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... ix 


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The Toyoe of fhe Last Trumpet 

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Pleasnre and Payne 

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The Way to Wealth 

... 130 

An Informacion and Petioion 

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BoBERT Cbolb, Croleus, Crowldeus, or Crowley, is said to have 
been bom in Gloucestershire, but the place of his birth and the con- 
dition of his parents are alike involved in obscurity. In or about 
the year 1534 he entered the University of Oxford and soon became 
a demy of Magdalene College. In 1542, having taken his degree of 
B.A., he was made a probationer-fellow. In 1549 he commenced 
printing in London, and carded on the business for about three 
years, the latest production of his press bearing date 1551.' His 
printing he carried on in Ely Eents, Holbom, where he earned the 
honour of being the first to print and publish "The Vision of 
William concerning Piers the Plowman," three different impressions 
of which were issued by Crowley in 1550.^ 

But printing did not absorb the whole of Crowley's energies. To 
his labours in disseminating knowledge by means of the press, 
he added the not less important — ^perhaps in his day, when books 
were dear and readers comparatively scarce, the more important — 
work of preaching in London and elsewhere, having been ordained 
a deacon by Kidley on 29th Sep. 1551.^ 

As soon as Mary succeeded to the throne of her brother, Crowley, 
with other English Protestants, retired to Frankfort, where they 
remained till her death rendered it safe for them to return to this 
country. Crowley's popularity as a preacher soon brought him into 
notice. In 1559 he was admitted to the Archdeaconry of Hereford, 

" CJollier, Bib. Cat. i. 489. • Tfie Vuion, etc., ed. Skeat, xxxi. 

' In Bidley*8 register Crowley is styled Stationer of the parish of St 
Andrew, Holbom. Machyn'u Diaryy Camd. See., n. p. 376. 

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and in the following year lie was instituted to the Stall or Prel)end 
of ""Pratum M^'us*' in the Cathedral of that city.^ On the 19th 
October, 1559, and again on the Slst March, 1561, he was the 
Preacher at Paul's Cross, and about this time he was parson of St 
Peter the Poor.* 

In ] 563 he was collated to the prebend of Mora in the Cathedral 
of St Paul, but was deprived in 1565.' In the following year he 
held the Vicarage of St Giles's, Cripplegate, of which ho was deprived 
and prohibited from preaching or ministeiing the Sacraments within 
twenty miles of London. The causes which led to his deprivation 
are found in Abp Parker's Correspondence with Cecil,* from which 
it appears that Crowley and his curate expelled from the church 
divers clerks who were there in their surplices to bury a dead body. 
The clerks alleged that it was the custom, and that ** my Lord of 
London" had commanded them to wear surplices within the 
churches. This gave rise to some tumult, and when Crowley ap- 
peared before Parker to answer for his behaviour, his conduct was 
such that the Archbishop " could do no less" than order him to be 
imprisoned in his own house. The Lord Mayor, too, lodged a com- 
plaint against Crowley, who answered " that he would not suffer the 
wolf" — '' meaning the surplice man" — ^to come to his flock. This 
led to his further committal, and a Mr Bickley was sent to preach 
in his parish. In the further examination of Crowley it appears 
that he quarrelled with the singing men about their '' porters' coats," 
that he said he would set them fast by the feet if they would break 
the peace, that he gave utterance to many "fond paradoxes that 
tended to Anabaptistical opinions, that he would preach until de- 
prived, and that he would be deprived by order of the law." 
"But I dulled his glory," says Parker, who thought the suspen- 
sion and secret prison would prove " some terror." In 1567 he is 
reported to have said that " he would not be persuaded to minister 

' For the dates referring to Hereford, I am indebted to the kindness of 
the Rev. F. P. Havergal of the Oollege, Hereford. To him my best thanks 
are due for his prompt attention to my letters on this subject. 

' ^rich Letters, 2nd Series, 147, n, 6, Park. Soc. See also ]lfachfn*i 
Diary, pp. 216, 229. 

' Lansd. MSS. 982, f. 104. 

* Parker' t Correspondence, Parker Society, pp. 275—278. 

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iNTRODUonoir. xi 

in those conjuring garments of popery," meaning the sniplice, which 
seems to have been the cause of as much bickering three hundred 
years ago as it is now.^ 

During his suspension he was ordered to remain with the Bishop 
of Ely, but after a time he was permitted to return to London for 
twelve days that he might put his household affairs in order, " pro- 
vided always that during the time of his abode in London, he do not 
privily nor publicly preach, read, nor minister the Sacraments,*' ex- 
cept licensed so to do by the Archbishop of Canterbury and the 
Bishop of London. Li 1567 he resigned his Archdeaconry, and in 
the next year (1568) he was succeeded in his prebendal stall in 
Hereford Cathedral by another clerk. On the 5th May, 1576, 
Crowley was collated to the Vicarage of St Lawrence, Jewry,* but 
this he resigned in 1578.^ Li 1580 he was appointed with another 
to confer with the Eomanists confined in the Marshalsea and White 
Lion in Southward One of the prisoners ** pulled a pamphlet out 
of his bosom, read it, and delivered it '* to Crowley to be answered. 
The pamphlet was entitled " Six Beasons set down to show that it 
is no orderly way in controversies of fedth to appeal to be tried only 
by the Scriptures (as the absurd opinion of all the Sectaries is), but 
the Sentence and Definition of the Catholic Church," etc. To this 
" I drew up," says Crowley, " an answer now published the 6th of 
January," 1580-1, entitled "An Answer to Six Beasons," etc.^ 

A Puritan of the narrowest school, he was constantly engaged in 
controversies upon religious matters, and his zeal in this respect 
must have been a sore trial to the Bishops. *' His pulpit and his 
press," says Warton,* " those two prolific sources of faction, happily 
co-operated in propagating his principles of predestination : and his 
shop and his sermons were alike frequented. Possessed of those 
talents which qualified him for captivating the attention and moving 
the passions of the multitude, under Queen Elizabeth he held many 

' Remains of Abp OrindaL Parker Society, p. 211. 

* Lansd. MSS. 982, f. 104. 

• T. Corser, Collect. Ang, Poet,, pt iv. p. 640. 
' Lansd. MSS. 982, f . 104. 

' HUt. Bng, Poet,, iii. 187. But Warton was not quite right, for it seems 
Crowley left off printing about the time of his ordination. 

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dignitieB in a CliQich whose doctrines and polity his undiscemiiig 
zeal had a tendency to destroy." He seems to have preached any- 
where, nnder any circumstances ; at one time hefore Bonner^s prison 
door, when the haughty prelate was confined in the Mar&halsea,' at 
other times at Paul's Cross, as we have seen above ; now to a " grett 
audyens " at a funeral, and soon after at Bow on occasion of the 
marriage of ^* Master Starke to the dowthur of Master Allen.*'* He 
closed his long and active but stormy career in 1588, when about 
70 years of age, and was buried in the church of St Giles,' Cripple- 
gate, of which, two and twenty years before, he had been vicar. 

For farther particulars of Crowley and references to him and his 
works, the reader may consult Lansd. MSS. 9 ff. 157 — 162; lb. 
982, ff. 94, 104 ; Wriiinga of Bradford, Parker Society, iL 207, n. 3 ; 
Tyndal^B Answer to Mare, etc., Parker Society, p. 220; FvlMa 
Answers, Parker Society, p. 3 ; Strype's Ecdes. Mem. ii pt 2, pp. 
465 — 472; Wood's AtJienoi Oxon.; Warton's Hist, Eng. Poetry; 
Tanner's Bihliotheca, p. 210 ; Herbert's Ames, p. 757 ; Collier's Bib, 
Cat. I 489 ; Skeafs Intro, to the V. of P. the Plowman; W. Carew 
Hazlitt's Hand-Book ; and Corser's Collectanea Anglo-Poetica, pt iv. 

To give a mere outline of the numerous Pamphlets, Sermons, 
Answers, &c., which came horn, Crowley's pen would occupy more 
space than I have at my command, and more time than I should 
care to give. Those who are desirous to know more than this 
brief Introduction contains will find their labours somewhat lightened 
by the references to books given above. 

The Five Tracts printed in this volume are thought to be the 
most interesting as they are the most valuable, historically speaking, 
of the old Puritan's writings. Laying aside, as much as such a man 
could lay aside, his controversial nature in these, he deals with the 
faults, the weaknesses, the trials, the wrongs, the foolishnesses of his 
countrymen, and causes the different classes of men to stand and live 
before ua 

' T. Coraer, CoUect, Ang. Poet,, pt iv. p. 540. 
* See Machyn't Diary, Camd. See. pp. 269, 278, 295, 311. 
' HiB Epitaph la given in Bibdin's Herbert^s Ametf iv. 826, note — 
** Here lieth the body of Robert Crowley Clerk, yicar of this Pariah, who 
departed this Life the 18th dale of June Anno Bni. 1588.*' 

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Taking these tracts in the order in which they stand in this 
Yolmne we have — 

(1.) One and Thyrtie Epigrammes, wherein are hryefly touched 
80 many Abuses thai maye and ought to be put away. 1560. 

These Epigrams were thought to be lost. Even the indefiEitigable 
W. Carew Hazlitt did not know of a copy, and they were chiefly re- 
membered from fifteen quoted by Strype.* But Mr FumiYall was 
fortunate enough to discover a copy in the Cambridge University 
Library.^ This is the only copy which is known to be in existence. 

Why " one and thirty " it is difi&cult to say, as there are " three 
and thirty" in addition to "The Boke to the Eeader." First the 
Abbeys come under notice, and the writer could not fail to see what 
an opportunity had been lost for restoring them to their original 
purposes as fountains of learning and of relief to the poor and needy. 
We all know how Henry laid his iron grasp on the property of the 
Beligious £[ouses, and how he was encouraged in his evil designs by 
the crowd of sycophants who hoped, and not in vain, that some of 
the crumbs which fell from him might drop into their laps. The 
simple people, encouraged with the prospect of seeing better days, 
acquiesced in the spoliation, and saw, when too late, how they had 
been deprived of their birthright without the poor consolation of the 
" mess of pottage " which is usually the reward of men who barter 
away that which their fathers have painfully gained.' The poor ex- 
pected to profit by the suppression of the Abbeys, but how their 
hopes were dashed has been already pointed out.^ 

The alleys of two kinds, the bowling alleys and the alleys in 
which the hordes of miserable wretches, driven from their homes in 

* JEco. Mem, it pt 2, p. 465—472. The fifteen quoted by Strype are those 
oommencing on pages 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, 14, 17, 20, 27, 33, 43, 46, 47, 48, and 49. 

* The proofs have been read with the origmal by Mr I>. Hall of Cam- 

> For valuable information on the purposes of endowments the reader is 
referred to Mr Toulmin Smith's The Parith, 2nd ed. 1867, pp. 28, 30, 96, 697 
— 604. For directing my attention to this work, and for the loan of a copy, 
as well as for other valuable aid, I have to tender my best thanks to Miss 
Lacy Toulmin Smith. 

* See A Supplication of the Poore Commons in "Four Supplications," ed. 
FumiyaU and Cowper, pp. 79, 80 ; Weatminster Beview, No. Ixxvii, January, 
1871, p. 101 ; and the Complaint of Roderyek 3fors, to be edited for this 

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the country to beg their daily bread in London, sheltered themselves 
at night, present a picture of London life not yet extinct Then it 
must have been horrible. It is curious to notice how long it takes 
to remove what all men are willing to acknowledge abuses. The 
streets of London at that time were little better, perhaps no better, 
than narrow lanes, undrained, often unpaved, unlighted, and the 
nightly receptacles of filth of all kinds. Now our streets are better. 
We strike out a new street through the most densely populated dis- 
tricts, such as Tothill Fields, Westminster, and we build a row of 
magnificent houses on each side. We let in the lights but do we 
care to follow with our eyes the darkness which has been made more 
dark 1 Do we care to inquire what becomes of the thousands who, 
thronging the district before, are now compelled to huddle more 
closely than ever, inasmuch as, while their numbers are ever on the 
increase, the space allowed for them is diminished 1 Until we pro- 
vide homes for the poor who are to be unhoused, before we make 
these gigantic improvements, we are far £rom acting up to our con- 
victions and our knowledge.* 

But moralizing is not our duty — ^we can see with our own eyes 
the bawds, the beggars, honest and dishonest ; the swearers we can 
hear, the drunkards, the liars, the gamblers, the flatterers, the fools, 
the godless, the idle — ^many £rom necessity, not a few £rom choice ; 
the '' inventors of strange news," the men who hold divers offices — 
the " double-beneficed men," who, in our day, are not so often found 
in the ranks of the clergy as they are in the ranks of the army, where 
nothing seems more common than " double benefices," one civil, the 
other military ; the " nice " women with their hair dyed and laid out 
in " tussocks as big as a ball ; " the vain writers, the vain talkers, and 
vain hearers, how they all stand forth in our own day, more refined, 
changed in dress, changed in manners, but how like ! Are we much 
better than those whom Crowley sketched upwards of three hundred 
years ago 1 Let the reader read and judge.' 

(2.) The Voyce of the Last Trumpet .... caUyng al eefats of 

' See DOte, p. xzi7. 

* For the condition of Scotland about this time refer to Mr FumiyairB 
Preface to The Minor Poem$ cf William Lattder, B. E. T. a, 1870. 

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men to the rygJd path of theyr vocation^ etc., printed in 1650, is a 
kind of metrical sermon containing twelve lessons addressed *' to 
twelve several estates of men." "Wood* says, "The said [John] 
Plough also wrote . . . The Sound of the Doleful Trumpet" — ^but 
when or where it was printed " I cannot tell, for I have not seen" it. 
I do not find the name of Plough in Bohn's Lowndes. The title 
given by "Wood sounds very much like our "Voice of the Last 

The unique copy which we have used was kindly placed at the 
disposal of the E. E. T. S. by Mr F. S. EUis, of 33, Bang Street, 
Covent Garden, in whose possession it was, but it has since been 
purchased for the British Museum. The edges have been cut and 
many of the references to texts of Holy Writ destroyed. These I 
have supplied as nearly as I could, denoting letters and numerals so 
supplied by placing them in brackets. Sometimes the reader may 
doubt the accuracy of my references, and I shall not be surprised, for 
I am by no means convinced that I have given those which were 
lost The vagueness of some of them, and the fact that they were 
taken firom an early version of the Bible, rendered the task by no 
means an easy one. 

In the " Book to the Eeader " Crowley confesses that though he 
barks at the faults of men, he is unwilling to bite if he can accom- 
plish any good by barking. The aim of the Sermon is to inculcate 
a spirit of obedience and submission in those who are under subjec- 
tion, on the principle that " whatever is, is best" In the Epigram 
on Beggars (p. 14) he would make the lazy work, and he exposes some 
of their tricks, but here he seems only to deal with those who were 
beggars by compulsion. There is something of the ludicrous in the 
tone he assumes towards these poor creatures, but there is no reason 
to think he was " chafi&ng " them : — 

" Thus leave I thee in thy calling. 
Exhorting thee therein to stand ; 
And doubtless at thy last ending 
Thou shalt be crowned at God's hand." — (p. 59.) 

The same spirit pervades the Servant's Lesson (p. 59) and the 

» Athena Oxon^ fo!. 126. 

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Teoman's (p. 63). They are to bear all, to do all, and to possess 
their souls in patience, looking for no change in this world, unless 
one for the worse 1 The servant who is '^sturdy and does his 
service with grudging" is promised scourging, drudgery, slavery, and, 
if he runs away, a worse master than the one he has left. Crowley's 
advice is excellent, but in the then condition of things '^ flesh and 
blood,** it is to be feared, often rebelled against it. 

The yeoman is to " plow, plant, and sow ;*' to beware of even 
the wish to rise ; to be charitable and contented. If he dared to 
hoard up riches, God's wrath was threatened. Hardest of all, if his 
landlord raised his rent (and how universal the practice !) he was 
eiijoined to pay it, and to pray for his oppressor ! The doctrine of 
absolute submission is taught in all its ugly deformiiy, with the ad- 
dition of the divine right of kings. 

The unlearned priest (p. 70) is severely handled for his ignorance, 
his immorality, and his false doctrine. The wide-spread hope that 
the Mass would be restored is referred to— 

*' Put not the ignorant in hope. 
That they shfJl see all up again 
That hath been brought in by the Pope, 
And all the preachers put to pain." 

Yet three short years saw ''all up again," and the preachers not only 
put to pain, but Crowley himself fleeing for his life, and '' putting 
the sea between " him and his Queen. But there is one gem of 
advice, applicable not merely to the unlearned priests of Crowley's 
time, but to learned and unlearned of all times — 

^ Be ever doing what thou can. 
Teaching or learning some good thing. 
And then, like a good Christian, 
Thou dost walk forth in thy calling." 

The Scholar's Lesson is interesting as giving a glimpse of that 
muscular education which, as a nation, we are only now beginning to 
learn afresh. The scholar was to '' recreate his mind " by fishing, 
fowling, hunting, hawking ; while trials of strength, skill, speed — 
still to recreate the mind — ^were to be made in shooting, bowling, 
casting the bar, tennis, tossing the ball, and running base like men 

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of war* (p. 73). The whole lesson contains good advice and is quite 
worthy of its author. 

Learned men, it appears, were not faultless. It is implied that 
they lived dissolutely and needed amendment of life as much as 
others. They seem to have had failings in the matters of dress, 
usury, and simony. This Learned Man's Lesson applies to clergy 
and laity alike. 

The physician is severely dealt with. Covetous of gain and 

ignorant, he neglected the poor for the sake of the rich. A quarter 

of a century later, in Netoes oui of Powles Ckurchyarde, there was 

ground for similar charges. In the Newes the physicians are ranked 

next to the lawyers, and 

" Vnguentum Aureum^ or suchlyke,"* 

was required to make them hasten to see their patients. They gained 

money, but no man knew how they spent it, and no man heard of 

any good deeds that they did. The Lawyer here follows the physician 

— generally where any ill was to be said, the lawyer took the lion's 

share, or, at all events, an equal share with the clergy. Crowley in 

this lesson taxes them with an insatiable greed, with bawling Uke 

beasts, and warns them to assist the poor as well as the rich, to fear 

no man's power, to do justice to all men, to show no favour. The 

old charges of bribery are brought against them in the Netoes out of 

Pcnoles^ and in the Timeif Whistle* but in these two works we get 

a redeeming feature : all are not corrupt : — 

" I know, friend Bertiilph, some there be 
Whose hands regard no meed. 
Whose hearts dye no deceit at all, 
From whom no harms proceed. 

' Henry VIII., it is said, after his accession to the throne retained the 
casting of the bar among his favourite amusementA. At the commencement 
of the seventeenth century such athletic games were by no means ** beseem- 
ing of nobility." 

Base, or Prisoners* Bars, a game, success in which depended upon the 
agility and skill in running. The game is still known in Kent under the name 
of Prisoners' Base. In the reign of Edward IIL it was prohibited to be playe<l 
in the avenues of Westminster Palace. A game exceedingly popular amoug 
the young men of this part of Kent, and known as ** Ck>al Running," seems 
to be a modification of the ancient game of Base. For further information, 
see Strutt*8 Sports and Pastiniei, 

» ^rewes out of Ponies, &c., Sat 3 (1676). • Sat 2. * p. 42. 

•ift CROWLET. h 


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xvm UffTRODUCTioir. 

And sure I am when cause of troth 
Before such men is tried, 
With simple troth they justice yield 
And justly do decide."* 

And the Time^ Whistle: 

" And you, wAtch should true equity dispense, 
Yet bear a gold-corropted conscience, 
Looke for some plague vpon yowr heads to light. 
That suffer rich wrong to oppresse poore right. 
All lawyers I cannot heerof accuse. 
For some there are that doe a conscience vse 
In their profession. This ot^r land containes 
Some in whose heart devine Astrsea raignes. 
To these, whose vertue keeps our land in peace, 
I wish all good, all happines encrease. 
Go forward then, and with impartiall hands 
Hold iustice ballance in faire Albians lands." ^ 

The Merchant, the Gentleman, and the Magistrate come next in 
order, the shortcomings of each being pointed out, and the results of 
their wrong-doing laid before us. 

The Woman's Lesson comes last It is the old, old story — they 
would talk, dress, dye their hair, paint their faces ; they ought to be 
modest, obedient, industrious, and to see that their children were 
well brought up, and their servants cared for. 

(3.) Pleasure and Payize, etc., is dedicated to Lady Dame 
Elizabeth Fane, wife of Sir Ealph Fane, Knight,^ and from this 
dedication we learn that Crowley's object in writing this was to 
cause men " to stay at the least way, and not proceed any further in 
the inventing of new ways to oppress the poor of this realm, whose 
oppression doth already cry unto the Lord for vengeance" (p. 108). 

My attention was drawn to this ** excessively rare metrical tract" 
by the mention of it in the Collectanea Anglo-Poetica of Mr Corser, 
who was in possession of a copy. Our reprint is taken from a copy 

' Ifewes out of Porvles, ko^ Sat. 2. 

' p. 60. For more on lawyers and bribeiy see my Preface to England in 
the Reign of Henry VIIL^ pp. oxv.— cxviii. 

' A & Balph Fane, knight banneret, is mentioned in the Patent Rolls of 
Edward YL Crowley was the first Englishman who versified the whole 
Psalter. In this work he may have been assisted by Lady Elizabeth Fane, 
for in Dibdin's Typ, Ant. iv. 831 n., mention is made of the Lady Elizabeth 
Fane's 21 Piahnt and 102 Proyerbs. See note, p. zzyiii. 

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in the Bodleian Library.' It has been found more convenient to 
print two lines in one tban to follow the original, which runs — 

"When Christ shall come 
to iuge Ys all, 
His Fathers frendis 
then will he calL" 

This alteration of the lines and the revision of the punctuation and 
the use of capitals are the only liberties which have been taken with 
the Bodleian copy. And here it may be remarked that, as far as 
punctuation and the use of capitals are concerned, an endeavour has 
been made to conform to modem use in the whole of these tracts.^ 

There is no necessity to enter into any detailed account of sub- 
jects dealt with in this tract. The reader who cares to know, and 
once begins to read it, will not lay it down until he has finished the 

(4.) The Way to Wealth, toherein is plainly taught a most pre- 
sent Remedy for Sedieion,^ is the most important of Crowley's works, 
inasmuch as it enters more deeply into the causes which led to the 
disturbances in Edward's days, and the means by which the con- 
dition of the poor might be ameliorated — ^it " holds the candle " to 
the men who had the power and the will to root up " the stinking 
weed of Sedition," which was rapidly spreading its poisonous in- 
fluences over the land. 

It is needless here to go over the history of the country during 
the twenty years which preceded the appearance of the Way to 
Wealth (1530 — 1650). The suppression of the abbeys, the casting 
loose upon the countiy— often homeless and almost always Mendless 
— ^the men and women who by their education and living were un- 
fitted to cope with the outer world and earn their daily bread ; the 
grievous disappointment of the many who hoped for some other and 
better relief than they had obtained from the monks; the cruel 
spirit of oppression which took possession of the men who reaped 

* Mr 0. Parker read the proofe with the original. 

* This modernizing of the punctuation and the making the use of capital 
letters uniform are the only things to be desired in Kr Arbor's most valuable 

* From the Bodleian copy. The proofs were read with the original by Mr 
G. Parker. 

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the adyantage of the change from the old oider of things ; — all these 
may be seen bj a reference to books which are in the hands of the 
readers of these " Texts," and Mr Fumivall's Ballads from Manu- 
scripts.^ Still those who have read so far will do well to read with 
increased care this passionate appeal of the old Puritan, who stands 
up and boldly rebukes the wrong-doer ; whether he be the king on 
his throne, or the beggar dying by the wayside of hunger, and disease, 
and neglect. The feurmers, the graziers, the butchers, the lawyers, 
the merchants, the gentlemen, the knights, the lords — all who lived 
as " cormorants and guUs," by the plunder and oppression of the 
poor and needy — are here called to account, and have their misdeeds 
placed before them, and the charges which were commonly made 
against them by the suffering poor proclaimed in powerful language. 
That Crowley pitied these men, and longed to improve their con- 
dition is beyond doubt. But he could see and had the courage to 

' ''It has been already shown that an essential and principal part of 
the first bestowal and purpose of those endowments which have now become 
entirely diverted to ecclesiastical purposes, or engrossed by lay impropriators, 
was the relief of the poor. The task of that relief was thus made a local one ; 
and it was committed in each place to those who had the two counter checks 
continually present, of self-interest not to promote or yield to extravagance, 
and of the continual liability to be presented, by those not then < excused,' 
for unfaithfulness, if they neglected what true need required. 

" Under cover of the * Reformation,' Henry Vni. got to himself a vast 
proportion of what was thus expressly given in trust for the poor. He got it 
under false pretences [quotes Coke, 4th Inst p. 44]. He gave it to his favourites, 
in breach of honour, honesty, and his pledged faith. This monstrous pillage 
of the poor, and gross fraud upon the nation, produced an immediate effect 
The real and deserving poor, robbed of what was thus from of old set apart to 
meet their true needs, were flung upon society. Vagrancy had thus every- 
where a colourable excuse given to it, and soon largely increased. Instead of 
the true remedy being applied, and a part of whatMd been wrongfully mis- 
appropriated being restored, a new burthen was cast upon the country for the 
support of the poor as a class. Thenceforth 'pauperism* became a caste in 

'* It is not surprising that, xmder the anomalous state of things thus arising, 
anomalies were created in the endeavour to meet it Acts distinguished by 
their attempts to keep down the natural fruits of such wrong-doing by force, 
terror, and barbarity, were passed, altered, and repealed. It was attempted 
— ^however paradoxical it may sound — ^to enforce voluntary alms. Almost the 
only provision that can be said to be marked by wisdom, is one found in an 
Act of 27 Henry Yin. cap. 25, which forbad the giving of alms iu money, ex- 
cept to the common fund, or ' Stock,' of the parish or other place. In the 
same Act is found the first suggestion as to Overseers," kc^ ko, — The Parithy 
by Toulmin Smith, 2nd edition, p. 144, 145. 

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declare that, though oppressed and trodden underfoot, they were 
not firee from blame, and he endeavours to soothe their rebelliou? 
spirits by reasoning with them and arguing with them, and showing 
them that their open resistance to authority only put a whip into the 
hands of the rich who sought excuses for their evil deeds. 

ITot only were the poor commons pilled and polled by the rich 
laity, but, worst of all, the reformed clergy, the bishops, deans, arch- 
deacons, canons, parsons, and vicars were intent upon grasping all 
the wealth within their reach. They ate the fat and decked them- 
selves with the wool, but the simple sheep were left untended and 
imfed in the wilderness. The sorrowful and sad were left uncom- 
forted, the sick unhealed, the broken not bound up, the wanderers 
unrestored. Churchmen were busy, but it was in obtaining lands 
for their heirs and fine-fingered ladies, who were clothed in "fine 
frocks and French hoods," but were naked " of al pointes of honest 
housewifery." Things were bad enough before the Reformation, and 
it is no consolation to say so, but surely they must have appeared 
worse after it, when men had the Bible in their own hands, and 
were unable to lay all the odium at the door of " the Pope and his 
shavelings." Eeligion and the Bible were not to blame for this state 
of things. Men by a violent effort had shaken off the yoke, and, 
being free, were ignorant how to use their freedom to the common 
advantage, and so they used it in oppression and wrong. It had 
been so before, and it has been so since. The oppressed set free is 
apt to become the oppressor. 

Crowley taxes the curates with having "been the stirrers-up of 
the simple people in the late tumults," a not unlikely charge to be 
brought against a body of men who by their virtues and learning 
had not yet won the esteem of their countrymen. Nor was it un- 
likely that they did so. The Church, wisely or unwisely, has often 
had the courage to enter its protest against the oppressions of the 
mighty, but in this case caution is necessary in accepting the charge 
as true. Such abject submission as Crowley taught, has, luckily for 
us, not been common among our religious teachers; if it had our 
bondage might have been worse than Egyptian. 

The whole is a masterly discourse, and will be read with much 

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interest as a sketch made by an eye-witness of the condition of 
things described in it 

(5.) An In/ormadon and PeHcion agaynst the oppreasoura of the 
pore Commom of this Realme is a Petition to the Parliament of 
Edward VL Of the many subjects which will have to be discussed, 
Crowley can see none demanding speedier attention than the oppres- 
sions under which the " pore commones" groaned, clergy and laity 
uniting to inflict the most cruel wrongs. Beligious matters too de- 
manded redress, because, while the people were ignorant and super- 
stitious, the clergy were more apt to play the butcher than the shep- 
herd. They abused the rites and sacraments of the Church, using 
them as matters of merchandise, the clergy of London setting the 

The possessioners, leasemongers, and landlords, ^'making the 
uttermost penny of all their grounds," exacting unreasonable lines, 
and racking their rents, receive scant mercy at Crowley's hands. It 
was a time for plain speaking even in the churches, as the following 
extract from "The Prayer for Landlords," in one of Edward's 
Lituigies, will show : — 

"We heartily pray Thee that they (who possess the grounds, 
pastures, and dwelling-places of the earth) may not rack and stretch 
out the rents of their houses and lands, nor yet take unreasonable 
fines and incomes after the maimer of covetous worldlings, but so let 
them out to others that the inhabitants thereof may both be able to 
pay the rents and also honestly to live, to nourish their families, and 
to relieve the poor. . . . Give them grace also that they may be 
content with that that is sufficient, and not join house to house nor 
couple land to land to the impoverishment of other, but so behave 
themselves in letting out their tenements, lands, and pastures, that 
afber this life they may be received into everlasting dwelling-places." 

The mischiefis which flowed out of "this more than Turkish 
tyranny " are graphically described. The honest householders re- 
duced to the condition of menials ; the honest matrons to the " needy 
rock and cards ; " the men children of good hope, driven to handy- 
crafts and day labour ; the chaste virgins, to marry perpetual poverty, 
the immodest to Bankside, the stubborn, after a life of crime and 
misery, to the gallows ; the universal destruction which " chances to 
this noble realm ! " 

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iNTRODncnoN. xxiii 

In conclusion, I wish to express my thankfulness that it has 
fallen to my lot to prepare these Eeformation Tracts for the press, 
however unworthily I may have performed my task. Often dis- 
agreeing with the writers, often doubting the truthfulness of the 
charges brought by foes against foes, I have learnt to receive alike 
with caution the glowing accounts given by some of the condition of 
the people, and the crimes and neglect laid at the door of the 
vanquished by the successful Robbery and recrimination were all 
too common. The State plundered the Church, taxing it with every 
conceivable crime ; the rich plundered the poor, charging them with 
harbourmg seditious designs; the Puritan taxed the papist with 
idleness, ignorance, and immorality, and when he had gained his 
churches and his tithes, proceeded to open the doors to " seven other 
spirits," each of which was worse than the one driven out ; and the 
poor man, plundered by all, and suffering £rom the divisions and 
quarrels of the classes above him, endured in his own body all the 
calamities which could befall a man. The times are times we should 
study, not envy ; and if now and again we feel a tingle of shame in 
our cheeks at what our Protestant forefathers were guilty of in their 
gigantic work, we may ask ourselves whether, if the task fell to our 
lot, with all our intelligence and all our enlightenment and aU our 
science, we should have been likely to do it better. They did what 
they could — imperfectly, with motives and by means which will not 
always bear examination. Let us be thankful, and do the part which 
remains to us. 


Davington HUl, Faversham, 1871. 

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Sunday drinJcing^ &o., page' 9. " What should I tell men in manye 
words, that which al men see & feele in continual Sl lamentable experi- 
ence. Go to alehouses on the Saboth dates, there is as well sold all 
kinde of loosenesse as vitayles. Go to Greenes, there is myrth that 
would wounde a Christian mans heart with heauinesse. Goe to Fayres, 
there is a shewe and traffike, as well of all lewdnesse, as of wares. Tea, 
goe to all other places, both in City and countrey, and what shall yon 
see, but so many euils that prouoke Gk>d, to the powryng forth of most 
fearefull iudgements, the Theaters, Parish garden, Tauemes, streetes, 
fieldesy all full and prophanely occupied, and this chiefly on the Saboth 
day." — The VnhwfvU PractUea Of Prelates Agoinsi Godly Ministers^ 
&c., sig. B. 3y back, ab. 1584. There is a copy of this small work in 
the Canterbury Cathedral Library, Shelf Mk. Z. 9. 28. 

Homee qf the Poor^ pp. xiv., 10. The following " cuttings" from the 
Standard of April 6 and 7, 1871, are worth preserving. It is only fair 
to add that " official explanations proved " that the man had no griev- 
ance whatever ! 


"Attempted Suicide through the Stringent City Police Re- 
gulations. — Mary Ann Folkard, the wife of one of the City police-con- 
stables, was charged before Sir Thomas Gabriel with attempting to 
commit suicide by endeavouring to throw herself from PauFs Wharf into 
the river.' 

" Bir Alfred Oxley said he lived at 49, Gloucester-street, St John's- 
road, Hoxton, and about hali^past one o'clock the previous day he saw 
the prisoner on Paul's Wharf trying to get away from her daughter so 
that she might throw herself into the river. He assisted in stopping 
her, and gave her into custody. At the station she said that she was 
not drunk, she knew what she was about, and that it was her intention 
to commit the act. 

" Sir Thomas Gabriel asked her why she did it. 

" The Prisoner (a very respectable-looking woman) said she would 
not have done it if she had had a home to go to. 

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'* Folkard, the hnsband of the prisoner, was called forward, and. In 
reply to Sir Thomas Gabriel, said that his wife was a most sober, steady 
industrioas woman, and had never made any attempt on her life before. 
The reason she had done so now was, because they could not find a 
home to go to. By the City police regulations they were bound to live 
within the City boundary, and in consequence of the many poor houses 
that had been pulled down for railways and improvements they were 
not able to find a place to live in. He first took a place that was not 
fit for a dog to live in, until he got a house, and he stayed in that until 
the roof was taken off and the dust from the ceiling fell on their heads 
and compelled them to leave. The only place he could find was a large 
warehouse, where he and his family were permitted to live, and it was 
that, he believed, that had turned his wife*s brain. To his knowledge 
four other constables were in the same condition as himself. 

^ Sir Thomas Gabriel said it was a very foolish thing of her to do^ 
because if she had no lodging to-day she might have one to-morrow. 

" Folkard said that was their difficulty ; they could not get lodgings 
in the City. 

" Sir Thomas Gabriel said — Then why not live out of it ? 

^ Folkard replied that the police regulations would not let them live 
out of it 

^ Sir Thomas Gabriel asked if he had made any representation of 
that to the Commissioner of Police. 

" Mr Martin, the chief clerk, said they had not, for the policemen 
were afraid to make any representation. 

'* Sir Thomas Gabriel said he thought there ought to be some repre- 
sentation made to the police authorities, and he should see to it. Could 
they not live in those model lodging-houses ? 

'* Mr Martin thought they were all outside the City, and appealed to 
Inspector Foulger on that point. 

" Inspector Foulger said they were. 

^ Sir Thomas Gabriel said — But surely some accommodation should 
be got for these men. He asked Inspector Foulger what objection there 
could be to the men living, for instance, in the model lodging-houses in 
the Farringdon-road ? 

" Inspector Foulger said they were outside the City, and the regula- 
tions of the force did not permit them to live outside the City. 

" Sir Thomas Gabriel asked whether they had not accommodation 
for the men within the City. 

" Inspector Foulger replied that the number of houses that had been 
pulled down had rendered it very difficult for the officers to find accom- 
modation for themselves, their wives, and families. 

" Sir Thomas Gabriel said it was a pity they were not allowed to 
live out of the City. 

'^ Inspector Foulger said that all round the City boundary there was 
ample accommodation for the men if they were permitted to avail them- 
selves of it, and in many instances they would be able to live nearer to 

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their duty tlian they were at present For instance, a man living near 
Temple Bar might have to be on duty on Tower-hill, and, if permitted, 
might live just outside the boundary, within a few minutes' walk of his 

" Sir Thomas Gabriel asked Folkard if he would take his wife home 
and take care of her. 

" Folkard said he would take her home, but as he had his duty to 
perform he could not take more care of her thau he had done. She was 
a very g^od wife and mother. 

" Sir Thomas Gabriel asked her if she would promise not to attempt 
to destroy herself again. 

" The Prisoner said she woujd not if she had a home to go to. 

** Sir Thomas Gabriel said he could not let her go while she was in 
that state of mind, and appealed to Inspector Foulger as to whether a 
home could not be got for her. 

" Inspector Foulger said that plenty could be got for her outside the 
City, but they were not permitted to take them on account of the police 

<* Sir Thomas Gabriel said he should remand the prisoner, and in 
the mean time communicate with Colonel Fraser, to see what could be 
done, in order to allow the police proper accommodation. 

'* The Prisoner was then remanded." 

^ As strange a story perhaps as was ever related in that great rival 
to works of melodramatic fiction, a police court, was narrated on Wed- 
nesday at Guildhall. The wife of a City police constable was charged 
before Alderman Sir Thomas Gabriel with attempting to commit suicide 
by flinging herself into the river from Paul's Wharf ; and it was with 
difficulty that she had been rescued. When asked her motive for the 
desperate act, she replied that she would not have tried to kill herself if 
she had possessed a home to go to. Her husband told the Alderman 
that she was a sober, steady, and industrious woman, and had never 
before attempted suicide ; but she had been reduced to despair through 
the want of a home. By the City police regulations the constables are 
bound to teside within the civic bonndariesi, and, according to the 
prisoner's husband, so many houses of the poorer class have been pulled 
down for railway and street improvements that the married policemen 
were quite unable to find such tenements as they could afford to rent 
This man had first found a place ' not fit for a dog ; * next he got into 
a house and stayed there until the roof was taken off and the hovel 
filled with dust and cinders from the railway ; and then he and his 
fkmily took shelter in a deserted warehouse. There were four other 
constables, he said, in a similarly homeless condition. * Why not live 
out of the City ? ' asked logical Sir Thomas Gabriel. * Because the 
police regulations will not allow as to do so,' replied the equally logical 
constable; and his statement seems to have been confinned by Mr 
Martin, the chief clerk, who added that the constables were afraid to 

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NOTES. xxvii 

make any representations of their grievances to the Commissioner of the 
City PoHce. There were model lodging-houses in plenty available as 
residences for policemen and their families ; but they were beyond the 
City boundaries. Inspector Foulger, a very well-known and deserving 
officer of the City Police, spoke even more strongly as to the sad plight 
of the homeless constables. The Alderman asked the woman if she 
would promise not to attempt to kill herself again, but she only replied 
conditionally, * that she would not do so again if she had a home to go 
to.' At last, as it seemed, fairly puzzled, Sir Thomas remanded the 
prisoner, saying that in the mean time he would communicate with 
Colonel Fraser to see what could be done in order to allow the police 
proper accommodation. Until we hear what Colonel Fraser has said to 
Sir Thomas Gabriel, and how this wonderful Qordian knot of Blue Tape 
is to be cut or unravelled, it would be difficult to fix upon the right 
moral of this truly strange tale." 

Porta Garden^ p. 17. The place where the bears were kept and 
baited. It was so named because Robert de Paris had a house and 
garden there in the time of Bich. II., who ordered the butchers to pur- 
chase the garden that their refuse might be placed there. Paris Garden 
seems to have been first used for bear baiting in the time of Henry 
VUI. In 1583 a fearful accident happened there on a Sunday, when 
the stage fell, killing and wounding great numbers. A detailed account 
of this accident is given in the Anaiomie of Abuser (p. 211) and several 
contemporary writers. See Halliweirs Arch, Diet., Collier^s Annah of 
the Stage, and the Diary of Dr Dee, 

Swearing, pp. 18, 19. "They (the English) are also inconstant, 
arrogant, vain-glorious, hanghty-minded, and above all things inclined 
to swearing, insomuch as if they speak but three or four words, yet 
must they needs be interlaced with a bloody oath or two." — Anaiomie 
of Abuses, 1836, p. 147. For a later view of this detestable habit see 
Times* Whistle, p. 24. 

Wool, Tin, and Lead wrought within the realm, p. 38. For much in- 
formation on imports and exports and suggestions for improving trade, 
and through it the condition of the people, see England in the Reign of 
Heanry VIII, 

Painting Faces, p. 44. " The women of Ailgna (many of them) use 
to colour their faces with certain oils, liquors, unguents, and waters 
made to that end, whereby they think their beauty is greatly decored." 
—AnaUmie of Abuses, 1836, p. 65. See also The Times' Whistle, pp. 

Dress, pp. 44, 45. In the " Epistle Dedicatorie " to the Anaiomie 
of Abuses, the evils of the author's days are thus briefly touched upon : 
" For as your Lordship knoweth, reformation of manners and amend- 
ment of life was never more needful ; for was pride (the chiefest argu- 
ment of this book) ever so ripe ? Do not both men and women (for the 
most part) every one in general, go attired in silks, velvets, damasks, 
satins, and what not? Which are attire only for the nobility and 

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gentry, and not for the other at any hand. Are Dot unlawful games, 
plays, interludes, and the like, everywhere frequented ? Is not whore- 
dom, coYetousness, usury, and the like, daily practised without all 
punishment of law or execution of justice?" p. xi. 

In the Anatomie, p. 17, it is said, ** Now there is such a confuse 
mingle mangle of apparel in Ailgna (Anglia), and such preposterous 
excess thereof as every one is permitted to flaunt it out in what apparel 
he lusteth himself, or can get by any kind of means. So that it is very 
hard to know who is noble, who is worshipful, who is a gentleman, who 
is not** See also Four SuffpUcationSf and JEngland in the Beign of Henry 
VIIL, pp. clxxiv., 89, 90. 

Itent-raiserSy pp. xx^ 46, 

'* The landlord is a thief that racks his rents 
And mounts the price of rotten tenements, 
Almost unto a damned double rate. 
And such a tliief as that* myself had late." 

Taylor's Works, folio, 280, and note. 

Lawyers, p. 82 ; Judges, p. 84. Consult The Utopia, Ballads from 
MSS, England in the Reign of Henry VIII., Latimer's Sermons, Neioes 
out of Powles Churchy arde, Ac, on these topics. 

Lady Elizabeth Fane, pp. xvL, 107. Lady Elizabeth Fane's Psalms 
and Proverbs were printed and published by Bobert Crowley. Some- 
times the name appears as Vane. She has been supposed to be the wife 
of the Sir Ralph Vane who was hung ia 1551-2 as one of the principal 
adherents of the Duke of Somerset She died * at Holbume ' and was 
buried at St Andrew's, Holbom, on the 11th June 1568. For letters ad- 
dressed to her by John Bradford, see Foxe, edit. 1631, iii. pp. 331, 332, 
339. See also Narratives of the Reformation, Camb. Soc, 1859, pp. 93, 
94, 346. For further references consult the General Index to the 
Parker Society's Publications. 

Poor in London, p. 116. "There is a certain city in Ailgna' called 
MunidnoP where as the poor lie in the streets upon pallets of straw, and 
well if they have that too, or else in the mire and dirt as commonly it 
is seen, having neither house to put in their heads, covering to keep 
them from cold, nor yet to hide their shame withal, penny to buy them 
sustenance, nor any thing else, but are suffered to die in the streets like 
dogs or beasts, without any mercy or compassion showed to them at 
all** — Anatomie of Abuses, 1836, p. 50. Three hundred years have not 
remedied matters. The following are from the Standard of June 10 and 
June 28, 1871 :— 


" LiFB IN London. — James Liniott, a ragged, shoeless young urchin 
of about 13, with long matted hair, and with hands and features almost 

' " One Uiat eight years since bought many honace where I and many poor 
men dwelt, and presently raised our rents from three poimds to five pounds." — 
Taylor, lb. • Anglia. * Londinium. 

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NOTES. xxix 

untraceable througli the dirt by which they were begrimed, was broaght 
before Mr Vaughan, charged with being found in Somerset-street, Strand, 
with a box of flowers in his possession supposed to be stolen. 

^ Police-constable Sergeant, £ division, stopped the boy at twelve 
o'clock at night He said a chap gave him the box to take to a coffee- 
house in Hart-street, but he was walking in the opposite direction. 

" It was proved that the box contained cut flowers worth 2L 2«., 
and had been stolen from a van belonging to Mr Reeve, florist, Acton. 

" Mr Vaughan, to prisoner. — Where do you live ? 

" Prisoner. — ^I don't live nowheres. 

" Have you no friends in London ? — ^No ; I ain't got no friends. 

^ But where do you sleep at nights ? — Under the show-board agin 
the Lyceum Theatre. 

" Mr Vaughan. — What does he say ? 

" Gaoler. — He says he sleeps under the large posting board in front 
of the Lyceum Theatre. 

" Mr Vaughan. — Do you mean by that you sleep there every night ? 

** Prisoner. — ^No, I don't sleep there every night Sometimes I gits 
under other boards. 

" But have you no home— no father or mother ? — I has a father and 
mother, but they won't let me go home. When I goes home they turns 
me out agin. Father says he won't have me there. 

" Why does he refuse to have you there ? — 'Cause I stopped out 
two or three nights, and then he wouldn't never take me back agin. 

" Where does he live ? — Over a boot-shop in Red Lion-street I 
don't know the number. 

" What is your father ? Where does he work ? — ^In Common Garden 

" Gaoler. — ^He is a porter in the market, your worship. 

^ The prisoner was then remanded for a week." 


^"^ John Stevens^ a boy in rags, eleven years of age, was charged 
under the Industrial Schools Act with having been found wandering, 
not having any home or settled place of abode or proper guardianship, 
or visible means of subsistence. 

" The case was originally heard by Sir Robert Garden, about a week 
ago, and then, as now, excited considerable interest from being the first 
charge of the kind that had been preferred in the City of London since 
the Elementary Education Act came into operation. The complainant and 
only witness on the first occasion was Joseph Willes, who described him- 
self as an industrial school officer to the London School Board. A week 
ago he found the boy wandering in Lower Thames-street about midday 
in a miserable plight, and asked him a few questions. The boy in reply 
said his mother had sent him out to beg, and that he was not to return 
home for a week ; that his parents lived in the neighbourhood of the 
New Cut, Lambeth ; that his father was ' sometimes an engineer and 

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sometimes a cab driver ; * that he had never been to any schooly and 
that while he had been from home he had slept at nights, with about 
20 other hojs, under some tarpauling, and among empty fish-boxes in 
Billingsgate-market. The witness, thinking it a case contemplated by 
the Industrial Schools Act, and desiring to reclaim the boy from the 
streets, to have him educated and taught a trade by which he might 
gain his own living, took him to the Seething-lane Police-station, and 
had him formally charged. Sir Robert Garden, before whom the boy 
was first brought; commended the witness very much for the course he 
had taken, and expressed a hope that many scores of poor destitute 
children would be taken from the streets of the City, and educated and 
taught some handicraft by which they might earn an honest livelihood, 
adding that be himself had for years in his own way been a ' boy*3 
beadle,' long before that expression was in use. The case was eventu- 
ally adjourned to admit of the attendance of the boy's parents, Mr Oke, 
the chief clerk of the Lord Mayor, doubting whether it was one which 
exactly came within the meaning of the Industrial Schools Act, accord- 
ing to which a child to be dealt with according to its provisions must 
be without home or settled place of abode, or proper guardianship, or 
visible means of subsistence. Meanwhile the boy was sent to the 

^ Yesterday his mother, a poor but honest-looking woman, attended, 
and in answer to the Bench, said her husband was sometimes out of 
work ; that she was a tailoress and worked hard to maintain the family, 
of whom there were three besides the boy in question, younger than he, 
and that she was willing to take him home and look after him, although, 
she added, if he preferred to be sent to school, she would be thankful. 
The boy himself, crying, begged that be might be allowed to go home. 

" Mr Alderman Lusk said he was loth to separate parent and child, 
if the mother would promise to take care of the boy and do her duty to 

" She gave the required undertaking, and was allowed to take her 
son away, after he had received an admonition from the Bench." 

The reader may also consult Mr FumivalPs Ballads from JlfSS,^ our 
Four SuppHcaiionSj and my England in the Reign of Henry VI 11,^ &c., 
§ 4, p. ex. 

Pat/rons, p. 118 ; Simony, pp. 118, 120. In 1585 it was said, "For 
euen our plough boyes know it to be a common practise almost euery 
where amongst patrons, that either they take a great summe of mony, 
or mony worth, as it were a fine, with such sleighty conueiance, as if 
they were iuglers, that no man shal espy them or any law preuent them, 
or make some reseruation of tlie tithes and glebeland, as it were a rent, 
& many times all these practises be vsed togither, whose rauenous 
teeth, and also the paiment of the first fruites and tenthes, which the 
charge of their lawfull family, which the papists neuer knew, and also 
their tithes not paid them in so large a sise as heretofore hath bene 
douCy hath brought the churchmen vnto such an ebbe, that after their 

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NOTES. xxxi 

death their executours doe not blesse them, except it be certaine of 
them which haae sundry benefices." — A Lamentable Complaint of the 
CommondUy, By Way Of SvppUcation, To The High Covrt Qf Parliament, 
For A Learned Ministery. In Anno. 1685, Sig. C. A copy is in the 
Canterbury Cathedral Libraiy, Shelf Mk. Z. 9. 28. 

Sedition, pp. 131, 141. ** The breakefaste they had this laste somer ** 
refers no doubt to the slaughter inflicted upon the rebels in the West 
and East of England in the summer of 1549, when half England was in 
a state of rebellion. 8ee Froude^s History, v. 

This present Parliament, p. 153. The Parliament here referred to 
was most likely that which met in January, 1549. Its first measure was 
" An Act for the Uniformity of Service," Ac. This " Informacion and 
Peticion " was probably published while this Parliament was sitting, 
and before the outbreak mentioned in The Way to Wealth, 

The King's Visitation, p. 154. This visitation was made during 
Somerset's absence in Scotland. He returned to London from this ex- 
pedition on the 8th October, 1547. See Froude, ▼. 56. 

Articles, p. 170. These " Articles " were the " Six Articles." See 
my note to Fovr Supplications, p. 103. 

Usury, p. 172. The Act legalising usury was passed, 37 H. VIII., 
c. 9, 1545. See Four Supplications, pp. 82, 84. 

Digitized by 


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t))srtse Ziiisrammes, inlimin are 

brse&s toucfjeti 00 tnang SPbtuses, ttat 

mase att^ orx^ to be put atnas. 

CompUelii anil Smiirintelii iis 

ISnAttt CrofDleg, lifnel^ 

Ipse in £Ise rentes 

in H^ottume, 

anno Uomini, 



i €or. xmx. 
SS^at 80 titer ge bo, lei l^e same be bont to tbifit bsl^alL 

6ala. i.^ 

Jf j s^otilbt fihibg ta fltVLBtmn : i^an ionlbe J not 
be i^e semaimi of 4)^5le* 

Orig. vL 


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[Leaf If hack, is a Ucmk,] 

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P-f «] f The Table of the Cowtentes 

of thys Boke. 

Of Abbayes 
Of Alehouses ... 
Of Abnes bouses 

(p. 7) 
(p. 8) 
(p. 9) 
(p. 11) 

Of Balyarrantes 
Of Beggarrs 
Of Berebaytyng 
Of Blaspbemouse Swerars 


Of Commocionars 

Of (Tommune diounkards 

Of (Tommune Lyais ... 

(p. 12) 
(p. 13) 
(p. 14) 
(p. 16) 
(p. 17) 
(p. 18) 

(p. 20) 
(p. 21) 
(p. 23) 
(p. 24) 

Of Dyce playars 
Of Double beneficed men 


Of the Excbeker 

(p. 25) 
(p. 27) 

(p. 29) 

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D«rf«,bMk] F. 

OfFlatterara ... (p. 30) 

OfFoles (p. 31) 

Of Forestallars (p. 33) 


Of Oodles men (P- 35) 


Of Idle persons (p« 37) 

Of Inuentars of straynge newes (p. 38) 


Of Laye men that take tythes ... ... (p. 39) 

Of Leasemongars (p. 40) 


Of Marchaontes (P- ^1) 

Of Men that haue diueis of&ces (p. 42) 

OfKicewynes (P- 43) 

Of Obstinate Papistes (p* 45) 

Of Bent laysais (p- 46) 


Of XJayne wrytars ... (P« 47) 

Of Unsaciable Purchaysars (p* 48) 

OfUsura[r]8 (p. 49) 

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The Boke to the Beader. 


IF bokes may be bolde 
to blame and leproue 
The faoltes of all menne, 

boeth hygbe and lowe. 
As the Propbetes dyd 

whom Grods Spirite did mone. 
Than blame not myne Autor ; 

for right well I knowe 
Hys penne is liot tempered 

vayne doctrine to sowe. 
But as Esaye hath bydden, 

80 muste he nodes crye, 
And tell the Lordes people 

of their iniquitie. 
Kowe, if I do the worldelinges 

in anye poynte offende. 
In that I reprone them 

for their wyckednes, 
It is a plaine token 

they wyll not emende. 
I take all the wyse men 

of the earth to wytnes . 
To them ; therfore mine Antor 

biddeth me confesse. 

If books may 

reprovo fiuUU 

did, do Doi bUmo 
th« Author. 

JE^i. 58. 


Ho most toll tho 
pooplo of their 




it Is eloar thoy 
will not amoid; 

Poaf S, bzok] 


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and tinoe thej 
will not, ho 
brands of h«U, 


them th^ will go 
to the devil. 

bat (br sadi as 
have no delight 
In wiekedneei. 

Deaf 4] 

and tiieh as 
refonn when they 
hear ihelr fkolts. 

Such win take 
the warning in 
good part. 

That, sith thej be determined 

Btyll in their synne to dwell. 
He acconnteih them no better 

than fire brandes of helL 28 

Wherefore he bade me bid them 

holde them contente ; 
He hath not written to them 

that will not emende ; 32 

For to the willinge wicked 

no prophete shall be sente, 
Excepte it be to tell them 

that, at the laste ende, 36 

Thej shal be sure and certayne 

wyth Satanas to wende. 
For before euche swyne 

no pearles maye be caste, 40 

That in the filthye puddell 

take all their repaste. 
To suche onely, therfore, 

I moste his message do, 44 

As haue not their delite 

in wickednes to dwell ; 
But when they heare their faulty 

are sorye they dyd so, 48 

And louingely imbrace 

suche men as do them tell ; 
Reformynge euermore 

their lyfe by the gospell, — 62 

To these men am I sente. 

And these, I truste, will take 
My wamynge in good parte. 

And their euill forsake. 56 

lohn .viiL 

He that is of God, heareth the 

worde of God. 


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Of Abbayes. 


A SI walked alone, 

As I moMd I 

/\ and mnsed on thynges 

tboogfat of 

i m That haue in my time 


bene done by great kings, 


I bethought me of Abbayes, 

that sometyme I sawe, 

Whiche are no we suppressed 
all by a lawe. 

hat now an 
^. tappresMd. 

Lorde (thought I then) 

what occasion was here. 

To prouide for learninge 
And make pouertye chere 1 

What an oppor- 
Oo forlMmingwM 

The landes and the jewels 
that hereby were hadde, 
Would haue fouTwi godly prechers. 


The lands would 
havo maintained 
good preadian. 

which might well haue ladde 


The people aright 

that now go astraye, 

And haae fedde the pore. 

that famishe euerye daye. 


But, as I thus thought, 

it came to my mynde, 

That the people wyll not see, 

but delyte to be blynde. 
Wherefore they are not worthy 

80 inUind^^'do 
not dtMTT* Owm, 

good prechars to haue. 

Nor yet to be prouided for. 

but styU in vayne to craue. 


Than sayde I (0 Lorde God) 

make this tyme shorte, 

For theyr sake onlye, Lorde, 

Jfath. 24 

that be thy chosen sorte. 


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Bnt in Mch ham- 
let and town 
th«y hnva bacomo 
plaoM of traaU^ 

and are to ptaoad 
that a man most 
past th«m oo hla 

Man who don't 
Uka to haar their 
fiialta go to the 

London is not ao 

In aenrioe tima 
ahnt np. 

Of Alehouses. 

NEdes must we haue places 
for vitayls to be solde, 
for such as be sycke, 

pore, feble, and olde. 
But, Lorde, to bowe greate 

abuse they bo growne ! 
In echo lyttle bamlet, 

vyllage, and towne. 
They are become places 

of waste and excesse, 
And herbour for such men 

as lyue in idlenes. 
And lyghtly in the contrey 

they be placed so. 
That they stande in mens waye 

when they shoulde to church go. 
And then such as loue not 

to hear theyr fautes tolde. 
By the minister that readeth 
• the newe Testament and olde, 
do tume into the alehouse^ 

and let the church go ; 
Tea, and men accompted wyse 

and honeste do so. 
But London (God be praysed) 

all men maye commende, 
Whych doeth nowe this greate 

enormitie emende. 
For in seruice tyme 

no dore standeth vp, 
Where such men are wonte 

to fyll can and cuppe. 

^ The side-DOtes of the origiiisl are printed In 









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Wolde God in the countrey 

they woalde do the same. 
Either for Gods feare, 

or for worldly shame ! 
How hallow they the Sabotli, 

that do the tyme spende 
In drynkinge and idlenes 

tyll the daye be at an ende 1 
Kot so well as he doeth, 

that goeth to the plowe. 
Or pitcheth yp the sheues 

from the carte to the mowe. 
But he doeth make holye 

the Sabothe in dede. 
That heareth (xoddes worde, 

and helpeth suche as nede. 

Woald that th« 
country would 
do so. 


Deaf 6, bade] 
Tlifj who »p«nd 
tlie Sabbath in 
diinUnf do 


who plow. 


Lnke^ wiii. 
Ha kaapa it beat 
who doaa woiica 


Of Allayes. 

TWo sortes of Allayes 
in London I finde ; — 
The one agaynste the lawe, 

and the other againste kinde. 
The firste is where bowlinge 

forbidden, men vse, 
Andy wastynge theyr goodes, 

do their labonre refuse. 
But in London (alas !) 

some men are deuillishelye 
Suffered to professe it, 

as an arte to lyue by. 
Well, I wyll saye no more, 

but suche as lyue so. 
And officers that suffer them, 

shall togither go 

> Orig. Mat 

Two aorta of 
allays in Lon- 


bowltng^allflysy In 
whidi roan wasta 
thair goods. 



A dUpraue 
of London, 
Soma Uva by tha 
gama, andpro> 

ftsa it aa an art. 


Thasa and thoaa 
who allow it 

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To Satan their sire, 

Iktlur SiOaii. 

for of God they are not, 

Who commaundeth to laboure 


syxe dayes, ye wotte, 

And the seuenth he commaundeth 

all menne to sanctifie. 

In heynge well occupied, 

and not idlelye. 


The other sorte of Allayes, 


that be agaynste kynde, 


Do make my harte wepe 


whan they come to my mind. 

In tlMm are poor 

For there are pore people, 


welmoste innumerable, 

That are dryuen to begge, 

and yet to worcke they are able, 

If they might haue al thinges 

prouided aright. 


Alas ! is not thys 

a greate ouer syght 1 

Too Aldemiea 

Ye Aldermen and other, 

thai take tlM 

that take Allaye rente. 

Why bestowe ye not the riches. 

that God hath you sente 

In woule or in flaxe. 

find work for 

to finde them occupied,^ 


That nowe lye and begge 

by euerye highe waye sidel 

And you that be chiefe, 

and haue the commune treasure, 

Why can you neuer finde 

a time of leasure, 

To se where the treasure 

wiU finde them workinge. 

To the profit of the Citye, 










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But (alas !) this my tale 
is to deafe men tolde ; 

Alas! I talk to 
dMf iDen,(br 
rich mtn*t 

For the cliaritie of rich men 


is nowe thorowe colde. 


And this is a Citye 

Zcke the de- 

in name, but, in dede, 


It is a packe of people 


that he 

that seke after meede ; 

196 lemed. 

For Officers and al 


do seke their owne gaine, 

all iMkinf ftin. 

But for the wealth of the commons 

not one taketh paine. 


An hell with out order, 


OQt ordtr, wb«rt 

I maye it well call, 

rrtiy man is for 

Where euerye man is for him selfe, 


And no manne for alL 


Of Almes Houses. 

AMarchaunte, that longe tyme 
hadde bene in straunge landis, 
Betumed to his contrey, 

whiche in Europe standes. 208 

And in his retume^ 

hys waye laye to passe 
By a Spittlehouse, no farre from 

where his dwelling was. 212 

He loked for this hospitall, 

but none coulde he se ; 
For a lordely house was builte 

where the hospitall should be. 216 

Good Lorde (sayd this marchaunt) 

is my contrey so wealthy, 
That the verye beggers houses 

be builte so goi^giouslye % 220 

A merchant 
ratnnilng to his 


found a lordljr 


**!• thaooontiy 
■orich thatbag^ 
fan' hoQsea art 

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Ha toon mw a 

btggar, who told 
him th^f w«n til 


The merduuit 
such enidtj trta 


Than, by the waye ^de, 

bym chaunced to se 
A pore manne that craned 

of hym for cbaritie. 
Whye (quod thys Marchaunt) 

what meaneth thys thynge ? 
Do ye begge by the waye, 

and haue a honse for a kyng ? 
Alas ! syr (qnod the pore man) 

we are all turned oute. 
And lye and dye in comers, 

here and there aboute. 
Men of greate riches 

haue bought our dweUinge place, 
And whan we craue of them, 

they tume awaye their £ice. 
Lorde God 1 (quod this marchaunt) 

in Turkye haue I bene, 
Yet emonge those heathen 

none such crueltie haue I sene. 
The vengeaunce of Grod 

muste fall, no remedye, 
Vpon these wicked men, 

and that verye shortelye. 







Wm( Countrj, in 
Mrring hit writs. 

•XCOMd thOM 


Of Baylife Arrantes. 

ABaylife there was 
in tiie weste contrey. 
That dyd as they do 

in all quarters, men saye. 
He serued with one wryte 

an whole score or tweyne, 
And toke in hand to excuse them, 
hauinge pence for his payne. 



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And when he should wame a guest 

in sessions to appeare. 
He woulde surely wame them 

that woulde make hym no cheare ; 
And then take a bribe 

to make answere for them. 
But when he mette his frendes, 

than woulde he saye but, hem ; 
But such as had no cheare, 

nor money to paye. 
Were sure to trudge 

to the sessiops always. 
Ye must geue him some thynge, 

to sows his hadlande. 
Or else ye can haue 

no &uoure at his hands. 
Some puddyngis, or baken, 

or chese for to eate, 
A bushell of barley, 

some malt, or some wheate ; 
His hadland is good grownd, 

and beareth all thynge. 
Be it baken or beffe, 

stockefyshe or lynge. 
Thus pore men are pold 

And pyld to the bare, 
By such as shoulde serue them, 

to kepe them from care. 

_^- warn tho»« who 
256 did not pay blm, 

bat only said 




[leftf 9, bM*] 
^f.. The haylefe$ 
^^^ hadlande. 
Too most g\y 
him somethintf — 


paddings, baooB, 
diMso^ barley, 




ThoB the poor 
are robbed by 
tboae who shoald 


Of Bawdes. 

THe bawdes of the stues 
be turned all out ; 
But some think they inhabit 
al England through out. 

Bawdf are tamed 
oat of the stewi^ 


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firand in teTOTM^ 

Lord's bandc 

In tauenis md tiplyng houses 

many myght be fonnde. 
If officers wonld make serch 

but as thej are bounde. 
Well, let them take heede, 

I wyll say no more ; 
Bat when Grod reuengeth, 

he pnnisheth sore. 
An horrible thynge 

it is, for to fall 
Into that Lordis hftTidi«| 

that is eternal! 




BMd compels 


Imt ihtm OHM 
•hoald Isboor, 


2 7%es$} 3. 
If thty reAu«^ 

TlM rick ought to 
bo oared fie 

Of Baggers. 

THe beggars, whome nede 
compelleth to crane, 
Onght at onr handis 

some reliefe to haue ; 
Bnt snch as do connterfayt, 

haneynge theyr strength 
To labour if they luste, 

b^yng knowne at the length, 
Onght to be constrayned 

to worcke what they can. 
And lyue on theyr laboures, 

as besemeth a Christyan ; 
And if they refuse 

to worcke for theyr meate^ 
Then onght they to faste, 

as not worthy to eate. 
And snch as be sore, 

and wyll not be healed^ 
Oughte not in any case 

to be charishei 

' Orig. I Tim. 






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I heard of two b^gars 

that vnder on hedge sate, 
Who dyd wyth longe talke 

theyr matteis debate. 
They had boeth sore legges, 

most lothsome to se ; 
Al rawe firom the fote 

weLoaost to the knee. 
" My legge," quod the one, 
"IthankGod, isfayre.'* 
" So is myne," (quod the other) 

" in a colde ayre ; 
For then it loketh rawe, 

and as rcdde as any bloud, 
I woulde not haue it healed, 

for any worldis good ; 
For were it once whole, 

my lyuinge were gone, 
And for a sturdye begger 

I shoulde be take anone. 
No manne woulde pittye me, 

but for my sore legge ; 
Wherfore, if it were whole, 

I might in vaine begge. 
I shoulde be constrained 
to laboure and sweate. 
And perhaps sometime 

wyth schouiges be beate." 
« Well " (sayde the tother) 

" lette vs take hede therefore. 
That we let them not heale, 
but kepe them styll sore." 
An other thyuge I hearde 

of a begger that was lame, 
Muche like one of these, 
if it were not the same ; 


talking under » 


ndd ones 

" eo le mlM," 
nid the other, 
328 "Inaeoldalr, 
for then it looka 



If it wen healed 
mj liTing were 



and I ahonld 
have to work." 


•• Lei na be care- 
fU/' eald the 
other, " to keep 
»em eore." 


Another beggar 


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btgan to woadar 
btahnabaiid. - 

It. 4<L, uid tpant 
1«. 6d. that daj. 

Bat 1m most 
drink to m ike 
hb toogoo wag. 

Bat ittn give to 
aU. VtlMy 
deodvep you wiU 
have your 

Who, syttinge by the fire, 

• wyth the cuppe in his hande, 

Began to wonder whan 

he shonlde be a good hosbande. 
" I shall neuer thriue " 

(quod this begar) " I wene ; 
For I gate but .xvi d. to daye, 

and haue spente eyghtene. 
Well, let the worlde wagge, 

we muste neades haue drynke ; 
Go fyll me thys quarte pot, 

full to the brynke. 
The tonge muste haue bastynge, 

it wyU the better wagge, 
To pull a Goddes penye 

out of a churles bagge." 
Yet cesse not to g3rue to all, 

wythoute anye r^arde ; 
Thoughe the beggers be wicked, 

thou shalte haue thy rewarde. 






Of Bearbaytynge. 

What a folly to 
kMp a dog and a 


Clear 18] 
to aee them light I 

But they are the 
Ugifeat fools who 

117 Hat foUye is thys, 
1/ 1/ to kepe wyth daunger, 
T T A greate mastyfe dogge 
and a foule ouglye bearel 

And to thys onelye ende, 
to se them two fyght, 

Wyth terrible tearynge, 
a full ouglye syght. 

And yet me thynke those men 
be mooste foles of all. 

Whose store of money 
is but verye smale, 




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And yet euorye Sondaye 

they will surelye spende 
One penye or two, 

the bearwardes lynyng to mende. 
At Paryse garden, eche Sundaye 

a man shall not fsiyle 
To fynde two or thre hundredes, 

for the bearwardes vaile. 
One halpenye a piece 

they vse for to giue, 
When some haue no more 

in their purse, I belieue. 
Well, at the laste daye, 

theyr conscience wyll declare 
That the pore ought to haue 

all that they maye spare. 
For Grod hath commaunded, 

that what we maye spare 
Be geuen to the pore, 

that be full of care. 
If you giue it, therefore, 

to so a beare fyght, 
Be ye sure Goddes curse 

wyl vpon you lyght. 

«nd yet gire to 
388 every Sundi^. 



Th^ give him a 
hal();)enn7, and 
perhape that ia 
all tliey have. 


The poor 
ought to hare 
400 ^^^ ^'0 cau 
[leaf IS, back] 

EccUi: 4. 



Of Brawlers. 

A Brawler, that loueth 
to breake the kinges peace, 
And seke his owne sorowe, 

his fansye to please. 
Is lyke a curre dogge, 

that setteth vpon 
Eche mastyfe and hounde 
that ho may light on. 

' Eccleaiastious. 

A brawler ia like 


that fete upon a 


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H« te profltablt to 
tht rargsoii ud 

Tyboni he wiU 

He getteth hjm hatered 

of eueiye manne ; 
And meteth with his maister 

euer nowe and than. 
To hurte other roenne, 

he taketh greate pajne ; 
He tumeth no manne 

to profite or gayne ; 
Except it be the surgian, 

or the annore. 
The baylife, the constable, 

or the jayler. 
This is a worthye membre 

in a commune wealthe. 
That to worcke other wo 

will lose his owne health. 
What other men will iudge, 

I can not tell ; 
But, if he scape Tibume, 

I thinke he wyll hange in helL 






Of Blasphemous Swerers 

Th« ton of Sirsdi 

npHe Sonne of Syrach 
JL wryteth playnelye 
Of suche menne as do 

a twMr«r thaU 
ht AIM with 

sweare blasphemouselye. 
"The manne that sweareth muche 

shall be fyUed," sayeth he, 
" Wyth all wicked maners, 

and iniquitie. 
In the house of that manne 


the plage shall not cease ; 
He shalbe sty 11 plaged 
either more or les.** 




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Christe byddeth all his 

offirme and denie, 
Wylh yea, yea ; nay, nay ; 

affirmyng no lye. 452 

" Whatsoeuer ye ad more " (saiih he) 

" Cometh of iuell, 
And is of the wycked 

suggestion of the deuylL" 456 

Bat we can not talke 

wythouten othes plentye. 
Some sweare by Gods nayles, 

hys herte, and his bodye ; 460 

And some sweaie [by] his fleshe, 

his blonde, and hys fote ; 
And some by hys guttes, 

hys lyfe, and herte rote. 464 

Some other wonlde seme 

all sweryng to refrayne, 
And they inaent idle othes, 

such is theyr idle brayne : — 468 

By cooke and by pye, 

and by the goose wyng ; 
By the crosse of the mouse fote, 

and by saynte Chyckyn. 472 

And some sweare by the Diaell, 

such is theyr blyndenes ; 
Not know3rng that they call 

these thynges to wytnes, 476 

Of their consciences, in that 

they affirme or denye. 
So booth sortes commit 

Moste abhominable blasphemie. 480 

■aj JM and nay. 

Bnt we ein't talk 
without oatha. 

Some swear bjr 
God'a blood. 

soma by ooek and 

Math, r. 
some by the 

They all commit 

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A collier at Croj* 
don might have 
bMD a knight, 

bat 1m would not. 

It would be well 
It knlghta cared 
DO more for ooal* 
Ing than tliia 
[loaf U, back] 

for dnee they 
hare aold ooala 
we have paid 
more and had 

Men think the 
Croydon CoIHer 
i« oooain to the 

Of the Colier of Croydon. 

IT is sayde, that in Croydon 
there dyd sometyme dwell 
A Colier, that dyd 

all other Coliers excelL 484 

For his riches thys Colier 

myght haue bene a knight ; 
But in the order of knighthode 

he hadde no delyght 488 

Woulde God all our knightes 

dyd minde colinge no more, 
Than this Colier dyd knyghtyng, 

as is sayde before ! ^ 492 

For when none but pore Colyars 

dyd wyth coles mell, 
At a reasonable price, 

they dyd theyr coles sell ; 496 

But sence cure Knyght Colyars 

haue had the fyrste sale, 
We haue payed much money 

and had fewe sackes to tale. 500 

A lode that of late yeres 

for a royall was solde, 
wyll coste nowe .xvi. s. 

of syluer or golde. 504 

God graunt these men grace 

theyr poUyng to refrajnie. 
Or els bryng them backe 

to theyr olde state agayne. 508 

And especially the Colyar 

that at Croydon doth sell ; 
For men thyncke he is cosen 

to the Colyar of Hell. 512 

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Of Commotionars. 


"Hen the bodye is vexed, 
througli humors corrupted. 

To restore it to helth 

those humours muste be purged. 
For if they remayne, 

they wyll styll encrease 
Euery daye, more and more, 

and augment the disease ; 
So that in short tyme 

the body muste decayo, 
Except God geue health 

by some other waye. 
£uen so doth it fare 

by the weale publyke, 
Whych chaunceth to be often 

diseased and sycke, 
Through the mischeuouse malice 

of such men as be 
Desyrouse to breake 

the publyke unitie. 
Eche publyke bodye 

must be purged therfore, 
Of these rotten humours, 

as is sayed before. 
Els wyll it decay, 

as do the bodyes naturall. 
When rotten humours haue 

infected them ouer all. 
But if the publyke bodye 

can not be purged well, 
By force of purgation, 

as phisickes rules do tcU : 
When bodyes be weake, 

and so lowe brought, 

When m hn- 
moure eonrupt 



it miMt dcoay, 
except God give 


So it b irith the 
528 wliich b often 


The public body 
mast be purged 
of its humours. 


[leaf l.\ beck] 
else it u ill decay. 


ir it cannot be 


Digitized by 




most iM foond to 
kiU th6M ha- 


Naloral hamoor% 
ttwt la, trot tab- 
jecta, must 1m 

WhatthMO are 

that they cannot 
do what thay 
aoon vanish. 

That by purgation, 

no health can be wioght : 548 

Then must there be sought 

sdme easyar waye, 
To kyl t?ie strength of those humors c 

thus doth phisicke sayc. 552 

When the swerde wyl not helpe 

in the common wealth, 
To purge it of Commotionars 

and bryng it to health : 556 

Then must discrete counsell 

fynde wayes to kyll 
The powr of those rebelles, 

and let them of theyr wylL 660 

And that must be by cherishyng 

the humours naturall, 
And by quickenyng agayne 

of the spirites vitall ; 664 

Whych, in the commune wealth, 

are the subiectes trew. 
That do alwaye study 

sedition to eschew. 568 

When these men, through cherishing, 

do growe and be strong. 
Then can no Commotionars 

continew long. 572 

For as, when the strength 

of ill humours b kylled, 
In a naturall bodye 

they be sone consumed, 576 

Or made of iuell good, 

as it is playne to se : 
So wyll it bytyde 

of such men as be, 580 

In the Commune wealth, 

geuen vnto sedition, 

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When they se they can not 

finyshe theyr intention. 584 

And what is their power, 

but the people ignoraonte, 
Whom thei do abuse 

by their counselles malignaunt 1 588 

When the hertes of the people 

be wonne to their prince, 
Than can no Commotioners 

do hurte in hys prouince. 592 

If this wyll not help, 

than God wyll take cure, 
And destroy these Commosioncrs, 

we may be right sure : 596 

Excepte the tyme be come 

that the bodye muste dye ; 
For than there canne be found 

no maner remedy. COO 

God graunte that our synne 

haue not broughte vs so lowe, 
That we be paste cure : 

God onelye doeth thys knowe ; 604 

And I truste to se healthe agayno, 

if the finall ende 
Be not nowe nere at hande ; 

whyche the Lorde shoi-telye sende. 608 


[leaf 18, back] 
Thair powar Um 
In th« ignonaoa 

If the people «• 
loyiU ■edIUous 
men can do no 

God grant that 

Of Commen Drunkardes. 


ESaye lamenteth, 
and sayeth, " oute, alas ! 
Muche wo shall betide you, 
that do youre tyme passe 
In eatinge and drinckynge, 
from mominge to nighte, 

Isaiah lament* 
Etaye .v. 


Digitized by 




beetnw tiM Jflfin 
roMitpMrly to 
drink like bMstt. 

drunkards b« 
would BMthCJ 
did nol riM 
early, bat Mt up 

i. Cor, x} 


Panl teUt OS not 
to eat or drink 
with dronkards, 

bat, alas! our 
oorateseMsl their 
parishioners in 

Til none of yoxir membres 

canne do his office righte. 616 

Woe be to yon," sayeth be, 

" that do so earlye rise, 
To fyll youp selues wyth drincke 

in suche beastelye wise." 620 

But if he were nowe liuyng, 

and sawe this worldes state, 
He wold saye this of oxir drunkards, 

that sytte vp so late. C24 

For fewe of oure drunckardes 

do vse to rise earelye ; 
But muche of the nighte 

they wyll drincke lustelye. 628 

Well, Sainte Paule doeth wame 

all that be of puie mynde. 
To auoide drunckardes company, 

where so euer they do them finde. 632 

. Se ye neyther eate nor drincke 

wyth suche menne, sayeth he. 
That be geuen to drinkinge, 

what so euer they be. 636 

But, alas ! manye curates, 

that shoulde vs thys tell, 
Do all their parishioners 

in drynckyng excell. 640 

Solomon sayt a 
liar slajs the sooL 
Sayi. i. 

Of Commune liars. 

Solomon the sage, 
in Sapience doeth saye, 
That the mouthe that lyeth 

doeth the verye soule sleye. 
If the murderer of bodies 
be worthye to dye, 

» Orig. i. 


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The muiderer of soules 

shoulde not escape, trowo I. 
For as the soule docth 

the bodye excell, 
So is his treaspace greater, 

that doeth the soule quell. 
But lyars (alas !) 

are nowe muche set by, 
And thought to be menne 

in a maner necessarie 
To be entertayned 

of eche noble manne, 
Who are muche delighted 

wyth lyes nowe and than. 
But this delite will be sorowe, 

I feare me, at the laste ; 
Whan the liar, for hys liynge, 

into paynes shall be caste. 




but are thooght 



and are thought 
Decenary to 


ThU delight in 
Ilea wUl not laat. 


Of Dicears. 

EMonge wyttye saiynges, 
this precept I finde, 
To auoid and fle dice (mi son) 

haue euer in mynde. 
For diceynge hath brought many 

wealthye menne to care ; 
And manye ryche heyre 

it hath made full bare. 
Some menne it hath sette vp, 

I wyll not denye, 
And brought to more worship, 

than they be worthye. 
God knoweth to what ende 

he suffereth th}^ thing ; 

Cato adviaed to 
flee dioe-plajriiig, 




which haa 
atripped manjr. 



[leaf 18» back] 

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Perchaunce to rewarde them 
wyth hel at their endynge. 

For doubtlesse those goodes 

are gotten amisse, 

That are gotten from him 

that prodigall is ; 

At die* both 
Intend to gel 

And especially at the djce, 
where boeth do intende 

To get others goods, 

or else hys owne to spende. 

Nowe if prodigalitye 

or couetise be vyce, 

He cannot but offend 

that playeth at the dyce. 

For be they two or mo, 

thys thyng is certayne, 

Prodigality tnd 
reign in boUu 

Prodigalytie and couetise 
do in them all raygne. 

Besyde the wycked othes, 

and the tyme myspent, 

Wherof they thincke they nede not 

them selues to repent. 


But thys I dare saye, 


that though dyceyng were no sin, 


Nor the goodis mysgoten, 

that men do ther at wynne ; 

the oaths and 

Yet the othes that they swere, 

time will be the 

and the tyme myspent. 
Shall be theyr damnacion, 

vnlesse they repent. 

Leaue of your vayne dyceyng. 

ye dycers, therefore, 

For vnlesse ye repent. 

God hath vengeaunce in store ; 

And when ye tliynke least. 

then wyl he pour it oute, 










Digitized by 



And make you to stoupe, 
be ye neaer so stonte. 


th«m stoop on- 
716 l«tt]i«xrnMnU 

Of Double Benificed Men. 

THe kynge of that realme, 
where iostice doeth reygne, 
Perused olde statutis, 

that in bokis lemayne. 
And as he tamed the boke, 

him channced to se, 
That such as haue benifices 

shoolde resident be ; 
And haue theyr abydyng, 

whyles theyr lyfe shoulde endure, 
Emong them, ouer whome 

God hath geuen them cure. 
Then sayed he to him selfe, 

" I thyncke well there is 
No lawe in thys realme 

worse obserued then this. 
Yet can there nothynge 

My flocke more decaye, 
Then when hyrelynges suffer 

My shepe go astraye." 
Then called he his councell 

And tolde them his mynde, 
And wylled that they shoulde 

some remedy fynde. 
Whoe, wyth good aduice, 

agreed on this thyng, 
That visitours should be sent, 

wyth the powre of the kyng, 
To punyshe all such 

as herein dyd offende. 


1. etrtain Unff 
looked over torn 
Mid b«Mllc«d 
men should bo 




He thought no 
Uir WM to UtUe 



He called hie 


and eent Tbltora 
p^.. to ponleb ell that 
744 ehottld disobey 


Digitized by 





found only on« 
priest who would 
•nrrendnr nona. 
Osee ,%iii. 

He WIS broogtit 
to the king, and 
pleaded the royal 
"grant ofa 

and said if he had 
right he most 
keep them for hia 
[leaf 20, back] 

•* So Shalt thoa; 
for tO'murrow 
thy body shaU be 
divided, and part 
sent to each 

Vnlesse they were foande 

thorowe wyllynge to amende. 748 

These visitoms found many stout 

priestes, but chieflye one 
That hadde sondiye benifices, 

but woulde surrender none. 752 

Than was this stoute felowe 

brought to the kynge. 
Who sayde vnto hym, 

** Syr, howe chaunceth this thing ? 756 

Wyl ye transegresse my lawes 1 

and than disobeye 
Menne hauing my power ) 

Syr, what can you saye ? " 7C0 

" H it mai like your grace," (quod he) 

" loe, heare is to se, 
Your seale at a graunte 

of a pluralitie." 7C4 

" Well," saide the kinge than, 

'* I repente me of all yll ; 
But tell me, maister doctoure, 

wil you haue your benifices styll ? " 768 

" K your grace do me rj'ghte," (quod he) 

" I must haue them my life tyme." 
" So shalt thou," (quod the kynge) 

" for to morow by pryme, 772 

God wyllynge, thy body 

shalbe diuided, and sent. 
To ech benifice a piece, 

to make the resident. 776 

Away wyth hym " (quod the kyng) 

^* and let al thyngis be done. 
As I haue geuen sentence, 

to morow ere none. 780 

For syth thou arte a stout' priest, 

an example thou sholt be, 

' stont in criginal. 

Digitized by 




That all sioubumo priestes 
may take wamyng by the." 



Of the Excliecker. 

IN the weste parte of Europe 
there was sometyme a kynge. 
That had a court for receyte 

of money to him belongeing. 
But the ministers of that court 

dyd longe, and many a daye, 
Take brybes to bare vrith suche men 

as should forfaytis pay. 
At the laste, to the Kyng 

this theyr fedshode was tolde. 
By suche as about hym, 

were faythfuU and bolde. 
Then dyd the Kyng sende 

for these ministers ill, 
And layde all theyr faltes 

before them in a byll. 
Then were they abashed, 

and had nought to saye, 
But cryed for hys perdon ; 

but he bade, "Awaye; 
Ye haue borne wyth thcucs, 

and haue robbed me, 
And suffered my people 

impoueryshed to be. 
Ko statute coulde cause 

thoffendars to emendo, 
Because you bare wyth them, 

when they dyd offende. 
Awaye wyth them all, 

laye them in pnsone. 

In the WMt a 
ktnff had a ooort 
for the reoeipt of 



The oflloen took 

[leaf 21] 


When the king 
heard of It he 


Th^ eried for 
OU4 eent them awaj 



to prison to await 

Digitized by 





Tybam tippet 

Tyll we liaue determined, 

what shall wyth them be done.^ 
What iudgment they had 

I haue not hearde jet ; 
But well I wot thej deserued 

a Tibume typpet. 



Of Flaterars. 


a. Ee. Hi. 

known Joftb'f 

he iroold hftre 


Trast op«n en«- 

AFlatter3mge &ende 
is woise then a foe ; 
Foi a frende is betrusted, 

when the other is not so. 
Of an open enimie, 

a man may be ware ; 
When the flatteryng frend 

wyl worcke men much care. 
For if Abner had knowne 

what was in loabs harte, 
I do not doubt but he would 

haue out of his waye sterte ; 
Or, at the leaste, he would not 

haue admitted hym so ny 
As to be embraced of hym, 

and on his dagger to dye. 
Wherefore I aduertise 

al men to be ware 
Of all flatterynge fifendis, 

that bring men to care. 
As for open ennimies, 

trust them if je wyll ; 
I can not forbyd you 

to admyt your owne ylL 
Woulde God all men woulde 

such flatterars trye, 







Digitized by 




As hange at tbeyr elbowes, 

to get some v.'hat therby. 848 

But (alas !) nowe adayes, 

men of honour do promote 
Many a false flatterynge 

and lewde harlot ; 852 

Whych thynge may at the lengthe 

be theyr owne decaye ; 
For if the wynde tume, 

the flatterars wyll awaye. 856 

The swallowe in sommer 

wyll in your house dwell ; 
But when wynter is commynge, 

she wyll saye farewell 
And when the short dayes 

begyn to be colde, 
Robinredbrest wil come homa to yo, 

and be very bolde ; 
But when summer retumeth, 

and bushes wax grene, 
then Eobyn your man 

wyll no more be sene. 868 

So some of your flattera[r]8 

wyll in prosperitie, 
be of your householde, 

and of your family ; 872 

And some other wyl, 

when nede doth them payne, 
Sue to do you seruice, 

tyll they be welthy agayno. 876 

of honour pro* 
noto fUlterers, 

who, if Um wind 
tarns, will lcav« 

M th« swallow 
Icftvss man in 
860 wiHUr, 

[leaf St, back] 

and the robin In 

864 Ihei 

Some flatterers 
will remain 
wliile you are 

others win seek 
you when they 
are poor. 

Of roles. 


He Preachar sayeth thus, 
"a pore wytty ladde 

A witty lad is 
better than a 
Eccle, iiii. 
ibolish old king. 

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SonM natural 
foob ondtnUnd 


the Ugxwt fooU 
of all think 


with vTerybody's 

and alkyir no man 
to speak. 

[leaf »» hack] 

If yon tell them 
of their fhulto 
tbejrni light. 

ia better then an olde Kynge, 

whose wytte is but badde." 880 

The wyse man in pouertie 

is ryght honourable, 
Whan the fole in his ryches, 

is worthy a bable. 884 

Some foles there be of nature, 

that ynderstande nought ; 
Some other ynderstand thynges, 

but haue euer in theyr thought, 888 

That they them selues be wysest ; 

whych folly passeth all. 
And doeth soneste appeare, 

as well in greate as small 802 

These foles wyll not heare 

any mans reade or counsell, 
And what soeuer they them selfe do, 

is excedyng well ; 89G 

But other mens doynges 

they wyll euer djrprease, 
For other can do nought 

that may theyr mynde please. 900 

And, further, they thyncke 

it becometh them well, 
in euery mans matter 

them selfe to entermel. 904 

And when they come in place 

where is any talke, 
2^0 man shal fynde a tyme to speake, 

so faste theyr tonges shal walke. 908 

Of theyr owne dedis and goodes, 

they wyll bragge and boaate, 
And declare aU theyr mishaps, 

and what they haue loste. 912 

If ye tell them of theyr fautes, 

then wyll they nedcs fyght ; 

Digitized by 




Ye must saye as they saye, 

Be it wrounge or ryght. 
In fine, ye mnst prayse them, 

and sette forth theyr fame ; 
And what soeuer they do, 

you may them not blame. 
If ye tell them of knowledge, 

they saye they lacke none. 
And wyshe they had lesse, 

and then they make mono. 
For the loese of vayne toyes, 

wherin they delyte ; 
And then, if ye reasone farre, 

beware, they wyll fyght. 
All wise men, take hede, 

and shunne theyr companye. 
For of all other men, 

they are most vngodly. 


Yoa mast praiaa 




^njj wifchthmmh^ 
•'-^o wiUflgbi. All 


Of Forestallars. 

THe fiyses of Walis 
to Brystowe are brought; 
But before thei were wouen, 

in Walis they are bought ; 
So that nowe we do paye 

foure grotes, or els more, 
For the fiyse^ we haue bought 

for eyght pens heretofore. 
And some saye the woule 

is bought ere it do growe, 
And the come long before 

it come in the mowe. 
And one thyng there is 

that hurteth moste of all ; 


" Orig. "fryfe" 

Welsh (HexM art 
bought before 
ih«7 are woven. 



Some 9Ay the 
wool It bought 
before It U 


Digitized by 




of tirmt and 

[leaf t4^ bock] 

Old teMoU most 
pBj wtU If thay 
would I 

market wiU 
paiilsh th«M 
•ngroHors and 

Whan h« went 
told OS not to 

I. Ow. m. 


Koaeraions of fermes are bought 

long ere they falL 948 

And ryght so are benificee 

in euery coaste, 
So that persons and vicars 

kepe neyther sodde nor roste. 952 

The pore of the paryshe, 

whome the person shoulde fede, 
Can hane nought of onre tythis, 

to sncnoure theyr node. 9C6 

Beuersions of fermes 

are bought on ech syde ; 
And the olde tenant must pay well, 

if he wyll a byde. 960 

And where the father payde a peny, 

and a capon or twayne. 
The Sonne muste paye ton pownde : 

[tjhis passeth my brayne. 964 

Well, let thes forestallars 

repent them bytyme, 
Leste the clarke of the market 
, be wyth them ere pryme. 968 

For he, when he cometh, 

wyll punysh them all, 
That do any nedef ul thynge 

ingrose or forestalL 972 

For well I wotte thys, 

when he went laste awaye, 
He sent vs his seruaunt, 

and thus dyd he saye. 976 

Se that emong you 

none seke his owne gayne. 
But profyte ech other 

wyth trauayle and payne. 980 

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Of Godlesse Men. 

HOlye Dauid, that was 
boeih propheth and kingc, 
Sawe in hys tyme 

(as appeareth by hys wrytynge) 
That in those dayes 

theie were men of wycked hcrt, 
That dyd all godlye wayes 

Ytterlye pernerte. 
And so there aie nowe, 

the pitye is the more, 
That lyne more camalye 

than enei men' dyd before. 
These men (sayeth kinge Dauid) 

in their hertes do saye, 
Surelye there is no God, 

let vs take our owne waye. 
Thus iudged kyng Dauid, 

and that for good skyll, 
Bicause he sawe their worckes, 

were wycked and euyll. 
They are (sayeth he) corrupt, 

and nought in all theyr wayes, 
Not one doeth good ; 

and therfore he sayes. 
That they thincke there is no God, 

theyr worckis do declare, 
For to do the thynge that good is 

they haue no maner care. 
But what would Dauid saye, 

if he were in these dayes, 
When men wyl do ill, 

and iustifie theyr yl weyes 1 

David hi his timt 
uw wicked men, 

984 PMltuxiv: 


who perverted 
godly wayt. 

So now there are 
men mote carnal 
than ever. 



They m^ there 
la no Gild, 



Clear 25, hack) 

and their deeda 


What would 
David say now y 



' Repeated in orig. 

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Inlah roQld 
curse Umoi Apace 
for celling evil 
food, and Kood 


If thej And any- 
thing In (be 

they win none of 
it if it do not 
i«ree with their 

Tliejr eaj th^ 

Tlie cause Is 

They leaue the good yndone, 

and do that yll is ; 
And then they call that yll good — 

what woolde Dauid eaye to this) 1016 

I know not what Dauid 

would saye in this case ; 
But I knowe that good Esay 

doeth cuTsse them apase. 1020 

Woe ! sayth this prophete, 

to them that do call 
That thyng good that euell is. 

but this is not all : 1024 

He sayeth woe to them 

that call dearckenes lyght^ 
Preferryng theyr fansey 

before the worde of myght. 1028 

If they fynde a thynge wrytten 

in Paul, Luke, or John, 
Or any other scripture, 

they wyll therof none, 1032 

Except they may easily 

perceyue and se 
That, wyth theyr fleshly fansey, 

they may make it agre. 1036 

All other textis of scripture 

they wyll not stycke to deny ; 
Yea, some of them wyll 

God and his scripture defie, 1040 

And say they wyl make merie here, 

for when they be gone 
They can haue no ioye, 

for soule they haue none. 1044 

If these menne be not godles, 

muche merueU haue I. 
Well, the cause is the Lordes, 

lette hym and them trye. 1048 

Digitized by 




I knowe at the laste, 

they shall f jnde him to strong : 
The daye of his vengeaance 

-wyll not tarye long. 

Daftf £6, bftck] 
and th«7 wUl And 
Him Arong. 


Of Idle Persons. 

IDlenes hath hen cause 
of much wyckednes, 
As Ecclesiasticus 

doeth playnely wytnes, 
Idle persons, therfore, 

can not be all cleare. 
As by the stone of Sodome, 

it doeth well appeare. 
But that we may come nere 

to our owne age. 
The idlenes of abbays 

made them outrage. 
Yet let 7S come neare, 

euen to the tyme present. 
And se what myschyfe 

Idle persons do inuent ; 
What co/ispiracies haue ben wroght, 

"Wythin this lyttle whyle, 
By idle men that dyd 

the commons begyle ; 
And what haue idle men 

alwaye practised, 
To breake the peace of prynces, 

that they myght be hyered. 
I wyll not saye what 

the idlenes of priestes hath done, 
Nor yet the idlenes 

of seruauntis in London. 


much wickediMsa, 

EceUi. 83. 





ind the tbbey*. 


1068 Now ldl« penonB 
hatch con* 

1072 netf27] 


Whftt the idleness 
of priests nnd 
1080 wrvunU in Lcn* 
don has dune. 

Digitized by 




let every man •«• 
for himaelf. 

It ft (he gate of 
aU mlMditer. 

Ton niftsterty 
keep yonr 

Peaf 27, back] 

for they are 
committed to 
your charge. 

Would that 
would Mt men 
to work ! 

Thia realm has 
three commodl- 
tlea, wool. Un. 
and lead, whidi 
ahoold be wrought 
at home. 

Some men delight 
to invent news 

Let eueri man search 

his owne houshold well^ 
And whether the thynge 

be true that I teU. 1084 

Yea, what abuse dyd euer 

emonge the people rayne, 
But the same dyd fyrst sprynge 

out of an idle brayn ? 1 088 

Idlenes, theifore, 

maye ryghte well be named 
The gate of all mischiefe 

that euer was framed. 1092 

Ye masters and fathers, therfore, 

that feare God omnipotent, 
Kepe youre families, 

leaste ye be shente ; 109G 

For if thorowe their idlenes 

they fall into outrage. 
Your iudgemente shall be strayght, 

for they are cowunitted to your charg. 1 100 
Kepe them, theifore, styll occupied, 

in doynge youre busines, 
Or els in readynge or hearynge 

some bokes of godlines. 1 104 

And woulde God the maiestrates 

woulde se men set a-worke, 
And that within thys realme 

none were suffered to lurke. 1108 

This realme hath thre commoditie 

woule, tynne, and leade, 
Which being wrought w/t^in Ike realme, 

eche man might get his bread. 1112 

f Of Inuenters of Straunge Newes. 

SOme men do delite 
straunge newes to inuente. 

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Of this maimeB doynge^ 

and that mannes intente ; 
What is done in Fraunce, 

and in the Emperours lande ; 
And what thyng the Scottes 

do nowe take in hande ; 
What the Kynge and his counsel!, 

do intende to do ; 
Thongh for the most parte 

it be noth jnge so. 
Such men cause the people, 

that els woulde he styll. 
To munnour and grudge, 

whych thyng is very HI. 
Tea, sometyme they cause 

the people to ryse, 
And assemble them selfe 

in most wycked wyse. 
In Plato hys common wealth, 

such men shoulde not dwell. 
For poetes and oratoures 

he dyd expell. 
Oh ! that these newes biyngars 

had for theyr rewarde, 
Newe halters of hemppe, 

to sette them forwarde ! 


of Foreign parts, 


which for the 
ll-** untrue. 

8ach men make 
tlte people 
1128 murmur. 

We $awe the 
experience of 
tht/8 of late. 


Plato expelled all 
poeti* and orators 
frnin hl« oom- 



They want new 

% Of Laye Men that take Tithes, 

and Priests that vse theyr Ti- 

t[h]es priuatly. 

[leaf 28, bock] 

WHan Justice began 
in iudgment to syt, 
To punysh all such men 
as dyd fautes commit ; 

When Jostlce 
b^an to tit in 


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iiUiM for prfrata 

He was d«prlTed 
of aUbii goods. 

whldi ir«n 
dlrided among 
the poor, 

laeob a. 

and then he wae 

Then was theie a man 

before hyr accused^ 
For tyihes that he toke, 

and priuately vsed. 1148 

When dewe proufe was had^ 

and the thyng manifesto, 
The wyttnesses swome, 

and the treaspace confeste ; 1152 

Then gaue the iudge iudgement 

and these wordes he spake : — 
" Se that from this caytyfe 

ye do all his goodes take ; 1156 

For seynge he made that prioate, 

that commune shoulde be, 
He shall haue this iustice, 

by the iudgment of me. 1160 

Those pore men, that by the tithes 

shoulde be releued, 
Shal haue all his goodes 

emonge them diuided. 1164 

And because he shewed no mercie, 

no mercie shall he haue. 
The sentence is geuen, 

go hange yp the slaue.** 1168 

Of Leasemongars. 

A leaeemooger'i 
pricked him 
when he thoo^t 
be was ••dying. 

Bo lie sent for a 

OF late a leasemongar 
of London laye sycke, 
And thynckyng to dye, 

his conscience dyd him pricke. 
Wherefore he sayde thus 

wyth hym selfe secretly, 

'' I wyll sende for a preachar, 

to knowe what remedy." 



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Bat wMLse he thus laye, 

he fell in a sloxonber, 
and sawo in his dreamo 

pore folke a gieate number, 
Whoe sayde they had learned thys 

at the preachars hande. 
To paye all wyth patience, 

that theyr landlordes demaunde. 
For they for theyr sufferaunce, 

in such oppression, 
Are promised rewarde 

in the resurrection. 
Where such men as take leases 

them selues to aduaunce. 
Are sure to haue hell 

hy ryght inheritaunce. 

Then ht drcair.ed 

lloU said Uieylwd 
iMtrnetl to pnj 
what Undlordi 



ft they 
would be re- 
lloo wardedinthe 

reeuiTeotion, bat 
are sure of lieiL 


Of Marchauntes. 

IF Marchauntes wold medle 
wyth marchaundice onely, 
And leaue fermes to such men, 

as muste lyue thereby ; 
Then were they moste worthy 

to be had in price, 
As men that prouide vs 

of all kyndes marchaundice. 
But syth they take fermes, 

to let them out agayne, 
To such men as muste haue them, 

though it be to theyr payn : 
And to leauye greate fines, 

or to ouer the rent. 
And do purchayse greate landes, 

for the same intent : 

would lee fiArms 
alone It would 



But they take 
them and let 
them out again, 
raising the rente. 




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TiMy ten on* 

Th«y also lend 
inoiiey to yoaiy 

Whtit fi th« 

The Lord wUI 
have them in 


and they will get 
Jadgment without 

Jacob Ai. 

We moste nedes cal them 

membres ynprofitable, 
As men that woulde make 

all the Keahne miserable. 1212 

Howe they leaue theyr trade, 

and lende oute theyr money. 
To yonge marchaonte men, 

for greate ysurie ; 1216 

Whereby some yonge men 

are dreuen to leaue all, 
And do into moste extreme 

pouertie fall, 1220 

It greueth me to wryte. 

but what remedy 1 
They muste heare theyr faute, 

syth they be so greedye, 1224 

And thus I saye to them, 

and trewe they shall it fynde, 
The Lorde wyll haue all 

theyr iuell doynges in mynde. 1 228 

And at the laste daye, 

when they shall aryse. 
All shall be layed playne 

before theyr owne eyes, 1232 

Where iudgemente shall be geuen, 

as Saynte lames doeth wytnes, 
Wythoute all mercye 

to suche as be merciles 1236 

Of Men that haue Diuers Offices* 

In Borne ambi- 
tlon wu imniihed 


Han the Citye of Eome 
was ruled aiyght. 
As aunciente autours 
do recorde and wryte 


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AiDbitdon was punished 

wytli vtter exile ; 
Yet were there some that dyd 

venter some whyle. 1244 

But we reade not of anye 

that euer wente ahoute, 
To haue two offices at once, 

were they neuer so stoute. 
But, alas I in this Bealme, 

we counte hym not wyse, 
That seketh not by all meanes 

that he canne deuise, 1252 

To take offices togither, 

wythoute anye staye. 
But Chnste shal saie to those mcnne 

at the lasts days, 256 

Geue accounts of your baliwickcs, 

ye mene wythout grace. 
Ye that soughte to be rulers 

in euerye place, 1260 

Geue accountes of your baliwike, 

for come is the daye 
That ye muste leaue youre offices, 

and walke your fathers waye. 1 264 

yet MmeTen- 
lored to return. 

But none aeem 
to luv« had two 
1248 offices ftt ono0^ M 
they do here. 

Pear SI] 

At the last day 
Christ irUl do- 
Luke .rri. 
mand an account 

Of Nice Wyues. 

THe Sonne of Sirache 
of women doeth saye, 
That theire nicenes & hordo7?t 

is perceiued alwaye 
By there wanton lokes, 

And lyftynge vp of eyes. 
And their lokinge ascoye, 
in most wanton wise. 



The son ofSlrach 
says, a woman 

Bccles. 26. 
may be known l^ 
wanton looks. 

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JSeelet. afi[a?]. 

He also Mjrt that 

th« walk and the 

PeafSl, back] 

dress daelara tbe 

If 10 what are we 
to think of the 

•'If gait and 
garmenta show 
anything/' oor 
wiTes sorpaas all 

TItetr eipe are 
like a sow's maw I 


if their hair wont 
dye they bay 
new, and lay it 
out in tosaocks, 

one on each side 
a« big as a ball. 

And in the same 

lesus Syracli, I fynde 
That the gate and the garment 

do declare the mjnde.. 1276 

If these thynges be trew, 

(as, no doubt, they be) 
What shold we thynk of the women 

that in London we se ? 1 280 

For more wanton lokes, 

I dare boldely saye, 
Were neuer in lewyshe whores, 

then in London wyues thys daye. 1284 

And if gate and garmentes 

do shewe any thynge, 
Our wiues do passe their whoris 

in whorelyke deckyuge. 1288 

I thynk the abhominable 

whores of the stews 
Dyd neuer more whorelyke 

attyrementes yse. 1292 

The cappe on hyr heade 

is lyke a sowes mawe ; 
Such an other facion 

I thynk neuer lewe sawe. 1296 

Then fyne geare on the foreheade, 

sette after the new trycke. 
Though it coste a crowne or two, 

What theni they may not stycke. 1300 

If theyr heyre wyl not take colour, 

then must they by newe. 
And laye it oute in tussockis : 

this thynge b to true. 1304 

At ech syde a tussocke, 

as bygge as a ball, — 
A very fayre syght 

for a fornicator bestiall. 1308 

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Hyr face faire paynted, 

to make it sbyne biyght, 
And hyr bosome all bare, 

and most whorelyke dight 
Hyr mydle braced in, 

as smal as a wande ; 
And some by wastes of wyre 

at the paste wyfes hando. 
A bumbe lyke a barrell, 

wyth whoopes at the skyite ; 
Hyr shoes of such staffs 

that may touche no dyrtc ; 
Vpon hyr whyte fyngers, 

manye rynges of golds, 
TVyth snche maner stones 

as are most dearlye solde. 
Of all their other trifles^ 

I wyll saye nothynge, 
Leasts I haue but small thanckes, 

for thys my writynge. 
All modeste matrons 

I trusts wyll take my parte. 
As for nice whippets, wordes 

shall not come nye my hert. 
I haue tolde them but trueth, 

let them saye what tliey wyll ; 
I haue sayde they be whorclike, 

and so I saye styll. 

T1i«ir flMW ar« 
painted, their 
boeome bere. 


Tltelr waists are 
braced in. 


and their boms 

Shoes moat not 
touch the dirt. 


Binss oo itngers, 
1324 Cleaftt,bacl(J 


matrons will, I 
hope, take my 


I hare said tliey 
are whorelike, 
1336 andsoth^areu 

Of Obstinate Papistes. 

AN obstinate papists, 
that was sometyme a frier, 
Hadde of his Mers cote 
so greate a desire, 

A friar so desired 
to wear his friar's 


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thai he wMil to 
Louvain to put 


Would God all 
the Papiata were 
with him! 

Unleia they can 
born the Bible 
thay wiU deapair. 

God grant that 
thay may take 
their natural 
prince fbr their 
headland foraake 
the Pope. 

That he stale out of England, 

and wente to Louayne, 
And gate his fiyers cote 

on his foles backe agayne. 
A wilfollb^^r 

this papist wyl be, 
A fole and a firyer, 

and thus is one man thre. 
Would God all the papistis, 

that he lefte behynde, 
Where wyth him in fiye[r]s cotis 

accoidyng to theyr kynde ; 
Or els I woulde they were 

wyth theyr father the Pope, 
For whylse they be in England, 

the! do but lyue in hope. 
And excep[t] they myght get 

the Bible boke buined. 
Into dispeyre theyr hope 

wyl shortly be turned. 
God graunte them the grace 

this hope to forsake, 
And their naturall prynce 

for theyr heade to take ; 
Forsakinge the Pope, 

wyth al hys peltrye, 
Whiche of longe tyme 

they haue sette so much by. 








[leaf 83, hack] 

his landa, and 
let them out dear. 

Of Rente Rayssrs. 

AManne that had landes, 
of tenne poxmde by yere, 
Surueyed the same, 
and lette it out deare ; 


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So that of tenne pounde 

he made well a score 
Moe poundes by the yere 

than other dyd before. 1376 

But when he was tolde ^.*»«» *»• ^" 

told ii was dan- 

whan daunger it was geroua to oppress 

his tenants, he 

To oppresse his tenanntesy said hs oooid do 

he sayed he did not passe. 1380 his own. 

For thys thynge, he sayde, 

full certayne he wyste. 
That wyth hys owne he myghte 

alwayes do as he lyste. 1384 

But immediatlye, I trowe 

thys oppressoure fyl sicke Bat he soon died. 

Of a voyce that he harde, Luke um. 

** gene accountes of thy baliwicke ! " 1368 

Of Vayne Wry ters, Vaine Talkers, 
and Vaine Hearers. 


F late, as I laye, Cimrst} 

and lacked my reste. 
At suche time as Titan 

drewe faste to the Easte, 1302 

Thys sayinge of Christe Christ's s^yins 

. . J aboat idle words 

came into my mmae^ came into my 

Whyche certayne and true 

all maner menne shall fyndc : — 1396 

Of euerye idle worde ifath, xU. 

ye shall geue a rekeninge ; 
Be it spoken by mouthc, 

or put in wiytynge. 1400 

O Lorde (thought I then) 

what case be th[e]y in, what a case they 

That talke and write vaynely, and uik Tainiyt 

And thinke it no synne] 1404 

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I thought I MW 
three Tftin men 
oondenmed and 

The writer's heed 
wee opened, end 
tlie Ulker stirred 
his brains with 

while Uie writer 
pulled the talker's 
tongue oat a 

and the listener's 
ears were pulled 
alrooat np to 

Than slombred I a little, 

and thoughte that I sawe 
Thre sortes of vayne menne 

condempned by Grods lawe. 
The one was a wryter, 

of thynges nought and vayne^ 
And an other a talker ; 

And thys was theyr paync : 
The wiyter hadde the crowne 

of hys heade opened. 
Whose braynes wyth a stycke 

the talker styrred ; 
And he wyth boeth handes 

drewe the talkers tonge, 
So that wythont hys mouthe 

it was an handefull longe. 
The thirde was an herkener 

of fables and lyes. 
Whose eares were almost 

drawen vp to his eyes. 






Of Vnsaciable Purchasers- 

A rich man rode 
oat, and had only 
a boy with him« 

bonght this 

"Marry, men 
eay yoar pur> 
chase is great, 
bat yoar hoase- 
hold small." 

AN vnreasonable ryche man 
dyd ryde by the way. 
Who, for lacke of menne, 

hadde wyth hym a boye. 
And as he paste by a pasture 

most pleasaunte to se, 
" Of late I haue pnrchasid 

thys grounde, lacke," quod he. 
" Mary, maister" (quod the boye) 

" men saye ouer all, 
That your purchase is greate, 

but your housholde is smal." 




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** Why, lacke ** (quod this riche man) 

'< what haue thej to do ? 
Woolde they haue me to purchase 

and kepe greate house to I" 1 440 

" I can not tell " (quod the hoye) 

'^ what maketh them to hrawle ; 
But they saye that ye purchase 

the Deuilly his dame, and alL" 1444 

"Why. Jack, 
would th^ have 
in« buy and keep 
• great hoQM 
too?" « 

Luk. miii, 
**I don't know 
why tii^ Iwawl— 
tbey My you bay 
the devU and his 

Of Vsurars. 

ACertaine man had landes, 
little thought it were ; 
And yet wold fiaine haue liued 

lyke a gentleman's peare. 1448 

Of thys lande he made sale, 

and toke readye golde, 
And let that for double the rente 

of the lande that was solde. 1452 

Than came there a broker, 

and sayde if he woulde do 
As he woulde aduise hym, 

he shoulde make of one penyo two. 1456 

" Marye that woulde I fayne do " 

(quod this vsurer than) 
" I praye the teache me 

the feat if thou can." 
" You shall " (sayde thys broker) 

" lende but for a monethcs day. 
And be sure of 

a sufficiente^ gage alwaye, 
Wyth a playne bill of sale ; 

if the day be not kept, 
And se that ye do 

no causis accepte. 1468 

little land, but 
wanted to live 
like a gentleman, 
to he sold hie 
land, and lent the 

A broker came 
and offbred to 
tell him how to 
make twopence 
of a penny. 

14G0 (lears&,back] 

** Lend only fur a 
' month's day ' 
with good ae- 

tAnj curity, and a bill 

1404 of Bale. 


' Orig. Buffitience 

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Toar Intwett 
matt be a penny 

for ft ■hilMnf^ 

then et the Teer^f 
end twelve 
months will give 
twelve I 

my twenty ponndf 
will iwoduoe ftmr 
hundred, end I 


Bnt a prophet 
eeme^ and told 
him heaven waa 
no place Amt Bodi 
onlawftil gain. 

"Ton are to live 
en £S0 a year 


and with the 
Inoreaee yon are 
to profit all who 
live near you. 

Than moste you be sure - 

that your inteieste be 
One penye for a shyDynge, 

and thie pence for three. 1472 

So by the yeres ende, 

twelue moneths gene twelue pens, 
"For the vse of a sbyll3mge. 

lOy I haue tolde you all sons." 1476 

Than saide this ysurery 

<< this matter goeth well^ 
For my twentye pounde lande, 

that I chaunced to sell, 1480 

I shall haue foure hundred 

pounde rente by the yere, 
To lyue lyke a Lorde, 

and make iolye chere." 1-^84 

Than came there a Prophete, 

and tolde thys manne playne. 
That h[e]auen is no place 

for Buche vnlawefull gayne. 1488 

" Why, sir" (quod this Vsurar) 

"it is my liuynge." 
" Tea, sir" (quod this Prophet) 

" but it is not youre calling ; 1492 

Tou are called to Hue 

after twentye pounde by yere. 
And after that rate 

ye shoulde measure your chere, 1406 

Tyll God did encrease you 

by his mercifull wayes. 
By encreasynge youre come, 

and youre cattell in the leyes ; 1500 

Whyche encrese wyth your landes 

you are bounde to employe, 
To the profite of all them 

that do dwell you bye. 1504 

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Ye are not borne to your selfe, 

neither maje you take 
That thynge for youre owne, 

-where of God did you make 
But stnarde and baylife, 

that shall yelde a rekeninge 
At the Daye of ludgmente 

for enerye thyng. 
And do ye not donbte, 

but then ye shall knowe, 
Whether ye maye your goodes 

at yonre pleasure bestowe ; 
And whether ye maye vse 

wayes wycked and yl, 
To incraese your riches 

at your owne wilL 
But chieflye to lende 

youre goodes to ysurie^ 
Is a thinge that you shall 

moste dearelye abye ; 
For Christe saieth in Luke 

that the heathen do so. 
Take hede lest ye flytte 

^me pleasure to woe." 1528 


1508 (lMr88.bftekJ 

At tlM jQdgnMnt 

iOIJ wlMtharyoa may 
do M yoQ like 
Jyuks wvi. 
with your owTu 



To lend jour 
mon^ for uMiry 
is a thing yoa 
wiU joflto for. 
Christ says tlie 
\ne}A heathen do so." 

Zuke ,rf. 


IT Cum p[r]iuilegio ad imprimendum solum. 

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i\it h$k triimpjet, hlaktn bgf il^t Bt- 

umtt ^nsel {as is mentunuli in tfje eUs 

uentif of tfje ^jiocalqrg) calling al estats 

of mm to tf)f tgsijt patf) oC tl)tsi^ bocati^ 

on, \a\ftxin wee contesmH .xii, i^tjSjSond to 

ttDtlue 0eueral estate of men, iolfu^ if 

tljei leame anii folotoe, al sJ^all tie 

• biel, anil notfiing amis • 

/^/ /^/ 

f tS^e bojO[ce of one crisnjie 

in H^e lieserte. 

i^ttiie Mi, 

f ^fte retig tfje 2/ortid toaie, ntafte ffis 
yatfies jsti:eifif)t« £uers balleg jSJ^albe fsl« 
leH, anH euers tnountagne anb Igttle figl 
jSfjaUie malie lolne, anti ti^ntfles tfjat be cro: 
fteH sijalbe maHe ettpg^, $c fiarH passa^ 
ge0 jE^al&e tumeli into plaine ianies, aria 
all flegf) 0})all 0e ttje l)ea[I]t}) of ffiolr« 
Sjsaie .xL 

If Impnntiejtr adt |f0iitr0n bg $0- 

iett Ctotoles, titnellsnge in <!Elie 
rents in f^ollmm, ^nno l9o. 

f Cum priuilegio aH impris 
ntentittm isolutn* 

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The Boke to the Eeadar. 

It pleased mine autor to gene me of nam[o] i am Mm«d th« 

The voice of the last trampe (as S. lohn doeth wryte) 

Thincking therhj to anoyd all the blame to avoid an 

That commenli channceth to snch men as wiyte 4 

Plainly to snch men as walk not npright : 

For truth gette[t]h hatred of snch as be yll. 

And wil snfer nothing that bridleth their wiL 7 

If ought do displese you, let me here the wit. 

For I am the doar of all that is done ; 

I bark at your fauts, but loth I am to by t. Though i terk i 

un nnwilUnff to 

If by this barkyng ought myght be won : 11 ute. 

And for thys intent I was firste bigonne, 

That, hearing your fautes, ye myght them emende, Hearing year 

fluilts, may yoa 

And reigne with our master Christ in the end 14 amend them. 

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The Contents of tMs Soke. 

i. The Beggars lesson 

... (p. 67) 

iL The Seroantes lesson 

... (p. 69) 

ill The Yeomans lesson 

... (p. 63) 

iiii The Lewde Priestes lesson 

... (p. 70) 

V. The Scholars lesson 

... (p. 72) 

yi. The Learned Mans lesson 

... (p. 74) 

viL The Phisicians lesson 

... (p. 79) 

viiL The Lawiars lesson 

... (p. 82) 

ix. The Marchauntes lesson 

... (p. 86) 

X. The Gentiemans lesson 

... (p. 90) 

zL Maiestrates lesson 

... (p. 96) 

xiL The Womans lesson 

... (p. 99) 

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The Beggars Lesson. 

Whoso woulde that all th3mge8 were weU, 
And woulde hjrmselfe be wyth out blame. 
Let hym geue eare, for I wyll tell 
The waje how to performe the same. 

F^Tste walke in thy vocation, 
And do not seke thy lotte to chaunge ; 
For through wycked ambition, 
Many mens fortune hath ben straynge. 


woold bar* all 
things well fire 

Walk In your 
and don't try to 
duuigt yoor lot. 


If God haue layede hys hande on the, 
And made the lowe in al mens syght. 
Content thiselfe with that degre, 
And se thou walke therin upryght. 

If thou, I saye, be very pore, 
And lacke thine health or any limme, 
No doubte God hath inough in store 
For the, if thou wylt truste in hym. 

If thou wylt truste in hym, I saye. 
And continue in patience, 
No doubt he wyll fede the alwaye 
By his mercifull prouidence. 

Call thou on hym, and he wyll moue 
The hertes of them that dwel the by, 
To geue the such thynges for hys loue 
As seme for thy necessitie. 

When Daniell was in the denne 
Of Lions, haueynge nought to eate, 
Abacucke was sent to him then. 
With a pot of potage and meate. 





JSiais. [msni.] 

Troat in God, and 
He will feed 700, 

and giTe 70a 
^ what yoQ need: 
2* Dan,{Bi[v.2 

ae He did Daniel 
In the lions' den. 


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And when Elias fled away 
liii, Ss^.'] From Ahab and quene lesabel, 
Md'siuahwiMn The ranens fed him by the way, 

And as King Danid doth leooid, 
IPtal.'] .147. The raaena byides left in the nest. 
Are, when they cry, fed of the Lord, 
Though they know not to make request. 36 

Trust thou theif ore in Grod aboue, 
[/Vol.] .82. And cal on him with confidence, 
HtwiumoTt ^d doubtles he will mens hertes moue 


«»•«>>«>*• To fede the of beneuolence. 40 

[XuA] .orii. But if at any tyme thou lacke 

if^aiin ^' Thynges nedeful, yet do not despayre, 
j;;^;* ■** As thoughe the Lorde did the forsake. 

Or ded to the displeasure beare. 44 

But in such case, cal to thy mynd 

What plenty God hath to the sent, 
rjhjh, miii And thou shalt wel perceiue & find 

Yoa will And yoa 

hare wattod That thou hast many thynges mispent. 48 

"**^ Then thincke Gods iustyce coulde not leaue 

The unplaged, for that thou hast 
lSa]pt. wi Mispente the gyfbes thou didst receyue 

To lyue ypon, and not to wast. 52 

Then must thou nedes giue God glorie 
llM]hs upv. For his ypryght and lust iudgement, 
mnstbeMRy. And be most earnestly sory, 

For that thou hast his giftes mispent. 56 

But if thou finde thy conscience cleare. 

As few men can I am righte sure. 

Then let Jobs trouble be thi chere, 
IM [flwi.] That thou mayst pacientlie endure. 60 

Mat [iv.] Yea though ^^u shouldest perishe for fode, 

PmI [»<«•.] Yet beare thou thy crosse patientlie ; 

Thoogfa yoo 

ptri^, uar it For the ende shal tume the to good. 

Though thou lye in the stretes & die. 64 


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Pore Lazaros died at the gate 
Of the ryche man (as Luke doth tell) ; 
But afterwarde in lest he sate. 
When the riche glutton was in heL 

Stay thou thi selfe therfore vpon 
These examples comfortable^ 
And doubtles thy vocation 
Thou shalt not thinks nuserable. 

Neither shalt thou grudge, or repyne. 
That thy pouertie is so greate ; 
But shalt thy selfe euer encline 
To Goddes wyl, who doth the viset. 

Thou shalt not grudge when thou shalte craue 
Of anie man his charitie^ 
Though at his hand t?ioxi canst nought haue, 
But shalt praie for him herteli. 

That, if he haue this worldes riches, 
And yet hath not Godly pitie^ 
The spirits of God will him possesse, 
And teache him to know his duetie.^ 

Thus doing, thou dost walks upright 
In thy calling, thou maiest be sure, 
And art more precious in Goddes syght 
Then men that be ryche paste measure. 

Thus leaue I the in thi callinge, 
Exhorting the ther in to stands ; 
And doutles at thy last endyng 
Thou shalt be crowned at Grods han[de] 



Ltaanw and the 

Mat. [afri] 

and take eomfon 
from (benu 


Too most not 
gnidgo or repine^ 


80 batprajovon 


reftiM to give yoa 
when TOO aak. 
i. Joh, [iii,'] 

84 Mat,x[wHii,'} 

Aetu, i[«.] 

jour oaUing, 

and at last yoa 
win be rtfirarded. 

92 lSajrt%,^iH. 

^ The Seruauntes Lesson. 

Brother, come hither unto m[e] 
And leame some parte of di[s]cipline ; 
For I am sent to enstruct th[e,] 
And teach the some godlie doctryne. 
' Orig. ouetie. 

^ instrnoiyoQ* 
oO aenmnta,and 

RiTe yoa godly 


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I am sent to cal the, I say, 

Backe from thy stout & stubbome mjnd : 

Take hede thorfore, and beare away 

Such lessons as thou shalt here find. 100 

TLujl .wvU. Fyist, consider that thy callyng 
workaadobcy. Is to do seruice, and obey 

All thy maisteis lawful biddynge ; 

Bearyng that he shal on the laye. 104 

ifyoormMtOTis If he be cruel unto the, 
Lu^ ^^^ And ouercharge the with labour, 

Cal to the Lord, and thou shalt be 

Shortly out of his cruel power. 108 

lEx'iodi A, Eemember thou lacobe kynred, 

mmI rtimnnbtr 

iht iiTMUtM in That in Egypt were sore oppreste ; 

But when they were most harde bested. 

The Lorde brought them to quiete reste. 112 

They could not cry so sone, but he 
whom Ood hMTd. Had heard and graunted their requeste : 

And right so wil he do by thee. 

And se al thi great wronges redreste. 116 

I3f\at, wxv He wyL I say, deliuer the 

&awiUd«Uver ^ ^ ^/^ , ''' . , 

70a oot or Out of bondage and seruitude, 


And bringe to passe that thou shalt be 

Maister of a great multitude. 120 

And bicause thou didest walke vpright, 
Shewyng thy self e obedyent, 
aadmaktyoar Thy seruauutes shall haue styl in sighte 

MTTuite obty *r « 

70a. The feare of God omnipotent. 124 

And like sendee as thou hast done, 

Thou shalt haue done to the againe : 
Mat. [vi.] For sence the world was first begonne, 
and, [vUJ] jjeuer true seruaunt lost his payne. 1 28 

jaeobMTTodu lacob scTued full fourteno yere, 
Oen, Immim] And dealt truly with his maiBter, 

As in the Bible doth appeare, 

And was exceadinge rich after. 132 

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i Petr. [n.] 


matter whatjroar 

'Fouitene yere be semed Laban, 
"Who was made riche be bys laboure ; 
Bat afterwaidy lacob began 
To growe to much greater bononr. 136 and incima.Hi 'n 

Laban was neuer of sucb migbt 
As lacob was witbin sbort space : 
For bis trae seraice, in Gods sigbt, 
Had purcbest bim favour and grace. 140 

Tbus seest tbou bow God dotb regard 
Tbe good seroice of seroauntes true. 
And bow be dotb in tbem rewarde 
Tbe sendee tbat ia but tbeir due. 144 

It forcetb not wbat manor man 
Thy maister is, so tbat tbou be 
In tby seruice a Cbristian, 
Doynge as Cbnst commaundetb the. 148 

But if tby maister be wicked, 
And would baue the do wicked] ie, 
Then se tbat tby faytb be pitched 
On thy Lord God most constantly. 152 

Call to tby mynde good Daniel, 
Who serued bis prince fayethfuUy, 
Notwythstandynge be was cruel, 
And eke bis Lords Grods enemy. 156 

Serue bim trulye, I say, for why 
God bath bade tbat tbou sbouldest do so ; 
But do tbou nothings wickedly, 
Neytber for wel nor yet for wo. 160 

Se tbou serue bim as faytbfully 
As be were tby Lord and thy God ; 
Not wytb eye-seruice fainedly, 
Neithyr for the feare of the rodde ; 164 [ Bph']e$ M. 

But for tbe conscience thou dost beare 
To thy Lorde Gods commaundemente ; 
That is, for loue, and not for feare 
Of any worldly punysbmente. 168 

If he iHshea yoa 
to do wrortff, yoa 
muat bare tadHh, 

and call to mind 
Daniera ecHidaet. 

master fidUiftilly, 

lC^r}oii AH, 

but only tor lort, 
hoi fear. 

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otnght, or g«t ft 

MUing, yoa art 
■art to ooBM to ft 

■o thall men do 

Besides, Qod 

•ad He win 

Do thuBy and then thou slialte he sore 
Thy Lord wil ener piospere the ; 
And at his good wil and pleasure, 
Thou shalt not mysse to he made he. 172 

But if thou wilt be styl stuidy, 
And do thy sendee wyth gradgyng ; 
The Lord shall plage the worthely, 
With manifulde kindes of scouiginge. 176 

Thou shalt be put to drudgery 
Many a daye, maugrea thyne head ; 
And be kepte stil in slauery 
Al thy life dayes, til thou be deade. 180 

And if thou chaunce to renne awaye^ 
Either thou shalt be brought agayne. 
Or else, when thou doest chaunce to staye, 
A worsse master shal the retayne. 184 

Once thou shalt be certeine of this^ 
That, if thou refuse thy callyng, 
Of misery thou shalt not mysse, 
ThoDgh thou escape sodaine fallynge. 188 

Yea though thou do prosper a whyle, 
And seme to haue fortune thi frende, 
Yet thou dost but thy selfe begyle. 
For miserye shal be thine ende. 192 

For as thou didest thy maister seme, 
So shall al thy seruauntes serue the ; 
And as thou didest his goodes preserue, 
So shall thy goodes preserued be. 196 

And beside thys, Gods wrath is bent 
Toward the for disobedience ; 
Wherfore, onles thou do repent, 
He wyl adde thereto vehemence. 200 

He wyl plage the here wonderously. 
And at the end cast the in paine, 
Wher thou shalt lye etemallye, 
And wysh to be a slaue agayne.^ 204 

' Orig. rgayne. 

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Eepent therfore, I the aduise, 
And seke thine owne saluation ; 
And then thou must in any wise 
Walke stil in thy vocation. 

Do thy sendee dilygently,^ 
And shew no disobedience ; 
Be thou not stoute, but stil apply 
And do all thynges with reuerence. 

Befiise nothing that must be done. 
But do it wyth al redines ; 
And when thou hast it once begon, 
Then set asyde all slouthfulnes. 

Be true, trusty, and tryfle not ; 
Be gentle and obedient ; 
And blessyng shal lyght on thy lot, 
For doyng Gods commaundement. 

To make an ende : haue stil in minde 
Thyne estate and condition, 
And let thyne herte be styll enclynde 
To walke in thy vocation. 


Repent, and do 




Reftist nothing 
thatmnct bt 


be trae, trnet j» 
and don't trifle. 


Remember joat 
oondition, and 
keep in it. 


The Yeomans Lesson. 

Thou that arte borne the ground to tyll. 
Or for to laboure wyth thyne hande. 
If thou wilt do nought iJiat ia yil, 
Desyre not idle for to stands. 228 

But se thou do plowe, plant, and sow, 
And do thy nedeful busines. 
As one that doth his duty knows. 
And wyll not the Lords wyll transgresse. 232 

For what doste thou, if thou desyr 
To be a lord or gentleman. 
Other then heape on the Gods ire 
And shewe thy sepjfe no Christian ? 23G 

* Orig. dlligenthy. 

Ton that are n 
tiller of the 
ground, mutt not 
remain idle. 

70a most plow, 
plants and sow. 

If yoo deaire to 
be a gentleman, 
yon will gain 

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lJ']ohn jf. 


and kMp within 

pknlj, don't bt 

bat giTe where 
there It need. 

If jon get tUAp 
don't eetyoor 
mind on dothee 
and dnintj food. 

but remember 
the poor, and be 

♦. Tim, r[i.] 

anything left, 
I yon. 

For Christes shepe do hear hys voyce, 
Whych biddith the worke busily 
Sixe day% and in the senenth reioyce. 
And gene somewhat to the nedy. 240 

It doth also byd the be ware 
Of the deeyre to be alofte : 
For he that doth for honour care 
Falleth in Sathans snares fol oft. 244 

Haue minde, therfore, thyselfe to holde 
Within the bondes of thy degre. 
And then then mayest euer be bold 
That God thy Lorde wyll prosper the. 248 

And though the Lord geue the plentye 
Of come, cattell, and other thynge. 
Be thou neuer the more gredy, 
Nor set thy mynd on gatheringe. 252 

But thinke the Lorde doth these thynges sende 
To the, as to his stuard true, 
That wilt not his goodes wast & spende, 
But bestow them wher they be due. 256 

And if wyth thy labour thou get 
Money much more then thou doste nede, 
Do not thy mynde on rayment set, 
Keither on deynty fode to fede. 260 

Set not (I say) thy minde on pride^ 
Neither upon delicioxis fare, 
Neither forget at any tyde 
To geue the pore that thou mayest spare. 264 

But when thou hast sufficient 
Of fode and honest apparrayle, 
Then holde thy selfe therwyth contente. 
As wyth the wage of thy trauayle. 268 

The reste (if ought remayne vnspent 
Upon thyne owne necessity) 
Bestowe as he that hath it sent, 
Hath in hys word cor?:maunded the. 272 

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And yf thou fynd not \imtten there 
That thon mast heape thy chest wyth golde, 
To hye greate liuelode for thjne hjere, 
Howe darest thou then be so bold 276 

Howe darest thou be bolde, I say, 
To heape up so much goulde in store. 
Out of the due that thou shouldest paye 
To them that be pore, sicke, and sore 1 280 

Wo be to them, sayth Esaie, 
That heape togither house and lande ; 
As men that woulde neuer fynde stay, 
Tyll all the earth wore in theyr hande. 

What, wil ye dwel alone (sayeth he) 
Upon the earth that is so wyde) 
Wyll you leaue no parte therof free 
From your unsatiable pryde ? 

Ye node not to be so gredy, 
For the Lorde doth you playnly tell, 
That greate houses shall stand empty, 
And no man lefte therin to dwell. 

And Moses sayth that th(m shalt builde 
Houses, and neuer dwell therin 
Thyself nor leaue them to thy chyld, 
Nor any other of thy kynne. 

And why t bicause thou hast no mynd 
To kepe the Lords commaundement. 
But sekest euer for to fynde 
Wayes to encrease thine yerely rent 

No maner threatnyng can the let 
From purchasyng the deuill and all ; 
It is aU fysh that commeth to net. 
To maintaine thy great pryde wyth alL 

Well, tume agayne I the aduise, 
And leame to walke in thyne estate, 
And set Grods feare bifore thyne eies, 
Lest, when thou wouldst, it be to late. 308 


How dare TOO 
board op ricfaw! 

Bttaie ,v, 

Isaiah prononnoet 
a woe apoa all 



houses shall 
'iJ^ stand emp^. 

YoQ shall never 


I yon have 
no mind to keep 
God's oommaud- 


All is fish that 
comes to your 
0\)% net— yoQ would 

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Bat npmt, and And haae in thy niynde euer more^ 

walkinjroor __ « - , « . 

Tocauon. Thys rule of thy profession, 

i. Cor, [«*i.] Whych is in dede Grods holy lore, 

To walke in thy vocation. 312 

IT 700 thooM not But if the Lorde do the not blesse 
thank God. In thy labouTS wy th greate plenty, 

Tet thanke thou hym neuer the lesse ; 

Thon hast more then thou arte worthy. 316 

If your rmt is If thy lauddorde do reise thy rent, 

nilaed, praj for '' ^ •» 

joar landlord. Se thou paye it wyth quietenes ; 

And praye to Grod omnipotent, 

To tak horn hym his cruelnes. 320 

sotiiaiiyoa So shall ^Aou hoapo colos on his heado, 

obtain a blening. 

And purchase to thy selfe greate reste : 

By the same man thou shalt be fedde 

By whom thou wast bifora oppreste. 324 

For Grod, who ruleth ech mans herte, 

Shal tume thy landlords hert, I saye, 

And shall all his whole lyfe conuert, 

So that he shall by thy greate staye. 328 

irhe is not Or else, if he be not worthy 

oodwuidoiSS To be called to repentaunce, 
^"^ No doubt thy Lorde wyll hym distroy. 

Or take from hym his heritaunoe. 332 

and yon will bt Sure thou shalt be he wyll the set ' 
^ Free from thy landlords tyranny ; 

For he dyd neuer yet forget 

Any that walked orderly. 336 

If yon take ih« But if thou wylt ueds take in hande 

rsmedy Into yoor __ *. . * 

own hand, Thyuo owue wroDg for to remedy. 

The Lord hym self wyll the wythstande, 
And make thy lan[d]lord more gredy. 340 

it wiu be all th« And wher before ^^u paidst great rent, 
worse oryoo. rj^YiOM shalt now lose thy house and all ] 
Bicause thou couldest not be contente 
"With patience on liim to cal. 344 

' Grig, looks like see. 

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In like sort, if tliy prince wil taka 
More tribute the?? thou canst well spar^ 
See thou paye it him for Goddes sake, 
Whose officers al princes are. 348 

For in his nede both thou and thine 
Are his to maintains his estate ; 
It is not for the to define 
What great charges thy king is at. 352 

Yea, though thou se euidently 
That he wasteth much more then nede, 
Yet pay thy duty "willyngly, 
And doubtles God shal be thy mede. 356 

Now touching thy religion : 
If thy prince do commaunde the ought, 
Against Gk)ddes Euangelion, 
Then praye for him styl in thy thought 360 

Pray for him styl, I say, that he 
May haue Godly vnderstanding 
To teach Gods word to such as be 
Committed to his goueming. 364 

And se thou do not him dispyse, 
But aunswere him wyth reuerence ; 
And though iJiou mightest, yet in no wyse 
Do thou forget obedience. 368 

IT Take not his swerde out of his hande, 
But lay thy necke downe under it. 
Yea, thoughe thon mightest his force w*t7istand ; 
For so to do for the is fit. 372 

Thy maister Christ hath taught tJie wel 
When he would no resistence make : 
Neither agaynst the powers rebell, 
When men were sent him for to take. 376 

Yet if the Lord haue geuen to the 
Such knowledge, that thou art certaino 
Of thy fayth, knowyng it to be 
Of the truth, do therin remaine. 380 

Pay all your, 
Mat Jtii. 

and remember it 
isn't for yoa to 
say what the 
king shall spend. 

Eren if yon see 
hb waste. It is 
your duty to pay. 

If the king 
commands yoa to 
act oontrary to 
the gospel. 

yoa must still 
pray for him. 

and answer him 
with rererenoe. 

a. «%%%%, 
You must not 
take the sword 
into yoor own 

Math 26. 

If yoa are 
certain of your 
fidth, remain 
in it. 

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JUath j8. For though man may thy body kyl, 

Yet oughtest thou not him to feare ; 

For he can do thy soule none yll : 

Wherfore be bold, do not dispaiie. 384 

Beboidto Be bold, I say, Christ to confesse 

He CM Mv« joa Wythout feaio of this woridly paine ; 
from ftU ui, p^^ yffhffn, thou shalt be in distresse, 

Christ shal acknowledge the agayne. 388 

Luke ,mmi Christ shal acknowledge the, I say, 

Mknowudft TOO, I^ thou couquire by sufferyng ; 
irjoaoooqner. ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^ hereupon stay. 

That thou must walcke in thy collynge. 392 

But if jou uft But if thou do lyfte up thy sword 

Ma. afwvi Agaynst thy kynge and soueraine, 
.gidiutib.kt.ig, Then art thou iudged by Gods word 

As worth! therwith to be slayne. 396 

or rtpiM i^ainrt Yea, thou maist not grudge or repine 
^ Against thy kynge in any wise. 

Though thou shouldst se plaine wtt/i thine eien 

That he were wicked past al sise. 400 

Pro Mil, For it is God that appointeth 

|[^!^t«i bj Kinges and rulers ouer the route : 
God, and, ^^^ yrHh. his power he anointeth 

Them for to be obeycde, no double. 404 

Khe is erii, to If they be euil, then thinke thy sinne 

po jov Deseruith that plage at Gods hande; 

And se thou do forthwyth bigynne 

Thyne owne wickednes to wythstande. 408 

Korah and Corah and Dathan dyd rebell, 

"^^ And thought ihai thei them selues culd poyut 

A better prieste in Israeli 

Then Aaron, whom God dyd annoynte. 412 

But what came of their phantasie 1 

Was not distruction theyr ende ? 
and wOTt God dyd distroye them sodenly, 

Bicause thei woulde his workes emende. 416 

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Let this example suffice the, 
To kepe the in obedience 
To such as God shal set to be 
Oner the in preheminence. 

If thou do thus, thou shalt be sure 
That God thy Lord wyll euer se 
That, though thy rulars be not pure, 
Tet they sliall euer defende the. 

Contrariwise, if thou rebell. 
Bo sure the Lorde 'wyll the distroye ; 
Which thyng hath ben declared wel 
"Wythin this realme very lately. 

For notwythstanding that oure kyngo. 
And eke oure rulers euerychone. 
Be mercifull in theyr doynge, 
Yet haue the rebelles cause to mone. 

And why f bicause no rebelles shall 
Escape Gods hand vnpunished ; 
For God hym selfe doth princis call 
Hys Christes and hys annoynted. 

Whoso therfore doth them resiste, 
The [sjame resisteth God certayne ; 
For God hym selfe doeth them assiste 
Agaynst them ouer whom they raygne. 

K thou therfore fynde the greeued 
Wyth men set in Autoritie, 
Sake thou not to be auenged, 
But let God take vengeauncc for the. 

Let me take vengeance, saith the Lord, 
And I wyll quyte them all theyr hyrc : 
Do thus, and scripture doth recorde 
That thou shalt haue all thy desyre. 

Thou shalt haue thy desyre, I saye. 
Upon the wicked maiestrate. 
If thou wylt kepe thy selfe alway 
Wythin the boundes of thine estate. 

Let their &te 
keep you in 


rulers will 
424 defend 7011. 

If you rebel, m 
you did lately, 




Princes «re God's 

and thoee who 
resist them resist 

Horn flri[t*.] 



to whom 
JEccU. [a?H.] 



JRom. i»[n.] 
Keep yourself 
within bounds, 
and you will hare 
your desire of 
wicked magis- 

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Toa'n go to ben Thus leaue I the, wyth threatenyng 
IfjouwlU ^ , , ,, , . 

change. To the thy soulles damnation, 

If thou, midlykynge thy callynge, 

Wylt nedes change thy vocation. 456 

The Lewde or Vnlemed Priestes Lesson. 

Lftttn, Sir Joiin» FTIhou that art lewde wythoute leamynge, 
I^L«thi]ig uT JL Whom communly men cal syr lohn^ 
^^ Greue eaie, for I wyll saye somethynge 

Concemyng thy vocation. 460 

Ton nt ignortnt, Thou art a man Yoide of knowledge, 

And without good 

qnautiM. And eke of all good qualities, 

Only mete for to dych and hedge, 

Or else to plant and graffe mens trees. 464 

Too are not an Thou art not, as thou woldst be calde, 

ofTiDrtror * *- - ./» 

•aerifies An offerer of sacrifice ; 

For though thy crowne were iiii tymes bald, 
Yet canst thou not so bier our eies. 468 

For it is plains in holy wryte, 

for none can oder That none Can offer sacrifices 

lIf}ebrH M, '^ot sinne, either in flesh or sprite, 

Though he be boeth learned and wyse ; 472 

since Christ waa For Christe was once offered for all, 

[H'^ehru, ix To satisfie for all our synne, 

And hath made ire that erste were thral. 

The faythM flocke of Jacobs kynne. 476 

To offer sacrifice therfor, 
Thou arte not called, I tell the playne ; 

[i2]om ,ti. For Christe lieueth for euermore, 

and He can no And cau no more for vs be slayn. 480 

more be slain. _, ...,/» ■, ., -.i 

Thy state therfore, and thy callyng, 
Is none other than for to wyrcke, 
lThr]ene. Mi, And not to Hue by forestallyng, 
[iV]£w .r. And name thy selfe one of the kyrcke. 484 

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If thou therfore wylt lyne for aye, 
And reigne with Cbriste for euennore, 
Desyre no mo masses to saye, 
But get thy fode wyth labours sore. 

Geue over all thy tippillyng, 
Thy taueme gate, and table playe, 
Thy cardes, thy dyce, and wyne bibyng; 
And leame to walke a sobre waye. 

And if thou haue any lyueyng. 
So that thou nede not to laboure ; 
Se thou apply the to leamynge 
Wyth all thy busy endeuoure. 

But to thys ende se thou study. 
That, when thou hast the truth learned. 
Thou maist profite other thereby. 
Whom in tyme paste thou hast harmed. 

And se thou go not idelly 
From house to house, to seke a place 
To saye men a masse secr[e]tly, 
Theyr fauoure thereby to purc[h]asa 

Put not the ignorant in hope 
That they shall se all vp againe, 
That hath ben broughte in by the Pope, 
And all the preachars put to payne. 

But if thou canste do any good 
In teachyng of an A B C, 
A primar, or else Robynhode, 
Let that be good pastjrme for the. 

Be euer doyng what thou can, 
Teachyng or leamyng some good thyng ; 
And then, lyke a good Christian, 
Thou doste walke forth in thy callynge. 

But if thou wylt knowledge reiect. 
And all honeste laboures refuse, 
Then arte thou none of Gods elect. 
Bat art wo[r]sse then the cursed lewes. 

'Art tor «ver, 


IJEJphe Aiii, 

Giv« over tippling 
and gambling, 
IJB'iphei .V, 


i Tim t[r.] 

4y0 yooreelfto 



ihat 7<m may 
profit others. 


masMain lecret, 
leading men to 
think popi»h 
euatome will ba 


good by teaching 
A B C, do so*. 


Always do as 
much good as you 


If yon reject 
labour and 
knowledge, yon 
are worse than a 

520 Htm, X, 

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IT Repent iherfore, I the adolBe, 
And take wholsome coxincell bityme ; 
And take good hede in any wise. 
That knowledge doable not thy crime. 524 

iwiupnythat Thus leaue I the, makynge piomes 


To make for the petition, 

That thou mayst lene thy popyshnes, 

And walke in thy vocadon. ' 528 


The Scholars Lesson. 

(ome hither, young man, ynto me ; 
Thou that arte brought up in leamyngo,^ 
QiT« mr, young Greue eare awhile ; I wil teach the 
"**^ How thou shalt walke in thy callynge. 532 

and obMire that First mark wherfore scholes were erccte, 

■ohoola were t *» i i • i 

«Mmd«i And what ^e founders did intende ; 

And then do thy study directe, 

For to attaine vnto that ende. 536 

Doubtles this was al their meaning, 
fyr mch iMffning To haue their countrei fiunyshed 
hod nMd^. Wyth all poyntes of honest leamynge. 

Whereof the publyke weale had nedo. 540 

Call thou therfore to memorie 

What knowledg thy contrei doth lacke, 

And apply the same earnestly. 

By all the meanes that thou canste make. 544 

When yon ha^* And when thou art determined 

decided what 

fcrnmiedfe to get, What knowledg thou wilt most apply, 

get it at oooe, __ .... < i ^ i i 

Then let it not be loytered, 

But seke to get it spedily. 548 

and do not kne. Spondo uot thy tyme in idlenes. 
Nor in vayne occupation ; 
But do thy selfe wholly addres 
To walke in thy vocation. 552 

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Se thou do not thy mynde so set 
On any kynde of exercise, 
That it be either stay or let 
To thy studye in ani wise : 566 

To fyshe, to fonle, to hunt, to haulke, 
Or on an instrument to play ; 
And some whyles to commune and talke. 
No man is able to gayne saye. 560 

To shote, to bowle, or caste the barre, 
To play tenise, or tosse the ball, 
Or to rene base, like men of war, 
Shal hnrt thy study nought at al. 564 

For all these thinges do recreate 
The minde, if thou canst holde the mean ; 
But if tbou be affectionate. 
Then dost thou lose thy studye cleane. 608 

And at the last thou shalt bo founde 
To occupye a place only 
As do in Agime ziphres rounds, 
And to hynder leamyng greatlye. 672 

For if thou hadst not the lyueing, 
Another shoulde, that wold apply 
Him selfe to some kynde of Icamynge, 
To profyte his contrey therby. 576 

If thou therfore wilte not be founde 
Worthy Groddes indignacion. 
Make thy studye perfecte and sounde. 
And walks in thy vocacion. 580 

Let not tyme passe the idelly, 
Lose not the fruite of any houre ; 
Or else suffer bym to supply 
Thy place, that wyll hym endeuoure. 584 

Thou doest but rob the commone wealth 
Of one that would be a treasur ; 
Better thou were to lyue by stelth. 
Then for to worke such displeasure. 588 

and maslo no 
man can UanM 

Ardiaiy, catting 
tbe bar, t«nnig, 
and sodi gainaa. 

recreation, if 
used modarataly. 

If joa did not 
oecupy yoor 
IlTiBff another 
would, who might 
do better. 

Maka your study 

Do not be Idle; 

if yon are, yon 
only rob the 

Digitized by 



Thtw u no nMd ^ But hapl J thou wylt say aga jne, 
your UTing^ Shall I suiTender my lynyng t 

Shall I not therapon remayne, 

After I hane gotten leamyng t 592 

IT Tease thou maiste kepe thy lyiiyng still, 

Tyll thon be called other wise ; 
bat 70a mart But if thou wylt regarde Gods wyll, 

IntpyooTMir ^ o ^9 

lL]uke joix. Thou must thyself styll exercise. 596 

When thou art thorowely learned, 
MidmQrttMeh Then se thon teach other thy skyll, 
[L\ik6 Mm. If thou wylt not be reconed 

For a seruant wycked and ilL 600 

% Teach them, I saye, that thou dost be 
Wyllynge to leame thy discipline, 
and tot 7<mr life And vnto them se thy lyfe be 


btfortthem. A boke to lay e before th eyre eine. 604 

Let them neuer se the idle. 
Nor heare the talke vndiscretely ; 
And by all the meanes possible, 
It&m, 14. Let all thy doynges edifie. 608 

Thus leaue I the, wyshynge that thou 
Maiste, by thys admonition, 
Henseforth desyre, as I do nowo, 
To walke in thy vocation. 612 

The Learned M^ns Lesson. 

Don'tyoQ toarned fT^hou learned man, do not disdayne, 

mtn disdain to 


laaraofiiM. JL To leame at me^ a symple wyght. 

Thy greate abuses to refrayne, 

And in thy callyng to go ryght 616 

Thou arte a man that sittest hye 

In the simple mans conscience ; 
djioUrtirij.yoo To lyue therfore dissolutly, 
ara^offimceto xhou shouldste be vnto them ofifcnce. 620 

Digitized by 




IT Offence, I say, for thou shoulde think 
All that thou doste to be godly ; 
Wherfore do not at this thynge wynck, 
But do emende it spedily. 

Emende thy wycked lyfe, I say, 
And be (in dede) a perfecte lyght, 
As Chnste our Saviouie dothe say. 
And let thy workes shine in mons syght. 

For it is thy vocation 
To leade other the redy waye ; 
Howe greate abominotion, 
Arte thou then i£ thou go astraye 1 

But herein lyeth the whole matter, — 
To know which waye thou shouldest then lead : 
Wherfore I wil not the flatter, 
But tell the truth wythouten dreade. 

Thou must thy selfe humiliate, 
And acknowledge thy wycked sinne, 
And stryue to enter the streyt gate. 
Where fewe men do fynde a waye in. 

IT This way thou canst not walke, so longe 
As thou wylt trauaile sea and lande. 
And £rame all the wordes of thy tonge, 
To get promotion at mans hande. 

Thou must humble thy selfe I saye. 
And not aye seke to be alofte ; 
For he that walketh in rough waye, 
And loketh hye, stombleth ful ofL 

Thou must acknoledge that thou arte, 
Through synne, vnworthy thyne estate. 
And that thy discipline and arte 
Can not brynge the in at that gate. 

Thou must, I saye, stryue to enter. 
And not to get promocion ; 
Thy lyfe thou must put in venture 
For Christes congregation. 

624 Mathltgviii,'] 

Ammd your life 
light to otben. 


i. Om'h fir.] 
If yoa lead man 
attraj, yoa are 



Ton most hmnbla 
yourMlf, and 
your tin. 
Mat, {tii,'] 


YoQ cannot do 
^.. tliit whila you 
044 are seeking 

promotion from 



Toa most eonfieea 
your unw<«thl- 


John, se 

Ton most 
^^^ Tentnre yoor life 
656 forChrUt. 

Digitized by 


pick the motM 


How dost thou walke in ihjs callyng. 

When thy mynde is eamestlj bent 

To gather up eche mans falling. 

By al the wayes thou canst inuent t 6G0 

Mat .Hi. Geue eaie, I saye, therefore thou fole, 

Md*tom']^ And leame thy fyrst lesson agayne : 

Art teoo .gain, j^^^ ^^ ^^j^^ j^^j. ^^^^^ 

And do not hys doctryne dysdayne. 664 

He "wylleth the fyrst to apply 
Thy mynde to knowledge, and to take 
[X]«*tf .H. The great heame out of thyne own eye, 
bMmoatofjoQr And thine abuses to forsske. GG8 

*^ *^^ And then he wolde, that in no wyse 

Thou shouldest be slacke or negligente 
tt»«yofa win To pycke the motes out of mens eyes, 

»• Teaching them how they should repent. G72 

If thou wylt that thei do repente, 
IT^ife M. Repent thou fyist^ that they mayo see 
That the whole some of thyne inteiite 
Is to make them like ynto the. G7G 

If TOD wish For, if thou wylt them to refraine 

and forMiM thdr Mur[t]her, theftc, whoredome, & inceste, 
^ If they se these thynges in the raigne, 

They wyl al thy doctiyne deteste. G80 

If thou forbid them gluttononye, 
And wil them the flesh for to tame, 
7<m nrart p«t They wil defie the vtterly. 

If they se the not do the same. 684 

If jou tpMk of If thou tel them of apparayle. 
yo« mSTbe Or of ought whcrin is excesse, 

fimlUan yoortdf. j^^^ ^ ^j^^y ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 

Unlesse thou be therin faultles. 688 

ifyoa tpeak of What shouldest thou speake of vsurie, 
MeSwTyoirai?' When thou dost take vnlawfull gayne t 

Or rebuke men for Simonie, 

When nothynge else doeth in the rayne? 692 


Digitized by 




Maye not the lay man sanfly saye, 
1 learned of the to by and sel 
' Benefices 1 whych, to thys daye, 
Thou canst put in practise ful well. 606 

Why should not I, as well as thou, 
Haue benifices two or thre ? 
Sens thou hast taught me the wci how 
I may kepe them and blamelessc be. 700 

I can set one to seme the cure, 
That shall excel the in leaminge, 
More then thou dost me, I am sure ; 
And also in godly lyuejTige. 704 

I can kepe hospitalitye. 
And geue as much vnto the pore 
In one yere, as thou dost in thre. 
And wyl performe it wyth the more. 708 

Alas ! that euer we should se 
The flocke of Christ thus bought & solde, 
Of them that shoulde the shepherdes be. 
To leade them saifiy to the folde. 712 

IT Eepent this thyng, I the adaise. 
And take the to one cure alone ; 
And se that in most faythfull wise. 
Thou walk in thy vocation. 716 

Then shall no lay man saye, by right. 
That he learned his misse of the ; 
For it is playne, in ech mans syght. 
That thou dost walks in thy degree. 720 

Morouer, if thou chance to be 
Made a prelate of hygh estate, 
To thyne office loke that thou se. 
And leaue not thy flocke desolate. 724 

And fyrste, before all other thynges, 
Seke thou to fynde good ministers. 
And appoynt them honest lyuynges. 
To be the peoples instructers. 728 [i] l^m .v. 

Why should not a 
kyman have two 
a» well as you? 

He con set others 
to serve the care 
as Icamad as yoa 

he can give as 
xnodi to tlio poor 
as you give. 

Ahu! that 
Christ's flock 
should be so 
bought aud sold. 

Take to one cure 
and be flathlhJ, 

then noneean 
blame you. 

If you area 
preLite^ look to 
your office; 

seek for good 

Digitized by 



hftv* Don« in Let none bane cuie wythin thy see, 

whom fa any 

Ttefc In wnome any greate vice doth reigne ; 

For where mislynyng curates be, 
l&^ech M, The people are not good certayne. 732 

irany ptridi And for them all that do perisho 

wiu haY«to Through thy deMte, thou shalt answere ; 
[i] Tim. V. Wherefore, I do the admonishe 

To loke earnestly to thys geare. 736 

Loke vnto it thy selfe, I saye, 
oonottrnttto And trusts not to a tiyfelar, 
"^ ' That wyll allowe all that wyl paye 

Somewhat ynto the regester. 740 

•lid Me tiiAt um Se that they do instruct the youthe 


instnidwL Of ocho paiyshe diligently, 

And trayne them vp in the Lords truth, 

8o much as in theyr powre shall ly. 744 

ifyooareoaitod Now if SO be thou be called, 

to bo tho prinot*t 

oonoMUor, To be thy Princes councelloure. 

Beware thou be not corrupted 

By the vayne desyre of honoure. 748 

Be not earful how for to holde 

Thy selfe styll in autoritie ; 
be bold to spMk But to spsske truth be euer bolde, 

Accoidyng to (roods veritie. 752 

IT Winke not at faltes that thou shalt se, 

Though it be in thy Souerayne ; 

But do as it becometh the : 
and oxhortbim Exhort hym all vice to refrayne. 756 

to iMTO his 1111% «A .1 •!• 

If thou perceyue him ignoraunt 
In any parte of hys dutie, 
Se thou do hym not checke or taunte. 
But tell hym wyth sobrietie. 760 

and tdi him his Tell hym his fSsJte, I say, playnly, 


sabmisaion. And yet wyth all submission ; 

Lesse thou do seme to speake vaynly, 

Forgettyng thy vocation. 764 

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Thus haue I tolde the, as I woulde 
Be tolde, if I were in thy place; 
To the intent that no man shouldo 
Haue cause to tel the to thy face. 

Thus do I leaue the wyth wyshyng 
To the a yryVL for to aduaunco 
Gods glorie by godly leamyng. 
And not thy lyuyng to enhaunce. 


That I bare told 
yoo joardnt^. 


The Phisicians Lesson. 

Geue eare, nudster Phisicion, 
And set asyde thyne vrinall, 
And that wyth expedition, 
For I the laste trumpet do calL 

€^ue eare, I say, and mark me well ; 
And printe all my wordes in thy myndc. 
For ech thyng that I shall the tell 
Thou shalt boeth true and certen fynde. 

God made the to succour mans nede. 
As lesus Sirach wryteth playne. 
But by due proufe we know in dede 
That many thousandes thou hast slaine. 

But now am I sent from the kyngo 
Of powre and domination. 
To call the from thy murtheiynge. 
To walke in thy vocation. 

First, wher thou didest heretofore vse 
To haue respect to the ryche man, 
I woulde not now thou shouldest refuse 
To helpe the pore man if thou can. 

Helpe hym, I saye, though he be pore. 
And haue nothynge wherwith to paye, 
For hys maister hath yet in store 
A crowne for him at the laste daye. 

AUtnd, Master 
Physician, and 
mark my words 



God made y<m to 
SQCcoar man. 

784 butyoakiUhlm. 


Y<m have paid 
respect to the 
rieh; nofwbrip 
the poor. 


eren when he baa 
nothing with 
«hich to pay. 

796 ir]ohAi. 

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Cow bim for And if thou do on ^im thy cure, 

God's sak«, and 

H« wui raward For hjs Sake that gene herbes their stre^^b, 
'*** Thou ahalt yndoubtedlj be sure 

He wyll lewarde the at the length. 800 

Thjs maister of hys doth regarde 
lMa'\th, iaf. Mercie so much, that he hath tolde 
He rrrards thoM All hva that they shal haue rewarde 

who giTe a cop " 

ofwator. For geujnge water thyne and colde. 804 

And ihinckest thou that he wyll not 

Ecwarde them that geue medicine i 

Thou hast no such mistruste, I wot. 

In hys promise that is diuine. 808 

If yoo em ran I saye therfore, if thou canst cure 


BMj b« saraof The pore mans sore or maladi, 

Of thy rewarde thou shalt be sure, 

If thou wylt shewe on hym mercie. 812 

If yoo negtoet But if thou Suffer hym to lacke 


hM no gold, your Thyue helpe, bicause he lacketh goulde, 
Ko doubt when thou shalt acompt make 
Thy confidence shall be full colde. 816 

whatantiKwHf Then shew thy writynge if thou can, 

hare yoa for 

nagiMttag Uia Wheron thou bearest the so bolde, 


That thou wylt viset no sicke man 

That cannot lyne thy pursse with golde. 820 

Brjrnge forth thy writyng then, I say, 
If thou haue any such in store, 
Wherby thou maiste require eche daye 
A noble of golde or else more. 824 

What right hare And shewe by what right thou maist take 

yoa to diaige for 

looking at water, Two peTico foT the sight of Water, 

When thou knowest not therbi to make 

The sicke man one farthinge better. 828 

Yea, if a man should try the wel. 
To proue what thy counnyng can do, 

when yon cannot He should fynde that thou canst not tell 

tell whether a '^ 

man to iu or not ? "^^Tiether the man be sycke or no. 832 

Digitized by 




V I grannt the water sheweth somthyng. 
Bat not so much as thou dost ciake ; 
Neither is thy labours condynge 
That thou shouldest money for it take. 

But if so be thou canste espy 
By the water what is amisse. 
Teach hym how to soke remedy, 
And worthy some rewarde that is. 

But if thou do but gesse, as doeth 
The blyndeman that doth cast hys staff; 
Though thou by chaunce hit on the soth. 
Thy labour is scase worthy chafife. 

Thou dost but gesse money to wyn. 
And wyth Strang words make men agast ; 
And yet thou thinckeste it no synne 
To cause pore men theyr goods to wast. 

But now, I saye to the, repent. 
And do thy selfe henseforth applye 
To Tse the gifte Crod hath the sent^ 
To the profite of thy contrey. 

Let not lucre make the professe 
Before thy knowleege be perfect ; 
For he that ministreth by gesse, 
Shall not so sons heale as infect 

Apply the eamestli therfore 
To get phisikes perfection ; 
That thou maiste ease the sike and sore, 
And remedy infection. 

And shut not vp thine helpe from sucho 
As stands in moste nede of the same, 
And certes thou shalt gains as much 
By them, as by men of greate fame : 

For God hymselfe hath promised 
To make for them a recompence 
Wherfore doubt not to be paied, 
Both for thy laboure and expencc. 


Water nuij sltov 
•oraething, but 
not much. 



If you onlj gucM, 
but elianctt to 
hit ch« truth, 
yuur labour Is not 
worth mudu 


Ton <mty guan to 
win money. 


Rapent, and 
appl J yourself to 



strive to «aas the 
sick and remedy 
860 infecUoD. 

Help the poor 
and needy, and 



^ -; 


IMyith .16. 

rziuk .10. 

God wlU 
recompense you. 


Digitized by 





when yon di« 

joa will < 

of God's mtrogr. 

Tak« bMd wblto 
yoa h«Te Uui*. 

But if thou wylt not take my rode, 
But folowe after lucre styU, 
I wyll put the out of all dieade 
Thy last rewaide shall be full ilL 

For when crael death shall the styug, 
And thy lyfe fiom the separate, 
Then shalt thou se thou hast nothyng, 
Thy silly soule to recrate. 

Wheifore I must nedes greatly feare 
That in that extreme agonie, 
Thou wylt of Gods mercie dispare, 
And so peiishe eternally. 

Take hede therfor, take hede by time, 
Let not slyppe this occasion ; 
But spedily repent thy cryme, 
And walke in thy vocation. 





The Lawiars Lesson. 

Toor calliog, the 
Law, is good if 
joo walk vigbt^ 
bat yoa are so 

tbtrt Is no limit 

God's wrath Is 
bent against yoa. 

Nowe come hither thou manne of lawe, 
And marcke what I shall to the saye, 
For I intende the for to drawe 
Out of thy moste vngodly waye. 888 

Thy callyng is good and godly, 
If thou wouldste walke therin aryght ; 
But thou art so passing gredy. 
That Gods feare is out of thy syght. 892 

Thou dimist so to be alofte, 
That thy desyre can haue no staye ; 
Thou hast forgotten to go soft^ 
Thou art so hasty on thy way. 896 

But now I call the to repeni^ 
And thy gredines to forsake, 
For Gods wrath is agaynst the bent. 
If thou wylt not my wamyng take. 900 

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Fyrst call vnto thy memorye 
For what cause the laws wer fyrst made ; 
And then apply the busily 
To the same ende to vse thy trade. 904 

The lawes weie made, yndoubtedly 
That al suche men as are oppreste, 
Myght in the same fynde remedy, 
And leade their lyues in quiet reste. 908 

Doest thou then walke in thy callyng, 
When, for to vexe the innocent^ 
Thou wilt stand at a barre ballyng 
Wyth al the craft thou canst inuente t 912 

I saye ballyng, for better name 
To haue it can not be worthye ; 
When lyke a beast, withouto al shame, 
Thou wilt do wrong to get money. 916 

Th3me excuses are knowne to well, 
Thou saist thou knowest not the matter, 
Wherfore thon sayst thou canst not tel 
At the firste whose cause is better. 920 

Thou knowest not at the first, I graurat, 
But whye wylt thou be retained 
Of playniyfe, or of defendaunt^ 
Before thou hast their cause learned ? 924 

For such a plea I blame the not. 
When neither parties right is kno^vne ; 
But when thou thy selfe dost well wot 
Thy client seketh not his owne, 928 

It were a godly way for the 
To knowe the ende ere thou began, 
But if that can bi no meanes be. 
To make shorte sute do what thou can. 932 

If thou be a mans attumey. 
In any court where so it be. 
Let him not waito and spende money. 
If his dispatch do lie in the. 93G 

laws wen first 


If it wM tor yoa 
to (tand bawling 
likaabeart toget 

roa aay you 
don't know wIiom 
matter U right; 

bat why art yoa 

yoa learn the 


I do not blame 
yoa for this plea, 
when neither 
partT*! right ia 

If yoa are 
attorney for any 
man, don't dehij 

Digitized by 




tod tekt no mon 
than your doa. 
iMke 0[tv.] 

ooanMOor, don't 

■Wirt %b» poor — 
wtil M Ui* rich : 
LeuU. [wix!] 

If a wrongdoer 
defend hlm« 

Fear no man's 
power, bofc finr 

If you are a 
Judge, beware of 

[i] Pari. 22. 

lest they bUnd 
yoor sight. 

Eeele$ .wx. 
Admit no delays* 

Apply his matter earnestly, 
And set bim going home againe, 
And take no more then thy datie ; 
For God shall recompence thi paine. 940 

If thou be calde a connseller. 
And many men do seke thy read ; 
Se thon be found no triffeller, 
Eyther for money or for dreade. 944 

But weigh mens matters thoiowlie, 
And se what may be done by right. 
And fnrther as well the neadie 
As thou woldest do the man of might 948 

Se thou haue no respect at all 
To the person, but to the cause ; 
Ajid suffer not suche truth to feJl 
As thou findest grounded on good la wee. 952 

If any man do the desyre 
Him to defend in doinge wronge, 
Though he woulde geue the triple hire, 
Yet geue none eare unto his songe. 956 

Fear not his power, though he be king, 
A duke, an earle, a lord, or knight ; 
But euermor in thy doinge 
Haue the Lordes feare piesent in syght. 960 

If thou be iudge in commune place, 
In the kinges bench, or Exchequier, 
Or other courte, let not thy face 
Be once turned to the briber. 964 

Beware thai bribes blinde not thy sight 
And make the that thou canst not se 
To judge the pore mans cause aryght, 
When it is made open to the. 968 

Why shouldest thou stil admyt delaies 
In matters that be manifest % 
Why doest thou not seke all the wayes 
Tliat may be to nd the oppreste 1 972 

Digitized by 




To thine office it doeth belonge 
To iadge as iustice doth require ; 
Though the party that is to stronge. 
Would gene the house and land to hire. 976 

I haue no more to say to the, 
But wame the that thou be contente 
To lyue only vpon thy fee, 
Fearyng the Lorde onmipotente. 980 

And for to see that no man -wrest 
The lawes, to do any man wrongs ; 
And that no pore man be oppreste, 
Nor haue his sute deferred longe. 984 

Now if thou be Lord Chauncelloure, 
As censor ouer al the rest ; 
8e thou do thy best endeuour 
To see al open wronges redrest. 988 

And of this one thynge take good hede, 
That amonge them that do appeale, 
Thou do not, for fsiuoure or mede, 
Suffer any falsely to deale. 992 

Beware of them, I saye, that vse 
First for to tempt the commune lawes. 
And yet the iudgement to refuse 
When they be like to lose their cause. 996 

Beware of them, and let them not 
Abuse thy courte in any wyse. 
To werie suche as, by iuste lotte, 
To cleim their ryght do enterpryse. 1000 

When they shall make peticion 
Examine them diligently. 
And graunt not an iniunction 
To eche false harlot by and by. 1004 

Graunt thou not an iniunction 
To him that doth nought else entende, 
But, by subtile inuention. 
His owne falsehode for to defend. 1008 


•11 mm. 





ChaaeeUor, ■•• 
All wronga 

and ihow no 

Bowart of sndi 
as refuse to abidt 
by the laws. 








Digitized by 



Ton majM your I nede not to tel any more 

datjin QodTs 

word. Of thy duetie ; thou maiest it se 

In Gtods sacied and holye woide/ 

If thou wylt there to applie the. 1012 

Sol iMTtyoo. Thus leaae I the, thou man of lawe, 

Wyshing the to be as -wyllyng 

To f olowe, as I am to draw 

The backe agayne to thy callynge. 1016 

The Marchauntes Lesson. 

Toa who boj and T\Towe marko my wordes thou marchaunte man, 

MUmaymartc I mJ -- 

my words. JL 1 Thow tJiai dost vse to bie and sell, 

I wyll enstmct the, if I can, 

How thou maiste yse thy callynge well. 1020 

Consider ibr FyTst 80 thou cal to mcmori 

wbstsndsU r«i , , - , 

man srs mads. The cude wherf oro al men are made, 
And then endouour busily 
To the same ende to yse thy trade. 1024 

The ende why all men be create. 
As men of wisdome do agre, 
It Is to maintain Is to maintaJne the publike state 

^ ' In the contrei where thei shal be. 1028 

Apply yoortradt If Apply thy trade therforo, I sai, 

to profit your « , . , , 

coontiy. To profit thy countrey with al ; 

And let conscience be thy stay, 

That to pollinge thou do not faL 1032 

If yoa import If thou ycuter into straunge landes, 

proAtabIa thinx% 

let the poor have And bringe home thynges profitable ; 

reaaonabie rate. Let poro men hauo them at thine handes 

Upon a price reasonable. 1036 

Though tJioxx maist thi money forbeare, 
Til other mens store be quite spent, 

If yoo do not. Yet if thou do so, that thy ware 

fished in the May beare high price, thou, shalt be shente. 1040 


Orig. lorde. 

Digitized by 




Thou shalt be shent of him, I say, 
That on the seas did prospere the, 
And was thy guide in al the way 
That thou wentest in great ieopardye. 1044 

For he gaue the not thy rychesse. 
To hurt thi contrei men withal ; 
Neither gaue he the good successe, 
That thou sholdst therby make men thral. 1048 

But thy richesse was geuen to the, 
That thou mightest make prouision. 
In farre contreys, for thinges that be 
Nedefull for thine owne nacion. 1052 

And when, by Gods helpe, ihau. hast brought 
Home to thy coast ani good thing 
Then shouldest th(m thsaik hym that all wrought 
For thy prosperouse retumyng. 

Whych thyng thou canst not do in dede, 
Unles thou walks in thy callyng ; 
And for hys sake that was thy spede, 
Content thy selfe wyth a lyuyngo. 

But oh ! me thynke I wiyte in vayne 
To marchaunte men of thys our tyme ; 
For they wyll take no maner payne. 
But only vpon hope to dyme. 1064 

So sone as they haue oughte to spare, 
Besyde theyr stocks that muste remayne. 
To purchase landes is al theyr care 
And al the study of theyr brayne. 1068 

Ther can be none vnthrifty heyre, 
Whome they wiU not smel out anon, 
And handle him -with wordes ful fayre, 
Tel al his landes is from him gone. 1072 

The fermes, the woodes, and pasture grounds, 
That do lye round about London, 
Are hedged in within their mowndes, 
Or else shalbe ere they haue done. 1076 

God gaTe yoo 

that 70a might 
mak* McanariM 
for yoor country* 

and when yon 
havf tNTooght 
any good Uiing 


70a should thank 

jOoO prosperity. 

But I write in 

M erehanta, aa 
aoon as they hare 
gtdned anytiiing, 
pordiase lands. 

They smell oat 
oiithrilty heirs j 

they Iiave fkrms 
round London; 


Digitized by 



ihtj hmwth^T They baue thier spies ypon eche syde 

■plM on erery i.** » % 

side. To se when ought is lyke to fal ; 

And as sone as ought can be spied, 

They are ready at the fyrst caL 1080 

I can not tel what it doeth meane. 

But white meate beareth a greate pryce 
Boom think Which somo men thinke is by the meane 

the borins snd __ 

MUingoffkrins That femies be found such marchaundise. 1084 

csoM white BMSft 

to be MdMr. For what is it when the pore man. 

That erst was wont to pay but lite, 
Th« poor man Must now uodes leamo (do what he can) 

iDQit now pay 

doabto rent, or To playe cyther double or quite. 1088 

TbeeoUierend ^ 7^ ^^^ O^ the COliar, 

woodraoofer y^^ j^^ selleth hys coles so dere, 

And rightso of the wodmongar, 

They say marchauntes haue all in fere. 1092 

eeythtirprioee The wood. Say thei, i?uxt we haue bought 

are doabled. 

In tymes paste for a crowne of golde, 

We cannot haue, if it be ought^ 

Under ten shyllynges ready told. 1096 

I am aihamedoT I am ashamed for to tell 
merchanta,*"*^^^ Halfe the abuso that all men se, 

In such men as do by and sell. 

They be so bad in eche degre. 1100 

ao I wm do what I wyl therfore do what I can 

TMyoor To make plaine desiaratyon. 


How thou, that art al marchauntman, 

Maist walke in thy vocation. 1104 

Trade for the Applye thy trade, as I hauc tolde, 

p of jour j^Q^Q profyt of thy contrey, 

And then thou maiste^ eer be bolde 
That thy Lord God wil guide thy wai 1108 

then 7oa wui not Thou slialt not uede to purchase la^Mles, 
lof groonda. Neythcr to take leases in groundes, 

Tliat^ when thou hast them in thjme handes, 
Thou maist for shyllinges gather pou7»des. 1112 

* Orig:. maisae. 

Digitized by 




Thou shalt not nede to bie or sel 
Benefices, which should be fire, 
To true preachers of Gods gospell, 
To helpe them with that helpeles be. 1116 

No more shalte thou nede for to lende 
Thy goodes out for vnlawfal gayne, 
In such sort that, by the yeares ende. 
Thou maist of one shiUyng make twaine. 

Thou shalt aye haue inough in store 
For the and thine in thy degre ; 
And what shouldst thou desire more. 
Or of hygher estate to bel 1124 

Let it suffice the to mary 
Thy daughter to one of thy trade : 
Why shouldest thou make hir a lady. 
Or bye for her a noble warde f 1 1 28 

And let thy sonnes, euery chone, 
Be bounde prentise yeres nine or ten. 
To leame some art to lyue ypon : 
For why should they be gentelmen 9 1132 

There be already men inowe 
That beare the name of gentil bloud ; 
Tell thou me then, what nede haste thou 
So vainly to bestow thy good 1 1136 

For thou canst not promote thy sonne, 
But thou must bye him land and rent, 
Wherby some must neades be vndone. 
To bryng to passe thy fonde entent. 1140 

Some ma^, perchaunce, nede doeth compel 
To morgage hys lands for money ; 
And wilt thou cause hym for to sell 
The liuelode of his progeny % 1144 

Tel me if ^u wouldest haue thy sonne 
(K haply he should stand in nede) 
To be so serued, when thou art gone, 
Of marchaimtes that shall the succede 1 1 1 48 

Toa may MitlMr 
buy and Mil 

nor l«nd fbr 
nnlawfal gain. 


enoogh, why 

danghUr to yoar 

and bind your 
sons apprentioa. 

Thar* are ptenty 

If yoa promote 
your son, you 
xnuat boy him 

Ifa man moat 
land— why do yoa 
compel him to 

Woald you tike 
your son so 



Digitized by 




Ufl^' ^i- 1^0 ^oa as thou wouldest be done by, 

iM doM bj. As very nature doth the teache. 

And let thy loue and charitie 

Unto all the Lordes creatures reach ; 1152 

And if any man stande in nede, 
IL'hike, vi, Lende hym £:ely that thou maiste spare, 
iiMc^. And doubtlesse €U>d wyll be thy mode. 

And recompence the in thy ware. 1156 

Btjort, open, £e iuste, playuc, and not disceytefull, 

and mtrdftil, « -• i • <i 

[AfjiUk, V, And shewe mercie vnto the pore, 

inoTMMyoar And God, that is mosts mcrcifull, 

Shall euermore encrease thy store. 1 IGO 

And in the ende, when nature shall 
Ende thy peregrination, 
Thou shalt haue ioye emonge them all 
That walkt in theyr vocation. 1164 

Bnt If joa raftiM But, if thou do refuse to waike 

to do M I lUlVtf 

told you. In thy callyng, as I haue tolde, 

Thy wisdome shalbe but vaine talke, 

Though thou be both auncient and olde. 1 168 

Saye what thou wylt for to defende 

Thy walkynge inordinately, 
yoa oCTtJdiiiyirm Thou shslt be corteu, in the ende, 

be damned in tbe _ , . :i > n 1 1 i^a 

Mat, rii. To be damned eternally. 1172 

•"^ For in the worlde ther can not be 

More greate abhomination. 

To thy Lorde God, then is in the, 

Forsakeyng thy vocation. 1 1 76 

% The 6entlemans Lesson. 

Tea that an bom f | ihou that arte bomo to lande and rent. 
And arte cleped a gentleman. 


Geue eare to me, for myne intent 

Is to do the good if I can. 1180 

Digitized by 




Thou arte a man that God hath sot 
To rule the route in thy countrey ; 
Wherfoie thou hadste nede forto get 
Grood knowledge rather then money. 

For ignoraunce shall not excuse. 
When all men shall geue a rekenyng ; 
And the iudge -wyll money refuse, 
And iudge after echo mans doyng. 

Fyrst I aduertise the therfore, 
And require the in Christes name, 
That of knowledge thou get the store, 
And firame thy lyueyng to the same. 

Get the knowledge, I saye, and then 
Thou shalt perceyue thyne owne degro 
To be such that, emong all men, 
Thou haste moste nede learned to be. 

Thou shalt perceyue tJiou haste no tyme 
To spare, and spende in bankettyng, 
For though thou watch tyll it be pryme, 
Thou shalt haue inough to doyng. 

Thou shalt not fynde any leasurc, 
To dice, to carde, or to reuell, 
If thou do once take a pleasure, 
In Yseyng thyne owne callyng well. 

For parkes of dere thou shalt not care 
Neither for costuouse buildyng. 
For appareU, or for fyne fare. 
Or any other worldly thinge. 

Thy mynd shal be styll rauished 
With the desyre to walke vpryghte, 
And to se al yice punished, 
So much as shal ly in thy myght. 
Thou shalt delite for to defende 
The pore man that is innocent. 
And cause the wicked to amend, 
And the oppressour to repent. 

yotur oonntjrj- 

1 1 o J knowledge, 
1184 £oelvlii,2 

for fgnonmoe can 
Jtom, lsnv.2 

Mat, iv. 



Get knowledge^ 
aiul llv* up to it 


7oa will SM jna 
liav« BO ttm« to 
tp«i« in ftatUns. 


Yon win h«T« no 




banting, cottly 
building^ or 


Ton most ttrive 
to walk upright; 


and delight in 
defending Uie 

■ *> 




Digitized by 




[-Boim. 14. 
70a lUw with 

lLH]ke .ma. 

Ton may not 
niMjoor rente 
at will— 

JOQ moit allow 
your tananto to 

Knowledge win 
tell 70a to do as 
70a would be 
done by, 

and to be eontent 
with your 

Ifyoaean afford 
to apend i/OL, 70a 
maj not lire up 

Thou shalt haue delite in nothyng 
Sauinge in doynge thy duty ; 
WHch is, ynder God and thy kyng, 
To rale them that thon doest dwel by. 1220 

Thou shalt not think ihcA thou maist take 
Thy rente to spend it at thy wyll, 
As one that should no recknyng make 
For ought that he doth well or yL 1224 

But thou shalt fynd that thou art bomtd. 
And shalt answer much more strayghtly, 
Then the pore men that tyl the groimd, 
K thou regard not thy duty. 1228 

Thou shalt not fynd that thou maiest reise 
Thy rent, or leauy a great fine 
More then hath bene ysed alwayes ; 
For that only is called thyne. 1232 

For as thou doest hold of thy kyng, 
8o doth thy tenaunt holde of the, 
And is allowed a lyueinge 
As wel as thou, in his degre. 1236 

If thou, therfore, wouldest not thi king 
Should take of the more then his due, 
Why wilt thou abate the liuynge 
Of thy tenaunt and cause him rue ) 1 240 

For knowledge wyl tel the, that thou 
Must do as thou wouldest be done by ; 
And ryght so wyl she tel the how 
Thou maiste discharge al thy duty. 1244 

She wyl teach the to be contente 
Wyth that thou haste by heiytage ; 
And eke to lyue after thy rente, 
And not to fal into outrage. 1248 

If thou maye despend xl. pound, 
Thou maiste not lyue after three score ; 
Keyther maist thou enclose thy ground. 
That thou mayst make it yerely more. 1252 

Digitized by 




For knowledge wil teach the to seke 
Other mens wealth more then thine owne. 
And rather to fede on a leke 
Then one house shonld he ouerthrowen. 

Thou shalt hy her learne that thon art 
A father oner thy country. 
And that thou oughtest to play the parte 
Of a father hoth nyght and day. 

Thou shalt hy knowledg vnderstand 
That thou must succour the neady, 
And in theyr cause such men wythstande 
As shew themselues ouer gredy. 

In fine, knowledge that is godly 
Wyll teach the al that thou shalt do 
Bilongyng to thyne owne duty, 
And other mens duty also. 

Gette the knowledg, I saye, therfore. 
That thou mayste he worthy thy name ; 
For wythout hir thou maiste nomore 
Be called a ge[n]tleman for shame. 

For wythout knowledg thou shalt he 
Of all other moste out of frame ; 
Bicause there is nothyng in the. 
That may thy luste chastice or tame. 

Wythout knowledg iJum wylt folowe 
Thy fleshe and fleshly appetyte, 
.And in the luste therof wallowe, 
Settyng therin thy whole delyte. 

"Wythout knowledge ihon wylt oppresse 
All men that shalhe in thy powre ; 
And when they shalhe in distres, 
Thou wylt them cruelly deuoure. 

Wythout knowledg thou wilt aray 
Both the and thyne paste thy degree. 
And eke maynta3me outragioiise playe, 
Tyl thou haue spent hoth landc and fee. 


YoQ most iMun 
thatyoaart a 


JP^lm 8. 
and andentand 
that yoa most aid 


knowledg* will 
teach yoa yoor 


without it yoo 

1272 ~'»^»"^ 

becaoM yoQ hart 
^ - nothing within 
1276 yoatorabda* 
yoor panions. 


knowladga yoa 
will opprMS all 
man who are in 


gamble till yoa 
1288 have spent aU. 

< 1 

Digitized by 



knowledgt yoa 
will b« worse 

Btody alwaji to 
know your diit]r> 

[i^ja/m .33 

H* who (Migbto 
in tifi will never 
get knowledge^ 

70a find her. 

Sapie [ri] 

Let the ter of 
God end 

guide 70a in eU 

and bftTe them 
erer in mind. 

Let them mle 


To make an ende ; vnlesse thou haue 
Knowledg remaynyng in thy breste, 
Thou shalt be worse then a vile slaue 
That doth all honnstie deteste. 1 292 

Get the knowledg, therfore, I eaye 
And eke the feare of God aboue ; 
And let thy study be alwaye 
To knowe what thyng doth the bOioue. 1296 

But fyiste, bifore all other thynges, 
Set the Lords feare bifore thy face. 
To guyde the in all thy doynges. 
That thou delyte not in trespace. 1300 

For he that doth delyte in synne 
Shall neuer goueme hys lyfe wel, 
Nor any godly knowledge wynne ; 
For wisdouine wyl not with him dwel. 1304 

Then seke for knowledg busilie. 
And leaue not off tyll she be founde ; 
And when thou hast her perfectelie 
To the Lordes feare let her be bounde. 1308 

And let them two beare all the swea 
In thy doingeSy earelye and late^; 
Let them agre and ende their plea. 
Before thou do appoint the state. 1312 

By theyr aduise suruei thy lande, 
And kepe thy courtes both farre <& nero, 
And se they do fast by the stando, 
Li thine housekeping and thy chere. 131G 

Haue them present before thine eies, 
In al thy dedes what so they be ; 
In cessions, and eke on assise. 
Let them not be absent from the. 1320 

Let them rule all thy familie, 
And eke enstruct thy childrene yonge ; 
That they may thyne office supply 
When ^iih hys darte death hath the stong. 1 324 

' Orig. lare. 

Digitized by 




And last of all, leaue them to guyde 
Thy chyldren and theyr families ; 
That thy house and floke may ahyde, 
And role the route in godly wise. 1328 

No more to the I haue to saye 
But that thou kepe Grods feare in syght 
And make it the guyde of thy waye 
As well hy bryght daye as by nyght 1332 

So doyng I dare the assure 
That in the ende thou shalt obtejme 
The blisse that shall euer endure, 
Wyth Christe our Maister for to rayno. 1336 


So doing yon 
shall obtain the 

f The Maiestrates Lesson. 

"TTTThoso thou be that God doeth call, 

▼ T To beare the swerd of punishment, 
Mark wel my words and take them all 
Accordyngly as they be ment 1340 

When thou arte in autoritie. 
And haste the bridle ra3me in handc ; 
Then be well ware that tirannie 
Do not get the wythin hir bande. 1344 

Loke not vpon thy swerd alway, 
But loke sometyme on thy ballaunco, 
And se that neither do decay 
In the tyme of thy gouemaunce. 1348 

For to punyshe wyth equitie, 
Is, and aye shalbe, bisemeyng ; 
Whereas to shewe extremiti, 
Is founde rather a bloude suckeyng. 1352 

If any man be accusede 
Se thou hear him indifferently, 
And let him not be punished, 
Tyl thou knowe his cause thorowly. 1356 

Ton who ar« 
called nugis- 

and have the 
bridle-rain in 

look at the 
balance as wdl 

and punish with 

. .1 



Be impartial In 
yoor Judgment. 

Digitized by 



If he baue wrought against tJie lawes, 
So that iustice woulde haue him dye, 
Then in thj ballannce laye his cause, 
And iudge him after equitie. 1360 

If A man trr If he dvd it of ignoraunce, 

throogh ignor- 

MM or poTfrtj. Of nede, or by compulsion, 

Or else by fortune, and by chaunce, 

Then must thou vse discretion. 1364 

oooiidtr whit CJonsyder what extreme nede is, 

cztrtnid noofl 1% 

And howe force may the weake compel, 

And how fortune doth Hit and misse. 

When the intent was to do welL 1368 

and that wit- And though the euidence be plaine, 

"""^ "*^ And the accusars credible ; 

Yet call to mynde the eldeis twayne, 
Dani Iwiii.] That Daniell found reproueable. 1 372 

IT And if thou fynde them false, or vayne. 

Forged to worcke theyr brother yll, 

Then let them suffer the same paine 

That he shoulde haue had by their wylL 1376 

I might Mj Much myght be sayde in this matter 

mo^ ondw ttiit q^^ ^^ ^^ workes of writers olde. 

And, for to proue it the better. 

Many late stories might be tolde. 1380 

bat I iMT* it t* But I leaue this to the study 
yowr sta47. q£ ^^^ ^^^^ haxxe had exercise 

In iudgement, in whose memorie 

It is as styll before theyr eyes. 1384 

I thought mete to tuch it only, 

That thou myghtest haue occasion 
Toor dutj is To caU to mynde the chief dutie 

Of thy state and vocation: 1388 

to weigh Whych is to scanne the euidence, 

•lamina aocosen^ And eke to try the accusars all, 

Thoughe they be men of good credence, 

Lcste happly the iuste be made thraL 1392 

Digitized by 




More oner it behoueth the, 
![£] thou wylt walke in thy callyng, 
To 86 that all good statutes be 
Executed before al thynge. 1396 

For to what ende do statutes serue. 
Or why should we hold parliamente, 
If men shall not suche lawes obserue 
Aa in that court we shal inuent 1 1400 

And what thynge shall a realme decay 
So sons, as when men do neglecte 
The wholsom lawes, as who should sai, 
They were in dede to none effecte. 

For in that realme the mightie shal 
"Works after theyr femcie and wyl ; 
For there the pore may crie, and cal 
For helpe, and be oppressed styl. 

Se thou therfore to thy dutie 
In this behalfe, both daie and night, 
And let none break such lawes freli, 
But let them know t?iai lawes haue might 1412 

Let them al know, I say, that thou 
Art set to minister iustice. 
And that thou madest therto a vowe 
At the takeing of thine office. 1416 

Wincke not at thynges /Aat be to plaine. 
Lest godly knowledge fle the fro, 
And thou flyt into endeles payne, 
At such time as thou must hence go. 1420 

For if thou wilt not minister 
Iustice to them that do oppresse, 
What are the people the better 
For the when they be in distresse ? 1424 

The heauenly housband. man, therfore^ 
Who planted the, vice to suppresse, 
8hall diye thy rote for euermore. 
And geue the vp to wyckednes. 1428 


and to Me th* 
•tataut MiliBKed, 

b tflw i tt uttteot 
of •tetntM iBftkM 


1408 tiMpoor. 





Do not wtok ai 
things whidi an 
too plain. 

ir jo« wUl not 




it * 

Digitized by 




Jhon, an 




8m that yon 
allow no ofiloaa 

permit His flock 

Exo. sriiii. 

and Ntbuehad- 

Bewaie of thjs vengeaimce betyme, 
Jjoet it come on the sodaynlj. 
When then wooldeet &ine repent thy crjmBj 
But shalt despeiie of Goddes meicj. 

For what thing canseth men deepeire 
Of Gods mercy at their last ende. 
But their conscience, that saieth thei were 
Told of their fault, & woolde not mende % 

If thou therefore doest se this thynge, 
And wylt wincke at it willinglye, 
I say that, when death ahal the styng, 
Thoa shalt despeire of Gods mercye. 

Yet hane I more to say to the 
Concemyng thy vocation, 
Which, if it giow styl, must nedes be 
Doable abhomination* 

For he that bieth must nedes sel : 
Thou knowest abeadye what I meane ; 
I nede-not wyth playne wordes to tel. 
If sinne hane not blinded the cleane. 

Se Tnto it, I the adtdse. 
And let not offices be solde ; 
For God wyll ponyshe in straite wyse 
Such as wyth him wyl be so bolde. 

He wyl not aye suffer his flocke 
Of wolfes to be so denonred, 
Neither shall they ifiat would hym mocke, 
Escape his handes ynpunyshed. 

His arme is as stronge as it was 
When he plaged Kyng Pharao 
In Egipt, and can bring to passe 
Al that he listeth now also. 

He spent not al his power vpon 
The Kyng Nabuchodanozer ; 
He shal neuer be found such one, 
That he should not haue mighte in store. 










Digitized by 




Take hede, take hede, I saye therfore, 
That thou fal not into bis hand ; 
For if thou do, thou art forlore, 
Thou canst not be able to stand. 1468 

Yet one thynge more I must the tell, 
Which in no wyse thou mayst forget, 
K thou wylt professe Qoda Gospel, 
And thyne afi^unce therin set : 1472 

Thou must not couet imperye, 
Nor soke to rule straunge nacions ; 
For it is charge inough, perdie. 
To aunswere for thyne owne commons. 1476 

Let thy study, therefore I saye, 
Be to rule thyne owne subiectes wel. 
And not to maynetayne warres alwaye, 
And make thy contrey lyke an helL 1 480 

Let it suffice the, to defende 
Thy limites from inuasion ; 
And therein se thou do intende 
Thine owne peoples saluation. 1484 

For, marks this : If thou do invade, 
And get by force commodite, 
The same shal certenly be made 
A scoige to thy posteritye. 1488 

This haue I sayde, to call the backe 
From the Philistines stacion ; 
Trustynge thou wylte my counsell take, 
And walke in thy vocacion. 1492 

and Uk« heed 
that joa fkU not 
[iftf Jnf]tf JB, 
into Hit hand. 

th« Gospel, 

jou muft not 
seek power. 

Studj to rale 
your own 
•nbjects well. 

DefSmd yoar own 
coantry from 

and do not InTade 
other lands. 

[i] JReg, stiii. 


The Womans Lesson. 

Whoso thou be of woman kinde, 
That lokest for saluation, 
Se thon haue euer in thy mynde. 
To walke in thy vocation. 

All women should 
walk in their 


Digitized by 



ifyoahiTtno K thv State 1)6 viicinitie, 

7oar munm. And hast none housband for to please^ 

Then se thou do thyselfe apply 
i. Cor, ^D\i. In Christen manera to encreaae. 1500 

If then be vnder a mestreSy 
ifyoa bftTt % 8e thou leame hir good qualitjes^ 
her tmioj. And serao hyr wyth al ledinesy 

Hianeyng Goddes feare before thine eies. 1504 

If thon se hir wanton and wilde. 

Then se thou cal ypon God styl. 

That he wyl kepe the yndefilde, 

And kepe from the al manors jL 1508 

A^d idto talk Auojde Idle and wanton talke, 

ami n ^f*^ i^^^f^^ 

Auojde nyce lokes and daliaimce ; 

And when thoa doest in the stretes walk, 

Se thou shewe no lyght countenaunce. 1512 

DnM loeordinv Let thyno apparaylo be honest ; 
yoar on. ^ ^^^ decked psst thy degre ; 

Neither let thon thyne hede be dreste 
4. TSmo, i<. Otherwyse then besemeth the. 1516 

K«itiMr dj« yovr Let thyne haare beare the same coloare 


That nature gane it to endure ; 

Laye it not out as doeth an whore, 

That would mens fantades allure. 1520 

nor pidnt your Paynte not thy face in any wise, 

''^ But make thy maners for to shyne, 

And thou shalt please all such mens eies^ 

As do to godlines enclyne. 1524 

!mttemod«ak» Be thou modeste, sober, and wise, 

^2J^^ And leame the poyntes of houswyfry ; 

And men shall haue the in such price 
That thou shalt not nede a dowry. 1528 

and try to ^mm Studyo to pleaso the Lorde aboue, 
Walkynge in thy callyng vpryght, 
And God wil some good mans hert moue 
•; il .. To set on the his whole delite. 1532 

Digitized by 




B« IndnstrkNUy 

children and 
•ervanU flrom 


Nowe when thou arte become a wyf% 
And hast an honsbande to thy mynde, 
Se thou prouoke him not to stryfe. 
Lest haply he do prone vnkynde. 1536 [i C^or M. 

Acknowledge that he is thyne heade, 
And hath of the the gouemannce ; 
And that thou must of him be led, 
Accordyng to Goddes ordinaunce. 1540 

Do al thy bnsines qnietly. 
And delyte not idle to stand ; 
But do thy selfe ener applye^ 
To haue some honest woicke in hand. 1544 

And in no case thou maist suffer 
Thy semanntes or children to play ; 
For ther is nought that may soner 
Make them desire to renne awaye. 1548 

Se thou kepe them styl occupyed 
From mome tyl it be nyght agayne, 
And if thou se they growe in pryde. 
Then laye hand on the brydle rayne. 1552 

But be thou not to them bytter, 
Wyth wordes lackyng discretion, 
For thine housband it is fitter 
To geue them due correction. 1556 

But if thou be of such degre^ 
That it is not for the semely 
Emonge thy maydens for to be. 
Yet do thy selfe styl occupye ; 1560 

Do thy selfe occupy, I say, 
In readinge, or heaiyng some thynge, 
Or talkyng of the godly way, 
Wherein is great edifiyng. 1564 

Se thy children well nurtered, 
Se them brought vp in the Lordes feare. 
And if their meaners be wycked, 
In no case do thou wyth thom beare. 15G8 

Bnt do not bt 

mixing with jour 

spend Toar time 
in reading. 

children are well 
brought up. 



Digitized by 




doM wrong, 
admonbb him 

AUun him by 
your godly 

For though tho 
lint woman Ml, 


Mid do all in 

But if your 
htuband is godly. 

loam of him. 

[i Ti]ino. V, 

and do all that 

[i I%2mo. V. 

And if thine housbande do outrage 
In any thinge, what so it be^ 
Admonish him of hys last age, 
Wyth wordes mylde as becommeth the. 1572 

And if he do refuse to heare 
Thy gentle admonicion, 
Yet se if thou can cause him feare 
Goddes terrible punission. 1576 

Do what thou canst, him to allure 
To seke God by godly liueing, 
And certenly thou shalt be sure 
Of life that is euerlastinge. 1580 

For though the first woman did fall, 
And was the chiefe occasion 
That sinne hath pearsed through ts all, 
Yet shalt thou haue saluation. 1584 

Thou shalt be salfe, I say, if thou 
Kepe thy selfe in obedience 
To thine housband, as thou didest vow, 
And shewe to him due reuerence. 1588 

But in fayth must all this be done, 
Or else it doeth nothynge auayle ; 
For without fayeth nought can be wone, 
Take thou neuer so greate trauayle. 1592 

Thou must beleue, and hope that he. 
That bade the be obedyent, 
Wyll be ryght well pleased wyth the, 
Because thou boldest the content. 1596 

Nowe, if thyne housbande be godly. 
And haue knowleged better then thou, 
Then leame of him al thy dutie, 
And to his doctryne se thou bowe. 1600 

Se thou talke wyth him secretly 
Of su[c]h thinges as do the behoue ; 
And se thou obserue thorowlye 
Al such thinges as he shal aproue. 1604 

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Seke to please him in thine araje, 
And let not newe trickes delyte the ; 
For that beoometh the alwaj, 
That with his minde doth best agre. 1608 

DeUte not in yaine tatyllars, 
That do vse false ramonres to sows ; 
For such as be great babbelars 
WjU in no case their dutie know. 1612 

Their commynge is alyraje to tell 
Some fedse lye by some honeste man ; 
They aie worsse then the deuell of hell, 
If a man would them throughly scanne. 1616 

They wyll fynd faute at thyne araye. 
And say it is for the to base. 
And haply ere they go awaye, 
They wyl teach the to paynt thy face. 

Yea, if al other talke do fayle 
Before the idle tyme be spent, 
They wyl teach the how to assayle 
Thyne housband with wordes vehemente ;' 

Thow muste swere by Croddes passion. 
That long before thou sawest his heade, 
Thou hadest ech gallaunt fassion, 
And wilt agayne when he is deade. 1 628 

Thou must tell him, that he may heare, 
Wyth a lowd voyce, & eke wordes plaine, 
That ^^u wilt sometyme make good chore 
With ryght good felows one or twaine. 1632 

I am ashamed for to wryte 
The talke that these gossepes do yse ; 
Wherefore, if thou wylt walke vpryght, 
Do theyr companye quite refuse. 1636 

For they are the deuelles mynystcrs, 
Sent to destroy al honestye. 
In such as wyl be their hearars. 
And to theyr wycked reade applye. 1640 

Ddlgbt not in 



they will tmch 
tem jou lo icoW yowr 
l0J4 husband, 

and tell him of 
bafort 70a knew 


I am anharoed of 

tor thty Mxt ih0 
devil's ministers. 

Digitized by 



i. iVf . Ui. But thou that arte Sands dan^ter, 

otata^T^ And lokest for salTuttion, 

8e thou leame thy doctryne at hir. 

And waike in thy vocation. 1644 

Oene. wvk She was alway obedyent 

6b9j^dh» To hir honsband, and cald hym lorde. 

As the boke of Godes testament 

Doeth in most open wyse record. 1648 

roUoir Ktr, and Folowo lur, and thou shalt be sore 
tofthe md. To haue, as she had in the ende. 

The lyfe that shall euer endure : 

Unto the whiche the Lorde the send. 1652 


Imprynted at 

London bi Robert Crowley 

dwellinge in £lie rentes 

in Holbunu The yere 

of our Lord .M. 

D. xlix. the 

laste daye of December. 

r Autore eodem Eoberto Croleo. 

IT Cum priuilegio ad impri- 

mendum solum. 

Digitized by 


'^mtmhxt t\it&t ionxt, 

Kxits all sl^all h 


leg, 9nno Bomini, ^]9M. 

V€^ Cum priuileflio atr imprimentitttn 

f • ]{t t|8t frt nig fnl^trg bltsub onta 

totiu an)r postts Vnt bjirgbome i^al 

ira0 ]|Ttpiiit3> for {on btin % 

btjftmditg of % fooilbt. |j|' 

^ 4K0t ge tnrsstb sotte lada tJ^t tvttth- 
stgng %e t^ bas {rrt{rBrjeb for 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 



f To the ryght worshypful Lady CPi«««3 

Dame Elizabeth Fane, wyfe to the 

ryght worshypfull Syr Kafe 

Eane Knyghte : Roberte 

Crowley Wyshethe 

the Lyfe euer- - ^^ 

lastynge 1 

'' i 

Fter I had compiled thys litle treatise (ryght ver- ^. '- 

tnonse Lady) I thought it my duty to dedicate i thought it my : -• 

- . T 5. t X •• » duty to dedicate 

the same Tnto yonre Ladishyppes name, as to a ryght tiiittmtiMto t 1 

worthy Patrones of al such as laboure in the Lords ^^' ^"^r 

harueste. Not for that I thyncke I haue herein done : Ji 

any thyng worthy so liherall a Patrones, hut for the - -j 

worthynes of the matter, whych is a parte of the holy = ;* 

gospel of lesu Christ wrytten hy the holy Euangelyste ■*^ 

Mathewe, and is most necessary to be beaten into the ^ 

heades of all men at thys daye, to dryue them (if it be V. 

possible) &om the gredy rakeyng togyther of the trea- -^ 

sures of this yayne worlde. I do not doubt, but if God :: 

haue not geuen men vp to their owne herts lust, they ifmenaranot 
wyll nowe at the laste endeuoure to lyue the gospell oJiH bMuta* iiut^ 
which they haue of longe fyme talked. In dede it was iwe^the eoepeT 
ne*cessarie that God should styr vp some to plage such ^'^'"pSIjJf 4^^* 
emonge his people as had offended euen as he dyd ofben **"^' 
tymes styr vp the heathen to plage hys people of 
Israeli; but yet it is not necessaiye that the same 
should continue in oppressyng the offendars and inno- 

Digitized by 




cent togither. For so ahal they also deserue the Loidig 
wiath, A in the ende be plaged by some other that God 
shal styr vp to reaenge the inioiye done to the innocent 
Borte. Moued therefore wyth the desyre to se the 
ck>d'stafftrwm wealth of my contrey by the pacifiyng of Goda ire, 

fUl on the land if ^ ^ s: ^ %y 

which (no doubt) wyl M ypon this realme very shortly, 
if oppression and gredye conetise cease not> I hane, so 
playnely as I conlde, set forth in thys litle boke the 
terrible indgment of God (which no doubt of it i& at 
hande), that if there remayne any feare of God in mens 
hertis^ it may cause them to staye at the least waye, and 
not to procede any farder in th^ innentyng of newe 
wayee to oppresae the pore of thys realme, whoes op- 
pression doeth alredy crye vnto the Lorde for venge- 
lUytiMLordio anco. The Lorde work in the hertis of the rych, that 

work In the 

hMrtooruMrieh, this Tcngeaunce fall not on thys realme in oore dayes, 
anoeikiin^jn for doubtlcs it wyl be gret when it cometh. And if 
onrdaja. ^^ oppression cease not, the vengeance can not 

[Ptse 6] ta*rye longe. For the Lorde hath promised 

to reuenge his people in haste. This 
Lord preserae your good Ladiship 
to hys good pleasure in thys 
lyfe and geue you blysse in 
the lyfe to come. 
So be it. 

Your Ladyships at commaundement, Kobert 

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WHen Chiist shall come to iudge vs aU,^ 
And gene echo one as he hath wrought, 
Hys Fathers frendis then wyll he call. 
To enioye that whych they haue sought. 
By beleueng that they were bought 
Wyth his bloude shedde vpon a tree, 
As by theyre workis all men maye see. 

When Christ 
Mat. wvi. 
eomes tojndg^ 
ment He will call 
•i\J07 what Umj 
bare been aeek- 

7 Mdt.vii. 

*' Come ! come !" shall he saye to these men, 

" Come, and possesse for euermore 
That kyngdome, whych my Father, when 

No worlde was made, layed yp in store 1 1 

For you, whome he dyd knowe before 
To be in maners lyke to me 
That am his Sonne^ and aye haue be ! 14 

" Come I " shall he saye, " for aye, when I 
Stode nede of meate, ye gaue me fode; 

So dyd you drynke when I was drye, 
Keioyceng when you dyd me good. 18 

No fende, therefore, shall chaynge your mode ; 

For you shall alwayes be wyth me. 

And shall my Fathers godheade se. 21 

He win Md them 
eome and poeseea 
Mat, Txv, 
the kingdom pre- 
pared for thetn* 

[Page 8] 
Jfon, via. 

beeanse when He 
wee hongry they 

Mat, XXV. 

Thej shell re- 

miin ever with 

Him» end see 


i. Cor, xiii. 



** And at aU tymes, when I haue bene 
Of nedefnll lodgeynge desolate. 

You haue bene gladde to take me in ; 
Whether it were yarly or late. 
You dyd me neuer chyde nor rate ; 

But gaue me wordis curteyse and kynde, 

Procedynge from a fiaythfall mynde. 

Mat, XXV, 

When He woe 

dceolate, tb^ 

25 [Page0] 

took Him In, 


and treated Him 

Two lines of the original arc put into one. 

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IT " 80, when I was naked and bare, 
Wb« H« WM Hanvnge no clothes my fleshe to hyde, 

Mat. mxv, Fiom youi owne backs then dyd yon spare, 

And gane me clothes for backs and syde, 32 

80 that I myght the colde abyde. 
But if yon lackt sufficient, 

Then dyd you my greate lacke lament 35 

When H« wm «« Infyne, when I was weake and sycke, 
[Pair* 10} And had no conforte aboute me, 

prison, tb^ ooni* ,-- 

forud Rin, To come to me you dyd not stycke, 

jS^. xwv. "* -And succour my necessitie. 39 

^^;[*»*«^ And when it chaunced me to be 

In prisons, and could not get oute. 

To raunsome me you went aboute." 42 

Mat, mwv. IT Then shall the iuste answers agayne 
wbm tb«7 9r9r And ssys, *' O Lorde, when sawe we the 

nwHiinIn t - • ^.v 

natd f In prisons, or in other payne 

Through extreme nede and pouertie % 46 

itH«notLordor Arte not thou Lorde of lande and see f 

land and aaaF 

What f Lorde, we knowe that sea and lande 
CPi«t 11} Haue euermore bene in thyne hande ; 49 

1. (hr. an. "We know that thou gaueste all thynge 
thingato all oMn, ^o all estates, bosth hygh and lowe. 
and avery man ia There is no myghty lorde nor kynge. 

But he is in thyne hande we knowe. 53 

In yayne, Lorde, we might plante and sows, 
If thou gaue ys not frute and grayne, 
We coulde haue nought lyfe to sustayne.'* 56 

HaoimaRa gKn Then shall Christs saye, '* All this is true ; 

oa lifb and IM na. _ «« 1^^ » ^ 

1 gaue you lyfe, and dyd you fede 
Wyth graynes and fruitis, boeth olde and newe. 
And gaue you all thyngis at your nede. 60 

[!*»«• t«} In all your wayes I was your speede, 


with na in all oar And gsuo you that wherefore ye sought, 

John .mv, Wych wythout me had come to nought. 63 

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gs* ** Yet all that I haue sajde befoie 

Is true also ; for when you gaue 
Ought to such as were sycke or sore, 

Whome nede coiistray[ned] forto craue. 

Then, I confesse my selfe to haue 
Beceyued all that at your hande, 
Whereof they dyd in greate nede stande." 
IT Then shall the iuste wyth ioye enter 

Into the ioyes that shall not ende ; 
By cause theyr hertes were aye tender 

To geue such thyngis as God dyd sende, 

Mankynde from peryle to defende. 
Thus shall they lyue in ioye and blysse 
In Paradice, where no payne is. 
But to the wycked Christ shall saye, 

" Auoyde frome me, ye wycked sorte ; 
For in my nede you sayde me naye 

Wyth spy tefull wordis of disconforte. 

Yet my preachars dyd you exhorte 
Me in my memhres to refreshe, 
Knoweynge that all are but one fleshe." 
%g^ Then shall these men, wyth feynte herte, saye 

" Lorde when dyd we see the in nede 1 
Thou haste bene Lorde and Kynge alwaye ; 

No wyght was whome thou dydest not fede : 

All this we learned in oure Creede ; 
For thou arte lesus, that Gods Sonne 
That hath create boeth sonne and mone.** 
%g^ '< Oh,'* shall Christe saye to them agayne, 

" Ye deafe dorepostis, coulde ye not heare 1 
Thynke you the heade bydeth no payne, 

When the members make heauye chore 1 

In you nought but flesh doeth appere. 
For if my spirite in you had ben. 
Me in myne you must nedis haue sene. 


gaT« Miything to 


The just will 
•nter Into wot- 

74 hMrUwMTt 



Tbey win llvt in 

To the wicked 
He will 9KJ, 
«*Depart! for In 
my need 70 
Mat, xwv, 
reftieed me.** 

1. Chrhi. m 

laat, xwv, 
•*Lord, when did 
we MO thee In 

88 "^^ 

Thoaart Jeena, 
who created oU 
91 things" 

He win I 

'* Yon deaf door^ 

1. Cohr. xii. 


If my sfrfrit had 
93 heen In yon, yon 
most have aeen 
the poor* 




Digitized by 



% *' The pore, the poie, and indigent 
Came ynto jou ofte tymes ye knowe, 
Toadid sM And you sawe them wepe and lament, 

tiMin wMp, bat 

didnotbtip Yet would ve not on them bestowe 102 

The leaste fhite that to you dyd growe. 
NOy no, you were redy to take 
That other gaue them for my sake. 105 

*' Your hertis were harder then the flynt — 
&eek. 88. In them no pitie coulde be founde. 

pKy in your Your greedye gutte coulde neuer stynt, 

£Pagt iq Tyll all the good and fiuitfull grounded 109 

Were hedged in whythin your mownde. 
How did TOO You wycked sorte, howe ysed ye 
imdgoodir The londis and goodis ye had of met 112 

%g^ *' You made your boaste all was your owne, 
To spare or spende, at your owne wyll ; 
whtnapoor And when any pore men were knowne 

mui oftOed your 

Mat, wwi. That were so bolde to calle it yll, 1 16 

yoopot'him^ My landis and goodis in waste to spyll, 
****** You shet them vp in prisone strong, 

Tormentynge them euer emonge. 119 

^* False libertynes you dyd them call, 
CPagt 17] Because they tolde you your duitie. 

toll yoa yoor You sayde the loselles woulde hane all 
JSSJ^Sii!** That you had goten paynfuUy, 123 

■"• And kept longe tyme moste carefully ; 

But ye belye them, I know well. 

And slaunder this my true GrospelL 126 

Bat miB« only %gr *' Emouge all myuo there is not one 

own. That would haue ought more then his owne, 

M I ahau t«n As I shall tell you playne anone ; 


Zuke .(pri. ^^^ to me aU theyr hertis be knowne. 130 

They reaped nought that yoa had sowne, 

[Stgn. with Dr 

Bliss MS. nou. But wylled you to let them haue 

(Pagtis] That I gaue you mankynde to saue. 133 


Orig. Downde. 

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**N'ot one 80 blynde emonge you all, 
But lie knoweth I made all of nought^ 

Appoyntynge all thyngis natuiall. 
To serue mankynde, whome I haue wrought 
Lyke to my selfe in loueyng thought ; 

Wyllynge that eche should at his node, 

Haue breade and broth, harbour and wede. 

5-^^ "But syth it was expedient 
That emonge all there should be some 

Alwaye sycke, sore, and impotent, 
I indued you wyth such wysedome 
As dyd honest stuardis become, 

Committyng ^ whole into your hande 

The riches, boeth of sea and lande. 

%gr " My purpose was that you should haue 
Alwaye all nedefall thynges in stoie. 

To succour such as nedis must craue 
Of you thyngis nedefull euermore. 
I made you rych to fede the pore ; 

But you, lyke seruauntis prodigall, 

Haue in ezcesse consumed all. 

fgr *^ But when I found you negligent 

In fedynge of my family, 
Then my prophetes to you I sent, 

Commaundyng that you should yei-ely 

Brynge all your tythes diligently 
Into my bame, that there myght be 
'Meate in myne house for pouertie. 

** But you gaue to theyr wordis no hede ; 

You helde aU faste, and woulde nought brynge 
Into my bame the pore to fede, 

But spent all at your owne lykynge 

In wantones and banketynge. 

And in rayment past your degree, 

As men that had no mynde of me. 

* CammittyDg in original. 
CB0WLE7. s 

nude all thinci^ 




that the needs of 
eU might be 




and that 7011 
might liave a 
store to soocoir 
the needy. 


154 Mat, 24. 

When I found 
yon negligent 

[Page 20] 
I sent my pro- 
158 phetstoyoo. 

Male. iU. 


but yon Iieeded 

165 and spent all 
in wantonneesy 
Gene, 32. 
and raiment. 





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Too bigftd 

iridoh WM miiM^ 

in my Hold, 

Miolbtnto kMp 

John M, 


flock and m*. 


and wart not 




IT " Yea, some of you were not content 

To holde fast that ye should haue brought 
Into my bame, theie to he spent ; 

But gredyly ye begde and bought, 172 

That my true seruantLs, as they ought, 
Dyd at my true prophetis byddynge, 
Into my bame faythfiodly brynge. 175 

% ''And when you had once goten in, 

Into my fblde, emonge my shepe. 
Then you thought it to be no synne 

Styll in your kennells forto slepe^ 179 

Settyng such ones my flocke to kepe, 
As were more lyke to eate the lambe, . 
Then to defende his feble dame. 182 

%gr '^ Ye robde, ye spoylde, ye bought^ ye sdde 

My flocke and me ; in euery place 
Ye made my blonde yylar then golde : 

And yet ye thought it no tre[s]passe. 186 

O wycked sorte, Yoyde of all grace^ 
Auoyde firom me downe into hell, 
Wyth Lucifer : there shall ye dwelL 189 

'' Ye had the tythes of mens encrease, 
That shoulde hauefedde my flocke and mo; 

But you made your selfes well at ease, 
And toke no thought for pouertie. 193 

It dyd not greue you forto se 

My flocke and me suffer greate node 

For lacke of meate, harbour and wede. 196 

% " No heU can be a worthy payne 
For your offence, it is so greate ; 

For you haue robbed me, and slayne 

My flocke for lacke of nedefdll meate. 200 

The woule, the lambe, the malt, and wheate, 

You dyd by force cary awaye. 

And noman durst once saye you naye. 203 

Digitized by 




% " Howe can you loke to haue mercie 
At myne handet wliome ye would not feede 

Wyth that was myne, euen of dutie 
To succonie me and myne at nedet 
Syth you myght in the scripture rede, 

That suche men shall no mercie haue 

As kepe theyr owne when nede doethe ciaue. 

*^ XJnto the hungry parte thy hreade, 
And when thou shalt the naked se. 
Put clothes on him ; this myght you reade 
In my prophetis that preached me. 
And in Johns Pistle these wordis be : — 
* Howe can that man haue Charitie, 
That beynge riche sheweth no pitie ! ' 
** Also, the man that stoppeth his eare 

At the ciye of such as be pore, 
Shall crye, and no man shall him heare, 
Kor at his nede shewe him succoure : 
Byght so he that doeth endeuoure 
To be made rych by oppressynge, 
Shall leaue him selfe (at the last) no thynge. 

** For he shall geue the ryche alwaye 
More then he can scrape frome the pore, 

So that in tyme he shall decaye, 
And haue no nedefull thynge in store. 
This might you reade, and ten tymes more 

In the Bible, that holy boke, 

If you had had tyme forto loke. 

*' But such scriptures you coulde not broke 
As bade you geue ought to the pore ; 

You wyshed then out of the boke. 
But you were suer to haue in store 
Plentie of scripturs, euermore 

To proue that you myght aye be bolde 

Wyth your owne to do what you woulde. 



Wlut merey oia 

210 laeoh. a. 
Mai. ll]Hii 

Ton might bavt 
•Mnin th« 
2H Scriptam 

217 [Pfeg«S5} 

that be who would 
not hoar the poor 


JProH, mwii. 

224 ihoaldiiotht 



if joohadhad 

231 Math.m. 

235 Bat yoo wished 
SDdi things out d 




Digitized by 




yoQ might im- 
ploy yoor goods 
in any w^; 

Mat. HI. 

that yoo might 
annoy your 

Luke Mi. 

that it was not 
wrong tod 


If tha poor did 
dla for want of 
booM and food. 

yon thonght yoa 
wart blamalaia. 

Math. w. 


and that I ahoald 
not raqnlre tbair 
blood at yoor 

lacoh. \\. 

"You thought you myght your goodiB employ 
To priuate gayne in euery thynge. 

You thought it no faute to anoye 

Such men as were nygh you dwellynge. 
Were it by purchaise or byldynge ; 

Neither to get into your hande, 

Y.our neyghbours house his goodis and lande. 

" All was your owne that you myght bye, 
Or for a long tyme take by lease ; 

And then woulde you take rent yerely, 
Much more then was the tenantis ease : 
It was no faute your rentis to rease 

From twentie markis to fourtie powndis. 

Were it in tenementis or growndis. 

" What though the pore dyd lye and dye 
For lacke of harboure, in that place 

Where you had goten wyckedly 

By lease, or else by playne purchase, 
All houseynge that shoulde, in that case, 

Haue ben a saf^;ard ^ and defence 

Agaynst the stormy violence? 

<' Yea, what if the pore famyshed 
For lacke of fode vpon that grownde, 

The rentes whereof you haue reysed, 
Or hedged it wythin your mownde ) 
There myght therwyth no &ute be founde, 

No, though ye bought vp aU the grayne 

To sell it at your pryce agayne. 

" You thought that I woulde not requyre 
the bloude of aU suche at your hande ; 

But be you sure, etemall fyre 
Is redy for eche hell fyrebrande, 
Boeth for the housynge and the lande 

That you haue taken &om the pore 

Ye shall in hell dwell euermore ! 

' Original, dafegard. 











Digitized by 



*^ Yea, that same lande that je dyd take 

From the plowemen that laboured soie, 
Causeynge them wycked shyftds to make. 

Shall nowe ly vpon you fiill sore ; 

You shal he damned for euermore : 
The hloude of them that dyd amisse. 
Through your defaute is cause of this. 
<' The fathers, whose children dyd growe 

In idlenes to a fuU age, 
Woulde fayne be excused by you 

That were the cause that they dyd rage ; 

You toke firom them theyr heritage, 
Leaueyng them nought wheron to worcke : 
Which lacke dyd make them leame to lurke. 

" The sones also, that wycked were. 
And wrought after theyr wycked wyll. 

Would nowe ryght fayne be proued cleare, 
Bycause your mysse hath made them ille ; 
But they muste nedis be gyltie styU, 

Because they woulde worke wyckedly, 

Bather then lyue in miserie. 

*' And yet shall you answere for all, 
Theyr blonde I wyl of you require. 

Because you were cause of theyr falle, 
That are become yesselles of ire ; 
Booth they and you shall haue your hyre 

In hell emonge that wycked sorts. 

That lyue in paynes wythout conforte. 

tfgr ^' Infyne, all such as dyd amysse 
Through your defaut, what so they be, 

ShaU lyue in payne that endlesse is, 
Because they woidd not credite me. 
That am the trueth and verite. 

1 tolde them if they were opprest, 

I woulde se all theyr wrongis redreste. 
' zviii in original. 

from Um plow- 
man ■hallbta 
bordan upon jooy 

277 CP*i*M] 

and aliik TOO to 

280 Mat. mxiiV 


Too took from 
ohildrtn thair 



what thay aia ; 


but 70a win 
anawar for thair 
JEceeh. Hi. 




and for all who 
through 7011. 


Sehru. wit. 



Digitized by 





JSeeles. viL 

foiltjjr oftlmoiiy 



Toor gidU 



waj Into tlM fold 

Uk0 IfOlTM. 




"The wycked sorte, that dyd rebell 
Agaynst yon, when yoa dyd them wronge. 

Shall hane theyr parte wyth yoa in heD, 
Wheie yon shall synge a dolefdll songe : 312 

Worlde wythont ende yon shall he stooge 

Wythe the pricke of the conscience : 

A inste lewaide for your offence. 315 

%Sf ^ And yon that woulde nedis take in hande 
To guyde my flocke, as shepheardis shonlde, 

Onlye to possesse rent and land. 
And as much lichesse as yon conlde, 319 

To leade your lyfe enen as you woulde, 

Auoyde £rom me downe into hell, 

Wyth Simon Magus there to dwelL 822 

^If I should rehearse all at laige 
That in your wycked lyfe is founde. 

And laye it strayght to your charge, 
Ko wyght there were in this world rownde 326 

But woulde wonder I had not drownde 

The hoole earth for your synne onlye. 

That woulde be called my deargie. 329 

" Firste (wyth Magus) ye made your waye, 

Lyke gredy woulves,^ into my folde. 
Your wycked wyll coulde fjmde no staye 

So longe as ought was to be solde, 333 

Either for sendee or for golde : 
By you the patrons fell horn, me, 
And are become as ill 6» ye. 336 

% « You dyd prouoke them fyrste to sell, 

^ And then they learned forto bye ; 

Thynkynge that they myght bye as well 

As the leadars of the clargie. 340 

And then they founde meanes, by and by. 

To catch, and kepe in theyr owne hande. 

The tenth increase by sea and lande. 343 

' wonlles in original. 

Digitized by 




IT "Theyr owne chyldren they dyd present, 
Theyr semaantis, and theyr wycked kynne, 

And put by such as I liad sent 
To tell my people of theyr synne : 
And yone were gladde to take them in, 

Bycanse you knewe that they dyd knowe 

That yone came in by the wyndowe. 

** Such as wonlde haue entryd by me. 
That am the dore of my shepe folde. 

You sayde were not worthy to be 
Admitted into my householde : 
You thought by them you should be tolde 

Of your moste wycked Simonie, 

Your falsehead and your periuiie. 

IT "You layde to theyr charge herecie, 
Sisme, and sedicion also ; 

But you dyd them falsely belye, 

Thynckynge therby to worke them wo, 
And doubtlesse ofte it chaunced so : 

For many of them you haue slayne 

Wyth most extreme and bitter payne. 

IT " Thus by your meanes my people haue 

Ben destitute of sheperdis good ; 
They haue ben ledde by such as draue 

Them £rom the fylde of gostly foode ; 

They beate them backe wyth heauye mode, 
And made them fede in morysh grownde, 
Where neuer shepe coulde be fedde sownde. 

IT "The kyngis and rolars of the earthe, 
For lacke of knowledge, went astraye ; 

And you stopped my semantis breathe, 

That woulde haue taught them the ryght waye ; 
You thought your lyueynge woulde decaye, 

If kyngis and rulars of the lande 

Should theyr owne duitie Tuderstande. 





Siuii M would 
hare tnterod tht 






361 [PaceST] 


Many of my 
Mrvanta yon havi 






■trayed for laok 

Apcy mviii 
of knowlodgo. 

John, SBi, 


Digitized by 






and, hftTliiff mj 

JP^l. Wiiii. 

Ibr tlM IgnortBM 
of the p*opl«. 


Ton Mw it all, 

ler, wwiii 
ftrittng flrom 

% ^ For 60 longe as you kept them blynde, 

Makynge them thyncke they had no chaige, 
You had all thyngis at your owne mynde, 

And made your owne powr wondrouse large. 382 

You had an owre in echmans baige ; 
You bade the princis take no care. 
For you would all the dayngar beare. 385 

IF " This haueynge my flocke in your hande. 

You taught them not, but kept them blynde. 
So that not one dyd vnderatande 

The lawes that I had lefte behynde. 389 

The maister could not teach his hynde 
How he should worke in his callyng 
Fearynge my wrath in eueiy thynge. 392 

^' The father coulde not teach his sonne 

Howe, in his dayerf, to walke vpryght ; 
But gaue him leaue at laige to runne 

In wycked wayes, boeth daye and nyght> 396 

Makyng him wycked in my syght : 
O wycked guidis, this was your dede. 
But I shall requite you your mede ! 399 

%gr *' The matrons and mothers also, 

Coulde not teach theyr daughters my lawe. 

But wyckedly they let them go 

Whyther theyre wycked luste dyd drawe : 403 

Can you denie but this you sawe ? 

And whye dyd you not set them ryght 

To seke thynges pleasante in my syght I 406 

tST *' All maner men were oute of £rame ; 

2?'one knewe his duitie thorowly ; 
And you aie founde in all the blame. 

That haue entred by Simonie ; 410 

Whych thynge you shall dearely bye, 
For wyth Satan you shall be sure. 
Worlds without ende, styll to endure. 413 

Digitized by 




420 lohm.9 



"For at jour handis nowe I requyre Th« blood or an 

The blonde of all that perished !• nqnind at 

In placis were you toke the hyre, *^ 

And let my flocke he famisshed. 417 

For aye ye shal he banyshed 

The hlysse that 'I bought for them all 

That folowed me when I dyd calL 

'^ Auoyde from me downe into hell, 

All ye that haue wionght wyckedly : 
wyth Ladfer there shall ye dweU, 

And lyue in paynes eternally. 424 

Your wycked sotde shall neuer nye. 
But lyue in payne for euermore. 
Because ye paste not for my lore. 427 

" Awaye, awaye ye wycked sorte I 

Awaye, I saye, oute of my syght : 
Henseforth you ^shajll] haue no conforte. 

But bytter moumynge daye and nyght, 431 

Extreme darknes wythouten lyghte. 
Wepynge, waylynge, wyth sobbynge sore, 
Gnashyng of teeth for euermore, 434 

*' Your conscience shall not be quiete, 

But shall styll bume lyke flameynge fjie ; 
Ko bumyng brymston hath such heate 

As you shall haue for youre iuste hyre ; 438 

The bote vengeaunce of my greate ire 
Shall be styll boylynge in your breaste, 
So that you shall neuer take reste.** 441 

Then shall the wycked fall in haste 

Downe into the pyt bottomelesse ; 
Moste bytter paynes there shall they taste, 

And lyue euer in greate distresse. 445 

None shall confort theyr heauinesse ; 
In deadly paynes there shall they lye : 
And then they would but shall not dye. 448 Apocal. im. 

Dapait Intodarfc* 

Mat, mxv 

Into the laka ot 
lira and brim- 

3fat. oriii. 

Tha wi^ad win 
than flOl into bin» 

T H' 

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T Such 88 were here 80 loth to dye, 
That they thought no ph[y]sicke to dere» 

Shall there lyue in such nii8erie 
That only death myght their herti8 chere. 452 

wh«rttiMj ihan They shall 8lwaye8 desyro to here 

•T«r bt wiahiaff ¥ ^ 

to dto. That they myght dye for enermore, 

Theyr paynes 8h8l be bo paesynge sore. 455 

Then shall Christe wyth his chosen 8orto 
rPaf»tfT Trinmphanntely retome agayne 

To hys Father, geaeyng conforte 
Apoe^ wofH To snch as for hys sake were slayne. 459 

• n-«. Ko wyght shall there fele any payne, 
Bnt all shall lyue in such Uysse there. 
As neuer tonge coulde yet declare. 462 

That w» maj lift That wc maye then lyue in that place^ 

with Christ in ___ 

hMVMi, Wyth Christe oure kynge that hath 79 bonghi^ 

Let Ts crie vnto God for grace 
To repent that we haue mysse wrought ; 466 

And where we haue wyckedly sought 
ZnJb Mm, To be made rych by wycked gayne, 

i;pait4«] Let TS restore all thynges agayne. 469 

let th« poor mm Let the pore man hauc and enioye 
wpfhu^i The house he had by copyeholde, 

For hym, his wyfe, and lacke hys boye, 
To kepe them firom hunger and colde ; 473 

And thoughe the lease thereof be solde^ 
Bye it agayne though it be dere, 
Phil. UH. For nowe we go on oure laste yere. 476 

kt tho mdoraxM Csste downo the hedges and strongs mowndes, 

h§ laid opan . « ^ « 

again) That you haue caused to be made 

Aboute the waste and tyllage growndes, 

Makeynge them wepe that erste were (^ ; 480 
[Pi«t47} Leste you your selfes be stryken sadde. 

When you shall se that Christe doeth dry^ 
Ap0c, mwi. All teares firom the oppressedis eye. 483 

Digitized by 




Bestoie the fynes, and eke the rent. 
That ye haue tane more then your due ; 

Else certenly you shall he shent. 

When Christe shall your euidence view ; 
For then you shall fynde these wordes trew, 

You are but stuardes of the lande. 

That he betoke into your handes. 

And you that haue taken by lease 

Greate store of growndis or of houseyng, 

Your lyueyng thereby to encrease, 
And to maynetayne you loyeterynge, 
Fall nowe to worcke for your lyueynge, 

And let the lordes deale wyth theyr grewndis 

In territories, fieldes, and townes. 

You do but heape on you Gods ire^ 

Whych doubtles you shall f ele ahortely> 
In that you do so muche desyre 

The lease of eche mans house to bye. 

You study no mans wealth, pardye, 
But all men se you do aduaunco 
Your selfe by pore mens hynderaunce. 
What though your liueing ly theron I 

Shoulde you not geue them Tp theif ore t 
It is abhomination ; 

And doubtles God wyll plage it sore. 

Bepent, I saye, and synne no more, 
For nowe the daye is euen at hande 
When you shall at your tryaU stande. 

Let not the wealthy lyueynge here 
(Which can but a shorte tyme endure) 

Be vnto you a thynge so dere 

That you wyll lose endlesse pleasure, 
Bather then leaue the yayne treasure. 

0, rather let your leases go. 

Then they shoulde worke you endelesse woe. 

raDtobt restored I 


490 ZukeMm, 

work for thdr 



U. The. Hi 


jonredvee tht 


JSMitf. «. 




It Is an aboiiiiii> 




Repant, or de^ 




Digitized by 



BMiertthttithii^ Bestoie^ the tythes vnto the pore, 

thai tht poor, 

A For blynde and lame shoulde Ijue theron, 


The wydowe that hath no succoore. 
And the chjlde that is lefte alone ; 522 

For if these folke do make theyr mone 
To Grody he "v^li sore heare theyr crje. 
And reoenge thejr wronge by and by* 525 

Kestore your tythes, I saye, once more, 
That tr[e]we preachais may lyue theron. 

And hane all nedefoll thynges in store 
CPagtsi] To geue to sach as can get none, 529 

Leste theyr greate lamentation 

Do styr the Lorde vengeannce to take, 

£aen for hys tmeth and promes sake. 532 

Too, thonMB or Oene oner your pluralities, 

Qod, Buist cIto op 

yoarpUmiiUM. Ye men of God, if you be 80 ; 
Betake you to one benifice. 
And let your lordelyke lyueuyngee go, 536 

For holy wryte teacheth you so. 
Leame at the laste to be content 
Wyth thynges that be sufficient. 539 

If you be mete to do seruice 
[Pagt 6f] To any prince or noble man, 

Than medle -wyth no benifice ; 
Toacaiinotdo For ccrteuly uo ouc man cau 543 

oiiMDtw p^ ^^ duitie of moe men than 

Of one : which dtutie you do owe 

To them that geue you wage, you knowe. 546 

Bob tiM peopto tSIT Bobbc uot the people that do paye 
nomon. ^^ tenth of theyr increase yerely. 

To haue a learned guyde alwaye 

Present wyth them to edifie 550 

Them by teachyng the yeritie, 
Malae. Hi Booth in his worde and eke his dede^ 

[Pag, 51] And to succoure such as haue nede. 553 

] Rehore in original. 

Digitized by 




And you that haue tane Ysurie 
Of such as nede diaue to borowe^ 

MakiB restitution shortlj, 
Leste it tome you to great sorowe, 
When no man can be your borowe, 

Wich shal be at the daye of dome ; 

Which doubtlesse is not longe to come. 

%gr And you that by disceyte haue wonne/ 
Were it in weyght or in measure. 

Be sorye that ye haue so donne. 

And seke to stoppe Goddis displeasure. 
By bestowynge this worldis treasure 

To the confort^ helpe, and succoure 

Of such as be nedie and pore. 

IT And you that erste haue bene oppreste, 
And could not beare it paciently. 

For you I thynke it shalbe beste 
To repent you must hertily, 
And call to God for his mercie, 

To geue you grace forto sustayne 

That crosse when it shall come agayno. 

To make an ende — ^let vs repent 

All that euer we haue mysse wrought, 

And praye to God omnipotent 

To take horn, ys all wycked thought, 
That his glory maye be styll sought 

By YS that be his creatures. 

So longe as lyfe in ys endures. 

And that henceforth eche man maye seke 
In all thyngis to profite all men, 

And be in herte lowly and meke. 
As men that be in dede Christen, 
As well in herte as name ; and then 

We shall haue blysse wythouten ende : 

Unto the which the Lorde ys sende. 

taken QBary, 
HMko nstitofcioii* 




[> Orlg. vooM.] Ton thai bavt 
ba sorry aad 




Toa who hara 
rabaUad» rapent 


574 Maro. 14 

and pray God 
for mercy. 



And lot aadi man 
aeek thagoodof 



Digitized by 





walk «prightt7* 



tmt thaj Mtm to 
disdain mi 

C* Pag* 68] 

Tha "Tnunpai** 
waa sent to pra- 

and noir I ooma 
that man maj 
aae, aa in a glaai^ 


The Soke to the Christian Beadars. 

MY brother (the Trampet) dyd wame you before^ 
That al men shuld walk in their callynge Tp- 

JDirectyng their wajes by Gooddia holy lore, 
knowyng that thei be always in the Lordis syght 
Whoe seeih in the darcke as well as in lyght. 
He hath ciyed Tnto you all this last yere. 
And yet non emendment doeth in you appeare. 595 

%gr In dede, veiy many do him entertayne 
Lyke as there were none more welcome then he. 

Yet I thyncke they do his wamynge dysdayne. 
Because he doeth tell them *what is theyr duetie, 
"For he is very playne wyth enery degre : 

The rych and the myghtie he doeth nothyng feare, 

Ko more doeth he wyth the pore mans falte beare. 602 

%gr It pleased my fj&ther to sende him before. 
That he myght make redy and prepare his waye. 

By causeynge all men to walke in his lore, 

That haue in tymes passed wandred astraye, 606 
Leste payne be theyr portion at the laste daye. 

And nowe hath he sent me that they maye se, 

As it were in a glasse, what theyr rewarde shal be : 

I am the rewarde that al men shall hane, 

For the iuste shall haue plesnre and the wicked 

When eneiy man shal aryse oute of his graue. 

And haue the spryte knyt to the body agayne, 613 
In heauen or in hell they shall styll remayne : 

Of blysse or of payne they shall haue theyr fyll— 

The good sorte in heauen, and in hell the ilL 616 

' panye in originaL 

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Bebolde me, theifore, wyth a gostly eie, bam m^ 

And let me not firom your piesence departe ; iiMii<r£i«rt 

For no doubt you wyll all wyckednes defye. 

So longe as I shall lemayne in your berte, 620 

I shall cause you firom wyckednes to conuert. 

So that, in the ende, you sbalbe lygbt sure 

To lyue wyth my father in ioye and pleasure. 623 


IT Imprin- TattiQ 

ted at london by Eobert 
Crowley dwellynge 
in Elie rentis in f ■ "j* 

Holbume j 

Anno Domini : ,j! 

.M. D. L. L ;:. j 




Digitized by 


Digitized by 



[Bliss 1066, BocU. Libr.'\ 

(L ^fft SSiasi to 

Ig tausfit a most present Eemetig 

for Sclrtdon. Otrnttcit tM impriiiUTi 
bg Sobtrl CrofDltg i^e inx. of 

^ i^ottsmtb iSne 
^»bnb it fif- 

iie 'J 


|n (Elie Smbs m 

8R^o 80 l^mt be 1^ botst btsgn, 
S0 Iixtt Bstb 000b bBjes », 
ITokt ^^ m % tmp mtb i^ Igps, 
S^ne gl or btscetie bt. 
^it bom si mtb b0 l^ai goob 10, 
SS^mof comrntt^ no blanu, 
Stb i^o» lor ftuct bUtgtnilg, 
^nb %n fitsitt l^e shdu. 

^8alm .xindtii 




If (S^ttitt prittOefiio atr tnq^rU j 

Digitized by 


[At,taek] [BloTik page.] 

titctou tnase it put a^toage, anli 

b^ bistniction bnl fblob if tt bt 

not jrnt aba] 0{rtbtl|. 

Coiuialutio Xo(crt 

<SDrold /. 


Digitized by 




ring that al men maye playnelj perceiue the coMidwing whai 

greate huite that (of late dales) Sedicion hath it is a dat j to sm 

done in thjs leahne, & that all wyse men maje to remote th« 

esilje gather what greater horte is lyke to sobiarMimt 
ensue, if it be not spedely sene vnto, it shalbe euery 6 
true Englyshmans duty forth-wyth to employe his 
whole study to the remouyng of so great an euel oute 
of so noble a realme and commone wealth ; leste, haply 
(if throughe n^ligence it growe and take deper rote) bMaiiMifi«t 

. alon* it may tako 

it be shortly to strongs and more suerly grounded than toch deep root» 

that it maye be rooted oute wythoute the vtter de- themia^tho 

struction of the whole realme. For what can be more ^*'****°^ 

true then that whych the Trueth it-selfe hath spoken 1 13 

^ Euery kyngdome ^ (sayeth Christe) '' that *is deuided Mathew .mii. 

in it-selfe shall be broughte to nought." Intendynge, t*^**''»«''*3 

InteodinK to act 

therefore, to playe the parte of a true Englyshman, and a* a true Engiiaii. 
to do all that in me shall ly to plucke thys stincking aiiicantore. \[i 

wede yp by the rote, I shal in thys good busines do as, TwMd!^* ^'^ 

in their eueU exercise, the dise-playars (that gladlye 19 V\ 

woulde, but haue nothynge to playe for) do : — Holde i ahaii hold tu ^ 

the candle to them that haue wherewyth, and wyll who can and wiu T:f 

sette lustUy to it. And so dojrng, I shal be no lesse ter^andeoshaii -r 

worthy the name of a true herted Englishman then tha'name^ ^ *^ 

the trumpettar is worthy the name of a man of war, SSj^J^JS^peter ? 

thoughe he do not in dede fyght, but animate and ^of"^<>' | 

encourage other. 26 

Sedition therfore, beinge a daungerous disease in sedition is a 
the bodie of a commen-wealth, muste be cured as the hecnndTM ™ 
expert Phisicians do vse to cure the daungerous diseases £jd^^w<^'* 
in a naturall bodie. And as the moste substanciall JlJSIa ^iST 
ways in curinge diseases is by puttings awaye the 31 
causes wherof they grewe, so is it in the puUinge vp of 
Sedition. For if the cause be once taken awaye, then by patting awa/ 
muste the effecte nedes fails. . If the rote be cut of the tberooTbecat 

' There are 82 pages. The signatures marked are these, 
A .IL, B .L, B .u., B .iii., B iiii. "An* 1560" is written on tiUe. 


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tlM bntneh mut 


Do not dladaln 
BBj Advice, 

forth* matter 
Daniel ,miii, 
raqairee erery 
nuui't ooiuMel. 
in tell yoa the 
truth, dont be 
Whet I Md. 
Oene, mxi. 
Abraham obqred 

the NInevltee 
obeyed Jonah, 
Jonas AH, 
and eat In eaek- 
doth and aahee ; 

Herod Ilatened 
to John the 
Baptist, becanae 
what he tidd 
Marcke vi, 
was tme; 
OIto ear, then, to 
me, if yoa are 
not proader than 
Babjlon or more 
cmel Uian 

p orig. flore] 
Ifl ask the poor 
man the eanse of 
the eediUon, be 

[S orig. 6Mttar«i.] 

graxiers, lawyers^ 
merchants, gen- 
tlemen, knights, 
and lords. 

Hen wltliont a 

Ct A ill, back] 
they are doers of 
all things where 
gain is to be had. 
They are men 
without con- 
adence, withoot 
yea, men who 
live as though 
there were no 
God at all. 
They are nerer 
satisfied; they 
are greody mills, 
and would eat up 

braanch most nedes die. The boughes cannot badde 
if the tree haae no sappe. " 

Geue eaie therfore (O my conntrej-men) gene eaie ! 
And do not disdaine to heaie the adoise of one of the 
leaste of youie brethren, * for the matter reqoireth enerie 
mans coonaell, and Grod reueiled ynto jonnge Daniell 
that whiche the whole coonsell of Babilon perceiued 
not Gene eare, I saye, and if I tell you tmeth, be 
not ashamed to do that I bid, thonghe ye knowe me to 
be at yoture commanndement. For Abraham was con- 
tented to do at the biddinge of Saraie his wife, because 
he knewe that hir biddinge was Gods wilL And ^e 
Niniuites did, at the biddinge of pore lonas, sit in 
sackecloth & ashes, because they perceiued that he 
tolde them the trueth. Yea, cruell Herode did not 
refuse to heare lohn Baptiste, because the thinge 
whiche he told him was true. Leaste you therfore 
shulde be more loftie then the Babilonians, more 
shame&st then Abraham, more stubbome then the 
Niniuites, & more cruell then Herod, geue eare,^ and 
patientlye heare what I shal saye ! 55 

The causes of Sedition muste be roted oute. If I 
shuld demaunde of the pore man of the contrey what 
thinge he thinketh to be the cause of Sedition, I know 
his answere. He woulde tel me that the great ferm- 
ares, the grasiers, the riche buchares', the men of lawe, 
the marchauntes, the gentlemen, the knightes, the 
lordes, and I can not tel who ; men that haue no name 
because they are fdoares in al thinges that ani gains 
hangeth ypon. Men without conscience. Men vtterly 
Yoide of Goddes feare. Yea, men that Hue as thoughe 
there were no God at all ! Men thai would haue all in 
their owne handes ; men that would leaue nothyng for 
others ; men that would be alone on the earth ; men 
that bee neuer satisfied. Cormerauntes, gredye guiles ; 
yea, men that would eate vp menne, women, & chyldren, 
are the causes of Sedition ! They take our houses ouor 

Digitized by 



our headdee, they bye our growndes out of our handes, 
they reyse our rentes, they leauie great (yea vnreason- 
able) fines, they enclose oure commens ! Ko custome, 
no lawe or statute can kepe them from oppressyng ts 
in such sorte, that we knowe not whyche waye to 
tume vs to lyue. Very nede therefore constrayneth ts 
to stand Tp agaynst them ! In the countrey we can 
not tarye, but we must be theyr slaues and laboure tyll 
our hertes brast, and then they must haue aL And to 
go to the cities we haue no hope, for there we heare 
that these vnsaciable beastes haue all in theyr handes. 
Some haue purchased^ and some taken by leases, whole 
allyes, whole rentes, whole rowes, yea whole streats 
and lanes, so that the rentes be reysed, some double, 
some triple, and some four fould to tliat *they were 
wythin these .xii. yeres last past Yea, ther is not so 
much as a garden grownd ire from them. Ko remedye 
therfore, we must nodes fight it out, or else be brought 
to the lyke slaueiy that the French men are in 1 These 
idle bealies wil deuour al tJiat we shal get by our sore 
labour in our youth, and when we shal be old and 
impotent, then shal we be driuen to begge and craue of 
them that wyl not geue vs so muche as the crowmes 
that fall fiN)m their tables. Such is the pytie we se 
in them ! Better it were therfore, for vs to dye lyke 
men, then after so great misery in youth to dye more 
miserably in age ! 98 

Alasse, poore man, it pitieth me to se the myserable 
estate that thou arte in ! Both for that thou arte so 
oppressed of them by whom thou shouldest be defended 
from Oppression, and also for that thou knowest not 
thy dutye in thys great misery. Thow art not so much 
oppressed on the one side, but thou art more destituted 
on the other syde. They iJiat should norish and de- 
fend thy body in thy labour, do oppresse the ; & they 
that shuld fede thy soule & strengthen thy mind to 
beare al this paciently, do leaue iJiat alone. If thy 

They Uke oar 
booaas 0T«r oar 
heads, bay oar 
lands, raiaa oor 

and endoseoar 
oommooa. No 
law can keep 
fhem Aromop- 
We don't know 
turn ao as to live. 
In tbeooontiy 
we are their 
alavea, and they 
in the dty they 
have aU in their 


and have donUed 
and trebled the 

rente these 18 
yean past 


We mast flgfat 
it oat, or becoitto 
like the French. 

Theydevoor aU 
we get in oar 
yoath, and when 
we are old we 
moat beg, and 
then they won't 
crombe whidi 
ftll from their 

Better die Uke 
men than, after 
sodi misery in 
yoath, <Ue more 
miserably iu 

Alas, poor man! 
It pitiee me to 
aee yoa in such 
misery, and 
becaose yoa know 
not yoar doty in 
sach trouble. 


They that should 
noorish you op- 
prese you, and 
tl^y who should 
feed you leave 
you alone. 



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ifyoor tbtphtcd fihoplieide liad bene a diligent watdunan, & had espied 

the wonlfe comyng vpon the, before tTiou. hadst bene 

[• Aif.iMusk] yriihin his reach, he wold haue stepped *betwene the & 

112 thine enemi, Ss enstructed the in such sort^ thaty thon^ 

ihft wolf might he had come in nine shepe skinnes, yet he shoolde not 

niM abMiwkiM hauo decciucd thy syg^te. The deuell shoolde neaer 

snA not havt 

dMMivtdToo. haue peiswaded the thai thon myghtest renenge thyne 
Too wouMn't owne WTonge 1 The false prophetes shonlde nener hane 
tiukUdToiiMoid caused the to beleue that thon shonldeste prenaile 
thTimjrf^ againste them with the swerde, ynder whose goaem- 
119 aonce God hath apointed the to be. He would hane 
ToravMift told the that to renenge wronges is, in a subiect^ to 

wronci la. In ft 

■Qi^Mt, tonnirp take and ysoipe the office of a kinge, and, consequently^ 
ftvtiMktogto the office of God. For the king is Goddes minister to 
toimi^tiM' reuenge the wronges done vnto the innocent As he that 
iS<n!ra<M«ni.'^ taketh in hande, theref ore, or presumeth to do anye office 

Tnder a kinge, not beinge lawfully called Tnto it^ pre- 
126 8umethtodotheofficeofakinge,sohethattakethinhand 

to do the office of a king, taketh Goddes office in hand. 
ohrMwooid 'W'e reado that oure Sauioure Christ, beinge in 

n«Ttr go btjond ^ 

theboandtofft the estimation of the worlde but a priuate man, wold 
JjHke ,mii. not walke out of the boundes of that yocacion. But 

iMAMdtb^?* when a certaine man came vnto him & desired that 
ih« iniMrttuMM^ he would commaund hys brother to deuide the en- 

133 heritaunce wyth him, he axed who had appointed 

and In ih« matter him to be iudge in suche matters) And againe, when 

taken In adniuiy. the woman taken in adultery was broughte vnto hym, 

Ct A t] lie shoulde not gene sentence f of the lawe againste her, 

137 but* axed hir if any man had condemned hir, and Tpon 
irjoo had known hir dcniall let hir ga If these examples, with the 
John ,riii. terrible stories of Corah, Dathan, Abira[m] and Abso- 
^^l^^^l!^^ lorn had ben diligently beaten into thine heade, thou 
Ntmeri .wH. wouldeste (no doubte) haue quieted thy selfe, and haue 
iLBeff, wHii. suffered thy selfe rather to haue bene spoyled of al- 
Mi^io^b!rtorn together, yea, and thy bodie toren in peces, rather then 
£m nSd^^iinit ^^^^ wouldest hauc taken on the more then thou art 

the king. 

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called ynto. For no cause can be so greet to make it 145 

lawful for the to do againste Goddes ordinaunce. But 

thy shepeherde bathe bene negligent^ as (alas the Bat an tbtpiMrdt 

while !) all shepeheides be at this daie, and hath not iu« Oay, 

enstructed the aright He espied not the wolf before 

he had woried the, or happlye he knewe him not frome 150 

a shepe. But it is moste like he was but an hirelinge, and yonn wm» 

and cared for no more but to be fedde with the milcke h^tu^»Lid 

•bMp tliaa drir« ' i-j, 

& fatlinges and cladde with the woule, as the greateste iMmnddoUMd, 
numbre of them that beare the name of shepeherde in 2!L^!!b^f!S!*^ 
Englande be at this daie. Yea, perchaunce he had Pwhapth^had 
many flockes to kepe, Ss ther-fore was absent from them kMp, «ki mi « 
al, leaning with euerye flocke a dogge that woulde o^^l^mM 
rather woiye a shepe then driue away the woulfe. 158 2lilir*i'M^re 

Wei, brother, these be greate plages, & it behoueth 5J[JJ,*JJJ^^^'* 
the synnes to be greate that haue *deserued these so ^**!?|J%*Sj^fc-, . '^ 

great and intollerable plages at Goddes hande. Eetume sroor unt mast v 

hftT* been gTMt * * 1 

to thi conscience therfore, and se if thou haue not de- to d«erve them. ^ 

____, _ . ^ ., /»..*, See if you havent 

serued all this, and more to. Consider, nrste, if thou deMrred them. ^ 

haue loued thy neighboure as thy self; coTtsider if thou yXr^^hhlnT ^ 

haue done nothing vnto him that thou wouldeste not JtowTSShta^* !iz 

that he shoulde do vnto the. Loke if thou haue not j^J'jJJd?? do *- 
gone about to preuent him in any bargen that thou «^**"^j!^'j^ 

hast sene him about; loke if thou haue not craftely ©▼•n^MhWm j 

in a bargain P » 

yndermined him to set some thing out of his hand, or Have joa not f 

deceived him in 

to deceiue him in some bargein. Loke if thou haue manytiiinga? 
not laboured him oute of his house or ground. Se if 171 
thou haue not accused him falsely or of malice, or else Have you not 
geuen false euidence againste him. Se if thou haue not luseiy, or or 
geuen euell counsell to his wife or seruauntes, which ^^ium 
might tume him to displeasure. Consider if thou haue JUJ^ ■*^°"* 
not desired and wished in thine herte to haue his com- Have 70a not 
modi tie from him if thou mightest, without blame of ^^? 
the worlde, haue broughte it aboute. For God loketh ^Z^^^t 
vpon the herte, and if thine herte haue bene infected S^STiiuSS 
with ani of these euilles, then haste thou bene abomin- ^^f? V 

^ God loolct on the 

heart, and if yon 

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136 BBB0B8 or THB PBOPLB. 

iMftdoMtut able in the sight of Ood, and haste deseroed these 

•bl•lnHis•icll^ plages at Goddes hand. 182 

and haTt4»> 

Kow if jaxi be found abhominable in thy behanionie 

And if yoa art towaides thj neighbouie what shalt thou be founde, trow- 

1^?^^ estthou, in*thjdemaneiBto6odwaid1 (jod zequiieth 
J^^^^^JJ]]^ thine whole hert, thyne whole mynd, and al the powers 
SSStooS/^ ^^^y^^y"^^^^®- " Thou shaltloue thy Lord God 
oS*' Qirw ^^^ ^ ^^ ^^®' ^"^^ ^ *^y mynd, and wyth al thy 
Ifatk. mxH. strength." That is to say, ther shal be nothynge in the 

your w1m)1# 

bMTt. mind, tad whych thou shalt not apply wholly to the lone of thy 
•ndkowcoQid Loid God. But how was it possible for the to louo God 

v(Hi Iava ¥llnk If 

70Q iov«d noi (whom thou seest not), syth thou louest not thy brother 
7oar broOMrP whom thou seest 1 God requireth the to loue him euer, 
194 and how often hast thou gone whole dayes togither, 
whole weakes, yea whole yeres, and neuer thought once 
HoiriiMiiy tolouehymaiyghtf How many and how great bene- 

TMrfftdaJd'^ fites hast thou leceyued at Goddes hand, and howe 

■ad thought yoQ Tuthanckful hast thou bene for them, thynckynge that 

^jcmown^ ^^^ ^^'^^ gotten them by thyne owne labouie and not 

S^ISd'n!**'^ receyued them frely at Goddes handl As though God 

giTM thMA to iiad not geuen the thy lyfe, thyne health, and thy 

strength to laboure 1 Tea, and as thoughe it were not 

203 God only that geueth the increase of eueiye mans 

labour. But knowynge by thyne owne creacion and 

bryngyng yp, and also by the yonge firuite that Grod 

sendeth the of thy bodi, & further by the frutes thai 

QyHtowotin God sendeth, and causeth yerely to growe out of the 

toUood. earth, that there is a God Almyghty. Tet thao, hast 

ttTti, iMbk] t ^^^ honoured him as God, but hast turned the gloiie of 

j^JJJ^J^i. God into an image made after the shape, or similitude, 

Bai5J^*fa^ ^^ mOrtall man ; renninge and ridinge from place to 

*"*"^Swt** P^*"^ *^ ®®^® *^^ ^ honoure thinges of thine owne 

«onjft«« p»«» makeinge ; crienge and callinge vpon them in thy nede 

hoooor athinff and paying vnto thern thy vowes, and thancking them 

0* 7 OOf own 

for thyne health receiued ; doinge them dayly worshipe 
216 and reuerence in the temples, and bestowingo thine 

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almes vpon them in deckmge ikem and setting lightes 217 
before them ! Biside this thou haste put confidence of Toaiunr*pat 
saloacion in pardones that them haste bought^ in prayers sairmtioa in 
that thou hast hiered, or mumbled vp thy selfe, in ^Mh^^^^t^ 
Masses that thou hast caused to be saide, and in USa J!J^t« 
worckes that thou thy selfe haste fimtasied ; and haste 2d*2Jd to 
not thanckefullye receyued the &ee mercye of God ^oHw^bich 
offered vnto the in Christ, in whom onlye thou maiste imacSMd. 
haue remission of thy sinnes ! And therfore (rod hath soOodhM gw«n 

joa up to ft n* 

geuen the vp in to a reprobate minde to do the thinge proiMto mind, 
that is not beseminge. £uen to stande vp againste ^oin,i, 
God and Groddes ordinaunce, to refuse his Holy Word, tonftiMHis 
to delite in lies and false fables, to credite fedse pro- te iie* and fia)iMb 

pheteSy and to take weapen in hand against Goddes propblu^uidto r^, 

chosen ministers : I saye his chosen ministers, for be mSirtS?** ^^ • ' 

they good or bad, they are Goddes chosen, if they be 232 '-'^ 

* goody to defende the innocente, if they be eueU, to [*atU] r 

plage the wicked. If thou wilt therfore that God shall itjmi with to b* -^ 

deliuer the or thy children from the tirannie of them opprtuionyoa 'J^ 

that oppresse the, lament thine olde sinnes, and en- ^rtiill^^d ^ 

deuour emendment of life. And then he that caused i!^SJdras*^ i: 

King Cirus to send the lewes home to lerusalem SS5^"*' "^ 
againe, shall also stire yp our yong king Edward to Then King Ed- 
restore the to thy liberty againe, and to geue straight ubenr again, 
charge that non shalbe so bolde as once to vexe or trouble mand that non« 
the. '' For the herte of a kinge is in Goddes hand, & Prof^^wxtl 
as he tumeth the riuers of water, so tumeth he if 243 

Be sure therfore, that if thou kepe thy selfe in Be ob«iitnt» and 
obedience and suffer al this oppression patiently, not giTiii^Doearto 
geueing credite vn to false prophecies that tel the of ^IS^^I^klT 
Tictori, but to the worde of God that teUeth the thy J^^^^ 
dutie ; thou shalt at the time, and after the maner that Ikech, xi, 
God hath alredie pointed^ be deliuered. Perchaunce ^ahaube 
God wyl take from thine oppressours their hard stony t^jZrJ^ 

hertes, & geue them hertes of fleshe ; for it is in hys 
power so to do. Let him alone therfore. Eeade the 252 

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Beadelere- prophecie of leremie, and especially the senen and 

^he^!^^^^ twentie Chapter, the eighte and twentie and the nine 

and iMrn ycmr and twenti, and therein thou shalte leame thy duetie 

[• A Til. btek] in captiuitye, and howe vayne a thynge it is to *credite 

tobeii6v*p^'^ the prophetes that prophecie yyctorie to theym that 

^J^^^^^Jf*^ haue, by their synnes^ deseraed to be led awaye cap- 

«H>ttvi<j* tyue, yea, and to remains captine till suche time as the 

260 time be complete dnringe whiche God hath determined 

ifyoamttm to pmiishe them. And know thou for certentie, that if 

^onuJto 7o« thou be stil stoubeme, God wil not leane the so. He 

jw Tidm »• ''^ bringe the on thy knees ; he wyl make the stonpe ! 

wngt^iJll" If the gentlemen and rulars of thy conntreie shonlde be 

intorabdiuyoo* to weskc for the, he would bringe in strainge nations 

266 to subdne the (as the Babilonians did the lewes) and 

leade the away captiue. So that, refusing to seroe in 

thine own coontrie, thou shalte be made a slaue in a 

Don't 8triT« strainge contreL Quiet thy selfo therfore, & striae not 

againste the streame. For thi sinnes haue deseraed 

IdiuihatyGa^ ^^ Oppression, and God hath sent it the as a iust re- 

pJ2d^*^ warde for thy sinnes; & be ihaxi neuer so loth, yet 

2JJ^ JlSrt*** nedes sustaine it thou muste. Apointe thy selfe therfore 

J*^***. V ^ to beare it. Let it not be layed vpon the in Tain : let 

l«t it not b« In ./ X- / 

Tain,i«tu do it do the thinff thai God hath sent it for : let it cause 

what He Intmdsd ® , 

itthoniddo; and the to acknowlcdgc thy sinne, repent it, and become 
wiUbMooMft altogether a new man. That in the day when God 
"*^"'**°' shall deliuer the, his name maie be glorified in the. 

Th«n yoQ thaU And then Gk)d shal send th^ plentie of troe prophets, 
phIL, ^^ thalt shal go before the in puriti of life and godli doo- 
[t ayiu] trine. f'^^J ^^ ^^^ come or send .iiii times in an 

282 yere and no more ; neyther shal they set one to gather 
who win not yp the tenth of thyne encrease to their behoufe, and 
tau^crfT^wSttt lea^e the destitute of a diligente guyde (as thy shep- 
SlphelL^dS' herdes do nowe a dayes) ! But God hath promised by 
now-a-day^ jjyg prophete to take awaye these shepeherdes from the, 
and to commyt the to the kepynge of Dauid hys fayeth- 

288 fol sernaunte ; that is to saye, to such as wyll be as 

Digitized by 




diligent in feadyng the, as Daxiid was in gonemyng the 289 
people of whom he had gouemaonce. 6{v«Mr,7* 

Greue eare therfore ye shephardes of thys church of v^dZ,^^ 
Engknde I Ye Byshoppes, ye Deanes, Archdiacons and ?i2II^£Ii„ 
Canons ; ye Persons and ye Vicares, what soener ye be, ^l^J^^^ 
that receyue any parte of the tenth of mens yerelye en- JJ^^*^*^^ 
ciease, or any other patrimony of preachers, geue eare to ^^p^*^ EioWei, 
the prophet Ezechiel ! For the same Lord that bad him commanded to 
speake vnto ^e sheperdes of luda, byddeth hym speake •'^^ '^^^^^^ 
ynto you nowe also. '' Thou sonne of manne,'' sayth the 298 
Lord, ^^ prophecye agaynst the shepherdes of England, 
prophecy and say vnto those shepheardes : — ^thus sayeth 
the Lord Grod : Wo be to the shepherdes of England, Meeh. 
that haue fed them selues! What ought not those ^Mto^the 

shepherdes to haue fed those flockes of England ? Ye S^^who / 1 

eate the fSatte, and decke youre selues 'with the woule, '^JirVtirS^i '^ 

& the mutton that is fat ye kil to fede vpon, but these ^^^••- •! 

" *^ ' Toa tat the fat, "I 

silli shepe ye fede not The soroweful & pensiue ye «ndwaarthewooi, ;;J 

haue not comforted, the sicke ye haue not healed, the ^t t>>eM ahe«p ;- 

700 fifted not. 1^ 

broken ye haue not bound vp, the stray shepe ye haue The aorrowflii ;: 

•f A .f yon have not > 

not brought againe nor sought for the lost. But vrith comforted; the H 

extreme crueltie ye haue plaied the lordes ouer them, not healed; the • 

&c/* I nede not to reherse more of this prophets not bound np; 

saijmg vnto you, for ye know where to haue it, and iJ^^^^^'^"^ I 

haue leysure inough to seke it, for ought that I se you JSuhTxtreSe* 

busied withal ; onlesse it be with purchaisinge landes ^j^^il'^^ 

for youre heires, & finds fingered ladies, whose womaw- J^rttMw*** 

like behauioup and motherlike housewifry ought to be ^"^^ *©»« 

a lighte to al women that dwell aboute you, but is so n^^^iju 

fjEUB otherwise, that, vnlesse ye leaue them landes to C^]^ hehane 

maiye them wythall, no man wyll set a pinne by them ^c J^e. 

when you be gone. Wei, loke to this geare be tyme, 320 

leasts perhappes it brede a scabbe emonge you. ^ ''oi'^ »<>* *<*• 

, your wivee firom 

I woulde not your wiues shoulde be taken from you, yoo, but i wooid 
but I wold you shoulde kepe them to the furtheraunce to ftmher ood't 
of Groddestrueth, wherof ye professe to be teacheares. JI^*profeL'1» be 


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325 Let youie wiaes therefore pat of theire fine firockes and 

Frenche hoodes, & fomishe them selues with al pointes 

thatthfymajiM of honest hoosewiferj, and so let them be an helpe to 

^*B0 * yoore studie and not a lette. S. Paul teacheth *you 

^i^^m^liii, not to make them ladies or gentlewomen. Neither 

doeth he teache yon to be so gredie Tpon liueings, that, 

331 for the liueinge sake, ye will take vpon yon the daeties 

of twentie men, and yet do not the dnetie of one ; no, 

some of yon be not able to do anye part of one dutie ! 

irood't word If Goddes Worde do alow it that one of you shulde be 

sUow yoo to 

hold divm a deane in one place, a canone in an other, a parsone 
piMa>,tobeft here and a parsone there, a Maister of an house in 
***"iiB^ittitr, Oxforde or Cambridge and an officer in the kinges 

InTtwttlwr' J^ouse, and yet to do none of the duities herof thorowly ; 

^JJ*^ ^ then set your pennes to the paper, and satisfie ts bi 

papm-, and provt Goddes Word, and we wil also helpe you to oure 

aidyooftUia powcr to satisfie the consciences of them that be of- 

oor power. ■•%.»* 

ifyoocta'tdo fended at youre doinges henn. If you can not do so, 
yoarpini^UM, then gcuc oucT youre pluralities and make your yn- 
witti*Siirii)iSJ Mciable desires geue place to Goddes trueth. Content 
•nddo your duty, jq^sj sclfo with ono Competent liueinge, and faile not to 

346 be diligente in doinge the duetie therol But if ye 
oryoawiUbMr wyll do neither of boeth, truste to it ye shall heare 
S^d^^diinc more of it! Toure checkinge of one or two in a comer 
m^^i^tmve ^^*^ ^^* ^P ^^^H^ mannes mouth in a matter of 
m't*mo<Sh2[ t^^*^> beynge so great an infamie to ih^ Gospel of 
amauoror Qod which yo professe. And if ye wil nedes hold 

352 stil your pluralities for your lordlike liueing sake, doubt 

Ct B i, back] t ye not ye wyll be charged with that whiche ye woulde 

Toar mwortby scme to be cleare of. For a great numbre of youre 

SJlSd^tho vnworthye curates haue bene the stirrars vp of the 

JJJ*^^ simple people in the late tumultes that haue bene; 

357 where as if you had not robbed them of that which 
whtrathtyhad thci paye yearely to haue a learned and Godly teacher, 
tiTSJ^tw t^©y 1"^ ^°® better enstructed, as appeared by the quietr 
4^^^ nes that was emonge them that had such shepeherdes. 

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Welly brother, thou, I sale, that art thns op- w«ii, brother, 
pressed on the one side and destituted on the other, opprenedand 
take mine adoise with the. Submit thy self wholj to mj Mit it, 
the wyll of God. Do thy laboure truly, cal vpon God ~Sr«d*^d^ 
continually. I meane not that thou shuldest be euer ^Si^. 
muttering on thy beads, or iJiat thou shouldest haue ?3^/^ i^^^ 
any beads, but my meaninge is, that thou shouldest SJiiJSi*<m*y«ir 
euer haue thine harte lifted yp vnto God ; for so mean- i. Timo, U. 

beads elweySf 

eth Sainte Paul when he sayeth, '' I would men should bat that yoa 
pray alwayes, and in all places, lif tinge vp theire pure umivyoarheeru 
handes, &c." And in all thy doinges let thy desire be .aje. ** 
that Goddes wil be fulfilled in the, and what so euer ^^mTIhu^ 
God sendeth the, holde the content withal, and render SJenTwhTuoever 
vnto him most hertie thanckes, for that he dealeth so *»•»•»• •'^J^** 

be otmtent. '"J* 

mercifidly with the ; acknowledginge that hi his iustice 375 

he might poure oute vpon the mo plages then euer * were C* b u] :»^ 

heard of. And, when thou commeste to thy parishe when you come 7- 

church, if thy cur[a]te be an euell linear, then remem- member whet **- 

ber what Christe said vn to his disciples : — " When the jfath. xxHi. J 

Scribes and Pharises do set them downe vpon Moses Jjj^'* *" ****^ j 

seate, then do al that they commaunde you to do, but 381 = 

do not as they do ; for they say & do not." Remember end does you j 
this, I saie, and what so euer thi curate biddeth the do but dont foUoir 

evilexamplei ! 

when he sitteth on Christes seate, that is, when he dontdoesyoa ; 

readeth the Bible vnto the, that do thou. But folowe do, bat es eooa 

not his examples ! Do not as thou seest him do ; but S^ uityoar 

at thy firste entraunce into the church, lifte vp thine ^^^^^^^^^^ 

herte vnto God, and desire of hym that he wyll geue 

the his Holye Spirit to illumine and lighten the eies of 389 

thine herte, that thou maist se and perceiue the true 

meaning of all the Scriptures that thou shalte heare 

rcade vnto the that daL And so shalt thou be sure, then yon may be 

tore that, though 

that thoughe thy curate were a deuell, and would not the carate were a 
that any man shoulde be the better for that whiche he 
readeth, yet thou shalt be edified, and leame as much yoo ehaii be 

edified, and leara 

as shalbe necessarye for thy saluacion. And for thy aamachaeie 

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142 8IK TH£ 0AU8B OF 8£DITI0N. 

you.aii<nSyoQr ^® ^^^ ^^^^ mske thy cniate (that otherwise wold 
mumble in the mouth Ss diounde his woidee) to speake 

pUiniy, to that Qut plainly, or else he shall gene the such a gift that 

joa otn ondtr* 

AeiH. a. thou shalt vndeistande him plainely. Of suche power 

[•Bii»i»ek] is *6od, for when the Apostles spake in the Hebrue 

402 tonge onlye al that were present heard euery man his 

If 7<m art «•- own language. Doubt thou not therfore but if thou 

ilium to Itam 

jour doty, God be desirous to leame thy duetie out of that thy curate 
piaia. leadeth to the, God wil make it plaine ynto the, though 

Ha mada tha Ha- it be not plainlyc reado. For he that coulde make the 
toaUmauoo'tiia Hebruc tougo (which sowndeth far otherwise then 
daj of Pantaooat. Q^^ier tonges do) sownd al maner of languages, to euerie 
409 man his owne language, can also make thine owne 
language sownde plaine vnto the, though it were not 
That 7oa aaa tha spoken anye thinge plaine. 

oavaaofaaditioa _, . _ ., . ., « ^ •■... • 

ia Doiwharayoa Thus seesto thou that the cause of Sedition is not 
m data ttT where thou laiest it, for I haue declared to the that thine 
s^^ttonisiai owne sinne is the cause that thou arte sedicious. For 
^JJUJ^JP^^ *• Sedition is poured vpon the to plage thy former sinne 
joor aiaa. withalL Because thou knewest God bi his creatures and 

yet didest not honoure him as God, he hath geuen the 
418 ouer into a reprobate sence, to do the thinge that is 

ynsemelye, euen to stande vp againste God and Groddes 

ordinaunce, as I haue sayde before 1 
ifidamandof Nowe if I should demsund of the gredie cormer- 

^li^^ShTwh^ auntes what thei thinke shuld be the cause of Sedition^ 
«2J!*£^ wm* tiiey would saie :— *' The paisant knaues be to welthy, 

_^ prouender pricketh them ! They knowe not them 

ara too waaithjr ; sclucs, they knowc HO obcdicnce, they r^;aid no lawes, 

Ct B lu] thei would f haue no gentlemen, thei wold haue al men 

thay regard BO like thcmselues, they would haue al thinges commune ! 

th? would hATo Thei would not haue ys maisters of that which is our 

SSi^io!!'; owne ! They wU appoint ts what rent we shal take 

wooid flx our £^j^ ^^ groundes ! We must not make the beste of oure 

caat down oar owuc ! Thesc are ioly felowes ! Thei wU caste doune 

putona^tnl our parckes, & laie our pastures open ! Thei wil haue 

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the law in their own handes! They wil play the and have the law 
kinges ! They wyll compel the kinge to graunt theyr hMwi*.' *^ 
requested ! Bat as they Uke their fare at the breakefaste They uk«d th« 
they had this laste somer, so let them do againe. They bad lut 



haue ben metely well coled, and shalbe yet better thejwereweu 


coled if they quiet not them selues. We wyll tech 
them to know theyr betters. And because they wold 439 
haue al commone, we wil leaue them nothing. And if we win iMtt 

thsn nothiiiff. 

they once stirre againe, or do but once cluster togither, 

we wil hang them at their own dores I Shal we suffer w«wm hang 

tbcm at their 

tJie Tilames to disproue our doynges ! No, we wil be own doon. 
lordes of our own & vse it as we shal thinke good ! uke with oar 

own " 

Oh good maisters, what shuld I cal you 9 You whatehaiiieau 
that haue no name, you that haue so many occupacions J^^^"°^'** 
& trads that ther is no on name mete for you I You **"*'• «w<*««? 
vngentle gentleme?? I You churles chikens, I say ! 448 
Geue me leue to make answere for the pore ideotes i wui answer for 
ouer whom ye triumphe in this sorte. And this one ^ 

thing I shal desire of you that ye report me not to *be [•Bui.back] - 

one that fauoureth their euel doinges (for I take God fcvour their evii ^ 

doingt— I hate ir 

to witnes I hate boeth theyre euell doinges and youres them and roora i 

also), but geue me leaue to tel you as frely of your AUowmetoteii 2 

faultes, as I haue alreadi told them of theires. And for ^'^'®" • • 

asmuch as you be stronge and they weake, I shall 456 ' 

desire you to beare with me though I be more emest 
in rebuking your fiEtultes, then I was in rebuking 

True it is, the pore men (whom ye cal paisaunte True, the poor 

_ . - , '^ , \ "^ , . baredeeerved 

knaues) haue deserued more then you can deuise to more than 700 
laie vpon them. And if euerye one of them were able Slm,^ "^^ 
and shoulde sustaine as much punishment as thei al 463 
were able to sustaine, yet could thei not sustaine the 
plages that thei haue desemed. But yet if their offence bat if their 
wer laied in an equall balaunce with yours (as no doubt in an eqaai 
thei are in the sight [of] God) doubt not but you should Jj^y^ wo«id 
sone be ashamed of youre parte. For what can you ■«»^»^"»**- 

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is tndotlng tht 

trarj to law. In 
Hum than btr»- 
raising rtnta. 
Wbanalaw wm 
paaaed againit 
roeh things, yoQ 
tananta to oon- 

obadlenoa to tba 
proclamation for 
lajingopen tha 

What obtdltnea 
did yoQ glTo to 

eonoamlng tha 


In thia yoa 
ahowad nalthar 
obedienoa nor 
love of country. 
Ifthon had been 
obedienoa yoo 
woald have pat 
hia laws In 
force; if there 
had been love of 

woold have pre- 
vented the da- 
atnictlon which 

Ton can see what 
nost follow sttdi 
especially hi a 

laye vnto their charge, but they haue had examples of 
the same in you t If you charge them wyth disobedi- 
ence, you were firste disobedient. For without a law 
to beare you, yea contrarie to the law which forbiddeth 
al maner of oppression & extortion, & that more is 
contrarie to conscience, the ground of al good lawes, ye 
enclosed firome the pore theire due commones, leauied 
greater fines then heretofore *haue bene leauied, put 
them from the liberties (and in a maner enheritaunce) 
that they held by custome, & reised theire rentes. 
Yea, when ther was a law ratified to the contrary, you 
ceased not to finde meanes either to compel your 
tenantes to consent to your desire in endosinge, or 
else ye found such maistership that no man durste 
gaine saye your doinges for feare of displeasure. And 
what obedience shewed you, when the kinges proclama- 
tions were sent forthe, and commissions directed for 
the laying open of your enclosures, and yet you lefle 
not of to enclose stil t Yea, what obedience was this 
which ye shewed at such time as the kinges moste 
honourable counsell, perceiueinge the grudginge that 
was emong the people, sent forth the second proclama- 
tion concerning your negligence, or rather contempte, 
in not laieinge open that which contrari to the good 
estatutes made in Parliament you had enclosed! It 
appeareth by your doinges that there was in you 
neither obedience to your prince and his laws, nor loue 
to your contrei. For if there had ben obedience in 
you, you wold forthwith haue put al his laws in execu- 
tion to the vttermost of youre power. And if you had 
loued yoxir contrei, woulde you not haue preuented the 
great destruction that chauTtced bi the reasons f of your 
vnsaciable desire f I am sure you be not rulars in 
youp contrey, but ye can se before what ia likely to 
folowe vpon such oppression, & especiallye in a realme 
that hath hertofore had a noble and a valiaunte com- 

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xninaltL But graunt ye were so beastiflh, yet bane you MUmwiiiehhM 
not lacked them that haue tolde you of it both by oommonutj. 
woides and writtinges. You haue ben tolde of it I ToabarebMn 
Baye, and haue had the threatninges of Gkxl laied befoi«, and mart 
plainlye before your eies, wherin you must nedes file the Si^^I^iS'*" 
vengeaunce of God hanging ouer your heades for your ^•'you. 
lacke of mercy. Ther is not one storie of the Bible Thwignot* 
that seruetn to declare how readi Grod is to take venge- wueh dedam 
aunce for the oppression of his people, but the same istoaTeng* 
hath ben dedared ynto you to the yttermoste ; beside iL notb^ 
the notable histories and cronicles of thys lealme, Md^yra^T* 
wherin doeth most plainly appeare the iustice of God Sj,SiSiJ^^ 
in the reuenging of his people, at such time as they 2r!rS^^J° 
haue kept them selues in quiete obedience to their j«»tioa i» shown. 

prince & rulers, & their destruction when they haue 519 ! 

rebelled. ^ 

Wittinglye and willing^ye therfore ye haue boeth Too hare dii- ^ 

disobeied youre kinge and his lawes, and also broughte and^UM uwa ^ « 

youre contrei into the miseri it is in, bi pulling vpon and hroi4ht , j 

your self tJiai yengeaunce of God whiche of his iustice JJST^** °^^ e 

he can not holde backe fiK>m such people as do *wyll- c*bv3 i 

inglye and wittynglye oppresse him in his membres in 526 
49uch sorte as ye haue done. Howe you haue obeyed Ton hare pw 
the lawes in rakeinge together of fermes, purchaisinge "^ 

and proUynge for benefices, robbing the people of good S^^JnJ^ 
ministers therby, al the world seeth, and all godly 530 
hertes lament Loke [at] the estatutes made in the Look at th* laws 
time of our late souerayne of famouse memorye Honrie uuTrdg^ and 
the .viii A saye if ye maye by those estatutes (taken in Si,^uSg'^- 
theyr true meaninge), either beinge no priestes nor fSal^Xn%^ 
studentes in the Vniuerdties, haue benifices, or other J"/^ IILm^^ 
spirituall promotions (as you call theym, for ye are or spiritual pro- 
ashamed to calle theym mimstracions, because ye ney- 
ther wyll nor can minister) or beinge priestes haue 538 
.pluralities of such ministrations. Well I wyl burden iwiu not imrdui 
you no more wyth youre faultes, leaste perhappes you morefonits, 


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battbittwffl can not wel beaie them. But thys I shall save vnio 
Too aiMn Boi you : — ^Yon shall neoer the soner be gentlemen for your 
mraforyw'^ stout oppiession, nor the later haue thynges in piinate 
J2rS°2to!Jtaf for that ye let youre tenaonted lyue by you vpon theyre 
SJ^fc^tSi?** labonre. And thincke not to prospers the better in! 
SS'to^lS^ ' youre vnaatiable d^syre, for that you tryumphe so 
^^it^Mrw. lor<i«ly^® o^^^ *^« poo*® caytyfes, that^ beynge se* 
548 duced by the Tayne hope of Tyctorye promysed theym 
C*BT,bMk] in piuyshe prophecies *haue greatly offended God by 
rebellion : for the greater their offence is, the greater 
ToabsTtbMn shall your plage be when it commetlL For you haue 
<iataot,ftiidif .bene the only cause of theyr offence. If he therfore 
thatiM wboto that is the occasion of one mans fEdlyng ynto any kynd 
onaman'ftfuiinff of vyce Were better haue a mylstone tied aboute hys 
th!MM,irhai necke and be cast into the depe -ijea wythall, what 
S^IS^^Ih^Tt ahalbe thought of you that haue bene the occasion of so 
^'^^fciZt? numy mens fallyng into so detestable synne and tres- 

[iorig.dit<ntte] passe agaynste God, as to disturbed the whole estate of 

559 their contrei with the great perill and daunger of their 
TiMUng'a blood, auoiutod kyng in hys tender age, whose bloud (if he 
wooid haTt been had pcrished) should haue bene required at your handes, 
n^ityoor as the bloud of al them that haue perished shall 

Oh merciful God, were it not that Goddes mercy 

564 is more then your synnes can be, ther were no way 
BniOodtoiDtr. but to despcyro of foTgeuenes ! But Grod is not onely 
rtsdy toforgiTt mightjro in mercy & able to forgone al ih^ sinnes of 
ly^ theb^wkktd the wholc world, but he is also redye to forgeue al 
^■^ that retume from theyr wycked wayes, and, wiih a 

569 constant Mth & sure beleue to obtayne, do call on hym 
for mercye. I aduertise you, therfore, & in the name 
inqninyoo, of Chiist (whoso name you beare) I require you, that 
7oar off«nc« wtV^out delayc ye retume to your hertes & acknowledge 
^f B Tif^' your greuous and manifold f offences, committed in your 
b^m bjn- behaniour towaides the poore members of Christ (your 
ugion aod nation. |jj^^]j j^^ boeth by religion and nacion) whome you haue 

576 so cruellye oppressed, [and] wysheeuen from the bot- 

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tome of your hertes, iJiat you had neuer done it Be 577 
fully detennmed to make lestitucion of that ye haue B«(ui7d«t«r. 

mined tonuJcd 

misse taken, though ye should leaue your selues no- mtitatioD, for u 
ihynge. For better is a cleaie conscience in ^e hour poor with* dear 
of deth in a beggars bosome, then monntaynes of gonld to hart moont- 
-wiiJt a conscience t?iai is gilty. Wishe that you had ^^^^^,^^ 
contented yonr seines 'wiih that state wherin yonr content yoar- 
fatheis left you, and striae not to set yonr children itate in which 
abone the same, lest Gkxl take vengaonce on you y^^dd^L^ 
boeth sodenly when ye be most hastie to clime. And jS2l*<^Sw 
if for yonre worthines God haue called you to offyce so Jj^^ ^tued 
that ye may wyth good conscience take T^n you thQ JJjJ^JJ;^ 
state that ye be called ynto. then se you deale iusily in all things, md do 

' *> " not follow filthy 

poyntes, & f olowe not fylthy lucre to make your children lucre, 
lordes, but studye to furnish them wtt^ al knowledge and 591 
godly maners, that they may worthily succede you. 

Grudge not to se ^^ people growe in wealth oradgenotto 

* JT o eee the people 

Tnder you, neither do you inuent waies to kepe them grow in wealth, 
bare, lest haply it chaunce vnto you as it did to 
Kinge Kabuchodonozer ^ and hys seruauntes when JSxodi A, 
they diuised wayes to kepe the Hebrues in slaueiy stiL 597 
*They rebelled not, but quietly did theyr labour, refer- [« b vi, back] 
rynge theyr cause to God. They prepared not for lertGodierve 
wanes, neither had any confidence in theyr own STE^iana, 
strength, but when the Egiptians thought to haue had 0!^^^ obu^ 
a feire day at them, God drowned them al in the ^i^^^i, 
Bedde Sea, and draue theyr deade bodies on land in 2\2j*2ed* 
such sorts that they, whom they thoughte to kepe sty 11 ?JItSrir*h»di 
in slaueiye, myght easyly take the spoyle of them. JJ^^J^*'"'' 
Thincke not therfore, but if the people quiete them *p<^' 
selues in theyr oppression and cal vnto God for deliuer- 607 
aunce, he wyll by one meane or other geue them the 
spoile of their oppressours. He is as mighty nowe as He is as mighty 
he was in those dayes, and £3 now as able to slea boeth Sben.** 
you and youres in one night as he was to slea al the j^eodi .xiiii. 
> 7 Pharaoh. 


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613 firste borne of the Egiptyana. And then who shal hane 

BewftHMdia the spoilet Be warned betime, least ye lepente to 

late ! Leane of your gredie desire to pnl away the line- 

•ppoiiiigood ynge from the deaigy, and seke diligentlye to set suche 

M m abto and ministers in the chnrche as be able and wyl enstmct 

wllUnf to Id- 

fctupMpto; the people in al pointer of theyr dutie, that you with 

618 them and they with yon may escape the wrath of God 
lonoi Mi. that hangeth presently oner you both. The kinge & 
i«p«niM tiM citizens of Keniue were not ashamed to sitte in sacke- 

NlMfltM did, if 

70a woQid find doth and in ashes lamentynge their synnes, and there 
[•BTii] vpon •founde mercye. Wherefore, if ye wyll fynde 

not Mhamad to ' - *> ^ 

btiMTeMtb^ mercye, yemoste not be ashamed to do the lyke, for 
certenlye the greatnes of your sinnes importeth as 
625 present distnicdon to you as if ye were the same 
B«notMiinMd Ninioites that lonas was sent Tnto. Be not ashamed 
flMt, and to tboir ther fore to prodame a solemne fast thorowe out the 
Jii^^J^*'** whole realme, tfuxt all at once wtt^ one yoyce we may 

c^totiM ^^® ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ mercy. Leane of yonr cotnmonions 
ttmpiM, that HMD iji n comer & come to the open tempies, that men may 
ragardChrirt'abi. go t?uxt ye regard the Lords institudon. ' Breaks yonr 

atltution} ' wo, ,/ 

giTs bnadtotha bread to the pore, that al men may se tTuxt ye regard 

poor, for that la 

tha tma ikat. fastyng. For thai is the true fast^ to refraine the meate 

& driake that accnstomably we were wont to take, & 

635 gene the same (or the yalue therof ) to the nedy« Soshal 

you both fele & know theyr disease, and ease it also. "" 

Dofittmatin Trust uot to youT great number of valiant war- 

'*^ riours, neither to your mightye prouisions^ but r^ 

batranMmber member what befd to Holofemes the stout captains 

whowooidnoi of King Nobuchodonozcr, when he woulde not barken 

S5i« rfhi to the right aduice of Achior hys Tndercaptaine. For 

32S?A x. certenly I say vnto you, God was neuer more redy 

to deliuer his people of Israd from oppression at id 

644 times when they, walkinge in his wayes, committed 

oodia Doir their cause vnto him^ then he is now redy to deliuer al 

all Christiana Christen m6)i that do wyth lyke confidence cal vpon 

[t B Til, tnckj him. f If you therfore wyl not hearken vnto A chior his 

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wah to wealth, oodlt ministers not to be taken awat. 149 
coonseL but determine to tonnent him, when ye shal edi upon lom, 

bat if 70a will 

triumpth ouer the rest^ doubte you not but ludith shal not ii«irkra, th« 

cut of al your hedes^ on after another, & God shal ludeth umi 

and Mv. 

strike youre retinew with such a feare, t?iat none shalbe ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ 

so bolde as once to toume hys face. Yea if there were ^Jjjjj^^j;, 
no men left on Hue to put them in feare, they should ^J^^J^iif 
be feared wyth shadowes ! A;nd though ther were no "J^®"*^/^ 
gonnes to shots at them, yet the stones of the strete 
shuld not cease to flye emonge them, by the mightye 656 
power of God, who wyl rather make of euery grasse in 
the jfield a man, then such as trust in hym should be 
overrun or k^pt in oppression. Be warned therfore, & B^wwiMd; mA 

not to keep the 

seke not to kepe the commones of England in slauery, oommone or 

for that id t?te next way to destroie your selues ! For ^^Swr^^^^j^a r-^, 

if thei commit theyr cause to God & quiet them selues tS^^*^' ' ! 

in their vocacion, beyng contented with oppression, if SttbS^Ji^to ^ 

Goddes wyil be so; then shal ye be sure that God ^^^^^ ^ 

wyll fyghte for them, and so are ye ouer matched. But *»*»' '"■ "»•"»• 

if they wyl nedes take in hand to reuenge theyr owne 666 i 

wronge, God wyll fyght agaynst you boeth, so that you ; 

boeth, consumynge one the other, shall shortly be made : 

a praye to them that ye doubt least of al the world ; 

As you tender your owne wealth, therefore, *and c'Sviii] 
the publique wealth of thys noble realme of Englande, yoi^^naiui 
which God hath enriched wyth so manye and so greats of thtamtorf** 
commodities, & as you desyre to vse and enioye the S^iJ^^e to 
same, and not to be led away captiue into a straynge J^jJ^^^^J^ 
nacion, or else be cruelly murthered among your wyues, ^JJJ^UJ^JJ^^ 
kinsfolke, and children, and finallye to be damned for upon tijeee ewitet 

' " ofeedition, and 

euer ; so loke vpon these causes of Sedicion, and do put tiiem awej. 

your best endeuour to put them awaie. You that be L«t the c 
oppressed, I say, refer youre catise to God. And you S^SiVw^Sl 
tliat haue oppressed, lament your so doinge and do the JJJ*^!^**"'*^ 
office of your callihge, in defendinge the innocente and ggx 
fcdinge the nedye. Let not ^uetyse constrains you to Dontrob the 
robbe the people of that porcion which they paie to £1^!^ who 


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150 DANGBBS immnnfT. 

iiMinMttiitnitii haue, godly ministen to enstnict them in their dnetie, 
and to relene the ynweld j that be not aUe to labour 
MtMkftrMMsh for theire fode. Be carefdll and dilig^t to aeke for 
ittttMmiuyeaii Buche miniaten, and, when you hane founds them, let 
tk«pMpi«p«j. ^j^^^ j^^^^ ^ ^j^^ ^^ people paye yeaielj ont oi their 

689 enereaae^ that they may Hue ther on and minister Tnto 
the pore out of (he same, 
sothan 70a Thus doinge, ye ahall not ondye escape the venge^ 

I b« rawantod ance that hangeth pieeentlye ouer yon bnt alao be re- 

with piMity or warded at Goddee hande, boeth with excedinge plenti 

•u good. ^^ ^ ^^^ thingea in this life, & ako with life enedast- 

rBTiti,iMMk] inge *when nature ahal ende the same. Where as 
irToowfflBoi if ye wyl not take oounsell, but remayne stjl 

■hioibtinoco in your wycked purpose, Fhaiao nor ^e So- 

PhuMh. domites were neuer so hardened as you 

• shalbe, neyther is the remembraunce of 
700 theyr distrucdon so tenble to vs, as 

tibe distrucdon of you shalbe to 
others that shall oome af- 
Maj yoo bj tor. The Bpirite of 

GOD worcke 
705 in youre her- 


710 of the sword that 

MMpo tiM is commynge, maye 

by repentaunoe 

of your syn 


715 the daun- 

ger therofl 

ga* So be it. m^ 

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An Informa- 
tion an)i ^eticion apsttdt t^e oppre^snmcs 
at tfie pott Commons of l^ia BGUalme, compi^ 
Wa ann Inqreinteli tor tf)U( omls ]mq[iOjse 
tiiat amongeftt itftm itfot ifztxt to lioe 

in ftft ^orliamente, jsome solil^e 

mi^eli mm, mas fftxtat Uftt 

occadon to spttikt mote in 

t|it matter tiien tfie ^tt« 
tl^oure ioas alile to 
torite. * 

IT (S^sage .l&iii» 

Q:^ Wlftn sou Sttffre none oppression to bee 

amongest sou, anli leaue of s^n^re ilile talite: 

t|)en s|)al sou tal iipon ^e %et;ti atOi i^e 

sl)al tiear sou, sou stal trie, atOr f^e 

slial sas» 33ef)oUii S am at fiaTtb. 


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% To tlie moste honorable Lords of the Par nwf n 
liament wyth the commones of the 
same : theyr moste humble and 
dayely Oratoure, Roberte 
Crowley, wysheth the ^ 

assistence of Gods i 

Holy Spirite. ^ 

Monge the ma&yfold & moste weyghty matticrd or aii matters 

(mosie wortbj coonsaylouis) to be debated 

I ' 

I M and communed of in tbis present Parliament, I 

I M and by tbe adoise, assent, and consent tberof 

/ ■ 8t>edil7 to be redressed, I tbynke tber is no 5 
X *M. one tbjnge more nedfull to be spoken of tben nothing !• mnr* 
tbe great oppression of the pore communes by the SStraiS^ ^*'** 
possessioners, as wel of Clergie as of the Laitie. No Sepoor?"^ ' 
doubt it is nedfuUy and ther ought to bee a spedy 
redresse of many mattiers of religion, as are these : — 10 
The Yse of the sacraments and ceremonies; the E«iigiooi matttn 
Ysurpyng of tenthes ^ to priuate commoditie ; the super- r^draMd uid 
fluouse, vnlemed, vndiscrot, and viciouse mimsters of '^**™^ 
the church, and their superstitious and idolatrous ad- 14 
ministracions. Of the9e thynges, I saye, ought ther to be 
a spedy reformacion. For they are now most lyk hastely 
to brynge vppon thys noble realme the ineuitable 
vengeaunce of God^ if they bee not shortly refourmed ; 18 

' Orig: tathes, ... 

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bMNMOodbai for asmuch as it hath pleased the almyghfy and lynyng 
knovnitoat. God to Open vnto TS those abhominacions, whych 
hane heretofoie ben kept secret and hyd fiK>m ts. 
These thyngee, I say, ar yet £ur out of ioynt, and 
23 had great nede to be refourmed. 

For notwythstandyng the Eynges maieeties late 
CiMfi.bMk] visitacion, the ignorant people, whoe hane longe ben 


PMpieiuu fostred and brought vp in the snpersticion and wronge 

^ beleue of these thyngee, and are yet, no doat, secretly 

28 instrocted by their blinde guydes and by them holden 

In the taper- styl in blyndnes, nryll not be perswaded ffuxt theyr 

ikitioQe or UMir fQj£j|jjjgjg gupersticion was not the true fkyth of Christ, 

tyl such tyme as they haue continuyng among them 

32 such preachats as shall be able, and nryll, by the 

sadwiUdoeotui manifesto Scriptures, prone Tnto Hhem Vuxt both they 

better minlstere « ' at .^ 

are appointed. & their fathers wer deceiued & knewe not howe to 
worship God aright ; but^ shamefiilli seduced by the 
couetyse of the shepherdes and guydee^ sought l^ym 
wher he was not ; & when they thought they had ben 
38 most hygh in his fauour, by doing him such honor as 
thei thought moste acceptable in hys syght^ then com- 
mitted they most detestable blasfemie, and were 
abhominable before hym. 
42 Thys knowledge, I say, wyll not be beaten into the 

uinietennoir heads of the ignorante, so longe as theyr shepeherds 

^Hi^H!^ be but hyrlynges and folowe lyuynges, for such minister 
not to the congregacion but to theyr owne bealyes. 
They are not ahepeherdes but butchars. They come 

fh^eometobe not to feede, but to be fed. And doubtles (moste 

Christen counsaylours) I thinke it not possible to 

49 amende this great enormitie, otherwise then by reduce- 

ynge the order of choeeynge of the ministers ynto the 

order that was in i^ie primitiue church, wherof is men- 

Aetu. 1. doned in the Act. of the Apostles. For so long as ydle 

bealies may come to the bishope and be smered for 

Jere. 23. money, God shall saye to them by his Fh>phet^ ** Tbu 

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did lenne but I sent jou noi.** They shalle be called DMf t] 
feedais of feedynge them selues, and not of fedyng 56 
the flock. They shall studye to please men & not to 
please QodL In fine, they shall differ nothynge firom tb^dubr 
the ciaftes men whyche applye an occupacion to get onAsmtB 
theyr lynynge yppon, and not to the intent to profite 
the common weale. 61 

The craftes man saeth for the hedom of a Citie. who sMk forth* 

freedom of ih« 

not because he intendeth to be a maintainer of the atj, 

Citie, bnt because he hopeth that he shall lyne so 

muche the more welthyly hym selfe. And enen for 65 

lyk causes do our ministers, and are lyke styll to do bMaoMtheywiu 

^ -» .f .^ bt better oft 

(so longe as they maye bee receyned when they come 

vncaled), applye them seines to priestyng, because they -^i 

lyke wel the ydelnes of the lyfe. j! 

I doubt not but the Kynges maiesties visitters ^ 

knowe more of thys matter then I can be able to 71 ^ 

wiytte. And by them, I doubte not, you shall bee z 

moued to commone of thys mattier at the ftdL f 

The sacramentes they styll abuse, Tseing them as The c 
matters of merchaundyce, and chiefly the most worthy 
memorie of our redemption ; for that they selle boethe 76 
to the quycke and to the deade, to the rych and to the 
poore. None shall receyue it at theyr handes wythout ^^ »«rt ^ 

pttid for* uicl 

he wyll paye the ordinarie shotte, and so are they redy then every maa 

_, . _ - ._ , _ maj have them. 

to serue euery man« Thei loke vppon the monei onely Tbeprieeto look 
and nothynge vppon the mynde. Whether it be taken ^. "** °^*^ 
to comfort of conscience or iudgement, they pas not ; 82 
thei tel the monei, thei loke for nomore. If they wyll Thej knoir this 
deny this to bee true, let them saye why they suffer 
the pore to b^;ge money to paye for theyr housel, as 
they call itt Perchaunce they wyll answer that the hot tieoM them- 
money is not payede for the sacrament^ but for the iiii (leaf i, back] 
offeryng dayes ) Then aske I this questian : — paid for the '^ 

Why thei appoint not another time to receiue it in S^^J^t* ^' 
then that tyme whyche is to lyttle to bee occupied in wtoS^^w 

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eoiucttiM moQ^ dedsieyiige to the people the right Tse & profyte of 
timt. the saciamentes, & to instructe them, so tJuxt they do 

93 not leceyne it to iheyr indgment, but to the^rr confort 
and quietnes of conscience, for whych purpose it was 
BatthfytaiMU first institntedt Yndonbtedli (most Christian coon- 
thty wtti mak« sailoors) thej can not deny but that they appoynt to 
"*"*'**' receyne it then because they wyll be sure of it 

98 Theyr doeynges wyll declare it thoug^e they 

TiMSMraintnt wouldo deny it^.for none may receyue the sacramentes 

imftranuy.aud Ynles he do fyrsto paye the money. And then, wyth 

^ ^ ** how lyttle renerence it is ministred and receyned, euery 

Christen hert & lamenteth. 

103 These thynges (I doubt not) are so euident and 

playne vnto you that it nedeth not to troble you wyth 

MuiyiiMBwrito manye wordes concemeynge the abuses therol Many 

•giin^(^«M godly mynded men haue boeth written and preadied, 

£!!nsj!^r^ ^ ^o dayely write and preach, of and agaynst those 

fy^tu^JT^ abuses ; wherfore I am certen that you haue iuste occa- 

ndnM in th* ^Jqjj j^^^j ^^^^ ^q jjq j^gg^ |j^^ g^^g n furder redres herof 


(whych all Chrysten hertes do desyr) in thys present 

111 parliament 

I fear tiMop- But as for the oppression of the pore, whych is no 

|^!^i!huim * lesse nedfull to be communed of and reformed then 

pA^over in ^j^^ other, I feare me wyll bee passed ouer with silence, 

or if it bee communed of, I canne scarsely truste that 

116 any reformacion canne bee had ; vnlesse God do nowe 

worke in the hertes of the possessioners of thys reahne, 

CiMf s] as he dyd in the primitiue church, when the possess- 

the hearts of the iouers wer Contented and very wyllynge to sell theyr 

SdTtibeir^dt. posscssious and geue the price therof to be commune 

to al the fayihful beleuers. Take me not here that I 

idoDoiadroeato shouldo go about by these wordes to perswade men to 

a^^xnunity of jj^^^ ^ thynges communc ; for if you do, you mistake 

imeannosudi me. For I take God to wytnes I mesne no such^ 

"*' thyhge. But with all myne herte I woulde wysh that 

126 no man wer suffered to eate but such as. woulde laboure 

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in theyr vocacion and callyng, accordynge to the rule 
that Paule gane to the Thessalonians. 2 Tkeu. 8. 

But yet I woulde wysh that the possessioners Batiwoaid 
wonlde consyder whoe gane them theyr possessions, ^* ********" 

and howe they ought to hestowe them. And then (I SLTSbd?'^ 
doubt not) it shoude not nede to haue all thynges SHSttfor. 
made commune. 133 

For what nedeth it the seruauntes of the housholde 
to desyne to haue theyr maysters goods commune, so 
longe as the stuarde ministreth ynto eueiy man the 
thynge that is nedefull for hym ! 137 

K the possessioners woulde consyder them selues to Ponenfonm or* 
he but stuardes, and not Lordes ouer theyr possessions, fiords, and 
thys oppression woulde sone he redressed. But so SSm"**~ 
longe as thys perswasion styketh in theyr mjrndes, — 
** It is myne owne ; whoe shall wame me to do wyth 

myne owne as me selfe lystethl" — ^it shall not bee 143 i 

possible to haue any redresse at alL For if I may do wiiiu umj thiDk 
wyth mjrne owne as me lysteth, then maye I suffer my they ^f wiu!* 
brother, hys wyfe, and hys chyldrene to lye in the ****^**^* 
strete, excepte he wyll geue me more rent for myne 
house then euer he shal be able to paye. Then may I 148 
take his goods for that he oweth me, and kepe lus body 
in prison, toumynge out lus wyfe and chyldren to ont s, Uckj 
perishe, if God wyll not moue some mans herte to pittie 
them, and yet kepe my coffers full of goulde and syluer. 152 

If ther were no God, then would I think it leafuU ir then wen no 
for men to yse their possessions as thei lyste. Or if beUirf«ato'L«' 

God woulde not require an accompt of vs for the *'''"••"'«• •*»**•' 
bestoweynge of them/, I woulde not greately gaynsaye, 
thoughe they toke theyr pleasure of them whylse they 157 
liued here. But forasmuch as we haue a God, and he but there !• a 
hath declared vnto vs by the Scnpturs that he hath mnde poseeMon 
made the possessioners but stuardes of his ryches, and ^^ ^ ^' 
that he wyl holde a streygb[t] accompt wyth them for 
the occupiynge and bestoweynge of them; I thynke 1G2 


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163 no Chiiatian ean can abjde to heaie that moie thea 

TarkjBh opinion. 

Tb« PhikMopiMn The Philosophers who knewe nothyng of the bonde 

■hoaidpoiMM of frendshippe which Chiiste onr Maister and Bedemer 

'*^*"^* lefte amonge ts, affirmed that amonge frendes al 

thynges are common, meaneyng that frendahippe woulde 

169 not suffer one fi^nde to holde frome an other the 

thynge that he hath nede of. And what shal we saye t 

Are we not frendest 8nrlj if we be not frendes, wee 

beare the name of Christe and bee called Christiana in 

if wthMTin*! vayne. Yea if wee hane not a more perfecte frende- 

frioidship than shjppe then that whereof the Philosophers speake, 

tra* chrisiiAiii. weo are but fayned Christians^ we beare the name onely 

176 and are nothynge lease in dede. For this is the 

token that Christe gane whereby wee shoulde be knowen 
John .18. to be of hym : — " If we lone one an other as he loned 

vs." Howe he loued vs is declared by the wordes of 
JSphei, 6. the Apostle, sayinge, that Christe gane hymselfe for vs. 
Dmt 4] Accordynge to this exemple on^t onr frendshyp to be 
chritt*t •xunpit such, that WO wyll not spare to spende onr lyfe for the 
omiTM, ba?*^ welth of ooT brothers. Not to fyght in theyr qnarell 
u^fo^UMgood (^0' Christe bade Peter put vp the swerde into his 
•^ "^"^ place), but to teach the truth boldly, without any feare 

186 of death, and not to suffer oure brothers to bee led in 

erroure, thoughe presente death shoulde insue for so 


Some, perchaunce, wyll thynke that this firendshyp 

is to be vnderstande onely of the pastors and shep- 

John .10. herdes towarde theyr flocke ; because Christ sayth that 

192 a good shepherde geueth his lyfe for his shepe. For- 

ThitfHcad^ip soeth if the pastouTS or shepeherdes onely were the 

la^aiiddtrix, flocke of Christe, then myght thys £rendeshyp ryght 

well be vnderstanded of them onely. But for asmuch 
bocMueboth as the laie and priuate persons ar as well of the flocke 
noSHt chrut. of Christe as the other, thys firendeshyp parteineth vnto 

them no lease then to the other. And thys causeth 

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ine (moete worthy counsaylotm) not to feaie the di»- 199 
pleasoie of men in this hehalfe; knoweynge for cer- ThitiiMkwBM 
tentie, that the greateste numhie of thys assemble are dtoptoMo^ 
not free from this oppression that I speak of, and that 
it is far Tnlyke that a prinate peisone* by nO nleanes 
worthy to be called to suche an assemble^ shonlde be 204 
fitaonrably hereade and accepted of them whom God 
hath called to be connsaylours of a realms; and 
chiefly in a cause tazynge & blameyng the iudges 
befor whom it is pleaded. I might well coniecte wyth FortpMUngia . 
my selfe, that I shonlde in this poynte be compted a m^beooant^d 
busy body,^ and one that renneth before he is sent lun^^'to^ 
But I am redi to sofier, not onli al such report, but *""" 
euen the verye death also (if it shall please the al- ci«ar4»bMk] 
mighUe and euerlyueynge God to laye it vpon me) for «nytiitogfor 
youre sakes, most worthy counsaylours, and the residue, 
my naturall brothe[r]8 of this noble realme. 215 

And here I protests vnto you all, that the same The sptHt that ' 

Spirite that sent lonas to the Niniuits, Daniel to the theprophetT" 
Babilonians, Nathan to Eyng Dauid, Achior vnto 
Holofemes, Judith ynto the Priestes and Elders of the 
lewes, the prophete to leroboam in Bethel, lohn the 220 
Baptist vnto Herode, and Christ vnto the lewes, wyt- witneMM that 
nesseth wyth my conscience that I renne not ynsent. 
For euen the same Spirit that sayd vnto Esaie, " Crye Etaie, 68. 
and sease not, declare vnto my people theyr wycked- 
nes ; " ciyeth also in my conscience, bydyng me not 225 
spare to teU the poesessioners of this realme, that vn- to teii yoa po*- 
lesse they repente the oppression wherewyth they vexe of your <5>pre«- 
the pore commons, and shew thernselues, through loue, y^!!|j?«' *^^ 
to be brothers of one father & membres of one body jktheTMd "** 
wyth them, they shal not at the lasts daye enherite ^"Jo^.**' 
wyth them the kyngdom of Christe, the Eldest Sonne 231 
of God the Father, whych hath by his Words be- 
gotten hym many brothers & coheritours in * his kjrng- 
dom. Ynlesse, I saye, the possessioners of this realme vn]«M yoa aU 
" Orig. boby « Orig. is '*'*"^ 

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▼iotenetaoMfto wyU lepent the Tiolence don to the pooie and nedj 

wiu b« cast Into mefiibres of the samey and become as handes, ministryng 

vnto eueiy membie hjs necessaries, thej shall, at the 

238 daye of theyr accompt» be bound hand and fote and 

cast into vtter da[r]cknesy wher shal be wepyng,' 

wealyng, and gnashyng of teeth; that is, dolour and 

payne^ the greatnes wherof canne not be expressed 

PMkfs] Dvyth tonge nor thought wyth herte. And thys much 

£$aie.59. more sayeth the Spirite. Ynlesse ye purge your 

tiMpowtooMM selues of this bloude, & stop the mouthes of the poie 

oS^STiSt ^^^ ^® voyce of theyr complayn[t]e come not vnto 

JJ^^I^JJJJ^ myne eares, I wyl not prospere your counsayles in the 

**^T"iu**''* reformacions of those abhominacions which I shewed 

yoQ in uiAp<yifcr 

thii***iS!** ^ ^^^ y^^' ^^*' ^^ le^iw© you to tJie spirite of errour, 
the prince of thys worlds, whose dearlinges ye are so 
longe as ye seke not the welth of the nedy, but your 
251 owne priuate commoditie. 

These thynges hath the Spirite of God spoken. 

Heauen and earth shal perish, but the wordes of the 

Now Hear what Spirite shsll not pcrysh, but be fulfylled. Kowe 

eompUUnto art J" f '^ • i. i_i^ 

mad« agaiBst yoo herken you possessioners, and you nch men lylle yp 
your ears; ye stuards of the Lord, marke what com- 
playntes are layede agaynste you in the hygh court of 
258 the lyueynge God. 

Lord« hast thoa ** Lordo " (ssyeth the Prophete) '' hast thou forsaken 

foivottsnus ? 

T8 1 Doest thou hyde thy selfe in the tym of our trou- 
whoe the wWwd ble ? Whylss the wycked waxe proud the pore man 

man gi x wi proad 

(SMPuOmx.] is aflicted and troubled. Would to God the wicked 
afflictwi. myght feale the same thinges that they inuent for 

Would God the other. For the sinnere prayseth hym selfe in the 

wickod iniffht 

fiBeisomsortha desyres of hys soule, and he extoUeth and sette[t]h 

vents for othm. forth the couetouss man. He prouoketh the Lorde and 

267 is so proud that he wyll not seke hym. He neuer 

thynketh vpon God. His wayes be defyled at all 

tymes. He loketh not vpon thy iudgmentes, Lorde, he 

270 wyll reuenge hym vpon all hys enimies. 

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^^He thynketh thus wyth hym selfe, I wyll not le- Hetunksiw 
moue fromo one generacion vnto an other wythont 
mischiefe. His month is full of malediction and euill Heuiuiof 

fraud and d0O0it» 

leporte, firaude & dece jte, and vnder his tonge is afliction 
and iniquitie. 275 

"He lyeth in wayte wyth the riche men of the o««f 8.b«*3 
Tillages or graynges, in secrete coiners, to the intent to ia*rffllgt. to * 
slea the innocent. Hys eyes aie fyexed vpon the pore ; SuS*tS^^** 
he kyeth awayete enen as a lyon in his denne. He J^^J^**** 
layeth awayte to take the pore man by force, and when JSenuy***'**"' 
he hath gotten him within hys reache, then wyll he 
take hym violentlye. In hys net will he ouerthrowe 282 
the pore, and through hys strength shall the multitude 
of the oppressed be ouer charged and fall For in his He nys Ood haa ^ 

fonotten And has i 

herte he sayeth, God hath forgotten, God tumeth a turned awajUia d 

waye hys face, and wyll neuer regarde the oppression of 5 

the pore," etc., to the ende of the same Psabne. 287 ! 

What sentence (thinke you) wyll the Lorde geue - 

ypon this euidence ^ No doubt (most worthey coun- j 

sellers) euen the same that we reade in Esaye the JBtaie, 5. 
Prophet: — "I loked for iudgment and rightouse 
dealeynge amongeste my people, and beholde there is 292 
iniquitie, I loked also for iustice, and beholde ther is 
an outcrye. Wo be vnto you therfore, that do ioyne Tb« aentenoa 
house ynto house, Ss couple one fielde to an other, so against tboM 
longe as there is any grounds to be had. Thinke you hw«i**Md SSd to 
that you shal dwel vpon the earth alone 1 The Lorde J^'J^JJJt,, 
of hostes (sayth the prophete) hath spoken these wordes j^J^'^*"* 
vnto me. Manye large and goodlye houses shall be Manyhoaaaa 

. » t t , ,* ahaU be daaolata^ 

deserte & without inhabitantes ; x acres of wynes tenaereaofYinea 
shall yelde but one quarte of wine, and xxx bushelles Sf^SS,^d*so 
of sede shal yelde but x bushelles agayne." Beholde, ^^^^^^ 
you engrossers of fermes and teynements, beholde, I *^ 
saye, the terible threatnynges of God, whose wrath you 304 
can not escape. The voyce of the pore (whowi you 


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CUaf 6] haue with money thraste out of house and whome) is 
307 well accepted in the eaies of the Loide, and hath 
Toaoumot stcaied vp hjB wrath agaynste yoo. He thieateneth 
SxMtonini^ you most hoirihlc plages. Ten acres of yynes shal 
yelde but one quarte of wyne, and xxx bushelles of 
TiMMtdoT sede but x bushelles agayne. The sede of Goddes 
■hau nmiiiii Wordo sowen in youie hertes shalbe barrayne and not 
httfta. ^*^ bringe fourth fruite. 

314 For couetous, the rote of all yuelles, occupieth that 

grounde so that the heauenlie sede can bi no meanes 

geue encrease. This is a plage, of al plages most 

God will punish ] honyble. And doubt ye not, you lease mongers, that 

^^ ^who take groundes by lease to the entente to lette them out 

j^m^i^ agayne for double and tryple the rent, your parte is in 
th«m oat agtiii, ^j^ pj^^ i jj^^ j^^^ gj^ ^^ ^ Spirito from you. 

321 He shall forbyd the cloudes of hys mercy to rayne vpon 

and yoarorrej- you wyth the swetc dwe of hys grace. And you sur- 

* ^du^dm^a ueighers' of landes, that of x. li. lands can make xx, 

twenty. y^^ gj^^jj ^^^ ^ye foigotteu in the effucion of thys plage. 

; wh«n yon hare For when you hauc multiplied your renttes to the 

I tothaUghMtT higheste, so that ye haue made all your tenantes your 

327 slaues to labour, and toyle, and bringe to you all that 

maye be plowen and digged out of youre groundes, 

yoam di« and. then shal death sodaynly strike you, then shall God 

denly^ and Ood'a 

graoa will be wythdraws his comfortable grace from you, then shall 

your conscience prycke you, then shall you thynke 

332 with desparat Cain, that your sinne is greater then that 

and you wiu it may be forgeuen. For your owne conscience shall 

think yoaraelvea . , _. , , v -i. j 

unworthy of ludgc you worthyc no mercye, because you haue shewed 

^"hiJ?2^ 110 mercy. Yea the same enimie that hath kendled 

nomen^. ^^^ doeth yet maynetayne in you thys mischeuouse, 

Deaf e, back] outragiouse, and msaciable couetousnes, shall then bee 

as busy to put you in mynde of the wordes of Christ, 

saienge, *' the same measure that you haue made vnto 

340 other, shalbe nowe made vnto you." 

* Orig. palge * Orig. sumeigbers 

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You haue shewed no xnercye, howe can you than 341 
loke for meicie f Oh nohle counsaiburB, he mercyfuU 
to your selues. Destroye not your owne soules to en- Donotdartraj 

Toor souls to 

riche your heires. Enlarge not your earthly posses- onrichyow 
sion wyth the losse of the etemall enheritaunce. *'*'^ 
Leame to knowe the estate that God hath called you 346 
vnto, & to lyue accordinge to your profession. Know 
that you are al ministres in the common weale, and lumembmryoa 

, t • !.• 1. <! « MTt ministers in 

that the porcion wiucn you are borne ynto, or that th« common. 

your prince geuethe you, is your estate. Knowe that Your duty is to 

your office is to distribute & not to scrape together on SfSSji"* 

heapes. Grod hath not sette you to surueye hys landes, together. 

but to playe the stuardes in his householde of this 353 

world, and to se that your pore felow seruantes lacke y 

not theye[r] necessaries. j 

Consider that you aie but ministers and seruauntes Too u« only a 

ynder the Lorde cure God, and that you shal render a wiuhsTstogiTt \ 

stroyght accompt of your administracion. Stand not JSuTSSnto. ' 

to much in your own conceyte, gloriynge in the worthy- *™**~*- » 

nesse of your bloude; for we are all one mans chyl- 360 
dren, and haue (by nature) lyke ryght to the richesse 
and treasures of thys worlde, whereof cure natural 
father Adame was made Lord and Kinge. Which of 
you can laye for hym selfe any naturall cause whye he 
shoulde possesse the treasure of this wor[l]de, but that 365 
the same cause may be founde in hym also whome you 
make your slauel By nature (therefore) you can Bynatnreymi 
claime no thynge but that whiche you shall gette with *" 0*621*71*™ 
the swet of your faces. That you are lordes and ^>»»*y<«««™- 
gouemoures therfore, commeth not by nature but by the lords MOMby 
ordinaunce & appoyntment of God. Blnowe then that n»to^^ "^ 
he hath not cauled you to the welthe and glorie of this 372 
worlde, but hath charged you wyth the greate and rede 

And if any of them perishe thorowe your defaute, it sny poor 
knowe then for ccrtcutye, that the bloude of them jskeeh/33^ 

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164 WAfiKiKoa 

TowriMciMt. shalbe lequiied at your handes. If the impotent 

thtir blood win ^ t^ « 

btraqoindat cieatoies peiish for lacke of neceesanes, jou aie the 
yoarhaodi. mnrdereis, for you haue theyr enheritatuice and do 

380 minister ynto them. 

If thv it6d,7oo If the sturdy feJl to etealeyng, robbyng, & leueynge. 

Ryoobavt then are you the causers therof^ for you dygge in, 

enclose^ and wytholde from them the earth out of the 

whych they should dygge and plowe theyr lyueynge. 

JPital 113. For as the Psalmiste wryteth : — " All the heauen is the 

Lordesj but as for the earth hee hath geuen to the 

387 chyldrene of men.** 

The whole earth therfor (by byrth ryght) be- 

longeth to the chyldren of men. They are all in- 

heritours therof indifferently by natoie. 

Tooaraap- But becauso the sturdy shoulde not oppresse the 

me^ to ood's* wesko and impotent^ God hath apoynted you stuaids to 

geue meate vnto his housholde in due seasone. And if 

394 you be founde faythfull in this littel, then knowe that 

he wyll preferre you to much greater thingos. But if 

ye bee founde oppressing your felowe seruauntes, then 

knowe for certentie, that the Lorde your Maister shall 

at hys comeynge rewarde you wyth many strypes. 

ZHJlctA2. Call to your remembraunce the History of Kynge 

"^n^^n; iick] Nabuchodonosor, whoe for his presumption became as a 

S!SS!SL^r brute beast, fead[ing] vpon giasse and hey as other 

J2jj^^««°«» ' beastesdyd. 

403 Consyder Pharao with his great armie, whom the 

Lord ouerwhelmed in the Red Sea for oppresseyng and 

and Pharaoh, persocuteyug his people. Yea, consider all the nobilitie 

dl!^Jd in't^ that haue possessed the erth, euen firom the begynyng ; 

*^ ®^ and then saye howe you bee theyr successours, & by 

what title you may cleyme that which was theyrs. 
Tha Komant held Many hundred yeres sence the noble Eomains helde 
part ofAMoi all Europa and parte of Ai&ike and Asia in quiete pos- 
wiiarean their sessiou ; and where are they that succeade them in 

theyr impier) 

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The broidshe Gothes intiaded and yanquislied the who art um 

•QOotMortof Um 

impier of Eome ; and wher aie tbeyr saccessonis t goUmf 

What shotdde I stande in the lehersale of the 415 
greate possessioners that hane hertofore possessed the 
erthy whose lynial descent can not he foonde) It 
shall suffice me to remyt yon to the wordes of the 
Lorde vnto Nabuchodonosor, whyche are written in the 
boke of Daniel the Prophete. Dofri. 4. 

Ther shall yon leame that it is God that geneth au empinr it 

, , 1 , , ^1 from God, and H« 

the unpiere to whome it pleaseth hym, and that all givM u u> whom 

. ^ - -I ^ .•• xi_ ^ H« will. M ChTiSt 

powie IS from aboue, accordynge to the answer that our .aid to puau. 

sauionre Christe made vnto Pilate, when he bragged 424 

hym wyth the powre that he had to cmcifie hym and 

to deliuerhym. " Thon shonldest," sayed our Saoiour, John .19. j, 

** bane no powre oner me at all, wore it not geuen the 

from aboue." 428 

Thus is it euident vnto yon (moste worthy conn- Thna it ii dear 

all yoar power 

saylours) that your powre and estate cometh firome and property 
aboue ; and that by nature you can cleyme nothynge of (i«af s] 
the possessions of this worlde, more then that whyche 
you gette wyth the swet of your feices. 433 

I doubt not therfore but that your consciences do i do not doabt 

but that in your 

condesende and agre vnto that which I haue spoken oon«cienot» you 
concernynge your office and ministerie ; knoweynge that Sm? sail 
God hath appointed you to minister necessaries to the 
impotent, and to defende the innocent. 438 

Do not therfore neglect thys principalle poynt of do not neglect 
your dutie, to seke in this parliament a redresse of thys JSireea*2ia"* 
great oppression, wherwyth the pore membres of this **p"**<^- 
noble realme ar most vnmercifully vexed on euery side. 

The lande lordes for theyr partes, suruey and make Landiorda mak* 
t?ie vttermost peny of al their growndes, bysydes the ^nj ortbJir 
vnreasonable fynes and incomes, and he that wyll not f^mi in- ** 
or can not geue all that they demaunde, shall not enter, ***^' 
be he neuer so honest, or stande he neuer so greate neede. 

Yea, though he haue ben an honeste, true, faythfull 448 


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•ndwhMt andqniete tenant many yeres, yet at the vacation of his 

vttMttv WBS0 

nma oat thay copie or indentor he must paye welmoste as mnche as 
affmtraiD,or wonlde puTchayse so much grownde, or else voide in 
▼Msto in haste, hast, though he, his wyfe and chyldiene, shoulde 

453 penshe for lacke of harbour. 
Th*miadii«ft What a ssa of mischifes hath floued out of thys 

such opprMston more then Turkyshe tyranie ! What honeete hous- 
wdXudrm!^ holders haue ben made folowers of other not so honest 
'"*'^' mens tables! What honeste matrones haue ben 

brought to the needy rocke and cardes ! What men- 
459 chyldrene of good hope in the liberall sciences, and 
other honeste qualities (wherof this realme hath great 
ci««f8^biek] lacke), haue ben compelled to fiEd, some to handy- 
crafts, and some to daye labour, to sustayne theyr 
parents decrepet age and miserable pouertie! What 
464 frowarde and stouboum children haue herby shaken of 
the yoke of godly chastisement, rennyng hedlonge 
TonngiMii iiito all kyndes of wickednes, and finaly gamyshed 
JSklSf* galowe trees 1 What modeste, chaste, and womanly 
yirgins haue, for lacke of dourie, ben compelled, either 
469 to passe ouer the days of theyr youth in vngrate semi- 
tude, or else to marye to perpetuall miserable pouertie ! 
young wooMn What immodesto and wanton gyrles haue hereby ben 
listen or tho made sisters of the Banck (the stumbling stock of all 
' frayle youth) and finaly, moste miserable creatures, 

and die In tha. lyeinge and dieynge in the stretes fed of all plages and 
uniTtnai pcnurie ! What yniuersall destruction chaunceth to 

J[J|J['^?*^^SJJ^ this noble realme by this outragious and vnsaciable 
c^iriMmMHoT desyr of the surueiers of landes ! I reporte me to you 
■"'^^**^ (moste Christian counsayellours) whichar here assembled 

Irom all partes of this noble realme, to consulte for the 
480 welth of all the membres of the same. 
Soma obtain On the oth^ syde, ther bee certayne tenauntes, not 

imdUMnnbT ^^^^ ^ ^ laudc lordcs, and yet, after a sorte, they 
tiMTmitsto conterfayte landelordes, by obtaynyge^ leases in and 

' Orig. obtaynydge 

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Tpon groundes and tenementes, and so leyse fjnes, 484 
incomes, and rentes ; and by suche pyllage pyke out a 
poTcion to mayntayne a pioude porte, and all by 
pylynge and poUynge of the poore commons, that must 
of necessitie seke habitations at their handes. 488 

That this is true, I report me to my Lorde the Kine-teiiths of 
Maire, and other the hed officers of the Citie of Lon- London m 
don, whoe (if they be not ignorant of the state of the '***^[£5«'^' 
Citie) can witnes with me that the moste parte, yea I 
thinke ix of the x partes, of the houses in London 
bee set and let by them that haue them by lease and 
not by the owners. 495 

Howe thei polle the pore tenantes would sone be H(m they impose 
tryed, if theyr leases were conferred wzt^ theyr rent- wSd •t>n be* 
roUes. It is not to be thought contrary but that the J^d ^^^S*** 
greate leasmungers haue greate gains by their leases, for ''"* eom^^nd. 
the litleons, that hold but a piece of houseing of xx. or 
XXX s. by yere, can fynde the meanes to holde and dwell 501 
vpon the chiefe parte therof rent fire, by letynge out 
the residue for the whole yerely rent. 

I thinke not contrary, but these thinges do appeare These things 
in the syght of many to bee but verey trifles, and not tSflM which do 
worthy to be spoken of in so noble an assemble as this JIobuS^*wId »eem 
most honorable Parliament. For they are no mattiers JJJlJ^^brufe 
concemeyng the welth of the nobilitie ; yea it is rather p»'1**™«»*- 
hyndrance to many of them, to haue these thynges 
redressed, then any encrease of theyr wealth. 510 

Yea euen you (moste Christian counsay lours) whych Even you, chrfs- 
are here assembled to debate the weightie mattiers of are"not aiTso fJi 
thys realme, are not aU so free from this kynde of JJ^^'iSryoa 
oppression, but that you coulde be well contented to ^^i^^Jft*!" 
wyncke at it. And therfor, for asmuche as the inor- 515 
dinate loue of men towarde them selues is such, that 
eyther they can not se theyr owne fauts, or else if they 
do se them or be tolde of them, they take them not to 
be so great as they are in dede; I thinke it no 519 

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•oiahannot meroayle^ thougli 8tich of jou (most worthy counaayl- 


iMgii at nv fool- ours) 88 haue any piofite by this oppression, do wythin 

(iMf 9, taok] them selues deride and laugh to scome my fole haidi- 

MUri^apoo ^^ ^^'^ nahe enterpiyse heieiny knoweynge that it is 

b!l!Ln^)Mdo ^®* *^® ^^^ ^^ ihem that bee assembled to the intent 

BotagrMtotwdi ^ establish such thynges as shall be for the welth of a 

tbliigtM wui • ^ 

difl^iahUMir whole lealme, to condescende and agree to those 
thynges whych shallbe disprofitable ynto the chiefe 
528 membres of the same. 

Troth it is (moste worthy connsailonis), I myght 

well and worthyly be laughed at if I woulde attempie 

wbfttihAvt any suche thynge. But the thynge that hytherto I 

profit oMh* haue spoken of is not to the disprofite of any, but to 

wbotorMiffl. ^^^ greate commoditie and profite of all the whole 

534 lealme. 

For what discommoditie is it to the heade, shoul- 

ThtnppwiiMin- ders, the armes, and other the ypper membres of the 

•book! dotiM tht body, beynge all redy sufficiently clothed, to put on the 

iv^a^hftrm legges & fecto a peaie of hose and shoes to defende 

h^i^'^to^ *^®™ ^^ ^^ ^^ iniuries of the wether, and other 

the^bodt/tS^^ hurtes that might chaunce ynto them in theyr trauayl- 

541 ynge to cary the body from place to place, for hys 

commoditie and pleasure 1 Verily in myne opinion, 

that body is far ynworthy to haue either l^;ge8 or 

feete that wyU lette them goe bare, haueynge wher- 

545 wyth to couer them. 

•oyomthtebiaf Eueu SO you, beynge the chiefe membres of this 

J^^^!!i<iJfor thoM noble realme, and haueing in your handes the wonder- 

^I^Sd gitr**** ^ *^<^ incomparable riches of the same, what shoulde 

STridSTwhiA ^* ^^® y^^ ^ departe wyth some porcion thero^ that 

yoapoMMt. the inferioure membres therof may at all tymes bee 

551 able to do theyre mimsterie and office accordyngly. 
bmt In mind Ouco remembre, that as the body wythout the in- 

witboat the icgt feriour partes is but lame and as a blocke vnweldy, and 
'^'"^iiT] muste, if it wyll remoue frome place to place, creepe 
m^*i*wyoII!^ "^T^^ the handes ; euen so you, if ye had not the pore 

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membies of this lealme to tjU the groonde and doe 700 iwd not the 
your other droudgerj, no lemedj, you must nedes do it g^wnd, nn^t^do 

. it yoondTw. 

yonr selaes. 

Yse them therfoie as the necessaiie membies of the Thtrvfon 7<m 
mistical body of this most noble lealme, and be not in poorMmmben 
this poynt mor ynnatuial then the heathen Philoso- eiJyoowiUbe 
phers were. ^^^ ^ 1^,,,^^^^ 

They in theyr writtynges declare no lesse then I 
hane here written. 564 

This ought not a lytle to mono yon, beyng Chris- wboai,M chrta- 
tians (whose Eedemer, lesu Christ, sitte[t]h at the right torarpm.*^ ^ 
hande of God, his Father) to study, not onely to be 
eqoale wyth, but to pas the heathen and vnchristined 
in this mattier, enen as femre as the excellencie of the 
name and religion which we professe passeth theyrs. 570 ! 

Eemembre (most Christian coxinsaylonrs) that you By r«iigioD yoa j 

are not onely naturally membres of one bodi with the Sxhi^d'i^, 1 

pore creature of this realme, but also by religion you 
ar membres of the same misticall body of Christe, 574 
whoe is the heade of ys aU (his membres), and estemeth and chrut 
all that is done to the leste of ys his membres as done doM to hu 
tohymselfe. Forhe sayeth;— ^n^Z^^ 

" What so euer ye do to one of the lest of these Mat, 25. 
Utleons that beleue in me, ye doe it ynto me." If you if yon wiii not 
therfore, neither wil your selfes oppresse our Sauiour Sroogh hii** 
Christe in his membres, nor suffer other to do it, fayle S^*!J^7J^ 
not to fynde a redres of this greate oppression, whych JJJi^J J^*2 
I haue declared to the same ende. And then I doubt yon ^ r^oiming 


not but Grod shall so worke wyth you, that euerie man 584 
shall wyllyngely embrace a reformacion of all mattieis 
of religion. For the Spirit of God shall dwell in you peaf 10, imek] 
and in ys all, and Christe himself (as he hath pro- 
mised) shall bee in the myddes amonge you. Wher as, 
contrariwise, if you suffer our loueinge Sauiour thus to if joa oppress 
be oppressed, he wyll forsake you, he wyll leaue you to Sm foSJiS^Tw 
the spirite of errour. Your reformacions shal take no ^J^Z^IH^^^^ 

•* spirit 01 error. 

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592 place. All your diuiaes shall be abhominable in his 
syght, because ye haue not purged your handes from 
the blonde of this oppression. 
Don't nuktiswt Let the docres whych weie establyshed in thys 
hATebeen madt placc by a Parliament assembled for a lyke purpose be 
{Uj^l^J^Jifi.* 7^^ president, not to folow, but to beware by them 
"~*- that ye establish not the lyke. 

The intent of that assemble was no lesse to refourm 

the abuses of our religion then thys is. But because 

Christe was not deliuered frome oppression he woulde 

602 not be amonge them. 

Th^ did not ^ They were not congregated in hys name, but rather 

nam% bat rather agayusto hym and hys doctrine, for he hym selfe is dear 

1. Epist\, 1^^®> & (as his Apostle lohn writeth) wher this dear 

loue is not, ther is not he. Thys thynge is weU 

607 proued by theyr prooeadynges in the same Parliament. 

irtiei«wOT« For they established Articles euen directly agaynst 

aeain«t6od*t Gods wordc, forbedynge to mary, and commaund- 

^1^^"' ynge to put asunder those that God hath ioyned to- 

SSST""" gather. 

Too will. I doabt If you wyll Call thcso Articles into question agayne 
^eiMin ^** (^ ^ ^^^ yo^ haue iuste occacion to do) I doubt not 
quesuon. -^^^ ^^^ gj^ ^ £^jjy perswadcd that they proceeded of 

615 the spirit of erroure, and not of the Spirite of God; 

because the charitie of God was not amonge them in 

that assemble. 
Clear 11) Other thynges therbe wherby the pore membres of 

membenart Christe in thys noble realme are oppressed ; wherof I 
S^uItaS-i ^*^® made no mention, partely because I am loth to 
SJiiJtoli^iS^** offende wyth the multitude of my rude wordes, & 
o«tnd^itotha partely for that I know you can not seke for a redres of 
wt^^"^ these thynges wherof I haue spoken. But the other 
Some joa know: "^ii offer them selucs vnto you, I meane the irreate ex- 

aa extortion and «/ ' o 

nmiry. anihoriced tortion and vsuric that reigueth frely in thys realme, 

by Parliament} 

and seme to be authorised by Parliament wythin these 

627 .iii yeres laste paste. 

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The Cleargie of the Citie of London hane, for th« d«gx orer- 
theyr parte, optayned by Parliament authoritie to doaw«*Iint°' 
onertenthes enen after the exem[ple] of the landlordes 2SS^ '*^""** 
and leasemongers, and maye, by the vertue of the acte, 631 
requir for double rentes double tenthes. If the rent of 
any kynde of housyng or gronnde wythin the Citie of 
London be raised (as ther is in dede yeri much) from 
X.8 to TX.S, than may the persone (whoe had before 
but xvi.d.ob.), by the vertu of this act demaunde 636 
.iLs. ix.d, the double. Bysydes this, the exactions that They «xaet money 
they take of the pore commons is to much beyonde ^i ^^***^^^^ 
reason and conscience. Ko couple can be maried for marriages, 
but these men must haue a dutie, as they cal it. Ko 
woman may be purified but they and theyr ydle ehnrching^ 
ministers must haue some duties of hir. !None can 642 
be buried but they wyl haue a slyese. Not thre boriai*. 
monethes before t?ie begynyng of this present Parlia- 
ment, I had iust occacion to be at the payment of this (How the clergy 
dutie for the buriyng of an honest pore man, whose Lpaidiro'e 
£re7ides wer willyng to haue hys body reuerendly layed ^"'*^** 
in the gronnde; and, accordyng to the custome, gaue 648 
wamynge to the curate that they woxilde brynge the [iea< ii, back] 
deade body to the church, desyryng hym that he wolde 
do hys dutie, and to be ther to receye it, and accord- 
ynge to the custome to laye it in the grounde. But 652 
this rauen, smellynge^ the carion, coulde not but in the city of 
reueile it to the other carion byrdes of the same 
cbur[c]h, and so woulde needes come all together in a 
flocke to fetch theyr praye, wyth crosse and holy water 
as they were wont to do, not wythstandynge the 657 
Kynges Iniunctions and late visita[t]ion. The frendes when an honcrt 
of the deade man refused all this, and required to haue 
no mor but the commune coffen to put the bodye in, 
agreynge to paye to the keper therof hys accustomed 
dutie, and in lyke manor to the graue maker, and the waa brought to 

t rv . « , beboried 

" Ong. smellydge. 

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foore pore men to caiy the bodje, 80 QiBi the whole 
664 chaiges had ben but viLd, 
instSfimiflhn'a, Bat when the coi^P^ was bnried, wythont other 

croBse or holy water sticke, Dirige, or Masse, wyth 

prayers of as srnaU deaocion as any pore curate could 

saye, yet must we nedes paye .viLd. more. That is to 
669 saye .Ld. to the curate, which he called an heade 

penye,^ and .Tid. to .iL clarkes that we had no nede oil 
This WM doM In This was done in Sepulchres paryshe in the Citie 
mdjtoproTv of London. And if it shall please any of thys noble 
tutemeat uiy- assemble to trye the trueth of this, I wyll verifie it 
****^ where so euer I shall be called, euen in the presence of 

675 all the ydle ministers of the same church. 
I lutTementioiMd This haue I written (most worthy counsaylours) to 
bMMMithink ge^o you occasion to set suche an ordre in this and 
miiS^ roj^''* suche other thynges, that eyther we may haue ministers 
OTdMte^md ^^^^^^ vppon the tenthes that we paie yerli to the 
lodo^dSai ^^'^^'^^^ other els that it may be leafoll for ts to do 
oumiTt^ such ministeries our selues, and not to be thus coti- 

682 strained to feede a sorte of canon crowes, whyche are 

neuer so mery as when we lament the losse of our 

TiinamaehofUM This much hsuc I spokcu of the extortion that 
dergy. reigncth frely in the Clergie. Nowe, with your 

I win n<m speak pacience, I wil, wit7{ like breuitie, speak of the great 
which pravmiu. ^^^ intollerable usurie, whych at this daie reigneth so 
689 frely this realme ouer al, and chiefly in the Citie of 

London, that it is taken for most leaful gaines. Yea 
It it aimort it is welmost heresie to reproue it> for men saye it is 

htroiy tospaak 

agmiottitbeoftOM alowed by Parliament. Well, the most parte, I am 
Pariiamant. sure, of tlus most Godly assemble and Parliament do 
TheActwaa knowc that the occasion of the acte that passed here 

patpod on ao> 

eoontofUia concemynge usurie, was the unsaciable desyre of the 
QtQr«n,and usurers, whoc couldc not be contented with usurie 
irmitadtoten vnlcsse it wer vnreasonable muche. To restrayne thys 

par cant. 

' Orig. pedye 

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gredy desjre of theyrs, theifore, it was communed and 698 
agreed vpon, and by thauthoritie of Parliament de- 
creed, that none should take ahoue .z. IL bi yere,^ for 
the lone of an .C. IL 

Alas, tTuit euer any Christian assemble shonlde bee aim, that anj 
so Yoyde of Grods Holy Spirit t?iat thei should alowe aUowwhLt<^ 
for leafuU any thyng that Gods Worde forbedeth. '*'**^* 
Be not abashed (most worthy counsaylours) to call this 705 
act into question agayne. Scan the wordes of the Consider tb« 
Psalmist concemyng this mattier. '' Lord," sayeth he, pgai. 14. 
" who shal enter into thy tabernacle, and who shal rest SiSriJ^* 
in thy holy mountains t" He answereth : "That l^^^^^' 
entreth without spot & worketh rights. That speaketh ?f~?Jf-j-_^ 
truth in his herte, & hath not deceiued wit^ his tonge ; «pon usury siuoi 

inter hMvsn. i* 

that hath done his neybour no harme, nor accepted any pmtu, baek] t 

reproch against his neibour. He regardeth not the 713 

wicked, but them that feare the Lorde he glorifieth and 

prayseth. He that swereth to his neibour & deceiueth 

hym not He that hath not geuen his money vnto 

Ysury, and hath not taken gifbes and rewardes against 

the innocent" 718 

If you (most Christian counsaylours) do glory in 
the knowledge of Gods Spirits, whoe hath spoken 
these wordes by the Prophet, how can you suffer this Howctnyoa 

allow this Act to 

acte to stande, whych shalbe a wittnesse agaynste you stand ? 

in the later daye that you alowe that which Gods witness agminrt 

Spirits forbidethi you in the Last 

If he that geueth not hys money to usury shal 725 
dwell in the Lords tabernacle, wlier shal he dwel that 
geueth his money to usuri % Shal he not be shut out, 
& caste into vtter darcknesl Their workes be con- 
trary, & why shoulde not theyr rewarde be also con- 
trary? K the one be receyued in, the other mustc be usurers must be 

•^ _ J •*-! ShutOUtof 

shut out Yea, and you that haue made this lawe, heareis and those 

who made the 

* See Supplication of the poore Commons, ed. J. M. Cow- * 
per, p. 84, * Men myghte take x li. by yeare,' &c. 

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I yoa ynlesse you do renoke it and establysh an act to the 

contrary, the Biydegronme, the onely Sonne of God, 

731 shal at the laste daye deny you, and saye that he 

Math. 7. neuer knewe you ; " Depart from me," shal he saye, "al 

ye workers of iniquitie." Scanne the wordes of the 

Prophete therfore, and scanne the wordes of oure 

738 Sauioure Christe also, in the yi. of Luke, wher he 

chrirtUdsToa sayeth thus : — "Do you lende^ lokynge for no gaynes 

nothing again, thcrof, and your rewarde shalbe plentuouse, and you 

th« dOMrwi of ^^^ ^ sonnes of the Hygheste, because he is gentle & 

^**^ Hbeial toward the vnthankfuU and wicked." 

743 I am not ignoraunt what glosses haue ben made 
Men have vpou this place, and howe men haue wrested & made it 

[leaf 18] no precept but a counsaile of our Sauiour ; & therfore 
u nopreoep^bat uot to infer ueccssitie to Christians, but to leaue them 
chrtol*^" at libertie either to do it or leaue it yndone. 

What religion <io Oh mercifuU Lorde, what maner of religion is it 

theM men pro- « • 

fcM f that these men professe t 

They boast them, selues to bee the disciples of 

751 Christe and setters forthe of his glorie. 
They bear Christ*! They wyll bearc the name of hym and be called 
thiuk'uiey may Christians, and yet wylbe at libertie to chose whether 
theywiu follow they lustc to folowc hys counsayle or leaue it yndone. 
?<Jt;*tt»olB*^o ^^^ shepherd Christe, of whose flocke they boaste 

▼oice*artnoM of them selues to bee, sayeth that hys sheepe heare his 
^^'* yoyce and folowe hym. 

John .10. And immediatly before he sheweth the cause why 

the lewes dyd not credyt hys wordes, to be none other 

760 but that thei wer not his shepe. 
but they who And doubte ye not (moste worthy counsaylours) 

are nt Uberty to what SO cuer he is that wyll defende or teach, that any 
SotI^^^V one lytle iote of the counsayles of Christ shoulde be so 
M th^ may see YAyxAj spokcu that any of hys flocke myght refuse to 

765 practise the same in hys lyuynge to the yttermoste of 
members of the hys powcr, is uolessc then a membre of the Deuell, and 

devil and very . ... , , 

Antichrists. a vcrcy Antichnste. 

* Orig. lenve. 

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For he that desyieth not in hys herte to practise in 768 
his lyneynge all the counsayles of Christe our Maister 
and Teachar, shall be nnmhred amomre the obstinate andahaub* 

' ^ nomberedwlth 

lewes for none of the flocke of Christy because he tbeJtw.. 
heareth not his voice nor foloweth him. Thus I mak 
an ende. 773 

Wyshyng vnto you (most worthy counsaylours) the Mmy tbe spirit 

... ... ,, ,^ which dwelt 

same Spintthat in ^e pnmitiue church gaue vnto the intheprimiUTa 
multitude of beleuers one herte, one mynde, & to oLfis^uck] 
esteme nothyng of this worlde as theyr owne, minis- ^^^^^ ^iu^ 
trynge vnto euerie one accordyng to his necessities; l^^^^ng 
that you, led by the same Spirite, may at the lestweye oppf«^onj •^ 
ordeine such a lawe that the oppresion of the pore 780 
reigne not frely amonge them that beare the name of 
Christians. But if they wyll be sty 11 oppressyng the if mm wtiutm 

1 « ^1 • < 4H 1 1 . oppreM let such 

pore membres of Christ, after once or twyse admoni- be ooied MAm- 
cioTi, let them no more be named Chnstians after Christ chrisUans. 
whom thei seme not, but Mammomstes after Mammon 
whose badge they beare. And this reformacion had, no 786 
doubt the maiestie of God shall so apperc in all your 
decrees, thai none so wicked a creator shalbe founde so 
bolde as once to open his mouth against the ordre that 
you shal take in al matters of religion. Yea, the verie 
enimies of Dauid shall do omage vnto Solomon for 791 
his wisedom. Al the Kynges christined shal leame at Then aii icings 
you to reforme theyr churches. You shalbe euen the ,nd ywihii uT* 
light of al the world. ^.^ff * ^' "" 

But, if you let these thynges pas and regarde them if you do not, 

., x-LTJi-i ^j 'J God wlU confound 

not, be ye sure the Lorde shal confound your wisdome. your wudom, no 
Inuent, decre, establysh, and authorise what you can; S^J^''^'^*^ 
al shal come to nought. The wayes that you shall 798 
inuent to establish vnitie and concorde shal be the 
occacions of discorde. The thynges wherby you shal 
thinke to wyn prayse through all the worlde, shall 
tume to your vtter^ shame; and t?ie wayes tJiat you shall 802 
* Orig. vnter. 

Digitized by 


176 MAT god's spibit bbst upon you. 

803 inuent to establish a kyngdome shalbe the 

Ytter subuertion of the same. The mer- 
cifall Father of our Lorde lesns 
oodgireyoa Christe indue yon wyth hys 

Hit Spirit. r* » ' 

Spinty that you be not par- 
taken of these plages. 

AiiMn. Amen. 

Digitized by 




Abtb, 51/1524, abidc^ expiate. 
Disparage not the faith thou dost 

not know^ 
Lest, to thy peril, then aby it dear. 
Mid,'Sr. N, Dr. lit 2, L 176 
(Globe ed.). 
Agime dphres, 73/571 f 

Allayes, 9/137, 10/161, aUeys. 
Bowling-alleys in which the same 
of bowls was played; alleys, lanes 
or courts in the city of London. 

Allyes, 132/84, aUeys. 

Apoiute, 137/273, arrange with. 

Axmore, 18/426, ? armourer. 

Ascoye, 43/1271, askew, askance, 
side- ways. 

Babbelars, 103/119. See Acts 

xvii. 18. 
Bable, 32/884, banble. 

Baliwike, 43/1257, the jurisdic- 
tion of a bailiff. 
Ballyng, 83/27, bawling. 

Banck, 166/472, sisters of the 

Bank, prostitutes, inhabitants of 

Barre, to cast the bar, 73/33. 

See note, p. zviL 
Base, to run base, 73/35. See 

noUf p. xvii. 
BeaHes, 132/92, beUies. 


Bearwardes, 17/388. 

Beastish, 144/505, beastlike, 

Bested, 60/19, circumstanced. 

See Chaucer, C. T., 5069, and 

Isaiah viii. 21. 

Betrusted, 30/823, trusted. 
Bisemeyng, 95/14, beseeming. 
Bityme, 72/66, betimes, in time. 
Bier, 70/12, blear. 
Brast, 132/8, burst 
Breuitie, 172/687, brevity. 
Bridle-rayne, 95/6, bridle-rein. 
Brynke, 16/364, brink, brim. 
By, 101/75, be. 
By yere, 173/700, for a year. 
Byll, 29/800, bill, a petition. 

Candle, to hold the, 130/21, phr. 
Gardes, 166/458? 
Cessions, 94/143, sessions. 
Checkinge, 139/348. 
Christined, 175/792, christened. 

Cocke and Pye, 19/469, a petty 
oath. See Meny Wive* o/W.Ll, 
1. 316 (Globe ed.). 

Coheritours, 159/233, coheirs. 

Commone, 155/73, commune. 

Digitized by 




Coxninotionais, 22/555, commo- 

tionere, men vrho caose oommo- 

tiona or tamnlts. 
Condynge, 81/63, condign, "Uiat 

is, according to merit, worihj, 

suitable/' FMUiju. 

Coniecte, 159/208, coi^jectore. 

CormeraTintes, 131/69, connor- 

Costuonse, 91/30, cosily. 
Conetise, 26/690, covetonsness. 
Crake, 81/62, crack, boast oil 
Crowmes, 132/95, crumbs. 

Days, offering days, 155/88, oei^ 
tain days on which offerings were 
made to the Church. 

Deailinges, 160/249, darlings. 

Destituted, 132/104, made desti- 
tute, depriTed. 

Dirige, 172/666. 

Disconforte, 111/81, discomfort 

Disprofitable, 168/527, unprofit- 

Dorepostis, 111/93, door-posts: 
''deaf as a door-post," a common 

Dyprease, 32/898, dispraise. 

Earely, 94/134, eariy. 
Eer, 88/91, ever. 
Effucion, 162/324, effusion. 
Emong, 12/239, among. 
Entennel, 32/904, intermeddle. 

Euerychone, 89/113, each one, 
every one. 

Fere, 88/76, in fiore, in common. 

Forestall, 34/972, to buy goods on 
their way to market. 

Forestalkrs, 34/965, men who 
bought com or cattle cnr goods of 
any kind as they were on their 
way to a market or fair, and then 
sold them again at a hi^er price. 

Forlore, 99/131, lost 

Frysee, 33/933, friezes, woollen 

cloths or stuffs originally from 


Gate, 44/1275, gait 
Gossepes, 103/142, gossips. 
Graue maker, 171/662. 
Graynges, 161/277, granges. 
Guiles, 131/69. 

Hadland, 13/266, headland. 
Harbour, 113/140, shelter. 
Haulke, 73/29, hawk. 
Head penny, 172/669. 

Herbour, 8/99, harbour, shelter, 

Herte rote, 19/464, heart root 

Houseing, 167/500. See Hous- 

Housel, 155/85, the Sacrament 

Housynge, 116/271, shelter, 
houses — nrobably for komsen, an 
old plural of house still in use in 

Imperye, 99/137, empire, rule, 

loynt, 154/22, joint Phr., « out 

of joint." 
luell, 19/454, eviL 

Leafun, 157/153, lawful 
Lestweye, 175/779, "leastways." 
Lette, 139/328, let, a hindrance. 

Leyes, 50/1 500,ley8, leas, pastures 

for cattle. 
Lite, 88/70, Utile. 
liUeons, 167/500, 169/579, Utile 

Linear, 140/378, Uver. 
Liuelode, 65/51, Uvelihood. 

Digitized by 




LoseUes, 112/121, loiel, a lazy 

Lnste, 174/754. See Lyste. 

Lynge,13/276,liiig,8altfish. Con- 
sult The Babses Book for informa- 
tion about ling and fish generally. 

Lyste, 157/154, list, like, choose. 

Malt, 114/201. 

Mammonists, 175/785. 

Markis, 116/251, a Mark was of 
the value of 13«. 4<^. 

Mangrea, 62/86, mangre, in spite 

Mawe, 44/1294, maw, stomach. 

Meaners,, 101/75, manners, 1 de- 

Mell, 20/494, meddle. 

Morysh, 119/370, marshy. 

Mowe, 9/1 32, mow, a stack of com. 

Mownde, 112/110, a boundary. 

Noble, 80/52, a coin of the value 
of 6«. Sd, See Four Supplications, 
Glossary in y. noble. 

Nownde, 112/110, for mound, a 
fence or hedge— boundary. 

Omage, 175/791, homage. 
Other, 172/665, either. 
Ouertenthes, 171/630, to over- 
tithe, or oTer-tax. 

Packe, 11/195, number. 

Paisant, 141/423, Paisaunte, 142/ 
460, peasant. 

Pardye, 123/602, Par Dieu, a 
common oatn. 

Pas, 165/82, heed, care. 

Paste, 45/1316. The ' paste wife * 
was protMtbly the woman who made 
the jpiuis, parilets, or ruffs then 
much worn. "Gay gownys and 
gay kyrtels, and mycn waste in 
apparell, rynges, and owcbis, wvth 
partelettes and pattis garnesbed 

wyth perle.** More's Suppfycaeyon 

of Soufys, sig. L. ii., quoted in 

Halliwell's Jreh. Did. 
Peltrye, 46/1366. The word j?eZ^ 

is still in use in Kent, signifying 

rubbiek, the sense in which pelirfe 

is used here. 
Plowen, 162/328, plowed, 
Pold, 13/277, polled, robbed, 

cheated, polling, 20/506. 
Poppyshnes, 72/71, popishness. 

Porte, 167/486, bearing, carriage, 

or manner. 
Possessioners, 163/8, holders of 

large estates. 
Praye, 148/669, prey. 
President, 170/697, precedent 
Priestyng, 156/68, the calling or 

duties of a priest. 
Primer, 71/55, a little book, 
which children are first taught to 
read. Phillips, 
ProUyn^ 144/529, prowling, 
searchmg about. 
Prolong, and pochyng to get som- 

At euery doore lumpes of bread, 
or meat. 
R. Copland's Eye way to the 
Spyttel Hous. 
Prouender, 141/379. "Provender 

Sricketh them," a phrase used iji 
Tewes out o/Povles, Sat. 6 : 
1st meruafle though they cnmckly 

well lodged in their eage f 
With prouen prickt, yst meruaile 

That thus the Tigars rage ? 
The modem equivalent, applied if) 
a restive horse, is " the oats prick 
Pryme, 91/23, prime, 6 a.m.^ one 

of the seven canonical hours. 
Pyld, 13/278, pilled, spoiled. 

Quyte, 69/222, requite. See 1 
Tamb. the Great, ii. 5. 

Digitized by 




Beade, 32/894, 84/58, coxmBel, ad- 

Rede, 163/373, t scattered. Hal- 
liwell has Bede (3), to spread 

Begester, 78/12, t registrar. 

Beue^ge, 164/381, ravening, 

taking by force, from the Terb to 

Bocke, 166/458, a distaft 

Eoute, 91/6, to role the roui^ to 
rule the common people. 

Eoyall, 20/502, royal, or rial, a 
coin of tne ysJue of 10 shillings, 
first coined in the reign of Hen. 
VL In the reign of Hen. VUI. 
the gold rial was ordered to go at 
lltf. Zd. In the 2nd of Elizabeth 
rials were coined at 15tf. In the 
3rd of James L rose-rials of the 
value of 30«. were coined, and spur- 
rials at 15tf. each. The rial far- 

' thing9 went at 2«. 6i. each in the 
reign of the " Tiger King.** 

Salfe, 102/93, safe, or saved. 
Scan, 173/706, 174/736. 

Scase, 81/72, scarce. See Glossary 

to England under H. VIIL 
Schourges, 15/344, scourges. 

Shamefast, 131/53, shame&ced, 

Shente, 38/1096, 86/24, ruined, 

Shote, 155/79, shot, amoxint. 

Slyese, 171/643, sUce. 

Smered, 154/53. 

Spittlehonse, 11/211, hospital 

Stick, holy water stick, 172/666. 

Stockefyshe, 13/276, stockfish, 
saltfish dried. For much curious 
information concerning StockfUh, 
see Mr Fumivall's Ba^ Book. 

Stynt, 112/108, stint, stop. 

Swea, 94/133, away, bear the 
sway, have rule. 

Tatyllars, 103/117, tattlers. See 
1 Tim. V. 18. 

Thral, 87/32, make men thral, 
enthrall i 

Thyne, 80/32, thin, weak. 
Tipillyng, 71/33, tippling. 
Tussocke, 44/1303, a heap. 
Typpet, a Tyburn tippet, 30/820, 

Toweare .... 
A TUmrne Tippet^ or old Stories 

This IS the hifh'st degree which 
they can take. 

Taylor's Win^ks, foL 287. 

Vaile, 17/392, avail, profit, ad- 
Vitayls, 8/90, victuals. 

Ynchristined, 169/568, onchris- 

tened, unbaptized. 
Vndercaptaine, 147/641. 
Yngrate, 166/469, f unbecoming. 
Ynweldy, 168/553, unwieldy. 

Wede, 113/140, clothing. 

Wei, 61/68, weaL 

Welmoste, 10/166, almost, well 
nigh, nearly. 

Whippets, 45/1331, f short petti- 
coats. See Halliwell's Jreh. Diet. 

Wit, 55/8, blame. 

Wodmonger, 88/75, a dealer in 

Yuelles, 162/314, evils. 

Ziphres, Agime ziphres, 73/571 1 

Digitized by 




Abbbts when snppTessed iniglit 
haye been tamed to good uses, 
7* xiii ; XX, note, 

Abner and Joab, 30. 

Abuses of the Saciaments, 155. 

Abuses written and preached 

against, 256. 
Acts of Parliament^ unworthy, 


Aldermen and their rents, 10. 
Alehouse, places of waste, and 

nnmeroos, 8 ; in the conntrj open 

on Sunday, xx, 9. 

Alleys in London, xiii, 9, 10. 
Alms-houses removed, 11, 12. 
Articles of Eeligion, zxxi, 170. 

Babblers to be shunned, 103. 
Bailiffs and their rogueries, 13. 
Bars, or Base, prisoners', xviL 
Bawds, 14. 
Bearbaiting in Paris Grarden, 16, 

Beggars and their deceits, 15, 16 ; 

gams of, 16 ; faults and duties of, 

58, 59. 
Beggars in London, xiii, 10. 
Beggar's Lesson, the, 57. 

Beneficed men, xiv, 27 ; how one 
was punished, 38. 

Body, humours of the, 22. 
Bonner, Crowley preaching at,xii. 
Books reprove faults, 5. 
Bowling-alleys, 9. 
Brawlers, and whom they profit, 
17, 18. 

Bristol, Welsh friezes brought to, 

Cato's advice on dice-playing, 25. 

Christ's welcome at the last, 109 ; 

His denunciation of the wicked. 


Clei;^, fault of the, 135 ; the, and 
their wives, 139 ; rapacity of, 171. 
Clergy. iS^a Ministers an^ Priests. 
Collier of Croydon, the, 20. 

Commodities, the three, of this 
realm, xxyii, 88. 

Commotioners, 21. 

Community of goods not advo- 
cated, 156. 

Complaints made in heaven, 160. 

Condition of life, men to rest 
content with their, xy, 147. 

Country, drinking in, 9; and 
city both alike, 133. 

Covetousness, the, of men, 132. 

Ctowley, R, particulars of his 
life, ix— xiL 

Digitized by 




Croydon, the collier of, 20. 

Dangers imminent, 150. 
Daniel in the lions' den, 57. 
Dayid quoted against the godless, 

Despair of men, 133. 
Dice-playing, 25 ; CTils of, 26. 
Dress, xxvii, 44, 45. 
Drinking on Sundays, xziv, 9. 
Drinking priests, 71. 
Drunkards, Isaiah quoted against^ 

23 ; S. Paul quoted on, 24. 

Ely, Bp of, and Crowley, xL 
Enclpsures to be laid open, 122. 
Engrossers will be punished, 34. 
Epigrams^ one and thirty^ 5, xiii 

Exchequer, the, and its officers, 

Exports, xxyii, 38. 
Extortions of usurers, 173. 

Faces painted, xxyii, 44. 

Fane, Lady Elizabeth, dedication 

to, 107; TV, note; xxviii. 
Fashions among women, 44, 45. 
Faults reproved in books, 5. 

Faults of clergy and people, 134, 

Field sports, usefulness o^ 73. 

Flatterers worse than open ene- 
mies, 80 ; are promoted, 31. 

Fools, 31 ; of different kinds, 32, 

Forestallers and how they act, 
33, 84. 

Frankfort, Protestants flee to, ix. 

French, Englishmen must fight 
or become uke the, 133. 

Friendship, Christian and Hea- 
then, 158. 

Fruits of oppression, 166. 
Funeral at St Sepulchre's, 171. 

Ckunbling priests, 71. 
Games, 73, xvi, xvii, note. 
Gentleman's Lesson, the, 90. 
Gentlemen, plenty o^ 89 ; must 

get knowledge, 91 ; hunting, costly 

buiidmff, appaarel of, 91; how to 

live ana behaTe, 92—94. 
Goal running in Kent, xvii, note. 
Godless men and their sayings, 


Gossips are the devil's ministers, 

Grothst Where are the, 165. 

Habakkuk send to Daniel, 57. 
Hair dyed, 44. 
Hearers, vain, 47. 

Henry VllL and the Religious 

Houses, xiii. 
Hereford, Crowley Archdeacon 

of, X. 

Hireling ministers, 154. 
Homes of the poor, 10, xiv, xxiv. 

Idle persons, 37. 

Idleness and its results, 37. 

^orance of the people, 23, 120 ; 

the cause of rebellion, 134. 
Improvements, modem, and their 

effect, xiv, xxiv. 
Informaciony An^ xxii, 151. 

Inventors of strange nevrs, and 
the mischief they do, 38, 39. 

Isaiah quoted against drunkards, 
23, 24. 

Joab and Abner, 30. 

Judges to beware of bribes, 84; 

to show no favour, 85, xxviiL 
Judgments to come, 161. 

Digitized by 




Kent, games in, xvii, note. 

Landlords, a prayer for, xxii 

Lands taken from plowmen, 117. 

Lawyer^s Lesson, the, xvii, 82; 
coveiousness of, 83, 83; duties of, 
83, 84, xxviii. 

Laymen who take tithes, 39. 

Lead, tin, and wool, xxvii, 38. 

Learned man's Lesson, the, xvii, 

Learned men and their duties, 

Learning, how it might have been 
provided for, 7. 

Leasemongers, 40; to work, 123. 

Lesson, the Beggar's, 57. The 
Gentleman's, 90. The Lawyer's, 
82. The Learned man's, 74. The 
Magistrate's, 95. The Merchant's, 
86. The Physician's. 79. The 
Priest's, 70. The Scholar's, 72. 
The Servant's, 69. The Woman's, 
99. The Yeoman's, 63. 

Liars, against common, 24; en- 
couraged by noblemen, 25. 

London, customs afTecting ale- 
houses in, 8; alleys in, 9, 10} 
beggars in, 10; a hell without 
orSer, 11 ; idleness in, 37 ; a lease- 
monger of, 40; women, 44; poor 
in, 116, xxiv, xxviii; no better 
than the country, 133. 

Lonvain, the friar who went to, 

Magistrates should set men to 

work, 38 ; the duties of, 95—99. 
Magistrate's Lesson, the, 95. 

Merchants go to farming, 41 ; 
purchase lands, 41; lend money, 
42; the duties of, 86, 87; they 
purchase lands, smell out unthrifty 
neirs, charge double rents, 87, 88. 

Merchant's Lesson, the, 86. 

Ministers are hirelings, 154 ; 
godly, not to be removed, 149. 

Misery of the poor, tti, xxviii, 

N&WBj inventors of strange, 38. 
I^oblemen encoorage liars, 25. 

Oaths, common, 19. 
Obedience of rich men, 144. 

Obedient, the people to be, 137, 

Offices, of men who hold many, 

Oppression sent from God, 138 ; 
avenged by Gbd, 145 ; of the poor 
maybe passed over by the Parlia- 
ment, 156 ; fruits of, 166. 

Oppressions of rich men, 146. 
Oppressor, the, described by 

David, 160, 161. 
Oppressors, rich, 145. 

Painting of faces, xxvii, 44. 
Papists, obstinate, 45. 

Paris Garden and bear-baiting, 
xxvii, 17. 

Parker, Abp, and Crowley, x. 

Parliament, matters to be dis- 
cussed bv, 153 ; date of, xxxi ; un- 
worthy Acts of, 170. 

Patrons, neglect of, xxx, 118. 

Paul's Cross, Crowley preaching 
at, X. 

Paul, S., quoted against drunk-, 
ards, 24. 

People, faults of the, 135 ; errors 
of the, 136; exhorted to obedi- 
ence, 137, 14L 

Physician's Lesson, the, xvii, 79. 

Physicians, their duties to the 
poor and to others, 79—82. 

Plato's treatment of poets and 
orators, 39. 

PleamreandPaj/n, &c,fXvmy 105. 

Plough's, L, Doleful Trumpet^ 


Digitized by 




Pluialists, 135. 

Ploralities to be giyen up, 124, 

Poor, die of want, xxyiii, 116; 
to enjoj his oopjbold, 123; op- 
pressed ererywhere, 133. 

PoesessioneTS and their duties, 

156, 157 ; to repent, 159 
Power is from God, 165. 
Practices of great men, 133. 
Prayer, a, for landlords, xxiL 
Priest's Lesson, the unlearned, 


Priests who use tithes privately, 
39 ; ignorant, 70 ^ do not offer a 
sacrifice, 70; to me over tippling 
and gambling, 71; to learn them- 
selves and teach others, 71 ; covet- 
oosness of, 155. 

Purchasers, unsatiable, 48. 

Rapacity of the Clergy, 171. 
Rebellion the fruit of ignorance, 
134 ; the, of 1549, referred to, 143. 
Remedies for sedition, 148. 

Rent-raisers, xzviii, 46 ; woe to, 

Rents in London, 10. 
Rents to be restored, 123 ; raised, 

Restitution to be made, 146, 147. 
Rich men, obedience of the, 144. 

Ridley, Bp, Crowley ordained by, 

ix ; ib. note 3. 
Romans 1 Where are the, 164. 

Sacraments, the, are bought and 

sold, 155. 
Scholar^s Lesson, the, xvi, 72. 
Schools, why they were founded, 

Sedition must be rooted out, 1 31 ; 

causes of, 132, 134, 142 ; remedies 

for, 148, xxxi. 

Sepulchre's Church, St^ funeral 

Servant's Lesson, the, xv, 59. 

Servants must submit themselves 

in all things, x?i, 60—64. 
Shepherds, woe to EngUsh, 139. 

Simony, men guilty o^ xxx, 118; 

eyils of, 120. 
Sirach quoted on swearers, 18 ; 

quoted against women, 43, 44. 
Smith, Mr Toulmin, his Parish^ 

xiii, note; quoted on endowments, 

XX, note. 

Sports and games laudable, 73, 

xvi, xrii, notes. 
Subjects must not rebel, 1 34, 1 41 . 

Submission a duty, 60 — 64, 138, 

Sunday, alehouses open on, xxiv, 

9 ; bearbaiting on, 17. 
Superstitions of the people, 136, 

Swearers and their many oaths, 

xxvii, 18, 19. 

Talkers, vain, 47. 
Tattlers to be avoided, 103. 
Taverns, bawds in, 14. 
Tenants pilled and polled, 167. 
Threatenings against the poor, 

Tin, lead, and wool, xxvii, 38. 
Tithes, taken by laymen, 39; 

used priTately by priests, 39; to 

be restored, 124. 
Trumpet, Voice of the Last, 53 ; 

referred to, 126, xiv. 

Usurers, and their practices, 49 
—51; to make restitution, 125; 
extortions of, 172 ; the end of, 174. 

Usury, law regulating, xxxi, 173. 

Vain talkers, writers, and hearers, 

Digitized by 




Yisitatioii, the king^s, ttti, 154. 

Wales, the friezes of, 33. 
Wamings to the rich, 164. 
Warton quoted on Crowley, ix. 
Way to Wealth, the, xix, 129. 
Wicked, the, repioached for their 

conduct in this world. 111— 12L 
Wives, nice, 43. 
Woe to rent-raisers, 162. 
Woe to shepherds, 139. 
Woman's Lesson, the, 99. 
Women in London, their gait, 

dress, dyed hair, Ac, 44, 45. 

Women in various positions of 
life, duties of, 99—102 ; not to de- 
light in tattlers, 103 ; to learn of 
Sarah, 104; clergy occupied in 
providing for, 139. 

Wool, tin, and lead, xzvii, 38. 

Writers, vain, 47. 

Yeoman's Lesson, the, 63. 

Yeomen, xvi ; their duties, 63 — 
69 ; to be content with their posi- 
tion, and not to seek after riches, 
64, 65; their duties in religious 
matters, 67 ; not to rebel, 69. 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


®0iliient 4 $^^Wwk' 

6 firs Series, No. LL 

Digitized by 





Digitized by 





E. ADAM, Ph.D. 





Digitized by 




df/srirB Series, 


Digitized by 


^o\\n\i 4 l^iitppl^. 


Ptasidas, p. zxii ; e. Sir Isumbras, 
p. xxiv ; f. Romanees of Ociavian^ 
p. XXT : g. Sir Efflaoiour, p. xxvi ; 
li. Camjfariton of Dtrrent and Eg- 
lamour^ p. xxvii ; i. the 2 JRomances 
indep^iidenty p. xxx 
§ 5. ArrangemetU cf this JSdltion, 
p. xxxii. 

%l. Tka ATS, and JffalliwelVs edition, 

p. V. 
§ 2. Metre and Versification, p. vi. 
§ 3. Dialect, p. x ; «A^rf voweU, p. xi ; 

^^ vowels, p. xii ; inflexions, p. xiii. 
§ 4. a. iin^ contett-ts qf the JUmance, 

p. xvi ; b. its character, p. xx ; 

a Origin of the story of Ton-ent, 

p. xxi ; d. Legend of Eustaehe or 

§ 1. The manuscript from which the following romance of 
Sir Torrent of PoHugal is taken, is a folio volume on paper, of the 
fifteenth century, preserved in the Chetham Library at Manchester. 

A description of this volume is given by Halliwell in his Ac- 
count of the European MSS. in the Chetham Library at Manchestei; 
Manchester, 1842, page 16, and by Pr6f. Koelbing in his EngliscJie 
Studien, vii. 195. The only edition of this romance that we have 
hitherto had was done by Halliwell. As he had, besides his own 
transcript, another copy made by Madden, his text is a pretty 
accurate one, and therefore the results of Prof. Koelbing's collation, 
printed in his Englische Studien, vii. 344 ff., concern, for the most 
part, things of little impoitance, except one very curious passage, 
1. 88, where Halliwell renders the quite correct reading of the MS., 
p la more de deice = jyar Vamour de dieu^ by Perictda more he- 
deiD\n\e. Also, from 1. 1720, the counting of the lines is wrong by 
100 lines. 

A few short fragments of a printecl edition were found by Halli- 
well in the Douce Collection, Bodleian Library, Oxford, and added 
to his work as an Appendix. They contain the following passages 
of the MS. : 

Digitized by 



Fragment III. = lines 462 — 489. 

II. = „ 492—520. 

VI. = „ 820—851. 

V. = „ 917—948. 

IV. = „ 949—970. 

I. == „ 1807—1866. 

A seventh fragment, of which not much more than the rhyming 

words are preserved, was omitted hy Halliwell, and was printed for 

the first time in Prof. Koelhing's collation. 

This Chetham MS. contains the romance in a very dehased and 
corrupt form, so that the original reading in many passages can 
hardly he recognized.* The scribe, who copied the poem from an 
older MS., lived (no doubt) at a far later period than the poet; he 
did not therefore understand a great many old expressions, and 
these he used to supplant by words of his own ; he also transposed 
and even omitted many lines, and spoiled the rhyme, because ho 
had not the slightest idea of the nature of the stanza in which 
the poem is composed. Halliwell did not trouble himself about 
the restoration of the true readings; he merely reproduced the 
traditional text, even where it would have been very easy to do 
more, though many passages are hopelessly corrupt; still worse is 
the fact, that he did not recognize the metre as the tail-rhymed 
twelve-line stanza, for he prints six-line stanzas. 

In consequence, the whole of the philological work on the text 
had still to be done, and a new edition was plainly necessary ; the 
more that this poem, though not written in the best period of romance 
poetry, treats of a legendary subject widely spread in the Middle Ages, 
and is nearly related to another poem, iSyr Eylammir of Artois, 


As I mentioned before, the romance of Sir TaiTent is composed 
in the well-known tail-rhymed twelve-line stanza, and belongs to 
that class of it in which the first and the second couplets have dif- 
ferent rhyme-sounds (cf. Koelbing, Amis and Aintloun, p. xiv ff.). 

* Halliwell says, Preface v f . : * It is very incorrectly written, and the 
copy of the romance of Torrent of Portugal, which occupies 88 pages of tho 
book, contains so many obvious blunders and omissions, that it may be con- 
jectured with great probability to have been written down from oral recitation. 

Digitized by 



Only the incompleteness of many stanzas, and the many defects in 
reference to the rhyme, can excuse Halliwell for not apprehending the 
character of the metre. As to the structure of the eight lines of the 
four couplets, each contains (or at least ought to contain) four 
accents, the eattdcs three ; but as we, unfortunately, possess only one 
MS., a conclusive statement on this point is impossible. There is 
no doubt about the fact that neither the really incorrect rhymes nor 
the wanting of them can be due to the author of the poem : even 
when romance poetry was decaying, the poets were fiairly perfect 
rhymers : with all deficiencies in this department, the copyists are to 
be charged. 

Ca)i8onant rhymes (s. Schipper Aliengl, Metnk^ p. 299) are found 
in Torrent in the following passages: 1. 141 rode — rode ags. rdd — 
rdd, 450 the— the ags. \e^n — fe. 1558 indede — dede, 2205 lay 
—la!/, sg.—plr, pii. 

Identical rhymes are frequent, especially in the caudce : 81 stand 
—stond. 177 there— 4lieye. 500 he—hee, 1887 there— there, 2538 
blithe— blithe. 39 take— take. 342 bold— bold, a. s. o. 

Assonances: 195 bo7i^ — Rome. 518 undyrstond — strong. 537 
name — alone. 699 yod—fotte. 758 7iame — tane. 896 bryng — 
toynd. 1257 overcom' — Aragoii'. 1768 man^ — caw^. 2164 anon) 
— fome. 2544 sithe — hide. 

Besides the rhymes we find abundant alliteration, as in most of 
the Middle English Romances. On alliteration, cf. Eegel, Die alliter^ 
ation in La^amon, Geiifn. Stud. I. 171 ; F. Lindner, The alliteration 
in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales, Essays on Chauce7% Pt. III., p. 197 S. 
Koelbing, Sir Tinstrem, p. xxxvii, and Amis and Amilotm, p. Ixvi. 
Lindner as well as Koelbing has adopted Kegel's classification, and 
so shall I. The most frequent is two alliterative words in one verse ; 
they can be classed in the following way : — 

I. A. The same word is repeated in two succeeding lines; v. 
456 f. : Forthe sche browght a whyt sted. As whyt as the flowyr irO 
med; v. 618 f. : /» /F quarters he hym drowe. And euery quarter 
vppon a bowe. v. 2026 f. : But ran into a wildeme« Amongist beests 
thai wyld wes. v. 2465 f. : They axid hors and annes bryght, to 
hoTsbak went thay in ffere. 

Digitized by 



B. Alliterative combinations^ one pm-t of wliicli is a proper name. 
Tonent is several times combined with the verb take; 26 : Toioarde 
hym he takythe Torrayne; 224 : Torrent thether ioke the way; 519 : 
Torrent toke a dvlful wey; 2269: Wlian sir Torent was iakyn^ 
tlian^ ; 91 : Now^ he my irowthe^ seyd Torent ihan\' 1161 : Alas, said 
DesonM the dere; 2523 : As was dame T>eso7ieYt; 1906 = 1946 = 
1969 : Mary myld. To aend unto her SatJtanas. v. 1091 : TJte 
casfeU of Cardon\ 

II. A. Words of the same root are alliterative, 133 : Torrent, 
on kne kneiyd Tie; 671 : That on hys kne he kneld; 2502: And 
knc/icZ on her kne ; 205 : Toirent kncJyd on hys kne = v. 528 ; 
881 : And VnQhjd vppon ys kne ; 1883 : She lanelid doicn^ vppon^ her 
kne; 2563: Down^ they kneZiri on^ her kne; 512: By dymmyyige 
of the day; 1158 : Fm' her love did I never no dede; 1801 : That 
yike dede, that she hath done; 1943: How she ^ew in a fdight ; 
2384 : Liflfe and \yyelode, tchiR I lyve; 233 : A lyon) & a \yonasse; 
1671 : For to se that wily sight; 407 : Fo^' the Utiles Hiou hast me 
iold; 1466: And fals Udis hym^ told; 2578: Euer we wiH be at 
youre wiH. 

B. Belations in which alliterative words stand to each other 
according to their meaning. 

a. Concrete ideas are joined together because they belong to the 
same sphere of life. 2017 : Byrdus ami hcstis, aye woo ye he; 113 : 
hone and hlod; 21 : l^yng and knyght; 83 : And rycJte castelles in 
tluU contre; 251 : In land tcith a iyndes fere; 102: That iyndes 
tare for aye ; 1094 : Both at Vnyght and knave ; 584 : Bothe in^ 
iretlie and in ield ; 660 : Stomlyng thurrow fnjthe and ien^ ; 1378 : 
Both be hold and he hyU; 2398 : lyrn^ and lith; 750 : LyfyH and 
myky}i, \ese and more; 1899: That was lord of a¥L that lond; 
2152 : Loo, lordys of enery \o7ul; 2375 : WitJi aH maner of myn- 
stralsye; 149 : He reynyd hys sied vnto a siake; 1065 : Waytes on 
the waH gan hlowe; 13 : wafer and vrynde, 

h. In the same way abstract ideas are connected, so far as they 
belong to the same sphere of life. 460 : That dethe ys dynt schalt 
\tou not thole; 1600 : Ofdeth yarn he no dout ; 782 = 2062 ; feyer 
and Ire; 2153: Yalshode wyYi haue a ioule end; 1988: Belpe 

Digitized by 



and hold I sJidR Injm yeve ; 1492 : They sat and Bong ; 683 : Ct^yH 
hym mue and see; 1303: That he was aad and sore; 1612: set 
sadly and sore; 335 : God ilud sofryd wonddes sore; 322 : styffand 
strong = 1491 = 2590 ; 1205 : That wekyd was and wight; 1584 : 
vrekyd and vfight; 1849 : Her one child vfoke and be-gan to wepe; 
1559 : Ami wo/ ye w«H and not vrene; 246 : Sclie weppie^ as scJte 
icej^e \7od. 

C. The gi*aiamatica] relations in which the alliterativo words 
stand to each other. 

a. Suhsi and adj. in attributive or predicative combinations. 
As hold as eny bore/ With hroioes hvod and tcyde ; 142 : hys hugeA 
hold ; 307 : In a donjon^ that ys dym ; 82 : My fayer^ iorestes 
iellythe downe he ; 209 : The feyer^ iyld ; 426 : ^emyrryng ase the 
glrtse; 1592: good gate; 171 = 596: the holtes hare; 1484: To 
an hye h?/H; 1183: sydes sare ; 154: Thowe the wey nemjr so 
vrykkyd were; 2054: welyd wetlers ; 506: In the vryUUsome yfay ; 
535 : ^Vyldsom vreyes haue I went ; 2030 : SJie went 07i that wilsom^ 

h. Verbs or adjectives combined with the adverb or substantive 
which contains their secondary adverbial meaning. 1478: To he 
here at his hane, cf. 1678 : Tluit there his hane hafh he; 1944 : To 
her hirdus was sJie houn^ ; 2016 : With hUs on euery how^e ; 135 : 
TJifii howgid hyin tvith hys hlod; 1045 : Thurroio the hody he gan 
hym here; 1404 : To the hote they haj-e; 334 : TJius he covyrd owt 
of care ; 27 : That dowghtty ys in dedde, cf. 1725 ; 98 : With-owt fere 
i/iat he scJiold fare; 603 = 977 : Also fast ase he myght fa)*e; 536 : 
With fyndes for to fyght ; 802: To fyght with that fyndcs fere; 
1262 : That was grow both grene and gay; 1060 = 2330 : Tore7it he 
the hond he hent; 270: Tliat mecJie ys of myght; 713: TJuit 
meche wase of myght; 24 : For God ys most of myght, cf. 1112: 
To a man off myght; 1879 : Vp she rose ageyiO the rough; 2100: 
Go sech her in^ the see; 2129 : And sett hym) oute in to the see; 
2469 : That semdy to se were; 126 : And symly was to sene; 415 : 
That dare I sothely sey ; 1170 : Torrent sett on hym^ so sore; 139 : 
Semites, yf I hym slepyng slnne; 181 : Tmrent vndyr hys s^njt he 
s^i'ent; 179 : But siond siyW; 2410 : He is so stiff at ene7*y stoure ; 

Digitized by 



987: Torrent tV the siorrope stod; 1912: For no Btroke wold site 
Btyni; 2060: By a iokyn> I ahali tlie i^; 2397: Or walkyd in 
yfede ; 383 : In hys yralke ther use Tie went ; 725 : And went foiihe 
on hys wey; 107 : And on hye vrey gan he wynd; 2030 : She vrent 
on tJuU \7tIeom? vray ; 989 : ale y^yld at wyle ; 2088 : In no wise 
he Yfold; 1206 : To wed her to my wyffe ; 749 : TItat wyt ye vndyr 
wede; 1315: -411 men wcmderid on tliat wight; 33: worthyeet 
in wede, 

c Substantives and verbs are combined in the relation of subject 
and predicate. 2221: Doum knelid that knyght; 854: Whether 
the iynd can fyght; 2390 : There that his lady lent; 2064 : My love 
teas on the lent; 1219: Gret lordys to cJiurche her led; 170: The 
fyndes spere s^airythe hyme nothyng ; 84 : No stow lettythe he siond, 

d. Verbs and substantives are combined as predicate and object. 
2490: his hak to he)id; 2532: That couth moche curtesye; 273: 
Thy dethe than wyB. he dyghi, cf. 1 043 : Hys deihe to hyme ys 
dyght; 1648: Thy deth noto is dight ; 2123: What deth tliey wold 
hym do; 161 : My loides trethe thus to feH; 2235 : Found hym his 
m off flight; 1743: The ffortoard ye to Mlcffylle ; 651: He 
^athyred svm of hys gere ; 210 : Vpp both his handes he held ; 1799 : 
For lesu is love, tluU hai'ood heH; 1820 : Whan they led that lady 
ffre ; 2080: Lcre v>e now that lady gent; 1663 : Ech on other laid 
good lode; 1495 : To god that made man; 435 : A gret maynerey 
let he make ryyht ; 264: To hym sche mad here vaons ; 645: He 
rawght Ton'eivt soche a lowght; 1172 : And aH to sheverd his sheW; 
502 : Tho he be airod anoble siede ; 2482 : Toi^ent be strcx^ a stede 
strong; 281 : I schaB. the teH soche a iokyn} ; 2013 : Ne wanted site 
no woo ; 115: He that schdA wend soche a wey ; 439 : Horn-ward to 
wend ther wey ; 2448 : And ihan^ to wend her way; 2457 : And to 
her logyng went her way; 1544: Other wages yf I wend; 207: 
That hathe thys world to wyld. 


The stanza of twelve lines was probably first employed in tho 
north of England ; at least it would be difficult to prove the exist- 

Digitized by 



ence of a poem composed in this metre in the southern part of the 
country; therefore it is heforehaud prohahle that the romance of 
Torrent was composed either in some part of the Midlands or in the 
North. In order to determine the dialect more precisely, we restrict 
ourselves to a careful consideration of the rhymes. 


Old English a is (1) preserved before n and m: 744 and 788 
lame — name. 927 Adryan—jeniylmane, 13 londe — wonande. 
352 stond — lygand. 1128 etond — sJiynand. No part pres. on- 
o)id rhyming with an unvariable -and has been traced out until now, 
but 1824 wepand — wo7ide (ags. tounden) seems to be the fii-st. 
2. Changed into 0. 516 rome—/rome ags. m277i--/m?n. 2446 mon^ 
— done. 1190 none — slione — anon — done. 1257 ouercom — ^ra- 
gon\ 1989 eo7i — can (= con). 2040 nnon^ — hone. A curious 
exception is 1929 grame (= grei)ie) — t(me — Jerusalem; cf. Gate. 
1. 312. 

O.E. e, the t-umlaut of a, is jMcserved : 373, end — wend. 476 
went^ent. 924 ^eH— 7/eZZ. 1102 hell— Desone^e, 1798 /ett— 
/leH. The past partic. of seony segen, has been contracted into sen. 
1562 scjie — wene. 

O.K <B has become a: 45 spake — iaJce. 363 ffai'e — bare. 
726 and 876 sale — Portyngga^a, 1074 passe — was. 1131 sale 
—tale. 1233 thare—fare. 1236 was—Sathanas. 1399 care— 
thare. 2287 was — alas. 

<B has become e : 2026 irildernes—was. 764 derive — clere — ware 
(ags. wasr). 1951 there — here. 328 glad (= gled) — redd. 

ce has become ay by the vocalization of the following g : 25 fayne 
— Toirayne. 1025 may — day, wey — laye. 1071 say— day. 
2029 day— way. 

O.E. ea becomes o before Id: 303 hold — bold, fold (ags./oWe) 
— cold. 422 gold — mold, hold — told. 

cabas become a: 399 Portynga}^ — bale (ags. bealu). 531 care 
—far* (ags. cearu). 1891 ffare — care. 

ea has become e: 1166 beheld— f eld— sheld—xo eld (ags. wealdan). 
2359 /we^/e — breste (ags. bearst). 

Digitized by 



O.E. eo has turned into e: 1166 heheldr^ffcld'—i^ield—wM. 

O.E. % is preserved as i and y: 51 knyght-^yght. 307 dym 
— hym. 1783 myld — child. Only once this vowel has changed 
into e : 714 toret — yet, i rhymes with e : 3 toynde — ende — lende — 

O.K 6 is unaltered : 422 gold— -mold. 1122 gold—mold, 

O.E. u has become o: 367 dore (ags. duru)'-'hefor\ 765 
Aragon} — iK)n\ 1257 ouer com — Aragon\ 1762 com^ — kyng- 
dome, 1801 done — sonne (ags. sunu). 2320 so nne— dungeon, 

O.K j^, the i-umlaut of «, has the value of t, written » or y ; 390 
kysse — iwysse, 1564 tiA—fuUefy^, yH — tri/tt. 1740 evyV[ — 
fulle fylle. Only once it rhymes with e: 1484 /lyH (= ^eH) — 
yett — 5e/eH — we^, never with u. 


O.E. d is preserved in the following rhymes :^ a. 39 take — stroke 
(= strake.y ags. «<r^<;), «paA» — take, 97 sore— fare, 103 ^r>{?« — 
takythe (= ^a« — /aw). 280 toahjn^ — tokyn^ (ags. ^ticcn). 334 care 
— sore. 590 /are — whei\ hore — care, 705 fare — gere (ags. </<2r). 
788 lame — name^ hone — schame, 834 ga — ma, 977 fare — Itai'e, 
8 are — chaffare, 1143 glade — rade, 1238 Cute — gate, had — toott 
(ags. wdt), 1251 hrod—made; of. 1303, 1306, 1501, 1526, 1604, 
1612, 1663, 1669, 1825, 1911, 2178, 2356, 2617. 

h, O.E. d has changed into o ; 16 sone (ags. sunu) — gon, 141 
rode — rode (ags. rdd — rdd), 195 hon (ags. hdn) — Rome, 238 f^a/e 
(ags. wdty-fote, 654 hrow^—goo, 1062 tJio—do, Of. 1196, 
1226, 1295, 1381, 1809, 1812, 1815, 2013, 2025, 2028, 2037, 2046, 
2295, 2298, 2301, 2542. The result is, that in 26 cases old*4 is pre- 
served, in 22 cases changed into 6, 

O.K (B is turned into (1) a: 154 were— fare, 603 fare — were. 
1020 were— fare, 2074 care — ware. 

Into (2) e. 379 dede (ags. dM)—7ied, 1047 were—chei-e, 
1053 sped—lede (ags. Idedan). 1263 stede—wede (ags. tfccd). 

1 The rhymes with tane and with Jb*/i are not quoted, ns these words 
occur ttlso as tinte and Johan ; they are, therefore, of no use in fixing tJie 
sound of the &. 

Digitized by 



Into (3) 0. 1113 mone (ags. nu^nan) — AragoJi, 1384 hejSfore — 
th&re — were, 

O.E. 6 is preserved throughout : 73 wode — good, 112 rode — 
hlod, \\^ Ratne — kyrstendome. 313 done — eone. 

Before g the vowel u resp. w is inserted : 145 hrowght — notcglU, 
279 hrowght-— thowght 2053 sougJit^-brougJit 

O.E. i is preserved: 123 ke^ie — sene, 743 dede — sped, wede. 
1849 wepe—slepe. 2055 grene — kene, 2458 he dene — wene. 

O.E. i is preserved as y: 196 tyd — syd. 325 fyve — lyvc, 
777 wyse — deuyce. 900 ryde — syde. 

O.E. u is written oit resp. ow in the French way: 921 renomie — 
towyn\ 978 downe — renowne, 1425 nowe — roice. 2634 month 
— couth. It has hecome o: 516 rom« — frome (ags. Him— from), 
Cf. 2641 renown — «c/w. 

O.E. cd has become e: 1929 ^awie — etreme, JeruacUem. 2554 
Jerusalem} — sir erne (ags. siredm). 

O.E. «5 has changed into 6 : 153 he—hee : 782 fre—he, 888 ^tj 
— crystyanti, 1643 6e — cJiariii, 1861 ^r«6 — ct^^. 

O.R ^ remains y; 1361 j?n6?e — hedsyde. 1433 ^-ycZc — 7'yde, 
1473 toy de-— pride, j? or ^, the t-umlaut of ec£ or e, is found as e: 
63 were — /lere (ags. hpran), 235 ^ere — were, 327 sted—^jed, 
nede — sjped, 408 j/ecfe — ncti. 1552 stede — we^Ze, indede. 


The plural of the substantives terminates in (1) e resp. ys : 837 
ryghtys — knyghtes, 1298 stony s — nonys, 

(2) inn; 45S slon — appon. Wisdom — shone, W^Z shone 
— anon, done. 

(3) is formed by t-umlaut: men 1784, 2282, but 2107 wan- 
men (= man). 

(4) has no inflexion : 651 gere — spere, 705 far — gere, 836 
hend—frende, sends, 1173 ffere — yere, 1405 hend—frend, 
1556 stone — gone, 2188 were — yere, 2194 here — yere. The 
inflexions of the adjectives have totally disappeared. 

The infinitioe ends in -ne or n, or has no termination at all. 

Digitized by 



(1) with n: 123 kene — see (=s gene). 217 ageyne — sayne. 262 
fayne—slayne. iQ9 Mavdeleyn — seyne;l6e(me — gon, 

(2) without n: 67 sake — take. 93 kynd^ynd. 148 wake — 
stake. \^i eo^goo. A3i Adolake-'take. 1062 tho— do. 1762 
fne — se. 

The 2nd person sing, of the prea. ind. ocean only once in the 
rhyme, 1333 taae — thou hase, toe— gas. 

The 3rd person sing, of the present indicative ends in e: 187 
telhjB — ellye, 2317 rose — gose. 558 telly the — elles (The rhyme 
shows that telly s must be inserted ; cf. 103 gos — takytJie, and 858 
gotlie — take = gas — tas.) Only once tk occurs : 2047 NazareiJi — 
gethe (ags. goed). On this remarkable form see Zupitza, Quy of 
Warwick^ note on 1. 11075. The plural has no termination: 
3 wynde — ende — lende. 

The subjunctive mood has no inflexions : 70 sped — stede^ 3rd 
pers. 87 hlynd — wynde, 3rd pers. 213 fyld — sehyld, 3rd pers. 
416 sey — may, 2nd pers. sg. 584 feld — sehyld, 3rd pers. sg. 
197S saue — haue; but observe 139 slone — none and 1839 sene — 

The present participle ends usually in -ande {onde) : 13 londe — 
wonande. 127 fonde — growonde. 315 levand — bond. 352 
stand — lygand. 358 vndyi^stond — levand. 1128 stond — shyn- 
and. 12S0 fay land — lond. liibfleand — waraujit. Ii52 ffarid 
— goand. 1821 lond — wepand. 1899 lond— pley and. 2104 
hand — levand. Thrice -yng is found : 268 kyng — dwellyng, 1638 
aud 2568. 

The gei-und terminates always in ing {yng) : 1479 kywj — ryding. 
1503 corny ng — kyng. 1933 ryng — lettyng. 2509 kyng — lesyng. 

Observe the 2nd pers. sing, of a past tense, 1589 thou cam^ — 
slafi\ of a praeterito-praesens, 410 they — sey, thow may. 1543 
away — aye, may. 2001 may — welaxcay. 

T\\Q past participle of strong verbs terminates in n: 482 syne — 
schene, wene — dene. 675 slayne — rayne. 800 slayne — trayne. 
1292 fayn} — slayii^. 1562 *e«e — wene. 2Z2Z alone — slone. We 
don't find one certain instance for the dropping of this », besides 1678 
aud 2063 be. 

Digitized by 



The past tense plural of strong verbs has the same vowel as the 
singular: 1452 They found {v. ffand)—goand. 1458 began — 
gentUman. 1753 tong—dong. 

The 3rd pers. of the present indie, of to he = ys or es : cf. 738 
llyse — ys. 2413 ys — Raynes. Once ys is found as plural : 2524 
ys — iwys. The present suljunctive is be through all persons : 208 
be — wie, 2nd pera. 614 be — «e, 3rd pers. 884 tJie — bee, 3id pers. 
2017 be — mey 2nd pers. plr. The infinitive be and bene: 49 tite — 
bee. 483 be-^see. 1643 be^-chatite. 903 tJie—bee. 1833 elene— 
bene. 21^1 guene — bene. 2613^6ne — kene. The past tense singular 
number is was or toes : 247 alas — wase. 426 glase — was. 771 pase 
— wase. 1873 toyldemes — was (= wes). The plural were, ware, 
wore, as well as was, wes: (1) L 402 wer^ — dier. 1047 were — 
chere. 1845 were—ffere. 2586 squiere — were, here — dere. (2) 603 
fare — were. 2i9i ware — bare. IZSi beffore — there,were(=wore). 
(3) SSipase — wase. IZSS passe — was. (4) 2026 icildemes — was 
(= wes). 2545 wUdemes — was; cf. L 2584. The subjunctive mood 
of the past tense is wej'e and ware, in sgl. and plr. : 225 were — 
dere. 235 here — were. 1696 ehere — toere. 2476 were — bere. 
154 were (== ware)— fare. 1020 wer (= wari)—fare. 2074 
care — ware. The past participle: 7 bedene — ben. 172 byne — 
seyn. 2344 ibene — Icene. 1678 be — crystiaunte. 

From this inquiry into the sounds and inflexions, the following 
conclusions can be drawn : 

The development of a is of no use in fixing the dialect. Nor is 
ea, which has become a, o, and e, to be deemed a characteristic either 
of the Midland or Northern dialect. Ags. ea occui's as o as early as 
1250 in the Northumbrian Psalter, and 50 years afterwards in Sir 
TiHstrem and Sir Perceval; even Richard Rolle in his Pricke of 
Conscience offers one instance of this change (cf. Sir Tristram, p. 
Ixix f .). 

The development of the ags. d, which we find in 26 passages as a, 
in 22 as o, is remarkable. There are only a very few instances of this 
change in Sir Tristrem, p. Ixxi, and in the Psalter; and this almost 
equal number of a- and o-rhymes proves evidently that the poem 
cannot belong to a Northern country. At the same time, a pro- 

Digitized by 



]X)rtion like that would be impossible in a text of Southern origin. 
The same negative result is to be derived from the fact that Ags. y 
is alvrays written y. 

As to the inflexions, the plurals of the substantives are formed 
by adding s or -n (en\ or by vowel change, or they have no in- 
flexions at all. As for the inflexion -n, it only occurs in doii and 
slujUy and of this very word the plural in n is to be met with even in 
Northern writers. 

The infinitives both preserve or drop the final n, as is the rule 
with the Midland dialect ; the form of the past participle with n 
accords with the use of the Northern writers. 

The present partic. ending in -and and the past tense plurals of 
strong verbs having adopted the vowel of the singular, agree with 
the North as well as with the northern districts of the Midland, in 
the same way as some forms of to he: plr. pra ys and plr. prt was^ 
besides the usual forms he and are^ resp. were and iDare^ and the 
contracted forms of take: 758 name — tane. 1095 gane — itane. 
1825 ta-^wa (cf. 231, 286, 859, 1333, 1475, 1722, 1733, 2617). 

The forms thou has and thou may point to the West. 

The inflexions of the 3rd pers. prs. sg. are -th and -e. In the 
western part of the Midland we never meet with the ending th^ but 
only with & In Amis and Amiloun, the Eastern origin of which 
seems to be sure, only the inflexion -ep is found' in the rhyme 
(AmiSf p. XXX ff.). 

The romance of Sir Torrent seems to be the first document 
hitherto considered where both these forms occur, one by the side of 
the other. Perhaps this fact justifies us in concluding that this 
poem was composed in the east, but on the borders of the west. 


Before entering on an inquiry into the sources of the romance, it 
may be expedient to give a short account of its contents. 

In Portugal once reigned a mighty king, whose name was 
Calamond. He had an only daughter, the fair and gentle Desonelle, 
who was loved by a young knight called Torrent, son of a Portuguese 

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count. As be could not win her, save by distinguishing himself by 
valiant exploits, he undertook several adventurous expeditions. First 
he set out, by the order of the king, against a mischievous and 
dangerous giant, whom he found lying fast asleep on a bill He 
roused the giant by sounding his bugle, and challenged him to fight. 
Instantly a fierce combat ensued, in which the awkward giant lost 
his life. In the giant's castle the young bero delivered a maiden, 
Eleonore, daughter of the king of Gales, from captivity, and rescued 
at the same time four princes, whom the giant had t:iken some time 
before and imprisoned in an iron cage. 

After a short rest Torrent returned into Portugal. He was 
kindly received by King Calamond, and splendid festivities were 
celebrated in his honour. The kings of Gales and of Provence 
showed their gratitude by bestowing on him rich presents, among 
them a precious sword wrought by Wayland Smith. Desonelle gave 
him one of her fine palfreys. Galamond, however, shrewd as he was, 
and envious of the hero's fame, plotted his ruin. He caused him, by 
a counterfeit letter of Desonelle, to catch her a falcon in the forest 
of Maudlen, which was the haunt of a dangerous giant, Rochense, 
and of many wild beasts. Torrent and his squire set o\it immedi- 
ately, but separated on entering the forest, to hunt in the thicket each 
by himself. Torrent soon encountered a huge dracjon, and killed it 
by vehement strokes. The squire, having meanwhile fallen in with 
the giant, had been slain by him. The hero, called to the place by 
the tumult of battle, attacked the giant, and overcame him after a 
hard struggle. He cut off his head to bear with him as a trophy. 
He then went into the giant's castle, where he found a great many 
jewels, and a bright sword called Mownpolyard. Having returned 
to the royal court, he oi-dered five priests to say masses for his 
squire's soul. At this very time it happened that the king of 
Arragon sent messengers to the king of Portugal, in order to bring 
about a marriage between Desonelle and his youngest son. Galamond 
would not listen to the advice of his spouse, that he should no longer 
refuse Desonelle to Torrent, but he promised her to the prince of 
Arragon, and at the same time sent the hero once more against a 
giant, Slogus of FouUes in Calabi-o. 

Torrent departed well armevl, and after a prosperous voyage 
arrived in Calabre. There he soon met the giant, who was one-eyed 
like the Cyclops, and bore a huge cudgel as his only weapon. Torrent 
threw his spear into the fiend's eye, and thus overcame hinj without 
any long struggle. The king of Calabre graciously welcomed the 
hero, and largely rewarded him for the service he had rendered his 
country. Having returnoti into Portugal, Torrent heard that in a 
few weeks Desonelle was to be married to the prince of Arragon. 
Arrayed in knightly dress, he rode right ofiT to Calamond's court, and 
challenged his rival to fight. After a short struggle he completely 
vanquished his antagonist, stretching him on the ground. The next 


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dny, as the king, surrounded by his noble guests, banqueted in the 
great hall of the castle, Torrent entered with the giant's head in his 
hand, and harshly demanded the king's daughter ; he called all the 
lords to witness of Calamond's perfidy. 

The Emperor of Kome now interceded, and it was agreed at his 
suggestion that Torrent should tight once more against a giant 
named Gate; if he vanquished that adversary, he should obtain 
Desonelle and half Arragon. Ou an isle near the sea-shore the 
struggle b^^ in presence of the assembled knights. Torrent struck 
the club out of the giant's hand, put him to flight, and kUled him as 
he ran away, casting stones at him. Then the £mperor decided, 
with the approbation of all his knights, that the hero had won both 
the land and the maiden. 

Torrent obtained Desonelle, and rejoiced in the possession of her, 
but no solemn marriage was performed. 

Twelve weeks after, he left his spouse, impelled by his venturous 
and ambitious mind; for the king of Norway asked him to fight 
against a wild giant who had carried off his daughter and was destroy- 
ing his castles. Torrent bade his mistress farewell, leaving her two 
golden rings as talismans, and set off with fifty companions. Arrived 
at the coast of Norway, he and his companions entered a dense 
forest, in which a great many wild beasts lived. His compinions, 
seized with fear, parted from him, and continued their voyage at sea. 
They told the king of Norway the false tale that Torrent had 
perished on shore. The king then set out himself to res^cue his 
daughter. Torrent meanwhile encountered a giant named Weraunt, 
Gate's brother, and slew him in a hard stniggle, but was himself 
wounded. In the giant's castle he saved Gendres, daughter of the 
Norwegian king, and conducted her to her father. On the road they 
were met by a large train of gallant knights, and were then con- 
voyed in triumph to the king's court There Torrent soon recovered 
from his wounds, and was amply rewarded with honours and pre- 
sents. He stayed above twelve months at the Norwegian court 
The false companions of Torrent were drowned in the sea by the 
king's command, but one squire escaped to Portugal, and reported 
the tidings that Torrent yet remained in Norway. Soon after, as 
Desonelle was delivered of twins, the hatred of Galaniond suddenly 
broke out against her. By his order, Desonelle and her two children 
were put to sea in a small boat ; but a favourable wind saved them 
from ruin, and drove the boat upon the coast of Palestine. As she, 
helpless, wandered about the downs, a huge dragon (griffin or gripe) 
appeared, and seized one of her children, and immediately after a 
wild leopard dragged away the other. With submission she suffered 
her miserable fate, relying on the help of the Holy Virgin. 

The king of Jerusalem, just returning from a voyage, happened 
to find the leopard with the child, which he ordered to be saved and 
delivered to him. Seeing from the foundling's golden ring that the 

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child was of noble descent, and pitying its helpless state, he took it 
into his palace, and brought him up as his own son (as it were) at 
his court. The child was named Leobertus. 

The dragon or gripe with the other child was seen by a pious 
hermit, St. Antony, who, though son of the king of Gi-eece, had in 
his youth forsaken tlie world, llirou^h his prayer St. Mary luade 
the dragon put down the infant; Antony carried him to his father, 
who adopted him and oi*derod him to be baptized. He was named 
Antony tice Greffoun (Antouy, son of the griffin or gripe). 

Desonelle wandei-ed up and down, after the loss of her childi-en, 
till she happened to meet the king of Nazareth hunting. He, 
recognizing her as the king of Portugal's dauiihter, gave her a kind 
welcome and assistance. At his court she lived several years in 
happy retirement Torrent returned at length into Portugal, not- 
withstanding all the entreaties of the Norwegian king that he would 
dwell in Norway somewhat longer. At his arrival, King Calamond 
took refuge in his strongh(»ld, and greeted him from thence with 
scornful worda Torrent, after having summoned his friends from 
Arragon, Provence, and Calabre, conquered the castle, and took 
Calamond prisoner. The traitor was sent out to sea in a leaky boat, 
and perished. 

In his stead. Torrent was elected king by all the noblemen of the 
empire, and took the crown. But forty days after this, he quitted his 
realm, having intrusted two knighls with its government, and passed 
to the Holy Land at the head of a large force. There he fought 
fifteen years against the infidels, conquered several towns, and got 
immeasurable treasures as booty. The king of Jerusalem, hearing 
about Torrent's deeds, and nnxious for his own security, sent his son 
Leobertus, with an army of 50,000 men, against Torrent A pitched 
battle began, but it was for a long time doubtful to which side 
victory would incline, till at last the two chiefs encountered. The 
son vanquishing his father decided the fate of the battle. Torrent 
was conveyed as a prisoner to Jerusalem, and thrown into a dungeon. 
There he lay above a year, till he was once overheard complaining his 
misfortunes by his son, who, touched with pity, prevailed upon the 
king to set Torrent at liberty. In this new state Torrent soon found 
an opportunity to show his valour and skill in arms, when a grand 
tournament was held at Jerusalem. There he proved sole victor 
over all the knights, and got the chief prize. The king of Nazareth, 
who had assisted at this joust, telling his folk at home who had 
won the prize, described the arms and escutcheon of the valiant 
knight By these Desonelle recognized her beloved spouse. At her 
request the king called princes and knights from all parts of the 
world to a great tournament The kings of Jerusalem, Greece, 
Leobertus, Antony fice Greffoun, and Torrent answered the call. 
Before an illustrious assembly of mighty princes and noble ladies, all 
of whom were surpassed by Desonelle in beauty and grace, the tour- 

h 2 

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nament begin. Leobertus and Antony excelled in it, but the cliicf 
was Torrent, who perfonned wonders in the jouftt, vanquishing all 
valiant adversaries. ll)e next morning Desonelle could no longer 
brook reserve, and was about to discover herself to Torrent ; but 
overwhelmed with joy slie fuinted, when she had scarcely uttered 
the first words of greeting. It was not till midday that she was able 
to tell Torrent and the other knights her fates and those of her 
children. Tlien parents and children passionately embraced on 
recognizing each other. At Torrent's request, all of them, with the 
kijigs of Najsareth, Jerusalem, and Greece, and many attendants, 
sailed for Portugal. There the nuptials of Torrent with Desonelle 
were celebrated with a great round of splendid festivities. Torrent 
was finally elected Emperor of Rome, and reigned a long time 
gloriously. He lies there buried in a fair abbey. 
A benediction finishes the romance. 

If wc take a survey of the poem, we shall recognize in its con- 
ception a harmonious plan and a certain unity of action, which, as 
in most of the romances, is founded on the hero and the interest he 
affects us with (See Ten Brink, Engh Literate I. p. 317). In the 
centre of the action is placed Torrent's love of Desonelle ; for all the 
various combats that he undertakes against dragons and giants, 
against the prince of Arragon and King Calamond, are undertaken 
solely to gain him Desonelle. Even his expedition against the 
infidels and the fighting with bis son are designed by Providence to 
make him find again his lost love. Halliwell (Preface, p. vii), 
therefore, is not right in deeming the romance ' a rambling poem of 
adventures without much plot.' The length and tediousness of the 
episodes may have prevented him from recognizing the unity of the 
whole. At the same time, however, it must be admitted that the 
poem cannot rank with the masterpieces of romantic poetry written 
in the same metre, like Amis and Amilcmn^ Ipmnadon, Kyng of 
Tars, Octavian, either in the invention of plot or in the dissection of 
passions. The diction is so swelled with stereotyped phrases, and 
so surfeited with tiivialities, that we may justly suppose the poem 
to have been composed at a period when romantic poetry had passed 
its best time, and had begun to decay. As to the authorship of the 
poem, it was probably composed by a monk. It is an easy thing to 
show peculiarities in the course of the story which are essentially 
monkish. As the romance begins and ends with a benediction, in 

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tlic same way each deed and each adventure of the hci-o is intro- 
duced and finished by long prayers. Moreover, the poet points 
frequently to a direct interposition of Heaven (11. 675, 1568, 1948); 
he describes the anguish and sorrow that Desonelle feels about her 
children's baptism (IL 1892—1896 and 2074—76); he mentions 
empliatically Communion and Confession (1272 and 2139), Masses 
(756 and 813); he finally praises the Emperor for founding 
churches and abbeys (1. 2658). On the other side, we find very 
few of those marks which characterize the works of minstrels : 
the poet seldom predicts the fates of his heroes to excite the 
attention of his auditors ; he mentions only by the way the per- 
formances of the gleemen, and nowhere speaks of the rewards that 
they get. 

Passing to a special inquiry into the origin of the story of 
Torrent, I cannot persuade myself that it is of the poet's own 
invention, as that would be the only instance of a Middle-English 
romance not being taken from foreign originals (except, of course, 
Chaucer's Sir Tkopns^ which was written to ridicule this whole 
branch of poetry), whilst slight alterations or additions were fre- 
quently introduced by the translators. A French original of the 
romance is supposed by Halliwell to have existed (Preface, vi). He 
says, * It is probably, like the second copy of the romance of Horn, 
a modernized version of an older English romance, which was itself 
translated from the French. I have not been able to discover any 
traces of the French original, but there are some singular allusions to 
its origin in the poem itself. I allude to the frequent references to 
the Book of Ronie} This term was applied to the French language, 
in which most of the old romances were originally written.' As for 
me, I don't think that we can much rely upon references of this 
kind, because they are common to all of these Middle-English 
romances. Of a somewhat greater weight is perhaps the fact that 
one or two of the proper names are French ; and even the oath, 
*par I'amour de dieu,' is worth mentioning. After all, there is no 
evident proof as to the French origin. But there is no doubt that 

* On tliis term sec Octav'utN, ed. Sarrazin, p. xxxviii. 

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the story of Torrent in its principal features — ^the adversities of a 
family separated by misfortunes^ the mother robbed of her children 
by vrild beasts, at last united again — proceeded from the old 
Eustache legend^"' Therewith another motive is combined, that of 
the woman innocently condemned, on which motive a large stock of 
legends is founded ; for instance, those of Crescentia, Sibilla, Oliva, 
Genovefa, Griseldis and Octavian legends. Upon this motive and 
its old origin from India, see Streve, 'The Octavian legend,' 
Erlangen Disseii., 84. 

I will consider first the legend of Eustache in its original yersion. 
According to the Greek Martyr Acts, which were probably composed 
in the eighth century, this saint was before his baptism a captain 
of Trajan, named Placidu& As he one day hunted in the forest, 
the Saviour appeared to him between the antlers of a hart, and 
converted him. Placidus changed his name into Eustache, when he 
was baptized with his wife and sons. God announced to him by an 
angel his future martyrdom. Eustache was afflicted by dreadful 
calamities, lost all his estate, and was compelled to go abroad as a 
beggar with his wife and his children. As he went on board a ship 
bound for Egypt, his wife was seized by the shipmaster and carried 
off. Soon after, when Eustache was travelling along the shore, his 
two children were borne away by a lion and a leopard. Eustache 
then worked for a long time as a journeyman, till he was discovered 
by the Emperor Trajan, who had sent out messengers for him, and 
called him to his court. Reappointed captain, Eustache undertook 
on expedition against the Dacians. During this war he found his 
wife in a cottage as a gardener, — the shipmaster had fallen dead to 

> ISee WartoD*8 opinion upon the legendary origin of many romances, 
History of Etigh Poetry^ London, 1824, I. p. ocxliv : * Many romances were 
at first little more tlian legends of devotion, containing the pilgrimage of an 
old warrior. At length, as chivalry came into vogue, the youthful and active 
part of the pilgrim's life was also written. The penitent changed into the 
knight-errant' Sometimes, of course, the opposite change may have taken 
place, as for instance is probably the case with the story of the two faithful 
friends, Amis and Amiloun (cf. Koelbing, Amity p. Ixxxi), and with the story 
of Robert the Devil (cf. Sir Ooicther, ed. Breul, p. 74). 

* See the edition of The worthie Hy$tor%e of Plaiidas, 1566, by H. H. 
Gibbs, for the Roxburghe Club, 1873. 

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the ground as he ventured to touch her, — and in the same cottage 
he found again his t\yo sons as soldiers : herdsmen had rescued them 
from the wild beasts, and brought them up. Glad was their meeting 
again! But as they returned to Rome, they were all burnt in a 
glowing bull of brass by the Emperor's order, because they refused 
to sacrifice to the heathen gods. 

This legend, which reminds us at once of the story of Job, has 
been incorporated in almost all mediaeval collections of legends, and 
upon it are founded some medieval poems, which are enumerated by 
H. Knust in his splendid work Dos Ohrns Diddctieas y doe Leyendas, 
Madrid, 1878 ; cf. R Kohler, ZeiUchi-ift filr rom. phil III, p. 272 ff., 
Vamhagen, Anglia, III, p. 399 ff. ; two latin versions are edited by 
the same, ZdtschHft fiir deutschea Alttnthum XXIV, p. 241 fE, and 
XXV, p. 1 ff. 

English legends of Eustnche are to be found 

(1) In iEl flic's Passiones MuHtjrum ; see Horstmann, AltenglUchc 
Legenden, Second series, Heilbronn, 1881, p. xlL 

(2) In the South -English collection, I. c, p. xlviiL 

(3) In the Northern collection, pp. Ixi and Ixiv. Herrig's Archiv. 
57, p. 262 fF. 

(4) In the Scottish collection of legends, said to be Barbour's. 
Cf. Barbour's Legendensiimmlung, ed. C. Horstmann, Heilbronn, 82, 
ii. p. 12. 

(5) In the old Engl, translation of the Legenda aurca, 
see Horstm., L c, p. cxxxv. Ciixton's edition of the legend. No. 

(6) The complete text of the legend printed in Horslmann's 
above-mentioned collection, AliengL Legend ensamml.^ p. 211 ff. 

(7) St EnataSf by I. Partridge, see Gibbs' above-mentioned 
edition, and Horstm., /. c, p. 472 ff. 

With this legend are connected, more or less, the following 
poems, which it is necessary to speak of in turn : 

(1) The Pseudo-Chrestien epic poem, Guillaume d' Engleteire?- 

1 auiU. tC EngUterre, ed. Fr. Michel, Chron, Angh-Nm^n., III. 39—172. 
On the authorship of this poem see C. Hofmann, SitzungshericJUe dtr Munch, 
AUd., 1870, IL p. 51, and P. Meyer, Romania, VIII. p. 315 f. 

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(2) The two Middle High German poems, Die gute FmUy'^ and 
(3) Der Graf von Sctvoyen.^ 

(4) The romances of Isumh^as; (5) of Ociavian ; (6) last, Syr 
Ejlamotir of Anois, and (7) Sir Tangent of Portugal. 

The first five have been treated by Holland in his book, Chrestten 
de Troies, Tubingen, 1854. 

According to Holland's opinion, all of these are derived from 
the legend of Eust'iche. He has not exactly inquired into each 
of them, but restricts himself to a detailed account of their contents. 
A critical inquiry into these poems, except the romance of Odavian, 
has been recently published by J. Steiubach: Der einfluas de$ 
Crest ten de Troies auf die altenglische Htcratur. Leipzig, 1886, p. 
41 ff. As to the French and the two German poems, it may be 
sufficient to refer to this exhaustive essay, since it is only by the 
same legendary origin that they are connected witli Sir Totrent; 
otherwise they are quite different 

But of the English romances of Sir Isumhras and of Octavian it 
is necessary to treat more minutely. Isttmhas was edited first by 
Utterson in his Select Pieces of Early Popular Poetry , IiOndon, 
1817; secondly by Halliwell in 77*6 Thornton Romances, from the 
Lincoln MS. A. L 17. A critical edition of this poem has long 
been promised by Prof. Zupitza. 

In this romance the legend of Eustache can be most clearly 
recognized. Its contents are, indeed, somewhat transformed accord- 
ing to the taste of the later Middle Ages: the Roman captain is 
changed into a Christian knight, who performs wonders in fighting 
against the infidels; he finds his wife as queen of a heathen 
country; they end thehr lives as mighty princes, and so on. The 
legendary style has been supplanted by the romantic diction,* but 
the leading; features remain the same. In his above-mentioned 

> Die ffitte Fran, ed. E. Sommer in Haupt's Zeitschrift fvr detttsehes 
AUeHhum, IL 389. 

* Der Qraf r. Siivoyen, cd. F. H., v. d. Hagen, Minnentiyer, IV. 640, 
and Esclienburg, Denhmdler altdeuUoher Dichtkunst, Bremen, 1799. 

3 Oq this text see Sarrazin, Octav.y p. xlv ; he speaks of "die entstellte, 
spielmannsmassig zersungene Form, in der die Thornton Ms uns die legends 

iiberliefert. dasselbe Pathos, dieselbe Sen timen tali tiit uud Fi-6mmelei, 

aber auch dieselbe anschauliche uud Icbhaftc Erzahlungsweisc (sc. as in Oct.)." 

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pp. 46 — 48, Steinbach concludes, from a detailed comparison of the 
contents, that the author of Isamhraa did not derive his story from 
tlie epic poem, Ghullawne (TEngleterre^ but from an original which 
bore a still greater resemblance to the legend of Eustache, and, at 
the same time, contained many of those additions which are to be 
found in all versions of the legend. Whether this original was 
composed in Latin, French, or Anglo-Norman, Steinbach does not 
pretend to determine. 

To Isumbras I join a few remarks on the romance of Odavian, 
which was edited by Halliwell for the Percy Society, The Romance 
of the Emperm' Octaviany London, 1844; and by Sarrazin, Zwei 
miiteloigL Ve^'sionen der Octaviansage, in Koelbing's Aliengl. Blh- 
lioiheky Band IIL As for its contents, cf. Sarrazin, as above, 
p. xviii flf. Concerning the origin of the story, he agrees in general 
with Holland, only he shows a still nearer connection between Isum- 
hras and Octavian^ taking the former for a mere imitation of the 
latter. This opinion, however, cannot be proved. As I cannot 
enter into detail, I only observe that the contents of Oct avian ai-e 
a great deal more complicated and copious than those of IsumhraSy 
which is simple in its plot and style, and shows the nearest resem- 
blance to the old Eustache legend, whilst Octavian is a refined and 
adorned version of the legendary tale with considerable change in 
the plan. Isumbras, of course, bears a strict resemblance to Eustache, 
but not to the Emperor Octavian, who has but little of the character 
of a suffering saint, as he does not become an outlaw himself, nor is 
to lose his earthly goods. Even those of his adventures which are 
conformable to the original — the separation from his family, the rape 
of the children, the final reunion — are exhibited in a different manner. 

The principal contents of the romance of Octavian bear internal 
evidence of its later origin, as it treats chiefly of the adventures 
and exploits of Florent, Octavian 's son ; especially in the second 
half of the story, exploits of Florent so prevail that the romance 
might justly bear his name on the title instead of his father's. I 
therefore believe that Sarrazin's opinion, that Isumbras is nothing 
but a bad imitation of Octavian, is wrong ; and I am rather inclined 
to think the two poems were composed independently from each 

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other, after French originals, as is evidently the case with Ociaman, 
and prohahly with Isumbras. See Halliwell, Thamt. Bom,^ p. xviiL 
Sarrazin, moreover, supposes, p. xlv, both poems to be due to the same 
author, in consequence of the conformity of the dialect and style, and 
of some literal coincidences. But the fact that both of these romances 
are written in the same diulect is not sufficient to prove the identity 
of the authors, nor is the style, which is nearly stereotyped in all of 
these romances. As to the literal coincidences, only three of the 
nine passages quoted by Sarrozin seem to me to be of any importance. 
See Octavian, notes on 11. 382, 397, 481. But even these only show 
that the writer of Octavian knew Isumbras^ or vice versd. 

As to the relation between OctatHan and our poem, these two 
romances have no other affinity than the same legendary origin, and 
the motive of the woman innocently persecuted, which may very 
well have been introduced independently by two different authors. 
In all other particulars they are quite different. 

The heroes bear little resemblance to their legendary models ; in 
Octavian the Emperor of Rome ; in Torrent the young, hardy knight 
who encounters marvellous struggles to win the hand of his spouse. 
Also in the treatment of the other motive, each romance has taken 
its own course. In Octavian, Florence is calumniated by her mother- 
in-law ; in Torrentj Desonelle is persecuted by her father. The causes 
are consequently quite different : there the jealousy of the mother-in- 
law against the mighty Empress; here Calamond's hatred against 
Torrent Tlicse differences, now only alluded to, cause a great num- 
ber of others, and produce a general difference of the two poems, 
which renders the opinion of a nearer connection between them 
altogether illusory. 

Of all the poems mentioned above, the last, Sf/r E<jlanimir of 
Artois, is most nearly related to Sir Torrent ^ a fact foimd out by 
Halliwell,^ who, however, thought that thei-e was no necessity for 

1 The Thornton Bonuinces, p. xxii f. *The romance of Tdrreni is partly 
founded upon the story related in Sir Eglamonr, The names are changed, 
but the resemblance is too striking to have been the result of chance. The 
treachery of the sovereign, the prowess of the knight, the indiscretions and 
misfortunes of the lady, and the happy conclusion of her misfortunes, these 

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him to prove a similnritj Tvhich would be at once detected bj the 
reader; still, he takes it for certain that the romance of Torrent is 
younger than and partly founded on Sir Eglamour. As he gives no 
proof for tliis opinion, it will be worth while to enter once more into 
tliis question, in order to see whether he is right or not 

Upon it, the ^fSS. do not help us. The earliest MS. that can 
have contained Sir Eglamour is the parchment one of the Duke of 
Sutherland,^ written about the end of the 14th century. The other 
four MSS. of it* are still later. The only MS. of Sir TorreiU belongs 
to the 15th century, so that neither of these romances can be traced 
very far back. 

Sir Eglamour was printed several times in the beginning of the 
16th century, and edited anew by Halliwell from the Cambridge 
MS. in his well-known collection. To judge from the numerous 
readings of the Lincoln, Cotton, and Cambridge MSS. which he has 
quoted, the Lincoln MS. shows best the original dialect, and offers 
in several passages a reading preferable as to rhyme and meaning.' 
Even slight differences in the contents occur now nnd then.* 

The metre and probably the dialect are the same in both 
ron;iances ; they are composed in the tail-rhymed twelve-line stanzas, 
and written in a North Midland dialect. In both of them the style 
is alike swelled with the habitual phrases ; only the long prayers and 
pious reflections so frequent in Ton-ent are not to be met with in 
Eglamour, On the other hand, the poet is wont to predict the fates 
of his heroes (IL 204, 951) ; he often demands attention (11. 15, 39, 
343, 634, 904) ; he never omits, in describing the festivals, to mention 
the performances of the minstrels, and to pr.iise the liberality of the 
lords. These characteristics render it probable that the author of 
Eglamour was a minstrel, not a derk or monk, as I suppose the 
author of Sir Torrent to be. 

form the leading inoidents of each romance .... there is, perhaps^ a secret 
history attached to the source of these romances that remains to be unravelled.* 

1 Cf. Eoelbing*8 EnglUche Studien, vii. p. 191 ff. 

> Cf. The TluyriUon Etftnances, p. xxv ff., and p. xxxvi. 

' See the following passages which Halliwell has quoted in the notes : 
Eglani, 54, 96, 107, 111, 122, 128, 139, 163, 177, 195, 213, 247, 337, 847, 399, 
445, 572, 605, 614, 737, 740, 765, 858, 883, 945, 986, 1081, 1143, 1206, 1216. 

« See Eglanwur, notes on 11. 1004, 10S2, 12G7. 

Digitized by 



I now pass on to compare the contents of the two poems. The 
priucipal features of the plot are the same in both. A young knight 
Avho seeks-the hand of a princess engages to win her by valiant exploits. 
'J^he princess's father opposes his wooing, jealous as he is of the hero's 
renown. The knight vanquishes all the giants and other monsters 
agaiust which he is told to fight, and at length gains his spousa A 
few weeks after their marriage, ho sets out again on adventurous 
expeditions. While he stays abroad, his wife is delivered of twins. 
Her father sends her to sea in a leaky boat ; she lands on a foreign 
shore, where her children are carried off by wild beasts ; but they are 
saved in a marvellous manner, and brought up at royal courts, whilst 
she herself lives for a long time at a foreign court As the hero, 
when he comes home again, doesn't find her, he goes into the Holy 
Land to fight with the infidels. After various adventures he finds 
his Mrife and children after a tournament at a foreign court They 
return home gladly, and celebrate their nuptials by great festivals. 
The cruel father is duly punished. 

On entering into details, however, we find considerable dis- 
crepancies between the two romances. First, the names are alto- 
gether different (Eglamour = Torrent Crystyabelle = Desonelle. 
Prynsamour = Calamond. Organata = Gendres. I)egrabelle = 
Antony fice Greffoun.) The stage of the plot is in Eglamour Artois, 
Rome, and Egypt ; in Torrent Portugal, Norway, and Calabre. Only 
the Holy Land is mentioned in both. There the children are carried 
off by wild beasts, saved by princes and brought up ; there the hero 
fights against the infidels. 

The differences of the plot itself are the following : 

1. Eglamour confesses his love to Crystyabelle before his deeds ; a 
squire is the go-between in his suit ; Eglamour finds love in return. 
In Tojreni Desonelle does not know that she is adored by the hero 
till after his first exploit See 11. 109, 448. 

2. Accordingly, Eglamour, setting out on adventures, receives 
two greyhounds and a sword of St Paul from Crystyabelle as presents, 
whereas Torrent gets an ambler from his lady love, but not till after 
his first deed. 

3. Prynsamour charges Eglamour with thi'ee deeds by which he 

Digitized by 



is to gaiii Crystyabelle. Torrent is obliged to undertake not less 
than five combats. 

4. In Tonent the combats of the hero are enlarged and adonied 
by additions not to be found in Eglanwur. The latter does not 
please the daughters and sons of kings, nor does he find precious 
swords in the castles of the giants, nor is he deceived by a king's 
counterfeit letter, which causes Torrent a dangerous struggle and the 
rivalry of a foreign prince. Only in Etjlamoiir (11. 40 — 48) some 
knights are mentioned who came to win Crystyabelle by jousting, 
but were all vanquished by Eglamour. 

The greatest differences are found in the second halves of the 

5. Crystyaljelle has one child by Eglamour ; Desonelle has two 
by Torrent. 

6. CjystyalxjUe is driven away into Egypt, where she is graciously 
received by the king. Desonelle finds refuge in the court of the 
king of Nazareth. 

7. Degrabelle, the son of Crystyabelle, is saved and brought up 
by the king of Israel ; the sons of Desonelle by the kings of Greece 
and Jerusalem. 

8. The father of Crystyabelle is not punished like Calamond in 
Tmrentj immediately after the hero's return, but he dies at the end 
of the poem, throwing himself down from the battlements. 

9. Degrabelle is sent, when fifteen years old, into Egypt by his 
mloptive father to sue for a spouso. In a joust he gains the hand 
of his mother and marries her. On the very wedding-day the mother 
recognizes her son by his escutcheon, and the maiTiage is instantly 
dissolved. Quite differently does the story run in Si7' Torrent 
LeobertuB, fifteen years old, marches by order of the king of Jeru- 
salem against his father, and takes him prisoner, but at length solicits 
his release. 

10. Tlie tournament, which in both poems compasses the reunion 
of the separated family, is brought on in a different manner. In 
Eglaniour Degrabelle himself proposes the hand of his mother as the 
prize in the next toiimament, to which his father comes. In Torrent 
Desonelle, hearing of the victories of the strange knight, supposes 

Digitized by 



him to be her spoiise from his arms, and at her request a tonmament 
is arranged. (Her liand seems to have been likewise the prize, as 
may be gleaned from 1. 2440 ) 

11. At the very end of the poems two slight differences are to be 
noted : in Eglamour, Degrabelle marries Organata, daughter of the 
king of Sidon, whereas the sons of Torrent return into Greece and 
Jerusalem. Eglamour is crowned prince of Artois ; Torrent is elected 
Emperor of Kome. 

From this comparison we may couchide that Torrent is not 
directly founded upon Eglamour, or vice vej-sd ; the differences are 
too great to justify the supposition that either is drawn from the 
other. Especially is the opinion of ^alliwell, which I mentioned 
above, to be rejected : Sir To)renf cannot be founded on Sir 
Eglamour y simply because it agrees more closely with the old legend- 
ary tale than Syr Eglcnrwur does, and has preserved some essential 
features not to be found in Eglamour, in which these are supplante<i 
by others. Pesonelle, for instance, has two children according to 
the old legend, Crystyabelle one ; Torrent must fight and suffer in 
heathen lands like Eustache, whereas Eglamour api>ear8 as a mere 
knight-errant. Further, neither in the Eustache legend nor in 
Torrent do we find the history of the son who marries his mother, 
which motive the poet may have taken from the legend of Pope 
Gregory, or perhaps from the tile of Syr Degari. 

But how can the resemblance of the leading features and the dis- 
crepancies in particulars be explained 1 I think the most probable 
conjecture is, that an old poem, now lost, existed, with which the 
authors of Sir Eglamour and of Sir Torrent were acquainted ; but 
not having a MS. of it, or knowing it by heart, both of them made 
up their minds to rewrite the story in a well-known metre, changing, 
omitting, adding whatever they liked, even filling up the gaps in 
their memories by invention. Both of them recollected the first half 
of the story better than the second. 

That this poem was an English one seems to be shown by a good 
many verbal coincidences in both poems ; these I accordingly suppose 
to have belonged to the lost original. They are, indeed, too fre- 
quent to be counted simply among^^t the large stock of conventional 

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phrases which aie to be met with in every poem of this kind, 
they are : — 


The boke of Rome thus can telle. 408, 

Ther ys a jeaunt here besyde, 478 
That sorowe doyth ferre and wyde. 

On us and odur moo. 
And alle prayed for that knyght 573 
Alle that in the cyt6 wnre. 598 

Alle that cnntrey was f ulle fayne, 640 
That he homeward was comyii ageyne. 
Aftur sopur, as y yow telle, 
He wendyd to chaumber with Crysty- 

abelle. 670, 671 

That lady was not for to hyde, 673-75 
She sett hym on hur beddys syde. 

And welcomyd home that knyght 
So gracyously he come hur tylle, 679 
Of poyntes of annys he schewyd hnr 
hys fylle, 680 

That there they dwellyd alle nyjt. 
A golde rynge y schalle geve the, 715 
Kepe yt wele my lady free, 

Yf Cryste sende the a chylde ! 717 
Doghtur, into the see schalt thou, 803 
Yn a schypp alone. 
And that bastard that to the ys dere ! 
Sche prayed hur gentylwonicn so free, 
Qrete wele my lord, whon ye hym 

see ! 820, 827 

Hur yonge sone away he liare. 842 
Thys chylde ys comyn of gentylle 

Wliere that ever that he was tane. 863 
Kepe we thys lady whyte as flowre, 
And speke we of syr Egyllamowre. 9.')0 
The knyght swownyd in that tyde. 975 
Be the XV yerys were comyn and gone, 
The chylde that the grype hath tane, 
Waxe bothe bold and stronge. 1018-20 
Yn ynstyiig ne in turnament 1021 
Tlier myght no man withsytt hysdynte. 

But to the erthe them thronge. 1023 
Be thre wekys were comyn to ^nde, 
Yn the loude of Egypt can they 

lende. 1057 

Gen til men that horde of thys crye. 
Thedur come they redylye. 1196-90 
Syr Egyllamour knelyd on his kne, 
* A Lorde God ^ylde hy t the ! 1 288-89 

EfjlaiHOur^ Lino. MS. Note on 1267 : 

As the boke of Rome Ullys. 187, 924, 

1450, 1924 
There ys a gyante here besyde, 
In ale thjrs covntre fare and wyde, 

No man on lyve levy the hee. 960 
For hym att they pray. 108 

Att that in> the sytte were. 1047 

Gentilmen were blith and ffayn^ 1098 
That he in helth was comyn^ aguyn\ 
After mete, as I you tett. 
To speke with mayden Desonelt 

To her chamber he went 1 358-60 
The (lam}'setlr so moche of pride, 
Set hym on^ her bed-syde, 

And said * welcom^ verament' 1363 

Such gestenyng he a-right, 
Hiat there he dwell id SSt ny^t 

id all ] 
With that lady gent. ' 1364-06 

Thes gold ryng^ I shaft yeve the, 
Kepe them weft, my lady ffre, 

Yf god a child vs send I 1396-1398 
There fore thou shalt in to the see 

And that bastard with-in the 1 1793 
She said '■ knyghtis and ladyes gent, 
Grete weft my lord sir Torrent, 

Yeflf ye hym* euer sene 1 1837-39 
A way he bare her yong son\ 187 1 
This chylde is come of gentift teme, 

Where euer this beest hym* ffond. 1923 
Leve we now that lady gent, 
And speke we of sir Torrent 20S0-8I 
Swith on sownyng there he fett. 2093 
And be the VII yere were gone. 
The child that the libenl had tane. 
Found hym his fift off ffyght 2233-35 
With heve tymbyr and ovyrryde 40 
Ther myght no man* hys dent abyde. 
But to the erthe he them strake. 42 
But ore thre wekes were coiiiyn* to end. 
To Portynggatt gan he wend. 373 

Gret lonlys that herith this crye, 
Theder come richely. 2431-32 

Torent knelid vppon* his knee 2575 
And said ' God yeld you, lordys ftree I 

Digitized by 



Eglamour. Torrent. 

In swounynge than f elle thai lady free, She said * weloom\ my lord sir Torent ! 
< Welcome, syr Eglamour, to lue 1 And so be ye, my lady gent ! 

Iq sownyng than fett sbe. 2505 
Eglamour ^ Line. MS. Note on 1267 : 
Grete lordis thaue told acho sone. Oret lordys told she sone. 2539 

Perhaps some more light will be thrown on this question when 
we get the much- wanted critical edition of Sir Eglamour; but I fear 
that the ' secret history attached to the source of these romances ' will 
even then remain to be unravelled. What I have proposed has no 
title to a better name than a conjecture. 


As to the only MS. in which this romance has come down to us, 
I have mentioned before tliat it is exceedingly corrupt ; many con- 
jectures, more or less sure, were necessary in order to restore metre, 
rhyme, and meaning ; the gi-eater part of them seemed worthy to be 
entered in the text, the rest being offered in the notes. No 
attempt has been made to inti-oduce a uniform character of dialect, 
considering the quite unsettled state of orthography in early times. 
The only exceptions are where the sounds are fully determined by 
the rhyme. In general the orthography of the MS. has been 
reproduced as accurately as possible. The contractions used by the 
scribe are expanded and printed in italics. At the beginning of a 
new period, or a proper name "within the line, capitals have been in- 
troduced. From 1. 1200, where the numeration of my text no longer 
coincides with that of Halliweirs edition, the line-nuuibers of the 
latter are added in brackets. 

The fragments which I have added as an appendix to the 
text have been consulted in all cases of difficulty, aud proved of 
no little service in correcting the blunders of the manuscript ; they 
contain indeed a somewhat better text than the MS., though they 
are by no means free from clerical errors. A detailed comparison 
gives the following result : 

In fifty-one lines the text of the fi*agnieuts is evidently correctcr 
than the MS. : 

Digitized by 



Fragmeatg, Manuseript. 

The kyng of Nasareth sent liym me, The kyng of VortyuggeXt seyd, * So 

mot I the I 

ToreDt, I wot-saue hym on the. 466 Torrent^ I wet-saffe of the. 

The kyng wolde fayne that he ded were, The kyng wolde fayne that he wer ded, 

And he wyst nat on what manere. 472 And hym wyst in what maner. 

To Torent that was true as stele, 477 To Torrent trew ase stytt, 

In what londe that they hrede. 487 In what lond they ne bred. 

He bestrode a noble stede. 502 Tho he bestrod another stede. 

Cf. 489, 498, 507-10, 512-15, 822, 825, 831, 833, 834, 837, 
845, 848, 851, 929, 932, 933, 935, 947, 948, 951, 952, 958, 965, 
968-70, 1807, 1808, 1810, 1827, 1828, 1831, 1834-36, 1844, 1854, 

Forty-eight lines are coincident : 468, 470, 474, 479, 480, 486, 
487, 495, 499, 501, 504, 505, 520, 823, 832, 842, 844, 846, 917, 

918, 921, 922, 927, 928, 936, 938, 953, 957, 962, 1809, 1813-17, 
1819-21, 1823, 1830, 1832, 1838, 1847, 1850, 1851-52, 1863, 1865. 

In ninety-one lines it is doubtful which reading is to be con- 
sidered as the original one : 

Fragmetits, Manvtcript, 

As they walkyd by the ryvers syde. 469 Ase the %vent be the watyres syd. 

Howe he myght hym shent 473 How he schuld be schent. 

The kyng rayde * what may this be ? Syr, he seyd, what may thys be t 

Jx>rde, it is sent to me Loo, lord, come ner and see 

For a faucon shene. 483-85 Ahowght a faoon schene. 

Than sayde the kyng vntrue. And than seyd the kyng on trew, 

* And ye fyode hawes of great value, * Yf thow get hawkys of great valew, 

Bryoge me one with the 1 402-94 Br}'ng on of them to me ! 
Of thy dowghter hende. 836 Of yowr dowghttyr hend. 

Cf. 467, 475, 476. 478, 481, 482, 488, 496, 497. 500, 506, 511, 
516-20, 821, 824, 826, 827, 829, 830, 835, 838-41, 843, 847, 850, 

919, 920, 923, 925-26, 930-31, 934, 937, 939, 940-43, 945, 946, 
949, 950, 954, 955, 959, 960-61, 963, 964, 966, 967, 1811, 1812, 
1818, 1822, 1825, 1826, 1829, 1837, 1840, 1842, 1843, 1845-46, 
1848-49, 1853, 1855-62, 1864. 

In eleven lines the text of the ^fS. is superior to that of the 

fragment : 

Fragment $. JfanMneript, 

* Ye, by my trouthe ! * sayd Torentc. 828 * Ye, be trouthe ! ' seyd Torrent than. 
Delycyons notes on hyghe. 944 Delycyous nottis on hyght. 
Frowarde the se. 956 Froward the sytte. 

Cf. 488, 503, 820, 849, 924, 1824, 1833, 1839. 


Digitized by 



As to the sixth fragment, 1014-36, and the beginning of the 
first (in Hallivreirs edition the third), 462-64, in which, as above 
mentioned, not much more than the rhyming words are preserved, 
they have nearly the same relation to the MS. as the other ones. 

In the foUowing passages they correct the rhymes of the MS. : 
1017, 1018, 1028, 1033. Coincident rhymes: 1014, 1015, 1019, 
1026, 1027, 1032, 1034-36. Undecided: 1020, 1021, 1023-24, 
1029-30, 462-64. The rhymes of the MS. are preferable in IL 1016, 
1022, 1025, 1031. 

I need only add, that all the discrepancies between the MS. 
and the fragments, however numerous they may be, concern, for the 
most part, things of little importance ; they are caused especially by 
the frequent change of synonymous terms, by the difference of exple- 
tive words and phrases, the transposition of woi-ds, the change of 
tenses, and so on. But as there is nowhere any essential diflerence 
to be traced, we may conjecture Avith great probability that the early 
printed edition of the romance was taken from a manuscript which 
was pretty nearly related to the Manchester MS., though somewhat 
more correctly written. 

I gladly take the present opportunity of acknowledging my very 
great obligation to Prot Koelbing, from whom I have received ample 
assistance thi-oughout the whole of this work. It would be absolutely 
impossible to mj entirely to discriminate his part from mine. He 
carefully revised the introduction, notes, and the glossary, before 
they went to press, and after they came from it, and he looked 
several times through the proofs of the text. Kor am I less indebted 
to Mr. Joseph .fall at Manchester, who not only kindly read the 
proofs of the text with the MS. in the Chetham Library, but also 
contributed some valuable notes, which are marked by his name 
The Director has added the head-linos and side-notes. 

Digitized by 


Corrent d ^ortgngale. 

Here bjgynneth a good tale 
Of Torrente of Portyngale. 


GOD, that ys worthy and Bold, 
Heuen) and Erthe haue In hold, 

Fyld, watyr, and wynde, 
Yeve vse grace hevyn) to wyne, 
And brynge vs owt off Dedly synne 

And In thy seruyse to Ende ! 
A stounde and ye woH lyst be-Dene, 
Ale dowghtty men) fat Euyr hathe beii), 

Wher So that they lende, 
I Schafl yow teH, ore I hense pase, 
Off a knyght^ fat Dowghtty wase, 

In Home ase clarkys ffynde. 

In Porfcynggatt, that Ryche londe, 
An EreH that wase wonande, 

That curtese wase and tot/ght ; 
Sone aftyr he had a sone, 
The feyerest fat on fot myght gon, 

Tyrrant, men seyd, he hyght. 
Be tyme he wase XVIII yei* old, 
Of dedde^ of armys he w&se bold, 

To felle bothe kyng and knyght ; 
And now com^nythe dcthe appon a day 
And takythe hys fathei^, ase I yow sey. 

For God ys most of myght. 

8. byn MS. 15. toyghl] IknoghUy MS. 

21, felU] first I above the line AlS. 


«M^1] MajGodgire 

ns gnoe to win 


doaghty knight. 

He dwelt in 




and fouglit well 
when 18. 

Digitized by 



The King 

glvM Torrent a 

and h« foils in lor« 
with the King's 
dnaghter Dsso- 

aiid fur her. 

nnhorses many 

The King 

The kyng of PortynggaH wase fayne, 25 

To-warde hym he takythe Torrayne, 

That Dowghtty ys in) dedde ; 
And ther he fesomnyd in) hys hond 
A good Eyrldom in) that lond, 

Bothe forest and /(sdd. r.i66. 30 

The kyng hathe a dowghttyr whyte ase/ame, 
DjBoneU wase her name, 

Worthyest in wede. 
When Torrent had of hei* a syght, 
More he lovyd that swete wy^7*t 35 

Than) ati ys fathyrys lede. 

For love of thys lady Deyi* 

In dede of arrays far and nero 

Aventorre« gan he take 
Wtt/i heve tymhyr and ovyr-Ryde, 40 

Ther niyght no man) hys dent a-hydde, 

But to the Erthe he them straka 
Her father and other knyghtte^ mo 
Had farly, how he Ryd soo, 

And on a day to hyme spake, 45 

He Seyd : * Torrent, howe may thys hync, 
That thow Dysptsyst thes knyghttcs keno 

And ordurre« non woH take 1 * 

Torrent sayd : * So mvt I the. 
An other sayment wott I «ee, 50 

Ore I take ordor of knyght.' 
Tho he sware he hevyn kyng, 
Ther wase told hym a wondyr-thyng* 

In hys chambyr to nyght : 

80. fedei] Downe MS. 31. whyte asefame] feycr ase flowyr MS. 

32. Dyscenys^ MS. 85. swete] 9wet, MS. wyght] wyU MS. 

36. lede\ londe MS. 39. A ventorrcs MS. 42. stroke MS. 

47. dyspUsyai MS. 60. And MS. see] bee MS. 

Digitized by 



* For' the love of my dooghter dere 55 lawwt thai Tor- 

VMH* lOV^S bis 

Thow makyst good far and nere dMshttr, 

In) Dedde of annys bryght ; 
And wyt thow wjU, so god me sane, 
Thow schalt hex* wyne, yf thow her haue. 

Be thow neuyr so wy^ht ! ' 60 

Torrent sayd : ' Be Marry dere, 
And I were off armyse dere, t no. 

Yowr Dowghttyr me leve were.* 
The kyng seyd : ' Yf yt be soo, 
Ore VII yere be a-go, 65 

More schaH we here : 
Durst thow, for my dowghttyr sake, and uk» Mm u, 

for her Mk«, 

A poynt of armys for to take heii flgut 

Wtt/t-owt helpe of fereT 
Than seyd Torrant : ' So god me sped, 70 

Wtt^ anny man) that syttythe on stede 

Other far ore nere ! ' 

Ther-of the kyng* for tene wax wode : 

* Yf thow wylt make thy body good. 

Be tiew and hold thy contenance 75 

Tho seyd Torrant : * So god me sped ere ! 
And I wyst, in) what sted they were, 

Fore no man) wold I chaunce.' 

' In to the Grek^ see a mylle a otant in the 

Greek saa. 

Ther lyrythe a gyant in an yle, 80 

FuH Euyii thow dourst hyme stond. 
My fayei* forester fellythe downe he 
And Eyche casteJles in) that contre, 

No stou lettythe he stond.' 

60. vjyghC\ wyttM MS. 61. Marryl e corrected into y, 

65. ct-go] a gone, ne struck out, MS. 75. eorUnnce MS. 

78. chaunce] corrected out of change MS. 

80. lyvytha] lyghUyttu MS. in an ylt\ mauyle MS. 

B 2 

Digitized by 



■greet to Aglit 


Terrent sayd : ' Be Marre biyght, 85 

Yt ys gret sorrow that he hathe syght^ 

The devyH of hett hym blynd ! ' 
The kyng sayd : ' Par la-more de dewe, 
Thow darryst fuH evyH wit/t thy Ey hym sewe, 

He wold feii the w«t7t hys wynde.* 90 

* Now, be my trowthe/ seyd Torrent than), 
' Ase I ame a jentylman), 

Yf I may hym fynd, 
Won fot woH I not fro hym pase, 
Thow he be strongei' than Samson) wase, tnt. 95 

Or anny man) of hys kynd ! * 

the Qinnt BegoD- 

and sets out. 


Hys sqnyerys, they momyd sore, 
"Wtt/i-owt fere that he schold fare 

To that gret iomey, 
Wit/i the gyant heygh for to fyghi 
Be-gon)-mese that gyant hyght, 

That fynddea fere for aye. 
To arme hyme Torrant gas, 
Hys good stede witA hym he tas, 

WztA owt squyei* tliat Day. 
He takythe leve at lorddys hend. 
And on hys wey gan he wynd. 

For hym eJA they pray. 



Desonell knotm 
not that it Is for 
love of her. 


Lytyti wyst DesoneH that jente, 
For whos love that he went 
To fygbt wzt/t that knave. 


86. he\ written above the line, MS. 83. hyiigl hnygU MS. 

96. hys] om. MS. 97. s^e MS. 102. fare MS. 

103. goal goos MS. 104. tas] takythe MS. 

108. pi'ayl prayd MS. 

Digitized by 







Now god, that Dyed appon a Rode, 
Strengithe hym bothe bone and blod, 

The fyld for to haue ! 
He that schaH wend soche a woy, 
Yt were nede for hym to pray, 

That lesu, hym schold sauo. 
Yt ys in) the boke of Rome, 
Ther was no knyght of kyistcndomc, 

That jomey Durst crave. 
VI days Rydythe he 
By the cost of the feyei* see, 

To seke the gyant kene. 
By the cost as he Rode, 
In a forest longe and brode 

And symly wase to sene, 
Hey sperrys ther he fonde 
And gret olyvys growonde 

Coverd in) levys grene. 
Sone wase he ware, ase y yow say, 
Vppon a movnteyn) ther he layc 

On slepe, ase I wene. 

Torrent, on kne knelyd he 
And be-sowght Jesm so fre, 

That bowght hym with hys blod : 
* Lord, ase thow dyd jyght for Mary, 
Let me never take velony 

And gef me of thy fode ! 
Sertt6«, yf I hym slepyng* slonc, 
Manfutt Ded were yt none 

For my body, be the Rode.' 

123. seke] ches, struck out, seke written over with jyaler ink. 
126. see MS. 129. grene} smale MS. 

136. ryghl] lygM written above the line with paler ink. 
mare MS. 

Qod give Torretit 

After 6 days* ride 

130 be Mes Uie Giant 


He pray* for 
Christ's help. 


Digitized by 



Tho Tenant blewe hjs bngeH bold, 
To loke that he a-wake wold, 
And sythe nei' hyme Rode. 

As Torrent eaat So fietst a-&lepe he wase biowght, 145 

with bis bagte, Hjs homjs blast a-woke hyme nowght^ 
He swellyd ase dothe the see. 
Torrent saw, he w<^ not wake, 
He Eeynjd hys sted vnto a stake, 

Ase a jentyH man) so fre. 150 

So hy, he say, wase the movnteyne, 
Ther mygh^ no horse wynd hym) argeyn) 

But yf he nowyd wold be ; t tw. 

Thowe the wey neuyi* so wykkyd wore, 
On hys wey gan he fare, 155 

In) gret perayH went hee. 

Torent went to that movntej^, 
lie sUn bun up He put hys spere hyme argeyne, 

* A-Ryse, fellow ! * gan he saye ; 
' Who made the so bold here to dweH, 160 

My lorde« frethe thus to feH 1 
A-mende5 the be-hovythe to pay.' 
and makes him The gyant Rysythe, ase he had byn) wod, 
And Redyly by hyme stode, 

Be-syd hyme on a lay, 165 

And seyd : * Sertes, yf I leve, 
Soche a wed I woH the geflf, 
To move the Euyr* and ay.' 
Thow the chyld were neuyi* so y/nge, 
The fynde« spere sparry the hyme no-tbyng* 170 

Tti the holttes haree ; 

150. aofrt] in fere MS. 151. say] sayd MS. 

152. mygh (!) MS. 154. were MS. 157. movnlen B£S. 

169. yoiige MS. 171. /n] IkU (!) MS. horec MS. 

Digitized by 



Who had fare and nere byne, 
And neuer had of fytyng syn), 

He myght a lemyd ihare. 
The gyant, the fyret stroke to hym he cast, 17^ tu fight ugiM. 

His good schyld aH to-brast, 

In 8chevyre« spred wase yore ; 
Tho covd he no bettiir Red, 
But stond stytt, tyli one were ded ; 

The gyant lefte hym thar. 180 

Torrent vndyr hys spryt he sprent Tomnt grip* the 

And a-bowght the body he hyme hente, 1 79«. 

As far as he myght last 
* A ! fellow, wylt thow aoV 
And to the grownd gan they goo, 185 ^^^ ^ 

Of the movnteyn) bothe downe they pas^. m<wnt»ta. 

Ase the boke of Rome tellys, 
They tornyd XXXII ellys, 

In annys walloyng fast. 
Yt tellythe in) the boke of Rome, 190 

Euyi* ase the gyant a-boue come, 

Hys gutt€« OWt of hys body brast The Giant bunte 


At the f ot of the movnteyn) 

Ther lay a gret Ragyd stoh), serteyn), ^i;,^** ' ^^ 

Yt nyhed ys schuldyr bori) 195 

And also hys Ryght syd, 
Ther to that gyant fell that tyd, 

Ase / herd in) Rome . . . 

173. scyn MS. 174. there MS. 

175. to hym] written above the line. 177. there MS. 

178. he no] not he MS. Ryd MS. 180. ther MS. 

181. 9pren£] spred MS. 186. they pad] gan they pase MS. 

188. ellys] tymys MS. 192. hrasC] Bane MS. 

197 put before 196. MS. 198. /] A* MS. 

Digitized by 



Tomnt itete tht ThoiTow hyme, that mad rnaii), 


Torrent sone a-bovyiD wane 200 

And fast he gan him quelle 
With a knyffe feyei* and bryght ; 
Torrent, wit/i aH hys myght 

Ther-wttA he gard hyme dwelL 

Torent knelyd on hys kne, 205 

To Ie«a Cryst proyd he, 

That hathe thys world to wyld : 
and then thaniu * Lord, lovyd, evyr lovyd thowe be, 
The feyei* fyld thow hast lent Me,' 

— Vpp bothe hys handed ?ie held — t y». 210 

* AH onely witA-owt any knaue 
Of the fynd the maystry to haae, 

Of hym to wyn the fyld.' 
Now ys iher none other to say, 
Of hyme he wane the fyld )>at day ; 215 

I pray God hyme schyld. 


Torrent went vppe a-geyne 

To the movnt, ase I gan sayne, 

The londeg to se far and nere ; 

He fees the Mi^ In the See a myle, hyme tho^t, 220 

An hold wase Rychyly wrowt, 

In that lond waae not here perre. 

The see wase Ebbyd, I yow sey, 

and goes to it. Torrent thether toke the way, 

Werry fi^ thow he were ; 225 

199. after T?iorrow, ofhza been scraped out. 

201. him quelle] vxirke MS. 208. hys] h corrected out of m MS. 

210. he] om. MS. 213. wyn] wynd, d erased MS. 

214. to written above the Ime, MS. 

215. Now ys ther non other say 

Of hyme to wyne the fyld ^ day add. (!) MS. 
219. to se written above the line. 

Digitized by 



And ther he fownd Kyche wanjs, 
Towne* Endentyd with presjos sionys, 
Schjnyng ase crystatt elere. 


Two gattys off yn>D) ther he fond, 

Ther in) Torrent gan wonde, 230 

A nyghte^ Best ihere in) to ta ; 
And at the hale dore ther wase 
A lyoD) & a lyonassOy 

Ther men be-twene them twa 
Fast Etyng*, ase ye may here ; 235 

Crystyfi man thow he were, 

Hys browys toexe bla, t soo. 

And wit yow wiH, lord god yt wotc, 
He durst goo no fote. 

Lest they wold hyme sla. 240 


Tenant stod and be-held, 
And proyd to god, that ale may wyld. 

To send hyme harborrow good. 
Sone hard he wtt^in a whalle 
The syghyng of a lady smalle, 245 

Sche weppte, as sche were wod ; 
Sche momyd sore and sayd : ' Alas, 
That Euyi* kyngea dowghttyr wase 

Ouer-come of so jentyH blod. 
For now ame I holdyh) here 250 

In lond wtt/* a f ynde* fere ! ' 

Torrent hard, wher he stod. 

Tomnt And* 
tht Glaut's CMtK 

fotnUd 1^ a Ikm 

He licart a la«1y 
sighing wiihiii. 

226. vxmys] ioayes MS. 229. Tied] Tfie MS. 

231. to to] he take MS. 234. twa] ticaijrus MS. 

236. man] thow (!) MS. he] Uiey lilS. 
237. iocxe bla] he gan to blowc MS. 240. sle MS. 

244. whaUe] with paler ink conxjctcil from xohylc, 
245. syghyng] with paler ink cotrcctcd from syngyng. 

Digitized by 



Dore god/ seyd Torrant than), 

* Yflf ther be anny crystyri) man) 

In thys hold of ston), 255 

Torrent atks for That woH, for the lovo of god of myght, 
in um Gaitie. HarbotuTow a jentylman) thys nyght. 

For I ame bat on) ! ' 

* Seynt Marry/ seyd that lady dere, 

' What crystyn) man) axithe harburrow here % ' 260 

Nere hym sche gothe a-non. 
' I wold harburrow the foH fayne, 
Bat a gyant wyii the slayne.' 

To hym sche mad here mone. 


* Say me now, fayei* lady, belyve, 1 806. 266 
Who owte of thys plase schaH me dryve^ 

Thes toarretf, that are so bryghtT 
Tii« Lady says Ther schs Seyd : ' Be hevyn) kyng*, 
Here ys a gyant Dwellyng, 

That meche ys of myght. 270 

Be my trowthe, and he the see, 
Were thei* XX lyvys in) the, 
the Giant will Thv dethe than wyH he dyght 

kill him. -r . ^ 

lesxx cryst yef me grace 

To hyd the in) some prove plase 275 

Owt of the fynde* syght ! 


* Eayi* me thynky the be thy tale. 
The song of the burden smale 

On slope hathe hyme browght.' 

259. clere\ e corrected out of r MS. 

261. sche gothe anoTt] a rum ache gothe MS. 265. hel.^ om. MS. 

266. qH om. MS. me dryvc'\ hygU MS. 

267. 8d]feyer and add. MS. 

271. the\ thowj w erased and e changed into o, MS. 

273. They (!) MS. 275. hyd] corrected from hyde, 

277. ihy] my emsed and thy written above the line. 

Digitized by 




* Ye/ seyd Toirent, * ore he be wakyn), 
I BcbaH: the teii soche a tokys). 

Of hym thow haue no thowght I 
But wolddea thow for thy gentry 
Do the lyonnys downe lye, 

That they nyee me nowght f ' 
By the hande sche ganne hym ta 
And led hyme in) be^u^ them twa ; 

Ryght ase sche wold, they wrowght 


The lady wase neuyi* so a-drad, 
In to the hale sche hym lad, 

That lemyred ase gold bryght ; 
Sche byrlyd whyt wyne and Rede : 

* Make vse myrre a-geyne owre Dedd, 

I wot witt, yt ys so dyght ! ' 

* Be my trowthe ! ' seyd Torrent, 

* I wole be thy warrant, 

He comythe not here thys nyght. 
On soche a siepe he ys browght, 
AR men of lyve wakythe hym nowght, 

But onely godes mygliV 


Blythe then wase that lady jent, 
For to on-hames Torrent, 

That dowghtty wase and bold ; 

* For sothe,* sche seyd, ' I wot wher ys 
The kyngc^ sone Vei'downys^ 

Fast put in hold 



Torrtni pMt tbe 
Llona» into Um 



295 He tells her 


She telle liim 
of Prince Ver- 
305 downy*. 

283. thy\ ih corrected from m. gctUry] gaUre, 6 corrected 
from y. 

285. nyee] first e above the line. 

286. hande] d corrected from e. tane MS. 

287. hewU MS. ttoayne MS. 
800. godes mygM] gode a lone MS. 
305. Verdovmys] qfpvense MS. 

Digitized by 



and 4 K«rit' tons In a dongoh), that ys dym ; 

intlMaUuit's ^ , ^ „ , .., * 

priaoQ. Fowyre good Erylle* sonnys be wttA nyme 

Yb fet ill) fere and fold. 
The gyant wan theme in) a tyde, 310 

Ase they Kane be the watyr syd, 

And put them in) preson) cold. 

' In an yron) cage he bathe them done.' 
Torrent went thethei^ sone : 

' Are ye yet levand %' 315 

The kjnges sone askyd than), 
Yf ther were anny crysten man), 

* Wold bryng vse ovft of bond 1 ' 

* Lord,* he seyd, * god cdimyght, 

I had levyr on a Day to fyght, r. 8i6. 320 

Than bA my fathyrys lond.' 
Torrent breaks With an Iryn) maH styff and strong* 

open the prison, 

He brake vpe an yroh) dore or longe. 
And sone the keyes he fond. 

and frees Um 5 Owt he toke thys chyldyryn) fyve, 325 


The feyrest that were on lyve, 

I-hold in) anny sted. 
The lady wase fuH gled, 
Sche byrlyd why t wyri) and Redd, 
Tiiey sop. And sethyn) to soper sone they yed. 330 

* Lorde«,* he seyd, * syn yow are hei*, 
I Red yow make Ryght good chei*. 

For now ys ati thy iiedc* 
Thus he covyrd owt of care. 
God, that sofryd wondde* sare, 335 

Grante vse weH to sped ! 

818. otof] ow (!) MS. 323. or longe] added in ^ler ink. 
325. chyld,] a v struck out, follows. 828. glad US. 
335. sore MS. • 836. fcclle to sped] to sped toellc MS. 

Digitized by 





Lorddes, and ye wol lythe, 
The chyldyr namys I woH toH blytlic, 

Hero kyn, how they were me told ; 
The kyngc» sone, that dowghtty ys, 340 

Waso clepyd Verdowiiys, 

That dowghtty wase and bold, 
And an Erylle« son, that hyght Torroii), 
A nother lakys of Borweyne, 

The forthe was Amyas bold. f.82«. 345 

The kyngc» dowghttyr of Gales lond, 
Elyonei*, I vndyrstond, 

That worthy wase m hold, 

In to hys chambyr sche hyme led, 
Ther gold and syluyr wase spred, 350 

And asui^, that wase bio ; 
In yron ther he gan stond, 
Body and armys oZ «c7/ywand, 

In) powynt to trusse and goo. 
In to a stabyH sche hym led, 355 

Eche toke a fuH feyei* sted. 

They were redij to goo ; 
And wote ye weH and vndyrstoml. 
Had the gyant be levand, 

They had not partyd soo. 3G0 

They wott not to bed gsaxge, 
Tytt on the morrow the Day spronge, 
Thus a wey to ffare. 

Torrent ftieotl 
Prince V«p- 
doirnyi, Lonle 

Torren, Jakyn, 
and Amyas, 

nnd Princess 

She takes Torrent 
to his duunber. 

and Uien all of 
tliem to the stable, 
where each 
diooses a horse. 

840. ys] io€ise MS. 
351. bid] hUwe MS. 

337. after wol, U stnick out MS. 

846— 348 put before 843—345, MS. 

853. al sck.] lygand (!) MS. 

354. trusse] corrected from Iruste. 357. redy] om. MS. 

858. wote] with paler ink corrected from w?tat. 

859. Had] corrected out of han. byn follows, almost entirely 
ei-ased. gyanC] t corrected from d. 

361. gaiige] gan MS. 11% on the struck out, follows. 

Digitized by 



Torrant sperrjd the gattys, i-wyse, 
Afi that he lyst he clepyd hys, 365 

The keys and thyng he bare. 
Torrant feedi The lyoii^ that wos at the dore 
Qilnt't body, * Wase led to hei' mayster that wase bef oi*^ 
On hym thay fed them yare^ 
Vpp won of the horse, that wase thei* levyd, * 370 
and pnte hit iiead On hym the! trussyd the gyanttea heved. 
Thus helpt hym god thof . 


But ore III wekes wei' commyn) to End, 
He gon bftck to To Portynggati: gan he wend, 


Thei' ase the kyng gan lend ; 375 

The portei^ sawe hym ther he stood. 
He fled a wey, ase he were wod, 

Flyngyng ase a f ynd. f. 82*. 

* Syr kyng,' he seyd, * be goddea dede, 
Torrant bryngythe a devyti ys hed, 380 

Ther wit^ he woH yow present.' 
Desonett seyd : * Portei*, be stytt ! * . . • 

In hys walke ther ase he went. 


The kyng to the gatys gau pase, 
Gret lorde« that ther wase, 385 

Bothe knyghtea and squyerre, 
Th« King and his Lorde* wase f uH sore a-dred 

Lords are afraid of 

the uona. Fore the lyonys, ]>at he had. 

They durst not come hyme nei*. 

866. keys] e written with paler ink above the line. 
367. Ivons that was] lyone MS. 

869. Fn (!) MS. hym] y corrected out of e MS. thay] cor- 
rected from that, yare] ther MS. 

371. Vn (!) MS. the%] i written above the line, hed MS. 

372. ther MS. 

373. were] ther, strack out, and were wiitten over. 

875. lend] lye MS. 376. satpe h. th.] ther sawe he MS. 
386. squyerres MS. 

Digitized by 



The kyng seyd : ' I wytt the kysse, 390 

Darst I foi* thy hesfss, Iwysse.' 

Torrent dyd them ly thei*, 
And kyssyd the kyng vriih joy and blyse ; Torrwtkimtti»« 

King of Portugal* 

And aftyr, other lordes of hys, 
And aftyr, ladys dere. 395 

Messengyreff went the weye, 
To the kyng of Pro vyns to sey, Tht King of 

ProvjiM ft gUid 

Hys sone ys owt of hold : 
* Yyng Torrent of Portynggatt 
Hathe browght hym owt of ballo 400 

And filayne the jeyant bold* 
Lytyfl and mykyH J>at ther wei*, 
AH they mad good cher t {«a. 

Hei* prynse fayne ae wold. 
The kyng seyd : ' So mot I the, 405 «f »>«• •«" v«r- 

•^ ® •' ' downys'i safety 

I wott geff the towynnys thre 
Foi' the tall6« thow hast me told.' 

Than sej/d they, tha< to Gales yedo, 
Yef tys to tcike were hem no ned. 

Then Ferdownys had they. 410 

Ase they seylyd on a tyde, 
At Perrown) on the see syd 

The kyng of Provynse seyd : ' So mot I the, 

Yftles schaH they not be, 415 andpromi«« 

'^ Torrent giOa. 

That daie I sothely sey.' 

890. the] hym MS. 

395. (^lyr] other add. (!) MS. clere] jent MS. 

896. toerU] to (!) MS. 397. after Prcmyns I MS. 

399. T<yyng MS. 405. kyTig seyd] hynges messengere MS. 

405-7 put before 402-4. 

408. Than—thfU] That they than MS. Gales] with paler ink 
corrected from CaUes, yede] corrected from ioent. 

409. take] om. MS. hym MS. 410. Then Dmanys MS. 

Digitized by 




Tii« Kingof oaiet The kjng of Gales proferd hym feyei* : 

off«rt Tmrent his _^ * * , i -n % 

daughiwr. * Wed my dowghttyr and myn Eyer, 
When 80 euyi* thcw may ! 


Tlie kyng of Perye;2se seyd : ' So mot I the, 420 

Tuys seson) yeftles schaH thow not be, 
. 'laue here my Ryng of gold, 
Tiw King of My sword, that so wyti ys wrowyt ; 
Torranthu Sword A better than) yt know I nowght 

With in) ciystyii) mold ; 425 

Yt ys ase glemyrryng ase the glase, 
maikby weiand, ThoFTOw Velond wTOght yt wase, 
Bettyr ys non) to hold. 
I have syne sum tyme in) lond, 

Whoso had yt of myn) hond, 430 

Fawe they loere l-told.' 

And named Ado- 

A fortnight's 
Feast Is lield. 


Tho wase Torrent biythe and glad, 
TLd good swerd ther he had. 

The name wase Adolake. 
A gret maynerey let he make r?/g7tt 
V at lest ail a fortnyght, 

;Who so vnS. hys met take. 
Eryry man toke ys leve, ase / yow say, 
Hom-ward to wend ther wey, 

Euery man ys Rest to take. 
Tyft yt be-fett vppon a day, 
Ase they went be the wey, 

The kyng to hys dowghttyr spake : 




417. gales] g with paler ink coiTccted from c. 
429. Loke thou hold yt withfulle hond, add. MS. 
431. Ifawght thcrfore I told MS. 

435. inayn.] mayru let, with paler ink corrected into mayruy. 
ryght] om. MS. 

438. /] oni. MS. 440. to take ys Best MS. 

Digitized by 





* Ye schatt take bed of a jeehtyH man), 

A feyei* poynt foi* yow he wane, 445 

Desoneli, at the last' 
Syr,' Bche seyd, * be bevyn kyng, ^^ 

TyS ye me told,.! knewe no thyng, 

For who ys love yt wase.' 
'DesoneH, so mvt I the, * 

Yt wase for the lowe of the, 

That be trovylld so fiast. 
I wame yow, dowghttyr, be the Bode, 
Yt ys for yow bothe good, 

Ther to I Ked yow trost' 455 

Forthe sche browght a whyt sted. 
As whyt as the flowyr in) med, 
Ys fytte blac ase slon. 

* Leman), haue here thys f ole. 

That dethe ys dynt schalt fou not ihole^ 460 

Whytt thow setty«te hymo appoii, 
And yf thow had ^persewyd be 
And hadyst ned fore to fle, 

Fast for to gone. 
The kyng of Nazareth sent hym me. 
Torrent, I wet-saffe hym on the. 

For better love may I none.' 

Aftyr-ward vppon a tyd, 
Ase the went be the watyre* syd, 
The kyng and yong Torrent, 470 

455. tnut MS. 458. slo MS. 

460. thoU] haue MS. 461. setiythe MS. 

462. p'revyd (!) MS. 

465. SoFragm. I (F. I); The kyng <^ Portynggalle seyd : 'So 
tnot I thesis, 

466. hym on] so F. I ; of MS. 

TlM KbiK of 
Portagid tells 

that Torrent kild 
tlMGUiit for love 

She gives Torrent 
m whiU stMd 

4d5 wliieh tlM King 
of Nazareth Iiad 
sent her. 


Digitized by 




Tht King 


Mkn Torrent to 
^t DetoMlla 

The kyBg wold fayne, that he ded wet^, 
And he wjst, in) what manei', 

How he schuld be sehent ; 
A false lettyr mad the kyng 
And dyd messengyre^ forthe yt bryng, 

On the Revei^, ase they went, 
To Torrent, that was trew ase styH, 
Yrtie love DesoneH wyH, 

Get her a facoh) jent. 

Torrent the lettei' be-gan) to Red, 
The kyng lestyned & nere yed, 

Ase he yt nevyr ad s«ne. 

* Syr,' he seyd, * what may thys be, 
Loo, lord, come nei^ and see, 

A-bowght a facon) schene 1 
I ne wot, so god me sped, 
In what lond that they bred.* 
The kyng answerd : * I wene, 
from tii« Fortrt of In the foiTest of Mavdeleyn), 

Ther be hawker, ase I herd seyne. 
That byn of lenage cZeii).* 
And than seyd the kyng on-trew : 

* Yf thow get hawkys of gret valew, 

Bryng on of them to me ! ' 
Torrent Seyd : ' So god me saue, 
HciKrewtoaoit. Yf yt be-tyd, that I may haue, 

At yowr wyH they schal be.' 
Hys squyere bode he thar', 
Aftyr hys armor^ for to fai*. 

In the fyld byddythe he. 








471. ded were] so F. I; were ded MS. 472. he] so F. I; hym MS. 

477. tfuU was] so F. I ; om. MS. 482. sync MS. 

487. that] so F. I ; om. MS. tfuy] ne add. (!) MS. 

489. Afavd.] so F. I ; Mavdlen MS. 491. elen*] gem MS. 

498. sqtiyere] so F. II ; sqiiycrcs MS. there MS. 

Digitized by 




They annyd hjm in) bys wed, 
Tho he b&«trod a noble eted. 
And forthe than Rod bee. 

Torrent toke the wey a-geyn) 
In to the forest of Mawdleyii), 

In the wyld-some way ; 
Berys and apes there founde he, 
And wylde bestys great plente, 

And lyons where they lay. 
In a wod that wase tyght, 
yt Drew nere-band nyght 

By dymmynge of the Day, 
Harkyn, lorded, to them came wo, 
He and hys squyei* partyd in two, 

CarfuH men then were they. 
At the schedyog of a Home 
Eche partyd other frome, 

For sothe, ase I vndyrstond. 
Torrent toke a dolful wey 
Downe in) a depe valey 

Be-syd a weft strong. 
A lytyti be fore mydnyj^ht 
Of a dragon be had syght, 

That grysly wase to fond ; 
He had hym nowght to were, 
Bat hys schyld and hys spere, 

That wase in) bys squyere^ bond. 


505 totlMForwtor 



g«ts Mpantcd 
flrom his Sqairt, 


and ootnct on n 



502. noble] so F. II ; nothere MS. 

507 — 509. 80 F. II : Bcrrys he satoe sUmdyng 

And wyld hesUs ther goyjig, 
Orel lyonys ther he fond, MS. 
510. tygh£\ so F. II ; Viyke MS. 
512. By d.] BO v. II ; And ine the Davniyng MS. 
518. to— Mw] so F. II ; t6\ of F. II. what 1 schaOfi sey MS. 

514. in two] so F. II ; they MS. 

515. menr-they] so F. II ; they were that Day MS. 

C 2 

Digitized by 




Torrtnt pmyt to 

to be liU help. 

Tlie I>rajfon*t 
tail is 7 j'anU 

and hat a ftery 
head on it. 

Torrent knelyJ on liys kne, 
To letfu Cryst p^'ayd he : 

* Lord, mykytt of myght, 530 

Syne I wasc iii) meche care, 
Let me nevuyi* owt of /hys world fai*, 

Tyti I haue take orc?er of knyglit 
Ase I ame falsely hethei^ sent, 
Wyld-som weyes haue I went, 535 

With fyndfi* for to fyght 
^ow, lesix, for thy holy name, 
Ase I ame hut man) arlone. 

Than) be my helpe to nyght ! * 

Ase Torrent lesw gan) pr«y, 540 

He herd the dragon), ther he lay 

Vndyr-nethe a dcno ; 
Of and on he wase stronge, 
Hys tayle wase VII yerclc« long. 

That aftyr hyme he drowe ; 545 

Hys wynggc* wase long and wyglit, 
To the chyld he toke a flyght 

WitJt an howge swotre ; 
Had he nethei^ schyld ne spero, 
But pmyd to god, he schold hyme were, 550 

For he wase in dred i-nowe. 

On the tayle an hed thei^ wase, 

That bymyd Bryght as anny glase, w. 856. 

In fyer whan yi was dyght ; 

532. thvs] hys (!) MS. 

533. haiui] or add. (!) MS. order] othere (!) MS. 

542. clow] colod or colvd^ I corrected from d, MS. 

543. a^id] an MS. 545. drcwe MS. 

548. svjowc] stcaym (!) 3iIS. 55K inowtke MS. 

554. yt] ht MS. 

Digitized by 




Torrent cuU 4 cIU 
560 UU; 

Mid while iU 
Oiant-owiicr ia 
getting ready to 

A-bowght the schyld lie lappyd yt tliei^ 555 

Torrent the bowght a-sondyr schere 

Thurrow the gj-oce of god almyght 
As the boke of Rome tellya, 
Of hys taylle he cut IIII elles 

With hys swerd so bryght 
Than ciyed the lothely thyng, 
That ali the daB. be-gan to Kyng, 

That hard the gyant wyght. 

The gyant seyd : * I vndyrstond, 
There ys sum crystyn) man) nere bond, 565 

My dragon here I cry. 
By hym, that schope bothe watyr* and lond, 
AH that I can se be-fore me stond, 

Dere schaH they a-bye ! 
Me thynkythe, I here my dragon) schowt, 570 

I deme, ther be svme dowghtty mail) hym a-bowght, 

I trow, to long I ly. 
Yf I dweli in my pytt of stoii), 
And my cheff-foste>* were gone, 

A false mayst«»- were I ! * 575 

Be the gyant wase Kedy dyght, 
Torrent had slayne the dragon) Ryght ; Torrent kub it. 

Thus gan god hyme scheld. 
To the mownteyne he toke the wey 
To Rest hyme, alt that day, 580 

He had mystcr, to be kyld. 
Tyti the day be-gan to spryng, f. 87a.» 

FowUys gan myrre to syng 

Bothe in) frethe and in feld. 

558. Tdlys] tcttythe MS. 563. Thai tlie gyant haM icy<jUt MS. 

574. foster] st corr. out of U 581. kyllyd MS. 

1 There is uo f. 86 in the paging of the MS. 

Digitized by 




Torrmtrt Squirt 

ridM an nSgtat in 

till he finds a 

and Is met hj a 

Leve -we now of Torrent thore 585 

And speke we of thys squyei^ moie : 

lem hys sole fro hdi shyld I 
Hys squyei* Kod bB nyght 
In a wod, that wase full tyght, 

With meche care and gret fare, 590 

For to seke hys lord Torrent, 
That wjghtly wase frome hyme sent, 

And he wyst nevyi* whethyr ne whai*. 
He Durst neuyi^ cry ne schuot. 
For wyZd beste« were hym a-bowght 595 

In) the holtUs hare ; 
A lytyZ whyH be-fore the day 
He toke in) to a Byde-wey 

Hyme self to meche care. 
Forthe he Rod, I vndyrstond, 600 

Tytt he an hey wey fond, 

Wtt^-owtyn) any Delt^e, 
Also fast ase he myght fare. 
Fore berrys and apys, fat ther ware, 

Lest they wold hym byght. 605 

The sone a-Rose and schone bryght, 
Of a castyH he had a syght, 

That wase bothe feyei^ and whyte .... 

The gyant htm se, & ny yed. 
And seyd : ' Fellow, so god me sped, 610 

Thow art welcom to me : t w*. 

What dost thow here in my forest 1 ' 
' Lord, to seke an hawkys nest, 

Yff yt yow?' wyl be.* 

585. there MS. 592. wysly MS. 598. wher MS. 

595. wyld] wyd MS. 596. Kore MS. 597. lyty MS. 

602. DeliU] delay MS, 604. were MS. 609. hem MS. 

Digitized by 




* The be-hovythe to ley a wede.' 
To an oke he hym led : 

Gret BuUie yt wase to se. 
In mi quartetes he hym drowe, 
And eoery quarter yppon a bowe ; 

Lord, soche weys toke hee ! 


Asc Torrent in) the movnteyn) dyd ly, 
Hym thowght, he hard a EcufuH cry ; 
Gret fere ther hyme thowght. 

* Seynt Marre/ seyd the chyld so ire, 

* Wher euyr' my jentyH squyei* myght be. 

That I wttA me to wod ]>rowght t 
On he dyd hys hames a-geyne 
And worthe on hys sted, serteyne, 

And thetherward he sowght. 
And wot yow wyft, I vndyrstond, 
In fowrc quartyre^ he hym fownd, 

For other wyse wase yt nowght 


The gyant lenyd to a tre 
And be-hyld Torrent so free, 

For sotlie, ase I yow seyo. 
Thys fend wase ferly to fyght, 
Kochense, seythe the boke, he hyght, 

Ther wase a dredfuH frayc. 
To the chyld than) gan he smyght : 
'A thcfP, yeld the asttyt, 

As fast as thow may ! ' 

* What,* seyd Torrent, * art thow wood 1 
God, that Dyed on the Rood, 

GefE the evytt happe thys day ! ' 

618. drewe MS. 624. frc]fcr MS. 

630. wot] w add. (!) MS. 635. /] om. MS. 


Th« OUnt euU 
Tormit't Sqnire 
into 4 qiurton. 




Torrent finds 



and is allackt 
by Uii« giant 
640 Rocltense. 


Digitized by 




Tomol't tUtd 


into a dMp gUn, 

whert he stands 
in wnter. 

Torrent prays 
God for bdp. 

He Rawglit Torrent soche a Rowght^ 645 

Hys stedde^ brayne he smot owte. 

So mykyU he be-gan). 
Torrent tho a good sped 
Ase fast a-bowte au eche yede ; 

Ase swefte ase he myght, hA Eon. 650 

He gathyred svm of hys gere, 
Bothe hys schyld and hys spere; 

Nere hym yod he than). 
Bacward than be a brow^ 
Twenty fote he gard hyme goo, 655 

Thus erthe on hym he wane. 
Yt solasyd Torrant then), 
When he sawe hyme bacward rcn 

Downe be a movnteyri) of Pcrowne, 
Stonily ng thurrow fry the and fen), 660 

TyH he com to a depe glen^ 

Ther myght non hym s^ere. 
Torrent wase glad and folowyd fast, 
And hys spere on hyme he brast, 

Good Adyloke yed hyme nere. 665 

The fynd in) the watyr stod, 
He fawte a-geyn, ase he were wod, 

Aft J>e day iii) fere. 

Tho nere bond wase the day gone, f. 8». 

Torrent wase so werry than) 670 

That on hys kne he kneld : 
' Helpe, god, that aft may ! 
Desoneft, haue good day ! ' 

Fro hym he cest hys schyld. 

649. yed£\ toerU MS. 650. he Ean] Rync MS. 

667. than MS. 658. ren\ Bcmd (!) MS. 661. glcii] Oiomc MS. 

662. 8tcrc\ sclicrc MS. 668. W the add. (!) MS. 

671. hulyd Jui MS. 

Digitized by 




lera wold not, he were slayne, 675 

To hym he sent a schowyi* of Rayne, 

Torrent f uH wyti yt keld. 
The fynd saw, he wase ny mate, 
Owt of the watyr he toke the gate. 

He thowght to wyne the fyld. 680 


Thoo wase Torrent flEresse and good ; 
Nere the fynd sore he stod, 

Cryst hym sane and see ! 
The fynd fawt vriih an yron) staff, 
The fyrst stroke, to hym he gaffe, 

He brast hys schyld on thre. 
Torrent vndyr hys staff Rane, 
To the hart he haryd hym than). 

And lothely cry gane he. 
To the grownd he fefl ase tyght. 
And Torrent gan hys hed of-smyght, 

And thus he wynnythe the gre. 


Torrent knelyd on the grownd 
And thankyd god Jwit ylke stownd, 

That soche grace hyme send. 
Thus II journeys in thys woo 
Vfith hys handea slow fie gyantys too, 

That meny a man) hathe schent 
Torrent forthe frome hyme J)an yod, 
And met hyme XXIIII fotte, 

Ther he lay on the bent. 
Hedles he left hym there, 
Howt of the fyld the hed he bare 

And to the casteH he went 

677. kclyd MS. 690. gotmid MS. 

607. /«;] II MS. 


Jemu (VetheiM up 

The Oiant attacks 

Torrent runs hlin 
thro' the heart. 


cuts hl« he:id off. 



700 finds hmi :ifc (I. 

long, and guc*» to 
his C;tstle. 

Digitized by 




Torrent goM 
to the QiuiVt 

To thys casteti' he gan fai' ; 
Ther fond he armoi* and other* gore, 

A swerd, that wase bryght 
To the towre he toke the wey, 
Ther the gyante^ bed lay, 

That Rycbyly wase dyght. 
At the bedd^« bed he fond 
Castle, Mid ftiuu a A swerd, worthe an Erllys lond, 

.pleudld .word. ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^g^^ 

On the pom^ yt wase wret, 
Fro a prynce yt wase get, 
MownpoJyardniw he hyght. 

The sarten to sey w/t/i-owt lese, 
A scheff-chambyi* he hym ches, 

TyH on the morrow day. 
To the stabuH tho he yed, 
and a noble white There he fond a nobytt sted, 

Wase comely whyt and grey. 
With the heads The gyantte« bed gan he take, 
DraBon. Torrent And the drsgonnys wold he not foi-sake, 
And went forthe on hys wey. 
He left moi* good in that sale 
Than wase wiUi in) aH Portynggatt, 
Ther ase the gyant laye. 







rides back to 

Tho he Rod bothe Day and nyght, 
TyH be come to a castett bryght, 730 

Ther ys lord gan dweH. 
The kyng ys gone to the gate. 
Torrent on kne he fond ther at, 

Schort tatt for to teH. 

706. acre MS. 717. to »cy] om. MS. 

718. he] sche MS. eh<»yit (!) MS. 720. yod MS. 

Digitized by 



' Haue thow thys iii) thyn) bond : 735 Torr«»t gira the 

T * J King the Oianf» 

^o nother hawkys ther I fond and Dragon's 

heads instsMl of 

At Mawdlenys wdi' a Fsieon, 

The kyng quod : * Ase so haue I blyse, 
Torrent, I trow, eyhhe ys 

To the deweli of heH ! . . . . 740 


' Here be syd dwellythe won on lond, 
Ther ys no knygbt, hys dynt may stond. 

So stronge be ys in dede / * 
* Syi»/ he sayd, ' fore sen lame, 
What ys the gyantes name, 745 

So Euyr good me spedl' 

' Syi*,' he Seyd, *80 mvt I the, and »ay« the Giant 

est , Rncheiwe was 

ologus of YnoHes, thus byte bee, siogus of FuoUes. 

That wyt ys vndyr wede.' 


^ytyH and mykyH, lese and more, 750 

Wondyr on the bedde« ibore, 

That Torrent bad browgbt wbome. 
^^ie Lorde* seyd * Be sen MybeH ! 
Syr kyng, but ye love byme wyft. 

To yow yt ys gret scbame ! * 755 

Torent ordeynyd prysU* fy ve, f- flou. 

To syng for bys squyerys lyve. 

And menytbe bym by name. 
Therfoi* the lady wbyt ase swane 
To Torrant, here lord, scbe went than), 760 De«»eu gives iw 

_. heart to Torrent. 

Here bert wase to hyme tane. 

738. guodl om. (!) MS. 789. sybbe] syVce MS. 

742. knyght hys] knyghtca MS. 743. ind.'\on gimid MS. 

752. br<ywgh£\ ho add. (!) MS. 

753. The] om. MS. 8eyd\ he add. MS. Myhcllc] my her, r 
corrected to lie with paler ink. 

756. prysks] V add. (!) MS. 

Digitized by 




TiM King of 
Arngou a»ks fbr 
De*oiMll for his 

The Queen of 
Portugal wislie* 

Lettyrre^ come ther yfithalle 
To the kyng of Portynggatt, 

To ax hys dowghttyr Derre, 
Fro the kyng of Eragon), 
To wed her* to hys yongeest son), 

The lady, that ys so clere. 
For Torrent schuld not hei' hane, 
For hyme fyrst he here gafe, 

To the messengei'y 
And hys way fast ageyn dyd pase, 
Whyle Torrent an huntyng wase, 
Ther of schuld he not be were. 
On a mornyng, ther ase he lay, 
The kyng to the quene gan sey : 

* Madame, for cherryte, 
Thow art ofbyn) hold wyse ; 
Now woH ye tett me yowr deuycc, 

How I may goveme me : 
The Ryche kyng hathe to mc sent, 
For to aske my dowghttyr gente 

That ys so feyei^ and fre.' 
' Syr,' sche Seyd, * so god me saue, 
I Red yow let Torent her haue, 
For best worthy ys he.' 

He sayd : * Madame, were that feyci*, 
To make an erlles sone myn Eyei^ ? 
The KiiiK refuses. I wiH not, by scn lame ! 

There he hathe done maystrcs thrc, 
Yt ys hys swerd, yt ys not he, 
For Hatheloke ys ys name.' 

Torrent to have 







762. ther wUhallc] hetJiervard MS. 769. Foi] 2'o MS. 

771. way] om. MS. 773. ware MS. 

775. The (qtumc to tlui) ktnuj to tltc quene gan sey MS. 

770. T/uU haw LIS. 781. aakc] asckc MS. 790. hys\ oni. MS. 

Digitized by 




* Lord, he mygbt fuH wyti sped, 
A knyghte^ dowgbttyr wase hyme bed, 

Ase wbyt ase walW bane ; 
And yf ye wame hyme Desond}, 
All that ther of here tett, 

Ther of wyH speke schame.' 


* Madam, vnto thys tyd 
There lythe a gyant here be-syd, 

That many a man) hathe slayne. 
I schaH hyght hym my dowgbttyr' dere, 
To fyght vfiHi that fyndea fere. 

Thus he holdythe hyme in) trayno. 
But I schaH make myn cominnant so, 
That there schaH non wiUi hyme K'S 

Neyihet* squyei* ne swayne.' 

* Syi*,' sche seyd, * so mvt I the. 
So sore be-stad hathe he be, 

And wyH cwnmyn) a-geyne ! ' 


Tho the belles be-gan to Eyng, 
Vpe Rose that Ryche kyug, 

And the lady sofre^ 
And aftyr-ward they went to mose, 
Ase the law of holy chyrge wase, 

Wit/i notftf and solenmyte. 
Trompettys on the waH gan blowe, 
Knyght^ semlyd on a Howe, 

Gret joy wase to see. 
Torrent a syd bord began), 
The squyerc^ nexte hym than. 

That good knyghte* schuld be. 

794. swcUles (!) MS. hone MS. 796. Alt\ And l\B. 

806. NeMth€r\ ora. MS. 812. so fre\ in ferec MS. 

816. n£Ues (!) MS. 


Tlio Talw King 
of Pttrtagal 


plitU to hare 
Torrent kild hy 
anoClier Giant. 



f. Ofo. He ami hia Qiioen 


Torrent bH* at 
the heatl of ti 
820 •Ule table. 

Digitized by 




TIm King asks 

do ft dMd of arms 
Ibr DMon^I. 

* Yo«,' tayt Tor- 


Ase they sat a-mydde^ the mete, 
The kyng wold not f oi^t ; 

To Tonent the kyng gan sey. 
He seyd : * Torrent^ so god me saae, 825 

Thow vroldes fayne my dowghttyr bane 

And haet lovyd hei' many a day.* 

* Ye, be trouthe,' seyd Torrent than), 
' And yf ]>at I were a Eyche man), 

Ryght gladly, par ma fay ! * 830 

* Tf thow durst for her sake 
A poynt of armys vndyrtake, 

Thow broke her* weH fore ay ! ' 

' Ye,' seyd Torrent, ' ar I ga, 
Sekymes ye schatt me ma 835 

Of yowr dowghttyr hend, 
And af tyrward my ryghtys, 
Be-fore XXVII knyghtea.' 

And 1^ were Torrente» frende. 

* Now, good sens,* gan Torrant sey, r. w». 840 

* Bere wittnes her of som Daye, 

A-geyne yf god me send ! ' 

Torrent seyd : * So mvt I the 
Wyst I, where my jomey schold 6e, 

Thether I woldo me dyght' 845 

The kyng gaff hyme an answere : 

* In the lond of Calabur ther* 

Wonnythe a gyant wyhte, 

822. a] 80 F. Ill ; the MS. 825. aaiie] so F. Ill ; sped MS. 

830. gladly] so F. Ill ; glad MS. 

831. for h, 8.]qo F. Ill ; par ma fay MS. 

833. broke] so F. Ill ; IfreJce MS. 

834. go F. Ill ; gan Bage MS. 835. make MS. 

839. frenddes MS. 844. he] om. MS. 

845. wolde] so F. Ill ; om. MS. 

848. ioyhU] so F. Ill ; whyU MS. 

Digitized by 




And he ys bothe strong and bold, 
Slochys he hyght, I the told, 

God send the that waye Kyght ! ' 
Than quod Torrent : * Haue good day, 
And, or I come a-geyii), I schatt asay. 

Whether the fynd can fyght' 


Tho wold he no lengei* a-byde. 
He toke ys wey for to B.yde 

On a sted of gret vale\ye. 
In to a chambyi' he gas, 
Hys leue of DesoneH he ias, 

Sche wepte, aH men myght Rewe ; 
He seyd : * Lady, be styH ! 
I 8ch(^ come a-geyn the tyH^ 

Thurrow helpe of Marry trewe.' 
Thus he worthe on a stede. 
In hys wey Cryst hyme sped. 

Fore he yt no thyng knewe I 


He toke hym a Redy wey, 
Thurrow Vervjns he toke the wey, 

As hys lomey feH. 
TyH the casteH Be the See, 
An hy stret heldythe hee, 

Ther the kyng dt/d dwells. 
To the porter he gan seye : 
' Wynd in), fellow, I the pray. 

And thy lord than ie^^ 


UUnt Slochys.' 



Torrtnt UKm 
loave of DmoimII, 




870 and rides to 

the CaHUe of tlio 
King of Provyiis. 


851. that w.] so F. Ill ; loays MS. 852. good] goo MS. 

853. Space left here for an initial letter of the largest size in MS. 

856. Hyde] ryght MS. 858. gas] gothe MS. 

859. tas] toke MS. 862. the] than MS. 868. jyoys MS. 

871. And MS. 872. dyd dw.] dwellyd MS. 875. tyll MS. 

* There arc two folios 91 in the MS. 

Digitized by 


Hi* King of 

Torrent, and 


Pray hjm, on won njght iu) hys sale 
To harburrow Torrent of PortynggaH, 

The portei' Dyd hys commandment^ 
To the kynge he ys wente 880 

And knelyd vppon) ys kne : 
' God blyse pe, lord, In thy sale ! 
Torrent of Portynggale 

Thus sendythe me to the; 
He prctythe yow, yf ye myght, 885 

To harburrow hym thys won) nyght^ 

Yf yowr witt yt bee.' 
The kyng swere be hym, )>at dyed on tre : 

* There ys no man) in) crystyante 
More welcome to me ! ' 890 

The kyng a-Eose and to the gat yod. 
Lorded and othei* lnjlygTUes good. 

That were glad of hys comwiyng*. 
In to the hale he hyme browght, 
Kyche met spare they nowght, 895 

Be-fore Torrent fore to bryng. 

* Syr/ sayd the kyng, * I pray the, t. 9ib. 
Where be thy men oflf armys free. 

That wit^ the scbuld leng V 
^ Syr, to a lord I mvst Kyde, 900 

Torrenftttrordu My squyer hongythe be my syJe, 

hit onljr Sqnire. 

No man schatt wtt/i me wend.' 

' S?/r,' seyd the kyng, * I pray the, 
Where schati thy ded of armys bee, 

Yf ytbethy wyttr 905 

878. Yf ys wilU to Mee MS. 892. knyga MS. 
899. len§] %oynd MS. 

feods him. 

Digitized by 




' Syr/ he seyd, * vttyrly, 
At Calabur, sekyrly, 

I ame i^ Hedy ther tyti 
WiiJi a squyer, fat wiH can Ryda ; 
Fast be the see Sydde 

Scbuld we pley ow?/r fyle ; 
And wot ye wyti and vndyrstond, 
Ther schaH no knyght come nere hond 

Fore dred of denttea yE' 
The kynge seyd : ' Be godde^ ore, 
I Rede, ])at fan come not thore. 

Fore why, I wytt the seye : 
Meche folke of that contre 
Come hether' foi^ sokoi* of me, 

Bothe be nyght and day ; 
There ys a gyant of gret Renowne, 
He dystrowythe bothe sete and towyn) 

And aH fat euyi* he may ; 
And ase the boke of Eome dothe teH, 
He wase get of the deweH of hett, 

As hys moder on slepe lay.' 
The kyng Seyd : * Be seynt Adryaii), 
I Eede, a nother Jentyti mane 

Be there and haue the gve : 
I haue a dowghttyr, fat ys mc dere, 
Thow schalt here wed to thy fere, 

And, yf yt thy wyll be, 
Two duchyes in /onde 
I wille geve here in) hande/ 

* Gramarcy, syr,' sayd he, 

Torrent sajt ht 
has to fight iu 



The King of 


him against Uie 
tnrrlbto Giant 




and ofBurt him 
his Daughter 
and 8 Dndiies 


915. kynges (!) MS. 916. there MS. 

922. seW] second e corr. out of a MS. 

929. the] 80 F. IV ; om. MS. degre MS. 

2. So P. IV ; om. (!) MS. 933. londe] honde F. IV ; om. MS. 

985. syr 8. h,] so F. I V ; seyd he thane MS. 


Digitized by 




Torrtnt tayt ht * With my ionge 80 haue I wrowght, 
troth. To bieke my day than witt I nowght, 

Nedys me behovythe ther to bee.* 

* In godd«9 name/ the kyng gane sayne, 
' lem. send the wiH a-geyne. 

Lord 80 mekyH of myghte ! ' 
MenstrelW wa8 them a-monge, 
Trompette^, harpys, and myrre songe, 

Delycyons nottis on hyght. 
When tyme was, to bed they wente ; 
On the moiTow Hose Tonente 

And toke leve of kyng and knyght 
H« Maxu, And toke a Hedy weyye, 

Be a see syd as yt laye, 

God send hym gattes Ryght ! 
A hye stiet haihe he nome, 
KftdiM caUbria. In to CalabuT he ys come 

With in) to days ore III ; 
Soo come thei* folk^ hym a-geyue, 
Fast folloyng wttZt cart and wayne, 

Fro-ward the sytte. 
' Dere god ! ' seyd Torrent no we, 
'Leve folkc«, what Eyllythe yow, 

Soo fast fore to fleel* 

* There ys a gyante here be-syde, 
In ale thys covntre fare and wyde 

No mane on lyve levyihe hee.* 

* Dere god,' sayd Torrant thane, 
'Where schaH I fynd that loihly man)!' 

Ther they answei-d liym anone : 

and ItMrs of 
tlie Giant. 








947. o/] 80 F. IV ; (m MS. 948. toke] so F. IV ; to MS. 

961. nome] so F. V ; none MS. 952. come] so F. V ; ffone MS. 

958. yaw] nowe add. (!) MS. 964. lothly\ so HalL ; lovely MS. 

965. anone] so F. V ; a geyne MS. 

Digitized by 



*ln a castyti be-sjd ihe see, 
Slongos, 80O hyght hee, 

Many a man had he slone. 
We wot witi wher he doth ly : TJi*G«ant8ioii8«» 

Be-fore the cyte of Hungry ; 970 

He wiH not thens gone, 
Tyti he hane the Kyche kyng* 
To hys pr^sone for to bryngg, 

To be lord of hyme self a-lone.' 

Tho wold he no lengei* a-byd, 975 

But to the sytte gan he Kyde, 

As fast as he myght fare ; 
Here barys feH and broke downs, »»• >»*■ broken tiM 

And the gatte« of gret Henowne 

Stondyng* aH baree. 980 

Men of armys stond hyme a-geyne, 
Mo than f yfty had he slayne and suin m men. 

WiUi gryme woundde^ and sare. 
When Torrent of hym had a syght, 
Thowe DesoneH be neuyi* so bryght, 985 

He will Eeue hym hys cliaffai^. 

Torrent in) the storrope stod 
And p?*ayd to god, J)at dyed on Eode : 

* Lord, ase thow schalt ale wyld at wyle, xonmt pmy* to 

y-« «» A .« « 11 ^^^ CluriBt for h«Ip. 

Gyff me grace to wyn the fyld, 990 

That thys lothly fynd hym yeld 
A-non to me tyH ! 

968. slone] so F. V ; slaylne (!) MS. 

969. doth ly] so F. V ; y» MS. 

970. eyU] so F. V ; knyghthod MS. Hungry] sa F. V ; 
Hongrys MS. 

971. thena] thtu MS. 

986. hym] m corr. out of s. liS. ehc^er MS. 

990. wynd (1) MS. vndyr nethe sperc and sehyld aild. (!) MS. 

991. lothly] onu MS. 

D 2 

Digitized by 




blow* hU horn. 

T1i« fllant 
Slonfnifl, of 

Mjs he'll wring 
Torrent's none. 

Hi» Crook Ia IS ft. 

A man scbaH But onnys Dyee, r. na. 

I will fyghi, whiH I may Dryee/ 

He mad chei' nobylL 995 

When he had I&ru prayd of grooe. 
He wyscheyd hyme a batt^ plase, 

Ther as hym lyst we//e. 

Torrent hys spere a-say be^ne, 
Botbe schyld and spere than), 1000 

That they were sekyr and good. 
Aftyr J)at, with in a tbrowe, 
Hys good home gane he blowe. 

The gyant sawe, wheP he stodde : 
Slongeg of Flonthus staryd than) ; 1005 

Quod Torrent : ' Yf thow be a gentyH roaji) 

Or come of gentyii: blod, 
Let thy beytyng and thy Ermyght bo, 
And come prove thy strenghe on me, 

Therfor I sowght the, be the Rodde.' 1010 

The gyant sayd : ' Be the Roode, 
Dewett of heti send the fode, 

Hether to seche me : 
By the nose I schid) the wryng, 
Thow berdles gadly ng*, 1015 

That att heH schatt thow see I ' 
The wey than to hym he tokc 
And on hys bake he bare a croke, 

Wase X f ot long and thre ; 
And thow he neucr so gret war', 1020 

Torrent thowght not fare to fare, 

TyH wone of them ded bee. f. «a. 

995. nobill chare MS. 998. wellc] were MS. 

1008. Let be thy b, a. t, erm. MS. 

1011. tayd\ written above the line. 1017. he^ so F. Y I ; om. MS. 

1018. he] her MS. croke] so F. VI ; ereke (1) MS. 

1020. were MS. 

Digitized by 



Tiloo wold Torrent no lengci* byd, 
Ty H the theff gan he Ryde, *««»»* ^^^'K"' 

Ase fast ase euyi' be may. 1025 

The theff had non ey but on), 
Soche sawe I neu^ none, 

iVieythei' be nyght nor be day. 
Thurrow godd^ helpe and sent Awsden) 
The spere throw ye and Iieme gan ren. 1030 pt«po«ui«oi«uft 

God send hym the Ryght wey ; 
Than the theff be-gane to Bore. 
Att that in) the sytte wore, 

Ouyi* the wallys they laye. 


Thow the fyndes ey were owte^ 1035 

Fast he leyd hym a-bowte 

Afi ^at somyrrej? nyght ; 
He set ys backe to an hyfi, 
That Torrent schuld not come hym tyH, 

So meche )>at theff covd of fyght 1040 

He bled so sore, I vndyrstond, 
Hys croke fett owt of hys bond, 

Hys dethe to hyme ys dyght 
Torrent to hyme Eane wM a spere, then •pmuv htm 

thro' th« body, 

Thurrow the body he gan hym here, 1045 

Thus helpe hym god of myght. 


AH that in) the sytte were, 
Mad fuU nobitt chere. 

That thys fynd wase Dedde. and kius htm. 

1024. ^]/add.(!)MS. 

1028. Bltfther (1) MS. nor] so F. VI ; and MS. 

1030. throw — ren] anon he toke to hym MS. 

1088. trore] so F. VI ; were MS. 

1040. >aq y add. MS. 1047. That alle MS. 

Digitized by 




Forthe they Ran w/t7« stavys of tre, tua, 1060 
Tonent seyd : ' So mvt I the, 

Kepe hole hys hed ! 
Tf yt be broke, so god me sped, 
Yt ys wyH the worse to lede.' 

They dyd ase he hem bede, 1055 

Mo than thre hunderd on a throng 
Yt ys solas Enyi^ a-mong 

Whan that he was dede. 

ThtKingof That)) the kyng of Calaber ayen) hym Went, 

Torrent be the bond he bent, 1060 

To the haH he gan) hym lede 
And comaondid sqniers ttro. 
Of hya hamee for to do 

And cloth hym) in another wede. 
Waytes on the ^vaH gan blowe, 1065 

Knyghtis assemled on a Rowe, 
featu him. And sith to the deyse they yede ; 

* Sir,' quod the kyng, * of whens are ye t ' 
' Of Portingale, sir,* said he, 

' I com heder, to sech my dede.* 1070 

Fnti curtesly the kyng gan say 
To Torrent on the opure day : 

* WyH ye wend with me 
A lituH here be-side to passe, 

There as the Geaunte^ dwelling was 1075 

His man^ now for to see T 
and ukm him To the csstcH gah) they gone, 
cmu*. Richer saw they never none, 

Better myght none be. 

1054. lede] Bede, struck ont and lede added in paler ink. 

\065. That seson they K&. he Jutm] kyme 0) US. lede} bad US. 

1057 put b^ore 1056 MS. 1062. two] (ho MS. 

1063. hys] her MS. 1070. deth MS. 

1072. To T] Tofrent said MS. 

Digitized by 




' Sir/ ho said, ' be god iJi-myjf , 
For thou hym) slew, J)at it dight, 
I vouche it saue on the, 


* I yeve yt the, air, of my ^ond, 

And there-to, an erledome of my lond, 

For soth, ye shaH it haue ; 
Oinage thou shalte none nor ffyne, 
Biit euer more to the and thyne, 

Frely, so god me saue ! * 
Lordys, and ye liston wold, 
What was clepud the riche hold : 

The casteH of Cardon), by aatoe. 
Two days or thre dweUith he thore 
And sith he takythe leve to ffare. 

Both at knyght and knave. 


By the kyng of P67*vens he gan gane, 
That he had oute of preson i-tane 

His son vppon a day. 
Gentilmen were blith and fitayn), 
That he in helth was comyn) agayn). 

That they myght with hym) play. 
There of herd he, aerUjnle, 
That DesoneH wedid shold be 

With an vncouth Ray. 
And listonytb, lordis, of a chaunce, 
Howe he lefte his countenannce 

And takyth hym) armes gay ! 


The King of 
Calabria givm 
Giant's cavtie. 


and an Karl Jom. 


1090 Th«Caatl«'tB 



Torrtnt heart 
that DesotieU is 
toraariy a 


1081. U] is MS. 

1083. y(] om. MS. qf] alU add. MS. hond\ lond MS. 

1084. my] om. MS. 1086. nor] om. MS. 

1091. by s.] om. MS. 1092. there MS. 

1098. Uve] the way MS. 1096. of preson] om. MS. 

1101. sertayn MS. 1108. vnc] a add. MS. 

Digitized by 




ProTynt knSglitt 



and a grinning 
dragon of gold 

He )i«rt th« 
maiTf agt is 

By-fore the kyng he feH on kne : 
'Grood lord/ he said, 'for charite, 

Yeve me order of knyght ! 
I wott wdl, leryd are ye, 1110 

My lordys dooghter shatt wed be 

To a man) off myght/ 
* Sir,' he said, * I trow, she mone r. 9s«. 

To the prynce off Aragon), 

By this day se vynnyght 1115 

Swith,' he seith, * that this be done, 
That thou be there and wjn) thy shone, 

Oete the armes bryght' 

Sir Torrent ordenyth hym a sheld, 
It was ryche in enery ffeld, 1120 

Listonyth, what he bare : 
On a^re a squier off gold, 
Kichely bett on mold ; 

Listonyth, what he ware : 
A dragon) lying hym be-syde, 1125 

His mouth grennyng fufi wyde, 

AH flyghtyng as they were ; 
The creste, that on his hede shold stond. 
Hit was 1^ gold shynand, 

Thus previd he hym) there. 1130 

Lordys assembelid in sale. 
Well mo than I haue in tale, 

Or ellis gret wonder were. 
There herd Jie t^ ffor certaii), 
That DesoneH wed shold be than), 1 1 35 

That was hym selfe ffuH dere. 

1110. ye are leryd MS. 1111. be teed MS. 

1115 and 1118 have changed their place in the MS. 

1122. On] qf MS. 1134. fu] 1 MS. 

Digitized by 





And whaD) he herd of that ffiire. 
Wots tjdingis than were thare. 
Might he none gladly here . . . 

He wold not in passe. 
Till at the myd mete was 

The kyng and meny a knyght ; 
As they satt at theyre mete glade. 
In at the hali: dur he rade 

In armes ffeyre and bryght, 
With a sqnief , that is ffre ; 
Yp to the lady lyduth he, 

That rychely was i-dight. 
' LordySy' he said, ' among you aH 
I chalenge thre couisus in the hidl, 

Or Delyner Jier me with right ! ' 

The kyng of Aragon) 6ett her bye, 
And he def endid her nobely : 

' I wyti none delyn«" the.' 
His son said : ' So mnste I thryve, 
There shaH no man just for my wiffe ; 

But yf youre wyH it be, 
For her love did I never no dede, 
I shaU to day, so god me spede : 

Be-hdd and ye shall: se.' 
* Alas ! ' said Desonell the dere, 
' Full longe may I sitt here. 

Or Torrent chalenge me.' 

Trumpettes blew in the prese, 
Lordys stond on the g^'ese^ 
Ladyes lay ou^ and be-held. 

1141. a£\ om. MS. 1143. tndel om. MS. 

1144. he\ they MS. 1151. Delyuer U me 113. 

1165. Atf grese] reugie or retigis MS. 


Torrtnt ridM into 
Um HaU whart 
1145 DMondlia, 

and oballengM 
1150 blmforhtr. 

1155 Th«Prino»of 
Aragon aoctpta. 



and tha lUta ara 
mada ready. 

Digitized by 



PrlDOt of Arafoo, 

aud h« it carrtod 


The prynco and Torrent ihen 
Ejtber to other gan ren), 

Smertely in that field ; 
Torrent sett on hjm) so sore, 
That hors and man down) he bore, 

And aH to-sheverd his sheld. 
So they tombelid bA in fiere, 
That afterward of VII yere 

The prynoe none armes myght weld. 


Torrent said : ' So god me saue, 
Other two conrsus wyH I haue, 

Yf ye do me law of lond.' 
Gret lordys stond styit, 
They said nether good ne ytt 

For tynding of his hond. 
The prynce of Aragon) in they bari' 
With lituH worshipp and sydes sare, 

He had no fote on ffor to stond. 
Thus thes lordys jiistid aye ; 
Better they had to haue be away, 

Suche comffort there he fibnd. 






At dinner. 

Torrent laye 

SIODffU*'* ^Md 

on tlie table. 


He wold not in passe, 
TiH they at myd mete was, 

On the other day at none. 
His squiers habite he had, 
Whan) he to the deyse yad. 

With oute couped shone, 
And the hede on) the bord he laid : 
' Lo, sir kyng, hold this,' he said, 

* Or ellis wroth we anon) I ' 



1167. than MS. 1186. they] he MS. 1187. found MS. 

Digitized by 




They sett stiH at the bord, 

None of hem spake one word, 

But ryght that he had done. 


Torrent at the syde bord stode : 


' Lystonyth, lordynge*, gentitt of blood, 

For the love of god idl-myght : 


The kyng heyght me his doughter dere, 

U>Klr* him 
D«aonen, and half 

To ffyght with a ffendys fifere, 

Portugal, if b* 

That wekyd was and wight, 


To wed her to my wyffe, 

And halffe his kyngdome be his liflfe, 

And after his days aH his ryght 


Lokyth, lordys, you among. 


Whether he do me ryght or wrong 1 * 


Tho waned hym) both kyng & knyght 


Tho said the kyng of Aragon, i-wys : 

Tli« King of 

* Torrent, I wiste no thing of thys, 

A gret maister arte thou ! ' 

The kyng sware be seynt GryflFeii) : 


' With a sword thou shalte her wynne, 

Or thou haue her nowe : 

For why, my son to her was wed, 

says hi» son lias 

Gret lordys to churche her led. 


I take wittnes of aB. you.' 


' Kyng Calamond, haue good day. 

Thou shalt i-bye it, and I may. 

He wiU be 
revenged on the 

To god I make avowe.' 

King of Portugal. 


The Empej-oure of Kome ther was, 

Be-twene thes kynges gan) he passe 


And said : * Lordys, as sone. 

1198. They spake Tieiher ylle ne good add. (!) 
1211. «k] ky, struck out, add. MS. 
1220. ywA aUc MS. 


Digitized by 





belwMn t 

Aragon Muds to 

to light Tomnt 

This squier, that hath brought this hede. 
The kyng had wend he had be dede. 

And a-ventarly gah) he gone : 
I rede you take a day of ryghtett^ 
And do it vppon) two knyghte^^ 

And let no man) be slon) ! ' 
Gret lordySy that were thare. 
This talis lovid at that fiire 

And ordenyd tha^ anon). 

To the kyng the thoght com) was. 
To send vnto Sathanas 

For a gcaunt, that hight Gate, 
For to make hym) knyght to his bond 
And sease hym) inidi his lou'l ; 

The messingere toke the gate. 
Gret othes he sware hym thai)), 
That he shold ffyght but with one man), 

And purvey hym he bad 
Iryn stavis two or thre, 
For to ffyght with Torent flfre, 

Though he there of ne watt 






Than take counsel! kyng and knyght, 
On lond that he shold not ffyght, [1250] 

But fi&ur oute in the see, 1250 

oil 1U1 uland In an yle long and brad ; 

A gret payn) there was made, 

That holdyn) shold it be. 
Yf Gate slow Torent, that ffi-e ys, 
ioriuiifv.>rtugai. Hslfo Portyngale shold be his, 1255 

To spend with dedys flTre ; 

1280. ryghtss] Kutys MS. 1232. slayn MS. 

1235. iha£\ ihan MS. 1286. tha thoght om. MS. 

1247. woU MS. 1248. eotins.] </add. MS. 

1251. brod MS. 

Digitized by 



And yf sir Torrent myght hym ou«-com). 
He shold haue halfe Aragon), 
Was better than sucbe thre. [1 260] 

The Gyaunt shipped in a while 12G0 ^i«nic.u 

And sett hyin) oute in an yle, !">•»»••• 

That was grow both grone and gay. 
Sir Torrent com) prokand on a stede, 
Richely armed in his wede ; 

* Lordyngys,' gan he say, 1265 

* It is semely ffor a knyght, 
Yppon a stede fibr to ftyght' 

They said sone : * Nay, 
He is so hevy, he can not ryde. [1 270] 

Torrent said : ' Evitt niut he be-tytle, 1270 

Falshode, woo worth it aye ! ' 


* Sir, takyth honsett and shrefte 1 ' tvib. 
To god he did his hondys lifte. 

And thankid hym of his sond : 
' legu. Cryste, I the praye, 1275 Torrent pmy. for 

Send me myght and strengith this day 

A-yeii) the ffend to stond ! * 
To the shipp sir Torent went, 
With the grace, god had hym sent, [1280] 

That was never ffayland ; 1280 

AH the lordys of that centre, 
Frome Borne vnto the Grekys se, 

Stodc and be-held on lond. 


Whan sir Torrent in to the He was brought, and luku in tii» 

The shipmen) lenger wold tary nought, 1285 

But hied hem sone ageyii) ; 

1278. This line begins with a big initial letter. Toreni] yode, 
stnick out, add. MS. 128S. On loi\d stode and be heUl MS. 

Digitized by 





kiioeks Torrtnt* • 
•toff oot or his 

and rant Into 


Torrtnt tliltt 
eobblo-ttontt al 


tiul lie It towd 

Tumiit It tliipt 
to Ui« nudnland. 

The Oiatmt said : * So must I ihe. 
Sir, thou art welcom to me, 

Thy deth is not to layii) 1 ' [1 290] 

The ffirste stroke to hym he yaue, 1290 

Oute of his hand flew his staff : 

That thefe was fofi fayii). 
Tho sir Torent went nere Cate, . . , . . 

He thought, he wold hym) haue slayn). 
The theff couth no hetter wonne, 1295 

In to the see rennyth he sone, 

As faste as he myght fiare. 
Sir Torrent gaderid cobled stonys, [1300] 

Good and handsom ffor the nonys, 

That good and round ware ; 1300 

Meny of them to hym) he caste. 
He threw stonys on hym so faste, 

That he was sad and sare. 
To the ground he did hym fett, 1 96a. 

Meii) myght here the fend yett 1305 

Halfe a myle and more. 

Sir Torent said, as he was wonne, 
He thankid lesa, Maryes son), [1310] 

That kyng, that sent hym my^f ; 
He said : * Lordys, for charite, 1310 

A hote that ye send to me, 

It is nere hand nyght ! * 
They Eeysed a gale wzVi a sayll, 
The Geaunt to lond for to trayll, 

AH men wonderid on that wight 1315 

Whan that they had so done, 
They went to sir Torent f iiH sone 

And shipped that comly knyght. [1320] 

1298. gad] good add. MS. 
1300. were MS. 1803. tore MS. , 1306. more MS. 

Digitized by 



The emp«i"oure of Kome was there, 
The hyiiges of Pei-vens and of Calabere yare, 1320 

And other two or ihre. 
They yaue str Torent, that he wan, S^^L-ondi. 

Both the Erth and the woman), t^muwy. 

And said, weH worthy was he. 
Sir Torent had in Aragori) 1325 

The riche Cite of Cargon) S^.^'^ '' 

And aH that riche contre ; 
Archheshoppes, as the law feH, [1330] g^-SJI^Ji!;-"^ 

Departid the prynce and Disson^ or Amgon. 

With gret solempnite. 1330 

For sir Torent the fend did f^, 
Gret lordys honoured hyni) aH 

And for a doughty knyght hym) tase ; 
The k vnaj said : * I ynderstond, Th« King of 

^ ^ o 1 J Portugal 

Thou hast fought ffor my doughtei* & my lond, f.«6. MknowiedgM 

1 oo/* Torrent, 

And weH wonne her thou hase. 133o 

He gaue to saint Nycholas de Ban* 
A grett Erldome and a w'man* [1340] 

That abbey of hym iaa 
For Ie*us love, moch of myght, 1340 

That hym helpith day & nyght. 

Whan) he to the battett gas. 
Lordys than) at the laste, 
Echone on theyre way paste. 

And euery man) to his. 1345 

The quene of Portingale was ffayr), «^«»« Q«*«" *» 

That sir Torent was com agayn) 

And thankyd god of this. [1 350] 

1320. The kynges] om. MS. 

1321. ol?usr] kynges add. MS. or] the add. MS. 

1837. 8ain£\ sir MS. 1388. simarre] marr MS. 

1339. tas\ redUh MS. 1342. gas] yode MS. 

Digitized by 




Portuffal bids 


Than said Uie kyng : ' I yudentond. 

Thou hast fought for mj dooghter & my lond. 

And art my ward, i-wys^ 
And I wyti not ageyn) the say ; 
But abyde halfe yere and a day. 

And broke her wett with blis ! ' 



poMM a niKht 
with DeMiMlU 


Torent said : ' So muste I the, 
Sith it wytt no better bo, 

I cord with that assent 1 ' 
After mete, as I you teH, 
To speke with mayden) Desonett, 

To her chamber he went 
The damys^ so moche of pride 
Set hym on) her bed-syde, 

And said : * Welcom), verament ! ' 
Such gestenyng he a-right, 
That there he dwellid afi ny3f 

With that lady gent. 





Hie Kins of 
Norirajr lieg* 

bim Income 
and flglit .1 
Giant there. 


Sir Torent dwellid thare 
Twelffe wekys and mare, 

TiH letters com hym tiH 
Fro the kyng of Norway ; 
For lewis love he did hym praye, 

Yf it were his wyH, 
He shold com as a doughty knyght, 
With a Geaunt for to ffyght, 

That wytt his londys spyH ; 
He wold hym yeve his doughter dere 
And halfe Norway ffar and nere, 

Both be hold and be hyH. 




Digitized by 



Sir Torent said : * So god me saue, TornDt 

I-noQgh to lyre vppon I baue, 1380 

I wytt desiie no more ; 
But it be, for lera is sake 
A poynt of armes for to take, 

That hath helpid me be-ffore. 
I yeve the here oute of my hond 1385 !*»•• "J* ^ i^d 

to the King fi>r 

To thy dooghter sB, my lond, D6mimii; 

Yf that I end thore.' 
And whan) he toke his way to passe, [1390] 

Mo than ffyfty with hym was, 

That fals to hym) wore. 1390 


Syr Torent to the lady went^ 
FuH cnrtesly and gent : 

' Desonett, haue good day ! 
I rouste now on my jumay, 

A kyngis lond for to fend. 1395 

Thes gold rynges I shatt yeve the, iMTwtgoid 

Kepe ikem w^, my lady ffre, "** * 

Yf god a child vs send ! * [1 400] 

She toke the ryngis with moche care, 1 996. 

Thries in sownyng feH she thare, 1400 

Whan she saw, that he wold wend. 


Shipp and takyll they dight, and goM on bourd 

Stede and armoz^r ffbr to ffyght L^ilind tnnoor. 

To the bote they bare. 
Gentilmen), that were hend, 1405 

Toke her leve at theyre frend. 

With hym ffor to fare. 

18S7. there MS. 1890. were MS. 1393. DenoseUe UB. 
1397. ihem] om. MS. 

Digitized by 






Kyng Colomond, is not to Ixiyii), 
He wold, that he cam nerure agajh); 

There fore god yeff hym) care I 
So within the ffyfty dayes 
He Come in to the lond of Norways, 

Hard Contre ffoond he thare. 



him of a QlMit. 


Thus sir Torrent, for soth, is fare, 
A noble wynd drofEe hym) thare, 

Was blowyng oute of the weste. 
Of the Coste of Norway they had a sight 

Of sayling they were att preste. 
So ffeyre a wynd had the knyght, 
A lituH be-IEore the mydnyght 

He Bode be a f oreste. 
The shipmen said : * We be shent ; 
Here dwellith a geaunt, yerament, 

On his lond are we keei I * 



Torrent rssolves 
to land. 


The maistershipmon) said : ' Nowe 
I Eede, we take down) sayle & Eowe, 

While we haae this tyde. 
Sir,' he said, ' be god aHmyght, 
The giant lieth euery nyght 

On) the mowntayh) here be-syde ; 
My lord the kyng wyti not ffyght, 
TiH he of you haue a sight, 

On you ys ali his pryde I ' 
Sir Torrent said : * Here my bond 1 
Sith we be ryven on this lond. 

To nyght wyH I ryde.' 


f. ioe«. 


1424. ke8{\ seU MS. 1425. maistershipmen MS. 

1429. lieth] here add. MS. 1484. Tcyrerent M& 

Digitized by 





Sir Torent armyd hyni) anon 
And his knygbte^ euerychone 

With sheld and spere in bond. 
The shipmen) said : ^ As mut I thiyye, 
I Beds, that euery man) other shryye, 

Or that we go to the lond.* 
Sir Torent said : ' As god me spede. 
We wiH firste se that ffede. 

[14401 Tomatuidhls 
-* kiiighu ann. 


My lord was never faiZand ! 


Gentilmen, meJee chere good, 

For lesu. love, that died on Hood, 


He wiH be oure waraunt ! ' 


In a forest can) they passe, 

Tli«y rwich Um 

Of Biasitt, saith the boke, it was, 


PortM of U Mill. 

With bowes brod and wyde. 

Lyons and berys there they fEond 

And wyld bestc* aboute goand, 

Eeysing on euery side. 

Thes men) of armes, vriih trayii) 


Tlie coward 

To the shipp they flew agayn) 

knlghca Am to 
tilt ship, 

In to the see at that tyde ; 


Fast from land row they be-gan). 

A-bove they left that gentilman), 

and iMva Torrtn 

With wyld beestis to bane kyde. 




The shipmen) of the same lond 

Kyved vp, I vnderstond. 

In another lond off hold. 


To the chamber they toke the way, 

KolM tulM of 

There the kyng hym) selfe lay, 


Torrent art told 
to th« King of 

And f als talis hyni) told 


1445. JUand MS. 1446. make] made MS. 

1451. bowes] hrovoes MS. 1452. ffcyund MS. 

14S0. k corrected out of r. 1465 put before 1464 MS. 

£ 2 

Digitized by 




Til* Kliig of 
wants Torrtnt 

rides ii|i to 
2 Dragons. 

For he wold not the geaunt abyJe, 
For aH this contrey feyre and wyde, 
Thou} he yeff it hym wold. 


* Sir kyng, ye haue yonre selfe 
Erlis doughty he ten) or twelfe. 

Better know I none : 
Send youre niessingeris ffar and wyde^ 
For to ffeH the geaonte^ pride, 

That youre doughter hath tane.' 

* I had lever to haue that knyght ; 
With hym) is grace of god aHmyjt^, 

To be here at his bane.' 
FqH litoli wist that riche kyng 
Of Sir Torrente* ryding 

In the forest att alone. 

Thorou3 helpe of god that -mik hym was. 
Fro the wyld bestis gah) he passe 

To an hye hytt. 
A lituft while be-fore the day 
He herd in a valey 

A dynnyng and a yeH. 
Theder than) riduth he. 
To loke, what thing it myjt be. 

What adventure thare be-feH. 
It were two dragons stiff and strong, 
Vppon) theyre lay they sat and song, 

Be-side a depe weH. 

Sir Torent said thanne 

To god, that made mail) f. lou. 

And died vppon) a tree : 

1471. doughty W] oro. MS. 

1476. tha£\ ky, struck out, add. MS. 

1490. Uiare] that MS. 








Digitized by 




'Lord, as thou mayst aH weld, 
Teve me grace, to wytd the feld 

Of thes ffendys on/re ! ' 
Whan he had his prayers made, 
Pertely to hem) he Bade 

And one thorou} oute hare he. 
Thus sped the knyght at his comyug 
Thorough the helpe of hevyn) kyng : 

Lord, lovid muste thou be ! 

[15001 Torrent imiyt ta 


ttiears thv Iln4 



The other dragon wold not flee, . . . 

But shoicdth att his myght ; 
He smote ffire, that lothely thing. 
As it were the lightnyng, 

Yppon) that comly knyght 
There fore sar Torent wold not lett, 
But on) the dragon) fasf he bett 

And oyer'<iome that foule wight. 
Tho anon the day sprong, 
Fowles Hose, mery they song, 

The Sonne a-Rose on hy^/. 


Torent of the day was futi blithe. 
And of the valey he did hym) swith, 

As fast as euer he may. 
To a mowntayn) he rode ryght^ 
Of a cast^ he had a sight 

With towrys hyje and gay .... 
He come in to an hyje strete. 
Few folke gah) he mete. 

To wis hym) the way. 



and tliai kills 




He Men a CmU*. 


1499. orrfre] ontreioe MS. 
1507. shotith MS. 

1525. vn8h MS. 

1502. lie bare MS. 
1516. Jiyie MS. 

Digitized by 



TomntridMto To the gatys tho he Bode ; 

thtNontOtenrs ,, « ^ , ,, "■ 

oMttogstw. Fott craftely they were made lioia. 

Of Iran) and eke of tree. [1531] 

One tre stonding there he fibnd : 
Nyne oxen) of that lond 1530 

Shold not drawe the tre. 
The Giatint wrought yp hia watt 
And laid stonys gret and smatt : 

A lothely man) was he. 
* Now/ quod Torrent. * I not, whare, 1535 

My squiers he ffro me to fare, 

Euer waried th^ he ! [1540] 

H« oomiden ' Lord god, what is heste, 

So Jesa me helpe. Est or Weste, 

I Can not Eede to say, 1540 

Yf I to the shipp fare, 
No shipmen) ffynd / thare ; 

It is long, sith they were away. 
Other wayes yf I wend, 

Wyld hestis wyti me shend : 1545 

Falshede, woo worth it aye ! 
and reaoiTM to I f^ght here, lesu, for thy sake ; [1560] 

Lord, to me kepe thou take, 
As thou hest may ! ' 

Down) light this gentitt knyght, 1550 

To Rest hyni) a litutt wight, 
And vnhrydelid his stede 
He boiu hu And let hym) hayte oh) the ground, 
And aventid hym) iii) that stound. 

There of he had gret nede. 1555 

1526. rode MS. 1529. fwnd MS. 1582. VfelU MS. 
1535. wot MS. 1537. they] thoti MS. 1540. My] done MS. 
1542. And no MS. /] om. MS. 1553. bayU] hym add. MS. 

Digitized by 




The Gyaunt yode and gaderid stone 
And sye, where the knyght gan) gone, 

Att armed in dede ; 
And wot ye weH and not wene, 
Whan eyther of hem had other sene, 

Smertely they rerid her dede. 

For that sir Torent had hym sene, 
He worth yppon his stede, I wene, 

And leffii praydf he till : 
' Mary son), thou here my bone, 
As I am) in venturus s/ad come, 

My jumay to f ufl-fiyH ! ' 
A voys was fro heyyn) sent 
And said : * Be blith, sir Torent, 

And yeve the no thing yH, 
To ffyght with my lordys enemy : 
Whether that thou lyve or dye, 

Thy mede the quy te he wyH ! ' 

Be that the giaunt had hym dight, 
Cam) ageyn) that gentitt knyght, 

As bold as eny bore ; 
He bare on) his nek a croke, 
Woo were the man), that he ouertoke, 

It was twelfe ffote and more. 
* Sir,' he said, * ffbr charite, 
Loke, cartes man) that thou be, 

Yf thy wyH ware : 
I haue so fought att this nyght 
With thy II dragons wekyd and wight. 

They haue bett me futt sore.' 

r. loso. 


The NorM OUiii 
prepaiw to llglit. 

1565 Torrtoi ptvs to 


and is cbeenl liy 
a voice flrom 
1570 Heaven. 

1575 The Giant 

advanoaa against 




1561. they] om. MS. 1566. sad MS. 1567. to] than MS. 

1573. He wylle quyte the thy incdc MS. 

Digitized by 




Thtt oiantnjs The Qeaunt said : ' Be my fay, 
**^*p»»** Wore tydingca to me this day [1600] 

I myght not goodly here. 
Thorough the valey as thou can), 
Torrmtforkm- My two dragons hast thou skzd, 1590 

My solempnite they were. iitt*. 

To the I haue f uH good gate ; 
Md his BroUiw For thou slow my brother Gate, 
^*^ That thou shalte by fuHdere!' 

Be-twene the giaunt and the knyght 1595 

Men myght se buffette^ right, 

Who so had be there. [1610] 


Sir Torent yaue to hym) a brayd ; 
He levid that the aungeH said. 

Of deth yaue he nottght 1600 

In to the br^it he hym) bare. 
His spere hede leffce he thare. 
So eviH was hitt hythoughi. 
Th« Giant't erook The Giauut hym ayen) smate 

TorrantTlbMd Thorough his sheld and his plate, 1605 

^ In to the flesh it sought ; 

And sith he puUith at his croke, [1620] 

and sticks tura. So fast in to the flesh it toke, 

That oute my^t he gete it nought 


On hym) he hath it broke, 1610 

Glad pluckys there he toke, 
Set sadly and sare. 

1590. slaync MS. 1600. n(ni^h(\ no dyrU MS. 

1603. bylh.] mipU MS. 

1912. sore MS. 

Digitized by 



Sir Torent stalworth satt, 
Oute of his handys he it gatt, 

No lenger dwellid he thore. 1615 

In to the water he cart his sheld, ,„, STTi^STu- 

Croke and afi to-geders it held. [1630] ount's crook into 

" the water. 

Fare after, how so euer it ffare. 
The Qeaiint f olo wid with all his mayr), tii« oiMt go« 

And he come never quyk agayn) : lo20 uid is diowiMd. 

God wold, that so it ware. 


Sir Torent bet hym) there, r. iw* 

Tifi that this fend did were, 

Or he thena wend. 
On hym had he hurt but ane, 1625 

Lesse myght be a mannt«9 bane. 

But god is f uH hend : [1 640] 

Thorough grace of hym, that b& shall weld. 
There the knyght had the feld. 

Such grace cod did hym) send. 1630 xorrtnt HdM 


Be than it nyed nere hand nyjt*, cuu«. 

To a casteH he Bode right, 
AH nyght there to lend. 


In the castdS found he nought, 

That god on the Bode bought ; 1 635 

High yppoii) a toure. 
As he caste a side lokyng, [1650] 

He saw a lady in her bed syttyng, wmi flndt a fiiir 

White as lylye ffloure ; 
Vp a-Bose that lady bryght, 1640 

And said : * Welcom), s/r knyght. 

That fast art in stoure I ' 

1615. Uicre MS. 1626. But Ussf. MS. 

Digitized by 




Torrtnt Mka for 
« ulghi't lodging, 

Tli« Lady Mys 
Wanont wlQ 

Torrtnt telU 
her to 

oonie aiid see 
tlie Giaiit. 

' Dam jseH, welcoxn) mat thou be 1 
Oraunt thou me, for charite. 
Of one nyghtds sotoure I ' 


* By Mary/ said that lady dere, 

* Me foi^thinkith, that thou com) here, 

Thy deth now is dight ; 
For here dwellith a geaiint, 
He is clepud Weraunt^ 

He is to the devitt be-taughi 
To day at morii) he toke his croke, 
Forth at the yates the way he toke. 

And said, he wold haue a draught ; 
And here be chambers two or thre, 
In one of hem I shaH hide the, 
God the saue ffrome harmes right ! ' 
' Certayn)/ tho said the knyght, 
' That theffe I saw to nyght^ 

Here be-side a sla^. 
He was a ferly freke in ifyght^ 
With hym faught a yong knyght, 

£ch on other laid good lode ; 
Me thought w^, as he stode, 
He was of the fendt^ blood, 

So Eude was he made. 
Dame, yf thou leve not me. 
Com) nere, and thou shalt se. 
Which of hem abade.' 

Blith was that lady bryght 
For to se that selly sight : 
With the knyght went sha 




f. IM*. 





1645. 9oeoure MS. 1650. Weraunt] tomDwnt (?) MS. 

1651. to] of MS. 1660. slaU or flaU MS. 1668. U>da MS. 

1669. aboda MS. 1671. ncllyl om. MS. 

Digitized by 




Whan she cam, where the G^unt lay, 

* Sir,' she said, * parmaffay 

I wott w^ it is he. 
Other he was of god aH-myght 
Or seynt Geoige, cure lady knyjf , 

That there his hane hath be. 
Tf eny crystoii) man smyte hym down), 
He is worthy to hane renown) 

Thorough onte B& crystiaunte.' 


*I hane wonder,' said the knyght, 

* How he gate the, lady bryght. 

Fro my lord the kyng.' 
' Sir/ she said, ' verament, 
As my fader on huntyng went 

Erly in a momyng, 
For« his men pursued a dere. 
To his casteH, that stondith here, 

That doth my hondys wryng, 
This Giaunt hym toke, wo he be ! 
For his love he gevith hym) me, 

He wold none other thinge.' 


Forth she brought bred and wyne, 

Fayn) he was for to dyne 

This knyght made noble chere. 

Though that he woundid were 

With the Geaunt strong. 


Sir Torrent dwellid no lenger thare, 
Than) he myjt away fare 
With that lady bryght. 

1688. For MS. 

Prinoew mm th« 



1680 undimilMshto 

11040. 1685 Sht tells Torrent 



that her Father 
fcave her, as his 
ransom, to the 


1700 Torretittnkes 
Iter away. 

Digitized by 




Torrent lonj^ 

ThtNo r woyton 
PrIiictM MM >Mr 

Torrent U 

*Now, I«9Uy that made heii', 
Send me on lyve to DesoneH, 

That I my trouth to plight! ' 
Tho eye they be a forest syde 1705 

Men) of annes ffiiste ride 

On cooisers comly dighi [1720] 

The lady said : ' So mvst I thee, 
It is my fader, is com for me. 

With the Qeannt to ffyght.' 1710 


An harood said anon) right : 
' Yon I se an armed knyght, 

And no squier, but hym) one : 
He is so hig of bone & blood, 
He is the Geannt, be the Bode ! ' 

Som) seith, he riduth vppon). 
• Nay/ said the kyng, * yerament, f. io46. 

It is the knyght, that I after sent, 

I thanke god and seynt lohfl, 
For the Geannt slayn) hath he 
And wonne my doughty, weH is me ! 

All his men are atone ! ' 




and welcomd 
by the King of 

Hit wounds are 


Wott ye weH, with loy and blis 
Sir Torent there recevid ys, 

As doughty man) of dede. 1725 

The kyng and other lordys gent 
Said, ' Welcom), sir Torent, [1830] 

In to this vncouth thedeT 
In to a state they hym) brought, 
Lechis sone his woundis sought ; 1730 

They said, so god hem spede, 

1714. Ug\ long MS. 1722. oL] tanc MS. 

1728. Ihedc] lovd MS. 

Digitized by 



Wore there no Ijve but ane, 
His liffe they wytt not vndertane, 
For no gold ne ffor mede. 

The lady wist not or than), 
That he was hurt, that gentilmaii). 

And sith she went hym tytt ; 
She sought his woundup and said thare : 
' Thou shalte ly ve and welfare, 

Yf the no-thing evyti I 
My lord the kyng hath me hight, 
That thou shalt wed me, stV knyght^ 

ITie fforward ye to fulle fFyti.' 
' Damyseti, loo here my hond : 
And I take eny wyflFe in this lond, 

It shaH be at thy wyH ! ' 

Gendres was that ladyes name. 
The Geaunt^s hede he brought hame. 

And the dragons he brought 
Mene myght here a myle aboute, 
How on the dede hedys they did shoute, 

For the shame, that they hem) wrought, 
Both with dode and with tong 
Fyfte on the hedys dong, 

That to the ground they sought 
Sir Torrent dwellid thare 
Twelfe monythis and mare. 

That flfurther myjt he nought 

The kyng of Norway said : * Nowe, 
Fals thevis, woo worth you, 
Ferly soteH were ye : 

1735 Th«Princ«n 



daiiii* Torrent 
M h«r husband. 


[1850] HeriianMb 



Torrent Hayt J2 

[18C0] Tr^:;r 


1749. he 6r.] also MS. 

1752, thet/] had add. MS. 

Digitized by 


TlM King of 
Torrtnt't blM 
Sqalna to Mft* 

whan til drown. 


Ye said, the knyght wold nut com) : 
Switb cute of my kyngdome, 

Or hangid sliatt ye be I' 
His squier?. that fro hym) fled, 
With sore strokys are they spred 

Yppon the wanne see, 
And there they drenchid euery man), 
Saue one knave^ that to lond cain), 

And woo he-gone is he. 

The child, to lond that god sent, 
In Portyngale he is lent, 

In a riche town), 
That h&th hight be her day. 
And euer shidi, as I you say, 

The town) of Peron). 
By-fore the kyng he hym sett, 
* Futt: wett: thy men), lord, the grett^ 

And in the see did they drown.' 
Desonett said : * Where is Torent T 
and taiit Dasoneii ' In Norway, lady, verament' 
jn*Norway.' On sownyng fett she down). 

Ha takea tha 

Dawa to tlia King 
of Portugal, 

Slia awoona, 
and folk aaa aha 
i« big with child. 






As she sownyd, this lady myld. 
Men my3t se tokenyng of her child, 

Steryng on) her right syde. 1785 

Gret Euth it was to teH:, 
How her maydens on) her fett, [1890] 

Her to Goner and to hide. 
Tho the kyng said : * My dougbUr, do way ! 
By god, thy myrth 13 gone for aye, 1790 

Spousage wyH thou none bide ! 

1774. haU (!) MS. 1778. the] they US. 

1779. did] are MS. droumed MS. 

1791. bide] lede MS. 

Digitized by 




There fore thou shalt in to ihe see 
And that Bastard mth-in the, 

To leme you fFor to ride/ 
Erlis and Barons, that were good, 
By-fore the kyng knelid and stode 

For that lady free. 
The qnenp, her moder, on knees f^ 
' For lesu, is love, that harood heH, 

Lord, haue mercy on) me ! 
That ylke dede, that she hath done, 
It was with an Erlis sonue, 

Eiche man) i-nough is he ; 
And yf ye wyH not let her ly ve. 
Right of lond ye her yeve, 

TiH she delyu^rd be ! ' 

Thus the lady dwellith there, 
Tyll that she delyu^ were 

Of men) children) two ; 
In all poyntes they were gent, 
And like they were to sir Torent ; 

For his love they sufferid woo. 
The kyng said : * So mut I thee. 
Thou shalte in-to the see 

With oute wordys moo. 
Euery kyngis doughty?' fTer and nere. 
At the shaH they lere, 
Ayen) the law to do.* 


Gret ruth it was to se. 
Whan they led that lady ffree 
Oute of her faders lond. 

1807. Thus the] so F. VII ; This MS. 

1808. Tyll] 80 F. VII ; om. MS. 

1810. aZq so F. VII ; om. MS. 

Tlie King of 
Portugal (leelarM 
h«Ml send 
Desoo^ and bar 
Bafttard to tea. 

1795 HUBarit 

and tiM Queen 



pray for mer^ 
for Detoiiell. 


She It delivered 
of t male cliiUlren 



Her Father my 
•he eliall be Mnt 
1815 out to tea. 



She is led from 
hiv land. 

Digitized by 




daughter** (kt«. 

The quene wezid the nere wood 
For her doughter, that gentifi ffode. 

And kDjghtis stode wepand ; 
A cloth of silke gan they ta 
And pa^-tyd it be-twene hem twa, 

Therin they were wonde. 



Whan) they had shypped that lady ytng, 



An hunderid feti in sownyng 

At Peron) on) the sond. 



Whan that lady was downe fall, 

On lesu Cryste dyd she call ; 

Down) knelid that lady clcTte : 

Christ fbrlMT 

^ Rightf all god, ye me sende 


Some good londe, on to lende, 

That my chyldren may crystonyd bene ! ' 
She said, ' Knyghtis and ladyes gent, 
Grete weti my lord, str Torrent, 

Yefif ye hym) euer sene 1 ' 


The wynd Rose ayen) the nyght^ 


Fro lond it blew that lady bryght 


Yppon the see so grene. 


Wyndes and wedeis haue her drevyn). 

]}at ia a foreet she is revyo), 

Theie wyld beestis were ; 



The see was eb, and went her firoo, 

rMicli land. 

And lef te her and her children) two 
Alone with-oute ffere. 

r. iMt. 

1827. 80 F. VII ; om. MS. 

1828. had 8h.] 80 F. YII ; depud MS. yeng MS. 
1831 f.] 80 F. VII ; om. MS. 

1838. dene] clere MS. 

1834 f.] 80 F. VII ; lesu CrytU, that com vp here 

On this strand, as I toenyd MS. 
1836. my cK] so F. VII ; we MS. 

ISAi. forest] so ¥.Yll;firest^S. she is] bo F.V II; be they 

Digitized by 




Her one child woke and be^n) to wepe. 
The lady a-woke oute of her slepe 

And said : ' Be stili, my dere^ 
legtx Ciyst hath sent ys lond ; 
Yf there be any cryston man) nere hond. 

We shafi haue som socoure here.' 


DetoiMU tttlte h«r 
OTing child. 


The carefufi lady was full blith, 
Yp to lond she went swith, 

As fast as euer she myghi 
Tho the day be-gan> to spryng, 
Foules a-Bose and mery gan syng 

Delicious notys oh) highi 
To a mowntayn went that lady ffree : 
Sone was she wan' of a Cite 

With towrus flfeyre and bryght 
There fore, i-wys, she was fuH fayn), 
She sett her down), as I herd sayh), 

Her two children) ffor to dight 


Vppoii) the low the lady fifound 

An Erber wrought wiVi maxinua bond, 

With herbis, that were good. 
A Grype was in) the mowntayn) wonne, 
A way he bare her yong son) 

Ou^' a water fflood, 
Over in to a wyldemes, 
There seynt Antony ermet wes, 

There as his chapeH stode. 
The other child down) gan) she ly, 
And on the ffoule did shoute & crye. 

That she was nere bond wood. 



[1961] gottapa 


Mid flnda an 
Axtonr tb«r». 


[1971] A Griffin carrlw 


f. 107a. 

Sh« paU Om 
other down. 

1874. was MS. 

1876. ly] lay MS. 

Digitized by 




litr other boj 



Yp she rose ageyii) the rougb. 
With sorofuH hert and care InougK, 

CarefoU of blood and bone .... 
She sje, it myght no better be. 
She knelid down) vppoh) her kne, 

And thankid god and seynt lohh). 


There come a libard vppon) hie praj, 
And her other child bare away, 

She thankid god there 
And his moder Mary bryght 
This lady is lef te alone ryght : 

The sorow she made there 




The Kln^ of 
the Icopont and 

Each eliilU has 
one of Torrent'e 


That she myght no further flfare : [1991] 

' Of one poynt/ she sayd, * is my care, 

As I do now vnderstond, 
So my children) crystenyd were, 
Though they be with beeste^ there, 1 895 

Theyre liffe is in goddu^ bond.' 
The kyng of lerusalem) had bene 
At his brothers weddyng, I wene. 

That was lord of aH: that lond. 
As he com homward on his way, 1900 

He saw where the liberd lay [2001] 

With a child pleyand. 


Torrent had yeve her tinges two. 

And euery child had one of tho, 

Hym) with aH to saue. 


1892. 9he s.] om. Ma 1908. her] his lady MS. 

Digitized by 



TLe kyng said : * Be Mary myld, 
Yonder is a libeid with a child, 

A mayden) or a knave.' 
Tho men) of armes theder went, 
Anon) ihey had tiieyre hors spent^ 

Her gattys oute she Eave. 
For no stroke wold she stynt ; 
TiH they her slew with speris dynt, 

The child myght they not haue. 

f.l07». TiM KiBff't men 




Vp they toke the child ytng 
And hrought it he-ffoie the kyng 

And vndid the swathing hand, 
As his moder be-ffoie had done, 
A gold ryng they ffoond sone. 

Was closud in his hond. 
Tho said the kyng of lerusalem) : 
*This child is come of gen till teme. 

Where euer this heest hjai^ ffond. 
The boke of Rome herith wytnes. 
The kyng hym) namyd Leobertus, 

That was hent in hethyti) lond. 


Two sqniers to the town) gaii) flyng, 
And a noryse to the child did bryng, 

Hym) to kepe ffrome greme. 
He led it in) to his own) lond 
And told the quene, how he it ffond 

By a water streme. 
Whan) the lady saw the ryng, 
She said, with-oute lettyng : 

' This child is com) of gentOi teme : 

1915. yong MS. 1923. found MS. 

1929. grame MS. 

1915 and take tlM 



1 9 25 ^^>o chriiiens him 
* I«eoberttia/ 

1930 and take* him to 



V 2 

Digitized by 




St. Anthony 

MM tlM OrUBn 

And DeMmdl's 

whom the bird 
byt at his fttU 

St. Antony takM 
tlie bny to hit 
Father, the Klnj? 
(if Greece. 

Thou hast none heyre, thy lond to take, 
For lem love thou «Aoldi&t hyaH make 
Prynce of lerusalem). ' 

Now, in boke as we rede, 
As seynt Antony aboute yede, 

Byddyng his oiysoun). 
Of the gripe he had a sight. 
How she flew in a ffiight. 

To her birdos was she boon). 
Be-twene her dawes she bare a child : 
He prayed to god and Mary myld. 

On lyre to send it down). 
That man was w^ with god att-my^t*, 
At his fote gan) she light. 

That f onle of gret renown). 

Vp he toke the child th^e, 
To his auter he did it here, 

There his chapett stode. 
A knave child there he ffond, 
There was closnd in his bond 

A gold ryng riche and good. 
He bare it to the Cite grett, 
There the kyng his fader «ett 

As a lord of jentitt blood, 
For he wold sane it ffro dede ; 
A grjTpe flew a-bove his hede 

And cryed, as he were wood. 

This holy man) hied hym) tyte 
To a Cite wiih touris white. 
As fast as he may. 









1937. woldisi MS. 
1954. /OU9U2 MS. 

1951. thaif. MS. 
1958. seU] UU MS. 

Digitized by 



The kyng at the jate stode 

And other knjghtea and lordys good 

To se the squiers play. 
The kyng said : * Be Mary myld, 
Yonder comyth Antony, my child, 

With a gryfifoh) gay. 
Som) of his byidos take hath he. 
And bryngith hem) heder to me 1 ' 

Gret f erly had thaya 


The kyng there of toke good hede, t iw*. 
And a-geyn) his sonne he yede 

And said : ' Welcom) ye be ! ' 
* Fader/ he said, ' god you saue ! 
A knave child ffonnd I haue, 

Loke, that it be dere to the ! 
Frome a greffon) he was refte, 
Of what lond that he is lefte, 

Of gentiH blood was he : 
Thou hast none heyre, thy lond to take, 
For lem love thy sonne hym) make. 

As in the stede of me I ' 

The King Met 

1970 hit too Antony, 


1980 who tskt him to 
r^yv^,n adopt DetonelKt 
[2081] boyet 

1985 hUheir. 


The kyng said : * Tf I may lyve, 
Helpe and hold I shall hym yeve 

And receyve hym as my son). 
Sith thou hast this lond forsake. 
My riche londys I shati: hym) take. 

Whan he kepe them) c(m).' 
To a fTont they hym yaue, 
And crystonyd this yong knave ; 

Fro care he is wonne. 

The King of 
Greece agroot. 


and hM the Uoy 


1992. can MS. 

Digitized by 




hm Box to The holy man yaue hyni) name, 

ehrittend Antony ^ i ^ 

nixgrUBn. That leeM shild hyn) firome ahame : 

Antony fice greffoun). 


* Fader, than) haue thou this ryng, 
I ffonnd it on) this swete thing, 

Kepe it, yf thou may : 
It is good in euery /ight, 
Yf god yeve grace, that he be knyght. 

Be nyght and be day.' 
Let we now this children) dweH, 
And speke we more of DesoneH : 

Her song was welaway. 
Gkx), that died yppoii) the Bode, 
Yff grace, that she mete yfiih good I 

Thus dispar^lid are thay. 


This lady walkyd M alone 
Amonge wyld bestis meny one, 

Ne wanted she no Woo ; 
Anon) the day be-gan to spryng. 
And the ffoules gan to syng, 

With blis on euery bowje , 



and bewails har 
loat children. 


' Byrdus and bestis, aye woo ye be ! 
Alone ye haue lefte me. 

My children) ye have slowc' 
As she walkid than) a-lone, 
She sye lordis on) huntyng gone, 

Nere hem) she yede f uH sone. 







2002. figM\ sight MS. ? 

2004. Oth^ be MS. and] or forme o/ (!) MS. 

2010. disparlid MS. 2018. haue] a corrected out of # MS. 

2010. have si] slough MS. 

Digitized by 




This carfuH lady cried fastc, 
Than she herd this homes blaste 

By the yatis gone^ 
But ran in to a wildemes, 
Amongist beests that wyld W68, 

For drede, she shold be slone. 

Titt it were vnder of the Day, 


froin aoine 

She went/ro that wilsom) way, 


In to a lond playii). 


The kyng of N^areth huntid there. 

Into tilt Und 
of Nuareib. 

Among the herte^, that gentili were ; 

There of she was fidi ffayh) 


They had ferly, kyng and knyght, 


Whens she come, that lady bryght, 

Dwelling here a-lone. 

She said to a sqnier, that there stode : 

« Who is lord of most jentiti blood 1 ' 

And he answerid her anon) : f. ioo6. 2040 

' This ys the lond of N^areth, 


Se, where the kyng gethe, 

She i««M Uie 

Of speche he is flfutt bone ; 


AH in gold couerid is he.* 

* Gramercy, str,' said she. 


And nere hym) gan) she gone. 

Lordys anon ageyn) her yode. 
For she was com) of gentiH blood. 

In her lond had they bene : 
* Grod loke the, lady ffree, 
What makist thou in this contre 1 ' 

' Sir,' she said, * I wene, 

2050 whoMLonU 

[2151] '^'^• 

2026. ran] oul MS. 2027. was MS. 2080. fro] in MS. 

Digitized by 



Seynt Eatryn) I shold haue sought, 
Wekyd weders me beder bath bzooght 

In to this Sorest grene, 2055 

DMOMiiii^tiMt And aH is dede, I vnderatond, 

hn* bojt art dMd, ., •• .* . . » i » 

andibtitteft Saue my selfe, that com) to lond 
With wyld beeatis and kene.' 

. (179) 
* Welcom/ he said, * Desondi^ 
By a tokyn) I shaH the teU : 2060 

Onys a stede I the sent [2161] 

Lady gent, ff eyie and £Eree, 
To the shold I haue wedid be, 

My love was on) the lent' 
Knyghtis and squiers, that there were, 2065 

They horsid the lady there, 
shetoukmto And to the Cite they went 

The quene was cnrtes of that lond 
And toke the lady be the bond 

And said : ' Welcom, my lady gent ! 2070 

tin Qmtp, 

with whom tb* 


* Lady, thon art welcom) here. 


As it aft thyn) own) were, 


All this ffeyre contree 1 ' 

* Of one poynt was my care, 

And my two children) crystonyd ware. 


That in wood were reft flfro me.' 

Welcom art thou, Desonefi, 

In my chamber for to dw^. 

Inough there in shall: ye see I ' 

Leve we now that lady gent, 


And speke we of sir Torrent, 


That was geutiU and ffre. 

2076. in] the add. MS. 

Digitized by 




The kyng of Norway is fuH woo, 
That str Torent wold wend hym ffro, 
That doughty was and bold : 2085 

* Sir/ he said, ' abyde here 

And wed my donghter, that is me deie 1' 

He said, in no wise he wold. 
He shipped oute of the kynges sale 
And Byyed yp in) Portingale 

At another hold. 
Whan) he heid tdi of Desond), 
Swith on sownyng theie he fefi 

To the ground so cold. 


The f als kyng of Portingale, 
Sparid the yatis of his sale 

For Torent the ffree ; 
He said : * Be Mary clere, 
Thou shalt no wyfe haue here, 

Go sech her in) the see ! 
With her she toke whelpis two. 
To leme to row wold she go.' 

' By god, thou liest,' quod he, 

* Kyng Colomand, here my bond ! 
And I be knyght levand, f. iiob. 


Sir Tonrent won't 
•top in Norway, 

2090 batgoetbMkto 

[2191] ^^ 

2095 TIieflUMKiitg 

tetU him that 
DMoneU and liei 
2 Boys wera 
lent ont to aan. 




Torent wold no lenger byde, 
But sent letters on euery side 

With fforce theder to hya 
Theder com oute of Aragon) 
Noble knyght&f of gret renown) 

With grett chcvalrye. 

2110 Tormit gathers 
an army. 


Digitized by 



Torrwfi knighu Of Pervyns and Calaber also 

Were doaghty knyghtea meny moo, 

They come afi to that crye. 21 15 

Kyng Calomond had no knyght, 
That with sir Torent wold fyght, 

Of eA that satt hym) bye. 


There wold none the yatia deffend, 
tndiMwtitt But lett 8tr Torent in wend 2120 

Into tht chtof 

aty of Portagai, With his meii) enerychone. [2221] 

Swith a counsefi yede they to, 
To what deth they wold hym do. 

For he his lady had slone. 
' Lordis/ he said, * he is a kyng, 2125 

Men may hym) nether hede ne hing/ 
Thns said they euerychona 
and vmAv to They ordenvd a shipp aH of tree 
King to tw Aud sett hym) oute in) to the see, 

Amoug the wawes to gona 2130 


Gret lordis of that lond [2231] 

Assentid to that comnand. 

That hold shold it be. 
In the havyn) of Portyngale, 
There stode shippes of hede vale 2135 

Of Irun and of tree. f. nu. 

Ill » boiit fuu A bote of tre they brought hym be-ffom), 
Futi of holis it was born), 

Hows^ and shryfte wold he. 
Sir Torent said : * Be seyut lohii), 2140 

Seth thou gaue my lady none, [2241] 

No more men) shaH do the ! ' 

2118. Calaher] Cahabcr (!) MS. 2128. Td\ om. MS. 
2126. king] heng MS. 2182. comlatid MS. 

2138. baryn MS. 2189. VH>ldi had MS. 

Digitized by 




The shipp-meii) brought sir Colomond 
And sent hym fforth within) a etonnd 

As ffar as it were. 
Wott ye wett and ynderstond, 
He come never ayen to lond, 

Snch stormes fTonnd he there. 
Gret lordys of renown) 
Be-toke sir Torent the crown) 

To reioyse it there. 
Loo, lordys of enery lond : 
Falshode wytt haue a f onle end, 

And wyH haue eaermore. 

Sir Torent dwellid thare 
Fourty days in moche care, 

Season) for to hold ; 
Sith he takith two knyght^, 
To kepe his lond and his righted. 

That doughty were and bold. 
' Madam),' he said to the queue, 
' Here than shs^ ye lady bene, 

To worth as ye wold.' 
He purveyd hym) anon), 
To wend ouer the see fome, 

There god was bought and sold. 

And ye now wiH listoh) a stound. 
How he toke armes of kyng Calomond, 

Listonyth, what he bare. 
On asure, as ye may see, 
With syluer shippes thre. 

Who so had be thare. 






anA Torrent it 
nuKle King of 



[22611 bathcglTMtho 
** -* Und up to tlio 



iuhI retolTe* to 
go to tb« Holy- 

t 1116. 

2170 HisarmtareS 
[2271] an azure Afld. 

2161. Be said madam MS. 
2170. This line begins with a big initial letter. Off MS. 

Digitized by 




DMon e ll, 





for S yaara, and 
then taket it. 

He has iU 
iuluUtuit* kiid. 

and iharea it« 
booty among hU 

For Desoneii: is love so bryght^ 
His londis he takyth to a knyght. 

And sith he is baitn to foie. 
' Portyngale, haue good day 
For Sevyn) yere, parmaffay, 

Par aventure soin) dele mare ! ' 

Sir Torent passid the Orekys flood 
In to a lond both riche and good, 

FuH evyn) he toke the way 
To the die of QuareH, 
As the boke of Eome doth te&, 

There a soudan) lay. 
There he smote and set adown) 
And yaue asaute in to the town, 

That wiH the storye say. 
So w^ they vetelid were, 
That he lay there two yere, 

Sith in) the town) went they. 

And tho szV Torent ffound on) lyve, 
He comaandid with spere and knyffe 

Smertely dede to be ; 
He said : * We haue be here 
Moche of this two yere 

And onward on) the thrc.* 
AH the good, that s/r Torent wan). 
He partid it among his man), 

Syluer, gold and flfee ; 
And sith he is boun to ride 
To a Cite there be-syde, 

That was worth such thre. 









2175. houn] home MS. 2178. more MS. 

2182. dte] see MS. 2187. toell Ma eays MS. 

2190. And sUhintoUS. 2196. thrid MS. 2198. mm MS. 

Digitized by 





There he stode and smote adown) 
And leyd Btg^ to the town), 

Six yeie there he lay. 
By the VI yere were att done. 
With honger they were afi alone. 

That in the Cite lay. 
T/te Soudan sent to sir Torent than). 
With honger that thes people he slan, 

AH the folke of this ate ; 
' Yf ye thinke here to lye, 
Ye shaU hane ^vyne and spycery, 

I-noogh is in this contre.' 

Kow god do his soule mede ! 
On the sondan) he had a dede 

VpporD euery good flfryday. 
lesvL sent hym strengith I-nough, 
With dynt of sword he hym slon^, 

There went none quyk away. 
Down knelid that knyght 
And thankid god with aH his my^t* : 

So ought he weH to say. 
The Cite, that sir Torent was yh), 
Worldely goodis he left ther yn). 

To kepe it nyght and day. 

Sith he huskyd hym) to ride 
In to a lond there be-syde, 

Antioche it hight. 
Seyyn) yere at the Cite he lay 
And had batett euery good ffryday, 

Vppon) the Sar^ins bryght ; 

2209. The] A MS. 2209-14 pat before 2208-8 

2210. 9layn MS. 2211. the* MS. 
2230-82 put before 2227-29 MS. 


bdsiWM MMJhff 

hMthM City for 

All ita folk di« 






f^MS to Antioch. 

f. Ilt5. 


[23311 and HkIiU every 
good Friday. 


Digitized by 





and hit ftdopud 
(Tomnf s Mcond 

And be the Vll yere were gone^ 
The chOd, that the liberd had tane, 

Found hym his fill off ffyght 22S5 

TiM Kingof The kyng of lerosalem) heid tell 
Of this lord good and f ^^ 

How dooghtyly he hym bare. 
Yppon) hia knyght09 can he call, 
* Ordeyii) swith among yon all, 2240 

For no thing that ye spare I ' [2341] 

They baakyd hem oute of the land. 
The nombre off ffyfty thousand, 

Ageyn Torent ffor to ffare . . • • 

The kyng of lerosalem said thus : ' 2245 

' My dere son, liobertus, 

That thou be bold and wight ! 
Thou shalt be here and defend the lond 
From that fals tray tors bond 

And take the ordre of a knyght/ 2250 

He yane hym armes, or he did passe : [2351] 

Right as he ffound was, 

On gold he bare bryght 
A liberd of asure bla 
A child be-twene his armes twa : 2255 

Woo was her, that se it m^ght I 


Sir Torent wold no lenger abyde. 

But thederward gah) he ride ; 

And to the feld were brought 

ftgainct Tormt. Two kuyghte^, that were there in stede ; t luo. 2260 

Many a man did they to blede, [2361] 

Such woundis they wrought. 

2248. thouiaid US. 2246. Liobertious MS. 
2258. On] Qf MS. 2264. llay (i) Ma 2255. Uoay MS. 
225e.iV«Z2eiiiooMS. m it m.] if ou^JU MS. 

Digitized by 






2275 ittAk«iito 


There durst no man con]) Torent nere, Torrtnt't son 


liat his son, as je may here, 

Though he knew hym nought 2265 

AH to nought he bet his shild, 
But he toke his fader in the feld, captartiWin. 

Though he there of eviH thought 

Whan) 8tr Torent was takyn) thaii), Torwit 

His men fled than), euery maii), 

They durst no lenger abyde. 
Gret ruth it was to be hold, 
How his sword he did vp-hold 

To his sod) that tyde. 
To lerusalem) he did hym) lede, 
His actone and his other wede, 

AH be the kyngis side ; 
* Sir,' he said, * haue no care. 
Thou shalte lyve and welfare, 

But lower ys thy pryde 1 ' 2280 


Fro that sir Torent was hom brought, [2381] 

Doughty men) vppon) hym) sought, 

And in pr^'son) they hym) throng 
His son above his hede lay, 
To kepe hym) both nyjt and day, 2285 

He wist weH, that he was strong. 
Thus in p7*6son as he was. 
Sore he si^ed and said alas. 

He couth none other songe. 
Thus in bondys they held hym thare i iisft. 2290 
A twelfmonyth and som dele mare, [2391] 

The knyght thought ffuH long. 

2281. horn] hem MS. 
2283. And and (!) MS. throu^ MS. 

and thnut into 

whtre hit son 
Leobertu* hear* 
him lament a 

Digitized by 



TORRBNT'8 son asks fob bis father's TBIBDOM. 

Tomot In a momyng as he lay. 

To hjm selfe gan) he say : 
' Why lye I thus alone t 
•ppMit to God Qodf hast thou forsakyn) me t 
AH my troste was in the, 
In lond wheie I hane gone ! 
who ono« tnabiad Thou gave me my^t ff or to alee 
DngoM and Diagons two other thie 


bean him. 

And giaantes meny one. 
And now a man) in wekid lond 
Hath myn) annour and stede in) hond : 

I wold, my liffe weie done ! ' 

Hu ton Leoberttw Hls son herd hym) say soo 

And in his hert was fufi woo. 

In chamber there he lay ; 
* Sir/ he said, * I hane thy wede, 
There shafi no man reioyse thy stede, 

Yf so be, that I may. 
By oure lady seynt Mary, 
Here shalt thou no lenger lye, 

Kether be ny^f ne be day ; 
As I am) Cartesse and hend. 
To the kyng I shaH wend, 

And flfor thy love hym pray I * 

On) the morow whan) he Rose, 
The prynce to the kyng gose 

And knelid vppon) his knee ; 
' Sir,' he said, < ffor goddu^ sonne, 
The knyght, that lieth in the dungeon), 

Ye wold graunt hyni) me ! 



and ]>roniis«t to 
get lUm Areod. 



Leobeilut askt 
tii9 King of 
JeroMlam for 

f.ii«a. 2320 


2299. flee MS. ? 2318. Neiher be day ne be ny^ lia. 
2816. ffcr thy love and pray this ny^ MS. 

Digitized by 




I hard hym say be hyin) alone. 
Many Geaontea had he alone 

And dragons 11 or thre.' 
The kyng said : * Be my ffay, 
Be wan*, he scape not away ; 

T vouch hym sane on the ! * 


Jarusftltm gnnU 
Tomtit to hit 


The prynce in to the preson went, 
Torent by the hond he heut 

wlio fkreet him 

2330 '^'^'• 

Oute of his bondys cold ; 
To the casteti he brought hym sone 
And light ffettouris did hym) vppori), 

For brekyng oute off hold. 
The kyng said : ' Be my ffaye. 
And he euer scape away, 



tlio- MiU CettmiuE 


' Sir,' he said, * parmaffay, 
We wyti hym) ^kepe, and we may : 
Thereof be ye bold!' 



For he was curtes knyght & free, 
At the mete sett was he 

By the kyng at the deyse. 
' Sir, thou haste i-bene 
At lustis and at tomementes kene, 

Both in wan' and in peas : 
Sith thy dwelling shali be here, 
I pray y that thou woldist my son) lere, 

Hys Tymber ffor to asay.' 
* Sir,' he said, * I vnderstond, 
Affter the maner off my lond c ii4a. 

I shali, with outen delay,' 

2831. And toke hym oute MS. 
2848. J pray] om. MS. 
2852. delay] lese MS. 


Torrtnt diite« 
with Um KUig, 


2350 «nd promises to 

[2451] Leobertos 

Digitized by 





Tormit't ton 
liMbtrtot brMkt 
S ahntU on hi« 

Th« Jousts last 
6 WMks. 

A Feast is held. 

Tonreiit n 
dedared Ticior, 


The cast^ court was large wtt^ in). 
They made ryngis fibr to Beii), 

None but they alone. 
Euery of hem to o^we Eade : 
Feyrer Tumamentea than they made. 

Men sye never none. 
The prynce in armes was fuH preste, 
Thre shaftys on) his fader he breste, 

In shevers they gan gone. 
Sir Torent said : * So mvt I thee, 
A man of armes shaH thou be, 

Stalworth of blood and bone ! ' 

Harroldys of armes cryed on) hight. 
The prynce and that other knyght 

No more juste shatt thay ; 
But lordys of other lond, 
Euery one to other ffond, 

And sith went theyre way. 
Sixe wekys he dwellid there, 
TiH that aH delyucrd were. 

That in the Cite lay. 
Tho they held a gestonye, 
With afl: man^r of mynstralsye, 

TyH the Sevynth day. 

Lordis with afi other thing 
Toke leve at the kyng, 

Home theyre ways to passe. 
That tyme they yaue Torent the floure 
And the gre with moch honowre, 

As he wett worthy was. 






tiua. [2481] 

2896. Rode MS. 2857. TurmetUes MS. 2878. lay] wen MS. 

Digitized by 




The kyng said : ' I shati the yeve 
liffe and Ijvelode, whiH I ly ve, 

Thyn armoury as it was.' 
Whaii he sye ffeyre ladyes wend. 
He thoaght on her, that was so hend, 

And sighed and said : ' Alas 1 ' 


nipport Torrtiit. 


The kyng of Nazareth home went. 
There that his lady lent. 

In his own) lede. 
' Sir/ she said, ' ffor goddi^^ pite. 
What gentilmah) waxi) the gre T 

He said, ' So god me spede, 
One of the ffeyrest knyghtis, 
That slepith oh) somer njghteft 

Or walkyd in wede ; 
He is so large of lym) and lith, 
Afi the world he hath justid with, 

That come to that dede.' 



Tilt King of 



* Grood lord/ said DesoneH, 

* For goddti^ love ye mo tefl, 

What armes that Ae bare ! ' 
' Damysett, also moste T the, 
Syluer and asure beryth he. 

That wott I weH thare. 
His Creste is a noble lond, 
A Gyaunt with an) hoke in) bond, 

This wott I weH, he bare. 
He is so stiff at eaeiy stoore. 
He is prynce and victoure. 

He wynneth the gree aye where. 


una DmoimII 
n^/\r th«t tb« Victor 
^405 (Tomnt)bum 




2403. he] yc MS. 


Digitized by 




The Victor to 
a Knight of 

Tht Kkig of 
pmclniiiu a 

Of Portyngalo a knyght he ys. 
He waDne the towii) of Kaynes 

And the Cite of QoareUe ; 
At the last jorney that was sett^ 
The piynce, my broders sod) he mett, 

And in his hond he fifdi. 
Ihe prynce of Grece leth nere 
There may no jnster be his pere» 

For soth as I yon tett : 
A dede of armes I shaH do ciye 
And send after hym) in hye.' 

Blith was Desonett. 



JeroMiein tends 
Torrent nnd liit 
elder eon Leo* 
bertus to It. 

Tlie King of 
Gre«ve bring* Uie 
younger eon, An- 
tony Fitzgriffln. 

Tlie Jousting is 

This dede was cried f!ar and ncre, 
The kyng of lemsalem did it here, 

In what lond that it shold be. 
He said : * Sone, anon right 
Dight the and thy cryston) knyght, 

For sothe, theder wiH we.' 
Gret lordys, that lierith this crye, 
Theder come richely, 

Everyman) in his degre. 
The kyng of Grece did make hym houn. 
With hym) come Antony IFyj greffon), 

With moche solempnite 




*The kyng of Nazareth sent me, 
That there shold a justynge be 

Of meny a cryston) knyght, 
And aH is ffor a lady clere, 
That the justyng is cryed fFar and nere. 

Of meii) of armes bryght.* 

f.n6«. [2541] 

2415. QxiarellU MS. 
2417. U 9».] was gatt MS. 

2416. iha£\ he add. MS. 
2434. make hym hJ] assigne MS. 

Digitized by 



Gret joye it was to here tdl, 

How thes kyngea wtt^ the knyghtis feli 

Come and semled to that Syght 2445 

There come meny another mon), 

If uy folk eon 

That thought there to haue to done, 

And than) to wend her way. 

Whaii) they come to the castett gent, 

A KoaH f^ght, yerament, 


There was, the sothe to say. 


Trompes resyn) on the watt, 

Lordys assembled in the hatt, 

And sith to souper yede thay. 

They »up 

They were recevid wtt^ rialte, 


Eaery man) in his degre, 

And to her logyng went her way. 



The lordys Rosyn att be-dene 


On the morow, as I wene, 

And went masse £for to here. 

2460 liearUnM, 

And ffurthennore wM-oute lent 


They wesh and to mete went, 

and diu«. 

For to the field they wold there. 

After mete anoii) right 

They axid hors and armes bryght. 


To hors-bak went thay in flere. 

Knyghtis and lordys reuelid att, 

And ladyes lay oner the castett watt. 

That semely to se were. 


Than) eueryman toke spere in) hond, 

2470 andb^gfnto 

And euerych to other fiond, 


Smert boffette^ there they yeld. 

r. iiM. 

2445. sttfiUnd MS. 2446. man MS. 2471. ffaand MS. 
2472. ihcrc th. y.] ihey ycldyd there MS. 

Digitized by 




Antony, nnhorm 

down bis yoongtr 

Tomnf • t soM The prynce of lerosalein) and his iMrother, 
Eueriche of hem) Ran to othei^ 

Smertely in the feld 

Thongli Antony ffygryffoh) yonger were. 
His brother LeoberttM he can down) here ; 

Sir Torent stode and be-held. 

< Be my trouth,' said Torent thanne, 
* As I am) a cryston) man 

I-quytt shatt it be.' 
Torent be-strode a stede strong 
And bent a tymber gret and long; 

And to hym) rode he. 

Torrent to hym rode so sore, 
That he to the ground hyin) bare. 

And let hym) lye iii) the heni. 
There was no man) hy;e ne lowe. 
That myght make Torent to bowe 

Ne his bak to bend. 
They justyd and tumeyd there, 
And euerymah) fifound his pere, 
Thero was caught no dethis d^nt 
He and hit Mnt 01 M the Justis, that there ware, 
joiutors. Torent the floure a way bare 

And his sonnys, veramenl. 

And on) the morow, whan) it was day, 
Amonge bB. the lordys gay, 
That worthy were, par de, 

2488 pat before 2482 MS. 

2485 f. : Torreni so sore to hym rods, 

That he bare hym to the ground MS. 
2487. berUlffeld MS. 
2493. dynt MS. 
2496. ver.] in that tyde MS. 
2499. par de] in wede MS. 






Digitized by 



DesoneH wold no lenger lend, 


But to air Torent gan) she wend 


And knelid on her kne. 

She said : ' Welcom), my lord sir Torent 1 ' 

I>M9»el1 gntiu 

* Aud so be ye, my lady gent ! * 


In sownyDg than feH she. 


aiid tvootit. 

Vp they coue?-yd that lady hend, 

And to mete did they wend 

With joye and solempnite. 


Dame DesoneH he-sought the kyng. 

That she myght, with oute lesyng, 


Sytt with Torent alone. 


* Yes, lady, be hevyu) kyng, 

There shall be no lettyng ; 

Worthy is he, be seynt lohn) I * 

Tho they washid and went to mete, 



And rially they were sett 

And s^uid worthely, eehone. 

Euery lord in) the hatt, 

As his state wold be-Cfatt, 

Were coaplid with ladyes schone. 



But of att ladyes, that were there seue. 
So ffeire myght there none bene 


DeMnell is Uie 

As was dame Desonett. 

Thes two kyngis, that doughty ys, 
To the Cite come, i-wys, 


Tlte Kings of 
Greece go to the 

With moche meyne emelL 


To the cast^ they toke the way, 


There the kyng of Najareth lay, 


With hym) to speke on high. 

2502. And on her kne she kwlid MS. 

2514. ^or toclle worthy MS. 2517. echone] veratneni MS. 

2520. schone] geni MS. 2526. emeli] om. MS. 

Digitized by 




DmocmII ilto by 

Lords bow btr 

FMhor font hor 
Slid bar t Boys 

At none the quene ete in) the hatt, 
Amongist the ladyes on^* afi. 

That couth moche cortesye. 
Deeon^ wold not lett. 
By Bir Torent she her sett. 

There of they had envye 

and hoir ono was 
carried off by a 
OrifHn, and Um 
other l^a 

Antony are 






Whan) eyther of hem other be-held. 
Off care no thyng they ffeld, 

Bothe her herte^ were blithe. 
Gret lordys told she sone, 
What poyntes he had for her done, 

They be-gan to be blithe ; 
And how her fader in the see did her do. 
With her she had men) childre two ; 

They waried hym) f^ sithe. 
' Sir kyng, in this wildemes^ 
My two children) fro me revid was, 

I may no lenger hem) hide. 

The knyght yaue me rynge« two^ 
Euerich of hem) had one of thoo. 

Better saw I never none. 2550 

A Gryffoo) bare the one away, [2651] 

A liberd the other, parmaffay, 

Down) by a Eoche of stone.' 
Thai)) said the kyng of lerosalem): 
' I ffoimd one by a water streme, 2555 

He levith with blood & bone.' 
The kyng of Grece said : * My brother, 
Antony my son) brought me anojm^ie.' 

She saith : ' Soth^ be seynt lohii) ) ' 

2585. envye] vHmder MS. 2542. fader] om. MS. 

2546. ioae MS. 

2556. levith] yet add. MS. 

Digitized by 




The kjng said : < Sith it is so, 2560 

Kys ye youie fader bo, [2661] 

And axe hym) his blessyng i ' 
Down) they knelid or) her knee : T^nrmt'* t sons 

kneel and ask his 

' Thy blessing, ffader, for charite ! ' bteadng. 

' Welcom), children) ytng ! ' 2565 

Thus in armes he hem) hent, 
A blither man) than) sir Torent 

Was there none levyng ; t usa. 

It was no wonder, thouse it so were : He r^otcee in 

them and their 

He had his wiffe and his children) there, 2570 Mother, 

His joye be-gan) to spryng. [2671] 

Of iJi the justis, that were thare, 
A way the gre his sonnys bare, 
That doughty were in dede. 
Torent knelid vppon) his knee 2575 and thanks the 

. , ., r>. , 1, 1 ^ tm Kings tor taking 

And said : * Gkmi yeld you, lordys ffree, care or them. 

Thes children) that ye haue ffed : 
Euer we witi be at youre will. 
What jumey ye will put vs tytt, 

So Ie9u be oure spede, 2580 

With that the kyng thre [2681] He asks the 

In to my lond will wend wit^ me, p^gai. 

For to wreke oure stede.' 

They graunted that there was, au agree to go. 

Gret lordys more and lesse, 2585 

Bothe knyght and squiere ; 
And with DesoneH went 
Al the ladyes, that were gent, 

That of valew were. 

2561. bothe MS. 2565. yang MS. 

Digitized by 


arrive at 



Shippis bad they stiff and strong, 2590 

Maistis gret and sayles long, [2691] 

Hend, as ye may here. 
And markyd in to Portingale, 
Whaii) they had puUid vp her sayfi, 

With a wynd so clere. 2595 


The riche quene of that lond 
In her castett toure gan stond 

And be-held inVto the see. 
' Sone/ she said to a knyght, 
' Yonder of shippis I haue a sight, t um. 2600 

For sothe, a grett meyne.' [2701] 

The quene said : ^ Veiament, 
I se the armes of sir Torent^ 

I wott w^, it is he.' 
He answerid and said tho : 2605 

^ Madam, I wiH, that it be so, 

God gefe grace, that it so be I ' 


A blither lady my3t none be. 
She went ageyn hym) to the see 

With armed knyghta^ kene. 2610 

Torent she toke by the bond : [2711] 

* Lordys of vncouth lond, 

Welcom muste ye bene ! ' 
Whan she sye DesoneH, 
Swith in) sownyng she f^ 2615 

To the ground so ^rene. 
Torent gan) her vp ta : 

* Here bene her childrexi) twa. 

On ly ve thou shalt hem ae&ne ! ' 

2605-7 put before 2602-4 MS. 
2616. ffrene] kxiui MS. 2610. sec MS. 

Torrent and 
his friends, 

aiid swoons when 
site sees her 

Digitized by 



In the Castett of Portyngale 2620 

A-Boee trampes o/hede vale, [2721] 

To mete they went on) hye. 
Ho sent letters ffap and nere : Tonmt hoidi • 

The loidys^ that of valew were, 

They come to that gestonye. 2625 

The Emperooie of Rome, 
To that gestonye he come, 

A nohle knyght oh) hyje. 
Whan) att thes lordys com were, 
Torrent weddid that lady clere, 2630 ana wmu 


A jostyng did he crye. [2731] 

So it ffeU yppon a day, r. uvu. 

The kjmg of lerusalem) gan say : 

' Sir, thy sonne I ffound 
Lying in a liberU^ mouth, 2635 

And no good he ne couth, 

Dede he was nere hond : 
Wold thou, that he dwellid w*t7* me, 
TiH that I dede be, 

And sith reioyse my lond t ' 2640 

Be fore lordys of gret renowii), [2741] h« kItm his ton 

Torent gaue hym) his son) toUMKhlffof 

The kyng of Grece said : * Sir knyght, * 

I yeff thy son att my right 
To the Grekys flood : 2645 and hu sod 

Wouch thou saue, he dweti vritk meV u^uli^ 

* Yea, Lord, so mut I thee, 

God yeld you att this good » ' 

2S21.</]oiilMS. 2629. wareHS. 2ei5. flood] I plight tidd. US. 


Digitized by 




For sir Torent was stiff in stouie, 
Torrtnii««iaetod They choso hym ffor Emperoare, 2650 

Beste of bone and bloocL [2751] 

Oret lordysy that there were, 
Fonrty days dwellith there. 

And sith they yode her way ; 
fiTwhit He yane his sonnysy as ye may here, 2655 

Two swerdys, that were hym) dere^ 

£ch of hem) one had they. 
Sith he did make yp-tyed 
Chirchns and abbeys wyde, 

For hym) and his to praye. 2^60 

In Rome this Eomans berith the crown) [2761] 

Of afi kerpyng of Renown) : 

He leyth in a feire abbey. 


He Hm in a 
fkir Abbey. 

May airisi 

Now letni Cryst, that aH hath wrought^ 
As he on the Kode vs boaght, t iim. 2665 

He geye hvs his blessing, 
Rnnt And as he died for you and me, 
He graunt vs in blis to be, 

LeM6 and mare^ both old and ying! Amen. 

Explicit Torent of Portyngale. 

2654. And sith her way they yode MS. 

2668. leyth] in Rome add. MS. 

2669. Ouie <^ihi» world whofi^ we <AaUe wmi MS. 

Digitized by 




[Hie King of Partvgal plots Torrenfs death.] 

[T] ... esthymvp .... 462 

chent be for to fle 

Ij ivyll he gone 4G4 

The kynge of Nazaieth sent hym me, 
Torenty I wot-eaue hym on the, 

For better loue I none ! * 467 

Afterwarde ypon a tyde, 

As they walkyd by the ryvers syde, 

The kynge and yonge Torent, 470 

This lorde wolde fayne, that he dede were 
And he wyst nat, on what manere, 

Howe he myght hym shent. 473 

A fals letter made the kynge 
And made a messangere it brynge, 

On the ryuer syde as they went, 476 

To Torent, that was true as stele, 
If he loued Dyssonell wele, 

Gete hir a faucon gent 479 

Torent the letter began to rede, 
The kynge came nere and lystened. 

As thoughe he it neuer had sene. 482 

The kynge sayde, * what may this be 1 ' 
* Lorde, it is sent to me 

For a faucon shene ; 485 

I ne wote, so God me spede, 
In what londe that they brede.' 

The kynge sayde, ' as I herde sayne, 488 

1 In Halliwell'8 edition III. 

Torrent a Hon* 

Nazarttk liad Miit 




ttskt Torrent to 
get DeeoitcU a 

Digitized by 




In the forest of Maudelajne 

Torretit agrvM 
to do it. 

to Um Forett of 

gtC« atpiiratcd 
(rem hit Squirt. 

Than sayde [the] kyn[g] yntrae, 

* And ye fynde haw[k]es of great yalae, 

Brynge me one with the ! ' 
Torent sayd : * so Crod me saue, 
Yf it betyde, that I any hane. 

At your wyll shall they be.' 

To his squyer hade he thare. 
After his armoure to fare, 
In the f elde abode he ; 
They armed hym in his wede, 
He bestrode a noble stede 

Torent toke the way agayne 
Unto the forest of Maudelayne, 

In a wylsome way ; 
Berys and apes there founde he 
And wylde bestys great plente 

And lyons, where they lay. 
In a wode, that is tyght, 
It drewe towarde the nyght. 

By dymmynge of the day 
Lysten, lordes, of them came wo. 
He and his squyer departed in two, 

Carefull men then were they. 

At a sbedynge of a rome 
Eyther departed other frome. 

As I Yoderstande. 
Torent taketh a dolef oil way 
Downe into a depe valay, 

1 In HalUweU's edition IL 








Digitized by 



[TIte King of Portugal sends Toneni to he hUd by the 

Oiant Slogu8.'\ 

319 Torrent atto At 

And the good squyres after h[ym], 

That knyghtes sholde be. 821 

As they were a-myddes theyr . . . S^ISafr^i 

The kjmge wolde not forgete, 

To Torente than sayd he, 8:24 

He sayd : * so god me saue, 

Fayne thou woldest my doTigh[ter hane], 

Thou hast loued her many a d[aye].' 827 

* Ye, by my trouthe,' sayd Torente, 

* And I were a ryche man, 

Ryght gladly by my faye.' 830 

' If thou duist for her sake ^'i^J^"™* 

A poynte of armes vndertake, 

Thou broke her vp for ay.' 833 

* Ye,' say de he, * or I go, ^^' ~y» ^o^ 
Sykemes thou make me so 

Of thy doughter hende. ^36 

Ye and after all my ryghtes 
By VII score of hardy knyghtes ' 

Al they were Torentes frende. 839 

* Now, good lordes, I you praye, 
Bere wytnes of this day 

Agayne yf god me sende ! ' 842 

Torente sayd, * so may I the, 

Wyst I, where my jomey shold [be], 

Thyder I wolde me dyghte.' 845 

The kyng gaue hym an an8w[e]re, 

* In the londe of CalebFelre *t»w« ro u> 

There wonneth a gyaunte wygh[hte] 848 

1 In HalUwell's edition YI. 

Digitized by 




and fight th* 
Giant Slogoa.' 

Tlie KInic of 

him flgninitt th« 
terrihle Giant 

ami offer* hira 
his Danghter 
aiitl 2 Daclilet. 

Tiirrent tajs ha 
miMt keep hit 

Sl(>gus he hygbt as I the tolde, 
God sende the that waye lyghte 1 ' 


[Torrent ia offerd a Princess of Provyns,] 

For why I wyll the saye, 917 

Moche folke of that conntre 
Cometh heder for socoure to me, 

Bothe by nyghte and by daye. 920 

There is a gyaunte of grete icnowne. 
He destroyeth bothe cyte and towne 

And all that he may. 923 

As bokes of rome tell, 
He was goten with the deayll of hell» 

As his moder slepynge lay.* 926 

The kynge sayde, * by Saynt Adiyan, 
I rede, a nother gentylman 

Le there and haue the degre. 929 

I hane a doughter, that me is dere, 
Thou shalte wedde her to thy fere, 

Andyfitthy wyUbe, 932 

Two duchyes in honde 
I wyll gyue her in londe.' 

* Gramercy, syr,' sayd he, 935 

* With my tonge I haue so wrought^ 
To breke my day wyll I nought^ 

Nedes me behoueth there to be.' 938 

* On Goddes name,' the kynge gan sayne, 

* lesvL brynge the saffe agayne, 

Lorde, moche of myght ! ' 941 

i lu HaUiweU's edition Y. 

Digitized by 



Mynstraby was them amouge, 
With harpe, fedyll and Bonge, 

Delycyous notes on hygh[t]e. 944 

Whan it was tyme, to bed they wente, 
And on the morowe rose Torentc 

And toke leue of kynge and knyght 947 

And toke a redy way. Torrent .uru. 

Fragment V.^ 
By the se syde as it lay, 

God sonde hym gatys ryght ! 950 

An hye waye hath he nome, 
Into Calabre is he come 

Within two dayes or thre. 
So he met folke hym agayne, 
Fast comynge with carte and wayne 

Frowarde the se. 

* Dere Grod/ sayd Torente now, 

* Good folke, what eyleth you, 

That ye thus fast fie r 

* There lyeth a gyaunte here besyde, 
For all this londe brode and wyde 

No man on lyue leueth he.' 

rtaenes Galabrla, 




and lieanof 
tbe GianU 


* Dere God,' sayd Torente then, 

* Wher euer be that fendes den % * 

They answered hym anone : 

* In a castell in the see, 
Slogos ' they sayd * hyght he, 

Many a man he hath slone. 



We wote full well, where he doth ly 
Byfore the cyte of Hungry,' 

« In HalHweiri edition IV. 

TtM Giant Slogos 
b in Hangaiy. 


Digitized by 



Tli« Olaiit Miyt 
he'U wring 
Tomut's non. 


Torrtnt etowgMb 

|il«roMth« Giant's 

and makM bhtt 

[Torrent fights the Giant.] 
all the wrynge, 
. lynge 

. . . tlion the 
. he toke, 
. bare a cioke 
• te longe and thre 
ever so longe were 
. . had no fere 
yd darsste thou come nere 
nte nolengre a-byde 
nte wolde he ryde 
one eye but one, 
• • neuer none, 
nor by nyght 

Ipe of god of heuen, 
. herin euen, 

gan to rore, 

the cyte wore, 


es eyen were oute 

. • • . boute 










DMontll Is 
dellTsrsd of 
t malt ehUdren 

[DesoneU hears ttniis. AU are sent out to sea. TJiey 

reach land.'] 

Thus the lady dwelled there, 1807 

Tyll that she delyuered were 

Of men chyldren two. 1809 

1 Printed in EngliseKe Studieii, YII. p. 847 t 
* In Halliweirs edition I. 

Digitized by 



Of all poyntes were they gent, 

Lyke were they to Sir Torent, tikeTomni. 

For his loue safifred they wo. 1812 

The kynge sayd, ' so mote I the, 
Thou shalt into the se Her fsumt nj« 

■be shftU be Mnt 

Without wordes mo. 1815 oattoM. 

Every kynges doughter fer and nere 
At the they shall lere, 

Agaynst right to do ! ' 1818 

Great ruthe it was to se, siw i« led from 


Whan they led that lady fre 

Out of hir faders lande. 1821 

The queue, hir moder, was nere wode SlJenTJi 

For hir doughter, that gentyll f ode, daughter*, fwe. 

Knyghtes stode wepynge.^ 1824 

A clothe of sylke toke they tho, 

And departed it bytwene the chyldren two, 

Therin they were wonde. 1827 

Whan they had shypped that gentyll thynge, Dewneu is etnt 


Anone she fell in swownynge 

At Peron on the sonde. 1830 

Whan that lady was downs fall, 
On lesu Cryste dyd she call. 

To defende hir with his honde : 1833 

* Rightfull God, ye me sende S*!.P'y.'** 

® ' •' Clirist for lier 

Some good londe on to lende, children. 

That my chyldren may crystened be[n].* 1836 

She sayd, * ladyes fayre and gent, 
Great well my lorde Sir Torent, 

Yf euer ye hym se[n] ! ' 1839 

The wynde arose on the myght, 
Fro the londe it blewe that lady bryght 

Into the se so grene. 1842 

1 wepande. 

H 2 

Digitized by 



Wyndes and wedeis hathe hir dryaon^ 
That in a forest she is aiynen. 

Where wylde bestys were. 1845 

The 86 was ebbe and went hem fro 
And left hir and hir chyldren two 

[Alo]ne without any fere. 1848 

Hir one chylde began to wepe, 
The lady awoke out of hir slepe 

And sayde, * be styll, my dere, 1851 

Ihesu Cryste hathe sent ys lande, 
Yf there be any Crysten man at hands. 

We shall haue socoure here.' 1854 

Detonell anil 
)i«r twin babM 
roficli laiid. 

SlM stills htr 


ind sits down. 

The carefull lady then was blythe. 
To the londe she went full swythe, 

As fast as she myght 
Tyll the day began to sprynge, 
Foules on trees merely gan syngo 

Delicyous notes on hyght 
To a hyll went that lady fre. 
Where she was ware of a cyte 

With toures fayre and bryght. 
Therof I-wys she was fayne, 
She set hir downs, as I herd sayne, 

Hir chyldren for to dyght. 





Digitized by 




Paob 1, line 12. Cf. 11. 118, 187, 190, 198, 658, 924, 1924, 2183. 
So in Eglamour (TborntOD Romaacee), \, 408 : 

< The boke of Borne thus can telle,' 
and The Erl of Tolotue, ed. Lfidtke, L 1219 : 

* Yn Rome thys geste cronyculyd y9,* 
See Halliweirs and Ludtke*8 notee to these passages. I agree with 
both of them, that an expression like that does not earnestly refer the 
reader to a Latin or Italian source of the stoiy ; there is evidently no 
difference at all between in Rome and in romance. 

p. 1, 1. 15. toygJU has been inserted instead of dowghtly in order 
to restore the rhyme with hyghi^ knyghty myght ; cf. Haveiok, ed. Skeat, 

* He was fayr man and wicth.' 

p. 1, 1. 17 = Ipomadon^ 1. 63. Parallel passages to this hyperbolic 
expression are collected in Kolbing*s note to this line (p. 364). 

p. 1, 1. 24. We find the same idea aa here, viz. that nobody can 
resist the will of Qod, who has power over death and life, In Sir 
Trietrem, 11. 236 ff. : 

' pat leuedi, noa3t to lain, 
For 80)>e ded is sche I 
Who may be ogain T 
As god wil, it schal be, 

p. 2, 1. 28. I have not met with the verb fesomnen anywhere else, 
and it is not mentioned in Stratmann and Matzner. Halliweli, Dic- 
tionary, p. 354, explains it by ' feoffed, gave in fee,' doubtless regarding 
this very passage, although he doesn't cite it ; might feeomnyd not be 
a corruption from seeyd ? cf. Havelohy II. 250 f. : 

* pat he ne dede al Engelond 
8one sayse intil his bond.' 

Hall writes to me on this word as follows : fesomnyd is, I am con- 
vinced, not a word at all, but a scribe's error for festonyd or featnyd = 
confirmed, fixed. Comp. ^And pat ich hym foolde myd treiope eikerfaste 
on handej Robert of Gloucester (Hearne), p. 150. For this use o( fasten, 
fastnen, comp. ^Bui myforwarde tcith \e I feeten on J«« wyse^ Alliterative 
Poems, p. 47, 1. 327 : 'd folden fayth to pat fre, festned so harde,* Sir 

Digitized by 


102 woTBs TO pp. s — 9, IL 80— sae. 

Gawayne, p. 67, 1. 1783: *And pis forward, infaithy Ifestyn with hond^* 
Destruction of Troy, p. 22, 1. 636. See also Jamieson's Scottish Dic- 
tionary, ii. p. 216, under to FesL 

p. 2, 1. 90. I am by no means sure that fede is the original read- 
ing, but I wasn't able to find a better word rhyming with dedde^ wede ; 
even tlie ne. ' feed * means pculure, and that is what we expect here. 

p. 2, L 31. For my correction cf. Ludtke's note to Th& Erl of 
Tohnm, 1. 199, sub 2 ; Eglam., 1. 26 : 

* That was a maydyn as whyte as fome^* 
/J. 1. 683 : 

* Crystyabelle as whyte as fome,' 

where the Percy FoUo MS. reads : 

* Ghristabell that was as faire as sunn ; * 
Chronicle of England, 1. 75 £ : 

* Ant nomeliche to thy lemroon, 
That ys wyttore then the fom.* 

p. 2, 1. 50. The alteration of And and bee into An and $ee seemed 
necessary ; eaymeni is like Fr. essaiementy Lat. exagimentwn. 

p. 3, L 59. CC 1. 1216 f. and The Lt/fe of Ipomydon, ed. Edibing, 
1. 1795 : 

' If thou hyr haue, thou shalt hyr bye.' 

p. 3| 1. 77 £ As half of the stanza is lost, it is impossible to make 
out to whom they refers. Nor do I believe that 1. 78 is correct, 
especially as to chaunce, 

p. 3, 1. 79. Cf. Ipomadon, ed. Eolbing, 1. 8123 : 
* A myle wyth in the Qrekes see.* 

p. 3, 1. 80. in an yle IB certainly tlie correct reading ; mauyle was 
introduced by a scribe who supposed it to be the giant*s name ; but 
that is mentioned some twenty lines later. 

p. 5, 1. 136. The correction of lyght into ryght I owe to Hall, who 
refers me to the legend of Sancla Maria EgypHaca ; cf. t i. Barbour's 
Legends of Saints^ ed. Horstmann, I. p. 143 ff. 

p. 6, 1. 153. nowyd = * anoyed ' gives a poor sense. Hall sug- 
gesto nototyd; cf. E. D. S., No. 6, Ray's North Country Words, p. 59, 
note, to push, strike or soar, with the horn, as a bull or rsm,' ab. A.S. 
huitcm, ejosdem significationis. The word might then mean * spurred.' 

p. 6, 1. 171 = 1. 596. This alliterative binding is a very frequent 
oue ; cf. Sir Orfeo, ed. Zielke, p. 9. 

p. 7, 1. 188. The same rhyme, which I have restored here, occurs 
1. 659 f. 

p. 7, 1. 190. Yt Ullythe = Tl is told; cf. Udtke, note to The Erl 
of Tolouse, 1. 1070, and Sarrazin, note to Octavian, 1. 1749. 

p. 9, 1. 236. I was about to write, Ci^styn men ihow they ioere, 
referring this line to the guardians of the lions ; but, no doubt, HalFs 
reconstruction of the line, which I have put into the text, is far better. 

Digitized by 


NOTES TO pp. 9—16, U. 287—427. 103 

p. 9, 1. 237. Hyn brotoys wexe hla^ i. e. he turned pale, lie was 
struck with fear; cl hloo cukes, P. PL, I. 1553, and the German osckfahL 
Quite a similar expression occurs in Perceval, 1. 687 f. : 

' Now 8one of that salle wee see, 
Whose browes schalle blakke.' 
lb. I 1056 : 

' His browes to blake.* 

p. 9, 1. 245. Though tyghyng gives no offence, still it may be, that 
the anthor has written Byngyng, and the scribe was i%Tong in altering 
it ; cf. Zupitza's note to €fuy, 1. 5424. 

p. 9, 1. 251. Cf. 1. 802, 1204, Ipomadm, 1. 6481 f. : 

' Your nece of Calabyre, that lady clere, 
Ys bovnden wyth a fendes fere.* 

Reiiqmm Antiquae, i. p. 241 : 

* He Mith bi ni^te and eke bi day, 
That by beth fendes ifere.' 

p. 10, 1. 265 f. The reading of these two lines is quite destroyed 
by the careless scnbe. My correction is not more than an attempt to 
restore the rhyme. 

p. 10, 1. 277 ff. There is nothing in Torrent*s words which could 
lead the princess to a conclusion like that. I think that after 1. 276 
one stanza is wanting. 

p. 11, 1. 286-8. As to* the contents of these lines, Kolbing refers 
me to Englische studien, vol. IV. p. 133 f., where F. Liebrecht mentions 
a passage in Sir Beves of Hamtoun, according to which a king^s 
daughter, — if she is a pure virgin, — can never be hurt by a lion. Here 
we have another proof for this remarkable bit of folk-lore. 

p. 11, 1. 292 = 1. 329. 

p. 11, 1. 303 = 1. 342. 

p. 11, 1. 305. I am not quite sure whether I was right in sub- 
stituting the prince's name — which is mentioned once more, the first 
time , as it were, 1. 341 — for the name of his father's kingdom ; but I 
didn't see any other way of restoring the rhyme. 

p. 12, 1. 311. Cf. 1. 469 and Skeat's note to Sir Thopas, 1. 1927. 

p. 12, 1. 334. Instead of A« I should prefer to read they : Torrent 
has just admonished the prisoners to cheer np. 

p. 13, 1. 344. There must be something wrong in this line, because 
the name of the third furl's son is missing ; to write the third instead 
of of may not suffice to put the text right ; even the names Torren and 
Berweyne seem to me very suspicious. 

p. 14, 1. 379. Cf. Ipomadon, 1. 4245, /or Ctystye dede; Ci-yetye was 
substituted by Kolbing for manneSy which is clearly wrong ; he could as 
well have chosen godes, 

p. 15, 1. 393 ff. Cf. Kolbing's note to T^-istrem, 1. 736. 

p. 16, 1. 427. Of this allusion to Veland, nalliwoll treats in his 

Digitized by 


104 NOm TO pp. 16 — 26, IL 429 — 7W. 

edition of Sir Torrent, p. yii f. Of. Zupitza, Ein zeugnUJur die Wieland- 
eage, Zeitechrift fur deutechee AUerihum, Vol. XIX, p. 129 i 

p. 16, 1. 429-31. The line which follows 1. 429 in the Ma is super- 
fluous ; it damages the metre ; aud the rhyme with L 430 won't do. 
The old king wishes to say : < I have seen tlie day when, if this sword 
wielded by me fell on any one, he was considered done for, doomed to 
death/ Therefore 1. 431, 1 fawght iheifor I told has been corrected 
into Fatoe they were I-told, Tlie scribe did not understand the obso- 
lescent word fawe or faye^ so he wrote the nearest word to it to make 
sense, l-told = * held, considered.* — L Hall. 

p. 17, L 458. Cf. BreuFs note to ^r Qowther, 1. 410. 

p. 17, 1. 465. Cf. 1. 2061 f. 

p. 20, 1. 542. The scribe, who evidently didn't know the pretty 
rare word clow^ has spoilt it to cohd^ or colvd; the same rhyme, clou^^ 
drou^f anou^ occurs in Sir Triitrem^ 1. 1761 R, Nor did the scribe 
know the word nooioe ^ * noise,' aud changed it to twayne ; c£ Hall. 
Diet, p. 843 : He come to him ukth a ewowe, 

p. 20, 1. 543. Of and on, off and on, intermittently. 

p. 21. 1. 555. echyld is not to the point here, Torrent having only 
his sword at hand. The scribe has forgotten what be has said himself, 
1. 526 and 549 ; cf. 1. 652. 

p. 21, 1. 582*4. We meet with this description twice more in the 
poem, 11. 1514-16, and 11. 1858-80. 

p. 23, 1. 640. On the meaning of thef^ c£ Edlbing's note to Am. 
and Amil, 1. 787. 

p. 24, 1. 659. ofPerowne is certainly wrong, as it does not agree with 
the rhymes elere, nere^fere; but I don't know how to amend the line. 

p. 24, 1. 662. echere gives no meaning ; I write stere and translate, 
There might nobody move further, i. e. the giant was brought to a 
standstill in the glen. 

p. 24, 1. 665. Cf. 11. 434, 791. 

p. 25, 1. 688. Cf. Eglam., 1. 324 : 

'And to [the] herte hym bare.* 

The weak preterit tense of herien is very rare ; if here = A.SL heran 
sometimes has the same meaning, i, e. * to strike,' the reason is that 
A.S. heran and Icel. herja are confounded. 

p. 25, 1. 696. tooo can hardly stand for wood. It seems to me like 
a last corruption of an old romance phrase, like worthy inwiih wall 
{wo^e) ; possibly the line was simply so : Thua in II joumeye Torrent 

p. 25, 1. 700. On the use of M.K fote as a plural see Znpitza's 
note to Guy, 1. 598. 

p. 26, 1. 722. Hall suggests, the original phrase may have been : 
pomely whyt and grey ; cf. Chaucer, C jT., ProL, 1, 615 f. : 

' This reeve sat vpon a ful good stot, 
That was al pomely gray, and higbte Scot' 

Digitized by 


NOTBS TO pp. 27 — 89, U. 744 — 1086. 105 

p. 27, 1. 744. Ct I 788. On St. James ct Kolbing's note to Am. 
and Amil, I. 796. 

p. 29, L 808 f. ^ In 80 dangerous conditions he has been before 
[and still come back safe], so he will come back even this time.* 

p. 29, L 819. On the meaning of the phrase ' the hord beginne, cf. 
Kolbing, Englische eiudien. III. p. 104, and Zupitza, ^ti^^ia, III. p. 370 f. 

p. 30, 1. 838. This stanza being incomplete, I think, the lacuna is 
to be pat after 1. 838. The missing three lines contained the fact, that 
the king promises Torrent, before his knights, that, when he has done 
this deed, he will give him his danghter, and grant him one half of his 
kingdom during his life, and the whole afterwards ; cf. 1. 1206 ff. The 
odd number of XXVII knights is probably due only to the scribe ; c£ 
F. Ill : By VII score of hardy knygfUea. 

p. 31, 1. 867 f. These two lines are poor, and the rhyme is very 
bad ; 1. 868 may have run originally, Thurrow Pervyne^ for eolhe^ it 
ley; cf. I. 949. 

p. 32, 1. 901. eqvyere, although very odd at the first sight, may still 
be right ; Torrent says : * The only sqnier that I took with me for this 
journey, is my sword'; cf. 1. 909. 

p. 33, 1. 922. Cf. Kolbing's note to Ipomadon, 1. 3344. 

p. 33, 1. 924<6. On the story of a child, begotten by a devil on a 
sleeping woman, cf. Brenl, Sir Gowther^ p. 119 f. 

p. 34, 1. 954 «. Cf. Tiietrem, 1. 1409 ff, : 
* Out of Deuelin toun 
pe folk wel fast ran, 
In a water to droun, 
So ferd were ^ai l^an.* 

p. 34, 1. 963 f. Cf. Bevea of Hamtoun, 1. 187 £ : 
* Madame, a seide, for loue myn, 
Wbar mai ich finde fmt wilde swin? ' 

p. 36, L 1000. Instead of epere perhaps we ought to read sioorde. 

p. 37, 1. 1030 f. If we compare the rests of these lines in F. VI., 
this reading or a similar one is to be expected. The reading of 1. 
1029 S, in the fragments may be completed so : [Thourgh the he^pe 
of god of hetten Thorough ye and\ herin euen Ghd send the epere the 
right way. 

p. 36, 1. 1033 f. CC IL 1166, 2468 f , and Kolbing's note to Sir 
Tristrem, 1. 69 f. 

p. 38, 1. 1070. 'I came hither to seek my death,' i. e. this expe- 
dition was so dangerous, that I expected to die. 

p. 38, 1. 1076. Cf. Ipomadon, 1. 239 f. : 

* Tyll vncovth oon treys will I wende^ 
The maner wille I see.' 

p. 39, 1. 1081. if was to bo corrected into it : ' Because you slew 
him that possessed it' 

p. 39, 1. 1086. This line, according to Hall's emendation, means : 
Tou owe no homoge or feudal duo, the manor is yours and your heirs' 

Digitized by 


106 NOTIS TO pp. 89 — 4«, 11. 1106 — 1108. 

for ever ; t. e. the manor is in fee simple, and free from any feudal 

p. 39, Bt 95. Tlie text would be improved by pntting II. 1104-6 
before 1101-3, altbougli this transposition is not absolutely necessary, 
p. 39, 1. 1 106. lefle may be a mistake for losle ; cf. Chwer, I. 207 : 
' Contenaunoe for a ^rowe 
He loste.* 
p. 40, 1. 1117. Cf. Ritson's MeL Eom,, III. p. 341 f., and Zupitza's 
note to Ouy, 1. 436. 

p. 40, 1. 1121. he bare looks rather suspicious, but it is supported 
by 1. 2169. The author is about to deecribe Uie figures inlaid on the 
shield. Ct Eglamour, 1. 1030 1 : 

* He hare in asure^ a grjrpe of golde, 
Rychely betoo on the molde.* 
p. 40, 1. 1124. This line is hopelessly spoilt; the scribe, careless as 
he was, has almost literally repeated 1. 1121 ; 1. 1125 directly continues 
the description begun before. 

p. 40, 1. 1132. Is than J haue in tale right? We expect rather: 
than I can Ulle in tale. 

p. 41, 1. 1138 f. Cf. 1. 1587 f. 

p. 41, 1. 1143. I thought it necessary to insert mete, although 
Matzner, Wdrterbuch, II. p. 274, cites this line as tlie only insUnce in 
the M.E. literature for glad as a substantive. But even the sense is 
very poor without this addition. 

p. 41, 1. 1144. As to a man riding into the hall, cf. Skeafs note to 
Chaucer's Squiere*8 Tale, 1. 80, and Kolbing's note to Ipomadon, 1. 6253 f. 
p. 41, 1. 1160 f. I hope my alterations in 1. 1151 are right. It 
cannot be said that the King of Aragon defends the lady unless some- 
body has laid claims to Iier. Torrent wants either three combaU or the 
lady, quite a regular occurrence in raedinval romances, 
p. 41, 1. 1164. none, lady. 
p. 41, 1. 1160. Cf. Kolbing's note to Trisirem, 1. 138. 
p. 41, 1. 1166. the gree, which word is here required by the rhyme, 
if, in the same way as in this passage, used for * battle-field,' in Perceval, 
1. 1225 f. : ' Hedes and helmys ther was, 

I telle jow withowttene lese, 
Many layde one the grette, 
And many brode schelde.* 
p. 42, 1. 1181. For tynding of hie hand = for fear of (= for) the 
beating (blows) of his hand. Schoolboy slang still keeps the word 
• to tund* = to beat with something flat. — Halu 

p. 42, I. 1193. On this expression Skeat treats in Notee to P. PL, 
p. 3987, to which note I refer tlie reader. Cf. Li B. Dieci, 1 130 f. 
(Ritson, Rom. II. p. 6) : 

* Hys schon wer with gold ydygbt 

And h opeth as a knyght* 

* So Percy Fol. MS. ; aterre Thorn t. 

Digitized by 


N0TK8 TO pp. 43—48, 11. 1198 — 1868. 107 

p. 43, ]. 1198 f. : ' None of tliein said a single word. But that Torrent 
had been right to do so as he had done.* 

p. 43, 1. 1211. There is an evident contradiction between this line 
and 1. 1199. I suppose the word waried to be wrong ; but I am not 
able to give a fairly certain emendation of it. 

p. 44, ]. 1228 f. : 'The king had supposed he was dead, and, indeed, 
foolhardy he was to undertake an adventure like this.' 

p. 45, 1. 1268 f. Tliis fight between the giant Gate and Torrent 
reminds us in some points of the combat between Ouy and Colbrond. 
Like the old northern holmganga, both fights take place on an island, 
and in both cases the giant declines to sit on horseback, because he is 
too heavy ; cf. Guy of Warwike, Rlinhurgh, 1840, 1. 9940 flF. : 
' When |yai had sworn and ostage founder 
Colbrond stirt vp in Imt stounde, 
To fi^t he was ful felle. 
He was so michel and so vnrede, 
That no hors mi^t him lede, 
In gest as y you telle. 
So mani he hadde of armes gere^ 
Vnne|»e a cart mi^t hem here, 
pe Inglisse for to quelle.* 

p. 45, 1. 1270. he instead of Mm is remarkable ; this personal con- 
struction, provided that it is right, would offer an analogue to I am wo 
instead of me is wo; cf. Kolbing's note to Tristrem, 1. 245. 

p. 45, 1. 1271 = 1. 1546. 

p. 46, I. 1307. This line ought probably to run thus : 
* Sir Ibrentpraidt as was his wonne,* 

p. 47, 1. 1337 f. This is saint Nycholas de Barr, not sir N., as the 
copyist has put. He was hardly a cleric, or he would have known the 
Boy Bishop. An English reference for S. Nicholas is Alban Butler, 
Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, etc., vol. vil p. 989, Dubhn, 1833. His 
day is Dec. 6th, consequently he is not in Acta Sanctorum ; see besides 
AUengUsche legenden, Neue folge, ed. Horstmann, Heilbronn, 1881, p. 
11 — 16, and Barbour's Legendensammlung, ed. Horstmann, I: p. 229 — 
245. Barr is Bari in Italy, and Barbour, I. p. 238, 1. 601 f., knew it was 
two syllables (cf. the rhyme ^ame be : Barre). Nicholas was the patron 
of sailors, and churches on the sesrcoast in all parts of Europe were 
dedicated to him. Now as Sir Torrent had been in peril at sea, he 
offers to him. It was customary to offer garments at such shrines. 
See Hampson, Medii JSvi Kalendarium, I. p. 72. Hence I propose for 
1. 1338 : A grett Erldome and a simarr. Simarr is not a common word, 
which makes it all tlie more probable here, since the uncommon words 
are those which are corrupted and lost. See Prompt, Parv., I. p. 75 : 
* chymer, abella^ that is * abolla, cloak.' M. E. simar, Fr. simarre. — ^Hall. 
I have not hesitated for a moment to introduce this sagacious conjecture 
into the text ; also the correction of redith into ias I owe to Mr. Hall. 

p. 48, 1. 1353. C£ KSlbing's note to Sir Tristrem, 1. 2508. 

Digitized by 


108 N0TB8 TO pp. 48 — 69, 11. 1864 — 1774. 

p. 48, ]. 1364. We ought probably to read $he instead of lie. 

p. 48, 1. 1367 f. Cf. 1. 1766 f. 

p. 48, 1. 1378. Cf. Sir Tiistrem, 1. 2468 : 

p. 49, 1. 1386 ff. Here he addresses the King of Portugal. In 1. 
1386 Vu is superfluous, and should perhaps be struck out. 

p. 49, 1 1396. fend = defend; cf. Zupitza*s note to Ouy^ 1. 676. 

p. 61, 1. 1443 f. As the existence ot fede =^ fode^ 'fellow' is 
proved by do other passage, we ought perhaps to write Ab spede me 
god : ffode^ or As g. me $ave : knave, instead of As god me spede : ffede, 

p. 61, 1. 1446. The alteration of fleand, which is absurd here, into 
failand is supported by 1. 1280. 

p. 61, ]. 1446. As to make instead of made, cf. 1. 332. 

p. 61, 1. 1463. Cf. L 2090 f. I am afraid neither of tliese passages 
is quite right 

p. 63, 1. 1618. Perhaps we ought to read : 

' And out of the valey he hyd swith.' 

p. 64, 1. 1631. I don't believe that the poet used the word tree 
thrice within these four lines ; perhaps he wrote for 1. 1631 : Shold not 
dravoe it, parde. 

p. 64, 1. 1661. Cf. Owj, ed. Zupitza, 1. 6430 : 
* To reste |>€r horsys a lytuU wyght,' 
and Zupitza's note to 1. 419. 

p. 66, 1. 1670. Cf. Stratinanu's note to ffavelok, 1. 1129 {Engltsche 
studien, I. p. 424). 

p. 66, 1. 1692. To the I haue full good gate means, * I am fully 
entitled to kill you.' I don't recollect to have met with any parallel 

p. 66, 1. 1600. That dynt is wrong, the rhyme shows as well 
as the meaning. But whether my alteration is right, seems very 
doubtful, especially as 1. 1609 offers the same rhyming word. 

p. 68, St. 142. Rhymes like dight, he-taught, draught, right can by 
no means be admitted. Now, instead of he-taught we may be allowed 
to write he-teighte (cf. Belcet, 1. 1827), and 1. 1664 may have run : 
' He wold haue a draught, aplight* 

p. 69, 1. 1676. After uxis, sent may have been dropped. 

p. 69, 1. 1692. For his lovty i. e. * As his sweetheart.' 

p. 60, 1. 1714. Cf. Ipomadon, 1. 62 : 

' Begge he wex of bonne and blode.* 
lb. 1. 1763 : 

' Ryghtte bygge of bone and blode.' 
p. 60, 1. 1722: 'All his men agreed with him,' viz. that this was 
the knight whom he came to seek. 

p. 62, 1. 1774. Is A«r day = A.a aerdagas, cf. Ravelok, 1. 27? 
The word b very rare, and in this meaning occurs only in the plural. 

Digitized by 


NOTBS TO pp. 62—76, IL 1777 — 2174. 109 

p. 62, 1. 1777. After hmg, on kne may have dropped out 
p. 63, 1. 1799. C£ Chaucer, C. 21, the Millere'e Tale, 1. 326 : 

< Say what thou wolt, I schal it nerer telle 
To child no wyf» hy him that harwed helle.* 

/&., The Sompnoure'e Tale, I 407 : 

* Now help, Thomaa» for him that harewed helle.' 

Perhaps even here, 1. 1702, lent, that made hdl^ ought to be altered into 
i. that harowde hell, 

p. 64, 1. 1846. Perhaps we ought to read ehhyng instead of eh^ 
according to 1. 223 ; one can hardly say, that ' the sea is eb.* 

p. 68, 1. 1961. Instead of ^ I should prefer to read The^ because 
this griffon is the same which robbed the child before. 

p. 69, 1. 1982. Of what land that he i$ left, l e. ^ Wherever he may 
be bom.' 

p. 69, 1. 1991 f. Cf. Ipomadm, 1. 50 £. : 

* He sayd : Fro tyme he kepe tham con, 
My landes I shall hym take.' 

p. 70, 1. 2002. It u good in euery fight, i. e. there is a stone in the 
ring which heals wounds, if they are touched with it; cC Eolbing's 
note to IpoTMidon, 1. 8018. 

p. 70, 2010. Halliwell, p. 306, explains ditparUd by < beaten down, 
destroyed,* a meaning which is not fit for this passage. I read with a 
slight addition dieparpM «» * dispersed,' a rare word ; cf. Straimannf 
p. 166. 

p. 71, 1. 2026. But is probably to be altered into And. 

p. 72, 1. 2053. Cf. Eolbing's note to Trietrem, 1. 306a 

p. 72, 1. 2076. One might be inclined to write : 

•That my two children vncrystonyd ware,* 

but I don't think that we are obliged to change : ' I cared only for that 
one thing. That my two children might be christened.' 

p. 74, L 2126. For hing instead of Tieng cf. Matzner, Sprachproben, 
1. 1, p. 292, note to line 676, where hyngee rhymes with epringes,' 

p. 74, 1. 2135. hede vale, i. e. principal, best choice ; vale = toale, 
or perhaps aphetic for ovale = value. — Hall. 

p. 74, 1. 2138. bom seems to me somewhat suspicious, though I 
cannot propose a better reading ; cmd torn instead of bom wouldn't do. 

p. 76, 1. 2162. The imperfect rhyme shows that there is something 
wrong in this line ; it may be restored thus : 

* Loo, lordys good and hende.' 

p. 76, 1. 2153. wyll haue has probably been inserted here from the 
following line ; we ought to read has, 

p. 75, 1. 2167. Seaeon/or to hold, I e. * in order to hold court' But 
I don't know another instance of season witli this meaning. 

p. 76, L 2174. This line involves a contradiction to I 2168 t 

Digitized by 


110 N0TB8 TO pp. 76 — 7^, U. «186 — 2269. 

p. 76, I. 2185. smote means the same as ante; cf. Eing Ham^ ed. 
Wissiiiauii, I. 1038 : 

'And ankere guDne caste.* 

The only question is, whether aaikere is allowed to be supplied or must 
be added ; cf. 1. 2203. 

p. 77, 1. 2209 — ^2214. The Sultan informs Torrent by messengers, 
that the iuhabitauts of the town are starving, evidently appealing to his 
generosity. Torrent auswers him, that if they will lie here, ». e. leave 
the town, they are to have victuals enough. But the Sultan doesn^t 
accept this condition, and so the siege is continued. That seems to me 
to be the meaning of this half of the stanza. 

p. 77, 1. 2216 f. dede means here, and 1. 2400, * exploit, battle.' 
In the same way Saber, Beves*s uncle, once a year on a certain day 
fights against the Emperor ; cf. Sir Beues, 1. 2917 ff. : 

* k eueri ^r on a dai certains 
Vpon ^empemr of Almaine 
He ginne|> gret bataile take^ 
Beues, al for )yine sake.' 

It agrees very well with the religious feelings of the Middle Ages, 
when they thought it a merit to fight against the heathens on €K)od 
Friday ; cf. here 1. 2230 ff. 

p. 77, 1. 2224 ff. I am afraid there is something wrong in these 
lines; the copyist seems to mean, that Torrent didn*t bereave the 
inhabitants of their worldly goods, their treasures ; then we must write 
them for U, But what we really expect here is, that he leaves in the 
town some trustworthy men to keep it. Accordingly, the fault lies in 
Worldely goodis. Besides, 1. 2224, did i^yn, instead of toas yit, would 
improve the rhyme. 

p. 77, 1. 2232. bryght is a rather odd epithet to Sarcitis. 

p. 78, 1. 2233 ff. Fifteen years have past since Torrent began to 
fight against the infidels: he besieges the first town two years (cf. 
1. 2189), the second, six years (cf. 1. 2206), the third, seven years 
(cf. 1. 2230). Meanwhile, the education of a young man being finished 
at the age of fifteen (cf. Kdlbing*s note to Ihistrem, 1. 287), his son had 
become just old enough to win his spurs. 

p. 78, 1. 2240. I doubt whether ordeyn can be allowed to stand 
without an object, such as your folk, or your ships ; cf. Robert of 
GWster, ed. Heame, p. 139, 1. 19 : 

' He bigan to ordeyne ys folk, & to batail a^ drew.' 

p. 78, 1. 2256 : * Woebegone was she, that must see that,' viz. that 
* le leopard took away her sone.' 

p. 78, 1. 2259 f. The meaning of these two lines is not quite per- 
spicuous, and they may be corrupt ; only this one thing is clear, that 
these two knights are Torrent and his son, who belong to different 

p. 79, 1. 2269 ff. It may be that IL 2269-71 and 11. 227274 are 

Digitized by 


MOTBS TO pp. 80 — 87, IL 3802 — 2620. 1 1 1 

to be trauspoeed, but I don't think it necessary : Torrent's men flee 
when they see that their chief has surrendered. 

p. 80, I. 2302. wekid = wicked, mischievous. But I don't recol- 
lect to have met with this adj. as an epithet to land or country. 

p. 80, 1. 2304. Cf. Tristrem, 1. 88, Kolbing's note to that passage, 
and York Plays, p. 438, 1. 166 : 

* For, certys, my lyf days are nere done.' 

p. 80, ). 2316. The alteration of this line is rather a radical one ; 
but there was no other way to restore the rhyme ; I think that first, 
day and nyjt had changed their places in line 2313, and then the 
copyist, in order to get a rhyme to ny^t, spoilt the latter line. 

p. 81, 1. 2335. he my ffaye and parmaffay in tlie same stanza, and 
both in the rhyme, are rather poor ; one of these lines may have run 

' Be god of heven, the king gan say.' 

p. 82, 1. 2357. The same confusion between turmeni and tumament 
occurs in Ipomadon^ 1. 2868 ; cf. Kolbing's note to this line, 
p. 83, 1. 2392. Cf. Ipomadon, 1. 3958 : 

*A mercy, syr, for Crystes pitta,' 

and Edibing's note to this line. 

p. 83, 1. 2395 f. Cf. Kolbing's note to Ti-isirem, 1. 3064, where he 
cites an interesting parallel passage to this line from Guy of Warwick, 
ed. Zupitza, 1. 4707 f. : 

* Jyt |K>a art the trewest knyght^ 
lliat euer slepyd in wynturs nyght' 

p. 83, 1. 2405. and is perhaps miswritten for an or on, 

p. 83, 1. 2407. This lino, as it stands, is rather odd ; perhaps it 
ought to be identical with 1. 1128. 

p. 84, 1. 2420. juBter^jouster, means here a knight who joins in a 
joust or tournament : in the only other passage where it is known to 
occur, Alts., 1. 1400, it is a horse for tourneying. 

p. 84, 1. 2433 = 1. 2456 ; cf. Ipomadon, 1. 8830 : 
* Etiery man in there degre,^ 

p. 85, 1. 2450. On roial, cf. K5lbing's note to Ipomadon, 1. 64. 
To a roaUffyght may be compared Shakespeare's A royal battle (Rich. 
III., IV. iv.). 

p. 85, 1. 2461. with oute lent = ' without fasting ' ? I have not met 
with this expletive phrase anywhere else. 

p. 86, 1. 2493. It was not superfluous to mention this fact, because 
knights were very often killed in tournaments; cf. Nieduer, Das 
deutsche tumier im XIL und XII L lahrhunderi, Berlin, 1881, p. 24. See 
also H. Brunne's Handlyng-Synne, ed. Furnivall, 1862, p. 144-6. 

p. 87, 1. 2518-20. As to the meaning of couplid, cf Matzner, 
Wdrterbuch, I. p. 491. These lines evidently mean that gentlemen and 
ladies sit alternately, what one calls in German, hunts reihe machen. 

Digitized by 


112 NOTES TO pp. 87 — 989 U. 2626— 2««1. 

Cr. A. Scbiiltz, D<u hdJUehe Leben Zur Zeit der Minnennger^ L p. 330, 
and P. Pietscb, BuDte Reihe, Zeit$chrifi fur deut$ehs Philologie, vol. 
xvi. Halle, 1884, p. 231, who cites from BiUro\f, 1. 7399 fL : 

* Do hiesens under mine man 
Ir ingesinde wol getin 
Sich teilen in dem palas, 
Dan kein mtn reoke dft was, 
Em saese swischen magedin.' 

p. 87, 1. 2526. tmtU was added by Hall in order to restore the 
rliynie witli De$<meU, 

p. 88, 1. 2535. For this correction, d Znpitza's note to Ouy, 1. 600. 
p. 90, I. 2593. After marked, them may have dropped ; c£ Lcufo- 
man, 1. 5642 £ : 

'And heom markede ford, 
Tonward Mont-gin heo ferden,' 

instead of which lines the later MSS. writes : 

' Hii nome riht hire way 
Touward Huntsgeu.* 

p. 90, 1. 2597. On caeUlleUmre cf. Eolbing's note to TrUbrem, 1. 158. 

p. 91, 1 2636. Ct Eolbing's notes to Ami$ and Amiloun, 1. 1019, 
and to The lyfe of Ipomadon, 1. 506. Here the expression, no good he 
ne cotUh means, he was quite feeble and strengthlees. 

p. 92, 1. 2658. up-tyed = so limited by the deed of fonndation that 
they (the churches and abbeys) could not be diverted to any other pur- 
pose. — Hall. 

p. 92, 1. 2661. Cf. Eglamour, 1. 1339, Lincoln MS. : 
* In Rome this romance orouned es.' 
The Cambridge MS. reads instead : 

' In Rome tbys geste oronyculd ys.' 

I am inclined to think that crotmed is nothing else but a misreading 
for cronyculd. Afterwards, considered to be correct, it has originated 
expressions like those we find here. 

Digitized by 




Abydde, 2/41, «6. to endure. 

orbye, 21/569, 1*. to pay for. 

acUme, 79/2276, sb. a jacket of 
quilted cotton. Cf . Skeat*8 Gloss- 
ary to Wars ofALf s. v. 

agoy 316$, pp. gone. 

orrighty 48/1364, pt s. prepared, 
served up. 

assent, 48/1357, s5. proposal 

assttytj 23/640, adv, at once. 

auter, 68/1952, $b. altar. 

avenUdy 54/i 554, pt «. r^. recovered 
liis breath. 

aventorreSf 2/39, 36. yZ. adventures. 

aveniurly, 44/1229, adv. boldly. 

axUhe, IO/260, |>r. 3 Jt^r. asks. 

Balle, 15/400, s6. bale. 

6a>i«,* 29/794, «6. bone; 62/1478, 

s5. destruction, dcatli; 59/1678, 

36. over-comer. 
bare, 63/1502, |>r. & stabbed. 
barye, SS/gyS, $b. pL bars. 
bayte, 54/1553, vb. to pasture. 
bed, 29/793, j?p. offered. 
6«U, 26/701, 86/2487, 36. battle- 
6:Tctte», 36/1015, adj. beardless. 
6cre, 37/1045, «&. to stab. 
&e-5f(3M2, 29/808, pp, sore bestad = 

bet, 5111622, pt. $. beat. 
be-taught, 68/1651, pp. surrendered, 

Mt, 55/1585, pp. beaten; 4O/1123, 

pp. ornamented. 
be-tydej 45/1270, r6. to befiiH; cf. 

tbe note to tliis line. 
beytyna, 36/ioo8, vb, 36., baiting. ? 
bla,* 9/237, adj. pale, wan ; cf. the 

bio* 13/351, odfj. blue. 
blynd, 4/87, pr. 3. conj. blind. 


bode, I8/498, pr. «. ordered. 
boffettes, 86/2472 ; 6ujfette«, 66/1596, 

j&. pi. blow, diot. 
6one, 55/1565, sb. prayer. 
bard, 29/819, 42/1194, 36. table. 
bawes, 6I/145 1 , 36. pZ. bough, branch. 
botvght, 21/556, sb. bend. 
brayd, 66/1598, 35. sudden attack. 
broke, 3O/833, 48/1354, vb. to enjoy. 
6rauj3, 24/654, 36. rising ground, 

byddypie, I8/500, pr. 3. waited, re- 

byght, 22/605, 1*. to bite. 

ftyJie, 2/46, lid. to be. 

byrlyd, II/292, I2/329, pr. 3. to pour 

Castell Umre, 9O/2597, 36. castle 

chaffare, 86/986, 36. bargain. 
chaletige, 4I/1150; pr. 3. 4I/1163; 

pr. 3. conj. challenge. 
cheff'foster, 2I/574, »6. chief-foster. 
ches, 26/7 1 8, pr. ». chose, 
c^yn^e, 29/8 14, 36. church. 
daricys, I / 12, sb.pL clerks. 
cUre, 3/62, adj. dere cf, renowned 

clowt* 20/542, fib. clough. 
cabled, 46/1298, adj. cobled stones 

= cobblestones. 
comely, 26/722, adv. in a comely 

manner ; cf. the note. 
conteHonce,* 3/75, sb. countenance, 

presence of mind. 
cardy 48/1357, pr. s. accord. 
coueryd, 87/2 qo6, p>*. pi. Vp they 

eoueryd = They recovered. ? 
cowUefumce, 39/ 1 105, 36. counten- 
cotiped, 42/i 193, pp. ; cf. the note. 


Digitized by 




cotwUd, 87/2520, pp, coupled; cL 

the note. 
eourmuy 4I/1150, 42/1177, 36. p{. 

eauih, 46/1295, 9I/2636, jw*. «. knew. 
crafUlyf 64/1527, adv. skilfolly. 
crek^ 40/1128; cresee, 83/2407, <6. 

cn>fce, 36/IOI8, 37/1042, 66/1577, 66/ 

1607, 68/1652, #6. crook. 

DoWe, 21/562, j6. valley. 

cielyu^r, 41/1154, «6.; 41/iici,twip. 

to deliyer up ; ddyuerd, 63/i8oiS, 

1808, pp. delivered of a child; 

ddyuerd, 82/2372, pp. released ? 
denty 2/41, $b, blow. 
depariid, 47/1329, |>r. j>Z. divorced. 
cUiiTe, 4/38, j6. dieu. 
deyr, 2/17, adj. dear. 
deyse, 38/1067, 42/ii02, 16. dais. 
dight, 39/1081, pr. «. built 
diwparpUd^ 7O/2010, f^p. dispersed ; 

c£ toe note. 
<2ofi^, 61/i754,pr.jp2. dung, beat 
dmwsty 3/81, |>rs. 9g. darest 
drwu^hJt^ 68/1654, <6. draught 
dryee, 86/994, v6. endure. 
duchyeSf 83/933, sb. pL duchies. 
dulffdf 19/519, adj. troublesome. 
dynnytig^ 62/1487, «6. roaring, 
dyapisytt, 2/47, pn, 2 Jtjr. despisest 

£&, 64/1846, 9b. ebb; cH the note. 

eWyd, 8/223, |)p. ebbing. 

ech^ 92/2657, 7>ron. each. 

ec^e, 24/649, 9b. oak. 

end^ntyd^ 9/227, j}p. indented, 

er6er, 66/1 868, «6. garden of pleasure. 
ermyghtj 36/ioo8, 36. ? 
ei/Uyt^, 34/958, jprt. 3 agf. ails. 

FaU, 47/1331, 1*. to fell, kill. 

famey 2/31, «6. foam. 

fare, 44/1234, «6. at that fare = 

under these circumstances. 
farly, 2/44 ; ferly, 69/1974, 7I/2035, 

9b. wonder. 
fawe,* 16/43 1, adj. destined to death. 
fede* 2/30, «6. feed, pasture ground ; 

cf. the note. 
Jfede, 6I/1444, ^* ; <2f* the note. 
/eU, 86/2444, adj. strong, able. 

/«tt, 1/21, 4/90, «6. to fell, kill; 

feUythe, 8/82, i>r. 3 jg. fells, 
/ere, 3/69, 4/98, 4/io2, 88/931, 86/ 

2466, 9b. companion. 
fuomnyd, 2/28, or. «. ; cfl the note. 
fa, 12/309, w. fetched. 
ffeHouri9, 8I/2333, #5. j)l. fetters. 
flyng, 67/1927, vd. to hasten. 
flyngynoy \AlyjZ,p.pr9. hastening. 
fode, 36/IOI2, j6. food; Jfode, 64/ 

1 82 J, «6. child, wight 
Jfoni, 69/1993, j6. font 
foT9akty 26/724, v6. to leave behind. 
fforward, 6I/1743, j&. agreement 
/raye, 28/638, «6. atUck, 
freke, 68/1661, 16. warrior. 
frtthty 6/161, f6. forest 
j^ie, 33/911, «6. fill 
ffyne, ^9li6S6, 9b. fine. 
JV^te, 17/458, 9b. pi. feet 
yy'JW* 'li7SiiP'PrS' fighting. 

Oadlyngt 86/1015, 16. vagabond. 

gcUe, 46/1313, 16. galley. 

^oe, 4/103, |>r». 3 sg. goes. 

ge9tonyey 8*2/2374, 91/2625, 9I/2627, 
s6. banquet, feast 

geth9y 71/2042, jwe. 3 9g. goes. 

^lemyrryn^, 16/426,|>. j»rt. glimmer- 

goveme, 28/779, t>6. r^ to behave. 

gremej* 67/1929, 36. grief, sorrow. 

grennyng, 40/ 1 126, |). jw». distoit- 

Iw, 69/1971 ; greffon, 69/1981, 
eo. griffin. 
grype, 68/1961, «6. griffin. 

ffarood, 6O/1711, <6. herald; 82/ 
2365 ; h(trroldy9f d>. pi. heralds. 

harood, 68/1709, |>r. 9. distracted. 

hed, 17/444, tb. heed. 

Aede, 74/2126, «6. to behead. 

Jiede-vdUy 74/2135,91/2621, «6. prin- 
cipal value; cl the note to I. 

hedle9f 26/702, od/. headless. 

hende, 4/io6, adj. courteous. 

hemt* 37/1030, «6. brains. 

Aewd,* 14/371, j6. head. 

At^A^, 66/1860, 36. height. 

housdU 46/1272 ; Ao^oee^, 74/2139, 
f6. housel. 

Aotogre, 20/548, adj. huge, enormous. 

Digitized by 




howi, 26/703, adv. oat 
hurt, 57/1625, $b, hurt 

I-byty 4d/i222, 1*. to pay for. 
i-tryiae, 16/391, adv. surely. 
jtigter, 84/2420, <&. joasting knight 

Kene, 2/47, oij. brave. 
kerpyfig, 92/2662, v6. ^. talking. 

Xcule, 68/1663, sb, load, i. e. a lot of 

{av, 6/165, 62/1492, sb. grass laod| 

Ude, 2/36, s6. country. 
lemyred, ll/2gi,pr. «. glimmered. 
Ullage^ 1 8/491, 36. lineage, family, 
leruitf, 1/9, prs. pi. go. 
icnflr, 32/899, 1*. to stav. 
1*1^,86/2461,16. lent? 
leryd, 40/iiio, t>p. informed. 
lifU, 45/1273, vb. to lift 
iotWy, 34/064, 35/991 ; lothely, 53/ 

1508, 54/1534, oc^*. loathsome. 
love^ 59/1692, $b. love, sweet-heart 
Zy5<, 1/7, vb. to listen. 
Zy<^ 13/337, u6. to listen. 
Zyvelocfe, 83/2384, sb. livelihood. 

Maistershipnum^ 60/ 142 5, <6. cap- 

nvoZ/, 12/322, 36. hammer, club. 

maricyd^ 9O/2592, pr. ». directed. 

mate, 26/678, oiij. faint, exhausted. 

mayn^rey, 1 6/435, ^* banquet, feast 

mat/xtry, 8/212, sb. mastery; mays- 
ires, 28/789, «6. |)Z. = maystries, 
exploits ? 

WMJc^, 10/270, 20/531, 26/713, 37/ 
1040, a£{;. much, great. 

mety 25/700, |w. «. measured. 

moche, 49/1399, 76/2 195, adj. much, 

myd metCi 4I/1141, 42/1189, ^' ^^^^ 
middle of the dinner. 

myUcy Sly% tb. mile. 

mi/rre, II/293, 34/943, adj. merry. 

myster, 2I/581, j6. need, want 

Nmiys, 46/ 1 299, in phr. for pe iioties, 
for the once, for the occasion. 

noryse, 67/1928, s&. nurse. 

iiot,* 54/1535, jwt. n« too*, don't 

tvoioyd, 6/153, PP- annoyed? of. the 

Of-smyght, 26/691, vb. to cut off. 
amagey 39/io86, j6. homage. 
anfrey* 68/1499, <*^i- unnoble. 
of»-Aam£«, 11/302, vb. to unhamoss. 
ardor, 2/51, #6. order, 
ondumei^ 2/48, <6. pL knighthood, 

(myr-ryde, 2/40, «6. to ride over, to 

overcome ? 

Payyi, 44/1252, sb. fine, mulct 
persewyd,* 17/462, ;jp. pursued. 
j:>erteli/, 63/1501, oao. openly, 

pluckySy 66/161 1, «6. strokes; cf. 

HaUiwell, Diet, p. 633. 
pomeUy 26/714, 36. pommel. 
paynty I7/445, 88/2540, = ooyne of 

armys, 3/68, 8O/832, 49/1383, sb. 

prekatidy 46/1263. P*"*- P- pricking. 
|>resfe, 60/1418, adj. ready. 
preve, IO/275, adj. privy. 
Wtt, 21/573, »&• rock? 

Bagyd, 7/194, adj. ragged. 

ratoghtj 24/645, pr. «. gave. 

red, 7/178, «6. counsel. 

reioyse, 76/2151, 8O/2309, 9I/2640, 

v6. to enjoy, 
rerid, 66/1561, |>r. pZ. reared, tried 

to bring on. 
ret««, 35/986, 1*. to bereave, to rob. 
reudidf 86/2467, pr. pL revelled, 

revid, 88/2546, pp. robbed. 
retoe, 31/86o, vb. to rue, to pity. 
rtysed, 46/1313, pr.pZ. raised, made 

ready; reynng, 61/ 1454, prs, p. 

rising, starting up. 
rially, 87/2516, adv. royally. 
riaUe, 86/24$ St sb. royal state. 
iightfiiU, 64/1834, adj. rightfull. 
roaU, 86/2450, royal. 
rome, 19/5 16, ^' cross- way ? 
rore, 37/132, vb. to roar. 
ro\uihf 66/1879, «6. wood, copse, 
roioe, 60/ 1 426, pr«. pf. row. 
jrowghty 24/645, sb, stroke, blow ? 
rude, 68/1666, adj. rude, 
ryd, 2/44, pr. s, rode. 

I 2 

Digitized by 




ryde-wey^ 22/598, «6. spur-way, 

ryngis, 82/2354, sb. ring, arena. 
fyved, 73/2090, pr, s. ryxed up, 

landed, disembarked ; ryven^ 50/ 

1435, J?*'- P' Ift'tided. 

iSiirtf, 4/97, flkiv. sorely. 

sartm, 26/717, cufj. <&. the sarten as 
the truth. 

Maymentf 2/50^ s6. trial, exploit 

tcapsy 8I/2327, j^rs. au^;. escape. 

KMc^ngy 19/5 10, <&. separation. 

«c^e(^cham6yr, 26/718, «6. chief- 
chamber, first ranJc-chamber. 

schdd, 21/578, «&. to shelter. 

$chere, 2I/556, «&. to shear, to cut. 

$chope, 211 S^i V' «• created. 

9i^iw\aiy 21/570, 

shouie, 6I/1751, 65/1877, «. ; «cAno«, 
22/594, «6. to shout 

«ea«on, 75/21 $7* <^* court 

se&-f<mef 75/2165, «5. sea-foam. 
16. siege. 
J5, j6. surety. 
5, {>r. pi. assembled. 
►. city. 
conj, since. 
yr. $. sat 
to look at. 

60, pr, 8, 46/1318, jtw-. 
jpp, embarked. 

Aone^ 40/1117, 50. pL shoes. 

5uie ^Xiivn^, 57/1637, «5. side-glance. 

«^ed, 79/2288, pr, 8. sighed. 

aumarTf* 47/1338, j6. cloak ; see the 

«^<f6, 58/1660, 36. slade. 

aZon,* I0/458, «6. sloe. 

tfrnofe, 76/2185; «»w^ adoum, 77/ 
2203, jpr. s. cast anchor. 

8ola8yd, 24/657, in*, s. solaced, com- 

soUmnite, 56/1591, «6. pride. 

M)<eU, 61/1 761, adj. subtle, sly. 

8(yumyng, 49/1400^ 62/1782, 9O/2615, 
j6. swooning. 

sparidy 73/2096, |>r. jpl. barred, 
blocked up. 

sped, 3/70, jsrs. etmj, speed. 

«peni, 67/1910, jjp. lost 

«p«T^, 14/364, jw. & barred, shut 

sperrys, 6/127, ^' spire, tree. 

spou^age, 62/1791, j6. spousage. 
ifpreni, 7/i8i, iw. s. lept. 

«pri/^, 7/1 81, so. pole. 

stad,* 55/1566, 16. stead. 

state, 6O/1729, «5. chair of state. 

sterSf* 24/662, v6. r^. move. 
8Uryfig, 62/1785, |). jprt. stirring, 

stonUyrtgf 24/66o,jp. j>rt. stumbling, 
s^orrope, 86/987, stirrup, 
f^ro^e, 2/42, pr. s, struck. 
styU, 18/477, sh. steel, 
nooi^in^r &and, 67/1917, s6. swath. 
swows* 20/548, •b. noise ; of. the 

sylbe,* 27/739, '^^ kinsman. 

TdbylZ, 49/1402, sb. tackling. 

taU, 26/734, «&• tale. 

ten«, 3/73, <&. grief, sorrow. 

the, 2/49, «6. to thrive. 

ihede,* 6O/1728, «6. people. 

fhefsy 46/1292 ; (Aejfe, 68/1659, '^• 

iheves, 6I/1760, sb. pi. villains. 
tholsj* 17/460, t*. to suffer. 
throfvgf 38/1057, sb. crowd, troop. 
throfige, 79/2283, pr. pi, thronged, 

tombelyd, 42/ iiyy, pr. pi. tumbled. 
io-shevird, 42/1172, pr. s. shivered 

in pieces. 
trast* 17/455, ? 1*. to trust 
trayll, 46/1314, vb. to trail. 
trayn, 29/803, ^^/'455) ^' treachery, 

tnmpettys, 29/8i6, 34/443, 
tr^tmpettes, 41/i 164, sb. pL trumpets. 
trovyUd, I7/452. pr, s. travailed, 

exerted himself. 
trow, 21/572, pr, s. believe. 
triisse, 1 0/354, vb. to truss. 
trussydy I4/371, pr. pL trussed, 
tyed, 92/2658, pp.; cf. the note. 
iyght, 22/589, adj. tight 
tyght, 25/690, adv. in phr. om iy^Ai, 

at once. 
tymbyr^ 2/40, 81/2349,86/2483, lance. 
tynding, 42/i 1 81, it5. beating ; el the 


Fo/e, s. hede. 

ventunis, 55/1566, adj. adventurous, 

Digitized by 




vdeUd^ 76/2x88, pp. supplied with 

victawre, 83/2411, «6. victor. 

vnbrydded, 54/i 552, |>r. i. unbridled. 

vndeTy 71/2029, i>, noon. 

vndyr-nelhe, 20/542> pr^. under- 

vndertane, 6I/1733, »6. to undertake. 

TFdUoyng^ 7/i89,i)t* p. wallowing, 
toanne, 62/1767, orfj. wan, dark, 
iMini, 48/1351, 8b. warden. 
toariedy 4d/i2ii, 88/2544^ pr* P^ 

cursed; v)aried, 54/1537, pp. 

iMim«, 29/795, P**- •■ deny, refuse. 
wUer Moody 65/1872, <&. water-flood. 
ii»^ 44/1247, |>r«. 3 f^. knows, 
tooos, 3/73, pr, $. became. 
toede, 2/33, 16. garment, dress. 
twHcI, 8O/2302, act;, wicked; see 

the note. 
were, 57/1623, ^* ^ S^^ tired. 
were, 28/773, cwi;. aware. 
wei-gqffe, I7/466, ^. i. vouchsafe. 
toexe,* 9/237, |>r. jpi. became. 
vnAikt, 54/1 5 CI, f6. white. 
t(7ilKMn, 71/2030; t(7yk2-M>m, 20/ 

535 ; wyldsome, I9/506, oij. wild, 

wisy 53/1525, «6. to show. 

*«xi» 14/377i <wy- rasd. 

Kxm, 4/94, aiti;. one. 

immanie, I/14, p. pre. living. 

wmdyr-ihyngy 2/53, j6. wondrous 

i4xmn«j ^6/1295, sb. custom, ex- 

wonne, iS/iyy^y pp. wont ? c£ the 

wonne, 65/1870, p. dwelling, living ? 

iix>fine, 69/1995, pp, won. 

KTTOu^A^ vp, 54/1532, pr. I. built up, 

wyght* 1/15, 3/6a 

tiTyt, 27/749» 

wyhU, 30/548, adj. wight 

Tars,* 7/177,* 14/369, 47/1320, adv. 
wholly, yarely. 

" '025, «6. 1)1. footpatlis. 
b, to yeU. 
b. yell. 

«. conj, s. may give, 
(/i 801, pron. same. 

A.' Tt I-.-, 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 




Adoldke, 434, the name of a sword ; 

Adyloke. 666 ; Hathdohe, 791. 
Adryan, 927, St. Hadrian. 
AtnyaSj 345, a young prince. 
Aniioche, 2229, Antiochia. 
Antony, 1874, 1940, 1970, 2558, SL 

Antony fice greffoun, 1998, 2435, 

2476, Torrent's son. 
Aragon, 1114, 1152, 1182, 1212, 

1257, 1325, 2110 ; Eragon, 765. 
Awsden, 1029, St. Austin. 

Be^on-mese, 101, a giant 
Berweyne, 344 ; see JakyB. 
Bra^ll^y 1450, a forest on the Nor- 
wegian coast. 

CcUahur, 847, 907, 952, 1059, 1320, 
2113, Calabria. 

Calamondj 1221, King of Portugal ; 
Calomond, 2116, 2168 ; Colomand, 
2104 ; CoUmond, 1408, 2143. 

Cardon, 1091, a town in Calabria. 

Caryon^ 1326, a town in Aragon. 

Cute, 1238, 1254, 1293, 1593, a giant. 

DesoneUe, 109, 382,446,450,478,673, 
795, 859, 985, 1102, 1135, 1161, 
1359, 1393, 1703, 1780, 2006, 
2059, 2077, 2092, 2173, 2401, 
2424, 2500, 2509, 2523, 2533, 
2587, 2614; King Calamond^s 
dau^fhter, Torrent's spouse ; Dia- 
sonelle, 1329 ; Dysonelle, 32. 

Elyoner, 347, daughter of the King 
of Oalea, 

Flonthusj 1005, Slonges o/Flonthtts, 

a gian\ 
Fuollesy 748, Slogue of FuolleSy 

variation of the former name. 

Gales, 346, 408, 417. 

GendreSj 1747, daughter of the King 

of Norway. 
George, 1677, St. George. 
Grece, 2419, 2434, 2557, 2643, 

Grekes, 79, 1282, 2179, 2646, Greeks. 
Gi-yffen, 1215, St Griffon. 

Hungry, 970, Hungary. 

Jakys, 344, Jakys of Berweyne^ a 
young prince. 

Jame, 744, 788, St James. 

Jerusalem, 1897, 1921, 1938, 2236, 
2245, 2276, 2426, 2473, 2554, 

Jesus. 134, 274, 537, 640, 676, 996, 
1340, 1371, 1382, 1447, 1539, 
1564, 1702, 1799, 1937, 1986, 
1997, 2218, 2580; lesu Oryst, 
206, 629, 1276, 1832, 1852, 2664. 

John, 18P4, 2140, 2514, 2669, St 

Katryn, 2053, St. Catherine. 

Leohertus, 1926, 2246, 2477, Tor- 
rent's son. 

Marre, 86, 624 ; Mary, 136, 1308, 
1566, 1646, 1888, 1906, 1946, 
1969, 2098, 2311; Marry, 61, 
259, 863. 

Mavdeleyji, 489; Mawdleyn, 505, 
737, Maudlin, name of a forest 

MowupoJyardnus, 716, the name of 
a sword. 

Myhelle, 753, St Michael. 

Nazareth, 466, 2032, 2041, 2389, 
2437, 2528. 

Digitized by 




Norway, 1370, 1377, 1412, 1417, 

1759, 1781, 2083. 
NychoUu de Barr, 1337, 8t NicholuB 

de Ban ; see the note. 

Perofiy 1776, 1830; Ferawne, 669; 

Ferrovm, 412, a town in PortugaL 
Fervens, 420, 1096, 1320 ; Pervyiu, 

868, 2113, Provence; Frovyn$, 

397, 413. 
FoHingale, 1069, 1346, 2090, 2096, 

2693; FoHyngaU, 1772, 2134, 

2176, 2413, 2620; ForiynggaUe, 

13, 26, 374, 399, 727, 763, 877, 

883, 1266, PortugaL 

QuareUe, 2182, 2416, a town in 

RayneB^ 2414, a town in Syria. 

Bochense, 637, a giant 

Borne, 12, 118, 187, 190, 198, 668, 

924, 1224, 1282, 1319, 1924, 2183^ 

2626, 2661. 

SaTMorii 96, Samson. 
Sarzim, 2232, Saracens. 
Saihanas, 1237, Satan. 
SloehyijSSO; Slogu$,74B; 8longe$, 
1005 ; 8longu$j 967, a giant. 

Torrayney 26, Touraine. 

Torrefiy 343. 

Torrent, 34, 46, 49, 61, 91, 133, 148, 
181, 200, 203, 217, 224, 230, 252, 
280, 296, 302, 314, 392, 399, 432, 

466, 470, 477, 480, 496, 604, 619, 
628, 640, 666, 677, 686, 691, 621, 
634, 642, 646, 648, 663, 670, 677, 
681, 687, 691, 693, 699, 733, 739, 
762, 768, 772, 819, 824, 826, 828, 
834, 839, 843, 862, 877, 883, 896, 
946, 957, 984, 987, 999, 1006, 
1021, 1023, 1039, 1044, 1061, 
1060, 1072, 1119, 1163, 1167, 
1170, 1176, 1200, 1266, 1263, 
1270, 1284, 1298, 1414, 1434, 
1480, 1636, 1699, 1766, 1838, 
1903,2081,2486,2630; TerrarU, 
142; TerrerU, 86; Toreni, 167, 
206, 766, 784, 1246, 1264, 1278, 
1293, 1307, 1317, 1322, 1326, 
1331, 1347, 1366, 1367, 1379, 
1391, 1437, 1443, 1494, 1611, 
1517, 1662, 1669, 1698, 1613, 
1622, 1724, 1727, 1780, 1811, 
2084, 2097, 2107, 2117, 2120, 
2140, 2160, 2166, 2179, 2191, 
2197, 2209, 2224, 2244, 2267, 
2263, 2269, 2281, 2330, 2362, 
2380, 2478, 2479, 2482, 2489, 
2496, 2601, 250B, 2611, 2634, 
2667, 2676, 2603, 2611, 2617, 
2642, 2649; TorrarU, 70, 76, 
103, 241, 263, 364, 380, 667, 760, 
840,963; Tyrmn*, 18. 

Velond, 427, Velanil the smitli. 
Verdownye, 306, 341, 410, son of the 
Eling of Provence. 

Weraunt, 1660, a giant 


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