma; oiteDd," L o. will take eaiei if thof nliie theii own 
tmiqaillit;, dM to eiceed Iha powei raetod ia Uiem bjr the lawi. 

IS. rSpenu mdMCriiiMr, ** Ii a fit penon to be added ai a com 
pamon in amu to Fonqiejr. Adteribitiir ia beie eqnJTilGat to 
dignai uf fM adter&atur. 

14. Alltr. BeleiiiDg to Qabitiiiia. — Oni. "Te a puticalu 
ewnmandw-" — AlUr, "Tbat commuiilei." Litenllj, " the 

IB. UlHctiiditmutt mdtatur. Cicero aj^iean to adopt thla 
pbiaae^ogri on puipoee ben, aa if tha ugamenta of Catolua, on 
tbo pneent occwdni, •oemed to bim loo week to loquira a Ibnnal 

IS. Si in IMO Cn. Pmnpeio, &c. " In wfaat ponon, if jou made 
all jour eqtectatiima centie in Cnuua Fompeiua, jrou wera going lo 
place anj hope, in eaaa aa^ ■henld befall him." Tbe ejpieaeien 
atfuid dt eo ftttAimttitt, u aueapbemiam, foi "incaaehe ahonld 
die." Tbedinct mentionof deMhiaomittedaaill-omeDed. We 
haTCieeloradibta, tfae o)d leading, with Memutiiiua, Matlhiaa, aiMl 
otbua. Tbe lection «d^ited b; iBott editon, fiDm Ihe tima irf 
Lamhinna, ii B qaid eo /atlHm tttel, omkting ii<. 

17. Ctfil magiBim, Ac. "ReipBd Ibe lich bairait of hia ewn 
liituea and higb«tanding." — in ipia. "!n faimsBlf." Tlw anac 
doto bera alluded to ii t tetj plsaaing one. In an ontioD to the 
people, dunng ibe dieconion oa ibe Gabinian law, Catula* «died 
them, wlwm Ibaf would bafe lo anpidj Porop«]r'a piaco, in caae 


THK HAim.UN UW. 355 

tbil indiTidutl iboold b« cat oS? Tbe people eiclumed witb QQ 
■Imoat ont Bccoid, " Tc, QttiiUc CatuU." " You, Qnintua CUn- 
lui." And thaB the Roman people, u Valerius Muiiau* remarill, 
Diide CaCalug tfae equal of Pompe; and of iD Iiiii gloTT. ( Val. 
Max, 8. 16, S.) Cnlalus, it aeems, ucofding to RalBich'* iccount, 
wu Bjguing tgtuDJt the piopriety of inTesting Pompey wilh tho 
commuid in the pintical war, on Che giound Ihat the people on^t 
tfl ^ieie him, and Dot to mpoae mch ■ maa to ao many dsogece. 
(Fil. Pomp. c. 35.)— The conunoii leit bu tn ra ipiQ. Bat aev 
eralMSS. omit to, ond beiidea, uLambmua uidMBtlhiaeconectly 
mnaik, it would leflsi to Pompey, not to Catulua. It i* njecled 
in camequeDce, bj Lambmaa, Weiske, sAd Matthiae, ind eucloeed 
nithin bracketa by Oielliaa. 

18. Taiu at vir, &c. This pnuee was as lichlj deeerred bj 
Catnlui, u Ciceio •eem* lo hsTe been sincere ia bestowing it. 
Compue dt Off. 1, 3S : " JHiiA) juidem ntjui, jmmi noiu, M. 
Scaunit C Mario, veqae, cum serMremttr nt TtpiMiea, Q. Cs- 
tldut On. Pomptio cidert vidtbaiur." 

19. Bl eoiuSie regere, &c. " BoA diiect b^r hts counsek, and 
soppoit bj his iaCegiitj, and accompliah t^ bis Taloui." 

1. VikemtTiiitnntt ditientio. Compare note IG, page 90. — 1^ Q ■ 
taimit eerta, iu:. " ThemoreuncectainaDd biief thithiunuilireU.'' 
— FVirimmmi&omtnu, &c. " To STail it«If of (be di.yi uid tslenta 
of > dlstingiuBbed indiTiduaL" More iieelj, "to aTUl itself of tbe 
talents of a greet nuo, u long u bia life ii npued to his countij." 

S. At enim, Su. Tbe eUiptical use of ol tnim heie, tnar best 
be eiplained bj ■ puapbnse : " Suf, remsike Citului, this whole 
pioceeding is an impropei one, for let no bmoration be mide, coc^ 
tiarj to Ibe piecedent« and in^titucions of oor fetheri." — Ciceio 
pioceeds lo Dieet ui abjection urged by Catulue, Chat it iru not 
ligbt toc Ibe slate to be depeudanl upon, and to haTe aH ite bopei 
centied in, ■ nnglB individual. He cilea, in oppoiitioD to this 
doctnnei Che eumpIeH of Sc^O Che yuunger, aud Marius. 

3. Non dieo kac loca, ilui, " I urge not in reply bere, that our 
fathers slwajs coneolted in peace eslabliahed usage, in wai atility , 
that tbey always adapted new ptan* to new emergencieB." Ifato- 
rum eetuiUorum raiiontt, UteMjIy, "the plBnsornewcoungeIs,"i,e. 
aev pUuB «hich bad been made the subjecc of pceTious delibcntion. 

4. Tfon dieom, &c. " I wiD not Cell, bow two Tery imporCant 
wara," &o. Ciceio will not dwell on theae pointa, oi make si^ 
fonnal reply. It ia sufficionl merely to gUnce st Chem, — i^intcirai. 
Tl» third Pimio wai.— fliipaniBui!. Tho wu wrtb NnBiantis. 

0. Uno imptralort, The youngec Sctfjo. 

„,,.,, Coo^lc 

SM oBATio» m wAvon oi 


9 J e. JVm CMiuuiiural», &«. " I wOl sot nmhid 700, llwt, bot • 
few ;un igo, Ibu couns ■ppeued > prapai od« to ;ou uul your 
lilbera, thtt tbe ho(W< «f ll>e empiie ■hould b« nMds to ccntre in 
tbe uiigla penon of Ctiut Huiai ; that thii uiDe IndiiiiluBl," &c 
7. Jn ijMA CiL Pompm), &c. " RectU to jour dwid recgUectioD^ 
bcn* muij ihtng* of > novel utuce btTs been done bj jou, wilh tbe 
foU appn^lion of Quiolut Cuulue, in tbe ctu of Ui*t tam^ CDeios 
pDmpeiui, with regaM to whom Quintu* Citutu* uow wishes no- 
Ihing of ■ aovel nUun lo be idopted," L e. boW muiy innoTilioua 
•o eetabliibed uuge, iit. TbeM ue eniimeiUed immediately afier. 
B. Summa Q. CuiJt toltuUatt, Tbii i* the veiy neit emenda- 
tion of Gnenui fiDm one of bii MS5. "nie oid reading wbs «um- 
fnafnc CatuU valunLilt. Tha pnenomen Q. ii otten chuged, iu 
tbe MSS., into tbe conjuDction (lu- Tha conDectiTB >■ not wuited 

10. jidaUtcentuiian. Pompej wu, >t tbe time bere illuded to, 
in the twenty-thud yeat of bi< age. Compue note S, poge 80. — 
Praalun. " Holdiog no officitt •tatioo." 

11. Cei^trt. "Tolevy." More litBnllj, "lo get together." 
^lte ajluiion in the teit ie to Pompej^i levying an aimji Uld niaicb' 
mg wi[)i it 10 tiie «id of SylU. Compue note E^ page 80. 

IS. Oplimt, "Mogt aacceiefull;." — DmIu nUL "IjDder b* 
own gutdance," i. e. in penon. 'When • Roman commaodei pei^ 
faniwd any Ihing in peiMHi, b^ wu aald to do it dmlii, oc tajpid» 

13. Cujut a tauiterv) graiu, &c. Hie eeoatonBl age ^jpeua 
to bave beeu about Ibiity-two. (ConsulC tbe iemuils.of I^eati, 
Jni. Leg. •. T. Antulit.) Tliat i«, tbe age fot eDJojing tbe quae*< 
tonbip wBi ibout Ibutj-one, iud, aftet btvtog hetd tbii office, a 
penoo w*i eligible inlo tbe eenate. Potiqwy, Uieiefoie, wu abont 
eigfat je»n undei Ihe lenatorial age, — Hutaich infoiina ui tbit 
Fompey, at the time ■lluded lo bj Cicero, might ba«e euilj, u 1 
mattei of laToui, been "^miHfd to Ibe leaata, but that hia Bmbitioa 
wu 10 ponue bonoui in a laote unconmio^ tinck, and to triumpfa 
befon be wu a senatot. (Fif. Pomp. c. II.) 

11. CimfecU. " He taiminated." — Dtpartaril. "Ha hioo^ 
bome." j>tporleTi propeilj denotea, " to remuve," or " tniufar. 
ftom one platf to anotbei," ai, in tbe pteuut ioBlBaee, &mn Afcica 

Ifi. Ejuilan AnMfnm fniimptarc. Plntaicb itBlea, Ibal SrOa,GoOgk 

Tas IUIIU.UN uff. 357 

>t fint Offotpi Pon^'a daliKmil fsr & tiiumiJl, ou thu ocomtn, ^l^ 

■Itf^ng that he wu too yooBg, «nd Dot jM of au age to ba «iliait> 
ted inUi tbe •enale. Poii^j, aol is tbe leut intiaudtled. bads Sf Ua 
coDsidej:, " ili»t m«e itonbii^ied the n«ing Ihso ttw wttiBg Bun," 
intinutiBg thal hie own powei wia increuing, while that of Syil* 
wu on the decliiie. ^11« did not dietincClj heu what ha mH, bat 
pensctting bj tbe looka end geatDree of Ihoto pneent, th&t tbay wn* 
■tnici^ bj iriM Pompej hed utterad, be eakod whel itm, lad^ 
wheo he was infbraMd, b ■dmintioB of PoiDpej'e eptiit, he ciiedi 
out: "let hin triiuiqih," "lethim thampb." 

Ifl. Al eam Jfopu rem, Sui, In Cicsn>'a Kconnt of thie tiiumph, 
Do okention, .wbtlsver, ie mede of anj decroe of tbe •eoete, or oider 
of tbe people to tlMt ribct. ThereeeiKiistbie: Sjlk, being dict». 
toi, held ^ the power of the ■late in bi* own hande, aud airaidad 
poblic hoDoan wilboul coiuultiog eilhti eeDete oi people. 

17. Diu emnlet, D. Janiui Biutui and M. Asmiliui Le^Mdiu, 
A. U. C. 676. — BiUum tnaxamm, &c. Tbe wbi ■gainM Smtiaiue. 

1. Nmmano. " Ad iodiTidnKL" Ilie ■tudent will note the dif- ^J 
feieBce betweeo ntmnime eiid mnaiMm ; the focnwi bei^ equira- 
lent to o^iftiu, Ibe lattai to onme». 

i. Pto coKniit. " In ptace of acOMnl," i. e. with piocownlBc 
powei. The ejqneeaiea pro connile, oi pTaamMul, nai ippUed, 
■nioog the Romiiii, ixd meielj to one, wbo, aHer huing fiUed Hia 
coniulship, waa eeot ont, tbe next jeai, to goiem e pnmncB oc 
etecnte Baine putlcuki cbuge, bi^ ea in tbe preaent inaleDca, to 
ona aent out in.plaaa of e connd. 

8. L. PkSiffiu. A ■Bnaloi of gMBkinflnenca and weight o( 
chBraclai.''--^^'r0 conMnlikut. IntjmBtin^, bj thiH pecnbBi tum of 
eipreiBion, his Ofniioa irf Ibe inoBpecitj of hoU> ttte consnlB iar Ibat 
j<Bi. lltecoQauliweceM.LepidaeuidQ.CatuluBi A. U. C. 675. 

4. LMgiita nlvlut. Th» lawe bwe rafanvd to wen Ibe Lix 
ViUia,ai>dtmo{aiBLign Comlia». Tief wnre oitaa called bj. 
■ genual tcnn Ltgu innaJee, lioaB theii fiiing tbe igee foEboldiilg 
the li-ffa^nt officee in ibe Btate. Thne, ttae qnaaBtonhip coold nol 
ba eniofed aBtil coe bwlHBabedtbeageiri^SL jeus, the aedilealiip 
37, praetnnhip 40, and ennuWi^ 43. Snch, atleaBt, woa the iitla. 
in Ciceio's taae. iEmuti, Indtx Legnm, a. t. AmuUi.) Now, 
Po^>«f wai elecled caniul bafoie he wa; full 8S jears old, tbat ia, 
befan he waa of eufficiant age to obtna tbe aedileebip, whieb waa 
tlw Giat offiea propedj eaUed vtagUtratiu, sllbou^ Hai lida ia 
often ^fitied Bteo to ihs qaeeetenliip aod tribofleilup. — Fetntias 
ezpLaiiu tbe woids orIb fuamuilHm o^iiimmiigiMnUius, dtc., nta 
diSerEnt mannei. Me «uppoeea, Ihat thera was eilher la M 1*w,,GoOgk 

9 ouTioir iM rATovM o> 


J TnM bj SrHa, m •!•• ■ iww otw puwd bjr him, whicli niMlr^ 
dat M «M «bo l«d dM flUod tbe offic* of qmatoT, coald be K ccn- 
didaU b» uijr Mfaw umI higber offlca ; uid th>t, u Pmnpcy had 
objtt b«Mi qnmtoT, ha ma, of coonc, l^dlj exeloded liom tba 
ceMnUiip. Cicera*! wetia, boweTar, bjp do meanc fb*Dnr lliia 
inUqintatioii. Wbtt, in aach ui efeat, becoineiof«li quamt 

6. lUtnm. AUoding to Fomper'* «econd tnamph, which wu 
gnotod him ror bii « qcc bm»» oret tbe lematiu of the ■nnj of Ser- 
loiiai, in Spain, ■fwr ibe death of ihai commindei. 

B. Ez (nuAuEpnnllc. 8jlU hHl OTatbiawn Ibe tiibQDitiut 
powar, ud, iu comequeDce of thie, tbe wbcde «dmiiiielnlioii of Ib* 
MUa, fv •ona tima aftai hi* deuh, cxilnd in the MDsla. Henco, 
•t ibe period Kinrad to m tbe lext, Ibu oider, uid dK tbe people, 
had the ligfal of gnating e tdimiph. 

7. Quat m omniiui icnWntiu*, dtc. •■ WhataTer pracadento ot 
a Dord Detaie biTg bean mlibliihint in tbe cue of all mflii, widiin 
bonui naiamtaiDca," dco. 

8. Pri^tela tunt m amdtm jhmitiicn, Ac. " Hara liken Iheii 
liee, loi tbe ■ame indindml, finm the tiprau racoimnaiidatiou a( 
QnintDe Cetnloi," dcc., i. e. haTB baen eetibliebed in &Toar of 
Pompcrf bj the.*at7 noommoiidetion of Celoln*, dcc. 

8. Di Cs. Pompeii iigmtati. " Goneeining the eleratiqii of 
Cnaina PcHDpeiiu," L e. hii idTuieement in the •tMe, uid to ptdilie 
uid niHniMl boiKnm. 

10. DitMtfttiMM. We haTS idopted Emeati'* coniectnn. Tbe 
Mnunon teit ba* iitttntiaMt. — Jiiitm itti* rvdMKimtibu. UoT' 
IMuiiia, CUnhni aad other aenaCon, had iikarnM oppoaed the Gabi- 
niwi Inr. We giTB iud«m bafMn it^, witb Hatibiie u>d OreUiaa, 
&MII eeTenl MSS. Il doea mK *ppau in tbe common text. 

11. Ttmrrt. "Ruhlj." — Studia vtttra, tait tontiliit rtgm, 
" To Kfalata jMir wiabea bj tbeii eouBaati," i. e. to inieipa*» tbeii 
•nlbon^ aad ■dTtce, and prarMit joo froi» blindtj fbllowBig Iba 
tMte impnlie of feabng, and &Dm liilaniiig lo Iba dietilee of pw- 
aMNl Mtaebmanl, wben tbeee aie in oppoution lo tbe pobbc good. 

13. Stit OKmi.vaf, dtc. " Bot if, on tbe oontnij, jon aaw niM* 
ctonlj, ou (Iwt oeouion, Ibui thaj did, wbu wu fbr tbe iotanM ol 
Ibeetita; ifjoa, notwilbiUDdingtheir<qyieition,did,bj jourowB 
ail«id«d eSiite, beelow dignitj apon tbia empiie, ond Bafetj apon 
Ibe woild ; iM dM*e lesdoa of tlie aeiwte it iengtb ■cknowledga, 
Ibit bolh thej, ■nd the nit of their mdM, moit jield obedience to 
ttc ncommenduioa of ibe Rnnun people tt Uigei" i. e. muit dm 
oppote tha ■dTucament of thtt indindnal, whom ihe Romui people, 
with one Toice, tacominend ■< woithv of tba higbeit bDBonn. 

„,,.,, Coo^lc 


IS. Jhnpvi&a. Litcnllr, "io iHwt cmceiMd tha npDblic." 93 
~Pcr viwMf ipMu. The «nnBion Ulti d» fuaifB» of Ihe pMple, 
u nnbusaad bj U» bigh •tanding of thow who OFpond the Gabiniui 
l«w, Bnd in oppoailion to their «drice. — Iiti prindpti. " Let thMe 
leulen ot the ■etuta." 

> Ula mrtut, &c. "Thit mifituy teleot, «faidi 
edata in • singiilar degrea in Cneiiia Pompuaa."— VirftilM mami. 
"QDalJtias of mind." 

1». Jhltrurum ntimam. " OT the more inland nstioni," L e. 
of Ibe DBtioaa that are remored fiom llie ■borea dT Iha Meditcn»- 
nean, mi do not, lika the coontriee jnat named, boidar npon 

10. Ila tiriari «ffnim iniperalartni, &c. " For a conunsnder 
oT youn to IM ao empl<^ed, aa to ibink of nothing bnt Ihe fee and 
reiMwn." Ciceio meana, th^ tn coontriee it s dietaoce from Italj, 
■od fiom iriiieh, of coniaa, complaints conld lese easily be bronght 
to Rome, tha temptatton wse e Tery stiong ono ibi Romui com 
muiden to abaae theii power, snd tum tbeir Ihonghta liom the patb 
of dat; to Tiewa of >elf intereel and the indnlgenee of a rqwcioos 

I. Si qni nmt, dcc. " If thera be anj held nnder more reatraiiit Q 
ihan ofhers, b]r a Benaa of ahame snd » hsbit of •elf-oanlrol, 00 one 
thinka that thay are leail^ snch, in conaequencs of the Tast nnrnber 
of ^e npaeiona," i. e. no one givee tbem eredit for being nnceie. , 
A rapaciona apirit is so aare a maik of a RiHnBD commuider, Ibat, 
wben one i> fonnd without it, be ia merelj thooght to be acUng ao 
iiuinceia put, aod lajiog claim to ■ poiit; uid distateiealednese 
irtiich he does not mlij possess. 

S. Qaot ai eat, fte. AUadiag particDlaTij to Olabiio, bnt v^ 
plicable in bct to tbe condocl of alnKMt all Ibe Roman pnKOmnla 
■nd goTemara of prorineea, at this particuUr period. 

3. Injuriai ac UKdna. " Tbe oppieauie condnct and blndinoQS 

4. Qniid eittm famim, &f:. " Foi wbal temple, Ibitik jon, in 
tboae lands, hae pnjtm ed ita idigioiia character m tbe ejaa of our 
mngiatratea ; irtiat citj bas been htHi nacied bj them ; what {Hirala 
dwelling haa been >afficientfj closed npon, ■od defended ■gunat, 
tfaBir TiolBiiee !" 

B. lUqvinoilur. "Areeoagfat for." — Qtabui {tvtabiUiii^iT»- 
Mr. " Agumt wfaieh some preteit fbr wai maj ba ■Ueged." 

0. LOmler luta eoram, &e. " Willinglj woold I snteir npoo an 
opendiscnaaionaf ihaae topies,"d[e, — Qn; rinonru oiHlnmt. £>[>•■ 
eiiUr HDrtBnaius, in hii ptofeaaional caoacitj.,GoOgk 


3 7. SttHnm n t n u l M li m t . "DDdulba pMMMofwtn^sfuM 
•OMiiiu, bot ui nalit; ■gunst alUe* uid friendi." 

6. Qtiac ntm mala unpcratoru, dcc. " Thit cu Mtis^ Ihn 
gntftDg «Tiditj, ud tbi iwritDt pif teiuioiia, not taeitij ol t. ccmo- 
minda, <h ■ lieuCeiiwit, but o( ■ lingle tnbui» of iha Boldien 1 " — 
Thna wace ni miliUij tnbniwi (irihim tailitim) ta eiBij legianj 
■ad tbey btd eadi Ihe chuge of tea ceDturiee. 

V. CclUli» tigiti*. "WbeaeDengigenwnttakeapbce;" — SvM 
■ytm, " u> *dT4DC« egwiuit tbe be ;" coaftm, " to eiig^ge ;" eon- 
iHrUn, " lo bee kbout ;" ri/em, " ta latieat," &g. 

10. Siti trit idtm. "ITaleBi beibill ■laa be (sb." — Ab auro 
gtitt^u^ rejiA. ■*Fnxn the gdld Knd tbe tnenueeof kingi." 

11, Bettum fntalii, &c, " Thiitk yoo tbat %nj atate bse been 
•ubdued by oui cDumuiden, uid atill lenwine npuleif ; tbiU thera 
i* taj «w etiU epnlBnl, «bich ajipeue U> th«Bt to be ■• jrct com- 
pbtelj •ubduedl" l *. complete lubjugMtoD ta the Homui udm 
onlj begioa whaiB eTarj thing like «^nileDce sudiL Ae teng n 
wealth icmaiaB, w kng wiU the couutuiMkn of Rooie cooaidei a 
■Ute hMtile, uil Duk* Ibii ■ pnteit fui plmidei. 

15. ViJttat itum, itc. " Foi it uw IhU Ihe Romui peofde at 
lei)|e weie Dot enricbed liom yeer to jeai bj the public inbDej, bot 
odIj ■ few indiiiduaU." Yidtbet lefen to ora nuriltma. — Tha 
(dd •ditiaDa httTe pefuiui Bonuatut, which ia appiOTed of bj GtOiii>- 
Tiii* lie Pic. nl. 4, 4) aod retuned bj Gneniu. Gnitei aod 
Otben, bowerei, gJTe fraelortt lacitpUlOTit omitting Ihe negaliTe. 
Tba nading praelorei, in pUca of popuiut Somamii, anee veij 
prabdAy 6« ihe ■biidged mode of wciting Ihe lattei, m tbe HS3., 
nametj, P. S. tu Po. Ba. Tha liue lectioD ia the one we buo 
ailepted, aod which ia alao giTea bj Enieati, in ac^oidauce with tha 
opinioo of HoUNnannus and Laaibinui. 

. 13. PratUr poMcot. litenllj, "eicept a few." 
14. Chitiim R0HMU, ttc. Tha. idea iniaudad to be cenTejtd 
i* this, that all the adTantage the Romaiu gained bj the emp^ nune 
tf ■ fleet, «■■ otiy an incie^ee of disgcace from r^iealed loaaea. 

16. Qiu tiifiiiiait. " With what lapacioin riewa." — Qaibitt 
jaebtru. " AAei what beaTj biibecy, aul uDder nliat engageineiibi." 
Bj jtavrat ata hen roeaut tbe biibea given to tlKHe in office, and 
ID inHoentia] indiTidaals out of office, and alao lo diffeieot penau 
thtmighout Ibe liihea, for ibe porpoae of obtaining mudb loieigD 
command. The only way tha iDdividual had of le-iiDbuning himaelt 
hr the«e heafy ezpeodilDrea waa by plgndeiing and deipoiling hi> 
pnTioca. {GnmtH. di Pic. m(. 4, 4 >— Einwti {CUa. Cic, : t.) 
ttUktt conJUtio equiTatant here lo itrgiliv, ui actual laixaaB at,GoOgk 

TBI JUNILUH U«, 361, ' 

pMMit. It lafeD n&K lo a bugun m ignemMlt, to b« fiilSled Q^. 

■t ■ome futuie period, ud hr the peiformuice of whicb legutu 
•Miintr is giiea; or, u Grouorius 0- <!0 sipluiu il : "yaclio, 
tauiionibiu tt n/ngTagkit fatlt," 

I. Cun nttt nrfiuihtti dcc. " A> well kgr hii irmi linaw, u Q^ 
bj the contiut iIki of Ihe vices of othen." 

3. IJuare nniilf, &c. " Do uol theu hesitate to entiust," &c. 

3. Ittler aniKii lol. " For eo nuDj jeue," £^uiT>lent Lo ftl 
M aniK». Compue the eiplstittioD ai Emeeti ; " Ictei tot uuu» 
»1 per tot U1Q09, ipiDif ett et in Orat. Quinliaiia, net ette dtktl tali- 
nu mribut intoleru ul Grame tiiam etl." — Schollus conjectuied 
inWr tot with ui ellipsis of impeTotarei, thnwing out, at ths Bune 
time, annet fnnn the leit. This coDJectuie qweti with the apjiio- 
iMtioa of Graevius ; hut the etlipus ii a veiy haish oua, uid i* jUitljL 
condemned by Eme9{i. 

4. Qiad ti aitclorilalilittt, fi.a. "But if you thiok tluit this step 
needs (o be Buppoited bj autboritiea, you hsve, u bh Bdvisei of ifae. 
meuuie, Publius Seniliua," Jm;. The iadividual heie meuiliWS^. 
P. Servitias leuiricHBj.wbo h»d beea coobuJ A. U. C. 674. Iff 
wu seni sgsinsi &a pinUe* sfler Ihe defe^ of the pnieUii AnlODii», 
uid wsa succesirul iii seTeial engsgem^Dts with them. Foi hii, 
fictories oiei the Isauii, ■ looualBiDsei ibcb of Pisidiii he obtuiisd 
the cogDomea of Issoiicus. Seiriliai bid ^tAec befoie C^^eio tn 
llTOiu: of ihe law. 

5. Dt belio. " Oa kdj thing lelsting to wu." — AiuloT voitf, 
&c. " No one eogbt to b« tsgBidcd b; jou is weighliGr uilhorit;." 

6. C. Curto. C. Scribooius Cario, who hsd oDJoyed the coosui- 
iof, A. U. C. 677. His CQlieague wu Ca. OctariuB. — Simmit 
«estrts btn^fidit, dtc. " DiBlii^uidnd bj joui signsl fsvoun, aud 
his owa tAj iHustrious eqdoils, hii distiDgaishad iMiliea uid wi«' 
dom." Consull Historical Indei. 

7. Cn. Ltntidiu. Cn, Leotutus ClodiaiuiB. caraal A. U. C. 6SI. 
— Jn qw> ommi, ttc. " iii wbom jon all linon tbe higbeit wisdorD, 
ttia iDost Bolid meril to eiisl, in full accoidaaeo with tlw Teiy amph 
IiDDoan which he bu rsceived at joui bands." 

8. C, Catnut. C. Caasiua VaruB, couaul A. U. C. 680, 

e. Qvian mdtte, &c. " See thsa, wbelbei ws sfqieu to haTe it 
in our power, lo replj by means of these aatboiities to tbe remaikj 
■f thoBs who diffei m oplnion fiom oe." The whole sentence is 
innucal, and bad editots geneially boioe ttiia in ound, ttie diScultj 
anJef which thej have labouted. u regards Ihe tiue reading, wouU 
neTei baTe occurred. Grutor bu giTen, for eiample, vidile, vl ■ ■ 
etdMnuir, from soipe MSS. aad earij edilioii», wbich Bma*) 




Q^ coDdHnoa yKj pR^oil^, bat eumot at tba umt Dma ■•■ moch ta 

btplMnd with in viitl*, bbm ndoraiD-, dd •ccount of tba 

Digitin wmo, whicb it ■ppemn to him to coataia^iD common «rith 
Onitai'i nading, u if it in^died Unt tb« idracM* of the Uw war« 
Mil ■bla to «nawei theii i^qxnuinla. Tha tnith u, hs doM oot •ae 
Iha inmical """'"g of Cieero** woida tud Qie idea in feet conTejreil 
ti7tiiem,.th»tthe li*onien of the Uw ue fiiDj abU loreplr. C<hd- 
pua tl» eipUnttini of SehSti : " Sttuut itt e\m irmia : aigi- 
Itttf fMUM, mim ienuii sKetoritaUt nett illit epponert pottt vidt- 
tmMT ! h- e. tint inMe potntnaaV Ttie leading wa hara sdopted 
^pem in «onie ot' the MSS., utd eeriy edidoni. . 

10. httm Iwtm et Itgem, &e. " Both thtt Uw, ind pnipose, 
■Bdopinionof Ihine." — VUtaua*. Tbe wiah toluia Fmnpej' BeDt 
1« dM war. — StMenti^ The high opinion wtiich be entertaiiu of 
Ihat eommuidei'! fitnew fat ti» pnMoit «laBrgeacj. 

ii. Auetert Peftda Soaaae. " SincB joa h>TS tbe Romiii pec^U 
M jmi nde." Atutor a ueed hera •omewhkt io tbe eeiBe oTib' 
fttucfr. Compeie Emeeti, Ctm. Cie. t. t. 4 10 ; *' Defentar qui 
maftu, fvi ttieujtu rcm eatuttnjttt geril." 

IS. Ptrtettrtitliai. ThU U the leeding Isoaght in bj Gintei, 
ftom MSS. The euliei lectian ww eontlmiliae. 

Ifl. QutMam maie itenm, &c. Moal MSS., uid aU Ibe edi- 
lioB* before Ihit of QrunM, togetbei wilh tbst of CHiiet, eubeeqnent 

to hia, h>Te ftMMon nen iitrvm vtdimu* ; wbich makei 

Bo good meuutig at ill, (v lo adopt the m«« concise luiguage ot 
Znmli, " timt tentit ett," Oni gieBent resding waa firat ^Ten by 
OneTJoi, &om good M83., ind haa aiiMe bU time been Teiy geoei' 
■Sj adopted, the onlj lemarkabie inatance of deTiatUn from Jt be- 
ing in the eaaa of OliTet. GnemiB obserred, Qiat, in one of bii 
USS., tbe woids Ihnn quantam to eiilmiiu were omitted, liom 
whUh ciicmmitanee he waa indnced (o think that perb^ie, aAer all, 
tbs7 weie a meie inleipoUtioii. 

14. In eadtm ionuiu pratfieiejido. " In qipainting the BiDe iu- 

16. Quid ttt, qtioi, &c. " Whj ihould we doubl ailhei ot tba' 
pophelj of whal we aio eeeking to obtain, or of our [oeani of 
obtiuning it," l. o, why abould «s doubt sitfaer tbejuiticaoi 
ntcceea of our propoaition.— Be ri. IJtetallj, '* about tbe thinj; il- 

18. SfmlB, eoMtfii, dcc. "Of ieal,of aiperienco, ofapplication, 

17. Hoe beneficio populi Romani. " By meane of tbis lcindnen ' 
on tbs part of ihs Ramin paopts lawiidi ma, utd <his ■ulhoilr ai,GoOgk 

r. 363 


pCMtot«UchIatpnMit«jo7." Baufido itltu to vibat btme^- Q^ 
Udj faUawa,)ualuTillg)ie«nelGCI«d,n*mei;,U>l]Moffieeofpnetcr. 

IS. Qui luac loco, &f . ■' niio pi«*ide OTec ttiis tftA, uid tba 
conMcnted place Hbeie I ■m ixiw •tftnding." Bj Uxo b aewt 
tbe finram. b Ike inniiediata Ticiiut; orirtuditTeTemai^ lemplas, 
nich u thoee a( Jdk, Catesr, CoTicord, &«, — The teim lanflo !•• 
fer* to the loetn, fiiKn whkh Cicero w» ipeiking. Among the 
flomuia, aveiy place coiuecnted by the kugnre, wu enlitled to the 
■ppellitioBof ten^n. lYtttre.L. L. B, 3.) Compue Cic.i* 
Viiftn.c. 10: "InTOttrit,iiiUio,itipiani,inaugiiTatoltnijilOMetiieo.'' 
8o kJsd hijy, B, 14 : " Rottra^ue id lcjiiplum apptilaiam," 

19. Qui <ui rampuiiicam aiUiini. " Who teka put in pnblk 

SO. Stqo* ftu C», Fewiftii graliam, &e. Aa Cicero wtM now 
ia tbe foU cueer of Ua fbitnnee, md in nght, la it were, of tln 
connilihip, the giuid objecl of hii embitien, it wie Teiy natiinl for 
niui; to n]]q)Oie, tiat hi> condiict OD tliii oceuion waa gorenied bf 
inteieited newa, ind thit he «011^1 lo luililate hia Own adruice- 
ment, bj ^jing conit 10 Foiiq>ej's powet. He heTe nleinnlj de- 
niee tbe mtb of ihe ■llegstion. 'Rie opimcm of modem timee, boi^ 
ever, ie in geneni unfkrounble lo tue aineeiitj. 

31. £x cujutjuam amplitaiine. " Fiom the glcTeted ■tindiiig 
of «7 indiiidnal. 

1. Ul homitum prattlara oporUt. " A* t, man ougbl to do." — 95 
Jmecenti» Iteli. — " SbicJded by inaoeeace." 

2. RatioM vilae. " Coane of Ule."— Si M*lra Mluntai firtt 
" If JODT incHnatioiu ahall teid 7OU (tiQ 1« &TaDr it," L s, if jodt 
Idnd wiabee ahall atill jmmipi jon to fannu my endesTouis. 

3. AHqutm bmim gTtliam. " Anj fsTounble influence irilh 
Olboi»." — Simiitatft. " Enmitiea." 

4. Milti tu/K iHeeuariu, &c. ■ Bj pnnoing hia [Oeeenl coone, 
Oicoo might malie enemiee of Lucnllui tni liie friendB, aod inilaM 
■U Iba (^^KinBats of Fompej. Uxniring, ■■ lie did, ander no ne- 
cesiitj of «ctiBg in this waj, hi* doing ao notwitbituiding' beeouM 
> enre proofof hia emcaritr. Tbe poUic good ■lao, aa he ioainualea, 
may be adTanced by hia [oeaent line ofcondact, aioce •omo inqoi- 
riee Hid iGcnMtioBa maj poeaiblj fbllow. 

5. Hae lumon, AUnding to tbe pnetonhip. — JHitu emiabat 
temnuiit tt ratitmiiut. " To alt m j inteiMti Biid *iewi oT adnn-,GoOgk 


96 ^- ^' GioiBaai*. Ac " OnlMO ut Umu* Tnbw 
CiceiOi in defance d( Liciaiiu Hohd*." — Al.thacmutialididaFmg- 
tka coMuUiip of Cicsro. DaciBXM Jnnnu SilaBin iiid IJdiiiiis Ma~ 
mm, wwB alsclad. coimiU lcf the mmaiag jeor. lla UtMr ia- 
dindoal hid fi> hH o«iiipetilor tba celebntad lai^er SD^ieiniCRu- 
fiu ; «ho, bMng UHiled bj Cato mod Cn. pMtamta^ ehuged 
Mbimw witb b«nng {senuled bj biibe); ud compcioa. Hiie 
JiiqTbnKiiit wu fbuoiled on ths CelpDRMO Uw, whidi bMl kte^ 
beeo reodand nora eUiet, od the (oggeaticaorSiilpkiiw, bf « leiM- 
tlttvimilum. Along wilh ihu eccuntioD, Ihs piadigacr of Ma- 
mii'! cbuadw «•■ <rt>jeetad to, lad eUo tha nMniiiinw of hie mdc, 
■■ he wu bot t, kuight 101 > ■oldiet, whmne^ Salpicini w» ■ petii-, 
eiin uid Unjwr. Cieeio therdian ihawa, io the fint pUca, thii ha 
■mpj; loeiited ibe coeanUhipt Imm hia. ■•vnoaa in tbe mz w^ 
UithridMe, whtch introdoce* ■ oatnpuiaDB betwaea ■ luIitlVT uid 
IbmMioU*. WhilB bap^ibis unal.tabalaof^ppUiBe tocolli- 
nted eloqaeDce, he deiidee ttae foniu uid phiuaoUgy of Ibe Hocibd 
janeeooinlta, bj wbm tba ciril Uw wu ■ndied^uid pncliud. As 
to Uw piapec ■abiacl of tbe kceiualian, tiribarr ia hii daetion, it 
•eMUfuebaUe thot Humia hed beca guil^ of aome ]Baetiee<, wbtcb, 
■tricllj ifmkii^, weia illegil, jel wairaiMd bj ciMtoai. Tbey 
■aem to bftre coaiiited in eneonnging a crowd to ■ttend bni' jn the 
■liMta, lud in piaTidii^ ■howa foc il« eaiaitaiiuDant ef tbe muU- 
tttde i whbb, tbough eipected by tbe peopU, Mid oaiully oni- 
loolud b]r lh« inagitfnle^ ■ppeiied heinoa* ofieoeea in tbe ^ of 
Ibe ligid aad ■tmeal Csto. Aweie of Ibe weight addad lo tbe ic- 
cuutkiii by hi* ■Dthoiitjr, Ciceio, in ordci to obii^ ^iie influeiiee, 
treals hii itoicBl principlei in the eune toae which he bad ilready 
uaed conesniing the profeuUn of Sulpieiut. In concluding, be 
aniUhinuelf arthedimeullie* of the timeii, ukd Ihe jet DDMfiprew,GoOgk 

■ ' . ^ 

■d taotpitej of C>ttliae, which jeDdeled it nnwiM to ilepnT« Ibe 00 
citj of a eooiul well quaMed to defend it iu «0 duigeraus ■ crisit. . 

Thii cue wu ooe ot greot expectuion, fcom tbe dignity of tbe 
■ccuBen uid «loqueuce of lia defeDdei'^ adTecBtes. Baroje Cicero 
qioke, it bad beea pleaded bf Horteiiaiiu, uid Cnwus tha tiiuiuTii, 
who hid both afipeued in fRTOui of Muiena, tai Ciceio uow umi 
hii utmoit eiKtiou (o (mpu» these liTaU of hii eloqueuce. In 
puticalu, lu) showi much dehcac/ uid ait iu the niaiuiei iu nhich 
hs conduct* Ibe tltack tm the philosqphy of Cita uid tbe piofeHion 
of Splpiciue, both of whom weia oa TCiy iati^te teinu witb bun, 
tnd itood bigh slw in the eitinution irf ths judgeB wboiu be adibeMr 
•d. {Dvnicp't Rom. lAt. T0I. 3, p. 902, *e;f. Lond. ed.) 

Thie apeech wu deLTcred A. U. G. 699, duhng the interrti 
Ibtt elipeed betweea ihe Beeond sod Ibird oratione agunat Cttitiue. 
Tbe ratult wu bTouitble foi Munna, nbo waa acquitted, and beld 

8. Quat dtprecaiiu, itc. " Eren as I etincttly asked in piajw 
of the inunoital gode, O Judges, accoidiDg to the ettabhtbed nngq 
of oni latbeit, OD Uttt day, when, the auapice* bsTing been duly 
comniltad, I dedued Liciniut Muieua conBUl at the comitiB bj 
ceutoiiet ; ntroBl;, tbat the chpice tbut made migbt eTenluale pro- 
pitiouslj tnd bappily foi nie and mj magiBlncj, foi tbe people and 
conunona o[ Roine ; *o now, in like mannejr, do I Bntiett of the 
tame immoital being*, tbat tbit same indiTidaal may entei upon tbat 
contulabip witb all bis ligbtt and piiTilegeB unimpaiied, and tbat 
jouii^inioaB and MSlimentt," &c. — The aludent will natethe elO' 
gant nae of quae and ttdan in this pBasage, reqaiiing to bs rendeied 
in oui idiom bj an adTSibiil fonn of BiprBsaian. Cumpue Bautr, 
ad Sanet. Min. toI. 1, p, S&O, ttqq. 

3. Juiuti. Cttes a[ biibeiy, like tbe piesept, were tried befoie 
one of tbe poetoit ind ■ Kelect council oiatiiiiarti or juiici». 
Compaie nole 1, ptge 49. 

4. J^MtpUato. Tb* tutpicet were alwajt taken on tbe moming 
of tbe daj wheD tbe comitia weie to be held, by the mBgittiate wbo 
wat to pmide. Foi tbis puipoae be went out of the city, attended 
b^ ooe of tbe aoguia. If tha auipices weie unJiiTourabla, no comitia 
weie beld. If anj inToimalitj bad Uken place in Ibe mode of coo- 
aulting tbem, and (bit were allerwaid BKBiiwiied, eTeij thlng dona 
tt IbcBe comitia wenl foi nothing- 

e. CimitiU enbi,natu. Contult note I7,ptgeTI.— JimintuH. 
Tba ffindijata who wm found to haTa Teceired mott Totet, ww,GoOgk 

16 OEAtlON roB 


g caUad fbnnid b; tlw prendii^ nigutnte, taS, aller ■ KMenm 
pnjer, •Bd teking in oatli, ma declmd to be elected througfa k 
benld. It is to thu pnTcr tluit Ciceni hm refen, uid not aa K>niti 
anppoM to thU with whieh ths buuneai of the comitia wu opennd. 
— One of llte coimlm dmys praeided >t tbe comidi for the elecdon 
of new coDiol*. Ciceio pieaided on (hii occuion, aad hkd Ihe pief. 
eTeneB to bte coUeague Autonins, becanae he wbb atmtil prior, 
L e. htd been elected to the conaalihip fa^ the gieater munber ot 

8, MagtMlraluijui nuo. Refemng to hiii conmlu anthonty, 
«Uch would eoDtiinie untQ tbe eod of tbe Tear, wben the aeti con- 
■uli wonld aiKceed. Ilie latter, iu the meuitilBe, woold be called 
tmmAt ittignati, " conanls elect." 

7. Pojmle fldnjui RimicHat. Th> alluiiou hen ia to aO orden 
of tbe Roman paople, iacinding «Tea the loweat of Iba eommoiu. 
Fopul»* when oppiwed to fleit, as in the pieaent iiMtinee, ia n- 
guded aa tha geneiie lerm, snd denotea the wbole bodir oT Roman 
citizena, including the aenaton snd patriciuw ; whih bj plebM, in 
■ueh a conitniction, are mesnt Ihe lower orden of tiie commoni. 
On the olher haod, in the eipiesaian Senalat pnpuliitqiie Rmiumtu, 
tbe tetm popvliu mean* all ihe Roman people bat the Hnite. 

8. 04 cjtudtm, dtc. Liteiallj, " foi an enlering opou tbo Con- 
•nUiip bj tbs atme indiTiduaJ, tc^ther wilh all bis pereonal priTt- 
legea." OiHiuTt geti liere the meaning of " to enter upon," &Dm 
ill piimitire impoK, " to hold againat ■nother," i. e. in the present 
case, 10 hold euccenfunj a^nat the accnaalidn wUch had been 
piefeiied, tnd, coneequentlj, to enlei npon and eiifoj. — Saluli. 
Bj talui, Ciceio meani Muieua'B priTilege* aa a Roman citiMn, 
■iDce, if conTicled, he woold be depnTed of all bie citiI lighta and 

9. Eagutret. " And tbat Ihis agreement." Hie igreementof 
opinion heie epoken of will show itMlf, of courae, iti the •c<ltuttal 
of Murena, wnce the Roman people haTS alieadj, b j theii auffiagea, 
declsred him woithj of the consulriiip. It will also biing with H 
peace and truiquiDitj to Ae state, sinee an eneigetic coasul will bs 
lequited tbe enauing jear, to erush what remaiiu of ihs compbicj 
of Catiluie ; and Murena wiU be found (o be anch a oue. 

10. Quod n Sla lalenatit, &c. " Por if Ihat golemn pnjer of- 
feied up at the comitia, and ballowed bj conAular iu^ices, poaaeasn 
in ilaelf all Ibat power ind leligious effieacj, wluch th^ dignhj tf 
the lepublic hu a light to eipect, then, on that sime occasion, I, 
in fact, al» prajed, Ihal the cboice wL!cb had been msde mi^ 
(nm out auspieiouBlj, happilj, and well fbt tboae tn " 


wha, mito whom tU* eoiinildup h>d bsen gftnted it aa ufemU; QQ. 
wbere I pnnided."— -ThU fentenco ie eipTnnitoiy of wb&t preceaea, 
If Ihe prajer O&eted up st Ihe comitia, wben the ie«nlt of tho eloc- 
ticn wea made known (o the ««emUed people, posseieed a fuQ 
uid duToogh effiocy, it mmt be auppoied to h»e emhnced iha m- 
diridual wel^e of tiie candidUee, as well u the intcieet* of dte 
■tate al liD;^, u>d, tbeielbre, it ieperfecltj pioper foi Ciceni now 
lo entiut tbe gode in behaU' sf one of them. 

1 1. Ati Togaati. Tba Utenl import of tbeae wordt i*, " I, u 
preuding officer, tkutg tbe peoide their pleuuie in the pnniifst." 
CompBTe mte 16, ptge 10. 

13. OntnM ifTrum, dtc. " AU llw power ofdie tmmoilil goda 
mlke preeent eaie." — Vittrai Jida. "To youi pioloction.'' — 
AnitA. Hln > pranooe occaiian," i e. ftt die comitis. 

18. Baufiaam popaU Romgm. "The &TOai confeiied npon 
Um hy the Roaun pe<^e." AUuding to Ibe ConsuUiip. 

14. 7n Aw: ofido. " In the dischaige of this dotj." — Stuiaim 
Muu dtfaaimU, &c. " The leal dwt muks my detence of him, 
■nd eFen the Teiy nndeltskin; of bis canse l^ me." 

I. JVon jtio mtit, ite. " NotbBcsnse i Tindication of Ihe iiitj QJ 
which I sm bera diechtrging ^tpesis of more Hnpoilance m my ejrei, 
■t thia psttieulu psiiod, titin a dofeDee ofthe rigfats and priTileges of 
tbis indiTiduel, hut thit, nbea once mf conduct sbejl bav* been 
apjnored of hj 700, 1 maf wilk tbe greeter weigfat, &e. Ae ngaida 
tbe neige of tbs lAlin wiitera in ths caae of lum juo, consnlt T\iT- 
«Urih, itparl. Lat. p. 940, and Zvmpl, L. G. p. S3S, Kenndft 

. 3. Hoaore, famm, fartiaiit^e. It hui ihfetdj' been etated (nota 
8) in geneial temii, that Hnreiie, if convicted, would be deprived 
of hia cinl li^ta uid beniriied. Thie pCHnt niiij hera be ealarged 
upon. I( en indrridnal weie found guiltf npon a trial for briberj, 
bs wM d^ntred of the consalahip, in caee he had been etected to 
that oflice, end tbe competitoi wl» accuKd him wu norainsted in 
hia pUce. He wu abo beaTily fined, declared inc^iablo of bearing 
any offiee fol tbe time to come, or af sppeaiinf in the aenate, and 
bjr tha TaUian law, wbich Cieera brooght foiward and had paiaed, 
■nad^tianal penalty of tan yatre' eiile wu impoaed. 

a. Jf. Catoia. Ths eama who snded lua dajs, by his ownhanda, 
it UliEa. He waa at this time one of the tribunea elect. Ob- 
MHTiDg tbe Riett coiniplian that btd ciepl into the conialti elee- 
tiow, Cato, wben appointed to the liibaneship, concluded a aevere 
charge to dw people, by affiimtng on oath, Ibat ha nonld preaecula 
■raiT ona wbo tboold ofiend in tbia way. Henee hia comkff ftr-,GoOgk 

gy wMJ.aBa>ij»ft»eBtocca«oo,iww>gtli>M W i— otlfaiWM. (Coo^ 
ptn PluL Vit. Cl. Mim. c. 21.) 

4. ViUm td ttritat raCiBiw, 4^ ■' Wlia ng«l«tm hw lifa b^ 
th* fiied Mudud ot nuon, ud nKiit ■nnipul«ii4j woigba ttw m»- 
tirei tosTaij.diitf." Cito balo^ad M tha Stgioiaet, •nd.CicMni 
in nteriji^ to hi* puticvhi tMsti, Mopkiya tlie woid "rado" bei* 
in tha leiiH which tha Stoio icboi^ lUUilMd U> it. Witb Iba fi>l- 
Inran of Zeno, reuoa waa Ihs goTwwv imaciple. The<r i^jardad 
Ibe loal ■■ cmaiMii^ of eight dwtinct pafti ; nucwlj, ths Gve aaa- 
taa, tha pnducliTe bcultj, tfao poww at ^MBot^ ■od.the Rilii% pait, 
T* iytfawuir, OT nuon. {Diog. Laerl. S, 4 1&7. — Fki. plae. 4, 
S. Mff .) The hiunaii 1001 wa* ngiided bj (hBoi ■■ Hi. BniBiwtioo 
&am Uwt EtenuJ tUuoB, bj which lil minra ii aaUBtted ; «nd 
theii Rwia doctiiM wu, that maa afasuld eoDtaoipUta InUh, 
follow Qtlare, ind inutua Ood, bj Bulung Iha etenul leaaon, and 
iminattbla Uw of Um uiuTeiw, ib* tule of hia «ctioiu. Thiu, to 
ItTe iccoidiiig to nUuie baiag Tiitas, uid virtae itsalf being h^f^i- 
M*^, tha Stoic will tika cua to Uie ■ccoiding to ■ js^t ooBcaptimi 
of tbe mi nature of thing*, cbooaing Ihat whicb i« ia ilaetf elJgiUa, 
■nd nijatting tbe contniT ; oi, in tii« woida of Cicoro, >* diligeniit~ 
» ptrptHitlHt ■ 

S. Et legit amiitiit tatortm. " Jini tbe ■uihot of ■ bw i^iinit 
bdboj." He wba piopoied • W to thepeople fmrtheircaniidenF 
tionandadopliooiwucalled^^lator; io/)mt^iii|, "lopn^oie 
a Uw :" but ptr/trrt, <• lo oiny il Ihioogh."— Tbe Uw aUDdtd to 
\tT Cuo wu the f(x TMto. Coosolt Dot» 3, lowuda tbs conda 
■ion, uid aUo Legil Indsx. 

7. Bt lan ttvtrt gttto cw i a ft i. " Aod ona, wboss own oob- 
■uUhip hBi been sisieiMd with so much wbirissoiBe ligonc." CUo 
aliodai to the procasdiugs of i^icaro ogBiDst CatiliBS, ut diiTing him 
fiom the ci^. Ii U worthj of lemuk, lunaeTei, thU th« •oTsriljr, 
Ux which Cuo heiB commend» Ciceip, wu onlj bot joit bsgun ; 
siDM the ptesent oatiiMi wu delivend b tbo moBlb of No»o«nbti, 
■nd Ihs tccomphcea of Cuiliiie, who weia tan^eniv wilb tha ut- 
baiitdoii ef ths Allobtuges, wsie imlj uiissisd and paniahed in Ibs 
e)uly ptit of ^e eDsuii^ moath. 

8. Cautam L. Murenae allingtre. " To htTO tugbt lo do wiA 
Iho cuue of Liciniui Mmena." Atttngtre, liteialljr, " to toogb 
•TM ia a iligbt degies," " lo meddU within Um Uasl.'' CinnpBi,GoOgk 

teriltT, guan tuMmu, *^ ptJmM wl tnainuim, iigilii langtrt " p. 
316. id. Lmitmann. 

9. C<tJHn]tr«lhmmi. ■■The eetunneof Ui!tmli<ridiuL'' Cu- 
jit*fJotSi^a*,ta iclM^Ba t clraae. — Ul rahimtm faeti mti pnitttii. 
"ToeCpJiiti tbeiBM«Mef mf condact," i. e. wpnte tbegnrandi 
of iaj condnct to bxri bees peifecUf coirect. 

10. JfiHt tonjmuiiar. " More iiitinutri^ connooied with tne." 
— Cai rt*piMie&, &t. "latowboesheiidetbat rapublieiiddiTei- 
ed by ma individiull;, tobeni[90(t«d^b;him,dlerhHififtbeen>]p' 
beMbrgteit (oiliuiddangeraMr mjrbwit." The eohimon MXt fau 
UnB, for wtiich we hare sidntitdted nne, ■ coi^seUm of Ltmbinuif 
nhtch Orserins receiTed inko die tezl. -Cicen *^ A iiw MM, •• 
be bad piesided dons. 

11. Quoi jf miurchwnpcfffldu, &C,'' For iT, wben k demmd 
M msde for Ibs r eeoT i iy cf Ibose tUngs, idlich hwe bssti iliai. 
■led to aoodisr with ■ wamntj againM dispoaasssioii, Aat.indiTidDal 
i« bonnd to gnann^ t&e riik of a deciaii» giTing tUa propeitj to 
tnotbH', «ho, bj the TBi; termB oT the igieement, eoveiunted so ta 
do," i. B. if A. coareys pn]peitr'to B., and givea tum at the same 
time ■ wamntj that Ibs lilts ia aonnd, aad if C. &m comes in and 
claima ihb sBnw propeilj as his, A. is boafid. bj tbe toij tetnu oT 
tlw ssle, to goaid B. ag^nst tlie ehancea of diBpossaaakm bj thb 
Teidicl of a co<ut of law in &Tonr of G. — Among tbe RomsD*, Jist 
nuinc^ (contncted for manci>n,) wan tboae tbing* whieh might 
be aotd and alisnaled, oi Ibs piopei^ of them tiansfeited from one 
penon toanoAer, by aeMtunriteoifbnxrf^proeeAdingiisedamong 
RtMoan GttrxeDa onljr, and andi aale tsat ahBoyt secompaNieiJ hy a 
muraiOy ^ titlt. HaDeetlietranalation,orra^erpaia^iraae,whid 
ws ue conipelled In gire ta Ibe expreaaion jtuit manctpi nmf, in 
tbe teit. Bj judieium ii meanl a deeiaion of a coort ot law, in fik- 
Tonr of the litle of sHne Ihin] peison ; and bj luziu, tbs obltgatioA 
of wanantj alwijrconnected wjth nt minc^', I^ IS» preriahma of 
tbe RoBian kw. (Compare Htinltc. Antii/. Rsm. p. 386, td. H<at- 
bM.) Tbe m mowipi weie inch things aa farma, ^tss, cjiuulru- 
peda, pSBria, aaS the ligfats of coaRtrj-&rmB, called 'MTTitDdei, (wr- 
atutti.) Tts diatinclion between m maTuipi and rtt nec mtuafi 
isnot recogniBBdbjlhe Jnalinian code, it bBTing been aboliahed bj 
thal «mperor. Bjnkenboek tbinka Ibal it wts fennded npoh tbe 
comparatiTB Tslue of diSennt clBasea of tbingi. (Oi rT&. msncipi 
tl nte miaieipi, p. 109.) But MeennBn oppoaes Ihie doctinie (jOit«. 
ie rtbut manc., Aj:.) and nuintaiiA, tbat ret maneipi were thinga 
eonnecteil with Bgricultnre, and bence daemed of greater nhi« Ifa*»,GoOgk 

b«L EORnlt tha nnuibof Patncwuiu, *d iSwief. ifiii. 4, 4. n. 13, p. 
M. ^ Btwr. 

tS. Pnfttta itus Tcdnw, dee. « Wlh «31 nna jiutica, mra- 
lf,o«tbeukl«fBaotiaal«lact,inUltNt ooaaal in puticokr, wfao de- 
ctand bin ■lacUd la ^ca, baboadla bmoaiaiiiriahimtliiBgaair 
mtMOf the &TOiiteoii<«irad by Ikg Romu pa^ile, uid hia defend- 
tf &om dwgei." Cicen boe inakei > reij {deuiag *{^iliestioB 
of ^ diy rale of lew ifbieh be hae juat been citing. Tbe consnl- 
iUp i* Dow ngaidod, in & figantire aenae, la one of tbe clue of 
ttt maM^i, uhI Ciceio u tbe holdaL BsTing pmided at tbo 
aoynibu eotaitia, eod eoDoaiKod the eleetiOD of MurenK to the 
>MMntl»d peeple, ba nvij be nid, b; nrtne of lii* office, to hkTO . 
tnndand the conniUup, in dae fbnn, lo Mnnna, ai a thing lo bo 
peaoMaad fa; him in bja tnni, oad to hsie boand himself lo sid Iha 

11. Jbuttr. Tbii teoniabaneDi^fad, insGganliTe aeiia^ 
to danole one who lells or cooveira s Ihing to snother «nd pledgeo 
bimieif f^ tbe ■aandnaai of the title. Corapara liia ezplsnstion 
of Enieati, (CJo*. Cts. i. f. UMtoi,411): " Eil vtnJilor, qiu 
imm tti tpBHdil, fnod ttKdit, tt tpu Msimdi tt fel t iMem iai 
mt ! tuUojiu sctiafM ittutux it cnctioiH, ouJ ptriaiiuM juiitit 
fnttlai, tU ta ma«apu>," It ialioio tlii* uee of tbe tenn, tbst tbe 
RfanDce to aallii^, in the t>stiB tenn, "aattie," sod ibe £i^^ 
mid " sDctioo," is denrad. 

H. Ae li, vt mtmuliit, du:. "And if, u is wooMo haj^ieD in 
•Noe »1*108, s patiDD (honld ba af)>oiiitad, bf paUio sutboii^, Ibr 

be kssigDad u s deloDdei lo s msa inieMed with sd sleTsted offic^ 
wbo, beiog hiaiaalf clothed «ilh Ihe aame dignitj, would biing bo 
lee* sulhoriqr thon ibilitj to hi* daleDce." 

Ifi. Pelrtnmi. We bsTe retained ths Romui law-tertit " palion," 
m prefennce to tbe loora aeail term " idTOcste." Fw Che striet 
diaCiDclion between Ihe tno eoil9*n tbe Ungnige of Aeconiua, ed 
Or.iMCateil.c.t: " Quidt/tiidilallenmi*}tiilicia,BiU FalnHal* 
dieiluT, li oraler eil t atUAdm)e4lau,HmitJHtiiiggerii, aut prai 

!•. Qnol li tfortu, dcc. We hiTO iaaarted Ihe pieposition 
frnn QatDtilisn, S, 1 1, S3, It is giTea slw bj Victoiiui, Ltmbina^ 
Gmter, uid otbera, 

17. Pra«eipert nmmo flHdic), dtc. " Are aecustoined lo givs, 
wilh ihe ntmoat eei«eineH, ui account c/ the ataima, snd piiala^ 
and dsBgemu plica* thej haTO snGouiitued." Fraieiptri caniaa,GoOgk 

wilh il UiB idek of nentioiiii^ bdbrehind, u & nuning or OQbon. g 
— Bj iDCDnini are DtsaDt dwili, qQJckundi, iic. 

18. Qulii naiuTa feri, &c. " BecsBM ■ ustanl tmpulM iMd* 
ns to feel tu interest fbr tbose," &.c Tbe ctKnmaD leit hu ^^n^ 
for which we haie given/trf &om Q nintilijn , wilh I^mbiniii, Mn- 
retiu, GiaBiiua, and Emeiti. 

19. Qui eaden periaiia, iui. It moMbefaoma ib miodtbtttiii* 
ontian wu deliieted befiuB che ureae iiod execotioa Of Lentohw 
uid tha other ucompliceH of Catiline. Oicsro, therBfbxe, in 
tb*t the conqtincy will sUll gire troable dnii 
undei thfl gDreinmeiit of the new coiuula. . ■" 

SO. Quo Laidem me antnw, Slc. " B7 whu feelings llten ongfat 
, I, wben DDw olmOBt m ligbt of Ijmk], tStai > MOnnx-taHring wt Uw 
ocBui of pnbtic ifieini, to be actuUed lowenls one, bj whom I «e* 
ihfl mcMt violent ten^ieatt ■letboattobecnconnlelediahiiinui^e- 
ment of \he lepnblic 1" — Prope jam UrTtmt, &e, It ww now Iha 
month of Norember, and il the end of the enaning month hia con- 
aulu Butboritj would ceaae. Heoce he aaja figniativeljr, th&t he ia 
ehnoat within eight of Uiid. Ttie laod «hich he tl soon to bahtdd, 
ia thehaYBDoftepOMaftet aitOHQjcminUabip. 

21. Uaztnuu ttmpataiu. Coaqnra nola 19. 

38. Vidae, jtad agatur. " To atland le nhat ii at pwcnt 
pumg^' — AUoloco. Id IbeSTthcb^iteiof Ibiaqwecli. 

I. Quantaai talaH* cOBtaauai, Sus. Cicao tajt dna, becanae Q 
ne e^wcte thet Ihe ccm^puacj wiU ■lill ^ve tnnble dmiBg the en- 
euing jaBr. Conqnie note L9, page 97. 

S. Daot eoBMiitt. Silanua ud Muiena ; Bnd not maielj one/ 
Siluia>r HuianB hivii^ been condemQed. Bolb-c<HiaDie will ba 
«ranted, hs thinka, to make heed ■gairiat tba UHiapincj, and tbe 
ume foi theii enteiing od office vnll be the Calaadi, or Gnt, of 

3. Qgiaim. " A aaDae afda^." — Sttfnl^. " The iutereeta 
of tlie lepnblic," i. e. the danger which tbieateua EiDm tbe ooiufHiaeT 
of Catiliae. 

4. Nam qaod Itgetn, &e. " For u to mj bkvtDg piopond t l&w 
conceniing biiberj, I certainlj did it witb thii view, that I aughl not 
abioglte tbe oue which I had ka^ eiuce propo«d to mj own biwom, 
aa r^uded the wu«liDg off of iboM du^en wbtcb migfat thnslan 
mjr fdlow-ciliiene." Tba ■UDaion ia ■ggin to tbe Tullien Uw. 
CaDau.taote 8, p«^ 97. 

5. Largitimm fseUm ette. " That bnbeiy bed ictnaHir been 
cODunittBd hj Hmeni." — Defendertm. Tbia retb baa htie llw 
meaojng of " lo aUege in defaoca.",GoOgk 

^ S. gHam ai Mu ligtm t^titt. " Eren Ibangti uuther BhoiiM 
hiTS b«aii ihe aatbar of Iba bir in qnaftian.'' 

7. Omm v>r«, &c " Bnt now, when 1 ni>jpt*in that Dothtng haa 
bam dmw bj Mnrsna iti Tioluion of that hw, whj ia tha mecB pro' 
podilg of it OD mj jMit lo opanta u ■ hiiMlraDca to taj deTence oT 

. " Cito innBtl, that U ie ibot 
. th>t it is ■ dsmtion ftma mr 
l> Cato in the teit. 

t. VtrHt tt fotnt BHptrio. A fbrciUe tKuiioa lo ihe >tteniioae 
eflbn* onde bj CiceTO in diWtiig ont CBtiline, bnt Dot bj bhj meuu 
fatendedmeMWMTeof hi» condnct io la doing. It ia metelj ad- 
iatti, bj <nj ti contmt to Cieen>'i non i]q>earing foi one wbom 
CMo npida a » poblia oBendei. 

M. Et HHM fTO h. JHanma Jtecrt. ' " And (o be now pleadinj 
» b«h*lf «f LiciniBs Moimi.'* 

11. Ega mttm, ftc. '■!, howerei. h^ alwija acted ffiA 
fleMore thie put of genUeneea ukt compsHiaa, which nttnre her- 
uM iat tknght raa." — Agtn jwrtet a horrowed rnini the Unguage 
of the ttige, uld denotes, not to underttke meielj, u ■ame cirone- 
otolj render the phnae, bul to go Ihiough with, > part or character. 
— Ab ia|udi Ihi peeulier meaiung of ptrttt here, CDmpare tbt 
itagiugfi of EtoMtl (Ctai. Ck. n.t.fai-t.'): "Pm mtetnaitt 
f tr t o M , fvam fwu nueepil ogtniam.^' 

I>. DMittf. Thia ia aniHhei teim borfawed fnim Iha luignage 
•od morementa of the atige. Deetrt fiUrtdam ia tnaligonB lo the 
Oieek l>M«ii> iftft. Frem Ibe nrture of their wiitinf niatBrials, 
la meiei^ linwe, Uiej had no faeihtj of making fieqnent copies, ind 
beoca tbe pAta were ttndied bj meana of reilented racitation froia 
the]ioet; and th* chorni, too, wu pnetjscd in the aame w^. 
Hw wu called tttdmg a plaj. — Tlie ipplicition of thia figtm be- 
nwm» • TOj atrildng oiie in the present instance. - Nitore henslf 
haa, bj • «otnse of r«iten.ted inrtraction, tnngfat (he ontor, m a 
loanaar not euj to be forgotten, die diclatea Qf gentlsnesB and roni- . 
pMMon fer Ihe gnat dnnu of life. 

13. Biaik ttro, 6x. " That olher chsiacler, hiderf, of ligour 
and Mvetitj, I haTS rtevGr uught fbi, bnt have aupported it, whEn 
imposed upon ma bj tho exigeneiea of die state, in luch b waj •■ 
tke digmty of thia amplre had ■ r^tto demuid, amid the immioenl 
dangei of ils eitizena." Cicero meuiB, that hit nstnnl incltm- 
tiM^ alw^ji )e«d him to the side of gentlenet^ and maicj, inj 
tbat ^ seTeie «id ligid chuseter, which he htd been compelled to 
■■■lUDe lowud GatSinB ind hi> Keoniplice^, wai a di% he at>ed,GoOgk 

L. HnKBHA 873 


tc ihe Btate, b the duchaTgB of whkl), piinU frtSngi coold, oT 9g 
ciMTM, eiereiae oo iofluHics. 

14. Pcrtonam. By ptTima is liteiallj meint Ihe " muk," nom 

bj the Bncient Bctor, in represen^ng s chancler, «id thea the lcnn 
comes, Bs in the pienent inatance, to denote ihe chaiacter ilselC 
TheaDCientmukswereentiieheBd-pieces, sndorvBnouBkindB,toei- 
[iresa every ege, sei, coniili;, conditian and compleiion, to which Ihe; 
wera asaimilated witb the gieetest akill and nicetj. Tbe Greek term 
roroneortheaesppetidigesierplsuTgi', (or, asit waa afieiwud called, 
wpmi-iniitir,') denoting somettiing applied to the face. The Latin lenn 
** jiersOna" iB derived from Ihe verh " peia5no," and refera to tbe 
peculiar conBtniction of the mouth of th^ mask, which waa made od 
the plan of a spaaking-trumpet, (their laige theatre^ reqeiiing ■ 
great volums of aound,) and was bb it were "aounded ihrough," 
that is, made the avenue of traoBmisBion far a loud sunDd. (Com- 
paie Theiilre of Greeii, pp. 38, and m.—TymiihiU m. Arulel. 
Poel. p. 139,— JlfH». Crii. toI, 2, p. 311, &c. 

16, Quod ti him, &c. "And if, on that oceision, when the 
itate of publie afiiun tequired a vigorouB and ri^ eiercise of 
aulhoritj, I tiiumphed over the dietBles of my natnie," &/:., 
l e. I avtppreieed at once ereiy feeling nf lenilj. — Daidcran. 
"To desiro eamestly," " to feel tbe wsnt of," " to noed," 

16. Cam omaet, &e. 
Vhe cBuae of Muiena is 
feelinga of Cicero. 

17. Nalurat meae, dtc. " To jiald obedienco to the diclates of 
mj nature, ind the fbrce of earij habit." — Nturat, becBnse all his 
kind}j feelinga aje now ealled into action ; Cmmttmimi, becanse 
he is more accuetomed to defend than to accuse. 

18. At. The common teit ha* Ae, wbich we have chsrtged to 
.^{DntbeBuggestionofGoerenz. {Ai Cic. Acad. S, 2.) I.alle- 
mant, in oider to aroid doubling the ae, reads in tfae aecond clans« 
of the eentenue, et de ratione, &c. 

19. Qgida de/enticmii meae. " Tbs dutf IbBl has pnmipted mj 
pniaent defence." — Raiiime aeeueaiiojat Ivae. " Tbe reasons Ihal 
havB led to jonr accusation of biin," i. e. Ihe motives th«t have io- 
dueed jou to become his accnser. 

SO. Hominit tapietUitiimi atqitt oraatinimi, &c. " Of thst 
i<rj wiae and iccompliBhed man, Servius Sulpicius," Tbe in- 
liividual bere named wae r^aided as the moat eminent lawyer of bia 
daj. Coiunilt Hiatorical indei. 

31 Cmaiunitbai. The imperfeet tense ia bore emplojed. 

' -.■C<„wlc 


S"t» «ny » l>w* to Ih. tin» ^l»n 0« «m^l of Sulpich- 
'" «« fint Dtt««d, n«wl? 1 th» pe™d ri hi. V»"'» »8»™t 

IfamM. ,. - i-_ 

Sa, Cratiwinw et MerhMiiM^erT 
it ytaj he*Tilj uid lalteiij," L e. thM i 
Intteiert TtpeK. 

83 FomJianiafif MCttMituJiMgue. ■■ Of tbe clwm. of Img 
•eqii.i»tu>ee >Dd intiiMt» friend-hip," FaimUariM mpH» tbit 
wcT h.Te lw« bwm wquainted wUh uiotbM. Niruntwio U of 
HioDsei impOTt, uid denotee the eiisteDce of «m» lie or boad of 
fciendrfiip bnlwcen the t«o partie.. It i. io Iwt Hram of Teiy 
Mnenl import UDong the I*tin writeiB, »lid elwaye implie. tLa 
Inrtenco of Wiae .Mog connecUng lie, whicb myolw., w it we», 
.««««JyformutoJsKeemwidregud. Compn™ the aqian.tioB 
of Eine.ti : " Huuntuie al Bm*a wnjurKtia, »aiigvr»U, affiaiU^ 
lu, eoHJvfH, celUgii, amieiiiiu, &c,, puu a caiua aaj»* oriftiTf 
nat nebit «icaMitaim amoru Imadentiaequi affert.—Ci<:eio 
wd So^n» h.d been friend. from earlj Joulh, uid had rtndied lo- 
gethei, «hen jouiig, bolh « Bxim, ind in tbe i«UDd of Rhod«, 
tmdei Ihe cdebnled Molo. 

3i. ATbitrBt. "Aeumpiio.," jlrii(«- 1. hore uwd m » gBnfiral 
mwe, .nd i. u»do([OU. to Ibs civil-l«w tenn eimiprenitiviv. 1« 
iU epetid wceptation, it denot» one who judged io tiiou cue. 
tb.t iTNe eidled iimaefiiei, oi ubiUur, uid who wu Dot lestiicted 
bj uiy l»w or fonn, but deleraiined wh»t uemed equit.hle. (!&»■ 
MM, AMiq. Korn. i, fl, 39. p. 69*, 'd. HauAoW,) 

26. Nm at negligendiini. Becattw friond.hij) ie too ncnd • 
thing lo be Bien eipoeed to suspiciou. 
99 1. Ego Str. Suipci, dcc, " I bolh iclinowledge, Serriu. Siil- 
picios, that I owed, and ihink candidly th»t I affoided unto jou, in 
your .(^ation for the conmlship, »11 Ihst leelon. coopention, u>d 
.11 thoee kind office», which our intim.te friendahq» demanded." 

3. Anu dtfuit. " W« wanling on my pait."—Oratiato. " A 
mui of influence in the rt*te," An influential peison. 

8. Muiau ToHo tMi. <• Ttie aapect of a&in u chuged." Th« 
cbuige ccaumeuced wiih the defeot of Sulpiciu», and the elevatiaB 
of Muien» lo tbe conmilahip, 

4. aic adttimo, &c. " This ia now mj (^iiiiH», of tlus I «il 
now peimaded." — Conlra ionur™. " Againat the adfancement,'' 
i. e. dectioQ to Ihe coneul.hip, — Contra Molulem. "Againathk 
penon.1 right.." Conniltuote Z, page 96, 

0. Cum MttTinam, &c. " Wben you ere altacking Mureoa hJB». 
Mlf." Pifc MDow eiopltpred in » gladialoriBl lense, " toum » blcnr,GoOgk 

I.. muiN*. 91» 

al uHitlter," "to nuka t thnut,*' " tottluk." Petaeeonmklum ^^ 
iiineiely "lo wie li» the conaulship." 

S. Eodem fotta. " Bj the um* nla," — £liam oJMitutMiw. 
" Even totil HnDgen." 

7. &i Mpttu dimieatiiin». « In ■ ctM wbeie mll hi« einl light* 
•(« >C ttake." Compen nott 2, poge S6. — CepitU. Tbs teno 
ca^iahaie oMd in italegUjeiue, «ndiefentolhedTiiconditian, 
libeitj, pereDiuI piiTilegea, &c., of tn indiTidiuI. Compais Emeili 
{Clm. Cie.». t.): "Caput diatw pra lumiBit (tafw, liieTlaiit tl 
eivitatit jurt," &«. So, in Ibe langiia^ of the lUinun taw, anr !«■» 
•f libett; ot of iLe rightt of cilueiia wie called " dimtmitta ct^ih*." 

8. Nm idcirco nbnttliir. " Sholl not fbi tiiie leaMHi be oreiv 
eame." LitenSy, "becnidied," <» " OTerwhelmed." CompeM 
Manutina : " JVoti ideireo amieo nnihm friielunt feret." — Quei ol 
eodem, &o, " Becauu it waa tiioniphed OTer bf the «une indi- 
vidual in a mere conteat foi offlce." In the contett foi the coniul- 
■h^ Cicsio gaie bi* intenat to Snlpiciua agunat Moient. 

8. QuM »i cmaa no» eieti, &c. " And even if this motrre did 
not exiat, ■tiU, either the high nnk ot Iha man himaelf, ot lh« ele- 
TatednaRiTeof thaoffico nhich he has obtained, woald haT* bnndsd 
joe with the deepeat ■tigiDi of pride and of ciueltj, if I had refaaed 
V> nndeitaiu the caoae of one, moit diatinguiahed hoth fbr hia owa 
meiita, and foi the honoan coafeired npon him by the Roman people, 
whenitwaa fiaught with «> mach dingei to his welfue." — The 
motiTe alluded to al tlia begiuning of thii ■entenca i* hii frieadehip 
wilh Hoiena. 

10. Ntqae ett miM intefrvm. "Nta ia it whoU; withiD mj 
power," — Vt meiim lahortm, dtc. *' To refiue to impart taj 
■trenuoUB sid towaida tightening the duigeia of my MIow. 

11. Fraemia UMa. The Tarioui officee which had baen ba- 
^wed upon him, and eapeciallf the last uid higheet of ihem, Um 
eonanlihip, — Pra \ae indtutria, " For my actire eiertiona in thia 
behalT," i. e. in defending otheiB. 

IS. XoifT», per quv», &c. " To diecontinue the effuta bj 
which jou haTe obtained thesa rewiuds, when once you haTe nnde 
them jonr own, would be Ihe pait et both a cunning end in nn- 
gntefil mBD." — Aetuli. Because his motiTe, m defending and aid- 
ing others, wontd haTe heen the men wish of allimatelj benefiting 
himsdf bj hecommg popnlar ; a moliTe cnftSj cancealed, howerer, 
untU hii ol^t wia accoinplished. — Ingrati. Beca.itse he ought to 
dkow hia gratitade in freah efTum foi the good of those who haTt 
lUBcd fahn 10 offtce.,GoOgk 

^ 18. QMi ri. "U bowewr."— T« amtlere. " By jora own 
•dTice." Mon lilcnllf, "jroo being tba ■olbot (i. e. adn- 
MT) of dw ttep," — NtUt» lurpiMiii. " No diignuieful imputalioti." 

U. JmproMaML " A total wiat of princ^e." Moce litenlly, 
" mnUoHTMn."— CMTjmr. " Cloiriy »rgiiBe." 

IS. Dt (NO i^iwi ataiu. " Fiixd j«m Own pannitB," I. e. IhKa 
]Kwr own pioreeuoDil cenliiet ; bom joai owd wiy of «otiDg at tbo 

IS. EiUm adptrrtriu, &c. " To pre kdvice eren to Ibo id- 
TMMuiei of yoar biend», wben GOnaulting joa on > pont of hw." 
tUtpmdert u tke technical tenn ipplied to tbe gLniig of &dvice oq 
Iha peit ni tbe Romui jniie-concull. lliiu, Cie. dt dai. Orai. c. 
ao : "R^tiloLt «Mjwnm «aaau dt jurt rttpondaidi tutHnelal.'* 
Hence tba teim retpeiu* fnideiiltiiK fiplM lo tbe opinitR» gi*eD 
bj liM memben of Ibe Roinan bar. Coninlt Inttit. Jiut. i. t, tiU 
9 ; " Iftm OUN ttttrti Ug" rtgiai," &e. 
200 1. £' *> tMyt exittiaut, &«. " And if jod Ihfaik it diw:iedite< 
Ue to you, in ncb a eaaa, fai ibe Teij indindad hiijuelf ■gainat 
wbom JOB bive non appeaied, 10 loae bia canaa." Ciceiii, afler 
•taliDg that Snlpkiui, in coDunon wilb Iba otbei lawjen of tbe da^, 
deemed it perfectlj praper to give adviee eveo to the adversariea of 
tbeir &ie»di, pati iba foliowing caae : A peiion hu ■ diipate willi 
ODO of tba ftieiida of SulpiciaB, ud ihemupoD comei to the ktter,' 
alalea the natare of the contrarenj, mA obtaina hia prefeHional 
■dnca. The friend than waita apon SBlpiciua, and reijaetta him to 
■ppeu u bia uivDcate on the tiial of thia vecj point. Will DOl SdU 
piciua, OD tbal tiiil, fed his ■elf-IOTa ■enooa^ wonDded, if tba <^ 
podla p*rtj, to wbom be had given ulvice in Ihia veij aaine caie, 
■nd wbo, acting od thal advice, haa defended tbe cue, be defeated 
■od loaa bia civie 1 — We bave given tha eiplanuion of Famtiaa, 
tthich ■eem* mnch mne in uniwn with the conteit tban Ibit of 
ElDeati Tb« latter undentuidB o^ Umpnrt aftei ventrit, and 
mikae the meaning 10 be Ibii : "If jou deemitdiKredii&b1e, wIwd 
JOD fptn Ibr one, iguDit whooi jou have ^eid oo i. previoaB oc- 
oMian, tbat thia individual abould lort bia oum," i. e. tbat joq 
AtMlA BOt exert joaraairnow in hii behalf, meralj becauae joo ap. 
pe^nd agsiiiBt bim befoie Ihia. 

S. Tt aitocato. Bj adeocadu appaars lo ba meuit bere, not 
ODe wbo takei pait in ibe tctual pleading of a eauae, but wbo ■landa 
bj eDd aida another bj his advice Bnd piesence. ConipaTe ibe ez< 
[lUliBttOn ofABCOniaB, bi given undec note 15, page S7. 

3. Ctiua eadert. A legal eipnaBton {bi loaing a came, need 
ban in ■ genenl aFnBa ) Blthuu^, in ita q>eeial icceptatioii. il 

■L. Munmsk. 377 

■pplieaiithBrto Uia lon af ■ cua thraiigh ■oms loiliite in tba ftnm JQ0 
of proeecdii^ ; what we ull in Engliah a Don-SDiL CorapexB Cie. 
de Imtnt. S, 1 : " Jla jiu eitiiU habtmua amilitulum, ul ciwM 
cmdal itj qui non, qVBnULdmodam Ofortelj tgerit,*^ 

i. T^aifontet. " The rieh ajningii of jonrlegil wiadam." Coni- 
piTa nola SO, paga 88.— i¥iw(™ rtniliw. " Thal oai aeuitj lilla." 

6. Tva familiariiaM. " Mj long ■cqaaintanca witti joo," L «. 
t)iB InBndahip I enteitaiji ibi jon. Ilw poaaeaaiTa pnnioan ia bera 
uKd in whit the giaininanuu ealt iia paMTe ■odu. The ■eiire 
meaniiig of Iiia famHianlaM nonld be, " jonr long acqiiunlaDCe 
ntlh tne," or " joiir fnendship towardBme." Coiiault ;S<in<:l. JHtncrB. 
2, 13, p. 331, TOL 1, ed. BaaeT. 

6. Ab hae MUia ranooiiatt. " Had ioduced toe to decUQO thi> 
caaBa."~-Q. Horlaitio, M. Cratia. Theie two iodiridudB «eia 
usociilsd witb Cicero in tbe management of Ibe defence. — A qmt- 
>K, &c. " Bj whom, I well know, ^ oni eateem i> highlr piized," 
L e. who I well know aet a high nlue npoo joui fiieodahip, tnd 
would make gieat ucriSces to preBerre H. 

7. Infima, " Eien among the iDweat of tho people." 

6. ye/arium. " A wi;ked man," A nolalor of the hely laiT 
7f fnendahip. 

9. Quod dandun ett maeitiae, &e. " WbateTot ta to be gnoled 
lo the claima of Irieiidabip, diall be hbeiall; concaded t^ me ; ao 
tbat 1 will deal witii jou, Seivina, in the nme waj aa if mj owd 
biotbai, who i* moat deu t« me, occapied tbe podtion wbich joa 
now do," L e. u if tnj own biothei, and not yoa, wera Moiena'! 
■ccnaei. Ciceio meana, that, in tbe mansgement of the preaent 
caae, he «ili niBke the taraa allowanoe fbi tha clmna of liiendBh^ 
on the pait of SulpiciDs, aa if the lattec were bii onn bioUici Qoin- 
tua, to whom he waa moat teuderlj attached, 

10. ItUi in loco. litetBllj, "in the nlnition in which jou now 
are," L e, an aecaier of Miiren&, The atodenl will nata the fotce 
of itU heie. A want of Ulealion lo the peculisi meaning of thii 
prauoua has led Mainitiua into the eiroi of aui^NMing, tfaat tbe 
pbnae i»lo in ioeo ia heie aqniTalent to in W iignilalt conmlari. 

11. <iuod tribuenium ott, &e. "'WhitereT, on tbe otbu band, 
ii to be jielded bj me to the claima of duty, of bonour, of leligiop, 
thia I wiU regolate in lueh a waj, aa to bear m miiid that I 
am pleading fat tba aafetj of ime tiiend againat the hot attaek of 
aaothei." Liteialljr, "in bebalf of tbe dangeiof oae fiiend." 

IS, Religvmi. Becanae Giceia had imploied the faTooi of 
beaTen towaids Hniena and bia ctdleagne Silanos, on tba dij id Iba 
comitia. Compan note IS, page ST.,GoOgk 

100 *'' ^'^t*' ftMt*t, &a. " [ parGM*e, jais—, ihU tbMe hn>* 
been IhrM bMd* to lfa« enlim KcawtiOD, iill thit one of ibaM baa 
teea teken np witb tbe ceneon of hi> pnrete life, the tecaad nitfa 
eonleeting hie diim u > Gt cuMbdUa for tbe ooiieaUiip, Ihe thinl 
wilh tbe chuge of bribeif ." — By Hgmitat ie hera meu)l peTBOiial 
netit 01 wMtb, eadbf «oafMtiediriBMu edii^tingof thecliun 
at Hnraoe to tbe coanUiip, (U the groaod of hii not poMeanng 
■nfficieDl peieDul nmit for thit elentad itetion. Uodei ibie bead 
•f peieUDal merit the qoMlion of &iiulj i> ilao breogfat in. 

14, Qmm gramnmui, &c. " Whjcb angbt Id beve beem tbe 
, weigfatiert," L e. oo^t lo heTe beea nunged in niGh ■ nwj ee 
netanU; lo fbim Ihe bMnMt eDd gimTeet cheige egainet him. 

Ifi. Itt fiut iiffirm» a Imw, &«. "Hie pnned k> wbA end 
bi*atoB« • one, Ibet eome eeUUidied pieetice en the put of acciH 
■ine, nlbei then uqr leil gnmnde loi impating ciimiiuli^, bu com- 
pelled Ihem to nj ■ometluilg ebeot the life of IJdnin* Hoiena.'' 
— By Itz Mcemaian» 'im meeot, an eatabliahed pnctiee, on the pait 
of iccnaen, lo impute to the eeenied ■» ill-ipeal uid diaMdote lifs. 
— JfefriiefJi faaiiUt. Anj gRKnide foi Mtebliihing leal crimi- 

16. Objeeta ttl tKmt Am. "Aiia nameljr bai bem made • 
eomce of i^voech to him." Tlw paiticle cnnia i* hera emfdojed in 
Ae eeoH of fl(M^ like the tnchiMtiTa yif in Oieek. (Compaie 
HBagttttn, Parl. Gt4tt. p. 8S, <4 SM:z.)—Atia. The Romai» 
legaided AtiB h tbe aouice whenee all theii hixniy Mtginated. 
OoDqiaie IJTj, 89, 6 : " Luzuritt t»im fertgriiiM arige at cxtr- 
eitn AneficD iiatcla m arhtm ttt : H frinatm Itetot atraioi, vetltm 
ttragalam prttiettM, flagalat, tt aiia ItxtHia, it, quat tim nagni- 
JUa* tuftUtetiUt taMnlvr, menapo^ H ttacot Bomam aietxt- 

17. XeH ad valnplaim tt bucmiam. "Not tat ptnpoaM of 
plaaanie and dabaocbai)'.^' — la mHilmri labtrt. Ho m* eerring 
nndei hia &thet L. Mamia, wbo bad been left bj Sjlla in command 
of Ihe Aaiatie fbicM. 

18. Qw ti aJelttcaiM, &e. " Now, had he, whea a jom^ men, 
not perfomed miiitaif aeiTie^ hii bthn being at tba tiine eom- 
nandai ttaefe." 

19. Aa, aim teJart, Ac. " When (ho 101» of thoee eoeamaBdeia 
diat thami^ wbo atill weei Iha piaeteit», am aMMlanted in pu 
tienlai lo ait on Iha boiMe whicb dnw the cu, wu thia onr 
to 8T0td •domiiig ihe liiumph of hia fatluT with hia own militaij 
trpphiM I" — Ilie tiiamphant geiianl'a ebildian aat mlb him in Hn 
cai. Hii Kina wbo woie the prat«tna nide oa tba botaM dnwii^,GoOgk 

L. KURSNA. 371 

n, ar fbUowed on other horaes. Tlie praetexta wu mm bj tbv|Q0 

Rninaa jouth ttU tba tge of 17, whea the laga virilia, or manlj 
gowti, was assamEd. 

50. Niuc ifiMBt mclibiniiu, &c. Tbe meaning of this is, wu 
nol Mnrent to perfonn militar; Bemce onder hia rstber in Aeie, io 
order (hU, by diatingiiishing hinuelf thera, be mighl, on hie retuni 
home, gnce tbe tiiumph ot his puents bj diapltjing tln militsir 
rewuiU be himeelf had received 1 Tbie, ot coutm, ie meant u sn 
siuwei lo tbe chuge of bia btving been in Asia. It w>a the Terj 
countij where he ou^ to have heen at Ibe time. 

51. Et n idbtt Atia, dfc, " And Bince Aaii curies wilh it i 
eertain auqiieion of diesolute liTing, not his haTing ae<>ei seen Asis, 
but hii hiving liTed tempeiatelj in Asis muit be mide t, source of 
Hsise to him " 

1. Std alijitod aiit in Atia, Aa. " BDtBOme flagnnt uid dis- JQ| 
gTKefuI rice, eilher cODtncted bj him id Asia, oc introdoced bj 
olhers from thst coantij," i, e. either eome vice wbicb be hiiaiielf 
had coaCracted white liTing in Aais, or one of Aaiatie oilgin, broughl 
to Rome bj some other indiTidoal, and contrseled bj Murena at the 
kttei place. 

B, Meruim tlipmdia. " To hsTe peifonned milltarj seiTice.** 
The lileisl meanit^ of mertre tliptndui is " to earn paj." — /n eo 
itlle. The Mitbridatic T>ai. — Virlutii. "Wsa s ptoof of his conr 

8. PmJiCu. "OfhisfiMpletj." Sbovm «s woll hj his cheer- 
fblnesB in Berving under his perent oh. bj his wish to conlribute te 
Ihat parent'i gl<uj. — Finem ttipendiomm, " The teimination of 
hia sernce," 

4. MaUdicte. " For censuie." — Ocaipaml. "Has pre-oc- 


5. Sallatartm. Dancing was legsided as disgiscefnl bj Ihe Ro- 
EnuiB. It ma the daneing, bowever, which had found its waj inin 
dte atage into conriTisI ciicles thst wsa jastljr condenined, ind not 
ereij ipecies. Foi the Romsns hsd tbeii sscred or religiou* 
dsncet, wilh which af conne no faalt wis fbund. Compare tbe ex- 
plination of GnoTias : " Saltator fiit eil hitlrio. Noh etam qime- 
vit ttSatio Romae lurpit erat el ptohroia, eed httlrimiai el tnvl- 
hor." With tbe Oieelu a diSeient usage piewlod. Consult the 
leBuifca ef CiKndius ffepoe, in hie preface, aod also the iint chapter 
of bii lifs of EpamiDondas. 

S. jra^i((Hm,*ttwrcoi^t(ur, dce. "Thls, if it betmljobject- 
ed unto him, ii tbe cbuge of sn angij accuiei ; but, if falielj, (rf i 
•hDdeEoui cilnmniitoi." In eilbei case, iherefore, Cato oagbt mit,GoOgk 


)Q|tanttCTlli)irapiaKb«g«iu«tHaraiu, nnceuiugixfMliiigisui»- 
ceouiteat witli tlw cbuuler Df » ugB. u ■ diiR^ud for tba tnitli. 

7. Ifiuirt am iila, &.c. " Whererore, aaat you are s peraoD ol 
fueh wBigiu of cbuicier, you oughi not, Muca* Ckio, to Buteh * 
oliutui; fram tlw lip of tlw nbble, oi litoni MHae cwouul of buficKn* 
■nd nafaly to uU a coiuul of tlui Romui people ■ dancBT," i. ol 
Knea jour ■ulbomj cuiiea to mucb iDauence w^ it, jou ou|^t L» 
be cusful wb*t cbaigea jou biing ■gunM otben, e^eciallj ■guiuA 
tboie m elenLed ■Mlion. 

8. Ex trmo. Bj Irvtiim ii lilenllj meuit ■ place wban» threa 
waje inBeL, uid wbere dl muiaec of idlen uid low pereone tiB ac- 
caUaniod to coDgregUe. It ie tiien t*keii, u inlhe preseiit iustuicQ, 
lo deoola tliie clu* of penons IheouelTea, or in olher wards, tha 
nbble, tbe loweit lulgar. 

9. SwTorwn. Bj loirra ia meaat > buffMm. > acaSiai, a jestar, 
one wbo, for llis adceof eiciung memiiieDt,cunDDt what ba eitlNX 
nys or doea, uid wbo u p&niculailj foDd of lUBiag a laugh at Iha 
upeoia ot ollien, bj Kima coine olandei. Venvw FUccoe defiTea 
tbe tano " a iiqutndo," («urra, fuan •ccum,) and oiBkea it* piini- 

le who " fijUow»" 

oT ■ lich penon, to UDUae bim bj bia bulTooneij. Foetoa ridicalea 
lhi> etjmDlogy *eij propeilj. ( Fcil. dt wrb. 'igyi. p. 340, td. Lnut.) 
Tbe word appeu* ratliei lo be of the •uoa funilj with tbe Germaa 
"teJurttH," "lonilat," "to jeer," &c. 

10. Cmimia. The common teit baa eoRMeia, which Lambian* 
fint alloied, on conJEctuie, lo eonnna. TIub Latter readiog it 
•doptad bj Emeeti and Scbeller. 

11. Nt^ue in ammmo nutderato alque honalo. ^'Norat««eU- 
gulated and becaming repast." — TinptiliiN conrivn, &il. "Dan- 

(ig ia ibe la«t comptnion of tbe ra>el> of tbe tabla, of a [dace da- 
Toted to [deaaure, of much enjoyment," i. a. ia tbe laat act ia ■ d«- 
bauch, in a place nrhan etery tbing hiettbea of pleaaata, &c. — Bj 
UnpcMHvum cmmiHtii, (literallj^ " in unMuonaUe buiqutt,") ia 
neuu aa entenaianient which canimenced euUei ihan Ibe oidinaij 
hour, uid waa protncted uuii ■ much later one iban usnal. C<mt- 
pare note 32, page bS. 

18. TumHiiarripiiii,AA!. " Yoa eageilj eatch at ^l, which," 
&c. JftU ia here elegantlj ledundant, Dnlesa we lender itbjs 
■peciee of parephnBB : " in orfer to thwait my intended defeuce," 
01 elae soniclhing analogoua. 

la. Rtlinguia iUa, &c. " Ynu lcaie thoae (hingi nniioticed,'' 
&c., i. e. jou are aileul about other monl blemisbea.— Cicero meaa, 
tttit 00 olhei munl failinga are Bpoken of bj his cqiponBDta, *i ■x*,GoOgk 

L. HUKENA. 381 


latuig in tha ohancUs of MnreDa ; iihenwi cliDciiig wouM bnplj, \Q I 
oTcaiuK, H) iDdalgeoce m muiy othei' eicenM, uid eould not, in 
fict, eusc williDDt Lhem. 

14. IfuUun turpe cmvtrtiHn, itc. " No diigncsfal btnqiicliiigi 
QO unours, no lOTeUiiig, dd larrdneBs, no eiUsTigBDl «ipenditura k 
poiDted ouC" — Ab ngatdi conuwfio consult aote 11, page Ifl. 

15. Quae veluplatu nmneti haieiU, &c, " Whicb beu' the tcij 
DUDe of pteuDie, uid ■» ■etusl ncee," i. e. which etaad foith 
to the world vith the name uid chuscter of repreheiuihle pleefc 

IB. Umhrani luxuTiae. " The Dnbiddeu companJOD of debeueh- 
C17." Among the Ramuis, BH niBDTited guoM, who eecompulied 
wothci, geneiallj some distinguiehed penonage, to k feut, inM 
called hie "umfra." (Compaie Horet. Sal. Z, 8, 23.) The t«na 
ii hera foicibljr applied to dancing, which ii alwijs, ■ccaiding lo 
Ike RomaD wajr of thiDkang, uire to fallDw, w bd aoiDTited gneit, 
iD (he tiaiD of debaucheij. Compaie Emeati, (Cfav. Cic. i. t.) : 
"Umira, comsa : JHiirm. 6 : Saiiatio ttt vnUira /uiuriiu." . 

17. NvUavi ptluiaiu dictma. "No luciTione eipiOBaioa." In 
the caDUDOD teit, the wDrds <n vila follow ; but Uiey ue oat of 
place hcre, and eeem lo hsTe oiiginated from tn vitam. EniBiti rs- 
tains them in his teit, but condemtia them in a note. Beck eDcloeea 
them wilhin bracketa. 'We haTe lejected tbeiD wilh Schntz. 

1. (^ao cBiatitute. "This pcint beiog eilBblished," i. e. thelQJ 
cbBTge againat ths piirate lifj. of Muieaa, having been thus dis- 

5. Sunnjum dignitaitm gtneria, 3cc. " 11» higheat degiee of 
peisona] meiit. foonded oa buth, integii^, ths sctive ezercise ot 
talent, snd sU tbose other aecooiplishmenti, lel^riDg on which it i> 
light foi jou to sspira to sn ^pUcatioa foi the consulship," 

3. CoBltmpiitli. "You hais ueited with contempt." RefeiTing 
to t^e mannei in wluch Salptcius, in Ihe coiiiBe of hia cemuiiB, had 
sooght to depieciate the oiigin of Muiena. 

4. I^ loeo, &e, " If in hsndliog this topic jou take it ttpMl 
jourself 10 tBtett." — jjvmftnim. Cicero lelera here lo the fint 
■ecesaion of tbe people, wbicb, Bccordiiig to Piso, su eulier hisloHtl 
than LiTj, aad nho is citgd by the Uttei, (3, SS,) Traa mule to lb> 
A.TentIne hill, Bod not to Mow Saeei. 

6, Sin Buteni, &e. " But if, on the contisij, theie aie distin- 
guiahed uid honOQiable famitiea of [debeiBU oiigin, then bolh tiio 
gisat^ndrBther," dtc. Thia is Iha ■Bme u ■■ jing m otu own 
idiooi : " But theis ■le, on tbe conttatj, distinguiBhed and honon^ 
■Ue pl'hfiin families, fbi, both the great-graDdfcthnr," &c.,GoOgk 

383 ouTioK roB 


IftS 9. JVmmm. P. LMHDim HnrBm, wbe ma [«MtOT A. t7. O. 
OQS. — J«M*. Of tha wM nama with the precediiig, md pnetor 
A. U. C. MO. 

B. Pttri iebitat. Hs hid gOM dmagb «n Iba i 
officM, iDd odIj Mopped «hmt at tha eODiulahqi, fte «rliidi ha had 
ttw bintt cbim fbr ■aniea raDdaTod his coaDbj. — FUio. Tlw 
MDMa wbo WH tecaaei on the priMDt oceukni. 

0. iJbmniiat liUrati* tt iulDrtcu. "To literaij dwd and 
hNloriuia." Solpieiiu traced btck bia Drigin to Serrim Solpciaa, 
«rfao mM conal in the tenth jeu iftei the eipuluoa of ttie kinga. 
A. U. C. toa. Comiiue Oic. BnU. Ifl ; t»d Sigtmut, FtM. Cona. 
p. 33, nj. Oxm. — Populo tl tngTtgatoribut abieuriar. " 1« lesa 
iiDuliti to Hm people mnd Tolen it eleetiooi." Ciceio maaas, Ihat 
tlw iDteimediUe Solpicii, &om the fbuDdei of the Uns downwud, 
eapeciiUylhooBofDtoieiocenttimea, hid not ngndiied tbeoieelTea 
JD loch ■ wtj >■ to be hioDght in ■ tcij mtiked Duimer befbie Ihe 
Dotica of tbe peopt*. 

10. J^Wl tjattlri loeB, From thie we aee thit > patiieian nught 
lamtin ui tjutt, — Nullamiulrilaiiit, " FornoiHiiatriousiiction.'' 
Ziovt iahereput for MiKtion deierTing ofpnise. Compue Emeeli, 
ICIm. Cie. t, T.) : " Laut, pra Tebut lande iignit." 

\l. Bi aKMtittm vetvttalt. Aefenii^ to the eailj dite of ihat 
anceatoi of hii who wai legsrded la the fouodei ofthe liiie. Codi< 
paie note 9. 

19. Q. Femptte. Q. Fompeiui Nepoa, who, thou^ of plebeiui 
raigin, aCtained nemthelen to tha higbeet hoaoun in the Btate. 
Cimault HiBtoiieal ludeK. 

15. M. AemiUe. M. Aemiliua Scauius, who wu couaul A. IT. 
C. 6S8, lod M. ■eeond time A. IT. C. 046. Conaolt Hiatoikal 

14. Efiudtm animi aljtie ingemi erl. " It leqairea the nme 
degree of epirit ud of talent" 

IB. Qaam non acaperal. Flulaieh uye, that he wu (hou^ 
to hm beea the aoii oT ■ flutO-plejer. lApophtliegm. p. 300, 
Tol. 8, p. 765, ed, Rtitkt.) — Memariam prope itUtrmorluam, 
Ac " To leTiTe bj hia onn merit the tlinoat extinct leoiein- 
bnDco of hi* LnM." Compate Ateoniut, iii Or, pro Scaur. 

16. Mia Uiert ent ptrfeetum. "'Hiat it hid beoD biougb: 
aboot bj mj eieitioii>," i «. diat I ■ mui of humble oiigin, hid 
^ored of «0 much aerrice to my conntiy, ■■ to cauaa knr bilth t* 
bBi|0 kn^ei ngaided u a btniai totha cc,GoOgk 

IT. Qn ttm moio (^trtu, &t. " Wbo reraained DotwitliataDd-]i)3 
tng nsgJecMl, eTen tbough they lecoanted not onlf the inilimce* 
of Ihe Curii, Ibe Cmtm, IhB Poispeu, thoee wardiiee of foriner diji, 
msli of llw grei.t«t tiIouc, jret of lowly origia, but erOD (heee ei- 
■mplea ef incent timee, tln Muii, «nd Didii, end Ceelii," L e.irtM 
iMre nerertlielen eicluded fixjDi the coneuUhip, on eceonnt of iheit > 
hQinbte origiD. or elae diicouraged fiom qipljing Ibr it, ■hbniigh 
thej could poiut to raany brigbt initancei in the put (iid pieeeiit 
hiitoTjr of their eonntij, where men of humble biith hed, bjr reuoa 
of Bignd meijt, been edvanced to the higheit office tn the ■tete. 

18, CMTtif, Calomiut, Pompeiii. Tbe plunl ii heie nsed lo 
gJTO emphui» to tbe ■entence. Curina Dentetui, Cato tbg cenaoi, 
■nd Qaintue Ponipeiae, tie moKnt ; and, in the lucceeding put of 
Uie aentencn, Ciiua Muiue, T. I>idias,C. Cseliui Caldoi. — Msnu- 
tioa mekes B difficalt; bere by iaugintDg tbit Cieero means the 
QuioH» Pompeiue, mirnemed RnfQB, wbo wu oonml, A. U. C. 
6S6, during the youth of tbe ontor, ■nd who could mt well, (heie- 
Ibie, be ranked among the " tnliqui," irben Muiui, Didius (nd 
Csebus eie Rjled " rfenUo ;" aod be tbinka that fbr Pempm/ we 
■bould read Appii*. Oiceio, bowereF, refen, not to Pompeiua 
Rnfm, bnt to Pompeius Nepos, Compiro Ernetti anA Schilz,ad!oe. 

I . Jaeehanl. Ai leguds the peculiar force of this Terti in the ^ Q^ 
present ■enlence, compue tbe iBmarit of Emeeti, (Cia». Ci.!. ■. t.); 
" Jacere dieuntKr qui fminu graiian nnt. Im^mit atticm, 
fni nallam ipm magittratiu «nuefitcTuii haiaU, ntm ctndidali 
tini, au/, tom ijiiitm ob ciuuii», quia mkit tptrant, nc ptltaU fnul- 

3. Tanto inlaratta. "After «o long ai mterrJ." CompaiB 
Salhul, B. C. i3: " Naniqttt anlia pltroqtie nofriKtu tnviXa 
eealuabat, et qvati poUv.i coiuuiiMm ertdebamt, n «um, fiuimn* 
egrcgiut, homo wimt adtplnt forct." 

3, Clauilra iila nohilitatii. " Tbose barriBi» of nobnity," l m. 
duMe barriers k> caiefullj guaided by patrician prida, — Itla hen 
denotes contempt, witb ■ covert leference aleo to the prepdicee of 
hii oppMtml .- tbose bBiriers of nobilitj wbich jou would aguD Mtk 
10 imta sn obst«:[e in the path of Murens. 

4, Ex familia vetere tl Ubtilri. Tbe family of MnraBa, ahlioii^ 
plebeian in origin, wss nBTertbdegs tn o!d aad fiadnguidied <nie.— 
Ah eqvitii Rematii filio. Compue note IG, page 43. 

5, Duoba patridii. L. Sergius CatUinaand P. SnlpiciQB Gslba. 
~-ModeiUttimo lUqiie optimo viro. " A lottn of the utmoet niodeBtjr 
■nd piobii;," AKOniua {Arg. Orai. oMra aimpil.') calls Um.,GoOgk 


1Q3 •. DigniUlt. " Tn ; W Mt l meiit"— Oraria. 

L •. in ^TOtu wilh tba peopla. The ■lliiwiu ii to thM ia0avac*t 
ntiich (ntjquilr ol lunily bul bilheno clumed u itt peculisr ligfat. 
T. ^^ (i ii crnun, &c. "Now, ifthiiougbt to h>v« been 
•Daged u K cnme tgunit > nun . af l»nible biith, andoubtedlj of 
tbM occukin, oeilhei eiwmi» noi onTioui penona would bav« bev 
wuting to niM it ■f[tiD«t me." — The pionoan id refera bere to 
Miccaei in gKinii^ iha coniuUhip ; md tbe Btrong meaning xo be 
ittKhsd to cnnun deHve* elocidation fiam tha luiguige of Salliint, 
TefBirad to in ■ pnnou* oote : " tt quati foUui cetumialmm. cred» 


B. Cuju ul tKogitii in ulTijnuc iigmtat. " Of which IhsTe is a 
^xgt uid diitinguiahed ■hu« in, each." Tbe Ucininn runilir, wi- 

tboagh of ptebeiui origin, i> b:re pliced on > full equmlit; witb the 

liiM or tba Sulpicil. 

9. Quaetturam taia pttiit, &c. ThMe worda un ■upponed U 
b« qrakeo by Bolpiciua. — Ciceio tdTeiti heie to uiothei ■Uegation 
on the put of the Uttei, nunely that he vim decUied qaeestoi be- 
Ibie Huieo*, thtt is, pieceded him ta ibe Bfdei of election. " He 
wngbt Iha quKutonhip ■long with me, .ind I wu declaied beloM 
him," The ordei of precvdonce unong the *iiceeiiliit csndidatee 
wi* legulUed hy Ibe number of Tolee nhieh each leceiTcd ; ind 
Sulpiciu* aeeka to make tbii > proof of bia aupeiiarit;, in pohlt of 
parMHial meiit, to Mutena, bectate wben the; botb weie tlecled 
qMeatnm, tbe nujoiitj of Sulpiciua waa greater thui tbst of Ihe 

10. Nan ett reipimdmium td onutia. "There is no need a( 
■nBwcring eT«ij objection,^' L e- thne ii no need □( goiog into a 
long diBcuBFjiti lespectiiig eierj objwtion which an opponant n»7 
aee 6t lo niu. Same objeclioni answer tbemselTes; and Ihiaii 
ODa Of tbem. 

'.. Ciim timlti, &c. "TIibI vihen Iheie ue man; c^ndidilea 
»^al in point of meiit, and onlj one of ibeai un obtaia che fiitt 
raiik, tbe oider of ment and of Bnnouncement ii not the nme." ice. 
L e. in Bflnouncing the namea of the aucceufnl conipctilorB, •onw 
* ona ofthem rnuBt of courae be named (iiBl. ■nd Ibereat mualliiUDw 
in • certain oider, bul tbis ia ra> pioof of reUtiye meiit. — Thera i> 
moia in the Bigument of Sulpiciue ihui Ciceio ia wiUiag to adoiit 
A gieatei numbar o( «^s given for one candidate iban for BDOtber, 
mn wben both aacceed to oSice, must be rsgaided bb Bome praof 
<rf itM poaseaBion of Buperioc merii in the eyu of thou wbo giie 
tfaoae TOlea. Cicero, it is true, sopposei Ihe candidaK^ to t>a ill 
•qual in point of meiil, "partM dignitaU," bul Ihis i* beggtug tlw,GoOgk 

t. VDaBEU. - 381 


quMtKm, foi it is the very UiiDg to-be yMbcL Brnjc»,be UntMlf.^Q^ 
«rben ipukiag oC hi* On^ cue, attBches, k< nuy well be inUgiira^ 
■ gieu detl DioiG of impratuKe to Ibe fact, of his hvnag been de- 
clued quButoi one of tbe Grat, fint sedile, tni fint pnelar. . 
Campue Or. in Pii. c. 1 : " Xt jvum juiutlarBii in pnmu, «tii- 
Um priorim, prailoreai jrrimKm airulit tuffragiii pcjmlut Roma- 
nat facithat ; hooBni ilU kanoran, non gtnsri, &c., dtftrebat." — 
Tbe iludent nitl obBerre, tbst tt ia atdilaa fnertm in Ibe puMg* 
jusl qnoted, becsuse tbere «eie onlr Iwo atdilt; but in our Uit it 
ia qwuilor pxior meielf witb lefeience to Si^lpicius snd Mureoi, 
because tbe number Of qnaeston &t &i6 bme wu quite Wge, lod 
if Sulpicius bed atood et tbe besd of all, tke would have bMn eelled 
foattlor privuu. 

15. Sed quaataTa, iai.' " But, m Lruth, Iha qiiustOTeUp ■Hotlad 
lo each uf jou, wu slinOBt equsUj unimpanant." Litenllj, " A» 
quBeBioTBhip of «Bcb wbs Blinost of equsl importsncs in point of lot." 
Tbe prorinces, oidutiesof t)ie qusestors, nere Bssigned lo tbcin bj 
lot, and Murera and Sulpicius drevr two of ibe nuM iDsignificuit. 

13. Lege Titia. " Under lk« Titiw) Uw," i. e. by Ibe opw 
ation of Ihii law. T^ Lez T^tia (pfopoeed bj tbe tribaiM 
Titius, A. U, C. 448) ordainedtbstlheexiatingnumberof quBeslori 
dioald be doubled, Bod ihal thej ■hoald delenDine thair proriiices bjr 
lot. By tbe opentiDn of ihis law, M iiicQa obtaincd an unimportBnt 
piOTinee,inHbich hehBdnocliBnce ofdistinguiahinghimBelr. Bjlbv 
(q>eretion of tbe Bame Uw (i. e. bj being competled (o rnn bii 
chence in dnwing lots} Serrius obtained a piovinoe eqnBltj inaigni- 

14. 7^ tUom, &,c. " Tou V»t one, at which, whea tbe qDaee- 
ton are allotted to the dlffeiant provincei. a ihont of lidicule is eren 
Bccastonied to be laiaed," The udIqcIc; quaesuir wbo drew ihis 
province, fbr hi* Bpbeie of opeialionB, waa eipoaed to the laa^ltei 
of tbose who Btood around. 

16. Ottienttm, icc "The prtmnee namelj of Oslia, nol «t 
much pioductiTe of influence, oi conferring diBtinclion, le fuD of 
toil Bod trouble." The bnrdensome nature of tbia proiince appw* 
to bara arisen &Dm the clrcumalaiice of OntiaV being ■ mach £»■ 
qnantsd sea-port, and alao liom tbe sall-norkB in ita «icinity. (Cont- 
pare Graeniui ad bc.) Gineati BBsigDa a dLBeteDt eqjanatiaii, 
wbicb we caQnot, of eoune, mention heie. Oaaanlt Cla». • Oe. ■, 
T. Ai^ari^. 

15. Conttdit. " Seltled down liom public liew," L e, pasatd 
DOt tbe bounds of Ihe quaestorabip. 

17. 1« Jiu) t: 


IM «ft&Tioir FOK 

JQJbrth iDd bMO* knom." AmetapbarbamTwed-fiaa chuKit- 

18. SMftiltm.p0nt tpaiiitm, Ae. " Tht period of tuM m- 
■liidng tftar thk li neit cude ■ labject of cinnpuiiHm," i. «. 
tl» Dulde ln whieh ;r°D h»e eech peased jont ttme «jiiee Iheeipit». 
tioa of ]mii nepeetrrs qnteetordupe. 

19. Htne Kr&num milifiani, &«. " This eitf wu&re of en- 
nwiag legil quefticKi*, of dnwii^ ap mitinge, of piatecCiny 
A* inunala of elienta^ full of peipleiitf uid TBUtion." We 
bBW here, tnenged nnder thiee heids, *11 ihe datieg ofi. Roouui 
bwyer, ud the >>iriiole ie pleiBuitly ctlled urSsna mililia, in coatni- 
&tinetiaa lo the leil wufue in trhich Mnrena ie engaged'. — Re- 
tpondtnii. Coneoltnote 16, pege 99. — Scr^etiJi. I^ rafen lo 
the dnwing np of eontncta, erticlee of tgieement, &c. — CaventU. 
Hw nfennce hen ii to-edrice genenlly: how eease i> to be ii- 
luged, in agnenieiit to be made, dce.' Compue EntaU, {Cla». 
Oie. e. T.) : Ce>ee it jureeoitnMi iidtur, cim litigajiMiu laU 
aHjM emUrtlteniibui, nw verie rive ecripto, mtendunt, qwmodo 
fi> inttrvenit, retqat eontrMkenda tit, tu eouia auUml, aut deeipi- 
OMtnr." — It muit be bonie in aiind, thet Cicero lefen !□ the tert, to 
tbe Romtn Itwjer oi jaiieconralt, in the ■Crict ■enae of ihe tBrm, 
u diitinel Ihnn the oratBr, or pleiidei in the conite, Solpiciae being 
nnhed nnder the fbnnei cltee. 

30. DiffieaUaten eaerbuit. " He pttlently enconnteted ererf 
difficutly." llie literel inetuing of thit phnse ia cotne, but ox 
preeeiTe. " He galped down ereij difficultj-," tnd mads the bett 
of it. 
104 '' '''* " "^i^'''*'' " ^ ^'^ bnnch of knowledge." Alludii^ 
to the ciTJl 01 Romtn Uw. 

3. hegatiti L. LtKuSo faa. In the Hithiidttic wti. Hiifkthot 
hd bfen t lieutenuit of Sjlla'i ia ths nme wtr.— QlM in UgUione, 
" I>uiDg which bBateoKicy." 

8. Signa amhilit ; niiinum eonteruit. " He engvged ; he Ibagta 
buul to btnd wilb Ihe Ibe." Aranum eonitreTe lefen tlGie lo tbs 
peraon^ prowei^ of Murent. — Signa conferre a iceTelj "toen- 
gige," *■ to join bstlle," but rtumam eonierere, " (o come to 
doie qatTters," " to figbt hand to hand," dtc. OomptM the GnielE 
foim of aipnnnon, ^i^rlirai rSt X'^f"- 

4. Atiam ietam rtfertam, dM. " That Ana of jonrs, ciowdeJ 
with tiches, and Ibe tbode of ToIaptaonsaeBa:" The pionoun itta 
has heie iu ususl force : that Aiit whicb jon make a Btioree of re- 
proach to him, and aboat lus ooDdact in irtuGh jqu aie cantiinisllr 

b. &ut(ur>4lM. "HaaocoDdaotedtiiinMlf." LHenUy, "be 104 

yna aa Bm[4ojod." 

fl. Cmeiinm Itecnlunt faigtniL " The priTQege sUoffed ua 
oT nttering meie GctkniB," i. a. of exa^enting the «enieei of Mq- 
lena. — PnblicU Ulerit. " Bj du de^tcbet of ih>t comininaeT." 

7. Siimina m ulrojue, &e. " There is, tben, in etch the higheet 
reputation, the gre&teBt persooal merit j vthich, if Seiriii* riufl 
illow me flo to do, I will coneider entitlBd to equal moA (imilar pnise. 
Eut oo euch thing i> alloiTrd me. He nxakea a biiak attsck on the 
uiilitaij ait, he ioTei^u iguost," &a. 

6. Etie. "Belonge u amatteiof conrse." 

9. JHiAi. The pionouD is here meielf idiomatical, and not to ba 
tiannlBted. Unlese, indeed, ne panpbiue it, aa in a prerioaB m- 
■tuice. (Note 13,pagelDl.) Ic maj be tben considered la iiome- 
what analo^ufl perhapa to onr oidiaaij expreiaien, " Haik je, ie^ 

10. foruni Ron aUigtriil "Did jou all tbat wbile not *et foot 
m tbefoniml" — Cum iii, fui in /arv, Aa. " Are jongoiiigla 
-^ntsDd in pMit of peiBonal mrait wilh thoae wbo bue made Ibeb 
reij dweUingfl in the fomm V 

11. Peiitam i* oa^ etie gratiaM. "Tbat tbe&Tour, nfaiebBij 
condiKt bad «Hm, wss conslantlj befbre tbe ejes of mj coontij- 
aen." And, tbeiefbie, tbej endnred tbe nwie patienllj aa sj^eir- 
ing >o often befbie tbem. 

IS. Mti lalielaUm, " Tbv islietj aTiong from mj daitj appear- 
asce." This, of coane, ia whu commeatatoia esll orotoru iictmit, 
ind bj no means a cof^ of Cicero'e aeoret ^Mra^ita, — JUagno mw 
labort. " Bj great Bieiti<ms on mj pait." 

13. Detiderium. " Occssionsl absence." litersHj, "tlia waot 

14. Ad «fiultonli* «ffiM arlnm eonfmJtonnR. " To ibe cooh 
pariooii betweoi joui iespectiTe habiti and imfeasiraie." ShUMa 
u here eqninleiit lo msrea. Compare Cam. ffip. Yu. Alt&. 11, 
S : " Poiiqutm init acpuUia Thebat vtneritt adt» tluiiii ecru» 
aueTviitt," Ao., and Fiteher, bd. m Nep. a t. 

Ifi. Qui. " Hew." Old sblatiTe Ibnii far qito. More conecllj 
qieaking, pu i* Ibe r^ntsi aUative from fuif, ISu nift fnm intltf , 
of loA from talii. CoDtolt Ibe lemsAs of Parizomofl, ad SaneL 
JHn. 8. 14,— Vol. 1, p. 700, ed. Baar. 

15. Jfu^o pfui d^ritilalu. "-A. mach strongsr elaim." BigmtaM 
jt beie a claim foonded upon peiaonsl itoitb or merit.'— Vigilai ta 
i^noUe^.iL^ Aa amufling compBiisoti now fidlows betweentbv 
«wjel snd tba KildiBi, pnsposelj lc l^ diesdnntago of Che' fonnMk,GoOgk 

104 ^y ^ Uirf«t b b«te •giin m 

■enw of Ihe tenn. 

17. OalUrtttlt. 11» Roniui profvsaioTM] men loM at tn eail^ 
boDT, la ba raidj for Lhair clienu 4Dd dependuiti mho were ▼eiy 
extr in lUtenduice. (Compue ifaro/. Sot. 1, 1,10.) So Ihs lereea 
<rf Iba megistnlee wen beld at in suIt peiiod of ibe mOTaiog. 
SalM B. C. 0. SS. 
i||e I. BncetMnmi. Tbe Inimpet called fruceina wu qko fbr chaa- 
ging tba witcbee. Hence tlie propnety of the tenn, on tba pramit 
occuicm, lo denote tatlj haing tt the commencement of tbe iDOTa- 
ing wilch, ot Ibrae o'clock. Tbe ni^ ww dirided bl« rour 
witcbei of thna lioan eicb. 1110 Gnl walch commencsd U mx 
o'cloek m ibs arening, ucoiding lo oor eaamention of tbne. 

S. Tk acliinum ttuhlKU. " Yon uiu^ tbe (bnn of proceeding 
in ■ oMe." Compue, u legude the meuung of aetio, in Uiis paa- 
(■ga, tbe eiplaMtion of Gineeti, CUa. Cit. a. v. " Actio ttt fur- 
wada, JVA actor nfitvr m ntlcfidnuta ra lilt, quat a jtirtanmlti» 
ftn ptttbatuT." It ia uuUegooa to wh*t we call, &t Ibe present 
^j, the "ple*dingi" in a cue, thtit is, tbe cuijing ■ cue on, in 
■ccaidince wilh tochnical wiitten fornu, until it i> raidy tot trul. 

9, N^t ttti eonniilerit. " Leet they who ask yotir idvica be taken 
m by olfaera." Undentand capiaTUitT, — Capiantar. " Be Itkea 
b^the tbe." 

4. liU lenct tt teit, dcc. " He nndentuida uid well knows bow 
tbe foreec of Ibe enemj, yon how nins, nuj be prerented frorD 
doing bum." Tbe lefelance, in the wordB aquat piamae, is lo the 
■ncient 1011011, " di aqna pjnna orcaidA," mentioned in die Digeits, 
(bb. 30, lit. 3, f 1, lejq.) : " Si eui equa plmU damnum lUM, 
aetim* a^ru pbaiae aretniae attrtetur ofva." Bj aqita pitana, 
in this species of ■etion, the Bomui lewjen meant eUhei tbe witet 
piodiieed bj heaTr iuhs, ot othei watet awelled bj nins. Thu 
Ulpian lemuks : " AgiM» ^riam dieimai, juae de cotlo caiUt, 
utque iaire tscrttdt ; livt ptr tt kaee eoeletHt noctal, M Tubeni 
ail, m* cun alia mixla til." Tbe action la;, wben one, bj eiec- 
lims 01 works of snj kiad, altered tba contse of snch waler, or 
made it Sow moie npidlj, 01 cansed it to lise bj compieBsiDg ii 
wilhin neirowei limits, from sD whicb tbing* deiigei wu appre- 
bBDded bj tbose dwalUng in tbe neigbbouriiood, snd the person i^ 
did thii could be stopped in his movementa. The Ktion sleo lij 
wbtn actnal damage had bean done : aa, for exsmple, wben ons 
coattnictedui smbsnkment to keop ont the watan of > neighbonrii^ 
&■ Erom bia gnondi, ind tbe waten of tbis fen, being litemid 
•MdW tt;Bin,and unabb to foUtnr tbeir OU diiMtion brnam,GoOgk 

■f tbe embuiknieat, ■prt&d in aa nppmite coiu» Koi iDJarod ihe] QK 
Geldi of a, neighboui. INeratiut, u cited bj Ulpian ad. Ux. — 
CompuB Cu. TofU. o. 9.) 

6. Bjxralatiar. fhe common teit hu cxtrcitaiiu t»t, but «ler- 
ctWur, nhich suite tbe conteit much betler, ia given by QiuntiliaT 
<9, 3, 82) wbo citee tho present pusage &o[n ilk taul to rtgtniit, 
txA it U lUo fouod iu aeverBl MSS., uid ntAj editione. 

6. In frofogania finiliaa. " tn eolaigiag the bouudariei of otu 
empire." Lilerally, " in canying foiward." 

T. J» Ttgendit. " Iu legulating thoae of tonM field," i. e. in u) 
■Ction biougbt sbont the bounduj line of aome piece of giound. 
Thecontiast here, belwecnthe opentiana af Muiena and Sulpicioe, 
Ib eitiemelj ■muung, and muat hB.ys been moat moitifying to 
tke Dotiona of wtf-importancB enlenained l^ the lattei. 

8. Rei «alitiuit «rlui, iic. " The eieeUeace of tiie militaij ait 
■uipuaea that of BTery othet." 

S. El hatc feTentit laiu, &c. "And thi* oui icputation and 
a»iduit]r, at the bu, he iheiteied beoeath the protection and wanvr 
lity nhich maitial pioweaa ■Sbida." 

10. Simul oiqTU incrspmt, &c. " Ai «pon as the leut mepicion 
of sn; public canunotiDa bu ariseD." Liteiallj, "hu eounded 
foith," Tuimtltii* appeaia to be taken here in a eomewbat moi* 
gencral mBBiiiiig than iti otdinaty one. The BigaiGcatioD whicli 
thia term nBually hai is eiplained in a preTious put of Ihia Toliima. 
Compaie note S, page 36." 

11. Ar{f tiBtlToe. EloqnencB and legal Kience. 

IS. El, qtumiarn, Sx. " And, aince you aeeoi to me to foQdte 
Ihel icience of tbe la», aa if it weie a Uttle daughtec of youn." 
Compue the eipknation giveD to otculaii by BmeBti, C£a*. Oe. 
a. T. : " Oacularl, nimie magTufacere, amare." 

13. Iitud aetdo quid. " That, 1 know not nhu," i. e. that 
tometbiiig or other, that leally Teiy unimpaitsnt matler. Compan 
nolB Sl, pagB 63. Tlie lefeience ie to dly, tecbnical Uw-know- 

14. CarUmaaia, gropilaie, jutlUia, fiir. The commoa teit haa 
tbeae all u genitivu, coniinentiai, gTanlatit, jutliliat, fidei. W» 
bavB made the alteration, with Schutz, aflet the luggeation of Lam- 
binuB, In the cmnmon teading, celeTJi omnibut come* in Teij 
■wkwudly, to saj oolbing of tba inelegant foim of eipieeiion ia ' 
ttrlntibtii amlinenttae, itc. 

IG, ^uod quiiem jvt eivile Hiicitli, du, " Ae to youi baTKig 
Uunt, indeed, Ihe ciTil law, I wiU not aay jou have lost youi labaat 
m ao doing.",GoOgk 

105 H- i» »"* HtipliM- "iDaiKtbntichorkiwwleag*." IXaU- 
fHfm » kn» eqnirahnit to ioetritta. Compan Ihe bngiiaga of 
Cicaio, in ■peakiiig of AichmwdM (m Yerr. 4, S8) : " Arcamtdtm 
•Uwn, nmow vv*"*» AoaBMm «t rfin^tpjtiu," i. e. > m>n of tha 
gnstMl Ulent tnA lUHiwledge. 

17. Jfmtem. "Snre." Bf fRnmfa na iimeuit ftpBtbgoaided 
(nxn ill inioed oi intennption &om nitboat, uyi free koni ■!! obats 
eleaeod impedimeiiti wiliun, L e. ■ w^tbtt leedemtlieeituntj to 
Miis objecL 

IS. ^l aiminbilm, &c. " Botb ■ dignitf oicDhted to excite 
^ idmintion of othen, uid ■ ntilitj thit wiH oU iorth their 
■ m me et gntitDde." 

19. Qwu nMf tn tmpcrto, ti fn f tef* cimltti». " 'Hlst are eoo- 
neeled wilh (mi empiie &bn»d, snd wilh tbe condition i^ onr gof- 
e ron tmt tt bome," i. s. both oni ft»«ign conqueata aud onr ciiil 

SO. CmuUia rf perieido. " Bj tbeii wiM eoonwk lad the dw>- 
gert wliieh Ihsj mcoiinter," L e, bj thetr wiadora snd Tikxir. Cott- 
nlio embncM b«lh uliio giren tt home, and ll>e «killn] nuuwge- 
meDt of opentioi» ibioad. 

n. Qaat. Emerti uji that the wordi foite cmuiUa, icc., 6o 
aet humoniie weD, in point of conitrnction, with whal piBcedes, 
•nd he tbeielom thinlu thet juae onght to be ttraeh ont. Hw 
whde difficnllf, bowerei, ia euilj obvialcd by conaidcdng tbe 
eluue &om qvat lo deligetido u puentbeticil, uid we have aecoid- 
inglj inwited the mulii of puentbeiie. — P