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Full text of "Sensitive plants of the Jarbidge Resource Area, Idaho"

BLM LIBRARY 



88055606 



Sensitive Plants of the 
Jarbidge Resource Area, Idaho 



QL 

84.2 

.L352 

no. 

96-07 



by 

Jim Klott 
Ann DeBolt 




NICAL BULLETIN NO. 96-7 



IDAHO BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT 



April 1996 






SENSITIVE PLANTS OF THE 
JARBIDGE RESOURCE AREA, IDAHO 



xH 



*&&* 



&»< 






By 

Jim Klott, Wildlife Biologist 
Ann DeBolt, Botanist 
April 1996 



Table of Contents 

Page 

Introduction iii 

Sensitive Plants Confirmed in the Jarbidge Resource Area 

Mourning milkvetch 1 

Murphy Milkvetch 1 

Snake River Milkvetch 2 

Desert Pincushion 2 

Greeley's Wavewing 3 

White Eatonella 3 

Giant Helliborine 4 

Annual Salt Buckwheat 4 

Packard's Cowpie Buckwheat 4 

Matted Cowpie Buckwheat 5 

White-margin Waxplant 5 

Spreading Gilia 6 

Davis Peppergrass 6 

Slick-spot Peppergrass 7 

Bruneau River Prickly Phlox 7 

Torrey's Blazingstar 8 

Rigid Threadbush 8 

Simpson Hedgehog Cactus 8 

Janish Penstemon 9 

Spiny-node milkvetch 9 

Dwarf Skullcap 10 

Sensitive Plants likely in the Jarbidge Resource Area 

Two-headed Onion 10 

Newberry Milkvetch 10 

Four-wing Milkvetch 11 

Dimeresia 11 

Scapose Townsendia 11 

Plants formerly on the Sensitive Species List 12 

Literature Cited 13 



li 



Introduction 

The Bureau of Land Management under the policy established 
in BLM Manual (Section 6840) manages special status species. 
This portion of the BLM Manual sets policy for managing 
threatened and endangered species as reguired by the Endangered 
Species Act. This portion of the BLM Manual also authorizes the 
BLM State Offices to carry out management of the conservation of 
state listed plants and animals. State laws protecting species 
applies to all BLM programs and actions to the extent that they 
are consistent with the Federal Land Policy and Management Act 
(FLPMA) . 

In Idaho, the Idaho Native Plant Society makes the 
recommendations to the State of Idaho, Forest Service, Bureau of 
Land Management, Fish and Wildlife Service and other agencies 
regarding the local rarity, endangerment, and extirpation of 
plant species. In general the State Director adopts the 
recommendations of the Idaho Native Plant Society for the BLM's 
Sensitive Plant List. 

Currently, there are over 3 00 plants on the Idaho Native Plant 
Society's list. A couple of species, such as water howellia 
(Howellia aquatilis) and MacFarlane's four-o'clock (Mirabilis 
macfarlanei) , have been listed as threatened or endangered by the 
Fish and Wildlife Service. However, the majority of the plants 
have little information regarding their presence, distribution, 
abundance, or identified threats. The plant list is reviewed by 
the Idaho Native Plant Society annually and updated based on new 
information. Over 50 species have have been removed from the 
list in the past 6 years based on new inventory data. In the 
Jarbidge Resource Area there are presently 2 6 plant species that 
are either present or are likely to be present. Another 9 
species were removed from the list because they were found to be 
more widespread and abundant that previously believed. 

The following are brief accounts of the sensitive plants in the 
Jarbidge Resource Area. Each account refers to technical 
references and/or reports that provided information. References 
for most species were very limited. 



in 



Sensitive Plants Confirmed in the Jarbidge Resource Area 

Mourning milkvetch ( Astragalus atratus var. inseptus ) is a 
herbaceous member of the pea family. The leaves are pinnately 
compound with very small leaflets. The pea type flowers are 
white to lilac-tinged and are on an elongate wiry raceme. Mature 
fruits are narrow pendulous pods (Barneby 1989) one-half to 
three-quarters of an inch long by about one-eighth inch wide (12- 
18 mm x 3-4 mm (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . Flowering occurs 
from late May to June. This species occurs on thin gravelly 
soils over basalt (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . 

Barneby (1989) separates mourning milkvetch from the more common 
Owyhee mourning milkvetch (A. a. var. owyheensis ) by its linear- 
oblong leaflets, leathery pod, and jointed terminal leaflet. He 
then comments that the two varieties may not be taxonomically 
distinguishable. The majority of the populations of mourning 
milkvetch in Idaho are north of the Snake River. In the Jarbidge 
Resource Area there are three records of mourning milkvetch south 
of the Snake River. Owyhee mourning milkvetch was found to be 
common in the Jarbidge Resource Area and has since been dropped 
from the sensitive plant list (Conservation Data Center 1994) . 
DeBolt and Rosentreter (1988) stated that range improvement 
projects and grazing were threats to mourning milkvetch. 



Murphy milkvetch ( Astragalus camptop us) (Conservation Data Center 
1994) is a colonial perennial forb in the pea family (Barneby 
1989) . The stems are low growing, appear to zigzag from node to 
node, and the flowers are pink. Stems and leaves seem grayish 
because of the pubescence on the surfaces. Mature fruit may coil 
into a complete circle or more. Murphy milkvetch is found on 
sandy soils (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) , dunes, and low gullied 
hills in desert shrub communities (Barneby 1989) . It flowers in 
May and June. The only Jarbidge locations are from an area north 
of the town of Bruneau. 

Murphy milkvetch is endemic to Idaho (DeBolt and Rosentreter 
1988) and its distribution is restricted to near the Snake River 
in northern Owyhee County from Bruneau to near Melba. Murphy 
milkvetch could be confused with sickle-pod milkvetch. However, 
sickle-pod milkvetch grows singly, has a curved ascending stem, 
and white to pale yellowish flowers (Barneby 1989) . Both species 
have curved pods on stipes, however sickle-pod milkvetch rarely 
forms a complete circle. 

Threats to Murphy milkvetch on public lands include off road 
vehicles, range improvement projects, and agricultural trespass 



(DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . In some areas on private land 
agriculture has expanded onto areas formerly inhabited by Murphy 
milkvetch. Murphy milkvetch was recommended for removal from the 
Idaho rare plant list in 1995 by the Idaho Native Plant Society. 



Snake River milkvetch ( Astragalus purshii var. o phiogenes ) 
is a subspecies of Pursh's milkvetch (Barneby 1989) also known as 
wooly-pod milkvetch (Hitchcock and Cronquist 1976) . Wooly-pod 
milkvetch is a tufted, acaulescent perennial forb with dense 
hairy foliage, calyx, and fruit pod. Because of the amount of 
pubescence, the foliage appears grayish. Flowers are pink and 
the pod in this subspecies is strongly in-curved. Snake River 
milkvetch can be separated from other subspecies by its 9-15 
leaflets on the larger leaves, 5-11 flowers in the raceme, a 
calyx less than 9 mm, and a strongly in-curved pod (8-13 mm) 
(Barneby 1989) . Other subspecies of wooly-pod milkvetch do not 
have this combination of traits. Snake River milkvetch occupies 
a number of different soils including sands, gravel-sandy bluffs, 
talus, dunes and volcanic ash beds (Barneby 1989) . 

Snake River milkvetch has been reported from a number of 
locations along the Snake River Canyon in the Jarbidge Resource 
Area from near Hagerman west to Indian Cove Bridge. The majority 
of the locations are the result of an inventory completed by Dr. 
Pat Packard (retired from Albertson College of Idaho) and Nancy 
Cole (Idaho Power Company) . 



Desert pincushion ( Chaenactis stevioides ) is a winter annual of 
the sunflower family that reaches a height of up to 12 inches (30 
cm) (Cronquist 1994) . The leaves are pinnately divided and are 
darker green than the light gray leaves of the common Chaenactis 
doualasii . The stem is usually freely branched when well 
developed with flowers at the end of each branch. Flowers are 
all rayless and whitish. Flowering occurs in May and June in 
southern Idaho. Soils are open and sandy where this species is 
usually found. Desert pincushion is also tolerant of some 
alkaline conditions (Cronquist 1994) . 

Southern Idaho is the northern-most portion of this f orb's 
geographic range. Cronquist (1994) notes that desert pincushion 
is rarer and more scattered in the northern half of its range. 
Desert pincushion was recently added to the Idaho Native Plant 
Society plant list as a Priority 1 species (Conservation Data 
Center 1994) . Threats to this species may include competition 
with introduced annuals, livestock grazing, and off -road vehicle 
use. 



This species is very similar to the much more common false-yarrow 
also known as dusty maidens (£. douglasii ^ . Desert pincushion 
can be separated from this species by its annual rather than 
biennial/perennial growth form, and its more freely branched 
stem. False-yarrow also has 10 or more pappus scales, whereas 
desert pincushion has only 4 pappus scales (Cronquist 1994) . 



Greeley's wavewing ( Cymopterus acaulis var. greeleyorum ) is a 
perennial low-growing member of the parsley family (Hitchcock and 
Cronquist 1976) . Herbaceous growth occurs from an enlarged 
taproot each spring. The leaves are bipinnately divided, similar 
to several species in the genus Lomatium . Flowers are bright 
yellow and appear from March to May (DeBolt and Rosentreter 
1988). During flowering Greeley's wavewing resembles some of the 
more common biscuitroots ( Lomatium spp.). By mid-summer the 
plants are dormant and the foliage has dried out. Seeds of 
Greeley's wavewing are rather unique in that a number of wavy 
wings are on the margins. Soils where this species is found are 
usually more sandy than loamy. Associated plant species may 
include Indian ricegrass ( Oryzopsis hymenoides ) and prickly phlox 
(Le ptodactylon pungens ) (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . DeBolt 
and Rosentreter (1988) only identified off -road vehicles as a 
threat to this species. 

Greeley's wavewing has been reported in four locations in the 
Jarbidge Resource Area including near Yahoo Creek, north of 
Seventyone Gulch, west of Brown Creek, and west of the Cheatgrass 
Study Area. 



White eatonella ( Eatonella nivea ) is a diminutive annual herb in 
the sunflower family. The leaves are entire and densely wooly 
(tomentose) , appearing whitish over the green (Cronquist 1994) . 
Flower heads are both sessile (without stems) and on short stems 
(Davis 1952) . The ray flowers are yellowish to purple (DeBolt 
and Rosentreter (1988) and only slightly longer than the 
involucral bracts (Cronquist 1994) . Flowering occurs from May to 
June (DeBolt and Rosentreter (1988) . White eatonella occurs on 
dry sandy or volcanic soils in salt desert shrub habitats. 
Owyhee County is at the northeastern edge of this species 
geographic range (Cronquist 1994) . 

The only reported population in the Jarbidge Resource Area is 
just west of Bruneau Dunes State Park. Threats to this species 
include off road vehicles and spring livestock trampling (DeBolt 
and Rosentreter 1988) . 



Giant helleborine ( Epipactis gigantea ) is a perennial herbaceous 
member of the orchid family (also known as chatterbox orchid) . 
One to several stems arise from creeping rhizomes (Cronquist et 
al. 1977) . The stem has numerous clasping leaves and may reach 
40 inches (100 cm) in height (Davis 1952) . Giant helleborine 
flowers are showy, with the sepals being greenish to rose with 
purple, brown to reddish veins, whereas the petals are pale pink, 
rose or brown with purple nerves (Davis 1952) . The flowers are 
in an open raceme (Cronquist et al. 1977) . Giant helleborine is 
widespread but uncommon (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . Its 
habitat is streambanks, seeps, and springs including thermal 
springs at the base of cliffs in otherwise desert regions 
(Cronquist et al. 1977, DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988). 

In the Jarbidge Resource Area giant helleborine has been found 
along the Bruneau River north of Bruneau and in the vicinity of 
Hot Creek. Threats to giant helleborine include development of 
springs and seeps and livestock grazing. 



Annual salt buckwheat ( Eriogonum salicornioides ) is a small 
herbaceous member of the buckwheat family. Leaves are all basal 
and generally round in shape and the inflorescence is branched 
and open. The flowers are small and yellow and blooming occurs 
in April and May (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . DeBolt and 
Rosentreter (1988) report that annual salt buckwheat is found on 
bare ashy white alkaline soils and is associated with shadscale 
( Atriplex conf ertifolia ) , bud sage (Artemisia spinescens) , and 
Wyoming big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata var. tridentata) . 
Annual salt buckwheat closely resembles other common annual 
buckwheats, including Bailey's buckwheat (£. baileyi ) and broom 
buckwheat (£. vimineum ) . However, broom buckwheat has pink to 
white flowers (Davis 1952) rather than yellow (DeBolt and 
Rosentreter 1988) . There are four locations of annual salt 
buckwheat reported for the Jarbidge Resource Area. All of the 
locations are in the vicinity of Bruneau and Bruneau Sand Dunes 
State Park. 



Packard's cowpie buckwheat ( Eriogonum shockleyi var. packardiae ) 
is another perennial forb in the buckwheat family. The Packard 
cowpie buckwheat variety is very similar in appearance to matted 
cowpie buckwheat (Moseley and Reveal 1995) . Flower color and the 
blooming period are the same as matted cowpie buckwheat. 
Packard's cowpie buckwheat occurs on oolitic limestone outcrops, 
sandy loess over basalt, and cobbly desert pavement over deep 
sandy-loam (Moseley and Reveal 1995) . Associated vegetation is 
sparse, but may include smooth horsebrush ( Tetradymia glabrata ) , 
winterfat (Ceratoides lana£a) , shadscale (Atriplex 
confert ifolia ) , Indian ricegrass ( Oryzopsis hymenoides ) , needle- 



and-thread grass ( Stipa comata ) , and langloisia f Langloisia 
punctata ) . 

Packard's cowpie buckwheat is endemic to southwest Idaho along 
the Snake River and a few tributaries in Ada and Owyhee counties, 
Idaho (Moseley and Reveal 1995). Packard's cowpie buckwheat is 
apparently less common than matted cowpie buckwheat (Moseley and 
Reveal 1995) . Mining of oolitic limestone has been identified as 
a threat to Packard's cowpie buckwheat, but livestock grazing 
impacts were considered minimal due to the paucity of forage in 
these sites (Moseley and Reveal 1995) . 

Packard's cowpie buckwheat is distinguished from matted cowpie 
buckwheat by its less than 10 mm long flowering stems, resulting 
in flowers that appear on the surface of the plant. In matted 
cowpie buckwheat the flowering stems extend above the plant's 
surface (Moseley and Reveal 1995) . 



Matted cowpie buckwheat ( Eriogonum shockleyi var. shockleyi ) is a 
perennial forb in the buckwheat family. The root and branches 
appear to be more woody than other buckwheat species. The plant 
forms a dense mound with the inflorescence just above the surface 
of the plant. Leaves of matted cowpie buckwheat are small, 
elliptic, and have a whitish cast from pubescence. The plants 
bloom from May to July and the flowers are cream-colored (DeBolt 
and Rosentreter 1988) . Soils where this species occurs are 
sparsely vegetated sandy-loams, cobbly desert pavement, and 
gravelly calcrete on lacustrine sediments (Moseley and Reveal 
1995) . Because of the habitat requirements, this species is 
confined to very limited areas and is considered rare in Idaho 
(Moseley and Reveal 1995) . 

Idaho is the northern limit of distribution for this species and 
variety. Idaho's locations are considered disjunct by 60 miles 
from the main portion of its distribution in Nevada (Moseley and 
Reveal 1995) . DeBolt and Rosentreter (1988) commented that no 
threats had been identified for matted cowpie buckwheat, however 
in some areas, off -road vehicle use, fire line construction, or 
range projects may have an impact on this species. 



White-margined waxplant ( Glyptopleura marginata ) is a small 
tufted winter annual of the sunflower family (DeBolt and 
Rosentreter 1988) . The flowers of this forb are white, 
relatively small, and do not extend much beyond the foliage. 
Flowering typically occurs from April to June (DeBolt and 
Rosentreter 1988) . The leaves are pinnate and the outer margins 
are whitish. White-margined waxplant has milky juice (Cronquist 
1994) similar to the common dandelion ( Taraxacum officinale ) . 



This species has been found on sandy soils that are typically 
sparsely vegetated on ridges and at the edge of upland benches. 
White-margined waxplant is tolerant to some extent to alkaline 
soil conditions. Southern Idaho is the northern extension of its 
geographic range (Cronquist 1994) . 

White-margined waxplant has been found in the Jarbidge Resource 
Area at one location north of Loveridge Gulch. Identified 
threats to this species in Idaho include off-road vehicles and 
range improvement projects (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . 



Spreading gilia (I pomopsis polycladon r formerly G_illa. polycladon^ 
(Conservation Data Center 1994) is an annual or winter annual in 
the phlox family (Cronquist et al. 1984) . Flowers are small, 
white, and clustered in terminal bracted branches. Spreading 
gilia flowers from late April to June. Plants reach a height of 
4 to 6 inches (10-20 cm) . Soils are typically loamy to chalky, 
and often have a lakebed sediment origin. Associated plant 
species frequently include shadscale ( Atriplex conferti folia ) 
(Cronquist et al. 1984) and desert dandelion ( Malacothrix sp.). 
Cronquist et al. (1984) note that this species is less common at 
the northern part of its geographic range. The Snake River Plain 
comprises its northern boundary. No threats have been identified 
for this species. 

In 1995 spreading gilia was found at several locations from south 
of Seventyone Draw north and west to the Bruneau Arm. These are 
the only documented locations for spreading gilia in the Jarbidge 
Resource Area. 



Davis peppergrass (Le pidium davisii ) is a low-growing, deep 
rooted perennial herb in the mustard family (Moseley 1995) . The 
leaves are fleshy and entire to pinnately lobed (DeBolt and 
Rosentreter 1988) . The leaves are green but may appear to be 
gray from clay adhering to the surface (Moseley 1995) . Flowers 
of Davis peppergrass are white and blooming occurs from April to 
as late as August. Habitat for Davis peppergrass is shallow 
playas located in shadscale ( Atriplex confertifolia ) , four-wing 
saltbush ( Atriplex canescens ) , Wyoming sagebrush ( Artemisia 
tridentata ssp. wyomingensis ) , and Sandberg bluegrass ( Poa 
secunda ) habitats. Davis peppergrass can withstand extremes of 
moisture ranging from total submersion to multiple years of 
drought . 

A large number of playas south of Indian Hot Spring in the 
Jarbidge Resource Area contain Davis peppergrass. Davis 
peppergrass occurs in the playas between the Bruneau and Jarbidge 
Rivers as well as some of the playas east of the Jarbidge River. 

6 



It has not been found north of Indian Hot Spring in the Jarbidge 
Resource Area. Off -road vehicle use, stock water pond 
construction, and some range rehabilitation projects have been 
identified as threats to Davis peppergrass (DeBolt and 
Rosentreter 1988). Moseley (1995) recommended that this species 
be listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. 



Slick spot peppergrass (Le pidium pa pilliferum ) is a herbaceous 
annual, winter annual, or in some instances biennial member of 
the mustard family (Moseley 1994) . Leaves are pinnately compound 
and there are few leaves on the stem. Flowers are white and 
bloom in May and June (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . Slick spot 
peppergrass is only found in slick spots - small playettes in 
Wyoming big sagebrush habitats. Soils are usually bare, shallow 
and somewhat salty (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . 

Threats to slick spot peppergrass include salt lick placement, 
agricultural development, and livestock grazing and trampling 
impacts, particularly when soils are wet. Sheep have been 
observed pulling up plants in the spring. Range projects should 
also be considered a risk, particularly water trough placement. 
In the Jarbidge Resource Area slick spot peppergrass has been 
found to persist in crested wheatgrass seedings and along water 
pipelines. However, long term survival in these sites is 
unknown. There are four known locations of slick spot 
peppergrass in the Jarbidge Resource Area. Moseley (1994) 
reported that 21 populations have been extirpated in Idaho and 
recommended that this species be listed as threatened under the 
Endangered Species Act. 



Bruneau River prickly phlox ( Le ptodacty Ion glabrum ) is a matted 
perennial herb in the phlox family. It is found on vertical 
cliffs or underhung rock ledges and canyon walls of rhyolite 
(DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . The leaves are narrow and prickly 
and flowers are white to cream colored. Flowering occurs from 
April to June (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . Bruneau River 
prickly phlox is reported to be intolerant of seepage areas or 
ephemeral water paths (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . 

This species has a very restricted habitat. In the Jarbidge 
Resource Area, Bruneau River prickly phlox has been reported from 
a number of locations in the Bruneau and Jarbidge River canyons. 
The only potential threat to this species would be dam 
construction. No dams are proposed for either the Bruneau or 
Jarbidge Rivers. Wilderness Study Area designation and 



suitability for inclusion as a Wild and Scenic River offers 
interim legal protection for both rivers pending final 
congressional action. 



Torrey's blazing-star f Mentzelia torreyi var. acerosa) is a low- 
growing perennial herb in the blazing star family. The leaves 
are pinnately divided with the leaf margins rolled under (Davis 
1952) . The leaf has a coarse texture. Flowers are yellow orange 
and blooming occurs in May and June (DeBolt and Rosentreter 
1988). Torrey's blazing star is found on barren sandy lacustrine 
soil, gravel, or volcanic cinder. 

In the Jarbidge Resource Area, Torrey's blazing star has been 
found in several locations on the upland benches south of the 
Snake River and a few locations in the uplands east of the 
Bruneau River. Threats to Torrey's blazing star inc^ade off -road 
vehicle use and agricultural trespass. Torrey's blazing star was 
recommended for removal from the Idaho rare plant list in 1995 by 
the Idaho Native Plant Society. 



Rigid threadbush ( Nemacladus rigidus ) is a small compact annual 
forb less than 5 inches (11 cm) tall in the bell-flower family 
(Cronquist et al. 1984) . The flower is white with a red central 
nerve (Cronquist et al. 1984). Rigid threadbush flowers in May 
and June (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . The stem and leaves are 
dark greenish purple to brownish purple. According to Cronquist 
et al. (1984) this species is found in sandy washes and volcanic 
ash soils. In the Jarbidge Resource Area it has been found on 
black cinder over basalt. Identified threats for rigid 
threadbush include off road vehicles and range improvement 
projects (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) . 

The Jarbidge Resource Area has only one known location of rigid 
threadbush. This site is southeast of Hot Creek on the east side 
of the Bruneau River in some badlands. 



Simpson's hedgehog cactus ( Pediocactus simpsonii var. robustior ) 
is spherical in shape with the base partially buried in the soil. 
It is one of only three "barrel" cactus in Idaho. The flower 
petals are yellowish, appearing in May and June. Simpson's 
hedgehog cactus frequently has multiple blooms and buds more or 
less forming a ring around the top of the plant. Soils where 
Simpson's hedgehog cactus is found are usually rocky or sandy and 
are often associated with benches and canyon rims (DeBolt and 



Rosentreter 1988) or ridgetops. Other plant species associated 
with Simpson's hedgehog cactus include low sage ( Artemisia 
arbuscula l and Sandberg bluegrass (P_Q_a. secunda ) . 

In the Jarbidge Resource Area Simpson's hedgehog cactus has been 
found along the canyon rims of Salmon Falls Creek and the Bruneau 
River. Most populations are of relatively few individuals. 
DeBolt and Rosentreter (1988) identified the only threat to this 
species as commercial collectors. The increase of off -road 
vehicle use in some areas may also pose a threat to some 
populations. 



Janish's penstemon ( Penstemon janishiae ) is a perennial herb in 
the figwort family. It usually has multiple stems from a 
branched woody caudex on a taproot (Cronquist et al. 1984) . The 
flower is bilabiate like most other penstemons. In the Jarbidge 
Resource Area, Janish's penstemon flowers appear to be dull 
purple in color, but Cronquist et al. (1994) report that they can 
be violet to pink with dark purple to red-violet guidelines in 
the throat. Flowering occurs from late May into June. Janish's 
penstemon occurs on clay soils derived from volcanic rock in 
sagebrush, juniper, or pinyon juniper habitats (Cronquist et al. 
1984) . Southern Idaho is the northeastern limit of this 
penstemon 's geographic range. 

Janish's penstemon is only known from the Snake River Canyon 
between Deer Gulch and Big Pilgrim Gulch in the Jarbidge Resource 
Area. 



Spine-noded milkvetch ( Peteria thompsoniae ) , a member of the pea 
family, is a perennial forb (Barneby 1989) . New shoots emerge 
from a rhizomatous root system and buried caudex in the spring. 
Flowers are whitish and tinged with purple (Barneby 1989) . 
Spine-noded milkvetch flowers in May and June. This species is 
similar to members of the genus Astragalus , but spine-noded 
milkvetch has spines at the leaf nodes, whereas Idaho Astragalus 
spp. lack such spines. Soils where this species is found include 
thin cinder soils (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988) and sandy soils. 
Associated plant species include purple sage ( Salvia dorrii ) , 
shadscale ( Atriplex conf ertifolia ) and annual buckwheat 
( Erioaonum spp.) (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988). 

The only known population of spine-noded milkvetch in the 
Jarbidge Resource Area is south of Hot Creek in the badlands east 
of the Bruneau River. DeBolt and Rosentreter (1988) identified 



off-road vehicle use, heavy recreational use near Indian Bathtub, 
and concentrated grazing near Hot Creek as threats to known 
populations of this species. 



Dwarf skullcap ( Scutellaria nana.) is a low growing perennial 
member of the mint family. Herbaceous stems come from deep, 
somewhat enlarged rhizomes and usually branch near ground level 
(Cronquist et al. 1984). Like many other members of the mint 
family the flower is irregular, bilabiate with the lower lip 
cream colored and the upper lip with a pale purple tinge 
(Cronquist et al. 1984) . Flowering occurs in May and June. As 
with other rare plants in southern Idaho, dwarf skullcap is at 
the northern edge of its range. Unlike other mint species, dwarf 
skullcap is not very aromatic. Davis (1952) noted that this 
species is rare in Idaho. 

In the Jarbidge Resource Area the only known populations occur in 
rocky (cobbly) draws that usually run some water in the spring. 
Associated species usually include Beckwith violet ( Viola 
beckwithii ) , white-stemmed elkweed ( Frasera albicaulis ^ , barestem 
lomatium ( Lomatium nudicaule ) , and bluebunch wheatgrass 
( Agropyron spicatum ) . 



Sensitive Plants likely present in the Jarbidge Resource Area 

Two-headed Onion ( Allium ancep s) is a perennial herbaceous member 
of the lily family. The stem arises from a bulb in the spring 
and has two leaves and a flattened stem (Cronquist et al 1994) . 
Cronquist et al. (1994) reports that the flowers are pinkish with 
a diffuse green midrid and flowering is from May into July. Two- 
headed onion is found on heavy barren soils on flats and slopes. 
Two-headed onion has been reported to occur in Twin Falls County 
(Conservation Data Center 1994) and may occur in the Jarbidge 
Resource Area. If two-headed onion is present, it would be the 
only onion species with a flattened stem in the Jarbidge Resource 
Area. 



Newberry's Milkvetch ( Astragalus newberryi var. castoreus ) is a 
low stemless perennial herbaceous member of the pea family. The 
leaves are pinnately compound, with each leaflet pubescent. 
Barneby (1989) describes the flowers of Newberry's milkvetch as 
pink-purple with pale pink or whitish margines and blooming runs 
from April through May. The pod is laterally flattened, upwardly 

10 



curved and densely pubescent (Barneby 1989). Newberry's 
milkvetch occupies foothills, bluffs and badlands with sagebrush 
or juniper. 

This species closely resembles wooly-pod milkvetch (Barneby 
1989) . Barneby (1989) notes that Newberry milkvetch has a hard 
turbinate crown thatched with stipules and stiff persistent leaf- 
stalks, whereas, Wooly-pod milkvetch lacks a turbinate crown. 
Moseley and Reveal (1995) note that this species reaches the 
northern extension of its range in Salmon Falls Creek Valley. 
Conservation Data Center reports Newberry's milkvetch to occur in 
Twin Falls County. Salmon Falls Creek forms the eastern boundary 
of the Jarbidge Resource Area. 



Four-wing Milkvetch ( Astragalus tretrapterus ) is a perennial 
herbaceous member of the pea family. The plants are erect with 
pinnately divided leaves, leaflets are linear elliptic in shape. 
Plants vary from green to silvery because of differences in 
pubescence with the upper surfaces of leaflets more densely 
pubescent than the undersides (Barneby 1989) . Flower color varies 
from whitish tinged with pale purple to yellowis-pink tinged to 
bright pink-purple (Barneby 1989) . Pods are only dorsally 
flattened giving the "winged" appearance and curved upward when 
dry. Soils where this species is found include sands or tuffs 
forming gullied bluffs, barren knolls, or stabilized dunes 
(Barneby 1989) . 

Moseley and Reveal (1995) note that this species reaches the 
northern extension of its range in Salmon Falls Creek Valley. 
Conservation Data Center reports four-wing milkvetch to occur in 
Twin Falls County. Salmon Falls Creek forms the eastern boundary 
of the Jarbidge Resource Area. 



Dimeresia ( Dimeresia howellii ) is a short compact cushion-like 
taprooted annual in the sunflower family (Cronquist 1994) . 
Dimeresia is the only member of this genus. The plant appears to 
be stemless and contains numerous leaves with flowers in 
clusters. Blooming is in May to July and the ray flowers are 
white to pinkish or purplish (DeBolt and Rosentreter (1988) . 
Soils where this species is found include volcanic gravel and 
cinder and associated vegetation is annual buckwheats ( Eriogonum 
sp.) (DeBolt and Rosentreter 1988). Conservation Data Center 
(1994) reports this species to occur in Owyhee County. 



Scapose Townsendia ( Townsendia scapigera ) is a herbaceous 
biennial or short-lived perennial in the sunflower family. 

11 



Scapose townsendia usually has multiple stems from a taproot, 
with numerous basal leaves, nearly hiding the few reduced leaves 
on the short flower stems (Cronquist 1994) . Ray flowers are 
white to pinkish and the disk flowers are yellow (Cronquist 
1994) . Scapose townsendia is similar to the much more common 
showy townsendia (I. f lorifer ) . These species can told apart by 
scapose townsendia having only one flower per short stem, 
whereas, showy townsendia has one to several flowers on each 
leafy stem. 

Moseley and Reveal (1995) note that this species reaches the 
northern extension of its range in Salmon Falls Creek Valley. 
Conservation Data Center (1990) reports that scapose townsendia 
occurs in Twin Falls County. Salmon Falls Creek forms the 
eastern boundary of the Jarbidge Resource Area. 



Plants formerly on the Sensitive Species List 

A number of plants within the Jarbidge Resource Area were 
formerly included on the BLM sensitive and Idaho Native Plant 
Society rare plant lists. Torrey's malacothrix ( Malacothrix 
torreyi ) and Webber needlegrass ( Stip a webberi ) were removed from 
the rare plant list in 1990 (Conservation Data Center 1992) . 
Owyhee mourning milkvetch ( Astragalus atratus var. owyheensis ) , 
thistle milkvetch (Astragalus kentrophyta var. jessiae) , broad 
fleabane ( Erigeron latus ) and large-flowered gymnosteris 
( Gymnosteris nudicaulis ) were removed in 1994 (Conservation Data 
Center 1994) . Smooth malacothrix ( Malacothrix glabrata ) , Murphy 
milkvetch ( Astragalus camptop us) . and Torrey's blazing-star 
( Mentzelia torreyi var. acerosa ) , Packard's mugwort (Artemisia 
packardiae ) were removed in 1995, and in 1996, small-flowered 
gymnosteris ( Gymnosteris parvula i was recommended to be removed 
from the list. For all of these species, subsequent observations 
found them to be more abundant and having a wider distribution in 
Idaho than previously believed. 

There has been some concern for retaining both Murphy milkvetch 
and Torrey's blazing-star as BLM sensitive species. Both are 
endemic to Idaho. Torrey's blazing-star is restricted to 
specific soils, and known sites typically have low numbers of 
Torrey's blazing-star. A number of known Torrey's blazing-star 
populations are found in a limited portion of the Snake River 
Canyon between Bliss and King Hill. Murphy milkvetch is 
apparently more widely distributed and more abundant where found. 
Murphy milkvetch is likely to be removed from the BLM sensitive 
species list. 



12 



Literature Cited 

Barneby, R. C. 1989. Fabales (Vol. 3B) , Intermountain 
Flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, 
U.S.A. New York Botanical Garden, NY. 279 p. 

Conservation Data Center. 1992. Rare, threatened, and 
endangered plants and animals of Idaho (2nd ed.). 
Idaho Dept. Fish and Game, Boise, ID. 38 p. 

Conservation Data Center. 1994. Rare, threatened, and 
endangered plants and animals of Idaho (3rd ed.). 
Idaho Dept. Fish and Game, Boise, ID. 39 p. 

Cronquist, A. 1994. Asterales (Vol. 5), Intermountain 
Flora: Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, 
U.S.A. New York Botanical Garden, NY. 496 p. 

Cronquist, A., A. H. Holmgren, N. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal, 
and P. K. Holmgren. 1984. Intermountain Flora: 
Vascular plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. (Vol. 
4) , New York Botanical Garden, NY. 573 p. 

Davis, R. J. 1952. Flora of Idaho. Brigham Young 
University Press, Provo, UT. 836 p. 

DeBolt, A. and R. Rosentreter. 1988. An illustrated guide 
to the sensitive plants of the Boise District BLM. 
Technical Bull. 88-4, Idaho State Office, U.S. Dept. 
Interior, Bur. Land Mgmt. , Boise, ID. 94 p. 

Hitchcock, C. L. and A. Cronquist. 1976. Flora of the 
Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, 
Seattle, WA. 730 p. 

Moseley, R. K. 1994. Report on the conservation status of 

Le pidium pa pilliferum . Conservation Data Center, Idaho 
Dept. Fish & Game, Boise, ID. 35 p. 

Moseley, R. K. 1995. Report on the conservation status of 
Le pidium davisii . Conservation Data Center, Idaho 
Dept. Fish & Game, Boise, ID. 34 p. 

Moseley, R. K. and J. L. Reveal. 1995. The taxonomy and 

preliminary conservation status of Eriogonum shockleyi 
S. Wats, in Idaho. Conservation Data Center, Idaho 
Dept. Fish & Game, Boise, ID. 29 p. 



13 



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QL 84.2 .L352 no. 96-07 

88055606 
Sensitive plants of the 
Jarbidge Resource Area, 



Id 



BLDG50,ST-150A 
DENVER FEDERAL CENTER 

P.O. BOX 25047 
DENVER, COLORADO 80225 





Bureau of Land Management 

Idaho State Office 

3380 Americana Terrace 

Boise, Idaho 83706 

BLM/ID/PT-96/012+1150