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Semi-Centennial History 


Illinois State Normal 


Prepared Under the Direction of a Committee of the Faculty 

As an Expression of Their Appreciation of the Service the 

Institution has Rendered to the Cause of Education in the 

Past and of Their Faith in its Future. 




1 1 1 / 1 t 

THIS book has been published because it was felt that 
the school itself should undertake to give an account 
of the first fifty years of its existence. After discus- 
sion and a favorable vote of the faculty, President Felmley 
appointed a committee to take charge of the publication of a 
history of the school. This committee elected an editor and 
an assistant editor, approved submitted plans for the book, 
selected persons to write the successive chapters, selected the 
illustrations, etc. The making- of plans and outlines, the 
gathering together of the materials, and the editing- of the 
book has fallen almost wholly to the lot of the editor. The 
assistant editor has been in charge of the painstaking work 
involved in the Registers of Part Three. In this work he has 
been ably assisted by Miss Martha Hunt of the faculty. 

An effort has been made to provide adequate accounts of 
the various phases of the growth of the institution. To ac- 
complish this and at the same time avoid all repetitions has 
been impossible, for some events have had more than one 
result connected with them. 

The committee desires to thank Dr. John W. Cook, who 
owns the copyright, for the untrammeled permission to use 
articles from A History of the Normal University, published 
twenty-five years ago. 

The thanks of the committee are also tendered all those 
who have, by writing chapter or reminiscence, cooperated to 
make the book what it is. 

O. L. MANCHESTER, Chairman, 




JOHN A. H. KEITH, Editor, 

WILLIAM T. BAWDEN, Assistant Editor. 


Table of Contents 



THE FOUNDING OF THE SCHOOL. By Henry McCormick, Class 

of 1868 5-17 


THE SCHOOL AND THE WAR. By John H. Burnham, Class of 

1868 18-31 



Felmley 32-53 



Felmley 54-62 



John G. Coulter 63-76 



Class of 1894 67-86 


THE HISTORY OF THE FACULTY. By John Williston Cook, Class 

of 1865 87-120 

THE SUMMER SCHOOL. By Professor George H. Howe 121-123 



J. Holmes 124-134 

STUDENT ORGANIZATIONS. By Professor O. L. Manchester 135-164 


STUDENT LIFE IN THE TOWN. By Elmer Warren Gavins, Class 

of 1892 165-168 



Professor J. Rose Colby 169-176 



Holmes 177-191 




Garmo, Class of 1873 208-213 

I. S. N. U. CLUBS. By Morrison '88, Heath '84, and Lane '92 214-218 



1. THE OLD PLANK WALK 223-225 


3. The Man in the Moon 226-227 







10. Et Cetera 243-244 









Main Building from the Southwest 1907 Frontispiece 

The Main Building in the Spring of 1860 Opp. p. 17 

Charles Edward Hovey Opp. p. 24 

Jesse W. Fell. Opp. p. 36 

Members of the State Board of Education Opp. p. 58 

Richard Edwards Opp. p. 76 

A Croup of Great Teachers Opp. p. 86 

Edwin Crawford Hewett Opp. p. 98 

Judge W. H. Green Opp. p. 104 

A Group of Women Teachers Opp. p. 1 12 

John Williston Cook Opp. p. 120 

The Building and Grounds in 1876 Opp. p. 124 

Gymnasium and Main Building from the Southeast, 1907... Opp. p. 142 

Arnold Tompkins Opp. p. 151 

A Group of Women Teachers Opp. p. 158 

David Felmley Opp. p. 168 

A Group of Influential Teachers Opp. p. 172 

Gymnasium from the Southeast ^ Opp. p. 188 

Looking South from the Cupola of the Main Building, i894.Opp. p. 248 

Training School from the Southwest, 1907 Opp. p. 238 

Plant House from the Southeast, 1907 Opp. p. 212 





In the fall of 1853, without any previous arrangement, 
there met at Bloomington three men, H. H. Lee, of Chicago, 
J. A. Hawley, of Dixon, and Daniel Wilkins, of Blooming- 
ton. The condition of the schools coming up as a subject of 
conversation, they decided to call a convention of the friends 
of education for the purpose of devising some plan by which 
the condition of popular education might be improved thruout 
the State. 

As a result of this conference, a call was issued for a meet- 
ing of all friends of free schools, to be held at Bloomington, 
December 26-28. To make the call more impressive it was 
headed by the Secretary of State, who then had charge of the 
public schools. It was signed also by the president and fac- 
ulty of the Illinois Wesleyan University, by the president and 
faculty of Shurtleff College, by the five ministers of Bloom- 
ington, and by prominent friends of education in other parts 
of the State. 

The meeting took place at the time advertised, and was 
held in the Methodist church, at the corner of East and Wash- 
ington streets. The meeting was organized by the election of 
the following officers : President, E. W. Brewster, of Elgin ; 
vice presidents, Professor W. Goodfellow, of the Illinois Wes- 
leyan University, A. J. Sawyer and C. B. Loop, of Joliet; 
secretaries, W. H. Powell and H. L. Lewis. 

The meeting was a very enthusiastic one, and was largely 
attended, especially on the second day. "A deep earnestness 
pervaded the convention and it was plainly to be seen its mem- 
bership was made up of thinkers of the active sort, men who 
were not only deep thinkers, but who were ready to take such 
immediate action as in their judgment was adapted to the 


needs of the times and to the best interests of the cause of 
education !"* 

Several resolutions were submitted to the convention, four 
of which were considered of great importance, and conse- 
quently were discussed freely and vigorously. 

The first resolution declared for a State Teachers' Insti- 
tute, which was organized, amid great enthusiasm, immedi- 
ately upon the adjournment of the convention. Professor 
Goodfellow was elected president, and Daniel Wilkins, secre- 
tary. The first meeting of the Institute was to be held at 
Peoria, between Christmas and New Year, 1854. 

The second resolution demanded the appointment of a 
State School Superintendent who should give his entire time 
to the public schools. This was considered of vital importance. 
Heretofore the general management of the schools was in the 
hands of the Secretary of State. It formed simply a depart- 
ment in his office, and received but little intelligent attention. 
So earnest was the discussion on this point, that the legisla- 
ture, at a special session, February 9, 1854, passed a law au- 
thorizing the governor to appoint a State Superintendent of 
Schools. He appointed Ninian W. Edwards, son of the only 
territorial governor of Illinois. 

The third resolution was in favor of a State Teachers' 
Journal, to be the especial organ of the Teachers' Institute and 
the champion of educational progress. The paper was started 
at the Peoria meeting of 1854, and valiantly served the cause 
for which it was established. At first it had a precarious ex- 
istence, but when Mr. Charles E. Hovey, superintendent of 
the Peoria schools, became its editor, he infused life and vigor 
into it, and it lived a long and useful life, worthy of its hon- 
orable title, "The Illinois Teacher." 

The fourth resolution called forth a vigorous discussion. It 
asked the State to establish and maintain a normal school for 
the preparation of teachers for the public schools. But while 
the need of a better preparation for teachers was recog- 
nized by all, the best way of obtaining it was not so appar- 
ent. This was shown by the discussion in the Bloomington 
convention, and still more fully by the opinions expressed at 
the Teachers' Institute, in Peoria, in 1854. 

Some of the friends of education wanted a normal school 
whose entire end and aim should be the preparation of teach- 
ers for the public schools. Others, led by Jonathan B. Turner, 
of Jacksonville, wanted a normal school with an agricultural 



department attached, or else an Industrial University in which 
a normal department should be established. While a third 
party claimed that the wisest course was to establish normal 
departments in the denominational colleges already in opera- 
tion, as they feared that disastrous results would follow the 
separation of education from religion. 

Each of these views had earnest supporters at the Peoria 
meeting, and its advantages over the others were set forth in 
glowing terms. No definite conclusion was reached, but the 
discussion was of great value in creating a public sentiment 
favorable to the better preparation of teachers by the State. 
The institute adjourned to meet in Springfield, at the most 
convenient date, during the Christmas holidays of 1855. 

At the Springfield meeting the name of the Institute was 
changed to that of the State Teachers' Association, a name 
which it still bears. One of the principal topics discussed by 
the association was the better preparation of teachers, and 
again the friends of education were divided as at the Peoria 
meeting. It was evident, however, that the advocates of a 
normal school, free from all "entangling alliances," were gain- 
ing in numbers and in confidence. This confidence was mani- 
fested very clearly at the Chicago meeting, in 1856, when the 
following resolution was adopted: 

Resolved, That the Association does not wish to discuss any univer- 
sity question, but occupy themselves with the interests of common schools 
and Normal schools. 

The champions of the normal school idea were gladdened 
by the withdrawal of all opposition to their plan by Mr. Tur- 
ner and his party, the withdrawal being announced in a grace- 
ful letter to the association. Before adjourning, the following 
resolution was passed, after a long and spirited debate : 

Resolved, That the educational interests of Illinois demand the imme- 
diate establishment of a State Normal School for the education of teach- 
ers ; and in the language of the Board of Education, "We therefore rec- 
ommend an appropriation by the next Legislature of a sufficient sum an- 
nually to support such a seminary of learning." 

At the next session of the legislature an act was passed for 
the establishment and maintenance of a Normal University, 
and it was approved by the governor, February 18, 1857. The 
act provided that no part of the college and seminary funds 
should be used for the erection of buildings ; these were to be 
built by the place at which the school should be located. 

The act which established the normal school created C. B. 
Denio, of JoDaviess county; Simeon Wright, of Lee county; 
Daniel Wilkins, of McLean county; C. E. Hovey, of Peoria 


county ; George B. Rex, of Pike county ; Samuel W. Moulton, 
of Shelby county; John Gillespie, of Jasper county; George 
Bunsen, of St. Clair county; Wesley Sloan, of Pope county; 
Ninian W. Edwards, of Sangamon county; John Eden, of 
Moultrie county ; Flavel Mosley, of Cook county ; William H. 
Wells, of Cook county; Albert R. Shannon, of White county, 
and the superintendent of public instruction, ex offrcio, with 
their associates and successors, a body corporate and politic, 
to be styled the Board of Education of the State of Illinois, 
whose duty it was to make all laws necessary for the govern- 
ment of the normal university. These gentlemen met in May 
at the office of the State superintendent, who was, ex offrcio, 
secretary of the board, and organized by electing Samuel W. 
Moulton, permanent president. 

It was made the duty of the board to fix the location of 
the school at the place which offered the most favorable in- 
ducement for that purpose: "Provided that such location 
shall not be difficult of access, or detrimental to the welfare 
and prosperity of said normal university." 

That the school was to be located at the point making the 
highest and best bid was widely advertised in the newspapers 
of the state, and as a consequence several cities became com- 
petitors for the prize. When the Board met at Peoria, May 7, 
1857, to open the bids and decide upon the location, it found 
that Batavia, Washington, in Tazewell county, Peoria, and 
Bloomington were the principal bidders. But as the bids of 
Bloomington and Peoria were much higher than those of the 
others, it was evident one or the other of them would get the 

Peoria offered in money : 

Individual subscription $25,032 

City corporation 10,000 

County Board of Supervisors 15,000 

Total in money 50,032 

The highest priced site which it offered was valued at. 30,000 
So that the total bid of Peoria was 80,032 

Several prominent residents of McLean county, chief 
among whom was Hon. Jesse W. Fell, were determined to 
have the school located near Bloomington. Some of them had 
bought land near the crossing of the Illinois Central and Chi- 
cago and Alton railroads. This land they had platted into 
town lots as an addition to the little village of North Bloom- 
ington, as the place was then named. They desired to sell at a 
profit, and they believed they could do so, if the normal school 
should be located in the vicinity. Besides the pecuniary ad- 


vantage that would result from the location, Mr. Fell believed 
that it would be the means of building up an intelligent com- 
munity, which he desired very much, as his family residence 
was but a short distance from the "Junction." Even previous to 
the act of the legislature establishing the normal school he 
was laboring, with some prospects of success, to found a col- 
lege or seminary at North Bloomington. But when the state 
decided to establish a school for the preparation of teachers he 
bent all his energies towards obtaining its location at that 
point, believing that such a school was sure to bring in an ex- 
ceptionally fine class of people. Being a very enthusiastic and 
influential man, he succeeded in getting others to see the pe- 
cuniary, intellectual, and moral advantages that would result 
from the location. 

Satisfied that the school would be of great benefit to the 
community, Mr. Fell and his co-workers earnestly endeavored 
to bring it to North Bloomington. They did not confine them- 
selves 'to appeals through the press, but labored incessantly 
with private individuals, and set a good example by subscrib- 
ing liberally themselves. As a result they obtained pledges 
for $50,000, in money and lands. And the court of county 
commissioners subscribed an equal amount for the county, 
from the proceeds of the 27,000 acres of swamp land which 
had been donated to the county by the Federal government, 
thus bringing the entire subscription up to $100,000. 

In order to be sure that Peoria county did not outbid them, 
the McLean county "workers" sent a confidential agent to Pe- 
oria to ascertain, if possible, what that county was going to 
bid. He reported there was danger that it would get the 
school unless McLean county was ready to bid more than it 
had then pledged. On receiving this report, Mr. Fell and his 
associates increased their own subscription and succeeded in 
getting others to increase theirs until the individual subscrip- 
tions in money and land reached about $71,000. The county 
commissioners added $20,000 to the subscription of the county, 
so that the representatives of McLean county were prepared, 
on that fateful May 7, to offer: 

Individual subscription in money and land $71,000 

Subscription by the county court 70,000 

Total $141,000 

This amount was so far in excess of that offered by Peoria 
that the Illinois State Normal University was declared located 
in McLean county : Provided that the full amount of the 


county subscription of $70,000, should be legally guaranteed 
within sixty days, in default of which the location was to be 
changed to Peoria. The Board of Education employed Abra- 
ham Lincoln to draw up a form of bond or guaranty to be 
signed by responsible citizens of Bloomington. This guaranty 
was thought to be necessary, as a future county court might re- 
consider the appropriation. The guaranty was duly signed 
and certified, and the signers suffered no loss as the county 
stood by the action of its commissioners and eventually paid 
its subscription in full. 

Among the donations of land were the sixty acres consti- 
tuting the campus, given by Joseph Payne and Meshack Pike, 
with the proviso that if the land should cease to be used for 
normal school purposes, it should revert to the donors, their 
heirs, or assigns. These gentlemen also gave twenty acres 
west of the campus, and Judge David Davis and E. W. Bake- 
well each gave forty acres. This eighty lies at the intersec- 
tion of Main Street and Sudduth Road, and will some day be 
the experiment farm of the school. 

North Bloomington, at the time of the location of the nor- 
mal school, was a town site without a town and with no spe- 
cial reason for its existence. It was situated on the open 
prairie, but thru the foresight and labor of Mr. Fell in planting 
shrubbery and trees, Normal is today a beautiful and well- 
shaded town. The name Normal was given to the little village 
and to the six miles square of which it is the principal point, 
after the location of the school, the date being April 6, 1858. 

"Mr. Fell also took a remarkable step towards bringing to 
the town a desirable class of residents, by providing in all 
deeds to purchasers of lots in North Bloomington, that intoxi- 
cating liquors should never be sold on the premises ; and this 
stringent prohibition was afterward re-enforced by a town 
charter, which was intended to be entirely prohibitory. This 
charter needed amendments, however, in 1867, to make it as 
fully operative as the inhabitants desired, and a petition was 
circulated asking the legislature to make such changes as 
should perpetually restrain the town or city authorities from 
ever licensing the sale of intoxicating liquors. It is a remark- 
able fact that this petition was signed by every man and 
woman, and every child over seven years old, in a town which 
then contained 1,800 inhabitants."* 

The location of the school being settled, the next step was 
to elect a principal, or president. Two men were mentioned 

"History of McLean County, 1879. 


for the position, Mr. Phelps, of the New Jersey normal 
school, and Mr. Charles E. Hovey, superintendent of the Pe- 
oria schools. Fortunately for the school, Mr. Hovey was 
elected. As Mr. Fell was the main force in bringing it to 
North Bloomington, so Mr. Hovey was the main force in 
bringing it into existence. Without him it is doubtful if there 
would have been a normal school in Illinois in the fifties, and 
possibly not in the sixties. 

As a result of the discussion at the Peoria meeting, in 1854, 
Mr. Hovey decided that there was no good reason why the col- 
lege and seminary funds could not be used to endow a normal 
school. Having reached this conclusion, and seeing the great 
need of such an institution, he fought steadily with the pen, 
on the stump, and in the lobby, for the establishment of the 
school, until by the aid of a few other friends of the scheme 
he succeeded. 

With his election to the principalship Mr. Hovey's real 
troubles began. Some friends of education wanted the school 
to be a university in fact, as well as in name, and were disap- 
pointed when the curriculum did not include all branches of 
knowledge. Others looked for immediate results, and were 
displeased with what they considered the slowness of those in 
authority. There was a difference of opinion in the Board it- 
self as to what should be attempted, and how it should be ac- 
complished. One party favored borrowing a curriculum from 
one of the eastern schools; another preferred making a new 
curriculum better suited to the longitude and conditions. Be- 
sides these two parties, individual members held different 
views, and each party seemed to hold the principal responsible 
for carrying out its particular ideas. 

In order to gain time to arrange his course of study, and 
to keep the Board from hasty action, Mr. Hovey persuaded 
that body to appoint a committee to inspect the principal school 
buildings of this and other States ; he and Dr. Rex constituted 
the committee. They made a careful examination of the 
school architecture in Philadelphia, Trenton, New York City, 
Albany, and in many cities in Connecticut and Massachusetts. 
On their return, Dr. Rex, the chairman of the committee, sub- 
mitted a report to the board recommending for adoption the 
plans of the New Jersey normal school building. Mr. Hovey 
did not join in this recommendation, as he believed a better 
plan for his purpose could be devised. So he went over the 
several plans carefully with Mr. Randall, of Chicago, the 
architect engaged by the board. The plan agreed upon was 


not a copy of any examined ; neither was it the architect's nor 
Mr. Hovey's, but the product of their joint labor. 

As soon as the plans and specifications could be prepared 
a contract was entered into for the construction of the build- 
ing, which was to be completed September i, 1858. The cor- 
ner stone was laid September 29, 1857, with impressive cere- 
monies. Rev. H. J. Eddy, of the Baptist church of Bloom- 
ington, offered prayer. Professor Daniel Wilkins read a 
letter from Governor Matteson, appropriate to the occasion. 
W. H. Powell, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, de- 
posited in the corner stone a copy of the school laws and of 
the different educational journals of the day. Mr. Jesse W. 
Fell deposited a list of all the contributors to the location of 
the normal school, and hoped to see the institution develop 
into a complete State University with an agricultural college 
and a model farm. Dr. E. R. Roe, editor of the Illinois Bap- 
tist, deposited all the Bloomington papers of the time and 
made a very appropriate speech. Judge A. J. Merriman, of 
the county court, completed the ceremonies by placing the up- 
per stone in position. 

Principal Hovey, assisted by Ira Moore, opened the school 
in Major's Hall, in Bloomington, October 5, 1857. There 
were twenty-nine pupils present the first day, and the number 
increased to 127 during the academic year. The prospects of 
the school were very favorable and all looked forward with 
pleasant anticipations to the time, presumably near at hand, 
when the school should be housed in the palatial building be- 
ing erected on the prairie near the "Junction." 

There were reasonable grounds for these expectations, for 
a time, as work on the building was pushed vigorously in the 
fall of 1857. But work was suspended in December because 
of the inability to pay the contractors the first payment on 
their contract as it fell due. This was discouraging in the ex- 
treme and caused much anxiety to the friends of the institu- 
tion. We cannot do better at this point than let Mr. Hovey 
tell of the troubles which beset the normal school building 
and its friends. He is entitled to this privilege as without his 
indomitable will and his tenacity of purpose that would not 
permit him to let go of the enterprise until success was 
achieved, it is difficult to say, for a certainty, what the result 
might have been, or if the normal school would be where it is. 

"But there came a time (he says) when we were not per- 
mitted to go on (with the work of teaching) in peace. Ques- 
tionings, which would not be quieted by plain answerings, 


came again and again. I tried hard to bar them from the 
schoolroom, but could not. The great fact that not a blow 
had been struck on the university building for eighteen months, 
was known to everybody. It acted and reacted upon us de- 
pressingly. Were we to remain cooped up in Major's Hall for- 
ever? Must we, after flattering the public and ourselves with 
the grand idea of a model school in a model edifice, confess 
failure? The thought was wormwood, and the fact, if fact it 
should prove to be, was full of peril. We had carried the nor- 
mal school bill 'by the skin of our teeth,' and who knew but 
that the opposition might rally and repeal the law, armed with 
such a failure to carp at ?" 

"But what could be done? We had neither money nor 
credit. What we did have, applicable to building purposes, 
was a subscription which could not then be collected, and per- 
haps never. The suspension of work on the building, in De- 
cember, 1857, was brought about by our inability to collect 
from this subscription six or seven thousand dollars to pay the 
contractors the first installment due them on their contract for 
work done. They reasoned, and sensibly, that if the subscrib- 
ers to the building fund, in the first flush of victory, while yet 
the ink was hardly dry with which they had recorded their 
'promise to pay' would not or could not pay seven or eight 
thousand, out of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars (I use 
round numbers,) it would not do to rely upon them, or their 
subscriptions; and the sooner they (the contractors) stopped 
work the better it would be for them. So they stopped, and 
the suspension continued until the summer of 1859 more 
than a year and a half. Meanwhile matters grew worse. A 
great financial revulsion had swept over the country, carry- 
ing ruin to some subscribers, and greatly crippling others. 
Moreover, from this cause, or the lapse of time, or some other 
reason, the great body of donors seemed to carry their obli- 
gation more loosely, if possible, than at first. Some who had 
subscribed lands refused to deed them until the building should 
be fully completed, which was a repudiation of their subscrip- 
tion so far as any aid in erecting the building was concerned." 

"That part of the subscription made by the county of Mc- 
Lean was undoubtedly good, but remote. It was payable out 
of the proceeds of the sales of her swamp lands. These lands 
could not, by law, be sold for less than their appraised value, 
and would not then sell for that. Of course there were no pro- 
ceeds, and nothing due on her subscription. This subscription 


was seventy thousand dollars nearly one-half of the entire 

In the spring of 1859, work was resumed on the building. 
How this was made possible can best be told in Mr. Hovey's 
own words. 

"The board had decreed," he tells us, "that work on the 
building must go on somehow and now, and that the building 
committee must find the means. I was the local member of the 
committee, and for about twenty-nine days in each month, the 
only member 'comeatable,' and of necessity was compelled to 
act for the committee. 

"Never did man have worse means, or better backing. I 
remember especially Messrs. Moulton, Powell, Wright, Denio, 
and Rex, as taking a decided interest, and a full share of re- 
sponsibility. They would leave their own business at any time, 
on call, and repair to Normal. Powell spent months there. 
Moulton joined me on notes to borrow money for the work, 
on our individual responsibility, and so did Rex, later on. 

"The first step was to get clear of existing contracts, based 
upon cash payments, because we had no cash. 

"The second, to substitute other contracts, based upon bar- 
ter so much subscription for so much work or material. 

"The third, to accept labor or material of subscribers who 
could not pay money, but could pay these. 

"The fourth, to compromise with those not able to pay all, 
for a part. 

"It was purely a matter of barter, we traded, 'made turns,' 
compromised and got all out of the subscription there was in 
it, then laid it aside. 

"The board authorized the sending of an agent east to ef- 
fect, if possible, a sale of the county lands, and thereby hasten 
the payment of the county subscription. 
* * * * 

"At that time, C.M. Cady, Esq., was instructor in vocal cul- 
ture in the university, a man of tact and pluck, and not afflicted 
with any serious tenderness about investing his skill in an at- 
tempt to negotiate the sale of the county lands. So to Gotham 
he went, with a list and description of the lands in his pocket. 
He made something of a stir there, I judge, from the letters 
of inquiry which, soon after his arrival, began to come by 
every mail. But he needed something more than a list of the 
lands. He could do nothing without the bonds for deeds which 


could be passed by simple endorsement. With these he could 
effect a sale, in fact, had virtually done so already. 

"I tried to get the bonds from the county authorities, but 
could not. They would enter into no transaction, save only to 
sell the lands. There was one way in which I could comply 
with Cady's suggestion. I could buy the lands myself, paying 
for them by a small cash advance, and the balance by time 
notes, and could take the bonds and do what I pleased with 
them. As this was the only path, I walked into it, and bought 
seven or eight thousand acres of land, at a cost of twenty-five 
or thirty thousand dollars. The purchase was made in the in- 
terest of, and intended for the board, but without any author- 
ity, and it was never recognized. My notes, to the amount of 
twenty-five thousand dollars, or thereabout, were turned over 
to the treasurer of the board by the county, in part payment 
of her subscription ; and the building committee paid them to 
A, B and C for labor or material. So they became widely 
scattered and gave me a 'heap' of trouble to take them up as 
they fell due. 

"But I got the bonds, and notified Cady. Meanwhile, the 
parties with whom he had been negotiating failed, and the bar- 
gain fell through; nor did he succeed in finding another pur- 
chaser. I was now in a fix. As Deacon Homespun, or some 
other wise man said, or might have said, I had brought my 
pigs to a fine market. I could boast of numerous broad acres 
of swamp land, which nobody would buy, and for which I 
was in debt, and had nothing to pay. Besides, the transaction, 
in the turn it had taken, pretty clearly impeached my discre- 
tion, and might involve my honor. At any rate, it was a deli- 
cate matter, for my notes were held by the board, and should 
they fail to be paid promptly, or not to be paid at all, the board 
would have cause to complain of my unauthorized and rash 

"But, however it may have affected and embarrassed me, it 
proved a Godsend to the university. The sale got noised about 
as a big speculation. Over twenty-five thousand dollars worth 
of the county lands had been bought up by one party. (Mum 
about the party. ) The transaction grew on every tongue, and 
soon reached colossal proportions. There must be something 
in these lands, after all. (And they will soon be gone, I took 
care to have suggested.) The wave was rising. Through 
Powell, we got the State officers at Springfield to invest 
(Hatch, Dubois, and Miller,) and took good care to have this 
fact related to Madam Rumor, who forthwith spread it thru 


all the country round. Others took heart and bought lands; 
nor was it long before the funds in the treasury enabled us to 
begin operations. 

"We paid off Mortimer and Loberg, the contractors for the 
mason work, and they surrendered their contract. Mr. Soper, 
the contractor for the carpenter work, elected to retain his con- 
tract, go on with the job, and take his chances about getting 
his pay. 

"It was now necessary to find some mason who would un- 
dertake the construction of the walls of the building, and take 
his pay in the subscriptions. A man who could and would do 
this was hard to find. But by dint of much talk, of appeals to 
local pride and interest, and aided by the eclat of the recent 
sales of the county lands, we found him in the person of S. D. 
Rounds, Esq. He exacted the 'pick' of our assets, and took 
the cream of the subscription, leaving the skimmilk, and not 
much of it, to pay the carpenter, painter, plumber, and plas- 
terer. But it was the best we could do, and we did it. Even 
with this choice, the mason found great difficulty in complet- 
ing his job ; and although he succeeded, the walls crept up at 
a snail's pace, sometimes forgetting to creep at all for many 
weeks together, so that the heart grew sick at hope deferred. 

"It was absolutely necessary to provide some money. Work 
could not go on without it. It could not be obtained on the 
credit of the board. That matter was fully tested. Nor could 
it be obtained on private notes, based on the assets of the board. 
There was but one way. The friends of the institution must 
loan it money or credit. At first Moulton and I borrowed a 
few thousand dollars, which was soon gone. Then Messrs. 
Fell and Holder came forward and put their names to paper 
on which we got more money, and in this way, from time to 
time, when hard pushed, money was raised. I remember es- 
pecially in this connection, Jesse and Kersey Fell, and Charles 
and Richard Holder. Without them I see not how we could 
have succeeded. 

"I next went among the merchants of Bloomington, and 
told them I would be personally responsible that they should 
be paid out of the first money the board should receive for 
building purposes, if they would supply our carpenter, Mr. 
Soper, with what he needed, on credit. The legislature was to 
meet the ensuing January, and I told them it would appropri- 
ate for any deficiency there might be in the means to build the 
university building, and that they should have their pay out 
of said appropriation. So much I pledged. They consented, 



and by this arrangement Mr. Soper was enabled to supply him- 
self with hardware, paints, oils, glass, some lumber, groceries, 
and all kinds of provisions and clothing for his family and his 
workmen; and when the appropriation was made, as I said 
it would be, I redeemed my promise, and caused them all to be 
paid. I considered this a lucky piece of financiering, and it 
was lucky for the institution; but it bequeathed to me one 
first-class lawsuit, and sundry smaller ones, and has cost me a 
good deal of money and trouble." 

This is the story of the financial embarrassment which be- 
set the pathway of the building committee, and well nigh ren- 
dered its efforts futile, as told by the principal member of the 
committee. His anxiety and fear of ultimate failure during 
those weary months when the work on the building was at a 
standstill, can more readily be imagined than described. Many 
men in his place would acknowledge defeat, give up the strug- 
gle, and let the building go by default. But he was not that 
kind of man. He had entered upon a great enterprise, one 
which was dear to his heart, and he was determined to suc- 
ceed, even if it promised to wreck his private fortune, and 
weigh him down, for many years, with debts which he had 
personally incurred in behalf of the building. And all friends 
of the Illinois State Normal University owe Charles E. Hovey 
a profound debt of gratitude. May his name be ever held in 
loving remembrance by them. 

Thru the means recited by Principal Hovey, the building 
was far enuf advanced in June, 1860, so that the graduating 
class (the first) held its exercises in the assembly room, and in 
the fall of that year, the school moved into its permanent quar- 
ters, altho the building was not completed until early in 1861. 

It is proper to state that the legislature of 1861, appro- 
priated $65,000 to complete the building and pay outstand- 
ing debts. A portion of this money was lost by the failure 
of many banks in 1861, and for this and other reasons, 
it was found necessary for the next legislature to appropriate 
$35,000 more before the debts were fully paid. 



The school year of 1860 closed with the new Normal build- 
ing under roof and partially completed. The graduating exer- 
cises of the class of 1860 were held in the new structure, the 
upper hall having been cleared of lumber and carpenter's tools 
for the occasion. The attendance was very large. The Bloom- 
ington and Normal people furnished a collation, which was 
free to all and was served in the unfinished class rooms. 

The donations of land and money from the county and 
from the people of Bloomington and Normal had secured the 
location of the institution, and after the trials and tribulations 
which history records, the building was well under way to- 
wards final completion. A class of ten had graduated and the 
Normal was at the threshold of its great future career. The 
educational people who had anxiously watched the growth of 
the Normal idea from the days of the great Educational State 
Convention held in Bloomington, December 26, 1853, were 
delighted at seeing tangible evidences of the correctness of 
their theories, while those who had almost too liberally made 
donations for the sake of the future material benefits to Nor- 
mal, Bloomington, and McLean county, now saw the beginning 
of better times. 

It may be added from 1860 to the present the Bloomington 
people have appeared to take less and less interest in the Nor- 
mal commencements. The interest in 1860 was both an educa- 
tional and a bread and butter interest. The present interest is 
merely an academic or educational one, quiet, unemotional, and 

During the summer vacation of 1860 there was great ac- 
tivity among the Normal workmen, and although the opening 
of the fall term was delayed later than usual, the new building 


was not wholly finished when the term opened. The Normal 
assembly room and a few class rooms were ready for use, but 
it was a common thing for the carpenter's tools to interrupt 
class exercises, and quite as common for the classes to migrate 
from one unfinished room to another of the same character 
until nearly midwinter. 

During this transition period the two literary societies were 
also homeless, and as the rooms were unlighted, meetings were 
held under very great difficulties. 

The year 1860 was one of great political excitement. Lin- 
coln and Douglas were both Illinoisians, and each candidate 
had a wonderfully large personal acquaintance. There were per- 
haps from thirty to forty voters among the Normal students. 
The most of these could vote in Bloomington where they had 
resided for one or two years of their student life, but if they 
boarded at Normal they would lose their votes. Many of the 
students of this class therefore remained in Bloomington until 
after the day of the November election. 

Looking back at those days I wonder our political interest 
was so small. We discussed the slavery question with an al- 
most purely academic interest. We little realized how deeply 
the country was soon to be convulsed with the great question 
of war or peace. We supposed ourselves greatly interested 
in the result of the coming election and each one voted con- 
scientiously, but with little actual realization of the import- 
ance of the national election of 1860. 

There were four student voters where I boarded. One 
voted for Bell and Everett. I voted for Douglas and Stephens 
and the others for Lincoln and Hamlin. We frequently dis- 
cussed the question of the day but none of us realized that in 
less than one year we should all agree harmoniously that our 
duty to our country would overshadow all of our cherished 
personal plans, and that we should all be equally ready to de- 
fend the old flag. 

Before the end of the winter we all realized that a crisis 
in the affairs of Normal had arisen, and that unless the legis- 
lature should appropriate a large sum of money to pay the 
debt of the still uncompleted building the institution would 
be suspended. 

As state after state seceded from the union, as the finances 
of the nation and state became more and more confused, it 
was considered very doubtful whether the Illinois legislature 
under all of the threatening conditions, would be able to rise 
to the occasion and appropriate the money needed. 


When the legislature came in a body to visit the school in 
January, 1861, we all felt it to be a special duty to put our 
best feet forward, in case any footsteps were to be taken, and 
every student and teacher loyally performed whatever duty 
fell to his or her lot in showing ourselves off to the best 

Great was our rejoicing when within a few days after the 
legislature visited us we learned that the needed $65,000 had 
been appropriated, and we believed that our Normal had 
earned a new lease of life, but whether it could live through 
the convulsions of the dreaded Civil War was a most momen- 
tous question. 

When Fort Sumpter was fired on in April, 1861, and after 
the president's call for 75,000 men was issued, we could scarcely 
keep our minds on our studies, and when Joseph G. Howell, 
Principal of the Model School, of the class of 1860, resigned 
his position and volunteered with five Normal and Model 
School pupils, we were almost panic struck. But for President 
Hovey's cool preparations most of our young men would have 
enlisted wherever a vacancy could be found. President Hovey 
soon employed a drill master, Captain John W. White, to teach 
us military tactics after school hours and on Saturdays, and the 
threatening hegira was arrested. 

Acceding to Howell's wish the faculty placed me in charge 
of the Model School, and the bereaved pupils reluctantly but 
loyally transferred as much good will to me as they could un- 
der the circumstances. 

The Normal and Model School received, in February, 
1862, a terrible shock, when the tidings came of the death of 
Lieutenant Howell at the battle of Pittsburg Landing, and a 
very few days later his remains were lying in state in Bloom- 
ington. Normal's heart was almost broken with grief, shared 
by the whole community, a grief which remains fresh to this 
very day, as is made evident to observers who see the marble 
tablet to his memory placed twenty-five years ago by Normal 
and Model School friends of the lamented Howell, in the room 
once occupied by this hero. 

In 1 86 1 and for several years later the Normal and Model 
Schools were under the same roof. Three of the rear rooms 
of the first floor were used by the Model School, but there was 
no training school, and not even a day's observation of teach- 
ing methods was granted to the graduating class of 1861. I 
was a member of this class, but my studies of the last term, 


while teaching in the Model School, were conveniently skipped, 
probably as" a war measure, and I fear that in some other re- 
spects the graduating class of 1861 was made to share the gen- 
eral deficiencies of those warlike times. 

As the first call for troops was for 75,000 men for three 
months' service, which was immediately filled, some of us soon 
began to be beguiled by Secretary Seward's smooth explana- 
tion that the war would be over in ninety days. 

Normal students tried hard to go on with the studies of the 
course, although careful thinkers were predicting what soon 
came to pass, that the next call for troops would be called for 
three years unless sooner discharged. The probability of a 
long war kept up our drilling and we came to the conclusion 
that before the end of the coming summer we might be pre- 
pared for the worst, and that, if needed, our Normal Rifles, the 
original company of Normal and Model students, about fifty- 
five in number, would go to the war in a body. 

During this summer term of 1861 throughout the country 
at large, all was confusion and uncertainty, with daily and 
hourly telegraphic messages of war and war's alarms, but the 
school kept on in the uneven tenor of its ways. The regular 
studies partially engrossed our attention, while the excitement 
of the outside world distracted our thoughts to a greater or 
less extent. 

Hope is ever buoyant in the hearts of the young, and when 
our elders were so generally of the opinion that the Southern- 
ers were merely attempting to gain by threats and bravado 
what had been denied them at the polls, what wonder that we 
were early converts to Seward's ninety day prediction ? 

It may therefore be confidently asserted that most of our 
Normal students were thoughtful enough and brave enough 
to pursue their studies with fair proficiency under all of these 
exciting circumstances. 

The Normal Rifles held their last parade on the first of July, 
1 86 1, and when the term closed on the second of the month, 
the little company separated with the understanding that if 
necessary and possible, the company would enlist as a body for 
the war. Events traveled rapidly in those fateful days, and 
soon after the dreadful battle of Bull Run, July 21, President 
Hovey was Colonel Hovey, with authority to raise a regiment 
of troops for the rebellion. The Normal Rifles became Com-- 
pany A, 33rd regiment, Illinois Infantry Volunteers. Prof. 
L. H. Potter was captain of this company, and I had the honor 


of being its first lieutenant. G. H. Norton, brother of the 
gifted Henry B. Norton, one of my classmates, became second 
lieutenant. He belonged to the class of 1862, but was never 
able to return to his Normal studies. His term of office ended 
August 5, 1863, his having been wounded at Vicksburg being 
the cause of his resignation. 

Harvey J. Button, one of the graduating class of 1861 
entered Company A as sergeant, and became captain August 
5, 1863. My- own term as captain commenced September 6, 
1862, and ended April i, 1863. Prof. Ira Moore, of the Nor- 
mal faculty, who commenced with Hovey and the school in 
1857, entered service as a commissioned officer, and was cap- 
tain of Company G. Moses I. Morgan, of the graduating 
class of 1 86 1, was captain of Company B. Aaron Gove, 
now living in Denver, Colo., one of the graduating class of 
1861, entered the regiment as 2nd Lieutenant of B Com- 
pany, 33d 111. Inf., and afterwards became Regimental Ad- 
jutant. He served later as Brigade assistant adjutant gen- 
eral with the rank of Captain. H. H. Pope, one of the 
early students of 1857, was captain of Company D. The 
regimental surgeon was Dr. George P. Rex, of Perry, Pike 
county, who was a member of the State Board of Education, 
and Simeon Wright of Kinmundy, another member of the 
Board, was our Quartermaster. In all, forty-six members of 
the regiment were Normalites and these formed the nucleus of 
the 33rd, or Normal Regiment, as it was called for some time, 
after the original home of the regiment, a name it will carry in 
some circles at least, if not officially, as long as its fame will 

Its reputation was made at the start from the fact that stu- 
dents, teachers, and educational men were invited to join its 
ranks and they did join in respectable numbers. The place of 
origin, the State Normal University, gave it great prominence 
and caused it to be noticed and watched by thoughtful men, 
not only in Illinois but all over the west. 

There was one other western regiment, the 42nd Ohio, 
whose colonel was the president of a college. I recollect that 
while we were taking some preliminary steps towards our own 
organization, Colonel Hovey mentioned that Colonel Gar- 
field's 42nd Ohio regiment was the only other student regiment 
that he had heard of and he concluded his remarks by saying, 
"Watch that man Garfield." I did watch him, and when he 
became candidate for president in 1880 I was more enthusiastic 


in his behalf than I have been for any other presidential can- 

The Normal regiment found itself at Pilot Knob, Mo., 
September 20, 1861. Here and near here its officers and sol- 
diers were taught many of the important first lessons in sol- 
diery and military tactics. 

Although the Normal contingent formed the nucleus of 
the 33rd regiment, yet it contained more than nine hundred 
other members who sometimes felt the Normalites were a little 
too much inclined to over-rate themselves, and considerable 
jealousy was early aroused, disappearing, however, as soon as 
it was seen that we were always ready to prove by acts and 
not by words that we were in the war for the good of the 
cause, and not to promote our own selfish interests. It was 
not long before we were proud of our comrades, and our com- 
rades were proud to be associated with those who had orig- 
inated the idea of the schoolmaster's regiment. 

Its first baptism of fire was at Fredericktown, Mo., Octo- 
ber 21, 1 86 1, just enough like war to give us a slight zest for 
more, not a man killed, not a drop of the Regiment's blood 
spilled, and the victory was important. 

In camp at Ironton, Mo., during the winter of 1861 and 
1862, our regiment suffered from sickness but gradually im- 
proved itself in military drill, and perfected itself in hard 
marching during the following spring and summer. 

Colonel Hovey won his promotion on this march, which is 
the main reason for the insertion of a brief account of the bat- 
tle of Bayou Cache, July 7, 1862. 

Our regiment formed a part of the advance guard of Gen- 
eral Curtis' army of 15,000 men, marching thru Missouri 
and Arkansas on the way to Little Rock. The Rebels, for 
several days, obstructed our march by felling trees in the roads 
and in other ways, without giving us fight. On the morning 
of July 7, four companies of the 33rd regiment, with as many 
more from the nth Wisconsin regiment, were reconnoitering 
in advance, removing the blockades, when we fell into an am- 
bush of Texan rangers. We were driven back at first with 
severe loss, although not until Company A in charge of a small 
cannon belonging to an Indiana battery had resisted a savage 
attempt to capture the gun. First Sergeant Edward M. Pike, 
a Normal student now living at Chenoa, 111., aided by one 
other man, coupled the cannon by main strength to its fore- 
most wheels, barely saving it from capture, just as the rebels 


were on the point of reaching for the artillery horses' bridles. 
He received a bullet through his cap and for his muscular ac- 
tivity, daring and bravery, was a few years ago given, by the 
Secretary of War, a medal of honor, which is the only medal 
granted to a member of the 33rd regiment, to my knowledge. 
Captain Potter, in command of our company, was severely 
wounded, with several others. Just as we started to the rear 
he gave me the command of the company and told me to take 
it back to the rear. As a matter of fact the company or some- 
thing else was taking me rapidly back to the rear without or- 
ders, and I shall never forget my satisfaction at being under 
orders to do what was so remarkably agreeable as was that 
retreat, and feeling that of all that rushing throng pushing our 
way to the rear amidst the crashing bullets and falling 
branches, I was perhaps the only one fortunate enough to be 
acting under orders. 

Colonel Hovey was in the rear with the main army, but 
fortunately was mounted and on his way to join us when he 
heard the sound of battle and rode like the wind to our assist- 
ance. He met our retreating forces, about five hundred in all, 
and instantly attempted with great success to halt the troops at 
a good point for resistance. I shall never forget his courage- 
ous and desperate attempts to rally the troops. I was very near 
to his person when some rebel buckshot passed through his 
clothing and cut the skin of the upper part of his breast. The 
pain was intense as the first sensation was like being shot thru 
the lungs. He turned pale and staggered, and just as I was 
almost near enuf for assistance, I saw him tear open the cloth- 
ing and feel of his wound. In an instant his countenance 
brightened as he drew forth his hand containing two or three 
buckshot which had merely penetrated the skin. He said im- 
mediately, "It is nothing but a flesh wound and some buckshot. 
I am not hurt," and immediately proceeded more vigorously 
than before to arrange the disorganized soldiers for desperate 
defense. The rally was successful, other troops arrived, the 
force of Texans was soon driven back and we were grandly 

Colonel Hovey was deservedly made brigadier-general for 
this exploit. His promotion carried the promotion of Captain 
Potter to be major of the regiment, and as I was next in line, 
this promoted me to be captain. I had done nothing to deserve 
this and was simply carried along by the rush of other promo- 
tions, much as I had been carried to the rear under orders in 

First President, 1857-1861. 


the action itself. General Hovey soon left us to take com- 
mand of a brigade of other troops. He participated in the bat- 
tle of Chickasaw Bayou, and also in the capture of Arkansas 
Post, where he was wounded by a bullet which was declared 
by good authority to have passed through both arms. Con- 
gress on March 13, 1865, made him brevet major general, 
enumerating among other merits, "Especially for meritorious 
conduct at Arkansas Post." This act of Congress closed Gen- 
eral Hovey's military record with all of the honor that his best 
friends could possibly desire. 

A fruitless winter's march in southern Missouri in 1862 
and 1863 was followed in March by an order to proceed to 
Vicksburg, where the regiment became attached to the famous 
1 3th Army Corps under Gen. John A. MacClernand and its 
real military fighting history now commenced. 

It took an active part in the battles of Port Gibson, Cham- 
pion Hills, Magnolia Hills and in the terrific charge on Vicks- 
burg, earning the official thanks of General Grant, and special 
mention in his published "Memoirs," written after the war. 

The regiment's loss in the Vicksburg battles amounted to 
no less than thirty officers and men killed, and nearly one hun- 
dred wounded, and its services have been commemorated by 
the State of Illinois with a beautiful regimental monument 
placed in 1906 on the site of its most terrible conflict. The 
name of every Illinois soldier engaged in the Vicksburg battles 
is engraven in lasting bronze tablets in the interior of this 
grand monument, erected in 1906. 

I left the regiment at Millikin's Bend on the first day of 
April, 1863, having resigned in February on account of ill 
health. These tablets contain the names of all members of 
the army who were in the army on March 29, and I under- 
stand my own name is on the tablet, the same as if I had been 
under fire during these battles. Just another case of my good 
luck which followed me during my entire army service, simply 
because of being in good company. 

The history of the 33rd Illinois Regiment was published 
by the survivors in 1902, and it is a remarkable historical rec- 
ord, said to be one of the very best regimental histories ever 
published in any state, east or west. Mr. V. G. Way, of Gib- 
son City, Illinois, was the compiler and author, assisted by 
other members. Col. I. H. Elliott, the regiment's last and 
best loved commander, wrote its military records in first-class 
military style. 


I wrote the introduction and the sketch of the organization 
of the Normal Company, and Capt. H. J. Dutton brought the 
company's history down to the end of the war. This publica- 
tion, with the government's official history of the rebellion, 
and with the Judge Marshall's Army Life, written and pub- 
lished in 1883 at Joliet by O. A. Marshall, now Judge Mar- 
shall, a member of Company A, but not a Normal student, 
taken altogether, constitutes a full and permanent written his- 
tory of the Normal heroes of 1861. 

We may state briefly that immediately after the fall of 
Vicksburg the regiment was at the siege of Jackson, and that 
it took part later in 1863 in the capture of Fort Esperanza in 
Texas. Just at the close of the war in 1865, it was at the 
capture of Ft. Blakeley at Mobile, and at Spanish Fort, Mobile, 
Ala. Its banners are officially entitled to be emblazoned with 
the following battles : Fredericktown, Mo., Bayou Cache, Ark., 
Port Gibson, Miss., Grand Gulf, Miss., Champion Hills, Miss., 
Magnolia Hills, Miss., Vicksburg, Miss., Black River, Miss., 
Siege of Jackson, Miss., Fort Esperanza, Texas, Blakeley, Ala., 
and Spanish Fort, Ala. 

Soon after the Normal Rifles were organized at Normal the 
ladies of Normal prepared and presented a beautiful flag to 
the company, on which occasion Miss Sophie J. Crist of the 
graduating class of 1861, delivered a very appropriate address 
to the assembled company in the upper hall of the Normal 
building. This same flag was carried by the regiment for a 
short time after its organization and then given into my pos- 
session. It is now preserved in the museum of the Normal 
University. The fact that the regiment was partially composed 
of teachers and educational men, was the means of a set of 
regimental colors being presented to the regiment by the school 
teachers of Chicago and Cook county. These colors reached the 
regiment in October or November, 1861, at Ironton, Mo., ac- 
companied by a delegation of Chicago teachers. When they 
were worn out, and torn and tattered in the battles of 
Vicksburg, the color bearer having lost his life in battle, the 
staff and colors riddled, bleached out, and with blood stains, 
which can be detected to the present day, they were replaced 
by a new and beautiful set from the same source as the first. 
These flags, preserved to the present time, are now in the care 
of the McLean County Historical Society at Bloomington, be- 
ing kept in a beautiful case with several other McLean flags, 
labeled and carefully rolled up, so tattered and torn that in 
all probability they will never be unrolled. 


The crowning act of patriotism which should ever stand 
out to the everlasting credit of this regiment, was its re-en- 
listing on the desolate Texas coast in 1864 for another three 
years' service as a Veteran Volunteer Regiment. 

Nothing in the history of American volunteering exceeds 
in patriotism and devotion to country the re-enlisting of a 
regiment in the face of the enemy, and the public have never 
given and never will give, the great credit deserved by these 
heroes of 1864, of whom at least 100,000 were enlisted in the 
Grand Army of the Republic in the last years of the war. 

The following lines written by a member of the regiment 
will express the sentiments of the re-enlisting volunteers of 
this regiment : 

"Farewell to home, farewell to kindred ; 

We have pledged ourselves for three years more; 
We will each be in at the death of treason, 

Or perish in the I3th Army Corps." 

Space will not permit further allusions to the acts of the 
Normal regiment, and we can only refer to the final muster 
out of this veteran regiment on December 7, 1865. 

The space given in this chapter to the 33rd Illinois Regi- 
ment, is believed to be deserved on account of the prominence 
given to the Normal regiment by the fact that this regiment 
originated at Normal, but we do not forget that a very much 
larger number of students enlisted in other Illinois regiments. 
The records show that one hundred and twenty-eight Normal 
and Model School students volunteered in different regiments 
from the beginning to the end of the war. The military his- 
tory of all of these is to be found in the State Adj. General's 
Reports and other places, and it is very much to be regretted 
that these military records, equally heroic, equally patriotic, 
equally important, cannot be given here. The fact that the 
most important volunteering of Normal students during the 
war, occurred after the departure of the 33rd Regiment, as 
given in the several lists, shows the value to the institution of 
having the military records of all of its members available in 
compact form. The record of P. R. Walker, one of the grad- 
uates of 1 86 1, may be taken as a sample of these isolated, in- 
dividual enlistments, amounting to nearly eighty in all. He 
taught school one year, and when the great call came for vol- 
unteers in 1862, he went into the 92nd 111. Infantry and rose 
to be second Lieutenant before the end of the war. 

When the fall term of 1861 commenced it was found that 
the Normal University had almost been broken up by the war. 


Even the new students who entered in the fall of 1861 were 
tempted to desert the Normal School and enlist in different 
companies and regiments, though the heaviest enlistment took 
place after the close of that school year, during the late sum- 
mer and early autumn of 1862. 

It is a fact not generally known that of the young men who 
were members of the three classes of 1860, 1861, and 1862, 
every one not physically disabled volunteered in the army, and 
it is believed that a very similar condition existed among the 
young men who were not graduates. This will show at once 
that the war changed the membership of the institution from a 
fairly equal division between the sexes, into an unequal dis- 
tribution, throwing the teaching profession almost entirely into 
the hands of the women, a condition which has continued to 
exist to the present. But for the war, the early graduates 
would probably have given the institution something of the 
popular reputation which came later, and no one will ever be 
able to estimate the changes in Normal's personnel and meth- 
ods caused by the war. One thing is positively known, and 
this is, that the patriotic reputation which the institution gained 
and which will never be taken away, is safe, a reputation 
of which the whole state has been proud. 

The Normal University was placed temporarily, as it was 
believed, and as it actually proved, under charge of Mr. Per- 
kins Bass, of Chicago, one of the members of the State Board 
of Education. He was a graduate of Dartmouth College, a 
great friend of Colonel Hovey and of the Normal cause, and 
he successfully carried the school through the disorganized 
school year which ended with the summer term of 1862. 

The third graduating class proved to be about as large as 
its predecessors. Some of its members had remained only to 
complete the course, with the intention of immediately enlist- 
ing at the expiration of the school year. Among this number 
was Logan Holt Roots, who at once joined the immense army 
of new soldiers called out by the call for 600,000 volunteers in 
the summer of 1862, the great patriotic year of the war. 

In the fall of 1862, Pres. Richard Edwards took charge of 
the institution, and brought with him a knowledge of Normal 
methods of training, which has changed the whole character of 
the institution from 1862 to the present time. Great attention 
has been given to imparting a knowledge of correct methods 
of teaching. Previous to that date almost the whole strength 
of the teaching force had been given to the acquirement of a 


most complete and thorough knowledge of the subjects to be 
taught, leaving the pupils to adapt their future methods of 
teaching mainly as exigencies and contingencies might con- 
front them in actual experience. 

Higher mathematics and Latin, which were formerly a 
part of the course, were made optional, and enough work has 
been added to keep the classes busy, possibly more than enough 
in the opinion of the pupils themselves. 

Looking backward, the older graduates see how many gaps 
were left open in their early education, and looking forward 
they are led to hope and believe that the newly adopted 
branches in the Normal course will be well adapted to continue 
to future Normal graduates that meed of public approval which 
has always been so generously granted in the past. 


The following named persons, formerly teachers or students in the 
Normal University, were in the Union army: 


Charles E. Hovey Brevet Major-General, U. S. Vol. 

(a) Dr. E. R. Roe Lieut. Col., 33d 111. Inf. 

Leander H. Potter Lieut. Col., 33d 111. Inf. 

Ira Moore Capt, Co. G, 33d 111. Inf. 

Julien E. Bryant Lieut. Col., ist Miss., (C. V.) 

*Dr. Saml. Willard Surgeon, p;th 111. Inf. 


Edward Allyn Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Jas. H. Beach Private, Co. H, 20th 111. Inf. 

*Wm. C. Baker Ord. Sergt., Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Eugene F. Baldwin Ord. Sergt., Co. B, I2th Ind. Inf. 

Wm. A. Black Private, Co. , 8;th 111. Inf. 

James H. Baily Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

(&) Charles Bovee Corp., Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

James M. Burch Capt., Co. , 94th 111. Inf. 

Lorenzo D. Bovee Private, Co. E, looth 111. Inf. 

George M. Berkley Corp., Co. C, I3th 111. Inf. 

Joseph M. Chase Corp., Co. , 3d 111. Cav. 

Wilson M. Chalfant Private, Co. , iO4th 111. Inf. 

(c) Charles M. Clark ist Lieut., Qtr.-master, 2d La., (C.V.) 

(d) Wm. P. Carter Corp., Co. C, 4Oth 111. Inf. 

*J. W. Cox Private, Co. C, 33d 111. Inf. 

Lewis P. Cleaveland Ord. Sergt, ist Ala., (C. V.) 

fPeter T. Crist Private, Co. F, 68th 111. Inf. 

Elmer F. Clapp Private, Co. C, ?6th 111. Inf. 

Jesse Cunningham Private, Co. E, 78th 111. Inf. 

(?) Ephraim D. Carrothers Sergt, Co. , 20th 111. Inf. 


John T. Curtis Hospital Steward, 97th 111. Inf. 

Harvey J. Button Capt, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

(f) Wm. H. H. DeBoice Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

(g) Wm. Downer Sergt, Co. E, ;oth 111. Inf. 

* Valentine Denning Private, Co. G, 4th 111. Cav. 

James R. Fyffe 2d Lieut., Co. A, 334 111. Inf. 

Wm. M. Fyffe Private, Vaughn's Springfield Bat. 

Wm. H. H. Fuller ist Lieut, Co. G, 84th 111. Inf. De- 
tailed as Signal Officer on Gen. 
McCook's Staff. 

C. Judson Gill Capt., Co. B, 33d 111. Inf. 

James Gilbraeth Private, Co. , 3d 111. Cav. 

Aaron Goye First Lieut. Adjutant, 33d 111. Inf. 

O) Francis M. Gastman Corp., Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Wm. A. Gunn Sergt., Co. K, 8th 111. Inf. 

fCharles Hayes Private, Co. K, 8th 111. Inf. 

Peter Harper Sergt., Co. G, 4th Wis. Inf. 

John H. Hume Corp., Co. , nth 111. Cav. 

John M. House noth 111. Inf. 

Otho H. Hibbs Private, Co. E, 94th 111. Inf. 

*Ebenezer D. Harris Corp., Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Charles E. Huston Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Wm. W. Hall Sergt., Co. nsth 111. Inf. 

Chas. D. Irons Private, Co. , 77th 111. Inf. 

Duncan G. Ingraham Corp., Co. B, 33d 111. Inf. 

Hiram W. Johnson Sergt., Co. E, 8th 111. Inf. 

(0 Fred B. Jones Private, Co. , 77th 111. Inf. 

(;') Christopher Krebs .Private, Co. B, 8th 111. Inf. 

John D. Kirkpatrick Private, Co. B, 93d 111. Inf. 

A. B. Keagle ist Lieut., Co. D, ii7th 111. Inf. 

Matthew R. Kell Private, Co. D, 49th 111. Inf. 

Wm. Law Com. Sergt., 47th 111. Inf. 

Dr. Jehu Little ist Asst. Surgeon, 24th Mo. Inf. 

() Alvin T. Lewis Corp., Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Clark Leal Private, Co. A, ii8th 111. Inf. 

* Moses I. Morgan Capt, Co. B, 33d 111. Inf. 

(/) Isaac N. McCuddy Corp., Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Joseph R. McGregor , Irish Brigade. 

fGeorge Marsh Private, Co. K, 6gth 111. Inf. 

Wm. W. Murphy Sergt., Co. , 87th 111. Inf. 

G. Hyde Norton Capt, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

*Marvin J. Nye Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Edwin Philbrook Quarter-master Sergt., 8th 111. Inf. 

Truman J. Pearce Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

*James G. Pearce Private, Ottawa Battery. 

Henry C. Prevost Sergt. Major, 94th 111. Inf. 

Edward M. Pike .Ord. Sergt., Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Henry H. Pope Capt, Co. D, 33d 111. Inf. 

George Peter Ord. Sergt., Co. A, 43d 111. Inf. 

Richard R. Puffer Private, Co. E, 8th 111. Inf. 

Orange Parret Private, Co. B, 77th 111. Inf. 

Logan H. Roots Lieut. Quarter-master, 8ist 111. Inf. 

Rasselas P. Reynolds Corp., Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Geo. McClellan Rex Private, Co. I, 33d 111. Inf. 

Thomas M. Roberts , Co. B, 47th 111. Inf. 

*John H. Rhomack Private, Co. G, 68th Ohio Inf. 

J. M. Stine Private, Co. M, i6th 111. Cav. 

t Justin S. Spaulding Private, Co. K, 8th 111. Inf. 

Gilbert L. Seybold Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 


Byron Sheldon , , 111. Inf. 

Samuel Smith Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

(m) Johnson W. Straight Private, 9. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Edwin Scranton Miss. Marine Brigade. 

Frederick J. Seybold , , 111. Inf. 

f Wm. A. H. Tilton Ord. Sergt, 68th 111. Inf. 

John J. Taylor , Co. K, 2Oth 111. Inf. 

John H. Walker Private, Co. E, s8th 111. Inf. 

John X. Wilson ist Lieut., Co. F, 33d 111. Inf. 

Chas. E. Wilcox .-Sergt. Major, 33d 111. Inf. 

James E. Willis Private, Co. F, 8;th 111. Inf. 

Peleg R. Walker 2d Lieut., Co. K, Q2d 111. Inf. 

Chas. W. Wills Capt., Co. load 111. Inf. 

Theophilus F. Willis Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Wm. Walton , , 111. Inf. 

Cyrus I. Wilson , , 111. Inf. 

J. R. Walker Capt, Co. , 28th 111. Inf. 


(w) Joseph G. Howell ist Lieut, Co. K, 8th 111. Inf. 

*J. Howard Burnham Capt. Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 


Franklin B. Augustus Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Joshua Baily Ord. Sergt, Co. B, 73d 111. Inf. 

fjohn G. Dietrich Private, Co. , 68th 111. Inf. 

t Joseph T. Davison Sergt., Co. F, 68th 111. Inf. 

Arthur H. Dillon Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

Ulysses D. Eddy ist Lieut., 4th N. Y. Art. 

Richard Huxtable Private, Co. H, 77th 111. Inf. 

William Hogue Private, Co. G, 6gth 111. Inf. 

Jas. F. Hough Private, Co. C, 33d 111. Inf. 

t Robert McCart Sergt., Co. G, 68th 111. Inf. 

Mills , , 111. Inf. 

(0) William A. Pearce Private, Co. A, 33d 111. Inf. 

fEdward L. Price Corp., Co. F, 68th 111. Inf. 

Myron J. Peterson Private, Co. E, 75th 111. Inf. 

fFrancis S. Rearden Corp., Co. G, 68th 111. Inf. 


*Resigned or honorably discharged, on account of continued ill health. 

tThree months' service. 

(a) Disabled by wounds at the siege of Vicksburg, and resigned. 

(6) Disabled by five wounds, and honorably discharged. 

(c) Mortally wounded at Miltiken's Bend, Louisiana, June?, 1863. 

(d) Disabled by wounds at Shiloh, and honorably discharged. 
() Killed at the siege of Fort Donelson. 

(f) Died in hospital at Ironton, Missouri, February, 1862. 

(a) Died July 23, 1862. 

(h) Died in camp, on Black River, Missouri, March 23, 1862. 

(t) Reported killed at the siege of Vicksburg, May 23, 1863. 

C;') Disabled by wounds at Donelson and Sniloh, and honorably discharged 

(k) Killed at Wilkinson's Landing, Mississippi, August 4, 1862. 

(0 Died in hospital atlrontou, Missouri, October, 1861. 

( ) Lost an arm in battle, and returned to Normal. 

(n) Killed at the siege of Fort Donelson. 

(o] Killed at the battle of Jackson, Mississippi, July 12, 1863. 


Commissioned officers, 27; non-commissioned officers, 33; privates, 45; rank un- 
known, 12. 





It is the purpose of this chapter to include in one continuous 
narrative all the leading strands in the life of the institution, 
but to deal briefly with such topics as are treated elsewhere in 
separate chapters. Of the original Board of Education only 
John R. Eden of Sullivan survives. They were a remarkable 
body of men selected from the various sections of the state be- 
cause of their prominence and their interest in public education. 
Ninian W. Edwards, the former superintendent of public in- 
struction, had in 1855 drafted the bill establishing a free school 
system ; Supt. W. H. Powell, the ex-officio secretary of the 
Board, had himself drawn the normal school bill ; Samuel W. 
Moulton, of Shelbyville, a native of Massachusetts, managed 
the bill in the House ; Charles E. Hovey had been the aggres- 
sive editor of The Illinois Teacher; Simeon Wright had been 
employed by the State Teachers' Association to canvass the 
state in the interest of free schools ; George Bunsen, of Belle- 
ville, a veteran teacher, a pupil of Pestalozzi at Yverdun, had 
been a member of the Committee on Education in the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1847; D r - George P. Rex, a highly edu- 
cated physician from New Jersey, had himself borne an honor- 
able .part in the establishment of the normal school at Trenton 
in 1850; W. H. Wells, formerly principal of the normal school 
at Westfield, Mass., was the newly-elected superintendent of 
the Chicago schools. In the new appointments of 1859 and '61 
we find Calvin Goudy, of Taylorville; W. H. Green, of Me- 
tropolis; and Joel S. Post, of Decatur, the most zealous 
champions of the bill in the legislature of 1857. 


On the morning of October 5, 1857, nineteen students had 
gathered in Major's Hall in Bloomington to greet the princi- 
pal, Charles E. Hovey, and his assistant, Ira Moore. Both 
were men of rare ability. The new principal was so engrossed 
with business cares that the internal organization of the school 
was chiefly due to Mr. Moore. In a few weeks they were 
joined by Charlton W. Lewis, later one of the most eminent 
scholars that America has produced ; Mary Brooks, an accom- 
plished primary teacher was brought over from Peoria to take 
charge of the Model School. In the fall of 1858 there was added 
to the faculty Dr. Samuel Willard, who still lives in Chicago, 
for more than a generation the most eminent teacher of history 
in her public schools ; E. C. Hewett, who was destined to be- 
come a mighty factor in the development of the school, and 
Joseph A. Sewell, the accomplished chemist and botanist. . 

The act creating the school provided for the admission of 
pupils by the appointment of one from each county (in 1861 
increased to two), the appointment to be determined by com- 
petitive examination. Not all counties used their privilege. 
The Board soon authorized the president to admit other quali- 
fied students. In fact, during the whole history of the school 
no student with fair qualifications has ever been denied ad- 
mission. The entrance requirements at first were low, the stu- 
dents usually ill-prepared; but they were earnest, ambitious, 
self-denying young people of purpose and character. They 
spent most of their time upon the common branches and the 
higher mathematics with which the course was heavily 
weighted. Laboratories were unknown and the libraries very 
scanty- In pedagogy the only available textbook was Page's 
Theory and Practice. Horace Mann's Lectures and Barnard's 
Journal of Education were used for reference. 


During the three tedious years in which the school con- 
tinued in Major's Hall the walls of its permanent home were 
slowly rising on the prairie to the north. In June, 1860, the 
building was so far completed that the ten members of the first 
class delivered their graduating orations in the present As- 
sembly Room and an elaborate luncheon was served to the 
commencement guests in Normal Hall above. 

In September, altho mechanics were still at work, the 
school opened in the new building. It was for the time and is 


today a noble edifice. Its site, a mile north of Sugar Creek, 
commanded a wide view over the billowy prairie. Its rooms 
were ample and well adapted for their purpose. In the base- 
ment on the south were the rooms for the janitor's family, 
store rooms, the chemical laboratory, and lecture room; on 
the north, spacious play rooms for boys and girls, the fuel 
room, and boiler room. 

On the first floor to the south were spacious cloak-rooms, 
a reception room, and the room of the Board of Education ; on 
the north, four large school rooms for the Model School. 

On the second floor an assembly room 65ft.x/5ft. and 
eight large recitation rooms. On the fourth floor, halls for 
the literary societies, the art gallery and museum of natural 
history, each 32ft.x48ft., and a lecture hall 65ft.x75ft. 

The building was situated in the midst of a cornfield of 
fifty-six acres ; a hundred more stretched off to the west. The 
first report of the Board stated "should it be thought advisable 
to connect manual labor with the instruction given in the school, 
ample accommodations will be afforded in the extensive 
grounds connected with and belonging to this institution." 

With ampler quarters new departments were possible. Jul- 
ien Bryant, a nephew of William Cullen Bryant, was put in 
charge of the Art Department. Chauncey M. Cady, later busi- 
ness partner of the eminent composer, George F. Root, was 
instructor in music. Washington Irving Vescellius, justly 
celebrated for his exposition of the "Shyrographic" curve, 
gave lessons in penmanship. Joseph G. Howell, a brilliant 
graduate of the first class, was placed over the Grammar De- 
partment, now added to the Model School. The faculty now 
consisted of ten members. 

In January, 1861, the building was completed and dedi- 
cated. The state officers and legislature attended. Governor 
Richard Yates, Sr., and Richard Oglesby made the chief ad- 

In the original act it had been provided that the annual in- 
terest on the University and Seminary fund, $9,754, should be 
devoted to the maintenance of the Illinois State Normal Uni- 
versity, but no provision was made for the erection of the 
building. The subscription raised by Bloomington consisted of 

Lands at Normal school site $ 38,000 

Swamp lands valued at 70,000 

Cash subscriptions 33,5OO 



Some of the last proved worthless and it cost a good deal 
to collect the rest. The building had been mortgaged to 
secure funds to complete it. For years prior to 1857 the in- 
terest on the University fund had been accumulating in the 
State treasury. In 1861 the legislature voted $65,000 of the 
accrued interest to lift the mortgage. The remaining $33- 
957.82 was added to the principal. After that date the fund 
was $156,554.36; the principal of the Seminary fund was $59,- 
838.72 ; the annual interest of the two amounted to a little less 
than $13,000. With this income and a trifling revenue from 
rents and tuition the institution was supported until 1867. 

The students in these early days had few amusements. They 
"worked hard and lived hard and were poorly provided in all 
things." Their parents "were sad-faced, struggling pioneers 
of the prairies," but the students were "cheery, resolute, and 
happy in their life and work." The social life in the school 
clustered about the two literary societies, the Philadelphian and 
Wrightonian, which date from the first year of the school. 
Both faculty and students threw their best energies into these 
societies, which for half a century have continued one of the 
finest elements in the life of the school. 


At the first red signal fires of the war between the States 
an extraordinary spiritual awakening past over our land. 
It was felt that the day for debate and discussion had passed, 
the time for action had come. Patriotism was no longer a 
rhetorical figure, but a living reality. In our higher schools 
where our choice young men were gathered, it was felt at once 
that no sacrifice was too great to save the country. The new 
institution at Normal was no exception. Joseph G. Howell, 
principal of the Model School, responded to Lincoln's first call 
for volunteers. All the spring and summer the students were 
drilling. In the fall President Hovey, with most of his faculty 
and men students, went to the front. Perkins Bass, a member 
of the State Board of Education, took charge of the institution 
for the year 1861-62. The unsettled state of affairs in Mis- 
souri enabled the institution to secure the services of Richard 
Edwards, principal of the St. Louis Normal School, who came 
in the spring of 1862, and of Thomas Metcalf, principal of the 
St. Louis High School, who came in September. At the same 
time came Albert Stetson, a Harvard graduate, to take charge 


of the department of English. These three, together with Ira 
Moore and E. C. Hewett, were graduates of the Massachusetts 
State Normal School in Bridgewater. Here they had been un- 
der the instruction of a West Point graduate, Nicholas Tilling- 
hast, who by his thoroness, his accurate temper, his devotion, 
his fidelity to the truth, and his unsparing contempt for sham, 
for laziness, and frivolity, stamped these sterling qualities up- 
on his students. 

Of these five Bridgewater men, Ira Moore was chief in- 
structor from 1857 to 1 86 1, Richard Edwards was president 
from 1862 to 1876, Edwin C. Hewett from 1876 to 1890. Al- 
bert Stetson and Thomas Metcalf served in the faculty twenty- 
five and thirty-two years respectively. Most of the other teach- 
ers were pupils of the five. Hence during these years, 1857-90, 
the institution underwent little change. Into all its students 
it breathed its peculiar life and that life was the spirit of Til- 
linghast. The school won a great reputation for thoroness in 
the common branches. Every student was expected to own a 
copy of Lippincott's Gazetteer. He learned to read with the 
fervor of Dr. Edwards, to pronounce with the precision of 
Mr. Metcalf, to spell the sesquipedalian terms of the diction- 
aries under the leadership of Dr. Hewett. 

The years of President Edwards' administration were years 
of steady growth, alike in financial resources, in attendance, in 
reputation, and in the confidence of the people of the state. 
In 1865, $32,000 was voted by the legislature to pay off cer- 
tain old building debts. In 1867, the legislature specifically 
declared the Normal University to be a state institution and 
defined the powers of the Board with regard to the disposition 
of its lands and other property. In the same year $3,000 was 
appropriated for improving the campus and $2,500 for the Mu- 
seum of Natural History. 


The planting of the trees in the campus was undertaken 
by Jesse W. Fell whose knowledge of arboriculture especially 
fitted him for this task. The plantings followed closely a plan 
prepared nine years before by William Saunders, the eminent 
landscape gardener of Philadelphia, and were designed to 
combine the most pleasing landscape effects with such group- 
ings of allied species as would make the campus of high value 
to the student of botany. Many large trees were transplanted 

A Lover of Trees and of All Good Things. 


from the extensive private grounds of Mr. Fell, so that from 
the first the grounds have been notable for their beauty. 


This institution is unique among normal schools in the size 
and value of its Museum of Natural History. At the time of 
the founding of the school there was in Illinois a growing in- 
terest in natural science and a wide-spread belief that it was 
to do much for the western farmer. Indeed, one of the chief 
aims of the Normal University as stated in the original act was 
"to impart instruction in the elements of the natural sciences 
including agricultural chemistry and animal and vegetable 
physiology." In 1857 was organized the State Natural His- 
tory Society of Illinois which held annual meetings, published 
papers, and accumulated specimens to be placed in the State 
Normal University. After 1869 annual appropriations were 
made for the salary and expenses of the curator. The collec- 
tions grew until they filled all available space. Many high 
schools were supplied with cabinets of specimens. In 1876 the 
collection was valued at $100,000 and it was repeatedly de- 
clared that the facilities at Normal for the study of natural sci- 
ence were unexcelled anywhere in the United States. It is 
significant of the changed emphasis in natural science that, at 
that time, the institution owned but one microscope. In 1885 
the surplus collections were removed to Springfield and Ur- 
bana, the latter city becoming the seat of the State Laboratory 
of Natural History. 

The successive curators were John W. Powell, the eminent 
western explorer, Dr. George Vasey, the botanist, and Stephen 
A. Forbes. 


In 1866 the Board voted that the principal should there- 
after be known as president, the chief male teachers, professors. 
To enable them to live in a style appropriate to their new dig- 
nity, their annual salaries were advanced to $3000 and $1500 
respectively. But the rapid rise of prices after the Civil War 
soon made these salaries inadequate. In 1869 additional ap- 
propriations for ordinary expenses began; full salaries were 
advanced to $2000. It was found very difficult to meet cur- 
rent expenses. With wood at $7 per cord and coal at $3.50 
per ton, the fuel bills were as great as today, tho we now heat 


four buildings. The institution found itself in such straitened 
circumstances that it in 1869 abandoned the practice of fur- 
nishing free textbooks. Free stationery had been furnished 
till 1865. For library, apparatus, and equipment scarcely any 
funds were available. 

The high cost of living affected the attendance. Four 
dollars per week was the minimum cost of board and room. 
When the institution was located at north Bloomington in 
1857, there were only a few scattered farm houses on the four 
square miles of Normal. Building soon began, but at no time 
before 1875 was the supply of decent rooms equal to the de- 
mand. Students were huddled into attic rooms with unsuit- 
able stoves and few of the comforts of life. Accordingly, in 
June, 1865, President Edwards advocated the erection of a 
dormitory to accommodate 150 students. In his next report, 
because of the marked falling off in attendance, altho the sol- 
diers were home from the war, he advocated a subsidy to as- 
sist in the education of prospective teachers. Nothing came 
of either recommendation. In 1867 the problem was attacked 
from another quarter. Dio Lewis was then in vogue- The ill 
health of the students after all was due not to the want of suit- 
able rooms and board but to the lack of regular agreeable ex- 
ercise. The faculty submitted a memorial to the Board asking 
$10,000 for a gymnasium, the same sum that had been recently 
expended at Harvard College. But no funds were available 
for any of these projects. The legislature in 1867 established 
the Illinois Industrial University at Urbana, in 1869 the South- 
ern Normal at Carbondale. Little could be spared for the de- 
velopment of the old school. 


Yet in spite of these drawbacks and the temporary setback 
in attendance in 1865, the school steadily gained. In the early 
seventies it was the foremost normal school in the United 
States in resources, attendance, and influence. Most of the 
younger normal schools of the west copied its organization and 
its course of study. The teachers trained in its halls were in 
high demand. The southern portion of the state sought and 
obtained a similar institution. 

Yet this very success created enemies. For years the nor- 
mal school was bitterly attacked in the legislature. The chief 
charges were that it was mainly a local school for the benefit 


of McLean county, and that its students did not teach. Ac- 
cordingly year by year a most thoro investigation was made to 
ascertain and report the number of former students engaged 
in teaching and the length of service of the various graduates. 
The number of students from McLean county enrolled in the 
normal department never reached more than one-sixth of the 
total, while in some of our younger normal schools, in their 
earlier years, the home county has furnished half the students. 
Beginning in 1874 the institution in its catalog and annual re- 
ports has published in detail the roll of students by counties, 
and for twenty-two years after 1880, required of McLean 
county students a much higher examination average as a con- 
dition of admission. 


The changes in the faculty during the administration of 
President Edwards were not so frequent as in earlier years. 
The two most significant additions were John W. Cook, Pro- 
fessor of Elocution and Reading, and Henry McCormick, Pro- 
fessor of Geography. Margaret E. Osband, the first precep- 
tress, became Mrs. Albert Stetson in 1864. She was followed 
by Emaline Dryer, who served six years. Myra A. Osband 
and Harriet M. Case succeeded. All of these ladies taught 
grammar and drawing. In the Model School no fewer than 
twenty-nine teachers served during this period. 

In 1862 the High School was established. At its head was 
Charles F. Childs, afterwards principal of the St. Louis High 
School. He was a man of rare power both as a teacher and 
disciplinarian. The next year came W. L. Pillsbury, a Har- 
vard graduate, a man of extensive and accurate scholarship, 
who afterward turned his scholarly gifts to the service of the 
state as Assistant Superintendent of Public Instruction. He 
was succeeded in 1870 by Miss Mary E. Horton, who after- 
ward became the first professor of Greek in Wellesley College. 
In 1871 came for two years, E. W. Coy, now principal of the 
Hughes High School in Cincinnati. Next came Lester L. Bur- 
rington, later principal of Dean Academy at Franklin, Mass. 

The Grammar School as a separate department was organ- 
ized in 1866. In 1867 the grammar and intermediate grades 
moved into a new building just erected by the town of Normal. 
John W. Cook was the first principal. In 1868 he was suc- 
ceeded by Joseph Carter. Under the administration of these 
men the grammar school became a popular and efficient insti- 


tution, well-graded, thoroly organized, and marked by a vig- 
orous and positive power. During Mr. Carter's aqlministra- 
tion the University ceased to exercise authority over the new 
building erected by the town of Normal. 

Altho the Model School was popular and well attended, it 
was far from satisfactory to the State Board of Education. 
The instruction was largely by pupil-teachers who received lit- 
tle regular supervision. Accordingly, in 1874, Thomas Met- 
calf was made principal of the Training Department. System- 
atic work in observation with carefully written diaries now 
appeared. Student-teachers were required to submit written 
plans of their proposed lessons. The Normal school was at 
last discovering the true place of the Training Department. 

The attendance during the terms of Presidents Hovey and 
Edwards is shown by the following table : 


Ending- SCHOOL 

June Men Women Total Gradu- 


1858 53 74 127 

1859 No accurate data. 

1860 61 61 122 41 10 

1861 84 77 161 123 8 

1862 80 72 152 133 8 

1863 78 127 205 226 7 

1864 104 200 304 279 , j " 8 

1865 78 204 282 411 18 

1866 101 169 270 502 15 

1867 121 206 327 580 13 

1868 169 244 413 630 20 

1869 187 268 455 317 20 

1870 160 269 429 328 32 

1871 208 256 464 255 22 

1872 220 240 460 287 36 

1873 205 232 437 293 24 

1874 208 242 450 316 23 

1875 216 251 467 312 23 

In the same period the faculty had increased from ten to 
fifteen members; the annual revenue had grown to $29,550, 
viz., rents $350; tuition, $4,500; State Treasury, $24,700. 

During this period $11,450 had been appropriated by the 
state for furniture, apparatus, and improvement of grounds, 
and $13,000 for repairs on building and heating plant. 



On January i, 1876, President Edwards resigned to accept 
the pastorate of the Congregational church at Princeton. It is 
difficult adequately to characterize his moral worth, his elo- 
quence and learning, his remarkable vigor, his laborious in- 
dustry in the cause of education. Suffice it to say at this point 
that the promise made in 1862 to make this the best normal 
school on the continent was abundantly realized. * Edwin C. 
Hewett was immediately chosen to fill the vacancy. His ad- 
ministration was marked by no striking changes in the life of 
the school. They were rather years of steady development 
and, at the end, of rapid growth along established lines. His 
administration, fourteen years and seven months, is the long- 
est in the history of the school. 


Prof. John W. Cook was transferred to the chair of math- 
ematics in which he attained a brilliant success. History was 
added to the department of Professor McCormick. Charles 
DeGarmo became principal of the Grammar School; in 1883 
he went to Germany for three years of study. Upon his re- 
turn in 1886 he became teacher of Modern Languages and 
Reading. Minor L. Seymour, a very successful and practical 
teacher, held the chair of Natural History from 1877 till 1888. 
In that year came Buel P. Colton (1888-1906), who had been 
a student under Brooks and Martin at Johns Hopkins, both 
pupils of Huxley. Under him our science lost much of its 
bookishness. Flora Pennell (1877-1890) served as assistant 
in Reading and later as preceptress. Edmund J. James, the 
present brilliant president of the University of Illinois, upon his 
return from Germany in 1879, was made principal of the High 
School. He held this position for three years and was suc- 
ceeded after a brief interval by Herbert J. Barton (1883- 
1890), now professor of Latin in the University of Illinois. It 
is matter of interest that the three most successful teachers in 
this position, Pillsbury, James, and Barton are now in the serv- 
ice of the State University. Mary Hartmann, who is now 
rounding out a quarter of a century of service, became assistant 
in Mathematics in 1882. Rudolph R. Reeder was principal 
of the Grammar School from 1883 to 1890. Adella M. O. 
Hanna (Grammar, 1886-94) and Lizzie P. Swan (assistant in 


Geography and History, 1886-92) were brilliant teachers in 
their respective departments. Richard D. Jones (1887-91), 
now of Vanderbilt University, infused new life into the de- 
partment of literature. Clarissa E. Ela began her work in 
drawing in 1888. Sixteen other teachers were appointed dur- 
ing this administration. 

The early eighties saw in the United States a marvelous 
awakening of interest in scientific pedagogy. Col. F. W. 
Parker was the chief apostle of the new movement, and Dr. 
William T. Harris, probably its greatest constructive thinker, 
tho the men had little in common. At Normal the new ideas 
found a congenial soil. With the return of Dr. DeGarmo, sat- 
urated with German philosophy, was established a faculty club 
for the study of pedagogical problems. There were a number of 
young men in the faculty who carried on the study with great 
ardor which has continued until the present time. Under the 
leadership of Presidents Cook and Tompkins, the McMurrys, 
and Dr. Van Liew much constructive work of high value was 
accomplished. At other times thru papers and discussions each 
member of the faculty has used the club to acquaint his asso- 
ciates with the aim and method of work in his particular de- 


The later seventies were years of financial depression which 
was severely felt by the farmers of Illinois. Appropriations 
were reduced. F. K. Phoenix, who rented the University 
farm, became insolvent. The number of students and conse- 
quent tuition receipts fell off. The institution was obliged to 
shorten sail. The utmost economy prevailed in all expendi- 
tures. Salaries were reduced an average of ten per cent. 

In 1878 the following schedule was adopted: 

E. C. Hewett, President $ 3150 

Thomas Metcalf, Supervisor of Training 1800 

Albert Stetson, Literature 1800 

John W. Cook, Mathematics and Physics 1800 

Henry McCormick, History and Geography 1800 

S. A. Forbes, Director of Laboratory of Natural History 1800 

M. L. Seymour, Natural Science 1600 

Mrs. M. D. L. Haynie, Modern Languages goo< 


Miss Bandusia Wakefield, Grammar and Arithmetic 630 

Miss Flora Pennell, Reading, Preceptress 600 

Miss Rosalie Miller, Drawing 600 

Lester L. Burrington, Principal H. S 1500 

Charles DeGarmo, Principal Grammar School noo 

Miss A. G. Paddock, Training Teacher 900 

After the great crop years, 1879-81, more liberal appropri- 
ations prevailed. The former salary scale was restored in 
1882. With larger revenues it became possible to develop the 
scientific equipment and the library, which had remained nearly 
stationary for many years. With the employment of Miss 
Ange Vernon Milner in 1890 to catalog and classify the col- 
lections of books, the library became a recognized department 
of the school. The story of its development follows : 


On December 23, 1858, Mr. Hovey reported the establish- 
ment and contents of five different libraries and the promise of 
a sixth. In the progress of these pioneer libraries, we trace 
the history of the present one. 

The five consisted of a Reference library of 94 volumes, 
two Society libraries of 150 volumes each, a Public Document 
library of 103 volumes, and a Textbook library of over 2600 

The Reference library was really the foundation of our 
present library. It is interesting to note that it contained 33 
copies of Lippincott's Universal Gazetteer. 

The Society libraries rank next because of their influence 
upon the development of library conditions in the University. 
Each society was presented with a "School District Library," 
and friends made further contributions. The lists included 
choice books that are still on our shelves. 

The Public Document collection was from Senators S. A. 
Douglas and Lyman Trumbull, and from Hon. Owen Love- 
joy, who made the library a depository library. The appoint- 
ment continued until 1861. 

Of the extensive Textbook library, more than half had 
been purchased, and free textbooks were supplied for use in 
the school rooms until about 1870. Very few of those old 
textbooks are now in existence. 

The sixth library was brought by the Illinois Natural His- 
tory Society in 1860, and consisted of 500 valuable scientific: 


works. It remained in the same rooms, constantly increasing 
in size and value and always open to the school, for nearly a 
quarter of a century. 

In the sixties library expenditures were small; but it was 
during that time that the Reference library was established in 
the east hallway of the second floor. By 1873 it numbered 
1,000 volumes, and Dr. Edwards introduced student librarians. 
The first to fill this position were J. P. Hodge, Emma J. Con- 
able, and J. Lawson Wright. 

In 1877, Senator Oglesby again appointed the library as a 
depository for public documents, and this still continues. 

Dr. Hewett made more room by separating the miscellane- 
ous books from those of a strictly reference character, and 
placing them in a class room on the first floor. Here the cases 
were unlocked after school, by a student librarian, for three- 
quarters of an hour a day. The Society libraries, now well 
grown and popular, were open once a week at society meet- 
ings. By 1885, the Natural History library consisted chiefly 
of that part of the former collection that was adapted to the 
requirements of the Normal University. The school library 
increased slowly, heads of departments began to ask for spe- 
cial appropriations, and several departmental libraries devel- 
oped, notably an increase of the Natural History library and 
a choice collection for the department of History and Geog- 

At the Board meeting of June 26, 1889, Dr. Hewett re- 
ported that it was "The general feeling of the faculty that the 
library might be much more useful if we could employ a per- 
manent librarian." The societies offered their libraries to 
the University, if a suitable room could be provided, a perma- 
nent librarian employed, the books cataloged, and the society 
collections kept by themselves. The Board formed a library 
committee, took the subject under consideration, and seven 
months later Miss Milner was called to catalog and classify 
the library. 

When Mr. Cook was made president, he promptly sacrified 
the comfort of the reception room to the needs of the library, 
and it was opened on September 9, 1890. It soon contained 
4,000 volumes, including those of the societies and most of 
the departmental libraries, but not the public documents. This 
was the beginning of the present library system. Books were 
classified and cataloged. Library hours were lengthened, and 
students were given the freedom of the shelves and instruction 


in the use of books. Student assistants were improved by se- 
lection and instruction, and in 1891, Miss Milner was made 
librarian. During the next few years several gifts were re- 
ceived, notably one hundred dollars for choice literature from 
Mrs. Young, ten dollars for biographical works from Dr. 
Taylor, and valuable educational periodicals from Mr. Met- 
calf's library. 

While the system remains the same, each president has 
improved it. Mr. Cook, beside establishing the new order of 
things, stood for better housing. In 1892, the library was 
given larger quarters and in 1898 it was moved to the gymna- 
sium building. 

Mr. Tompkins changed from students to a trained assist- 
ant, and library funds became available for library use only. 

In the last seven years there has been great progress. Mr. 
Felmley is especially interested in advancing along lines of 
practical utility. The library contains valuable publications on 
every subject in the Course of Study and a great deal beside, 
numbers 18,000 bound volumes, 9,000 pamphlets, and 3,000 
pictures, and subscribes for 122 periodicals. It is open in the 
daytime nearly all the year, and in the evening during the large 
summer school. It has had several exhibits of pictures pre- 
sented by railroads and other companies and illustrating scen- 
ery and industries in the northwest, that have been a source 
of much interest. 

Beside other instruction, the librarian gives semi-annual 
lectures on School Libraries, and has written a Normal School 
Quarterly on the subject. The library is connected thru the 
librarian with the American Library Association, and the Illi- 
nois Library Association. 

For fifty years the aim of the library has been to help fac- 
ulty and students. Almost everyone connected with it has 
shown this interest, from the Board of Education to the stu- 
dent assistants. It has constantly been developed and im- 
proved to meet increasing demands, and there is abundant op- 
portunity for further improvement to provide for the ever 
growing needs of the institution. 


Among the men suffering heavy losses in the financial de- 
pression of 1873-9 was Edwin W. Bakewell who, as one of the 
original subscribers of 1857, had granted forty acres of land 


to the Illinois State Normal University. In his original sub- 
scription he had stipulated that the tract was to be used as a 
ground for practical experiments in agriculture. In 1875 
he requested the State Board of Education to convey the land 
to his wife, Julia A. Bakewell, on the ground that no attempt 
had been made to carry out the conditions of the grant. The 
Board of Education contended that the original subscription 
paper did not appear before the Board in 1857, but only a 
bond for a deed which contained no such condition and that 
consequently the stipulation regarding the teaching of agricul- 
ture, being unknown to the Board, was no part of the contract. 
Besides, the Board claimed its want of power to alienate prop- 
erty placed in its hands in trust. In 1878 Mr. Bakewell insti- 
tuted suit against the Board but without success. He then 
took up the matter with successive legislatures and was sup- 
ported by most of the prominent citizens of Bloomington. The 
33d General Assembly instructed the Board of Education to 
re-convey the land to Bakewell. This the Board refused to 
do, claiming that the legislature had no jurisdiction in the mat- 
ter. The next General Assembly placed an order to restore the 
land as a rider upon the appropriation bill. Later, the friends 
of the institution secured the re-consideration of the bill and 
the removal of the rider. Finally, in 1887, the Supreme Court 
decided the Normal University a private institution. Mr. 
Bakewell in 1893 petitioned the Board for a restoration of his 
land. The Board proposed to him to try his case on its merits 
in any circuit court. This he declined. After a full investiga- 
tion the Board decided that he had no just claim, and that it 
could not in the absence of a judicial decree comply with his 
request. Mr. Bakewell's final move was to enjoin the treas- 
urer of the state from paying any funds to the Normal Univer- 
sity on the ground that it is a private institution. By this step 
he evidently intended to coerce the Board into granting his 
petition, or else to put the Normal School "out of business." 
The Supreme Court sustained the Normal University, holding : 
"Normal schools are public institutions which the state 
has a right to establish and maintain. The purpose of their 
establishment is to advance the public school system and create 
a body of teachers better qualified for the purpose of carrying 
out the policy of the state with reference to free schools." 



Under President Hewett the income of the institution 
reached $36,200 as follows : Rent $350, tuition $8,350, State 
appropriation $27,500. Four hundred dollars was received 
from the State for a boiler house; $5,500 for extraordinary 
repairs. The faculty increased from fifteen to eighteen. 

The growth in attendance is shown in the following table : 



Ending- Men Women Total Gradu- 

June ates 

1876 181 223 404 260 20 

1877 ipl 235 436 22Q 27 

1878 166 281 447 235 25 

1879 150 237 397 252 22 

1880 133 299 438 300 19 

1881 179 302 481 295 23 

1882 172 312 484 288 23 

1883 166 345 511 362 45 

1884 161 328 489 349 24 

1885 156 346 502 352 30 

1886 166 321 487 348 32 

1887 187 392 579 387 38 

l888 202 378 580 390 40 

1889 192 443 635 445 2 9 

1890 224 453 677 503 44 

In June, 1890, upon the resignation of President Hewett, 
John Williston Cook, of the class of 1865, was elected his suc- 
cessor. The new president had as student and teacher been 
identified with the school for twenty-four years. He had been 
an active institute worker and was probably the best known 
teacher in the state of Illinois. He was withal a man of extra- 
ordinary ability, versatile, scholarly, and accomplished, a fin- 
ished writer, an effective speaker, a man of affairs. He at 
once began with characteristic energy to bring to pass im- 
provements that had been talked about for a generation. 


First he secured the erection of a Training School, 80 ft. x 
85 ft., at a cost of $22,000. He next persuaded the Board to 
sell the Jackson county lands and with the proceeds surrounded 
the campus with a neat iron railing and made many improve- 


ments in the old building. In 1895 he was organizing the 
alumni to raise funds for a structure for society halls and 
gymnasium, when the legislature made an appropriation for a 
new building. This is a beautiful Gothic structure built of 
Bedford oolitic limestone and contains the gymnasium, library, 
museum, and science laboratories. It was completed in 1899 
at a cost of $61,000. 

A gymnasium had been recommended by President Ed- 
wards as early as 1866 and at various times there had been 
short-lived attempts to introduce regular instruction in phys- 
ical training. In 1891 Miss Lucia Raines began to give two 
lessons per week to the young ladies. The next year came 
Miss Lucas (1892-1905), from the Emerson School of Ex- 
pression. She divided her time between reading and gymnas- 
tics. When the gymnasium was ready Mr. B. C. Edwards 
(1896-1903) came from the same institution to assist Miss 
Lucas, and after 1900 to take complete charge of the physical 

To attract students from the high schools President Cook 
in 1894 instituted a two-year course open to high school grad- 
uates. In 1895 was provided a four-year course with Latin 
and German for such students as were looking forward to 
further work in college. 


As a result of this energetic policy the buildings were soon 
badly crowded. The growth of the High School, while an 
occasion for pardonable pride, was regarded with some appre- 
hension. In the various colleges and universities where its 
graduates had gone the High School had won a high reputa- 
tion, but it was of little direct service to the Normal School. 
Few Normal students taught or even observed in the High 
School classes. It is true that some Normal students were 
taught Latin, Greek and German in the High School classes 
and that the revenue from tuition of High School students ex- 
ceeded by $1,500 the salaries paid the three High School teach- 
ers, whose time was chiefly devoted to teaching these lan- 
guages. On the other hand 44% of the total instruction re- 
ceived by the High School students was at the hands of the 
regular Normal teachers in science, literature, history, and 
mathematics whose classes were already overcrowded, and 
often suffered materially from the addition of the juvenile ele- 


ment from the High School. In 1891 the Board raised the 
tuition to $39 per year and limited the attendance to 160. In 
1894, when the crowded condition of the institution was 
brought to the attention of Governor Altgeld, he advised the 
abolition of the High School, which was ordered in June, 1895. 


President Cook was heartily supported in his policy by the 
young and vigorous faculty which he organized about him. 
David Felmley, a graduate of the University of Michigan, 
who had taught with some success at Carrollton, Illinois, was 
called to the chair of mathematics vacated by Mr. Cook. Frank 
McMurry, recently returned from Germany, for two years 
exercised general supervision over the intermediate grades. 
In 1892 he was followed by his brother, Charles A. McMurry, 
who, upon the retirement of Mr. Metcalf in 1894, became prin- 
cipal of the Training School. With one year's leave of absence 
he continued in this position until 1899. The subsequent ca- 
reers of .these brothers is too well known to need mention here. 
Their work was ably seconded by Mrs. Lida Brown McMurry, 
primary critic (1891-1900), whose kindly and sympathetic 
helpfulness has cheered the souls of hundreds of young teach- 
ers. In 1891, O. L. Manchester, a graduate of Dartmouth, be- 
came principal of the High School. In 1895 he was transferred 
to the Normal Department as teacher of the ancient languages. 
In 1900, Economics was added to his department. Miss J. Rose 
Colby, a graduate of the University of Michigan and of Rad- 
cliffe, assumed her duties as preceptress and Professor of 
Literature in 1892. Charles C. Van Liew came to us from the 
Mankato Normal School in 1894. In 1897 he accepted a flat- 
tering call to Los Angeles and is now president of the State 
Normal School at Chico, Cal. Manfred J. Holmes, a Cornell 
graduate, succeeded to the chair of psychology and special 
method in 1897. Twenty- four other teachers were appointed 
during these nine years. 

By the close of President Cook's administration the fac- 
ulty had increased from eighteen to twenty-one members. The 
annual income of the school had grown to $41,740, as follows : 

Rents $390, tuition $6,350, State appropriation $35,000. 
Eighteen thousand dollars was granted for Training School 
building, $56,000 for gymnasium, $7,000 for repairs. 


l8oi . 










. 199 



1894 . 




189^ . 

. 227 




. 2"U 



l897 . 





. 292 



1800 . 

. 247 




The attendance for the nine years is exhibited below : 




484 40 

540 56 

491 52 

449 54 

487 55 

257 59 

212 39 

205 52 

211 85 


In 1899 the Eastern and Northern State Normal Schools 
that had been four years in building opened their doors. Presi- 
dent Cook was called to the presidency of the school at DeKalb. 
He took with him C. A. McMurry and Mary R. Potter. The 
Board of Education called to the presidency Dr. Arnold Tomp- 
kins, Professor of Education in the University of Illinois. He 
had taught at DePauw and Terre Haute, and had distinguished 
himself as a brilliant writer and speaker upon educational 
themes. He brought into the school an element of consecra- 
tion to duty, a singleness of purpose, a faith in human nature, 
a breadth of philosophy, and withal a fund of humor breezy, 
fresh, invigorating, whose tonic effects were felt in every class 
room. Not that these elements were not already in the life 
of the institution but they received a fresh emphasis, the 
stimulation of a mighty impulse from a new and original 

Dr. Tompkins at once moved to modify the course of 
study. No year in the history of the institution witnessed 
more radical changes. The recitation periods were lengthened, 
and the number of permitted recitations reduced to twenty per 
week. More freedom appeared in the school life. Attendance 
was demanded only at recitations and at general exercises. 
Spelling ceased to vex the soul of the student whose sense of 
uniformity and whose abiding faith in the reign of law are 
constantly violated by the absurdities of the English tongue. 


The course was made flexible to adapt it to students of differ- 
ing degrees of preparation- Natural science at last was given 
a place in the first year of the course. A six weeks' summer 
school was attended by 444 students. 


At the end of the year Dr. Tompkins was called to the prin- 
cipalship of the Chicago Normal School, a position made il- 
lustrious by Colonel F. W. Parker. The opportunities offered 
him were so attractive that he reluctantly gave up his work at 
Normal. David Felmley was chosen president in his stead. 

During the seven years of the present administration there 
has been a steady purpose to develop the school along the lines 
planned by Dr. Tompkins. The increasing liberality of the 
legislature has made possible the establishment of new depart- 
ments and the devlopment of the old. 

In 1901 regular courses in music, including glee club and 
chorus practice, were organized. Prof. Frank W. Westhoff. of 
Decatur, was placed in charge. In the same year Miss Ches- 
tine Gowdy. of Minneapolis, and George H. Howe, ex-presi- 
dent of the State Normal School at Warrensburg, Mo., took' 
charge of the grammar and mathematics. The geography was 
placed in charge of Miss Mary Judson Averett (1901-04), and 
later of D. C. Ridgley, of Chicago. The kindergarten, nomi- 
nally established in 1898, became a reality in 1902, when Miss 
Caroleen Robinson, of Saginaw, began work with a flock of 
forty. About eight young women per term have served as as- 
sistants. In 1903, Mr. William T. Bawden, of Columbia Uni- 
versity, began his work in manual training and mechanical 
drawing. The department has proved very successful and 
popular. In the same year with the retirement of Mr. B. C. 
Edwards, Miss Mabel Cummings introduced the Swedish Sys- 
tem of Gymnastics. Now four exercises per week are required 
of all first year students. 


Two terms of elementary science for all first-year students 
in the four-year course began in 1900. Beginning in 1902 a 
school garden of two and one-third acres has been planted an- 


nually by the students and pupils of the Model School. In 
1904 the institution secured Bruno Nehrling from the Missouri 
Botanical Gardens. A greenhouse completed in December, 
1905, is a valuable part of the equipment- A distinctly agri- 
cultural and horticultural coloring is now given to the work 
in elementary science. 


After the original planting of the campus by Jesse Fell in 
1867-68, little was done for many years except to plant class- 
trees, mow the grass, and remove dead or broken trees. In 
1894 there was begun a systematic trimming of the trees. Use- 
less specimens were removed. Considerable damage was done 
thru the ignorance of workmen who removed some rare speci- 
mens and trimmed the evergreens too freely. In 1901 810 
trees remained. On the night of June 10, 1902, a violent 
storm of wind and rain wrought great damage- Nearly 
100 trees were totally destroyed, and one-half of the 
remainder were seriously injured. The next year several hun- 
dred trees were planted. In 1905 the buildings were flanked 
by shrubbery. In the same year the old pond, originally ex- 
cavated by Jesse Fell, was deepened, lined with cement, and 
converted into an aquatic garden. 

During the past eight years the number of teachers has in- 
creased from 21 to 30, not counting nineteen extra teachers 
employed in the summer school. 

The annual income in 1906-07 reached $66,575, as fl~ 
lows : Rents, $675 ; tuition, $4,650 ; State appropriation, $61,- 
300. The State has appropriated for a greenhouse $5,500, for 
apparatus and improvement of grounds, $11,850; for repairs, 

The attendance is shown in the following table : 













A A A 



. 144 





IQO2 , 

. ICK 











IOO4 . 




e 7 6 


loos . 

, I O2 

3 f)6 



IQ06 . 


1A \ 




1007 . 

. I TO 






In all, 104 men have served upon the Board of Education 
of the State of Illinois. Many of them have rarely missed a 
meeting. Successive governors have re-appointed the more 
devoted members. Judge W. H. Green was a member of the 
Board for forty-one years, E- A. Gastman has served 36 years, 
P. R. Walker, 24 years, Mrs. Ella F. Young, 18 years, and 
others for terms of nearly equal length. S. W. Moulton, one 
of the original fifteen, was president of the Board until 1876. 
Other presidents were B. G. Roots, the veteran educator of 
Southern Illinois, 1879-83, George Rowland, superintendent 
of the Chicago schools, 1883-87; W. H. Green, 1877-79 anc ^ 
1889-1902; E. A. Gastman, 1887-89 and 1902-1907. The 
Register at the end of this volume sets forth the entire list. 




In the development of the course of study of the American 
Normal schools can be read the history of educational progress 
in the United States. Their curricula have grown in obedience 
to a conscious purpose to meet the demands upon teachers. 
They have been the chief agencies in developing and dissemin- 
ating a rational art of teaching. Our periodicals and books 
dealing with questions of pedagogy have either originated in 
normal schools or have found their largest market among 
teachers touched by their influence. 

The early normal schools were headed by great teachers, 
such men as Cyrus Pierce, Nicholas Tillinghast, and David P. 
Page. Their atmosphere was full of consecration and enthusi- 
asm. Their method was the method of the text-book. Their 
spirit was the spirit of hard work. Their classes in "didactics" 
were chiefly busied with questions in school management, in- 
centives to study, moral training, and the responsibilities of 
the teacher. Their mental philosophy was a barren a priori 
metaphysics, having little in common with modern educational 
psychology. Their pedagogical philosophy was to split the 
knot by repeated hard blows rather than by studying the grain 
of the wood. 

The Illinois State Normal University was a scion of the 
same stock as the early schools of Massachusetts and New 
York; altho planted in the free, vigorous, aspiring life of the 
west, it grew along the same lines. Whatever peculiar excel- 
lence it developed was due rather to the personal power of its 
teachers and the energy and devotion of its students than to 
any superiority in its course of study or its methods of in- 


The course of study pursued by the 127 students who en- 
rolled during the first year was, to quote the words of Presi- 
dent Hovey, "in theory a review of the branches usually taught 
in the public schools, but in practice it amounted to almost an 
original investigation. At first came a drill on the elementary 
sounds of the English language followed by reading and a 
careful examination of the thought and expression of the 
author. Parallel with this ran the course in mental and written 
arithmetic; the construction of maps; descriptive, physical, 
and political geography; English grammar; physiology; vo- 
cal music ; and the theory and art of teaching. The text-books 
furnished were entirely inadequate. Gazettes and dictionaries 
supplied the defects." 

This course was the ideal public school course of the day. 
History had as yet found a place in few public schools. The 
prominence given to physiology reflects the influence of George 
Combe, Horace Mann, and other phrenologists. Vocal music 
owed its high place to Lowell Mason, then at the zenith of his 

Some students and many friends outside were chafing be- 
cause the "higher branches" did not find an immediate place. 
The faculty moved slowly and not until the first class was 
ready for graduation in 1860 was the course of study adopted 
and published. This course, which continued in its main fea- 
tures unchanged for forty years, is outlined on page 56. The 
course in metaphysics was made the basis of instruction in the 
theory and art of teaching. Little time was afforded for prac- 
tice teaching. Juniors and seniors spent some time in obser- 
vation and occasionally taught model lessons in the assembly 
room in the presence of the entire faculty and student body. 

The course in English included two terms of reading, 
grammar and rhetoric, and one in the history of English liter- 
ature. Orthography assumed a leading position and especial 
attention was bestowed upon it. Mathematics was popularly 
regarded as superior to all other studies for its "disciplinary" 
value ; and as "mental discipline" was held to be the chief end 
of education, it received large attention. Bookkeeping was the 
"finishing" study in this department. In geography great at- 
tention was paid to map-drawing from memory, and to the 
philosophy of continental relief promulgated by Guyot. Guyot's 
Earth and Man was used as a text-book "not because it con- 
tains more facts than any other book on the subject nor because 
those facts are better arranged ; but because no other author, 






Hist, and Methods Education 
Const, of U. S. and Illinois. . 
School Laws of Illinois . . . 

English Language 




Natural Philosophy 









Vocal Music 

Writing and Drawing 

Latin Language 


Higher Mathematics 


2n YEAR 












so far as we know, has so happily pointed out the grand de- 
signs which the earth exhibits in relation to man as the prime 
object of creation." 

The course in vocal music was very ambitious, running 
thru nine terms and including oratorio and solo singing, har- 
mony and musical composition, but there is no evidence that 
the entire course was ever taught. 

The attention given to the natural sciences was largely be- 
cause of the clause in the charter requiring instruction in "the 
elements of the natural sciences, including agricultural chem- 
istry, animal and vegetable physiology." It is a question 
whether faculty or board were fully persuaded of the real value 
of these studies. They were postponed to the latter part of the 
course. Chemistry preceded the others from a belief that it 
would solve the problems of animal and vegetable physiology. 
Zoology was put at the end of the senior year; later it was 
made an elective ; some years it was not taught at all. 

Changes in this course were gradual. In 1862, when it 
was realized that three-fourths of the students stop to teach 
at the end of the first year, a term of practical pedagogy was 
introduced in the first year's work. Guyot's Earth and Man, 
hitherto found too philosophical for immature students, was 
transferred to the last term of the second year. The two terms 
of geometry were made consecutive. 

With the growth of the Model School after 1860, a high 
school department was gradually developed in which thoro in- 
struction was afforded in Latin and Greek for young people 
desiring to prepare for college. Normal students were admit- 
ted to these classes in the ancient languages. 

Until 1868 the Model School received all children resident 
in the growing village of Normal. The paid teachers in the 
Model School not being able to instruct all the classes, there 
was a steady increase in the amount of practice teaching re- 
quired of seniors. In 1867 f our terms of practice teaching 
were formally introduced into the course of study, altho the 
students could receive very little supervision. The course in 
history and methods of education was reduced to two terms. 
The two terms of reading were placed in the first year. Spell- 
ing took its place as a regular study during the whole of the 
first year. The second term of rhetoric gave way to a critical 
study of English poetry. One term each of algebra 5 geometry, 
and trigonometry was taught in the junior year. The draw- 
ing was reduced to two terms. The term of United States 


History found a place in the first year. Vocal music was no 
longer taught. 

In 1867 the legislature began to appropriate funds for the 
State Museum of Natural History. The learned botanist, Dr. 
Vasey, was placed in charge. Three thousand dollars were 
spent in planting trees upon the campus. To turn the attention 
of students towards this field, every senior was required to 
prepare a paper based upon original investigation of some 
feature of the natural history of the region where the student 

Yet during all these early years the institution was devot- 
ing its best energies to the common branches, the majority of 
the students studied nothing else. Emphasis was laid upon 
thoroness. The method and the discipline were the chief 

During the next thirty years the course remained compara- 
tively stable, the modifications introduced were to accom- 
plish five ends : 

1. To give recognition to natural science as an essential 
part of the public school course. 

2. To give purpose and definiteness to the work of the 
training department. 

3. To develop a consistent educational philosophy that 
might serve as a rational basis for method. 

4. To give drawing, music, and physical training their 
proper place in the course. 

5. To develop a shorter course for advanced students and 
thus increase the number of graduates. 

Changes came slowly, and frequently in obedience to pres- 
sure from the board, or as a result of agitation by a minority 
of that body. 

In 1872, by act of the legislature, a knowledge of the ele^ 
ments of the natural sciences was made a requirement for 
teachers' certificates, but this act did not immediately affect the 
normal course. Physics, physiology, and zoology were still re- 
served for the senior class comprising scarcely one-twentieth 
of the students. Optional short courses without credit were 
provided for such as must qualify for teachers' examinations. 

In 1874, because of the vigorous agitation by Stephen A. 
Forbes, who had succeeded J. W. Powell in the curatorship 
of the State Museum, provision was made for special students 
in zoology and botany. Summer schools were organized for 






These four men rendered ninety-nine years of devoted service to the 
Illinois State Normal University 


such students, and the gradual accumulation of museum ma- 
terial made this school one of the best in the country for ad- 
vanced work in natural science. But Mr. Forbes got scant 
audience for his plea that zoology be put early in the course 
that students might teach it in the Model School. In 1884 
Professor Seymour himself taught the elements of zoology in 
the Model School. In 1887 astronomy was made an elective 
study; a second term was added to physics. In 1889 chem- 
istry was put in the eighth term and zoology in the fourth. 
With the advent of Professor Colton the course was largely 
changed. The details of classification and text-book nomen- 
clature was largely abandoned. Emphasis was placed upon the 
first hand study of structure and adaptation. 

In 1874 came renewed interest in the strictly professional 
work of the Normal School. Professor Metcalf was made 
head of the training department, and for the first time the 
pupil teachers were brought under regular supervision. The 
students due in teaching were arranged in pairs. The pair as- 
signed to a class taught six weeks each, the other observing 
daily and recording her criticism in a diary for the perusal of 
the teacher. 

In 1877, m response to the growing interest in primary 
methods, a term of primary observation was required of all 
entering students. Miss Amanda G. Paddock, a primary 
teacher of high reputation and of extensive experience in the 
normal schools at Englewood and Terre Haute, was put in 
charge of the primary department. 

During the eighties Charles DeGarmo and Rudolph Reeder, 
while serving as principals of the grammar school, gradually 
assumed the functions of critic teachers. In 1888, Miss Ruth 
Morris, 'then the primary training teacher, was accorded an 
assistant. In 1892 Frank McMurry was set over the lower 
grades and with the retirement of Professor Metcalf in 1894, 
the training department was reorganized under Charles A. 
McMurry and three assistant critic teachers. 

In 1874 Rosenkranz's Pedagogics was adopted as a text- 
book, to remain for twenty-eight years, in spite of the attacks 
of members of the board and the ridicule of students. In com- 
parison with it our American treatises were condemned by 
President Edwards as generally shallow. So far as shallow- 
ness contributes to "seeing bottom" in the pool we shall agree. 

In the early eighties the air was full of talk of the "new 
education." In January, 1881, had appeared in the North 
American Revlezv the article by John Quincy Adams, Jr., de- 


scribing the revolution in the Quincy schools under the admin- 
istration of Colonel Parker. Quincy became the Mecca of 
every restless teacher, "Quincy methods" a phrase to conjure 
with. The permanent result was a quickened interest in teach- 
ing as a rational art. In the normal schools it meant a larger 
attention to the so-called "strictly professional" work. A feel- 
ing of unrest appeared in the faculty at Normal. Charles De- 
Garmo and Julia Kennedy resigned their positions to study in 

In 1884 Dr. Hewett published his lectures on Theory and 
Practice. The seniors were required to spend an extra two 
hours per week in illustrative teaching and the study of peda- 
gogical literature. Professors Cook, Seymour, and McCor- 
mick personally conducted primary classes in the Model 
School. Other professors accompanied the county superintend- 
ent on his round of visitation in the country schools. 

In 1886 the Board of Education adopted a report demand- 
ing that more of the faculty superintend the work of the train- 
ing school and that the academic work be subordinated to the 
training school. 

In the fall of 1886 the return of Charles DeGarmo from 
Germany brought an accession of professional enthusiasm. A 
faculty club was organized meeting once in two weeks. Sev- 
eral meetings were given to proposed changes in the course 
of study. At every meeting of the board resolutions were 
introduced looking to radical changes. These resolutions pro- 
posed to drop Rosenkranz' Pedagogics, to double the amount 
of practice teaching, to double the time devoted to reading, 
grammar, and arithmetic, to cut in two the time devoted to 
geography and spelling, to make astronomy, chemistry, zool- 
ogy, spherical trigonometry, and English literature elective 
studies. Little came of the agitation at that time. An elemen- 
tary course in methods of teaching, two hours per week, was 
put into the first term and the primary observation was deferred 
to the second term. The time devoted to spelling was lim- 
ited to ten minutes each day. 

With the election of President Cook came further develop- 
ments. The two-hour course in elements became a brief ex- 
amination of the principles of the great educational reformers. 
The "Observation" of the second term and the Theory and 
Practice of the third term came to be studies of the special 
method of reading, geography, history, and science. An ad- 
ditional course of psychology was put into the fourth term. In 
the senior year the old illustrative work was increased to three 


hours per week, while a five-hour course of Dewey and Rosen- 
kranz was continued thruout the year. 

Altho drawing found an early place in the course the work 
was dominated by the formalism of the day. On several oc- 
casions the committee on course of study reported the drawing 
"in an unsatisfactory condition." It was shifted about from 
term to term in its struggles to obtain a place early in the 
course, until finally President Cook solved the problem by pro- 
viding six successive two-hour courses in construction draw- 
ing, free-hand perspective, color, history of art, light and 
shade, and sketching running thru the first two years. To 
make room for these ten per cent was deducted from the time 
of all other studies. 

Singing, which had quite vanished from the course in the 
early sixties, received scant recognition before 1899. Mere at- 
tendance at twenty lessons usually undertaken as a "side line" 
by some member of the regular faculty measured the require- 
ment in the best days of the school. 

Altho marching exercises and "rhythmic movements" had 
occasionally found brief place in the program, not until 1891 
was provision made for regular instruction in physical train- 
ing. With the completion of the gymnasium in 1896 two in- 
structors were provided for reading and gymnastics, the latter 
including two exercises per week for four terms. 

During the administrations of Presidents Edwards and 
Hewett the question of a shorter course was frequently dis- 
cussed. The small number of graduates, never reaching eight 
per cent of the enrollment, was a cause of frequent criticism. 
Accordingly in 1878 a one-year advanced course was offered 
to holders of first-grade certificates; but nobody came. Ten 
years later President Hewett reported a plan for a one-year 
professional course consisting largely of lectures. The lectures 
were given to audiences of the faculty and a few seniors but 
no special students enrolled for the advanced course. In 1894 
there was established for graduates of accredited high schools 
a two-year course containing all the professional work of the 
three-year course. About half the so-called academic work 
was omitted. No separate classes were provided. The next 
year owing to the abolition of the high school, a four-year 
course was offered in which eighteen credits of Latin, Greek, 
or German, were substituted for six credits chiefly in the com- 
mon branches. Both of these courses proved popular. 

In 1899 the retirement of President Cook marked the close 
of what may be called the Bridgewater regime. It had been 


Impute i nf T^ffi^'fa tJJUi'lIMm JB the COmEDOE! 

and in later years bj a great development of interest 

pbdosofhy as related to education, But many erf 
the younger members of Ac tonBj bad not themselves been 
HBBB^BJ in the institution and 'were eager for certain changes. 
Daring the jar of Dfc. Taaipkns' presidency tbe faculty meet- 
ings were almost wholly demoted to <iJsc'UVJOg the oourac of 
study, and at the end of bis term came a complete reorganiza- 
res were: 

3954 hovs to ?j boon. Tke fere 

rito Ac fast years 
of stndy, the 

* . "_~_ 7 -i 7~! Z_ 

The last se^cn jrars hare been devoted to developmg and 
penectmg this coarse. A kmdergarten is in operation. A 
coarse of music comprising one required term of sixty lessons 
and additional courses in qnartet and chorus singmg is in op~ 
. ." t iri ",." i.jr-r : i""Li:r.5 i_~.T~ TriTJ-ir "rrms WlH 
eleclivesL la&lmitiQa aaoai traJMBg' has been m- 
Latin and German are ekctrres. In all fortf-nine 
different cluliw ooorses are offered to those who desiie. to 
prepare themselves tor wonc m narticniar grades OF HI par~ 
sabjectaL Regular instruction is offered in pubbc speak- 
all ^A"*". bemg mjpinil to carry a fine of 

ID this derelopment we trace the enlarging' conception 
of tbe oanHMHi school as a means of social uplift. It is no 
to provide a three-year course in variety and 

equal to the demands of the public school 
Hence die majority of the students by means of cledLiics are 
tor wotk m particiilar grades, or for teaching special 




JOHX W. POWELL, 1867-1872. 
GEORGE VASEY, 1868-1872. 
STEPHEN A. FOWES, 1872-1884. 

JOSEPH A. SEWBUL, 1861- 1 877. 
MIXOR L. SEYMOUR, 1878-18881 

BUEL P. COLTOH, 1888-1906. 

These are the men to whose records chiefly we most look 
for a JMJMJ of the science department. These are the men 
who, in the periods indicated, coofribatod nataHf to that laige 
part "& H*~ fc*J* j ** *fcS jt^*^ n which this chapter can do 
Btfle mote than suggest in ootHnr The record of their activi- 
ties tarnishes an admirable cfMiome of the progress of wurr 
in rdiKJtion, not only in Ac institution vlKb pBHnrify they 
served, hot thrnont tie Middle West in the last half-oeotmy. 
Par in this larger field we find that they, with si Jjtrml cni- 
kagnes here and there preaching the same gospel, were path- 
breakers, and that the ^\Jld ^tornial- m ^ *c**cy mfr less than 
in any other t rf*r* m n1t 

It is a record smgnlariy full of Mi'ir >f to Ac soentjst as 
wefl as to the * lM "f ia "r i "' j and we may ted a thrill of pride 
that a/ma mater has contributed so autaiiy to the advance of 
Ihr IrMhrng, iif In no department b there record of 
greater alertness to pquci%e the save palii of educational pro- 
gress, nor of gicalei aciike. in the M^"g of die way. The 
writer records regret that time and space do not permit of an 


account of this subject in any way adequate to the value of the 
services which it comprises or to its proper importance in the 
history of education in Illinois. It is a subject eminently fit 
for some careful memoir. 

Although Powell, Vasey, and Forbes were not related to 
the work of the University in a way at all identical with the 
relationship of Sewell, Seymour, and Colton, yet there is 
abundant reason for considering them in this connection. This 
is especially true of Stephen A. Forbes who, during the twelve 
years of his residence at Normal as director of the State Lab- 
oratory of Natural History, exerted an influence upon the 
teaching of Natural Science in the state as well as in the 
Normal University which can hardly be overestimated. In his 
report to the State Board of Education in January, 1883, Pro- 
fessor Forbes characterized the relation of the State Laboratory 
to the Normal University as follows, "It furnishes all the pur- 
poses of a museum and a natural history laboratory as com- 
pletely at the service of the pupils and teachers of the Normal 
University as if this were its only function." And there is no 
question but that this intimate relationship between the two 
institutions continued up till the time of Professor Forbes' 
resignation and the transfer of the bulk of the museum to the 
State University. 

Four dates, 1858, 1872, 1875, and 1888, stand out with 
special significance as we look back over the records of labora- 
tory, lecture room, and museum, and the limitations of this 
chapter have suggested the use of these dates as headings for 
the material presented herewith. If one has a fair idea of the 
significance of these four dates in this history, one has a fair 
idea of the whole matter. 


To this old Natural History Society we are indebted for the 
maintenance at Normal for twenty-seven years of a Natural 
History Museum, endowed by the state and unexcelled by any- 
thing of its kind in the West. In the latter part of its career 
at Normal this institution became the State Laboratory of 
Natural History and was even more effective in this capacity 
in its relation to the development of the science teaching in 
the school. Thruout this period, in fact, the State Museum 
and then the State Laboratory were fundamentally part and 
parcel of the science department whose history we are tracing. 


But more than with the concrete evidences of the activity 
of this society, whose early collections were truly remarkable, 
we are concerned with the sudden and lively interest in natural 
history widespread among prominent men thruout the state 
which the very existence of such a society indicates. Its birth 
was almost coincident with that of the Normal University. Its 
early roster reads like a roll of those who .were primarily in- 
terested in the organization of Normal education in Illinois. 
Herein at once we find sufficient evidence that the history of 
science and science teaching in this institution was to bear no 
resemblance to the slow and tedious and often bitterly opposed 
progress which it made in similar, but sectarian, institutions 
at the same time. Science teaching in the I.S.N.U. stood full- 
fledged at the very start, so far as concerned the granting place 
to it among its sister subjects in the curriculum. From this 
admirable beginning perhaps it is small wonder that the work 
developed by leaps and bounds. While science teachers in 
neighboring colleges were still either non-existent or hampered 
(to the point of ineffectiveness) by delicate and serious ques- 
tions of the orthodoxy of their subject, the science work here 
at Normal was fast making a reputation for the institution as 
one of the very few places in the whole Mississippi valley 
where scientific training in science subjects was to be had at 
any price. 

So there is a double debt of gratitude to the old Natural 
History Society, not only for the splendid material equipment 
for the work which its existence brought about and brought to 
Normal, but quite as much for the equally splendid spirit of 
tolerance, mental fearlessness, and intellectual honesty which 
its existence and activity fifty years ago indicated in a way 
which can hardly be appreciated today. The Natural History 
Society determined in advance what place should be given to 
science in the training teachers at the Normal. The science 
department of I.S.N.U. never had to make a plea for proper 
recognition. From the very first the fullest recognition which 
could be asked was freely granted. The old Natural History 
Society stood, in a sense, its sponsor, bidding it godspeed upon 
the task which loomed large before it; the fulfillment of a 
great educational opportunity. 

Hence, properly to consider the development of our Science 
Department we must consider first the development of the State 
Laboratory of Natural History from its beginnings as the 
Museum of the State Natural History Society in 1858 up till 
its removal from Normal in 1885. Professor Forbes has called 


the history of this institution "a metamorphosis as well as a 
growth." It began with the formation of the old "State Nat- 
ural History Society of Illinois," which "had its origin in the 
same general progressive impulse which gave rise to the Nor- 
mal University." Also, it is significant that the formation of 
this society was an outgrowth of discussions at the convention 
of 1857 of the State Teachers' Association. It was in no sense 
an organization of professional scientists, and, tho it numbered 
among its members many outside the teachers' profession, yet 
it was primarily an organization of teachers. The society was 
organized at a convention held in Bloomington, June 30, 1858. 
The first officers were Prof. J. B. Turner, of Jacksonville, 
president; Dr. E. R. Roe, of Bloomington, who was in that 
year professor of anatomy and physiology in the Normal Uni- 
versity, treasurer; Gen. Charles E. Hovey, then principal of 
the Normal University, secretary; and C. D. Wilbur, Esq., 
general agent. 

In the year of its formal organization a statement of the 
work undertaken by the society was prepared by its general 
agent, Mr. Wilbur, and given extensive circulation. Herein 
it is stated that the ambition of the society was nothing less 
than the completion of a natural history survey of the state, 
as well as affording a means for the proper presentation of oc- 
casional contributions of its members, and conducting a vig- 
orous campaign of education as to the real value of such 
knowledge and its proper place in the educational scheme. Mr. 
Wilbur's circular ends with the following paragraph, which 
gives some little insight into the quality of enthusiasm which 
animated those men who for many years, in lives filled with 
professional duties of dissimilar character, found time to carry 
forward with unabated zeal such work upon the flora and 
fauna of the State as now finds attention, with rare exceptions, 
only among those with direct professional interest in such 

"In this noble enterprise we ask the earnest co-operation of 
every friend of science and humanity to aid us in making col- 
lections and recording such facts as relate to any of the de- 
partments of Natural History. The State of Illinois is rich 
beyond description in the treasures of animate and inanimate 
nature. The great distance between our northern and south- 
ern limits affords a large number of species of plants, trees, 
and animals. Bounded and intersected by large rivers, our 
geology and zoology are easily determined. The marble un- 
derfloor of the prairie state is as thickly inlaid with the mar- 


velous medals of creation as is the floor of heaven with 'patins 
of bright gold.' ' 

"The early promise of the Society was abundantly fulfilled 
for several years. The annual meetings steadily increased in 
numbers and interest, and the work became of continually 
higher character as shown by the papers contributed and by 
the large collection of specimens accumulated. The collections 
were placed in rooms of the State Normal University, especi- 
ally set aside for the use of the society by the Board of Educa- 
tion." These rooms were in the east end of the third floor, 
now occupied by the Philadelphian Society, and it was here 
that the work in science mainly continued until its removal to 
the new building in 1892. 

The principal donations of specimens made by members 
were those of Illinois birds by R. H. Holder, of Illinois fossils 
by C. D. Wilbur, of shells and fossils by J. W. Powell, and a 
fine series of Illinois plants by Dr. George Vasey. Many of 
these yet remain in our museum. 

In 1862 the society was formally chartered by the legisla- 
ture. The museum was at first entirely supported by the con- 
tributions of members, but in 1867, by section four of "An Act 
concerning the Board of Education and the Illinois Natural 
History Society" an annual appropriation of $2500 was made 
for the salary of a curator and the improvement of the v mu- 
seum. It was provided that this money should be expended 
under the direction of the Board of Education, by whom, with 
the advice and consent of the directors of the Natural History 
Society, said curator should be appointed. 

Prof. John W. Powell was appointed curator in the same 
year and promptly set out upon his famous expedition to the 
valley of the Colorado River. The Chicago Academy shared in 
the financing of this expedition and shared in the Powell col- 

An acting curator was appointed in Professor Powell's ab- 
sence, and it was as "acting curator" that Dr. Vasey developed 
very greatly the botanical value of the museum. This was the 
condition of the museum immediately prior to 1872, which 
marked the resignation of Professor Powell and the appoint- 
ment of Professor Forbes. 


The second of these salient dates, 1872, marks the enact- 
ment of a law requiring the teaching of four branches of nat- 
ural science in the public schools of the state and the examina- 


tion in these subjects of all holders of teachers' certificates. 
Xever has there been a bit of educational legislation more com- 
pletely subversive than this was of the status of the whole 
mental outfit which had heretofore been regarded perfectly 
satisfactory for the holding of teachers' certificates. The con- 
sternation of teachers at large may be more easily imagined 
than described. Natural History for teaching purposes was 
about as definitely comprehended among the teachers of the 
state at that time as marine navigation is today. 

Nor could law have been more cunningly devised to test 
to the utmost the capabilities of the science department of the 
one State Normal. If there ever was a strain put upon that 
department it was to come now. And with the strain was to 
come a man singularly endowed to bear it. He put his shoul- 
der to the wheel with others and did much in the next few 
years to enhance the reputation of the Normal as a place of 
rare opportunity for science study ; especially for the study of 
the flora and fauna of Illinois. 

That man was Stephen A. Forbes, and it is his coming to 
Normal as "Professor of Geology and Curator of the Mu- 
seum" which, equally with the passage of the Natural History 
Act, makes 1872 a notable year. 

Thruout the twelve years of his residence at Normal, Pro- 
fessor Forbes contributed far more than any other research 
worker in science in the state directly to the cause of the 
popularization of his subject. True enough it was a part of 
the duty of his position to furnish to high schools of the state 
specimens to be used in connection with their work in natural 
history, but, this apart, his was not a teaching position. It 
does not appear that he ever w r as called upon to give the 
courses in geology which his title suggests. For a man whose 
chief attention was given, then, to contributions to the organi- 
zation of his subject rather than to teaching about it in the 
class room we find Professor Forbes singularly eager to give 
very largely of his time to all means which would legitimately 
advance general knowledge of biology. 

Professor Forbes was one of the pioneer advocates of nature 
study in the grades. He did not use that expression, but he did 
thoroly believe in giving a large place in elementary education 
to adequate instruction about familiar plants and animals. In 
1867 zoology had been made an optional study in the Normal 
course which practically eliminated it from the regular student 
work. Far from being content with such an arrangement, which 


would give him more time for his own research, we find Profes- 
sor Forbes arguing strenuously and unceasingly for the resto- 
ration of zoology to a regular place in the program. This tem- 
porary elimination of zoology from the regular program is, by 
the way, the only thing in the program which may be consid- 
ered in any sense a step backward with reference to the devel- 
opment of the science department. And, we find zoology re- 
stored to its original place in 1876. The record of Professor 
Forbes' arguments in this connection in his reports to the 
Board of Education must be reckoned with in making up any 
account of the development of nature study in the schools. 
This appears to be the very beginning of that movement, and 
many paragraphs in the Forbes' reports read like the latest 
advocacy of nature study as a thing perceived only now as to 
its importance in the school program. 

Space does not permit any full statement of the contribu- 
tion of Mr. Forbes to the progress of high school science in 
the state, but the extent of that contribution may be easily 
imagined when it is stated that the following announcement 
made in the catalog of 1872 was amply fulfilled : 

"The large and splendid Museum of Natural History is now 
well provided for. The contents are nearly all catalogued in a 
manner most convenient for reference. Prof. S. A. Forbes, 
the curator, is also making constant addition to the specimens. 

"Attention is respectfully solicited to the following cir- 
cular recently issued by Professor Forbes : "The recent intro- 
duction of the natural sciences into our common school course 
of study has developed a general demand for specimens in 
natural history which I am trying to supply. It is designed 
to furnish, in time, to every school in the state which will use 
and properly care for it, a small collection so selected as to 
illustrate in the best possible manner, the branches required to 
be taught. The time and resources at my command are quite 
insufficient for this ; and, as it is a work undertaken solely for 
the benefit of the public schools, I make this call upon their 
officers and members for aid. The schools will encounter great 
difficulties in the attempt to form good cabinets unaided, each 
for itself. Among others will be that of getting specimens cor- 
rectly named, and that of securing in a single circumscribed 
locality, a sufficient variety to cover the whole field of study. 
It will be an easy matter, however, for the teachers and pupils 
of the state to collect and send to this museum, in one or two 
seasons, a sufficient number and variety of specimens liberally 


to supply all our schools ; and these I will undertake to name, 
select, arrange, and redistribute in such a manner as to give 
to each school participating in the work the benefit of a judi- 
cious selection from the whole number sent by all. Good speci- 
mens in all branches of natural history will be acceptable, and 
directions for preparing and shipping them will be sent on ap- 


The third epoch-making date in the development of the 
science department is equally epoch-making in the develop- 
ment of science teaching thruout the state. In 1873 a second 
natural history society had been formed in connection with 
the State Teachers' Association whose primary purpose was 
to obtain for the schools with which its members were con- 
nected "suitable cabinets of natural history specimens for study 
and reference, and to encourage and assist the rational study 
of nature by the pupils of our schools." Of course the activity 
of such a society and the large participation in its work was 
directly due to the Natural History act of the year before. 

Under the auspices of this association a vacation school of 
natural history was held at Normal in July and August, 1875. 
A most interesting account of the work of this summer school 
is found in Professor Forbes' contribution to the earlier his- 
tory of this institution. He states, in part, "Instruction of a 
high grade and good facilities for work and study both ele- 
mentary and advanced were provided in the following 
branches: Cryptogamic botany with especial reference to 
mosses and fungi, systematic and structural zoology, illus- 
trated by mounted skeletons and by other preparations, and by 
series of dissections made by the students under the eye of com- 
petent instructors; and systematic and structural botany of 
the flowering plants." Wilder, Barnard, Burrill, Thomas Sew- 
ell, and Forbes are the names we find on the record of the in- 
structional force for that famous summer term. It was neces- 
sary to limit the attendance to fifty and much difficulty was 
experienced in selecting the best fifty from the many applica- 
tions which were sent in. 

It is perhaps a little difficult to realize now the conditions 
under which this summer school worked ; to realize what new 
ground they were then breaking, and with what zeal their 
earnest followers responded to this altogether new and fas- 
cinating form of school work. Professor Forbes, always very 


temperate in his statements, writes of the work of the school, 
"The amount of work done was tremendous; and yet it was 
so new, so varied, and intrinsically so interesting that the stu- 
dents found themselves refreshed and rested rather than worn 
out at the end of the term. The class separated delighted with 
the result of their studies, and expressing a lively desire to 
continue the summer school in the future." Its continuance, 
however, at least upon this generous scale, was not practicable. 


The last of the four dates which must be specially consid- 
ered for the saliency of events connected with it was that 
which marked the election to the chair of biology of Buel 
Preston Colton. It was in 1888 that Professor Colton was 
called from the Ottawa Township High Schol to the position 
which he filled so notably until his untimely death in the fall 
of 1906. Professor Colton's work at Ottawa had marked him 
as one of the best teachers of science in the Middle West. In 
the words of one most competent to judge, "The place at Nor- 
mal was his as much by manifest fitness as by the vote of the 
Board of Education. For eighteen years a steady stream of 
students passed thru his class room to the teacher's desk. They 
have been illumined by his thought and touched by his spirit." 

Professor Colton's impress, not only upon the science de- 
partment, but upon the teaching of science wherever the in- 
fluence of the Normal extends, and wherever his widely used 
textbooks have gone, has been deep and permanent. Some 
conception of the character of the man and of his influence 
may be gleaned from a little account of his first and perhaps 
most conspicuous book, his Practical Zoology which was 
hailed as a godsend by science teachers thruout the west; it 
was "epoch-marking" in no doubtful way. 

One of Mr. Colton's books, the Practical Zoology, re- 
quires special mention in any summary of the progress of sci- 
ence in education in the west. It appeared in 1886, while he 
was still at the Ottawa Township High School. The following 
very just estimate of the value of this book has been made by 
one of Mr. Colton's colleagues and similar comment by science 
teachers of high rank who had no personal acquaintance with 
Mr. Colton has been heard by the writer many times. 

"To understand the great success and merit of this book 
one needs to know something of the condition of science teach- 
ing as it was in Illinois at that time. Books, the literature of 


science, were studied instead of the facts of science themselves. 
In botany Asa Gray had produced textbooks which were in 
general use, but in zoology the available literature consisted 
partly of books like Goldsmith's Animated Nature abounding 
in sailor's tales and entertaining anecdotes, and partly of those 
with some pretense of scientific accuracy like Tenney and 
Steele, presenting the four- jointed and six- jointed nomencla- 
ture of Cuvier and external descriptions of various animals. 
These books had evidently been written among the dried and 
stuffed specimens of a museum; there was little attempt to 
show how animals live, what are the conditions of their en- 
vironment, what the problems presented in the struggle for 
existence, or by what adaptations of form, structure, and habits 
the animal is enabled to survive. 

"Under pressure of the law of 1872 zoology took an imme- 
diate place in the curricula of the high school, the normal 
school, and the college; the instruction, however, was un- 
scientific and bookish. Students glibly recited descriptions of 
animals that neither students nor teachers could recognize if 
they saw them. The friends of science education felt that this 
was hollow mockery. In 1879 A. S. Packard, of Brown Uni- 
versity, produced a textbook of zoology of some merit, but it 
was written at the seaside and largely devoted to marine forms. 
In our best high schools during the early eighties we could find 
pupils of our prairies copying the drawings of internal struc- 
ture with which Packard's book abounded, and handling sea- 
urchins whose lively smell was the only suggestion that biol- 
ogy is the science of life. 

"At this time Mr. Colton's Practical Zoology appeared. It 
was based upon the belief that scientific knowledge and train- 
ing must rest upon the study of data gathered at first hand, 
and that the animals to be studied by the children of Illinois are 
the animals of their own fields, woods, and streams. There 
was not an illustration in the book, and very few statements of 
fact or even of conclusions to be drawn from observation. 
There was hardly a trace of the old terminology. It consisted 
of questions and directions so plain and practical that any class 
of boys and girls under the leadership of a wide-awake teacher 
might become acquainted with the mode of life and structural 
adaptations of all the typical forms of life about them. It is 
needless to say that the book met a long-felt want and revolu- 
tionized scientific instruction in Illinois." 

It might be expected that even a fragmentary record such 
as this of the development of a science department would be 


replete with mention of the increase in material equipment of 
the laboratories, library, and museum. But this record of de- 
velopment is much more concerned with men than with things, 
just as the work of the department has ever been as independ- 
ent of expensive equipment as it is possible to make it consist- 
ently with its purpose. Professor Colton had a righteous im- 
patience with that sort of science teaching which regards elab- 
orate mechanical accessories indispensable. He made a point 
of conducting his elementary courses with no more expensive 
equipment than any high school might reasonably be expected 
to provide. He carefully eliminated that frequent source of 
discouragement to the young science teacher the feeling that 
science teaching without a well-equipped laboratory is well- 
nigh fruitless. He went straight to the things themselves ; the 
common things of the immediate environment, and these he 
made luminous and fascinating indeed. Otherwise, requiring 
expensive and elaborate equipment, he might not have attained 
the great success which he did attain in sending out from his 
classes hundreds of enthusiastic young men and women ready 
to attack the science-teaching problem with zeal and assurance 
of success under whatever conditions it might confront them. 
In order to summarize quite definitely the general drift of 
the development of the Science Department, there is appended a 


1858 Establishment of the State Natural History Society of Illinois with 

museum and general headquarters at I.S.N.U. 

Dr. E. R. Roe, of Bloomington, announced as lecturer in chemistry 
and physiology. No detailed announcement of the character of 
these courses. 

1860 Catalog announces "Mr. Joseph A. Sewell has been appointed to 
the chair of Natural Science for the coming year, but the courses 
have not yet been determined upon." 

1861 The teaching of science organized as a required part of the work of 
the school upon the following basis : chemistry, winter term of the 
second year ; botany, spring term of the second year ; anatomy 
and physiology, fall term of the third year; zoology, spring term 
of the third year. 

1867 Prof. John W. Powell announced in the catalog as "Professor 

of Geology and Curator of the Museum." 

Zoology made an optional study resulting in its practical discon- 
tinuance as a subject in the curriculum. 

State appropriation of $2,500 per annum to be expended under the 
direction of the Board of Education for the curatorship and main- 
tenance of the museum of the Natural History Society. Prof. 
John W. Powell appointed curator. He promptly departed upon 
an expedition of exploration and collection into the valley of the 
Colorado River, appointing a curator to act for him in his absence. 
Abstract from catalog: "The large and splendid Museum of Nat- 
ural History is now abundantly provided for. Professor Powell, 


the curator, is now conducting an expedition to the Rocky Moun- 
tains from which large additions are expected." Added in 1869, 
"A great number of specimens have already arrived." 

1871 The State appropriation made subject to the condition that the 
collections of the society be made over to the State in a way sat- 
isfactory to the Governor. 

Formal transfer of the property of the State Natural History to the 
State of Illinois, Joseph A. Sewell acting as agent. 

1872 The introduction into the common school course of Illinois of physi- 
ology, chemistry, botany, and zoology by act of legislature. Knowl- 
edge of these subjects required of candidates for teachers' cer- 

The museum estimated as being worth nearly $100,000. The first 
collections were made by Prof. C. D. Wilbur who had charge for 
several years. He was followed by Maj. John W. Powell whose 
explorations of the Colorado River have since become so famous. 
In 1873 Stephen A. Forbes was appointed curator. He added very 
much to the value of the museum, both by arranging the mass of 
material already collected, and by adding greatly to the number 
of specimens. 

Large additions made to the museum by Dr. George Vasey, acting 
curator, and the work of distribution of specimens to the high 
schools of the state begun. 

Resignation of Prof. John W. Powell and the appointment of 
Stephen A. Forbes as his successor. 

1873 The organization of a new Society of Natural History in connection 
with the State Teachers' Association having as its leading pur- 
pose the supply of working collections to the schools ; organized 
at Bloomington in the Christmas holidays and the following offi- 
cers elected : Dr. Richard Edwards, president ; S. A. Forbes, 
curator; Aaron Gove, secretary. 

1875 Resolutions passed by the State Board of Education defining the 
purposes of the museum and giving it the name "The Illinois Mu- 
seum of Natural History." 

A vacation school of Natural History held at Normal in July and 
August, with the following corps of instructors : Prof. B. G. 
Wilder, of Cornell; Prof. W. S. Barnard, Prof. T. J. Burrill of 
the State Industrial University, Prof. Cyrus Thomas, State En- 
tomologist, Dr. J. A. Sewell, and S. A. Forbes. 

1876 Zoology restored to its original place among the required studies 
for graduation, being required in addition to bookkeeping, draw- 
ing, and the school laws of Illinois in the spring term of the se- 
nior year. Apparently nothing was dropped in order to make place 
for it; it was merely additional work required of the seniors. 
Coincident with this restoration of zoology to a place in the re- 
quired work, a new statement of the course appears in the catalog. 
This is the first alteration in the statements of the science courses 
since their first announcement in 1860. Botany, physiology, and 
chemistry remain unchanged in character so far as the catalog 
announcements throw light upon this point, save only that this sen- 
tence is added to the announcement for chemistry. "Provision 
is now made for an abundant supply of materials in this depart- 

Abstract from catalog: "The advantages offered for the study of 
science at this institution are unusual and deserve the attention 
of all who wish either thoro general instruction in science or op- 
portunities for special study of the natural history of Illinois. 
Students desiring to give all or much of their time to the pursuit 


of special subjects will hereafter be received by Professor Forbes 
at a charge of three dollars a term for incidental expenses. Such 
special students will be permitted to elect their own course, but 
will be expected to adhere to it when once laid down. All speci- 
mens, books, and field and laboratory appliances needed for the 
prosecution of their work, except the common textbooks and 
ordinary collecting and dissecting instruments and hand magnifiers, 
will be furnished for their use, and such amount and kind of in- 
dividual instruction will be afforded as each seems to require. 
No student wishing to make a detailed study of any branch of the 
natural history of Illinois need hesitate to come here with that 
design. If anything be found lacking for his purpose the authori- 
ties of the institution stand ready promptly to supply it. 
"The Museum in the University building, formerly the property of 
the State Natural History Society, now comprises about 150,000 
specimens. Besides containing material sufficient for purposes of 
general illustration it represents with fullness the botany and 
zoology of the State, and is now growing at the rate of about 
10,000 specimens a year. Nearly all this material is named, ar- 
ranged, and catalogued in the most convenient manner, and is en- 
tirely available for use. 

"The Library, altho small, has been selected with reference to use 
in connection with the museum collections, and answers its pur- 
pose well. It is increased as rapidly as the necessities of the 
work require. 

"The zoological laboratory will accommodate fifty or sixty students. 
It is furnished with dissecting tables, stools, trays, sinks and wash- 
ing conveniences, and it is well fitted in every way for either gen- 
eral or special work. The chemical laboratory, in charge of Pro- 
fessor Sewell, will accommodate forty students and is fully fur- 
nished with apparatus for practical work in analytical chemistry. 
Further particulars concerning this department may be had upon 
application to the Curator of the Museum, Professor S. A. Forbes." 

1877 Resignation of Dr. Sewell to accept the presidency of the Colorado 
State University. Minor L. Seymour, of Blue Island, elected as 
his successor. With the coming of Professor Seymour chemistry 
and physiology exchanged places in the program and the instruc- 
tion in chemistry was reorganized. 

Metamorphosis, by act of legislature, of the Illinois Museum of Nat- 
ural History into the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural His- 
tory, a State Museum having been provided for at Springfield in 
connection with the State Geological Survey. First duty of the 
new "Director of the Laboratory" to be to furnish zoological and 
botanical material needed by the State educational institutions. 

1878 Abstract from catalog: "The recent reorganization of the Illinois 
Museum of Natural History in the University Building as a 
Biological Laboratory, and its elaborate furnishing and equipment 
for all kinds of botanical and zoological work have greatly in- 
creased the resources of this department. The very unusual ad- 
vantages now afforded here," etc. 

1880 Reorganization of the courses in botany and chemistry. 

1883 Reorganization of the course in zoology. 

1884 Resignation of Professor Forbes and transfer of the State Labora- 
tory to the State University. 

1885 Abstract from catalog : "The room formerly known as the Museum, 
and later as the Laboratory of the Natural History Society is now 
used as a class room for science work. It is still a museum for 
the exhibition of the collections in zoology, botany, and miner- 


alogy. The objects in these departments of science have been 
rearranged for exhibition, and most of them are labeled, showing 
the scientific and common names. They are open for examination 
to students and visitors during the sessions of the school. For 
the purposes of class work, including recitation, writing, and dis- 
section, tables and chairs have been arranged for the accommoda- 
tion of fifty students. The room is one of the cheeriest in the 
building, being ample, well-lighted and attractive. 
"The office has been refitted and furnished for special work. Nine 
microscopes with accessories, excellent desks for microscopic work, 
furnished with staining glasses and fluids, injecting apparatus, 
and microtomes, constitutes a portion of the new outfit for work 
in histology. The* laboratory has the use of a new automatic 
Schanze microtome, imported from R. and J. Beck, London. The 
library contains some of the best works on embryology, histology, 
pathology, comparative anatomy, and microscopic technique. 
"The books pertaining to birds are from the latest authors, and in 
this department are the most valuable published in this country. 
Material for general and specific work in zoology can be furnished 
to any persons desiring a special course. 

"Hereafter the work in the department of physics will be conducted 
in the natural history room, the apparatus having been conven- 
iently arranged in two alcove cases. The work in botany and 
physiology has been likewise transferred to this room. 
"The workers in chemistry now have exclusive use of the laboratory 
in the basement, of the lecture room adjoining, and of all the 
cases in each. The laboratory is well furnished, the apparatus be- 
ing modern, and sufficient for the fullest illustration in general and 
analytical chemistry. Students of the University and teachers in 
the public schools taking such science work as belong to the reg- 
ular Normal course of study are at no expense for chemicals and 
apparatus. To such as wish to take extra or special work in this 
department tuition and a fee for incidentals will be charged. For 
particulars concerning the work indicated in the Scientific De- 
partment address Professor Seymour." 

1888 Resignation of Prof. M. L. Seymour and the appointment of Prof. 

Buel P. Colton as his successor. 
Reorganization of the work in physiology and zoology. 

1890 Transference of physics from the division of mathematics to that 

of science involving its complete reorganization. 
Dudley G. Hayes, first instructor in physics and chemistry. 

1892 Arthur O. Norton appointed assistant. 

1894 Statement of physiology course completely reorganized and elab- 
orated. Over a full page of the catalog given to an analysis of 
the course. Martin's Human Body now used as a text. 
Joseph G. Brown succeeded A. O. Norton as assistant in chemistry 
and physics. 

1898 Fred D. Barber succeeded Joseph G. Brown. 
Biology and physics moved to new building. 

1899 Colton's Physiology replaced Martin's Human Body in Physiology 

Bergen's Elements replaced Gray's School and Field Book of Botany. 

1900 Physics and chemistry organized as separate department in charge 
of Fred D. Barber. 

1906 Death of Buel P. Colton. 

Appointment of John G. Coulter as Professor of Biology. 

President, 1862-1876. 




The development of the Model School has for fifty years 
been a phase of the development of the Illinois State Normal 
University, for when the latter began its constructive career 
in Major's Hall, the Model School also began with a total at- 
tendance of seven for the first term. Another thing that has 
kept the development close to the line of the University's de- 
velopment is that the State Board of Education has wisely 
allowed the successive presidents of the school to carry out, 
both in the Normal Department and in the Model School, 
their distinctive ideas. The changes thus introduced have been 
marked but not violent. 

Within less than three months after the passage of the 
legislative act establishing the University, the State Board of 
Education appointed Messrs. Hovey and Rex to visit other 
normal and high schools and "report to the board upon the 
subject of buildings, internal arrangements, etc." Seven weeks 
later (June 23, 1857), having made a tour of the east, this 
committee reported in part as follows, "The third step is * * * 
to give (to Normal School students) practical skill by actual 
service under instruction in the school of practice, or model 
school. They should here be taught that there can be no real 
success in practice without a rational theory to which such' 
practice can, at every step, be referred. They should be made 
to see and feel that there must be a reason for every process in 
education, as well as in medicine, or engineering, or me- 

*Proceedings State Board of Education, June 23, 1857, p 10. 


At the meeting of the board at which the above report was 
made, Richard Hovey was elected principal of the Illinois State 
Normal University. Two months later, August 18, 1857, the 
board voted, "That the principal, should it be necessary, be 
authorized to employ a principal teacher in the Model School." 
Mr. Hovey deemed it necessary. Mary M. Brooks, a success- 
ful primary teacher of Peoria, was employed as the first prin- 
cipal of the Model School. 


The first three years in Major's Hall and the first two years 
after the building in Normal was occupied may well be called 
the period of pioneering. Private schools were in existence and 
school patrons were accustomed to them. The Model School 
had little more than won its way in Bloomington when it was 
moved to Normal, thus losing the larger part of the patronage 
it had built up. Normal was more nearly a hamlet than a 
village at that time. The war depopulated the University 
both faculty and students. No one could tell what the fate of 
school might be. 

Miss Brooks, in the first term of the school's history, en- 
rolled, as has been stated, seven pupils. The second term, 
there was "a room full, and fifty that had to be turned away." 
The more advanced pupils taken into the school were classified 
as belonging to the intermediate grade. So long as this class 
did not exceed twelve in number, it was kept in the Normal 
School. It had finally to be turned over to a Mr. Thayer, who 
conducted a private school, or "seminary," in Bloomington. It 
appears from the records that the "members of Section A spent 
considerable time in the Model School as observers and 

The first idea was to have a model school. President Hovey 
wrote in 1882, "When a model school was determined upon 
as an incident and annex to the Normal University, the Board 
of Education, on the advice of the principal, invited Miss Mary 
Brooks to take charge of it. * * * It was intended at that 
time chiefly as a model, and not as a school of practice for 

Miss Brooks seems to have been a remarkable teacher, hav- 
ing possessed to an unusual degree the power to win the con- 
fidence of children and also the power to instruct them. 

For the first two years Miss Brooks had no regular assist- 
ants, but in 1859-60, she seems to have had four, J. G. Howell, 

"History of :the I. S. N. U. (1882), p. 227. 


J. H. Burnham, Edwin Philbrook, and Aaron Gove all of 
whom were students in the Normal School. At the end of 
three years' service, Miss Brooks resigned and the greatly 
loved Howell was elected to her position. In addition to the 
difficulties incident to gathering together a new group of pu- 
pils in Normal, Howell left for the war, being mustered in 
April 25, 1861. J. H. Burnham finished out the year. The 
other persons connected with the school during this year 
( 1 860-61) were Oliver Libbey, Frances A. Peterson, Mary 
F. Washburn. Misses Peterson and Washburn remained the 
following year, and were assisted by Misses Livonia E. 
Ketcham, Marian Goodrich, and Mary E. Baker. The tal- 
ented Norton remained for only one term of this year (1861- 
62), his place being taken, January 1862, by Charles F. Childs, 
of St. Louis, who became the principal of the Model School 
and also principal of the high school that was to be established. 
Principal Perkins Bass, who, as acting president, succeeded 
Richard Hovey, seems to have thought that the best way to 
build up the Model School was to begin at the top as well as 
the bottom. A High School would be an inducement to those 
in the lower grades to remain in school, and it would also 
attract some who were not quite prepared to do its work. In 
these two ways, then, the gap between the grades already rep- 
resented in the Model School and the High School would be 
filled up. 

Mr. Bass, who had formerly been a member of the State 
Board of Education, had consented to act until a suitable suc- 
cessor could be found. This suitable successor was Richard 
Edwards who was a gradute of the famous Bridgewater, 
Mass., Normal School. Dr. Edwards was principal and presi- 
dent (the title being changed in 1866) from 1862 till 1874. 
He was followed by Edwin C. Hewett, a graduate of the same 
school, who was president from 1874 till 1890. The adminis- 
trations of these two men cover a span of twenty-eight years. 
When to this fact is added another, viz. : that for sixteen years 
of this time Thomas Metcalf, also a Bridgewater graduate, 
was the active head and front of all of the Model School ex- 
cept the High School, it becomes evident that it is appropriate 
to call this span of twenty-eight years 


Dr. Edwards believed that, according to the terms of the 
legislative act of February 18, 1857, the Model School was an 
"auxiliary school" and must not, therefore, be a charge upon 


the state : Tuition was charged all pupils who lived outside of 
the Normal school district, and an arrangement was entered 
into whereby the money raised by taxation in Normal school 
district was turned over to the University in payment for the 
instruction of the pupils in the Model School. 

It has never been shown that the tuition from the Model 
School ever paid the teachers' salaries and the expense of 
housing it. The total tuition receipts for the first year were 
$439.50, and this is obviously less than the salary of the ac- 
complished Miss Brooks. Nevertheless, the plan of charging 
a tuition fee continued till 1901, when a union with the city 
school was established. 

In the year 1861-62, the Model School had an attendance 
of 133. The following year the attendance rose to 226. This 
increase was almost wholly due to the growth of the town's 
population. Mr. Childs and Miss Ketcham left the school at 
the end of this year, and the following year, 1863-4, found a 
new set of teachers in the Model School. Mr. William L. 
Pillsbury, a recent graduate of Harvard, was elected principal 
of the Model School, having for his assistants, Miss Marion 
Hammond, of St. Louis, in the primary department; Miss 
Bandusia Wakefield, assistant in the primary department ; and 
Mr. Lyman B. Kellogg, an additional instructor. The great 
purpose of the Model School, according to Dr. Edwards, was 
"the thorough fitting of boys for the best colleges of the coun- 
try."* The realization of this purpose required a continuous 
series of grades from the primary through the high school. 
Accordingly, in 1864, Mr. Lyman Hutchinson was secured to 
have charge of pupils of grammar school grade. It should be 
borne in mind that Dr. Edwards came from Massachusetts 
where below the high school they have, to this day, only pri- 
mary schools and grammar schools. It required an additional 
two years to introduce the idea of an Intermediate Depart- 
ment. Consequently, in 1866, we find Miss Edith T. Johnson 
in full charge of the Primary Department; Olive A. Rider, 
in charge of the Intermediate Department; John W. Cook, 
in charge of the Grammar School Department; and Mr. W. 
L. Pillsbury nominally in charge of all of the Model School 
and really in charge of the High School Department. 

At the beginning of the year 1868-9, the public school was 
established separately. This action reduced the attendance of 
the Model School from 630 to 318. In consequence, we find 

"History of I. S. N. U. (1882), p. 197. 


that from 1868 to 1894 (twenty-six years!), there were prac- 
tically only three departments in the Model School, the Pri- 
mary Department, the Grammar Department, and the High 
School Department. To this must be added the additional 
fact that the heads of these departments were teaching most 
of the time. It had also been conceded that the students in 
the Normal School should "learn to teach by teaching." But 
blind experience is of little avail. Supervision and criticism 
are necessary. How were these secured ? 

From 1862 to 1874, it was assumed that the president of 
the school could and would do all the supervision and criticism 
that was necessary. Seniors were required to bring their 
classes in the Model School before their classmates and the 
president for an occasional exercise. The president spent what 
time he could in visiting classes, but found that he could not 
do all that ought to be done. Accordingly, in 1874, Prof. 
Thomas Metcalf was transferred from his position as profes- 
sor of mathematics and made supervisor of the training de- 
partment. This relation continued from 1874 to 1894, a 
fifth of a century of consecrated work. 

Prior to 1874, the High School had had as principals, 
Charles F. Childs, 1862-3; W. L. Pillsbury, 1863-70; Mary 
E. Horton, 1870-71 ; E. W. Coy, 1871-73. The Grammar 
Department grew out of the appointment of L,. B. Kellogg as 
an assistant in the Model School in 1863. The successive 
principals of this department were Lyman Hutchinson, 1864- 
66; John W. Cook, 1866-68; Joseph Carter, 1868-70; B. W. 
Baker, 1870-74. In addition to the ones already mentioned, 
the primary department had known Miss Lucia Kingsley and 
Miss Gertrude K. Case. The latter remained till 1875. 

This little summary will, by collecting the data, allow us 
to follow more readily the course of the Bridgewater Idea 
under the presidency of Dr. Hewett. 

Dr. Hewett became president in 1876, two years after 
Professor Metcalf assumed charge of the Training Depart- 
ment. The title itself is suggestive of what was expected, 
viz., that the students of the Normal Department were to be 
trained in actual teaching. This involved, in a way, the con- 
tinuance of the same general plan that President Edwards had 
established. In addition it involved ( i ) the separation of the 
High School from the rest of the Model School under strong 
teachers and assistants; (2) the making of the regular teach- 
ers in the grades of the Model School into assistant training 


teachers; (3) a more effective preparation for teaching earlier 
in the course of the Normal School students. 

This more effective preparation was provided for by "Ele- 
ments" in the first term's work and "Observation" in the sec- 
ond term. About this time, Dr. Hewett published his Peda- 
gogy and Psychology. These books were usually studied in 
the third and fourth terms of a student's work. The philoso- 
phy of education was studied in the senior year. 

As the school grew in numbers, there were more people 
"due in teaching." Professor Metcalf found it impossible to 
supervise all of the students who were learning to teach. In 
consequence the persons in charge of the departments became 
in fact, if not in name, assistants to Professor Metcalf. Miss 
Jane Pennell (Carter) was at the head of the Primary De- 
partment 1875-76. Miss Armada Paddock, 1876-79; Miss 
Julia E. Kennedy, 1879-1889; Miss Ruth Morris (Kersey), 
1889-91. In the Grammar Department, Mr. W. S. Mills 
served 1875-76; Charles DeGarmo, 1876-83; R. R. Reeder, 
1883-1890. Messrs. De Garmo and Reeder were really very 
strong training teachers in the Grammar Department. 

The High School was under strong men, L. L. Burrington, 
1874-79; E. J. James, 1879-82; J. D. H. Cornelius, 1882-3; 
H. J. Barton, 1883-1890. They had for assistants, Fannie 
Fell, Frances Ohr, Ida M. Hollis, and Edward Manley. Un- 
der such teachers the High School became an exceedingly ef- 
fective school and its fame spread over the State. The course 
of study in the High School was a very strong college pre- 
paratory course, the languages being taught by the teachers 
mentioned while the history, literature, mathematics, and sci- 
ence were taken by High School pupils with the regular Nor- 
mal classes. This part of the Model School remained model, 
and the grades below the High School were the real Training 

By the year 1890, the newer ideas of education that had, 
in a way, been the outgrowth of the theory of evolution, were 
attracting a great deal of attention. The influence of German 
philosophy also had, thru such men as Dr. W. T. Harris, Geo. 
P. Brown, Charles DeGarmo, and others, made an impress 
upon many members of the faculty. In the 8o's there was a 
"Philosophy Club" in Bloomington that sought to work out 
the educational significance of some of the writings of Kant 
and Hegel. All this philosophizing tended to reveal defects 
in education. And these defects were found in the Model 


School as well as in the Normal Department. To this period 
of criticism and the experimentation which it involved we 
may give the title 


In 1890, John W. Cook, became president. The work in 
"Elements" was dropped and pedagogy, in the form of lectures 
based on the history of education, took its place. This was to 
be followed by special method courses, involving some obser- 
vation, in the place of the regular Observation of the former 
years. Dewey's Psychology, with its strong philosophic basis, 
was put with Rosenkranz' Philosophy of Education as a senior 
study. A greater emphasis was placed on illustrative lessons 
(from which a philosophy of teaching was to be deduced), and 
the practice teaching before one's classmates, that had been 
used in the time of Dr. Edwards, was revived and slightly 
changed under the term in use in Germany, viz. : "Critiques." 

Frank and Charles McMurry, fresh from the study of ed- 
ucation under the famous Dr. Rein the successor of Herbart 
in Germany brought their rich ideas regarding the materials 
and the methods of elementary education into the Model 
School. Excursions to planing mills, houses in process of 
construction, the city hall, the campus, the cupola of the main 
building; work in sand and clay to reveal what was known 
and to learn new things ; fairy stories, myths, legends, heroes 
of pioneer times, these were simply evidences that there was 
a great change in material and in methods. 

The Herbartian influence was felt most in the literature, 
history, geography, and science. For a time, this led to a 
slighting of spelling and arithmetic and penmanship, but no 
serious harm resulted. 

There was, however, a change in organization. At first 
' the McMurrys were assistant training teachers and worked 
chiefly in the first six grades. In 1894, Professor Metcalf 
resigned and Charles A. McMurry was made supervisor of 
practice. Grades one, two, and three were called the Primary 
Department and were under Mrs. Lida B. McMurry from 
1891 to 1900, with Mary Hall (Husted) as assistant from 
1888 to 1893. In 1894, grades four, five, and six were 
grouped as the Intermediate Department and were placed un- 
der Miss Maud Valentine, who remained till 1900. In each 
of these departments the training teachers had assistants to 
care for the pupils in the rooms. Grades seven and eight and 


the preparatory classes were grouped under the Grammar De- 
partment. In this department there was a principal who 
taught most of the time and looked after the discipline of the 
group, and also a training teacher whose function it was to 
look after the teaching work of the students of the Normal 
Department. As principals of the Grammar Department, 
there were: John W. Hall, 1890-92; S. F. Parson, 1892-94; 
John A. Keith, 1894-96; Andrew Melville, 1896-1899; F. S. 
Bogardus, 1899-1903. As training teachers there were: Cora 
M. Dodson (Graham), 1894-5; Kate Mavity (Martin), 
1895-6; Anne A. Stanley, 1896-1900. 

Dr. C. A. McMurry remained until 1899. He was fol- 
lowed by J. J. Wilkinson, who remained for the year 1899- 

All this while the conviction that the true function of a 
normal school is to train teachers for the public schools of the 
State was growing. The attendance of the Normal depart- 
ment was growing also. The High School offered little op- 
portunity for the training of teachers and it was doubtful 
whether it paid for itself. Governor Altgeld was anxious to 
do what he could for the betterment of the state educational 
institution. All sorts of arguments pro and con were heard. 
There are very few people who really know just why it was 
done (and they keep their knowledge to themselves very ef- 
fectively), but at the June meeting in 1895, the Board of Edu- 
cation formally abolished the High School that had been 
started in 1861-2 by Norton and Childs. The former students 
of the High School who so desired and who had not taken 
part in a "midnight burial of the High School" were allowed 
to finish the course they had entered upon, but there was no 
longer an organized group having a home in room 12. 

O. L. Manchester was principal of the High School from 
1890 till 1895, the date of its abolishment 

During this period President Cook, who had taught classes 
in the Model School in the 8o's, endeavored to get the different 
members of the faculty to observe the work of their depart- 
ments in the Model School, to supervise it, to teach classes, 
and to help in formulating the course of study for the grades. 
To the extent that this was done, it is safe to say that both the 
Model School and the classes in the Normal Department 

In 1892, the legislature appropriated money for the erec- 
tion of a training school building. The completion of this 
building allowed the grades of the Model School to expand 


and to assume the proportions and activities of an ordinary 
graded school. 

The recital that has just been given is sufficient proof that 
the period was one of transition. And the transition was in- 
creased rather than retarded by the forces that were set in 
operation by President Tompkins in the year 1899-1900. The 
organization remained as it had been under President Cook, 
but the discussions led by President Tompkins in the faculty 
meetings paved the way for a great change in organization in 
the year following. President Tompkins succeeded in getting 
the teachers of the Normal Department to work out a course 
of study for the grades of the Model School, and to assume 
some responsibility for the work of their respective depart- 
ments in the training school. 

This account has now been brought down to 1900, the time 
at which David Felmley became president of the school. What 
remains to be said belongs under the heading 


Following the lead opened by President Tompkins, the 
organization of the Model School has been changed so that 
there is a training teacher for each grade. This makes it pos- 
sible to keep the school model and to provide for training stu- 
dents to teach. Above all, it makes it possible for student 
teachers to "catch on" to the actual situation in a given grade 
before they "take hold." This plan is supplemented by the 
co-operation of the Normal School teachers regarding both 
the course of study and the supervision. The students are to 
have had three terms' work in psychology and pedagogy be- 
fore they begin teaching at all. 

In 1901 a union with the village schools of Normal was 
effected with the belief that it would be mutually advanta- 
geous. It is the general opinion that the results justified the 
belief, but there was constant objection on the part of some 
taxpayers. Finally, in 1906, the union was dissolved by a 
decision of the Supreme Court. In consequence, the plan of a 
private school has been resorted to again, but the tuition fea- 
ture has been given up on the ground that a training depart- 
ment is as essential a part of a normal school as is a depart- 
ment of mathematics, science, or psychology; and, therefore, 
it need not be, under the charter, self-supporting. 

The Lindley Bill of 1905, has rendered necessary the or- 
ganization of a department to take care of the graduates of 


the eighth grade who come with scholarships and who do not 
wish to take the pledge to teach. Such a department was or- 
ganized by the Board of Education at its meeting in June, 
1906, under the name of the Illinois State Normal University 
High School. Just what form this new High School will 
take, no one can tell; but the indications are that it will be- 
come a school especially strong in manual training and science. 
And such a high school will afford an opportunity to prepare 
young men and young women for effective teaching in what 
is really "the advanced classes in the people's college." 

In the years since 1900, the organization of the Model 
School has brought many teachers into connection with it. 
Elizabeth Mavity (Cunningham) was supervisor of practice 
from 1901 to 1906. In 1906, the writer of this article became 
her successor as Head of the Training Department. In the 
Primary Department, there have been as training teachers, 
Anna King, 1900-03; Jessie Cunningham (Whitten), 1900- 
03; Will Johnson, 1900-02; Lura M. Eyestone, 1901-05; 
Lora M. Dexheimer, 1902-07; Florence G. Stevens, 1903- 
04; Lora Peck, 1904-07; Miss Fraser, 1907. In the Inter- 
mediate Department, there have been as training teachers, 
Genevieve Clarke, 1900-01; Clara Snell, 1900-01; Eleanor 
Hampton, 1900-04; Jessie M. Dillon, 1901-07; Clara Trim- 
ble, 1902-03; Marien C. Lyon, 1903-04; Rebekah Lesem, 
1904-07; Helen Purcell, 1906-07. In the Grammar Grades' 
Department, there have been as training teachers, F. S. Bo- 
gardus, 1899-1903; Rose Bland, 1901-06; I. N. Warner, 
1903-07; Alice Perle Watson, 1904-06; Herbert Dixon, 
1906; George B. Kendall, 1906-07; Olive L. Barton, 

A kindergarten was established in 1902 and has been under 
the direction of Miss Caroleen Robinson to the present time. 
It has proved especially profitable to those who are preparing 
for teaching in the primary grades. 

No one can properly estimate the influence the Model 
School has had upon those who have been touched by it. Its 
thousands of pupils are scattered all over the land. Thousands 
of students in the Illinois State Normal University have 
learned in it not only the technique of teaching, but also the 
fine art of inspiring boys and girls with high ideals. And the 
teachers who have labored in it have had, without exception, 
I believe, the desire to be of genuine service to those who were 
learning to teach and to the children who were learning to live. 




1862-1887. 1869-1907. 


These four men taught a total of one hundred twelve years in the 
Illinois State Normal University 



I entered the Normal School in September, 1862, at the be- 
ginning of its sixth year. The new building had been in use 
two years. It had not yet worn off the first gloss and to my 
inexperienced eyes it was a majestic structure. It stood then, 
as now, four-square to the world, not obtrusive and self-assert- 
ive, but modestly uncompromising with regard to all matters 
pertaining to sincerity of purpose and thoroness of scholar- 
ship. From the day of my admission until the first day of 
September, 1899, with the exception of the school year, '65-6, 
I was connected with the institution as pupil or teacher. The 
only teachers of the first forty-two years of the life of the 
school with whom I was not associated personally were those 
of the first five years whose service ended before the beginning 
of the sixth year. With nearly all of these I became acquainted 
subsequently. It was a notable company. In the group were 
several teachers whose superiors I have never seen. If in the 
following pages there shall appear occasionally what may seem 
to be extreme praise, it is to be understood that it is written 
with the calmest deliberation and with the purpose of telling 
nothing but the truth. 


The most interesting man connected with the school before 1861 was 
Charles Edward Hovey, the first president. He was born in the town of 
Thetford, Vermont, on the 26th day of April, 1827. He was one of eleven 
children, four of whom were girls. They were a wiry, long-lived race, 
with no end of endurance and pluck. At the age of seven he was sent to 
the public school, a couple of miles away, and was soon made acquainted 
with the "fragrant birch." His father was a farmer and he alternated 
the labors of the farm with an occasional term of school until he was 
fifteen, when he began his career as a teacher. 

He' was soon at the head of a village school with a salary of twenty 
dollars a month and began to believe in himself and in the future. His sec- 
ond effort was less successful than the first, however, and while waiting for 


destiny to show her hand he "took to the woods" and became a lumber- 
man. But the love of culture pursued him into the solitudes and in 1848 
he bade farewell to the logging camp and entered Dartmouth college, 
from which institution he graduated in 1852, supporting himself thruout 
his whole course by teaching school. 

With the long-coveted diploma in hand the great question of choosing 
a profession could no longer be deferred. Like many before him and since, 
he became a teacher without intending it. He drifted down to Framing- 
ham, Massachusetts, and became the principal of the Academy and High 
School. He describes the "Preceptress" as a paragon of grace and beauty. 
An acquaintance of more than forty years with her convinces me that his 
judgment was not in fault. 

In 1854 an association of the leading citizens of Peoria, Illinois, deter- 
mined to establish a school for boys and young men in their growing young 
city. In casting about for a principal they heard of the young man at the 
Framingham school. They invited him to come west and take charge of 
their new enterprise. Accompanied by the "Preceptress" he arrived in 
Peoria late in the autumn of the same year. 

The dominating sentiment of the town was essentially southern, which 
is but another way of saying that there was little sentiment favorable to 
public schools. The newcomer had imported his ideas on that subject, 
along with his other belongings, and was not slow in giving them an 
airing. The effect was to set the conservatives buzzing about his ears 
like angry hornets whose nest had been disturbed. 

The story were long to tell. It is enuf to say that the sleepy town 
awoke one morning to a genuine sensation. The pestilent fellow from 
New England, along with a few other pestilent fellows of his ilk, had con- 
cocted a conspiracy and had actually secured the passage of an act by the 
General Assembly which amended the city charter and left the chivalry 
in a condition of hopeless paralysis; like Braddock's unfortunate army, 
of which the genial Autocrat sings : 

"* * * Done so brown 

Left without a scalp to its crown." 

And this was really the beginning of the great public school system, 
of which, along with her big distilleries, Peoria is so proud. 

So it was that the private schools came to a happy death and lived 
again in the new, public, common schools, with their principal as the head 
of the high school and superintendent of the system. 

Meanwhile other schemes were astir. It must suffice to say that there 
was a "fund," a snug and substantial "fund," at the disposal of the Gen- 
eral Assembly, and that the schoolmasters and the college people had wind 
of it and that both parties were waiting with such patience as they could 
command until the strong box of the state had enuf in it to make an 
assault upon it worth while. The State Teachers' Association meetings 
made a rallying place for the clans and memorable were the discussions of 
the hostile camps. The college men were calling loudly for the distribu- 
tion of the funds among their institutions. Not a few of the public school 
men were disposed to favor their scheme. A party headed by Professor 
Turner, of Jacksonville, advocated the establishment of an industrial uni- 
versity and the application of the funds to that highly respectable purpose. 
The leading public school men, however, wanted a Normal School and laid 
their wires accordingly. 

In 1854 the Association met in Peoria. It was Hovey's introduction 
to the Illinois Schoolmasters. Guessing as to the crowd into which his 
sympathies would take him was an easy matter. He went to the Normal 
School contingent with all of his heart and he was a big re-enforcement. 
Tireless, full of resources, and pluck to the backbone, he went into the 
fight for the education of teachers for the common schools with all of his 
characteristic energy and enthusiasm. 


It was soon apparent that there was great need of an "organ" for 
the purpose of keeping the project on the go the year around, so The Illi- 
nois Teacher was soon launched upon the unchartered sea of educational 
journalism. Hovey took hold of the enterprise and assumed the editorial 
and business management. "The Preceptress" handled the subscription 
list and personally mailed the magazines. In a year the circulation ran up 
to fifteen hundred and in another it touched the two thousand mark. 

But the editor had larger fish to fry and left The Teacher to other 
hands after the close of the second year. He had made good use of his 
opportunity. He had found an audience and had kept the normal school 
idea before the people. At last Professor Turner and his followers came 
into the normal camp and the battle was won. 

The chronicler is sorely tempted to turn aside at this point and recount 
the main features of that historic fight. Space will not permit the digres- 
sion, however, and it must suffice to remark that Hon. S. W. Moulton, of 
Shelbyville, had charge of the bill in the House, and Captain J. S. Post, 
of Decatur, in the Senate. The State Teachers' Association had appointed 
a legislative committee consisting of Simeon Wright, Charles E. Hovey, 
and Daniel Wilkins. They were intensely active members of "The Third 
House" during that session. The Senate entered into the spirit of the 
movement in a very cordial manner and passed the bill with but four dis- 
senting votes. The House, however, was less complaisant and the struggle 
was intensely animated. Thirty-eight votes were needed to pass the 
measure; thirty-nine were finally secured. Of course thirty-eight were 
as good as seventy-five, in the eyes of the constitution, but the margin seems 
pretty narrow when there is but one to spare. The act contained the 
names of the first board and in the list will be found that of Charles E. 
Hovey. When it is understood that there was then but one Normal School 
in the Northwest and that the first American Normal School was but 
eighteen years old, it will be conceded that the victory was a notable one. 

You have read in an earlier chapter of this history all about Major's 
Hall and the memorable opening with Mr. Hovey and Mr. Moore and 
Miss Mary Brooks as the faculty. The latter had been engaged as the 
teacher of the Model School. Doubtless you have also read the names of 
the six young men and the thirteen young women who made a place for 
themselves in history by being present on the first day. The numbers do 
not seem especially encouraging in these days of large attendance yet it 
is worth mentioning that they were six times the number that greeted 
Cyrus Pierce at Lexingon on his opening day. 

And now began the construction of the building that was to house the 
new institution. The cornerstone was laid September 29, with imposing 
ceremonies. A cannie Scot, one Robert Burns by name, has shrewdly re- 
marked, "There's many a slip 'twixt the cup and the lip." Laying corner- 
stones is a mere holiday matter. Building hundred-thousand dollar struc- 
tures on doubtful subscriptions and in times of financial disaster is quite 
another proposition. Three years were to pass before the building should 
be completed, and they were years of panics and failures, years that fur- 
rowed lines of care in the faces of business men who saw their fortunes 
swept away in a night. But the contract was let and the work begun. 
The frosts of December, however, almost killed the tender plant. Work 
was suspended for lack of funds and the suspension continued for a year 
and a half. Meanwhile many of the subscribers became insolvent and 
others were seriously crippled. Some substantially repudiated their prom- 
ises and there was trouble enuf. You w,ill find it all written in the 
former History of the Illinois State Normal University and in the charm- 
ing style of Mr. Hovey himself. But what he would not say others were 
willing to testify. I have heard Mr. Fell remark many times that the en- 
terprise would have been a disastrous failure but for the dauntless courage, 
the untiring energy and the unconquerable will of Charles E. Hovey. By 


dint of borrowing on his own name, and upon those of such of his friends 
as would hazard their property in a doubtful enterprise, by begging from 
every available person who seemed to have anything to give, by fighting 
off the contractors, discouraging suits, dodging executions and perform- 
ing other marvels, he finally carried his enterprise thru and saw the first 
class graduate in the unfinished building in June, 1860. There was a 
colossal debt remaining but he did not care for that. He knew that the 
General Assembly would never let the school die now that it was so well 
established. At the next session, in 1861, he organized an excursion and 
brought all of the members up from Springfield and entertained them with 
a great dinner in the school building. I well remember the night. My 
father was one of the visiting "statesmen." We lived a few miles up the 
country and sat up to await his return home. His recital of the events at 
the banquet on that stormy February night nearly fifty years ago is one 
of my earliest recollections of the normal school. 

While the new school was getting upon its feet and struggling with 
its many difficulties our great national conflict was rapidly approaching. 
The air was full of angry declamation. Men went about with faces full 
of care, for no one could tell what dreadful disaster was impending. The 
school was greatly disturbed. The young men were beginning to drill 
upon the open prairie. Several enlistments indicated plainly that unless 
something was done promptly there would be no young men in the gradu- 
ating class. Mr. Hovey told the boys that if they would wait until the end 
of the year he would go with them into the army. There were no further 
enlistments. Companies were formed for drill and a martial spirit per- 
vaded the institution. Every day at the close of school the splendid young 
fellows, burning with patriotic ardor, shouldered their wooden muskets 
and repaired to the parade ground. And the splendid young women, moved 
by a kindred enthusiasm, made flags for them, watched their evolutions, 
and fed the fires of their enthusiasm with encouraging smiles and words 
of praise. At the end of the school year a class of six young men and 
two young women received their diplomas. Five of the six were to enter 
the army and were to be followed by many of the undergraduates. 

Mr. Hovey determined to go to Washington City to do some recon- 
noitering on his own account He and Mr. Jesse W. Fell reached the city 
just in time to hear very disquieting rumors from the front. It was re- 
ported that a great battle had been fought and lost. In a few hours strag- 
glers began to pour into Washington, confirming the rumors of a dreadful 
defeat. Mr. Fell and Mr. Hovey, burning with a desire to ascertain the 
truth for themselves, applied for passes to cross the Potomac. They were 
refused. Getting possession of a boat they made their own way to Alex- 
andria, where they found a train of flat cars pulling out with re-enforce- 
ments for the front. They mounted the cars with the soldiers and were 
soon at the end of their journey by rail. Everywhere there were unmis- 
takable indications that the battle was on. Mr. Fell, true to his primary 
instincts, stopped at the first field hospital, threw off his coat, and gave 
his services to the surgeons. Mr. Hovey pushed on. When the road filled 
with a retreating column he retired to the woods and waited until it had 
passed. He continued his advance until he had reached the line where 
the men were engaged. He was one of the few civilians who witnessed at 
least a part of the battle of Bull Run. 

His reconnoitering satisfied him that there was going to be more than 
a three months' war. He called upon the president and tendered his ser- 
vices. They were accepted. The order was transmitted to Governor 
Yates by the Secretary of War. Mr. Hovey came home and raised the 
Thirty-third Regiment of Volunteers. The companies were made up from 
the students of the Normal School, of Knox College, of Illinois College, 
and from such friends of those students as desired to join the regiment. 
In August they were in Camp Butler, near Springfield. Here they elected 


their officers, all of whom were approved by the governor except the lieu- 
tenant-colonel, and were mustered into the service of the United States 
for a term of three years. 

Immediately after, they joined General Fremont and found their first 
service in guarding the railroad bridges from the torch of the enemy. 
Their winter quarters were at Arcadia, Missouri. On the 2ist of March, 
1862, they broke camp and started south. "The Preceptress" was there 
and saw the boys march away in a furious snowstorm. She left the regi- 
ment, whose guest she had been for several months, and returned to her 
home in Normal to await the uncertain issues of war. A gray-haired vet- 
eran once told me how he looked in through the window where she and 
some of the wives of the other officers were contributing to the festivities 
of the camp in order that he might get another glimpse of "Dot" Hovey 
before they marched away for the serious business that awaited them in 

There was constant skirmishing but no serious engagement until the 
battle of the Cache. There Colonel Hovey with his regiment met a force 
of twelve times his number and administered to them a most demoralizing 
defeat. For his gallant conduct in this most unevenly matched engage- 
ment he was promoted to the rank of brigadier general. 

After the battle the army proceeded to Helena where General Hovey 
left the 33rd regiment, having been ordered to join General Halleck. He 
was assigned to a brigade and went to Vicksburg with Sherman and par- 
ticipated in the capture of Chickasaw Bayou. From there he returned 
up the Mississippi River to the Arkansas River and participated in the cap- 
ture of Arkansas Post where he was twice wounded. He then returned 
to Vicksburg where Grant was in command. 

Not long after these events, so imperfectly told because of the lack 
of adequate space, General Hovey left the army. His reasons were per- 
sonal, at least in part. He felt that an injustice had been done him v and 
that he could not honorably remain. The president had nominated from 
Illinois more brigadier generals than the state was entitled to and when 
the Senate met and the question of their confirmation came up, an influential 
friend of the president secured the confirmation of a later appointee. This 
would have resulted in making General Hovey subordinate to some men 
whom he had previously ranked, if he should remain in the army, for the 
president urged him to remain and promised to re-appoint him. Doubtless 
a splendid career was open to him. That he would have ranked with 
McPherson, Logan, and the other volunteer generals who attained such 
honorable fame no one who knew him doubted. He was the peer of any 
of the officers with whom he was associated and was so recognized by the 
head of the department to which he belonged. 

After leaving the army he remained for a time in the south but in 
1865 he removed to Washintgon City and engaged in the practice of the 
law. In 1882 he came out to celebrate with us our twenty-fifth anniver- 
sary. What he had to say on that occasion can be found in the first 
history of the school. 

For several years General Hovey was in delicate health. In the 
spring of '97 I invited him to come again and participate in the exercises 
of our fortieth anniversary celebration. No other person of my acquaint- 
ance would have thought for a moment of undertaking the trip in the 
condition in which he was. On the i8th day of June I met him on the 
platform in Bloomington but was not prepared for the merest shadow of 
his former self that staggered toward me when he alighted from the train. 
He was barely able to walk, from excessive weakness and from the weari- 
ness of his long trip. My salutation was greeted with his characteristic 
grit "Tough as a bear." He went to my home and to his bed. He was 
able to attend two or three of the meetings and to speak once or twice. 
It was a hundred days before he could undertake his return trip. It was 


a summer of almost unexampled heat but he bore the confinement of his 
sick room without a murmur. At last we seized what seemed to be a 
fairly favorable opportunity; he nerved himself for the trial and succeeded 
in reaching his home accompanied by his faithful wife and her sister. He 
rallied a little for a time, but on November 17 he died. 

A short stone's throw from the main driveway and a little west of the 
old Lee mansion at Arlington there is a simple stone bearing this in- 
scription : 


Founder and First Principal Illinois State Normal University. 

Private and Colonel Thirty-Third Illinois Infantry. 

Brigadier and Bvt. Major General U.S.V. 

Member of Bar, Supreme Court U.S. 

Education Arms Law. 

Three sons were born to Charles E. Hovey and Harriette Spofford 
Hovey: Edward, who died in his early childhood and is buried in the 
Bloomington cemetery; Fred, who now resides in Idaho; Richard, widely 
known as one of our younger American poets and who died about eight 
years ago and who is buried in North Andover, Mass. Mrs. Hovey lives 
in Washington City. 

General Hovey was a man of striking appearance. He was a born 
leader of men. Often reticent, singularly impenetrable so far as his plans 
were concerned, he was still a most fascinating talker and a most delight- 
ful companion. Pages might be written respecting his indomitable will 
and his unfailing courage and hope. His generosity was unbounded. He 
made a most profound impression upon the young people who came within 
the sphere of his influence. The story of his life should be repeated and re- 
repeated until to all of the sons and daughters of the Illinois State Normal 
University his name shall become a household word. 

"Bugles ! 

And in my heart a cry, 

Like a dim echo far and mournfully, 

Blown back to answer them from yesterday! 

A soldier's funeral ! 

November hillsides and the falling leaves, 

Where the Potomac broadens to the tide 

The crisp autumnal silence and the gray 

(As of a solemn ritual 

Whose congregation glories as it grieves 

Widowed, but still a bride) 

The long hill sloping to the wave 

And the lone bugler standing by the grave ! 

"Taps ! 

The lonely call over the lonely woodlands 

Rising like the soaring of wings, 

Like the flight of an eagle, 


They sound forever in my heart." 

RICHARD HOVEY, in Bugles. 



The name of Ira Moore is a familiar one to the students of the first 
ten years of the school. He was Mr. Hovey's assistant on the historic 
first day at Major's Hall and continued as teacher until the organization 
of the 33rd Regiment, in 1861. Althp he was connected with the institu- 
tion but four years his work was so distinctive in its character that it made 
a lasting mark upon the method of instruction. He had been a student at 
Bridgewater and had been influenced, doubtless, by the traditional thoro- 
ness of that remarkable school. They were still talking about him when 
I entered the Normal School altho he had been gone for a year. It was 
said of him that there was no comfort for any student in his classes who 
did not do his work in a creditable manner. 

I remember when I first saw him. On March 14, 1864, the 33rd Regi- 
ment reached Bloomington on a thirty-day furlough, having re-enlisted 
for veteran service. I recall the intense enthusiasm with which they were 
received. They marched thru the old court house and gave a dress parade 
in the back yard. Only a portion of the regiment was present but the city 
outdid itself in making them welcome. Colonel Potter was in command 
and Captain Moore was at the head of Company G. He returned with 
his company for veteran service but was obliged to resign shortly after 
because of ill health. 

After a year of rest he resumed teaching, becoming Professor of 
Mathematics in the University of Minnesota. Later he was for six years 
president of the St. Cloud Normal School. In 1875 he went to Los An- 
geles and became president of the State Normal School located at that 
place. He made a notable record, remaining in the school until 1893. He 
died in 1895 and was buried at San Jose. 


Mary Brooks, the first principal of the Model School, came from Peo- 
ria where she had been teaching with Mr. Hovey. He writes of her, "She 
was of the usual height, of rather large frame, a little gaunt or poor in 
flesh, with a head to delight an artist and with a face so sincere and win- 
ning as to greatly impress, I will not say to fascinate the beholder. Chil- 
dren loved her at sight and the love was returned. It was genuine and I 
think quite involuntary on both sides. She had, or seemed to have, an 
intuitive knowledge of a child's mind at different stages of development 
and a genius for inventing methods to aid its growth. I call this power 
intuition, genius, but I do not mean that it came to her without effort. 
She was a hard student of books and of nature. When a model school 
was determined upon as an incident and an annex to the Normal Univer- 
sity the Board of Education, on the advice of the principal, invited Miss 
Brooks to come and take charge of it. Her class was composed of chil- 
dren. It was intended at that time as a model and not as a practice 
school for pupil-teachers. I shall not soon forget how Mary and her 
little friends got on together in their cramped and unsuitable room under 
a corner of Major's Hall, nor how the most learned man of the Board, 
Dr. Bunsen, used to sit for hours, sometimes whole days, watching Mary's 
work, as pleased as any of the children, and apparently unconscious of 
the lapse of time. After three years of labor the first teacher in the 
Model School resigned to become Mrs. James Wiley, of Brimfield, 111. 
She died January 9, 1868." 

It was my fortune to begin my teaching as principal of the Brimfield 
schools. I was greatly surprised to find the Mary Brooks of whom I had 
heard so much a resident of the village. She was in all ways the most 
influential woman in the community. The regard in which she was held 
was due to her remarkable qualities as a mother and as a teacher in the 
Sunday school. She was at once so charming and benignant in her man- 


ners that all acknowledged her gentle sway, and her own utter uncon- 
sciousness of the esteem in which she was held was delightful. I could 
well imagine what she had been to the Model School five years before. 
She set the standard for that department of the institution and thus per- 
petuated her own skill and spirit. 


Another name that was often mentioned in my hearing, when I first 
went to the Normal School, was that of Leander H. Potter. He was one 
of the early teachers who left with the Normal regiment in the summer 
of '61. The students who were under his instruction always expressed 
great respect and affection for him. He occupied the chair of English 
Literature. He was an extremely modest and quiet man, and it was 
necessary to be in somewhat close relations with him to discover his su- 
perior qualities. A brief but interesting sketch of his life is found in 
The History of the Thirty-Third Illinois Veteran Volunteer Infantry. I 
quote the following: 

"Upon the organization of Company A he was chosen to be its chief 
without question. He was perhaps the best captain in the 33rd. His com- 
pany was always soldierly and efficient, and he took his executive qualities 
with him when he became Major and Lieutenant-Colonel. Officers and 
men had great respect for him at all .times, and great confidence in him as 
an officer. He was a graduate of Yale, a gentleman and a scholar, and 
our referee in all matters literary and historical that were discussed around 
the camp fires. At times he was melancholy, almost taciturn, but generally 
genial and most companionable. He was brave and level-headed in battle, 
and I regarded him as the best executive and disciplinarian of the officers 
who commanded the regiment. The splendid drill and discipline of the 
33rd were largely due to him. He was twice wounded in battle and his 
character and soldierly qualities made him a great honor to the regiment." 

Colonel Potter resigned in September, 1864, and returned to Bloom- 
ington. I formed his acquaintance at that time. He was in reduced cir- 
cumstances financially and his extreme modesty in urging his fitness for 
a suitable position made a combination of circumstances that offered grave 
practical difficulties. He had at Normal a most devoted friend in the 
person of Dr. Joseph Addison Sewell, then professor of natural sciences 
at the Normal School. Dr. Sewell left no stone unturned until Colonel 
Potter was agreeably employed at his old work of teaching. He taught 
in the Beloit High School, was for several years president of the Illinois 
Soldiers' College, at Fulton, was employed for a time in the Chicago 
schools and at the time of his death, in 1879, was professor of literature 
in Knox College. 

Colonel Potter's splendid culture, his rare refinement and gentle man- 
ners, did wonders for the boys and girls from the villages and farms, the 
large majority of whom were in especial need of such a model of courtesy 
and university disciplines. 

If space permitted it would be a pleasure to write of the erudite Lewis 
and of his career as scholar and man of affairs ; of the genial and lovable 
Dr. Willard, who was also a teacher of history for twenty-four years in 
one of the Chicago High Schools; of Howell, the first principal of the 
High School, whose worth as a man and as a teacher and whose death on 
the field of Donelson are inscribed on the tablet erected to his memory in 
the room where he wrought so faithfully; of Messer, the singer and mu- 
sic teacher and lover of art and of all good and beautiful things ; of Henry 
Norton, affectionately surnamed "The Sage" by his admiring schoolmates, 
a prophet and seer in education and religion, who sleeps on the Santa 


Cruz Mountains near the scene of his loving labors ; and there were others 
whose connection began and closed before 1862 whose memories are still 
green in the hearts of the surviving students of those far away days. 

At the beginning of that school year the faculty consisted of six teach- 
ers: President Edwards, Mr. Hewett, Dr. Sewell, Mr. Metcalf, Mr. Stet- 
son, and Miss Margaret Osband. The principal of the High School was 
Charles F. Childs. Mr. Hewett had been in the school four years, Dr. 
Sewell two years, Miss Osband one year, President Edwards and Mr. Met- 
calf a few months, and Mr. Stetson came two or three weeks after the be- 
ginning of the term. Mr. Metcalf was destined to continue thirty-two 
years longer, Mr. Hewett twenty-eight, Mr. Stetson twenty-five, Dr. 
Sewell fifteen, President Edwards something more than fourteen, Miss 
Osband two, and Mr. Childs one. 

The following sketch of Mr. Hewett is condensed from a memorial 
address prepared by the writer for the Asbury Park meeting of the Na- 
tional Council of Education. 


Edwin C. Hewett was the son of Timothy and Levina Leonard Hewett, 
of East Douglas, Worcester county, Mass. His parents were working- 
people of small means, but had slight need of worldly goods to commend 
them to the esteem of their neighbors. Into the simple life of a frugal, 
industrious, resolute, liberty-loving, God-fearing people, the subject of this 
sketch was born November I, 1828. He was always grateful for the con- 
ditions that surrounded his childhood. How profoundly they colored his 
character all who knew him intimately clearly understood. Indeed, it was 
impossible to interpret him without a knowledge of his forbears. His Puri- 
tan inheritance was the dominating energy of his interesting life. 

At thirteen he was learning a trade on the bench of the journeyman 
shoemaker. This experience was a significant factor in his education. He 
often referred to it, and drew upon its disciplines for apt illustration in 
his classes in psychology and pedagogy. But the school was dear to the 
Puritan heart, and labor was always made to yield a place for learning. 
So to the common school he went, and later to the local academy. At 
twenty-one, Mr. Hewett became a teacher, receiving for his services thir- 
teen dollars a month. Soon dissatisfied with his meager attainments, he 
entered the Bridgewater State Normal School on March 26, 1851. Altho 
the course was brief, he was mature enuf to make the most of it. The 
school was in charge of Nicholas Tillinghast, a West Point graduate, and 
a man whose rigid methods and sterling character exactly fitted into 
Hewett's half-conscious scheme of life. Here he also found Richard Ed- 
wards, that ardent enthusiast with a prophet's zeal for popular education, 
who was an assistant to the principal. They were to meet again in the 
new West eleven years later. These influences wrought mightily upon this 
earnest poet-Puritan, with his surface play of wit and anecdote, and a 
background colored with a disposition toward a tender melancholy. 

After completing the course, which was about one year, he was en- 
gaged at Pitts-field as high-school assistant; but was recalled to Bridge- 
water the succeeding year, where he remained four years, intensifying in 
its congenial atmosphere the well-defined features of his marked individ- 
uality. A more liberal salary then took him to a Worcester grammar 
school; but he was soon to have a wider field for the exercise of his rare 
talents. Charles E. Hovey, principal of the new Illinois State Normal 
School, tendered him a place in the faculty of that institution, and in Oc- 
tober, 1858, he was installed as teacher of geography and history a posi- 
tion which he continued to hold until his elevation to the head of the 
school in January, 1876. 


Supt. P. R. Walker, of Rockford, 111., was a student in the 
institution when Mr. Hewett assumed his new duties. At the memorial 
exercises held at the school he gave an interesting description of the im- 
pression made upon the class by the first geography assignment by the 
teacher, who had come to succeed an unsatisfactory instructor. The effect 
was electric. It was recognized as the beginning of a new epoch in the 
schools of Illinois. 

Mr. Hewett did not possess a commanding personal appearance. He 
was of slight figure, weighing rarely more than one hundred and twenty 
pounds. Altho his figure was slight, it was extremely symmetrical, and 
always suggestive of great intellectual alertness and vigor. As might be 
surmised, his temperament was nervous and highly energetic. He coupled 
with these qualities great industry and an ox-like patience in working out 
details. He well understood his physical limitations, however, and would 
balk with a most interesting obstinacy when he felt that he was approach- 
ing them. But his energy so happily combined with his industry that he 
quite invariably carried his plans to a triumphant success, whatever may 
have been the opposition which he encountered. 

As a teacher he is thoroly individualized and most clearly defined in 
the memory of the thousands of pupils who came under his instruction. 
He had no neutral tints. There was nothing vague or uncertain about 
him or his methods. First of all, there was the most transparent and un- 
mistakable intellectual honesty. He was on the hunt for truth. I never 
knew another who drew the line more sharply between what he held 
tentatively and what he regarded as settled. I have no better description 
of his intellectual quality than to characterize him as "the man who de- 
fines." He loved a fine sincerity of speech, and sought the rugged Saxon 
with its limited synonyms rather than the more equivocal vocabulary of 
classic tongues. He would pare his sentences until they were like a row 
of bayonets, and would manifest especial satisfaction with every possible 
elimination. He loved the words that bear their meaning on their faces, 
and would disdainfully discard an ostentatious polysyllable for the terse- 
ness of monosyllabic speech, wherever it was possible. 

As a consequence of his own essential honesty, he was extremely in- 
tolerant of anything approaching pretense on the part of the pupil. Noth- 
ing else so excited his hot indignation. For the dull but faithful he had 
boundless patience. For the sharper and the pretender his keen arrows 
were dipped in gall. It was this quality that explained the rigor of his 
recitations. His thoroness was a household word. His pupils always held 
themselves higher in their own genuine regard after completing his work. 

Mr. Hewett never made the slightest effort to win popularity. That he 
was not indifferent to praise I well know. But he absolutely lost sight of 
such considerations when on the trail of truth. He had no favorites, and 
held all equally responsible for intellectual and moral results. And he was 
never effusive in his praise. He was rarely fortunate who won more than 
quiet approval. "He knows what he is about," was an expression of quite 
extreme commendation. He understood the peculiar force of understate- 
ment. In consequence, his influence as a class-room teacher was most 
healthfully inspiring. He won my ardent admiration when I sat in his 
classes, and the tempering experiences of twoscore years approve the in- 
stinctive wisdom of my youth. I dwell with fondness upon this feature 
of his career, because it was rather as a teacher than as a president that 
his greatest work was done. 

He came to the presidency of the Normal School in January, 18/6, 
upon the resignation of Richard Edwards. In this capacity his crowning 
merit was the freedom which he permitted to his subordinates. He was 
not then in especial sympathy with much of the objective method of mod- 
ern physical science, declaring that the imagination could furnish its own 
experiments ; but he was an easy convert later, and gave most cordial 


support to the innovations. While he was a very positive and uncompro- 
mising man where his mind had settled upon certain convictions, his con- 
clusions were for himself; he imposed them upon no one. He was natur- 
ally indisposed to change, for there was a strong element of conservatism 
in his nature; but the door of opportunity was open to his subordinates, 
and he was not slow to recognize whatever there was of good that came 
out of our excursions into the region of experiment. Colonel Parker was 
fond of saying that one should never do a thing twice in the same way, 
while Dr. Hewett was rather disposed to seek for finalities in method, 
something upon which one could really rest and thus quench his wander 

He was not averse to praise, but he never sought it. More should be 
said of this aspect of his character. He was always ready to part company 
with the world and walk uncomplainingly alone, rather than to swerve in 
the slightest degree from what he regarded as the clear leadings of truth 
and duty. The iron of the Puritan was in his blood. He would not go 
with the crowd unless convinced that the crowd was right. He was never 
swept away by any sudden enthusiasms. He held his balance with a cer- 
tain reserve even against his closest friends. He invariably considered be- 
fore he assented. He belonged to the group that never can be accounted 
"with us" until we have stated our case and it has commended itself 
to their sober judgment. 

He never wore his heart upon his sleeve, yet he was thoroly sympa- 
thetic and approachable. There was no student so humble but found ready 
access to his heart. His test of merit was substantial worth, and all other 
distinctions were to him matters of supreme indifference. His mind cen- 
tered upon consideration of ultimate value, of fundamental and abiding 
consequence, and for them he looked when estimating the real value of men 
and women. He was a trifle slow in making friends, but he rarely lost one. 
It sometimes seems to me a matter of surprise that he was so tenderly 
loved by so many, and he so undemonstrative and so little given to ex- 
pressions of affection. Aaron Grove wrote of him : "He was at first one 
of the idols of my young manhood ; as years passed and we were heart to 
heart, I loved him. Integrity, watchfulness, devotion to friends, independ- 
ence in analysis ; a sweet confidant and an absolutely upright man, I count 
his going as a personal loss ; the vacancy can never be filled, neither for 
me nor for what is greater, the world in which we live." The gifted ex- 
President Sewell, of Denver, for years associated with him in the Normal 
School, concludes a beautiful tribute to his memory as follows : "He was, 
taking him all in all, what the world most needs today, and what the world 
mourns when such a one is gone a man, a nobleman. This too brief 
statement I do not count as a crown to wreathe his brow. His life-work 
wrought and placed the crown. I humbly, reverently, lay this tribute at 
his feet." Dr. Boyden, who was a teacher at Bridgewater when Mr. Hewett 
entered the school, writes of him : "In these early years he gave full as- 
surance of the richness and fullness of his subsequent life. He has been 
a great blessing to many lives ; he has wrought a great work ; his life is a 
great legacy; he leaves a fragrant memory that shall not perish." In a 
similarly affectionate vein write Dr. Richard Edwards, Hon. Hiram Hadley, 
Dr. Canfield, George P. Brown, and others. 

Socially, he was a rare companion. He loved a good story, was a con- 
summate wit, excelled at repartee, and was able to hold his own with the 
best in heightening the merriment of an occasion. Who can ever forget 
his quaint grotesqueness as he occasionally sang with appropriate action 
some of the old songs that were current in his boyhood? But for society in 
the strictest sense he had no fondness. Its formal conventionalities were 
offensive to him, and its "fuss and feather" were often the object of his 
unsparing satire. He was a lover of solitude. The little study at the head 
of the stairs, barely large enuf for his books, his table, and his chair, was 


his favorite resort. There I often found him as I entered, an unannounced 
visitor. There he read and rested, and it was also his "growlery" when 
the wind was in the east. Withal he had a poetic temperament, and there, 
like a bird in its leafy covert, that sings for the dear delight of singing 
and with no care for the listening ear, he uttered the burden of his deeper 
thought in an occasional poem which invariably had for its theme the pro- 
founder problems of life and destiny. I have spoken of his disposition to 
dwell upon the shadowy side of life. This became apparent while he was 
still a young man, and was deepened by the later experiences of life. It 
is especially evidenced in poems written as early as 1854, while he was 
yet at Bridgewater. The sense of individualism and of loneliness in the 
midst of life, which expressed itself in hours of especial intimacy, appears 
in the following stanza: 

Borne onward by the swelling flood, 

Each steers his little bark alone; -i 

Tho numberless the passing crowd, 

Each tiny vessel holds but one. 

Was it his Puritan inheritance that led him to brood so persistently 
over these somber themes? In 1870 he experienced a peculiar sorrow in 
the death of little Paul, his infant son, who passed away while Mr. Hewett 
was absent from home. He rarely spoke of the child, but his faithful 
diary, in which he made a daily record for many years, discloses the secret 
sorrow that shadowed his life. In 1871 he wrote: 

There's a little mound where the maple waves, 
Where the grass and the flowers are fair ; 

'Tis a quiet spot in a "garden of graves," 
And our thoughts turn sadly there. 

The little lad's birthdays are noted as the years slip by, and much of the 
pensive tenderness of later years finds its explanation in the pages of the 
little book to whose sacred confidence he intrusted the secret story of his 

With such characteristics the deep religious vein which gave a marked 
coloring to his nature was naturally associated. The harmonies of the 
world, as manifested in the invariable laws of nature, appealed mightily 
to the characteristic quality of his intellect. His mind could not rest 
short of a self-conscious First Cause who holds the universe in the hollow 
of his hand, and who directs its manifestations with the sublime authority 
of an inerrant reason. In consequence, religion was a necessity to his 
intellect. But his emotional nature no less craved self-conscious love as 
the motive of the universe. While in no sense illiberal with regard to the 
opinions of others, he strongly inclined to the stricter theological views of 
his Puritan ancestors. 

Both his rigorous sense of duty and his natural inclination led him 
to give much of his time and his means to religious work. He was a re- 
markable teacher of the Bible, and was always engaged in the work of the 
Sunday school. Indeed, religious contemplation and religious service were 
especially congenial employments. His poetic gift was exercised in the 
composition of several hymns, two of which were sung at his funeral. 

As an educational writer Mr. Hewett is known thru two books on 
education, a treatise on elementary pedagogy, and another on the simpler 
phases of psychology. He is also the author of a series of arithmetics 
published by Rand & McNally. He was associated with Mr. Gove, and 
later with the author of this paper, in the editorship of the Illinois 
Schoolmaster, and recently with Mr. George P. Brown in the editorship 
of the well-known magazine, School and Home Education. He was for 
many years prominent in Illinois as a lecturer and educational writer. 
With the exception of one year spent in travel, he was connected with 

President, 1876-1890. 


the Illinois State Normal University for thirty-two years. For sixteen 
and a half years he was professor of geography and history, and for four- 
teen and a half years president. 

In August, 1857, Mr. Hewett was married to Angelina N. Benton, of 
Sublette, 111. They had two children, Mrs. R. R. Reeder, born in 1860, and 
Paul, born in 1870. Mrs. Reeder resides in New York, where her husband 
is at the head of a prominent orphan asylum. As was previously stated, 
Paul died in 1870. Mrs. Hewett, a most estimable woman, passed away, 
after some years of delicate health, on November 21, 1895. On August 31, 
1898, Mr. Hewett was united in marriage to Mrs. Helen E. Paisley, long 
a resident of Normal and formerly a student in the Normal School. Dr. 
Hewett died on March i, 1905. 


Among all of the men connected with the Normal School there has 
never been a more unique personality than Dr. Sewell. He was born on 
April 20, 1830. He attended the district school until he was fifteen when 
he took his first school to "keep." Later he attended the Biddeford High 
School for two years and, in his own phrase, had some Latin and mathe- 
matics pounded into him. Determined to become a doctor, he "read 
medicine" with Dr. Nathaniel Brooks, of Saco, Maine, and taught school 
thru the winters to keep the pot boiling. He took his degree in medicine 
in 1852 and practiced in Bangor for nearly two years. But his health 
failed and he came to Illinois in October, 1854, stopping at Dover, where 
he had an uncle. He taught in Dover that winter and the succeeding 
year he went to Peoria. It was there that he met Mr. Hovey of whom 
he always speaks in terms of the warmest affection. Soon after, he had 
a call to the Union School, at Princeton, where he received a salary of 
twelve hundred dollars a year, an extremely flattering recognition^ of 
his services. 

But his health broke down again. He came from a consumptive fam- 
ily, his three brothers and two sisters dying of that dreadful malady. He 
concluded to go to the town of Tonica, in LaSalle county, and enter the 
drug business. He tried it for awhile but he did not like it. He had 
abandoned the practice of medici;ie because of his growing aversion to 
drugs and he got on no better with them in selling them than he did in 
administering them. It was very hard for him to sell what he could not 
conscientiously advise people to take. One day he went down to Decatur 
to see an old friend. Upon his return trip he stopped off at Bloomington 
to see his friend Hovey. This was in 1858 while the school was yet in 
Major's Hall and Mr. Hovey was exhausting every possible scheme to go 
forward with a partially finished building out on the prairie near "the 
junction." The Doctor had no sooner met him than he was warmly 
greeted with, "You are the very man I want to see." After a long talk 
over the Normal School situation, Mr. Hovey expressed the desire to 
have him take the position of teacher of natural sciences. Doctor Sewell 
felt that he was not prepared for such a position but he assured Mr. Hovey 
that if the place could be held for him he would get ready for it. The 
arrangement was agreed to and the Doctor went to Tonica, closed his 
drug store and went to Yale. There he took a course of lectures on 
"agricultural chemistry." (Was it to satisfy the conditions of the Bake- 
well gift?) From there he went to Harvard and entered the Lawrence 
Scientific School, taking chemistry with Horsford, Botany with Gray, and 
lectures with Agassiz. He returned to Tonica in July, 1860, and went to 
Normal in September following. On February n, 1858, he was married 
to Ann E. Weston. 

Dr. Sewell was a teacher in the Normal School for eighteen years. 
In 1878 he was elected to the presidency of the New University of Col- 


oradq, at Boulder, and began his duties there in September of that year. 
This position he held for several years and until the university was well 
established in the confidence of the people of the State. He then removed 
to Denver and to a professorship in the University bearing the name of 
the city. A few years ago he retired from that position and since then 
has been city chemist in Denver. He resides at 356 South Broadway and 
any Normal student can always find a warm welcome at his attractive 

Dr. Sewell is easily characterized. He was first of all a thinker. The 
reflective habit was as natural to him as breathing. He came of a gifted 
family. The Sewells, of Massachusetts, were always in evidence in some 
conspicuous way. There were three chief justices of the Old Bay State, 
all Sewells, one of whom assisted in trying the witchcraft cases and la- 
mented his part in it later and until the close of his life. And there was 
another, a poet, who, in his epilogue to Cato, wrote those familiar lines : 

"No pent up Utica contracts your powers, 
But the whole boundless continent is yours." 

As a teacher the Doctor was in no sense a drill master. It was aside 
from his inclinations and not at all in line with his pedagogical doctrine. 
He exercised the function ascribed to Socrates ; he assisted in giving 
birth to ideas. As Doctor Hewett might be characterized as the man 
who defines, so Doctor Sewell might be as adequately described as the 
man who illustrates. Few men that I have ever known could equal him 
in making a conception clear if it was capable of concrete treatment. He 
would seize the simplest thing at hand and make the most remarkable use 
of it in conveying correct notions of conditions that could not be revealed 
without dissection. He was also one of the very early teachers of botany 
who believed in studying plants themselves in order to find out about 
them. How often I have heard him repeat the injunction from the Ser- 
mon on the Mount, "Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow," with 
his peculiar emphasis on the last three words. 

I have said that he was a thinker, and this quality suffused his class 
room work. I think that his pupils will never forget him for he was al- 
ways dealing with a rich content and in a way to make them discontented 
with anything less. He was very popular as a lecturer on scientific sub- 
jects and was constantly engaged in picking at difficult problems and then 
trying his conclusions upon one and another for the purpose of testing 
their validity. He was as free from scholastic narrowness as it was pos- 
sible for one to be, for his whole attitude was that of the simple learner, 
as willing to be taught by a child as by a sage. Indeed, he was in all ways 
large and catholic spirited. What was true of him as a scholar was as 
strikingly characteristic of him in all other respects. The only exaggera- 
tion in applying to him the oft-quoted remark that he would share his 
last crust with a needy friend lies in the word share, for the self-forgetful 
Doctor would not keep any for himself. It is needless to say that he had 
a very warm place in the hearts of many. 

Dr. Sewell's lectures were strikingly original and interesting. I well 
recall the impression that they made upon my mind. There was one about 
"The Leaf," and for a third of a century it has kept recurring again and 
again to my thought, for it led me to regard the little commonplace thing 
as one of the most marvelous of the workers of the world. There was 
another about "Sand," and when one heard it he straightway concluded 
that the good Doctor had discovered what everything is made of. In- 
deed, he quote Shakespeare in proof his contention, for the great drama- 
tist has one of his characters remark : 

"Sans teeth, sans eyes, sans everything." 

And there was another lecture that disturbed some people not a little 
"No Dirt, No Death, No Devil." 


I am reminded of the limitations of space, but the theme is a very 
inviting one. A brief incident must have place. One day I came upon a 
charming paragraph, wonderfully revealing in its insight, exquisitely ex- 
pressed, and full of the deepest feeling. It had been caught out of a 
larger whole some years before and had found a place among the mis- 
cellany of a magazine. I thought that it would please Dr. Sewell and I 
read it to him. He was deeply touched by the sentiment, he admired the 
style and felt grateful for the thought which, he said, was new to him. 
"By the way," said he, as the caller was going, "who wrote the little 
clipping?" "Yourself," was the reply. 

As I close this altogether inadequate sketch of a very delightful man 
my eyes fall upon a letter only nine days old and in his unmistakable 
chirography: "My life up to 1860 was a constant struggle with poverty, 

ill-health, and sore affliction Yet now I am in good health, good 

natured, and far from despondency. I like the world in which I live. 
I have had much to make life pleasant and I count the companionship and 
loving remembrance of my friends as among the best of God's gifts to me." 

The Normal students of the seventies and earlier will be glad to know 
that the Doctor and Mrs. Sewell have their son, a grandson, and two of 
their daughters with them and that all are in excellent health. The eldest 
daughter is the wife of Rev. Thomas Van Ness, pastor of the First Uni- 
tarian Church, Boston. 


One evening in the early part of September, 1862, a group of Normal 
students sat on the porch of the "Pearce House" at the corner of Fell ave- 
nue and Ash street, settling some of the vexed questions of pedagogy but 
especially venturing predictions as to the whereabouts of a delayed teacher, 
one Professor Stetson, who had been expected since the beginning of the 
term. In the midst of the conversation some one pointed out a vigorous 
pedestrian, who evidently had walked out from the city, striding by, -and 
guessed him off as the expected increase to the faculty. He was a wiry, 
nervous, energetic young man of thirty or thereabouts, and with a com- 
plexion suggesting plenty of fire and steam. The next morning found the 
stranger seated on the platform and ready for business. 

He was a native of Kingston, Massachusetts, and was born in 1834. 
One year of his boyhood was spent in pegging shoes and during the sum- 
mers of his fourteenth and fifteenth years he worked in a tack factory. 
He took the Bridgewater Normal School course in 1852-3. The next year 
he had charge of a grammar school at the extreme end of Cape Cod. He 
has some very interesting reminiscences of his experiences with the rather 
boisterous young fishermen of the Cape. 

The following year he entered the preparatory department of Antioch 
College at Yellow Springs, Ohio. The president of the college was the 
distinguished Horace Mann, the father of the Normal School movement 
in Massachusetts. Peculiar circumstances threw him into somewhat inti- 
mate relations with President Mann for which he was especially grateful. 

In July, 1858, Mr. Stetson was admitted to Harvard College. He shut 
himself up in his room for the summer and in September he was admitted 
to the sophomore class. With the exception of some small assistance 
from the college he maintained himself thruout his course. He was one 
of the editors of the Harvard Magazine, a tribute to his literary ability 
which should have been especially gratifying to him. 

In September, 1862, as has been related, he went to Normal as teacher 
of literature in the Normal University. He remained in that position for 
the succeeding twenty-five years. Just across the hall the preceptress, 
Miss Osband, inducted the Normal freshmen into the mysteries of Mulli- 
gan's grammar. What more natural than what happened. Some two years 
after he arrived he was married to Miss Margaret E. Osband, for three 
years teacher of grammar and drawing. 


Mr. Stetson had the misfortune to write a beautiful hand. In conse- 
quence he was condemned to keep the records of the school. How he en- 
dured the drudgery of it so amiably is difficult to explain. He filled vol- 
ume after volume with his copper plate chirography and they will remain 
forever and a day as silent witnesses of his accuracy and faithfulness in 
doing what must have been a disagreeable duty. In responding to a feel- 
ing address made by a student in behalf of the school, as he was retiring 
from the institution, he half-humorously remarked, as he pointed to a for- 
midable pile of records lying on his table, "When I came to Normal it was 
my ambition to write books. Behold the results." 

He entered into the life of the literary societies more heartily and 
more helpfully, I think, than any other one of us. He even acted as 
president and for more than one term and gave to the young people the 
advantage of his many-sided experience in a variety of ways. 

Mr. Stetson was one of the tidiest of men. His class room was a 
model of attractiveness. The boards were illuminated by the lessons that 
he assigned with neatness and precision. He was a constant reproach to 
the careless and untidy. 

His duties extended over a considerable field, including the main 
subject of his department and, in addition, some work in reading and 
Latin. He demanded prompt and vigorous recitations and his insistence 
was never uncertain. He brought into the school an added increment of 
the old Bridgewater school which had so much to do with a determination 
of the character of the institution. He enriched his culture by foreign 
travel while here and gave the students abundant opportunity to profit by 
his advantages. 

In 1887 he removed to Southern California, teaching, for a time, in a 
college but he soon went to San Francisco and entered the service of the 
Cable Car Company, of which a relative was a prominent official. He 
continued in that capacity for a number of years. It was while he was 
living in San Francisco that he lost his wife. For the last few years he 
has resided in Los Angeles. 


Thomas Metcalf died on the first day of January, 1895, m his seven- 
tieth year. His birthday was June 19. The picture in the "Reception 
Room" is as near a perfect presentment of his face as the painter's art 
can hope to achieve. It is hard to speak in terms of moderation when 
contemplating this beautiful character. 

He was born in West Wrentham, Massachusetts. As the story runs, 
he was working in his father's field on a summer day in his sixteenth year. 
The village teacher had gone to her home on the preceding Saturday and 
for some unknown reason had failed to return. His father was one of 
the school officials and ventured to let the lad, who was eager for the 
opportunity, try to keep the children quiet until the teacher should return. 
This was his introduction to a calling which he followed for a half a 
century. After teaching school for four years, spending three terms in 
the Wrentham Academy and one year in the Bridegwater Normal School, 
he was elected sub-master of the Warren school in Charlestown, Massa- 
chusetts. Two years later he became principal of the West Roxbury 
grammar school. In 1857 he went to St. Louis to take a position in the 
city High School and remained there until 1862, for the last five months 
acting as principal of the combined Normal and High School. His de- 
cision to leave New England was largely determined by the dreadful 
affliction which he and his wife had undergone in the almost simultaneous 
death of two of their children, a son and a daughter. He declined to con- 
tinue in St. Louis because of the unfavorable climate and went to the 
Normal School at Normal at a salary materially less than he would have 
received if he could have been induced to remain. He began his work at 


Normal as teacher of mathematics. He was thirty-six years old. The 
clear-cut, scholarly face; the spare, trim figure; the exquisite neatness of 
his dress; the precise accuracy of his speech; the extreme earnestness of 
his manner and the exacting requirements of his class work made a pro- 
found impression upon all who were privileged to sit under his instruc- 
tion. Who that came into such relations with him can ever forget the 
enthusiastic delight with which he dug out the mathematical "nuggets," 
as he aptly called them, or the appreciative approval with which he greeted 
the faintest spark of originality? How scrupulously tidy he was in all of 
his mechanical manipulations and how snug and accurate in his thinking! 
He was so faultless and delicate in his manner; so elegant and chaste in 
his diction, and, withal, so sympathetic with the crudeness and lack of cul- 
ture of his pupils that he was singularly potent in shaping their lives. 

The demands that he made upon his classes were extraordinary but 
they were no greater than he made upon himself. Personal worth was 
the uncompromising standard by which he measured everyone and he 
constantly applied it to himself. The habit of self scrutiny was a primal 
impulse with him. But there was nothing morbid about it. It was natural 
and thoroly healthful. 

The philosophic Herbart sets up character-building as the true aim 
of every activity of the school. Mr. Metcalf never thot of the school in 
any other way. He loved the knowledges; the purely intellectual phases 
of any subject intensely attracted him; but they seemed partial and in- 
complete if they lacked an ethical content or did not stimulate distinctly 
to fine living. The formulae of mathematics found in him a peculiarly 
hospitable friend, because of their definiteness and clearness, and mainly 
because of the training which they give in sharp discrimination between 
the false and the true. The multiplication table was to him far more than 
a calculus; it expressed the unvarying universality of law as opposed to 
the shifting compromises of expediency. It was often remarked that his 
arithmetic classes had a richer ethical outcome than the majority of spe- 
cific lessons on morality or religion. There was never the slightest trace 
of disease in his introspective habit. It was the very opposite of an 
affected self-abasement. He was fundamentally cheery and sunny. He 
loved the light and had withal a fine vein of mirthfulness. He was not 
lacking in jest and it was always delicate and sweet. On several occa- 
sions, in the conversations incident to a close companionship, he deplored 
a certain scholasticism of manner which, he fancied, shut him away some- 
what from the trustfulness of the young. But he thereby did himself in- 
justice. The children who knew him turned toward him with instinctive 
confidence, especially in his later years. 

His habit of self-examination resulted in a character of remarkable 
harmony and balance. He was self-poised to a degree that I have never 
seen surpassed, yet he had a peculiarly distinctive coloring. He stood 
most characteristically for kindness, for Christian charity for more, for 
sympathy and love. No other poet touched him as did the saintly Whit- 
tier, and no other utterance of that sweet singer was so frequently upon 
his lips as "The Eternal Goodness." It was the severer side of the 
theology of New England that drove him to the companionship of the 
Universalists. He could not think that God would be other than tender 
and loving to the most wayward of his children. He often said, "They 
cannot escape His love. At some time they will all return to the Father's 

He would have been a teacher wherever his lot might have been cast 
for his life was a perpetual sermon on the Beatitudes. When he turned 
to the schoolroom it was a specific consecration. Dr. Edwards had no 
ordinary insight when he called him to his side in the days of struggle 
and discouragement that witnessed the beginnings of the Normal School. 
And his choice was not less felicitous when he assigned him to the deli- 


cate task of training teacher, some years later. It was in this position 
that he returned to the companionship of childhood. How patiently and 
faithfully he guarded them and how sympathetically and patiently he dealt 
with the ignorance and inexperience of the hundreds of pupil-teachers 
under his charge, I have no space to relate. It is enuf to say that the 
man and the duties met in the happiest harmony. Where could such a 
soul find so suitable a center from which to touch the world? In countless 
school houses in crowded cities, in scattered hamlets, in the silences of 
obscure districts, apart from the noisy competition of the world's market 
places, that serene ministry has multiplied its benefactions to little chil- 
dren. How often the memory of his gracious forbearance has shamed 
impatient voices into silence ! How often the recollection of his tireless 
toil has renewed the flagging zeal of weary teachers ! How often the 
eloquence of his life has rebuked the low ideals of the leaders of the 
young and reinforced a fading faith in the divinity of man ! 

Mr. Metcalf was an active member of the liberal church in Blooming- 
ton during all of his residence in Normal. His financial contributions 
were out of all proper ratio to his financial condition as such things are 
ordinarily estimated. But best of all, he gave himself in large and un- 
stinted measure. For more than twenty years he was the most significant 
feature of the Sunday school. It did not matter so much to him who 
did not come ; he was always there with the sunshine in his face. From 
those far-away days of civil strife when that poet philosopher, Charles G. 
Ames, thrilled his people, in old Phoenix Hall, the pastors who minis- 
tered to that people were sure of one constant and sympathetic listener. 
His quick face mirrored every inspiring thot. The singer needed but to 
turn to him to get his sure reward from a shining countenance. To those 
who were accustomed to sit near him his place can never be vacant. The 
subtle interchange of approving smiles when the thought came quick and 
rich from the pulpit, when the organ harmonies swept us all away upon 
the waves of great symphonies, or the vibrating melodies of the singers 
touched the deep places of our lives, are permanent possessions of those 
who drew so largely upon the rich treasure house of his sensitive nature. 

He resigned his position in the Normal School in June, 1894. It was 
a sad day to teachers and pupils. The president closed his baccalaureate 
address in the following words : "There will go with you on Thursday 
next, one whose name will not appear on your class list, nor will he re- 
ceive from official hands a formal acknowledgment, inscribed on perish- 
able parchment, that his work in this institution is at last completed. You 
go forth to sow while he will sit among his sheaves. More than half a 
century has fled into the past, laden with his gracious toil, since he first 
donned the modest garb of the teacher. Would you seek an inspiration 
for the work that awaits you, I point you to the record of his life. There 
is no page that is not writ full of self-sacrificing devotion to his kind. 
Has it paid? Ask him. Could the acclamations of the noisy multitudes, 
the tinsel of wealth, the passing glory of political preferment, fill him with 
a tithe of the happy content that he carries to his well-earned rest? There 
can be no sea nor shore where our grateful love will not follow him. May 
Heaven's benedictions fall upon him and may the afternoon of his beauti- 
ful life linger long and lovingly to the evening." 

When he left his work at the Normal School there was little thought 
that only a few months of life were left to him. It was but a few weeks 
before his death that his intimate friends learned for the first time that 
for months he had been afflicted with a fatal disease. With his customary 
regard for the feelings of others he had disguised the fact, barely men- 
tioning it in a slighting way to his sons. 

There was no shadow in impending death to obscure the sunshine of 
his life. While he remained in Normal his sick room was filled with 
flowers, the daily remembrances of loving friends. With his customary 


Member of Board of Education for Forty-one Years, 
and President of the Board for Fifteen Years. 


patience and fortitude he awaited the inevitable end. By his side in those 
days of affliction stood a kindred spirit of the same heroic mould. She hid 
her anguish in her heart and supplemented his fading strength with the 
marvelous ministry of her undaunted courage. Near the close of the year 
he went to Chicago where he could be near his sons. It was there that 
he passed away on the first day of January, 1895. 

Jenkin Lloyd Jones said of him, "I venture the opinion that in the 
state of Illinois, no man was more deeply, beautifully, widely loved." 

Dr. Edwards, who knew him so intimately for forty years or more, 
said of him : "Who can calculate the amount of spiritual and moral en- 
ergy that he imparted to the thousands of students who have been moulded 
by his hand in the Normal University and to hundreds of others whom 
he had previously led?" 

"He had learned the lesson which the world is slow to accept, that 
the heart is more powerful for good than the head or hands." Edwin 
C. Hewett. 

"I always felt that life to him was a sacred trust." M. L. Seymour. 

"He seemed to live nearer and follow closer the teachings of the 
'Great Master' than any man I ever knew." Henry McCormick. 

"He set the world an example in gentleness, neatness, industry, pur- 
ity of thought and word and deed and nobility of purpose." D. C. Smith. 

"His was an exact mind, tempered, sweetened, and made lovable by 
gracious charity." Charles DeGarmo. 

"His was the gentlest and the sweetest character I have ever known." 
Sarah C. Brooks. 


Richard Edwards is a Welshman. He was born in Cardiganshire, on 
the 23d day of December, 1822. One of the diversions of his childhood 
was the committing to memory of the English catechism in a language of 
which he knew nothing, an incident of which he makes an occasional men- 
tion as an illustration of the current pedagogy in the early thirties of the 
last century. 

When he was in his eleventh year his parents moved to America and 
settled in Northern Ohio. He had the advantage of the training of intel- 
ligent and pious parents but his school opportunities were very limited in 
the early part of his life. He had a few terms in the district school at 
Palmyra and afterward a few months in a high school at Ravenna. Like 
many another aspiring youth he was obliged to take a considerable part 
of his education into his own hands. Mr. Edwards had three endowments 
that were responsible for the results that he was able to accomplish with- 
out the assistance of the school. These were an unusual intellectual en- 
dowment, a thirst for culture, and a most bountiful supply of energy. 
The first implied, as it usually does, a retentive memory. Indeed, that 
was little short of marvelous as estimated by the common standards. 

At eighteen he became a carpenter and was soon advanced to the re- 
sponsible position of "boss." He found leisure spaces, as one always can 
if the desire is strong enough, to follow up his reading and a life of study 
was so enticing that he abandoned the saw and the plane and determined 
to become a teacher. 

The fall of the year 1843 found him in charge of a district school near 
his home, a position for which he now declares himself entirely unfitted. 
The salary was eleven dollars a month with the stipulation that he was 
to "board Around." His certificate bears date, November 10, 1843, and cer- 
tifies to his ability to "teach reading, writing, and arithmetic, as the law 
requires, also geography and English grammar." With regard to the 
two latter he seems not to have been cumbered with any legal restrictions. 

With the aid of a few friends he formed a debating society which held 
its meetings in the school house. One of these meetings was attended by 


a Rev. Mr. Hudson who had recently completed his studies at Harvard 
college. He was greatly surprised at the ability manifested by this young 
man, and strongly urged him to go east and get an education. A Mr. 
Samuel B. Greeley was another man to whom Mr. Edwards feels greatly 
indebted. He seconded the suggestions made by Mr. Hudson and fur- 
nished not only inspiration, but counsel and money and a letter to Mr. 
Samuel J. May, then at Lexington, Massachusetts. There were others 
who joined their advice to that of these two gentlemen and the result 
was that in October, 1844, Mr. Edwards started to New England on a 
mission which at first suggestion seemed to him to be the most Quixotic 
of schemes. 

With only thirty dollars at his command and with the journey from 
Ohio to Boston before him he made the venture. He employed the cheap- 
est transportation available and finally found himself at the end of his 
journey. Mr. May gave him letters to Mr. Tillinghast then principal of 
the State Normal School at Bridgewater, and called with him upon 
"Father" Pierce at West Newton. He there heard of a school that was 
seeking a teacher, so he declined the cordial invitation to dinner, walked 
back to Boston, a distance of five miles, paid his bill out of the meager 
remnant of his capital, and started to secure the coveted position. He 
walked eighteen miles further that night and the next morning trudged 
on to Scituate. There he was kindly entertained by a hospitable gentle- 
man who saw his evident desire to rise in the world and furthered his 
ambition by putting him in the attic to sleep. The reception proved to be 
a cold one for the night ushered in a genuine northeaster which sifted 
the snow through the unplastered walls of the top story. The situation 
was a disheartening one but his courage proved to be equal to the oc- 
casion. The next day he was so fortunate as to secure the position at 
Hingham. Thither he betook himself on foot but the distance was too 
great to be accomplished on that day. The night and a drenching rain 
overtook him and he was again obliged to seek the hospitality of a dwel- 
ling. His pedestrianism had not improved his appearance but the letter 
from Mr. May insured a kind reception. The next morning he reached 
his destination and began his work. His money was reduced to twenty- 
five cents. 

He taught this school for two winters and worked and attended school 
at Bridgewater the intervening summer. The next year he finished his 
course at the Normal School and in the fall began teaching at Waltham. 
President Hill, of Harvard College, was a member of his school board. 
The next year he spent at the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, at Troy. 
He afterward finished the course and was employed in a subordinate ca- 
pacity in the construction of the Boston water works. Soon after he was 
called to a position at the Bridgewater Normal School at a salary of three 
hundred dollars a year. His fortunes rapidly brightened, however, and 
in 1854 he was made temporary principal of the State Normal School at 
Salem, and the following year was permanently appointed, with a salary 
of $1500 a year. His wisdom in seeking an education was now abundantly 

In 1856 he was called to St. Louis but did not accept the call. The 
following year he received a second call and wisely determined to go 
west. He organized and started the city Normal School, receiving a sal- 
ary of $2500 a year. In the spring of 1862 he went to Normal and in the 
month of September began his work there as principal of the school. As 
has been indicated, it was_ at this time that I entered the institution as a 
pupil and that a friendship began that has continued to the present. 

There was great need of a head to the institution. As has been nar- 
rated, the most of the young men had entered the army a year before. 
This had materially diminished the attendance of the school. Further, 
the nominal principal for the preceding year was not a teacher but z 


business man. There were a few of the students of the Hovey regime 
still in the school. They were devoutly worshiping the former organiza- 
tion and methods. This was a source of some embarrassment to Mr. 
Edwards but it was soon forgotten. As a newcomer I knew nothing of 
the past of the school and was at once a warm partisan of the management. 

Mr. Edwards remained at the head of the school for fifteen years and 
a term. It is hard for one who was so close to him to write with what 
might be deemed becoming moderation of his administration. In general 
it may be said that he and the teachers whom he guided stamped a pe- 
culiar character upon the school. An individuality developed here as 
unique as it is interesting. Owing to the fact that slight changes were 
made in the faculty for many years a certain policy became ingrained in 
the school habits. The institution retained these characteristics for many 
years and they may yet be recognized by anyone who attempts a study 
of the graduates. 

Mr. Edwards, first of all, was inspired by an enthusiasm for teaching 
that suffused the whole institution. The atmosphere was surcharged with 
life-giving energy. He looked upon his calling as something sacred. He 
poured his life into it with copious prodigality. He was one of the old 
crusaders back again out of the past and gathering his followers about 
his standards. And everyone of them must have the glow in his face. 
Indifference was intolerable. Selfishness was not one of the "seven deadly 
sins," it was all of them. He utterly scorned the idea that one should 
ever think of himself when the interests of childhood were in the scales. 
In consequence the young men and young women went out to their work 
with a self-denying enthusiasm that was something to reflect upon. 

In the second place, Mr. Edwards was a remarkable teacher. His tre- 
mendous energy aroused his classes to intense work. His skill in all the 
varied aspects of the technic of the recitation was quite unsurpast. He 
was in this particular an artist. Furthermore, he clothed everything that 
he taught with a dignity that won for it the warm respect of his pupils 
and that gave a cultural value to it that few of them had ever suspected. 
He taught reading in such a way that the exercise became at the same 
time a careful examination of literature. It is not too much to assert that 
he revolutionized the teaching of the subject in the schools of Illinois. 
Altho his immediate instruction was in a notable way an explanation 
of this influence it was far more widely extended by a series of readers 
of which he was the author and which had a very extended circulation. 
While he was extremely rigorous in his requirements there was a geniality 
and sympathy that were in all ways delightful. 

A third influence that counted for as much as the others was the stimu- 
lation to growth which every Normal student who caught the spirit of the 
school carried with him to his field of work. It was a matter with one's 
conscience. Every day must witness some conscious expansion of knowl- 
edge and power. Was he out for an evening of entertainment? Before 
going to his rest he must read at least one more page of Latin or one 
more chapter of history something must be done that shall make him 
more than he was or be confronted by the reproaches of his high ideal. 

There is no adequate space here for what requires a volume. His 
faith in young men and young women was so boundless that he lost no 
opportunity of advancing them to places of great responsibility. His tire- 
less labors thru the round year, regardless of anything like adequate com- 
pensation, was so familiar as to be a common place. The tremendous fer- 
vor with which he used to hold us up and shake the little meannesses of 
life out of us is a picture against that background of forty years ago that 
is still startling in its vividness. His ringing voice with the thrill in 
it, his impassioned earnestness but I must forbear. 

Mr. Edwards was very greatly in demand as a public speaker and he 
enjoyed work of that character to the full. It was the most natural thing 


in the world for churches to seek him as a pastor. In the autumn of 
1875 he finally concluded to accept a call from Owen Lovejoy's old church, 
at Princeton, Illinois, and, in consequence, his resignation was tendered 
to the Board of Education at its December meeting. It was a sorrowful 
time at the school; the scene is as clear after thirty years and more as 
if it were yesterday. Mr. Hewett succeeded as temporary principal for 
the remainder of the year and was then made principal permanently. 

Dr. Edwards, for he had received the honorary degree of LL.D., re- 
mained several years in Princeton. It was alike delightful for him and 
for the people whom he served. But he was at last afflicted with grave 
eye trouble. He felt the need of relief from the cares of a pastorate and 
tendered his resignation. He next became the field man for Knox Col- 
lege, as he had been on the board of the institution for some years. But 
his long and rich experience was needed in a broader field of educational 
effort and in 1886 he was nominated by the State Republican Convention 
for the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. He was elected 
and made a most honorable record. In 1890 he was re-nominated but a 
large element of the party had gone wild over certain legislation for which 
he was held responsible. It mattered not at all that he was not the au- 
thor of the "Edwards Law," he was slaughtered just the same, for an 
absurd panic had seized what is ordinarily a most reasonable and stead- 
fast segment of that political faith. 

At the town of Carlinville there has been for many years an institu- 
tion of higher education known as Blackburn University. The release of 
Dr. Edwards was their great opportunity. They besought him to come to 
their relief if only for a year or two. With much reluctance he consented 
to do so and carried into the institution the methods of the Normal 
School. It is needless to say that it was an epoch in the history of Black- 

After a service of two years he retired to the merited rest which his 
physical condition rendered imperative. In selecting a place of residence 
he turned quite naturally to Bloomington, near the scenes of his early la- 
bors in the Normal School. From his windows he can see the buildings 
of the institution where his great work was done. May his declining 
years be full of the joy of noble achievement. From those whom he so 
bountifully served go messages of loving gratitude that must bring a 
rich content. 

Dr. and Mrs. Edwards have been richly blest in their children. There 
were in all eleven and nine of them are still living. Their family reunions 
are delightful in-gatherings from wide stretches of this good country of 


The Illinois State Normal University has had an exceptional history 
in the length of service of several of its teachers. Periods of- twenty 
years or more have not been highly exceptional. Four have served more 
than thirty years. This fact accounts in large measure for the persistence 
of policy that has characterized the institution and has something to do 
with its repute. The Grand Patriarch of the school, however, is Dr. 
Henry McCormick. He is now completing the thirty-eighth year of con- 
secutive teaching and in all of that time has taken no vacation beyond 
the ordinary summer rest. Even this statement is subject to modification, 
for there have been few summers in which he has not been engaged the 
larger part of the time in teachers' institutes. 

He was born in County Mayo, Ireland, in 1837. The first sixteen 
years of his life were spent in his native country. He has a store of in- 
teresting reminiscences connected with his life on the "Emerald Isle," all 
of which heighten his regard for the country of his adoption. It may be 
remarked in passing that he permits no one to surpass him in his admi- 


ration and affection for western institutions. In. 1853 he removed to 
America. He spent two years in Ohio and one in West Virginia and 
then went to Wisconsin. He worked on a farm in the summers and 
went to school in the winters until the year 1859-60, when he taught his 
first school. For his services he received sixteen dollars a month and 
was past around the community as a boarder. He had the unusual dis- 
tinction of teaching in two States, as his school house was on tfie bound- 
ary line. This necessitated a double examination as two certificates were 
necessary. The second year he was honored by a material increase in his 
salary as he received twenty-three dollars a month and he had the further 
satisfaction of teaching in an excellent building. This school he taught 
for four months of every year until 1865, when he went to Normal and 
enrolled as a student in the Illinois State Normal University. He was 
already a married man and a householder. Tradition has it that his good 
wife had much to do with his abandonment of the farm and with his 
resumption of the work of the student. 

With his maturity and earnestness of purpose it was merely a matter 
of course that he should take an excellent rank and that he should win 
not only the high esteem of the faculty but of the community as well. He 
graduated in June, 1868, and was immediately employed as the first prin- 
cipal of the public schools of Normal. Previous to that time the children 
of the village were provided with instruction by the "Model School," as 
it was then called. One year later he was elected to a professorship in 
the Normal School and there he has remained, acting also in the capacity 
of vice-president for many years. His duties at first were in two or three 
departments, but in 1876, when Dr. Hewett was advanced to the presi- 
dency of the school he succeeded to the chair of geography and history. 
A few years ago the work of his department was divided and he has con- 
fined himself to history and civics since that time. In 1882 he past the 
examinations for the degree of Ph.D., which was conferred upon him by 
the Illinois Wesleyan University. 

It is not a simple proposition for one who has had full opportunity 
to test Dr. McCormick's loyalty and ability to moderate his phrases to 
the conventional terms of a formal biography. To each of the presidents 
under whose administration he has served he has been a source of un- 
mixt satisfaction. He reflects in his service and character those ele- 
ments which have given to the Normal School the repute of which its 
friends are so justly proud. If in all of his thirty-eight years of honor- 
able service there has ever been a neglected duty he is the only one who 
knows it. If he has ever set over against his sense of obligation to the 
institution any thought of personal ease he has never shared a knowledge 
of it with another. Untiring devotion and simple-hearted and transparent 
fidelity have characterized every hour of his connection with the school. 
Simple justice demands that these words should be written large. They 
are written in the hearts of those whom he has taught and they are writ- 
ten larger, if possible, in the hearts of those who have taught with him. 

The characteristic qualities of Dr. McCormick's teaching work are 
widely known. It is not aside from the demands of absolute accuracy to 
say that he has met a larger number of the teachers of Illinois in county 
institutes than any other man. This has given him an influence beyond 
the immediate circle of the Normal School that certainly is not surpassed 
if equaled by any other teacher. When the two spheres of activity are 
united it is easier to estimate with some degree of accuracy the wide ex- 
tent of his shaping influence A large element in his method is his' in- 
teresting personality. He has always manifested limitless patience. Thru 
all of his work there has been the play of a pleasing humor for which he 
owes no small obligation to his racial inheritance. He could always win 
the confidence of the shyest countrv schcolma'am in the institute and have 
her surprising herself with her boldness and freedom before the close of 


the first day. These qualities not only endear his pupils to him but con- 
tribute to that wide_ popularity as an institute conductor that makes ,the 
demand for his services far beyond his ability to supply. 

The subjects of his department make large demands upon the 
imaging activities of the student if they are properly taught. This is true 
in largest part of geography but is also true in generous measure of his- 
tory. Recognizing this necessity, Dr. McCormick's teaching abounds in 
a most delightful concreteness. He has large faith in graphic representa- 
tion and in his many years of instruction in geography he made the 
greatest use of the various methods of appeal to the senses. One of his 
pupils could be recognized anywhere because of the freedom which he 
developed in the use of the crayon and the sand. One of his peculiarities 
of speech is the participial construction. "Stepping to the board and 
throwing on a sketch, promptly" has passed into current phrase among 
his pupils. Wherever they are they throw on the sketches and they do 
it promptly. 

What has been said of geography is equally true of history. In Low- 
ell's apostrophe to Lincoln he writes : 

"And one of Plutarch's men talked with us face to face." Similarly, 
in Dr. McCormick's classes the past lives again and the characters whom 
the historian delights to honor are as familiar as the flesh and blood peo- 
ple who throng our streets. Mr. Ingersoll is credited with the remark 
that George Washington is little more than a steel engraving. This is 
unhappily true in many instances and wherever it exists it is the result of 
the unpedagogical treatment found in so many class rooms. A marked 
feature of Dr. McCormick's instruction is the reconstruction of the com- 
mon life of the common people, with the many details of ordinary usage 
that have long since become obsolete and that too many historians neglect. 
Upon this background of primitive life he builds the historical conscious- 
ness and thus introduces the student to those transforming movements 
that have changed the world of thought and action from the simplicity 
of early society to the complex civilization of the present. 

Without attempting any critical discrimination as to which of his vari- 
ous lines of work has been most educative and most fertile it is probable 
that his treatment of the subject of physical geography has been as valu- 
able in many ways as anything else that he has done. That he has been 
greatly influenced by the thought of that distinguished geographer, Ar- 
nold Guyot, would only be paying a just tribute to an eminent scientist; 
but his investigations have greatly widened the work beyond that of the 
book that did so much for so many teachers and students in general. 
"The Earth and Man" expresses in epigram Dr. McCormick's idea. It is 
the world as the home of man that has sounded the keynote of his work 
in geography and it is civilization as the spiritual development of man 
that has colored his work in history. 

While he has been top busy with the daily work of instruction to be 
a prolific writer he has given to the teachers a monograph on geography 
that has had large sale. For many years he has been especially inter- 
ested in the history of Illinois and it is to his initiative that is due the 
recent legislation that has added to the subjects in which candidates for 
certificates are examined the history of our own state. 

Implicit in what has been said is the recognition of the immense in- 
dustry of this tireless man. Not content with the trying duties of his 
especial department he is always on the search for something to do that 
will advance the usefulness of the institution in all ways and that will 
lessen the cares of the man in general charge. Nothing has done more 
to endear him to those who have had the main burden to carry than to 
find him quietly lifting here and there where his quick vision saw the op- 
portunity, altho his own load was all that anyone should bother himself 


about. There is no way to requite such service adequately, but such as 
he are never thinking of compensation; indeed there are no fitting wages 
for those who do the best work in the world. Appreciation is the only 
acceptable coin that can be rendered in return for a large part of what 
the world lives upon. 

Any sketch of Dr. McCormick that omitted mention of hi? robust 
Americanism would be strikingly defective. His experiences as a lad, as 
a struggling youth, as a young man with his own way to make in the 
world, as an honored and successful teacher, and as a respected and trusted 
citizen have all deepened his sense of obligation to the land of his adop- 
tion. He understands the meaning of the word that has brought oppor- 
tunity to so many who have known the hard conditions of lands across 
the sea America. Few public speakers have expressed it more grace- 
fully and more gratefully. His words cannot be repeated too frequently. 
His hot indignation against those who have found welcome and freedom 
and prosperity under the folds of the flag and who are so base as to at- 
tack the social order that has sheltered them Should be shouted into the 
ears of political malcontents. While he loves, as he should, the green isle 
that gave him birth and deplores the wrongs that she has been obliged to 
endure, he is first of all an American in the truest of all senses; he un- 
derstands, appreciates, and thankfully renders the loyalty of a devoted son. 

Four sons and a daughter were born to Dr. and Mrs. McCormick, 
all of whom are living. The daughter is the wife of O. R. Trowbridge, 
who recently retired from the practice of the law. Two of the sons are 
practicing physicians, a third is a dentist, and the fourth is professor of 
mechanical engineering and superintendent of shops at the State Agri- 
cultural College, Manhattan, Kansas. 

Mrs. McCormick died after a brief illness on December 6, 1905. She 
was a woman of remarkable force of character and was prominently iden- 
tified with several of the religious and social organizations of Normal. 
She was in all ways a helpmeet to her honored husband. "Her children 
arise up, and call her blessed ; her husband also, and he praiseth her." 

There is a notable list of teachers whose names will be unfamiliar to 
the Normal student of today. Few of them have ever heard that Major 
Powell, of canon fame, was at one time connected with the institution 
as Director of the Museum. That Dr. Stephen A. Forbes, so widely known 
as the distinguished Professor of Entomology in the University of Illinois 
for more than twenty years, and State Entomologist for about the same 
time, was for twelve years connected with the Normal School as Profes- 
sor and Curator of the Museum is an interesting item of history. Dr. 
Charles DeGarmo, Professor of Pedagogy, Cornell University, educational 
expert and author of noted books upon various aspects of educational the- 
ory, was for seven years in charge of one of the departments of the 
Model School and after an interruption of three years spent in Germany 
was a teacher in the Normal Department. The McMurrys, Charles and 
Frank, known the country over as writers and teachers, spent several 
years in the school as supervisors of training. Minor L. Seymour, the im- 
mediate predecessor of the lamented Professor Colton, was for eleven 
years at the head of the science work, and is now living in Los Angeles 
in comfortable retirement after a long and honorable service in a similar 
position in one of the State Normal Schools of California. Dr. Charles 
C. VanLiew, now president of the State Normal School at Chico, Cali- 
fornia, was for three years a teacher in the school. The lamented Louis 
H. Galbreath, so full of realization and so abundantly full of promise, and 
whose record as an alumnus will be found in the Register, deserves far 
more than a passing mention in the long list of former teachers. 



The High School occupied a unique position in the Normal Univer- 
sity. Its principals have almost without exception been teachers of ex- 
ceptional scholarship and superior skill. Charles F. Childs, '62-3, was a 
most interesting and inspiring character. He went to St. Louis after a 
year at Normal and was for a few years the principal of the city High 
School. He had an absorbing passion for study and soon worked himself 
into his grave. He was succeeded in the old High School by William L. 
Pillsbury, who had recently graduated from Harvard College. Mr. Pills- 
bury began his work in September, 1863, and continued in charge of the 
school until 1870, when he retired from teaching to engage in business. 

Under his administration the reputation of the school for the prepa- 
ration it gave to the boys who were fitting for college attracted students 
from various parts of the State. It had manifest advantages, for the spe- 
cial high school teachers attended to the instruction in ancient and mod- 
ern languages while the rest of the work was done by the Normal teachers. 
It was thus equipped in effect with the whole Normal faculty as well as 
with its own especial faculty. Mr. Pillsbury graduated near the top of 
his class and he demanded the kind of work that honor men must do to 
win their laurels. 

From 1879 to 1886 Mr. Pillsbury was assistant to the State Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction. He was peculiarly fitted to discharge the 
duties of this office and was mainly instrumental in securing certain amend- 
ments to the school law which put the county superintendency on its feet 
and which provided for county institutes. 

Since 1888 Mr. Pillsbury has been connected with the University of 
Illinois, first as secretary of the Experiment Station and later as Registrar. 
In 1866 he was married to Miss Marion Hammond, principal of the pri- 
mary department of the Model School. 


Mr. Pillsbury was succeeded as principal by Miss Mary E. Horton, a 
woman of fine scholarship and of unusual force of character. She re- 
mained only one year and subsequently was professor of Greek at Welles- 
ley College. She was followed by Mr. E. W. Coy, of Peoria. He re- 
mained two years and resigned to accept the principalship of the Hughes 
High School, in Cincinnati, a position which he has held for the last 
thirty-three years and more. Mr. Coy is widely known as one of the most 
successful high school principals in this country. 

Mr. Lester L. Burrington came to the High School in 1874 and re- 
mained five years. His administration was an exceedingly popular period 
in the history of the school. He was enticed away by the managing board 
of Dean Academy, Franklin, Massachusetts. He was in charge of that 
school for eighteen years. Mr. Burrington died in 1903, a few years after 
leaving Dean Academy. 

Mr. Burrington's successor was the present President of the Univer- 
sity of Illinois, Dr. Edmund J. James. He retained the position for three 
years and went to the University of Pennsylvania. A familiar designation 
of Dr. James at that time was "The New Thomas Arnold." Those who 
know him do not need to be assured that there was no lessening of the 
rigorous requirements of the school in his administration. 

Prof. Herbert J. Barton, since 1890 Professor of Latin at the Uni- 
versity of Illinois, succeeded Dr. James after a brief interregnum. He 
retained the position seven years. The school was very prosperous dur- 
ing this period and the accommodations were taxed to their limit to pro- 
vide sittings for the pupils. Upon his withdrawal O. L. Manchester 
became principal and continued until the closing of the school in 1895. 




3-1891. 1882-1907. 





Martha D. L, Haynie was born in Danville, Ky., on the third day 
of June, 1826. Her father, Duff Green, was a physician and received his 
medical education in Philadelphia, at the University of Pennsylvania, 
when the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Rush was at its head. He was purgeon 
in his regiment in the war of 1812, and was stationed at New Orleans. 

The first work of the pioneers of the blue grass country was the build- 
ing of churches and school houses. Center College, Danville, had already 
become a noted institution of learning in the earliest recollections of Mrs. 
Haynie. The "infant school" to which she was admitted in her very early 
childhood and which she faintly remembers, was in many respects like 
the modern kindergarten. She passed through the various grades of pre- 
paratory schools and graduated in the Danville Female Seminary. Lan- 
guage was her favorite study and her greatest success at school was Eng- 
lish grammar which she was destined to teach so long and so successfully. 
Rhetoric and composition were also especially attractive to her and she 
cherishes among her books Newman's Rhetoric, a text that few modern 
students remember. After leaving the seminary she pursued extensive 
studies in modern languages, especially in French, which she taught for 
many years. 

She was married to Dr. Abner Frost Haynie, of Salem, 111., a noted 
physician, a man of superior scholarship, and ardently devoted to literary 
pursuits. He died in July, 1851. 

Mrs. Haynie taught two years before her marriage. Seven years 
later she was assistant in the Mount Vernon Academy one year. The 
next year the citizens established a girls' school and gave her full charge 
of it. There were several departments reaching from the primary to the 
high school. She had charge of this school for several years, giving the 
instruction in the upper grades. 

In 1866 she was appointed assistant to the principal in the old High 
School department of the I.S.N.U. She remained in that position for _ten 
years, teaching English grammar, French, and rhetoric and composition. 
She not only instructed the high school students but all of the Normal 
students who elected French. The history of that department must al- 
ways occupy a large place in the annals of the institution and Mrs. Hay- 
nie's contribution to the success of a school that was phenomenally suc- 
cessful was extremely significant. Every student of the school from 1866 
to 1876 has a warm place in his heart for the woman who was as true a 
friend to every boy and girl enrolled in her classes as the fortunes of life 
can possibly bring to one beyond the circle of his home. 

In 1876 Mrs. Haynie was promoted to the Professorship of Modern 
Languages in the Normal department. She held this position until her 
resignation in 1886. She is the author of two books that were the product 
of her rich experience as a teacher: Syntax and Analysis, and Etymology. 
Mrs. Haynie's marked characteristics as a teacher were her unusual 
vigor and persistence. It was in her grammar classes that she met the 
mass of the students and, indeed, she met all of them for she did the in- 
structing in that subject. How she managed to accomplish the amount of 
work that she carried thru with such abounding energy is a problem that 
the modern teacher with her ten or twelve hours a week cannot be ex- 
pected to understand. Yet she rarely lost an hour from her work. She 
had one most distressing illness which kept her out of school for a few 
weeks, but when she returned she resumed her instruction with her char- 
acteristic enthusiasm. 

Mrs. Haynie was far more than a mere class room instructor; she 
was a devoted friend and was never weary of serving those who were 
under her charge. Since her resignation her life has been mainly spent 
with her son, Mr. William Duff Haynie, a prominent and highly success- 
ful attorney, in Chicago. Mrs. Haynie's address is 603 East Forty-sixth 


street, Chicago. Altho she will soon celebrate her eighty-first birthday 
there are very few suggestions of advanced age. Her penmanship is 
without the faintest suggestion of tremulousness and her well-known in- 
tellectual vigor is not impaired. The thousands of High School and Nor- 
mal school students who have been her pupils and who are dispersed thru 
a large part of the world will unite with the writer of this brief and im- 
perfect sketch in the hope that her life may be spared for many years and 
that she may realize in rich measure the affectionate regard in which she 
is held. 

By Professor Manfred J. Holmes 

Duel Preston Colton was born March 23, 1852, on a farm near Prince- 
ton, Illinois. His family on both sides were of Puritan origin and had 
preserved the best of the strong Puritan traits of character. On his 
mother's side his ancestors represented a line of teachers and preachers. 
His mother was a woman of rare piety, remarkable intellectual gifts, and 
force of personality. His father was a co-worker with Owen Lovejoy in 
conducting the "underground railroad" during the fugitive slave days, 
and also an ardent lover of nature and man's improvement of nature. 
The social influence of the community was of a high and positive char- 
acter, taking its general tone and purpose from the pioneer Puritan colony 
that settled there. 

But there were other telling influences that played upon the life of 
the boy Colton. His boyhood was spent on the Bureau county farm be- 
fore draintiles had turned marsh and lakelet into prolific grain fields and 
pasture lands. Wild game was abundant. Thousands of acres of virgin 
soil still put forth from spring to fall a paradise of native flora. Under 
the influence of these natural surroundings the boy's love of adventure, 
outdoor life, and natural beauty was stimulated and developed. 

With such advantages of inheritance and environment, it is not sur- 
prising that the boy had an ambition to get a good education and take an 
active part in the world's work. His education was begun in a .little 
brick school house on a corner of his father's farm. At the age of four- 
teen he entered the Princeton Township High school and was graduated 
with its first class in 1870 under Henry L. Boltwood, distinguished among 
Illinois teachers for scholarship, enthusiasm, and organizing ability. He 
took one year of post-graduate high school work at Princeton, spent one 
year at Knox College, and finished his college course after two years' 
study at Amherst, from which college he was graduated in 1874. 

Mr. Colton taught for thirty years, twenty-nine of which were in Illi- 
nois schools. His professional career began with his work as teacher in 
the Princeton Township High School in 1874. In 1875-76 he taught a rural 
school near Princeton; during 1876-77 we find him at Keokuk (la.), at 
Decatur the next year, and from 1878-81 he again taught in the Prince- 
ton High School. 

It was during Mr. Colton's college days and thru this first stage in 
his teaching career that "the attention of the world was being directed to 
natural science as never before in all history." The modern scientific 
movement with its inductive method of study had already discovered the 
constitution of the universe in astronomy, the process of world-making 
in geology, much of the nature and meaning of the hitherto mysterious 
and hidden forces of physics and chemistry ; good progress had been made 
in the scientific classification of plants and animals; but the science of 
biology in the more exact sense of that term, the study of the conditions, 
processes, and laws of organic life, including its relation to what is pres- 
ent and what is past, held a commanding position in the scientific thought 
of the latter half of the nineteenth century. The scientific labors of Dar- 
win, Spencer, Wallace, Huxley, Tyndall, Haeckel and others were ma- 


turing into results. Perhaps the most startling and significant of all the 
results was the theory of organic evolution thru natural selection and the 
survival of the fittest. 

This whole great movement itself, and the characteristic events in its 
progress stirred the enthusiasm and enlisted the devotion of the younger 
men of science. Many of them caught not a little of the scientific passion 
and the teaching spirit that were so manifest in the lives of Agassiz, Hux- 
ley, and many of their colleagues. Mr. Colton was one of the young men 
who caught the inspiration and discerned the great meaning of the scien- 
tific movement, and with characteristic judgment and sense of obligation 
he sought to secure the most thoro preparation possible for the teaching 
of his chosen specialties zoology, physiology, and botany. He resigned 
his position at Princeton and studied for two years (1881-1883) at Johns 
Hopkins University, spending his summer vacations in scientific excur- 
sions. The University has conferred two honors upon Mr. Colton: in 
1882 he was awarded a graduate scholarship; and in due time his picture 
will hang among the pictures of those Johns Hopkins men who have be- 
come distinguished. "He seems to have been most influenced by two 
brilliant teachers, William K. Brooks, the zoologist, and H. Newell Mar- 
tin, a pupil of Huxley, who like his great master, divided his energies 
between human physiology and general zoology." 

With advanced preparation and increased inspiration Mr. Colton re- 
sumed the work of teaching in his native state. From 1883 to 1888 he 
was teacher of science in the Ottawa Township High School. The last 
three of his five years at Ottawa he was also principal. 

Professor Colton wrote two series of textbooks, one on zoology, the 
other on physiolgy. These are models of scholarly accuracy and literary 
excellence. These textbooks grew out of the author's teaching experience 
and form an organic part of his educational work. Both series of books 
have exercised an important influence upon the teaching of those subjects 
and will continue for many years to be standard textbooks. The scope 
and adaptation of the physiologies cover the entire field of higher, second- 
ary, and elementary education.* 

Mr. Colton's work at Ottawa soon marked him as one of the best 
teachers of science in the Middle West, and in 1888 he was called to the 
chair of natural science in the Illinois State Normal University. 

President Felmley said of him : "In his teaching Mr. Colton carried 
out better than anyone else I have known President Eliot's doctrine tnat 
to observe carefully and record faithfully are vital preliminaries to ac- 
curate comparison and generalization. He possessed rare skill in directing 
and questioning. The notebooks and drawings made by his students were 

models of their kind Mr. Colton was very apt in illustrations; his 

laboratory abounds in original devices He was orderly and syste- 
matic in an unusual degree But. after all, the best work of the 

teacher is not to be found in the methods of his class room, nor in the 
books he writes. It is in the lives that are quickened by his personal 
touch." No doubt Mr. Colton's intense love of nature touched all of his 
pupils in some degree, but there were always a few who were more sus- 
ceptible to their teacher's enthusiasm. These were drawn to him like 
disciples to a master ; and many of them have become enthusiastic, ef- 
ficient teachers of science in Illinois and other states. 

Perhaps the most striking personal traits of Mr. Colton outside the 
classroom were his love of nature, his love of truth, and his hearty hatred 
of shams and pretention. These traits are most effectively described by 
one who was once a pupil and later a colleague and intimate associate 
for years. 

"It should be said first of all that Mr. Colton's love of outdoor life 
was a love of nature in the rough. He sought and loved the natural 

*For an estimate of the worth of these books, see chapter V. pp. 59-61 Editor. 


world untouched by the hand of man. The wild rose with all its thorns 
was far more attractive to him than was its cultivated descendent. Some 
go into ecstasies over the cultivated flowers of their well-kept gar- 
dens. Mr. Colton cared little for such artificial nature. He sought the 
wild flower in its natural haunts. If rocky hillsides or wet woods were 
their homes, it pleased him well to be there. His home and garden did 
not abound with cultivated flowers ; a few transplanted wild flowers and 
a collection of rocks and pebbles gathered from far and near gave evi- 
dence of his preference. Mr. Colton's greatest pleasure was to leave be- 
hind all the environs of civilization, and in company with a few com- 
panions go forth into the wildest woods accessible and there live in close 
touch with untamed nature." 

"Under such surroundings Mr. Colton's very nature seemed changed. 
Students who had known him only in the classroom, accompanying nim 
for the first^ time on such outings were surprised beyond measure at the 
new revelations of the man. He often seemed like one intoxicated with 
the spirit of vivacity, generosity, forbearance, human kindness, and love 
of the whole world." 

One of the most significant questions that can be asked of a man is, 
What was his guiding purpose? What did he consciously endeavor to 
stand for? Happily in Mr. Colton's case this question can be answered in 
part with certainty. He said more than once that he did not consider it 
his calling to be that of original research and the making of new contri- 
butions to scientific knowledge; but his life work was rather to extend 
scientific kno.wledge to the masses of the people. He could not have 
chosen a better vantage ground for realizing this noble purpose than that 
of a teacher of teachers who would themselves in their work reach all the 
children. So we find Colton in the true line of apostolic succession from 
Darwin, Huxley, Agassiz, Youmans and others those great heroic mis- 
sionaries of truth who have opened the way for the masses of the people, 
including the little children, to comprehend and enjoy God's thought and 
love in nature. He impatiently and persistently brushed aside anything 
that interfered with the promotion of this special life purpose. He once 
said to the writer, "I know what I am here for, and I will not let anyone 
or anything turn me aside." 

Nothing can show Mr. Colton's appreciation of the necessity and the 
economy of recreation more clearly than the following verses which he 
wrote at the beginning of his vacation in 1902: 


Unbend your bow, 

You ought to know 
That if kept bent 
Its strength is spent. 

Relax and rest 

A little while; 
Put off your frown, 

Put on a smile. 

Just drop your work 

And take some play; 
Thus in life's race 

You'll longer stay. 

Let up the everlasting strain. 

You'll be made new 
And free from pain 
With every fiber strong again. 


A sadly warped and stiffened thing 

Your entire being soon will be; 
And snap ! will go the o'erstretched string, 

Devoid of elasticity. 

If more of life you'd live 
And from the wreck of nerves be free, 

Ambitious friend! be wise in time; 
Unstring your strenuosity. 

Mr. Colton was a man of distinctive character and striking individu- 
ality. Life's wearing struggle ended his career too soon. He was buried 
in the cemetery at Princeton. In due time, in accordance with his request, 
the grave will be marked by a rugged boulder that has lain for some years 
in his front yard at Normal. This incident is characteristic, and such 
marking is eminently fitting. It becomes the character of the man, his 
love of simplicity, his unassuming modesty, and his passion for nature 
as it came from the hand of the Creator. 

By John A. H. Keith, Class of 1894 

The name fits the man. One cares little what titles he has earned or 
what positions he has held, for in whatever circumstance one has seen 
him, he seems to be simply Arnold Tompkins. The democratic, Lincoln- 
like character makes a stronger appeal than man-conferred distinctions. 
One naturally suspects that the early life of Arnold Tompkins belongs to 
"the short and simple annals of the poor." 

Born on a farm in Edgar county, 111., in 1849, young Tompkins had 
all the delights and all the trials that come to the ordinary country boy. 
He seems to have been somewhat peculiar, however, for it is recorded that, 
as a boy, he found his greatest pleasure in doing useful things as well as 
he could, and studying as much as possible. At fifteen, he walked three 
miles to attend a school taught by a man of college training. At seven- 
teen, young Tompkins taught a country school, and in the spring attended 
the Paris high school. At twenty, he entered Indiana University. Within 
six months he had to leave because of overwork. He started in at Butler 
University the next year but had soon to leave on account of illness. Mr. 
Tompkins entered the Indiana State Normal School in the spring of 1875 
and there met W. A. Jones, whose philosophy influenced the remainder 
of his life. He graduated in 1880 from that school, being thirty-one years 
old at the time. 

From 1880 to 1882 Mr. Tompkins taught at Worthington, Ind. From 
1882 to 1885 he was superintendent of the Franklin, Ind., schools. In 1885 
he went to DePauw University as head of the English work in the normal 
department, and in 1889, twenty years after matriculation, Mr. Tompkins 
received the A. B. degree. In 1890, Mr. Tompkins went to the normal 
school at Terre Haute as teacher of English. In 1893, because of some 
difference of opinion regarding the policy of the school, he left the Terre 
Haute school, and for two years was a student at the University of Chi- 
cago. In 1895, he .went to the State University of Illinois to the chair of 
Pedagogy. He was president of the I.S.N.U. for the year 1899-1900. 
From 1900 till the time of his death, August 12, 1905, Dr. Tompkins was 
president of the Chicago Normal School. 

These statistical facts are no true measure of the man. His writings 
reveal him more truly. His first publication was A Graded Course of 
Study for the Franklin Public Schools (1883), a course "based on the 
logical and psychological factors in education." In 1889, he published the 
Science of Discourse; in 1893, The Philosophy of Teaching; in 1895, The 


Philosophy of School Management. An analysis of the underlying concep- 
tions of Dr. Tompkins is necessary to an understanding of what these 
titles mean. "Early in his chosen life-work he struck a note that sounded 
thru all he did in after life. It was a "new birth," an awakening into con- 
sciousness of what had been instinctively guiding him in previous years. 
Subjectively, it was what he himself called the "major premise of life;" ob- 
jectively, it was that the major premise of life should appear as the con- 
trolling factor in every act, even to the details of daily life."* 

But what is this major premise of life? Dr. Tompkins in his famous 
Columbus address set forth an answer and an analysis. He says, "All pro- 
cesses of thot are but processes of establishing unity in and thru di- 
versity, are but modes of satisfying the craving of the soul for touch with 

the life that binds the seemingly chaotic world into orderly system 

The plant or the animal is moved to self-realization thru a resident force. 

The hills are ever seeking new conditions Every object has a dual 

nature something within it which tends to destroy its present form of 
existence and bring it nearer to the reality of the nature which constitutes 
it The universe is alive and not dead The principle of self- 
activity appears primarily (in the process of education) as tension between 

the real and the ideal The second form of the principle is a tension 

between subject (self) and object In the process of teaching, this 

principle is the tension between the universal and the individual, or be- 
tween the creative energy and its object." 

This philosophy, which had been hinted to Dr. Tompkins by W. A. 
Jones, while he was a student at Terre Haute and which he had subse- 
quently elaborated thru study and reflection, is, after all, not so very new 
nor so very striking as a philosophic solution of the world-problems, but 
the exposition of it by Dr. Tompkins was truly wonderful. Illustrations 
of the various aspects of the fundamental principle of self-activity were 
apparently never lacking, for Dr. Tompkins had so trained himself that 
he could see the whole unity of the universe in every strand and stray 
segment of it. This concreteness was always delightful. Dr. Tompkins 
loved the beautiful, taught it, talked it, lived it. He had a vein of delight- 
ful humor most of which clustered about the incongruous, the things 
that seemingly would not come under the various phases of unity. 

These things made Dr. Tompkins more influential in the classroom 
and on the lecture platform than he was thru his books. Many excellent 
judges of teaching have pronounced Dr. Tompkins the best teacher of his 
day and generation, and others have said that he was the most effective 
institute worker they had ever known. Even those who did not agree 
with his philosophy at all liked him and were glad to hear and meet him 
in discussion. All this means that the personality of the man was genuine 
and gracious, and it accounts for the fact that he had more followers, or 
"disciples," among those who did not claim to be friends, than any other 
man of his time. 

Those who were closest to him in school work and in personal contact, 
loved him with the kind of love which Arnold Tompkins talked and lived. 
There was little conventionality in Dr. Tompkins' life for his soul was so 
intense that it found a way for itself. Sympathetic, patient, forbearing, 
ever seeking to be of service to others by calling out the best that was in 
them, always believing in the basal good in men and that "Love can never 
lose its own," Arnold Tompkins lived his life with sincerity and with joy. 
And no one who ever knew him will willingly allow his memory to be for- 
gotten. One well qualified to judge has said of him, "He so completely 
identified himself with his beliefs that he was himself the living embodi- 
ment of his philosophy of life." 

* Arnold Tompkins, a memorial prepared and published by the Faculty of the Chicag-o 
Normal School, 1905. The writer is also indebted to this book for many of the facts al- 
ready cited. 


By John A. H. Keith, Class of 1894 

I wish to confess, in the first sentence, my inability to keep up the pace 
set by Dr. Cook in the first thirty-five or more pages of this chapter. Such 
a command of adjectives, figures of speech, and sentential structure as Dr. 
Cook has is very unusual, and is as pleasing and as effective as it is rare. 
There will perhaps be no better place than this to record the thanks of those 
who had the making of this book in charge, to Dr. Cook for his faithful 
and kindly service in preparing this chapter. 

As I have gone around among the men who have known him, I find 
that Dr. Cook is a comparative stranger while John Cook is well known. 
Hon. Isaac N. Phillips wrote in 1899, "John Cook would divide his last 
crust with a hungry dog." And men are instinctively drawn to anyone 
who gives them that impression. There is in some men, and notably in 
Dr. Cook, a certain quality of action that reveals a native kindness. Even 
what we call "dumb brutes" discern this quality in men. This quality in 
Dr. Cook, in response to home influences, grew into affability, courtesy, 
politeness, urbanity, even suavity. These acquired qualities account for 
much of his success in dealing with men, from disgruntled landlords to 
irate governors. 

And Dr. Cook has another quality that goes along with the developed 
forms of his native kindness, viz., sincerity. He is not naturally secretive, 
but is out and out what he is. This carries honesty along with it. Dr. 
Cook did not always camp in the same spot. He often said, "A wise man 
changes his opinion ; a fool does not." No man, however, was ever more 
genuinely courageous nor more persistently tenacious with regard to those 
things which he regarded as right. 

The world of trade and politics always attracted him, and how he kept 
out of the latter is something his friends do not quite understand. I have 
heard students of the seventies and eighties say that a good lawyer was 
spoiled when Mr. Cook became a teacher. Educational journalism at- 
tracted him for awhile, he owns considerable real estate, and he even has 
stock in several industrial concerns, some of which is for sale, I believe. 
It is fortunate for the educational interests of Illinois that Mr. Cook re- 
mained in the teaching work. 

His reason for staying in the teaching work can be read between the 
lines of his words to Thomas Metcalf in the baccalaureate address of 1894, 
and quoted by Mr. Cook himself (p. 92). After looking over the whole 
field of things he might possibly do, he deliberately chose teaching because 
he saw in it the greatest opportunities for service. This word service 
became the guiding principle of his life, and his oft-repeated analysis of 
it has influenced many generations of students. 

Dr. Cook caught, in large measure, the inspirational power of Dr. 
Edwards. In this fact lies much of the secret of his power as an orator. 
There is always in his addresses at commencement time and before large 
gatherings of teachers an emotional coloring, a something that eludes 
definition and analysis but that lifts. This lift is the inspirational element. 
It grows out of idealizing things, out of getting above and beyond the 
plane of fact. And this is but part of his strong religious feeling. When 
one considers that when Dr. Cook was a young man the controversy be- 
tween orthodoxy and the views of Unitarians and Universalists waxed 
hot, it is clear on which side he would stand. "The Eternal Goodness" 
was not revered by Thomas Metcalf alone. 

And philosophy became a necessity to Mr. Cook. His own efforts to 
orient himself rendered him open to the views of others. The most sat- 
isfying view he ever found was that idealistic and optimistic view of self- 
activity formulated by Kant, Hegel, and Fichte, and expounded by Dr. 
William T. Harris, William A. Jones, George P. Brown, and Arnold 
Tompkins. While he has always maintained a critical attitude toward 
philosophy, his sympathies are with the Hegelians. 


But Dr. Cook never became a dreamer. The practical things concerned 
him. If there was a question as to whether children in a certain grade 
were ready to do certain work in arithmetic, Dr. Cook was ready to try 
to teach them. He had what he has called, "the genius of accomplish- 
ment." He had keen intelligence about what ought to be done and an 
extraordinary capacity for hard work. He was always at something, rarely 
taking more than a week of vacation in the summer. He it was who 
traced the records of former students to silence the lie that "the Normal 
students do not teach," a lie that threatened to cripple the appropriations. 
He it was who championed the cause of the first colored child in the 
Model School. Somehow or other he got things done and then went on 
to other things. 

And with all his doing he kept on growing. He taught geography and 
history one year and was then ready for the reading. While teaching read- 
ing he got ready for the mathematics and physics. While teaching these 
subjects he got ready for psychology, pedagogy, and the executive details 
of the president's duties. He was always ready and always growing. Dr. 
Cook has an openness of mind that is rarely found among good executives. 
Frank McMurry said recently, "I do not know anyone who has kept as 
constantly at this matter of growing as has Dr. Cook." He appreciated 
the fact that society, in a very significant sense, leads in human develop- 
ment and that the schools follow. He therefore sought to keep in touch 
with the things that were doing in the world. 

The wonder has always been as to how he has been able to keep it up. 
One favorable thing has been the influences of Dr. Cook's home. His wife 
and children have been refreshment to him, and in most recent years his 
granddaughter, Beatrice, has been a constant source of joy. Another sus- 
taining element has been his sense of humor, the best sort of relaxation 
for an overwrought brain. 

In his classes in mathematics Dr. Cook often tried to bring his pupils 
up against something that they were unable to dp, not primarily to keep 
them humble, but to keep them growing. There is a peculiar definiteness 
about mathematics that is often not appreciated by the student. A teacher's 
efforts to lead a pupil to see the absurdity of his argument often pass for 
sarcasm and sometimes are just what they pass for. Those who took math- 
ematics under Dr. Cook in the eighties will appreciate the following story. 
An elderly student was badly tangled up in his efforts to solve a problem. 
Dr. Cook finally stopped him and said, "Now, see here. Does the horse 
make the cart go, or does the cart make the horse go?" The elderly 
student thought a little while and then asked, "Going up hill or down?" 

In his classes in psychology and the philosophy of education, Dr. 
Cook is a great teacher. His breadth of human interest, his philosophic 
insight, and his practical efficiency combine to make him unusually suc- 
cessful in teaching these subjects. 

You will find in the Alumni Register a catalog-like like account of 
many things in Dr. Cook's life. A few things you will not find, so they 
are set down here. John W. Cook was born April 20, 1844, in Oneida 
County, N. Y. His parents came to Illinois when he was seven years old 
and settled nine miles northeast of Normal. In 1853 the family moved 
to Kappa. Young Cook farmed for himself a little, but, as he says, he 
worked so hard that he broke down. He entered the Normal in Septem- 
ber, 1862. 

This imperfect sketch has been written as a recognition of Dr. Cook's 
worth as a man and teacher. Its imperfections will appeal to all those 
who have known him in either capacity. From 1862 to 1899, with the ex- 
ception of one year, Dr. Cook has known practically all of the students and 
teachers of the school. His influence cannot be measured, not even by 
the love of those who have been touched by his versatile personality. And 
to form an adequate idea of his influence on the I.S.N.U. one ought to 
read every reference to him in this book. 

President, 1890-1899. 



The first summer school in the State Normal University 
was held in September, 1863. It lasted four weeks and there 
were fifteen teachers in attendance. It was called a State 
Teachers' Institute and in the circular announcement the chief 
purpose was stated to be a "Thoro drill in the philosophy and 
methods of teaching the common branches of study." Inci- 
dentally there were practical discussions of the various duties 
of teachers and their rights under the law. All the other seven 
institutes in the series were held in the month of August, for 
four, thjee, or two weeks. No sessions were held in '65 or 
'66. The average attendance of the series, not counting the 
first, was 240. At the last one, held in 1872, there were 300 
teachers present and it was pronounced the most interesting 
of all. The great success of these institutes was attributed to 
the ability, energy, and enthusiasm of Pres. Richard Edwards 
and his faculty. 

In 1872 four new sciences, physiology, chemistry, zoology, 
and botany were introduced into the common school course 
and all candidates for certificates were required to be examined 
in the same. This afforded a powerful stimulus to the study 
of natural history. As a result those interested formed an as- 
sociation whose object was to encourage, promote, and assist 
in practical ways, the rational study of nature. Under the 
auspices of this association a summer school of natural history 
was held in the University in August, 1875. Both elementary 
and advanced courses in botany and zoology were given by 
instructors of more than local reputation. The attendance 
was limited to fifty students and a great amount of work was 
accomplished. Arrangements for a second session were made 
but the expense, $20 per pupil, and the period of general de- 


pression, together with the Centennnial Exposition at Phila- 
delphia, were responsible for an insufficient number of appli- 
cations and the enterprise was reluctantly given up. In 1878, 
three years afterward^ the second natural history school was 
held. Thirty students were in attendance and most of the 
teaching was done gratuitously. 

In 1879 President Hewett proposed to the State Board of 
Education that the school year should consist of three terms of 
twelve weeks each and a special term for actual teachers. The 
latter term was to be in the month of August and for four 
weeks. All the regular teachers of the University were to take 
part and without additional compensation. This plan was 
adopted and the first special term was held in August, 1880. 
Four such terms were held in consecutive years. The average 
attendance was 235 and the average number of counties repre- 
sented was 58. At that date, 1883, the General Assembly put 
the teachers' institutes on a different footing and in deference to 
the wishes of the county superintendents the State Board of 
Education changed the school calendar so as to leave the mem- 
bers of the faculty free to engage in institute work during the 
summer months. Thus for a few years the teachers were put 
under the direction of the State Superintendent of Education 
for one week's work in institutes without compensation, save 
expenses. At various times in the next ten years private 
classes were conducted in the University during the vacation 
period. No records of these private classes remain. 

There were many requests for the re-establishment of the 
institutes. Finally in 1894 the faculty resolved to offer to the 
teachers of the state a three week's institute in the month of 
May. The large hall on the third floor was utilized for the 
purpose. No charge whatever was made for instruction and 
the following lines of work were offered : 

1. Obseravtion of the regular work of the University and 
participation in the same. 

2. Observation of the work in the several grades of the 
training school. 

3. A course of lectures by members of the faculty. 

4. Round-table conferences. 

The institute effected an organization of its own and in 
the resolutions adopted at the close asked that the annual in- 
stitute be made permanent. There were 161 teachers present 
and 42 counties were represented. This plan was followed in 
1895 and again in 1896. Then President Cook reported to the 


State Board of Education that the plan was not satisfactory be- 
cause the people who wished to come to the institutes had not 
finished their schools. The faculty then arranged to conduct a 
summer term of three weeks' duration in July. The tuition 
for this term was ten dollars, and there were 125 present. It 
was given up, however, after one trial in 1897, because most of 
the faculty felt that more good could be accomplished by go- 
ing out to the county institutes. 

In January, 1897, President Felmley, then professor of 
mathematics in the University, read a paper before the Faculty 
Club on "How can the Normal School be made more helpful 
to the schools of the state ?" As one of the theses of the paper 
he maintained that the University should have a school year 
of forty-eight weeks, three terms of twelve weeks each, and 
two terms in the summer of six weeks each. Then the course 
of study should be reorganized to meet this arrangement so 
that credits made in the summer terms could be counjted on the 
regular courses for graduation. The result of the discussion 
of this paper was a resolution recommending to the State 
Board of Education that as soon as the necessary appropria- 
tion could be secured the school should hold four sessions, of 
twelve weeks each, a year; and second, until such appropria- 
tion could be secured, the school should have three terms of 
twelve weeks each, and one summer term of six weeks. The 
tuition fee for the summer term was to be $6. This recom- 
mendation was approved by the board in December, 1899, and 
arrangements were made for the first summer term in 1900. 
Toward the close of the summer term in 1901 over 100 stu- 
dents, by rising vote, expressed a desire for a second six weeks* 
term. In accordance with this desire plans were made for the 
two summer terms in 1902. The tuition fee remained at $6 
per term until 1903, when the 43d General Assembly granted 
an additional appropriation of $5000 for the summer school. 
Then the fee was reduced to $i per term. Appropriations 
since that time have been sufficient to maintain the school with 
only this small incidental fee. The following record shows 
the growth of the summer school under the plan here outlined : 


Number Students 
First Term 

Number Students 
Second Term 

Total Number 

Number Counties 










The inter-normal contest relations between the Illinois 
State Normal University and the Southern Illinois Normal 
University were of short duration. Only two contests were 
held, the first at Carbondale March 13, 1879, and the second 
March n, 1880. Arrangements for a third contest failed, 
and the relations have never been renewed.* 


By action of the Collegiate Inter-State Oratorical Associa- 
tion, representatives of normal schools were debarred from 
the contests of that association. As the Kansas State Normal 
School at Emporia did not relish being dropped in such a sum- 
mary manner, it sent out calls in the spring of 1895 to a num- 
ber of normal schools in the central west suggesting the ap- 
pointment of committees to cooperate in the formation of an 
"Inter-State League of State Normal Schools." Such a com- 
mittee was promptly appointed but nothing definite was ac- 
complished that spring. 

On October 7, 1895, President Cook received notice that 
a meeting of student delegates from several State normal 
schools of the central Mississippi valley would be held in the 
parlors of the Pacific hotel, St. Joseph, Mo., on Friday, Oc- 

*For details see Cook and McHugh's History of the Illinois State Normal University, 
pag-es 148-155. 



0? T" 



tober ii. The matter was presented at general exercises and 
Mr. Frank S. Bogardus was elected delegate to represent the 
I.S.N.U. in the St. Joseph convention. 

To this convention the state normal schools of Missouri, 
Kansas, Iowa, and Illinois sent representatives. Altho Wis- 
consin was not represented, President Albee pledged the 
hearty cooperation of the Wisconsin State Normal at Oshkosh. 

Following the formation and adoption of a constitution, 
the most important work done by this convention was to elect 
officers and decide upon a place for the first contest. The first 
officers chosen were Charles F. Johnson, Cedar Falls, Iowa, 
president; H. E. Osborn, Warrensburg, Mo., vice-president; 
Frank S. Bogardus, Normal, 111., secretary-treasurer. 

After thoroly canvassing the situation, Warrensburg, Mo., 
was selected as the first meeting place of the League. The 
somewhat central location of Warrensburg, and the cash offer 
that place made to the organization seem to have been the fac- 
tors that determined the selection. The following schedule 
shows the distribution of officers and places for holding the 
contest for the first five years. This schedule naturally became 
the permanent basis for distribution of responsibilities and 
honors among the members of the league. 





No Office 






Kan. and Wis. 
111. and Mo. 
Kan. and la. 
111. and Wis. 
la. and Mo. 


When this League was founded there was no great cer- 
tainty as to what its future might be, but it started with en- 
thusiasm and hope and has continued with undiminished vigor. 
There was no constitutional provision for athletics; but this 
pleasant feature has been prominent in the meetings of the 
League. The thought of a prominent founder of the League 
is definitely expressed in the following words : "Why could 
not the normal schools on the same day as that on which the 
oratorical contest occurs hold an inter-state field day, consisting 
of track and field events ? I see no reason why it is impossible 
or unwise, and who can estimate the beneficial effect such a 
contest would have on local normal school athletics, which are 
usually most deplorably neglected?" The generous attitude 
of the League toward athletic contests has done much toward 
stimulating interest in athletic sports in the different schools 
that are influenced by it. 



The primary and dominant purpose of the League ' 'shall be 

to hold contests in oratory and any other school contests 

as shall be determined by the League at its annual convention." 
But the significance and value of this organization is of far 
greater scope than is indicated in the constitution. The or- 
ganization seems to be a characteristic product of the times in 
two chief respects: First, it is part of a very general move- 
ment for the promotion of the art of public speaking; second, 
it is one aspect of an almost universal present tendency, 
namely, the unification and cooperation of social agencies for 
the advancement of common interests or for greater effective- 
ness in service. 

There are two distinct evidences that the League was the 
outcome of forces already at work. The more immediate of 
these was the action of the Collegiate Inter-State Oratorical 
Association debarring normal schools from membership in 
that association. The Kansas state normal had enjoyed the 
privileges and reapt the benefits of the Collegiate Association, 
and finding itself thus marooned promptly took the initiative 
in organizing an inter-state Oratorical league of state normal 

The second evidence is found in the fact that in some if 
not all the normal schools that joined the league the art of 
public speaking (oratory, in the modern sense of that term) 
had received serious and enthusiastic recognition as an im- 
portant aspect of education. At the I.S.N.U. as early as the 
spring of 1888 interest in public speaking resulted in arrang- 
ing for an oratorical contest to be held during commencement 
week. Other normals that entered the League had been pre- 
pared for such action by local interest and work of various 
kinds for advancing the standards of public speaking. 

As the primary and conscious purpose of the League was 
to stimulate and cultivate oratory in normal schools, it was to 
be expected that the chief values resulting from such an associa- 
tion would be along these lines; and while the intended re- 
sults have been well worth all the effort and cost, yet the in- 
direct results have been of much greater value than the direct 
ones. These greater values have resulted from the friendly 
relations established between the schools, the thought-quicken- 
ing and reciprocally corrective effect of exchange of ideas, 
personal acquaintance, and other influences that make for 
sympathy, appreciation, and cooperation in educational and so- 
cial work. 


But history seems more real when the actors themselves 
do the talking. A student from Oshkosh wrote in 1897, after 
the second contest : "We received a stimulus whose effects are 
still noticeable in the increased enthusiasm that the opening of 
the new year shows in the art of public speaking." 

The Vidette for March, 1897, says: "If our League did 
nothing else than to bring us into contact with each other and 
cement the ties of friendship formed, its existence would be 
amply justified." It is gratifying to see that the incentives to 
win prize and victory were properly subordinated. The Vi- 
dette for April, 1897, commenting on the prospective contest, 
has the following : "What are these persons going to the con- 
test for? Is it just to see someone win the prize and hear 

the deafening shouts of victory ? There is more to be 

seen than the winning of this contest There is the living 

example of the art of speaking, so essential to the teacher. It 
is for you, delegates, to witness this, and on your return you 
should foster it among your fellow teachers." We shall let the 
Vidette speak once more : "The writer heard one of our stu- 
dents say that he would not exchange for any money consid- 
eration the value he got from his work as an active member 
and participant in the work of the Oratorical Association." 

The method of choosing the orator to represent a State 
in the inter-state contest has varied in the different schools and 
probably within the same school. The following ways have 
been in vogue and may be still at some of the schools : 

At the Kansas State Normal : "Some time during the 
month of September thirteen orators, chosen by the associa- 
tion and the faculty enter a preliminary contest before the fac- 
ulty. From this number the faculty choose four who enter 
our home contest, which is held the last Saturday before 
Christmas. The winner in this contest will represent us in the 
inter-state contest next May." Vidette. 

At the Iowa State Normal: "Each literary society, of 
which there are eight, is entitled to three representatives. The 
orations of these representatives are sent to five judges on 
thought and composition by the president seven weeks before 
the contest. The eight contestants marked hig'hest will then 
have about five weeks in delivery. The Alumni Association 
awards a gold medal to the winner of the first place, and the 
Oratorical Association intends to grant second and third 


At Oshkosh: "There are two literary societies in the 
school, the Lyceum, and the Phoenix. There is also a consid- 
erable number of students who are not enrolled in either so- 
ciety. To accommodate these a preliminary contest is held, 
which, with those of the two societies, makes three prelimi- 
nary contests. The best two from each of these meet to 
measure strength to determine which one will represent the 
school in the State inter-normal contest. The winner in the 
State contest becomes Wisconsin's representative in the Inter- 
State League." The writer does not know the practice at the 
other Wisconsin normals. 

There are five literary societies at the Warrensburg State 
Normal (Mo.). Each of these selects an orator to compete in 
the local contest. 

At the Illinois State Normal University the local Oratori- 
cal Association antedated the Inter-State League by several 
years, and at once assumed responsibility for the new and 
larger field of oratorical interest. Here a preliminary contest 
was held to reduce the competitors for the local contest to six 
(later to five.) The winner in the local contest for the Beach 
prize (later the Edward's medal) became Illinois' representa- 
tive in the inter-state contest. This was necessarily so at first 
because the only other state normal in Illinois, that at Carbon- 
dale, did not enter the Inter-State League. Later when the 
Inter-Normal Oratorical League of Illinois was formed, the 
winner in the local contest became thereby the representative of 
this school in the Inter-Normal League, and the winner in the 
contest held by this league became Illinois' representative in 
the Inter-State League. This additional training and stimulus 
has no doubt improved the chances for higher rank in the 
inter-state contests. 


Section I. Each State shall submit to the executive com- 
mittee twelve weeks before the date of the inter-state contest, 
the names of eight judges, five of whom shall be from States 
adjoining the League. These forty names shall be immedi- 
ately submitted to the various State associations for their ap- 
proval or protest. All approvals and protests shall be returned 
to the secretary of the Inter-State Association within fifteen 
(15) days the reasons for protest must be filed: Provided, 
that no State shall be allowed more than two protests, only 


one of which can be made against those selected from the 
States of the League. 

Sec. 2. The executive, committee shall select three of such 
persons from the names submitted outside of the League to 
act as judges in Section B. It shall also select three persons 
from the other names submitted, to act as judges in Section 
A. Each State shall be notified of the judges appointed at 
least eight weeks prior to the contest. If any judge selected 
by the executive committee refuses to serve, the executive 
committee shall select a judge from the remaining names rati- 
fied, to serve in his stead. 

Sec. 3. The judges shall in no way be connected with the 
institutions represented in the contest, nor shall any three 
judges be selected from the same State, nor shall any judge 
be selected from the county in which the contest is held. 


In addition to the truly educational motive that attaches 
to improvement in public speaking for its own sake, various 
forms of artificial incentive have been used to stimulate the 
work. The local oratorical associations hold out inviting hor: 
ors, rewards and appropriate evidences of success. The Inter- 
State League has the following constitutional provision : "As 
testimonials of success in the contests of this League, there 
shall be awarded as first honor, fifty dollars ($50) and as sec- 
ond honor, thirty dollars ($30). In addition to this there 
shall be awarded two medals which shall be given respectively 
as testimonials of success to the persons winning first and sec- 
ond honors in the contest of oratory : Provided, however, that 
the medals shall not exceed twenty-five dollars ($25) in cost, 
in which fifteen dollars ($15) shall be expended in the pur- 
chase of first honor medal, and the balance shall be expended 
for second medal. That these medals may best serve the pur- 
pose of this League, it is hereby provided that all future medals 
be made after the design of those awarded in 1897." 


1896. "The first contest of the Inter-State League of 
Normal Schools was an auspicious success," says the Normal 
Hyte, the official paper chosen to write up that meeting. It 
was held at Warrensburg, Mo., on Friday, May 8, 1896. 
Robert I. Wells was the I.S.N.U. orator, and spoke on "The 
New South." He was accorded third place. 


1897. In the second contest the Kansas State Normal 
was the host and received her guests at Emporia May 7, 1897. 
This was a great, rousing meeting; in fact, seemed almost 
bursting with the enthusiasm of a new movement from which 
great things were expected. Our orator was Chester M. Ech- 
ols who spoke on "The Destiny of Religion." He also won 
third place for Illinois. 

1898. Hyatt E. Covey represented Illinois in the third 
contest, May 6, 1898, at Normal. His subject was "Alexander 
Hamilton," and like the orators of the entertaining school in 
each of the preceding contests, took fifth place. 

1899. "The Man of tne Century" (Gladstone) was the 
subject of J. Carl Stine's oration for Illinois. He was given 
fourth place. This was a somewhat notable meeting for the 
I.S.N.U. One hundred eleven students and five members of 
the faculty went to Cedar Falls. Special cars were engaged; 
enthusiasm seemed almost out of proportion to the meaning of 
the occasion, unless we count the oratorical contest merely an 
important incident in the larger meaning of these annual 
gatherings of representatives of State normals. 

1900. The fifth contest was held at Oshkosh May 4, 1900. 
Our orator, Charles W. Whitten, won second place for Illi- 
nois with the subject, "The Negro Problem." 

1901. On May 10, 1901, the second round of meetings of 
the League began at Warrensburg. Roy O. Barton, speaking 
for Illinois on the subject, "The Spirit of Progress," earned 
third place. 

1902. At the seventh meeting of the League, William R. 
Mofet, of the DeKalb Normal, easily won first place for Illi- 
nois at Emporia May 8, 1902. Mr. Mofet's subject was, 
"Peter Abelard." 

1903. In the eighth contest the DeKalb Normal School 
again furnished the representative for Illinois. Miss Char- 
lotte Paulsen, having for her subject, "William Tell," was 
given fourth place. This contest was held May 15, 1903, at 
DeKalb, 111. 

1904. The ninth contest was held at Cedar Falls, Iowa, 
in May, 1904. Miss Ethel Bryant, of DeKalb, represented 



Illinois and won second place with an oration on "The West- 
ern Pioneer." 

1905. This year Illinois was represented by Miss Parks, 
of the Macomb Normal. She spoke on "The American Navy," 
receiving fourth place. This meeting fell on May 12. 

1906. Again the Macomb Normal furnished the orator, a 
Mr. Thompson, for Illinois in the inter-state contest. He was 
accorded third place in the contest which was held at Warrens- 
burg, Mo. 

1907. Somewhat more than the ordinary interest at- 
tached to the contest this year, owing to the fact that a young 
Filipino, Miguel Nicdao, of Normal, represented Illinois in the 
Inter-State Oratorical League. Mr. Nicdao is completing his 
third year of study at the Illinois State Normal University. 
His subject, "The First Need of the Filipinos," was most ap- 
propriate. He was awarded third place by the judges. 

To summarize the results in a convenient form, the fol- 
lowing table is introduced : 



Illinois' Orators 

1st. Place 

2nd. Place 

3rd. Place 

4th. Place 

May 8, '96 


R. J. Wells 





May 7, '97 


C. M. Echols 





May 6, '98 


H. E. Covey 





May 5, '99 

Cedar Falls 

J. Carl Stine 





May 4, '00 


C. W. Whitten 





May 10, '01 


R. O. Barton 





May 8, '02 


W. R. Mofet 





May IS, '03 


Charlotte Paulsen 





May '04 

Cedar Falls 

Ethel Bryant 





May 12, '05 


Dollie M. Parks 





May '06 


Roy Thompson 





May 3, '07 


Mig-uel Nicdao 






During the fall term of 1898 the State Normal School at 
Oshkosh, Wisconsin, sent the I.S.N.U. a friendly challenge to 
debate. This challenge was promptly accepted, primarily for 
the sake of what the debate itself would be worth, but also 
for the opportunity of establishing closer and more friendly 
relations with our sister normal. The essential facts of inter- 
est may be got from the following brief summary: 

The first debate was held at Oshkosh May 19, 1899. Ques- 
tion, "Resolved, That the time has come for the United States 
to abandon the policy of protection." The negative was 


chosen by the Illinois State Normal and ably maintained by 
George M. Palmer, John T. Wilson, and Albert E. White, all 
seniors. They won the debate by a decisive victory. The ef- 
fect of this debate and its resulting victory upon our school 
was immediately noticeable. It gave debating in this school 
added attractiveness, impetus, and importance. The Vidette 
for June, '99, shows the thought and feeling of the school in 
these words : "The victory was a glorious one for this school, 
as this is the first time that Oshkosh has ever been turned 

down in debate It is the hope of both schools that these 

debates may be continued, for much good will come from the 
healthy rivalry between two such schools." 

The second debate was held at Normal May 26, 1900. 
The question, "Resolved, That our policy in the Philippines 
has been and is just and wise," was proposed by Normal. Wis- 
consin took the negative. Normal's debaters were Roy F. 
Barton, Luella M. Dilley, and Charles W. Whitten. Wiscon- 
sin's team was a strong one, but Normal won. This question 
had already been the subject for debate in several of the great 
inter-collegiate debates, and almost without exception the side 
defending the Philippine policy had lost. The Pantagraph in 
its report of the debate said : "It proved the chance of the 
Normal University to array herself on the side of the dis- 
tinguished minority of educational institutions that have intel- 
ligently discerned and cogently set forth in fact and logic the 
sufficient grounds for our policy in the Philippines." 

The third of these inter-state debates was held at Oshkosh 
May 17, 1901. "Resolved, That municipalities should own 
and control public utilities." The affirmative was maintained 
by the Normal debaters, William Hawkes, Thomas Barger, 
and Miss Frances Fletcher. Oshkosh won by a unanimous de- 
cision of the judges. 

On May 16, 1902, the inter-state debaters clashed again. 
This time the question was, "Resolved, That it should be tem- 
porarily the policy of the United States to subsidize ships of 
American registry for the purpose of building up its deep-sea 
merchant marine." Miss Bertha Denning, Walter R. Jones, 
and Miss Frances Fletcher had the affirmative and won. It 
was during this meeting at Normal that arrangements were 
made for an indefinite series of debates between the two 

The fifth debate was won for Normal by Harry Perrin, 
Roy Webster, and Carl Waldron, at Oshkosh, May 22, 1903. 


The question was, "Resolved, That the large corporations, 
commonly called trusts, are more injurious than beneficial." 

Oskhosh won an unquestioned victory in the sixth debate, 
May 27, 1904, at Normal. Question: "Resolved, That our 
laws should provide for compulsory arbitration in labor-capital 
troubles first, where the interests of the public are especially 
at stake; second, where either party to the controversy de- 
demands arbitration." Herbert Coons, Edith Mossman, and 
Fred Telford made up the Normal team that was fairly out- 
classed by the Oshkosh team. 

By request of Normal the Oshkosh debate was suspended 
for the year 1905. This action was taken by the Normal fac- 
ulty with the hope of improving the standard of work and 
chances of success in the oratorical contests. 

In the fall of 1905 the Oshkosh debate was resumed and 
on May 18, 1906, the seventh inter-state debate was held at 
Oshkosh. The question, "Resolved, That inter-state railway 
rates in the United States should be made and enforced by a 
federal commission," was studied long, faithfully, and thoroly 
by the Normal team, Misses Mary Damman and Clara Coith, 
and Mr. Fred Telford. It was one of the best teams that ever 
took part in the inter-state debates, and tho they had the af- 
firmative of the question were able to win a unanimous de- 
cision of the judges. The constructive arguments of Miss 
Coith and Miss Damman seemed invincible; and Mr. Tel- 
ford's rebuttal aroused extreme admiration and enthusiasm by 
its utter demolition of the opponents' strongholds. The old 
I.S.N.U. accorded the returning victors the most enthusiastic 
and elaborate recognition known here for many a year. 

The debate for 1907 was held in Normal, May 17. De- 
baters for Normal were James H. Smith, Otto Reinhart, and 
Miss Minnie Vautrin. The Wisconsin representatives were 
David L. Richard, Howard P. Lewis, and Frank M. Karnes. 
Question: "Resolved, That the general property tax, in so 
far as it is a state tax, should be superceded by some form or 
forms of taxation other than a general tax on realty or on 

The decision was for the affirmative in favor of Oshkosh. 


When the Inter-State Oratorical League of State normal 
schools was formed the Carbondale Normal did not become a 
member. The I.S.N.U. being the only member of the Inter- 



State League in Illinois, its local Oratorical Association con- 
stituted the State association for Illinois for several years. 
Soon after the new State normals were opened at Charleston 
and DeKalb, the question of forming an inter-normal league 
for Illinois was raised; but no definite steps were taken until 
October 31, 1901, when the I.S.N.U. Oratorical Association 
appointed a committee with instructions to invite the other 
State normals to unite in an inter-normal league. The Vi- 
de tie for February, 1902, noted that a constitution had been 
drawn up and that the DeKalb school had become a member. 
The constitution provided that any of the other State normals 
could enter whenever they were ready or cared to do so. The 
normal at Macomb became a member in due time. Thus, up 
to the present date, these three State normals are the only 
members of the Inter-Normal League. 

This Inter-Normal Oratorical Association of Illinois is in 
purpose and spirit a mutual cooperative enterprise for the pro- 
motion of higher standards of public speaking among normal- 
trained teachers. It incidentally determines who shall repre- 
sent Illinois in the Inter-State League, yields the values that 
come from exchange of ideas, cultivates acquaintance and 
friendly relations, and thus gives a valuable preparation for 
more intelligent and effective cooperation in carrying on the 
phase of public service that distinctively belongs to the normal 

Six contests in oratory have thus far been held. The fol- 
lowing tabular view shows the essential facts in these contests : 




DeKalb's Orator 




Apr. 2, '03 
Apr. 3, '03 
Mar. 17, '04 
Mar. 24, '05 
Mar. '06 
Mar. 22, '07 


Mary Gay 
Bertha Denning- 
Burley Johnston 
Herbert Coons 
Emma Kleinau 
Mig-uel Nicdao 

W. R. Mofet 
Charlotte Paulsen 
Ethel F. Bryant 
(Not in) 
Perry L,. Day 
(Not in) 

(Not in) 
(Not in) 
Margaret Black 
Dollie M. Parks 







Four days after the opening of Normal University, in a 
small room on the second floor of Major's Hall, by the light 
of one tallow candle that inauspiciously demurred at burning, 
the six male members of the school met, decided to form a 
debating society, and appointed a committee to draft a con- 
stitution. The committee reported the next evening. The 
constitution then adopted proclaimed that the Normal Debat- 
ing Society existed for the purpose of "extending social rela- 
tions, elevating moral character, and intellectual attainments ;" 
the exercises were to consist of "debates, etc.," attendance 
was compulsory, and whosoever should move the dissolution 
of the society was thereupon to be expelled. The first officers 
were : C. D. Irons, president ; J. L. Spaulding, vice-president ; 
H. J. Button, secretary; and John Hull, treasurer. Among 
the fourteen charter members were the following, who are 
now alumni : 

Of the class of '60, J. G. Howell, John Hull, Peter Harper, 
Edwin Philbrook, E. A. Gastman, Silas Hayes. Of '61, H. J. 
Button, and of '63, E. B. Harris. 

Curiously enough the first president, vice-president, and 
secretary of the new society became, a few months later, the 
founders of its rival. February 26, 1858, after a long debate 
and stormy time generally, these gentlemen requested permis- 
sion to leave the room. The president, E. A. Gastman, refused 


permission; the gentlemen left in spite of the refusal; they 
were fined twenty-five cents each; at a special meeting the 
next day they appealed from the decision of the chair; the 
chair was sustained; the gentlemen thereupon resigned and 
after a few days received an honorable discharge. About one 
month later, at the close of school upon the second day of the 
spring term of 1858, they called together the entering sections, 
"D" and "E," consisting of some forty students, and urged 
upon them the formation of a new society. The majority of 
the new students thought it discreet to wait before organizing 
a new society until they had had an opportunity to see what 
the existing one was like, but after attending one meeting of 
the Normal Debating Society they were easily prevailed upon 
to launch the "D and E Society." There were thirty-three 
charter members, fourteen of these being ladies. Four or five 
were not members of the entering sections. P. R. Walker was 
the first president, and J. H. Burnham the first secretary. Of 
the charter members only four ever graduated from the Nor- 
mal: L. D. Bovee, '62; J. H. Burnham, '61 ; P. R. Walker, 
'6 1 ; Harvey J. Button, *6l. 

The Normal Debating Society soon felt obliged to follow 
the lead of its rival and admit ladies. To them in particular 
the name of the organization was not satisfactory and when a 
little over a year old the society was re-christened "Philadel- 
phian," this name having been suggested by Jennie G. Michie, 
later Mrs. Dr. Fox. The adoption of this formidable title set 
the members of the younger society to hunting for a name 
that would "out-sound" it for their organization. Finally, at 
the suggestion of Aaron Gove, "Wrightonian" was chosen. 
But "hereby hangs a tale." 

The story is that in the beginning the first principal of the 
Normal School had little sympathy with the D and E Society. 
It is said that he even intimated that the time might come 
when both existing societies would give place to something 
founded upon quite a different plan. The younger society in 
particular feared for its life. Simeon Wright was at that 
time a member of the State Board of Education. He was 
well-known thruout Illinois, having traveled all over it lectur- 
ing in the interests of education. It is claimed that Mr. 
Wright early espoused the cause of the D and E Society, and 
in fact it was due to his influence with the principal and in the 
Board that the "boys were allowed to go on with their experi- 
ment." There will be no better opportunity than this to say 
that "Uncle Sim," as he came to be called, continued the firm 


friend of the society named after him, or of both societies, up 
to the time of his death. He was instrumental in the forma- 
tion of the society libraries, helped them to get their charters 
from the legislature in 1867, an d m other ways was of great 
service. Simeon Wright is remembered to have been a man of 
a warm, big, generous heart. As quartermaster during the war 
he cared for the immature soldiers. "No man ever asked from 
him in vain. His labors were unceasing and unselfish. When 
others were sleeping, he was planning for their comfort. Did 
a man break down on the march, Uncle Sim had an extra horse 
for him to ride. Did one fall sick, Uncle Sim found trans- 
portation to some comfortable hospital No poor student 

ever appealed to Uncle Sim in vain. No case of deserved char- 
ity ever passed his door unheeded ; his hand, heart, and purse 
were always open to the deserving." At his death Simeon 
Wright left the Wrightonian Society one thousand dollars 
The estate proving to be quite heavily encumbered, the amount 
was never received. He is buried at Rock Falls cemetery, 
which overlooks the picturesque Rock River. The deed of the 
burying lot is held by the society, it furnished the epitaph for 
his tomb, and the gavel now in use in Wrightonian Hall was 
cut from an arbor vitse at the head of the grave. 

The Normal Debating Society, or the Philadelphian So- 
ciety as we shall now call it, held its first meetings upon Wed- 
nesday nights. The first amendment to the constitution changed 
the evening to Friday. When the D and E, or the Wrightonian 
Society, started, it became necessary for both organizations to 
use the same room the schoolroom in Major's Hall for their 
meetings. At first the Philadelphians had the choice of the 
evening, but during the second term of the existence of the 
Wrightonian Society, it became the practice for one society to 
have the choice during one term and for the other to take its 
choice the next term. Friday and Saturday evenings were the 
ones regularly chosen. 

Society meetings were open to the public and while they 
were held in the city of Bloomington were sometimes disturbed 
by the presence of an unruly element. The selection of a 
president occasionally turned upon the question as to who was 
the best disciplinarian. It is recorded that one election in 
Wrightonia was won for a strict disciplinarian by his escorting 
separately to the meeting a large number of ladies. His em- 
barrassment began when the time came to take them home. 
After the school moved out to Normal, for a time many of the 
students still lived in Bloomington and society meetings were 


attended with much difficulty. The meetings were held tem- 
porarily in such rooms of the new building as were suitable 
and available. The choice of halls is said to have been settled 
by the Philadelphians getting one of the professors thru the 
transom, and pre-empting the quarters upon the south side of 
the building in the name of the Philadelphian Society which 
held its first meeting in the hall October 20, 1860. The 
Wrightonians formally dedicated their hall in January, 1861 ; 
the Philadelphians theirs, six months later. 

The society halls were at first heated by steam-pipes, which 
sometimes cracked like discharges of musketry to the discom- 
fiture of performers ; later, ventilating stoves were substituted. 
Adjournments on account of cold halls are recorded. The 
floors remained for a time uncarpeted, and the chairs and the 
piano used were carried up from the floor below. Sometimes 
the chairs were slow in getting back to the recitation rooms 
where they belonged. The piano was the only one the univer- 
sity owned, and the societies had to take turns in using it. 

The Wrightonian Society admitted ladies from the start 
and the Philadelphian followed suit as early as October, 1858, 
inviting them and the teachers to attend and take part in the 
programs, and soon after changing the constitution so that 
ladies became regular members. The teachers did not join the 
societies until 1860, when by agreement they were equally ap- 
portioned between them. In 1860 students from the model 
school were first admitted, tho not at first permitted to vote 
or to hold office. Soon after they were received upon equal 
terms with Normal students, and seem to have held their own 
well in exciting contests between the two departments. At 
first students were elected into the societies upon application. 
The scheme of a drawing originated in the fall of 1858. The 
Wrightonians had worked during the summer to secure the 
best students who might enter in the fall for their organization, 
and seemed to be about to deal their adversaries a hard blow, 
when the rule was promulgated that the names of the members 
of the entering class be arranged alphabetically and that each 
society be accorded every other person upon the list. It is 
recorded that occasionally a "trade" was made, but such trades 
soon became impossible. The election of honorary members 
was frequent. 

The Wrightonian minutes of November 25, 1859, contain 
a memorial signed by a long list of ladies, praying that at 
society meetings it be the rule that the ladies should occupy 
the same side of the school room that they did during the reg- 


ular school sessions and that the gentlemen keep on their own 
side. The petition was favorably acted upon. Early in 1860 
in Philadelphia "a persistent Englishman and a bachelor" 
moved that the ladies be excluded from the society, averring 
that their presence embarrassed beginners, that young men 
attended the meetings to accompany the ladies, and disturbed 
the meetings. The motion was lost. 

Naturally a peculiar interest attaches to the earliest pro- 
grams. The faded minutes in the dusty record books clearly 
reveal that the debate was the backbone of the literary exer- 
cises in both societies. Indeed the Philadelphian society, true 
to its baptismal name, seems to have done practically nothing 
but debate. The "etc." in the constitutional provision seems 
to have meant miscellaneous business. The first question ever 
debated was, Is a lawyer justified in defending a bad cause? 
Sometimes when at a meeting one question had been suffi- 
ciently discussed, another was taken up, the roll was called, 
and each member was expected to respond; occasionally, too, 
an unfinished debate went over to the next meeting. The ques- 
tion for debate was arranged for a week or more in advance 
in open society meeting; later, in 1860, in the Wrightonian 
Society, we find it made the duty of each president to appoint 
a committee which should arrange the questions and announce 
them two weeks in advance. For a time it was the practice 
for the president to decide the debate, but in 1864, in the 
Wrightonian Society judges began to be appointed. War-times 
furnished a wealth of serious problems for discussion : Has 
a State the right to secede. Should Jeff. Davis be hung? 
Should the slaves be freed? Was Lincoln's proclamation un- 
just and impolitic? Lighter questions occasionally were 
handled: Should young ladies take advantage of leap-year? 
Ought men to shave ? Is the proposed transit of Venus inex- 
pedient and should it be postponed until times are easier ? We 
even find it recorded that such dignified professors as Edwards, 
Hewett, Stetson, and Sewell, debated the following: Re- 
solved, That we most horribly protest against, vigorously con- 
demn, obstreperously denounce, and aguishly shudder at the 
influence of such historical literature as, 

Jack and Jill went up the hill, 

To get a pail of water. 
Jack fell down and cracked his crown, 

And Jill came tumbling after. 

Those who think they recognize Dr. Hewett's handiwork 
in the above will see it again in the following resolution, 
adopted March i, 1862: 


WHEREAS, We are credibly informed that the president of the Wright- 
onian Society has this day become the possessor of a fine horse and buggy ; 
therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we are jointly and severally tickled. 

Altho, as has been said, the debate long remained the main 
feature of the literary program in both societies, yet other 
exercises began early to creep into the programs declama- 
tions, orations, essays, teaching exercises, etc. The extempo- 
raneous speech held a prominent place. We find record of 
speeches upon, The Growth of Whiskers ; Sidewalks ; Kisses ; 
Gloomy Prospects of the Bachelor Wrightonian for Leap- 
Year. Lectures were of common occurrence, and were deliv- 
ered either by student members of the societies or by the pro- 
fessors. Occasionally an outsider was brought in for a public 
lecture. Tableaux were common in war-times. Dramas, etc., 
it is said, were most effective in drawing crowds shortly later. 

Of second importance to the debate alone, was in those 
early days the society literary paper. The paper of the Phila- 
delphian Society early got into the hands of the ladies and 
came to be called The Ladies' Garland; that of the Wright- 
onians, started during the first term of the society's existence, 
was called The Oleastellus. Beginning with 1858, the two 
papers contended for supremacy at the annual contests for 
thirty years. A hint of an evil that may have existed as to these 
papers is given by a resolution adopted in the Wrightonian 
Society in 1860, to the effect that each president appoint a 
censor to cut out of the Oleastellus all odious personalities. 

Vocal and instrumental music seem to have been a part of 
the society programs from the first. It has been mentioned 
that the societies had to take turns in using the little piano be- 
longing to the University. They did not become owners of 
pianos until 1860. When no piano was to be had comb music, 
etc., had to be resorted to. The singing in early days was 
about the same as the congregational singing in churches 
from hymn books, with leaders, plenty of discords, etc. Vocal 
music first became a number on the contest in 1862; instru- 
mental music in 1866. 

The first contest between the societies was held at the sug- 
gestion of President Hovey at the close of school in July, 1858. 
The only number contested was the debate, which was won by 
the Wrightonians. Thereafter the contests were held in De- 
cember. In 1859 the paper was added as a number, in 1862, 
the vocal music; in 1866, the instrumental music; an oration 
was arranged for in 1869, but there was no contest as the 


Philadelphia!! orator was sick. Thereafter it became a regu- 
lar number. The society paper was read last at the contest of 
1887; the essay and the recitation appeared first in 1888. A 
summary of the main points of interest as to the contests will 
be found in tabular form at the close of this sketch. 

Great in those early days must have been the loyalty of 
the Philadelphians and the Wrightonians. Attendance upon 
society meetings was compulsory; tardiness was fined; the 
names of the same persons appear with remarkable frequency 
upon successive programs. The dedications of the new halls 
at Normal were clearly occasions of great enthusiasm. Orig- 
inal odes were features of the programs. It is said that 
school duties were sometimes neglected for the sake of society 
requirements. It is possible, in a way, to measure this society 
loyalty in dollars and cents. The first Philadelphian carpet 
was presented to the society in 1861 by three of the professors 
and a few other society members. It cost $250. The plan 
had been to surprise the rank and file of the Philadelphians 
and steal a march upon the Wrightonian Society by purchas- 
ing this carpet secretly, smuggling it in and laying it so that 
it might be displayed in all its glory at a coming society meet- 
ing. One historian states, however, that a tardy Wrightonian 
discovered the smuggling of the carpet into the building dur- 
ing general exercise period; another chronicler hints that 
some Philadelphian member, of the sex that can never keep 
a secret, may have told some Wrightonian friend. Sure it is 
that the secret was discovered in time for the Wrightonians 
to order their $225 carpet by telegraph from New York, have 
it shipped by express, and laid in time to check-mate their 

Periodically the carpet problem, or the chair problem, or 
the piano problem, or some other similar one, has bobbed up 
to test the loyalty of society members. Thus the Philadelphian 
carpet of 1861 had to be replaced by a new one in 1872, and 
that by another, costing $300, in 1881. The Wrightonians 
bought a new carpet in 1883. October 15, 1881, O. J. Milli- 
ken, chairman of a committee appointed for the purpose, ren- 
dered the following report of Wrightonian assets : 

One good Wrightonian hall ; i good Wrightonian president ; several 
good members ; i president's table ; i president's chair ; i gavel ; i poor 
old rickety critic's table ; no good critic's chair ; i secretary's desk ; two 
rostrums good ; i stage curtain ; 160 good chairs, 16 of which are lame ; 
19 good lamps that will burn, and 6 good lamps that will not burn, of 
which 13 are chandelier lamps, 2 are side lamps, 3 are swinging lamps, 
and i is not a swinging lamp ; 2 lamp shades not in use ; 2 good chan- 


deliers ; 5 good wall brackets ; 4 busts, including the bust-ed window pane ; 
2 images ; 14 pictures with frames and the pictures of 58 former Wright- 
onian presidents; i good piano and 2 good piano stools; i good library, 
containing 896 valuable books ; I wine glass ; i good second hand infant's 
cradle; i good market basket; i four-legged stool; i good broom; I 
broken dust-pan no good; i sword; I feeble step-ladder; 2 program 
frames; i good but dirty old carpet, and other things too numerous to 
mention, etc., etc., etc. 

A very cursory survey of the Wrightonian records of the 
eighties reveals such minutes as these : $75 allowed for paint- 
ing and graining the hall; bill for $150.22 for curtains, or- 
dered paid; committee appointed to purchase $100 worth of 

books for the library; voted to get Prof. (who was 

about to leave), a present, the same to cost $100 or more; $300 
voted for frescoing the hall (1899). So the Philadelphian rec- 
ords show $100 spent for curtains, $250 for painting and fres- 
coing (1885), $45 for a present, more than a hundred for 
works of art for the hall, nearly $100 for cleaning up, for arch, 
etc. Near the close of the eighties the societies invested many 
hundreds of dollars in their beautiful grand Steinway pianos, 
and about $450 each in new opera chairs for their halls. The 
business-like manner of meeting the expenses for the latter 
may be gleaned from the Philadelphian minutes, where we 
read that, after it had been arranged to pay all but $175 from 
cash in the treasury, it was voted to give the committee ten 
minutes in which to raise the lacking sum in small loans from 
members of the society. The ten minutes were evidently suf- 
ficient. The Wrightonians followed practically the same plan. 
The records contain a vote of thanks extended to the young 
gentlemen of the societies for gallantly taking up and clean- 
ing the carpets, scrubbing the halls, and screwing down the 
chairs. In 1892 an effort was made to raise $12,000 for a so- 
ciety building, but the attempt was not successful. But it was 
in 1900 that the Wrightonian and the Philadelphian halls as- 
sumed in the main their present aspects. After the building 
of the gymnasium and the removal of the science department 
and the museum to it, the two old halls were thrown in to- 
gether, with a commodious separate room cut off the north 
end for a dressing room or parlor, and the Wrightonians took 
possession of it all. The Philadelphians moved into the exactly 
similar space on the east end of the building. Hard-wood 
floors were laid in both halls, the Philadelphians took all the 
old seats, which were in good condition, and the Wrightonians 
purchased new ones. The refitting of the enlarged quarters 
meant debts of several hundred dollars, which have since been 
paid. No trace is now left of the damage done the halls by 



the tornado of 1902, which took the roof off the east end of 
the building and tumbled a chimney thru the roof into the 
Wrightonian hall. The project of fitting out the apartments 
upon the north ends of the halls as parlors is being carried out 
at the present time. 

The society libraries, founded soon after the founding of 
the societies themselves, and the source of so much sacrifice 
and solicitude to the societies for thirty years, were finally, af- 
ter an intermittent discussion of the proposition thruout the 
eighties turned over to the care of the State board, and thus 
virtually merged with the university library in 1890. The 
method of financiering the societies changed in 1877. Previ- 
ous to that time society dues were $i a term, with extra lev- 
ies when needed, and occasional entertainments designed to 
benefit the treasury. Admission to the regular society pro- 
grams was, however, free. In 1877 the ticket system was es- 
tablished, whereby a society ticket, costing 50 cents, admits to 
both societies for one term. The old fashioned "grind," or 
union term sociable, whereat as many individuals as could pos- 
sibly be, were packed, after chairs had been removed, into 
Normal hall, and then the whole human mass set to revolving 
upon its axis, is a thing, too, of the past. In the more com- 
modious gymnasium, the occasion becomes more like any or- 
dinary social. 

As to changes in the programs that have occurred since 
the sixties, little need be said. The Ladies' Garland and the 
Oleastellus are dead. Upon the contest program the essay and 
the recitation took their place in 1888. The establishment of 
a school paper, the Vidette, in February, 1888, may have 
usurped, in part, the place of the old society papers. Orations, 
readings, recitations, vocal and instrumental music continue 
as of yore to be given. No Shakespearian reading has been 
given by the faculty for many years. Since the establishment 
of a regular lecture course the societies have seldom, if ever, 
arranged for public lectures. The contests between sections, 
or between ladies and gentlemen, common ten or twenty years 
ago, do not occur now-a-days. An oratorical association now 
conducts a prize contest in oratory and in recitation. Oc- 
casional farces, dramas, exhibitions, etc., of course occur. 
Down thru the decades no number has remained more promi- 
nent than the debate both the earnest, educative discussion 
of important questions, and the light merry-making affair. 
"Resolved, that spelling is worth the attention it receives at 
Normal" decided in Wrightonia February 27, 1886, in the 


negative. "Resolved, that the moon was full when the cow 
jumped over it" Wright., October 25, 1886, decided for the 
affirmative. The humorous debate has not been the only mer- 
ry-maker. "Invitation received from the Phils, that the 
Wrights, meet them for a sociable in the halls above; some 
fears being expressed that the Phils, would not be able to be 
there, the re-wording of the invitation was required before it 
was accepted," Wright., minutes for September 14, 1886. . . . 
October 6, 1883, (i) Biography of Mr. Milliken, by Mr. 
Heath; (2) Biography of Mr. Heath, by Mr. Milliken. 

For several years, until this year, the contest debate was a 
submitted debate, each speech of each side being submitted in 
turn to the opposing side, with the exception of the two clos- 
ing speeches. It had been thought that a better debate could 
be secured in this way than in the old rough and tumble battle. 
The submitted debate, however, is apt to degenerate into a cut 
and dried criticism and re-criticism of essays. This year a new 
plan has been introduced a compromise scheme, whereby 
each side submits the brief of its argument to the other. So- 
ciety programs now are prepared, for the greater part, by 
committees, each committee usually consisting of three mem- 
bers and being responsible for simply one program. Two or 
three years ago the faculty, in the belief that every teacher and 
certainly every graduate of the institution should have had 
practice in addressing an audience, made rhetorical work com- 
pulsory. The requirement possibly did nearly as much harm 
as good to the societies themselves, for it crowded upon their 
programs many young and inexperienced students. So soon 
as an increase in the teaching force of the school permitted it, 
the requirement was changed so that work in rhetorical classes 
remained compulsory for all who did not do work in one of 
the societies. Entering students, with few exceptions, are put 
into the rhetorical classes and each now stay there until some 
teacher who knows of his ability approves an application that 
he be permitted to do his work in one of the societies. It is 
hoped that this plan will in a short time thoroly equip students 
for the more independent and consequently more valuable 
work in the society. The Philadelphian and the Wrightonian 
Societies no longer have the entire field to themselves. Some- 
thing is said elsewhere of the Sapphonian Society, of the Cic- 
eronian Society, and of the Girls' Debating Club. 

A complete and accurate account of all the contests be- 
tween the two societies is appended for convenience of refer- 



ence. The letters P. and W. stand for Philadelphian and 
Wrightonian, respectively. The winners' names are printed 
in italics. 



-Debate (P.) Peter Harper, J. T. Ridlon; (W.) P. R. Walker, J. H. 


Debate (W.) P. R. Walker, D. G. Ingraham; (P.) J. G. Howell, 
J. Little. 

Paper (W.) Misses Town and Clark; (P.) Misses Washburn and 


Debate (W.) H. B. Norton, L. B. Kellogg; (P.) Edwin Waite, A. B. 

Paper (P.) Misses Sprague and Whiteside; (W.) Misses Curtis 
and Baker. 

1861, no contest. 


Debate (W.) L. Kellogg, 4. McClure; (P.) E. F. Bacon, J. H. 

Paper (P.) Sarah Stevenson, Mat tie Burrill; (W.) Mary Fuller, 
L. A. Stevens. 

Vocal Music (P.) Quartet, names lost; (W.) Misses McCambridge 
and Jones, Messrs. Hill and J. W. Cook. 

1863, disagreement and no contest. 


Debate (P.) F. J. Seybold, H. L. Karr; (W.) A. G. Karr, J. W. 

Paper (W.) Misses M. Little, and M. R. Gorton; (P.) Misses B. 
Wakeneld and E. A. Pratt. 

Vocal Music (P.) A Quartet; (W.) A Quartet. Names lost. 

1865, no contest; failure to agree. 


Debate (W.) James S. Stevenson, Lewis Goodrich; (P.) G. S. 
Robinson, J. R. Edwards. 

Paper (P.) Mrs. Gorham, Annie Edwards; (W.) Emma Robinson, 
Cora Valentine. 

Vocal Music (P.) Myra Overman, Eurania Gorton, Laura Fulwiler 
a trio; (W.) Misses Moss and Howard, Messrs. Kleckner and Goodrich. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Lill Pearson; (W.) Mary Gorton. 



Debate (W.) B. C. Allensworth, G. G. Manning; (P.) Loring Chase, 
C. H. Fiske. 

Paper (P.) Misses Barker and Galusha; (W.) Misses Benton and 
Lou Allen. 

Vocal Music (P.) Minnie Boyden, Julia Rider; (W.) Messrs. 
Kleckner, Watterman, Smith, Manning. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Kate Anderson; (W.) Fannie Smith. 


Debate (P.) R. A. Edwards, W. C. Griffith; (W.) W. G. Myer, 
Ben Hunter. 

Paper (P.) Mary Owen, Flora Pennell; (W.) Mary Kimbell, Clara 

Vocal Music (P.) A. Quartet; (W.) A Quartet. Names not preserved. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Jennie Roe, Marian New; (P.) Fannie 
Smith, Onie Rawlings. 


Debate (W.) H. F. Holcomb, J. W. Gibson; (P.) B. W. Baker, 
S. Kimlin. 

Paper (W.) Alice Chase, Isabel Houston; (P.) Alice Emmons, 
Dell Cook. 

Vocal Music (W.) Misses Dietrich, Smith, and Mr. J. Miner; (P.) 
Mary Hawley. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Misses Kingsley and Thomas; (P.) 
Messrs. J. M. Trimble and T. A. H. Norman. 

Oration (P.) R. A. Edwards; (W.) W. H. Smith (not delivered 


Debate (P.) Arthur Butler, Edmund James; (W.) R. M. Water- 
man, S. W. Paisley. 

Paper (P.) Louise Ray, Lottie Blake; (W.) Onie Rawlings, Lida 

Vocal Music (P.) Mrs. Moffatt, Mary Eldridge; (W.) Alice Ford, 
Flora Brown. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Mrs. Moffatt; (W.) Josephine Mosley. 

Oration (P.) W. C. Griffith; (W.) H. F. Holcomb. 


Debate (P.) James Hovey, George Blount; (W.) J. M. Wilson, 
3. E. Lamb. 

Paper (W.) Misses Franklin and Monroe; (P.) Misses Gaston 
and Karr. 

Vocal Music (W.) Mary Strond; (P.) Misses Compton and Town, 
and Mr. F. W. Conrad. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Miss Roop; (P.) Mitt Ware. 

Oration Neither delivered because one orator had been suspended. 


Debate (P.) J. D. Templeton, Felix Tait; (W.) DeWitt Roberts, 
E. R. E. Kimbrough. 

Paper (P.) Amelia Kellogg, Mary Hawley; (W.) Nellie Edwards, 
Emma Stewart. 


Vocal Music (P.) A Quartet; (W.) A Quartet. 
Instrumental Music (P.) Libbie Peers; (W.) Anna Hughes. 
Oration (P.) Walter Lockwood; (W.) J. W. Smith. 


Debate^- (W.) R. S. Barton, E. R. Faulkner; (P.) I. Eddy Brown, 
J. N. Wilkinson. 

Paper-r-(W.) Misses Pace and Judd; (P.) Misses Morgan and Lil- 
lian DeGarmo. 

Vocal Music (W.) Julia Codding; (P.) Ida Aldridge. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Helen Stone; (P.) Lula Brown. 

Oration (W.) Mr. Cushman; (P.) Mr. Conrad. 


Debate (W.) J. S. Shearer, S. B. Wadsworth ; (P.) A. D. Bcckhart, 
C. O, Dray ton. 

Paper (P.) Anna Simmes, Mary Bass; (W.) Hattie Smith, Agnes 

Vocal Music (P.) Lillian Hanford; (W.) Lydia Clark. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Miss M. M. Butterfield; (W.) Fannie 

Oration (P.) Charles McMurry; (W.) R. L. Barton. 


Debate (W.) S. B. Wood, W. W. Brittain; (P.) Stephen Spear, 
DeWitt Tyler. 

Paper (W.) Emma Corbett, Julia Codding; (P.) Mary Edwards, 
Jessie Codding. 

Vocal Music (W.) Adelaine Goodrich; (P.) Miss L. E. Sanders. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Lilly Brown, Anna Pierce; (P.) Amelia 

Oration (W.) S. B. Hursh; (P.) C. Guy Laybourn. 


Debate^(W.) Silas Gillan, C. W. Stevenson; (P.) George Hoffman, 
William Picking. 

Paper (P.) Mary Torrence, Mary Anderson; (W.) Emily Wing, 
Frances Rosier. 

Vocal Music (P.) Lillian Chapman; (W.) May Ross. 
Instrumental Music (P.) Edward Humphries; (W.) Clarence Hardin. 

Oration (P.) Willis Glidden; (W.) Edward Swett. 


Debate (P.) C. Guy Laybourn, John Bowles; (W.) Andrew Elder, 
William McCutcheon. 

Paper (W.) Flora Fuller, Mina Smith; (P.) Helen Wykoff, Jessie 

Vocal Music (W.) Alice Bradshaw; (P.) Hattie Burgess. 

Instrumental Music (W.) May Ross; (P.) Lillian Peers. 

Oration (W.) Silas Gillan; (P.) Horace Powers. 



Debate (P.) Horace Powers, Carlton Webster; (W.) Samuel Hursh, 
John Tear. 

Paper (P.) Lettie Smiley, Lou Allen; (W.) Emily Sherman, Daisy 

Vocal Music (P.) Mary Criswellj (W.) Anna Lou Fisher. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Minnie Adams; (W.) Hattie Hay ward. 

Oration (P.) John Humphrey; (W.) Frank Harcourt. 


Debate (P.) William Chamberlain, Austin Rishel; (W.) Rudolph 
Reeder, James Adams. 

Paper (P.) Lida Kelly, Elizabeth Glanville; (W.) Beth Ford, May 

Vocal Music (W.) Emma Bookwalter; (P.) Lizzie Horned. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Charles Lufkin; (P.) David Hill. 

Oration (W.) John H. Tear; (P.) Jesse F. Hannah. 


Debate (P.) David Reid, George Howell; (W.) Elmer Brown, 
James McHugh. 

Paper (W.) Jessie DeBerard, Addie Gillan; (P.) Lizzie Swan, 
Caroline Humphrey. 

Vocal Music (P.) Mattie Beatty; (W.) Margaret Dalyrmple. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Minnie Potter; (W.) Myrtle Freeman. 

Oration (P.) James B. Estee; (W.) William H. Bean. 


Debate (P.) Frank Williams, Murray Morrison; (W.) Walter J. 
Watts, John Fleming. 

Paper (W.) Harriet Scott, Malvina Hodgman; (P.) May Parsons, 
Marie Anderson. 

Vocal Music (W.) Jessie Buckman; (P.) Lydia Reed. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Lida A. Kelly; (W.) Sadie Noleman. 

Oration (W.) William Edmunds; (P.) George Howell. 


Debate (P.) Charles Talmadge, J. H. Humer; (W.) Nathan Har- 
vey, W. R. Heath. 

Paper (P.) Carrie Smith, Mary Hubbard; (W.) Mary Kuhn, Lucy 

Vocal Music (P.) Lottie Burr; (W.) David Chapman. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Margaret Casson; (W.) Minnie Milligan. 

Oration (P.) D. W. Reid; (W.) G. W. Scott. 


Debate (W.) Robert Fleming, Lyon Karr; (P.) Oliver Trowbridge, 
Washington Wilson. 

Paper (W.) Olive Sattley, Emma Cole; (P.) Ida Crouch, Carrie 

Vocal Music (W.) Sadie Gardner; (P.) Alice Albon. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Margaret Lampe; (P.) Jessie Cap en. 

Oration (W.) Nathan Harvey; (P.) Austin Rich el. 


Debate (P.) Thomas Will, Robert Hieronymus; (W.) J. W. Creek- 
mur, C. W. Hart. 

Paper (P.) Eva Blanchard, Kittle Deck; (W.) Bertha Glidden, 
Ruby Gray. 

Vocal Music (P.) Anna Gaston; (W.) Lizzie Boner. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Walter Green; (W.) Leta Haynes. 

Oration (P.) Robert H. Elder; (W.) Alexander Cation. 

Debate (W.) M. L. Mclntyre, Fred Jenkins; (P.) Amos Watkins, 
Lewis Rhoton. 

Paper (W.) Anna Hopkins, Jennie Balthis; (P.) Alice Chandler, 
Mattie Harris. 

Vocal Music (W.) George Reid; (P.) Adna Smith. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Alma Walker; (P.) Lillian Stetson. 

Oration (W.) John Fleming; (P.) Robert Hieronymus. 


Debate (W.) J. Robert EfRnger, John Scott; (P.) Jacob Bohrer, 
Walter Green. 

Paper (P.) Iva Durham, Nora Palmer; (W.) Carrie Goode, Mattie 

Vocal Music (P.) Nettie Gray; (W.) Ada Jones. 

Instrumental Music (P.) A. Tulia Anderson; (W.) Ella Craig. 

Oration (P.) Amos Watkins; (W.) George Weldon. 


Debate (P.) Grant Karr, Will Galbraith; (W.) Dudley Hays, How- 
ard Erode. 

Paper (W.) Florence Gaston, Cora Laign; (P.) Kate Bigham, Car- 
rie Smith. 

Vocal Music (W.) Mamie Fell; (P.) Albert Cohagen. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Augusta Austin; (P.) Bertrand Parker. 

Oration (W.) Edmund Smith; (P.) Lewis Rhoton. 

Debate (P.) Bertrand Parker, C. C. Wilson; (W.) G. A. Weldon, 
Silas Ropp. 

Essay (P.) Mary Damon; (W.) Luella Denman. 
Recitation (P.) May Fitzwilliams; (W.) Kate Spear. 
Vocal Music (P.) Iva Durham; (W.) May Skinner. 
Instrumental Music (P.) Gertrude Cartmell; (W.) Minnie Starr. 
Oration (W.) Dudley G. Hays; (P.) W. J. Galbraith. 


Debate (P.) John W. Hall, J. J. Sheppard; (W.) John H. Cox, G. C. 

Essay (W.) Edna Metier; (P.) Kittie D. Wright. Disputed d*>- 

Recitation (W.) Maud Valentine; (P.) Rachel Crothers. 

Vocal Music (W.) S. F. Parson; (P.) James B. Poltock. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Alice Clark; (P.) Anna Glidden. 

Oration (W.) Arthur Norton; (P.) H. C. Metcalf. 



Debate (P.) Frank G. Blair, George Riley; (W.) W. J. Sutherland, 
George Reid. 

Essay (P.) E. Kate Conover; (W.) Kate Spear. 
Recitation (P.) Harriet Fyffe; (W.) Emily Waterman. 
Vocal Music (P.) Harvey White; (W.) Cora Laign. 
Instrumental Music (P.) Agnes Cook; (W.) Grace Gregory. 
Oration (P.) C. C. Wilson; (W.) John H. Cox. 


Debate (P.) L. W. Col-well, Joseph Dixon; (W.) B. F. Baker, Mack 
M. Lane. 

Essay (P.) Mrs. Tessie Ament; (W.) Hattie Gaston. Phil, essay 
not read sickness. 

Recitation (W.) Fannie Ewing; (P.) Grace Stevens. 

Vocal Music (W.) Ellen Connett; (P.) Herman Backer. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Katie Evans; (P.) Carl Riebsame. 

Oration (W.) J. E. Ament; (P.) George W. Riley. 


Debate (W.) Frank Bachman, John W. Muir; John A. Keith, Wal- 
ter S. Goode. 

Essay (P.) Grace Sealey; (W.) Anna C. Eack. 
Recitation (P.) Anna Darnbrough; (W.) Harriet Hetfield. 
Vocal Music (P.) J. I. Taylor; (W.) James A. Hodge. 
Instrumental Music (W.) Julia Toole; (P.) Charlotte Capen. 
Oration (P.) W. S. Wallace; (W.) Cuthbert Parker. 


Debate (P.) William Skinner, Jesse Black; (W.) E. A. Thornhill, 
A. H. Melville. 

Essay (W.) Eleanor Hampton; (P.) Nellie Collins. 

Recitation (W.) Mary Karr; (P.) Maggie Nicholson. Declared 
a tie. 

Vocal Music (W.) Joseph G. Brown; (P.) Minnie Moon. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Alice Hall; (P.) Fred Hobert. 

Oration (W.) Frank Bachman; (P.) John A. Keith. 


Debate (W.) D. Clinton Shaff, Edward Quick; (P.) T. A. Hillyer, 
C. N. Boord. 

Essay (P.) A. Marion Smith; (W.) Jessie Bullock. 
Recitation (P.) Mae Wierman; (W.) Lucretia Smith. 
Vocal Music (P.) Rose Richards; (W.) Mary Sage. 
Instrumental Music (P.)Lauretta Kneedler; (W.) Ada Kuhns. 
Oration (P.) Reuben Tiffany; (W.) Ernest Scrogin. 


Debate (P.) Frank Bogardus, William Martin; (W.) H. E. Kanaga. 
Chester Echols. 

Essay (W.) Rebekah Lesem; (P.) Lucy Clanahan. 
Recitation (W.) Amanda Trainer; (P.) Bernice Rose. 
Vocal Music (W.) Kate L. Foster; (P.) Pearl Wells. 
Instrumental Music (W.) Dorothy Higgins; (P.) Edith McCrea 
Oration (W.) Robert Wells; (P.) Nelson D. Pike. 

President, 1899-1900. 



Debate (P.) Lyman Coleman, A. Roy Mize; (W.) John Hall, 
George Stokes. 

Essay (P.) Josephine Lesem; (W.) Helen Taylor. 
Recitation (P.) Mrs. Dora Long; (W.) Grace Sitherwood. 
Vocal Music (P.) Jessie Hawks; (W.) Ora Augustine. 
Instrumental Music (P.) May Haynie; (W.) Halcyone Hussey. 
Oration (P.) Hollis Price; (W.) Chester Echols. 


Debate (W.) Harmon Waits, George Pfingsten; (P.) Albert Wolfe, 
Herbert Elliott. 

Essay (W.) Marien Lyons; (P.) Emlie Wright. 
Recitation (W.) Anne Ophelia Hill; (P.) Daisy Benthuysen. 
Vocal Music (W.) Vera M. Peck; (P.) Edith Brown. 
Instrumental Music (W.) Eva D. Smith; (P.) Bertha Jeffries. 
Oration (W.) Dalton McDonald; (P.) Walter Pike. 

Debate (P.) Myron Martin, Elmer Ashworth; (W.) Clarence Bon- 
nell, C. W. Whitten. 

Essay (P.) Lilian Barton; (W.) Cora S. Reno. 
Recitation (P.) Edna Gertrude Mills; (W.) Florence Pitts. 
Vocal Music (P.) Harry Waggoner; (W.) Carrie Fessler. 
Instrumental Music (P.) Bernice Bright; (W.) Nellie Spring. 
Oration (P.) George M. Palmer; (W.) Oliver R. Zoll. 


Debate (W.) Gustave F. Baits, Luella Dilley; (P.) James Fairchild, 
Frank Wilson. 

Essay (W.) Frank George; (P.) Helen C, Putnam. 
Recitation (W.) Dorothy Dixon; (P.) Maud A tie. 
Vocal Music (W.) Henry F. Stout; (P.) Mabel Claire Lancaster. 
Instrumental Music (W.) Minnie Gossman; (P.) C. E. Patterson. 
Oration (W.) Charles W. Whitten; (P.) J. Carl Stine. 


Debate (P.) Charles Oathout, George W. Wright; (W.) I. H. 
Heinzelman, William Hawkes. 

Essay (P.) Edna Gertrude Mills; (W.) Minnie L. Robinson. 
Recitation (P.) Elisabeth Page; (W.) Mamie Haines. 
Vocal Music (P.) Hattie Vail; (W.) Lura File. 
Instrumental Music (P.) Florence Carroll; (W.) Electa Wyllie. 
Oration (P.) Roy Barton; (W.) James Forden. 


Debate (W.) Irwin Ropp, Bertha Denning; (P.) Irvin McDuffee, 
Thomas Barger. 

Essay (W.) Ruth A. David; (P.) Clara Penstone. 
Recitation (W.) Frances Richards; (P.) Helen Tuthill. 
Vocal Music (W.) Nellie Pollock; (P.) Alda Wilcox. 
Instrumental Music (W.) Kate Costello; (P.) Vida Litchfield. 
Oration (W.) Charles M. Gash; (P.) Hubert Oathout. 



Debate (W.) Herbert Dixon, Charles Francis; (P.) Carl Waldron, 
Harry Perrin. 

Essay (P.) Ada V. McCall; (W.) Maud Lantz. 
Recitation (P.) Julia Holder; (W.) Patsy Fletcher. 
Vocal Music (P.) Isabelle Williams; (W.) Minnie Doling. 
Instrumental Music (P.) Anna Altevogt; (W.) Anna Duffy. 
Oration (P.) Roy Webster; (W.) Bertha Denning. 


Debate (W.) I. B. McMurtry, George B. Kendall; (P.) Fred Tel- 
ford, Edward Criss. 

Essay (W.) Edith Mossman; (P.) Elizabeth Matheny. 
Recitation (W.) Pearl Dobson; (P.) Martha Grace Thomason. 
Vocal Music (W.) Ernest E. Edmunds. Not contested by the Phils. 
Instrumental Music (W.) Cora M. Harned; (P.) Bessie Dillon. 
Oration (W.) Fred T. Ullrich; (P.) Leonard A. McKean. 


Debate (W.) Herbert Coons, Bertha Olsen; (P.) Elmer Ortman, 
Harvey Freeland. 

Essay (P.) Lemma Broadhead; (W.) Grace Wells. 
Recitation (P.) Ruby Allen; (W.) Clara Louise Coith. 
Vocal Music (P.) Emma Kleinau; (W.) Ola Litchfield. 
Instrumental Music (P.) Constance Williams; (W.) Hazel Brand. 
Oration (P.) Edna Coith; (W.) Herbert Dixon. 


Debate (W.) Asa P. Goddard, Clara Coith; (P.) James Smith, 
Mary Damman 

Essay (W.) Irwin Fronts; (P.) Esther Sealey. 

Recitation (W.) Dorothea Glessing; (P.) Goldie Sharpies. 

Vocal Music (W.) Louise McTaggart; (P.) Veronica O'Hara. 

Instrumental Music (W.) Eleanor Hoierman; (P.) Margaret Tripp- 

Oration (W.) Ralston Brock; (P.) Emma Kleinau. 


Debate (W.) Otto Reinhart, Daniel Hannon; (P.) Minnie Vautrin, 
John Adams. 

Essay (P.) Florence Olsen; (W.) Gertrude Stephens. 

Recitation (P.) Ora Bastian; (W.) Cora M. Harned. 

Vocal Music (P.) Sadie Pepple; (W.) Leslie Stansbury. 

Instrumental Music (P.) Floyd Godfrey; (W.) Mrs. Genevieve 

Oration (P.) James Smith; (W.) Miguel Nicdao. 


Total number of contests, 46. 

Ties in '60, '68, '77. 

No contest in '61, '63, '65. 

Contests won by Wrightonia, 25 Philadelphia, 18 

Debates won 26 20 

Papers won n 15 

Vocal Music 26 17 

Instrumental Music 18 23 


Essay Wrightonia, 10 Philadelphia 9 

Recitation (tie in '93 and '99) 8 9 

Oration 18 19 

Total points won 154 147 

The Wrightonians won the only point contested the debate in 1858 ; 
the two points contested in 1859; and all the points in 1896; the Phila- 
delphians won all seven points in 1884. The debate and the paper have 
always counted two points each. The above counts the oration in '69 for 
Philadelphia, just as the essay in '91 for Wrightonia. The former has 
perhaps not usually been so counted. 


Back in the seventies there existed a literary society known 
as the Edwards Debating Club. All records seem to be lost. 
It is safe to say that the organization was not in existence 
much before 1870. As its name suggests the prime feature of 
its program was the debate. Its membership included men 
only. The meetings were held, part of the time at least, in the 
White room, in the basement. Probably with little more 
change than one of name, in 1879, this organization was trans- 
formed into 


The Ciceronian Society continued, as its forerunner, the 
Edwards Debating Club, had been, a society for men only, the 
debate continued the back-bone of the program, the meetings 
were still held in the White room. Later the membership out- 
grew the capacity of the White room, and meetings were held 
in the northwest room in the basement. Still later the Cicer- 
onians arranged for the use of the Wrightonian hall on 
Friday evenings. This has been the usual place of meeting in 
later years tho some meetings have been held in various reci- 
tation rooms. The membership of Cicero has fluctuated 
greatly, at times including nearly all the men of the school, 
and at times dwindling to a mere handful. The interest, too, 
in the work of the society has varied greatly. 

The Ciceronian Society, with no ladies present, with its 
smaller membership, in its atmosphere of freedom, has af- 
forded an opportunity especially valuable to beginners in de- 
bate and not by any means without its value for those of much 
experience. Once in three or four weeks the meeting has been 
held, for many years, in the form of a model senate. Here 
have been introduced, advanced to a second or last reading, 


and passed or defeated, with an expedition quite unknown to 
its federal namesake, some of the most important measures of 
recent generations. Republicans, and democrats, and populists 
have had, upon such occasions, ample opportunity to chew 
each other up in approved fashion. Within Cicero, too, have 
existed peculiar political parties. Conservatives, Liberals, the 
Ciceronian party, as well as Democrats and Republicans, have 
striven for mastery. Florid nominating speeches, exciting 
campaigns, hotly contested elections have been the order of the 
day. Next to debate and politics, Cicero has been famed for 
her devotion to business and her attention to rules of order. 
If there wasn't sufficient business on hand it was manufac- 
tured. While such practice may be valuable it must be guarded 
carefully or it will degenerate into mere horse-play. 

A pleasant feature in connection with the social side of the 
Ciceronian's life has been the friendly relation that has com- 
monly existed between Cicero and the Sapphonian Society. 
Open meetings of Cicero to which the Sapphonians might 
come, social functions, given by the one or the other organiza- 
tion to the other, occurred for years. Of late Sappho seems 
to have found a rival in the shape of the younger ladies' so- 
ciety the Girls' Debating Club. 


The following is taken from the first issue of the Vidette 
February, 1888 : "The ladies of the school have organized a 
literary society, called the Sapphonian, which promises to be 
a great benefit to them." 

"One Friday evening in October (1887) a number of the 
ladies made up their minds to surprise and embarrass the mem- 
bers of the Ciceronian society by making them a visit. They 
carried with them fancy work, for they had an idea that Cic- 
ero was a very tedious place and that they would need some- 
thing to amuse them, but 'great oaks from little acorns grow,' 
and they became so much interested in the work that they then 
and there determined to found a society of their own. The 
society tho small at first has constantly grown and now feels 
strong enuf to risk a contest with the members of Cicero, 
which is to be held Friday evening, March 23. The officers 
are elected once in four weeks, so that all receive drill in pre- 
siding, and the parliamentary rules are so well understood that 
the ladies are now able to second a motion in the Philadelphian 
or the Wrightonian Society without any fear of being called 


to order The society holds its meetings in the Phila- 

delphian hall and, much to the surprise of the gentlemen, who 
are not allowed to attend, and who prophesied it a short life, 
it grows every day." 

The account of the Sapphonian Society in the first Index 
(1892) quotes the above, characterizing it however as a 
"legend." It recounts that in the fall of 1887 half a dozen 
young women called a meeting of all the girls of the school, 
that the meeting discussed the matter of forming a girl's so- 
ciety, was addressed by students and by Miss Flora Pennell, 
now Mrs. Parr, then preceptress, appointed a committee to 
draft a constitution, which committee reported a week later. 
At that time the organization was completed, Miss Louise be- 
ing elected president. The Sapphonian Society and the Cicer- 
onian Society early exchanged the courtesies of invitations to 
open meetings. A contest with Cicero, Shakespearean plays, 
parliamentary drills, etc., were features of the early work. 

The rest of this sketch has been contributed by Mrs. Elizabeth Mavity Cunningham- 
Former members of the two "old" literary societies are 
wont to say that among their most valued possessions are 
qualities arising from their experiences within the society 
walls. A certain ease of address, a quickness of thought and 
appropriateness of speech, and a courteous and conscientious 
willingness to co-operate with others must of course result at 
least in a measure from active work in a literary society ; and 
persons familiar with customs at the old Normal will recall 
the habit of Normal presidents of laying stress upon these val- 
ues of society membership, when reading, each term, the list 
of students drawn into the Philadelphian and the Wrightonian 
Societies. I mention these things because from twelve years' 
acquaintance with the work of the Sapphonian Society I be- 
lieve it to be second to none of the societies of the school in the 
opportunities it offers for growth in the qualities named above. 
From the Vidette account of its origin, however, it would 
appear that at first the Sapphonian Society was modeled after 
the existing institutions, serving chiefly to give another op- 
portunity to do the same kind of literary work. The increased 
amount of practice must have been helpful. But after some 
years, there grew up among the women students a feeling that 
the society did not satisfy their needs for study and expression. 
They felt it too much a duplication of the others. They asked 
the advice and help of Miss Colby, then newly come to the 
school as preceptress and professor of literature, and re- 


organized then, fifteen years ago, on the plan which has given 
the society its greater possibilities for usefulness. 

The present plan makes the society very unlike the other 
organizations of the school in its working details, and avoids 
one of the difficulties besetting them the non-active member. 
The society is composed of groups called committees, whose 
number and whose lines of work depend upon the needs and 
wishes of the women students of the school. Regular fort- 
nightly meetings of each committee and the uniting of all the 
committees in open meetings on the intervening weeks, make 
up the life of the society. The committee meetings are regu- 
larly devoted to the chosen lines of study; in the open meet- 
ings each committee in turn gives a program. It is rarely the 
case that a member does not take part both in committee and 
on program. Paper, talk, recitation, dramatic representation, 
music, on the program, are drawn from the work done in the 
committee; so that in general the programs are themselves 
each a growth, and each member's part is a growth. The ill- 
prepared or hastily-got-up exercise is the exception. 

New committees may be formed whenever a need arises. 
No one need hunger for an opportunity to exercise in any field 
of thought or endeavor, if only she can find other girls in the 
school who will join her. Some woman member of the fac- 
ulty is asked to serve as adviser, and the committee meetings 
are usually held at her home. The plan of reading or other 
study is laid out in the case of most of the committees for the 
entire school year. There is always a literature committee; 
usually a music committee; of recent years, a travel commit- 
tee. For some years, there was a current history committee; 
for a time, an English history committee, and an athletic com- 
mittee. Recently there has arisen a college committee. There 
may be whatever the girls of the school wish to have; and 
while the work is chiefly done in committee, the programs at 
the open meetings make the interest and advantage of the 
study of each group evident to the others and to visiting non- 
members. All girls of the school are invited to attend. 

The relative informality of the programs and the friendly, 
gracious atmosphere that invests all the meetings are helpful to 
timid girls as well as pleasant to all. Many a girl who has 
first learned to face an audience in the Sapphonian meetings, 
would not have learned this at all had there not been just such 
an opportunity. And besides, the Sapphonian Society has al- 
ways had many of the strongest and most active students of 
the school among its members, because they wished to have 


the pleasure and the enlargement of living which are its pe- 
culiar gift to the school. 

The women of the faculty who are associated with the 
committees as advisers enjoy the pleasant associations thus 
made possible. They join with old students in a tribute to the 
efficiency and the beauty of this society as a student institution. 
And this article must not close without recognition of the part 
taken by Miss Colby in securing both the efficiency of the so- 
ciety's work and the beauty of its spirit. Her judgment, her 
wide knowledge, her whole-souled sympathy, and her time 
have for fifteen years been part of the capital of the society, 
freely given the girls to use in their pursuit of larger life, 
more liberty, and greater happiness. 

The following was written by Miss Irene Blanchard. 

The Girls' Debating Club was organized in 1903 by a few 
young women who wanted better opportunities in debate. At 
first, they had a Model House every two weeks and engaged 
in many and lively discussions. As this was the only literary 
society which met in the afternoon and many young women 
find it more convenient to do their literary work at this time, 
membership soon increased. With the increase in the number 
of members, the programs became more general and the work 
more varied. Like all societies, the Girls' Debating Club has 
had its ups and downs, but the attendance is now regular and 
the spirit good. 


THE Y. M. c. A. 

During the fall term of 1871 a few men of the school be- 
gan to agitate the matter of religious meetings for men stu- 
dents. The first meeting was held in a little Presbyterian 
chapel located south of the Alton track on Linden street. The 
building was later moved into another part of town and seems 
now to have disappeared. The heating apparatus of the chapel 
was defective, the room was often cold, smoky, and very un- 
inviting, and soon the meeting was taken to a small room in 
the basement of the Methodist church, and later, as the attend- 
ance increased, to the regular lecture room in the basement. 
Early in January, 1872, after getting the advice of the gen- 
eral secretary of the Chicago association, the Normal organi- 


zation was more formally organized, the association thus 
formed being the first student association in the State and the 
fifth in the United States. The officers then elected were: 
I. E. Brown, president; George Blount, vice president; Hi- 
ram Stewart, secretary. The last-named died shortly after, 
before he had transferred minutes of the first meetings from 
loose slips of paper to a permanent record-book, so that the 
earliest records are lost. During the winter of 1873 a notable 
revival was held under the auspices of the new association. In 
consequence about sixty students began the Christian life. 
The next winter an equally successful revival was held. At 
the time of the organization of the Normal Y.M.C.A. there 
was no State organization. The first State convention was 
held, however, in Bloomington in 1873. The Normal associa- 
tion as early as 1873 adopted the plan of meeting trains, help- 
ing students to find quarters, and inviting them to the 
Y.M.C.A. rooms. 

Two or three years after its organization the Y.M.C.A. 
became involved in society politics. There had been organized 
the so-called Liberal Club. Altho opposition to the orthodox 
religion had not been the purpose of the organization, yet the 
club studied, among others, books that in those times were 
commonly considered anti-orthodox, its members gave free 
expression to their views upon the society platforms, and ar- 
ranged programs upon which Liberals alone appeared. The 
crisis came when a president was to be selected for the Phila- 
delphian Society. The Liberals supported Charles McMurry, 
who, however, was not of their own number. He was zealously 
opposed by the Christian Association, but was elected. 

To the earliest history of the Normal Y.M.C.A., be- 
cause the association was the first of its kind in Illinois 
and the fifth in the country, attaches a peculiar interest that 
warrants the giving of the details above. It is not possible, 
however, to trace its later life in detail. The manner of 
work changed with time. Thus, during the greater part of 
the eighties there were no week day meetings of the associa- 
tion in the main building, nor were there meetings 
for men alone at any time, if the occasional meetings 
of men in evening Bible study classes be excepted. The 
regular association meeting was held with the Y.W.C.A. 
on Sunday afternoons in one of the churches. The issue of 
the Vidette for February, 1888, speaks of the discontinuance 
of these joint meetings and the new life, increased enthusiasm, 
and increased attendance at the Y.M.C.A. meetings in conse- 








quence. Sunday afternoon joint meetings occurred tho much 
later. The association early adopted the practice of sending 
delegates to the State association meeting. In 1891 began the 
custom of sending delegates to Geneva. A little hand-book is 
issued each year, giving useful information, etc., this in con- 
junction with the Y.W.C.A. For many years the Y.M.C.A. 
and the Y.W.C.A. supported at the expense of several hun- 
dred dollars annually, five or six native preachers in China, 
India, Armenia. At times there has been strong talk of a 
joint association building or of commodious hired quarters, 
but the association still "boards around." Bible classes, taught 
usually by the professors, evening prayer meetings in the 
churches or in the students' rooms, energetic fall canvassing 
for members, social functions, union meetings with the 
women's association, revival meetings under the lead of some 
evangelist, and unpretentious, never-ending struggles to be 
good and to help others to be good such are the topics that 
would receive attention were the history of the association to 
be written in more detail. The regular meeting is now held 
in the main building on each Friday evening. Once a month 
the meeting is a joint one with the Y.W.C.A. 


This sketch was written by Miss Olive I/. Barton, Training- Teacher. 

To a student of college movements, more than ordinary in- 
terest centers about an organization that has proved itself a 
pioneer in a given line. The Young Women's Christian As- 
sociation of the Illinois State Normal University is proud to 
be recognized as the forerunner of what has since become a 
world-wide movement among college women. 

On a dismal Sunday afternoon in November, 1872, a 
group of six young women met for prayer in the room of Miss 
Lida A. Brown, now Mrs. McMurry, of the Northern Illinois 
Normal School. They found the hour a profitable one, and 
believed that others should share in the blessings that they 
had received. Accordingly they invited others to join them 
and the following Sunday held their meeting in the parlor of 
the old Congregational church. The interest increased and their 
numbers grew until they were soon obliged to use the body of 
the church for their meetings. In 1873 the church burned and 
the basement of the old Methodist church became their meet- 
ing place. With the growth in interest, the workers felt the 
need of closer organization. They saw in organized effort a 


great opportunity to help the non-Christian women of the 
school. Early in the year 1873 a committee was appointed to 
draft a constitution. This committee consisted of Miss Myra 
Osband (Mrs. J. H. Sutton), preceptress of the Normal 
school. Miss Ida Witbeck (Mrs. Charles DeGarmo,) Miss 
Fannie B. Pace (Mrs. DeWitt Roberts,) and Miss Lida 
Brown. Finding the plan of work followed by the Young 
Men's Christian Association to be apparently suited to their 
needs, they based the draft of their constitution upon it. This 
was adopted January 19, 1873, an d tne organization was 
styled, The Young Ladies' Christian Association. It was 
known by this name until September n, 1881, when it re- 
ceived its present name. 

The first officers under the old constitution were Miss Ida 
E. Brown (Mrs. James Cary,) deceased, president; Miss Ida 
Witbeck, vice president; Miss Emma V. Stewart (Mrs. I. E. 
Brown,) deceased, secretary; Miss Lida A. Brown, treasurer. 
These early officers gratefully remember the loyal help given 
them by Miss Harriet Case (Mrs Morrow), preceptress. 

The organization of the Normal Y.W.C.A. was soon fol- 
lowed by similar organizations in other educational institu- 
tions of Illinois, Michigan and Ohio. Were this a history of 
the Y.W.C.A. movement at large, much could be told of its 
growth, of its presence and activities in almost every Normal 
school, college, and university in the land; of its splendid 
achievements in home and foreign work; of the noble young 
women of superior training and intellect who have given the 
best of their lives to its work. It is an occasion of gratitude 
and pride on the part of the young women of the I.S.N.U. that 
their organization is responsible for a movement of such wide- 
spread power for good. 

It would be impossible to trace in detail the development 
of the local association, and the careers of its officers and mem- 
bers. Young women of worth and pronounced ability have 
directed its forces. The entire school has received moral up- 
lift thru its presence. Young women have been given higher 
ideals and broader conceptions of their chosen life-work. It 
has been a vital force for good, and has contributed in no small 
part to the excellent equipment of the young people graduated 
by our noble institution. The organization in its present mem- 
bership and officers as also in the work accomplished, is 
equally worthy with its predecessors of the highest commenda- 
tion. Adapting itself to the increasing compexity of our pres- 
ent-day life, it has undertaken numerous lines of work, each 


fruitful and practical in its place. Its members now number 
above seventy. The association anticipates a future of in- 
creased usefulness when in quarters adapted to its needs, and 
affording wider range of activities, it will be able to prove of 
greater help to the entire university. 


The Oratorical Association was organized during the 
school year of 1887-88. The plan originated with Mr. Charles 
Beach, who served two years as president. The first contest 
in oratory was on the Friday evening before commence- 
ment, 1888. The prizes were: First, Johnson's Encyclopedia; 
second, Webster's Unabridged Dictionary; third, Shakes- 
peare's works. A board of management, consisting of fifteen 
members, arranged all details, and became perpetuated as the 
Oratorical Board. The winners in the first contest were Emile 
Simmons, W. J. Morrison, and Edward Bailey. In 1889 the 
winners were Harry Metcalf and C. C. Wilson; in 1890, 
James Wilson, John Cox; in 1891, Reuben Tiffany, Cary Col- 
burn; 1892, Mrs. R. O. Butterfield, Mack M. Lane; 1893, 
George H. Gaston, Harriet Hetfield; 1894, John Keith, J. W. 
Rausch. By this time the Philadelphian, Wrightonian, and 
the Sapphonian Societies had begun offering prizes to their 
members who ranked highest but who did not win either of the 
main prizes, a practice which was kept up for a time by these 
societies and by Cicero. In '95 Mary Hobert won first place, 
while Charles Ryburn and Walter Pike tied for second. In 
1896 two events of great importance for the association hap- 
pened. Our school joined the Interstate Oratorical League 
and Mr. Charles Beach, who while a student had had so much 
to do with organizing and conducting the association, offered 
to give annually one hundred dollars in cash and a gold medal 
to the winner in the contest. Robert J. Wells won and repre- 
sented the school in the interstate contest. The winners for 
the next three years were: Chester Echols, Hyatt Covey, J. 
Carl Stine. In 1900 a declamatory contest was added, Mr. 
Beach giving to the winner a gold medal and seventy-five dol- 
lars. Charles Whitten won the oratorical, and Maude Myers 
the declamatory contest. In 1901 the winners were Roy Bar- 
ton, in oratory, and Mamie Haines, in declamation. In 1902 
so many contestants entered that the contests were held upon 
separate evenings ; Dorothy Dixon won in declamation, and 
Minnie Gay in oratory, the latter representing our school in 


the newly formed State league. In 1903 Bertha Denning rep- 
resented us in the oratorical contest with DeKalb. 

The year 1904 marks the beginning of the present epoch in 
the history of the association. Mr. Beach had become unable 
to continue his liberal gifts, and another gentleman, who has 
never permitted his name to be mentioned publically in connec- 
tion with the matter, established the present Edwards prizes, 
consisting of costly gold medals, for the winners of first place 
in oratory and in declamation ; the arrangement being to com- 
memorate, aside from the good it may accomplish otherwise, 
the well-known devotion of Dr. Edwards to oral expression. 
Happily Dr. Edwards himself has been able to be present each 
year and bestow the prizes upon the winners, who have been 
as follows: 1904, Burley Johnson, Emelia Hertlein; 1905, 
Herbert Coons, Herbert Dixon; 1906, Emma Kleinau, Nina 
Hendickson; 1907, Miguel Nicdao, Esther Mansfield. 

The oratorical and declamatory contest is now held in 
March, near the close of the winter term. Many changes have 
been made from time to time in the constitution, but the board 
remains for the greater part one composed of student members 
selected by the school or appointed by the teacher of reading, 
who with one or two other members of the faculty is a mem- 
ber of the board. 


The Vidette of November, 1889, records that an effort is 
being made by a number of students to inaugurate a lecture 
course ; that those who are working up the matter believe five 
good lectures can be obtained at a cost to the individual of one 
dollar ; that the lectures may be held upon Friday evenings so 
as to interfere little with school work ; that the originators of 
the scheme expect no compensation for their labors, and only 
request that the students respond generously when asked to 
purchase tickets. The Vidette of the following month an- 
nounced that the course was assured, that four first-class lec- 
tures had been secured, and that it was hoped one or two 
others might be added. The first lecture of this first course 
was delivered during the first week of the winter term of 1890. 
Charles Beach was the first president of the "Board of Con- 
trol of the Normal Students' Lecture Course," as the board 
was called in the original constitution. No musical numbers 
formed a part of the first course. The next year the so-called 
"People's Course" in Bloomington which had flourished for 
years and had been liberally patronized by Normal students, 


was discontinued, and the Normal course became an assured 
success. The constitution, remodeled in 1892, established a 
board of twenty-five members, consisting each year of such 
members of the board of the preceding year as remained in 
school and such other members as these might select. Each 
member of the board was entitled to one double set of tickets 
free, but the board took the entire financial responsibility of 
the course. After two years the number of members of the 
lecture board was reduced to fifteen. 

Under the management described above, annually, for sev- 
eral years excellent lecture courses were given. The course of 
'93-4 consisted of six numbers, costing from $50 to $155 each. 
The next year seven numbers were given, costing from $100 
to $200 each. The cost of the courses given continued to in- 
crease. In '96-7 an $1100 course was given; and for the fol- 
lowing two years the entire expenses of the courses aggre- 
gated $1200-$ 1 300. The limited capacity of the hall began to 
present a problem. The next year, '99-00, in spite of the de- 
creased attendance at Normal consequent upon the opening of 
the new normals, and in spite of the restoration of the lecture 
course in Bloomington, a ten-number course was successfully 
given. The next year the Inter-State Lecture Bureau instead 
of the Redpath Bureau, formerly patronized, furnished the 
numbers, with the exception of the oratorical and declamatory 
contest, which was one number in the eight-number course. In 
1901-2 seven entertainments were purchased from the Red- 
path Bureau, the contest again being a number in the course. 
Competition with the Wesleyan course and decreased attend- 
ance threatened the financial success of the enterprise. The 
next year the course was only moderately successful financi- 
ally; and in 1903-4 was not a financial success. In the spring 
of 1904 a complete reorganization was effected. 

Under the present plan the lecture board consists of thir- 
teen members, four of whom are students, three members of 
the faculty; of the remaining six, five are pastors of Normal 
churches, and one the superintendent of schools. The price of 
season tickets has been cut from the old figure of $1.75 or 
$2.00 to $1.00, and for this sum it has been found possible to 
give annually during each of the last three years seven num- 
bers. The oratorical-declamatory contest is no longer a num- 
ber, and lecture bureaus are not ordinarily patronized. 



As in most Normal schools, athletic interests at Normal 
have had a checkered career. Football found some devotees 
back in the eighties, and baseball long before that time, games 
occasionally occurring between organizations within the school 
or between a school team and one from the Wesleyan or some 
other institution. About 1890 the practice, said to have been 
in vogue years before, of holding a field day in the spring was 
revived and with some omissions, kept up for several years. 
Tennis was introduced in the spring of 1890 and within a year 
Normal had some excellent players. Early in the nineties 
Normal was playing good baseball and by the middle of the 
decade had one of the best football teams we have ever had. 
The discontinuance of the high school department gave ath- 
letics a set-back, and in later years baseball and football have 
had to contend with a decreasing proportion of men students. 
In September, 1896, basketball was introduced, and quickly 
attained popularity with both sexes. Systematic instruction in 
the game by a teacher is given, and Normal basketball teams 
from the first to the present have been good ones. Occasion- 
ally games have been had with other schools, but some of the 
most interesting contests have been between home teams. An 
Athletic Association, consisting of students and members of 
the faculty interested, has been in existence now for about ten 
years. The association selects a Board of Control and exer- 
cises a general control over all the athletic interests of the in- 
stitution. Under its management, with some off-years, both 
baseball and football have thrived, and basketball has retained 
continual popularity. Tennis has languished somewhat lately 
but the completion of additional clay courts may do something 
to revive interest in it. For the last three years track meets 
have been held with the Wesleyan, Bloomington Y.M.C.A., 
Bloomington High School, and Normal High School. Normal 
narrowly escaped winning the first two meets and did win the 
third. In short, athletic sports, considering the small number 
of men in school, are fairly prosperous. 



The first class graduating from the Illinois State Normal 
University had its entire course in Bloomington while the 
school was in Major's Hall, on East Front street. The first 
graduating exercises, however, were held in the new building, 
not yet completed, at Normal, in the spring of 1860. 

When the school was opened in the new building in the 
fall, boarding accommodations were inadequate and many, in 
fact most of the students, boarded in Bloomington. The at- 
tendance at this time was 284, 161 in the normal department. 
For over a year the students living and boarding in Blooming- 
ton waded thru a great deal of mud in the low ground between 
Bloomington and Normal. 

One morning, early in the spring of 1862, some young wo- 
men due in their classrooms were found by the ever vigilant 
President Edwards in the act of drying their clothes and feet, 
made wet by wading thru the slush. Miss Sue Pike, impulsive 
like Peter of old, answered Dr. Edwards with, "Give us a 
day off and we will raise money enough to build a sidewalk be- 
tween Bloomington and Normal." 

"I'll do it," replied he. 

Whereupon Miss Pike (now Mrs. Sue Sanders, of Bloom- 
ington) and Miss Hattie Dunn, who graduated in 1864, en- 
tered upon a canvass, and raised in one day ninety-five dollars 
in money, besides contributions of lumber. The following 
Saturday the young men of the school, by a united effort, com- 
pleted the walk. The young women, too, were on hand fur- 
nishing the dinner and assisting, as Little Ernest helped his 
mother in the story of The Great Stone Face, much with their 
little hands but more with their loving hearts. A young man 


asked Miss Pike why she got lumber that was green. "Be- 
cause," replied she, "in contracting it will shorten the distance 
between Bloomington and Normal." 

This sidewalk, altho only two boards in width, was a great 
public improvement. It extended from Walnut street in 
Bloomington to a point just north of the bridge on Main street, 
where it connected with a walk from Normal which had been 
built by the state. The street car line was not chartered un- 
til 1867. 

In the earliest years of the school in Normal there were no 
clubs; students boarded in private families. Most of the 
houses first built in Normal were large, and most of the fam- 
ilies took boarders, President Hovey himself having in his 
house a half dozen or more. 

At the beginning of Dr. Edwards' administration in 1862, 
there were perhaps not more than fifteen or twenty houses in 
Normal. Some of the largest, as nearly as can be ascertained, 
were owned by the following persons : 

Pres. Charles E. Hovey lived on Mulberry street in the house now 
occupied by Captain Augustine. 

Dr. E. C. Hewett lived on Ash street where Mrs. Hewett now lives. 

Prof. Ira Moore lived the first door west of Dr. Hewett's in a house 
which burned about 1880. 

Hanley Stewart, a retired farmer, lived two doors east of Dr. Hew- 
ett's in the house now owned by T. A. Brown. 

Wm. A. Pennell lived in a large house on Mulberry street, one-half 
block east of the I.C.R.R. The house burned in 1897, the property of 
Mrs. C. R. Park. 

Hon. Jesse Fell lived in a large house on the hill in Fell Park, now 
opposite the home of Mrs. Colton, but then one block east, where Levi 
Dillon lives. 

Dr. Richard Edwards built on Broadway the house now owned and 
occupied by A. L. Broyhill. 

Mr. Pierce lived on the corner of Ash street and Fell avenue, where 
C. W. Cooper now lives. 

William Partridge lived in the large brick house on Hovey avenue, 
in the southwest part of Normal, now .occupied by the Harriet Beecher 
Stowe Institute. 

To provide more adequate accommodations for students, 
the faculty early in Dr. Edwards' administration, approved a 
project for erecting a University boarding house. Dr. Ed- 
wards was to go before the legislature and ask for the money. 
But the people of Normal protested so strongly that the plan 
was given up. Many of those objecting made their living by 
boarding students, and they had taken a great deal of pains 
to make the students comfortable. 


From that time on, the town grew rapidly. So many new 
houses had been built near the railway station that General 
Hovey, returning from the war in 1864, did not recognize the 
place. He got off when the train stopped but boarded it again 
and the conductor had difficulty in convincing him that he had 
arrived at Normal. 

Up to 1867 there were no churches in Normal and no re- 
ligious services except in the Normal Hall on Sunday after- 
noons. Ministers from Bloomington took turns at preaching 
in the University, and the students furnished most of the mu- 
sic. Within the next six years four churches were built. Many 
students put in their church letters and participated in the 
singing, the Sunday school, and the young peoples' meetings. 
They have been a very considerable help in the Sunday school 
of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home, erected in 1869. 

As stated above, boarding was in private families at first. 
Only one club existed in the sixties and not many in the seven- 
ties but in the eighties they became quite popular, as they have 
been since. It is probably true that during the last thirty years 
the majority of students have boarded in clubs. Notwithstand- 
ing the insinuations often heard against club board, a majority, 
and among them some of the best students, have preferred it, 
not alone because cheaper, but on account of the larger social 
opportunities. Prices for board and rooms in Normal have al- 
ways been reasonable and much of the time remarkably low. 
The Wells Club in the early nineties got the rate as low as 
$1.87 per week. A good class of students constituted this club. 
Other clubs at the time were running at about $2.10. The 
board was considered fairly good; at least, there were very 
few withdrawals on account of scanty victuals. The price of 
club board since then has gradually appreciated with the in- 
crease of prices generally, until now it is from $2.50 to $2.75 
per week. The number of students in each club has varied 
from ten to fifty, the average being perhaps twenty. A notable 
exception was the Allen Club during the summers of 1905 and 
1906, when it numbered almost or quite one hundred. 

Aside from the interest of Normal students in getting 
rooms and board at moderate prices, and the share that some 
of them have taken in church work, they have shown but little 
concern about the affairs of the town. Indeed, they have sel- 
dom so much as overturned a sidewalk on Hallowe'en, or par- 
ticipated in a town election. One exception should be noted. 


On the morning of the school election in March, 1906, the 
issue being on the union of the public schools with the training 
school of the University, the "Normal Notes" in The Panta- 
graph contained the following menace : 

"Students attempting to vote will be prosecuted." Signed, "A. Lind- 

At the close of general exercises a mass meeting was called 
and students old enough to vote, men and women, eighty in 
all, decided to assert their rights as citizens. Their votes were 
challenged and sworn in. It is needless to add that A. Lind- 
blad, whose candidate was beaten, did not waste any of his 
money prosecuting students for doing what they had a per- 
fectly legal right to do. The day was an exciting one, not 
likely to be forgotten by voters from the student body. 

[Additional facts regarding student life will be found in Chapter 
XIV, and in Part Two. Editor.] 

President, 1900 . 






The connection of this school with journalism may be said 
to have begun before the school itself came into actual exist- 
ence. The conference of the friends of free schools, held in 
Bloomington in December, 1853, and resulting in the organi- 
zation of the State Teachers' Institute, afterwards known as 
State Teachers' Association, declared itself in favor of the es- 
tablishment of a state normal school, and, if possible, of an 
organ thru which the friends of free schools could find expres- 
sion. As it happened, the organ desired was secured first and 
became strongly influential in the establishment of the school. 

The first number of this organ was issued in February, 
1855, from the press of Merriam & Norris, at Bloomington, 
under the name of The Illinois Teacher. For eighteen years 
thereafter it maintained its identity under this name in spite of 
changes of publishers and extraordinary vicissitudes in the 
editorship. Twelve editors marked its checkered career in 
the first year of its existence, most of them prominent in the 
movement for free common schools. Then in succession came 
Charles E. Hovey, 1856-57; Dr. Bateman, 1858; Charles A 
Dupee and Edwin C. Hewett, 1859; Dr. Willard, 1 860-6 1 ; 
Alexander M. Gow, 1862-63; S. A. Briggs, 1864; Dr. Rich- 
ard Edwards, 1865-66; Wm. M. Baker, 1867-69; S. H. 
White, 1870-71 ; E. W. Coy, i872-Jan. 1873. 

From the first The Illinois Teacher fought strenuously for 
a normal school. Its paid agent, traveling over the state, 
made it a main part of his business to beget an interest in the 
movement among the teachers he met. He even called to- 
gether meetings of teachers in various parts of the state and 


secured from them resolutions favoring the establishment of a 
normal school. Articles in the columns of the journal urged 
the same end. It cannot be doubted that to the sentiment thus 
created among teachers is largely due the passage of the act 
establishing this school. 

The names of the editors cited above indicate a connection 
of another kind between the school and the paper. Presidents 
and professors of the school are among them, while a list of 
assistant editors would add to these last the names of Stetson 
and Pillsbury. It is interesting to note also a kinship in 
ideas between the views expressed in its pages and some that 
are current with us today. In February, 1856, for instance, 
appeared an article that might almost have been written today, 
since it makes vigorous appeal not only for graded schools, 
long since attained, but for something very like what we now 
call consolidated schools, with free tuition, free text-books, and 
a library. Other articles advocate the introduction of music 
into the common schools and uniform text-books thruout the 
state. For this last idea, uniformity, we should perhaps hardly 
be ready to stand. 

The last number of The Illinois Teacher appeared in Janu- 
ary, 1873, with E. W. Coy as editor. In February the paper 
was sold to Aaron Gove and E. C. Hewett and merged in The 
Illinois Schoolmaster under their editorship. The Illinois 
Schoolmaster was the direct descendant of a little paper "with 
an educational bias," The Normal Index, established in 1866 
by E. D. Harris, of Normal. The Index was later sold to Mr. 
John Hull, alumnus of this school, then superintendent of 
schools in McLean County, re-named The Schoolmaster, and 
issued under the joint editorship of Mr. Hull and Professor 
Albert Stetson of this school. In May, 1870, it passed into 
the editorial hands of Professor Stetson and Mr. I. S. Baker, 
principal of the Skinner School, Chicago, was in July removed 
from Bloomington to Chicago and issued as The Chicago 
Schoolmaster. In May, 1871, this paper was bought by Mr. 
Gove and Mr. Hewett, Mr. Gove becoming the editor. And 
finally, as noted above, in February, 1873, these two gentle- 
men who bought The Illinois Teacher united it with The Chi- 
cago Schoolmaster, and published the united journals at Nor- 
mal as The Illinois Schoolmaster. 

In 1874, when Mr. Gove went to Denver as superintend- 
ent of schools there, Mr. John W. Cook succeeded to his place 
as joint editor and proprietor with Mr. E. C. Hewett. In 1876 


Mr. Cook became sole proprietor and editor, and in December 
of that year issued the last number. The Illinois Schoolmaster 
was then together with a number of other educational month- 
lies in several of the northwest states, sold to S. R. Winchell 
& Co., who undertook, at Chicago, the somewhat hazardous 
enterprise, for that day, of publishing The Educational Weekly. 
This paper had an unusually strong list of editorial contribu- 
tors, including Mr. Cook himself and Prof. Edward Ol- 
ney, of the University of Michigan, but it failed to maintain 
itself, and the family of papers beginning with The Illinois 
Teacher in 1854 became extinct. 

The school at Normal had long found expression for its 
favorite ideas thru the papers whose career has thus been out- 
lined, and evidently missed this familiar means of making its 
influence felt. In 1881 two of the faculty provided a new or- 
gan for the propagation of the ideals of the school. In May 
of that year, in Normal, "E. J. James, Ph.D., and Charles De- 
Garmo, editors and proprietors," issued number one, volume 
one of The Illinois School Journal, a monthly magazine for 
teachers and schools. 

This journal was itself a continuation of The Educational 
News-Gleaner, a paper worth noting as an illustration of the 
way history repeats itself. Away back in the seventies, it 
seems, an educational speculator undertook an enterprize which 
very recently we have seen repeated in a different field but 
with like fate the issuing of the same paper simultaneously 
in many states. The News-Gleaner was the Illinois edition of 
this paper. Its fate was not, indeed, total extinction but con- 
tinuance under changed name and character as before noted. 

It is worth noting that the salutatory of the new School 
Journal indicated that Mr. James and Mr. DeGarmo were 
anxious to free their minds as to certain "definite and firm con- 
victions on the various subjects which [they] meant to dis- 
cuss," and were more anxious to find free expression than to 
secure assent to their views a state of affairs most promising 
for an independent vigorous paper. The later careers of Dr. 
James and Prof. DeGarmo are in no small measure the out- 
come of the spirit expressed in this salutatory. 

Alumni of the school who recall their experience with grad- 
uating themes may be interested in the number for June, 1881. 
The present compiler had been running thru an article, headed 
"Gems of Thought," with a dazed feeling of previous acquaint- 
ance with the "gems" before observing the sub-title, "Taken 


from the Graduating Themes at the I.S.N.U., May 26, 1881." 
Yet said compiler's first experince with I.S.N.U. graduating 
themes began in 1892. Here is one "gem" that may cause 
some perplexity in the reader at this late day : "Woman needs 
to be educated if for nothing more than to elevate the standard 
of manhood, and when people at large realize this fact we shall 
have no more girls with lofty aspirations and pure motives" ! 
It is only fair to say that most of the citations were clearer- 
headed than this one, and that a close acquaintance with themes 
leads to the suspicion that this quotation itself has accidentally 
lost a phrase running something like this, "but without the 
trained minds and practical judgment to make these effective." 

When Professor DeGarmo went to Germany, in 1883, 
Mr. John W. Cook, then professor of mathematics here, bought 
the paper and succeeded to the editorship. Possibly the most 
original feature of the Illinois School Journal under his man- 
agement was Mr. William Hawley Smith's "The Evolution 
of Dodd." In May, 1884, Mr. R. R. Reeder joined Mr. Cook 
in the ownership and management of the paper. This arrange- 
ment continued till November, 1886, when the journal was 
bought by Mr. George P. Brown, who published it for three 
years under the old name, then as The Public School Journal, 
and more recently as School and Home Education. 

The Illinois School Journal was the last editorial venture, 
as far as discovered, undertaken by members of the faculty 
of this school. Possibly the explanation of this is to be found 
in Mr. Cook's own words with reference to the Journal itself : 
"After a year of oppressive labor I was joined by Mr. R. R. 
Reeder in the management of the Journal. Little is to be said 
of our success. Financially it was unequivocal. Educationally 
I regard it as a failure. It was the work of hours that should 
have been devoted to rest." Probably others would dissent 
from Mr. Cook's unfavorable self- judgment, but all must rec- 
ognize the force of the last statement. 

This abandonment of active editorial labors does not, how- 
ever, indicate that the faculty of the school have ceased to be 
connected with journalism. Members of the faculty have been 
active and untiring contributors to other journals as well as to 
those named. Notably within the last ten years they have 
conducted various departments in The School Nezvs, published 
by Mr. Parker, in Taylorville, and have contributed lavishly 
to its pages. The names of Pres. John W. Cook, Pres. David 
Felmley, Mrs. Lida B. McMurry, Prof. Elizabeth Mavity (now 




1876-1883; 1886-1890. 





Mrs. Cunningham), Miss Lora Dexheimer, Miss Chestine 
Gowdy, Mr. Elmer W. Gavins, Mr. Charles Whitten, Prof. 
D. C. Ridgley and Librarian Ange V. Milner are among those 
most familiar to its readers. 

Among the alumni of the school there has naturally been 
active interest in educational journalism and other educational 
literature. The Western Teacher, published by S. Y. Gillan, 
an alumnus of the year 1879 i s we ^ known. When it is re- 
membered that among the alumni of the school are Pres. John 
W. Cook, Pres. Edmund J. James, Prof. Henry McCormick, 
Dr. Charles McMurry, Dr. Frank McMurry, Prof. John A. H. 
Keith, Prof. John Hall, Commissioner of Education Elmer E. 
Brown, Mrs. Agnes Cook Gale, Augusta Eleanor Root, Mrs. 
Mary Hall Husted, Mr. J. J. Shepard, Prof. Edward L. Man- 
ley, Prof. Frank Thorp, Prof. T. J. Burrill, Prof. A. B. Wolfe, 
Prof. John H. Gray, Mr. C. C. Wilson, Mr. F. D. Barber, 
George P. Burns, Prof. John Adams Scott, Prof. Walter Dill 
Scott, Prof. Wm. J. Sutherland, and Prof. Andrew O. Nor- 
ton, and that its faculty has included besides those already 
named Pres. C. C. VanLiew, Prof. Charlton T. Lewis, Prof. 
Thomas Metcalf, Chauncey M. Cady, Mrs. Haney, Prof. 
Stephen A. Forbes, Professor Manchester, E. W. Coy, Prof. 
M. J. Holmes, and Prof. B. P. Colton, it will be seen how 
wide has been the range of its literary activity either through 
journalism or through books, and how far reaching its influ- 

The undergraduates of the school have started and main- 
tained two noteworthy publications. Of these probably the 
more important is The Vidette, the regular school paper. This 
enterprise started when Mr. C. C. Wilson and Mr. J. J. Shep- 
pard were leading men in the school, and was largely due to 
them. The paper was originally a monthly. The first number, 
issued in February, 1888, bore the name of M. Kate Bigham 
as editor-in-chief with Hanan McCarrel as business manager. 
Miss Bigham served but the one month and was succeeded by 
Mr. Washington Wilson. The earlier months and even years 
saw frequent changes in the editorial staff, due partly, it seems, 
to the gradual recognition of the need of various distinct de- 
partments if the life of the school were to be properly repre- 
sented, and partly to the fact that originally new volumes be- 
gan with the February number and the editorial elections were 
therefore held in the mid-year. As the editors were usually 

*Miss Colby's name belongs in this list also. Editor. 


seniors, or, if not, frequently did not return in the fall, Sep- 
tember not infrequently saw every editorial chair vacant and 
special elections necessary. This difficulty was finally ob- 
viated by beginning the new volume with the September num- 
ber and making the editorial year coincident with the school 
year. This change was made in 1895. 

Among the editorial departments added from time to time 
have been Societies, Associations, Alumni, Undergraduates, 
Model School, Academic, Exchange, Locals, Woman's World, 
Assistant Editor, Official News, and Athletics, while the num- 
ber on the editorial staff, aside from the board of control, has 
mounted sometimes to twenty. 

Among the prominent names connected with The Vidette 
in one editorial capacity or another have been C. C. Wilson, 
J. J. Sheppard, R. R. Reeder, Agnes Cook, Grace A. Sealey, 
P. D. Barber, W. S. Wallace, Frederick G. Mutterer, J. A. 
Strong, Jessie J. Bullock, Jesse Black, C. M. Echols, Helen 
Taylor, Bertha Denning, A. B. Wolfe, Oliver Dickerson, Wil- 
liam A. Otto, Geo. W. Wright, Jessie J. Simmons, Jas. A. Fair- 
child, A. H. Melville, Ruth David, Perry Hiles, Abe Newton, 
Carl Waldron, Geo. B. Kendall, Ira Wetzel, Bertha Olsen, Ida 
Church, Edna Coith, L. O. Gulp, Fred Telford, Otto E. Rein- 
hart. Next year is to see Miss Essie Chamberlain editor-in- 
chief, with Mr. Ira W. Dingledine business manager. The 
volume for 1906-07 saw The Vidette changed to a weekly. 

The Vidette has thruout reflected more or less closely the 
life of the school. Naturally, therefore, with changes in that 
life The Vidette has changed. The literary and pedagogical 
significance of the paper loomed larger in the minds of the 
earlier editors than of the later. Evidently also the two great 
literary societies were more vital features of the school life 
than at present. Their proceedings were at all events reported 
with more fullness and seem to have been uniformly of a more 
serious character. On the other hand, various interests now 
extremely important in the school seem scarcely to have ex- 
isted in the earlier years. Chief of these are music and athlet- 
ics. It is pleasing to see how firm a foothold music has 
achieved, how it has added at every point to the pleasure and 
profit of the life here. Contests have increased in number or 
rather, except for the Inter-Society contest, changed in char- 
acter. The earlier volumes of The Vidette reported Inter- 
Class contests and Ciceronian-Sapphonian contests where now 
we have the Oratorical and Declamatory contests, the Inter- 


Normal and Inter-State Oratorical contests, and the Oshkosh 

Social life has gained more recognition of late in The 
Vidette and in this probably The Vidette merely reflects a 
change in the school. The so-called "Grind" is almost the 
only form of social entertainment named in the earlier years. 
Gradually we find class banquets, Ciceronian receptions, Sap- 
phonian receptions, Debating Club receptions, Faculty recep- 
tions to various sections, receptions and various forms of social 
entertainments by individual members of the faculty and 
school, and President's receptions, social and otherwise, re- 
ported. The gymnasium, too, has multiplied forms of social 
amusement, partly of a purely social sort, partly at once social 
and instructive. Of late athletic matters have gained more 
importance in the school. 

Special numbers of The Vidette have had a marked inter- 
est. The Inter-Society contests have usually had a number to 
themselves. For a previously uninformed reader it would oc- 
casionally be a little hard, however, to tell from The Vidette 
which side was victor. In several instances it has taken a close 
search to find the winners in the several members of the con- 
test. This curious lapse in clearness is apparently due to the 
editor's and contributor's taking it for granted that their read- 
ers know the fact beforehand. Other sorts of special numbers 
have been taken up with accounts of the Christian Associa- 
tions, Commencements, and Summer Schools. A number of 
peculiar but mournful interest contained an account of the 
havoc wrought in campus and streets by the storm of June 
10, 1902. 

The class of 1892 in their senior year, seeking a fit memo- 
rial, established The Index, which has since been issued as a 
senior annual. This has had the usual character of class an- 
nuals. It has given statistics of various sorts concerning the 
various student enterprises, serio-comic, mostly comic, accounts 
of classes and class affairs, jokes on the faculty and on indi- 
vidual students, revelations of secrets hitherto know only to 
the favored few, or originating, for purposes of publication, in 
the brains of the writers. It has been the outlet for repressed 
spirits, the opportunity for sheer fun, and very seldom the 
voice of resentment. It has contained articles of serious worth 
also, in which the progress of the school has been noted, and 
the lives of its various presidents have been recorded. And 
sometimes it has had to record sorrows, which, occurring in 
the life of the school, are at once public and private. 


The volumes have been variously dedicated, the first one "To 
the World's Fair Seniors;" later numbers "To the President, 
ex-Presidents, and Faculty of the Illinois State Normal Uni- 
versity ; to the alumni and former students To all who 

shall find in these pages cause for pleasure, exultation, gratifi- 
cation or " Evidently the editors of that number, 1893, 

meant not to be partial ;"To all ever connected with the school 
as teachers or students; "To the Memory of Our Beloved 
Professor Emeritus Thomas A. Metcalf ;" "To the Hon. John 
P. Altgeld, Governor of Illinois, A Friend of Education ;" "To 
the Fortieth Anniversary of the I.S.N.U. ;" "To Our Boys 
Who Have Gone to War in Behalf of the Cuban Republic;" 
"To President John W. Cook ;" "To President Arnold Tomp- 
kins;" "To David Felmley, A.B., Scholar, Teacher, Friend;" 
"To Our Vice-President, Henry McCormick, A.M., Ph.D., 
Our Friend and Teacher;" "To nymphs and fairies that haunt 
the halls and cherubs, too, of the practice school ;" "To Henry 
McCormick, Our Honored Vice-President," and "To Geo. H. 

The current number of The Index, not out at this writing, 
it is understood will be of a somewhat different character, with 
more serious artistic and literary features. 



AUGUST 24 AND 25, 1882 

The first twenty-five years in the history of the Illinois 
State Normal University were the years of struggle for ex- 
istence and the struggle for recognition. At the close of this 
period the Normal School had proved the validity of its own 
existence as a necessary supplement and auxiliary to the public 
school system; and by its single-minded fidelity to its dis- 
tinctive function, it had also won highly-deserved public rec- 
ognition. Convincing evidence that these statements are 
historically correct is found in the fact that the people of Illi- 
nois had decided to invest in another school of the same kind ; 
in the fact that hundreds of the most devoted, capable, and 
enthusiastic teachers of the State of Illinois had got their 
training and inspiration at the Normal University ; and in the 
further fact that the demand for such teachers was steadily 

Such results had been possible only thru the faith, the sa- 
gacity, the heroic and able efforts of the founders and early 
teachers of the school. This quarter century almost exactly 
coincides with the first twenty-five years of a bona fide system 
of elementary education in Illinois, and it is easy to see that 
the Normal University addrest itself to the problem of mak- 
ing elementary education, as it was then conceived in Illinois 
yield a maxium of value to the state. This was not a period 
of educational "fads" or new movements in elementary edu- 
cation, but the "methods" of the Normal University set the 
standards in advance of the general practice and thus led while 
it served. 


These results could not have been accomplished without 
much self-sacrifice. This was the heroic period of the school's 
history, and therefore the quarter-centennial anniversary was 
a fitting time to celebrate ; not by any means simply because it 
marked the end of the first quarter century, but because it 
closed a more or less distinctive epoch in the history of the 
school. The character and several features of this celebration 
are well shown in Mr. Cook's account on pages 227-229 of 
Cook and McHugh's History of the Illinois State Normal 
University. That account has a flavor that can hardly be 
created by one who was not a part of the event; so it is here 
largely reproduced. 


Arrangements having been perfected, the exercises began on the even- 
ing of August 24. After a cornet solo, by Charles Lufkin, General Hovey, 
now residing in Washington, D. C, delivered an address. The weather 
was very unfavorable, but the speaker was greeted by a large and enthusi- 
astic audience, many of whom had been identified with the early history 
of the school. 

On Friday morning the assembly room was crowded to its utmost 
capacity by a happy throng of old students, pioneer workers in educa- 
tional enterprises in the state, and prominent citizens of Normal and 
Bloomington. Nearly an hour was spent in having a good, old-fashioned 
sociable. The early classes were well represented. Harvey Dutton and 
Lizzie Carleton had journeyed up from Missouri. Logan Holt Roots had 
forgotten his banks and railroad schemes, and Mexican telephones, and 
was there, the happiest of the happy. Anna Grennell Hatfield paid the 
school her first visit since her graduation eighteen years ago. These and 
scores of others had returned to the familiar halls rendered sacred by hal- 
lowed associations, to greet old mates and renew their allegiance to their 
"cherishing mother." Charles E. Hovey was there, quiet and grave as of 
old, but with a twinkle of joy in his eyes that spoke more than volumes. 
Richard Edwards was the center of a boisterous group of his boys and 
girls, and he the youngest of them all, while E. C. Hewett, the shortest 
in stature but the longest in service, put to shame all of his previous at- 
tempts at wit and hilarity. 

Thomas Metcalf broke his vacation off at the short end to be on hand, 
and Albert Stetson, his co-worker for twenty years, was nowise behindhand 
in promoting the general fun. Hon. Newton Bateman, grown gray in the 
service, laid aside his cares for a day to greet old friends and join in the 
general rejoicing. Father Roots, Hon. Charles T. Strattan, Hon. Thomas 
F. Mitchell, Dr. E. R. Roe, Hon. Robert Brand, and many others whose 
names are familiar to Normal students, were in the audience. At ten 
o'clock, President Walker called the assembly to order and announced the 
following order of exercises : 

Piano solo, Mrs. Flora M. Hunter ; address, Dr. Edwards ; reading 
of Henry Norton's paper, by John W. Cook ; piano duet, Mrs. Flora M. 
Hunter, Miss Minnie Potter; address, W. L. Pillsbury; address, E. C. 
Hewett. At three o'clock, the alumni business meeting was held in the 
Philadelphian Hall. The chief item of interest was a subscription to pro- 
vide a memorial for the lamented Howell, as suggested by Mr. Pillsbury 
in his address. In a few minutes a sufficient sum was collected to insure 
the success of the movement. A committee consisting of Silas Hays and 


Captain Burnham from the alumni, and Dr. Hewett from the faculty, will 
have the whole matter in charge. 

The event of events was, of course, the banquet. Miss Flora Pennell, 
of the executive committee, had that part of the work under her supervision. 
The executive committee asked Miss Carrie Pennell, an under-graduate 
living in the village, to prepare the supper. She undertook the task and 
the successful manner in which it was accomplished was a matter of uni- 
versal comment. At six o'clock the procession filed into the room, the 
alumni taking their places at the tables by classes. The guests were seated 
along the south side, facing north, and on the outside of the side tables. 
John W. Cook, of the class of 1865, acted as master of ceremonies. When 
all were seated, Dr. Edwards asked the blessing, and the assembled com- 
pany, two hundred and twenty in number, entered upon the serious busi- 
ness of the evening the discussion of the numerous delicacies spread be- 
fore them. After this part of the business had been disposed of, the toasts 
were in order. 

Governor Cullom had indicated his intention to be present, but was 
taken sick in the train and was obliged to return to Springfield. Lieu- 
tenant-Governor Hamilton was on hand, however, and responded to the 
toast, "A true and tried friend of popular education." Dr. Bateman was 
"toasted" as "the man who first gave the schools of Illinois a national rep- 
utation," but the doctor had been obliged to return to Galesburg on the 
afternoon train. The sentiment, however, was greeted with loud cheers. 
"Our venerable friend, the president of the State Board of Education, 
for a full half century the light of Egypt," brought Father Roots to his 
feet for a characteristic speech of ten minutes. Judge Reeves responded 
to the toast, "The Bar the last resort of the school-master." The class 
toasts and speakers were as follows : "Our First Born the Class of '60," 
E. A. Gastman ; "The Class of '61," J. H. Burnham ; "The Class of '62," 
Logan H. Roots; "The Class of '65," O. F. McKim; "The Class of '66," 
Sarah E. Raymond ; "The Class of '68," Henry McCormick ; "The Class 
of '70," Joseph Carter. Hon. Jesse W. Fell and Hon. A. J. Merriman were 
expected to tell "How McLean County got the Normal School." Mr. Fell, 
however, was unexpectedly called to Iowa three days before the meeting. 
It was a serious disappointment to him and to the company, for his activ- 
ity in securing the location is generally understood. Judge Merriman was 
a member of the Board of County Commissioners in 1857, and with his 
associates, Hiram Buck and Milton Smith, made the county appropriation 
of $70,000. The judge also had the distinguished honor of laying the 
corner stone of the building. Speech-making, however, is not in his line, 
and so Dr. E. R. Roe told the story in his stead, and, at its conclusion 
responded to the toast: "Our Early Teachers." General Hovey was called 
upon to let us know "how the building was erected," but instead, spoke 
as follows : 

An intimation, more or less plainly stated, has several times been 
made, tending to show that the first presiding officer of this institution was 
substantially its founder, and that, at least, the buildng could not, or would 
not, have been built at the time it was without him. 

I am glad of an opportunity to speak of these matters, and I may 
claim, I suppose, without challenge, that I was part of them. Right or 
wrong, the chief place in the beginning fell to me, and, with it, came an 
opportunity of influencing the trend of affairs in the institution, and, to 
some extent, out of it. I had done what I could to bring about the legisla- 
tion which set the school in motion. Here, again, the accident of position* 
at the critical time enabled me to know and do what would otherwise have 
been impracticable. My advice as to plans for the proposed building was 
generally followed, and my services in and about its erection came to be 

*Hovey was president of the State Teachers' Association, and editor of its "org-an" 
at the time. 


in considerable demand before it was completed. But it would be a mis- 
take to say that the Normal University owes its establishment, or conduct 
afterwards, to any one man or set of men. It was the outgrowth of the 
ideas and wishes of a majority of the people of Illinois, formulated and 
uttered by a large number of persons, and by at least two influential state 
associations. Professor Turner and the Industrial League blazed the way, 
but they did not found the Normal University. The State Teachers' As- 
sociation followed and secured for it a hearing, but the association did not 
found it. Father Roots tells you that Simeon Wright was the man who 
did the business, and I think myself his services were indispensable, but 
it would hardly be correct to say that he was the Atlas of the enterprise. 
The first superintendent of public instruction elected by the people, assisted 
in drafting the bill, but he did not enact it into law. His successor, the 
honored president of Knox College, stood guard over its interests at the 
gateway of danger for many years, and took care ne quid detrimenti Nor- 
malis Universitas capiat, but even he was not the sole Fidus Achates. 
Hon. S. W. Moulton, Hon. C. B. Denio, Dr. Calvin Goudy, and a majority 
of both Houses of the Legislature, voted for the Normal University Act, 
and Governor Bissell signed it, but they were not the founders of the in- 
stitution ; and yet, without each and all of these, I do not see how it could 
have been established at the time it was, and as it was. Each was a link 
in the golden chain, but only a link. 

Nor do I see how it could have been located in McLean county without 
Jesse W. Fell ; and yet Jesse Fell did not bring it here. A very modest 
and worthy citizen (Judge Merriman), who appears to be listening to me 
from a corner of the table to my right, and two other McLean county men 
(Messrs. Buck and Smith), were the heroes of that act. They took the 
responsibility and risk to themselves, politically, of involving the county in 
a debt of seventy thousand dollars to secure the location of the institution 
here. That act of theirs required a high degree of moral courage, and 
entitles them to a seat on the upper bench at the head of the table, along 
with Jesse Fell. But even these men must consent to a division of the 
honors. Back of them stood the people of Bloomington with their sub- 
scription paper. Without this paper, Jesse Fell and the County Court 
would have had "to throw up the sponge" and yield gracefully, no doubt, 
to Peoria. 

Nor did Asahel Gridley risk any money in loans for erecting the build- 
ing, though my friend, Colonel Roe, gives him credit for making advances. 
True, Colonel Gridley furnished some money for that purpose, but not a 
dollar came over the counter of his bank until he had been amply secured 
by the promissory notes of citizens. Such men as S. W. Moulton, Jesse 
and Kersey Fell, Charles and Richard Holder, Edwin C. Hewett, Joseph 
A. Sewell, Charles E. Hovey, and others whom I do not at this moment 
recall, signed the notes. The banker risked nothing, and lost nothing, but 
gained interest. The men who signed the notes took the risk. But the 
merchants of Bloomington stand on a different footing. They did take 
risk. They gave the contractor for erecting the building, Mr. Soper, credit, 
to a large amount in the aggregate, with no other security than my promise 
to see them paid whenever there was anything to pay with. They trusted 
the enterprise, and, to that extent, risked their advances, and I take liberty 
to invite them to a seat on a bench a little higher up than the banker's pew. 

I must not leave this subject without naming the committee of the 
Board under whose supervision this edifice was erected. They were Hon. 
S. W. Moulton, chairman; Hon. C. B. Denio, Dr. George P. Rex, Hon. 
N. W. Edwards, Hon. William H. Powell, Prof. Daniel Wilkins, and 
Charles E Hovey. 

Mr. Chairman, if you have been listening to me, I think you are be- 
ginning to see that a goodly number of people have been engaged, at one 
time or another, in one way or another, in founding this great school, and 


in building its house. Nor did one man make its course of study, nor 
plan and limit its scope, nor give to the work so mapped out that impulse 
which has thus far swept over, or brushed aside, all adverse obstacles. 
True, there was at first, as there has been since and must continue to be, 
a head. Somebody must decide and direct, and the questions at the outset 
of any enterprise, which clamor for settlement, are often numerous, and 
generally important. But the first principal was not left to solve these 
problems unaided. In addition to C. M. Cady, Dr. E. R. Roe, and Rev. 
L. P. Clover, special instructors, and Charlton T. Lewis, Samuel Willard, 
Chauncey Nye, and Miss B. M. Cowles, employed from time to time, any 
or all of whom he could call upon for information and counsel, I say, 
in addition to these, the first principal had the good fortune to have asso- 
ciated with him, as co-laborers, Ira Moore, Leander H. Potter, Edwin 
C. Hewett, and Joseph A. Sewell. A principal surrounded by such men 
need not set up for himself, or put on airs, or assume that he is the only 
considerable person on the premises. They were the peers of anybody in 
the profession. The principal had the benefit of their knowledge and ex- 
perience in determining the course to be pursued and in formulating work 
to be done. These men made their mark on the school. I should not 
wonder if it could be pointed out even now. But they did not make the 
school what it is now. Presidents Bass and Edwards, and their associates, 
came later, it is true, but they served longer, and with no doubtful success. 
The proofs are all around me tonight. Their good deeds have been re- 
corded, and were read to you this morning. I do not see how anybody 
can wipe out that record, and it is one on which they can afford to stand. 
But even these men and women must be content with having done a part. 
They did not do everything. After them came President Hewett and his 
associates, who are moving forward, bearing aloft the old banner, inscribed 
with mottoes indicating reliance upon plain, unpretentious, common-school 
work. I believe they are conducting this great school with judgment and 
efficiency. I know Edwin Hewett ranks high among the normal school 
teachers of America. But neither Hoyey, nor Bass, nor Edwards, nor 
Hewett, nor all of them and their associates combined, have made this in- 
stitution what it has grown to be. I will throw in the Board of Education, 
Father Roots, and all, and still I say there is an omission. The students 
must be added. They have carried the Normal University to a thousand 
school rooms all over the State, and have taught its classes there. I look 
upon them as non-resident professors. They have played no inconsiderable 
part in the work of the institution. I have not attempted to keep track of 
them, and what I happen to know has come to me incidentally. But right 
before me is a well-known man who has been in charge of Decatur's public 
schools for twenty years ; this morning a paper was read from a professor 
in California's Normal School ; a moment ago a soldier, as well as teacher, 
addressed you ; "shake," comes over the wires from the head school man 
in Denver ; in front of me sits a citizen who, in addition to teaching, has 
twice represented his district in Congress ; to my left sits a lady who for 
some years has been superintendent of public schools in Bloomington. A 
few years ago, at the reunion of the society of the Army of the Tennessee, 
in Chicago, a note was handed in to me, signed by a familiar name. I 
went out, and there met a remarkable woman in looks and attainments, a 
physician and professor of physiology in the Woman's College. I must 
not detain you by further recitals. All these, and a thousand more, are 
your boys and girls. They are the links in the silver chain that binds this 
school to the common schools of the State. But I must stop. I beg 
pardon for detaining you so long. 

Dr. Edwards told "How the building was filled," and Dr. Hewett 
"How it is kept full." Hon. Thomas F. Mitchell, the staunch friend of 
the school in the Legislature, told "Where we get our munitions of war." 
He was followed by Hon. Charles T. Strattan, the member of the house 


from Mt. Vernon. "The Normal University abroad," was responded to 
by E. J. James, Ph.D. 

At the close of the exercises, General Hovey arose and stated that it 
had been his pleasure to attend a good many banquets at one time and an- 
other, but that he had never seen one in which the arrangements were more 
complete nor in better taste. This opinion was evidently the sentiment of 
all present, as it was received with loud applause. At eleven o'clock, after 
five hours of solid enjoyment, the formal part of the exercises closed, and 
the quarter-centennial celebration passed into history. Many lingered an 
hour longer saying good-byes. 

All agreed that the celebration was an unqualified success. The early 
trains on Saturday bore away most of the visitors, and the institution 
settled down again to the routine duties that have made it what it is. 
There was a general desire expressed that a similar meeting should be held 
at least as often as once in three or four years, and there is no doubt that 
at least as early as the thirtieth anniversary there will be a gathering that 
will surpass the meeting of 1882. 

JUNE 22 AND 23, 1897 

Under date of May 20, 1897, the first general notice was 
issued regarding the celebration of the fortieth anniversary of 
the founding of the Illinois State Normal University. It does 
not appear that any special occasion called forth this celebra- 
tion. As one looks back upon the event, however, a special 
value does appear. It proved to be the last time that all the 
presidents of the school could be together to behold the rich 
results of their labors, and justly participate in the joy and 
gratitude of so marked a triumph of a great popular cause. 
Later celebrations will surely not fail to reveal these noble per- 
sonalities enshrined in the grateful memory of the people of 
Illinois, nor to give them places of honor. 

The best history is that in which the actors themselves 
speak. As far as possible, therefore, this account of the forti- 
eth anniversary celebration will be given in the words of its 
promoters and the speakers chosen to represent the various 
ideas and interests made prominent on that occasion. 

The first exercises of the celebration were held in Normal 
Hall, Tuesday evening, June 22. It was a reminiscent pro- 
gram and produced two distinct effects : It was highly valued 
and enjoyed by those present who represented by-gone days in 
the life of the Normal University, and it proved instructive to 
the present generation of students and transmitted to them the 
traditional spirit and ideas that have marked the character of 
this school. 

Enoch A. Gastman, of the class of 1860, spoke on "The 
Early Teachers of the Normal School." His talk was wholly 


from personal experience and consisted largely of interesting 
anecdotes characteristic of the different early teachers. Those 
receiving most prominent mention were the first president, 
General Hovey, Ira Moore, John Hull, Joseph Howell, and 
Charlton Lewis. The reports of this talk are meager and un- 
satisfactory. Lewis was the young Yale graduate who was a 
superb scholar and already a learned man. He stayed but one 
term, much to the regret of the girls of the school. General 
Hovey was "the hero that laid the foundations and built so 
well." He had sound business principles and a courage to 
venture. Mr. Gastman told how Hovey "squelched" the "writ- 
ing rebellion," and how he once delivered a vigorous "philip- 
pic" against a member of the Board of Education for criticising 
the institution. In speaking of Ira Moore, who was one of 
the most impressive teachers of the first years of the school, 
Mr. Gastman said : "Among the early teachers of the school 
no man ranks higher than Ira Moore. I desire to say that if 
I have had any success in life, more of it is due to the influ- 
ence of this teacher than to any other man in the world except 
my father. He possessed in a remarkable degree the power 
to select the essential points in a subject and put his pupils in 
possession of them. His judgment was clear and accurate and 
it was impossible for careless work or thinking to escape him." 

Capt. J. H. Burnham of the class of 1861, spoke on "The 
Early Students of the Normal School." He quoted from 
"Norton's letter" see (Chapter xiv) to show what a normal 
student looked like and was like in the early day. He gave con- 
siderable attention to the students that went to war. "The old 
war flag of the Normal boys who went to the front was placed 
upon the speaker's stand, and three stands of old colors stood 
against the back wall of the stage. These were tenderly 

handled They were such touching reminders of the past 

that all felt the silent swell of heart and closing throat as the 
sight of the flags brought back to memory or framed in the 
imagination some of those terrible days and what they brought 
years ago." (Vidette, vol. 9, No. 10.) 

"We who entered the Normal in early times had to have 
considerable faith in the future. We did not realize as you 
can what brilliant educational careers are possible for persons 
of ability and proper qualification. There were but few posi- 
tions in prospect that paid over eight hundred dollars a year." 

In concluding Mr. Burnham said : "Nearly twelve hun- 
dred graduates, improved by discipline and strong moral ideals, 
have gone out from this school into the service of the state of 


Illinois. Large numbers have proved themselves teachers of 
a high grade of culture, and leaders of educational thought of 
a superior order. They have become centers from which have 
been poured streams of educational influence forcing their way 
against the mass of ignorance that still surrounds us. They 
have continued their professional development and their final 
results will be in harmony with the highest ideals of the 
greatest educators of the world." 

"The Administration of Dr. Edwards" was the topic of 
Dr. Charles DeGarmo of the class of 1873. The speaker's 
historical survey of this period of the school's history, espe- 
cially his eulogy of Ex-President Edwards, was worthy of 
preservation. He revealed the conditions under which the 
school labored in those days and the kind of work and men and 
women which were needed to prove the necessity and value of 
a school for the training of teachers. Speaking of Prof. 
Thomas Metcalf, Dr. DeGarmo said: "His life and service 
lasting thru many administrations was a golden thread bind- 
ing them all together. His face hangs in the hallway; and 
every man or woman that looks into that pure countenance 
cannot but be inspired to do better things." 

In closing Dr. DeGarmo paid a personal tribute to his old 
teacher, Dr. Edwards : "But the principal picture of all I have 
hardly mentioned yet. It is Dr. Edwards. He taught me 
many things, but after all what he taught me was not what did 
me the most good. To look into his face and receive inspira- 
tion therefrom, the longing to do right, to pursue one's duty, 
was a lesson even more profitable. I owe to him more than to 
any other living man the inspiration to higher effort." 

"The Administration of Dr. Hewett," by Miss Olive Satt- 
ley, was mainly a eulogy of a master by a devoted and appreci- 
ative disciple. "Were I asked to characterize Dr. Hewett in 
one word that word would be 'genuineness.' His love of 
truth, his hatred of sham and deception were the leading and 

lasting impressions received by those who knew him best 

His oft-repeated, 'Speak nothing but the truth of the dead or 
the living' is known to all. 

"As a teacher he was without a superior. Indeed, I never 
had more than one other who was his equal in clearness of 
thought and conciseness of expression. As president he per- 
petuated and emphasized the best traditions he had received 
from his predecessors, while his thoroness and careful work in 
every direction increased the hold of the institution upon the 
community at large In his relations with the other mem- 


bers of the faculty Dr. Hewett had the admirable quality of 
allowing them the freest and fullest scope in their work." 

In addressing the members of the faculty under whose 
teaching she graduated, Miss Sattley said : "Well as we re- 
member the facts you taught us in the classroom, yet much 
more vivid is our recollection of those things you taught us 
when you were not teaching. Not teaching? Yes. There 
was no professor of fatherly counsel, motherly solicitude, of 
kindness, of gentleness, of high ideals and noble purposes ; 
yet you taught them more than anything else." 

Mr. Arthur Bassett and the old Wrightonian quartet fur- 
nished some highly acceptable musical numbers for the 
evening program. The members of this quartet were S. F. 
Parsons, Joseph G. Brown, Arthur O. Norton, and James A. 

The anniversary session was opened at 9 135 a. m. 
Wednesday, June 23, Prof. Henry McCormick presiding. In 
order to keep the school work going on while the celebration 
exercises were in progress, a huge tent had been pitched on the 
lawn just south of the main building. Here the morning ses- 
sion was held. Owing to the ominous appearance of the sky, 
and the muttering of thunder during the early morning the 
attendance was not as large as was expected, but a good audi- 
ence gathered and the meeting proved to be both valuable and 
enthusiastic. Musical numbers were given between the ad- 
dresses. The speakers were Richard Edwards, Edwin C. 
Hewett, S. W. Moulton, Charles E. Hovey, Mrs. Sarah Ray- 
mond Fitzwilliams, and Thomas J. Burrill. 

Dr. Edwards spoke first on the subject of "Horace Mann 
and the Normal School Idea." He said that Horace Mann 
belonged to the true aristocracy of the race. The great work 
of his life he accomplished in the Massachusetts State Board 
of Education. The public schools were of low grade. Mr. 
Mann resolved something should be done for those who could 
not attend private schools, that the free schools should be 
raised, by raising the qualifications of the teachers. The work 
must be done by the state- He seemed to win few battles but 
finally at the completion of the first normal school his address 
was a song of triumph. In our day, the normal school craft 
is an ocean steamer, constructed and managed scientifically, 
and it sails with triumphant success. But in Mann's day it was 
a crude boat and her course was against the current. I think 
it may be said that Horace Mann possessed all three of the 
forms of power enthusiasm, sagacity, and organization. He 
was a belated Puritan. 


In closing Dr. Edwards paid a glowing tribute to Hon. 
S. W. Moulton, who was present. 

Dr. E. C. Hewett spoke next on "Nicholas Tillinghast and 
the Bridgewater Normal School." He said that Tillinghast 
was a New Englander, educated at West Point. He served 
on the frontier. In 1840 he was in a high school in Boston, 
and from there was called to Bridgewater as the first head of 
the normal school. In person slight, he had a soldier's dignity. 
He was stern, reserved, not fluent in speech. In character 
every inch a man, honest, truthful, firm as a rock in the right. 

The experiment of founding a normal school was first tried 
in Massachusetts. The first was in 1839; tne Bridgewater 
was the third. For several years in inconvenient quarters, the 
course was meager and scholars more so. In 1846 the school 
was housed in a $6000 wooden structure the first normal 
school building on the continent. Five years later I became 
a pupil. The founder of Bridgewater Normal was called 
"Father" Tillinghast. What was his power? To my mind it 
was due more to the man that what he said or did. He was 
always friendly no effusion, gush or honey; but we felt his 
friendship. He was truthful, open, honest in all his actions. 
One would as soon suspect Gabriel of a trick as Father Tilling- 
hast. He was conscientious in everything, self-sacrificing, 
exact in his works and words. Several stories were told to il- 
lustrate his power of cutting speech. He was exacting as he was 
exact. He had the good sense to help by self-help. The body 
of Nicholas Tillinghast has rested for forty years on the slope 
where we laid him. Many of you never heard his name. 
Why should I speak his name? Because Ira Moore, Richard 
Edwards, Thomas Metcalf, Albert Stetson, and your speaker, 
were his pupils. Because more than one hundred years of in- 
struction have been put into this institution by the pupils of 
Nicholas Tillinghast. His name will live forever in the Illi- 
nois State Normal University. 

There was a great ovation of applause when President 
Cook introduced Charles E. Hovey, the first president of the 
Normal University. General Hovey was in very feeble health 
and spoke with trembling voice, but was listened to with in- 
tense interest. He said one of the early questions was why he 
had adopted the name of "university," instead of the simple 
name of normal school. He recalled the astonishment the an- 
nouncement had created as made by him in a New Jersey con- 
vention. The first institution in the history of man that bore 
the name of university was at Salerno, Italy, a thousand years 
ago. It was a medical school. The next was a professional 


school at Bologna, for lawyers. In the early days, therefore, 
the term university was applied to professional schools. Now 
we were getting up another, school for another profession, so 
we called it a university. Why not? In fact it was a neces- 
sity. The legislature would not appropriate funds to a 
"school." Therefore it remained only to call it a college or 
a university. Of these two terms all reason pointed to "uni- 
versity" as the better term and it was chosen. There was also 
a practical reason there was a great faction in the state de- 
termined to have an industrial university; they wanted the 
Seminary Fund, and of course we wanted it too. So we com- 
promised with them and got the name. General Hovey then 
pictured the future of the institution, saying that when its age 
had grown to that of other notable institutions we shall see 
wonders here. He spoke of the work of the first board, their 
discretion and foresight in keeping out of the lines of sectarian 
division. At the close General Hovey received another ovation. 
Extracts from Judge Moulton's address "An old soldier 
often repeats his battles, his achievements, and victories. I 
feel the greatest love and respect for those who helped me and 
you forty years ago. This day recalls precious memories. Of 
the original fourteen members of the board but three remain 
today General Hovey, John R. Eden, and the speaker. Prior 
to 1854 the common schools were unsatisfactory in every way. 
The school funds did the schools no good subscriptions sup- 
ported the teachers. The constitution of 1848 provided a 
2-mill school tax. We were poor in those days and there was 
little to tax. In 1854 I had the honor of being the chairman 
of education in the Illinois House, and I had the pleasure to 
introduce a free school bill, which was the foundation for all 
the system of free schools in Illinois. This bill recognized the 
right of every community to afford means of education to all 
children. The bill became a law February 15 ,1855. There 

was great prejudice against this law The great lack of 

the schools in that day was trained teachers. The machinery 
was all in shape except the teachers. That part could be made 
possible only by the establishment of a normal school. An act 
for the founding such a school was past February 18, 1857. 
I knew these men (the members of the first board of educa- 
tion) and they were the choice men of Illinois. C. B. Denio 
was a brick-layer, but he stood up for the right always. So 
with the others all great men. [Judge Moulton then read a 
section of the act laying down the purposes of the university.] 
The opposition to such a university was great. The great 


struggle was as to whether the colored people should receive 
any benefits of the school law and the university act. In the 
school act of 1854, the word 'white' was before 'children.' It 
remained in the normal act, and was only removed after the 
civil war. 

As to the location of the proposed normal university, 
Judge Moulton said: 'The bill provided for competition in 
the whole State. When the board met in Peoria to open the 
bids, there were four propositions, one each from Batavia, 
Washington, Peoria, and Bloomington. The pledge of 
Bloomington was the best, being $141,000. The site was then 
an open, naked prairie. Now it is the most beautiful spot in 
Illinois. The board held its first meeting March 26, 1857, and 
almost constantly afterwards. The legislature made an ap- 
propriation to build the university. It was completed by sub- 
scription, the total gifts being $200,000 " [The speaker 

then related the grievous difficulties of the work of construc- 
tion.] "At one time when the board was $10,000 in debt, the 
members went as individuals and borrowed the money to pay 
the bills." [Hovey, Denio, and Moulton signed the notes, and 
next day on summing up the property of the three, there was 
not over $1000 to pay the debt if sold under the hammer]. 
Moreover the State disowned the board at its darkest days; 
but when the institution had acquired $200,000 and wide- 
spread fame, then the state took us in. 

"The Board was fortunate in the selection of the faculty 

thruout its history The university has been exceptionally 

free from political and religious disturbances " Mr. 

Moulton paid glowing tributes to General Hovey and other 
'fathers of the school.' In closing he said he would be pres- 
ent at the fiftieth anniversary and make a speech. 

Mrs. Sarah Raymond Fitzwilliam spoke on "The 
Women of the Normal School." She recited an original 
parody on Holmes' "Last Leaf," which was a neat bit of verse. 
She then continued in a charming style to discuss the Normal 
women. Women have a genius for teaching. The modern 
woman her active business, her education, her clubs is 
a different being from the mild-eyed creature of a century 
ago. We rejoice that emancipation is at hand. More and 
more the advance of society is adjusting the mind to the 
new order of things. Particularly as to woman's position, the 
change is wonderful. The women of the Normal, 16,000 have 
received instruction here, 1200 of whom graduated. What 
must be the influence of such a body ? The women of this in- 




Of m 


stitution have much to be proud of. The state will gladly 
give its financial support to such an institution. The tone and 
character of the community is elevated by the women of the 
Normal, their influence is broader than the schoolroom. To 
individualize would be unjust, but proud are we of the names 
and fame of our women. Great changes have taken place in 
pedagogics since 1865, an d the Normal is a leader in all these. 
Proud and grateful to thee, your daughters drink to the health 
of their alma mater. 

We'll drink to her past and future, too, 
With thanks for woman's place with you. 
Tho scattered ere the setting sun , 
Our home is here, our hearts are one. 

Dr. Burrill of the University of Illinois, was the last 
speaker. He told an interesting story of how he first came to 
Normal, which then contained no postoffice, no business 
houses. Letters were carried from Bloomington by Dennis 
Hall. He told of the early corps of instructors, and was full 
of interesting reminiscences. He recalled Professor Metcalf's 
first appearance. Hewett, Sewell, Edwards, Metcalf what 
a quartet ! No monuments are erected to them, but in their in- 
fluence upon the state, no names are more honored. Dr. Bur- 
rill recalled the characteristics of the student body of that time. 
The students of that time took only two meals a day. Text- 
books were provided by the school. There was no library un- 
til 1863, when $500 was appropriated for books. Dr. Burrill 
was first librarian. After his reminiscences Dr. Burrill paid 
a glowing tribute to the influence of the Normal University. 

The literary societies joined in the general celebration of the 
fortieth anniversary. The Philadelphian exercises were held 
June 22, at 3 130 o'clock in Normal Hall. The Wrightonians 
held their meeting in the big tent on Wednesday afternoon. 
The many reminiscences of contest, strategy, war, and love, 
and the revival of the "hard times" of primitive beginnings 
furnished one of the most entertaining features of the celebra- 
tion. Careful and thoro preparation had been made well 
ahead of time, and all plans were carried out with great success. 
No report was made of the Wrightonian meeting, but we can 
judge something of its character from that of the Phila- 
delphian. The Vidette of June, 1897, says of the Philadelphian 
reunion, "The most remarkable event of the term was the re- 
union held in the large hall, June 22. The hall was crowded 
and much enthusiasm was there awakened by thrilling bits of 
early history told by loyal members. The five minutes al- 
lotted them was invariably too brief." 


"After the meeting was called to order Mr. J. Dickey 

Templeton was introduced as master of ceremonies. He 
walked upon the stage holding a tallow candle which he al- 
lowed to shed light upon the scene in commemoration of the 
fact that at the first meeting of the society, held in the Major 
Block, Bloomington, October 9, 1857, a tallow candle was the 
only means of illumination." 

"At least twenty-five speakers were called on during the 
evening and the audience was kept in an uproar by Mr. Tem- 
pleton's inimitable humor. After a brief search three persons 
were found who belonged to the society in 1857 : E. A. Cast- 
man, Mrs. Christian, and Mrs. A. D. Guild 

"Twelve ex-presidents were discovered and marched to the 
platform " 

"A song written by Miss Esther Sprague and sung at the 
dedication exercises of the present hall, July 2, 1861, was sung 
to the tune of America." 

The celebration exercises culminated in the banquet on 
Wednesday evening. Plans had been brewing for the greatest 
social event known in the school's history. No limit was 
placed as to who or how many should be present except that 
the privilege of attending was for friends of the school. About 
375 persons were seated. The program called for about 
twenty responses to toasts. Mr. L. A. Chase, "Our Mutual 
Friend," was toastmaster. The subjects and persons respond- 
ing were : 

"The University of Illinos" Pres. A. S. Draper 

"The Board of Education" Judge W. H. Green (Absent) 

"Thomas Metcalf" Dr. Edwards 

"The Church and Education" Rev. J. J. Burke 

"The State of Illinois" Hon. James A. Rose 

"Charles Francis Childs" Dr. Hewett 

"The Boys and Girls of the '6o's" William Hawley Smith 

"The Normal School and the Fortieth General Assembly" 

Hon. A. J. Scrogin 

"Patriotism" Hon. James F. O'Donnell 

"The Philadelphian Society" J. D. Templeton 

"The Wrightonian Society" Charles L. Capen, Esq. 

"The Normal School and the War" General Hovey 

"The Present Student Body" Chester M. Echols 

"The Normal School in the Early Seventies" Hon. Owen Scott 

"The Students and the People of Normal" Rev. E. B. Barnes 

"The Teachers of Illinois" Hon. S. M. Inglis 

"The Normal School and the Lawyer" Hon. E. R. E. Kimbrough 

"The Normal School of the Future" Dr. Charles De Garmo 

"The Modern College" Dr. R. O. Graham 

"The Botanist" Dr. T. J. Burrill 

"The Press" J. B. Bates 

"Our President" Letters and telegrams read by President Cook 


Closing song: 

"Then old and young together stand, 

The sunshine and the snow, 
As heart to heart and hand to hand 

We sing before we go." 

The banquet had been announced for five o'clock, but the 
company was not seated until six. It was a feast of joy and 
good will, lasting over five hours, and a happy ending of the 
celebration of the fortieth anniversary. 

This celebration attracted much attention, and was no- 
ticed in the editorials of some of the leading newspapers. The 
Chicago Inter-Ocean, commenting on the annual meeting of 
the Chicago Club of I.S.N.U., said : "The former students and 
friends of the Illinois State Normal University propose to cele- 
brate on May 29 the fortieth anniversary of the founding of 
that institution. The celebration will consist of an afternoon 
and an evening session, with addresses, etc., appropriate to the 

"The Illinois State Normal University is the oldest public 
educational institution in Illinois. It has educated a very large 
proportion of the leading teachers of the public school system 
of the State, and has had a very wide educational influence up- 
on education thruout the Mississippi valley. It ranks among 
the best institutions of its class in any country, and is an in- 
stitution in which every citizen of Illinois should take pride 
and interest." 

The Daily Pantagraph under date of June 23, 1897, has 
the following: 

"The fortieth anniversary of the Illinois State Normal University now 
being celebrated is an event of the deepest importance to the thousands, 
far and near, who have come within its influence. The occasion has called 
together many of those who took part in the founding of the institution, 
among them Gen. Charles E. Hovey, its first president. To these honored 
pioneers in the work of normal training in the west the cause of popular 
education owes a debt of lasting gratitude. They broke the ground, and 
planted and tilled, as did the farmers of that early day, tho in a different 
field. Human destiny was the field they worked, and sacrifice, and zeal 
and love for humanity were the forces employed. What a harvest has 
come forth from the labors of these devoted, far-seeing men ! There is 
no numbering nor calculating the blessings their work has wrought out 
for the race. Into every county of our great State, and into every com- 
munity of every county, has the influence of the Normal School extended. 
No one can put a limitation upon the forces exerted by the teachers who 
for four decades have gone out year after year from the normal halls to 
do service in the cause of rational education. Their work has permeated 

the whole social structure The people acknowledge it. They have 

cheerfully endowed and will generously maintain a school that trains 
teachers in the work of instructing their children in all that tends to a 
more intelligent and useful manhood and womanhood. All pleasure and 
joy to the honored educators who have gathered to celebrate this fortieth 
anniversary of the Normal." 


A Letter Tzventy-five Years Old. 


To my home on the summits of these Santa Cruz hills, by 
the Pacific, has come an invitation to write a few words upon 
the days when we dwelt and worked together. I was not ex- 
actly a beginner with the Normal University. I entered in the 
autumn of 1858, and found myself decidedly a junior, com- 
pared with a group, grave and reverend, of the real pioneers. 
John Hull, Joseph Howell, Enoch Gastman, Hayes, Ridlon, 
Augusta Peterson, Sally Dunn, Fannie Washburn, Edward 
Philbrook, whose hair parted in the middle, these were in the 
front rank of years and honors. We who entered in those 
September days of 1858, felt small and insignificant beside 
them. We were daily convened in the upper story of Major's 
Hall. I suppose that these younger generations of Normalites 
are not aware that such a building ever existed. The walls of 
the old house were rickety, and iron girders, with huge S's at 
the ends, held in place the brick masonry. Our assembling 
room was the third story. In the second story were recitation 
rooms, rather dark, and ill-adapted to our needs. Grocery and 
hardware stores occupied the first floor. The building was 
heated by a coal stove in each room, and as Illinois coal is 
gaseous and explosive, the stove doors were frequently blown 
open, with loud sounds and clouds of yellow smoke. C. E. 
Hovey was principal in those days, but Ira Moore was the one 
most directly in charge. Dr. Willard, looking very pale and 
frail, soon began to open his wonderful budget of philological 
knowledge. Hewett came within a month after my arrival, 
I think. He was a small man with a big head, in those days. 
He had very demonstrative boot heels, and especially hated 
cats, and went to sleep in Baptist meetings. He used to give 
us prodigious lessons in history and geography. He couldn't 


draw maps, but made us draw very nice ones. I remember his 
geography lessons, even unto this day. The names of the 
branches of the Amazon, the forms and heights of the Andean 
and Himalayan plateaus these are mine yet, and will be to 
all eternity. My history work has not staid with me so well. 
There was once a slight unpleasantness between my class and 
their teacher as to how General Greene got away from Corn- 
wallis. It was quite a double-and-twisted business anyhow, 
and we inwardly vowed that we wouldn't learn it. The 
teacher gave us hard words and low marks, but our obstinate 
stupidity won the day. I am still densely ignorant as to 
whether it was the Chickahominy or the Nile that rose and fell 
in such a miraculous fashion, for the discomfiture of the Brit- 
ish. Come to think of it, may be it wasn't Greene and Corn- 
wallis after all. It tires me to recall the matter. At any rate, 
somebody got away from some other fellow, and we wouldn't 
and didn't learn the particulars, and Professor Hewett con- 
sidered us, very justly, a pack of ninnies. 

We were called section "C" for awhile. There was a sec- 
tion B, including Burnham, Edward Waite, Fanny Grennel, 
Peleg R. Walker, and others ; a class which had entered some 
months before us, but they were soon incorporated with us. 
Gove, from Boston, John T. Curtis, Sophie Crist, C. J. Gill, 
Harvey Button, Moses Morgan these stand out very con- 
spicuously upon the tablet of memory as entering when I did. 
I had a peculiar psychological experience with Gove. It was 
a case of hate at first sight. He was very slim in those days, 
had a big nose, and used to laugh at people who made mis- 
takes. I regarded him for some time with a silent, unspeak- 
able hatred. Well, time mended all that. After these twenty- 
four years, I send love to Gove, whom I hated; to Dutton, 
whom I quarreled with ; to Joseph Howell and Augusta Pet- 
erson, whom I respected and yet felt it my duty to regard with 
a certain dislike, because they were Philadelphians. From 
their heights of spirit-life may a benediction be wafted down, 
even to us, who struggled hard to make the name of Simeon 
Wright immortal ! 

There were two literary societies in those days. It is 
strange, but true, that the members used to quarrel. We had 
contest meetings, joint debates, and various occasions of con- 
flict. After our removal into the "new building," we impov- 
erished ourselves and incurred heavy debts, in order to buy 
better furniture and more books than the people of the other 
society. On the door of the Wrightonian Hall was a motto, 


painted in blue and gold, "Sapere Aude." It was the occasion, 
to the Philadelphians, of many irreverent and disrepectful 
puns. As a loyal Wrightonian, I trust that this motto has 
disappeared, and that the Brussels carpet, gay with yellow 
roses, which reduced us all to bankruptcy who were concerned 
in purchasing it, has been replaced by the bounty of a younger 
and wealthier generation. 

In 1858, Bloomington had a population of some 7000 peo- 
ple. In winter, its streets were a sea of mud. "Come over 
here," once shouted Professor Wilbur, the geologist, to Uncle 
Sim Wright, across the street. "I can't," was the answer; 
"between thee and me there is a great gulf fixt." Teams were 
daily mired down in the principal streets. There was a place 
called Pone Hollow, allusions to which were particularly in 
order, if anyone would be called facetious. The crossings 
there were particularly dreadful when the long rains drenched 
the prairies. 

"The gunpowder plot" was enacted in Major's Hall. Gove 
had organized a band of nocturnal serenaders, called the 
"Squallers." They used to go about with an awfully dis- 
cordant orchestra of willow whistles. To blow these beneath 
the lattice of a slumbering maiden, was to induce in her spasms 
of palpitating fear and agony. The Squallers were wont to 
meet in Mr. Hovey's office, not to rehearse, but to form their 
plans. One of the boys had observed this, and longed to know 
what it all meant. He took into his confidence one Burnham, 
who wickedly betrayed him to the Squallers. Their plans 
were duly laid. Hidden in a box in the room, the inquiring 
youth heard the particulars of a plot which caused his "knotty 
and combined locks to part, and each particular hair to stand 
on end" no less a scheme than the blowing up of the old 
building with gunpowder, in order to expedite the construction 
of the new one! The very box in which the spy was secreted 
was selected as the receptacle for this terrible explosive, and 
was turned over, rolling out upon the floor this inquiring 
youth. The tableau was unutterable; the muttered threats 
were dreadful. At last, after binding himself with more hor- 
rible oaths than Morgan, the anti-Mason, ever dreamed of, 
and making a liberal contribution for the purchase of gun- 
powder, he was allowed to go home, where he doubtless past 
the night in dreadful expectancy, and came to school next 
morning, only to find an audible smile on every face. Well, 
he treated the crowd to apples, and we unanimously agreed not 
to tell his father of his misadventure; in pursuance of which 
pledge, his name appeareth not in these pages. 


We were shabbily drest in those days. I think my pan- 
taloons were generally too short, and my coats seemed to have 
been made for some other person. We were very poor, but 
very plucky. W T e boarded ourselves, mainly on corn mush, 
washt the floors and built the fires at the Normal Hall, 
worked hard, lived hard, and were poorly provided with all 
things; our parents were sad- faced, struggling pioneers of 
the prairies ; but we were cheery, resolute, and happy in our 
life and our work. To the toiling youth of frontier homes, 
thirsting for knowledge, the Illinois Normal University opened 
the gateways of a new life. We loved it, rejoiced in it, and 
were thoroly loyal to its name and fame. 

The school saw but little of its principal in those years. 
Two miles to the northward, across the sodden prairies, in the 
rainy autumn of 1858, were clay pits, heaps of brickbats, half- 
complete foundations for a stately structure, yet in embryo. 
The construction fund was exhausted, the state heavily in 
debt, business everywhere distrest and languishing; truly a 
somber prospect for the completion of a building, demanding, 
on the basis existing before the war, a hundred thousand dol- 
lars. It would be as easy today to raise a million. To secure 
these needed funds was the task which Charles E. Hovey set 
before himself. It was a labor for Hercules. His own fortune 
was pledged over and over. Had his plans failed, he would 
have been weighted for life with hopeless bankruptcy. This 
enormous task he undertook and carried thru. He had a place 
on the program of the school's daily work, but his classes gen- 
erally wrought out their own salvation. But in the winter of 
1 860- 1 the building was completed; the legislature assembled; 
Governor Dick Yates delivered the dedicatory address ; the 
State assumed the liabilities of the Board of Regents, and the 
enormous burden of debt rolled off the shoulders which had 
borne it so bravely. A new generation has arisen since those 
days, mainly ignorant of these events, and yet enjoying the 
fruits of those labors. It is for them that I make the record. 
We of the pioneering days, need no reminder of the grand 
work which could hardly have been performed by another than 
General Charles E. Hovey. 

We were free in our conduct, to a singular extent. No 
school rules rested upon us. Our hours and methods were 
wholly our own. We lived as we pleased, formed our friend- 
ships and associations, made our calls, and managed our af- 
fairs, entirely at our own choice and pleasure. Very few 
schools were ever so slightly governed. I do not believe that 


our successors of today can be journeying under any similar 
slackness of rein. Nevertheless, the record of those years was 
a thoroly Spartan one. We were from Puritan households, 
disciplined in self-restraint. Industry and poverty were our 

A magnificent park, stately buildings, a beautiful and pros- 
perous city, methods well-ordered, and polities established, 
splendid museums and laboratories, a wealthier and more cul- 
tured generation of students these are the pleasant things 
that greet the view as you gather to the silver wedding of our 
alma mater. It is not true that the former days were better 
than these, but we who saw the working out of the beginnings, 
had also our joys, struggles, and coronations ; and we received 
a training which, if less orderly and exhaustive than that ren- 
dered now, nevertheless gave us some measure of fitness for 
our life-work. 

From my home and class room by the Pacific, I send hearty 
greeting to the teachers and pupils who worked in Major's 
Hall together. God bless and speed you all, dear old friends 
and comrades, and grant you such length of days that, in the 
seventh year of the twentieth Christian century, a few of us, 
if old, yet vigorous, if with snow on the head, yet with fire at 
the heart, may gather to our alma mater's golden wedding. 


STATE NORMAL SCHOOL, San Jose, California, July 23, 1882. 


My first term at the Normal was while the school was in 
Major's Block. It was the spring term at which the first class 
graduated. Enoch Gastman, large of size, red-haired and red- 
whiskered, was the most formidable looking member of the 

Having never before attended any school other than the 
country district and the public school of a small village, 
Major's Hall and the then Normal School seemed to me very 
majestic and impressive. 

Mr. Hovey was the president; but we did not see very 
much of him that term, because, as we understood, his time 
was almost wholly taken up with the building operations going 
on for the school out on the prairie two miles from town. He 


occasionally was present and led the devotional exercises at 
the opening of the school, and was supposed to be teaching the 
graduating class in one study. As I remember him, he was 
somewhat dark of visage, silent, and distant, with a grave and 
solemn face. It was vaguely understood that the Normal 
building was being erected under many difficulties, financial 
and otherwise, and that there was great danger of the work 
being suspended ; all of which was supposed to account for the 
pre-occupation, repeated absences, and anxiety, on the part of 
President Hovey. 

It was also understood by the new class, consisting of a 
dozen or fourteen, of which I was a member, that Mr. Hovey 
was a man of great executive ability and a good teacher. 
Later, as everyone knows, he went into the army as colonel of 
the Normal regiment, and came out a brigadier general, and 
afterwards practiced law in the city of Washington. 

There were about seventy-five students in attendance at 
that term. 

Major's Hall was on the top floor of a three-story business 
building. Our recitation rooms were on the second floor; the 
first floor was occupied by two groceries and a second hand 
store, as I recollect. I have since learned that Major's Hall 
and the recitation rooms were considered dark, dingy, and 
somewhat dilapidated; but they did not so impress me. I 
considered them grand beyond compare. 

I remember that Henry B. Norton was a student at that 
time, tall, angular, awkward, careless in dress. His shoes 
were tied sometimes with white wrapping twine in the absence 
of a shoe string, but he had the countenance of a sage. Later 
he was editor of the Daily Pantagraph in Bloomington, and 
then came out to Kansas, serving as Associate Principal of the 
State Normal School at Emporia. Still later he taught natu- 
ral science, and made a great name for himself as teacher and 
lecturer, at the State Normal School of California at San Jose. 

I acquired no personal acquaintance with Enoch Gastman 
and the other members of the graduating class until near the 
end of that term, because they were so high and mighty, in 
the estimation of the beginners of my class, that we did not 
venture to ask for an introduction. They seemed to us to have 
been made of a better clay than the rest of us mortals. 

I remember that the graduating class recited in the large 
assembly room in English and American literature, and that 
in some mysterious way Henry B. Norton recited with them, 
altho not a member of the class. To our great surprise he 


seemed to know as much about books and authors as the real 
members of the graduating class. The entering class having 
no recitation at that time were supposed to be studying at their 
desks during the recitation of the graduating class in litera- 
ture. My recollection is of neglecting my studies at this hour 
and of feasting daily upon the enlarged wisdom of the gradu- 
ating class. 

My last term was in the spring of 1864. Richard Ed- 
wards, the president, was in the height and plenitude of his 
remarkable gifts as a teacher, public speaker, and executive 

My recollection of the attendance is that it was something 
like three hundred. 

Mr. Pillsbury was the principal of the high school division 
of the model department. I was in charge of the grammar 
school division and also assisted in teaching some of the 
classes upstairs in the Normal school proper. In addition to 
this teaching I endeavored to carry on my regular studies as 
a member of the graduating class. I think there were seven 
of us who graduated that year. 

I was a member of the Wrightonian society. In those days 
the rivalry between the Wrightonians and the Philadelphians 
was great. The members of the Wrightonian society were 
well satisfied in their minds that their society was much su- 
perior to that of the Philadelphians. In some manner it was 
learned by us that the Philadelphians considered the members 
of the Wrightonian society much inferior to them in every 
possible way. As I look back thru the vista of years upon the 
two societies, I find that they were substantially equal in mem- 
bership, in enthusiasm, good fellowship, and general ability 
of their members. 

I have been told that there is now in the Wrightonian li- 
brary a full set of the bound volumes of the Atlantic Monthly 
magazine. It is my recollection that the first three or four 
volumes were contributed to the library by my procurement, 
with the hope of the then members Of the society that the At- 
lantic Monthly should become a permanent acquisition to the 
library in the years to come. This was one of the dreams of 
a few of the Wrightonians in that very early day. 

In January following my graduation I came to Kansas up- 
on the invitation of the Board of Regents to serve as principal 
of the State Normal School of that State at Emporia. The 
Normal School of Kansas is an offshoot of the Illinois State 


Normal University, and it has always been proud of that re- 
lation, just as the Illinois Normal is an offshoot from the 
Bridgewater Normal School of Massachusetts. 


There was great strife between the Wrightonians and 
Philadelphian societies in those old days. The rooms with un- 
carpeted floors and undecorated walls were furnished us and 
it was left to us to do whatever was to be done in the way of 
improvement. The recitation rooms were supplied with com- 
mon wooden chairs and these were borrowed on Friday even- 
ings, when there were energetic young fellows available to 
carry them upstairs. Sometimes they were forgotten on Sat- 
urday night after the close of the society meetings and, in 
consequence, there were chairless recitation rooms on Monday 
morning. The interviews that such a condition occasioned 
were not in all respects agreeable, hence there were strenuous 
efforts to secure a more ample equipment. The students were 
far from anything like wealth, yet there were notable instances 
of self-denial in their devotion to their societies. 

Anything in the way of improvement was carried on by 
stealth. The first wall decorations were in the way of small 
statuary. It didn't amount to much as measured by modern 
standards but it was little short of superb to us of the Wright- 
onian Society as it was unpacked behind locked doors all on a 
wonderful Saturday and ready to be displayed to the envious 
Philadelphians when the doors were opened for the evening 
meeting. There was a general stampede from the south room, 
the old home of "our friends, the enemy," when the "scoop" 
was revealed. It would have taken a long pole to reach the 
elevated pride of "Uncle Sim's" crowd that night. 

A piano was a prime necessity for the musical numbers on 
the Saturday evenings. Occasionally one was borrowed from 
a school room and laboriously elevated to the top story, but it 
was a killing business and it took a great occasion to develop 
enthusiasm enuf for the young fellows to undertake it. In 
consequence it was decreed at a secret meeting of the "steering 
committee" that in some way or other a piano must be forth- 
coming. The war was on and our patron saint, Uncle Sim, 
was at the front. But he came home on a furlough and three 
or four of us met him at the old Ashley House. Uncle Sim 


gave us a number of pointers as to possible ways and means, 
but, most inspiring of all, he gave us fifty dollars as a start. 
We organized a secret society, for the whole thing was planned 
as "scoop number two," and within its inner circles the scheme 
was elaborated. One feature of the enterprise was a play, 
"Box and Cox," at Phenix Hall. The star performers were 
not students, altho one of them had been. There was Clare 
Messer, six feet three in his stockings and with the circumfer- 
ence of a telegraph pole. And there was Hyde Norton, a for- 
mer student and then engaged in the study of law, after being- 
sent home from the army with the compliments of a confeder- 
ate sharpshooter. He was only a shade under Messer's length 
and another shade above his breadth. 

It was a great occasion and made big money. The piano 
was bought and secretly installed to the wonder of everybody 
and to the envy of the "other folks." 

Norton died in Cuba a couple of years ago and Messer is 
one of the leading artists in Washington city. 

Eugene F. Baldwin, he of the wonderful Peoria Star, 
turned up as an old student in '63. He had been in the army 
and had lost most of his health and nearly all of his hair. He 
got both of them back later. He was a genius then but not 
everybody knew it as they do now. He used to write plays 
and some of us did star parts in them. But the way in which 
he anticipated the modern talking machine is the thing I 
started to tell. 

He contrived a box with a noisy ratchet in it made from 
the crank of a chain pump. In those days there were book 
cases in the south end of the Wrightonian Hall and below 
them were ample closets. The box was mounted on legs and 
furnished with a curtain and placed before the partially opened 
door of one of the closets. A stage curtain surrounded the 
whole apparatus. The performance was billed for the period 
immediately after recess. It was an easy matter to slip behind 
the curtain and into the closet at recess time. 

Baldwin gave a learned dissertation upon the possibility of 
talking machines and declared that he had invented one. In 
proof thereof he drew the stage curtain, wound up his machine 
and, mirabile di'ctu! the thing began to talk. This was incon- 
testably the first phonograph. The affair was the sensation 
of the season for the talking attachment escaped from the 
closet in the distraction of the universal excitement. 

In war times an old student furloughed and just from the 
front, would occasionally be the center of attraction on a Sat- 


urday night at the societies. How we all thrilled with respon- 
sive patriotism as he told us of the Normal boys in the south- 
ern camps and how they told and re-told, about the evening 
fires, the experiences of school and society life. The society 
quartets would sing the war songs and the young orators 
would flame with eloquence and the walls would re-echo the 
cheers of the ardent students. The new generation can never 
know the rate at which we lived in those days of storm and 
stress. And when there came the cheering news of a federal 
victory life was strenuous enuf to suit the most responsive. 


He Drew Maps. 

In the year 1863, in the fall term, there drifted into Nor- 
mal from the city of LaSalle, a tall, slim individual who regis- 
tered as R. A. Bower. He fell under the tutelage of Professor 
Hewett and the latter set him to drawing the map of South 
America. Bob protested against it. He couldn't draw a map, 
he couldn't even draw a straight line. But Hewett put his foot 
down, and so, Bower manfully shouldered his burden. He 
finally became interested in it and the result was he was the 
best map drawer in his class. After he left Normal, he drifted 
about for several years and finally went to Chicago and pro- 
posed to the firm of Rand, McNally & Co. that they add a de- 
partment of map publishing to their establishment and give 
him control of it. They are now the greatest map publishers 
in the world. They publish maps for Australia, Canada, and 
in fact, for almost every country under the sun. Bower is the 
largest stockholder in the institution. He owns 325 shares of 
the original 1000 shares in the company, and is rated at con- 
siderably over half a million dollars. Still, anyone dropping 
into the retail store of Rand,McNally & Co. in Chicago, will 
find Bob Bower, now grown to be a venerable, gray-headed 
gentleman, with an army of clerks under him, revising the map 
department and giving his orders for the coming campaigns. 
When we saw him last week, he had just shipped two car-loads 
of maps to Australia. All this great industry giving employ- 
ment to over 1000 people came because President Hewett in- 
sisted that Bob Bower should draw a map of South America. 

Of course, the moral of this is, whatever you do, do it well. 



Hoiv the School Appealed to Me As a Student. 

1. It appealed to me as an institution in which hard work 
was recognized as the key to success and where "sissy boys" 
were estimated at their true worth and speedily eliminated. 
At that time the Normal University had something of a repu- 
tation as a student killer, and in that there was for me a cer- 
tain fascination. 

2. The academic features of the course, the subjects to be 
mastered, attracted me more than did the "professional" work. 
The latter never seemed to me to be strong, and the more it 
developed the more I did not like it. Subsequent experience 
and observation have led me to think that the defect referred 
to was not a weakness peculiar to the school nor to that time. 

3. The faculty as a whole imprest me as especially strong 
and well chosen for the work they were doing; and this im- 
pression has not changed with the years. Altho there were a 
few weak spots in the faculty, visible to discerning students, 
yet the strongest appeal of the school to me was thru the 
strength and skill that most of the teaching force displayed in 
the schoolroom. If I learned anything of method that was 
of abiding worth it came to me thru the example of good 
teaching rather than thru precept or doctrine pedagogic or 

4. The democratic spirit of the student body, the absence 
of sham, the freedom from inquisitorial control on the part of 
the teachers, the evidence on all hands that it was a school of 
the people existing for and representing the masses and not 
the classes, the earnestness of the students, most of whom were 
going to school, not sent, these were facts that appealed to 
me and deepened the conviction that "life is neither pain nor 
pleasure but serious business." 


About a quarter of a century ago I entered the Illinois 
State Normal University for the purpose of putting a few fin- 
ishing touches on my public school attainments, preparatory 
to entering upon the duties of a teacher. Having passed the 
examination admitting to the High School, I was advised by 
Principal Burrington to visit classes in English grammar, 


arithmetic, and geography to see whether they might offer any 
additional help. I was first ushered into the class of Martha 
D. L. Haynie, where the first half hour's experience paralyzed 
me. It became evident on my recovery that I could gain a 
few points in method, at least, by attending the class in Eng- 
lish grammar. I next visited the class in arithmetic under Mr. 
John W. Cook, whose flashes of mathematical wit convinced 
me not only that I knew nothing about arithmetic, but that my 
knowledge of other branches was too faulty to count for much 
in the Normal. I did not inspect other classes, but entered at 
once, and at the very bottom of the curriculum. Thru the 
friendly counsel of Dr. Hewett I was persuaded to join even 
the spelling class, which I found so full of culture, and whose 
subject matter grew so increasingly interesting that I was in- 
duced to "elect" this subject from year to year. Mr. Hewett 
went so far as to suggest that I might with some degree of 
profit pursue the branch in graduate work, saying that there 
were here hidden fields for the student in research. 

All through the course I shared the feeling with most of 
the students that the requirements were unreasonably severe; 
since graduation, however, I share with the alumni an equally 
common feeling that the rigidity of the work done is the one 
feature for which we are today most thankful. The doctrine 
that the candidate for teacher must knozv the subject to be 
taught, as well as the underlying principles by which it may 
be skillfully presented, was strictly adhered to by all the fac- 
ulty. In the exemplification of this tenet most of the faculty 
were models. I acknowledge my personal indebtedness to Mr. 
Cook for his keen, searching, Socratic method; to Mr. Met- 
calf for his wonderful tact in class management and his 
cheery, generous, sympathetic nature, which has ever been my 
ideal ; and, finally, to all the faculty for their impartial efforts 
to draw forth from the students the best in them. 


My Harly Impressions of Normal 

My impressions of Normal began on the morning of the 
twenty-first of March, 1880, about three o'clock. It was a 
most inauspicious beginning, for the weather was cold, every 
person was a stranger, and when the sun rose, it rose in the 
north and it continued to do so for the next four years. I re- 


member Normal now as a place in which the sun rises in the 
north. I had the impression that it must be on the northeast 
side of the earth. It is a rather distressing circumstance when 
a man's consciousness and his compass do not agree. The first 
week in school, Mr. Cook sent me to the blackboard, in an 
arithmetic class, and said, "Go to the north board." I started 
in a direction that I afterward learned to be east. Mr. Cook 
said "North board." I went faster toward the east. "North 
board! NORTH BOARD! NORTH BOARD!" I reached the 
east side of the room on the run, when Mr. Cook pointed to 
the other side of the room, and said, with tremendous sarcasm, 
"This is the north board." I was really grateful for the 

The Normal School was at first to me one big, blooming 
confusion. A two-room school was the limit of my previous 
experience in educational matters, and, when as I was seated 
the first day in the Assembly room, wondering what would 
happen next, a tremendous multitude of people, without any 
particular reason for doing so, came trooping into the room 
like a mob or an army with banners, I did not know what to 
make of it. Then when the tumult had partially subsided, a lit- 
tle man would stand up in front and with a pencil, as a sword 
or scepter, would apparently threaten them, and scold them, 
and sentence them to decapitation or banishment, everybody 
would get up and troop out to begin sentence. I did not know 
what was likely to happen at any moment. 

My earliest experiences are the most vivid. I was scared 
to death most of the time. It seemed to me that the whole 
institution was organized for the purpose of threatening me. 
with total annihilation. Afterward I found that such was not 
the case, but that the whole institution was completely innocent 
of any knowledge of my existence. 

A man named Nolan entered school about that time. 
Nolan was somewhat older than many other students, and a 
good looking man. He was accorded the privilege of taking 
grammar as an extra subject. All went well the first week. 
The second week spelling began. Nolan, in the first class, fell 
below seven in his standing. He was sent to the second class. 
The next week he fell below seven in the second class. He was 
required to drop grammar. The next week he fell below seven 
again. He was required to drop arithmetic. The next week, 
still below seven, he was required to drop geography. In the 
cloak room one of the boys remarked to him, "Well, Nolan, 


did the doctor make you drop another subject?" "Yes," said 
Nolan, "blessed if I won't have to drop everything pretty soon, 
but devotional exercises." From his language there was some 
apprehension of his ability to carry that. 

The societies were a source of continual delight. It was 
believed by many of the new members that the standard of 
excellence in the programs was so high that we could never 
hope to attain it, and we sometimes considered plans for di- 
minishing the standard. It was really this feeling that led to 
the organization of the Ciceronian society. I have known stu- 
dents who entered the school after I did who assisted at the 
organization of the Ciceronian society, but I attended several 
meetings of the society in the old "White Room" in the spring 
of 1880. Whenever a person wanted a fight or a frolic he 
could get it by means of the societies. The "Sociable Squab- 
ble" recorded in the History of the I.S.N.U. by Cook and 
McHugh, was only one of the incidents occurring in society 
circles in the period covered by my impressions. I happened 
to be treasurer of the Wrightonians at that time and was one 
of those who believed that it was very unwise to abandon a 
regular program for such a trifling affair as a sociable. 

There was little of the milk of human kindness wasted up- 
on us by the faculty in those days. Mr. Metcalf was recog- 
nized as the one man who had a soul in him. Miss Wakefield 
and Miss Pennell were kind to everybody. The other mem- 
bers of the faculty were considered to belong to a different and 
a superior order of beings. Bob Underwood expressed it one 
time, just after the board of education had made a regulation 
concerning the annual election of teachers, by saying, "The 
Normal School teachers have to be elected now just like 

I am under the impression now that the Normal School of 
1880 was a great school. I know that the class of 1881 was 
excelled in wisdom only by the class of 1880, which was the 
class that graduated the first term that I attended school. I 
feel sure that a rapid deterioration of classes in wisdom and 
goodness occurred after that, and my impression is that the en- 
tire school began to deteriorate shortly after I entered the in- 
stitution. Perhaps my presence contributed to that deteriora- 
tion. This is merely my impression. I have not undertaken 
to verify the truth or falsity of it. I am still under the impres- 
sion that the Normal School of the early eighties was a great 
school, and I have been told on reliable authority that the 
present school is even greater. Let us hope that it may con- 
tinue on its progressive career. 



What the Normal Did For Me. 

Any person who has been a student at the Illinois State 
Normal University must have a rich fund of memories that 
come trooping up at the mere mention of the word "Normal." 
But one wjio has had the privilege of being a pupil and after- 
wards a teacher in the old school has double reason for thank- 
fulness. Such has been my privilege. In addition to this I 
have still another abiding bond of interest in the Normal; it 
is found in the fact that both my father and mother were 
graduated from it. Thus while I have received largely from 
it, I claim no common share in it; in a peculiar sense it be- 
longs to me and I to it. 

From the fact that my father and mother had been students 
at the Normal, it naturally followed, when it was decided that 
I was to be a teacher, that the Normal was the only school 
considered in connection with my further education. I have 
always been thankful that it was so. 

Candidly, I do not believe I had seen enuf good teaching 
before I went to the Normal to know what it was. My teach- 
ers, for the most part, up to that time, had settled down into 
the soul-deadening lethargy of mechanicall school-keeping. 
As I look at it now, it seems that they had little knowledge of 
child nature and no appreciation of pedagogical aims and 
methods. The purpose seemed to be to get a certain average 
result from the class, the individual child being practically lost 
sight of. The whole system was simply a piece of machinery 
and like machine made products we came from the schools 
bearing the stamp of uniformity and mediocrity. The whole 
process was stupefying, leveling, deadening. It was the com- 
plete triumph of the machine. May the Lord forgive those 
who were responsible! 

At Normal I came in contact with people who could teach, 
people who really had professional attainments. What a won- 
derful change from the other system ! At once these teachers 
in the Normal School became my ideal teachers and such they 
still remain to me. To say that whatever I learned as to prin- 
ciples and methods in teaching I got by being in contact with 
them is only expressing a truism. All people learn in that 
way. The daily recitation, whether in zoology or psychology, 
was to me an exposition and application of method ; I learned 
to teach by being in the classes of such men as President Cook 


and Professor Colton and watching them at their daily work 
and participating in it. Thus the Normal School did this 
much for me if no more it convinced me that there is such 
a thing as live teaching and it gave me the professional ideal. 
When I ask myself the question : "What did I learn at 
the Normal ?" I confess that I pause. Certainly, many things. 
And yet I am perfectly clear that its greatest contribution to 
my life was neither information, nor discipline. Indeed it 
seems to me that the course might have been planned so as to 
meet the peculiar needs of high school graduates better than it 
did on the informational side. Then there was a certain dis- 
ciplinary effect, a desire for thoroness, that was secured. It 
has proved of very great value to me since that time. But not 
the greatest. The peculiar, distinctive thing that the Normal 
did for me, the thing of greatest value was bringing me in 
contact with the great, rich personalities of my teachers and 
some of my fellow students. The intense stimulus to scholarly 
effort furnished by them was of immense value to me. The 
inspiration of their example and precept seized hold of me as 
it has hundreds of others and made the old life no longer pos- 
sible. I learned to believe in the possibility of achievement, 
in the value of the struggle, and in the inestimable treasures of 
scholarship. In a very real sense these teachers gave them- 
selves that we, their pupils, might live. The riches of their 
inner lives were freely bestowed upon us and we are living in 
the light they shed. Today we former students of the old 
school look back to her with pride and pain, and say to the 
noble men and women who labored there : "Out of your life 
you gave us life, out of your riches you made us rich." 




Qualitative rather than quantitive standards must be re- 
lied upon to give an adequate idea of the influence of the 
school upon education, for though one might deal with num- 
bers and per cents they would give but a poor notion of what 
the institution has accomplished for educational advancement. 

We need to know the quality of the men and women who 
have taught and been taught in the school, what their stand- 
ards of work and character have been, what prominence they 
have attained, what books they have published, what changes 
they have initiated, and how their influence has been dis- 
tributed over the various aspects of education. 

My own intimate knowledge of the faculty ranges from 
1870 to 1890, so that I may perhaps be pardoned if I dwell 
more particularly upon the members then upon the staff. What 
especially impressed the students of the 7o's and the 8o's was 
the vigor, the moral earnestness, the efficiency, and withal the 
geniality with which the instruction was given. There was 
no ostentatious display of erudition, but there was always an 
evidence of firm intellectual grasp of whatever was taught such 
as awakened the admiration of the student, as when, for ex- 
ample, Edwards expounded Hamlet or Hewett assigned a long 
tracing lesson in geography to the whole school without once 
consulting map or text. The atmosphere of the school was elec- 
tric. When Cook taught reading or Metcalf algebra nothing 
else seemed of the slightest importance. When the student, 
"speaking rapidly," recited the prime factors of numbers to 50 
for McCormick, the rest of the world was forgotten. When 
Sewall made the grimaces he called "phonics" he was awe- 


inspiring, but when he gave himself to speculation, he was di- 
vine. Stetson awakened our aesthetic sense, not only thru 
literature, but also thru the beauty and exquisite neatness of 
his writing. Everywhere we met strongly marked personality, 
but underlying, permeating and suffusing everything done was 
that strong, electric, and cumulative enthusiasm, vigor, and 
earnestness, which once implanted in us was there for life. 

It was this spirit that enabled the school to impress itself 
first upon its own students, and then thru them upon the chil- 
dren of the State. Higher institutions depend in large meas- 
ure upon the subjects taught, upon the liberalizing character of 
advanced learning, for their ultimate influence upon the world, 
but the curriculum at the Normal embraced little more than 
elementary, and the beginnings of secondary studies. What 
the ultimate results should be depended, therefore, not upon 
the thing taught, but rather upon the intensity and thoroness 
of the teaching. It must ever stand to the honor of the faculty 
of those days that what it did, it did with its might, and that 
force of character applied to simple tasks was the means of its 
most enduring influence. 

Looking back over those days, one finds no startling in- 
novation originating from the Normal school. During the 
early 70*5 a wave of conviction went over the country that 
natural sciences should be an important part of even ele- 
mentary education. Six weeks' courses in them were estab- 
lished in the Normal, but this brief time effected no important 
results. It was only with the coming of Forbes, Seymour, 
and Colton that the new subjects began to be a force in ele- 
mentary education, tho mechanics and elementary astronomy 
had been effectively taught by Hewett at an earlier period. 
The greatest contribution that these men made to the cause of 
teaching was to impress the fact that intelligent comprehen- 
sion, not memoriter drill, lies at the bottom of every school 
exercise, whether in mathematics, language, history, geogra- 
phy, or natural science. This truth tho not new was and al- 
ways is important. In those days there was in the State little 
effective instruction in secondary schools, so that there was 
consequently small basis in the Normal for effective training 
in college subjects. Not until this sound foundation in the 
common branches was laid could the Normal school undertake 
the higher work, or devote itself primarily to professional 
study. But by the time the preliminaries were completed, the 
course was well nigh at an end. It is clear, therefore, that the 
excellence of the early efforts of the school consisted neither 


in professional training nor in advanced study, but rather, as - 
has been said, in effective teaching of the common branches 
and the earlier studies of high school grade. This was what 
the situation of the time demanded, and this was what the 
early faculty contributed. Later years, bringing new stand- 
ards for admission, have of course made it possible greatly to 
strengthen strictly professional training. 

Turning now to the influence exerted by the school thru 
its students, it is obvious that this influence would be most 
wide-spread and effective thru the daily extension to a thou- 
sand schoolrooms of the earnestness, thoroness, and efficiency 
found in the instruction given by the faculty. It was here that 
the forceful enthusiasm of Edwards, the keen incisiveness of 
Hewett, the cultured accuracy of Metcalf, the genial thoroness 
of Cook, and the deliberate but irresistible driving power of 
McCormick found innumerable reduplication. These early 
contributions of the school to the cause of education naturally 
extended as the number of students increased, and as new 
members with more recent ideals and often with greater schol- 
astic acquirements were added to the faculty. One can never 
forget the new impetus that came with such teachers as Forbes, 
Seymour, James, Pennell, Haynie, Barton, Jones, Colton, 
Morris, Felmley, C. A., F. M. and Lida B. McMurry, Van 
Liew, and many others well known to Normalites of the pres- 
ent day. 

The early educational situation in Illinois gave to the Nor- 
mal school a broader influence than could otherwise have been 
expected. It was the only institution of the kind in this State, 
the high schools were in their infancy and the State Univer- 
sity was just beginning as a School of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts. The result was that thousands of students who 
now go thru the high school and into college or university, 
then came to the Normal school, the only institution to which 
they could gain admission and which would give them educa- 
tion under the auspices of the State. One is, therefore, some- 
what prepared for Mr. C. H. Thurber's humorous remark 
when he found so many old Normal men occupying prominent 
positions in and about Chicago. "After inquiring into the an- 
tecedents of this and that educational leader," he said, "I be- 
gan to look around to find distinguished men who were not 
from the old Normal." 

To mention all the men and women who have helped to 
carry the spirit of the old school to the children of the State 
would be to call the roll of attendance for fifty years. All that 


can be attempted in this place is to mention a few of the more 
prominent contributions to educational advance that have been 
made by individuals. 

First we have such veteran superintendents of great public 
school systems as Gastman, Gove, Walker, Raymond, Carter, 
Butler. Generations of teachers and pupils have felt their ef- 
fective and inspiring leadership. 

Many have proved their quality and passed on to younger 
institutions for the training of teachers the influence of the 
older school. Prominent among those who have distinguished 
themselves as professors or as principals of other Normal 
schools we find the names of Cook, Kellogg, Norton, Wilkin- 
son, Van Liew, Harvey, Blair, Hursh, Glotfelter, Morrison, 
W. Wilson, Blome, Ament, the McMurrys, and many others. 

The following graduates from the decade of 1891-1900 are 
now, or have been, engaged, regularly in Normal school work : 
Grant Karr, Mellie Bishop, James Ament, Frank Blair, Elmer 
Gavins, Luther A. Hatch, S. F. Parson, W. J. Sutherland, 
Lura Eyestone, George W. Bishop, Jessie Cunningham, Edith 
Patten, Alice Patten, Eleanor Hampton, May Slocum, Fred 
D. Barber, J. G. Brown, Thomas H. Gentle, J. A. Keith, F. G. 
Mutterer, Frank P. Bachman, Nellie M. Phillips, Edward R. 
Hendricks, Thomas A. Hillyer, S. B. Hursh, George E. 
Marker, Clyde R. Travis, Rose Bland, Jessie G. Bullock, Mary 
M. Steagall, Frank S. Bogardus, Mabel A. Cooper (Mitchell,) 
Jessie M. Dillon, Marian T. Lyons, Clara M. Snell, Emilie B. 
Wright, William Crocker, William W. Martin, Olive L. Bar- 
ton, Anastacia Donohue (Hennegan,) Mary L. Trimble, 
Oliver M. Dickerson, W. H. Johnson, John P. Stewart, Ora 
S. Morgan, Genevieve L. Clarke, Anna G. King, I. N. War- 
ner, Charles W. Whitten a total of forty-nine. 

. Not a few are recognized as leaders in their respective 
subjects in institutions of higher learning. Of such we may 
enumerate James, Brown, Gray, the Scotts (John and Walter,) 
Hodgin, Effinger, Erode, McCormick (Ed.), J. W. Hall, 
H. C. Metcalf, F. McMurry, Hieronymus. 

Higher and secondary commercial education in the United 
States owes more to three Normal school men than to all other 
agencies combined. The first of these is President E. J. James 
of the University of Illinois, who as director of the Wharton 
school of the University of Pennsylvania first showed the 
American University how to educate business leaders, and who 
in his report of 1893 on "The Education of Business Men in 
Europe" revealed the possibilities and need of such training 


here. The next is Cheesman A. Herrick, director of the Com- 
mercial High School of Philadelphia, who first created a com- 
mercial high school in this country patterned after the Euro- 
pean model, and who has by his writings and addresses on this 
subject done most to spread and popularize its ideals. The 
third is J. J. Sheppard, director of the Commercial High 
School of New York, an institution magnificently housed and 
already training some twenty-five hundred boys for modern 
business. This course contains not only business technique, 
but also modern languages, applied sciences, history, econo- 
mics, commercial law and commercial geography, mathemat- 
ics, and such other branches of knowledge as conduce not only 
to business success but to business integrity of the highest or- 
der. These names and, with them, that of the old Normal 
must ever be associated with the genesis and early develop- 
ment of this new and important type of education in America. 

In hundreds of high schools in Illinois and the middle west, 
graduates of the old Normal are found. Whenever a Nor- 
malite has gone into a village as principal of the school, an 
effort toward establishing some work of high school grade has 
followed. And scores of young men, with high ideals of ser- 
vice, have gone to college, returned, and served as principals 
of high schools. The Boyers (E. R. and E. L.,) Goble, 
Parker, Briggs, the Hannas, and many others have added lus- 
ter to the fame of the old Normal. 

Educational literature has been greatly enriched by the 
writings of such men as C. A. McMurry, Brown, James, Keith, 
while the publications of the N.E.A. and the various journals 
of education show that Normal men have done their full share 
in shaping the educational ideals that have prevailed.* Our 
most noted journalist in the educational field is S. Y. Gillan, 
of Milwaukee, who well represents the accuracy of Metcalf, 
the incisiveness of Hewett, and his own unwavering courage 
in standing for what he conceives to be sanctified common 
sense and incorruptible democracy in education. 

R. R. Reeder is taking the spirit of the old Normal into 
the new field of charity education. 

The hearts of all old Normalites have recently beaten just 
a little quicker that one of their number, E. E. Brown, has 
been called to fill what is now the most distinguished post 
known to American schoolmen, namely, that of U. S. Com- 
missioner of Education, just vacated by our greatest leader, 

*DeGarmo's name should be added to this list. Editor. 




Dr. William T. Harris ; while another, Frank G. Blair, is now 
Superintendent of Public Education in the State of Illinois. 

The old order changes and with it the needs of yesterday. 
Now we have high schools everywhere and there are many in- 
stitutions of higher learning, at the head of which stands the 
great University of Illinois, now presided over by one of Nor- 
mal's most distinguished sons. Other Normal schools have 
been establishd and new agencies for the training of teachers 
have been founded in the universities. With these new con- 
ditions there will arise new duties, new opportunities for our 
alma mater. But the work of the first fifty years has the se- 
curity of history. The energy of the past, consecrated to the 
good of education by its conscience and moral strength, has 
done its work, and has exerted an influence upon education in 
State and nation that has been healthful, stimulating, and al- 
ways uplifting. When the history of the influence of the 
Normal for its next half century is written, there may be a 
record of greater usefulness to the cause of education than can 
now be written, but we may be assured that in singleness of 
aim, in steadfastness of purpose, in consecration to duty, as 
duty was revealed, and in genial efficiency in execution, the 
faculty and the boys and girls of old, tho they may be emu- 
lated, can hardly be surpassed. 


THE I. s. N. U. CLUBS 



In 1888 I was four years removed from my Normal stu- 
dent life and began to see the picture in a little clearer per- 
spective than formerly. The students of the old Normal carry 
something away with them they cannot lose. 

I am not acquainted with the present faculty and, therefore, 
cannot help but feel sorry for the students of this generation 
because they are denied the privilege of coming in contact with 
the sterling qualities of the faculty of the eighties. Dr. Hew- 
ett, the man with big heels, big head and big heart, large in 
every way except size; Professor Metcalf, whose criticisms 
always closed like a church service with a benediction ; whose 
influence upon us was like sunshine and spring showers; Dr. 
Cook, whom we perhaps remember best because he so many 
times gave us the worst of it; Dr. James, that clear-headed, 
vigorous scholar who taught as one having authority ; Mother 
Haynie, who scared me almost to death at first but who, when 
we became acquainted, liked me better and I feared her less. 

I could go on and name the whole list, every one of whom 
made an indelible impression upon the students coming within 
their influence. Everyone who went out from the old Normal 
took something of these noble men and women with him. This, 
I am sure, was the Genesis of The Chicago Club. It was the 
love for the old school which has followed us all, even until 


If I remember correctly, the particular occasion which called 
for the meeting of May 5, 1888, was the National Teachers' 
Convention which was to be held in Chicago. I remember 
prior to this convention that we first passed the word around 
to as many Normalites as we could reach, that this meeting 
was to be held, and I believe the discussion was, how we 
could get the largest number of the Normal crowd together. 
We met at Lincoln Park. We purchased a large part of the 
supplies of a nearby restaurant, spread them out on the lawn 
and enjoyed a splendid afternoon. The Normal Club was 
then an established fact. I believe I was elected its first presi- 
dent and Cora A. Lurton (now Mrs. Warrick, of Nurnberg, 
Germany,) was the first secretary. Hon. and Mrs. R. A. 
Childs were always very loyal to the club, as were also Wm. 
Burry, Mrs. Elizabeth Ross Cook, Mr. and Mrs. E. R. Boyer, 
Mr. and Mrs. John L. Hall, Wm. Duff Haynie, Mr. and Mrs. 
Oscar L. McMurry, H. P. and M. P. Metcalf, O. J. Milliken, 
the Parrs all of them, Dr. Sarah Hackett Stevenson, Mr. and 
Mrs. John H. Tear, Mr. and Mrs. O. R. Trowbridge, Mr. and 
Mrs. John M. Wayman, and many others. 

Surely men and women like these could not fail to make a 
club. The main purpose of the club then, as I presume it is 
now, was to renew acquaintances and to keep green the mem- 
ory of the old school. 


The records show that following closely after this initial 
meeting there was a meeting held at the Grand Pacific Hotel 
for the purpose of definitely organizing the proposed club, and 
it required two more meetings during the summer and fall to 
perfect the organization, and these were followed in the suc- 
ceeding January by a luncheon and social meeting at the home 
of J. H. and E. F. Parr. At this meeting Prof. John W. Cook 
and Miss Flora Pennell of the Normal faculty were present, 
and "The club was favored by a few informal remarks by 
Professor Cook and Professor Cox" (quoted from the min- 
utes). I presume the Professor Cox mentioned was Henry 
C. Cox, still a principal in the Chicago schools and I think the 
oldest in point of service of a dozen or more Normalites oc- 
cupying the position of principal in the city. 


This meeting in a way established the form that annual 
meetings have since taken. Sometimes the spread has been 
more pretentious, in name at least, and the program more ex- 
tensive. There have been banquets at noted hotels and sup- 
pers at Hull House and teas in club rooms; there have been 
programs with set speeches and evenings of comic debate; 
there have been memorials for revered teachers, passed to their 
reward, and times of acclaim for the honored living; but in 
all these varying programs there has been the looking back to 
the old school with reminiscent mind and softened heart ; there 
has been the renewing of old friendships, and the making of 
lasting new ones on the basis of a common interest, the love 
of the old school. 

The club is not limited to graduates of the Normal Univer- 
sity, nor to residents of Chicago, tho it is called the Chicago 
Club. The constitution provides that anyone who has been 
connected with The School as student or teacher may be a 
member, but custom has invited to membership all who have 
been connected with the school in any way, and all territory 
convenient to Chicago is considered the fair field of the club. 

Mention is made in the report of the fourth meeting, that 
no business was transacted, while the report of the fifth meet- 
ing held about four months later makes no mention of eating, 
but deals chiefly with business, mention being made of one 
speech. The later custom has been to have a banquet with nu- 
merous toasts following, in which the old Normal has always 
been well represented ; the business being conducted as briefly 
as possible. 

Since the organization of our club there was one year in 
which there was no meeting. That was probably due to the 
excessive activity of the club during the previous year, 1897, 
when there were three general meetings. That was the fortieth 
anniversary of the founding of the Normal School, and we 
were so ambitious as to talk of celebrating the event in grand 
style in Chicago and it was to plan for that celebration that the 
first meeting was called. We then learned that a movement 
had been begun at Normal for a celebration there. The Chi- 
cago Club then united with the forces at Normal to push their 
celebration and to this end held two more meetings, the last 
being the annual banquet, which was the largest meeting the 
club has ever held. 

It was in the announcement of the first meeting of this year 
that Prof. Edmund J. James, then president of the club, gave 


a definition of "Normalite" which broadened the scope of that 
term somewhat, as suggested in a previous paragraph. This 
is his definition : 

"I may say right here that the word Normalite is of un- 
common gender and includes not only all of the old boys and 
girls (so far as there are any of the latter category), but also 
their wives and husbands as well perhaps also their children." 

The club has grown gradually from about thirty charter 
members to several hundred. The last printed list contained 
four hundred twenty-six names, and the list now in press, to 
be issued soon will contain more than two hundred additional 

We believe the Chicago Club of the I.S.N.U. has done its 
work well and we predict for it a future career no less bright 
and helpful than its past. The club always extends a hearty 
welcome to newcomers in the city. 


CLASS OF 1888 

At the Asbury Park, N. J., meeting of the National Edu- 
cational Association in July, 1905, three "old Normalites" en- 
gaged in a conversation. These men were R. R. Reeder, '83, 
W. J. Morrison, '88, and Grant Karr, 1891. To those who 
knew these men, or any of them, it will be no surprise to learn 
that the outcome of this conversation was a decision to estab- 
lish an I.S.N.U. Club in New York City. The plan, which 
these men agreed on and which was subsequently adopted, in- 
cluded in the membership not only the alumni and former 
students of the I.S.N.U., but also all enthusiastic and loyal 
former residents of Bloomington and Normal. At present the 
scope of the club includes only an annual reunion and banquet 
in May or June. 

At the meeting in 1905, twenty-four members were pres- 
ent. The present list is fifty-three. A meeting was held on 
May 4, 1907, at the New Grand Hotel. The officers for 1906- 
07 are : President, Dr. George W. Riley, '92 ; Vice-President, 
Dr. Grant Karr, '91 ; Sec.-Treas., William J. Morrison, '88, 
address 319 Stratford Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. 


The present membership in the vicinity of New York in- 
cludes : Dr. and Mrs. Frank M. McMurry, of Teachers' Col- 
lege, Columbia University; Dr. and Mrs. R. R. Reeder, "The 
Orphanage," Hastings-on-the-Hudson ; Dr. and Mrs. George 
W. Riley; Dr. and Mrs. Cheesman A. Herrick, of Philadel- 
phia; Dr. and Mrs. Jas. J. Shepperd, of the High School of 
Commerce; Grant Karr, New York Training School for 
Teachers; Charles C. Wilson, Jersey City, N. J. ; Wm. S. 
Mills, Prin. of Public School No. 75, Brooklyn, and former 
principal of the Grammar School in the I.S.N.U. ; Mr. and 
Mrs. Jas. F. Wilson, Stuyvesant High School, N. Y. ; Mr. and 
Mrs. Albert S. Hanna, Boys' High School, Brooklyn; Mr. 
and Mrs. Charles M. Stebbins, Boys' High School, Brooklyn ; 
Prof, and Mrs. James Harvey Robinson, Columbia University; 
Robert H. Elder, Assistant District Attorney, Brooklyn; Dr. 
and Mrs. Fred Baker; Frank and Flora Campbell; Dr. and 
Mrs. Frederick E. Cook ; Rachel Crothers, playwright, author 
of The Three of Us, played by Carlotta Nillson for the entire 
season and said to be one of the best plays in New York ; Mr. 
and Mrs. W. H. Stillhamer; Clark Griffith, manager of the 
American baseball team of New York ; Mr. and Mrs. Vernon 
M. Holder; Mr. and Mrs. E. P. Fairchild; Miss Lura Eye- 
stone and Miss Berton, Teachers' College ; Mr. and Mrs. John 
L. Hall ; Dr. and Mrs. J. E. Welch ; Prof, and Mrs. Almeron 
W. Smith, Principal of Public School No. 32, Brooklyn ; Mr. 
and Mrs. H. W. Phelps, Sara and Esther Hart, Delia V. 
Chapman, Mr. and Mrs. Wm. J. Morrison, Brooklyn Training 
School for Teachers ; Mr. and Mrs. Fred R. McMurry. 





Old Plank Walk 

The story of the old Normal's glories is in other hands, 
while I am to tell of one of those prosaic accessories, the old 
plank walk. But upon this the very life and comfort of Nor- 
mal's representatives largely depended. Tho fully appreciat- 
ive of the difficulty of making such a subject readable, I never- 
theless, as in days of old, "mind the teacher," and venture the 
attempt for "Fools rush in where angels fear to tread." 

"If memory favors me, 
I will a tale unfold, whose lightest word 
Would harrow up thy soul." 

Bloomington in the early sixties was an unpretentious town 
of possibly ten thousand inhabitants. Normal was its nearest 
neighbor, and distant two miles. It consisted of the University 
building, a few boarding houses, and some half dozen private 
residences, the McCambridges, Fells, Diedrichs, Cases, Bake- 
wells, Fyffes, Edwards, Metcalfs, and Hewetts being among 
those best remembered. Between these two places lay prairie, 
creek, railroad, wagon road, trees, brambles, flowers and all 
their accompanying associates. Never in any spot did Illinois' 
reputation for rich, black soil, deep and greasy, reach a higher 
standard than along the main road from Bloomington to 
Normal. Those were days when no method of public trans- 
portation existed between these two points, not even "Dave 
Law's carriage, propelled by steam dummies" had appeared. 

Lads and lasses who would go to Normal U. 
All must with measured tread the dirt road pursue. 
When came chill November's blasts and deluge poured 
On the rich black earth, we cried, a board, a board. 

Three maidens, with benevolent spirit blest; 
Heeded the cry of those who had been distrest. 
Their names should be emblazoned in Normal Hall, 
For they gathered the sheckels and issued the call. 


To Normal's boys who could use hammer and saw, 
To meet on Saturday and observe the law 
Laid down by the maidens, to build a plank walk 
With two boards to a span, so all must "walk chalk." 

Other stipulations involved in the case, 

Named by the boys, or they'd not enter the race, 

Were "the planks for the walk must be known as green 

So when sun-dried, the distance the two towns between 

Would be divided in half, to give of time more, 
To practice phonetics and hearse love lore" 
Cracks, between planks, were by agreement narrow, 
So lover's tales their neighbors would not harrow. 

Historic the day when the hammer and saw 
Completed the plank walk according to law. 
A feast fit for the gods was spread out of door, 
And workers bid to sample the dishes galore. 

The setting sun stretched his celestial rays of light 
Across the level landscape; 'twas sober-liveried night 
When the valiant workers homeward plodded their way 
Triumphant in the hearts of the maidens, in work of the day. 

The steep, where fame's proud temple shines, is hard to climb, 
Flowers are born to blush unseen for lack of time, 
But Pike, Dunn, and Raymond of plank-walk fame, 
Are blazoned in glory in history's name. 

But how can I now from Pegasus descend 
And bring this doggerel to respectable end? 
Only on bended knee, before the great Muse, 
Pray for foregiveness and past abuse. 

The girls and boys of the sixties were quite a little nearer 
the pioneer period than those who now frequent Normal Halls, 
and, like their parents, had helped hew the way to comfort 
and improvement. Nothing daunted them, they feared noth- 
ing, and each home was a manual training school. 

Night and day this old walk received innumerable repre- 
sentatives of common leisure. Side by side, walked; thigh 
to thigh sat scholar, athlete and Bohemian in a guild of fellow- 
ship, for better than the dusty ruts of learning, no fears to 
beat away, no strife to heal, the past unsighed for and the 
future sure, learning a mutual respect and an appreciation 
of life which could not be gathered from the contemplation of 
a cuneiform inscription, or a journey into the wastes of spher- 
ical trigonometry. 


Of all the beautiful pictures 

That hang on memory's wall, 
Are those of the lads and lasses 

Roguish Cupid did enthrall 

As they strolled on the walk immortal 
Made by story, a road of much fame, 

And by the arts and crafts practiced 
Played "catch hearts" to a winning game. 

"One tied her bonnet under her chin 
And tied a young man's heart within." 

Like Hebe in her ruddiest hour 
Another with divining eyes did win. 

Forty years is not a long term in the life of a nation ; nei- 
ther is it in the life of a city, but it well-nigh spans the useful 
activities of an individual. Life's school is nearly over for 
some of us. To some it has been easy ; to some it is still hard. 
Some of us are unfortunate enough to have to learn our les- 
sons over and over again. But to all of us there is a home- 
coming at night when the sun sets. And when as little simple 
children we join the ever swelling home-coming, shall we be 
greeted by our sweet smiling mother of old ? 

Burial of Section A. 

It had been the annual custom of allowing Section A a 
day in May to put the finishing touches on their themes. This 
was called "Theme Day." This gave an occasion for Section C 
to drape the seats of the seniors signifying their school death. 

In the spring of '83, Section C decided to depart from the 
usual custom and have a regular funeral. When "Theme 
Day" dawned, the people of Bloomington and Normal saw 
the towns placarded with the following notice : 


Funeral services on the 

University Campus 
At 4 o'clock P. M. today." 

Promptly at four a procession of veiled men and women 
dressed in black, led by O. J. Milliken, the priest, six pall-bear- 
ers carrying a coffin, and a brass band with muffled drums, 
filed out of room eleven, thru the assembly hall, down to the 
campus. The coffin contained a dummy with a negro false 
face, and across the lid was printed in large white letters 


"Our Darling." During the previous hour a grave had been 
dug about four hundred feet north of the University. As the 
procession solemnly emerged from the University it was 
greeted with a throng of possibly five thousand spectators who 
had gathered to see the fun. Meanwhile Section A, under 
the leadership of John L. Hall, Fred Smedley, and Harry 
Hammers, armed with clubs, came marching from the west 
and arrived at the scene just as the coffin was being lowered 
and the priest was pronouncing the last benediction, "Dust to 
Dust, Ashes to Ashes, and Brains to Brains." W. R. Heath 
arose and said, "Let us all sing the 'Doxology/ ' Just then a 
club was thrown thru the drum. This was a signal for action 
and everybody acted. During the melee, the coffin was stolen 
and several of the participants had to be carried from the field 
on stretchers. Harmony was not restored until Section C 
gave a banquet to Section A, at which time everybody was 
forced to swallow his grievance. 

The Man in the Moon. 

About a quarter of a century ago, when the present 
I.S.N.U. was, so to speak, but half grown, there was published 
anonymously at the University a little booklet entitled The Man 
in the Moon which was evidently meant as a sort of gay and 
unrestrained tho harmless satire upon the customs and condi- 
tions then in vogue at our alma mater as viewed by some of 
the more daring and romantic among the students of that day. 

While nothing is revealed as to the number or identity of 
the writers participating in this unique venture, the booklet 
contains sufficient internal evidence to warrant the conclusion 
that it emanated from the student mind; furthermore, that 
"Noah kount Phd., etc." is a composite pseudonym for the au- 
thors of these frivolous and disconnected compositions as they 
could not have been the effusions of a single mind. Probably 
the etc. was meant to indicate diversity of authorship rather 
than the more obvious suggestion of diverse or additional 
scholastic decorations. 

Very great secrecy enveloped the enterprise from start to 
finish as it was considered an extremely hazardous undertak- 
ing. Of course, the secret was to a certain extent shared by 
one-third of the student body, it being estimated that some- 


thing like one hundred copies were sold by advance subscrip- 
tion, merely upon an oral statement of the name and character 
of the publication. This fact would seem to indicate that the 
authors must have been well-known and of good standing 
among their fellows. 

Much anxiety was felt by the more careful and conscien- 
tious among the friends of the conspirators, it is said, upon 
the attitude which the faculty might assume. Grave fears were 
entertained that the offense might be considered sufficient 
cause for expulsion. Indeed, it has been intimated that among 
the gentler sex it was seriously questioned whether it was not 
treasonable to own a copy. 

The faculty was equally reticent in regard to the matter. 
For while it was currently reported, upon what authority is 
not clearly known, that certain meetings of the faculty were 
devoted to discussion of the episode, it is not thought that the 
perpetrators were ever even so much as suitably admonished 
upon the subject. Whether this was due to the impenetrable 
mystery surounding the identity of the persons implicated in 
the plot, or to a feeling on the part of some that the whole 
matter should be considered as a joke and treated with digni- 
fied silence, is a question which for a long time was much 

Owing to the limited circulation it is believed that the au- 
thors could not have received as proceeds of the sales more 
than enough to meet the expenses of printing and binding. 

The inventors of this little bit of entertaining frivolity need 
not be named. Those for whom this sketch is intended will 
are now enrolled in a higher school, and maybe one at least 
of the frolicsome young authors has gone to his long home. 

Working the Roads . 

In the spring of 1877, about twenty-five of the boys were 
notified by the local authorities to work the usual two days on 
the roads. A meeting of the students interested in the matter 
was held in Dr. Sewell's room, and the subject was thoroly 
discussed. It was decided that they should turn out in a body, 
each one taking three others to work on his time, thus putting 
in the required two days in half a day. A committee of five, 
consisting of Messrs. Gillan, Berkstresser, Faulkner, Boyer, 
and Bainum, was appointed to make necessary arrangements 


for the particulars of the plan. The committee drew up a code 
of regulations which all agreed to observe, to the effect that: 

1. All were to come to school at the usual time the next 
morning, and remain until after devotional exercises and spell- 
ing, and when the classes passed out, file down stairs, form in 
line in front of the building, and march to the scene of the 
day's labor. 

2. White shirts, collars, coats, and jewelry of any kind, 
were strictly forbidden to be worn. 

3. As far as practicable, pantaloons must be worn inside 
of boots. 

4. Each should be provided with whatever implement for 
digging he might be able to improvise. 

The next morning a unique and motley crowd assembled, 
bearing a great variety of implements, from a grubbing hoe to 
a garden rake and a fire shovel. Edward Faulkner was chosen 
captain, and the company, consisting of eighty members, was 
divided into squads of eight, each commanded by a sub-boss. 
Forming in line, they marched to the place designated by the 
roadmaster, just south of the iron bridge over Sugar Creek, 
on Main street. After working (?) about an hour, three of 
the "busy B's," Berkstresser, Bainum, and Burger, were sent 
to Bloomington to get a supply of liquid consolation, as the 
day was warm and the "work" thirst-provoking. Owing to 
the fact that the committee required so much time to "sample" 
the different varieties, it was near noon when they returned 
in company with a drayman and a barrel of cider. Sitting in 
the shade of the maples by the road side, the crowd, by this 
time augmented to one hundred, or more, soon emptied the 
barrel. The remainder of the program consisted in building 
a memorial mound of earth some six or eight feet high, in the 
middle of the road, making speeches, listening to vocal music 
by a colored man, who, passing by, was captured and urged to 
sing, altho he protested that he had not time to wait, and the 
final homeward march. A large stone was selected from the 
creek near the Chicago and Alton railroad, and taken thru 
the streets of Normal to the front of the city council's office, 
where it was planted by the sidewalk with appropriate cere- 
monies. In dedicating the stone as a memorial to the city 
council, Hoffman, Gillan, and Stephenson were called on for 
speeches, and each one of the audience contributed a fitting 
sentiment as he put in his spadeful or hoeful of earth. 


Two days later was commencement. By preconcerted ar- 
rangement, at the close of the exercises, the boys repaired to 
the west steps of the building, where, in a neat and appropriate 
speech, Mr. Edward Faulkner, in behalf of those who had 
worked on the road, presented the roadmaster with a hat, as 
a token of good feeling and respect, he having acted in the 
matter only in obedience to the legal direction of the city coun- 
cil, but having treated the boys in a most gentlemanly and 
generous manner. 

The Liberal Fight, 

In the fall of 1874, the following young men, who were 
then students of the State Normal University, organized a so- 
ciety, termed the "Liberal Club," which originally consisted of 
John Shearer, Samuel Wadsworth, L. B. Wood, Stephen 
Spear, Charles Howard, Christopher Stephenson, George Snell- 

ing, Asbury Crawford, McPherson, Hume, Adam 

Hoffman, and Geo. L. Hoffman, which was subsequently 
joined by W. C. Gemmill, S. B. Hursh, J. N. Hursh, Cyrus W. 

Picking, George Beaty, Albert Snare, Dorus Hatch, 

Brown, a Hindoo, Charles Schwer, Merriett, Tren- 

chard, and others. The objects were mutual improvement, and 
an impartial investigation, as near as might be, of such subjects 
as might be deemed beneficial and of common interest to the 
members of the club. Free scope was given to a proper discus- 
sion of any subject under consideration, each member feeling 
that his honest opinions could be frankly stated and his doubts 
exprest without restraint. No matter how diversified the opin- 
ions of the different members, each member and his opinions 
were to be treated with respect, whether upon questions of 
education, politics, science, morals, or religion. Hence the 
name, "Liberal Club;" To many, the name suggested that the 
club was antagonistic to orthodox religion, but this was pri- 
marily foreign to its object, although, incidentally, its members 
invaded the domain of orthodoxy, for opinions were freely 
exprest upon various phases of religion, its creeds, doctrines, 
and sects, as well as upon other topics of interest. The club 
work consisted in reading and commenting upon Tyndall's 
Belfast Address, Draper's Intellectual Development of Europe, 
Huxley, Darwin, Winshel on Evolution, Herbert Spencer, 
Butler's Analogy, Theodore Parker's Discourse on Religion, 


and other books of like character. Besides, essays were writ- 
ten by the members, and read and criticized by the club. 

All the members were liberally inclined in their religious 
views, and frequently gave expression to their religious senti- 
ments in the Wrightonian and Philadelphia!! Societies. Of 
this, the strict orthodox members of these Societies disap- 
proved, and especially those belonging to the Young Men's 
Christian Association; consequently, they arrayed themselves 
against the Liberal Club, and recognized its members as an- 
tagonistic to religion and its institutions, and endeavored to 
tolerate no exercises in the societies which tended to be at vari- 
ance with orthodox doctrine. The Liberals, acting on the de- 
fensive, claimed that the societies were secular institutions, and 
that there was no more impropriety in discussing theological 
subjects, in an honest and candid manner, than there was in 
treating other topics. This opposition to the Liberals brought 
about a zealous rivalry between the Liberals and their friends, 
and the Young Men's Christian Association and their sym- 

The strong opposition to the Liberals became clearly mani- 
fested in the societies after the Liberals had arranged to pre- 
pare a program for each society, which was to consist of 
exercises given by members of the Liberal Club alone. The 
proposition had been accepted by Mr. Drayton, president of 
the Philadelphian Society, and Josiah Hodge, president of the 
Wrightonian Society. This was in the fall of 1874 or 1875. 
Adam Hoffman, who was a member of the Liberal Club, suc- 
ceeded Mr. Hodge as president of the Wrightonian Society. 
It was during Hoffman's administration that the program pre- 
pared by the Liberals for the Wrightonian Society was given. 
For admitting this program, the president was censured by a 
majority vote of the society. This motion was made and sup- 
ported by members of the Young Men's Christian Association 
and others opposed to the Liberal Club. This motion called 
forth heated discussion for several evenings, and finally a mo- 
tion to strike the vote of censure from the record prevailed, 
without a dissenting voice. Some of those who supported the 
motion of censure, after due deliberation, concluded that they 
were hasty. The trouble in the Wrightonian Society was thus 
ended. The program prepared by the Liberals for the Phila- 
delphian Society, was given after some little opposition. No 
reasonable objection could be urged against the character of 
these programs. They were in every respect commendable 
and. worthy to be offered in the society halls. The opposition 


was to the privilege granted to the Liberals, rather than to the 
nature of their exercises. The leaders of the opposition to the 
Liberals were W. S. Mills, L. C. Dougherty, J. P. Hodge, 
James Ellis, B. F. Stocks, Kenyon, and others. 

The next contest took place in the Philadelphian Society at 
its spring election, when there were two candidates for presi- 
dent, viz. : Laybourn and Charles McMurry, the latter receiv- 
ing the support of the Liberals, altho he had no connection 
with them, and the former being the choice of the Young Men's 
Christian Association. There would have been no difficulty at 
this election had not Laybourn's supporters promulgated that 
the Liberals were supporting McMurry, and that McMurry 
must be defeated. This caused an issue to be made between the 
Liberals and the Young Men's Christian Association at this 
election. Both parties zealously engaged in securing voters 
and advocating their claims. On the day of election, when the 
result was announced, it was evident that Charles McMurry 
was elected, whereupon a few of Laybourn's ardent supporters 
charged fraud upon the judges, George Beaty, D. C. Tyler 
and Miss Mary Anderson, and, at the following meeting of 
the society, succeeded in carrying a motion for another elec- 
tion, without first duly investigating the election. This arbi- 
trary move was denounced as unjust and illegal by McMurry 's 
friends. The excitement was intense for several days. Special 
meetings were called for the purpose of determining the proper 
mode of proceeding for an investigation of the election, but no 
terms could be reached other than that there should be another 
election without further ceremony. The McMurry constitu- 
ents refused to yield their position. The strife was growing 
fiercer, day by day, and no compromise could be effected, until 
finally some of the members of the faculty saw proper and 
necessary to advise. Upon their suggestion that it would be 
best to consent to another election without further difficulty, 
the Liberals and McMurry's friends yielded, and another elec- 
tion was called. The excitement had risen to such a pitch that 
it interfered with the regular school work of those who were 
most interested. As soon as it was conceded that there would 
be another election, both factions at once proceeded to solicit 
members to pay their dues, so that they could vote. Before 
the close of the election, the number of voting members in the 
Philadelphian Society was more than doubled, and the election 
again resulted in favor of Charles McMurry. Both candidates 
were highly esteemed by the students, and either would have 
been satisfactory so far as they were individually concerned. 


But the fight was between the factions, rather than for their 
candidates. When McMurry's election was announced, a scene 
of wild excitement took place. After this election, all differ- 
ences were adjusted, and the waging factions ceased their hos- 
tilities toward each other, and it was generously conceded by 
the leaders in the fight that both parties were too rash, and 
acted imprudently. It is an event that will always be remem- 
bered by those who attended school during the period of the 
Liberal contest. Whatever the Liberal or the Orthodox may 
have said in the societies which was of sufficient force to call 
forth comment must at last have been of mutual benefit, either 
in tempering or strengthening both in their respective con- 

Illustrations of Early Times. 

One of our early peculiarities was the possession of ninety 
acres of land for a model farm, and the existence of the idea 
that agricultural chemistry, if no more, was to be taught in the 
institution. With the laudable desire to spread a little agri- 
cultural knowledge over as large a surface as possible, the 
board managed to secure a course of lectures on chemistry, 
with the intention of making, eventually, some kind of uni- 
versal application of the principles to the agricultural improve- 
ment of the State, thru the knowledge infused or injected into 
the Normal School. A lecturer was therefore employed, who 
gave us highly interesting discourses upon the principles of 
chemistry. He laid down the law at a galloping pace, took us 
below the crust of the earth and beyond the planetary bodies 
in a remarkably short time, pouring out knowledge at the rate 
of no one knows how many volumes per month. 

Had we all been short-hand reporters, and had we been 
given time to write out and study his information, it is quite 
probable we might have acquired some knowledge of the great 
science of chemistry, and might at some future day, when 
teaching in the rural districts, have given the world some bene- 
fit from the lightning calculations. But as we knew nothing 
of the tricks of short-hand writing, and were not even allowed 
to take notes, and had no breathing spells allowed for that pur- 
pose, it naturally happened that the old adage pertaining to 
things that go in at one ear and out at another had pertinent 
application. After a number of weeks of this treatment, some 


one, possibly one of our hardworking drill masters, with a 
weary experience of our general dullness, suggested that in all 
probability, the pupils were not fully appreciating the magnifi- 
cent ideas cast before their feeble understandings. But our re- 
markable lecturer, who fully understood his own teachings, 
believed he had been so careful in his statements, and had 
made his way so remarkably straight and plain that the school 
had certainly mastered the subject as far as he had progressed, 
and refused to believe there was any doubt upon the subject. 

It was then suggested that in order to test our knowledge, 
a written examination be sprung upon us without warning, 
and that the result would show our ignorance, tho it might 
not prove his failure to give us an opportunity to learn. The 
lecturer at once fell into the trap, if trap there was. We were 
provided with blank paper in the ordinary way, and a list of 
questions was propounded in the ordinary way. In his anxiety 
to prove our thoroness, he gave but a few simple questions. 
The latter were in many instances answered correctly, but as 
the pupils might have learned these points thru general sources 
of information, the real test was considered to be the answers 
to questions of a technical nature. These were generally so 
far above the pupil's comprehension that very little stationery 
was spoiled by any attempt at answering, and the paper, like 
our minds, came out of the ordeal as blank as before. One 
question I shall never forget, tho the proper answer has not 
been found in twenty years of extensive reading, "What is Al- 
lotropism?" Only three or four attempted to grapple with 
this terrible fiend. One believed it a system of medicine in op- 
position to homeopathy; one believed it a species of extinct 
mammalia ; and one did actually show, by his answer, that the 
word had been railroaded into some previous lecture. I shall 
never forget the expression of our lecturer's face as he read 
these answers which were to be taken as evidence of his ad- 
mirable system, and which gave proof so conclusive that the 
lecturer's platform was after that generally vacant during 
the early days of the Normal. 

Another theory was tested to the satisfaction of the school, 
but it never came to a full and final end in my time, and this 
was the idea that each and every person can be made a musi- 
cian, or a teacher of music. Some of the members of the State 
Board went so far as to refuse to believe a pupil should be al- 
lowed to graduate unless he was able to teach music and lead 


in singing. Prof. C. M. Cady, of Chicago, was employed, with 
strict instructions to spare no pains to prove the correctness of 
the theory of the existence of universal musical ability. He 
divided the school into four sections. "A" was made up of 
good singers, those who had good voices, and also could read 
music readily by sight. "B" included moderately well-in- 
formed singers, and those who were capable of being rapidly 
advanced. "C" comprised all with a natural ear for music; 
those whose voices needed training to fit them for a place in the 
upper classes. According to popular report, section "D" was 
made up of "birds that couldn't sing, and that could never be 
made to sing." This class was small, but desperate. It la- 
bored zealously to grasp the rudiments of the grand art, but its 
best efforts were failures, and it became, in the course of a 
year or so, the laughing stock of the entire school. Being an 
early and constant member of this class, I have a right to men- 
tion its woes and tribulations, and to observe that it finally 
graduated from the pursuit of knowledge under these difficul- 
ties, by rising in a body and leaving the hall when the music 
hour arrived, no permission being asked or given, it being 
tacitly conceded that the pet theory of universal musical train- 
ing had broken under the strain. 

Music and penmanship were to be supplemented by the 
elegant accomplishment of drawing, and we were engaged 
three hours each week in this delightful pastime. Our instruc- 
tor was a sedate Episcopal clergyman, whose home was at 
Springfield. He believed in training all the faculties, and was 
anxious we should acquire proper ideas of perspective, and 
lines, and shades, and shadows, and become experts in some 
one branch of this delightful art. He conceived the idea of 
teaching the construction of capital letters on a large scale, 
giving blackboard exercises to the whole school by sections, 
in hopes, I suppose, that we might some day compete with sign 
painters. I remember that when his class was examined at the 
close of the winter term in 1860, our beloved professor re- 
quested section "C" to give an illustration of the method of 
constructing the letter "E." History compels me to remark 
that several of his pupils had attained such proficiency that 
they certainly were fully worthy of taking rank with second- 
class sign painters, and their capital letters were really almost 
capital specimens of art. 


Our Mr. Hewett was much given to bright sayings and 
happy retorts and on this occasion he perpetrated one of his 
very best. Passing in review in front of the long blackboard 
in company with our professor, he quietly remarked: "Sec- 
tion C has performed today with great ease." (E's.) Our 
quiet teacher, not given to wit and humor, agreed with a gentle 
laugh, and thru his mind there galloped no idea of the pe- 
culiar humor of the remark. During the evening of that day, 
at a social gathering of teachers and pupils, someone explained 
to our drawing master, with not a little difficulty, the real point 
of Mr. Hewett's little joke. When he thoroly took in the situ- 
ation, his joy and gratification knew no bounds. "Section 'C' 
performed with great E's" he repeated over and over again, 
and seemed at last to fully realize that something truly good 
had actually been said. 

If any have never heard of the great and good Professor 
Washington Irving Vescellius, or the great American card 
writer, they would thank me for the information that he was 
the first "professor" employed in the Normal University. Be- 
fore his time, down to a somewhat later date, all our instruc- 
tors were teachers, and they were unsparing in ridiculing the 
ordinary professors of the State. How the title ever took root 
here, after our experience with the great Vescellius, passes my 
humble comprehension. This remarkable professor gave gen- 
eral writing lessons to the whole school, much after the fashion 
of the agricultural chemistry class. Under his tuition, all the 
students were to be brought to the highest style of penman- 
ship, and after graduation, were to be prepared to compete 
with other American card writers, and might be supposed 
capable of conducting an evening writing school. This ac- 
complishment, when added like a mansard roof to the ability 
to teach music, would effectually dispense with the traveling 
professor, whose cards displaying impossible doves and eagles 
are hung up in the postoffices and other public resorts, and 
with the above-mentioned musical accomplishment, render 
writing and singing teachers extinct races, only to be met with 
in the lightest of light literature of the day. Professor Wash- 
ington Irving Vescellius was considerably inflated by the pro- 
motion thus accorded to his merit, gave his whole soul to the 
work, and delighted himself and the school by the most bril- 
liant blackboard exercises. Upon one unfortunate occasion he 
told the school the lesson of the day was to be the "shyro- 


graphic curve," and the general subject of "shyrography." I 
believe the gentleman wondered why this particular lesson 
proved so amusing to the school, and that he believed himself 
a much injured person, when the faculty soon after dispensed 
with his further services. 

The Eclipse of the Moon. 

In the fall of 1874, on a certain Saturday evening, a total 
eclipse of the moon was advertised. The performance was to 
begin at one o'clock Sunday morning. After society meeting, 
those who were members of the "seventh hour class" strolled 
off in groups, two in a group, or whiled away the blissful mo- 
ments discussing the critic's report, or the general topic of 
spelling ; feeling all the while that eclipses were a grand, good 
blessing to those who found it difficult to frame excuses for 
occupying the parlor late at night and burning so much of the 
landlady's kerosene. The strictly steady ones went to bed; 
for, truth to tell, many of them had not heard that there was 
going to be an eclipse. A few boys, however, determined to 
"raise a racket" worthy of the occasion. Gathering about 
forty on the east side, they crossed the University campus to 
the west side, where were a large number of boys, "batching" 
and in clubs. Most of them were asleep. Collecting about the 
houses, the crowd would make night hideous until those within 
were prevailed upon to join the party. Re-crossing the 
ground, with numbers doubled, they reached the club house, 
popularly known as "Saint's Rest," next door to Dr. Hewett's 
residence, and quieter measures at first were resorted to in 
order to raise the boys, who were chiefly of the strictly cir- 
cumspect sort. A committee of two or three went to each 
room, but some of those within, probably filled with visions of 
cruel hazing, resolutely refused to admit the callers. In vain 
the explanation was made that the intention was only to raise 
as large a crowd as possible, call out one of the professors and 
get him to "talk eclipse." One burly, broad-shouldered fel- 
low displayed violent symptoms of becoming unpleasantly 
pugilistic. All but two or three, however, yielded at last, and 
by this time the eclipse was coming on. 

As to which one of the faculty should be called out, was 
the next question. Edwards wouldn't do. He would prob- 
ably take it amiss. So thought several of the leaders of the 


party who did not happen to be on the most amicable terms 
with the president. "Doc" (Sewall) was just the man, but he 
was not at home. Professor Hewett was selected as the vic- 
tim. The company of about one hundred ranged along the 
street in front of the professor's house. A committee of three 
"waited on him" by vigorously ringing the door-bell until he 
was wakened. It would seriously impair the writer's reputa- 
tion as a truthful historian to say that Dr. Hewett was in full 
dress when he appeared at the door to inquire, "W 'hat's the 
matter?" With a word of explanation from the boys, he took 
in the situation in a moment. Said he had returned late in 
the evening from a trip by rail, and too weary and sleepy to 
sit up till the time of the eclipse, had gone to bed, but thanked 
the boys kindly for waking him. Then, putting on wraps, he 
came out, and for more than an hour entertained and in- 
structed us with explanations and facts regarding the heavenly 
bodies. Altogether it was probably the best remembered lec- 
ture on astronomy that any of those who heard it listened to 
during their course in school. 

The "Stolen" Record. 

Perhaps there never was a time in the history of the Phila- 
delphian and Wrightonian Societies when rivalry took on a 
more intense feeling than it did in 1889-1890. After the lapse 
of years the episode that started the trouble seems far less im- 
portant than it once did, but it would be difficult to exaggerate 
the bitterness of the feeling that existed at the time. Friend- 
ships close and intimate were strained to the breaking point, 
charges and counter-charges filled the air for weeks, numerous 
meetings were held, resolutions were passed, lawyers were 
consulted, and it seemed for a time as if the courts would have 
to pass upon the weighty questions involved. In the end 
temperate counsel suggested a compromise, which tho not al- 
together satisfactory to either side, seemed to relieve the ten- 
sion, and make it possible for each of the contending parties 
to withdraw more or less gracefully from the stern struggle 
"for a principle." 

Just what it was all about perhaps few of those most 
actively involved in the controversy could state at this time, 
but the writer of this has special reason to be familiar with the 
facts. An examination of the record of the contest would 


show that the essay was the occasion of all the trouble. On 
the night of the contest it was announced that the judges had 
decided in favor of the Wrightonian essayist, and as every- 
body agreed that there was little to choose between the two 
essays, the decision would never have been questioned had not 
one of the two judges from Bloomington the editor of the 
Pantagraph disclosed to a Philadelphia!! on the day follow- 
ing the contest his wonderment over the announcement. On 
the way home from the contest these two judges had discussed 
the numbers, and it developed that both of them had selected 
the Philadelphian essayist as the winner. As this meant two 
votes out of three, neither judge could understand why the an- 
nouncement had indicated a victory for the Wrightonian rep- 
resentative. It finally dawned upon the puzzled editor that he 
had made a curious blunder. The name of the Philadelphian 
essayist was Wright, a name which of course served also as 
the commonly used brief designation of the Wrightonian So- 
ciety. The judge explained his error by stating that in pre- 
sumably voting for Miss Wright, he had unwittingly recorded 
the higher grade against the abbreviation "Wright,"' which 
gave the decision to Miss W.'s opponent. As soon as these 
statements became public the Philadelphia leaders bestirred 
themselves. It was decided that with the signed statement of 
the editor-judge formally presented to the two societies, de- 
mand should be made upon the joint secretary to correct the 
records. The Wrightonians on the other hand declared that 
a decision once made could not be changed by any subsequent 
statement of a judge. "Stare decisis" was their slogan. Not a 
few of them were inclined to look upon the editor's statement 
as an afterthought. The Philadelphian leaders decided that if 
the joint secretary would incorporate the corrected decision in 
the book that would settle the matter as no one else had any 
authority to enter the records. Just about this time a new joint 
secretary a Wrightonian was elected, and this complicated 
matters. The Philadelphians claiming that the record of the 
contest should be made only by the joint secretary in office at 
the time of the contest insisted that the book should remain 
in the custody of the former joint secretary who was a Phila- 
delphian until all the records of her term of service were 
duly entered. To both sides the possession of the joint records 
was the all important thing. By a clever ruse the Phila- 
delphian secretary was induced to give the books into the 
hands of "the enemy." The Wrightonians had thus won a 
strong tactical point. Then it was that the Philadelphians be- 

OF m 


gan to consult lawyers as to possible means of getting posses- 
sion again of the "stolen records." Matters were getting 
exciting, rumors of the appearance of constables, and the 
strong probability of lawsuits began to fill the air. Mutual 
agreement, however, avoided these possibilities, and argument 
and counsel between the opposing leaders took up much time 
for many weeks. The school was divided into two hostile 
camps. The winter term went by with no cessation of the 
frenzied discussion. Peaceful souls there were in both socie- 
ties who sought to have the matter dropped, but the leaders 
were in deadly earnest and would listen to no gentle counsel. 
If they were to meet together now a hearty laugh all round 
would greet any mention of the "great fight." Not so then! 
Grim determination was in the heart of each stern disputant 
and the fight "for a principle" must go on until it was settled 
right. But even the most unyielding combatant in time grows 
weary of the fray. As the months past by the suggestion of 
a compromise met more friendly reception, and before the 
close of the spring term it was formally and finally agreed that 
the point given for the essay should count for the Wrightoni- 
ans, but that there should be entered on the records a state- 
ment which should make it clear that one of the two judges 
whose votes had been given to the Wrightonian essayist had 
really intended to vote for the Philadelphian representative 
but had blundered in recording his marks. Fortunately the 
outcome of the contest was unaffected by the compromise as 
the Philadelphians tho losing the contest were still the winners 
by 4 to 3. 


The Spaulding Glue Incident 

Back in 1859 in the Normal School were two young men 
about twenty-one, both members of Section G. They were 
fairly good students and as fairly full of mischief, particu- 
larly the prime factors in this episode. One of them, Ed Pike, 
now E. M. Pike of Chenoa, 111., was a young athlete possessed 
of a bunch or tuft of coarse bristly hair protruding from his 
chin, which he was vainly nursing into whiskers, to the envy 
of his classmate, J. D. Straight. 

One day Straight, noticing Pike's prospective whiskers with 
envious favor, asked him what he did to make them grow so 


luxuriantly, and wished he could have some like them. Pike, 
thinking him in jest, replied that he used Spaulding's glue and 
that it would draw out the whiskers of anyone who applied 
it faithfully. Straight, however, was not inclined to take this 
as a joke ; if there was any virtue in it he might as well have 
the benefit of it as Pike. He inquired of Pike the cost, where 
obtained, mode of application, length of treatment, possible 
results, etc., regarding all of which Pike gave his professional 

Matters were now assuming serious shape. Pike could 
scent fun ahead but had to have help to carry it out, so he 
went to Frank Philbrook, also of Section G, with whom 
Straight was rooming in Bloomington, and to him unfolded 
the situation and asked cooperation. Philbrook had an hon- 
est, open, clean countenance, that carried innocent conviction 
along sober lines, but mirthfulness lurked behind it all- 
While plans were being formulated at Straight's room, 
Straight came in and the question of treatment incidentally 
came up. Philbrook said he believed it would draw his 
whiskers out too and talked of trying it. Straight said, "I 
will commence any time I can get the glue, but I haven't the 
price" (which was 2$c a bottle). Pike offered to loan the 
quarter so that Straight might start at once and get ahead of 
Philbrook. The glue was obtained. Philbrook was appointed 
physician-in-chief as well as trained nurse. Bedtime came. 
Pike stayed with Philbrook and Straight to give instructions 
and to see that no mistake was made in application. The glue 
was poured on a cloth and bound tightly around Straight's 
chin, up the sides of his face, and tied on top of his head, in 
which condition he retired to his downy couch, "perchance to 

Pike and Philbrook also retired, but down the back stairs, 
out into an alley where they leaned against a pile of cord wood 
and laughed themselves to exhaustion. Then Pike went home 
and Philbrook went back as a bed fellow of Straight. Pike 
suggested to Philbrook that he could not control himself from 
laughter and would better go home with him, but a second 
thought showed this would not do, for Straight migh become 
suspicious. Next morning Pike and Philbrook came together 
but Straight was absent from the meeting. A report from the 
medical chief was that his patient had passed a restless night, 
by reason of the glue drying on his face, which caused a severe 
itching (which the physician-in-chief declared was a good 


omen ) , that the glue was really doing the business, and that at 
this point the treatment was perfectly satisfactory to the pa- 

The treatment continued for six consecutive nights, but on 
the last night Straight demurred as he said he had heard and 
seen things which appeared to him to prove that the whole 
thing was a humbug. Pike told him if he didn't want his 
whiskers drawn out to quit, just when the remedy was doing 
the most good. Straight replied, "That is just what it is do- 
ing, drawing out the few I have." This was a fact. He was 
asked what he had seen or heard that made him doubtful- He 
had seen the girls pass their hands over their faces with a 
downward stroke over their chins, a la Washington Irving Ves- 
celius' "Shyrographic curves," when they passed Pike in the 
schoolroom and elsewhere. He had also received anonymous 
letters thru the Normal postoffice saying that Pike's remedy 
was no good. Also from the same source had come a package 
of dough made from bread crumbs which was said to be much 
better than Pike's remedy at half the cost and annoyance. In 
short, he just believed that Philbrook and Pike were playing 
him for a sucker. Pike resorted to what little biblical lore he 
had obtained at Sunday school and among the most persuasive 
arguments presented was one to the effect that "he that en- 
dureth to the end" shall have beautiful, glossy, luxuriant 
whiskers. With such forceful argument as this, Straight re- 
luctantly consented to another application of the remedy, 
altho at this particular period his faith in Pike and Philbrook 
was mixed with doubt. 

Next day being Saturday, the whole scheme was exposed 
and was the earnest talk of the town. All wore broad smiles 
even Straight himself who was in a brown study how to get 
even with his tormentors. It had been caught up by the fac- 
ulty. Professor Potter, under whom Pike, Philbrook, and 
Straight were being led thru the mazes of Mulligan's gram- 
mar was seen to wear a sardonic smile, Professor Hewett neg- 
lected to locate the mouth of the Amazon river correctly, Pro- 
fessor Moore forgot to give the full quota of zeroes in the 
algebra class, Professor Sewell with more than special em- 
phasis said "I declare," and even sedate President Hovey 
standing in a reflective attitude with his arms folded on the 
platform overlooking the school, was contemplating the 
Spaulding glue case in place of attending to legitimate busi- 
ness as he should have done. 


At this time the whole school was on Straight's side for he 
had told them the whole thing truthfully and. in detail. He 
took the whole thing philosophically, but was not above seek- 
ing revenge on his tormentors. A meeting of the students was 
called in which the seniors took the initiative, and the consensus 
of opinion was that Pike and Philbrook should be arrested and 
tried for malpractice under the statute of fraud. 

The judge was Ed Waite; the prosecuting attorney was 
Jehu Little, the Philadelphian orator; Pike's attorney was 
Aaron Gove, the Wrightonian orator. A jury of twelve young 
ladies was empaneled and sworn in by His Honor, Judge 
Waite. Court was opened in due form by the sheriff who, I 
think, was Gunn. Pike and Philbrook were brought in and 
placed on trial. 

The first witness was Straight, who gave the whole pro- 
ceeding minutely and truthfully and in doing so he had re- 
markable control of himself, so much that he did not crack a 
smile during all his testimony but the audience, which was 
large, took an hilarious view of the situation and, notwithstand- 
ing the warnings from the judge and the stentorian tones of 
the sheriff, it was anything but silence in that court. Straight's 
testimony was reenforced by expert witnesses tending to show 
that Spaulding's glue was not for the purpose of growing 
whiskers, but for the mending of old chairs, etc- 

Pike went on the stand in his own defense admitting all 
that Straight had said, also exonerating Philbrook from any 
criminal intent, as he was acting under and by advice of Pike. 
This move made a witness for the defense, a thing which 
helped Pike as Philbrook was the only one cognizant of the 
facts in the case. Philbrook, with his open, honest counte- 
nance, sober as a deacon, but mischief oozing thru every pore, 
was duly sworn by His Honor, Judge Waite, to tell as much 
truth as he knew, and took the stand. 

Pike's defense was that his remedy was all he claimed for 
it, and showed by Philbrook the results of each treatment. He 
began with a little fuzz of hair of downy nature which was 
the status of the whiskers of his patient at the start. First 
night's application, a little growth, and so on thru all the 
week's treatment, hairs of greater length after each application, 
and culminating in the result of the last treatment as shown 
by a hair some four feet long from a horse's tail, which evi- 
dence uncontradicted should have set Pike free. But not so. 
The jury brought in a verdict of guilty as alleged. 


Judge Waite ordered the prisoner to stand up and the sen- 
tence, that he should be fined a bushel of Baldwin apples and 
stand committed till the fine was fully paid, was duly past up- 
on Pike. 

Pike had anticipated conviction, as public sentiment was 
against him, and had the apples previously provided in an ad- 
joining room. He, in custody of the officers of the court, pro- 
duced the apples and passed them thru the audience, and he 
was discharged, thus ending, except in memory, one of the 
most humorous incidents of the good old Normal days. 

I might add that Pike and Straight were bosom friends 
ever after, made so, perhaps, by reason of this episode. They 
were classmates in school, went into the army in the same com- 
pany and mess, Co. A, 33d Infy., were in the same fight close 
together when Straight had his arm shot off and received other 
wounds. When they were discharged Straight was elected 
justice of the peace, and later county clerk and then re-elected 
and Pike was elected sheriff of McLean county and they had 
their offices together for several years. This same loyal com- 
radeship continued between them all their lives. 

One of our faculty, Ira Moore, was at times sarcastic and 
given to a testiness of temper that was not pleasant. One day 
as we returned from class-room, just after the professor had 
very plainly manifested some of his displeasure toward us, 
Miss Sallie M. Dunn said: 

"Dies irae; we know what we knew before; 

If you look for more irae, 
You'll get it from Ira Moore." 

The Illinois Horticultural Association visited the Normal 
early in the winter of 1858 and at a reception given the board 
of directors, one of their number replying to a toast, closed a 
brilliant piece of word painting extolling the school by saying : 
"I will propose a counter toast: 'Here is to the students of 
the Normal University, the Evergreens of our educational 
system.' ' 

President Hovey, with that readiness which was character- 
istic of him, rose and said: "With this amendment, I join 


you : 'The Normal Students ! Ever blooming, bright and fair, 
tho not evergreen!' " 

Late in the winter term of 1858 at the Assembly or Chapel 
room of the old Major's Hall, one evening there was a fare- 
well meeting of the faculty, students, and friends. We had a 
little program of songs, speeches, ice cream, etc. L. H. Hite 
was sitting in a little group of which Miss Lizzie Mitchell was 
one. Volunteer toasts were in order. One of our teachers of 
that time was Chauncy Nye. He and Hite were admirers of 
Miss Mitchell. There was a gentle, friendly rivalry. Miss 
Mitchell's ability and ambition as a student were well known. 
Nye arose and proposed a toast : "Miss Mitchell, a young lady 
talented and deserving; may she some day gain the height 
(Hite) of her ambition." The sentiment was cheered, with 
much laughter, and Hite was loudly called to reply, which he 
did, saying, "Miss Mitchell's friends will all join the senti- 
ment, and believe that height will ever be nigh (Nye)." With 
this came more applause, and quick as a flash, Dr. Edward R. 
Roe jumped to his feet and pointing toward the last speaker, 
said with that energetic emphasis of his : "That is what / call 
the height (Hite) of repartee!" This shot of the good old 
doctor closed, with much merriment, what was considered a 
magnificent, triple-double entendre. 



OF m 


This part contains separate lists of the alumni of the Normal and 
High School Departments of the Illinois State Normal University, of the 
regular Faculty, of the extra members of the Faculty for the Summer 
School, and of the Board of Education of the State of Illinois, each list 
separately indexed. 

After the name of each alumnus we have endeavored to state occupa- 
tion and present address, teaching record, and such other facts as may be 
of special interest. If the occupation is housekeeping it is usually not 

The members of the faculty are listed in the order of their appoint- 
ment. An effort was made to secure a brief sketch of the subsequent 
career of each together with present occupation and address. The names 
in these lists are indexed by number. 

Members of the State Board of Education are listed in the order of 
appointment with the address and occupation at that time. The present 
address has been added when known. 

This work is far from complete and doubtless contains many errors 
as it has been done, not by the regular office force, but by the coopera- 
tion of a dozen or more persons. Sufficient time was not allowed for the 
final editing and arranging of the material. 

A great many names in the following pages are designated as not hav- 
ing been heard from within a year. After having made every possible 
effort and exhausted all our resources we are unable to trace many of the 
alumni. As many as ten letters have been written in the effort to locate 
one person. It should be stated that in a number of cases we have reason 
to believe that we have correct addresses but we are unable to give com- 
plete biographical sketches because of failure to receive replies to our in- 
quiries. Every person who looks thru these pages and who can furnish 
any of the addresses now unknown to us is urged to send in the informa- 
tion. We wish also to have our attention called to any corrections and 
to any additional facts relating to any person named herein that should 
appear in future editions. We wish especially to state the particular 
branches or grade of school taught. We now have facilities for recording 
and preserving such information. 

Address all communications as follows: 

State Normal University, 
Normal, Illinois. 


* Deceased. 

t Not heard from within one year. 
St. Studied, or student at. 
t. Taug-ht, or teaching-, 
pres. President, 
supt. Superintendent, 
prin. Principal. 

tea. Teacher, 
pub.sch. Public school, 
elem.sch. Elementary school. 

h.s. High school, 
univ. University, 
pub. Published. 

m Married. 
In all cases where the name of the State is not given, Illinois is understood. 


CLASS OF 1860 

1. Sarah M. Dunn (Mrs. Strickler), 5117 Marion St., Germantown, 
Philadelphia, Pa. T. h. s., Peoria, i yr. ; same, Bloomington, iY 2 yrs. ; 
private sch., Peoria, 2j4 yrs. Married Walter Coffin Strickler, Aug. 19,. 

2. Elizabeth J. Mitchell (Mrs. Christian), 509 E. Front St., Bloom- 
ington. T. pub. sch., Bloomington, 2 yrs. ; same, Decatur, 2^2 yvs. Married 
Matthew L. Christian, Nov. 21, 1865. 

*3. Frances A. Peterson (Mrs. Gastman), died Feb. 27, 1863. T., 
I.S.N.U., 2 yrs.; h. s., Decatur, 6 mos. Married Enoch A. Gastman (See 
No. 5), July 25, 1862. 

*4. Mary Frances Washburn (Mrs. Hull), died Aug. 19, 1882. T., 
Model Sch., I.S.N.U., 1860-61. Married John Hull (See No. 9), April 3, 

5. Enoch A. Gastman, supt. pub. sch., Decatur. T. elem. sch., De- 
catur, 1860-61 ; prin. h. s., same, 1862-70; supt. pub. sch., same, 1862-1907; 
pres. Bd. of Man. James Millikin Univ., Decatur, 1906-07; member Bd. 
of Educ., I.S.N.U., 1871 ; pres., same, 1881-89, 1902 . Married Frances 
A. Peterson (See No. 3), July 25, 1862; m. Caroline S. Sargent, Aug. 24, 
1864; m. Belle Hobbs (See No. 356), Dec. 25, 1905. 

*6. Peter Harper, died May 30, 1887. T. rural sch., i yr. ; U. S. 
Army, 4 yrs. ; member Louisiana Legislature and parish judge. 

*7 Silas Hayes, died Feb. 3, 1907, 717 E. 27th St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
T. pub. sch., ElPaso, I yr. ; same, Fairview, I yr. ; rural sch., 8 yrs. Mar- 
ried Jane M. Cone, Nov. 14, 1861. 

*8. Joseph Gideon Howell, killed at Fort Donelson, Feb. 15, 1862. 
T., Model Sch., I.S.N.U., i yr. 

9. John Hull, 2009 State St., Milwaukee, Wis. 111. Wesleyan Univ., 
A.M., 1876; prin. pub. sch., Salem, 1 860-6 1 ; acting prof, math., I.S.N.U.,. 
1861-62; prin. h. s., Bloomington, 1862-64; member Bd. of Educ., Bloom- 
ington, 1866-69 ; supt. sch., McLean Co., 1869-75 > proi. math., S . I . S . N.U., 
Carbondale, 1875-83; supt, training dept., same, 1883-93; pres., same, 
1892-93 ; pres. State Normal Sch., River Falls, Wis., ' 1893-94 ', founded 
The Schoolmaster, 1868. Married Mary Frances Washburn (See No. 4), 
April 3, 1862; m. Ann Catherine Anderson, June 14, 1895, who died 
Nov. 3, 1903. 

*io. Edwin Philbrook, died Feb. 4, 1890. Served in U.S. Army, 
1861-65. T. sch. southern 111., 1869; same, Maroa, 1869-72; same, Sa- 
betha, Kan., 1872-79; same, h. s., Decatur, 1879-85. Married Ellen C. 
Pillsbury, May 9, 1871. 

CLASS OF 1861 

*ii. Sophie (Christ) Gill, died Nov., 1863. T. pub. sch., Greenview, 
i l /2 yrs. 

*I2. Amanda A. Noyes, died Feb. 7, 1864. T. pub. sch., Jackson- 
ville, 2 yrs. 


13. John Howard Burnham, contractor, Bloomington. Acting prin. 
Model Sch., I.S.N.U., summer, 1861 ; 2 winters, Harrington; ist Lt, 
Co. A, 33rd I. V. Inf.; supt. pub. sch., Bloomington, 1863-64; editor, 
Bloomington Daily Pantograph, 1865-67; director State Historical Society 
since organization, 1899; pub. Hist, of Bloomington and Normal, 1879. 
Married Almira S. Ives, Jan. 23, 1866. 

14. Harvey J. Button, grocer, 800 South St., Springfield, Mo. T., 
pub. sch., Cedar Co., Mo., 9 yrs ; contrib. one chap, to Hist, of 33rd 
111. Vol. Inf., in which regiment he served 4 yrs, 3^ mos. Married Louise V. 
Brinsden, Aug. 29, 1866. 

15. Aaron Gove, Denver, Colo. Adjutant 33rd I. V. Inf.; prin. pub. 
sch., Rutland, 2 yrs. ; same, Normal, 5 yrs. ; supt. pub. sch., Denver, Colo., 
1874-1904; edit. ///. Teacher. 

*i6. Moses I. Morgan, died, Cleveland, O., April 10, 1895. Enlisted 
1861-63; prin. 3rd Ward Sch., Peoria, 1863-64; in army again, 1864-66. 

*i7. Henry B. Norton, died June 22, 1885. T. Model Sch., i term; 
Warsaw, 1862-63; supt. sch., Ogle Co., 1864-65; State Normal Sch., Em- 
poria, Kan., 1865-70, 1873-75 ; San Jose, Cal., Normal, 1876. 

18. Peleg Remington Walker, supt. pub. sch., 716 N. Church St., 
Rockford. Served in army, 1862-65, promoted from private to ist Lt. and 
in command of company for more than a year ; t. pub. sch., Creston, 1861- 
62; prin., same, 1865-72; same, Rochelle, 1872-84; supt. pub. sch., Rock- 
ford, 1884; member Bd. of Educ., I.S.N.U., 1883. Married Martha E. 
Webb, Aug. 16, 1865. 

CLASS OF 1862 

*ig. Sarah E. Beers, died Oct. 6, 1900. T. Normal Center, 4 yrs. ; 
h. s., Canton, 1866; private sch., same, 1868-83. 

20. Elizabeth Carleton, Home for Aged Women, 3200 Stevens Ave., 
Minneapolis, Minn. Asst. h. s., Griggsville, 10 yrs. ; prin. colored sch., 
Hannibal, Mo., 1872 ; elem. and h. s., same, 10 yrs ; Matron, Anna Brown 
Home for the Aged, Quincy, 8 yrs. 

21. Helen Frances Grennell (Mrs. Guild), at home with daughter, 
Mrs. Oscar L. Pond, 2204 Park Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. Second asst. h. s., 
Peoria, 1862-64; ist asst. same, 1864-72; asst. h. s., St. Louis, Mo., 1872- 
74. Married Albert D. Guild, of Chicago, May 13, 1874, who died Ft. Wayne, 
Ind., Nov. 5, 1904. 

22. Esther Maria Sprague (Mrs. Legg) T. Foster sch., 666 Washing- 
ton Blvd., Chicago. Prin. intermed. dept., 4th Ward Sch., Peoria, 4 yrs.; 
prin. Model Sch., Normal Sch., Platteville, Wis., 1866-67; head asst,, Kin- 
zie Sch., Chicago, 6 yrs.; prin. Lincoln St. Sch., Chicago, 7 yrs.; present 
position, 1881 . 

23. Emma M. Trimble (Mrs. Bangs), Donnellsoh. T. pub. sch., 
York, 1862-63; Washington, 1863-64; Lacon, 1864-65; Sparland, 1865-66; 
Lacon, 1866-67; rural sch., Montgomery Co., 1885-87; prin., Fillmore, 
1887-88; rural sch., Montgomery Co., 1888-90; Donnellson, 1890 ; post- 
mistress, Hillsboro, 1877-81. Married Charles Lyman Bangs, Aug. n, 1862. 

f24. Lorenzo Dow Bovee, farmer, Pagosa Springs, Kan. Enlisted 
looth 111. Vol. Inf.,'i862; t. pub. sch., I yr. 

25. James Frederick Ridlon, farmer and stock raiser, R. R. No. 2, 
Gardner, Kan. Abingdon, 111., 12 yrs.; lecturer to Bellflower Grange u 
yrs.; Abingdon, 1862-63; Henderson, 1864; Monmouth, 1865-66; Law- 
rence, Kan., 1866-67; Lanesville, Kan., 1868-69; Kansas legislature. 1869- 
70; De Soto Schools, 1871; taught winters till 1878; served in Ills. reg. 
during civil war. Married Mrs. Rachel Easdale, April, 1870. 

*26. Logan Holt Roots, died at Little Rock, Ark., May 30, 1893. En- 
listed, 1862; t. I yr. 


CLASS OF 1863 

*27. Mary Augusta Fuller, died April, 1881. T., Decatur, 7 yrs. ; 
Magnolia, 3 yrs. 

28. Sarah Jane Frances Gove (Mrs. Eugene Baldwin), Peoria. T., 
Granville, i yr. ; Peoria, 2 yrs. 

29. Abbie Ripley Reynolds (Mrs. Wilcox), Flora Home, Florida. 
St. Kindergarten Training Sch., St. Louis, Mo., 1881-82; prim, grades, 
Bloomington, 1863. Married Charles E. Wilcox, June 16, 1864. 

*30. Sarah Ann Hackett Stevenson, died, 1904. T. Bloomington, 4 
yrs. ; Mt. Morris ; Sterling ; physician, Woman's College, Chicago. 

f3i. William Dennis Hall, 435 Oakley Ave., Chicago. T. Peoria, I 
yr. ; Elmwood, i yr. ; Clinton, 5 yrs.; LaSalle, 3 yrs.; Centralia, 2 yrs.; 
Farmer City, i yr. 

32. Ebenezer Delon Harris, farmer, Lincoln, Neb. Cotner Christian 
Univ., near Lincoln, Neb., B. S., 1891, M. S., 1892; t. pub. sch., 1863-66; 
Nebraska, 1879-89; prin. prep, dept, Christian Univ., 1889-94; enlisted 
U. S. Army, 1861. Married Sarah E. Worden, Normal, Dec. 24, 1865. 

*33- John Henry Thompson, died, 1869. T. ElPaso, i yr. ; Charles- 
ton, i yr. ; Kansas, i Vz yrs. 

CLASS OF 1864 

34. Harriet E. Dunn, sec. of faculty, State Normal Sch., Los An- 
geles, Cal. T. pub. sch., Bloomington, 1864-72; h. s.', Carrollton, 1872-73; 
h. s., Bloomington, 1873-75; prin., same, 1875-83; same, Nevada City, 
Cal., 1883-84; present position, 1884 . 

*35. Anna P. Grennell (Mrs. William Hatfield), died, Feb. 14, 1902. 
T. pub. sch., Bloomington, i yr. ; Peoria, 2 yrs. 

36. Edith Theodosia Johnson (Mrs. Morley), Springfield, Vt. T. 
h. s., Aurora, 1864-65; supt. prim. Model Sch., I.S.N.U., 1865-68; Bon- 
ham's Sem., St. Louis, Mo., 1868-70. Married Rev. John H. Morley, LL.D., 
Oct. 12, 1871. 

*37- Isabella Moore, died Jan. 14, 1888. T. pub. sch., Bloomington, 
4 yrs. ; Cairo, i yr. ; rural sch., 3 yrs. ; Perry, 2 yrs. 
~^t38. Harriet E. Stewart. Address unknown. 

t39. George W. Colvin, Los Angeles, Cal. T. pub. sch., Atlanta, 2 
yrs. ; Pontiac, 2 yrs ; Pekin, 12 yrs. 

40. Lyman B. Kellogg, lawyer, Emporia, Kan. Pres. Kan. State 
Normal Sch., 7 yrs. 

*4i. Philo A. Marsh, died April 5, 1887. T. Magnolia, i yr. 

CLASS OF 1865 

42. Olinda M. Johnson (Mrs. Nichols), 198 Walnut St., Aurora. T. 
West Aurora, 1865-68. Married Newell F. Nichols, Feb. 4, 1869. 

43. Almenia C. Jones, Canton. T. pub. sch., Pekin, 2 yrs. ; Lewis- 
town, 2 yrs.; Canton, 15 yrs.; clerk and bookkeeper, 22 yrs. 

*44. Lucinda J. Stannard (Mrs. A. O. Johnson), died Feb. 20, 1902. 
T. pub. sch., Centralia, i yr. ; Charleston, 3 yrs. ; St. Cloud, Minn., i yr. ; 
Ft. Smith, Ark., 4 yrs. 

45. Bandusia Wakefield, Point Loma, Cal. Asst. in Model Sch., 
I.S.N.U., 1864-71; prin. h. s., Winterset, la., 1871-73; prin. h. s., Em- 
poria, Kan., 1873-74; same, Farmington, 1874; h. s., Bloomington, 1875; 
gram, and arith., I.S.N.U., 1875-81. 


46. Thomas Jonathan Burrill, vice-pres. and prof, of botany, Univ. 
of 111., Urbana. St. Northwestern Univ., A. M., 1876; Univ. of Chicago, 
Ph.D., 1882; Northwestern, LL. D., 1893; supt. pub. sch., Urbana, 1865- 
68; Univ. of 111., i868-date. Married Sarah Helen Alexander, Seneca 
Falls, N. Y., July 22, 1868. 

47. John Williston Cook, pres. N.I.S.N.S., DeKalb, Degrees A. M., 
Knox College ; LL. D., Blackburn Univ. ; LL. D., Univ. of 111. ; prin. 
Brimfield, 1865-66; prin. gram, dept., I.S.N.U., 1866-68; acting prof, of 
history and geog., same, 1868-69; prof, of reading and elocution, same 
1869-76 ; prof, of math, and physics, same, 1876-90 ; president, same, 1890- 
99; pres. N.I.S.N.S., 1899 ; editor and pub. of ///. School Journal, 
1884-88; pub. series of arithmetics with N. Cropsey; educational lec- 
turer, 1870 . Married Lydia F. Spofford, Aug. 26, 1867. 

48. William Florin, druggist, Altamont. T. Lebanon, 1865-66; prin., 
Highland, 1866-68; same, Lebanon, 1868-72; Highland, 1872-73; prin. 
gram, sch., Belleville, 1873-75; asst. h. s., same, 1875-76; prin., Edwards- 
ville, 1876-77; prin., St. Jacobs, 1877-79; druggist, Altamont, 1879 . 

49. David M. Fulwiler, 404 Normal Ave., Chicago. T. Lexington, 
I yr. ; Hillsboro, 4 yrs. 

50. Oscar Francis McKim, farmer, Oskaloosa, la. Asst. Model Sch., 
I.S.N.U., 1865-66; prin., Ward Sch., Decatur, 1866-70; supt. sch., Ma- 
con Co., 1869-73; P rm - h- s -> 1873-74; Oxford, Kan., 1875-76; Wellington, 
Kan., 1876-77; supt. sch., Wichita, Kan., 1877-79; prin., Dallas City, 1879- 
80; prin., LaHarpe, 1880-81 ; prin. h. s., Ft. Madison, la., i yr. Married 
Sarah E. Nelson, Oskaloosa, la., 1866. 

*5i. Adolph A. Suppiger, died at Edwardsville, Sept. 6, 1904. Taught 
at Marine, Highland, North Alton, and Edwardsville; supt. of schools, 
Madison county, 1873-77, and again, 1886-1890. Married Leah P. Baer, 
of Highland, in 1870. 

*52. Melancthon Wakefield, died at Cherokee, Sept. 22, 1900. St. 111. 
Wesleyan Law School, 1867-69; I.S.N.U., 1865-66; prin. Buda, i yr. ; 
Carrollton, i yr. ; Cherokee, la., 2 yrs. ; mayor of Cherokee, 7 yrs. ; county 
atty., 8 yrs. Married Ellen Neighbor, of Chicago, 1882. 


1. Gertrude Case (Mrs. Wesley Young), Santa Barbara, Cal. Pitts- 
field, i yr. ; Bloomington, 4 yrs.; Normal, 2 yrs.; I.S.N.U., 2 yrs. 

2. Clara V. Fell (Mrs. Fyffe), Wyoming PL, Milwaukee, Wis. Mar- 
ried James Fyffe, May 6, 1869. 

3. Charles L. Capen, lawyer, Bloomington. St. Harvard, 1865-69; 
member Bd. of Educ. I.S.N.U., iSgi-date. Married Ella E. Briggs, Oct. 
27, 1875- 

*4- Howard C. Crist, physician. Died 1883. 

5. Hosea Howard, accountant, auditor's office, Wabash R. R., 1201 
Lincoln Trust Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 

6. William McCambridge, Confidential Secretary Interstate Com- 
merce Commission, Washington, D. C. Agent C. & A. R. R. 6 yrs. ; ed. 
Bloomington Daily Pantograph, 26 yrs; asst. postmaster, 3 yrs; present 
position, 6 yrs. 

7. Robert McCart, lawyer, Ft. Worth, Tex. 

CLASS OF 1866 

53. Harriet M. Case (Mrs. Andrew T. Morrow), 1615 Missouri Ave., 
St. Louis, Mo. Richmond, Ind., h. s., i yr. ; Ottawa, 4 yrs. ; Leavenworth, 


Kan., h. s., 2 yrs.; I.S.N.U., 4^ yrs. ; N. A. Normal Sch., Buenos Ayres, 
S. A., 3 yrs. Married Andrew T. Morrow, Feb. 7, 1878. 

fS4. Martha Foster, Minneapolis, Kan. Model Sch., I yr. ; Yates 
City, 2 yrs ; country schools, 2 yrs ; Boone, la., i yr. ; Lindsey, Kan., I 
yr. ; Dexter, la., 5 yrs.; Ottawa, Kan., i yr. ; u yrs. at other places. 

55. Harriet A. Fyffe, Fairfield, Iowa. St. Pharmacy School, Chicago ; 
North Sangamon Acad., 2 yrs.; Normal, 2 yrs; prin. Magnolia, 2 yrs.; 
country sch., 2 yrs ; managed prescription drug store, 12 yrs. 

56. Margaret McCambridge (Mrs. Hurd), 1420 Pearl St., Denver, 
Col. Cairo, I yr. Married Charles R. Hurd, Sept. 18, 1867. 

57. Mary E. Pierce, orange grower, 130 E. Olive Ave., Redlands, 
Cal. Carrollton, i yr. ; Shelby, I yr. ; Lexington, 6 yrs. ; Normal pub. 
sch., 2 yrs. ; ElPaso, I yr. ; other points, 6 yrs ; mission sch., several yrs. ; 
city missionary, Buffalo, N. Y., 8 yrs. 

58. Alice B. Piper (Mrs. Blackburn), Ventura, Cal. Grammar sch., 
1866-68; h. s. Macomb, 1868-72. Married David S. Blackburn, Dec. 
26, 1872. 

tSQ. Helen M. Plato (Mrs. Wilbur), Geneva. Kaneville, i yr. ; El- 
gin, i yr. ; Chicago, 12 yrs. 

60. Sarah E. Raymond (Mrs. Fitzwilliam), 4824 Vincennes Ave., 
Chicago. Taught Fowler Inst, Newark, 1866-68; Bloomington, 1868-69; 
prin. gram, sch., Bloomington, 1869-73; ist asst. h. s. same, Apr. -June, 
1873; prin. h. s., same, 1873-74; supt. city schools, same, 1874-92; pres. 
Woman's State Teachers' Assn., 2 yrs. ; pres. School Mistresses' Club, 

2 yrs. ; secy. State Teachers' Assn., 2 yrs ; pub. numerous articles for 
press; International Delegate to World's Congress of Associated Chari- 
ties at Columbian Exposition, 1893. Married Capt. Francis Julius Fitz- 
william, Boston, Mass., June 23, 1896. 

f6r. Olive A. Rider (Mrs. Dr. Alfred Cotton), woman's dept. of 
state penitentiary, 1900 Collins St., Joliet. 

62. Julia E. Stanard (Mrs. Rufus H. Frost), 1200 Dewey Ave., 
Los Angeles, Cal. Charleston, i yr. ; White Hall, i yr. ; Otterville, i yr. ; 
Ottawa, i yr. ; Atlanta, 3 yrs. ; Atlantic, la., 8 yrs. ; county normal 
schools, Iowa, 4 summers. Married July 4, 1867, to Rufus H. Frost, who 
died April 28, 1904. 

63. Nelson F. Case, lawyer, Oswego, Kan. St. law dept. Univ. of 
Mich., 1867-69 ; prin. Tolono, i yr. ; member Oswego bd. of education, 
15 yrs. ; regent Kan. State Normal, 1889-95 ; trustee Lobette Co. h. s., 
1893-1898; trustee Baker Univ., 1883; pres. bd. of trustees, i897-date; 
probate judge, Lobette Co., Kan., 1880-85; pub. History of Lobette County, 
Kan.; European Constitutional History, Constitutional History of the 
United States. Married, Feb. 22, 1872, Mary E. Claypool, who died Feb. 
i, 1892 ; m. Georgiana Reed, May 30, 1900. 

64. Philo Asbern Clark, periodical writer and correspondent, Monroe, 
Wis. Prin. Chillicothe, 1866-1867 ', Neponset, 1870-1871 ; Yorksyille, 1871 ; 
Davenport, I yr. ; Kendall county, i yr. ; county surveyor, Madison, Neb., 

3 yrs.; police judge, 4 yrs.; has contributed articles to agricultural maga- 
zines and has delivered lectures on stock raising. 

f65- John Ellis, real estate, 425 N. 4th St., Beatrice, Neb. Prin. 
schools, Naples, 3 yrs. ; ElPaso, 3 yrs. ; prin. Beatrice, Neb., I yr. 

*66 Joseph Hunter, died April 17, 1880. Prin. Pontiac, 1866-7; taught 
in Washington Univ., St. Louis, Mo. 

*67. Richard Porter, died March, 1903. Perry, I yr. ; Rantoul, i yr. ; 
Monticello, I yr. ; country schools, 3 yrs. 


CLASS OF 1867 

68. Emily Caroline Chandler (Mrs. Cyrus W. Hodgin), Richmond, 
Ind. Completed 4 yrs' chautauqua course 1881-1885; st. biblical dept. 
Earlham College, 1891-92; prin. ward sch., Richmond, Ind., 1867-68; pri- 
vate school Marion, Ind. Married Cyrus W. Hodgin (See No. 78), Aug. 
22, 1867. 

69. Emily H. Cotton (Mrs. William H. Collins), 1400 Vermont St., 
Quincy. Taught 9 yrs. in Griggsville, Cairo, Decatur, and Bloomington. 
Married, Sept. 28, 1876. 

f70. Nellie Forman. West Bridgeport, Mass., iY 2 yrs.; Lynn, Mass., 

3 yrs.; Hampton Institute, \Vz yrs.; Virginia, 1881. 

71. Mary W. French, teaching, 312 W. William St., Decatur. Cairo, 
1867-69; math, in h. s., Decatur, 1869. 

t72. Eurania G. Gorton (Mrs. John R. Hanna), Aurora. Rock Is- 
land, 2 yrs. ; Peru h. s., 2 yrs. ; Aurora preparatory, i yr. ; asst. Aurora 
h. s., 2 yrs. 

*73. Mary G. Gorton, died November 15, 1878. Rock Island h. s., I 
yr. ; Cook County Normal, 3 yrs. ; Normal Dept. Arkansas State Normal ; 
asst. in Peabody Branch h. s., St. Louis, till 1878. 

74. Mary Pennell (Mrs. Albert H. Barber), 22 Bryant Ave., Chi- 
cago. Taught, Peoria County Normal; h. s., Polo; h. s., Normal pub. 
sch.; h. s., Tuscola. 

75. Onias C. Barber, bookseller and stationer, Effingham. Prin. in 
111., I yr. ; prin. and asst. prin. in Miss., 2 yrs. 

*76. John R. Edwards, died April, 1871. Prin. Hyde Park sch., I yr. ; 
prin. Evanston schools, 1868; elected prin. Third Ward sch., Peoria, 1869. 

f77. George E. Hinman, farmer, Clearwater, Cal. Taught 5 yrs. in 
Illinois, Colorado, and Ohio. 

78. Cyrus Wilburn Hodgin, teaching, Richmond, Ind. St. Univ. of 
Chicago, 1892-1893; prin. Hadley's Acad., Richmond, Ind., 1867-1868, 
prin. h. s., Richmond, Ind., 1868-1869; prin. twp. graded school, Dublin, 
Ind., 1869-1872; teacher of history, Ind. State Normal Sch., 1872-1881; 
supt. Rushyille, Ind., 1882-1883; prin. Richmond Normal Sch., 1883-1887; 
prof, of history and political scicence, Earlham Col., Richmond, Ind., 
i887-date; pub. Indiana and the Nation, a text-book on the civil gov't. 
of Ind., and a large number of articles on historical and educational sub- 
jects. Married Emily Caroline Chandler (See No. 68), Aug. 22, 1867. 

*79. Fred J. Seybold, lawyer. Deceased. 

80. James S. Stevenson, teaching, 3127 Sheridan Ave., St Louis, Mo. 
Prin. Sparta, 1867-1869 ; asst. Academic Dept. Washington Univ., St. Louis, 
1869-1870; prin. Collinsville, 1870-1872; prin. pub. sch., St. Louis, Mo., 
i872-date. Married Margaret Speer. 

CLASS OF 1868 

81. Ruth E. Barker (Mrs. Hargrove), traveling in Europe. Taught 

4 yrs. Married Dr. Nathan Scarritt, Kansas City, Mo., deceased ; m. Bishop 
Robt. K. Hargrove, Nashville, Tenn., now deceased. 

82. Ann Eliza Bullock, Normal. Tonica rural sch., 1870-71; asst. 
h. s., 1871-72; grammar sch., 1874-1876; grades Bloomington, 1872-73. 

83. Jemima S. Burson, Pasadena, Cal. Primary teacher, Richmond, 
Ind., 1869-1872; teacher in private acad., Spiceland, Ind., 1872-1874. 

84. Lydia A. Burson, Pasadena, Cal. Prin. Carthage, Ind., 1868-69; 
prin. private school, Richmond, Ind., 1869-1872; Spiceland, Ind., Academy, 
1873-1874; grammar grade teacher, Pasadena, Cal., 1889-1898. 


85. Etta S. Dunbar (Mrs. Kelso), teaching literature, music, and 
painting, Longmont, Colo. Prin. Elburn, 1868-1870; prin. DeKalb, 1870-74; 
completed and published article, "Government Analyzed," at request of 
husband. Married, Sept. 5, 1885, to Col. John R. Kelso, a teacher and 
author, who died January, 1901. 

86. Anna C. Gates, 2129 Oregon Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Tolono, 111., 
1868-1869; assistant St. Louis, 1869-1870; prin. St. Louis, 1870-1872; head 
asst. St. Louis, Mo., Jan., 1872- June, 1872 ; prin. various St. Louis schools, 

87. Grace S. Hurwood, Geyserville, Cal. Alton h. s., 2 yrs: ; prin. 
rural or small towns, 13 yrs. ; Franklin School, Oakland, Cal., 12 yrs. 

88. Lucia Kingsley (Mrs. George G. Manning), Anderson, Ind. 
I.S.N.U. Model Sch., 3 yrs.; Peru, Ind., h. s., 1871-1876. Married George 
G. Manning, Aug. 24, 1871 (See No. 115). 

89. Eliza A. Pratt (Mrs. Kean), Buchanan, Mich. Taught Bloom- 
ington h. s., 1869-1872. Married David W. Kean, Chicago, June 10, 1872. 

90. Emma T. Robinson (Mrs. Kleckner), 1632 Pearl St., Sioux City, 
la. ; h. s., Normal pub. schools, 1868-70 ; prin. elem. s., Freeport, 2 mos. ; 
pub. In the Realm of Fable and Women of the Mayflower. Married Isaac 
F. Kleckner, July 28, 1870 (See No. 114). 

91. Mary J. Smith (Mrs. Stephen J. Bogardus), Clinton. Ma- 
rengo, i yr. 

*92. Cornelia Valentine, died June 20, 1877. Earlham College, Rich- 
mond, Ind., i yr. ; Rushville, h. s., 2 yrs. ; Rock Island h. s., i yr. ; Au- 
rora h. s., 5 months ; 111. Female College, i yr. ; Rock Island, h. s., 3 yrs. 

f93. Elma Valentine. 

*94. Clara E. Watts, died June 4, 1884. Matron Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home, i yr. ; teacher Soldiers' Orphans' Home, Normal, 2 yrs. ; Normal 
public school, i yr. 

*95. Stephen Bogardus, died at Clinton, Sept. 9, 1904. Taught 33 yrs. ; 
prin. Marengo, 2 yrs. ; prof, in Springfield Bus. Coll. ; prin. Edwards 
School, Springfield. Married, Mary J. Smith (See No. 91). 

*96. William A. McBane, died Sept. 2, 1902. Cairo, i yr. ; Metropo- 
lis, 2 yrs. ; vice pres. National Bank, Metropolis ; editor and publisher of 
Metropolis Democrat, 1870-71. Married M. C. Bramer, July 12, 1883. 

97. Henry McCormick, vice pres. and prof, of hist., I.S.N.U. De- 
grees, A. M. and LL. D. from 111. Wesleyan Univ. ; prin. pub. sch., Nor- 
mal, 1868-69; prof, of geog., I.S.N.U., 1869-1901; prof, of hist, same, 
1876; vice-pres., same, 1891 ; pub. Practical Work in Geography; Sug- 
gestions on Teaching Geography. 

*98. Jacob R. Rightsell, died Little Rock, Ark., Aug., 1905. County 
supt. of Pulaski county, Ark., I yr. ; prin. of elem. s. and supt. of schools, 
Little Rock, Ark., 33 yrs. 

99. William Russell, merchant, notary public, and farmer, Southland, 
Ark. St. Earlham College, 1887-88; New Garden, 1868-69; supt. Marion, 
Ind., 1870-73 ; model dept. Normal School, Terre Haute, Ind., I yr. ; supt. 
Salem, 1874-77; supt. Marion, Ind., 1879-80; prin. twp. sch., same; South- 
land College, Ark., prin. 1890-91; pres. same, 1891-97; notary public, 12 
yrs. Married Ruth Sabina Hinshaw, Aug. 13, 1868. 


8. Anna M. Edwards (Mrs. N. C. Dougherty), Peoria. Seminary 
at St. Louis, 6 mo. ; h. s., Princeton, i yr. 

9. R. Arthur Edwards (See No. 137). 


CLASS OF 1869 

100. Lizzie S. Alden, 214 Harrison St., Newton, Kan. Grad. from 
State Normal Sch., Emporia, Kan., 1897; prin. sch., Caledonia, 1869-70; 
asst. h. s. Lena, 1870-71; rural sch., near Brimfield, 1871-74; prin. Burrton, 
Kan., 1875-77 ; primary tea. Newton, Kan., 1877-80 ; primary tea. Sedg- 
wick, Kan., 1880-94; same in Baptist mission sch., Atoka, Ind. Ter., 1897- 
1900; private sch., Newton, Kan., 1900-03. 

101. Melissa Benton (Mrs. Overman), 391 West End Ave., New 
York City. T. Geneseo, 1869-71; h. s., Dixon, 1871, 3 mos. ; h. s., Free- 
port, 1872-73. Married A. H. Overman, Dec., 1873. 

*i02. Ella Kimball Briggs, died March 27, 1906. Logan county, lyr. ; 
Lincoln, 2 yrs. ; Delavan, I yr. ; Jerseyville, i yr. ; Cream Ridge, 2 yrs. ; 
Freeport, yrs. 

*I03. Lucretia Davis (Mrs. Ramsey), died Yates Center, Kan., June 
27, 1887. Quincy Coll., I yr. ; Rushville, i yr. Married William Ramsey, 
Rushville, June, 1871. 

104. Jane E. Pennell (Mrs. Carter), 836 W. Church St., Champaign. 
Normal pub. sch., i yr. ; Model Sch., I.S.N.U., i yr. ; h. s., Peru, 2 yrs.; 
rural schools, n mo.; Peru, I yr. ; pres. Illinois Assn. of Domestic Sci- 
ence, 7 yrs. Married Joseph Carter (See No. 134), June 23, 1870. 

fiOp. Maria L. Sikes (Mrs. Nichols). Geneseo, 2 yrs.; Kewanee, I 
yr. ; prin. Wyoming, la., 4 yrs. 

fio6. Helen M. Wadleigh (Mrs. Willis). Near Rutledge, i yr. ; in 
Missouri, 2 yrs. 

107. Ben C. Allensworth, insurance, Pekin. Supt. Elmwood, 1869- 
72 ; Minier, 2 yrs ; county supt. of schools, Tazewell county, 1877-86 ; 
member of bd. of educ., Pekin, 7 yrs.; postmaster, Pekin, 1894-98; pub. 
History of Tazewell County; editor of Pekin Times, 1886-94. Married 
Charity A. Turner, Oct. 7, 1875. 

108. Alfred Cleveland Cotton, physician to diseases of children, 1485 
W. Jackson Blvd., Chicago. St. Rush Med. Coll., 1876-78; med. sch. in 
Philadelphia and N. Y., 1883 ; Vienna, Berlin, and London, 1897 5 P rm - 
Richview, 1869-70; prin. Buckley, 1870-71; prin. Gilman, 1871-73; supt. 
Grand Tower, 1873-74; supt. Griggsville, 1874-76; lecturer and prof, of 
diseases of children, Rush Med. College, 1881 ; city physician of Chi- 
cago, 1891-93, and 1895-97; lecturer to 111. training sch. for nurses and 
the Presbyterian training sch. ; pub. Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene 
of Infancy and Childhood, The Medical Diseases of Infancy and Child- 
hood, and other articles; private Co. F, I37th Regt. 111. Vol. Inft, 1864-65; 
prisoner of war, Aug. 21, 1864- April, 65. Married Olive A. Rider, 1880; 
m. Nettie M. MacDonald, 1893. 

109. Charles H. Crandell, teaching, 806 Main St., Wheaton. Prin. 
sch., DeKalb, 2j yrs. ; supt. Petersburg, I yr. ; prin. elem. sch., Troy, 
N. Y., 5 yrs.; prin. sch., Worthington, O., 2 yrs.; prin. sch., St. Charles, 
2 yrs. ; supt. Sterling, 2 yrs. ; supt. Hinsdale, 5 yrs. ; supt. West Batavia, 
2 yrs. ; other positions, 4 yrs. Married Almira A. Davis, Dec. 26, 1876. 

fno. Hugh R. Edwards, manf. hardware, Whitcomb, Wis. Prin. 
elem. sch., Peoria, 2 yrs. ; Sterling, i yr. ; Byron, i yr. ; prin. Edwards 
Seminary, Sterling, 3 yrs. ; Peoria, 8 yrs. 

in. William R. Edwards, editor and postmaster, Tracy, Minn. Taught 
15 yrs. as prin. and supt, Faribault, Minn.; New Hampton and Osage, 
la.; county supt. Lyon Co., Minn. Married Josephine E. Bigelow, July 
19, 1870. 

112. James W. Hays, 708 University Ave., Urbana. Prin. elem. s., 
Paris, 1869-70; supt. Paris, 1870-71; supt. Urbana, 1871-75, 1876-1906; 
pres. state teachers' association, 1897. 


tii3- Charles Howard. Address unknown. 

*ii4. Isaac F. Kleckner, died March 4, 1891. Supt. Stephenson county, 
4 yrs. Married Emma T. Robinson (See No. 90). 

115. George Grant Manning, pres. and mgr. Crystal Ice and Cold 
Storage Co., Anderson, Ind. Prin. Fulton, 1869; Jacksonville, 1870; supt. 
Peru, Ind., 1871-92. Married Lucia Kingsley (See No. 88), Aug., 1871. 

*n6. George W. Mason, physician, died Oct. 8, 1887. Taught, Little 
Rock, Ark., Pekin, and Hannibal, 8 yrs. 

117. Charles W. Moore, ins. agt., Storm Lake, la. Private sch., 
Tremont, 1869-71; prin. Tremont, 1871-72; prin. Ridott, 1872-74; Cedar- 
ville, 1874-75 ! Lena, 1875-76 ; rural school, 1876-77 ; prin. Storm Lake, la., 
1880-81 ; rural schools in Iowa, 1885-89 ; county and other official posi- 
tions in Iowa, 1889 . Married Emma A. Dean, Nov. 30, 1891. 

fu8. Christopher D. Mo wry, surgeon, Aurora. Prin. Pecatonica, 3 
yrs.; Anamosa, la., 2 yrs. 


*io. Gratiot Washburn, died, 1886. 

CLASS OF 1870 

fug. Louisa C. Allen (Mrs. John M. Gregory), The Concord, Wash- 
ington, D. C. Alton h. s., I yr. ; Peoria Normal, 2 yrs. ; University of 
Illinois, 6 yrs. 

120. Barbara Denning, housekeeper, Normal. Shawneetown, 1870- 
1872 ; LaSalle, 1872-1873 ; missionary teacher Argentine Republic, S. A., 

*i2i. Alice Emmons, died October 2, 1871. Taught 2 months. 

fi22. Clara E. Higby, Chicago. Taught 27 yrs. in Chicago schools. 

fi23. Emma A. Howard (Mrs. Gardner), Orange, Cal., 4 yrs. 

124. Margaret E. Hunter (Mrs. Levi T. Regan), 609 W. 66th St., 
Chicago. Taught Mississippi State Normal Sch., 1871-74. Married Levi 
T. Regan (See No. 143), 1874. 

fi25. Maria L. Kimberley (Mrs. Perry), 164 Canfield St., Detroit, 
Mich. Warrensburg, Mo., 2 yrs. ; Fort Smith, Ark., I yr. 

126. Mary D. LeBaron, Oneida. Taught 14 yrs., mostly in elem. 
sch., Chicago. 

*I27. Letitia A. Mason (Mrs. Willam E. Quine), died June 14, 1903. 
Taught i yr. 

128. Adella Nance (Mrs. C. A. Shilton), 218 S. Elm St., Kewanee. 
Prin. h. s., Weathersfield, 1870-71 ; prin. Galva, 1872-73 ; Moline, 1873-75. 
Married May 28, 1879. 

129. Adelaide V. Rutherford, Box 376, Girard. St. Ann Arbor, Mich., 
1873-74; same, 1880- Apr., 1882; 111. sch., 3 yrs.; Mo. sch., i yr. ; Kan. 
sch., i yr. ; Texas sch., i yr. ; pub. magazine articles on various subjects. 

130. Frances A. Smith (Mrs. Frances A. Cole), Berkeley, Cal. Prin. 
prep. dept. Woman's Coll., Evanston, 111., i yr. ; South Side Select Sch., 
Chicago, 2 yrs. ; Bryant & Stratton Bus. Coll., Chicago, 3 yrs. ; prac. 
dept., Alabama State Normal, i yr. ; Elgin pub. sch., 2 yrs. 

131. Armada S. Thomas (Mrs. Sevan), Atlanta. Lincoln, 1870-73; 
Jerseyville, 1873-74; h. s. Delavan, 1874-76; h. s., Atlanta, 1876-77. Mar- 
ried John L. Bevan, 1877. 

fi32- Marian E. Weed (Mrs. Martin), 723 Orchard St., Chicago. 
Loda, i yr. ; Lacon, i yr. 


133. Benjamin Webb Baker, pastor M. E. church, DeFuniak Springs, 
Fla. Received degrees, M.A. and Ph.D. at Wesleyan Univ. ; rural sch., 
Coles Co., 3 yrs. ; prin. grammar dept. Model Sch. I.S.N.U., 3 yrs. ; 
agent for Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, 4 yrs.; pres. Chaddock College, 
Quincy, 5 yrs.; pres. Missouri Wesleyan College, Cameron, Mo., 7^ yrs. 
Married Martha Frances Henry, Dec. 14, 1871. 

134. Joseph Carter, farmer, 836 W. Church St., Champaign. Supt. 
Normal pub. sch., 1874-78; supt. Peru, 1878-85; supt. Danville, 1892-96; 
supt. Champaign, 1896-1906; member State Board of Education, 1873-79. 
Married Jane E. Pennell (See No. 104), June 23, 1870. 

135. Robert A. Childs, Hinsdale. Prin. Amboy schools, 3 yrs; ad- 
mitted to bar in 1873 ; lawyer in Chicago. 

*I36. James W. Dewell, died September 3, 1903. Two yrs. near 
Carrollton; i yr., Barry; i yr., Elm Grove; 2 yrs., Kane; 16 yrs. 

137. R. Arthur Edwards, banker, Peru, Ind. St. Dartmouth College, 
Hanover, N. H., 1872-1873; Princeton Univ., 1874-1876; instructor in 
Latin and Greek, Rock River Seminary, Mount Morris, 1873-74, an d 1876- 
78; prof. English Lit. and Belles Lettres, Knox Coll., Galesburg, 1878- 
1881. Married Mary Alice Shirk. 

fi38. Samuel W. Carman, curator, Agassiz Museum, Cambridge, 
Mass., since 1873. Principal of Miss. State Normal School, Holly Springs, 
i year; Lake Forest Seminary 2 yrs. 

!39- John W. Gibson, died Naperville, Aug. 6, 1906. Adeline, 2 yrs. ; 
Belvidere, 9 yrs. ; Whitewater, Wis., i yr. ; Normal, i yr. ; Decatur, 5 
yrs. ; Oregon, 3 yrs. ; Naperville, 4 yrs. ; pub. Chart History of the Civil 
War, a United States History For Schools, and an article on Social Purity. 
Married Alice I. Blair, Aug. 19, 1873. 

fi4O. Benjamin Hunter, Mt. Vernon, Ind. Oneida, 5 years. 

fi4i. John W. Lummis, 566 nth St., Oakland, Cal. Clayton, i yr. ; 
Elm Grove, i yr. 

fi42. John H. Parr, prop. Summer Hotel, Castle Park, Mich. Cedar- 
ville, 4 yrs. ; Morris Seminary, 2 yrs. ; ministry, i yr. ; Chicago Prep. 
Sch., 5 yrs. 

143. Levi T. Regan, teaching, 609 W. 66th St., Chicago. County 
supt. schools, Logan county, 1870-1873 ; supt. sch. Lincoln, 1873-75 ; Am- 
boy, 1875-78; Morris, 1878-89; prin. Sherman Sch., Chicago, iSSg-date. 
Married Margaret E. Hunter (See No. 124), 1874. 

144. Wade Hampton Richardson, real estate, 264 Pleasant St., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Prin. St. Paul's Sch., Kankakee, 1870 to Jan., 1871 ; prin. 
Rantoul, Jan., 1871, June, 1872; prin. ward schools, Milkaukee, Wis., 1872- 
76, 1877-1882, and 1884-85; pub. Graded Language Exercises, 1881, and 
How I Reached the Union Lines personal reminiscences, 1896 and 1905. 
Married, Aug. 10, 1870, Lydia Corbett, who died in 1878; m. Mary Aurelia 
Hawley (See No. 205), Aug. 5, 1880. 

fi45. John W. Smith, with Industrial B. & L. Ass'n, 1604 Arapahoe 
St., Denver, Colo. Prin. school Pontiac, 5 yrs.; Cal., i yr; prin. Odell, 
i yr. ; State Reform sch., 4 yrs ; prin. Denver, Colo, 6 yrs. 


fii. Almira A. Bacon. 

12. Ellen Hinsdale Galusha (Mrs. Smith), 2039 Knoxville Ave., 
Peoria. Granville, 1870-71 ; pub. How to Shade Embroidered Flowers and 
Leaves. Married William Hawley Smith (See H. S. No. 15), July 19, 1870. 

ti3. William Burry, lawyer, 925 Woman's Temple, Chicago. 


14. William Duff Haynie, lawyer, Commercial Nat'l Bank Bldg., Chi- 
cago. St. Harvard College, 1870-74; law sch. Wesleyan Univ., Blooming- 
ton, 1875-76; chief elk. to ist asst. postmaster general, Washington, D. C., 
1885-89. Married Ella R. Thomas, Washington, D. C., Jan. 30, 1889. 

15. William Hawley Smith, lecturer and writer, 2039 Knoxville Ave., 
Peoria. Granville, 1870-71; Tonica, 1871-73; Farmer City, 1874-75; 
county supt. of schools, McLean Co., 1875-82; pub. Evolution of Dodd, 
Walks and Talks, The New Hamlet, The Promoters, All the Children of 
All the People. Married Nellie H. Galusha (See H. S. No. 12), July 19, 

CLASS OF 1871 

146. Charlotte C. Blake (Mrs. Edward Myers), 315 S. Vermilion St., 
Streator. Carbondale, 1871-72; DeKalb, 1872-74; Metamora, 1874-76; 
Normal, 1876-79; prin. elem. s. Streator, 1879-81; h. s. teacher, Morris, 
1881-82. Married June 22, 1882. 

fi47. Isabella S. Houston (Mrs. Rev. Manly Tabor), Hornellsville, 
N. Y., i yr. ; Atlanta, i yr. ; Lincoln, i yr. ; Springfield, 3 yrs. 

*I48. Julia E. Kennedy. Deceased. Prin. of ward sch. in St. Louis ; 
teacher of rhetoric in State Normal Sch. at Cape Girardeau ; primary 
training teacher I.S.N.U., 1879-88; supt. of schools, Seattle, Wash., 3 
yrs.; prin. of schools, Douglas, Alaska. 

149. Harriet E. Kern (Mrs. Walker), Glen Oaks, Des Moines, la. 
Bloomington, 5 yrs. Married Theo. M. Walker, May 30, 1877. 

*i50. Celestia M. Mann, died 1887. Taught 3 yrs. 

fiSi. Frances I. Moroney, Minneapolis, Minn. Taught 19 yrs. in 
Bloomington and Minneapolis. 

*I52. Frances L. Rawlings (Mrs. Dr. T. N. Cunningham), died at 
Princeton, spring of 1899. Centralia, I yr. ; Pekin, I yr. ; Soldiers' Or- 
phans' Home, Normal, 2 yrs. ; Topeka, I yr. 

153. Isabel S. Rugg (Mrs. N. H. Reed), 314 Micheltorena St., Santa 
Barbara, Cal. Asst. in h. s. Odell, I yr. ; asst. h. s., Pontiac, 2 yrs. ; pub. 
Santa Barbara Scenes and Scenery, a booklet descriptive of Santa Bar- 
bara. Married Norman H. Reed, April 30, 1873. 

fi54. Frances E. Shaver (Mrs. J. T. Thompson), 3733 Vincennes 
Ave., Chicago, 3 yrs. 

fiSS- Emma G. Strain, 418 W. Broadway, Louisville, Ky. Blooming- 
ton, 7 yrs. ; Louisville, 4 yrs. 

*i56. Frances J. Weyand (Mrs. Latham), died November 19, 1899. 
Taught i l /2 yrs. 

*I57. William C. Griffith, died January 13, 1892. Taught Taylorville, 
5 yrs. 

*I58. Henry F. Holcomb, died, Oct., 1871. 

fi59. Andrew T. Lewis, lawyer, 720 E. Salmon St., Portland, Ore. 
Clerk U. S. Dist. Court, Alaska, 3 years. 

fi6o. Tillghman A. H. Norman, farmer, Marshall. Taught 15 yrs. 
-161. Edgar D. Plummer, 1304 N. Main St., Decatur. 

*i62. James Oscar Polhemus, died August 15, 1877. Taught 6 yrs. 
in Illinois schools. 

fi63. James R. Richardson, Tonti. Armington, I yr. ; Woodson, 2 
yrs. ; Franklin, 2-3 yr. ; Stanford, i yr. ; Morton, 2 yrs. ; Marseilles, 2 
yrs. ; Blue Rapids, Kan., i yr. ; Sparta, I yr. 

*i64. R. Morris Waterman, died October, 1871. 


*i65. John X. Wilson, died at Austin, Minn., December 3, 1897. 
Taught, Peoria, 13 yrs. 

*i66. John P. Yoder, died at Needy, Ore., June i, 1904. Blue Is- 
land, I yr. ; McLean county, I yr. ; Danvers, 6 yrs. ; Bushnell, 14 yrs. 


fi6. Alice C. Chase. 

CLASS OF 1872 

fi67. Anna G. Bowen, 955 S. Trumbull Ave., Chicago. Taught 6 yrs. 

168. Martha A. Fleming, teacher School of Education, Univ. of Chi- 
cago. St. Paris Conservatoire, and University of Chicago; articles in 
The Elementary School Teacher. 

169. Lenora Franklin, teacher, 6124 S. Park Ave., Chicago. Taught 
13 yrs. in h. s. in Illinois and Colorado; 17 yrs. head asst. in a Chicago 
grammar school. 

170. Mary C. Furry (Mrs. Oliver C. Talbott), Polo, 111. Teacher, 
Normal, 1872-75, private sch. 1876; Sterling, 4 yrs.; Whiteside Co., 12 
yrs. Married September 9, 1888. 

171. Clara Shaw Gaston (Mrs. Stephen A. Forbes), Urbana. Teacher, 
h. s. Laporte, Ind., I yr. Married Stephen A. Forbes, 1873. 

*I72. Anna M. Gladding, died March, 1882. Taught 4 yrs. 

173. Rachel Hickey (Mrs. Thomas Carr), physician and surgeon, 100 
State St., Chicago. St. Illinois Training School for Nurses, Women's 
Medical Sch. of Northwestern Univ., interne Cook Co. hospital; taught 
Ramsey, i yr. ; DeKalb, I yr. ; teacher of English, Mrs. Sewall's Classical 
Sch., Indianapolis, 7 yrs ; Blomington, I yr. ; head nurse Presbyterian 
hospital, Chicago; prof, histology and operative surgery, Woman's Med- 
ical College, Northwestern Univ., 23 yrs. ; instructor in surgery, Physi- 
cians' and Surgeons' College of the Univ. of 111. ; medical director People's 
Life Ins. Co. Married Thomas Carr. 

174. Sarah C. Hunter, head asst. Henry Clay Sch., 615 W. 66th St., 
Chicago. Elem. sch., Chicago, 1872 , excepting few months spent in 

175. Alza A. Karr (Mrs. George Blount), Phoenix, Ariz. Asst. 
prin., Atlanta, 1872-74; Forreston, 1875-76; Scottsdale, Ariz., 1895-96, 
1903-04. Married Normal, August 18, 1874. 

176. Martha G. Knight (Mrs. John B. Adam), Normal. Teacher 
Bloomington, 4 yrs. ; prin. village sch., 2 yrs ; country sch., 3 yrs. ; asst. 
teacher, I.S.N.U., 2 terms; h. s. prin., Corning, la., 4 yrs. Married 
Feb .18, 1892. 

*I77. Julia F. Mason (Mrs. Parkinson), died San Jose, Cal., Aug. 6, 
1879. Taught Winchester, i yr. ; Lincoln, I yr. ; S.I.S.N.S., as prin. of 
training sch., 2 yrs. Married Daniel B. Parkinson, Dec. 28, 1876. 

178. Emma A. Monroe (Mrs. Robert W. McCracken), 6400 Emerald 
Aye., Chicago. Teacher, Virginia, 1873; Bloomington, 1874-78; h. s. 
Pine Bluff, Ark., 1879; h. s. Macon, 1880; Chicago, 1885-1893; poems, 
humorous articles, and short stories. Married Aug. 10, 1893. 

*i79. Julia M. Moore (Mrs. Byerly), died at Urbana, March 13, 
1898. Taught, i yr. 

fi8o. Mary V. Osborn, 5861 Ridge Ave., St. Louis. H. s., St. Louis, 
Mo., 33 yrs. 

181. Flora Pennell (Mrs. John H. Parr), Castle Park, Mich. St. 
Vassar, 1873-74; teacher, country sch., 1872-73; first asst. Elgin h. s., 


1874-77; preceptress I.S.N.U., 1877-90; teacher in county institutes 
during connection with I.S.N.U. Married Dec. 24, 1890. 

182. Alice B. Phillips, asst. man. of poultry farm, Houston, Del. Nor- 
mal pub. sch., 3 yrs. ; asst. postmaster, Corbett, Pa., 3 yrs. ; reports of 
grange meetings in Mil ford Chronicle. 

183. R. Louisa Ray, lawyer, 449 3d St., Portland, Ore. Teacher, 
Soldiers' Orphans' Home, Normal, 1869-70; h. s. St. Joseph, Mo., 1872-73; 
preceptress Peoria Co. Normal Sch., 1874-79; h. s., Chicago, 1881-84; ad- 
mitted to bar, Oregon, 1902. 

184. Alpha Stuart, teacher, 55 S. Ada St., Chicago. Country sch., 
1872-79. ; prin. grammar sch., Normal, 1879-81 ; asst. prin., Atlanta h. s., 
1881-83; Bloomington, 1883-92; prin. Bloomington, 1892-04; Chicago, 

*i8s. Gertrude M. Town (Mrs. Robert H. Beggs), died May 15, 
1888. Taught II yrs. 

fi86. Edith Z. Ward (Mrs. Roach), Watson Valley, Cal. Elgin," i 
yr. ; Hyde Park, 2 yrs ; California, I yr. 

187. Edwin Faxon Bacon, prof, modern languages, Oneonta State 
Normal, Oneonta, N. Y. St. Sheffield Scientific Sch., 1868-71 ; prin., Nor- 
walk, Conn., 1866-68; teacher modern languages, Hasbrouck Institute, 
Jersey City, N. J., 1878-89; lecturer in English, Institute Polyglott, Paris, 
1882-83 ; prof, modern languages, Oneonta State Normal, i889-date ; 
Leitfaden, 1882; New French Course, 1897; New German Course, 1906; 
History of Otsego Co., N. Y., 1902. 

188. Robert H. Beggs, prin. Whittier Sch., Denver, Col., res. Univer- 
sity Park, Col. Prin. Virginia, 1869-75; prin. Wilmington, 1875-80; prin. 
Denver, Colo., since 1880. Married Gertrude M. Town, 1875 ; m. Clara 
M. Beardsley, 1890. 

189. George Blount, supt. h. s., Phoenix, Ariz. Supt. in Illinois, 1872- 
96; supt. h. s., Phoenix, Ariz., i896-date; member of board of school ex- 
aminers for Arizona for several years ; member of the territorial board 
of education ; former pres. of territorial teachers' association of Arizona. 
Married Alza A. Karr, Normal, 1874. 

*iox>. James M. Greeley, died 1883. Taught 2 yrs. 

191. Frank W. Hullinger, clergyman, Colorado City, Colo. St. Ober- 
lin, 1874-75; Chicago Theological Seminary, 1878-79; prin. Chicago 
Heights, 1872-74; Homewood Academy, 1874; supt. Worcester Acad., 
Vinita, Ind., 1883-86. Married Ella Jean Caldwell, 1873, died 1889; m. 
Linnie Keiser, 1892. 

192. Elisha W. Livingston, justice of peace, Capron. St. Beloit, 1873 ; 
prin., Poplar Grove, 1874-75 '> prin. Durand, Rockton, Caledonia. Married 
Mary A. Hanson, 1862. 

*I93. Thomas L. McGrath, died 1888. Taught 6 years. 

fi94. Charles D. Mariner, Woonsocket, S. D. Taught 22 yrs. 

*I95. Samuel W. Paisley, died February 3, 1878. Watseka, 4 yrs. 

196. Frank E. Richey, lawyer, Oriel Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. Teacher 
of math, in Milwaukee Acad., Milwaukee, Wis., 1872-74; pub. The Auto- 
biography of a $100 Bill, The Law of Mechanic's Liens and misc. Mag. 
articles. Married Fannie Lippman, Dec. 25, 1879. 

fi97. Espy L. Smith, M. D., 974 W. Polk St., Chicago. Granville, I 
yr. ; Camp Point, i yr. ; Wenona, i yr. ; Minonk, 4 yrs. 

198. John H. Stickney, farmer, Vancouver, Wash., R.F.D. i. Prin. Al- 
tona, 1872-77, 80-83; St. Charles, 1877-80; Knoxville, 1883-90; prin. Tou- 
lon, 1890-99. Married Hattie D. Abernethy, 1876, d. Apr., 1883; m. Mrs. 
Eloise Huggins, 1884. 


*I99. William R. Wallace, died 1876. Taught 2 yrs. 
*20O. James M. Wilson, deceased. Bloomington, Ind., 3 yrs. ; prof, 
of math., Terre Haute Normal Sch., 6 yrs. ; Berkeley, 6 yrs. 


fi7. Chalmers Rayburn, stock raiser, Eldorado. T. 14 yrs. 
fi8. Newton B. Reed, attorney, Woonsocket, S. Dak. County judge, 
Sanborn Co. 

CLASS OF 1873 

201. Lura Minerva Bullock (Mrs. Charles G. Elliott), The Ashley, 
Washington Heights, Washington, D. C. St. I.S.N.U., 1876-77; t. and 
prin., Tonica, 1874-76; prin. h. s., Macomb, 1877-78. Married, Charles G. 
Elliott, C. E., now chief of land drainage, U. S. Exp. Stations, 1879. 

202. Mary M. Cox, Florence, Italy, traveling on leave of absence 
from San Francisco sch. work. St. in Germany and France, 5 yrs. ; teacher 
in grades, 1873-78, Lowell h. s., San Francisco, 1878-1907, except 5 yrs; 
teacher of modern languages, I9o6-date. 

203. Ellen S. Edwards, 1401 Park St., Bloomington. St. Boston 
Univ. School of Oratory, 1877-78; Henry Cohn's Sch. of Languages, 
Boston; h. s. asst., Lexington, 1873-74; Rock River Sem., Mt. Morris, 
1875; I.S.N.U. 1875-7; Colorado College, Colorado Springs, 1882; 
Stories for Students' Series of Readers, Congregational "Home Mission- 
ary," and Chicago "Advance." 

204. Ida L. Foss, bookkeeper, Y.W.C.A., 288 Michigan Ave., Chi- 
cago. Asst. h. s., Homer, 1873-74; Rossville, 1874-77; Rushville, 1877-83; 
Decatur 1883-84 ; Rushville 1886-89 ; bookkeeper and cashier Chicago. 

205. Mary Aurelia Hawley (Mrs. Wade H. Richardson), 264 Pleas- 
ant St., Milwaukee, Wis. T. Naples, 1874; Beardstown, 1874-75; Mil- 
waukee, Wis., 1875-80; specialized in botany, plants of Milwaukee Co. 
Married, 1880 (See No. 144). 

206. H. Amelia Kellogg (Mrs. Fred L. Bryant), 163 E. 36th St., 
Chicago. St. Zurich, 1886; teacher, Chicago, 1873-92; prin. Riverdale 
Sch., Chicago, 1892-95 ; teacher psychology, Chicago Training Sch., 1895- 
6; prin. W. C. Goudy Sch., Chicago, 1896-99. Married July 16, 1896. 

207. Lizzie Effie Peter, bookkeeper, 2041 Ogden St., Denver, Col. 
Teacher country school, North San Juan, Cal., 1874; asst. prin., Mason 
City, 1875-77; prin. h. s., Lincoln, 1877-79; grammar sch., Larned, Kan., 
1 880-8 1 ; Cimarron, Kan., 1881-82; h. s., Larned, Kan., 1882-83; Jewell, 
Kan., 1884-89; Salina, Kan., 1889-90; Oakland, Kan., 1891-97; Denver, 
Col., 1898-99. 

*2o8. Anna V. Sutherland (Mrs. Allen Brown), died July 25, 1894. 
Mt. Prospect, 2 yrs. ; Bloomington, I yr. ; Heyworth, i yr. ; Leroy, 2 yrs. 

209. May I. Thomas, Atlanta, 111. St. Armour Institute, I yr. ; teacher 
Atlanta, 1873-86; stenographer in American Baptist Home Mission Office, 
Chicago, 5 yrs.; member D.A.R. 

210. Emma W. Warne (Mrs. Elry Hall), Sycamore. Prin. h. s. De- 
Kalb, 1873-74; prin- h. s. Elburn, 1874-75; P r in. DeKalb, 1876. Married 
Oct. 3, 1877- 

*2ii Putnam L. Brigham, died February, 1892, in Manning, la. 
Taught 6 yrs. 

212. Charles DeGarmo, prof. Science and Art of Education, Cornell 
Univ., 809 E. State St., Ithaca, N. Y. Principal Naples, 1873-76; asst. 
prin. grammar sch., I.S.N.U., 1876-83; prof. mod. languages, I.S.N.U., 
1886-90; prof, psychology and pedagogy, Univ. of 111., 1890-91; pres. 


Swarthmore Coll., Pa., 1891-98; prof, science and art of education Cor- 
nell Univ., i8o8-date ; pres. National Herbart Society, 1892-97 ; pres. 
National Council of Education, 1897-98; System of Dictionary Work for 
Common Schools (with Thos. Metcalf), 1879; Essentials of Method, 
1889; translation Lindner's Empirical Psychology, 1889; Tales of Troy, 
1891 ; edited Lange's Apperception, 1893 ; lifer's Pedagogics of Her- 
bart, 1894; Herbart and the Herbartians, 1896; Language Lessons 
(2 books), 1897; annotated Herbart's Outlines of Educational Doctrine, 
1901 ; Interest and Education, 1902 ; Principles of Secondary Educa- 
tion, 1907 ; Contributions to educational reviews, 1886-97 J founded with 
E. J. James, Illinois School Journal, 1881. Married Ida Witbeck, 1875; 
two sons and a daughter. 

213. Jasper F. Hays, truck and berry grower, Pasadena, Harris Co., 
Tex. Prin. of schools in Whiteside and Lee counties, 6 yrs; pub. schools 
of Kansas, 4 yrs. Married Rosalia Robertson, Dec., 1875. 

214. Ernies E. R. Kimbrough, circuit judge, 5th judicial circuit, Dan- 
ville. Supt., Golconda, 1873-74; member board of education, Danville, 
1880-89; member thirty-third and thirty-fourth General Assemblies, 
1883-85; mayor of Danville, 1897-99; circuit judge, i9O3-date. Married 
Julia C. Tincher, Danville, 1876; member dem. nat. convention 1888, 1892; 
gold dem. nat. convention, 1896; revised 111. sch. law, 1889; member State 
Board of Education since 1893. 

215. George M. LeCrone, newspaper editor and proprietor, Effing- 
ham. Teacher Moccasin, i yr. ; prin., Effingham, i yr. ; alderman, mem- 
ber board of education of Effingham, member Illinois legislature. Married 
Frances K. Nitcher, March 19, 1879. 

f2i6. Walter C. Lockwood. Paid tuition in full after graduation. 

217. Dewitt Clinton Roberts, fruit farmer, Ordway, Col. Supt. 
Beardstown, 1873-76; S. E. Mo. State Normal, 1876-79; prin. Arapahoe 
St. h. s., Denver, Col., 1879-85; mining, 1885-90; horticulturist, 1890- 
1907. Married Fannie B. Pace, July, 1875. 

218. Arthur Shores, general counsel for the Amalgamated Copper 
Company, Butte, Mont. Teacher Glencoe, Minn., 3 months ; Taylor's 
Falls, 9 months ; Tazewell Co., 6 months. 

219. John B. Stoutemeyer, farming, Mammoth Spring, Ark. St. 
Mich. Univ. ; Illinois Wesleyan Univ. Taught 3 yrs. Married Virginia 
M. Craft, Little Rock, Ark., Feb., 1894. 

220. Felix B. Tait, manf., Decatur. Prin. Todd's Seminary, Wood- 
stock, 1873-74; P/es. Decatur Chamber of Commerce; pres. F. B. Tait 
Manf. Co. Married Mary E. Boyer, 1883. 

221. J. Lawson Wright, Vineland, Cal. Taught nine years in 111.; 
nine years in Cal., five in Ariz. Married Rosannah Clarridge, 1871. 

223. Lida A. Brown (Mrs. William P. McMurry), teacher, DeKalb. 
Teacher Sublette, 1874-76; Arcola, 1876-77; Clear Creek, 1877-78; Nor- 
mal pub. sch., 1884-91; I.S.N.U., 1891-1900; N.I.S.N.S., igoo-date; 


fig. M. Louisa Abraham, Sulphur, Indian Ty. Taught 9 years. 

20. Edmund Janes James, Pres. Univ. of 111., Urbana. St. North- 
western Univ., 1873-74, Harvard 1874-75, Halle 1875-77; prin. h. s. Evan- 
ston, 1878-79; prin. h. s., I.S.N.U., 1879-83; Univ. of Pa., 1883-96; 
Univ. of Chicago, 1896-02; pres. Northwestern Univ., 1902-04; pres. 
Uni. of 111., i9O4-date. Married Anna Margarethe Lange, Aug. 22, 1879. 

21. James Dickey Templeton, asst. cashier First Nat. Bank, Blopm- 
ington, 111. State Museum, Normal, I yr. ; wholesale grocery, Blooming- 
ton, i yr. ; Home Bank, Bloomington, 2 yrs. ; First Nat. Bank, Bloom- 
ington, 28 yrs. 


CLASS OF 1874 

f222. Emily A. Alden, Fontanelle, la. Taught 15 yrs. 
223. Lida A. Brown (Mrs. William P. McMurry), teacher, DeKalb. 
teacher Sublette, 1874-76; Arcola, 1876-77; Clear Creek, 1877-78; Nor- 
mal public sch., 1884-91; I.S.N.U., 1891-1900; N.I.S.N.S., i9OO-date; 
pub. Classic Stories for Little Ones, Robinson Crusoe, Songs of Mother 
and Child, Songs of Treetops and Meadows, Nature Study for Primary 
Grades, Our Language, Book I. Married July 7, 1878. 

224. Eunice Corwine, editor book catalogs and bulletins for A. C. 
McClurg Co., Chicago. Teacher in Logan county and at Lincoln, 1874- 
98; removed to Chicago, 1900; present position since 1901. 

225. S. Alice Judd, teacher, Jefferson h. s., 2787 N. 47th Court, Chi- 
cago. Decatur h. s., 1874-84; Jefferson township h. s., 1884-86; Ottawa 
township h. s., 1887-91 ; Jefferson h. s., Chicago, i8gi-date. 

*226. Sarah M. Littlefield (Mrs. D. L. M. Sims), died at Kalama, 
Wash., April 3, 1906. 

227. Mary E. McWilliams (Mrs. William T. Burford), 806 W. Green 
St.,, Urbana. Taught 2 yrs. in a country school and 2 yrs. in graded 
school at Farmer City. Married September 16, 1879. 

228. M. Ella Morgan, 1207 L Street N. W., Washington, D. C. Has 
taught continuously in Washington since her graduation. 

*229. Elizabeth W. Peers (Mrs. Walter C. Lockwood), deceased. 

*23O. Emma V. Stewart (Mrs. I. Eddy Brown), died August i, 1880. 
Taught in Rochelle, 1874-5; in Peru, Ind., 1875-6; in Wichita, Kan., 

231. Margaret L. Woodruff (Mrs. William A. Evans), Leavenworth, 
Kan. Teacher, Savannah, 1874-6. Author of numerous children's stories. 
Married July 12, 1876. 

232. I. Eddy Brown, state sec. 111. Y.M.C.A., 476 N. Grove St., 
Oak Park. Knox Coll., A.B., 1892 ; A.M., 1896 (non-resident study) ; 
prin. Decatur h. s., 1874-80; state sec. 111. Y.M.C.A. 25 yrs; pres. Sec- 
retarial Institute and Training Sch. Y.M.C.A., 1890-1903; numerous 
contributions to Y.M.C.A. periodicals and pamphlets. Married Emma 
V. Stewart, class of 1874, Aug. 9, 1878, d. Aug. I, 1880; m. Mary John- 
son, Decatur, Dec. 28, 1881. 

2 33- Francis W. Conrad, city supt., San Bernardino, Cal. Teacher 
State Normal Sch., Castrine, Me., 1874-75; Carpinteria, Cal., 1875-77; 
prin. Montecito, Cal., 1877-85 ; supt., Santa Barbara, 1885-91 ; prin. Rialto, 
Cal., 1891-95; prin. San Bernardino, 1895-1903; supt. San Bernardino, 
ioo3-date. Member county board of education, San Bernardino county 
for 10 yrs. ; Geography of San Bernardino County. Married Sarah W. 
Adams, 1884. 

234. John N. Dewell, Children's Aid Society, White Hall. Prin. 
Barry, 1874-75; pri"- Litchfield, 1875-78; prin. Hillsboro, 1878-81. 

235. David S. Elliott, Asst. Co. Supt. of Schools, Belleville. Prin. 
Caseyville, i yr. ; Centralia, 3 yrs. ; supt. Albion, I yr. ; Belleville, 15 
yrs. ; supt. Marissa, i year ; supt. Red Bud, 4 yrs. ; prin. Blue Mound, i 
year ; prin. Westpoint, 2 yrs. Married Emily A. Muilberger, Sept. 14, 1876. 

236. William A. Evans, state agent for Welch School Supply Co., 
Leavenworth, Kan. St. Harvard Summer School, 1886 and 1891 ; Supt. 
Metamora, 1875-76; asst. prin. Leavenworth h. s., Kan., 1890-1906. Mar- 
ried Margaret Woodruff, class '74, 1876. 

f237. Thomas E. Jones. Taught in Troy, Kan., 1874-6; prin. at Mt. 
Pleasant, Mo., 1876-8; at Hillsdale, Kan., 1878-9, and 1880-1. 


238. William P. McMurry, farmer, Garden City, Kan. St. Illinois 
Wesleyan Law School ; teacher in country and private schools, 2 yrs. 
Married Lida Brown (See No. 223). 

239. Elinzer M. Prindle, farmer, Roodhouse. Teacher, Centerville, 
2 years ; prin. Whitehall, 4 yrs. ; prin. Lamed, Kan., I yr. ; Grainfield, 
Kan., I yr. ; asst. prin. Larned, Kan., i yr. ; first county clerk of Hodge- 
man county, Kan., manager of newspaper and bank at Grainfield, Kan., 
returned to Illinois, 1891. Married Katherine Bowman, 1876. 

f240. Carlton H. Rew, M. D., Dublin, Tex. Principal Pontiac, 1874- 
7; Fairbury, 1877-9; in 1880 taught at Wilmington. 

241. William J. Simpson, 521 S. Normal Parkway, Chicago. Teacher 
Oak Ridge Academy, 1874-75; Franklin, 1875-76; Dry Grove, 1876-77; 
Cumberland county, 1877-78; Stewardson, 1879-80; Shelby county, 1880- 
81. Married Alice Buchanan, I.S.N.U., Neoga, 1874, d- 1877. Married 
Victoria A. Penn, Sigel, 1880, d. 1903. 

242. Harry A. Smith, business, 390 Center street, Pasadena, Cal. 
Prin. Lena, 1874-5 J Rock Falls, 1876-8 ; pastor Baptist churches in Illinois, 
Iowa, Wisconsin, and Michigan, 1878-1899. Married Marietta E. Hays, 
Dec. 26, 1881, d. Jan. i, 1885 ; m. Mrs. Mary L. Wood, Jan. 9, 1888. 

243. Jasper N. Wilkinson, banker, Muskogee, Okla. St. Harvard 
Summer School, 1887; prin. Buda, 1874-79; Peoria, 1879-80; h. s., De- 
catur, 1880-84; training department, State Normal, Emporia, Kan., 1884- 
01 ; pres. State Normal, Emporia, 1901-06; treasurer National Educational 
Association; School Management, Orthoepy. Married Nellie B. 


22. Florence Adele Cook (Mrs. Alfred Sample), 1401 N. Main St.,. 
Bloomington. Married Sept. 9, 1874. 

23. I. Eddy Brown. (See No. 232.) 

CLASS OF 1875 

244. Margarita McCullough (Mrs. Frank Sanders), 228 Guthrie St., 
Ottawa. Asst. h. s., Edinburg, Ind., 1875-76; Evanston, 1876-83. Mar- 
ried, Oct. i, 1885. 

1245. Josephine M. McHugh, 312 N. 2ist St., Omaha, Neb. Grammar 
school grades 18 yrs ; h. s., 2 yrs. 

1246. Florence Ohr, Burkmere, S. Dakota. S. O. Home, 5 yrs ; prin. 
Bluff, Ark., 2 yrs ; Peoria and Eureka h. s., 3 yrs. ; Chicago, 5 yrs. ; S. 
Dakota, 5 yrs. 

247. Henrietta A. Watkins, 102 W. Cherry St., Normal. Taught in 
country schools 4 yrs. 

*248. Mary A. Watkins, died Aug. 12, 1903. Taught I yr. 

249. David Ayres, coal dealer, 4638 Emerald Ave., office 738 W. 43d 
St., Chicago. Teacher country schools, 2 yrs. ; prin. Sweetwater, 3 yrs. ; 
member board of education Town of Lake, 2 yrs. Married Anna L. Mar- 
tin, class '77, 1881. 

250. Robert L. Barton, 5595 Pebanne Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Prin. 
Rossville, 1878-81; supt. Galena, 1881-84; Peru, 1885-90; Champaign, 
1891-93; Chippewa Falls, Wis., 1893-99; Eliot School, St.Louis, Mo., 1899- 
02; Emerson Sch., iQO2-date; <tssoc. editor Western Teacher and Ameri' 
can Jour, of Education. Married Mary Fielding, 1885. 

t25i. Albert D. Beckhart, clergyman, Atlanta, Ga. Taught 4 yrs. 
f252. Lewis O. Bryan, real estate, Van Buren, Ark. Taught 4 or- 
5 yrs. 


*253. William T. Crow, died Jan., 1907, Kansas City, Kan. Taught 
II yrs. 

254. James Ellis, rice planter, Welsh, La. Prin. Winnebago, 1875- 
79; Leroy, 1879-80; Sharon, Wis., 1880-82; Welsh, La., 1890; land in- 
spector for timber company, 9 yrs ; manager of Orange Land Co., 5 yrs. 
Married Susan L. Bowman, Oct. n, 1870. 

f255. Judd M. Fisk, bookkeeper, San Antonio, Tex. Taught 7 yrs. 
district school; Armington, 1875-6; Naples, 2 yrs; Ridott, 1880-81. 

256. Justin L. Hartwell, nurseryman and fruit grower, Dixon. Supt. 
N. Dixon, 1875-78; Odell, 1878-80; Barry, 1880-82; Washington, 1884- 
89; pres. N. 111. Hort. Soc., pres. Co. Farmers' Institute, member State 
Hort. Board ; numerous articles for agric. and hort. periodicals ; State 
Farmers' Institute lecturer. Married Lucy Walker. 

2 57- Josiah P. Hodge, attorney, judge municipal court. Pana. Prin., 
Golconda, i yr. ; summer normals, etc., i yr. Married May Clanahan, 
Aug. 12, 1875. 

*258. U. Clay McHugh, died July n, 1878. Taught i l / 2 yrs. 

259. William Stowell Mills, prin. grammar sch., 352 Clifton Place, 
Brooklyn, N. Y. St. Columbia 1880-82; prin. grammar dept. I.S.N.U., 
1875-76; West Joliet, 1876-80; law dept. U. S. Customs Service, 1882- 
87 ; Brooklyn, i887-date ; Aid to Diction, History of the Western Reserve 
of Connecticut, Foundations of Genealogy; pres. and founder, "League 
of the Red, White and Blue." Married Ida A. Branch, Aug. 14, 1878. 

f26o. James N. Mosher, Athol, Kan. Taught 18 yrs. ; near Odell ; 
at Watson, Mo. ; at Van Buren, Ark. ; at Watson, and at Edwardsville, 

f26i. John L. Shearer, Napa, Cal. Country schools 2 yrs; prin. 
town schools, 28 yrs ; county supt., 4 yrs. 

262. Benjamin F. Stocks, lawyer, Garden City, Kan. Supt. Sullivan, 
1878-80; Virden, 1883-85; Cerro Gordo, 1881-83; county attorney at 
Garden City, 2 yrs ; pres. board of education, Garden City, 6 yrs. Mar- 
ried M. A. Pargeon, 1875. 


f24. Ann S. Wheaton, San Diego, Cal. Taught n yrs. 

25. Nicholas T. Edwards, minister, Whittier, Cal. St. Knox College, 
1875-78; Chicago Theological Seminary, 1880-82; Yale Divinity Sch., 1883; 
prin. Dover Academy, pastor Congregational Churches, Wyanet, Amboy, 
Kewanee, Bloomington, Los Angeles, Cal., Escondido, Cal., Whittier, Cal. 
Married Blanche E. Fisher, Sept. 19, 1883. 

26. Frank W. Gove, with Peoria Star, Peoria. Grad. Dartmouth Col- 
lege, degree A. M., 1878; prof. math. Univ. of Colorado, 1878-79; U. S. 
surveyor and mining engineer, Colorado, 1879-84; real estate and mining, 
Denver, Colo., 1886-93 ', banking southern Cal., 1893-94 ; real estate, Den- 
ver, Col., 1895-1900. 

*27. Emrick B. Hewett, died March, 1879. 

CLASS OF 1876 

263. Mary L. Bass (Mrs. Rev. Robert Wallace), Utica, 111. Teacher 
Oakland School, Chicago, 1876-85. Married, June 25, 1885. 

*264. Louisa C. Larrick, died, 1885. Taught 6 yrs. 
1265. Mrs. Amanda M. Pusey, Seattle, Wash. Taught 19 years, 
Champaign, Ottawa, Kan., and at Neosho, Mo. 


266. George H. Beatty, farmer, Taylorville, R. F. D. No. 3. Teacher, 
Clinton, I yr. ; Midland City, I yr. ; Clinton, 2 yrs. ; prin. Heyworth, 
1879-82; Maroa, 1882-86; Greenfield, la., 1886-88; business, 3 yrs.; 
traveling salesman, 6 yrs ; farmer, 9 yrs. Married Rosalie A. Morris, 1879. 

1267. Daniel S. Buterbaugh, Black Diamond, Cal. Money Creek, I 
yr. ; Camargo, I yr. ; Pesotum, I yr. ; Clinton, I yr. ; Danvers, 2 yrs. ; 
Black Diamond, Cal., 25 yrs. 

268. William Harvey Chamberlin, prin., 6036 Ingleside Ave., Chi- 
cago. St. extension courses, etc., University of Chicago, 1895-04; inst. 
in science teachers' institutes, 1876-96 ; prin. Ridge Farm, 1876-81 ; Ross- 
ville, 1881-84; Leroy, 1884-87; Supt. Pontiac, 1887-90; inst. in science, 
South Division h. s., Chicago, 1890-04; inst. in physiography, Wendell 
Phillips h. s., 1904-06; prin. Cyrus H. McCormick sch., igoS-date. Mar- 
ried Lizzie Hodges, 1874, d. 1876; m. Viola Thompson, 1882. 

1269. Asbury M. Crawford, Billings, Mont. Mechanicsville, 2 yrs.; 

*270. George W. Dinsmore, died 1882. Shelbyville, Tenn., i yr. ; in 
Illinois, I yr. 

271. Lewis C. Dougherty, prin., 1138 Sec. Ave., Rock Island. Supt. 
Lacon, 1876-77 ; teacher, Rising, Neb., i yr. ; supt. Minonk, 7 years. ; 
prin. Preparatory Wesleyan Univ., 3 yrs. ; prin. Hawthorne School, Rock 
Island, 18 yrs. ; served in 59th 111. Inf., 1861-75. Married Olive E. Trench, 

272. John Calvin Hanna, prin., Oak Park. St. Wooster, 1878-81 ; 
teacher Central h. s., Columbus, O., 1881-95 ; prin. E. h. s., Columbus, O., 
1895-98; prin. Oak Park h. s., i898-date; gen. sec. of Beta Theta Pi 
fraternity, 1884-99; P r es. of Beta Theta Pi fraternity 1900-03. Married 
Kittie A. Parsons, 1884. 

*273. Benjamin S. Hedges, died, 1876. 

*274. Charles L. Howard, died March 21, 1902. Farmington, i yr. ; 
Centralia, i yr. ; Shelbyville, 2 yrs. ; supt. Ogden, Utah, 2 yrs. ; Helena, 
Mont., 3 yrs. ; prin. Madison sch., St. Louis, Mo., 17 yrs. 

275. John Thompson Johnston, real estate and insurance, Santa Bar- 
bara, Cal. Teacher in country schools, I yr. ; prin. Millersburg, 2 yrs. ; 
New Boston, i yr. ; Peoria, 6 yrs. ; sch. trustee, 6 yrs. Married Florence 
J. Case, of Normal. 

276. Claudius Bligh Kinyon, physician and surgeon and teacher in 
Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor, Mich. St. Univ. of Mich., 1876-77; Chicago 
Homeopathic Med. Coll., 1877-78; prof, in U. of Mich., 1897 ; pub. in 
book form over 200 articles for med. journals and 100 addresses before 
medical and other scientific bodies. Married Maria Waldron, April 25. 

277. Joseph F. Lyon, Supt. schools, Williamsburg, Kan. Greenup, 
111.; Altomont, 111. ; Odell ; Buda; prin. Whitewater, Walton, Fulton, Un- 
iontown, Kan. ; prin. Anthony, Williamsburg, Kan. Married Elizabeth S. 
Numer, April 6, 1875. 

278. Truman B. Mosher, prin., 619 S. Harvey St., Oklahoma City, 
Okla. Prin. Emington, 1876-78; Grouse, 1878-80; supt. Cherryvale, Kan., 
1880-83 ; prin. Rosedale, Kan., 1883-84 ; supt. Cherokee, Kan., 1884-91 ; 
county supt. Crawford Co., Kan., 1891-95; supt. Galena, Kan., 1805-99; 
prin. Walnut, 1899-03; supt. Baxter Springs, Kan., 1903-04; supt. Scam- 
mon, Kan., 1904-06; prin. Garfield School, Oklahoma City, I9o6-date; 
city clerk, Cherokee, 6 yrs. Married Ida M. Pearson, 1883. 

f279. DeWitt C. Tyler, physician, Clifton, Kan. Dunlap, i yr. ; New 
Windsor, i yr. ; Millersburg, 2 yrs. 

|28o. Leroy B. Wood, 1818 Elliott Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 



28. John Calvin Hanna (See No. 272). 

f29- Arabella D. Loer, Mexico, Mo. 

30. Charles Alexander McMurry, acting prin. of Southwestern State 
Normal, Californa, Pa. St. Univ. of Mich., 2 yrs. ; Univ. of Halle, Ger- 
many, 3 yrs. ; Univ. of Jena, Germany, I yr. ; supt. of model sch., Winona 
Normal Sch., Minn., 3 yrs; supt. of practice dept. I.S.N.U., 7 yrs.; 
prin. training sch., DeKalb, 3 yrs. ; pub. General Method, Method of Reci- 
tation, 7 vols. of Special Method, 2 vols. of Type Studies in Geog., 3 vols. 
of Pioneer History Stories. Married Emily K. LeCrone, 1888. 

CLASS OF 1877 

281. Mary Alma Anderson, 608 Broadway, Quincy. Teacher, Bloom - 
ington h. s., 1877-83; Springfield h. s., 1883-86; Central h. s., St. Paul, 
Minn, 1886-96. ' 

282. Agnes E. Ball (Mrs. Lewis H. Thomas), Thomasville, 111. 
Teacher Virden, 3 yrs. ; Washington Sch., Chicago, 7 yrs. ; school direc- 
tor, 12 yrs. Married Oct. 3, 1889. 

283. Emma Ernestine Corbett (Mrs. Parmele), dressmaker, Normal. 
Taught 6th and 7th grades, Mitchell Sch., Milwaukee, Wis., 1877-1888; 
prin: h. s., Normal, 1888-89. Married Dr. Gilbert H. Parmele, June 5, 
1889, who died Aug. 9, 1897. 

1284. Nettie V. Cox (Mrs. Smith). Last address, Marion, Iowa. 
Taught Hudson, 1878-79; near Hudson, 1879-81. 

285. Mary Adeline Goodrich (Mrs. Soule), physician, 3027 E 27th St., 
Kansas City, Mo. St. Hahnemann Med. Coll., Chicago, 1888-90; Chicago 
and Homeopathic Med. Coll., 1892. Married Dr. Isaac Clark Soule, July 
2, 1890. 

286. Anna Louise Martin (Mrs. Ayers), 4638 Emerald Ave., Chi- 
cago. Rural sch. near Washburn, 1878-79; pub. sch., Normal, 1879-81. 
Married David Ayers, Nov. 29, 1881. 

287. Selina M. Regan (Mrs. Daniel G. Hunter), Frankfort, 111. St. 
Baptist Missionary Training Sch., 1883 ; prin. graded sch., 1878-83. Mar- 
ried Feb. 19, 1884. 

288. Laura A. Varner, 1136 De la Vina St., Santa Barbara, Cal. 
Prin. Santa Barbara, Cal., 15 yrs; prin. Marissa and Mascoutah, 111., 
13 yrs. 

1289. Wilmas E. Varner (Mrs. Joseph E. Metzger), Geyserville, 
Cal. Grammar grades of Illinois and California, 10 yrs. 

290. Emily Wing, 2156 West Adams St., Los Angeles, Cal. Collins- 
ville, i yr. ; French Acad., Jacksonville, i yr. 

f29i. Levi D. Berkstresser, last address, 311 35th St., Chicago. 

*292. W. Irving Berkstresser, deceased. Taught in Bryant's Com- 
mercial College, Chicago; became a preacher. 

1293. Richard G. Bevan, Atlanta. District sch., 4^2 yrs. 

f294. Edwin R. Faulkner, supt. schools, Texarkana, 20 yrs. 

295. Hiram R. Fowler, attorney at law, Elizabethtown. St. Univ. 
of Mich., LL.B., 1885; prin. Cave-in-Rock, 1878-83; Elizabethtown, 1886- 
88 ; state's attorney of Hardin county, 1888-92 ; member lower house of 
general assembly, 1892-94 ; member of state senate of Illinois from 1900- 
04. Married Mary E. Griffith. 

296. Frank B. Harcourt, clerk probate court, Springfield. Taught 
3 yrs. 


f297. George L. Hoffman, lawyer, Mt. Carroll, paid tuition. 

298. Albert Snare, prin., Beaver Crossing, Neb. St. Univ. of Ne- 
braska summer school, 1897-98; teacher, Toulon, I yr. ; prin., Wyoming, 
2 yrs. ; prin., Castleton, 2 yrs ; Co. supt, Buffalo Co., Neb., 2 yrs ; prin. 
Kearney, Neb., 4 yrs. ; Cozad, Neb., i yr. ; Milford, Neb., 5 yrs. ; Beaver 
Crossing, Neb., 5 yrs. Married Lillie F. Walters, 1879. 

f299. Levi J. Spencer, address unknown. Taught, 16 yrs. 

tsoo. Edward R. Swett, proprietor Lake Harbor Hotel, 54th and 
Broadway, New York City. Attorney at law, 15 yrs. 


31. Sarah Locke Coolidge (Mrs. A. B. Hoblitt), 315 E. Chestnut 
St., Bloomington. St. Pratt Institute, Brooklyn, 1889-90; substitute for 
period of years in Bloomington; cor. sec. Women's Baptist Foreign Miss. 
Soc., headquarters Chicago, 1890-92 ; contributions to religious periodi- 
cals. Married 1892. 

*32. Anna Jeanette Kingsley, died, Denver, Col., Nov. 1879. Taught 
2 yrs. 

t33- Sabina Frances Mills (Mrs. Dickey), Tulare, Cal. Taught 8 yrs. 

34. Laura Sudduth, Normal. 

t35- Fremont Charles Blandin, druggist, Rutland. 

36. George Alexander Franklin, supt. schools, Austin, Minn. Prin. 
Butler, 1877-79; h. s., Rockford, 1882; prin. Mitchell, la., 1887-88; supt. 
Delavan, 1888-94; supt. Faribault, Minn., 1894-1906; present position, 
1906 ; summer sessions State Normal, Mankato, Minn., 2 yrs. ; co. supt. 
Winnebago county, Iowa, 1885-87. Married Emma Jenkins, Butler, Feb. 
28, 1884; deceased, June 26, 1896. Married Anni Willson, Rochester, 
Minn., Aug. 15, 1900. 

f37. Theodore Thomas Hewett, banker, Freeport. 

CLASS OF 1878 

t30i. Mary M. Baird (Mrs. Burger), 811 E. 5th St., Pueblo, Col. 
Taught 9 yrs. 

f3O2. P. Evangeline Caudy (Mrs. Mitchell), Arcola. Chestnut, I yr. 

33- Jessie Ann Dexter (Mrs. Wilder), Ionia, Mich. Asst. in h. s., 
Lexington, 1878-79. Married W. A. Wilder, July 31, 1879. 

304. Eugenia Faulkner (Mrs. Williams), 704 N. Ninth St., Kansas 
City, Kan. Frankfort, Kan., 10 yrs. ; Marysville, Kan., 1880-81 ; matron 
of School for Blind, Kansas City, Kan., 10 yrs. Married Lapier Wil- 
liams, 1886. 

*305. Flora M. Fuller (Mrs. Boyd), died at Highland, Cal., Nov. 
17, 1901. 

*3o6. Sarah C. Martin, died at Evanston, March 7, 1890. Wash- 
burn, 2 yrs. 

*307. Ida L. Philbrick (Mrs. Frank Gaston), died July 2, 1888. 

*3o8. Frances Preston, died May 3, 1882. Centralia, i yr. ; Men- 
dota, i yr. 

*3O9. Florence A. Richardson, died May 5, 1882. Millersburg, I yr. ; 
Bloomington, 3 yrs. 

310. Helen L. Wyckoff, prin. ward sch., 324 S. 26th St., Omaha, Neb. 
Grade positions in Illinois and Nebraska, 1878-90; Bloomington h. s., 
1890-92; training teacher Omaha Training Sch., 1892-96; prin. ward sch., 
Omaha, Neb., 1896 . 


311. Osci J. Bainum, supt. schools, Paxton. Prin. Calhoun, 1878-9; 
Parkersburg, 1879-80; Olney, 1880-85; Supt. Olney, 1885-97; Paxton, 
i897-date. Sec. library board, Olney, 1887-97; pres. Carnegie library 
board, Paxton. Married Ida E. Cliffe, 1881. 

312. John T. Bowles, insurance and real estate, DeKalb. Prin. Grid- 
ley, i yr. ; prin. Naples, 2 yrs. ; supt. Metropolis, 3 yrs. ; prin. Decatur, 
4 yrs. ; supt. city schools DeKalb, 8 yrs. Married Cara A. Webster 
(See No. 363). 

*3i3. Oliver P. Burger, died June 10, 1889. ElPaso, i yr. ; Critten- 
den, i yr. ; Maroa, I yr. ; Secor, I yr. 

314. Gilbert A. Burgess, associate editor Piatt Co. Republican, Mon- 
ticello. Prin. h. s., Monticello, 1878-79 ; supt. Monticello, 1879-81 ; supt. 
sch. Piatt county, 1881-1886; editor, 1886 . Married Jane Conaway, June 
18, 1874. 

315. Arthur C. Butler, supt. schools, Abingdon. Virginia, 2 yrs.; 
Beardstown, 9 yrs. ; h. s. Taylorville, 3 yrs. ; Kewanee, 10 yrs. ; present 
position, 1902 . 

f3i6. Andrew W. Elder, principal Longfellow Sch., Denver, Col., 
New Boston, i yr ; Centralia, I yr. ; Denver, 24 yrs. 

*3i7. Willis C. Glidden, physician, died at DeKalb, July 15, 1906. 

t3i8. Charles Guy Laybourn, lawyer, Minneapolis, Minn. Prin. 
Markham Acad., Milwaukee, Wis., 2 yrs. 

319. Edwin H. Rishel, Oklahoma City, Okla., R. F. D. N( . 9. Prin. 
Adeline, 1878-79; asst. in Alabama Normal and Theological Sch., Selma, 
Ala., 1879-84; supt. Tullehassee Manual Training Sch., Muskogee, I. T., 
1887-91 ; prin. Atoka Baptist Acad., Ind. Ter., 1891-1903 ; gen. mgr. Mur- 
row Indian Orphans' Home, Atoka, I. T., 1903-1907. Married Ella S. 
Middlekauff, Aug. 31, 1880. 

t32O. William N. Spencer, Yorba, Cal. Taught n yrs. 

321. George I. Talbott, real estate and ins., 223 N. Fourth St., De- 
Kalb. Teacher, DeKalb Co., 1878-79 ; Shabbona, 1879-81 ; county supt., 
DeKalb county, 1881-90; member board of education, notary public. Mar- 
ried Lucy E. Maxwell, 1879. 


38. Rachel M. Fell (Mrs. A. F. Treakle), 500 Illinois Ave., Peoria, 
111. Teacher public sch., Normal, 2 yrs. ; microscopist for S. A. Forbes, 
3 yrs. 

39. Frances Preston. (See No. 308). 

*4O. Anna I. Sudduth (Mrs. Dr. Hopper). Died at Galesburg, Sep- 
tember, 1893. 

41. Willis C. Glidden. (See No. 317.) 

42. Dorus Reuben Hatch, Hyde Park Sch., Denver. St. Univ. of 
Penn , 1881-82; Univ. of Chicago, 1893; supt. Industrial Sch., Golden, 
Col., 1889-93; Georgetown, Col., 1894-1900; prin. Hyde Park Sch., Den- 
ver, loxn-date; pub. Civil Government of Col. Married Agnes Ryan, 1891. 

43. Charles Guy Laybourn (See No. 318). 

44. Theodore Wing Peers, physician and surgeon, 1324 Topeka Ave., 
Topeka, Kan. St. Univ. of Mich., 1879-83 ; Ph.B., Univ. of Michigan, 1883- 
85; M. D., Philadelphia Polyclinic, 1885-86; N. Y. Polyclinic, 1886; Chi- 
cago Polyclinic, 1904; teacher, Collinsville, 1878-9; prof, of diseases of 
children, Kansas Medical College, 1893-07. Married Stella A. Wagner, 
Nov. 24, 1886. 


CLASS OF 1879 

322. Sarah Annette Bowman, prin. public sch., Gem, Idaho. Asst. 
prin. Rock Island, 4 yrs. ; teacher of drawing, I.S.N.U., 5 yrs. ; super- 
visor of drawing, Tacoma, Wash., 2 yrs. ; teacher of drawing, Univ. of 
Idaho, 8 yrs. 

1323. Amanda M. Crawford, The Marlborough, corner Allen and 
Marriner Sts., Buffalo, N. Y. Principal h. s. Macomb, 2 yrs. ; Buffalo Cen- 
tral h. s., since 1891. 

324. Mary S. Cummings (Mrs. Mary S.Kirk), Decatur. Taught 2 yrs. 

*325. Daisy A. Hubbard (Mrs. Carlock) (Mrs. Pollit), died Novem- 
ber 27, 1899. Roodhouse, i yr. ; Morris, i yr. ; Berea Coll., 8 yrs. 

326. Harriet Ellen Morse, vice-prin. Rockford h. s., 319 S. 2nd St., 
Rockford. St. Univ. of Chicago, summer 1903-04; Pekin, 1879-80; prin. 
h. s. Oregon, 1880-87; h. s., Rockford, 1887. ; charter member of Nor- 
mal Univ. Y.W.C.A. 

*327. Nettie B. Porter (Mrs. Horace E. Powers), died July 21, 1897. 
Taught 6*A yrs. 

328. Elizabeth Ross (Mrs. W. A. Cook), 143 Racine Ave., Chicago. 
Taught Pekin, 1879-82; h. s. Shelbyville, 1882-85. Married Dec. 24, 1885. 

329. Julia Scott (Mrs. Hunting), teaching, East Northfield, Mass. 
Taught in Berea College, Kentucky, 16 yrs. ; now teaching in Northfield 

330. Emily A. Sherman (Mrs. Boyer), 636 W. 6ist St., Chicago. 
Astoria, 1879-80; Normal, 1880-81. Married Emanuel R. Boyer (See No. 
332), Normal, June 29, 1882. 

*33i- Jennie L. Wood (Mrs. Holmes), died December 5, 1891. 
Taught 9 yrs. 

*332. Emanuel R. Boyer, died Feb. 24, 1900. St. Harvard Univ., 
1888-90, M. S. degree. Supt. of schools, Fulton county, 4 yrs. ; biology 
in h. s., Englewood ; prin. South Div. h. s., and director of the Chicago 
Institute, 1890-1900; pub. Boyer's Elementary Biology and a series of 
science tablets. Married Emily Sherman (See No. 330), June 29, 1882. 

*333- Charles R. Cross, died at Leland, 1902. Taught 19 yrs. 

334. Silas Y. Gillan, lecturer and editor, 141 Wisconsin St., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 111. Wesleyan Univ., A.M., 1886; supt. Galena, 2 yrs.; prin. 
h. s., Danville, 5 yrs. ; prof, of civics and sch. economy, State Normal 
School, Milwaukee, 7 yrs. ; instructor German American Normal School, 
Milwaukee, 3 yrs. ; institute instr. and lecturer many years ; pub. Lessons 
in Mathematical Geography, Arithmetic in the Common Schools, and other 
school books and aids. Married Elizabeth K. Harned, Aug. 24, 1880, who 
died Jan. 30, 1905. 

335. Horace E. Powers, representing Midland Lyceum Bureau, Shab- 
bona. St. Univ. of Mich., 1879-81 ; prin. Scranton, la., 1900-02. Married 
Nettie B. Porter, July 22, 1881, who died July 21, 1897. 

336. William C. Ramsey, 303 W. Flora St., Stockton, Cal. Stockton, 
Cal., 4 yrs. ; Gait, Cal., I yr. ; Elliott, Cal., I yr. ; prin. Stockton Business 
College, 1886-1906; pub. a speller, a commercial grammar, and a commer- 
cial law. Married Catherine M. Grupe, Aug. 22, 1886. 


45. Fannie C. Fell, Normal. 

46. Hattie Follett (Mrs. Rev. Frank R. McNamar), Antioch. Married 
Nov. 10, 1885. 

47. Mary Sudduth (Mrs. N. K. McCormick), Normal. St. Vassar 
College, 1879-83. Married Nov. 6, 1889. 


48. Silas Y. Gillan (See No. 334). 

49. Frank B. Harcourt (See No. 296). 

50. Nelson K. McCormick, physician, Normal. St. 111. Wesleyan, 
1879-81 ; Chicago Medical College, 1883-86. Married Mary Sudduth, Nov. 
6, 1889. 

51. Frank M. McMurry, Teachers' College, Columbia Univ., New 
York City. St. Univ. of Mich., 1881-82; Univ. of Halle and Jena, 1886- 
89; degree of Ph. D. from Jena; student in Geneva and Paris, 1892-93; 
prin. schools in Illinois, 1883-86; prin. elem. s., Chicago, 1889-90; prof, 
of pedagogy and training teacher, I.S.N.U., 1891-92; prof, of pedagogy 
Univ. of 111., 1893-94 J prin. Franklin School, Buffalo, N. Y., 1894-95 ', dean 
and prof, of pedagogy, Teachers' College, Univ. of Buffalo, 1895-98; prof, 
elem. education, Teachers' College, and supervisor of Speyer Sch., N. Y. 
City, 1898; joint author of The Method of the Recitation; joint author 
of the Tarr and McMurry Series of Common School Geographies. Married 
Elizabeth Lindley, Dec. 20, 1894. 

152. Oscar Lincoln McMurry, 6414 Kimbark Ave., Chicago. Public 
schools of Illinois 5 yrs. ; manual training dept. Chicago schools, 2 yrs. ; 
supervisor manual training Chicago Normal Sch., 4 yrs. 

53. Thomas Williams, real estate agt, Herington, Kan. 

CLASS OF 1880 

*337. Elizabeth Baumgardner, died June 17, 1898. Taught 16 yrs. 
in Springfield, the last 2 yrs. was prin. of teachers' training sch. 

338. Helen Maria Baxter (Mrs. Henry C. Brakefield), teaching, 
Nathaniel Pope Sch., Chicago. Griggsville, 1880-83; elem. sch., Chicago, 
1905-date. Married June, 1883. 

339. Lillian M. Brown (Mrs. Eugene P. Fairchild), Rutherford, N. J. 
Mendota, I yr. ; Berea College, Ky., 1885-1894. Married July 29, 1882. 

340. May Hewett (Mrs. Rudolph R. Reeder), Hastings-on-Hudspn, 
N. Y. Oak Park, 1881-82; talks on work of N. Y. Orphanage. Married 
June 20, 1883. 

f34i. Helen F. Moore (Mrs. Sanders), last address Albuquerque, 
N. M. Taught 4 yrs. 

342. Isabel Overman (Mrs. B. W. Diehl), 1645 W. ist St., Los 
Angeles, Cal. Gardner, 1 880-8 1 ; near Farmer City, 1881-82; Chicago 
elem. s. spring, 1882; Gardner, 1882-86; Los Angeles, Cal., 1887-91. Mar- 
ried March 17, 1891. 

343. Mary E. Parker (Mrs. H. H. Bixby), McPherson, Kan. Gard- 
ner, i yr. ; McPherson, Kan., i yr. ; Eskridge, Kan., i yr. Married Henry 
H. Bixby, Aug. 29, 1883. 

344. Grace N. Weeks, housekeeper, Eatonville, Fla. Asst. h. s., 
Odell, 1880-81; ungraded schools Fla., 1882-84. 

345. James W. Adams, fruit grower, Normal. St. Univ. of Mich., 
B.L. degree, 1889; Halle and Berlin, 1889-90; Cornell Univ., 1897-98; 
taught Illinois schools, 1890-92; prof, of English, Univ. of Neb., 1892-97. 
Married Carrie B. Goode (See No. 520), July u, 1889. 

t346. Andrew L. Anderson, farmer, Virginia. Chandlerville, 9 yrs. 

347. Alpheus A. Dillon, prin. West Side Sch., Normal. Rural s. 2 
yrs.; prin. Hudson, Weston, Deer Creek, i yr. each; prin. West Side sch., 
Normal, 5 yrs. 

348. James M. Harper, banker, Conway Springs, Kan. Prin. Gard- 
ner, 1880-82; Milford, 1882-83; supt. Pontiac, 1883-84; pres. school board 
Conway Springs, i893-date. Married Minerva Strain, Sept. 30, 1884. 


349. Woodman R. Harriet, physician, Capron. St. and grad. at Rush 
Medical Coll., 1886; prin. Port Byron, 2 yrs.; mayor of Capron, i term; 
vice-pres. Capron State Bank. Married Annie R. Speer, Hennepin, Dec. 
8, 1886. 

350. Eugene Charleton Webster, 4738 Evans St., Chicago. Asst. 
twp. h. s., Ottawa, 2 yrs. ; supt. Dixon, 9 yrs. ; supt. Rochelle, 2 yrs. ; prin. 
Kershaw sch., Chicago, i892-date. 

351. Edgar Wyatt, prin. sch., Buhl, Idaho. Grad. Kansas State Nor- 
mal sch., Emporia, 1896; prin. Chapin, 1880-81 ; prin. Strong, Kai 5 ., 1895- 
98; prin. Elmdale, Kan., 1899-1900; prin. Scott Co., Kan., h. s., 1902-04; 
prin. Steamboat Springs, Col., 1904-1907; present position, 1907 . Mar- 
ried, Alice McEwers, 1881. 


54. Helen M. Baxter (Mrs. H. C Brakefield) (See No. 338). 

55. May Hewett (Mrs. R. R. Reeder). (See No 340.) 

56. Alice C. McCormick (Mrs. O. R. Trowbridge). (See No. 407.) 

57. Frances D. Ohr, teacher, St. Paul, Minn. Gardner, 2 yrs. ; Cen- 
tralia, i yr. ; Peoria, 2 yrs. ; St. Paul, 18 yrs. ; now prin. Cushman K. 
Davis School. 

58. Frank Nathaniel Lufkin, with United Fruit Co., San Jose, Costa 
Rica, Cent. Am. Grad. Ann Arbor Univ. , lit. dept. 1884; law dept, 1886. 

59. Herbert McNulta, chief engineer, Cincinnati Traction Co., Trac- 
tion Bldg., Cincinnati, Ohio. St. U. S. Naval Acad., 1880-84. Married 
Elizabeth Presly Marchand. 

60. George Kimball Smith, lumberman, Victoria Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. 
Elem. s., Maroa, 1880; dir. Am. Forestry Assn. Married Lora E. Allen, 

CLASS OF 1881 

352. Sarah A. Anderson, Central Insane Hospital, Jacksonville. Prin. 
3 yrs. ; gram, grade, i /4 yrs. ; h. s. asst, i yr. ; 5th grade, i yr. ; parochial 
sch., i l / 2 yrs.; rural sch., 7^ yrs. 

353. Mary Ross Gaston (Mrs. John H. Tear), 846 Walnut St., Chi- 
cago. St. Chicago Kindergarten College, 1895-96; elem. s., 1881-83; prin. 
Astoria 1883-84; elem. s. Chicago, i897-date. Married Aug., 1884, to 
John H. Tear (See No. 372). 

354. Addie Gillan (Mrs. Estee), 139 State St. Montpelier, Vt. Ha- 
vana h. s., 1881-82; h. s. East Champaign, 1882-83. Married James B. 
Estee (See No. 367), Aug. 16, 1883. 

355. Mary J. Gillan (Mrs. C. S. Eastman), Pontiac, Mich. St. I.S. 
N.U., 1888-89; h. s., Danville, 1882-88; prin. h. s., Waukesha, Wis., 1889- 
90; Plainfield, Wis., 1890-91; elem. s. Milwaukee, Wis., 1891-92; prin. 
h. s., Menominee, Mich., 1892-95; pub. Eastman System of S.S. Records. 
Married Oct., 1895. 

356. Belle W. Hobbs (Mrs. E. A. Gastman), 464 W. North St., De- 
catur. St. Univ. of Chicago, summer, 1901; Metropolis City, 1881-84; 
Decatur, 1884-91; elem. s. DeKalb, 1891-1900; N.I.S.N.S., 1900-1905. 
Married December 25, 1905. 

357. Anna P. Knight, Normal. Rural schools, McLean Co., 3 yrs.; 
graded sch., i yr. 

f358. Helen Middlekauff, Laramie, Wyo. Prin. h. s., Marshalltown, 
la., 4 yrs. ; prin. h. s., Cheyenne, Wyo., 5 yrs. ; h. s., St. Louis, Mo., I yr. ; 
prof, of English and prin. of practice dept. Wyoming University. 


359 Celia S. Mills, farming, Gage, Okla. Mendota, 1881-82; Lex- 
ington, 1887-88; rural schools, 10 yrs. ; nurse in Chicago, 1888-92. 

360. Carrie G. Rich, teaching, 706 Clement PI., Alton. Shawneetown, 
1881-83; prin. h. s., Metropolis, 1883-84; same Macomb, 1885-86; ist 
asst. in h. s., Alton, 1886 . 

t36i. Mary A. Springer, address unknown. Taught i 1 /? yrs. 

362. Lizzie Phebe Swan, librarian and proprietor of a private refer- 
ence library, Beloit, Wis. St. Library dept. of Armour Institute, 1893-94; 
h. s., Chenoa, 3 yrs.; asst. I.S.N.U., 1886-92; librarian Univ. of Wis., 
1894-1902; librarian Gleaners' Library, Beloit, Wis., 1902 . 

363. Cara A. Webster, 121 Park Ave., DeKalb. Metropolis, 3 yrs.; 
Decatur primary, tf/t yrs. ; prin. ward sch., Decatur, l / 2 yr. ; h. s. and 
grades in DeKalb, also substitute teacher and attendance officer, DeKalb, 
19 yrs. Married John T. Bowles (See No. 312). 

1*364. William H. Bean, Blue Mound, 111., farmer. Taught i yr. ; 
president Blue Mound Coal Co. ; sec. Mut. Ins. Co. ; pres. Farmers' Inst. 

365. Isaac L. Betzer, real estate and loan business, Topeka, Kan. 
Prin. E. Champaign sch., 1881-83; prin. E. Matton, sch., 1883-86. Mar- 
ried Mary E. Robinson, March 15, 1882. 

366. Elmer Ellsworth Brown, Comr. of Education, Washington, D. C. 
St. Univ. of Mich., 1887-89, Univ. of Halle, 1889-90; prin. Belvidere, 1881- 
84; prin. h. s. Jackson, Mich., 1890-91; Univ. of Mich, 1891-92; Univ. 
of Cal., 1892-1906; pres. National Council of Educ., 1905-07; pub. The 
Making of Our Middle Schools, 1903. Married Fanny F. Eddy, June 
29, 1889. 

367. James B. Estee, life insurance, 139 State St., Montpelier, Vt. 
Supt. Woodstock, 1881-82; U. S. Court Comr.; Pres. Citizens' Bank; 
2nd V.-Pres. National Life Ins. Co. Married Addie Gillan (See No. 354), 
Colfax, Aug., 1883. 

368. George Frank Miner, gen. mngr. Century Coal Co., Tower Hill. 
Prin. Hennepin, I yr. ; Heyworth, i yr. ; Nokomis, 2 yrs. ; supt. Ed- 
wardsville, 8 yrs. ; sec. State Board of Charities, 4 yrs. 

t369. Wendell F. Puckett, real estate, Wichita, Kan. 

t.37p. Edward Shannon, attorney at law, 234}^ N. 6th St., Quincy, 
111. Prin. Payson sch., 8 yrs. 

*37i. Elmer E. Shinkle. Died August, 1881. 

*372. John H. Tear, died Feb. 15, 1897. Taught 16 yrs. 

373. Nathan Thomas Veatch, supt. city schools, Atchison, Kan. St. 
I.S.N.U., 1883, (spring), and 1900 (summer); prin. Butler, 1881-83; 
Little Rock, Ark., 1885-87; supt. and prin. Rushville, 1887-1901; supt. 
Atchison, Kan., 1901 -date ; county examiner, Pulaski Co., Ark., 2^2 yrs. ; 
pub. Cabinet of Curiosities. Married Lizzie Montgomery, Rushville, June 
20, 1883. 

t374. Charles B. Walter, New York City. Taught 10 yrs. 


61. Elmer E. Brown (See No. 366). 

62. John H. Tear (See No. 372). 

CLASS OF 1882 

375. Mattie V. Bean (Mrs. Mattie B. Garwood), farming, Blue 
Mound. Taught 3 yrs. 

*376. Matilda Glanville, died 1883. Taught i yr. 


377. Camilla Jenkins, Butler. Butler, 2 yrs. ; prin. h. s. Hillsboro, 
6 yrs. 

t378. Lida A. Kelly (Mrs. Charles G. Bragg), 619 So. loth St., St. 
Joseph, Mo. Normal h. s., I yr. ; h. s., Astoria, I yr. ; h. s., Dwight, 4 
yrs. ; Omaha, Neb., City Schools, I yr. 

1379. Cora A. Lurton (Mrs. Warwick), Nurnburg, Germany. Stu- 
benstrasse 71. Taught 3 yrs. 

380. Mattie B. Maxwell (Mrs. A. W. McPherson), 423 Park St., 
Rockford. Grade teacher, Plainfield, 1882-84; P"n. h. s., Lockport, 1884- 
86 ; prin. h. s., Perry, la. ; 1887-88 ; asst. prin. county h. s., Panora, la., 
1888-95. Married June 28, 1888. 

381. Lillian W. Pillsbury (Mrs. Dr. William S. Gates), 2725 N. Lin- 
coln St., Chicago. Belvidere, 1882-84; Normal pub. sch., 1884-86. Mar- 
ried Dr. W. S. Gates, 1886. 

t382. Mattie L. Powell, prin. Walnut Hill Sch., 9 The Winona, 
Omaha, Neb. Rochelle, 3 yrs. ; Omaha since 1885. 

383. Florence Hubbard Reid (Mrs. Edwin A. Leavenworth), 1935 
N. 3rd St., Harrisburg, Pa. Elem. sch. Salt Lake City, Utah, 1882-83; 
elem. sch., Omaha, Neb., 1883-87; normal instruction, Allentown, Pa., 1897. 
Married July 24, 1887. 

384. Louisa M. Scott (Mrs. Donald K. Campbell), Ottawa. Elem. 
sch., Magnolia, 1882-84; Tonica, 1884-85; Mendota, 1885-92; Evanston, 
1892-99. Married, 1899, to Rev. D. K. Campbell. 

t38s. Lettie J. Smiley (Mrs. Charles E. Fraser), Plainfield. Gard- 
ner, i yr. ; Plainfield, 2 yrs. 

386. Charles Fordyce, prof, physiology and dean of College of Lib- 
eral Arts, University Place, Neb. ; supt. McLean, 2 yrs. ; Lena, i yr. ; 
Brownsville, Neb., 2 yrs.; Auburn, Neb., 6 yrs.; prof, biology, Nebraska 
Wesleyan Univ., 1894 . 

387. Jesse F. Hannah, interior decorator, 407 Allen St., Belvidere. 
Supt., Adeline, i yr. ; prin. h. s., Peru, 2 yrs. Married Jennie L. Hun- 
toon, June 10, 1886. 

t388. James V. McHugh, grain dealer, 31 Chamber of Commerce, 
Minneapolis, Minn. Centralia h. s., i yr. ; I.S.N.U., i yr. ; supt. Nor- 
mal pub. sch., i yr. ; Minneapolis h. s., 2 yrs. 

389. Murray McCheyne Morrison, bookseller and stationer, Vinton, 
la. Prin. Adeline, 1882-83; Franklin Grove, 1884-87; Whipple Acad., 
Jacksonville, 1887-88; head of private sch., 1888-89. Married Kate 
Leach, 1889. 

f39O. George W. Reeder, mining, Cripple Creek, Col. Taught, n yrs. 

391. Milton R. Regan, physician, Eureka Springs, Ark. St. Rush 
Med. College, 1887-88; Chicago Homeopathic Med. Coll., 1888-89; prin., 
Auburn, 1882-83; Plainfield, 1883-84; Wayne, Neb., 1884-86. Married 
Elizabeth J. lies, July 2, 1884. 

*392. Edwin E. Rosenberry, died, Aug. 30, 1890. Taught 8 yrs. Mar- 
ried Flora A. Lewis (See No. 406), Aug. 25, 1885. 

t393- Charles N. Smith, physician, 509 Buchanan St., Belleville. 

t394- William J. Smith, address unknown. Taught I yr. 

395. Evans Whitmere Thomas, banker and broker, Bourse Bldg., 
Philadelphia, res. 305 Columbia St., Goldfield. Prin. Normal Sch. and 
prof, in State Univ., Boulder, Col. Married Helen E. Lucas. 

306. Frank L. Williams, lawyer, Clay Center, Kan. St. Law School, 
Columbia College, New York City, 1884-85 ; prin. Loda, 1882-83 > prin., 
Hinsdale sch., Pueblo, Col., 1883-84; private sec. to Gov. Edward W. 
Hoch, of Kansas. Married Clara Davis, Delaware, Ohio. 



63. Bronson Bayliss Beecher, cotton buyer, Memphis, Tenn. Married 
Fanny Ewing, Bloomington, Dec., 1893. 

CLASS OF 1883 

397. Lou M. Allen, prin. Glidden Sch., DeKalb. Elem. sch., DeKalh, 
5 yrs. ; Colorado Springs, Col., 7 yrs. ; critic teacher, N.I.S.N.S., i yr. ; 
prin., DeKalb, 4 yrs. ; county supt. Colorado, 2 yrs. 

398. Mrs. Lincoln Isabel Dickson Burr (Mrs. Frank Burr), Geyser 
ville, Cal. Hawaiian Islands, 1883-86; prin. grammar schools in Califor- 
nia, 1887-1897. Married, April i, 1883. 

399. Mae Frances Downey (Mrs. Herbert M. Cox), Hudson. Prin. 
Tiskilwa, 1883-85. Married Oct., 1885. 

400. Sarah Elizabeth Glanville (Mrs. Houston), Polo. Sparta h. s, 
1883-84; primary, Grand Island, Neb., 1885-87. Married Dr. S. D. Hous- 
ton, Feb. 28, 1894. 

401. Nannie R. Gray, teacher German, State Normal Sch., Stevens 
Point, Wis. St. in Germany, 1895-96 and in 1906; Gardner, 1883-84; 
Mattoon, 1884-86; h. s., Barry, 1886-87; h. s., Decatur, 1887-91; Monte 
Vista, Col., 1891-94; present position, 1896 . 

402. Mary Hubbard (Mrs. William R. Heath), 60 Soldiers' Place, 
Buffalo, N. Y. H. s., Gardner, 2 yrs. ; h. s., Morris, 2 yrs. ; prin. Hudson, 
i yr. ; Chicago night sch., I yr. Married Sept., 1888 (See No. 451). 

403. Caroline A. Humphrey (Mrs. David W. Reid), Jacksonville. 
Married, Dec. 25, 1883, to David W. Reid (See No. 429). 

404. Lucy Johnson, instructor in history, Kalamazoo College, Kala- 
mazoo, Mich. Ph.B., Univ. of Mich., 1893; A.M., Radcliff, 1901; elem. 
sch., Rossville, 1883-84; h. s., LeRoy, 1884-87; elem. sch., Austin, 1888-90; 
Kalamazoo College i893-date. 

405. Mary E. Kuhn (Mrs. A. B. Kipp), Minonk. Shawneetown, 
1883-86 ; h. s., Polo, 1886-87 J h. s., Minonk, 1887-93. Married, June, 1893. 

406. Flora A. Lewis (Mrs. Rosenberry), teaching, Normal. Franklin 
Grove, 1883-85; h. s., Mt. Sterling, Feb. to May, 1888; second primary, 
Normal, 1894-96; rural sch., I9d6-date. Married Edwin E. Rosenberry 
(See No. 392), Aug. 25, 1885. 

407. Alice C. McCormick (Mrs. Oliver Trowbridge), Normal. 
Naples, 1880-81; h. s., asst. I.S.N.U., 1883, Dec., 1885. Married O. R. 
Trowbridge (See No. 482), Dec. 29, 1885. 

t4o8. Martha G. Martin (Mrs. B. O. Skewis), Marcus, la. Asst. 
h. s., Shullsburg, i yr. ; ninth grade, Moline, 2 yrs. 

409. Hattie Paddock (Mrs. Wm. A. Smith), Westlake, Idaho. Grad. 
from Cook Co. Normal, 1888 ; Blue Island, 3 yrs. ; elem. s., Chicago, 14 
yrs. Married, Nov. 13, 1902. 

410. Ada L. Parsons, Woodstock. H. s., Woodstock, 2 yrs. ; h. s., 
Marengo, 2 yrs. ; h. s., Polo, 2 yrs. ; h. s., Chester, i yr. ; h. s, Dixon, i yr. 

411. May M. Parsons (Mrs. J. H. Glotfelter), 1025 State St., Em- 
poria, Kan. Hanover, 2 yrs. ; Bloomington, 6 mos. ; Little Rock, Ark., 
4 yrs. (See No. 475). 

412. Ida M. Porter, concert soprano, Hampton, la. 

413. Augusta Eleanor Root, writer and illustrator, 121 Beacon St., 
Boston, Mass. St. Harvard summer school, 1898; Eric Pape School of 
Art, Boston, 1899-1902; h. s., Shawneetown, 1883-85; Peoria, 1885-86; 
h., s., Bedford, la., 1886-87; Topeka, Kan., 1887-88; Los Angeles, Cal., 

~~3-93; Galesburg, 1893-94; pub. numerous articles and stories in New 


York Independent, Interior, St. Nicholas, and various other magazines 
and papers. 

1414. Harriet Scott, Seward. Taught 4 yrs. 

415. Carrie E. Smith (Mrs. Charles H. Turner), Mt. Sterling. 
Pueblo, Col., 1883-85; asst. h. s., Mt. Sterling, 1885-87. Married May 8, 
1888, to Charles H. Turner, who died Dec. 10, 1905. 

t4i6. S. Elouise Smith (Mrs. Crawford), 197 Norwood Ave., Buffalo, 
N. Y. Gram, grade, Gibson City, I yr. Married William A. Crawford 
(See H. S. No. 69). 

*4i7. Mary C. Spottswood, died July 30, 1902. Metropolis, I yr. ; 
prin. Lincoln sch., Rockford, 18 yrs. 

418. Walter T. Blake, city editor, 1617 State St., San Diego, Cal. 

419. Frank Burr, farmer, Geyserville, Cal. Prin. gov't sch., Sand- 
wich Islands, 1883-1886; prin. grammar sch. in Cal., I yr. Married, L. 
Isabel Dickson (See No. 398), April I, 1883. 

420. Andrew Engel, farmer, So. Holland, Cook Co., R. F. D. No. I. 
S. Englewood, 1883-89; elem. sch., Chicago, 1889-1902. Married Hulda 
Trautwein, 1886. 

421. John L. Hall, civil engineer, 78 Fifth Ave., New York City, N. Y. 
Taught Bryant and Stratton Business Coll., y 2 yr. ; Shipman, i l / 2 yrs.; 
Y.M.C.A. classes, Chicago, 4 yrs.; pub. Tables of Squares^ and Struc- 
tural Slide Rule Manual, 1900 and 1906. Married Lillian Liggitt, 1894. 

422. George Howell, institute instructor, 175 So. Bromley Ave., Scran- 
ton, Pa. Loda, 2 yrs. ; Lena, I yr. ; Minonk, 2 yrs. ; Scranton h. s., 8 yrs. ; 
supt. Scranton, Pa., 8 yrs. 

423. J. Montgomery Humer, prin. Dubois Sch., 319 S. Lincoln Ave., 
Springfield. St. Illinois College, 1895 ; prin. Danville, 2 yrs. ; prin. Lov- 
ington, I yr. ; rural sch., i yr. ; prin. Waverly, 6 yrs. ; prin. Pawnee, 6 
yrs. ; Springfield, 2 yrs. Married Emma J. Bowdle, 1878. 

f424. John S. Ketterman, contractor and builder, Ida Grove, la. 
Taught 3 yrs. 

425. William M. Lewis, gen. mngr. of The Commonwealth Mining 
and Milling Co., Cripple Creek, Col. Married Marie Z. Fleming, Dec. 
20, 1893. 

426. Cornelius Luther Perry, agt. Metropolitan Life Ins. Co., 701 
N. Fell Ave., Normal. Correspondence course in Sheldon Sch. of Scien- 
tific Salesmanship; tutor Bloomington, 1883-86; supt. Soldiers' Orphans' 
Home School, Normal, 1886-87; P rm - elem. sch., Rock Island, 1887-89; 
prin. West Side Sch., Normal, 1892-93. Married Ida B. Lytle, July i, 1879, 

427. Eueene W. Pinkley, horticulture Kingsburg, Cal. Elem. sch., 
Fresno Co., Cal., 13 yrs.; county judge, Fresno Co., i899-date. Married 
Ida E. Scovell, 1883. 

428. Rudolph R. Reeder, Supt. N. Y. Orphanage, Hastings-on-Hud- 
son, N. Y. St. Columbia Univ., 1898-1900; Ph.D. and diploma from 
Teachers' College, 1900; prin. grammar sch., I.S.N.U., 1883-1890; read- 
ing and pedagogy I.S.N.U., 1890, Dec., 1893; instructor Teachers' Coll., 
N. Y. City, 1899-1900; pres. N. Y. Society of Charity Workers, 1906-07; 
pub. 12 articles on Education of Orphan Children; lecturer and institute 
worker. Married May Hewett, June 20, 1883. 

429. David W. Reid, physician, Jacksonville. St. Chicago Med. Coll., 
1887-88; Chicago Homeopathic Med. Coll., 1888-89; P"n. E. Champaign, 
i yr. ; prin. Normal h. s., I yr. ; Rock Island, 2 yrs. Married Caroline A. 
Humphrey (See No. 403), 1883. 

430. Edward Ransom Ristine, teacher, Mount Vernon, la. St. Cor- 
nell College, la.; Univ. of Chicago; prin. h. s., 1883-88; Gem City Bus. 


Coll., Quincy, 1890-91 ; prin. commercial dept., Cornell College, la., 1891- 
date; received degrees B.S. and M.S. from Cornell College. Married 
Mrs. Laura F. Fraser. 

*43i. Fred W. Smedley, died, 1904. Taught El Paso, 2 yrs. ; Gol- 
conda, i yr. ; Peru, 5 yrs. ; prin. and head of dept. of Child Study, Chi- 
cago schools, during latter part of his life. 

t432. Charles H. Tallmadge, accountant, 83 Warren Ave., Chicago. 

433- John N. Wayman, teaching, 549 West 6ist St., Chicago. St. at 
Univ. of Chicago ; prin. Gardner, 2 yrs. ; prin. Yorkville, 6 yrs. ; teacher 
in h. s., Chicago, 8 yrs. ; teacher of manual training and drawing in Chi- 
cago sch., i899-date. Married Catherine F. Bowen, 1873. 


f64. Mary L. Beecher (Mrs. Ensley), Memphis, Tenn. Taught 3 yrs. 

65. Flora A. Lewis (Mrs. Rosenberry) (See No. 406). 

66. Dolly A. McGowan (Mrs. Charles A. C. Garst), deputy co. supt. 
of schools, Riverside, Cal. St. Lombard College, 1890-91 ; School of Art 
and Design, Glasgow, Scotland, 1892-93; elem. sch., Stanford, 1883-89; 
Riverside, Cal., i897-date. Married, 1889. 

67. Ida M. Porter (See 412). 

68. Lillie M. Walker (Mrs. Lillie Walker Smith), Minier. Taught i 
yr. Married Mr. Smith, now deceased. 

t69. William A. Crawford, 197 Norwood Ave., Buffalo, N. Y., doctor 
of osteopathy. Married S. Elouise Smith (See No. 416). 

70. Isaac B. Hammers, lawyer, El Paso. Elem. sch., 1883-85 ; rep- 
resentative in 39th and 4Oth General Assemblies. Married Jessie H. Ray, 
Dec., 1894. 

71. William Herbert Higby, insurance and real estate, Ottawa. St. 
Northwestern Univ., dept. of Pharmacy, 1887; Capt. Co. A, 3rd 111. Inft, 
during Spanish-American War. Married Phebe A. Finley, Grand Ridge, 

72. Edward F. Parr, municipal and corporation bonds, First Nat- 
ional Bank Bldg., Chicago. 

73. Frank Hall Thorp, Mass. Institute of Technology, Boston, Mass. 
St. Mass. Institute of Technology, 1883-86, and 88-89; Univ. of Heidel- 
berg, 1891-93 ; Mass . Inst. Tech., 1889-81, and i8o4-date ; pub. Inorganic 
Chemical Preparation, 1896, Outlines Industrial Chemistry, 1898. Married 
Kate G. Lunger (See No. 443), 1891. 

CLASS OF 1884 

434. Mary Emma Biggs, teacher, 633 N. Park Ave., Chicago. St. in 
summer schools at Chautauqua, N. Y., Martha's Vineyard, N. Y. Univ. ; 
Lena, 1884-85; Pekin, 1885-86; prin. Tremont, 1886-87; prin. Lake Ben- 
ton, Minn., 1887-88; Nebraska, 1888-90; Cook Co., 1890-91; Maywood, 
1891-92; Tilton sch., Chicago, 1892-95; Richard Yates Sch., Chicago, 
i895-date; state life certificate, 1884. 

*435. Zella Campbell, died Feb. 23, 1892. 

436. Ella J. Caughey, teaching, 1819 I3th Ave., Seattle, Wash. Dixon, 
1884-1885 ; h. s., Dixon, 1885-88 ; h. s., Seattle, i888-date. 

*437. Carrie A. Dillon (Mrs. Milliken), died, Dec. 28, 1892. Fern- 
wood, 2 yrs. Married Orris J. Millikin (See No. 453), Dec., 1884. 

438. Clarissa E. Ela, art dept, I.S.N.U., 309 E. Locust St., Bloom- 
ington. Grad. Mass. Normal Art Sch., Boston, Mass., 1888; elem. sch., 
Bloomington, 1884-86; present position, 1888 . 


439. Carrie Myrtle Fuller (Mrs. Asa Giles Judd), 40 E. South St., 
Warren, Ohio. H. s., North Dixon, 1884-85 ; h. s., South Dixon, 1885-87 ; 
h. s., Ottawa, 1887-88. Married, 1888. 

440. Carrie A. Gifford (Mrs. Harvey), Ypsilanti, Mich. Dixon, 1884- 
87; substitute in h. s., Morris, 1887-88. Married, Nathan A. Harvey, 1888. 
(See No. 450.) 

441. Mary Martine Hall (Mrs. Frederick A. Husted), 703 E. Walnut 
St., Bloomington. Elem. sch., Bloomington, 1884-1888; critic teacher, 
I.S.N.U., 1888-92; pub. Stories of Indian Children, other books and 
pamphlets. Married, 1892. 

442. Annie Hendron (Mrs. Frederick S. Smith), Mt. Carroll. Wash- 
burn, i yr. ; Wenona, I yr. ; Bloomington, I yr. ; Delavan, i yr. ; Mt. 
Carroll, 2 yrs. ; deputy county clerk, i yr. ; stenographer, law office, 4 yrs. 

443. Kate G. Lunger (Mrs. Frank H. Thorp), 200 Mt. Vernon St., 
West Roxbury, Mass. H. s., Washington, 1885-87; h. s., Dixon, 1887-89; 
Palatine, 1889-90; Austin, 1890-91. Married, 1891. 

444. Harriet M. Montgomery (Mrs. Herman W. McClure), Atlanta. 
Elem. sch., Dixon, i yr. ; prin. h. s., Atlanta, 9 yrs. Married, Oct., 1895. 

445. Cora J. Walker, stenographer, Keeley Co., Dwight. Taught 3 yrs. 

446. Clara A. Whitcomb (Mrs. Seabery F. Leaf), farming, Garden 
City, Mo. Elem. sch., California, Mo., 1884-86; Polo, 1886-87; Bloom- 
ington, 1888-89; Astor, Kan., 1891-93; Lebanon, Kan., 1896-97. Married, 
June, 1889. 

447. Edward Aldrich, Rosemond, 111. Taught iH yrs. 

448. David H. Chaplin, printing and pub. business, 123-125 Temple 
St., Los Angeles, Cal. Prin. East Side sch., ElPaso, 1884-86; prin. gram, 
sch., California, 1891-95 ; supervising prin., Long Beach, California, 1895- 
97; prin. elem. sch., San Diego, Cal., 1901-02. Married Grace Darnall, 
Nov. i, 1887. 

449. William D. Edmunds, Toulon, 111. Hennepin, i yr. ; Yorkville, 
2 yrs. ; Lockport, 3 yrs. ; Tiskilwa, i yr. ; Bradford, 3 yrs. 

450. Nathan A. Harvey, prof, of pedagogy, Mich. State Normal Col- 
lege, Ypsilanti, Mich. St. Univ. of 111., 1889-1890; h. s., Carrollton, 1885- 
86; prin. Waverly, 1886-87; supt. Pittsfield, 1887-89; teacher zoology, h. s., 
Kansas City, Mo., 1890-96; head science dept., Wisconsin State Normal, 
Superior, Wis., 1896-1900; vice prin. Chicago Normal Sch., 1900-04; pres- 
ent position, 1904 ; pub. Introduction to the Study of Zoology, 1900; 
Pedagogical Content of Zoology, N.E.A. report, 1899; Pedagogical Train- 
ing of Teachers of Science, N.E.A. report, 1901 ; The Training of^ a Science 
Teacher, N. Y. Science Teachers' Ass'n., 1902. Married Carrie A. Gif- 
ford, 1888 (See No. 440). 

451. William R. Heath, vice-pres. and mngr. Larkin Co., Buffalo, 
N. Y. St. Northwestern Univ. ; h. s., Peru, 1884-85 ; h. s., Gardner, 1885- 
86; Kent College of Law, 2 yrs. Married Mary E. Hubbard (See No. 402). 

452. Leander Messick, cashier, Graham County Nat'l Bank, Hill City, 
Kan. Prin. Carlyle, 1884-86; prin., Hays City, Kan., 1886-87. Married, 
Jessie L. Cook, Carlyle, 111., Jan. 3, 1889. 

453- Orris J. Milliken, prin. Dore sch., Chicago, res. 401 Seventh 
Ave., LaGrange. Prin. Chicago pub. sch., 1885-1903 ; supt. Jewish Train- 
ing Sch., 1903-07; prin. Dore Sch., Chicago, March I, i9O7-date; supt. 
Chicago vacation sch., 1897-98; founder and trustee Chicago Penny Sav- 
ings Society. Married Carrie A. Dillon, deceased, (See No. 437) ; m. 
Hattie Fagersten, 1893. 

454. Austin C. Rishel, teaching, 542 Berenice Ave., Chicago. Prin. 
Paxton, 2 yrs.; prin. Gibson, 4 yrs.; science dept., h. s., Lake View, 5^ 
yrs.; prin. Ogden sch., Chicago, 6 l / 2 yrs.; prin. Audubon sch., Chicago, 
3^ yrs. 


455- Orville T. Rogers, minister, Lake Arthur, New Mexico. Elem. 
sch., 1882-83; h. s., Paxton, 1885-86; prin. Hopedale, 1886-87. Married 
Adda Short, Heyworth, 1884. 

*456. Monroe W. Utz, died 1893. Taught 3^ yrs. 

457. James C. Wood, farming, Secor. Rural sch., 3 yrs. ; rural sch., 
state of Wyoming, 5 mos. 


74. Edward Aldrich (See No. 447). 

75. Leander Messick (Sec No. 452). 

76. Murray M. Morrison (See No. 389). 

CLASS OF 1885 

458. Mary Joice Adams, teaching, 854 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. St. 
Univ. of Mich., 1889-90, 1894-97, Univ. of Chicago, 1905-06; DeKalb, 
1885-86; h. s., Lacon, 1886-88; Harvard, 1888-89; prin. h. s., Peru, 1890- 
91 ; Cherokee, la., 1893 ; Dixon, 1893-94 ', asst. in h. s., Bloomington, 
1897-1904; Joseph Medill h. s., Chicago, i9O4-date; pub. History of Suf- 
frage in Michigan. 

459. Sue P. Adams, 854 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. DeKalb, 1885-87; 
Normal, 1888-89; in Cook county, 1900-03; Bloomington, 1904-05. 

460. Eva M. Blanchard (Mrs. Lewis W. Snedaker), 74 W. Phillips 
St., Pomona, Cal. Rural sch. near Mason City, i yr. ; rural sch. near 
Tonica, i term. Married, September 3, 1886. 

461. Helen Antipnette Dewey, prin. Lowell sch., Grand Junction, Col. 
Grad. from California Sch. of Methods, San Jose, Cal., 1893 ; training 
teacher, Wis. State Normal, Platteville, 3 yrs. ; Colorado Springs, Col., 

5 yrs. ; Grand Junction, Col., 12 yrs. 

t462. Agnes Elliott (Mrs. Johnson), Douglas, Wyo. Formerly mis- 
sionary, Schowfu, China, 5 yrs. 

t463. Maggie J. Grand (Mrs. Alexander E. Montgomery), Moline. 
Rural sch., 3 yrs. ; Dixon, i yr. ; Waukegan, i yr. ; prin. village sch., 

3 yrs. 

464. Ruby C. Gray (Mrs. Charles Jordan), Riverside. St. Univ. of 
Chicago, 1902-04; Washington, 1885-86; Pekin, 1886-88; Decatur, 1888- 
89. Married, Aug. 28, 1889. 

465. Olive B. Hubbard (Mrs. Charles W. Partridge), 123 S. 32d Ave., 
Omaha, Neb. Elem. sch., Omaha, 7 yrs. Married, 1892. 

466. Luella McVay (Mrs. Stafford), farming, Maroa. Lexington, I 
yr. ; Pontiac, i yr. ; Normal, i yrs. Married Joseph H. Stafford, Oct. 5, 

467. Anna Reid, 731 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, Cal., 12 yrs. 
*468. Katie Saltsman (Mrs. Collins), died March 30, 1898. Taught 

6 yrs. 

469. Helen E. Savage (Mrs. Frank A. Rowley), Lockport, R. F. D. 
No. i. Rural schools, 4 yrs. Married, Sept. 5, 1889. 

1470. Lucy E. Stewart (Mrs. Brown), 604 W. Green St., Urbana, 111. 

4 yrs. 

471. Emma Werley (Mrs. Haiising), University Park, Denver, Col. 
Asst. h. s. prin., Peru, 1885-1890; h. s. prin., LaSalle, 1890-94; Latin and 
English classics in h. s., Calumet, Mich., 1894-95. Married Otto A. Haiis- 
ing, April 22, 1895. 


472. Alexander Cation, proprietor Walla Walla Lumber Co., Walla 
Walla, Wash. St. Cornell Univ., N. Y., 1885-86; prin. pub. sch., I yr. ; 
prin. Bus. Coll., 4 yrs. Married, Nannie E. Cornwell, Sept 21, 1892. 

*473 Thornton R. Fraser, drowned while in charge of Golconda pub- 
lic schools, 1885. 

*474. Louis H. Galbreath, died in New York, Aug. 14, 1899. Grad. 
at Cornell Univ.; fellow in Columbia, Univ., 1898-99; prof, of pedagogy 
in I.S.N.U., 1896-97; prof, of ped. Buffalo School of Pedagogy, 1897-98; 
elected supt. of practice, E.I.S.N.S., Charleston, 1899. 

475. John Hamlin Glotfelter, prin. training dept, Kansas State Nor- 
mal Sch., Emporia, Kan. Supt. Normal, 1886-87; prin. Little Rock, Ark.,. 
1887-90; prin. Ft. Steele, Ark., 1890-91; supt. Atchison, Kan., 1891-01; 
prin. training dept. K.S.N.S., igoi-date, and vice-pres. since 1906. Mar- 
ried May M. Parsons (See No. 411), Aug. 15, 1883. 

476. Charles L. Howard, pharmacist, Towanda. Taught, Benson, 
h. s. Saybrook, and Oakley, 8 yrs. Married Anna L. Pape. 

477. Lyon Karr, banker, Eureka. Loda, 3 yrs. ; Minonk, I yr. ; co. 
supt. Woodford Co., 1889-1904; treas. Woodford Co., 1898-1902. Mar- 
ried, Emma Dillon, June 26, 1890. 

t478. John R. Kellogg, Woodstock. Taught n yrs. 

479. Thomas B. McMurray, farming, Divernon. Prin. Williamsville, 
I yr. ; rural schools, 9 yrs. Married Fannie E. Haire, Aug. 3, 1892. 

480. John Crittenden Mountjoy, pub. and dealer in school supplies, 
378 Wabash Ave., Chicago. Woodland Coll., Independence, Mo., 3 yrs. ;. 
prin., Cayuga, I yr. ; supt. Forrest, i yr. ; supt. Gilman, i yr. ; supt. La- 
con, 2 yrs.; pub. Historia, a high school play; The American Bird and 
Nature Study Chart; compiled several library catalogues. Married Mary 
E. Houser, 1889; m. Nellie M. Thompson, 1905. 

t48i. Cornelius S. Tarbox, teacher in Nixon Sch., 1315 N. 7ist St., 
Chicago. Taught 17 yrs. Married Lydia Merrill (See No. 550). 

482. Oliver R. Trowbridge, literary work in economics and philoso- 
phy, Normal. St. Chicago College of Law, 1888-1890; prin. Lacon Union 
Schools, 3 yrs. ; Chicago pub. schools, 2 yrs. ; pub. two books Illinois 
and the Nation; How They are Governed, 1887, Bi-socialism; The Reign 
of the Man at the Margin (1903). Married Alice C. McCormick (See No- 
407), Dec. 29, 1885. 

483. John J. Wilkinson, prof, of English, Elmhurst College, Elm- 
hurst. St. Univ. of Jena, of Berlin, and of Leipsig, Germany degree of 
Ph.D. from last 1898; post graduate work in Univ. of Chicago; prin. 
Lovington, 1886-89; prin. North Springfield sch., 1889-90; prin. Lincoln 
sch., Springfield, 1890-93 ; prof, theory and practice of teaching, Paterson 
City Training Sch., Paterson, N. J., 1898-99; supervisor practice school, 
I.S.N.U., 1899-1900; supt. schools, Mattoon, 1900-02. Married Ada 
Ashworth, Sullivan, 111., 1899. 

484. Thomas Elmer Will, sec. American Forestry Association, 1311 
G Street, Northwest, Washington, D. C. St. Univ. of Mich, and of Har- 
vard, 3 yrs. ; Lacon, ^ yr. ; prin. Golconda, Vz yr. ; prin. Edwards sch., 
Springfield, 2 yrs. ; prof, of history and polit. science, Lawrence Univ., 
Appleton, Wis., 2 yrs. ; prof, economics, Kansas State Agricultural Col- 
lege, 3 yrs. ; pres. same, 2 yrs. ; prof of sociology, Ruskin College, Tren- 
ton, Mo., 2^ yrs. ; lecturer and writer, 4^2 yrs. ; present position, 1905 . 

485. Isaac H. Yoder, teaching, Normal. Prin. Chenoa, 2 yrs. ; same, 
Piper City, 3 yrs. ; same, Loda, 3 yrs. ; rural school, 7 yrs. ; prin. Welling- 
ton, 4 yrs. ; prin. Carlock, i yr. Married Anna McGavack, April 8, 1875. 



77. Mary Joice Adams (See No. 458). 

78. Robert H. Elder, lawyer, 256 Broadway, Borough of Manhattan, 
N. Y. City. First asst. district atty. of county of Kings, N. Y. 

*79. Harry M. Loehr, died Sept. 17, 1902. 

CLASS OF 1886 

486. Septina Baker, prin. private sch., 5S4-i4th St., Oakland, Cal. 
Grade teacher, 1886-96; present position, i896-date. 

*487- Lutie A. Bush (Mrs. Saltonstall), died Jan. 9, 1889. Taught 
i yr. 

488. Theodora Gildemeister, training teacher, State Normal Sch., 
Winona, Minn. M.A., Clarksburg, 1900; B.S., Columbia, 1906; h. s., 
Dixon, 1886-88; h. s., Hillsboro, 1888-92; S.I.S.N.U., Carbondale, 1893- 
97; State Normal School, Winona, 1898-05, and I9o6-date; pub. Bulletin 
on Primary Reading and numerous articles for educational magazines. 

*489- Cora Glidden (Mrs. Prof. Switzer), died at DeKalb, 1903. 
Taught 6 yrs. 

1490. Lucy D. Gray (Mrs. Gridley), Huntington, Ark. Taught 3 yrs. 

491. Saidee John Gray (Mrs. Farrin), teaching, Cairo. St. Univ. of 
Chicago ; 8th grade and asst. in h. s., Mt. Vernon, i yr. ; h. s., Rapid City, 
S. Da., i yr. ; teacher of Latin in h. s., Cairo, 1890 . Married T. B. 
Farrin, June 14, 1899 

492. Marion B. Kelley (Mrs. Bowles), physician and surgeon, Joliet. 
St. Woman's Med. Sch., Northwestern Univ., 1890-94; clinical asst. in 
same, 1894-96 ; lecturer to Silver Cross Hospital, 8 yrs. ; member of staff 
of Woman's Med. Journal; active in 111. State Federation of Women's 
Clubs. Married Hon. William A. Bowles, Dec. 29, 1893. 

493. Mary Louise Kimball, 507 W. Locust St., Bloomington. Elem. 
sch., Rpckford, 1886-90; elem. sch., Bloomington, 1890-94, and h. s., 1894- 
96; private school work, 1897-99. 

494. Margaret H. J. Lampe, Blomington, R. F. D. No. i. A.B. 
Univ. of 111., 1897; A.M., same, 1900; h. s., Bloomington, 1886-89; h. s., 
Rushville, 1889-90; Riverside, Cal., 1890-94; prin. h. s., Rochelle, 1900-01; 
Spearfish, S. D., and Atchinson, Kan., 1901-02; prin. h. s., Rochelle, 1902- 
03; same, Dwight, 1903-04; same, Pittsfield, 1904-05; same, Lovington, 
1905-06; pub. Latin and German Drill Books; articles in School and 
Home Education. 

495. Florence McVay (Mrs. Frank W. Custer), Momence. Elem. 
sch., Centralia, 1886-87; Maroa, 1887-88; Pontiac, 1888-93. Married, 
Nov., 1893. 

*496. Hattie A. Mills, died July 15, 1890. Taught 4 yrs. 

497. Mary Piper (Mrs. Anderson), 1060 7th St., Charleston. H. s., 
Charleston, i yr. ; ist primary, same, 6 yrs. ; same, Des Moines, la., 2 
yrs. Married Sumner S. Anderson, June 27, 1895. 

*498. Alma E. Ross (Mrs. Belsley), died Oct. 6, 1895. Taught i^ yrs. 

499. Olive Sattley, teacher in h. s,. 530 S. Second St., Springfield. 
Taylorville h. s., 1886-87; h. s., DeKalb, 1887-88; h. s., Lena, 1888-94; 
h. s., Edinburg, 1894-97; present position, 1897 . 

500. May Shinn (Mrs. Giddings), Cornell. Asst. prin. h. s., Wash- 
ington, i yr. ; same, LeRoy, i yr. ; same, Normal pub. sch., V?. term ; 
same, Lewistown, i term. Married Rev. Frederick J. Giddings, Nov. 12, 


501. Eva G. Telford (Mrs. McClurken), Ashville, N. C. Gallatin, 
Mo., I yr. ; Sparta, 111., 2 yrs. ; Fulton, 111., i yr. ; Little Rock, Ark., 2 
yrs. ; Rico, Col., i yr. ; elem. sch., North Carolina, 8 yrs. ; now in Ash- 
ville pub. schools. Married James L. McClurken, Dec. 12, 1893. 

502. Juliet A. Wallace (Mrs. W. I. Hitt), 7004 Princeton Ave., Chi- 
cago. Chicago elem. sch., 6 yrs. 

1503. David W. Creekmur, lawyer, 1407 Marquette Bldg., Chicago. 
Taught ii yrs. 

504. Levi R. Fitzer, farming, Garden Prairie. Taught 6 yrs. ; county 
supt. Boone Co., 1884-1902. 

505. John H. Fleming, lawyer, St. Ignace, Mich. E. Prin. Pueblo, 
Col., 1887-88; supt. Elsinore, Cal., 1888-89; prin. Benson and Humboldt, 
la., 1889-90; supt. Mandan, N. D., 1890-92; prin. Pleasant Hill, 1894-96; 
Indian sch. in U. P. of Mich., 1896-1900; supt. St. Ignace, Mich., 1903-06. 
Married Lottie M. Rose, Normal, Aug., 1902. 

506. Charles W. Hart, supt. St. Charles Sch., St. Charles. St. Univ. 
of Chicago; prin. Algonquin, 1886-89; supt. Marengo, 1889-96; supt. 
Woodstock, 1896-1906; supt. St. Charles School, I9o6-date. Married Myr- 
tella M. McKee, June 18, 1890. 

507. Robert Enoch Hieronymus, pres. Eureka College, Eureka. St. 
Univ. of Mich., 1887-88; Eureka College, 1888-89; Univ. of Chicago, 1893; 
prin. h. s., Carrollton, 1886-87; prof, of English Lang, and Lit., Eureka 
College, 1890-97; English and history, State Normal, Los Angeles, Cal., 
1897-98; supt. Univ. extension work, Southern Cal., 1898-99; present po- 
sition, 1900 ; pub. articles on educational subjects in the Standard, Cen- 
tury, and other magazines ; pres. or sec. of various associations of teach- 
ers and of ministers. Married Minnie D. Frantz, Wellington, Kan., June 
26, 1890 deceased; m. Lois Campbell, LaHarpe, Aug. 31, 1900. 

508. Martin L. Mclntyre, real estate and mercantile stocks, Seneca, 
Kan. Prin. east sch., ElPaso, 1886-89; supt. Nokomis, 1891-98; editor 
of Seneca Courier Democrat, 1898-1903. Married Millie Haller, of No- 
komis, Aug. 23, 1893. 

509. Samuel D. Magers, professor of physiology, Mich State Normal 
College, Ypsilanti, Mich. B.S. Univ. of Mich., 1894, M.S. Univ. of Chi- 
cago, 1901; h. s., Fayetteville, Ark., 1886-88; prin. Hamilton School, 
Houston, Tex., 1888-91 and 94-95 ; prin. h. s., Houston, 1895-00 ; Mich. 
State Normal College, i9Oi-date; pub. Educational Value of History and 
other magazine articles. Married Ella E. Kirtland, deceased, 1895. 

510. Thomas O. Moore, teacher, Ottawa. St. I term at Business 
Coll.; i term, Lake Forest; prin. village sch., I yr. ; math, in twp. h. s., 
Ottawa, 1888. 

t5ii. Clarence H. Watt, 309 E. 41 st St., Chicago. Prin. Sparland, 
6 yrs. ; supt. Dundee, 2 yrs. 

512. Walter J. Watts, lawyer, 728 Reaper Block, 95 Clark St., Chi- 
cago. St. Union College of Law, 1887; Chicago evening schools, 1887-95. 


80. Jessie M. Dillon (See No. 900). 

81. Saidee J. Gray (See No. 491). 

82. Mary L. Kimball (See No. 493). 

83. Cora Maria Rowell (Mrs. Olney), 463 Nielsen Ave., Fresno, 
Cal. St. Univ. of Mich., 1886-1890; Univ. of California, summer, 1899; 
elem. sch., Fresno, Cal., 1891-95; history in h. s., same, 1895-1902. Mar- 
ried Albert Clyde Olney, June 30, 1902. 


84. Olive Sattley (See No. 499). 

85. May Shinn (Mrs. F. J. Giddings) (See No. 500). 

86. Juliet A. Wallace (See No. 502). 

87. Lee O'Neil Browne, senior member of law firm of Browne & 
Wiley, Ottawa. St. Illinois Wesleyan College of Law, 1886-88; member 
of state legislature, 1900 . 

*88. Jesse Hammers, died December 2, 1890. 

89. Frederick Edwards Jenkins, teaching, Faribault, Minn. St. Univ. 
of Minn.; prin. Cedar Rapids, Neb., 1886-88; supt. Albion, Neb., 1888-93; 
prin. prep, dept, Shattuck sch., 1894-1901 ; prin. Lower Sch., Shattuck, 
Faribault, Minn., 1901 ; admitted to bar in Neb., 1887; in Kansas, 1893. 
Married Ella Gregoire, July 26, 1888. 

90. Harrie H. Town, loans and insurance, Earlville. 

CI.ASS OF 1887 

513. Jennie Armstrong (Mrs. Jennie A. Manning), Harrisburg, O. 
Prin. h. s., Washington, 1887-1890; asst. prin. same, 1891-93; asst. h. s., 
Columbia, Tenn., 1893-94. Married May 29, 1895, to Henry Manning, who 
died May 29, 1904. 

1514. Mary E. Coffey (Mrs. Doren), 923 Prospect Ave., Toledo, O. 
Taught 12 yrs. 

*5iS. Rosalia Colburn (Mrs. Melton), died Feb. 10, 1899. 

*5i6. Anna L. Colson, died, 1899. Taught 7^2 yrs. 

*5i7. Martha Crist (Mrs. Kasbeer), died Jan. 30, 1891. Taught i yr. 

t5i8. Carrie Crum (Mrs. R. H. Russell), Genesee, Id. Diamond, i 
yr. ; Chenoa, 3 yrs. ; Colfax, Wash., i yr. ; Pullman, Wash., 2 yrs. ; Gen- 
esee, Id., i yr. ; Lewiston, Id., 2 years. 

*5i9. Laura L. Furman, died at Normal, Sept. 16, 1888. 

520. Carrie B. Goode (Mrs. Adams), Normal. Taught Aledo, 1887- 
88; Oak Park, 1888-89. Married James W. Adams (See No. 345), July 
n, 1889. 

521. E. Margaret Hursey, 204 E. 4th St., Normal. Rural sch., 2^ yrs. 

522. Cynthia A. Rutledge, sten., 4571 Oakenwold Ave., Chicago. 

523. Flora B. Smith, primary supervisor, 657 W. Main St., Decatur. 
St. Chicago Normal; Chicago Kindergarten College; Havana h. s., 1887- 
89; Decatur, iSSg-date. 

*524. Mary J. Watt, died, 1895. Taught Griggsville h. s., 7 yrs. 

525. Josepha H. E. Witte, Oceanside, Cal. Taught 8 yrs. 

526. Jacob S. Cline, wholesale board and paper business, 135 Adams 
St., Chicago. Prin. h. s., Kankakee, I yr., pres. Fleischer Paper Box Co., 
Chicago. Married Ellen B. Bonfield, June 23, 1891. 

527. Edwin S. Coombs, lawyer, Carthage. St. Univ. of Mich.. 
Ann Arbor, 1894-96; prin., ElPaso, 1887-8; prin., LaHarpe, 1888-90; 
supt., Carthage, 1890-93; co. supt. Hancock Co., 1890; supt. Pontiac, 
1893-94. Married Luella L. Worrell, Oct. 7, 1903. 

528. John W. Creekmur, lawyer, 1402 Marquette Bldg., Chicago. 
Prin. Camp Point, 2 yrs. ; prin. Rice Lake, Wis., i yr. Married, 1891. 

529. John Henry Gray, prof, political and social science, 1827 Or- 
rington Ave., Evanston. St. Harvard, 1883-87; grad. student, Harvard, 
1887-88; Halle, Ger., 1889-90; Paris, France, and Vienna, Aus., 1890-91; 
Berlin, 1891-2; Ph.D., Halle, 1892; instructor in political economy, Har- 
vard, 1888-89; prof, political and social science, Northwestern Univ., 1892- 
date; represented U. S. at International Congress, Diisseldorf, Ger., June, 


1902; also at International Congress at Ostend, Belgium, Aug., 1902; at 
the International Co-operative Congress, Manchester, Eng., July, 1902; 
pub. articles and editorials to the number of 281. Married Helen Roch- 
well Bliss, New Haven, Conn., June 14, 1894. 

t53O. George M. Holferty, Univ. of Chicago, Chicago. Taught 8 yrs. 

531. Joab R. Kasbeer, real estate, 305 Commonwealth Bldg., Denver, 
Col. Prin. Saybrook, 2 yrs. ; supt., Aledo, 2 yrs. 

532. Thomas M. Kilbride, teaching, Springfield. St. Univ. of Mich., 
1890-93; prin. San Jose, 1887-88; prin. Minier, 1888-1890; prin. Stuart 
sch., Springfield, i893-date; pub. Oral Arithmetic for Seventh and Eighth 
Grades. Married Estella L. Moore. 

533- William J. Rowson, prin. S. Holland Schools, Cook Co., 72 N. 
Garfield St., Hinsdale. Taught in business college, Chicago, 9^2 yrs.; 
pub. schools, io l /2 yrs. Married Susan M. Hubbell, Dec. 25, 1894. 

534. Adna F. Smith, optician, 208 Lake St., Oak Park. Prin. prep, 
dept, Eureka College, 1893-97. Married Ada A. Jones, May 27, 1890. 

535. Almeron Warren Smith, prin. gram, sch., 534 W. I24th St., New 
York City. St. Univ. of Mich. ; Columbia Univ, New York City ; prin. 
Morrisonville, 1887-89; prin. gram, sch., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1891-93; 
h. s., Salt Lake City, 1894-98; Hyde Park h. s., Chicago, 1898-1901; De- 
Witt Clinton h. s., New York City, 1901-02; High School of Commerce, 
New York City, 1902-05 ; prin. gram, sch., 32 Brooklyn, igos-date. Mar- 
ried Olive A. Lister, 1898. 

tS36. Amos Watkins, rector Trinity Church, Bay City, Mich. Prin. 
h. s., Pueblo, Col., 2 yrs. 


91. Lucy Coolidge (Mrs. Hamsher), 52040 Morgan St., St. Louis, 
Mo. St. Univ. of Mich., 1887-1891 ; Univ. of Chicago Graduate Sch., 1894. 
Married Frank Hamsher, June, 1900. 

92. Martha Crist (Mrs. Kasbeer) (See No. 517). 

93. Bertha M. Glidden (Mrs. Bradt), DeKalb. St. U. of C. Exten- 
sion Courses, 1896-98, 1905-06; vice-pres. Illinois Congress of Mothers. 
Married Samuel E. Bradt. 

94. Alice Freeman Tryner (Mrs. Evans), 1412 N. Main St. Bloom- 
ington. St. Univ. of Mich., 1887-88; Smith College, 1888-90. Married, 
Oct. 9, 1894, to Rowland Watkin Evans. 

95. Jacob A. Bohrer, postmaster, Bloomington. St. Williams Col- 
lege; I.S.N.U., 4 yrs.; asst. state's attorney, 5 yrs.; postmaster, 1901 . 

t96. Alexander H. Cunningham, missionary, Pekin, China. 

97. J. Robert Effinger, Jr., asst. prof, of French, Univ. of Mich., Ann 
Arbor, Mich. Asst. prin. Manistee, Mich., i yr. ; Univ. of Mich., 1894 . 

98. Walter H. Green, cashier life insurance co., 445 Newton Claypool 
Bldg., Indianapolis, Ind. 

99. Charles B. Harrison, merchant, Manhattan, Kan. 

100. Joab R. Kasbeer (See No. 531). 

fioi. Edward Manley, Quadrangle Club, 5801, Lexington Ave., Chi- 

102. George M. Peairs, physician and surgeon, Joliet. Grad. Rush 
Medical College ; taught 2 yrs. ; at present surgeon for 111. Steel Co., 

103. Harry J. Peairs, teller Second Nat. Bank, Pittsburg, Pa. Taught 
2 yrs. 

*i04. Leonard M. Prince, died Nov. i, 1895. 


105. William F. Ryburn, dentist, Milford. St. Univ. of Mich., 1887- 
88; Univ. of Iowa, 1889-91. 

106. John Adams Scott, head professor of Greek, Northwestern Univ., 
Evanston. St. Northwestern Univ., A.B., 1891 ; Johns Hopkins Univ., 
Ph.D., 1897; Univ. of Gottingen, Ger. ; fellow in Johns Hopkins Univ., 
1895-96; dept. of Greek, Northwestern Univ., i897-date; contributor to 
Eng. Classical Review, Amer. Journal of Philology, and Classical Phil- 
ology. Married Matilda J. Spring, Sept. i, 1893. 

CLASS OF 1888 

537. Maude I. Abbott, saleswoman, Read & White, 406 E. Jefferson 
St., Bloomington. Taught 5 yrs. 

1538. Louise L. Babcock (Mrs. Arenschield), Elden, la. Taught 
3 yrs. 

539. M. Sophie Barry, member of Barry Bros. Dry Goods Co., Ga- 
lena. St. Univ. of Mich., 1889-90; degree of A.B. ; prin. h. s., Charles- 
ton, 1888-89; h. s., Leavenworth, Kan., 1891-92; received life state cer- 
tificate, 1888; in Europe in 1900. 

540. Mary E. Corson (Mrs. Brown), 501 Evans St., Springfield, Mo. 
Asst. h. s. Sparta, 1888-89; prin. h. s., Sterling, 1889-1893; asst. h. s., 
Danville, 1893-97. Married Sept., 1897, to William M. Brown. 

541. Sarah G. Corson (Mrs. Laird), Sunnyside, Wash. Taught 5 yrs- 

542. Ida Estelle Crouch (Mrs. Ida Crouch Hazlett), editor Mon- 
tana News, Helena, Mont. St., Chicago College of Music; Stanford 
Univ. ; h. s., Paxton, i yr. ; h. s. Elmwood, i yr. ; primary teacher, Rica, 
Col., 5 yrs. Married N. Hazlett, now deceased. 

543. Ida L. Elkins (Mrs. C. D. Stillwell), teaching, 1707 Deming 
Place, Chicago. Sixth grade, Oregon, 1888-89; seventh grade, Pekin, 
1889-92; asst. prin. h. s., Wyoming, 1892-96; eighth grade, Chicago, 1896- 
date. Married Chicago, April 26, 1897. 

t544. Ella M. Ferris (Mrs. Harry Kitfield), 408 Magazine St., Cam- 
bridge, Mass. Taught 3 yrs. 

545. Florence M. Gaston (Mrs. Edmund B. Smith), 5474 Greenwood 
Ave., Chicago. Ass't. North Dixon h. s., 1888-89; prin. Normal h. s., 
1889-90. Married, 1890. 

t546. Hattie M. Hedges (Mrs. Patton), Goldhill, Col. Taught 2 yrs. 

t$47. Nettie S. Hunter (Mrs. Andrew Chapman), Stonington. 
Taught, 9 yrs. 

548. Hulda Myrtle Koester (Mrs. Ferris), 2838 Franklin St., Den- 
ver, Col. T. Lee's Siding, Col., i yr. ; Prospect Valley, Col., 3 yrs. ; 7th 
grade, Wyman Sch., Denver, Col., i yr. Married Wm. H. Ferris, Sept. 
i, 1896. 

*549. Emma Lisk (Mrs. Guthrie), died Oct. 4, 1891. Taught i yr. 

550. Lydia Merrill (Mrs. Tarbox), 1315 N. 71 st St., Chicago. Taught 
6 yrs. Married Cornelius S. Tarbox (See No. 481). 

551. Emma H. Parker, teaching, Stockton. Primary teacher, Los- 
tant, 1888-92 ; Sycamore, 1892-93 ; Athens, 1893-95 ; fourth and fifth 
grades, Stockton, iSgS-date. 

552. Ellen Reid (Mrs. Byers), 2100 E. Galer St., Seattle, Wash. 
Taught 9 yrs. Married Ovid A. Byers. 

553. Anna Martha Smith (Mrs. Brown), Divernon. Maroa, 1888-89; 
ElPaso, 1890-94. Married John Harvey Brown, July 31, 1895. 


554. Carrie Virginia Smith (Mrs. Charles M. Stebbins), 763 Eastern 
Parkway, Brooklyn, N. Y. St. Univ. of Mich., 1893-95; prin. h. s., Mor- 
ris, 1888-90; prin. h. s., Peru, 1891-93; teacher of English and mathe- 
matics, h. s., Salt Lake City, Utah, 1895-96. Married, June 24, 1896. 

555. Jessie E. Sumner (Mrs. C. V. McReynolds), Chico, Cal., R.F.D. 
No. 3. Anchor, 1888-89 J Peotone, 1889-91 ; Naples, 1892-93. Married 
Charles V. McReynolds (See No. 624), July 17, 1890. 

556. Mina M. Watson, teaching, 1513 N. Troy St., Keokuk, la. St. 
in Univ. Ex. classes ; Danville, 1888-90 ; elem. sch., Chicago, 1890 ; head 
asst. James Monroe Sch., Chicago, i9O4-date; pub. Trip to Hawaii a 
magazine article. 

557. Fred Barton, farmer, Rich Hill, Mo., R.F.D. No. 7. Rural 
sch., near Saybrook, 1888-89 ; prin. Odell, 1889-91 ; rural sch. near Pleas- 
ant Hill, 1891-93. Married Mrs. Satie R. Burris, Aug., 1889, who died in 
1898; m. Anna Huffman, 1899. 

558. Howard Stidham Erode, prof, of biology, Whitman College, 
Walla Walla, Wash. St. Univ. of Chi., 1893-96; h. s., Ottawa, 1888-89; asst. 
in biology, Univ. of 111., 1889-93; fellow in Zoology, U. of C., 1894-96; 
instructor in science, Beloit College Acad., 1896-99; present position ; 1899- 
date ; pub. article on Morphology in Journal of Morphology. Married M. 
Kate Bigham (See No. 573), Aug. 30, 1893. 

559. William Norval Broun, teaching. Summer sch., Peoria. St. 
Wesleyan Law Sch., Bloomington, 1888-90; non-resident course Wes- 
leyan Univ., completed 1898; prin. h. s., Roseville, 1890-92; prin., gram, 
dept, Normal sch., Platteville, Wis., 1892-93 ; prin. gram, sch., Keokuk, 
Iowa, 1893-95; prin. Township h. s., Roseville, 1897-1900; prin. Sumner 
sch., Peoria, i9OO-date. Married Kate Taliaferro, 1893! 

560. Edward I. Manley, Englewood h. s., 5801 Lexington Ave., Chi- 
cago. Prin. h. s., Bloomington; asst. h. s., I.S.N.U., 1888-91; New 
Trier twp. h. s., Wilmette. 

t$6i. Hanan McCarrel, dairyman, Kinderhook. Prin. Hey worth, i 
yr. ; prin. Winchester, 2 yrs. ; Waverly, i yr. ; supt. Barry, 2 yrs. ; supt. 
Griggsville, 7 yrs. ; prin. and supt., Pana, 2 yrs. 

562. Anthony Middleton, supt. schools, Dwight. St. Univ. of 111., 
1900-01; asst. h. s., Attica, Ind., 1888-89; prin. h. s., Robinson, 1889-90; 
supt. Brown's Valley, Minn., 1890-91 ; supt. ElPaso, 1891-93 ; supt. Nio- 
braca, Neb., 1893-94; supt. Chenoa, 1894-1900; supt. Atlanta, 1901-06; 
supt. Dwight, I9o6-date. Married Nettie P. Tuckey, Aug. 20, 1891. 

563. William Miner, teaching, Pana. St. Valparaiso, summer terms, 
1892-93; Dixon College, 1894; Univ. of Chicago, summer, 1896; Charles- 
ton Normal, summer, 1904; Univ. of 111., summers, 1905-06; prin. Greenup, 
1890-91; Mt. Pulaski, 1892-96; supt. Pana, i896-date. Married Eleanor 
B. Houtchin, Stewardson, May 23, 1881. 

564. William J. Morrison, teacher of history and principles of edu- 
cation, 319 Stratford Road, Brooklyn, N. Y. St. Swarthmore College, 
1893-96 ; Columbia Univ., N. Y., 1903 ; pub. sch., Will Co., 1888-89 ; prin. 
ElPaso, 1889-93 ; teacher of history of education and arith., New Jersey 
State Normal, 1896-1902; Brooklyn Training School, iox>3-date. Married 
Margaret Estelle Chapman, ElPaso, 1898. 

565. Elijah Needham, postmaster, Virginia. Rural schools, 1889-92; 
supt Ashland, 1892-96. Married Kate M. Behler. 

566. Edmond C. Parker, railway mail service, 440 Menominee St., 
Oak Park. Prin. Ramsey, i yr. ; Stockton, 2 yrs.; railway mail service, 
14 yrs. ; at present with Chi. and No. Western Ry. 

ts67. Charles F. Philbrook, supt. schools, Bisbee, Ariz. Prin. Lena, 
4 yrs.; supt. Rochelle, n yrs.; supt. Williams, Ariz., i yr. ; supt. Bisbee, 
Ariz., 1904 . 


568. Francis M. Richardson, supt. of schools, Chicago Heights. St. 
Univ. of 111., 1900-01 ; summer terms, . 1894, 1896 ; prin. Brownsvalley, 
Minn., 1888-90; prin. Chenoa, 1890-94; supt. Fairbury, 1894-97; supt. 
Lincoln, 1897-1900; supt. Chicago Heights, igoi-date; pub. A Thesis on 
Science in the Elementary and Grammar Schools. Married Stella Wilson, 
Sept. i, 1892. 

569. Lewis Rhoton, attorney at law, rooms 12-16 Kahn Bldg., Little 
Rock, Ark. St. Univ. of Ark., 1893-94; Univ. of Virginia, 1896; prin. 
El Paso, 2 yrs. ; prin. ward sch., Little Rock, 3 yrs. ; prin. h. s., Little 
Rock, 2 yrs.; prosecuting attorney, 6th judicial circuit, Ark.; pub. Ar- 
kansas and the Nation. Married Bessie Riffel, June 18, 1896. 

570. Edmund B. Smith, teacher of mathematics, 5474 Greenwood Ave., 
Chicago. St. University of Chicago, 1897-98; prin. Heyworth, 1886-87; 
prin. Shawneetown, 1888-91; supt. Normal, 1891-96; Hyde Park h. s., 
i898-date. Married Florence M. Gaston (See No. 545), 1890. 

571. James William Tavener, poultry raiser, Normal. Prin. Wil- 
liamsville, 2 yrs. ; supt. LeRoy, 2 yrs. ; prin. ward sch., Bloomington 2 
yrs.; supt. Chillicothe, 2. yrs. Married Ida Mary Booth, Feb. 20, 1876. 

572. Washington Wilson, head of dept. of education, Bellingham, 
Wash. St. Clark Univ., summer 1897. Univ. of Cal., 1898-1900; prin. 
Coronado, Cal., 1888-90; head of training School, State Normal, Chico, 
Cal., 1890-91 ; asst. in science, Chico, 1891-93 ; department of education, 
Chico, 1893-97; head of department of education, State Normal, Belling- 
ham, Wash., i9OO-date. Married Margaret H. Chaplin, March, 1880. 


107. M. Sophie Barry (See No. 539). 
*io8. Fannie B. Cheney. Deceased. 

109. Laura McCurdy, 414 E. Grove St., Bloomington. 
tuo. Josie L. Roberts (Mrs. Harry A. Bent), Oglesby, Battle Creek, 
Mich., h. s., i yr. 

*in. Clarence C. Carroll, died, 1902. 

112. Dexter W. Fales, physician, 78 T St., N.W., Washington, D. C. 
Grad. Medical Sch. of Geo. Washington Univ. ; asst. prin. Chenoa h. s., 
1890-92; Commanding Officer of Ambulance Corps of National Guard, 
D. C., 10 yrs. Married Dr. Ella R. House. 

113. Hanan McCarrel (See No. 561). 

114. Walter G. Porter, Onawa, Iowa. 

CLASS OF 1889 

573. M. Kate Bigham (Mrs. Howard S. Erode), 433 E. Alder St., 
Walla Walla, Wash. Seattle, Wash., 1889-93. Married H. S. Erode (See 
No. 558), Aug. 30, 1893. 

*574. Anna M. Brisbane, died Aug., 1891. Taught 2 yrs. 

575. Margaret H. Brown (Mrs. William Aldrich), 519 High St., 
Keokuk, la. Asst. h. s. Kansas, 1889-92; Athens, 1892-94. Married, July 
14, 1891. (See No. 584.) 

576. Margaret Burns (Mrs. William H. Shry), Porterville, Cal. De- 
Kalb, i yr., and in California schools, 2 yrs. Married, Dec. 30, 1891. 

577. Luella M. Denman (Mrs. Albert S. Hanna), Sagamore Ave., 
Hollis, L. L, N. Y. St. Smith College, 1889-91 ; Univ. of Mich., 1892-93 ; 
prin., h. s., Hillsboro, 1891-92; English in Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, 
1893-98. Married Nov. 24, 1898. 


t578. Florence Guthrie (Mrs. James Hutchings), 596 C St., San 
Bernardino, Cal. DeKalb, I yr. ; Cajon, Cal., 3 yrs.; San Bernardino, 
Cal., 3 yrs. 

579. Estelle L. Hurd (Mrs. Melville A. Adams), ElPaso. Grammar 
sch., ElPaso, 1889-93. Married, Dec. 26, 1893. 

580. Elizabeth K. McElroy (Mrs. Rishel), teaching, Velarde, N. M. 
St. Summer sch., Las ^Vegas, N. M., 1900; taught, Harvard, 1889-90; 
Rankin, 1890-91 ; Towanda, 1891-92 ; Normal, 1892-93 ; Marengo, 1893- 
95; Velarde, N. M., 1895 ; pub. articles in School and Home Education 
and missionary periodicals. Married Warren H. Rishel (See No. 889), 
Aug. 7, 1890. 

581. Cora F. Philbrook, Normal. Lostant, i yr. ; Normal, 4 yrs. 

582. Sarah L. Saltsman (Mrs. Wallace Bright Rhea), mo N. Ev- 
ans St., Bloomington. 

1583. Minnie E. Wilson, missionary in China, 3^ yrs. 

584. William Aldrich, supt. schools, 424 N. 6th St., Keokuk, la. St. 
Univ. of Mich., i yr. ; summers, Univ. of Chicago ; prin. Kansas, 3 yrs. ; 
Athens, 2 yrs. ; prin. Keokuk, la,, 9 yrs. ; supt. Keokuk, la., i9O4-date. 
Married Margaret H. Brown (See No. 575), July, 1891. 

585. Sherman Cass, supt., Tolono. St. Univ. of 111., 3 yrs. ; prin. 
h. s., Hoopeston, i yr. ; supt Homer, 4 yrs. ; Kirkwood, 3 yrs. ; prin. 
twp. h. s., Nauvoo, 4 yrs. ; science h. s., Urbana, I yr. ; secured life cer- 
tificate, 1894. Married Maude Evans, July 8, 1898. 

586. Charles M. Fleming, county supt., Shelby Co., Shelbyville. Prin. 
Cawen, i yr. ; prin. Moweaqua, I yr.; Robinson h. s., i yr. ; Lakewood, 2 
yrs.; Stewardson, 6 yrs; co. supt. i9O2-date. Married Anna M. Ruch, 

587. Enoch A. Fritter, pres. Univ. of Middle Tennessee, Tullahoma, 
Tenn. Findlay College, 1890-93 ; Univ. of Chicago, 1897 ; Univ. of 111., 
1902-05 ; supt. Assumption, 1885-87 ; Warren, 1887-90 ; prin. Normal dept, 
Findlay College, 1890-2; supt. Monticello, 1893-96; supt. Normal, 1896- 
1906; pres. Univ. Middle Tenn., I9o6-date; pub. Literature of the Nine- 
teenth Century, A Trip Down the Sangamon River, The Bible Among 
Books. Married Margaret Addie Mauzey, 1877. 

588. William J. Galbraith, lawyer, Calumet, Mich. St. Univ. of 
Mich., 1890-94 ; prin. h. s., Gardner, 1889-91 ; prin. elem. sch., Little Rock, 
Ark., 1894-95; English in Wisconsin State Normal, 1895-98; rep. ist Dist. 
Houghton Co., Mich., 6 yrs. ; pub. Civil Gov't of Arkansas and Nation, 
1896. Married Kate S. Parker, 1890. 

589. Richard Heyward, supt. city sch., Langdon, N. Dak. Leland 
Stanford Univ., 1894-5 \ Univ. of Chicago, summer, 1897 ; Univ. of Wis., 
1898-1900; prin. Creston, 1889-94; prin. Yorkville, 1895-98; supt. Lang- 
don, N. Dak., I90o-date. Married Mary M. Griggs, June 29, 1892. 

590. Albert E. Jones, teacher in University, Lansing, Mich. Taught 
9 yrs. 

591. George A. Weldon, special examiner, Bureau of Pensions, 2732 
I2th St. N. E., Washington, D. C. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1901. National 
Law Sch., Washington, D. C., 1902-1905 ; L.L. B. and L.L M. ; prin. Gol- 
conda, 1889-1891; Shawneetown, 1891-93; supt. Pontiac, 1894-1899; elem. 
sch. teacher, Chicago, 1899-1902. Married Maud McKibben, 1895. 

592. Frank L. Young, lawyer,. 934-938 Tremont Bldg., Boston, Mass. 
St. Harvard College, 1889-93 ; grad. Harvard Law Sch., 1896. 



115. Luella M. Denman (Mrs. Hanna) (See No. 577). 

116. Sarah L. Saltsman (Mrs. Rhea) (See No. 582). 

117. Lemuel F. Buck, dentist, 1220 Masonic Temple, Chicago; home, 
La Grange. St. Chicago College of Dental Surgery, 1891-92; taught, Mo- 
weaqua, 1889-91. Married Sadie A. Cottrell, Sycamore, 1893. 

118. Clifford H. Coolidge, proprietor of Leader Laundry, Bloom- 
ington. Married Frances Josephine Smith, May 6, 1906. 

119. G. Francis Dullam, lawyer, Bismarck, N. D. Grad. Univ. of 
Minn., 1893. Married Edna W. Dennis, Oct. 5, 1905. 

120. Lucien H. Gilmore, prof, of physics and electrical engineering, 
33 N. Euclid Ave., Pasadena, Cal. St. Rose Polytechnic Institute, 1890-1 ; 
Leland Stanford Univ., 1891-4; Univ. of Chicago, 1898-9; asst. in physics 
Leland Stanford Univ., 1894-5 5 prof. Throop Polytechnic Institute, 1895- 
date. Married Edith Richards Williams, Oakland, Cal., March 28, 1905. 

121. Theodore L. Harley, teacher, Chicago. Grad. Dartmouth Col- 
lege, 1893 ; received degree of A.M. from Harvard Univ. ; prin. h. s. 
Olney, 1894-96; Bloomington h. s. instructor, 1896-98; instructor in Eng- 
lish in Hyde Park h. s., iSgS-date. Married Margaret Norris, 1897. 

122. Joseph Manley, instructor in Greek, Marietta, O. Grad. Har- 
vard College, 1893 ; instructor in Greek, Marietta College, i893-date. Mar- 
ried Florence Lane, 1901. 

123. Edmund B. McCormick, professor of mechanical engineering 
and supt. of shops, Kansas State Agricultural College, Manhattan, Kan. 
St. Mass. Inst. of Technology, 1893-97; asst. median, engineer, Montana 
Agricultural College, 1898-1900; present position igoo-date; federal gov't 
road expert, Kansas. Married Jeannette Maxey, 1899. 

124. Brainard Lee Spence, real estate broker, 467 Ninth St., Oakland, 
Cal. Married Ida B. Smith, Aug. 30, 1892. 

125. Harry Weber, lawyer, 1500 Chicago Title and Trust Bldg., 

CLASS OF 1890 

593. Julia M. Case (Mrs. Earth), Paw Paw, R. F. D. No. 2. Rural 
sch., 3 yrs. ; second primary, i yr. Married Christopher Earth, 1904. 

594. Mary Rice Cleveland, teacher, 2520 N. 42 Court, Irving Park, 
Chicago. Greenview, 2 yrs.; Irving Park Sch., Chicago, n yrs. 

*59S. Alfaretta Fisher, died, 1902. Taught 8 yrs. 

596. Nancy Lee Foley (Mrs. Luce), 308 Maple Ave., Oak Park. 
Grade teacher, Oak Park, 5 yrs. ; treas. of Ladies' Board of Managers of 
Central Baptist Orphanage, 10 yrs. Married Frederick A. Luce, Oct. 
17, 1895- 

597. Minnie L. Gay (Mrs. Jesse P. Osborne), 1434 Euclid Ave., 
Santa Barbara, Cal. Country sch. McLean Co., 1890-91 ; Tazewell Co., 
1891-93; prin. h. s., LeRoy, 1893-94; prin. training sch., Southland Col- 
lege and Normal Sch., Southland, Ark., 1894-96; prin. Mission Sch., Mo- 
roni, Utah, 1902-03. Married, May 31, 1904. 

598. Honor Hubbard (Mrs. Louis B. Easton), 540 S. Marengo Ave., 
Pasadena, Cal. St. Univ. of 111., 1897-8; Chautauqua Univ.; prin. Morris 
h. s., 1890-1 ; teacher of literature and history, Berea College, Ky., 1891- 
93; Woodstock h. s., 1893-5. Married, 1893 (See No. 618). 

599. Rose W. ^Humphrey, Normal. St. Pratt Art Institute, Brooklyn, 
N. Y., 1890-92 ; prin. h. s., Crystal Lake, 2 yrs. ; supervisor of drawing, 
Maquoketa, Iowa, 1902-03; LaGrange, 1903-4; Neenah, Wis., 4 yrs. 


fboo. Hattie H. Lischnewski, address unknown. 

601. Alice J. Patterson, teaching, Normal. St. Univ. of Chicago. 
1896-97; summers, 1898, 99, 1901; Wheaton h. s., 1890-94; prin. Fair- 
bury h. s., 1895-96; science teacher, Normal h. s., 1897-1905; teacher of 
nature study, I.S.N.U., I9o6-date; pub. The Spinner Family. 

t6o2. Thirza M. Pierce, missionary, Kiukiang, China. Taught 2 yrs. 

603. Cora M. Porterfield, teaching, 510 N. Sixth St., Maywood. St. 
Univ. of Chicago, 1893-97 ; same, 1902-03 ; Bryn Mawr College, 1900-01 ; 
resigned fellowship in Latin, same, 1902; teacher of languages, Rice Col- 
legiate Inst, 1890-93; Latin and Greek, same, 1898-99; Latin and Greek, 
Chicago Prep. Sch., 1893-5, and 1898; same, Milwaukee-Downer College, 
1901-02; Latin and Eng. in twp. h. s., Biggsville, 1906 ; pub.articles in 
The Classical Review and The Classical Journal. 

604. Margaret C. Power, science teacher, Pontiac. St. Univ. of 111 
and Univ. of Chicago, during summers ; prin. h. s., Odell, 4 yrs. ; prin. 
h. s., Chester, i yr. ; teacher twp. h. &., Pontiac, 1895 . 

605. Annie Laurie Renshaw (Mrs. Jesse Frazeur), teaching, Green 
Hall Univ. of Chicago. St. Tufts College, Mass., 1892-4; Univ. of Chi- 
cago, 1901 ; Hinsdale h. s., 1894-5 ; Hillside Home Sch., Wis., 1895-98 ; 
Aurora h. s., 1898-1905 ; Lake View h. s., Chicago, igos-date. Married 
July, 1890 (See H. S. No. 132). 

606. Lavina E. Roberts, farming, Pearl. Business manager and con- 
trolling editor of populist newspaper; public speaker on socialistic ques- 

t6o7. Belle C. Robinson, Mont Clair. Taught iV 2 yrs. 

608. Alice E. Smart (Mrs. Simcox), Warren. Prin. Scales Mound, 
2 mos., 1891. Married Charles R. Simcox, April 5, 1900. 

t6o9. Maggie L. Smith (Mrs. Harris L. Latham), 1371 W. Wood St., 
Decatur. Formerly a missionary at Yamada, Japan. 

610. Cora E. Snider (Mrs. Irwin), 1003 Franklin Ave., Normal. Mar- 
ried Samuel Pashley Irwin, Nov., 1891. 

611. Maud Valentine, teaching, The University Sch. for Boys, Dear- 
borne Ave. and Elm St., Chicago. St. Teachers' College, Columbia Univ., 
N. Y., 1900-01; training teacher, I.S.N.U., 1894-1900; Univ. sch. for 
boys, Chicago, 1901-04; Flexner Sch., Louisville, Ky., 1904-05; supervisor 
of primary dept, Univ. Sch. for Boys, Chicago, 1905 . 

*6i2. Nellie M. Wheeler, died, March 25, 1891. 

613. Mary Lou Whitney, teaching, 5500 Washington Blvd., Austin 
Station, Chicago. St. Chicago Univ. Ex. Work, 1900-03 ; Central Insti- 
tute, 1902-05; Bradley Polytechnic, Peoria, summer, 1906; Marseilles, 
1891-92; Peoria, 1892-96; elem. sch., Austin, Chicago, i896-date. 

614. Ida Woods, teaching, American Mission, Cairo, Egypt. St. in 
Paris, Hanover, and Heidelberg, 1896-97. Univ. of Chicago, spring and 
summer, 1898; rural sch., 1891-95; h. s., Papla, Kan., 1898-99; teacher 
of German and French, Tarkio, College, Tarkio, Mo., 1900-05 ; teacher in 
Girls' Boarding Sch., Cairo, Egypt, igos-date. 

615. Emily Catherine Zigler (Mrs. James J. Coats), Sterling, 111. 
Country sch., 1890-91; grammar sch., Sterling, 1891-93; country sch., 
1893-98. Married June 9, 1898. 

616. Rudolph H. H. Blome, teaching, Tempe, Ariz. St. Univ. of Jena, 
1897-1900; supt. Wyoming, 1890-91; prin. Rice Collegiate Institute, Pax- 
ton, 1892-97 ; teacher of psychology and pedagogy, Normal school, Tempe, 
Ariz., igoo-date. Married Mary Jane Pierce, 1882. 

617. Lyman W. Childs, physician, 420 Rose Buildg, Cleveland, O. 
St. Western Reserve Medical College, 1891-94; Univ. of Vienna, 1899- 


1900; prin. h. s., Galva, 1890-91; Medical Inspector Cleveland pub. sch. ; 
pub. numerous articles on medical subjects. Married Colene Hogg, Parry 
Sound, Ontario, Canada, 1902. 

618. Louis B. Easton, architect, 540 S. Marengo Ave., Pasadema, Cal. 
St. Univ. of 111., 1897-99; supt. Barrington, 1890-92; Lament, 1892-93; 
Woodstock, 1894-96; teacher of physics and chemistry, Austin h. s., 1899- 
1904. Married Honor Hubbard (See No. 598), 1893. 

619. Emil R. Greabeiel, teaching, Naper, Neb. Prin. Elm Creek, 
Neb., 3 yrs. ; Miller, Neb., 2 yrs. ; prin. Stratton, Neb., 3 yrs. ; prin. South 
Wilmington, 2 yrs. ; prin. Naper, Neb., at present. 

620. John William Hall, prof, of elem. education, Univ. of Cincin- 
nati. St. Teachers' College, Columbia Univ., 1901-02; Univ. of Jena, 
1892-95 ; prin. gram, grades, Normal, 1890-92 ; assistant prin., Franklin 
sch., Buffalo, N. Y., 1895-97; supt. training dept. Colorado State Normal 
1898-1900; fellow, Teachers' College, Columbia Univ., 1900-01; instructor 
in psychology, N. Y. Training Sch., 1901-05 ; prof, of elem. education, 
Univ. of Cincinnati, icx>5-date Married Cornelia Thomas, Aug 15, 1898. 

621. Lincoln E. Harriss, elk. in Bureau of Census, Washington, D. C. 
Prin. Mpline, 2 yrs. ; supt Oregon, 3 yrs. ; prin. h. s., Manitou, Col., 2 
yrs. ; prin. Austin, i yr. ; prin. h. s., Rochelle, i yr. Married Margaret 
E. Clancy, May 6, 1901. 

622. Dudley G. Hays, teaching, 807 Estes Aye., Rogers Park, Chi- 
cago. Univ. of Chicago, 1892-96; Lake Forest Univ., dept. of Law, 1897- 
99; 111. College of Law, 1902-03; asst. science teacher, I.S.N.U. 1890-91; 
Englewood h. s., 1891-96: asst. science teacher, Chicago Normal, 1896- 
1900; prin. Arnold Sch., Chicago, 1901-02; prin. Kershaw Sch., 1902-06; 
prin. Eugene Field Sch., icjo6-date; pub. Laboratory Physics, Nature 
Study Suggestions for the Grades. Experimental Study of the Atmos- 
phere, Experimental Study of Heat. Married Emma Adams, Dec. 24, 1891. 

623. Frank E. King, teaching, Rt. i, Geneva, O. Prin. Normal dept., 
New Orleans Univ., 2 yrs. ; prin. Kingston and Loda, 2 yrs. ; taught in 
Michigan state, 14 mos. ; twp. h. s., Geneva, O., 1905 . 

624. Charles Vernon McReynolds, farming, Chico, Cal., R. F. D. No. 
3. Prin. Peptone, 1890-91 ; prin. Naples, 1891-93 ; prin. Maroa, 1893-95 ; 
supt. Virginia, 1895-97; supt. Effingham, 1897-99; merchant in Bloom- 
ington 1899-1906. Married Jessie Edna Sumner (See No. 555), July 17, 

625. Harry C. Metcalf, teaching, Tufts College, Mass. Harvard 
Univ., 1890-94; Berlin Univ., 1894-97; prof. of political science, Tufts 
College, iSgS-date. 

626. Charles Alonzo Perkins, teaching, 1417 E. Tenth Ave., Spokane, 
Wash. Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, Ky., 1891-2; Univ. of 
Chicago, 1894-5 5 Mission, Indian Territory, i yr. ; sugt. Indian sch., I.T., 
2 yrs. ; Bloomington, i yr. ; Pullman, Wash., 2 yrs. ; prin. McKinley Sch., 
Spokane, Wash., iSoxj-date. Married Lottie McMurry, Aug. 6, 1890. 

1627. K. Girard Whittaker, insurance and real estate, E. St. Louis. 
Taught 7 yrs. 

628. Albert Norval Young, co. supt., Rockmont, Wis. Univ. of Chi- 
cago, 1896-1900; prin. Assumption, 2 yrs.; prin. Rentand, 3 yrs.; instruc- 
tor in biology and agriculture, Superior Normal Sch., 3 yrs. ; co. supt. of 
schools, Douglas Co., Wis., 2 yrs. ; pub. Regeneration of Appendages in 
Nymphs of Agrionidae, 1903. Married Bessie Curtis (See No. 632). 


126. Iva May Durham (Mrs. Thomas Vennard), prin. Epworth Evan- 
gelistic Institute, 3019 Bell Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Wellesley College, 1892- 
93; grammar 5rade, ElPaso, 1890-91; prin. Morris, 1891-92; h. s., Tus- 


tin, Cal., 1893 ; Epworth Evangelistic Institute, igoa-date ; pub. Heart 
Purity, editor Inasmuch. Married June 8, 1904. 

127. Annie L. Glidden, DeKalb. Prin. h. s., Dundee, i yr. ; prin. 
h. s. Dwight, i yr. ; proofreader Rand, McNally, Chicago, 3 yrs. ; teacher 
in Miss Talbot's School, Chicago, 2 yrs. 

128. Clara B. James (Mrs. C. A. Herrick), 214 E. Mt. Airy Ave., 
Philadelphia, Pa. Univ. of Geneva, Switzerland, 1891-92; Univ. of Leip- 
zig, Germany, 1892-93 ; Univ. of Zurich, Switzerland, 1893 ; Friends' Sch., 
West Chester, Pa., 1893-95; head of dept. German and French, h. s., 
Holyoke, Mass., 1895-97. Married June 29, 1897. 

129. Cora M. Porterfield (See No. 603). 

130. May Skinner (Mrs. Parker), Julesburg, Col. Teacher Illinois 
Wesleyan College of Music, 4 yrs. Married Bertrand D. Parker (See No. 
656), June 30, 1897. 

131. Kittie D. Wright (Mrs. William Stillhamer), Ridgeville, N. J. 
fi32. Jesse L. Frazeur, Texas. Address unknown. 

133. Frank E. King (See No. 623). 

134. Silas Ropp, real estate, Griesheim Bldg., Bloomington, home ad- 
dress, 3052 N. 40th Ave., Chicago. Married Alice Spikings, Chicago, Jan. 
30, 1902. 

ti35- James F. Wilson, Stuyvesant H. S., New York City. Academy, 
Knoxville, i yr. ; h. s., Durango, Col., 2 yrs.; h. s., Denver, Col., i yr. ; 
DeWitt Clinton h. s., N. Y. City, 5 yrs. ; h. s. of Commerce, N. Y. City, 
i yr. ; present position, 1904 . 

CLASS OF 1891 

t629. Trophic J. Amerman (Mrs. Martin T. Snyder), Flora. Le- 
Roy, i yr. ; Flora, I yr. 

630. Clara Belle Bishop, Piper City. Asst. prin. Harvard, i yr. ; 
eighth grade, Clinton, i yr. ; country sch., Piper City, 5 yrs.; asst. prin., 
Piper City, i yr. 

631. Kate E. Conover (Mrs. Fred W. Heidel), Valley City, N. D. 
Normal pub. sch., i yr. ; Bloomington, i yr. ; West Port, Mo., 2 yrs.; 
Peculiar, Mo., 2 yrs. ; Valley City State Normal, i yr. Married July 14, 

632. Bessie Curtis (Mrs. A. N. Young), Rockmont, Wis. Normal 
pub. sch., 2 yrs.; Rutland, 3 yrs.; Chicago city schools, 3 yrs. Married, 
June 7, 1893 (See No. 628). 

633. Carrie Elizabeth Flinn (Mrs. Carrie F. Moreland), teaching, 126 
E. I2th St., North, Portland, Ore. Asst. h. s., Pana, 2 yrs.; h. s., No- 
komis, 2 yrs. ; twp. h. s., Litchfield, Vi yr. ; elem. sch., Portland, Ore., 3% 
yrs. Married Nov. 2, 1897, to Wm. H. Moreland (now deceased). 

634. Rebecca A. Foley (Mrs. Keith), Normal. T. Rushville, 2 yrs.; 
Austin, 4 yrs. Married John A. H. Keith (See No. 755), June 7, 1900. 

635. Emma Hill (Mrs. Frank W. Lundy), Stonington. Rural sch., 
4 yrs.; Edinburg, \y 2 yrs.; West Point, Miss., 1897-98, 1899-1901. Mar- 
ried, Sept. 8, 1898. 

636. Grace Kite (Mrs. Edward J. Wallis), French Village, RF.D. 
No. i. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1896; Univ. of 111., 1902; h. s., Decatur, 
1891-93; head of English dept., h. s., East St. Louis, 1893-1902. Married 

637. Anna M. Kienzle (Mrs. Fred M. Wheeler), 933 Maple Ave., 
Evanston. Taught 1891-1894. Married, 1894. 


638. Bessie A. McCann (Mrs. Worcester), Columbus, Ohio. St. 111. 
Wesleyan Univ., 1893; Joliet, 1894-96; Normal pub. sch., 1896-99; Ot- 
tawa, 1899-1900. Married Wolsey G. Worcester, Oct. 24, 1900. 

639. Sarah Ann McGill (Mrs. Frank Hennen), teaching, 17 Campbell 
Park, Chicago. Yorkville, 4 yrs. ; Austin, 3 yrs. ; elem. sch., Chicago, 5 
yrs. Married, July 17, 1899. 

640. Edna Mettler (Mrs. A. D. Stowell), St. Mary's Ave., Hannibal, 
Mo. Degree of Ph.B., from Univ. of Mich., 1895; Oak Park, 1891-92; 
h. s., Oconto, Wis., 1895-96. Married, Aug., 1896. 

641. Alice Louise Raymond (Mrs. Frederick H. Clark), 240^ Pros- 
pect St., Berkeley, Cal. Vacaville, Cal., 1891-92; Mt. Eden, Cal., 1892-93; 
Berkley, Cal., 1893-96. Married, July 10, 1896. 

t642. Maud M. Root, State St., Marinette, Wis. Hinsdale, 5 yrs.; 
Champion, Mich., i yr. ; Marinette, Wis., 4 yrs. 

643. Katherine G. Spear (Mrs. Harry S. Hadfield), 4 St. James 
Court, Milwaukee, Wis. Critic teacher, Normal sch., Whitewater, Wis., 
1891-93. Married June 28, 1893. 

644. Emma Spurgeon (Mrs. Dixon), 5637 Drexel Ave., Chicago. St. 
Knox College and Univ. of Chicago ; rural sch., 2 yrs. Married Joseph 
A. Dixon, Nov. 28, 1895 (See No. 719). 

645. Lillian Thompson (Mrs. Tucker), Warrensburg. Rural sch. 
near Warrensburg, 1891-92; Mechanicsburg, 1892-94. Married Cyrus J. 
Tucker, June 4, 1896. 

646. Lucy E. Wallace (Mrs. G. W. Toren), 131 Clark Ave., Chicago. 
Belvidere, i yr. ; Chicago, 8 yrs. 

f647. Charles A. Armstrong, Hartsburg. Taught 14 yrs. 

648. John H. Cox, prof, of Eng. philology, Morgantown, W. Va. St. 
Brown Univ., 1893-97 5 Harvard Univ., 1899-1901 ; prin. Western Springs, 
1891-93; head of depts. of Eng. and bookkeeping, evening h. s., Provi- 
dence, R. I., 1894-97; educational director, 23rd St. Branch Y.M.C.A., 
New York City, 1897-99; prof. Eng. lit. Univ. of N. D., 1901-02; present 
position, i9O2-date. Married Mrs. Annie Bush-Long, June 28, 1904. 

649. William S. Dewhirst, clerk treas. dept., 1825 First St. N. W., 
Washington, D. C. Married Susie L. Hodgkins. Oct. 20, 1897. 

650. Philip H. Erbes, biologist, physiologist, 622 N. Rockwell St., 
Chicago. Pub. Crania-Muscular Origins of Brain and Mind; invented 
"Fairy" Fireless Cooker. Married Kathryn O. Dickhut, 1892. 

651. James J. Ferguson, teaching, Wellington. St. Univ. of 111., sum- 
mer, 1901 ; prin. Normal dept. Grand Prairie Seminary, 1891-97 ; prin. 
Chebanse, 1897-1900; supt. Sheldon, 1900-06; prin. Wellington, I9o6-date. 
Married, Kate C. Freeman, Dec. 25, 1891. 

652. Casper G. Hanawalt, physician, 1421 N. Clark St., Chicago. De- 
gree of A.B. from Taylor Univ., 1897. ; M. D., from Rush Med. Coll., 1897 ; 
-X^oj oSEoiiQ asanoo - pBj3 jsod '.061 'amip^o^ '^ ^ asjnoo 'peaS jsod 
clinic, 1903; prin. Mazon, 1891-94. Married Myrtle Small, 1893. 

f653. William D. Hawk, teacher German "Natural Method," Colfax. 
Asst. prin. Rockford, I yr. ; prin. h. s., Freeport, i yr. 

654. Grant Karr, teacher of principles of education, New York Train- 
ing Sch. for Teachers, Manhattan, ngth St. and 2nd Ave., New York 
City. St. in summer schools and at the Univ. of Jena, Germany, 1894-99; 
prin. Monte Vista, Col., 1891-94; teacher of general method, State Nor- 
mal Sch., Oswego, N. Y. ; supt. practice sch., same, 1899-1906; present 
position, 1906 ; pub. The Aim of Education, The Course of Study, The 
Main Subject in the Course of Study, and Journal of Pedagogy. 


1655. William H. Kring, lawyer, 206 W. Ave., Highland Park, Los An- 
geles, Cal. 

656. Bertrand DeRalph Parker, Jr., real estate, Julesburg, Col. St. 
Univ. of Pa., 1893-95; Univ. of Chicago, one term, 1899; prin. Rankin, 
1889-90; prin. elem. sch., Springfield, 1891-93; prin. h. s. Rockford, 1895- 
1904; prin. New Trier twp. h. s., Kenilworth, 1904-05. Married May 
Skinner (See H. S. No. 130), June 30, 1897. 

657. James B. Pollock, teaching, 308 S. 4th Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
St. Univ. of Wis., 1891-94, Univ. of Mich., 1895-97; Univ. Leipzig, Ger., 
1897-98; teacher of biology Austin h. s., 1891-5; instructor in botany, 
Univ. of Mich., 1898-1906 ; asst. prof, in botany Univ. of Mich,, I9o6-date ; 
pres. Mich. Academy Sci., 1906-7; pub. numerous articles on botanical 
subjects. Married Ida B. Allen, Ann Arbor, Mich., June 24, 1902. 

658. George W. Reid, supt. sch., Monroe, La. Prin. Tonica, 2 yrs. ; 
supt. Wenona, 7 yrs. ; supt. Homer, La., 3 yrs. ; supt. Monroe, La., 1904 . 

659 James J. Sheppard, prin. h. s. of Commerce, 155 W. 6"sth St., 
N. Y. City. St. Harvard, 1891-94; Columbia, 1897-1900; N. Y. Univ., 
1901-02 ; prin. h. s., Decatur, 1894-97 ! head of history dept., DeWitt Clin- 
ton H. S., N. Y. City, 1900-02; present position, i9O2-date; a prominent 
member in educational association. Married Rena French Masters, July 
12, 1905. 

660. Charles Crawford Wilson, science teacher, Jersey City h. s., 555 
Bramhall Ave., Jersey City, N. J. St. Harvard Univ., 1891-94; Harvard 
summer sch., 1896, 97, and 1901; N. Y. Univ. Grad. Sch., 1896-99; present 
position, 1894 ; lecturer on science, Jersey City Training Sch., 1898 ; 
vice prin. h. s., Jersey City, 1902 ; member board of examiners for prin- 
cipals and teachers, 1903 . 


136. Mellie E. Bishop, critic teacher, E.I.S.N.S., Charleston. Nor- 
mal, i yr. ; h. s. Lacon, i yr. ; h. s. Oregon, i yr. ; State Normal Sch., 
Monmouth, Ore., I yr. ; private sch., Buffalo, N. Y., 6 yrs ; summer sch., 
Charleston, 6 wks. ; present position, 1905 . 

137. Grace Cheney (Mrs. John F. Wight), 404 E. Washington St., 
Bloomington. Married Oct. 19, 1899. 

138. Agnes Spofford Cook (Mrs. Gale), Univ. of Chicago. St. 
Wellesley College, 1891-93; Univ. of Chicago, 1893-96, graduate; asst. in 
dept. of English, Univ. of 111., 1896-98; pub. The Story of Ulysses; The 
Story of Achilles and Hector; edited Sesame and Lilies, and Last of the 
Mohicans; joint editor with Lida B. McMurry of several books of 
poems. Married Henry Gordon Gale, Jan. 5, 1901. 

139. Rachel Crothers, playwright, 550 Park Ave., New York City. St. 
Wheatcroft Dramatic Sch., N. Y. City; teacher of dramatic art in Wheat- 
croft Sch. of Acting, N. Y. City, 4 yrs.; first play "Three of Us" pro- 
duced in N. Y. Oct. 17, 1906, with great success. 

140. Edna Mettler (Mrs. Stowell) (See No. 640). 

141. Louise M. Vickroy (Mrs. Rosesteel), 2402 West Seventh St., 
Los Angeles, Cal. Married J. A. Rosesteel, March 5, 1901. 

142. George P. Burns, teaching, University of Mich., Ann Arbor. St. 
Ohio Wesleyan Univ., Delaware, Ohio, 1896-98 ; Univ. of Munich, Munich, 
Ger., 1898-1901 ; prin. New Berlin, 1891-93 ; prin. Williamsville, 1893-95 ; 
instructor in botany, Ohio Wesleyan Univ., 1896; pub. numerous botan- 
ical articles. Married Nettie May Hollington, June 30, 1898. 

143. Gary R. Colburn (See No. 684). 

144. Philip H. Erbes (See No. 650). 


145. Charles Wilson Mills, member of Clark & Mills Electric Co., 
1444 Mass. Ave., Cambridge, Mass. St. Lawrence Scientific sen., of Har- 
vard Univ. ; teacher of physics in h. s., Decatur, 1895-96. Married Florence 
Naomi McNeil, May, 21, 1902. 

146. William B. Moulton, lawyer, 549 Marquette Bldg., Chicago. 
St. Stanford Univ., 1891-93; Harvard College, 1893-95; Harvard Law 
Sch., 1896; pres. Illinois Civil Service Commission. 

147. Bertrand D. Parker (See No. 656). 
148.. James B. Pollock (See No. 657). 

149. James J. Sheppard (See No. 659). 

150. Charles C Wilson (See No. 660). 

CLASS OF 1892 

661. Ella M. Andrew, teacher 630 LaSalle Ave., Chicago. St. Univ. 
of Chicago and grad. from Soper Sch. of Oratory 1896; Maywood, I yr. ; 
Oak Park, I yr. ; Motley Sch., Chicago, 1894 . 

662. Ruth C. Bailer (Mrs. Mueller), 506 E. Chestnut St., Blooming- 
ton. T. in schs. of Bloomington io l /2 yrs. ; Evanston, i l /2 yrs. Married 
Rev. John H. Mueller, 1903. 

663. Alma Boyer (Mrs. Hatch), DeKalb. St. Columbia Univ.; 
Teachers' Coll., 1905-1906; substitute in Oak Park, 1894-1895. Married 
Luther A. Hatch (See No. 689), June 8, 1893. 

664. Etta Brewer, teaching, Sandwich. St. Univ. of Chicago, sum- 
mer, 1905 ; rural schs., 5 yrs. ; grammar grades, 4 yrs. ; prin. village 
sch., I yr. ; h. s. asst., I yr. 

1665. Mrs. Caroline M. Butterfield (Mrs. R. O. Butterfield), 1112 Og- 
den Ave., Denver, Colo. Taught 2 yrs. 

666. Florence J. Clark, teacher, 211 N. Fourth St., DeKalb. Primary 
critic, N.I.S.N.S., 3 yrs., same, Rochester Normal Train. Sch., i}^ yrs., 
prin. North Sch., DeKalb, J9O2-date. 

t667. Ellen R. Connett (Mrs. Detwiler), Omaha, Neb. Taught, 2 yrs. 

668. Bella L. Cook (Mrs. Ambrose), "Belrose Grove," Alhambra, 
Cal. Sterling, 1892-93; Saybrook, 1893-94; Agassiz Sch., Chicago, 1894- 
1901. Married James Clement Ambrose, August 22, 1901. 

669. Etta Fordyce (Mrs. Brent), 408 S. 5th St., Monmouth. Prin. 
h. s. Edwardsville, 1892-96; h. s., Monmouth, 1896-98; same, 1902-03. 
Married W. W. Brent, June 29, 1898. 

670. Belinda Ellen Garrison, teaching, Granite City. St. Univ. of 
111. ; taught gram, sch., White Hall ; h. s., Rossville ; h. s., Granite City. 
Married Adolphus Miller, 1894. 

*67i. Hattie J. Gaston, died in Chicago, Nov. 3, 1897. St. Med. Dept. 
of Northwestern Univ., 1894 to time of death. 

672. Cora Laign (Mrs. Rigby), teaching, 109 So. Central Ave., Chi- 
cago, Austin Station; Oak Park, 1892-94; Hinsdale, 1902-03; Evanston, 
1903-05', Chicago elem. sch., 1905-07. Married James R. Rigby, 1894. 

673. Katherine E. McGorray, teacher, 955 Lincoln Ave., Decatur. 
St. New York Univ., 1905; Rushville h. s., 1892-95; Decatur h. s., 1895- 

674. Mary E. McGinnis, teacher, mo Armida Ave., Morgan Park. 
Savanna, I yr., Evanston, 2 yrs., Morgan Park, 9 yrs. 

675. Mary Neff, Cookman Institute, Jacksonville, Fla. Grad. Univ. 
of 111. 1902; asst. prin. h. s. Lexington, 1892-94; prin. h. s. Tracy, Minn., 
1895-1900; prin. h. s., Atlanta, 1902-04; teacher of Eng. and sec. of faculty 
Cookman Institute, Jacksonville, Fla., i9O4-date. 


676. Jessie Peasley, Gen. Sec. Y. W. C. A., Bay City, Mich. Cort- 
land primary grade, 1892-93; primary, Bloomington, 1893-190 1;; gen. sec. 
Y.W.C.A, S 1 /* yrs. 

677. Phebe R. Vail (Mrs. English), Henry. Rock Rapids, la., I yr.; 
Rochelle, 2 yrs.; rural sch., Bureau Co., 3 mo. Married Chas. N. Eng- 
lish, Oct. 8, 1902. 

678. Minnie Whitham, prin. Wm. Beye Sch., Oak Park. Taught 
grades Oak Park, 4 yrs. ; prin. Oak Park, 10 yrs. 

679. James Eli Ament, prin. State Normal Sch., Indiana, Pa. St. 
at different times in Chicago, New York City and Ann Arbor; received 
LL.D. from Univ. of Ky., June 14, 1906 ; prin. North Bend, Neb., 1892-93 ; 
supt. Carroll, la., 1893-95; su Pt- Rock Island, 1895-96; pres. State Normal 
Sch., Alva, Okla., 1897-1902; pres. State Normal Sch., Warrensburg, Mo., 
1904-06; as above 1906 date; pub. short stories not under own name, 
The Fourth Profession in Southern Educational Review. Married 
Teresa Catherine Welch, March 3, 1889. 

680. Francis G. Blair, State Supt. of Public Instruction, Springfield. 
St. Swarthmore College, Perm.; Sch. of Pedagogy, Buffalo, N. Y. ; supt. 
LeRoy, 1892-95; prin. Franklin sch., Buffalo, N. Y., 1897-99; sup. of train- 
ing dept., E.I.S.N.S., Charleston, 1899-1906; as above, 1906 ; pub. 
Monograph on Method and various educational articles. Married Lillian 
Caton, LeRoy, June, 1898. 

681. Edwin L. Boyer, prin. h. s., Bloomington. Asst. h. s., Bloom- 
ington, 4 yrs. ; prin. same, i8g6-date. 

f682. R. Olin Butterfield, physician and surgeon, 1112 Ogden Ave. 
Denver, Colo. Taught 6 yrs. 

683. Elmer Warren Gavins, teacher I.S.N.U., Normal. St. 111. Wes- 
leyan Univ., 1894-95 ; Univ. of Chicago, 1896-97 ; teacher of Eng., John 
Parr Sch., Chicago, 1896-97; instructor I.S.N.U., 13 yrs.; sec'y. of I.S.N.U. ; 
pub. two works on penmanship, one on orthography, reg. contributor to 
School News, 5 yrs. Married Gertrude Cartmell, 1895. 

684. Gary Richard Colburn, teaching, Dairoku Kotogakko, Okayama, 
Japan. Degree of A.B. from Harvard Col. 1895 ; LL.B. from Harvard Law 
Sch., 1899; Monroe Inst, Monroe City, Mo., 1891-92; prin. h. s., West 
Superior, Wis., 1895-96; Eureka Col., 1900-03; asst. in dept. of education, 
Univ. of Cal., 1904; English in Osaka Col. of Commerce, Japan, 1904-06; 
Latin and English in Sixth Imperial Higher Sch., Okayama, Japan, 1906- 
date. Married Martha Dunton, Sept. 13, 1905. 

685. Lewis William Colwell, prin. Linne Sch., 1661 North Troy St., 
Chicago. Teacher and head asst., Avondale Sch., Chicago, 1892-95, pres- 
ent position Jan., 1895 date; pub. a series of articles on Speer's Arith- 
metic in Primary Education, 1897. Married Grace A. Stryker, 1894. 

686. Stephen A. Douglas Faris, supt. schs., Augusta. Prin. h. s., 
Williamsfield, 1892-94; prin. Perry, 1894-97; supt. Augusta, 1897 . 
Married Minnie V. Thomas, Dec., 1902. 

687. William C. Fulton, farmer, Winfield, Kan. Taught Cazenovia, 
I yr.; ElPaso, I yr. ; Roanoke, I yr. Married Adelaide Yoekey, Feb., 1906. 

688. G. Charles Griffiths, prin. Motley Sch., 5715 Midway Park, Aus- 
tin Sta., Chicago. St. Illinois Col. of Law ; supt. Metamora, 1892-93 ; 
prin. Robert Emmet Sch., Chicago, 1893-1903, as above 1903 date. Mar- 
ried Mary E. Wood, Dec. 25, 1905. 

689. Luther A. Hatch, prin. training sch., N.I.S.N.S., DeKalb. St. 
Teachers' Coll., Columbia Univ., 1906-07; prin. No. 2 sch., Moline, 1892- 
94; prin. South sch., Oak Park, 1894-1900; prin. as above, igoo-date, ex- 
cept I yr. ; married Alma Boyer (See No. 663), June 8, 1893. 

690. Charles C. Herren, farmer, Yorkville, R. F. D. No. 3, Prin. 
Kirkland, 1892-93, same, Bristol, 1894-96. Married Lillie V. Cornell. 


f6gi. Morris E. Killam, Tower Hill. 

692. Mack M. Lane, prin. Paul Revere Sch., 6351 Lexington Ave., 
Chicago. St. Univ. of Chicago, i l / 2 yrs. ; grade teacher Chicago, 2 l /2 yrs. ; 
prin. elem. sch., Chicago, 1896 . Married Cora Bell Barr, March 29, 1893. 

f693. John B. Moulton, teaching, Monroe Sch., 2971 Grand Ave., 
Chicago. Chicago elem. sch. 1895 . 

694. Swen Franklin Parson, teacher, DeKalb. St. Univ. of Chicago, 
1898-99; prin. grammar sch., I.S.N.U., 1892-94; prin. h. s. DeKalb, 1897-98; 
prof. math. N.I.S.N.S., i899-date. Married Lulu Bradt, Jan. 31, 1895. 

695. Royal W. Sanders, with H. M. Johns-Manville Asbestos Co., 
New Orleans, La. Grad. 111. Wesleyan Law Sch., 1902. St. Baker's Bus. 
Coll., Bloomington, 1894; rural sch., Will Co., 1892 (2 rnos.) ; Homer, 1893 
(5 mos.) ; Bloomington, Jan., i895-June, 1896; Bloomington h. s., 1896- 
Feb., 1907. Married Delia Soverns, Sept. 2, 1897. 

696. William J. Sutherland, teaching W.I.S.N.S., Macomb. St. 
Univ. of Chicago, summer 1896; Univ. of Wis., 1899-1900; Ph.B. from 
same, 1902 ; prin. h. s., Yorkville, 1892-1895 ; supt. Oregon, 1895-1901 ; 
supt. Charleston, 1901-1902; dept. of geography and geology, W.I.S.N.S., 
1902-date ; contributed to Journal Geography, Educational Outlook, School 
and Home Education. Married Vinnie M. Robbins, Creston, July 18, 1895. 

697. Benjamin F. Vaughn, pastor Christian church, Ninnekah, Okla. 
Prin. pub. sch., Eureka, I yr. ; same, Marksville, Kas., i yr. ; same, Gurda 
Springs, Kas., i yr. ; minister, i8o6-date ; pub. short articles on social 
and religious subjects. Married Mary E. O'Brien, Eureka, Aug. 30, 1893. 

698. Charles F. Watt, dentist, Armington. St. Chicago Coll. of Dent. 
Surg., 1898-1901; prin. h. s., Loda, 1892-94; prin. h. s., Pawnee, 1895-1898; 
Eng. in a Bus. Coll., 1894-1895. Married Sallie Dills, April 3, 1889. 


151. Grace E. Chandler, music teacher, 375 W. 8th Ave., Columbus, O. 

152. Lura M. Eyestone, student, Teachers' Coll., Columbia Univ., 
New York City. St. Normal dept. I.S.N.U., 1892-93; Chicago Normal 
Sch., summer 1896; Columbia Univ. summer 1905; Teachers' Coll., same 
I9o6-date; teacher, rural sch., 1893-94; Normal pub. sch., 1894-1901; 
training teacher I.S.N.U., 1901-06. 

ti53. Enid Gibson (Mrs. Hillegas), with Denver Dry Goods Co., 
Denver, Colo. 

154. Anna Gilborne (Mrs. Martin D. Leopold), teaching, Clay Cen- 
ter, Neb. Manteno, 1892-93; prin. at North Kankakee, 1893-94; rural schs., 
1894-99; Fairbury, 1899-1900; rural sch., 1900-01; St. Anne, 1901-1902; 
Cabery, 1902-1904; rural sch., Neb., 1904-06; Verona, Neb., 1906 date. 
Married Martin D. Leopold, July 12, 1904. 

155. Asenath Elliott Grier, teacher. Red Bluff, Cal. St. Univ. of Chi- 
cago, 1895-96; Camp Point h. s., 1892-94; teacher of Latin and Greek, Lid- 
enwood, Coll., St. Charles, Mo., 1894-95; Hayward, Wis. h. s., 1897-99; 
Red Bluff grades and h. s., i9O2-date. 

tis6. Metta Huling, Eureka Springs, Ark. 

^ 157. Walter H. Baird, teacher, 108 E. Charles St., Springfield. St. 
Univ. of 111., 1903; summer sessions same, 1901-1905; LeRoy, 4 yrs.; prin. 
Auburn 4 yrs.; instructor in math. Springfield h. s., 5 yrs. Married Es- 
tella Smith, LeRoy, April 30, 1896. 

158. Arthur Bassett, director Bloomington Conservatory of Music, 
Normal. Grad. from Chicago Conservatory 1897; post-grad, work in Chi- 
cago, Paris, and London. 


159. George W. Bishop, teacher, Kankakee. Grad. from Univ. of 
III, 1905 ; Lacon, 1892-93 ; twp. h. s., Streator, 1893-95 ; biology, h. s., Bloom- 
ington, 1896-1899; English in Monmouth State Normal Sch., Monmouth, 
Ore., 1900-02; sciences in Southern Oregon State Normal Sch., Ashland, 
1902-03; prin. h. s, Mt. Vernon, Ind., 1903-04; h. s. Superior, Wis., 1904- 
05; supt. Peotone, 1905-06; head of science dept., Kankakee, I9o6-date. 

160. Edgar Blackburn, wholesale brokerage, Baker City, Ore. Mar- 
ried Bettie Breck, Richmond, Ky., June, 1905. 

161. John B. Cleveland, teacher of mathematics, State Normal Sch., 
Los Angeles, Calif. Taught Kendall, I yr. ; Sheffield, 6 yrs. ; Kewanee, 2 
yrs. ; present position, yrs. 

162. Herbert Stephen Hicks, lawyer, cor. State and Main Sts., Rock- 
ford. St. Leland Stanford, Jr., Univ., Palo Alto, Cal, 1892-96. Married 
Florence Gantz, March 10, 1904. 

163. Samuel Holder, hardware merchant, Bloomington. 

164. Frank E. King (See No. 623). 

165. Weldon E. Porter, farmer, Hampton, la. 

166. George Washington Riley, osteopathist, 43 W. 32d St., New 
York City. St. Univ. of Penn. Ph.B., 1893-96; Law Sch. 111. Wesleyan 
Univ., 1896 and 1897; American Sch. of Osteopathy, Kirksville, Mo., 1902- 
04; supt. Tiskilwa, 1892-93. Married Mrs. Chloe C. Carlock, June 29, 1904. 

167. Walter Dill Scott, teacher, 2036 Orrington Ave., Evanston. St. 
Northwestern Univ., 1891-95 ; McCormick Theological Seminary, 1895- 
98; Leipsig Univ., 1898-1900; rural sch. LeRoy, 1889; asst. prof, of 
psychology and director of the psychological laboratory Northwestern 
Univ., i9Oi-date; pub. Die Psychologie der Triebe, Halle, 1900, Theory 
of Advertising, Cambridge, 1903, Psychology of Public Speaking, Phila., 
1907, about 50 magazine articles on psychology. Married Anna Marcy 
Miller, 1898. 

CLASS OF 1893 

699. Jennie Bailey (Mrs. J. R. Metzler), Orion, R.F.D. No. 2. Mo- 
line, 1894 Feb., 1902. Married Jesse Rolland Metzler, Feb. 26, 1902. 

700. Mae Cook, Marinette, Wis. Taught, 10 yrs. 

701. Jessie Helene Cunningham (Mrs. Charles W. Whitten), De- 
Kalb. Yorkville, 1893-95; Richmond, Ind., 1895-99; Normal, 1899-1901'; 
critic teacher, I.S.N.U., 1901-1904. Married Charles W. Whitten, (see 
No. 1097), June 7, 1904. 

702. Nettie Theodosia Dahl (Mrs. Charles R. Conklin), Clifton. 
Peru h. s., 1893-94; Sterling, 1894-95; Granville, 1895-99. Married July 
30, 1899. 

703. Jude Everette Davis, teaching, 42 Loomis St., Chicago. St. 
Martha's Vinyard Institute, Boston, 1895 ; Univ. of Chicago ; Evanston, 
1894-97; Decatur, 1897-99; Wilmette, 1899-1904; Francis Scott Key Sch., 
Chicago, i9O4-date. 

704. Margaretta Hart, teacher, 417 N. 7th Ave., Maywood. Mag- 
nolia, 1893-94; D. R. Cameron Sch., Chicago, 1894-1905; Julia Ward 
Howe Sch., 1905-date. 

705. Carrie Putnam Herndon, asst. in history, Miami Univ., Ox- 
ford, O. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1898-1901, Ph.B., 1905-06 Ph.M. ; Morgan 
Park, 1893-96; prin. Morgan Park, 1896-98; prof, of history, South- 
western, Winfield, Kan., 1902-05 ; present position, I9o6-date. 

706. Lizzie Irene Hilton, teaching, 419 So. 8th Ave., Maywood. 
Prophetstown, 1893-95; Downer's Grove, 1895-96; Maywood, 1896-1900; 
Oak Park, igoo-date. 


707. Georgia Jackman Kimball (Mrs. William C. Windle), 112 Guil- 
ford St., Huntington, Ind. Mt. Vernon, 1893-94; Huntington, Ind., 1894- 
96. Married William C. Windle, July 21, 1896. 

708. Marguerite McElroy (Mrs. William H. Westbrook), Paxton. 
Paxton, 1893-95. Married October 23, 1895. 

709. Sarah Caroline Parker, Steward. Downer's Grove, 1893-95. 

710. Edith Sylvia Patten, teacher, DeKalb. St. Univ. of Chicago, 
1897 (summer term), Univ. of Wis., 1899-1901, Ph.B.-l90i ; prin. Cortland, 
1893-95; Austin, 1895-99; prin- Glidden Sch. and critic teacher, N.I.S.N.S., 
I90i-date ; asst. in history dept, N.I.S.N.S, summers 1906 and 1907. 

711. Mary Weber (Mrs. John W. Malone), teacher English, Wendell 
Phillips H. S,, Chicago. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1897-1900; h. s., LaSalle, 
I893-97 1 ; asst. prin. h. s., Chicago Heights, 1900-03 ; present position, 1903- 
date. Married June 25, 1905. 

712. Minnie Sarepta Whitaker, Oak Park. Taught, 14 yrs. 

713. Mrs. Kate White (Mrs. Dr. James O. White), Brocton. Rural 
sch., 1893-95; prin. Brocton, 1895-96; rural sch., 1896-98; primary, Broc- 
ton, 1900-1903. Married while in I.S.N.U. 

714. Mary Lucena Wilcox (Mrs. John Henry), Aldine, Tex. Near 
Barclay, J^ yr. Edinburg, I yr. 

f7i5. Jennie Ruhama Wright (Mrs. Farnsworth), 217 Glorieta Colon, 
City of Mexico. Taught, 4 years. 

716. Archibald John Alcorn, physician and surgeon, 1145 Tripp Ave., 
Chicago. St. Univ. of Chicago and Jenner Med. Coll., 1896 and 97 ; Jenner 
Med. Coll., 1897, '98, '99; College of Physicians and Surgeons, U. of 111., 
1899 and 1900; prin. Tonica, 1893-94; prin. Washburn, 1894-96; head sur- 
geon for several Chicago corporations. Married Jessie E. Wells, Dec. 26, 

t7i7. Edward Carl Backer, 2763 N. Paulina St., Chicago. H. S., 
Carrollton, I yr. ; Ravenswood sch., n yrs. 

t7i8. Herman Thomas Backer, furniture and undertaking, Eureka. 
Jerseyville, i yr. ; elem. sch., Chicago, 4 yrs. 

719. Joseph Almond Dixon, teacher, 5637 Drexel Ave., Chicago. St. 
Univ. of Chicago, 1896-98; prin. Roseville, 1893-96; teacher math, in 
Wendell Phillips H. S., Chicago, iSgS-date. Married Emma Spurgeon (see 
No. 644), Nov. 28, 1895. 

720. William Burgess Elliott, farmer, Williamsfield. Saybrook, 1893- 
94 ; prin. Wyoming, 1894-95 ; prin. Altona, 1895-96 ; sch. director, 10 yrs. 
Married Jennette Armstrong, Nov. 14, 1888. 

721. George Horace Gaston, teaching, 425 E. 42nd St., Chicago. St. 
Univ. of 111., 1894-96; grad. U. of Chicago, 1897; prin. Hey worth, 1893-94; 
elem. sch., Chicago, 1898-1902 ; Wendell Phillips H. S., Chicago, i9O2-date. 
Married Mary Wetmore, 1898. 

722. William Luther Goble, prin. h. s., Elgin. Grad. from Univ. of 
Chicago, 1901 ; prin. Gardner, 1893-94 ! prin. Kansas, 1895-97 ; prin. h. s., 
Paris, 1897-99; h. s., Elgin, 1901-05; prin. h. s., Elgin, igos-date. Mar- 
ried Angie May Bradfield, Aug. n, 1898. 

723. Walter Scott Goode, minister, Youngstown, Ohio. St. Univ. of 
Chicago, 1898-1900; rural sch., 1891-92; prin. Palestine, 1893-98. 

724. Paul Ernest Grabow, physician and surgeon, iioo N. Halsted 
St., Chicago. St. Col. Phys. and Surgeons, 1898-1902; prin. Malta, 1893- 
98; prof. Therapeutics Dearborn Med. Sch.; house phys. Children's Me- 
morial Hospital. Married Kittie B. Stephens, Nov. 25, 1893. 

725. James Alexander Hodge, teacher Hermann Raster Sch., 7oth 
and Wood Sts., Chicago. St. Univ. of Chicago summers of 1899 and 1900; 


h. s., Jerseyville, I yr. ; prin. Maroa, I yr. ; Cherry Point, 4 yrs. ; Ells- 
worth, I yr; Chicago, 5 yrs. Married Angie Carpenter, Jan. 6, 1897. 

726. Warren Jones, supt. schs., Elburn. St. Univ. of 111., 1900-1902; 
degree A.B. ; prin. Divernon, 1893-94; New Canton, 1894-95; Time, 1895- 
96; Lovington, 1896-98; prin. h. s., White Hall, 1899!; head of dept. of 
English, West H. S., Aurora, 1902-05; supt. Elburn, igoj-date. Married 
Anna W. Gehring, Nov. 25, 1896. 

*727. John Philip Merker, died April 6, 1900. Taught in h. s., Belle- 
ville, 6 yrs. 

728. John Delmar Murphy, pastor Presbyterian church, Waynesville. 

729. William Sherman Pierce, prin. of Bay View Bus. Coll., 358 Park 
PI., Milwaukee, Wis. Aurora h. s., 3 yrs.; Steinman Inst., Dixon, i yr. ; 
prin. Glen Ellyn, 4 yrs.; Bus. Coll. work in Chicago and Hammond, Ind., 
2 yrs. ; pub. Spellers That Teach to Spell and an arithmetic. Married 
Melissa E. Foulke, July 22, 1896. 

730. William Donaldson Scott, teaching, Buckley. St. I.S.N.U. sum- 
mer 1895 ; Univ. of 111., summer 1906 ; prin. Grand Ridge, 2 yrs. ; Leland, 
4 yrs.; LaMoille, I yr. ; Milledgeville, I yr. ; Buckley, 4 yrs. Married 
Kate E. Speechley, Aug. 6, 1893. 

731. Herbert Clark Waddle, physician and surgeon, Elgin. St. Coll. 
of Phys. and Surgeons, Chicago, 1899-1903; supt. Marseilles, 1893-95; 
supt. Vintpn, la., 1895-99; member of board of education and city phy- 
sician, Elgin. Married Alchee Amret Case, Aug. 16, 1894. 

732. William Samuel Wallace, asst. bank cashier, Savanna. St. Ar- 
mour Inst., 1903; supt. Henry, 1893-97; supt. Savanna, 1897-1902; prin. 
twp. h. s., Savanna, 1902-06. Married Elizabeth Horning, June 20> 1894. 

733. Henry Dray Willard, book dealer, Carbondale. Prin. h. s., 
Beardstown, I yr. ; Los Angeles, Cal., 2 yrs.; sppt. Fairfield, 3 yrs.; supt. 
Winchester, 3 yrs. Married Bessie Morris, July, 1900. 


168. Grace D. Aldrich (Mrs. W. H. Moore), 602 Bradley Ave., Pe- 
oria. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1894-95 \ sec. training inst. Y.W.C. A., Chicago, 
1904; gen. sec. Y.W.C.A., Charlotte, N. C, 1904-06. Married W. H. 
Moore, Aug. 22, 1906 

ti6g. Nellie J. Benson, 802 W. Mill St., Bloomington. 

170. Sara Hall Clark, Latin teacher, 309 E. Locust St., Bloomington. 
St. summer term I.S.N.U., 1895 ; same Univ. of Chicago, 1902, '03, and '05 ; 
h. s., Bloomington, n yrs. 

*I7I. Katie Pearl Evans, died July 10, 1903 

172. Junia M. Foster (Mrs. Barber), Normal. St. Emerson Coll. of 
Oratory, Boston, 1895-98; Univ. of Wis., 1899-1900; asst. prin. elem. sch., 
Tustin, Calif., 1894-95; private and institute teacher of oratory and phy- 
sical culture in Colorado, 1898-99. Married Frederic D. Barber, Aug. 
27, 1900 (See No. 748). 

173. Mrs. Jesse Frazeur (See No. 605). 

174. Nellie I. Kofoid (Mrs. Dillon), 249 N. Forest Ave., River For- 
est. Teacher science h. s., DeKalb, i yr. Married William W. Dillon, 1901. 

175. L. May Leaton (Mrs. Rodman), 587 E. soth St., Chicago. 
Bloomington private sch., 3 yrs. Married Arthur Rodman, June 25, 1896. 

*I76. Alice Patten, died September n, 1904. Taught in h. s., Bloom- 
ington, 2 yrs.; Latin in State Normal Sch., DeKalb, 5 yrs. 

177. Bertha Rutledge, teacher, LeRoy. St. Univ. of Chicago, i sum- 
mer term; grad. from Univ. of 111., 1906; rural schools, 1893-96; prin. 
LeRoy h. s., 1896-99; Harvey, 1899-1904; prin. LeRoy h. s., 


178. Grace A. Sealey, Normal. St. Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington, 
1893-94; Univ. of Chicago, A.B., 1894-95; 1898-1900; English in h. s., 
Bloomington, Jan., i897-June, 1898. 

179. Ethel L. Tryner, 1412 North Main St., Bloomington. St. Illi- 
nois Wesleyan Univ., Sept., i893-March, 94; Univ. of Chicago, 1895-97; 
Smith College, 1897-1900. 

180. William Henderson Arbogast, clergyman, Sherrard. St. Univ. 
of Chicago, 1894-97; Moody Bible Inst, 1897-99; rural sch., 1893-94. Mar- 
ried Alta M. Biehl, Decatur, June 17, 1903. 

181. James H. Forrester, attorney, Taylorville. St. Univ. of Pennsyl- 
vania, Ph.B., 1893-95; county judge Christian Co., 1902-06. 

182. John Philip Merker (See No. 727). 

183. Cuthbert F. Parker, stock raising and real estate, Julesburg, 
Colo. Co. supt. of schs., Sedgwick Co., Colo., Jan., i8o,6-Jan., 1905; mem- 
ber Colorado state legislature at present time. Married Maud E. Mills, 
March 13, 1901. 

184. Thomas L. Pollock, attorney for the south, for the Ocean Ac- 
cident and Guarantee Corporation, 717 Macheca Bldg., New Orleans, La. 
St. Univ. of Mich. ; grad. from law dept. of 111. Wesleyan Univ. ; pres- 
ent position, 1901 . 

185. Elmer L Rowell, real estate, Berkeley, Cal. St. Univ. of Cal., 
1893-97; private sch., Sonoma Valley, 1897-99''; h. s., same, Jan.-June, 1900; 
h. s., Eureka, 1900-01 ; prin. h. s., Martinez, 1901-02 ; Lowell H. S., San. 
Francisco, 1902-07. Married Delia Clayton Pauli, July 2, 1902. 

186. Frank Howard Wescott, Lander, Wyo. St. Univ. of Chicago, 
1894-97, 1900-06; supt. Lacon, 1897-1900; instructor in physics, Armour 
Inst, 1902-03; instructor in physics in the University H. S., Chicago, 

CLASS OF 1894 

734. Isabella Anderson, teacher, White Hall. St. I.S.N.U., 1902-04; 
asst. h. s., McLean, 1894-99; prin. h s., White Hall, iox>4-date. 

t735- Cora Belle Barney (Mrs. John Austin Bellows), 1130 Judson 
Ave., Evanston. Taught h. s., Yorkville, I yr. 

t736. Willie Belle Butler (Mrs. Francis), Joliet. Taught 3 yrs. 

737. Augusta Elizabeth Corbin, Elwood. Rural sch., I yr., Oglesby, 
I yr., Crete, i yr. 

738. Anna Ethelyn Gaylord, teacher, 6441 Harvard Ave., Chicago. 
Rushville, 1894-95, Plymouth, 1895-99; elem. sch., Chicago, i899-date. 

739. Eleanor Hampton, teacher, 4 Elm St., Oshkosh, Wis. St. 
Western Reserve Univ., 1898, Univ. of Chicago summers, 1899-1902, cor- 
respondence work U. of C, 1905-06; Austin, 1894-97; LaGrange, 1898 
(6 ms.) ; private sch. and Normal class in Coll. for Women, Cleveland, 
O., 1898-99; River Forest, 1899-1900, critic teacher, I.S.N.U., 1900-04; 
dept. teacher intermediate grades, State Normal, Oshkosh, i9O5-date. 

740. Eva Belle Houser, Randolph. St. Col. Parker's Sch., Chicago, 
Jan.- April, 1901; Atlanta, 1894-96; Bloomington, 1896-99. 

t74i. Marty Josephine McCafferty (Mrs. Grove), Gridley. Taught 2 yrs. 

742. Lillian Semantha Nelson (Mrs. James S. Conard), Dewey, 
R.F.D. 33; Mackinaw, 1894-1900. Married Jan. I, 1901. 

743. Evelyn Peltier, teacher Elaine Sch., 2155 Clarendon Ave., Chi- 
cago. St. Univ. of Chicago summer 1900; teachers' Coll., Univ. and Nor- 
mal extension work; teacher in elem. sch., Chicago, i894-date. 

744. Pauline Marie Rosalie Schneider, governess, Bluffs. Taught 
13 yrs. 


745. Charlotte May Slocum (Mrs. George C. Ashman), 129 Elmwood 
Ave., Peoria. St. Harvard summer sch., 1901; Evanston, 1894-99; primary 
critic, E.I.S.N.S., Charleston, 1899-1905. Married Sept. 12, 1905. 

746. Lida Jane Smith, Cooksyille. Asst. prin. Lexington, 1895-97; 
prin. Cooksville, 1898-1903 ; asst. prin. Colfax, 1904-1906. 

747. Rosa Waugh, teaching, Naperville. St. Univ. of Chicago sum- 
mers 1900, 1904, 1905, and 1906; first asst. h. s., Dixon, 1894-97; prin. h. s., 
New Harmony Ind., 1898-1900; asst. in h. s., Cobden, igop-oii; asst. in 
Union Acad., Anna, 1901-02; prin. Ella worth H. S., Naperville, 1902-date. 

748. Frederick DeLos Barber, instructor I.S.N.U., 309 Florence Ave., 
Normal. St. Swarthmore Coll., Pa., 1895-97; Univ. of Chicago, 1897-98; 
science teacher, h. s., Whitewater, Wlis., I yr. ; teacher of physics and 
chemistry I.S.N.U., iSgS-date; Physical Science as Applied in Home, 
School, and Farm in press. Married Junia M. Foster (see H. S. N'o. 172), 
Aug. 27, 1900. 

749. Herbert Bassett, supt. pub. sch., Normal. St. Univ. of Chicago, 
summer, 1898; Univ. of 111., B. S., 1900-02; Armour Inst, spec, work in 
man, tr. and mech. drwg., 1904-05; Univ. of Wis., summer, 1905; t. pub. 
sch., Normal, 1894-95; El Paso, 1895-98; Yorkville, 1898-1900; Wilmette, 
1903-06; present position, 1906 ; phys. and chem., I.S.N.U., 1st summer 
terms, 1902, 1903. Married Blanche Worley, 1898. 

750. Joseph Grant Brown, teacher, 1013 Ramona St., Palo Alto, Cal. 
St. Stanford Univ., 1898-1903, receiving degrees of A.B. and A.M. ; teacher 
of physics and chem., I.S.N.U., 1894-98; asst. in physics, Stanford Univ., 
1901-02; instructor in physics, Stanford Univ., 1902-date. Married Grace 
Nims, June 30, 1903. 

*75i. Charles Dayton Coley, died July 9, 1906. Prin. Neoga, I yr. ; 
prin. Oneida, 2 yrs. ; prin. twp. h. s., Edinburg, 2 yrs. ; prin. Redmon, I 
yr. ; asst. h. s., Pana, i yr. ; prin, Penfield, I year. 

752. Thomas Higdon Gentle, director of training sch., state normal, 
Platteville, Wis. St. Univ. of Jena, Germany, 1894-97; pedagogy and 
psychology, 2 yrs., and present position, 7 yrs , Platteville, Wis., state Nor- 
mal. Married Carrie M. Kessler, Oct. 15, 1892. 

753. Edward Clement Graybill, merchant, Clarksburg. Grad. Austin 
College, 1900, and holds both 5 yr. and life state certificate ; Milmine, i yr. ; 
prin. DeLand, 2 yrs ; prin. Windsor, 2 yrs ; Findley, I yr. ; Strasburg, i yr. ; 
Stewardson, 4 yrs; pub. soth Century Optimism and Pessimism. Married 
Agnes Harrington, Stewardson, 111., 1905. 

754. Albert Smith Hanna, teacher, Sagamore Ave., Hollis, N. Y. St. 
Lawrence Scientific Sch. of Harvard Univ., 1894-98; prin. elem. sch., 
Springfield, Mass., 1898-1901 ; teacher of Eng. in Boston Central evening 
h. s., 2Y 2 yrs. ; biology in Boys h. s., Brooklyn, N. Y., 4J4 yrs. ; present 
position; pub. articles on nature study. Married Luella M. Denman 
(See No. 577), Nov. 24, 1898. 

755- John Alexander Hull Keith, head of training dept. I.S.N.U., 
Normal. St. Harvard Univ., 1896-99; prim. gram, sch., I.S.N.U. train, 
sch., 1894-96; prof, in pedagogy and asst. in psychology, N.I.S.N.S., 1899- 
1906, present position, I9o6-date ; pub. Elementary Education Its Pro- 
cesses and problems, 1905. Married Rebecca A. Foley (See No. 634), June 
7, 1900. 

*7S6. Wilson Klingler, drowned while a student, Cornell Univ., Dec. 
18, 1898. 

757. Mason E. Knapp, mgr. Loveland Planing Mill, Loveland, Colo. 
Supt. and prin. Braidwood, 1894-96; prin. Remington Sch., Fort Collins, 
Colo., 1897-99; U. S. Forest Service, 1905. Married Florence A. White, 
June 27, 1895. 


758. Benjamin Clay Moore, supt. sch., McLean Co., Bloomington. 
St. Univ. of I., summer 1899, Harvard Univ., summer 1903; supt. Macki- 
naw, 1894-96; supt. LeRoy, 1896-1900; supt. Lewiston, 1900-05; supt. Lex- 
ington, iocs-Dec., 1906; I.S.N.U. summer school; co. supt. sch. McLean 
Co., I9o6-date; pub. many articles in School News. Married Myrtle N. 
Search, June 25, 1896. 

759. Frederick Gilbert Mutterer, prof. Indiana State Normal Sch., 
Terre Haute, Ind. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1896-1901; Univ. of Berlin, 1903- 
04; prin. h. s., Galena, 1894-96; Latin and German Elgin Acad., Elgin, 
1898-1902 ; Latin and German Indiana State Normal Sch., Terre Haute, 
Ind., 1002-date. 

*76o. Curtis Findley Pike, melter, U. S. Assay Office, Boise, Idaho. 
Prin. sch., 7 yrs. 

761. Jacob W. Rausch, lawyer, Morris. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1905 
and 1906; prin. Mazon, 1894-96; city atty., Morris. Married Colette Bea- 
trice McCambridge, Nov. 6, 1902. 

762. William Thomas Skinner, teacher, Crescent City. St. Univ. of 
111., 1900-01 ; prin. McLean, 1894-96 ; asst. h. s., Paxton, 1896-97 ; prin. 
Loda, 1897-1900; supt. Milford, 1901-031; prin. Crescent City, i9O4-date. 
Married Carrie Gray, Dec. 25, 1899. 

763. William Wesley White, farming, Apple River. Village sch. in 
Wisconsin, winter 1894 and '95. Married Addie Nickols, Platteville, Wis., 
March 16, 1899. 


187. Effie Pence Allspaugh (Mrs. James E. Wyckoff), Saybrook. 
Married May 18, 1899. 

188. Mrs. R. O. Butterfield (See No. 665). 

189. Charlotte Briggs Capen (Mrs. Percy B. Eckhart), Kenilworth. 
St. Univ. of Chicago, 1894-98. Married June 6, 1903. 

190. Stella Rennie Eldred, teaching, 1104 N. Park St., Bloomington. 
St. Univ. of Chicago, 1894-95; Smith Coll., 1897-1900, degree of B.L. ; 
primary sch., Joliet, 1895-96; h. s., Sheffield, 1896-97; h. s., Harvey, 1900- 
02; h. s., Bloomington, 1902 ; I.S.N.U. 2nd summer term, 1906. 

191. Neffa N. Emerson (Mrs. Dr. Irving Newcomer), Petersburg. 
Married 1899. 

192. Florence B. Evans, 411 E. Jefferson St., Bloomington. St. Univ. 
of Chicago, 1894-95. 

193. Nellie F. Goodwin (Mrs. Silas H. Reid), 205 N. Evans St., 
El Reno, Okla. St. 111. Wesleyan Coll. of Music and Bloomington Coll. of 
Music, 1895-99. Married Jan. 2, 1901. 

194. Ruth E. Moore, teaching, 508 W. Washington St., Bloomington. 
St. Univ. of Chicago, 1894-96, 1901-02; h. s., Farmer City, 1896-98; English 
in h. s., Bloomington, 1898-1901, i9O2-date. 

195. Herma L. Mabel Porterfield (Mrs. Arthur H. Merrill), 510 N. 
6th Ave., Maywood. Asst. prin. h. s., Wenona, Dec. , June, 1898; Ish- 
peming, Mich., 1898-99; Maywood, 1899-1902. Married July, 1902. 

196. Eunice Farrar Sater (Mrs. Stephen A. D. Harry), Hoopeston. 
St. 111. Woman's Coll., 1894-95; Sinclair, I yr. ; Meredosia, I yr. ; Atlanta, 
2 yrs. ; h. s., Atlanta, 3 yrs. ; h. s., Hoopeston, I yr.. Married July 14, 1904. 

197- Rosa Waugh (See No. 747). 

198. Frank Puterbaugh Bachman, teacher, Athens, O. A.B. degree 
from Univ. of Chicago, 1896'; Univ. of Marburg, 1896-97; Columbia Univ., 
1900-02, degree Ph.D. ; h. s. Decatur, 1897-98 ; supr. of practice s. Valley 
City, S.D., State Normal Sch., 1898-1900; prof, of hist, and principles of ed- 


ucation, Normal Coll., Univ. of Ohio, Athens, O., ipoa-date; pub. Princi- 
ples of Education and numerous articles on educational topics. Married 
Jessie G. Harris, 1904. 

199. Burl P. Baker, manufacturer's agent, 404 Granite Bldg., St. 
Louis, Mo. Prin. Pittsfield H. S., 1894-95; P"n. h. s., Vandalia, 1895-97; 
supt. Clyde, 1897-98. Married Mary Hetfield, 1894. 

200. G. Gordon Burnside, lawyer and master in chancery, Vandalia. 
Rural sch., 1894-95; prin. elem. s., Vandalia, 1895-96; h. s., Mt. Vernon, 
1896-97; prin. h. s., Vandalia, 1897-99; admitted to the bar, June, 1901. 
Married Jessie Hickman, April 19, 1903. 

201. Alfred Curtis LeSourd, chief draftsman Big Four R. R., Mt. 
Carmel, home address, Topeka. St. Univ. of 111., 1899-1903; rural schs., 

202. Bert H. McCann, lawyer, Bloomington. St. 111. Wes. Univ., 
Bloomington, law dept, 1892-94, degree LL.B. ; clerk, house of rep., 
Springfield. Married Laura Seibel, Bloomington, Dec. 26, 1900. 

203. Harry C. McCart, lawyer, Fort Worth, Tex. St. Univ. of Mich., 
1894-95. Married Rose Margaret Ellis, May 17, 1903. 

204. Charles C. Miller, 111. salesman for Robeson Cutlery Co. and 
Rochester Stamping Co. of Rochester, N. Y., 1004 W. Wood St., Decatur. 
Married Mary L. Lewis, Dec. 15, 1898. 

205. Frederick G. Mutterer (See No. 759). 

206. Ora M. Rhodes, physician and surgeon, Corn Belt Bank Bldg., 
Bloomington. St. Univ. of 111., 1894-98, College of Physicians and Sur- 
geons, Chicago, 1898-1901. Married Myrtie J. Downs, May 8, 1902. 

207. Harvey S. Smith, physician, 206 St. Clair Ave., East St. Louis. 
St. Medical Coll., St. Louis, Mo., 3 yrs.; I yr. as interne City Hospital, 
St. Louis, Mo. ; h. s., Paxton, I yr. ; prin. Tonica,, I yr. Married Lucy 
Clanahan (See No. 803), June u, 1902. 

208. Harry R. Spickerman, physician and surgeon, Muncie, Ind. St. 
med. dept. Univ. of 111., 1894-98. Married Lela Faye Ogle, Dec. 24, 1900. 

t2O9. J. William Taylor, merchant, Williamsfield. 

210. Daniel Webster Thompson, farmer and lawyer, Randolph. Grad. 
111. Wes. Univ., Bloomington, 1896; Pleasant Hill, I yr. Married Ella 
Dillon^ June 5, 1900. 

211. Theodore Thompson, physician and surgeon, Shelbyville. St. 
Rush Med. Coll., Chicago, 1894-97. Married Harriet L. Carnahan, Chi- 
cago, Sept. 18, 1895. 

212. Ernest Algier Thornhill (See No. 851). 

CLASS OF 1895 

764. Fannie Bailer (Mrs. Griggs), farming, DeWitt, Neb. Wymore, 
i yr. ; near Barnston, Neb., 2 yrs. Married L. D. Briggs, 1897. 

765. Mabel Winslow Barrett (Mrs. E. O. Grange), Wheaton. York- 
ville h. s., i yr. ; Downer's Grove, i yr. ; Pekin, 2 yrs. ; Decatur, 3 yrs. ; 
Whiting, Ind., I yr. 

766. Mary Bertha Boulter, teaching, 338 So. Hermitage Ave., Chi- 
cago. LaGrange, 1895-1906; elem. s., Chicago, 1906 . 

767. Martha Alice Grattan, teaching, Grand Forks, N. Dak. West 
Superior, Wis., I yr. ; Grand Forks,, 1897 . 

768. Phebe Hammond (Mrs. Hubbard)), 820 Cherry St., Quincy. 
Dixon, 2 yrs.; rural sch., I yr. Married Samuel A. Hubbard, Oct. II, 1898. 

769. Margaret Hanna (Mrs. Haney), Moline. Primary teacher, 
McLean, 1895-96. Married Rev. Richard Haney, July 30, 1896. 


770. Mary Emma Morgan, physician, Rock Island. Grad. Coll. of 
Physicians and Surgeons, Chicago, 1900; taught at Keithsburg, I yr. 

771. Eleanor Maria Phillips (Mrs. Phelps), Enid, Okla. St. Teach- 
er's Coll., Columbia, Univ., 1902, 03; asst. in primary, I.S.N.U., 1894-95; 
Bloomington, 1895-96; critic, primary dept, Colorado State Normal, Gree- 
ley, Colo., 1896-02; same, 1903-06. Married Kenneth G. Phelps, Aug. 7, 

772. Louemma Raber, 62 High St., Freeport. Taught 1895-1903. 

773. Anna Barbara Schulte, teaching, Chester. Dixon, 2 yrs. ; Ches- 
ter, 1898 . 

774. Agnes Marion Smith (Mrs. Thomas A. Hillyer), Moorhead. 
Quaker Lane, 2 yrs.; Austin, i yr. (See No. 782.) 

775. Laura Mabel Thompson (Mrs. Faulkner), Everett, Wash. 

776. William Ross Cothern, physician, Gibson City. Grad. Rush 
Med. Coll., 1900; prin. h. s., Keithsburg, i yr.. Married Mamie E. Mc- 
Chesney, Minonk, 1896. 

777. Frederick George Curtis, osteopathic physician, 1108 Maple St., 
Mt. Vernon. St. Amer. Sch. of Osteopathy, Kirksyille, Mo., 1899-1901 ; 
prin. Dolton Station, 1895-99. Married Laura Hendricks, Aug. 25, 1891. 

778. Henry Hugh Edmunds, supt. sch., Rushville. Supt. Loving- 
ton, 1895-96!; Atlanta, 1896-1901 ; Rushville, 1901 . Married Emma 
Washburn (See No. 880), 1900. 

779. John William Fisher, supt. sch., Muskogee, Okla. St. Univ. of 
111., summer 1896; Univ. of 111., 1898-1900 degree B.S. ; prin. h. s., Peru, 
2 yrs. ; Hiawatha, Kas., I yr. ; prin. h. s., Carlyle, 2 yrs. ; supt. Carlyle, 
1903-06; present position, 1906 . Married Lula Ritzman, 1900. 

780. William E. Hedges, teacher, 6631 Kimbark Ave., Chicago. St. 
Univ. of Chicago, 1901 and 1902 ; supt. Macon, 2 yrs. ; asst. Scammon sch., 
Chicago, 5 yrs.; prin. Andrew Jackson Sch., i9O3-date. Married Delia 
Arthur, Decatur, Dec. 29, 1897. 

781. Edward Richard Hendricks, prin. Monroe Sch., 1459 Smalley 
Ct, Chicago. Prof, of geog., State Normal Sch., St. Cloud, Minn., 9 yrs. 

782. Thomas Arthur Hillyer, supt. training dept. State Normal Sch., 
Moorhead, Minn. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1898-1900, degree Ph. B. ; Har- 
vard Univ., 1900-01, degree A.M. ; prin. h. s., Shelbyville, i yr. ; supt. 
Shelbyville, 2 yrs. ; present position, 1901 . Married Agnes M. Smith 
(see No. 774), 1898. 

783. Samuel B. Hirsh, vice-prin. W.I.S.N.S., Macomb. Sterling 
(west) 1889-1898; twp. h. s., Streator, 1899-1902; teacher of English, 
W.I.S.N.S., 1902-07; acting prin. of same, 1905-06. Married Alice S. 
Kent, 1884. 

784. Joseph McNichols Hutchinson, teacher, Covington, Ky. Supt. 
Wyoming, 4 yrs.; supt. Minonk, I yr.,; h. s. prin., Vandalia, I yr. ; supt, 
Fort Thomas, Ky., 4 yrs. ; prin. 4th Dist, Covington, Ky., igoS-date. Mar- 
ried Edith VanReed Aug. 3, 1899. 

785. Granville Bond Jeffers, prin. teacher's training school, Schenec- 
tady, N. Y. St. Leland Stanford, Jr., Univ., 1900-03 ; prin. elem. s., Bloom- 
ington, 1895-97 ! supr. intermediate grades, Bloomington, 1897-1900 ; prin. 
elem. s., San Diego, Cal., 1903; present position, iox>5-date. Married M. 
Louise Toll, Jan. 12, 1904. 

786. Frank Lindley, lawyer, Paxton. St. Ada Law Sch., summer of 
1896; Gibson City, 1895-96; prin. Buckley, 1896-97. Married Julia B. Ball, 
Nov. 2, 1900. 

1787. Justin Jay Love, Manito. St. Univ. of 111., 1^2 yrs.; prin. Kane, 
2 yrs. ; prin. Gays, 3 yrs. ; prin. Bethany, i yr. ; Coles county, 2 yrs. 


788. George Edward Marker, prof, in State Normal Sch., Cheney, 
Wash. St. Univ. of 111., A.B. degree, 1903; Columbia Univ., A.M. de- 
gree, 1904 ; prin. Teachers' Train. Sch., Schenectady, N. Y., I yr. ; director 
of train, sch. and nrof. of psychology and education, present location, 
1905 ; pub. How to Test the Quality of Teaching, 1905, and other edu- 
cational articles. Married Leila Webber, 1896. 

789. Andrew Huttpn Melville, stockman and dealer in real estate, 
Lakefield, Minn. St. Univ. of Chicago, summers of 1898 and '99 : prin. Riv- 
erdale, I yr. ; prin. grammar school, I.S.N.U., 3 yrs. ; prin. practice school, 
N.I.S.N.S., yr. Married Lydia Fedder, 1901. 

790. Chessley Justin Posey, prof, physical science, State Normal 
Sch., Mankato, Minn. Degree of B.S. Univ. of 111., 1900; M.S. from Univ. 
of Chicago, 1905 ; prin. h. s., Minier, 2 yrs. ; prin. h. s., Sugar Grove, i yr. ; 
supt. LeRoy, i yr. ; prof, in h. s., LaPorte, Ind., 2 yrs. ; present position, 
1905 . Married Gertrude Maude Johnston, Ft. Smith, Ark., 1903. 

791. John Henry Sawyer, student, Univ. of 111., 612 W. 111. St., Ur- 
bana. T. of science, twp. h. s., Savanna, 2 yrs. ; co. supt. of schs., Coles 
Co., 4 yrs. Married Eva Mern, Tuscola, 1899 

792. Reuben Tiffany, lawyer, 109 Lincoln Ave., Freeport. St. Chicago 
Law Sch., 1899-1900; prin. h. s., Neoga, 1895-96; same Hanover, 1896-98; 
Married Edith Joyce DeVore, Jan. I, 1903. 

793- Clyde Renal Travis, prof, of math., State Normal Sch., May- 
ville, N. D. Degree of Ph.B. from 111. Wesleyan Univ., 1902 ; prin. 
h. s., Greenfield, 2 yrs.; prin. Manchester, I yr. ; present position, 1898 ; 
has held various offices in educational associations. Married Jennie M. 
Spotts, Fargo, N. D., 1900. 

794. Thomas Brinton Wortman, farmer and stockman, Okemah, I. T. 
Prin. h. s., Morris, I 1-3 yrs. ; prin. Minooka, 4 yrs. Married Emma B. 
Wilson, Shelbyville, 1889. 


213. Pearl L. Ballard (Mrs. George H. Frise), Odell. Columbus 
Junction, la., 1895-96; rural sch., 1897-98; Elmhurst, 1898-991; prin. h. s., 
Odell, 1899-1901 ; prin. h. s., Fairbury, 1901. Married Dec. 21, 1901. 

214. Jessie Jane Bullock (See No. 798). 

1215. May M. Cavan, 1214 Linden Ave., Minneapolis, Minn. 

216. Ruah Coen (See No. 805). 

217. Catherine L. Cowles, 1107 E. Jefferson St., Bloomington. 
Taught, 5 yrs. 

218. Emma Fry (Mrs. Harry E. Gates), 2505 Central Ave., Cheyenne, 
Wyo. Married Aug. 19, 1905. 

219. Harriet B. Fyffe (Mrs. Richardson), 453 Wyoming Place, Mil- 
waukee, Wiis. St. Leland Stanford, Jr., Univ., 1891-95. Married E. L. 
Richardson, Dec. 9, 1896. 

220. Daisy Carver (Mrs. Baum), 5573 Delmar Blvd., St. Louis, Mo. 
Grad. Univ. of 111., 1899. Married H. W. Baum, March 20, 1900. 

t22i. Lou R. Hart (Mrs. Thomas Rees), St. Nicholas hotel, Spring- 

f222. Eleanor Keady (Mrs. John B. Graham), Princeville. 

223. Sallie Rhodes Marshall (Mrs. S. J. Browning), Russellville, Ky. 
Married Oct. 19, 1904. 

224. Flora Thompson (Mrs. Manchester), Normal. Married O. L. 
Manchester, Dec. 25, 1895. 

225. James D. Allen, mgr. L. C. Smith & Bros.' Typewriter Co., 215 
N. 9th St., St. Louis, Mo. 


226. Fred R. Baker, physician, 230 Central Park South, New York 
Cit". Grad. Williams Coll., 1899; grad. Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons, 
Columbia Univ., 1903; res. physician Westchester Co. Hospital, N. Y., 
15 mos. Married Eugenia Graham Butler, July 6, 1904. 

227. Charles M. Barton, pastor M. E. church, Waverly. H. S., Chris- 
man, 1892-93 ; supt. Chrismas, 1893-95. Married Gertrude Deffenbaugh, 
Springfield, Aug. 28, 1901. 

f22& Claude Briggs, prin. h. s., 5 Oak Ave., Aurora. 7th grade, Ha- 
vana ; prin. Mackinaw, 2 yrs. ; prin. W. Aurora h. s., 4 yrs. 

229. John Loring Cook, teacher of music, studio 801, Steinway Hall, 
Chicago; home address, 2058 Magnolia Ave., Edgewater. 

230. Roy H. Dillon, electrical engineer, Normal or Milwaukee, Wis. 
St. Univ. of 111., 1895-97 and 1899-1901. 

231. John Thomas Elliff, lawyer, Pekin. Minier, I yr. ; deputy circuit 
clerk, Pekin, 4 yrs. Married Imogene Ewing, Oct. 6, 1897. 

232. George Kenyon Foster, teacher, Casselton, N. D. St. Univ. 
of 111., 1895-96; graduate student I.S.N.U., 1897-99; A.B., Columbia Univ., 
1899-1901; teacher in h. s., Casselton, N. D., 1901-02; same, Fargo, N. D., 
1902-03; supt. Casselton, N. D., i9O3-date. 

f233. William T. Kirk, 218 West 8th St., Des Moines, la. 

234. Ferdinand C. McCormick, physician, Normal. Grad. med. dept. 
Northwestern Univ., 1899; post grad. homeopathic dept. Mich. Univ., 
1904. Married Estelle Katherine Baker (See no. 855), Oct., 1901. 

235. Fred Russell McMurry, with Western Tel. Co., 2O5th St. and 
Mosholu Parkway, Fordham, N. Y. City. St. Univ. of 111., 1896-97; grad. 
Columbia Univ., 1898; post grad. work, Columbia, 1904-05; teacher rural 
sch., Garden City, Kan., i yr. Married Nettie Lawrence, Oct. 14, 1905. 

236. Frederick William Parker, dentist, 708 Venetian Bldg., 34 Wash- 
ington St., res., 5440 Ridgewood Ct, Chicago. St. Northwestern Univ. 
Dent. Sch., 1895-96, 1897-98, and 1898-99; demonstrator Northwestern 
Univ. Dental Sch., 1899-1902; same, dental dept. Univ. of 111., 1902-04; 
same, Northwestern Univ. Dent. Sch., 1904-05; pub. article on mastication 
in Dental Review, 1905. Married Grace Elizabeth Peabody, Sept. 23, 1903. 

237. Ralph Waldo Parker, trav. salesman for W. V. B. Ames Co., 
6249 Kimbark Ave., Chicago. Grad. from Northwestern Univ. Dental 
Sch., Chicago, 1899; instructor in same school, 1899-1901 and 1903-04; asst. 
prof. Sch. of Dent., U. of 111., 1901-03; present position on account of ill- 
health, igos-date. 

238. Edward Percy Prince (See No. 847.) 

239. Thomas W. Tipton, attorney, Bloomington. 

CLASS OF 1896 

795. Anna Belle Arbogast (Mrs. Cass), Danvers. McLean Co., 1895- 
96, 1897-99, 1900-01. Married Dr. William A. Cass, Jan. 15, 1902. 

796. Sadie Emma Arbogast (Mrs. Lawrence), Arrowsmith. Rural 
schs., McLean Co., 2 yrs. ; Secor, 2 yrs. ; Saybrook, i yr. Married Samuel 
E. Lawrence, Sept. 23, 1903. 

, 797. Rose Bland, student U. of I., 904 S. 5th St., Champaign. St. 
Univ. of 111., summers 1904 and 1906; same, 1906-07; Univ. of Chicago, 
summer, 1905; Chrisman h. s., 1896-97; Sterling h. s., 1897-98; Assump- 
tion h. s., 1898-99; Normal, 1899-1901; critic teacher I.S.N.U., 1901-06. 

798. Jessie Jane Bullock, teaching, Decatur. St. U. of I., 1900, A.B.; 
1906, A.M. ; Dixon h. s., i yr. ; Havana h. s., i yr. ; Mattoon h. s., i yr. ; 
Champaign h. s., 4 yrs. ; Decatur h. s., i yr. ; Charleston Normal, 3 sum- 
mer terms; I.S.N.U., I summer term. 


799. Flora Evangeline Campbell (Mrs. Peters,) 193 Franklin Place, 
Flushing, L. I. St. Natn'l Conservatory of Dramatic Art; Gaffy's Bus. 
Coll. ; Campbell's Sch. of embalming ; taught Forrest, 1896-97 ; substitute, 
Nyack, N. Y., i yr. ; private tutor, i yr. Married Edward Volney Peters, 
New York City, February 27, 1907. 

800. Mrs. Carrie Maria Carpenter, teaching, Henry. St. in review 
sch., Oregon, 1898; teacher in grades and h. s., Henry 1 1 yrs. 

801. Lillian Chenoweth, Osman. Cisco, i yr; Forrest, 1897-99. 

802. Eva May Chisholm (Mrs. Carr), 427 N. Ave., 61, Los Angeles, 
Cal. St. U. of I., summer 1900; primary teacher State Inst. for the Deaf, 
1896-1897 ; primary teacher, 1897-1900 ; asst. primary critic, Montana State 
Normal, 1900-1902 ; primary critic Washington State Normal, 1902-1903 ; 
3 summers' inst. work in 111. and Mont. Married Herbert Carr, Oct. 
28, 1903. 

803. Lucy Maud Clanahan (Mrs. Dr. Harvey S. Smith), 206 St. Clair 
Ave., East St. Louis; asst. in h. s., Griggsville, 1896-1897. Married Dr. 
Harvey Sydney Smith (See H. S. 207, June u, 1902. 

804. Myrtle Clanahan, 912 S. Fourth St., Springfield. Pontiac, 1896- 

805. Ruah Coen, music student, Normal. 
*8o6. Daisy Delle Dickey, died in 1902. 

807. Alice Irene Eldred (Mrs. Moore), 1104 N. Park St., Blooming- 
ton. Married W. D. Moore, 1902. 

808. Jessie Agnes Grainey, teaching, Los Angeles, Cal. East St. 
Louis, 1896-1905 ; present position, 1905 . 

809. Emma Flora Harpstrite, 545 West Main St., Decatur. St. 
James Milliken Univ., 1904-05 ; Decatur schs., 5 yrs. 

810. Ella Mabel Harris (Mrs. Edwards), 2514 6th Ave., Moline. 
Moline, 1896-1905. Married Adolph S. Edwards, June 22, 1905. 

811. Jessie May Himes, teaching. Charlevoix, Mich. St. Territorial 
Normal Univ., Las Vegas, N. M., 1898-1900; Univ. of Chicago; graduated 
from Coll. of Ed., 1903; McLean, 1896-1897; prin. Santa Fe N. M., 1897- 
1898; model teacher in N. M. Normal Univ., Las Vegas, 1898-1902; West- 
ern Springs, 1903-04; prin. county normal, Charlevoix, Mich., i9O4-date; 
institute instructor, 1903-date. 

t8i2. Mary Florence Hobart (Mrs. G. I. Tracey), 313 Winthrop 
Ave., Chicago. Dixon, I yr. ; Chicago Heights, 2 yrs. ; Chicago, 5 yrs. 

813. Laura Helen Holly (Mrs. Hanft), St. Paul, Minn, ist primary, 
Maywood, i yr. ; h. s., Spring Valley, I yr. Married Judge H. O. Hanft, 
June, 1900. 

814. Charlotte Marguerite Kates (Mrs. Henry), 9821 Howard St., 
Chicago. Melrose Park, 1896-99. Married Hubert K. Henry, Oct. 19, 1899 

815. Ada Anna Kuhns (Mrs. Gernon), 608 N. West. St., Blooming- 
ton. Minier, 1896- April, 1898; Bloomington, April, 1898- January, 1902. 
Married Dr. Talbot C. Gernon, Jan. 29, 1902. 

816. Marie Electa Moulton, Ledyard, Iowa. Mt. Sterling, 1897-1898; 
prin. h. s., Assumption, 1899-1900. 

817. Anna Caruthers Nixon (Mrs. Stevenson), Sparta. Marissa, 1898- 
1901 ; Ava, 1903-04. Married Dr. J. B. Stevenson, June 6, 1901. 

818. Pearl Myrtle Perry (Mrs. Stokes), Rochelle. Cornell (rural 
school), 1893-94; Forrest, 1896-1897; Barrington, 1897-98. Married George 
C. Stokes, June 29, 1898. 

819. Iva Mae Quigg (Mrs. McLaughlin), Minier. Lexington, 1896- 
1898. Married Dr. S. M. McLaughlin, Oct. 22, 1901. 


820. Lela Belle Reid (Mrs. Barnes), 6828 S. Park Ave., Chicago. 
Public sch. work, 1896-1897. Married Joseph A. Barnes, 1897. 

821. Ada Myrtle Ruhl, Palo Alto, Cal. 

822. Mary Esther Sabin, prin. Haven Sch., 1914 Orrington Ave., 
Evanston. St. Univ. of Chicago; Haven Sch., Evanston, i896-date. 

823. Elizabeth Taylor Schaeffer (Mrs. Bondurant), Ft. Wayne, Ind. 
Rural sch., 1896-1898. Married Frank L. Bondurant, Sept. 7, 1898. 

824. Mary Minerva Steagall, critic teacher, Ypsilanti, Mich. St. Univ. 
of Chicago, 1899-1900; Univ. of Chicago and School of Ed., 1903-04; prin. 
of h. schs., 1896-1900; 5th grade critic teacher, M.S.N.C., 1900-03; h. s. 
critic, M.S.N.C., 1904-date. 

825. Ruby Linda Traver, teaching, Wheaton. Elem. s., Wheaton, 

826. Jesse Black, Jr., lawyer, Pekin. Rural schs., 3 yrs; Pekin h. s., 

1 yr. ; member 4ist general assembly; county and probate judge of Taze- 
well county, 4 yrs., now serving second term. Married Minnie Elizabeth 
Weyhrich, April 4, 1905. 

827. Frank Smith Bogardus, teacher, Terre Haute, Ind. St. Univ. of 
Chicago, 1901 and 1902; Univ. of 111., 1903-04; prin. Metamora, 1896-98; 
prin. Franklin sch., Danville, 1898-99; prin. practice sch., I.S.N.U., 1899- 
1903 ; chair of European History, Indiana State Normal, Terre Haute, 
1904-date. Married Luella Forden, June 28, 1898. 

828. Elzy Cartwright Gavins, teaching, Hull. St. Univ. of Chicago, 
summer 1902; Univ. of 111., summer 1904; prin. schools, Neoga, 1896-1900; 
supt. west side schs., Batavia, 1900-03; prin. twp. h. s., Biggsville, 1903-05; 
prin. Hull, igos-date. 

829. Albert Grouse Cohagan, supt. schs., Shelby ville. St. Univ. of 
Chicago, summers 1899-1902; prin. Rankin, 1896-1897; supt. Mt. Sterling, 
1897-1902; supt. Shelbyville, i9O2-date. Married Helen M. Criswell, Nor- 
mal, Aug., 1894. 

830. Alan DeWain Cowan, lawyer, 422 Unity Bldg., Bloomington. 
St. law sch., Wesleyan Univ., Bloomington. 

831. Harry Bert Fox, instructor in geology, Univ. of 111., Urbana. 
St. Univ. of 111. ; asst. h. s., Carrollton, 2 yrs. 

*832. Lewis Theron Gallagher, died Dec. 10, 1904. A.B., Univ. of 111., 
1902 ; prin. Tremont, I yr. ; h. s., Carrollton, 2 yrs. ; Park City, Utah, 

2 yrs. ; supt. Byron ; Rose City, Mich., I yr. 

1833. Thomas Henry Greaves, railway mail service, Neoga. Prin. 
Gays, 3 yrs. ; Arthur, 2 yrs. ; Moweaqua, I yr. 

834. Hershel Edward Kanaga, pres. Western Bank and Trust Co., 
Wewoka, I. T. Prin. h. s., ElPaso, 1893-95. Married Bernice Slaugh- 
ter, Sept. 22, 1903. 

835. William Ernest Knott, freezer clerk, Swift's Plant, St. Joseph, 
Mo. Farmer City, 2 yrs. ; prin. Atwood h. s. ; prin. Gifford ; tea. mathe- 
matics, Asheville, N. C. Married Bessie Jinnett Dawdy, April 29, 1906. 

836. Charles Thomas Law, internal revenue service, Peoria. St. 
I.S.N.U., summer 1901 ; supt. Hennepin, 1897-1900 ; supt. Minier, 1900-03 ; 
Morton, 1903-05 ; Sheffield, 1905-06. Married Carrie Louise Fessler, Aug. 
26, 1902. 

837. Paul Harris Lehman, Plymouth. Sunset, I yr. ; rural sch., 
Quincy, I 1-3 yrs. ; asst. Clayton, i yr. ; prin. Plainview, I yr. ; Plymouth, 

3 yrs. 

838. William Herman Diedrich Meier, city supt. Havana. St. Har- 
vard Univ., summer 1901 ; prin. Ipava, 1896-1901 ; supt. Griggsville, 1901- 
04 ; supt. Havana, i9O4-date ; alderman Ipava for 2 terms ; pub. Meier's 


Herbarium and Plant Description (Ginn & Co.) Married Lizzie B. 
Campbell, Riggston, Oct. 30, 1890. 

839. Otto Sylvester Meyer, railway postal clerk, 5612 Prairie Ave., 
Chicago. Prin. Lombard, 1896-99; Elizabeth, 1900-02. Married Blanche 
Schlosser, Dec. 20, 1904. 

840. James Edward O'Neil, grocer, 1102 W. Chestnut St., Bloom- 

841. John Thomas Williams Page, bank cashier, Pleasant Lake, N. D. 
Prin. Leeds, N. D., 1896-98; member board of supervisors York twp, 1899; 
chairman of same, 1900. Married Ella Mann, Oct. 12, 1902. 

842. Joseph Lewis Page, cashier, Bank of Westhope, N. D. St. 
Shurtleff Coll., Upper Alton, spring 1897; at present vice-pres. and mgr. 
Page Investment Co. of Westhope, N. D. Married Anna M. Heiden- 
reich, Feb. 5, 1902. 

843. Ralph Plummer Peairs, physician and surgeon, 498 Murray Ave., 
Milwaukee, W'is. St. Rush Med. Coll., 1899-1903 ; Interne St. Mary's Hos- 
pital, Milwaukee, 1903-1904; house surgeon, Johnston Emergency Hospital, 
Milwaukee, 1905 ; pub. in the Journal of the Amer. Med. Association. 
March 31, 1906, an article, "Head Injuries Accompanied by Intracranial 

844. Nelson Davison Pike, ranchman, Weatherford, Okla. Supt. schs., 
Weatherford, Okla., 1899-1903. 

845. Harry Brusha Price, supt. schs., Fulton. St. Univ. of 111., 1898- 
1903, and 1905 ; 111. Wes., 1902 ; prin. Franklin Grove, 1896-1901 ; supt. 
sch., Ashton, 1901-06; present position, I9o6-date. Married Luella Tra- 
vis, 1902. 

846. Charles Albert Pricer, mgr. Grain and Coal Co., Mahomet. 
Prin. schs., Mahomet, 1896-1900; village clerk, sch. treas., tax collector and 
cashier Mahomet Bank, at different times. Married Etta Possee, 1892. 

847. Edward Percy Prince, lawyer, Webster City, Iowa. St. Univ. 
of Chicago, 1896-97; grad. 111. Wes. Univ. law sch., 1899-1902; rural sch. 
near Cooksville, 1898-99. 

848. Edward William Quick, physician, Appleton, Wis. St. Univ. of 
Chicago ; Rush Med. Coll. ; McCormick Memorial Institute for Infectious 
Diseases ; prin. Riverdale, 1896-98 ; resident physician, Cook Co. Hospital, 
1903-05 ; phys. to Chicago Bd. of Health ; pub. Neurofibromatosis, in 
Am. Jour, of Dermatology, St. Louis, Mo., February, 1907, and various 
other articles in medical journals.. 

849. Philip Harmon Shaub, Custom House clerk, Federal Bldg., Chi- 
cago, (residence, Berwyn, 111.) Prin. Ohio, 1896-99; pub. Substitute Car- 
rier's Handbook of Information; secy, and treas. Chicago Club of I.S.N.U., 
1907. Married Clara J. Neis, Ohio, Feb. 24, 1903. 

850. John Arthur Strong, supt. schools, Blandinsville. Prin. Biggs- 
ville twp. h. s., 7 yrs. ; teacher Galesburg h. s., 2 yrs. ; supt. Blandinsville, 
I yr. Married Mabel I. Harris, June 15, 1898. 

851. Ernest Algier Thornhill, prin. Telluride Institute, Provo, Utah. 
St. Harvard Univ., 1896-99; supt. Carrollton, 1899-1903; present position, 
1904-date. Married Lida E. Connole, June, 1903. 

852. William Jackson Whetzel, proprietor and mgr. Electric Light 
Plant, Eureka. Downs, 1896-97; Benson, i897-December, 1898; Co. supt. 
Woodford county, December, iSgS-December, 1906; proprietor and mgr. 
of electric light plant, I9o6-date ; pub. The Improvement of the Country 
School. Married Hannah Keller, Aug. 10, 1897. 

853. Robert Edwin Worley, medical missionary. Swatow, China. St. 
Rush Med. Coll., 1899-1903 ; elem. s., Aurora, 1896-97 ; prin. Jefferson 
Park h. s., El Paso, 1897-98; traveling agt, for E. O. Vaile, 1898-99. 
Married Prudence O. Campbell, Aug. 25, 1903. 


CLASS OF 1897 

854. Cora Ethel Baker, teaching, 1173 West Macon St., Decatur. St. 
I.S.N.U.. summer 1904; Moweaqua, 1901-02; Normal. 1902-03; rural sch., 
spring 1904; Decatur elem. s., igos-date. 

855. Estelle Katherine Baker (Mrs. McCormick), Normal. Married 
Dr. Ferd McCormick, Oct., 1901. (See H. S. 234.) 

*856. Harriet Bland, died July 24, 1901. Colfax, 3 yrs. 

857. Eva Belle Boyce, teaching, Bloomington. Bloomington, 1898-02. 
t8$8. Mabel Anna Cooper (Mrs. Joseph D. Mitchell), Pawhuska, 
Okla. Maywood, 2 yrs. ; DeKalb Normal Practice Sch., i yr. ; Montana 
State Normal Sch., Dillon, Mont., i yr. 

t859. Gertrude Darby. Address unknown. 

*86o. Etta Melissa Fairfield, died June, 1906, Normal. Bloomington, 
4 yrs. ; Colorado Springs, Colo., 2j^ yrs. 

861. Jessie Felton (Mrs. Brittin), 1309 N. Oak St., Bloomington. 
Married L. Hampton Brittin, Dec. 28, 1898. 

862. Grace Fenton, teacher, 112 N. Hazel St., Danville. St. Univ. of 
Chicago, summer, 1904; primary tea., Danville, i897-date. 

1863. Mary Fletcher, teaching, Milledgeville. Grade teacher, 1897- 
1903; h. s. teacher, 1903-07. 

864. Elizabeth Twining Hall, Downs. St. Univ. of 111., 1899-1901; 
Univ. of Chicago, summers 1905 and 1906 ; asst. h. s., Oregon, 2 yrs. ; Eng- 
lish in h. s., Everett, Wash., 4 yrs. ; English instructor in Normal Sch., 
Pittsburg, Kas., I yr. 

865. Emma Louise Lee, teaching, 165 N. Kedzie Ave., Chicago. St. 
Univ. of Wis., 1905 ; Chicago Normal Sch., 1906 ; Barrington, 2j4 yrs. ; 
Chicago, i yr. ; pub. Value of Games in Schools, Games Indoors and 

866. Myrtle Margaret Liggitt (Mrs. Ehlers), ill N. Oak Park Ave., 
Oak Park. Maywood, iSojj-December, 1900. Married Dr. F. F. Ehlers, 
Dec. 25, 1900. 

867. Blanche Lurton, traveling in Germany. Formerly a teacher in 
the Philippines. 

868. Edna Bell Michaelis (Mrs. Chamberlain), 3007 Vine Grove Ave., 
St. Louis, Mo. Maywood, 1897-1898; Lemont, 1898-1900. Married Oren 
P. Chamberlain, Aug. 6, 1900 

869 Anna T. Mitchell, 620 W. Lawrence Ave., Springfield. Rural 
sch., Sangamon county, 5 yrs. ; Cantrall, 2 yrs. ; Springfield, I yr. 

870. Edith Belle Mize, teaching, 1912 Greenwood St., Pueblo, Colo. 
Primary grade, Danville, 1897-1902; prim, grade, Pueblo, Colo., 1902-date. 

f87i. Eva Mary Moon (Mrs. J. H. Sawyer), Charleston. Bloom- 
ington elem. sch., 2 yrs. 

872. Elsie Patterson (Mrs. Holder), 204 N. 6th St., Newark, N. J. 
H. S., D^owners' Grove, 1897-1903. Married Vernon M. Holder, July, 1904. 

873. Alice Frances Phillips (Mrs. Osborne), Hood River, Oregon. 
Bluffton, Ind., 1897-99. Married John Hogarth Osborne, April 2, 1902. 

874. Effie Melvina Pike, teaching, 707 S. Scoville Ave., Oak Park. 
St. in Univ. of Chicago; prin. and teacher in Longfellow sch., Oak Park, 
1902-1907; primary tea. in schs. of Oak Park, April, i899-date. 

t87S. Wilhelmine Rhinesmith, teaching, 1321 Leland Ave., Chicago. 
Mattoon, yrs. ; Chicago, 8 yrs. 

1876. Laura Schlatterer, Winona, Minn. Taught, 3 yrs. 

*877. Amelia Alice Sikkema, died at Belleville, Sept. 14, 1902. 


878. Nora Mae Simmons (Mrs. Dickerson), 440 N .Lafayette St., 
Macomb. Prin. h. s.,, Griggsville, 1897-1901; same, Carthage, 1901-02; 
same, Pana, 1902-03; same, Shelbyville, 1903-05. Married O. M. Dicker- 
son (See No. 1002), Nov. 10, 1906. 

879. Bessie Bedell Stevenson (Mrs. Bertram Robinson), Chula Vista, 
Cal. Primary tea., Bloomington, 1897-1902. Married Bertram Robinson, 
July 30, 1902. 

880. Emma F. Washburn (Mrs. Edmunds), Rushville. Atlanta h. s., 
I yr. Married Henry H. Edmunds (See No. 778), June 14, 1900. 

f88i. Franklin Benjamin Carson. 

882. John Calvin Hall, supt. city schs., Whiting, Ind. St. Univ. of 
111., A.B., 1899-1900; Univ. of Chicago, 1906; asst. prin. Peru h. s., 1897- 
1899; prin. h. s., Whiting, Ind., 1900-04; supt. Whiting, Ind., 1904-date. 
Married Grace M. Debo, Aug. 14, 1900. 

883. Joel Alva Harley, rep. D. Appleton & Co., Madison, Wis. St. 
Univ. of Chicago, 1898-99; prin. McHenry, 1896; prin. and supt. Galena, 
1897-98; prin. h. s., Riverside, 1900-01; vice pres. Iowa School Pub. Co.,, 
I9o6-date. Married Elizabeth Jay Gardner, June 30, 1897. 

884. George Stephen Hoff, real estate ins., and farm loans, 309 Dan- 
iel Bldg., Danville. Prin. ward sch., Ottawa, 111., 2 mos. Married Carrie 
B. Vinson, Aug. 28, 1888. 

885. George Warren Hunt, co. supt. and atty., Granville, 111. Degree 
of L.L.B. from Univ. of 111., 1904; prin. h. s., Granville, 1898-1901; co. 
supt. of schs., Putnam Co., 1902-date; actice in work of consolidating 
rural schools in Illinois. 

886. Riley Oren Johnson, prof, of biology, State Normal Sch., Chico, 
Cal. St. Univ. of 111., 1904-06; prin. Hindsboro, 1898-99; Chicago Vacation 
Schs., 1899 and 1900 (two terms) ; Chicago elem. s., 1899-1904; Chicago- 
Apprentice Sch. (i term) 1904; prof, of biology, Chico, Cal., I9o6-date. 

887. Fred Granville Patch, Roseville. Prin. Roseville, 1897-1905. 

888. Benjamin Perry, health inspector, 853 W. Monroe St., Chicago. 
Grad. pharmacy dept. of U. of C, 1899-1902; College of Physicians and 
Surgeons, Chicago, 1903-06; taught near Melvin, 1898-99. 

889. Warren Hale Rishel, supt. Echo Mission Sch., Velarde, Rio Ar- 
riba Co., N. M. St. Las Vegas Normal Sch., 1900 (summer) ; supt. Echo 
Mission, Velarde, N. M., i897-date. Married Elizabeth Kaven McElroy, 
Aug. 7, 1890. (See No. 580.) 

890. Francis Thompson, prin. schs., Lansing. St. Univ. Chicago, 1899, 
(summer term) ; Univ. of 111., 1904 and 1906 (summers) ; prin. Davis, 
1898-1900; prin. West Harvey, 1900-02; prin. Wheeling, 1902-1904; prin. 
Lansing, 1904-date. 

891. Martin Lewis Ullenswang, teaching, Albert Lea, Minn. B.S., 
Univ. of 111., 1899; Stoughton Acad., 1899-1900; h. s., Webster City, la., 
1900-01 ; Luther Acad., Albert Lea, Minn., igoi-date. Married Marie 
Jensen, 1894. 

892. Winthrop Selden Welles, supt. sch., Park Ridge. B.S., Univ. 
of 111., 1901; summer sch., Harvard, 1906; Gifford, 1897-98; prin. Byron, 
1898-99; prin. h. s., Granville, 1901-02; present position, 1902 . Mar- 
ried Gertrude A. Hisel, Sept. 2, 1897. 

CLASS OF 1898 

893. Dorothea Katherine Beggs, prof, of German, Univ. of Denver,. 
University Park, Col. St. Univ. of Denver, 1898-99 ; A.B., 1906 ; Pestalozzi- 
Froebel Haus, Berlin, Ger., 1900-01; Univ. of Berlin, 1905; primary tea., 
Ft. Collins, Colo., 1899-1900 and 1901-1902; tea. German, h. s., Ft. Collins,. 


Colo., 1902-04; asst. in Ger. Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa, 1905-06; 
prof, of German, Univ. of Denver, I9o6-date. 

t894. Sada Rosanna Chicken (Mrs. Dr. Claire Willett), Pekin. 

895. Elizabeth Taylor Cleveland, graduate nurse, 2520 N. 42d Court, 
Chicago. St. Polyclinic Training Sen., 1901-03 ; Sheffield, I yr. ; Oglesby, 
2 yrs. ; graduate nurse Chicago, 1903-date. 

896. Annetta Belle Cooper, Normal. Greenview, 1898-99; Normal, 

897. Mabel Maude Corson (Mrs. Burroughs), Sunnyside, Wash. 
Prin.. h. s., Winchester, 1898-99; Normal grades, 1899-1903; prin. h. s., 
Sunnyside, Wash., 1903-05. Married Herbert S. Burroughs, June 14, 1905. 

1898. Bessie Abiah Cowles (Mrs. Dr. John A. Heaton), 741 E. Main 
St., Hoopeston. Taught, 2 yrs. 

899. S. Macy Curtis (Mrs. Lee Wheeler), Muskogee, I. T. 

900. Jessie May Dillon, training teacher, I.S.N.U., Normal. Rural 
sch., 1892-94; primary dept. in Chicago preparatory sch., 1894-96; tea. in 
primary dept. in I.S.N.U., 1896-98; primary training tea. in State Normal 
Sch., Winona, Minn., 1898-99; asst. prin. in training sch., Saginaw, Mich., 
1899-1900; training tea. in I.S.N.U., igoo-date. 

901. Georgia Elliott (Mrs. Robinson), Oklahoma City, Okla., R.F.D. 
No. ii. Asst. prin. h. s., Genoa, 1898-99; DeKalb Normal Practice Sch., 
1899-1900; River Forest, 1900-01; Dixon, 1901-1902; Chickasha, I. T., 1902- 
03. Married Tracy L. Robinson, March 4, 1903. 

902. Nellie Fincham (Mrs. Reedy), Towanda. St. Central Institute, 
Chicago, 1900-01 and 1902; elem. s., Chicago, 1898-1906. Married Dr. W. 
H. Reedy, June 29, 1905. 

1903. Margaret Julia Frank, Sterling. Taught, 1898-1905. 

904. Adelaide Antoinette Grassman, Belleville. Tea. elem. s., Belle- 
ville, 1898-1904; elem. s., St. Louis, Mo., i9O4-date. 

905. Mrs. Ellen Turner (Reynolds), Hamblin, U. S. Indian Sch., 
Phoenix, Arizona. Wellington, Kan., 1899-1900; U. S. Indian Sch., 
Phoenix, Arizona, 4 mos., 1904. Married October 6, 1895. 

906. Annabel Humphrey, teaching, Normal. St. I.S.N.U., summer 
1906; Griggsville, 5th grade, 1898-99; Soldiers' Orphans' Home, 4 mos., 

1907. Wilhelmine Kaiser. Address unknown. Taught, 3 yrs. 

t9o8. Carrie Kerns, 324 E. 44th St., Chicago. Cleveland, O., 2 yrs. ; 
Boulder, Col., i yr. 

909. Otillie Lange, teaching, Belt, Mon. German and Amer. Lit., 
h. s. Keokuk, la., 1898-1905 ; present position, 1905 . 

910. Mary Lentz, Kewaunee, Wis. St. Univ. of Cal., 1901-02; Univ. 
of 111., 1902-1903; Univ. of Wis. (summer), 1904; elem. sch., LaPressa, 
Cal., 1900-1901 ; h. s. Farmer City, 1903-05 ; h. s., Kewaunee, Wis., 1906- 

911. Josephine Lesem, 485 S. Clinton St., Chicago. St. Univ. of Chi- 
cago, 1905-06, and '07; primary teacher Quincy, 1898-1901; elem. sch., 
Chicago, igoi-date. 

912. Marien Ida Lyons, teaching, 6338 Ellis Ave., Chicago. St. Univ. 
of Chicago, 3 yrs.; h. s., Lincoln, 2 yrs.; teacher geog. and history, I.S. 
N.U., 1902-04; teacher geog. Wendell Phillips H. S., Chicago, 1904 . 

913. Grace Adela Monroe, 5445 Rice St., Chicago. St. Chicago Athe- 
naeum (sten.), 1903; h. s. tea. Milledgeville, 1898-1901; elem sch., Chi- 
cago, 1901 -date. 


914. Fannie Edna Morse, missionary to Chippewa Indians, Lac du 
Flambeau, Wis. St. Moody Institute, Chicago, 1899 and 1900; tea. rural 
sch., Cook Co., 1898 and 1899; missionary to Chippewa Indians, igoi-date. 

915. Henrietta Betsy Pitts (Mrs. Martin), 103 Sherman Court, Joliet. 
St. Univ. of 111., 1900-1902; asst. prin h. s., ElPaso, 1898-1900; math. h. s. 
Charleston, 1902-03 ; math. h. s. Jacksonville, 1903-04 ; math. h. s., Bloom- 
ington, 1904-06. Married Robert W. Martin, June 20, 1906. 

916. Eva Amanda Porter (Mrs. Marshall), 379 S. LaSalle St., Au- 
rora. St. I.S.N.U., 1898-99; Bloomington Conservatory of Music; King- 
ston, 1899-1904. Married Charles J. Marshall, Dec. 24, 1901. 

t9i7. Mary Amelia Rickards (Mrs. Alvin H. Louis), 5656 Prairie 
Ave., Chicago. Centralia sch., 4 yrs. 

9i. Mrs. Lilla Delle Riggs (Mrs. John D. Riggs), 1416 N. Main St., 

919. Silva Ross, tea., Decatur. LeRoy, Vz yr. ; Rochelle, 1899-1900; 
Marietta St. Sch., Decatur, 1900 . 

920. Addie Eliza Roziene, tea., 3655 N. 43d Ave., Chicago. St. Chicago 
Normal, summer, 1899; Dr. Staley's Saturday Sch., winters, 1901 and 02; 
Central Inst, 1906; rural sch., i yr. ; Niles Center, 1899-1902; Riverview, 
1902-03 ; Maywood, i9O3-date. 

921. Nano Pearl Smith, teaching, Bisbee, Ariz. Rochelle, 4 yrs.; 
Creston, 3 mos. ; asst. co. supt, Ogle Co., 1^2 yrs.; Bisbee, Ariz., 2 yrs. 

922. Clara May Snell (Mrs. Wolfe), 272 Oak St., Oberlin, Ohio. 
Tea. h. s., Dundee, 1898-1899; elem. sch., Manilla, Iowa, 1899-1900; critic 
tea. I.STNTU., 1900-01; E.I.S.N.S., 1901-06. Married Albert Benedict 
Wolfe (See No. 944), Sept. 6, 1906. 

923. Emma Grace Stetzler, teaching, 1106 S. Ridgeway Ave., Chicago. 
Rural sch., Putnam Co., 1898-99; DeKalb, 1899-1900; Calumet, Mich., 
1900-02; Berwyn, 1902-04; elem. sch., Chicago, i9O4-date. 

924. Mary Ellen Sullivan (Sister Mary Fidelis, O.S.D.), Sacred 
Heart Acad., Madison, Wis. St. Univ. of Wis., summers 1903 and 04; 
Clara Convent, Sinsinawa, Wis., 1901-03 ; elem. sch. tea., Bloomington, 
1898-1901.; h. s. Sacred Heart Acad., 1903 . 

925. Carrie Estelle Travis (Mrs. Urban), 712 W. Elm St., Urbana. 
Asst. prin., ElPaso, 1898-1900; h. s., tea., Oregon, 1900-01. Married Har- 
vey B. Urban, July 16, 1901. 

926. Julia Buckner Williams (Mrs. Barney), R.F.D. Route 2, N. 
Wellsville, Mo. St. Mo. State Normal, 1899; asst. in h. s., Middletown, 
Mo., 1899-1900; rural sch., 1900-1901. Married George Barney, Feb. 5, 1901. 

927. Anna Elizabeth Wilmer, teaching, Bisbee, Ariz. St. Univ. of 
Cal., summer, 1905 ; Kankakee, 1900-1905 ; Bisbee, Ariz., 8th grade, 1905- 
1906; biology and history h. s. Bisbee, Ariz., I9o6-date. 

928. Emilie Barrington Wright, tea., Wendell Phillips H. S., 6338 
Ellis Ave., Chicago. St. 111. Wesleyan Univ., 1902; Univ. of Chicago, 
Ph.B., 1906; t. Latin, h. s., Lincoln, 1898-99; same, State Normal Sch., 
West Superior, Wis., 1901-05 ; present position, 1906. 

929. Bruce Bright, Normal. 

*93- Joseph Baumgarner, died St. Louis, Mo., Oct. n, 1901. 

931. Lyman H. Coleman, teaching, 3144 Dover St., Chicago. LaSalle 
twp. h. s., 1898-1899; elem. sch., Chicago, iSgg-date. Married Claudia 
Cook, 1885. 

932. Hyatt Elmer Covey, farmer, LeRoy, R.F.D. No. 3. St. Univ. 
of Chicago, A.B., 1898-1901 ; prin. h. s., Montevideo, Minn., 3 yrs. Mar- 
ried D. Lois Baldwin, June 26, 1901. 


933. Robert Andrew Cowles, business agent, Rooms 10-12, Durley 
Bid., Bloomington. St. Univ. of Wis., 1898-1899; Northwestern Univ. 
Med. Sch., Chicago, 1899 and 1900. Married Leila C. Stephens, June 10, 

934. William Crocker, prof, in botany, Hull Botanical Lab., Univ. of 
Chicago. St. Univ. of 111., 1899-1902; A.B. and A.M., Univ. of 111., 1902- 
03 ; Univ. of Chicago, summers, 1900 and '01 ; senior fellow in botany, 
Univ. of Chicago, Ph.D., 1904-06; prin. Weathersfield Sch., Kewanee, 
1898-1900; asst. in plant physiology, Univ. of C., 1906 ; pub. articles on 
phyiosolgy and botany. 

935. Herman Doud, prin. Harley Acad., Tishomingo, I. T. Prin. 
Troy Grove, 1898-1903; Seneca, 1903-04; prin. gov't Indian sch., Tisho- 
mingo, I. T., I9o6-date. Married May B. Eck, Aug. 12, 1902. 

936. Byron Evans Eastwood, member of Rockford Abstract Co., 313 
West State St., Rockford. Asst. prin. h. s. LeRoy, 1898-1900; admitted 
to bar Oct., 1903. 

937. William Woodrow Martin, supervisor of training sch., State 
Normal, Cape Girardeau, Mo. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1898 (summer), same 
1899-1900, 1903-04, Ph. B. ; prin. h. s., Peru, 1897-98; inst. State Normal, 
Superior, Wis., 1899; same, Platteville, Wis., 1900; supt. Whitewater, 
Wis., 1900-02; supervisor training sch. State Normal Sch., Natchitoches, 
La., 1904; State Normal Sch., Cape Girardeau, Mo., iox>5-date; pub. many 
articles on educational subjects; asst. editor of Cape Girardeau State Nor- 
mal paper, the Educational Outlook. Married Katharine Mavity, June 
24, 1900. 

938. Arthur Orlo Norton, asst. prof., Harvard Univ., Cambridge, Mass. 
St. Harvard Univ., 1894-99; instructor, Harvard Univ., 1899-1905; asst. 
prof., i9O5-date. Married Alice Lyon, July 2, 1903. 

939- William Kennett Peasley, civil engr. and gen. contr., 525 Wilcox 
Bldg. (res. 673 S. Bonnie Brae St.), Los Angeles, Cal. Married, March, 

940. Walter Franklin Pike, physician and surgeon, Twin Falls, Idaho. 
St. Denver Univ., med. and lit. depts., A.B., A.M., and M.D., 1899-1904; 
prin. h. s., Edwardsville, 1898-99 ; house physician, Denver, Col., City Hos- 
pital, 1903-04; pres. Twin Falls Chamber of Commerce, 1907. Married 
Jessie C. Kunkely, June 26, 1905. 

941. Ernest Arthur Scrogin, asst. U. S. attorney, Springfield. St. 
Univ. of Chicago, 1895-98; asst. in h. s., Mt. Vernon, 1898-99; h. s. Free- 
port, 1899-1901 ; deputy U. S. dist. clerk, S. Dist. of Ills.. 1901-04 ; asst. 
U. S. dist. atty., S. Dist. of 111., 1904- Jan., 1907; general atty. for anti- 
saloon league of Illinois, 1907-date. Married Nine Julia Butler, Huntley, 
June 27, 1900. 

942. Harmon Ebert Waits, supt. schools, Petersburg. St. Univ. of 
111., summers of 1898, 1905, and 1906; prin. ElPaso, 1898-1904; supt. 
Petersburg, i9O4-date. Married Zetta Mae Bozarth, Aug. 3, 1898. 

943. George Shirley Wilson, teaching, Seattle, Wash. St. Univ. of 
111., 1901-03 ; prin. Bement h. s., 1903-Apr., 1905 ; tea. physics, h. s., Seattle, 
Wash., May, i9O5-date. 

944. Albert Benedict Wolfe, prof, of Economics and Sociology, Ober- 
lin College, Oberlin, Ohio. St. Harvard College, 1899-1902; Harvard 
Graduate Sch., 1902-04; prin. White Hall h. s., 1898-1899; inst. in history, 
McKinley h. s., St. Louis, Mo., 1904-05 ; prof. Oberlin College, iocs-date ; 
pub. The Lodging-House Problem in Boston, Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
Married Clara M. Snell (See No. 922), Sept. 6, 1906. 


CLASS OF 1899 

945. Mary Leota Adee (Mrs. Wm. Eckholm), 115 East St., Rock- 
ford. Rockford sch., 1899-1902. 

946. Blanche Aldrich, Normal. St. Univ. of 111., A.B., 1901-05. 

947. Sadie Chenoweth Athens (Mrs. Atherton), Pleasant Plains. El- 
Paso grades, 1899-1901 ; Sycamore, 1901-02. Married E. J. Atherton, 
banker, June 30, 1902. 

948. Clementine Maud Baird (Mrs. Percy), West Point, Miss. Ray- 
mond Sch., Bloomington, 1899-1902. Married Ernest H. Percy, Dec. 31, 

949. Olive Lillian Barton, teacher I.S.N.U., Normal. Grad. from 
Univ. of 111., 1905 ; prin. h. s., Lexington, 1899-1902 ; prin. h. s., Pittsfield, 
1902-04; tea. of math, in Mt. Vernon twp. h. s., 1905-06; critic tea. I.S. 
N.U., I9o6-date; inst. in math, summer terms, I.S.N.U., 1903-06. 

950. Annie Jeanette Beattie, teaching, 3178 Dover St., Chicago, 111. 
Asst. prin. h. s., Savanna, March, igoo-June, 1901 ; elem. sch., Chicago, 
1901-1902; Houghton, Mich., 1902-03; Chicago, igos-date; Upper Mich. 
Children's Home solicitor, 1903-05. 

951. Kate Edna Carpenter, teacher, 319 Glen Oak Ave., Peoria. St. 
Univ. of 111., summer, 1902; Brown's Bus. College, summer, 1904; t. rural 
sch., Peoria Co., 1899-1901; prin. Pottstown, 1901-02; Peoria, 1902-04; 
tea. shorthand and typewriting Brown's Bus. College, i9O4-date. 

952. Lydia Colby, Geneseo. Tea. rural sch. Henry Co., 1891-95 ; Ke- 
wanee, 1897-1899; training sch., DeKalb, 1899-1900. 

953. Catherine Louise Cowles, teacher, 1107 E. Jefferson St., Bloom- 
ington. Tea. in elem. sch., Bloomington, 1899 

954. Rachel Pierson Crouch, teaching, Little York. St. Univ. of 
Chicago, 1904 and 1905; country sch., Kirkwood, 1900-1902; prin., Biggs- 
ville, 1902-1904. 

955. Bertha Lea Davenport, teacher, Monrovia, Cal. Critic tea. 
N.I.S.N.S., DeKalb, 1899-1900; DeKalb pub. sch., 1900-01; San Pedro, 
Cal., 1901-03; Covina, Cal., 1903-06; Monrovia, Cal., I9o6-date. 

*956. Lula Lea Davenport, died Dec. 22, 1901. Taught i yr. 

957. Clara Dietz, teaching, Glencoe. Cisco, i yr. ; Hinsdale, 4 yrs. ; 
Glencoe, 1904 . 

958. Anastacia Donohue (Mrs. Henaughan), 527 DeKalb Ave., De- 
Kalb. St. Univ. of Chicago, summer, 1901 ; critic grammar grades, 
N.I.S.N.U., 1899-1903 and 1905-06; pub. Seventh Grade Arithmetic, a 
Lesson in Specific Gravity in School and Home Education, 1901. Mar- 
ried M. J. Henaughan, Sept. 19, 1906. 

959. Alice Wessels Drobisch, teacher, 1094 W. Wood St., Decatur. 
Decatur, iSgg-date. 

960. Carlie Anne Edwards, teacher, Prescott, Ariz., Danville, 1899- 
1900; primary grades, Prescott, Ariz., loxio-date. 

061. Winifred Grace Elliott (Mrs. Drennan), 629 W. Prairie Ave., 
Decatur. Yorkville, 1899-1900; Decatur, 1900-1904. Married John Pat- 
ton Drennan, Sept. 6, 1905. 

962. Tillie May Entler (Mrs. Tullis), 335 N. Broadway St., Decatur. 
Prin. Kampsville, 1899-1900; Decatur, 1900-03. Married Clifford E. Tul- 
lis, June 1 6, 1903. 

1963. Ada Esther Ewen, 214 Forest Ave., Oak Park. Taught 6 yrs. 

964. Grace Fairfield, teacher, Chenoa. Cissna Park, 2 yrs. ; Wat- 
seka, 4 yrs. ; Chenoa, igos-date. 


1965. Sarah Louvella Flinn (Mrs. Dr. Roy Webster), - 
Morgan Co. Pana sch., 1899-1902. 

f966. Laura Ellen Hahn, Davis. Taught 6 yrs. 

967. Elizabeth Clerk Haynes, teacher, Shirley. Primary tea. Bloom- 
ington, i899-date. 

968. Ida Rose Hummel (Mrs. Ruddy), Wanda, Minn. May wood, 
1899-1901; rural sch., Redwood Co., Minn., 1901-02; Wanda, Minn., 1902- 
04; prin. Wanda, Minn., i9O4-date. Married James E. Ruddy, July 2, 1901. 

969. Ora LaRue (Mrs. Dow), Olney. Rutland, 1899-1901. Married 
Charles M. Dow, June 30, 1901. 

970. Harriet Moulton Lovering, teacher, 1301 Grand Aye., Enid, 
Okla. Montpelier, Ind., 1899-1901; Assumption, 1901-02; Enid, Okla., 

971. Nellie Jane Lovett (Mrs. Nine), Emden. Hopedale, i899-March, 
1902; Bloomington, March, 1902-04. Married Charles E. Nine, Aug. 3, 

972. Mary Edith McWherter, teacher, 204 S. School St., Normal. 
Rossville, 1899-1901 ; Danville, 1901-1902 ; Bloomington, 1902-date. 

973. Lida Belle Mix, st. Univ. of Chicago, 5610 Madison Ave., Chi- 
cago. Tea. 8th grade, Clinton, 1900-1901 ; Dixon, 1901-02 ; Dixon, 1903- 
04; st, U. of C, I9o6-date. 

974. Isidore Alice Nixon, teaching, 208 S. 2nd St., Maywood, May- 
wood, i899-date ; asst. librarian Maywood Public Library for several years. 

975. Blanche McCormick Oakes, cataloguer pub. library, Rockford. 
St. Wisconsin library sch., summers 1903 and '04; t, Oak Park sch., 1899- 

t976. Grace Orb, West Lafayette, Ind. Taught, 1899 . 

977. Mary Delima Oxley, teacher, 434 S. Maple St., Centralia. Pri- 
mary tea., Centralia, 7 yrs. 

978. Cora Lorena Reno (Mrs. Sunderland), teacher, Austin. St. U. 
of Chicago, summers, 1899 and 1900; tea. DeKalb Normal, 6th and 8th 
grades, 1899-1901 ; Chicago elem. sch., igoi-date. Married Jesse W. Sun- 
derland, Dec. 27, 1905. 

979. Louise Dora Schneider, teaching, 518 E. Locust St., Blooming- 
ton. Tea. elem. sch., Bloomington, iSoxj-date. 

980. Mary Lizzie Schneider, Elburn. Biggsville twp. h. s., 1899-04. 

981. Grace Sitherwood (Mrs. Bent), 4201 Glen Albyn Drive, Los 
Angeles, Cal. Oglesby, Sept., i899-Jan., 1901 ; Bloomington, Jan.-June, 
1901. Married Henry Stanley Bent, July 9, 1901. 

982. Mary Cline Sterrett, teaching, 717 W. Prairie Ave., Decatur. At- 
wood, 1900-1901 ; Monticello, 1901-1905; Decatur, igos-date. 

983. Helen Mary Taylor, teacher, 504 E. Walnut St., Bloomington. 
St. U. of 111., A.B., 1900-1902; DeKalb, 1899-1900; h. s., DeKalb, 1902-03; 
rhetoric, U. of I., 1903-04; traveled in Europe, 1904-05; math, in h. s., 
Bloomington, iox>6-date. 

984. Mary Lillian Trimble, preceptress and librarian, State Manual 
Training Sch., Ellendale, N. D. Grad. Univ. of 111., 1906; training sch., 
DeKalb, 2 yrs. ; same, Moorhead, Minn. ,i yr. ; Edmond, Okla., 2 yrs. ; 
present position, I9o6-date. 

985. Helen Parsons Wells (Mrs. Bayliss), Ludlow, Vermont. Wash- 
ington, 1899-1900; Lexington, 1900-1901; Decatur, 1902-04. Married Rev. 
Edward L. Bayliss, Aug. 18, 1904. 

986. Mary Johnston Wells (Mrs. Stout), Genoa. ElPaso, 1899-1903. 
Married Henry F. Stout, Aug. 6, 1903. (See No. 1092.) 


987. Lucinda Hannah Westbrook (Mrs. Downey), 2718 Cicero Ave., 
Clyde. Elgin, 1899-1900; elem. sch., Chicago, 1900-1904. Married Elzy 
F. Downey, July 16, 1902. 

988. Jean Gertrude Whigam (Mrs. Taylor), 1269 N. 42d Ave., Chi- 
cago. Chicago, Feb., 1900-01 ; same, Oct., i9O3-March, 1905. Married Ed- 
ward T. Taylor, Dec. 25, 1900. 

989. Anna Evelyn Wise, teaching, Gresham Sch., Chicago. Lemont, 
3 yrs. ; Chicago Heights, 2 yrs. ; Joliet, i yr. ; Chicago elem. sch., 2 yrs. 

*99O. Eva Centennial Wiseman, died Feb. 24, 1902. Taught in Doug- 
las county, 3 yrs. 

J99i. Jessie Lee Youle, Saybrook. Taught 6 yrs. 

992. Grace Harriet Young, grad. nurse, 1242 Monroe St., Chicago. 
St. Garfield Park Training Sch. for Nurses, 1899-1901. 

993. Earl Wilder Ackert, prof, math., State Normal and Industrial 
Sch., Ellendale, N. D. St. Steinman College, Dixon, 1899-1900; tea. in 
Steinman College, 1899-1900; Blanchard, N. D., 1900-01; Grandin, N. D, 
I90i-Jan., 1902; h. s., Oakes, N. D., 1902-1904; supt. Oakes, 1904-1907; 
present position, 1907 . 

994. Charles Henry Allen, teacher, Bloomington. Head of dept. of 
biology and physiography, h. s., Bloomington, i899-date. Married Mattie 
Morgan, Sept. i, 1898. 

995. Arthur Elmer Ashworth, Uvalde, Texas. Married May Lyn- 
don Carter, Denison, Texas, June 27, 1906. 

996. Charles L. Beach, mus. director, 911 Cable Bldg., Chicago. Mar- 
ried Clara Murray. 

997. Thomas Milton Birney, supt Edwardsville. St; Univ. of Chicago, 
1900-1901, and summer terms since; prin. h. s., Normal, 1895-1900; prin. 
Kewanee, 1901-1903; supt. Edwardsville, i9O3-date. Married Olive Ger- 
trude Thomas, June 17, 1905. 

998. Clarence Bonnell, teaching, Harrisburg. St. Univ. of 111., sum- 
mer, 1905; prin. h. s., Metropolis, 1899-1902; prin. h. s. Paxton, 1902-04; 
asst. prin. twp. h. s., Harrisburg, i9O4-date ; Married Docia May Turner, 
Taylorville, July 12, 1900. 

999. Benjamin Fletcher Brown, teaching, Ault, Col. St. Colorado 
State Normal, 1907 ; rural graded sch., 1899-1901 ; Highland Lake, 1901- 
1902; prin. Ault h. s., 1902-1904; prin. Fort Lupton, Col., 1904-1905; 
prin. Ault h. s., 1905-1907. 

1000. Clyde Lewis Burtis, asst. mgr. James A. Brady Fdy. Co., 6847 
Parnell Ave., Chicago. Prin. grade sch., Garden City, Kansas, 2 yrs. 
Married Nellie M. Haaff, Oct. n, 1906. 

1001. John Mark Dewhirst, teacher, Havana. St. Biological Sta. 
Ind. Univ., summer, 1902; grades, Havana, 1899-1902; h. s., Havana, 1902- 
date. Married Sophia A. Pfetzing, July 23, 1903. 

1002. Oliver Morton Dickerson, head inst. in history, W.I.S.N.S., 
Macomb. St. Harvard Univ. graduate sch., 1904-05 ; Univ. of 111., A.B., 
1903; A.M., 1904, and Ph.D., 1906; prin. Macon, 1899-1901; I.S.N.U. 
summers 1903, 05, and 06 ; U. of I. summer, 1906 ; pub. Hist, of III. Const. 
Convention of 1862. Married Nora Mae Simmons, Nov. 10, 1906. (See 
No. 878.) 

1003. Gerry Brown Dudley, physician, Charleston. St. College of 
Physicians and Surgeons of N. Y., 1900-01 ; Cornell Univ. Med. Coll., 1901- 
04; h. s., Charleston, 1898-1900. Married Esther Wilhoit Shoot, July 27, 

1004. Francis Belmont Dwire, interne, Los Angeles Co. Hospital, 
Hollywood, Cal. Univ. of S. Cal., M.D., 1902-1906; h. s., Kewanee, 1899- 
looo ; math. Hoitt's Acad., Menlo Park, Cal., 1901-02. 


1005. Charles Herbert Elliott, prin. twp. h. s,. Centralia. Geneseo 
h. s., 1899-1900; prin. h. s., Centralia, 1902-03; present position, 1903 . 

1006. Charles Gott, teaching, Franklin, La. Prin. h. s., Atwood, 1899- 
1901 ; asst. h. s., Lake Charles, La., 1901-1902 ; prin. h. s., Clinton, La., 
1902-1905; prin. h. s., Crowley, La., 1905-1906; prin. St. Mary Central 
h. s., Franklin, La., I9o6-date. 

fioo7. Joseph Wilson Green, salesman, Hoopeston. Prin. Hoopes- 
ton, 1899-1904. 

1008. Ardie Durward Hess, bookkeeper with Roberts, Johnson, and 
Rand Shoe Co., St. Louis, Mo. Taught Cantrall, 1899-1900. 

1009. David Preston Hollis, Co. Supt. Pittsfield. St. Univ. of 111., 
JQOSJ prin. Browning, 1899-1901; Pearl, 1901-1902; Perry, 1902-1904; 
supt. Griggsville, 1904-06; co. supt., Pittsfield, I9o6-date. Married, Min- 
nie B. Fields, Meredosia, April 30, 1902. 

1010. Will Harris Johnson, clerk at Read & White's, W. Washing- 
ton Road, Bloomington. Critic tea. I.S.N.U. Model Sch., 1899-1902. 

ion. Milford L. Johnston, signal service eng. with Sunset Route, 
Houston, Texas. Asst. librarian I.S.N.U., 2 yrs. ; Union Switch and 
Signal Co., I yr. 

1012. Wallace Franklin Jones, supt. schools, Knoxville. St. Univ. 
of 111., summers, A.B., 1901-06; supt. city sch., Knoxville, i899-date. 

1013. Henry Goodrich McCormick, dentist, Manhattan, Kansas. St. 
Univ. of Mich. lit. dept., 1899-1900; grad. U. of Mich., dental dept, 1903. 

1014. Ralph Dudley MacGuffin, salesman Baker- Vawter Co., 788 Mil- 
dred Ave., Chicago. Putnam Co. sch., 1899-1900; Morton Park, 1900-02. 
Married Charlotte H. Smith. 

1015. Chester DuBois Marquis, gen. mgr. chemical works, George- 
town, S. C. Grad. Princeton Univ., 1906; asst. librarian, I.S.N.U., 1899- 
1900; math, in h. s., Charleston, 1901-02. 

1016. Ora Sherman Morgan, graduate student in Cornell Agricul- 
tural College, 711 E. Seneca St., Ithaca, N. Y. St. Univ. of 111., 1903-05; 
Univ. of Cornell, I9o6-date; prin. Ohio, 1899-1901; Hampshire, 1901-03; 
tea. of biology, h. s., Burlington, la., 1905 (six months) ; prin. training 
sch., DeKalb, 1905-06. 

1017. Archibald Carlisle Norton, asst. educational dept. Sears-Roe- 
buck & Co., 474 W. North Ave., Chicago. Prin. Cornell, 2 yrs. ; Table 
Grove, 2 yrs. ; Hampshire, 2 yrs. ; tea. in Harvard private sch. for boys, 
Chicago, i yr. ; asst. in ed. dept. of S., R. &. Co., I9o6-date. Married, 
June 12, 1902, to Blanche Nelson Haney who died Jan. 16, 1904. 

1018. George Merit Palmer, supt. schools, Milaca, Minn. St. Univ. 
of 111. summer sessions ; supt. Averyville, 2 yrs. ; tea. of English P. I., 
3 yrs.; supt. Milaca, Minn., 3 yrs. Married Lucy May Yapp, Aug. 17, 1904. 
Was ist Sergt. Co. M, 6th 111. Vol. Inft., during Spanish- American War. 

*ioi9. George Frederick Pfmgsten, died in East St. Louis, Sept., 
1903. Taught 4 yrs. 

1020. John Lessen Pricer> grad. st. U. of I., 908 W. Main St., Urbana. 
St. Univ. of 111., 1905-07; supt. ElPaso (East Side), 1899-1905. Married 
Dora E. Forum, Aug. i, 1900. 

1021. William Burrell Pusey, real estate and ins., Ottawa. Fisher, 
1899-1900; prin. Wedron, 1900-1901; Kangley, 1901-1903; prin. h. s. Ran- 
som, 1903-1905. Married Georgia E. Murphy, Dec. 25, 1905. 

1022. Jerome Edward Readhimer, soil fertility ex. sta., U. of 111., 
Champaign. Grad. U. of I., 1904; h. s., Champaign, 2 yrs. Married Ida 
Harrell, January 3, 1906. 


1023. J5amuel E. Reecher, st. Northwestern Univ., 4033 Indiana Ave., 
Chicago. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1903-05 ; Northwestern Univ., 1906-07 ; 
prin. Potomac, 1899-1903; Bryant and Stratton Bus. College, Chicago, 
1905-06. Married Jeannette Bach, June 26, 1901. 

1024. Frank Stewart, farmer, Oblong. Married Kathryn J. Waidman, 
Aug. 29, 1900. 

1025. John Pogue Stewart, prof, of horticulture, Penn State College. 
St. Univ. of 111., A.B., 1902; Cornell, M.S. A., 1903; Cornell, 1906-07; h. s. 
Biggsville, 1899-1901; tea. of nature study, I.S.N.U., 1903-06; pub. Na- 
ture Study in its Practical Bearings (IS.N.U. Quarterly). 

1026. Albert Emery White, supt. sch. 111. State Reformatory, Pon- 
tiac. St. Univ. of 111., summer, 1901; t. Mt. Palatine, 1899-1900; prin. 
Tonica, 1900-01; Strawn, 1901-05; present position, igos-date. 

1027. John Hamilton Whitten, supt. schools Onarga. St. Univ. 111., 
summers, 1903-05 ; prin. h. s. Golconda, 1899-1901 ; prin. h. s. St. Anne, 
1901-03; supt. Onarga, 1903-date. Married Lillian Catterlin, Council 
Bluffs, la., Aug. 18, 1903. 

1028. John Thomas Wilson, sten. and clerk American Telephone and 
Telegraph Co., Chicago. St. Univ. of 111., fall, 1900; Brown's Bus. Coll., 
Champaign, 1901-02; prin. Danforth, 1899-1900; present position, 1902- 

1029. Oliver Roland Zoll, teaching, St. Anne. St. Univ. of Chicago, 
summer, 1903; prin. ward sch., Elgin, 1899-1900; supt. Yorkville, 1900-03; 
prin. h. s., Watseka, 1903-05 ; supt. St. Anne, i9O5-date. Married Minnie 
M. Moyer, June 22, 1895. 

CLASS OF 1900 

1030. Mary Irene Babbs, st. 111. Wesleyan Univ., 317 North St., Nor- 
mal. St. Wesleyan, 1906-07. T. rural sch. 1900-06. 

1031. Bernice Alena Bright, music teacher, 202 N. Beech St., Normal. 

1032. Anna Maple Broadhead, tea. science h. s., Bellingham, Washing- 
ton. St. Uniy. of 111., A.B., '02 ; post grad., '06 ; Univ. of Washington, '05 ; 
t. h. s., Virginia, 1902-03 ; West Lake Girls' School, Los Angeles, Cal., 
1906; h. s., Bellingham, Washington, 1907. 

1033. Alma Wilhelmina Carlson, tea. Lincoln sch., Bloomington. Pres- 
ent position, 1900-07. 

1034. Caroline Irving Clark, teacher of English, Helena, Arkansas. 
St. Univ. of Chicago, summer, 1905 ; English and Latin, h. s., Gardner, 
1900-01 ; Helena, Ark., 1904-07. 

IO 35- Genevieve Louise Clarke (Mrs. Dakin), 250 E. 63d PL, Chi- 
cago. Critic tea. I.S.N.U., 1900-01; elem. sch., River Forest, 1901-06. 
Married Walter Dakin, April 17, 1906. 

1036. Ida Helen Condren, teacher, Streator. Grades, Streator, 1900 . 

1037. Stella M. Cook, teaching, 1139 N. Church St., Rockford. Pri- 
mary, Rochelle, 1900-03; Rockford, 1903-07. 

1038. Florence May Corman, teaching Irving sch., Bloomington. Pres- 
ent position, 1900-07. 

1039. Lulu Pearl Frank (Mrs. Irvine), 3072 N. Ashland Ave., Chi- 
cago. Prin. Season, i yr. ; Perry Park, Col., I yr. Short articles in The 
Housekeeper. Married W. A. Irvine, March 20, 1902. 

1040. Lois Gertrude Franklin, teaching in h. s., 212 E. Davidson St., 
Champaign. St. Univ. of 111., A.B., 1002-03; asst. prin. ElPaso, 1900-02; 
h. s., Champaign, 1903-07. 


1041. Anna Sabina Garwood, teacher of English h. s., 832 Chestnut 
Ave., Canon City, Col. English, h. s., Mattoon, 1900-01 ; h. s., Elmhurst, 
1901-04; h. s., Canon City, Col., 1905-07. 

1042. Amelia E. Gaulden, asst. in Avoyelles h. s., Marksville, La. Stud- 
ied one month, summer sch., Baton Rouge, La. Taught in grades, Fulton, 
1900-01 ; h. s., Osborne, Kan., 1901-02 ; Avoyelles h. s., 1902-07. 

1043. Gertrude George (Mrs. Delano), 4350 Berkeley Aye., Chicago. 
Elem. sch., Port Byron, 1900-01 ; Kewanee, 1901-03. Married Edward 
Jewett Delano, Jan. 31, 1903. 

1044. Minnie Margaret Gossman, supervisor of music, Prescott, Ariz. 
National Summer Sch. of Music, Chicago, 1903-04; t. elem. sch., Cisco, 
i yr. ; Monticello, 4 yrs. 

*iO45. Ina Estelle Hamilton, died Sept. 10, 1900. 

1046. Frances M. Iliff (Mrs. Rice), Monmouth, Oregon. Normal 
h. s., 1900-03. Married Charles A. Rice, June 30, 1902. 

1047. Mrs. Ella Leone Jacob (Mrs. William J. Jacob), 1015 Union 
Ave., N. Portland, Ore. Asst. prin. Washougal, Wash., 1900-04; Little 
Falls, Wash., 1904-05. 

1048. Anna Gertrude King (Mrs. Turley), Blanco, New Mexico. Pri- 
mary training tea., I.S.N.U., 1900-03; same, Idaho State Normal Sch., 
Lewiston, 1903-05. Married, April 16, 1905, to Louis A. Turley. 

1049. Gertrude Larison, prin. of Lincoln sch., Hoopeston. Eighth 
grade, Odell, 1900-01; grades, Covel, 1901-04; 6th grade, Hoopeston, 1904- 
05 ; prin. Hoopeston, 1905-07. 

1050. Sara Abbie Laughlin (Mrs. Parsons), 1425 Grand Ave., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. Elem. sch., Pueblo, Col., 1900-05. Married Oliver Edwin 
Parsons, Sept., 1905. 

1051. Helene Marie Lendman, primary teacher, Sterling. Griggsville, 
1900-01 ; Sterling, 1901 . 

1052. Katherine Loretta Lucey, teaching, 202 DeSoto St., Ottawa. 
Sixth grade, Ottawa, 1900-07. 

* IO 53- Jessie McDonald (Mrs. Roy Stewart), died Jan. n, 1905. T. 
Bloomington, 1900-03. 

1054. Bernice Blackburn McKinney, Normal. St. Bloomington Con- 
servatory of Music, 1904-06; elem. sch., Beason, 1901-03. 

1055. Maude Miller (Mrs. Folk), 31 Webb St., Hammond, Ind. T. 
Rankin, 1900-01 ; Bloomington, 1901-03 ; Bluffs, 1903-04. Married Ray- 
mond A. Folk, Oct. 22, 1904. 

11056. Parthenia Ellen Miller (Mrs. Dr. Dugan), Lovington.- Taught 
3 yrs. 

i57- Josephine Marie Moore, teaching, Lincoln Sch., Bloomington. 
Present position, 1900 . 

1058. Minnie Nuckolls (Mrs. Schumacher), 405^ N. Prairie St., 
Champaign. Elem. sch., Chatham, 1901-02; Urbana, 1902-03. Married, 
H. T. Schumacher, Aug. 31, 1903. 

1059. Ida May Pearson (Mrs. Hiner), 707 W. Green St., Urbana. 
St. Univ. of 111., 1902-04. T. ElPaso, 1901-02 ; Household Science, U. of I., 
1905. Married George Elmer Hiner, July 26, 1905. 

1060. Helen Clifford Putnam (Mrs. Beggs), Ashland. Asst. prin. 
h. s., Ashland, 1900-01. Married Charles S. Beggs, Aug. 3, 1901. 

1061. Etta Grace Quigg, Minier. Prin. h. s., Mackinaw, 1900-01. 

1062. Florence Cook Sample (Mrs. Fleming), 1401 N. Main St., 
Bloomington. Prin. h. s. and director of music in grades, Auburn, 1900-01. 
Married Harry Livingston Fleming, April 8, 1903. 


1063. Blanche Alberta Skinner, 905 S. University St., Normal. St. 
I.S.N.U., summer, 1906; elem. sch., Danvers, 1900-01; Edwards Sch., 
Bloomington, 1901-07. 

1064. Elizabeth Esther Sprecher, 517 Village St., Kalamazoo, Mich. 
Completed course in Man. Tr., Western Michigan Normal Sch. ; elem. 
sch., Marinette, Wis., 1900-01; St. Charles, 1901-04; Batavia, 1904-05; 
Kalamazoo, Mich., 1905-07. 

1065. Edith Melinda Wallace, teaching, Calhoun sch., Minneapolis, 
Minn. Address Holcomb Hotel. Chatsworth, 1900-01 ; Decatur, 1901-05 ; 
Great Falls, Montana, 1905-06; Minneapolis, Minn., 1906-07. 

1066. Adelaide Young (Mrs. Wallace), 1654 Thorn St., Chicago 
Heights. Elem. sch., Hillsboro, 1900-02; Chicago Heights, 1902-03. Mar- 
ried Leroy E. Wallace, Aug. 12, 1903. 

1067. Anna Lou Young, teaching, 1529 Summit St., Seattle, Wash. 
St. Univ. of 111., summer of 1904; I.S.N.U., summer, 1905; elem. sch., 
Champaign, 1902-06; Seattle, Wash., 1906-07. 

1068. Wilbur F. Ament, physician and surgeon, Barnes Univ., 2923 
Pine St., St. Louis, Mo. St. summer term, Chicago Univ. ; College of 
Medicine, Barnes Univ., 1903-06; prin. of sch., Lafayette, 1900-03. Mrs. 
Ament died in Lafayette, Aug. 8, 1902. 

1069. James Horatio Arnett, medical st. Samaritan Hospital, Broad 
and Ontario Streets, Philadelphia, Penn. St. Temple College, Philadel- 
phia, 1905-07. T. rural sch., Colfax, 1900-01 ; prin. ward sch., Lincoln, 

1070. Gustave Fred Baltz, cashr. of bank, Millstadt. Prin. Millstadt, 
1900-03. Married Otillia Diesel, June 17, 1903. 

1071. Adolph Philip Billen, postal clerk, Belleville. Taught rural 
sch., 1900-03. Married Johanna K. Thebus, April 8, 1904. 

1072. Arthur Clinton Boggess, prof, of History and Political Econ., 
Pacific Univ., Forest Grove, Oregon. Univ. of 111., 1900-02; Univ. of 
Wis., 1902-04; Univ. of Penn., Ph.D., 1904-06. Director of Oregon His- 
torical Society, 1906. 

1073. Guy Seaman Burtis, treas. and gen. mgr. of Thomas A. Brady 
Foundry Co., 2842 Archer Ave., Chicago. T. h. s., Leadville, Col., 1900-01 ; 
pres. Benton Harbor Fdy. Co., Benton Harbor, Mich., 1907. Married Daisy 
A. Skinner (See No. 1344), Feb. 8, 1905. 

1074. William Ferguson Cavins, real estate, Mattoon. Prin., Inclose, 
1900-01 ; h. s., Sullivan, 1903-04. 

1075. Merton Dart Cox, insurance and real estate, 508 Main St., Me- 
nominee, Mich. St. Shurtleff College, 1898-99; Lake Forest Univ., 1899- 
1900; prin. h. s., Menominee, Mich., 1900-01. Married Elizabeth Hutchin- 
son, Dec. 26, 1904. 

1076. John Fay Cusick, Sec'y Saving and Loan Ass'n, Chrisman. St. 
Univ. of 111., 1901-03; prin., Cherry Point, 1900-01. 

1077. Roscoe Edward Davis, teaching, Fort Scott, Kan. St. Univ. 
of Chicago, summer, 1905; t. Creston, la., 1900-02; Ft. Dodge, la., 1902- 
03 ; physics and chemistry, h. s. Fort Scott, Kan., 1903 . Married Frances 
Cole, Aug. 7, 1906. 

*I078. Harold James Edmunds, died Oct. 6, 1900. 

1079. James Albert Leroy Fairchild, teaching, Terre Haute, Indiana. 
St. Univ. of 111., 1904-06 ; prin. elem. sch., Sullivan, 1900-01 ; English, 
Bustos, P. I.'s, Bulacan Province, 1901-03; prin. h. s., Balinag, B. Prov- 
ince, 1903-04; prin. h. s., Urbana, 1905-06; prin. elem. sch., Terre Haute, 
Ind., 1906 . Married Edna Gertrude Mills (See No. 1129), Aug. 23, 1905. 


1080. Charles Jerome Fesler, supt, Chandlerville. Prin. Hamilton, 
1900-01; Dallas City, 1901-02; Magnolia, 1902-03; Heyworth, 1903-04; 
Hopedale, 1904-06; Chandlerville, 1906 . 

1081. Charles Weston Greenough, county supt, Grangeville, Idaho. 
St. N.I.S.N.S., DeKalb, 1900-01; t. Mt. Palatine, 1901-02; prin., Du- 
rand, 1902-04; prin. h. s., Grangeville, Idaho, 1905-06. 

1082. Charles Ellsworth Gross, farmer, Eagle Grove, la. Rural sch., 
6 mos. ; sec'y Eagle Grove Farmers' Elevator Co. Married Verna B. Pick- 
ering, March i, 1905. 

1083. Henry Heer, 12 N. Fair St., Belleville. Prin. of Humboldt 
Sch., Belleville, 1900. 

1084. Adam Albert Hummel, st. Univ. of 111., 926 W. 111. St., Urbana. 
St. Univ. of 111., June, 1905 ; rural sch., Wanda, Minn., 1900; elem. sch., 
Macon, spring, 1901; prin. west side, Normal, 1901-02; instructor in 
biology, Galesburg h. s., 1902-05. 

1085. William James Jacob, grocer, 1015 Union Ave., N. Portland, 
Oregon. Prin. Washougal, Wash., 1900-05; prin. Little Falls, Wash., 

1086. Oliver Lincoln Lyon, pastor of Christian church, Newman. 
Sociology and economics, 111. Wesleyan Univ., 1900-05 ; English lit, Okla- 
homa Christian Univ., Enid, Okla., fall, 1907 ; pub. Practical Work on 
Evolution, Outlines on U. S. History, Psychology, a Basis for Pedagogy. 
Married Etna Place, June 26, 1890. 

1087. John R. McKinney, chief clerk to asst engr., O.S.L. Railroad, 
Caldwell, Idaho. Rural sch., Cabery, 1900-01; prin. Herscher, 1901-02; 
prin., Carbon, Wyoming, 1902-03; supt., Carbon, 1903-06. . 

1088. Frederick David Niedermeyer, st. Princeton Theological Sem., 
39 Brown Hall, Princeton, New Jersey. St. Univ. of 111., 1902-04 ; elem. 
sch., Eden and Middletown ; prin., Potomac and Murphysboro, 1904-06. 

1089. Wilson James Perry, physician and surgeon, corner of 49th 
Ave., and Thomas St., Chicago. St. Rush Med. College, 1901-05 ; asst. 
prin., Gibson City, 1900-01 ; interne in Presbyterian Hospital, Chicago, 

1090. Charles A. Ryburn, Heyworth. Prin. of h. s., Marion, 1901-03. 

1091. John Carl Stine, supt. Henry. Univ. of 111., 1901-03 ; Univ. of 
Chicago, summer of 1906; prin. Mt. Palatine, 1900-01; Brighton, 1903- 
04; Pleasant Plains, 1904-06; supt, Henry, 1906 . 

1092. Henry Field Stout, supt. Genoa. St. Univ. of Chicago, summer, 
1901 ; science, h. s., Sycamore, 1900-03 ; supt. Genoa, 1903 . Married 
Mary Johnston Wells (See No. 986), Aug. 6, 1903. 

1093. Charles Penrose Tiley, sec'y Calhoun Brick and Clay Co., 602 
Benoist Bldg., St. Louis, Mo. Elem. sch., Belleville, 1900-03. 

1094. Frederick Marsh Trumbull, farmer, Stillman Valley. T. Rock 
ford, 1900-04. Married, 1903. 

1095. Isaac Newton Warner, teaching, Normal. Prin. Abby C. Wing 
Sch., Elgin., 1900-03; prin. Model Sch., I.S.N.U. 1903-06; prin. h. s. and 
critic tea. for 8th grade, I.S.N.U., 1906 ; arithmetic, I.S.N.U. sum- 
mer sch., 1903-07. Married Eva Redmon, Dec. 30, 1894. 

1096. David Hopkins Wells, supt. East Side sch., ElPaso. St Milli- 
kin Univ., Decatur, 1904-05; Prin. h. s., Carrollton, 1900-04; supt. El- 
Paso 1905-07. Married Martha E. Dougherty, June 18, 1903. 

1097. Charles William Whitten, asst. in Natural science, N.I.S.N.S., 
DeKalb. St. Univ. of 111., A.B., 1906; asst. in science and math., I.S. 
N.U., 1900-03; physics and geometry, acad. of Univ. of 111., 1903-06; 
present position, 1906 . Married Jessie Cunningham (See No. 701), 1904 


1098. Frank Lester Wilson, laundry, Roodhouse. St. Chicago Univ., 
summers of 1900 and 1901. Carrollton h. s., 1900-02; prin. Ipava, 1902-03; 
math., h. s., Bloomington, 1903-06. 

CLASS OF 1901 

1099. Grace Matilda Allen, teaching, 508 S. 4th St., Champaign. St. 
Univ. of 111., 1903-05 ; h. s. Centralia, 1901-02 ; eighth grade, Dalton, 1902- 
03 ; math, in h. s., Champaign, 1905 . 

noo. Annie Maple Brodhead (See No. 1032). 

1101. Mary Etta Calder, teaching, Pocatello, Idaho. T. elem. sch., 
Chatsworth, 1901-04; McCammon, Idaho, 1904-05; Pocatello, 1905-07. 

1102. Sophia Catherine Camenisch, teacher of history, Harris h. s., 
Petersburg. T. elem. sch., ElPaso, 1901-04; h. s., Petersburg, 1904-07. 

1103. Nellie Gertrude Clancy, primary teacher, 402 E. Locust St., 
Bloomington. T. Bloomington, 1901-07. 

1104. Julia Coffman, teaching, 290 E. 6oth St., Chicago. T. elem. 
sch., Danville, 1901-05; Chicago, 1905-07. 

*iio5. Edna Leona Crawson (Mrs. Spear), died April u, 1906. Tea. 
rural sch., 1901-02; elem. sch., Fithian, 1902-04. Married William F. 
Spear, Aug. 16, 1904. 

1 1 06. Lora M. Dexheimer, training teacher, I.S.N.U., Normal. T. 
primary, Melvin, 1901-02; I.S.N.U., 1902-07. Spent summer of 1906 
in Europe. 

1107. Luella Mae Dilley (Mrs. Evelsizer), Deaconess of M. E. Ch , 
611 Vine St., Philadelphia, Pa. Finished Bible Course in Lucy Webb Hayes 
National Training Sch. for Deaconesses, Washington, D. C, 1904-06. T. 
English, ElPaso h. s., 1900-01 ; elem. sch., Jacksonville, 1903-04. Married 
Charles Henry Evelsizer, Bloomington, Aug. 26, 1902, who died Oct. 5, 

1108. Mertie May Dillon, 503 E. Mulberry St., Normal. St. Univ. 
of 111., A.B., 1901-04; Chicago Univ., 1906. 

1109. Florence Frances Eldridge, 711 S. Clayton St., Bloomington. 
T. in Bloomington, 1900 . 

*uio. Ida Lena Fleischer (Mrs. George W. Egley), died at Onarga, 
Apri. 18, 1905. T. Onarga, 1901-02. 

mi. Jennie Ford, teacher, 879 W. North St., Decatur. T. Clinton, 
1901-02 ; Yorkville, 1902-05 ; Decatur, 1905-07. 

1 1 12. Laura Caroline Foster (Mrs. Rathbun), tea. of English, Adel- 
phian Academy, Holly, Michigan. Asst. h. s., LeRoy, 1901-04. Married 
Mr. F. O. Rathbun, Holly, Mich., Sept. 24, 1905. 

1113. Clara Theresa Fritter, teacher of elocution and art, Univ. of 
Middle Tennessee, Tullahoma, Tenn. T .elem. sch., Lovington, 1901-02; 
Lexington, 1902-03; Hinckley> 1903-05; Tullahoma, 1906 . 

1114. Edna Elizabeth Fritter (Mrs. Bates), Kerrick. T. elem. sch., 
Onarga, 1901-02; supervisor of drawing, Warren pub. sch., 1902-03. Mar- 
ried Roy Bates, Kerrick, Dec. 25, 1903. 

1115. Amelia Helen Gmehlin (Mrs. Hall), 827 Twenty-third St., 
Cairo. T. Hawthorne sch., Bloomington, 1902-05. Married George M. 
Hall, October 4, 1905. 

1116. Lillian Gray, asst. prin. and tea. of English, Hawk Creek twp. 
h. s., Gilson. T. Cisco, 1901-04; Mendon, 1904-05; present position, 


1117. Birdie Wilmah Green, teaching, 1056 N. Edward St., Decatur. 
St. Univ. of 111., summer, 1906; elem. sch., Lovington, 1901-03; elem. 
sch., Decatur, 1903 . 

tui8. Mamie Haines, Lincoln, Neb. 

1119. Bessie W. Harrington, student, 1342 Volland St., Ann Arbor, 
Mich. St. Univ. of Mich., 1904 ; asst. prin. Jefferson Park h. s., El- 
Paso, 1901-04. 

1120. Gertrude Viola Heller, teaching, Normal. Primary tea., Maroa, 
1901-04; elem. sch., Normal, 1906 . 

1121. Edith Marian Higgins (Mrs. Bray), 919 Fulton St., Chicago. 
Elem. sch., Elk Grove, 1901-03. Married Albert H. Bray, Chicago, June 
25, IQ03- 

1 122. Edith Maude Hoit, teaching, Madison sch., Quincy. Elem. sch., 
Quincy, 1901 . 

1123. Sarah Matilda Hummel, st., 926 W. Illinois St., Urbana. St. 
Univ. of 111., 1906; t. Downs, 1902-03; Normal, 1903-05. 

1124. Ida May Loring (Mrs. Walters), teacher of art, 801 E. Wood 
St., Decatur. St. Art Institute ; Sch. of Fine Arts ; Toronto Art Acad. ; 
t. kindergarten; special drawing tea. Married F. J. Walters, Nov. 29, 
1904, who died. 

1125. Birdie Major, student, 1313 Geddes Ave., Ann Arbor, Mich. 
St. Univ. of Mich., 1905 ; elem. sch., Henry, 1901-03; Walnut, 1903-05. 

(1126. Frances Baldwin Mann (Mrs. Carl Lang), Cahoka, Mo. T. 
h. s., Cahoka, Mo., 4 yrs. 

1127. Elvira Ellen Mark, teacher of English, State Normal School, 
Albion, Idaho. Studied, Univ. of 111., A.B., 1902-04. T. Centralia h. s., 
1901-02; Oxford College, Oxford, Ohio, iY 2 yrs, 1904-05; Albion, Idaho, 
1906 . 

1128. Susie Merker, teaching, 827 W. Macon St., Decatur. Primary, 
Cisco, 1901-04; Bement, 1904-05; Union, N. J., 1905-06; Decatur, 1906 . 

1129. Edna Gertrude Mills (Mrs. Fairchild), 2052 N. 7th St., Terre 
Haute, Ind. St. Millikin Univ., one semester, 1904 ; Univ. of III, one 
semester, 1906. T. primary, Tuscola, 1901-02. Married James A. Fair- 
child (See No. 1079), August 23, 1905. 

1130. Daisy Alice Morris (Mrs. Rome), Fisher. T. elem. sch., Mat- 
toon, 1001-03. Married Seymour Rome, Fisher, Feb. 26, 1903. 

1131. Celia Frances Munch (Mrs. Butterfield), teacher, 212 Elgin 
Ave., Joliet. T. rural sch., Cook Co., 1901-02; elem. sch., Harlem, 1902- 
05; James Otis Sch., Chicago, 1905-06. Married Eber Butterfield, Joliet, 
April 28, 1905. 

1132. Olive Estelle Peck, teaching, Wray, Col. St. Univ. of Mich., 
fall, 1903 ; t. primary, Wyanet, 1901-03 ; Wray, Col., 1905 . 

1133. Martha Philips (Mrs. Brown), Savanna. Primary, Savana, 
1901-03. Married George D. Brown, Savanna, Sept. 27, 1905. 

1134. Florence Elizabeth Pitts, st. Univ. of Paris, 126 rue de la Pompe, 
Paris, France. St. Univ. of 111., 1902-04. Prin. Griggsville h. s., 1901-02; 

<inst. in English, Univ. of 111., 1904-06. 

1135. Pearl Prickett (Mrs. Passmore), Huntley. Elem. sch., Hunt- 
ley, 1901-04. Married Charles Lucius Passmore, April 3, 1904. 

1136^ Louise Margaret Reinmiller (Mrs. Eldridge), DeKalb. Elem. 
sch., Odell and Joliet, 1901-02; rural sch., near Cornell, 1902-03; near 
Wilson, 1903-04; grades, Chatsworth, 1904-05. Married Rev. C. D. Eld- 
ridge, July 25, 1905. 

1137. Josephine W. Serf (Mrs. Haight), 721 Stephenson St., Free- 
port. Taught in grades, Freeport, 1901-03; bookkeeper, 1904-05. Mar- 
ried Paul Haight, Dec. 27, 1905. 


1138. Clara Eugenia Trimble, teaching, 200 West H3th Place, Chi- 
cago. St. Univ. of 111., 1901-04; critic teacher, I.S.N.U., 1902-03; his- 
tory, Urbana h. s., 1904-06; George William Curtis h. s., Chicago, 1906 . 

1139. Florence Lillian Uzzell (Mrs. Day), Bethalto. Tea. primary, 
Venice, 1901-03; grades, Bethalto, 1903-06. Married Eugene Day, Oct. 
22, 1902. 

1140. Jennie Entriken Wells, teacher, 1592 N. Church St., Decatur. 
Grades, Maroa, 1901-02; ElPaso, 1902-05; Sangamon Street Sch., De- 
catur, 1905 . 

1141. Jessie Bell Wells, teaching, ElPaso. Primary, ElPaso, 1901. 

1142. Clara Wetzel, teacher, 235 N. Soto St., Los Angeles, Cal. 
Elem. sch., Streator, 1901-02; Stonington, 1902-03; Los Angeles, 1904 . 

1143- George Lee Baker, accountant in offices of Mo. Pac. R. R., 2816 
Gamble St., St. Louis, Mo. Supt. of Boys' Reformatory, Pontiac, 1901-06. 

1144. Samuel Brooks, farmer, Mason City, R.F.D. No. 5. Rural 
sch., 3 yrs. ; prin. h. s., Marseilles, i yr. Married Carrie Wilson, Feb. 
15, 1906. 

1145. Clarence Edward Burt, bookkeeper, Normal. St. I.S.N.U., 
summer, 1903. Prin. Garfield Sch., Pekin, 1901-02; Plainfield, 1902-05. 

1146. James Russell Forden, salesman, 767 E. Salmon St., Portland, 
Oregon. St. Sch. of Ed., Univ. of Chicago, summer, 1901 ; Naas sch. of 
Sloyd, Naas, Sweden; Knaben-fur-Handarbeit, Leipzig, Germany, sum- 
mer, 1904; Teachers' College, Columbia Univ., 1904-05; tea. man. training, 
Saginaw, Mich., 1901-02; Normal Sch., River Falls, Wis., 1902-04; di- 
rector of man. tr., State Normal Sch., Dillon, Mont., 1905-06. Married 
Eleanor Nottingham, June 27, 1906 

1147. Frank J. George, prin. Lincoln Sch., 1109 De La Vine St., 
Santa Barbara, Cal. U. S. Gov't teacher, Philippine Islands, provinces 
Pangasinan, Manilla, and San Fabian, 1901-05. Married Josephine E. 
Maranville, July 26, 1905. 

1148. Orville James Gunnell, real estate, 4 E. Main St., Danville. 
Prin. Grant sch., Danville, 1901-02; Tilton, 1902-04. Married Dorothy N. 
Kemp, Nov. 30, 1904. 

1149. William Hawkes, teaching, Minonk. St. Univ. of 111., sum- 
mers, 1902, 03, and 04; prin. Ipava, 1901-02; supt. Eureka, 1902-05; supt. 
Minonk, 1905 . 

1150. Aaron Hey ward, teaching, Cavalier, N. D. St. Univ. of Wis., 
Ph.B., 1901-03; tea. Cavalier, N. D., 1904 . 

1151. Jacob Harold Heinzelman, fellow in mod. lang., U. of C, 5648 
Drexel Ave., Chicago. St. Univ. of 111., 1901-02; Univ. of Chicago, 1902- 
03, 1905 . ; supt. sch., Washington, 1903-05. Married Emelyne S. Voor- 
hees, Sept. 5, 1906. 

1152. Josiah Campbell Hoke, county supt. of schools, Sullivan. Co. 
supt. sch., Moultrie county, 1902 . 

1153. Lee I. Knight, teacher, Washington. St. Univ. of 111., 1901-02; 
Univ. of Chicago, 1902-03 ; same, summers, 1904-5-6 ; prin. h. s,. Washing- 
ton, 1905 . 

1154. George Larson, salesman, Independent Harvester Co., Piano. 
Hudson, 1901-03; Kentland, Ind., 1903-04; Kempton, 1904-06. Married 
Cora Oswood, August 25, 1906. 

1155. James Harrison Morton, storekeeper at Northern Hospital for 
Insane, 750 S. State St., Elgin. St. Univ. of 111., three summers, 1905-06; 
prin. Wethersfield Sch., Kewanee, 1901-03; Ashkum, 1903-05. Married 
Mary Grier, June 3, 1902. 


1156. William August Otto, teaching, 343 3rd Ave., Milwaukee, Wis. 
St. Univ. of 111., summers, 1903 and 04; Univ. of Mich., 1905-07; asst. 
prin. h. s., White Hall, 1901-03; prin. h. s., Rochelle, 1903-04; German and 
English, East Division h. s., Milwaukee, Wis., 1906 . 

1157. Arthur Orville Rape, prin. Burke Sch., 6541 Normal Ave., Chi- 
cago. Supt. Dolton, 1901-04; prin. in Chicago, 1904-07; articles on Phys- 
iology, for School News, 1904-05. Married Minnie E. Wallace, July 27, 

1158. William Vernon Skiles, teaching, 79 W. North Ave., Atlanta, 
Ga. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1904-06; prin. Melvin, 1901-02; Loda, 1902-04; 
adjunct prof, of mathematics, Georgia h. s., Technology, 1906 . Married, 
Ethel McWhirter, Nov. 28, 1901. 

1159. Harvey Benjamin Urban, student, Univ. of 111., 712 Elm St., 
Urbana. Prin. Ohio, 1901-04; LaMoille, 1904-06. Married Carrie Travis 
(See No. 925), Normal, July 16, 1901. 

1160. George William Wright, publisher, 846 S. English Ave. ; Spring- 
field. State manager Topical Bible Publishing Co., 1901-05 ; vice-presi- 
dent Alpha Pub. Co., 1906. Married Bertha Bird, May 8, 1902. 

CLASS OF 1902 

1161. Bernice Gertrude Beeler, teaching, 807 E. Market St., Bloom- 
ington. Rural sch., 1903-04 ; near Hudson, 1904-05 ; Sheridan sch., Bloom- 
ington, 1905-07. 

1162. Willis Elma Berry (Mrs. Cromwell), Nebo, 111. Rural sch., 
Decatur, 1902-03; Pleasant Hill, 1903-04. Married Dr. J. H. Cromwell, 
Nov. i, 1904. 

1163. Ida Wendover Bond, teaching, 802 Harrison St., Mt. Vernon. 
St. Univ. of Chicago, summers, 1903-06; tea. English, twp. h. s., Mt. Ver- 
non, 1902 . 

1164. Minnie Breining, teacher, Peru. St. in Augsburg summer sch. 
of drawing, 1905. Tea. Peru, 1902 . 

1165. Bessie Sarah Briggle, Rushville. Tea. St. Anne, 2 yrs. 

1166. Josephine Amelia Briggs (Mrs. McKnight), Lexington, Neb. 
T. Delavan, 1902-03; rural sch. near Delavan, 1903-04; Delavan, 1904-05. 
Married Joseph McKnight, July 5, 1905. 

1167. Ida May Burlingame, teaching, Stanford. Primary, Washing- 
ton, 1902-05 ; Stanford, 1905-07. 

1168. Myrtle Marie Champion (Mrs. Bowles), Normal. St. Wes- 
leyan Conservatory of Music, 1902-03. Married LaFoy Earle Bowles, Nor- 
mal, June 25, 1903. 

1169. Ada Belle Clark, teaching, Bloomington. Tea. elem. sch., 
Bloomington, 1902 . 

1170. Estelle Pearl Corson, primary teacher, Wapata, Wash. Pri- 
mary, Gridley, 1902-04; Wapata, Wash., 1904 . 

1171. Virginia Frances Crouch, teaching, 355 S. Grand Ave., Los 
Angeles, Cal. St. State Univ. Berkeley, Cal., summer, 1904; tea. Kirk- 
wood, 1902-04; Ventura, Cal., 1904-06; Los Angeles, 1906. 

1172. Ruth Anna David, teaching, 232 W. Pine St., Canton. Tea. 
h. s., Canton, 1902-07. 

1173. Dula Mae Dawson, teaching, Fairbury. Primary work, Streator, 
1902-03; Boulder, Col., 1903-05; fifth grade, Fairbury, 1905 . 

1174. Worthy Jean De Van, teaching, 1213 N. Union St., Decatur.. 
Mattoon, 1902-06; Decatur, 1906 . 


1175. Florence Dorothy Dixon, primary teacher, Darwin Sch., Chi- 
cago. Arcola, 1902-03; Streator, 1903-04; Chicago, 1904 . 

1176. Delia Mae Eaton, teaching, 904 N. Edward St., Decatur. St. 
Millikin Univ. ; t, Decatur sch., 1902 . 

1177. Hattie Mae Eaton, student, 206 W. Lincoln St., Normal. St. 
111. Wesleyan Univ., 1905 ; tea. Hopedale, 1902-04; Delavan, 1904-05. 

1178. Lucy Elizabeth Edmunds, Dir. of Religious Work, Y.W.C.A., 
Milwaukee, Wis. St. sec'y Tr. Inst. for Assn. Workers, Chicago, 1904-05 ; 
prin. h. s., Eureka, 1902-04; present position, 1905 . 

11 79* Clara Erbes, teaching, Centralia. St. Chicago Univ., summer, 
1903 ; tea. h. s. and twp. h. s., Centralia, 1902-07. 

1180. Lulu May Estee, teaching, Elma, Wash. Odell, 1902-03; Gib- 
son City, 1903-04; Prairie City, 1904-05; Elma, 1905 . 

1181. Frances Roxana Fletcher, teaching, 349 Chicago Ave., Kanka- 
kee. Tea. Streator, i yr. 

1182. Rosilda Josephine Fontaine, teaching, 3912 Russell Ave., St. 
Louis, Mo. Tea. Craft, 1902-03; Lincoln, 1903-05; East St. Louis, 1905-06; 
St. Louis, Mo., 1906 . 

1183. Anna Foreman, teaching, 1692 Kenmore Ave., Chicago. St. 
Univ. of Chicago ; prin. Washington Sch., Chicago Heights ; elem. sch., 
Chicago, 1904 . 

1184. Mary Louise Gay, teaching, Riverside. St. Univ. of 111., 1905- 
06; tea. h. s., Onarga, 1902-03; h. s., Normal, 1903-05; h. s., Riverside, 
1906 . 

1185. Ethel Magnolia Green, teaching, Madison, Wis. Ribbing, Minn., 
primary, 1902-05 ; Great Falls, Montana, 1905-06 ; primary supervisor, 
Madison, 1906 . 

1186. May Gvillp (Mrs. Lebegue), Oglesby. Asst. prin., Pawnee, 
1902-03. Married Julius V. Lebegue, August 5, 1903. (See No. 1234.) 

1187. Minnie Julina Hallock, Bradford. T. primary, Utica, 1902-04; 
Yorkville, 1904-06. 

1188. Ethel Rowena Hamilton, teaching, 712 Marinette Ave., Marin- 
ette, Wis.. Tea. Latin and Math., h. s., Arcola, 1902-03 ; math. h. s., Mar- 
inette, Wis., 1903-07. 

1189. Elizabeth Hitchcock, teaching, Marshall. St. Univ. of Chicago, 
summer, 1906; elem. sch., Bloomington, 1902-03; critic tea., W.I.S.N.S., 
Macomb, 1903-06; Eng. twp. h. s., Marshall, 1906-07. 

iiojp. Hulda Hollstein, prin. Washington Sch., Chicago Heights. 
Prin. and grade tea., 1902 . 

*ngi. Daisy Bell Huntington, died May 21, 1905. Primary critic, 
Streator, 1902-04; State Normal Sch., Monmouth, Oregon, 1904-05. 

1192. Eugenia Johnson, teaching, Sheridan Sch., 516 S. Clayton St., 
Bloomington. Tea. Danville, 1902-04. 

1193. Gertrude Maude Johnston (Mrs. Posey), 736 S. Second St., 
Mankato, Minn. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1904-05 ; drawing tea., Ft. Smith, 
Ark., 1902-03 ; primary critic State Normal Sch., Cape Girardeau, Mo., 
1903-04; primary, State Normal Sch., Mankato, Minn., 1905. Married 
Chessley J. Posey (See No. 790), Dec. 27, 1903. 

1194. Evelyn Lovenia Kinne, Asst. postmistress, Senate, Springfield. 
Tea. primary, Bloomington, 1902-04 ; Los Angeles, Cal., 1904-05 ; Bloom- 
ington, first semester, 1905-06. 

1195. Estella May Le Stourgeon, teaching, 411 N. Walnut St., Cen- 
tralia. Grammar grades, Centralia, 1902-04; departmental work, 1904-07. 

1196. Lucy Lenora Lindsey, teaching, Saybrook. Primary, Green 
Valley, 1902-04; Danville, 1904-06; Saybrook, 1906-07. 


1197. Sarah Ann Marks, st. Univ. of Chicago, home address, Peca- 
tonica. Asst. prin. ward sch., Rockford, 1902-06. 

1198. Katherine Anna Moore, teaching, Ottawa. Elem. sch., Ottawa, 
1902 . 

1199. Clara Louise Morse, asst. in h. s., Gibson City. Univ. of 111., 
summers, 1905 and 1906; tea. elem. sch., Carlyle, 1903-04; Vandalia, 1904- 
05; Pana, 1905-06; Gibson City, 1906 . 

fi2OO. Anna Laura Odell, Cadillac, Mich. Taught 3 yrs. 

1201. Elsie Paisley, teaching, 613 N. Alabama St., Indianapolis, Ind. 
St. Univ. of 111., summer, 1904; rural sch., 1903; elem. sch., Charleston, 
1904; Thomasville, 1904-05; Indianapolis, Ind., 1905 . 

1202. Clara Maude Penstone, prin. h. s., Griggsville. Asst. prin., 
East Side h. s., ElPaso, 1902-03; Griggsville h. s., 1903 . 

1203. Mae Evangeline Picken, teaching, Morris, Minn. St. Univ. of 
Minn., 1905 ; first grade Hibbing, Minn., 1902-05 ; Morris, Minn., 1906 . 

1204. Norma Anna Proctor, prin. h. s., Hey worth. Elem. sch., East 
Side, ElPaso, 1904-05; h. s., Heyworth, 1905 . 

1205. Jessie Eulalia Rambo, student, 926 W. Illinois St., Urbana. St. 
Univ. of 111., 1906 ; rural sch., Putnam Co., 1903-04; prin. h. s., Wenona, 

1206. Blanche Ada Reitzell (Mrs. Dillon), 202 W. 45th St., Los An- 
geles, Cal. Tea. Juda, Wis., 1902-03. Married Frank Dillon, Aug. 16, 1903. 

1207. Mary Emma Renich, teaching, Woodstock. Prin. h. s., Griggs- 
ville, 1902-04; prin. h. s., Woodstock, 1904 . 

1208. Elizabeth Renshaw, teaching, Farmer City. Rural sch., Men- 
dota, 1902-03; same, Waverly, 1903-04; same, Randolph, 1904-06; same, 
Farmer City, 1906-07. 

1209. Emma E. L. Robinson, literary work, Sunset Boulevard and 
Sutherland St., Los Angeles, Cal. 

1210. Minnie Louise Robinson, teaching, 1411 N. Main St., Bloom- 
ington. Silvan Springs, Ark., 1902-03; Riverside, Cal., 1903-06; primary, 
Bloomington, 1906 . 

121 1. Margaret Wilhelmine Schilling, teaching, Freeport elem. sch. 
Freepqrt, 1902 . 

1212. Isabel Simeral, teaching, Bloomington. St. Univ. of Chicago; 
asst. h. s., Bloomington, 1904 . 

1213. Jessie Josephine Simmons, teaching, Carthage, 111. 

1214. Margaret Susannah Sleeper, teaching, 417 N. i2th St., Waco, 
Tex. Elem. sch., Waco, Tex., 1902 . 

1215. Carrie Rose Sparks, teaching, Lincoln. St. man. tr. Bradley 
Polytechnic, summer, 1906; elem. sch., Lincoln, 1902-04; bookkeeper, 
Farmington, 1904-05; prin. Lincoln, 1905 . 

1216. Bernice Ethel Stapleton (Mrs. Leach), 707 E. Walnut St., 
Bloomington. Elem sch., Bloomington, 1902-1906. Married William B. 
Leach, Dec. 19, 1906. 

1217. Anna M. Stephenson (Mrs. Haney), 918 Iowa Ave., Iowa City, 
la. Elem sch., Oak Park, 1902-06. Married Lewis H. Haney, Aug. 20, 

1218. Mabel Katilda Strauss, teaching, 400 N. 6th Ave., Quincy. Pri- 
mary tea., Quincy, 1902 . 

1219. Effie A. L. Tregellas, teaching, 358 LaSalle St., Chicago. Tea. 
ElPaso, 2 yrs. ; Wilmette, i yr. 

I22p. Harriet Belle Vail, supr. music, Tuscan, Ariz. Elem. sch., 
Yorkville, 1904-05 ; present position, 1905 . 


1221. Irma E. Voigt, teaching, Dixon. Asst. h. s., Lexington, 1902-03 ; 
h. s. Fulton, 1903-06; tea. Latin, h. s. Dixon, 1906 . 

1222. Nellie Grace Webster, teaching, 1644 N. Main St., Decatur. 
Tea. Pawnee, 1902-04; Chenoa, 1904-06; Decatur, 1906 . 

1223. Margaret Rosalind Weldon (Mrs. Kelly), Normal, R.F.D. No. 
2, Box 21. Tea. rural sch., i yr. Married Hugh L. Kelly, June 9, 1903. 

1224. Bertha Gerish Wilson, student, 304 Honore St., Chicago. St. 
111. Tr. Sch. for Nurses, Chicago, 1905 ; grades, Franklin Grove, 1902- 
04; Berwyn, 1904-05. 

1225. Thomas Morse Barger, St., 505 E. Green St., Champaign. St. 
Univ. of 111., 1905-07; prin. Mazon, 1902-04; twp. h. s., Mazon, 1904-05. 

1226. Herman John Bassler, supt., Wenona. St. man. tr., James 
Millikin Univ., summer, 1905 ; prin. h. s., Wenona, 1902-04 ; supt. same, 
1904 . Married Anna M. Hoge, Nov. 30, 1905. 

1227. Edwin Damman, farming, Buhl, Idaho; teaching, 445 S. W. 
Temple St., Salt Lake City, Utah. St. one summer, Valparaiso, Ind. ; 
prin. Mt. Palatine, 1902-03; prin. Crescent City, 1903-04; Northwestern 
Mil. Acad., 1904-05; asst. educational director, Y.M.C.A., San Fran- 
cisco, 1905-06. 

1228. Elzy Franklin Downey, prin., Clyde. St. Univ. of Chicago, 
summers, 1904-06 ; prin. Manteno, 1902-03 ; prin. Clyde, 1903 . Married 
Lucinda H. Westbrook (See No. 987), July 16, 1902. 

1229. John Thomas Johnson, instr. in biology, W.I.S.N.S., Ma- 
comb. St. Univ. of Chicago, 1901; Univ. of 111., 1904-06; instr. in nat- 
ural science, academy, Univ. of 111., 1902-06; present position, 1906 . Mar- 
ried Sarah Elizabeth Haskett, April 6, 1899. 

1230. Walter Royal Jones, teaching, Menominee, Mich. St. Univ. of 
Chicago, summer, 1904; prin. h. s., Rossville, 1902-03; Table Grove, 1903- 
04; Champaign, 1904-05 ; math, in h. s. Menominee, Mich., 1905 . 

1231. John Winfred Kern, teaching, Libertyville. Supt. Mt. Sterling, 
1902-04; prin. h. s., Libertyville, 1904 . Married Alice N. Newlove, 1896. 

*i232. Reuben Kofoid, died July 27, 1905. Chemist, Cal. Powder 
Works, 2618 Etna St., Berkeley, Cal. ; asst. state chemist, New York, 18 
mos. ; chemist, Carborundum Co., 7 mos. 

1233. William Henry Kummer, decorator, 610 W. Jefferson St., 
Bloomington. Taught 2 yrs. Married Maude E. Jones, Sept. 2, 1903. 

1234. Julius Victor Le Begue, supt. schools, Oglesby. Prin. Kil- 
bourne, 1902-04; Lostant, 1904-06; present position, 190*6 . Married 
May Gvillo (See No. 1186), Aug. 5, 1903. 

1235. Ervin L. McDuffee, law and real estate, Livingston Bldg., 
Bloomington. Grad. Wesleyan Law Sch., 1902. Married Eva Belle Boyce 
(See No. 857), June, 1902. 

1236. Will Johnson McFarland, student, 505 E. Green St., Cham- 
paign. St. Univ. of 111., 1905-07; h. s., Havana, 1902-04; prin. h. s., Car- 
rollton, 1904-05. 

1237. Simon Edward Naffziger, merchant and postmaster, Goodfield. 
St. Gem City Bus. College, Quincy, 1903; rural sch., Goodfield, 1902-03; 
prin. Minier, 1903-04. Married Lucy E. Myero, Feb. u, 1906. 

1238. Charles Hubert Oathout, student, Urbana. St. Univ. of 111, 
1904-07; prin. Flanagan, 1902-04. Married Mildred Blanche Rulison, 
June 6, 1904. 

1239. Irwin Ropp, draughtsman for Western Elec. Co., 594 Jackson 
Blvd., Chicago. Tea. rural sch., McNabb, 1902-03 ; prin. Carlock, 1903-05. 


1240. Richard E. Selby, supt. of sch., Momence. St. Univ. of 111, 
summers, 1902-04; supt. Onarga, 1902-03; present position, 1903 . Mar- 
ried Charlotte Winifred Gaston, Dec. 28, 1887. 

1241. Harry Dwight Waggoner, teaching, 2242 D. St., Granite City. 
St. Univ. of 111., summers, 1902-06 ; prin. Findlay, 1902-03 ; prin. h. s., 
Granite City, 1903 . Married Mabel Denning, Dec. 27, 1906. 

1242. Ellis Bert Wickersham, western mngr. of Amer. Man. Tr. Co., 
300 Wabash Ave., Chicago. Prin. Tallula, 1902-03; supt. Villisca, la., 
1903-06. Married July i, 1898. 

CI<ASS OF 1903 

1243. Georgia Allen, keeping house for father, Carlyle. Tea. gram- 
mar sch., Danvers, 1903-04; Latin and English, twp. h. s., Biggsville, 

1244. Mary Elizabeth Allen, teacher in elem. s., 508 S. Fourth St., 
Champaign. St. Univ. of 111., 1903-05 ; elem. s., Champaign, 1905 . 

1245. Carrie Louise Barber, eighth grade, Bisbee, Ariz. St. Univ. 
of Wisconsin, 1904-05 ; prin. Lindenwood, 1903-04 ; tea. Arizona, igos-date. 

1346. Mamie Louise Bechstein, teaching, Mokena. Asst. prin. h. s., 
Minonk, 1903-05 ; asst. in elem. sch., 1905 . 

1247. Lucy Adelia Bosworth (Mrs. Stearns), librarian of Lincoln 
Coll., 127 Keokuk St., Lincoln. Tea. elem. s., Brewster, Minn., 1898-99; 
elem. s., Waukegan, 1903-04; librarian Lincoln Coll., 1905. Married 
John B. Stearns, June 28, 1904. 

1248. Margaret Lee Bowen, teacher, Bloomington. Tea. Clinton, 1903- 
04; Bloomington, 1904. 

1249. Daisy M. Burke, teacher, Edwards Sch., Bloomington. Pres- 
ent position, 1903 . 

ti25o. Ida May Cardiff, Minooka, Montana. Teacher, 2 yrs. 

1251. Mary Edith Christy, prin. h. s., Winona. St. I.S.N.U., summer 
term, 1905; Univ. of 111., summer term, 1906; asst. prin., Rankin, 1903-05; 
prin. h. s., Maroa, 1905-06; prin. h. s., Winona, 1906 . 

1252. Alice Maude Cole, teacher of music and English, twp. h. s., 
Princeton. St. Silver Burdette Sch. of Pub. Sch. Music, summer, 1903; 
Univ. of 111., summer, 1904-05-06; tea. of music and English, Plainfield, 
1903-04 ; Hoopeston, 1904-05 ; Princeton, 1906. 

1253. Grace Stella Colvin, assistant prin. h. s., Earlville. St. Univ. 
of 111., summer, 1904; prin. h. s., Keithsburg, 1903-05; asst. prin. Earl- 
ville, 1905 . 

1254. Frances Louella Dace, at home, Rushville. Fourth grade, 
Rushville, 1896-1900; teacher, h. s., El Paso, 1903-05; prin. h. s., Rush- 
ville, 1905-06. 

1255. Mary Priscilla Davis, teacher, h. s., Marseilles. St. Univ. of 
111., 1905 ; teacher, h. s., Pringhar, la., i yr. ; present position, 2 yrs. 

1256. Bertha Elizabeth Denning, prin. h. s., Atlanta. St. Univ. of 
111., summer, 1906; asst. prin. h. s., Mt. Pulaski; teacher, Latin and Ger- 
man, 1904 . 

ti257_ Dora Susanna Duncan, teaching, Bement. Tea. primary, Sea- 
ton, i yr. ; Bement, 1904 . 

1258. Edith Belle Edwards, prin. Lincoln Sch., Bisbee, Ariz. St. 
I.S.N.U., summer, 1904; asst. prin. h. s, Mazon, 1903-04; sixth grade, Cen- 
tral Sch., Bisbee, 1904-05 ; prin. Bisbee, 1905 . 

1259. Belle Fairfield, teaching, Normal. Tea. English, h. s., Normal 
pub. sch., 1903 


1260. Maude Fairfield, teacher in h. s., Chenoa. Prin. h. s., Chats- 
worth, 1903-04; language tea., Chenoa, 1904 . 

1261. Kathryn Lorena Foster, instr. in music in the Southern Train- 
ing Sch., Graysville, Tenn. Elem. s., Normal, 1903-06; present position, 
1906 . 

ti262. May Gifford, teaching, 14723 Robey Ave., Harvey. Tea. Chi- 
cago Heights, 1903 . 

1263. Anna Marion Gillan, teaching, Calumet, Mich. Tea. Watseka, 
1901-04; Calumet, 1904 . 

1264. Lucy Walker Gilmer, teaching in grades, Ft. Collins, Colorado. 
St. U. of C, summer of 1906; teacher, grammar grades, h. s., Averyville, 
1903-06; h. s., Craig, Colorado, I9o6-Jan., 1907; present position, January, 
1907 . 

1265. Christena Ramsey Heritage, teaching, 512 E. Mulberry St., 
Bloomington. Tea. Pawnee, 1903-04; present position, 1904 . 

1266. Harriet Hetfield, sec. and gen. mgr. Commercial Ins. Agency, 
3523 Bell Aye., St. Louis, Mo. Tea. eighth grade, Riverside, 1903-05 ; 
present position, 1905 . 

1267. Mary Louise Himes, teaching, Toulon. Tea. rural sch., 1903-05 ; 
Toulon, 1905 . 

1268. Julia Montrose Holder, st. Smith College, Tyler House, 
Northampton, Mass. St. 111. Wesleyan Univ., 1903-05; Art Students' 
League, New York, part of 1905 ; Smith Coll., 1906 . 

1269. Mary Lillian Hughes, at home, Rushville. Elem. s., Alton, 

fi27o. Clara Irene Johnston, teaching, Mt. Sterling. Tea. elem. s., 
Tremont, 1903-04; h. s., 1904-05; Charlevoix, Mich., 1905-06; h. s., Mt. 
Sterling, 1906- . 

1271. Mary Kemph, teaching, El Paso. Tea. fifth and sixth grades, 
1903-05 ; seventh and eighth grades, 1905 . 

11272. Matilda Klotz, teaching, Pinckneyville. Tea. h. s., Pinckney- 
ville, 1903 . 

1273. Ada Victoria McCall, prin. h. s., Vienna. Tea. sixth grade, Oak 
Park, Sept., 1903-Jan., 1904; asst. prin. h. s., Vienna, 1904-06; prin., Vi- 
enna, 1906 . 

1274. Laura Alberta Masters, teacher, Chicago Heights, 1330 Roscoe 
St., Chicago. Tea. Dwight, 1903-04; Chicago Heights, 1904 . 

ti275. Lucy Jane Mateer, Marshall. Tea. elem. s., Decatur, 1903-04. 

1276. Esther Cook Mohr, teaching, h. s., Pontiac. St. Prang's Sum- 
mer Sch., 1904; Univ. of 111., summer, 1905, and 1905-06; asst. prin. h. s., 
Genoa, 1903-04; prin. h. s., Genoa, 1904-05; teacher h. s., Pontiac, 1906. 

1277. Lauretta Moynihan, substituting in city schools, 924 Jackson 
Bvld., Chicago. St. music, Chicago, 1904-05 ; teacher third and fourth 
grades, Dolton, 1905-06; present position, 1906 . 

1278. Nell Alma Nollen, teaching science, h. s., Atlanta. St. Univ. 
of 111., summers of 1904 and 1905; asst. prin., Astoria, 1903-04; h. s., 
Atlanta, 1904 . 

1279. Mabel Pennoyer, teacher, third grade, 808 S. Fifth St., Spring- 
field. St. summer, I.S.N.U., 1904; primary tea., Pawnee, 1903-04; third 
grade, Springfield, 1904 . 

1280. Mary Esther Pfeil, st. Univ. of 111., 508 S. Fourth St., Cham- 
paign. St. Univ. of 111., summers of 1906 and 1906-07 ; tea. h. s., Green- 
view, 1903-05. 

fi28i. Caroline Beverly Service, teaching, Maywood. Tea. h. s., 
Dundee, 1903-05. 


1282. Ruth Imogene Simison, teacher in Mt. Hermon Seminary, Clin- 
ton, Miss., 1903 . 

1283. Margaret Olivia Skaggs, teacher in grades and h. s., Linden- 
wood. St. I.S.N.U., summer of 1905; Univ. of Chicago, summer of 1906; 
tea. rural sch., 3 weeks; Sch. of Education, Univ. of Chicago, 3 mos. ; 
eighth grade, Rochelle, \ l /2 yrs. ; public schools of Lindenwood, 1905 . 

1284. Edna Mae Skinner (Mrs. Parker, Jr.), Julesburg, Col. St., 
summer session, I.S.N.U., 1906; tea. eighth grade, Seaton, 1903-05; asst. 
prin., LeRoy, 1905-07. Married Bertrand D. Parker, Jr., June 30, 1897. 
(See No. 656.) 

*I285. Eva Dorcas Smith, died at Normal, Jan. 5, 1905. Tea. Latin 
and physics, Carrollton, 1903-04. 

1286. Marian Bernardine Smith, student, Smith College, Lawrence 
House, Northampton, Mass., 1903 . 

1287. Vera May Snow, Jefferson Sch., Bloomington, 1903 . 

1288. Lidy Spencer (Mrs. Chambers), Solomonville, Ariz. Elem. s., 
Danville, 2 yrs. Married William R. Chambers, Nov. 10, 1904. 

1289. Elizabeth Dominica Sullivan, teacher, second grade, 106 E. 
Kelley St., Bloomington; present position, 1904 . 

1290. Frances Waldron, teacher in grades, 9372 Prospect Ave., Chi- 
cago. Tea. elem. s., Dwight, 1903-04; prin. Washington Sch., Chicago 
Heights, 1904-06. tea., Chicago, 1906 . 

1291. Anna Magdalene Weimar, teacher, 1052 Seminary Ave., Chi- 
cago. Tea. Chicago Heights, 1903-06; tea. Chicago, 1906 . 

1292. Alda Lenore Wilcox, teacher, Franklin Sch., 1315 E. Wash- 
ington St., Bloomington, 1903 . 

ti293. Helena Olga Woltman, teaching, 626 Washington Blvd., Chi- 
cago. Tea. Loda, I yr. ; Chicago Heights, I yr. ; tea. Schiller Sch., Chi- 
cago, 1906 . 

1294. Lucy Worley (Mrs. Wilson), Downs. St. I.S.N.U., summers 
of 1903-04; tea. h. s., Gardner and supervisor of drawing, 1903-05. Mar- 
ried George Wilson, March 2, 1905. 

1295. Leroy J. Benson, teacher, rural sch., Cuba. Prin., Towanda 
H. S., 1903-05 ; field manager, Santa Anna Industrial Company, 1906-07. 

1296. Henry Buellesfield, supt. of schs., Nokomis. St. Univ. of 111., 
1905-06, and summers of 1905 and 1906; prin. Naples, 1903-04; prin. 
Seneca, 1904-05 ; supt. Nokomis, 1905 . 

1297. Lorimer Victor Cavins, head dept. of English in h. s., 618 Sum- 
mit Ave., East St. Louis. St. Univ. of 111., A.B., 1905-06, and 3 summer 
terms ; prin. Hinckley, 1903-05 ; present position, 1906 . 

1298. Chester Arthur Conyers, medical student, Northwstern Univ., 
Chicago. Prin. Daum, 1903-04; tea. rural sch., Buffalo Hart, 1904-06. 

1299. Russell Dawson, teacher, Congress Park. Prin. of sch., Los- 
tant, 1903-04; prin. of sch., Lake Villa, 1904-05; prin. of sch., Rockefeller, 
1905-06. Married Estella Rowling, Lake Villa, August 16, 1905. 

1300. Charles Henry Francis, lawyer, 905 First Nat. Bank Bldg., 
Chicago. St. law dept. Univ. of Mich., 1903-06. Married Jennie Hilta- 
brand, Sept. 19,1905. 

1301. McNeal Cole James, prin. of Consolidated Sch., McNabb. St. 
Univ. of III, 1905-06; tea. rural sch., McNabb, 1903-05. This school is 
now in Consolidated School. 

1302. Howard Baker Kingsbury, prin. of sch., Gardner. Prin. of 
sch., Frithian, 1903-06; prin. of sch., Gardner, 1906 . 

1303. George Lafferty, grocer, 539 Maple Ave., Galesburg. St. Univ. 
of 111., 1904-05; prin. sch., Joy, 1903-04. 


1304. Guy Metcalf Lisk, supt. city schs., Alva. Oklai; present posi- 
tion, 1904 . Married Sept. 15. 1904. 

1305. Karl Franklin McMurry, commercial tea., h. s., Calumet, Mich. 
St. Univ. of 111., Univ. of Cal. ; Commercial tea. in h. schs. of Monmouth, 
1903-04; of Burlington, la., 1904-05; of Calumet, Mich., 1905 . Married 
Minnie A. Hiett, Monmouth, Oct. 5, 1904. 

1306. Harry Ambrose Perrin, supt. public schs., Pawnee. St. _ Univ. 
of 111., summer session, 1906; correspondence work, Univ. of Chicago; 
prin. Williamsville, 1903-05 ; supt. Pawnee, 1905 . 

1307. Albert Conlee Stice, supt. of schs., Gillespie. Prin. Bellflower, 
1903-05; supt. Gillespie, 1905 . Married Clara Samuell, Dec. 31, 1903. 

1308. Walter Marion Vaughan, supt. Franklin Grove. Prin. Rut- 
land, 1903-06; supt. Franklin Grove, 1906 . Married Alice Richesin, 
Ewing, Aug. 3, 1903. 

1309. Carl Augustus Waldron, supt. Delavan. St. Univ. of 111., sum- 
mer sessions, 1905 and 1906; prin. h. s., Mt. Pulaski, 1903-04; prin. h. s., 
Delavan, 1904-05 ; supt. Delavan, 1906. 

*i3io. Edward Palmer Watrous, died July 24, 1904. 

1311. Roy Franklin Webster, teacher in h. s., Elgin. St. Univ. of 
111., summers of 1904 and 1905, winter of 1905-06; prin. Mackinaw, 1903- 
05; asst. in physics, I.S.N.U., summer of 1906; physics and math., h. s., 
Elgin, 1906 . 

1312. Noah A. Young, supt. Soudan, Minn. Prin. elem. s., Hoopes- 
ton, 1898-99; prin. h. s., Bement, 1899- Jan., 1902; supt. Soudan, Minn., 
1902 ; pres. Northeastern Minn. Ed. Assn., 1906. Married May Eliza- 
beth Walls, July 31, 1901. 

CLASS OF 1904 

I 3 I 3- Josephine Rae Armstrong, teaching, 615 S. Clayton St., Bloom- 
ington. Tea., Franklin Sch., Bloomington, 1904 . 

1314. Fannie Bright, at home, Normal. 

fi3i5. Florence Gertrude Caughey, Seattle, Wash. Tea. Glendive, 
Mon., 1904-05. 

fi3i6. Maud Evangeline Colvin, 1318 State St., E. St. Louis. Pri- 
mary grade, Millstadt, 1904-05. 

1317. Helen Angenett Crissey, teaching, eighth grade, Momence. 
Tea. grammar grade, Keithsburg, 1904-05 ; Momence, 1905 . 

ti3i8. Jessie Alice Damon, teaching, Colfax. Tea. elem. s., Danville, 
3 mos. ; Colfax, 1906 . 

1319. Maude May Daniels, teaching, Griggsville. Intr. grade, Griggs- 
ville, 1904 . 

1320. Helen Veronica Delaney, teaching, Seaton. Intr. grade, Sea- 
ton, 1904 . 

1321. Lena Otelia Dimmitt, teaching, Rankin. Asst. prin., Lostant, 
1904-1906; Rankin, 1906 . 

1322. Myrtle Disbrow (Mrs. Basil Norman Roney), 1004 North Cen- 
ter St., Bloomington. Tea., Edwards Sch., 1904 . 

1323. Ethel Mary Dole, teaching, second grade, Peabody Sch., 55 S. 
Ada St., Chicago. Chicago Heights, i l / 2 yrs. ; has served as substitute in 
fourteen different schools and in all grades. 

1324. Bertha Katherine Duerkop, teaching, Latin and English, h. s., 
Barry. Asst. prin. Morton, 1904-05; h. s., Barry, 1905. Sec. Teachers' 
Ass. of Pike, Greene, Scott and Morgan counties. 


1325. Esther Browning Foster, teaching, third grade, 424 Home Ave., 
Oak Park. Present position, 1904 . 

1326. Mrs. Eda Hunter, teaching, fifth grade, 844 West Packard St., 
Decatur. Asst. prin. h. s., Forrest, 1904-05 ; Decatur, 1905 . 

1327. Olive Hunting, tacher in grades, Normal. Inter, grades, 1904- 
05 ; eighth grade, 1906 . 

1328. Beulah Valentine Johnson (Mrs. Mossman), Nampa, Idaho. 
Prin. h. s., St. Ignace, Mich. Married Herbert Hugh Mossman, Boise 
City, Sept. 25, 1905. 

1329. Mrs. Latona May Jones, teaching, Franklin Sch., Danville. 
Tea. elem. s., Tremont, 1904-06; elem. s., Danville, 1906 . 

1330. Pearl Elizabeth Kindig, student U. of 111., 904 Busey Ave., Ur- 
bana. St. Univ. of 111., 1905 ; elem s., Cisco, 1904-05. 

1331. Anna Maud Lantz (Mrs. Maginnis), Normal. Tea. English 
and history, h. s., Eureka, 1904 ; Chicago Heights, 6 mos. ; second grade, 
Normal, 1905-06. Married James Maginnis, Dec., 1906. 

1332. May Nevadah McGuire (Mrs. Telford), Skagway, Alaska. 
Tea. primary grade, Decatur, 1904-06. Married Fred Telford (see No. 
1480), July 16, 1906. 

1333. Mrs. Lillie Stewart McMurtry, Springfield. St. Chicago Art 
Institute, 2 mos., 1906; first primary, Pawnee, 1904-06. 

1334. Elizabeth Izora Matheney, teaching, Dixon. St. Univ. of Chi- 
cago, 1906; tea. English and history, h. s., Delavan, i l /2 yrs. ; h. s., Dixon, 
1906 . 

J 335- Dora E. Mau, at home, Walnut. Primary grade, Quincy, 1904- 

1336. Edith Lena Mossman, grammar grade, Nampa, Idaho. Gram, 
grade, Wilmette, 1904-06; present position, 1906 . 

1337. Maria Elizabeth Page, at home, Westhope, N. Dak. Eighth 
grade, Lincoln, 1904-05; asst. cashier, Bank of Westhope, 1905-06. 

1338. Josephine Perry, druggist, Melvin. Tea. h. s., Loda, 1904-05. 

1339. Lorinda Perry, student, Urbana. St. Univ. of 111., 1906 ; 
tea. rural sch., Monmouth, 1904-05. 

1340. Alice Pollock, teaching, sixth grade, Pittsfield. St. I.S.N.U., 
spring term, 1906 ; twp. h. s., Armington, 1904-05 ; Pittsfield, 1906 . 

1341. Norma Anna Proctor, teaching, Heyworth. Tea. elem. s., 
ElPaso, 1904-05; prin. h. s., Heyworth, 1905 . 

1342. Nelle Leona Rice, teaching, Seaton. Primary grades, Sea- 
ton, 1904 . 

1343. Helen Edna Seeley, teaching, Greenview. Tea. primary grades, 
Greenview, 1904 . 

1344. Daisy Adelia Skinner (Mrs. Burtis), 720 Union Ave., Chicago. 
Married Guy Seaman Burtis (See No. 1073), Feb. 8, 1905. 

1345. Mae Knight Steele, asst. prin. Emerson Sch., 205 Leland St., 
Bloomington. Third and fourth grades, ElPaso, 1904-05; asst. prin., 
Bloomington, 1905 . 

1346. Gertrude Ophelia Swain (Mrs. Fitzgerrel), Benton. Fourth 
grade, Oak Park, 1904-05. Married W. J. Fitzgerrel, Sept. 19, 1905. 

1347. Alice Symons, teaching, 822 E. Monroe St., Bloomington. 
Bloomington pub. schs., 1904-06; first grade, pub. sch., Normal, 1906 . 

1348. Myrtle Trowbridge, teaching, Lincoln. Tea. seventh grade, 
Lincoln, 1906. 

1349. Helen Tuthill (Mrs. Larison), ElPaso. Asst. prin. h. s., ElPaso, 
1904-06. Married Frederick S. Larison, Nov. 29, 1906. 


1350. Lena Althea Walworth, teaching, Gardner. St. I.S.N.U., first 
summer term, 1905 ; tea. elem. s., Quincy, 1904-05 ; h. s., Gardner, 1905 . 

1351. Alice Perle Watson, student U. of Wis., 823 Irving Place, 
Madison, Wis. St. U. of C, i yr. ; U. of Wis., 1906-07; seventh grade 
critic tea., Training Sch., I.S.N.U., 1904-06. 

1352. Helen Angeline Wilson, teaching, Havana. Tea. Hopedale, 
1904-05 ; fourth grade, Havana, 1905 . 

* X 353- Clarence Roy Boslough, deceased. Prin., Ohio, 1904-05. 

1354. Harry Burgess, student, 1310 Springfield Ave., Urbana. St. 
Univ. of 111., engineering dept, 1906 ; prin. East Lynn, 1904-06. 

!35S- Edward Criss, teaching, Wanda. Prin. sch., Wanda, 1904 . 

1356. Ernest Edwin Edmunds, real estate and investments, 703 Gar- 
rison Ave., Fort Smith, Ark. Prin. sch., Millstadt, 1904-05. 

1357- Perry Huston Hiles, student, 621 LaSalle Ave., Chicago. St. 
law dept., Northwestern Univ., 1906 ; prin., Perry, 1904-05; spent sum- 
mer of 1906 in Alaska, in employ of mining company. 

1358. Burley Clay Johnston, bookkeeper, Kelley Trust Co., Fort 
Smith, Ark. Present position, 1904 . 

I 359- George Brophy Kendall, prin. of Training Sch., I.S.N.U., Nor- 
mal. Prin. Webster Sch., Quincy, 1904 Jan., 1907; presnt position, Jan., 
1907-date. Married Erma H. Rickart, June 27, 1906. 

1360. Ely Vail Laughlin, teaching, Pittsfield. Tea. h. s., Pittsfield, 
1904 . Married Anna Hawker, June 6, 1905. 

1361. Ira B. McMurtry, gen. mgr. of F. P. Richards Manufacturing 
Co., Springfield. Traveling salesman and real estate agent, Pawnee, June, 
1904, to April, 1906; real estate agent, Springfield, April-November, 1906. 

1362. Abe Mark Newton, prin. h. s., Normal. St. Univ. of 111., June- 
August, 1906; prin. h. s., Vandalia, 1904-06; present position, 1906-07. 

1363. Thomas Patrick Sinnett, prin., Tonica. St. Univ. of 111., 
1904-05; summer terms of 1905, 1906; prin. Tonica, 1905 . 

!364- John Roscoe Steagall, prin., Manteno. St. U. of C., summers 
of 1904, 1905; Ypsilanti State Normal Coll., summer of 1906; prin. h, s., 
Momence, 1904-05!; prin. Manteno, 1905 . 

1365. Howard Arthur Stotler, grain dealer, Wenona. Supt. Chilli- 
cothe, 1904-05. Married Susie Wagner, Metamora, Aug. 10, 1904. 

CLASS OF 1905 

1366. Anna Louise Altevogt, teaching, 903 St. Louis Ave., East St. 
Louis. Tea., Millstadt, 1905-06; present position, 1906-07. 

1367. Ida May Anderson, teaching, Gibbonsville, Idaho. Tea. rural 
sch., 1905- 

ti368. Carrie Kelsall Atkinson, Lexington. 

1369. Sada Beadles, teaching, 1040 W. Wood St., Decatur. Tea. pri- 
mary, Decatur, 1905 . 

1370. Gertrude Cordelia Beedle, teaching, Joliet. Tea. rural sch., 
Stronghurst, 6 mos. ; grammar grade, Granville, I yr. 

1371. Nora Elizabeth Blome, teaching, Tempe, Arizona, 1904 . 

1372. Florence Isabella Bond, prin. h. s., Saybrook, 1905 . 

J 373- Lemma C. Broadhead, tea. in grades, 444 E. Fourth St., Long 
Beach, Cal. St. Univ. of 111., 1905-06; present position, 1906 . 

1374. Adella M. Brock, teacher h. s., Tallula. Tea. rural sch., 1905- 
06; asst. prin. h. s., Talulla, 1906. 


1375. Altha Burtis, at home, Hudson. 

1376. Jessie Christy, primary teacher, 1616 N. Main St., Decatur, 

1377. Ida Estelle Church, teacher, eighth grade, Lincoln, 1905 . 

1378. Jeannette Helen Connaghan, teacher elm. s., Niantic, 1905 . 
J 379- Pearl Evelyn Dobson, teacher in elem. s., Dwight. Tea. rural 

sch., 4 mos. ; tea., Dwight, January 2, 1907 . 

1380. Lillian Dora Dole, convalescing after injury in an accident, 
October, 1905, Manteno. Tea. rural sch., 2 mos., McNabb. 

1381. Lulu Gogin, teacher, sixth grade, Lincoln, 1905 . 

1382. Florence Matilda Hayes, teaching, Bloomington, 1905 . 

1383. Clara Sophia Jacobson, teaching, Kingsburg, Cal. ; home ad- 
dress, Wood Lake, Wis. 

1384. Livonia Lena Laubenheim, teacher, eighth grade, Mansfield, 

1385. Helen Elvira Leigh, teaching rural sch., Wenona, 1905 . 

1386. Adelaide Belle Lewis, prin., ward sch., Bisbee, Ariz., 1905 . 

1387. Deborah Margery Ludwig, at home, Fithian. Tea. grades, 
Fithian, 4 mos., 1905. 

1388. Mary Winifred McDonnell, teaching, Bloomington. 

1389. Sarah Veronica McDonnell, primary grade, Niantic, 1905 . 

1390. Mildred McKinney (Mrs. Corrington), Assumption. Mar- 
ried Alfred N. Corrington, Nov. 8, 1906. 

1391. Rose Anna Meyer, teaching, h. s., Centralia, 1905 . 

1392. Bertha Katherine Olsen, teacher, elem. s., Riverside, 1905 . 

1393. Margert Cecilia O'Rourke (Mrs. Cunningham), Normal. Tea. 
Merna Sch., 1905-06. Married William J. Cunningham, June 20, 1906. 

1394. Gertrude Ellis Rohm (Mrs. Gibbs), 200 N. Linden, Normal. 
Married William H. Gibbs, July 3, 1905. 

1395. Errettine Scott, teaching, Danville. 

1396. Anna Amelia Smith, teacher, fourth grade, 1826 Vine St., 
Quincy, 1905 . 

1397- Grace Almeda Smith, at home, Cameron. 

1398. Martha Grace Thomason, saleswoman in Grand Leader store, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

1399. Katherine Twohey, teaching, Ottawa. 

1400. Mrs. Laura Smitson Wilson, Penfield. 

1401. Clarence Baker, student, James Millikin Univ., Decatur. Tea. 
mathematics and manual training, Carrollton, 1905-06. 

1402. Lewis Moffitt Carpenter, prin. h. s., Metamora, 1905 . Mar- 
ried Emma I. Bourne, May 19, 1906. 

1403. George Herbert Coons, instructor in Tualatin Academy, For- 
est Grove, Ore. Prin. h. s., Washington, 1905-06. 

1404. Loren Orville Gulp, prin. twp. h. s., Biggsville, 1905 . 

1405. Herbert Dixon, in sanitarium, Colorado Springs, Colo. Tea. 
Rochelle, 1905-06; prin. Training Sch., I.S.N.U., fall term, 1906; wrote 
articles on Grammar for Illinois Instructor. 

1406. Orris Hayden Newman, prin. LaFayette, 1905 . Married Jen- 
nie E. Watson, Aug. 9, 1894. 

1407. Henry Allen Paine, prin. Tullala. Prin. Millstadt, 1905-06; 
prin. Tallula, 1906-07. 


1408. William Ruffer, prin., Waynesville, 1905 . 

1409. Albert Merritt Santee, supt, Ipava, 1905. Married Mollie 
Overen, June 15, 1898. 

1410. Lou Trell Shaw, supt., Bunker Hill. 

1411. Fred Theodore Ullrich, supt., Cerro Gordo, 1905 . Married 
Grace Amanda M. Perkins, June 16, 1903. 

1412. Ira Azel Wetzel, tea. science, h. s., Sycamore, 1905 . 

1413. John Byron Wright, prin., Palmyra. Prin. Dunlap, 1905-06; 
present position, 1906 . 

CLASS OF 1906 

1414. Mrs. Ella Goodner Anderson, prin. primary dept., Univ. of 
Middle Tenn., Tullahoma, Tenn., 1906 . 

1415. Lillian Anderson, primary tea., Hopedale, 1906 . 

1416. Florence May Bennett, tea., h. s., Minonk, 1906. 

1417. Clara Boyd, primary tea., Illiopolis, 1906. 

1418. Sara Hazel Brand, primary tea., Pawpaw, 1906 . 

1419. Agnes Irene Bullock, prin., Little York, 1906 . 

1420. Druzilla Camp, primary tea., Raymond Sch., 912 N. Madison 
St., Bloomington, 1906 . 

1421. Marjorie Chamberlain, St., Teachers' Coll., 1230 Amsterdam 
Ave., New York City. 

1422. Mrs. Mary Bloomer Cherry, st., I.S.N.U., 815 E. Empire St., 

1423. Jessie Mabel Cline, tea. pub. sch., Normal, 1906 . 

1424. Clara Louise Coith, super, drawing, Riverside, 1906 . 

1425. Edna Florence Coith, tea., h. s., Carrollton, 1906 . 

1426. Mrs. Dora Edna Watson Cook, tea. pub. sch., Buckley, 1906 . 

1427. Mary Alice Damman, tea. Eng. and hist., h. s., Fairbury, 1906 . 

1428. Viola Davies, tea. pub. sch., E. St Louis, 1906 

1429. Georgia Viola Deane, tea. pub. sch., Lincoln, 1906 . 

1430. Ruth Evans, tea. pub. sch., Danville, 1906 . 

1431. Mary Ferreira, tea. pub. sch., Lintner, 1906 . 

1432. Nellie Bradford Fry, tea. pub. sch., Normal, 1906 . 

1433. Katherine Evelyn Gingerich, at home, Normal. 

1434. Margaret Esther Gregory, tea., Lincoln sch., 1404 N. Lee St., 
Bloomington, 1906 . 

1435. Eleanor Hixon Griggs, primary tea., Pawpaw, 1906 . 

1436. Ruth Mildred Haney, primary tea., Danville, 1906 . 

1437. Ida Matilda Hatcher, tea. pub. sch., Quincy, 1906-07; same, 
Seattle, Wash., April, 1907. 

1438. Mina Geraldine Hendrickson, tea. pub. sch., Riverside, 1906-07; 
supr. primary grades, Madison, Wis., Sept., 1907 . 

1439. Delphine Samzin Humphrey, asst. prin. h. s., Eureka, 1906 . 

1440. Hilda Ella Johnson, tea. pub. sch., Hoopeston, 1906 . 

1441. Ruby Jones, Latin, math, and music, h. s., Virden, 1906 . 

1442. Emma Adele Kleinau, tea. pub. sch., Lexington, 1906 . 

1443. Ida May Kline (Mrs. Harry Alexander Huntoon), Ishpeming, 

1444. Augusta May Krieger, tea., h. s., Carrollton, 1906 . 


1445. Rose Aurilla McCauley, tea., h. s., ElPaso, 1906 . 

1446. Mary Mamer, tea., pub. sch., Nokomis, 1906 . 

1447. Ora Jessie Milliken, tea., pub. sch., Chicago Heights, 1906 . 

1448. Edna Mabel Oathout, tea., pub. sch., McNabb, 1906 . 

1449. Lotta Orendorff, tea., pub. sch., Downs, 1906 . 

1450. Mary Etta Pumphrey, tea., pub. sch., Gridley, 1906 . 

1451. Lois Madeline Roberts, tea., E. A. Gastman Sch., Decatur, 952 
N. Church St., 1906. 

1452. Jessie Leverne Rouse, tea. pub. sch., Keithsburg, 1906 . 

1453. Lena Gertrude Scanlan, tea., pub. sch., Bloomington, 822 E. 
Washington St., 1906. 

1454. Essie May Seed, tea., pub. sch., Lexington, 1906 . 

1455. Esther Beulah Seeley, Latin and Eng., h. s., Odell, 1906 . 

1456. Helen Pitner Smith, st., Smith College, n Henshaw Ave., 
Northampton, Mass. 

1457. Mabel Claire Stark, asst. prin., h. s., White Hall, 1906 . 

1458. Mrs. Blanche Sager Stuckey, tea., pub. sch., DeLand, 1906 . 

1459. Clara Elizabeth Symons, tea., Franklin Sch., 822 E. Monroe 
St., Bloomington. 

1460. Eunice Viox, tea., pub. sch., Decatur, 1906 . 

1461. Agnes May Waddington, tea., pub. sch., Watseka, 1906 . 

1462. Laura Mabel Weber, tea., pub. sch., Lostant, 1906 . 

1463. Lora Agnes Weir, tea., pub. sch., Joliet, 1906 . 

1464. Roy Franklin Barton, tea., pub. sch., Philippine Is., 1906 . 

1465. Raymond Edgar Black, prin., pub. sch., Dana, 1906 . 

1466. Charles Milburne Gash, st., Univ. of 111., 1006 Green St., Ur- 

1467. Paul Evangel Johnston, tea., pub. sch., Windsor, 1906 . 

1468 Ralph Raymond Kimmell, supt. sch., Lawrence Co., Lawrence- 
ville, 1906 . 

1469. Samuel Kline McDowell, supt. pub. sch., LeRoy, 1906 . 

1470. Leonard Albert McKean, prin. h. s., Vandalia, 1906 . 

1471. William Dennis McLemore, tea., manual training, pub. sch., 
Carrollton, 1906 . 

1472. Paul Kester McWherter, math, and science, twp. h. s., Biggs- 
ville, 1906 . 

1473. Ira Myers Ong, supt. pub. sch., Peru, 1906 . 

1474. James Edward Rice, tea., pub. sch., Greenview, 1906 . 

1475. Paul McCorkle Smith, prin. pub. sch., Rankin, 1906 . 

1476. Franklin Jacob Snapp, supt. pub. sch., PawPaw, 1906 . 

1477. Elmer Roy Stahl, tea., pub. sch., Clarence, 1906 . 

1478. Henry Sylvester Stice, science, h. s., Petersburg, 1906 . 

1479. Leo Stuckey, prin. pub. sch., DeLand, 1906 . 

1480. Fred Telford, prin. pub. sch., Skagway, Alaska, 1906. Mar- 
ried Mae McGuire (see No. 1332), July 16, 1906. 

1481. Isaac E. Wilson, prin. pub sch., Tremont, 1906 . 

CLASS OF 1907 

1482. ' Ruby Allen, Carlyle. 

1483. Myrtle Angle, ElPaso. 

1484. Daisy Bentley, Normal. 


1485. Anna T. Blake, Neponset. 

1486. Mary Caroline Boling, Normal. 

1487. Grace M. Bookwalter, Gardner. 

1488. Clara Borgelt, Havana. 

1489. Anna Marie Bremer, Paxton. 

1490. Leila May Brown, Bloomington. 

1491. Nina Lorena Brown, tea., 8th grade, Petersburg, Sept., 1907 . 

1492. Ruby Clyde Burdick, Elgin. 

1493. Ethel Louise Burner, Normal. 

1494. Jennie Burroughs, Morrison. 

1495. Bertha Butzow, Danville. 

1496. Nellie Camery, Roanoke. 

1497. Edna M. Carroll, Bloomington. 

1498. Nell Churchill, Bloomington. 

1499. Elsie May Clark, tea., 4th grade, Homer, Sept., 1907 . 

1500. Mildred Leann Coburn, McLean. 

1501. Eleanor Coen, Normal. 

1502. Anna Draper, Divernon. 

1503. Stella Agatha Elliff, Minier. 

1504. Ruth Felmley, st, I.S.N.U. 

1505. Barbara Frances Glessing, El Paso. 

1506. Dorothea May Glessing, El Paso. 

1507. Clara Lillian Grafton, Piper City. 

1508. Edna Blackburn Gray, tea., ungraded sch., Blue Mound, Sept., 

1509. Cora Mabel Harned, Secor. 

1510. Emma Harris, Collinsville. 

1511. Esther Hickey, Walnut. 

1512. Ruby Hildreth, tea., math., Latin and lit., h. s., El Paso, E. S., 
Sept., 1907. 

1513. Eva Jane Hileman, tea., mus and Latin, h. s., LeRoy, Sept., 

1514. Eleanor Hoierman, hist, and German, h. s., El Paso, E. S., 
Sept., 1907, 

1515. Bertha Josephine Holzgrafe, Havana. 

1516. Ethel Jackson, Plymouth. 

1517. Nettie Grace Tencks, tea., Latin and Eng., h. s., Cerro Gordo, 
Sept., 1907, 

1518. Elise Beatrice Jenny, Highland. 
1519- Jennie Johnston, Wanda. 

1520. Frances Flower Kessler, Bloomington. 

1521. Mary Frances Keys, tea., 7th grade, Lincoln, Sept., 1907 , 

1522. Florenc Frances Kindt, Chicago. 

1523. Alice Clare Lease, Plainville. 

1524. Leona Amanda Lippert, tea., 7th and 8th grades, McKinley 
Sch., El Paso, Sept., 1907. 

1525. Ola Jane Litchfield, Flanagan. 

1526. Esther Josephine Mansfield, Normal. 

1527. Minerva Merker, Maroa. 

1528. Christina Moore, Bloomington. 


1529. Lulu Oathout, Aledo. 

1530. Florence Armina Olson, Weldon. 

1531. Lillian Pearl Parmele, Mackinaw. 

1532. Jessie Marie Patterson, Bloomington. 
J 533- Celia Anna Pepple, Mendon. 

1534. Sadie Emma Pepple, Mendon. 

J 535- Elizabeth Perry, Melvin. 

1536. Mrs. Genevieve Anderson Pierce, Chillicothe. 

1537. Elizabeth Martha Powell, tea., elem. sch., El Paso, E. S., 
Sept., JOG/ . 

1538. Ethel Rosenberry, Normal. 

1539. Margaret Salmon, Bloomington. 

1540. Margaret Schaefer, Bloomington. 

1541. Lillian Edgerton Schaeffer, tea., primary gr., Franklin Sch., 
Bloomington, Sept., 1907 . 

1542. Alice Orme Smith, Normal. 

1543. Sylvia Edna Smith, tea., sci. and hist., h. s., Delavan, Sept., 

1544. Bridgie Emma Somers, Bloomington. 

1545. Ethel Gertrude Stephens, Murphysboro. 

1546. Jennie Katharine Stout, Englewood. 

1547. Teresa Sullivan, Bloomington. 

1548. Florence Eleanora Thompson, Bloomington. 

1549. Margaret Triplett, Perry. 

1550. Lilly Mabel Tucker, Williamsfield. 

1551. Minnie Vautrin, Secor. 

1552. Lucy O. Youngman, Bloomington. 
!553- Harrison Monroe Anderson, Chillicothe. 
!5S4- Oren Augustus Barr, Odin. 

1555- Charles Henry Brittin, Cantrall. 

1556. Albert Colvin, Normal. 

1557- Osmond James Condon, El Paso. 

1558. Edward Branson Couch, supt. Ward Sch., Taylorville, Sept., 

JSSQ- Franklin Stephens Espy, Colfax. 

i: 560. Elmer George Ginger ich, Normal. 

1561. Asa P. Goddard, Oak Park. 

1562. Francis Stewart Gray, Blue Mound. 
!563- Gresham Griggs, Normal. 

1564. Perry Henry Hellyer. Mahomet. 

1565. Miguel Nicdao, Philippine Islands. 

1566. Otto Edwin Reinhart, Freeburg. 

1567. Luther Calvin Ringeisen, Gilman. 

1568. Henry Adelbert Ritcher, Troy. 

1569. Jacob Philip Scheid, Freeburg. 

1570. James Henry Smith, prin. h. s., El Paso, E. S., Sept., 1907 . 

1571. George Washington Solomon, Palmyra. 

1572. Leslie Opper Stansbury, Normal. 
!573- John Valentine Wiekert, Emden. 
1574. Burt Oren Wise, Moweaqua. 



1. NINIAN W. EDWARDS, Springfield, 111., February 18, 1857, to 1859, 

elected president, May, 1857. First State Superintendent of Public 
Instruction in Illinois. 

2. WILLIAM H. WELLS, 1857-69. Superinendent of Schools, Chi- 

cago, 111. 

3. JOHN R. EDEN, Moultrie county, 1857-59. Lawyer; later a member 

of congress ; present address, Sullivan, 111. 

4. A. R. SHANNON, White county, 1857-63. Lawyer, Carmi, 111. 

5. SIMEON WRIGHT, Frankling Grove, Lee county, 1857-65, later of 

Kinmundy. Had been employed as state lecturer on education by 
the State Teachers' Asociation; patron of the Wrightonian Society. 

6. WESLEY SLOAN, Golconda, Pope county, 1857-63. Lawyer. 

7. GEORGE BUNSEN, Belleville, St. Clair county, 1857-61. Had been 

pupil and assistant of Pestalozzi; member of the education com- 
mittee in Constitutional Convention of 1847; superintendent of 
schools, Belleville, 111. Died 

8. GEORGE P. REX, Perry, Pike county, 1857-67. Surgeon U. S. army 

during Civil War, later settled in Alabama; in 1871 returned to 
Reaville, N. J., where he died at birthplace July 12, 1889. 

9. C. E. HOVEY, Pepria, 1857-61. First president of the Illinois State 

Normal University. Died in Washington, D. C., 1897. 

10. DANIEL WILKINS, Bloomington, 1857-61. Clergyman M.E. church; 

county commissioner of schools, McLean county; conducted Wil- 
kins Academy, Bloomington. 

11. C. B. DENIO, Galena, 1857-63. 

12. FLAVEL MOSELEY, 1857-59. President Board of Education, Chi- 

cago, 111. 

*I3. S. W. MOULTON, Shelby county, 1857-81. President of Board 1857- 
65 ; president of board, 1867-76 ; introduced bill for the Free School 
Law of Illinois in legislature of 1855 ; most largely instrumental 
in securing passage of bill establishing the I.S.N.U. thru house 
of representatives, 1857; congressman at large for Illinois, 39th 
Congress; elected to the 47th and 48th Congress. Died June 3, 
1905, at Shelbyville, 111. 

14. JOHN J. GILLESPIE, Sainte Marie, Jasper county, 1857-61. 

15. WILLIAM H. POWELL, Springfield, 1857-65. State Superintendent 

of Education. 

16. J. E. McCLUN, Bloomington, Treasurer, 1858-60. 

17. PERKINS BASS, 1859-65. Lawyer, Chicago, 111. 


18. NEWTON BATEMAN, 1859-75. State Superintendent of Education 

1859-63, 1866-75; president of Knox College 1875; thru his famous 
decisions the legal interpretation of the Illinois school law was de- 

19. JOEL SETH POST, Decatur, 1859-63. Introduced the Normal School 

bill in state senate, 1857. 

20. DR. CALVIN GOUDY, Taylorville, 1861-77. Died in Taylorville, 

March, 1877. Member of the legislature that established the Nor- 
mal School. 

21. WILLIAM H. GREEN, 1861-1902, President of Board 1877-79, 1889- 

1902. Died at Cairo, June 6, 1902. A member of the legislature 
that established the normal school; forty-one years a member of 
the board. 

22. C. W. HOLDER, Bloomington, Treasurer, 1861-77. 

23. THOMAS J. PICKETT, Rock Island, 1861-65. 

24. J. W. SHEAHAN, Chicago, 1861-63. 

25. HARMON REYNOLDS, Knoxville, 1862-63. 

26. J. P. BROOKS, Springfield, 1863-65, member ex-officio and Secretary. 

State Superintendent of Education. 

27. WALTER M. HATCH, Bloomington, 1863-69. 

28. J. W. SCHWEPPE, Alton, 1863-65. 

29. DR. HENRY WING, Collinsville, 1863-71. Died in 1871. 

30. JOSEPH MEDILL, Chicago, 1864-65. Editor Chicago Tribune. 

31. KERSEY H. FELL, Bloomington, 1865-67. 

32. JOHN H. FOSTER, M.D., Chicago, 1865-74 Died in 1874. 

33. WALTER L. MAYO, Albion, Edwards county, 1865-75. 

34. CHARLES P. TAGGART, Peoria, 1865-69. 

35. BENAIAH G. ROOTS, Tamaroa, 1865-88. Pres. 1879-83. Died in 

1888. One of the most vigorous and prominent educational workers 
of Southern Illinois. 

36. THOMAS J. TURNER, Freeport, 1865-67. 

37. THOMAS R. LEAL, Urbana, 1865-79. 

38. REV. JESSE H. MOORE, Decatur, 1867-71. 

39. ELIAS C. DUPUY, M.D., Freeport, 111., 1867-71. 

40. JESSE W. FELL, Normal, 1867-73. A leader in the movement for 

establishing the Illinois State Normal University and for securing 
its location at North Bloomington. 

41. N. E. WORTHINGTON, Peoria, 1869-76. County superintendent of 

schools; later a lawyer; congressman, and circuit judge. 

42. WINFIELD S. COY, Bristol, 1869-75. 
43- GEORGE C. CLARKE, Chicago, 1869-77. 

44. ENOCH A. GASTMAN, Decatur, i87i-date, President of Board 

1887-89, i9O2-date. Member of first graduating class ; superintend- 
ent of schools of Decatur 1860 to date. (See No. 5.) 

45. CHARLES F. NOETLING, Belleville, 1871-77. 


46. EDWARD L. WELLS, Oregon, 1871-82. County superintendent of 


47. JOSEPH CARTER, Normal, 111., 1873-79. (See No. 134.) 

48. S. M. ETTER, Springfield, 1875-79, ex-officio member and Secretary. 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

49. J. C. KNICKERBOCKER, Chicago, 111., 1875-90. Probate judge. 

50. HARRISON H. HILL, 1875-81, Pontiac, 111. 

51. RICHARD CANBY, Olney, 111., 1875-81. Circuit judge. 

52. J. D. CATON, Ottawa, 1877-80. Circuit judge. 

53. H. L. BOLT WOOD, Princeton, 111., 1877-87. Author of act establish- 

ing township high schools. Now principal of Evanston Township 
High School. 

54. MICHAEL DONOHUE, Clinton, 1877-85. 

55. ISAAC LESEM, Quincy, 1877-88. 

56. THOMAS F. MITCHELL, Bloomington, Treasurer, 1877-89. 

57. B. F. BARGE, Geneseo, 1879-82. 

58. JAMES P. SLADE, Springfield, 1879-83, member cx-ofhcio, and Sec- 

retary. State Superintendent of Public Instruction; now principal 
of the School, East St. Louis. 

59. THOMAS SLADE, Normal, 1879-89. Lawyer. 

60. J. A. ENANDER, Chicago, 1880-83. 

61. GEORGE ROWLAND, 1881-87, President of Board 1883-87. Super- 

intendent of Schools, Chicago, 111. 

62. RUFUS COPE, Flora, 111., 1881-93- Lawyer. 

63. B. L. DODGE, Oak Park, 111., 1881-93. Superintendent of schools, 

Oak Park, 111. 

64. HENRY S. COMSTOCK, Colona, 1882-85. Editor. 

65. REV. RICHARD EDWARDS, Princeton, 1883-93, ex-offitio and Sec- 

retary 1887-91. President I.S.N.U. 1862-76. Now resides in 

66. HENRY RAAB, Belleville, 1883-95. Superintendent of schools, Belle- 

ville; ex-ofhcio and Secretary 1883-87, 1891-95; State Superintend- 
ent of Public Instruction. 

67. PELEG R. WALKER, Rochelle, 111., i883-date. Later superintendent 

of Schools, Rockford, 111. (See No. 18.) 

68. W. R. SANDHAM, Toulon, 1885-93, i897-date. County superintendent 

of schools, Wyoming. 

69. A. L. ATWOOD, Woodhull, 1885-87. 

70. JOHN D. BENEDICT, Danville, 1887-93. Superintendent of schools 

now superintendent of Indian schools, Muscogee, I. T. 

71. GEORGE B. HARRINGTON, Princeton, 1887-93, i897-date. County 

superintendent of schools. 

72. E. C. ROSSITER, Kewanee, 1887-93. Superintendent of schools; now 

principal of Medill High School, Chicago. 

73. MARY F. FEITSHANS, Springfield, 1889-91. 


74. ELLA FLAGG YOUNG, Chicago, i888-date. Assistant superintend- 

ent of schools ; professor of education in the University of Chicago ; 
president Chicago Normal School. 

75. ROBERT F. EVANS, Bloomington, 1889-93. 

76. F. D. MARQUIS, Bloomington, iSSg-date, treasurer. 

77. MATTHEW P. BRADY, Chicago, 1890-1901. Lawyer. 

78. JOSEPH ROBBINS, M.D., Quincy, 1891-92. 

79. IRA C. MOZIER, Essex, Kankakee county, 1892-93. 

80. JACOB L. BAILY, Macomb, i893-date. Lawyer ; now Tribune Bldg., 


81. CHARLES L. CAPEN, Bloomington, i893-date. Lawyer. 

82. FORREST F. COOK, Galesburg, i893-date. Lawyer ; mayor of Gales- 

burg for several terms. 

83. EDWARD DOOCEY, Pittsfield, 1893-97. Lawyer. 

84. LYON KARR, Eureka, 1893-95. County superintendent of schools and 


85. E. R. E. KIMBROUGH, Danville, i893-date. Lawyer; circuit judge. 

86. CHARLES I. PARKER, Chicago, 1893-97. Principal South Chicago 

High School. 

87. CLINTON ROSETTE, DeKalb, 1893-96. Editor. 

88. ALLAN W. STOLP, Aurora, 1893-94. 

89. E. M. PLAIN, Aurora, 1894-1901. 

90. SAMUEL M. INGLIS, Springfield, 1895-98, ex-ofhcio member and 

Secretary. State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

91. CHARLES S. THORNTON, Chicago, 1895-97. Lawyer. 

92. WILLIAM H. FITZGERALD, Chicago, 1896-97. Lawyer. 

93. JAMES' H. NORTON, Chicago, 1897-1900. Principal Lake View High 


94. M. W. SHAN AH AN, Chicago, 1897-1902. 

95. JOSEPH H. FREEMAN, Springfield, 1898-99, ex-officio member and 


96. ALFRED BAYLISS, Springfield, i899-date, ex-officio member and 

Secretary. State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

97. FRANK L. HOUGHTON, 1900. Teacher, Chicago, 111. 

98. CHARLES D. BENT, Sterling, 1901. 

99. W. H. HAINLINE, Macomb, igoi-date. Editor. 

100. J. STANLEY BROWN, Joliet, iox2-date. Principal Joliet Township 

High School. 

101. FRANK HORN, DuQuoin, 1902-04. 

102. JOSEPH L. ROBERTSON, Peoria, ioo2-date. County superintend- 

ent of schools. 

103. B. O. WILLARD, Rushville, iox>2-date. Lawyer. 

104. W. Y. SMITH, Vienna, 111., 1904-10 date. 

105. F. A. KERNS, Wyoming, 1905-10 date. Lawyer. 

106. FRANK G. BLAIR, Springfield, ex-officio member and Secretary, 

1906. State Supt. of Public Instruction. 

107. FRANK B. STITT, banker, El Paso, 1907. 



*i. Charles E. Hovey, died, Washington, D. C, Nov. 17, 1897. First 
pres., I.S.N.U.; Col. of 33rd I.V.I., apptd. Brigadier General; prac- 
ticed law, Washington, D. C. 

*2. ,Ira Moore, died, Cucamonga, Cal., Oct. 28, 1897. Capt. Co. G, 
33rd I.V.I.; prof, math., Univ. of Minn.; prin. State Normal Sch., St. 
Cloud, Minn. ; same, San Jose, Cal. ; math, and other branches, I.S.N.U., 

*3. Charlton T. Lewis, died, Morristown, N. J., 1904. Tea., Troy 
Univ.; lawyer, New York; lecturer on life ins., Harvard, Columbia, Cor- 
nell; author Harper's Latin Diet, and other works; eminent as an in- 
surance actuary, as a classical scholar, as a lawyer, and later as an advo- 
cate of prison reform; t. math., I.S.N.U., 1857. 

*4. Mary M. Brooks (Mrs. James M. Wiley), died, Galva, Jan. 9, 
1867. Tea. Model Sch., 1857-60. 

5. Betsey M. Cowles, asst. tea., 1857-58. Returned to Cleveland, O. 

6. Chauncey E. Nye, asst. tea., 1857-58. Later, lawyer, Peoria, and 
supt. pub. sch. 

7. Dr. Samuel Willard, literary work, 865 Jackson Blvd., Chicago. 
Surgeon, 97th I.V.I. ; founded pub. library, Springfield, 1867; supt. pub. 
sch., Springfield; prof, hist., h. s., Chicago, 1870-94; t. lang. and hist., 
I.S.N.U., 1858-61. 

*8._ Edwin Crawford Hewett, LL.D., died, Normal, March 31, 1905. 
Assoc. ed. of Public School Journal, and School and Home Education, 
1891-1905 ; pub. Pedagogy, Psychology, and series of arithmetics ; t. read- 
ing and geog., I.S.N.U., 1858-62; hist, and geog^, same, 1862-76; pres., 
same, 1876-90. 

*9. Chauncey M. Cady, died, Asheville, N. C., June, 1889. Member 
of firm of Root & Cady, music pubs., 1861-73 ; later piano dealer, Atlanta, 
Ga.; t. vocal music, I.S.N.U., 1858-61. 

*io. Dr. Edward R. Roe, died, Chicago, 1893. Surgeon, U. S. Army, 
1861-65; circuit clerk, McLean Co.; U. S. marshal; pub. The Blue and 
the Gray, and other books; lect. on chem. and physiology, I.S.N.U., 

ii. G. Thayer, prin. Thayer's Seminary, Bloomington; private sch., 
Chicago; asst. Model Sch., I.S.N.U., 1858-59. 

*i2. Leander H. Potter, died, July 18, 1879. Capt. Co. A, 33rd 111. 
Vol. Inf.; major, lieut.-col., pres. 111. Soldiers' College, Fulton; t. lan- 
guage, I.S.N.U., 1859-61. 

13. Rev. Lewis P. Clover, Episcopalian clergyman, Springfield. T. 
drawing, I.S.N.U., 1859-60. 

*i4. Joseph Gideon Howell, killed at Fort Donelson, Feb. 15, 1862. 
Asst. Model Sch., I.S.N.U., 1859-60; prin., same, 1860-61. (See No. 8.) 

'Regarding members of the faculty who are alumni, more data may be found by 
referring to the appropriate numbers in the alumni register. 


15. John Howard Burnham, Bloomington. Asst. Mod. Sch., l.S. 
N.U., 1859-60; prin. same, 1861. (See No. 13.) 

16. Edwin Philbrook, asst, Model Sch., 1859-60. (See No. 10.) 

17. E. Aaron Gove, asst, Model Sch., 1859-60 (See No. 14.) 

18. Joseph Addison Sewell, prof, of chemistry, Denver Univ., 356 S. 
Broadway, Denver, Col. Pres., Univ. of Col.; t. nat. sci., I.S.N.U., 

*I9. B. S. Messer, died, Nov. 20, 1895. Clerk, 4th auditor's office, 
treas. dept., Washington, D. C. ; t. vocal music, I.S.N.U., 1860-62. 

*2O. Julius E. Bryant, drowned, Gulf of Mexico, 1864 Lieut., Co. E, 
33rd 111. Vol. Inf.; Col., 96th U. S. Col. Inf.; t drawing, I.S.N.U., 

21. J. K. Alexander, t. bookkeeping, 1860-61. 

22. V. Irving Vescelius, penmanship, 1860-61. 

23. Oliver Libbey, prin. Model Sch., 1860. 

*24, Frances A. Peterson (Mrs. E. A. Gastman), died, Feb. 27, 1863. 
T. math, and Latin, 1860-62. (See No. 3.) 

*25. Mary Frances Washburn (Mrs. John Hull), died, Carbondale, 
Aug. 10, 1882. T. in prim, dept., Model Sch., 1860-62. (See No. 4.) 

26. Perkins Bass, acting president, 1861-62. 

27. John Hull, 2009 State St., Milwaukee, Wis. T. math., 1861-62. 
(See No. 9.) 

28. Charles D. Wilber, instructor in Geology, 1861-62. General agent 
of the Natural History Society of Illinois, 1857-67. 

*29. Margaret E. Osband (Mrs. Albert Stetson), died, San Fran- 
cisco. T. grammar and drawing, 1861-64. 

*30. Henry B. Norton, died, June 22, 1885. T. in Model Sch., 1861-62. 
(See No. 16.) 

31. Livonia E. Ketcham, t. in prim, dept., 1861-63. 

32. Marian Goodrich (Mrs. Henry B. Norton), t. in Model Sch., 

*33- Mary E. Baker, died, California, 1871. T. h. s., Decatur, 1862- 
69; Model Sch., I.S.N.U., 1861-62. 

34. Richard Edwards, retired, 1302 Park St., Bloomington. St. State 
Normal Sch., Bridgewater, Mass. ; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, 
N. Y., B.E. and C.E. ; prin. State Normal Sch., Salem, Mass., 1854-57; 
prin. City Normal Sch., St. Louis, Mo., 1857-62; pres. and prof, of mental 
science and didactics, I.S.N.U., 1862-76; pres Blackburn Univ., Carlin- 
ville, 1891-93 ; state supt. pub. instruction, 1887-91 ; pub. series of readers 
and many addresses in pamphlet form. Married Betsey J. Samson, July 
5, 1849. 

*3S- Thomas Metcalf, died, Dec., 1894. T. math., 1862-74; supr. 
training dept., 1874-94. 

36. Albert Stetson, Alvarado St., Los Angeles, Cal. T. language, 

*37. Charles F. Childs, deceased. Prin. h. s., St. Louis, Mo.; prin., 
Model Sch., I.S.N.U., 1862-63. 

38. W. L. Pillsbury, registrar, Univ. of 111., Urbana. Insurance and 
real estate, Bloomington, 1870-79; asst. state supt. pub. instruction, 1879- 
86; sec. Agric. Exper. Station, Urbana, 1888-97; present position, 1893 ; 
prin. Model Sch., I.S.N.U., 1863-70. 

39. Marion Hammond (Mrs. W. L. Pillsbury), Urbana. T. Wheaton 
Sem., Norton, Mass.; prin. dept, I.S.N.U., 1865-66. 


40. Lyman B. Kellogg, Emporia, Kan. Asst. Model Sch., 1863-64. 
(See No. 40.) 

*4i. John H. Thompson, died, Jan., 1869. Asst. h. s., 1863-64. (See 
No. 3.3.) 

42. Fanny L. D. Strong, preceptress, grammar and drawing, 1864. 

43 Emaline Dryer, 55 S. Ada St., Chicago. Preceptress, grammar 
and Drawing, 1864-70. 

44. Bandusia Wakefield, Point Loma, Cal. Asst., Model Sch., 1864; 
grammar and arith, 1875-81. (See No. 45.) 

45. Thomas J. Burrill, Univ. of 111., Urbana. Asst, Model Sch., 
1864-65. (See No. 46.) 

46. Oscar F. McKim, Oskaloosa, Iowa. Asst., Model Sch., 1865-66. 
(See No. 50.) 

*47. Melancthon Wakefield, died, Sept. 22, 1900. Asst., Model Sch., 
1865-66. ("See No. 52.) 

48. Ruth E. Barker (Mrs. Hargrove). Asst. Model Sch., 1865-67. 
(See No. 81.) 

49. Edith T. Johnson (Mrs. John H. Morley). Prin. Primary Sch., 
1865-68. (See No. 36.) 

50. John W. Cook, DeKalb. Prin., gram, sch., 1866-68; acting prof, 
geog. and hist., 1868-69; reading and elocution, 1869-76; math., 1876-90; 
pres., 1890-99. (See No. 47.) 

*5.i. John W. Powell, died, Oct. 23, 1902. Explorer of Colorado 
Canon; head of U. S. Geol. Survey; Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, 
D. C. ; prof, of geol. and curator of museum, I.S.N.U., 1866-72. 

*52. E. P. Burlingham, died, 1870. Supt. pub. sch., Cairo, 1867-69; 
prin. gram, sch, I.S.N.U., 1866-67. 

53. Olive A. Rider (Mrs. Alfred Cotton), prin. intermed. dept, 1866- 
67. (See No. 61.) 

54. Martha D. L. Haynie, 603 E. 46th St., Chicago. Asst. h. s., 1866- 
67; mod. lang., 1876-86. 

55. Martha Foster. Prin intermediate sch., 1867-68. (See No. 54.) 
*56. Letitia Mason, died, Chicago, June 14, 1903. Asst. arith. and 

gram.,' 1868-69. (See No. 126.) 

57. Joseph Carter, Champaign. Prin. gram, sch., 1868-70. (See No. 

58. Mary Pennell (Mrs. A. H. Barber), 22 Bryant Ave., Chicago. 
T. Peoria Co. Normal Sch.; asst. gram, sch., I.S.N.U., 1868-70. 

*59. Loring A. Chase, died, Aug. 21, 1906. Asst. normal dept., 1872. 

60. Lucia Kingsley (Mrs. G. G. Manning). Prin. intermed. and prim, 
depts., j868-7i. (See No. 88.) 

61. Henry McCormick, vice-pres., and prof, of hist, I.S.N.U. 
Prof, of geog., I.S.N.U., 1869-1901; prof, of hist., same, 1876 ; vice- 
pres., same, 1891 . (See No. 97.) 

62. Myra A. Osband (Mrs. J. B. Sutton), Tacoma, Wash. Precept- 
ress, grammar and drawing, 1870-73 . 

_ 63. Mary E. Horton. First prof. Greek at Wellesley College ; later 
resided at Brooklyn, N. Y. ; prin. h. s., I.S.N.U., 1870-71. 

64. Benjamin Webb Baker. Prin. gram, sch., 1870-74. (See No. 132.) 

65. Eliab Washburn Coy, prin. h. s., Cincinnati, O. Brown Univ., 
A.M., 1858; Princeton, Ph.D., 1886; prin. h. s., Peoria, 1858-65, 69-71; 
Latin, Greek, anc. hist, I.S.N.U., 1871-73; pub. Beginning Latin Book. 
Marriecl Gena L. Harrington, Aug. 12, 1863. 


*66. Martha E. Hughes (Mrs. Dr. Griswold), died, 1896. Resided in 
Minneapolis. Prin. intermed. dept., 1871-72. 

67. Stephen Alfred Forbes, prof, of zoology and state entomologist, 
Univ. of 111., Urbana. St., I.S.N.U.; Rush Med. College; Indiana 
Univ., Ph.D., 1884; Univ. of 111., LL.D., 1904; prin. pub sch, Benton; 
same, Mt Vernpn; present position, 1884 ; pub. 13 biennial reports as 
State Entomolgist, and numerous scientific and educational articles. Mar- 
ried Clara S. Gaston, Dec. 25, 1873; prof, of zoology and curator of mu- 
seum, I.S.N.U., 1872-84. 

68. Gertrude K. Case (Mrs. Wesley Young), Los Angeles, Cal. 
Prin. prim, and intermed. depts., 1872-75. (See H. S. No. i.) 

69. Harriet M. Case (Mrs. Andrew T. Morrow), 1615 Missouri Ave., 
St. Louis, Mo. Preceptress, grammar and drawing, 1873-77. (See 
No. 53-) 

*7O. Lester L. Burrington, died, Aug. 30, 1903. Prin., Dean Acad., 
Franklin, Mass., 1879-97; member Mass, legislature, 1899- 1900; supt. 
pub. sch., Peabody, Mass., 1901-1903; prin. h. s., I.S.N.U., 1874-79. 

71. Rosalie Miller (Mrs. Harrison Carman), Lexington, Ky. T. 
drawing, 1874-83. 

72. Lyman Hutchinson, Sioux City, la. Asst. gram, sch., 1864-66; 
t. gram. 1875-81. 

73. Ellen S. Edwards, Bloomington. Reading, 1875-77. (See No. 

74. Mrs. Jane Pennell Carter, Champaign. T. in intermed. and 
prim, depts., 1875-76. (See No. 104.) 

75. William S. Mills, Brooklyn, N. Y. Prin. gram, sch., 1875-76. 
(See No. 258.) 

76. Armada G. Paddock, ist asst, training dept., 1876-79. 

77. Charles DeGarmo, Ithaca, N. Y. Prin. gram, sch., 1876-83 ; mod. 
lang. and reading, 1886-90. (See No. 211.) 

78. Minor Lawrence Seymour, horticulture, 448 S. Alvarado St., Los 
Angeles, Cal. T. Owego Acad., 1855, Ithaca Acad., 1856; supt. sch., Ade- 
line, 1868-70; Foreston, 1870-72; Blue Island, 1872-78; science, State 
Normal Sch., Chico, Cal., 1888-1901 ; vice-pres. same, 1893-1900. Mar- 
ried Luvia A. Hall, Oct. 24, 1861 ; t. I.S.N.U., sciences and curator of 
museum,, 1878-88. 

79. Flora Pennell (Mrs. John H. Parr), Holland, Mich. Preceptress 
and reading, 1877-90. (See No. 180.) 

80. Edmund Janes James, Urbana. Prin. h. s., 1879-82. (See H. S., 
No. 20.) 

81. Julia E. Kennedy, Douglas, Alaska. Prim, dept, training sch., 
1879-88. (See No. 147.) 

82. James V. McHugh, Minneapolis, Minn. Asst. in math., 1886. 
(See No. 387.) 

83. Mary E. Skinner (Mrs. E. P. Lovejoy), Princeton. Reading, 

84. Julia Scott, grammar, 1882. (See No. 328.) 

85. Mary Hartmann, math., I.S.N.U., 209 Normal Ave., Normal. 
Lombard College, L.A., 1869 A.M., 1888; t. in h. s., Galva, 1869-73; Free- 
port, 1873-74; prin. h. s., Tuscola, 1874-75; h. s., Marshalltown, Iowa, 
1876-81 ; prin. same, 1877-81 ; math, and Latin, Normal Sch., Winona, 
Minn., 1881-82; present position, 1882 . 

86. J. D. H. Cornelius, prof. Latin, Adrian College, Adrian, Mich. 
Prin. h. s., 1883. 



87. Herbert Jewett Barton, prof, of Latin, Univ. of 111., 406 W. Hill 
St., Champaign. Dartmouth College, A.B., 1876; A.M., 1893; prin. 
h. s., Waukegan, 1878-81; prin. Kinzie sch., Chicago, 1883; prin. h. s., 
I.S.N.U., 1883-91; present position, 1891. Married Sara L. Dodge, 

88. Rudolph R. Reeder, Hastings-on-Hudson, N. Y. Prin. gram, 
sch., 1883-90; reading, 1891-93. (See No. 427.) 

89. S. Annette Bowman, Wardner, Idaho. Drawing, 1883-88. (See 
No. 321.) 

90. Alice McCormick (Mrs. O. R. Trowbridge), Normal. Asst. h. s., 
1883-85. (See No. 406.) 

91. Helen A. Dewey, prim, tea., 1885-86. (See No. 560.) 

92. Fannie C. Fell, asst. h. s., 1886-87, 1889-92. (See H. S., No. 45.) 

93. Frances Ohr, asst. h. s., 1886 (See H. S., No. 57.) 

94. Adella M. O. Hanna (Mrs. Francis A. Erode), 901 W. 35th 
St., Los Angeles, Cal. Wooster Univ., Wooster, O., A. B., 1885 ; A. M., 
1888; t I.S.N.U., reading and asst. in pedagogy, 1886-87; Greek and 
Latin, h. s. dept, 1887-88; asst. Eng. dept., 1888-91; head Eng. dept., 
1891-94. Married Francis A. Erode, July 18, 1894. 

95. Lizzie P. Swan, Beloit, Wis. Geog. and hist, 1886-92. (See 
No. 362.) 

96. Martha G. Knight (Mrs. J. B. Adam), Normal. Special asst, 
1886-87. (See No. 175.) 

97. Ida M. Hollis, for a time, tea. at Binghamton, N. Y. Asst h. s., 

98. Richard D. Jones, A.M., prof. Eng. lit, Vanderbilt Univ., Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Lang, and reading, 1887-91. 

*99. Buel Preston Colton, died, Battle Creek, Mich., Sept. 7, 1906. 
St. Knox College, 1871-72, Amherst, A.B., 1872-74, A.M., same, 1884, Johns 
Hopkins, 1880-82; t. nat. science, h. s., Princeton, 1874-76, same, Keokuk, 
I., 1876-77, same, Decatur, 1877-78, same, Princeton, 1878-81, same, Ottawa, 
1883-88, prin. h. s., Ottawa, 1885-88, biology, I.S.N.U., 1888-1906; pub. 
series of Physiologies and Zoology Textbooks. Married Charlotte Zear- 
ing, Dec. 24, 1883. 

100. Clarissa E. Ela, Bloomington. Drawing, 1888 . (See No. 437.) 

101. Ruth Morris (Mrs. Kersey), institute instructor, 215 S. 9th St., 
Richmond, Ind. St. State Normal Sch., Oswego, N. Y. ; t. country sch. 
and prim, grades, Richmond, Ind., 1864-66; supervisor prim, instr. and 
prin., Indianapolis, Ind., 1868-69; critic tea., State Normal Sch., Terre 
Haute, Ind., 1870-73 ; Eng. in h. s. and critic tea. in Normal Sch., Indian- 
apolis, Ind., 1873-78; critic tea., Normal Sch., Cleveland, O., 1878-79; 
Eng. grammar, State Normal Sch., Terre Haute, Ind., 1879-84; pedagogy 
and chair of lit., same, 1884-87; critic tea., pedagogy, Eng. grammar; lit., 
I.S.N.U., 1888-91; pedagogy and psychology, Chicago Kindergarten 
College, 1892-1961 ; institute instructor, 1901 . Married Charles Anselm 
Kersey, M.D., Dec. i, 1891. 

102. Mary M. Hall (Mrs. Fred Husted), Bloomington. Asst prim, 
dept., 1888-93. (See No. 440.) 

103. Edward I. Manley, Englewood h. s., 5801 Lexington Ave., Chi- 
cago. Asst. h. s., I.S.N.U., 1888-91. (See No. 560.) 

104. David Felmley, pres., I.S.N.U. Blackburn Univ., Carlinville, 
1873-76; Univ. of Mich., A.B., 1876-78, 1880-81 ; Martha's Vineyard, 1883; 
Univ. of 111., LLD., 1905; Blackburn Univ., L.H.D., 1906; tea. rural sch., 
Macoupin Co., 1878-79; h. s., Carrollton, 1879-80, 1881-82; supt pub. sch., 
same, 1882-90; prof, math., I.S.N.U., 1890-1900; presi., I.S.N.U., 1900, 


105. Frank M. McMurry, Teachers' Coll., New York City. Training 
tea., 1890-92. (See H. S. No. 51.) 

106. Dudley G. Hays, phys. and chem., 1890-91. (See No. 622.) 

107. John W. Hall, prin. gram, sch., 1890-92. (See No. 620.) 

108. Ange V. Milner, librarian, 1890 . 

109. Orson Leroy Manchester, prof, foreign lang. and economics, 
I.S.N.U. Dartmouth College, A.B., 1882-86, A.M., 1889, 111. Wesleyan, 
LL.D., 1906; tea. in rural sch., Lake Co., 1881-82, tea. 5 terms village h. s. 
during college course, private sch., Billerica, Mass., and Sing Sing, N. Y., 
1886-87, prin. h. s., Joliet 1887-90, prin. h. s. dept, I.S.N.U., 1891-95; 
mayor of Normal, 1907 . Married Flora Thompson (See H. S. No. 224), 
Dec., 1895 ; present position, 1895 . 

no. Lucia W. Raines (Mrs. William Rowe), Tunis, Hertford Co., 
N. Car. Tea. at Shenandoah, la. ; reading and gym., I.S.N.U., 1891-92. 
in. Arthur O. Norton, phys. sci., 1891-92. (See No. 938.) 

112. Lida Brown McMurry, DeKalb. Prim, training tea., 1891-1900. 
(See No. 222.) 

113. Jacob A. Bohrer, Bloomington. Asst. h. s., 1891- 92. (See H. S. 
No. 9S-) 

114. Elmer W. Cavins, penmanship and orthog., 1891 . (See No. 

115. J. Rose Colby, preceptress and prof, of lit., I.S.N.U. Univ. of 
Mich., A.B., 1874-78, Radcliffe College 1883-84, Univ. of Mich., A.M. 
Ph.D., 1884-86; tea. alg., h. s., Ann Arbor, Mich., 1878-79, preceptress and 
tea. of Latin and Greek, h. s., Flint, Mich., 1879-83 Eng. h. s., Peoria, 1886- 
92; pub. Silas Marner, sch. edit., 1900, Literature and Life in Sch., 1906; 
present position, 1892 . 

116. Eva Wilkins, Rollins College, Winter Park, Fla. Hist, and 
geog., 1892-1004. 

117. Charles A. McMurry, training tea., 1892; supr. of practice, 1894- 
96, 1897-99. (See H. S. No. 30.) 

118. Mary R. Potter, prof, of lang., N.I.S.N.S., DeKalb. Asst. 
h. s., 1892-95; asst. ancient lang., 1895-96, 1897-99. 

119. Swen F. Parson, prin. gram, sch., 1892-94. (See No. 694.) 

120. Amelia Frances Lucas, st. Columbia College of Expression, Chi- 
cago. Diploma, Emerson College of Expression, 1891, Curry Sch. of Ex- 
pression, 1906; tea. of expression, Daughters College, Harrodsburg, Ky., 
1891-92, reading and gymnastics, I.S.N.U., 1892-1903, reading, same, 
1903-05 ; pub. Phonics and Reading, Van Liew-Lucas. 

121. Charles C. Van Liew, pres., State Normal Sch., Chico, Calif., 
1899 . Supr. training State Normal Sch., Los Angeles, Calif., 1897-99; 
tea. reading and pedagogy, I.S.N.U., 1894-96; supr. of practice, 1896-97. 

122. Kate Mayity (Mrs. William Martin), Capt Girardeau, Mo. Tea. 
gram., 1894-95 ; training tea., gram, grades, 1895-96. 

123. Joseph G. Brown, phys. sci. and vocal music, 1894-98. (See No. 

124. Maud Valentine, training tea., intermed. grades, 1894-1900. 
(See No. 6n.) 

125. Cora May Dodson (Mrs. Dr. William Piatt Graham), 504 Uni- 
versity PI., Syracuse, N. Y. Training tea., gram, grades, 1894-95. 

126. John Alexander Hull Keith, Normal. Prin. gram, sch., 1894-96; 
supt. training dept, 1906 . (See No. 755.) 

127. John A. Strong, orthog., 1894-95. (See No. 850.) 


128. Elizabeth Mavity (Mrs. Cunningham), 208 E. Walnut St., 
Bloomington. English grammar, 1895-1901 ; in charge of training school 
and elementary pedagogy, 1901-06; psychology, several terms; grad. Indiana 
State Normal School at Terre Haute, 1888; primary critic tea., same, 
1889-92; Paoli, Ind., grammar and h. s., 1892-95; I.S.N.U. as above; 
pub. articles on grammar in School News. Married Dr. John D. Cun- 
ningham, Aug. 10, 1905. 

*I29. Louis H. Galbreath, pedagogy, 1896-97. (See No. 474.) 

130. J. Irving Reed. Tea. in Colo, and Calif. Asst. ancient lang. 

131. Andrew H. Melville, prin. gram, sch., 1896-99. (See No. 789.) 

132. Anne A. Stanley, tea. elem. sch., St. Agatha, 557-559 West End 
Ave,. New York City. Tea., intermed. dept., Oxford Sch for Boys, Chi- 
cago, 1901-03; present position, 1903 ; critic tea., gram, grades, I.S.N.U., 

133. Charles T. Bowman, penmanship and orthg., 1896-97. 

134. Manfred James Holmes, psychology and genl. method, I.S.N.U. 
Diploma, State Normal Sch., Winona, Minn., 1885, Cornell Univ., B.L., 
1891 ; tea. dist. sch., 1883-84, prin. graded sch., 1885-86, private sch., 1886- 
87, head dept. hist, civics and social science, and tea. of rhetoric and comp., 
State Normal Sch., Winona, Minn., 1891-97, special and genl. method, 
psychology, etc., I.S.N.U., 1897 ; sec. National Society for Scientific 
Study of Education, and editor of Yearbooks of the same. 

135 B. C. Edwards, Albian, Idaho. Reading and gym., 1897-1903. 

136. Frederic Delos Barber, Normal. Phys. sci., 1898 . (See No. 

*i37. Arnold Tompkins, died Aug. 12, 1905. Pres. Chicago Normal 
Sch., 1900-05; pres., I.S.N.U., 1899-1900. 

138. John J. Wilkinson, supt. of practice, 1899-1900. (See No. 483.) 

139. Frank S. Bogardus, prin. gram, sch., 1899-1903. (See No. 827.) 

140. Mrs. Ida Cook Gove, teacher of voice, Peoria Conservatory of 
Music, Peoria. Supervisor of music, I.S.N.U., 1899-1900. Married 
Frank W. Gove, July 27, 1882. 

141. Irene Martha Blanchard, Latin and English, I.S.N.U., Normal. 
Univ. of Mich., 1894-98, A.B., 1898; tea. Latin and Greek, h. s., Battle 
Creek, Mich., 1898-99, Latin and English, I.S.N.U., 1899. 

142. William Wesley Black, supervising prin., pub. sch., District of 
Columbia, 412 T St., N.W., Washington. Grad. Indiana State Normal 
Sch., 1892, Univ. of 111., A.B., 1898, A.M., 1899; tea. ungraded sch,. 6 
yrs. ; h. s. 2 yrs., supt., 6 yrs., sci. and art of instruction, Chicago Normal 
Sch., 5 yrs., present position, 1906 ; science and art of instruction, 
I.S.N.U., 1900-01. Married Anna E. Stockton, 1883. 

143. Charles W. Whitten, asst. nat. sci., 1900-03. (See No. 1097.) 

144. Anna Gertrude King (Mrs. Louis C. Turley), prim, training tea., 
1900-03. (See No. 1048.) 

145. Will H. Johnson, prim, training tea., 1900-02. (Se No. 1010.) 

146. Jessie May Dillon, training tea., 3rd and 6th grades, IQOI . 
(See No. 900.) 

147. Genevieve Clarke, training tea., 6th grade, 1900-01. (See No. 

148. Clara M. Snell, training tea., 4th grade, 1900-01. (See No. 922.) 

149. Eleanor Hampton, training tea., 5th and 8th grade, 1900-04. 
(See No. 739.) 


150. Charles Ammerman, math., McKinley H. S., St. Louis, Mo. 
Math., I. S. N. U., 1900-01. 

151. Frank W. Westhoff, Normal. Supr. of music, pub. sch., De- 
catur, 1891-1901 ; pub. Select Rote Songs and Elementary Music Reader; 
author of Music Outline in State Course of Study. Married Oct., 1889. 
Tea. vocal music, I. S. N. U., 1901 . 

152. Chestine Gowdy, Eng. grammar, I.S.N.U. State Normal Sch., 
Winona, Minn., 1876-77, Univ. of Minn., B.L., 1899 ; tea. in elem. and h. s., 
Faribault, Minn., 1878-88, math, and Eng. State Normal Sch. Spearfish, S. 
Dak., 1888-92, geom. and hist, Central H. S., Minneapolis, Minn., 1893- 
1901, Eng. gram., Univ. of Minn., summer terms, 1897-1902; pub. textbook 
on English Grammar; present position, 1901 . 

153. Mary Judson Averett, 418 Central Park West, New York City. 
Geog., 1901-03. 

154. George Henry Howe, prof, math.,, I. S. N. U. Grad. State 
State Normal and Training Sch., Oswego, N. Y., 1882, 111. Wesleyan 
Univ., Ph.B., 1887, Ph.D., 1898; st. summer sch., Chautauqua, Cornell, 
Univ. of Chicago, 1884-96; prin. Normal and College Prep. Depts., Tal- 
ladega College, Ala. 1882-86, head dept. math., State Normal Sch., War- 
rensburg, Mo., 1887-98; pres., same, 1898-1901; present position, 1901 . 

155. Rose Bland, training tea., 1901-06. (See No. 797.) 

156. Jessie Cunningham (Mrs. Charles A. Whitten), training tea., 
1901-04. (See No. 701.) 

157. Lura M. Eyestone, training tea., 1901-06. (See H. S. No. 152.) 

158. Marien C. Lyons, geog., 1902-03; training tea., 1904. (See No. 

159. Lora M. Dexheimer, prim, training tea., 1902 . (See No. 

160. Caroleen Robinson, director of kindergarten, 1902 . 

161. Clara Trimble, prim, training tea., 1902-03. (See No. 1138.) 

162. William Thomas Bawden, director manual training dept., 
I.S.N.U. Denison Univ., Granville, O., A.B., 1892-96; man. tr., Mechan- 
ics' Institute, Rochester, N. Y., 1897-98; Bachelor's Diploma Manual 
Training for Elem Sch., Teacher's College, Columbia Univ., New York, 
1902-03 ; tea. math., U. S. hist., and French, Cedar Valley Sem., Osage, 
la., 1896-97; woodturning and patternmaking, State Reformatory, Elmira, 
N. Y., March.-August, 1898; asst. supr. man. tr., pub. sch., Buffalo, N. Y., 
1898-1902; present position, 1903 ; associate editor, Manual Training 
Magazine, 1907 . 

163. Mabel Louise Cummings, tea. of gymnastics, I.S.N.U. St 
N. Sch. Phys. Educ., Brooklyn, N. Y., 1892; N. S. Gym., Boston, Mass., 
1897; supr. phys. training, pub. sch., Attleboro, Mass., 1897-98; same, 
Cambridge, Mass., 1898-99; tea. phys. tr., Barstow Sch. Kansas City, Mo., 
1899-1903 present position, 1903 . 

164. John Pogue Stewart, asst. nat. sci., 1903-06. (See No. 1025.) 

165. Isaac Newton Warner, prin. gram, sch., 1903-06; prin. h. s., 
1906 . (See No. 1095.) 

166. Florence G. Stevens, Oswego, N. Y. Prim, training tea., 1903-04. 

167. Alice Perle Watson, training tea., gram, grades, 1904-06. (See 
No. 1351-) 

168. Rebekah Lesem, training tea. intermed. grades, 1904 . 

169. Lora B. Peck, prim, super, pub. sch., 1514 Rusk Ave., Houston, 
Texas. St. I.S.N.U., 1894-95, 97-p8, diploma, Peabody College for 
Teachers, Nashville, Tenn., 1904; prim, critic tea., I.S.N.U., 1904-07; 
present position, March, 1907 . 


170. Howard Spencer Woodward, public speaking, I.S.N.U., 509 
S. Fell Ave., Normal. Hiram College, Hiram, O., A.B., 1902, Yale Univ., 
A.B., 1903, Harvard Univ., Eng. dept, ij4 yrs. ; public speaking, I.S.N.U., 

*I7I. Mrs. Cora McCullom Smith, died in Waterloo, Iowa, Nov. 15, 
1906. Grad. Univ. of Kansas ; tea. Macomb Normal and Business Inst, 
Univ. of Kas., State Normal Sch., Moorhead, Minn., 1900-05, reading, 
I.S.N.U., 1905-06. 

172. Grace Knudsen, tea. geog., Whitewater, Wis. Tea. in E.I.S.N.S., 
Charleston, Iowa State Normal Sch., Cedar Falls, I.S.N.U. ; st. Univ. of 

173. Florence Leona Lyon, tea. Latin and Eng., h. s., 308 Third Ave., 
Ashland, Wis. St. Univ. of Chicago, A.B., 1901, 1x105-06; tea. Latin, So. 
Collegiate Inst., Albion, 1901-03, asst. Eng. Millikin Univ., Decatur, 1903- 
05; Latin and Eng., I.S.N.U., spring term, 1906. 

174. Herbert Dixon in sanitarium, Colorado Springs, Colo. Prin. 
training sch., I.S.N.U., fall term, 1906. (See No. 1405.) 

175. Olive Lillian Barton, critic, training dept, I.S.N.U., 1906 . 
(See No. 949.) 

176. Anna Joseph, reading, I.S.N.U. Kansas State Normal Sch., 
1899-1903, Univ. of Kas., A.B., 1905, Univ. of Mich., A.M. 1906; asst. in 
elocution, Kas. State Normal, 1904; present position, 1906 . 

177. Alice J. Patterson, nature study and elem. physics, I.S.N.U. 
St. Univ. of Chicago, 1896-97, and summers, 1898, 99, 1901 ; prin. h. s., 
Wheaton, 1890-94, same, Fairbury, 1895-96. science tea., h. s., Normal, 
1897-1905, nature study and elem. physics, I.S.N.U., 1906. (See No. 601.) 

178. Helen Elizabeth Purcell, critic, 5th grade, training dept., I.S.N.U. 
Univ. of Chicago, B.E., 1906; tea. elem. sch,, Saginaw, Mich., present 
position, 1906 . 

179. Martha Hunt, alg., comp., and hist, I.S.N.U. St. I.S.N.U., 
summer, 1902, Univ. of Chicago, summers, 1905, 1906; tea. elem. sch., 
Greene Co., 1889-93, LeRoy, 1893-95, prin. h. s., Hillsboro, 1895-99, prin. 
Tallula, 1900-02, prin. h. s., Clinton, 1902-06; present position, 1906 . 

180. John Gaylord Coulter, prof, of biology, I.S.N.U. Lake For- 
est, A.B., 1895; Univ. of Chicago, Ph.D., 1900; tea. of botany, Syracuse 
Univ., 1899-1901': Univ. of Chicago, summer, 1900; prof, of biology, Em- 
ory College, Oxford, Ga., 1902; botanist, Bureau of Educ., Philippine Is., 
1902-05 ; man. edit., Manila Times; edit. Philippine Teacher; pub. Notes 
in Philippine Botany, 1903 ; Nature Study Reader, 1905. Married Florence 
West, Syracuse, N. Y., May 21, 1903 ; present position, 1906 . 

181. George Brophy Kendall, prin. training sch., I.S.N.U., January, 
1907. (See No. 1359.) 

182. Maud Fraser, critic, 2d grade, training dept. I.S.N.U. State 
Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich., 1894; tea. elem. sch., Ypsilanti, Mich., 
1895-99, prim. supr. and training tea., Fostoria, O., 1899-1902; prin Knox- 
ville College Model Sch., Tenn., 1903-04; critic, 3d and 4th gr., Valley 
City, N. Dak., 1904-06; present position, March, 1907 . 


1. Daisy Dunton (Mrs. Colburn), Okayama, Japan. Grad. Art Inst, 
Chicago, 1898; director art dept., Eureka College; t. elem. handwork, 
color, clay modeling, I.S.N.U., ist terms, 1902, 1903, 1904. Married 
Gary R. Colburn (See No. 684), 1905. 

2. Herbert Bassett, supt. pub. sch., Normal. T. phys. and chem., 
I.S.N.U., ist terms, 1902-03. (See No. 749.) 

3. Oliver Morton Dickerson, history, W.I.S.N.S., Macomb. Univ. 
of 111., A.B., 1903; A.M., 1904; Ph.D., 1906; Thayer Scholar, Harvard, 
1904-05; prin. pub. sch., Macon, 1899-1901; head instructor history, W.I. 
S.N.S., Macomb, 1906; pub. ///. Constitutional Convention of 1862, 
Univ. of III. Studies; t. history, I.S.N.U., ist terms, 1903, 1905, 1906. 

4. Nathan A. Harvey, prof, of pedagogy, State Normal College, 
Ypsilanti, Mich. St. Univ. of 111., 1889-90; tea., h. s., Kansas City, 1891- 
96; dept. of science, Superior, Wis., State Normal Sch., 1896-1900; vice- 
prin., Chicago Normal Sch., 1900-04; present position, 1905 ; pub. Introd. 
to Study of Zoology; t. botany and zoology, I.S.N.U., 2nd terms, 1902, 
1903, 1904. 

5. William A. Furr, supt. pub. sch., Jacksonville. St. Union Chris- 
tian College, 1883 ; Indiana State Normal Sch., diploma, 1893 ; Indiana 
State Univ., A.B., 1896; A.M., 1897; supt. pub. sch., Ottawa, 1899-1905; 
same, Jacksonville, 1905 ; t. U. S. hist, and pedagogy, I.S.N.U., 2nd 
term, 1903. 

6. John Arthur Strong, supt. pub. sch., Blandinsville. T. Eng. gram. 
I.S.N.U., ist and 2nd terms, 1902, 1905; 2nd term, 1903; ist term, 1906. 
(See No. 850.) 

7. Bruce Smith, head Eng. dept, h. s., Decatur. Univ. of 111., A.B., 
1901; present position, 1901 ; t. Eng. lit., I.S.N.U., 2nd terms, 1903, 04. 

8. Emilie Barrington Wright, tea., Wendell Phillips h. s., 6338 Ellis 
Ave., Chicago. T. Caesar and rhetoric, 2nd term, 1903. (See No. 928.) 

9. Lottie Aurora Jackson (Mrs. Ludwig Thomsen), Jason Lee Acad- 
emy, Weiser, Idaho. St. Univ. of Mich., 1888-89, i&94~95 ', Prang Summer 
Sch., 1901 ; Pratt Inst., Brooklyn, N. Y., 1902-03 ; Millikin Univ., Decatur, 
1903-04; t. elem. sch., Manistique, Mich., 1890; Proctor Acad., Provo, 
Utah, 1898-99; asst. prin. h. s. dept., same, 1899-1902; supervisor of draw- 
ing, pub. sch., Decatur, 1903-05 ; matron, Jason Lee Acad., Weiser, Idaho, 
1905-06; t. drawing, adv. construction work, normal art methods, ist 
terms, 1904-1905. 

10. John C. Olsen, prof, of analytical chemistry, Polytechnic Inst., 
Brooklyn, N. Y. Knox College, A.B., 1890; A.M., 1893; Univ. of Chi- 
cago, summers., 1897-98; Johns Hopkins, 1894-95, 1898-1900; fellow, same, 
1899-1900; Ph.D., same, 1900; t. science, h. s., Jerseyville, 1890-91; prin. 
pub. sch., Ipava, 1891-94; chem. and physics, Austin h. s., Chicago, 1895- 
98; present position, 1900 ; pub. Quantitative Chemical Analysis; edit. 
VanNostrand's Chemical Annual; t. chem. and adv. physics, I.S.N.U., 
ist terms, 1904, 1905. 

11. Hugh Alvin Bone, supt. pub. sch., Sycamore. St. Univ. of 111., 
1893-94; Oberlin College, Oberlin, O., 1895-97; P"n. h. s., Sullivan, 1900- 
01 ; supt, same, 1901-04; supt, Sycamore, 1904 ; t U. S. hist, and 
civics, I. S.N.U., ist term, 1904. 


12. Walter Raymond Hatfield, prin. Shields Sch., 6030 Monroe Ave., 
Chicago. St. at Univ. of Chicago; supt., Griggsville, 1887-94; supt. sch., 
Pike Co., 1894-97; supt. pub. sch., Pittsfield, 1897-1902; supt., St. Charles, 
1903-05 ; critic tea., Chicago Normal Sch., 1905-06 ; present position, 
1906 ; t. U. S. hist, and pedagogy, I.S.N.U., 2nd term, 1904. 

13. Clarence Elmer DeButts, supt. pub. sch., Pontiac. Cornell Coll., 
A.B., 1885; A. M., 1888; prin. h. s., Pontiac, 1888-92; prin., Odell, 1892- 
94; asst. prin., twp. h. s., Pontiac, 1894-97; supt. pub. sch., Fairbury, 1897- 
1902 ; prin. twp. h. s., Pontiac, 1902-05 ; same and supt. pub. sch., 1905 ; 
t. physics, I.S.N.U., 2nd terms, 1904, 1905, 1906; ist term, 1907. 

14 Benjamin Clay Moore, supt. sch., McLean Co., Bloomington. T. 
math., I.S.N.U., 2nd terms, 1903, 1905; ist and 2nd terms, 1906. (See 
No. 758.) 

15. Virgina Winchester Freeman, Eng. dept, Chicago Normal Sch., 
6925 Yale Ave., Chicago. St. Oxford Univ., Eng., 1902-03; t. Blackburn 
Univ., Carlinville, 1879-81 ; lit. and reading, Kirkland Sch. for Girls, Chi- 
cago, 1890-99; reading and phonics, I.S.N.U., 2nd term, 1904. 

16. Rudolph H. H. Blome, psychology and pedagogy, Normal Sch., 
Tempe, Arizona. T. general method and philos. of educ., I.S.N.U., ist 
term, 1905. (See No. 616.) 

17. Samuel D. Magers, asst. prof, physiology and bacteriology, State 
Normal College, Ypsilanti, Mich. T. botany and zool., I.S.N.U., 2nd 
term, 1905. (See No. 509.) 

18. Caroline Elizabeth Eckers, supervisor of drawing, pub. sch., Ot- 
tumwa, Iowa. Grad. Normal dept., Art Inst, Chicago, 1905 ; grade tea., 
pub. sch., Ottumwa, la., 1894-1903; present position, 1905 ; tea. art dept, 
and elem. handwork, I.S.N.U., ist terms, 1905, 1906, 1907. 

19. Frank Hamsher, head prep, dept., Washington Univ., St. Louis, 
Mo. Prin. h. s., D.ecatur; prin. prep, dept., Univ of 111.; t hist., I.S.N.U., 
ist terms, 1905, 1906. 

20. Harry G. Paul, asst. prof. Eng lit., Univ. of 111. Univ. of Mich., 
A.B., 1897; Univ. of Chicago, A.M., 1900; Columbia Univ., 1904-05; 
prin. h. s., Escanaba, Mich., 1897-1900; reader in Univ. of Chicago and tea. 
S. Side Acad., 1900-01 ; Eng., Univ. of III, 1901-04 ; asst. prof., same, 
1905 ; pub. Questions for Study of Shakespere, 1904; edit. Coleridge's 
Ancient Mariner and Lowell's Vision of Sir Launfal, 1906; t. lit, I.S. 
N.U., 2nd terms, 1905, 1906. 

21. Margaret Oliver, asst. prof. Eng. dept, State Normal Sch., Cedar 
Falls, Iowa. Monmouth College, A.B., 1885; A.M., 1888; Columbia 
College of Expression, Chicago, B. O., 1901 ; asst prin., Toulon Acad., 
1885-57; prof. math, and elocution, Albert Lea College for Women, 
Minn., 1887-90; prof, elocution and phys. culture, Blairsville College for 
Women, Pa., 1897-1900; present position, 1901 ; t. reading, I.S.N.U., 
2nd term, 1905. 

22. Mary Lentz, math, and German, h. s., Kewaunee, Wis. T. Ger- 
man, I.S.N.U., ist term, 1905. (See No. 910.) 

23. H. Heath Bawden, head dept. philosophy, Vassar College, Pough- 
keepsie, N. Y. Denison Univ., Granville, O. A. B., 1890-93; A. M., 1894; 
grad. Rochester Theol. Sem., N. Y., 1898; Fellow in Philos., Univ. of 
Chicago, 1898-1900; Ph.D., Univ. of Chicago, 1900; t. biology, Denison 
Univ., 1896-97 ; philos., Univ. of Iowa, 1900-01 ; present position, 1901 ; 
assoc. editor, Psychological Review; pub. Syllabus of Psychology, 1902; 
t philos. of educ. and general method, I.S.N.U., ist term, 1906. 

24. Herbert Eugene Griffith, prof, chemistry, Knox College, Gales- 
burg. Northwestern Univ., B.S., 1892; Johns Hopkins, 1896-97; t phys- 
ics and chem., h. s., Moline, 1892-94;. same, Oak Park, 1894-96; present 
position, 1897 ; phys. and chem., I.S.N.U., ist term, 1906. 


25. William Edward Andrews, prin. twp. h. s., Taylorville. Black- 
burn Univ., B.S., 1884; A.B., 1887; A.M., 1888; 111. Wesleyan, Ph.D., 
1899; Harvard, 1891-92; prof, biology, Blackburn Univ., 1887-94; present 
position, 1894 ; t. botany zool., I.S.N.U., 2nd term, 1906. 

26. William James Sutherland, dept. geography, W.I.S.N.S., Ma- 
comb. T. phys. and gen. geography, I.S.N.U., ist term, 1906. (See 
No. 696.) 

27. Ira Azel Wetzel, tea. science, h. s., Sycamore. T. geog., I.S.N.U., 
2nd term, 1906. (See No. 1412.) 

28. George D. Wham, instructor, S.I.S.N.U., Carbondale. Grad. 
S.I.S.N.U. ; supt, pub. sch., Olney; present position, 1906 ; t. hist, 
I.S.N.U., ist term, 1906. 

29. Arthur Clinton Boggess, prof. hist, and polit. sci., Pacific Univ., 
Forest Grove, Oregon. T. Eng. hist, and adv. U. S. hist, I.S.N.U., 
ist term, 1906. (See No. 1072.) 

30. Eunice Sarah Bannister, supervisor art educ., pub. sch., 312 N. 
Elizabeth St., Peoria. St. Mass. Normal Art. Sch., Mass. Inst Tech., 
and Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1893-94; t. pub. sch., Peoria, 1888-93: 
present position, 1895 ; t. freehand perspective, color, constr. work, 
I.S.N.U., 2nd term, 1906. 

31. Jessie D. Spencer, at home, Decatur. Grad. Piatt Inst., Brooklyn, 
N. Y. ; t. art dept., Normal sch., Mankato, Minn., 8 yrs. ; t. drawing, 
I.S.N.U., ist term, 1906. 

32. Stella Rennie Eldred, hist., h. s., Bloomington. St. Univ. of 
Chicago, 1894-95; Smith College, B. L., 1897-1900; t elem. sch., Joliet, 
1896; Thorton twp. h. s., Harvey, 1900-02; present position, 1902 ; t. 
gram, and anc. hist, I.S.N.U., 2nd term, 1906. 

33. Margaret King Moore, German and Eng. lit., Westminister Col- 
lege, 151 S. 2nd St., Salt Lake City, Utah. Smith College, B.L., 1897-1901 ; 
t. German and French, Blackburn Univ., Carlinville, 1902-05 ; present po- 
sition, 1905 ; t. Eng. gram., rhet, Latin, I.S.N.U., 2nd term, 1906. 

34. Roy F. Webster, physics and math., h. s., 391 DuPage St., Elgin. 
T. physics, I.S.N.U., ist term, 1906. (See No 1311.) 

35. Charles Herbert Elliott, prin. twp. h. s., Centralia. T. physics 
and chem., I.S.N.U., ist term, 1907. (See No. 1005.) 

36. William Vernon Skiles, tea. Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta. T. 
math., I.S.N.U., ist term, 1907. (See No. 1158.) 

37. Fred Uriah White, supt pub. sch., Galva. St. Univ. of 111., 1878- 
79; Sauveur Sch. of Languages, Burlington, Vt, 1887; t. ungraded sch., 6 
yrs.; elem. sch., Galva, 2 yrs.; prin. h. s., Galva, 3 yrs.; supt pub sch., 
Cambridge, 2 yrs.; same, Galva, 19 yrs.; t. hist., I.S.N.U., ist term, 1907. 

38. C. Henry Smith, fellow in hist., Univ. of Chicago. St. I.S.N.U., 
1896-98; Univ. of Mich., 1899; Univ. of 111., A.B., 1902; Univ. of Chi- 
cago, A.M., 1903; fellow in hist., same, 1905-07; t. pub. sch., Woodford 
Co., 1893-96; Elkhart Inst., Ind., 1898; prin. same, summer, 1900; prof, 
hist, Goshen College, Ind., 1903-05; t. hist., I.S.N.U., ist term, 1907. 

39. George Alexander Barker, physiography, twp. h. s., Joliet. Univ. 
of Chicago, B.S., 1903, M.S., 1905 ; t. zool. and botany, h. s., Greencastle, 
Ind., 1905; present position, Jan. 1906 ; t. geog. and physiog., I.S.N.U., 
ist and 2nd terms, 1907. 

40. Mary Camp Scovel, pottery and design, Normal Dept., Art. Inst., 
883 Winthrop Ave., Chicago. Diploma Cook Co.. Normal Sch., 1890; Art 
Inst, Chicago, 1895-98; Pratt Inst., Brooklyn, N. Y., 1898-1900; t. elem. 
sch., Chicago, 1892-95 ; supervisor of drawing, pub. sch., Oak Park, 1900- 
06; present position, 1900 ; t. art dept., I.S.N.U., ist term, 1907. 

41. Arthur Orville Rape, prin. Edmund Burke Sch., 6541 Normal 
Ave., Chicago. T. math., 2nd term, 1907. (See No. 1157.) 


Abbott, Maude 1 1888 Bainum, Osci J 1878 

Ackert, Earl W 1899 (Baird) Percy, Clementina Maude.. 1899 

Adams, James W 1880 (Baird) Burger, Mary M 1878 

Adams, M. Joice 1885 Baker, Ben W 1870 

Adams, Sue P 1885 Baker, Clarence 1905 

(Adee) Eckholm, Mary Leota 1899 Baker, Cora Ethel 1897 

Alcorn, Archibald J 1893 (Baker) McCormick, Estelle K 1897 

Alden, Emily A 1874 Baker, George Lee 1901 

Alden, Lizzie 1869 Baker, Septina 1886 

Aldrich, Blanche 1899 (Ball) Thomas, Agnes E 1877 

Aldrich, Edward 1884 (Bailer) Griggs, Fannie 1893 

Aldrich, William 1889 (Bailer) Mueller, Ruth C 1892 

Allen, Charles Henry 1899 Baltz, Gustave Fred 1900 

Allen, Georgia 1903 Barber, Carrie Louise 1903 

Allen, Grace Matilda 1901 Barber, Frederick Delos 1894 

Allen, Lou M 1883 Barber, Onias 1867 

(Allen) Gregory, Louisa C 1870 Barger, Thomas Morse 1902 

Allen, Mary Elizabeth 1903 (Barker) Hargrove, Ruth E 1868 

Allen, Ruby 1907 (Barney) Bellows, Cora Belle 1894 

Allensworth, Ben C 1869 Barr, Oren A 1907 

Altevogt, Anna L 1905 (Barrett) Grange, Mabel \V 1895 

Ament, James E 1892 Barrie, M. Sophie 1888 

Ament, Wilbur Frank 1900 Barton, Fred 1888 

(Ammerman) Snyder, Trophie J.... 1891 Barton, Olive Lillian 1899 

Anderson, Andrew L 1880 Barton, Robert L 1875 

Anderson, Mrs. Ella G 1906 Barton, Roy F 1906 

Anderson, Harrison M 1907 Bassett, Herbert 1894 

Anderson, Isabella 1894 (Bass) Wallace, Mary L 1876 

Anderson, Ida May 1905 Bassler, Herman John 1902 

Anderson, Lillian 1906 Baumgardner, Elizabeth 1880 

Anderson, Mary A 1877 Baumgarner, Joseph 1898 

Anderson, Sarah A 1881 (Baxter) Brakefield, Helen M 1880 

Andrew, Ella M 1892 Beach, Charles L 1899 

Angle, Myrtle 1907 Beadles, Sada 1905 

(Arbogast) Cass, Anna Belle 1896 (Bean) Garwood, Mattie V 1882 

(Arbogast) Lawrence, Sadie Emma.. 1896 ' Bean, William H 1881 

Armstrong, Charles A 1891 Beattie, Annie Jeannette 1899 

(Armstrong) Manning, Jennie 1887 Beatty, George H 1876 

Armstrong, Josephine Rae 1904 Beckhart, Albert D 1875 

Arnett, James H 1900 Bechstein, Mamie Louise 1903 

Ashworth, Arthur Elmer 1899 Beedle, Gertrude C 1905 

(Athens) Atherton, Sadie Chenoweth 1899 Beeler, Bernice Gertrude 1902 

Atkinson, Carrie K 1905 Beers, Sarah E 1862 

Ayres, David 1875 Beggs, Dorothea Katherine 1898 

Babbs, Mary Irene 1900 Beggs, Robert H 1872 

(Babcock) Arenschield, Louise L.... 1888 Bennett, Florence M 1906 

Backer, Edward C 1893 Benson, Leroy J 1903 

Backer, Herman T 1893 Bentley, Daisy 1907 

Bacon, Edwin Faxon 1872 (Benton) Overman, Melissa 1869 

Bailey, Jennie M 1893 Berkstresser, Levi D 1877 



Berkstresser, W. Irving 1877 

(Berry) Cromwell, Willis El ma 1902 

Betzer, Isaac L 1881 

Bevan, Richard G 1877 

Biggs, M. Emma 1884 

(Bigham) Erode, M. Kate 1889 

Billen, Adolph P 1900 

Birney, Thomas M 1899 

Bishop, Clara B 1891 

Black, Jesse Jr 1896 

Black, Raymond E 1906 

Blair, Frank G 1892 

Blake, Anna T 1907 

(Blake) Myers, Charlotte C 1871 

Blake, Walter T 1883 

(Blanchard) Snedaker, Eva M 1885 

Bland, Harriet 1897 

Bland, Rose 1896 

Blome, Nora E 1905 

Blome, Rudolph H. H 1890 

Blount, George 1872 

Bogardus, Frank Smith 1896 

Bogardus, Stephen 1868 

Bogges, Arthur C 1900 

Boling, Mary C 1907 

Bond, Florence 1 1905 

Bond, Ida Wendover 1902 

Bonnell, Clarence M 1899 

Bookwalter, Grace M 1907 

Borgelt, Clara 1907 

Boslough, Clarence Roy 1904 

(Bosworth) Stearns, Lucy Adelia . . 1903 

Boulter, Mary Bertha 1895 

Bovee, Lorenzo D 1862 

Bowen, Anna G 1872 

Bowen, Margaret Lee 1903 

Bowles, John T 1878 

Bowman, S. Annette 1879 

Boyd, Clara 1906 

(Boyer) Hatch, Alma 1892 

Boyer, Edwin I, 1892 

Boyer, E. R 1879 

(Boyce) McDuffee, Eva Belle 1897 

Brand, Sarah Hazel 1906 

Breining, Minnie 1902 

Bremer, Anna M 1907 

Brewer, Etta 1892 

Briggle, Bessie Sarah 1902 

Briggs, Ella K 1869 

(Briggs) McKnight, Josephine A.... 1902 

Brigham, Putnam I, 1873 

Bright, Bernice A 1900 

Bright, Bruce 1898 

Bright, Fannie 1904 

Brisbane, Annie M 1889 

Brittin, Charles H 1907 

Broadhead, Annie Maple 1900, 1901 

Broadhead, Lemma C 1905 

Brock, Adelia M 1905 

Erode, Howard S 1888 

Brooks, Samuel 1901 

Brown, Benjamin Fletcher 1899 

Brown, Elmer E 1881 

Brown, I. Eddy 1874 

Brown, Joseph Grant 1894 

Brown, Leila May 1907 

(Brown) McMurry, Lida A 1874 

Brown, Nina L 1907 

(Brown) Fairchild, Lillian M 1880 

(Brown) Aldrich, Maggie H 1889 

Broun, William N 1888 

Bryan, Lewis 1875 

Buellesfield, Henry 1903 

Bullock, A. Eliza 1868 

Bullock, Agnes 1 1906 

Bullock, Jessie Jane 1896 

(Bullock) Elliott, Lura M 1873 

Burdick, Ruby C 1907 

Burger, Oliver P 1878 

Burgess, Gilbert A 1878 

Burgess, Harry 1904 

Burner, Ethel L 1907 

Burke, Daisy Margaret 1903 

Burlingame, Ida 1902 

Burnham, John H 1861 

(Burns) Shry, Margaret 1889 

Burr, Frank 1883 

Burr, Mrs. Lincoln I. D 1883 

Burrill, Thomas J 1865 

Burroughs, Jennie 1907 

Burson, Jemima S 1868 

Burson, Lydia A 1868 

Burt, Clarence E 1901 

Burtis, Altha 1905 

Burtis, Clyde L 1899 

Burtis, Guy Seaman 1900 

(Bush) Saltonstall, Lutie A 1886 

Butler, A. C 1878 

(Butler) Francis, Willie Belle 1894 

Buterbaugh, Daniel S 1876 

Butterfield, Caroline M 1892 

Butterfield, R. Olin 1892 

Butzow, Bertha 1907 

Calder, Mary Etta 1901 

Camenisch, Sophia Catherine 1901 

Camery, Nellie 1907 

Camp, Druzilla 1906 

(Campbell) Peters, Flora Evangeline 1896 

Campbell, Zella 1884 

Cardiff, Ida May 1903 

Carlson, Anna Wilhelmina 1900 

Carleton, Elizabeth 1862 

Carpenter, Mrs. Carrie Maria 1896 

Carpenter, Kate Edna 1899 

Carpenter, Lewis M 1905 

Carroll, Edna M 1907 

Carson, Franklin Benjamin 1897 

Carter, Joseph 1870 



(Case) Morrow, Harriet M 1866 Colvin, Maude Evangeline 1904 

(Case) Earth, Julia M 1890 Colwell, Lewis W 1892 

Case, Nelson 1866 Coombs, Edwin S 1887 

Cass, Sherman 1889 Condon, Osmond J 1907 

Cation, Alexander 1885 Condren, Ida Helen 1900 

(Caudy) Mitchell, P. Evangeline.... 1878 Connaghan, Jeannette H 1905 

Caughey, Ella J 1884 (Connett) Detweiler, Ellen R 1892 

Caughey, Florence Gertrude 1904 (Conover) Heidel, Kate E , . . . . 1891 

Gavins, Elmer W 1892 Conrad, Francis W 1874 

Gavins, Elzy Cartwright 1896 Conyers, Chester A 1903 

Gavins, Lorimer Victor 1903 (Cook) Ambrose, Bella L 1892 

Gavins, William Ferguson 1900 Cook, Mrs. Dora Edna Watson 1906 

Chamberlain, Marjorie 1906 Cook, John W 1865 

Chamberlin, William H 1876 Cook, Mae 1893 

(Champion) Bowles, Myrtle Marie... 1902 Cook, Stella M 1900 

(Chandler) Hodgin, Emily 1867 Coons, George Herbert 1905 

Chaplin, David H 1884 Cooper, Annetta Belle 1898 

Chenoweth, Lillian 1896 (Cooper) Mitchell, Mabel A 1897 

Cherry, Mrs. Mary B 1906 (Corbett) Parmele, Emma E 1877 

(Chicken) Willett, Sada R 1898 Corbin, Augusta E 1894 

Childs, Lyman W 1890 Gorman, Florence May 1900 

Childs, Robert A 1870 (Corson) Burroughs, Mabel M 1898 

(Chisholm) Carr, Eva May 1896 (Corson) Brown, Mary E 1888 

(Christ) Gill, Sophie 1861 (Corson) Laird, Sarah G 1888 

Christy, Jessie 1905 Corson, Stella P 1902 

Christy, Mary E 1903 Corwine, Eunice 1874 

Church, Ida E 1905 Cothern, William Ross 1895 

Churchill, Nell 1907 Cotton, Alfred C 1869 

(Clanahan) Smith, Lucy M 1896 (Cotton) Collins, Emily H 1867 

Clanahan, Myrtle 1896 Couch, Edward B 1907 

Clancy, Nellie Gertrude 1901 Covey, Hyatt Elmer 1898 

Clark, Ada Bell 1902 Cowan, Alan Dewain 1896 

Clark, Caroline Irving 1900 (Cowles) Heaton, Bessie Abiah 1898 

Clark, Elsie May 1907 Cowles, Catherine L 1899 

Clark, Florence J 1892 Cowles, Robert Andrew 1898 

Clark, Philo A 1866 Cox, John H 1891 

(Clarke) Dakin, Genevieve L 1900 Cox, Mary M 1873 

Cleveland, Elizabeth Taylor 1898 Cox, Merton Dart 1900 

Cleveland, Mary R 1890 (Cox) Smith, Nettie V 1877 

Cline, Jacob S 1887 Crandall, Charles H 1869 

Cline, Jessie M 1906 Crawford, Asbury M 1876 

Coburn, Mildred L 1907 Crawford, Amanda M 1879 

Coen, Eleanor 1907 (Crawson) Spear, Edna Leona 1901 

Coen, Ruah 1896 Creekmur, David W 1886 

(Coffey) Doren, Mary E 1887 Creekmur, John W 1887 

Coffman, Julia 1901 Criss, Edward 1904 

Cohagan, Albert C 1896 Crissey, Helen A 1904 

Coith, Clara L 1906 (Crist) Kasbeer, Martha 1887 

Coith, Edna F 1906 Crocker, William 1898 

Colburn, Gary R 1892 Cross, Charles R 1879 

(Colburn) Melton, Rosalia 1887 (Crouch) Hazlett, Ida E 1888 

Colby, Lydia 1899 Crouch, Rachel Pierson 1899 

Cole, Alice Maude 1903 Crouch, Virginia Frances 1902 

Coleman, Lyman H 1898 Crow, William T; 1875 

Coley, Charles D 1894 (Crum) Russell, Carrie 1887 

Colson, Anna L 1887 Gulp, Loren 1905 

Colvin, Albert 1907 (Cummings) Kirk, Mary S 1879 

Colvin, George W 1864 (Cunningham) Whitten, Jessie H... 1893 

Colvin, Grace Stella 1903 (Curtis) Young, Bessie 1891 



Curtis, Frederick George 1895 

(Curtis) Wheeler, S. Macy 1898 

Cusick, J. Fay 1900 

Dace, Frances Louella 1903 

(Dahl) Conklin, Nettie T 1893 

Damman, Edwin 1902 

Damman, Mary A 1906 

Damon, Jessie Alice 1904 

Daniels, Maude May 1904 

Darby, Gertrude 1897 

Davenport, Bertha Lea 1899 

Davenport, Lulu Lea 1899 

David, Ruth Anna 1902 

Davies, Viola 1906 

Davis, Jude E 1893 

(Davis) Ramsey, Lucretia 1869 

Davis, Mary Priscil'.a 1903 

Davis, Roscoe Edwin 1900 

Dawson, Dula Mae 1903 

Dawson, Russell 1902 

Deane, Georgia Viola 1906 

DeGarmo, Charles 1873 

Delaney, Helen Veronica 1904 

(Denman) Hanna, Luella M 1889 

Denning, Barbara 1870 

Denning, Bertha Elizabeth 1903 

De Van, Worthy Jean 1902 

Dewell, James W 1870 

Dewell, John N 1874 

Dewey, Helen A 1885 

Dewhirst, John M 1899 

Dewhirst, William S J 899 

Dexheimer, Lora M 1901 

(Dexter) Wilder, Jessie A 1878 

Dickerson, Oliver M 1899 

Dickey, Daisy Delle 1896 

Dietz, Clara 1899 

(Dilley) Evelsizer, Luella M 1901 

Dillon, Alpheus A 1880 

(Dillon) Milliken, Carrie 1884 

Dillon, Jessie M 1898 

Dillon, Mertie May 1901 

Dimmitt, Lena Otelia 1904 

Dinsmore, George W 1876 

(Disbrow) Roney, Myrtle 1904 

Dixon, Florence Dorothea 1902 

Dixon, Herbert 1905 

Dixon, Joseph A 1893 

Dobson, Pearl E 1905 

Dole, Ethel Mary 1904 

Dole, Lillian Dora 1905 

(Donohue) Henaughan, Anastacia ... 1899 

Doud, Herman T .- 1898 

Dougherty, Lewis C 1876 

Downey, Elzy Franklin 1902 

(Downey) Cox, Mae F 1883 

Draper, Anna 1907 

Drobisch, Anna W 1899 

Dudley, Gerry B 1899 

Duerkop, Bertha Katherine 1904 

(Dunbar) Kelso, Etta 1868 

Duncan, Dora Susanna 1903 

Dunn, Harriet E 1864 

(Dunn) Mrickler, Sarah M 1860 

Dutton, Harvey J 1861 

Dwire, Francis B 1899 

Easton, Louis B 1890 

Eastwood, Byron E 1898 

Eaton, Delia M 1902 

Eaton, Hattie May 1902 

Edmunds, Ernest Edwin 1904 

Edmunds, Harold James 1900 

Edmunds, Henry Hugh 1895 

Edmunds, Lucy Elizabeth 1902 

Edmunds, William D 1884 

Edwards, Carlie Ann 1899 

Edwards, Edith Belle 1903 

Edwards, Ellen S 1873 

Edwards, Hugh R 1869 

Edwards, John R 1867 

Edwards, R. Arthur 1870 

Edwards, William R 1869 

Eldridge, Florence Frances 1901 

Ela, Clarissa E 1884 

Elder, Andrew W 1878 

(Eldred) Moore, Alice 1 1896 

(Elkins) Still well, Ida L 1888 

Elliff, Stella A 1907 

(Elliott) Johnson, Agnes 1885 

Elliott, Charles Herbert 1899 

Elliott, David S 1874 

(Elliott) Robinson, Georgia 1898 

Elliott, William B 1893 

(Elliott) Drennan, Winnifred G. ... 1899 

Ellis, James 1875 

Ellis, John 1866 

Emmons, Alice 1870 

Engel, Andrew 1883 

(Entler) Tullis, Tillie M 1899 

Erbes, Clara 1902 

Erbes, Phillip H 1891 

Espy, Frank S 1907 

Estee, James B 1881 

Estee, Lulu May 1902 

Evans, Ruth 1906 

Evans, W'illiam A 1874 

Ewen, Ada E 1899 

Fairchild, James Albert Leroy 1900 

Fairfield, Belle 1903 

Fairfield, Etta M 1897 

Fairfield, Grace 1899 

Fairfield, Maude 1903 

Paris, S. A. D 1892 

Faulkner, Edwin R 1877 

(Faulkner) Williams, Eugenia 1878 

Felmley, Ruth 1907 

(Felton) Brittin, Jessie 1897 

Fcnton, Grace 1897 



Ferguson, James J 1891 

Ferreira, Mary 1906 

(Ferris) Kitfield, Ella M 1888 

F'esler, Charles Jerome 1900 

(Fincham) Reedy, Nellie 1898 

Fisher, Alfaretta 1890 

Fisher, John W 1895 

Fisk, Judd M 1875 

Fitzer, Levi R 1886 

(P'leischer) Egley, Ida Lena IQOI 

Fleming, Charles M 1889 

Fleming, John H 1886 

Fleming, Martha A 1872 

Fletcher, Frances Roxana 1902 

Fletcher, Mary 1897 

(Flinn) Moreland, Mrs. Carrie E 1891 

(Flinn) Webster, Sarah L 1899 

Florin, William 1865 

(Foley) Luce, N. Lee 1890 

(Foley) Keith, Rebecca A 1891 

Fontaine, Rosilda Josephine 1902 

Ford, Jennie 1901 

Forden, James Russell 1901 

Fordyce, Charles 1882 

(Fordyce) Brent, Etta 1892 

Foreman, Anna 1902 

Forman, Nellie 1867 

Foss, Ida L 1873 

Foster, Esther Browning 1904 

Foster, Kathryn Lorena 1903 

(Foster) Rathbun, Laura Caroline . . 1901 

Foster, Martha 1866 

Fowler, Hiram R 1877 

Fox, Harry Bert 1896 

Francis, Charles Henry 1903 

(Frank) Irvine, Lulu Pearl 1900 

Frank, Margaret J 1898 

Franklin, Lenore 1872 

Franklin, Lois Gertrude 1900 

Frazer, Thornton R 1885 

French, Mary 1867 

Fritter, Clara Theresa 1901 

(Fritter) Bates, Edna E 1901 

Fritter, Enoch A 1889 

Fry, Nellie B 1906 

(Fuller) Judd, Carrie M 1884 

(Fuller) Boyd, Flora M 1878 

Fuller, Mary A 1863 

Fulton, William C 1892 

Fulwiler, David M 1865 

Furman, Laura L 1887 

(Furry) Talbott, Mary C 1872 

Fyffe, Harriet 1866 

Galbraith, William J 1889 

Galbreath, Louis H 1885 

Gallaher, Louis T 1896 

Garman, Samuel W 1870 

(Garrison) Miller, Belinda E 1892 

Garwood, Anna Sabina 1900 

Gash, Charles M 1906 

Gastman, Enoch A 1860 

(Gaston) Forbes, Clara S 1872 

(Gaston) Smith, Florence M 1888 

Gaston, George H. 1893 

Gaston, Hattie J 1892 

(Gaston) Tear, Mary Ross 1881 

Gates, Anna C 1868 

Gaulden, Amelia 1900 

Gay, Mary L 1902 

(Gay) Osborne, Minnie L 1890 

Gaylord, Annie E 1894 

Gentle, Thomas H 1894 

(George) Delano, Gertrude 1900 

George, Frank J 1901 

Gibson, John \v 1870 

(Gifford) Harvey, Carrie A 1884 

Gifford, May 1903 

Gildemaster, Theodora 1886 

Gillan, Anna Marion 1903 

(Gillan) Estee, Addie 1881 

(Gillan) Eastman, Mary J 1881 

Gillan, Silas Y 1879 

Gilmer, Lucy Walker 1903 

Gingerich, Elmer G 1907 

Gingerich, Katherine E 1906 

Gladding, Anna M ; 1872 

(Glanville) Houston, Sarah Elizabeth 1883 

Glanville, Matilda 1882 

Glessing, Barbara F 1907 

Glessing, Dorothea M 1907 

(Glidden) Switzer, Cora 1886 

Glidden, Willis C 1878 

Glotfelter, John H 1885 

(Gmehlin) Hall, Amelia Helen 1901 

Goble, William L 1893 

Goddard, Asa P 1907 

Gogin, Lulu 1905 

(Goode) Adams, Carrie B 1887 

Goode, Walter S 1893 

(Goodrich) Soule, M. Adeline 1877 

(Gorton) Hanna, Eurenia G 1867 

Gorton, Mary G 1867 

Gossman, Minnie Margaret 1900 

Gott, Charles 1899 

Gove, Aaron 1861 

(Gove) Baldwin, Sarah F 1863 

Grabow, Paul E 1893 

Grafton, Clara L 1907 

Grainey, Jessie A 1896 

(Grand) Montgomery, Maggie J.... 1885 

Grassman, Adelaide 1898 

Graftan, Martha A 1895 

Gray, Edna B 1907 

Gray, Francis S 1907 

Gray, John H 1887 

Gray, Lillian 1 90 1 

Gray, Nannie R 1883 

(Gray) Gridley, Lucy D 1886 



(Gray) Jordan, Ruby C 1885 

(Gray) Farrin, Saidee J 1886 

Graybill, Edward C 1894 

Greabeiel, Emil R 1890 

Greaves, Thomas H 1896 

Greeley, James M 1872 

Green, Birdie Wilmah 1901 

Green, Ethel Magnolia 1902 

Green, Joseph W 1899 

Greenough, Charles Weston 1900 

Gregory, Margaret E 1906 

(Grennell) Hatfield, Anna 1864 

(Grennell) Guild, Helen F 1862 

Griffith, William C 1871 

Griffiths, G. Charles 1892 

Griggs, Eleanor H 1906 

Griggs, Gresham 1907 

Gross, Charles Ellsworth 1900 

Gunnell, Orville James 1901 

(Guthrie) Hutchings, Florence 1889 

(Gvillo) Lebegue, May 1902 

Hahn, Laura E 1899 

Haines, Mamie 1901 

Hall, Elizabeth T 1897 

Hall, John C 1897 

Hall, John L 1883 

Hall, John W 1890 

(Hall) Husted, Mary M 1884 

Hall, W. Dennis 1863 

Hallock, Minnie Julina 1902 

Hamblin, Mrs. Ellen T 1898 

Hamilton, Ethel Rowena 1902 

Hamilton, Ina Estelle 1900 

(Hammond) Hubbard, Phebe 1895 

Hampton, Eleanor 1894 

Hanawalt, Casper G 1891 

Haney, Ruth M 1906 

Hanna, Albert S 1894 

Hanna, J. Calvin 1876 

(Hanna) Haney, Margaret 1895 

Hannah, Jesse F 1882 

Harcourt, F'rank B 1877 

Harley, Joel Alva 1897 

Harned, Cora iu 1907 

Harper, James M 1880 

Harper, Peter 1860 

Harpstrite, Emma F 1896 

Harrington, Bessie W 1901 

(Harris) Edwards, Ella Mabel 1896 

Harris, Ebenezer D > 1863 

Harris, Emma 1907 

Harriss, Lincoln E 1890 

Hart, Charles W 1886 

Hart, Margaretta 1893 

Hartwell, Justin L 1875 

Harvey, Nathan A 1884 

Hatch, Luther A 1892 

Hatcher, Ida Matilda 1906 

Hawk, William D 1891 

Hawkes, William 1901 

(Hawley) Richardson, Mary A 1873 

Hayes, Florence M 1905 

Hayes, Silas 1860 

Haynes, Elizabeth C 1899 

Hays, James W 1869 

Hays, Dudley G 1890 

hays, Jasper F 1873 

Heath, William R 1884 

Hedges, Benjamin S 1876 

(Hedges) Patton, Hattie M 1888 

Hedges, William E 1895 

Heer, Henry 1900 

Heinzleman, Jacob Harold 1901 

Heller, Gertrude Viola 1901 

Hellyer, Perry H 1907 

Hendricks, Edward R 1895 

Hendrickson, Mina G 1906 

(Hendron) Smith, Annie 1884 

Heritage, Christena Ramsey 1903 

Herndon, Mrs. Carrie P 1893 

Herren, Charles C 1892 

Hess, Ardie D 1899 

Hetfield, Harriet 1903 

(Hewett) Reeder, May 1880 

Heyward, Aaron 1901 

Heyward, Richard 1889 

(Hickey) Carr, Rachel M 1872 

Hickey, Esther 1907 

(.Higgins) Bray, Edith Marian 1901 

Hieronymus, Robert E 1886 

Higby, Clara E 1870 

Hildreth, Ruby 1907 

Hileman, Eva J 1907 

Hiles, Perry Huston 1904 

Hill, Emma 1891 

Hillyer, Thomas A 1895 

Hilton, Lizzie 1 1893 

Himes, Jessie M 1896 

Himes, Mary Louise 1903 

Hinman, George S 1867 

(Kite) Wallis, Grace 1891 

Hitchcock, Elizabeth 1902 

(Hobart) Tracey, Mary Florence . . . 1896 

(Hobbs) Gastman, Belle 1881 

Hodge, James A 1893 

Hodge, Josiah P 1875 

Hodgin, Cyrus W 1867 

Hoff, George Stephen 1897 

Hoffman, George L 1877 

Hoierman, Eleanor 1907 

Hoit, Edith Maude 1901 

Hoke, Josiah Campbell 1901 

Holcomb, Henry F 1871 

Holder, Julia Montrose 1903 

Holferty, George M 1887 

Hollis, David P 1899 

(Holly) Hanft, Laura Helen 1896 

Hollstein, Hulda 1902 



Holzgrafe, Bertha J 1907 

Houser, Eva Belle 1894 

(Houston) Tabor, Isabella S 1871 

Howard, Charles 1869 

Howard, Charles L 1876 

Howard, Charles L 1885 

(Howard) Gardner, Emma A 1870 

Howell, George 1883 

Howell, Joseph G 1860 

(Hubbard) Pollitt, Daisy 1879 

(Hubbard) Easton, Honor 1890 

(Hubbard) Heath, Mary 1883 

(Hubbard) Partridge, Olive B 1885 

Hughes, Mary Lillian 1903 

Hull, John 1860 

Hullinger, Frank W 1872 

Humer, J. M 1883 

(Hummel) Ruddy, Ida Rose 1899 

Hummel, Adam A 1900 

Hummel, Sarah Matilda 1901 

Humphrey, Annabel 1898 

(Humphrey) Reid, Caroline A 1883 

Humphrey, Delphine S 1906 

Humphrey, Rose W 1890 

Hunt, George W 1897 

Hunter, Ben 1870 

Hunter, Mrs. Eda 1904 

Hunter, Joseph 1866 

(Hunter) Regan, Margaret E 1870 

(Hunter) Chapman, Nettie S 1888 

Hunter, Sarah C 1872 

Hunting, Olive 1904 

Huntington, Daisy Bell 1902 

(Hurd) Adams, Estelle L 1889 

Hursey, E- Margaret 1887 

Hursh, Samuel B 1895 

Hurwood, Grace S 1868 

Hutchinson, Joseph M 1895 

(Iliff) Rice, Frances M 1900 

Jackson, Ethel 1907 

Jacob, Mrs. Ella Leone 1900 

Jacob, William James 1900 

Jacobson, Clara S 1905 

James, McNeal Cole 1903 

Jeffers, Granville B 1895 

Jencks, Nettie G 1907 

Jenkins, Camilla 1882 

Jenny, Elise B 1907 

(Johnson) Mossman, Beulah Valentine 1904 

(Johnson) Morley, Edith 1864 

Johnson, Eugenia 1902 

Johnson, Hilda Ella 1906 

Johnson, John Thomas 1902 

Johnson, Lucy 1883 

(Johnson) Nicholas, Olinda 1865 

Johnson, Riley 1897 

Johnson, Will H 1899 

Johnston, Burley Clay 1904 

Johnston, Clara Irene 1903 

(Johnston) Posey, Gertrude M 1903 

Johnston, Jennie 1907 

Johnston, John T 1876 

Johnston, Milford L 1899 

Johnston, Paul E 1906 

Jones, Albert E 1889 

Jones, Alvnena C 1865 

Jones, Mrs. Latona May 1904 

Jones, Ruby 1906 

Jones, Thomas E 1874 

Jones, Wallace F 1899 

Jones, Walter Royal 1902 

Jones, Warren 1893 

Judd, S. Alice 1874 

Kaiser, Wilhelmine 1898 

Kanaga, Hershel E 1896 

(Karr) Blount, Alza A 1872 

Karr, Grant 1891 

Karr, Lyon 1885 

Kasbeer, Joab R 1887 

(Kates) Henry, Charlotte M 1896 

Keith, John A. H 1894 

(Kelly) Bragg, Lida A 1882 

(Kelly) Bowles, Marion B 1886 

(Kellogg) Bryant, H. Amelia 1873 

Kellogg, John R 1885 

Kellogg, Lyman B. 1864 

Kemph, Mary 1903 

Kendall, George Brophy 1904 

Kennedy, Julia E 1871 

(Kern) Walker, Harriet E 1871 

Kern, John Winfred 1902 

Kerns, Carrie 1898 

Kessler, Frances F '. 1907 

Ketterman, John S 1883 

Keys, Mary F 1907 

(Kienzle) Wheeler, Anna M 1891 

Kilbride, Thomas M 1887 

Killam, Morris E 1892 

(Kimball) Windle, Georgia J 1893 

Kimball, Mary L 1886 

(Kimberly) Perry, Maria L 1870 

Kimbrough, E. R. E 1873 

Kimmell, Ralph R 1906 

Kindig, Pearl Elizabeth 1904 

Kindt, Florence F 1907 

(King) Turley, Anna Gertrude 1900 

King, Frank E 1890 

Kingsbury, Howard Baker 1903 

(Kingsley) Manning, Lucia 1868 

Kinne, Evelyn Lovenia 1902 

Kinyon, Claudius B 1876 

Kleckner, Isaac F 1869 

Kleinau, Emma A 1906 

(Kline) Huntoon, Ida M 1906 

Klingler, Wilson 1894 

Klotz, Matilda 1903 

Knapp, Mason E 1894 

Knight, Anna P 1881 



Knight, Lee 1 1901 Lurton, Blanche 1897 

(Knight) Adam, Martha G 1872 (Lurton) Warrick, Cora A 1882 

Knott, William E 1896 Lyon, Joseph F 1876 

(Koester) Clark, Hulda M 1888 Lyon, Oliver Lincoln 1900 

Kofoid, Reuben 1902 Lyons, Marien Ida 1898 

Krieger, Augusta M . .. 1906 McBane, William A 1868 

Kring, William H 1891 McCafferty, Mary J 1894 

(Kuhn) Kipp, Mary E 1883 McCall, Ada Victoria 1903 

(Kuhns) Gernon, Ada Anna 1896 (McCambridge) Hurd, Margaret 1865 

Kummer, William Henry 1902 (McCann) Worcester, Bessie A 1891 

Lafferty, George 1903 McCarrell, Hanan 1888 

(Laign) Rigby, Cora 1892 McCauley, Rose A 1906 

Lampe, Margaret H. J 1886 (McCormick) Trowbridge, Alice C... 1883 

Lane, Mack M 1892 McCormick, Henry 1868 

Lange, Ottilie 1898 McCormick, Henry G 1899 

(Lantz) Maginnis, Anna Maude 1904 (McCullough) Sanders, Margarita... 1875 

Larison, Gertrude 1900 (McDonald) Stewart, Jessie 1900 

Larrick, Louisa C 1876 McDonnell, Mary W 1905 

Larson, George 1901 McDonnell, Sarah V 1905 

(LaRue) Dow, Ora 1899 McDowell, Samuel Kline 1906 

Laughlin, Ely Vail 1904 McDuffee, Ervin L 1902 

(Laughlin) Parsons, Sara Abbie 1900 (McElroy) Rishel, Elizabeth K 1889 

Laubenheim, Livonia L 1905 (McElroy) Westbrook, Marguerite.. 1893 

Law, Charles T 1896 McFarland, Will Johnson 1902 

Laybourn, Charles G 1878 (McGill) Hennen, Sarah A 1891 

Lease, Alice C 1907 McGinnis, Mary E 1892 

LeBaron, Mary D 1870 McGorray, Katherine 1892 

Lebegue, Julius Victor 1902 McGrath, Thomas L 1872 

LeCrone, George M 1873 MacGuffin, Ralph D 1899 

Lehman, Paul H 1896 (McGuire) Telford, Mae Navadah 1904 

Leigh, Helen E 1905 McHug