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Full text of "The annals and magazine of natural history : zoology, botany, and geology"

THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZLNE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 



INCLUDING 



ZOOLOGY, BOTANY, and GEOLOGY. 



(UEl.VG A CONTINUATION OF THE 'ANNALS ' COMBINED WITH LOUDON AND 
CHAIvLESWORTH's ' MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY.') 



CONDUCTED BY 

WILLIAM CARKUTHERS, Ph.D., F.R.S., F.L.S., F.G.S., 
ARTHUR E. SHIPLEY, M.A., Sc.D., F.R.S., F.Z.S., 

AND 

WILLIAM FRANCIS, F.L.S. 



VOL. XV.— EIGHTH SERIES 




LONDON: 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY TAYLOR AND FRANCIS 

SOT,T) BY SIMIKIN, MARSHALL, UAMILTON, KENT, AND CO., LD. ; 
BAILLIERK, PAllIS : AND HODGES, FIGGIS, AND CO., DUBLIN. 

1915. 



"Omnes res creatnc sunt diviiipe sa|)jcntia" ct putenti;v teste?, divitiiv felicitatis 
hmnaiiic: — ex liaruui u.sii bonitas Creatoris; ex pulcliritudine sajneutia Domini ; 
ex oeconoiiiia in canservatione, proportione, renovatione, ^otentia majestatis 
elucet. Earuuijitluiue indagfltio ab liominibus sibi relictis semper a?stiiiiata ; 
a vere eruditfs et sapientibus semper exrultw ; male doetis et barbaris semper 
inimica fuit." — Linn^us. 

"Quel que soifc le prineipcde la vie nnimale, il ne (kiit qu'oiivrir lesyeux pour 
voir qu'elle est le dhef-d'eeuvre de la Toiite-pui.ssance, et le but auquel se rappor- 
tent toutejj ses operations." — ^Biiuckneu, Theorie du St/deme Animal, Leyden, 
1767. 

The sylvan powei-s 

Obey oujj'euniinons; from their deepest dells 

Tlie Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mount;vin-t]iyme 

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deeji : the Naiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles. 

Where peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us imlock their secret stores 

And pay theii' cheerful tribute. 

J. Tavi.or, yvrfHch, 1818. 




CONTENTS OF VOL. XV. 

EIGHTH SERIES.] 



NUMBER 85. 

Page 

I. Notes from the Gattv Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. — 
No. XXXVII. By Prof. "M'lxTOSU, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 
(Plates I.-III.) 1 

II. Four new Delias and a new Ornilhoptera from the Angi Lakes, 
Arfak Mountains, North New Guinea, coll. Messrs. Pratt & Sons. 

By J. J. JoiCEY, F.L.S., and A. Noakes, F.E.S. (Plates IV.-VL). o9 

IIL Notes on Fossorial Hvmeaoptera. — XV. By Rowland E. 
TuBNEB, F.Z.S., F.E.S. . . . ! G2 

IV. Oq the British Species of Haliphis, Latreille, related to Hali- 
plus ruficolUs, De Geer, with some Remarks upon H. fulvicol/is, 
Erichson, and H. fwcatus, Seidlitz. By Fcaxk Balfour-Brownk, 
M.A.(Oxon. et Cantab.), F.R.S.E., F.Z.S., Lecturer in Entomology 
in the Department of Zoology, Univer.sity of Cambridge. (Plates 
VII.-VIII.) 97 

V. A Collection of Fishes from Lagos.. By C. Tate Regax, M.A. 124 

VI. Ants from North and Central Australia, collected by G. F. 
Ilill— Part I. By W. C. Crawi.ey, B.A 130 

VII. Notes on EmhaUoniira, with Descriptions of new Species. 

By Uldfield Thomas 137 

VIII. The Pycuogonida collected by the ' Gauss ' in the Antarctic 
Regions, 1901-3. — Preliminary Report. By T. V. Hodgson .... 141 

IX. On the Swamp-Rats (Otomys) of Ea.st Africa. By Guy 
DOLLMAN 149 

X. Two new Species of Leuconoe. By Oldfield Thoma.s .... 170 

XI. Notes on and Descriptions of Delia-i. By the Hon. Walter 
Rothschild, F.R.S., Ph.D 172 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 180 



iv CONTENTS. 

Page 
NUMBER 86. 



The Early Stages of Paltostoma schineri, Williston [Diptera, 
roceridceX' By Hugh Scott, M.A. (Cantab.), F.L.S.,F.E.S., 



xir. 

Blepharoceri(i(e^\^. 

Curator iu Eutomolojn- iii the University of Cambvidp-e. With a 
Description of the Female of the same Specie*, bv C. G. Lamb, 
M.A., B.Sc, Clare College, Cambridge. (Plates IX.-XI.) 181 



XIII. Descriptions of new Freshwater Fishes from Sierra Leone. 

By G. A. BouLEXGER, F.R.S 202 

XIV. Notes on Carides. By L. A. Borradaile, M.A., Lecturer 
on Zoology in the University of Cambridge ; Fellow, Dean, and 
Lecturer of Selwyn College 205 

XV. New Dragonflies (Odonata) of the Subfamily LibeUulince 
from Sierra Leoue, W. Africa. Bv Dr. F. Eis, Rheiuau, Switzer- 
land '. 213 

XVI. Description of a new Indian Scorpion (Charmus indicus, 

sp. n. By Stanley Hirst 224 

XVII. On Bats of the Genera Nyctalus, Tyhnyderis, and Pqn- 
strellus. By Olbfield Thomas 225 

XVIII. Ants from North and South- West Australia (G. F. Hill, 
Rowlaud Turner) and Christmas Island, Straits Settlements. — 
Part II. By W. C. Crawley, B.A 232 

XIX. Report on the Annelida Polychseta collected in the North 
Sea and adjacent parts by the Scotch Fishery Board Vessel 
' Goldseeker.' — Part IV. Goniadidae to Spiouidse. By James W. 
Pryde, M.A., Walker Trust Research Scholar, Gatty Marine 
Laboratory, St. Andrews, and now 2nd Lieut, in the " Black Watch." 239 

XX. Note on the Mouth-parts in a Species of Poli/pla.r (Anoplura) 
and on the Relationship between Anoplura and Mallophaga. By 
Bruce F. Cummings, British Museum (Natural History) 256 

Geological Society 260 



NUMBER 87. 

XXI. Descriptions and Records of Bees.— LXV. By T. D, A. 
Cockerell, University of Colorado 261 

XXII. Notes on the Tahanid<s of the Australian Region. By 
Gertrude Ricardo 2"0 

XXUI. Notes on Degeneration in the Teeth of Oxen and Sheep. 
By J. Wilfrid Jackson, F.G.S. (Assistant-Keeper, Manchester 
Museum) 291 



CONTENTS. V 

Page 

XXIV. New Species of Ileterocora from Dutch New Guinea. By 

J. J. JoiCEY, F.L.S., F.E.S., and G. Taluot, F.E.S. (Piute XII.) . 295 

XXV. Upper Silurian Foraminifera of Gothland. By John 
Smith. (I'iate XIII.) ^01 

XXVI. The Holotype of Ammothea carolinensis, Leach (i'ycno- 
gunida). By W. T. Calman, D.Sc 310 

XXVII. Brief Descriptions of new Thysanoptera. — V. By 
HiCHARD 8. Bagxall, F.L.S., F.E.S 315 

XXVIII. Notes on the Apiche (Ilymenoptera) in the Collection 
of the British Museum, witli Descriptions of new Species. By 
Geoffrey Meade-Waldo, 3I.A 325 

XXIX. A new Shrew of the Genua Blarinella from Upper Burma. 

By Oldfield Thomas 335 

Geological Society 337—340 



NUMBER 88. 

XXX. Descriptions and Records of Bees. — LXVI. By T. D. A. 
CocKERELL, University of Colorado 341 

XXXI. On some of the External Characters of Cpioffcile henndtii, 
Gray. By R. I. Pocock, F.R.8., Superintendent of the Zoological 
Society's Gardens. (Plate XIV.) 351 

XXXII. On the Genera Eglisia, Callostraaim, Mesalia, Turri- 
tellojjais, and Tacky rhynchus. By Edgar A. Smith, I.S.O 360 

XXXIII. A Parasitic Oligochsete, and other Inhabitants of the 
Gill-chambers of Land-crabs. By II. A. Bayi.is, B.A 378 

XXXIV. The Penis-bone, or "Baculum," as a Guide to the 
Classification of certain Squirrels. By Oi.dfield Thomas 383 

XXXV. On some Pteropine Bats from S'ulcan and Dampier 
Islands, off theN.E. Coast of New Guinea. By Oldfield Thomas. 387 

XXXVI. On some Australian McdacodermirlfB and Ctirculionida 
collected by Mr. G. E. Bryant. By Arthur M. Lea 389 

XXXVII. The Geographical Races of CiteUus fulvus. By 
Oldfield Thomas 421 



Proceedings of the Geological Society 424 



VI CONTENTS. 

NUMBER 89. 

XXXVIII. Notes on the Coleopterous Family Dennesticlce, and 
Descriptions of some new Forms in the British Museum. By 
Gn.BEKT J. Arrow 425 

XXXIX. On some Australian Malacodermidce and Curculionidfe 
collected by Mr. G. E. Bryant. By Arthur M. Lea 462 

XL. New Oriental Pentatomoidea. By E. Bergroth, C.M.Z.S. 481 

XLI. Notes on the Genus Xi/ctophilus. By Oldfield Thomas . 493 

XLII. On a minute Shrew from Lake Baikal. By Oldfield 
Thomas '. 499 

XLTIL Notes on Costa Rican Heterocera described in the 
'Annals and Magazine of Natural History.' By W. Schaus 501 

XLIV. A few undescribed Rhynchota. By W. L. Distant. . . . 503 

XLY. On the African Shrews belonging to the Genus Crocidura. 
By Guy Dollman 507 

XLYI. On a small Collection of Symphyla from Algeria. By 
Richard S. Bagxall, F.L.S -527 



NUMBER 90. 

XLYII. Descriptions and Records of Bees. — LXVH. By 
T. D. A. Cockerel.-, University of Colorado " . 529 

XLVIII. Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — XVI. By Rowlaxd 
E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S 537 

XLIX. On Three new Bats obtained by Mr. \yilloaghby Lowe 
in the Sudan. By Oldfield Thomas 559 

L. On the African Shrews belonging to the Genus Crocidura. — II. 
By Guy Dollman 562 

- LI, Notes on Bats of the Genus Coleura. By Oldfield 
Thomas 576 

LII. Note on British Fossil Species of Apodemus. By Martin 
A. C. HiNTON 580 

LIII. The Holotvpe of N;/mphon r/racilwcs, Miers (Pycnogouida). 
By W. T. Calman; D.Sc . .! .584 

UV. Brief Descriptions of new Thysanoptera. — VI. By Richard 
S. Bagnall, F.L.S 588 

Proceedings of the Geological Society 598, 599 

Index 600 



^u 



PLATES IN VOL. XV. 

P1.ATE I. 



II. i Te 



.'erebellidae, Chaetopteridae, etc. 

m.) 

IV., 

^ . \ New Delias aud a new Omitlioptera. 
VI. 1 

■ \ Species of Ilaliplus. 
VIII. I ^ ^ 

IX.. 

X. > Paltostoma scbiuen. 

XI.) 

XII. New Heterocera from Dutch New Guinea 

XIII. Gothland Foraminifera. 

XIV. Cynogale bennettii. 



ERRATA. 

Page 56, after line 1, the description refers to Macrochfeta cJavicomi'^. 

58, in the description of Plate III., fig. 5 refers to Prceyeria^ the 
rest of the tigs. (6-9) refer to Macrochceta clavicornis. 
134, line 2(S,for Eur. read Em. 
130, line 22, for Mynnoiphyma read Mynnophytna. 



THE ANNALS 



AND 



MAGAZIiNE OF NATURAL niSTORY. 

[KIGHTH SERIES.] 



" per litora sparfjite muspum, 

Naia<1e8, e.t cireiim vitreos considite fontea : 
I'ollice vir<;ineo teneros hie carpite Dores: 
Floribiis ct pietum, divse. replete canistnim. 
At vos, o Nyiuphie Crnterides. ite sub uiulas ; 
Ite, rec-urvato variata corallia trunco 
V'ellite museosis e riipiluis, et milii conchas 
Ferte, De<e pehijji, et piiifjui conohylia succo." 

N.Parthenii Giiitiiiet/asi, Eel. 1. 



No. 85. JANUARY 1915. 



I. — Notes from the Gatfi/ Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. 
—No. XXXVII. By Prof. M'Intosh, Al.D., LL.D., 
F.R.S., &c. 

[Plates l.-III.] 

1. Adiliiions to and Remarks on the British Spionidoi and Cirrattilidce, 

■viz. on Spio martinensis, Me^siiil, Neriiiides longiro4ris, De Quatre- 
fuges, N. tridentata, Soutliern, Ptdi/ilnra cceca, (Ersted, Aonides 
paudhranchiatAi, Southern, Chectozoxe alata, Southern, C. liiUariemis, 
Soiithi^i'n, and Macrnctirt'ta clavicurnis, Sars. 

2. On the iiiitish Terebellidce. 

3. On tlu^ 7e/Tis//«/rtMlredged hv II.M.S. 'Porcupine' in 18G9 and 1870, 

and by the ' Kiii>,rht Errant ' in 188:?. 

4. On the CJiadopteiidie, Amplnctenida-, and AmpharetidcB dredged in 

the (iLilfof St. Lawrence, Canada, by Dr. Wliiteaves in 1871-73. 

5. On the Ainplmrelidce and Terebellidce dredged by Canon A. M. Norinaa 

off Norway. 
G. On the Occurrence of one of the Pisionidce at St. Andrews. 

1. Additions to and Remarks on the British Spionidie and 
Cirratulidte. 

The careful researches of Mr. Southern, especially on tlie 
West Coast, of Ireland, a region so rich in rarities, lias 
resulted in several additions to the above families, aa well 
as to others. Thus Spio martinensis, Mcsnil, has been 
.1////. .C- Mag. X. flisf. Ser. «. I'ol. xv. 1 



2 Tiof. MTntosli's ^'o!esfrom the 

procured on both shores of Ireland, a form in which the 
luad has a rounded median lobe projecting in front, supported 
by two lateral (pcristomial) lobes. Two or four e3'es occur 
at the posterior border, a short median tentacle on the pro- 
stoniiuui, and a median lidge ends posteriorly in a sliort 
process. The body is like that of a typical Spio, is about 
3 cm. long and 1-2 mm. broad, with 85 to 90 segments 
(Mesnil), ending in a dorsal anus with four foliaceous 
cirri. The colour is of a salmon-tint, with red lines from 
the blood-vessels, and dark brown pigment in transverse 
rows on the segments. The first foot bears a ventral 
tuft of finely tapered bristles with very narrow wings, 
and a large branchia which overlaps that of the opposite 
side. At the tenth foot (PI. I. fig. 6) the ventral 
lamella is elongated vertically, its upper margin being 
deepest, and separated by a narrow cleft from t!ie dorsal 
lamella, which fuses with the edge of the branchia. The 
bristles are typical. Winged hooks appear on the eleventh 
foot, and they have a bold curve at the junction of shaft 
and neck, then diminish upward to the main fang, Mhich is 
long, sharp, and comes off at more than a right angle with 
the neck. A single spike occurs on the crown above it. 

In the thirty-first" Notes ^Mn the 'Annals'* for February 
1909, some remarks were made on "a form appaiently 
falling under the Nerinides of JNIesnil,'' from the ' Porcu- 
pine ' Expedition of 1870, and which had long l)een named 
ScolecoltjAs, H. This form, as Mr. Southern f truly says, 
is not a Nerinides, and differs from two species of Nerinides 
Avhich he has been fortunate in securing on the West Coast 
of Ireland, viz. Nerinides longirostris^ De Quatrefages %, as 
more cleaily desciibed by De St. Joseph §, and Nerii.ides 
tridenlata, Southern. The former, which reaches 10 cm. in 
length and 8 mm. in breadth, at first sight mimics Nerine 
foliusa, Sars, yet differs in having a branchia on the first 
segment besides a dorsal and a ventral setigerous process 
Avith bristles. The head is acutely pointed and has a median 
ridge or keel, running back to the third segment^ with four 
eyes in a scjuare; whilst the peri.-toniial segment bears a 
pair of short golden-yellow tentacles, each with a ciliated 
groove. Hooks with a single spike above the main fang 
a|)pearin the ventral division between the thirty-third or forty- 
fifth segment, and are accompanied by a few wingless bristles. 

• Ser. 8, vol. iii. p. 175. 

+ Proc. R. Irish Acad. vol. xxxi. no. 47, p. 97. I am indebted to 
Mr. Soutliem tor kindly foiwardiug examples of his new and rare forms, 
t Annel. i. p. 444, and previously iu 1S43 (Mag. Zool.). 
§ Ann. Sc. nat. 7« ser. t. xvii. p. 74, pi. iv. tig.«. 80-90. 



(jutiij Marine Lahoratorij , St. A/uIreict. 3 

The focljly winged bristles persist in tlie dorsal division to tlic 
])Osterior end, but no hooks aeeonipany tlieni. In the last 
twelve or tliirtcen segments the br.meliite dimiiiish and dis- 
appear. The seeond spceies^ iV, /r}t/e?)fa/a, is sniaUer (1 inrh), 
with two j)airs of eyes arran<:e(l nearly in a transverse line 
on the spindle-shaped head, and a pair of short, thick, deep 
chocolate tentacles. Tiie first setigerous segment carries 
only a ventral tuft of capilhiry bristles, and thus diHers from 
the foregoing witli abranchia on the first foot, as it also does 
in the piesenee of winged hooks with two sj)ikes above the 
main fang on the fifteen; h segment ventrally. Hranehiie 
commence on the seeond foot. Mr. Southern observes that 
this species frequents laminarian roots, whereas A^. longi. 
rostris is found in clean sand. 

Another form, Pohjdora c(xca, CL]rsted, whieli some have 
confounded with Pah/dora jlava, has been procured from 
diverse localities on Englisii, Scottish, and Irish shores. ]n 
general aspect it lesenddos P. Jlava, but is distinguished ])y 
the presence of stout aeicular bristles in the dorsal division 
of the foot from the twenty-fifth segment in front of the anal 
" sucker" backward. The strong bristles of the fifth sejjment 
resemble those of p. y/c/tv/, with a bold hook at the tip and 
no spur. 

]\Ir. Southern records Polydora giardi, Mesnil, a form with 
a s|)ur below the terminal hook of the great bristles of the 
fifth segment. The examination of a miriute example has 
not proved the necessity for including it as yet as a separate 
species. 

Aouides paucibranchiala, Southern, a small form from the 
T^'est Coast oF Ireland, differs from the common Aouides 
oxijcephala^ Sars, in having only ten or eleven pairs of 
branchiie instead of 22-'23 pairs. The tail has four cirri, 
whereas in A. o.ryccpJtala the caudal region has dorsally two 
short conical loi)es, and \enf rally eight smaller conical cirri. 
As the result of Mr. Southern's special attention to the 
Cirratulidje in the rich region of the West Coast of Ireland, 
two new species of Clicetozune have been found, viz. C. alata 
and C. killariensis , both very small species ; yet both were 
found mature. The former has a conical head and a pair of 
deeply-placed eyes. The tentacles are large, and each is 
aceomi)anied by a lateral ciirus. Capillary l)ristles occur in 
all the dorsal tufts, the shorter forms with fiattened tips. 
Hooks appear ventrally in the twenty-first segment, and 
capillary bristles are always piesent in the ventral division. 
The conical head of Cli<Etozone killariensis is devoid of eyes, 
and the tentacles and their lateral ciiri are present in front 
of the first bristled segment. Anus dorsal, with a ventral 

I* 



4 Prof. M'lntosh'ri Nuies from the 

lobe beneatli. lu the anterior and middle regions of the 
body both dorsal and ventral divisions of the foot have only 
capillary bristles. Hooks appear ventrally on the fifty-sixth 
segment and dorsally on the sixty-first (Southern). The 
dorsal hooks resemble flattened bristles with hooked tips. 

2. On the British Terebellidae. 

In Dr. Johnston's ' Catalogue of Non-Parasitical "Worms 
in the British Museum,' twelve species of Terebellids are 
entered, but four of these refer only to two species, viz, 
Terebella lit t oralis and Terebella conchilega to the common 
Lanice conchiliya, and T. nebulusa and T. tuherculuta to 
T. nebulosa, Mont. On tiie other hand, it is pos>ible that 
his Terebella constrictor includes two species. In addition 
to the forms mentioned, Dr. Johnston^s list comprised 
Amphitrite cirrata, Amphitrite jolmstoni, Nicolea venustula, 
Leprtea textrix, N. maculutu, I'helepus cincinnatus, and 
Terebellides stroenii. 

In his well-known 'Annulata Polychata' of Spitzbergen, 
Greenhind, Iceland, and Scandinavia, Malmgreu in 1867 
recorded thirty-one species ; but several are synonymous, 
so that there were really about twenty-eight — not, after all, 
a great number from an area so extensive, and one that had 
been so frequently searched by skilful zoologists. 

The rich and comparatively unexplored region of the west 
of Ireland, so far as regards Polychats, has lately produced, 
by the broad views of the Irish Fisheries' Department and 
in ]\lr. Southern's skilful and energetic liands, no less than 
twenty species of Terebellids, or double the number entered 
in the ' Catalogue of the British Museum.' Several of these 
are additions to the British Pauna, and will be dealt with on 
a future occasion. 

In the present preliminary notice of this important 
family from British waters, the number approaches that of 
Maluigren from the more extended northern area, and 
it is probable that future researches will make additions 
to the list ; indeed, several forujs are at present under 
consideration. 

The first British species is Amjjhitrite cirrata, O. F. Miiller, 
which ranges from Devon to Shetland. The cephalic plate is 
comparatively adherent, for the dorsal collar is limited, and 
the edge externally bends over into that of the supra-oral fold, 
the whole plate being more limited than usual. A sub- 
oral fold occurs within, and externally is the lower lip on 



Gatty Marine Lahoratori/^ St. Andrews. 5 

tlie ventral border — the dorso-lateral coiitinuatiou of the lip 
heariiifi^ tlie first group of braiiehice. Tiie tentacles have the 
normal structure and a deej) groove. The segment follow in<>- 
the foregoing has no distinct shield^ the anterior edge 
ventrally forming a free border and ending laterally on each 
side in a rounded free flap. A second free anterior rim 
follows, also ending laterally in a rounded flap, opposite the 
second branchia. In the middle line is a large shield, which 
sometimes indents the segment l)ehind it. Opposite the third 
branchia and the first bristle-tuft is a third rounded external 
flap, which passes further dorsalward than the other two. It 
abuts on a narrower shield than the one in front. 

The body is enlarged anteriorly and gradually tapered 
posteriorly to the terminal anus. Dorsally it is rounded, 
ventrally are about ten to twelve shields anteriorly, and 
then a median groove passes to the posterior end. Seventeen 
pairs of vertical flattened setigerous processes occur ante- 
riorly, the first being in a line w ith the last branchial tuft. 
The bristles are dull golden and in two series — a longer and 
shorter ; the former are deeply inserted, have sln.fts nearlv of 
uniform diameter throughout, and have comparatively sliort 
tapering ti) s with wings which are broad at the commence- 
ment, but taper ofi" distally. The condition of the tip, 
however, is variable, apparently from injury, since many ate 
short with short and broal wings and tips that taper litile, 
the result, in all probability, of injury and repair. The 
shorter series has winged and tapering tips, though a ^e\\ at 
the edge present short (broken?) tips with broad wings. A 
minute papilla occurs on the ventral side of the setigerous 
process, from the second to the eighth biistled segment. 
Moreover, just below the })apilla a little flap is developed at 
the dorsal end of each hook-row, and sloping backward 
behind it from the first bristled segment (which has no 
hooks) to the last, where, however, it is less distinct. No 
hooks occur opposite the first bristle-bundle ; a single row 
is present on the next foot, and for several feet thereafter, 
but the eighth has two rows. The hooks have in lateral 
view about four teeth above the main fang, and the posterior 
outline curves forward to the crown and has a projecting 
process of the ba>e inferiorly. The base lias a gentle curve, 
slopes from behind downw.ird and forwaid, and an eminence 
occurs on the anterior curve below the main fang. Striie 
pass from the teeth on the crown to the posterior border 
of the neck. The broad ridges for the hooks are largo 
in the bristled region, but thereafter they diminish to 
short lamcllcCj and then to low ridges toward the tail. The 



fi Prof. ]\riiitosh's jyotea from the 

posterior hooks have smaller (shorter) hases, and the posterior 
outline is less curved toward the crown. 

The second species is AmpUitriie figulus, Dalyell ^, not 
tincomnion in British waters as well as in more northern seas. 
Its C('[)l)alic region ditt'ers from that of A. c'lrvuta in the 
great development of the fold in front of the tentacles, 
which forms an arch over the mouth. At its outer edge, on 
each side, it bends backward to become continuous witii the 
broad dark brownish fold behind the tentacles, which, how- 
ever, in this form is limited in extent, for the median 
portion is narrow. This structure of the ])osterior fold is 
characteristic. The mass of grooved and frilled tentacles 
springs from the hollow between these arches, and forms a 
centre of very active functions during the life of the animal, 
their colour then being pale orange or pink. The projecting 
dorsal portion of the arch or lip is d;irk brown inferiorly. 
Many cells and granules occur in their interior. Below 
the dorsal arch is the mouth, and beneath is a globular 
process followed by the lower lip, which is separated by 
a gi'oove on each side from the folds or arches. Behind 
the lower lip ventrally is a well-marked collar with a 
crenated anterior border stretching completely aci'oss the 
ventral surface in the line of the first branchia. It has a 
rounded free edge dorso-laterally, and a median and two 
smaller crenations at its posterior border; and these probably 
usher in the change seeu in the next ring, which has a distinct, 
though small, median scute or pad. 

The btjdy is 6-8 inches in length, enlarged in front and 
tapering toward the posterior end, as usual in the family. 
The segments number from ninety to a hundred, and of these 
twenty-four bear bristles — the first being opposite the third 
or last pair of branchiae. The dorsum anteriorly is, in the 
preparations, tessellated somewhat as in Sculibregma, each 
of the two rings in the segments being crossed antero- 
posteriorly bv folds which cut the ring into narrow spaces. 
On the ventral side of the second branchia is a papilla, the 
forerunner of the setigerous j)rocess which follows in the 
next segment. Moreover, below each setigerous process is 
a small papilla, as iu A. cirrata, but these continue over 
sixteen segments instead of the few in A. cirrata. The 
bristle-tuft is situa*^ed at the posterior part of one ring, whilst 
the following ling lies between the bristle-tufts. This 
arrangement, however, extends only over thirteen or fourteen 
rings, viz. from the interval between the second and third 
* A. hritnnen of Stimpson? 



GaUy Marine Laboratory ^ St. Andrews. 7 

branclii?R backward. Then the riiifjs are marked by trans- 
verse furrows, each being thus divided into two, whilst 
further backward, as the space between the bristles increases, 
into a larger number of rings. In some cases tlie posterior 
lamelife for the hooks are asymmetrical, an intermediate 
lamella occurring on one side only. The posterior segments 
show less regularity in their narrow transverse dorsal furrows. 
Posteriorly the body diminishes and ends in a terminal 
anus. 

Behind the first distinct scute or ventral shield already 
mentioned in connection with the mouth is a narrow elon- 
gated one, foUoAved by thirteen others, those immediately 
succeeding the very narrow one gradually though slightly 
increasing in antero-posterior diameter to the eleventh or 
twell'th, whilst the last three or four are rudimentary, being 
rounded or shield-shaped median elevations, gradually dis- 
appearing to end in a moniliform and somewhat elevated 
median ventral ridge, Avhich by-aud-by is lost in the groove 
posteriorly. 

The branchia? are three in number, of a fine dark red 
colour, and slightly mottled under a lens. They coil and 
twist actively under examination. The first is the largest, 
the third the smallest. Each springs from a cylindrical 
base, which soon divides dichotomously, though occasionally 
a small tuft of three short filaments may be found on the 
main stem of the first branchia. The terminal branches are 
long and tapering, and in life these give the aspect of gills 
formed of simple filaments. Each filament is enveloped in 
a transparent structureless cuticle, whilst the centre is 
marked by coherent granular tissue arranged in a clo?e 
series of transverse rows, so as to give the whole a finely 
barred aspect. No distinct longitudinal fibres are apparent, 
though in some a longitudinal canal is seen. In tlie basal 
region are many large compound bodies, the " blood- 
globules ^' of Williams. 

A small conical papilla situated in the groove close to the 
exterior of the second pair of branchiae marks the com- 
mencement of the setigerous processes, though it lias no 
bristles, and it is in a line with the second post-oral fold — in 
the centre of which is the first small shield or scute. The 
first bristle-tuft is opposite the last branchia, only a short 
interval separating it from the base of the organ. It springs 
from a setigerous papilla at the dorsal edge of the ridge for 
the hooks. The bristles form a vertical row of considerable 
depth, and in structure agree with the succeeding tufts, 
no rudimentary forms marking the commencement of the 



8 Prof. M'liitosh'rf Notes from the 

series, as iu various groups. Each tuft consists of a longer 
series with stout, straight, and long shafts, the free portion 
of which is slightly diminished in diameter toward the 
com men cement of the winged tip, which is finely tapered 
and curved. The tips of the bristles are directed upward 
and backward in their normal condition. Tiie shorter series 
consists of tiiose with shorter and less tapered winged tips 
■which have an accessory terminal blade carried at an angle 
to that beneath, and is broad at the base and tapered to a 
slender, slightly curved tip. Such a bristle approaches that 
of certain Sigalionidse, such as Stheneluis jejfreysii. The 
structure of these bristles remains the same from the first 
tuft to the last, but the setigerous processes increase iu 
prominence in their progress backward. 

No hooks or their homologues occur iu the ridge running 
downward from the first bristle-tuft, and the ridge itself is 
intermediate in character. The ridge from the second pair 
of bristles presents a lateral border and a median linear 
elevation containing the single row of hooks, the ridge 
terminating ventrally iu a rounded border at some distance 
from the ventral shield, the ridges which follow gradually 
approaching the ventral scutes or shields until, at the eighth, 
they touch. The third ridge has a double row of hooks, but 
they appear to be less regular than those which follow. As 
a rule, the ridges for the hooks are longest in front, and 
diminish a little toward the twenty-fourth bristle-bundle. 
Each leaves the setigerous process as a slightly flattened 
ridge with an anterior, a median, and a posterior fillet, the 
median bearing the rows of hooks. On the cessation of the 
bristles the thick and rather long ridge for the hooks 
increases in prominence and presents a free edge dorsally 
and viutrally. It diminishes in depth while increasing iu 
prominence posteriorly. The rows of hooks in life are 
terminated ventrally by a brownish speck. In the posterior 
processes the hooks are in a single row. 

The hooks, which commence at the second bristle-tuft and 
continue to the posterior end, differ from those of A cirrata 
in the less oblique base, and iu the curves of the anterior 
outline below the great fang. Usually four teeth occur in 
lateral view on the crown above the fang, but when examined 
iu front the crown appears to have several transverse rows. 

The next and third form resembles very closely Amphitrite 
groenlandica, Malnigren, and is founl both on the British 
and Canadian shores. The branchiae are slightly branched, 
and arise by a short stem, which breaks up into a number of 



Galhj Marine Luhoratory^ St. Andrtws. q 

sim])le branches. The liooks approach those of A. cirrata, 
hut have different curves, with two teeth above the main 
fang. 

Another British species, Amphitr'tte affinis, Malmgren, the 
fourth form, has l)een found on various parts of the coast, 
and will be alluded to more particularly under the forms 
dredged by the ' Porcupine.' 

Amphitrite gracilis, Grube (P/njse/ia scyUa (Sav.), De 
Quatrefages), the fifth form, is ehiefiy a southern type which 
also extends to Ireland. The dorsal cephalic collar forms a 
small crenated rim posteriorly, and passes downward at each 
side to join the lower edge of the supra-oral arch. The ten- 
tacles which take origin from it are numerous and have the 
typical grooved structure. They are of a pale cream-colour 
and partly translucent. Its front edge terminates in a 
prominent spout-shaped arch over the mouth, the sides 
inferioily sloping obliqiiely to their attachment. The lower 
lip is formed by a transverse fold, and within it is a small 
tongue-like fold or eminence. No eyes are visible in the 
preparation behind the cephalic collar. 

The body bas a hundred and twenty to a hundred and 
forty-six segments, and is characterized by its great propor- 
tional length, ai.d slenderness posteriorly, as well as by its 
pale cream-colour here and there enlivened by the blood- 
vessels and the brownish-red specks posteriorly. The 
enlarged anterior end has further a close series of transverse 
ridges, which have a minutely tessellated appearance from 
isolated glandular masses ai-ranged transversely. These 
glands have, besides the granules, clear refracting cells and 
globules. The separation of the longitudinal dorsal muscular 
fibres in this region also increases the tessellated aspect. 
Beliind the bristled region the body gradually narroAvs and 
ends in a slender tail with a terminal anus surrounded 
by marginal papillae. The dorsal surface is convex, the 
ventral flattened anteriorly and grooved posteriorly. The 
glandular shields or plates in front are about twelve in 
number, with a few (three or four) additional small median 
processes. Behind the region of tlie shields is a median 
groo\e with a prominent ridge on each side. At first lateral, 
these riiiges gradually pass to the mid-ventral line, forming 
posteriorly a raised belt with a median fissure, then widen a 
little toward the tail, where the papillae for the hooks occur 
in the line of each moniliform ridge, and gradually diminish 
as the tip is reached. Whilst the seginents in front have 



10 Prof M'lntosli's Notes from the 

several narrow rings dorsally — giving a finely ribbed aspect 
to the surface, — the narrow posterior region has only the 
scgmcnt-jnnction separating each smooth segment. 

Behind the lower lip is ai)])a]'ently a segment with a 
narrow ventral shiekl. The next bears the first and larger 
pair of branchiae, each s))ringing from a short stalk which 
rapidly gives oft" four main divisions; these split up after a 
brief course into a snb-dichotoraously divided tuft with 
comparatively short terminal brandies — the whole forming 
adense arbuscle. The second and smaller pair is on the 
next segment and has a similar structure. Occasionally a 
specimen has three branchiae on one side and two on the 
other, the third being a small independent stem behind the 
second. 

Ventralward of the second branchial stalk is a small 
conical papilla which represents the first setigerous process, 
though it has no bristles. The next setigerous process has 
a well-developed tuft of bristles, which are pale, translucent, 
rather brittle, and in two groups; the longer forms have 
long, straight, deeply inserted shafts, which are nearly 
cylindrical to the commencement of the wings, from which 
they taper to a delicate point. The wings have a charac- 
teristic expansion at the base, and are narrow distaliy and 
show no serrations. The shorter bristles have peculiarly 
curved, tapering, serrated tips without distinct rings. 
Whilst the two setigerous processes behind the branchiae 
remain isolated and simple, the third presents two processes, 
viz. tlie setigerous and an antero- ventral papilla, and this 
continues in the six subsequent feet. The following (from 
the tenth) setigerous processes, which are somewhat conical, 
though antero-posteriorly flattened, remain simple, and the 
first (tenth) of tliis (posterior) series has a small papilla 
below it at the end of the hook-row. There are twenty 
pairs of bristle-tufts. 

The first hooks occur opposite the third setigerous 
process, that is, the second behind the branchiiv, and they 
occupy the summit of the elevated ridge which extends from 
the bristle-tuft downward to the ventral groove, and cover 
in short the external aspect of the ventral longitudinal 
muscles. They are in a single row in the first six segments, 
but the rest are in a double row% and this continues to the 
commencement of the last thirty. After the cessation of 
the bristles the uncinigerous processes form transverse 
crescents in each segment, gradually, however, becoming 
smaller until on the slender terminal region in front of the 
tail they form a series of papillae, so that the ventral ridge 



Cidthj yiar'uia LahonUortj, St. Andrews. Jl 

on oacli side is moniliform. The first liooks are distinguislied 
bv tlie great size of the main fang, ^\hieh has a crown of 
small hooks above it — al)out three being nsnally visible in 
lateral view, and l)y the comparatively small size and obTKinc 
nature of the base, Mliich has above its dorsal angle an 
abrupt incurvation, whilst on its anterior edge it has a sharp 
point, for the attachment of a tendon, and a gentle incur- 
vation beneath it. The modified form of tlnse early hooks 
is indicated by the imperfect condition of those at the end 
of the row. ]5y-and-by they form a donble row and 
assume the typical condition in which the great fang is pro- 
portionally less, the base less elongated, its lower edge more 
convex, and the curve below the point on the anterior edge 
less pronounced. About four small hooks are visible above 
the great fang in lateral view. 

Polymnia nesidensis, Delle Chiaje, the sixth representative, 
is a smaller spe< ies than TerebcUa ■nelmlosa and of a firmer 
consistence, Avhich is found on both shores of Great Britain 
and Ireland. The cephalic region has a less developed 
dorsal collar than in T. nebulusa, and it is not usuallv folded 
backward as in the speeie.s mentioned, and, moreover, no eyes 
are present in many of the preparations. The upper lip in 
front of this forms a large frilled process, and the lower lip 
is also prominent. A median tongue-like process lies above 
and internal to the latter. In extreme protrusion of the 
mouth- parts some have the lower lip folded backward 
veutrally with a smaller and larger fold above it, whilst in 
others the lower lip projects downward and outward as a 
cyathiform process marked by a fold at each side. 

The body is comparatively small as compared with 
T. ne/mlosa, is convex and smooth dorsally, deeply grooved 
veutrally from the ventral shields almost to tlie tip of tlie 
tail, which in perfect examples has two longer median and 
two lateral cirri on the ventral surface, the rest of the vent 
being crenated or with short papilhe. The groove abuts on 
two rounded lateral ridges, probably marking the ventral 
longitudinal muscles, and biariiig the elevations or lamellae 
for the hooks. The segments are two-ringed. Two segments 
following that bearing the lower lip have a lamella at their 
outer edges veutrally, and are opposite the first and second 
branchiae. The anterior, indeed, olten stands out as a frill 
on the front edge of the shield. In all, about sixteen shields 
are present veutrally, and they bear traces of the two-ringed 
condition of the segments generally. They are narrow and 
transversely elongated in front, broad and transversely 
shortened posteriorly. 



12 Trot. Mcintosh's Notes from the 

The branchire are tlirce in number, the anterior l)eing tlie 
lar{2;cst, the second and tliird re^uhirly diniinisliing. In 
proportion to the size of the body they are somewhat larger 
than in T. ncbuhsa and they have a stiffer outline. They 
are diehotomously branched, and have very short terminal 
divisions — a distinctive feature when contrasted with 
T. nebulosa. 

The setigerous processes are seventeen in number^ the 
first occurring close to the base of the last branchiae. The 
bristles are long, translucent, slightly yellowish, and finely 
tapered, and, as usual, in two series, a shorter and longer. 
In the latter the wings are narrow' and indistinct, in the 
former they are broader and easily recognized, but they do 
not proceed to the finely tapered extremity of the bristle. 
A curvature of the tip occurs at the winged region. Little 
difference exists between the first bristles and the last^ except 
in the fewer number as contrasted with the middle groups. 

The rows of hooks commence on the second bristled 
segment, and they are comparatively short to the seventh 
bristle-bundle, the last ten of the region being longer. 
Moreover, whilst they form a single row in front, they are 
arranged in a double row posteriorly (eleven to twenty 
segments, Marenzeller), the great fang in each pointing to a 
median line between the rows. Behind the bristles the 
hooks are borne on an unciuigerous process or lamella, and 
form shorter rows than in front. These lamellae have a 
concave tiistal margin anteriorly, but posteriorly the tip is 
birid, and the processes diminish much toward the tip of 
the tail. 

The liooks somewhat resemble those of Polymnia nebulosa 
in general form, but are readily distinguished by the presence 
of a second tooth above the great fang and the somewhat 
shorter base. 

In Polymnia nebulosa, jSIontagu, the seventh species, which 
is found on both sides of Scotland, England, and Ireland, 
the cephalic region is distinguished by the great size of the 
upper collar or arch, and by its frilled inw^ard curve at each 
lower edge. Its upper surface is somewhat flattened, that 
is to say, only a shallow groove is present, the mass of 
tentacles springing from tlie posterior half near the rim. 
These tentacles are pale orange in life and spotted with 
white, so as to give them a barred appearance, and their 
movements are remarkable, for not only do they aid in the 
construction of the tube, but hoist the animals up the per- 
pendicular side of a glass vessel or in any direction^ and are 



Gattij Marine Laboratory ^ St. Andrewa. \'.\ 

coiitiniKiUy moving as a scries of coin|)lcx tlireads. All are 
deeply grooved. \\ luii the annelid is liiddeii amongst 
shells and tul'ts of CerainUnn, the long spreading tentacles 
resemble independent Nemcneans, and in large examples 
stretch nearly afoot from the body. Below the mouth is a 
transversely elongated fold, and then the broad lower lip 
■\vhieh ceases at the dorsal fold on each side. 

Behind the dorsal collar are a large number of dark 
pigment-spots, the so-called eyes. These are generally con- 
cealed by the posterior fold of the collar. In a small ^ai'iety 
met with under stones between tide-marks at St. Peter Port, 
Guernsey, they are both numerous and distinct, and, 
moreover, renurn in spirit. They f(.irm, in a large Irish 
example, a (conspicuous brown band below the collar. 

Body 9-10 inches or more in length and as thick as the 
little finger behind the bristles, soft and mobile, with 
numerous (60-90) narrow segments, the anterior region 
being enlarged aiul the ])osterior tapered to a comparatively 
large terminal anus with a crenate margin. Though the 
dorsum, as a lule, is convex, the preparations are generally 
marked by a slight median groove anteriorly. Ventrally, 
a deep median groove runs from one end to the other. In 
lai'ge exam|)les the swollen anterior end is tessellated, whilst 
in the smaller this is less evident. 

Each segment consists of two rings, one at the bristle- 
tuft and one in front of it doisally, and these are continued 
ventrally, the groove in the ridge for the hooks being 
opposite the brislle-tuft, and only a narrow space occurring 
between them (the ridges). Posteriorly, the segments are 
more definitely marked, the brvjader division containing the 
lamella for the hooks, a narrow ring being in front of it. 
Then the two rings are only indicated laterally above the 
lamellae for the hooks, and finally, for some distance at the 
tail, each segment is undivided, and, moreover, the segments 
become more and more minute as they ap|)roach the last, 
which is broader than those in front of it and has a minutely 
crenate margin. The ventral surface in this region is con- 
siderably diminished, whilNt the dorsal arch is increased. 
Th(! ventral glaiulular shields are narrow and long in front, 
broader and shorter from side to side from the filth back- 
M-ard, and they often present a median precess laterally in 
front of the i)oint of contact of the hook-row. They are 
usually fourteen or Miteen in number, the anterior narrow 
shields being ridged (two-ringed), the j)osterior flattened. 
Occasionally an abnormality occurs in the arrangement of 
the two rings anteriorly, the broad [)Osterior ring ceasing 
hke a Told in the middle line. 



14 Prof. M'lutosli's Xotesfrom the 

The brancliiie are three in miniher on each side, and have 
a dull red coU)nr spotted with wliite. The first pair are 
al)out 1 in. h)n<j; in hirji^e specimens, and arise from the 
second l)0(ly-sej;mcnt, winch lias a sj)ont-lilve fold at eacli 
side. The main stem is ottcn nnbranchcd for some distance, 
wliiist iu others (Uirge) a small l)ranch or two occnr close to 
the base. The whole organ is snb-dichotomously divided, 
the short terminal divisions giving a character to the mass, 
which appears to form a dense ai'buscle. In many of the 
divisions the branches spring from one side only, but this 
docs not appear to hold in the distal divisions. The ring at 
the base of the first branchia trends evenly away from it to the 
frill near the external margin of the mouth. A small papilla 
sometimes occurs close to the base of the second branchia, 
it may be only on one side; whilst ventralward. the anterior 
fillet of the segment has a free process like a flat papilla. 
(Jlose to the outer base of the thiid branchia is the first 
setigerous papilla, and a short distance ventralward is a 
similar free flattened process to that described on the 
previous segment. 

In young examples the brjinchise are comparatively simple, 
though the terminal divisions correspond in general struc- 
ture with that of the adult, and in a small littoral variety 
from St. Peter Port, Guernsey, the branchiai are likewise less 
bushy, though the terminal branches are ty))ical. 

The setigerous processes are seventeen in number, com- 
mencing, as indicated, at the third branchia and continuing 
for sixteen segments thereafter. Each is a somewhat 
flattened papilla with the bristles arranged in a vertical row 
in the centre. The fiist tufts of bristles are smaller, the 
bristles theniselves shortei', but they show two groups, as in 
the posterior, viz., a shorter series without evident wings, 
and a longer series also without evident wings, and with 
slightly curved and tap:red tips. In the middle of the 
bristled region the longer pale golden bristles have stout 
striated shatts of nearly equal diameter, and tapering tips 
with wings. Many of th( se seem to have been broken in 
life, and show regenerated (?) tips. The strite at the com- 
mencement of the wings are oblique. Tlie shorter bristles 
are more translucent, and have either no wings on the free 
portion or very narrow ones. 

The hooks conimence on the segment behind that de- 
scribed as having the triangular fold in a line with the last 
branchia — that is, they occur in the segment behind the 
branchiae. At fiist they are in a single row, but posteriorly 
in this region they form an alternate double row along the 



Gttttij Mitrine Labonifori/j St. Andreics. 1 ."> 

centre of tlic ri(l;;cs, which pass in front from the ba^es of 
tlie sctigerous papillaj to the edge of the ventral scutes, and 
behind these almost to the mid-ventral line. \\"\t\\ the 
cessation of tlie bristles a change ensues, for the hooks are 
now borne on a {jromiiient hnnella — sli;;htly cresccntic or 
scoop-shaped, — and phieed lalcrally at the |)Ostciior edye of 
each segment, which still consists of two rings. These 
lamellie diminish in size posteriorly, becoming minute to- 
ward the tip of the tail, and on them the lu^oks form 
a close series in a single row. The hooks are distinguished 
by their elongated basal rigion, wliieli has a median con- 
vexity, then curves upward at the anterior edge, which has 
a small process for the ligament. A process occurs on the 
anterior margin about its middle, a double curve meeting at 
this point. The large fang is well developed, and has only 
a single tooth above it in a lateral view. The posterior 
margin has a deep incurvation. The hooks vary chiefly iu 
the sh.ipe of the basal region. 

The next and eighth form, Lanice conchilega, Pallas, is 
everywhere distributed on tlie sandy shores of JJrit lin. 

The cephalic region is distinguished by its comparatively 
small dorsal collar, the rim, however, expanding at each 
side into a great lateral flap which iu some almost meets its 
fellow of the op[)osite side in the mid-ventral line behind 
the lower lip, its outline in this region forraing a V. In 
others, the union of the lateral regions is more complete 
ventrally, some fusing so as to form a continuous band with 
only a slight concavity in front, thus i)rc)bablv indicating 
the normal condition as a comi)]ete ventral web, the median 
gap being due to accidents. A marked charactcrisiic is the 
disposition of the anterior margin of the tentacular surface, 
for it is contracted into a frilled spout-like border sur- 
rounding the mouth — except in violent protrusion. Witliiii 
the aperture are two folds, an outer smaller and an inner 
larger tongue-like fold. Cunningham and Kamage consider 
the large lower lip an I the absence of eyes characteristic of 
Lattice as contrasted with Terehella. 

The tentacles have the usual grooved structure, and form 
a dense mass of mobile organs. In the centre of the living 
tentacle under pressure a pale band (.f muscular fibres \)yo- 
cceds from the base to the tip. The other parts of the wall 
appear to consist of an inextricable series of innscular tibics 
-—longitudinal, tr.msverse or circular, and oblique. In the 
interior of the tentacles are numerous cells, but whether 
tree or adherent is not evi !cnt, though they do not separuie 



10 Prut". M'liitosh's Notes from the 

on laceration of tlie wall. Tliey are slightly yellowisli, and 
to some extent refract the light. In its native habitat the 
tentacles are partially protected in extrnsion by entering 
the hollow processes of the fringe of the tube. 

The three branchiie form conspicuous and finely-branched 
tufts on each sile, the first pair being the largest. All are 
sul)-dicliotomously branched, an I the tci'minal divisions are 
fine, so as to give the arbuscles a characteristic ap[)earance. 
Moreover, they also have a whorled aspect towards the tip. 
The ultimate divisions are translucent, and have obscure 
longitudinal stria^ with cells and granules in the wall. The 
first pair is situated on the narrow segment immediately 
behind" the collar, and a trace of which is seen in front of 
the glandular ventral shield. 

The long body is moderately dilated anteriorly, and gently 
tapered to tlie tail, at the tip of which is the terminal anus 
surrounded by a series of marginal papillae. The segments 
are numerous, viz., from two hundred to two hundred and 
eighty. The dorsum is rounded, the ventral surface grooved 
tliroughout — often with a central ridge, — exce[)t the auterior 
shields, which extend from the lower lip almost to the ter- 
mination of the bristles. This glandular surface is divided 
into segments — generally two in each body -segment — by 
transverse furrows. Posteiiorly it becomes narrow and ends 
in the median groove about the last bristle-bundle. Besides, 
a slanduiar belt occurs at each side in the line of the bristle- 
bundles, after the manner of the corresponding belt in the 
Maldanidaft, and it is continued backward considerably 
behind the bristles. 

Tlie first segment is very narrow, and is enveloped laterally 
by the free collar of the next segment. It bears the first 
pair of branchiae, and forms a narrow rim in front of the 
glandular ventral shields. The next has a gi'eatly developed 
anterior lamella or collar, wdiich stretches from the edge of 
the ventral !^hield almost to the second branchia — thus 
forming the second process of this kind on each side. The 
follownig segment has the third branchia and the first 
bri^tle-tuft, but bears no hooks. The bristles are bound 
firmly together in flattened fascicles and slope outward or 
obliquely upward and outward, and have a pale golden hue. 
The bristles liave a pale base, a shaft with fine striae iu- 
ternallv, and a tapering tip with a double wing, the latter 
being obliquely striated. The first tuft is smaller and the 
translucent tips less definitely formed than those which 
follow, but the structure is essentially the same. Tlie second 
series of bristles in each tuft is considerably longer than in 



Gaitij Murine Lahoralori/, Si. Amliwa. 17 

the previous forms (e. g., T. nesidcnsis), the tips jihnost 
reiieliiiig the coinineiicciueiit ol" the \viiif;;s of the dihtiil hcrii s. 
Dr. Williams states that the number of bristle-bundles ou 
each side is sixteen, Ijut he had ])robably omitted the first, 
lu transverse section the central region of the I ristle 
presents the aspect of severed fibres. 

From each setigerous process an elongated and somewhat 
elliptical eminence, having a double row of golden hooks 
along the centre, passes ventrally. Each has a stout base 
wjiich narrows upward to the curved neck, above which are 
the great fang and two teeth on the crown — in a diminishing 
series in lateral view. Curved striic extend downward from 
the small teeth on the crown. 'J'hc basal part of the hook is 
marked by radiating striaj. In the anterior hooks the third 
tooth on the crown is less distinct than in the posterior. 
In front view two teeth occur in the middle of the crown. The 
double rows arc so arranged that the hooks lie back to back 
with the fangs ])ointing outward. The one set may, l)y 
fixing, arrest the egress of the animal, and the other may, in 
the same way, stop ingress. In some of these rows, sixty-six 
hooks occur on one side and sixty-seven on the other, and in 
a second sixty-two and sixty-four respectively, so that the 
combined effect must be considerable. The rows are some- 
what longer in front, and the first (opi)osite the second 
bristle-tuft) has only a single scries of hooks. The anterior 
rows also have the glandular wedge which dorsaliy envelops 
the bristle-tuft, and has its apex about the middle of each 
interspace. 13y-and-by, however, this glandular tissue 
diminishes into a narrow longitudinal belt between the last 
six bristle-tufts, the shortened eminence for the hooks 
touching the base of the bristles. With the cessation of 
the bristles, the rows of hooks are confined to the lateral 
xmcinigcrous lamellae, which continue to the posterior end, 
gradually diminishing in size as the slender tail is reached. 
The lateral glandular belt is also continued from the bristled 
region backward between the hook-lamcUaj, but stops short 
of the tail. On these uncinigerous processes the hooks form 
a single row along the anterior edge, and at one end of the 
row a series of imperfect hooks make a curve, those least 
developed having only a striated main fang, whilst those 
touching the com[)lete scries show a crown above the 
fang, tiie base of the hook being absent. The minute 
processes on the tail have few hooks. 

The ninth representative, Loimia y'ltjunlcu, Montagu 
Ann, cO Ma(j. X. Hist. Ser. 8. Tc/. xv. 2 



18 Prof. M'lntosh's Noies from the 

(medusije, Saviuny), is a soutlicrn one from the shores of 
Devon and neighbouring areas. 

The cephalic lobe presents a small and inconspicuous 
dorsal collar, which at each side bends down to disai)|)ear ia 
the general plate, and without joining the supra-oral arch, 
uliich is fan-shaped and projects little. The space between 
the latter and the cephalic collar is occupied by the grooved 
tentacles. From the outer border of the cephalic region 
a large lamella arises and passes with a slight median 
excavation entirely across to the other side — forming thus 
a great post-oral platform, A differentiation on each side 
occurs in the form of a curved line, which extends from 
the segment-junction jiosteriorly obliquely forward and 
outward, thus marking off a central and more flexible region 
and two stifter lateral regions. The great development of 
this post-oral flap is characteristic of the species. 

The body has the typical Terebellid outline — enlarged in 
front, and ta})ering gradually to the posterior end, at which 
is the terminal anus. It is rounded dorsally, flattened 
ventrally in front and slightly so posteriorly. 

The segment succeeding that bearing the post-oral lamella 
carries the first pair of branchiae, but is not distinguishable, in 
the sole exam[)le available, from the next segment either 
dorsally or ventrally, though it may represent in the dorsal 
region part of the segment in front. 

The following segment^ carrying the second pair of gills, 
has a broad fan-shaped flap at each side about midway 
between the gill and the ventral scute ; whilst the following, 
or fourth, segment bears the third branchia and the first 
bristle-bundle. The ventral scutes in the example are not 
separated by the deep furrows so characteristic in other 
forms, but appear to be nearly continuous from the anterior 
broad scute to the narrow median ridge about the eleventh 
bristle-tuft. All the segments are marked by narrow 
rings. 

The branchiae are comparatively small, distinctly sepa- 
rated, and with short stems, the usual gradation occurring 
from the flrst to the third. They are distinguished from all 
the others by their very finely-branched terminal divisions. 
The main stem and its subdivisions are short, so that the 
entire organ in each case projects proportionally little. It 
is dichotomously divided. The branchiae of the JNIediter- 
ranean so-called L. medusce, though also furnished with fine 
terminal ramuscles, are more lax in branching, the separate 
divisions being longer. 

Seventeen pairs of prominent setigerous processes occur 



Gaily Marine Laloratory, Si. Andrew^. ID 

anteriorly, and the bristles arc directed outward and back- 
ward. Kacli consists of a flattened brush, with the ed^es 
dorsal and ventral, of pale golden bristles, the tips of which 
arc in two scries, a lonp;er and a shorter. Each bristle 
slightly dilates above its pale bidb to near the origiu of the 
winj^s, when it tapers to a fine point. Tiie winjjs are of 
moderate breadth, and cease before reaching the delicately- 
tapered tip. The bristles of the shorter series have the 
same structure, but their shafts are more slender. They 
extend about as far as llie commencement of the wings of 
the longer series. No noteworthy difl'ercncc between the 
first and the last tuft occurs. 

The rows of hooks commence at tlie second bristle-tuft, 
and are long in front, diminishing in length backward to 
the ninth or tenth, and again increasing at the fourteenth 
setigerous process — that is, behind the median frill, which 
succeeds the scutes, — only a brief space separating the long 
rows in the mid-ventral line, and the same condition is found 
at the fifteenth. At the sixteenth and seventeenth setigerous 
processes the rows are shorter, as also is the raid-ventral 
space between them. The uncinigerous lamellae which 
succeed are almost ventral in position, being separated only 
by the narrow ventral surface (Montagu\s dorsum), and tlicy 
continue to the posterior end (absent in the example). 
Douijle rows of hooks occur from the seventh to the sixteenth. 

The hooks have a long anterior border, with four or five 
teeth in diminishing series above the great fang, making 
five or six in all, and there is no process on the edge of the 
base beneath the main fang. The posterior outline is boldly 
convex (opposite the teeth), curving inward to a notch which 
separates the irregularly convex base. Several strite pass 
obliquely from the upper teeth to the posterior border. The 
posterior hooks are somewhat less, and the curves of the 
posterior outline and base slightly vary. The foregoing 
hooks (PI. II. fig. 5) dift'cr from those of the Mediterranean 
species (PI. II. fig. G), which have a process on the edge of 
the base beneath tlic main fang, and the curvatures also differ. 
If this form represents Savigny's L. medusa, then the British 
species should be called />. fjiyantea, Montagu. 

In the ubiquitous Xicolea venuslula, Montagu, the tenth 
species, the cephalic collar forms a small rim dorsally, and 
behind it is a row of distinct eye-spots. The antenor border 
makes a spout-shaped aperture by forming an arch over the 
mouth, which, seen from the dorsum, narrows a little in 
front, whilst in lateral view it slopes from above downward 

0* 



20 Prof. M'liifosli's Xotesfrotn the. 

aiul backward. Tlie tentacles arc iiumerouSj and have the 
median groove so characteristic of snch oi'gans. Ycntrally 
the dorsal collar tcrniinatcs, in spirit-preparations, in a short 
edge. 

The body is enlarged in front, though in the small speci- 
mens this i.s slightly marked, and tapers to a moderately 
slender tail, at the tip of which is the anns. The segments 
vary from forty to fifty-Hve. The dorsal surface is rounded, 
the ventral with thirteen shields in front, and the median 
line thereafter is marked by a deep groove. 

The branchi;e are two in nnmber, and vary much according 
to the age of the specimen, yonng forms having only short 
stalks Avithout divisions, whereas adults have the branchiae 
well developed and more or less dichotonionsly divided — with 
short terminal branches. The anterior gill is the larger. 
All intermediate forms occnr between the one stage and the 
other. The best-developed branchite occur in those from 
deep water, e. g. 80 fathoms off North Unst, Shetland, the 
lirst pair having a comparatively long stalk before splitting 
into the terminal tult. The disproportion between this and 
the second pair is marked, the latter being a short process 
with only a few divisions. 

On each side are tiftecn bristle-bundles, consisting of 
translucent bristles with shafts which slightly diminish 
toward the upper end, where the nariow wings commence 
and continue on the somewhat long and finely tapered tips 
lor a considerable distance, disappearing, however, on the 
hair-like extremity. The tufts diti'er, e. g. from those of 
Amphitrite fp'cicilis, in being single, no shorter series 
occurring as in other types. The first bristle-bundle occurs 
behind the second branehia, and it has no apical appendage, 
but the two following have on the doisal side of the seti- 
gerous process, and continuous with it, a lanceolate process 
like the branehia of Aricia. 

'Jhe hooks present a single tooth aljove the main fang, 
though in some traces of a second a])pcar in lateral view. 
The base is somewhat small in proportion to the crown and 
neck, and its lower edge is evenly convex. The process on 
the anterior edge curves upward, so as to make a narrow 
gulf below the great fang, and the edge beneath it is 
concave. The posterior or dorsal edge has only a slight 
indentation before joining tiie base. A series of striations 
pass from the crown down the posterior part of the neck. 

In the widely-distributed Pista cristata, O. F. Miiller, the 
eleventh species, the cephalic plate has a thick dorsal collar 



Gutty .\farine Tjahoratort/^ St. Andrews. _' 1 

aiiil the niar'^iu passes externally and vciitrally to join the 
aiitLM-ior folti, tliou.;li it does not rnn evenly into it, a noteh 
or a fold separatinj^ it from tin; raise 1 anterior fold, which 
sometimes iiiis a median projeetion with symmctrieal lateral 
enrves, or in others slif^ht frdls. This ant<'ri()r or snpra-oral 
fold does not project so far forward as in many Ter.l)Lllids, 
and it sometimes shows an inner fold over the month. The 
pale oranj^e tentaeles srem to be of moderate lenj^tli and 
grooved, l)nt are somewhat more sleader and tapered than 
in ordinary Terehellids. Helow the mouth !■< a well- 
developed tonf^ne-like proeess, which pushes the rim of the 
lirst sej^mcnt backward when it projects, and ventrally it has 
a narrow rim. 

The body is comparatively short, and in the preparations 
is less dilated anteriorly than in the ordinary Terebcllid. 
It tapers posteriorly to a slender tail with a terminal anus, 
which has four larj^e rounded pajjilliP, two dorsal and two 
sli^^htly more i)rominent ventral. Dorsally the body is 
rounded, ventrally flattened at the shields in front, and then 
fjrooved tlironf;;hont the nst of its extent. Anteriorly 
behind the dorsiil collar the setigerons papilhe approach the 
median line, where a bilid |)roc(Ss occurs in front of them, 
and from the sides of the divisions the branchial stem 
originates — not always in the same place, for in some tiie 
right branehia springs antero-laterally in regard to the 
right process, whilst the left brauchia arises behind and to 
the left of the left process. The free margin of the first 
segment forms a continuous fold ventrally, which ends 
dorso-laterally in a rounded free flap, and a process is con- 
tinued dorsally beneath its edge to the representative of the 
setigerons process, which lies immediately l)cliin(l the bifid 
cone formerly mentioned. The next segment ventrally 
lias a large free lateral flap on each side, whilst the median 
is diflerentiated into a uarrow scute. The following seg- 
ment has a still larger lateral flap, which stretcdics further 
outward and upward and almost touches the base of the 
branchial stalk in the ])re[)aration. It thins off toward tin; 
narrow scute in the mid-ventral line. Laterally it ensheaths 
the lamella in front of it. 

The ventral scutes are about seventeen in number, besides 
four or Ave small terminal median scutts, and after them a 
median groove with a raised line* continues to the posterior 
end. Behind and above the third and fourth bristle-tufts 
a smoothly rounded process or long papilla occurs, and in 
some two are found behind the fourth. in the Irish 
examples they are clavatc. (Occasionally a smaller iia[)ilLi 
occurs behind the filth. 



22 Tro^. M'Intosli's Notes from the 

The brauchia on each side arises by a long trnnk in the 
line of the second lariic lateral flap (third segment) and 
quite on the dorsum. The distal region is finely branched, 
the whole forming a whorled arbuscle so characteristic of 
the genus. Occasionally a third and smaller stem springs 
from the segment in front, and its branches have the same 
arrangement. In an example from Shetland two large 
branchite of dilferent sizes sprang from the second segment, 
and two smaller, also of different sizes, arose from the third. 
In some the whorled condition is conspicuous in tier after 
tier leading to the somewhat truncate tip. It is noteworthy 
that the branchia3 cling to segments 2 and 3. 

The next segment (fourth) bears a setigerous process and 
a ridge, but no hooks are present. As indicated, the 
anterior setigerous processes are dorsal in position, but 
they soon become lateral. Those in front and rear are less 
permanent than the median processes. The pale golden 
longer bristles have nearly cylindrical shafts, the proximal 
ends being narrowed only for a short distance, and they are 
finely striated, whilst the distal ends are curved, tapered, 
and soon end in a fine point, the sides of the tip having 
well-marked wings. The tip is curved and directed dorsally 
and posteriorly — that is, the convexity is in front. The 
shorter bristles have little more than the tips projecting 
uniformly beyond the surface of the skin, and they show 
the same form and curvature of the tip. 

The hooks commence opposite the second setigerous pro- 
cess — that is, the fifth segment — as a single row, and the 
ridges leave a considerable interval between them and the 
scutes. The rows remain uniserial till the ninth or tenth, 
when a biserial arrangement occurs. The hooks have a 
rather short, stout, main fang, with three or four teeth 
above it in lateral view, and oblique striae from these to the 
posterior outline of the neck. The curve below the main 
fang is slightly angular and wide, whilst the median process 
on the anterior outline forms a short cone with a broad base, 
the line then trending at a difi'erent angle downward. The 
posterior outline is nearly straight, very slightly convex, 
then it bends outward at the point of attachment of the 
ligament, Avhich passes off above the lower margin of the 
base, and thus the appearance of the hook is diagnostic. 
The basal region is comparatively deep, and has a process at 
its anterior and inferior angle. The long ridges for the 
hooks cease with the bristles, and thereafter uncinigerous 
processes project from the posterior border of each segment, 
the glandular tissue forming a belt between them. Pos- 
teriorly the processes bear a single row of hooks. 



Gaily Marine Laboratory , St. Andrews. 23 

Pi.s/d cretucca, (jruhc, the tucll'tli .species, is readily 
distinguished, amonj^st other characters, by the peculiar 
liunip on the ])Ostc:rior outline of the liook just .ihove the 
hase. It conies from the south-^yest of Ireland and other 
regions in deep water, 

The Ilebridcan rxani|)le o( Scione ninculata, Dalycll (?J, the 
tliirteenth form, has the cephalic region so injured that all 
that can at present be said about it is that it appears to 
correspond with that of allied Terebellids. 

Body apparently about 2}j to 3 inches iu length, and of 
the ty[)ieal outliue. In s[)irit it had at first a red;lisii-bro\vu 
a()pearance, and was everywhere sj)ecUled with white, with 
the exception of the ventral scutes. 

The number of the pale golden bristlc^bundles is unknown. 
The shafts are nearly cylindrical till near the end, where 
they are slightly narrowed below the wings. The tip is 
gently tajjcred to a fine extremity, and furnished with a 
narrow wing on each side. 

The hooks are distinguished by the straightness of the 
posterior border and by the presence of only a single tooth 
above the large fang, which stands nearly at a right angle 
to the posterior outline. The anterior outline below the 
great fang is not elongated, and has the process for the 
ligament about its mid lie, the edge be3'0Md it having a 
slight incurvation. The basal regiou is deep and com- 
paratively short in contrast with that of Terebella nebulosa, 
another form having only a single tooth above the great 
fang. The inferior outline is convex, with a slight sinuosity 
at either end. On the whole, the general outline of the hook 
approaches that of F'istd cristata, while materially differing 
iu detail. 

The southern Leprma lapidaria, L,, the fourteenth species, 
has oa the cephalic plate a well-marked dorsal rim, which 
curves laterally to become continuous with the highly-arched 
supra-oral fold, often thin anteriorly. It beai's numerous 
slightly-grooved tentacles, which also differ from those of 
many other forms in adhering after preparation. They are 
pale yellow in life, with the red blood-vessel in the centre. 
The buccal process or "tongue" inferiorly often projects as 
a smoothly-rounded mass obscuring the rim of the segment 
bcliind it. The structure of the cephalic regiou of this 
inhaliitant of fissures in rocks does not differ materially 
from those which dwell in tubas, except that the lingual 
process or boss is large and that the tentueles show only 
a slight groove at the base, and it seems to disap[)ear froiu 



2-i Prof. lyPIntosh's Notes from the 

the rouiulod distal region, which is tapered aud ends in 
a slii;ht knob. 

The body is comparatively short and firm and has the 
typical shape — enlarged in front and tapered posteriorly, 
MJiilst the dorsal surface is smoothly rounded to the level of 
the ridges for the hooks, and the ventral surface is marked 
by a deep groove behind the scutes. Anteriorly the dorsum 
is minutely striated transversely, and behind the branchia; 
it is finely tessellated after the manner of ScaUbrcgma. 
On the ventral surface are about twelve central shields, 
■which are of a brighter red than the rest of the body, and 
behind them a white median stripe (marking the nerve-cordj 
is continued to the tip of the tail, where it blends with the 
pale hue of the region. The first segment, with its rim 
behind the lower lip, is whitish, and each scute has a trans- 
verse whitish streak at its posterior border. The ridges for 
the hooks are somewhat paler than the general surface, and 
five of the anterior I'idges have a glandular white patch 
between them and the bristle-tufts ; indeed, each setigerons 
process has a glandular patch in front and behind. The 
dorsum throughout is dull brownish, inclining to purple in 
its native site, and merging into orange-brown near the 
tip of the tail, at which the anus is surrounded with small 
but distinct papillae (six to eight, De St. Joseph). 

The branchiaj are three in number on each side, the first 
the largest and the third the least. Each arises by a short 
stem,M'hich divides somewhat dichotomously, but the terminal 
divisions tire both dichotomously and pinnatcly divided, the 
whole having the asj)cct of a finely branched bush. In life 
they have a pale whitish-pink hue. 

Two ridges run from the ventral scutes toward the first 
branchia; but they are devoid of hooks and bristles. The 
first bristle-bundle is borne by the setigerons process opposite 
the second branchia. The pale golden bristles form two 
grouj)s, a shorter and a longer. The former have nearly 
evlindrical shafts up to a slight narrowing below the wings, 
which are minutely serrated at the edge, followed by a 
slight enlargement as the wings arise. After tapering con- 
siderably the axis ends in a translucent knife-blade tip, the 
base of which is thickened into a process representing the 
termination of the axis, and the rest is flattened out to form 
the terminal blade, which tapers somew'hat suddenly from 
the broad base to a fine hair-like extremity, the edge opposite 
the process having a thickened rim, whilst the other is 
minutely serrated. Malragren's artist has not very accurately 
interpreted the basal part ^\ 

* Aniuil. Polvcli. t;ib, xiii. fi». 69 b. 



Galtij }farinc Lahoratory^ St. Aiuhe>v3, _.< 

The posterior bristles are brittle^ aiul few remain after 
capture. They have the same stiiicture, but tlie knifc-cdj:;e 
])r()cess at the tip is shorter and the serrations of the e(l<;e 
l()n;j;cr and coarser. 

From first to last the sctigerous pi'occsses are elosely 
associated witii the ridges for the hooks, and indeed form 
part of them, finishing, as it were, the dorsal end by a 
])ointcd process. Anteriorly the process is nearly transverse, 
but by-and-by it slopes backward, csijccialiy posteriorly, 
where the bristles pass from its posterior and upper angle. 

The hooks commence on the ridge, passing from the first 
bristle-tuft ventrally toward the sliields (fifth segment, 
J)e St. Joseph), and the succeeding ridges gradually increase 
in prominence until tl.ey are conspicuous latero-ventrally. 
The first row is single, but at the eleventh a double row 
occurs, and this continues a considerable distance, but on 
the small posterior ridges only a single row is found. The 
typical hook has a large main fang and three teeth above it, 
the posterior margin is nearly straight, its distal end curving 
to the crown, and its basal bending outward to form a 
])rocess of the base. The latter is of moderate length, 
convex inferiorly, and with a sinuosity in front. The curve 
beneath the great fang is abrupt and ends in a prominent 
])rocess, and i)elow it a curve goes to the anterior prow. Al- 
though only three teeth are observed above the great fang 
in profile, numerous teeth appear when the crown is viewed 
from above. In the first row of hooks the bases are altered, 
the anterior prow being prolonged, and the sinus above the 
bases posteriorly being more pronounced than in the typical 
liook. Anteriorly the outer edge of the groove for the 
hooks is free, so that it sometimes resembles a papilla. 

From the Zetlandie seas comes Laphania boecki, ^lalm- 
gren, the fifteenth form, in which the cephalic lobe is so 
little developed that at first sight it has some rcsemljlance to 
a Maldanid. The dorsal collar, iiowever, is present, and 
the plate passes obliquely forward to make a fairly firm arch 
over the mouth, l^rom the surface of the plate spring a 
scries of moderately elongated grooved tentacles. A small 
tongue-like process lies in the pit below the mouth, whilst 
the lower lip is thick and curved. 

The body is slightly dilated anteriorly, remains ftn* some 
distance of nearly the same diameter, and then gently tapers 
to the tail. In the preparations the anterior end is generally 
curved ventrally so as to resemble a Maldanid — as, indeed, 
the firmness, the ventro-lateral ridges, and the posterior 
segmentation also do. It is rounded dorsaily, liattciieil 



26 Prof. i\I'Tntosli's Koies from tha 

veiitrallv anteriorly, and grooved posteriorly, where the seg- 
ments are marked by deep dorsal furrows. Following the 
buceal are two somewhat narrow segments, each having a 
setigerous process, and a glandular ventral scute or belt. 
Ten scutes follow, the last separated by an interval. Then 
the median ventral groove continues to the posterior end. 

Seventeen setigerous processes occur on each side carrying 
pale golden bristles, and they are conical when viewed from 
the dorsum, obliquely truncated at the tip when viewed 
laterally. They commence on the third segment. The 
bristles are in two series, a longer and a shorter. The 
former are long, slender, translucent bristles, the free part 
being apparently cylindrical to the commencement of the 
wings, but the shaft is actually sliglitly enlarged till it almost 
reaches its base in the tissues. The tip is comparatively 
short, finely tapered, and the wings are distinct. Tiie shorter 
forms have shafts very slightly less than the foregoing, and 
only their ends project beyond the skin, the wings com- 
mencing at once and dilating into broad expansions, whilst 
the short but finely tapered tip is etirved at an angle. 

The rows of hooks commence on the seventh setigerous 
segment, though in the form examined it w'as on the eighth 
counting from the first (small) setigerous papilla. The 
anterior hooks somewhat resemble those of Pista cristata, 
with three or four teeth above the main fang, a posterior 
outline convex toward the crow'n, then a hollow, and a pro- 
jection above the posterior long ligament. The deep base is 
convex inferiorly, and the anterior outline has a process 
under the main fang. The figure of ^Malmgren is incomplete, 
though it is correct as far as it goes ; that of Ssolowiew is 
not well finished. 

The crowns of the posterior hooks are higher than those in 
front, and are more nearly in accordance with Malmgren^s 
figure, five or six small teeth being above the main fang, 
and the posterior basal process is represented only by a short 
fragment. 

In the widely distributed Thelepus cincinnatus, O. Fabricius, 
the sixteenth species, the dorsal cephalic collar is well- 
marked, and has posteriorly a series of eye-specks, whilst 
the external rim passes downward to the ventral surface and 
joins the lower edge of the supra-oral arch. A comparatively 
short space thus intervenes between the tw'O sides ventrally, 
a space which is occupied by the inner tongue-sha[)ed process 
and the short fillet of the post- oral segment. The supra- 
oral arch is moderately prominent, but limited in extent, and 



Gatty Marine Laboratory , St. Andrews. '21 

often forms a small s})oul-slia])ecl process. The anterior 
surface of the cephalic plate is occupied hy the tentacles, 
wliich are of a pale flesh-colour or oranj^^c with or without 
red s[)ecks. They arc lonji^, })owerful, and marked here and 
there with whitish opacities probai)ly from the peritoneal 
corpuscles, which roll backward and forward in their interior. 
In some examples they are of a deeper hue than tiiose of 
Terebella nebulosa, probably from the presence of the reddish 
specks. These mobile organs are grooved throughout^ and 
arc sometimes flattened in a spathulatc manner and again 
contracted and richly crcnate. Under the structureless 
cuticle is the cellulo-grannlar hypoderm, then follow the fine 
but tough non-striated muscular fibres, circular and longi- 
tudinal. In life the slender vermiform tentacles coil and 
twist in every direction, now showing nodular enlargements 
and again extending into a uniform thread as before, or 
actively wriggling as if each were endowed with independent 
life. Each granular tentacle, when separated from its 
attachment to the cephalic plate, coik-d itself in sj)asmodic 
jerks or gently unfolded. By their aid, as in other Tere- 
bellids, the annelid pulls itself upward on the perpendicular 
wall of a glass vessel. The tentacles at the ventral angle of 
the cephalic plate are small and short. 

The body is typical of the Tcrcbcllids — viz., enlarged 
anteriorly and tapered gently therefrom to the posterior 
end, where the anus, surrounded by about a dozen pai)illae, 
is terminal. It is rounded dorsally and more or less rugose 
or warty in old and large specinjcns anteriorly, rounded also 
anteriorly on the ventral surface, then flattened and slightly 
grooved, the groove continuing almost to the posterior end. 
The segments are distinctly marked throughout, the anterior 
presenting dorsally four transverse lines, and the longer and 
narrower posterior segments a larger number. The ventral 
scutes (glandular thickenings) are well developed, and can be 
distinguished as such as far back as the thirtieth bristle- 
bundle. Moreover, a thick glandular coat invests the body 
laterally — enveloping the tori and the setigcrous processes in 
each segment. In large examples from the Arctic seas the 
anterior scutes arc rugose transversely and cut into various 
folds in each segment. 

The feet are represented by setigcrous processes and tori 
uneinigeri. The fiist setigcrous process arises dorso-laterally 
below the second series of branchiie, and the others follow 
in succession at the posterior part of each segment, the 
glandular investment of the region passes above it and forms 
a finished edge dorsally. The succeeding processes gradually 



28 Prof. Mcintosh's Notes from the 

incline to the lateral region, and posteriorly to the ventro- 
lateral region. The bristles form a vertieal fan in each 
process — narrow at the base and spreading out distally. 
Moreover, they are arranged in two alternating series — a 
longer and a shorter, the tips of the latter only projecting 
beyond the surface. They are shorter than those of Lanice 
conchilega and less slender, and the wings are more distinct. 
Each bristle has a pale base, gently dilates into the widest 
part of the shaft, then forms a nearly cylindrical and slightly 
narrower region to the wings, after which it tapers to a 
slender curved tip. The wings are narrow both anteriorly 
and posteriorly, where the bristles are shorter. As Grube and 
Marenzeller point out, the bristles do not, as ]\Ialmgren 
observes, go to the posterior end, a considerable number of 
the terminal S3gments being devoid of them. Thus, in an 
example from Balta about forty of the posterior segments 
had no bristles. As the tufts of 1)ristles decrease, the un- 
cinigerous processes become more distinct. In imperfectly 
preserved specimens the cuticle falls otF and the bristles 
cling to it by their tips, probably from the enlargement 
caused by the wings, but the edges of the wings may also be 
concerned. 

The branchise form two tufts of simple filaments on each 
side, arising from a transverse ridge in each case on the 
second and third segments, the anterior ridge being the 
longer, passing also farther down the side (ventrally) and 
with more numerous filaments, which are often j)rettily 
waved in a spiral manner when the animal is at rest. They 
are of a pale straw or deep orange colour with a red streak 
in the centre from the blood-vessel «hich is most distinct 
immediately after a contractile wave of the body drives the 
fluid forward. As they arise from two segments they can 
scarcely be called ''one pair," as in the 'Catalogue of the 
British jNIuseum.' In a young example, half an inch in 
length, these organs formed two distinct groups on each 
side, the first containing two or three filaments of different 
lengths, the posterior only one. They are enveloped in a 
transparent structureless cuticle, and the bypoderm has finer 
cells and granules than the tentacles. Longitudinal and 
circular muscular fibres are also present. The branchiie 
seem to vary in different races, and some of the largest from 
the Arctic seas have short thick filaments. 

The bristle-tufts range from thirty to forty-one or even 
fifty-three {Marenzeller) ^?iU(\. in transverse section the bristles 
are somewhat ovate, sometimes approaching a short or blunt 
ellipse. 



Gatty }f urine Laboratory, St, Andrews. I^C 

The first row of hooks is on tlie fifth segment, tlic first 
two elevations being devoid of them. On tlie fifth the row 
is at the ])osterior part of the segment at some distance 
v(Mitrally from the setigerous ])rocess. They increase a 
little in longtli after the first, and remain nearly the same 
lor a considerable distance, gradnally, however, becoming 
elevated so that aljout the twenty-fifth prominent nnci- 
nigerous processes are formed, and posteriorly they stand 
out like the "feet" of caterpillars. Toward the tip of the 
tail they diminish on the narrow segments, and incline 
ventrall}^ so that those of opposite sides approach, and they 
cease at tiie last segment. In an example from St. Andrews 
the uneinigerous processes are irregular posteriorly, being 
crowded on one side and scantily distributed — even with 
blanks — on the other, probably from injury. The hooks 
are arranged in a single row throughout and are smaller 
than those of Lanice conchUef/a, but more numerous — no less 
than one hundred and thirty-seven occurring in a row 
anteriorly, but posteriorly the number diminishes. Each 
hook in lateral view presents a single tooth above the great 
fang, though occasionally a minute third is visible. The 
])osterior outline is short and has a dimple, whilst the base 
is elongated and convex iiiferiorly. The anterior outline 
(below the great fang) is smooth and often slightly convex, 
and merges into the prow (anterior ])art of the base), which 
is prolonged as a stout process with a slightly dilated tip, 
so as to resemble a stud. The occasional occurrence of a 
isecond tooth above the great fang brings the Heternphenacia 
rtnouardi of Marion"^, from ^Marseilles, nearer this species. 

Thelepus triserialis, Grube, tlie seventeenth form, is a 
southern annelid, in which the cephalic collar and the arrange- 
ment of the parts of the anterior end are similar to those 
of the foregoing species, but no pigmcnt-spceks remained in 
the preparations behind the collar, though in life they were 
jiresent. 

A distinction, however, immediately appears in the bran- 
chial region, the surface of wliich is more extensive, the 
filaments more numerous and more slender. Moreover, they 
arise from three segments, viz., the second, third, and 
jburth. The first and largest forms a transversely elongated 
row of filaments on segment 2, its outer g(\\^c passing 
ventrally considerably below the first bris'.le-tuft behind it. 
The second springs from the dorsum of the third segment 

* Kevue des Sc. nat. t. iv.. Mavch 1S7*>. 



30 Prof. M'lntosh's Notes from the 

within (i. c. dorsad to) the first bristle-tuft, and is smaller, 
■whilst the third, which is somewhat larger, arises on the 
dorsum opposite the second bristlc-tuft. The first pair is 
widest apart, the third pair most nearly approach each other. 

The body generally resembles that of the foregoing form, 
but is often smaller, and the dorsal and ventral surfaces, 
glandular scutes, and plates do not materially differ. The 
bristle-tufts range from thirty-three to forty, the posterior 
region, in one of forty segments, being devoid of them, as 
in T. cincinnatus. It tapers posteriorly to a slender tail, 
and the unciuigerous processes seem to go on to the tip, 
thus differing from those of T. cincinnatus. The anus 
appears to have a papillose margin. 

The first bristle-tuft arises opposite the second branchia, 
and, as mentioned, is above the level of the first branchia, 
and the setigerous processes are continued along the dorso- 
lateral region to the posterior region, as in Thelejms cincin- 
natus, where they cease. The setigerous processes are 
vertically flattened in front and throughout the greater part 
of their course, but posteriorly they diminish to conical 
papillae. The anterior bristles appear to be somewhat shorter 
than in T. cincinnatus, but are similarly arranged in two 
series, a longer and a shorter. The wings in both are 
slightly broader than in T. cincinnatus, both sets of bristles 
being proportionally shorter and thicker. They increase in 
lengtli in the middle of the body, but posteriorly diminish 
both in size and number, especially before ceasing, yet re- 
taining the same arrangement as regards shorter and longer 
series. The wings in the terminal bristles are narrow. 
All the bristles have a pale golden hue, and, whilst the first 
few sets of bristles are directed outward, the majority slope 
outward and backward — the terminal tufts, however, in the 
preparations, projecting outward or even slightly forward. 

The rows of hooks commence on a fillet on the fifth 
segment (that is, opposite the third bristle-tuft, at the pos- 
terior part of the segment), and they slightly increase in 
lengtli to the fifteenth series, when a gradual diminution 
occurs, the rows, moreover, by-and-by being elevated on 
processes, and, instead of being nearly straight, they are 
convex forward about the tw^enty-fourtli, and this arrange- 
ment appears to be retained in the longer posterior unciui- 
gerous processes, where they occur on the anterior face of 
the tip. As the bristles diminish and disappear, the unciui- 
gerous processes increase in prominence, and are ventro- 
lateral in ]30sition. Finally, they are minute toward the 
tip of the tail. The hook is similar (generally) to that of 



I 



Gatty ]\lar!ne Lahorator;/, St. Andrews. lil 

T. cincinnatus, yet dificrs in detail. Thus it is proportionally 
larj^cr, tiie base louji^cr, the stud at the anterior end of" the 
base (prow) has a different angle to the outline, is truncated 
at the tip, and the process beneath is more prominent, 
though tlierc are variations in tiiis respect ; moreover, traces 
of a second tooth on the crown above the great fang are 
common. 

The cephalic lobe in the eighteenth species, Grymoia bairdi, 
i\Ialingreu, is truncate in lateral view, a feature due to the 
ilattened arch of the supra-oral fold, which in man}' Tere- 
bellids forms a spout- or hood-like projection. The surface 
of the cephalic plate, from which the tentacles arise, is thus 
nearly vertical. The dorsal collar presents no cye-speeks in 
the preparations, and curves downward to join the supra- 
oral fold externally and ventral ly. The tentacles agree 
with those of Thelc/ms, being well developed and having a 
deep groove with i'rillcd margins. 

The general outline of the body agrees with that in 
Thelepus, though the details differ. It is enlarged anteriorly 
and tapered posteriorly, no example, however, being com- 
plete. The* dorsal surface is rounded and smoother than 
in Thelepus, the ventral surface flattened and posteriorly 
slightly grooved. Anteriorly are ten or eleven glandular 
ventral shields, which may be wrinkled in the j)reparations, 
and the outer edges of which touch the rows of hooks. A 
glandular belt accompanies the setigerous region, but it is 
not so pronounced dorsally as to form anteriorly the defi- 
nite edge as in Thelepus, though posteriorly it is well defined. 
The ventral surface behind the shields is more thinly 
coated with the glandular tissue, and a thickened median 
ridge continues for some distance backward. 

The Norwegian examples appear to be smaller than ours. 

Though Thelepus triserialis agrees with Grymoea bairdi 
in having three pairs of branchiic, yet their arrangement in 
connection with the bristlc-tufts difl:crs. In the present 
form a branchial tuft of several filaments occurs on the 
anterior edge of the second segment, but its attachment is 
above the line of the first setigerous process, which is like- 
wise on the second segment. Behind is a second tuft of 
branchiDe with fewer filaments, and which is in a line with 
the first setigerous process of the left side, whilst on the 
right it is oi)posite the sceoiul setigerous process. The third 
is a prominent group of about six filaments opposite the 
third bristle-tuft. The individual filaments are similar to 
those of Thelepus, though in some they are longer, and the 



32 Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

first set arises from a transverse ridge^ which, however, does 
not pass externally below the line of the bristles as in 
Thelepus. On the whole, the area covered by the branchise 
is longer antero-posteriorly than in Thelepus. 

No more distinctive feature between Grymaa and Thelepus 
exists than the great size of the setigerous process and the 
length of the bristles. The first setigerous process occurs 
on the second segment, aud it is slightly shorter than those 
Avbich follow^whilst inthe region of the shields the processes 
form long lamella? with slightly expanded tips set obliquely 
like the blades of a series of oars, the ventral edges of 
which are curved and split for the extended line of pale 
golden bristles. Moreover, when the process is removed, a 
distinct twist like the blade of a propeller occurs in all the 
pencils of bristles, a condition closely connected with the 
functions of the bristle-tufts. As in Thelepus, the seti- 
gerous processes spring from the posterior part of each 
segment, and are dorso-lateral in position. Two ranges of 
bristles occur in each tuft, a longer and a shorter, the latter 
alternating with the former. The longer bristles have 
nearly cylindrical shafts inserted deeply in the tissues, but 
they taper from the surface distally, so that where the uari'ow 
Avings commence considerable diminution has occurred, 
and they taper after a second expansion to very fine, hair- 
like, curved points. The shorter forms are much more 
slender, but they also taper to hair-like points and have 
narrow wings. The dorsal edge of each fascicle is bounded 
by three or four strong bristles without the intervening 
shorter and more slender forms, whereas the ventral edge 
has shorter and more slender forms. 

The number of bristle-tufts is about thirty-two, and the 
region behind has only unciuigerous lamellpe. The posterior 
bristles present a broad, almost flag-like wing. 

The first row of hooks commences opposite the fourth 
bristle-tuft, that is, in a corresponding position to that of 
T. iriserialls, though in the latter it is the third setigerous 
process. The rows are somewhat shorter than iu Thelepus, 
and they are sooner elevated on ridges, indeed at the eighth 
or ninth a distinct lamella is apparent, and at the twenty- 
fifth it forms a fan-shaped fiap with the single row of hooks 
in a curved line on the anterior face of the edge. The first 
row of hooks is distinguished by the apparent length of the 
base, but this is due to its narrowness. The typical hook 
lias two distinct teeth above the main fang, the posterior 
outline is deeply indented, the anterior outline (below the 
great lang^ has a peculiar stud which leaves it at an obtuse 



Gdtty Marine Laboratory^ St. Andrews. 33 

anulc, whilst the prow is coiitiuiied beyond it to end in a 
])r()C('.ss for a ligament, and the base is convex iuferiorly 
and lias a process at the end ot" the posterior outline. 

The cephalic region of the generally distributed Poly- 
cirrds nuraiiiiacnSjGi'iihc, the nineteenth form, has even more 
voluminous folds than in Ereutho, tiie plate being frilled 
anteriorly as well as forming the two broad Folds posteriorly. 
iSIoreover, dorsally is an indication of a collar in the shap3 
of a smoothly rounded ridge, the whole being occasionally 
spread as a wide border to the oral region, which thus 
assumes the form of a shallow funnel. The entire outer 
surface gives origin to the dense series of dull yellow ten- 
tacles, which form a seetliing mass of threads — slender, 
flattened, and fusiform. Each tentacle extends even to a 
greater degree t'lan in the red variety, becoming paler when 
stretolied, though still retaining a trace of the yellow hue. 
Their extensibility and elasticity are remarkable, and the 
thinnest strand presents a minutely cellular appearance with 
a central streak. The smaller and shorter tentacles occupy 
as usual the edges of the posterior lobes, so that when the 
flaps are adpressed they are close to the fissure leading to 
the mouth. In the red variety the tentacles form an inex- 
tricable mass in a vessel — enclosing other annelids, fragments 
of sliells, Balani, and mud. When much stretched the tip, 
which is generally the widest part, is pinkish, the attenuate 
region below it being pale, and the intermingling of these 
hues, especially against a dark background, is striking. 

A specimen of moderate size can stretch its tentacles 
three or four inches, the processes being dilated at the tip, 
but of extreme tenuity toward the base, and the corpuscles 
of the coelomic fluid are observed in the centre. 

When viewed from the dorsum the slight dorsal collar 
runs on each side and bends downward behind the pro- 
jecting fold of the anterior arch, and it sometimes hap])ens 
that a median fold in front divides the tentacles into two 
symmetrical series after the manner of Phoronis. 

Instead of the single large post-oral scute of Ereutho^ 
Polyclrnis has a tongue-shaped median glandular process, 
the edges of which nre free, and the anterior bonier runs 
smoothly forward to the mouth. In one example this 
process is bifid posteriorly, whilst a small area is cut oil" 
anteriorly, the whole being symmetrical. It may represent 
the first scute. 

The body resembles that of Erenthu, and, like it, is in 
Ann. (X* Maij. X. Hist. ^er. 8. Vol. xv. 3 



:U Prof. M'liitosli's Notes from the 

the in-eparations almost always coiled, only the tail is 
generally more tapered than in the gcnns mentioned. It is 
rounded dorsally and often dilated anteriorly, grooved ven- 
trally, and terminating posteriorly in the anus, which may 
liave' a simple crenate margin, though it generally shows a 
more prominent ventral papilla, occasionally a smaller dorsal 
papilla, or both a dorsal and a ventral, or, in the ease of a 
red examjile, with two dorsal papilhe or Haps and a ventral. 
Probably much depends on the condition of the region with 
regard to reproduction. In the preparations dilatations 
occur dorsally, both in the region of the scutes and, when 
this part is contracted, in the region behind. 

The ventral scutes commence with the median tongue- 
shaped one already mentioned, and laterally are two small 
scutes on each side, each of which abuts on a bristle-process 
(first and second). Each of these has its inner edge bevelled 
by the encroachment of the median scute. Six pairs of 
scutes follow, for the deep median furrow separates the 
respective sides. A rounded glandular scute of small dimen- 
sions is conspicuous on several of the succeeding segments, 
which have a longer antero-posterior diameter than those 
in front. A glandular belt also envelops each bristle-tuft 
anteriorly, and is continued, though less distinctly, pos- 
teriorly, where the uncinigerous processes are more evident 
than the setigerous. In the large northern variety from the 
Hebrides and Shetland the glandular thickening at each 
bristle-tuft is in some developed ventrally in the preparations, 
so that four roAvs of scutes appear to be present. 

The pale golden bristles slope outward and backward 
from setigerous processes of considerable length anteriorly, 
which are bifid dorsally, the longer process being posterior, 
and the margin curves inward ventrally. The setigerous 
processes become smaller in their progress posteriorlv, and 
cease before reaching the tail, the process itself showing 
only the longer posterior papilla, the shorter being indis- 
tinguishable. The number of the setigerous processes seems 
to be variable, ranging from thirty-five to sixty, and, whilst 
the anterior are conspicuous, the posterior are not easily 
observed. The translucent pale golden bristles are in two 
groups, a longer and a shorter. Tliey are widest at the 
pale base, and gradually diminish distalh% where they taper 
to a fine point, Avhich is curved. The longer and stronger 
bristles are dorsal, the shorter and less robust ventral. The 
shorter forms are much more slender, their tapering tips 
alone projecting beyond the surface. 

The uncinigerous processes commence on the ninth 



Gatty }farnie Laboratory , St. Andreios. 35 

setij2jcrous segment as a low elevation with a short row ol: 
hooks, which in outline differ from the typical forms iii 
the middle of the hody, insofar as the base is shorter and 
proportionally thicker, and a considerable elevation occurs 
on tlic anterior outline beneath the main fang. The ty[)ical 
forms have an elongated base slightly turned up at the 
prow, a posterior outline deeply indented above the basal 
process, an anterior outline with a slight projection below 
tlie great fang, and a somewhat convex inferior (basal) out- 
line. The main fang is proportionally large in comparison 
with tiie neck and the tooth above it is of moderate size. 
A feature of these hooks is that whilst in lateral view the 
prow is narrowed toward the i)oint, in a view from above the 
end of the prow is flattened and chisel-shaped. The unci- 
nigerous processes, which are somewhat prominent poste- 
riorlv, continue to the end. The row of hooks is on the 
anterior face of the tip. In the large northern variety from 
Shetland and the Hebrides the base of the hook is somewhat 
thicker posteriorly. 

Dorsally the cephalic plate in the twentieth species. 
Poly cirrus elisabethce, Mcintosh, arises in front of a pro- 
minent ring somewhat crescentie anteriorly and apparently 
continuous with the post-oral segment. The supra-oral 
frill is similar to that of P. aurantiucus, but its lateral folds 
differ, the boss or projcctiou caused by them being farther 
forward and more conspicuous, and in the preparation the 
median fissure runs to the anterior border and forms a spout- 
like projection there. The tentacles have a similar structure, 
and form a mass like that of the common species. When 
extended the cephalic plate forms a wide and frilled margin 
to the funncl-sliaped oral region, and the median scute is 
smoothly rounded ventrally. 

The body has a similar outline to that of P. aurantiacus, 
but the species is smaller, and the posterior margin finely 
tapered, the edges being serrated by the uncinigerous pro- 
cesses, whilst the anus has two dorsal papillre and a more 
prominent mid-ventral papilla. The surface is rounded 
dorsally and grooved ventrally. Anteriorly the mid-ventral 
shield is proportionally larger than in P. aurantiacus, and 
is somewhat lozenge-shaped in form, the anterior angle 
being carried forward to the mouth. Behind it is a narrow 
fillet followed by seven pairs of conspicuous glandular scutes 
aiul a series of smaller which follow. Glaudnlar extensions 
occur laterally at each setigerous process. The segments 
are marked by narrow rings as in the former species. So 



3G Prof. M'Intosli's Notes from the 

far as could bo observed, tlie general arraiiircinent and minihor 
of the setigcrous and unciuigerous processes agree Mitli 
tliose of P. aurantiacus. 

Tlie anterior setigerous processes, wliicli commence on 
tlie second segment, appear to have a slightly longer posterior 
panilladorsally tlian in the former species, but the bristles 
are similarly arranged in a longer and shorter series, the 
latter l)oing more numerous ventrally. The bristles are 
devoid of wings, are translucent pale golden, and in lateral 
view present a slight enlargement before tapering to the 
delicate tip, which is slightly curved. The shorter forms 
have a more attenuate hair-like tip, and also present a trace 
of an enlargement belo'w it. The posterior bristles arc 
shorter, more slender, and fewer in number in the small 
tufts. 

The nneinigerous processes commence about the ninth 
bristled segment, and occur iu a single row. Anteriorly 
tlie hooks are small, have a much shorter base than in 
P. niirantiuais. and the inferior outline rises into a con- 
vrxitv behind the slender prow, while posteriorly it juts into 
a process. Two or three teeth occur above the main fang, 
and a distinct process projects from the anterior outline 
just beneath it. The depth of the base posteriorly and its 
abrujjt slope to the prow give a character to the hook. 
Comparatively few seem to be in each row. 

The twenty-first form, Erentho smiiti, Malmgren, is 
another extensively distributed species in which the cephalic 
regujn is characterized by the absence of a distinct dorsal rim, 
the smooth spout-like supra-oral fillet passing forward in tlie 
niedian line, and, each side bending downward, forms a 
})road rounded flap at the ventral edge, the arrangement 
being svmmetrical. The external margin curves outward 
and upward — almost to the dorsal edge, — then doubles 
sharplv backward as a fillet and ceases. When the neck is 
viewed from the dorsum these fillets are conspicuous on each 
side. From the entire surface of this cephalic plate arise 
the dense mass of bright yellow tentacles which form in- 
extricable coils both in life and in spirit, and from the 
edges of the lateral flaps are many small filaments. They 
are mobile grooved organs caj-able of endless changes — 
now flattened and again rounded, coiled and twisted in 
various ways, or ajiain corrugated and wrinkled. The body 
is pulled along by these organs which move like linear 
IMemcrteans over the glass. The tentacles iu lifeshow a pale 
central streak under a lens, and their sides arc dotted M'ith 



Gattij }fariae Lahoratonj^ St. Andrews. Wl 

luidiitc yellow jijranules. The small tentacles at the inar;^iii 
of the ccphalie lobes keep coiistai)tly coiling, and the auiinal 
soon covers itselt in a glass vessel with debris ot" \ari(Mis 
kinds, and through the nieslus of its cover the long dciieaic 
tentacles everywhere emerge. These tentacles are cdiated 
on the ridges and their muscular fibres form meshes, and 
though no circular coat is ap|)arent the oblique and con- 
necting fibres would to a large extent supplant theui. From 
the nature of" the parts no prominent ventral lip is present, 
i)ut the narrow part of the first glandular ventral scuio 
glides under the ventral Haps of the cephalic piate and runs 
into the smooth surface which trends as a shallow groove 
forward to the mouth. 

'i'he body is more or less dilated anteriorly, sometimes 
b(iiig l.n'gely distended, and it tapers posteriorly to the tail, 
whieli in the prepaiations is by no means slender, though iu 
life It is often much more attenuate. It is rounded dorsally, 
grooved ventrally, and has numerous segments, 50-88 or 
more. iVsterioiiy it terminates ia a erenate anus, the 
central papilla ventrally being the most prominent. Occa- 
sionally tlic anus is carried outward on a small process or 
appendix, but such may be due to regeneration. Anteriorly 
are thirteen pairs of setigerous processes, and behind tlu se 
about seventy or more nuciuigerous processes, which occupy 
the ventro-lateral region. 

The segment behind the mouth has a single large glandular 
ventral scute, narrow in front and broad and rounded pos- 
teriorly. Tlien a narrow belt follows, its lateral regions 
expanding to include the second setigerous processes. 
Thereafter a median band with a central line passes longi- 
tudinally backward, cutting the scutes into pairs in every 
segment, and ot" these seven or eight are distinct, eacli 
marked by transverse lines. The segments of the posterior 
region have a deep furrow in the preparations dividing them 
into two, and each of these is again subdivided into three 
nai row rings. 

\ icwcd from the dorsum each setigerous process is 
doi-sally bifid, a feature better marked in the smaller than in 
the larger examples, aud the bristles issue between the 
limbs. The lirst setigerous process has a considerably longer 
anterior cirrus than those which follow, the posterior process 
being smaller. In the middle of the body the anterior 
process is shorter and thicker and the posterior process is 
more distinct, whil>t the last setigerous process in one has a 
rounded boss on the tip of the thick, short, antei.or proec-s, 
and the posterior is at a greater distance from it ami smaller 



38 Prof. :M'Intosli's Notes from the 

than in the middle of the series. From this bifid region the 
tip is curved downward and in^ya^d. 

The bristles arc in two groups, a longer and a shorter 
series. The former arc pale golden slender bristles with 
shafts tliat are more slender than their pale bases and 
taper distally to the curved wingless tip. In the shorter 
series only the curved tips, which are more slender than the 
foregoing, project beyond the surface. The margin from 
which the bristles issue slopes inward as it passes vcntrally, 
and the fascicle has a twist as in Gnjmaa. 

The first nncinigerous process occurs as a slightly elevated 
ridge at the posterior part of the segment following the 
last bristle-bundle, and the succeeding processes gradually 
increase in prominence until they form bosses or papillae, 
like the feet of cater[)illars, along the ventro-lateral region 
of the body to the tail^ the terminal processes being small 
and closely arranged. The single row of hooks lies on 
the anterior face of the tip. The anterior hooks show a 
considerably longer base than that in INlalmgren's figure, 
the anterior outline, below the main fang, having a slight 
convexity about its middle, whilst at its junction with the 
posterior outline a distinct shoulder occurs. The main fang 
is large and acute, and the tooth al)Ove it is of consideraljle 
size, though not so large as in Malmgren's figure. The 
inferior outline of the base is slightly convex behind the 
middle, but generally shows an* inflection in its progress 
towards the prow. The posterior hooks retain the main fea- 
tures just mentioned, though the base is somewhat shorter 
and a trace of another tooth occurs in some on the crown. 

The twenty-second species is Pohjcirrns tribullata, jNPIntosh, 
dredged bv J. G. JcfiVeys, 90 fathoms off N. Unst, June and 
July 18G7'. 

The cephalic region, lips, and tentacles are of the iisual 
Polycirrid character ; no ventral plates occur, only a 
somewhat raised central line. This form has a very ex- 
ceptional structure, even more so than Lysilla loveni, for 
neither bristles nor hooks could be observed in the single 
example. The skin has a minutely granular aspect under the 
lens. Three very well-marked, circular, flattened processes 
existed on each side on the sixth, seventh, and eighth seg- 
ments, but no bristle or hook w^as present. Each consisted 
of an elevated ring externally with a papilla in the centre. 
Two minute papillte were visible on the segments (one on 
each) in front, but only a trace of an elevation on those 
behind. Each segment anteriorly was two-ringed. 



Gulfi/ .]farine Lahovatori/, St. Andrews. .TO 

From the Zotlandic seas comes the tweuty-tliinl form, 
Liisilla loveni, Malmgrcn. In this the cc|)halic plate passes 
i'orwanl from a small dorsal collar and is tlirown into various 
folds, the edges of which appear to he somewhat thinner than 
in I'o/i/cirnfs, and hence show a more elegantly frillc;d 
margin. Ventrally the ])latc forms a broad flap lixed later- 
ally, but with the inner edge (and flap) free. The surface 
is covered with numerous clavatc and grooved tentacles, l)nt 
the ventral flaps have clusters of more minute filiform ones. 
'I'hc mid-ventral region behind the mouth has a huge and 
l)rom!nent tongue-sha])ed process — smoothly continuous 
with the oral surface anteriorly, where it is fixed ; it is free 
and somewhat conical posteriorly. In lateral view it forms, 
indeed, a spout-like process at right angles to the body with 
an elevation (glandular) in the centre. 

The body is enlarged anteiiorly and marked by the t\>o 
lateral rounded bands, minutely tuberculated and ringed, 
the largest tubercles or pa[)ilhe being on the ventral surface 
of the longitudinal bands. The segments are not distinctly 
defined, cxcejit by the setigerous processes in front ; but 
!Malmgren states that the jjosterior region (absent in the 
British example) presented about twelve deep sulci. He 
gives the lentjth of 30-50 mm., and the width of the tumid 
anterior legion as 5-G mm., that of the posterior part 2- 
2o mm., and the latter, though minutely ringed, is smooth. 

Six setigerous processes occur anteriorly in the groove, 
though no bristles are visible under a lens. Each consists of 
a slightly conical process with a curved tip, and [jresenting a 
white streak in the interior due to the bristles, which consist 
of a single closely arranged fascicle of sim])le translucent 
bristles, which curve distally in conformity with the outline 
of the ])rocess and end within the tissues at the tip. Exce[)t 
for stilfening the setigerous processes, these bristles arc thus 
devoid of function. 

In Tricliobranchus fflac'iulh, Malmgrcn, the twenty-fourth 
form, the cephalic lobe dilfers from that of Pulycimis in its 
reduced coiulition. Dorsally it has a groove separating it 
from the first segment, and is provided with two eye-spots, 
the lobe then projecting forward as two symmetrical rounded 
bosses flanked on each side by a translucent free flap. From 
the surface springs a dense series of tentacles — filiform and 
fissiform. The filiform are jjale pink in colour and — like the 
larger, clavatc, grooved, red-streal<ed ones — keep up a con- 
tinuous movement. The translucent lateral flaps are devoid 
of tentacles. The distinction between the three groujis of 



40 Prof. M'lntosh's Notes frov} the 

appendages is distinct in some preparations. Tlie brancliite 
are coiled, tlie ))osterior small tentacles filiform, vvlulst the 
larger are clavate and grooved. The month opens iu the 
centre above a line joining the attachments of the trans- 
lucent lateral flaps, and in a groove between the two 
in'oniinent anterior bosses. 

The body is Terebcllilorm in appearance, about an inch 
in length, enlarged anteriorly, and tapered posteriorly to 
terminate in an anus with two cirri. It is rounded dorsally, 
grooved ventrally, and has about seventy segments. The 
mouth opens anteriorly at the furrow between the bosses, 
the translucent lateral flaps curving inward to be attached 
on each side. Ventrally is the tumid and streaked lower 
lip which forms the conspicuously truncated anterior end. 
The grooves generally show a symmetrical arrangement, a 
broad median belt passing down the centre, flanked by two 
or three stripes on each side, the ventral ends being split. 
The second segment forms a continuous ring dorsally and 
ventrally, and sometimes projects forward dorsalh^, so as to 
ensheath the i)osterior cephalic e<\ge and the eyes. It bears 
dorsally the first branchia on each side, a single thick and 
proportionally long filament tapered distally — distinguished 
by the bright red central vessel and often by the spiral con- 
dition. The third and fourth segments also bear a pair of 
gills, which readily fall off in the preparations. 

'Jhe sl;ort setigerous processes, which have oblique tips, 
commence on the sixth segment and are fifteen in number. 
Each tuft has two scries, a longer and a shorter. The longer 
bristles are pale golden, one half free and one half inserted 
in the tissues, the shafts dilating a little fi*om the base, then 
remaining cylindrical till the commencement of the very 
narrow wings, which have minute strife directed ontward and 
upward, after which they taper to a fine hair-like curved tip. 
They thus apjicar to represent the first stage of the develop- 
ment of wings on a bristle. The bristles slope outward and 
backward in the preparations, but are directed forward in 
life, the convexity of the terminal curve being in the same 
direction ; the shorter forms often alternate with the longer, 
and their number corresponds nearly with that of the longer, 
viz., six in each tuft. There is also a slight gradation in the 
size of the longer bristles from the dorsal to the ventral 
edge. 

Jielow each bristle-tuft is a row of hooks with elongated 
curved shafts, which increase from the base upward to the 
shoulder — above which the neck is distinctly narrowed, the 
head again expanding so as to resemble with the main fang 



Gdtty ^[arine Labor alor y ^ St. Andrcicn. 41 

a Ijii d's head. Above tlic main fang tlic ronnded crown lias a 
scrirs of ronr smaller teeth. This kind of hook is charac- 
teristic of the bristle-bearing segments. 

A seri(S of vertically tialtencd uneinigerons l;imellno orcnr 
on the succeeding segments, and some are broader at tlic tip 
than tlic base. They bear at their apices a row of minute 
avicular hooks, having short, broad, basal processes with a 
convex inferior outline, a j)osterior outline in which a deep 
sinus occurs above the basal j)rocess, and an anterior outline 
which in some has a trace of a ])roce.ss beneath the main 
tooth. The latter is of moderate size, but the teeth above 
it are proportionally large, so that this hook docs not 
present the disproportion between the first and succeeding 
teeth present in the long anterior hooks. In lateral view 
four or five teeth occur above the great fang, and in reality 
they form a rounded crown with their points curved oljliquely 
downward. Mahngren, while noting the distribution of the 
hooks from front to rear, does not suiheiently define the 
structure of the posterior hooks. 

As widely distributed is the twenty-fifth species, Tere- 
hcUides strotmi, Sars, in which tlie cephalic region is almost 
as blunt as in Tricliobraiichits, though the great elevation of 
the frilled cephalic plate is characteristic, since it rises Irom 
a slight collar liigh above the (lorsal outline and has a boldly 
folded margin, the two sides meeting in the middle line 
inferiorly, and forming a spout-shaped channel, the sides of 
which behind the mouth in some are thickened. The cephalic 
])late thus has the surfaces directed anteriorly and posteriorly, 
instead of dorsally and ventral ly as in I'ulycirrus and other 
forms. The edges of the plate posteriorly give origin to 
the tentacles, which are of a pale flesh-colour, grooved, often 
spoon-shaped, and, though not stretching much, coil actively 
in every direction. 

The body is enlarged in front and gently tapers to the 
tail, which is by no means slender. It is smoothly rounded 
on the dorsum and only in well-preserved examples are the 
lines of the segments indicated. On the other hand, the 
ventral surface presents anteriorly the bold glandular belts, 
the representatives of tl.e scutes of other members of the 
family. JJcsidi s, a great glandular semicircular lamella is 
j)laccd immediately behind the spout-shaped fold of the 
cephalic plate and separates the oral from the succeeding 
region, and is evidently of great physiological importance. 
A narrow glandular ring fuUows, tlie convex central region 
being in some separated by furrows from the lateral regions, 



42 Prof. ^M'lutosli's Notes from tlie 

■which (liininish as they go outward. A broader ring, the 
secoiul body-segment, which bears the branchire dorsal ly, then 
follows, the central region of which is likewise marked off by 
two furrows from the lateral regions. This ring is partly 
overlapped by the broad glandular belt, which stretches from 
side to side of the next segment and clasps the setigerous 
process at each side. Four similar ventral belts follow, dimin- 
ishing as they go, and then the succeeding belts are narrow^ 
separated by increasing breadths of non-glandular tissue. 
Further, au almond-shaped area beneath each setigerous 
])rocess is differentiated, and ou this the hooks appear on 
the sixth bristled segment, and thereafter it becomes the 
imcinigerous process. 

The branchice arise from the second and third segments by 
short, somewhat bulky, and tinted stems, which are flattened 
antero-posteriorly. Tue two main divisions are dorsal, each 
liaving a smooth basal process directed backward and a 
fusiform dorsal region composed of lamellfe, which from the 
stem backward abut ou the smooth basal process, whilst 
the lamelhe of the portions in frout of the stem are fixed to 
a median ventral band. These lamellae are highly vascular, 
the vessels or channels forming a close series of arches from 
twelve to eighteen in numi)er along each leaflet, the free 
margin of which is crenate. The posterior branchicC are much 
smaller, but they also have a basal trunk to which the lamelhe 
are attached. The Jamella" are more or less conical, having a 
distinct apex to which the vascular channels poiut, and thus 
thev are more or less straight and nearly vertical. A coagii- 
lated fusiform mass occurred in the basal trunk of one. In 
the tube the branchiaj are turned forward with the basal 
region, the smaller pair uppermost and the lamellte next 
the dorsum. 

The first setigerous group commences on the second seg- 
ment, at the upper or lateral edge of the ventral glandular belt, 
and below it is a slightly curved elevation with the convexity 
anterior. Seventeen setigerous processes follow. Each is 
short and stout, with a slightly bevelled tip grooved for the 
bristles. The first and second are smaller, and they slightly 
diminish posteriorly. The pale golden bristles have long 
and nearly cylindrical shafts, a little narrowed at the 
proximal end and distally tapering to a somewdiat stiff 
curved tip, which ends in a hair-like point. The tip has 
narrow but distinct wings. The bristles appear to be in a 
single series — the stouter dorsal and the more translucent 
and slender ventral in position. 

The rows of hooks commence on the sixth segment and 



Gaily }fiirinG Laboratory, St. Andrewa. 43 

continue to tlic posterior end. In the bristled segments 
anteriorly they occnr on slightly elevated ridges a short 
distanee hclow the setigerous processes, with tiie exception 
of the first which is close to the base of the process. The 
ridges become more prominent before the bristles cease. The 
rows are often conspicuous from their brownish colour. The 
golden hooks of the lirst row not only diverge in position, 
but in structure, for they are laiger and longer, have trans- 
lucent shafts which dilate a little aljove the base, and again 
gradually diminish to the neck which is curved backward, 
the tip being bent at a little more than a right angle and 
tapered to a sharp point — slightly turned up in some. The 
second scries shows hooks of the normal outline, besides 
others imperfectly formed — with shorter shafts, and slightly 
curved biHd tips, — a distal longer and another sliortcr j)rocess 
at a distance below it. The typical hook has a long, slightly 
curved, tincly-striated shaft, which is slender at the base, 
dilates gradually in its progress to the shoulder, near which 
it diminishes, the neck then being bent a little backward, the 
enlarged crown having four teeth above the main fang, w hich 
is i)owerful and sharp. 

The uncinigerous processes become more prominent on 
slightly flattened lamelhe with wider truncated tips behind 
the bristled region, and attain their maximum about the 
twentieth before the end, and gradually diminish backward. 
In this region the hooks are all of one kind, and essentially 
dilfcient from those in the anterior region. Each hook has 
a convex posterior region with a deep dimple above the base, 
three large teeth above the main fang, the anterior outline 
presents a slight process below the main fang, and the base 
is convex infcriorly and short, the somewhat abrupt anterior 
outline making but a short process. The importance of the 
form and of the functions of hooks are well illustrated in 
tliis species, which has no less than three kinds. 

3. On the Tercbellidae drcdrjnd hj If.M.S. ' Porcupine ' in 
18GU and 1870, and bij the ' Kn'ujht Errant ' ia 188.^. 

A variety of AmphHritecirrata was procured in GOO fathoms 
at Station ;j, 1870, and various rare Tercbellids from dc[)th3 
ranging from IGO to 358 fathoms, Pista cristnta, O. 1*\ M,, 
Avas dredged at Stations 2 and G (Atlantic), 1870, and Thele- 
pus cincinnalus from 81 fathoms oft" Cape Finisterrc and 795 
fathoms at \7 b (Atlantic), Lapkania boecki in 5G7 fathoms; 
whilst Tricliobranchus (/lacialis, Malmgrcn, occurred at 
Station No. 3 (Atlantic), 1870, and Perebellides stroemi, 



44 Trof. M'lntosh's Notes from the 

Sars, eight miles off Cape Sagres in 45 fathoms, off Cape 
Guardia. and nine miles off Cape Finisterre in 81 fathoms. 

Amphitriie ajfiuis, ^Malnigren, whieh extends from Ireland 
(Southern) into the Atlantic, where it was dredged hy the 
'Knight Errant' at Station 11, J^3rd August, 1882, in 555 
fathoms. There is a \vell-marl\ed dorsal collar without eye- 
specks in the preparation, and which laterally folds round to 
join the supra-oral plate, which is somewhat scoop-shaped 
and only moderately prominent. The tentacles appear to be 
normal. The body is typical, so far as it goes, and rounded 
dorsally, whilst ventrally are tAvelve distinct shields and 
several rudimentary ones posteriorly. Behind the mouth is 
a transverse shield, which doisally joins the smooth region 
behind the collar. Two segments with ventral shields follow, 
the dorsal edge of the first passing to the base of the first 
branchia, whilst the dorsal edge of the second falls short of 
its branchia. A still larger gaj) separates the first bristle- 
tuft of the next segment Irom the third branchia. Behind 
the shields a deep groove occupies the ventral median line. 

The branehite are three in number, proportionally small, 
and with short and rather thick terminal divisions. The 
first has a short stem, which splits, each branch carrying 
a few short filaments, some M'ith bifid tips. The sec(md is a 
little less, and the third is again still less. Both sides are 
alike. There are seventeen pairs of biistle-tufts, the first 
commencing oi)posite the third branchia. The i)ristles are 
pale golden, the shaft being deeply inserted in the tissues, 
only a short free portion occurring below the wings, 
which are narrow and soon cease, the translucent tip 
beyond being flattened like along knife-blade, boldly serrated, 
at the edge, and tapered into a very long hair-like tip. One 
or two shorter forms occur amongst the others, but 
apparently no regular series as in other genera, and the}' are 
probal)ly developing long bristles. In these little of the 
winged region projects beyond the surface, and the flattened 
blade beyond is occasionally split into spikes. Amongst 
the bristles are long curved forms with narrow wings and 
finely tapered tips. 

The hooks (PI. III. fig. 2), when fully developed, form a 
double low, the large fang facing that ot' the opposite hook. 
The base is comparatively small and the crown and neck 
large. The crown presents in lateral view three teeth above 
the main fang, Avhieli is long and sharp. The posterior 
border is convex and a marked heel occurs as it joins the 
base. The curve below the main fang has a median process, 
and beyond it is an abrupt bend, whilst the anterior process 



Ga'Ji/ Marine Ltihordtori/^ St. Andrtur,. A'} 

or j)ro\v is rntiiulcd :iiul blunt, striae pass from tlio small 
tectli on the crown alonj; the posterior |)art of the neck. 

The ccplialie rcjiion presents a broad horseshoe-fold over 
the month — continnous at its outer and inferior edf^e ^ith 
the hirj^cr eoUar wliic-h bounds the tent;icuiar area posteriorly. 
A deep {groove, wide in the middle and 1ai)cred at eacli 
side, is thus formed. IJelow the mouth is a short fold 
bounded by the first-mentioned horscshec-areh at each side, 
and ventral to this a broader band or lip. 

'I he body has a normal shape, viz. eidar;j:ed anteriorly and 
then ji;ra<h!ally tapcrin^j^ to the posterior end. There arc 
seventeen pairs ot" bristlc-luindles, which coinmci.ee on the 
fourth sej^ment and extend to the twenty-first. The winged 
tips do not show serrations under a power of 350. Each of 
the thiec bianchijc arises from a single basal portion, and 
extends as simple slightly curled filaments (herefrom, the 
tips being sliiihtly tapered. They seem to be consideral)ly 
shorter than those of Amphitrite cinafa, O. V. M. Twelve 
vi'utral shields or plates occur in front, the first being im- 
niediately liehind the posterior labial process, and a ridge 
(marking the nerve-eord) is continued from the last along 
the ventral groove to the posteiior end. 

Marenzeller describes the colour of the body as reddish 
grey, br(j\\nish in front, and ])ale posteriorly. Tentachs 
streaked and punctated with brown. Tn the examples from 
tlie ' Porcupine' brownish pigment still remained anteriorly 
at the cephalic folds and between the ventral shields. The 
bristles issue from an elevation at the dorsal ed^e of the 
ridge for the hooks, and they t\)rm a vertical series in each 
tut't. Moreover, six small papillaa (third to ninth) occur im- 
mediately beneath them, and situated at the posterior border 
of the ridge for the hooks. 

The hooks ditier from those of ^l. cirruta in the shorter 
and less oblique base, which thus forms a different angle 
M itli the crown. Four teetli occur above the main fang, as 
in A. cirruta. The elevations or ])ads for the hooks are long 
in front, stretching from the dorsal bristle-tufts almost to 
the ventral groove. J^ehind the bristled region they form 
small but prominent lamella.' along each lateral region, and 
there is liitle difference in structure between the anterior 
and posterior hooks. The former are in a double row, the 
latter form a single series. 

This difl'ers from A. c'lrrata in the position of the j^apilhe 
at the anterior setigerons processes, and in the absence ot 
the adjoining Hap at the dorsal end of the rows of hooks. 
Lajifiania bocck'i, var. fnjs/ricis, was dredged in the Kxpc- 



46 Prof. M'lutosirs Xulcs from (he 

ditiou of 1870 at No. 1 in 567 fathoms, and lias sixteen 
pairs of bristles. The cei)lialic lobe has no dorsal collar, 
and the ])latc arches over the month, a series of the nsnal 
grooved tentacles arisinj; from its surface. It difiers from a 
Canadian Laphania in havinjj a free ventro-lateral flap or 
collar at eacli side of the cei)halic plate. Behind this, on 
the dorsum, anotlicr collar occurs on the succeeding; sep;- 
ment, and it attains its maximum depth laterally — ceasing 
as it reaches the ventral surface. 

The body is only slightly enlarged in front^ and tapers 
gently to the posterior end with its terminal anus. The 
dorsum is rounded, the anterior ventral region flattened, 
and the rest grooved posteriorly. The number of segments 
is over thirty, but the example is incomplete. Eleven or 
twelve ventral scutes seem to be present. 

Sixteen pairs of bristlc-l)uudles occur anteriorly, each 
having comparatively few bristles issuing from the somewhat 
conical process. The longer bristles are translucent, shorter 
than in the other form, and with a comparatively short, 
winged, tapering, terminal region. The tips liave a slight 
curvature. The shorter forms have only their tips projecting, 
and their wings do not seem to be broader than those of 
the longer bristles, and just a trace of a curvature occurs at 
the ti]). The first setigerous i)rocess is on the third segment. 
The number of the bristle-tufts agrees with Malragren's 
Scione, but the hooks so closely resemble those of La- 
phania hoecki that further investigation is necessary. 

The rows of hooks apuear to commence with the bristles, 
and anteriorly their outline (PL I. fig. 12) approaches that 
of Pista cristala, though they are considerably smaller. The 
crown has at least five teeth above the main fang, the 
anterior outline has a prominent median process with an 
indentation below it and the prow is rounded. The pos- 
terior outline has an eminence above the ligament, and the 
inferior outline of the base is slightly convex. From the 
hook of Plsta cristata it is distinguished by its smaller size, 
the shape of the crown, and the increased number of teeth 
above the main fang, by the greater bulk of the base in the 
liook of P. cristata, and by the difference in the anterior 
outline — chiefly caused by the deeper inflection below the 
median process. The posterior hooks are smaller, have a 
jjroportionally larger crown, a more uniform anterior outline, 
and do not usually show the powerful ligament at the pos- 
terior end of the base. 



Catty Marine Lahoratory, St. Aiidreio.f. 17 

i. On the Chictoptrridip, Anipliictcnidic, and Ainplirirctidio 
drviUji'd in the Gulf of !St, Lawrence, Canada, bij 
Dr. ir/iiieaves in 1871-73. 

The Cliajtoptciids arc represented only l)y frap:m('nt.s of a 
Sj/ioc/iiofojifrrns, prohahly .S. /t/jiiciis, Sars, I'roni No. 9, ]S7.'5. 

Tlic A ni|)lii('t(Miiil;c include Ciatenidcs hyperhurea, Malinfjien, 
dredjrcd in l()l)-;212 fathoms oil' Antico^ti in 1871 and more 
abundantly on Orplian Hank, Nos. 9 and 1(5, 1873. This 
form is distinfi;nislied by the dark colour of the paleohe 
and their number — viz. twelve to fourteen, thou;;h oeeasion- 
aliy lifteen may be jjrcseut, — by their gi-eatcr breadth than in 
Liiyis, and thoJigh the tijjs arc finely tapered they arc more 
rijiid than those of Layis koreni, by the peculiarly blunt, 
almost knob-like, condition of the fringes of the veil, and by 
the iirescneo of seventeen pairs of bristle-bundles. One of 
the most cliaracteristic features anteriorly is the oral veil, 
whieh, instead of ceasing laterally in a line with the anterior 
cirrus, passes downward and backward as a broad sheath, 
Mhich envelops most of the oral tentacles like a broad funnel, 
as in Cistcnides yranulata, a form characteristic of the waters 
of Greenland. This has similar pajjilloe on the margin of the 
veil, but only nine or ten paleolae in its crown. The anterior 
and j)osterior bristles closely resemble those of Layis koreni, 
though, on the whole, the stronger anterior (simple) bristles 
have broader shafts in the latter. The caudal hooks of the 
Canadian species are less tapered at the neck, the curve 
of the terminal hook less marked, and the point in the 
British form is also often sharper. One of the most 
distinctive features, however, is the structure of the minute 
hooks (PI. II. fig. 7) on the lamelhc of the feet, which, 
instead of having six teeth in a continuous row above the 
minute series of four inferiorly, have but three in increasing 
size. The process beneath the third usually has three teeth 
at tlie tip, as shown l)y Malmgrcn, but sometimes four occur, 
and occasionally only two — apparently from injury. The 
groove below this jjroeess is figured by ^laluigrcn as bluntly 
and smoothly rouniled, but it really shows from above down- 
ward a convexity ar.d then a concavity, with a small hook- 
like tip. The shaft diminisiies even more rapidly than in 
Layis koreni. The anal process has three or four lobes on 
its dorsal margin behind the hooks, and thus diliers from 
that of Layi.s koreni, w Iiieh has a papilla on the tip of these 
j)rocesses. 

Stalked Infusoria occur in numbers on the palcolie. 



48 Prof. M'liitosli's Notes from (h°. 

The tubes (PI. I. figs. 1 & 2) of C. hyperborea present a 
slight curvature and taper to rather an acute point, and 
they arc large, from 60-70 ram. in length and 8-9 mm. in 
breadth at the wide end. They do not exhibit the ex(|uisite 
masonry of Lngis koreni, presenting not only a ronghcr 
external snrface, but an excess of cement hides defects in the 
joints. The tubes, however, are firm and serviceable, and 
all are of a dark brownish hue, pi-obably in keeping with 
their surroundings. The smaller tubes show greater neat- 
ness and regularity in their construction, and the cement is 
confined to the joints — indeed, the larger tubes vary amongst 
themselves in this respect. 

This species has a wide range, liaving been found in Spitz- 
bergen, Finmark, and Sweden, as well as in Canada and 
Greeidand. On tbe other baud, Cistemdes granulata, L., 
its near ally, does not occur in Dr. Whiteaves' collections ; 
yet it is common in Greenland, its tube (PI. I. figs. 3 
& 4) having fewer sand-grains in a transverse row than in 
C. hyperborea — though interesting, much weight need not be 
attached to this feature, which depends on the size of the 
grains. It is recognized by the comparatively few paleolaj in 
its crown (9-10) ; a velar process a little less developed veu- 
trally than in C. hyperborea, but with similar marginal papillae ; 
whilst the hooks, which are not figured by Malmgren, shovv 
three teeth, which increase in size from alcove downward as in 
C. hyperborea ; but the process beneath them has no evident 
spikes or they are very indistinct, and the prow below has 
a si(nilar double curve to that of the Canadian species. In 
this form also the anal valve (dorsal) is considerably longer 
than in C. hyperborea or Lagis koreni, and it projects as a 
flattened conical process beyond the ventral edge. The 
margin of the process also is more distinctly fimbriate than 
in the allied forms. The tube (PI. I. figs. 1 & 2) has 
a slight curvature, and, as a rule, the grains are coarser than 
in C. hyperborea, but the cement is neatly adjusted at the 
opposing edges. It is tapered to a fairly fine point 
posteriorly. 

Amongst the Amphareiidse is SabeUides borealis,S-drs, which 
Avas not unfrequently procured off Cape Hosier Lighthouse 
in 1871 and at Stations 35 and 36, 1873. 

The cephalic region (PL I. figs. 7 & 8) is characterized 
by its firm shield-shaped plate, which is sloped to a hlunt 
point in front and is sometimes pigmented. On viewing 
the snout from the ventral surface, a series of distinct eyes 
occurs as a band on the anterior border of the fold at the 
base of the conical snout. Moreover, blackish pigment 



iitithj Murine l^'iliorat'jri/, Si. An'./rcia^. 4!) 

tints tlic prominent parts of tlic lip"^, which foi'm a curved 
frilled bund on each side of" the month. The branchiae arc 
four on each side, attached to the doisnm of tlie third seg- 
ment, and two somewhat in front of the other two. They 
are jjroportionally small tapcM-ing organs siiid (piite snKjoth. 
It has laterally a |)rocess of the peristomial segment, which 
also bounds it behind. Ventrally is the mouth, which has a 
Heshy lip on each side, whilst anteriorly the dorsal surface 
of these bears the tentacles, which vary much in length 
iu ditt'erent examples, aj)[)arently from their condition 
as regards reproduction. The base is the thickest part of 
each, and it is smooth at first, then the organ tapers to 
the free end, which is in the preparations somewhat clavate 
and more finely granular than the rest. The processes or 
"cilia" gradually increase in length, forming conspicuous 
organs till witliin a siiort distance of the ti[), which is free 
from them. Juich is a translucent process of liypodcrm 
with a cimtral axis or rod, the outline i)rcsenting a slight 
enlargement at the base and again at the tip, especially in 
those toward the distal eiul of the series. The translucent 
liypodcrm of these processes is granular and slightly streaked 
at the enlarged terminal part, which also occasionally shows 
I alpocils in the pre[)arations, but Avhether due to the action 
of the preservative fluid or otherwise is unknown. The 
axial fibre is structureless and is brittle. 

The function of these peculiarly armed tentacles appears to 
be of a special character, as the central axis in ea(;h " cilium " 
shows. The body is elongated, very little narrowed in front, 
but considerably taperc d posteriorly, where it ends in a tail, 
having two ciiri of moderate length placed ventrally on each 
side of an anus, which iu some presents a slightly crcnate 
margin. The dorsum is smoothly rounded throughout, and 
the ventral surface is also convex anteriorly, whilst the 
boldly marked glandular thickening of the segments gives 
a character to the region, which is nearly co-extensive with 
the bristled segments, and thereafter a median groove passes 
backward to the tail. The thickened ventral surfaces of the 
anterior segments show a slight differentiation of the median 
line, which, iu contraction, is curved backward and by-and- 
by is somewhat elevated, and thus is in contrast with the 
fully extended example. 

The anterior I'cgion has fourteen pairs of setigerous pro- 
cesses, the first of wiiich is dorsal in position, being situated 
just external to the branchice of its side, and the next three 
gradually slope to the side along which the rest lie. Each 
tuft consists of a series of longer translucent bristles, having 

Ann. tC- .l/(/r/. .V. I/ist. Sor. 8. To/, xv. 1 



50 Prof. M'lntofch's Xoles froin the 

cylindrical shafts (PI. 11. fig. 2) and sliglitly curved 
■vvingcd tips, ^vhich taper to a fine point. The widest part 
of tlic bristle seems to be a little above the comniencemeutof 
tlie wings. Besides tlie main bristles of each tnit a shorter 
series of winged forms (PI. II. tig. 3) occur Victween them, 
little more than the tips with the wings projecting- beyond 
the surface. The brisiles retain the same structure through- 
out, the curvature of the tips only sliowing variation. 

The anterior hooks commence at the third bristle-bundle, 
being attached to a slight ridge, which, as the hooks approach 
more closely to the setigcrous process, posteiiorly becomes 
a small lamella. The hooks form a single row and nearly 
correspond in structure (PI. I. figs. 9 & 10} with those figured 
by Malmgren, viz., having a slightly sinuous crown with a 
peak for the ligament at the posterior angle and five teeth 
in lateral view, the last being broad and short. Tiie prow 
is smoothly ronndcfl, and the notch between it and the tooth 
is wide internally and differs from Malmgren's figure. 

So far as can be observed, the number of the posterior 
lamellae for the hooks is twelve. They are flattened and 
somewhat irregularly conical next the bristled region, but 
soon develop an elongated dorsal cirrus or filament, which 
continues to the posterior end. The hooks of this region 
(Pi. I. fig. 11) are considerably smaller than those of the 
anterior region, have a proportionally broader crown and 
only four teeth in lateral view. The prow is proportionally 
larger and the posterior outline more convex. 

The tube is composed of fine mud and is comparatively 
soft. To the exterior are attached filaments of reddish algge 
and patches of Celhpora. The tube is considerably longer 
than the body of the animal. 

TheTerebellidse dredged in the Gulf of St. Lawrence com- 
prise Ani/j/utrite cirrata, O. F. M., off Port Hood, Cape 
Breton, Amphitrite, A. B., off Cape Rosier Lighthouse, whilst 
a form near ^. grcanlandica was found off Port Hood. Te e- 
helln jiyulus^ D.ilyell, was met with between Cape Rosier and 
Ca])e (jaspe in 1872. Thelepus ciacinnatus, O. Fabr., was 
dredged in numbers on Orphan Bank, and in 100-200 
fathoms off Anticosti in 1871, and at No. 8, 1872, The 
widely distributed Pisia crhiata, O. F. M., was met with ou 
stony ground in 75-100 fathoms between Cape Rosier and 
Cape Gaspe. A Pohjcirrus was dredged in 170 fathoms 
on the same ground. Lanassa nor dens kioldi, Malmgren, 
occurred ofif Cape George, Nova Scotia, and in various 
hauls elsewhere. Artacama canadensis, a form near Malm- 



Gaily M irine Liihoratoru^ S(. Andrews. />1 

greii's A. prohoscidea, was met witli in Gaspe Bay and other 
localities m 30 fathoms, and the ubiquitous Trichobranchus 
ghiciulis, .Malmgren. o(Y Port Ilood, and Tcrebellides sh-oeini, 
iSars, in 100 to 212 fathoms off Auticosli, off Pugvvash, 
Nova Scotia, and other places. 

Several examples of Lanassa nordenskioldi. Malmgren, 
occurred ofl' Cajie George, Nova Scotia, in 1873, and a frag- 
ment at No. 6 the pievious year. Those from (^^ape George 
were in thick and rather long tubes of brownish clayey naud, 
■Nvhich presented a smooth inner lining, but no perceptible 
membrane, and as they had not been specially attended to after 
capture had decayed. The cephalic lobe has scarcely a trace 
of a collar dorsally and is small, its inferior lip forming an 
arch over the mouth. From its surface a scries of grooved 
tentacles arise. Neither eyes nor branchiae are present. 
The body is elongated, but, as no complete example has been 
found, t he iHimber of segment sis unknown, probably from forty 
to seventy. It is enlarged anteriorly and tapered posteriorly 
to a terminal crenate vent. The dorsal surface is rounded 
and with minutely tubercnlated bands in front ; whilst the 
ventral surface, also flattened in the region of the shields in 
front, is grooved posteriorly. The first three bands of 
tubercles are narrower than the succeeding, and give a 
character to this region of the dorsum. A deep groove runs 
along each side of tlie body above the ventral louiiitudinal 
muscles behind the anterior region. 

Fifteen paiis of setigerous processes occur anteriorly, viz. 
from the fourth to the nineteenth. They are conical when 
viewed from the dorsum, the tips being flattened and 
obliquely truncated, so that the dorsal edge projects most. 
They bear long pale golden bristles, the tips being curved 
backward, and thcv occur in two series, a longer and 
shorter, the stronger and longer of the former being dorsal, 
the shorter being ventral. Each bristle (PI. II. fig. 8) 
has a translucent, faintly striated, flatttned shaft, the 
narrowed base of which is often enlarged at the end. The free 
portion is slightly narrowed from the surface of the skin to 
the origin of the very narrow wings, and then the tip is 
tapered to a fine translucent hair-like point. The shorter 
forms have only the winged tip free, and they probably indi- 
cate a reserve-series. 

The first row of hooks is opposite the second bristle- 
bundle, and the others occupy a similar position throughout 
the bristled region, being in a single row to the seventh and 
in a double row thereafter to the fourteenth. Behind the 

4* 



52 Piof. M«Intosl»'s Notes from the 

bristles the uucinigerous rows become sliobtly more promi- 
nent, and soon form conspicuous vcutro-hiteral processes 
ahnost to the tip of tlie tail. The iiooks, which are uniform 
iu structure throughout (PI. II. fiii'. 9). are characterized by 
the elevated crowns, with four or five sharp teeth above the 
great fang, a convex dorsal outline and a deep incurvation 
above the base, the posterior angle of which h;is a well- 
niaiked process ; the inferior outline is convex, whilst below 
the great fang is a prominent process from which the outline 
slopes to the i)row. 

Artacamd ainadensis, sp. n., is not uncommon in water of 
some de[)th in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Hitherto the genus 
has been found chiefly in northern latitudes, such as Spitz- 
bergen and Norway, and has not heen met wnth in tiie British 
area. It is distinguished by its bulbous and symmetrically 
rugose buccal region, from \\hich the everted proboscis in 
seme cases projects as a papillose globular mass with a con- 
spicuous cone at the apex. The cephalic plate is peculiar, 
for it is produced posteriorly into two lobes, rounded distally, 
whilst its ventral margin forms a frilled funnel, considerably 
elevated above the mouth, though the arrangement of the 
parts corresponds with s[)ecies in which the mouth is iu the 
central j)art of the frills ventrally. The plate has a distinct 
dorsal collar. 

The body is enlarged anteriorly, the snout bt-ing somewhat 
bulbous, and tapered posteriorly to a slender tail with a 
terminal anus. It is rounded dorsally, flattened and grooved 
vent ally, and tiie segments are distinctly marked, the 
anterior having two rings and the posterior three in a large 
example. Eight of the anterior segments, ventrally, have 
■wide glandular l)elts, and thereaiter are five central glandular 
shields. In a small example with a complete posterior end 
the terminal segments appeared to be only two-ringed^ and 
finally only a single ring characterized the nine or ten 
segments. 

The branch ife are in three groups on the second, third, and 
fourth segmiMitSj and their filaments are smaller than in such 
as Thelepns. Each spiings from a central point, from which 
the twenty or more filaments diverge, and when torn they 
adhere by their bases. 

The anterior region bears seventeen paiis of setigerous 
processes, which are flattened lamellse with oblique distal 
edges, the dorsal being the most prominent, whilst the 
anterior lip projects heyond the surface. They bear two 
series of pale golden bristles, viz. a longer and a shorter. 



Guihj yUn'ine Lahoratory^ St. Aiulreios. 53 

The lonn^or (PI. II. ti'^. 10) havn finely striated sliaft^, which 
slightly (liiniiiish to the origin of the wings, the ta|)eriiig tip 
liaving a well-marked curve, which in tlie preparations lias 
the convexity forward. The edges of the wings seem to be 
minutely serrated. In the sh.orter series (PI. II. fig. 11) 
the tips only project beyond the surface, and the wings are 
])rop()rti()nally broader. The [)resence of the thin anterior 
lamellne in these setigerous processes is nf)tewortiiy. A 
papilla under the middle branchial tuft indicates the com- 
mencement of the series, though it bears no bristles. 

Tlie anterior rows of hooks, which commence on the second 
setigerous segment, are comparatively long, those toward 
the end of the bristled region nearly reaching the elevated 
mid-ventral line. A change occurs after the cessation of 
the bristles, for, instead of sessile rows of hooksj uncini- 
gerous processes are developed beneath a foliaceons lamella 
after the manner of a Phyllodocid. These lamellae gradually 
diminish posteriorly, and are minute in the caudal region. 
The first nncinigerous process and lamella are smaller than 
those which succeed. At the fourth the nncinigerous lobe 
is s(imewhat tongue-sliapcd with the hook on the doi'sal con- 
vexity, the shorter inferior curve being bare. The lamella 
is large ?ind reuiform, being fixed by its pedicle at the 
hilus. The minute hooks ( PI. III. fig. 3) have the same 
structure both anteriorly and posteriorly, viz., a proportion- 
ally large great fttng, with five or six teeth in lateral view 
above it, so that the crown is large, the posterior outline is 
convex with a deep dim|)]e above the base, which is short and 
convex inferiorly, whilst the anterior outline has a process 
beneath the great fang, the prow presenting no peculiarity. 
These hooks differ so much from those figured by Malmgren 
that furtlier observations are necessary to ascertain the 
relationships of the Canadian form. 



5. On the Ampharetidae rt/?rf Terebellidie dredged by 
Canon A. M. Xunnan off Xonray. 

TliC Ampharetidic occurred at various stations, from 33 to 
44-, and ranging to 210 fathoms, and they included A)a/ihu- 
rete yruhei, Malmgren, Amphlcteis yunneri, Sars, Sabellides 
octocirraia, Sars, Melinna cristata, Sars, 37. elisubethce, 
M'lntosh, and Amaye auricula, Malmgren. 

Amongst the interesting Terebellids are a form near 
Amph'itrite yrai/i, Malmgren, Ttrebella datdchseni, Malmgren, 



54 Prof. M'lntosli'd Xutes from tie 

Nicolea venustuJa, ^lontngu, Pista aistata, O. F. M., The- 
lejjus ciiicinnatus, O. Fabr., Grymcpa bairdi, MaliQgien, 
Lysilla loveni, Malmgren, aud the following. 

Amcea trilobata, Sars. 

Drelged iu 130 fathoms off Sponholmere, Lervig, Norway, 
in 1879. 

Tlie cephalic lobe has a well-marked and crenate dorsal 
collar which is continuous with the post-oral fold on the 
ventral surface, the whole b: ing thrown into various folds. 
A small tongue-shaped process lies in the centre below the 
mouth, whilst over it is the large, thin, fan-sliaped flap so 
characteristic of the species. To judge from Malmgien's 
figures, the parts setra to vary much according to their 
condition on preservation. From the surface of the cephalic 
lobe pass off numerous grooved tentacles, the general appear- 
ance leing such as to cause Sars to place it under the genus 
Poly cirrus. 

The body is much inflated anteriorly, and, in the present 
example, chiefly ventrally, and it tapers posteriorly to the 
tail, which is absent, but which does not seem to be much 
attenuated in Malmgren's figure. The dorsal surface is 
rounded and, at first sight, smooth, but is really minutely 
pajiillose. The ventral surface in the example is largely 
distended, projecting considerably on each side of the seti- 
gerous processes. The surface of the distended region is 
more distinctly papillose than the dorsal surface, whilst 
in the median line are five or six small shields, the last 
trending into the broad median line, which behind the 
swollen region passes into the ventral groove, which, with 
the two lateral sulci above the ventral longitudinal muscles, 
divides the body into three main regions — a dorsal and two 
ventro-lateral. The alimentary canal is distended with mud 
containing sand-grains, a few spicules of sponges, and com- 
paratively few nutritive particles. 

On each side anteriorly are ten pairs of long, flattened, 
setigerous processes, bevell d at the tip ; but no bristles are 
visible, even uuder a lens. The first has a distinct and some- 
what ovoid dor-al lobe, into which the very fine hair-like 
tips of the bristles go, and a few project beyond the tip. 
The rest, which are equally fine, appear beyond tlie edge 
of the bevelled region beneath. Though so few project 
beyond the tip, many occupy the process itself, and they are 
of considerable length and arranged in groups. The pro- 
cesses which follow have similar bristles, but the terminal 



Gattif Murine Laboratory^ St. Andrtivs. 55 

lobe is less marked. Only the translucent liair-like tips 
jmvect beyond tlie surfaee. Bcbiiid the seti^'eious n j^ion a 
part occurs in wliicb no pi-oees.ses are present, and then ia 
the {rroove above the ventral lonnitudinal nius(;Ies on each 
side IS a minute process containin<? nine or ten bristle-like 
unciiii (l-*l. III. fig. 4) with tapered .shafts and ends, on each 
ot which Malmgren figures a niiiuite hook. In the example 
from Lervig only the fir>t of the series is present, but, 
thou-ih the tip is sharp, no curvature could be made out, so 
that some uncertainty remains. 

G. On the Occurrence of one of the Pisionidae at St. Andrews. 

The publication by Mr. Southern of the successful results 
of the Irish Fisheries Investigations in the group of the 
Pulychccts of the Clare Island district directs attention again 
to this remarkable type. Pisione, from Valparaiso, was 
originally placed by its discoverer, Grube*, after Oxy- 
dromiis, then included in the Phyllodocidae, whilst Levinsen f 
thought it approached tlie Polynoidae. Ehlers +, attain, who 
added a new species to the list, gave the family wide rela- 
tionships, viz., most neaily with the A|)hroditid[e, but also 
with the Nephthydidae, Hesionidae, Syllidac, and Glycerida. 
Recently Mr. Southern § has recorded a form for which he 
has made a ne\v genus, viz.. Progeria (the species being 
P. remota), the chief differences from Pisione being, he 
states, the reduction of the head, the backward position of 
the eyes, the unmodified dorsal cirrus of the second bristled 
segment (this appendage in Pisione performing the functions 
of a tentacular cirrus), and the absence of the genital 
papillffi. How far some of these differences may be due to 
the minuteness and immaturity of the Iiish forms can only 
at proent be conjectured. The jMesent note has been made 
from the ("aft that, when enga^^ed with the fauna of St. An- 
drews in 18G3, a sketch was made (PI. III. fig. 5) of an 
example ajjparently closely allied to Mr. Southern's, though 
the globular cirri are not indicated, and the eyes seem to he 
differently arianged ; but in a minute and im[)erfectlv deve- 
loped form considerable latitude is necessary, espcciallv as 
only a single softened example was obtained in the Bay. 
So far as can be observed the relationships already claimed 

• Annul. Gilstediana, p. 17 (sep. copy), 1857, 
t Kara-IIavets Ledoriue, p. 6 (sep. copy), 1886. 
X Polychait. niagellau. Cbilen. p. 60, Taf. vi. fig-s. 1-18. 
§ Proc. Roy. Irish Acad. vol. xxxi. no. 47, p. 00, pis. vii. & viii. 
fig. 15, x H. 



56 Prof. M'liitos'u's Xofesfrom tie 

arc rcason:il)lo, and the list niiu^ht also include the Sph?ero- 
doridie. The surt'aee-i)a|)ilhc (PI. 111. fig. G) cicsoly resemble 
those of the Chloricmiilie, and tlie pointed bristles with tlie 
bifid tip are not nnknown in that family. The end of the 
shaft is dilated and minutely striated (PI. III. fig. 8), and 
the whole organ is thiu and fragile. The bristles are 
niinntelv spinuse {V\. 111. fig. 9), a character which mav be 
larval. 

In the Irish example the long bristles are minutely 
spinose (PI. III. fig. U) and by no means stiff, and they appear 
to be longest posteriorly. The specimen hid fairly large ova. 
The peculiar hooks are disjjroportionately large aud are 
trHnslucciit (PI. III. fig. 7). The flattened shaft is narrowed 
at the b;ise (origin), slightly dilates as it goes upward, and 
ends in a broad, slightly oblique, articular margin, which is 
not quite smooth. Toward the upper part the shaft is finely 
and obliquely striated. The terminal i)iece is of consider- 
able length, l)luntly pointed inferiorly, where the membranous 
{•.ttachuient fixes it, and slightly narrowed distally, the tip 
being curved like a hook, and a secondary process appearing 
beneath. The nearest, perha[)s, is the bristle of Sti/lerioides 
arcuosa, though it also approaches the outline of several of 
the Sigalionidffi. 

This spec'es was introduced by the elder Sars"^ in 1835 
under the name of Nais clavicomis. He describes it as half 
an inch in length and as having thirty-six segments in its 
roundtd body, which was slightly taj)ered anteriorly and 
more distinctly posteriorly. Tlie head has two eyes and a 
pair of tentacles, whilst the succeeding region has four pairs. 
The surface of the body is densely papillose, and a series of 
tufts of long bristles flank the sides. Posteriorly, moreover, 
peculiar jointed hook-like bristles occur. The capillary 
bi'istles were shorter in front, attained considerable length 
about the sixth and eighth feet, and then diminished in 
length posteiiorly. He proeuied it near Moroen. 

drube, in his ' Familien der Anneliden 'f (1851), gave the 
Nais clavicomis of Sars the generic title of Macrochata, and 
placed it in his family Aniytidea in a heterogeneous assem- 
blage, including PolyhoHlrychus, CErsted, Ainytis, Savigny, 
Pohjhice, Savigny, I'ledocliuris, Ehrenberg, and others. 

Langerhaus I (I8&0j included M. clavicomis, which he 
had not infrequently found at Madeira, under the Cirra- 

* ' Beskrivelser og Jagtlagelser,' p. 64, pi. ix. fig. 24, a-d, 

t P. 64. 

X Zeitschr. f. wjps Z ol. Bd. xxxiv. p. 9o, Taf. i. fig. 7. 



Clidh/ Mttiiiie Lahoratory, St. AnJiewg. o? 

tiiloa ratlicr than niulcr the Syllids. It lias capiUary dorsal 
and jointed ventral biistles. The anthor allndes to its rela- 
tionshij) with Arrocirnis fron(iJi/is ni' Marion and Bobretzky. 
lie eharacterizes the "^enns thus : — Cirratnlids with lateral 
hranehite iu several anterior segments ; a pair of ant.'nnie 
on the head. I'ciristoniinin withont appendaijes. His ex- 
anipKs ranj^ed tioni 07') to 10 em. and ha I thirty-two sejjj- 
nients. Head and first six segmerits with brown eorpnscles 
in the skin, and the body eovered with small papilhe. 
Head with a median process anteriorly, twoclavate antenme, 
and four eyes arranj^ed in a curve fron> side to side, the larger 
beinj; external. Segments 2 to 5 with lonj(, slightly club- 
shaped branchiie. Dorsal bristles begin on the fourth seg- 
vneut (of the body), and the ventral division has jointed 
hooks. Anal segment rounded, without appendages. Pro- 
boscis unarmed. Kgg'^ brownish yellow. 

Caullery ami Mesnil* (1898), who received a specimen 
O'GO mm. long, collected by Langerhaus, from Alarcuzeller, 
j)oint out that the long bristles are spino*;e and much 
resemble the temporary bristles of the pelagic larvie of 
Spionids and Sabeilarians. They think it a pelagic aniuud 
and simdar to the genera Thanjx and Chatozone, and, 
further, as a fixed epitokous form. Acrocirms {A. frontifilis 
and A. vulidus) present analogous features. On the other 
hand, Ledon sexuculata, \\'ebster and Benedict, has iu the 
dorsid division of each foot capdlary bristles OGO mm. long; 
they point out the identity of the hooks with those of 
Acrucirrus. 

Mr. Southern f, to whom I am indebted for an examination 
of the annelid, considers that its systematic affinities are 
at present not clearly recognized, lie adds, ''that the rela- 
tion to the Syllidie is very slight, whilst that to the Cirratu- 
lidie is not so pronounced as Caullery and Mesnil maintain.'* 
He procured examples iu Blacksod Bay in weeds from rock- 
pools, in Laminarian roots, and with weeds in 1—4 fathoms ; 
and by the dredge iu Clew Bay and Ballyuakill Harbour iu 
a few fathoms. 

EXIM.ANATIOX OF TIIi: PLATES. 

I'l.ATK I. 

Fi(j. 1. 'V\\\i^ oi ('istcni(le>i fiypcrhoifa^y{vL\my^xey\. luilurgod. 
Fiy. 2. I'ortidii of tlie same, .still further enlarged, to show the gvaiiis, 
uineteeii to twenty-two of which occur at the wider end. 

* Annales Univ. Lyon, fa.sc. xxxix. p. THO. 

t I'roc. Iidv. Iri-li Acad. \ul. xx\i. no. 17. p. 1:.'0. 



58 Notes from the Qalty Marine L thoralory. 

Fif/. 3. Tube of Ciistenides granulatn, L. Enlarged. 

Fig. 4. Portion of the wider end, wliich lias about fourteen sand-grains 

in a transverse lino. Enluvo'ed. 
Fig. 5. Teutb foot of Spio umrtinensis, Mesnil. X Zeiss, oc. 2, obj. A. 
Fig. 6. An imperfect twentieth foot, to show the arrangement of the 

bristles and hooks, x oc. 2, obj. A. 
Fig. 7. Sabellidi's borealia, Sars, from the dorsum. Enlarged under a 

lens. 
Fig. 8. Lateral view of the same. Ditto. 
Fig. 9. Anterior hook. X oc. 4, obj. F, with draw-tube. 
Fig. 10. Smaller form with slitrht variation. Ditto. 
Fig.W. Posterior hook. Ditto. 
Fig. 12. Laphania boecki, var. hystricis. Anterior hook, x oc. 4, obj. F. 

Plate II. 

Fig. 1. Anterior bristle o^ SnbeUvlen borealis, Sars. X oc. 4, obj. D. 
Fig. 2. Lonp-er anterior bristle of Laphania boecki, var. hystricis. X oc. 4, 

obj. D, 4- 2 ill draw-tube. 
Fig. 3. Shorter bristle with broad tip. X oc. 4, obj.D, with full draw- 
tube. 
Fig. 4. Hook of AmpTiitrite near grayi, Malmgren. X oc. 4, obj. D, 

with draw-tube. 
Fig. 5. Hook of Loimia giyantea, Mont<agu, from S. England. X oc. 4, 

obj.D. 
Fig. 6. Hook ni Loimia meduses from Naples, x oc. 4, obj. D, with 2 

in draw-tube. 
Fig. 7. Ho >k o{ Cistenides hyperborea,^eilmgren. x oc. 4, obj. F, with 

draw- tube. 
Fig. 8. Anterior bristle of Lanassa nordenskioldi, Malmgren. X oc. 4, 

obj. A. 
Fig. 9. H jok. x oc. 4, obj. D. 

Fig. 10. Longer anterior bristle oi Artacana canadensis. X oc. 4, obj.D. 
Mg. 11. Shorter bristle. Ditto. 

Plate III. 

Fig. 1, Anterior bristle of Amphitrite near grcenlandica, Malmgren. 
X oc. 2, obj. D. 

Fig. 2. Hook of Amphitrite nffiais, Malmgren. X oc. 2, obj. D. 

Fig. 3. Hook of Artacama canadensis. X oc. 4, obj. F, with draw- 
tube. 

Fig. 4. Stout bristle (" hook ") of ylm«a M7o5rtio, Sars. xoc. 4, obj.D. 

Fig. 5. Outline of a softened example of Macrochceta clavicornis, Sara, 
from St. Andrews Bay (18(33). Magnified. 

Fig. C. Portion of the body-wall, to show the papillae. X oc. 4, obj. A. 

Fig. 7. Jointed hook-like bristle, x oc. 4, obj. D. 

Fig. 8. Upp«r end of .-haft of hook-like form, with fine striae in a large 
example. X oc. 4, obj. D. 

Fig. 9. Portion of a bristle, indicating its minutely spinous condition. 
X oc. 4, obj. F, with draw- tube. 



On new Delias u'/t/ Oniltlio[)tei'a//v;/j Sew Guinea. 59 

JI. — Four ticio Delias ci/i(/ a vrw Ornitliopteia/rom (/le Anr/i 
Lakes, Aifalc Mountains, ^url/i New Guinea, colt. M'ssrs. 
Pratt 4' iSons. By J. J. Joicey, F.L.JS., and A. Noakes, 

F.K.S. 

[riatcs IV.-VI.J 

Delias ni^ropunctata, J o'lcey & Noakps. (PI. IV.) 

Fore wing : ground-colcur white, witli black apex reaching 
to cell, and naiiow on tlie costa to thoitix. Pusterior wings: 
b'ack border shading to black dusting to anal angle ; very 
sinular to htroni, Kenrick. 

Fore wing underside as above, with five yellow spots from 
apex to vein 5. 

Posterior wing underside : ground-colour l)l;icki3h, fiinged 
white, six deej) black marginal spots, doul)le black i»atch in 
cell, and three troni the cell to the anal angle, yellow spot on 
a white ground at the base. 

Two cJ (? in the Joicey Coll. 

Delias fulginosus, ab. 2 ochrnceus, Joicey & Noakes. 
(PL IV.) 
Fore wings: ground-colour }ellow dusted wi;h black, 
apex black with five yellow spots. Posterior wings light 
yellow, darker near tiie base ; subniarginal band blackish with 
blight yellow streaks intercepting. Underside similar to 
type, kenricki, which has black tore wings, whereas '' ochra- 
ceous" ditfers by a wide discal yellow band. 

Five ? ? in the Joicey Coll., one in Kenrick's collection. 

Ornithoptera joieei/i, pp. r., Noakes & Talbot. 
(Pis. IV. & V.) 

This very distinct species is allivd in general coloration to 
goliath, titan, and supremvs, whilst in certain characters it 
shows ff^latioiiship to rothsclivdi. 

(J . Uiiper.side. — Markings as in supremus, but on the fore 
wing tlie green is strongly tinged with gold. At the lower 
e^lgG of the costal band, about midway between the base of 
vein 6 and di.-tal margin, there projects a short spur. The 
fir.-t two f-pots of the discal patcli, which are situate in 
cellules 4; and 3, are smaller than in supremus, being more 
invaded proximally by the black ground-colour. Some 
scattered scales in cellule 5 connect the first spot of the 
discal patch with the spur of the costal patch. Hind wing : 
the distal margin is more rounded than in the allied forms 
and the wing a little smaller; there is a tendency for the 



GO Messrs. J. J. Joicey ana A. Noakes on new 

nH'lnminal fold to be narrower. The black discal margin is 
as narrow as in titan, the markings on its proximal edge, the 
spots ill 4, 5, and 6, and the veins, are golden-green ; there 
is some black j)0wderiiig on the spots. 

Un'Ierside. — As in sup)'emii$, but more golden. Fore wing : 
the spots in 2 and 3 are joined, forming a black b ir ; the 
spots in 3 and 4 are of about equal size. There is some 
gold scaling on the black inner margin below I a. Hiud 
wing: this exhibits more relationship to i-oihschildi in the 
]>reseiice of a black patch, where the ab lomiiial told appears 
to show tlirougii in 1 c, about midway between base and 
distal margin ; also in the shape of the praicostal cell, which 
is shorter and broader than in saprenncs, and in the shorter 
prgecostal S|)ur. Tlie affinity with rothschildi is particularly 
observed in the abdomen, which bears large black lateral 
patches on each segment, extending ventrally ou the 
joints. 

? . Uippraide. — Fore Ming : ground-colour black. A 
grey patch in cell near its end, four long grey-white patches 
between cell and apex in cellules 5-S, their proximal ends 
])ointed ; the distal ends of those in 7 and 8 are nebulous, of 
those in 5 and 6 well defined. The patch in 5 is almost cut 
in two by a square-shaped spot of the ground-colour. A 
small spot below in 4, two long spots in 3 close together, an 
oblong patch in 2, a small rounded spot below vein 2, a sub- 
marginal row of five spots, two in 16 and the others in 2-4. 
All the spots grey-white powdered with black scales. 

Hind wing : basal half of wing to just beyond cell black; 
distal half golden, heavily scaled with black, paler near bases 
of cellules 3 and 4. Aljout midway between cell and distal 
margin a series of seven rounded spots ; the first in 1 c is 
anteriorly joined to the black ground-colour. A narrow 
black distal margin. 

Underside. — Fore wing as above. Hind wing as above, 
but the yellow distal half is not scaled with black. Abdomen 
yellow dusted with black, especially on the first three seg- 
ments. Bisal half of each segment laterally clothed witli 
black hair, wiiicii becomes long and more extensive on the 
ventral surtace. This peculiar character shows relationship 
with rothschildi. 

Length of fore wing, J 8G mm., ? 110 mm. 

This species is on the whole smaller than supremus. 

In the (J the intensity of the golden colour is variable, 
some being more green than others. In the ? the markings 
are variable, and in some specimens the spots are much 
reduced; the spot in cellule 5 of the subapical patch is les.s 



Delias (ind Oniiiliojitcia //vi»? X- ir Uninrd. Ct[ 

varial)le than others. On the hi;i(.l wing the ♦;c)ltlcn culuiu' 
varies to grey-white, but is always more or less permanent 
in cellule 7 and at the distal marf^in. On the abdonuMi 
the extent of black hair is al.so varial)le. 

'I'iie lenL^th of fore win<^ rani,M's from Gi mm. to 02 mm. 
in the (J, and from 91 mm. to 110 mm. in the $ . 

Types : a J* anil a ? from Angi [^akes, Arfak ^Mountains, 
GOOO ft., Dutch New Guinea, Jan.-Feb., li»14, collected by 
Mc-sr.-j. A. C. and F. Pratt. A series from the same locality 
during March 1914. 

Dtiuis lieronl, var. aIl>o-octiIatuft, sp. n. (PI. VI. fig. 1.) 

The (J upperside is similar to heroin, Ken., except that 
the black margin is slightly wider on the hind wing, the 
l)lack split at the end of cell underneath showing quite 
plainly on the upperside. 

Undenn'ide. — Front wings as in heroni. Lower wings : 
ground-colour white, very narrow black border widening at 
tiie abdomen, the yellow costal patch at base larger than in 
/leroiii, edged with black, the spot on centre deep black ; 
anal am;le, two round yelhnv spots and two long ones. 

? (PI. VI. tig. 2).— Markings the same as c? , the bl ;ek 
being less deep and slightly more extended and the ground- 
colour cream. 

fcjix ? ? and a quantity of c? <? . 

Delias caroli, nh.Jlava. (PI. VI. fig. 3.) 

(J . Upperside. — Similar to carol/, Ken,, except that there is 
a yellow patch showiiig on the margin of hind wing. 

Uiidirside. — Top wing the same as caroli, Linver wing : 
instead of red, as in caroli, there is a bright yellow row of 
marginal spots, also there are two small yellow spots at the 
anal angle. 

The following four DeZ/V/s are ? ? of described (^ (S , iind 
the description of the ? ? may be of use to collectors. Tlie 
collections of llothschiUi, Keririek, and Baker, we believe, all 
contain the ? ? ; the cJ (J are figured in the Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. lli^t. ser. «, vol. iv. no. 21, pis. vi. & vii. (1901)) :— 

Jj. heroni, ? (PI. VI. fig. 4). — Almost the same as Ken- 
rick's (J, except that the black of the ? is much <luller 
and more diffused and the ground-colour is cream, 
instead of white as in the cJ (S , with three yellow spots 
in the apex. 

D. di,vei/i, ? (PI. VI. fig. ')). — Doth upper ami under 



62 Mr. II. E. Tunicr on Fossorud Ilijmenopteru 

winp"S are similar to the J. The apical ])afch is cut 
more square than the (^ , with two small yellow apical 
spots; gTouud-cohiur li,i;ht yt'llow. Lower wing: ground- 
colour deep yellow, showing the black of reverse side 
through, giving it a bluish appearance. 

Underside of hind wing : the lavge round central spot 
deep yellow, the abdominal fold doited with yellow. 

D. hotJnreli, ? (PI. VI. fig. 6).— Similar to the <S I the 
black of fore wing encircles the white slightly more 
tiian in the (;J , two yellow spots at the apex. Lower 
wing : ground-colour cream ; black border from the 
top shading ofE to the middle, from there to the anal 
angle dusky blue, showing the undeisi'ie red, streak 
through. Underside of lower wing light yellow ; abdo- 
minal fold deep yellow, very like tlie (^ (^ . 

D. jordaniy ? (PI. VL fig. 7). — Closely resembles tlie (J, 
but the black ai)ical p:itch is sllglitly larger and more 
defined than in the ^ . Lower wings cream with black 
maigin, slightly wider than the ^ , and all the reverse 
markings showing through; three dull apical yellow 
spots. Underside of fore wing the same as in the (J; 
underside only differs in the ? by tlie black spur in tiie 
middle of wing being shorter, leaving a more defined 
white discal band. 

EXPLAXATIOX OF PLATE VI. 
Fig. 1. Delias heron', var. albo-oculatus, S • 



Fiq. -2. 




>) ) 


Fiq. 3. 




carol', nh.Jlava, J 


Fiq. 4. 




heroni, ^. 


Fig. 5. 




di.reyi, $. 


Fig. 6. 




bo/htcelli, $. 


Fig. 7. 




jordani, $. 



III. — Notes on Fossorial Hymenoptera. — XV. 
i3y Rowland E. Turner, F.Z.S., F.E.S. 

Neiv Australian Crabronidae. 

The material for the present paper was partly collected by 
myself on a recent expedition to Tasmania and Australia. 
I am also indel)ted to iJr. Hamlyn-IIarris, of the Queensland 
Museum, and ]\[r. Lea, of the South-Australian Museum, 
for the supply of specimens, several of which have proved to 
be novelties. 



Ml. H. K. TuriK'r on Fussorial Ili/ni"nnplera. G3 

Key to the AitstruUau Genera of the Ampuliciuae. 

Front produced into a lamella pr-ijeeliiirr between 
the antenii.'c ; second and third cubital cells 
each roreiviii^ a rocnnent iiervure; (iibiiiia 
of the hind winijrori^^inaling' before the trans- 
verse median nei vnre DulichuruK, Ltr. 

Front without a laimlla ; first and third cubital 
cells each recei\ in;; a recurrent nervure, some- 
times the second recurrent inteistitial with 
the second transverse culiital nervure ; cubi- 
tus of hind winjj interstitial with tiio trans- 
verse median nervure Apkehtoma, Westw. 

Diilichurus carbonari us, Sra. 
Dolichunis carbonari Hi, Sin. Trans. Ent. Sue. Loudon, p. .S03 (1869). $ . 

Hab. Champion Bay, W.A. {du Boulaij) ; Markaj', Q. 
{7urner) : January. Kuraiicla, Q. (Turner) ; May to July. 

This seems to be the only Australian species of the genus. 
I took it in considerable numbers at Kurauda in 1913 ; the 
males, wliioh were much the commoIle^t, running on foliage, 
the iemales mcst often in loose bark at the foot of large 
trees. 

Ket/ to the Species 0/ Aphelotoma. 

$$■ 

1. Legs wholly bright ferruginous A. tasmanica, Westw. 

Legs black, sometimes partly fusco-ferru- 

jrinous 2. 

2. Second recurrent nervure received by the 

thi; d cubital cell 3. 

Second recurrent nervure interstitial with the 

Second transverse cubital nervure 4. 

3. Clypeus and aiitennie black A. striaticoUis, Turn. 

Clypeus and .six b.isal joints of antennae pale 

lerruj.nnous A. ajffinis, Turn. 

4. ProiKilum ru;:ose ; dorsal seirments 3-5 

covered wiili .short goldeu pubescence . . A. auriventiis, Turn. 
Pronotiim almost smoutli, opaque; dorsal 
segments ehining, without conspicuous 
pubescence A. aferrhna, Turn. 

1. Abdomen bright ferruginous red A. ntjiventiis, Turn. 

.\bdomen black, sometimes with bronze sheen. 2. 

2. i'ron oium rugose, w'nU a .small ^pine on each 

side at the anterior angles 3. 

Fronotnm almost smooth, without a spine at 

the anterior angles A . atei rima, Turn. 

3. Femora blacii ; third dorsal segment covered 

with golden j)ubescence A. auriventr s, Turn. 

Femora bright ferruginous; third dorsal 

segment without pubescence A. tasmnnicn, Weetw. 



0-4 ^Ir. lu E. Turner on Fossorial llymeiioptern. 



Aphelotoma tusmanica, Wcstw. 

Aphvlotnmn fn.onanica, Westw. Trans. Ent. Sue. Loud., Joiirn. of Proc. 
p. 13 (1840). 2- 

Hob. Tasniaii's Arch : February. Eaglehawk Neck ; 
^larcli. Victoria. 

Taken running on dead Eucah/ptusAogs in which ohl 
beetle-holes were numerous. Althougb of considerably 
.smaller size, this wasp bears a considerable resemblance to 
ants of the genus Myrmecia, es|)ecially M. esuriens, Fal)r , 
and another species with red legs, Myrmecia ]iilosuia, Sra. 
When alarmed tl;e wasp often picks up a fragment of dead 
stick or leaf, which it carries in its mandibles, thus increasing 
the resemblance to the ant. AjjIieJotoma auriventris. Turn., 
a species with a uide range in thesnithern half of Australia, 
also bears a considerable likeness to Mijrinecia nuindlbtilaris, 
Sra., though the difference in size is very great ; I have 
never seen this species or any of the Queensland species of 
Aphelotoma carrying anything in their mandibles. The 
'I'asmanian species is considerably larger than any other of 
the genus. 

I have not seen males from Tasmania or females from 
^'ictoria. and it is possible that the Victorian males belong 
fo a different species, the pronotum being more coarsely 
rugf)se and the first recurrent nervure interstitial with (he 
first transverse cubital nervure. 



Aphelotoma auriventris, Turn. 

Aphelotoma auriventris, Turu. Ann. & Ma"'. Nat. Hist. (7) xix. p. 2(^)9 
(1907). 

Hob. Gr;impian Hills, Victoria : Kangaroo Island, S.A. ; 
Yallingup, S.W. Australia. 

Aphelotoma affinis, Turn. 

Ajihehtoma affinis, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. .341 (1010). 5 • 

This is nearer to striaticollis than to any other species, 
but may be distinguished by the colour of the clypeus and 
antennae and by the somewhat finer sculpture of the j)ro- 
notum and median segment. It is possible that it may 
prove to be a variety of that species. 



Mr. 1\. E. Tiuucr y/i Fossuriat Uijm n. jii.i ,i, Ct'f 

Subfamily Spuecixje. 
ClUorion (Proterosphex) rhodosoma, sp. n. 

5 • Rufo-ferrugiiica ; capitc ni{»ro, argcnteo-piloso, clypco, Bcapo 
ria^clloque articulo priino rufo-fernigineis; ulis flavo-hyaliiiis, 
apico late infuscatis, veuis basi ferrugincis, apice fuscis. 

I-oiig. 18-20 mm. 

9 . Clypens very feebly convex, longer than broad, with a 
small shallow emargination in the middle of the apical 
margin, the angles of the emargination produced into short 
blunt tjeth. Inner margins of the eyes converging slightly 
towards the clypens. Second joint of the llogellum nearly 
twice as long as the third, the first and second combined 
about equal in length to the third and fourth. Scuteilum 
and postscutellum tiat, without sulci or tubercles; median 
segment with a shallow median sulcus, transversely rugose- 
striate, the transverse ridges not very distinct and irregular, 
numbering ten or twelve. Petiole about equal in length to 
the second joint of the hind tarsus. Basal joint of the fore 
tarsi with a comb of six long spines. 

Hub. Cue, Western Australia {Brown) ; Cuudcrdin, S.W. 
Australia {Mrs. Lundy). 

This is very nearly related to rvgifer, Kohl, but differs con- 
spicuously in the colour of the thorax, legs, and wings. In 
ru(jifer there are more spines on the basal joint of the fore 
tarsi, the transverse ridges ou the median segment are fewer, 
and there seems to be some difi'erence in the length of the 
antennal joints and petiole. 

It is quite ])()ssil)le that both this and C danviniensis, 
Turn., are both local forms of ruf/ifer. C. daricinieusis has 
the thorax and median segment black as in riifjifer, but the 
legs are red, the third abscissa of the radius is shoitcr than 
in rhodosoma, there is a distinct sulcus on the scuteilum, and 
the petiole is a little shorter. 

Chlorion {Proterosphex) basiliciis, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; tegulis, femoribus, tibiis tarsisque brunneo-rufis ; alia 
fiavo-hyalinis, apice late infumatis ; capite, tborace segmentoque 
lucdiano dense aureo-pubesceutibus. 
Long. 3G mm. 

? . Clypens convex, with a very fine median carina, second 
joint of the flagellum nearly as long as the third and fourth 
combined. Scuteilum and postscutellum divided by a longi- 
tudinal sulcus, which is deeper on the scuteilum than ou 

Ann. (I- Ma;/. X. Ili.st. Sir. 8. Vul. xv. 5 



GG ^Ir. R. E. Turner o/i Ff.^s )ri'd ll^uienoptcra. 

the postscutcllum. Head, thorax, and median segment 
covered -with dense golden pubescence, which becomes thin 
on the vertex, tlie disc of the mcsonotum, and the scutelluni. 
Petiole as long as the third joint ol" the hind tarsus. Basal 
joint of the fore tarsi with nine long spines. Third abscissa 
of the radius scarcely more than half as long as the first. 
Scntcllum convex. 

Hob. N. Queensland, probably from the Cape York 
Peninsula. 

Allied to vest it us, Sm., but may be easily distinguished 
by the colour of the legs and by the much greater size, in 
which points it approaches staudingeri, Grib,, from New 
(luiuea. 

Subfamily Philantsikm. 
Cerceris calida, sp. n. 

2 . Flava ; capite fascia lata inter oculos, antice utrinque ad an- 
tennarura basin producta, mesonoto f'asciis tribiis longitiidinalibus, 
sc'gmeiito mediano area b:isali hnea angusta basalilineaquelongi- 
tudinali mediaua, segmcutis dorsalibus teitio quartoque basi iu 
nieJio late, quiutoque basi angiiste nigris ; petiolo fascia lata 
longitudiuali, segraento secundo macula basali flava, area pygidiali 
}iedibu3(j[ue posticis pallide ferrugiueis ; alls hyalinis, cellula 
radiali infuscata, venis fcrruginois ; flagcllo i)allide ochraceo. 

J . Feminse similis, segmeuto mediauo area basali tota nigra. 
Long., $ 7, d 6 mm. 

. $ . Clypeus with the median lobe broader at the base 
than long, narrowed towards the apex, slightly porrect at the 
apex, the margin broadly and shallowiy eraargiuate. An- 
tennae inserted nearly half as far again from the anterior 
ocellus as from the base of the clypeus, the frontal carina 
short, but high and pointed between the antennae; second 
joint of the flagellum distinctly longer than the third ; meso- 
])leur8e without spines or tubercles ; basal area of the median 
segment smooth, Avith a longitudinal sulcus and a few large 
punctures at the extreme base and on the sides ; postscutellum 
smooth ; the head, thorax, and abdomen coarsely and closely 
j)uncturcd. Petiole longer than broad, distinctly broader 
at the base than at the apex; pygidial area elongate-ovate, 
narrowly truncate at the apex. 

^ . Petiole nearly twice as long as the breadth at the 
base ; median lobe of the clypeus longer than broad. 

Hab. Kuranda, N. Queensland; May. 

This is nearest to pradura, Turn., but, in addition to the 



^Ir. IJ. E. Turner on Fossoriul l/^uttnojjlcra. »>7 

prcat (lifFcrcncc in colour, the slij^litly i)orrcct clypcus, the 
slightly hroader pygidiul area, and tlie shorter petiole are 
([iiite suHieicnt distinctions. 

Subfamily AEPACTiyju. 

Key to the Genera of the Arpactiuie. 

1. Cubitus of IiiiiJ -wing originating^ before the 

transven-o ui<-di,in nervure ; antenna clavate j 

hind tar.-ii very long Ainmatomus, Costa. 

Cubitus of hiuil wing originating beyond the 
trausver.^e median nervure ; antennte not 
clavate ; hind tarsi not unusually long .... 2. 

2. First recurrent nervure received close to the 

apex of the first cubital cell; second near 

the apex of the second cubital cell Mkcothyris, Sni. 

Both recurrent nervures received by the second 
cubital cell Arjxtctus, Jiir. 

Kei/ to the Australian Species of Ammatomus. 

22- 

Second dorsal segment ferruginou>', with a 

yellow band on the apical margin A. decoratus, Ilandl. 

( =ornalus, Sm.). 
Second dorsal segment -wholly black A. icarioides, Turn. 

Genus Miscothyris, Sm. 

Miscothyris, Sm. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 307 (1869). 
Clitemnestra, Spin. Gay. Hist. fis. Chile, vi. p. 341 (1851) (nee 
Dana). 

Clytemuestra having been used by Dana for Crustacea in 
1847, it cannot be used liere. 

I cannot see that Smith's genus is distinct from Spinola^s, 
the tubercle on the second ventral segment of the male 
being almost the only good character lor separation. The 
statement of Ashmcad that the anterior tarsi in the female 
of Miscothyris are without a comb is entirely erroneous. 
As 1 understand the genus, it would include Ilandlirsch's 
groups hipunctulus, chilensis, and thoracicus. The type of 
('l.itemnestra is gayi, Spin. The genus is only represented 
in America and Australia. Handlirsch includes it in 
Gorytes \\\ his revision of that genus, but I think it is more 
convenient to treat it as a separate genus. 

I have not seen M. meyalophthabnus, Ilandl.^ but, according 
to Handlirsch, both recurrent nervures are received by the 
second cubital cell, though in other points it is nearly 

b* 



6)S Mr. R. E. Turner on Fosso7'iaI Tfi/menojitera. 

related to thuracicu-^, Sm. The male only is describetl, and 
the locality given '* Australia." 

Key to the Australian Species of Miscothyris. 

22' 

1. Second joint of Hagelliim slender, more 

than twice a5 long as the third: abdo- 
men black, banded with orange ; hind 
tibiae swollen and strongly serrate .... M. thoracicus, Sm. 
Second joint of flagellum not slender, 
never more than half as long again as 
the third ; abdomen not marked with 
orange ; hind tibiae not swollen 2. 

2. Hind tibiae serrate ; abdomen fei-riiginous, 

■with an obscure yellow spot on each 

side of the second segment M. sa7i(/iiinoIe7itus, Turn. 

Hind tibije spinose ; abdomen more or less 
black 3. 

3. Pronotum and fourth dorsal segment 

entirely black, scutellum wholly yellow ; 
second joint of flagellum almost equal 

to the third M. lucidulu", Turn. 

Pronotum and fourth dorsal segment with 
yellow bands, scutellum mostly black : 
second joint of the flagellum nearly half 
as long again as the third M. duhoulayi, Turn. 

Miscothijris duboulayi, Turn. 

Gorytes duboulayi, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. Loudon, p. 496 (1908). $. 
Clytemnestra duhoulayi, Turn. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) x. p. 58 
(1912). 

Hab. N.W. Australia [Du Boulay). Probably from 
Nicol Bay. 

A variety from Entherglen, Y ietoria, is distinguished by 
the entire absence of the ferruginous colour on the abdomen 
and by the black femora. The yellow markings on the 
abdomen are the same as in the tyiie, but the yellow band 
on the fourth dorsal segment is continuous. This species 
may be distinguished from lucidulus, Turn., by the longer 
second joint of the flagellum, which is nearly half as long 
again as the third, not nearly equal as in lucidulus, and by 
the much smaller facets of the eyes in front. The dis- 
tribution of the yellow markings is also very different. 

Key to the Australian Species o/ Arpactus. 

]. Eyes not convergent towards the 

clypeus 2. 

Eves strongly convergent towards the 
clypeus 4, 



.Mr. 11. K. rdniei" on Foaaorud llijinenoiiU'ra. iV.) 

'2. First abdoiuiual segment not constricted 

nt the apex 3. 

First abdominal segment constricted at 
tlio apex A, sccernendus, Tuni, 

3. Second ventral segment anjrular at the 

base ; black, tiie second abdominal 

segment red A. ruhrosignatw^, Turn. 

Second ventral segment not angular at 
tlie base ; otberwise coloured A. rufomixtus, Turn. 

4. Ba.-al area of median segment smooth . . o. 
Basal area of median .segment coarsely 

striated 6. 

5. Basal half of second dorsal segment 

orange A. ciliatus, Handl. 

Second dorsal segment wholly black. ... A. perlcinsi, Turn. 

6. Second dorsal segment marked with 

orange or yellow 7. 

Second dorsal segment wholly black . . 8. 

7. Three basal dorsal segments broadly 

banded with orange at the apex .... A. farsatus, Sm. 
Three basal dorsal segments with inter- 
rupted yellow bands at the apex .... A. obesus, Turn, 

8. Scutellum, post.-cutellum, and bands of 

the abdomen bright orange A. chrysozonus, Turn. 

Scutellum and po>tscutelluni blick ; 
bauds of the abdomen yellow and 
narrower A. hellicosus, Sm. 

6 6. 

1. Basal area of the median segment 

smooth A. ciliatus, Hand, 

Basal area of the median segment 
striated 2. 

2. The two subapical joints of the flagellum 

at least more or less arched beneath, 
and subtubeiculate or spinose at the 
apiral angles ; ventral segments 4-6 

witliout long cili;e 3, 

Tlie two subapical Joints of the flagellum 
not arched or subtuberculate beneath ; 
Ventral segments 4-G usually with long 
cilire 6, 

3. .Epical joint of the flagellum with a spine 

at tlie base: abdomen black with yel- 
low bands, first segment broad 4, 

Apical joint of the antennse without a 
spine ; abdomen with the two basal 
segments mostly orange ; first segment 
narrow A. spintcornis, Turn. 

4. Abdominal fascise continuous, and on the 

five basal segments A. spryi, Turn. 

Abdominal fascise broadly interrupted, 

and on the three basal segments only. . A. obesiis. Turn, 
T). Scutellum more or less longitudinally 

striated 6. 

Scutellum almost smooth tt, 



70 Mr. H. E. Tiivner on Fossor'ial Hymenoptera. 

G. Second dorsal segment entirely black . . A. bellicosiis, Siu. 
Second dorsal segment banded with 
orange or yellow 7. 

7. Three basal' dorsal segments with broad 

orange fascire ; mesonotum coarsely 

punctured-rugose A. tarsctlus, Sm. 

Basal dorsal segment ferruginons, se- 
cond with an interrupted yellow fascia ; 
mesonotum sparsely punctured A. 2»'etiostis, Turn. 

8. Abdominal segments, except the third, 

with narrow yellow apical fasciae .... 9. 
Abdominal segments with broad orange 

fascioe or almost entirely orange .... 10. 

9. Flagellum black A.frenchii, Turn. 

Flagellum ferruginous A. comuetipes, Turn. 

10. Postscutellum longitudinally striated : 
ventral segments 4-G without cilia} of 

long hairs ' -4. cijgnorum, Turn. 

Postscutellum punctured; ventral seg- 
ments 4-6 with cUite of long hairs .... A. aurantiacus, Turn. 

Mr. Durrant has pointed out to me that the name Arpactus, 
Jur.. has priority for the genus over Gorytes, Latr., which 
must sink as a synonym. 

Arpadus bellicosiis, Sm. 

Oon/tes bellicosus, Sm. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, (3) i. 2, p. 5-3 

(1862). $. 
Gon/tes dizomis, Ilandl. Sitzber. Akad. T\'iss. Wien, civ. p. 873 

(i89.5). d. 

I have no doubt that these are identical, as Handhrsch 
suggests. 

In addition to this species and ciliatus, Ilandl., the four 
following species may be included in the group : — 

1. Arpactus frenchii, Turn. 
Gorytes frenchii, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. p. 501 (1908). J. 

This differs from Handlirsch's characters in not having 
the apical joint of the flagellum curved. The fourth and 
fifth ventral segments have ciliaj of long hairs near the 
apex. The fore tarsi have a few short but distinct spines ; 
intermediate tibiae with two strong apical spines. This 
species is nearer to bellicosus than to ciliatus. The type is 
from Victoria, but I have seen a specimen taken near 
Sydney. 

In bellicosus the yellow apical bands are on the first and 
third segment?, not on the second ; in frenchii on the first 
and second, not on the third. 



]\Ir. Tl. Vj. Tnrnor on Fossorlil TTi/menoptera. 71 

2. Arpaclits perkinsi, Turn. 

O'ori/fes pn-Jcinsi, Turn. Ann. .'s: Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) x. p. o7 (1912). $. 

As noticed in the (lcscri[)tion, this is near ci/ialus, hnt 
there is no oranjrc on the .second dorsal segment and much 
more on the third. There are two strong s[)ines at the 
apex of the intermediate tiljijc. 

3, Arpactas tursatus, Sm. 

Gori/tes tarsatm, Sni. Cat. Ilyni. IJ.M. iv. p. 3(3G (1856). 6. 

Gorytes e.viniius, Sm. Tnius. Ent. Soc. London, (o) i. p. 6-5 (1862). $. 

As Ilandlirseli points out, these are undonljtcdly sexes of 
one species. The cilise on the tourth and fifth ventral seg- 
ments are well develo[)ed ; the apical joint of the antcnuie 
is curved; fore tarsi uot ciliated; intermediate tibi:e with 
one long apical spur, the second spur more slender and uot 
more tlian half as long. 

A. Arpactus cijgnorum^ Turn. 

Gorytes cijynorum, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. oOO (1008). rf". 

The apical joint of the anteunaj is not curved ; fore tarsi 
not ciliate ; intermediate tibite with one long apical spine, 
the second spine very short and slender; hind tibiae Avith a 
few spines on the outer margin. The eilioe on the ventral 
segments are not present in this s])eeies, possibly the long 
hairs may have been rubbed off. 

In other points the species agrees well with the characters 
of the group, and is undoubtedly closely related to the other 
species. 

Arpactus auraniiacus, sp. n. 

S . Niger ; clypeo, antcnnis, genis, pronoto, callis humeralibus, 
lateribus dorsuli, mesopleuris anticc, tc^ulis, scutello, post- 
scutollo, segracnlo mcdiano, lateribiis et linea raediaiia iiigris, 
abdoniine, segmcnto prirao dorsali apice angusto tertioque 
diniidio basali nigris, pedibusque aurantiacis; alls flavo-hyaliuis, 
Tenia ferrugineis. 

Long. 17 ram. 

(J . Eyes convergent towards the clypeus, separated at 
the base of the antcnuie by a distance equal to the length of 
the .second joint of the tlagelluni, which is about half as long 
again as the third; a[)ical joints of the llagellum missing. 
Posterior ocelli more than half as far again from each other 
as from the eyes; front slightly concave, a longitudhiai 



72 Ml. U. E. Turner on Fo.'^aorial fI(/»)enoptera. 

sulcus iviicliiug the auterior ocellus. Head and thorax 
rather sparsely punctured ; mesoplcurie very sparsely punc- 
tured, the sternal carina not well defined as in other species 
of the ciliatus group ; the transverse groove at the base of 
the scutellum loveolatc, but narrow and ill defined in the 
middle ; ])asal area of the median segment very finely and 
closely obliquely striated, divided by a deep longitudinal 
sulcus, the sides of the segment coarsely punctured-rugose. 
First abdominal segment short and not very strongly nar- 
rowed to the base, ventral segments 4-6 with cilise of long 
fulvous hairs, seventh dorsal segment not very small, very 
broadly rounded at the apex. Fore tarsi distinctly ciliated, 
intermediate tibiic with two strong epical spines, hind tibiae 
spinose. Second abscissa of the radius very short, abouc 
one-tenth of the length of the third ; first transverse cubital 
nervurc sharply bent outwards near the cubitus, emitting 
from the bend a scar which reaches to the base of the stigma ; 
both recurrent nervures received by the second cubital cell ; 
cubitus of hind wing interstitial with the transverse median 
nervurc. 

Hub. Ankertell, W. Australia (Broivn). 

Type from South Australian Aluseura. 

In most points this fine species closel}^ resembles ciliatus, 
but differs in the position of the cubitus of the hind wing, 
which is interstitial ; in ciliatus and perhinsi, however, the 
cubitus is much nearer to the transverse median nervure 
than in bellicosus and other species of the group. Other 
structural points distinguishing this species from ciliatus 
are the lesser development of the sternal carina, the sculpture 
of the enclosed area of the median segment, and the much 
greater development of the second spine of the intermediate 
tibiae. I have only seen the female of ciliatus in which both 
of these spines are developed, but Ilandlirscli could only see 
one well-developed spine in the male, and in several species 
of the group the second spine is much reduced or almost 
obsolete in the male. 

Arpactus chrysozonus, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra ; clypeo, scapo flagelloque articulo primo flavis ; pronoto 
postice, callis humcralibus, tegulis, mesoiioto angulis posticis, 
scutello, postscutello macula magna transversa, segmento dorsali 
l)rimo dimidio apicali, tertio quartoque fascia lata apicali, seg- 
meiito sexto, femoribus apice, tibiis tarsisque aurantiacis ; alls 
hyaliiiis, area coetali late infuscata, venis nigris. 

Long. 13 mm. 

? . Eyes converging towards the clypeus, separated at 



M\\ \\. l"i. 'runicr on Fossorial llymenojileri. ~?> 

the base of the aiitoiin;e by a distanee nearly i(|iuil to twiee 
the UMiu;th ot" tlie scaiK", third joint of the thij^elhnu almost 
equal to tiie second. Posterior ocelli as far from tiie eyes 
as from each other. Head and thorax very finely and 
elosely punctured, niesopleurse horizontally striated on the 
upper portion, finely punctured on the lower portion, tlie 
earinie as in ciliatus; the transverse groove at the base of 
the seutellum foveolate, but very narrow and indistinct 
in the midille. Median segment coarsely longitudinally 
striated, less coarsely on the basal area tiuin el>ewhere. 
Abdomen very finely punctured, the basal segment short, 
about half as broad at the apex as the second segment ; 
pygidial area elongate-triangular, very narrowly truncate at 
the a[)ex. Fore tarsi very strongly eiliate, the apical joint 
much swollen, the pulvilli large ; hind tiljiie spinose ; inter- 
mediate tibi;e with two strong apical spines, the one much 
longer than the other. Second abscissa of the radius very 
short, not more than one-eighth of the length of the third, 
cubitus of the hind wing originating at a distance beyond 
the transverse median nervure sliglitly exceeding the length 
of that nervure. 

Ildb. Brisbane {Hacker) ; October. From the Queens- 
land Museum. 

This is closely allied to perkinsi and ciliatus, but the 
sculpture of the median segment is \ery different. 

Arpactus spnji, sp. n. 

cJ . Niger: scapo, flagello articulo primo, pronoto postice, callis 
humeralibu?, segment is dursalibus 1-5 linea transversa apicali, 
fenioribus aiiticis apice subtus, tibiis(iue aiiticis ct intermediis 
macula ba?ali flavis ; tegiilis, fcmoribus apico, tibiis tarsisquo 
ferrugineis; alia hyalinis, veuis fuscis. 
Long, y mm. 

^ . Clypeus broadly truncate at the apex ; eyes strongly 
convergent towards the elypcus, separated at tlie base of 
tlie antennje by a di>tance about half as great again as the 
length of the scape ; posterior ocelli much farther from each 
other than from the eyes. Apical joint of the flagellum 
verv strongly curved, with a small spine at the base, scarcely 
longer than tlie i)cnnltimate ; joints H-\ 1 slightly produced 
at the apical angle, but not sufficiently to form a spine. 
Pronotum narrow and transverse ; mesopleurtc with a 
distinct vertical carina in front, the mesosternum separated 
from the mesopleurfe by a carina, the upper part of the 
mesopleur^e horizontally striated, the lower part rugulose. 



74 'Sir. n. E. Turner on Fosaorinl Ilijmonnptera. 

^Nrcsonotum sliullowly punctured ; a distinct Ibveolate 
transverse groove at the base of the sciitcUum. Scutellum 
and postsciitelkim closely lonp;itudinaliy striated ; basal 
area of mcdiau segment strongly ol)li(|ucly striated, the 
sides of the segment coarsely rugose. Abdoraeu narrowed 
at the base, the first segment about half as broad at tlie 
apex as the second, seventh dorsal segment small, broadly 
rounded at the apex ; second ventral segment not angular 
at the base. Ventral segments without eiliie of long hairs. 
Fore tarsi not ciliated, intermediate tibicC with one long 
apical spine, the second spine very short and slender, hind 
tibite feebly serrate. Second abscissa of the radius very 
short, about one quarter of the length of the third, first 
transverse cubital nervure bent sharply outwards near the 
cubitus and emitting inwards a short spurious vein, both 
recurrent nervures received by the second cubital cell far 
apart. Cubitus of the hind wing originating at a distance 
beyond the transverse median nervure about half as great 
again as the length of that nervure. 

Hnb. Mordialloc, Victoria {Spnj). 

This belongs to the ciliatus group, differing from most 
species of that gi'oup in the structure of the antennae and 
in the absence of long ciliaj on the ventral segments. 

Arpactus obesus, sp. n. 

^ . Niger ; scapo subtus, prouoto linea utrinque ; segmentis dorsali- 
bus prinio tertioque fasciis apicalihus interruptis, secundo macula 
apicali utrinque, femoribus anticis subtus, tibiis anticis, tibiis 
intermediis ct posticis basi,tarsis anticis, tarsisque iutermcdiis et 
l)Osticis articulis 4 basalibus dimidio basali flavis ; alls hyalinis, 
venis fuseis. 

$ . Mari sirailis; segmentis dorsalibus tertio quartoque fascia con- 
tinua apicali, quinto macula parva flavis ; flagello subtus fusco- 
ferrugineo. 

Long., 6 7 mm., $ 8 mm. 

(J . Eyes convergent towards the clypeus^ separated at 
the base of the antennre by a distance more than half as 
great again as the length of the scape ; apical joint of the 
flagellum strongly curved, no longer than the penultimate, 
which is subtuberculate at the base. Posterior ocelli nearly 
twice as far from each other as from the eyes ; a small 
tubercle between the antennse ; a shallow frontal sulcus 
reaching the anterior ocellus. Head and thorax punctured, 
the groove at the base of the scutellum fovcolate ; post- 
scutellum lon^itudinallv, basal area of the median segment 



Ml. It. I]. Tiinicr on Fosson'al llijincaojitt'ra, 7.") 

()l)liiin{;ly striated, dorsal surface of tlio median se^iiuMit 
coarselv obliquely striated at the sides, not distinctly mar- 
gined; mcsopleurie horizontally striated on the u|ij)er, 
ol)li(|uely on the lower portion. First abdominal segment 
sliort and broad, fully half as broad at the apex as the 
second se<;inent, ventral segments without cilise. Tore tarsi 
not eiliate, intermediate til)i:e with two apical spines, on(^ 
distinctly lunger than the other, hind tibi.'e feebly serrate at 
the apex. Neuration as in spriji, but the second abscissa of 
the radius is very short, not more than one-eighth of the 
length of the third. 

? . Second ventral segment not angular at the base ; 
pygidial area elongate-triangular. Apical joint of fore tarsi 
very large and stout as in most females of the group. 

Ilab. Yallingup, S.W. Australia ; December. 

This is nearest to spri/i, but differs in the lesser develop- 
ment of the characters of the apical joints of the flagellum, 
in the tubercle between the antennae, in the sculpture of 
the seutellum, aiul in the colour of the legs and aljdomen. 
The second cubital cell is also shorter on the radius in the 
present species. 

Arpactus pretiosus, sp. n. 

(S . Niger; clypeo, scapo subtiis, segmcnto dorsali secuiulo fascia 
apicali iu medio anguste intcrrupta, f'emorilnis anticis sulitus 
til)ii3(iue anticis supra llavis ; tarsis intermcdiis et posticis flavo- 
maculatis; scapo subtus, segmento abdoraiuali primo, tcgulis, 
tibiis iutermediis et poaticis basi tarsisque ferrugiiieis; alis 
hyalinis, veiiis fuscis. 

Long. 7"5 mm. 

J . Eyes convergent towards the clypcus, separated at 
the base of the autcnme by a distance nearly half as great 
again as the length of the scape ; apical joint of the flagellum 
distinctly but not strongly curved, a little longer than the 
penultimate. Head and tliorax punctured ; a frontal sulcus 
reaching the anterior ocellus; the suture at the base of the 
seutellum fovcolate ; mesoplcuric horizontally striated on tlu> 
upper |)art, obliquely rugosc-striate on the lower, the carina' 
as in ci/iafus. Seutellum finely longitudinally rugosc-striate ; 
postscutellum arid ijasal area of the median segment mon- 
coarsely longitudinally striated ; dorsal surface of the median 
segmentcoarselyreticnlatcatthesidesatul distinctly margined. 
Abdomen very finely and closely punctured, the first segment 
short, fully half as broad at the apex as the second segment ; 
the eiliic at the apex of the fourth and lifth ventral segments 



70 Mi-. Iv. E. Turner on Fotson'al HymenopU-ra. 

long. Fore tarsi not ciliated ; intermediate tibiae with only 
one distinct apical spine ; hind tibiae serrate. Neuration as 
in sprt/i, but the second abscissa of the radius is a little 
lon^jer, and the l)rancli from the first transverse cubital 
uervurc is only faintly indicated. 

Huh. Yallingup, S.W. Australia ; January. 

One male only taken. 

Tiiis is another species of the ciliatus gTouj). 

Ar poet us sp'inicornis, sp. n. 

J . Niger ; clypeo, scapo, flagello articulo primo, pronoto linea 
transversa, callis humeralibu3, tegulis, segmentis dorsalibus primo 
Becundoque, secundo macula magna nigra, pedibusque aurautiacis ; 
flagello articulis 2-11 dimidio apicali subtus albis ; alis sub- 
hyaliuis, vcnis nigris. 

Long. 10 mm. 

S ■ Eyes convergent towards the clypeus^ separated at 
the base of the antennae by a distance greater than the 
length of the scape ; second joint of the flagellum distinctly 
longer than the third, apical joints strongly curved, a little 
longer than the penultimate, the tenth and eleventh joints 
strongly produced at the apex beneath into blunt tubercles, 
the four preceding joints similarly but much less sti'ongly 
produced ; posterior ocelli nearly twice as far from each 
other as from the eyes. Head and thorax finely and rather 
sparsely punctured ; the transverse groove at the base of 
tlie scutellum distinct and foveolate, scutellum and post- 
scutellum strongly longitudinally striated ; basal area of 
median segment strongly obliquely striated, the remainder 
of the median segment coarsely rugose ; mesopleurse finely 
obliquely striated on the lower portion, more strongly hori- 
zontally striated on the upper portion, tbe vertical carina 
and r.tenial horizontal carina distinct as in ciliatus. First 
abdominal segment much narrowed to the base, as long as 
the second segment, less than half as Avide at the apex as the 
second segment ; abdomen sparsely punctured, ventral seg- 
ments without long cilise, seventh dorsal segment rounded. 
Neuration as in spri/i, but the cubitus of the hind wing is 
separated from the transverse median nervure by a distance 
equal to twice the length of that nervure. Fore tarsi not 
ciliated ; only one spine at the apex of the intermediate 
tibiie. 

Hab. Beverley, S."\V. Australia (Du Boulay). 

Type from South Australian Museum. 

The species belongs to the ciliatus group : but, as in some 



M;-. 1{. I']. Turner on P'ossorial Ifi/menoplenx. 77 

of the otlicr spcciis of the group, the cilia of h)n«5 hairs on 
the ventral sej^ineiits is missing. The lirst abdominal seg- 
ment is much longer and more slender than in any other 
species of the group cxccj)t consuctipes. The anteunal 
structure rescmhies spnji, hut the peculiarities are rather 
more dcvelo[)C(l than m that species. 

Arpuctus consuctipes, sp. n, 

cf . Nii^er; aiitcnnis, tcgulis, feinoribus ajjicc, tibiia tarsisquo ferru- 
giiieis ; pronoto liiiea transversa, callis humorahbu.s, scutello 
macula parva, segment iscpic abdoininalibiis prirao, secundo, quarto 
(juintoquc fasciis anguslis apicalibus Havis ; segraentis duobus 
apiealibus pallide ferrugiueis ; alls hyalitns, veuis fcrrugineis. 

Long. 9 mm. 

(J. Eyes very strongly convergent towards the cly[)cu3, 
separated at the base ot" the anteuuae by a distance not quite 
equal to the length ot" the scape. Apical joint of the tla- 
gelhim longer than the penultimate, very feebly curved. 
iMe!>oplcurie horizontally striated on the upper jjortion. A 
transverse foveolate groove at the base of the scutcUum ; 
postscutellum and basal area of the median segment coarsely 
longitudinally striated, the dorsal surface of the median 
i^cgmcnt on the sides rugose, separated from the sides of the 
segment by distinct carinic, the sides of the segment rugose- 
striate. First abdominal segment narrowed to the base, at 
the apex only one-third of the breadth of the apex of the 
si-cond segment. Fourth and filth ventral segments with 
distinct apical ciliie. Fore tarsi not ciliated ; intermediate 
tibiie with two equal ajjical spines ; hind tibiie moderately 
spinose. The neuration is similar to spryi, but the spurious 
vein branching from the first transverse cubital ncrvurc is 
not clearly defined, and on one side the first transverse 
cubital nervure is incomplete, not reaching the radius. 

Hub. New South Wales. 

lleceived from Mr. C. French. 

This belongs to the ciliatus group ; the first abdominal 
segment is more slender than in other species of the group. 

Arpuclus rubrusiynalus, sp. n. 

2. . Nigra ; segraento abdominali secundo rubro, apice angusle 
nigro ; alia hyalinis, levitcr infuscatis, venis nigris, stiymato 
fcrrugineo. 

Long. 10 mm. 

? . Eyes not convergent towards the clypcus, their inner 



78 I\Ir. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Tlymenoptera. 

margins almost parallel. Antenime rather lon^^, the third 
joint ol: the tiagelhun a little longer than the second. Poste- 
rior ocelli farther from each other than from the eyes. 
Head and thorax very finely and closely punctured, the 
transverse groove at the base of the scutellum broad and 
foveolate. A distinct vertical carina from the prothoracic 
tubercles not quite reaching the sternum ; mesopleurai 
finely punctured. Basal area of the median segment well 
defined, with very strong longitudinal striae ; the sides of 
tiie dorsal surface irregularly and coarsely striated, the sides 
of the segment finely obliquely striated. First abdominal 
segment not at all constricted at the apex, the second seg- 
ment not more than half as broad again at the apex as the 
first : second ventral segment angular at the base ; abdomen 
opaque, very finely and closely punctured ; pygidial area 
elongate, not very broad. Fore tarsi distinctly, but not 
strongly ciliated, hind tibiae smooth. Third abscissa of the 
radius nearly half as long again as the second, both recurrent 
nervnres received by the second cubital cell, first transverse 
cubital nervure not branched ; cubitus of hind wing origi- 
nating at a distance beyond the transverse median nervure 
not quite equal to the length of that nervure. 

Hub. lietween Yallingup and Busselton, S.W. Australia ; 
September. 

Except in the somewhat more strongly ciliated fore tarsi 
and the rather narrow pygidial area, this species does not 
differ appreciably in structure from the European mystaceus, 
Linn. 

Arpactus secernendus , sp. u. 

$ . Nigra ; maudibulis, cljpeo ajjice, anteunis, prouoto liuea trans- 
versa, callis humeralibus, tegulis, segmentis abdomiualibus primo 
sextoquc, pedibusque ferrugineis ; segmeutis 2-5 dorsalibus et 
ventralibus fascia angusta aijicali fusco-ochracea ; alis hyalinis, 
venis ferrugineis. 

Long. 9 mm. 

? . Eyes not converging towards the clypeus^ antennae 
inserted as far from each other as from the eyes, the second 
joint of the flagellum no longer than the third. Clypeus 
narrowly transversely depressed on the apical margin, poste- 
rior ocelli a little farther from each other than from the 
eyes. Head and thorax finely and closely punctured, a 
vertical carina from the pronotal tubercles not extending to 
the sternum ; a deep foveolate groove at the base of the 
scutellum ; basal area of the median segment smooth, with a 



•Mr. K. 10. 'ruiiicr o?j Fossorial Hytneuoiilera. 71) 

deep lonj^itudiiiiil salens, the rest of the segment coarsely 
and irregnlarly striated. Abdomen closely and minutely 
ininctured ; the first sefjmcnt narrowed to the base and 
somewhat constricted at the apex, not f[nite half as broad at 
the aj)ex as the second segment ; third, fourth, and fifth 
scjrments clothed with fine yellowish hairs ; pygidial area in 
the form of a slightly elongate triangle, shining and sparsely 
punctured. Fore tarsi rather feebly ciliated, hind tibial 
smooth, pulvilli small. Second abscissa of the radius about 
one-third of the length of the third; first transverse cubital 
nervure sharply bent outwards near the cubitus, but not 
emitting a scar or nervure inwards ; cubitus of hind wing 
separated from the transverse median nervure by a distance 
equal to a)) )ut half the length of that nervure. 

Hub. IS.E. Australia. 

This is near the mystuceus group in most characters, but 
differs in the form of the first abdominal segment and of the 
second ventral segment, which is not angular at the base. 
In these characteis it also departs further from the group 
than rubt'os'ifjnutus, to which in most structural points it is 
closely allied. A. rufumixtus, Turn., is nearest to this 
species, but differs in the form of the first abdominal 
segment. 

Arpuctus constrictus, Sm. 

(rorytes constridus, Sm. Journ. Proc. Linu. Soc. iii. p. 160 (1850). cJ 2 • 
!' (jforytes vat/us, Sm. /. c. p. 161 (1859J. J. 

llandlirseh considers from the descriptions that these are 
merely colour- varieties of one species. This is very probably 
correct, but I have not seen typical constrictus, which is 
from Aru. There is a female specimen of vo//us from Ke in 
the Briti-h Museum. It belongs to the group sttnopyijus, 
Ilandl., having the pygidial area very narrow^ otherwise 
agreeing well with the mystuceus group. 

Subfamily Nyssoxinje. 

Key to the Austru/iuu Species o/Nysson (Acanthostethus). 

6 6. 
1. Seventh dorsal segment with more than 

two apical spines 2. 

Seventh dorsal segment with two apical 

spines only 7. 

1'. Seventh dorsal segment with a row of live 

acute apical spines X tiudiceiUriif, Turn. 



so Jlr. R. E. Tiuncr on Fos^orial IJtjmenoptera, 

Seventh dorsal segment with three apical 
spines 3. 

3. Ventral segments 2-4 with an apical fringe 

of long hairs 4. 

Ventral segments without a fringe of long 

hairs N. sausnirei, Ilandl. 

4. Abdominal segments 3-6 with a spine on 

eacli side at tlie apical angles 5. 

Abdominal segments 3-6 without spines 

at the apical angles N, mi/sticus, Gerst. 

5. Dorsal surface of median segment uiucli 

shorter than scutellum ; basal dorsal 

segment black N. mcBi-ens, Turn. 

Dorsal surface of median segment about 
as long as scutellum ; basal dorsal seg- 
ment ferruginous 6. 

C. Basal area of median segment coarsely 
longitudinally striated; second recur- 
rent nervure interstitial. Length 7 mm. N. confertus, Turn. 

Basal area of median segment linely ob- 
liquely striated ; second recurrent ner- 
vure received before the first transverse 
cubital nervure. Len^>th 4-o lum. . . N. 7mni7>ius, Turn. 

7. Median segment with a blunt tubercle on 

each side of the truncation, below the 

hirge spines of the apical angles N. pimctatissimus, Turn. 

Median segment without tubercles below 
the spines of the apical angles 8. 

8. Segments 3-5 with a distinct spine on 

each side at the apical angles ; ventral 
segments 2-5 with an apical fringe of 

long hairs K. ohliteratus, Turn. 

Segments 3-5 without spines 9. 

9. Ventral segments 2-5 with an apical fringe 

of long hairs N. gilberti, Turn. 

Ventral segments without a fiinire of long 

hairs ". 10. 

10. Basal abdominal segment red N. spiniger, Turn. 

Basal abdominal segment black N. tasmanictis, Turn. 

$2. 

1. Sixth dorsal segment serrate at the sides, 

with three or four teeth ; segments 3-5 
with acute spines on each side at the 

apical angles 2. 

Sixth dursal segment not serrate ; seg- 
ments 3-5 without spines 3. 

2. Enclosed area of median segment with 

about five longitudinal carinfe N. nudiventris, Turn. 

Enclosed area of median segment without 

distinct strife or carinse N. brisbatiensis, Turn. 

3. Median segment with a short blunt tu- 

bercle on each side of tlie truncation 

below the spines uf the apical angles. . N. jmnctatissirmts, Turn. 
Median segment without tubercles below 
the sjiines of the apical angles 4. 



^Ir. It. E. TuiMci- 0)1 Ics.forial lljjmenoplera. 8L 

4. First abloinhml 90j;:mi'nt fiTru^inous .... 5. 

I'iist nbclomiiiiil segm''ut black N. tasmanicus, Turn. 

•"3. Dorsftl surf.ice of the nifdian scnrment 
niiK-li shorter ia the uiidtlle than the 

SCUtelhltH (». 

Dorsal surface of the luedinn st-jriueiit 
about as long in the middle as the 

scuti'Iluu) N. gilberti, Turn. 

(>. rrouoluiu ferruginous ; lenpth H mm. .. 2\\ tni/s(icus, Gerst. 
I'ronotuiu bhick ; length 4-5 mm ^V. spiniijer, Turn. 

Kijsson [Acanthostethus) nudiventris, sp. n, 

5. Niger; mandibulis, antennis, pedibus segmento(|ue abdominali 
primo ferrugineis ; segraentis dorsaliijus 1-5 fascia augusta 
apicali utrintiuo tlava ; alis hyalinis, levitcr iufuscatia ; segmeiito 
dorsali scptinio aj)ice quinquedentato. 

$ . Mari similis, segmentis 2-5 apice et lateribus fcrrugineis ; 

segmeuto sexto dorsali serrato. 
Long., cf o*5, 2 6-5 mm. 

,$ . Head and thorax coarsely rugose, dorsal area of the 
median segment coarsely longitudinally striated, abdomen 
closely punctured. Apical joint of the flagellnm scarcely 
curved, longer than the penultimate. Abdominal segments 
3-5 with an acute spine on each side at the apical angles ; 
seventh dorsal segment with live apical spines, the three 
middle spines long and even, the outer spine on each side 
much shorter. Second recurrent uervure interstitial with 
the first transverse cubital uervure, second cubital cell 
pointed on the radius. 

$ . Dorsal surface of the median segment much shorter 
than the scutellum, the basal area with about five longi- 
tudinal carinie. Abdominal segments 3-5 >vith an acute 
sjjine on each side at the apical angles; sixth dcjrsal segment 
rounded, the sides serrate, with three teeth on each side. 
Hind tibiio almost smooth. Second ventral segment not 
angular at the base. Second cubital cell w ith a very short 
petiole. 

Hah. Yallingup, S.W. Australia ; December. 

A pair taken on Leptospcrinum blossom. 

The male has no fringe of long luurs on the ventral 
segments. 

Nysson [Acanthostethus] brishanensis, sp. u. 

$ . Nigra ; mandibulis, anteunis, pedibus, tcgulis segmentisquo 
abdominalibus primo scxtotiue ferrugiiieis, sognientia dorsalibus 
1-5 fascia apicali contiuua tlava; alis hyalinis ; segmeuto dorsali 
sexto serrato. 
LoQg. 65 mm. 

Ann. tt- Mag. N. Hist. Ser. S. Vol. xv. G 



82 "Mv. R. E, Turner 07i Fosso7-iaI llymenoplem. 

? . Head and tliorax riifj;ose, abdomen closely punctured ; 
basal area of median segment irregularly and rather finely 
reticulate ; sixth dorsal segment rugose. Clypeus without 
carina?, very shallowly emarginate at the apex, the angles 
of the eniargination very feel)ly produced. jSIcdian segment 
much shorter than the scutelluui. Second ventral segment 
convex, not angular at the base; segments 3-5 with a spine 
on each side at the aj)ical angles ; sixth dorsal segment 
rounded, serrate at the sides, with at least four teeth on each 
side. Hind tibiae almost smooth. Second recurrent nervure 
interstitial with the first transverse cubital nervure ; second 
cubital cell petiolate. 

Hub. Brisbane ; January (HiflcA'er). From the Queensland 
Museum. 

This is near midiventris, but the sculpture of the median, 
segment differs ; also the shape of the pygidium and the 
number of teeth on the sides. 



Nysson {Acanthosfethus} confertus, sp. n. 

J. Niger; flagello basi subtus, scapo apice, tegulis, alidomine 
segmento primo, segmentis 2-7 linea transversa ajncali, pedi- 
busque ferrugineis ; segraentis dorsalibus 1-5 macula transversa 
apicaU utrinque flava ; alis hyalinis, veuis fusco-ferrugineis. 
Long. 7 mm. 

S . Clypeus widely and shallowly emarginate at the apex, 
the angles of the eniargination produced into short spines. 
Apical joint of the flagellum slightly curved, hollowed be- 
neath and scarcely longer than the penultimate. Head, 
thorax, and abdomen closely punctured, the punctures on 
the al)domeu becoming gradually finer from the base ; basal 
area of the median segment coarsely longitudinally striated, 
the dorsal surface of the median segment as long as the 
scutellum. Ventral segments 2-4 with an apical fringe of 
long whitish hairs, segments 3-5 w ith a small spine on each 
side at the apical angles ; seventh dorsal segment with three 
spines at the apex, the middle one blunt and subtriangular. 
Second recurrent nervure interstitial with the first transverse 
cubital nervure, second cubital cell Avith a short petiole. 

Hub. Cairns, Queensland [Dodcl). 

1 do not think that this can be the male of brisbanensis, 
owing to the much longer median segment, the difiereuce in 
the sculpture of the median segment^ and the much finer 
puncturatiou. 



^Ir. K. E. Turner on Fossorial IJymenoptera. 83 

Nysson {Acanthosiethus) minimus, sp. n. 

6. ^'iger; raandibulis, scapo, flaprello articulis tribus basalibus, 
proiioto, tegulis, segmentis abdorainalibus subtus, eeginento 
dorsali primo, iionnunKjuam nigro-maoulato, segmentis "I-'J liriea 
transversa apitali, pedibusquo ferrugitieis ; segmentis dorsalibus 
1-4 macula transversa utrinque lluva ; alis hyalinis, veui3 
fuscis. 

Long. 4-5 mm. 

cJ . Coarsely punctured, the alxlonien very finely and 
closely punctured, uith large scattered punctures on the 
basal segment and on the second ventral segment, dorsal 
surface of the median segment as long as the scutellum, the 
basal area irregularly obliquely striated. Clypeiis widely 
emarginate at the apex, the angles of the emargination not 
produced into distinct teeth. Ventral aljdominal segments 
2— i M ith a fringe of long hairs at the apex, segments 3-5 
■with a s|)inc at the apical angle on each side, seventh dorsal 
segment witli three apical teeth, the middle one blunt and 
broad. The apical joint of the flagellum is rather strongly 
curved and hollowed beneath, longer than the penultimate. 
Second recurrent nervure received by the fiist cubital cell 
very near the a[)ex ; second cubital cell small, with a short 
petiole. 

tiab. Kurauda, X. Queensland (DodcT) (G. Turner) ; 
March. 

This is near confertiis, but differs in the sculpture of the 
median segment and the neuration. 

Nysson (Acanthosiethus) mcerens, sp. n. 

6 . Niger ; mandibulis basi pedibnsque ferrugineis ; antennia 
fuscis apice ferrugineis; tegulis f usco-ferrugineis ; segmentis 
dorsalibus primo secundoque liuea apicali V>revi utrinque tlava; 
ahs hyalinis, leviter intuacatis ; segmento dorsali septimo apice 
obtuse tridentato. 
Long, (ro mm. 

J . Head and thorax coarsely punctured-rugose, abdomen 
closely and rather shallowly punetnred ; basal area of 
median segment irregularly longitudinally striated, the 
surface of the posterior truncation finely longitudinally 
striated in the middle, rugose on the sides. Ajjical joint of 
the flagellum conical, nearly twice as long as the penultimate. 
l^Icdiau segment much shorter in the muldle than the 
scutellum. Segments 3-5 with a distinct spine on each 
side at the apical angles ; seventh dorsal segment broad, 

G* 



84 ^Ir. Tv. E. 'rurncr on Fosson'ul IJymenoptera. 

tridcntate at the apex, the iiiidfllc tooth very hluiit, and 
almost more of an angular apex to tlic segment than a tooth. 
Hind tibiae feebly serrate. Seeond reeuncut nervure inter- 
stitial Mith the first transverse culntal nervure, second 
cubital cell ])etiolate, the petiole extremely short. 

Uab. Yallingup, 8.\V. Australia ; January. 

In colour this resembles tasmanicus, but is distinguished 
by the spines on segments 3-5 and the shape of the seventh 
dorsal segment. There is also a fringe of long hairs on the 
apex of ventral segments 2—5 in the present species, but not 
in tasmanicus. 



Nysson [Acanthosteihus) gilberti, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra ; mandibulis basi, scapo subtus, flagello articulis duobus 
basalibus, tegulis, segmciito dorsali primo dimidio basali, segmento 
sexto, pedibusque fernigineis : segmento medianoangulis apicali- 
bus segmentisque dorsalibus linea angusta apicali aureo-pilosis ; 
alls hyaliuis, venis nigris. 

cJ . Feminae similis, segmentis dorsalibus primo secundooue linea 
apicali angusta flava. 

Long., 2 8 mm., S 7 mm. 

? . Clypeus almost truncate at the apex, with an acute 
spine on each side. Head and thorax coarsely punctured ; 
basal segment of the abdomen strongly^, the other segments 
rather finely punctured ; pygidial area rugulose. jNIediau 
segment as long in the middle as the scutellum, the basal 
area coarsely but irregularly longitudinally striated. Second 
ventral segment not angular at the base. Second recuri-ent 
nervure received close to the apex of the first cubital cell, 
not quite interstitial with the first transverse cubital 
nervure : second cubital cell with a short petiole. Hind 
tibiae feebly serrate. 

(J . Seventh dorsal segment with an apical spine on each 
side, the space between the spines very feebly rounded ; 
third to fifth segments without spines at the apical angles; 
segments 2-5 with an apical fringe of long hairs ; second 
recurrent nervure interstitial with the first transverse cubital 
nervure ; second cubital cell pointed, not petiolate. 

Hub. Cairns, N. Queensland. (Turne?-) ; December to 
February. 

I think I have associated the sexes rightly, the sliglit 
differences in the neuration do not appear to be of specific 
importance. 

The female is the type. 



31 r. K. I']. Turner on Fossoriul Jftjmcnoplera. 85 

Nijsson (Acanthostetlms) tasmanicus, sp. n. 

$. Nigra, opaca, dense punctata; mandibulis pedibusque rufo- 
testaceis ; segmontis dorsalibus 1-5 macula transverBa lateral! 
utrinque tlavidula ; alls hyaliuis, venis nigris. 
Long. (3 mm. 

? . Clypcus broadly and shallowly cniar>^inatc at the a|)ex. 
Antcnnie inserted as near to the eyes as to each other, 
j;radnal!y thickened to the apex, the apical joint nearly twice 
as Ion.; as the pennltimatc. ]*]yes separated at the base oH 
the cly[)cns by a distance cqnal to about twice the length of 
the scajie, strongly divergent towards the vertex, the i)oste- 
rior ocelli half as far again from the eyes as from each other. 
Head closely and rather finely punctured, clothed with siiorc 
silver pubescence ; a strong longitudinal carina on tiie front 
between the antenna?, not reaching halfway to the anterior 
ocellus. Thorax rather more coarsely punctured than the 
liead ; median segment irregularly rugose-striate, the poste- 
rior angles produced into stout spines and clothed with 
silver pubescence. Abdomen closely punctured, but less 
coarsely than the thorax, second ventral segment more 
coarstly punctured, apical dorsal segment broadly triangular 
and pniictui-ed- rugose. Second cubital cell pointed, some- 
times distinctly petiolate, second recurrent ncrvure inter- 
stitial with the first transverse cubital nervure. Hind tibiye 
almost smooth, with a few very short spines. 

Hub. Mount Wellington, 2300 ft. ; Eaglehawk Neck, 
S.E. Tasmania. February. 

Near A. pu/ictatissiinus, Turn., but differs in the form of 
the clypeus, the finer puneturation, and the smoother hind 
tibiae. 

The male is very similar to the female, it has the seventh 
dorsal segment broadly truncate at the apex, with a spine at 
each of the apical angles. There is no fringe of long hairs 
on the ventral segments. 

Subfamily Crabroninje. 
Kvy to the Australian Species of llhopaliim. 

22. 

1 . First abdominal segment shorter than the 

second 2. 

Fir.it abdominal segment as long as or 
longer than the second 3. 

2. Head very birge; eyes nearly as lar from 

the posterior marj^in of the head as 

from eacli other Ik. macroccphdfit^, Turn. 



J6 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossori'aJ Ilymenoptera. 

Head not unusually large ; eyes more 
than twice as far from each other as 
from tlie posterior margin of the head . li. frencldi, Turn. 

3. Hind tibia? not perceptibly spiuose .... 4. 
Hind tibi;e more or less spinose o. 

4. Tronotum rounded at the angles ; inter- 

mediate femora yellow ; abdomen 

marked with ferruginous R. tenuiventre, Turn. 

Pronotum transverse, angles well de- 
fined ; abdomen and intermediate 
femora black -R. eucalypti, Turn. 

5. Abdomen more or less red 6. 

Abdomen wholly black 7. 

C. Spines of hind tibia? strong ; petiole dis- 
tinctly longer than tl;e second segment B. tricolvr, Sm. 
Spines of hind tibiae feeble ; petiole equal 
in lengtli to the second segment .... J2. tricolor imhelle, Turn. 

7. Pronotum transverse, the angles well 

defined S- 

Pronotum rounded at the angles U. 

8 .Wings f usco-liyaline : a very broad de- 
pre.>-sion from the inner margin of the 
eve nearly reaching the posterior 
ocelli; basal area of median .segment 

finely and closely punctured JR. leptosperj?ii, Turn. 

Wings hyaline, iridescent ; a narrow 
sulcus from the inner margin of the 
eye to the posterior ocelli; basal area 
of median segment rugose li. cyf/norum, Turn. 

9. With a broad depression from the inner 
margin of the eye nearly reaching the 

posterior ocelli 10. 

"Without a depression from the inner 
margin of the eye towards the poste- 
rior ocelli -R. littorale, Turn. 

10. Median segment with a longitudinal 
sulcus; recuiTent nervure received be- 
yond three-quarters from the base of 

the cubital cell -?i. alicicc, Turn. 

Median segment without a sulcus ; re- 
current nervure received at about 
three-fifths from the base of the cubi- 
tal cell . , H. vuriitarse, Turn. 



Rhopalum inacrocephahfs, sp. n. 

5 . Nigra ; mandibulis, apice excepto, scape, flagello articulo primo, 
tubcrculis humeralibus, tegulis, coxis anticis subtus, trochanteri- 
bus, femoribus anticis intermcdiisque, tibiis tarsisqiie anticis 
et intermediis, tibiisque posticis basi flavis ; segmentis abdomin- 
alibus margine apicali et subtus fusco-ferrugineis ; alls hyalinis, 
venis nigris. 

Long. 6 mm. 

? . Head sliiuing, very large, longer than broad ; the 



^Fr. J\. K. Tiuiior 0)1 I''o.<soriai I/>/mciioj)tcra. HI 

]X)stcri()r ocelli nearly as far from eacli otlier as from the 
eves, more than twice as far from tlie posterior mar;^in of 
the head as from each other ; eyes sej)aratc(l at the base 
of the elypetis hy a distance about cciual to half the lenj^th of 
the scape. Tiiorax narrower than the head ; the pronotiun 
depressed, strongly rounded at the angles ; mesouotum 
shininjr, microscopically punctured, without a sulcus. 
Median segment smooth, with a shallow and Kather indis- 
tinct median sulcus, a narrow transverse foveolate jjjroove at 
the base. First abdominal segment a little shorter than the 
second, the apical half somewhat swollen, but not forming a 
conspicuous node. Hind libiie swollen, with thrae or lour 
short spines on the outer margin near the apex. Recurrent 
nervure received a little before two-thirds from the base of 
the cubital cell. 

Hub. Calouudra, near Brisbane; September. On tree- 
trunks. (From Queensland Museum.) 

There is no distinct depression between the inner margin 
of the eyes and the posterior ocelli. The species is easily 
distinguished by the great length of the head behind the 
eyes. 

I'hopalum frenchii, Turn. 

Cra/iro {llhopahun) frenchii, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. LouJon, p. •"ji'^') 
(1908). 2- 

Hah. 'Sit. Wellington, 2300 ft. ; January to Ajjril. 
Eaglehawk Neck ; February. 

Also from Victoria ; a single specimen taken at Yallingup 
S.W. Australia. 

Taken burrowing in a bank hy the roadside on ]\It. Wel- 
lington, also on a Eucalyptus log at Eaglehawk Neck ; the 
specimen at Yallingup was taken on a live Jarrah trie. 

The male has the petiole longer and less clavate than the 
female. The spines on the hind tibite are almost obsolete. 

Rhopaluin leplospermi, sp. u. 

$ . Xig^-a ; scapo, feraoribus anticis et intermediis, femoribus 
posticis subtus, tibiisque auticis fiavis ; alls lusco-hyalims, venis 
nipris. 

6 . Fendria? siinilis ; tarsis ocbraceis, articulo apicali nigro. 
Long., $ 14 mm., J 11 mm. 

? . Clypeus slightly produced at the apex and shallowly 
emarginatc, the angles of the emargination forming short 
triangular tcetli. J.ycs separatcil at the base of the clypeus 
by a distance equal to about one-third of the length of the 



88 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossoi'ial ITijmenoptera. 

scape ; posterior ocelli more than half as far again from the 
eyes as from each other, a little nearer to the posterior 
margin of the head than to the eyes ; a broad obliciue de- 
pression from the inner margin of the eyes not reaching the 
posterior ocelli. Front strongly concave and shining, the 
rest of the head and thoiax subopaque. Pronotnm trans- 
verse, with a distinct dorsal snrface, the angles well defined, 
not rounded, without a sulcus. Mesonotnra without a 
sulcus ; a narrow, transverse, crenulated line at the base of 
the median segment, the triangular area of the median 
segment well defined and divided by a longitudinal sulcus. 
First abdominal segment nearly lialf as long again as the 
second, a little swollen at the apex, the second segment 
about three times as wide at the apex as the first. Fifth 
dorsal segment thickly clothed with very delicate golden- 
brown pubescence; pygidial area sparsely punctured at the 
base, smooth at the apex. Recurrent nervure received 
beyond three-quarters from the base of the cubital cell, at 
a distance from the apex scarcely exceeding the length of 
the transverse cubital nervure. Hind tibiae swollen on the 
apical half,, strongly spinose. 

cJ . As in the female ; but the depressions on the inner 
margin of the eyes are much smaller, and the second abdo- 
minal segment is distinctly longer and more slender in 
proportion to the first. 

Hab. Yallingnp, S.W. Australia ; October and November. 
Warren River, S.W. Australia {W. D. Dodd). 

I took the male in some numbers on Leplospermum blossom, 
but the only female was taken from an Asilid tly. Mr. Dodd 
took two females on the Warren River, but no males. 

Rhopalum cygnorum, sp. n. 

$. Nigra; scapo, femoribus, tibiis tarsisque anticis, fcmoribus 
tibiisque iutermediis subtns, tarsis intermediis, tuberculisque 
humeralibus flavis ; alls hyalinis, iridesccntibus, venis nigris ; 
flagello subtus bruuneo. 

Long. 5 mm. 

$ . Eyes separated from each other at the base of the 
clypeus by a distance nearly equal to half the length of the 
scape ; posterior ocelli far apart, farther from each other 
than from the eyes or from the posterior margin of the head ; 
a narrow oblique sulcus running from the inner margin of 
the eyes to the posterior ocelli. Head finely and closely 
punctured ; thorax shining, almost smooth. Pronotum 
transverse, with a distinct dorsal surface, the angles well 



Mr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Hi/menoptera. 89 

defined, not rounded ; mesonotum ^vitllOut a sulcus. Tri- 
angular area at the base of the median segment eoarscly 
rugose, not divided by a sulcus. First abdominal segment 
longer than the second, very slender at the base, swollen at 
the apex ; the second segment about tour times as wide 
at the ai)cx as the first. Pygidial area sparsely punctured. 
Keeurrent ncrvurc received just before two-thirds from the 
base of the cubital cell. Hind tibiie moderately spiuose. 

Hah. King's Park, Perth, W. Australia. 

One female taken on Eucalijpius blossom. 

Rhopalum variitarse, sp. n. 

$. Xigrn, nitida ; scapo siihtus, libiis anlcrioribiis supra, tarsis 
antcrionbus intormodiisque, articulo apicali excepto, tarsisquc 
posterioribus articulis tribus iutermediis llavis ; alls Lyalinis, 
venis nigris. 

Long. S mm. 

Clypeus with a carina from the base to the middle, covered 
uith white pubescence. Eyes separated at the base of the 
antennte by a distance equal to about one-third of the 
length of the scape. A broad longitudinal groove on the 
inner margin of the eyes, level with the anterior ocellus. 
Posterior ocelli a little farther from each other than from 
the anterior ocellus, a little farther from the eyes than from 
each other, Avith a short longitudinal sulcus between them. 
INIesonotum subcarinate in the middle, basal area of the 
median segment smooth and shining, without a median 
groove. First abdominal segment as long as the second, 
slender at the base, the apical half strongly swollen ; second 
segment broadened from the base ; fifth segment sparsely 
covered with grey pubescence ; pygidial area shining, 
sparsely punctured, elongate-triangular. Hind tibicC much 
swollen towards the apex, armed on the outer side with a 
row of small spines. Radial cell broadly truncate at the 
apex, transverse cubital nervure joining the radius close to 
one-third from tne base of the radial cell, the recurrent 
nervure received just bevond the middle of the cubital 
cell. 

Hub. :\lt. Wellington, 2300 ft.; January. Eaglehawk 
Neck ; February. 

Allied to the New Zealand species R. alhipes and R. per- 
forator^ Sm., but differs from both in the less spiuose tibiic 
and in other details of structure and colour. The tarsi are 
coloured as in the male of alhipes, Sm., but in that species 
the female differs from the male in this point. 



90 Mr. E. E. Turner on Fossor'ial llymenoptera. 

Rhopahim eucalypti, sp. u. 

$ . Nigra ; scapo subtus, tarsis anticis interinediisque, tibiis anticis 
interinodiisque supra, tibiisque posticis subtus albido-tiavis ; alis 
bvalinis, iridesceutibus, venis nigris. 

Long, (j-5 mm. 

Clypeus without a carina, sliallowly emarginate at the 
apex, the angles of the emarginatiou forming very short 
teeth. Eyes separated at the base of the antennte by a 
distance equal to about three-quarters of tiie length of the 
scape ; no broad groove on the inner margin of the eye level 
with the anterior ocellus, but a narrow shallow sulcus runs 
frooi the eye to the posterior ocelli, wliich are as far from 
each other as from the eye. Dorsal surface of the median 
segment smooth and shining, with a rather obscure median 
sulcus and a few very short striee at the base. Petiole longer 
than the second segment, the apical third moderately 
swollen ; second segment slender, fully twice as long as the 
apical hreadtii ; pygidial area triangular, not very sharply 
defined. Hind tibiae swollen towards the apex, without 
spines. Radial cell broadly truncate at the apex ; trans- 
verse cubital nervure joining the radius at two-tifths from 
the base of the radial cell ; recurrent nervure received at 
about three-fifths from the base of the cubital cell. 

Hab. EaglehawU Neck ; March. 

Taken on a dead Eucalyptus log. 

This is a more slender species than variitarse, and is 
without the groove on the inner margin of the eye and the 
spines on the Innd tibiffi. The eyes arc much farther apart 
on the front, in this character more nearly approaching 
frenchii, from which it is easily distinguished by the long 
petiole. 

Rhopalum alicicE, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra, subnitida ; scapo, tuberculis humeralibus, femoribns 
anticis intermediisque apice, tibiis basi, tarsisque articulo apicali 
exoepto albido-flavis ; alis hyalinis, venis nigris. 

c? . Feminae similis. 

Long., 2 1^." cJ 9 ni™. 

? . Eyes separated at the base of the clypeus by a distance 
equal to about two-thirds of the length ot the scape. Poste- 
rior ocelli nearly half as far again from the eyes as from each 
other, a little farther from the eyes than from the posterior 
margin of the head ; a broad oblique depression reaching 
from the inner margin of the eye almost to tlie })osterior 



^fr. R. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilijmenoptera. 91 

ocelli ; a sliort longitudinal sulcus between the posterior 
ocelli. Pronotum strongly rounded at the angles, with a 
short median longitudinal sulcus ; a shallow almost obsolete 
sulcus reaching troui the anterior margin of the mcsonotum 
to the middle. A narrow, transverse, crenulated furrow at 
the base of the posts(;utclluin, and another at the base of 
the median segment ; a distinct longitudinal sulcus running 
from the base to the apex of the median segment. I'irst 
abdominal segment distinctly longer than the second, the 
apical half moderately swollen, half as wide at the apex as 
tiie apex of the second segment. Pvgidial area coarsely 
j)unctured-rugose at tiie base, with a median carina, smootl) 
and shining at the apex. Hind tibiie swollen and strongly 
spinose. llecurrent ncrvure received just beyond three- 
cpiarters from the base of the cubital cell, at a distance from 
the apex of the cell scarcely equal to the length of the trans- 
verse cubital ncrvure. 

(^ . The male has the head less produced behind the eyes, 
the posterior ocelli being only a little farther from the poste- 
rior margin of the head than from each other ; the depres- 
sions between the eyes and the posterior ocelli are much 
smaller and the abdomen much more slender. 

Hub. Yallingiip, S.W.Australia; October and November. 

Taken burrowing in sand, the males flying low over the 
sand. 

Nearly related to R. variitarse from Tasmania, but differs 
in the presence of a sulcus on the median segment, in the 
position of the recurrent ncrvure, and in the sculpture of the 
pygidial area. 

Rhopalum litiorale, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; scapo subtus, tibiis anticis cxtus, tarsisque anticis et 
iutermediis, articulo apicali excepto albido-llavis ; alis hjaliuis, 
iridescentibus, veuis uigris. 
Long. G mm. 

? . Eyes separated at the base of the clypcus by a distance 
equal to about one-(piarter of the length of the scape. Pos- 
terior ocelli as far from each other as from the e\es, and 
about the same distance from the posterior margin of the 
head ; a short longitudinal sulcus between the posterior 
ocelli. A narrow groove along the inner margin of the eyes, 
but no broad depression running towards the posterior 
ocelli. Pronotum depressed, without a distinct dorsal 
surface, rounded at the angles ; mesonotum without a sulcus, 
Median segment \wth a transverse crenulated line at the 



92 ^Ir. R. E. Turnor on Fossorial Hymenoptera. 

base, the triangular area divided by a longitudinal sulcus. 
First abdominal segment about equal in length to the 
second^ the a])ical half rather strongly swollen ; pygidial area 
smooth and shining at the apex. Recurrent nervure received 
just before tMo-thirds from the base of the cubital cell, at a 
distance from the apex almost equal to twice the length of 
the trausverse cubital nervure. Hind tibiae swollen and 
spiuose. 

Hab. Yallingup, S.W. Australia ; November. 

This is near R. frenchii, but the petiole is longer and the 
colour of the legs different. It is also a much larger species. 

Rhopalum tricolor, Sm. 

CraWo tricolor, Sm. Cat. Ilyni. B.M. iv. p. 394 (1850). d- 

Crahro [lihupalum) militaris, Turn. Proc. Zool. Soc. Loudou, p. 523 

U908). cf. 
Crahro (^Rliopalum) tricolor, Turu. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 524 

(1908). $c?. 

Smith's type is lost, but from a long series of Tasmanian 
specimens 1 have no doubt there is only one species^ and that 
inilitaris, Turn., is quite a usual form of the species, the 
form identified by me as tricolor being a dark colour-variety 
found in the mountain-districts of New South Wales and 
Victoria. 

Hab. Eaglehawk Neck ; February. Mt. Wellington, 
2200 ft. ; January. 

Also from S.E. Australia. A closely allied form is common 
in S.W. Australia, but ditlers in the slightly shorter petiole, 
in the almost obsolete spines of the hind tibiae, and in the 
slightly nearer approach to each other of the posterior ocelli. 
For this form I propose the name Rhopalum tricolor imbelle, 
subsp. n. 

R. tricolor "was taken freely on Leptospermum^ also 
burrowing in sandy banks. 

Crabro (subgenus Solenius). 

I use the name Solenius in a wider sense than Ashmead. 
The Australian species of Crabro do not fall well into 
Ashmead's genera, which were founded without the study of 
any large exotic collection. The species included here in 
Solenius fall into more than one group of species, but in all 
the female has the mandibles tridentate, a supraorbital fovea, 
and a carina on the mesopleurai before tlie intermediate 
coxse. C. triclentatus and tasmanicus have the clypeus very 



Ml. K. E. Turnci" o« Fcssoi-hil Ihjinenoi>tcra. D.'J 

(lilVi'rciitly loriiicd from the otlicrs, tlic inaiulihlcs less dis- 
liiictly trideiitate, iiiul a spine ou the anterior i'emora of the 
male ; the sccoiul joint ot' the fhigellum is also very long. 
(/'. ordiiuirius, manifestatus^ buittalns, and neyledus form 
another gronp nearly related to the last; whilst C. con- 
(/luhittus and cinctus have the male antenntc normal antl no 
carina on the elypeus. In the two latter speeies and in 
hebetescvns the tooth on the inner side of the mandibles 
near the base is well developed, whieh, so far as I can see, is 
not the ease in the other speeies. 

Key tu the Australian Species of Crabro (Solenius). 
9$. 

1. Clypens ■nitli a carina 2. 

Clypeiis without a carina 8. 

'2. Wn\\ ail oianj^e or yellow band, entire oi- 
inteniii>ted, ou tLe base of tlie second 

dnitial sogiuent 3. 

Withuiit an orange or yellow band on the 
second dorsal .•■eprment 7. 

3. Clypcus produced into a strong- porrect tooth 

at the apex, with a tooth on each side at 

the lateral angles 4. * 

Ciypeus not produced into a ijorrect tooth, 
lateral angles without teetu o. 

4. Transverse baud of second dorsal segment 

orange, broad, aud entire; three apical 

segmeuts orange C. trUhntatm, Sm. 

Transverse baud of second dorsal segment 
yellow, narrow, aud interrupted ; Itasal 
half of fourth dorsal segment yellow; 
two apical segments black C. tdsmcmicKS, Sm. 

5. Fourth dorsal segment with a transverse 

orange or yellow band at the base .... 6. 

Fourth dorsal segment entirely black C. munifcstutus, Turn. 

G. Band of the second segment orange aud 
broad ; scutellum and postscutelluui en- 
tirely black C. bivittatux, Turn. 

Baud of the second segment yellow and nar- 
row ; scutellum with a yellow spot at 
the basal angles, postscutelluui with a 
transverse yellow baud C. ordiiuirius, Turn. 

7. Second dorsal segment entirely black C. mavkayensis, Turn. 

Five ba.«al dorsal segments with lateral 

white spots C. hebctvscens, Turn. 

8, Clypeus with a small semicircular trunca- 

tion at the slightly porrect apex; ante- 
rior angles of prouotum pointed ; three 

apical dorsal segments orange C. cinctus, Turn, 

Clypeus without an apical truncation, not 
porrect; anterior angles of prouotum 
obtuse ; three apical dorsal segments 
black C. cotigtobatus, Turn. 



1)4 Mr. R. E. Turner on Fosson'al Jlymenoptera, 



6 6. 

1. Basal joints of the flag-plliim not normal, at 

least with n notch between tlie s-econd 
and third joints beneaih ; cl^peus with 

n lontritudinal carina 2. 

liasal joints of the Hagellum normal ; cly- 
peus without a carina 7. 

2. Anterior femora with a epine beneath near 

the base 3. 

Anterior femora without a ppine 4. 

3. Transverse band of second dorsal segment 

orange, broad, and entire C. tridodatm, Sni. 

Transverse band of second dorsal segment 

yellow, narrow, and interrupted C. tasmanicus, Sm. 

4. Fourth dorsal segment banded with yellow 

or orange 5. 

Fourth dorsal segment wholly black C manifestatus, Turn. 

5. Scut^Uum and postscutellum wholly black . C. 
Scutelluni with yellow spots at the basal 

angles ; postscutellum with a transverse 

yellow band C. ordinarius, Turn, 

6. Transverse band of second dorsal segment 

broad and entire C. hivittatus, Turn. 

Transverse band of second dorsal segment 

narrow and interrupted C. neglectus, Sm. 

7. Second joint of the Hagellum no longer than 

the third; band on the second dorsal 
segment broad and entire ; third wholly 

black C. cinctiis, Turn. 

Second joint of the flagel'um much longer 
than the tliird ; band on tlie second 
dorsal segment narrow and interrupteil ; 
third with a narrow transverse band on 
each side C'. coiir/lobatiis, Turn. 

The males of C. mackayensis and C. hebetescens are 
unknown, as is also the female of C. neglectus. 

Crabro (Solenius) neglectus, Sm. 

Crahro neglectus, Sm. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 249 (18G8). 6 • 

I have not included this species in the key to the females, 
because it is known only in the male sex. It seems to be 
most nearly allied to biviitatus, but the orange bands at the 
base of the'second and fourth dorsal segments are narrow 
and that ou the second interrupted; the angles of the pro- 
notum are also more distinctly pointed and the first abdo- 
minal segment is broader and shorter. 



ill . n. E. Turner on Fossorial Ilymenoptera. i>5 

Ci'ubro [Solenlus] tasmanicus, Sm. 
Crabro iasmauictu, Sm. Cat. llyiii. 1J..M. i\ . i.. -li'.j (1866). cJ (as $ )• 

This is in my opinion the Tasm;ini;in race of C. iri- 
(lentatiis, Sni., the (liltcrciu'cs Ijciiij; mainly in colour. The 
oranjje colour, so conspicuous in Australian Aculcatcs, and 
of which C tndtiitatus is a ^ooil exani[)l(', docs not seem to 
be indijicnons in Tasmania, being contincd in that island to 
one or two lar^c Psanimocharidie such as Priocnemis bicolor, 
Fahr., and to the bee I/i/lceoicles concinnus, Fabr., which arc 
probably stiag^leis I'rom the mainland, where they arc 
common specits. 

Crahro (Solenius) manifestatus, sp. n. 

$ . Nip:ra ; ecapo, pronoto, sculcllo macula utrinque anprulis 

basalibiis, segniciitoqtio dorsali secundo dimidio ajiicali llavis ; 

flaj^ello basi, callis huraeralibus, tcgulis pcdibusquc ferrugineis ; 

alis hyalirds, vrtiis nigris. 
J . FeminjB siniilis ; aurantiaco baud flaro-variegatus ; scutelli 

maculis duplicatis. 
Long., $ 11, d 7 mm. 

? . Clypcus with a carina from the base to tlie apex, not 
produced or dentate at the apex ; eyes separated at the base 
of the clypeus by a distance equal to al)out one-third of the 
length of the scape ; front concave, not margined above ; 
second joint of the flagellum as long as tlie first and third 
combined. Posterior ocelli farther from eacli other than 
from the eyes, and farther from the posterior margin of the 
liead than from each other ; a short sulcus on each side 
along the inner margin of the eyes near the summit. Head 
very minutely, thorax more distinctly punctured ; anterior 
angles of the pronotum acute ; scutcllum with a crenulate 
transverse furrow at the base; enclosed area of the median 
segment no longer than the scutellum, divided by a longi- 
tudinal groove, ol)li(juely striated, coarsely at tlie sides, less 
distinctly in the iniddlo, with a transverse crenulate furrow 
at the base. Abdomen opaque, minutely and very closely 
j)uncture'l, pygidial area elongate ; po'^terior tibi;e serrate. 
'I'ransvcrsc cubital nervure received just beyond the middle 
of the radial cell, recurrent nervure received at a distance 
from the apex of the cubital cell equal to about half the 
length of the traiisversc cubital nervure. 

cJ . Third joint of the flagellum excised at the base be- 
iieath ; sculpture of the basal area of the median segment 
irregularly rugose ; transverse cubital nervure received just 



96 Mr. K. E. Tianei- on Fosnorud Flt/nienoptera. 

bcfoi'C the middle of the radial ccU^ recurrent iiervure re- 
ceived at a distance from the apex of the cubital cell equal to 
the length of the cubital nervurc. 

Hah. Kalamuuda, S.W. Australia ; February. 

The female is the type. I am not sure that these are 
sexes of the same species, owiug to the dillerencc in colour 
aud in the sculpture of the meilian segment. The female is 
nearest to bivittatiis, Turu., but diflers in the sculpture of 
the median segment, in the absence of a baud on the fourtli 
dorsal segment, aud in the yellow instead of orange 
markings. 



Crabro {Solenius) serenus, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; scapo, pronoto fascia utriuque, callis humeralibus, 
mesopleuris autice macula magna, mesonoto macula parva utrin- 
que angulis anticis, scutello macula utriuque, postscutello linea 
transversa, segmento niediano maculis 4 magnis, anguste sepa- 
ratis, segmento dorsali primo macula curvata utrinque, secundo 
macula transversa utrinque, tertio macula parva obscura utrinque, 
femoribus anticis macula ajiicali, tibiisque anticis externe basi 
flavis ; alis fusco-hyalinis, apice obscure caerulesceutibus, veuis 
nigris. 

Long. 12 mm. 

$ . Mandibles tridentate, the inner tooth short ; clypeus 
■with a carina from the base branching in the middle and 
enclosing an elongatc-ti'iangular apical area^ the angles of 
tlie area produced into short teeth, a short tooth on each 
side near the outer angles of the clypeus. Eyes separated 
at the base of the anteunaj by a distance slightly exceeding 
half the length of the scape, the second joint of the flagellum 
as long as the first aud third combined. Front between the 
eyes concave ; posterior ocelli about equidistant from the 
eyes and from each other, farther from the posterior margin 
of the head than from each other ; a broad groove along the 
inner margin of the eyes near the summit, Pronotum with 
the anterior margin slightly raised aud produced into minute 
spines at the anterior angles. Head and thorax minutely 
punctured, subopaque ; basal area of median segment 
smooth, divided by a crenulate longitudinal furrow, the sides 
of the segment smooth and opaque. First abdominal seg- 
ment gradually broadened from the base, longer than the 
second, the apex about two-thirds of the breadth of the apex 
of the second segment. Pygidial area very narrow, liiud 
tibiae serrate. 

Hab. A pi, New Hebrides; May (JF. W. Frogyatt). 



On till' British Species of llaViplus. 97 

IV. — On the British Species of Hal i pi us, Latreille, related 
to llali|)lus ruficollis, De Geer, with some Remarks upon 
II. lulvicollis, Erichson, and II. furcaJus, Seidlitz. By 
Fkank P)ALFOUR-Bkowni:, M.A. (Oxon. et Canlab.), 
F.U.S.E., F.Z.S., Lecturer in Etitomolof^y in the De])art- 
ment of Zoology, University of Cambridge. 

[Plates VII. & VIII.] 

The fjroup of species which I have referred to as being 
related to Ilaliplus riificoUisj De G., includes seven British 
forms, of which only three were known in our islands until a 
few years ago. The group is a very difficult one, as is evi- 
denced by the fact that three attempts have been made upon 
it, without, however, altogether satisfactory results. 

The first attempt was made by Gerhardt (8 and 9) *, who 
separated six nnd-European species, relying chiefly upon the 
sculpture and upon the lineation and markings of the elytra. 
He also divided the species into two groups, according as 
the piosternum was grooved or flat. Three years later, 
Wehucke (22) drew up another analytical tabic in which he 
included eleven species, but he relied upon the same characters 
as Gerhardt had done. 

Four years ago Edwards (5) distinguished the Britannic 
species of the group, using, in addition to the previous 
authors' characters, the form of the ^deagus and its accessory 
lobes. Until his paper appeared tive sj)ecies had been 
jiassing with British coleoi)terists under //. rujicoUis and 
Jl.jluvialilis, and of these Edwards separated all except one. 
Had he taken more advantage of his discovery of the adeagal 
character — which is the only absolutely reliable specific 
one, — he might have been saved from a number of errors 
into which he fell. However, he did not use it for distin- 
guishing all his species, but relied rather upon other characters 
which are somewhat variable. Several statements made by 
him are contrary to the observations of the earlier authors, 
and in attempting to work out ni}' material with the aid of 
his |)aper 1 found it unsatisfactory. 

His descri[)tion of the elytral puncturation of the female of 
U. ruficollis differs, as to the extent of that puncturation, 
from Gorllardt^•^, who first observed it, and from that of all 
the succeeding authors (most of whom probably copied 
Gerhardt), and Edwards explains this by assuming that they 

* See Bibliography, p. 122. 
Ann. tD Mag. X. llist, Ser. 8. Vol. xv. 7 



08 :\Ir. F. Bill four.B row lie o>, the 

li;ul not 32011 what ho was aMe to sec. The same difference 
of opinion occurs with lepiid to the sculpture of the female 
of II. fuIvicoIli<, Er., which Edwards describes as havin*^ the 
elytra finely punctured across the apex and aloiio; the distal 
lialf of the suture, while the continental authors all describe 
it as having the elytra impunctate. 

With regard to the difficulty of using the pa])er, Edwards 
describes tlie jedeago|ihore in six out of his seven s|)ecie?, 
saying nothing about it in II. heydeni \ but, altiiough in five 
i)f these it is obvinusly a character of systematic im))ortance, 
in IJ.fuhicoU'is he describes it as similar to that in //. rufi- 
coUis — a statement whicii, if correct, would to my mind reduce 
the former from specific rank. As a matter of t'act^ Edwards 
never saw II. fuh'i colli f--, as I shall show later on. 

Edwards figuri.'S the male armature in three species of the 
seven, but I found in working out my nuiterial tliat I had 
dissected out six different ty[)es without coming across one 
which agreed accurately with any of iiis figures. 

These points, and several other details to which I shall 
refer in due course, induced nie to undertake a re-investi- 
gation of the group, and, with that end in view, I liave 
collected several thousands of small IlallpU in various parts 
of the British Islands *. Through the kindness of several 
friends I have also seen a large number of other British 
specimens, and I have seen some continental ones also 

* I should perhaps explain my method of collecting' and liow I 
satistied myself as to the specilic identity of tlie females. I collected a 
number of specimens of small Ilalipli tvom some particular spot, and a 
collection from any one place was kept separate from a collection from 
any other place, the specimens usually being placed at once in tubes of 
alcohol, each tube being registered under a number. Thus, in the course 
of a few hours' collecting, I might have eight to ten collections, some 
containing two or three specimens, others containing fifty or a hundred — 
the contents of each tube being a sample from some one pond, lake, 
ditch, or other type of habitat. Tiie contents of each tube were later 
overhauled, males being separated from females and identilied by the 
aedeagus, and then attempts were made to allocate the different females. 
If, as sometimes, I g^ot a large collection containing only one species of 
male, the probability was that at least the majority of the females be- 
longed to that same species and it was thus possible to associate females 
■with one type of elytral sculpture, form of thoracic stria?, or other 
secondary character, with a certain type of male. This was airain 
checked by comparing other collections and finding that, as a rule, a 
particular type of female was associated witli one type of male. 

But, although I speak of " females of a particular form," as if seven 
tvpes of female could be separated at a glance and only required to be 
allocated to the seven types of ujale, tlie matter is not really an easy one 
for the very reason that the diameters used are variable, and thus 
females have been much more difficult to distinguish than the papers of 
the three authors mentioned would indicate. 



British Sj'eciis of llaliplu.^. 'J'J 

llirougli tlic kindness of several entomolofjists, Captain Saitite 
Chiire Devilloof Paris, Dr. Inverts of 'a Ciravciiliaiie, and tlie 
lato Ilcrr Gan<^lljauer of Vienna. Ilerr llt'itti-r of Paskau 
jind Ilerr IScliuIz of Hamburg have also supplied inc with 
Hj)ocinicn.s which have been useful. 

It is after workin<; through all this material that I have 
conic to the eonelusion that the only entirely leiiablc character 
for separating the seven species of tlio group is the form of 
the aideagus, and that, allhougii the otiier ciiaracler.s referred 
to arc useful in allocating an individual to a ))articuhir specie s, 
they not infrequently contradict one another, so that in some 
cases it is extremely diflicult to come to a decision at all in 
the case of the females. 

Apparently these characters and others which I find even 
less useful are not universally variable, as Koberts (r6), for 
instance, who has written a long ])apcr on North Ameiican 
Ilaliplids, says that " the structural characters most useful in 
separating the species are the form and markings, such as 
depressions, margins, &c., of the prosternal process, meta- 
sternum antl coxal plates, as well as the shape and structin-e 
of the parts of the upper surface of the body," and he further 
lays stress upon the value of maculation, but this specially 
ajiplios to the genus Feltodytes, as he mentions that in Ihdi- 
jilus variation in colour-markings is not at all uncommon. 

I will now discuss the value of the chief characters whicb 
have been used in separating the species. 

General Form. 

A character upon which Edwards lays some stress is the 
general form of the insect, and this involves the shape of the 
thorax and the outline of the elytra. Now there is no doubt 
that the general form is decidedly useful as a guide in 
separating the species, although the ditTerences are more 
aj)parent than real, but it is usnally possible to allocate 
individuals to one of two categories as laid down by that 
author. 

//. riificol/is, hejjdeiii, and most nomax have the thorax 
aj parently more tlian twice as broad as long and with the 
sides strongly convergent in front and the elytra are usually 
evidently widest before the middle. //. ajiicalis, flmnatHis, 
nomc.v var. hroioneaurs^ ice/itickii, and wniiacu/ulus usually 
have a thorax which aj)pcars longer in proportion to its width, 
with the sides less strongly convergent in front, while the 
el} tra are usually widest in the middle, except in the case 
of var. hroxcueanns which is a member of the other group as 
to this last character. 

7* 



100 Mr. F. Balfour-Brownc on tlw 

Caiuera-luciJa drawings show that the thorax of //. ruji- 
coUis, hei/deiii, and nomax is slin;htly wider in proportion and 
that the sides are slightly more convergent, but it is sur- 
prising liow slight in reality these difllertnces are. 

With regard to the form of the elytia I have spent much 
lime in trying to make camera-lucida drawings of the different 
species, but I found that the drawing seldom resembled the 
niodel, and that even minute changes in the position of the 
insect — slight raising of the anterior or posterior end — gave 
an entirely different result in the drawing. There is, how- 
ever, in spite of the impossibility of figuring it, some 
difference, perhaps in curvature of surface and light reflection, 
which is quite indefinable, but which is useful. 

But variations in form occur within a species, and the 
members of one group approach and sometimes even overlap 
those of the other. //. noma.v, for instance, seems to be 
specially variable and some individuals are evidently ^videst 
across the middle of the elytra. H. rnficoiUs and loehnckei 
also vary somewhat, so that caution is necessary in making- 
use of this character. 

The Elyteal SxEiiE. 

Edwards divides the species into two groups according 
as "the dark lines 1-4 [are] unequal in width, distinctly 
widened on the disc, 5-7 interrupted at the base, in the 
middle, and at the apex, and often confluent," or " 1-4 of 
uniform width throughout, 5-7 less decidedly or not at all 
interrupted," and in this character I find some variation, 
especially as regards H. wehnckei and also in H. nomax which 
^vas unknown to Edwards. 

It is often very difficult to determine the females of 
//. icehnckei as distinct from those of //. ru/icoliis, but males 
of the former not infrequently show elytra! lineation of the 
same type as that described for the latter, and females, which, 
on the majority of characters, belong to the former, even more 
frequently on this character should belong to the latter. In 
//. nomax the majority would belong to the "7'iificolUs" 
section, but some have a clear lineation which would place 
them with the ^' loehncTcei^' section, and in this species at 
least the extent to whicli the black overflows the lines and 
runs into patches varies greatly in different localities. 

In all the species there seems to be a tendency for the 
black lines to break up, but it is, I think, rarest in //. apicalis 
and H. immaculatus. This character is not therefore of great 
value in separating the species, although us an indicator it is 
frequently useful. 



The ruNCTL'UATiON OF Tiiii Elytka IX Tin: Fi:.mam:. 

Apparontly Gorlianlt was the first to discover clilTeronces 
in the extent to which the elytra of the females ot" tU'i 
clitTerent species are covered with a very fine puncluration, 
and he mentions that in //. ruficollis the apical half of the 
elytra is thus punctured*. Now Edwards found that in 
//, rujiroflis the elytra :ue entirely punctate and conseipienlly 
assumed that Grrhardt, Wehncke, and others were wrong. 
Bedel (2) had already said that he could find " outres les 
trois types separ(?s })ar M. Gerhardt, toutes les nuances de 
transition dans la forme gonerale, la coloration fonciere, 
le dessin des elytres et la force de la ponctuation," but 
Edwards assumed that he also was wrong. 

After examining large numbers of specimens I have 
satisfied myself that, although in the majority of females of 
British and Iiisli ruficuVis the elytra are com[)le!ely punctate 
as desciibed by Edwards, sj)ecimens occur in which, at the 
base, they are impunctate, even under high magnification 
(x 172), and I have seen a few specimens in which the 
])uncturation is even more reduced and conHncd to the 
extreme apex. Of the French specimens sent me by 
Captain Ste. CMaire Deville, almost all were impunctate on 
the basal half of the elytra. The Dutch specimens sent ni^ 
by Dr. Everts were more like our own, but semipunctate 
ones were not scarce, while none of the specimens sent mo 
from Austria by the late llerr Ganglbauer or by llerr lleitter 
were com])letely punctate and a few were identical in punc- 
turation with those referred to by Edwards as II. fulvicolliK. 

l^oth Ganglbauer and lleitter sent me as 11. ruficoUia 
female specimens which were quite impunctate, and in such 
cases, but for their larger size, I am unable to say why they 
.should not be described as //. heyden'i, as 1 can find no 
reliable distinctive character between the females of these 
two species ! In one or two of tliese impunctate " rvJicoUm " 

• Edwanls finds fimlt with Newbery (14) for doscribin}^ the elytra 
nsi " nlutnceous," and says " the latter term, which I understand to 
rxprcss the condition found on the inter-p^ices of tiie thorax of certain 
ppecies of LaccobiitSy 1. e. covered with minute cracli.s like mud or 

mosaic " No ppeciiB of Lmcohius with whidi I am arquiiinted 

lias the thorax covered with " minute cracks." In L. uUitcucus, for 
instance, the thorax is covered with extremely fine and close puncluration 
quite similar to tiint found on the elytra of tlie females of most of the 
JIali/i/i. The word " alutaceous '' may a])parently mean eitiier "the 
colour of bull leather '' or "leathery, coriaceous," so tluit Tliomson pre- 
sumably misapplied it in naniinif L. cihitaceu^, using it in the same sense 
Rd it was afterwards used by Jk'del and Newbery. 



102 Mr. F. Balfour-Browne on the 

there is, at the extreme apex of the elytra, a mere trace of 
puncturation only to be found under very high magnification 
and by careful manipulation of the light, but I find a similar 
trace in a small specimen sent me by Edwards as //. heydeni, 
and which I certainly regard as such. 

Although therefore it is not correct to describe //. rttfi- 
coIUs as dimorphic, as suggested by Bedel — since all inter- 
mediate stages seem to exist between the extremes, — we may 
perhaps describe the completely punctate female as the 
"insular" form and the one in which the fine puncturation 
is reduced as the "continental" form, and it is interesting 
to note that, so far, the only specimens of the continental 
form wliich I have seen from the British Islands are from 
the south-east of England {Cambridge, Surrey, and Kent 
East). 

From what has been said, it is quite clear that very little 
reliance is to be placed upon the elytral puncturation for 
determining the females of H. ruficollis, and, unfortunately, 
it is not only this species which is variable in tiiis character. 
Edwards describes the females of //. loehnchei as having the 
apical half of the elytra finely punctured and the basal half 
impunctate — and in many cases this is no doubt correct, but it 
is not always so. A few specimens taken by me in brackish 
pools by the River Bann, near Coleraine, Co. Derry, are, all 
except one, very faintly punctured to tlie base of tlie elytra. 
I determined these specimens, first, on the ground that only 
male icehnchei occurred in these pools, and, secondly, on the 
general form, which is typical of the " wehnckei^' group as 
opposed to the " rvficoUis " group. Again in sixteen out of 
eighteen female xoehnckei taken in one spot in the Lagan 
Canal, near Belfast, the elytra are punctured to the base, 
although the puncturation is in some cases extremely fine. 
Nineteen male wehnckei occurred in this collection, and no 
male rvficollif, and, excepting in the cliaracter of elytral 
puncturation, the females do not in the least suggest 
ruficollis. 

In collections made in the Biver Spey and in some drains 
in the Aviemore district (Inverness East), very faint punctu- 
ration can be seen at the base of the elytra of most of the 
u'eJnickei females and a few are strongly punctured through- 
out. 

I could give a number of other examples to show that the 
puncturation of the elytra of females of H. wehnckei tends to 
vary in our Islands, in some cases covering only the apical 
half, in others covering the whole of the elytra, and there 
are all grades between the extremes. j\Iv knowledge of con- 



/?;vV/.n7/ Sppcles o/ Iliilipliis. 10,3 

tiiiental .s|)(jciiiien.s is liinitcil to one or two sjx'ciinens, ami 
the species apjioars to be somewhat scarce. I have a note 
concernin;^ one specimen from the collection of Captain Ste. 
Claire Deville, " $ //. wehncket. Detorniined on p^eneral 
form only. On the fiist h)ok at this specimen it aj)j)eare(l to 
he impunctate, hut, hy ihe aid of higli magnification ( x 172), 
I mai<e out extremely fine j)uncturation at the apex of the 
elytra, this extendin<f halfway up but only along the external 
borders." 

So far as I know, the females of //. nomax are always 
completely punctate, even in tUe'^hrownpatms^' variety, which 
is, according to its at present known distribution, entirely 
confined to south-eastern England ami is therefore possibly 
the " continental " form of the species. 

I am now satisfied that the females of //. immaculatuSj 
alihough normally having impunctate elytra, sometimes have 
slight puncturation. I have several specimens which on the 
majority of characters aiirce with typical immncithdus females, 
but are more or less j)unct;ite. this jjuncturation in most cases, 
but not in all, being confined to the extreme apex of the 
elytra. 

All females of //. apicaJis, so far as I know, have the 
elytra completely punctate and all females of II. fuhicollisy 
which is not a British species, are quite impunctate, so that 
in these two species this female character may be as invariable 
as in //. noma.v. 

With regard to //. fluviatilis^ I gather that Edwards 
regards the female as alwajs having the elytra completely 
punctate, though he only says " the females of this species 
exhibit the elytral |)unctnration very clearly, the surface 
in some examples being appreciably dull " (5, p. 8). Both 
Gerhardt and Wehncke refer to the female of this species as 
Laving the posterior half of the elytra finely punctured, and 
it is surprising that Edwards should have passed over this 
statement, especially after having emphasized the fact that 
the punctiuation in those sjiecimens he examined was such as 
to make the indiviiluals dull in a|)peaiance. After examining 
a large number of British and Irish specimens, I have only 
found two in ^vhich the pnncturation on the disc of the elytra 
was at all weak: it was there, right to the base, but it was 
faintly marked. One of the s))ecimens came from the river 
Niih (Kirkcudbrightshire) ami the other from the River Cam 
(Cambridgeshire). I have seen only a few continental speci- 
mens — a series sent me by Captain Ste. Claire Deville irom 
France, of which eight were females, and of these six at least 
(I neglected to note the other two) have the elytra impunctate 



104 



Mr. F. Balfour-Browne on (he 



on tlie disc, even wlien examined under liioli magnification 
(x 172). A few specimens from Silesia sent me by Herr 
Ganglbauer were similarly sculptured. It seems, tlierefore, 
that there are " insular " and " continental " types o£ female 
in this species also. 

The Pkosterxum. 

The sculpture of the prosternum was relied upon by 
Gerliardt, who separated //. ruJicoUis, hef/deni, horealis, and 
immacnlatuSj as having a grooved or channelled prosternum, 
from H.fluviatilis and fuhicoll is, as having a flat one. He 
did not attempt to distinguish between the four species with 
grooved prosternum on any peculiarities of the grooving, and 
Wehncke similarly carries the matter no farther. Reitter (15, 
p. 203, footnote) points out that the separation of species on 
the ground of grooved or flat prosternum often fails, and 
mentions that in II. holsaticus, Scriba, the male has a flat and 
the female a grooved prosternum. He mentions that Seidlitz 
and Ganglbauer have both avoided using the form of the 
prosternum as a specific character, but he himself describes 
its nature in several species. 

Fijr. 1. 




The_ prosternum undoubtedly varies considerably in its 
shape in all the species, and is also somewhat variable in 
sculpture ; but it is, nevertheless, sometimes useful as addi- 
tional evidence in determining a species, if it is used with 
caution. The grooving or channelling varies from a slight 
depression in the anterior narrow part to a long, shallow, 
narrow channel to the posterior end, and there is also 
a further modification produced by the widening out of 
this channel. We might describe four degrees of grooving. 
The first is the minimum type : in the second the groove 



Dritish Species of lli\\i[>]\i='. 1().> 

extenfls from half to two-tliirds of tlic \v;iy back along tlio 
nruldle line, while in tlie thirtl it extends right to tlie j)Oste- 
rioi- ond. The fourth is the extreme development of the 
groove where it widens out, leaving nothing but a narrow 
ridge on either side, and praetically the whole widtli of the 
prosternum i.s depressed. After an examination of a large 
number of speeimons, I have drawn up the following descrip- 
tions of tlie prosternum : — 

H. apicalis. — The prosternum is sparsely covered with 
large punctures, but closely covered with fine and very 
distinct ones. The grooving is of the fourth type ; the two 
raised marj;ins posteriorly are very slight and the groove is 
very " flat-bottomed/' sometimes being so shallow that the 
side-ridges are almost ob.^olete. The tine ])uncturation gives 
the jn-osternum a somewhat dull appearance, which is a fairly 
reliable characteristic for this species. 

H. fluviatilis. — The prosternum is flat, with sometimes a 
tendency to grooving in the anterior narrow part (/. e. type 1, 
see fig. 1 on oj)])osite page), where the largo punctures are 
irregular in shape and give a corrugated appearance. Tlie 
" process" or posterior region has large punctures, scattered 
and so far apart that the whole surface appears smooth and 
shining. 

H. nomax. — The prosternum is sometimes very faintly 
channelled thioughout (type 3), but often the insect has to 
be turned round in all directions, so as to get the correct 
illumination to see this. Often the channelling is of type 2. 
In both cJ and ? large scattered punctures occur, and the 
interspaces are filled with fine puncturation ; but this seldom, 
if ever, causes the prosternum to appear in any way dull. 

H. wehnckei. — The prosternum is shining and with largo 
scattered ])unctures. Usually of type 3, though many 
examples of type 2 occur and some specimens are of type 1, 
Occasionally the width of the groove is increased, so that 
type 4 is approached. Among the large punctures is a very 
feeble fine puncturation in both (J and ?. If, however, the 
groove is deep, the fine puncturation is usually distinct in it. 

H. ruficoUis. — Tlie prosternum and its puncturation are 
much the same as in //. wehnckei, but type 1 is, ])erha|)S, the 
most usual. Tyj)e 2, however, is not uncommon, and typo 3 
occurs, tills apparently being more common on the continent. 

H. heydeni. — So far as my experience of this species goes, 
I can find no difference as to the prosternum between it and 
U. 7'np'roUis. 

H. immaculatus. — The prosternum usually distinctly chan- 
nelled tluuugliout its length, and sometimes the j)osterioi- part 



lOG "Mv. F. Bal four-Browne on the 

of tlie groove is so widened tliat it spreads over the vvliole ov 
most of the width of tlie expanded part (type -4). In both (J 
and $ the surface is thickly covered with large punctures, 
the interspaces bcinp^ filled with smaller ))unctures, so that 
the whole has a ron<;h and slightly dull appearance. These 
punctures are so tiiickly placed that they produce irregular 
depressions, the tendency being for these depressions to lie 
across the prosternum in the wider part. 

H. falvicollis is not, so fi\r as I know, a British species, and 
I have only become acquainted with it because Edwards 
included it in his paper, and I therefore obtained specimens 
from two or three sources on the continent. It is really a 
very distinct species, not likely to be confused with any of 
ours. The prosternum is quite smooth, shining, and flat, 
except in the extreme anterior region, where there is a short 
groove (tvpe 1). There is no fine puncturation, and the 
large scattered punctures are not so large as in other species. 
This description is drawn up after examination of between 
twelve and twenty specimens, so that, perhaps, there are 
variations as in our own species. When I received these 
specimens I also received several labelled '^fulvicoUis, var. 

H. farcatus of Seidlitz is, however, a quite distinct species, 
as will be shown later on. The prosternum is of type 4 ; 
the lateral ridges are well marked, and the central region is 
slightly convex, so that a depressed line runs down each sid*^ 
below the lateral ridge. A. few larger punctures are scattered 
about, and in the depressed margins there is a faint trace of 
fine puncturation. 

In all the British species there is in the metnsternum, just 
behind where it touches the prosternum, a shallow j)it, but in 
both H. fidvicoUis and H. Jnrcatus there is a slightly raised 
median ridge separating two pits {vide Pi. VII, fig, 10). 

The Pbotiioracic Stri^ and Sculpture of the Thorax. 

In all the species of the " ruficolUs " group there is, at the 
base of the thorax on either side, about halfway between the 
side-border and the median line, a small stria, the length and 
form of which, associated with the sculpture of the interstitial 
space, has been used to assist in distinguishing the different 
species. Gerhardt, in his fuller diagnoses of the species, 
says of //. rujicollis " thorace ... ad basin utrinque im- 
presso," and of //. heydpni and immaculatus "ad basin 
utrinque delucide impresso,^' while of //. fu/vicollis he says 
'' ad basin utrinque lineola iinpresso," Wehncke says that 



British Spi'cii'S of Ua\i\)\a3. ](»7 

ill botli Jf. ruficoU'is ami heijdcni tlio thoracic striro are about 
oiie-tliird the lengtii of the tlioiax ; of //. wchii'kei he say.n 
that there is a scinicircuhxr jiit inside each stiia, while he 
mentions that in //. schaumii, Schilsky, the stiioe are short 
jiikI ilei'p. Kcittcr(i5) uses the j)resence or absence of a 
transverse tleprcssion ot' the thorax between the striio as a 
systematic character, //. rnjicullis haviiif^ no such depression, 
while its varieties — multipunctatus and hei/deni — have it, i\\ii 
former variety beinf^ distinguished from the latter by having 
the strity straight instead of curved. lie speaks of II. wehnc/cei 
as having an interstrial depression. Ganglbaucr (7) also 
lays some stress upon these ciiaracters, desciibing them in 
each si)ecies and variety. 

1 have found the stria? of some use as an aid in determining 
some of the species, but the presence or absence of a depres- 
sion between them seems quite useless. In Jl. immacu/dtu'i 
the striie are short and incurved, while in IJ. loehnckei, noma.r, 
and aj>icuUs they are long and practically straight. In 
Jf. rujicollis and heyJeni, liowever, althougli usually short 
and abnost straigiit, they are sometimes distinctly incurved. 

On this character, therefore, it is often easy to confuse 
//. ruJicoUis and immaculatus, on the one hand, and //. ritji- 
coUis and icehnchei on the other. In //. flaviaiU'tH tiie striai 
are usually very short, sometimes scarcely more than a rather 
large puncture, but occasionally longer ones occur. 

The Characters of the Male. 
1. llie Anterior Tarsi and Tarsal Claivn. 

Apparently Edwards was the first author to recognize any 
differences in the claws of the anterior tarsi of certain species 
of the group ; but he only mentioned them in the case of two 
species, IJ. rujicollis and hei/deni. According to the cha- 
racter of the chiws our species can be separated into two 
groups — //. hej/deniy apicalis^ and nomax, having tiie pair 
equal or subequal, and U. rujicollis, wehnckei, ami inimacu- 
lalus, having them distinctly unequal. //. Jluviaiilis should 
probably belong to the first group, but the difference between 
the two is more noiicoable than in noma.v, for instance, 
though much less than in rujicol/i-i. 

Tlie form of the claw-bearing segment is useful for distin- 
guishing //. imniaculalns^ in which it is normally short and 
rather thick, from loehnckei and rujicollis, in which it is 
normally long and therefore thinner in appeal ance. 

If the claws are removed and (xaniined under high magni- 



lOS ^rr. F. Ralfour-Browne on the 

fication ( x GOO), it will be seen that the two dilfer from one 
another in one respect. The anterior or inner claw is smooth 
on its concave side, while the other bears two or more teeth 
in two series side by side. At first I thought that the 
number of teeth in these series was pjoing to give another 
definite specific character, but either they break off" very 
readily or else the number varies within the s[)ecies. f 
imagine, however, that //. nomax (including its var. hroione- 
anufi, which even in this character agrees with ii) has usually 
lonirer and more distinct teeth in each series than the others, 
there being either three or tour on each side. 

2. The Median Tarsi. 

The form of the basal segment of the median tarsus varies 
somewhat in the different species, but it is of use for se])aratiiig 
off" //. immacalatus and nomax from the others, since in these 
two species the posterior edge is markedly concave or excised 
instead of being practically straight. The excision is much 
moro marked in nomax than in ivimacidatus, but any con- 
fusion there might be between these two species on this 
character is avoided by reference to the anterior tarsal claws. 

3. The ^deogus and its External or Accessory Lohes. 

Edwards is the only author who has used the form of the 
sedeagus as a specific character, but he failed to make full 
use of his discovery. The sedeagus with its accessory lobes 
readily separates all our British s))ecies, and it also makes it 
quite clear that Tl.furcalus of Seidlitz is a good species, and 
not a mere variety of H. fuhicollis of Eiichson. 

The ffideagophore in tlie Halijjlids is a very peculiar struc- 
ture, and, although in the different species the form differs 
considerably, all the forms are built upon one type, as is, of 
course, to be expected within a genus. Sharp (19) gives a 
drawing and short description of the sedeagophore of ILfidvus, 
F., but this happens to be one of the simpler types, and 1 
will therefore give a general description of the structure with 
the aid of a diagram. 

The tcdeagopliore consists of the sedeagus — or penis, as it 
used to be called — and two side-lobes, and the whole apparatus 
is bilaterally asymmetrical and flattened from side to side. 
The two side-lobes, external or accessory lobes, differ from 
one another, one being, as Edwards describes it, " merely a 
concave scale, usually oblong or subtriangular, with a 
rounded apex.^'' The shape of this "scale" varies somewhat 



Biliish Species o/IIaliplus. 



1(1*1 



ill tlic tliffi-rent species, l)ut there is occasionally a small tutt 
of a t\'W stitV hairs at or near the api!X. This loljo is pleiiti- 
I'lilly supplioil with nuiscles, which run into it at rif;ht angles 
to its haso. 

Tho other lobe varies {greatly in shape, bcinf; quadrilateral 
in some species and triangular in others, but even in the 
quadrilateral-shaped ones the base is always broader than 
the ()|iposite side jind tho sh;tj)c is rather that of a triangle 
of which one side has a slight bend in it. One of the b;isal 
angles of this lobe is r!;reater than a right-angle, while the 
other is acute, and at this latter the lobe is attached to the 
base of the aideagus. The side of the lobe running up from 
the angle of attachment is usually somewhat excised, and is 
always, so far as I know, fringed for at least part of its length 
with stifV hairs. At the extremity of the lobe there is usually 
a tuft of stiff hairs, which Edwards described as a "long 
eurvi'd .-pine " (5, p. 2). 

Fi-. 2. 




DiajTraiiiiiialic skuteli of <'iil(.'nj;:us, with tlie " loiif^uo "' {h) moved out of 
]M>sitioii, to show tliu deiirosi-iou (i) in which it lies, and also to 
show tho opening: of tho auctus ejacnlatorins {/). rt = niain lobe; 
<=tiie " hood " ; rf=tho saccular region, with its " winy" {d') ; e= 
the thin wall of the ductus; (j—iho proove in the "tongue," with 
tlie continuing groove on the main lobe (y). 

The a?dcagus itself (see (ig. 2) is a peculiar structure, its 
chief peculiarity lying in the fact that it is asymmetrical. It is 
a strongly curved chitinous organ into which passes the ductus 
ejaculatoriiis, but this tube opens about halfway back along 
the organ \\\)o\\ what is really its left side, the opening being 



no ]\Ii-. F. Balfour-Brownc on the 

protected by an elongated, more or less pointed, chitinous 
" tongue '' (b), which lies forward along the side of" the main 
lobe and in a groove (//) specially shaped for if. On the 
outer lace of this ''tongue" is a groove {g), which com- 
mences sometimes near the apex and sometimes about iialfway 
back, according to the species, and extends backward beyond 
the base of the tongue and down the dorsal aspect of the 
jodeagus to its base (.y'j. 

On the side of this tongue or immediately posterior to it is 
a curious mass of material ((/), which in several species partly 
bulges outwards to form a small " wing " (d'). This pale- 
coloured material is apparently an expansible sac and is 
easily distinguished from the dark surrounding chitiu. 1 
imagine that it is in the wall of the ductus, and capable of 
being bulged outwards, perhaps in the passage of the sperma- 
tophore (4). The groove already referred to, on the outside of 
the tongue, passes immediately dor.-al to tiiis saccular region. 

On the right side of the aideagus there is in some species 
a thin membrane which I have called the " hood " (c). It 
arises some way behind the apex of the main lobe, and varies 
considerably in extent. Sometimes it reaches nearly to the 
base of the aideagns, and stands up merely as a flat mem- 
branous structure (e. g., //. rxificoUis, heyden'i), and in one 
case (/i. immacidatus) it folds rigiitover the convexity of the 
ajdeagus, so as to shut in a considerable portion of the right 
side of it. In some cases this hood is reduced to a minute 
lobe (e. g., H. nomax), and in others it is entirely absent. 

I have mentioned that Sharp's figure of the ajdeagus of 
//. /«/f?<s represents one of the simpler types, and we can 
trace various stages in complexity in the different species. 
Tiie simplest types have no " hood " and no " saccular region," 
e. g., //. apicalis and fluviatdis. H. nomax has the merest 
trace of a hood, but possesses an elaborate saccular membrane. 
J], wehnckei has a larger and quite distinct hood and a well- 
marked saccular membrane. H. rujicollis and heydeni have 
both structures better developed, and H. immacidatus has a 
well-marked saccular region and the higiiest development of 
hood. 

The male armature of Ilaliplus is built upon exactly the 
same general lines as that of Dytiscus^ whicii has been 
described by various authors. Berlesd (3, p. 320) calls the 
main lobe the " hypopliallus" and tiie tongue the " epi- 
phalius." Blunck (4) speaks of them as the " penis ^' and 
covering-piece ('' Deckapparat '^), while Sharp (19) calls 
them " median lube " and " membranous tongue.^' In 
Ih/liacus, iiowever, the whole armature is fairly symmetrical, 



Ih'itish Species of llii\'\\}\us. Ill 

ami tlie two accessory lobes (paraiiiores or poripliallic Iobe»<) 
are alike, and the a'dea^^us itself is dioply cliamicllcd silnni^ 
its convex side, the "toni;Ui" lying over this nietiiati 
clijiniiel. On the uppersido of the tongue and along its 
median line is a distinct ridge, and I imagine that, in the 
asymmetrical flattening of the whole apparatus in the Ilali- 
plids, this ridge has become bent over so as to form the li[) of 
tlie groove which runs along the outer face of this tongue 

In a state of rest tlie ajdeagus w ith its accessory lobes lies 
on its side within the last abdominal segments, the concavity 
of the ledeagus being towards the left side of the insect, and 
the scale-like lobe lies above the jedeagus and the other 
below. It is diftieult, except by comparison of the armature 
with other and regular types, such as JIf/drophilus, to realize 
the orientation of the parts, but by such comj)arison it be- 
comes evident that the curvature of the ajdeagus has necessi- 
tated its being varied from its normal position, and that, in a 
state of rest, it lies upon its left side, the concave edge being 
the true dorsal side of the organ. When protruded the whole 
armature turns on its axis through an angle of 1)0°, so that 
the (.lorsal side becomes ventral and the left accessory lobe 
lies on the right side ; then, by the bending of the region 
immediately behind the accessory lobes, the whole armature 
is bent downwards and forwards, so that tlie dorsal side once 
njore becomes uppermost as it enters the vagina of the female. 

The Britannic Species. 

J. Jl. apica'is, Thomson, is, I believe, identical with 
//. striatus, Sharp. 

This species w;is first described in 18G7, and no mention 
is made of it by Sharp in his description of striatus in 18(39. 
l*resuniably he did not know Thomson's species. In his 
tlescription Shaij) remarks the resemblance between his 
species and JJ.j/uviutilis, and points out that if this latter 
species is merely a variety of IL riiJicvUis, linn JJ. striaiun la 
only another variety. Ko one had at tiiat time worked at 
the lialipliche, so that very little was known about them, 
iiiul it seems that many subsequent authois have had no 
knowledge of Sharp's species beyond his description of it, 
anii have accejited tlie suggestion that it may be a varietal 
torm. Ganglbauer (7), for instance, disregariling the work 
of Gerhardt and W ehiicke, includes not only ;ilriuiu.<*, but 
aUo welmckei and imnKtculiUus, as varieties of ni/icvllis. 
lit itter (15, p. 204) describes slrialus as an aberration of 



112 Mr. F. Balfour-Browne on the 

II, fuviatilis, gives its distribution as including "Prussia, 
Ponierania, Silesia, and Moravia," and says it is " not rare/' 
lleitter apparently knew Thomson's species, because he sent 
nie Norwegian specimens of it, and he must therefore have 
meant something else by str'iatus. Zaitzev (23) describes 
strialus as a variety of f/uviatilis, and ?ays that it occurs in 
the St. Petersburg district; but he makes no mention of 

Only two authors, so far as I am aware, have in any way 
connected the two names. Seidlitz (17) mentions '^ striatus, 
Wehncke," and in a footnote says that striitus, Sharp, is not 
determinable, as the description dates from a time when only 
two or three species of the rujicolUs group were separated ; 
and this although the types are in existence and tlie author 
is still living ! In the range of this species Seidlitz includes 
Sweden, but he adds a note in which he says that the Swedish 
specimens were sent as //. apicaUs, Thomson, but are without 
the characteristics which Thomson attributes to that species. 

I can find nothing in Thomson's description which does 
not apply to Sharp's species and nothing in Sharp's descrip- 
tion which will not suit Thomson's species; but, apart 
altogether from these descriptions, the specimens sent me as 
apicaUs both by Ganglbauer and by lleitter, and which came 
from Borkum Island, Norway (Christiania and Tromso), and 
Sweden, agree in every respect with my examples oi II. stria- 
tus, -which agree with specimens of this latter both in 
Dr. Sharp's collection and in that of the late Wm. Lennon, 
of Dumfries, who also took the species in the original 
locality. 

The other author who associates the two names is Lucas 
von Heyden (10), who actually gives striatus as a synonym 
of apicaUs ! 

Of course, 1 have not seen Thomson's type-specimens, and 
am only relying upon Scandinavian specimens received from 
two independent sources. 

In the Britannic area //. apicaUs is confined to coastal 
waters and is practically a brackish-water species. Thomson 
says that he took it in brackish water. If Heyden's identi- 
fication is correct, a single specimen has occurred inland at 
Frankfurt, and it is quite possible that the species may occur 
normally inland on the continent, as otlier species, which witii 
us are confined to brackish water, are found under better 
conditions on the mainland of Europe (e. g,, Laccophilus 
variegatuSj Germ., Coilamhus parallelogrammus, A\\x., PJiil- 
hydrus maritimus, Thorns., &c.). 

The species is apparently very local in our islands, though 



British Species of \\i\\\\}\{Xii. ]13 

I expect tliat it i.s inon; widely rlistributcd than tlic records 
indicate. The only Irisli locality i.s in (lo. Down, where it 
occurs fairly conitnonly in pools on the salt-marsh at Kiiloui,^h. 
Tiie only Scottish records are lor Dutnli ics and Kirkcudbri^^lit, 
while tlie English records nie for Durham, Yorks N.I'j., 
Norlolk E., Suffolk E., Kent W., and Hants S., and 
Wai wick, wlierc it is dcscriljcd as bein^ " local and rare at 
Knowlf/' j)robably erroneously (6). 

\\'ith rr_i;ard to ihe characters for determining the species, 
I have drawn up a short summary, which may be useful, 
aIthou<;h, as 1 have already said, the species are very difficult 
to distinguish except by examining the male armature. 

General Suminarij of (Jliaraclers. — 

f 1. Cieueriil form long and rather parallel-sided. 

2, Thorax not more than twice as broad as long ; the sides practi- 
cally straijrht. 

3. Thoracic stria.' \o\v^ and straight. 
A.<( 4. Elytra with the black lines usually not spreading into patches ; 

lines not usually broken, 
o. Prosternum Hat, with a tendency to be slightly concave ; some- 
what dull in ajipearance, owing to closely-set fine punctura- 
i^ tion H.mid scattered large i)unctures. 

, I 1. Ant. tarsal claws almost equal in length. 

° ■ j '2. Basal segment of niediau tarsus not excised on posterior side. 
^ . 1. Elytra covered with liue puncturatiou. 

With regard to aideagal characters, the figures show all 
that is necessary. Note the narrow triangular form of the 
left accessory lobe, with its dorsal edge sliglitly concave and 
fringed with a row of fine stiff hairs, which row extends to 
the blunt apex and ends in a small tuft. Edwards wrongly 
describes and draws this lobe as without the hairs. The 
side of the tongue .shows a thin cliitinous ])atch slightly 
creased longitudinally. Possibly this is of similar use to the 
more elaborate saccular region of the more complex types. 

2. Il.Jluviatiiis, Aubc. 

This species is almost confined to running water, and is, in 
fact, the most typically " river species " of the " rujicollls" 
group. It is suj>erfici;dly, perhap.s, the mo.st easily distin- 
guished species, which, however, is not saying very much. 
It is fairly widely distributed throughout the Britannic ana, 
and also on the continent, and, as wc have seen, the female 
shows variations with regard to the fine ])uncturation of the 
elytra. The species is recorded from most parts of Ireland 
and England, but there is, so far, no Welsh record, and it 
seems to bo absent from Scotland north of Stirling. I failed 

Ann. cC- Maj. 3'. Ilist. Ser. 8. Vol. xv. b 



114 ]\lr. F. 13;iiroiu-Bio\vuc o)i t/w 

to tiiul it in Fife, Forfar, Inverness E., Perth Mid, or any of 
the western ishmds I have worlvcd, and it did not occur in 
the Isle of Man. Continental records range from Norway 
and Siberia to the Mediterranean district ; but, in view of 
the general confusion which has existed as to the ruJicoUis 
group, they require confirmation. 
General Suniviari/ of Characters. — 

fl. General form rather long, but not pavallel-sided. Elytra widest 
about the middle. 
■2. Thorax not more than twice as broad as long, the sides almost 
straight. 

3, Thoracic strise usually very short; little more than large oblong 
punctures. 

4. Elvtra with the black lines spreading in such a way that, from a 
A.^ short distance, dark bands alternating with light ones appear 

to run obliquely from the shoulders to the median suture, one 
such dark baud being at extreme base, another reaching the 
median suture about halfway back, and a third about halfway 
between that and the apex. 
, Prosternura shining, with slight tendency to bulge in median 
line ; Lugo punctures scattered, and at most only a trace of 
•^ tine puncturation. 

1 1. Ant. tarsal claws subequal, the difference between the two being 
cJ . •' distinct but not great. 

( 2. Basal segment of median tarsus not excised on posterior side. 

!1. Elytra usually covered with tine puncturation in Britannic speci- 
mens, but rarely smooth on the disc. Continental specimens 
appear to be usually impuuctate in the anterior part of the 
elytra. 

As to sedeaoal character.^, note the similarities between tlie 
£edoa«;us in this species and in //. a^>icalis — and the diffe- 
rence> ! Compare also the left accessory lobe in the two 
species. 

'^. II. noma.v, miiii, Ent. Month. Mag. ser. 2, xxii. p. 153 
(1911). 

I discovered this species when examining my material 
after the publication of Edwards's paper, and its existence 
naturally contributed largely to my difficulties in identifying 
the different species with that paper. Shortly after my 
publication of a short note (i), Sharp (20) separated off 
another form, which he named browneanus, and wliich he 
considered, and still considers, a distinct species. He has 
endeavoured to conviiice me of the fact, but, after long con- 
sidering the matter, and not without some misgivings, 
because of his vastly greater experience, I have preferred to 
regard it as a variety of my species. Whereas I regard 
striatvs as a mere synonym of ajyicaJiSj I regard browneanus 



Jh'ilish S/wr'ifs of lhi\\\>\nf*. 115 

ns sufficiently distinct to be calltnl a vaii<ity, and my chief 
ii'asoii for not sopuratini; it ;is a species is tliat in tlic form o£ 
tlio 8edea<(ns and its ncct-ssoiy lobes the two are identical. 
Now all the other species of this ii^roup are to lie distin^ui.'jhcd 
on the wdea^al characters, and noma.v ami ^</-ou;//ea«M.s- cannot 
therefore be re<>;arded as of the same s'liiviinfi^ towards ono 
another as either of them is to any of the other species. If 
they are to be regarded as separate species, they must form a 
distinct genus or subgenus apait from the others, and there 
is not sufficient justification for this. 

J/. Homa.c is, so far as is at present known, a northern and 
\vestern form occurring in the following counties and vicc- 
countits: — Ireland'. Antrim, Down, and Oarlow. Scoiland: 
Clyde Isles (Arran and Bute), Rjnlrjw, Lanark, Ayr, and 
Kirkcuilbright. Kiu^hnul: I have set'u a ^ of the s[)ecie3 
from L» dsham, Ciieshire, tak"U by W. E. Sharp, but thai; 
was before " hrowneniiis" had been sciKirat-d, and I dj not 
know to which foim it beloiif^ed. Otherwise there is, so far, 
110 English record for the type. 

It is a lake-species, found most abundantly in i!ilay and 
June, but continuing to occur until August or even Sep- 
tember, chi' fly in the n;ore stony parts, it, however, also 
occurs — though never abundantly — in rivers and canals 
where stony comlitions may be absent, but where otherwise 
some lake conditions exist, such as large volume of well- 
oxygenated water and equable temperature. 

The variety has so far oidy occurred in Bucks and Ea^t 
Anglia (Cambridge antl Norfolk E.), where it seems to be 
almost confined to rivers and broad drains of sloM'-moviug 
water, though I found it the dominant llali[)lid in one or two 
large and deep ponds in an old clay-pit near Cambridge. 

Jj. nomox varies somewhat in general form, usually being 
widest a little behind the shouldeis; but in some cases the 
elytra are almost parallel for some distance back, while in 
others the widest point is about halfway back. The var. 
hrowneanus is ajiparently less variable, the form being widest 
a little behind the shoulders and more acut(^ at the apex than 
in normal nomax. The thorax is slightly longer in propor- 
tion to its width, and tlie sides are less strongly convergent 
anteriorly than in the type. The insect is rather smaller 
than most nomax, and is rather more brightly coloured, 
owing to the dark elytral lines being narrower and the 
ground-colour pale yell )W instead of testaceous. The usual 
elytral marking both in nomax and the variety reminds one 
oi' fiiivititilis more than of any other species. 

In both the type and the variety the basal segment of the 

' 8* 



■u 



1 IG Mr. F. Balfour- Browne on the 

luodiaii tarsus of the S is strongly excised in the posterior 
margin, but in hroioneanus the segment is rather narrower, 
thou;>h this is variable and not a reliable distinction. 
I)r. Sharp tells me that " in broicneanus the tip of the first 
joint [of the median tarsus of the ^^ comes off at a more 
'abru])t angle, the second and third joints are less dilated, and 
the fourth is shorter"'; but, after drawing a number of 
examples with camera lucida, I am quite unable to appreciate 
these differences. 

General Suvtmari/ of Characters. — 

f 1. General form varialile, usually with elytra widest a little Lebind 

I the shoulders. 

I '2. Thorax not more than twice as broad as Inup, the sides more or 

less straight, more convergent anteriorly in noma.v, less in 

brouneanus. 
Thoracic striae usually long and straight. 
Elytra with black lines sometimes spreading and irregular and 

son^.etimes nearly regular. The most usual marking is not 

unlike that of Jl.Jtuviatilis, the form of which species distin- 
i^ guishes it from this. 

il. jViit. tarsal claws practically equal. 
2. B.asal segment of median tarsus with posterior side strongly 
excised. 
Q \ 1. Elvtra apparently always in Ijritannic specimens completely 
+ ■ I covered with tine puncturation. 

As to {edeagal characters, note the smallness of the " hood," 
which is almost absent, and the well-developed saccular 
region and its " wing." 

4. IJ. wehncJcei, Gerh. 

This species was first recognized as British by Newbery (14), 
who, however, identified it as H. immaeulatus, Gerh., an 
error which was corrected by Edwards. In our islands this 
species has an extensive range, from the Hebrides in the 
north to the extreme south of England ; and, although there 
are at present many gaps in its recorded distribution, these 
will no doubt be filled up in the course of time. Like H.fluv'i- 
ati/is, xcehnclcei occurs freely in running water, but, unlike it, 
it is, especially in the north and west, a lake-species, and is 
usually, according to my experience, the most abundant 
species of the group in those districts. 

I have taken it in the north-east and south-east of Ireland 
(Derry, Antrim, Down, Armagh and Wicklow, Wexford, 
Waterford, and Kilkenny) and in AVestmeath, and have 
seen specimens from Mayo W. In Scotland 1 have taken it 
in the Outer Hebrides (Lewis), Inverness E., Lanark, Ren- 
frew, /\vr, and Kirkcudbiight, and have seen specimens 



British Species of llii\'\[)\\jiS, 117 

from SlirlinfT and Edinburgh. It occurred in tlic Isle of 
Man, ami in England it has occurred in CliesU-r, (jrloiicesttr E., 
Devon N. and ^., Hants S., Isle of Wight, Kent E., Herts, 
Cainbs, Norfolk E. and W., and JSulfolic W. 
General Suviniary of Cliuracters. — 

fl. General form: elytra usually widest about Jialfway back and 
sliowinfT a more or less reprular curve froiu slioiiklers to apex. 
I '2. Tliorax not more than twice as broad as lonjT, and the sides more 
\.-\ or less straijrht. 

13. Tiioracic strias usually long and straig-ht. 
4. Elytra with the black lines seldom spreading into patches of 
1^ colour, seldom broken, and usually ot fairly regular width, 

fl. Ant. tarsal claws unequal, botli curved to apex, especially the 
I short iimer or anterior claw (cf. 11. ruficollin). 

I 2. Apical segment of ant. tarsus rather long (cf. II. ruJicoUis and 
(S .{ 11 I'lumo.cuhitus). 

3. The three basal segments of ant. tarsus with pads of hairs fine 
I and inconspicuous (cf. II. riificollis). 

\^4. J3a.s.il segment of median tarsus not excised on post. side. 
I. Elytra in most l>ritannic specimens having fine puncturation in 
apical half only, but the character varies, as a fair number of 
individuals are faintly punctui'ed to the base. 

The a'deogus of this s|)Ocies is easily recognized bj the 
great breadth of the main lobe at its apex and by the shape 
of the " hood." There is no '' wing/' and the saccular regiuii 
is not so large as in 11. rtijicollis. 

5. IF. riificoUis, De Geer. 

This species has been recorded for most of the counties 
and vice-counties, but the records refer to different members 
of the ruJicoUis group. Even among the records for the 
species published since the appearance of Edwards's paper, 
there is seldom anything to indicate whether the authors have 
seen the paper and whether they are aware of the possibilities. 
I have therefore, in recording its distribution, only included 
records in cases where I have either taken specimens myself 
or seen specimens, except in the case of Gloucester E., 
whence Edwards recortis it. 

There are no Scottish records north of Stirling and Cantire, 
except for the Outer Hebrides and Inverness (East), and the 
species was by no means common in either of these districts. 
It has occurred in Cantire, Arran, Stirling, Renfrew, Lanark, 
Ayr, Edinburgh, Dumfries, and Kirkcudbright. In Ireland 
it has been taken in Derry, Antrim, Armagh, Cavan, 
Mayo W., Carlow, Kilkenny, Wexford, and Waterfonl, and 
in England in Yorks Mid W., Lanes S., Chester, Salop, 
Gloucester E., Oxford, Devon S., Hants S., Isle of Wight, 



118 !Mr. F. Balfour-Brownc on the 

Hiint.s Cambs, Norfolk E., Suffolk E. nnd W., Middlesex, 
Surrey, Sussex E., and Kent E. and W. It also ocoitrs in 
tlie I>'le of Man. 

77. riiJicoUis is a typical pond-?pccies and beconie^^ rare in 
peaty districts, so that it may well be absent from large 
tracts of Scotland and Ireland. 

In the section dealing ■with the puncturation of the elytra 
of the female, I mentioned that I had impunctate continental 
speciniens which I was unable to determine as between this 
species and 7/. heydeni. These females are larger than British 
Jiei/Jeiii, and they seem rather broader and with rather more 
deejdy j)nnctured elytral striro than our rvficoUis, and we are 
therefoie faced with the question whether there is another 
species, 77. imiltipunctdtus^ Wehncke, to be recognized in this 
group, and, as Sharp (20) believes that he has a British female 
specimen of this species, it is necessary that I should thus refer 
to it in this paper. I can only say that among the con- 
tinental specimens in my possession I can find no male which 
can be a^■snciated with these larger im|)unctate females, except 
that of riifjcoJUs, but I do not notice lli;it these rxificollis have 
a less prominent ajdeagal hood than our British specimens. 
Personally, being what Darwin called a "whole-hogger" 
rather than a " hair-splitter," I should hesitate to regard 
80 small a difference as anything more than a varietal 
distinction. 

General Summary of Characters. — 
fl. General form: elytra widest close behind the shoulders and 
narrowing rather strongly so that the apex is rather acute. 

2. Thorax apparently- more than twice as broad as long, the sides 
. J curved and strongly convergent. 

■ 1 3. Thoracic strite variable ; perhaps most usually short and 
straight, but not infrequently somewhat incurved. 
I 4. Elytra with the black lines almost always broken and spreading 
t_ out into patches of colour, 

fl. Ant. tarsal claws unequal, both comparatively straight near 

apex (cf. H. welmckei). 
I 2. Apical segment of ant. tarsus rather long (cf. H. welmckei and 
(5 . -^ im m aciila tus). 

3. The three basal segments of ant. tarsi with dense pads of hairs 
on under side (cf. II. we/mckei). 

4. Basal segu;ent of median tarsus not excised on posterior side. 

( 1. Elytra in most Britannic specimens with fine puncturation all 
I over. On the continent this form seems to be rare, the 

5 .-^ elytra usually varying from smooth in the ant. half to smooth 

I nearly all over. borne Britannic specimens have elytra 

1^ smooth in ant. half. 

The sedeagus of this species is sufficiently described already, 
as the diagrammatic figure and the accompanying descrip- 
tion are founded upon it. 



British Species of HixVu^lus. Ill) 

0. //. ficyihni, Wfliiicko. 

M\- acqnaiiitaiice wiih this species lia-*, until tliis year, 
been soinewliat limited, ami, until I took speciuiens in the 
New Fonst (Hants S.) and in Ciimbiidge, I had never 
seen it in the Held, althou<rli I hail seen a few s[)ecinien3 tVoni 
the collections ot" various friends. It is apparently a pond- 
species like //. ruficoUis, but it is more localized in our islands. 
I have seen specimens from Lanes S. and Chester, and ther(i 
is a Leicester record, but otherwise all records are for south 
(if a line drawn from the AVash to Hereford — Gloucester E., 
Oxford, Berks, Middlesex, Surrey, Kent W., ? Sussex E., 
Hants vS., \. of Wight, Dorset, Devon N. and S., Cambs, 
an.l Norfolk E. 

The species, in general appearance, is easily mistaken for 
a small rujicollis, but in the cJ the equal ant. tarsal claws 
and the form of the nedeagus at once separate it. Apparently 
the ? usually has the elytra without fine puncturation or 
with only the apex thus marked, but there are many small 
females which are completely punctate which may or may 
not be this species. 

General Snmmary of Characters. — 

( \. General form : small, most likely to be mistaken for small 

I rujicollis, but usually sli^-'Ltly wider in proportion to Iei)j.nh. 

A.<^ 2. Tborax much as in II . n/Jico/liH, but with sides almost straight. 

I 3. Thoracic striae as in //. rujicollis. 

[_4. Llytra as in II. rujicullis. 

, ) 1. Ant. tarsal claws equal and both finely built (of. //. rifcoHis). 

) 2. Basal sejiment of median tarsus not excised on posterior side. 

( 1. Elytra perhaps normally with tine puncturation only at extreme 
Q ) ajjex at the most, but small specimens with fine punctura- 

* • ') tion all over elytra occur, which, ou this character alone, must 

( be named //. rujicullis. 

The a3deagus is of a very distinct form with large hood 
and moderate-sized saccular region. This last has a raised 
j)art, presumably corresponding to the " wing" in noma.v and 
rujicollts, but it is more or less globular at the anterior 
end of Uie region. The " tongue" is short and small and in 
the ligure is shown slightly out of its groove. The left 
accessory lobe is in a way intermediate between the usual 
type antl that seen in the next species. 

7. JI. immacHuitus, Gerhardt. 

This is another species which is chielly found iti lakes and 
canals. It is frequently associated with IJ. novuij; and its 
range in our islands corresponds fairly well with that of this 
species, covering, however, a larger area in the south. In 



J20 Mr. F. I'altVnu-l^i-ownc on ihe 

Ireland I Imvc tsikon it in Antrim, Down, Armagli, West- 
nicatli, aiul AVoxford. In Scotland 1 have not taken it my- 
self, but 1 have seen specimens iVoni iStirlinfr, Lanark, and 
Avr, while in Eiinlnnd I have seen specimens tVoni (Chester, 
Devon N., I. of Wi.uht, Suflolk E., Kent E. and VV., and 
Sussex E., and have taken it in (-ambs and Norfolk E., and 
there are also records for Hereford, Hunts, and ? Suffolk W. 
General Summary of Characters. — 

1. General form ; elytra ilucIi as in II. icehnckei, but the insect 
is rather long. 

2. Thorax not mure than twice as long as broad, tlie sides more 
or less straight. 

3. Thoracic strire usually very short and incurved. 

A.^ 4. Elytra with black lines seldom spreading into patches of colour 
and u.*ually unbroken. 

I 5. Prosternum usually channelled throughout its length, but some- 
times the groove is so wide and shallow that the edges are 

1 scarcely recognizable, and the prosternuni at first sight 

t appears flat. 

!1. Ant. tarsal claws unequal, similar to H. wehnckei. 
2. Apical segment of ant. tarsus distinctly short (cf. U. i-ujicdlis 
and wehnckei). 
ii. Basal segment of median tarsus slightly excised on posterior side. 
Q \ 1. Elytra usually without fine puncturation, but specimens occur 
+ • I in which this exists at the apex and even more extensively. 

With regard to aideagal characters, tlie left accessory lobe 
is different from that of all the other British Haliplids ; it is 
bluntly pointed and has a small tuft of hairs at the apex, and 
about halfway down the dorsal face is a stron;^ brush of 
hairs, which Edwards describes as " a large triangular toolh." 
Tlie a^deagus itself has a very large hood, which conceals the 
base of the " tongue " and also the whole of the saccular 
region, which is well developed. The tongue itself is rather 
peculiar in form, as will be seen in the figure. 

Il.ftthicoUis, Eiichson. 

The first mention of this as a British species was by 
Edwards, who says that all the English specimens he saw 
Avere females. Apparently his knowledge of this species 
depends upon specimens from Eisleben, sent to him by 
llerr Schulz of Hamburg, and he remarks that '' the genitalia 
of the Eisleben male are similar to those of ruJicoUisJ^ 
Further, he mentions that in the English specimens the 
elytra are finely punctured on the apical half only, and sug- 
gests that this had been overlooked byGerhardt and Welmcke, 
" who speak of the elytra as without punctulation." Now 
it struck me as extraordinary that these authors should have 
been able to see such scul})ture in the females of rujicollis 



lirkish Species o/IIaliplus. 121 

nml vet lia<l failed to ol)3orvc it in the females of fuh't'col/it, 
aiitl ht'causc of this, and also because of Edwards's reniaiks 
upon th(^ male armature, I wrote to ^lessrs. Schiilz, Everts, 
Oan-lbauer, and Iteitter askini^ for ^ and ? specimens of 
J{. fti/vicollis, Er. My ktiowiedge of the species rests upon 
the specimens sent me by the three last-named, and these 
specimens were all alike and agreed in all points with the 
descriptions given by various authors. llcrr »Schu!z sent 
me eijjdit specimens which, on examination, proved to bo 
J/, hci/'/eniy (1 cJ, 1 ? ), //. ruJicolUs (1 J , 2 ? ), //. immacu- 
latns (1 cJ ), and //. cinereus (2 ? ) ! 

Through the kindness of Alessrs. Edwards and Champion 
and \)v. 8harp, I was enabled to see the JJritish specimens 
mentioned by Edwards and the Italian ? specimen which 
Edwards correctly described as //. furcatus, tSeidl., and 
Mr. Edwards also sent me the Schuiz specimens upon which 
he had rtlied. The British specimens are II. rujicollis of the 
continental type, and agree perfectly with the Schulz sjjcci- 
meiis and with others from various sources. II. fulvicolUs 
of Eiichson is a very distinct species, and is not likely to be 
])assed over if it does occur in our islands. The pattern of 
the dark markings on the elytra, the form of the prothorax, 
and the comparatively fine punctures forming the elytral stria? 
are sutficient to arrest attention. The ant. tarsal claws of the 
^ are practically equal in length, the thoracic striaj are 
strai'dit, and the sides of the thorax are straiirht. 

The a^tleagus with its accessory lobes is also quite distinct 
from that of any other British species. There is no hood; 
the main lobe lias a large tongue, upon which is a long, 
nearly straight groove and there i^ no saccular region. 
The lett accessory lobe is triangular, with two separate 
patches of stiff hairs upon its dorsal edge, one of whicii seems 
to be an elaboration of the apical tuft of the British species. 

Among the specimens sent me from the Continent were 
several labelled " var. furcatus, Soidlitz,'' and supcificially on 
the upper side these exactly resemble II. fulvicollis. They 
differ, however, on the underside in the sculpture of the pro- 
sternum, and, if that were the sole distinction, it would justify 
the action of continental authors in reducing what JSeidlitz 
named a species to a mere variety. However, the aidea^us 
ot fit rcatus is very different from that of fulvicollis, as my 
figure shows, and the left accessory lobe is also distinct, 
wiiile even the right lobe (the scale) is slightly different, and 
on these grounds II. farcatus should be restored to the rank 
given it by ^eidlitz. 



122 ]Mr. F, Balfour-Browiic on the 

However, tliese are not British specie?, and, beyond making 
this point clear, I do not need to refer to them. 

I mentioned earlier in this paper that many friends have 
lent me material wliicli has assi.stcd me in the work on this 
lironp. I have been specially assisted by Di". Siiarp, who has 
not only lent me specimens but has also given me many hints 
and has brought to my notice more than one paper relating 
to the subject. I must also specially express my thanks to 
Mr. Edwards, who, among other things, coiuteonsly allowetl 
me to see the specimens used in the jjroparation of his own 
paper. His paper undouljtedly advanced our knowledge of" 
an exceedingly difficult group, especially as he discovered 
the only absolutely reliable specific character. It I have 
carried matters any further it is through him that 1 found the 
necessary stimulus for the work. 

Bibliography. 

(i) Balfour-Browxe, F. 1911. A uew British £«/<};/«.■? (7/. «o/«f«). 
Ent, Mo. Mag. (ser. 2) xxii. 153. 

(2) Bedel, L. Ib79. Faune Coleopt. Bass. Seine, i. jip. 222-3, and 

note. 

(3) Berlf.se, a. 1909. Gli Insetti. Vol. I. Eiubriologia e Mor- 

phologia. 

(4) liLUNCK, n. 1912. Das Gescblecbtsleben lies Z>//^/5CMS w2rtr/7/««//s, 

L. I. Teil. Die Be<rattung. Zeitsclir. f. ^Viss. Zool. Bd. cii. 
Heft 2, pp. 1G9-248. 

(5) Edwards, J. 191 1 . A Revision of the British Species of Haliplus, 

Latreille. Ent. Mo. Mag. (!?er. 2) xxii. pp. 1- 10. 

(6) Ellis, II. "Willoughby. 1004. The Victoria History of the 

County of Warwick. 

(7) Gaxgldauer, L. ]891. Die Kafer von Mittel Europa. 

(8) Gerhardt, J. 1877. Zur Unter.scheidung der Arten aus der 

Gruppe des Jlalipliis ru/icollis, De G. Zeitschr. f. Entom. Breslaii, 
pp. 34-37. 

(9) . 1877. Zwei neue Haliplus- Arteu. Ibid. pp. 38-41. 

(10) IIeyde.v, L. vox. 1877. Verzi;ichni.':.s der Kiifer von Nassau u. 

Fraulifurt. 8vo. Berlin and Wiesbaden. 

(11) , Keitter, and Weise. 1906. Catalogus Coleopterorum 

Europae, &c. Edit. 2. 

(12) Mar-seul, S.-A. de. 1882. Nouveau repertoire contenant les 

descriptions des ef^peces de Coleopteres de lAncien-monde &c. 
L'Abedle. Journal d'Eutomologie. 

(13) Netolit.sky, F. 1911. Die Paraineren u. das System der 

Adepha^ra. Deutsche Entom. Zeitsclir. pp. 271-283. 

(14) Newbery, E. A. 1907. Haliplus immaculatus, Gerh., a Species 

(or Variety) of C'>leoptera new to the British List. Ent. Mo. 
Mag. (ser. 2) xviii. p. 4. 

(15) Reitter, E. 1908. Fauna Gemi;inica. Die Kiifer des Deutsches 

Reiches, Bd. i. 

(16) Roberts, C. H. 1913. Critical Notes on the Species of Ilaliplidae 

of America, North of Mexico, with Descriptions of new Species. 
Journ. N.Y. Entom. Soc. xxi. pp. 91-123. 



13 r'it ifh Sj>ecies 0/ lls\\\[)\i\3. 12.) 

(17) Seidlitz, (f. 1880. Hestiinmiinj^s Tnbella du DytiscMaj 11. 
(• vriiiidii! (les JOuropaiyclien FtiuiiL'Ujj'ebictes. Verhuiidl, d. 
Natuif. N'lToiiu's in liriiuii, Jkl. xxv. 

(^18) JSiiAHi', I). iHil). Notes uii British II vdradepliaga; with Descrip- 
tions of new Species of Jlulip/i/suud llydrupui ns. Knt. Mo. Ma", 
vi. 81. 

1 9) . 1012. The Comparative Anatomy of the Male Genital Tube 

in ('iileoptera. Trans. Eiit. 80c. London, pp. 477-(J42. 

(lo) . lUKJ. Description of a new Specii-3 oi Jlulijtlus [JI. broiv/ie- 

<iiii(i<). Ent. Mo. Maj;;'. (ser. 'J) x.\iv. })p. 7o, 70, A; 1U8. 

(21 ) TuuMso.v, (J. G. 18(37. Skand. L'oleopt. x. 203. 

(22) \\ KiixcKK, E. 1880. Uebersicht der Europaischen Vcrwandten 

d'-s Il'fliplus nijicollis, De G. Deutsche Ent. Zeit. xxiv. p. 2^0, 

(23) Zmt/.kv, i*. lUOU, 7. llaliplida?, Dytiscidas, ^:c. du Gouv. de 

St. IVlersbouv}''. Extr. do I'aiuuiaire du Musee Zool. de I'Acad. 
Iiupi5r. des Sci. de St. P6tersb. i., xi., & xii. 

EXl'LANATIUX UF THE PLATES. 
Plate VII. 

Fii/. 1. Left side of nedeagus of Ilaliplus apicalis, Thomson [striutus, 
Siiaip). Drawing made from an Irish specimen, 

Fi(f. 2. Ditto of //. ////rjVz/i//^, Aube. 

I'ifj. i{. Ditt ) of ][. wehnchei, Gerliardt. 

Fig. 4. Ditto of 11. nijicollis, De Geer. 

Fii/. 5. Ditto of 7/. wowjri.r, mihi. 

Fii/. ii 11. IJight side of a-deagus of same species to show the " hood."' 

l-'i(/. 0. Left side of rodeagus of II. Jieijcletii, Wehncke. 

Fiij. 7. Ditto of 7/. ?;«m«c//A</Ms, Gerhardt. 

Iiij. 8. Ditto of i/./«/i/cu///«-, Erichson. 

Fiij. y. l)itt(i of 7i./«?tW MS, Seidlitz. 

«=:niain lohe ; 6=the tongue, whicli in figs. 1, 2, and 8 is 
wliolly or p.iilially thin-walled, possibly somewhat expansible ; 
i' = depression in main lobe in which " tongue "lies (in tig. U the 
tongue is shown slightly out of position); c = the "hood"; 
rf=the ".<»accular" region, with in some cases a free lobe or 
"wing,'' d' ; e = the thin wall of the ductus ejaculatorius ; g = 
the groove on the " tongue " w hich continues on to the main 
lobe, fj'. 

Fii/. 10. Prosternum (7*), part of metasternum (.17), and cox;e with tro- 
chanters of first and second pairs of legs of Jl.furcntii.^, Seidl., 
to show the channelling of the prosternum and the twin 
depressions (a a) in the metasternum. 

Pl.VTE VIII. 

Fig. 1. Left accessory lobe (external or peripliallic lobe or paramere) of 
I[alii<liiii (ipicitlin, Thomson (.ifiintus, Sharp). Drawing made 
frciui an Irish specimen. View of inner side, i. <?. the side 
which lies agftin>t the a^deagus. 

7»y.s. 2, 2 a. Ditto of 11. jluvinlilis, Aub^. Inner and outer sides. 

Fiy. •'{. Ditto of 77. nomdx, milii. Outer side. 

Fig. 4. Ditto of //. frf7i«r/.<'/. (Jerhardt. Outer side. 

Fig. 5. Ditto of 77. /•M//t«///x. De Geer. Outer side. 

Fig. (5. Ditto of 77. /«7/</«'«j', W'ehnrke. Outer side. 

Fig. 7. Ditto of 7f. mmrtCM/«^«5, Gerhardt. Outer side. 



li>4 Mr. C. Tate Rcaan on 



o' 



I\'ff. 8. Loft ftcco9?ory lobe (external or periphallic lobe or paraiuorc) of 

ILfulricolli.^, Va\ inner siile. 
Fiff. 9. Ditto of 7/. /Wcrr^Ms, Soidl. Inner side. 
JFi^. 10. liight accessory lobe, which varied bnt little in all the above 

species. 
Fiq. 11. 15asal segment of riprht median tarsus of //. <tjiicalis, Tlioms. 
Fi'ff. 1-*. Ditto of n.Jhiviatilis, \\\h6. 
Fi(/, 18. Ditto of //. nontax, milii. 
Fi(/. 13 a. Ditto of 7/. nonia.v, \ar. browncanns, Sharp. 
D'ff. 14. Ditto of J/, n-ehnckei, (Jerh. 
Fiy. lo. Ditto of H. ruficoUis, Deb. 
Fig. 16. Ditto of 77. heydeni, Wehncke. 
Fig. 17. Ditto of 77. inunaculatus, Gerh. 



V. — A Colled ion of Fishes from Lagos. 
By (J. Tate JlEGAN, M.A. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the Dritish Museum.) 

The collection here reported on has been made and presented 
to the British Museum by Mr. J. Cadinau, of the Western 
Fisheries, Ltd. Tlie majority of the fishes were trawled off 
Lagos at a depth of 10 to 35 fathoms, and this was certainly 
the case for the seven sj)ecies described below as new. Some 
o£ the coast-fishes of West Africa are identical with those 
of tiie Mediterranean, others are known from the Cape, and 
there is a ceitain proportion of species found so far away 
as the coast of Brazil and the Indian Ocean ; to illustrate 
this the known distribution of the species, other than those 
restricted to West Africa, is given. 

1. Squaiina africana, Regan. 
Ann. Natal Mus. i. pt. 3, 1908, p. 248, pi. xxxviii. 

This species was originally described from Natal ; it 
would be of interest to ascertain whether either of the Medi- 
terranean species of Squaiina occurs at Lagos. 

2. RhijnchoJiatus atJanticus, sp. n. 

Very similar in form, structure, and coloration to the 
Indian U. djeddensis, Forsk. First dorsal fin farther back, 
originating behind base of pelvics ; distance from end of 
snout to origin of first dorsal more than four times the inter- 
space between dorsals. S|)ines stronger and fewer, similarly 
distributed except for the presence of a scries on each side 
of the rostral cartilage and the absence of a median scries 



Fishes from Lagot. 125 

Ix^twcen the dorsal fins. Mouth leas undulated, straight 
\cept fr>r a median prominence in the lower jaw fitting an 
• iiinr;;iiiation in the upper. Up)>ernaflal yalre less extended, 
eiidin;; .It the middle of the length of the noritril. 

A single specimen, an immature male, 700 mm. in total 
length. 

o. Platyrhina schoenleinii Mull. & Henle. 

This species is known from the coasts of India and West 
Africa, but has not been recorded from South Africa. 

4. Trygon margarifa, Giinth. 

5. Ehps lacerta, Cuv. & Val. 
6. Clupea dor sail's, Cuv. & Val. 

7. Pellcnula tor ax, Gunth. 

8. Arius heudelotij «Juv. & Val. 

A specimen of 300 mm. is the first example of this species 
to reach the British Museum. According to the original 
description, " Les plaques palatines sont trfes-^cartees et tr^- 
pctites"; in the present example there is a very small patch 
of teet'i on one side of the palate, but none on the other. A 
related species, A. parkii, Giinth., has been placed in the 
synonymy of .^. A«M</^/o/i by Boulenger (Cat. Afr. Fish. ii. 
p. 387), but differs from it notably in having two compara- 
tively large patches of teeth on the palate, separated by an 
interspace much less than their own width. In addition the 
mouth is narrower (piffMnaxillary band of teeth four times as 
lung as broad in A. i^arkii, seven times in A. heudtlofi), the 
fkuU is less coarsely granular, &c. 

U. lltterenchelys microphthalmuii, Ii':gan. 

Ann. & Maff. Xat. Hist. (8) x. 1012, p. ;{2I; WWf^^x.n. Ann. In^t. 
Oc^D. Monaco, vi. faac, 4, 1914, p. 2S, pi. i, fig. 4. 

10. Murcenetox ferox, Costa. 

Two examples, 800 and 1200 mm. in total length, show 
that this species, originally described from the Mediterranean, 
is quite distinct from the American M. savanna, Cuv. The 
vomer is armed with a series of 11 to l.'i teeth, which ends 
poalcriorly nearly at the level of the anterior edge of the eye; 



120 :Mr. C. Tate Reoran o» 

the teeth are loii^ and slen<ler, but little coin]M-essetl an<l veiy 
feebly tricuspid at their apices. In M. savanna the vomerine 
series ends below the j)osterior edge of the eye, and includes 
17 or 18 teeth, which are short, compressed, and distinctly 
tiicuspi<l. Oiher notewortliy diilerences are that the anterior 
canines ot" the lower jaw are nineh stronger and the piictoral 
fins are longer in M. frjx than in M. sivanna. 

11. Iloplunnis punctatus, sp. n. 

Depth of body, at origin of anal nn, about 50 times in its 
length ; tail 3^ as long as rest of fish. Snout '2i diameter of 
eye, which is nearly twice the interorbital width. MaxiUary 
extending well behind eye. Prajmaxillary with 2 pairs of 
canines and 2 median teeth behind them ; vomer with a 
series of 5 spaced canines ; maxillary teeth small, biserial ; 
mandibulary teeth biserial, the outer series small except for 
2 pairs of canines anteriorly, the inner series sm.ill poste- 
riorly, of about 9 stronger spaced teeth laterally. Dorsal 
origin in advance of gill-openin(^, a little fartlier from eye 
than latter from end of snout ; pectoral ^ length of snout. 
Olivaceous above, silvery below; upper parts with numerous 
small dark spots forming irregular longitudinal series; end of 
tail bhickish. 

A singje specimen, 1370 mm, in total length. 

Jlophnnis schmidfi, described in 1859 * from an example 
from Puerto Cabello, appears to differ especially in the more 
numerous teeth (10 on the vomer, 17 enlarged teeth in the 
inner mandibulary series). JJ. cliomedianus, Goode & Bean f, 
is based on a single specimen from the Gulf of Mexico ; it 
appears to resemble //. africanus in having only 6 vomerine 
teeth, but seems to have a longer tail, the origin of the dorsal 
fin fartlier back, &c. Possibly further material may show 
that neither //. cliomedianus nor //. africanus is distinct 
from H. Schmidt i. 

12. Vomer setipinnis, Mitch. 
Both coasts of America ; W. Africa. 

13. Pomadasys juhelini, Cuv. & Val. 

Inl. Larimus peli, Bleek. 

* Kaup, Abhandl. Naturw. Ver, Hamburg, iv. Abb. 2, p. 20, pi. ii. 
fi?. 4. 
t Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. xxii. 1890, p. 146, fig'. 163. 



Fis/ie'i fruiii f.i'i.x. 127 

15. iyciwna nlijn^>inni-<, Giiiiili. 

1(». Otolit/ttts macyofiuatlius, Blcik. 

17. OloUthus hrachygnathuf, Bleek. 

18. OloUthus senegalensis, Bleek. 

10. Uianoscopus alhesca, sp. n. 

Deplli of l)0(ly about 4 in the leiip;tl), length of head (with 
lower jaw) about '6. Diameter of eye 5^ in length of h-ad, 
equal to length of snout or to iuterorbital ^vidtll. Head .13 
broad as deep; upper surface tlatt'sh, uithout prominent 
ridges or tubercles ; iuterorbital depression twice as long as 
brnad ; one subo[)ercular and four piieopcrcular spines. Oral 
membrane of lower jaw produceel into a flap with entire 
edges, about as broad as long, rounded distally. Proe- 
niaxillary teeth triserial anteriorly, uniserial laterally; man- 
dibulary teeth biserial anteriorly, the inner series stronger; 
laterally only 2 or 3 canines. Post-lemporal spine weak; 
liumeial sj)ine strong, half as long as pectoral fin. 55 scales 
in a longitudinal series. Dor?al III, lo-14 ; spinous dorsal 
low ; .<oft dorsnl emarginate, third or fourth ray longest, 
i length oE head. Anal 13. Pectoral 18-rayed, ^ length of 
head, extending to origin of anal. Caudal subtruncate. 
Greyish-violet ; spinous dorsal black ; oral flap white, 
conspicuous. 

Two specimens, 175 and 195 mm. in total length. 

The white meml)ranous flap that can bo protruded from 
the mouth of this species is the homologue of the verniitorm 
or fihimentous process found in related forms. 

20. Uranoscopus scaher, Linn. 

A Mediterranean species, previously unrecorded south of 
the Canaries. 

21. Tnchiui'us leplurus, Linn. 
Atlantic. 

22. Mtif/il cephalus, Linn. 
Mediterranean to S. Africa ; also both coasts of America. 

23. Mngil fiihii iiiu'tSj Cuv. vt Val. 



128 Mr. C. Tate Regan on 

24. Sphyrana guachancJio, Cuv. & Val. 
Tropical Atlantic, on both coasts. 

25. GaleoiJes dccadactylus, Blocli. 

20. Pentanemus quinquaiHuSj Linn, 
'i'loitical Atlantic, on both coasts. 

27. Gohixis schlegeU, Bleek. 

28. Brotula barbata, Schneid. 

After careful comparison of two examples collected by 
Mr. Cadman with one from the Bermudas, I am unable to 
recognize specific differences ; even the number of fin-rays 
is exactly the same. This is the first record of this species 
from the Eastern Atlantic. 

29. LepidotrhjJa cadmani, sp. n. 

Depth of body about 4 in the length, length of head about 3. 
Diameter of eye 3^ to 3f in length of head, interorbital 
width 4 to 4i. Bones of head finely granulated ; prse- 
orbital rounded or truncated anteriorly, with 4 to 8 small 
spines ; 1 to 3 small spines above anterior part of eye ; no 
continuous transverse groove behind the concave interorbital 
region. Chest scaly ; 54 to 5G scales in lateral line ; 21 to 
24 spiny plates at base of dorsal fins. Dorsal IX, 13-14 ; 
spines not serrated, second or third longest, ^ or a little more 
than ^ lengtii of head. Anal 13-14. Pectoral nearly as 
long as head j uppermost free ray as long as rest of fin, 
extending to third or fourth ray of anal. Pelvics extending 
to origin of anal. Caudal sligiitly emarginate. Traces of a 
dusky spot on spinous dorsal between fourth and seventh 
spines ; membrane of upper | of pectoral fin, and on inner 
side rays also, blackish. 

Five specimens, 130 to 170 mm. in total length. 

L. cavillone, Lacep., of the Mediterranean, is rather similar, 
but differs notabl}' in the rougher head, serrated first dorsal 
spine, naked chest, shorter pectoral filaments, &c. 

30. Flatycephalus gruveli, Pellegr. 

31. DachjlopAerus volitans, Linn. 
Tropical Atlantic. 



.12. l'.<e(todet cruiuei, fSclilieid. 

An Indian and Wt'st-Alrican species not yet recorded 
from Soutli Africa. 

,33. IletnirJiODil'iis guineensis, Bleek. 

34. Solea chiri)phtlialinui>, sp. n. 

Depth of body 25] to '2\ in the length, length of head 
nbout 4^. Upper eye somewhat in advance of lower ; 
diameter equal to or less than length of .snout, 5 or 6 in 
length of head and about twice interocular width. Maxillary 
extending to below posterior \ of eye. No dilated nostril on 
blinil side. ()5 to 72 scales in a longitudinal series. Dorsal 
tJU-77. Anal 50-00. Caudal rounded, contiguous to dorsal 
and anal. Right pectoral 9-rayed, nearly ^ length of head ; 
1< f t pectoral 7- or 8-rayed, not more than ^ length of head. 
Vertebra' 8 + 32. Grayish, with traces of darker sj)ot3 on 
body, series of 5 or 6 near bases of dorsal and anal apparently 
alternating with a series on lateral line; pectoral with a 
blackish ocellus. 

Five specimens, 170-200 mm. in total length. 

35. Cynoglossus lagoensis, so. n. 

Depth of body 4 in the length, length of head 4^ to 4f. 
Interocular width f^ or | diameter of upper eye, which is 3 to 
4 in length of snout and 10 to 12 in length of head. Two 
nostrils, the posterior midway between the anterior margins 
of the eyes. Cleft of month extending behind lower eve. 
Dorsal 120-126. Anal i»5-98. Three lateral lines on left 
side, one on right; 80 to 85 scales in a lateral series from 
above gill-opening to base of caudal; 12 scales between 
upper and middle lateral lines at tlieir widest distance 
aj)urt. Brownish grey. 

Three specimens, 380 mm. in total length. 

Related to C. cmiariensis, kSteind. (Denkschr. Akad. Wien, 
xlv. 1882, p. 13, pi. ii. tig. 2), in which the cleft of the 
mouth ends below the middle of the eye, the head is smaller, 
the scales are more numerous, &c. 

3G. Ci/iwf/lossus r/oreensis, Steind. 

37. Kcheneis naucrates, Linn. 
Temperate and tropical seas. 
Ann. ct Mo'f. N. Hist. tSer. 8. Vol. xv. 9 



130 Mr, \V. C. Crawley on Ants front 

38. Batrnchouhn heninensis, sp. n. 

Deptli of body about G in leiip;th, length of bead about 3. 
Diameter of eye 10 to 12 in lon^th of head. A iiorizontal 
fold of skin from below eye to puvoperculnni. Two opercular 
and two sul)opeicular .s[)ines. Teeth on vomer and palatines 
uniserial, obtusely conical ; 11 to 13 on vomer; lower jaw 
with a series of similar teeth and anteriorly a ])atch of villi- 
form teeth ; prgemaxillaries with a narrow band of villiform 
eeth. Head naked, covered with small filiform papillse ; no 
scales on oceiput or on throat ; snout and lower jaw with 
fringes. Body scaly, the scales comparatively large, 10 
between origin of second dorsal and lateral line. Dorsal 
III, 25. Anal 22-23. Pectoral 10-20, extending to origin 
of anal; no axillary foramen or pores. Greyish; iiead 
ornamented with irregular transverse dark bands with darker 
edges ; body with irregular dark cross-bars and spots ; dorsal 
arid anal fins with oblique stripes; pectoral with series of 
S] ots ; caudal dark at the base and also posteriorly. 

Three specimens, 160 to 210 mm. in total lenutli. 

Kelated to B. surinantensis, Schneid., of the Atlantic coast 
of America, differing especially in the completely naked head, 
the larger scales, and the fewer dorsal and anal rays. 



VI. — Ants from Xorth and Central Australin, coVected 
by G. F. /ii7/.— Part I. By W. C. Ckawley, B.A. 

I. Subfam. PoNEMiN^. 
No. 2. OdontomacJius rvficeps, Sm., subsp. acutidens, Forel. 
Darwin, N.T,, 15. iv. 13. ^ . 

No. 21. OdontomacJius septentrionalis, sp. n, 

^ . — L. 14r'8 mm. (with mandibles). 

Mandibles long (2 mm.), dentate all along their inner 
margin ; apical tootli long, rounded at point, subapical very 
small and pointed, |)reapical nearly as lung as apical, broad 
and truncated. Head 3"5 mm. long, maximum breadth 
2'5 mm., minimum (at back) 1*8 mm. Frontal area distinct ; 
clypeus long, prolonged to a point between the frontal carinae, 
anterior border truncate. Head much narrower behind and 
deeply emarginate. Node of pedicel very high, merging 



North and (.'entral AnstraUu. l!U 

insonsihly into a loii<r spine. Tlie anterior porlion under- 
neath hears a broad tuotli sli^lilly incliniMl hackwards. 

Head finely striated, tlie medial atrire l<mj;itudinal, the 
lateral ones divery;in<; round the back of head. Frontal 
carina) witli a few lon<^itudinal stria?. Mandibles smooth 
and shiniii;::, a iiiW deep punctures along the outer curve of 
the apical tooth and at the base of the pieapical, an I sinalK-r 
ones along the rest of the mandibles. Pronotuui coar.-^oly 
striated circularly, mesonotum with finer transverse .stria>, 
epinotum coarsely striated transversely. The lower two- 
thirds of node encircled with tine stria?. Gaster smooth and 
shininu; ; the lower quarter of first se.i^nient, and the second 
ami third segments, finely reticulate-punctate. A few 
scattered hairs on mandibles, head, epinotum, gaster, and 
nndersido of tibite. Legs and antenna? pubescent. 

Dark brown ; head, antenna?, and legs dark red. 

One 5 • IStapleton, N.T., 21. xii. 12. 

Nos. 33 and 84. Rhylidojyonera (s. str.) hilli, sp. n. 

5 .— L. 8-0-8 5 mm. 

Mandibles striate, feebly and indistinctly dentate. Second 
joint of funiculus longer than the first, and about twice as 
long as broad. Clypeus coarsely rugose, with a slight central 
ridge. Head slightly convex at sides, somewhat wider in 
front than behind, where it is eniarginate ; slightly humped 
behind the eyes. Eyes very convex, placed just behind the 
middle of sides. The posterior angles are accentuated, but 
do not form distinct bosses. Thorax convex, sutures marked 
by two transversal impressions, but there is no emargination. 
Pronotum with a small toolh at the inferior angles. Node 
of pedicel high and rounded, somewhat compressed before 
and behind, wider than l')iig, thicker at base than apex. 
Claws with one tooth. 

VVholo of head, except mandibles, deeply punctured with 
circular shining punctures, Hnely reticulate between the 
punctures ; the vertex has a few longitudinal strife. Pedicel 
finely striated transversely and sparsely punctured. The 
striae on first segment of gaster fine and arched ; second 
segment transversely finely striated. A scattered indistinct 
punctuation on whole of gaster. Pilosity almost nil; a few 
upright hairs on tibiae. 

Dark brown; head and thorax almost black; logs and 
funiculi reddish brown, base of gaster pale. 

Staplelon. N.T., 1. v. \?>. 

9* 



132 Uv. W. C. Cnnvley oit Ants from 

No. 215 c. Rht/tidoponera (s. sir.) incisa, sp. n. 

5.— L. 10-10-5 mm. 

]!ilaiidibles striate, feebly and irremilaily dentate. Frontal 
area very distinct, triangular. Head soniewliat longer than 
broad, feebly convex at sides, with a small oblong impression 
on the vertex. Eyes very convex, placed beliinti the centre 
of sides. Posterior angles of head formed into blunt j)oiiits. 
Tlmriix convex, sutures di-<tinct. Pronolum with a small 
tooth at each inferior angle. Node of pedicel rounded, 
broader than long, notched at the top. Olaws with one tooth. 

Clypeus feibly rugose and finely reticulate ; front and 
vertex longituibnally rugose, the ridges spreading fanwise to 
the posterior angles of the iiead, leaving a space between not 
rugose ; cheeks near base of mandibles somewhat rugose. 
Head, thorax, and pedicel with shallow irregular punctures ; 
whole of body and legs finely reticulate, the reticulation 
extending to the bottom of the punctures. Antennal scapes 
and tarsi longitudinally striate ; a few punctures on coxse 
and very indistinct ones on first segment of gaster. 

Piioi^ity almost nil ; stiff hairs along the tibiai and a few 
under the eoxaa and femora. 

Dull black ; mandibles, legs, and antennse dark reddish 
brown, apical joints of funiculi and tarsi dull red. 

Alice (Springs, C'entral Australia, 1913. 

No. 30. Rhyddoponera (? Chalcoponera) duhia, sp. n. 

5 . — L. 4:'6 nun. 

Mandibles triangular, finely striate, with minute teeth, 
apical tooih long and pointed. Clypeus feebly arched at 
anterior border, with a median ridge reaching to the posterior 
border, the latter narrowly rounded between the frontal 
carinse. Frontal carinas wide apart in front, converging 
slightly behind the lobe, then parallel. Frontal area not very 
distinct. Eyes large (larger than in metallica), hemispheri- 
cal, placed slightly behind the middle of sides of head. Head, 
longer than bioad. First joint of funiculus as long as the 
second, which is less than twice as long as broad ; funiculus 
sligliily thicker at apex, but not clubbed. The scapes extend 
slighily beyond the occipital border. Head longer than 
broad, very slightly convex at sides, einarginate behind. 
Thorax slightly convex, at each inferior angle of |)rotlu)rax 
is a small tooth ; j)ro-mesonotal suture distinct, breaking the 
sculpture, suture meso-epinotal almost entirely effaced. 
Node of pedicel rounded, slightly longer than broad, under- 



JVor/Zi anJ Central Auatrarta. '['^^ 

rratli bears a lon;:^ porp(M»flir.iilar sjtine. Spurs of the two 
postt'rior pairs of tiliiie viTy small ami slmjjjc. Claw.s with 
a siii^^le tooth each side. The Hist (or pnst-peliolc) and 
second se;;nieiits of paster of about equal length, the con- 
striction between them fairly deep. 

Head, thorax, and node of pedicel coarsely punctured with 
8hinin<r circular punctures (t)Ot coarsely wrinkled as iii 
nietdlUcd) ; a few coarse stria3 from the frontal area to vertex. 
Gaster shining, first segment and anterior half of second 
sparsely punctured, but not so dee|)Iy as thorax. 

Pilosity almost nil ; a few scatired hairs on antennw, 
legs, and segment of gaster, the remaining segments ringed 
with sharp outstanding hairs. 

Retlilish, with a very slight metallic tinge ; mandibles, 
antenna% and legs paler. 

Staph'ton, X.T., 23. xii. 12. 

A single 5 in a tube containing Euponera (^Brnchtjponera) 
lutea^ Alayr., var. clira. Under a magnitication of lUO 
diameters the spurs on the posterior tibiae show no signs of 
pectination. 

No. 30. Euponera {Bracliyponera) hitea^ Mayr., 
var. clara, var. n. 

5 . — L. 4*5 mm. 

Slightly smadcr and more elongate than hitea, the 
mandibles not so deeply punctured, and epinotum rather 
narrower in front; spurs of middle pair of legs very sparsely 
pectinate, as in lutea. Gaster more elongate. 

Pale chestnut-ytdlow, sometimes top of head, prothorax, 
and epinotum slightly darker. 

Stapleton, N.T., 23. xii. 12. 

No. 19. Cerajmchys {Syscia) australis, For. 
Darwin, N.T., 1. iv. 13. 5 . 

No. 25. Platythyrea parva, sp. n. 

5 . — L. 3-7-1 mm. 

Mandibles finely reticulate-punctate, with one or two 
larger ])unctnres, armed with eleven irregular teeth, the 
apical and jireapical longer. Clypeus fair.y convex, with a 
subaeuminate lobe in front; lateral margins barely visible, 
posterior clearly maiked. Frontal area indistinct. Eyes 
medium size, placed well in advance ot the middle of sides. 
Head longer than broad, slightly narrower in front ; sides 



134 Ml. AV. C\ Crawley on Ants from 

soinewliat convex; emaririnate beliind ; a faint ridge from 
behind tlie frontal area to the occiput. Tlie sca|)es of the 
aiifeniiaj exactly reach the occiput ; joints 3-10 of funiculus 
as broad or broader than long. Suture |)ro-nie.sonotal dee|)ly 
marked. The declivous face of epinotum with sharp angles 
above, bordered. Posterior coxa with a lamellate tooth. 
Isode of pedicel three-quarters as wide as long, slightly 
narrower in front, truncate behind. Constriction between 
first and second segments of gaster slight. The whole body 
finely punctured and minutely reticulate. 

Pilosity nil, except the ring of hairs round the apical seg- 
ments of gaster. The whole insect covered with a fine 
pruinose ])ubescence. 

Black brown ; mandible?, antennae, tibiae, tarsi, articula- 
tions of legs, and apex of gaster reddish yellow, 

Darwin, N.T., 1. iv. 13. 

No. 81. Diacamma austrah, F., var. levls^ var. n. 

5 . — L. 11 mm. 

kStriation on head, thorax, and pedicel much finer than in 
aiis'Tdle, that on the head concealed by the pubescence. 
First two segments of gaster not striate, but the first very 
feebly reticulate, the second still more feebly. More pubes- 
cent than aunt rale. 

Near Adelaide Plains, N.T., 1. vi. 13. 

III. Subfam. Mtsmicinje. 

No. 24. Trig^yi/hothrix striaddens, Eur., var. australiR, For. 

Somewhat smaller than the typical striatidens from India. 
Darwin, N.T., 1913. J^ . 

No. 23. Monomorium rothsteini, For. 
N.T., 30. V. 13. ^ . 

No. 426. Monomorium rothsteini, For. 
Darwin, N.T., 17. iii. 14. $ 5 . 

No. 4:25. Monomorium (Mitara) donisthorpei, sp. n. 

5 . — L. 1'7 mm. 

Mandibles tridentate, smooth, and shining. (Jlypeus with- 
out teeth, with two carinse widely diverging in front. Head 
oval-rectanguiar. Eyes large, slightly in advance of the 
middle of side.?. Antennas ll -jointed ; joint 2 of funiculus 



iVy;7// and Central Australia. 135 

slifjlitly longer than broad, joints 3-5 as broad as long. 
Club 3-joiiited, the tcrininal joint longer than the other two 
together. The scape does not quite reach the posterior 
margin of the head. Pro-niesonotiKii regularly arched, with- 
out suture; the einargiiiation between the nieso- and epi- 
notuni deep. Epinoluni unarmed. First node of" pedicel 
high, slightly broader at base than at top; second slightly 
lower an<l broader. 

Smooth and sliining; a few sfriaj on the lower part of 
sides ot" meso- and epinota. Body with scattered wiiitisli 
uprigiit hairs. Anteuiue hairy. 

Black-brown; mandibles, tarsi, and articulations of legs 
paler. 

Darwin, N.T., 10. ii. 14. 

Profile view of thorax and pedicel of 
Monomorium i^Mitara) donisthorpei. 

No. 26. Solenopsis gtminata, F., var. rufa^ Jerd. 

The typical geminata, F., is the American form. The 
var. rj//a, Jerd., tiie Intlo-Malayan form, is cosmopolitan, 
and distinguished by its lighter colour and the presence of a 
small tooth on each side between the prosternum and meso- 
sternum. It has been recorded from Celebes. 

Darwin, N.T., 17. iv. 1.3. 5 %. 



IV. Subfam. DoLicHODERiy^. 

No. 17. Iridoinyrmex rufum'ger, Lowne, subsp. pallidus, For. 
Darwin, N.T., 17. vii. 13. 5 . 

No. 424. Iridomyrme.v niiidus, Mayr. 
Melville Island, N.T., 14. iv. 14. $ . 

V. Subfam. ( AjiPoyoTiyjs. 

No. 16. Opisthopsis kaddo7u\ Em. 
Point Charles, N.T., 14. viii. 13. 5 . 



1'^G ( hi Ants from Js'ort/i <ind Central Azinlralia. 

No. 29. Camponotus {Mf/nnoturha) vilJosa, sp. u. 

5 .— L. 9-12-5 mm. 

li\ the $ major tlie clypeus is cavinate and feebly and 
widely emarginate ; mandibles 7-dentate, finely reticulate, 
with scattered piligerous points ; scapes just reach the 
occiput. Declivous surface of epinotum half as long as 
basal surface. Scale hi^h, narrow. In tiie '^ minor man- 
dibles 6-dentate, clypens carinate, anterior border straight; 
scale similarly sha})ed, but broader and lower. Whole body 
very finely reticnlate, more feebly on gaster, and § minor 
less than ^ major. 

Scapes and tibiae hairy ; tlie whole body with long scattered 
outstanding hiiirs. Yellow; head, mandibles, and gaster of 
^ major chestnut, darker, with a still darker patch on the 
vertex, joints of legs also darker ; bases of first, second, and 
third gastric segments yellow; ^ minor entirely yellow, 
sometimes top of head and gaster slightly darker. 

Batchelor, N.T., 12. xii. 12. 

No. 87. Camponotus (^Myrmoturba) maculatus, F., 
subsp. novce-hoUandioe, Mayr. 

Batchelor, N.T., 12. xii. 12. ^ major and minor. 

No. 21.5. Camponotus (Myrmosphyma) wiederkehri, For., 
var. Incidior, For. 

? (not yet described). — L. 16 mm. 

Clypeus more convex in centre, head slightly narrower, 
altogether darker in colour, with the yellow border to the 
base of the first three segments of gaster more pronounced 
than in the ^ major, but otherwise siinilar except for the 
sexual differences. 

Alice Springs, Central Australia. <? ? ^ . 

No. 82. Camponotus [Myrmocamelus) ephippium, Sm. 
Batchelor, 12. xii. 12. ^ . 

No. 83. Calomyrmex alhertisi, Em. 
Batchelor, N.T., 23. i. 13. ^. 



31 1. U. Thomas on Emballoiuna. 137 



Vll. — XuU's on Emballonura, with Descriptions of new 
Species. By Oldfield Thomas, 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Just as in their ch)sc allies the American Sac-winged Bats 
(Saccopterijj:, iLc), the uienil)crs of the Ohl World genus 
Eniballonnra present very definite clwiracters in the basal 
region of the skull, and especially in the structure of the 
" basial^' fossae *. These fossae are always large, but vary 
in depth ; they occupy the area between the basilar suture 
and the mesopterygoid fossa, from which they are separated 
by a saddle-backed convexity level with the back end of the 
pterygoids. On the floor of the fossse are a variable number 
of low ridges or septa, whose presence, absence^ or position 
afford good specific characters. 

Emballonura sulcata, Mill. 

Of this fine species the British ^Museum coutairs an 
example from Ponape, Carolines. 

Its smaller ally, E. semicaudata, occurs in the New 
Hebrides, Fiji, Tonga, and Samoa groups. Also in Rotuma, 
some way to the north of the Fijis, 

Both these species have a single broad median septum in 
the basial fossa, but no lateral septa. 

Emballonura atrata, Pet. 

In spite of its great geographical isolation, this species 
is in all respects a true Eniballonnra. Its oecuncuce n\ 
^ladagascar gives to the range of the genus Emballonura a 
grejit resemblance to that of Pter(pus, its eastward extension 
being also almost exactly the same. But it does not extend 
so far north or south. 

Emballonura meeki claviiim, subsp. n. 

Similar to the typical form in size and other external 
chaiacters, including the shape of the tragus and the 
characteristic expanded lobate lips. But in the skull there 
are certain differences in the mesopterygoid and basial region. 

• These fossjf, which are present in most Microchiroptera. have some- 
times been called "basisphenuid " and sometimes "basiuccipital.'' An a 
rule, they are more largely in the basisphenoid bone, but they extend in 
many furmn coneiderably into the ba.eioccipital. I'nder tht-so ciicum- 
stancef^, they niijrht be simply and conveuieiitly called "bajial" fossic. 



138 Mr. 0. Thomas on Emballouura. 

Tims the mesoptcryfroid fossa is markerlly sliorter, the 
distance from tlie palatiou to tlie saddle-back convexity at 
its hinder end I'l mm., as compared with 1*6 ram. ; it does 
not open quite so far forward, and the o])cnings into the 
nasal chamber are not so hirge and the etlnnoid bones are 
consequently less exposed. In the basial fossa, the median, 
septum, which in m<eki is represented by a broad low 
elevation, slightly grooved mesially and only running half 
across the fossa, consists of two low but quite distinct ridges, 
running back, slightly divergent, quite to the back of the 
fossa. In all other species, the median septum, if present, 
is truly median and without tendency to split into two. As 
in E. meeki^ the whole fossa is rather shallow, narrow, with- 
out lateral septa or antero-lateral extensions. 

Dimensions of the type (the italicized measurements taken 
in the flesh) : — 

Forearm 39 mm. 

Head and body 38 ; tail 12 ; ear 13 ; lower leg and foot 
(c. u.) 23 ; calear 16. 

Skull : greatest length to front of canine 12'4 ; condyle 
to front of canine 11 : breadth across facial swellings 5; 
mastoid breadth 7*4 ; front of canine to back of m^ 4"5. 

JIab. Kei Islands. Type from Ara. 

Type. Adult female.' B.M. no. 10.3.1.34. Original 
number 855. Collected July, 1909, by W. Stalker. 

Like as nieeki and eluvium are in all other respects, the 
bkull-differcnces described above are constant through three 
S])ecimens of one and five of the other. But an example 
from the Owen Stanley flange, New Guinea, is somewhat 
intermediate in character as in locality, and I therefore only 
distinguish the new form as a subspecies. 

Emballonura beccarii, Pet. & Doria. 
Judging by a drawing of the tragus of the type, kindly 
sent me by Dr. Gestro, I am inclined to think this will prove 
to be a synonym of E. rofrayana, Dobs., a species described 
after the publication of Dobson^s Catalogue, and not men- 
tioned in Peters and Doria's description. The typical 
localities of the two are quite near each other. 

Emballonura stresemanni, Thos. 
Of this species the Museum contains, besides the typical 
series, a number of specimens collected by the late Mr. W. 
Stalker in Ceram, during the B.O.U. New Guinea expedition. 
It has the same broad oblong tragus as E. ruffrayana, Dobs., 
as is also the case with the following. 



i 



Mr. 0. Thomas on Embullouura. 130 

Emhallomtra cor, sp. n. 

Traf^iis and cars as in streftmanui. liasial pit hcart- 
sliapcil, with three septa. 

Size al)(nit as in E. raff'nnjana. Colour ^Fars-hrown, 
slifjhtly paler below. Ears narrowed tfriniually, as in 
slresemanni, not broad as in rafj'rayana. I'ragus broad, its 
breadth ai)out half its lenj^th on inner margin, its inner 
edge straight, its outer slightly concave. 

Skull of the same general slia[)e as in 7-affrai/ana, but 
rather narrower. Frontal region with a similar mesial 
groove between the moderate faeial inflations. No sagittal 
erest in the type, wliieh is fully adult. Opening of posterior 
nares level with the lateral edges of palate, not contracted 
jiuteriorly, its edge bi-coucave, with distinct median point. 
Mesopterygoid fossa long, its saddle-backed convexity low, 
grooved mesially. Basial pit large, deep, sharply defined, 
extending antero- laterally in front of the back of the meso- 
pterygoid fossa in two rounded lobes, separated from the 
main part of the pit by low secondary septa; a well-marked 
mesial septal ridge present. 

Teeth as in E. rafrayana, except that the inner lobe of p^ 
has a less strongly developed anterior angle. 

Dimensions of the type (taken on the dry skin) : — 
F(jr< arm 38 mm. 

Tragus on inner edge 28 ; third finger, metacarpus 32"5, 
first phalanx 9'3 ; lower leg and hind foot (c. u.) '2'Z ; 
calcar 10. 

Skull : length from condyle to front of canine (c.) 12* ; 
breadth across faeial inflations 5*8 ; front of canine to back 
of in 5 ; m' and m^ combined 2 3. 
JIub. Choiseul. Solomon Is. 

Tifjte. Adult skin. B.M. no. 5. 1. 28. 2. Collected by 
A. Meek. 

This species is readily distinguished from E. raffrayana 
and stresemanni, the only forms with the same broad oblong 
tragus, by its peculiarly shaped busial j)it; from the former 
also by its narrow cars and from the latter by the distinct 
lati ral septal ridges in the basial pit. 

Emballonura monticola, Temra. 
In E. monticola the basial pit is large, rounded, but rather 
shallow, \\ithout deep or sharply defined limits. It has 
normally distinct median and lateral septal ridjics, dividing 
it into four portions, but the lateral ones tend to be reduced 
or obsolete in the eastern race (discolor). 

* Brain-case distorted. 



140 ]\lr. O. Thomas o» Einballonura. 

From S. Tcnasserim to the Kei Islands I do not see 
any diversity whiclt I sliouki consider of specific value, but 
tliree races, characterized by size, appear recognizable as 
subspecies : — 

Firstly, the typical montlcoht (type-locality, Java), ranging 
from the ^Malay Peninsula to Borneo, the smallest of the 
three, with an upper skull-length (occiput to nasal notch) 
about ]2"8-13 mm., and the maxillary tooth-row about 
5'0-5"4 mm. Both Miller's E. peninsuluris and Lyon's 
E. pusl/Ia seem to fall within the range of variation shown by 
the specimens before me. E.anambensis from the Anambas 
Is. * I do not know, but an Einballonura from Natuna 
quite agrees with Javan monticola. 

Secondly, a very large form found in Borneo only, with 
upper skull-length about 14*5 mm. and. maxillary tooth-row 
6 mm. This is the form taken as representing monticola by 
Lyon when describing p^'^^l^o, hut it far exceeds Javan 
examples of that species. Detailed measurements of it are 
given below. 

Finally, an eastern race may be distinguished, E. m. dis- 
color, Peters, ranging from Luzon, presumably through 
Celebes, to Amboina, Ceram, and the Kei Islands. It is 
intermediate in size betAvcen the other two, and has the 
lateral septa of the basial pit rather frequently absent. 

Emballonura monticola rivalis, subsp. n. 

Like true monticola throughout, but size larger. Bases 
of body-hairs whitish, as usual. 

Dimensions of the type (measured on the spirit-speci- 
men) : — 

Forearm 48 mm. 

Head and body 44 ; tail 14 ; third finger, metacarpus 43, 
first phalanx 14; lower leg and hind foot (c. u.) 26-5; 
calcar 15. 

Skull : occijnit to anterior base of canine 15'3 ; occiput 
to nasal notch 14"5 ; condyle to front of canine 13'8 ; zygo- 
matic breadth 95 ; facial breadth 6; mastoid breadth 7'7 ; 
front of canine to back of m^ 6 ; combined length of m^ and 
m? 2-5. 

Ilab. Borneo. Type from Bida, Sarawak. 

Ttjpe. Adult male in spirit. B.M. no. 3. 11.2. 2. Col- 
lected and presented by Cecil J. Brooks, Esq. Three speci- 
mens, and others collected in Sarawak and N. Borneo by 
A. Everett. 

* Said to be distinguished by the absence of the usual white bases to 
the hairs. Size about as in E. m. discolor. 



(hi the Pi/ctw;/onichi collected bi/ the 'Uukhs.^ Ill 



VI TI. — The Pycnnrjonidn collected hi/ the ^ G'ln.ts ^ in the 
Antarctic liniionSf l'JUl-i». — Frelintinary liepurt. By 

T. V. Hodgson. 

I REGRKT that I have been so lonq: in woikino: out the 
coUoctioii of the Pyciiogoiiidia made hy the German Antarctic 
Ex|)('<lition ('Ganss') in l'JOl-3. I hope that the final 
drawings and memoranda will he completed in the course of 
a few weeks at the outside, but, in order to secure the priority 
of description in certain species, I desire to ])ublish the 
following preliminary re[)ort. The collection is a fairly rich 
one, and while it r^hows certain strong relations to those of 
other expeditions, it is, on the other hand, quite distinctive. 
It contains three new genera and twenty new species from 
the Antarctic and two more from tropical and temperate seas, 
as follows : — 

Colossendeis gJacialis, 
Colossendeis fflaci'alin, Hodgson, Pycnogonida, ' Discovery,' 1907. 

A single sjiecimen of this species was taken in the ' Gauss * 
winter-quarters. 

NOTOENDEIS. 

This new genus is established to mark the difference be- 
tween the large and well-knuwn Colossendeis and closely 
allied species. 

Body perfectly segmented, with short and distinctly sepa- 
rated lateral processes and with well-developed eyt:*. 

Proboscis very large. 

Palps nine-juinted, 

Oviger ten-jointed, with a terminal claw. 

No toe n de is germ an ica . 

The proboscis is as long as the body, and the terminal 
joints of the palps are as 8 — 5'5— 4*5. 
The body is robust ami smooth. 
Winter-quarters, •100 m. 

Pipetta australis. 

The genus was established by Dr. Loman for a tropical 
species, and now includes an antarctic species taken near the 
' GaUsS ' winter-quarters in 2450 m. 



142 Mr. T. V. Hodgson on the 

Tlio, specific characters of this antarctic species are : — 
ular tubt*rcle long, conical, and without eyes. 

Tarsus very short, not one-tilth the length of the propodus. 

Pentanymplion antarcticum. 

Pentanymphon antarcticum, Hodgson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 
vol. xiv. (1904). 

This species has been recorded by every antarctic expe- 
dition, and has a circumpolar distribution. 

Ku n tph n xingnlcu latum . 

Body slender, with ratlier long but widely separated lateral 
processes. Quite smooth. Ocular tubercle short and stout, 
rounded above tiie eyes. 

The joints of the palps vary but little, 4 — 5 — 4*5 — 5. 

The legs are clothed sparingly with short spinous seise. 
The terminal claw is long and there are no auxiliaries. 

17. iv. 02. 385 m. 

Nymphon teninmanum. 

Body not so ranch as slender, the lateral processes are 
widely separated. The ocular tubercle is reduced to a trace, 
and there are no eyes. The legs are provided with extra- 
ordinarily long setje on the fir.st tibi?e, and to a less extent 
on the second and the femora. No auxiliary claw.s. 

30. iii. 03. 330 m. 

Ifymphon exiguum. 

Body comparatively stout, with widely separated lateral 
processes. Ocular tubercle placed well forwards and small ; 
eyes well developed in some specimens. 

The joints of the palps are as 3 — 5 — 1"3 — 4. 

Propodus twice as long as tarsus. No auxiliary claws. 
A small species. 

Various dates, in 385 m. 

Nymphon fuscum. 
Nymphon fuscum, Hoek, 'Challenger.' 

Several specimens occur in the collection from Kerguelen 
Island. 

This and its allies, N. antarcticum oi Miers andi\^. meridio- 
nalis of Hoek, are very perplexing species. In N. fuscum 



Pycnogonida collected hy the '(Janss.^ 1 13 

the ranftc of variiition is great, the ocular tuljcrclc difTers in 
most of the specimens, the length of the tarsus and propod is 
is variable even in the same individual, but the diffcrenc s 
are not very groat and the relations between the two joints 
are approximatt'ly preserved. The setose character of the 
limbs is arccnttiated in some specimens. On tho whole, 
N. (iiitnrctii'um, Miers, only differs in that the tarsus is 
distinctly longer than the propodus. 

In iV. merid'wnule I find it even more difficult to decide. 



Ch^tonympmon. 

ChcetonJ/niphon villosttm. 
Chatonymphon villosum, llodgson, ' Discovery.' 

This is a stoutly built species, with the lateral processes 
close together and li)ng coarse setse distributed over the body 
and especially on the tibia. The three terminal joints of the 
palps G — 2 — 3. 

Specialized spines on tlie ovigers are few in number and 
liave 5-7 teeth. The auxiliary claws are small but diatinct, 
the propodus is longer than the tarsus. 

31. xii. 02. 385 m. 

One specimen. 

C/icefoni/nipJion polare. 

Another stoutly built species, with lateial processes dis- 
tinctly separated and fringed with sjjines. iSevcral spinous 
setie fringing each segment. 

Pal[)s, three terminal joints as 6 — 2'75 — 3"5. 

Oviger : specialized spines few, each with 5 or 6 lateral 
teeth. 

Legs armed with spines arising from dermal papillfe. 

Pro|)o.lu-» shorter than tarsus, auxiliary claws small. 

7-8. ii. 03. 350 m. 

Ch(Bton7jmphon Jongisetos\im. 

Body with narrowly separated lateral processes, imperfect 
segmentation, and long seia?. 

Palp, three tirminal joints 5 — 1*8 — 2'75. 

Very long seta; on the principal j<jints of the leg, a very 
definite specific character. 

Propodus longer than tarsus, auxiliary claws small. 

14-16. vi. 1902. 385 m. 



llnl Mr. T. V. Hodgson on the 

Cha'tonymphon typli lops. 

Bjdy stout and entirely clothed with fino, as well as coarse 
setai; the latter are arranged in a linear manner on the 
limbs, for the most part on raised papillae. There are no 
eyo^, bnt the ocular tubercle exists as a short cone. 

Tiiis species belongs to the group in which the tarsus is 
longer than the propodus. 

Auxiliary claws are absent. 

A tew specimens were taken on 1. iii. 03 in 1207 m. 

AUSTROPALLENE. 

A genus established to include those forms wliich Moblus, 
Prof. Bouvier, and the present writer have included in 
difF^'rent genera — Psexidopallene, Cordylochele. The presence 
of cephalic s|)nrs is a most noticeable feature and is confined 
to ail these southern species. 

Body robust or slender, segmentation distinct, lateral pro- 
cesses close together or widely separated. Large and stout 
cephalic spurs. Eyes well developed. Proboscis tapering, 
with or without a setose wreath. Cheliferi stont, ciielre short 
and powerful. Palps no trace. Ovigers lO-jointed, without 
a terminal claw. In the male a distal swelling on the filth 
joint. 

No auxiliary claws. 

Austropallene cornigera. 

Pieudopallene comiffera, Mubius, Pycuogonida of the 'Valdivia' 
Expedition. 

This species I consider to be identical with my Pseudo- 
2?aU''7ie australe. 

The 'Gauss' found several specimens in their winter- 
quarters. 

Austropallene cristafa. 
Pseudo])allene cristnta, Bouvier, ' Pourqiioi Pas.' 

This species is readily distinguished from all others, even 
at a very early age, by the extraordinary develoj)ment of 
papillae on the legs, each bearing a spinous seta. 

Several specimens at winter-quarters. 

Austi'o^yallene spicata. 

A readily distinguishable species, comparatively slender, 
with widely separated lateral processes bearing spurs disfally, 



Pycnogonkla collected hy the ''Giixiss.* 115 

ftiid having a similar jiair, Ijiit imicli larger ones, on the first 
coxfe ; the second co>ai ;ire extremely long. ^1. hvachi/iira, 
Boiivier, is closely allied, hut stouter; lateral processes closer 
together, and the neck is shorter. 
Several specimens, winter-quarters. 

Phoxichilidium australe. 

The presence of a small process or spur on either side of 
the proboscis serves to distinguish this species. 
A tew specimens from winter-quarters. 

Pallenopsis jnlosa. 
Phoxichilidium pilosum, Iloek, 'Challenger' Report. 

This species, first described by Dr. Hoek, has since been 
found at various points in the antarctic regions by most of 
the recent expeditions. 

Winter-quarters, 20. iii. 02. 

Pallenopsis vanhoffeni. 

This species is conspicuously setose, but readily distin- 
guishable from the foregoing by the coarseness of the setre. 
The cephalic segment is longer than the two following. The 
abdomen is shorter than the first segment and clavate, with a 
group of long seta?. 

Three specimens, winter-quarters, 7. ii. 03 and 3. iv. 02. 

Pallenopsis gaussiana. 

This may fairly be called a conspicuously setose species, 
and the distinctive feature is the presence of a spine near the 
antero-lateral margin of the ccphalon. Spines also occur on 
the lateral processes. The abdomen is longer than the first 
segment. The legs are clothed with long coarse sette, but 
these vary greatlv in length. 

7. iv. 02. 

Pallenopsis meridionalis. 

Body with widely separated lateral processes, wiiich, witii 
the first coxaj, bear small spines. Segmentation fjiirly 
distinct. Long, coarsi-, and curved setaj are scattered along 
the legs, chietiy dorsally. 

Winter-quarters, 7. iv. 02. 

Ann. <Sc Mag. N. Hist. Scr. 8. ]'ol. xv. 10 



llfi ^Ir. T. V. Hodgson o« the 

PaUenopsis setigera. 

Another consjMcuously setose species. Body stout, seg- 
mentation indistinct, spines on lateral processes, limbs 
coarsely setose, with a series of stout spines on the propodus ; 
terminal claw powerful, with strong auxiliaries. Oviger 
club-shaped. Seven joints existing. 

Winter-tjunrters, 7. iv. 02. 

PaUenopsis spicata. 

Not conspicuously setose. Body slender, scarcely so much 
as widely sej)arate(l lateral processes. Three doubly pointed 
tubercles in the mid-dorsal line; tubercles also occur on the 
lateral processes and the first coxre. Oviger club-shaped. 
Seven joints existing. 

With regard to the ovigers, these last two species are 
peculiar. 

Winter-quarters, 8. xii. 02. 

Ammothea. 

This genus now has a different character to that formerly 
recognized. Dr. J. C C. Lonian has called attention to the 
type-specimen of Leach now preserved in the British Museum, 
A. cai-olineusis. This species becomes the type of the genus, 
and, if bodily form means anything, those diminutive species 
with a discoid body must be transferred elsewhere. 

Ammothea is now that which in my ' Discovery ' Report I 
described as Leionymphon, with subsequent additions. 

Ammothea glacialis. 
LeionymphGn ylaciale, Hodgson, ' Discovery.' 

A single adult female. 
26. vii. 02. 385 m. 

A mmothea meridionalis. 

Body short, with lateral processes close together and 
lightly tuberculated. Transverse ridges produced in the 
mid-dorsal line into conspicuous points. Entire body clothed 
with numerous short stiff setai ; the largest, those on the 
limbs, are arranged linearly, and the dorsal rows are large on 
the three principal joints. 

Terminal claw long and the auxiliaries more than half the 
size. 

Winter-quarters, 28. xi. 02. 385 m. 



Pycnogonida collected by the *Gauss.^ 117 

ACllKLIA. 

This gomis has been restored from oblivion to inclmlo 
those forms with a discoid body, ii more or hss import'cct 
se;;mentation, with short and .stout le^s, hitherto included in 
Auiinothea. 

Achelia megacephali. 

Botly discoid, smooth. Abdomen very h)n<r and cophalon 
broad. Ocuhir tubercle stout, erect, with well-developed 
eyes. 

Winter-quarters, two specimens. 

AUSTROTIIEA. 

A new genus designed for those Ainniotbeid species whose 
body is not discoid in any sense ot" the term, and is without 
the transverse ridges so characteristic of ./I //imoM^a in its new 
signification ; also the comparatively long legs is a further 
character of importance. 

Austi'othea sp'icata. 

Body stout, divergent lateral processes, the proboscis ovate, 
slender, and the abdomen nearly as long. Ocular tubercle 
tall, terminating in a long spike. 

«. ii. 03. 380 m. 

A single specimen only. 

Austrothea germanica. 

Insignificant spurs on the lateral processes and more con- 
spicuous ones on the fust co.xas. Ocular tubercle elongate, 
pointed, and directed forwards. 

16. vi. 02. 385 m. 

A single specimen only. 

Austrodecus glaciale. 
Austrodecus glaciale, Hodgson, ' Discovery.' 

A large number of .'specimens of this species were taken 
throughout the stay of tho 'Gauss'* in winter-quarters. 

Austroraptus polar is. 
Austroraptus polaris, Hodgson, * Discovery.' 

Described from two specimens from the Ross Sea, it now 
turns up of? Kaiser AVilhelm's Land. 
10. ii. 02. 385 m. 

10* 



148 On the Pjicnogonida collected hy tlic ^Gtniss.' 

Tanristyhim styligorum. 

Ni/niphou stiiligerum, >riers, Ann. it ^rap-. Nat. Ilist. (4) xvi. (1875). 
Ttnii/sti/lion sti/ln/crum, Miers, Phil. Trans, vol. 168 (1879). 

A number from Kerguelen Island, 

Rhynchothorax australis. 
Hhynchothorax australis, Hodgson, ' Discovery.' 

Described by me from a single specimen taken by the 
'Discovery' in the I\Iiudo Sound. A very large number 
■were taken by the 'Gauss' throughout its stay in winter- 
quarters. These reveal the fact that the close approxi- 
mation of the origin of the lateral processes is simply a 
sexual matter ; in the males they are almost, if not quite, 
%videly separated. From the number obtained it is not a 
little surprising that none of them carry any eggs or young. 

Pycnogonum gaini. 
Pycnogonum gaini, Bouvier, ' Pourquoi Pas.' 

Of this fine species three adult specimens occur in the 
' Gauss ' collection, together with a number of postlarval 
forms. 

Its specific character is the existence of four mid-dorsal 
tubercles, three of them the exaggerated apices of as many 
transverse ridges and tubercles on the lateral processes. 

Winter-quarters. 

Besides the foregoing antarctic species, the two following 
were obtained by the 'Gauss' in temperate or tropical 
climes : — 

Tanystylum paulovensis. 

Body discoid, smooth ; proboscis very stout, tapering, and 
nearly as long as body. 

Cheliferi reduced to two minute spinose stumps. 
St. Paul Island ; two specimens. 

A noplodactylus vraritim us. 

Lateral processes scarcely so much as widely separated. 
Abdomen short and directed upwards. Ocular tubercle trun- 
cate; eyes well developed. Lo.^: femur the longest Joint, 
the second tibia a little shorter, and the first still shorter — 
differences small. 

Sargasso Sea ; a few s})ecimens. 



On the Swaiuji-Hats of J-Jast Africa. 



irj 



Eefet'e7iees. 

V. I*. ('. IIoKK. *' PvcnogouiJu," St-ieDtllic llosulU of tli-j Voyage of 

H..M.S. 'CliiillVn-rLT,' 187.'5-7(5.— Zoolojry, v.)l. iii, 1881. 
K, Miiitirs. " Dio I'liiitDpodun," Wisd. Kigobu. d. TiofMce Ex. ' VulJiviii,' 

IM. iii. pp. 178-1'JO. 
T.' V. Ilonuso.v. " t)ii a now rvcnopoi)iil from theSoiilh Polar Itegioiis," 

.\iiii. & .Ma-,'. Nat. Uist. (7) vol. xiv. p. 4.">8. U»()4. 
K. IJurviKu. Tycuogouides du Fraii^ais Exped. antarct. francaise.' 

liK)(!. 
T. V. Iloi)U.soN. " Pvcno^roiiida," Voyage of the * Diacovery.' — Natural 

History, vol. iii. I'MT. 
. " Pyonogonida of the Scoltisii National .Viitarctic E.xpedition," 

Tram. liov. Soo. Edin. vol. xlvi. pp. 150-188. l!J08. 
J. C. C. LoMW. " Dio I'nntopodeii du ' Siboga ' Expoditioii," ' Siboga' 

ExiH'ditio, Monog. xl. l'J08. 
E. BouviKii. " Pyciiogonidt's du ' Pouniiiui P.is,' " Ueuxii'ine Exped. 

autarct. fiau9aise. lUli*. 



IX. — On the Swamp- Rats (Otomys) of East Africa. 
By Guy Dollman. 

(Piibli.-bed by pertuissiou of tbe Trustees of tbe Britisb Museum.) 

In the following ievi.sioM of the East-African swamp-rats it 
lias been fouiiil necessary to modify considerably the arrange- 
ment adoj)ted by Wroughton in his 1900 paper ''*■. Tiie 
forms tropicuUs, nyikm, angoniensis, orestes, and dejitl are 
here raised to full specitic rank, tropicalis taking the place of 
irroratus, which species, on account of its cranial structure 
anil lamina formula, is not considered a near enough relative 
for the name to be used in connection with the Kast-AtVican 
iorms; in this manner we confine i/vora/?^.s and its subspecies 
to the country south of the Zambesi. As subspecies ot" 
tropicalis we then have eif/onis and two new forms from the 
Jombeni Hills and Mt. Nyiro. In this paper descriptions 
are given of seven new Otomys, all from British East Africa 
and Uganda. 

Key to the Species and Subspecies. 

A. Enwcr incisors with one deep groove. 
W'Ulral surface of tail dark. 
a. tn^ with 6 lamime. (^liuwcuzori East.) (1) dcuii, Tbo.s. 



.\nn. Jc Mng. Nat. Hist. (7) vol. xviii. p. 2(U (1900). 



150 



Mr. G. Dollnian 07i the 



b. jn' with G lamiuoe. (Mt. Mikeno, Congo 

Beige.) 

B. Lower incisors witli one cleop outer groove 
and one very slmllow inner groove. 
Ventral surface of tail light. 
a. Skull of arched appearance, inter- 
orbital region rai>ed up and nasals and 
brain-case markedly depressed. 
a'. ?«' with 7 laniinne. 

a^. Size larger; bind foot 30 mm. in 

length. (Molo, B.E.A.) 

b^. Size smaller ; hind foot less than 
30 mm. in length. 
a^. Colour of dorsal surface pale 
ocbrenus buft". (Lake Olboll- 

ossat, B.E.A.) 

b^. Colour of dorsal surface brown- 
ish buff. (Aberdare Mts., 

B.E.A.) 

b'. Mj' with 6 laminae. 

a*. Colour of dorsal surface brownish 
buff. Size of molars larger (al- 
veolar length 9'1 mm.). (Teliki 

Valley, Mt. Kenya, B.E.A.) 

b^. Colour of dorsal surface dark 
tawny olive. Size of molars 
smaller (alveolar length 8*1 mm.). 

(.Mt. Gargues, B.E.A.) 

b. Skull without any marked elevation of 
the interorbital region ; general line 
of brain-case nearly horizontal ante- 
riorly, m^ with 7 laminre. 
a'. Nasals not exceptionally broad ante- 
riorly (not more than 8 mm. in 
width). 
a^. Transition from broad to narrow 
portion of nasals marked by a 
distinct angle. 
a^. Size larger; hind foot 27 mm. 
or mors in length, greatest 
length of skull 40 mm. or more. 
a*. Iiindfoot28-30mm. in length. 
Colour rich russet-brown. 
(West slope, Mt. Kenya.) . . 
b*. Hind foot 27 mm. in lengrth. 
Colour dark sepia-brown. 
(Elgonyi, Mt. Elgon.) .... 
b^. Size smaller; hind foot 26 mm. 
in length. Greatest length of 
skull less than 40 mm. (Mt. 
Nyiro, S. of Lake Budolf.) . . 
i*. No angular transition between 
broad and narrow portion of 
nas'als. General colour very dark, 
(.lombeni Bange, N.E. of Mt. 
Kenya, B.E.A.) 



(•2) lempi, sp. n. 



(3) tJiomasi, Osg. 

(4) t. malleus, subsp. n. 

(5) t. sqtialus, subsp. n. 

(G) orestcs, Thos. 
(7) 0. dulbnani, Hell. 



(8) tropicalis, Thos. 

(9) t. elyonis, Wrought. 

(10) t. vivax, subsp. n. 

(11) t. nulilus, subsp. n. 



Swamp-Rats of Last Africa. lol 

6'. Xa-sals very broad niiteriorly (more 

timn 8 niin. in wiiltli). 

fl^ Tniii>ilion Irom broiid to imirow 

ref^ioii luiirked by H distinct lui^^Ie. 

<i\ yizo larger; bnid foot 31 mm. 

in len^'th, greatest lengtli of 

akull 40 mm. (Kagambab, 

Uganda.) (12) rubeculua, sp. n. 

A\ Size :5iualler ; hind foot 2('y'<i mm. 
in lengtb, |.'rfiitf.-«t lengtli of 
skull ny mm. (Uombo, Kili- 
manjaro.) (l."3) lUnnoriiin, Thoa. 

b'. No angular transition betwet-n 
broad and narrow portions of 
nazals. 
«\ Size larger ; greate-st length of 
skull 4U mm. or more. 
«'. Cieneral colour brownish ru- 
fous mixed with buflf. 

(M'Kombhuie, Angonilaud.) (14) an(jo]iiensiii,\\Yo\v^\\{. 
//. General colour olive-grey 
washed with brown. (Nai- 

vasha, 1J.E..\.) (lo) «. elassodon, Oa^. 

i'. Size smaller ; greatest leiiirth of 

skull less than 40 mm. Nasals 

very short. 

«'. Colour rufous brown speckled 

with bull". (N'yika Plateau, 

N. Nyasa.) (10) nyihaf Wrought. 

i'. Colour olive-grey tinted vith 
buff. (Kijabe,Naivasha Dis- 
trict, H.IC.A.) (17) M. cancscens, Usg. 

C. Lower incisors with two deep grooves. 
Ventral surface of tail light. 
a. Skull arched ; interorbital region raised 
up ; nasals and brain-case depressed. 
a . m' with laminse. (East lluweu- 

zori.) (18) dartmoiUhi, Thos, 

b'. m^ with 7 lamina3. 

«'•'. .'^ize smaller ; greatest length of 
ekuU .'ii3-7 mm. CJeneral colour 
blackish brown. (Mt, Elgon.). . (19) y<7c/i-*o«i', Thos. 
b\ Sizo larger; greatest length of 
ekuU 3lt-7 mm. CJenoral colour 
bright yellowish butf suHused 
with brown. (12 miles S. of 

Lake OlboUossat.) (20) pcrcicali, sp. n. 

c'. »n' with 8 laniinao. (Shoa, Abys- 
sinia.) (21) typus, Ileug. 

h. Skull not arched ; m^ with 9 lamina;. 

(Charada, Kalla.) (22) fortiot; Thos. 



152 ]\Ir. G. Dollman on the 

Division A. 

Lower iucisors witb ouly one very deep groove. General colour very 
dark ; ventral surlace ot tail dull black. 

Group 1. 
7h' with 5 lamiufe. 

(1) Otomys denti, Thos. 

Otomys denti, Tbos. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Ilist. (7) vol. xviii. p. 142 
(190G). 

Lower incisors with only one deep groove, large inner 
portions terminating in two sharp points, sharper and longer 
than in the other groups ; small outer portions sharply pointed 
and usually very pale in colour, a feature so marked that the 
skulls of this group cau be immediately recognized. Brain- 
case flat. 

In colour this species is exceedingly dark, the dorsal sur- 
face being brownish black (*' blackish brown (3) " s])ecklod 
with "auburn," Ridgway, 1012) speckled with coppery buff. 
Backs of hands and teet blackisli brown. Ventral surface of 
body slate-black slightly speckled with buff. Tail dull black 
above and below. With the exception of the following 
species, all the other East-African Otomys have a light 
under surface to the tail. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body 157 mm. ; tail 89; hind foot 27 ; ear 21. 

Skull: greatest length 36*7; basilar length 30"2; zygo- 
matic breadth 18'3 ; breadth of brain-case 15"5 ; length of 
nasals 1'4"7 ; breadth of anterior expanded portion 7 ; pala- 
tilar length 1G"8 ; length of upjier molar series from front 
alveolar border to back of last molar 8'3. 

The molars are rather small, vi^ possessing only 5 laminee. 

Jlah. Ruwenzori East. Altitude 6000 feet. 

Type. Old female. B.M. no. 6. 7. 1. 69. 

Externally denti and the following 3j)ecies are immediately 
recognized by their very dark colour and the dark ventral 
surface of the tail. 

Group 2. 
m' with 6 laminae. 

(2) Otomys kempi, sp. n. 

Allied to 0. dend, Thoa., but distinguished by 7u^ possessing 
6 instead of 5 laminse. 

In general dimensions a trifle larger than the Ruwenzori 
Bpecies. The description given above for the colour of denti 



Sicanip-Iiats of East Africa. 



153 



may be taken tor this species also, as in general colour tlio 
two t'ornis are exactly tlio same. 

h>kull larger and heavier ; molars considerably longer, nj' 
with ti well-defined laminae. Lower incisors exactly as in 
denti, i. e., with only one groove. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

lleaJ and body 159 mm.; tail 101; hind foot 28'5 ; 
ear 22. 

iSkull : greatest length 40'5 ; basilar length 3;Vii ; condylo- 
incisive length '■iH'2 ; zygomatic breadth 21 ; interorbital 
constriction 4 ; squamosal breadth of brain-case 15'7 ; length 
of nasals 1G*3 ; greatest witlth across expanded part of 
nasals 7 ; breadth across middle of nasals (taken just behind 
the anterior expanded portion) i'7 ; depth from highest point 
of orbit to alveolar border at front of in^ 12'2 ; palatilar 
length 10*2 ; length of palatal foramina 7'8 ; postpalatal 
Kngth l-l'l; length of upper molar series, from anterior 
alvrolar border to back of last molar, 8*9 ; length from 
anterior ename!-basc of ??i' to back of m^ 8*5; greatest widtii 
of m^ 2*5. 

Jiah. Burunga, ^It. Mikeno, Congo Beige. Altitude 
GOOO feet. 

Ti/pe. Old male. B.M. no. 11. 12. 3. 110. Original 
number 22U0. Collected by Mr. liobin Kemp on June Gth, 
I'Jll. 

The 6 laminae of m^ immediately separate this form from 
the Kuwenzori denti. 

Mr. Kemp obtained in all a dozen specimens of this inter- 
esting Olomi/s, six from the type-locality and six from 
Buharaba, near Lake Kivu, Congo Beige. 

Division D. 

Lower incisors •witli one dwp outer groove and one very shallow iuntr 
groove. Ventral surface of tail light. 

Section I. 

The members of this section all possess skulls exhibiting n marked arched 
appearance, the interorbital region being conspicuously elevated and 
the nasals and brain-case so depressed as to accentuate this humped 
or arched character. (This condition is also found in Division C, 
•Section I.) 

Group 1. 

m' with 7 lamina}. 

(3j Olomys thomasif Osg. 

Otomys thomasi, Osg. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publication, 14], Zool. 
8er. vol. x. no. 2, p. l> ^ 11)10). 

This species is immediately known by its curious arched 



154 



Mr. G. Dollman on the 



or "liumped" skull, the iiiterorbital rep;ion being raised up 
into a regular liunip, from wliicli point the nasals slope 
markedly dowmvards anteriorly, and similarly the cranial 
refijion posteriorly, the interorbital or frontal anj^le so formed 
l)eing most conspicuous ; owing to this feature the depth 
from the liighest point of the orbit to the alveolar border is 
very great. The general colour is given by Osgood as 
"from pale cinnamon to wood-brown"; specimens in the 
Museum Collection identified by the describer seem to agree 
with this description quite closely. Behind the cars is a 
conspicuous patch of creamy buff, a feature well developed in 
the following race. Hands and feet cream)' buff. Uudcr- 
])arts slate-grey washed witii brown. 

Skull : in addition to the curious arched character men- 
tioned above, the nasals are rather narrow posteriorly, of the 
same spoon-shaped pattern as those of trojncalis. m^ with 
7 laminre. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 184 mm.; tail 98; hind foot 30*5; 
ear 24. 

Skull : greatest length 43*3 ; basilar length 34*6 ; zygo- 
matic breadth 21-7 ; length of nasals 20*7 ; greatest breadth 
of nasals 7"5; interorbital constriction 3'4 ; depth from 
highest point of orbit to alveolar border at front of vi^ 14'5 ; 
postpalatal length 15*1 ; palatal tbramina 7*5 ; length of 
upper molar series 9*2; greatest width of m^ 2*5. 

Hah. Molo, British East Africa. 

Type. Adult female. In Field Museum of Natural 
History, no. 16698. 

(4) Otomys tJiomasi malleus, subsp. n. 

Allied to 0. thomasi, Osg., smaller in size and paler in 
colour. 

General proportions conspicuously less than in thomasi. 
Colour of dorsal surface pale ochreous buff suffused with 
brownish on the back, the jzeneral effect paler and greyer 
than in the Molo form. Flanks pale buff. Head and 
muzzle similar in colour to back, cheeks pale buff. Light 
Hreas behind ears much as in thomasi, hut not so prominent. 
Backs of hands and feet light greyish white washed with 
pale buff. Underparts of body slate-grey overlaid with pale 
buff. Tail greyish white tinted with huff. 

Skull of the same arched tyne as that of thomasi, but 
decidedly smaller and with much shorter nasals. 



Sioamp-Iiats of East Africa. 



1 :,:, 



Dimensions of the tjpe (measurod in the flesh) : — 

Head ami l)0(ly l'>0 mm.; tail 81; hind loot 20; 

Skull: <;rc.itcst length 37'8 ; basilar lenp;th 30 ; condylo- 
iiicisive leiigtii 35*4; zygomatic hreadth 19*5; interorbitnl 
constriction 4*4 ; length oE nasals IG'8 ; greatest l)ieadth 
across expanded part of nasals (J*5 ; depth from highest point 
of orbit to alveolar border at front of rtt' 13'3 ; length of 
]ialatal foramina fi'9 ; postpalatal length 13'6; length of 
nj)[)er molar series from anterior alveolar border to back of 
last molar 9'5 ; length from anterior base of enamel on 7?^' to 
back of m^ 8*t» ; greatest width of in^ 23. 

Ifiih. Lake OlboUossat, Naivaslia Province, British East 
Africa. 

Tt/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 12. 7. 1. 431. Original 
nuniber 79. Collected and presented by A. Blayney Percival, 

This Otomi/H is evidently quite closely allied to the ^lolo 
species; tin* difference in siz(i and niucli ])aler colour are the 
chief distinguishing characteis. That a race of the ]\Iolo 
sj)ecies should occur at OlboUossat is n(jt surprising when 
the geographical condition.s are considered. 

Mr. Percival collected two further specimens of this 
( Jtomys at the type-locality ; the dimensions are given as : 
liead and l)ody l.'iO, 143 mm. ; tail 86, 82 ; hind foot 26, 26. 
The skulls both show the same curious arched formation, the 
interorbital region being considerably elevated and the nasals 
and cranial outline depressed. 

(5) Otomya tliomasi squalus, subsp. n. 

Size rather larger than in the foregoing race, colour con- 
.-■iderably darker and richer. 

Size of body greater than in t. vuiUcnx, but markedly less 
than in thomasi. (Jeneral colour of dorsal suiface a rich 
brownish huff, the effect much darker and browner than in 
inaUeus. Fla.iks not consj)icuously lighter thin back. Sides 
of face and head similar in colour to back, without any 
prominent light areas behind the ears. Backs of hands and 
feet white, washed with pale buff. Underpartsof body rather 
darker throughout. Tail as in the other mcnil)er3 of this 
group. 

Skull a trifle larger than that of mnl/eus, witii broadi-r 
nasals and longer palatal foramina. Cranial (limensioiia 
COnsidi'inliK' Ii~s iIi.im m f/ioiiifisi. 



IJG 



^Ir, G. Dolluiaii on the 



Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and bodj 1G6 mm. ; tail (broken) * ; hind foot 26*5 ; 
ear 21. 

Skull : greatest length 40 ; basilar length 31*9 ; condylo- 
incisive length 36*7 ; zygomatic breadth 20*7 ; interorbital 
constriction 3'8 ; length of nasals 18*2; greatest breadth 
across expanded part of nasals 7*3 ; depth from highest 
point of orbit to alveolar border at front of m^ ]3"6 ; length 
of [lalatal foramina 7*5; posti)alatal length 14'2 ; length of 
uj)per molar scries from anterior alveolar border to back of 
last molar 9"5 ; length from anterior base of enamel on m^ to 
back of in^ S'S ; greatest width of m^ 2*5. 

Ilah. Mr. Kinangop, Aberdare Range, British East Africa. 
Altitude 12,000 feet. 

Ti/pe. Old male. B.M. no. 10. 5. 3. 41. Original num- 
ber 713. Collected by Mr. Robin Kemp on February 27th, 
1910, and presented to the British Museum by Mr. C. D. 
lludd. 

The smaller size of this Aberdare Otomys immediately 
separates it from the large Molo form, while the darker 
and richer colour of the fur serve to distinguish it from 
malleus. 

Mr. Kemp collected four specimens of this Otomys from 
localities on the Aberdare Mountains ranging between 10,000 
and 12,000 feet in altitude ; all four specimens are exactly 
similar in general colour. This must be regarded as a 
mountain race of thomasi. 



Group 2. 
m^ with only G laminae. 

(6) Otomys orestes, Thos. 
Otomys irroratus orestes, Thos. P. Z. S. 1900, p. 175. 

The skull in tiiis species exhibits the same striking arched 
appearance as is seen in thomasi and the allied races described 
above. The last upper molar, however, only possesses 6 
laniiii^e. 

In general colour orestes is rather similar to the Aberdare 
race of thomasi described above as T. squalus ; the dorsal 
surface is rather richer and browner, but otherwise there is 
very little difference. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body 175 mm. ; tail 62 ; hind foot 21 ; ear 20"5. 

* In another specimen from the type-locality the tail is given as 
88 mm. in length. 



Straw f-Hu's cj East Africa. 



ir.7 



Skull : pioatcst lonptli 38*6 ; basilar KMijjtli 31 ; zygo- 
matic breadth 20; breadth of l)raiii-ca.se IG'5; length of 
nasals 17 ; grt'jito.st width :uto.s.s expatidcl portion 7'1 ; 
depth from highest poitjt of orbit to alveolar border at front 
of m' 13*2 ; palatilar length J 7 ; length of upper molar series 
from front alveohir border to back of m^ 9*G. 

tlah. Teliki Valley, west slope of iMt. Kenya. Altitude 
13,000 feet. 

lifpe. Old male. B.M. no. 0. 2. 1. 21. 

(7) Otoinys orestes dollmam', Hell. 

Otomys nrestes dollmam, Heller, Smith. Misc. Coll. vol. lix. no. 10, 
p. (1012). 

Agrees with orestes in that 7>P possesses only 6 laminre, 
but skull le?s arched and narrower, with smaller bulUe and 
teeth, and pelage considerably darker in colour. 

The specimens of this Gargues (Urguess) Otomys collected 
by ^Ir. Blayney Percival are, unioitunatcly, too young to be 
of any .<?ystematic use. 

In colour this race would appear to be similar to tropicaUs, 
i. e., a rich tawny olive above and slate-grey sutl'uscd with 
brownish buff below. 

The dimensions given by Ileller are : — 

Head and body 150 mm.; tail S8 ; hind foot 25 ; ear 21. 

Skull: greatest length 37*4; basilar length 29'2 ; zygo- 
matic breadth 18'1 ; interorbital constriction 4*9 ; nasals 
17*2x7; postpalatal length 12; length of upper molar 
series (alveolar) 8*1. 

Mr. Heller, when describing this form, mentioned that he 
had five si)ecimens from the type-locality all agreeing in 
laminal formula*, i. e., m' with only G lamina?. 

J/ah. :Mt. Gargues (Mt. Urguess). Altitude 7000 feet. 

Sedioii ir. 

Skulls williout any marked elovation of the intcrorhital region, the 
penrrnl line of the brain-caso nearly horizontal anteriorly, hj* with 
7 laminae. 

Group 1. 

Nn.-als not exceptionally broad anteriorly (not more than 8 mm. in 
width) ; transition i'rom broad to narrow n-gion marked by a distinct 
angle, resulting elfect rather spoon-shaped. 

(8) Otomys tropicalis, Thos. 

Otomys irroratus tropicalis, Thos. Ann. &, Mag. Xat. Hist. (7) vol. i. 
p. 314 (1902). 

A dark brownish-buff-colouied species, distinguished from 



358 



Mr. G. Dollinaii on the 



the anQoniensia and nyihrv groups by tlie shape of the nasals, 
the expandctl portion of which never exceeds 8 mm. in 
width, and the transition to the narrower part marked by a 
more distinct an^le than in the Nyasa forms. 

Size fairly large, hind foot generally about 28-30 mm. in 
leno;th. 

Colour of dorsal surface rich russet-brown lined with black 
and buff; Hanks rather paler. Sides of face and muzzle 
strongly tinted with buff. Backs of hands and feet dirty 
brownish buff. Ventral surface of bod}' slate-grey washed 
with buff. Tail dark brown above, dirty cream-colour 
below. 

Skull large; nasals somewhat spoon-sliaped, the expanded 
anterior portion tiarrowing rather abruptly, with a marked 
constriction just behind the expanded area. Molars fairly 
large ; m^ with 7 laminai. 

Dimensions of the tyjie : — 

Head and body 180 mm.; tail 80; hind foot 30; ear 23. 

Skull : greatest length 44 ; basilar length 35"4 ; zygo- 
matic breadth 21'6; breadth of brain-case 16'5; length of 
nasals 18"5 ; breadth across expanded portion 7'8 ; breadth 
across middle of nasals, just behind the constriction, 4 ; 
de|ith from highest point of orbit to alveolar border at front 
of ni^ 13*3 ; palatihir lengtii 19"7 ; length of upper molar 
series from front alveolar border to back of m^ 10 ; crowns 9. 

Hah. West slope of Mt. Kenya. Altitude 10,000 feet. 

Type. Old male. B.M. no. 0. 2. 1. 20. 

In the Museum Collection area great number of specimens 
referred to this species ; it would seem to extend northwards 
as far as the Aberdare Mountains, where gradually the race 
known as elgonis begins to become dominant. South of 
Kenya it seems to be rather rare. 

(9) Otomys trojncah's eljom's, Wrought. 

Otomys irroratus elgonis, Wrought. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Ilbt. (8) vol. v. 
p. 207 (1910;. 

A dark race o{ tropicalis. 

General dimensions rather smaller than in the typical 
iroj^icalls. 

Colour like that of the Kenya species, but darker and 
richer. Flanks, sides of face, muzzle, and entire underparts 
considerably darker. 

Skull same as in tropicalis, but rather smaller. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body 165'nim. ; tail 81; hind foot 27 ; ear 21. 



Sirainp-Iials of K<tsl A/ricn. I'jO 

Skull: greatest length 41; basilar length o-i ; zygomatic 
hreatlth 2(>*."5 ; hrt-adth ot' brain-case lG-3 ; length of na.^als 18 ; 
breadth across expanded |)Oition 7'i ; dejitli from highf.st 
point of orbit toulvoi>lar border at front of m^ IJ-k ; palatilar 
length 18*7 ; length of upper molar series from fiont alveolar 
border to back of m' 10. 

I/al>. Elgonyi, Mt. Elgon. Altitude 7000 feet. 

Ti/pe. Adult male. B.M. no. 10. 4. 1. 78. 

(10) Otomi/s tropicaUs vivax, subsp. n. 

Allied to 0. t. eljonis, but smaller in size and considerably 
paler in colour. 

Dimensions of head and body markedly less than in the 
Elgon form ; tail rather long. 

General colour of dorsal surface much paler and more 
suffused with light brownish butT, lacking the dark wash 
which is the dominant note in the colouring of ehjonis. 
Flanks and sides of head rather lighter and more buff- 
coloured than back. Muzzle and sides of face bright buff, 
liacks of hands and feet dirty brownish buff. Under parts 
of body pale slate-grey overlaid with bright creamy buff, 
the general effect much lighter and more bufi-coloured than 
in the Elgon race. 

Skull considerably smaller with much smaller teeth. 
Nasals very much as in elgonis, the subterminal constriction 
not quite so well defined. The lamina formula as in tropi- 
ca/is, but the last lamiiuv of wt' is very small and not entirely 
separated from the 6th. 

Dimensions of the type (measureil in the ties li ) : — 

Head and body 117 mm. ; tail 8.'i ; hind foot 26 ; ear 21. 

Skull: greatest length o8'4 ; basilar length l]0"5; con- 
dylo-incisive length 353; zygomatic breadth l'J'3; inter- 
orbital constriciion 4*2; length of nasals 16'6 ; greatest 
wiilth across expandird part of nasals 7 ; de[)th from liighest 
point of orbit to alveolar border in front of ;«"' 11*8 ; length 
cf palatal foramina 7 ; postpalatal length 13*7; length of 
upper molar series from anterior alveolar border to back of 
i;isfc mnlur 'J ; length from anterior base of enamel on in^ to 
back of ni^ S'3 ; greatest width of w' 2*2. 

I/ub. Mf. Nyiro, south of Lake Rudolf, East Africa. 
Altitude 8000 feet. 

Tt//>e. Adult female. IJ.M. no. 12. 7. 1. 425. Original 
number 'Ml. Colii-ctod by A. Blayney Percival, Esq., on 
]\huch 24th, U>11, and [uesentcd by him to the British 
Museum. 



160 



I\Ir. G. Dollinan on the 



The cliii'T cliaracters tl:at si'))aratc this Nyiro Olomya 
from the El^on race are its smaller size, smaller teeth, and 
very imich j)aler-colouretl pelage. 

Croup 2. 

Nasals not exceptionally broad (not more than S mm. in width), but 
showing no angular transition between the broad and narrow 
portions, pattern rather trumpet-shaped. 

(11) Otomys tropicalis nuhilus, subsp. n. 

A very dark raee, related to elgonis and tropicalis. 

Size and general proportions as in eJgonis. 

Colour of dorsal surfaee dark se))ia-brown speckled with 
buffj the general effect is very nearly as dark as in denti and 
the allied spi'cies 0. kempi ; both elgonis and trojncalis are 
considerably lighter in colour. Flanks rather more thickly 
speckled with buff. Backs of hands and feet as in elgonis, 
ventral surface of body slate-black Sj)eckled with pale buff, 
the whole a shade darker than in the Elgon form. 

Skull about equal in size to that of elgonis, but dis- 
tinguished by the shape of the nasals which do not show any 
sudden subterminal constriction, the expanded anterior por- 
tion narrowing gradually without the angular compression 
so conspicuous in elgonis and troiyicalis. The general appear- 
ance of the nasals is rather that of a very narrow example of 
the angoniensis pattern. The inner groove of the lower 
incisors in this furm is fairly well developed, more so than in 
tropicalis, where the inner groove is no more than a very 
shallow depression. In elgonis there would seem to be a 
certain amount of variation as regards the development of 
this inner groove, in the type-specimen it is fairly well 
formed, while in others from the type-locality this groove is 
very indistinct. The molars are quite like those of tropicalis 
and elgonis, m^ having seven laminfe. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 170 mm.; tail 80; hind foot 28-5; 
ear 20. 

Skull : greatest length 41'0 ; basilar length 33'7 ; con- 
dylo-incisive leiiglh 38*5; zygomatic breadth 19*.5; inter- 
orbital constriction 4'7; breadth of brain-case 16; greatest 
length of nasals 17; greatest anterior width of nasals 7*7; 
median width 4'1 ; palatilar length 19; lengtli of palatal 
foramina 8 ; length of upper molar series from anterior 
alveolar border to back of last molar 10 ; width of m^ 2*7. 

Hah. Jombeni (Igembi) Range, N.E. of Mt. Kenya. 
Altitude 6000 feet. 



Sicavip-I\afs of Eaat Africa. IGl 

Type. Atlult mule. B.M. no. 11. 12. 2. 1. Original 
miniber I'Jli). Collected by i^Ir. Kobiii Kemp on Februaiy 
l.jfh, 1911. 

The very much darker-coloured pelage and less abruptly 
narrowing nasals distinguish this form iVom ehjonis and 
tropicalis. 

In addition to the four specimens collected by Mr. Kemp 
on the Jombcni Rangf, this form has also been obtained by 
Mr. Percival on the Larrogie Mountains (altitu<le 7700 feet) 
north of the Northern (tiuiso Nyiro, and at Mweru (4:500 
feet), and on the Embu Road (-iOOO feet). 

O. oresles doUmani, its near neighbour, is immediately 
distinguished by the fact that there are only six laminie 
in m\ while the Jombeni race possesses the same laminii 
formula as the tropicalis group, /. e. 4*^'4' 

Group 3. 

Nasals very broad anteriorly (more ihau 8 mm. in widtli), transition 

from broad to narrow region marked by a distinct Jin<jle. 

(12) Otomys ruheculua, sp. n. 

A very large species related to tropicalis. 

Size considerably greater than in any other East African 
species, head and body measuring 201 mm. in length and 
tlie hind foot 34. 

General colour very mucli as in angoniensis, dull brown 
lined with buff. Face and sides of head less richly tinted 
with buff; orange rings around eyes absent. Ventral sur- 
face of body much as in tropicalis. Tail very long, dull 
brownish black above, dirty cream-coloured below. 

Skull very large and massive. Nasals very broad in front, 
the transition to the narrow j)ortion marked by a fairly 
distinct angle, much more so than in angoniensis or nyik(v. 
lirain-case very broad ; general outline of cranium nearly 
horizontal. Auditory bulliC exceptionally prominent. 'Teeth 
large ; in^ with 7 laminre. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body 201 mm.; tail 112; hind loot 34; 
ear 25. 

ISkulI : greatest length 4(]"2; basilar length 37; zygomatic 
i)reailth 22 ; breadth of brain-case 18*2 ; greatest width across 
nasals 9 ; width at constriction behind anterior expansion 5*2 ; 
depth from highest point of orbit to alveolar border at front 
of m"" 15*3; |)alatilar length 21 ; length of palatal fora- 
mina 9 ; length of ujtper molar series from front alveolar 
Ijorder to back of 7«^ 11 ; crowns 9'3. 

Ann. cO iJag. N. I hat. Ser. 8. Vol. xv. 11 



162 



^Ii-. G. Doll in a II on (he 



IJah. Kiirrambali, UiranJa. Aliitiule 4800 feet. 

Ttfpe. OM male. li.M. no. 11. 12. 3. 87. Orip:inal number 
2313. Collected In- Mr. Robin Kemp on July lOtli, 1911. 

The great size of this species renders it easily distinguish- 
able from all the other East African Olomj/s. 

Mr. Kemp obtained two further specimens o^ riihecuhts at 
Nalasanji, Uganda, liotb of which, though subadult, are 
ahnost equal in size to the type. 



(13) Otomys divinorum, Thos. 

Otonv/s divinorum, Tli03. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) vol. vi. p. 311 
(1910). 

This species is apparently intermediate between the 
tropicalis and <ingoiiiensh groups, ))Osse?sing the broad nasals 
of angoniensis, which, however, exhibit the same angular 
transition to the narrower part as is found in tropicaHs. 

Size rather smaller tban in tropicalis. 

Colour considerably paler than in the Kenya species, tlie 
whole dorsal surface being of a uniform cinnamon-brown 
and lacking the rather coarsely lined appearance of iropicaUs 
and angoniensis. JNIuzzle and light rings around eyes bright 
orange-buff. Ventral surface of body slate-grey washed with 
brownish buff. 

Skull rather smaller than that of tropicalis or angoniensis. 
Nasals very broad anteriorl}', the transition to the narrower 
posterior portion marked by a distinct angle. We thus have 
a combination of the broad nasals of angoniensis and the 
spoon-shaped pattern of tropicalis. Molars rather small, m' 
with 7 lamina?. 

Dimensions of the ly|)e : — 

Head and body 173 mm. ; tail SO ; hind foot 2G'3 ; 
ear 22. 

Skull: greatest length 39; basilar length 31*7; zygo- 
matic breadth 20*3; nasals 17*6x9; depth from highest 
jjoint of orbit to alveolar border at front of m' 12*8; length 
of upper molar series (crowns) 8'4 ; breadth of m^ 22. 

Hab. Iloml^o, Kilimanjaro. Altitude 5300 feet. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 10. 7. 2. 84. 

This species is only known from the type-specimen ; all 
the other Otomys collected by Mr. Kemp at Kombo were 
O. angoniensis elassodon. 



Sicamp-Rula of East Africa, 



1(;3 



Ciroup 1. 

Nasala very broad anteriorly (more than 8 mm. in widtlO, without 
aiiv Hu'dJon angular transition bctweeu the broad and tho narrow 
portions. 

(14) Otonvjs angoniensis, Wrouglit. 

Otomya irroratus aw/onioms, Wrought. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 
vol. xviii. p. L'74 (llKXJ). 

A large species with very broad nasals, which narrow more 
gradually than in the tropicalis group, the ])attern more 
truniiict-.siiaped than spoon-shaped. In tropicalis and its 
allies there is usually a sharp constriction ju.st posterior to 
the expanded portion ; in angoinensin there is no such con- 
striction, the sides of tho nazals forming a simple trumpet- 
sliaped design, without the well-marked "neck" seen in 
trojiicdlis. 

General colour rattier like that of tropicalis, but more 
coar.sel}' lineil with hnlY. Ventral surface of body strongly 
tinged with buft'. 

Skull about equal in size to that of tropicalis ; nasals 
broadly expanded in front and narrowing gradually behind. 

Dimensions of the type (from dried skin) : — 

Head and body 175 mm. ; tail 90; hind foot 30; ear 21. 

tSkull : greatest length 42; zygomatic breadth 20 ; breadth 
of brain-case 15'6 ; length of nasals 19*7 ; greatest width 
across nasals 8'9 ; depth from highest point of orbit to 
alveolar border at front of ni^ I'.Vi) ; palatilar length 19; 
length of up|)er molar series from front alveolar border to 
back of vi' 10-7. 

Hub. M'Kombhuie, Angoniland, Nyasa. Altitude 8000 
feet. 

Ti/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 2. 1. 6. 22. 

Thi.s 8])eci<'S may be known by its long and broadly ex- 
panded trnm|)et-shaj)ed nasals. 

In the iMuseum collection are several specimens from the 
type-locality and a few from the Shire Highlands and Zomba, 
S. Nyasaland, all reforal)lo to angoniensis. 



(IT)) Otomgs angoniensis elassodon, Osg. 

Otomys anffonieiisis ela.*sodon, Osgood, Field ^lus. Nat. Hist. Publi- 
catiou, 141, Zool. Ser. vol. x. no. 2, p. 10 (1910;, 

Related to 0. angoniensis, rather smaller in size and paler 
and greyer in colour. 

11* 



1G4 iMr. G. Dollman on the 

General proportions rather le>s than in the Nyasa species. 

Colour olive-grey niixeii with biown, the striking; rufous 
tint of angoniensis absent; buff colour on belly considerably 
j)aler. 

Skull rather smaller and narrower, nasals broadly expanded 
anteriorly, as in aiiaoniensis ; teeth slightly smaller, m^ with 
7 lamina-. 

Dimensions of the type (as given by Osgood) : — 

Head and body 183 mm.; tail 87 ; hind foot (c. u.) 29 ; 
ear 21. 

Skull: greatest length -il ; basilar length 34"3 ; zygo- 
matic breadth 21 ; length of nasals 17*7; greatest breadth 
aeross nasals 8'9 ; depth from highest ]K)int of orbit to 
alveolar border at front of «<' 13'8; postpalatal length 15 ; 
maxillary tooth-row 8*2 (crowns). 

The length of the molar series, from front alveolar border 
to back of m^ in a Laikipia specimen in the Museum collec- 
tion, is 10 mm. 

IJab. Naivasha, British East Africa. 

This race of anrjoiiieyisis is evidently very widely distri- 
buted over British East Africa. In the collection is a large 
series from Eumruti, Laiki|)ia Plateau, all of which agree 
lairly closely with Osgood's description. There are also 
.specimens from Nairobi and from as far south as Rombo, 
Kdimanjaro. The Rombo Otomys are for the most part 
rather smaller than the Rumruti ones, but, as this variation 
in size is not constant throughout the series, it is impossible 
to regard it as of systematic value. 

This Naivasha form is distinguished from its near neigh- 
bour 0. nrj'ikce canescens by its larger size and longer skull. 

(16) Otomys nyihoB, Wrought. 

Otomys irrorafiis nyika, Wrought. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) vol. xviii. 
p. 276 (1906). 

Rather smaller than angoniensis ; skull much shorter, with 
excej}tionally broad flat nasals ; pattern almost triangular. 

General dimensions less than in the southern species ; 
hind foot only 27 mm. in length. 

Colour very like that of angoniensis ; under surface of 
body washed with brownish bufif. 

Skull shoit and stout; nasals very broad and flat, in one 
specimen the greatest width across the nasals is as much as 
10 mm. 

Dimensions of the type (from dried skin) : — 

Head and body 170 mm. (probably not more than 160 mm. 
in the flesh) ; tail 70 ; hind foot 27 ; ear 20. 



SiPamp'Rats of East Africa. 



IG.' 



Skull: greatest length 38*2* mm.; basilar length '^2 ; 
zygomatic breadth l\)G ; breailth of braiii-caso ]'y7 ; length 
ot" nasals IS ; greatest breadth across nasals O'T) ; depth from 
highest point of orbit to alveolar border at front of m^ 120; 
palatihir length 17*1 ; length of upper nif>lar series from 
froJit alveolar border to back of last molar 9'7. 

IJuh, N}ika Plateau, North Nyasa. Altitude GOOO-7000 
feet. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 97. 10. 1. 107. 

Otoniys ni/ik<n is evidently closely related to the South 
Nyasa species, (J.atigoniensis ; both forms are very similar in 
general colour, the ventral surface being more strongly tinted 
with brownish buff" in these two Otomys than in any of tho 
other East African forms. In size nyikiB is rather smaller ; 
the skulls may bo distinguished by the shape of the nasals, 
those of ny'diB being exceptionally broad and Hat and compara- 
tively short, while in auyoniensis they are narrower, rather 
more curveil, and longer. 



(17) Otomys nyikce canescens, Osg. 

Ofotni/s nyikte cmiescois, Osgood, Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Publication, 111, 
Zool. Ser. vol. x. no. 2, p. 10 (1910). 

Agrees with 0. nyilce in having a short thick skull with 
short, very broad nazals. 

General colour much paler and greyer ; on the dorsid 
surface there is an almo.st entire absence of the russet tint 
so conspicuous in nyikce, its place being taken by a pale olive- 
grey wash. 

Skull like that of nyih'P, with broadly expanded nasals ; 
teeth lairly large, in with 7 laminae. 

Dimensions of type (as given by Osgood) : — 

H-'jtd and body 17.5 mm. ; tail 8i ; hind foot 2\) (c. u.) ; 
ear 19*5. 

Skull: greatest length 37*2; basilar length 30-9; zygo- 
matic breadth IIVG ; length of nasals 17'1 ; greatest breadth 
of nasals 8*5 ; depth from highest point of orbit to alveolar 
border at front of m U2*8 ; postpalatal length liJ'S ; maxillary 
tjoth-row 8*4. 

In a specimen from Mt. Suswa, quite close to the tvpe- 
locality, the upper molar series niea.sures from the front 
alveolar border to the back f)f m* 9 mm. in length, 

llah. Kijabe, Naivasha District, British East Afiiea. 

This race is represented in the collection by specimens 

• In Wroughtun's original dci^cription, the skull-Jiuieusions gi\en Aie> 
not those of the type. 



IGG Mr. G. Dollman on the 

from tlie following localities : — Mt. Siiswa, Man, Lemek 
Valley (Amala District), south side of Abenlare Mountains, 
Nakuru, and the Lairogie Mountains (N. of Liikipia). 

In cxaniininf; ihe skins of British East African Otomys, 
it is very easy to mistake canescens for small specimens of 
angoniensis elassodon, the general colour of the two forms 
being very alike. Tiie short thick skull of canescens, how- 
ever, is very distinct from the larger and longer skull of 
eJassodon. 

Division C, 

Lower incisors with two well-marlied deep grooves. 
Ventral surface of tail light. 

Section I. 

Skall showing the same arched or humped appearance as is found in the 
thomasi group, the interorbital region raised up, and the nasals and 
general line of the brain-case depressed so as to accentuate this 
arched character. 

Group 1. 

vi^ with 6 laminae. 

(18) Otomys dartmouthi, Thos. 

Otomys dartmonthi, Thos, Ann. & Mag. Xat. Hist. (7) vol, xviii. p. 141 
(1906). 

This species stands by itself among the Otomys with two 
deep grooves in the lower incisors, being the only one with 
C lamina? in m'. 

Externally dartmouthi is very di.stinct, the fur being a 
great deal more woolly than in any other East African 
Otomys. General colour of dorsal surface pale brown finely 
speckled with yellowish buff. Backs of hands and feet dirty 
buff. Ventral surface of body slate-grey washed with buff. 
Tail rather dark above, almost black; sides and ventral 
surface buff. 

Skull, as in all the members of this division, excepting 
fortior, of the same arched or humped type as is found in the 
thomasi group, but the deep double grooving of the lower 
incisors immediately distinguishes the skulls of dartmouthi 
and its allies from those of thomasi and the other members of 
tiiat group. Molars fairly large, m^ with 6 laminae. 

Dimensions of the type: — 

Head and body l.JO mm.; tail 93; hind foot 26 5; 
ear 25. 

Skull : greatest length 37"6 ram.; basilar length 30*5 ; 
zygomatic breadth 19*5; iridth of brain-case 15'5; length 



Stcamp-Rats of East Afrira. 



If 5 7 



of nnsaU IG'/i; wiiltli across expanded anterior portion iVH ; 
depth froju lji<jlicst point of orbit to alveolar border at front 
of m' 12-5 ; palatilar length 17 ; len;;tli of upper molar series 
from front alveolar border to back of last molar *}''*. 

Hub. Mubukii Valley, lOast Kuwenzori. Altitude 12,500 
feet. 

Tifpe. Adult male. B.M. no. (). 7. 1. <)4. 

Tliis species is easily distinguished trom the other members 
of the division by its soft woolly pela<re and the presence of 
only 6 lamina} in »i\ 

Group '2. 
»j* with 7 lamina?. 

(10) ( Uomjjs ja chson j", T h 03 . 
Olomyt jacktoni, Thos. Ann. & Mag-. Nat. Hist. (0) vol. vii. p. 2 (1891). 

Otomys jacksoni is distinguished from the other members 
of the division by its small size ; the ])rescnce of 7 lamina; 
in »i' readily separates the jacksoni group from dartnioutlii 
with only 6 lainiuJB, and from the typus or 3rd group with 
8 laminre in vi^. 

In size jacksoni is smaller tiian any other East African 
Otomys ; both the skin and skull dimensions are remarkably 
small. 

General colour a great deal darker than in the foregoing 
species, back dark blackish brown mixed with orange-butf, 
the eflfect almost as dark as in /. nubilus described above. 
Backs of hands and feet greyisii brown. 

Skull considerably smaller than in any of the other species 
treated of in this paper. The arclied character is not so 
accentuated as in dartmoulhi and the following species, the 
brain-case not being so depressed posteriorly. Molars rather 
narrow, wi' with 7 laminae. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body 120 mm. ; hind foot 2Q. 

Skull : greatest length W'rl ; basilar length 28 ; zygo- 
matic bri'adth 18*1 ; breadth of brain-case !.'>•.') ; length of 
nasals 16 ; width across anterior expansion 6'8; depth from 
highest point of orbit to alveolar border at front of m' 11*2 ; 
palatilar length 1')'5 ; length of upper molar series fium 
iront alveolar border to back of wj' 92. 

JIab. Crater of Mt. Elgon. Altitude 13.200 feet. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 93. 2. 3. 34. 

The small size and dark colour of this KIgon species readily 
separate it from the other four members of Division (". 
The Otomys obtained by Mr. K, Kenip on Mt. Elgon was u 



1G8 Mr. G. Dollman on the 

very different animal, and not in any way closely related to 
jacksoni, a species that is probably only found ut the very top 
of the mountain. 

(20) Otomys percivali, sp. n. 

Agrees with jncksoni in that 7n^ possesses 7 lamina?, but is 
very much larger in size, paler in colour, and the general form 
of the skull considerably more arched than in the Elgon 
species. Size much larger ; head and body 160 mm. iu 
length. Colour of dorsal surface bright ochreous buff suffused 
with brownish, the general effect yellower and brighter than 
in dartmoiithi. Flanks rather lighter and yellower than back. 
Face and head bright yellowish buff. Eyes surrounded with 
orange-coloured rings. Long hairs in front of ears with dark 
bases and orange-buff tips ; hairs directly behind ears with 
creamy-white tips, somewhat as in the thomasi group. Backs 
of hands and feet dirty white. Ventral surface of body much 
as in dartmoulh'i. Tail brownish orange above; dull orange- 
buff below. 

Skull wiihinterorbital region markedly arched, muzzle and 
cranial lines considerably depressed. Auditory bulla? and 
teeth very much larger than in jacksoni; 7)1^ with 7 laminse 
and, as in all the other members of this division, the lower 
incisors marked with two deep grooves, the iimer one rather 
less deeply cut than the outer, but very much more so 
than in any of the forms in Division B, i. e. the tropicaUs, 
thomasi, and orestes groups. 

Dimensions of the type (measured in the flesh) : — 

Head and body IGO mm. ; tail 88; hind foot 27 ; ear 23. 

Skull : greatest length 39*7 ; basilar length 32-2 ; con- 
d^'lo-incisive length 37 ; zygomatic breadth 20*6 ; interorbital 
constriction 3*5 ; squamosal breadth of brain-case 14 ; length 
of nasals 17; greatest width across expanded part of nasals 
6'5 ; breadth across middle of nasals (taken just behind the 
expanded anterior portion) 4 ; depth from highest point of 
orbit to alveolar border at front of m^ 13"7; palatilar length 
18"1 ; length of [>alatal foramina 7 ; post-palatal length 14*5 ; 
length of upper molar series from anterior alveolar border to 
back of last molar 10*5 ; length from anterior base of enamel 
on ;«' to back of w^ 9*5; greatest width of »i^ 2*7. 

JJah. Twelve miles south of Lake Olbollossat, Naivasha 
District, B.E.A. Altitude 8700 feet. 

Tfjpe. Old female. B.M. no. 12. 7, 1. 424. Original 
number 509. Collected by A. Blayney Percival, Esq., on 



Steamp-Iiuts of East Africa. H>U 

June 28t!i, TJll, niul preacntod by liiin to the National 
(Jollection. 

There is no difficulty in distinguishing^ this new form from 
the El^on species; the very much larger size, lighter colour, 
and more arched skull are characters that at once serve to 
distinguish percivali from jdcJcsont. Tlio lamina formula is 
sufficient to separate it from dartmouthi, tj/jncs, and fortior, 
while the double grooving of the lower incisors indicates 
plainly that it cannot bo considered a moml)er of the lliomasl 
group, with which it has a number of features in common. 

Group 3. 
wj' with 8 lamina; . 

(21) Otomys typus, Heug. 

Oreotn;/x ti/ptis, Heugliu, Ileis. N. Ost-Afr. ii. p. 76 (1877). 
Otumys deyimi, Tlios. P. Z. S. 1902, ii. p. oil. 

About equal in size to dartmouthi and percivali ; the pre- 
sence of 8 lamime in »?i' easily distinguishes this Abyssinian 
speeies from dartmouthi, jacksoni, and percivali. 

In general colour very like 0. t. S(]ualus, dorsal surface 
brownish buff; head and flanks strongly tinged with buff, 
yellow rings around eyes very conspicuous. Backs of hands 
and feet dirty cream-buff. 

Skull arched, but not so markedly as in the last species. 
Molars large, jh^ with 8 lamina3. 

Dimensions (from a spirit-specimen) : — 

Head and body 161 mm.; tail 90; hind foot 28-5; 
ear 22. 

Skull (type of degeni) : length from back of interparietal 
to tip of nasals 36*2 ; greatest breadth 19*7 ; nasals, greatest 
length 16'5; greatest breadth across anterior expansion I'D; 
palatilar length 17'7 ; length of palatal foramina T'-l ; length 
of n|)per molar series from front alveolar border to back of 
7n 10-3, crowns 8-2. 

Ilab. Shoa, Abyssinia. 

Thomas has already pointed out* that his degeni is 
identical with iypus of lleuglin, the original descri|)tion 
given l)y lleuglin being '* grossly inaccurate." Wroughton 
in his paper followed this view, and it seems best to adopt it 
here. The above description is taken from the type-specimen 
of dcijeni, which we must now accept as representing (ypus. 

* Ann. & Map. Nat. Hist. (7) vol. xviii. p. 302 (IDOG). 



170 :\ri-. 0. Thomas r5?i 

Sectiou II. 

Skull flat, no marked elevation of the interorbital roglon or 

depression of the general line of the cranium. 

(iroup I . 

iiP with 9 lamin;e, the last one very small and not 

entirely separated from the 8th, 

(22) Otomi/s fortior, Thos. 

Otomr/s ii/pm fortior, Thos. Ann. it Mag. Nat. Hist, (7) vol. xviii. 
p. 30-> (1906). 

Larger than the precediiio- .species with a much flatter 
.skull, the iuterorbical region showing very little of the 
characteristic arched appearance seen in the other members 
of this group; »i^ with 9 laminae. 

In colour this species most nearly resembles angonieusis, 
the }'ellowish suffusion so evident in percivalt, and to a certain 
extent in ti/pus, is hn'e almost absent; dorsal surface a 
uniform brown, lined with butf. Light markings around 
eyes and ears absent. Backs of hands and feet dirty brown. 
Under parts slate-gre}^ washed w^ith buff. 

Skull, as stated above, without any marked elevation of 
the interorbital region. Incisors and molars large and broad ; 
m' with 9 lamina, the last very small. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body 182 mm. ; tail 97 ; hind foot 30 ; ear 26. 

►Skull : greatest length 89 ; basilar length 32*2 ; zygo- 
matic breadth 19"8 ; width of brain-case 16*7 ; greatest 
width across nasals 7*2 ; depth from highest point of orbit to 
alveolar border at front o£ m^ 11"8 ; palatilar length 19'1 ; 
hngth of upper molar series from front alveolar border to 
back ofm' 11-3. 

J/ah. Cl.arada, Kaffa. Altitude GOOO feet. 

Ti/j>e. Adult female. B.M. no. 6. 11. 1. 29. 

This form was described by Thomas as a race of tj/pits ; 
on account of its cranial characters and the occurrence of 
9 laminae in m^ it is here considered as a distinct species. 



X. — Tivo new Species o/Leuconoe. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Publi-shed by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Leucotwe moluccarum, sp. n. 
Like L. Jiorsjieldi, but the feet larger and the colour 
browner. 
General characters as in the allied species. Fur soft, fine, 



Ttco new Species of Lciiconoc. 1 7 1 

and velvety ; hairs oti shoulders almost G imu. in It'n;;th, 
those on h)\ver hack 1V5 mm. Colour above sepia-ljrowi!, 
that of horxfieUli being blackish ; under surface paler brown ; 
the in;;uinal rf;;ion brownish whit", instead of more or less 
clear white. Ears and tra;:;u3 apparently quite as in hors- 
Jiehli. Feet decidedly larger, and in correlation with this 
the wing-membrane docs not extend so far, being inserted 
about opposite the base of the calcar. 

Skull and feetli quite like those of horsjiehlt, p^ similarly 
crushed in between the apprdxiniated />' and (/ above, and 
j^i in the tooth-row below, about one-third tho area of ^j,. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Forearm 40 mm. 

kSkull : greatest length 15*4 ; breadth of brain-case I'ij , 
front of canine to back of rn^ b'O ; front ot' /*• to back of 
rn- 3*5. 

Dimensions of a spirit-specimen tVom Port Essiugton : — 

Forearm 41 mm. 

Head and body 55 ; tail .'59 ; ear (inner edge) 13; tragus 
5*3; tibia 17*5 ; hind foot (c. u.) 13. 

JIal>. East Indian Archipelago from C'elebes to the 
Solomons and North Australia. Type from Ara, Kei 
Islands. 

Tt/pe. Adult male. B.M. no. 10. 3. 1. 2'J. Original 
number 854. Collected July 1909 by W. Stalker. 

This species, although some of the specimens of it had 
been referred by Dobson to the much larger L. adversus^ is 
really very closely allied to the L. Jiorsjieldioi Java, Sumatra, 
and Borneo, but may be distini^uishcd by its larger feet an(l 
browner colour. 'Ihe West Australian L. macropus is, as 
shown by its type, very decidedly larger than L. moluc^ 
carum, and is indeed so strikingly like the Javan L. adversua 
that, with the imperfect material available, I can perceive no 
satisfactory reason for its distinction, a conclusion to which 
Dobson came in 1878. 

Leuconoe lepidus, sp. n. 

A dark-coloured species with narrow brain-ca^'e. 

General characters as in />. hor.-<Jitldi. Colour blackish, 
the membranes dark brown. Ears al»out as in horsjitldi, laid 
forward their tips barely reach to the end of the nose. 
Wings to the side of tho metatarsus. Calcar reaching about 
two-thirds of the distance to the tip of the tail. 

Skull in general like that of horsfiddi, but the brain-case 
less inflated, low and narrow, the diflerence esjjccially marked 
in contrast with other Burnean examples of the group, which 



172 Hon. W. Rotlischild — Notes on 

liavc rather more swollen brain-cases tlian in Javan speci- 
mens. Small upper premolars not much crushed, // two- 
thirds the size of />', half internal ; below, ^)g is quite in the 
tooth-row, about half the size of //. 

Dimensions of the type (measured on the spirit-speci- 
men) : — 

Forearm 37*5 mm. 

Head and body 46 ; tail 35 ; ear (anterior mari;in) 13 ; 
tragus on inner edge 5 ; tibia 15 ; foot 9'5 ; calcar 12. 

JSkuU : greatest length loo ; zygomatic breadth 9"2 ; 
breadth of brain-case 7"2 ; front of canine to back of m^ G; 
front o( p* to back of m^ 3*4. 

JIab. Baram, Sarawak. 

Ti/pe. Adult female. BM. no. 0. 7. 29. 14. Collected 
and j)resented by Dr. Charles Hose. 

This Baram bat ditfers from the Javan L. Jiorsjieldl by its 
much smaller and narrower brain-case, and still more so from 
the other Sarawak and N. Bornean examples of the group, 
which have the brain-case more swollen than in true hors- 
fiehJi. These other Bornean specimens I refer provisionally 
to Miller's L. carhnatce, though I think it very doubtful if they 
should be kept distinct from L. horsfeld't. But the skull of 
L- lepidus is conspicuously difEerent from any of them. 



XI. — Notes on and Descriptions of Delias. 
By the Hon. Walter Rothschild, F.R.S., Pii.D. 

]. Delias singhapura acuta, subsp. n. 

(J . Fore wing more pointed than in s. singhapura, and 
narrowing sharply to apex. Above differs from both singha- 
pura and s. indistincta in having the black on outer ^ of fore 
wing absent below vein 2, and reduced to a narrow subtnar- 
ginal cloud between veins 2 and 3. Below the yellow of 
hind wing is darker and the submarginal patches smaller. 

? . Fore wing long and pointed as in the (^, NOT rounded. 
Above more strongly clouded with black. Bt4ovv the yellow 
area is reduced and the submarginal spots much smaller. 

Nah. cJjKaro, Aug. 1891 {Hagen Coll.); ?, Selesseh, 
S.E. Sumatra, 25tii July, 1894 {Br, Martin) ( ? type). 

2. Delias rosenoergi salayerana, subsp. n. 
(J . Above resembles r. rosenbergi in the sharply cut-ofE 



and Descriptions of DiWas. 173 

ilaik apex of fore wiiif; ami white colour. Below it has tho 
imich deeper orange of r. lorquini, but this orange colour is 
diilliM* and washed over with eiiinamon. 
llab. Salayer Lsland ( //. Kil/in). 

3. Delias Umorensis ardesiaca^ subsp. n. 

cJ . Above difYers from t. timorensis in the much greater 
extent of the white portion of both wings. Below the fore 
■wing is dark brown, NOT black ; the pale i)asal area is much 
larger, white, NOT yellow, with only a yellow streak in cell 
bolow costa. Hind wing, basal area paler yellow, with a 
white margin, a crimson dot in a white ring at apex of cell ; 
dark area between basal area and crimson submarginal band 
i)rownish slate-colour ; submaiginal band of coalescent spots 
much wider and duller, more cinnabar-crimson. 

?. Above black-brown, NOT black; basal pale area of 
both wings less grey and suffused with buff. Below : fore 
wing, the pale basal area is less yellow, more white, and 
more extended, the dark outer area black-brown. Hind 
wing has the wider submarginal crimson band, white outline 
to yellow basal area, and tho slaty colour of discal area, but 
the discocellular spot is yellow. 

Ihth. (^ ? {II. Kiihn) (but certainly Dammer) ; ? , Dam- 
mcr Island (received from Staudinger) ( ? type). 

4. Delias timorensis ro7naensiSf subsp. n. 

(J . Very small ; differs from t. timorensis above in having 
the elongate subapical patches reduced to small white spots 
widely separated. Below the dark colour is browner, the 
subapical spots smaller, and the submarginal red line above 
vein 2 wider. 

$ . Above differs in the strongly reduced subapical sj)ots 
and in the rest of fore wing being almost entirely lilack, the 
basal \ being only powdered with grey slightly. Hind wing 
has pale basal area narrower, lielow the subapical spots are 
smaller and the submarginal red band wider ; a red dot at 
enil of cell. 

Ilab. Uoma Island, Aug. 1902 (//. Kuhn). 

5. Delias timorensis moaensis^ subsp. n. 

cJ . Above differs from t. timorensis in the much greater 
extension of the pale area of l)oth wings, on fore wing going 
far beyond cell and in hind wing reducing outer black border 



17-1 Hon. W. RothscliilJ— yo^^'.s on 

by ^. Below on fore wino; the pale basal area is much 
extended and more white, reachiiio; tornus below vein 1. 

? . Above the pale area is much more extended and the 
subapical patches are larger. Below the pale area is larger 
and the yellow bordered with white, while the red submar- 
ginal band is paler and duller. 

IJab. Moa Island. Dec. 1902 (//. KiiJm). 

G. Del/as mysis goodenovii, subsp. n. 

^ . Above has black margins to hind wing somewhat 
wider than in m. oncn. Below it differs from m. onca in the 
fore wing in having the black of apex and costal area more 
extended and deeper ; in hind wing the yellow is much 
darker, more orange, and extends nearly all over pale area of 
wing ; the black band on inner side of submarginal red band 
is wider. 

$ . Below differs from ? in. 07ica in the entire basal f of 
hind wing being orange-yellow, only veins 4-7 showing 
white. 

JIab. Goodenough Island, 2500-4000 feet, May 1913 
{A. S. Meek). 

7. Delias viysis rosselliana, s,vi)o&^. n. 

cJ . Differs from m. goodenovii above in the marginal band 
of hind wing being double as wide. Below it differs in the 
yellow on bind wing being less extensive though quite as 
dark in colour ; the black band inside the red is very much 
wider. 

? . Above has the margins browner, less black, and the 
subapical spots yellow, NOT white. Below the yellow on 
hind wing is less extended and the black inside the red 
much wider. 

Hah. Rossell Island, Jan. 1898 {A. S. Meelc). 

8. Delias viysis maga, Grose-Smith. 

Delias maga, Grose-Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (0) xix. p. 405 
(1897) (Sud-Est Island). 

The ? is undescribed. 

? . Above differs from the ? of m. ^ooc/e?jom in the almost 
absent subapical spots on fore wing and in the black outer 
areas of both wings occu])ying fully the outer ^ of the wings. 
Below the orange area of hind wing occupies ^ of the wing 
and the dark area tiie outer half ; the red band is more 
uniform in width and nearer the margin. 



and Descriptions q/" Delias. 17.j 

9. Delias my sis maforensis, subsp. n. 

cJ . Below (JitTers from in. fara in the greater extent and 
darker shade of the yellow basal j)artof hind wings, it filling 
n INSTKAD of ^ of cell ; the red band is wider and the black 
narrower. 

$ . DilVers from ? in. lara below in the much wider 
extent and darker shade of yellow on hind wing, the niueh 
wider black distal area (occupying 5 of wing), and more oven 
width of red band. 

JIab. Suer, Mafor Island, May-June 1897 {W. Doherdj). 

10. Delias caliban satishona^ subsp. n. 

($ . I)ifters from c. caliban below in the reduction in fore 
winir of the white basal area below vein 3 and in the stronj- 
reduction of the basal yellow area in hind wing. 

? . (The female of c. caliban is unknown.) Above, head 
and thorax grey suffused with yellow ; abdomen sulphur- 
yellow. Fore wing, basal A obliquely white suffused with 
sulphur-yellow; outer 5 black; two small white subapical 
spots. Hind ■wing, basal half sulphur-yellow, outer half 
black. Below, fore wing as above, but with four large 
golden-yellow subapical spots ; hind wing black, base and 
al)d<iniinal area powdered with sulphur-yellow; a subniar- 
ginal band of golden-yellow spots. 

Ifab. Goodenough Island, 2500-4000 feet, May 1913 
(^1. S. Meek). 

11. Delias waterstradti^ sp. n. 

cJ . Above canary-yellow tinged with green ; apex and 
costal area of fore wing and margin of hind wing brown. 
Below, fore wing black-brown, cell densely and rest of basal 
^ of wing sparsely powdered with golden yellow; beyond 
cell and along nervures the yellow powdering is more 
densely present, almost appearing Idee a band of yellow 
patches ; a subapical band of large golden-yellow patches. 
Hind wing, basal ^ golden yellow, powdered in basal i with 
sooty black; outer 5 black-brown, with submarginal row of 
large golden-yellow [jatches. 

Lengtli of fore wing 34 mm. 

Ilab. Halmaheira ( Waterstradt). 



12. Delias UUila, Heller, 
r, Entom. Nacbr. xxii. no. li' 

I have a sin";le ? in which the basal half of fore 



Delias totila, Heller, Entom. Nacbr. xxii. no. li', \k 177 (189C) (New 
Brituiii). 



17t> Hon. W. RotliscliiKl — Notes on 

wiiio; is lavender-blue and the basal half of hind wing is 
•greenish yellow. In the Adams collection in the British 
JMusoiun the three (^ (^ have the basal half of both wings 
cadniiuin-vellow, while the ? has the basal half of hind 
wing, like the fore wing, lavender-blue only tinged with 
yellow. 

13. Delias funerea funerea, Rothsch. 

Belins funerea, Kothscbild, Not. Zool. vol. i. p. CG2, uo. 3 (1894) 
(Ilaimalieira). 

The ? of this form not being recorded, I take the oppor- 
tunity of describing it from the unique specimen in the 
Adams collection in the Britisli Museum. 

? . Above, fore wing sooty black-brown, powdered with 
gre3'ish white in basal I of wing, on basal ^ of costal area, 
and densely so along whole of wing below vein 1 ; a sub- 
terminal row of eight greyisli-white patches. Hind wing 
sooty black-brown ; fringe and abdominal folds whitish grey, 
basal half of wing powdered thinly with whitisli grey. 
Below, fore wing as above, but basal ^ strongly powdered 
with pale grey; cell and second to fifth subtermiual patches 
suffused with lemon-yellow. Hind wing black-brown ; a 
large subcostal patch and a subterminal band of coalescent 
sagittate patches scarlet ; abdominal folds and wings beyond 
scarlet band strongly suffused with grey ; base sulphur- 
yellow. 

14. Delias ennia mysolensis, subsp. n. 

^ . Below differs from en, ennia in the dark margin 
between tornus and vein 6 being wider and the three yellow 
patches larger. 

$ . Above purer white, the buff suffusion almost absent; 
grey base of fore wing less extended. Below the black on 
hind wing is only half as wide as in en. ennia and yellow 
submarginal band is wider. 

Hah. Mysol Island, Jan. 1899 {H. Kiihn) ( ? type). 

15. Delias ennia oetakwensis, subsp. n. 

jj . Above, dark margin on hind wing much narrower 
than in en. mysolensis and en. ennia. Below, dark margin of 
hind wing also much narrower and yellow patches almost 
absent. 

$ . Above grey, base of fore wing much extended, occu- 
pying ^ of wing ; ground-colour still purer white than in 
? en. mysolensis. Below, dark band of hind wing narrower 



and Descriptions of Delias. 177 

tlian ill en. mtjsolenais ; basal area of liiiiJ wing ami sub- 
niar^fiiial row of patclu-.s Icinoti-ycllow, NOT oraiigo ; the 
natflu'S niucb amaUcr than in en. enuia anil en. mi/so/ensis. 

ILih. S.W. Ni'w CTiiiju'u (type ,$ near Oetakwa Kiver, 
Snow Mts., Dutch New Ciuinia, up to 3500 feet, (Jot. -Dec, 
1910, A. .S". Meek). 

10. Delias ennia limbala, subsp. n. 

(J. Above (lark, apix of fore win;^ more extended and 
blacker than in en. nigidius ; dark margin to hind wing 
purer l)lack and reaching to vein 7; the two white submar- 
ginal spots found in n'ujidins are entirely absent. Below 
yellow, area of hind wing much extended ; dark margin of 
hind wing half the width and extending to vein 7 ; the sub- 
marginal ornnge patches are much smaller. 

? . Above, the outer dark area of both wings darker and 
blacker ; there are TWO instead of FIVE subapical spots in 
fore wing, ami the submurginal white dots in hind wing are 
absent. Below the basal yellow area of both wings is more 
extended, the black distal area of hind wing narrower and 
blacker, and the submarginal row of spots is narrower and 
deeper orange. 

Hub. Sud-Est Island, April 1898 {A. S. Meek) (type <J). 

17. Delias enriia saturata, subsp. n. 

(J. Above the marginal band on hind wing narrower than 
in en. nigidius and en, limhnta. Below almost the whole of 
the hind wing saturated with bright yellow ; dark marginal 
border wider than in en. limbata, but less wide tlian in 
en. nigidius ; submarginal band of spots much wider and 
brighter orange. 

$ . Above dark, distal part of both wings much narrower 
than in en. limbata and en. nigidius, and brown. Below, 
basal half of hind wing entirely bright yellow, outer half 
black-brown ; the submarginal band of spots between veins 4 
and 7 much reduced. 

Hub. Goodenough Island, Dec. 1896 {A. S. Meek). 

18. Delias ennia xelianthe, Grose-Smith. 

Delias xeliauthe, Grose-Smith, Nov. Zool. vol. vii. p. 86 (1900) 
(Hritisli New Uuinen). 

I have a cJ of this form from the Sattelberg, German 
New (iuinca. 

Ann, (t- Mag. S. Dist. Ser. 8. Vol. xv. 12 



178 Hon. "W. Kothscliild — Xolcs on 

19. Delias enniana obsolefa, siibsp. n. 

• Below diffora from en. enniana in the subapical band 
of spots on fore wing being much reduced and the submar- 
ginal row of spots on hind wing- being obsolescent; the 
marginal dark band of hind wing is also much wider. 

JJab. Myso\ Island, Jan. 1801) (77. Kii/in). 

20. Delias enniana rediicta, subsp. n. 

(J. Above differs from en. enniana in the apical dark 
portion of fore wing being wider, running round tornus on 
to inner margin, and having only a single subapical spot. 
Below the black-brown band from costa across discocellulars 
on fore wing is much reduced, generally forming a narrow 
curved line only from subcostal along discocellulars, not 
reaching lower angle of cell ; on hind wing the marginal 
band is narrower and its inner edge is regularly rounded 
instead of sinuate ; tiie submarginal band of spots is still 
more reduced, the upper spot only being present and the 
second to fourth barely indicated by whitisli hair-like streaks. 

? . Below, all dark portions reduced and much narrower, 
and submarginal spots on hind wing much smaller. 

Uab. S. and S.E. New Guinea (type ^ , Eilanden River, 
S.E. Dutch New Guinea, Dec. 1910, A. S. Meek). 

21. Delias enniana kajyaway subsp. n. 

? . Below, differs from en. reducta in the much rounder 
wings and tiie much greater width of the dark distal portions 
of both wings; on the hind wing the dark area occupies the 
distal I of wing. 

Hub. Kapaur, S.W. New Guinea, Jan.-Feb. 1897 ( W. 
Doherty) . 

22. Delias dice dice (VoU.). 

Pieris dice, Vollenlioven, Monogr. Pier. p. 39, no. 5, t. iv. fig. 7 (1865) 
(N.W. New Guinea). 

Fruhstorfer, in * Seitz,' states that the S of this form is 
unknown. I have a ^ from the Felder collection received 
in exchange from the Leyden Museum. I append the 
description : — 

^ . Above hardly distinguishable from D. ennia^ia. Be- 
low, fore wing much as in enniana; hind wing, basal f pale, 
outer ^ brown, enclosing a row of large fulvous-orange spots ; 
of the pale area the basal half is fulvous orange, outer half 
white. 

1 also have a number of ? ? (which are evidently forms 
of dice) from the east side of Geclvink Bay, Humboldt Bay, 



and Descrt'ptiona of Delias. 179 

Millie Bay, Iloliiicote Bay, and Rossell Islatul ; but the ^ (^ 
iiccoin|)uiiyiii^ them are more or less iii(listiii;;uishahh; from 
my ennidtm trdticlaj though the respeetive ? ? arc vastly 
(litFereiit. It is (juite conceivable that in the luture, when 
more is kni»\vii ot' these Delias, that enniunu ami dice will 
turn out to be torms of one species. 

23. Delias omissa, sp. n. 

cJ . At first sight this much) resembles a small zarale, 
(Jr.-Sm., but is smaller. Above diiVers from curate by the 
much blacker costal area of fore wing and the absolutely 
straight inner edge of the apical black area, which never has 
a truce of subapical spots ; the black margin of hind wing is 
much wider. Below, there are two small yellow dots iu apex 
of fore wing; the hind wing is uniform canary-yellow, NOT 
yellow and orange as in zarale; the dark margins of botii 
wings are much straighter on iinier edges than in curate. 

? . Differs above in wider dark margin to hind wing and 
the straighter inner edge of margins of both wings. Below 
it differs in both wings by the straighter inner edges of the 
dark margins and in the total absence ot" the yellow sub- 
marginal spots of hind wings. 

Length of fore wing, S '^-^y ? -G mm. ; expanse, ^ 53, 
^ 57 mm. 

Hub. Eastern New Guinea (type ? , Upper Aroa River, 
British New Guinea, Feb. 1903, A. S. Meek). 

24. Delias madetes neohannoverana^ subsp. n. 

(J . Differs from 7/j. madetes above in the much narrower 
black edging to the hind wing, which is bordered with 
lemon-yellow, not found in in. madetes. Below the orange is 
more yellow and paler. 

? . Differs in the spots above and the pale area of hind 
wing being much whiter. 

Dab. New Hanover, Feb.-March 1897 {F. Cayley 
}{ ebster). 

25. Delias eudiabolus, sp. n. 

<J . Resembles a minute ladas. Above, fore wing more 
pointed than in ladas, and termen much straighter ; the 
black edge of hind wing is narrower. Below, the apical 
dark area of fore wing is much wider and basicostal yellow 
streak on hind wing is clearer yellow. 

? . Above, all dark margins are much narrower and apical 
area is edged inwardly with yellow, NOT found in ladas. 
Below the abdomen is white, while in ladas it is yellow ; the 



180 Geological Society. 

apical dark area of fore wing is wider and the basicostal 
yellow streak on hind wing is clear yellow. 

Length of fore wing : eudiabohis, (J 21*5, ? 23 mm. — 
expanse, cJ 47, $ 50 mm.; laJas, ^ 34, ? 29 mm.— ex- 
panse, cJ 74, ? t)4 mm. 

//ah. British New Gninoa (type ? , Upper Aroa River, 
Brit. New Guinea, March 1003, A. S. Meek). 

2G. Delias aglaia angiistlfancia, sul).sp. n. 

Fruhstorfcr quotes ogl. pandecta, Stdgr., from N. Borneo, 
with a '?. I have two (J j" and one ? from there, and they 
are very distinct, the ? being nearer agf. goda ? . 

cJ . Differs from ogl. goda in the whitish, NOT blue-grey 
markings and the reduction of the yellow on hind wings. 

$ . Differs from agl. goda in the narrower oblique white 
band on fore wing, this being even narrower than in ogl. 
beata. 

Hah. N. Borneo (type S, Mt. Mulu, 1000-4000 feet. 
Hose). 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

June 24th, 1914.— Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following comraunication was read : — 
'The Trilobite Fauna of the Middle Cambrian of the St. 
Tudwal's Peninsula (Carnarvonshire).' By Tressilian Cliarles 
Nicholas, B.A., F.G.S. 

In a previous paper on the geology of the St. Tudwal's Peninsula 
approximate detenninations were given of the fossils found in the 
Upper Cacred Mudstones and Nant-pig Mudstones, both of Middle 
Cambrian age. The object of the present paper is to give detailed 
descriptions of several forms wliich are either new or of particular 
interest : namely, Agnostus Jcjerulji, two new species of Agnostnn, 
a species of Agraulos, of Dorgpyge, of Corynexochus, and Soleno- 
pleura applanata, and to give brief notes on a number of other 
species, including Agnostus jmnctuosiis, A. exaratus, A. Jissus, 
A. alius, A. truncatus, Mici-odiscus punctatus, Conocoryphe cf. 
finlmani, and Paradoxides hicksii 

The vertical distribution of the different fonns through the 
Upper Caered and Nant-pig Mudstones is tabulated and compared 
with that of other areas, particularly the succession recently estab- 
lished by Mr. V. C. Illing in the Abbey Shales of Nuneaton. This 
comparison strengthens the opinion already put forward in the 
previous comraunication, that there is a non-sequence at the base of 
the Lingula Flags in the St. Tudwal's Peninsula. 



/?/ 



Tin; ANNALS 

AND 

MAliA/IM'] OF NATURAL IIISTUIIV 
[KiGiiTn si:i:iics.] 

No. SO. FHBRUARY lOi:.. 



XI I. — The Early Sfar/en of Paltostoma scliiiicri, Jl'illislon 
[I)ij>ft'r(t, lllcpliarocoridiej. Hy llucsii Scorr, .M..V. 
((y'aiitab.), F.L.S., F.IC.S., Curator in Kiitomol()<iy in the 
University of Cambrid'jc. JHf/i a Descri/tliun of the 
Female of the same Sjiecies, by C. G. Lamh, M.A., H.JSc, 
Clare College, Cambridge. 

[Plates IX.-XL] 

I. Intkoduction. 

The rcniarkal)lc family of the " net-winged midges/' or 
Bli'pharoccridie, is so far known to be re[)rescnted in tiic 
Xiotroj)ic'al region by five species belonging to three genera, 
which compose Bezzi's group Paltostominae {op. cit. lUl-'i). 
These have been described respectively from iMexico, the 
Antilles (St. Vincent), Colombia, and Hrazil. Hut, so far as 
1 am aware, no species has ever been recorded from Trinidad 
or from that part of the South American continent immedi- 
ately adjacent. During a brief visit to Trinidad in I'JJ'J, I 
endeavoured s|)ecially to obtain material of some representa- 
tive of the Blepharocerid;c from that island. I should not 
have succeeded in this quest in the short time at my disposal, 
had it not been for the kind help of my friend, Mr. V. \\ . 
Urich, (jovcrnmcnt Entomologist of the Colony. He had 
observed Ble[)liarocerid larvie in certain places previous to 
my visit, ami was able to conduct me directly to a spot 
where \vc collected about forty larva; ami live l)upae, which 
were preserved in 70 per cent, alcohol. Our search for the 

Ann. (0 M<t<j. X. fli^t. Scr. 8. Vol. xv. Lj 



182 Mr. II. Scott on 

imagines -^as, liowever, in vain. For this reason the larvie 
and pupnj were never critically examined till 1911-, when 
I received from Mr. Urich two ? imagines whicii he had 
collected in another locality, some miles from tiie one which 
I visited in his company. These two imagines were studied 
by Mr. C. G. Lamb, wiio found them to belong to the genus 
Paltostoma, and who suggested to me that I shouhl investi- 
gate the larvae and pup;e, with a view to discovering whether 
or not they belong to the same species or genus as the 
imagines. 

I have succeeded in dissecting a ^ fly, well advanced in 
development, out of one of the pupae collected in 1912, and 
find that it also belongs to the genus Paltostomn. On com- 
paring it with one of the four J c? * found in St. Vincent, 
which Willistnn [op. cil.) described as Pallostoma schhieri, 
I have no hesitation in referring it to that species, the 
genitalia and other structural characters agreeing exactly. 
The identity of the pupae is thus settled, and it is also beyond 
any reasonable doubt tliat the two $ imagines obtained by 
Urich are tlie 9 j^ex of the same species, since they closely 
agree with Williston^s co-types in all points excepting those 
subject to sexual difference. They are therefore described 
by Lamb in St-ction VI. of this paper (p. 195) as the ? of 
FaUostoma scliineri, hitherto known only in the J sex. 

^Moreover, the early stages of Paltostuma schineri are 
liitherto undescribed, and, so far as the writer can discover, 
no description has been published of the larva or pupa of 
any of its congeners f. As stated above, there is positive 
proof that the piipse collected in 1912 belong to P. schineri, 
and there is the strongest presumption for supposing that 
the larvae also belong to that species, since they are all of 
one kind, and they and the pupae Avere all taken within an 
area of a few square feet. I have examined every larva 
singly, hoping to find in one or more specimens some trace 
of the pupal integument forming under the last larval skin, 
and thus to gain visual proof of their belonging to the same 
species as the pupse. This has been denied me ; nevertheless, 

* This specimen was kindly lent from the British Museum by Mr. F. 
W. Edwards. 

t Unless, possibly, part of the larval material described by F. Miiller 
{op. cit.) belonged to the genus Paltostoma. Miiller is known to have 
had more than one species before him, witnef^s liis PI. 4. figs. 2 «& 3, 
which show two verv different kinds of larvae. The imagines of one of 
his species were referred by BrautT to the genus Paltostoma, but it was 
subsequently shown that none of Miiller's imarfinal forms belonged to that 
genus (see 0.«ten-Sa(;ken, op. cit. p. 167), though it is not impossible 
that some of his larva; mav have belonged to it. 



the Early Stages <?/ Pultostotna schineri. 183 

I liave no hesitation, for tlic other reasons given above, in 
referring the hirvie to P. sc/iincr/. 

The main {mrposcs of this paper are : (a) description of 
the ? imago of P. schineri ; (d) (Icseription of the larva and 
pupa ; (c) de!<eription of the month-parts, and some other 
strnetnral points, of the ^ imago; (d) sonic discussion of 
the allinities of Pallnstoinu as indicated by /^ schineri in all 
its stages, and comparison with the allied Soutii African 
Kcl/oi/f/iiia barnardi, JOd wards. I am inch-htcd to Messrs. W. 
K. Thompson and F. Balfour-Brownc, of the Cambridge 
Zoological Laboratory, for assistance and suggestions. 

One of the ? imagines, with specimens of larvaj and 
pn|)a}, has been presented to the British iMuseum. The 
other 9 imago and the hulk of the larval and pupal material 
are in the Cauibridge University Museum. 

II. Collection of the Material. 

The locality in which the ? imagines were captured is 
fifteen miles or more from that in which the larvae and pupae 
were found two years before, but both places are on the 
course of streams flowing dow n the southern slopes of the 
range which runs right across the north of the island. 

Tiie two ? imagines were obtained in January 1914 on 
the Arima River, at an elevation of about GOO feet; the time 
was about 10 a.m., and the sun Avas shining, but the flies 
themselves were in a shady place. They were hovering over 
a spot where a thin film of water rushed over large stones, 
and they ai)[)eared to Urich to be searching for a suitable 
place in which to oviposit. He adds that in flight ihev 
looked like small Tij)uli(ls. He states that he has many 
times swept foliage on the banks of streams in the Northern 
llange, but has never succeeded in capturing any Blephaio- 
ceridae in that way ; he has not observed any on flowers or 
attacking other insects {cf. p. 193 of this paper), nor has he 
been attacked by them while b:ithing or at any other time. 

It is noteworthy that the hime and pupoi were taken at 
an elevation of unli/ about oO feet above sea-level. Urich has 
found Blepharocerid larvae at various places, mostly in the 
streams of the Northern Range, from almost sea-level up to 
2000 feet, al)ove which no observations have been made. The 
material dealt with here was collected on March 2:2ui\, 1912, 
in a waterfall in the Diego MaVtin district. The fall ran 
down very steep smooth faces of rock, interrupted by 
narrow leilges. Only a very thin sheet of water swept over 
the cliff, for the dry season was at its height, and in addition 

13* 



1S4 Mr. 11. Scott OH 

an exceptional dronglit had prevailed for some time. l\v 
elinihing on to the ledges, aeeess was obtained to the smooth 
elifl-faees, wliieh were covered in phices witli jjreat numbers 
of the hirva^ these appearing (hu U against the grey baek- 
jiround of rock. As has been found by previous observers, 
the larvie, when disturbed, sliift tlieir i)osiiion slightly with- 
out becoming detached from the rock. Considtriil)!c dilhculty 
was experienced in collecting tlicm, because, when detached, 
tliey Mere so easily and rapidly swept away by the swift- 
ialllng water. I did not then know of the method of col- 
lecting such larvae employed by Dr. Lutz in Hrazil. He 
states [op. cit. p. 8:2) that if they are covered with the hand 
and rolled slightly to and fro, they loosen themselves from 
the rock and fix thcmj-elves firmly by their suckers to the 
collector's hand ; tluis a number may be collected in a sliort 
time. Stdl greater difficulty was experienced with the pupai : 
these are cemented to the rock by their adhesive pads, and 
when force was used they broke loose suddenly and were not 
easily caught before being swept away. In such a situation 
as this, it is not hard to inuigine how rapid the unfolding of 
the M'ings must needs be on the emergence of the imagines, 
if any of the latter are to avoid being caught by the rushing 
Mater — a rapidity of unfolding provided for, as is well known, 
by the wings being already developed to their full size in 
the pu|)a, a condition which necessitates a complex system 
of folding, which in its turn produces the "secondary 
veining'^ so characteristic of the family. 

Besides the Bl. pharocerid larvae there were on the steep 
rock-faces some Simuliid larvaj, also curving tubes composed 
of web and grains of sand, inhabited by larvae of a Psycho- 
myid caddis-fly. Small caddis-flies were flitting in shady 
j)laces over the surface of the falling water, and occasionally 
settling on dry rock close thereto. Some of these wez'e 
ca[)tured, and have been described by G. Ulmcr"^ as Melano- 
trichia insulai'is, a new spee.es of Psychomyid ; they are 
considered by him to be the imagines of the tube-inhabiting 
larviC. 

The vegetation bordering the stream below the fall was 
swept in the hope of obtaining imagines of the Blephai'o- 
cerid. As has been said, this hope Mas not then fulfilled, 
but specimens were obtained of a fly of such leniarkable 
appearance that at first sight it was thought to be the special 
object of search. It proved, however, to be a Mycetophilid 
of the curious genus Lyyisturrhiaa { = ProbuIaiUs), and has 

* Di'iU.^cli'j eiit. Zeit^clir. V.)l-i, p. .>6. 



the Kariij >r(/y( .V ^</' l*alt()st()iii:i scliiii rl. l-S.") 

I)('f*n (l('scril)O(l by F. W. Ivlwanls * as Lyi/islarrhinn urir/ii. 
Tlic writer is tiMiiptcMl to prolonj^ this dii^rcssioii, and to 
liiijicr ill iiu'iiiory over tlu; beauty of the spot where these 
captures were made. One recalls the forest-clad ravine, not 
penetrated by the direct sunlight up to the time of our 
departure at lO.'iO A.M. ; the cliff, with the water coursinf; 
<lown it, and great tussocks of hanging grass growing in its 
crevii'cs; a huinniing-l)ird visiting the scarlet clusters of 
Howcrs on a tree {liruii'iicn) l)y the side of tin; lall ; a great 
l)lne Morjiho settling on the rock close to the water, and two 
Jle/icunius, with vivid orange-red patches on the fore wings, 
circling over the frothing pool at the foot of the cascade. 

III. Tui; I.AKVA. (ri. IX. figs. 1-1.) 

Diar/nosis. — Length 1-0 nun. Antenuie short, two- 
jointed. Dorsal surface furnished with stout spines. 
JJranehial filaments arranged in tufts, 10 filaments in 
cacli tuft in the full-grown larva, iiateral processes well 
developed, simple, |)edilorm, ciliatc, without long setie pro- 
jectintj^ bt'vond the eiliie. Sixth segment with only one 
pair of lateral processes, and with its hind niurgin bearing 
bi.x long setie arising from four places. 

The following is a more detailed description of the larva, 
in the making of which I have been guided largely by Fritij 
Midler's well-known and fine; work (cited in list). 

Lent/f/i, varying among thirty-nine larvie, f rom J'5-G mm. 
One larva, only paitly grown, measures only 'S'2~) mm. 

Co/our above dark brownish : the posterior margin of the 
cepiialothoraeic and of the four intermediate segments pale, 
widtish ; the rounded posterior margin of the terminal (si.vth) 
j^egment darker, i)lackish ; the anterior part of the cephalo- 
tlior;ix, comprising the five "cephalic areas '^ of F. .NUiller, 
is also somewhat infuseate, darker than the posterior j)art ; 
antcnuie blackish ; lateral processes yellowish brown, eili;e 
pale. \'cntr.illy the colour is very much lighter, the mediau 
part of each segment, surrounding the sucker, being 
whitish. 

i</jines. Scales. &fc. — The disposition of the larger spines on 
the dorsal surface is described in detail I)eh)W, i?ut, bi-sides 
these, a very high po«er sho«s that the whole dorsal surface 
bears, scattered at rather wide intervals, very minute, colour- 
less, erect, shortly lanceolate scales, of the same nature as 
tiiose figurid by F. Miiller on pi. 4, figs. 15, 10 of his work, 

• Anil. »Sl Mii;r. Nut. Ilist. .«er. 8, vol. x. 1012, p. "203. The coiijreneiie 
/.. siiHjiitaria ( \Villif»t<»n), wliich was the type ol the goiius I'lobvlfrus, 
\\i\> liiuiid ill St. \'iiiceiil. 



186 Mr. 11. Scott on 

tlioujxh not identical with tlicm in shape. Also, the whole 
dorsal surface is seen luuler a high power to be densely 
covered with microscopic I'ugce, excepting the five " cephalic 
areas" on the anterior part of the cephalotliorax, which are 
smooth, contrasting remaikably with the rest of the surface — 
a contrast which Miillcr also noticed in his larvaj {op. cit. 
p. 50). 

AntemiiP (figs. 3, 4) very short, two-jointed ; hasal joint 
broadening from base to apex ; second joint slightly longer, 
narrower, of about the same thickness at base and apex, 
but slightly thicker in the middle. The apex of the 
second joint is obliquely truncate, and bears a remarkable 
sense-organ (fig. 4) ; right to one side is a long slightly 
curved seta, with an erect scale standing at its base ; towards 
the other side is a group consisting of a transparent, colour- 
less vesicle (the sharp apex of which appears more strongly 
chitinized and is pigmented), while round its base is a group 
of three brown scales, the middle one bluntly lanceolate, 
the two others slightly longer and with broad dentate 
apices. 

Being only able to devote a limited time to this work, T 
have perfoice omitted an examination of the larval inouth- 
jjarts. V. Mliller dealt with these organs in detail in his 
material. 

Ceplialothorax. — I follow F. ^Killer {op. cit. p. 50) in the 
naming of the cephalic areas, and have attempted to indicate 
their outline by means of dotted lines in PI. IX. fig. 1. 
The median area (fig. 1, m.a.) is narrow, lanceolate, 
slightly broader in front, bluntly pointed at either extremity. 
The intermediate areas (fig. 1, i.a.) form 4-sided figures, 
narrower in front, with hmd margins slightly curved. The 
lateral area.t (fig. 1, I.a.) stretch much further back along 
the sides of the ceplialothorax, their hind margins running 
obliquely backwards and outwards ; each lateral area is 
separated from the adjoining intermediate area by a narrow 
strip of the ordinary rugose chitin, which runs forward from 
the posterior part of the segment to the base of the antenna 
(c/. ;Miiller^s pi. iv. fig. 10). The sutures along the inner 
and posterior margins of the lateral areas are jjale. Each 
lateral area has on its inner side in front a ])alc elongate- 
ovoid mark, under the anterior extremity of Avhich is an 
ovoid black mass. The pale mark is the transparent cornea, 
the black mass is a mass of nervous substance which may 
probably be regarded as an eye "^ (PI. IX. fig. 1, e.) ; the 

* In some of the specimens (preserved in alcohol) the black mass is 
withdrawn from immediately beneath the cornea deeper into the interior 
of the cejhaJothorax. 



the l-jiirly Slii<jes of Vi\\[oAU\m:\ sfliiiici I. 187 

whole arraii;joinciit greatly resembles that figured hy Miiller 
(up. clt. pi. vi. fi;j. 7, and p. 73). 

The part oE the dorsal surfaee heliind the eeph:die areas is 
divided into two portions hy a transverse line of dark s|)ot.s, 
which are sei-n luuU'r a hij^h j)o\ver to consist of small smooth 
ari'as set like ishinds jiinou'; the dense rugic of the general 
surfaee. The anterior of these portions bears a pair of 
very eonspicuous eiji-Uke spots (fig. 1, e.s.), situated one on 
either side, some distance behind the division between tlie 
lateral and intermediate areas. Kach spcn consists of a dark 
body, the ehitin immediately surrounding which is pale and 
almost colonrh-ss. F. Miiller [ujk cit. p. ol, |)1. iv. fig. 10) 
deserii)es and figures organs of like luiture in his larva, and 
comments on their resemblanec to eyes. They must not 
be confounded with the true visual organs described above. 
Tlie writer is inclined to believe that these daik spots are the 
(as yet fnnetionless) first [)air of spiracles ; Miiller describes 
these {op. cit. \^\^. (57, 70) as situated on the dorsal side of 
(he eephalothorax, but he does not appear to state whether 
they are identical with tlie eye-like spots or not. Immedi- 
ately behind the eye-like spots, and in front of the transverse 
line, are two deep pits (PI. IX. fig. 1,;;.) projecting down- 
wards into tlie interior of the body. The posterior part of 
the eephalothorax (Ijchind the transverse line) bears two 
conical spines, similar to those on the succeeding segments ; 
and the liind margin bears a series of spines on either side 
behind the lateral process. Ventrally., the cephalothoraeic 
segment is ciliate towards the sides. 

Si'f/inents 2-."). — There is a series of conical spines, short 
and sharp, along the front margins of the projecting lateral 
portions of each segment ; and a less regular series along the 
hind margins of these lateral portions. These anterior and, 
posterior marginal series are continued across the dorsum 
of the segment as two transverse series, each consisting of 
al)OUt 4—0 spines, widely spaced out, and when viewed from 
directly al)ove appi'aring as dark spots. There are also 
scattered smaller spines on the projecting lateral parts of the 
segment. Vvntrally, the surface is smooth, except for a 
rugulose-spinulose area on either side at the base of the 
lateral process (PI. IX. fig. 2). 

The lateral processes (both of these and of the sixth and 
cephalothoraeic segments) are simple, pediform, bearin" 
long fine cilia' dorsally exce[)t at the base. There are no 
spines or setie e\cee<ling the ciliae in length, as in some 
genera, but in balsam-mounts each lateral process is seen to 
bear a series of several spines shorter than the ciliae and 
concealed from ordinary view among these. \'cntrally the 



1S8 >lr. n. ^oott on 

lateral process is bare, and lias at its apex a sole-like area, 
the surfaee of whieh appears difierent to the general 
surface of the orjrau ; in a balsani-niount under a h\'^\\ 
power this area has an excecdinjily lincly spotted appear- 
ance, due to the presence of an extremely dense felt-work of 
very minute, short, curved set;e (possibly not in any way 
homologous with ordinary setae or spines, but formed by 
some kind of breaking up of the general eiiitinous surfaee). 
A sole-like area, apparently closely similar, is present in 
the lateral processes of the larva of the allied Kellogyina 
barnardi. 

Braiic/iial plamenis (PI. IX. fig. "X) arranged in tufts : 
in the full-grown lar\a there are ten in each tuft, this being 
apparently the largest number yet recorded in the family ; 
almost always three ai'e directed forwards, three backwards, 
and the remaining four ventrally and outwards. There is 
among the material one much younger larva, only 3'25 mm. 
long ; it agi*ees closely w ith the larger larvie, so that I have 
verv little dou!)t it belongs to the same species, l)ut the 
number of branchial filaments in each tuft is much smaller, 
being at most six, and sometimes ap[)arently only five. It 
therefore appears that the number of filaments in a tidt 
iucrf^a^es with the growth of the larva. A branchial tuft of 
a full -grown larva, stained with para-carmine and mounted in 
balsam, shows distinctly that the ten filaments arise in five 
pairs, the bases of the two members of each pair being ccui- 
tiguous. It is therefore possiljle that the incre.ise in number 
of the filaments occurs by a process of fission during the 
development of the larva. 

Additional supjxjrt is given to the above conclusion by 
two Lijju>i€aru-]ar\ce preserved in the Cambridge Museum. 
Tliev were collected in ihe Hhone ^'alley in July 1897 by 
"\V. Eateson, F.K.S., and are probably Li/joneura cinerascens, 
Loew, as they agree with Bezzi's description {oj). cit. 1913, 
p. 77) of that species in all points (except, possibly, that 
of colour). One of these larvae is only about half the 
size of the other; and, while the larger one has in each tnlt 
the number of branchial filaments cliaracteristie of the 
genus, namely seven, the half-grown larva has ordy four 
filaments in each tuft. The number of filaments in a tuft 
is a very important systematic character ; evidently, then, 
one must beware of being led to false conclusions by the 
examination only of partly-grown specimens. 

Terminal (i. e., Si.rth) ^Segment (PI. IX. figs. 1,2).— The 
anterior portion, bearing the lateral processes, is almost 
identical in form with segments 2-5; its branchial filaments 



the futr^i/ Sliijrs of Pa'.tostoiim scliiiicri. 189 

are the same in tuiniber and arranf;cnient, also its dorsal 
s|)iiics, and the lateral processes are similar. The posterior 
or anal portion has its marj^in entire, and four or five spines 
on either side near the base ; the hind auf^ies are obtuse and 
rounded, and the hind marjjin I'ornjs a broad eurve ; the 
ni:irj;in bears six lon;^ line setie, on either side two arise con- 
tijjuously just under the mar{;in immediately in front of the 
anj;le, and one on the hind nii'rjjin rather less than halfway 
from the aiif^le to tlu^ middle line ; they are very easily 
broken oil", hence one or more are frequently missin;^. 

The «/«// luj'l consists of four very short branchial (iia- 
ments, sometimes pirtly hidden by the sucker. 

Sjjiracies (I'l. IX. l-g. 2, s.). — The second to ninth 
pairs are visible as black spots on the ventral surface, in 
almost the same situations as those described and fi<;urcd by 
l'\ Midler for his larva {op. cit. p|). ()G-70, pi. vi. fij,^s. 1-2). 
There are two close to'jether on either side of the eephalo- 
thoraeie segment, a little within the base of the lateral 
pro(;ess. Each of the segments 2-6 bears a pair in front, 
situated near the angles formed by the lateral margins whei*e 
these turn outwards to the bases of the lateral processes ; 
these spiracles are often hiddi-n by the ontspi'cading branchial 
filaments. In addition to these, the sixth segment bears a 
second and more conspicuous pair on its posterior (anal) 
division, near the base, on either side of the sucker. 1 have 
been unable to trace the first pair (which Miiller described 
as being on the dorsal wall of tlie cephalothorax), unless the 
" eye-hke spots " be i\w\ (see above, p. 187). Aliillcr found 
the spiracles in his larva to he functionless, and connected 
uith the functional tracheal system by slender in)pcrvious 
curds which he termed " troncos iniciaes.'^ 

IV. The Pupa. (PI. X. fig. 5 ; PI. IX. figs. 0-8.) 

Diai/iiosis. — Length ca. 3"j-4 mm. Dorsal surface bearing 
numerous erect black set:e, the arrangement of which is 
described in detail below. Respiratory horns with the outer 
lamime triangular, with pointed apex. [Adhesive pads four 
in number on either side of the body in all the material 
before me.] 

The pnpa is reddish or yellowish brown, rather shorily 
and broadly ovoid, not very strongly convex. The segmenta- 
tion is normal {rf. MiilUr, op. cit. pp. 75-79, pi. vii. fig. 4), 
the metathorax and first two abdominal segments not reach- 
ing the sides of the body, but being enclosed between the 
niesothorax and third abdominal segment. The dorsal 
surface bears very numerous erect black se/cc of \arvin"- 



190 Mr. II. Scott on 

lonjjtlis, on tlie whole stronfjcr and more numerous at the 
sides of the body aud alonj; the sutures l)ct\vceii tlic seg- 
ments. Tliey are very easily detached and lost in preserved 
material, and lig. 5 (IM. X.) is taken from the only one of my 
specimens in which they are at all complete: this figure 
sliows their arrangement. They are present, long and strong, 
along the sutures dividing head from thorax, on the sides 
of the prothorax, and the sutures dividing pro- from meso- 
thorax ; the mesothorax has a group of short fine ones on 
either side of the middle longitudinal line, hut is otherwise 
bare, even at the sides ; the small metathorax and first 
abdominal segment have short fine setee on their margins 
ami also very scantily on their surfaces; on the rest of the 
dorsal surface there is a fairly dense series along each suture, 
composed of long setre on the front margin of each segment 
and short ones on the hind margin of the preceding segment ; 
the setre of these marginal series are shorter in the median 
portion and longer at the sides ; the surfaces of the segments 
bear scattered shorter setae in the median part and scattered 
longer ones at the sides, there being a more or less bare 
space between the median and lateral bristles, except on the 
last two or three segments, where the median bristles are 
longer and denser aud practically continuous with the lateral 
ones. 

Adhesive Pads. — In the material before me the i)upa 
adheres to the rock by means of eight adhesive pads, four 
on either side of the ventral surface, on the third, fourth, 
fifth, and sixth abdominal segments. The pupae examined 
by Miiller had in most cases only three adhesive pads on 
cither side, on the fourth, fifth, and sixth segments (op. cit. 
p. 77 f pi, vii. fig. 3), aud this is the number given bv Kellogg 
(1903, p. 213). 

Respiratory Horns (PI. IX. figs. 6-8). — Judging from 
figures of pupae of various genera, the form of these organs 
may be of some systematic v.due. As is well known, each 
consists of four leaves or lanima, the two outer of which are 
stronger, the two inner more delicate. Fig. 8 shows the 
ground-plan of the four laminae of the left side of the body 
in the material before me : ni.l. is the median line of the 
thorax ; it is seen that the anterior outer lamina (a.o.l.) is 
convex on its anterior and concave on its posterior surface; 
the converse is the case with the posterior outer lamina 
{ p.o.l.) ; of the two inner laminae the posterior {p.i.l.) arises 
slightly nearer the middle line than the anterior (a.i.l.) ; 
the spiracle (s.) is situated between these, a slit-like orifice 
almost at right angles to the long axis of the body. The 



the lAtrly .S7ay«s 0/' Paltostoiiia scliiiicn". Il>l 

two outer lamiiue (fifj. H) nre trianpriilar, with acute apex ; 
the inner C(l};e (». e. towards the ini(hne line) is convexly 
curved, the outer ed};e (towards the side of tlie hody) is 
sinuate, slightly eoneave towards the apex; near the inner 
ed|^e the suh^tanee appears more delicate, foruiiuf; a paler, 
more translucent area, the limits of which 1 have indicated 
])y a dotte<l line (Hj^. (J, /^a.)- 'l^he two inner lamince are 
somewhat dilf'Tcnt in form from the outer and from one 
auotiicr; fi<;. 7 shows their position relative to one another. 
The entire suhstance of all four laminjc, seen under a hi^^h 
power, somewhat ri'seml)lcs a piece of plant-tissue, consistinpf 
of elongate darker areas separated by a network of more 
translucent lines. 

V. Tni: Male Imaoo. ( PI. X. figs. 9-U ; PI. XI. fi-. l.').) 

Williston's systematic description of the ^ was published 
in Trans. Ent. Soc. London, li^DC), pp. 209,270. On pi. viii. 
of that work (figs. 27 a, h) are figured the wing (not quite 
correctly, as shown below by Lamb), the head and proboscis 
in side view, aiul the hypopygium in side view. ]t is only 
intended here to add structural descriptions of certain parts, 
particularly the mouth-parts. These descriptions are made 
from the ^ dissected out of the pupa, various parts of which 
have been mounted in balsam, and which has, as stated 
above, been closely compared with one of Williston's co- 
types. 

The specimen is sufTicicntly developed to contain a con- 
siderable (quantity of pigment, the most strongly pigmented 
portions being : [a) the eyes, (b) a dark spot at tlie ai)cx of 
each of the palpi (see bcilow), (c) a dark s|)ot at the extreme 
base of each femur, on the anterior side, at the poiiit of 
articulation with the trcchanter (similar dark spots are 
present on the femora of the J co-type and of the 2 ? ? ). 

There is no trace of dilfcrcntiation of the upper and lower 
facets oC the cuoa. Auteniue (PI. X. fig. 9) 15 jointed; 
joints 1 and 2 large, joint 2 j)yrirorm with apt x subtruncate, 
joint 3 shorter than those which follow, much narrowed at 
the base, succeeding joints about equally broad at base and 
apex, joirit 5 slightly longer than joint 4, joints 6-10 sub- 
equal in leufith, joints 11-15 shorter, joint 15 with apex 
bluntly rounded. Seen uiuler high |)owcr, joints 4—15 bear 
numerous fairly stout, short, sliarp-pointed hairs, directed 
apexwards ; joint ."> b( ars them only on its apical half, and 
on joints 1 and 2 they are scanty. 

Mouth-parts (PI. X. tigs. 9-11) conforming in general to 
the us.ual Blepharoccrid type (the ($ has no mandibles) ; 



11)2 



Ml. II. Scott on 



tlioy arp cliaraotcrizrd by the great length and slcndcrness 
of the |)r(>hoscis and the great rednction ot" the palpi. 

Lahnim [^^^. i), lahr.) very long and slender, tapering 
gradually throughout to an exceedingly line point : niuler 
a high i)o\ver its n[)per surface is seen to be covered with 
extremely minute and short hairs ; at the sides it is bent 
strongly downwards, so as to form a groove on its posterior 
(ventral) surface; in the balsam-mount it is slightly twisted, 
so that one of these bent-over flanges is seen in face-view 
lu^ar the apex ; this flange appears as a hyaline membrane, 
the edge of which, near the apex of the lal)rum, is uneven, 
being raised into several minute tooth-like prominence^, 
Mhich, however, appear hardly definite enough to be regarded 
as actual teeth. 

Hl/popharynx (figs. 9, hup., & 11) also extremely long and 
slender, being only just surpassed in length by the lahrum, 
narrowing gradually, but nut. ending in a point ; on the 
contrary, the apex is slightly bifid, each minute prominence 
healing fine hairs ; the two lateral edges of the hypopharynx 
also bear tine hairs near the apex. 

Mo.vil/ce (fig. 9, 771a;.). — The lobes are long and slender, 
but reach to less than half the length of the labrnm and 
hypopharynx ; they arc almost hyaline, flattened, and blade- 
like, witli apex not pointed, but bluntly rounded. 

Palpi (tigs. 9, lOj extremely short, and p:irtly hidden by 
the base of the probcjscis; when detached and examined 
separately (tig. 10) seen to consist of two parts separated by 
a constriction, but there is no very definite articulation 
of two distinct joints, so that it is hard to say whether 
they should be regarded as truly two- or as oiie-joiiited. 
Ihe arrangement of minute hairs and long sette is shown 
in tig. 10. The basal i)art is longer and narrower, the 
apical shorter and broader. The apex is truncate, and 
hollowed out ii.'to a deep blackish-pigmented cup, which 
forms the dark spot mentioned above as so conspicuous in 
the jmpa. Under a high power the inner walls at the 
bottom of this apical cup are seen to bear minute chitinous 
ring- like structures, the exact nature of which I could not 
determine. 1 am convinced tliat the above is the true form 
of the palpi, and that no other joints have been broken off : 
for, firstly, both palpi are exactly the same, and I saw no 
trace of any other joints before or during the dissection of 
the insect out of the pupa; secondly, the form and pig- 
mentation of the hollow cup is quite definite atul clear ; 
thirdly, all ^ ^ of this genus have been described as 
having the palpi either invisible or extremely short, and in 



ilie Early Stages t»/' raltostoma scliiiuii. lOii 

AVillistoii's dried cT co-typo (Iicy appcrir as mimitc oiic- 
or two-joiiitt'd urj^ans, only iIkm-c tlic-y arc uiiiroruily dark, 
not ]>ale with only the apical pit (hirk, as is the case in the 
(perhaps inc()nipU'tely-pi;;nientcd) jjupa. 

Lahiuin [\'v^. \), lah.) very k)n{; and narrow, C(|MaI!in}jj the 
lal)runi and hy|)opharynx in length ; there is a transverse 
line of weakness near the hasc, at whi<'h the or^an can 
evidently he bent ; another line of wi'akness (jnite close to 
the apex, proximal to the small short lahellar porti(»n ; 
owing to the apical part of the orjran nnforiunatcly being 
twisted over on to its side, it is impossible to make out 
whether, or how far, it is divided into two separate labclhe. 

\^M (Jill h -pari s of $ . — .Sonic biief remarks on the moutli- 
paits in this sex are inserted here. Paucity of material has 
prevented my dissecting these organs in one of tin; ? ? 
described below by Lamb, and I have only been able to 
examine them superficially in the dried insect (PI. XI. 
fig. 17;. The prol)oseis is shorter and much more robust 
than in the J, and the palpi are elongate, consisting of at 
least three (perhaps four) joints. The comparative shortness 
and stoutness of the i)roboscis has been mentioned by Bezzi 
in his dcscri|)tion off*, hellardii ? (op. cit. 1913, p. Gl).] 

I have dissected and mounted the mouth-parts of a J of 
the South African Kellofji/ina baniardi, Edwards, for com- 
parison «ith tliose of the J I'ultostoina. In K. baniardi 
also the j)arts are much elongated, but not nearly so long 
and slender as in the Pallastoiua. K. baraurdl has the 
labrum tapering to a fine sharp point ; hypopharynx long 
and narrow, but much broader in proportion to its length 
than in the Paltustoiaa, its edges apparently devoid of hairs, 
its apex not bifid but coming to a point (fig. 12); maxilhe 
Avith the lobes rather more pcunted at the apex than in 
f^iiltostuma, and with tlie palpi much exceeding the lol}es 
in length, and composed of four joints, the basal one very 
elongate, subecpial in length to the lobe, the succeeding ones 
becoming gradually slujrter ; labium much shorter and 
broader ill proportion than in /'alio.stoina. [It may be added 
tliat, under a high power, no sign of transverse division or 
ditrerentiation of upper and lower facets could be seen iu 
the eyes of K. bar/iardi.] 

There is no direct evidence of the feeding-habits of either 
sex of Faltostoma. One cannot say what is the reason of 
the extreme length and slenderuess of the parts in the (^ . 
The hypopharynx does not give at all the impression of a 
piercing organ, but would seem to be suitable for fcediii"- 
on nectar. There ap[)ears to be cousideiable di\cisitv of 



104 j\Ir. II. Scott on 

feeding-habit in the family Blepharocerid;i?. Kellogg (op. cit. 
\\)0'.\ and 1907) describes the ? ? of B/c/>harocera lenuipes, 
AValker [capitata, Loew), as feeding on tiny Chironomid 
midges, winch they ca[)tnred on the wing, lacerated with their 
mandil)lcs, and from which they then absorbed the body- 
jniccs ; but tlic J J, whidi have no mandibles, were absent 
from the fceding-gronnd, and probably have a totally 
ditl'erent foot-habit. On the other hand^ llctschko {op. cit.) 
in Corsica observed both sexes of Apistomyia clegans, 
Bigot, feeding together on nectar, thereby confirming 
the earlier observations of Sclinnse, part of which Kellogg 
[op. cit. 1907, p. 5) doubted. The Apistomyia were seen on 
a number of occasions, at all hours of the day, feeding 
almost exclusively on the flowers of a Composite {Heli- 
chrysum microphy/lum) ; thoiigh present in numbers, the 
majority appear to have been ? $ . None were ever 
observed to capture other insects, and no insects which they 
could have captured were present on the flowers. Apisto- 
myia belongs to a different division of the family to either 
Blepharocera or Paltustoma, but like them it shows great 
dissimilarity between the S and ? mouth-parts, only the 
9 possessing mandibles, and there being other diflerenees. 
Yet Hetschko found both sexes exhibiting the nectar-feeding 
habit at the same time. 

J Genital Armature. — This is shown in PI. X. fig. 13, 
viewed as a transparency from the ventral side. The terminal 
dorsal segment of the body is rather deeply and widely 
sinuate-emarginate in the middle behind, and its hind angles 
are rounded ; at its sides and hind angles it bears long setae 
directed outwards ; at its sides, too, it is strongly defiexed, 
and the deflexed portions bear long setae directed inwards 
towards the middle line. Yentrally are articulated the two 
stout claspers, each bent inwards somewhat towards the 
apex, which is blunt, and each bearing on its outer side a 
short projection ending in a stout spine, somewhat recalling 
a very small branch of an antler. Between the bases of the 
claspers projects a small subtriangular plate with rounded 
apex, just exceeding in length the base of the sinuation of 
the dorsal plate. These parts all agree closely with those 
of \yilliston's co-type. 

Legs, Tarsi. — The legs are thickly covered with blackish 
setse. The hind tibiai have the single apical spur character- 
istic of the genus. The tarsi (PI. X. fig. 14) have a 
group of stout black spines underneath the basal part of 
the terminal joint ; each of the claivs has a moderately 
long stout process on its ventral side near the base. The 



the Early Stages o/'Paltostoma scliineri. 195 

tarsi and claws of Williston's ^ co-type, and of the $ ? 
dcsciibeil by Lamb, agree clusely willi those ot tlic 
(J be lore me. 

VI. Tin: Fem.\i,k I.m.kjo. (PI. XI. fi-s. 10, 17.) 
(By C. Ci. L.vMiJ.j 

? . Iliad. — Eyes with no iiiiCact'ttc'd cross-line and with 
all the facets ecinal ; minutely, densely, and palely pubescent. 

Tup vieir (tig. lOj. Head much rounded behind, dark 
orange; this colour extends beyoiul tlieoeellar hump, whence 
it is further continued in a broad line to the base of the an- 
tenuie, the stripe narrows towards the front ; on each side of 
it lies a silvery stri[)cof about the same width, which extends 
right up to the boundary of the eyes. The ocellar hump is 
in the shajjc of a tetrahedron, with much rounded angles; 
it is deep black with conspicuous silvery ocelli arranged iu 
an ccjuilatcral triangle round the base of the humj). 

Jruitt victc. The faceis(iuitc i)arallel-sided from below the 
antennie, orange-yellow witU narrow silvery eye-margins ; 
the ejiistoma is divided from the clypeus by a silver-edged 
furrow ; the clypeus itself is eoncolorous with the face, and 
has silvery borders and a fine silvery cross-band; the pro- 
boscis is a little more than twice as long as the maximum 
vertical eye-depth ; it is orange-yellow with an acuminate 
tip ; tiie palpi are black, aljout as long as the head-depth, 
with three or four indistinct, pyriform, somewhat hairy joints 
of almost equal length, whicli are a little flattened in the 
dried state. The antennie are black, except the two basal 
joints which are very indistinctly rufous; first joint with 
two or three long hairs outside, second long, cup-shaped, 
others moniliform. 

Iu side view (fig. 17) the black rounded ocellar hump 
is very prominent, the tongue below the level of the palpi 
attenuates but little to tii). 

Tliora.v. — Tup rieiu (tig. 10). The mesothorax overhangs 
the prolhorax in fnnit ; it is shining orange, much darker 
iu front, with silvery reticetions on darker areas at the sides; 
there is a minute silvery spot just iu the middle over the 
prothorax ; the humeral calli resemble stout orange scales at 
the front angle ; behind the dark front portion the disc is 
paler orange down to the two ohli(iue sutures that start just 
above the Iront of the wing-ba-es, and slope baekwarils and 
nearly meet in the mid-line, where they end iu minute dots. 
Just in front of these sutures the orange is again darkened 
and silvery in two triangular patches, the hypothcnuses of 



196 Mr. n. Scott on 

tlie tiiaii^l<^s Iviiijj; along tlie two sntnrrs. From the sutures 
to the scutellum the disc is sn (fused brown-orange, and on 
caeh side is an elongate silvery spot over the wing-base. 
The seutellum is cut off by a sulcus, which is deep except at 
its middle third; in form it is a narrow elongate arch, it is 
narrowly pale at the base, the rest being al)out the same 
colour as the hind part of the thoracic disc, 'i'he nicta- 
notum is greyish in the centre and furrowed transverscl3\ 
The prothorax is very evident, arched in plan-profile, the 
"springing" of the arch being just beyond the humeral 
ealli ; the disc is pale, but the margin dark grey ; in front 
of it is a well-marked dark orange neck-collar, silvery on 
the sides; from the collar arises the orange neck, con- 
coloronswith the hind head. Inside-view tlie dorso-plcural 
suture is prominent ; mtsopleune blackish in front, on a 
triangular patcli whose base is on the dorso-pleural suture ; 
behind this it is very silver}', the silveriness being seen to 
lie in striae if side-illumination be employed ; the rest of 
the pleura is orange. In this view the darkened edge of the 
piothorax is seen projecting like a hood over the neck- 
collar. Another jjromincnt object is a reniarkable large 
rounded tubercle on the front aspect of the front coxa. 

The ivings have the venation as figured (fig. IG), the 
extreme base is orange, and all the veins are black. In 
AVilliston's paper {op. cit. pi. viii. fig. 27) the wing of tlie 
male Paliostomu schlneri is figured ; but an error is there 
made, inasmuch as the anal vein is omitted in the figure. 
^Ir. F. W. Edwards has very kindly sent me a drawing of 
the wing of one of the paratypes of P. schineri in the British 
Museum, which is given in fig. 15, from which it will be 
seen that that species does possess a short, stout, anal vein. 
In all its structural details the wing agrees with that of the 
present female, including the close approximation of the 
first long vein to the eosta, so that in vertical view the two 
aj)pcar contiguous, the space between being only visible 
in oblique view. It may here be noted that the wing of 
P. superbiens (' Novara Reise,' Taf. ii. fig. 4) differs con- 
siderably in detail : the well-marked anal angle of our 
present species is absent and the anal vein is long and line. 

The fia/terestxre bright orange at the base and the elongate 
head is black, the two colours merging at the middle of the 
stalk. 

LeffS. — Relative lengths as in fig. IG. Front: coxa and 
trochanter pale ; femur blackened except at the paler base 
(which has a conspicuous black spot in front), and a 
little ochrcous just at the beginning of the swollen distal 



the Early Staijen of P.iltosfotna scliiiicii. 1'.'7 

end; til)i:i and tarsus KJinilarl) darkened. Midillf ami 
him/: coxa and femur |):de, the latter with two hroad ill- 
(ietiiicd blaekish l)aiids, the one beyond theniiddh', the other 
a little remote from tip ; tibia very slij^litly sulTnsed, with an 
oraiijje ciid-s|)ine to hind pair. All the tarsi are blackened 
and bear bristly hairs; the elaws are well (level(Ji)ed, blaek, 
with a minute spine or accessory claw at the base. of each. 

Abdomen ( fi;;s. IG, 17). — Somewhat flattened sideways; 
viewed dorsally the sejrinents arc dull brown, darkened a 
little on the shari)ly dcHued distal margins ; the .segment 
before the genital ones has a fringe of longish yellow hairs. 
In side-view the segments are pale for about the proxim il 
two-thirds, the rest is as the dorsum. The venter is strongly 
differentiated from the siiles, ridged at each distal edge of a 
segment ; the whole i.s densely scaled or pollinated, tin; 
raised distal margins being orange and brown, the depressed 
iuters])aces silvery. The lower genital segments are rathir 
shining orange and ehitinized, the upper ones are like tne 
dorsum. 

Length about 3^ mm. II Ing-lenr/th about 5 J mm. 



VII. GkOGKAPHICAL COXSIDERATIOXS, AlllNITIES, ETC. 

Three species of Paltostoma arc known : P. superhienx, 
Schincr, from Colombia, known only in (J sex ; P. schiner'i, 
Williston, the subject of this paper, St. Vincent and Trinidad, 
both sexes now known; iind P.be/lardii, Bczzi, from Mexico, 
known only in :^ sex. 

It is worthy of note that P. schiiieri occurs in both 
St. Vincent and Trinidad, though tlic two i.slands belong to 
completely dillVrent formations. St. Vincent is one of the 
volcanic chain of the Antilles, while Trinidad is merely 
a detached fragment of the South-American continent. 
St. ^'inccnt is roughly 150 miles north of Trinidad, and 
there is an unbroken gap of nearly 00 miles between Trinidad 
and Grenada, the southernmost and nearest of the Antilles. 

Bczzi {op. cit. IDl-'J, p. 72), in mentioning the deductions 
wliieh have been drawn from the geographical distribution of 
IJlcpharoceridie, remarks that there are as yet many laeuiue 
in our knowledge, and that many additional forms will 
prabably be brought to light in the great continental 
mountain-ranges and in those of many islands. The present 
writer would certainly eiulorse the opinion that this |)ossi- 
bility exists, ^^'itll reference to the Antilles in particular, 
any one who ha.s viewed these mountainous islands, even 

Ann. .f- .lA/y. .V. ///.v/. Scr. S. Vol. XV. 14 



11)8 :\ii-. II. Scott o/t 

only in passin;;, or who lias ridden for some hours anion^j 
the precipitous mountains, dense foi'csts, and countless 
swift streams of such an island as Dominica, must admit at 
least the possibiHty of fresh tinds being made in them. 

Assuming the l^altostominne to be a natural group, then 
this group not only contains all the Neotropical representa- 
tives of the family {Paltosluiiia. Kc'lIo(/(/i/ia, and C'ttri/pira), 
but is also represented in South Africa by the only Blepharo- 
cerid known from that rej>ion {Kelluycjina barnurdi, Ed- 
wards, op. cit.), and in New Zealand by the genus Neocuru- 
pirn, Ijaufb (op. cit.). 

Affinities of the Larva. — The Pallostoma-laYva., though 
agreeing with that of Curupira (as described by F. Miiller) 
ill its short J2-jointed anteinue, in having the dorsal surface 
spinose, and in having only one pair of lateral jirocesses on 
the sixth segment, yet differs from it in having tlie branchial 
filaments disposed in tufts, not in series. It differs more 
widely from the Cu7-upira-Y\ke larva from New Zealand 
described and figured by Chilton {op. cit.), and considered 
by Bezzi {op. cit. 1914) to be the larva of Neocurupira^ for 
that larva not only has the branchial filaments disposed in 
series, but also has two pairs of lateral processes on tlie 
sixth segment. 

On tiie other hand, the Pa/tosioma-]ar\ii has several 
points of resemblance with that of the South-Africau 
Kelluggina harnardi. There would be nothing surprising in 
this, as both forms belong to the same group, were it not for 
the difficulty that, according to 13ezzi's tables of larval 
characters {op. cit. 1913, pp. 76-80), the larva of K. bar- 
ntirdi falls next to that of BlepJiarocera fasciuta, Westw. : 
this being a member of a genus which difl'crs widely from 
Kellugyina and Paltostoma in venation, in possessing dichoptic 
eyes, &c. Bczzi, remarking in a footnote {op. cit. 1913, p. 78) 
tliat the Kellogt/inaAarva. falls in a grouj) different from that 
to which the perfect insect appertains, suggests that the 
Inrva described as that of K. barnardi may really belong to an 
unknown species of a different genus. Jiut, after examining 
the South-Africau material presented to the Cambridge 
Museum, I find this not to be the case. From one of the 
pupaj 1 have dissected a J fly which is undoubtedly K. bar- 
nurdi, thereby settling the determination of the pu| le. Also 
the only larva which I possess lias the i)upal rcsjiiratory 
horns already formed beneath its skin, and these agree in 
form with those of the pupte : so there should be no reason- 
able doubt as to the identity of the larvae. Therefore, the 



fJie Eiirly Staijes of I'altostoma suliliu'ii. I'J'J 

liirtd- uiitl piipte lU'scrlbetl as those of Ki'llu;;;^'iiia l)ariiarili do 
realhf bt'lontj to that sjircies. 

This bciiii;; t'stal)li>lif(l, one may return to the afliiiitics of 
the Paltostuma-\n,r\n with the J\e//oi/i/i>ia-\iirvii. They aj^ree 
in the form of the antenuie, the (lis()()sitiou of tlie branehial 
filaments in tufts, tlie form of tlie lateral processes (closely 
similar), and the presence of only one pair of processes on 
the sixth se^jment. Hut the Kel/of/f/ifia-hdrva has no spines 
on its dorsal surface, only some weak ones on the lateral 
marjjins. In the |>ossessiou of spiues, the Paltostomu-\dr\n 
approaches (Junipira. 

The writer is a little uncertain as to the importance 
attached to the disposition of the branchial filaments — 
whether in longitudinal series or tufts. Even when arranjj^ed 
in tufts, the filaments as seen under a high power (in Pa/to- 
stoma, at least) do not arise co-basally, i. e. all from one 
point, but from a numljcr of points. It is easy to imagine 
the pushing up together of a series to form a tuft, or con- 
versely the spreading out of a tuft to form a series. While 
the arrangement provides a useful systematic character, 
perhaps too much weight should not be attached to it. If 
this be so, the larva described by F. Miillcr as Curupira 
torrentium "'^ is not widely removed from that of Pultostoma, 
the Pa/tosio}na-\a.r\a, being intermediate between it and 
Kelloyyina. 

The writer is at a loss to explain the apparent relationship 
of the Kello(/(/iiui-]a.r\'a. with that of Bltphuroctra fasciutu. 
As he has not seen the larva of any species of the genus 
BlepharoctrUj and as the larvae of species of that genus 
(according to liezziN tables) difier somewhat widely inter st^ 
the cjue>tion will not be discussed further here. 

Affinities of Pupa. — So far as I am aware, the only pub- 
lished reference to a pupa covered with spinifurm hairs_, like 
that of Paltostoma, is given by Bezzi in a footnote on p. 30 
of his work cited ( 1913). He there mentions such a |)upa as 
sent from Brazil among a mixed lot of material. The j)upa 
of Ketloy</iiia barnardi is nude, and has the outer laminae of 
the respiratory horns much more bluntly pointed at the apex. 
The figure given by Miiller {op. cit. ])1. vii. fig. 6j shows 
respiratory horns apparently of much the same form as in 
Paltostoma schineri. 

• These remarks are made on the assuraption that the larva described 
by Miiller, with o7tlij one pair of processes on the sixth seffvutit, reallv is 
t'urupira. That he undoubtedly had before him more than one kind ia 
shown by his pi. iv. tig. 3, which illustrntea a very different larva, havinij 
ttro p(nr< of prucestes on the sixth seijmeiit. 

II* 



i>oo :\ri. II. s.-.)it on 

Ajfinifirs of Jmaf/o. — 'l\\c wiitor has no special knowledge 
of the imago Hies, and will only remark very briefly nnder 
this head. Pallostoina and 7v'<7/o^/////a are considered closely 
allied : Bezzi, referring [op. cit. 1913, p. Go) to the shortness 
of the proboscis in the ? of Paltostoma, states that this 
renders the distinction of the two genera very uncertain. 
Hnt in the ($ sex surely the form of the month-parts, even 
of the j)al|)i alone, would distinguish the genus Paltostoma'^ 
The i)alpi being, as shown al)ove, very sliort and at most 
XJ-jointed in Paltostoma ^7, while they are long and 4-jointed 
in Kellnyyina (^ . Osten-Sacken {op. cit. p. 1G7) remarked 
that Kelluggina ( = Snoivia) appeared to be closely allied to 
Paltostoma, but that it had a shorter proboscis and fully- 
developed palpi. 

YIJI. Summary. 

1. Paltostoma schineri was described from the cJ sex 
only, from St. \'ineent. ? $ , larvai, and pupte have now 
been found in Trinidad, and are described here for the first 
time. 

2. The larva has short 2-joiuted anteunse ; dorsal surface 
spinose ; branchial filaments arranged in tufts ; lateral pro- 
cesses simple, pediiorm, ciliatc, without long setae ; sixth 
segment with only one pair of lateral processes. 

3. In the full-grown larva there are ten branchial fila- 
ments, arising in five pairs, in each tuft. In the half-grown 
larva the number is much less. A similar increase during 
growth has been observed in Liponeiira. 

4. The larvffi and pupaj described as those of the South- 
African Kelloyyina barnardi do actually belong to that 
species, in spite of douljts expressed on this point. The 
larvae of Kelloyyina and Paltostoma have a number of points 
of resemblance, and both ditier from Curupira in the 
arranfrement of the branchial filaments. But in the posses- 
sion of dorsal spines Paltostoma a])proaches Curupira. 

5. The pupa of Paltostoma schineri is characterized by the 
large number of erect spiniform hairs on its dorsal surface. 

G. The mouth-parts of (^ Paltostoma conform to the 
general Blepharocerid type, but are characterized by extreme 
length and slenderness of labrum, hypopharynx, and labium, 
and by extreme reduction of the palpi, which are minute 
and at most 2-j<unted. The ? has a mucli shorter, stouter 
proboscis, and ])alpi normally developed. 



the Eitrli/ Stages of l*aIti.stoii)a scIiiiiiTi. 



LiTKUATL'KK ('iTKD. 

[Profi'ssor Bezzi's two |):i|K'rs referred to below contain a 
full l)il)li()^ra|)liy of the literature, with suiniiiaries of tlu; 
contents of each work. It is only intended here to j^ive a list 
of the works specially referred to in the forc^^oing paper.] 

Hkzzi, M. "HI.'fftrocerMi Itftliuui, v^c." lOl.'}. IJtill. Soc. lint. Itnl. 

xliv. (litlLM pp. 1-114. 
. " .Siii lU>.'lari>ceriili ili-lla Nnova Zt'lniidu, con njrtriuiitf alia |»i»'fe- 

d.-nte m.Miioriii." I'Jl 1. Hull. Sue. eiit. Ital. xlv. (191.'{) pp. 1 1.5- 

lix.t. 
CiiiLTox, C. " Note on the OpriiiTence in New Zealand of Diptprous 

Insect.^ bel(in;.'inir to the Kamiiy Blepharocmdic." IWCHJ. Trans. 

New Zeiiland liixtitiit>', xxxviii. (I'JOo) pp. :?77-S, pi. xlvi. 
Edwauos, Y. \\. " Description of a now Species of lilepharoceridae 

from South .Vfrifti." hilJ. Ann. & Alag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 

Vol. ix. pp. (>.'W--4, ui. XX. 
IIf.tschko, .v. " Hiolojri.-'rhes ijb»'r Apistumyia eleyans, Bij;." 1912. 

Wien. ent. Z<"it. xxxi. pp. 3U.i-7. 
Kiii.LOGO, V. L. "The Net-winfred Mid<:e9 of North-America." 19(J3. 

Pnx". California .\cad. Sci. ser. '-i, Zuol. vol. iii. pp. 187-232, 

pis. xviii.-xxii. 
. " niepharoperidjB." 1907. Genera Inseutorum, fascic. hi. pp. 1- 

lo, pis. i.-ii. 
Lamd, C. G. "On Two Ulepharocerids from New Zealand.'' 1913. 

Trans. New Zealand Institute, xlv. (1912) pp. 70-7>'). 
LvTZ, A. " Beitiu;re zur Kenntnis der Biolojfie der blut?au<renden 

Dipteren." 1912. Alem. Inst. Oawaldo Cruz, iv, (1912) pp. 7-5- 

83. 
^U•LLKR, F. " .\ metamorphose de um insecto diptero." IS^Sl, .Vrcli. 

Mu9. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, iv. (1879) pp. 47-85, 147-151, pis. iv- 

vii. 
();>tkn-Sackf.x, C. R. *' Contributions to the .Study of the Liponeuridae, 

Loew." li->9o. Berlin, ent. Zeitschr. xl. pp! 148-169. 
WiLLlSTO.v, S. W. "On the Diptera of St. Vincent (West Indies)." 

1890. Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1896, pp. 2.5.3-446, pis. viii.-.xiv. 



EXPLAN.VTION OF PLATES IX.-Xl. 

[FiiTs. 1-14 drawn by H. S. with help of a Zeiss drawin>j:-apparatU8. 
Fii^. 15 by V. W. Kdwnnls (Brit. Mus. ), with drawing-apparatus. Figs. 
16, 17 by E. Wil-.ii (C.iuibridge L'niv. Press)."' 

Lauva. 

Fi'j. 1. Dorsal view. «•., eye ; «•.«., eye-like spot ; />., pit ; m.a., i.a.J.a., 
median, intermediate, and lateral cephalic areas. 

Fii/. 2. Ventr.il view of la.st two se^rmeut'S. a.:=seventh, eighth and 
ninth spiracles. 

Fig. 3. Antenna. 

Fi;i. 4. .\i>ex of same, niorp highly magiiiHtd. 



'202 Ml". G. A, HiUiU'iif^or on ntw 

PVPA. 

Fiff. •"). 11i>rsal view. 

Fuj. 6. Anterior outer Ifttniim of left-hnnJ respiratory liorn, viewed 

from behind, p.a., paler area. 
Fiij. 7. Inner laniinsp of left-liaiul resjiirntory horn, viewed from biliind. 

«.!./.. anterior inner lamina;/)././., posterior inner lauiinn; 

t., trachea, a fragment still attached under the chitinous wall 

of the body. 
Fill. 8. Diairrammatie pround-plan of left-hand respiratory horn. «i., 

median longitudinal line of thorax; a.o.l., p.o.l., anterior and 

posterior outer laminae: a.i.L, p.i.l., anterior and posterior 

inner laminae ; .«., spiracle. 

Imago. 

Fi(j. 9. Head and month-parts of cJ , mountod in balsam, the organs 

pushed apart by pressure, lahr., labruni ; fiyp., hypopharynx ; 

mx., lobes of the two maxilhe : lab., labium. 
Fi(j. 10. Right maxillary palpus of J, enlarged. 
/'/^. 11. Apex of J hypopharynx, enlarjjed : the lateral fringes are 

doubled one over the other, so that the hairs projecting on 

the rifiht side of the organ really arise from its left side, and 

vice versa. 
Fit/. 12. Apex of hypopharynx o^ KeUogr/ina harnarcU J, to same scfile 

as fig. 11, for comparison. 
Fig. 13. (5 genital armature from beneath, viewed as a transparent 

object. 
Fig. 14. Terminal joint of hind tarsus and claws, J (closely similar in $ ). 
Fig. 15. "Wing of J (from one of Williston's paratypes). 
Fig. 10. 5, X 7 : the pale reticulation shown on the abdomen is dae to 

desiccation-shrinkage. 
Fig. 17. 2, head and body, x 7. 



XIII. — Descriptionn of new Freslncater Fishes from Sierra 
Leotie. By G. A. Boulenger, F.R.S. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

A SMALL collection of fislies made at Matca, Sierra Leone, 
by Mr. N. W. Thomas, and presented by him to the British 
]^Ju.«eum, contains examples of three species previously known, 
viz. Martvsenius brachistiusj Gill, Fnndulus sjoestedli, Lonnb., 
Jlai'lochdus inacrurvs, Bl^r. ; and of i'our wliich I regard a.s 
new lo .'science, viz. an Fleotris allied to E. kri'Len.sis, l^lgr., 
which will be described iti tiie fortiicoming third volume ot 
the * Briii.sh Mnseum Catalogue/ and tiie following, referable 
to the genera Barlus, HapJochilus, and ParaWapia. 



Fiisliu'iittr Fis/ti's from Sierra Lnune. '10',\ 



Barb us leonerksts. 

Depth of body equal to length of hoail, '.\\ times in total 
lenc;th. Snout rounded, shorter than eye, which is 3 times 
in length «>t head and a little less than interorbital width ; 
mouth small, terminal, with i'eehly developed lips; no 
harhels. Dorsal III 7, equally distant from posterior border 
of eye and from camlal, l)order straight ; last simple ray not 
enlarged, not serrated, slightly shorter than head. Anal III "j, 
not reaching caudal. Pectoral shorter than head, not reaching 
ventral; latter below origin ot" di)rsal. Oatulal forked. 
Caudal peduncle 1^ times as long as deep. Scales radiately 
striated, 21-23 ^l, - between lateral line series and ventral, 
8 round c.iudal jx'diincle ; lateral line present only in front, 
reduced to 7 tubules. Yellow, with black dots on the 
borders of the dorsal scales ; a black spot on the dorsal fin 
and another at the base of the caudal. 

Total length 21 mm. 

Two speciujens. 

Closely allied to B.J'c, Bl^r. 



Ilaplochilus annulalus. 

Depth of body 5 times in total length, length of head 3.V 
tinies. Head tlat above ; snout a little shorter than eye ; 
mouth directtnl upwards, lower jaw projecting ; eye 2| times 
in length of head, 1^ times in interorbital width ; prieorbital 
very narrow. Dorsal 7, originating twice as far from occiput 
as from root of caudal, above |)osterior fourth of anal, |)ro- 
duced, longest ray as long as head. Anal 13, produceil like 
the dorsal. Pecti>ral a little shorter than head, e.\tending 
beyond base of ventral ; latter small. Camlal .pointed, 
median rays produced, longer than head. (Jaudal peduncle 
1^ times as long as deep. 28 or 2D scales in longitudinal 
series ; lateral line re|)resented by an interrupted series of 
))its. Lemon-yellow, with tour broad black rings, the first 
round the head, the last round the caudal peduncle ; dorsal 
and anal yellow, with the anterior rays black ; caudal 
orange, with two dark purple longitudinal lines. 

Total length 16 mm. 

'J'wo specimens. 

Appears most nearly related to //. chev^Weri, Pellegr. 



1*04 On new Frcs/twaler Fishes from Sirrra Leone. 

Paratilupia thoinasi. 

Deptl) of body 2 to 2^ times in total length, length of head 
2| to 3^ times. Head twice as long as broad ; snout witli 
convex upper profile, broader than long, 4 ^o ^ ]iostocnlar 
part of head ; eye 3^ to 3i times in length of head, 1 to 1 ^ 
times in inrerorbital width, greater than prfeorbital deptii ; 
mouth rather small, extending to between nostril and eye ; 
praiuiaxiliary jiroeesses short; teeth small, in 3 or 4 series ; 
3 or 4 set ies of scales on the cheek, width of scaly part a 
little less than diameter of eye. Gill-rakers short, 7 or 8 on 
lover part of anterior arch. Dorsal XIV 9-10 ; spines in- 
creasing in length to the last, which measures | to -^ length 
of head ; longest soft ray nearly as long as head. Anal 
III 7-8 ; third spine a little shorter than last dorsal. Pec- 
toral a little shorter than head, not exteiuling to vertical of 
origin of anal. Ventral much produced, extending beyond 
origin of anal. Caudal rounded. Caudal peduncle deeper 
than long. Scales very feebly denticulate, 25-27 f^ ; lateral 
lines -^jjj. Yellowish, with six black cross-bands, the third 
of which niay expand into a rliombic spot ; a black bar from 
the eye to the mouth ; a black opercular spot, with or without 
small pearl-white spots; dorsal and aiial fins grey, the former 
edged with white ; outer rays of ventral black. 

Total length 65 u)ra. 

'i'hree specimens. 

Appears most nearly related to P. dorsah's, Pellegr. As 
in P. codriiKjtoni, BIgr., the maxillary bone is concealed when 
the mouth is closed, the fish having the appearance of a 
Tilapia. 

The exploration of the freshwater fauna of Sierra Leone 
has not receivefl much attention. Tiie number of species of 
fisheswith which I am acquainted amounts only to eighteen : — 
Pohjpterus palmas^ Ay res, Protopterus annectens, Ow., Mar- 
cuseniiis hrachistnis, Gill, JSotoptertis ofer, Gtiir., Alestes 
ovfjipivnis, Gthr., Barhvs leonensis, Blgr., Clarias Uberiensis, 
Stdr., J'lindulus cjoesiedd, Lonnb., Haplochilus fasciolatns, 
Gtnr., H. chaperi, Sauv., H. mncruriis, BIgr., //. annulatus, 
Blgr.. Paraiilapia t/wmnsi, Blgr., Ilemichroniis fasciatus, 
Peters, II. bimaciilatus, Gill, Eleotris lehretoni, Stdr., E. leo- 
nensis, ^'n''-» ^""^ Mastacembelus reticulaius, Blgr. 



I 



^Ir. I.. A. Umiailailc — Aofes on Carida.i. L'l).') 



XIV. — Notes on Carides. By L. A. Ijokkadaili;, >M.A., 
Lecturer cm Zooloi^y in the University of Cambridge ; 
Fellow, Dean, and Ijfctiirir of Sclvvyn College. 

During tlie investi<;ation of certain collections of prawns 
frtnn tlie linlo-l*acilic rcf^ion I liave arrived at the following 
conclusions, which appear to be worth putting on record in a 

prelimiiinrv •statcmiMit. 

1. Tin: Craxgoxoida. 

The bounds of this suj)erfamily must be enlarged to admit 
the genera Anchistioidrs^ Tanlson, 1875, Am/i/ii/xdfemoTi^ 
Nobili. 1001, and Ili/menncera, hntv. This addition involves 
two concessions in the definition of the group : (1) if Anc/ii- 
stioldes and Aitij)Jiip(da'nion are to be admitted, it can no 
lonjier be stated tliat the mandible is always without incisor- 
process; (2) the inclusion of Hymenocera makes it necessary 
to allow the persistence of a small representative of the outer 
lacinia of the maxilla. 

Auc/iislioides and Amphipahemon constitute a new family, 
the Anehistioidida?, intermediate between the C'rangonoida 
and the Fala^monoida. The princi|)al characteristics of this 
family are : (1) a well-ileveloped, coni[)ressed, toothed ros- 
trum ; (2) a short, thick, accessory flagellum on the an- 
tennule ; (3) a deeply cleft mandible without palp ; (J:) the 
absence of " laciniie" from the maxilla ; (5) the absence of the 
exopodite from the third maxilliped; (0) 'aw appendix interna 
on the tirst abdominal limb ; (7) considerable variability in 
the armature of the telson ; (ii) a gill-t'ormula consisting of 
pleurobranchs for the leg*, an arthrobranch for the third 
maxillij)ed, and cpipodites (mastigobranchs) on the maxil- 
lipcds. 

IJ fjmenocera is shown by its mouth-parts to belong to the 
Gnathophy lliuaj. The species described by Baiss as II. cerat- 
ophthahna deserves to become the type of a new genus. I 
have allied this genus Phyllognathia, and placed it also in 
the Gnathophyllidjp. The j)rincipal characteristics of that 
family are now as follows : — (1) a compressed dentate ros- 
trum ; (2) the outer tiagellum of the antennule thick at the 
base and clett tor a very short distance ; (3) the mandible 
simple, slender, curved, j)ali)les8 ; (4) the inner "lacinia*' of 
the maxilla lost, the outer either lost or very small but still 
cleft ; (5) the third maxilliped with exopodite, simple mastigo- 
lirancli, and endopodite of four joints, some or all of which 



M)G 



^Ir. L. A. Boriadailc — yotea <>« Curithf. 



are j^reatly broadoncil ; (G) the telson with two pairs of spiues 
at tlie sides, and at the end an outer short an<i an inner longer 
pair of spine?, a subinedian pair of slender feathered spines, 
and ft median jiointed projoetion ; (7) a gill-fornuila com- 
prising pleurobranehs tor the legs, an arthrobrancli for the 
third niaxilliped, and in Ili/vienocera the vestige of a pleuro- 
branch for the latter limb, with epipodites on the inaxdlipeds 
only. 

II. 'J'llK PALiEMONID^. 

There ninst be recognized in this family four subfamilies, 
separated as lullows : — 

I. None of the bristles at the end of the larval telson 

become in the adult transposed on to the anterior 
part of that oviran, -wliich is therefore unarmed 
on back and sides. The surface of the molar 
process of the mandible is closely ridpred. [Thei'e 
IS a pleurobrancli for the third maxilliped.J .... DesmocaridincB. 

II. Two pairs of the bristles at the end of the larval 

telson become in the adult transposed on to the 
back of that organ. The surface of the molar 
process of the mandible bears some half-dozen large 
knobs or crests. 

A. The end of the telson bears six spines. [There is 

no pleurobrancli to tiie third maxilliped.J .... Pontoniina. 

B. The end of the telson bears four spines. 

1. The side of the carapace is traversed by a 

suture. The outer flagellum of the antennule 
is but slightly cleft. Tiiere is no pleuro- 
branch to the third maxilliped Tyjihlocaridinte. 

2. The side of the carapace has no suture. The 

outer flagellum of the antennule is deeply 
cleft. There is a pleurobranch to the third 
maxilliped Palcemonina;. 



III. Definitions of New Genera. 

1. Lysmatella (Hippolytidse). 

Related to Lysmaia, but without inastigobranchs on the 
legs. 

2. Phyllognathia (Gnathophyllidge). 

Iscliium of third maxilliped narrow and movably sutured 
to nierus. Mandible subcylindrical. Laciniae of maxilla? 
lost. Outer flagellum of antennule iiormal. Ho.strum of a 
good length. 



Ml. I- A. Hornulnili- — \ott.soii Car'ules. 207 

^5. L rocaridtiiu (^Poiitoniinic). 

Hody very sleiitler ami cornpri'ssod. Thorax without 
dorsal swelling. Sixth abdominal sf^iiKMit tdoii^fate. Ito.s- 
fruin Ion;;, iipcurved, toothed al)ove aiul hchjw. Outer 
<lai,'olhiin of aiit«Muiule deeply cleft. Anteuual scale lon;r, 
narrow. Mandilde with two-jointed palp. Second niaxil- 
liped with podohrnncli. Third inaxillipi-d narrow, five- 
jointed, with artlirohianch. 

4. Pontoniopsis (Pontoniiiiie). 

Body rjraceful, luit not niueh compressed. Thorax without 
<lorsal swelling;. Sixth ahdonimal .segment short. Rostrum 
rather short, depressed, lanceolate in dorsal view, toothless. 
( )uter fla^ellum of antennule moderately cleft. Antennal 
S( ale of ^ood breadth. ]\Iandible without palp. Second 
maxilliped without podobrancli. Third maxilliped with 
vestigial arthrobranch. Eyes spherical. 

5. J'l ric/imenceus (Pontoniinze). 

Body rather stout ; ce|ihaIothorax deep, a good deal com- 
pressed ; abdomen evenly curved. Thorax without dorsal 
swelling. Rostrum rather short, compressed, toothed above 
only. Outer antennularflagellum not deeply cleft. Antennal 
scale of good breadth. J\Iandible without palp. Second 
maxilliped without jiodobranch. Third maxilliped narrow, 
with vesti;rial arthrobranch. 



IV. Definitions OF New Subgenera. 

The species of Periclimeius fall into four groups, as 
follow : — 

I. li«)t.trum toothless. No spines on trunk and legs Eiisiqer. 

II. Kustruoj toothed. Spines at certain points on trunk and 
legs. 

A. Cornea opival. [Upper edge of rostrum convex. Strong 

supraorbital spine. J Coniujer. 

B. Cornea not ogivai. 

1. Upper edgf of rostrum convex. Second leg with 

.xhort wrist, and unarmed save inone species. Supra- 
orbital spine in one species only Cnstiycr. 

2. Upper edge of rostrum straight or concave. Second 

leg rarely with short wrist, generally with spine on 

wrist or arm or both. Supraorbital spine common .. Falciytr. 



20S Mr. L. A. Boiralaile — .Vo/e.s on Cur ides. 

V. DiiriNiTiONs OF Xew Species. 

1. PimddJiis {Plesionira) (jraci/is. 

Rostrum loi!?:;, gently upcurved from base, bearing above 
two strong teeth on a crest over the eye and eight Sj)inules, 
below a row of small siiarp teeth. Eye wider than stalk, 
uith distinct oci'lius. First leg simple and s])arsely hairy. 
Second wrist 9-jointed. Third abdominal tergiim not pro- 
duced into spine. 

Western Indian Ocean, 200 fath. 

2. lleterocarpns unicarlnatus. 

Related to 77. longirosfris, MacGilchrist, 1005, but without 
the hinder three-quarters of the autennal carina. 
Providence I., G37-G65 fath. 

3. lleterocarpns affi-nis. 

Related to //, alpkonsi, Bate, 1888, but has (1) the ros- 
trum much more strongly upcurved, (2) fewer joints in the 
second wrists, (3) walking-legs considerably longer than the 
autennal scale. 

Say a de Malha, 300-500 fath. 

4. Thalassocaris affinis. 

Related to T. lucidus (Dana), 1852, but has (1) the ros- 
trum less strongly recurved, (2) stronger teeth on the an- 
tennal scale, (3) the second hand shaped as in T. crinitus. 

Maldives and Saya de Malha. 

5. Thalassocaris iiuddivensis. 

Rostrum at first descending and then horizontal, outreaching 
autennal scale, ^, two teeth behind orbit. Suborbital and 
autennal spines only. Autennal scale without teeth. Second 
leg feeble and simple. No spine on third abdominal tergum. 

Maldive Is. 

G. Tlior maldivensis. 

Rostrum very short, with one tooth above and none below. 
Supraorbital and autennal spines present. First leg in 
female stout, simjde, and shorter than third maxilliped, in 
male as long as body, granulate, stout, but with chela no 
stouter than rest of limb, arm and handsubequal, fingers one- 
quarter length of palm, on which they arc bent inward, each 



Mr. \j. A. Honadail. X,>fef! on C<in'1,"<. L'(»*J 

ln'Mrin;if a low tooth. Second wrist S-jointtid, tlic sccoinl 
joint larger than the others. Last three legs aliko in both 
sexes. 

Miiiikoi, Malciivea, Salomon. 

7. Lyamata affints. 

Related to L. seticamla (llisso), 181^, and L. chilloni, 
Kemp, 1!)14, hnt (I) rosfruni reaches beyond eyes, ends 
before middle of second joint of antennnle, ami has t'orniuhi 
^, lower toeth small, but larger than in L. chilloni^ (2) ptery- 
gostomial an<j;le subrectangular and nsually produced into 
spinule, (!^) first leg slightly outreaches antenna! scale, but 
falls consitlerabiy short of end of third maxilliped. 

Minikoi, Peros Baidios, Salomon, Seychelles. 

8. LjisiuattVa prima. 

Body compresseil. Rostrum j^, straight but upcurved at 
end, outreaching antennular stalk. Thirtl maxilliped as stout 
as first leg, in which hand and arm are snbequal, wrist a little 
shorter. Second wrist has 20-22 joints, the last the longest. 

Maldive Is. 

9. Amphipalamon gardineri. 

Rostrum very deep, straight at l)ase, outreaching antennal 
Fcale. Telson bears two ])airs of s|)ines on the dorsal side 
and at the hind end one stout pair of spines and a pair of 
feathered bristles. 

N. Male Atoll, Maldive Is. 

10. Amphipalicmon cooperi. 

Rostrum not very deep, arched at base, reaching end of 
antennal scale. Telson as in A. gardineri, but with hinder 
])air of dorsal spines farther back. ]\leropodite of second leg 
^j of length of liand. 

S. Nilandu Atoll, Maldive Is. 

11. Xikoides nuddivefisis. 

Related to A', durui-j Pauls., 187;'), but has (]) rostrum of 
quite dill'erent shape, the dorsal tooth being larger and placed 
much faithcr back, (2) exopodite of fir>t leg relatively 
shorter, (i?) wrists of first legs equal, (4) no spines on ischio- 
podite or meropodite on last three legs. 

^Maldive \:^. 



210 .Mr. ]j. A. Borr.ulailo — yofcs on Gdridea. 

12. ^'Ki/eon ru<^fiiio.<tnn. 

Related to A. medium (Ale. it And.), ISO'J, but lias (1) the 
heatliiiijf of tlie ridges of the carapace much coarser, (2) no 
tooth on either side of base of rostrum, (3) the large spine 
near the pteryj^ostomial angle placed at the end of the supra- 
niarjTinal, not lateral, ridge. 

Westerji Indian Ocean. 

13. UrocarideUa gracUh. 

Rostrum j^j^„ nearly twice as long as carapace. Antenna! 
and hejiatic spines present. Anfennular stalk three-quarters 
length of antc-nnal scale. Latter not half length of rostrum, 
subtruncate, its distal spine not projecting. First leg out- 
reaching antennal scale by tingers. Second legs equal and 
similar, unarmed, outreaching antennal scale by band and 
part of \vi ist. 

Maldive Is. 

l-l. Pahemonella elegans. 

Related to P. tridentata, Borr., 1809, but with rostrum 
lanceolate, not reaching end of first juint uf antennai, its 
formula ^, 

Salomon I. 

15. Pahnmonella longirostris. 

Rostrum ^, outreaching antennular stalk by nearly half its 
own length, upcurved. First wrist half as long again as 
its hand. Arm of second leg of even width throughout. 

FardifTolu Atoll, Maldive Is. 

IQ. PericUmenes {Cristiger) frater. 

Related to P. soror, Nobili, 1904, but (1) teeth on upper 
edge of rostrum closer set towards tip, (2) two distal spines 
on first joint of antennule, (3) antennal scale decidedly out- 
reaches first leg, (4) no accessory denticle on dactylopodites 
of last three legs. 

Seychelles. 

17. PericUmenes {Cristiger) incerlus. 

Related to P. //arvus, Borr., 1898, but (1) body more 
slender, (2) rostrum shallower, (3) a denticle on carapace 
behind beginning of rostral crest, (4) penultimate joint of 
third maxilliped longer than end-joint. 

AJaldive Is. 



Mr. r^. A. Borradailc — Sotei on Cttriden. 211 

18. Pericliinenes {('n'sti(/er) conimensulis. 

Rostrum \j, lanceolate, reaching eutl o£ anteiinular stalk, no 
tooth behind orhit. Supraorbital, hepatic, and antennal 
Rpines present. Two distal sj»ini'S on fust joint of antcnnule. 

Torres Straits, on Coinanthus annulatus. 

I'J. Periilimeties {Corni<jer) cormUus. 

Rostiuin |, deep, lanceolate, outstretched by antennal stalk. 

Eye without pa|nlla. 

Male Atoll, Malilive Is,, on crinoid. 

20. Periclimenes (^Corniijer) ceratophthalmus. 

Rostrum -, shallow, lanceolate, outreached by antennal 
stalk. Eye with papilla at apex. 
JSlald Atoll, Maldive Is., on crinoid. 

21. Periclimenes (Fahiger) nilandensis. 

Rostrum -, outreaching antennuhir stalk distinctly and 
antennal scale barely, its upper edge gently concave from 
the base. Supraorbital, antennal, and hepatic spines present. 
Antennal scale broad, with distal spine not projecting beyond 
end. S<cond legs unequal, unarmed. 

S. Nilandu Atoll, Mahlive Is, 

22. Pericliinenes {Falciger) affinis. 

Rostrum ^, oufreaching antennular stalk but not antennal 
scale, straight at first, then gently upcurved, its tip simple. 
Supraorbital, anteimal, and hepatic spines present. Outer 
eilge of long joint of third maxilliped bears several sj)ines. 
Second leg with two spines and a blunt tooth at end of 
wrist, tingers toothed, about oue-tiiird length of palm, wrist 
nearly twice length of fingers. 

Salomon I. 

23. Penclintenea [^FaUi(jer) dubius. 

Related to P. ajjinif, but (1) rostrum ^^ its tip bitid, (2) in 
second leg, wrist and arm stouter, and fingers about equal to 
wiist, more than half lengtii of palm. 

Minikoi. 



212 Ml-. L. A. Borr:i lailo — Xotes on CariJes. 

21. l^criclinicne.s (^J\iU'i;/cr) comj>ressus. 

Rostrum ^, rather slmllow, straight at first hut slightly 
upturned at end. Antennal and hepatic spines alone present. 
{Second log nnaruied, with short wrist, outreaching antennal 
scale by hand. 

Saya de Malha. 

25. Periclimenes {Falciger) hrockett'i. 

Rostrum p straight, shallow, directed somewhat down- 
wards, reaching end of antennal scale, and sliglitly ont- 
reaching antennular stalk. Antennal and hepatic spines 
alone present. Two distal spines on tirst joint of antennulc 
Second leg unarmed, with rather short wrist, slender hand, 
and simjile fingers. 

Male Atoll, Maldive Is., on bro^Yn crinoid. 

26. Periclimenes {Falciger) pottsi. 

Rostrum \, reaching end of antennal scale, outreaching 
antennular stalk, its upper edge curving very slightly down- 
ward from the base and more strongly upwards near the tip. 
Hepatic and antennal spines alone present. Last two joints 
of antennular stalk slender. Antennal scale narrow, longer 
than cara))ace, its distal spine projecting beyond its end. 
Second \vrist bears a spine. 

Torres Straits, on Comanthus. 

27. Periclimenes (^Falciger) suvadive/isis. 

Rostrum ^, outreaching antennular stalk, outreached by 
antennal scale, straight except at the tip, which is gently 
upcurved. Hepatic, antennal, and suborbital, but no supra- 
orbital spines present. Last two joints of antennular stalk 
stout. Antennal scale narrow, shorter than carapace, its 
distal spine projecting beyond its end. Second wrist bears a 
spine. 

Suvadiva Atoll, Maldive Is. 

28. Periclimenes {Falciger) seychellensis. 

Rostrum ^, deep, its upper edge decidedly concave from 
base, outreaching antennular stalk. Antennal and hepatic 
spines alone present. Antennal scale rather broad, its distal 
spine projecting beyond its end. Second legs equal, un- 
armed, palm and fingers subequal. 

Praslin, Seychelles. 



On new Dragonjiiea from Sierra Leone. 213 

29. Per'iclimenea [Faldjer) Lohimadulensis. 

Kelattnl to P. borradailti, Katlib., 1904 {~P. tenuipes, 
Boir., 1898), but (1) rostrum 2^ times length of carapace, 
(2) second le;; 7 times length of caraj>ace, (8) second legs 
unlike, one witli fiiif^ers gaping very widely. 

Kolumadulu Atoll, MaKlive Is. 

30. Pontoniopsia comanthi. 

Rostrum reaching end of second joint ot" antennule, its 
hri-adth about eipial to that of eye. Antennal scale out- 
reaching antennular stalk, broad. Arm and wrist ot Hist leg 
subequal. Great chela outreaching antennular stalk by hand, 
its wiist very short and wide, with a sharp process below. 

Torres Straits, on Comaniliua. 

31. Periclimeivcusjiinbriatus. 

Rostrum ^, without teeth behind orbit. Fixed tinker of 
second leg bears knob and movable finger a socket. Fingers 
of uroj)ods, scales, &c., very long. 

Mulaku Atoll, Muldive Is. ; Providence. 

32. Periclimenaua rohustus. 

Rostrum ^, with two teeth beliind orbit. Movable finger 
of second leg bears knob and movable finger a socket. Fringes 
not remarkably long. 

Amirante I. 

33. Pontonia maldivenais. 

Rostrum reaches middle of first joint of antennule. Maxilli- 
j)eds without exopodites. Second legs unequal, the larger 
about twice as long as carapace, with long, parallel-sided 
hand. Dactylopodites of last three legs simple. 

Fadiifolu Atoll, Alaldive Is. 



XV. — Sew Dratjonjiies (Odonata) of the Sub/aniili/ Libellu- 
linae from Sierra Leone, IT. Africa. By Dr. F. Ris, 
Rheinau, Switzerland. 

The following descriptions have been extracted from proof- 
sheets and nianusciipt of the writer^s 'Monograph of the 
Libelluliiuo ' (Collections Selys, f:isc. ix.-xvi.). By the 
kindness of Mr. llerbert Campion 1 was enabled to examine 
Ann. <£; Mag. N. Uist. Ser. 8. Vol. xv. 15 



214 Dr. F. Ris on neic 

n o;reat minibcr of very interesting Libellullnaj, collected for 
tlie Imperial Bureau of Entomolo<iy (formerly the Entomo- 
logie;il Kesearcli (\immittee, Tropical Afiiea) in Nigeria, 
Sierra Leone, ami British East Africa. Many records from 
the earlier consignments, especially those from Nigeria, were 
entered in the main text of the monograj)h and published. 
Others ai rived too late for that purpose, but in p;ood time 
for the "Additions," which, together with the indices, were 
due to be issued in 1914:, being the last instalment of the 
nuinogra|)h. The lamentable situation in Europe generally, 
and in Belgium es])ecially, leaves us little hope of seeing 
that last part j)ublislud in the near future. In the beautiful 
collection sent home from Sierra Leone by Dr. J.J. Simpson 
there were four new species, one of them representing an 
interesting new genus. Instead of separate publication, 
which was originally discussed, insertion of the novelties in 
the monograph was preferred, U])on tiie assumption that the 
"Additions" would ajipear without any long delay. But 
under the changed conditions of to-tlay, separate j)ublication 
was again considered, and decided upon. Mr. H. Champion has 
kindly read the descriptions for correctness of language, they 
being the author's own translation from the original German 
text. 

All the type-specimens have been presented by the 
Imperial Bureau of Entomology to the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

Allorhizucha campioni^ sp. n. 

2 cJ , 2 ? , Sierra Leone ; Ka Yima, Kangama, Gigbema, 
Dumballa, U, 29. vi., 22. viii., 7. ix. 1912 [Dr. J. J. 
Simpson) . 

Closely allied to Allorhizucha kliiigi, Karsch, but differing 
in the following details : — (a) greater number of cubito-anal 
cross-veins (Cuq), 4 in front wing, 3 in hind wing; (b) at 
the humeral suture a narrow interrupted light green line ; 
(c) the greenish-yellow stripes on the sides of the thorax 
a little narrower, slightly concave instead of straight at 
anterior margin ; (d) abdomen of male distinctly fusiform ; 
(e) snperior appendages a little longer ; ( /') slight difference 
in genitalia of second segment, the internal branch of the 
liamule being more erect (nearly as figured in Lib. fig. 52 
for A. preussi, Karsch). Minute as these differences are, 
they ai)j)ear suflicicnt in their totality to justify sjiecific 
distinction, the more so as there are specimens brought by 
Dr. Simjjson, also from Sierra Leone, that agree ])erfectly 
with A. klingi, as described in Lib. p. 81. Tiie interesting 



Dragon/lies from Sierra Leone. 



215 



species is nanietl alter Mr. Herbert Campion, who first 
observed its peculiar leatures. 

cJ (atliilt). — Labium li;;lit yellow, with a broad median 
black stripe. Labium bhiik. Face li^ht greenish yellow 
Frons metallic greenish blue, light yellowish at antcro-lateral 
angles. Verte.\ metallic greenisli blue, broadly convex, 
very slightly emarginate. Pruthorax black, a median spot 
and the vertically erect margin of posterior lobe greenish 
yellow. Thorax deep black, with light yellowish-greeu 
markings : — a narrow line at each side of median suture; in 
front of iiumeral suture a narrow dorsal dot and a point in 
middle of suture itself; two broad lateral stripes, first ono 
from the meiastigma to a little more than halfway to humeral 
suture, second one on posterior two-thirds of metepimeron, of 
which the posterior ventral angle remains black ; anterior 
margin of lutth stripes slightly concave, of first one near 
dorsal end, of second one in middle. Ventral surface dull 
greenish grey, sutures lined with black. Legs robust, 
black; tir»t femora yellow internally. Third femora with 
Very numerous, about 30, very small, regular, triangular 
denticles ; second femora with similar, but still more closely 
arranged and gradually lengthening denticles. Spines of 
tibiie rather robust, about 10 on third tibito. Teeth of tarsal 
claws robust, remote from end. Abdomen relatively short, 
slender ; basal segments slightly widened laterally and 
dorso-ventrally ; '6-5 very narrow; 6-b with slight fusiform 
dilatation. iilack, with yellow markings: on segment 1 
a broad lateral and small, triangular, postero-dorsal spot ; 
on 2 a large lateral U-shaped spot and mid-dorsal, i)0s- 
teriurly narrowed stripe ; on 3 a lateral stripe, narrowly 
inteirupted at the transverse carina ; on 4 two small lateral 
spuis on anterior half ; on 5 a small antero-lateral spot ; 
wholly black; 7 with a large elliptical spot on each side, 
extending over the entire width and three-fourths of the 
segment's length ; 8-10 black. Ventral surface black, with 
yellowish median spots on segments 3—7. Superior ap[>en- 
dages about as long as ninth and tenth segments together, a 
jjtile longer than in A. klin(/i, but scarcely different in form. 
Inferior appendage very little shorter than superiors. Geni- 
talia of second segment: hamule generally as in the other 
two s|)ecies, internal branch very thin, almost vertical ; lobe 
narrowly elliptical, of about e([ual height as the hamule. 

Wings slighlly stained wilh greyish yellow, golden yellow 
at base : in fiont wing a vestige in * sc. and cu., in hind wing 

♦ For an explanatiuu of llie ternjinology employed by Dr. His in 
dpscribiug the \eins and sj)aced in the wnigs ol Libellulinte, see tluit 
author's mouoj^raph of the subfamily, fasc. ix. pp. 14-10. — II. C 

15* 



216 Dr. F. Kis on new 

sc. to Anq. 1, en. to Ciiq. 1, 2-3 cell3 in anal area. Anq. 
U.U; Cuq. ^;4; t. ^J j ti. 1.0; ht. \\; Bqs. H; 
second specimen : Anq. 14(^) . 14 ; Cuq. ^ ; t. p-^ ; ti. . ; 
ht. j-^ ; Bqs. ^ ; in both specimens Jiscoidal area with a 
sinij;le row to neiir end and not widened. 

$ . — Markinixs as in male, only there is aUo an antero- 
lateral yellow spot on segment 6. Genital segments not in 
good condition ; tliey appear scarcely distinct from A. klingi. 
Wings rather deeply t^tnined with grevish yellow, especially 
along the veins ; yellow basal stripes slightly larger than in 
male. Anq. 15 . 15 ; Cuq. J^J; t. "^ ; ti. 1.0; ht. ]^\ ; 
Bqs. 7/^2 ', in discoidal area ol" front wings on right side one 
row of cells to tiie level of the bridge, then two rows ; on 
left side two cells twice at beginning, afterwards as on right 
side; scarcely more widened to wing's edge than in male. 
Second specimen : Anq. 15 . 15 ; Cuq. *~ ; t, ^^ ; ti. 1.1; 
ht. ^J ; Bqs. ^y; discoidal area in front wing, right side 
two rows from the beginning, left side at first one cell and a 
half, followed by two rows. 

cJ. Abd. 21-5, hw. 25, pt. >2. ? . 21, 25, >2. 

Orthetrum sagitta, sp. n. 

1 (?, 1 ?, Sierra Leone, Port Lokko, 2, 3. v. 1912 
(Dr. J. J. Su)ip>,on). 

Nearest to O. africanum, Selys, but smaller ; abdomen 
not longer than wings, fourth segment not considerably 
elongate, not fully 5 mm. (7 mm. in ajricanum) ; internal 
branch of hamule considerably higher than external branch 
(of about equal height in africanum). Antenodal cross- 
veins black in sc. ; pterostigma dark ; very slender species ; 
segments 1-3 much inflated, globose, 4-10 very narrow, 
parallel ; mostly 1 row of cells Ks.-Hspl, 

^ . — Labium light yellow. Labrum light yellow, very 
narrowly lined with black at free margin. Face and frons 
anteriorly light greenish yellow ; frons above obscure oliva- 
ceous, but narrowly and indistinctly brown at base. Vertex 
dull brownish. Thorax dull greenish, with fine elevated 
black points and the following dark lines, black on dorsum, 
brown and somewhat diffuse at sides: complete and rather 
broad line at median suture ; about equally broad, dorsally 
truncate line a little nearer to humeral than to median 
suture ; complete line at humeral suture, somewhat diffusely 
invading space between suture and antehujneral black line; 



]>ragonjiies from Surra Leone. 217 

three lateral lines : (1) a little iti front of mctaafigma, 
[2) across nuMa.sti^inn, (i5) on second Literal suture. Ventral 
surl'aco (lull ferriij,Mnous, with thin whitish pruinosity. Logs 
hlaik, fir.st teniora yellow internally, seconil and third femora 
f^reenish brown in basal half. Aljdoniinal sep^ments 1-3 in- 
Hated, almost spherical (but rather considerably smaller than 
in nfn'c(inu)n) ; -1-10 very sleiuh'r, [laraliel. »Segment 1 dull 
greenish, obscure dorsally ; 2 similiir, bnt daik lining of 
carina3 broader and confliitnt in posterior half cf dorsum; 
4-6 black, on eacii side, slightly behind the middle, a yellow 
spot, distant by about its own length from end of segment 
and not fully touching mid-dorsal carina; 8-10 wholly 
black. Ventral surface 1-.'} ilull greenish, with carinas nar- 
rowly bbick ; 4-8 black, with submedian yellowish sj)0t, large 
on 4, successively smaller j)osteriorly. Uenitalia of second 
segment : anterii>r lamina moderate, ilepressed ; convexity 
of basal part Hat, with many minute black spines; a very 
small notch at end. Jlamule small ; internal branch a robust 
triangular hook, but slightly curved sidewards, very little 
higher than anterior hiinina ; external branch appreciably 
shorter, separated by a narrow incision of \cyy moderate 
depth, broadly rounded. Lobe large, almost circular in 
outline. 

Wings slightly stained with greyish from the triangular 
region outwards; minute vestige of yellow in cu. of hind 
■wings. ]\lembranule black. Vterostigma dark ferruginous, 
between strong black veins. Venation wholly black ; only a 
very narrow dull yellowish line at the costa anteriorly. Ar- 
culus a little distal to Anq. 2. Anq. 13 . 13 ; t. ^^ ; ht. J-^ ; 
1 row Ks.-Rspl. Abd. 30, hw. 30, pt.<3, length of fourth 
segment o mm. 

5 . — Almost entirely similar to male in shape, colour, and 
pattern. Lateral brownish lines of thorax lighter and nar- 
rower. Abdomen but little more robust ; foliaceous dilata- 
tions of segment 8 very narrow; vulvar scale not visible. 
Appendages black, very acute; supra-anal tubercle and sub- 
anal valves light yellowish. 

Minute vestige of yellow in cu. and in anal area of front 
win«r3, slightly more yellow in hind wings : vestige in sc, in 
cu. halfway to Cuq., one cell at membranule. Anq. 14.15; 
doubled cells in lls.-llspl. 370 J venation otherwise as in 
male. Abd. 29, hw. 30, pt. 3, length of fourth segment < '). 

Cyanotuemis, geu. nov. 
Facies of lladrot/iemis, but differing in the [losition of the 



218 Pr. F. TJis 0?? J1C7P 

nrculiis (proxinml to second ant«^notlal) and in tlio confi2;nra- 
tion of the eyes, tlie poslorior lobe of the prothoiax, and the 
genital seoruicnts in female. 

'lV|)e of venation between Crocolhemis and Bradinopi/fja ; 
differinp^ from both by configuration of eyes and of posterior 
lobe of prothorax. 

In regard to eyes and ])rothora\- nearest to Rhodothemis. 
Spines of legs not so markedly differentiated as in Rliodo- 
themis. More important differences from that genus : 
(1) discoidal area in front wing with 3 rows of cells to level 
of nodus, (2) Cu, in hind wing at anal angle of t., (3) 2 roAvs 
lls.-Kspl., (4) 4-5 rows between A3 and wing's edge in hind, 
wing, (5) last Anq. in hind wing incomplete, apparently an 
almost regular and therefore veiy curious feature. 

Cyanotliemis will find its place in our systematic arrange- 
ment of Libellulinte immediately preceding Rhodothemis. 

Head moderate ; eyes meeting scarcely more than in a 
point : occipital triangle very large. Frons very prominent, 
rounded, without anterior ridge, and not flattened anteriorly ; 
furrow moderate. Vertex broadly convex, very slightly 
einarginate. 

Posterior lobe of prothorax large, erect, divided into two 
rounded lobes, ciliate. Thorax robust. Legs comparatively 
short, robust. Male with third femora armed in proximal 
Iwo-thirds with about 10 moderately robust spines, increasing 
in length very gradually, 3-4- longer s))ines at end ; second 
femora with about 7 small, gradually lengthening and 2 
terminal long spines. Spines of tibia3 long and robust, 8—9 
on third tibias. Teeth of tarsal claws robust, in distal third. 

Abdomen rather short, relatively broad, depressed ; mode- 
rately widened at base dorso-ventrally, very gradually nar- 
rowed to end. No distinct transverse carina on fourth segment. 
Genitalia of second segment small, tlie hamule with regular 
external branch. For genital segments of female see under 
the species. 

Wings long, reticulation serrate, t. in front wing on a 
level with t. in hind wing. Sectors of arculus with a long- 
common stalk in both wings. Arculus between Anq. 1 and 2. 
Cuj in hind wing at anal angle of t. Anq. 12^-14^, last 
Anq. incomplete in hind wing as well. Pioximal side of t. 
in hind wing at arculus. 1 Cuq.in all wings ; noBqs. t, in 
front wing narrow, crossed, t. in hind wing crossed ; lit. 
free ; ti. in front wing 3-celled. M2 feebly double-curved. 
2 rows Rs.-llspl. Cui in front wing strongly convex ; 
discoidal area considerably widened to end ; 3 rows to level 
of nodus. 1 row Mj-.Mspl. Anal area of hind wing broad. 



Dragonjlits finni Surra Leone . 219 

Interpolated cells at anal aiiglo of f. and external an^le in 
anal loop ; Aj nioderaftdy an^^ulati'd. -1-5 rows between A3 
and ed^e in liind win^, conspicuously arraiif^cd in transvcr.se 
rows. 31eml)raiiule moderate. l*tero.sti;j;ina sn)all. 

Ci/anotheiuis simpsoni, sp. n. 

Collected for the Imperial Bureau: 1 ^, Sierra Lcoim, 
Yana, 1. iv. 1012; 1 c? , S. L., Monj^'lieri, 15. ix. Uil2 
{Dr. J. J. Simpson). ColUciion of Brit. Aluseum : 1 (^ , 
1 ?, Soutlieni Ni^^eria, Osliun Bridge, Usliogbo, i.-iii. 191,'i 
{Or. II. St radian). 

(£ (adult, Yana). — Labium black, at anlero-lateral tiWf^lc 
of lateral lol)e a brownish spot. Lnbruu), tace, and frons 
anteriorly brownish l)lack. Fr<>n-< above brilliant sky-blue. 
Vertex at l)ase and anteriorly black, sky-blue above. Occi- 
pital trianjrle li;iht blue, narrowly lined with whitish. Pro- 
thorax black, upraised posterior lobe li.^lit blue. Thoracic 
dorsum brilliant sky-blue from narrow black line on median 
suture to siifrhtly mc're than hallway to humeral suture, 
including antealar sinus; otherwise Llackisli. Sides very 
dark reddish brown ; ventral surface blackish brown, very 
slightly bluish pruinose. Legs brownish black. Abdominal 
segments 1-2 black, 3-7 dull bluish (sky-blue in living in- 
sect V), t?-10 black. Ventral surface black, mo lerately Avhitish 
pruinose. Appendages small ; superiors distant at base, con- 
vergent, ending rather abruptly in an acute point; in side- 
view obliquely cut at end, no distinct inferior angle, about 12 
small irregular denticles ; inferior appendage broad, niorc^ 
than three-fourths the length of superiors. Geidtalia of 
second segment : anterior lamina depressed, broadly elliptical, 
ciliate. Hamulc small, depressed posteriorly ; external 
branch triangular, acute, directed laterally ; internal branch 
a small fine hook, strongly curved laterally. Lobe long and 
narrow, strongly depres.-ed posteriorly, slightly higher than 
Iwunide (the entire stiucture of the type found in Crocothtmis 
and lihoilotheniis). 

Wings hyaline, very narrowly and diffusely lined with 
greyish at tips. Deep blackish brown basal spots: in front) 
wing in 8c. and cu. not fully to Anr^. 1 and Ouq. ; in hind 
wing to Anq. 3 in sc. (also in proximal half of length in c), 
a little into hf. and t., and obliquely cut to halfw.iy between 
apex of membranule and anal angle ; margins of spot a little 
lighter. Membianulo black. Pterostignia dull ochreuus. 

Anq. nj-: !'^- ^^^' ^^'^ ^''''- ''^^ P^- ^- 

cJ (subjuv., Mongheri). — Like first (type) specimen, but 



220 



Dr. F. liis on new 



dull olivaceous instead of blue (perhaps by postliumous 
decomposition)- Anq. 'yf-^p 

J (subjuv., Oshogbo). — Light colour on frons and vertex 
jiale bluish green, on thorax greyish green -with a shade o£ 
violet, in interalar space greenish yellow, on abdomen dull 
and pale greyish violet. Anq. \ q '3 - 

? (subjuv., Oshogbo). — Sides of labium broadly oliva- 
ceous, anteclypeus dull olivaceous, postclypeus brown ; head 
and thorax dorsally as in male, but light green, shading to 
olivaceous, on thoracic dorsum a diffuse brown dot on each 
side in green stripe ; deep black from dorsal green stripe to 
a little more than halfway to humeral suture ; rest of dorsum 
and sides wholly dark goklen brown. Abdomen robust, 




Wings of Cyanothemis simpsoni, Ris (type S), showing the discontinuity 
of the last antenodal in the liind wing. I'hoto. by F. W. Campion. 

segments 2-3 a little widened dorso-ventrally, from middle 
of 4 to end almost parallel, little depressed ; indistinct trans- 
verse carina on 4. Segments 1-2 dark brown, a rather 
broad, diti'use, mid-dorsal band of dull greenish yellow; 3 very 
light whitish violaceous, in front of transverse carina fuscous 
in lateral half; 4 the same pale colour at sides, obliquely 
cut ; 5 fuscous ; 6-8 dull golden brown, shading to oliva- 
ceous, carinas lined with black, narrowly on 6-7, broadly 
on 8 ; 9-10 black. Ventral surface fuscous. Margins of 
eighth segment folded, not widened. Vulvar scale erect, at 



I 



J))'iigonjiics from Sierra Leone. 221 

ritrlit :int;lc3, about halt' aa lojio; as ninth scfjnictit, elliptical 
in oiitliru', laterally coniprossotl ; ninth vontial plate hroadly 
piojectin^ on tenth segment (not visihlc at l)a.se). Supra-anal 
tuherelcs ''"'o*') hlaek, densely covereil with loii^- black hairs ; 
«pp<Mi(la<ies small, acute, black. 

Hasal ilark brown spot of wintjs slin;htly smaller than in 
male : vesrige in front winp^; in hind winj^ to Anq. 2 in sc, 
lo arculns in costal half of m., halfway between Cuq. and t. 
in cu., to apex of menibranule in anal ar(Ni. Anq. jj— jj^l' 
Abd. :50, hw. -la, pt. <.4. 

This is ontM)f the most remarkable Libellulina; seen by me. 
In venation tln^ incomplete last antenotlal in the hind wings 
is uni(|iie (absent in one of ei^ht wings examined) iti the 
subfamily. 'J'he colour-system is, perha])s, still more extra- 
ordinary : a very common pattern in Libellulina3, sky-blue 
and bhu'k, is obtained, not as in all other known cases by 
pruinosity, but by pigmentation, like the scarlet-red of so 
many other forms, or the blue and black of iEschnince and 
Agrionidjo. In fact, C. simpsoni might be called a blue 
rerulering of IxhoJotheviia rufa. 

1 have pleasure in naming this beautiful insect after the 
successful collector of Odonata in Sierra Leone, Dr. J. J. 
Simpson. 

Pseudomacromia chri/sobaphes, sp. n. 

Sierra Leone :1c?, Sandea, 14. vi., 1 c?, Jahania, 28. vi., 
1 5*, Sonkonia, I>1. v. 1912 {Dr. J. J. ISuuj^soti) [the male 
from Jahama kindly given to the writer for his own collec- 
tion]. 

Very large species. Group IL of table in Lib. In vena- 
tion of discoiilal and anal areas nearer P. pretiosa, in ])ro- 
portion of antenodal and postnodal part of wing nearer 
P. euneh'ui ; differing from both by rich yellow markings on 
thorax and abtlomen, and in this respect similar to P. torrida. 

^ . — Labium in one specimen dull ochreons, median lobe 
obscure, in other specimen blackish, dull brown at free 
margins. Labrum black, narrowly lined with ferruginous at 
flee margin. Face light olivaceous, a blackish curvetl line on 
anterior margin of postclypeus. Frons ochraceous at sides^ 
dark metallic blue above, gradually passing into dull ferru- 
ginous at anterior margin. Vertex large, convex, entire, 
metallic blue. Thoracic dorsum brilliant metallic bluish 
black, markings very pale dull greenish, almost whitish : 
narrow antehumeral line, to two-thirds height, about halfway 
between median and humeral sutures ; slightly broader com- 
plete line in front of humeral suture, continuei,l in an ef[ually 



222 Dr. F. Ris on new 

broad transverse Uaivl at aiit<'alar sinus. Sidos light 
gri'onisli ytdlow, with slio-lifly diiriise hrownisli-hhick baiuls 
with <]^rt'enish inetailic rcHoctions : (1) hroail niL'sojjinicral 
band, ahnost touchin<; humeral suture and inciudinii; a round 
pale spot at dorsal end ; (2) narrower comj)letc band aeross 
metastij^nia, with two processes, to dorsal and ventral third 
of second lateral suture; (3) narrow band on dorsal half of 
second lateral suture ; (4) incomplete moderatoly broad band 
a little in front of middle of nietepinieron. Ventral surface 
dull oclireous, sutures narrowly and diffusely brown. Lc<is 
(hill and rather dark I'orrui^inous. Tliird femora with about 
18 tectli, the first six closely arrancced, triangular, small, the 
folio ving ones oradually increasing in size, more distant, 
quailratigular, directed towards base. Second femora with 
about L8 smaller teeth, similar in form, but directed distally. 
On tliird tibire no spines externally, only a corresjionding 
number of obtuse tubercles, internally the spines moderately 
roNust, very short. Spines of second tibiae rather long and 
slender. Teeth of tarsal claws a little stronger than tijVs, 
variable in length, in same individual equal to tips, or slightly 
longer or shorter. Abdomen at base very little widened 
laterally, moderately so dorso-ventrally, very little constricted 
nt third segment, afterwards almost parallel, rather robust. 
Black, with the following light yellow markings: sogmcnt 1, 
sides and a terminal ring ; 2, sides, except a narrow terminal 
black ring and a very narrow black ring in front of transverse 
carina ; 3, sides, a narrow complete basal ring, a very 
narrow transverse line at transverse carina, briefly interrupted 
in middle; narrow, incomplete mid-dorsal line; 4, slightly 
obscured basal ring, incomplete line at indistinct transverse 
carina, narrow mid-dorsal line ; 5-6, very small spots at 
middle of lateral carina and indication of mid-dorsal line ; 7, 
broad median transverse band of almost one-half tiie segment's 
length ; 8-10 wholly black. Ventral surface 3-7 ochreous, 
with ends of each segment rather broadly and distinctly black; 
8-10 black. Appendages black ; superiors a little shorter 
than segment 9, convergent at base, slightly divergent in distal 
third, a little swollen towards the end and then terminating 
in a very fine and acute point ; in side-view almost straight, 
inferior angle on distal third obtuse, a row of small, rather 
irregular denticles preceding it; inferior appendage but little 
shorter, slightly curved upwards, almost pointed. Genitalia 
of second segment: anterior lamina broad, erect, slightly 
emarginate, ciliate, yellowish, black at free margin. Hamule 
of about equal height, on subquadrate base; internal branch 



Dratjoitjlies from Sittrra Lenne. 22o 

n small hook, almost touchiiif^ tho anterior laminn, ciirvtvl 
|M)stfriorly ; extonial braiicli merely iiniicatcd, Ixinj^ tlio 
ol)tuse posterior angle ot" basal pieee, Lohi; very small, 
narrowly oMon;^. 

Win|;s stained with lij^ht p^reyish yellow thr()ii<^Iioiit ; 
minute golden-yellow vestige at base. Membranule fnseon^. 
Ptoroatigma dark ferru;;inou3. Kirst specimen : Anrp 
ISi . IIU : Cuq. \\\ t. 14 ; ti. 3 . W ; 3 rows in diseoi.lal 
area ot' fiont wings ; 1 row lis.-Rspl., a few cells doiibbvl in 
both front wings; 5 rows between A3 and wing's edge. 
Abd. 41, hw. 5ii, pt. 4'5. Second specimen : Anq. I'.H . 19.j ; 
Cuq. J • J ; t. I ; ; ; ti. 6 . 6 ; 1 row Ks.-llspl. 

? . — Lighter in colour than male throughout ; wings with 
a pattern of rich golden yellow and brown. — Labium ochreous. 
Labium • orange. Face liglit olivaceous. Frons brownisii 
orange above, olivaceous at sides. Thoracic pattern as in 
male, but tht; dark portions lightened to ferruginous, without 
metallic refle.etions, and considerably reduced at sides. IjCgs 
light ferruginous. Third femora with very small trian- 
gular spinules; second femora with small, gradually lengthen- 
ing spines; spines of third and second tibi;« as in second 
tibhe of male. Teeth of tarsal claws as in male. Abdomen 
more widened at base than in male. Dull fenuginous 
instead of black throughout, pale markings similar, but lateral 
spots on so;;ments3-6 considerably larger. Appendages com- 
paratively long, two-thirds of segment 1>, very acute. Vulvar 
scale not clearly visible (covered by a mass of light jellow, 
relatively large eggs). 

Wings light yellow, deep and rich golden yellow at base, 
in front wing to Anq. 2 and almost to arculus, in hind wing 
to Anq. 3, t., and a little beyond apex of menibranule ; lighter 
golden-yellow zone at nodus in costal half of front wing, 
over entire breadth in hind wing, and extended })roximally 
to anal loop in anal half; tips golden brown to three cells 
width, proximally, from pterostigma. Membranule brown ; 
pterostigma dark ferruginous. Anq. 1»)^ . 17i ; ^'uq. ^; 
t. J ■ J ; ti. 4 . 4 ; ?> rows of discoidal cells, 4 cells once at t. in 
right wing ; 1 row Ks.-Us[>l. ; 5 rows between Aj and wing's 
edge. Abd. 43, hw. 53, pt. 45. 



2'24 On a new Iiid'ntn Scorpion. 



XVI. — Description of a new Indian Scorpion (Cliannus 
iiulicus, sp. n.). J3y Stanley IIihst. 

(PiiblislieJ bj permission of tlio Trustees of tho British Musoiim.) 

Char inns indicwi, sp. n. 

Granulation of carapace and terga very fine, but that of 
the fifth tcrgum is coarser. Sterna 1-4 finely punctured, 
the punctures on the fourth sternum being rather con- 
spicuous, however ; fifth sternum granular. Tail. A down 
composed of very fine short hairs is present on the tail, 
t]»e segments of which are comparatively short and stout. 
First two segments granular, but the second has traces of 
punctures on its sides ; with the exception of the inferior 
medians of the second segment, which are fairly distinct, 
the keels of these two anterior caudal segments are either 
absent or indistinct. Third segment densely punctured on 
the sides, but granular below and with the inferior median 
keels well developed and composed of fairly large granules 
(the granules between these keels are also rather coarse). 
Fourth and fifth segments without any trace of keels and 
furnished with very numerous, mi)uite but deep, contiguous 
punctures ; there are no granules on the sides or ventral 
surface of these segments. Caudal vesicle with immerous 
fine punctures. Pectinal teeth 17 in number. Colour dark 
brown ; upper side of abdomen with a pale central linear 
marking, but it is very fine ; caudal vesicle paler than the 
rest of the tail, being reddish brown in tint; palp dark 
browUj except for the fingers, which are yellow ; legs varie- 
gated in much the same way as they are in C. laneus. 

Measurements in mm. — Total length 14' 75 ; length of 
carapace 1*8. 

Locality. — Coimbatore (G. vi. 1912), a single example 
presented to the Museum by Mr. T. Bainbrigge Fletcher 
(Imperial Entomologist). 

Remarks. — The unique specimen of this new scorpion is so 
small that I think it must be immature. It can, however, 
be easily distinguished from the only other member of the 
genus so far described iCharmiis laneus, Karsch, from Ceylon) 
by a number of characters which seem to be of real value : 
for instance, the shortness and stoutness of the tail, the 
presence of punctures (instead of granules) on the sides of 
the third caudal segment, the much more numerous (con- 
tiguous) punctures of the last two caudal segments, and the 



Bats of the Genera Nyctaluf, Tylonycteris, (fcc. 225 

abscuce of {:frauulation from the vciitr.il surfjiccs of these 
two scf^mcuts, &o. 

Prof. Kraepelin states (Mt. Mas. llainljur^, xxx. p. l.'Jl, 
1913) that he lias examined a very youiifjj example oi C.laneus 
from Coimhatore (Indian Museum Coll.). This specimen is 
the first one of the genus to be recorded from India, and 
obviously belongs to the same sj)ecies as that which is 
described above as new, for it comes from the same locality. 
For the reasons already given, however, I think that it is 
uot ('. ianeus, Karsch. With the exception of that sent by 
Mr. Bainbrigge Fletcher, there is only one spcciracn of the 
genus in the iiritish Museum Collection, and, unfortunately, 
it is not known where it was collected. This specimen is the 
type of I'ocock's C. cinclijies — a species now considered to be 
identical with C. luntns. If the specimens of C/iarnius from 
Coimbatore are really C. laneus, Pocock's species should be 
resuscitated, for it certainly tlocs not belong to the same 
species. 



XVII. — On Bats of the Genera Nyctalu?, Tylonycteris, and 
Pipistrellus. By Oldfield Thomas. 

(Publisbed by permission of tiie Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Nyctalus joffrei, sp. n. 

A small species, with short tragus and small p^. 

Size ahout as in ^V. leisleri, smaller than in N. stenopteriis. 
General build suggesting a large Pipistrel rather than a 
Noctule, but the pioportions of the digits quite as in Xyctalns. 
Ears short, broad, rounded, their substance unusually tleshy ; 
inner margin convex, tip broadly rounded, outer margin con- 
vex, scarcely flattened above, antitragal lobule little developed. 
Tragus very short, expanded above, its inner margin concave, 
shorter than its greatest breadth above ; outer margin con- 
vex, with the usual triangular basal lobe. Tip of fourth 
metacarpal reaching to the middle of the short first phalan.K 
of the fifth finger. Wings to the ankle just beyond opposite 
the base of the calcar. Tail-tip projecting. Penis without 
bone, its prepuce thinly haired, separated into two cushions 
by a Y-shaped groove. 

Colour uniform pale brown above and below. 

tSkull of a somewhat different shape from that of other 
species of the genus. The muzzle shorter, broader, with 



22G Mr. 0. Thomas on Jnifs of (lie 

more strongly dovolopcil supraorbital processes. l>raiii-casc 
more inflated, smoothly rounded ; sagittal crest low, not 
continuiHl back to nicet the larubdoid. 

Inner incisors shorter than usual, broad, flattened, bi- 
loliato ; outer small, about halt' the height of the inner. 
Canine Avith a strongly marked secondary cusp halfway up 
its hinder edge. 1'^ minute, about a quarter ot" the area in 
cross-section of the small i^ ; very low, invisible externally, 
liidden in the angle between the neighbouring teeth. Lower 
jiremolars very small, subequal, the tip o£ the posterior 
directly behind tliat of the anterior. 

Dimensions of the typo (measured on the S{)irit-speci- 
men) : — 

Forearm 39 mm. 

Head and body 5G ; tail 39; ear (inner edge) 8; tragus 
(inner edge) 2 ; third (inger, metacarpal 35'5, flrst pli.ilanx 14 ; 
fifth finger, metacarpal 33, first jdialaiix ti'5 ; tibia 15 ; hind 
foot 8. 

Skull : greatest length 15 ; condyle to foot of canine 1-1*2 ; 
basi-sinual length Hi ; zygomatic breadtli 10"5 ; breadth on 
su])raorbital processes 7"2; postorbital constriction 4*5; 
brain-case breadth 8"2; palato-sinual length 5; front ot" 
canine to back of tu^ O'l ; front of p* to back of m^ 3'5 ; 
lower tooth-row (exclusive of incisors) 5'5. 

JIab. Kachin Hills, Upper Burma. 

Ti/]>e. Adult male. B.M. no. 88. 12. 1. 37. Collected by 
L. 1' ea and presented by the Marquis G. Doria. 

This fine bat 1 had formerly supposed to be referable to 
ri})istrellns offinis, Dobs., of which the only recorded S[)eei- 
nien is iii Calcutta ; but Dobson's measurements of the digits 
show that that is really a Pi/ifslrellus, not a ^ijctalus. 

The known species of Sijctalus differ, inter se, by hardly 
any characters but size, so tliat the distinctions in tragus, 
skull, and dentition above detailed indicate that the present 
bat is more distinct fiom any of them tliau they are from 
each other. 

The species is named in honour of General Joffre, 
Commander-in-Chief of the French Army. 

Tylonycteris. 

While the forearms of the members of the genus Ti/lo- 
rtycteris are all very nearly of the same length (2U-29 mm.), 
the skulls show a considerable diversity in size, and it is 
quite evident that several different species or subspecies 
should be recognized. Moreover, the forearms do not vary in 



i 



Genera Nyctalii.«, T} lonycterls, and Pi|tif«trcllu3. 227 

proportion with the skulls, as spcciiiicns with the largest 
.skulls have only the same t'orearui-lcii;;th a.s examples with 
quite small .skulls ; the toicarms are tlu-refore of praetically 
very little use iu (listinj;uisliin^ the ditU'reiit iorms. 

NVorking then from the skulls, wo find that there are threo 
sizes represented in the series — large, middle, and small, — 
amy one size being, as a rule, alone in a given eountry ; hut 
Java, the tyj)e-lucality of 2\ pachyints, has both large and 
middle in it, antl it is therefore necessary to settle which of 
these two is the type-form. 

'I'iie Museum collection contains a considerable series from 
Buitenzorg and Tasikmalaja of the middle species, and from 
Soikaboemi of the large one. In addition, there is a co-typical 
example of T. pachi/pus acquired from the agent of the 
Leydcn Museum in lb-i4, and this s[)ecimen clearly belongs 
to the smaller Javanese form, the one we have from Buiten- 
zorg, near the type-locality of j)uc/ti/j>us, Bantam. 1 there- 
fore propose to assign the name pachypus to this form, the 
uiiddle in size of the whole series, which has a skull about 
1I'7-12*0 mm. in greatest length, its maxillary tooth-row 
(front of canine to back of m^) 3'8 to -I'U mm. 

In the Philip[)ines (Luzon) we have the smallest form 
(skull 10*2 mm., tooth-row 3*4:), representing T. meyeri, 
Peters, but a similarly small form occurs in Burma, and it 
should probably bear the name of T. I'lthidus, Blyth, described 
from fcjchwe Gyen. It is commonly deep rufous in colour. 

Northwards and eastwards from Java occurs the largest 
species, while in Western India there is a middle-sized form 
of a peculiar colour, and these two appear to need new names. 

Tyloiiycteris robustula, sp. n. 

Body stout and robust, though the torearms are not only 
not longer, but are even commonly shorter, than in T. pacliy- 
pus. Jiiars thick and fleshy ; tragus short and comparatively 
broad. 

Colour above dark brown; little lighter beluw. Mem- 
branes black. 

Skull heavily built, very broad, both across the brain-case 
and interorbital constriction. .Muzzle proportionally short. 

Dimensions of the type (measured on the spirit-speci- 
men) : — 

i^orcarm 20 mm. (range up to 28). 

Head and body 43 ; tail 27'5 ; ear 10 ; tragus 2-2 X 1*5 ; 
third finger, metacarpus 20, first phalanx 10 ; fifth finger, 
metacarpus 23*5, first phalanx i'l ; tibia 10 j hind foot G'3 ; 
breadth of foot -pad 3*5. 



228 Mr. 0. Thomas on Buts of the 

Skull : <;i-eate3t length 12'5 ; meJian length 10*2 ; con- 
dyle to front of canine 11*7 ; interorbital constriction ^'l ; 
breailth of brain-case 7'6 ; palato-sinual length 4'2 ; front of 
canine to back of m^ 4'2 (range up to 4.'-i) ; front of ^* to back 
of »r- 2-7. 

Ilab. Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Java, Celebes, Timor. 
Type from Upper Sarawak, Borneo. 

Ti/pe. Adult female. B.M. no. 11. 1. 18. 8. Collected 
and presented by Cecil J. Brooks, Esq. 

I'ylonrjdei'is aurex, sp. n. 

Size and proportions, including general body-bulk, length 
of forearms, and size of skull, about as in true T. pachypus. 
Ears perhaps rather narrower ; tragus rather longer and 
narrower, its basal lobule with a longer and more acute 
point. 

Colour above yellowish or dull gold, more or less overlaid 
with brown. Under surface yellowisli or buffy. Limbs 
brown, membranes black, the cushions of wrists and sole also 
brown, not contrasted white as in T. pachypus. It is not 
certain, however, how far this may depend on methods of 
preservation. 

Dimensions of the tj-pe (the italicized measurements taken 
in the flesh) : — 

Forearm 29 mm. 

Head and body If 2 ; tall 32 ; ear Q. 

[A spirit-specimen measures : — Head and body 41 ; tail 30 ; 
ear 9 ; tragus 2*4: x 1"4 ; tibia 12*5 ; hind foot 6 ; breadth of 
sole-pad 3"8.] 

Skull : greatest length 11*6, median lengtli 10"1 ; condyle 
to front of canine 11'2; interorbital constriction 32 ; breadth 
of brain-case 6*7 ; palato-sinual length 4*4 ; front of canine 
to back of m^ 4; front of ^^^ to back of m' 'I'Q. 

Hah. Southern Bombay — Kanara — southwards to Coorg. 
Type from Astoli, Belgaum. Alt. 2000'. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 0. 4, 2. 25. Original 
number 135. Collected 28th December, 1899, and presented 
by R. C. Wroughton. Fifteen specimens examined. 
" " In heavy forest."— /?. C. W. 

I provisionally use a binomial for this bat, as it is geogra- 
phically so isolated ; but it may hereafter be shown to grade 
either into the Burmese form (rubida) or true pachypus of 
Java. 



Genera Nyctalus, Tylonyctrri.^, and Pi|)i.sti"cllii3. 229 

Pipistrellus iinbiiciitus and its Allies. 

So far as the MiisiMun material shows, Java contains three 
small species of Piiu'strellus — ./'. tral(iti(iit.<!, J*. intbn'catnH, 
and a species allied to or identical with P. jyapuaiinn. 
Putting aside the last-named, we find tliat P. tmhricatus 
differs from the common P. tralntiliuH^ not only by its lar^or 
ears and broader trai^us, but, in tlie skull, by the peculiar 
shorteniii*:^ of its muzzle, the detinite devc'lopm(3nt of basial 
pits, the rxtrome smallness of ;>', which is only about one- 
fourth the area of <^, aiul by the tact that the posterior \<i^ of 
the Z on vi^ projects further inwards compared to the anterior 
one than it dot'S in tralatitius. 

A series of P. imbricatus from Java are all just of the same 
size, and agreeclosely with the type (B.M . no. 79. 11.21. 108*); 
and two spcciniens from Kauj^ean, to the east of Madura, ni;iy 
also be assigned to the same form. But a lar^jje series from Cen- 
tral Borneo are unit'ormly much larger, and should evidently 
be distinguished specifically. 'J'heso two both have fairly dark 
wings, while, on the other hand, the representative forms from 
Sumatia, Billiton, and Engano have whitish or wiiite wings; 
but I have no specimens available, and cannot say if they 
have other distinguishing marks. For these the name of 
niacrotis, Temm., is available, and I doubt if either vorder- 
vunini, Jent., from Billiton, or curtatus, Miller, from Engano, 
are really distinct. It may be noted that Mr. Miller first 
called Ills Engano specimens imbricates, and then, in 
describing them as new, distinguished them from imbricafus 
by tlie exact characters that separate imbricatus itself from 
tralatitius — from which it seems probable that whatever 
specimens of '^imbricatus" he compared them with were, 
really examples of tralatitius. 

Pipistrellus kitcheneri^ sp. n. 

Like P. imbricatus, but considoraldy larger. 
Colour of fur a darker and richer brown than in inibri- 
catus] under surface rather lighter. Wings smoky greyish, 

» On p. 380 of P. Z. S. 1000. B.M. no 70. 11. 21. 124 was nipntioncd 
as the tvpe of P. tralatitius, llorsf. ; but further examination shows tiiat 
that specimi^n, althou^rh in tlic India Museum under the name of tni/a- 
titiiit, is really an example of imftricattis, while the other one mention-d, 
the " Lowo-nianir,'' iv' of Dobson'a Jiritish Museum Cataloj^nie, was 
received from Ilortifield at an early dat»^ as tralatitius, and should 
therefore stand as tlie type. Its number is 02 a. 

Attn, if- A/a<f. y I/igl. Ser. b. \'ol. \v. 16 



'2:\0 Mr. (). Tliom:\s on Jlats of the 

becomiiif]; lighten' on the part external to tlic elbow, the 
reticulations prominent. 

Skull esscniially as in iiiihn'catus, but considerably larger, 
and in the usual correlation with increased size, the ridges 
are rather better developed and the muzzle is less conspicu- 
ously shortened as compared with the brain-case. 

Teeth quite as in imhricatus. 

Dimensions of type (the italicized measurements taken in 
flesh) :— 

Forearm 37 ram. 

Head and body 56 mm. ; tail If.1 ; ear 11/.. 

Skull : greatest length 14 ; median upper length 11*7 ; 
condyle to front of canine 13*6 ; basi-sinnal length 11; con- 
striction 3" 7; breadth of brain-case 7; palato-sinual length 5'6; 
front of canine to back of m^ 4'8 ; front of ^^' to buck of 
vv" 3-3. 

Hub. South Central Borneo. Type from Boentok, Barito 
Kiver. Alt. 20'. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 10. 4. 5. 55. Original 
number 2101. Collected 1st October, 1909, by G. C. Sliort- 
ridge. Presented by Oldfield Thomas. Fifteen specimens, 
all females with one exception. 

Readdy distinguishable from P. iinbricatus by its superior 
size. 

Named in honour of Field-Marshal Lord Kitchener of 
Khartoum. 

Ptpistrellus sturdeei, sp. n. 

A small species, with narrow delicate skull. 

Size small ; general build slender. Ears rather shorter 
and rounder than those of the Japanese P. abramus, inner 
margin rounded at base, but not piomiuently convex; tip 
broadly rounded off: outer margin flattened above, slightly 
convex below, with a well-marked anti-tragal lobule. Tragus 
of the general ty))e of that of abramus, but shorter, its 
broadest point opposite the lower third of its inner margin ; 
breadth going about If in the length of the inner margin, 
the latter straight ; tip rounded, outer margin evenly convex, 
basal lobe sharply triangular. Wings to the base of the 
toes. A narrow postcalcarial lobule. Tail of the usual 
seven vertebra.', its extreme tij) only projecting. 

Colour of fur blackish throughout; the wings dark brown, 
without marked marginal lines. 

Skull not much siiorter than that of P. abramus, but 
markedly narrower throughout. Muzzle and brain-case 
sniootli, rounded, the ridges little developed. Anterior 



Gemra Xyctaliin, Tyloiiyctoris, and n|»i.strolIiii». 2'.\\ 

piihital incision not broadeue'I, it-« posterior eilgo liivol with 
the initlJle of the canine. Posterior piihite rather narrow, 
with an avera<;e median point. Basial pits indicated hy 
slight hiti'ral concavities opposite the basil. ir suture. 

'IVeth as in P. abraniuSj l)iit smaller. 

Incisors short, the anterior prominently bicuspid ; outer 
incisor surpassing the second cusp ot the inner one. Large 
premolar well sej)arated from the canine, the space not filled 
up l)y the well-developed anterior premolar, which equals i^ 
in area, and stands a little internally. Lower anterior pre- 
molar three-fourths the height of the posterior, and r.ither 
less than half its area in cross-section. 

Dimensions of the type (slightly immature) : — 

Forearm 30 mm. 

Head and body 37 ; tail .SI ; ear on inner edge 7*7 ; tragus 
(inner edg.-) 3, breadth 1'7 ; third finger, metacarpus 27, 
first })halar.x 10; fifth finger, metacarpus 26, first pha- 
lanx 7-8 ; tibia 11 ; foot (c. u.) 6. 

vSkuU : greatest length 12" 1 ; basi-sinual lengtli 8*7; 
condyle to front of canines 10*7 ; inteiorl)ital breadth 3"1 ; 
breadth of brain-case 6 ; mastoid breadth 6*i ; palato-sinual 
length 4*3 ; breadth between outer corners of m'^ 4:"6 ; front 
of canine to back of m' 4:'2 ; front of p^ to back of m^ 2 6 ; 
lower tooth-series exclusive of incisors 4'3. 

Hub. Bouin Islands. Type from Hillsborough Island. 

Ti/p\ Female in spirit, slightly immature. B.M. 
no. "Jl. 2. 2. 3. Presented by II. Seebohm, Esq. Collected 
by P. A. Hoist. 

Tills Pipistrtd, from the isolated Bonin group, is distin- 
guishable by its narrow skull, as indicated by tlie measure- 
ments above, and the wide space between its canine and /;*. 
It is presumably most nearly allied to the Japanese 
jP. ubramus. 

Named in honour of Admiral Sir F. C. D. Sturdee, U.N. 



Fipistrellus principulug, sp. n. 

A small species with the short tooth-row of P. tenuis and 
mimu.s, but the skull much more inflated. 

Size very small, about as in P. tenuis und mimus. General 
external characters as in those species. Ears of normal size, 
their substance thin ; tragus of medium length and breadth, 
the external basal lobe large and sharply pointed. Wings 
to the base of the toe.-'. Post-calcarial lobe distinct. Tail 
with seven vertebrje, its lip projecting. 

Colour blackish, but as the specimen is in sjiirit, the exact 

10* 



•2:V2 :\lr. W. 0. Oiawley on Ants from 

sliade cannot ho tlotiMniinod. oMi'nibianes dark, the hinder 
edge of the pla;:;iopata;;"iuni and iutcrfemoral with an incon- 
spicuous li^lit line. 

Skull with a quite unusually swollen brain-case, the inter- 
orbital region also very broad and rounded, so that the 
" waist " of the skull is less marked than usual. 

Teeth about as in P. mimus. Outer incisor just equal to 
the well-developed secondary cusj) of the inner. P^ about 
two-thirds the area oft- ; canine and ji>* nearly but not quite 
touching each other external to it. 

Dimensions of the ty|)e (measured on the spirit-speci- 
men) : — 

Forearm 30 mm. 

Head and body 39; tail 30; ear 0; tragus on inner 
edge 3, breadth 1'6 ; third finger, metacarpus 28'5, first 
phalanx 11 ; fifth finger, metacarpus 27'5, first phalanx 7*3; 
tibia 11*5 ; hind foot 5'7. 

►Skull : greatest length 11*3 ; median length 10 ; condyle 
to frotit of canine 10'2 ; zygomatic breadth 8; intertemporal 
breadth 3*8 ; breadth of brain-case 6*3 ; height of brain-case 
from basion 4*5 ; front of canine to back of in^ 3*8 ; front of 
jj* to back of 771^ 2*5. 

JIab. Assam. Type from Gauhati. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 13. 3. 14. 1. Collected 
by Mr. S. V\ . Kemp. Presented by the Indian Museum, 
Calcutta. 

This species, which equals the common Indian pygmy bat, 
P. niivms, in the reduced extent of its tooth-row^ differs from 
that, as from its other allies, by its unusually inflated skull. 



XVIII, — Ants from North and South- West Australia ((9. F. 
Jlill, Rowland Turner) and Christmas Island, Straits 
Settlements.— Fait II. By W. C. CrawLEY, B.A. 

I. Subfam. FoNHitiNjE. 
Myrmecia sanguinea, Sm. 
Yalliiigup, S.W. Australia {Rowland Turner). ^ . 

Euponera [Brachyponera) lutea, Mayr. 
Yallingup. 

No. 89. Piliytldoponcra, (s. i^.iv.) flava, sp. n. 
o . — L. S mm. 



JSorth and South-west Australia (tr. 2.'53 

AlamlibK's lar-ije, tiian^ular, tlic terminal bonier r<';;(il;ii ly 
dentate; linely stiiate. Anterior border of clypeus n-j;idarly 
curved ; frontal area indistinct. Head longer than broad, 
eyes lar^'e, placed in the centie ot the sitles ot head, of whiih 
they occupy three-quarters; ocelli large and |)roniineiit. 
Frontal carinas short, diverging behind ; scape of 115-juinted 
antennte slightly shorter than tlie second joint of funiculus, 
first joint ot latter as broad as long ; from the second j<jint 
of funiculus, which is the longest, the joints gradually 
diminish in length until the terminal, which is slightly longer 
than the preceding one. Mesonotum high and arched, 
Mayiian furrows almost invisiide ; scutellum {)rominent, 
lather small, and wider in front ; epinotuni longer than broad, 
with convex sides, only slightly narrower behin 1 than in 
front. Upper wings with two cul)ital closed and two di.-- 
coidal cells. Pedicel long and narrow, somewhat cylindrical, 
only slightly higher behind ; underneath in front is a long, 
very thin, vertical spine. Gaster a little more than twice as 
long as broad, first segu ent (<>r post-petiole) as long as the 
second, the constriction between them moderately pronounced. 
Tibife of the two posterior pnirs of legs with two s|»urs, the 
inner long and pectinate, very shortly so in the middle pair 
and longer in the posterior |)air. Claws bifid. 

Head and thorax coarsely rugose ; on the declivous sur- 
face of ephiotuin the rugosities radiate from a central ridge ; 
node of pedicel transversely striate. First segment of gaster 
finely striate longitudinally, the lateral strite curving inwards 
and encircling the base ; second segment finely striate trans- 
versely, the striiB having a tendency to curve upwards ; 
the remaining segments transversely striate. In one 
specimen the node and gaster are shining, the striae on 
the former being more teeble, those on the first se^finent 
of gaster are only apparent at ihe sides and base, and on the 
second segment tiiey are diagonal, the central ones almost 
longitudinal. 

Pilosity sparse and scatlere<l, yello.v ; scapes and tibiiii 
with erect hairs. 

(Chestnut, head anil niesonotum darker. 

Darwin, N.T., 1. vi. 13 {Ilill). Z S S- 

As no 5 52 were captured with these S 6 A have thought 
it best to describe them provisionally as a new species, and 
have placed them in the subgenus lihi/tUioponera (s. str.), 
although in the length of the scape and second joint of funi- 
culus they do not entirely accord with Eujcry's characters 
given in the * Genera Insectorum.' The number of mules 
known is, however, small. 



234 Mr. W. (\ Crawloy on Ants from 

III. Siibfain. Mtrmicin^. 
No. 31. rheidoh platypus, sp, n. 

% .— L. G-o-7-5 mm. 

Maiulibles very tbick, coarsely striate, terminal border 
irregularly dentate when not worn to an irregular edge, no 
prominent teeth at apex. Clypeus emarginate in front, 
coarsely striate ; frontal area small, deeji, triangular. Head 
niiicli longer than broad, with subparallel sides, emargination 
at back deep, wide, and triangular. Frontal carina} half as 
long as the scape, which only reaches one-third of the distance 
from its base to the occiput. Eyes placed at the commence- 
ment of the anterior quarter of sides of head. There is a 
deep impression from the emargination of the occiput to 
the vertex. Tarsi of first pair of legs broad and flat. Pro- 
mestinotum very high and rounded, pronotal protuberances 
sharp, terminated by small teeth or spines. Basal and 
declivous surfaces of epinotum of equal length, the spines 
short and narrow, half as long as the basal surface. First 
node narrow at top, widely emarginate, second node wider 
than long, without lateral angles. Gaster (when not dis- 
tended) small and oval. 

Whole of upper side of head coarsely striate longitudinally, 
the strife curve outwards round the occiput and return as 
much finer lines down the sides and under surface of the head. 
The strise are coarsest on the occipital lobes, where they have 
a downward and outward diagonal direction. Pronotum 
with fine irregular longitudinal ridges, the lateral ones bow- 
shaped (in some examples the ridges starting from the neck 
all curve in one direction and are terminated at the lateral 
tooth), finely reticulate between the ridges. Mesonotum 
with curved transverse ridges, the convexity of the curves 
towards the posterior border; occasionally the central ridges 
have a circular tendency ; there is a faint reticulation between 
the ridges. Epinotum finely reticulate and longitudinally 
striate, the striae not descending below the interval between 
ihe spines J from the base of the latter coarse striaj diverge 
outwards and up the sides. Nodes of pedicel finely reticulate, 
the second with a few longitudinal striae. First segment 
of gaster faintly reticulate and with irregular longitudinal 
sculpture. 

'I'heie is a yelluw pilosity over the whole body ; scapes 
and tibite with abundant hairs. 

Dark red-brown ; mandibles almost black, gaster brown. 

5 .— L. 2-2-5 mm. 

Mandibles striate, with a few j)unctures near the terminal 



y HI tit (iml Suiil/i-tresf ^1 «.•>//•'( '/(t i6f. Zo.) 

l»oi(Kr, wliicli is clciifatc and terminated by two 'oti^ tcetli. 
Anterior bonier of civ pens w i'lely ai.d very i'ecbly eniar,u;inatt', 
almost straight ; there is a lidge do\\ n its centre. Frontnl 
area deep, rounded at top. Head soinevvliat longer tlian wide, 
witli sliglitly convex sides; back widely emarginate. Tlic 
scapes reacli the occipital border or a fraction t'artlier. Eyes 
prominent, slightly in front of" the centre of sides. Pro- 
nu'soiuitiiin high and regularly curved, brriadi'r in front ; at 
the centre of each side is a tooth-like ridge. Basal surface of 
epinotnin longer than declivous surface ; spines much shorter 
than basal surface, about as long as the interval between 
them. First node narrow, straight across the top; seconil 
node oval, longer than broad. 

Head coarsely striate longitudinally and finely reticulate. 
Thorax and pedicel finely reticulate ; pronotum witli a few 
longituilinal ritlgos ; a few ridges joining the mesonotum 
to the epinotum. Front of first segment of gaster faintly 
reticulate. 

Body with yellow hairs ; erect hairs on scapes and 
tibiae. 

Yellow to red-brown. In dark specimens the antennie, 
tarsi, and joints of legs paler. 

Stapleton, N.T., 1. v. 13 {IJiU). 

No. 214. Pheidole megacephala, F. 

% 5 . Batchelor, N.T., 20. ix. 13 (//</.)• 
Cosmopolitan species. 

No. 32. Pheidole variabilis, Mayr., var. redunca, var. n. 

1/.— L. 2-7 mm. 

Clypeus emarginate in front, with a lidgc down the centre. 
The ridges continuing the frontal carinie are two-thirds as 
long as the scaj)es, which reach beyond the half distance 
from their bases to the occiput. Eyes just within the 
anterior third of sides of head. The impression from the 
occij)ital emargination is continued to the vertex. Spines 
as long as the basal surface of ei)inotum and longer than the 
interval between them. 

Whole of upper and under surfaces of head finely reticulate ; 
in addition, the under surface of front of head, the cheeks, 
and the whole of the top of head longitudinally striate ; the 
ridges on each side of the central impression curve round the 
lobes of the occiput and continue down the sides of the head, 
those farther fiom the central impression making a narrow 



236 Mr. W. C. Crawley on Ants from 

curve within tlie laro;or ones and returning parallel to their 
oiiirin hy the insertions of the antennae. 

5 . L. 1"7 mm. 

Similar to the type. 

Darwin, N.T., 5. vii. 13 (ILV). 1/ ^ . 

Crematngaster auslralis, Mayr. 
Yallingup (T^Mmer). 5. 

IV. Subfam. DOLICRODESIN^. 
No. 18. Tapiiioma VKnutuni, Mavr. 

Darwin, X.T., 5. vii. 13 {inil). ^ . 

Iridomyrinex conifer , Forel. 
Yallingup (THmer). 5^. 

V. Subfam. Camtonotinjb. 
Ca7nponotus (^Myrmosag(i) chalceus, sp. n. 

"^ major. — L. 9-9*5 mm. 

jNIandibles 5-dentate, coarsely striated, with a few punctures. 
Clypeus shield-shaped, not carinate, with a small deep 
emargination at tiie anterior border. Frontal area in the 
form of a right-angled tiiangle. Head slightly longer than 
broadj the sides almost parallel for two-thirds of their length, 
then narrowing rapidly, posterior border feebly concave. 
Eyes ])laced at the commencement of the hinder third of 
sides of head. Prc-mesonotum forms a regular curve in 
profile, the prot)otum broad^ with slight shoulders. Basal 
surface of epinotum deeply concave longitudinally, in the 
form of a saddle, declivous surface abrupt, almost perpendi- 
cular, slightly shorter than the basal surface. Scale higii, 
fairly thin, somewhat wider at the top, which is nearly 
straight. 

Head, pro- and mesonota finely reticulate-punctate; head 
in addition, particularly on tlie clypeus and clieeks, with 
large irregular punctures. Epinotum and scale finely striated 
tiansversely. Gaster very finely reticulated. 

Body with fairly plentiful, erect, yellowish-white hairs, 
more s[)arse on the thorax, occasionally two or three on the 
scapes, and a row underneatli the tibiae ; both scapes and 
tibiae slightly pubescent, also thorax and gaster. 

Black ; legs, declivous surface and sides of basal surface 
of epinotum, and a patch on the metasternum (and some- 
times on the mesosternum) dull red. Gaster bronzed. 



yorth and South-icest AustraHa tCr. 2.T7 

5 minor. — L. 7 mm. 

Kmargination of clyi)ous wider and not so deep. The 
concave l)asal surtaco of epinotiim longer in proportion. 
The cpinotum is often entirely dull rod, and there i.s a small 
rod patch on the mesosternum. Head sometimos with a 
faint bronze reflection. Scalo proj>ortionatt'ly mucii thicker, 
and more rounded on the top. Gaster hronzed. 
$ . — L. ll'^i mm. 

Emargination of clypeus as in 5 major. ilead rather 
wider than thorax. Prunofuin very slightly shouldered. 
Basal surface of e})iiiotum straight, and only one-third as 
long as tiio declivous surface. Sculpture as in 5 niajor, 
«'.\cept that tlio basal surface of epinoiuin is more reticulate 
than striate. 

Colour as in 5 nmjor, exee[)t that the red extends from 
the sides across the top of the liasal surface of epinotum, and 
there is a red patch on the mesosternum. The top of the 
scale also is red. 

Yallingnp, 8.\V. Australia [Rowland Turner). ^ ? . 

From the description of the 5 niinor it will be seen that 
this ant very closely resembles the C. {Myrmosaga) deuitzii, 
Forel, from the Congo, described in the Bull. Soc. Vaud.Sci. 
nat. 18bG ( 5 niinor). 

No. 85. Poli/rhachis comata^ sp. n., group gnen'ni. 

5 . — L. 5 mm. 

Mandibles siiining, densely striate (more coarsely than in 
f/uerini), with'4(?5) teeth. Clypeus subcarinate, the antciiur 
margin |iroduced in a short lobe (shorter and broader than in 
yuerini), with a concave border and five small teeth. Frontal 
carintC short, wider apart than the distance from each to the 
sides of the head, fairly divergent, and reaching the anteiior 
margin of the eyes. The latter are placed near the posterior 
border of head and are not very prominent. Head slightly 
longer than broad, broader behind than in front, slightlv 
convex behin<l, sides convex. I'rouotum broader in front, 
the sides rectilineal and bordered ; the teeth at the anterior 
angles of medium length, about twice as long as their width 
at base. Pro-mesonotal suture distinct, ineso-epinotal less so. 
Epinotum with two spines as long as the width between 
them ; declivous longer than basal surface. Pedicel with 
long curved spines, like buffalo's horns, thick at base, en- 
circling the first segment of gaster. The first segment of 
the latter more than twice as lojig as the rest of the gaster, 
the whole rounded, about as broad as long. 



238 Ants f'rotn \ortIi and Sou/h-west Australia i(:c. 

Head finely reticulate, the sculpture almost concealed by 
the pubescence ; o|)a(]ue (shining and striate in guerlni). 
Scapes finely reticulate. Thorax and pedicel (except the 
apical half of all the spines) coarsely reticulate-rugoso, shining 
between the reticulations. On the lower half of the back of 
pedicel, between the spines, the rugosities take a transverse 
(.iireclion. Legs finely reticulate. Gaster very finely reti- 
cul:itc-punctate,the sculpture almost hidden by the pubescence. 
Krect hairs on head yellowish, on pro- and e()inotuin darker, 
on gaster golden. Pubescence on head very thick, silver- 
grey. Of the thorax, tiie epinotum only is pubescent, 
similarly to the head. On the gaster the pubescence is 
pule golden, merging into grey underneath. The femora and 
tibia? have a slight silvery pubescence. 

Stapleton, N.T., 22. xii. 12 {Bill). $ . 

No. 12. Polyrhachia delicata, sp. n. 

$ . — L. 5"5-6 mm. 

Mandibles 5-dentate, shining, with minute piligerous 
])oint3 ; finely striate at base. Clypeus carinate, produced 
anteriorly into a slight lobe with a straight edge and pointed 
angles. Frontal area distinct, in the form of an equilateral 
triangle. Frontal carinas long, very slightly convergent 
behind (similar to thrina.r). Head longer than broad, wider 
behind than in front, occipital border not so rounded as in 
thrinax] eyes prominent, placed in the posterior third of 
sides. Thorax fairly regularly curved to the spines, pro- 
notum sliouldered, with very small teeth at the angles. Pro- 
mesonotal and meso-epinotal sutures distinct ; mesonotum 
broader in front ; the two surfaces of epinotum equal in 
length, the declivous surface convex ; the epinotum with two 
straight narrow spines, two-thirds as long as the basal surf ace 
of epinotum ; node of pedicel with a thick and fairly high 
scale, in the centre of which is a long straight spine slightly 
directed backwards ; in advance of this spine on each side 
is a shorter sharp spine directed outwards. The central 
spine, which is acuminate, not notched as in thrinax, is 
nearly three times as long as the lateral spines. Gaster 
round, slightly longer than broad. 

Whole of head, thorax, and pedicel densely and finely 
reticulate, clypeus very finely so; Iiead more rugose between 
the frontal carinas and eyes, pronotum more or less longi- 
tudinally so ; declivous surface of epinotum shining, only 
faintly and superficially reticulate; gaster shining, very 
faintly and superficially reticulate. 

Pilosity practically nil ; a few erect hairs on the mandibles, 



On Aitnel'tla I^ofijr/iiit,i j,-otn tJie Xortli S,;i ,(••. 2i'I> 

clypfu^, aiul l)L'twi'c*M tlio frmif carinju ; clypcus i^li^^lilly 
pulK'SCfiit ; glister with :i tine pulicsccncc. 

Rt'ii-biouii, lu'iul and ;^a.stt'r darkest. 

Darwin, N.T., 16. iv. V.\ {II'll). 5 . 

CiiKisTMAS Island, Stkaits Settlement. 

A f»nv ants wi-re colU-ctcd in ]\larcli 11H4, and kindly suIj- 
niitted to me by my friend j\ir. D. Ward I'inknuy. Tliey 
are as foilous : — 

OJontomacfnis Jnematoduy L ., var. breviceps^ var. ii. 

5 . — L. (includiiijif inamlihles) 8'5 mm. 

Len^rth ot' mandibles 1*2 mm. ; width of head IMJ mm. ; 
len^'th of liead 2*1 mm. Head much shorter, broader, and 
less cmar^inate behind than in the type. Occipital lobes much 
more rounded. Head widest at the oycs. Sculpture, pubes- 
cence, &c., as in the type. 

Oolour : dark chestnut, legs paler. 

One 5 . 

Triijlyphothiix striatidinis, Em., 5- 
Sohno/isis (/eminata, F., var, r/z/a, Jerd., 2/ $^ ? . 
Prenohpis vividula, Nyl., 5 • 

CoKKIQENDA (Part I., 'Annals,' ser. 8, vol. xv., Jan. l'J15), 

P. 134, line 2G, for Eur. read Em. 

P. 136, line 22, fur Mijrmosphyma read Mi/rmojj/ii/ma. 



XIX. — Ueport on the Annelida l*oIycha;ta collected in the 
North Sea and adjacent parts by the Scotch Fishery Board 
Vessel ' Goldseeker.' — Part IV. Goniadida3 to Spionidai. 
By James W. Pkyde, M.A., Walker Trust liesearch 
Scholar, Gatty Marine Liboratory, St. Andrews, and now 
2nd Lieut, in the "Black Watch." 

'J'ms, thel'ourtii part of the R«!port on the Annelida Polychajfa 
collected in the North Sea and adjacent parts by the Scotch 
Fishery Board vessel ' Goidsetkef,' includes the following 
ton families : — Goniadida;, Glyceridie, Ariciidio, Opheliida', 
Scalibri;^njidic, Sjihuirodoridic, Chlurujuiidiu, Chietoptcridip, 



240 ^Ir. J. W. Piycle on Atoielida Pvltjchcela 

Cirratuliilro, and Spioiiida'. Most of the families are repre- 
sented by one genus and one species only ; but in the 
Chlorfeniiihv two genera, viz. ISiylariuides and BraJa, occur. 
The numbers of each s|iecies vary veiy much, and only 
in two cases, viz. Atnmotri/pane auhgaster and Stylarioides 
pluvioaa, do they exceed twenty-two examples. These num- 
bcr.-J, therefore, difter greatly from those pnblished in Part III. 
of the Report*, where one species, viz. Ili/alincccia tuhicola, 
was represented b}' G49 specimens and 755 tubes. No 
annelids were obtained in the tubes of the Chajtopterida", 
notwithstanding that these are fairly numerous in this 
collection. The Spionidae, a family renowned for its varieties 
and for the difficulties one encounters in distinguishing its 
many species, have only one representative, viz. IScolecolepis 
vulgaris, and the absence ot the other forms may be accounted 
for by the fact that the members prefer a littoral to a deep- 
sea habitat. In some families, e. g. Cirratulidte, there is 
only one small representative, and it is interesting to note 
the slight differences which exist between this solitary 
specimen and the adult form. 

No lists of synonyms have been given, but they can be 
obtained from Prof. M'Intosh's ' Monograph ' under the heads 
of the various sjiecies. As already stated, the specimens 
were those belonging to the collection handed over to 
Mr. W. Small, M.A., B.Sc, by Prof. D'Arcy Thompson. 
In conclusion, I have to thank Prof. W. C. M'Intosh ior his 
kindness in assisting me when I was in difficulties, and in 
giving me, from his own collection, a typical series of slides 
of each group. 

Family Goniadidse. 

Genus GONIADA, Audouiii and Edwards. 

Goniada maculata, Oersted, 1843. 

Only one small specimen, scarcely half an inch long, is 
the representative of the genus and species. It was obtained 
at Station 41 B at a depth of 15 I'athoms, and was dredged 
along with Megalia assimilis. This form has a very wide 
range, and has been found from littoral waters to a depth of 
795 fathoms (' Porcupine ' Expediiion of 1870). It is 
prevalent in the shallow waters of the North Sea, and extends 
to North American and Canadian waters. No member of 
the genus was obtained by the ' Challenger,' but at Station 
167 A in 10 fathoms the only representative of the family, 

* Vide Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. xiv. p. 289 (October 1914). 



from the North Sed and adj-icnit parts. 241 

viz. FA'iia Irijidity ^rns ilrcd^od. Izuka, iit liis rcsearclics in 
the seas of Japan, touiid three specie?, but Goniada macuhtta 
did not occur. The reports of the German iuvcstif^atious of 
thi.s taniily are not to hand, and so no coinpiiri.soii.s &c. can 
be drawn. 

Tlic head is a lonp, bluntly rounded, conical process, with 
four short squat ciiri, and consists of cij,fht set^nieiits, which 
are very indistinct in this form. The body has, includin*^ 
the head, about eighty segments, and tapers more anteriorly 
than posteriorly, where it ends in two fairly long tapering 
cirri, which are pale and translucent. The colour appears to 
vary with the sex and with the season. This example is 
dusky brown throughout, but light touches occur at t!ie bases 
of the feet and on the sides of the head. For a full descrip- 
tion of fresh forms see ' Monograph of 13ritish Annelids,' 
vol. ii. part ii. pp. 464-G. The feet stand out conspicuously 
from the sides of the boily, and are in agreement with those 
of typical forms. The bristles, however, like the example, 
are small, but are quite characteristic of the species, being 
]>ale in colour, ta))ering, and thin, the dorsal bristles having 
straight shafts, with no serrations or terminal pieces, and 
slightly dilatated tips. The ventral bristles are also pale 
and have fairly long curved shafts, with slender serrated 
terminal pieces articulated at the ends. The bristles arc 
arranged fan-wise, and the tij)s of the posterior bristles, espe- 
cially the central series of the fan, attain a much greater 
length. 

The alimentary tract is simple, fairly narrow posteriorly, 
but wide anteriorly, and is easily seen through the thin 
body-wall. The mouth is ventral, possesses lips, and the 
anus lies between the two anal cirri already mentioned. 
The specimen is not matuie, but some forms procured oft' the 
k5.\V' . of Ireland had large ova in July. Prof. I\[*lntosh is 
inclined to think that Goniadu alcockiana^ Dr. Carriuiiton, 
is a variety of this species. 

Genus Glycinde, Fritz Muller. 
Glycinde nordmanni, Malmgren, 1866. 

Four very much dried and shrivelled specimens of this 
annelid were dredged on the 4th December, 1905, at Dabs 
Voe, in 15 fathoms. Each measures about 2 inches long, 
but one is very much thinner and more linear than the 
others, wlios<^ Ixnlies taper anteriorly but more gra<lually 
posteriorly. The colour is dark brown, resendding that of 
()/Jiir'dnnitux He.nioxiis, and llirre is Utile (jiireronce in hue 



242 Mr. J. W. Prvdo on Anueloh Pohjchccta 

on dorsum niul voiitiuni. This unique colour is no doubt due 
to the scorching tlie animals received in the laboratory fire, 
for in living examples tiie animals are pale pink or skin- 
coloured. Tlie species is not uncommon in the stomach ofc" 
the cod and flounder, and, when plentiful, forms abundant 
food-supj)ly for these fishes. The range of the species is 
wide, for, besides being j)revalent in British waters, it has 
been found off the Siberian coast ( Wirdn) and at other parts 
of the world. Allied forms, like those of the 'Challenger' 
collection, frequent shallow water. No mention of this 
species is made by Izuka, and no German report has come 
to notice. 

The head is conical, but the four tentacles at the tip are 
just like little warts. No eyes are distinct, and the proboscis, 
although extended in three forms, lias been injured and 
shows the various pieces cf armature very poorly. The feet, 
although considerably dried, conform with the type-slides, 
and the bristles are quite characteristic of the species. None 
of the specimens were mature, but, according to various 
observers, the females at least become mature about June or 
July, and although no ripe males have been recorded, it is 
probable that both sexes mature simultaneously. 

Prof. M'Intosh says "It is remarkable to find such slight 
differences between the Glycinde tnfida of the ' Challenger ' 
from Charlotte Sound, New Zealand, and the British form." 

Family Glyceridae. 

Genus Glycera, Savigny, 1820. 

Glycera lapidum^ De Quatrefages, 1843. 

In haul 111 one incomplete specimen of this form was 
dredged along with Lumhriconereis gracilis ^t a station \ mile 
N.W. of Gluss Island, Shetland, at a depth of 16 fathoms. 
The animal is about 1^ inches long and has al)Out sixty 
bristled segments, each segment being three-ringed, and all 
appearing equal. Although only one example appears in the 
collection, this species is by no means scarce or uncommon, 
as the habitat given in Prof. M'Intosh's ' Monograph ' will 
show. It is found in deep as well as in shallow water, 
abounds in British seas, and extends to Norway, shores of 
North America, west coast of North America, Azores, 
Setubal, Mediterranean, but is not recorded in * Challenger ' 
Report nor from Japan. 

The head tapers to a blunt point, from which four short 
slender tentacles arise, while the body tapers more posteriorly 



from the North Sea and adjacent parts. 213 

than anteriorly. The dorsum is more convex than tlic 
ventrum, l)Ut the convexity i.s lo.st in the camlal re:;i<»ii, 
which i.s somewhat Hat an I strap-shapeil and terminate.^ in 
two anal cirri. 

Anteriorly tho hody has a rich {:joldei:-brown colour, 
which "gradually chantijes to yellowish white posteriorly. 
The body-wall is thin and transparent, and the simple 
8trai<iht gut with its contents shines through, thus reminding 
one of the condition prevalent in the posterior region of 
many of the Eunicidre. 

The ])rol)oscis is fairly long, being about one-third the 
length of the entire animal, and presents a hard anl very 
muscular appearance. It is richly covered with minute 
pajjilb^, which, according to the Monograph*, are filiform, 
with crenated edges. The tip, which is much wider than 
the base, roughly forms a square, at whose corners is placed 
a black, spurred, powerful tooth. Tho teeth are sunk in 
bulb-like muscular pads, the opening of the proboscis being 
where the pads meet in the centre. The organ is pinkish in 
colour and has many minute transverse striae. 

Tho feet are slender and appear on the anterior ring of the 
segment, a condition reversed in Eumenia jeffreysii, where 
the feet are borne on the posterior ring. They are white in 
colour and semitransparent. The example is so small that 
the anterior feet could not be removed without incurring 
serious damage to the animal ; however, a lengthy account 
of them can be had in the Monograph. The feet from the 
twentieth were found to be quite typical, although the 
bristles were much more slender than those of the type-series. 
The specimen was not mature, but in this species epitokous 
forms appear which have larger bodies, longer and more 
prominently marked feet, and more attenuate bristles. From 
observation tho animals ripen and shed their sexual products 
in the month of July. 

Family AriciidaB. 
Genus Aricia, Savigny, 1820. 

Aricia cuvieri, Audouin and Edwards, 1833. 

The distribution of the above family is very uncertain, 
and several well-known European forms extend to the shores 
of North America, where they have receiveil different names. 
The members of the family frccjuent deep or inshore waters. 

* Vide 'Mouogrnpli,' vol. ii, part ii. \>. 460. 



24-4 ]\Ir. J. W. Prytle on Annelida PoJycluBta 

111 tins collection six exaniplos wevo obtained in a fry-not in 
haul 68;'0 at 152 m. on (Uli February, 1907, at Station 39 B, 
lat. o7° 59' N., lon^. 0" 57' E. The animals are very small, 
the largest being aUout 2 inches long, but G to 8 inches is a 
common size. Fr.>m accounts given by other writers the 
above species is a deep-water form, having been obtained at 
di'pths ranging from 164- to 422 fathoms, 'Porcupine' 
Expedition of 18G9, and from 257 to 358 fathoms by the 
same Expedition of 1870. It extends to Norway and the 
shores of Greenland, but neither Izuka nor the writer of tlie 
' Challenger ' Report makes any mention of it. 

The head is small and conical, and agrees with the descrip- 
tion laid down in the Monograph *. The proboscis is 
unarmed. 

The body of the largest has about G5 bristl d segments. 
It is stout in comparison with its breadth and attains its 
maximum breadth about the anterior ninth or tenth, where 
it measures about 4 mm. From this part it tapers quickly 
anteriorly, but more gradually posteriorly till it ends bluntly, 
the anus being situated at the ti[) doisally, with two lateral 
flaps, a ventral process and papilla, and with two very long 
slender cirri, which the writer of the Monograph notes ])ass 
off from the anterior part as in Aricia latreillii. The dorsum, 
except in the first five segments, is flat, while the ventrum 
is rounded. Gradually, however, a groove appears ven- 
trally, deepens and becomes more prominent towards the 
caudal region, which is absent in several of the specimens. 
The peristomium is narrow dursally, but broad ventrally, the 
mouth occupying the position of the median ventral line at 
the posterior border of the segment. In shape the mouth 
resembles a sunken pit with smooth rounded sides, having 
two prominent crescentic lips, which are lateral in position, 
but there are no longitudinal symmetrical furrows passing 
forward from tlie segments behind. The proboscis, which is 
not extruded in any, is a deeply frilled organ which projects 
from the mouth as a button-like process. The Monograph 
adds "There are about ten frills in the form of a rosette." 

The feet commence at the second segment and continue to 
the anus, but in the first twenty or thirty segments the dorsal 
portion of each foot is different fr()in the ventral. From the 
thirty-first, however, both portions are similar. The feet 
agree with the descriptions laid down in the Monograph and 
with the types on the slides, and in position on the bod}^ they 
are situated more dorsally than ventrally. However, towards 

* Vide ' Monograph,' vol. ii. part ii. p. 499. 



from the Xort/i Sen an'l aiJj ivnl yarts. 21.") 

the caudal ie;;;ion tlic tVct Ijccorne lateral in position, Uit never 
ventro-lateral. Tlu^ biaiicliia? coininetice at tlu: Hllli pair of 
feet, and appt'ar as little conical processes wliieli increase in 
size from before backward. Tliey are nearer tlie mid-dorsal 
line tliau the dorsal cirri, but between the twentieth and 
thirtieth segnjonts they leave this region and approacli the 
cirri. This, however, 1 find to be variable. Along with the 
increase in size of the hranchi;o there is a corresponding in- 
crease in the size of the dorsal cirri, and this increase is espe- 
cially marked at tlie base of the organs. Each branchia has 
two vessels whieli are linked together by a numerous series 
of connecting-trunk'^. Tlie bristles, spines, and papillaa of 
the feet all conform with the Monograph *. 'Jhe segmental 
organs are limited, but appear more prominently in posterior 
two-thirds of the bmly. All the examples iwa immature. 
However, (pioting from the ^lonograph f, " ho Bianco found 
Ariciafcetida, Clap., ripe from January to June at Naples. 
The eggs are of a greenish colour and deposited in a cylin- 
drical vermiform mass of mucus." 

The contents of the gut were composed of fine mud 
particles, debris, and vegetable matter. 

Family Opheliidae. 

Genus Ammotrypane. 

Ammotri/pane aulogaster, H. Rathke. 

Twenty-two. specimens of this form, which has a gener.il 
distribution, are present in the collection, but, like many 
others, they have suffered from the laboratory fire mentioned 
it> previous re[)orts. The tube containing the animals has no 
label, and consequently no depth nor locality can be given. 
The animals them-selves are badly seorelied and very nmoh 
shrivelled. This species is found off the shores of the British 
Isles, but extends much farther north. Izuka makes no 
reference to either tlie family or the specie-*, but in the 
'Challenger' Report there is a form, Ammotri/pane (jraclle, 
dredged otf Japan, which clo.SL-ly resembles the Euro[)eau 
species. 

The head is pointed, fairly large, but devoid of tentacles, 
tentacular cirri, anil eyes. The mouth is ventral in position 
and a|)pears as a fairly large longitudinal slit, which continues 
as a ventral groove to the posterior end of the animal. 

The body is linear, the longest specimen mea.-iuring about 

• Vide ' Monograph,' vol. ii. part ii. p. 500. 
1 Ibid. ■p. rjQL 

Ann. ct- il/t/y. .V. JJist. iSer. 8. Vol. xv. 17 



24(» I^Ir. J. W. Pi ydc 07t Annelida Poh/chceta 

2 inclic^, boiiia; })inkisli brown on the dorsum find pale pink 
on the vcntrum and at extreme anterior end. The body-wall 
is smootli, firm, and thick, and agrees generally with that 
of Ammotrypane (/racile, which, however, differs from it in 
liaving the intermediate pedicle — between the dorsal and 
ventral longitudinal muscles — short. The ventral groove, 
running tVom mouth to arms, is fairly ilee)>, and is flanked by 
thick brood-ridges, which disajijiear at tlie scoop-sliaped hood 
surrounding tiie anus. Along each border of the hood there 
are four cirri, while a pair of larger and thicker cirri, with a 
slender cirrus between them, are situated at the base. 

The feet, with bristles and branchiae, are placed laterally in 
close relation to the ventral ridges. In several they seem to 
occupy lateral shallow grooves formed by the ridges on the 
ventral side and by the convexity of the dorsum on the other. 
The bristles agree with the type-examples, but the branchiae 
do not arise on the same foot in every form, this probably 
being due to the destruction of these organs by the fire. 

In transverse section the cuticle is very dense, but the 
hypoderm is not strongly developed. The nerve-area, situated 
ventrally, appears as a transverse band, and so differs from 
that of Ammotrypane gracile^ which is ovoid. The longitu- 
dinal dorsal muscles have regularly arranged fasciculi and 
slant obliquely along the dorsal arch from a kind of median 
raphe. 

The specimens were immature, and the contents of the 
intestine were mud, sandy particles, and debris. In the 
intestine of a 'Challenger^ specimen was sandy mud, with 
diatoms, broken sponge-spicules, fragments of Echinoderm 
spines, and Foraminifera. 

Family Scalibregmidae. 

Genus EuMENiA. 

Eiimenia {Lipohranchus) Jeffrey sii, M'lntosh. 

This species is the sole member of the above family in the 
collection, and it is surprising that Scalihregma infiatam, a 
form having a wide distribution, does not occur. The fol- 
lowing table gives the data connected with the hauls : — • 



Date. Haul. 


Station. 


Depth. 


Apparatus. 


Number obtained. 


17-7-08 152 

1 
28-6-09 192 


Ardinore Point 1 j miles S. 
Kinnaird Deep. 


180 m. 
181m. 


Dredge. 
Dredge. 


14 

G 

- 



from the ,\nrt/i Set au<l culjticent parts. 247 

No mention of tins species is ina<l(' hy Iziika or dm wiilci- 
of tlic * Cliallt'ii;,'cr ' Kej)ort, altli()iii;li the i^'cmis Kumenia 
lia.s one rcpresi-ntative among the ' Challen;;ei- ' worms, viz. 
Kunien'ut reticulata, which ditfers from Theel'a Eumenin 
longisetosa in that the dorsal himellaR commence at th*^ 
fifteenth instead of at tlie tentli foot. Eumenia jcffnnisu 
extends to Norway, and Dr. (iwyn Ji-HVeys dredged it'otf 
the llel)rides and the Shethuid Isles; bnt there is reason to 
helieve that it ahonnds in more northern hititudes. 

The head is bluntly conical in shape, contracted in appear- 
ance, and has a slight median groove, but bears no tentacles. 
Tlie body is maggot-like, deep reddish l)rown in colour, 
which is often deeper in line at the ends, and the feet are 
represented by dorsal and ventral pads, from which the bristles 
l)roject. The bristles are long, linear, and translucent; while 
the spines which support the feet are stout and strong, although 
fairly short. There are no anal cirri, while those on the teet, 
if present, are rudimentary. Each segment has three rings, 
of which the posterior, bearing the feet, is the most pro- 
nounced. Each ring, moreover, is formed by an aggregation 
of small papilla?, which give the animal a rough, wartv 
appearance. 

Although the animal is short, tiie gut, wiien exposed, is 
fairly long, sacculated in appearance, and is of great width 
■whore the sacculations occur. The guf-wall is very thin, and 
the gut-contents can be easily seen as a yellowish-green mass 
which differs in ai)pcarance from the dark green-coloured 
fjEcal packets found in lljalinaxla tubico/a<iud other Eunicidje. 
The mouth opens into a buccal cavity, which leads into 
a short but fairly wide (jesophagus, which, in turn, enters a 
muscular stomach cubical in shape. From the posterior end 
of the stomach the gut extends to the anus, which is a promi- 
nent aperture at the tip of the tail. In several of the examples 
there was a large reddish-coloured mass surrounding tlic 
posterior region of the gut, yet often having extensions iu 
the anterior end. This mass was composed of ova iu some 
cases and in others of spermatozoa, which were aggrofrated 
together to form spermatophores, wliich were almost as large 
as the ova, but whieii did not jiossess zonaj. In the anterior 
region the gut is moored in jjosition by tive or six niosenteries, 
which are very thit\ and which stretcli from the wall of the 
gut to the body-wall. There may also be one or two at the 
posterior end. A rich supply of blood-vessels and nerves 
extends along the whole alimentary canal. 

The nervous system of this species is very well developed. 
There is a fairly huge bilobed br.iin, which givesoifa ventral 

17* 



24S 



^Fr. J. "\V. Piydo on Ain^eJiJa PoJychceta 



nerve-cord. On this cord there are small ganglia which are 
situated in the same part ot' each segment as the feet and 
IroMi which branches are sent out to the teet and the gut. 



Family Sphaerodoridae. 
Genus Epiiesia, 11. Kathke. 

Ephesia gracilis. 

One incomplete specimen liaving seventy-eight segments 
was dredged along with Syllis cormita in 15 fathoms. The 
example is almost complete, only a lew <•£ the posterior seg- 
meiils being absent. It is linear in outline, tapered ante- 
riorly and posteriorly, and attaining its maximum breadth 
about tlie tliirty-second segment. 

Tlie head is fairly large, almost quadrangular in shape, 
and at the anterior corners o£ the quadrangle there are bulb- 
like palpi which have nipple-like apices. The cirri in the 
anterior region are very indistinct, having been damaged in 
tlie mounting of the example. The anterior segnients are 
short, fairly narrow, and appear to be somewhat crowded ; 
but in the posterior region of the animal the segments are so 
broad that the intervals between consecutive feet are con- 
spicuous. The colour is brown and the body- wall is so thin 
and transparent that the entire gut is seen as a simple tube 
which is narrow anteriorly, very wide in the mid-region, and 
fairly wide posteriorly. All over the body, botii dorsally 
and ventrally, occur numerous transverse stria?, which are 
only visible under very high power. The animal is not 
mature. 

The Spha^rodoridaj do Jiot occur in Grube's 'Gazelle' 
collection nor in that from the Philippines. Schmarda gives 
a single doubtful form fiom Jamaica. In the * Porcupine ' 
Expedition this species was obtained at a depth of 664 
fathoms, and in the Norske Nordhavs-Expedition it occurred 
at 417 fathoms. No mention of the species is made in the 
'Challenger' Report, but an interesting form, Ephesia ant- 
arciico, was procured at Station 156 near the antarctic circle 
at a depth ol 1975 fathoms"^. 

" The segments resemble those of the common Ephesia 
gracilis. Dorsally is the large globular appendagi^,, wiiich 
exhibits a much more minute pajiiila than in the latter form. 

* Vide ' Challenger ' Report, vol. xii. j). 3G1. 



from the Svrth -Sea and utfjacfuf jiarls. 



210 



Iiitt'iiially the p^Iobiihir proce?ses Imve elongated f^ianular 
strufturi'S. 'I'he skin ot the foot is likewise covi-red with 
}»a|.illie. A siuu'lt! spiiio suppoiis tlie fi>of, the bii.stle>* in 
which tlillVr from those ol" the adult E/ihtsii (/nicilis in having 
tlie terminal piece less hooked as well as distinctly dilicren- 
tiatetl from the end of the shaft. The terminal piece forms 
a s »ine\vhat conical process with an oblique base, the dorsal 
margin bfitig slightly convex, the ventral slightly concave. 
'J he shaft is somewhat curved and is dilated at the tin below 
the bovellcHl nrtiiular surface. The bristles are veiy trans- 
lucent and approach those of Kphenia canadensis^ a species, 
however, which differs in other respects from this form." 

Family Chloroeniida. 
Genus Stvlauiuidls. 

Sti/IarioUlts pluniosu, O. F. Miiller. 

This species is one of the two representatives of a some- 
what wiilely distributed and noteworthy fanjily . Tiie annelids 
were obtained as follows : — 



Dat«. 


Haul. 


Station. Locality. 


Depth. 


Apparatus. 


Number obtained. 


8-7-07 
2&-6-09 


89 
19 


16 62° N., 6° 12^ W. 
Kintiiird Deep. 


128 m. 
181 m. 


Sm. Trawl. 
Dredge. 


21-)- fragments. 

4. 

1 



In "Notes from the Gatty Marine Laboratory, St. Andrews. 
— No. XXX." *, Prot. M'Intosh gives the above as a conunoa 
liritish species ; but it is generally distributed in the North 
European seas, and extends to Greenland and the shores 
of America. This species, however, does not ajipear in the 
dredgings of the 'Porcupine' Expeditions of 18GS) and 1870, 
although the genus is wdl rej»resentetl by Stylarivides gUiuca, 
IS.jiubtllata, and S. sarsii, which resembles S. 2'lumo.',a, but 
has a shorter anterior region, fewer segments, niore velvety 
surface, and stiffer dorsal bristles. [\i the dredgings of 
Dr. Whiteaves in the Gulf ot tSt. Lawrence, Canada, good 

♦ J'Ule Ann. & Mag. Nat. Ili.'-t. ser. 8, vol. ii. p. 524 (Dec. 1008). 



250 I^Ir. J. W. Pryde on AtincJiJa Polychceta 

oxani])lcs of ^. pJumosa were obtaineil. Again, Canon Nor- 
inaji t'oiuul several of tliis species, but his examples are much 
interior to those i'rom l^ritish waters. Perhaps it may he 
sail! that the homo of the genus is in North European seas 
and in the Arctic Ocean, for in Northern Norwegian waters 
alone the following species abound : — Stylartoides pluuwsa, 
S. glaxica, S.Jiahellata, S. hirsnta, and S. normani. 

In the * C'liallenger ' Report * the writer notes : " The distri- 
bution of this family [Cliloroeniiila?] is in some respects note- 
worthy, both as regards area and depth. Thus most of the 
specimens described by former voyagers come from shaUow 
water or between tide-marks, but the exi)lorations of the 
' Challenger' have carried these peculiar forms to a depth of 
2500 fatiioms, or nearly twice the dej)th at which the natu- 
ralists on board the ' Porcupine ' had found Stylari aides glaiica. 
Moreover, the wide distribution of the remarkable inter- 
mediate ty))e, BusJiieUa abt/ssoru7n, is interesting in connection 
with the view that the ancient forms have been gradually 
driven into the great depths by the more recent types 
attaining supremacy in the shallower water." Three new 
species were added to the list by this ('Challenger') 
Expedition. 

U'lie specimens of this collection are not very large, the 
longest being about 2 inches and having fifty segments and 
the shortest a little over one-quarter of an inch with twenty- 
four segments. They agree with the description given in 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. ii. (December 1908), but 
the hoof-shaped process does not occur in any. The bristles 
of the small, probably a young, form are not of the usually 
golden colour, but are semitransparent, very slender, and 
taper to fine points. The transverse markings, however, are 
quite distinct and characteristic. The surface of the body 
is very rugose and the bristles of the feet project from it in 
little clumps. These bristles, like those of the anterior 
region, are pale, non-iridescent, and translucent. 

The branchise are shrivelled and pale, but in lite they are 
beautiful green-coloured organs, tiie coloration being due to 
the blood, which is green, and are j)rotected, like the palpi, 
by the anterior bristles, which have a forward and upward 
direction. 

Prof. M'Intosh remarks : — " It is interesting that the type 
of bristle seen in this form persists in species from the Indian 
and other oceans, as shown, amongst others, by Prof. Ehlers 

* Vide ' Challenger ' Report, vol. xii. p. 362. 



from the Surlh Sea and adjucenl jmrls. U.'jL 

in Ijis recent bcnutifiil work on the annelid."* of tlio Gciinan 
Deo|)-sea Ex[)C(Jitii)ii." 

Genus Brada, Stimpson. 
Brada nonnani. 

'riireo examples of this annelid were found on 8/7J07 in 
haul 87 at Station IG, lat. (>2° N., long. G° 12' VV., in a small 
trawl at the depth uf l'2ii tn. Each animal measures a little 
over an inch, and has twenty-two se;^nieiits. There i.s a test 
of very fine sand-brains surrounding the body, and, like the 
surface of the body, is very rugose. The bristles in the 
anterior region and on the setigerous processes project as 
little golden clumps beyond the sandy test. 

The body is maggot-like, having the anterior end more 
bluntly rounded than the posterior. The mouth is u con- 
spicuous triradiate opening at the extreme anterior eml, while 
the anus appears as a vertical slit at the extreme posterior. 
The lips are thick, swollen, and covered with minute sand- 
particles. Along the line of the dorsal bristles there arc 
large, long, Hattened papillaj which have pointed tips. As 
Prof. M'lntosh remarks, " These papillas diifer in a marked 
degree from those usually seen in Stylario'ules, Brada v'dlusa 
or granulata. The dorsal bristles are few, slender, and 
inconspicuous. The ventral oues are long, have thick shafts 
of almost uniform breadth throughout, and end in bluntly 
rounded tips which are slightly bent. The tips in some, 
however, are probe-like and tend to be slightly attenuate. 
These bristles have well-marked transverse stria3, which 
become fainter towards the tips, where they ultimately dis- 
appear. In many there are also oblique striae wliicli are 
pruininent on the part of tlie bristle projecting beyond the 
surface. The setigerous lobes are fairly conspicuous, standing 
out from the rugose surface as little elevations from which 
the bristles project, and around which are clustered several 
liulbose paj)illa'. The gut is simple, straight, and very 
narrow, and in segments G, 7, and 8 it is surrounded by a 
dense mass of ova which are reddish-yelhjw in colour. The 
ova are small, spherical, and have very thick zonje. 

Family ChaetopteridaB. 
Genus PHYLLOCiiJBTurTEULS, Uiube. 

No species can be assigned to the various tubes of this 
genus, which were procured as follows : — 



252 ]\Ir. J. W. PiTcle on Annelida Polijchata 



Date. 


Haul. 


Station. 


Locality. 


Depth. 


Apparatus. 


Number obtninod. 


21-6-06 


31 


Biichan 
Deep. 
23a 


570 31'N..1o]2'E. 


106 m. 


Sm. Trawl. 


3 tubes. 


27-7-06 


45 


690 51'N.,l°12'E. 


115 m. 


Sm. Trawl. 


1 tube. 


20-7-07 


103 




Kinnaird Deep. 


201m. 


Dredge. 


5 tubes. 


20-7-U7 


103 




Kinnaird Head. 


20 fins. 


Fi-y Net. 


2 tubes. 


14-2-08 


8730 


40 B 


57° 24' N., 10 7' E. 


95 m. 


Dredge. 


3 tubes. 


7-7-08 


142 


Knoere Knap-Sagna Fiord 

^\E./Is. ^ mile. 

No label. 
No label. 


305 m. 


Dredge. 


3 tubes. 

10 tubes. 
3 tubes. 



The tubes differ very much in .size and thickne.«s, and 
wliile some have rings clear, well nuirked, and at rej^uhir 
intervals, others have tliem irregularly ])!aced and almost 
indistinct. The tubes found at Buchan Deep are about 
8 inches long, fairly thin, clear, and nearly transparent, and 
are almost entirely filled with very tine sand. They have 
irregularly arranged transverse striations, and at one end 
there is often a perforated septum, which probably acts as a 
means of defence and at the same time functioning as the 
V-.-ha])ed or zigzag valves in JlyaJinOBcia tuln'cola. Prof. 
]\l'lnt(ish, in his remarks on this genus in the ' C/hallenger ' 
collection, says : — " Toward the posterior end a very neat 
diaphragm Avith a minute aperture in the centre occurs; and 
above the septum is occasionally a collection of the small 
ovoid ffecal masses and other debris, so that this region of 
the tube is rendered opoque " *. The rings on the tubes were 
very ineguhir and only a few were well j)ronounce(l. The 
tube obtained at Station 23 a was fragmentaiy and resembled 
the quill-like tube of Ilyalinoecia tulicola, but no valves or 
septum was present. Those dredged at Kinnaird Head and 
]Jiep were taken along with several Polynoida?, Serpulidai, 
and Terebellidse, and, although quill-like, they were brown 
in colour and very much coarser than that previou.sly men- 
tioned. One measured aljont 8 inches long and was annidatcd 
at short but faiily reguhir intervals, and every tenth or 
fifteenth ring was stronger and better made than the others. 
Another had a very marked septum at one end. One of 

* Vide ' Challenger ' Report, vol. xii. p. 376, pi. xliv. 10 a. 



front the Sjith Sea and adjacent jHir Is. 



2:)'^ 



tlnce tjikcii at Station 40 \\ liii<l an external coating conij)os('(l 
of liroken picct'S ol Hydroiiis — ni(i>tly (Jlnlia and Sertularin 
— Miiiali pc'cten-valvfjii, C(>ar<«' s.ind, an<l pieces of gravel. 
Tlu>se obtained in S.igna Fiord were quill-like, ami were 
taken along with Nephtliydidji?, P]iinicida', and Maldanid:e. 

Sornetinies tubes are obtaineil showing forked branching, 
an a|)pearance which is due to a fracture of the tube, and the 
continuation of the latter, not by the union of the broken 
ends, but by the secretion of a new piece Miih which the 
tunnel i.s continuous. The broken fragment has its channel 
closed, and it remains adiien-nt ;ipparently as a useless j)io- 
cess. Prof. M'lntosh says, '* this occurs both anteriorly and 
pesteriorly, as tubes are found with a diaphragm in each 
limb of the fork. The bifurcation is thus only apparent, not 



actna 



" * 



Tliis genus is represented in the 'Challenger' collection by 
a new species called I hyllochcttopterus claparedii. 



Genus Spioch^ETOPTEUUS, Sars. 

Several tubes belonging to this genus were found in the 
follow iui; hauls : — 



Date. 


Haul. 


Station. 


Locality. 


Depth. 


Apparatus. 


Number obtained. 


4-9-06 


61 


7 


61°06'N.,2oi'E. 


134 m. 


Siu. Trawl. 


4 tubes. 


14-12-08 


8730 


40 b 


57°24'N.,lo7'E. 


95 in. 


Fry Net. 


2 tubes. 


9-6-08 


201 


16 


620N., G°12'W. 
No label. 
No label. 


112m. 


Dredge. 


I tube. 
1 tube. 
I tube. 



The tubes are all sizes and some are coated with fragments 
of small shells, valves or minute pectens, coarse sand, and 
gravel. Some, however, have a thick j)a|)er-like constituency 
and are very wide in bore. If the fragments of shells etc. be 
|)icked off or dissolved away, the internal portion of the tubes 
is yellowish and hyaline in character ; but in the paper-like 
tubes no trace o£ tiie hyaline character is visible. None of 
the tubes show tiie valvidar condition. 

In the ' Challenger' Expedition several yellowish hyaline 



* \'idc ' Cballfuper ' IJeport, vol. xii. p. u70. 



25-i Mr. J. W. Pry do on Annelida rolychvta 

tubes were obtained oft' the coast of New York at the depth 
of 1240 fathoms *, but, like those of the present collection, 
they were empty. 

Family CirratnlidaB. 

Genus CHuETOZONE, Mahngren. 

Chcttozone norve(jica. 

At Station 41 B, lat. 50° 42' N., long. 0° 35' E., and at a 
depth of 75 m., a small coin[)lete form about a quarter of an 
inch in length was dredged. The feet, bristles, and general 
body-characters are quite diagnostic of the species, and there 
is nothing of outstanding interest about the form. The 
bri.stles are very slender, finely tapered, and almost trans- 
jiarent. The animal is not mature. 

This genus is usually found in deep water, while the genus 
Cirratulus frequents shallower depths. In the ' Challenger ' 
Report one member of the genus Chivlozone, viz. C/icetozone 
heiit/ialiana, was found as deep as 1250 fathoms, while other 
representatives were procured at depths varying from 400 to 
700 fathoms. The species Chcetozone selosa described by 
AJalmgren was found at a depth of 20-40 orgyiar. 

Family Spionidae. 

Genus SCOLECOLEPIS. 

Scolecolepis vulgaris, Johnston. 

This species is the only representative of the Spionidse. 
The members of the family are found in greater number in 
shallow water than in deep water, and in this present collec- 
tion there are two fragments, each about 1 inch long, showing 
neither head nor tail. The fragments were obtained in 
haul 174 with a small trawl on 24th August, 1908, at 
Station 19 a, lat. 60° 36' N., long. 4° 46' W., and at a depth 
of 1030 m. This depth is the greatest which has as yet 
occurred in the data of the hauls connected with the Hcotch 
North Sea investigations ; but in the 'Challenger' Report 
members of the family were dredged at depths ranging from 
110-725 fathoms. In the account of this species given by 
M'Intosh t no depth is given, and in Izuka's work on the 
Errantiate Polychajta of Japan the Spionidie do not even 
occur. 

* Vide 'Challenger' Report, vol. xii. p. 380. 

t Vide Ann. ,!c Mag-. Nat. Hist. ser. «, vol. iii. p. I'jo (Feb. 1900). 



from the North Sea and adjacent j^tarts. 255 

The frngineiits arc very much lacerated, but tlie feet, 
which are cloao together, are not diiina|;ocl, and a;;ree with 
those on the type-slides. One of the fragments contains feet 
which must come before the tiltieth foot, because tho ventral 
tlivision shows no long winged hooks, which only ap[>ear about 
llie fiftieth. However, there is some uncoitainty where the 
hooks eummence, for according to I)e St. Joseph they ajjpear 
between the tliirtieth and the lifty-second, while another 
investigator, Mesnil, records tluir appearance from the thirty- 
titth to the thirty-seventh. The hooks are very powerful, 
liaving strong stout shafts which are curved and prominently 
striated, the hooks themselves facing upwards. The wings 
are large and extend to the surface of tlie lamella. Aceom- 
jKinying the hooks are slender, finely pointed, smooth bristles 
whose tips reach upwards beyond the hooks, while ventrally 
beyond tlie last hook there isaclur-ter of six or seven — three, 
according to Prof. M'lntosh, — which are minutely striated. 
In all the slender bristles the tips are curved and face down- 
wards. The dorsal bristles are long, slender, and linely 
pointed, the length extending beyond the lamella being only 
about one-fourth the total length. The bristles arise close 
together and spread out fan-wise as they extend outwards. 
The bases are sheathed iu muscles, which move them. The 
branchiie which are present on all the feet of the fragments 
are large, bluntly conical, and present edges liaving a frilled 
appearance. Prof. M'lntosh remarks that in life the lamelue 
ot the feet as well as the branchiie, which meet those of the 
opposite side in the front, are muscular and perform various 
movements. 

The body-wall of this species is very thick and muscular, 
and thus presents a condition totally ditferent from that of 
many of the Eunicida?, which have body-walls so thin that 
the fieces in the gut appear as green masses. I was unable 
to obtain any nephridia, but one fragment contained ova 
which were fairly large in size and opac^ue in colour. The 
gut, which was exposed in parts, is fairly wide and is covered 
by a white-coloured tissue which has been probably discoloured 
by the preserving fluid. The contents ot the gut were sand, 
debris, and brown masses which appeared like pieces of tissue. 
It is doubtful whether the animals are carnivorous or not. 

The fragments were taken along with several Polynoidie 
which were worked out by Mr. \V. Small. 

Biblioijrajphi/. 

l/.LKA. \\i\2. 'The KiTHUtiiUe Polycluetn of Japan." 
Malmorkx. 1S«>.j. 'Nordibka IIiifri-Annulattr. Jitockholm. 



'25G 



Mr. 1^). F. Cuimniii;:;s 07i the 



M'Lntosh. 1874. Trans. Zool. Soc. vol. ix. part 7. "On British 

Annelida." 
. 188"). 'Challenger' Reports, Zoology, vol. xii. "Annelida 

Polvcha?ta." 
. 1908. ' Monograph of British Annelida.— Polychocta,' vol. ii. 

part i. 

. 1908. Ann. & Majr. Nat. lli.-^t. ser. 8, vol. ii. (Dec. 1908). 

. 1909. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, vol. iii. (Feb. 1909). 

'* British Spionida?.'' 
. 1909. Ann. & Mac. Nat. Hist. " Notes from the Gatty Marine 

Iv.boratory.— No. XXXI." 
. 1910. 'Monogi-aph of BrilLsh Annelida. — Polychseta,' vol. ii. 

part ii. 



XX — N<4e on the Mouth-parts in a Species of Polypliix 
[Anophiio) and on the Relationship between Anoplura and 
Mtllophaga. By BiiUCE F. CUMMINGS, British Museum 
(Naluial History). 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

One of the most interesting of recent memoins on the Ano- 
])lura and Mallojiliaga is that pitblished in the'Arkiv for 
Zoclogi' lor li»10*, by Dr. EricMjobeig of the Academy of 
fccience.e, in Stockholm. In the course of this work, entitled 
* iSiudien iiber Mallophagen und Anopluren,' the author 
brings forward a very considerable amount of morphological 
evidence, gleaned from various regions of the anatomy, 
shoM'ing good cause why the Anoplura, or blood-sucking lice 
(usually taken to be allied to the Riiynchota), siiould be 
regarded as more closely related to the Mallophaga — or 
niandibulate bird-lice. An account of previous views of the 
systematic position of the two orders is given on pa<ie 20o, 
and a recapitulation is here unnecessary. Mjoberg links the 
Mallophaga with the Psocidge and the Psocidai with some 
Bl:.ttoid-like stem-form. 

For the first time, Mjoberg has presented us with a more 
or less extended com) arison of the two groups — .system tor 
system ; and, by marshalling unmistakable likenesses in the 
genital organs, the tracheal system, the external morphology, 
and even the mouth-paits, has placed the intimate phylo- 
genelic relationship of Anojjlura and Mallophaga on a sound 
basis. The Anoplura, therefore, appear to be M;dlt)))h;iga 
which have taken to sucking blood, and are moditied accord- 
ingly. It has been suggested that tome Mallophaga, such as 

* ' Arkiv for Zoologi," vi. 1910, pp. 1- 29G. 



Mnnlh-pn) Is III a Sficcifs of 1V)1\ plax. li'iT 

7'e/i-i'p/it/uiliniis lidin (IMagct), wliii-Ii is foiiiMi tiruily atf:iclM'(l 
1)V iiu-aiis ot" its j)(>\vt>i tul tndt'ntato inauilihlcs to the skin ol' 
the Pelican's pouch, lives on hlood ; a transition tVoni hair- 
ancl feather-feetlinj^ to j^nawin;^ at the epidermis of the skin 
is easily conceived, wiicn, as soon as blood is extravasated, 
it becomes a comparatively short jiim|) for the iina<rination 
to fi<^ure how a compleic chan;^c in feedin^-lial)its came 
about. 

In re<;ard to the mouth- |)arts ot" the Anoplura with which 
this note more particularly deals, it was almost to be 
expected that a careful search would reveal traces of their 
mandibulate ancestry. Enderlein, already in 1904*, likened 
two lateial piccts within the proboscis of JLrmalopiniis siiift 
(Ij.), Jjcach (from the l*i<i), to the mandibles of Corixa, a 
lleleropterous bufjj. Enderlein regards the Anoplura as a 
sul)order of the Khynchota. But the pieces in the proboscis 
of Aictophthirus tr'n'Iieci\ Boh., described and figured by 
Mjoberg in tlie pajier already nameil bear a direct resemblance 
to the mandibles of Mallo[)lia<^a rather than to those of 
Corijco, which are remarkable in form and have a peculiar 
basal piece. Moreover, in a species of Folijphix from an 
Ej:yptian host — Acomys cahirinus, De.'J., — about to be 
described under tlie name P. oxyrhynchus, there are two 
chitinous structures lyino; together behind the pliarynx 
[htri/nj- of Enderlein), which are quite probably man- 
dibles, anil closely resemble those figured by ]\Ijober_c:, 
i. e. each lies with ils narrow end pointing inwards and a 
teiidoi.-like strip of chitin runs back from the ba>e i £ the 
])OSterior lateral angle. The mouth-parts of the louse form, 
of course, an almost classical problem in morpholoii:y, and 
many authors, from Swamnierdam to 8ehioJte and after, 
have tackled it with varying success. The inherent difficul- 
ties in dissecting the proboscis probably onstitute the reason 
why we still lack any very seiilcd vitiw.s on its structure and 
morphology, and the sugge.-tions put forward hero are there- 
fore to be regarded as the advertisement of problems to bo 
solved rather liian as definite solutions. 

In another species — to be called Folijpa.r; hracliyrhynclius — 
froni tlie same host, a siill more interesting structure was 
found on the under smtace of the head in front of the pharynx 
and just behintl the mouth-o|)ening. 

A jilanee at tig. 1 (p. 258) is sutticient to suggest at once 
to a student of the Mallophaga the well-known oesophageal 
sclerite and "glands" which form a prominent feature in the 

• Zool. Anz., Ikl. xxviii. I'.MM. ^y. li'l 117. 



258 



Mr. B. F. Cumminjjs on the 



literature of tliis p;ronp *. This sclerite (sometimes called 
"lyriform orgiin " and homologized with the hypopharyiix) 
and glands (better known as basal pieces), almost unique in 



Vis. 1. 




Infra-buccal plate of Polyplax brachyrhynehus (Anoplnra). The whole 
of the top of the head has been dissected away, so that the plate is 
seen from above. The bundle of elongated needle-like trophi, which 
are sketched in only diagramniatically, have been drawn on one cide 
to leave the plate clear. 

MO = Mouth-opening ; D = Rostral denticles; 8 = Infra-buccal plate 
(or sclerite) ; C = Chitinous chords ; G= ? " Gland " (this was only 
visible on one side). Greatest length of the plate = '01.3 of a milli- 
metre ; oreatest width = 'OIG. 



the comparative anatomy of the insect-mouth, occur in their 
typical form in the suborder Ischnocera of the Mallophaga 

* Vide V. L. Kellogg, Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. vol. vi. 1896. R. Snod- 
gra-ss, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. xxxi. Nr. 4, 190o, pp. 297-307 ; P. Z. S. 191.3, 
p. 128. Armenaute, Boll, della Soc. di Naturalisti in Napoli, xxiv. 
(ser. 2, vol. iv.) 1910, p. 7G. 



Moutli-jxirls ill a Species of Polyphix-. 



250 



(see fi^. 2). A curious "duct" (or cliitiiious clionl), cross- 
haried like :i tiaclu'a, runs forward tVoni lictwct'ii tlio aiitorinr 
coniua of the sclcrite iinJ bifurcates in front, cacli hruncli 
ruiming into a basal piece or '' gland," which is, according to 
Arnu'iiaule, only a hard flat oval piece of chitin, without 
glandular structure. 



Vh 



\ 




Diajjcrammatic sketch of the cesopliafroal sclerite (or lyrifonu oryiui) aud 
"<,'lands" (or basal pieces) in Mallopbaga. 

G = Gland; S = Sclerite. 

The infra-buccal plate in P. hracliyrhynchus is apparently 
fused at least in part with the lower wall of the head. It is 
exfreiutdy minute and correspondingly difficult to dissect, as 
the whole head itself in this species measures only '^O ot a 
millimetre in len<rth. The vestigial character of this plate 
and the two chitinous chords, which arise from between 
the two anterior horns by separate roots, is indicated by the 
delicacy and, in different specimens, by the varying outline 
of the parts. Hoth plate and chords are present in all 
specimens, however, and the former stains deeply with acid 
fuchsin. On one side in the spccinuMi from which the 
drawing is made indications of a "gland "or basal piece 
were observed, and its outline is therefore given. 

An infra-buccal |>late is present in other species of Poft/pla.r, 
including I\ .yi'nuloaa. 



260 Geological Sociefi/. 



riiocKEoixns of lkaknkd societies. 

GKOI.OGICAL S0CI1:TY. 

December '2nd, ll»14.— Dr. A. SmiHi Woodward, F.ll.S., rresidcnt, 
ill the Chair. 

The following communication was read: — 

' On the Aije and Character of the Shippea Hill Man.' 
D.v Tn.f. T. McKenny Hughes, M.A., F.K.S., F.G.S. 

The Author th-st gives a general description of the skeleton, and 
of the position and circumstances in which it was found. 

He then discusses the mode of formation of tlic de]>osit in wliich 
the remains occurred, and the limits within which, from tliat point 
ot view, we may speculate as to their age. 

He consider that the Pleistocene deposits of the Fenknd were 
laid down in fi gradually depressed river-basin behind a breaclied 
seaward ban'ier, and gives examples from adjoining areas of similar 
geographical conditions. 

Gravels of the age of EJephas nn/iq7/us and liliinoceras merckii, 
as well as gravels of the age of Elcphas primif/eniiis and lihiiio- 
ceros tichorhinus, occur within the Fenland ; but they are easily 
distinguished from the gravels which are sometimes associated 
with the peat and clay, and pass under them. The fauna also of 
the ])eat- and clay-deposits is quite different. 

This area was gradually depressed, and the conflict between the 
upland waters and the sea went on through both the ages just 
referi-ed to, as shown by the earlier Corbicula Bed of March and 
the newer Cockle Bed of Littleport. 

In an embayed part of the Fen, close behind the island known 
as Shippea Hill, the skeleton was found in the peat, a few inches 
al)ove the clay which the Author considers to be the equivalent of 
til is Littleport Cockle Bed. 

AVhen first dug out the skull was in fragments, and the calotte, 
with its prominent brow-ridges, suggested to many a greater 
affinity to the Xeanderthal type, and a greater antiquity than 
appeared probable when the rest of the cranium was added t<j it. 

In a preliminary notice published by tlie Author, he claimed that 
it could not be older than Neolithic, and suggested that it might 
be even as late as the time of the monks of Ely, who had a retreat 
on the island close bv. 



Vc 



illi: ANNALS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HlSTUliV 

[KIClllll Si:iME.S.l 

No. 87. MARCH 1015. 



XXI. — Descriptions aud Records of Bees. — LX\'. 
IJy T. D. A. CocKF.KKLL, Univci^ity oF Colorado. 

Mesotricliia cnernosensis, sp. u. 

$ . — Lengtli about 23 mm., anterior wing 2-1. 

Very robust, black, thorax above (except a naked sraootli 
sliining space in middle of niesolliDrax, marked anteriorly 
by a groove) densely covered with siiort bright fox-red hair, 
intermixed with black ; abdomen strongly aud rather eloselv 
j)unctured, its hair entirely black, not hiding the surface. 
Head broad ; face with mixed black and pale yellow isli hair ; 
on vertex tlie hair is mostly black, but on occiput ferrugi- 
nous, on posterior part of cheeks above yellow, paler lower 
down, the lower part of cheeks with long black hair ; 
mandibles bidentate ; labriim witli a very strong median 
tubercle ; elypcus dull, very densely punctured, with a 
raised but not shining median line ; ridge between antenmc 
obtuse, very feebly grooved ; tliird antcunal joint a trifle 
longer tlian next three together; flagellum, except basallv, 
dull fenuginous beneath ; tubercUs and upper part of 
j)leura with red hair, the rest with black ; teguhc black, 
basally with red hair. \N'ings very dark fuliginous, with 
rosy tints, the apical field with grceii ; first t.-c. incom|)kte 
at lower end. Legs with black hair, anterior tibiic with a 
fringe of yellow hair behind ; hind fen)ora with a small rtd 
button-like spot or lobe on each side apically ; scale-like 

Ann. iL- Maj. S. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xv. 18 



2Ct2 ]\lr. T. V. A. Cockorell — Deso-i^illons and 

process on liiiul til)i;p ratlicr small, cariniforni, rounded at 
end. 

Ilnb. Cucrnos Mts., jNcgros, Philippine Islands {Baker, 
312.")). 

Closely related to Mesofrichia insularis (Xj/Iocopa insularis, 
Smith), I'rom Borneo, of which only the male is known. 
It is possible that M. cnernosensis is the hitherto unknown 
female oF insularis, but, in view o£ the very different locality, 
it is much more likely that it is a distinct species. There is 
a superficial resemblance to the Japanese species circumvolans^ 
Smith. 

Mesotrichia daintanensis, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about IG mm., anterior wing 14. 

Broad, entirely black, except that the tiagellum is dull 
ferrnginous beneath (except basally), and the hind margins 
of the second and following abdominal segments are very 
narrowly reddish ; pubescence all black, except a few 
coppery-red hairs in region of mouth. Wings strongly 
brownish, darker in apical field, reddened in mai'ginal eel], 
with a greenish-golden iridescence, dilute rosy apically ; 
head very broad : elypens very densely punctured, with a 
shining median ridge ; ridge between antenna; o))tuse, dis- 
tinctly but not deeply grooved; third antennal joint shortei 
than next three together ; mesothorax smooth and shining 
in middle ; tcgula; black. Abdomen well punctured ; first 
t.-c. failing at lower end ; scale-like process on hind tibiae 
short, rounded, rather like a finger-nail. 

Hab. Dapitan, Mindanao, Philippine Is. {Baker, 3128). 

Resembles M. bakeriana, Ckll., but much smaller, with 
the ocelli fnrther apart, the wings paler and redder, and the 
process on hind tibire different. 

Professor C. F. Baker sends other Philippine Xylocopids, 
as follows : — 

Mesotrichia latipes {Apislatipes, Drurv), ? . — Cucrnos ]Mts., 
Xcgros (3121). 

Alesotrirhia (/hilianii (Xylocopa ghilianii, Gribodo), ? . — 
Iligan, Mindanao (3i24). 

Xylocopa euchlora, Perez, ^ . — Dapitan, Mindanao (3123). 

XyJocopa major, Maidl., ^ . — ]Malinao (3122). 

Xylocopa fulif/inata, Perez, J . — Dapitan (312G) ; ? . Iligan 
(3127, 3"l29}. 



Records of Bees. 2(i!{ 

Nomada Ixikcri, sp. u. 

? . — TjiMi^ili iioaily (> mm. 

Sli'iidiT, with clavato alidomcii, narrowed basally ; lilack, 
Mith tlio lal)inm, mandibles (exeept apices, wliieh arc 
Nimpic), narrow band alonj; posterior orbits, entire face 
below antenna*, narrow band along anterior orbits to top o£ 
eye (endinjj l)roadly above eye), upper border of prothorax, 
tubcreles, pleura (but densely covered with silky white hair), 
scutellum ( which is bi^ibbous, w ith stronj? irrej^ular |)une- 
tures), two small obscure spots on disc ot" lirst ainloniinal 
pof^mcnt, a little more than basal halfoL' second scf^nunt, 
basal corners of third and fourth sej^nicnts and broadly 
interrupted band on fourth, fifth segment (except a spot at 
extreme base, atul a large lilack patch on each side), all 
yellow, reddened by cyanide in tyj)c-speeimcn ; labrum and 
face with j)alc ochreous hair; antenna; long, second joint 
conspicuous, third joint elongate, a little longer than fourth, 
scape ferrugiuous in front, Hagelluni black ; mcsothorax 
dull, densely ])unctured ; area of mctatliorax large, less than 
the basal half rugose with irregular wrinkles; sides of 
metathorax very densely covered with pale ochicous-tinted 
hair : teguhc clear ferruginous. AVings strongly dusky at 
apex, stigma and nervures j)iceous ; b. n. going a little basad 
of t.-m.; second s.tu. receiving first r. n. about middle; 
third a.m. less than half as broad above as second. Abdomen 
smooth and shining, not punctured. Legs red ami black, 
liind legs bhurk with knees and apex of tibifc red. 

H(dj. Mt. Makiling. Luzon (liuker. SL-jG). 

Ktsend)les N. adnata, Smith, which I have from the 
Khasia Hills, India (Sladen). 

Nomada lusca, Smith. 
$ . — Los Banos, Luzon (Baker, 31G0). 

Nomada mokdinycnsis, sp. n. 

5 . — Length nearly 5 mm. 

kSlender, the abdomen broad-fusiform, narrowed basally ; 
bright clear ferruginous, Hagelluni strongly dusky above, 
first abilominal segment with a pair of large suiru>ed 
blackened patches; mandibles simple; face, pleura, and 
sides of metathorax with thin clear white hair : antenna; 
long and slender, third joint about as long as fourth; mcso- 
thorax densely punctured, but shining between the punctures; 

LS* 



264 



Mr. T. P. A. Cockercll — J>('scrij>fii>ns <iu:l 



area of nictatliorax rouj;licnc(l at extreme base ; tcjiulre lia:lit 
rulD-testaeeoii'*, imu-li sinaller than those of iV. bakcri. 
Wiiif^s dusky at apex, siijjma and iierviires dull sepia; b. ii. 
goinj;: basad of t.-ni. ; only two subiuarfjinal cells, the second 
t.-c. absent. Abdomen sniootli, tbc seeoiid segment with a 
large round yellow spot (reddened by eyaniilc in typc^ on 
caeli side. 

Hall. Mt. Makiling, TiUzon {Baker, SlOo). 



Xoinadd hanahaonis, sp. n. 

^ . — Length of type (! mm., but of the smallest specimen 
about 4;). 

Slender, with fusiform abdomen, very narrow at base; 
black, with labrnin, mandibles, band along lower part of 
])osterior orbits, clypcus (except a pair of bhuk patches 
above), lateral face-marks (ending in a sharp ])oint on orlnt 
about level of top of clypcns), tubercles (but no other part 
of thorax), small round spot on each extreme side of first 
abdominal segment, and large spots on each side of second 
and third (very large on second), all yellow, reddened by 
cyanide in type; mandibles simple; head broad, face witli 
appressed silky pale bail'; scape very long, black, with a red 
spot at base and a[)ex ; flagellum long and thick, ferruginous 
beneath ; second antennal joint hardly visible, third shorty 
not longer than broad, conspicuously shorter than fourth ; 
mesoihorax very densely punctured ; area of metathorax 
rugose at base, otherwise shining, with slight transverse 
striation ; ])leura and sides of metathorax with dense white 
Ijair; teguhe rufo-piccous. Wings with apex and outer 
margin broadly dusky, nervnres and stigma piceous ; b. n. 
going basad of t.-m. ; second s.m. receiving first r. n. about 
middle. Legs black, with anterior femora in front and 
above, middle femora in front, anterior and middle tibia? in 
front, anterior tarsi, middle basitarsi, posterior knees and 
apex of posterior tibiie, all ferruginous. Abdomen smootb 
and shining, apex and apical i)late ferruginous, the latter 
strongly notched. 

Hab. ]\it. Banahao, Philippine Is. {Buher^ 3157-= tvpc ; 
3158,3159). 

This may ])ossibly be the male of N. lusca, but I believe it 
is distinct. In Desc. lice. Bees, Ixiii. p. 365, Ha/ictus bana- 
baonis, also from Mt. Banahao, and very possibly the host of 
the present Nomuda, is misprinted " baitubraonis." 



liCCOiiLs 0/ J>ees. !''"'•> 

Xoinaiia inindanaonis, s]>. ii. 

^ ( = typc). — Lcuf^th I'.'i-j mm. 

Like y. banaUaunis, but differing thus : scape shorter and 
stouter, Ijroadly (hill yellow on outer side ; third anteuual 
joiul very loii;,', a little lonj^er than I'ourth, whieh is also 
lon-jj; Hagelluiu entirely hlaek ; a small lij^ht mark al)ove 
caeh eye (a faint traee of this ean he seen iti hdiiultaoiils) ; 
inarkinj^s of al) loiueu and h'jjs suH'used and iliill, venter of 
abdomen ferruj^inous. 

? . — Length a little over 5 mm. 

Like S. /usra, but smaller, clear bright ferruginous, tl»c 
abdonu'u without dusky shades, except a sulYused eh)ngate 
l)laek mark, on each suh* of hrst segment; sea[)e red, llagel- 
lum very long, blaek ; third anteuual reddish beneath, very 
long, conspicuously longer than fourth : 1). u. going basad of 
t.-m. ; area of metathorax rugose basally ; a jjateh of |)ure 
white liair on each side of metathorax. 

JIo/k l)ai)itan, Mindaiuio [Baki-r, ;U5.3, 3151). 

The following table se|)arates the above species, aiul also 
those deseribed from Borneo and Java. The !Suniatran 
species which doubtless exist are unknown: — 

Females 1 . 

Males (). 

1. Two submargiiial cells; small clear red species, 
witli larjre round yellow spot on each side ot 

secoud abdominal t-oirmeut 7n((ki/iii(/cnsis, C'kll. 

Three submarfrinnl cells '2. 

'J. Second abdominal sej^ment marked with 
white ; black species with red thorax 

(Borneo) imilai/utid, Cam. 

Secoud abdominal sejrraent not so marked. ... y. 

3. Head and thora.v red-brown; al)donien black 

or black-brown, marked with yellow (.lava) . /aianica, Triese. 
If Jiead and thorax red, abdomen a!.so rod .... 4. 

4. Black, with i«ciUellinn and basal h.dl'of tirst 

abdominal segment yellow htiheri, Ckll. 

Bed o. 

o. Hind marjrins of abdominal segnuMit.i sulUised 

with dusky; tla<;ellum liiill red beneath. . . . liixcn, Sniitli. 

Abdonit-n clear red ; flagellinn black miiiddiiavtii.s, Ckll. 

0. Teguhe yellow or browni-h yellow; insect 

black, with only the tubercle.-*, tegulte, and 7m-(>/, var. ). 

.spot.-* on abdomen yellow (Java) nif/rescaut, T'riese (as 

Tej^uliO dark 7. 

7. Third antennal joint Ion;; inimfa/Kioiiis, Ckll. 

Third antennal joint short bcnialutonis, Ckll. 

N. testaceobnltoala, (.\im , cf , froiu Borneo, is at once 
distinguished by the rufous thorax, that of the lMuli|)[)ine 
and Java males being black. 



2G(j ^Ir. T. 1). A. Cockcrell — Di'scrij>tions and 

Lilliurgiis scahrosus (Smith). 

$ . — Papitnn, jNliiulaiiao {Baler, 3135). L. gunmens'is, 
Ckll., is very closely allied, and may prove to be a form of 
scobrosus. 

Mcr/acfiih' cluf/io, Smith. 
5 , c?.— 1^'ipitan, Miiulanao {Baker, 3133, 3131). 

Prosopis ptilchricrus, sp. n. 

(J. — Length about 5 mm. 

Very robust ; black, with the face creamy white, and the 
tuberchs (except for a dark dot) of ihe same colour, but all 
the rest of the thorax and abdomen dark, the hind margins 
of the abdominal segments very obscure reddish; femora 
clear pale ferruginous, more or less cream-coloured apically, 
tibitC of the same red with the base (half of outer side of 
hind pair) cream-colour, tarsi pale red, the hind basitarsi 
cream-colour except at apex. Face broad, the long clypeus, 
labrum, mandibles, large equilaterally triangular supra- 
clypeal mark, and lateral face-marks ((illing space between 
clypeus and eye, and extending upwards, rapidly narrowing 
to a point on orbital margin somewhat below middle of 
front) all creamy white ; front just above anteuuai with fine 
apprcssed plumose white hairs ; front and mesothorax very 
densely, rather coarsely (for such a small insect) punctured ; 
antenme rather short for a male, light ferruginous, scape 
cream-colour in front, third aud fourth joints extremely 
short ; tegulte testaceous with a light yellow spot. Wings 
milky hyaline, nervures and stigma fuscous ; first r. n. 
joining second s.m. not far from base. Abdomen broad, 
very finely punctured ; venter without projections, first 
ventral segment with broadly hyaline margin. 

JIab. Yarrawin, N.S.W. {Froggatt,2iHc). 

In my table of Australian Prosopis this runs to 34, and 
runs out on account of the creamy-white face. It is a very 
distinct species. 

Allodape diminuta, sp. n. 

J , ? . — Length about 5 mm. 

Resembling ^1. simillima, Su)., but male with scape white 
in front, and both sexes much smaller. Tubercles and scale 
at base of wings cream-colour ; hind basitarsi of male cream- 
colour, with tlic small joiuts ferruginous. Face-mark in 



Tiecorils of Bees . 207 

fcnuilo broad ami pyriforin ; in male very brou'.l, constricted 
below middle, with a narrow lateral mark (sharply pointed 
above) on each side. IMenra oT male not conspieuonsly 
hairy as it is in A. simiUhna. 

I/a/,. Varrawin, N.S.W. [Fro(/<jiitl , 21!) c), 2 <?,!?• 
ilvidenlly a di:stinct species, but close to A. slinilliiuti. 
The lorm ol" the face-mark in the female readily dislinjjnislies 
it from -/. Hiiiculur, Sm. 



Exoncura clarissima, sp. n. 

(^ . — Length about o mm. 

Black, the abdomen bright ferrnginons, du-iky at sides of 
apex, and the tirst segment black with a narrow red apical 
margin ; mandibles black, with a broad orange band just 
before the apex ; labnim and clypeus white, the white of the 
elypeus notched on each side below the middle, and the part 
below the notch appearing especially broad because a very 
narrow white lateral face-mark (not reaching eye) is con- 
tiguous with it on each side ; eyes large, but not remarkably 
so; scape and second antcnnal joint white in front, flagelluiii 
dull ferruginous beneath ; thorax shining; tuijcrcies ai)icallv 
white. AN'ings hyaline, not reddened ; knees broadly, and 
all the til)iie and tarsi, bright ferruginous. 

Hub. Varrawin, N.S.W. {Fro(j[jutt, "Z'Z^c). 

Readily known by the small size and broad white face- 
patch, broadly truncate above. There are several small 
species known only in the female, but it does not seem 
probable that E. clarissima belongs with any of them. 

Andrena jacoba'u, sp. n. 

? . — Length a little over 12 mm. 

l?lack, the head, thorax, and two basal segments of abdo- 
men with ferruginous hair, very bright fox-red on head and 
thorax above, but black on nj)ptr half of cheeks, sides of 
front overlapping fovcie, and lower part of sides of meta- 
thorax ; legs with hair mostly black, but dark coppery 
reddish on inner side of tarsi, light ferruginous on under side 
of anterior and middle femora, long and abundant cm anterior 
femora ; long curled tloceus on hind trochanters also light 
ferruginous ; first two dorsal alidominal segments with 
fulvous hair, the others with black hair, with fulvous inter- 
mixed on third, and slightly on fourth ; venter with black 
hair. The abdomen is not at all banded. Facial (piadiangle 



:?0S Mr. T. D. A. Cockoicll — Descrijtions and 

broader tliau lonj; ; clypcus shiiiinj^, with ratlicr small wcll- 
scparatcd j)nnc'turcs, and a smooth median line; malar space 
sliort, but distinct ; process of hibrum broadly truncate, with 
a transverse sulcus; front dull and granular; facial fovese 
dark, not hairy, rather broad, reaehini; a little below level of 
antenn;c ; cheeks very broad, with a little tubercle on hind 
mari^in a little above level of middle of eye ; antcnr.je black, 
third joint longer than next two together, but not quite so 
long as next three together ; mesothorax and scutelluni dull 
and granular ; area of metathorax feebly defined, minutely 
granular; tegulse piceous, Mith much red hair. AVings 
dusky translucent, nervures and stigma reddish brown ; 
b. n. falling just short of t.-m. ; second s.m. nearly square, 
receiving first r. n. beyond the middle but not near end ; 
third s.m. extremely broad above ; hind tibial scopa of 
mostly simple hairs, rather short aiul thin. Abdomen 
shining, without evident punctures, second segment de- 
pressed hardly a third ; hair at apex black; apical plate 
rather narrow. 

Hob. Jimtown, Colorado, at flowers of Thcnnopsis, June 7 
{C'jcherell). 

The specimen is stylopized, and perhaps somewhat altered, 
but it appears to be a quite distinct species. It is very like 
A. mUwaiikeensis, Graenichcr, but differs by the light hair 
on the face and ])leiira, the broad cheeks, &.c. There is 
evident close affinity with .1, r/^^'52//ff, Ckll., but the third 
s.m. is very much broader above, the small joints of tarsi 
are dark, the hair on the abdomen is differently coloured, 
and the cheeks are broader and flatter. It is perhaps 
passible that the insect is an extreme variety of A. ribesina. 
in the key in Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xlviii. pp. 1-58, 
it runs nearest to ^1. tojiuzana, CklL, which is smaller and 
otherwise distinct. 

Megachile parallela, Smith, — Males and labelled as follows : 
Dallas, Texas, at Gaillardia yulchella, ^lay 19 {Bishopp) ; 
K. Braunfels, Tex., at Ratihida columnaris. May 17 
[Cruivford and Pratt); Barstow, Tex., Oct. 12 {Craiv- 
ford) ; Denton, Tex., at Gaillardia pulcliella, May 29 
(Bisliojjjj) ; Cotulla, Tex., at Verbesina encelioides and 
Monarda punctata, Apl. 18-May 12 {Crawford and 
Pratt). 

Anthophora smithii, Cressou. — Ward, Colorado, alt, 9200 ft,, 
male at flowers of Grindelia subalpina, Aug, 26, 1913 
{Cockere/l). 



Records of Bees. '1C^*^ 

Anlhidium emai'<jinatum (Say). — A iiKilr, willi two black 
spots on upper part of clypcus. IJctwccn Ward ami 
iVaccful \':illt'y, Colo., July 5 [Coclerell ). 

Augoclihtra ftrviila, Siniili. — About four miles N. ol" IJuuldor, 
Colo., at lUiwcrs of J \- 1 a lost v man olii/ojt/ii/l/iis^ June 18, 
1 ? (7'. cV //'. Cockerel/). 

Augochlora coufusa coluradensis (Titus). — A female, peculiar 
for haviufjj transverse as well as longitudinal wrinkles 
on the area of nietathorax, but otherwise normal. 
About four miles uiuth of IJoulder, Colo., June 18 
(7'. ^- //'. CucUre/l). 

Collctcs viyroui, Ckll., variety a. — Hair of thorax above 
creamy white, a little redder on seutellum ; pleura with 
some of the hair more or less pale. I ? , Boulder 
Canon, Colo., at flowers of I'liaceliu lietcrophylla, June 21 
{CucLercll). Also a ? with similar light hair above, 
l)ut hair of pleura all blaek, from iK'tween Ward and 
Peaceful A'aliey, Colo., July 5 (^Cockerelt). 

Andniiu Ii/jjiiionmi, Ckll., ? . — Between Ward and Peaceful 
\ alley, Colo., July ") [Cockcrell). 

Osmia irariliana, Ckll., ? . — Timber line on Mt. ^Martha 
NVashington, Colo., at Howeis of Telrtuieuris, June 25, 
I'Jia [Cockerell). 

Melissodes hymenoxidis, Ckll., ? . — Ward, Colo., 1)200 ft., 
Aug. 20, lOlU {Cuckercll). 

C/isodou tvrmiiialis (Cress.). — 15ikei'dd<c Ranch, near Allen's 
Park, Colo., at flowers of Gcntuina affiuis, Aug. 27, PJl3 
{CocLereil) . 1?. 

Frosojj'm l/asuiis, Smith. — Between Ward and Peaceful Valley, 
Colo., July o [Cockerell). I ^ , 



270 Miss G. Ricardo on the 

XXII. — Sotes on the Tabanida; of the Australian Re(/iun. 
IJy Gkktkude Ricardo. 

[Continued from ser. 8, vol. xiv. p. 397.] 

The type of Tabanus transversus, Walker, described in the 
first part of this paper {' Aimals,' ser. {>, vol. xiv. IDl-l, 
p. 31)0), came from Aueklaud, New Zealand. 

The species of Tabanus, so far recorded from the Celebes, 
are the following : — 

Group V. 
Tabanus vunderwuJpi , Osten Saeken. 
Tabanus Jie.vilis, Walker. 

Group \l. 
Tabanus speculum, Walker. 

Group ^'1I. 
Tabanus reducens, Walker. 

Group VIII. 
Tabanus humillimus, Walker. 

Tabanus factiosus. Walker. 
'J'abanits sticctircus, Wlk. 

Tabanns spoliatus. Walker. 

Group IX. 
Tabanus inimixtus, Walker. 

Of these, T. vanderwulpi and T. factlosus are also recorded 
from the Philippines, and T. humillimus is also found in 
Java. 

Group VI. 

Wings distinctly luarked with brown or jellow colouring-, 
but not in the form of bauds. 

Tabanus speculum, Walker, Proc. Linn. Soc. v. p. 258 (18G1) ; 
Ricardo, Records Indian Museum, iv. p. 143 (101 i) ; 
id. Tyd. v. Entom. liv. p. 348 (1912). 

Type (female) from Menado, Celebes, and another from 
Toli-Toli, N. Celebes. 



TabauiJai of the Anslralian Region. 271 

Type (male) in German Entomological Museum, also from 
Celeljcs. 

Two males and two females from Toli-Tuli, N. Celebes, in 
Mr. Wainw right's Coll. 

Tliis species appears as yet only recorded from Celebes, 
and the mule has not been previously recorded. A 
handsume lly with very dark brown wings, the discal cell 
clear. Abdomen black, willi grey spots, bcutcilum grey. 

Length, (^ )l\. mm., ? 22 mm. 

Face covered with brown tomentnm, but with a white 
triangular spot in the centre, with rather thick black 
pubescence. J3eard black. Palpi large, ciuliiig in an 
obtuse point, dull reddish yellow \\'\\.\\ black hairs. Aniennce 
dull reddish yellow but paler, the lirst two joints with black 
hairs. J'orthcuil very narrow, quite ten times as long as it 
is broad, and only half as broad anteriorly as it is at the 
vertex ; frontal callus reddish brown, not reaching the eyes, 
narrow with a long lineal extension. Thorax black, with 
traces of grey tomentum anteriorly, and with black and dull 
reddish inconspicuous })ubescence, and a tult of white hairs 
above and below base of wings. Scutelluni covered with 
ashy-grey tomentum and with white hairs. Abdomen black, 
the ashy-grey spots are situated on the second and third 
segments, and sometimes there is a trace of one on the 
fourth segment, almost semicircular in shape, with some white 
hairs, pubescence otherwise on dorsum black. Legs black, 
the i)ulvilli golden brown. Jf'iiif/s rich brown in colour with 
streaks of white iu the centre of most of the cells, the 
discal cell almost entirely clear, and the base of the second 
submarginal cell pale, the apex on its posterior border quite 
clear, as far as the sessile ending of the first posterior 
cell. 

Male is similar, the head large, the large facets of eyes 
occupying not (juite two-thirds of the surface. Palpi reddish 
brown, with thick black pubescence. 

Group VII. 
Species with one or more stripes, usually continuous, on abdomen. 
Tabunus concolor, AValker, List Dipt. i. p. 179 (1818). 

Type (female) from New Holland {Hunter). 

A dull-coloured species, not iu very good preservation. 
Antcniue blackish. Abdomen hair-brown, with a faint grey 
tomentose median stripe. Legs brownish, the tibiie reddish. 

Length 12 mm. 

Face yellowish white with white hairs. iJeard white. 



'27-2 Aliss G. Rioardo on the 

Palpi pale yellow, stout on basal half, the apieal lialf ciulinj^ 
in a tine jjoint, witli yellow ami hlaek hairs. Antentue 
blackish. Forehead abont a thii'il narrower anteriorly than 
at vertex and abont six times as long as it is broad anteriorly ; 
frontal callus long and narrow, not reaching the eyes. 
Thorax, scutcUum, and ahdomen very much the same colour, 
all denuded. Abdomen narrow, median stri[)c with traces of 
white hairs, which arc also present at the sides. IViugs 
clear, shaded pale brown along the longitudinal veins, stigma 
and veins yellowish. 

Tabamis pseudoardens, Taylor, Austr. Inst. Trop. Med. lUll, 
p. 0(5, pi. xiv. fig. 18 (1913) ; Austen, Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (8) xiii. p. 265 (11)14). 

This narrow-bodied mummy-brown species, measuring 
12-13 mm., comes from Queensland. Palpi long and 
slender. Forehead narrow, parallel, frontal callus ol)long, 
raised, with a lineal extension. Abdonwii with a yellow- 
haired indistinct median stripe. Leys reddish brown. 

Group VIII. 

Species with median or lateral spots, or both, on abdomen, not usually 
forming a continuous type. 

Tabarius propinquns, Macquart, Dipt. exot. Suppl. v. p. 47 
(1854), descriljcd as in Mr. liigot's Coll. from Sydney, is 
proljably lost, as it is not among the types sent me by 
iMr. Collins from the late Air. ^'erral^s Coll. It is described 
as black with three series of white spots on the abdomen. 
Legs black, tibise testaceons. 

Length 18 mm. 

Part of the abdomen was wanting when described. 

Tabanus leucophilus, Walker, List Dipt. i. p. 154 (1848). 

Type (^female) from New Holland. 

A stout species with pale whitish wings, abdomen blackish 
with three rows of white spots. Antenna reddish. 

Length 19 mm. 

A species very easily recognized. Is it possible that it 
does not belong to this region at all? I have seen nothing 
like it as yet in collections from Australasia. 

F^ace covered with ashy-grey tegmentum and with long 
pale yellow hairs. Palpi canary-coloured, stout, ending in 
a short ])oint, pubescence apparently black. Antennce broken 
off, described by Walker as ferruginous, the first two joints 



Talj;iiii<lie '^ //i'' Au.slralian Ilfjivu. 'l'i'.\ 

liiive l)luck liuirs. Forthend parallel, aliout li\c times as 
Ion;; as it is wiilc nntcrioily, same colour as face witli 
wliitish hairs ; frontal callus r( ddisli yillow, pcar-sliaped, 
not reaching fvi-s, with a short lineal extension. Thorax 
(denuded) reddish, with three narrow ^rcy toinentose stripes. 
Scuteiiain iilentieal. Abdovn-n hroad, short, the spots arc 
triangular, covered with whitish tonicntuni, commencing 
from the second segment ; underside hlaekish with grey- 
haiied segmentations. Lcrjs : femora reddish hrown ; tibia.* 
pale whitish yellow ; tarsi a liltlc darker, lliiiya large, no 
ap|>endi\. 

Tubulins ijriPi'Osihis, Walker, List Dipt. i. p. liJ^S (18 IS). 

Typo (female) and another female from Port Essington, 
and a female from locality not specific d. 

The varieties 15. and Y. meiiti(Kicd by \Valker do not 
appear to he in the IJrit. Mus. Coll. 

A reddish-yellow species with indistinct black spots on the 
abdomen, |)alpi very pale, stout at ])iise, ending in a long 
point. Antennie and legs reddish yellow. 

Length, tyj)e, LS mm. 

Face covered with pale greyish-yellow tomcntuni, hairs 
pale yellow. J'alpi very stout on basal half, the apical ])art 
al)Out the same in length as tlie basal part, pubescence con- 
sists of a few black hairs and some yellow ones at base, 
lieard yellowish. Auteuuce reddish, the basal joints jialc 
yellow- with black pubescence. Forthtad almost parallel, 
tlie same colour as face, about six times as long as it is wide 
anteriorly ; frontal callus dark brown, oblong, not reaching 
the eyes, with a lineal extension. Thorax blackish, covered 
with grey tomcntuni, pubescence chiefly black, shoulders 
jtale reddish. Sculil/tim identical. Abdnmcn tawny, a dull 
black median triangular sp(jt on the second segment, in the 
two other femahs there is a simihir one on the second seg- 
ment, and another on the third segment in type and other 
females, the remaining segments with larger more band-like 
sj)ots on the anterior borders, pubescence consists of sliort 
yellow and black hairs ; underside pale reddish yellow with 
grey tomcntuni. Lr(f!t uniformly reddish yellow. U ini/s 
clear with reddish-yellow stigma and veins, no a])i)en{|ix 
present. 

Tubanus innotabUis, Walker, List Dii)f. i. j^ 177 (18 1^"), 
Tahanus dvrsoiimainhtus, .Miicq Mpt. K.\ot., .^uj j.!. iv. p. liij (ISoO). 
Tvpc '"f 7*. iii)iidtJji/is) Mild ;nK)fliir female in Brit. Mns. 



274 Miss G. Ricardo on the 

Coll., an;l two females in "NFr. Froiicli's Coll., both from 
Endeavour Rivor, QtiopusLmd. ^Valkcr's type was described 
from an unknown loeality, tlie other female from New 
IloUand. Both specimens from Endeavour River have been 
compared with the Macquart type in the Paris Mnscum 
by myself and ISTonsieur SnrcouP. 1 consider them also 
identical with \yalker's type. 

A nicdium-si/ed brownish spcfies with indistinct median 
fifrey spots on the abdomen. Forehead narrow, antcnuie. and 
IcfTs reddish. 

Length 12.\-15 mm. 

Face covered with greyish toraentum, and with some 
few pale hairs. Beard yellowish. Palpi yellow with black 
])nbescence, stout, ending in a fairly fine point. Anfcnme 
reddish yellow, dusky at apex, the first two joints with black 
hairs, the third rather broad at the base with a distinct 
angle. Forehead narrow, about eight times as long as it is 
broad anteriorly, a third narrower anteriorly than at vertex ; 
the frontal callus chocolate-brown, oblong, taking up nearly 
the whole space between the eyes, with a narrow lineal 
extension. Eyes bare. Thorax blackish with grey tomcu- 
tum. Scittellum appearing reddish, being denuded. Abdomen 
tawnv, with grey toraentose median spots not forming a 
continuous stripe, on all the segments, commencing from 
the second one, on which the spot is largest, being triangular, 
pubescence on dorsum black ; underside the same colour 
with pale segmentations. Leps with femora redc\ish, the 
tibiie chamois-leather with black pubescence, tarsi blackish 
at apex. Wings clear, stigma and veins yellow, no 
appendix. 

Walker's type is in poor condition, but appears to be 
identical with the specimens T compared with type in tlie 
Paris Museum. 

Tabanus facliosus, Walker, Proc. Linn. Soc. London, iv. 
p. 102 (1859) -, Ricardo, Records Indian Museum, iv. 
no. vi. p. 1/9 (1911). 

Tfibanus fastiosus, Kertesz, Cat. Tabanidarum, p. 49 (1900). 
Tabanus sucairvus, Walker, Proc. T^inn. Soc. iv. p. 102 (1859). 

The female type of Tabanus succurvus, Walker, from 
^Macassar, Celebes, the same locality as that of Tabanus 
facfiosus, appears to me identical with this latter species, 
though a dark-coloured specimen, the tibiae being only dull 
reddish at base (not yellowish), and the spots on the abdo- 
men not visible, probably owing to denudation ; the beard 



Tabaiiid.'i' cf the Ansfrdltait Ukjiih. -75 

ami liairs on face arc l)r()\vii, not wliitc as in the type ot 
Tabaniisfact'wsus. The two males from the I'iiilippines, wliicli 
I placed under T. factiosua^ also have the beards brown. 

Tabnnus .tpoliofus, cj, Walker, Proe. Linn. Soc. London, iv, 
p. 103 (IHGO). 

Type (male) from Macassar, Celebes, and another male 
from (.'elebes (Wallace ('oil.). 

These mrdes are allied to Tabunus ruh'icniitlus, ^[acq.ifrom 
India and Java. 

A reddish-yellow species measurinjij lS}-2() mm. Eyes 
with facets all eciual. Anfounc reddish, the third joint 
dusky. Abdomen tawny, with traces of yellow or whitish- 
haired median spots, and yellowish hairs on segmentations, 
apex of abdomen blackish, a black spot on the second scgf- 
ment in the centre ; the other male has traces of paler bands 
on the segmentations, pnlieseenee on dorsum consists of 
numerous short black hairs. Thorax i\\n\ scvti'lliini blackish. 
Lei/s reddish yellow, the fi-mora black, the tarsi dusky. 
U liufs clear, stigma and veins reddish yellow, no appendix 
present. 

Tabnuus cluri/xnuiis, Bigot, Mem. Soc. Zool. dc France, v. 
p. or.") ( 1.SU2) [Alijlotits^. 

The type in fair preservation is a female from Australia. 

A small narrow-bodied species with a dull yellow-coloured 
abdomen and traces of round grey spots on sides and of a 
blackish spot on second segment. It may be at once dis- 
tinguished by the shining red-brown snbcallus united to the 
same-coloured, nearly sqjjare, frontal callus. The forehead 
is brown, narrower anteriorly, barely four times as long as it 
is ])road. J'n/jji pale yellow, short and stout with black and 
some white haiis. Antcnnic were incomplete when deseribeil 
by Bigot. Wings cleai", stigma yellow. 

Length 12 mm. 

Tabanus victoriensis, ? , sp, n. 

Tyjjc (frujalc) and two other females, all from Pandenong 
Banges, Victoria, in Mr. French's Coll. Li i\Ir. Froggatt's 
Coll. one female from N. S. Wales. In (icrman lOnt. 
^luscum two females from N. S. Wales. A stout black 
species with white-haired spots on the abdomen and veins of 
wings shaded \\ith brown, the palpi pale yellow, very long 
and narrow. Antennie and legs black, the tibiic testaceous. 



-TG ]\liss G. Ricav>lo on the 

Ijcni^ctli 10 mm. 

Face black, oovcrod with grey tomciitum, wliicli becomes 
yellower on the cheeks; two deep pits are ])rcseut on face 
below the antennre and one furrow on the lower pait on 
each side; some black liairs below the antenna?, and on the 
checks some short yellowish hairs, which are longer and 
white below. Paljii ycllo\v with black and some white 
jmbescciicc, the second joint very long and narrow, almost 
the same width throughout, in one si)ccimcn they api)car 
darker covered with grey tomcutum. Antennce large, black, 
the tooth rather prominent, the first two joints with grey 
tomentum and black pubescence. Forehead narrow, slightly 
wider anteriorly, black Avith grey tomentum ; the frontal 
callus brown, shining, triangular, and continued as a fine 
line for a short distance only, not reaching the eyes, a short 
deep furrow is present in the centre of the callus ; hind part 
of head with short black pubescence. Thorax blackish with 
shoulders and sides obscurely red, pubescence black with 
white intermixed on the dorsum, at the sides black anteriorly, 
white posteriorly ; ])reast black with grey tomentum and 
white hairs. /Sc?//<'//m/?j black with grey tomentum and black 
l)ubescence. Abdomen black, sides of first two segments 
obscurely reddish, segmentations narrowly and faintly 
reddish, white-haired median spots on each segment small 
and ill-defined ; ])nbeseence of dorsum short, black, sides of 
segments with wliite hairs, the last three with black hairs : 
underside black with mouldy-grey tomentum, narrow pale 
segmentations, and black short pubescence. Lefjs brown, 
coxfe blackish with grey tomentum and white hairs; the 
femora with black pubescence above, white below; tibiae 
reddish with black pubescence, tarsi with black pubescence. 
Wings hyaline, the veins broadly shaded M'ith brown ; veins 
brown, stigma dark brown. Ilalteres brown. 

This species is not identical with Tahunus Umbatinevris, 
]\racq., Dii)t. Exot. iv. p. 333, having been compared with 
the type ; it may be at once distinguished by the smaller 
tooth of antennae. 

Group IX, 
Species with paler bands, and sometimes spots on abdomen. 

Tubanus Umhafmevris, ? , Macquart, Dipt. Exot., Suppl. ii. 
p. 33 (18 IG). 

Type ffemale) in the late Mr. Verrall's Collection labelled 
"Van Diemen," and stated in the description as from 
Tasmania. 



1 



'riihaniihe of the Austr duin l!>jioii. 27 7 

An easily ri'co«jiiizo(l larj^o rrdtlish-browu spocirs, tlio first 
posterior cell of wings closed, and all veins of wing .shaded 
brown. 

I.ength :,M) mm. 

Palpi yellow with hhiek pnbcsccncc, fairly stout throngh- 
ont their length, eniling in an obtuse point. Antriiiue 
reddish, black at apex, with a well-defined tooth. Furelirad 
about ei;;ht tiujes as long as it is broad, parallel ; frontal 
callus ohliiug, ehcstnut-red, reaching eyes, with a long lineal 
exti'usion. j-^ycs apparently b;iri'. 7 '//'y/v/a* (denuded) reddish 
with darker stripes. Ahdijiiwn reddish brown, the dorsal 
white spots very indistinct owing to denudation. Lef/s 
described by .Maccjuart as black; the tibia; yellow, the 
anterior and posterior pairs hiaek at apices. 

Tabanus inacfjuarti, Kicardo. 

Tii/ianu* liiiibatinevris^ Macquart, Dipt. Kxut., Siippl. iv. ji. (533 

Macquart named t\>o species /iinbaiiiievris, the one from 
Tasmania takes priority (1840). 

Type (femalcj in the Paris .Museum, from the east coast 
of New S. Wales, was examined by me in 1911, and a 
specimen from the Brit, Mns. Coll, compared with it, from 
Brisbane. 

In Brit. Mus. Coll. arc females from Morcton Bay, New 
S. Wales {Vigors's Coll.) ; from Brisbane (H. Tryoil), Dec. 
1903 ; from Bnrpengary and S. Queensland [Dr. T. L. 
Bancroft). In Mr. Froggatt's Coll., females from Queens- 
land and Tweed River, New S. Wales. In Mr. Wainwright's 
Coll. a long scries from llcrbcrtou, Kuranda, and Townr.- 
villc, N. Queensland (Dui/d), and females iu the German 
ICntomological Museum from the same localities and by the 
same collector. 

An easily identified species, but somewhat variable in the 
colour of abdomen and iu the length of the long tooth of 
third antennal joint. Abdomen black, often reddish at the 
sides, nnirkcd with white or yellowish. haired median spots 
on all segments except the last one, these extend as a very 
narrow, whiti>h-haircil band to the sides where they expand 
Komewhat ; the niulcrside with grey tomentose and white- 
liaircd bands. I Tings clear, tinged brown, leaving the 
discal cell clear, l-orvhead almost parallel, about six times 
as long as it is wide; the frontal callus oblong with spindle- 
shapccl extension, the forehead with greyish tomcntum. 
Palpi long, fairly stout, ending in an ol)tusc point covcicd 

Ann. cC- Maj. X. Hist. ,Scr. 8. ]'ol. w. 10 



278 Miss G. Eicardo on the 

with frrcyish toinotitum and with M'hitc hairs on basal half. 
Beard \vhit{\ Aute/nne black, the iirst two joints with hlacU 
hairs, tho third joint with a distinct, very prcnninciit tooth, 

Lrnji^th ir)-l(S mm. 

Mat'i|nart's original description is as follows: — Black. 
AI)donien with segmentations and dorsal spots yellow 
tomcntose, sides with tcstaecons spots. Antenna* and legs 
black. Wings with veins shaded brown. Length 7 lines ( ? j. 
Palpi almost as long as the proboscis, blackish with grey 
tonientum. Face and forehead pale grey ; callus blackish, 
oblong, with a lineal extension. Antennae with a fairly 
prominent tooth. Eyes naked. Thorax with some grey 
tomentum ; a testaceous spot, blackish above the wings (?). 
Abdomen with the second segment obscurely testaceous at 
sides : underside with white segmentations, a little testaceous 
on the bordei's of the first three segments. AVings clear at 
base, from the apices of the basal cell all the veins are 
shaded with brown except at tlicir apices, venation normal. 

i\Iost of the specimens from N. Queensland have the 
abdomen almost wholly black, not reddish at the sides of 
the first two segments, and the wings are somewhat darker 
on the fore border. The tooth of the third antcnnal joint is 
often as long as the first division of tiie joint, i)ut all the 
specimens vary in the length of this tooth, Mhich is always 
very conspicuous, 

Tabanus sequens, Walker, List Dipt. i. p. 178 (1848). 

Type (female) from Port Essington, N. Australia. 

A'ar. 1? (female) from same locality, and females from 
S. Queensland {Dr. T. L. Bancroft), 1908; from Ching Do, 
N. Queensland, 26, 1. 1913 (F. //. Taylor), 1914. 

A small tawny species ; abdomen with a median stripe 
composed of pale-eoloured hairs. Antennae reddish yellow. 
Legs blackish, tibiae yellow. 

Length 13 mm. 

Face covered ^ith grey tomentum and with white hairs on 
cheeks and lower part of face. Beard white, l^alpi chamois- 
coloured, stout at base, ending in an obtuse point ; pubes- 
cence black. Antenna tawny, the first two joints pale 
yellowish, with thick black pubescence on their upper borders, 
apex of third joint dusky, tooth distinct. Forehead rather 
darker than face, with short black pubescence, parallel, 
about five times as long as it is wide anteriorh' ; frontal 
callus pear-shaped, with sliort lineal extension, not reaching 
eyes, reddish brown, shining. Thorax blackish brown, 
covered with some Grrev tomentum. leaving three indistinct 



Tabaiudsu of the AuslruVmn liejion. 279 

black stripes visiljle, also with some yellowish recumbent 
pubcsconcc and longer black hairs, sides with long dark 
hairs, p;ilcr lu'low base; of wings. Sntic/lnin identical, bor- 
dered with long yellowish hairs. Ahdomrn lawny, becoming 
darker at apex, the median spots, (.-(nnposed of short yellowish 
liairs, arc short, triangular, forming a more or less continuous 
stripe from the second to the si.xth segment ; indistinct 
brownish marks arc often present, even on the basal seg- 
ments, becoming more distinct on apical segnicnts ; the 
puljeseence on dorsum is rather thick, consisting of short 
black hairs and a few yellow ones intermixed on the second 
and third segments ; hairs at sides are white, forming pre- 
sumably the white stripes which Walker mentions ; segmen- 
tations often grey tomentose ; underside identical, with 
broader grey segmentations on the darker apical segments. 
Leys pale yellowish, the femora reddish brown, covered with 
white pubescence ; apical joints of tarsi blackish, pul)escencc 
on tibiie and tarsi black. U'iiif/s clear, veins brown, stigma 
yellowish brown ; no appendix. 

Var. B, described by Walker, has brown spots on th^' first 
and second scgn)ents. 

Tabanus brevior, AValker, List Dipt. i. p. 188 (1848). 

Tahanm anellositt, Suraincrs, Ent. Notes London School Tropical 
Medicine, p. ^M (I'Jll'). 

Type (feraale), in poor preservation, from Port Essington, 
N. Australia, and another female from same locality (Gould). 
This last was described by Walker as var. B of Tabanus 
VI art/ hiatus, which is a Sihius species (see Ann.&: Mag. Nat. 
Hist. (7) viii. p. SUtJ, 11)01) ; in general appearance it cer- 
tainly bears a strong resemblance to Si/lriiis muryiualus, but 
mav be at once distinguished by the absence of ocelli. 

A very small rcddi>h-brown species. Pali)i yellowish, the 
same width throughout. Wings slender. Anteume reddish 
yellow, with black tips. 

Length 8i mm. 

Face coverctl with ashy-grey tomentum. Beard yellowish. 
Anicniue tawny, tin; apical joints black, the first two joints 
and the small tooth with black pubescence. y^«/yy/ yellowish, 
with rather thick black and white ])ubescence. Forehead 
about five times as long as it is broad anteriorly, parallel ; 
frontal callus brown, pear-shaped, not quite reaching eyes, 
with a rather stout lineal extension. Thorax denuded, 
rediiish brown, witii grey tomentum. Abdomen short and 
rather broad, tawny-coloured, with darker brown markirigs, 

I'J* 



280 Miss G. Ricartlo on the 

ami tlic posterior borders of scgnunits <;rov tonicntosc, 
formiufj narrow bauds ; pubescence on dorsum blaclusb. 
Lcqs rcddisli yellow, femora and tarsus darker. If hi(/s clear, 
veins and stigma yellow. 

Tabauus immlxtus, Walker. Proc. Linn. Soc. iv. p. 103 (ISHO). 

Type (female) from ^Macassar, Celebes, 

A species allied to Tabanus dorsobimaculatus, ^Slacq., aiul 
Tabanus sequens, \Vlk., but distiuguislicd from botli l)y tlie 
very narrow forehead, l^cddisli yellow, abdomen ■with well- 
marked median grey spots and bands. Legs blackish, fore 
til)iiv pale yellow on basal half, other tibiae reddish yellow. 

Length 14 ram. 

Face covered witb ashy-grey tomentum and with a few 
long white hairs. Beard white. Paljri chamois-coloured, 
with black pubescence, only slightly stouter at base, ending 
in an obtuse point. Anicnnce reddish brown, the first two 
joints reddish yellow with black hairs. Fore/tead covered 
with darker tomentum than the face, very narrow, anteriorly 
only half the width that it is at the vertex ; the frontal 
callus chestnut-brown, oblong, very narrow, almost reaching 
the eyes, prolonged as a lineal extension more than half the 
length of forehead. Tltorux and sciiteUinn blackish, with 
some grey tomentum ; pubescence appears to liave been 
largely palc-colourcd : shoulders reddish, with black hairs. 
Abdomen tawny, the last three segments blackish; the trian- 
gular median spots appear most distinct on the second to 
the fifth segments, not forming a continuous stripe; the grey 
tomentose bands on the segmentations appear on every 
segment except the first and last one, and are narrow, be- 
coujing broader at the sides; pubescence on dorsum black, 
with longer black hairs on the apical segments; underside 
tawny^ with lighter bands, the last two segments blackish. 
Legs : femora blackish, "with grey tomentmn and long white 
hairs; the fore tibi» with the basal half whitish or pale 
yellow, black at apex, the other tibire tawny, with black 
hairs ; all the tarsi blackish. IVings clear, with yellowish- 
brown shading, most marked on the first, second, and third 
longitudinal veins; no appendix present ; stigma and veins 
reddish yellow. 

Tabanus ])ari'us, Tavlor, Australian Inst. Tropical Medicine 
Keport for 1911, p. 19 (1913); Austen, Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (8) xiii. p. 2G6 (1914). 

This is a small species, 8-10 mm. long. 



Tab;iiiid;o of the Atistnilian Region. 281 

Forehead almost parallel and about (ivc times as long as 
it is broad ; frontal eallus [)ear-slia))ed. V(tli)i long and 
slender, only sligbtly stouter at the base, yellowisli. An- 
teniue reddish. Abdomen in the .si)ecimen in IJrit. Mus. Coll. 
reddish Inown with grey segmentations and median spots. 
U'iiK/s willi a long appendix. 

Type reeorded froui Darwin, Northern Territory, the same 
locality as that of Tubanus anellosus, Summers (now a 
synonym of Tubanus brevior, Wlk.), which, Mr. Austcu 
remarks, it closely resembles. 

Tabanus townsvlUi, ^ ^ , sp, n. 

Type (female) and two other females from Townsville, 
X. Queensland [F. P. Dodd, per Janson). 

Type i^niale) from same locality. 

A tlusky, roildish-brow n, medium-sized s[)eeies, with very 
small, white-haired, median spots on abdomen. Forehead 
almost parallel. Auteunie pale yellow at base, the third 
joint blackish. Legs rctklish yellow and black. 

Length, cJ ? , 15 mm. 

? . Fuce covered with pale ashy-coloured tomcntum and 
with fairly long while hairs. Beard white. Pa/pi pale 
yellow, with some short black hairs, very stout at base, 
ending in a short obtuse point ; some white hairs are visible 
on uiulerside at base. Antenme with the first two joints 
reddish yellow, the first one largely covered on its outer side 
with ashy-grey tomcntum, and with a few black hairs on its 
upper border; the second is very small, the third almost 
wholly blackish, with a small angle as tooth. Forehead 
almost parallel, about six. times as long as it is broad, much 
darker than the face, covered with tawny tomcntum and 
with black hairs ; a streak of white hairs is visible on each 
side; frontal callus chestnut-brown, oblong or pear-shaped, 
small, not reaching the eyes, with a lineal extension. Thorax 
blackish brown, with three fairly well-marked grey toincn- 
tose stripes ; dorsum with some grey tomcntum and with 
tawny and black pubescence ; tufts of white hairs at base 
of wings. Scutel/uin same colour, with a few tawny hairs 
and with long black hairs. Abdomen ochraceous tawny, 
a|)pearing darker by reason of the thick, short, black pubes- 
cence on the whole dorsum ; the median spots are situated 
on second to the tilth segments, and consist of grey tomcntum 
covered with a few paie yellow or white hairs ; in two speci- 
mens the spots are very small, in the third larger and trian- 
gular ; underside paler, with grey tomcntum. Letjs reddish 



282 Miss G. Rioimlo on the 

yellow, the femora blaokisli, with long wliitc hairs and grcv 
tomcntum ; the tore tibiiie blackish on their basal halves, 
the tibire dusky. IVings clear, stigma yellow, veins reddish 
yellow ; no appendix present. 

$ . Similar, the median spots of abdomen hardly visible. 
Eves with the large facets occupying two-tliinls of the 
surface, reaching beyond the apex of the frontal triangle. 
Lt'ijS arc wanting. 

Tabanus ytrmanicus. ? , sp. n. 

Type (female) and a series of females from Cairns and 
Ilcrbcrton, X. Queensland, in German Ent. Museum. 

A small species, with slender pale yellow })al[)i, red an- 
tenna?, and ycllowis.h-brown legs. Forehead narrow. Abdo- 
men reddish brown, with grey bands and spots. 

Length \) mm. 

Face covered with greyish tomcntum and with a few scat- 
tered white hairs. Beard white. Palpi pale yellow, slender, 
a little stouter at base, ending in a long fine jjoint ; pubes- 
cence white and \ ellow. Anlemue bright reddish yellow, the 
first two joints pale yellow with black })ubescenec, the third 
with the basal joint large and broad, the tooth obtuse. 
Subeallus often partially denuded, when it appears shiny and 
testaceous in colour. Forehead parallel, nearly five times 
as long as it is broad, covered with yellowish tomcntum and 
with some short black hairs ; frontal callus shining reddish 
brown, pear-shaped, not reaching eyes, with a very short 
lineal extension. Eyes bare. Thorax blackish brown, but 
in well-jjreserved specimens appearing grey, being covered 
with grey tomcntum, the pubescence consisting of appressed 
scattered yellow hairs, with a few longer black hairs; breast 
grey, with long white hairs. Scutellum same as thorax. 
Abdomen reddish brown (when denuded reddish aud darker 
at apex), the grey bands on posterior borders of segments 
almost half as wide as the segment, narrower on the second 
one, and altogether absent on the first segment, composed 
of grey tonientum with yellowish pubescence ; there are 
indications of grey median triangular spots of the same 
composition; underside reddish at base, darker at apex; 
pubescence of dorsum on the parts not occupied by the grey 
bands is black and rather dense, on underside white. Leys 
yellowish, the femora at base blackish, with grey tomcntum 
and white hairs, often prolonged on the outer side ; basal 
half of fore tibiae and apices of others blackish brown, all 
the tarsi dark ; pubescence on tibiaj black intermixed with 



Tabaiiitlw of the Australidn Rejion. 2Sl 

white hairs, on tarsi black. IVinys clear, veins brown ; a 
long ajipeiulix present. 

Tahanns neoyennanicus, sp. n. 

T\ i)(^ (female) and a scries from Palmcrston, N.Australia, 
ill Ciirman Knt. Museum. 

A small species very simihir to Tahamts (jermauiciis, but 
apparently a distinct species, the third joint of antcnn.e with 
its first division bi;ing much narrower at base and tiie tooth 
more ilistinct ; the joint ra[)idly beconiin;^ narrower beyond 
the tooth. 

Furchead VL little broader, about four times as long as it 
is broad, also parallel; Jrontal callus identical, rather 
narrower. Thorax and scuteiluin identical. Abduineii very 
similar, reddish brown, the grey bands not so niarkeil and 
the white |)nbcsc8nce on them reduced to a few hairs on the 
segmentations, the blaeU pubesceucc longer, especially at 
apex. Leys wholly reddish yellow, a little grey tomentum 
on the fore femora chielly white, elsewhere black. 

Length D-ll mm. 

Tabanus notatus, ? , sp. n. 

Tvpc (female) from Ching Do, N. Queensland, 25. i. 1913 
(F. 'n. Tuijlor), 1<J1 1, 281. 

A well-marked black species, ^vith large, triangular, grey 
median spots and baiuls on the abdomen. Antennaj black, 
palpi pale yellow. Legs black and yellow. 

Length 11 mm. 

Face covered with whitish tomentum and with long white 
hairs below antcuiue anil on the chicks. Ik'ard white. 
Palpi chamois-coloured, stout, ending in a point ; pubes- 
cence black, with a few white hairs on the upper sides. 
Anteniue black, the third joint stout, with a very small 
tooth ; the four last divisions about a third of the length of 
the basal first division. Fore /wad and subeallus covereil with 
yellowish-brown tomentum, the fori;head nearly a third 
narrower anteriorly, about seven times as long as it is 
broad anteriorly ; frontal callus oblong, narrow, not reaching 
the eyes, with a lineal extension. Tiiurax blackish, with 
grey tomentum ; pubescence black, with some white hairs 
on anterior border and at sides; five narrow blackish stripes 
discernible. iScuteUurn blackish, with grey tomentum and 
some tawny hairs on its outer border. Abdomen black, 
with well-marked, narrow, grey tomentosc bands on each 
segment, and the median grey spots on every segment except 



284 Miss G. Rlcuido on the 

the last two ; pubescence on the bauds and spots white, 
elsewhere black ; underside black, with fine white pubescence 
covering it. Legs black, the fore tiljiie on their basal third, 
anil the otlier tibije wIidIIv, ])ale reddish yellow, with white 
pubescence : femora with white hairs ; pubescence elsewhere 
black, fl'ings clear, stigma reddish brown, veins brown ; 
no appendix. 

Tabanus cyuneus, Wicd. Ausszwcifl. Ins. i. p. 152 (1828). 
Tabamts a/aneoviridk, Macquart, Dipt. Exot., Suppl. iv. p. 334(1849). 

Wicdemauu described his type from a specimen caught 
in unknown locality with the autcnnse and legs wanting. 
jNlacquart's tyjic is in the Paris ^Museum from Tasmania, 
and has been examined by me. Specimens arc in the Brit. 
]\lus. Coll. from Sydney, N. S. Wales ('Challenger' Expe- 
dition) ; from Brisbane, 1. iii. 1902 (//. Tnjon), 1*J12; from 
South Queensland {Dr. T. L. Bancroft) ; from Stannary 
Hills, North Queensland, circa 3000 ft. {Dr. T. L. Ban- 
croft) ; also from Burpengary, South Queeiisland, by the 
same collector ; from lukerman, near Townsville, N. Queens- 
land {W. Stalker), 1008. 

This well-known species is easily recognized, being a 
shining blue-black metallic colour. The antenna bright 
reddish yellow, the two basal joints black. Palpi, face, and 
forehead black, the latter parallel, narrow, with a pear-shaped 
shining idack frontal callus ; the lineal extension stout, 
reaching the vertex. Legs black. Wings clear, dark brown 
at the base; stigma yellow, veins brown. 

Length from 13-14 mm. 

Group X. 

Species with the abdomen unicolorous or almost so, sometimes 
darker at apex. 

Tabanus funebr is, Macq. Dipt. Exot., Suppl. i, p. IGl, pi. iii. 
fig. 12 (1845). 

A species from New^ Holland, which I have not been able 
to identify, the type being apparently lost. 

It is described as entirely black, the margins with the 
veins shaded brown, as shoM n in the figure. 

Length 11 mm. 



Tabani(.Uo of the Anstndlan Ucrjion. 28') 

Tabunus nigrimanus, Walker, List Dipt. i. p. 183 (1818). 
Tabanua bacliua, Suiumers, Ann. & Majj^. Nut. Hist. (8) x. p. 2'J') (l'J12). 

Type (female) from Port Essington, Northern Territories, 
S. Australia {Muri/il/ivruy). Presented by the Earl of 
Derby, IG. 73. 

The specimen of Tubanus badiiis in the JJrit. Mns. Coll. is 
fronj Port Darwin, Northern Territories {Dr. C. I\ Sfraiit/- 
maun). Presented l)y London School Tro[)ieal Medieine. 

A small speeies with a tawny abdomen. Palpi stout at 
base, endinj^ in a long tine point. Anicmice tawny. Fore- 
head parallel, al)out six times as long as it is broad anteriorly ; 
the frontal eallns ehestnut-brown, oblong, not re;iehing the 
eyes, with a lineal extension. Lct/s reddish yellow, tibiie 
dusky. 

Length lU mm. 

Tabanus dlmhnttus, Walker, List Dipt. i. p. 183 (1818). 

Ty[)e (female), in poor preservation, from Port Essington, 
N. Australia. 

This tvpe bears a very strong resemblance to Tabayius 
avidua, Bigot, from Australia and Sydney, but is apparently 
a distinct species, ihc pa/pi being stouter, the frontal callus 
a different shaiie, and the tooth of antcnnal thinl joint is 
smaller. The pa/pi are stout at base for quite half their 
length, ending in a line sharp point, pale yellow in colour, 
with chiefly yellowish pubescence. The antennce are tawny, a 
little dusky at tip; the tooth is little more than an angle, at 
the base of the third joint. I'orcluad slightly narrower 
anteriorly, about six times as long as it is broad antcricu'ly ; 
frontal callus dark brown, oblong, not reaching eyes, with a 
lineal extension. Abdomen same colour as in 1'. avidus, with 
the trace of a darker spot on the second segment ; apex 
somewhat darker in colour. Leys wholly yellowish ; tarsi 
dusky at tips. 

Length 13 mm. 

The state of the type precludes a fuller description. It is 
distinguished from Tubanus niijnniaiius, Wlk., by the yellow 
femora. 

Tabanus constans, Walker, List Dipt. i. p. 18G (1818). 

Prom N. and N.W. coast, Australia {Presented by 
Mr. Bynce, Suryeon, R.N.y Haslar Hospital). 

A very small species, in such poor preservation that it is 
difficult to describe it. Paljii appear reddish yellow, stout, 



286 Miss G. Ricaiilo on the 

ending in a fine short point. Antenna blackish. Forehead 
very protuberant, parallel, about three-and-a-half times as 
long as it is broad ; the frontal callus chestnut-brown, 
rather heart-sliaped, not reaching the eyes. Tliurux and 
scutellum blackish, with remains of rcddish-orangc tomcntum. 
Ahdoinen the same, with sanic-coloured pubescence. Let/s 
reddish, dark at ti|)s. ll'mys (only one is left) apparently 
brownish, but obscured by dirr. 
Length 7 mm. 

Tubanus avidus, Bigot, Mem. Soc. Zool. do France, v. p. G73 
(189i) [Atylotus]. 

Tahaniis fitscipes, Taylor, Keport Australian lust. Tropical Medicine, 

I'Jll.p. 14 1 1913;" 
Tabcmus taylori, Austen, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) xiii. p. 2G5 (1914). 

Type (female) from Australia and another female from 
Sydney. The paratypc of Tabanus fuscijjes, given to the 
Brit. Mus. Coll. by the author, and renamed Tabanus taylori 
by ^Ir. Austen, the name fuscipes being preoccupied, on 
comparison with Bigot's type is identical, though it is 
described as from Queensland. 

Tabanus jjosticus, Wied., Ausszweifl. Ins. i. p. 152 (1828), 
is possibly identical with this species, but it is impossible to 
speak with ccj'tainty without seeing AVicdemann's type. 

Tabanus serus. Walker, Proc. Linn. Soc. vi. p. 20 (1862), 
from New Guinea, is nearly allied, but the forehead is 
narrower, the palpi stouter. 

Forcltead in Bigot's type is parallel, about six times as 
long as it is wide. A reddish-yellow species, the dorsum of 
thorax darker. Legs reddish yellow. Wings tinged brown. 

Length 14 mm. 

For detailed description see ^Ir. Taylor's account. 

Tabanus hyperythreus, Bigot, Mem. Soc. Zool. de France, v. 
p. 074 (1892; [Atylotus]. 

Tabanus lorcntzi, Ricarclo, Rosultats Exp^d. Sci. Nderlaudaise, Nouv. 
Gum<Se, ix. (3) p. 400 (1913). 

Type (female), in fair preservation, from Australia, and a 
long series of females from Towusville and Kuranda, N.E. 
Queensland, in Mr. Wainwright's Coll. 

Having examined Bigot's type, 1 iind my species is iden- 
tical, only difEcring in the colour of the legs, which is some- 
times darker, the apical joints of tarsi often blackish, and 
the apex of antennae is sometimes darker. 



Tabaniilio of the Australian Rejion. 287 

A iiii'dium-si/cd miiforujly rcddish-ycllow species, with 
uarrow hairy [)al[)i, rcdilisli legs, yeUow aiitennu;, and clear 
wiii};s. 

Length 1 I mm. 

Tuhaniis sini'/uinarius, lii^'ot, iM(-'iii. Soc. Zoul. dc France, v. 

p. t;rr/(iH<j:i} [Atijiuius\. 

Ill Ihit. Mils. ColK females from S. Quecnshiiid {Dr. T. L. 
Bancroft), lIMKS,.aiid from Hrisbane (//. Tryou), 1907. 

la -Mr. Waiiiwri^hl's Coll. a leiuale from S. (iueenslaiid. 
In iMr. Froggatt's Coll. three females from Kiehinoud River, 
N. IS. Wales, and from Tweed Kivrr. 

Ill (iermaii Eiit. Museum two feuiales from New South 
AVales. 

1 have not seen the type, but the species is easily recog- 
nized hy its large size and by its uniform reddish-brown 
abdomen. J-.egs red. Antennie and [)al[)i reddish yellow. 

Jjength 18-1 'J mm. 

lace covered with yellowish tomentum, and with some 
brown hairs in centre of face and ou cheeks, lieard white. 
Palpi long, moderately stout, ending in an obtuse point, 
yellow, with black pubescence. Aiitcnnui red, the first two 
joints with black hairs, the third slender, with a small but 
distinct tooth. iSubcalliis and furclicad same colour as face, 
the latter almost parallel or slightly narrower at the vertex, 
about six times as long as it is broad ; the frontal callus 
reddish brown, large, oblong, not reaching the eyes, with a 
stout lineal extension. Thorax reddish brown, w hen denuded 
four black stripes appear ; some grey tomentum on dorsum, 
anil the pubeseenee eon>ists of scattered pale yellow leeum- 
bent hairs and some l)laek hairs. Scatellinn reddish brown, 
fringed with yellowish hairs. Abdoincii reddish brown, 
felightly darker at the apex ; pubescence on dorsum and at 
sides black ; undcisidv paler red, with grey tomentum and 
traces of yellow pubescence on the posterior borders of 
segments. Leys unifonnly i"ed, the a[)iees of tarsi darker, 
the pubeseenee on coxie white with grey t(jnientum, ou 
femora yellow below, elsewhere black. // ///ys clouded more 
or less with brown, lore border and stigma yellow, veius 
yellowish. 

This species must be very marly allied to, if not identical 
■with, 'J'ubdnus nh/ro/jictus, Mae(|uart, the type of whieh was 
reeordeil frinn India ; but as yet I have sein no specimens of 
it Irom the Uiiental Kegiou or elsewhere (see Kieardo, 
' Kecords Imlian .Museum,' iv. no. vi. p. 210, I'Jll). 



2S8 Miss G. Ricanlo on the 

]Mr. Frog^att records Tahaniis sanr/iiinarius woder T.7ilf/rO' 
pictuji in " March Flics ^' (Science iJull. New St)utli Wales, 
No. 3, p. 8. 1011), as found near Richmond River, New 
South Wales. 



Tabanus nigritarsis, Taylor, Report Austr. Inst. Tropical 
Medicine, 1911, p.' 18 (1913). 

This reddish-yellow species from Queensland, measuring 
15-17 mm., may be distinguished from Tahanns avidus, Bigot 
[7'ahatiifs fiiscipes, Taylor, Tabanus tayJor'i, Austen], by the 
palpi, which are swollen and stout at the base, ending in a 
ratlier long obtuse point; the frontal callus is narrower and 
the femora are blackish, not cinnamon-coloured. 

Tabanus spatiosus, $ , sp. n. 

Tvpc (female) and a long series from Stannary Hills, 
N. Queensland, circa 3000 ft. {Dr. T. L. Bancroft), 1901, in 
Brit. Mus. Coll. 

A small yellowish-brown species, smaller than Tabanus 
Tiyperythreus, Bigot, from which it is distinguished by the 
wider forehead ; this character also serves to distinguish it 
from Tabanus tuf/7'imanus, AVlk. From Tabamis n'igritarsis, 
Taylor, it may be distinguished by the colour of the legs. 

Antenna reddish yellow. Palpi pale yellow. Leys yel- 
lowish. ]Vings clear, with an appendix present. 

Length IH mm. 

Face chamois-coloured, covered with grey tomentum on 
the cheeks ; the sparse pubescence consists of short white or 
yellow hairs. Beard white. Palpi the same colour or a 
shade brighter, -with short white and black hairs, slender, 
nearly the same M'idih throughout, ending in a short point. 
Antennce Mars-yellow, the first two joints paler, the third 
with its basal joint broad, and a small tooth. Forehead 
same colour as face, parallel, broad, about four times as long 
as it is broad anteriorly ; the frontal callus dark brown, 
pear-shaped, not reaching the eyes, and with hardly any 
lineal extension. Thorax olive-coloured, with recumbent 
white pubescence and a few longer black hairs. Scutellum 
identical. Abdomen ochraceous tawny, the three last seg- 
ments darker, with obscure brown markings, all segments 
covered with fairly numerous short whitish hairs, thickest 
on segmentations, and in the middle in the form of a faint 
stripe; underside identical. Legs ochraceous tawny, the 
femora sometimes with a dark streak ; apical joints of tarsi 



Tubanitla) of the Auslraluin Rejiou. 28^ 

browiuNli ; pubescence on fcnioru wbitc :iiul on apical two- 
ihinls of tibiic, elsewhere black. Wi/i(/s witb ycllowUIi 
btiirnia ami vi'ins. 



Tabanus sulumenais, cT ? , sp. n. 

Tvpc (female) and type (nnile) from Solomon Islands, 
Julv-Anj;n>t, IDOl) (//'.'//'. I'rof/t/a/i) . 

These .spicimens from Mr. Fro;:j;atl'.s Coll. are placed by 
Itim under Tahaniis aniens, W'icd., which was described from 
Java. lie states this s{)eeies is very common in tlie open 
forest-country of the Solomon Islands, and sujjfjcsts it has a 
wide ran«j;eovcr the Malay Archi|)ela;^o (see " ^larch Flies," 
by W. \\ . Frojr<;att. in Science iiuih^tin, No. 3, Sept. 1911, 
p. G). ^Viedemann's species is not known to me, but 1 do 
not think these are specimens of it, judginj; from AViedc- 
niann's description (see translation of the orij^inal in ' Indian 
Kecords,' iv. no. vi. p. 224', 1911). The thorax in these is 
not mouldy grey, the jialpi are not light brown, nor are tlie 
breast-sides mouldy grey. On the abd(nnen there is no trace 
of a j:olden-ycllow spot, and it cannot be described as waxy 
yellow at si(les ; the golden-yellow i)ubescencc on it is not 
mentioned by ^Viedenlann. \Vings are not yellowish, but 
brownish, llalteres are black, not golden yellow. 

No species of Tabanus has been described from these 
islands, and these specimens do not appear to be identical 
with any species hitherto described from New Guinea or 
adjacent islands — hence the decision to make it a new 
species. 

A species to be recognized by the uniform oehraceous 
tawny colouring of thorax and abdomen, and the almost 
similar colouring of the antennje, palpi, and legs. The 
extremely narrow forehead and frontal callus is character- 
istic, also the slender antennrc. 

Length, ? 13 mm., (^ 12 mm. 

?. /''«ce and /o;Y7/e«^/ oehraceous tawny. Beard scanty, 
reddish yellow. Palpi a sliade lighter in colouring, almost 
the same width throughout, ending in a short point, with 
a few black hairs at tip, otherwise pubescence is yellow. 
AntetiiHC long and slender, tlie first two joints the same 
colour as palpi, the tliinl dusky, the first division not very 
broad, with a very small tooth, the last four divisions to- 
gether longer than the first one. Forehead parallel, very 
narrow, about ten times as long as it is broad ; the frontal 
callus small and narrow, with a stout lineal extension, 
chestnut-brown in colour. Thorax has the ground-colour 



290 On (he Tabanuliu of the Aiistrah'an Region. 

obscured by brown indistinct stripes ; dorsum shows little 
trace of any pubescence ; sides with a few yellow liairs. 
Scutellum the same as thorax. Abdomen narrow, a little 
obscured by darker colouring, the last two segments 
brownish, goldtMi-yoUow short hairs appear on the seg- 
mentations, ^vith the exception of the last two segments, 
where the pubescence is black ; underside similar, with 
more golden-yellow hairs. Legs same colour as palpi or a 
shade darker and rediler, rather shining; the tarsi dusky ; 
pubescence on coxnc and femora yellow, elsewhere black. 
flings dusky, on fore border and at base yellowish ; stigma 
yellowi'<h ; veins reddish yellow ; a small appendix jn'osent. 

Male is similar. Et/es with the large facets reacliing the 
apex of frontal triangle, but they are very little larger than 
the small facets below ; the third joint of antennce is only 
dusky on apical half. Iflngs are rather paler in colouring 
and the appendix is non-existent. 

Tabaniis aiirihirtus, ^ ? j sp. n. 

Tvpe (female) and another from Townsville, Queensland 
(F. P. Dodd), 1901., 28 k 

Ty[)e (male) and another from same locality, 1902, 281, 
and 1903, 319, and another male from Kuranda, N. Queens- 
land (K P. Dodd, per Janson). 

A medium-sized species with short golden-yellow pubes- 
cence on the thorax and on the abdomen, this latter with a 
reddish-yellow ground-colour. Antennte, palpi, and legs 
reddish yellow. Frontal callus heart-shaped, reddish brown, 
very indistinct. 

Length, female type 16 mm., the other female 11 mm. ; 
male type 14 ram., others 11—15 mm. 

Face reddish brown, but covered with ashy-grey tomentum 
and with pale yellow short hairs. Beard pale yellow. 
Palpi yellow, only slightly stout at base, ending in a long 
slender point ; pubescence pale yellow or white, consisting 
of fairly long hairs on the basal part. Antennce ]Mars-yellow, 
the first two joints paler, with a few black hairs, the third 
broad at its base ; the tooth represented by an obtuse angle. 
/oreAearf narrow, parallel, about six times as long as it is 
broad, covered with much the same coloured tomentum as 
the face, but the pubescence is brighter-coloured, more 
orange-yellow, with some black hairs intermixed ; the frontal 
callus is only indicated by a heart-shaped reddish-brown 
spot, reaching the eyes, but with no lineal extension, it is 
partially obscured by the pubescence which overlaps it, and 



Deyeneration in l/te Teeth of ( \reii and 'Sheep. 201 

may possibly cover it in very fresh specimens. Thorax and 
sciitcllum l)lackisli, covered with supcriiicuinhcnt {^oldcii- 
yellow puhcsceiu'c, and h)nger hairs of the same colour at 
the sicU's, on the postirior honU-r of tliorax, and on the 
RcuteUnni ; lirca^t covered with tawny t(»Micntiiin and with 
80n)e h)n<; white hairs. Abdomen reddish yellow, with sonic 
tawny tonientuni and eovercd with appnssed gohlcn-ycllow 
pubescence, with whiih is inlerniixed black pnbcs(;encc of 
the same nature, apex of abdomen l)ecomes somewliat darkiT ; 
underside palcr-coloured with white pubescence. f-'''gs 
reddish yellow ; the tibi;c paler yellow ; the tarsi dusky ; 
pubescence chiefly black with some white hairs on coxa; 
and on the femora. \\"tn(/s clear; stij^ma yellowish ; veins 
reddish yellow; appendix very \o\vr and curved in tlic type, 
but I'ot so lonj; in the other female. 

Malt- is alto<jether paler in appearance. Eyes Mith the 
large facets takini; u|) two-tiiirds of the surface, reachiu"- 
beyond the apex of the frontal triangle, but not quite reacliiu"' 
the vertex, so that a narrow border of the small facets 
extends to the vertex. Thorax with the pubescence a dirty 
white colour and much longer ; this ap|)lies also to the 
scutellum. Abdomen with the same-coloured pubescence on 
a paler ground-colour, f-or/s rather j)alerin colour. 

A female from S. Queensland {Dr. T. L. Bancroft), 
1908, 72, lias the legs wholly rcdiiish yellow, and the pubes- 
cence on thorax and abdomen paler in colour. 



XX III. — Xotes on D^n'neration in the Te<th of Oxen and 
Sheep. By J. Wilfrid Jacksox, F.G.S. (Assistant- 
Keeper, Manchester Museum). 

In a Report on the Animal Remains discovered at Corsto- 
])itum (Corbridge-on-Tyne) * ^^lessrs. A. Meek and R. A.H. 
Gray call attention to the absence of the first lower pre- 
molar tooth in several jaws of oxen found on the site. This 
form they considered distinct from the domesticated cattle 
[Dos taitrns, var. longifrons) of Roman and earlier times, and 
it was accordingly described by them as a new wild sj^eeies, 
viz. Bos si/lves/ris. They further state that this species is 
represented to-day by the Chillingham herd, in which there 
is apparently a similar absence of the first lower premolar. 

* ' Archrcol. /Eliann,' 3 scr. vii. 1011, pp. S»9 et trq. 



-02 ]\Ir. J. W. Jackson on Dt-jeneration in 

AFr. R. Lydokker, in 'Science Prop;ress,' vol. vi. 1912, 
p. ooli, criticizes tiie above conclusion, statin^r, "the alletretl 
absence of tlie anterior premolar is probably a feature due to 
domestication."' 

Amonirst almost an}' collection of oxen-remains from 
Romano-British stations this five-toothed form is to be found, 
thoufjh it is often passed unnoticed if the jaws liajipen to be 
imperfect. 

I have met with it on several occasions, and specimens 
may be seen in the Mancliester Museum from the Wirral sub- 
merged forest, the peat of Cambrid<Te, alluvium near (Jastle- 
ton, Derbvshire, burial mounds, Rudston, Yorks (? Dronze 
Au:e\ a wolf-den (pre-Sixteenth Century) at Ilaverbrack, 
Westmorland, and Dog Holes cave on Warton Crag, Lanes 
(Romano-British). The Cambridge, Rudston, and Haver- 
brack examples illustrate the feature in both right and left 
jaws : the other specimens are odd jaws. 

At Dog Holes normal jaws of small oxen were also found 
at a lower horizon, i.e. Neolithic, and on comparing two six- 
toothed jaws from this cave, one Neolithic and the other 
Romano-British, it is observed that the relative proportions 
of the molars and premolars in each jaw are different. 
Wiiile the molars of the later (Romano-British) jaw are 
only slightly shorter than those in the earlier jaw, the pre- 
molars, especially ^:;^2> show a much greater decrease in 
length. For example, ^^^72 ii the Romano-British jaw is 
more than one-fourth less in length than the same tooth in 
the Neolithic jaw, while ^^ is only about an eighth less. 
Tiio annexed table of measurements will sliow this more 
clearly : — 

PrnTS- PTITTj. I'm. 4. M.l- Jir2. M. a. 

mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. mm. 

Neolithic 13-3x9-7 19xl2o 21-oxl4-3 24-2xlo-5 26-3x1.j-5 37-3x15-8 

Romano-British. 9-8x8 lovxlO-l 19-3x11 21 •1x12-0 2.3-0x13-1 34-4 x 12-8 

''/o of decrease . . -263 x -175 -184 x -108 -102 x 230 -128 X -187 -102 x -104 -077 x -189 

It will be noticed that pi^Ti does not show this decrease so 
much in the lencjth as in the breadth. 

Having had the opportunity of goins: through tlie animal- 
remains from the Glastonbury Lake Village, preparatory to 
writing a full report on them in collaboration with Prof. W. 
Bo^'d Dawkins, I carefully looked for any trace of the 
above five-toothed form, and was surprised to find it so much 
in evidence. The series, moreover, provided specimens of 



the Teeth of O.ten ami S/iefp. 'IJo 

adult lower jaw.s sliowiiiL^ staj^cs towards a (ive-tootlied con- 
dition, 'riirt-e »ta;^»'3 are clearly rrjircsentcd, as follows : — 
(I) Jaws with i;;;^ in j)lac«' ; (2) jaws with ,,„!. j in place hut 
in process of being pushed out, roots partly ah8orbe<l ; 
(3) jaws with ,„n.^ absent, with slight traces ot" alveolus re- 
maining. In the vsjx-toothed jaws, /. e. where ^;^2 is present, 
that tooth shows very little, or almost no, trace of wear, evi-n 
thouiih all the remaining teeth, including ^73 and ^^i, are 
consideral)ly worn. One pair of jaws shows p7,i7a in position, 
but the adjacent premolar is so crowded against it that tho 
pmTa ii^ only lightly held in its socket, and when lilted out it 
18 seen that its roots are almost absorbed. 

The possibility of this being a persistent milk-molar was 
considered, but on cutting away the bone below the tooth no 
successional tooth was found nor was any crypt present, the 
bone being quite compact. The tooth was then carefully 
compared with another ^,^2 J^ud with a deciduous molar 
(n,.m.a)f a"il was fourjd to agree exactly with the former. 

The left ramus of another lower jaw illustrates the shedding 
even better, as the anterior root of j;^2 is visible, it having 
been pushed through the anterior wall of its alveolus. Both 
the al)ove examples would belong to animals considerably 
over three years of age*. 

Evidence of the former presence of ^ii^ in other adult 
lower jaws is furnished by partly obliterated alveoli. The 
youngest jaw showing the tive-toothed condition is one in 
which ^;^-i has just begun to wear. 

Two of the Glastoidjury tive-toothed specimens are of 
further interest, as showing an abnormal condition in the hist 
true molar (^73). In all true ruminants this tooth is ciiarac- 
terized by the addition of a third posterior lobe f. This lobe 
is very small and simple in the gnu, and relatively larger in 
the Boviihe and ('ervida?. In the Glastoid)ury specimens 
the third l(d>e of nr.3 '» mmh less develo|)ed than in two 
specimens of the gnu in the Manchesier i\Iuseum %> 't being 
represented by a slight loop oidy. The same contlition is to 
be seen in the lower jaws of a polled skull of a " wild " white 
cow supposed to be the last relic of a herd formerly kept at 

• Calculated from table in Oweu'a 'Anatomy of Vertebrates,' vol. iii. 
18G8, p. .V>2. 

+ Tomt'S, ' Dental Anatomy ' (1898, p. 40G, footnote), mentions Neo- 
trai/uj< hemprichii, a small Abyssinian antelope, as having only two lobts 
to the third lower molar. 

\ In both tht'st< specimens of ffnn the lower jaws have only five teeth, 
proTa being absent. 

Ann. «C- Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. w. 20 



294 Degeneration in the Teeth of Oxen and Sheep. 



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(hi ufir J/eleroct'ni from Dulch Siir (inineii. li'J.J 

(lisljiini, York>>. This Hpeciincn is also in the MaiichcstiT 
Museum, and the hiwcr jaws have the usual six treih. 

Coiupaiini; a uuuihcr of five-(o(»thiHl jaws with a like 
mini her of six-toothctl jaws, there sionj.s to he a geiuTal 
tendency for all the teeth in the latter form to bo soniowhat 
smaller, as will be seen by the table on p. 294. 

It niij;ht here be mentioned thut there is nothing in tho 
(ilastonbury bones and lower jaws to indicate thut more tlian 
the one species is j)iesent, viz. llo$ lon</i/rons. 

llnfortunately in n^ost iinds the exact relation between the 
upper and lower teeth cannot usually bo ascertained, owing 
to the scattered and imperfect condition oi' the remains. It 
might be of interest, tiierefore, to {)oint out that the asso- 
ciutcil upper and lower jaws were found of the llaveibraek 
specimen, and these sho\v the six teeth of the upper jaw 
exactly opposed to the five lower teeth; so that, if [^ITii were 
present, it would be quite functionless. 

The whole feature of the loss of j.m.a in some oxen jaws 
seems to me to be a clear case of degeneration gradually 
brought about by disuse of that particular tooth. 

Tiiough the absence of ,„„. ^ in ox jaws has been knqwn for 
some time, tiie absence of this tooth from tlie jaws of ^lieep 
does not appear to have been noted hitherto. On sorting the 
sheep-remains from Qlastonbury, however, I came acrqss a 
fair percentage of lower jaws with only two premolars and 
three molars present in place of the usual six teeth. 

This feature, as in the ox, may be likewise due to disuse, 
probably through change of food or habit under domestication. 

As a further instance of j^;S77;j being missing, I might men- 
tion that both lower jaws of a specimen of Capra ibi'.c in the 
Manchester Mi;seum possess only five teeth. 



XXIV. — Sew Sj>ecifs of Iltterocerafrom Dnti;h yew (juineu. 
By J. J. Joici:v, b\L..S., F.E.S., and G. Talbot, F.E.S. 

[Plate XII.] 

The following species were all collected by Messrs. A. C. 
and F. Pratt in the Arfak Mountains, Dutch New Guinea, 
and the types are in the collection of floicey. We are 
indebted to the Hon. W. Uothschild and iSir Geo. II. Kenriek 
for the opportunity atfordeil of comparing sjieciniens in their 
collections. 

2.)* 



290 



^Mossr-:. J. J, J(Mcoy and G. Talbot on net 



Milionia riihrifdscia, sp. n. (PI. XII. fig. 1.) 

Allied to ventraJi's, liotlis., but at once distinguished by 
the much nairowor band on the fore wing. This band 
narrows posteriorly and ends at vein 2. On the hind wing 
the blue basal area is much deeper in colour and has not the 
greenish reflection of veutralis. 

Underside of fore wing with band paler and basal blue 
almost reaching it. Hind wing below with basal blue ex- 
tending to end of cell and occupying same area as in ventralis. 

Sexes similar. 

Length of fore wing, cJ ? , 19 mm. 

Types from Angi Lakes, Arfak Mountains, GOOO feet, 
N. New Guinea, Jan. to March 1914:. A series. 

Milionia rubra, sp. n. (PI. XII. fig. 2.) 

This species seems nearly allied to ovata, Roths., but 
differs especially in its much smaller size. 

? . Upperside. — Fore wing at extreme base, apical area, 
and outer margin black ; rest of wing brick-red. Tliis colour 
extends along costa to end of cell, then below subcostal to 
beyond origin of vein 7, and curving round to the inner 
margin. Jiase of costa yellow. Hind wing black shot with 
deep blue, which is much brighter at the base of cellules 2 
and 15. 

Underside. — Fore wing as above, red colour paler ; a black 
and somewhat oblong patch at base below^ cell. Hind wing 
black ; the extreme base in cellule 8 metallic blue, adjacent 
to which is a red spot, which does not touch cosfa. Head 
and collar metallic greenish blue ; thorax and abdomen 
black, tinged with dark blue; legs black. 

Length of fore wing 19 mm. 

Type from Angi Lakes, Arfak Mountains, (5000 feet, 
N. New Guinea, March 1914. A series of 4 ? ? only. 



Milionia xanthica, sp. n. (PI. XII. fig. 3.) 

^ . Upperside. — Fore wing black. An orange-yellow 
band 2 mm. broad, commencing at inner margin about two- 
liiirds from base and extending into the cell between veins 2 
and K. Base of wing dark blue, siiading into tiie ground- 
colour as far as the band. Hind wing with costa narrowly 
black ; base black to near end of cell and shot with dark 
blue ; distal area orange-yellow, a black marginal spot at 
extremity of vein 7, and three black dots at ends of veins 6, 
4, and 3. 



species of Heteroceru from Dutch Nexo Guinea. 297 

Underside like the upper. Bund on fore wing wider iind 
more clearly defined. 

Ileftd nnd tliornx metallic blue above, blackisli brown 
beneath; abilonien blackish brown and tinged with dark bhie 
above. 

? similar to ^. Band on fore wing wider and tnoic 
sharply defined. Basal blue bi i^hter and sufttusing the band. 
Hind wing without the three marginal dots, and below with 
only a faint dot on the end of vein 7, and costal black not 
reaching apex. 

Length of fore wing, (5* $ , 21 mm. 

Tvpt'S from Angi Lakes, Aifak Mountains, 6000 feet, 
N. New Guinea: ^ Jan. to Fel). IDU, $ March l'J14. A 
series of 2 cJ cJ ami 113 '? ? from same locality, Jan. to 
March 1014. 



The following three aberrational I'orms are contained iu 
the series : — 

Milionia xanthica, ab. n'ujra. 

This form is representeil by a single ? , and differs in the 
complete absence of the band on the fore wing above. Below 
the band is wider than in the typical $ , but may be much 
reduced, leading to the following form. 

Milionia xanthica, ab. hipuncla. (PI. XIL tig. 4.) 

The band on the fore wing is here reduced to two ill-defined 
spots, one between veins 2 and 3 near tlieir base and a larger 
one below it. These spots are better defined on the underside. 

This specimen shows an increase of black at apex of hind 
wing, the spot on vein 7 being merged with the costal black. 

Type (a ? ) the oidy specimen. 

Milionia xanthica, ab. extensa. (PI. XIL fig. 5.) 

The band on the fore wing is much widened distally and 
extends to upper margin of cell. Its outer edge is ill-defined, 
and yellow scales are mixed with the groiuul-colour almost 
to outer margin, the yellowish tini^e extending to vein 5 ; 
this is much better defined below. The yellow of the hind 
wing is more extended on both sides, so that the basal black 
does not reach beyond middle of cell, and its edge is irregu- 
larly defined. 

Type (a 9 ) the only specimen. 



208 !Messrs. J. J. Jolcey and G, Talbot on new 

Transitions occur between tlio above forms. The only 
other (J in the series has the fore-wing band much narrowed 
and only extending to vein 2. In a ? it is still more re- 
duced and only faintly indicated as far as the cell. Another 
? has the band twice as witle as in the ty[)ical form. 

Milionia Jcnoiolei, sp. n. (Pi. XII. fig. 6.) 

c? . Upperside. — Fore wing black faintly shot with deep 
blue. Base metallic greenish blue, with a > -shaped inden- 
tation of the ground-colour. Hind wing with basal half to 
end of cell metallic greenish blue, distal half shot with deep 
blue. 

Underside of fore wing black faintly shot with deep blue; 
Base metallic greenish blue, extending to near end of cell as 
far as vein 3. Hind wing black faintly shot with deep blue. 
At base a metallic greenish-blue costal streak, a similar 
streak along lower margin of cell on each side of median ; 
a dark blue streak along inner margin. A suba])ical black 
patch of short hair or androconia, the hairs of which are 
directed outwardly. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen metallic greenish blue; abdo- 
men black below. Legs metallic greenish blue on outer side. 

Sexes similar, ? without the hairy patch on hind wing 
below. 

Length of fore wing, <^ ? , 22 mm. 

Types from Angi Lakes, Aifak Jilounlains, 6000 feet, 
N. New Guinea, Jan. to Ftb. 1S14. A series cf ^ S and 

I ?. 

Tiiis species seems nearly allied to callima, Roth. & Jord., 
and which has also the patch of modified scales on the hind 
wing below. Rothschild and Jordan, in the Deutseli. Ent. 
Zeit. 1907, pp. 19-4-5, describe a similar structure in lanipriina, 
and note that in eiujlennia, a very similar-looking species, 
it is absent. Several other species of the genus exhibit the 
same characteristic. 

^JUionia weis^kei ruhidi fascia, subsp; n. (PI. XII. fig. 7.) 

<J . Differs from weiskei, Roth., in the yellow band on fore 
wing being a little narrower and constricted between vein ^ 
and submedian. The apex is tipped with yellow, forming a 
spot. On the hind wing the red proximal bordering of the 
yellow band is much broader and widens posteriorly. The 
outer edge of tlie yellow band is incurved and rounded be- 
tween Veins 7 and 4, then convex to 2, and slightly incurved 
from thf'nce to anal anale. 



Species of Ileierocera from Dutch Sew duinea. 209 

?. Larnrer than J, and clifTerinfj from xoeisJcei ? in the 
red band on hind win;^ hein;^ di.sfally widened and yellow 
band narrower between veins 4 and (J. 

Length of fore winj;, c? 23, ? 27 mm. 

Tvj)e.s from Angi Lakes, Arfak Mountains, GOOO feet, 
N. New Cruinea, Jan. to Foli. IDli. The only apeeiniens. 

Kubordeta aUtifaacia, ap. n. (PI. XII. fig. <S.) 

cf . Upperside. — Fore wing black tinged with doop purplish 
blue. A narrow white band extends from costa across cell 
near its end, narrowing between veins 2 and 3 and ending a 
little below 2 ; diatal edgo of band dark glossy blue, as is 
also the basal half of wing. Hind wing ground-colour as 
in fore wing, basal half to end of ceil a darker blue than on 
fore wing ; costal margin brick-red, widening at the middle. 

Underside of fore wing paler, a white band as above. A 
narrow yollow apical band, widest in the middle, extends 
from vein 7 to just below 4. Hind wing ground-colour 
paler than above ; costa crimson at base, as is also a spot at 
base o£ costal vein ; remainder of costa, limited by costal, 
orange-yellow ; this streak joins a narrow marginal yellow 
band, irregularly shaped and reaching just below 3. A 
discal band, beginning below origin of vein 7, where it is 
white, to vein o, and then yellow, crosses the cell near its 
end, tills the base of cellule 3, forms a square spot in 2 and a 
larp;or and proximally rounded spot in 1 b and 1 c. 

?Iead, thorax, and abdomen blackish blue ; three lateral 
ciimson spots on al)domen. 

Length of fore wing 22 mm. 

Type from Angi Lakes, Arfak Mountains, 6000 feet, 
N. New Guinea, March 1914. A series of 6 <S <S ' 

This species, in the markings of the hind wing below, 
recalls E. rufoplogata, Baker. 

Craspedopsis angiana, sp. n. (PI. XII. fig. U.) 

Above black, with a faint blue sheen at apex and outer 
margin of fore wing and over the dark distal part of hind 
wing. Both wings at base metallic greenish blue. On tore 
wing the basal blue extends to near middle of cell and to 
middle of inner margin, its distal edge straight and at right 
angles to costa. On hind wing the basal blue extends a 
little beyond cell, is limited by the costal, and readies to 
near anal angle. 

Underside of fore wing black, with a white band about 
3 ram. wide, extending from subcostal across end of cell to 



300 On new Ileterocera from Dutch New Guinea. 

just beyoml vein 2 ; base metallic greenish blue as far as the 
band. Hind wing below as above, but the blue extends 
farther and leaves a narrower distal margin than above. 

Head, thorax, and abdomen dark blue. 

Sexes simihir, except that the S bears on coxa of fore leg 
a thick fringe of MJiite hair. 

Length of fore wing, ^ 17, ? 19 mm. 

Types from Angi Lakes. Arfak Mountains, GOOO feet, 
N. New Guinea, March 1914. A series. 

Buzarn calodesrna httinuirgo, subsp. n. 
{VI XIL fig. 10.) 

? . Differs from cahdesma, Rotiis., in the extended red at 
base of costa of fu-e wing nearly filling the basal two-thirds 
of cell, leaving only a narrow streak of black at its base. 
The yelli'W band is deeper in colour and nearly straight on 
its outer edge, and is widened proxinially to just below origin 
of vein 2. At apex of wing tlie fringe only is yellow. On 
the hind wing the marginal band is about three times as wide 
as in calodesma, being 4 mm. broad. Below, the band on 
fore wing is broader than above. 

Length of fore wing 29 mm. 

Type a ? from Momi River, N. New Guinea, March 
1914. Tlie only specimen. 

Purohusis feVuvt, sp. n. (PI. XII. fig. 11.) 

cJ . Ground-colour of whole insect chrome-yellow, veins 
and other markings chestnut-brown. 

Upptrsidt'. — Fore wing with only the costa, apical area, 
and outer margin for a breadth of 4 mm. of the ground- 
colour, the rest being creamy buff, limited distally by the 
first of four transverse lines ; the first of these begins at a 
quarter of costa from apex, curves at vein 7, is straight to 4, 
and lunulate to inner margin at three-quarters from base ; 
the second line parallel to first and much thicker, the third as 
thick and straighter, the space between it and second being 
twice the width between this and first line ; the fourth line, 
faint on costa, is marked by a curve in middle of cell, a short 
bar, more j)roximal, below median of cell, and a straight line, 
more distal, from 1 c to inner margin, where it joins the 
second line. Base of cell suffused with chestnut-brown, and 
a square spot of same colour below it near base. A thick 
line from base along inner margin and touching fourth line. 
Interspace between discocellular, third line, and vein 4 
suffused with chestnut-brown ; the third line joins the second 



On the Upper Silurian Foraminifera of Gothland. 1501 

alonc^ vein 4. Outer niar;;in witli an irrei^ular hand Uom 
costn to vein ii, aixl separntcci tVoin iirst di.scal line iVorn co.sta 
to vein 6 hy n yellowisli line with hlnck dots j)roxinially of 
it on veins 0, 7, and 8. A .suhinar<,'inal row of neven Ijlack 
spots nnd ft ih)t in cellule 8 at aj)ix. Frinj^es dark at cnd.s 
ot veins. Ilind win^ without niaikin^s, except a hiack spot 
at nnal anj:le and a .small tuft el; hhuk hair beh)W it. 

Underside. — Fore win^ ehronio-yrllow, darker beyond 
cell anil over apical third ; three hlaek dol«i, the first the 
largest, in cellules 7, 6, and 5. Hind win<^ without niarkin<fs. 

Antenr'io with hlaek dot at base on vertex, jjrothorax, and 
pata^'ia marked with ehestnut-l)rown, the latter with fringe 
lipped with black ; a small tuft of black hair at base of 
abilomen ; tarsi black. 

? . Similar to ^ , witli paler brownish markings and discal 
lines more heavily marked. 

Length of foie wings, ($ $ , 27 mm. 

Types from Angi J^akes, Arl'ak ^lountains, 6000 feet, 
N. New Guinea, Jan. to Feb. 1914. "1 ^ ^ and 1 $ were 
obtained. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XII. 

Fi(/. \. Milionia rubrifascia, $. 

Fig. 2. rubra, 5 • 

Fi(/. 3. xanlhica, $. 

I'ig. 4. , ab. bipuncta. 

Fig. 5. , ab. e.itensa. 

Fig. 6. knowlei, (^ . 

Fig. 7. iceiskei riibicli fascia, S • 

Fig. 8. Etibordeta albifascia, cT . 
Fig. it. Craiipvdopi^is angiamt, cT • 

Fig. 1(>. liiiziira calodcKiiia latimargo, J . 

Fig. IL Parabasis/e/i.ii, cJ. 



XXV. — Upper Sihirian Foraminifera of Gothland. 
By John Smith. 

[Plate XIIL] 

ruEviOL's Knowledge of the Palaeozoic Foraminifera. 

We are pretty well acquainted with the Carboniferous 
Foraminifera, so well depicted in lirady's " lilonograpli," 
pTiblished by the Pala?ontographical Society in vol. xxx. 

In strata lower than the Carboniferous few s[)eeies have 
hitherto been found. 



302 ]Mi'. J. Smith on the Uj>per Silurian 

III quartzltes etc. of pre-Caiiibrian age in Brittany very 
minute things have been got, globular or nearly so, spiny 
and perforatetl, sometimes in strin-^s, the largest only the 
2'.W <^* '^'^ \n(:\\ in diameter (Ann. Soc. Geol. Nord, vol.xxii.). 

Ehrenberg, in 1858, figured live genera from the blue clay 
of the Baltic provinces, a horizon now known to belong to 
the Lower Cambrian. They are glauconite casts referable 
to the genera J^odosaria, Rotalina, and Pulvimdina. 

Foramiiiifera have been recorded from the Cambrian 
system of Siberia (Q. J. G. S. vol. Ivi.) and from the Saint 
John Series of IS'ew Brunswick (Tr. N. Y. Acad, of Sci. 
vol. xii. for 1893). 

In the Q. J. G. S. for 1900 Chapman has figured and 
described nine species of Foraminifera from the Upper Cam- 
brian in the ]\Jalverns. They have all been drawn from 
jx^lished specimens of the rock, and comprise the genera 
SinriUina^ Lagena, Nodosaria, Margimdina, and CristeUaria, 
('liapman, in this paper, says : — " Foraminifera are, however, 
rare at the best until the lower limestones of the Carboniferous 
period are reached." 

Above the Bala Limestone of Guildfield, near Welshpool, 
Foraminifera have been got (Geol. Mag. 1882). 

Chapman, in his ' Foraminifera/ p. 254, says that in the 
Llandovery beds of Cwm Symlog Dentalina, Textularia, 
and Rotalio.'^ have been got, and, at p. 255, llyperammina 
and Stacheia were got in Gotland ; he also adds that Vine's 
Silurian genus Fsammosiphon has been relegated to the genus 
Stacheia. 

Brady, in 1888, figured four species of Lnr/ena from the 
Upper Silurian of England, and I supplied him with some of 
the specimens (Geol. J^iag. for 1888). 

Four species have been got in the Upper Silurians of 
Indiana, and casts from the Devonian of PafFrath, referable 
to the genera Lagenuliiia, Cristellaria, Orhidina, Globigerina, 
and FnsuHna. 

Gothland Upper Silurian Foraminifera. 

To the casual visitor to Gothland the rocks present but 
two petrographical series — a great limestone-bed, and under 
it a rather thicker shale-bed with limey bands and nodules 
more or less through it, the whole being contained within 
240 feet of thickness. In the south of the island there is 
sandstone under a thick limestone, and on this j)oint there 
is a division of opinion, the minority, following Murchison, 
Sickling the notion that there is au ascending series towards 



Forami'itifera of Gothland. 3()3 

llie soutl), so that the liinestono of Ilobui-jren — tlio extreme 
soiitliciM part — i.s on a hi^lier horizon than that of the rest 
of the island, and the nuijoriiy that tlic sandstone simply 
occupies so much of the space taken up by the shale in ihe 
tiorth. As opinions are not evidence, the proof, one way or 
the other, will not be obtained till a bore is put down on the 
Hobiirg shore. 

'I'he Foraininifera recorded in this paper were obtained, 
one species from the lower part of the limestone, and the rest 
from the shales towards their upper part. 

Horizons. 

The Gotliljind strata raiif^e from the Monoffraptus-ah'AiiS 
(under the Llandovery) to the Dowutonian (above the 
Ludlow *). 

The species got in the litnestone may be referred to the 
A\ mestry, and the rest to the V\'enlock liorizon of England. 

FOKAMINIFERA (REMARKS ON THE SpECIES). 

All the specimens figured are from plump and solid indi- 
viduals, none from cut sections of the rock, and, uirless 
otherwise stated, are enlarged 40 diameters-. 

To i\lr. .losejjli Wright, i\G.»S., of Belfast, who has devoted 
a large part of his lifetime to the study of the Foraminifera, 
I am indebted for i)iluting me through this labyrinth of 
small things. I make this early reference to him, as I will 
have frequently to bring in his name in connection with 
some of the species. I am also indebted to him for many of 
the references. 

IJyperammina var/ans, Brady. 
Girvanella p-oblematica, N. & E. 

At the time (1878) Nicholson and Ederidge published 
tlieir first fasciculus of the Girvan fossils, they gave an excerpt 
of a letter from Brady, this letter pointing out that G. proble- 
viatica resembled //. varans, a present-day species, and this 
has been sustained l)y later investigators. ^^ Girvanella^^ is 
common in G(^thland, so much so that two series of strata 
have been called "(z<rt;a/<e//<:/-zones." This fossil has, how- 
ever, to be nvostly determined from cut bits of tho rock; but 
from the shales I got a number of specimens showing the 

* Dr. Munthe'a Memoir on the Strata of Southern GotLlaud (ir 
EnnrHsh). 



304 Mr. J. Sinitli on the Upper Silurian 

entii-c tubes twisting in every direction. Tlie illustration I 
give is a portion of a small mass, antl would have been more 
completo but tor the shale, which more or less covers the 
tubes. 

Loc. Mulde and Frojel. 

Hyperammina minittissiina, sp. n. 

From its minute size and rough surface, Mr. Wright 
thinks this form may be made a new species. This little 
fossil is attached to a spicule, the tigure showing about a 
third of it magnified 1000 diameters. 

Loc. Wisby Cement Works. 

Hyperammina rectangiila, sp. n. 

This is also a branching form, and the two figures will 
show how the branches go off at nearly right angles. Both 
figures show the primordial cell (also seen in living specimens 
ot //. vagans), one of them with a ring. The dimensions are 
given in Ex|)lanation of Plate (p. 309). 

Loc. Mulde and Frojel. 

From the Gothland shales I have obtained a series of 
Hyperammina, ranging in size between the largest and smallest 
species given above, and several ''species" might easily be 
made from them ; but as they are smooth and follow more or 
less the character of //. vagans, they may be placed with 
that species. 

Hyperammina ramosissima, Ciiap. 

The figure will show the branching-habit of this species, a 
feature from which it takes its specific name. 
Loc. Gothem. 

Reoplax pilulifera, Brady. 

The specimen is probably incomplete, shows three loculi- 
ments with very distinct perforations. 
Loc. Korpklint. 

Beoplax adunca, Brady. 

This is a rare species. 
Loc. Slet^. 

Haplophragmium latidorsatum, Born, sp. 
Loc. Gothem. 



Foraminifera of LiulhlanJ. 305 

Ammodiscus gordialisj J. & P., sp. 

Only ojip specimen got. 
/>oc. Korpklitit. 

I'rochatnvtiitd finceps, Braily. 

There was only one ^^)t, and it occuriid in (Iccavp] cr\ sla!- 
line limestone. 

Loc. Kappelshamn, nt-ar the shore. 

Webhtna cf. hemispheric/, J., P., & B. 

This species is constantly attached to shells etc., but, bfinf; 
iinitbrntly of a brownish colour, I thou^Hit it might be a 
inacrospore. Dr. Kidston, however, will not express an 
opinion on it. Mr. Wright thinks it may be a Webbina 
flattened by pressure. I had never any doubt about the 
flattening. In appearance it is either a flat cake or like a 
shallow saucer with a slightly raised rim. 

Loc. Kcifvar Liljas halo and Slete. 

WeJ'bina gothemensisy sp. n. 

Occurs as a thin-edged cake on other fossiLs^ the surface 
swelling np irregulaily as shown on figure. 
Loc. Gothem. 

Siacheia acervalis, Brady. 

Not abundant, but pretty widely spread and attached to 
other organisms, and on account of this differs greatly in 
appearance. 

I^oc. Stora (!arlso, Mulde, and Lau Canal. Common in 
the Carbonilerous rocks of Scotland. 

Stacheia congesta, Brady. 

The two figures will show the extreme variations of shape. 

Loc. Muldo, Fiojel, Wisby Cement Works, Lumnielunds 
Bruk. Common in the Caiboniferous limebtones and shales 
ot Scotland. 

Lageiia globosa, Monlag., sp. 

This species diff'ers greatly in size and shape, sometimes all 
but globular, others long-oval, and in cross-seeti»jn not always 
round. They can be distinguished by their colour, a liglit 
grey. The five illustiations are each Irom difterent specimen^ : 



306 ^Ir. J. Smith on the Upper Silurian 

a, view of aperture ; &, c, unflersides. Some of the shapes 
are identical to those assumed hy the little freshwater Rliizo- 



pod of our ponds and ditclies called Difjlagia. 

Loc. Lau Canal, Sluguklint, lvor|iklint, Stora Carl 



so. 



Lagena Icevis, Montag., sp. 

'J'lie two fijxures give the extreme variation in shape seen. 
hoc. Lau Canal and Sluguklint. 

Lagena clavata^ D'Orb., sp. 

The two figures show the extreme oi variation. 
Loc. Sluguklint. 

Lagena graciUima, Seg., sp. 

The two figures show considerable diflferences in shape, but 
not any more so than recent forms. 
Loc. Wisby Cement Works. 

Lagena parkeriana, Brady. 

The seven figures I give of this species will show how it 
varies in shape and size. 

Loc. Stora Carlso, Lau Canal, Eofvar Liljas hiilo, and 
Sluguklint. Common in the Carboniferous limestones of 
Scotland. 

Lagena auriculata, var. Unearituha, Ciishman. 

I had regarded this form as a FusuUna, but Mr. Wriglit 
has no doubt of its being a Lagena. 
Loc. Wisby Cement Works. 

Lagena cylindrical sp. n. 

This species is all but cyliudricalj with the neck of the 
tube sometimes slightly bent. 

Loc. Stora Carlso and Wisby Cement Works. 

Lagena gottlandica, sp. n. 

Globular, with a short tube. 

This form differs from all recorded species of Foraminifera 
in having minute concentric stria?, resolvable by high powers 
into beaded lines running round the test. As wasted speci- 
mens it is not infrequent, but when perfect it is a bright 
glittering little form. 

Loc. Stora Carlso. 



Funimiiiij'cra of Gothland. 307 

Lagena gutta *, sp. ii. 

Tjike tlic above, this one lias got surrouiuliiig stn'ic, hut 
difTers in heiiig oval ami a[)iculatc. 
IjOc. Fiojel. 

Lagena storavedensis, sp, n. 

Like tiie two h-ist, this one has also got stria? running 
round the shell. In shape it conies pretty near to soine ot 
the forms of L, parkeriana. 

hoc. Stora Vedc. 

Lagena visheyensis, sp. n. 

'J'his form is apiculate, with a long tube, ami has got four 
to six strongly jtronounced rounded costaj, 
Loc. Wisby Cement ^Vo^ks. 

Lagena acutangula, sp. n. 

This one has got a strong resemblance to Tj. graciUima^ 
but has five shar|)-edged costas. 
TjOC. AV^isby Cement Works. 

JS'odosaria cf. soliita, Rss. 

The figure in the 'Challenger' Monograph has seven luculi- 
ments; the one figured here has only three, but is probably 
imperfect. 

Loc. Stora Vcde. 

Nodosaria injlexa, E.ss., sp. 

The two figures will show the extreme varieties of shape, 
L.oc. Wisby Cement Works and Sluguklint. 

Nodosaria siluriana, sp. n. 

Resembles X. inops, Rss., but differs in having sharp 
costae with doej) spaces between them, 
Loc. Wisby Cement Works. 
% 

Orhulina taiiversa^ D'Oib. 

This is not a common form in the Gothland shales, but its 
minute size may cause it to be overlooked. 
Loc. Stora Cailsb. 

* Gutta was the poetical name of Odjii. 



308 



]\[r. J. Smith on the Upper Silurian 



Gothland Upper Silurian Foraminifera, showing 
THEIR Range in Time. 



Ilyperanmiina vapaus, Brady 

minutissima, sp. n 

rectan^ula, sp. u . . 

raniosissima, Chap 

Reoplax pilulifera. Brady 

adunca, Brady 

Haplophrairmium latidorsatuni, Born.,s]) 

Ammodiscus gordiali.*, J. ^- P., sp 

Trocbamniina anceps, Brady 

Webbiua liemispliajrica, J., P., ^- B 

gothemensis, sp. n 

Stacheia acervalis, Brady 

congesta, Brady 

Lagena globosa, Montay., sp 

Isevis, Montay., sp 

clavata, Montay., sp 

gracillima, Sey., sp 

parkeriana, Brady 

auriculata, var. lineaiituba, Cush- 

man 

cylindrica, sp. n 

gottlandica, sp. n 

gutta, sp. n 

storavedensis, sp. n 

visbyensis, sp. n 

acutangula, sp. n 

Nodosaria cf. soluta, Rss., sp 

inflexa, i?ss., sp 

siluriana, sp. n 

Orbuliua uni versa, lJ''Orb 



O 



O) o 

p 



Abstract. 

Recent 13 species. 

Carboniferous 8 „ 

Upper Sihirian 29 „ 

Cambrian 11 „ 

The whole of the Cambrian species are got living at the 
])resent day. 

New species, ten. Species hitherto known from the Upper 
Silurian, seven. 



Furamiuij'tra of (Jothland, 3U9 

EXPLANATION OF I'LATF: Xlll. 
Figures enlarged 40 diameters, uiilesa otherwise stated. 

Hypframvuna vagann, Brady, f. 3 sliowing primordial cell ; tubes at 
smallest "OCU mm. dinm., -^. King round primordial cell 
•01 mm. diam., smallest tubes 005 mm., largest -01 to 03 mm. 
diam. 

JIyi>erammina vimutimma, sp. n., X 1000, ,-j. 

Hyperatnmina ramosiasima, Chap., X 20, -jj-. 

102 
Reoplaj: pilulifera, Brady, ^ . 

H'-oplax adutica, Brady, -j^. 

JIaplophragmium lattdorsatum, Born., sp., ,-. 

213 

Ammoducus gordialis, J. & P., sp., -y-. 

Trochammina anceps, Brady, — , x 20. 

Webbina hemi$ph<erica, J. & P., ^. 

Webbina gotheviensis, sp. n., — _ 
Stacheia acervalis, Brady, 3- x 10, -g- X 8. 

82 

Stacheia co>tgeata,' Brady, j, X 10. 
Lagena globosa, Moutag., sp., -^^ 
Lagenu Icevis, Montag., sp., -^ . 
Lagena clavata, Montag., sp., ^. 
Lagena gracillima, Seg., sp., ^c, -^. 

r J ■ „ J 3 103 102 131 , 

Lagena parkenana, JDraay, g, — , -7-, -^ <*» b, c, 

Lagena auriculata, var. linearituba, Cush., -r-. 

3 
Lagena cglindrica, sp. n., ^ a. 

269 
Lagena gottlandica, sp. n., -jj. 

Lagena yutta, sp. n., '—. 

Lagena storavtdensis, sp. n., -j-. 

Lagena visbyensia, sp. n., ^ : «, top view. 

3 
Lagena acutangula, sp. n., ^ c : rf, top view. 

131 

Nodoaaria cf. aoluta, Rss., sp., ^. 

19 

Nodoaarut injlexa, Rss., -^ . 
Nodoaaria ailuriana, sp. n., ^. 
Orbulina uniccrsa, D'Orb., .^ . 



Ann. cC- J/«y. .V. //jV/. Ser. S. IV. xv. 21 



310 Dr. \V. T. Ci.lman on the 



XXVI. — The F7ofott/pe of Arnvnothon carolitiensis, Lfach 
{Fycvoijonida). By \V. T. COALMAN, l).Si\ 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British MustMim.) 

Just a century ago, in tie first volnnie of liis ' Zoolooical 
Miscellany' (pp. 33-34, pi. xiii.) *, Dr. W. E. Leadi 
described and figured a new species ot Pycnogonid, vvliicli lie 
})laced in a new genus under the name Amvwfhea caro/inensis. 
Loinan t I'^s pointed out tliat, according to the original 
description and figure, Leach's species is not congeneric with 
the tnajiirity of species that have since been referred to 
Amiuothea, but belongs to the group to which tiie name 
Leionymjjhon^ Mobius :{:, has been given. This conclusion 
has been accepted, and the consequent changes in nomen- 
clature have been made, by Bouvier and by Hodgson. 

One of the two specimens described by Leach is preserved 
in the British Museum and, although not quite unscathed by 
the accidents of a hundred years, it is still in fair condition. 
As Loman's discussion is based solely on Leach's description 
and figure §, it seems desirable to place on record some 
further details regarding this specimen, which must now be 
accepted as the holotype of the species. 

Description. — The specimen is immature, as is shown by 
the chelate condition of the chelophores and the shortness 
of the ovigers. The body appears to be somewhat shortened 
by contraction in drying. 

Lateral processes separated by intervals of less than half 
their diameter, each with a slight distal ridge which is veiy 
indistinctly bilobed. 

Transverse bo(ft/-rid(jes very prominent, rising into acutely 
conic.d median processes with the points directed obliquely 
forwards. 

Cephalon about twice as wide as long. Ocular tuhtrcle 

* Hoek (' Challenfrer ' Rep. Pycnogoiiida, p. 23, 1881) gives the date as 
]815, but Mr. C. D. Sherborn assures me that th^re is uo reason for 
doubting the date 1814 given on Leach's titlepage. 

t Pantopoden d. fcJiboga-Exp. p. 10 (19U8J. 

X Pantopoden d. deulscheu Tiefsee-Exp. p. 183 (1902). 

§ It IS not correct to state, as iiudgson dues (^Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
(8) XV. p. 140, 1915), that " Loniau has called attention to the type- 
epecimen of Leach now preserved in the British Museum." Loman 
iiiake.^ no reference to the sijec-,in:en, and I am not aware that he took any 
steps to discover whether it still '?.\isled. 



//ci/«>/y^;<' q/" Amiiiotliea caroliiieiisi-s, Leach. i'll 

not quite as tall as tlie fii.st dorsal process, subcyliiiJrical, 
with a t'Diiical apex ; eyes ilidtiuct, pigmented, the anterior 
pair tlie l;irger. 

AI'domen horizontal, laterally compressed towards the tip, 
with a distinct hasal tubercle, its length one-third of the 
di:^tance from its base to the trout. 

Prvbos<is as long as trunk and abdomen together, with a 
faint Constriction at less than one-third of its length from the 
base, the distal jioitiou rounded-trihedral in section, nai- 
rowing sligiitly t ) the broadly truncate tip. 

Chtlophoiex extending to one-tiiird of lefiglh of proboscis, 
scape a litile longer than chela, fingers strongly arched, much 
longer than the palm. 

Palps (only seven out of the nine segments shown in 
Leach's figure are preserved) slender, second segment one- 
half as long as fourth, the three following subequal. 

Ociyers with ten segments distinct. 

Lejs. First coxa a little shorter than third and more than 
half as long as second. Femur equal to first tibia and four- 
fittiis as long as second. Tarsus and propodus together 
nearly half as long as second tibia. Propodus sligiitly curved, 
with two or three large spines on the proximal jiart and one 
smaller n<'ar the distal end of the inner edge. Claw about 
half as long as propodus ; auxiliaries tive-eighths as long as 
main claw. 

The dorsal surface of the body and the whole surface of 
the appendages closely set with minute spinules. On the 
li'g'^, the spinules show here and there a tendency towards 
arrangement in longitudinal series, but they are not divided 
into definite bands by sharply marked bare spaces. 

Measurements* in millimetres: — 

Length of proboscis lOo 

(jreatest diaiuet*;r of proboscis 3"44 

Leugth of cephalou 24 

AVidth of cephaluu 308 

L»'n^rth of trunk 7-84 

AN'idth bt-twfon first and second lateral processes. . 2'66 

Width across second lateral processes 7'44 

Leugth of abduuien 2'5G 

Third right leg:— 

First coxa 20 

Second coxa 3-0 



* Besides the usual sources of inaccuracy in the measurements and 
drawings here given, allowance must be made for tlie difTicult)- of 
baiidling the verv fragile spfcimeu. 

•> 1 * 



312 On the Holotype of Amniotliea caroliiiensis. 

Third rij::ht leg {cunt.) :— 

Tliird coxa 2"4 

Femur 8"0 

First tibia 80 

Seooiui tibia 9-84 

Tar.>u3 and propodus 4*8 

Clanr 1-92 

Auxiliaries 1-2 

Palp :- 

Second segment 2'88 

Third „ 1-2 

Fourth ,, 576 

Fifth „ 104 

Sixth „ 1-12 

Seventh „ 1-12 

Locality. — Leach says, " For this singular species I 

am indebted to Mr, Latham of Compton Street, who received 
two specimens from South Carolina, which were caught on an 
anclior that had been recently drawn from the bottom of the 
sea." 

Nothing resembling Leach's type has been found in the 
North Atlantic during the century that has elapsed since he 
described it, all the known ppecies that are congeneric with it 
coming, without exception, from the Antarctic seas. It seems 
not unreasonable, therefore^ to suppose that Leach or his 
informant may have been mistaken as to the origin of the 
specimen*, and it is a tempting suggestion that ''South 
(Carolina '^ was written instead of " Soutli Geoigia." There 
is nothing improbable in the supposition thjit the specimens 
may have come from the last-named locality, wiiich was 
much frequented by British and American sealing-vessels 
during the first two decades of the nineteenth century*. 
On the other hand, the Museum records atfi)rd no information 
on the point, and our scanty knowledge of the distribution of 
Pycnogonida does not give much contidence as to what genera 
may, or may not, be expected in the North Atlantic. 
Bouvier's recent discovery of a species of Pentapycnon on 
the coast of Guiana is a reminder of the risk of dogmatizing 
on the subject. Nevertheless, until some evidence is pro- 
duced that a species resembling tiiat described by Leach 
docs occur in the North Atlantic, it is, I think, justifiable to 
disregard his statement as to its origin in considering its 
aflBniti/s. 

Affinities. — On comparing the characters of the specimen 
as described above with Bouvier's keyf to the species of 

* See Weddell, Voy. South Pole (London, 1826), p. 63. 
t Deuxieme Exp^d. Antarctique Fran^aise 1908-1910, Pycnogonides 
du ' Pourquoi Pas ?/ p. 123 (1913). 



yig. 1. 




Ammothea cnroJineusis, T^each, holotype, dorsal view. 
Legs and distal portion of palps omitted, 

Fi-. 2. 




Ammothea earoUntntis, Leach, holotype, from right fide. 
Legs omitted. 

Fig. 3. 




Ammothea carohnensit, Leach, holotrpe, third lee of right side, 
rhf spinules on the surface of the limb are not indicated. 



314: On the Holoti/pe oj Ammothea carolinensis. 

Ammoihea, it is clear that, as Boiivier himself has snp-gested, 
Leach's species finds its place near A. grandis, Pt'effer, and 
A. gihhosa (Mobius). The difference between these two 
species is not very f^ieat, and Bouvier even suggests that they 
niiglit be united, but, taking the ciiaracters as he gives them, 
the comparatively short and horizontal abdomen, the incon- 
spicuous tuberosities on the lateral processes, and, above idl, 
tlie more numerous and closely-set spinules, not arranged in 
bands, on the legs, are points in which tlie present specimen 
agrees rather with A. grandis. A closer comparison is 
hindered by the fact that, while the ciiaracters of both 
species are known to change very considerably with growth, 
no detailed description of immature specimens of A. grandis 
lias been ]^ublisiied. There are, in the Museum collection, 
three specimens that I believe to belong to the last-named 
species. One of these is immature, with clu late chelophores, 
but it is much smaller than Leach's holotype and it is in 
such bad condition as to be of little use for comparison. 
Assuming, however, that such ciiaracters as the relative 
shortness and stoutness of the legs and greater length of tho 
propodus are due to immaturity, while tlie shortness of the 
trunk is caused by shrinkage in drying, I am unable to point 
to a •single definite character by which Leach's specimen 
can be differentiated from Pfeffer's species. Until it is 
possible to compare the type-specimens of the two species side 
by side (which is unlikelj' to be for some time), I propose 
that the species should be united, with the following 
synonymy : — 



Ammothea carolinensis. Leach. 

Ammothea carolinensis, Leach, Zool. Miscellany, i. p. 34, pi. xiii. (1814). 
Nymphnm carolinensis, i\. Milne-Edwards, Hist, INat. Crust, iii. p. 534 

(1840). 
Ananothea g}'andts, Pfeffer, Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst. vi. (2) 

p. 43 (1889). 
Colussendeia (?) charcoti, Bouvier, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, xi. 

p. 296 (1905). 
LeionympUon yrande, Hodgson, Nat. Antarct. Exped. ' Discovery,' 

Zool. iii. p. 41, pi. vi. iig. 1 (1907) ; Bouvier, Exped. Antarctique 

P'ran9aise 1903-1905, Pycuogouides du ' Fran9ais,' p. GO, figs. 40-48 

(1907). 
Ammothea grandis, Bouvier, Deuxieiue Exp6d. Antarctique rran9aise 

1908-1910, Pycnogonides du ' Pourquoi Pas ?,' p. 126 (1913). 



.Mr. li. S. Bigiiull on n^to Tfii/nannpteru. 



oij 



XXVn. — Brief Descriptions of wic T/i'/firinofttera. — V. 
By RicnAUU S. B.VGNALL, F.L.S., L''.hi.S. 

SuI>oi(Kt T !•: It i: u r a \ t i a. 

FaiDi'ly JEolothripidae. 
Snbrainily MELAyoTUSiPisji. 
Melunothrijis fuscus (Sulzer). 

Ti:\iS: 'rmiis, 5G ? ? and 2 ^ <$ , Feb. 7tli, and 1 ?, 
Fcl). 2()tli, l'.)!);?; S..usa, 2 ? ? and 1 c? , Feb. 2-'5tIi, 190^ 
{Biro), in the National llungaiiau Museum. 

Genus Ckanothuips, uov. 

A|)PX of tlie first anteniial sci^inent stroni^ly produced 
inwardly, witli tbe inner edge of tlie produced part serrate. 

ri-. 1. 




CrnnothripH jioiiltoni. First and secoiKl joints of right nntenna. 

Head broadtr than long; a long stout genal spine behind 
each eye and inter-ocellar and postocular bri-jtles present. 
Fore-wings with cross-veins. 

Type. Cranothrips poukuni, m. 

The genus comes very near Ankol/irip-\ and is easily 
recognized by the structure of the first aniennal joint and the 
simple second joint. 



316 Mr. R. S. Bagnall oti nac Thysanoptera. 

Cranothrips poxiltoni, sp. n. 

$ . — Lcnglli 1*65, breadth of mesotliorax 0*25 mm. 

Colour grt'y-browii ; fore-legs yellow-brown ; antennae 
with ibe procJuccd pait of first joint clear yellow, joint 3 
yellow tinj^cd witli grey, and 4 yellowish-brown. Fore- 
wings light grey-brown, with the first and third fourths 
W'liite. 

Head broader than long, broadest near base. Eyes large, 
somewhat coar.^elj facetted, pilose, occupying at least 0*5 
the length of the head. A long stout genal spine behind 
each eye; inter-ocellar and postocular spines rather long. 
Mouth-cone reaching across prosternum ; maxillary palpi 
long, apical joint shorter and narrower than either joints 1 
or 2. Anttnuge more than twice as long as bead, first joint 
with the characteristic prolongation described in the generic 
diagnosis, which almost reaches the apex of the second 
joint. Kelative lengths of joints 3-9 as follows: — 19 : 17 : 
16 : 15 : 9 : 6 : 8. 

I'rothorax about as long as the head and 1*75 times as 
broad as long ; furnished with several stout seta?, of which 
the mid-lateral J)air, two at each hind angle, and certain 
of the postero-marginal series are the longest. 

Legs typical of the family ; femora and tibias sparingly 
setose. Pterothorax large, 1'25 times longer than broad, 
sides rounded, giving an oviform a])peaiance. 

Wings broad, reaching to the seventh abdominal segment. 
Fore-wings broadest near middle, where they are nearly 0'2 
(ojie-filth) as broad as long ; both longitudinal veins set 
with, roughly, 20-22 longish black spines, and costa with 
about 36. Cilia on lower edge wavy. 

Abdomen elongate-ovate, tenth segment shorter than ninth, 
seise on 9 and 10 about as long as segment 9. 

Hah. Western Australia, near Fremantle, on flowers 
(nos. 17 and 22). The only named flower is a proteaceous 
shrub [Dryandra floribunda, K. Bi.), and it is impossible to 
say whether this species is attached to Dryandra (or any 
other flower) or is a general species. 

I find particular pleasure in naming the species after 
Prof. E. ii. Poulton, E.H.8., who obtained several other 
interesting species on the occasion of the recent British 
Association visit to Australia, and who has encouraged my 
researches in many directions. 



All. H. S. BiigiKill on new Thi/sanoptera. 317 

Subfamily JEoLOTURiPiyjB. 
^'Eolotli rips fasciaius ( Tj . ) . 

Tunis: numpious apociincns coUoctfd l)y Mr. Biro in 
190;?, as follows: — Tunis, 5 ? ? niul 1 ^, F«-l). 7ili, aiui 
4 ? ?, Fel). 2i>tli ; Soiis.se, 1 f{ and 1 ?, March 2Htli ; 
Gafsa, 2G ? ? and f) c? c? > Miircii 2itli, and Gaf.sa Oasis, 
1 ? , March 2.")tli. National Hiin<^arian ]\Iusfuin. 

Caxahy Islands : Las Pahnas, (jrrand Ganary, 1 ? on 
Sisytnbr'ium officinale, June 28, 1914 {Prof. E. B. Foulton). 

yEofothn'ps brevicornis, sp. n. 

? . — Lcnpth l*2o nnn. 

lieddish- to chi?stnut-bro\vn ; fore-legs and third antennal 
joint yellowish-brown. 

This spi'cit s conits in the " fasciatus " gronp with banded 
winijs, and dirt't-rs troni all the specii^s exci'|)ting fasciadis in 
having the abdomen unicolorous. A[)nrt from its small size, 
brevicuritis may be separated from fasciatus by its shorter 
antennae, which are approximately 2*2 times (instead of about 
3 times, in fasciafiis) the length of the head. The inter- 
niediate antennal joints are relatively shorter comj)ared with 
their breadth ; joints 3 and 4 are practically subequal, 
whereas in /r/*f/a/M4 joint 3 is 1"2 times the length of 4. In 
the species of the " fascintus" group in vvhicli the base of 
the abdomen is banded with white the last four (6 to 9) 
antennal joints are together nmch longer than the filth ; 
u\ f'iscialus they are practically equal to the Hfili (20 : 19), 
whdst in brtvicornis they are much shorter than the tiftli 
(19 : 14). 

Ilab. South Africa : Cape Town, 1 ? shaken from a 
flower, July 13th, lyi4 {ProJ. E. B. Poulton). 

Family Thripidae. 
Ileliothrips femoralis, Reut. 

German East Africa: Arusha, 1 ? in the collection 
made by M i . ( •. Katona in October and November 1905. 
JNationai llun<^aiian Museum. 

The Bpccies is generally regarded as a hothouse one, but 
I also have an example taken with U. hccmorrhoidalis on 
banana-palm, ISpain. 



318 



Mr. R. S. Bugiiall on new Thijsauopfera, 



Ileliothrips brunneipenm's, sp. n. 

Lencjth about 1'5 mm,, linear. 

Colour dark brown ; bead >adb">\\'is1i-l)i"own and abdomen 
apically lighter. Fore-femora and tibia yellow, lightly tinged 
with brown ; intermediate and hind femora and tibiae dark 
brown, basally yellow, the tibiae also yellowish-white distally ; 
all tarsi whitish-yellow. Fore-wings brown, darkest at base, 
a light patch in about the third tenth ; hind wings light 
greyish-brown, with median vein darker ; cilia dark. An- 
tenna? with basal joint ytdlowish ; 2 brown, 3 to 5 clear 
lemon-vellow, 6 brown, and style yellowisji-wliite. 

Head more than 1'8 times as broad at broadest (near base) 
as long. Ciieeks swollen behind eyes, subi)arallel to a 
collar-like thickening before constriction at base, which runs 
in an arc close to the hind margin of the eyes ; reticulations 
behind collar larger, but not so strong. Eyes large, coarsely 
facetted, and weakly setose. Ocelli large, posterior pair on a 
line through middle of eyes. Maxillary palj)i 2-segmented. 
Antennre at least twice as long as the head, lengths of joints 

3 to 8 relatively 26 : 26 : 18 : 10 : 3 : 10,-3 and 4 spindle- 
shaped, 5 claviform, and 6 globular; style bristle-like. 
Forked trichomes on 3 and •! curved, exceptionally long and 
slender, one of the arms on i being 1*7 times the length of 
that joint. 

Prothorax broader than long, posterior margin from about 
centre of lateral margins arcuate. Pterothorax larc^e and 
broad, and about as long as broad. Wings reaching to 
middle of abdominal segment 8. Fore-wing about 15 times 
as long as broad through middle, not upcurved distjdly. 
Setae rather short and slender, dark ; co^ta with 25/26, 
increasing in length towards apex of wing ; U[>per vein with 

4 near fork and 2 near apex, and lower vein with 1 + 2 -f 1 -|- 
1 + 1, the last situated towards the end of the fourth fifth — 
that is, before the first of the two distal bristles of the upper 
vein. 

Abdomen elongate-ovate, occupying about 0*6 the total 
length of insect, not broader than the pterothorax. Seg- 
ments 8 to 10 evenly narrowed to tip ; 9 about 1*8 times as 
long as 10 ; bristles on 8—10 moderately long, pale. 

Hah. Ceylon, Peradeniya, feeding on the leaves of Lit sea 
chinensis {A. Rutherford, no. 3618, Ent. Research Couim. 
uo. 60). 



Mr. li. S. Ijagiiall on new Thysan'^ptera, iilO 

Dinxirothripn ruthcrfordi^ pj>. n. 

? . — Lengtii about I'l mm. 

Dor.<*aI .siirtace deeply reticulateil. 

Yellow, shaded with reddish- to cliestiiut-brown, deepest; 
towards siiles of head, thorax, and abilomeii. Fore-tibiaj 
yellow, femora brownish ; intermediate femora and tibiae 
brown, yellowish ilistidly ; hind-tVinora jjreyisli-brown, tibiae 
yellow. Aiitcnnie much as in J), hooktvi, Hood, yellow, 
second joint deeper in shade, greyish-brown apically. Fore- 
wings jrreyish, yellow in line ot veins, with an indistinct 
brownish band near base and acro-<s the seventh eighth, and 
other scarcely defined bands ; seiaB stout, daik brown basally 
to yellow (in some) at points; hind-wing with brown median 
vein. 

Head about twice as wide across eyes as long, longer than 
the prothorax. Cheeks roundly narrowed posteriorly and 
constricted abruptly at base ; explanate, the shelf-like mar- 
gins |)rojt'cting somewhat distally in the curve of the ouler 
posteiior inar>^in of the eye. Eyes prominent, occu|)}ing 
about 0'5 the length of the head, coarsely facetted and not 
pih)se ; space between them almost twice the width of the 
eye. Ocelli and antennae almost as in D.hookeri. Vertex 
also with shelf-like margin. Maxillary palpi apparently 
2-jointetl. 

Prothorax with broad, wing-like, explanate, lateral mai- 
gins, anteriorly wider and moie broadly rounded than 
j)0.steriorly. Pronotum proper transverse, not as broad as the 
liead, with a series of lateral and antero-marginal setas in 
pairs, and a pair of pre-basal ones, one on each side of the 
median line. 

Pterothorax massive, twice as broad as the pronotum 
proper (/. e. excluding the explanate maigins) ; metanotuni 
narrower than the mesonotum, the latter sharply narrowed to 
juncture with abdomen, which is waist-like. \V ings reaching 
to abdominal segment 8, slender and linear; tore- wings not 
upwardly curved distally, veins running close to margins ; 
setie on costa stout and widely spaced, oidy 8 or i) ; those on 
veins both lunger and stouter; upper vein with 2 near base, 
1-1-1 in second fouith and 1-f 1-1-1 in distal third; lower 
vein with 8 setae, 2 near base and then 1-1-1-^3+1. Top 
fringe somewhat sparse, lower long and wavy. 

Abdomen elongate, slightly broader than the pterothorax ; 
surface of each segment ai.teiiorly and laterally deiply 
reticulated ; ninth partially received into eightli ; tenth 



320 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Thysayioptera. 

cylindrical, divided dorsallj, about 0'7 the length of head and 
0*5 the lengtii of segment 9. Bristles on 9 only about 07 
the length of 10 ; a stoutish bristle on each side of the longi- 
tudinal division of segment 10 near apex, 0'8 the length of 
the segment. 

Larvce yellow ; head, pronotal plates, and last two abdo- 
minal segments dark greyish-brown ; legs dirty greyish- 
yellow to brown. 

Type. British Museum of Natural History. 

I]ah. Ceylon, Peradoniya, on leaves of Allamanda, 
20. 2. U, A. Ruiherford (A. R. no. 3673, Ent. Res. Comm. 
no. 61), also 27. 3. 14 (no. 83). 

This species differs from the type of the genus, D. hooheri, 
Hood, in the explanate lateral margins of head, the broader 
and complete wing-like lateral explanations of prothorax, 
the series of pronotal setse, and the abnormally strong spines 
of the fore-wing, which in hookeri are few and inconspicuous. 
The forms and lengths of abdominal segments 9 and 10 in the 
two species also differ markedly. 

Genus Rhipiphorothrips, Morgan. 

Hhipiphorothrips, Morgan, Proc. U.S. Museum, vol. xlvi. p. 17 

(August i>;3, 1013). 
Hetithnps, Bagnall (nee Marchal), Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 8, 

vol. xii. (Sept. 1, l'J13;. 

A comparison between Rhipiphorothrips pulchellus, Morgan, 
from Banyan, Philippine Islands, and my R. hicolor trom 
Vine, Ceylon, described within a few days of each other, will 
be interesting. If not one and the same species, they are at 
least very closely related. 

Suborder TuBULiFERA. 

Family Ecacanthothripidae. 

Ecacanthothrips hryanti, sp. n. 

S . — Very like sanguineus and steinskyi, all tibiae and tarsi 
yellow in one specimen, in another hind and intermediate 
tibiae brownish. Coloration of antennae as in sanguineus. 
Postocular bristles present, and also a somewhat similar 
subgenal bristle behind each eye. Fore-femur with basal 
tooth long and strong, reddish distally ; sparingly setose, the 
outer margin with a fringe of several longer and shorter hairs. 



Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Thyi^anoptera. 321 

Antennae with joints 4-8 longisli and slender ; 3 brownish, 
4 and 5 brownish, yellowish near base. 

tSffif at tun-ari^Ies of piothorax lonii: and stronf^. Abdo- 
n^inal setae long and stronc^, colourless ; those on segnmnt 9 
lonp;er than the tube. Tube little more tiian 05 the leni^th 
of the head. 




Ecacanthothrips bryanti, sp. n. Head, antennae, prothorax, 
and fure-legra. 



Easily recognized by the long hairs on the fore-femora. 
Also separated from steinskyi by the coloration of the antennae. 

Uah. 2 (^ s, Mt. Mafang, W. Sarawak, one from dead tree 
17. xii. 13 and the other 17. i. 14. Collected by Mr. G. E. 
Bryant, to whom I am indebted for some very interesting 
material, and after whom 1 find pleasure in naming the 
species. 

Ecacanthothrips sanguineus (Bagnall). 

Ceylon, on and under tlie bark of trees. Respectively 
met wiih by both Mr. Green and Mr. Rutherford. 

Ecacanthothrijis steinskyi (Schmufz), 1913. 
Ormothrips steinskyi, Schmutz. 

Ceylon, Peradeniya, (S and ? , from bark of tree, 25. v. 13 
[A. Rutherford). 

Ormothrips inermis, Buffa. 

Borneo, 1 c?, Mt. Matang, W. Sarawak, xii./13 (G. E. 
Bryant). 



322 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Thysanoplera, 

Family Phlceothripidae. 
Docessissophothi'ips laticeps, sp. ii. 

<J . — Length 3*0 inni. 

Apterous. 

Colour dark retUlish-brown ; fore-tibIa3 and all tarsi 
yeHowish. 

Head much as in D. nmpJicepft, Bagn., smooth and shining, 
about 1'25 times as long as broad, ami viewed laterally onl^ 
weakly arched compared with ampliceps and other species of 
the genus. Eyes small and finely facetted, occupying about 
0*2 length of head ; ocelli small and widely spaced, a long 
biistle behind each posterior ocellus; two pairs of long post- 
ocular bristles, the outer pair being the longer. Genal 
spinelets few. 

Antennje black, about twice the length of head, joints 2—4 
yellowish, 3 grey-brown at apex, and 4 shading to brown 
apically ; 3-5 clavate. 

Prothorax strongly transverse, about 2"5 as broad as long 
and 0*4 tlie length of head, all setaj long, at least those on 
hind margin as long as the prothorax. Pterothorax transverse. 
Legs long, fore-femora not very stout, with long setae at 
outer edge near middle, all tibiae with long setse near knee, 
fore-tarsus with tooth. Abdomen broad, with segments 
strongly transverse, laterally with reddish patches as far as 
segment 7 ; 8 routided sharply to 9, 9 only slightly nar- 
rowed. Tube long and stout basally, 1*22 times tlie length 
of head, narrowed to distal half, with a weak constriction 
before apex ; surface smooth, but witii a scale-like sculpturing, 
almost aciculate; apical hairs rather short, dark, only about 
0'35 the length of the tube, those on 9 about 0*7 as long as 
the tube, those on 6 and 7 longer than on 9, and on 8 shorter. 

Of the described species, D. ampliceps, Bagn. (Central 
America), D. monstrosus, Bagn. (New Caledonia), D. majur, 
Bagn. (no data), and X^.//-o//^a^/.s, Bagn. (Japan), this species 
can oidy be compared with ampliceps, and is separated by its 
broader and (viewed laterally) less strongly arclud head, the 
tliree pairs of long cephalic bristles, the longer setaj on fore- 
margin of prothorax, etc. It is the least extreme species of 
the genus, whilst monstrosus is the most extreme. Only a 
single example is known of each of these striking species, 
which would seem to suggest extreme rarity or, perhaps, 
specialized habitat ; the fad that Mr. Bryant found tlie 



Ml. \{. S. Ba;4ii;ill on new T/tijsaiinptern. '.VI'-) 

specimen under irview with termites would aeeni to strengthen 
the hitter suggestion. 

Hah. 1 S, Mt. I\I:itan<r, W. Sarawak, 28. i. U, under 
bark with tcrMiiti.s (Cr. E. Bryant). 

U'lHfhiania ajHi'nlis, S|i. n. 

5 . — Leiii^th 1*7 mm. 

C'()h>iir ytlluw to ligiit yellowish-brown ; abilominal seg- 
ments 8 to 10 dark eiiestnut-brown ; head, interine<liate and 
hind tibite brown. Antennal joirtt.s 1, 2, 7, and 8 brown, 
2 sometimes yeliowisli distally, 3 to ') clear velliw, 6 tinged 
with l)rown. Fore-femora and tibiae yellow, tinged to 
greyish-brown at outer margins ; intermediate ami hind 
femora yellow. 

Head only about 1'15 times as long as broad ; cheeks 
practically subparallel, almost imperceptibly curved. Mouth- 
cone not reaching across prosLernum, apex almost truncate. 
Eyes occupying about 0*3 the total length ot" head ; post- 
ocular bristles neither strong or long, blunt. Ocelli mode- 
rately large, jiosterior pair near to the interior margins of 
eye-;. Antennpe about 1"8 times as long as head ; relative 
lengths <>£ segments approximately G : 11 : 12 : 14 : 13 : 11 : 
11 : 8; 3 obconicalj 4 broader tliaii 3 or 5, 7 and 8 broadly 
united. 

Pronotum transverse, abotit 0"75 the length of head ; setre 
blunt, those at posterior angles about ^Y'l the length of pro- 
notum and pair at angles still shorter and weaker; mid- 
lateral pair apparently obsolete. Pterothorax practically 
square, as broad as width across fore-coxce. Legs not long, 
moderately stout ; fore-tarsus with a small pointed tooth. 

Abdomen occujjying about O'Ga the total length of insect, 
broader at middle than the pterothorax; elongate, about four 
times as long as broad across segments 3 to G, and narrowed 
sharply from base of 8 to apex. 

Tube about 0*55 the lengtii of head, O'Go as broad at base 
as long, where it is 2"4: times as broad as at extreme apex ; 
siiarpiy luirrowed ant! rather constricted near apex. Ter- 
minal hairs a little longer than tube ; abdominal liairs mode- 
rately long and slender, blunt or faintly knobbed, colourless. 

The coloration of the hind and intermediate tibiaj is a 
curious feature, the femora and tarsi being yellow and the 
tibise brown. 

Hah. India, Almora, Kumaon, .5500 ft., several swept 
from jungle plant, 4. vii. 11 [0. Puico, no. 42?."^ JOj. 



324 Mr. R. S. Bagnall on new Jltysanoptera. 

Lt'otJirips micrurus, Bagnall. 
Ann. & Mag-. Nat. Ilist. ser. 8, vol. xiii, p. 292 (March 1914). 

This .^species is apparently attached to Zi/ziphus spini-chrisf,'\ 
and was described from a specinidi obtained by Mr. F. G. 
AVillcocks at Matarieh, near Cairo. Mr. VVillcocks has 
found other specimens on the same tree from Ezbet-el-Nakhl, 
February, and at Gizeh, near Cairo, March 11)11. Evidently 
rare. 

In describing it I stated that a carded specimen captured 
by Prof. Sahlberg of llelsingt'ors at lleluan exliibited a pro- 
nounced metallic-purplish coloration. 

Mr. Willcocks has furnished me with the following live- 
colour notes of the species — the first known thri[)s to exhibit 
metallic coloration of any kind : — 

Head, thorax, and abdomen deep metallic violet — in some 
lights appears jet-black ; hairs on abdomen pale. Eyes very 
dark brown. Antennse: two basal joints dark, otliers pale 
yellowish-brown. Wings silvery, with pale brownish fringe. 
Legs deep metallic violet. 

Genus Aleurodothrips, Franklin, 1909. 

CJiromatothrips, Schmutz (type C.f'isciata, Schmutz), K. Akad. Wiss. 
Wien., Matliem.-Naturw. Kl. cxxii., July 1913, p. 1043. 

I consider that the type-species of Ghromatothrips is closely 
related to Aleurodothrips fasciatipennis , Franklin, and con- 
generic with it. 

Aleurodothrips fasciapennis (Franklin). 

Ceylon, Peradeniya, 1 ^ taken by Mr. A. Rutherford 
among Aspidiotus latanice, 27. vi. 1913. 

The only difference I can detect in this example and 
specimens from Florida lies in the coloration of the antennae, 
the former having the sixtii joint entirely grey-brown. 
A. fusciatus closely resembles this species, but is easily 
distinguished by the coloration of the body, antennse, and 
legs. 

Androthrips Jlavipes, Schmutz. 

Androthripsjlavipes, Schmutz, I. c. cxxii. p. 1031 (July 191 3) ; Bag- 
nall, Ann. & Mag. Nat, Hist. ser. 8, vol. xiii. p. 27 (Jan. 1914). 



On the Apidie in the British yfuseum. 325 

XX \ III. — Sntes on the Apichii {Ilymenoptfira) in the Cof lec- 
tion of the British Mu.-eum, with descriptions ('f new Species, 
By (iEoffiu:y Meadi:- Waldo, M.A. 

(riibli-.lit'il In- jRTiiii.-.si.iii of the Trustees of the British MiHeum.) 

VI. 

Among the lai^^e collrctions of llyincnoptera made by 
Mr. R. E. Turner iit Western Australia during \\\a recent 
visit, proljahly no single genus is more richly represented 
tlian Megachile. The earlier species (those collected at 
Yallingup) Were princi{)ally found burrowing in the sand, in 
which they niaile their cells, or ent^-ring holes made by 
beetles in the tree-trunks ; those collected later were irre- 
sistibly attracted by the blossoms of gum- and acacia-trees. 

Altogether twenty-four s|)ccies were collected between 
October 1913 and Ft briiary 11)14, of which six are described 
as new. In working these out I have had the advantage of 
consulting Professor Cockcrell's MS. keys to the Australian 
Megacliile^ and have found them extremely useful ; by their 
means I liave been able to arrive at the affinities between 
the new species and described species I have not seen. The 
discovery of a female Thaumatosonia is very satisfactory. 

A complete list of the species of Megachile taken is given. 
Mr. Turner^s itinerary was as follows: — Yallinguj), Oct. 1913- 
Jaii. 23; 1914: ; liusselton (20 miles E. of Yallingup), Jan. 
24-27, 1914; Perth (150 miles N.N.E. of Busselton), Feb. 
1-7, 1914 ; Kalamunda (15 miles E. of Perth), Feb. 9-2S, 
1914. 

1, Megachile [Eumegachilt) auri/rons, Smith. 
Perth, Feb. 1914. 2 ? ? . 

2. Megachile (^Eumegacliile) trythropyga, Smith. 

Yallinguj), Kalamunda, Perth. A long series of both 
sexes. 

3. Megachile (^Ku megachile) nasuta, Smitii. 

Yallingup. 14 ? ?. 

4. Megachile eriadiformis^ Smith. 

Yallintfup. A loni' s ries of both sexes. 
Ann. d: Mag. X. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. XV. 22 



326 I\Lr. G. Meade-Waldo on 

5. Megach He fabricator, Smith, 
kalamunda, Perth. 1 ? , 8 c? (? . 

6. Megachile chrysopyga, Smith. 

Yallingup, Kalamunda, Perth. A long series of both 
sexes. 

7. MegachiJe cygnorum, Ckll. 
Perth. 2 S ^^ 

8. Megachih ohtusa, Smith. 
YalHngup. 9 ? ? , 7 c? <? . 

9. Megdchile hampsoni, Ckll. 
Yalliiigup. 10 ? ? . 

iO. MtgacMle ferox. Smith. 
Yallingup. 3 ? ? , 10 c? c? • 

11. Megachih trichognatha, Ckll. 
Kalamunda, Perth. A long series of both sexes; 

12. MegachiJe apicafa, Smith. 
Busselton, Yallingup. A series of both sexes. 

13. Megachih clypeata, Smith. 
Busselton, Yallingup. 8 ¥ ? , 4 <? c5^ . 

14. Megachih sexmaculata, Smith. 
Yallingup, Perth. 2 ? ? , 1 ? . 

15. Megachih serricuxida^ QikW; 
Pertli. 2 c? c? . 

16. Megachih b-lineaia J C/kll. 
Kalamunda. 1 ? . 

17. Megachih Mrhyctna^ l!klK 
Yallingup. A long series of both sexes. 

18. Megachih ocultpes, CklK 
Perth. 9 J J. 



the A|)i(he i*/j the Brlilsh }fuseHm. oil 

Key to the new Species. 

AMomen mostly black, end of abdomen 
nd, the colour either tognmeutary or 
due to hair. 

1. (4) Apex of abdomen with the tojfumont red. 

2. (3j Head, tliorax, and abdomen for the moAt 

part clothed witli fidvotis-grey pubes- 
cence ; tergitea 4-(J almost completely 
dusted with such pubescence; clypeus 
with the apex emnr{,'inute ; a broad 
species, 1 1 mm lecuwineHsU, sp. n. 

3. (2) Thoracic and abdomiiuil pubesconce gri- 

seous ; ciypeiis truncate at apex ; a small 

slender species, 8. J mm louyiceps, sp. n. 

4. (1) Apex of abdomen with tegument not red. 

5. (10) Clypeus very short, deeply emarg^inate, at 

least with lateral teeth or lamin.e. 

6. (7) Small (about 8 mm.). Mandibles biden- 

tate ; clypeus with a median tooth and 

a large process on each side preiisiyQ\i\\.{\2\0). 

7. (6) Larger (12-15 mm.). No median tooth 

on clypeus at apex ; mandibles 3-4- 
toothed. 

8. (9) Mandibles deeply furrowed along the inner 

margin, 3-toothed, a large blunt tubercle 
on the outside at base; axillae with a 
distinct patch of whitish pubescence. 
15 mm axillaris, sp. u. 

9. (8) Mandibles normal, not furrowed along the 

inner margin, and no tubercle at base, 
no patches of pale pubescence on axillae. 
12 mm speluncarum, sp. n. 

10. (5) Cly|)eus about half as long as broad, the 

apex at least not deeply emarginate. 

11. (12) Scopa black ; abdomen black, tergites 

1, 2, and 3 (partly) with white apical 
fascia? of pubescence, tergite 6 with a 
small patch of ferruginous red hair. 
Ifi mm resinifera, sp. n. 

12. (11) Scopa pale, sternite sometimes fuscous. 

13. (14) Upper part of clypeus with a median raised 

line, its lower margin 4-dentate, the [(1910). 

teeth small remotula, Ckll. 

14. (13) Clypeus truncate at apex, no median raised 

line. 

15. (IG) Abdomen subparallel-sided, tergites 5 and 

with red hair-patches ferox, F. Smith. 

10. (15) Abdomen ovate ; tergite (and sometimes 

5 at extreme apex) with red hair »ubferox, sp. n. 

6 6- 

1. (4) Anterior tarsi simple or flattened, Ijut not 
conspicuou-sly d dated ; pubescence of 
head and thorax griseous. 

22* 



328 ^Ir. G. MciuU-WaUlo on 

1?. (3) Anterior tarsi simple; tor^nte G concRve 

above, rouiuU'd and bilobed at ajiex. 

1 1 mm suhferox, sp. il. 

8. (2) Anterior tarsi flattened ; tergite G truncate 

at apex, serrate. 15 mm resinifcra, sp. n. 

4. (1) Joint 1* ot" anterior tarsi conspicuously 

dilated ; pubescence of bead and tiiorax 

fulvous grey heuroinensis, sp. n, 



19. Megachile a.villaris, sp. n. 

2 . Nigra ; facie, thorace, tergitibus 1-3 lateribus, scopaquc ven- 
trali (sternite sexto excei)to) albo-pilosis ; tergitibus 5 et G rufo-- 
aurantiacis ; alia subhyalinis ; clypeo brevissimo, emarginato, 
lateribua laminatis ; maudibulis 3-dentatis, basis externis tuber- 
culatis. 

Long. 15 mm. 

Black ; clypeus, the inner orbits, thorax (especially pleuraj), 
axilla; and intdian segment, linear niaiks on sides of apices 
ot teroites 1-3 witii white pubescence; ventral scopa (except 
sternite Q) silvery white, sternite 6 fuscous ; legs more or 
less sparsely clothed with griseous pubescence, tarsi reddish 
beneath. Mandibles on tiie inner and outer sides and tergites 
5 and 6 with bright teiruginoUs-red jnibescence. 

Muudihles broad at base, narrowing considerably towards 
apex, Iridentate, an opaque area (almost smooth) at base, 
enclosed between conspicuous shining cariufe approximating 
towards the a])ex ; inner margin well sculptured, outer 
margin with a distinct tubt-rcle at base. 

Clyijens very short, broad, and deeply emarginate, sides 
of the emargination produced to form distinct su])quadrate 
laminfe. 

Head as broad as thorax at widest; abdomen parallel- 
sided. The whole closely and finely punctured, except 
enclosed area at base of median segment, the truncation of 
tergite 1, and the median segment itself, which are sub- 
nitidulous and inii)unctate. 

Wings subhyaline. 

Length 15 mm. 

S.W. Australia: Yallingup, 23rd Dec. 1913-23rd Jan. 
1914 {R. E. Turner). 18 ? $ . 

A|;parently comes next to J7. /^reis.s/, Ckll. (1910), from 
Eastern Australia, but much larger; also in M. preist,i the 
clypeus has a median tooth and the abdominal hair-fascise 
entire. 



the A|»itl;»' in the /yn'liah Mus> uin. '.i'2'J 

20. MegachVe speluticarutiif sp. n. 

$. Xiprn, i)leruin(|uo f^risoo-pilosa ; tortjitihus 1-3 fasciis npicali- 
bus alltidis, 5 plorumijue et (J onitiinu rufo-uuruiitiaciH ; ulis sub- 
hyuliiiiN ; soopu veiitnili ulbu ; clypeo bruvisaimo, emargiDutu, 
lutoribus subluiuinutis ; maiidibuliii 4-(leiitati!j. 

Long. 12 turn. 

Hhick ; face nncl tliomx more or less densely clothed with 
«;rise<)U.s iiubesceiicc, clensorft on inner nrl)it8, pleurje, and 
nu'dian segment; tergitos l-'i with narrow ajjical la.scisB of 
the same pubescence, the si<les much denser than median 
area ; scopa silvery white (except steniite G), st'.'inite G 
fuscous ; le<^s, and especially tarsi of intermediate lej^s, with 
griseous pubescence. Torgites 5 (except base ami sidi-s) and 
6 bright ferruginous red. Mandibles and clypeus with a 
few ferruginous hairs. 

MtindihU's broad, of uniform width throughout, rjuadri- 
dentate, eveidy punctured, with inconspicuous carinie ; inner 
margin normal. 

Cl(/pt'us very short, convex, deeply emarginate, sides of 
the emargination forming distinct sublamiiiate processes. 

Head as broad as the thorax at widest ; abdomen paruUel- 
sided, tergite 3 with a transverse sulcus. 

The whole insect unifoimly j)unctured, the punctures even, 
of medium sikse ; enclosed area at base of median segment, 
truncation of lirst tergite, and tegula; impunctate. 

Wings subhyaline. 

Length 12 mm. 

S.W. AustkaI-IA: Yallingup, 23rd Dec. lU13-23rd Jan. 
l'J14 {R. E. Turntr). 12 ?^ ? . 

21. Mtgachile reiini/eni, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra, capite thorace<)ue griseo-pilosis ; ter-^itibus 1 ct 2 
omiiino, 3 lateribus lasciis apiealiljus alhidis ; terj^ite G vix rufo- 
aurantiaco ; scopa veiitrah nigra; clypeo lutiure (luam longiore, 
apico truntuto ; muiulibulis tridentatis ; alis subhyalinis. 
Long. IG mm. 

(^ . Feniina hirsutior, fasciis apicalilma abdominis caret; tarsis 
anticis vix dilutatis ; tergite septimo concave, producto, apice 
subserrato. 

Black, head and thorax rather profusely clothed with 
pubescence, that on the vertex and disk of mesonotum 
fuscous, the front, cheeks, pleurie, and imdian segment 
griseous ; tergites 1 and 2 with distinct apical fasciai and 



330 ]\Ir. G. MeaJe-WalJo on 

terpjife 3 laterally with white pubescence ; tergite 6 with a 
patch of ienugiiious-red hairs. Scopa black. Wings sub- 
liyaline. 

Mandibles fairly robust, tridentate, with distinct carinse 
towards apex. 

Cli/peus rather broader than long, tlie apex truncate. 
There is a sharp tubercle on tlie nietasternum between 
the hind coxre. Abdomen parallel-sided, tergites 2 and 3 
with broad, shallow, transverse sulci. Whole covered with 
uniform fine punctures, enclosed area at base of median seg- 
ment and truncation of first abdominal segment impunctate. 

Length 16 mm. 

c? . Differs from the ? in having only lateral spots (not 
fascise) on the apex of segments 1 and 2 ; the general appear- 
ance is more hirsute than tlie ? . In secondary sexual 
characters the following are chiefly noticeable : — antenuiB 
simple ; anterior tarsi flattened, not dilated, their colours 
from ferruginous to ivory-white. Tergite 7 is black ; con- 
cave, but curled out towards apex ; the apex is serrate. 

Length 15 mm. 

S.W, Australia: Yallingup, Nov.-Dec. 1913 {R. E. 
Turner). 

A long series of both males and females. 

The sexes of this fine species are very different in appear- 
ance, but Mr. Turner has no doubt whatever that they are 
correctly associated. He found the females burrowing in 
sandy banks and the males flying round the burrows in 
profusion. Some of the females have large globules of gum 
in their mandibles, evidently taken up from the Eucalyjdus 
known as the " red gum." The gum thus collected is 
probably used either to keep the sand from falling in on the 
burrows or to gum together the leaves of which the cells are 
made. Similar gum was found in the mandibles of specimens 
of M. nasuta, F. Smith. 

22. Megachile leeuwinensis, sp. n. 

5 . Kigra ; capite, thorace, tergitibus 1-5 fasciis apicalibus griseo- 

pilosis ; steriiitibus 5-|-6 tergiteque 6 rufis, pallide hirsutis ; 

scopa pleruruque albida; clypeo brevi, apice emarginato ; man- 

dibulis robustis, dentatis ; alis hjalinis. 
Long. 1 1 mm. 
(S similis, sed tergitibus 5-7 rufis j articulo 2 tarsorum dilatato, 

tergite 7 concavo-dentato. 

Black ; head, thorax, and apical fascise on tergites l-,5 
clothed with fulvous-grey pubescence; tergites 4-C more or 



the ApitLu in the liritish Musewn. 331 

less completely dusted with fulvous-<^rt'y ptiheacence ; tergite 
(5 and steriuteH 5 niul t) have the chitiu d(jll red. Legs 
sparsely clutlied witii greyish hair, tar.-}i with ferruginous-red 
puhescence within. 

Wiii<i;s hyaline. 

Mandibles robust, with two distinct apical teeth and two 
smaller ones towards the base, hardly carinate. 

Cli/pens short, convex, the apex with a broad shallow 
emar<;ination, its ed<^e somewhat irregular. 

Al)d(Mnen short, widest in the middle. 

Whole insect tor the most part covere 1 with small even 
puncturing ; tergites 4-6 more coarsely punctured, the 
enclosed area at b:ise of median segment, the truncation of 
segment, and tegulte impunctate. 

Length 11 mm. 

cJ . Similar to the ? in general appearance, but with the 
three last tergites dull red. 

Fi-. 1. 




Afeffachile leeuwinensis, (S . Anterinr tarsi. 

Anterior tarsi for the most part ferruginous, the dilatation 
on joint 2 ivory-white ; first tarsal joint with a fringe of 
silky-white hairs of medium length on the outside ; mixed 
with this fringe are a few (about ten) very long, stout, ferru- 
ginous hairs, second tarsal joint with a long spine at apex, 
the remaining tarsal joints with ferruginous hair. Tergite 7 
concave, the apex with two small tubercles rather widely 
separated. 

S.W. Australia: Yallingup, 23rd Dec. 1913-23rd Jan. 
lOU (/?. E. Turner). 10 ? ? , 8 cf c? • 

Rather resembles a large M. apicafa, Smith. The dilated 
second tarsal joint is an interesting cliaracter in the (J, and 
the curious long, stout hairs on the metatarsus are very 
noticeable. 



332 Mr. G. Meade- Waldo on 

Megachile ferox, Smith, ? . 

Tliore is a good series of males of this striking species in 
the collection trom Yallingup, and also three specimens which 
are certainly the female. As the male is the only described 
sex, a short description of the female is added : — 

$ . Nigra, ])leramque griseo-pilosa ; tcrgitibus 1-3 obscure griseo- 
fasciatis, Z't-iS ])lus minusve rufo-aurantiacis ; alia subhyalinis ; 
scopa ventruli alba ; clypeo latiore quam longiore, apice trun- 
cato ; niandibulis robustis obscure deutatis. 

Long. 12 mm. 

General facies similar to the male. 

Black, head and thorax more or less densely clothed with 
griseous pubescence, densest on inner orbits and median 
segment, with distinct white spots on sides of pronotnm, 
niesopleurae, and axillse, tergites 1-3 or 4 with narrow apical 
fascife of same colour ; scopa silvery white, sternite (3 fuscous ; 
tergites 5 and 6 clothed with blight ferruginous red, a few 
fennaiiious Imirs on clypeus and nnindibles. 

Wings subhyaline. 

Mayuiiblts robust, of uniform width ; only two distinct 
teetli, their surface with two conspicuous carinse in addition 
to the outer margin. 

Clypeua rather broader than long, the apex truncate. 

Head about as broad as thorax ; abdomen parallel-sided, 
tergites 3 and 4 with transverse sulci. Tiie whole uniformly 
})unctured, the punctures even, of medium size; enclosed 
area of median segment, truncation of tergite 1, and tegulae 
impiinctate. 

Wings subliyaline. 

Length 12 mm. 

This species is closely allied to M. sulferoa-, but the differ- 
ences noted in the key should serve to separate tliem. 

23. Megachile lovgice2ys, sp. n. 

$ . Nigra, clypeo fronteque pallide aureo-pilosis ; area intra- 
orbitali, genis, thorace ubique, abdominis segmentis 1-4 fasciis 
apicalibus, pedibusque plerumque albo-pilosis ; scopa ventrali 
alba ; tergite sterniteque 6 rulis, griseo-pubescentibus ; clypeo 
apice subtruncato ; alis hyalinis. 

Loi]g. 8^ mm. 

Black ; front and clypeus rather sparsely clothed with 
golden pubescence ; inner orbits, cheeks, the whole thorax, 



the Apitla* in the British Museum. 333 

narrow n}iical fasciiu on teij^itcs 1-4, and the lofrg clotlio'l 
with whitish piihrscciice ; scopa silvery white. Tergite and 
etiriiite ti recMi.-h, tlie pubescence pale goKlen. 
AVings hyaline. 




Megachile lonr/icep*, 9- Frout view of head. 

Head, viewed from the front, very lon<r, about 1^ as long 
as l)roail ; viandVdes robust, the euttiiig-edge without teeth, 
their surface with one distinct carina; chjpeus broader than 
long, shallow ly emarginate at apex ; abdomen parallel-sided, 
tergites 2-4 with shallow transverse furrows near their base. 
The whole covered with small even punctures, except the 
enclosed space at base of median segment, the truncation of 
tergite 1, and the tegulaj, which are impunctatc. 

Length 8| mm. 

S.W. Australia : Yallingup, 23rd Dec. 1013-23rd Jan. 
19U (type), 3 ? ? ; Busselton, 2-4th-27ih Jan. 1914 {R. E. 
Turner), 4 ? ? . 

'i'liis little sj)ecies bears a strong reseml)lance to M. npicata, 
Smith, from Ad(daide anil West Australia, and M. c/i/peutn, 
Smith, from West Australia. From the former it may be 
di.siiriguished by its pecidiarly long head (viewed from the 
front) and from the latter by its normal clypeus, that of 
M. clypeaia having two striking tubercles. 

24. Megachile subfero.r, sp. n. 

$. Nigra; facie, pleuris, segmento mediano, tcrgitibus 1-4 fasriis 
apicalibus plus niinusve interruptis, pallide pilosis ; Bcopa veii- 
trali alba; tergite G rufo-aurantiaco ; clypco subcpuulrato, apice 
truncato ; niaiidibulis robustis, apice carinalis ; alls subfuseis. 

Long. 1 1 mm. 



'X\4: On the Apidai in the British Museum. 

(S aimilis, sod hirautior ; tarsis anticia simplicibus, tergite apicali 
coiicavo, apioe rotunde bilobato ; tergitibua 4 apice et 5 rufo- 
nuraiitiacia. 

Long. 11 ram. 

Black, the inner oihits, protliorax, and postscutellum with 
pale t'uscous hair ', postorbit^^, pleurie, and four spots on 
mesonotiim with whiti:<h j)iibescence ; basal tergite with some 
long pale hair, tergites 2-4 with apical fasciaj of pale scale- 
like hairs, rather broken in the middle. Ventral scopa white. 
Legs sparsely clothed with griseous pubescence ; tarsi reddish 
within. Tergite 6 (and sometimes tergite 5 at apex) denselj 
clothed with ferruginous-red pubescence. 

Mandibles massive, the cutting-edge irregularly serrate, 
the base without distinct sculpture, but with two conspicuous 
parinae converging towards the apex. 

Clypeus flat, subquadrate, the apex truncate. 

The head and thorax are covered with fine even punctures, 
the thorax with son^ewhat coarser granular punctures ; tergites 
2-4 have distinct transverse sulci towards tlie base. 

Wings suffused with fuscous. 

Length 11 mm. 

(J. Very similar to ? in general appearance, but with 
much longer hair ; the pale markings on abdomen are 
entirely lateral ; the reddish-ferruginous pubescence is on 
tergites 4 (apically) and 5. Anterior tarsi simple, apical 
segment of abdomen roundly bilobed. 

Length 11 mm. 

S.W. Australia: Yallingup, Nov. 1913-J:ui. 1914; 
Bugselton, Jan. 1914 {li. E. Turner). A long series of 
females and five males. 

Comes very near to M. ferox, Smitli ; for differences see 
key to the species. 

THAUMATOSOMA, Smith. 
lliaumatosoma duhoulayi, Smith. 

S.W. Australia: Yallingup, 14. x. 1913 (1 S) and 
1. xi. 1913 (1 ? ) {R. E. Turner). 

This is the first-recorded female in this interesting genus, 
the four species known at the present time being all described 
from males. 

For a key to the species see Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (8) 
xii. p. 492 (1913); T. testaceicorne, Cam. (1908), described 
from Matheran, N. India, is omitted from this key. 



On a new Shrew from Upper Burma. 



3;i5 



? . Ill colour HTul (lisfrihution tli(^ jMihosccnce resembles 
the (^ niid Mejachile spccii^s ot the J/, htriadij'ormts group. 
Abdomen distinctly narrowed basally, not parallel-sided, 
gradually widening towards apex of tergite 3 ; apical seg- 
nuMita rather flattened. Man<libles and clypeus almost as in 
the subgenus Kumerjuchi'/e ; mandibles ot equal width along 
the greater part of their length, rather expanded at apex ; 



FiK n. 




Thaumatosoma duboulayi, $ , and front view of head. 

clypeus very short, with a slight emargination at apex, the 
middle with a longitudinal carina. No malar space. An-j 
tennie 12-j tinted. Head very broad, widest at the base of 
the mandibles. Ventral scopa very pale yellowish. Head, 
thorax, and tergites 1-4 with even fine punctures, tergites 5 
and 6 coarser. 
Lenirth 12 mm. 



XXIX. — ^l fiew Shrew of the Genus Blarinella/rowi 
Uj>j>er Burma. By Oldfield TuoMAS. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

Mk. F. Kingdon Ward, who had already sent various small 
mammals from Western China, has now obtained for the 
British Museum a few from the mountains in the north 
of Upper Burma. Besides a Pachyura and a Vatideleuria, 
already known from Burmese territory, they include three 
forms of Chinese affinity, namely Apodemus speciosus orestes^ 



33(5 On a neio Shrew from Upper Burma. 

Chimarrogah styani (the secoiul known exanij)li'.), and the 
followinj]; new Blarinella^ a genus hitherto only recorded 
from Western Cliina. 

Blarinella toardi, sp. n. 

Colour both above and below of the same dark smoky grey 
as in B. quadraticmida, therefore darker than in the mouse- 
grey B. griselda. Tail slightly longer than in the latter 
species. 

Skull of about the same length as in B. (jriselda, therefore 
shorter than in quadraticauda ; breadth, however, con- 
spicuously less, especiiilly across ilie brain-case. Owing, 
however, to the fact that the brain-case of the only specimen 
is somewhat damaged, so tiiat a certain doubt attaches to tiic 
chief measurement given below, I may note that the breadth 
between the outer corners of the glenoid processes is only 
5*0 mm., as compared with 5"8 in griselda^ this j)art being 
unaffected by the damage to the typical skull. Side-walls of 
mesopterygoid fossa not so completely reticulated as in the 
type of B. griselda. 

Teeth, in relative proportions, about as in B. quadraticauda, 
but both first and second unicuspids considoiably smaller. 

Dimensions of the ty|)e (measured in flesh) : — 

Head and body 70 mm. ; tail 35 ; hind foot 11 ; ear 4. 

iSkuU : length 18 ; condylo-incisive length 19*3 ; greatest 
breadth across brain-case (c.) 8 5; upper tooth-series 8'4 ; 
front of p* to back of vi^ 4"3 ; breadth between outer corners 
of m^ 4'y ; lower tooth-series 7*7. 

Hah. Hpimaw, Upper Burma, about 26° N., 98° 35' E. 
Alt. 8000'. 

Tgpe. Adult male. B.M. no. 15. 2. 1.3. Original 
number 2. Collected lOtii August, 1914, by F. Kingdon 
Ward. Presented by Oldfield Tliomas. 

This species is readily distinguishable from the B. quad- 
raiicauda of Sze-chwan by its smaller size, and from B. gri- 
selda of Kansu by its darker colour and much narrower skull. 

The curious imperfection or reticulation of the lateral walls 
of the mesopterygoid fossa noticed above would seem to 
Ije a character ])eculiar to Blarinella^ as I do not find it in 
Blarina or any othci- genus of shrews. 



1 



Geological Society. 337 

lM{()('Ki:i)IX(iS OF LKARNKI) SOCIKTIKS. 
(ii;()L<)(iicAi. s<)(ii:rv. 

BcceniluT l?ii{l, 1'J14. — Dr. \. Siniih Woodward, I'. U.S., rresidiiit, 

ill the Cliair. 

The followiiijj coninmiiiciition wa.s read: — 

•On a Hdiie ImpK'iucnt from Piltdown (Sussex).' By 
Cliarl.s Dawson, F.S.A., K.(J.S.. and A. Smith Woodward, LL.D., 
F.IJ.S., Pros.(J.S. 

During the ))ast .season tlie Autliors liave continued excavati(ms 
in the I'iltdown <^r.ivel romid the edi^e of the area previously 
explored. KoUed fra>^ments of hiLjhly mineralized teeth oi lihino- 
ct ros and Mii-stinlon were a^ain found, but no human remains were 
met with. The most im|H)i'tant dise<jvery was a large bone imple- 
ment, whieh is now tleseribed. This speeimen was found in dark 
vegetable soil beneath the hedge which Ixnnuls the gnivel-])it, not 
far from the sjH)il-heap whence the right i)anet;il bone of the I'ilt- 
down skull was obtained two veal's ago. On being washed away 
the soil left no stain on the bone, wliieh was covered with firmly- 
adherent yellow clay, closely similar to that of the flint-bearing 
layer at the bottom of the gravel. The bone it.self is highly 
mineralized, and agrees exactly in apjiearance with some small 
fr.igments of Ixme which the Autliors discovered actually in jjlace 
in the day just mentioned. There can be no doubt, therefore, tluit 
the imj)lement was found by the workmen when they were digging 
gravel from the adjacent hole, and was thrown away by them with 
the other useless debris. It is a stout and nearly straight narrow 
Hake of bone, 41 cm. long, and varj'ing from 9 to 10 cm. in 
width, with the thicker end artificially jwinted, the thinner end 
artificially rounded. It appears to be a longitudinal strip Haked. 
from a limb-bone by a blow at the thicker end, in the same way as 
flint implements were flaked from their original cores. Direct 
comparison suggests that it was taken from a Prolioscidean femur 
as large as that of Elephas meridioiialis. In micro.scopic structure 
it agrees with Pi-oboscidean bone. The two ends of the imjtlement 
are slia{)ed entirely by cutting, and bear no marks of grinding or 
nibbing. Most of the cut facettes are small, and many of them 
suggest that they were made by some primitive tool, pivsumablv a 
Hint. The rounded end seems to have Ix'eii trimmed for comfort- 
able handling. The thick pointed (or, nither, keeled) end does not 
show any signs of battering or scratching by use. Just above the 
]>oint -d end one lateral edge of the bone is marked by a large 
smooth groove running acnt.s.s from the inner to the outer face of 
the bone. It seems to have been originally a perfonition from 
which the outer wall has been accidentally broken away. Within 
it on the inner face is the Ixiginning of a second simiLir ])erforution, 
as if an attempt had been made to rejiair the damage. The 
Authors conclude that the implement is unique, and aiv unable to 
explain its syK-ciHe use. 



^38 Geological Society. 

December 16th, 1914.— Dr. A, Smith Woodward, F.U.S., Presidenb, 
in the Chair. 

A Lecture was delivered by Prof. W. M. Flixdeks Peteik, 
D.C.L., LL.D., F.U.S., F.B.A., on the Paleolithic Age arid 
its Climate in Egypt. 

He said that the classes of worked flints peculiar in Egypt are : 

(1) Irregular, with broad unregulated fractures. (2) Itounders, 
flaked in all directions to an edged disc. (3) Hoofs, very thick, 
iTidely domed with an obtuse edge. (4) Lunes, with obtuse edges* 
(5) Crescent scrapers. Irregular flints, similar to those from 
St. Aeheul, are foimd in high Nile gravels. 

The regular European types occur exactly like those classed 
as Chellean and Acheulian. The Mousterian forms are so often 
found in various periods, that they cannot be assigned without 
evidence of age. The Aurignacian survive into the early civiliz- 
ation. The large class of flints from the Fayum desert comprises 
all the Solutrean types, and also Robenhausian foi-ms. The flakes 
of the early civilization (8000 to 6000 B.C.) are identical with 
Magdalenian 

Views of the Nile cliffs show the general natvu-e of the country 
and conditions. Successive changes of level are indicated by (1) 
the collapse of immense di-ainage-caverns far below present level ; 

(2) the filling of valleys Avith debris up to 650 feet above the 
present sea-level ; (8) the gouging-out of fresh drainage-lines 
through the filling ; and (4) rolled gravels on the top of cliffs 
800 feet above sea-level, since when there has been no perceptible 
denudation by rain. The great extent of these elevations and ' 
depressions is likely to be connected with similar movements at 
Gibraltar, which are believed to synchronize with the movements 
of glacial periods in Northeni Em-ope. The evidence of the flint 
ages agrees with this connexion, 

January 20th, 1915.— Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.Il.S,, President, 
in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. ' The Geology of the District around Machynlleth and the 
Llj-fnant Valley.' By Prof. Owen Thomas Jones, M.A., D.Sc, 
^.'G.S., and William John Pugh, B.A., Universitj^ College of Wales, 
■AberystANyth. 

In an introduction a brief account is given of the physical 
features, general succession, and structure of the area, and reference 
is made to the work of previous investigators, especiall}'- to that of 
Walter Keeping. For the major groups the classification applied 
in 1909 to the district around Plynlimon and Pont Erwyd is 
adopted, but slight differences are introduced in the arrangement of 
the minor groups. The classification is as follows : — 



c. ystwytu 
Staqk. 



Geological Society* 

/ I'alo iiui<lstoHc» with iiu 
i Iniiiiiiiitetl ^rit-bHiidx. 



339 



Valkhtian . J. p 



190 feet. 



.Stage. 



6. ifonf of Monograptut " 
lain. 

4. Zone of Monograptut 
tedgwicki. 



h CJrmu? i ^- ^'"'" "^ ifonograptut 



Cwniere 
(iroup. 
334 feet. 



Hartfkll rA. Pltn- f 
(Obdo- J, 

VICIA5). l^ 



regi 

2. Zone of JfotmgraplM 

leptothcca. 

1. Zone of Mesrtgraptus 
L viagnus. 

3. Monnqraptus spp. 

IJed.-.; 

2. Zone of Diplograptut 
ammhiatus. 

I 1. Zone of Glifptograp- 
I. tus persculptus. 



I.I.MOX -^ Ty'n-y-maen 
Staob. (^ Group 



J Dark iniulKtone.'?, grits, and some 
j conglomerates. 



Pale-blue and green- 
ish mAdstones 
with bands of dark 
"graptoliferous shales, 
and some thin 
green flags. 

Dark rusty- 
weathering 
shales and 
limestones. 

' ^fottlod Beds ' and 
blue mudstones. 



The distribution and character!? of these beds are described. The 
'Mottled Beds' form the ba.se of the Silurian and rest sharply on the 
underlying beds, and there i.s evidence of complete di.scontinuity at 
this level ; they have proved of gi"eat service in elucidating the 
structure. The Monograptut spp. Beds contain graptolites which 
elsewhere pertain to the zones of Monor/raptus triangidaius, 
M. cyphus, and M. acinaces ; but another zone, that of M. ataius, 
lias not been proved, althougli it probal)ly occurs. Tlie I)erwen 
Group consists of a regular alternation of mudstones and shale-bands 
with graptolites, which have al.>-o proved of service in mapping. 
Only a small thickness of the Vstwyth Stage occurs, and no sub- 
divisions are attempted. 

The rocks are sharjjly folded, and sometimes oVerfolded, towards 
the ea.st. Their axes range approximately north-north-east and 
south-south-west ; the folds in the cent^•al area pitch northwards-, 
but north of the Dovey a southerly jntch sets in. Each large 
fold is composed of a number of smaller folds having parallel axes, 
and changing in pitch more frequently than the larger folds-. 
Strike-faults of considerable magnitude range nearly parallel with 
the folding axes, and are in all cases ovorthrusts towards the east. 

Of greater interest are the transvei-se faidts ranging nearly ea.st- 
north-eaist and west-south-west. Most of these are small, but their 
course acro.ss the higher ground is indicated by well-defined notches 
in the ridges that they cross. Two of these faults, the Pennal 
and LlA'fnant Faults, are .shatter- belts. The Llyfnant Fault dis- 
places .several folding axes, and overthrusts to the east on the north 
side. Its vertical displacement is on an average about 300 feet, 



340 Qtological Society. 

but its horizontal displacement is usually over 3000 feet. It may 
theivfore be called a ' tear-fault.' Both the Llyfnant and the 
Pennal Faults exercise some influence \\\)o\\ the drainage-system of 
the area. 

A brief comparison of the succession with other districts is added. 

2. ' The Geology of the District between Abereiddy and Aber- 
ca.<5tle (Pembrokesliire).' Bv Arthur Hubert Cox, M.Sc, Ph.D., 
F.G.S. 

The distinct is situated north-east of the area occupied by the 
pre-Cambrian rocks of St. Davids, and it is bounded on its 
northern side by the Pembrokeshire coast. Although some parts 
of this district liave already been the subject of geological investi- 
gation, yet the stratigraphy and structure of the greater part is 
now described for the tirst time. Abereiddy itself has been, since 
the time of Hicks, a type-locality for the Llanvirn Beds, but 
observations recently made by Prof. O. T. Jones showed that 
the sequence required reinvestigation. It has now been found that 
the Oi-dovician rocks of the district do not succeed one another in 
a simple upward sequence, but that they have been thrown into 
great folds and sometimes even overfolded. The folds have sub- 
secjuently been broken by extensive strike-faulting. The limbs of 
the folds increase in steepness as the pre-Cambrian massif is 
approached. This folding brings up strips of Cambrian rocks, 
the presence of which on the Xorth Pembrokeshire coast was pre- 
viouslv quite unsuspected. 

There is a complete sequence of Ordovician rocks from near the base 
of the Arenig Series to high up in the Glenkiln Group. The lowest 
Arenig rocks are a series of arenaceous strata (the Abercastle and 
Porth Gain Beds) which correspond to the 'iVvsw/'^'/ws Beds ' of 
Ramse}' Island. These strata are in faulted relationship to the 
Cambrian, so that the ti'ue base of the Arenig is not seen. The 
arenaceous beds pass upwards without a break into Tetragraptus 
Shales, which are in turn succeeded by the B/Jiclus Beds. Llanvir- 
nian volcanic rocks are represented in one part of the district 
bv the Llanrian Volcanic Series, which begins high up in the zone 
of Didifmographis hi^dus, and in another part by the Miirchisoni 
Ash, which forms the base of the D.-mvrcMsoni Zone. The Llan- 
deilo Series compares closely with that of Carmarthenshire, and 
does not contain any volcanic rocks as was at one time supposed. 

Contemporaneous igneous rocks occur at two horizons : — 
(i) keratoph^TCS at a high horizon in the Tetragraptus Shales, 
and (ii) quartz-keratophyres (soda-rhyolites) towards the top of 
the JJ.-biJidus Beds. The intrusive rocks (diabases) belong to 
two tA"pes, («) subophitic quartz-diabases, and (i) ophitic diabases 
without quartz. Both types were intruded earlier than the main 
folding, and consequenth' earlier than the cleavage and faulting. 

A great north-westerly line of distm-bance — the Pwll Strodyr 
Fault — cuts across all other structures, and brings on entirely 
different gi-oups of strata. 



'>»t\ 



Till; AN NATS 

AND 

MAGAZINE OF NATURAL IIISTOKV. 

[KIGHTII SKRIES.] 
No. 88. APRIL 1915. 



XXX. — Descriptions and Records of Jiees. — LXVI. 
By T. D. A. CocKEiiELL, University of Colorado. 

Fasijjfiae cyanea, sp. n. 

? . — Length about 11 ram., expanse \7'o. 
Katlier robust, sliiiiiii<( dark bhie, with the knees, tibia?, 
and tarsi briglit ferruj^inous, witli hair ol: the same colour ; 
scape black, but the rather short and thick flagcUuni ferru- 
ginous ; hair of head, thorax, abdomen, and basal part of 
legs black, but at apex of abdomen, on each side of the 
apical plate, ferruginous, contrasting with the tliick black 
liair on fifth segment ; region ot" mouth with red hairs ; 
lu'ad broad, front with long coarse hair ; mandibles simple, 
truncate ; hibrum entire ; clypcus finely punctured, its 
lower margin black ; fourth and fiftli antennal joints very 
short; mcsotliorax shining, very finely punctured; scu- 
tcllum with a longitudinal median impression ; area of meta- 
thorax large, triangular, rough but glistening; thorax with 
long hair, but the mcsotliorax (except anterior border) and 
scutellum bare, whil(! l)encath the wings is a circular bare 
area, which is blue, contrasting with the more lilac adjacent 
parts ; tegulae dark rufous. Wings hyaline, faintly dusky, 
the nervurcsand stigma bright amiier-colour ; b. n. meeting 
t.-nu, the latter bent in the middle ; u[)per side of first 
discoidal arched ; second s.m. very long, narrowed about 
half al)ove, receiving first r. n, at a (listancc from Ijasc equ^l 
Ann. tfc Mag. N. /list. Scr. S. Vol. \v. 2;J 



342 Mr. T. D. A. Cockeicll — I)cscn']>tions and 

to about four-fifths of Icngtli of first t.-c. ; second r. n. re- 
ceived a short distance from apex ; marginal cell rounded 
at apex ; outer upper corner of third discoidal approxi- 
mately rectangular. Abdomen shining, -with only very 
minute and feeble punctures, hind margins of second and 
third segments reddish. Hind tibial seopa red, abundant, 
long and loose. 

Hah. Kio McClelland, Tierra del Fucgo, 12. i. 1905 (/?. 
Crawshay). British jVIuseum. Found "in the face of the 
clift', on the sea-shore." 

This diftcrs from Pasiphae, as originally defined, by the 
large ocelli forming a curve rather than a triangle, the robust 
antenna}, the marginal cell obtuse at apex (though "with a 
very small appendicular nervure), and the labrum not emar- 
ginate. Except for the slight appendage at the end of the 
marginal cell, the venation agrees with that of Bicolletes 
twutropica, Friese (which is herewith designated as the type 
of Bicolletes), but Bicolletes is scarcely to be separated 
generically from Pasiphae. P. cyanea is readily known 
from most species by its blue colour ; it is, perhaps, related 
to P. ccernlescens, Spinola, which is unknown to me, and 
seems not to have been found since it Avas described in 1851. 

Capicola (?) hasutorum, sp. n. 

($ . — Length about 12 mm. 

Slender ; head, thorax, and first abdominal segment black, 
rest of abdomen dark reddish fuscous; mandibles reddish, 
with the base pallid and j'cUowish ; elypeus lilack ; flagellum 
bright orange-fulvous, about the basal third black above; 
tubercles yellow ; coxse, trochanters, and base of femora 
piceous, legs otherwise light yellow suffused with ferru- 
ginous ; teguhe hyaline, rufo-testaceous. "Wings smoky, 
hyaline, and stained with orange basally ; stigma light 
orange-ferruginous ; uervures fuscous, the subcostal black, 
but the costal and other uervures toward base of wing ferru- 
ginous. Labrum emarginate ; head broader than long, eyes 
])romineut ; face densely covered with light ochreous 
hair ; antennae only moderately long, flagellum thick ; ocelli 
rather large ; vertex with thin reddish hair ; region on each 
side of ocelli smooth, with ^aw strong punctures ; tliorax 
with thin reddish hair ; mesothorax and scutellum shining, 
with very large scattered punctures ; area of metathorax 
with about ten very strong ridges, the intervals shining — 
this region is bounded by an elevation, below which are 
short oblique plicae. Wings large and ample ; marginal 



Records of Decs. .'M3 

cell lonjj, rndin*^ in a rather oljtuso point nearly on costa ; 
sti«;ina larf:;e ; two siil)inar{;iiial ('(lis, the second one very 
lonjr, narrowed more than hah" al)ove ; h. n. falling a con- 
siderable distance short of t. -in. ; first r. n. enterinj^ second 
s.m. a lon^ distance from its base, and the sccon<l almost as 
far from its apex. Le<^s slender and sini|)Ie; claws very 
small, i)nlvilli distinct. Abdomen narrow and shininf^, 
scnrcely pnnetnred, with thin reddish hair, denser at ends 
of last three seg;mfnts ; py^idial area distinct, apical plate 
black, with spoon-like outline. 

Hafj. IJasutolaml, Africa (/^. Crairshaij). British ]\rnsenm. 

This represents a j^enns allied t(j li/iojt/titt's, bnt distinct. 
Caj)ico/a and Rhhwch<ftula of Friese were based on Sontli 
African species of this immediate group, and while the 
present insect appears to be very distinct from the seven 
forms ascribed to these genera by Friese, it may for the 
present be regarded as a donbtfnl Capico/a. Friese cites no 
ty}»e for Rliiiiochatula ; R. cinctiventris is herewith designated 
as the type of that gcnns. 

ParacoUeles callander, sp. n. 

? . — Length about 16 mm. 

Black, with the flagellum beneath (except hasally) and the 
small joints of tarsi ferruginous; hair of head and thorax 
abundant, warm ])alc reddish, paler beneath, on cheeks and 
on metathorax, reddest at sides of mesothorax and the region 
about tu])ercles ; clypeus oidy very thinly hairy, shining, 
with scattered distinct punctures ; sujjraclypeal area smooth ; 
sides of vertex dull, but region behind ocelli shining ; meso- 
thorax and scutellum dull, hairs on seutellum, as well as 
a patch below and in front of wings, tipped with fuscous ; 
area of metathorax dull, without distinct sculpture ; tegulju 
black, covered with hair in front. Wings smoky, nervures 
dark brown, stigma little developed; b. n. falling a little 
short of t.-m. ; second s.m. very broad, receiving first r. n. 
about middle. Legs with hair coloured like that on thorax, 
but hind tibial scopa long and loose, glistening silvery, 
though reddish-tinted. Abdomen dull, with a finely rougli- 
ened surface ; hind margins of the first four segments with 
narrow hair- bands, the first feeble, the others a[)i)(;aring as 
narrow but eons[)icuous white lines; apical plate very large 
and broad, the surrounding hair dark chocolate, but nearly 
w hite at sides of a[>ieal part of abdomen. 

^. — Length about l.'i'5 mm. 

More slender ; abdomen (except lateral black marks, 



I>14 ]\Ir. T. D. A. C/OckercU — Descriptions and 

f specially a larjjc round patch at sides of second segment), 
apical jiart of femora above (on anterior and middle ones 
extending below middle), knees, tibi;B (except a suffnsed 
dnsky patch on middle and hind ones behind), aiul tars' 
ferruginons ; mandil)Ics red, dnsky a])ically : elypens (except 
two small dnsky spots) and labrnm reddish orange, but 
almost certainly yellow in life ; supraclypeal area reddish ; 
antennre long and slender, red, the Hagellnm snfl'iisedly 
blackened above and broadly black apically ; hair of face, 
front, vertex, and thorax above very rich orange-fcrriiginons, 
that on scntdlnm and posterior two-thirds of mesotborax 
tipped with fnscons ; second s.m. sometimes narrower, when 
it receives first r. n. before middle ; liair-bands of abdomen 
thin, pale fulvous, inconspicuous. 

Hab. Yallingnp, S.W. Australia ; both sexes, Nov. 1913, 
and a female, Dec. 1-12 {R. E. Turner^. British Museum. 

The sexes look very diflercut, but they were associated by 
the collector, who determined tliein to belong together 
by field-observations. 

The species is allied to P. nigrocinctus, Ckll., but readily 
distingnibhed by the large size and bright colours. !Mr. 
Turner has determined that /-*. tenuicincti/s, Ckll., is the 
male of P. nigrocinctus ; he found the sexes together abun- 
dantly ou Lepioapermum. The type of P. callander is a 
female. 

Paracolletes andrcniformis, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 13 mm. 

Robust, black, with black and white hair ; liead broad, 
facial quadrangle much broader than long ; cheeks and 
lower half of front w ith long white hair, at sides of face it is 
thin and greyer, on vertex it is fuscous, beneath labrum it 
is glittering golden ; mandibles truncate ; elypens shining, 
sparsely and irregularly punctured, raised in the middle 
to a roof-like ridge ; supraclypeal area shining, rather more 
closely punctured than elypeus ; scape long and black ; 
tlagellum short, dull reddish beneath except basally ; sides of 
front finely, rather closely ])unctured ; thorax with white 
liair in front and behind, at sides and beneath, dense on 
tubercles, but mesotborax (except anteriorly) and scutellum 
with thin black hair; mesotborax and scutellum polished 
end shining, with distinct but not dense punctures ; area of 
inetathorax smooth and shining, the margin beaded ; pleura 
dullish, punctured ; tegulaj very dark brown, with a tuft 
of black hair iu front. Wings dusky, nervures and stigma 



fit Co ids vj litLS. 31.1 

pircoiis ; 1). n. iiK'ciiiij^ t.-in. on outer siiii- ; sccdtnl s.ni. only 
moderately hroad, rect'iviii;^ firNt r. ii. al)out miildle ; end of 
first r. n. about twice as far from second t.-c. as sccf)ri(i r. n. 
from third t.-c. I-egs with fuscous to cream-coloured hair, 
hirj;cly fuscous on outer sirle of anterior and middle tihiie, 
hut hind tibial scopa cream-coloured or very pale brownish. 
Abdomen very finely and closely punctured, segments 2 to \ 
Mitli iiiterru|)ted white hair-bands, apical half of fifth densely 
covered with oehrecjus hair, and the sixth with the same; 
apical plate narrow and rather small ; apical half of venter 
covered with appresscd jiolden hair. 

Hab. Valiin-np, Dec. 2:3, lyi.'J-Jau. 'IW^ IDl t : .'J ? ( 7^. /;. 
Turner). Jiritish Museum. 

In my table of Smith's species this falls nearest to P. oh- 
sciirus, which has sooty-black hair on the fifth abdominal 
segment. Superficially it is very like certain species of 
Andrena. 

Goniocolletes pallidus, sp. n. 

(^ . — Lenjith about 115 mm. 

Agreeing in structure and most characters with G.morsus, 
Ckll., the type of the genus, but having the abdomen light 
ferruginous (hind margins of segments broadly hyaline), 
with tlic punctures very fine and the mesothorax feebly 
punctured. The pygidial arcaon seventh tergiteof abdomen 
and the proj(>cting apical plate beyond are red. The tlagellum 
is dusky red, almost black abcne. The third s.m. is l)ioad 
al)ove and the third t.-c. is strongly bowed outward. Hind 
tibi;c with approximately apical half black and basal half 
orange-fulvous. Maxillary palpi short. 

Hah. llermannsburg, Central Australia (//. ./. IliUicr). 
British Muscnin. 

The second known specimen and species of this remarkable 
genus. 

CaUonuHita rujnso, sp. n. 

? . — Length about 8 mm. 

(jeneral form as in C. jiicta; head and thorax with scanty, 
shori, pale reddish hair ; head black, with the lower margm 
of clypeus, labruni (which is emarginatc), and mandibles 
(which arc thick, bidentatc at apex) obscure dark reil ; au- 
icniue entirely bright ti rruginous ; entire head strongly and 
(piite ch)sely punctured ; mesothorax terra-cotta red, cxce|)t 
a large black jjatch in the posterior middle, the whole 
appearing rugose from the strong and very dense punctures; 



346 l\Ii. T. D. A. Cockercll — Descriptions and 

tubercles red, strongly carinatc, covered behind with dense 

rrcani-colourcd tomeutum ; rest of thorax black ; scntellum 

very coarsely rugoso-punctate, ])ostscutcl]um dull and 

{j;ranular ; area of nietatiiorax with a row of ])licfc at the 

base and one on each jiostcro-lateral side, the latter broad at 

the sides, but toward the middle narrowing; to a line of pits; 

sides of metathorax, as seen from behind, with only a 

single projecting point, l)ut there are two nodules on each 

side near the upper corners, only noticed in an obli(|ueview ; 

jilcura coarsely rugoso-punctate : tcgulic liglit lulvo-fcrru- 

ginous. Wings strongly smoky, paler i)asally : stigma atul 

jiervures rufo-fuscous ; venation essentially as in C. picta, 

but first r. n. joins second s.m. well beyond the middle, and 

third s.m. is less contracted above. Legs ferruginous, hind 

tibia witli a loose white seopa ; hind til)ial knee-plate greatly 

elongated, hind spur with only a microscopical ciliation. 

Al)domen black, Avith the base and apex of first segment and 

second segment almost entirely dull red ; first segment 

polished and shining, with very sparse minute punctures ; 

second shining, but closely and distinctly punctured except 

in middle; remaining segments closely and finely ])unctured, 

but clothed with fine and short, apprcssed, golden-brown 

lialr, the a[)ieal region with long pale reddish hair. 

Huh. Queensland [F. P. Dodd). British Museum. The 
exact locality is unknown. 

Nearest to C. tnrneronnn, Ckll., also from Queensland, 
but easily known by the colours, the rugose sculpture, &c. 

Prosopis kalamunda, sp. n. 

$ . — Length about 7'5 mm. 

Head and thorax black, with bright chrome-yellow 
markings, consisting of large lateral face-marks (filling space 
between clypeus and eye, and extending upward with the 
form of a closed hand with the index-finger, which is very 
short, pointed), swollen upper border of prothorax, tubercles, 
large semilunar patch behind tubercles, scntellum, and 
postscutellum (except at sides). Legs black, the anterior 
tibiae with an obscure yellow spot at base. Abdomen 
shiuing steel-blue ; clypeus acieulate, somewhat depressed 
in middle; front and vertex shining, with strong well- 
separated punctures ; mesothorax shining, with large, irre- 
gular, scattered jjuncturcs ; area of metathorax with a basal 
channel crossed by plicae, and below this, on each side, a 
strong oblique ridge ; pleura with widely separated punc- 
tures. Legs with fine silky white hair ; tegulse black. 



Records of Bees. 3-17 

Willis (|uitc clear, stijima and iKM-viiros fuscous; first r. ii, 
nicctiiiii first t.-c. Ahilomcu sliinin;,', uitli e\iri:mcly feeble 
and minute scattered punctures. 

? . — \'ariety ju(/at(i, v. n. \\"\{\i a transverse approxi- 
mately kidney-shaped supiaelypeal mark, the notch on the 
lowi'r side; a yellow spot near each anterior corner of ineso- 
thorax, and a yellow dot on teguhe. The ely|)eus is obscurely 
reddish. 

//(//». Kalamnndii, S.W. Australia, I'Y'b. 1)-2H, 191 I { R. IC. 
Tunitr). British Museum. 

In my table of Australian Prosopis this runs to 18, and 
runs out because it is much smaller than P. jierplcxa, and 
lias a yellow patch behind tubercles. Mr. Turner obtained 
luides of Prosojiis eloiujatu. Smith, at Kalamunda ; super- 
licially dutigntn much resembles the new species, but on 
closer cxamiuatiou it is seen not to be very closely allied. 

Prosupis fulvicornis, Smith. 

Kalamunda, Tel). 9-28, 1911; 1 c? [R- /''• Tnnirr). 

This a<;recs with Smith's description of P. fitlricornis 
(which was discovered from tlic Baly collection, and was not 
in the Briti^■h Museum), except for the fact that the lateral 
face-marks extend broadly halfway up the front, so that the 
whole yellow area of the head rather resembles (though too 
broad) a donkey's head with erect cars. The large and 
broad suiiraely|)i a! mark is notched above; the yellow mark 
behind the tubercles is crescentic. Siuith's short description 
is otherwise very characteristic. 

This falls nearest to P. piirpwata, Sm., 1)ut is smaller, 
and ditlcrs in some details of the markings. It cannot be 
the male of P. kalainuiuUe, the sculpture being entirely 
diUcrcut. 

Pachtjprosoph Ii(ematostoma, Cockcrell. 

Kalamuiula, Feb. 9-2S, 1911 {R. E. Turner) ; 3 ? . 

\\ ith these are sent two males of P. auraniipcs, Ckll., 
with the same data ; and if I do not mistake the meaning of 
the label on one of the P. hcpviatostuma, it is to be under- 
stood that the two are sexes of one species. If this is correct, 
it is very remarkable, as they ditl'er extremely in colour and 
giMieral appearance. The P. lueiiialostumu are duller, not, so 
blue as the original types. 



.'US ^Ir. T. 1), A. Cockciell — Descnpdon^ and 

Pachyprosopis Jlavicauda, Cockercll . 

ISrt. Wcllinijton, Tasmania, Jan. 15-Feb. 6, 1913, 1300- 
2300 ft. {U. E. Turner). British Museum. 

A surprising extension of range : the species was described 
from Svdney. 

Euryglossa pavpercula, sp. n. 

? . — Length about 3'75 mm. 

Black, shining, tlie abdomen above obscurely purplish ; 
head tliick, ratlier large, subquadrate, witli broad checks ; 
mandibles cream-colour, with black apex, which is bideutate ; 
labrum and the very broad and low clypcus yellow, the latter 
with a pair of widely separated fuscous teeth on lower 
margin ; antennre brown, flagellum liairy, scape with a light 
stripe in front; tegulse brown. Wings iiyalinc, with a very 
large dull rufous stigma ; first r. n. joining first s.ra. about 
as far from apex as equal to half first t.-c. ; second s.m. 
about as broad (long) as its apical heiglit, not greatly pro- 
duced above apically. Legs fuscous, with the trochanters 
very ])ale reddish, the femora ])iceous, the anterior tibiae pale 
red in fiont, all the tarsi pale fusco-ferruginous. Abdomen 
broad, not hairy. The head and thorax are microscopically 
reticulate, with scattered minute punctures. 

Hab. Yallingup, S.W. Australia, Oct. 16, 1913 ; 1 ? 
(7?. E. Turner). British ]\Iuseum. 

Tbis might be considered a Pachyprosopis, and is only 
placed in Enryglossn because it lacks the true Pachyprosopis 
venation. From its minute size, it will be associated with 
E. peruana, Ckll., but it differs at once by the yellow clypeus, 
large stigma, &c. 

Euryglossa narifera, sp. n. 

? . — Length scarcely 5 mm. 

llobust, shining, head and thorax black, abdomen obscure 
purple ; head large and broad, extremely thick, without 
liair, except a thin fringe of long pale brown hairs over 
mouth : lower part of cheeks with a large pale yellow j)atch; 
mandibles li;ilit ferruginous, black apicall} ; labrum f(!rru- 
giuous; clypeus (except two large semicircular areas, looking 
like nostrils, on lower margin), a transverse supraclypeai 
bar, and linear lateral face-marks (running along orbits to 
level of antennae) all pale yellow; antennae short, light 
ferruginous beneath ; tubercles light yellow ; tegulaj testa- 
ceous. AViugs hyaline, stigma (which is large) and nervures 



Recorch of Dees. 349 

(lark nifo-fuscous ; Ij. n. f^rratly ari-hcd ; first r. n. mcctinp; 
first t.-c. ; secoiul s.ni. Ijroad, but its upper apical corner 
produced. Lcjjs lifjlit ferrugiiious, the femora marked witli 
pieeous, the anterior femora almost wholly dark except at 
extreme ends. Abdomen hroad, pale reddish at extreme 
apex and beiieatli. 

llnh. Vallin-np, S.W. Australia, Nov. 1913, 3 ? (/?. E. 
Tnniei). Hritisli Museum. 

Perhaps better called Pachyprosupis nariftra, l)ut the 
second s.m. is not of the extreme! type characteristic of 
Pac/ii/proso/jis. The species is allied to E. pauper cuin, but 
much hiTi^ir, with difrcrcnt markings. 

Eunjyiussa niyrocarulea, Cockerel!. 

Mt. Welliujrton, Tasmania, 1300-2300 ft., Jan. M.-Feb. 0, 
1913 [R. E. Turner). 
New to Tasmania. 

Eurrjglossa Jlavocuneata, sp. n. 

5* . — Length about 8 mm. 

Similar to E. undulaia, Ckll., but differing thus : — Much 
smaller; ai)ie:il part of abdouicn light ferruginous, with hair 
of the same colour ; mandibles sometimes with a pale yellow 
stripe above on basal half; flagellum beneath reddish brown, 
without bauds or spots; scutellum wholly without a median 
impiesscd line ; tegulie pellucid reddish testaceous. ^Vings 
strongly infuscated ; b. n. falling short of t.-m. ^Middle 
til)i;e with a broad yellowish stri[)e in front, sometimes obso- 
lete; hind knees ])allid. First abdominal segment with 
more than basal half yellow, more or less marked with pale 
reddish ; hfth segment pale red, flushed with yellow at base, 
sixth red. The abdomen has six conspicuous cuneiform 
yellow patches, representing the bands on segments 2 to 4. 
The type has a very broad abtlomen ; in the otlier two it 
appears narrow, i)ut evidently as the result of compression 
in papers. T'he head and thorax are black, without pale 
markings. 

Ha/j. Yallingup, S.W. Australia, Nov. 1913 {R. E. Turner). 
British Museum. 

Had I received only the male of E. undiihita, with females 
of E. jlavucnneata, 1 should have referred them without 
hesitation to a single si)ecies. Fortunately the sexes of 
undulata were taken mated ; the male of Jlavocuneaia, when 
found, will resemble that of undulata, presumably dift'eriug 
by the darkened wings and testaceous legulae. 



350 Descriptions and Records of Bees. 

Juinjr/lossa 2)fatyrhina, sp. n. 

$ . — Lciijjtli about G"5 mm. 

Very broad, -svith thin wliite hair, lonj? on cheeks, pleura, 
sides of mctatliorax, and sides of abdomen beneath ; dense 
liair fringing tubercles brownish vhite ; head and thorax 
black, without pale markings, except that the depressed and 
flattened clypeus is pale yellowish I'erruginous (the margins 
and upper corners variably fuscous), and this colour may 
extend to form a transverse supraclypeal band ; abdomen 
dull, light ferruginous, with the following conspicuous black 
or piccous marks: — a broad transverse band on middle half 
of first segment, a large snbcircular patch on each side of 
second, a very broad band on middle third of second, a 
transverse patch on middle of third, and a slight shade on 
Jburth ; mandibles dark, very obscurely rufescent just before 
apex ; labial palpi peculiai-, first joint greatly swollen, largely 
j)iceous, second about half as wide as first, piceous except at 
ends, about twice as long as wide, third and fourth p:de 
ferruginous, long and slender, the fourth longest (about 
225 microns) ; maxillary palpi extremely small, six-jointed, 
the basal joint dark, the others pale ferruginous ; clypeus 
dullish, with very sparse and minute punctures ; front dull, 
with small scattered punctures; cheeks very small, the whole 
head remarkably flat; scape and flagellum pale reddish 
testaceous beneath ; mesothorax dull, Avith widely scattered 
very small punctures ; scutellura more shining ; area of 
mctatliorax smooth and shining; tegulse hyaline. Wings 
hyaline, faintly dusky, stigma and nervures dull ferruginous ; 
b. n. falling some distance short of t.-m, ; first r. n. joining 
second s.m. near base ; second s.m. broad, second t.-c. regu- 
larly arched outward. Legs hairy, black or piceous and 
ferruginous, the basal third and anterior sides of anterior 
and middle tibise, anterior and middle knees, hind tibias 
entirely, and greater j)art of hind femora ferruginous ; 
middle femora broad, convex in profile below ; hind spurs 
of hind tibial with two rows of short strong tooth-like spines. 
Pygidial plate of abdomen verv small. 

'Bab. Yalimgup, Dec. 23-Jan. 14, 1913-14 (R. E. Turner) ; 
3 ? . British Museum. 

A peculiar and distinct species, not a typical Euryglossa. 
It could be made the ty})e of a distinct genus or subgenus, 
but this may wait until the classification of the whole group 
is reconsidered. 



On some External Characters o/Cynogalc bcnnctlii. 351 



XXXI. — On some of the External Characters of Cynofjalc 
beunettii, Gnnj. \\\ 11. I. Pocock, F.R.S., Supcriuteiidcnt 
of the Zoological Socic'ty's Gardens. 

[Plate XIV.] 

Some of the external featnrc^ of this aberrant amphibious 
civet have been often described. Nevertheless, several intcr- 
cstin<^ points have l)een overlooked, and many of the published 
statements re<:;ar(liiif^ the characters ol)scrved re(|uirc ampli- 
fication or correction, the shortconiinjxs in qnestion beinj^ to 
a great extent attributable to the enforced dependence of 
authors upon dried skins or upon material defective in other 
ways. 

The matter contained in this paper is based mainly upon 
an examination of three specimens, an adult female and two 
young, collected by the late Mr. A. Everett in N.W. Borneo 
and preserved in alcohol in the British Museum"^. 

Colour. — Accounts of the colour of Cynoyale bennettii are 
discrepant. In his very brief original description, published 
in 1830, Gray said nothing on this ])oint, but in the following 
year he described the colour as brown, -with the elongate 
rigid hairs, rising from the soft crisp fur, black, with a 
" sul)terminal silver-white band.^' This -was confirmed by 
Eydoux and Soiileyet, who, in 1841, wrote: — " Les polls 
soyeux, qui sont surtout apparents an dos, depassent uu pen 
ceux de la bourre, et comme ils sont termines de blanc, ils 
donnent au jjclage uue teintc generale glacee.^' 

Similarly, Schlcgel and Mliller (Zoog. Ind. Archipel, 
p. 120, 1839) described the species as " donkcrbruine 
■witachtig gespikkeldc kleur'^ — that is to say, colour dark 
brown, speckled with whitish. 

Flower and Lydekker (1891) copied Gray in recording 
the fur :is dark brown mixed with black and grey. 

Finally, Sanyul wrote of a specimen living in the Gardens 
at C^aleutta (P.'Z. S. 189i, p. 29(3) :— " Prevailing colour of 
the fur grey, becoming grizzled white on the back, rump, 
and outer surface of the limbs." 

On the other hand, Mivart, in 1882, said the colour of tlie 
coat is red-brown, with no markings, save a very narrow 
black line along the crown of the elongated head; and, 

* This paprr is published by pevuiission of the Trustees. On tliis, ns 
on other occivjiiiin.«, I nni indebted to Mr. OldtieM Thomas lor untraui- 
mulled access to the specimens under his charjre. 



?o2 Mr. R. I. Pocock on some of (lie 

following liim apparently, Blanford^ in 1888^ spoke of the 
colour as red-brown. 

Detceting the diserejiaucy between ]\[ivart's and Sanynl's 
aecounts. Mr. Lydekker, in 189G, commented ou it as fol- 
lows : — " The colour has been hitherto described as uniformly 
reddish brown, save for a narrow dark streak down the head. 
The ditlference may, perhaps, be in part accounted for from 
the fact that one description is taken from the living animal 
and the other from dried skins, and also from the difi'erent 
ages of the specimens examined, old ones being probably 
more grey than younger examples." 

The main pait of this passage is hardly in accord with 
the facts, for the original authors — Gray, Schlegel and 
^Miiller, Eydoux aud Souleyet — independently mentioned 
the wiiite speckling; an 1 although Gray, at all events, had 
only a dried skin to go upon, and the French aud Dutch 
authors certainly never saw Cynogale?i\\\e, their descriptions 
nevertheless agree, at any rate in recording the white 
speckling, with that of Sanyal, who had a living specimen 
before him. 

All the adult and subadult specimens in the British Mu- 
seum, ranging from Malacca to Borneo, resemble in colour 
those described by Giay and by the French and Dutch 
authors. They are very dark brown, frosted with grey 
above. The whitish speckling scarcely extends on to the 
tail and legs, aud is absent on the underside, wliich is paler 
brown than the back. The rhinarium is flesh-coloured and 
the upper lip, lower lip, chin, and a varying amount of the 
interramal area and of the upper end of the throat are pale. 
There are two white spots on each cheek, marking the 
position of the genal vibrissal tufts, wliich are white, like 
those of the interramal tuft. Similarly, the vibrissas arising 
from the pale area of the upper lip are white. The upper- 
most of them, however, are black, as also are the superciliary 
bristks. 

Mivart's silence on the subject of the grey speckling 
suggests that his description of the colour was written from 
uicmory. At all events, it is quite misleading. 

Saiiyal's description fits none of the specimens exactly. 
His example, from an unknown locality in Borneo, was clearly 
much whiter than any seen by other authors; but since it is 
not available for examination, even if pre-erved after death, 
it is useless to do more than suggest the possibility of its 
having been a very old animal or a partial albino. In this 
connection, be it noted, the tip of the tail was described as 
white. At the same time it must not be forgotten that the 



External Characters o/Cynogalc benncttii. 3.13 

iiiulcrsidc was dosorihcd as hlackislj, and was tlicreforc 
(larktT, instead of lighter, tliaii the iippersidc. IJut since 
liis notes were taken from a living specimen, it is possible 
that the blackish appearance of the nnderside was due to its 
beiiif; in shadow. 

As rcjjards the colour of the yoiin^, Cantor (J. A. 8. B. 
XV. p. 'J()3, lSK)j wrote of Mul.ivan spi-ciniens ; — " Tiie very 
yonn^ . . . did'er from the adult in havin<^ a very soft, silky, 
dense lur, mixed with lon<;er hairs, which are black except 
on the chest and abdomen, where the apex is silvery. Over 
the tarsus and the upper surface of the feet some of the 
li;iirs have a terminal white band close to the lilack apex. 
The posterior marj;:in of the ear is hairy and of a silvery 
colour." Since an adult specimen from Malacca sent ijy 
this collector to the liritish Museum is speckled with f^rey 
dorsally, it may be inferred that the aljsence of dorsal 
speckling; is the main distinctive chromatic featnre of the 
newly-born young. 

On the other hand, the two young specimens from 
N.W. liorneo in the British jNIuseum differ from their 
mother in having no appreciable white speckling above ; 
l)ut, as in llie adult, there is no such speckling below. 
These specimens, in fact, bear out Mr. Lydekker's suggestion 
that the greyness increases with age — at all events, up to a 
certain j)oint. 

Muzzle andrJiinarium^' fPl.XIV. figs, 1,2). — The muscular 
development of the lateral portions of the upper lip, to give 
mobility to the mystaeial vibrissse, imparts a singular aspect 
to the head, when viewed from above or below, owing to the 
demarcation of the muzzle from the area behind it by a deep 
constriction on each side. 

Another peculiarity of the muzzle^ to which attention has 
been drawn by Mivart and others, is the absence of a median 
vertical groove cleaving a central naked strip of integument, 
such as is seen passing from the rhinarium to the edge 
of the upper li[) above the incisor teeth in the majority of 
Carnivores and all tyjjical Viverrines. But that is not all. 
This area of the npjxT lip, in adilition to being continuonslv 
hairy and |)rovide{l with sh(n"t vibrissa;, is also of unusual 
length or depth. It (litters, indeed, from the corresponding 
area in all ^'Eluroid Carnivores, let alone the Viverrines and 
Paradoxnrines, and not excepting Crossarchus ohsciiruK, in 
being about twice the height of the anterior vertical portion 

* For tin account of tlie miizzlf, feet, and plnnds of tlie tvpical 
Vivirrinf?. .'■ee my paper, 1'. Z. S. l!Mo, pp. \?,\ 1-J'.». 



354 i\Ir. R. I. Pocock on some of lite 

of the rhinarium, when viewed from the front. And this 
disproportion results not only from the deepeninf>f of the 
nppcr lip, but from the concomitant expansion of its upper 
lialf, so that the major portion of the rhinarium is, as it 
were, thrust or tilted up to occupy a horizontal position, 
with the nostrils opening upwards on the summit of the 
muzzle. This modification is quite unique amongst the 
yEluroidca, and its importance is not lessened by explaining 
it as an adaptation to aquatic life. 

The rhinarium itself is peculiar in other respects when 
compared with thatofViverrincand Paradoxurine Carnivores, 
though recalling the rhinarium of some genera of the latter 
category in the nearly horizontal extension of its inferior 
border and the deep median groove marking its anterior 
surface and the fore part of its upper surface. The infra- 
narial portion of its anterior surface is, however, very shallow 
or short ; and from its widest part above, the lateral margins 
of the rhinarium are strongly inclined inwards and back- 
wards, so that its slightly concave posterior border just behind 
the posterior notches of the two nostrils is less than half its 
greatest width. The nostrils themselves are long, and con- 
iform in shape to the curvature of the lateral border of the 
rhinarium. Externally they are bordered by the thickened 
rim of the rhinarium, and this thickening is carried round 
their narrowed posterior portion on to the inner or ad- 
median side. Their appearance suggests that they are 
strongly valvular fur the exclusion of water. 

Vibrissa. — The thickness, length, and abundance of the 
facial bristles have attracted attention from the first, but 
they have not always been accurately described. Mivart, 
for example, says there is a bunch below each ear. This is 
repeated by Sanyal, who adds that there is an intermediate 
set on each side of the nose between the eye and the lip. As 
a matter of fact, the tufts of vibrissse are typically Carni- 
vorine both in number and position : that is to say, they 
resemble in those respects the vibrissae of all the Cynoid and 
most of the iEluroid and Arctoid Carnivores, and belong to 
the following categories — mvstacial, submental, superciliary, 
interramal, and genal (Pocock, P. Z. S. 1914, p. 901). The 
upper genal tuft is in front of the base of the ear and the 
lower some distance behind the corner of the mouth. 
Neither of the two genal tufts on each cheek is below the 
ear, and the "intermediate set" mentioned by Sanyal are 
the uppermost bristles of the mystacial series. 

The carpal vibrisscp are absent, an unusual feature in this 
group of Caruivora. 



I 



Exlernal Characters of Gy\\o^'A^ihc\\n^'i\\\. 355 

Ear (PI. XIV. fijc. 3). — Tlio pinna, .is (lcscril)cd by others, 
is small, but its upper margin is slij^Mitly anj^ular, not evenly 
rounded as stated by Saiiyal. The cartila<;inous ridges and 
flaps rouiul antl above the meatus resend)le elosely in a 
general way those of Genetta, as deseribed and fiu;ured by 
Mivart (l\ Z. S. 188.i, p. 517, i'v^. 12). The " autitragus^^ 
is well developed and "double," as Mivart says — that is to 
say, there is an upstanding erest on its inner side, with a 
fossa between. Similarly, the anterior basal ridge of the 
"helix" iornis a ridge on the inner side of the "tragus," 
and is sejjarated from it by a fossa. Above these lies the 
longitudinal erest ealled the " supratragus" by Mivart, 
the '^ plica principalis" by Boas, the '' antihelix" by otber 
writers ; the lobaie thiekeniiig of this is not well developed. 

Finally, the j)osterior mai'ginal poueh or bursa, well known 
in CanicUe and Felidic and deseribed l)y Mivart in Genetta^ 
is present, but its anterior edge is oidy lightly eoueavc and 
its posterior edge is continuous above with the posterior 
margin of the pinna, and does not arise behind it. 

When the ear is contraeted to exelude water, the meatus 
is closed by the "dovetailing" of the ridges in front and 
behind it, the antitragus fitting into the fossa l)etween the 
tragus and the lower or proximal ridge of the helix, and 
the latter into the fossa between the outer and inner moieties 
of the double antitragus. 

Mammce. — There are two pairs of abdominal mamma;, as 
in Puradoxwus, one pair set forwards a little behind the 
])osition of the diaphragm and the other towards the inguinal 
region on a level with the anterior junction of the integu- 
ment of the thigh with that of the body. 

As regards the number of young, the only available 
information, so far as I am aware, is that supplied by Cantor, 
who had two with the mother. Since there are also two 
with the female collected by Everett, it is safe to assume 
that that is the average number in the litter, though the 
teats afford provision for four. 

Feet (PI. XIV. figs. 4, 5). — Descriptions of the feet of 
Cijnoijale attest the belief that the digits, in conformity with 
the aquatic life of the animal, are provided with swimming- 
webs, while those of its Paradoxurine allies are unwelibcd. 
The growth of this belief is a curious instance of the result 
of copying and rcj)cating extant descriptions, with the addi- 
tion thereto of obvious inferences, without a check being 
put upon the statements by reference to actual specimens. 

Although in his original description of Cynoijuk (P. Z. S. 
1830, p. 88) Ciray said nothing about the feet, he subse- 



3.")6 Mr. R. I. Pocock oil some of (lie 

(Hicntly (Icsciibcd tlic tocsa'^ " lialf-wcbbed " (Cliailosworth's 
Mag. Nat. Hist. i. p. 579, 183"). Again, Eytloux and 
Soulcyet (Voy. de la ' Bonite,' i. p. 27, 1811)' wrote: — 
" Scs doigts sout palines antericureiueut et postorieuremeiit, 
mais ils sont pen allonges.^^ Later, (xray (P. Z. S. 1864, 
p. 521, aud Cat. Carn. Brit. Mus. p. 78, 18()9) described the 
toes as " being short, covered witli dense hairs and slightly 
webbed at the base " ; and certainly his omission to mention 
the webs on the feet of other Paiadoxurine civets justifies 
in a measure the conclusion that the webs are ])eculiar to 
Ci/tioffale. 

This conclusion was apparently drawn by Mivart, when he 
wrote (P. Z. S. 188.2, p. 172) :— " Its webbed feet, short 
tail, long moustaches, together with its exceptional upper 
lij), serve, however, to mark it as a vcrv distinct genus. '^ 
Blinford ('Mammalia of British India,'* 1888, p. 119) also 
referred to the webbed feet as a ])eculi;)rity. Flower and 
Lydekker, however (' Mammalia,' 1891, p. 535), with more 
caution, repeated verbatim Gray's description of 1864 : 
" Toes short, slightly webbed at base " ; but the second of 
these two authors (' Handbook to the Carnivora,' 1896, 
p. 242) introduced for this animal the trivial title " The web- 
footed Civet," and in his diagnosis of it said : — ''This genus 
may be easily recognized by the absence of a vertical groove 
on the upper lip, the short tail, the partially webbed feet, 
and by the under surface of the tarsus and metatarsus being 
ratlur less naked than in the Palm-Civets" — this last item 
being derived from Mivart's description of 1882. 

A knowledge of the facts enforces the conclusion that the 
authors quoted never compared the feet of Cynor/ale with 
those of its nearest allies, all of which, like most Carnivores, 
have the digits webbed up to the proximal end of the digital 
pads. An inspection of the feet even on a dried skin of 
Cynof/ale — from w hich the figure of the hind foot published 
by Mivait in 1882 seems to have been taken — shows clearly 
that the \\ebs do nut extend farther up the digits than is the 
case in Paradoxums, for example. More than that, I find 
that in the above-mentioned example in alcohol in the 
British Museum the ends of the digits project farther 
beyond the webs than in any genus of Paradoxurines known 
toine. The webs do not reach the proximal margins of the 
digital pads either in the fore foot or in the hind foot ; but 
what the webs lose in depth they gain in breadth. They 
are broader than in any other Paradoxurine or Viverrine 
genus, and the digits are capable consequently of wider 
lateral expansion. In that sense, and that only, are the feet 



Fxteriml C/ianic(ers of Cy\\o<^u\ii htMiiiottil. .'^">7 

moro \V(l)l)i'{l tliaii ill related <;cii('ra. Hut if Ci/nof/ale were 
known only from its feet, the iiin|)liil)iou8 habits of the genus 
could not he safely inferred from their structure. 

Tiic oft-repeated stateuieut that the dij,'jts are short is 
not true, if hy that is meant that they are shortiT than in 
allied forms. The |)ollex and the hallux are relatively lonj;er, 
and the remaiuiufij dij^its are certainly nc^t shorter, than ia 
other jjeuera of this ^roup. 

As reijards the nakedness of the soles of tlie feet, there is 
little, if auythiuj;, to choose between those of Ci/nitf/a/e and of 
PoffU'tia or Partidnxunis. IJroadly spcakiu'^, the feet are 
essentially Paradoxurine, as op|)oseil to Viverrinc, in the 
matter of ludcedncss — that is to say, iu the hind foot the 
Ijeel (tarsus) only is hairy, the whole of the underside of the 
metatarsus and the area surround iu<:j the plantar j)a(ls being 
naked. Similarly, iu the fore foot the nuked area of the 
carpal jjads is as wide and nearly as long as the plantar pad, 
and there is no hair anywhere between tiie edges of the webs 
and the posterior border of tin; carpal pads. In both fore 
and hind feet the lobes of the |)lantar pads are well developed 
and well defined by grooves from each other, the pollical and 
hallucal loi)es being large. On tlie fore foot the external or 
ulnar carpal pad forms a large prominent upstanding ridge. 
The inner or radial element lying behind the pollical lobe 
of the plantar pad is, on the contrary, scarcely deteeta))Ie. 
On the hind icct there are only very indistinct and broken 
ridges lying on each side of the metatarsus behind the 
plantar pad. On both fore and hind f c et the pads themselves, 
as well as the adjacent naked integument, are, comparatively 
speaking, smooth. 

The claws are not nearly so strongly curved as in the 
typically arboreal Paradoxurines, are iuiperfectly retractile, 
and are unguarded by skin-lobes or hairs at the base. 

As in mo?t Carnivora, the fore foot is broader than the 
hind foot. 

The sceiit-yland (PI. XIV. figs. G, 7, 8). — With regard to 
this organ, Mivart wrote iu 1882 : — '' I can find no record 
as to the existence of any pre^crotal gland or as to the con- 
dition of its anal region." I am not aware that the gland 
has been dcscriijcd, but it is unmistakably present in the 
adult female example above mentioned. 

The region of the anus and the vulva is covered by a 
continuous area of naked skin, irregularly piriform in outline. 
The vulva is at its anterior and the arms at its posterior end. 
The former orilice is considerably closer to the latter than 

Ann. tC- M-uj. A', lliu. Sci. S. Vol. xv. 2t 



Ii53 Mr. R. I. Pocock ou some of the 

in the majority of Paradoxuvinps^ but not in all, and tlic 
vulval area is defined ironi the anal and glandular area bv 
a shallow marginal constriction of tlie naked integument. 
Almost midway between the anus and the vulva there is a 
pair of small pits or depressions in the skin, each of which 
was plugged with a hardened piece of amber-like secretion. 
Tliese pits are shallow, and individually are smaller than the 
orifice of the vulva Immediately behind them there is a 
shallow transverse crease in tlie intenument ; but the glan- 
dular area, as a whole, is in no sense iuvaginated or provided 
with distinct upstanding labia. 

In the young female the snbcircular anal area is more 
sharply defined from the vulval area, the marginal constric- 
tion being deeper, and the glandular orifices are sunk in a 
short transverse depression passing across the naked field 
from angle to angle of the constriction. 

In the young male the penis is elongated and distally 
pendulous, an unusual feature in the Paradoxurine group. 
It is hairy at the sides, more sparsely hairy below, but naked 
round the prepuce. Passing backwards from the base of the 
penis between the two halves of the scrotum to the naked 
circumanal area there is an elongated naked tract of skin 
showing in the middle line traces of three shallow depres- 
sions, which are probably incipient glandular pits. This 
division of the scrotum into two quite distinct, somewhat 
widely separated testicular sacs is a very curious character. 
That it persists in the adult, however, is quite clearly shown 
on one of the skins in the British Museum, namely, the type 
described by Gray, which, furthermore, appears to have been 
provided with a naked glandular area like that of the young. 

The anterior of the three median glandular pores above 
described is very small and close to the base of the penis. 
The posterior, which is considerably larger, lies nearly 
opposite the middle of the two halves of the scrotum. The 
intermediate, a little more conspicuous than the posterior, 
and, like it, surrounded by a low integumental rim, is 
situated about midway between the other two. 

This discovery of the scent-glands in Cynoyale fully 
explains the following passage in Sanyal's account of a living 
specimen, and substantiates the truth of the claim made 
therein : — " The presence of a strong civet-like smell near its 
cage,especiallvat night, unmistakabl vindicates the possession 
of odoriferous' glands'^ (P. Z. S. 189 J-, p. 297). 

From the foregoing account it will be clear that the 
glands of this animal are of a very simple type. They are 
simpler, indeed, than the glands of any Paradoxurine known 



E.rlernal C/iaracters of Oyuogii\c hcuucit'ii. .3.>l) 

to nie tliiit possesses these orf^aiis. Hut wlicther the .simpli- 
city is to hi', assi^^iied to (It'^^ciicratioii coiiiu'ctcd with the 
al)('riant hahits ol" tlic animal, or wht'lhcr it is to he rc^iarcU-d 
as primitivi* and as indicatin<j an carlv stage in the c\ ululioii 
ot" the ghiiids, we shall, pci'haps, never know. 

Inferences as to Mode tf Life. — The records relating to tlie 
mode of life of Cynoyale were snmmarized hy Mower and 
Lydclvker as follows: — 'This is a cnricnis ottir-like modifi- 
cation of the Viverrine type, ha\in<; semi-acpiatio hahits, 
hoth swimming on the water and elimhing trees, living npou 
fi>h, Crustacea, small mammals, hirds, and fruit." This 
summary may, I think, he amplified hy a few inferences, 
justified hy some of the structural features ahovc described. 

Tlie formation of the feet, with their naked soles and 
s]uir|) partially retractile claws, confirms the testimony as 
to the climhing jjowers of the animal ; but the shortness 
of the tail suggests inferiority to the so-ealled palm-civets 
{Puradoj-nrus, Xandiniu), bintiirong [Arcticiis), etc., in scan- 
sorial skill aud activity. On the other hand, as com|)ared 
M'ith the otters, which, by reason of their long, loosely knit, 
widely webbed toe-;, sujjplied with comi)aratively weak claws, 
are but iiuliH'erent climbers, C>jn<)(jale is probaljly a slow 
swimmer, without the faculty of rapid turning in the water. 
These defects in aquatic agility are suggested particularly by 
the shortness and the absence of special muscular power in 
the tail, and to a lesser extent by the narrow ness of the hind 
feet aud the feeble development of their intcrdigital webs. 
The inability of C[ino<jale to overtake swift-swimming fishes 
under water may, therefore, be tolerably safely assumed. 

The teeth, especially the premolars, nevertheless, seem 
clearly to be adapted for seizing and holding slippery 
wriggling prey of that description, rather than for crushing 
the liard shells of freshwater crabs or molluscs, although 
the molars are doubtless capable of performing that otfiee. 
lience it may he supposed that most of the fishes preyed npou 
are captured after they have taken shelter (roiu the chase 
under the edge of a submerged rock, in crevices between 
large stones, or in holes iu the banks or the bed of streams. 
This supposition is borne out by the unusual development 
of the facial vibrissaj, not only upon the upper li[), but upou 
the cheeks, mcr the eyes, and uiulerneath the jaw as well. 
Having watched the retreat of a fish to its place of refuge, 
Cynoyule, 1 imagine, paddles (juictly to the s[)Ot to seize its 
j)rey while lying low, with its movements hampered in the 
confined space — a predatory device frequently practised by 
otters. The thickness of the vibrissae, as iu the case of other 



3(50 Mr. E. A. Smith on (he Genera 

piscivorous Carnivora, naturally keeps them erect and 
functional in the water, and their increase in length and 
number supposedly enables Vynogale to thrust its head with 
safety into the lurking-place of its prey, and to ascertain 
with accuracy the shape and size of the space, while a further 
function of the niystacial tufts is to supply information as to 
the exact whereabouts of the hidinsi fish or crab or mollusc, 
if these invertebrates form, as perhaps they do, a portion of 
its usual diet. 

From the upward aspect of the nostrils — a character in 
which these oritices surpass those of otters and seals, — it may 
be inferred that Cijnogale is in the habit of lying submerj;cd 
with only the tip of the nose ex|)()scd above the surface. 
Since concealment underwater can hardly be for tlic purpose 
of protection from enemies, its ol)ject may be assumed to l)e 
predatory ; and it may be suggested that the modification iu 
question — unique in its extent, I believe, in the Carnivora — 
is of service to Cynogole when lying in wait near tlie bank of 
a stream for small mammals or birds that may frequent the 
banks or come to drink. 

Iftliis be the correct interpretation of the facts, it helps 
US to understand the restriction to the head of practically 
all the evidences of the amphibious habits of Cijnogale. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIV. 

Fig. 1. ^IuzzIp and rhinariuni from above, sliowing the liorizontal and 
dorsal position of the nostrils. Tlie vibrissae of the left side 
omitted, tliose ot the ri^ht mostly cut .short. 

Fiff. 2. The same from the front, tlie vibrissie omitted. 

Fig. 3. The base of the ear. tr., tragus: ci.tr., antitragus; ff.^., anti- 
helix f supratragus) ; b., bursa. 

Fig. 4. Left fore foot from below. 1 and o, first and fifth digits. 

Fig. 5. Left hind foot fr.im below. 1 and 5, first and fifth digits. 

Fig. 6. Anal and genital area of adult female, a., anus ; gl., orifice of 
perfume-jrland ; v., vulva. 

Fig. 7. The smie of immature female. 

Fig. 8. Anal and genital area of immature male. fl.,anus; s., one sac of 
scrotum j gl., supposed pores of perfume-gland ; p., penis. 



XXXII. — On the Genera Eglisia, Callostiacum, ^[estilia, 
Tmriiellop.sis, and Tachyrhynchus. By Edgar A. 
Smith, l.S.O. 

Most of the species referred to in this paper have been 
referred to Turritella, EgJisia, or Mesada, some rightly 
located, others incorrectly. 



Ej^llsia, Cullustracuin, Mf.salia, itw .TGI 

Tt was tlioiiuflit, tlu'reforc, it nilglit be ust-fiil to biing 
to<;etlu'r a li^t of the ik'scribcj spctios, <^iviii<^ ratlier nume- 
rous r«'feiences, and to assign tlu-su various tonus to what 
appears to be tiuir true generic position. 

It is nnfoitunute that the animals of /♦-j^rZ/.s/a and of the type 
of Mesa/ia are unknown, and consequently it cannot be stated 
with certainty whether their relationship is nearest to the 
'J'uriittllithe or Epiloniitlaj. 

EgmSIA, Gray. 

1840. Eylisia, Gray, Synopsis CoutentM Ihit. Mas. 1840, p. 147 (name 

only). 
1842. Ei/li.*ia, iil. op. cit. ed. 44, p. 01 (nsime only). 
1847. Eijli-fla, id. Proc. Zool. Sue. 1847, p. loo. For Turbo stituralis 

(Gray). Wood. 
1^4!). Eijtisia. Reeve, Conch. Icon. vol. v. 

18">4. Etili-sia, II. & A. .•\dnin.s, GontTii Ilec. Moll. vol. i. p. 354. 
18o7. Eijlisia, Gray, CJuide .M.ll. Brit. Miis. p. 110. 
18o!>. EijUsia, Cheiiu, Man. Cunchyl. vol. i. p. 318, as subjrenus of 

TurritjUa. 
18.52. Eylfsia (.<iic), Sowerby, Conch. Man. p. 140. 
1878. Eylisia, Kobclt, llliist. Conchyl. p. 138. 
1883. Ef/li'<ia, Tryon, Struct. Syst. C'oncL. vol. ii. p. 224. 
188.5. Eylisia, Fischer, Mun. Conch, p. 778. 
1887. Eylisia, Tryou, Man. Conch, vol. ix. p. 61. 

The first description * o£ this genus is that given by Reeve, 
but its institution should date from 1847, in wliicli year Gray 
associated with it the Turbo suturalis oiWooiX^ but unaccom- 
panied by any description. Nothing is known of the animal, 
or hitheito of the operculum, and consequently its systematic 
position could not be determined. It lias been placed in the 
Turritellidte by H. and A. Adams, Gray (18.57), Chenu, 
S. Woodward, Kieiier, Kobclt, Duiiker, Pactel, Boog 
^^'atsoll. 

Tryon and Fischer located it in the Epitoniidte ( = Scala- 
riidse). 

In describii'g Eglisia cnmiiujii {=■ tricar innta, Ad. & Rvc.) 
A. Aflains remarked : — " The obscure longitudinal v.irices 
show tb'' true position of this genus to l)c between Tarri- 
tella and Sad iria.^^ Similar " obscure longitudinal varices " 
occur in E. sj>iral(i, the type of the geiius^ an<l iaxceohtta, 
live., but they are merely the remains of former outer lips, 
niaiking periods of arrested growth, and not, as in «ScVf/a»-m, 
seiving as ribs for the strengthening of the shell. Marks of 
an estcd growth may be observed in some of the Turritellas, 

• The few words given by Gray in the ' Synopsis Contents Brit. Mus. 
ed. 44, p. (51, do not constitute a doscriplidii, since no species is quoted. 



3C.2 



Mr. E. A. Smith on the Gen'i. 



but, being tliinner shells, they have the appearance of cracks 
lather tliaii varices. 

The general form of tlie sliells and the spiral liration or 
carinatioii, and also the coloration, show relationship with 
TunittUa rather than with Epitonium, and the only concho- 
loi^ical difference occurs in respect of the aperture. In 
Ei]lisia the pt^ristome is distinctly continuous, as in E, spi- 
rala and tricurinnia, or the columella is joined to the outer 
lip by a thin callus as in lanceolaia and elegans. Tiie arched 
columella also is thickened and reflcxed. 

In 2'urritella the columella is thin and usuall}^ separated 
from the end of the outer lip. Occasionally, however, a thin 
connecting callus is present in some species. 

Another feature common to all the Eglisias is the base of 
the body-whorl being marked off by a keel and the very fine 
sculpture upon it, of quite a dill'ereut cliaracter from that on 
the rest of the shell. 

I am now able, through the kindness of Mr. J. R. Le B. 
Tomlin, who possesses a specimen of E. spirata with the 
operculum in situ, to describe that feature. 

It is horny, roundly ovate, almost black, and consists of 
about 3-4 not clearly defined, very rapidly increasing whorls, 
the pit-like nucleus being markedly excentric. It is slightly 

Fi<r. 1. 




concave externally and sculptured with well-marked very 
arcuite lines of growth. In fact, it closely resemhles tiie 
ojjercula of Epitvniian and Meaaha, both of which are 
paucispiral, and not multispiral as in Turritella*. 

EgJisia spirata (Sowerby) . 

1825. Turritella spirata, Sowerby, Cat. Tankerville, Appendix, p. xiv, 
184!). E'jlisia spirata: Keeve, Conoh. Icon. vol. v. pi. i. fig. 1. 
18o2. E(/lesia (sic) spirata : Sowerby, Conch. Man. p. 337, pi. xxviii. 
lig. o{i2. 



* Since the above was in type, I have heard from Professor H. M. 
Gwatkin that, judging from the radiila, " EfjHsia spiiata is a clear 
iSffl/flr/o." 



Eglisln, Callostraciini, ^losalia, dc. .'>63 

18'')4. EijUsia tpirata : II. & A. Ailama, Geu. Kec. MdII. vol. i. p. 3oi, 

pi. xxxviii. ti;r. 5. 

18.")7. Ju/liitia spiratn: (tray, Ciiiide Mull. Brit. Mus. p. 110. 

IBoi*. TuniteUa ( E/lisitt) njn'rata : Cheiiu, Man. Concuyl. vol. i. p. 318, 

fifr. 2-'H7 (in p. .•{17. 

1878. l\(jlisia gphfitit : Kubelt, lUust. Conchyl. p. 138, pi. xlix. R^. !). 

If87. IJfUaia spiratti : Tryou, Man. Conch, vol. ix. p. bO, pi. xviii. 

182y. Turbo suturalU, Wood, Index Te.«t., Suppl. p. 20, pi. vi. fijr. 41. 
1834. Tiiirifcl/(i siifurna/ii(s'u'), Sav. ; CJrillith & Pidg^-on, Auini. King. 

vol. xii. p. t')(M), jil. xiii li^'. •'). 
18-W. Tunitrlla mturalit! : Kit-ner, Coq. Viv. p. 2(3, pi. ix. fig. 1. 
1897. MeK'i/ia ? nuturn/iM -. Ktibelt, Couch. Cab., Turritella, p. 74, 

pi. xxi. figs. G, 7 (after Kieuer^. 

Huh. The I^slancl St. Thomas ( '^owerly) ; Moa.satnedes, 
Aiio[c)hi {in coll. J. R. Le B. Tomlin). 

Tins, the hugest species and the type of the p;cnu.=i, is 
di.stingui.shable at a ghiiice by tlie wliorls being flattened or 
channelled above in such a remarkable manner. 

The geograpiiical distribution of this species has hitherto 
been uncertain, since the only h)calities quoted were " I'he 
I-hmd St. Tiioinas " (^Soioerb//) and Japan [Kohelt *). 
Mr. Tomlin has a specimen, with the operculum, from 
Mossamedes in Angola, which he obtained direct from that 
place. It therefore ;?eems fairly certain that Sowerby's locality 
was the St. Thomas Island in tiie Gulf of Guinea, and that 
Kobelt was wrong in quoting Japan. 

In the third edition of Argenville's * Conchyliologie ' 
(1780), pi. xl. fig. J 3, this species is figured, with forms of 
Terebra, Cerithiuin, &c., merely under the general term 
"Vis'' (screw-shell.-). 



Eylisia Iricnrinata, Adams & Reeve. 

1840. Eglisia trifarinata, Adams & Reeve ; Reeve, Conch. Icon. vol. v. 

sp. 3, de.«cribed, but not figured. 
1850. EylUia tricarinata, Adams & Reeve, Zool. ' Samarang,' p. 40, 

pi. xii. fig. 8 (enlarged). 
18-0. Turritella {Eylisia) tricarinatn : Watson, Gasteropoda ' Chal- 
lenger,' p. 479. 
1887. Eylisia tricarinata : Tryon, Man. Conch, vol. ix. p. 86, pi. xviii. 

tig. fiO (copy of Ad. & Rve'). 
189d. Eylisia tricarinata : Mehill & Sykee, Proc. Malac. Soc. vol. iii. 

p. 3.0, pi. iii. fig. 0. 
18-50. Eylisia cuminyii, A. Adam?, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 204; Ann. & 

Mag. Nat. Hist. 1851, vol. viii. p. 499; Petit, Journ. de Conch 

vol. iv. p. 205 (1853), 



« llhist. Conchy lienbuch, p. 138. 



;^C)4 ^Ii. E. A. Siiiltb on the Genera 

1807. TurritiUa lepfomita, Molvill i^- Sykes, Proc. Make. Soc. vol. ii. 

p. 171. pi. xiii. tips. 1:2, Via, vol. iii. p. .">"). 
19C)1. i:gli$ia leplomitu, Melvill & Stauden, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1901, 

Tol. ii. p. 357. 

Ilah. China Sea {Ad. Ss Fvr.) ; oflf :\lalanipa Island, 
Basilan Strait, Pliilippiiies, 10-20 I'atlioms (Watson) ; Ja])an 
{A. Adams) ; Andaman I.<. [Melci// St' St/kes) ; Pei>ian Gulf 
and Arabian Sea, west of Bombay (Melvill <Ss Standen). 

This species is smaller than E. spirata, has fewer spiral 
threads, and the whorls are not tabulated or channeled at 
tiie u|>per ])art. The figure in the ' Samarang,' like others 
on tiie same plate, is greatly enlarged, the type being only 
28 mm. in length, and that given by Melvill & iSykes in 
lfc'98 was taken from Adams's type of E. cumingii. In 
Dr. J. E. Gray's collection, preserved in the British Museum, 
is a still larger specimen, which, if the spire were perfect, 
would mea.sure 40 mm. in length, and its last whorl is 
11'25 mm. in width. It is worthy of notice tiiat even a 
greater disparity in size occurs in specimens of Mesalia 
brevialis. 

With regard to E. leptomita, I have no hesitation in 
regarding it as identical with tn'carinata^ notwithstanding 
tiie reujarks offered by Messrs. Melvill, Standen, and Sykes. 
Tiiey ob.serve that " tlie type has five c;iriii£e at least on tiie 
last whorl, and ' tricar (nata^ is therefore an inappropriate 
name." On reading the original description, it is seen that 
this character is an allusion to the three priiicij)al keels on 
the upper whorls, and the authors, Melvill & Sykes, employ 
the same word in the description of leptomita. They say 
that the last whorl is " quiidricaiinato.'^ This is incorrect, 
for an examination of their type shows that there are six 
carinse, as described by A. Adams in E, cumimjii. There 
are four principal keels, and above these two others, the 
upper one nearly at the suture, which consequently is chan- 
nelled. 

In the Proc. Zool. Soc, ]\Ielvill & Standen observe that 
" tlie extremes seem distinct from E. carinata, Ad. & Rve., 
but the sj)eties is evidently, though rare, \i^\y widely distri- 
buted, aid intermediates may, in time, be found to occur." 
The italics are mine. Since I can discover no differences in 
leptoniita, the future need not be taken into consideration. 

Turrilella cunsperso, Adams & Reeve, placed by Tryon as 
a variety of the present Sjiecies, is a true Tunitdla, and 
entirely distinct in every respect. 

Protoma pulchnon, Sowerby, from Sierra Leone (Pioc. 



Eglisiii, Ciilloatracnm, Mt-aalin, S,-c. PCij 

Elaine. Soc. vol. vi. |>, 281, fi;;. 5), lins soinowliat tlio frfJioral 
nspict of K. (ricaiiivita. It is a true TurrittUu^ allied to 
T. knysnaensis, Krauss. 

Eglisia Ia})ce<>Iafti, Reeve. 

1849. F.filifin hmcrolatn. Reeve, Conch. Fcou. vol. v. pi. i. fi<r.s. 2 a, 2 A. 
18")9. Turrifi'l/a {JC(//uti(t) lana-o/ata : C'Ih-iiu, Man. Cuucliyl. p. 317, 

^i^r. 2288. 
1887. Eijlisia lanceolata : Tryoii, Man. Cuiich. vol. i.\. p. 80, pi. xviii. 

lig. 69 (after Keevo). 

JLdi. Pasacao, I.slaiul of Luzon, Philippine.*', in sandy mud 
at a do|)th of 10 fatlioiiis {Reeve). 

'I'o the ile.sciiption ^fiven liy Keeve it may be added that, 
bc.><idi'.s the "obscure lonj^itudiiial vaiice.s" which occur 
inci^ulaily up the spire, the base of the body-whorl is of a 
uniform darker brown tint than the rest of the shell. 

Ej/Iisia eh'gtniSj Mtdvill. 

1909. Ei/lisiu clejans, Melvill, Trans. Liuu. Sue, Zool. vol. xiii. p. 84, 
pi. V. tig. 7. 

Unb. Sava de Maiha Banks, Station C J, 150 fathoms 

(Mil rill). ' 

Tills locality is situated in the western jiart of the Indian 
Ocean, S.E. of the Siychelles Islands. 

This pure white shell exhibits at irregular intervals 
"obscure lonffitudinal varices" (former lip?*), and the 
colunndla is united to the end of the outer lip by a thin 
callus. 

Caf.lostracum, Smith. 

Cil/osfracinn, Smith, Ann. & Mat;. Knt. Hist. 1009, vol. iv. p. 229. 
Umithia (prt-nc), Maltznn, Kacnrichtsblatt deutsch. uialak. Uesell. 
1883, p. 97, tig. 

Tliis genus has been placed in E</lisia by Tryon, and con- 
sid'Tcd a seciion of it by Fischer ; but, in my oj)inion, it 
should be held distinct, since the character of the aperture is 
considerably diflerent, and the operculum is described as 
multispiral, with tuljcentral nucleus. 

Callostracum gracile (Maltzan). 
Smilhia gracilis, Maltzun, /. c. supra. 

IJah. North side of the Island of Gorce, Scnegambia, 
W est Alrica (Mullzan)^ 



3G6 



^Ir. E. A. Smith on the Genera 



The followiiifT species liave been placed in Er/Ilsia, but 
they 00 not in reality belong to that genus: — 

1. /■(jU''iit s'lhdecussadi (Cantraine), Fi-selier, Actes See. Linn. 

Hordeanx, vol. xxvii. j). 115 (18G9). 

This species is now referred to Mesalia. 

2. E(jlisia nincandrecc, H. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18G5, 

p. 753. 

Regarded as a variety of Mathilda quadricarlnata (Brocchi), 
and placed in the Pyramidellidre. Sacco has created a 
family Mathildidae for this genus. 

3. TunheUa [Ei/lisia) si/mmetrtca, llutton, Cat. Marine 

M.dl. New Zeal. p. 30 (1873). 
Eglisia symmetrica, id. Journ. de Concb. 1878, vol. xxvi, p. 29. 

This is a true Turrittlla. 



18J0. Mesalia, 
1842. Mesalia, 
1847. Mesalia, 

Desh. 
1849. Mesalia, 
1852. Mesalia, 
1854. Mesalia, 
1857. Mesalia, 
1859. Mesalia, 
1878. Mesalia, 
188.3. Mesalia, 
1885. Mesalia, 
1887. Mesalia, 



Mesalia, Gray. 

Gray, Synop;is Contents Brit. Mus. p. 147 (name only). 

id. op. cit. ed. 44, p. 01. 

id. Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 155. For Turritella mesal, 



Reeve, Conch. Icon. vol. v. 
Sowerby, Conch. Man. ed. 4, p. 200. 
H. & A. Adams, Gen. Kec. Moll. vol. i. p. 
Gray, Guide Moll. Brit. Mus. p. 111. 
Chenu, Man. Conchyl. vol. i. p. 317. 
Kobelt, lllust. Conchylienbucli, p. 138. 
Tryou, Struct. Syst. Conch, vol. ii. p. 224. 
Fi>cher, Man. Conchyl. p. 694. 
Tryon, Man. Conch, vol. viii. p. 193. 



353. 



As in the case of Eglisia^ the introduction of this genus 
must date from 1847, when a species was first associated 
with it. 

Gray (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 155) quoted, as examples 
of his genus, Cerithium mesal, Aclawsow =^ Turritella mesal, 
Deshayes, a Turritella sp., and T. sulcata, Lamk. He 
evidently considered the shell described by Adanson as the 
type of his genus, since he founded the name upon that 
.'Species. Jeffreys*, therefore, was quite wrong in stating 
tliat " the type of Gray's genus is Turrittlla sulcata of 
Lamarck, a Grignon or Eocene £ issil." 

Mesalia may be separated from Turrilellahy ceitain features 



* Troc. Zool. Soc. 1884, p. 132. 



Kglisii, Callostracnm, iSIe-iali}-, i(c. .^07 

in tlic aperture and tlio operculum, wliicli is pauci.spiral, like 
Littorina, and not multi.spiial, as in Turriulli. 

The fi;rurcs in Adams ((Jenera Recent Moll. vol. iii. 
pi. xxxviii. fig3. 4a, 4ih) icpresent tlie operculum of the 
genus Turritella, and not that of Me.salia. 

Tliis inistako led Dall * into the error of statin;? that the 
opercula of Meaalia and Tar/ii/rhj/nchua {Menalia reticulata) 
jueaentel no difference. The liict is, that of the former con- 
sists of four or five rapidly enlar^'^ing whorls with a somewhat 
excentric nucleus, whereas that iu tiie latter genus is inulti- 
Hj)iral, with central nucU-us. 

The opercula of typical examples of }f. brevidlis, from 
Goree, in the British Museuu), are almost black, rather con- 
cave externally in the dried state, aud consist of four or five 




rapidly increasing volutions, somewhat carinate at the suture 
towards the det p nucleus, and with a raised spiral thread 
upon them wliicli dues not extend to the last two large whorls. 

MfsaHa hrcv'uihs (Lama:ck). 

l"o7. Cerithiitm mesal, Adanson, Hist. Xat. Senegal, p. xcv, Le Mesa], 

p. lo9. pi. X. 
1822. Turritella breciaUs, I>aniftrck, Anim. sans vert. vol. vii. p. o8. 
164"}. Tiarittlla brevialis: Kieiier, Coq. Viv. p. 40, pi. xii. tigs. 1, 1 a. 
1843. Turritella viesal, Desbayes, Auiui. sans vert. ed. 2, vol. ix. 

p. 2G1. 
1847. Mesalia meml : Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1847, p. 155. 
1849. Mfsalia brerittlvi: Keeve, Conch. Icon, vol. v. pi. v. fig. 10 o 

{Turntelia), fig. 2 A {Meitalia). 
1852. Mesalia brevialU : Sowerby, Conch. Man. ed. 4, p. 201, pi. ixviii. 

ti^'. 691. 
1854. Mesalia brevialia : II. & A. Adams, Gen. Rec. Moll. vol. i. p. 354, 

pi. xxxviii, fig, 4, shell (4 a, 4 6, represent the operculum of 

Turritella). 
1857. Mesalia brerialis: Gray, Guide Moll. Brit. Mus. p. Ill, 
1859. Mesalia brevialia : Chenu, Man. Concb. vol, i. p. 317, figs. 2284, 

2285. 



* Amcr. Journ. Conch, vol. vii. p. 1U<. 



3G8 



^Ir. E. A. Smith on (lie Genera 



I 



1878. Aftsalia brcrialis : Kobelt, Illust. Conchyl. p. 138, pi. xlix. fig. 3, 
1887. Mrsii/ia l/itvialis : Trvou, Alim. Conch, vol. viii. p. L'O!), pi. Ixv. 

fiors. L>8-1>1). 
1897. Mtsulia brecialis: Kobelt, Concli. Cub., Turritella, p. 71, pi. x.\i. 

tigs. 1-3. 

Hub. Goree, Senegal, Sierra Leone. 

Var. van'a. 

1843. Turritella varia, Kioner, Coq. Viv. p. 42, pi. ii. figs. 3, 3fl, 3 b. 
1849. J/c,sfl//(/ brcn'al/s (piirtiui): lleeve, Conch. Icon. vol. v. tig. 2 a. 
1887. Mesalia brcvialis (partini) : Trjou, Man. Couch, vol. viii. pi. Ixv. 

tig. 27 (after Keeve), ti"-. oO (after Kiener). 
1897. Mesalia variu : Kobelt, Couch. Cab., Turritella, p. 72, pi. xxi. 

tigs. 8-11. 
1002. Mesalia varia, var. imbricata, Pallarv, Jouru. do Couch, vol. 1. 

p. U5. 

Hah. Mogador, Tangier, Algcciras. 



Xiw. freytayi. 

1884. Mesalia freiftnyi, Maltzan, Nachrichtsblatt deutsch. malak. 
Gesell. 1884, p. U8. 

llah. Goiee, Seneorambia. 

AVIiether M. hrevialls should be divided in two or more 
species seems somewhat doubttui, but, from the material 
examined, I have been unable to tind a parting-line ot sepa- 
ration between the typical very large form, which seems to 
be restricted to the Senegambia region, and the smaller var. 
varia, found at Mogador, Tangier, and South Spain *. Tiie 
ditference in size is enormous, but tiie .sculpture, although 
vaiiable in strength, is oi' the same character and tlie oral 
features are similar. 

Tne typical form is well figured by Kiener (pi. xii. fig. 1), 
and the upper portion of his figure answers exactly to La- 
marck's description "anfractibus convexis, laivibus, prope 
marginem superiorem uni.-iulcatis " and " elle est tort rac- 
courcie, relativement k sa grosseur. Longueur, 2 pouces.'' 

Another large form is that figured by lleeve {Turritella, 
pi. v. tig. IG h). It is narrower and distinguished by finer 
i>piral3 than the type. The variety varia is also finely 
lidged, but smaller ; however, intermediates in size occur. 
M. freytagi has very convex whorls, most of which are 
bicarinate and display more colour-markings. 

Turritella caribcea, d'Orbigny, said to be from Cuba, was 

* Hidalgo has expressed a similar opinion (Journ. de Conch. 1867, 
vol. XV. p. ;J94). 



Egli»iii, Cullostincuin, Mcsalia, tfr. 300 

f'Hnulf<l (in n unique worn slwll, now in tlic Britisli Museum. 
It has been consijcied by Tryon identical with the variety 
vdiia. ()vvin<^ to the hal condition of the shell it is in>- 
possible to speak with certaintv, but I am inclined to think 
he is rii^hf, m which case the West -Indian locality becoinea 
verv doiiblt'id. 

TurritcUa opnlinn, Ad. Si Uve.*, s:ii(l to be from the 
C)hina Sea, agrees exactly with the upper portion of a typical 
hrevial'is. The fine spiral striation i^ precisely the sann* and 
the style of niarkinifs (i-XH(r«5 rated in the much enlarged 
figure) is quite simihir. I am therefore inclined to believe 
that some mistake has occurred in regard to the locality f* 

Jeffreys states that TnrritAht sutundis of Forbes J, from 
the iEgean Si'a, is the same as hrevi'iUx, Ueeve, partim 
( = var. vari'i), but the description given by Forbes is so 
inadequate that it becomes impossiide to recognize the shell 
he had before him, which is described as only j'*.^ inch in 
length I 

Mesali'a fam nngera, Locard. 

1897. Mexnliii fnmmigern, Locard, and var. timpl^x, Expt?d. Sci. 
' Travailleiir ' et ' Tiiliaman,' Moll. teat. p. 390, pi. .vviii. iigs. 18-22. 

ILth. Deep water. "A I'ouest du Sahara" [Lncanl). 

This may be a deep-water form of .1/. hievlalis,\\\{\\ tJatter 
whirls than the typical form, and somewhat narrower also. 
As regards sculpture and coloration, there seems to be little, 
it any, difference. Very few of the specimens of breviulm 
(typical) 1 have seen show any coloui -marking, but, when 
they so occur, tliey fake the form of longitudinal, reddish, 
undulating, irregular flammulations, as described by Locard. 

Mesulia pi'lchella, Pallary. 

1901. ^fesalia ptifchella, VaUary, Journ. de Conch, vol. xlix. p. 31o, 
vol. 1. p. 16, pi. i. figs. 10, 17. 

Ilab. Tangier. 

M. Pallary describes two varieties, var. fusca and var. 
vurirosa, diflfering from the type respectively in colour an I 
sculpture. 

The animal radula and opeiculum are unktiown, and from 
shell-characters this species might equally well be placed in 
2'urritei/opsiM. 

• Zool. ' SanmriAiij^,' M-.ll. p. •1>«, pi. xii. fig. 7. twice natural size of 
type in Hrit. Miis. 

' t Trvon plnr>-d this ppoeios in ^feltali^l, Man. .Moll. vol. \iii. p. I'lO. 
t Report Hrit. .\asoc. 184.J, p. 1M». 



370 Mr. E. A. Smith on the Genera 



Mesalia m"lanioide!>. Reeve. 

1S49. Meaalia melunioiile!^, Reeve, Couch. Icon. vol. v. pi. i. fipr. 3. 
1859. Turrit fUa {Mesalia) vielanoides (sic) : Chemi, ^lan. Uoncli. vol. i. 

p. 317. fifr. •2-l>^G. 
1887. TurrttcUn ( Mfsnlin^mvlannidcs (sic) : Trvon, Man. C' iiicli. vol. viii. 

p. 20.>, pi. Ixv. \vr, ',\-2 (after Reeve). 
18l>7. Mesalia m^lanoides (sic) : Kobelt, Conch. Cab., Turritel/a, p. 74, 

pi. xxi. lifT. i") (after Reeve). 
1913. Mesalia e.vilis, Sowerby, Ann. & Mag. Nat. IIi?t. vol. xii. p. 23(1, 

pi. iii. tig. 9. 

JI<ih. Unknown to Reeve. West Au>(traliji (^S )werhy) . 

Tliis specie.^, of wliich only the shell is known, has an 
altoiretlu'r different aspect from that of the type of Mesalia, 
iiaving flatter whorls and numerous oblique costai upon the 
upper part of the spire. The characters of the aperture, 
however, show that it is rightly placed in that genus. 

In de.scribing his M. exilis Mr. Sowerby ob.served : — "The 
actual position of this remarkable shell is uncertain, but I 
provisionally place it in Mesalia on account of the charac- 
teristic bas.il sinus." Such being his opinion, it is surprising 
that he did not refer to Reeve's Monograph of the genu<, 
published sixty-four years previously, or to other works 
describin<T Mesalia, issued in the interval. Had he done so, 
he could not have failed to identify the shell he proposed 
describing with Reeve's M. melanioides. Having compared 
the type of that species and the actual shell described as 
M. eailis, both bt-ing in the British Museum collection, I can 
testily with certainty to their specific identity. 

The figure in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, is not good ; 
it shows the whorls too convex, and the basal sinus to the 
aperture is badly depicted. 

Mesalia suhd cussata (Cantrainc). 

1837. Scalaria suhdeeussata, Cantraine, Opu«c. de Zool. et d'Anat. 

comp. p. 13 ; id. Make. M6dit. pi. vi. fig. 24 (1841). 
1849. Turritella incisa, Reeve, (-oiich. Icon. vol. v. pi. xi. fifr. 05. 
1851. Mesalia striata, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1851, p. 279. 
1855. Mesalia jilieata, A. Ad. op. cit. 1855, p. 123. 

1807. Mesalia striata: Hidalgo, .Tourn. de Conch, vol. xv. p. 394; 
Revista R. Acad. Cienc. Madrid, vol. i. p. 405 (1904). 

1808. Mesalia suhdeeussata : Weinkautf", Conch. Mittelm. vol. ii. ]). 323. 
1869. Eglisia suhdeeussata: Fischer, Actee Soc. Linn, liordeaux, 

vol. xxvii. p. 115. 

1877. A cirsa suhdeeussata: Jeffreys, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1877, 
vol. xix. p. 241. 

1878. Acirsa suhdeeussata : Montt rosato, Journ. de Conch, vol. .x.wi. 
p. 151. 

1884. Scalaria suhdeeussata: Jeffr'^ys, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 132. 



E^li.-i;i, Citllostrncum, Mesalia, ifc. .'571 

1801. Aa'rM suhdfnin»(ita : Locnrd, Coq. >fftriii. Fraiirn, p. ll'S, fi^'. 1 12. 
18'J7. Hcalaria (Acirsa) tuhdecusaatu : WaUiun, Joiini. Limi. Sue. 
vol. xxvi. p. 315. 

Ilab. Atlantic coj'sts of Franco an<l Spain, Mediterranean, 
^ladi'ira, and (Janaiie.s. 

I liavc conipart'fl the ty|)('s of Tnrritdla incisa. Reeve, 
recordfd as tVt)ni Sydney, Australia, and Mt-.sd/ia sirintn, 
A. Adams, stated to l)e iVom tin; Piiilijipiiu; Islands, with 
Mftliterran«'nn and Madciran spcciniens, and I am convinced 
of their identity. I there fore regard the localities given by 
Ueeve and Adams merely as fuither examples of errors of 
tliis kind which occur in the Cuinini^ collection, from which 
the s|)<-cies were desciihfd. It is included in Mr. \Vhitel<'gi;o's 
li.st of the fauna of Port Jackson* merely on Itccve'.s 
authority. 

According to Monterosato, the animal of this species 
resenililes IScalaria in the position of the eyes and the form 
of the tentacles, also in t;ie median loncritudinal (groove of 
the foot. The head has no cylinilrical and retractile proboscis. 
He described the operculum as horny, with a spiral nucleus, 
placed towartls the inner side of the mouth, and composeil 
of a small nuu)ber of whorls and marked witli strong lines of 
growth. Fischer also described the operculum as pauci- 
spiial, with a lateral nucleus like that of b'ca/an'a and Li/fo- 
rina. It will thus be seen that it agrees with that of the 
type of Mesa/la (.)/. brevlalis), which is incorrectly fi^rnretl 
as multispiral with central nucleus by II, & A. Adams (Gen. 
Rec. Mcll. vol. iii. pi. xxxviii. ligs, -ka, b), resembling that 
of Turritella. 

There are in the British Museum two specimens of 
M. hrevia/is, from Goree, with opercula wliich agree closely 
with that ot Epitoni'uvi (Scd/ariu) or Litlorina. The shcU- 
characti-rs of the present spicies [snhdecussata) differ from 
those of M. hievialis in some respects. The upper whorls 
are longitudinally costate, the outer margin of tlie peristome 
is not sinuated above, and the basal sinus is only faintly 
develojied. It agrees with ..1/. inelanioides in being longi- 
tudinally costate and the non-siimation of the labrum, but it 
has not the maiked basal sinus as developed in that species. 
Sinc<', however, so little is known at present with regard to 
the animals, I think it preferable to leave this species in 
Mesalia rather than Acirsa, or to create a new genua for its 
reception. 

• Journ. I'roc. Roy. Soc. N..S.W. vol. xxiii. p. 202 (18S9). 



372 



^Ir. Vj. a. Siniili on the Genera 



Mesalia iiitermfJiu (Desliayes) 



I 



1832. Tiinifella intermedia, Doshayes, Coq. foss. Environs Paris, vol. ii. 

p. 28'^, 1)1. xxxvii. W^s. 17, 18, pi. xx.vviii. iigs. 3, 4. 
1888. Turritella rohn^ta, iSowerbv, I'roc. Zool. Sec. p. 211, pi. xi. 

fiff. 18. 

1 liave included this Pari.s Ba.sin fossil in tliis list to call 
attention to tlie fact that the shell described a.s recent by 
]\Ir. Sowerby is merely a well-preserved and nicely cleaned 
specimen ot Deshayes's .sj>ecies. 

I perceived at a glance it was quite distinct from Turri- 
tella, and it occurred to me it miiiht be an extinct form, 
since it was so unlike any known living species. I therefore 
submitted it to Mr. R. Hullen Newton, who at once identified 
it with this species, lie kindly phiced a series of specimens 
at my di.-3posal for coini)arison and, consen[uentl3', I am in a 
position to confirm his determination. Mr. vSowerby's type, 
now in the British Museum, was, as might be expected, 
described without a locality. 

The figure of it is very crude and inaccurate, the whorls 
being represented too narrow and too convex, and contracted 
at the lower part. The labrum being broken b;ick some- 
what givfs t!ie mouth a rounder look than in perfect speci- 
mens, and the anterior or ba-ial sinus is less apparent. 

TuURITELLOrSIS, Sars. 

1878. Turritellnpsis, Sars, Moll. Reg, Arct. Norveg. p. 186 (shell and 

radula tiguied). 
1885. Turriielhpsis, Fiscber, Mau. Conch, p. 694, as subgenus of 

Turrifel/d. 
1883. Turrifelhpsis, Tryon, Struct. Syst. Conch, vol. ii. p. 224, pi. Isvii. 

tig. 56 (shell). 
1897. Ttirritellopsis, Ivobelt, Conch. Cab., Turritella, p. 67, pi. xx. 

figs. 10, 1 1 (shell ), regarded as a distinct genus. 

This genus in form and sculpture is very like Turritella^ 
but differs in repard to the character of the raduia. The 
opeiculum is circular, multispiral, with central nucleus. 

Turritellopsia acicida (Stimpson). 

1851. TtirriteUn acicula, Stimpson, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 

vol. iv. p. 15. 
IHol. Turritella acicula, id. Shells of New England, p. 35, pi. i. 

fig. 5. 

1870. Turritella acicula : Gould, Invert. Massachusetts, ed. 2, p. 319, 
fig. 588. 

1871. Mesniia acicula : Dall, Amer Journ. Conch, vol. vii. p. 118. 
1878. Turritellopsis acicula : Sars, Moll. Reg. Arct. Norveg. p. 180, 

pi. X. figs. 14, a h ; radiila, pi. vii. tigi?. 2, a~e. 



Eglidin, Callostiacutn, Mesiilia, >!)-c. 'M',\ 

1886. Tunte/la (Turritellopsis) ucicula: Tryoii, Mon. Conch, vol. viii. 

j>. 1?07. pi. Ixiv. t\g. V2. 
18!>7. 'I'lirntel/offsig ucicula : Kobolt, Coiirh. Cub., TunUella^ p. G7, 

pi. XX. figs. 10, 11. 

Ilab. Off Giaml Maiian, near Duck Islaml, aiul soutli of 
Cape Cod {Stimpson). Also recorded \\y other autlior.s tVoin 
Freiichmau'.s 15. ly, Labrador, &c. Vadso and Magciil, iioitli 
coast of Ni>r\vay (6'ar.v). 

The animal ot this species has not boon described, but the. 
operculum, according to Sans, is very thin, pellucid, and 
con.sist.s of about ten narrow and re<^uiar whorls. Dal I 
and Tryoji (/. c. tmpni) have su^'-^jrestod that Carpenter's 
^^ ? .]fes(iU<i tfnuiscul/>(a'^ *y from Calit'ornia, is the sanio as 
aciculd. Thi.s, in my opinion, is incorrect. The CaliLorniau 
shell is smaller, has a h.'ss tapering spire, and much iiner 
sculpture. At a mere glance it is seen to be distinct, and 
recalls very closely the general form of the type of Fenella 
to which (Jarpenter has made reference ; indeed, 1 tiiink 
it preferable to loc:ite it in that genus rather than in 
'lurritellopf.is. 

Turritellopsis (jralissima^ Thiele. 

1913. TiirrUellopsis gratissima, Thiele, Deutsch. Siidpolar-Exped, 
vol. xiii. p. 201, pi. xii. fig. 20, pi. xv. tig. 23 (radula). 

ILih. Antarctic \ Gauss' Expedition). 

According to Tliiele this species agrees practically iu every 
essential respect with Tun-itellopsis, and although the radula 
exhibits sniall dilTerences, it agrees with that of the boreal 
form {T. ucicula) in general character. 

Turritellopsis latior, Thiele. 
1913. Tttiritellopsis latior, Thiele, op. cit. p. 202, pi. xii. fig. 21. 

Ilab. Antarctic {''Gauss* Expedition), 

TaCHYRHYNCHUS, Morch. 

18G8. Tachtp'i/iichiai, Miirch, Amer. Joiun. Conch, vol. iv. p. 4G. 
1885. MesaJia {Tuchyrhijnchua): Fischer, Man. Conch, p. 004. 

Short descriptions of the animal of the type {T. retiailatu) 
are given by Morch & Jeffreys, and the operculum is said 
to be " horny, yellow, orbicular, with nine narrow turns, 
nearly Hat." To coniplete this description it is only neccssiuy 

• rroc. Calif. Acad. Mat. Sci. ISOC, p. 216. 
Ann. (0 Maj. S. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xv. 1^5 



374 



]\lr. E. A. Sinitli 0)i tJie Genera 



to add that the iiiickus is central, and, in character, tlie 
operculum is similar to that of lurrittlla, which is also 
multispiral, and not ]\aucispiral, like tliat of MiSalia. Tlie 
gemus will include Turiltella ?v'//e»Za/a, Mighels & Adams, 
2\ et-osn, Couthouy, 7'. enchrichiii, Middendorff, Mesalia 
lacteola, Carpenter. 

All of these species have an arctic appearance, being 
chalky white, and clothed with a thin yellowish-olivaceous 
periostracum, differing in this respect from Tui-ritella, which 
exhibits scarcely any traces of it, or might even be described 
as devoid of it. 

The radulfe of T. reticulata and T. erosa are of the same 
characttr as that of Tia-ri'tella, and the differences noticeable 
are ])robably merely specific. 

The base of the aperture in Tachyrhynchus exhibits more 
or less of a sinus, it being most distinctly shown in 2\ lacteola, 
Cpr. In Turritella there is no such euiargination oreffYision. 

Tachyrhynchus is at once separable from Mesalia by the 
different operculum, and its boreal ciiaracter. Like Turri- 
tella, Mesalia exhibits usually only very faint indications of 
tiie periostracum. 

Tachyrhynchus erosa (Couthouy), 

1838. Turritella erosa, Couthouy, Boston Journ. Nat. Ilist. vol. ii. 

p. 10.3, pi. iii. ii;^. 1. 
1S41. Turritella erosa -. Gould, Invert. Massachii.<!ett.<>, p. iiG7. 
1842. Turritella pularis (Beck MSS.), MiJller, ludex Moll. Greenland. 

p. 10. 
It'-lO. Turritella erosa : Middendorff, Malac. Koss. p. 68. 
18.52. Turritella erosa : Mcirch, Cat. Conch. Yoldi, p. 54. 
1857. Turritella erosa : Mcirch, Rink's Gronland, vol. ii., Naturhist. 

Bidra^S p. 82. 
1868. Tuvhijrijnchus erosa : ^MiJrch, Amer. Journ. Conch, vol. iv. p. 46, 

animal. 

1870. Turritella erosa: Gould, Invert, Massachusetts, ed. 2, p. 317, 
fig. 585. 

1871. Mesalia polaris: Dall, Amer. Journ. Conch, vol. vii. p. 118. 
1877. 'Turritella erosa : Jeilieya, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xix. 

p. 239. 
18c5o. Turritella erosa: Aurivillius, Vega-E.xped. vol. iv. p. 322, pi. xii. 

fig. 7, pi. xiii. fig. 17 (radula), 
1886. Turritella (Turritellopais) erosa: Trvon, Man. Conch, vol. viii. 

p. 208. 

Hah. Massachusetts {Couthouy S,- Gould) ; ]\laine {Blaney); 
Labrador (Bush) ; Greenland [MoHer) ; Davis {Straits 
(' Valorous'' Exped.) ; Nova Scotia {Brit. Mus.). 

The operculum of this species is described by Morch as 
similar to that of reticulata, and a specimen in the British 
Museum confirms his description : '' Horny, yellow, orbicular, 



Eglisia, Caliostracum, Mosalia, lic. 375 

witli niiio narrow turns, ncaily fl ii." It is also cliaractoriscJ 
by G«'ulil as " homy, inultispiml." 

JitVioy (/. c. su/>rii) has dt'.scril)i.'(l tlic Iivin<^ animal and 
also made sonn^ chsei vationa upon tlui coin|ju-tition of tlie 
shell unci its liability to corrosion. He di'-icribed the o[)er- 
culiun as 'Mound ami multispiral, with the nuchnis in the 
centre ; the ed'2;e3 of the wiiurls oveilap, as in 7'. terebra." 

I cannot, jud^in^ tVoru Middendorlf'.s description of 
T. eschiii-htli^ ai,Mee with Tryon (/. c. au^tra) tlhit il is synony- 
mous with the jiresent species. 

Tacky rhyiu'h us eschiiclitii (MiddendortF). 
1849. Turritvlla eschrichtii, MidJendorfF, Mulac. Koss. p. 68, nl. xi, 

1880. TurnteHa {Turntellopais) erosa (partim), Tryon, Man. Concb. 
vol. viii. p. 208, pi. Ixiv. fig. 14 (after Middeiuloiff). 

Hah. Sitka, Alaska [MiJdendvrjf ). 

This species is closely allied to erosa, but the wiiorls ar« 
^aid to be flatter, and apjjarently higher, since, if viewed 
dorsally, the last whorl, it is stated, equals almost one-third 
of the whole length of the shell, whereas in ero.sa it equ.ils 
only one-fourth. The base of the b .dy-whorl in the latter 
is abnost flat and circunisciibed by a distinct an;;le. In 
tsclirichiii, on the contrary, the periphery and base are 
rounded. The aperture is longer and oval, whilst in erosa it 
is shorter and rounder. Animal and operculum unknown. 

Tachyrhynchus reticulata (Mighels & Adams). 

1842 (January). Turritella reticuhita, Mighels & Adams, Boston Journ. 

Nat. Hist. vol. iv. p. 50, pi. iv. tij,'. lit. 
1S42. Turritella lactea, MoUer, Index Moll. GraMiland. p. 9. 
1^49. Mesnlia htdea : Keeve, Conch. Iron. vol. v. pi. i, fifr. 1 (enlarged). 
ls")7. Turritella reticulata : Miirch, Kink's Cironlaud, vol. ii., Naturhist. 

Bidrag. p. »2. 
18til. Turritella lactea: Troschel, Gebiss der Scbnecken, vol. i. p. 153, 

pi. xii. tigs, i:i-\•.^b. 
1808. Tachyrhynvhus reticulata : Morcb, Amer. Journ. Coucli. vol. iv. 

p. 40, animal. 

1870. Turritella reticulata : Gould, Invert. Massacbusetts, ed. 2, p. 318, 
tig. 580. 

1871. Mesalia reticulata: Dall, .\iner. Journ. Concb. vol. vii. p. 118. 
1877. Turritella reticulata: Jtffreys, Ann. v\l Mag. Xat. Hist. vol. xix. 

p. 240. 
1886. Turritella ( Turritellopsis) reticulata : Trjon, Man. Conch, vol. viii. 

p. 208, pi. Ixv. fig. 25, alter Reeve. 
1897. Turritello/min reticulata: Kobelt, Concb. Cab., 7'M;vjVe//a, p. 69, 

pi. XX. figs. 16, 17. 

Ilab. Gulf of St. Lawrence (.1/. cO Ad.) ; Labrador and 

E. Canada {Bush di U hitenves) : Greeidand {MoUpt). 

or.** 



37r» Mr. E. A. Smith on the Genera 

In (lie words of the original doscrihers of this species, it 
** is allied to T. erosa, Couth., but is easily recognizcfl by the 
lontritudinal ribs and by its more slender form" [Mi(jliels tfc 
Ada vis) . 

The two forms are considered by Aurivillius to constitute 
one species, and he describes and fit^ures a very ditTtrent 
shell under the varietal name declivis *. Jiuli^inLr from the 
figure, however, it certainly looks quite distinct. The whorls 
are remarkably convex, without spiral or longitudinal costse, 
and much higher in proportion to their width, and, in 
addition, the peristome is entire. Without examining a speci- 
men I must refrain from suggesting the generic position of 
this shell. 

Tachyrhynchus lacteola (Carpenter). 

1864. Mesalia lacteola, Carpenter, Report Brit. Assoc. 1833, pp. 603, 

655, name only. 
1805. Mesalia lacteola, id. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. p. 02. 

Hah. Puget Sound and Vancouver Tsl. {Gpr.). 

This species has been considered by Tryon synon3'moas 
with T. reticulata, but in my o})inion it is quite distinct. 
]3esides being smaller and shorter, the sculpture is more 
nodulous and the form of the aperture is different being 

Fie:. 3. 




produced and effuse at the base. The character of the 
operculum, however, at once distinguishes the species. It is 
horny, roundly ovate, but pointed above, slightly concave, 
consists of only 4-5 whorls, wiiich increase rather rapidly, 
are carinate at the sutures, and marked with conspicuous 
lines of growth, and the nucleus is a little excentric. As 
already pointed out, that of T. reticulata is circular, multi- 
spiral, consisting of nine whorls. 

♦ Vega-Exped. Vetensk. Jakttag. vol. iv. p. 324, pi. xii. tig. 9 (1887). 



Eglisin, Callostracum, Mesalla, iCr. ^57 7 

Tachyrhynchua suhplanata (Carpenter). 

ISfM. Menalia {? lacttula, vftr.) subphnata, Carpenter, Proc. Acad. Nat. 
.^ci. I'hilud. p. Q-2. 

lliih. Pu^rct Souinl, Washington Territory, West N. 
Amriica; also Neeali Bay (Cpr.). 

1 liavc not seiMi tlii.s 8lioll,aiiil therefore cannot express 
any opinion upon its specific value. The author of the 
species appears to have been doubttul upon thi-* point. 

TachyrhyucJius ? coslulatay Mii^hels & Adams. 

1842. Turritelln cottulata, Migheh & Adams, Boston Joum. Xat. 

Hist. vol. iv. p. oO, pi. iv. tijr. 'J^X 
1870. Turritflhi cuduhita : •iuiild. Invert. Massachusetts, ed. 2, p. 318, 

i\<^. 5S7, apparently after M. it Ad. 

ILih. Casco Bay, Maine, U.S.A. Taken from the stomach 
of a liadiiock {M. tt* AiL). 

This species, united by Tryon with 2\ reticulata, is evi- 
dently distinct. The fine longitudinal co.'^ta^ and microscopic 
spiral stri:o at once distinguish it from that form. Apparently 
a rare shell, and known to me only by the description and 
figure. 

A pseudo-Mcsalia. 
Mesalia decussata, A. Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc. ISol, p. 279. 

Hah. Island of Masbate, Philippines. 

The type of this species ia in the British Museum, and a 
careful examination of it proves that it belongs to tlie genus 
Morniida in the Fyramidellidae. 

The torm of the aperture, the character of the sculpture, 
and the thickening of the labrum (the previous labra forming 
varices at irregular intervals up the spire) are all features 
characteristic ot Mormula. 

Mr. J. R. Le B. 'i'omliii has shown me several specimens 
in his collection from Japan and Lifu, which confirm the 
distinctness of this species from Mormula rissoina of 
A. Adams*, also from Japan, to which it bears some 
resemblance. 

1 might here jxiint out that Ii'issoina rex, of Pilsbry f, 
is identical with Mormnla lissoimt. Evidently his 8j)eci- 
mens had not retained their heterostrophe protoeonch, and 
consequently he way nii>l«-d as rt-Ljards tlh-ir true generic 
location. 

• .loiirn. Liiin..S<»c. 18«>.'J, vol. vii. p. 1 ; .Smith, Ann. Natal (jov. Mus. 
vol. i. p. .'»1, pi. viii. \\\i. 2. 

t I'roc. .\cad. Nat. Sci. Philud. 1004, vol.lv. p. 27, pi. iv. fig.'». 42, 42 a. 



378 ^^y- n. A. l^nylis oh Inhahitanis of 



XXXTII. — A ritrafiiti'c Olifjochfelc, and othci' Tnhah'itanh of 
the Gill-chamhers of Land-crahs. By 11. A. BayliS, B.A. 

(Publiished by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

A SMALL Oligoclioete worm of tlie fiimily Encliytrfcidfip occurs 
frequently in consideralile iiunibers in the iiill-clianibers of 
the crab Ge'-arcniuH lagostoma in the island oi South 
Trinidad. Having been enjraged in the study of this species, 
for -whirli I have proposed the name Enchytranis cnrcino- 
jiliilus [2], it occurred to me that it might be of interest to 
examine the gill-chambers of other crabs of the family 
Gecarcinidre, with a view to finding out whether they 
harboured any further Oligochaites or other parasites. 

Tiuongh the kindness of Dr. W. T. Cahnan, I was able 
to examuie specimens in the British Museum bearing the 
following names: — 

Cardisoyna guanhumi, 

hirtipes. 

armatum. 

carni/e.r. 

sp. ? (Lagos, W. Africa). 

Ucides cordatiis. 

occidental is. 

(jrccarcinus lateralis. 

ruricola. 

quadratus. 

(jr( ca rcoidea Jalandii. 

The results of this investigation were as follows: — 

Orgatiisms which may possibly be regarded as ])arasit(s 
were found in only three ot the eleven species above named, 
viz. : — Cardisonia hirtipes, Gecarcimis quadratus, and Gecar- 
coideu lalaJidii. In Gecarcinus quadratus were found very 
numerous examples of a small Eiichytiasid worm, which 
proves to be specifically distinct from that already recorded 
as occurring in G. lagostoma, and which will be described 
below. 

In Cardisoma hirtipes and Gecarccidea lalandii the 
creatures found proved to be dipterous larvse of two distinct 
species, though it was found impossible to determine them 
precisely. 



\ 



the Gill-c/iumlers of Land-crahs, H79 

TIio fact.'', with localities, niny be shortly statt^ thus : — 

Cecarcinuft ijuadratus : from Clarion Island (Pacific). 

One specimen only examined. Very many small 
Oiii,M>cluvta lound on and among the gill-'. 

('(irJisoma hirtipes : (a) from the Admiralty Islands (' Clial- 
JengiT ' Collection). 

Twoont of throe specinHns examined had dipterous 
larvte in their gill-chambers. 

(/») from Christmas Island. 

One out of throe specimens had a fragment of a 
larva adhering to the ontsitle of it, near the lateral 
opening of the gill-chamber. 

Gecarcoidea Idhvidii'. from Christmas Island. 

Out of three specimens ono piovided three very 
small larva?. 

^Ir. F. W. Edwards, of the Entomological Department of 
the British I\[useum, who has examined the dipterous hirvEe, 
kindly supplies me with the following infoiination : — 

" Di|)teruus larva? from Caidtsoma hirtipes. — These larvae 
are evidently Syrphida^, and apparently Ixlong to the sub- 
tamily Eristalinai ; they differ from Eristalis in the more 
elongated form and the lack of any obvious separation into 
' body ' and ' tail.' 

" Larvje from Gecarcoidea lalandii. — These are also 
Svrphidaj, but in the present state of our knowledge it is 
impossible to assign them definitely to any subfamily. They 
apjx'ar to lack the (xtensile 'tail' of Eristalisy 

Wlicther these larvae ought properly to be considered 
] arasites of tlie crabs is, perhaps, a matter of doubt *. It is, 
of course, possible that they arrived in their gill-chambers 
accidentally. They may have wandered there from some 
decaying matter uj)nn which the crabs were feeding, according 
to their habit, or from the water of some stream entered by 
the crabs. According to Dr. C. W. Andrews [i], Cardisoma 
hirtipes (referred to under the name ot C. camifex) is never 
found tar from the streams in Christmas Island, and lives in 
burrows in the mud of the banks, and it wuul.l be rash to 

* It sbouUl bo borne in mind that there is n remote possibility that the 
eggs were deposited upon the crabs after death, in which case the larvai 
could not be called jarasites. 



3S0 Mr. II. A. Baylis on Inluililants of 

nssevt tliat Gecarcoidea lalandii, tliongh apparently a move 
laml-loving species, never enters fresh water. 

In anv case, however, whether the e<»;gs were deliberately 
dopositeil ill or near the gill-chambers by the t'emale Hy, or 
whether the larva; subsequently wandered into them, either 
accidentally or following some regular instinct, they would 
appear to have thriven there, and it is suggested as at least 
a possibility that tliey derived sustenance from the blood of 
the crabs, their chitinous "jaws" enabling them to puncture 
the epithelium of the gills or of the vascular lining of the 
chamber. 

With regard to tlie Oligoclinete worms, the case is even 
more puzzling, as they have not even jaws, nnd it is difficult 
to see what food, except, perhaps, mucus, they can obtain in 
such a habitat. The remarks made on this head concerning 
Knchytrmus carcinopJdlus [2, p. 14] apply equally to the 
present species, which 1 now proceed to describe. 

Enchytrceus parasiticus, sp. n. 

This form is evidently very closely related to the species 
{E. carcinophilus) described by me from the gill-cbambers of 
Gccarcivus lagostoma [2]. It differs from it, however, in 
certain features sufficiently to constitute a distinct species. 
In size it is considerably smaller than E. carcinophilus^ 
measuring only 8-9 mm. in length, or about one-quarter of 
the lengtli of a iull-grown specimen of the larger f^pecies. 
Its thickness is about 0*35 mm. The number of segments in 
several specimens in which they were counted was found to 
vary between 69 and 82. 

The chaetai are arranged, as usual, in 4 bundles to each 
segment, but there are invariably only 2 cha^tse in each 
bundle; they are simple, pointed, and straight. Segments i. 
and xii., as in the otlur species, are without bristles. 

There is a very marked ventral flexure of the anterior end 
of the worm, the prostomium being bent down into a vertical 
position, and the mouth being therefore quite ventral. This 
peculiarity was not observed in E. carcinophilus, but in the 
present species is so constant a feature that the specimens 
invariably lie on their sides, and can only with considerable 
difficulty be mounted in any other position. 

The clitellum is very feebly developed as compared with 
the larger species, it is, in fact, very inconsijicuous, but 
can be made out as a very slight thickening, containing 
glandular cells, extending from about the middle of seg- 



the O til-chambers oj Land-crabs. 381 

mojit xil. to the middle of xiii. in those specimens in wliich 
it i.H most dt'veloj)ed. 

The openinjrs of the mah; ducts are situated near tlie 
hinder end of scpjinei.t xii., on somewhat prominent 
"cushions." Their li|)s, however, are by no means so hirge 
and prominent as in E. carciuophili/s. 

The apertures o£ the sprrmatheciu lie, as usual, at the point 
of junction of segments iv. and v. 

Internal Anatomy. 

0\vi:i^ to the poor state of preservation of the material 
(with wliicli, of course, no troul)le had been taken, as the 
jiresence of the worms in the crab's gill-chunibors was pre- 
sumably unknown) it was not found possible to obtain good 
sections, and the account of the internal anatomy is necessarily 
incomplete. 

AVimentory Canal. — The mouth, as already stated, is 
situated ventrally. The buccal cavity leads, therefore, 
almost perpendicularly at first. It is very narrow dorso- 
ventrally (i". e. from front to back). The floor of it does not 
appear to be furnished with a tongue-like organ such as that 
seen in E. carcinophiliis. The pharynx has a large muscular 
pad in its roof, of a somewhat different shape from that of 
the other species. This has not been observed in an everted 
condition. No salivary glands have been seen. 

The septal glands are in three pairs, situated, as in the 
other species, in segments iv., v., and vi. But tlie first and 
st^cond jjairs form continuous masses passing completely over 
the dorsal side of the oesophagus, which at this point is very 
narrow. The third pair are smaller, and do not join dorsally 
in this manner. 

It has not been fuund possible to give an account of the 
blood-vascular or nephridial organs. 

The bruin is of a shape very similar to that of E. carcino- 
philus, the posterior border being nearly a stiaight line, with 
a just perceptible concavity. The nerve-cord presents no 
feature worthy of notice. 

(Jenital Orcjans. — The large sperm->ac3 occupy segments x. 
and xi., and have an extension anierioily into segment ix. 
The .-tiutture of the sperm-funncIs has not been made out, 
but the ducts, as in the other species, are very long and 
much coiled, and had to the base ot the muscular prominences 
on which the external spenniducal pores are situated. 

Tlie ovaries are situ.ited in segment xii., on tho septum 



382 On Tnhahxtants of the GiU-chamhers of Land-crahs. 

xi./xii. The ova, wlien liberated, are provided with a larojc 
supply of yolk. The oviducts have not been made out with 
certainty, but it is probable that they are, as nsual, simply 
outpushiiigs of the septum xii./xiii. to meet the body-wall. 

The spomiathecee open on either side at the septum iv./v., 
and run backwards for a short distance as narrow tubes. 
Between the first and second septal •rlands each expands into 
a larger chamber with folded walls, and from this a duct runs 
inwards at right angles to open into the oesophagus. The 
openings are lined with long cilia projecting into the lumen 
of the gut. The narrower distal portions of the sperma- 
thecal ducts are covered externally with five longitudinal 
rows of t>lai;d-:'olls. 




Lateral view of the anterior end of Enchytraus parasiticus. Some of 
the internal organs are represented as seen by transparency. 

^r., brain; C/., clitellum ; /., intestine ; M., mouth; M.Ph., muscular 
pad of pharynx ; iV'.C., nerve-cord ; Ov., ova ; <S'.i, S.2, 'S'.:,, the three 
pairs of septal glands ; Sp., aperture of spermatheca ; Sp.S., sperm- 
sac; S y spermiducal pore. 



Enchy tragus parasidcits, sp. n. 

Diagnosis : — Length 8—9 mm. JS'umber of segments about 
70-bO. Chcetce 2 j-ier bundle. Brain nearly straight behind. 
Spermatheca; narrow distally, tcith 5 rows of g^and-cells ex- 
ternally / expanding into a pouch ivith folded walls before 
ojyening by a wide ciliated ajmrture into the cesophagus. 

Ilab. Interior of the gill-cliambers of a land-crab, Gecar- 
cinus quadratus, ^Saussure [?=6r. ruricola, L."^]. Clarion 
Island (Pacific Ocean). 

* Concerning the nomenclature of tho host, Dr. W. T. Caiman kindly 
submits the following note : — 

" The specimens from Clarion Island are labelled Gecarcinus quadratus, 
8aussure, and 1 do not venture to dispute the identification, although I 
am uuable to form any clear concejitiou of the distinguishing characters 



The I'eii'is-hone, or " Baculum^^^ in certain Sipiirreh. .'i83 

LlTI-.K.VTL'RIC CITKO. 

[i] ANi»ni:ws, C. W. ' A M<.noprnph of Chrisdiina Islftiid.' Published 

by tlie IJritish .Miisfuin, liKJU. [N<jte on Cardisoma caruijix 

(C. hirfijh'f), p. lt)4.j 
[i] Bayi-is, II. A. "Olijrocliicta" : British Antarctic ('Terra Novn ') 

Kxp. I'.ilO. Zooloyy, vol. ii. no. 1*, pp. l.*5-l8. Published by the 

Ikiti-sh Muauuui, llU.j. 

Otiikij Pai'kks consulted. 

[3] Richard, J. " Essai sur les Parasites et les Coramensaux des Crus- 

tact5s." Arch. Parasitol. toui. ii. pp. .')4S-f>'X^. Paris, 1899. 
[4] WiLso.N, C. H. "Crustacean Parasites of West Indian Fi.shes and 

Land Crabs." Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. vol. xliv. (WHS) pp. 189-277. 

[Omcn'nrula, R new (Tenus of Copepoda, Parasitic iu Cardisoma 

ijuaiifiumi, gills, p. 2(54.] 



XXXIV. — The Penis-hone, or '"'■ Bacuhim,^^ as a Guide to 
the Classijication of certain Squirrels. By OldfielD 
Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

There lias always appeared to be sometliing wrong with the 
inclusion ot" tlie (h-iental squirrels in the ."ame genus as 
t'cinrus vulgaris, although when classifying the group some 
yeais ago I was unable to find any material ditterences in 
their skulls and teeth. 

Now, however, I have Ibund a character by which such 
squirrels as are still put in Saurzis may be sorted into 
several group?, each sharply defined from the others. 

This is in the structure ot" the os penis, which show.s very 
striking ditl'erences between the various groups of species, 
and may evidently be of great service in classifying the 
members of tins difficult family. For many years 1 iiave 

of this species. The specimens difTer in the form of the carapace and 
third niaxillipeds from G. malpileyisis as described by Faxon (Mem. Mu.". 
Conip. Zool. xviii. 189^, p. 28J; in the proportions of the carapace and 
legs from G.diyueti, Bouvier, as rede.scribed by IJiithbiin (U.S. Dep. 
Ag-ric. N. Amor. Fauna, no. 14, 1899, p. 73) ; and in Iiavin-,' .".ix spine- 
rows on the dactyli, from G. lateralis (Freminville). I am not aware 
that anyone has attempted a detailed criticism of Ortmann'a opinion 
(Zool. Jiihrb. Abth. f. Syst. x. 1897, p. 3;i7) that all the American forms 
belonging to this genus can be referred to a single species, G. ruricola 
( Linn.).'' 



3S4 Mr. O. Tlionia? on ihe Pem's-l'oue, or 

betn collocfin.2; materials for tlie sfiuly of tliis bone, and hope 
later to be able to j^ive a general jiaper upon it, but, as a 
prelimina'.y, it seems advisable to publisii a note on certain 
cases affecting nomenclature and generic position. 

Since every other bone of the skeleton has a name of its 
own, not nierely the " bone of the leg " or " bone ot the 
head," it appears to me convenient to have a special term 
for the bone of the penis, and 1 therefore propose to call it 
the hacidum, meaning a little stick. 

Now the baculum of Sdiirus vulgaris, the type of the 
genus, is a very characteristic bone, like a small spatula, or 
still more Lke a iialf-closed human right hand, the shaft 
forming the forearm, the blade of the spatula the hollowed 
palm, and a small pointed projection on the right side corre- 
b]v)iiding to an outstretched thumb. 

Ot this type, and agreeing with it exceedingly closely, are 
the bacula ot the other Pala^arctic species, <S. pei siciis and 
S. /i.f, of the whole of the American species, so tar as 1 have 
been able to examine them, and, remarkable to say, of the 
Boinean Reithrosciurus macro/is. 

But all the Indian and Malay.m species hitherto referred 
to Sciurus have bacula totally different from that of true 
Sciurus, and themselves divisible into two types, though with 
an essential community between the two. 

For in all the baculum consists of two parts, a shaft or 
cajndus of varying length and a separate sharp blade or 
lamina attached to the shaft by ligament and slightly 
n.ovable upon it. The lamina has a concave base, which 
articulates with the rounded surface of the shatt, and allows 
a certain amount of lateral play. 

In position in the penis the blade points to the right, its 
edge outwards. This edge is very siiarp indeed, is practi- 
cally uncovered by tissue of any sort, and seems to be for 
the purpose of enlarging the female opening by a clean 
knife-cut into the tissues. A careful study ot the soft 
anatomy of the female will be needed before the exact 
objects and methods of this r<;markable structure can be 
understood. It is possible that the little, sharp, thumb-like 
projection on the baculum of typical iSciurus has a somewhat 
similar function. 

As already noted, the compound bacula are of two types, 
respectively more and less sjjecialized. 

The less specialized consists of a long, slender, slightly 
curved shaft, with a narrow blade set on the side of it, in the 
concavity of its general curvature. The blade is attached 
nearly throughout its length, and its greatest breadth is only 



" Daculum^^^ in certain S<j>iirre/s. 385 

about one-fourth to oue-sixlli ot its longlh, so that it projects 
iVoiu the shaft as quite a k)\v ciittiiii^-ljlade. 

In the more specialized type the hiniina is attached to the 
side of tlie end ot" the shatt, and is devi loped into a lonj^ trian- 
gular and pointed blade, nciuved ii.ickwards towards the hilt 
of the shaft, which it may equal or exceed in lent^th. 

A considerable nuinUer of species which havt! been referred 
to " iSc/f/rM.* " have bacula of tin; less specialized compouml 
type, while Lnriscus^Tumiops, Ih-emoint/s, S^untiosciurus, and 
a further number of ^'' Sciurus" have the more specialized 
type last described. 

But since the possession of such striking; and sharply defin- 
able characters must indicate bl)od-relationship, it is evident 
that forms with all three types of l>acida should not be |)Uf into 
the same genus, Sciurus, and I would therefore withdraw 
from that genus all those with compound bacula, and divide 
these again into two genera corresponding to the less and 
the more specialized forms above described. 

Of the first of these, that with the narrow-bladeil baciilum, 
the name would appear to be Callosdurus, Gray *, with type 
^^ Sciurus^^ roffi'sii. Other synonymic names are Batjinia, 
Grayt (type S. notatus), Erytlwoscinrus, Gray J (ferru- 
gtneiis), and Heterosciurus, Trouessart § [ferrugineus). 

The species that I know to be referable to Gallosciurus 
are as follows, the names put in the first column being those 
of which the character of the baculum has been definitely 
verified, while the names in brackets indicate a number of 
prominent species presumed to belong to the genus from 
their near alliance to the verified species : — 

Callosciunis atrwlorsalis .... {rubcculus.) 

„ caniceps {concolor,i/riseimanus,epomophoncs.) 

„ castaneoventris . . {(fordoni, slijani.) 

„ eri/thr(eus {ferruff incus, Jinlai/soni.) 

„ notatun (vittatus, niijrocittatus, saturntiis.) 

„ pluto ((Uricapillus,c(troli,/)iilu<fisis,eri/t/iro- 

melas, prevostii, rajftvsii, rufo- 

nit/er.) 
„ sladeni {hariujtoni.) 

Curiously enough, though there are four names available 
for the first genus, there are non..' for the second, that with a 
long recurved blade on the i)acidum, and I would therefore 
])ropose to give it the name of Tomeutes ||. 

• Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (3) xx. p. 277 (1867). 
t T. c. p. 27l>. X T. c. p. 265. 

§ Le Nat. ii. no. 37, p. 2!>2 (ia<0). 
II Based on Tofifvs, a shoemaker's kuife. 



3SG The Penis-bone, or " Bacuhim,''^ in certain Squirrel.<. 

For tvjie I \voul(l select Tomentes Johroides {Sciiirns lok- 
roides, liodgs.), and, so lar as can now be ascertained, the list 
of the chief species would be as follows, arranged, as before, 
into verified species, in the first column, and consequential 
species in brackets : — 

Tumeutes lokroidcs, 
„ si mi/ is. 
„ p/iai/rei. 
,, blaiifordi. 

„ p!/;/er!/thri(S. 
„ jaiiettii. 

„ pii/eri {hippuruR <rroiip.) 

,, philippi)ie)isis (stecrei, juvencus.) 

„ melanogaster ((ilrattis.) 

„ tenuis (pianittts, fraterculus, and many 

others.) 
„ brookei. 

,, low a. 

„ 7nurinus. 

It is to be hoj)ed that by decrees the bacular characters of 
the remaining Oriental squirrels may be ascertained, for their 
skulls and teeth often give little clue to their proper situation. 
Unfortunately in preparing dry sjiecimens the skin of the 
penis readily sli|)s off, arid the baculum is thrown away with 
the carcase, unless the collector has been specially told to 
save it. The majority of the bacula I have been able 
to secure, apart from a number carefully preserved by 
jMr. Shortridge, have been extracted from spirit-specimens. 

I may note that Mr. Shortridge tells me that, so far as he 
has seen, the species I have put into Tomeutes are, on the 
whole, more terrestrial in their habits than those of Callo- 
sciurus, although there are a few exceptions. 

In the preliminary study of this subject that I have so far 
been able to make, a few points stand out very clearly. 

Firstly, the wide, or at least absolutely complete, separation 
of the lorms with compound bacula as compared with all 
the other Sciuritlje, and their comparatively near relationship 
to each other. Consequently the separation of the Nanno- 
sciurina; as a subfamily set over against other squirrels ia 
flatly contradicted by the lomeutes-Wlie bacula of the type- 
genus, with but little special peculiarity. (The edge of the 
blade in S. whitelieodi is beautifully serrated, but this is 
not the case in certain other species.) 

The presence of a simple baculum in Myosciurus minutuSj 
which is therefore after all not related to the Malayan Nanno- 
sciurus, and is further evidence of the invalidity of the 
" Nannosciurinse " as a subfamily. 



(hi some Plerojn'ne JJals. 387 

'I'licii tlic exlrcine iinitormiiy of tlie bone in Sciurua vul- 
ffaris, lli<i American iiciuri, aiiil lleitltrosciurus. 

Tiie absi'nci; of com|)outJ<l-l)Hculuin forina from Africa, and 
tlieir (ioininunco in the Oriental region, where, apart from 
Rntliron'inrus, only Ratufa and FitnambuluB have simple 
ones. 

I'ht! ri'.st'tnhhiMce of the hacuhun of liutufa \o that of the 
African Proto.terus, and the j)ossil)ility that there i.s some 
i*pt'cial r<lati->nsliip between the ^iant scjuirreU of Asia and 
West Africa. 

The development of the compound bacula along two lines, 
to one or other of which nearly all forms may bf^ readily 
assigned. Thus the bacula of 'J\iniioj>n, JJremothifs, Lariaciis, 
and SiiTifiosciiirus are all absolutely of the Tomeutes type, 
while the many species of CaUosclurus belong to the other. 
Menetes alone is rather more doubtiul, its peculiarly slendei- 
shafted baculum having a blade somewhat connecting the 
two types. 

Observations on the forms found in allied groups, in 
Tamias, Ciullus^ the flying squirrels, and others must be 
reserved for a future paper. 



XXXV. — On some Pteropine Bat!^ from Vulcan and Damjaer 
Islands, off ihe S.E. Coast of Sew Guinea. By Oldfilld 
TUOMAS. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

TuE British Museum has received a small collection of 
mammals obtained by Mr. A. S. Meek on the two islands 
mentioned in the title, and among them are examjiles of three 
members of the genus Pteropus. One of these, from Dampier 
Island, may be referred to P. hypomelamis luleus, but its 
representative in Vulcan Island appears to be a new race 
of that widely distributed species. W^ith P. h. luteus, 
on Dampier Island, there also occurs a new form of the 
P. mariannus group. 

Pteropus hasiliscuSj sp. n. 

General characters as in P. tonganus and vanicoreyi.-in, the 
species beingsimilarly a large-eyed memberof the/-*. »/jar<u7iHM5 
group. Colour of head above pale greyish brown, passing 
gradually into the ochraceous butty of the mantle. Back 



388 On some Pteropine Bats. 

seal-brown mixed with greyish-white hairs. Ciiin and inter- 
ramia blackish brown ; sides of neck dull ochraceous buffy ; 
abdomen blackish brown, liberally mixed with shining 
whitish hairs. 

Skull and teeth as in P. tonganus. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Forearm 142 mm. (other specimens 141 and 136). 

Third finger, metacarpus 94 (other specimens 98 and 92) ; 
first phalanx 67, second phalanx 101. 

Skull : greatest length 65*6 ; maxillary tooth-row 24*7 ; 
diameter of orbit 13'3. 

Hah. Dami)ier ( = Krakar Island), off the N.E. coast of 
New Guinea, from which the island is separated by Basilisk 
Strait. 

Type. Adult female. B.M. no. 15. 2. 18. 2. Collected 
20th February, 1914, by A. S. Meek. Presented by Oldfield 
Thomas. Three specimens. 

Although I ])rovisionally use a binomial name for this bat, 
to fall in with Dr. Andersen's arrangement of tiie group, I 
am inclined to think that, in company with P. vanicorensis, 
it will later be considered as a local subspecies of P. ton- 
ganus. From the former, which I have not seen, it would 
appear to be distinguisliable by the paler-coloured head, not 
sharply contrasted with the colour of the mantle, while from 
the latter it may be separated by its more ochraceous mantle 
and its browner back and belly. Its geogiaphlcal position is 
a long way off from the Santa Cruz and Tonga groups of 
islands, the respective localities of the other two forms. 

Pteropus Tiypomelanus vulcaniusj subsp. n. 

Top of head dull buffy, with an intermixture of shining 
bufFy hairs, this colour passing into the darker buffy or 
ochraceous buflfy of the nape. Back abruptly brown, lined 
and rendered more greyish by an intermixture of ligiit bufFy 
or whitish hairs. Cheeks darker than crown. luterramia 
smoky brown. Throat dull buffy, browner in the middle 
line ; sides of neck deep buffy like nape. Chest and belly 
dark olive-brown, washed with buffy or dull whitish. 

Dimensions of the t^'pe : — 

Forearm (c.) 130 mm. 

Third finger, metacarpus 90 ; first phalanx 64, second 
phalanx 99. 

Skull : greatest length io(J. 

Hah. Vulcan ( = Manumudar) Island, N.E. New Guinea. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 15. 2. 18. 4. Collected 29th 



I 



On some Austndidn Miilacodeimidae. 339 

December, ID 13, by A. S. M.'clc. Presented by Oldfield 
Thomas. Six spi-ciimns examined. 

Tlii.s subspecies is evidi'iiily most nearly allied to P. ^ij/po~ 
tnrlnnifi luteus^ K. And., wliicli Mr. Meek obtained on 
Dampier Islanil, but is readily distingnisliable by its much 
darker cht'st and belly, which contrast 8tron{i;ly with the 
colour of the neck, instead of nearly agreein<? with it. 
P. h. luteus was recorded by Dr. Andersen from S.E. New 
(ininea, extending up to the Huon Gidf. Its occurrence in 
Damjiier Island is therefore not sur[)risini^. 

To some ext-nt this subspecies o£ liypomelanus tends to 
lake on the characteristic colour-pattern of P. mariannus and 
its allies, and confirms Dr. Andersen\s remarks on the affinities 
of the two groups ('Catalogue/ p. 172). 



XXXVI. — On some Australian Malacodermidae and Curcu- 
lionidie collected by Mr. G. E. Bryant. By Arthur M. 
Lea. 

I\ 1908 Mr. Bryant spent some months collecting insects in 
Australia. Of the beetles taken, the majority of the Malaco- 
dermidse and Cureulionidse* were sent to me for examination, 
and the number of new species obtained will show the care 
taken with many of the smaller forms, so often passed over 
by collectors. 

Mr. Bryant writes that in the year named he " arrived at 
Fremantle on 21st July, spent two weeks collecting round 
Fremantlc, Perth, and Mundaring. Too early in the season 
to do much good. Arrived at Adelaide 8th August, and 
spent a week there, and then two weeks in Victoria. 
vVrrived at Sydney the end of August, and spent five months 
collecting in New South Wales. Baan Baa is in the north 
of New South Wales, between Walgett and Wcrris Creek. 
Spent about a week round Brisbane and a month at Cairns 
and Knranda, and finally left Australia from Port Darwin.'* 

In addition to the localities of specimens taken by Mr. 
Bivant, I have given others when specimens of the same 
were in my own or in other collections. A (ew of the 
species here described were not actually taken by Mr. Bryant, 

* The Bolide-J, about fifteen species, were overlooked when the 
8))eciiiiens were sent to uie, aud the Auiycteridea were examined by 
Dr. Ferguson. 

Anil. cC; .\Iag. X. Illst. Ser. 8. IC/. xv. 26 



31'0 Mr. A. M. Len on 

but tlipy wore included as being very close to some that 
were takcu by him. 

Malacodermidae. 
Telephorus gracilipictus, sp. n. 

(J . Head (except part of front, mouth-parts, and middle 
of under surface), middle of metasternum, knees;, and apex of 
abdomen black ; six apical joints of antennae and upper surface 
of the others, most of hind tibiae and ])arts of the others, 
and parts of all the tarsi more or less deeply infuscatcd ; 
elytra of a rather dark me'tallie green; elsewhere more or 
less reddish flavous. With very short pale pubescence. 

Head about as long as the width across eyes, three im- 
pressions between ey^es, the median one subtriangular and 
fairly distinct, the others shallow, two smaller ones behind 
them. Antennae thin, passing middle of elytra, fourth joint 
slightly longer than fifth and distinctly longer than second 
and third combined. Prothorax slightly longer than wide ; 
median line short and distinct, sides irregularly im])ressed 
longitudinally, base rather widely and shallowly depressed. 
Elytra rather narrow, diminishing in width from about 
basal fourth ; densely and coarsely punctate, punctures 
smaller across base than elsewhere. 

Length 6|-7^ mm. 

Hab. Queensland : Kuranda. 

In some respects close to nobilitutus and viridipennis (in 
my table in Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1908, p. 114, it 
would be associated with the latter), but the prettily varie- 
gated legs are at once distinctive. In appearance it is close 
to Selenurus (jranulal.ua, but the prothorax is of different 
shape and of one colour, and most of the head is black. 

The surface of the elytra, except about the base, might be 
regarded as granulate-j)unctate. From some directions 
vague traces of an elevated line are visible on each. The 
abdomen is greatly shrivelled in the (two) s|)eeimens before 
me, but the subapical segment is certainly deeply incised. 

Telephorus froggatti, M acl . 

Mr. Bryant has taken at Kuranda three specimens that I 
cannot structurally distinguish from froggatti. They differ, 
however, in having the head entirely pale and the elytra 
entirely smoky brown ; but, as there are several intermediate 
forms in my own collection, they probably represent a 
varietv only. 



some Aiisfriilinn MilacuderiiiiJa". '.V,)i 

Telephorus mossmani, Mad. Kuranda. 

2\ rubriceps, Mad. Kuranda. 

T. uofjilitutus, Er. Blue Mountains, Svdney, National 
Park. 

Selenurus sydncyanua, Blackb. Svdnev. 

S. aiinulatus, Mad. Kuranda. 

S. tricolor, Lea. Blue Mountains. 

Heteromuslix brijanti, sp. n. 

(J. Flavous ; elytra, mctastcrnuni, and abdomen black, 
tarsi and antennae (base and apex excepted) more or less 
inftiscatcd. Elytra and under surface with very short 
pubescence. 

Head wide and shininfj. Antennjc lonf; and ratlier stout, 
two apicid joints distorli-d and us loiii; as the eij^ht preceding 
combined. Prothorax alxnit twice as wide as ion"; marfjins 
elevated and feebly dilated anteriorly. Elytra ivv.h\y dilated 
to beyond the middle ; with dense and irregular but not 
coarse punctures. Penultimate segment of abdomen deeply 
incised. Legs rather long and thin. 
Length 3^ mm. 

? . Diticrs in having the antenn;e shorter, with the tenth 
and eleventh joints dark and simple ; the eleventu is almost 
as long as the ninth and tenth combined, cylindrical, with 
the apex conical ; abdomen with the penultimate segment 
not inc-ised, and the four hind femora and parts of all the 
tibiiii infuscated. 

Hah. Queensland : Kuranda. 

In my table (_Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1908, p. 131) 
would be associated with mtrabilis, from which it diH'ers in 
being smaller, with a greater portion of the legs and of the 
antenna? pale, and in the shape of the two terminal joints 
of the latter. The two apical joints of the antennae are, 
])(rhaps, more remarkal)Ic tlian those of any other species of 
the genus. Tliey are so closely applied tojjether that it is 
somewhat difficult to describe their apparent shape*; the 
tenth appears to be hollow, with a basal projection from 
the <;leventh extending almost its entire length within tjie 
hollow ; thus the eleventh from one direction appears to be 
twice as long as the tenth, but from another direction it 
actually appears to be shorter than the tenth : near its apex 
it is constricted all round, so that the tip aj)pears to be 
knobbed. 

2C* 



;*.02 Ml. A. M. Lea on 

Heteromastix flavoterntinalis , sp. n. 

cJ . Black; muzzle, ])r<)thorax, scutcllum, nicsostenium, 
four front femora and til)iie, and apical and three basal joints 
of autennse flavous, hind knees and trochanters obscurely 
diluted with red. W\x\\ very short pubescence on most of 
surface. 

Head wide and shining. Antennje moderately long and 
rather stout, two aj)ical joints distorted. Prutliorax, elytra, 
abdomen, and leys much as in preceding species. 

Length 3| mm. 

Hab. Queensland : Kuranda. 

In my table would be associated with bicolor, from which 
it differs in being slightly larger and wider, much more of 
legs and antennaj dark, and the latter stouter, with the two 
apical joints of very ditlercnt shapes. The eleven.th from 
most directions is apparently twice as long as the tenth, 
constricted near apex, and on one side near base, on this 
side fitted into tenth, so that only narrow portions of the 
sides and base of the latter are visible; from another direc- 
tion it appears to have an acute basal projection fitted into 
a deep notch on the tenth ; from still another direction the 
tenth seems to have a distinct extension overlapping the 
base of the eleventh. The ninth is slightly smaller than 
the eighth, and rather acute at one side of its apex. 

The strong general resemblance between many species of 
this genus is remarkable ; colours and shapes of all parts, 
except of the antennae of the male, are often almost or quite 
identical, and yet the terminal joints of the antennae differ 
to an astonishing extent. 

Heteromastix crassicornis, Lea. Kuranda. 

H. gugaticepSj Lea. Baau Baa, Sydney, Ourimbah. 

H. amabiliSj Lea. Blue Mountains. 

H. victoriensis, Blackb. National Park. 

H. hiculur, Boh. Ourimbah. 

Hypattalus apicipennis, sp. n. 

(? . Head and under surface black ; legs blackish, in 
places diluted with red ; antennae black, three basal joints 
partly reddish ; elytra purple, bluish at base, apex and the 
protliorax flavous. Clothed with fine, spar^e, greyish 
pubescence aud with fine hairs scattered about. 

Head with indistinct punctures. Antennae long, second 



some Aufitntlian MalacodiTiuiihe. 



ao.j 



to tcntli joints more or less acutely serrated. Prulhorax 
about oiu-e and oiu'-tliird as wide as louj^^, apex slightly 
produced in middle. Ijase widely rounded, punctures in- 
distinct. Elijtra slightly wider than prothorax, sides and 
suture (except on basal tourth) tliiekened ; with dense and 
fairly large j)unetures, smaller about base and aj)ex than 
elsewhere. Legs long ; front trocdiauters subtriangnlarly 
])rodufi(l ; front femora semieireularly notched near apex, 
friMit tibia) rather strongly curved at base, and but little 
more than half the length of hind [)air ; second and third 
joints of tarsi very short. 

Length 3 mm. 

Hub. New South Wales: Sydney, National Park. 

In general appearance fairly close to dlspar and violacetts, 
but front legs, antennie, and punctures very ditl'erent. Thu 
front legs are somewhat as in pu/c/icrriinus and dentipes, but 
the elytra are very ditl'erently coloured. lu my taljle of the 
genus * it would be associated with inirab'dis, whose elytra 
are pale at the base as well as at the apex. Scarcely more 
than the thickened apical margins are pale. 

Hijpattalus australis, Fairm. Sydney. 

H. abduiniuuiis, Er., var. brevicornls, Lea. Blackheath. 

H. collaris, Lea. Sydney. 

Laius nodicornis, Blackb. 

Mr. Bryant has sent two specimens (sexes) from Baan Baa 
(New South Wales) that appear to reprej^ent a variety of 
this species. They differ from the typical forms in being 
slightly larger, rather hairier, the markings more pur[)lish, 
the Iroiit tibi;e black on their basal external edge, and the 
prothorax with an irregular dark triangle extending from 
the base to near the midiile. 

Laius conicicornis, Blackb. Baan Baa. 

L. cinctus, Kedt. Sydney, Blue Mountains. 

L. hellulus, Guer. Largs Bay, Blue Mountains. 



Helcogaster maculiceps, Lea. 

;Mr. Bryant has a male of this species with a small black 
longitmlinal spot on the prothorax. 
Ihdj. Sydney, Ryde, lUawarra. 

* Trans. Kiit. fsoc. I-diulon. VM)^, )>p. i<5n 17". 



304 Ih: A. M. Lea on 

Helcogaster varius. Lea. Sydney, Ryde, Illa\Aarra. 

H. concaviceps, Lea. Elue Mountains. 

//. rujicornis, Lea. Illawarra. 

Cai'phurus annipennis, Fairm. Kuranda. 

C. cristutifrons, Faiiin. Blue Mountains. 

C. cyanopterus. Boh. Blue Mountains. 

C. latipennis, Lea. Blackheath. 

C. longicnllis, Lea. Blue Mountains, Sydney National 
Park. 

C. longus, Lea. Kuranda. 

C. vigilans, Lea. Kuranda. 

Balanophorus j anthinipennis , Fairm. Blue Mountains. 

JB. brevipennis, Germ. Blue Mountains. 

Curculionidae. 
Brachyderides. 
P)-osayleus dispar, Germ. Largs Bay. 

P. Iiopei., Sell. Sydney, National Park, Blue Mountains, 
Illawarra. 

Evas acuminata, Pasc. Perth. 

Maleuterpes spinipes, lUackb. Sydney. 

Pnjpnns squamosus, Blackb. Blue Mountains. 

P. o-nodosus, Gyll. Sydney, National Park. 

P. squalidvs, Gyll. Blue Mountains. 

P. angustus, Lea. Blue Mountains. 

Eiitlnophaa falcata, Lea. Kuranda. 

E. variegata, Lea. Kuranda. 

Otiorhynchides. 
Timor eta setistriata, sp. n. 

Blackish, elytra and tip of prothorax of a dingy red ; tibiae, 
taiisi, and antennae paler. Densely clothed with whitish 
scales, varying to a dingy brown, the paler ones sometimes 
Tvith a greenish or golden or silvery gloss. AYith numerous 



some Australian Curculioni(]nt». 305 

■whitish erect or subcrect seta? scattered about, and forming 
a rcfjuhir row on each elytral interstice. 

Hidil with conceaU-d punctures. Eves small and coarsely 
facetted. Rostrum sli}:!;hlly lonj^cr than its {greatest width, 
subparalli'l-sidcd to near apex ; punctures concealed e.\cept 
on the apical triangular plate. Antcunie rather short and 
stout; club briefly ovate. Prothorax decidedly transverse, 
sides moderately rounded, punctures normally concealed. 
Elytra ovate, thrice the length of prothorax, with regular 
rows of laige partially concealed puiu-turcs, becoming 
smaller posteriorly. Leys rather short and stout ; tibiie 
dilated at apex. 

Length 3-3^ mm. 

Hub. West Australia : Perth. 

With scales and setaj much as on xanthorrlicea, but stouter 
and eyes much smaller. Thu.s, in that species the space 
between the eyes is but little more than the extreme lengtli 
of an eye ; in the present species thes«])iice between the eyes 
is fully double the kngth of an eye. The antennic are also 
shorter, with the club more rounded. Crinita, also from 
W. Australia, is a larger species, with thinner antennae and 
much less conspicuous setic, &c. Subterranea, puncticoHis, 
and sivanseaeiisis have very similar eyes and antennae, but 
the setie are in more than one series on each interstice, and 
the size is usually considerably larger. 

Timareta crinita, Pasc. Cottesloe. 
T. Jigurata, Pasc. Cottesloe. 
T. pilosa, Blackb. Adelaide. 
T. duplicata, Lea. Sydney. 
T. (/ranicol/is, Lea. Perth. 

Merimnetes CEqiialifrons, Blackb., var. compactus, n. var. 

Four specimens (both sexes), taken by Mr. Bryant on the 
Blue Mountains, differ from ordinary specimens of (Pquali- 
frons in being shorter and more compact, and with a triHe 
shorter rostrum. But as 1 can find no other differences, I 
have not ventured to give them other than a varietal name. 

Myllocerns bilineater, sp. n. 

(^ . Black or blackish : legs reddish. Densely clothed 
with white scales, uniform on head, under surface, and legs, 
but mixed with numerous black sj)ots on elytra : a black 



396 1^1 r. A. M. Lea on 

stripe on cacli side of protliorax. Protliorax and elytra with 
subercct wliitish setie, on the latter forming a single row ou 
each interstice. 

Head flat ; a narrow fovea between eyes. Rostrum mode- 
rately transverse, sides gently incurved to middle, with a 
narrow median carina and a less distinct oblique one near 
each side. Antenupe moderately long and curved ; first joint 
of funicle slightly longer tiian second. Prothorax strongly 
transverse, base strongly bisinuate and much wider than 
apex, whicli is truncate. Elytra not much wider than pro- 
tliorax ; with rows of large almost concealed punctures. 
Femora very feebly dentate. 

Length 5-6 mm. 

? . Differs in having eyes rather less prominent, antennae 
and legs somewhat shorter, and abdomen more convex. 

Hub. N. Territory : Darwin. 

In size and shape closely resembles speciosus, but the 
clothing is nowhere green. From castor it differs in having 
the elytra rather narrower, rostrum distinctly shorter, and 
prothorax wider at the base, with a conspicuous dark stripe 
on each side. From poUux it differs in being somewhat 
smaller, with the rostrum decidedly shorter and more flat- 
tened, and the antennae somewhat thinner. In my table * 
of the genus it would be associated with cinerascens, from 
which it diflers in the dark patches of scales, in the rostrum 
being shorter and squarer, and the elytra! setae much more 
conspicuous. The clothing is much as on fuscomaculatus, 
but the rostrum is considerably wider and prothorax more 
dilated to base. The femoral teeth are very minute, and 
could easily be overlooked. 

Myllocerus echinatus, Lea. Kuranda. 

M. rugicoUis, Lea. Kuranda. 

Titinia ignaria, Pasc. Baan Baa, Illawarra, National 
Park. 

T. bicolor, Blackb. Baan Baa. 

Leptopsides. 
Leptops corrugatus, Pasc. Kuranda. 
L.ferus, Pasc. Kuranda. 
L. superciliaris, Pasc. Sydney. 

♦ Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 1905, p. 218. 



sotne Australian CuiculitiuitlfB. ''f)7 

Leptnps brachyslylits, liCa. Kiiraiidii. 

L. fasciculutus, Lea. Kuraiidu. 

L. niffrupu/iciutus, Lea. Uuiriiidi. 

Polyphrades nitiJilabris, (Jcrin. Spring Vale, Adelaide. 

P. nanus, Gyll. Blue Mountains, National Park, Syduey. 

P. pardalotus, Vase. Pertli. 

P. inconspiciuis, Blackb. Mordiulloc. 

P. tibialis, Blackb. lilawarra. 

Mandalotus vent rails, Blackb. Adelaide, Largs Bay. 

M. ammupbilus, Loa. lilawarra. 

M. blackmorei, Lea. Baau Baa. 

M. geminatm, Lea. Cairns. 

Cherrus plebejus, Oliv. Blue Mountains. 

Esmelina flavovittata, Pasc. Blue Mountains. 

E. australisy Blackb. Blue Mountains. 

Kssolithna ecfiiniys, Pasc. Muudaring. 

Amisallus tchitei, Waterh. Ourinibab, Sydney. 

Stenocorynus crenulatus. Fab. Kurauda. 

S. neglectus, Lea. Kuranda. 

Liputhyrea arrowi, Lea. Kuranda. 

C Y L I \ D R O R H I N I D E S. 

Perperus melancholicus , Boi. Blue Mountains. 
P. lateralis, Boh. lilawarra. 
P. marginalis, Boh. lilawarra. 

Lycosura inermisj sp. n. 

Light reddish castaneous, head and prothorax sometimes 
somewhat darker than other parts, llathcr densely clothed 
with white or whitish scales, stouter and denser on sides 
than elsewhere. 

Head with dense, sharjily impressed, but partially con- 
cealed j)unetures. Eyes rather large, separated about two- 
thirds the width of base of rostrum. Postrum about as long 
as the width across eyes, slightly dilated from base to apex, 
punctures much as on head ; with a fairly dij^tinct median 



398 ' Ml. A. M. Leao/i 

carina rontiinicd to near apex and narrowly bifurcated in 
front. Antcnnic ratlicr tliiu ; scape rath( r stronj^ly curved, 
apex rather strongly thickened, about as lonj; as five following 
joints combined. iV(v///or«,r slightly longer than uide, sides 
evenly rounded, base and apex of equal width. Klytra 
almost twice the width of prothorax, shoulders rounded, 
sides parallel to i)eyond the middle and then strongly 
narrowed to apex ; with rows of rather large subquadrate 
punctures ; interstices with small and frequently concealed 
granules, third with a slight tubercular swelling at summit 
of posterior declivity. Leys rather long ; femora stout iu 
middle. 

Length 4j-() mm. 

Hub. W. Australia : Swan River. (G. E. Bi'yant and 
A. M. Leu). 

The antennje and rostrum are shorter than in hispinosa. 
The elytra are unarmed, but nevertheless there is a slight 
thickening of the interstices at the positions of the spines of 
that species. The scales on the sides of the piothorax and 
elytra are usually of a snowy whiteness and entirely conceal 
tl.e derm ; elsewhere they are much thinner (more or less 
setose), but looking u[) the elytra from behind there usually 
ap|)ears to be a distinct Avhite V, caused by the scales on the 
apical portioJi of each of the fifth interstices being much as on 
the sides. The clothing appears to be easily abraded. In 
some lights abraded specimens appear to have regular rows 
of large routul or rounded watery-looking punctures, much 
as the submerged punctures on many specimens of Cordus 
hospes. The apjiarent size of the punctures is much greater 
than the real. The male differs from the female in being 
smaller and with a moderately distinct impression at the 
apex of the first abdominal segment. In the female the two 
basal segments are also larger and more convex. 

MOLYTIDES. 

Aphela algarum, Pasc. Sydney. 

A. helopoides^ Pasc. Cottesloe, Adelaide, Largs Bay. 

Psaldus liosomoides, Pasc. Cottesloe, Adelaide, Largs Bay. 

GONIPTERIDES. 

Oxyops parvicol/is, sp. n. 

Blackish brown, in places obscurely diluted with red. 
Densely but irregularly clothed with silvery-white scales, 
and with snuff-coloured meal; rather dense in places. 



snnie Anslruli ni CiirculioiiiJae. 3!*9 

Head with small conccalod punctures. Kycs prominent, 
■widely separated. Uostrum short and thick, scarcely lonjicr 
than fireatrst width, with dense, more or less concealed 
l)unctures. PruHiurnx small, ahout as lon{? as wide, sides 
nKx'crately ri>un(h(l, ha^e ahout o!ie-third wider than ajjcx ; 
with dense, normally concealed punctures, and with 
remnants rif a feehle median carina. Klijtra mucli wider 
than prothorax, shoulders ohlicpicly rounded and with 
numerous {granules, each side near hase with an oljtuse 
granulated swelliii};, apex very ohtusely mucronate ; with 
rows of large and usually concealed punctures ; third, fifth, 
and seventh interstices with granulated elevations. Meso- 
sternum with an ohtusely pointed intercoxal process. Leys 
stout ; tib ae with numerous small teeth, less distinct ou the 
hind pair than on the others. 

Length 10 mm. 

Hal). Queensland : Thursday Island. 

In general ap[)earance much like a Gouijj/erus, but with tho 
intercoxal process of 0,n/ojjs*. To the naked eye the upper 
surface appears to be rather densely and irregularly clothed 
with greyish-white scales, with darker spots ou the elytra. 
The dark spots, however (of which the most conspicuous 
one apjxars like a transverse interrupted median fascia, 
although there is one almost as distinct behind the shoulder), 
are due partly to the scales there being smaller tliau else- 
where, ijut prin(.'ipally to being densely covered witli a snuft- 
colound meal or powder. The third interstice is obtu.scly 
tuhcrculate near base, with a longitudinal elevation before 
middle and a shorter one beyond same, the two latter being 
coiis})icuously separated by the silvery scales of the fascia. 
The elevations aud granules ou the other odd iuterstices are 
less conspicuous. 

Ou'i/ops grisea, sp. u. 

Black. Densely clothed with silvery-white scales, but 
elytra with a conspicuously mottled appearance. 

Head with a deep but partially concealed impression 
between eyes, elsewhere with small concealed punctures. 
Kyes j)rominent and widely separated. Rostrum short, 
about as long as greatest width (which is near apex) ; with 
dense punctures, concealed on hasal half. Prtdhorav mwvlW, 
ahout as long as wide, sidis moderately rounded and de- 
creasing iu width almost from base to apex; wiili dense, 

* In I'n.c. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales, 18'J7, p. (KX), this process was erro- 
neou^'ly ref. rred to as if it beluuped to the inelaiteriiuiii, instead ol to tho 
Diesosternum. 



400 Mr. A. M. Lea on 

partially concealed punctures. Khjtra oblong-snbcorclate, 
apex very obtusely muerouate, shouhicrs and sides near 
shoulders fis in parvicoliis ; with rows of large more or less 
concealed punctures ; interstices with dense punctures and 
small granules, mostly concealed; the odd ones feebly 
eh'vated in places, but tlic third rather distinctly subtuber- 
culatc towards base. Mesosternum and leys as in parvicuUis. 

liCngth y^ mm. 

Hub. ane~ensland: Chillagoc {H. Hacker, his 1133). 

To the naked eye the elytra ap[)ear to be clothed mostly 
■with snuff-coloured scales and to have a distinct median 
fascia of white scales, with the base and basal portion of the 
suture white ; the dark patches, however, aie ilue partly to 
the pale scales being very fine and sj)arse, but princij)ally to 
a snuff-coloured meal. On the under surface also the meal 
is fairly dense in parts, but the scales there being rather 
large, and of almost uniform size, their appearance is not so 
much altered by it. In jjeneral appearance it is much like 
the preceding species, from which it differs in being some- 
what narrower and by a pale fascia replacing the dark 
median one of that species. Both species (there are two of 
each before me) have a pale elytral fascia and remnants of 
others ; but on the present species the exact middle of the 
elytra is covered by it, in the preceding s[;ecies it is entirely 
beyond the exact middle. The prothorax has a few small 
granules showing through the scales ; on each side towards 
the apex there is a feeble longitudinal depression, where the 
scales are thinner and tbe meal denser than elsewhere. The 
shape is somewhat as in bilunaris, but the pale band is 
wider, of different shape, slightly nearer the base, &c. In 
some respects it is close to the description of arciferus, but 
is larger, rostrum not elongate, median fascia composed of 
true scales, not at all resembling hairs, eyes distant, -fee. 

This species is so obviously close to the preceding one 
that it is advisable that it should be described at the same 
time, although the types were not taken by Mr. Bryant. 

Oxyops concreta, Pasc. Ourimbah. 

O. irrasa, Pasc. National Park, Sydney. 

O.fasciata, Boi. Quirindi, National Park, Mundaring. 

O. reticulata, Boi. Sydney, Blue Mountains. 

O. fasciculala, Redt. Sydney. 

0. ampUpennis, Lea. Bine Mountains. 



I 



some Aitslraban Curculioiiid;?. 4Ul 

Goniptenis suturulis, CtyW. Sydney, Westport. 

G. exaratus, Ths. Sydney, National Park, Ouriinbah. 

G. gibbenis, Boi. Bi isl)anc. 

G. rufus, IMackl). Blue Mountains. 

G. excavifrons, Jjca. Blue Mountains. 

G. puh'trulentus, Lea. Blue Mountains, Sydney. 

Ipteryonus cionoides, Base. Blue Mountains, lllawarra. 

/. aberraiis. Lea. Perth. 

Bryachus squamicoUis, Pasc. Baan Baa, Brisbane. 

Syiibis pachypus, Pasc. National Park. 

S. porcutus, Lea. Sydney. 

II Y P E R I D E S. 

Eurychirns allen'i , Lea. Kuranda. 
Pruphiesia confusa, Pasc. Sydney. 

D I A B A T H R A R 1 I D E S. 

Ati'licus infpqualis, Waterh. Blue Mountains. 
Strunyylurrhinus ochraceus, Sch. Perth. 

Aterpides. 
Cyllorhamphus tuberosus, Er. 

Mr. Bryant took a specimen of this species at Kuranda, 
the smallest I have ever seen, as it measures but 2_^ mm. ; 
others recently taken by myself in the same district measure 
up to 5| mm. 

Anomocis, gen. nov. 

Htad rather small. Eyes of moderate size, deeper thin 
wide, widely separated, coarsely facetted. Rostrum fairly 
stout, lif,'htly curved, shorter than prothorax. Scrobes deep, 
commencing near apex, where they are visible from al)ove, 
posteriorly extending to lower margin of eyes. Antennae 
moderately stout ; scape shorter than funiele ; funicle with 
two basal joints moderately long, the others transverse • 
club small, subeontiiiuoiis with funicle. Prothorax about 
as long as wide; ; ocular lobes fairly j)ron)inent. Scvtilluin 
minute. Elytra suboblong, posteriorly irregular. Mesu- 



402 Mr. A. ]\I. Loa on 

slernum with side-pieces of uneven size, the hind ones half 
the width of the front ones, but the same leuj:fth. Meta- 
sternum moderately large, side-pieces distinct, and at front 
end trianp;ularly produced inwardly. Abdomen rather lonj;, 
sutures deep and straight except between first and second 
segments in mi(hlle, where, however, it is distinct. Legs 
moderately long, front coxae touching, middle separated by 
a narrow keel ; femora edentate, third tarsal joint wide and 
deeply bilobed. 

A curious genus, specimens of which I have liad in my 
collection for many years. I refer it, with some doubt, to 
the Atcrpides, in which it certainly seems out of place. 
But as the mentnm does not fill the area of the mouth, the 
ocular lobes are distinct, mctasternura moderately long, with 
its side-pieces distinct, I do not know where else it could be 
placed. In the subfamily it may be placed provisionally 
near ^-Esiofes. 

The Atcrpides certainlv contain some very diverse forms — 
compare, for instance, Jthemaia with ocular lobes practi- 
cally absent, Aterpus with unusually prominent ones, Rhi- 
naria with sides of rostrum as in Tauyrhynchides, and AL,siotes 
with head invisible from above. 

Anomocis apicalis, sp. n. 

(J. Black. Densely clothed. 

Head with dense, normally concealed punctures. Rostrum 
almost the length of prothorax ; with five conspicuous 
cariuje from Ijase to antennae, the median one cleft at its 
apex, the two on each side connected in front, but moderately 
separated posteriorly ; in front of antennae with dense and 
r:'.ther coarse jiunctures. Antennae inserted about one- 
fourth from apex of rostrum. Prothorax rather strongly 
convex:, sides evenly rounded, with large granules and 
partially concealed punctures. Elytra at extreme base not 
much wider than prothorax, but then dilated, with sides 
subparallel to near apex, then strongly coarctate to apex, 
with the jipex itself obtusely bimucronate; with rows of 
large, deep, angular, partially concealed punctures; inter- 
stices with small tubercles in places, suture, third, fifth, and 
seventh, each with a moderately large tubercle overhanging 
the posterior declivity ; the declivity itself abrupt, and with 
several small tubercles. Under surface with dense, partially 
concealed punctures. Abdomen with first segment about 
as long as second and third combined, second as long as 
third and fourth combined, fifth as long as second to fourth 



I 



some Auslfah'un ( -'urculioiiitlu'. -K^-i 

cornl)iii('(l, 11 narrow has.-il portion on n level with the pic- 
cedinj; sefjineiit, l)ut elsewhc re irregularly depressed. 

lien -It li l()-l;U mm. 

^ . Dillers in heiiig somewhat wider, ahdomen more eon- 
vex, and apieul segment eonvcx in iniildle and de|)icsM(l 
posteriorly. 

l/ab. New South Wales {Jas. Kerx/ian\ Sr.), Sydney {G. 
E. Hryimt and H. IV. Cox), Jenolan (A. M. Lea). 

The scnlpture ot' the apical parts of the elytra should 
prevent this species from hein^i eonfused with any other 
member of the family. On the type (and only) male before 
me the scales are mostly of a sooty or rusty brown, but the 
elytra are elothetl with dirty whitish scales, except for a 
subtriangular space on the basal third, some small median 
spots, an abbreviated postmedian fascia, and most of the 
posterior declivity, where the scales are of the j^eneial colour. 
]"]ach femur h;is also a pale rini;. On the three females the 
elytral clothing is much as elsewhere. From the sides the 
liead seems to be suddenly depressed below the base of the 
rostium. On abrasion the protlioracic gr;inules are seen to 
be covered with fairly large punctures. The base of each 
elytron appears to have four small tulicrclcs, of which the 
outer one is really an Mbt)reviatcd, (djiique, humeral carina. 
In the male the aljdomcn at first ghince appears to be com- 
posed of six segments, of which the fiftii is much shorter 
than the fourth ; but this appenrance is due solely to the 
wide and fairly deep depression that covers most of its 
surface. In the female the base of the fifth is not con- 
spicuously elevated, and its total length is somewhat shorter 
than in the male. 

Aterpus fovi'ipennis, sp. n. 

Dark reddish brown, some parts almost black . Head, 
base of rostrum, under snifacc ;ind legs densely clothrd with 
dingy, somewhat fawn-ccjloured scales, prothorax and elytra 
rather deuscdy clothed at sides, but more sparsely elsewhere. 
With rather numerous setae on prothorax, rostrum, and 

Head without visible punctures. A n.irrow impression 
encircling each eye. liostrum stout, somewhat elev;ited in 
middle. Antenna; stout, first joint of funicle as long as 
second and third combined, second as long as third and 
fourth combined. Protfiora.r strongly convex, distinctly 
longer than wide, produied in front, sides strongly rounded, 
Mider at apical third than elsewhere; with dcuse hirge 



4(H Mr. A. M. Lea on 

punctures, each (except on sides) bounded by four granules. 
Klytra much wider than prothorax, \f\i\\ rows of very large 
punctures or fi)vec'€ ; interstices much narrower than f'oveae, 
with a few small granules, third and htth somewhat elevated 
in places, and in places subtuberculate. 

Length ^\-\0\ mm. 

Hub. Queenshind : Kuranda. 

Readily distinguished from griseatus, by the elytra being 
narrower and with very much larger punctures or fovese ; 
the jjrotiiorax is also of difierent shape and with much larger 
punctures. The complete abscuce of fascicles readily dis- 
tinguishes it from cuUratus. 

Aterpus cultratus, Fab. Blue Mountains. 

A. tuberculatiis, Gyll. Blue Mountains, lUawarra. 

A. griseatus, Pasc. Kuranda, Cairns. 

Rliinaria longirostris, sp. n. 

Dark reddisli brown, some parts darker. Densely clothed 
with scales varying from almost white to sooty. 

Head with dense concealed punctures. Rostrum sub- 
quadrangular, more than twice as long as wide, concave 
along middle, the sides narrowly elevated, witli a feeble 
median ridge near base. Scape about as long as four 
following joints combined ; first joint of fnnicle about as long 
as three following combined, second slightly longer than third. 
Prothorax about as long as wide, sides strongly rounded ; 
with numerous granules on disc. Elytra with regular rows 
of large, partially concealed punctures ; interstices much 
wider than punctures, and with a few depressed granules. 
Legs stout. 

Length 5^-7^ mm. 

Hab. New South Wales : Blue Mountains, Ourimbah. 
In general appearance much like small specimens of 
cavirostris, but with the rostrum much thinner and almost 
twice as long. On the under surface and legs the scales 
are mostly white ; on the upper surface they are mostly 
stramineous. On some specimens there is but slight 
variation in colour, but on others a vague pale fascia may 
be traced on the elytra before the middle, and before and 
behind same there are numerous sooty spots, more or less 
irregularly conjoined. On the prothorax the scales are 
denser on each side of the base than elsewhere. On the 
scutellum they are mostly white. On the prothorax there 
are numerous setre that rise sligiitly above the derm ; ou 



I 



some Aus/rali'itti (Jiuculioiiid;i'. 40') 

the elytra they arc stouter and confined to tlic seriate 
punctures. IJetweeii the eyes, and partly on tlie base of the 
rostrum, there is a conspicuous crest, composed of strami- 
neous scales, thickly beset with setie. On the rostrum there 
arc nuraerous setre. 

Two specimens from Sydney appear to represent a variety ; 
they ditier in bein;^ suialler ( t^— 1| mm.), and with a vitta 
of pale scales extendiuj^ on each side, fi'om apex of pro- 
thorax to apex of elytra (on the latteron the lifth to seventh 
interstices). 

Rhinarla ritf/osa, Boi. Blue Mountains. 

7^. transversa, Boi. Blue Mountains. 

7?. cavirostris, Pasc. Kuranda, Brisbane, Illawarra, Blue 
Mountains, Sutherland. 

R. sign'ifera, Pasc. Cairns. 

R. tibialis, Blackb. Atherton, Quirindi, Blue ^Mountains. 

R. bisulcata, Lea. Blue Mountains, National Park, 
Sydney. 

R. caiidata, Lea. Blue Mountains. 

Ptlororrhinus angustatus, Ths. Sydney. 

P. inargaritaceus, Er. Blue ^Mountains. 

P. ititerstiiiaUs, Lea. National Park, Sydney. 

Ethemaia sellata, Pasc. Quirindi. 

Htjph(Bria assimilis, Pasc. Baau 15 aa. 

Cleoni des. 
Lixus immundus, Boh. Kuranda. 
L. tenninalis, Lea. Kuranda. 

II Y L O n I 1 D E S. 

Alphilopis nivca, Pasc. Sydney. 

Orthorrhinits rJ/Hndriros/ris, Pasc. Kuranda, Brisbane, 
Sydney, Ourinibah, National Park. 

0. klufjii, Boh. Sydney, Illawarra. 

Meriphus ater, sp. n. 

(J . Black, sca])c partly pale. Clothed with snowy-white 
scales on each side of })rothorax, in front of ])rostcrnuni, 
Ann. (0 Ma,j. X. I/ist. Scr. 8. Vol. xv. 27 



40G Mr. A. :\I. Lea on 

middle and sides of inesosteriuimj and on each side of base 
of abdomen. 

Head not very long ; witb dense and elearly defined, bnt 
rather small punctnrcs. Eyes rather large and eoarsely 
faectted. Kostrnm about once and one-half the length of 
jjrothorax, moderately curved, with rows of punctures 
separated by fine ridges, more distinct behind than in front 
of antennae. These inserted abont one-third from apex of 
rostrum. Prothora.v small, lightly transverse, with rather 
coarse pnnetures, in ])laces transversely confluent. Elytra 
strongly convex, about twice the width of prothorax, pirallcl- 
sided to middle, and then rapidly diminishing in width to 
apex ; with regular rows of rather large punctures, becoming 
smaller posteriorly. Under surface with rather large, clearly 
defined punctures. Femora stout, front lightly, middle 
moderately, hind strongly and acutely dentate ; hind tibiae 
dilated near lower apex. 

Length 2 mm. 

? . Differs in having the rostrum somewhat shorter, with 
ridges not continued in front of antenna3, these somewhat 
shorter, and the four front femora edentate. 

Ilab. Queensland : Kuranda. 

The eyes are rather coarsely facetted and the femora are 
aberrant, so that the species was referred to Mcriphiis with 
considerable hesitation ; its deep hlack colour (in some lights 
the prothorax and elytra appear to have a vague bluish gloss) 
and smooth shining elytra are also at variance with others 
of the genus. Nevertheless, it probably should be treated 
as an aberrant species of the genus. The spots of snowy 
scales are very conspicuous. On a male and a female the 
scape is conspicuousiy pale at the apex, on another female 
it is of a dingy brown. 

Meriphus guttatus, Pasc. National Park, Illawarra. 

Meripheuellus, gen. nov. 

Head short. Eyes large, subapproximate, and coarsely 
facetted. Other characters much as in Meriphus. 

In ]51ackburn's table of the Erirhinides, this genus could 
be ])laced in the position of A(jestra (II. II. on ]). 150) which 
has been transferred to theTychiides. 'f he species described 
below in general appearance is much like a small Meriphus, 
but the eyes forbid its being placed in that genus. 

Meripherellus apica/is, sp. n. 
J . Dark reddish brown ; apical third of elytra, antcun.T 



.soiiw .[u>t i\ili'in < 111 ciiinMiida*. 11)7 

(club cxcoptc(l), nud tarsi somewhat pahr. S[)ar.sc'ly clothed 
with sh<)rt, jh'prcsscd, a.sheu SL't;e. 

IIt'a(/ with rather eoarsc punctures. JCyes separated about 
the width of apex of scape, llostrum moderately 1om<( and 
gently curved ; with rather strong punctures, separated by 
treble ridges ; but in front of antennai with small punctures 
only. Antcnnic thin, inserted about one-third from apex of 
rostrum ; scape slij^htly l(jn;.ccr than funicle, first joint 
of the latter stouter and longer than sec )nd ; club rather 
brietly ovate. I'rothurax small, distinctly transverse, base and 
apex truncate, sides rounded in middle ; with small, dense 
jjunctures, and numerous others of larger size. Scutellum 
distinct. Elytra about once and one-half the width of 
prothorax at base, slightly dilated to beyond the middle, 
and then widely rounded, with rows of large punctures in 
moderate striie ; interstices with small punctnres. Femora 
stout, front lightly, midille moderately, hind strongly and 
acutely dentate. 

Length IJ mm. 

? . Dift'ers in having the rostrum longer and thinner, 
with finer punctures, antcnnje shorter and inserted not 
quite as close to apex of rostrum. 

Hub. Queensland : Kuranda. 

In general appearance something like au Apion. 

Rhaciodes insirjnis, sp. n. 

Dark reddish brown, almost black, appendages reddish. 
Each side of prothorax, a large subtriangular patch on 
elytra, and sides of mesosternum densely clothed with some- 
what stramineous scales, with a slight golden or golden- 
green lustre ; elsewhere less conspicuously clothed. Each 
tubercle with a conspicuous fascicle of blackish setie. 

Head with dense round punctures. Eyes moderately 
facetted. Rostrum long, moderately curved ; ])uneturcs 
somewhat smaller and denser than on head. Prothorax 
slightly longrr than wide, sides slightly dilated from apex to 
base ; with dense and irregular punctures and with nume- 
rous small transverse rug:c. Jllytra closely applied to but 
distinctly wider than prothorax, shoulders rounded, sides 
sul)parallel to beyond the middle ; with rows of large sub- 
oblong punetur(;s, in |)laccs almost orcpiite concealed ; near 
apex with a very large acutely conical tubercle on each side. 
Legs long; femora stout, subclavatc, four front tibi;c dis- 
tinctly curved ; claw s divergent. 
Length 5-7 mm. 



40S Mr. A. M. Loa on 

Hah. Qncciislaiul : Kurauda [G. E. Bn/ont) ; Cairns 
{H. IV. Brown and //. Hacker). 

Readily distinguished from others of the genus hy tlie 
elytra having but two fascicles, and these very large and 
snbapical ; each is supported on an acutely pointed tul)ercle, 
although the actual point is usually concealed. The sub- 
triangular patch on the upper surface coinniences on the 
middle of prothorax, and is at its "widest at its termination 
(near the subapical tubercles) ; its hind mariiiu is en- 
croached upon by dark scales having a jjurplish lustre, and 
which are coutinuous from the triangle to the apex. Seen 
from the side the body appears to be deepest at the middle 
of the under surface and to rapidly slope upwards to each 
cud. 

Rhaciodes bicaudatus, Boi. Blue ]\Iouu tains. 

R. (/raniilifer, Chev. Blue Mountains. 

R. deni'ifer, Boh. Sydney. 

R. streimus, Blackb. Kuranda. 

Gerynassa nodulosa, Pasc. Illawarra. 

Encosmiu fascinta, sp. n. 

Dark chocolate-brown, legs and antennae paler. Mode- 
rately densely clothed with dingy greyish or sooty scales, 
variegated in places. 

Head with dense partially concealed punctures. Rostrum 
slightly shorter than prothorax, with acute ridges separating 
rows of punctures from base to antennje, thence to apex with 
small punctures only. Antennae inserted about one-third 
from apex of rostrum. Prothora,v slightly longer than wide, 
base slightly wider than apex, sides evenly rounded; with 
very dense punctures of moderate size. Elytra about one- 
fifth wider than prothorax and almost thrice as long, base 
gently arcuate; with rows of large partially concealed 
punctures in distinct striai. Legs rather short and stout. 

Length 2 1 mm. 

Hab. New South Wales : Ryde. 

In build rather close to adelaidce, but clothing very 
different and rostrum longer ; from the description of 
infuscata it differs very considerably in the clothing. The 
sides of the prothorax are rather densely clothed with some- 
what ochreous scales, the same extending to tlie shoulders. 
On the elytra there is a somewhat abbreviated whitisii fascia, 
crowning the summit of the posterior declivity ; the suture 



somr Atislrulutn Curculioiiiciie. 40'.) 

tlu iiir ii» iieur the apex is clothed with scales, as on the 
8h()uhlers. Oil the under surface the scales are denser and 
white or whitish. 

Cassythicola media, sp. n. 

^. Dark reddish brown ; lej^s, antennie, and s(jmetinie8 
the rostrum pahr. Kathcr dei.sely clothed with scales, 
varyiwi; i'roni whitish, thron;;h j^oldcn, to sooty. 

Head small, punctures concealed. Ucstrum lon<; and 
strongly curved, behind antennaj with rows of punctures, in 
front with sparser and irregularly disposed jjuncturcs. 
Scape thin, inscrteil about two-hit hs from apex of rostrum, 
and somcwhiit shorter than fnniclc, Prutlwrax strongly 
transverse, base much wider than apex, feebly bigibbons in 
middle ; with dense, normally concealed punctures. Klijtra 
about one-third wider than prothorax.uot much longer than 
wide, shoulders moderately rounded, the apex strongly so; 
with rows of fairly large but more or less concealed punc- 
tures, each containing a scale. Legs short and stout. 

Length 2^-3 mm. 

% . Differs in having the rostrum distinctly longer and 
thinner, punctures almost absent from in front of antennie 
and smaller behind same, antenuee and tibiae thinner, and 
clothing more vai-iegaled. 

llab. N. S. Wales: National Park, Ourimljah iG. E. 
Bryant), Uosford ( //. IV. Cox) *. 

In size almost midway between rotundatn and loiif/irostris, 
but with markings approaching those of the former. Of 
three males now under examination, the clothing is not 
similar on any two. Two have live small sooty spots at the 
base of the elytra, and some vague ones elsewhere ; another 
has the basal spots very obscure, but a rather distinct row 
of sooty spots across the middle, with paler scales before 
and after same, and the apex with a large round patch of 
almost g<jlden scales. The sooty spots arc usually feebly 
elevated, so as to apjjcar like deiiressed fascicles. On the 
elytra of the others there are no distinct zones, and the 
apical half has more or less greyish scales. On the |)ro- 
tliorax there is a fairly distinct i)alc median line au(i some 
feeble spots or patches of pale and of dark scales. On the 
only female before me the clothing is of an almost uniform 
dingy golden colour. 

• Tliere id also a .'•pt.ciuu'ii fiom Wido IJay in tlm Australian 
M Use u 111. 



410 Mr. A. M. Lea on 

Empolis granulatus, sp. n. 

(J . Black, antennse (club darker) and legs more or less 
of a diujry red. Moderately clothed with white or whitish 
set?e, becoming thin scales on sides. 

Head with dense punctures. Rostrum moderately Ions:, 
thin, and curved ; witli dense ])unctures ; with a distinct 
median carina from antennae to base, and some less distinct 
ones. Antennae thin, inserted one-fourth from apex of 
rostrum. Prothorax about as long as wide, sides strongly 
rounded, base slightly wider than apex; with dense round 
punctures. Elytra distinctly wider than prothorax, paralhl- 
sided to beyond the middle ; with rows of angular punctures 
in deep strife ; interstices wider than strise, with numerous 
])uiictures and small granules. Abdomen with a vague de- 
pression common to two basal segments, witii a vague 
median line filled with somewhat darker setse than elsewhere 
from base to apex, second segment distinctly shorter than 
fifth. 

Length 3|-5 mm. 

? , Differs in having the rostrum longer and thinner, 
with smaller punctures ; antenna? inserted one-third from 
apex of rostrum ; abdomen Avithout a median line, and 
second segment distinctly longer than fifth. 

Hab. New South Wales : Blue Mountains (G. E. Bryant), 
Gosford {H. W. Cox). 

In general appearance resembling several species of 
Desiantha, but Mith the genei'ic characters of Empolis ; from 
the described species of the latter genus it dijffers in being 
cons-idcrably larger and very differently clothed. Most 
specimens have the derm of the upper surface black, but on 
a few it is more or less distinctly diluted with red. On the 
under surface of the head and on the front of the prosternum 
the scales sometimes have a faint golden gloss. The scales 
nowhere form spots on any of the thirteen typical specimens. 

Li jNIr. Black bump's table of the Erirhinides Epacticus and 
Eucosmia are separated from Eniopeu and Empolis by the 
fifth abdominal segment being shorter than the second in the 
former and longer than the second in the latter. Tliese 
segments, however, are sexually variable. By the tabic in 
question the male of Empolis leai would be referred to the 
second group and its female to the first. The same is the 
case with the present species. The claws have a swelling at 
the base, but 1 think the genus was correctly referred to the 
Erirhinides. 



sinne AustraHin Curculioiiida'. Ill 

l\iiipuHs nivtodispersus, sp. n. 

^. lUick, Itffs almost black, autcniuu of" a (liii<;y nd. 
Modtrately clothed with somewhat poldeu or dark stia- 
iniiu'ous setic or thin scales, elytra in addition with some 
rontid snowy-white scales scattered about, sometimes singly, 
sDiiu'times m small spots; under surface and legs with 
whitish clothing. 

Ih'od with dense punctures. Rostrum moderately long, 
thin, and curved ; with dense punctures ; with three distinct 
(arinaj from antenme to base. Antenmc rather thin, in- 
serted al)()ut one-third from apex of rostrum. Prothorax 
moderately convex, almost as long as wide, sides strongly 
rounded, base and apex snbcqual ; with dense round punc- 
tures. Elytra about one-third wider than prothorax, 
parallel-sided to beyond the middle ; with rows of large 
l)artially concealed punctures in deep stria? ; interstices wider 
than striie, with more or less concealed punctures and 
granules. Abdomen with a shallow depression, hllcd with 
stramineous setae along middle of two basal segments, second 
distinctly shorter than fifth, the setai at its apex appearing 
like a small fascicle. 

Length 4^ mm. 

Hub. New South ^Yales : Illawarra. 

In build rather close to the preceding species, but readily 
distinguished from it and from all others of the genus by 
the large snowy scales in the elytral strite. 

Desiantha maculata, Blackb. Mordialloc, Adelaide. 

D. inafevolens, Lea. Mundaring. 

Eniopea bivittata, Lea. Illawarra, National Park. 
Ethus eruditus, Blackb. Illawarra. 

E. vurians, Bl.ickb. National Park, Sydney. 
EpaiiKEbus scutellaris, Blackb. Illawarra. 
E. ziczac, Lea. Illawarra. 

Cyttalia sydticyensis, Blackb. National Park, Sydney. 
Sytnbothiuus sqiiuUdus, Blackb. Baan Baa. 
Nemestra incerta, Pasc. Perth. 

Eristus nniformis, sp. n. 

Lull reddi>h castancous, antenna; and legs slightly paler, 
moderately clothed with short, depressed, whitish setie 



412 Mr. A. M. Lea on 

below eyes, at sides of prothorax and of under surface, and 
at liase of elytra; elsewhere almost or quite glabrous. 

Hi'Otl \\'\i\\ numerous rather small punctures; with a small 
interoeular fovea. Rostrum wide, slightly shorter than 
])rotliorax, moderately curved ; j)unctures on basal half as 
between eyes, but becoming smaller and more numerous 
towards apex. Scape inserted slightly nearer apex than base 
of rostrum, about half the length of funicle and club com- 
bined ; first joint of funicle stouter and slightly longer than 
second. Pruthurax moderately transverse, sides strongly 
rounded, base distmetly wider than apes ; with rather dense 
round punctures. Elytra suboblong, about one-third wider 
than prothorax, apex widely rounded; with narrow strite 
containing distinct punctures ; the interstices each with a 
row of setiferous punctures. Legs rather short and stout. 

Length 3-3^ mm. 

Hab. New South Wales : National Park, Illawarra (G. E. 
Bnju))t). 

Differs from pallidus in being larger, somewhat darker, 
rostrum longer, no paler than the prothorax, the latter with 
sides more rounded, clothing sparser, &c. From blackburni, 
to which, perhaps, it is closer, it differs in being larger, 
rostrum distinctly longer, no part of under surface dark, and 
clothing sparser. The three typical specimens are probably 
females. 

A specimen from Sydney differs in being considerably 
paler, elytra slightly stained at about one-fourth from apex, 
with the apical fourth paler than the rest of the elytra. It 
is probabl}^ immature. 

Eristus setosus, Blackb. Baan Baa, Brisbane. 

E. bicolor, Blackb. National Park. 

E. ])allidus, Lea. National Park, Illawarra, Sydney, 

Eristixus, gen. nov. 

Rostrum quite straight. Suture between first and second 
abdominal sf gments extremely faint across middle. Other 
characters as in Eristus. 

Eristus was referred with considerable hesitation (princi- 
pally on account of the wide rostrum) to the Erirhinides by 
Mr. Blackburn. Probably it would have been with still 
more hesitation that he would have referred the present 
genus to tlicErirhiiiides, if hehad done so at all. Certainly, 
however, it is very close to Eristus, and it was only after 
considerable hesitation that I decided to describe the three 



some Aiinlnih'iin CurculioirulfO. 113 

sprcii's as other tliuii al)ciraiit nicmlnTs of that pjcmis. Tlie 
rostrum, whi-n sclmi from the side, appears to ho very thin 
(mueh thinner than in AV/i7<t< selosus or Ijicolor), but from 
in front ap|)ears to be very wide. Four specimens of 
eiicali/pti have their mandibles nnelenehed, and these arc 
seen to hi; aeutely hidentate at the apex. 

Only one speeimen of the {jjenus was sent by Mr. l>iyant, 
but I have associated with it another species of which there 
are several specimens under examination, and another also 
represented by a single specimen. They may be tabulated 
as follows : — 

Eyes close tojrether iitid elytra ^labioiis eucalyjiti. 

Eves moderatoly si-paratcd and olylra clutliud. 

Leg's uiiiforiiily jialo Jlnvijies. 

Femora much darker tlian tibiio and tarsi aubrinus. 

Kristiiiiis euca/>/pli, s{). n. 

cJ . Black; rostrnni, anteiuue, and legs flavous. \N'ith 
some wiiitish hairs on head^ prothorax (the disc {jhiljrousj, 
anil under surface ; dense only on sides of mcs(j- and ot' 
mctasternnm. 

Head with a few distinct punctui'cs near eyes. Eyes large, 
close together, and coarsely facetted, llostrum wide, thin, 
and almost parallel-suled, about twice as long as wide; with 
di.stinct but not very dense punctures. Scajie short, some- 
what curved, much shorter than funicle ; first joint of the 
latter stout and moderately long. Prothorax mocUratciy 
transverse, sides evenly rounded, base lightly bisinuate and 
not much wider than apex; witb numerous punctures of 
rather small size, clearly defined on disc, but obscured on 
sides. Scutellum small but distinct. Elytra mucli wider 
tiiau prothorax and about thrice as long, shoulders fceljly 
routuled, sides slightly dilated to beyond the middli', and 
then widely rounded to apex; with rows of punctures, fairly 
large at tiie base, but becoming much smaller posteriorly. 
Abdomen with small punctures, two basal scgmenis rather 
large, in male flattened across middle, in female convex, 
second, thiril, ami fourth directeil slightly ijaekwards at sides. 
Leys rather short and stout ; femora edentate. 

Length l^-.^ mm. 

Hub. New South Wale.": Gosfonl, on Eucalyptus pii-enla 
(^11. ir. Cujc), Ourimbah {Taylor Bros.). Queensland : Mount 
'lainbourine (C J. Wild). 

The elytra are (juite glabrous; their punctures are in 
regular rows, but not striie, although in places tracts of 
biiiuc mav be noticed. 



414 Mr. A. M. Lc-a o/i 

Kristinus flavipes, sp. n. 

Black ; rostrum, antennoc, and legs flavous ; head, due 
of protliorax, apex, and shoulders of" elytra diluted with red. 
Clothed with rather sparse whitish hairs, moderately dense 
only at sides of nieso- and of nietastcruum ; elytra with very 
short but fairly distinct pubescence. 

Head with fairly numerous distinct punctures. Eyes 
separated almost the width of rostrum at base. Rostrum 
shaped as in preceding species, basal half with fairly nume- 
rous distinct punctures, as those between eyes, but smaller 
elsewhere. Prothorax with dense and rather coarse punc- 
tures, and an irregular median line. I'Jytra with rows of 
distinct punctures, rather coarse at base, and becoming 
smaller posteriorly ; the iutcrsticcs each with a row of small 
but distinct punctures. 

Length 1^ mm. 

Hah. New South Wales : Sydney. 

In general appearance close to the preceding species, but 
with much coarser punctures (except on under surface) and 
elytra with tine but fairly distinct clothing, and with striatiou 
more defined, although still very feeble; the legs are also 
somewhat thinner. 

Eristinus sohrinus, sp, n. 

Dark reddish brown ; antennae (club darker), tibiae, and 
tarsi of a rather dingy flavous. Clothed with whitish 
pubescence, shorter on elytra and denser on sides of meso- 
and of metasternum than elsewhere. 

Head and rostrum with sculpture much as in preceding 
species. Prothorax with very dense and rather coarse 
])uncturcs ; without a median line. Elytra parallel-sided to 
beyond the middle; with rows of large round punctures, 
becoming smaller posteriorly; interstices each with a row of 
small but distinct punctures. 

Length H mm. 

Ilab. Queensland: Cairns [C. J. Wild). 

A dingy species readily distinguished from the others by 
its dark femora ; the punctures on its under surface are also 
coarser. Its prothoracic punctures are rather smaller than 
in the precedingspecies, but denser. The rows of punctures 
on the elytra are very distinct, but the striatiou is feeble. 

Antyllis variabilis , sp. n. 
Reddish castaueous, tip of rostrum, club, and claws darker. 



some Atislruliiin CurculioniJu'. 115 

Dcii-^cly elotlu'd with whitish, oclircous, and sooty scales, 
\Yith nuincroiis erect, dark, and rather short seta?, scattered 
aliout on head, prothorax, and elytra. 

Head with dense punctnrcs, concealed in front. Rostrum 
about the len;;tli of prothorax, lightly curved; basal half 
M-ith live cariiiie separated by rows of [junctures, apical half 
with njodciatily dense but not seriate punctures. Antennae 
inserted slightly nearer apex than base of rostrum, first 
joint of funielc stout and moderately long. Pruthorax 
almost as long as wide, sides rather strongly and evenly 
rounded, base decidedly wider than apex ; with dense, round, 
concealed punctures. Elytra oblong-cordate, much wider 
than prothor.ix, with rows of large, partially concealed 
punctures ; interstices wide, with small, dense, normally 
quite concealed punctures. Leys rather hjug ; femora 
stout. 

Length 2^-3 mm. 

I lab. New South Wales (iT/flc/eoy Museum), National Park 
(G. E. Bryant), 'rasmuuia : lluon River, Mount Wellington 
{A. M. Lea). 

In general appearance not at all close to the two pre- 
viously named species (tofjata and altematis) known to me. 
In its elytral setae it approaches the description of setosa, 
but the two species appear to have little else in common. 
The male difi'ers from the female in having the rostrum 
slightly stouter, legs slightly longer, and basal segment of 
abdomen widely depressed, instead of strongly convex, in 
middle. 

On the prothorax there are three lines of whitish scales, 
the surface elsewhere being clothed with more or less 
oehreous ones. On the elytra the white scales clothe the 
suture (more noticeably towards the base than elsewhere) 
and are fairly dense about the middle, but with a linear 
arrangement ; the sooty scales form an elongated s|)ot on 
the second interstice near base, another beyond the middle, 
and a third near apex, on the fourth there is an elongated 
median spot, and on the sixth a small spot just before the 
middle, but on some specimens there are no dark spots, or 
only two or four on each elytron. On the rest of the elytra 
the scales are oehreous, sometimes with a golden, sometimes 
with a reddish, gloss. On the under surface the scales are 
usually whitish, sometimes with a greenish gloss. On au 
occasional specimen the erect sctie are nearly white. 

On some of the Tasmanian specimens the dark nwrkings 
on the elytra are ratiicr more conspicuous than usual, there 
being elongated median spots on all the even interstices, and 



41G Mr. A. M. Loa on 

occasionally one on the seventh near apex, in addition to 
the other two on tlie second. On one specimen all the 
median and suhapieal spots are iircgidarly joined. Tlieso 
specimens also have rather numerous elongated white spots 
ou the elytra. 

Omorophius coxii, sp. n. 

J. Bright reddish castaueous. Densely clothed with 
more or less ochreous seahs, variegated with paler and darker 
ones on elytra, and j)aler on under surface. 

Rosfntm long, thin, and moderately curved, with nimierous 
j)unctures, irregular in front of antenniu ; seriate in arrange- 
ment and separated by distinct ridges behind same, becoming 
concealed towards base. Autenna3 thin, inserted at about 
one-third from apex of rostrum ; first joint of funicle as 
long as the three following combined. Pruthorux rather 
small, almost as long as wide, sides rather strongly rounded, 
base distinctly wider than apex ; with dense, concealed 
punctures. Scutellum minute. Elytra about ouce and one- 
half the width of prothorax, and fully thrice as long ; with 
rows of large, almost concealed punctures, in feeble striae. 
Legs moderately stout. 

Length u\ — i mm. 

? . Differs in being somewhat stouter, rostrum longer, 
thinner, and with smaller punctures ; antennae inserted 
nearer the middle of rostrum ; and abdomen with two basal 
segments rather strongly convex, instead of flattened in 
miiidle. 

I lab. New South Wales: Rvde (G. E. Bryant), Gosford 
(//. IV. Cox). 

In general appearance fairly close to niyrovarius, from 
Western Australia, but larger and somewliat wider, elytral 
markings different, and raetasternum not black. From 
seriatus (described originally as from Gosford), it differs in 
being smaller, with conspicuous elytral markings, &c. The 
scales are usually darker on the middle of the prothorax 
than on the sides. On each elytron there is a pale, oblic^ue, 
irregular fascia, extending from the side before the middle 
to near the suture at the apical third. On the side before 
and beyond tlie fascia the scales are usually sooty, and there 
is an irregular sooty spot ou the middle just before the 
fascia, and sometimes a smaller one just beyond it. On the 
under surface the scales have sometimes a golden or greenish 
glow. 'In addition to the scales there are some stout 
depres-ed setaj ou the prothorax and elytra^ but they arc 
indistinct from most directions. 



some jiuslralian CiirculioniJa?. 417 

PlIAUN.T.US. 

This ^fiuis Nvas {louhtfiiUy referred to tlie Zygopides. A 
rc-cxamimition of the cliaraeters of the ty|)cs, together witli 
those of a second species taken Ijy Mr. Jiryant and a third 
from the Macde.iy Museum, convinces me that tlie genus 
shouKl pr()l):il)ly l)i' referred to the lOrirhinides. The serobes 
were originally dcscril)ed as *' hitcral/' but tliey arc rather 
pccubar, l)i'ing ol)li(jucly and rapidly turned under the 
rostrum. On each side above the scrobe and having a 
common starting-point with it, tlicre is a distinct groove, 
continuous to tlie eye, that at Hrst appears to be tlie real 
scrobe (much as in Rliacliioilcs and I'lucosmia curnuta, but 
not in the other species of the latter genus), and is alike 
in all three species. 

Kcgarding the genus as belonging to the Erirhinides, in 
Mr. Jilackburn's table of the genera of that subfamily, the 
falcate front tibiae would associate it with Gtnoc/iromn and 
Olhiodorus, from both of which it is readily distinguished 
by the short claw-joint. It is really, however, not very close 
to either of those genera, nor to any other of the subfamily 
known to me. 

Phaunieus trilinealbus, sp. n. 

Black, shining. White scales forming three narrow lines 
on prothorax (the lateral ones not quite to base, the median 
one not quite to apex), narrowing, clothing the suture at 
base and apex, dense on parts of sterna, forming a hue on 
the under surface of each of tiic four front femora, and 
on the upper surface of the liind four, and fairly dense on 
tarsi and tips of the tibiaj. Numerous black setie on legs 
and on parts of the upper surlacc. 

Ih'fid with fairly dense small punctures. Rostrum thin, 
slightly longer than prothorax ; with dense punctures, be- 
liind tlie antennic seriate in arrangement, and on the sides 
separated by acute ridges. Antennaj inserted about one- 
fourth from apex of rostrum, two bas;d joints of funicle 
moderately long, Hrst longer and stouter than second. 
Prothorax strongly convex, slightly longer than wide, sides 
evenly rounded ; with dense, clearly defined punctures of 
moderate size. Elytra subcurdate, strongly convex, about 
once and one-half the width of prothorax, with rows of deep 
punctures in narrow stria*. Leys long; front tibiaj strongly 
curved. 

Length 21-.3 mm. 

Hah. y^i^w South Wales : Illawarra. 



41S Mr. A. M. Lea o/i 

Diflcrs from louglrostris in the rostrum being distinctly 
sliorter than the elytra ; prothorax less dilated to tlie base, 
and with three conspicnons lines of white scales, &e. The 
resemblance to species of Idotasia is much less pronounced, 
bat the scrobes, lateral sulci, and lejis convince me that the 
species shouhl be generically associated with longirostris. 
On the side of each elytron there is a row of punctures in a 
stria, then three seriate rows, and then rows in regular striiu 
to the suture. 

There are three specimens of this species in the British 
]\Iuseura from the Kichmond River, but they liave been 
rather dirty and the prothoracic strip 's from one have been 
abraded, and partially so from the others. 

Phaunceus medioalbus, sp. n. 

Black, shining ; parts of antennaj and of tarsi obscurely 
diluted with red. White scales forming a continuous 
median line on prothorax, several spots on elytra, dense on 
middle of sterna and of basal segment o£ abdomen, and 
irregularly distributed on legs. 

Head with dense, clearly defined punctures. Rostrum 
moderately thin, slightly longer than prothorax, moderately 
curved, with fairly large punctures, more or less seriate in 
arrangement behind antennre. Thes'- inserted about one- 
third from apex of rostrum ; first joint of funiele as long as 
second and third combined. Prothorax strongly convex, 
distinctly longer than wide, sides rather strongly rounded, 
with dense and rather coarse punctures. Elytra subcordate, 
almost twice the width of base of prothorax, with rows of 
deep punctures in narrow strire, the seventh and eighth rows 
not in striae. Legs long, four front tibise strongly curved. 

Length 2^-2^ mm. 

Hab. Queensland : Cairns, Endeavour River {Macleay 
Museum) . 

In build, except that it is smaller, rather close to the 
preceding species, but clothing different and prothoracic 
punctures distinctly larger. The white scales appear to be 
rather easily abraded, as the median line of the prothorax is 
sometimes traceable only at its ends ; on each elytron there 
are normally three spots : two about middle, on the second 
and third interstices, and one at apex, but occasionally they 
are all absent. 



some Australian Curculionuho. 119 

Cydman suturalis, sp. n. 

lUack. Densely but irregularly clothed. 

Riistnim moderately long, fetbly diniinisliiiig in width 
Irouj base to apex, with rows ut" rather strong puneturcs, 
partially concealed towards base, becoming small towards 
apex. Antennne inserted slightly nearer aj)cx than base of 
rostrum ; basal joint of t'unicle stout, longer than second 
and third combined. Prothorax lij^htly transverse, sides 
evenly rounded, with dense, partially concealed punctures. 
Elytra oblong-cordate, about one-1'ourth wider than pro- 
thorax ; with rows of rather large and mostly concealed 
punctures. Legs rather stout ; front coxte touching. 

licngth 2 mm. 

Hub. New South Wales : Sydney. 

In the table of species previously given ])y me*, it would 
be associated with dorsa/is and fasciafa, to neitlu r of which, 
however, is it at all close. Tlie clothing is something like 
that of some forms of rostra/is, but the pale scales cover less 
of the surface, and the rostrum is very different ; diversa 
has the clothing somewhat different, and front coxre not 
touching. The pattern is somewhat suggestive of that of 
small specimens of eucalypti, but the rostrum is deep black. 
On the upper surface the scales are mostly whitish, y,\i\\ an 
ochreous tinge, but some in certain lights liave a golden 
gloss ; between the eyes from some directions, a few appear 
to be of a fiery red. In places there are black scales and 
semi-nude spaces, so that the surface appears to be covered 
with scattered, angular, pale spots ; but there is a fairly 
large spot on each side of the base of prothorax, and an 
irregular postmcdian fascia may be traced on the elytra, 
the suture also is clothed throughout. On the under 
surface the scales are denser, paler, and more uniform. 

Cydmcea tibialis, sp. n. 

(J. Reddish castancous ; prothorax and under surface 
black. Densely squamose. 

Rostrum and antenna; as in preceding species. Prothorax 
about as long as wide, basal half parallel-sided, with dense, 
normally concealed punctures. lllytra oblong-cordate, 
rather long for the genus, not much wider tlian prothorax, 
with rows of rather large, oblong, partially concealccl 
punctures. Li'fjs rather stout ; front coxie touching, front 

♦ Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. .\u.st. 18U0, p. \:^\L. 



•420 On some Australian Cuicullonldtc. 

tibise at apical third with a small tooth, emarginate between 
same and apex. 

Length 2-2^ mm. 

? . Differs in having the abdomen more convex, and the 
front tibire simple. 

Hah. New South Wales : Sydney. 

Ill the table, referred to under the preceding species, 
would be associated Avith eucalypti and nymphoides, two 
Western Australian species, to neither of which is it at all 
close in appearance. On the upper surface the scales are 
mostly white or whitish, but in places stained with ochrcous. 
On the prothorax there are several dark spots, partly due to 
several semi-nude spaces, and partly to dark scales ; on the 
elytra there is a fairly distinct postmedian fascia of pale 
scales. On the under surface the clothing is d&nse and 
uniformly white or silvery. 

Cydmcea dors alls, Lea. 

Mr. Bryant captured a single specimen of this species 
near Sydney. The types were from W. Australia. 

Cydmcea mixta, Blackb. Sydney, National Park. 

C. major, Blackb. Sydney, Blue Mountains. 

C. viridula, Pasc. Swan River. 

C. rostralis. Lea. Swan Kiver, Mundaring. 

C. binotata, Lea. Illawarra. 

Dicomada rufa, Blackb. Sydney, Blue Mountains. 

Thechia cinerascens, Lea. 

A specimen from Sydney differs from the type (from 
Tasmania) in being slightly smaller, and with the markings 
even less pronounced. 

Thechia pygmcea, Pasc. Baan Baa. 

Misophrice submetallica, Blackb. National Park. 

M. setulosa, Blackb. Illawarra. 

M. variabilis, Blackb. Perth. 

M. alternata. Lea. Sydney, Illawarra. 

M. apionoides, Lea. Sydney, Illawarra. 



On the Ge't(ii'aphic(il Rices o/Citcllus fulvus. A*] 

Misojihrice ffloriosa, Lea. Sydney, Blue Mountains, 
Ourinibali. 

M. s(/itaniive/ih'is, Le.i. Sydney, Tllawarra. 

M. vhidifKjuama, Lea. Sydney. 

Storeiis albosignntiis, Blaeklj. National l\ark, Sydney, 
Illawarra. 

S. mojusculns, Blackh. Illawarra. 

<S. cryptorhynchus, Lea. Sydney, National Park. 

S. invidiosus, Lea. National Park. 

(Sf. niveiceps, Lea. National Park. 

Balenerhinus problematicns, Lea. Kuranda. 

Aoplocnemis guttiyer, Paso. Blue Mountains. 

A M A L A C T I D E S. 

Tranes roei, Boh. Mundaring. 

E U R H y N C H I D E S. 

Eurhynchus splendidus, Blackb. Kuranda. 

Chalcocyhelus bispinosus, Boi., var. australis, Heller. 
Kuranda. 

[To be continued.] 



XXXVII. — The Geographical Races o/'(*itellus fulviis. 
By Oldfikld Thomas. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British iEuseum.) 

The British ^luseum contains exanipl's of the yellowish 
Kirj^hiz and Transcas|)ian .souslik, Citellus fidous, from the 
fliice most extreme points of its range, namely tlie Kiri;liiz 
Steppes south of the Urals, JJokliara, and Mcslicil, N.E. 
Persia, the last beinoj a locality not hitherto recorded for (he 
:tnimal. 

A compnrison of the s]ieciniens shows enouG;h difference 
Ijetween those from each locality to justify their being con- 
sidered distinct subspecies. 

Ann. ft- Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 8. Vol. xv. 28 



422 Mr. O. Thomas on 

The type of " Arctomt/ii fulviis " * was obtained by Evers- 
iiKiun oil the River " Kuwandscliur,'^ and a study of the 
traveller's itinerary f indicates that this place was some 
oO-SO miles north of the Aral Sea, tlierefore clearly in the 
region of what would be called Kirghiz Steppes. I there- 
fore propose to take our Kirghiz specimens as representing 
the typical race. 

These specimens are unfortunately only dealers' skins, not 
well prepared, and witliout exact particulars, so that ths 
detailed characters are not easily made out on them. But 
a? gauged hy the skull they are so much larger than the 
Bokharan and Persian races as clearly to indicate subspecific 
distinction. 

The skull - measurements of an adult male are as 
follows : — 

Greatest length 61 mm. ; condylo-incisive length 56*8 ; 
zygomatic breadth Al'5 ; nasals 22'5 x 9'8 ; interorbital 
breadth at notch 12"2; palatilar length 33'5 ; upper tooth- 
row 15*4 ; molars only 10"2. 

In general colour C. fulvus fidvus is like the Bokharan 
subspecies described below, much more strongly fulvous 
throughout than in C. f. pai-thia?ius, and the tips of the 
caudal hairs similarly bufly, not white ; the tail below with 
a well-marked layer of bright ochraceous-buffy hairs. 

The other two subspecies may be distinguished as 
follows : — 

Citellus fulvus oxianus, subsp. n. 

Size decidedly less than in Xx we fulvus. General colour, on 
the whole, very much as in that form, the back near " warm- 
buff " of Hidgway, the head rather greyer but not con- 
sjiicuously so. Sides creamy buff. Under surface buff, the 
bases of the hairs blackish slaty, but on the throat the hairs 
are buffy with whitish bases ; across the chest and on the 
whole of the forearms the colour is warmer buff, approaching 
cinnamon-buff; hands more greyish buff, like head. Hind 
limbs buffy on outer side and on feet, warmer cinnamon buffy 
on inner side. Tail with the rich cinnamon-buff of the under- 
side hiding the black subterminal bands of the upper hairs 
except at the end, so that in its lower aspect the tail appears 
rich buffy, with pale buffy edging and subterminal black bar 

♦ Licbt. in Eversm. Reise nach Buchara, p. 119 (1823). 
t T. c. pp. 28-29. 



the GeogrnjjJiiCitl J iuces of CiuWvDi lulvus. 423 

oi\ the pencil ; on the iipperside, however, tlie dark suh- 
terinitinl Uituls on the haird arc seon tu pass some way up 
each side ot tiic tail ; tips of all the haiis hufiy. 

Skull decidedly shorter and proi)ortionally rather broader 
than \\\fulvu,i. 

J)iincnsi(>ns of the type (measured in flesh): — 

Head and body 21(> nun. ; tail l>4 ; hind foot 40. 

tSkull : greatest len^fth T)-! ; condylo-incisive length 51; 
zygomatic breadth 405 ; nasals 21 x H'C ; interorbilal breadth 
10; palatilar length 28 ; upper tooth-row 13*7 ; molars only 
(wt)rn) 9. 

J/itb. Bokhara and Samarkand. Tvpe from .OO miles 
S.W. of Bokhara. Alt. GOo'. 

Tt/pe. Old female. B.M. no. 0. 4. 3. 20. Original num- 
ber 40. Collected 19th March, 1908, by Douglas Oarruthers. 
Six specimens. 

Citellus fulvus parthianus, subsp. n. 

Size about as in C. f. oxianiis. Colour above a rather 
warmer and more cinnamon-buff, though the difForence is 
not great. Head and nape distinctly greyer than the back, 
the difference greater than in oxianns. Under surface much 
greyer than in ojciauutj the ends of the belly-liairs light or 
creamy instead of cinnamon buff. Inner side of limbs more 
bufly than the underside generally, but not nearly so strong 
a buff as in oxianus. Tail with scarcely any of the strong 
cinnamoii-bufl'y hairs on its underside, so that, as a con- 
sequence, the pale buffy bases and black subterminal band of 
the uj)pcr and lateral hairs are visible from below : tips 
of the hairs white or whitish. 

Skull about as in oxianvs. 

Dimensions of the type : — 

Head and body (c.) 240 mm.; tail 38 ; hind foot 47. 

Skull : greatest length 57 ; condylo-incisive length 53*7 ; 
zygomatic breadth 40*3; nasals 20*0 x8"7; interorbilal 
breadth 10'7 ; palatilar length 29"5 ; upper tooth-row 15*2; 
molars only 10*1. 

JIub. ^'.E. Persia. Type from Meshed, alt. 3000'. One 
specimen from Kain. 

Type. Adult male. B.M. no. 8.6. 10. 2. Collected Aj.ril 
1908, and presented by Col. P. M. Sykes. Six specimens 
in all, presented by Col. Sykes, Col. Yate, and Major 
Watson. 

This Persian subspecies differs from C.f. oxianus by its 



424 Geological Society. 

warmer colour above, greyer and less buff/ ton? below, 
incUuling tlie almost complete absence of tiie strong buffy of 
tlie inner side of the forearms, by the more creamy tone 
of (he belly, and by the whitish instead of buffy tips to the 
caudal hairs. 

Col. Sykes tells me " These ground-squirrels appear in 
April, and have no cover for about a month. After tliat they 
disappear into the crops, and are rarely seen outside. Those 
I sent you were certainly killed in April, and probably all 
the others.'' 



PROCEEDINGS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES. 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

February 24th, 1915.— Dr. A. Smith Woodward, F.R.S., President, 
in the Chair. 

The following communication was read : — 

' The Ashgillian Succession in the Tract to the West of 
Coniston Lake." By John Edward Man-, Sc.D., F.E.S., F.G.S. 

The Author has studied in detail the succession of the Ashgillian 
strata in Ashgill Beck and the adjoining tract. In Ashgill Beck 
the following sequence was detected : — 

Valentian. 

Thickness xn feet. 

rUpper... Ashgill Shales about 50 

r Ph acops-mucronatus Beds 16 

Ashgillian «! Middle-< Ash 16 

[ White Limestoue about 12 

_Ij o w er... Phillipsinella Heds 7 

Caradocian. 



I. 



An account of the lithologioal characters and lists of the fossil 
contents of the various divisions are given, and confirmatory 
sections from Coniston Village to Appletreeworth Beck are described. 
A comparison is made with the beds of the Cautley district, 
previousl}' described by the Author. Some fossils which have not 
yet been found in the Lower Ashgillian of the Cautley district 
occur in the beds of that division at Coniston. 

From a .study of the fossils of the Coniston tract and of other 
areas in Britain and the Continent, it would appear that a two- 
fold division of the Ashgillian strata which is of more than local 
value may be made. The lower division is characterized by 
the abundance of Phillipsinella parabola, and the upper by the 
profusion of Phacops mucronatus. 



l( t,^' 



T II i; A N N A r. s 



AND 



MAGAZINE OF NATURAL HISTORY. 

[Kir.IITFI SERIIvS.] 
No. 89. MAY 1015. 



XXXVIII. — Sates on the Coleopterous Family Dormcstlilae, 
and Descri'fdions of some new Forms in the British 
Mus-'uiit. By Gilbert J. Arrow. 

(Published by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum.) 

The catalogue of this family of beetles compiled by Dalla 
Tone and published in 1011, while of the greatest value as 
ail indispensable preliminary to the systematic study of the 
^roup, is necessarily uncritical and in many respects defective 
from the fact that tlie compiler has no intimate knowledge of 
the insectswith which it deals. While studying and arranging 
with its help the British ^luseum collection of Dermostida?, 
I have recorded for the intormation of future workers the 
various corrections and omissions which have come under my 
notice ; and these are published here, together with descrip- 
tions of some of the new species in the collection which 
appeared specially worthy of receiving names. 

With an ex'traordinary degree of variability in the forma- 
tion of th<* antenna?, and, to a less extent, in other points of 
structure, these insects have a general similarity which rar<dy 
leaves any doubt as to their belonging to the family. Tne 
most im])orfant and distinctive feature is the existence of a 
frontal ocellus, which is absent in the genus Dermestts only. 
This intt'resting feature is only known in one other family of 
Coleoptera — the kjiapliylinulai (subfamily Omaliinne), — for 
the statements that it is found in the genera Fterolvnia and 
Ilifhcatus are quite erroneous. 

Ann. it Mag. X. Hist. Ser. .S. I'/, xv. 2\) 



.12() Mr. G. J. Arrow on the 

Genus DliRMESTES. 

The types of various so-called species in the British Museum 
and the Oxford University Museum have never hitherto 
received any critical examination. That of D. roei, Hope, is 
unfortunately not to be found at Oxford, but of the other two 
described by Hope I have ascertained tiiat D. elonriatus 
belongs to vu^jnnus, F., and D. poUinclus to fri'.'^cht, Hugel. 

D. elonnatusy Lee, is not, as suggested by Jayne, the same 
as the European D. bicoloi', F., a much sliorter insect. As 
Leconte's name was preoccupied by Plope, I propose to call 
the species 

Dermestes nidum (nom. nov.), 

Mr. H. S. Barber having recorded (Proc. Biol. Soc. "Wash- 
ington, xxvii. 1014, p. 14.G) the fact that it breeds in the 
ntsts of a heron. 

D. filinus, F., of which the type is in the British Museum, 
is Dermestes caJaverimis, as is also D. subcostatus, Murray. 
D. iessellatus, F., although it has not yet been eliminated 
tiom the catalogues, was found long ago to be an Ancbium 
[rvfovillosiim, Deg.). 

The North-American I), dissector^ Kirby, belongs to the 
European species D. iivdnlatus, Brahm, and the Central- 
American specimens referred by Sharp in the ' Biologia 
Centiali-Anuricana ' to I), mannerheivii are in reality 
D. can'iiiua. Germ., of which we have s})eciniens also from 
Panama, Cuba, and St. Domingo. 

Genus Attagenus. 

Many Dermestida', as is well known, have an exceedingly 
wide area of distribution, and are at the same time extra- 
ordinarily variable in their more superficial features. The 
synonymy due to this fact has by no means all been recorded 
yet. One of these cosnio|wlitan species is that named 
yEthn'ostoma undulata by Motschulsky. This proves to be 
the same as the Australian Brachysphyrus irrorotus of Black- 
burn, the type of which (now in the British Museum) is a 
female. Blackburn^s names must both disappear accordingly. 
Another synonym for the same insect is Attagenus rufipes^ 
AValker. The name ^thriostoma is also redundant, for it 
cannot be distinguished generically from the species of 
Telopes, which is at present treated as a subgenus of Atta- 
genus. A. undulatus is evideiitly a common insect j I have 
seen specimens from Ceylon, India, Singapore, Hongkong, 



ColtopleroHs Fumilij DerinestiJa;. 427 

Piiili|)|)ii»e !■<., M!nla;;ascar, i^fauritins, etc. ^Ir. IC. E. Green 
liiis found it huzaiiig round the trunks of Spondiaa nuvjnifera 
trees in Ccvlttn. 

A, ijloriusn , v., is not very nearly related to the last 
ppecies, jis Motsclnilsky has statcil. .1. plebejus, Sharp, is 
synonymous witli f/Zorionr. 

A. ri/litidn'ctiSf Kirljy, by an ovcrsij^ljt has been catalogued 
by Dalla Torre as a synonym of .1. j>ireu.i, as weli as in its 
rifjlit jilace in Perimeyitoma. 

JSimilarly, Autlircnus e.rilis, Muls., lias ^ot into the Cata- 
logue amongst the species of AlUijenus, as well as in its 
propi r place. 

A. la t IIS, Pering., is A. hottentottus, Gu<5r. 

.1. ci/j'/ionoiden, Keitter, according to si)eciineti8 named by 
him in our collection, has a )>roduced prosteruum, and must 
be transferred to the genus Trogoderma. 

Attagemis japoniciis, Ueilt., was conipared by its author to 
A. VHirginicolliif, and distiiiguishe 1 only by i\\\ almost in- 
tangible colour-dill'erence. A. marjinicolUs and otiier torms 
hitherto separated from it have since been sunk by iveitter 
himself in his 'Catalogue of the European Coleoptera' as 
synonymous with the wide-ranging ^1. piceus, Oliv. No 
reason remains, therefore, for retaining A. japoiti'cus as more 
than a race of that insect. 

The foUjwing new species belong to this genus : — 

AtlageuHs pardus, sp. n. 

Niger, pedibus rufis, corpore supra et subtus dense flavo-cinereo- 
pubescenti, singuli eljtri niaculis tribus (aliaque communi media) 
magnis subcircularibus deiiudatis, maculis postieis duubus con- 
junctis, apicalibus, majoribus, medio cinerco-pupillatis ; corpore 
oblongo-ovnli, valde convexo. 

Ix)ng. 3 5-4-5 mm. ; lat. 2-'2o mm. 

JJah. Rhodesia: Salisbury {G. A. K. Marshall). 

This very distinctively marked species is entirely covered 
with greyish-yellow hair, with the exception of seven nearly 
round areas upon the elytra, which are quite black, bare or 
clothed witli much finer pubescence than the rest of the 
upper snifacc. One of these patches is placed at the middle 
of the elytral suture and the others are arranged in a circle 
round it, one behind the scutellum on each side, one at the 
outer margin and one occupying the sutural angle, the last 
larger than the rest and having a central spot of grey 
pubescence. 

It is a convex insect of elongate-oval shape. The club of 

29* 



428 ^Ir. G. J. Arrow on the 

the antPiuia is tliree-jointed and sliort, the terminal joint not 
lon-^er than it is broad. It is an allied species to A.jucunr^us, 
Paring., but more compact and convex, more tlost'ly pubes- 
cent, without markings on the pronotuin and wilh quite 
peculiar detached round spots on the elytra. 

Attagenus nigripennh, sp. n. 

Niger, perlibus et nntenni^ rufescentibus, hariim clava nigra, pro- 
noto, corpora subtus pedibusque fnbo-vestitis, elytris minutius 
et hand perspicue pubescentibus ; ovalis, modice elongatus, dense, 
fortiter et distincte punctatus, pronoto postice valde lobato, 
antennarnm clava modice elongata, articulo ultimo foeminae 
parvo, maris longitudine ad duos praecedentes sequaJi. 

Long. 3-3-5 mm. 

Hah. Gold Coast : Abuvi. 

A specimen of each sex was taken by Mr. W. H. Patterson. 

The common Attagenus pi'ceus, Oliv., is found in Europe, 
Asia, and America, but has not so far been brought from any 
part of Africa. The new species closely reseml)les it, but the 
])ancturation of the upper surface is rather stronger and more 
distinct, and the hairs clothing the pronotuin are long and 
bright yellow in colour. The basal lohe of the pronotura is 
much more produced, and the club of the antenna is black in 
both sexes (it is red in the female of A. piceus) and has a 
much shorter terminal joint in the male. In the female the 
last joint is smaller than either of the two preceding it. 

Attagenus binnantcus, sp. n. 

Niger, sed flavo-pubescens, pedibus antennisque rufis ; elongato- 
ovalis, parum convexus, antennarum clava triarticulata, articulis 
subaequalibus, maris laxius connexis. 

Long. 2-3"5 mm. 

Ilab. Upper Burma {Gray) ; Tharrawaddy (6^. Q. 
Corbett) . 

Presented by Mr. H. E. Andrewes. 

This closely resembles the widely distributed A. piceus^ 
Oliv., but is smaller on the whole, and the hair with which 
it is clothed is pale yellow both above and beneatli. The 
posterior lobe of the pronofum is much stronger and the 
scutelluin therefore less exposed. The club of the antenna is 
quite different, the three joints composing it being nearly 
equal in both sexes and much more loosely articulated in the 
male, in which the two basal ones are a little longer than 



Coleopterous Familj Dermestidaj. 420 

wide and the lust not quite twice as long as wide. In the 
lemale the bus:il joint is ns Ion«j as wide, the middle one 
transvor.*c, and the hist half as lon^ again as it is wide. 
The male is mueh smaller than tjje temale. 

Genus Tkogoderma. 

Trogoderma uiclusum, Loc, is apparently the common 
European T. versicolor^ (.leutz., a cosmopolitan insect, al- 
though not recognized as sucii in the catalogues. It is 
evidently carried about by commerce, .specimens in the British 
Museum having been found in rice and wheat in India. 

Tlie descriptions of Trcijoilerma [Etirh' piihis) ruhujinosus 
and vctriegatusoi Solier (Gay's ' liistoriadi Chile,' iv. p. 373) 
are transposed, as comparison with the figures shows. 

T. variipes, Blackb. (T. H. Soc. S. Austr. xii. 1892, |). 208), 
is omitted trom the catalogue. The name variipes, Casey, is 
a duplicate, and that of 

Trogoderma caseyi (nom. no v.) 

may be substituted for it. 

Trogoderma consors, sp. n. 

Atrum, antcnnis pedibus elytrorumque apicibus rnfescentibus, 
eloiipato-ovale, undique a^qualiter griseo-pubescens, pronoto 
fortiter annulato-punetato, subnitido, basi medio breviter ct late 
lobato, utriiique obbque suloato ; scutello sat magno; elytris 
dense granuloso-rugosis, apicibus separatim rotundatis, anteu- 
narum clava .5-articulata, serrata. 

Long. 3-3*5 mm. 

fLd). N.W. Australia : Bathurst I. 

The extremities of the elytra are separately rounded, as in 
T. occideniale, Blackb., but it is more elongate, less densely 
graimlattd and oj)aque, the pronotum less pointed behind, 
and the vi?il»le seutellum larger. It more resembles '1\ 
cyreiise^ Blackb., but the apices of the elytra are not rounded 
in that s[»ecies and the club of the antenna is narrower. The 
oblique grooves extending liom each side of the base of the 
pionutum arc scarcely visible iti either of Blackburn's species. 

Trogoderma peetinifer, ?p. n. 

Nigrum, opacnm, undique griseo-sefosum, pedibus, el) trorura apici- 
bus, antennisque rufis ; ovatum, modice convex um, capite pro- 
notoque deneissime punctato-rugosis, hoc valde convex©, lateribus 



-loO Mr. G. J. Anow on the 

ro£;ulariter arcuatis, paulo explanatis, basi fortiter et angulatim 
lobato ; clylris grosse ct crebrc graiiulatis, apice scparatim rotuu- 
datis ; aiitcnnis ( d ) loDge pectinatis. 
Long, 4*5 mm. 

Hal. New S. Wales: Ba.-rn Baa {G. E. Bryant, Oct. 
1908). 

A unique exani])le presented to the Museum by ]\Ir. Bryant. 

As in the species hist described, the elytra are rounded at 
the end and do not quite cover the abdomen, but they are 
more uniformly granulated and opaque, and only the extre- 
mities are red. The pronotnm also is much more densely 
sculptured than in 2\ cousoi-s, and its posterior lobe is more 
])oiuted. The antennaj of the male (the female is unknown) 
are strongly pectinated, the basal joint alone being bead-like 
and black, the succeeding joints red and more or less pro- 
duced^ and the teruiinal one flat and oval. 



Trogoderma f rater , sp. n. 

Kigvum, sat nitidum, tarsis antennarumque stipito rufis ; ovatum, 
parum convexum, erecte setosum, pronoti medio minutissime 
punctulato, nitidissimo, lateribus punctato-rugosis, elytris fortiter 
punctatis ct rugulosis, baud abbreviatis ; aiiteuuarum clava ( cJ ) 
serrata, sex-articulata. 

Long. 3'5 mm. 

Iluh. New S. Wales : Illawarra ( G. E. Bryant) ; Vic- 
toria {Edwards). 

'Vh\s is closely similar to T. difficile, Blackb., but the pro- 
notum is much more finely and scantily punctured in the 
middle, and the posterior lobe is broader and more regularly 
rounded. The antennte are quite different to those of Black- 
burn's type, but the latter is probably a female, not a 
male as Blackburn believed. In T.frattr the first two joints 
are globular and dark-coloured^ the next three very small, 
short, and red, the sixth red and a little produced anteriorly, 
the remaining five large and dark, the seventh to tenth 
strongly produced. The whole upper surface of the body is 
clothed with stiff setre and rather rugulose except in the 
middle of the pronotum, which is very shining. Blackburn 
has described the seta3 as black and grey in T. difficile, but I 
believe this is an illusion, the apparent colour changing 
according to the incidence of the light. 



Coleopterous Family Denncstidte. -1.^1 

Trogodtrma tricolor, sp. i). 

Ovalo, parmn clongatum, nigrum, vix nilidum, clytrorura apicibus 
hole rufis ; crebre punctatinn, minute grisoo-sotosum, prunoti 
lateribua ct lobo j)()8tico elytrorumquo fusciis tribus, i)lerum(jue 
lute interruplis, olbo-squainosis, pedibus antcntiisque rulis, illia 
loMgis, bis sat brevibus, clava triarticulata, ovali, urticulis duobus 
ponultimis brevissimis. 

Long. 3 mm. 

Jlab. Arabia: Y ^m^in {MilUngen). 

Tliis interesting species is very different from any other 
known to nie. I'lie white spots are composed of \o\\\r pointed 
scale.*, not fitttd together edge to ml^jfn as in A/it/irenus, but 
free at the end and massed in thick loose cUi.ster:;!. The legs 
are lon^ and not capable of being closely tuhied up as in that 
genus, and although there are cavities in theepisterna for t!ie 
recepiion of the antenna3 they are not very sharply defined 
and coincident with the antennaj. The club of the latter is 
broadly oval and flat, consisting of three transverse joints, 
the last of which is not quite twice as long as the other two, 
which are very short. In a series of seven specimens, which 
I believe to include both sexes, I can see no perceptible 
diflerence in the antennse. 



Trogoderma e.cindum, sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovale, nigrum, sat crebre et aequaliter (clytris paulo fortius) 
punctatum, ubique griseo-pubescens, vix nitidum, el}tris macula 
post-humerali aliacjuo apicali utrinque ornatis ; corpore supra 
etiam maculis 11 albo-setosis (proiioti duabus lateraliljus unaque 
basali, elytrorura 4 antcmcdianis ct 4 postuiedianis transversira 
positis) ; pedibus antennarumque stipite rutis. barum clava ( cT ) 
elongata, 3-articulata. articulo ultimo ad duos pnecediiites lougi- 
tudine fere a?quali. 

Long. 3 mm. 

Ilab. llliODESIA: Salisbury, Uintali. 

Three specimens were taken by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall 
and presented by him to the British Museum. 

The species resembles 2\ tricolor, but it is larger and more 
oblong in shape, and the white spots, of which there are onlv 
two ranges instead of three upon the elytra, are formed of 
fine hairs, and not of scales. There are also two conspicuous 
rod patches upon each elytron, the first transverse and jilaced 
behind the shoulder, the other nearly round and occupying 



432 Mr. G. J. Arrow on the 

tlie apical angle, not quite rcacliin<r the niarolns. Tiie an- 
tenna is short, bnt the club is relatively large (about two and 
a iuill: times as long as it is wide), with the first Iwo joijits 
transverse ami the last rather longer than it is wide. The 
legs are slender and the front tibiie very spinose externally. 

Trogoderma rufopictum, sp. n. 

Oblongo-ovale, nigrum, aequaliter liaud dense punctatum et sat 
longe bruunco-setosum, paulo nitidum, elytris macula humeral! 
obliqua, ab marginem oxteruam fere ad suturam extensa alia(iuo 
anteapicali Integra fere recta ornalis, abdomine, pedibus anteu- 
nisque rufis, his longis, gracilibus, clava 5-articulata, monilata, 
articulo ultimo quam prajcedenti duplo longiori. 

Long. 3 mm. 

Bab. Natal : Frere. 

Three specimens found in flowers by Mr. G. A. K. Mar- 
shall have been presented by him to the British Museum. 

2\ rufopiclam is similar in size, shape, and general appear- 
ance to T. exlinium, bnt is without the pattern forn)ed of 
clustered, white hairs. The clothing is uniform, rather long, 
l)ut not close. The hairs are reddish upon the red elytral 
])atches and darker elsewhere. The antenna? are very 
ditTercnt from those of the preceding species, being entirely 
red, slender, and loosely articidatcd. The joints composing 
the club are of a different texture to the rest, but little 
differentiated in size, althougli gradually enlarging towards 
the extremity. 

Trogoderma nitens, sp. n. 

Kigrum, elytris pone huraeros late et recte rufo-fasciatis, fascia ad 
suturam breviter intcrrupta, apicibusque rufis; sat late ovale, 
supra nitidum, sparsim erecte setosum, cai)ite grosso et rugose 
punctato, pronoto parce. latcribus autem crebre et rugose, punc- 
tato, postice baud fortiter lobato, utrinque profunde oblique 
impresso ; elytris undique parce i)unctatis; autenuarum clava 
6-articulata, paulo serrata, parte basali et tarsis rutis. 

Long. 3 mm. 

Eal. S.Brazil: Sta. Catharina. 

This appears to have the same coloration as T. pectiuicornts^ 
E-citt., but it is smaller and, instead of being densely punc- 
tured, is unusually smooth and shining, with only a very 
scanty sprinkling of punctures and fine setae upon the pro- 
notum and elytra. It is oval, not long, and black, with a 
laige bright orange-red patch beiiind eacii shoulder, reaching 



Coleopterous Family Dermo3tiJ:i\ l^."^ 

tlic liiti'ial margin litit not (|uit(' extending to tlic suture, uimI 
JiuotliLM- nrarly rouml tfrniiiuil patcli Inaviug only llic 
extieinc upex bhick. 

Gcuns PsACUS. 

Tliis gtMius, formed by Pascoo for an Australian insect nnd 
]daced hy liini in the l{lii|)iceiida', in reality Ixdouf^s to the 
Derincf^tidft', heino; a hi;j;lily devtdoped form rcdated to T'ogn- 
dermo. The a»)tennae, in the male especially, have attained 
an extraordinary development, and the sides of the ]irothorax 
in that sex are much dilated, to form a lar<je cavity beneath 
for the reception of the <^reat fan- like club. This and the 
lar<^e size of the female give the two sexes a strikiiij^ly 
different aspect. The possession of a frontal ocellus, over- 
looked by Pascoe, and many other features leave no doul>t as 
to the true athnities of the insect. Trogoderma serrigir, 
Sharp, from New Zealand, is a nearly related s[)ecies. 

Genus Cti:sias. 

The name Tiresiaft was substituted for Clesi'as by Newman, 
on the ground that the latter name had been previously used 
by Hiibner; but Hiibner's genus is Chesias, so that Tiresias 
is reduiuhint. 

Tiie South-African species here described has little super- 
ficial resemblance to the only hitiierto known s] ecies, C. serra, 
¥., but the form of the antenna, the only really distinctive 
feature of the genus, is practically identical, and, as there 
seems to be no structural difference of any importance, I put 
the two insects together. If, as is possible, the identity 
in the structure of the antenna? is only the result of parallel 
developmenf, then the genus Ctisias ceases to have any 
justitieation, and both insects must bo regarded as only 
aberrant .species of Trogcdertna. 

Clcsins vnriegatn, sp. n. 

Is igra, elytris hie illic obscure rufo-variogatis, corporc subtus ubique, 
supra maculatiiu, albido-setoso ; late ovala, crebre punetata, 
oculis mngnis,iiropc antennas i)rofiindc oniarginatis, pronoto lato, 
postice fortiter lolnito, lol)0 rotimdalo ; clytrorutu apioiljus 8epa- 
raliin rolundatis; antennis tarsiscpio rulis, harimi clava niapDii, 
3-arliculata, articulis antice valde lobatis, funieulo brevissiniu. 

Long. 3"5 mm. 

Hab. IhlODESIA . Salisbury. 



•lo-i ^Ir. G. J. Arrow on the 

A single male specimen was found by Mr. G. A. K. 
]\Inrsl.nll. 

It is broadly oval, strongly punctnrcd, opaque, and pubes- 
cenf. Its upper surface is sprinkled with white spots, 
formed of clusters of white decumbent set;e, situated at the 
margins of the j)ronotuin, upon the posterior lobe, the basal 
margin of the elytra, threeothcrtransvcr.se ranges, and the 
apical angles. The antenna of the male scarcely differs from 
that of G. serra, except that the last joint is more deeply 
emarginate at the end, becoming slightly bilobed. 

Genus Thaumaglossa. 

Anfhrenns oralis, Fleut., is evidently the common Thauma- 
qlossa rufocapillata, Redt. 

Thaumaglossa rufocincta., sp. n. 

Xigra, antennis, pedibus, abdomino, fasciaque elytrorum lata, medio 
nonnunquam interriipta, extus dilatata ct ad humeros producta, 
rulis ; corpore su])ra et subtus sat a^qualiter pubescenti, capitis et 
prothoracis pilis tlavis, fascia) rufescentibus ; pronoto baud lato, 
subtiliter sat parce punctato, elytris fortius et dcnsius. 

Long. 3-4 mtQ, 

IJah. Rhodesia : Salisbury. 

Both sexes were taken by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall, by 
whom they have been presented to the British Museum. 
They were found flying in the sun and also beaten out of a 
tree (^Z'lzijplms). 

It is a very distinct species, with a transverse red band 
upon the elytra, such as reappears so frequently in the diffe- 
rent genera of DermestidEe. Tiiis band broadens from the 
suture to the sides, where it reaches the shoulders, the front 
margin being oblique, while the hind margin is almost 
straight. The upper surface of the body is less closely punc- 
tured than it is in the common T. rufocapiUata, and the shape 
is less broad. The large terminal joint of the antenna of the 
male is shorter, being little longer from base to apex than its 
width at the base, and the eight joints forming the foot stalk 
are very short, the last four gradually dilating to the point 
of attachment beneath the club. In the female the last joint 
is nearly spherical, the three preceding ones progressively 
enlarged, and the penultimate rather rectangular. 

Thaumaglossa oothecobia, sp. n. 
Nigra, pygidio, vel abdomino toto, antennis, tarsis elytrorumqno 



Coleopterous Family Dormestitlie. 4155 

fascia transversa, exliis haucl vel parum dilatata, horum apicibus 
etiam nonnuiujuam, rufis ; capitc, pronoto elytrorumquc busi sat 
lonpo et dense griseo-sctosis. 
Long. '2b-'6 mm. 

Hah. S. Nu;i:kia : Ihadaii. 

About fifty spociincns of tliis insect, now dislribiitod be- 
tween the British Mus«Mini and the Hope Collection at Oxford, 
were bred by Dr. W . A. Lamborn from the egjr-duster of i\ 
Mantis, emerginj; from it at vaii(ni9 dates in July ll.>13. 

It ^M'eatly resembles T. ri(focincta, but is a little smaller, 
V ith relatively Nvider prothorax, rather more abruptly trun- 
cated scutellum and distinctly shorter elytra. The median 
red band does not noticeably dilate towards the sides, but is 
of apj)roximately equal width throughout. The longer and 
paler hairs of the head and prouotum extend also to tlie base 
of the elytra, where they forn> a conspicuous transverse band. 
In a few spociinens more or less large red patches occur upon 
the apices of the elytra, and these may even become united 
with the median band. The club of the antenna of the male 
is practically the same as in T. rufocincta. 

Thaumaghssa lata, sp. n. 

Nigra, antcnnis, pcdibus, ahdomine, elytrorumquc fascia lata trans- 
versa, rutis ; cori)ore supra et subtus sat a>qualiter pubescenti, 
capitis et prothoracis capillis flavis, fascia) rufescentibus ; pro- 
noto baud lato, cum elytris fortiter confertim punctatis, lateribus 
densius, lobo postico valido, truncato. 

Long. 3 mm. 

JIah. S. CllIXA : Hongkong. 

A single specimen was taken by Commander J. J. AYalker 
in 1802. It is a female, with the circular terminal joint ot" 
the antenna larger than in the same sex of either of the two 
jneceding species. The coloration is ihe same, but the 
median red band is narrowed at the outer edge. The elytr.i 
are strojtgly and closely punctured, the disc of the pronottun 
strongly but less closely, and the sides very densely. The 
posterior lobe is broadly truncated at the ctid. 

Thaumaglossa sex-maculata, sp. n. 

Nigra, antennis, pedibusquc flavidis, maculisque elytrorura sex lacte 
flavis, subtequaliltus, duo utrinque ante medium transverse positis 
uiia(iuo post medium; late ovata, sat dense pallido-pul)csccns, 
pronoto minute sat crcbro, elytris fcro rugose punctatis, his 
))ostice separatim rotundatis ; antcnnarum articulo ultimo (maris) 
magno, brcvissime cordifurmi. 

Long. 2 mm. 



43G Mr. G. J. Arrow on the 

Hah. Rhodesia : Umtali. 

A single male was found by Mr. G. A. K. Marshall in 
October 1S97. 

It is a minute spocies, showing an approximation to tlie 
genus Orphiiius. It is rather broadly oval, with close, 
nearly erect pubescence. Eacii elytron has three large bright 
yellow spots, one at tlie outer edge behind the shoulder, one 
transversely in line with it near the suture, and the third 
exactly in line with the second towards the apex. The last 
joint of tlie antenna (in the male) is extremely short and very 
feebly pointed at the end. 

7Viauinaglossa ovaUs, sp. n. 

Nigra, antennis, pedibus abdomineque pallide flavis ; sat dense 
griseo-hirta, el3trorum fascia antica, intra-humerali, maciilaque 
utrinque rotundata, postica, fere deuudatis ; corpore regulariter 
ovato, convexo, sat nitido, suhtiliter punctate, elytris haud abbre- 
viatis, postice attenuatis, abdomen toto obtegentibus. 

Long. 2-2-5 mm. 

Hah. China {J. Boicring). 

This species differs entirely from all the others in its regu- 
larly oval convex shape and tapering elytra, which conipletely 
cover the abdomen. It is lightly punctured and rather 
siiiniiig, with grey pubescence, wliicii leaves b.ire a transverse 
strip at the shoulders and a round posterior patch on each 
elytron. Tiie terminal joint of the antenna m the male is 
about three times as long as its greatest width. 

Thaumaglossa niliduli, sp. n. 

Ilufo-brunnea, paulo nitida, setis oblique erectis, flavidis ct fuscis, 
subseriatim ordinatis, sat parce vestita; late ovalia, ubique minute 
haud dense punctata ; pronoto lato, postice lobato et truncate ; 
elytris haud abbreviati.s, apicibus minute rotuadatis. 

Long. 25 mm. 

Hah. Malay Peninsula : Perak. Siam : Renong. 

A male specimen was found in each of the above-mentioned 
localities by Doiierty. 

No otiier species of the genus can be compared with this, 
which is peculiar in its lightly punctured shining surface and 
the unilbrmly scattered erect setse U|)on its U|)piT surface. 
It is small and rather broadly oval in shape and red-brown in 
colour. The posterior lobe of the pronotum is truncated, and 
the extremities of the elytra are very minutely rounded and 
practically cover the abdomen. The terminal joint of the 



Coleopterous I\tmihi Dcrniostitl:o. 4. ".7 

antenna of the male is short and lien it-shaped, a little more 
pointed than in T. ruforituta and ovthecoliiy hut less 80 than 
in T. rujocnj'illiita and Inlltri. 

Uliuis OuriiiNi;s. 

The frmns Orphinus o{ iMi)tsi.liul>ky, quite wrongly placed 
with Orphihis in Dallu Tone's Catalogue, is really a large 
and impoitaiit one, of which a nilinher of species have heen 
described under the name of Cri/ptorrhopitlum, while many 
more remain undescrihed. Keitter has stated that the typical 
species, O. haviorrhoiililh, Motsch., helonf^s to Cryptor- 
rhopulitm, jind has changed its name to C. mutachulskiji ; but 
in 11)08 (Bull. S ic. Eiit. Egy pte, i. p. 45) ho do.scril)ed a 
so-c.illed ne\v genus {^'E(/irio.ita) , the characters of which are 
precisely those of Oifih'mus. He placed in it only a single 
8peci«'S (jjlobulirornis) from Egypt, and omitted to note that 
many others, including several pieviousiy described by him- 
s<lt, are congeneric with it. As already siate<l by Sharp 
(Biol. Centr.-Amer., Coleopt. ii. 1, p. l>52), Cryplunhopalum 
IS really a well-inarked American genus, and the various 
Oriental and Austialiaii insects which have been referred to 
it have none of them its essential feature, viz , an antennal 
club composed of two large, nearly equal joints. Tiie chief 
diagnostic character of Orphinus, as given by Motschulsky, 
is a "club composed of two very unequal joints, the last 
circular." The statement that the aiitenna is y-jointed is 
probably due to Mut-clnd>ky wrongly counting the minute 
joints preceding the club, as the number is eleven in the 
species known to me. The last joint is flat and circular, 
very large in the male, with the preceding joint relatively 
small and connate with it. In the lemale the penultimate 
joint is larger and tiie last smaller. In some, if not all, 
of the species the la.-t ventral segment is broadly depressed in 
the male and the hind margin |)roduced into a sharp spine on 
each side of the depression, 'i'he mesosternum is broad and 
completely divided by a channel, which receives the sjiinoso 
prosternal process. 

Sharp and Blackburn did not know the genus Orphinus, or 
t!iey wouKl certainly have placed in it the Old-World insects 
they have provisionally called Cryptorrhopalum. Until 
other genera are created, it will probably be most natural to 
transfer to it all the non-American insects now unnaturally 
associated wiih Crgptorrhopalum. The following may be 
regarded as typical species of Orphinus: — O. h(vmorrhoidaUs 
and pedestii.'', Motsch., 'J rojoderma defectum, Walker, 



438 Mr. G. J. Arrow on the 

JEthriosia glohuh'corni^, Iloitt., and Cri/ptorrhopahim ajine, 
Keitt., l>if{t\vnm, Reitt., ferminale, Sliarp, brevicorne, Sliarp, 
austrnlicum, Blackb., quorneiise, Blackb., and tooodvillense, 
Blackb. A comparison of Blackburn's types and a series ot" 
other specimens has led me to the conclusion that Cnjptor- 
7-/iopaIum eucah/pti, Blackb., is only a ratiier pale specimen 
ot" the last species, Orphinus looodvillensis. 
A tew new species are adiiod here : — 



Orphinus celhiops, sp. n. 

Niger, antennis pedibuscpie flavis, ubique parce punctatus et fiallide 
pube3ceii3, punclis minutis ; ovatus, paruru coiiTexus, oculis 
inagiiis, grouse grauulatis, antennarum articulo ultimo (maris) 
magiio, discoiJali ; proiioto lato, brevi, lateralifcer bene margiiiato, 
])Ostico valde et late lobato ; elytrorum apicibus minute rotun- 
datis. 

Long. 23 mm. 

Hub. Angola : Forest Country, 1000-2000 ft. alt. 
{Dr. Welwitsch). Mauritius {J. E. M. Brown). 

Tiiere are two specimens in our collection from Angola and 
a good series from Mauritius. Unless in one case they have 
been accidentally introduced, the species must be supposed to 
have a very wide distribution. 

It is nnifornjly black, wiih pale legs and anfeunae and a 
thin and evenly distributed clothing of greyish hairs above 
and beneath. The upper surface is rather shining, the 
punctures being minute and scattered. The eyes are large, 
prominent, and coarsely facetted, and separated by a dis- 
tance less than twice their diameter. The pronotum is 
short, little narrowed in front, and sharply margined at 
the sides, with a strong, broadly rounded, posterior lobe. 
Tlie last joint of the antenna of the male is flat, circular, 
and very large. 

Orphinus japom'cus, sp. n. 

Niger, sat nitidus, parce griseo-setosus, macula nifa utrinque obliqua 
post humeros sita, antennis pedibusque lajte rutis ; ovatus, modice 
convexus, capite pronotoque Jajvibus, parum setosis, hujus mar- 
ginibus lateralibus prominentibus pauio explanatis, lobo postico 
late rotundato, utrinque o