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I HAVE often thought to myself how truly the words of Gray, in his "Elegy 
in a Country Churchyard," the most beautiful poem, in my judgment, that ever 
has been or ever will be written in the English language, apply to others as well 
as to 

" the rude forefathers of the hamlet " 

in any and every remote corner of the country throughout the length and breadth 
of the land. Not only has it been true of those of humble rank that 

"Adown the cool sequestered vale of life 
They kept the noiseless tenour of their way," 

but it has been the same this it is that I have frequently noticed to myself with 
others of every degree above them, even to the highest. 

Many and many a head of an ancient and honourable family is there at the present 
time, both titled and untitled, of whose name even not one person in every ten 
thousand you would ordinarily meet with has ever heard. But they are known, and 
well known, in their own neighbourhoods. They are content to live a "quiet and 
peaceable life," "the world forgetting, by the world forgot;" and to "do their duty 
in that state of life unto which it has pleased GOD to call them" is the height 
of their ambition. Theirs is a happy and a useful career. They live among their 
tenantry, have a care for their welfare, and set them a good example: they do that 
which "England expects of every man." 

It is not that it has always continued to be so, or does still, or must always thus 
continue. From time to time a Milton is no longer mute, and a "village Hampden" 
ill. B 


of "dauntless breast" stands forward on the stage of the world's history, and leaves 
an undying name behind him, soon, if not at once, to be followed by those who 
will retire, from choice it may be, into that "quiet living" in the country, which 
is the happiest state that a man can live in. 

Thus it was with the family of Cromwell himself. His ancestors, though respectable, 
lived as quiet country gentlemen, "unnoticed and unknown," "guiltless of their 
country's blood," and his son wisely gave up the crown to its rightful owner, and, 
having retired into private life, so died as he had lived. Thus it was with Wellington, 
with Nelson, with Shakespeare, and with Scott, and with those who went before 
and those who followed them, and so doubtless it will be age after age. 

And as it has been with persons, so also with places, the latter indeed only 
through the former: the name of the "local habitation" obtains its own celebrity 
on account of that of him whose words or deeds have made it famous at one and 
the same time that he has immortalized his own. 

I have been led to make this remark in carrying on the second set of these 
volumes, beginning, as it properly docs, with the present account of the residence 
of the eldest son of the reigning Sovereign, from having similarly observed in the 
previous one that the Royal residence of Balmoral, as the Queen's abode, has now 
its name known in every corner of the earth, whereas before it became so, it was 
absolutely unheard of' and altogether unknown beyond its own immediate neighbourhood. 

So it has been with Sandringham, the private seat of His Royal Highness the 
Prince of Wales. Who does not know its name now? Who ever heard of it before? 

I need not say much, either of the place itself or of its Royal owner, for the 
picture of it will I hope convey a good idea of the former to my readers, and the 
eldest son of the Queen of England has already a world-wide history, and needs no 
other to be written of him, or of the princely race of which he has come. 

In "Domesday Book" the name of the place appears as Santdersincharn, which 
seems to point to a common origin with that of the adjoining parish of Dersinghain. 

The village lies a little way from the foot of some sand hills, which no doubt 
have given to it its distinguishing name, and .. the grounds of the house have the 
customary attractions of English scenery, hill and dale, wood and water. The Church 
and Rectory adjoin the place, embowered in foliage, the common accompaniment in 
like manner of the retired country Parsonage. 

On a clear day the noble tower of Boston Church is plainly to be seen, standing 
up as it does from the level plain to which it is such a great and striking orna- 
ment, as if from the neighbouring ocean itself, a well-known landmark as it at the 
same time is to those that "go down to the sea in ships, and occupy their business 
in great waters." 

Nothing but good taste could be looked for from the son of the late Prince 
Consort, and such an expectation will be found to have been met and fulfilled in 
the improvements that have been made at Sandringham by the Prince of Wales. 



" COMPTON MURDALE" being the original name of this place, the derivation of it 
is thus given by Dugdale in his "History of Warwickshire:"- "This taking its 
name, as all other Comptons do, from the situation in or near some deep valley, 
hath had the addition of Murdale to distinguish it from the many other Comptons 
in this county, in the regard that the family of Murdale were antiently owners 
thereof." The word 'Compton' is, in fact, there can be no doubt, a combination of 
the two words c coombe' and 'town/ the former indicating a valley, or glen, in which 
sense it is very commonly used in Devonshire, as also more or less in other counties. 
Thus in Yorkshire a narrow gorge of this kind, appropriately called "Cleaving 
Coombe," occurs on the road between Nunburnholme and Londesborough. At what 
date the name was changed to that of Compton Verney there is no certainty, but 
in all probability it was at the timo of the house being rebuilt, as Dugdale 
writes of it in one of his three volumes, published respectively in the years l(>r>o, 
1661, and 1673, as Compton Murdale. 

In the time of William the Conqueror it belonged to 

EARL NELLENT, from whom it came to his brother, 

HENRY DE NEWDURGH, Earl of Warwick, whose son and successor, 

KOGER, Earl of Warwick, towards the latter part of the reign of Henry the First, 
granted it to 

ROBERT MURDALE and his heirs. It remained in the possession of this family until 
the reign of Henry the Sixth, when it appears to have passed into the hands of 

RICHARD VERNEY, ESQ., (a member of a Worcestershire family,) who built a large 
part of the house as it stood until about 1770. This Richard Verney was afterwards 
Knighted for services done to the king. In 1695, 

SIR RICHARD VERNEY, the then owner of Compton Verney, having married Margaret 
Greville (sister and heir to Fulke Greville, Lord Broke,) claimed, through her, and 
obtained the Barony of Willoughby de Broke, the title now held by the present 

The old house and chapel were completely rebuilt by John Verney, Lord 
Willoughby de Broke, about the year above named; he also laid out the grounds 
much as they now remain. 

The house stands in a very picturesque situation, but beyond a fine entrance hall, 


which runs nearly the whole length of the building, there is nothing remarkable in 
the interior. The stained glass windows in the chapel (taken from the original one) 
are many of them curious and of great antiquity. 

There are here some fine paintings: among others, one of Sir R. Heath, by Jansen; 
another of Queen Elizabeth; one of Sir Fulke Greville, Lord Broke; besides other 
good family portraits. 

The pleasure grounds are extensive, presenting a variety of surface, and abounding 
in wood as well as water, without which in combination no landscape, however beautiful 
in itself, is complete. 

The line of descent of the title in this ancient family is as follows: 

SIR RICHARD VERNEY, of Compton Murdale, married Margaret, sole heiress of hoi- 
brother, Lord Broke. 


SIR RICHARD VERNEY, restored to the Barony of WILLOUGHBY DE BROKE, as tenth 


RICHARD VERNEY, twelfth Baron. 

JOHN PEYTO VERNEY, thirteenth Baron. 

JOHN PEYTO VERNEY, fourteenth Baron. 

HENRY PEYTO VERNEY, fifteenth Baron. 

ROBERT JOHN VERNEY, sixteenth Baron. 

HENRY VERNEY, seventeenth Baron. 



LAMBTON CASTLE, built from the designs of Ignatius Bonoini, on the site of 
Harraton Hall anciently the residence of the D'Arcys and Hedworths occupies an 
eminence overhanging the river Wear, and is almost completely sheltered by the 
woods which crown the valley. On the west, where the banks recede, the hills of 
the moors are seen bounding the horizon. 

The bridge, erected by John George Lambton, Esq., over the river in the valley 
beneath the castle, from whence it is visible, forms a beautiful feature in the 

The rooms of the castle, arranged with great elegance and attention to comfort, 
contain many valuable paintings, among which are two by Domenichino, one by 
Bassano, one by Titian, one by Raphael, two by Bothe, one by Salvator Rosa, one 
by Giorgioue, one by Baroccio, one by Breughels; etc., etc., and several excellent 
pictures by Glover and other English artists. 

The demesne was in the possession of the Lambtons before the Conquest, and 
has remained in that family through an uninterrupted line of succession. 

The well-known story of the Lambton eft, water-wyvern, or water snake, is thus 
told by Surtees: "The heir of Lambton, fishing, as was his profane custom, in the 
Wear, on a Sunday, hooked a small worm, or eft, which he carelessly threw into a, 
well, and thought no more of the adventure. The worm (at first neglected) grew 
till it was too large for its first habitation, and issuing from the Worm Well, betook 
itself to the Wear, where it usually lay a part of the day coiled round a crag in 
the middle of the water; it also frequented a green mound near the well (the Worm 
Hill), where it lapped itself nine times round, leaving vermicular traces, of which 
grave living witnesses depose that they have seen the vestiges. It now became the 
terror of the country, and, amongst other enormities, levied a daily contribution of 
nine cows' milk, which was always placed for it at the green hill, and in default of 
which it devoured man and beast. Young Lambton had, it seems, meanwhile totally 
repented him of his former life and conversation, had bathed himself in a bath of 
holy water, taken the sign of the Cross, and joined the Crusaders. On his return 
home, he was extremely shocked at witnessing the effects of his youthful imprudences, 
and immediately undertook the adventure. After several fierce combats, in which 


the Crusader was foiled by his enemy's power of self-union, he found it expedient 
to add policy to courage, and not perhaps possessing much of the former, he went 
to consult a witch, or wise woman. 

"By her judicious advice, he armed himself in a coat of mail studded with razor- 
blades; and thus prepared, placed himself on the crag in the river, and awaited the 
monster's arrival. At the usual time, the worm came to the rock and wound himself 
with great fury round the armed knight, who had the satisfaction to see his enemy 
cut in pieces by his own efforts, whilst the stream, washing away the severed parts, 
prevented the possibility of re-union. There is still a sequel to the story: the witch 
had promised Lambtou success only on one condition, -that he should slay the first 
living thing which met his sight after the victory. To avoid the possibility of 
human slaughter, Lambton had directed his father that as soon as he heard him 
sound three blasts on his bugle in token of the achievement performed, he should 
release his favourite greyhound, which would immediately fly to the sound of the 
horn, and was destined to be the sacrifice. On hearing his son's bugle, however, the 
old chief was so overjoyed that he forgot the injunction, and ran himself with open 
arms to meet his son. Instead of committing a parricide, the conqueror again 
repaired to his adviser, who pronounced as the alternative of disobeying the original 
instructions, that no chief of the Lambtons should die in his bed for seven, or (as 
some accounts say,) for nine generations a commutation which to a martial spirit 
had nothing very terrible, and which was willingly complied with." 

On this legend Sir Bernard Burke remarks: -"The subject matter of the exploit 
may be equally a Danish rover, a domestic tyrant, or, as in the well-known case 
of the Dragon of Wantley, a villainous overgrown lawyer, endowed with all the 
venom, maw, and speed of a flying eft, whom the gallant 'Moor of Moor Hall' 
slew 'with nothing at all' but the aid of a good conscience and a 'fair maid of 



THE palatial seat of Sir Lydston Newman, Bart., though perhaps not so picturesque 
as his favourite marine residence of Stokeley. 

Mamhead, in Domesday Book "Mameorde," is thus pronounced by the common 
people at this very day. It appears to mean "head-land." 

The beauties of the site may be gathered from the subjoined extract from "A Poem 
written at Mamhead beneath an evergreen Oak in 1785," by the Rev. R. Polwhele. 

"Here, Laura, rest, our wearied feet have strayed 
From the proud obelisk that fronts the scene 
Of many a tufted hill, whose bolder green 
The sweet perspective mixed in mellow shade, 
While sparkling thro' the stately fir-trees played 
The burnished hamlets of the vale between; 
And all the misty bosom of the glade 
Seemed opening to the azure sea serene." 

The mansion was rebuilt in 1832 by the father of the present Baronet, from a 
design by Anthony Salvin. It is composed of Bath stone, very skilfully wrought. 
The tall chimney stacks and gables, highly ornamented, present a variety of different 
forms, being relieved by two square and octagonal towers, rising with extremely 
good effect. There are four fronts to the edifice, uniform in design but varied in 
detail. The southern front is terminated by a conservatory. The eastern front is 
exceedingly grand. The large window of the staircase is filled with heraldic designs 
in painted glass by Willement. The whole building is raised upon terraces, whence 
the Isle of Portland can be seen in the distance, while in the foreground are the 
park, Powderham, and the river Exe winding to the channel. The stabling and other 
offices are built in the castellated style. The architect was evidently acquainted with 
the principles of taste as developed in the works, of the great masters, where an 
endless variety is found in combination with perfect harmony in the same picture. 

The family of Newman is of great antiquity. So early as the reigns of Henry the 
Sixth and Henry the Seventh, Thomas and William Newman appear from the public 
records of Dartmouth to have been settled in that town. Over the remains of John 
Newman, who was buried at St. Petrox, 6th. April, 1640, are to be seen the arms 
now borne by the family. 


The father of the present Baronet, Sir Eobert William Newman, married in 1813, 
Mary Jane, daughter of Eichard Denne, Esq., of Winchelsea, in Sussex, by Ann his 
wife, daughter of the Venerable William Rastall, D.D., Dean of Southwell, a lineal 
descendant of Chief Justice Eastall. 

The ancient family of the Dennes is descended from Ealph de Dene, living in the 
time of the Conqueror, Lord of Buckhurst, in Sussex, who wedded Sybella, sister 
of Eobert do Gatton, and had a son Eobert, his heir, and a daughter Ella, married 
to Sir J. Sackville, ancestor of the Dukes of Dorset. 

Sir Eobert William Newman, who was some time M.P. for Exeter, and High Sheriff 
of the County of Devon in 1827, was created a Baronet March 17th., 1836. He died 
in 1818, and was succeeded by his son, 

Sir Eobert Lydston Newman, a Captain in the Grenadier Guards, who fell at the 
Battle of Inkermann, 5th. November, 1854, and was succeeded by his brother, the 
present and third Baronet, 

Sir Lydston Newman, Deputy-Lieutenant for Devon, late a captain in the 7th. 
Hussars, and High Sheriff of the County of Devon in 1871. Sir Lydston Newman 
is married, and, beside daughters, has issue a son, Eobert Hunt Stapylton Dudley 
Lydston Newman, born 1871. 



THE Manor of Keele was granted by King Henry the Second, A.D. 1180, to the 
Knights Templars, and on the suppression of that order passed into the possession 
of the Knights Hospitallers, who held it until their property was confiscated, at the 
Reformation, by King Henry the Eighth, who sold Keele to Sir William Sneyd, 
Knight, of Bradwell. His son and heir, Ralph Sneyd, Esq., "built there/' as stated 
by Erdeswick, "a very proper and fine house of stone," which was completed in 1581, 
and of which a view, engraved by Michael Burghers in 1686, is given in Plot's 
History of Staffordshire. Keele was plundered during the Civil Wars, and narrowly 
escaped demolition by Cromwell's troops, when its then owner, Colonel Ralph Sneyd, 
who was a devoted adherent to the cause of King Charles the First, suffered heavy 
losses on account of his loyalty. 

The old hall was finally taken down in 1855, by the late Ralph Sneyd, Esq., who 
re-erected on its site, and in the same style of architecture, the present noble mansion. 

Keele Hall is built of a pale red sandstone, relieved with white stone. It is finely 
situated on elevated ground, commanding extensive views to the south and west, 
and is surrounded by a well-wooded park of six hundred acres. The gardens and 
pleasure grounds are extensive, and well kept. 

The house, which is entered from a court, through a spacious hall, thirty feet high, 
and hung with family portraits, contains a fine suite of rooms, richly furnished and 
decorated, and stored with many precious works of art. The library is extensive 
and valuable, comprising a rare collection of ancient manuscripts. The house also 
contains a good collection of pictures by the old masters; amongst which may be 
mentioned original full-length portraits of Cortez; of King Henry the Eighth; Charles 
the First, by Honthorst; a Duke of Ferrara, by Zucchero; Lorenzo Priuli, Doge of 
Venice, by Tintoretto; Ralph Sneyd, the builder of the old house, by Cornelius 
Jansen; two portraits by Sir Joshua Reynolds; besides many choice cabinet pictures 
of the English, Flemish, and Italian schools. 

The ancient family of Sneyd, which has continued during six centuries in direct 
male descent from Henry de Sneyde, who lived in the reign of King Edward the 
First, was formerly seated at Bradwell, in the parish of Wolstanton, but removed 
from thence, in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, to Keele, which has ever since been 
the chief family residence. 

HI. C 


The genealogy of this old family in a direct line is as follows: 
HENRY DE SNEYDE, of Sneydo and Tunstall, living in 1310, married Margaret, 
daughter and heiress of Nicholas de Tunstall, by whom he had 
NICHOLAS DE SNEYDE, alias Tunstall. He was father of 
RICHARD DE TDNSTALL, alias Sneyde. His son and heir, 
RICHARD SNEYDE, of Bradwell and Tunstall, was followed by 
WILLIAM SNEYDE, of Bradwell, who was succeeded by his son, 
RICHARD SNEYDE, of Bradwell, who, by Agnes his wife, was father of 
NICHOLAS SNEYDE, of Bradwell, living in 1473. He married Margaret, daughter and 
coheiress of Robert Downes, of Shriglcy, Cheshire, and left a son, 

WILLIAM SNEYDE, of Chester, who married Johanna, daughter and heiress of Roger 
Ledsham, Gentleman, of Chester, and had with other children, 

RICHARD SNEYDE, of Bradwell, Recorder of Chester, who, by his wife, Anne Fowle- 
hurst, of Crewe, had an eldest son, 

SIR WILLIAM SNEYDE, Knight, of Bradwell, High Sheriff of Staffordshire, 3 Edward 
VI., and 5 and 6 Philip and Mary. He married, first, Anne, daughter and heiress of 
Thomas Barrowe, Esq., of Flookersbrooke, near Chester, and had by her, 

RALPH SNEYDE, of Keele and Bradwell, born in 1564, High Sheriff, 18 and 37 
Elizabeth, who, by his first wife, Mary, daughter of Thomas Chetwynd, of Ingestrie, 
had a son and heir, 

RALPH SNEYDE, of Bradwell and Koele, who married Felicia, daughter of Nicholas 
Archbald, of Uttoxeter. Their son, 

RALPH SNEYDE, of Keelo and Bradwell, Colonel in the Royal Army, married Jane, 
daughter of Roger Downes, Esq., of Wordley, and had 

WILLIAM SNEYD, of Keele, born in 1612. His wife was Elizabeth, daughter and 
coheiress of Robert Audeley, of Gransden, in Huntingdonshire, and by her he had 

RALPH SNEYD, of Keele, married to Frances, daughter of Sir Robert Dry den, Bart., 
of Canons Ashby, Northamptonshire, and had 

RALPH SNEYD, of Bradwell, born December 22nd., 1669, who married Frances, 
daughter of Sir William Noel, Bart., of Kirkby Mallory, in the county of Leicester, 
and dying before his father, 'had a son, heir to the latter, 

RALPH SNEYD, of Keele, baptized in May, 1692, who married Anne, daughter of 
Allen Halford, Esq., of Davenham, Cheshire, whose surviving son, 

RALPH SNEYD, of Keele, born in 1723, married, in 1749, Barbara, daughter of Sir 
Walter Longstaffe, Bart., and by her had, with other children, 

WALTER SNEYD, of Keele, born February llth., 1752, M.P. for Castle Rising, High 
Sheriff of Staffordshire, 1814, and Lieutenant-Colonel of the Staffordshire Militia. He 
married, May 9th., 1786, the Honourable Louisa Bagot, daughter of William, first 
Lord Bagot, and had 

RALPH SNEYD, of Keele, D.L., born October 9th., 1793, High Sheriff of Staffordshire, 
1844, who died unmarried July, 1870, and was followed by his brother, 

THE REV. WALTER SNEYD, M.A., F.S.A., born July 23rd., 1809, married, October 
14th., 1856, Henrietta Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Malone Sneyd, Esq., of Cherry- 
vale, in the county of Donegal, and has with other children a son, RALPH, born 
December 10th., 1863. 



LELAND writes, "Shirburne, within a mile of Wathelington church, wliere is a strong 
pile, or castlet, longed to Quatremain, since to Fowler, and by exchange, now to 
Chamberlain of Oxfordshire." 

Camden states, that "the Chamberlains were descended from the Earls of Tankervil, 
who, bearing the office of Chamberlain to the Dukes of Normandy, their posterity, 
laying aside the old name of Tankervil, called themselves Chamberlain, from the said 
office which their ancestors enjoyed." 

It appears, that, in the fifty-first year of Edward the Third, Sir "Wariner de L'Isle, 
Knight, obtained permission to build a castle at Shirburn, where his ancestor, Warim-r 
de L'Isle, in the tenth year of the same king, had a charter of free-warren, and 
leave to enclose one hundred acres of woodland for a park. 

Shirburn Castle is nearly in the form of a parallelogram, and the whole building 
is encompassed by a broad and deep moat. The approaches are over three draw- 
bridges, and the. chief entrance is guarded by a portcullis. At each angle of the 
edifice is a circular tower. Flat ranges of stone-building occupy the intervals, and 
along the whole top is an embattled parapet. 

In the twelfth volume of the "Beauties of England and Wales," Mr. Brewer, the 
able writer of the account of Oxfordshire, states, that "the interior of Shirburn 
Castle is disposed in a style of modern elegance and comfort that contains no 
allusion to the external castellated character of the structure, with an exception of 
one long room fitted up as an armoury. On the sides of this apartment are hung 
various pieces of mail, together with shields, tilting-spears, and offensive arms, of 
modern as well as ancient date. The rooms are in general well proportioned, but 
not of very large dimensions. There are two capacious libraries, well furnished with 
books, and tastefully adorned with paintings and sculpture. Among the portraits are 
several of the Lord Chancellor Macclesfield, and an original of Catharine Parr, 
Queen to Henry the Eighth. She is represented standing behind a highly embellished 
vacant chair, with her hand on the back. Her dress is black, richly ornamented 
with precious stones. The fingers are loaded with rings; and in one hand is a 
handkerchief, edged with deep lace. Inserted in the lower part of the frame, and 
carefully covered with glass, is an interesting appendage to this portrait: a piece of 
hair cut from the head of Catharine Parr, in the year 1799, when her coffin was 


opened at Sudeley Castle. The hair is auburn, and matches exactly with that 
delineated in the picture. 

Shirburn Castle was honoured with a visit from the Queen and Princesses, in the 
summer of 1808." 

GEORGE PARKER, ESQ., of Park Hall, in Staffordshire, was father of 

THOMAS PARKER, ESQ., of Leke, in the same county, whose sou was 

THOMAS PARKER, first Earl of Macclesfield, who may be considered as the founder 
of the family. The castle and manor of Shirburn were purchased at the commence- 
ment of the last century by him. He was bred to the law, called to the degree of 
Sergeant in 1705, constituted Chief Justice of the King's Bench 1709-10, by Queen 
Anne, and appointed Lord Chancellor by George the First in 1718. He was created 
Baron Macclesfield, March 9th., 1716, and advanced to the dignity of Viscount 
Parker and Earl of Macclesfield, November 15th., 1721. He died in 1732, having 
married Janet, daughter and coheiress of Charles Carrier, Esq., of Wirkworth, in 
Derbyshire. His son, 

GEORGE PARKER, the second Earl, was President of the Royal Society, and LL.D. 
of the University of Oxford, and was chiefly remarkable for the part which he took 
in the alteration of the style in 1750. He was also author of "Remarks on the Polar 
and Lunar Years," etc. He married, first, 1722, Mary, elder daughter and coheiress 
of Ralph Lane, Esq., an eminent Turkey merchant. 

THOMAS PARKER, the third Earl, who succeeded to the title, March 17th., 1764, 
married, December 12th., 1749, his cousin Mary, eldest daughter of Sir William 
Heathcote, Bart., and had issue two sons and two daughters. He dying February 
9th., 1795, was succeeded by his eldest son, 

GEORGE PARKER, fourth Earl, who married, May 25th., ] 780, Mary Frances, daughter 
and coheiress of the Rev. Thomas Drake, D.D., Rector of Amersham, Buckinghamshire, 
but having no son, was succeeded in the title by his only brother, 

THOMAS PARKER, fifth Earl, bora June 9th., 1763, High Steward of Henley, who 
married, first, the eldest daughter of Lewis Edwards, Esq., of Talgarth, by whom he 
had four daughters; and secondly, March 19th., 1807, Eliza, youngest daughter of 
William Breton- Wolstenholme, Esq., of Holly Hill, Sussex, and left, with two daughters, 
a son, 

THOMAS AUGUSTUS WOLSTENHOLME PARKER, born March 17th., 1811, who succeeded 
as sixth Earl. 



WYNYARD PARK is the principal residence of the Marquis of Londonderry, whose 
father, Charles, the third Marquis, became possessed of Wynyard, and large estates 
and collieries in the county of Durham, by his marriage with the Lady Frances Anne 
Vane Tempest, only child of Sir Henry Vane Tempest, Bart., and the Countess of 

The park, about two thousand acres in extent, affords much varied and beautiful 
scenery, with some fine views of the Cleveland Hills in Yorkshire. 

About the centre of the park, and on the margin of a large artificial lake, whose 
sloping banks are planted with a great variety of evergreens and other ornamental 
trees, stands the house, a large and splendid mansion of Corinthian architecture, 
erected by the late Marquis on the site of an older seat. 

The north front is graced by a portico, consisting of twelve handsome columns 
surmounted by an entablature. 

The sculpture gallery, a magnificent apartment one hundred feet long and fifty- 
eight feet high, which forms the centre of the mansion, is octagonal, and has a 
double dome, with a lantern of very beautiful stained glass in the centre. 

The south front measures three hundred feet in length. It looks over large and 
handsome terraces, and down upon the lake, which is here spanned by a very 
graceful chain bridge. 

About a quarter of a mile from the mansion are the gardens, which cover a space 
of thirteen acres, in addition to the extensive pleasure grounds. 

Wynyard Park is seven miles distant from the town of Stockton-on-Tees, the 
border river between the county of Durham and Yorkshire. 

The descent of the family of the Marquis of Londonderry is as follows: 

JOHN STEWART, ESQ., of Ballylawn Castle, in the County of Donegal, the first of 
his family who settled in Ireland, was succeeded at his decease by his eldest son, 

CHARLES STEWART, ESQ., whose great great grandson, 

ALEXANDER STEWART, ESQ., of Mount Stewart, in the County of Down, born in the 
year 1709, married the 30th. of June, 1737, Mary, only surviving daughter of 
Alderman John Cowan, of Londonderry, and sister and heiress of Sir Robert Cowan, 
Knight, Governor of Bombay, and had, with other children, 


THE RIGHT HONOURABLE ROBERT STEWART, of Mount Stewart and Ballylawn Castle, 
who was raised to the Peerage of Ireland, November 18th., 1789, as BARON STEWART, 
and subsequently was further elevated, October 6th., 1795, as VISCOUNT CASTLEREAGH; 
afterwards, August 10th., 1796, as EARL OP LONDONDERRY, and on the 22nd. of January, 
1816, MARQUIS or LONDONDERRY. He married first, in 1766, the Honourable Sarah 
Frances Seymour, second daughter of Francis, first Marquis of Hertford, by whom 
he had ROBERT, VISCOUNT CASTLEREAGH, his successor, and secondly, in 1775, Frances, 
eldest daughter of Charles, first Earl Camden, by whom he had, with other issue, 
CHARLES WILLIAM STEWART, third Marquis. He died April 8th., 1821, and was 
succeeded by the son of his first marriage, 

ROBERT STEWART, second Marquis, who married in 1794, the Honourable Emily 
Anne Hobart, youngest daughter and coheiress of John, second Earl of Buckingham- 
shire, but had no children, and was followed by his half brother, 

CHARLES WILLIAM STEWART, K.G., third Marquis, born May 18th., 1778, who married 
first, August 8th., 1804, the Honourable Catherine Bligh, youngest daughter of John, 
third Earl of Darnley, by whom he had a son, 

FREDERICK WILLIAM ROBERT STEWART, fourth Marquis of Londonderry, who married 
April 30th., 1846, Lady Powerscourt, widow of Richard, sixth Viscount Powerscourt, 
and daughter of Robert, third Earl of Roden, but had no children. 

He married, secondly, as above stated, April 3rd., 1819, Lady Frances Anne 
Tempest, only daughter and heiress of SIB HENRY VANE TEMPEST, BART., on which 
occasion he assumed the surname and arms of VANE. He was created, on the 8th. 
of July, 1823, EARL VANE, with remainder to the issue of his second wife, by whom 
he had 

who on the death of his half brother succeeded as fifth MARQUIS OF LONDONDERRY. 
He married, August 3rd., 1846, Mary Cornelia, only daughter of Sir John Edwards, 



HUTTON HALL was erected by Mr. Joseph Whitwell Pease, M.P., from the designs 
of Mr. Waterhouse, the architect. The estate on which it is built was bought of 
Mr. George Reed, of Whitby, of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners and the Crown. 
The style is domestic Gothic of an early type. The house is built of red brick with 
stone facings, the south front commanding a view of the very picturesque Cleveland 
hills. The portion of the estate surrounding the mansion was comprised in the grant 
of Edward the Sixth of the Abbey lands of Guisborough to Mr. Thomas Chaloner, 
and is endorsed as follows: "Copy of the Letters patent of Demesnes of Gisbume. 
Deliver this to Mr. Thomas Chaloner, or Mr. James Chaloner, at Mr. Percye's house in 
the White Harte Court in Fleete Streete." In this amongst other things ho demises, 
"All that one messuage and tenement or mansion called Hoton Hall, enclosed with a 
stone wall, and also, all that one close of land called Hoton Greate Close/' 

Not far from the present mansion there was formerly a spital or hospital belonging 
to the Priory of Guisborough, founded by William de Bernaldy for lepers, in which 
the Lord of Hutton had the right to place one leper. 

A small Cistercian Nunnery was founded at Hoton (Hutton Low Cross) by Kalpli 
de Neville. It was afterwards removed to Nunthorpe, and from there to Baxdalo, in 
the parish of Stokesley. 

The Prior and Canons of Guisborough remained Lords of Hutton till the dissolution, 
when with vast quantities of Church land it went to the Crown, and so remained till 
purchased by the above-named proprietor, who thus became Lord of the Manors of 
Hutton Low Cross and Pinchingthorpe. 

EDWARD PEASE married Elizabeth, daughter and co-heiress of Michael Coates, and 
was father of 

JOSEPH PEASE, who married Mary Richardson, and died April 3rd., 1808, leaving a 

EDWARD PEASE, born January 6th., 1767, whose wife was Rachel, daughter of John 
Whitwell, and died July 31st., 1858, having had, with several other children, 

JOSEPH PEASE, ESQ., M.P. for South Durham from 1832 to 1841. He married, 


March 30th., 1820, Emma, youngest daughter and co-heiress of Joseph Gurney, Esq., 
of Lakenham Grove, Norwich, and had a large family, of whom the eldest son, 

JOSEPH WHITWELL PEASE, born June 23rd., 1828, married, August 23rd., 1854, Mary, 
daughter of Alfred Fox, Esq., of Falmouth. 




MUNCASTER CASTLE was originally built by the Romans to guard a ford over tho 
river Esk, which runs immediately beneath it. One tower of tho old castle remains 
entire, and has been inhabited ever since; some foundations and walls of the other 
towers exist. It has lately been restored by Mr. Salvin. The old moat and other out- 
buildings can still be traced. From its situation a mile and a half from the sea, and 
half way up Muncaster fell, it commands the pass over Hardknot and the low ground 
by the sea. It came into the possession of the Pennington family about the time of 
the Norman Conquest, and they then removed to it from Peiiniiigton-in-Furness, 
where the site of the old Saxon encampment still remains. 

Muncaster Castle has been their principal residence, descending from father to son, 
since the Conquest. King Henry the Sixth stopped here after the battle of Hexham, 
when a fugitive, and on leaving he gave a glass cup to Sir John Pennington, out of 
which the family have ever since been baptized. It is still unbroken, and is commonly 
called "The Luck of Muncaster." 

The plan of the Castle in former days was four square towers connected by a longer 
building, enclosing a quadrangle with moat and gatehouse and chapel. From a terrace 
beautiful views up the valley of the Esk ending in Scaw-fell are seen. The church 
is very old, but was thoroughly restored by Josslyn, fifth Lord Muncaster, and contains 
the tombs of most of the Pennington family. 

In lineal descent from the above-named SIR JOHN DE PENNINGTON, was 

WILLIAM PENNINGTON, ESQ., of Muncaster, created a Baronet June 21st., 1676. He 
married Isabel, eldest daughter of John Stapleton, Esq., and had issue, with other 
children, his heir, 

SIR JOSEPH PENNINGTON, BART., M.P. for the county of Cumberland. He married 
the Honourable Margaret Lowther, daughter of John, first Viscount Lonsdale, and had 
two sons, of whom the elder, 

SIR JOHN PENNINGTON, BART., M.P. for Cumberland, and Lord Lieutenant for the 
county of Westmoreland, dying without issue, was succeeded by his brother, 

SIR JOSEPH PENNINGTON, BART., who married Sarah, daughter and heiress of John 
Moore, Esq., of Somersetshire, by whom he had 



SIR JOHN PENNINGTON, BART., who was created a peer of Ireland October 21st., 
1783, as BARON MUNCASTER. He married Penelope, daughter and heiress of James 
Crompton, Esq., and died in 1813, leaving no male issue, when the title devolved, 
by remainder, to his brother, 

SIR LOWTHER PENNINGTON, second Baron, a General Officer in the Army. He 
married in 1802, Esther, second daughter of Thomas Barry, Esq., of Clapham, Surrey, 
and widow of James Morrison, Esq., by whom ho left at his decease, in 1818, an 
only son, 

SIR LOWTHER AUGUSTUS JOHN PENNINGTON, third Baron, born December 14th., 1802, 
married, December loth., 1828, Frances Catherine, youngest daughter of Sir John 
Ramsden, Bart., and by her had 

SIR GAMEL AUGUSTUS PENNINGTON, fourth Baron, who married, August 2nd., 1855, 
Lady Jane Grosvenor, daughter of Robert, first Marquis of Westminster, but died, 
leaving only a daughter, June 13th., 1862, and was succeeded by his next brother, 

SIR JOSSLYN PENNINGTON, fifth Baron, M.P. for West Cumberland. He married, 
April 9th., 1863, Constance, daughter of Edmund L'Estrange, Esq., of the county of 



BRANTINGHAM THORPE stands on a high terrace commanding a most extensive and 
beautiful view of the course of the river Humber for more than twenty miles, and 
of the Vale of York, broken by the towns of Howden and Selby, the spire of 
Heminborough, and on the opposite side of the river the wooded hills of Lincolnshire. 

The present house, a long uneven structure of grey stone, broken by gables and 
balustrades, is of various dates. The porch and the centre of the houso date from 
Elizabeth's reign, during which one Anthony Smetheby, "Dominus de Brantingham," 
as he is described on a brass plate in the Church, bearing his arms, lived and died 
there, A.D. 1574. His daughters and co-heiresses married into the Sotheby, of 
Birdsall, and the Ellerker families. 

The house was added to by the late owner, Captain Shawe, and largely increased 
by the present proprietor. 

The dining-room, panelled with oak, is enriched by five landscapes painted in Italy 
by Jolly, at the order of the great Lord Chesterfield, for the grand drawing-room at 
Chesterfield House, in the beginning of the last century, and a sixth one of the 
Ponte di Trinitia, at Florence, by Marlow, of the same date. 

The library boasts an almost complete collection of topographical works relating to 
the county of York, and more especially to the East Riding. 

The entrance to the grounds is about a mile from the Brough station on the North- 
Eastern line, flanked by a lodge, recently erected in the Elizabethan style, and in 
good keeping with the hall. The drive is through well undulated park scenery, with 
a considerable slope from north-east to south-west. As it gradually rises, a charming 
view of the i-iver and of the Lincolnshire coast expands, till, when you reach the natural 
terrace on which the house stands, you command a lovely panoramic view of the fine 
estuary of the sea, known as the river Humber, but, seeing that it is here fully three 
miles wide, and viewed from the terrace lengthwise is seen for a distance of at least 
twelve miles through which it retains the same width, at that point branching into 
the Trent and the Ouse right and left, it realises, with the foreground beautifully 
broken by the groups of trees in the park, the idea of a lake of almost unlimited 
extent. There is, indeed, no site of such commanding beauty in the East Riding. 

The hall stands at an elevation of some two hundred feet or more above the level 
of the river, and the hills rise above it to a similar height, clothed with massive 
plantations, broken every here and there with ordinary fields, which, in some cases, 
lose themselves over the crown of the hills, thus giving distance and variety to the 


landscape. The hall is Elizabethan in style, built of stone, covered with ivy, roses, 
etc. Fronting the house is a terrace, about fifty feet wide, bounded by a low 
pai'apet-wall. Two Wellingtonias, planted on a knoll at the south-east end of the 
house, are interesting, as souvenirs of a Royal visit, having been planted by their 
Royal Highnesses the Prince and Princess of Wales, July 21st., 1869. They show 
every prospect of making noble ornamental trees. The ground rises rapidly at the 
back of the hall, by a terraced slope of some ten feet in height, reached by a flight 
of steps, and on this higher level is the flower garden. 

The following is the account of the descent of the family, as recorded in Burke's 
"Peerage and Baronetage." He states that the family came originally from Saxony. 

WALTER SYKES, of Sykes Dyke, in the county of Cumberland. 

WALTER SYKES, of Sykes Dyke, tempore Henry the Sixth, was father of 

WILLIAM SYKES, of Leeds, whose son, 

RICHAED SYKES, also of Leeds, had one son, 

RICHAED SYKES, Alderman of Leeds, and Lord of the Manor, which he purchased 
in 1625. He married, January 30th., 1593, Elizabeth Mawson, and had, with other 
issue, a younger son, 

WILLIAM SYKES, Lord of the Manor of Leeds, married Grace, daughter and co-heiress 
of Josias Jenkinson, Esq., of Leeds, and left, among other children, 

DANIEL SYKES, ESQ., born 1632, Mayor of Hull, and a merchant of eminence there, 
who left by his wife Deborah, daughter of William Gates, Esq., 

RICHAKD SYKES, ESQ., born in 1678, also a merchant of Hull. He married Mary, 
daughter and co-heiress of Mark Kirkby, Esq., of Sledmere, and was succeeded by 

RICHAED SYKES, ESQ., who built the house at Sledmere, married, firstly, Jane Hobman, 
and, secondly, Mrs. Edge, but died without issue, and was succeeded by his brother, 

THE REV. SIE MAEK SYKES, Rector of Roos, in the East Riding, born in 1711, who 
was created a Baronet, March 28th., 1783, leaving, by his wife Decima, daughter of 
Twyford Woodham, Gent., of Ely, 

SIE CHEISTOPHEE SYKES, D.C.L., second Baronet, born in 1749, M.P. for Beverley. 
He married Elizabeth, daughter of William Tatton, Esq., of Withenshaw, Cheshire, 
and was father of 

SIB MAEK SYKES, third Baronet, whose first wife was Henrietta, daughter and heiress 
of Henry Masterman, Esq., of Settrington Hall, near Malton. He married, secondly, 
August 2nd., 1814, Mary Elizabeth, sister of Wilbraham Egerton, Esq., but having 
no children, was succeeded by his brother, 

SIR TATTON SYKES, fourth Baronet, born August 22nd., 1772, who by his wife, 
Mary Anne, second daughter of Sir William Foulis, Bart,, left, with other children, 

1. SIR TATTON SYKES, fifth Baronet, whose most munificent acts in the way of 
building, rebuilding, restoring, endowing, and adorning churches on his very large 
estates in the East Riding, will be remembered in Yorkshire for generations to come. 
He married, August 3rd., 1874, Christina Anne Jessie, eldest daughter of George 
Augustus Cavendish Bentinck, Esq., M.P. for Whitehaven. 

2. CHEISTOPHEE SYKES, ESQ., of Brantingham Thorpe, M.P. for the East Riding. 




THIS stately residence is situated in the hundred of Bosmere and Claydon, four miles 
south-east from Debenham, and eight miles from Ipswich, in a beautiful park, com- 
prehending four hundred acres, which contains some of the finest oak-trees in the 
county, many of them of great age, and which is abundantly stocked with deer, there 
never being less than seven hundred head in the park, amongst which are a few 
remarkably large stags. 

The Hall has been the principal seat of the family of Tollemache from the period 
of its erection, and here Sir Lionel Tollemache was honoured by a visit from Queen 
Elizabeth, for five days, from August 14th. to the 18th. inclusive, in the year 1561. 
Her Majesty was entertained with great splendour and sumptuous hospitality, and 
during her visit stood godmother to Sir Lionel's son, and at the same time presented 
his mother with a lute, which is still preserved. 

Very few innovations have been made in the mansion, and, with regard to its exterior 
appearance, it exists in all its pristine grandeur. It is a quadrangular structure, entirely 
of brick, environing a court, and completely surrounded by a terrace and moat. The 
approach is by drawbridges, on the east and south fronts, which are raised every 

The family flourished in the greatest repute, and in an uninterrupted male succession 
in this county, from the arrival of the Saxons in this kingdom, to 1821, having borne 
a conspicuous part in the annals and history of the county for above thirteen hundred 

HUGH TALMACHE, who subscribed the Charter, sans date, but about the reign of King 
Stephen, of John de St. John, granted to Eve, the first Abbess of Godstowe, in 
Oxfordshire, is the first of the family on record. In his old age he became a monk 
at Gloucester, and gave to the Abbey there a moiety of his town of Hampton, which 
Peter, his son, confirmed in the time of the first Abbot. 

WILLIAM TALMACHE gave lands in Bentley and Dodness to the Priory of Ipswich, 
which gifts were confirmed in the reign of King John. In the twenty-fifth year of 
the reign of Edward the First, Sir Hugh de Tolrnache held the Manor of Bentley of 
the crown, by Knight's Service, servitium militare. 

SIR LIONEL TOLLEMACHE, of Bentley, who flourished in the reigns of Henry the Sixth 


and Edward the Fourth, married the heiress of the family of Helmingham, by which 
alliance he acquired this estate. His son, John, was the father of Lionel, who most 
probably built the present edifice. He was High Sheriff of this county, and of Norfolk, 
in 1512. In the thirty-eighth year of his reign, King Henry the Eighth granted him 
the Manors of Wansden, Le Church Hey, Bury Hall, Wyllows, and Overhall, to hold 
of the crown by Knight's service. His son, 

LIONELL, was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, and was High Sheriff of Norfolk and 
Suffolk in 1567. He married Dorothy, the daughter of Sir Richard Wentworth, of 
Nettlested, and was the father of 

SIR LIONEL TOLLEMACHE, who was High Sheriff of the above-named counties in 1-593. 
His son, 

SIR LIONEL, was High Sheriff of Suffolk in 1609, and was advanced to the dignity 
of a Baronet, at the first institution of that Order, in 1611, being the twelfth Baronet 
in the order of precedency. In 1617 he was again High Sheriff of this county, and 
married Catharine, the daughter of Henry, Lord Cromwell, of Wimbledon. He was 
succeeded in title and estate by his son, 

SIR LIONEL TOLLEMACHE, BART., who lived in great honour and esteem in the 
county, and was succeeded by his son, 

SIR LIONEL, who married Elizabeth, the daughter and heiress of William Murray, 
the first Earl of Dysart, by whom he had a son, 

SIR LIONEL TOLLEMACHE, the fourth Baronet, who, on the death of his mother, in 
] 696, became the second Earl of Dysart, a title derived from the Royal Borough of 
that name in Fifeshire. By the Act of Union, in 1707, he became a Peer of Great 
Britain. His Lordship married, in 1680, Grace, the eldest daughter and co-heiress of 
Sir Thomas Wilbraham, Bart., of Woodhey, in Cheshire, by which alliance the family 
became possessed of vast estates in Cheshire. 

The second brother of this Earl was Thomas Tollemache, a gallant and distinguished 
officer in the reign of King William the Third. He was killed in an unfortunate 
attempt to destroy the Harbour of Brest, 30th. June, 1694, and is buried at Helmingham. 

The Earl of Dysart died February 3rd., 1726, and was succeeded by his grandson, 

LIONEL, the third Earl, who was created a Knight Companion of the most ancient 
Order of the Thistle, in 1743. His Lordship died in 1770, and was succeeded by his 

LIONEL, the fourth Earl of Dysart, who died at Ham House, 22nd. of February, 
1799, aged sixty-three, and was succeeded in his honours and estates by his brother, 

WILBRAHAM, the fifth Earl of Dysart, and Baron Huntingtower of the kingdom of 
Scotland, and a Baronet, who died at Ham House in 1820, and was succeeded by 

LOUISA, Countess of Dysart, who died at Ham House in 1841, and was succeeded 


JOHN TOLLEMACHE, ESQ., for many years M.P. for South Cheshire, the son of Admiral 
Tollemache, nephew of Wilbraham, fifth Earl of Dysart, and Lady Elizabeth Tollemache, 
daughter of John, third Earl of Aldborough. 



MR. VANDEPUT purchased the property of the Bucklands of Standlynch, pulled down 
the old house in the valley, and built the present structure in 1733. The property 
was purchased in 1814 under an Act of Parliament for the heirs of the conqueror 
of Trafalgar. The wings were built by Mr. Dawkins, who purchased the building of 
Sir William Young, to whom the Vandeputs sold it, and a portico by Eivett was 
added in 1766. The hall, a cube of thirty feet, is decorated with a profusion of 
stone carving. The walls of one of the rooms were painted by Cipriani, representing 
the family of Sir William Young. 

In the park are noble woods of beech, and near the river side is a chapel, rebuilt 
in the seventeenth century, said to have been founded as early as 1 147. Adjoining 
Trafalgar House is Barford, now a farm-house, purchased by the late Earl Nelson, and 
formerly the residence of Lord Feversham. 

WILLIAM NELSON, living in the time of Edward the Sixth, came out of Lancashire 
and settled in Norfolk. He was father of 

THOMAS NELSON, of Seaming, Norfolk, born there about the year 1500, whose son, 
EDMUND NELSON, also born at Seaming in 1625, was father of 

WILLIAM NELSON, of Dunham Parva, Norfolk, born at Seaming in 1654, married 
Mary, daughter of Thomas Shene, of the same place, and by her left, at his death, 
January 27th., 1713, three sons, of whom the youngest was 

THE EEV. EDMUND NELSON, M.A., Vicar of Sporle, and Eector of Hilborough, Norfolk, 
born 1693, who married Mary, daughter of Mr. John Bland, of Cambridge, and had 
by her, with other children, 

THE EEV. EDMUND NELSON, M.A., Eector of Hilborough and Burnham Thorpe, in 
Norfolk, born in 1722. This gentleman married, May llth., 1749, Catharine, only 
daughter of the Eev. Maurice Suckling, D.D., Prebendary of Westminster, whose wife 
was Mary, daughter of Sir Charles Turner, Bart., of Wareham, Norfolk, by his wife 
Mary, daughter of Eobert Walpole, Esq., of Houghton, Norfolk, and sister of Sir 
Eobert Walpole, K.G., first Earl of Orford, and of Horatio, Lord Walpole of Wol- 
terton. This lady, by her direct descent on the father's side from the Careys, in 
Henry the Eighth's reign, brought a royal descent in three lines from Edward the 


First to her warrior son. The Rev. Edmund Nelson died April 26th., 1802, having 
had eight children, of whom the fifth son was 

born at the Parsonage House, Burnham Thorpe, September 29th., 1758, married, 
March 22nd., 1787, Frances, daughter of William Herbert, Esq., and widow of Josiah 
Nisbet, Esq., M.D., but had no children. He died in the hour of victory, October 
21st., 1805, when his titles reverted, according to the limitation, to his elder and 
only surviving brother, namely, 

THE REV. WILLIAM NELSON, D.D., Prebendary of Canterbury, second BARON and 
VISCOUNT NELSON, created, November 20th., 1805, VISCOUNT MERTON or TRAFALGAR and 
EARL NELSON, with remainder to his own heirs male, and failing such to the heirs 
male of his sister Mrs. Bolton, and failing such to the heirs male of his other sister, 
Mrs. Matcham. He married first, November 9th., 1786, Sarah, daughter of the Rev. 
Henry Yonge, by whom he had a son, HORATIO VISCOUNT TRAFALGAR, born October 
26th., 1788, who died unmarried January 17th., 1808, and a daughter, who succeeded 
to the dukedom of Bronte and the property in Sicily attached thereto, which is 
still held by her son, the present Viscount Bridport. He married, secondly, March 
26th., 1829, Hilare, third daughter of Admiral Sir Robert Barlow, G.C.B., but died 
without further issue, February 28th., 1835, and was succeeded by his nephew, 

THOMAS BOLTON, second Earl, who took in lieu of his patronymic the surname and 
arms of Nelson. He married, February 21st., 1821, Frances Elizabeth, daughter and 
heiress of John Maurice Eyre, Esq., of Landford and Brickworth, Wiltshire, who, 
through her great grandmother, Jane Buckland, of Standlynch, was the lineal descendant 
of the ancient Lords of this Manor, and had with other children, 

HORATIO, third EARL NELSON, born August 7th., 1823, who married, July 28th., 
1845, Mary Jane Diana, only daughter of Welbore, Earl of Normantou, by whom he 
had a son and heir, 




BEOUGHTON CASTLE, throe miles from Banbury, the seat of Lord Saye and Sele, 
is built of the substantial yellow stone of the country. 

The house and grounds are completely enclosed by a remarkably fine wide moat, 
the only entrance being by a bridge and gateway on the south side. Built by the 
De Broughtons in the latter period of Edward the First's reign, the castle and estate 
was purchased by William of Wykeham in 1377, and passed by will to Sir Thomas 
Wykeham, his great-nephew and heir, whose eventual heiress, Margarette, intermarried 
with Lord Saye and Sele who fell at the Battle of Barnet, 1471, and of which 
marriage the present Lord Saye and Sele is the heir general. 

Sir Thomas and Lady Wykeham lie interred in the chancel of Broughton Church. 

At the eastern end of the hall, which is fifty-one feet by twenty-eight, is a beautiful 
groined passage leading to the stairs of the chapel and priest's room. Of the deco- 
rated early English chapel too much cannot be said in praise. It is of small 
dimensions, but lofty, and occupying the height of two of the other stories. In 
the southern wall are five small lancet arches, through which the worshippers in the 
southern room, above the chapel, could hear and see the officiating priest. A large 
aperture also exists for this purpose on the western side. The east end is almost 
entirely occupied by a large three-light window, with geometrical tracing. Under the 
window is the original altar slab, with the cavity on its north side testifying to its 
genuineness. It is of stone, and supported on three brackets. The floor of the 
chapel is paved with the original encaustic tiles of good and valuable patterns. 

The Hall, though converted from the Mediaeval into the Tudor style in 1554, retains 
its original plan and proportions. The west end, leading from it, was at the same 
time converted into two magnificent rooms, a dining and a drawing room, with pro- 
jecting bay windows, and having internally rich renaissance fire-places with splendid 
ceilings. In the dining-room ia a curious internal porch. These rooms are forty-two 
feet by twenty-three each. 

At this end a noble staircase ascends to the corridor, eighty-nine feet long, and to 
the Council Chamber, in which, between the dissolution of the Short Parliament and the 
meeting of the Long Parliament, Pym, Hampden, Oliver, St. John, Lord Brook, Lord 
Saye and Sele, the Earls of Bedford, Warwick, and Essex, Nathaniel Fiennes, and 
Sir Harry Vane the younger were wont to assemble and take measures to resist the 
in. i 


court's arbitrary measures. Near the Council Chamber a door opens on the leads, 
whence is a glorious view of the sweeping moat, formed from the junction of three 
brooks, and of the hills surrounding the venerable castle. 

Taken altogether, Broughton Castle is a most interesting building, whether we 
regard the earlier portions of it, or the transition alterations thereof from the 
castellated to the domestic period. 

Seen either from the north-west or the north-east, the church, the gateway, the 
stables, and the castle, with its gables and chimneys, harmonize finely with the 
stately trees and moat with which they are surrounded. 

King James the First of England and Sixth of Scotland honoured Lord Saye 
and Sele by a visit to Broughton Castle in September, 1601, and the sermon 
preached by His Majesty's Chaplain, Thomas Playgere, in Broughton Church, is in 
print, and speaks of the then abundant harvest. 

LOKD SAYE AND SELE, the twentieth in descent from Geoffrey, Lord Saye, one of 
the twenty-five barons who compelled King John to grant the Great Charter, succeeded 
as thirteenth Baron March 31st., 1847, and as a Clergyman of the Church of England 
became Archdeacon of Hereford. 



CAPESTHORNE, the modern seat of the ancient family of Davenport, came into that 
family by marriage with the heiress of the Wards of Capesthorne, A.D. 1721. 

The house, built about the same period, was restored and enlarged about 1837, 
and in 1861 the centre portion, since rebuilt very nearly on the original plan, was 
almost wholly destroyed by fire, together with some fine old furniture, panellings, and 
family portraits of interest. 

Of the Davenport family, Ormerod says that its history is "of rare occurrence even 
in this county," (i.e. Cheshire, described by Leland as the "seed plot of knightly 
families," and the "mother and nurse of the gentility of England,") "the descent of 
a family in one uninterrupted male line from the Norman Conquerors of the palatinate, 
possessing at the present day the feudal powers with which the local sovereigns of 
that palatinate invested it, and preserving in its own archives, in a scries of original 
documents, the proofs of its ancient importance, and its unbroken descent." 

The ancient seat, described by Leland as "the first and best house of the Davenports 
at Davenport, a great house covered with lead on the banks of the Dane, near 
Congleton," is now utterly destroyed, and on its site is built the present Davenport 
Hall, a modern house of moderate dimensions, which, together with what remained 
of the old estate, was alienated by Davies Davenport, the great grandfather of the 
present representative, Mr. Bromley Davenport, M.P. for North Warwickshire, and left 
to a daughter, who married Mr. Horton, of Catton, to whose family it still belongs. 

The situation of Capesthorne is very picturesque, overlooking a chain of pools 
supplied from Reedsmere, a fine sheet of water above, on which is still to be seen 
the old Floating Island about an acre in size, which, though now stationary, for many 
years formerly used to roam about the mere just as the wind, the trees growing on 
it acting as sails, dictated. 

The Macclesfield Forest hills and "Cloud End" form an almost Scotch background, 
and the old thorn trees in the Park are in spring an attraction to many sightseers. 

The old feudal rights of this family were very important. The Grand Sergeancy 
of the Forests of Macclesfield, an hereditary office still held by Mr. Davenport, con- 
ferred the power of life and death over a vast area "without delay and without 
appeal" and at Capesthorne is preserved a long roll, (without date but very ancient,) 
containing the names of the master robbers taken and beheaded with their companions 
in the times of Vivian, Roger, and Thomas de Davenport. 


There are many pictures of value and interest, especially the Giotto, the gem of 
the old Bromley collection of ancient Italian masters, a beautiful landscape by 
Velasquez, a view of Antwerp by Minderhout, etc., etc. 

The library contains many books of extreme rarity and value, and is especially 
rich in old Italian literature 1 . 

The contents of the deed closets are of great antiquity, and of these and the 
manuscripts generally, some account is given in the Report of the Historical Commission 
published in 1871. 

The first recorded ancestor of this family is Ormus or Orme (living temp. William 
the Conqueror), whose son Richard had Marton Manor in frank marriage with Auia- 
bilia, daughter of Gilbert Venables, in 1188, from which date to the present the said 
manor (adjoining Capesthorne) has never left the possession of the Davenports. 



POWERSCOURT, distant from Bray about four miles, is approached by a handsome 
arched gateway of granite, and an avenue of beech trees about a mile long, over- 
looking the valley of the Eiver Dargle, the name of which is a corruption of the 
Celtic "Dah-glen," the "Valley of the Oaks," from the ancient forest, the remains of 
which still exist in the deer park. 

The house, built of granite about 1730, presents a Grecian facade to the north 
or entrance front, with a central block and wings, terminated by gateways and 
obelisks surmounted by eagles. The south front overlooks the terraces and the view 
across the valley to the "Great Sugar-loaf," called in Irish "The Silver Spear," a 
conical mountain somewhat resembling Vesuvius in form, one thousand six hundred 
and fifty feet above the sea, the cone of which is of granite, piercing through the 
overlying strata of clay-slate. 

The view from the mansion is of great beauty, embracing a panorama of the 
Wicklow mountains, and a richly wooded landscape, sloping down to the river. 

The house stands upon the site of the ancient castle of the 0' Toolcs, and the 
estate was granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Eichard Wingfield, Marshal of Ireland, 
created first Viscount Powerscourt, for services rendered to the Crown in subduing 
the lawless Septs that inhabited this district during her reign. 

The house is entered in the north front by a large but low entrance hall, filled with 
armour and stags' heads, whence the principal staircase leads to the saloon, which 
is over the entrance hall, both being of the same dimensions, sixty feet by forty. 
The saloon, however, runs up to the roof of the house, two stories high, and is forty 
Ijeet in height. The upper part of it has two galleries, supported by Ionic columns, 
and it is lighted from these galleries, which communicate with the bedroom floor. 

Groups of statuary are placed between the columns, and the floor is of chesnut 
wood. In this saloon King George IV. was entertained at a banquet by the present 
Viscount's grandfather, on the occasion of his visit to Ireland in 1821. The chimney- 
piece is modern, designed by Pegrazzi of Verona, from one in the Doge's Palace 
at Venice; and the bronze fire-dogs, fender, etc., came from a palace there, and are 
attributed to John of Bologna. 

There is a curious old harpsichord in this room, exhibited at South Kensington in 
1872, dated 1612, and painted inside and out by Vandermeulen with subjects taken 
from the sieges of various towns in the wars of Louis the Fourteenth. It is also 


marked as having been restored by Pascal Taskin, in 1 774, and it was purchased 
from the Bankers Torlonia at Rome, in 1841, as having belonged to Marie Antoinette, 
by the present Viscount's father. 

The two drawing rooms open from the saloon, on the south front of the house, and 
contain pictures by Rembrandt, Titian, Tintoretto, Guercino, etc. 

Below the drawing-rooms, on the ground floor, are the dining-room, morning room, 
and library. The dining-room contains pictures principally of the modern French 
and Belgian schools, by Rosa Bonheur, Corot, Achenbach, etc. In the morning room 
are two interesting pictures, one of Marshal Sir Richard Wingfield, first Viscount 
Powerscourt, and one of his uncle Sir Anthony Wingfield, K.G. This latter picture 
is mentioned in the Letters of the Honourable Horace Walpole (Lord Orford), 
Letter XXVIII. to Richard Bentley, Esq. The story told about the picture (painted 
by Holbein) was that the housekeeper, in showing the house at Letheringham, in 
Suffolk, used to say that Sir Anthony had had his thumb cut off for striking some 
one in the king's presence. The picture shows the thumb tucked into the girdle, 
and the housekeeper probably invented the story, to account for the thumb being 
hidden by the girdle. The story, however, is sufficient to identify the picture, which 
was purchased by Frederick, fourth Marquis of Londonderry, at the sale of Mr. 
Dawson Turner's pictures at Messrs. Christie and Manson's in 1852, and given to the 
present Viscount, his step-son. The other pictures in this room are also family portraits. 

The terraces on the south front, commenced in 1842, were designed by Mr. 
Daniel Robertson, from the plan of the Villa Butera, in Sicily. The upper terrace, 
of granite, is about three hundred yards long, opening at the west end into the 
gardens, and is ornamented with marble statues and vases. Below this is a second 
terrace, formed in grass slopes, with a central flight of steps, and an alcove in 
granite, decorated with bronze vases and two cinque-cento bronze Tritons, spouting 
water into a basin. These two figures came from the collection of Prince Jerome 
Napoleon Bonaparte, and were sold by him after the burning of the Palais Royal, 
in Paris, by the Communists in 1870. They formerly belonged to the palace of the 
Duke de Litta at Milan. 

The surrounding grounds are planted with choice coniferous and other trees and 
shrubs. The deer park is a deep glen, containing the highest waterfall in the British 
Islands. The surrounding woods are the remains of the original self-sown oak forest 
which anciently covered a great portion of this part of Ireland. 

The family of Wingfield, from which Lord Powerscourt descends, is described by 
Camden as "famous for their knighthood and ancient nobility," and stated to have 
been settled at Wingfield, in the county of Suffolk, before the Conquest. The senior 
line became extinct, but the junior derives from 

SIR ROBERT WINGFIELD, Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, greatly distinguished in the 
civil wars in Ireland, over which country he was appointed Marshal by Queen Elizabeth 
in 1600, which office was confirmed to him by James the First. 



AT the Conquest the parish of Studley was entirely in possession of William, son 
of Corbicon, whose son Peter passed it away with his daughter in marriage to 
Henry de Montfort. It afterwards came into possession of William Beauchamp, 
Lord Abergavenny, and eventually was possessed by the Knights Templars. The 
above-named Peter founded a Priory of regular Augustine Canons here in the reign 
of King Stephen, which was so amply endowed that in 1399 the monks were enabled 
to begin rebuilding the church constructed at their foundation. After the dissolution 
of this priory, the site of the monastery, with the manor of Studley, were granted to 
Sir Edmund Knightley, Sergeant-at-Law in the 30th. of Henry the Eighth, and it 
subsequently passed by marriage to John Knotsford, Sergeant-at-Arms. The remains 
are now occupied as a farmhouse, and several tenements, occupied by labourers on 
the estate, have been constructed out of the ruins of the old castle. 

The present magnificent structure was erected by the late Sir Francis Lyttleton 
Holyoake Goodricke, about the year 1830, from whom the property was purchased by 
the father of the present proprietor. 

The Castle, which is in the pure Norman style of architecture, is built entirely of 
native stone, and seated on a commanding eminence, sixteen miles south of 
Birmingham, fifteen east of Worcester, fourteen west of Warwick, and fifteen west 
of Leamington. 

Placed in a finely timbered park of eight hundred acres, very extensive and 
charming views over Warwickshire and Worcestershire are obtained from the terraces 
along the south front of the Castle, from whence also the river Arrow may be seen 
winding its way. 

The mansion comprises centre and two wings, and forms three sides of a quadrangle, 
the fourth being enclosed as a courtyard, by a dwarf turreted wall, entered through 
massive iron gates with noble entrance and porte cochere. 

The entrance hall opens to a vestibule occupying the whole of the principal tower, 
one hundred feet high, and from this open the principal reception rooms, dining hall 
saloon, octagon library, small round towers, etc. 

The east wing is entirely appropriated to the family apartments, and the west 
contains billiard room, gun room, servants' offices, etc., etc., etc. 



The grand staircase, (which is of polished oak, as are all the floors,) leads to 
the great gallery, round the octagon tower, which opens to the visitors' rooms, and 
corridors from this gallery communicate with the wings of the mansion. 

The principal rooms form a noble suite, and open to a broad gravel terrace, looking 
upon the park and ornamental waters and the beautiful lawns and pleasure grounds, 
which abound with luxuriant flowering shrubs, evergreens, and ornamental trees of 
fine growth, and are studded with forest timber. 

The district is the most beautiful part of Warwickshire, on the border of Worces- 
tershire, beautifully undulated, and thickly timbered, being part of the ancient forest 
of Arden. 

Here are some of the choicest examples of Titian, Guido, Landseer, Rosa Bonheur, 
Goodall, Maclise, Heywood-Hardy, Lance, David Cox, etc. 

One of the greatest ornaments of the castle is the magnificent service of Malachite 
and Gold, from the collection of the late Prince Demidoff, which was brought here 
with many other works of art from San Donato. 

In old times there was a deer park attached to the Castle, but herds of High- 
land cattle have now taken the place of their fleeter, but not more picturesque 

THOMAS EADES WALKER, ESQ., the present proprietor of Studley Castle, elder son 
of Thomas Walker, Esq., of Berkswell Hall, in the same county, born in 1843, was 
educated at Harrow and Christ Church, Oxford, and elected M.P. for East Worces- 
tershire at the general election in 1874. He is descended from an old Warwickshire 
family, who have been landowners in this county for many generations, but which 
owes its present position to the genius and great business capability of the father 
of the present owner of Studley, who was for many years largely interested in the 
iron trade of the Midland Counties. 



ESHTON HALL, formerly the residence of the "De Esshetons" (Ranulf de Eston 
was living in 1186, and John de Eston contested the right to the Earldom and estates 
of Albemarle with King Edward the First,) passed into the Clifford property, and 
was sold by George, Earl of Cumberland, in 1597, to Robert Bindloss, Esq., of 
Borick, and in 1646 the hall, estate, and manor were sold by Sir Robert Bindloss, 
Bart., to Mathew Wilson, of Kendal, a merchant clothier, and Blackwell Hall, factor, 
of Coleman Street, in the City of London, ancestor of the present owner. 

The house, rebuilt by his father in 1825-6, from designs by the late George Webster, 
of Kendal, architect, is of white freestone, on an eminence that commands a beautiful 
home view, is entered by a portal consisting of massive piers, faced with Doric on 
the basement, and surmounted by Ionic pilasters, finishing at the summit by a pierced 
battlement and rich scroll-work. The entrance is thirty feet by twenty feet, opening 
by folding doors on a handsome saloon; staircase of carved oak, thirty feet square, 
lighted by a dome; on the right the dining-room, thirty-six feet by twenty-four feet; 
beyond this the morning-room, twenty feet square; on the left the library, forty feet 
by twenty-four feet, with a bay-window, and communicating by folding doors with the 
drawing-room, thirty-four feet by twenty-four feet, with a bay-window : all these rooms 
are sixteen feet high. The billiard-room is behind the staircase, thirty feet by twenty 
feet, opening into the staircase and into the drawing-room, and by the bay-window 
into the flower garden. The library and drawing-room fitted up as a library, contain 
ten thousand volumes, especially rich in topography, collected by the late Miss 
Richardson-Currer, Sir Mathew Wilson's half-sister. There are portfolios of engravings, 
articles of vertu in marble, bronze, nola vases, cabinets, and china; a good collection 
of pictures by old masters, and family portraits. 

The family of Wilson descends from 

ROBERT WILSON, ESQ., of Brigsteare, Haversham, Westmoreland, and Alice his wife. 
Their son, 

MATHEW WILSON, ESQ., became possessed of Eshton Hall by purchase, as above 
stated. He died in London in 1656, and was succeeded by 


JOHN WILSON, ESQ., of Eshton Hall, who, by his wife Dorothy, was father of, with 
other younger children, 

MATHEW WILSON, ESQ., of Eshton Hall, married June 28th., 1699, Anne, daughter 
of Timothy Blackburne, Esq., of Blackburne Hall, in Swaledale, Yorkshire, and was 
succeeded by his son, 

MATHEW WILSON, ESQ., of Eshton Hall, baptized October 14th., 1706, who married 
Margaret, daughter of Henry Wiglesworth, Esq., of Slaidburn, and had, with other 
issue, his heir, 

MATHEW WILSON, ESQ., of Eshton Hall, Barrister-at-Law, born February 12th., 
1730. He married July 7th., 1759, Frances, daughter of Richard Clive, Esq., of 
Styche, Salop, M.P. for Montgomeryshire, and sister of Robert Clive, first Lord 
Clive. By her he left a daughter, Margaret Clive Wilson, who married, first, 
February 3rd., 1783, the Rev. Henry Richardson, M.A., Rector of Thornton, (who 
assumed the surname and arms of Currer,) and died 10th. November, 1784, leaving 
only a daughter, she married, secondly, November 20th., 1800, her cousin, 

MATHEW WILSON, ESQ., born August 10th., 1772, who thus became of Eshton 
Hall, and had issue, 

SIR MATHEW WILSON, J.P. and D.L., M.P. for the Northern Division of the West 
Riding of Yorkshire, born August 29th., 1802, created a Baronet in 1874. He 
married, June 15th., 1826, Sophia Louisa Emerson Amcotts, only daughter and 
co-heiress of Sir Wharton Emerson Amcotts, Bart., of Kettlethorpe Park, Lincolnshire, 
by his second wife, Amelia Theresa Campbell, and has a son, 

MATHEW WHAKTON WILSON, born 20th. March, 1827, formerly of the llth. Hussars, 
married, 13th. November, 1850, Gratiana Mary, only daughter of Admiral Richard 
Thomas, of Stonehouse, and has a son, Mathew Amcotts, 1st. West York Rifles, born 
2nd. January, 1853, married, 8th. October, 1874, Georgina Mary, eldest daughter of 
Richard T. Lee, Esq., of Grove Hall, Yorkshire. 




THIS beautiful edifice, built on the site of the Fitzroy Farm and Dufferin Lodge, 
(the late residence of Lord Dufferin,) has been recently erected by its present pro- 
prietor, Mr. Edward Brooke. The house is of a highly ornamented character 
throughout, and the interior especially is richly decorated with carving. The ante- 
hall is laid with black and white marble, and the chimney-pieces here and in other 
rooms are richly carved from designs by the architects. "The ceilings of the 
dining-rooms, the halls, the morning room, and library are of panelled wainscot, 
moulded and carved, with an elaborately-carved chimney-piece in the dining-room, 
also of wainscot, worked up to the ceiling. On either side of the dining-room 
chimney-piece are windows looking into a fernery, with fountains. The upper portion 
of the windows above the transome is fitted with stained glass of a geometrical 
pattern. The staircase windows are filled with stained glass; the large one with 
the armorial bearings of the Brooke family for eighteen generations; the side lights, 
with subjects from Tennyson's poems." In the windows of the billiard-room are 
representations of various out-door sports and pastimes, as hunting, cricket, archery, 
etc., also in stained glass. 

"The morning room is lined with old Cordova leather, brought from Antwerp, 
which was put up in a mansion there when Antwerp was under Spanish rule : it is in 
a fine state of preservation. The ceiling of this room is decorated to agree with the 
leather, the upper portions of the windows being fitted with designs of the seasons; 
the frieze of the cornice having heads modelled from Scriptural subjects." 

Highgate, in such near proximity to the city of London, is rich in historical asso- 
ciations, and especially has it been, for many generations, the retreat of literary men. 
Coleridge lived for some time here, at the latter part of his life, "looking down/' as 
Carlyle says, "on London and its smoke-tumult, like a sage escaped from the inanity 
of life's battle, attracting towards him the thoughts of innumerable brave souls still 
engaged there, heavy laden, high aspiring, and surely much-suffering men." Mac 
Dowell the sculptor, Dr. Southwood Smith, and Mr. David Williams, the founder of 
the Literary Fund, were also residents of this place. Andrew Marvell, the patriot 
representative of Hull, the friend and benefactor of Milton, and the first to discover 
and make known the genius of "Paradise Lost," had a house at Highgate. These 
are but a few of the litterati of past generations who have honoured this suburban 


village with their presence; while to-day it is the adopted residence of many of their 
successors in the world of science and letters. 

Here, about the year 1630, Cromwell built for himself "Cromwell House," where, 
however, it is thought he paid but occasional visits. Prickett, the historian of 
Highgate. says that this residence of the Protector's "was evidently built and inter- 
nally ornamented in accordance with the taste of its military occupant. The staircase, 
which is of handsome proportions, is richly decorated with oaken carved figures, 
supposed to be of persons in the general's army, in their costume; and the balus- 
trade filled in with devices emblematical of warfare. On the ceiling of the drawing- 
room are the arms of General Ireton: this and the other ceilings of the principal 
apartments are enriched in conformity with the fashion of those days. The proportions 
of the noble rooms, as well as the brickwork in front, well deserve the notice and 
study of the antiquary and the architect." 

The chapel of Highgate, which occupied the site of a hermit's cell, was granted 
by Bishop Grindal, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1565, to a new grammar 
school, erected and endowed the year before by Sir Roger Cholmeley, late Lord 
Chief Justice. This was pulled down many years ago, and the church built in 
another part of the village. Among the tombs was that of Coleridge, the poet and 
philosopher. The present church was built in 1832, at a cost of 10,000, in the 
parish of St. Pancras; but shortly afterwards Highgate was made a district of itself. 



THE castle of Birr was considered to be the chief seat of the O'Carrols, chieftains 
of the Sept. A great battle was fought in the vicinity, in 241, between Cormac, 
son of Conn of the Hundred Battles, and the people of Munster. The place suffered 
much from the ravages of the Danes in 841 and 842; and in 1154, O'Hedcrgool, 
King of Cathlinghie, was killed at the church-door. On the breaking out of the 
war of 1641, William Parsons was made governor of Ely O'Carrol and Birr Castle, 
which he garrisoned with his own tenantry. The next year an engagement took 
place between the garrison and the Sept of the O'Carrols; and in the same year, 
1642, the castle was besieged by the Irish, but was relieved by Sir Charles Coote, 
who threw into it a supply of ammunition and provisions. This action was deemed 
so important, that it procured for Sir Charles the dignity of Earl of Mountrath. 
But in the following year the place fell into the hands of General Preston, commander 
of the forces of the Confederate Catholics in Leinster, who kept possession of it 
till it was taken by Ireton in 1650; and a subsequent attempt by the Marquis of 
Clanricarde, to recover it for the King, was baffled by the approach of Colonel 
Axtell. At the time of the Restoration it seems that the place was of some commercial 
importance (Birr town), from the number of brass tokens then coined for the conve- 
nience of trade. In the war of 1688 the castle was besieged by Colonels Grace 
and Oxburgh, and surrendered in terms which were afterwards made grounds of 
accusation against Sir Lawrence Parsons, the governor. He was found guilty of high 
treason, but received a pardon after several reprieves. At this period Birr is mentioned 
by Sir William Petty as sending two members to Parliament. In 1689, the Roman 
Catholic clergymen took possession of the tithes and glebe, which they held till the 
battle of the Boyne. In 1690 the castle was besieged by General Sarstield, the Duke 
of Berwick, and Lord Galway; but the siege was raised by Sir John Lanier for King 
William. A meeting of delegates from several volunteer corps was held in 1781, and 
again in 1782, at which strong resolutions were passed relative to the great questions 
which then absorbed public attention. 

The late Lord Rosse, who devoted much time and thought to studies connected with 
astronomy, and other branches of science, had a laboratory, with machinery for polishing 
the largest specula for telescopes, by means of which he constructed a reflector of 


twenty-seven feet focal length, the great speculum of which is three feet iu diameter, 
and another of fifty-three feet focal length and six feet diameter, still the largest in 
the world. The telescopes stand on the lawn in front of Birr Castle, and are 
moved by machinery which also was the invention of his -lordship. The smaller one 
has been carried by a mounting similar in principle to that of Herschel's celebrated 
telescope, which, however, is now being replaced by a more modern structure. 

The family of Lord Rosse descends from Lawrence Parsons, Esq., Attorney-General 
for the Province of Munster in 1(512. 






THIS mansion was raised on the ruins of an ancient priory, and is indebted to the 
tasteful exertions of the late Sir Eoger Newdegate, Bart., for such improvements as 
render it a most elegant specimen of tho compendious Gothic stylo. The house is 
seated in the midst of a fine and extensive park, well wooded and adorned with 
artificial expanses of water. The approach on the north is through a long and mag- 
nificent avenue of trees, the lines of which, rich in various foliage, are broken in a 
manner judiciously conducive to the picturesque. The exterior of the building is 
entirely cased with stone, and each front presents a separate design of architectural 
beauty, though all are consistent in general character. 

The whole range of principal apartments is finished in the most costly style, and 
combines a selection of the more beautiful parts of Gothic architecture, made with 
exquisite taste. The ceiling of the dining room is enriched with pendant ornaments, 
and supported by taper pillars. In niches, delicately canopied, are placed good casts 
from the antique; and in a recess at the farther end is inserted the top of a sarco- 
phagus, brought by Sir Robert Newdegate from Rome, on which is sculptured the 
marriage of Bacchus and Ariadne. The drawing room is of moderate but pleasing 
proportions, and is ornamented in a style particularly chaste. Inserted in the panels 
of this room are five whole-length family portraits, and different armorial bearings 
are introduced, on small shields in the tracery work of the ceiling. The fine bay 
window of the saloon looks into the gardens, which are extensive and disposed with 
much elegance. The ceiling of this apartment is elaborately worked in imitation of 
King Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the room adjoining the saloon is the well- 
known picture of which an engraving is given in the antiquities of Warwickshire. 
This curious painting commemorates the achievements of Sir John de Astley, con- 
cerning whom Dugdale thus writes: "Of the Patshull branch of the Astley family 
was John de Astley, who, on the 29th. of August, 1488, maintaining a duel on 
horseback, within the street called Antoine, in Paris, against one Peter de Masse, a 
Frenchman, in the prescence of Charles the Seventh, King of France, pierc't the 
said Peter through the head, and had (as by the articles betwixt them conditioned) 
the helmit of the said Peter, being so vanquish'd, to present unto his lady. And on 
the 30th. of January, 20 of Henry the Sixth, undertook another fight in the Smythfield, 
within the city of London, in the prescence of the same King Henry the Sixth, with 



Sir Philip Boyle, an Arragonian Knight, who having been in France, by the King 
his master's command, to look out some hardy person against whom he might try 
his skill in feats of armes, and missing there of his desires, repaired hither. After 
which combate ended (being gallantly perform'd on foot, with battil-axes, speares, 
swords, and daggers), he was knighted by the King, with an annuity of one hundred 
marks during his life. Nay, so famous did he grow for his valour, that he was elected 
Knight of the Garter." 

This family represents, through an heiress, the ancient and knightly race of the 
name descending from John de Newdegate, living in the third year of the reign of 
Edward the Third. In the male line it descends as follows : 

WILLIAM PARKER, ESQ., of Salford Priors, in the county of Warwick, married 
Millicent Newdigate, daughter of Sir Richard Newdigate, Bart., of Arbury, in the 
same shire, and Harefield, Middlesex, and on the failure of the male line of the said 
family in the person of Sir Roger Newdigate, LL.D., the fifth Baronet, M.P. for 
Middlesex, 1742, and for the University of Oxford from 1750 for many following 
years, Founder of the Prize for the popular "Newdigate" Poem, who died without 
issue November 23rd., 1806, the estates came to his descendants. Their third son, 

CHARLES PARKEE, ESQ., of Arbury and Harefield, married Jane, daughter of Sir John 
Anstruther, Bart., and died April 24th., 1795, leaving, with other issue, an eldest son, 

CHARLES NEWDIGATE PARKER, ESQ., of Harefield, who assumed by Royal Licence 
the surname and arms of Newdegate only. He married, April 15th., 1815, Maria, 
daughter of Ayscoghe Boucherett, Esq., of Willingham House and Stallingborough, 
Lincolnshire, and dying April 23rd., 1833, left an only son and successor, 

CHARLES NEWDIGATE NEWDEGATE, of Arbury and Harefield, (the former of which 
estates he came into possession of on the death of his uncle, Francis Newdigate, 
Esq., of Kirk Hallam, Derbyshire, 1835,) J.P., D.L., D.C.L., M.P. for Warwickshire 
for many years, born July 14th., 1816. 



THIS place formerly belonged to canons regular of St. Augustine, but the original 
buildings having been destroyed by fire, the present extensive and very noble mansion 
was erected on its site, about the commencement of the seventeenth century. It has 
since, at different times, received various additions and improvements, in all of which 
the ancient baronial character of the edifice has been scrupulously preserved. The 
same may be said of the gardens and pleasure-grounds, whose monastic features will 
still be viewed with particular interest, as here no innovating hand has ever been 
allowed to intrude. 

The building is of an ornamental and interesting character, though it is not com- 
pleted according to the original design, as an intended wing on the south side was 
commenced. The Lord Keeper made some additions, and a library has lately been 
erected after a plan by Mr. Smirke. 

The chapel is a room beautified by the first Earl of Guilford. 

The estate came into the possession of the family of North, by the marriage of 
Francis, Lord Keeper Guilford, with Lady Frances Pope, sister to the fourth and 
last Earl of Downe. 

The mansion is enriched by many ancient portraits of the families of Pope and 
North. Among the former is an original of Sir Thomas Pope, founder of Trinity 
College, Oxford, and uncle of the first Earl of Downe. Of the latter there is a 
complete series of Lords North, from Edward, the first Lord, created in the reign 
of Philip and Mary, to the present time. 

The church of Wroxton contains many monuments which demand notice. On a 
black marble gravestone is an inscription to "Elizabeth, late wife of Francis Lord 
Guilford, and one of the daughters of the Eight Honourable Fulke Lord Brooke." 
She died in 1699. Another gravestone of a similar description, commemorates 
Francis Lord Guilford himself, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, born October 22nd., 
1637, died September 5th., 1685. On the north side of the chancel is a magnificent 
tomb, with the recumbent effigies of William Pope, first Earl of Downe, and his lady. 
On the same side of the chancel is a marble tablet affixed to the wall, surmounted 
with angels, to the memory of the Lady of the Lord Keeper Guilford. On the south 
wall of the chancel is a monument to Francis, Earl of Guilford, and his three wives. 
Immediately adjoining is an elegant monument, lately erected to the memory of the 


Prime Minister, Lord North, who had succeeded to the Earldom of Guilford a short 
time prior to his death. In a niche to the right of the communion rails is a brass 
plate, formerly attached to a gravestone, with this inscription: "Here lyeth under this 
stone buryed, Margaret Bostarde, widowe, sometime the wyf of William Pope, of 
Dedington, in the county of Oxford, Gent., and afterwards married to John Bostarde, 
of Atterbury; which William and Margaret were father and mother to Sir Thomas 
Pope, Knight, and John Pope, Esq." She died in 1557. The church likewise 
contains a monument of one of the family of Sacheverell. 

The family of North descends in the male line from 

WILLIAM DOYLE, ESQ., of Clonmoney, in the county of Carlow, who married Jane, 
daughter of Howard Egan, Esq., and left a son, 

CHARLES DOYLE, ESQ., of Bramblestown, in the county of Kilkenny. He married 
Elizabeth, daughter of the Eev. Nicholas Milley, and left at his decease, in 1769, 
with several other children, an eldest son, 

WILLIAM DOYLE, ESQ., Barrister-at-Law, King's Counsel, and Master in Chancery in 
Ireland. This gentleman married twice, and by his second wife, Cecilia, daughter of 
General Silvani, of the Austrian Service, left, with other issue, two sons, of whom 
the elder was 

who married, first, in 1803, Sophia Cramer, daughter of Sir John Coghill, Baronet, 
by whom he had three sons and a daughter. The second son, 

COLONEL JOHN SIDNEY DOYLE, M.P. for Oxfordshire in 1852, 1857, 1865, etc., J.P. 
and D.L. for Oxfordshire, Lieutenant-Colonel of the Oxfordshire Eifle Volunteers, 
previously Lieutenant-Colonel of the Irish Fusiliers, born 1804, married, in 1835, 
Susan, Baroness North, in her own right, daughter and co-heiress of George Augustus, 
third Earl of Guilford, and ninth Baron North. He assumed in 1838 the surname 
of North in lieu of his patronymic. His eldest son, 

WILLIAM HENRY JOHN NORTH, of Kirtling, in Cambridgeshire, Lieutenant in the 
First Life Guards, and Captain in the Queen's Own Oxfordshire Yeomanry Cavalry, 
born October 5th., 1836, married, January 12th., 1858, Frederica, daughter of Richard 
Howe Cockerell, Esq., Commander E.N., and had, with several other children, 

WILLIAM FREDERICK JOHN NORTH, born October 13th., 1860. 



COUGHTON is situated between Icknield Street and the river Arrow, about two miles 
from Alcester, in a finely wooded country, diversified by hills. 

In the time of the Conqueror it was in the possession of Turchill de Warwick. 

It was afterwards held by a family who assumed their surname from hence. Simon 
de Cocton, or Coughton, left two daughters, one of whom, Joan, was married to 
William de Spineto, whereby this lordship came, by partition, to the Spiney family. 
Guy de la Spine left issue two daughters, one of whom, Alianore, married John, the 
son of Thomas Throckmorton, Esq., by which marriage, this lordship of Coughton, 
coming to the line of Throckmorton, hath continued therein to this day. This John 
died in 1455. 

The original seat of this family was at Throckmorton, in the parish of Fladbury, 
in Worcestershire, which is still in their possession. 

Some part of the house at Coughton was built when held by the Spineys. It was 
a quadrangle built round a court, and surrounded by a moat. The tower was erected 
by Sir George Throckmorton, in the reign of Henry the Eighth. The entrance 
formerly was over a bridge, which crossed the moat, and through the gateway of 
the tower into the quadrangle. 

Considerable alterations were made in the building, by Sir Francis Throckmorton, 
in the time of Charles the Second. It had been previously plundered by the 
Parliament forces, and the proprietor, Sir Eobert, the first Baronet, was ejected, 
and resided at Worcester. 

About the year 1780, Sir Eobert Throckmorton took down one side of the 
quadrangle, filled up the moat, enclosed the gateway, fitting it up as a hall, and 
made several alterations in the building. In this hall are painted on the windows 
the arms of the Throckmortons, impaling those of several families connected with 

The Baronetcy in this ancient family dates from the year 1642, and has so continued 
to the ninth Baronet, namely, 

SIR NICHOLAS WILLIAM THROCKMORTON, of Coughton Court, born April the 26th., 



EUSTON HALL is a large commodious mansion built of red brick, and destitute of 
superfluous decorations either within or without. The bedchambers are on the ground 
floor, and the principal apartments above, according to the ancient fashion, derived 
from the old castles, which were so constructed for security. 

The house is surrounded by trees of uncommon growth, and of healthy and 
luxuriant appearance; near it glides the river Ouse, over which is thrown a neat 
and substantial wooden bridge. The scenery about this mansion combines the most 
delightful assemblage of rural objects, and is justly celebrated by the author of the 
"Farmer's Boy:" 

"Where noble Grafton spreads his rich domains 
Round Euston's water' d vale and sloping plains; 
Where woods and groves in solemn grandeur rise." 

The estate of Euston is of very considei-able extent, its circumference being 
between thirty and forty miles, and embracing a great number of villages and 

On an elevated situation in the park stands the Temple. This elegant structure, 
designed for a banqueting house, was built by the celebrated Kent, under the auspices 
of the late Duke of Grafton, who laid the first stone himself in 1746. It is in 
the Grecian style of architecture, and consists of an upper and lower apartment, 
forming a pleasing object from many points of view in the neighbourhood of Euston, 
and commanding an extensive prospect. 

Fakenham Wood, the scene of the well-known tale of the "Fakenham Ghost," 
near Euston Hall, is perhaps the largest in the county, and covers three hundred 
and fourteen acres. The late Duke of Grafton was a very able and successful 
agriculturist. Including his park of one thousand four hundred and fifty acres, he 
kept in his own hands upwards of three thousand two hundred acres. 

The ducal family of Grafton descends from 

HENRY FITZROY, second son of His Majesty King Charles the Second, by Barbara 
Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland, who was followed in succession by 


CHARLES FITZROY, second Duke, 



HENRY FITZROY, fifth Duke, 

WILLIAM HENRY FITZROY, sixth Duke, born August 4th., 1819, married, February 
10th., 1858, to the Honourable Mary Louise Anne Baring, daughter of Francis Baring, 
third Baron Ashburton. 




THIS elegant mansion is situated about two miles and a half from the town of 
Morton, about seven from Camden, and nineteen miles north-east from the city of 
Gloucester. It was entirely erected by Sir Charles Cockerell, Baronet, in the style of 
the splendid palaces of the East. The grounds are varied and beautiful, and the wholo 
are laid out with very great taste and judgment; a part is called the Thornery. These 
have been embellished with a variety of ornamental buildings erected in the most 
picturesque situations. The Wellington Pillar, the Temple, the Bridge, and Fountain 
are from designs by Thomas Daniell, Esq., R.A. 

JOHN COCKERELL, ESQ., of Bishop's Hall, near Taunton, Somersetshire, was father of 

SIR CHARLES COCKERELL, created a Baronet, September 25th., 1809, for his eminent 
services as a civil servant in India from 1776 to 1800. He was subsequently a 
Member of Parliament for more than thirty years. He married, first, March llth., 
1789, Maria Tryphena, daughter of Sir Charles William Blunt, Bart., by whom ho had 
no issue; and secondly, February 13th., 1808, the Honourable Harriet Rushout, 
daughter of John, first Lord Northwick, and had 

SIR CHARLES COCKERELL, born June llth., 1809, who took, by royal license, the 
surname and arms of Rushout, the latter quarterly with his own. He married, August 
5th., 1831, the Honourable Cecilia Olivia Geraldine Foley, daughter of Thomas, third 
Lord Foley, and had, with other children, 

SIR CHARLES FITZGERALD RUSHOUT, Captain in the Royal Horse Guards, born July 
13th., 1840. He married, July 15th., 1865, Mary Alice Wentworth Pennant, only 
child of David Pennant, Esq., and had, with other issue, a son and heir, 

CHARLES HAMILTON RUSHOUT, born June 21st., 1868. 

CECILIA BLANCHE, born 2nd. October, 1870. 

GEORGINA MARY, born 3rd. September, 1872. 






"THE east side of the county," says Cudd, "is adorned with the castle of Kinni- 
bantutn., now Kimbolton, anciently the aeat of the Mandevillcs, afterwards of the 
Bohuns and StafFords, and now of the Wingfields." Sir Richard Wingfield, K.G., 
twelfth son of Sir John Wingfield, of Letheringham, in Suffolk, Knight, and Chancellor 
of the Duchy of Lancaster, married, first, Katharine, daughter of Richard, Earl Rivers, 
and widow of Henry Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, after whose attainder he obtained 
a grant of Kimbolton Castle and Lordship from Henry the Eighth, with whom he 
was highly in favour. He dying whilst Ambassador in Spain, was buried at Toledo, 
and his son, Sir James, sold Kimbolton to Sir Henry Montagu, afterwards first Earl 
of Manchester, whose lineal descendant, the present Duke of Manchester, is now owner. 

Kimbolton Castle, the seat of the Earls and Dukes of Manchester, is of unknown 
but very remote origin. "The Castle," says Leland, "is double diked, and the buildinw 
of it metely strong: it longed to the Mandevilles, Erles of Essex. Sir Richard Wing- 
field built new fair lodgyns and galleries upon the old foundation of the castle. There 
is a plotte now clene desolated not a mile by west from Kimbolton, called Castle Hill, 
where appear ditches and tokens of old buildings." This Castle was the jointure and 
became the retirement of Queen Catharine after her divorce from Henry the Eighth. 
Henry, first Earl of Manchester, expended large sums in making it a comfortable 
residence; and Robert, his grandson, the third Earl, made further and very considerable 
alterations and many additions. 

THOMAS MONTAGU, Gentleman, who lies buried at Hemington, in Northamptonshire, 
was father of 

SIR EDWARD MONTAGU, the immediate ancestor of the Earls and Dukes of Manchester. 
He was born in Brigstock, in that county. In 1547, he was one of the commissioners 
of claim at the young king's coronation. On the accession of Queen Mary, he was 
dismissed from his office of Judge, and imprisoned in the Tower, for his concern in 
the settlement of the crown upon Lady Jane Grey. He died in February, 1556-7, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son, 

SIR EDWARD MONTAGU, who was knighted by Queen Elizabeth in 1567, and died in 
January, 1601. His successor was his third surviving son, 

SIR HENRY MONTAGU, the purchaser of Kimbolton, who, like his grandfather, was 


bred to the law in the Middle Temple, and became one of its chief luminaries. 
After various promotions, he was advanced to the dignity of Lord High Treasurer by 
King James the First, in December, 1620. About a fortnight afterwards he was 
created a Baron, by the title of Lord Montagu of Kimbolton and Viscount Mandeville. 
In February, 1626, he was advanced to the dignity of Earl of Manchester. He died 
in November, 1642. His eldest son, 

EDWARD MONTAGU, succeeded to the title and estates. This was the celebrated 
Parliamentary General, who was afterwards Chamberlain to King Charles the Second. 
His eldest son, by the second of his five wives, by whom alone he had issue, 

ROBERT MONTAGU, succeeded him. He had been one of the six Lords, members of 
the House of Commons, deputed to wait on Prince Charles at the Hague, and invite 
him to return to the government of the kingdom. He died at Moutpelier, in France, 
in May, 1683, but was brought to England, and interred near his father at Kimbolton. 
His eldest surviving son, 

CHARLES MONTAGU, fourth Earl, and first Duke of Manchester, "had the advantages 
of education, both at the University of Cambridge and abroad; and being early distin- 
guished for a manly behaviour and polite address, was appointed carver to the Queen 
at the coronation of King James the Second. Not approving, however, of the measures 
of that reign, he retired from court; and at the Revolution, secured Huntingdon- 
shire for the Prince of Orange, by raising a body of horse, whilst the Prince was 
landing. He assisted at the coronation of King William; and in 1690 accompanied 
him to Ireland, where he was present at the battle of the Boyne, and at the siege of 
Limerick. In 1696 he was appointed Ambassador Extraordinary to the Republic of 
Venice, but had no further employment during the reign of Queen Anne. On the 
accession of George the First he was made one of the Gentlemen of His Majesty's 
Bedchamber, and finally, in consideration of his great services, created first Duke of 
Manchester in April, 1719. He died in January, 1721-2, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, 

WILLIAM MONTAGU, second Duke, born in France in 1700, during his father's 
embassy. He bore the Golden Spurs for the Earl of Essex at the coronation of 
George the Second, and in 1737 was constituted Captain of the Yeomen of the 
Guard. He died (sine prole) at Bath, October, 1739, and was succeeded by his 

ROBERT MONTAGU, third Duke, who was Vice-Chamberlain both to Queen Caroline 
and the ruling Sovereign. He died in May, 1762, and was succeeded by his eldest son, 

GEORGE MONTAGU, fourth Duke, on whose decease, in September, 1788, his eldest son, 

WILLIAM MONTAGU, fifth Duke, succeeded to the family honours and possessions. 
About the commencement of the present century, he was appointed Governor of 
Jamaica. His son and successor was 

GEORGE MONTAGU, sixth Duke, Commander R.N., father of 

WILLIAM DROGO MONTAGU, seventh Duke, who married, July 22nd., 1852, the Countess 
Louise Fredericke Auguste, daughter of Graf von Alten, and had, with other 
children, an eldest son, 

GEORGE VICTOR DROGO MONTAGU, born June 17th., 1853. 



ELNOD held Westone, in Langtrew Hundred, in the reign of King Edward the 

Earl Hugh held it in the reign of King William. 

Hugh le Despencer the younger was seized of the manor of Westonbirt in the fifth 
year of Edward the Second; and Thomas Lord Berkeley held it in the thirty-fifth 
year of Edward the Third. 

Edward, Duke of Somerset, was seized of this manor, and after his attainder it 
was granted to James Basset, in the fourth year of Queen Mary; and afterwards, 
in the seventh year of Queen Elizabeth, to Arthur Basset. 

Mr. Nicholas Dymery was lord of it in the year 1608. 

The manor afterwards came to the Crewes, who were a branch of the Crewes of 
Cheshire. The heiress of the Crewes was married to Sir Richard Holford, Master in 
Chancery, who was also a branch of the Cheshire family of that name, and it thence 
came into possession of his descendant and representative, Robert Stayner Holford, 
Esq., by whom the present mansion was erected, from the designs, and under the 
supervision of the late Lewis Vulliany, Esq., Architect, on the site of a smaller house 
built by his predecessor, in lieu of the old Manor House, which dated from about 
the time of James the First. 

The lineage of the present family deduces from 

SIR RICHARD HOLFORD, Knight, Master in Chancery, who married, first, the heiress 
of the family of Crewe, of Westonbirt, and with her acquired the estate; and 
secondly, Elizabeth, daughter of Vice Admiral Sir Richard Stayner. By his second 
wife he had 

ROBERT HOLFORD, ESQ., of Westonbirt, also a Master in Chancery, who married 
Sarah, daughter of Sir Peter Vandeput, of the family of the extinct Baronets of 
that name, and had a son and heir, 

PETER HOLFORD, ESQ., of Westonbirt. He too was a Master in Chancery, and 
was father of, with other children, 

GEORGE PETER HOLFORD, ESQ., of Westonbirt, who left at his decease, April 29th., 
1839, a son and successor, 



ROBERT STAYNBR HOLFORU, ESQ., of Westonbirt, J.P., D.L., High Sheriff of 
Gloucestershire, 1843, and M.P. for East Gloucestershire from 1854 to 1872, born 
March 16th., 1808. He married, August oth., 1854, Mary Anne, daughter of General 
James Lindsay, of Balcarres, in the county of Fife, and is father of 

GEORGE LINDSAY HOLFOKD, ESQ., born June 2nd., 1860. 



WOLSELEY HALL is situated in a valley close to the high road, formerly the old 
coach road between London and Liverpool, the inn at Wolseley Bridge being one 
of the principal halting places for change of horses. It is about two miles from 
Rugeley, and seven from Stafford. The house was considerably rebuilt by Sir 
Charles, the seventh Baronet. 

The most prominent feature of the intei-ior is a beautiful specimen of oak carving, 
consisting of a magnificent staircase, together with the wainscotted drawing-room, the 
workmanship of an eminent artist of the name of Pierce, supposed to be a pupil of 
Grinley Gibbons, in the reign of Charles the Second. 

The River Trent, running in the north-west part of the county, takes here a 
winding course, and passes through Wolseley Bridge, near one of the entrance lodges 
at the foot of the hanging woods in the park. 

Among the pictures are the following: An interior of an Inn, by Teniers; St. 
Agnes, by Carlo Dolce; St. John, by Murillo; two heads by Albert Durer; several 
landscapes by Ostard; a cattle piece by Berghem; and several family portraits, the 
best being that of Lady Wolseley, (nee Chambers,) wife of the Sixth Baronet, by 

The family of Wolseley have resided here, and under the same name, for more 
than seven centuries. 

From Edric, who lived at Wolseley in the time of William Rufus, descended 
Richard de Wolseley, who, in the twenty-fifth year of Edward the First, married 
Sybilla, daughter of Roger de Aston, with whom he had lands in Bishton, an adjoining 
lordship, which remain with the family to this day. 

In the reign of Edward the Fourth, Ralph Wolseley was one of the Barons of 
the Exchequer, and had permission, under the Great Seal, to enclose a park, and 
to stock it by means of deer leaps, with deer from out of Cannock Chase, which it 
adjoins. The leaps exist to the present day, and the park still contains a herd of 
deer. The deed is still in preservation amongst several other even older ones in the 
muniment chest of the family. 

From him descended Robert Wolseley, who was created a Baronet by King 
Charles the First. His son, Sir Charles Wolseley, represented the counties of 
Stafford and Oxford in Parliament during the Protectorate, and was afterwards called 


up to Oliver Cromwell's Upper House. He was in great favour with the Protector, 
and was one of his "Seven Chums." 

There are several monuments and inscriptions in the ancient church at Colwich 
of the Wolseley family. 

The above-named 

RALPH WOLSELEY, one of the Barons of the Exchequer in the reign of Edward the 
First, left a son, 

JOHN DE WOLSELEY, father of 

RALPH WOLSELEY, whose son and successor, 

JOHN WOLSELEY, ESQ., living in 1614, had, with other issue, a son, 

SIR ROBERT WOLSELEY, created a Baronet November 28th., 1628. The eighth in- 
heritor of the title after him, in direct descent, was 

SIR CHARLES WOLSELEY, BARONET, born in 1813, who married, in 1834, Mary Anne, 
eldest daughter of Nicholas Selby, Esq., of Acton House, Middlesex, and was father 

SIR CHARLES MICHAKL WOLSELEY, ninth Baronet, born in 1846. 



DARTREY, the seat of the Earl of Dartrey, is situated in the County of Monaghan. 

The present house was rebuilt on the site of the old mansion in the year 1846, 
and commands an extensive view over a large sheet of water, forming one of a 
wide-spreading chain of lakes. 

The sloping lawn between the house and lake is beautifully laid out in terraced 
gardens, the brilliancy of which, contrasting with the sombre tints of the fine trees 
on either side, gives a peculiar richness to the view. 

An important feature in the grounds is formed by a wooded island, nearly two 
miles in circumference, in the centre of which, approached by a magnificent avenue 
of beech trees, stands a building containing a fine marble monument, executed by 
Wilton in 1770, in memory of Lady Anne Dawson. 

The approaches to the house, running along the shores of the lakes, form a very 
beautiful drive several miles iu extent. 

The family of Lord Dartrey came originally from Yorkshire, removing to Ireland 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

THOMAS DAWSON, of Armagh, was father of 

JOHN DAWSON, ESQ., whose son, 

WALTER DAWSON, ESQ., died in 1704, leaving two sons, the elder of whom, 

WALTER DAWSON, ESQ., married Frances, daughter of Richard Dawson, Esq., an 
officer in Cromwell's army, with whom he obtained the estate of Dawson's Grove, in 
the County of Monaghan. He was succeeded at his decease by his only surviving 

RICHARD DAWSON, ESQ., of Dawson's Grove, an eminent Banker and Alderman of 
the City of Dublin, and M.P. for the County of Monaghan. This gentleman married, 
in 1723, Elizabeth, daughter of the Most Rev. John Vesey, D.D., Archbishop of 
Tuam, by whom he left, dying in 1766, 

THOMAS DAWSON, ESQ., who was elevated to the peerage of Ireland May 28th., 
1770, as BARON DARTREY, and advanced to the dignity of VISCOUNT CREMORNE, June 
9th., 1785. He married, first, the Lady Anne Fermor, daughter of Thomas, Earl 
of Pomfret, by whom, who died in 1769, he had a son and daughter, both of 


whom died in youth. His lordship married, secondly, May 8th., 1770, Philadelphia 
Hannah, only daughter of Thomas Freame, Esq., of Philadelphia, by whom he had 
another only son and daughter, who also died young. He was further created, 
March 7th., 1797, BARON CREMORNE with remainder to his nephew, Richard Dawson, 
Esq., and his heirs male. At his death, March 1st., 1813, the Viscountcy of 
Cremorne expired, but the Barony of the same devolved on his great-nephew, 

RICHARD THOMAS DAWSON, second Baron Cremorne, born 1788, who married, March 
10th., 1815, Anne Elizabeth Emily, third daughter of John Whaley, Esq., of Whaley 
Abbey, in the county of Wicklow, and left at his decease, in 1827, 

RICHAKD DAWSON, third Baron Cremorne, of Dartrey, K.P., formerly a Lord in 
Waiting on the Queen, Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum of the County of 
Mouaglian, born September 7th., 1817, created BARON DARTREY, September 20th., 
1817, and EARL OF DARTREY, July 12th., 1866. He married, July 12th., 1841, 
Augusta, daughter of Edward Stanley, Esq. and Lady Mary Stanley, daughter of the 
Earl of Lauderdale, and had with other children, 

VESEY DAWSON, LORD CREMORNE, Lieutenant-Colonel in the Coldstream (Juards and 
M.P. for the County of Monaghan, born April 22nd., 1842. 



MEREVAI.E HALL, near Atherstone, stands on the borders of Warwickshire and 
Leicestershire, about a mile distant from the town. It is finely situated on the edge 
of a wooded eminence. 

The entrance is to the west, and on the south and east is a beautiful suite of 
spacious apartments with high Elizabethan and bay windows, opening on a terraced 
garden in the Italian style, facing the park. At the north-east corner of the mansion 
is a lofty tower, which is seen to great advantage from all the surrounding neigh- 
bourhood. The views from it are extremely fine, and embrace a vast extent of country. 
In clear weather places and objects can be seen forty miles off. 

The park, beautifully undulated with hill and dale, is adorned with some of the 
finest oaks in the kingdom, many of which reach to the height of one hundred 
feet and upwards, and are evidently relics of the ancient Forest of Arden, which 
extended all over North Warwickshire. It is also well stocked with deer, and has 
a noble lake. 

The present house was built in the year ] 840, by the celebrated architect Blore, on 
the site of a former mansion of brick. The style is florid Elizabethan, and the south- 
east front is justly considered one of the architect's masterpieces. The interior is 
very handsomely decorated, and the rooms lofty and well arranged. There is a small 
but well-selected collection of pictures by the old masters, among which is one of 
the finest Cuyps in England. There is also a large library, comprising many valuable 
works, and among them the entire library of the antiquary Sir William Dugdale* 
from whom the owners of the property have descended through an heiress. 

To the north of the house, at about the distance of half a mile, in the grounds, 
stands the parish church, which is very ancient and curious. It was formerly the 
pilgrim's chapel, belonging to the monastery. It contains some fine old stained-glass 
windows, among other good specimens being a very fine 14th. century east window, 
which has been lately restored. There are also here some monumental figures of the 
Ferrers family, the founders of the abbey. 

The only remains of the monastic buildings are the walls of the refectory and a 
part of the south wall of the conventual church, the foundations of which have been 
lately excavated. The church was found to have been two hundred and twenty feet 
in length. 


At the Dissolution of the Monasteries the abbey passed into the family of Devereux. 
It next went into that of Stratford, with which it continued until it was conveyed in 
marriage by an heiress to the Dugdales of Blythe Hall. 

A monastery of the Cistercian Order was founded at Merevale by Robert, Earl 
Ferrers, in the thirteenth year of the reign of King Stephen. This monastery was 
largely endowed by the founder, and was favoured by many benefactions in after 
periods. At the Dissolution the revenues were stated at 254 Is. 8d. per annum. 
The abbot and monks received pensions during life. Considerable fragments of the 
building still linger, as above stated, in a progressive and picturesque state of decay. 

This ancient family is now represented as follows: 

SIR WILLIAM DUGDALE, KNIGHT, the celebrated antiquary and genealogist, author of 
the well-known Dugdale's " Monasticon," was father of 

SIR JOHN DUGDALE, whose son, 

WILLIAM DUGDALE, ESQ., of Blythe Hall, left a daughter and co-heiress, Jane 
Dugdale, married to 

RICHAKD GEAST, ESQ., of Handsworth, and their elder son and heir, 

RICHARD GEAST, ESQ., Barrister-at-Law, by his marriage, in 1767, with Penelope 
Bate, eldest daughter and co-lieiress of Francis Stratford, Esq., of Merevale, ( he 
assumed, in 1799, the additional surname and arms of Dugdale ) had, with three 
daughters, a son, 

DUGDALE STRATFORD DUGDALE, ESQ., of Merevale, born in 1773, M.P. for War- 
wickshire from 1802 to 1830, who married the Honourable Charlotte Curzon, daughter 
of Assheton Curzon, first Viscount Curzon, and had by her an only son, 

WILLIAM STRATFORD DUGDALE, ESQ., of Merevale and Blythe Hall, J.P. and D.L., 
and some time M.P. for North Warwickshire, who married Harriet Ella, daughter of 
Edward Berkeley Portman, Esq., of Bryanston, in the county of Dorset, and sister 
of Lord Portman, and had several children, the eldest son being 

WILLIAM STRATFORD DUGDALE, ESQ., who married Alice, daughter of Sir Charles 
Trevelyan, Baronet, and has a son. 

The paternal descent of the present family is from 

JOHN GESTE, of Handsworth, a holder of copyhold lands there, 12th. Henry VII, 
grandfather of 

EDMUND GEAST, Bishop of Salisbury, who was followed by 

RICHARD GEAST, ESQ., father of 

NICHOLAS GEAST, ESQ., of Handsworth, who, by his wife Phoebe, daughter of 
Downing, was father of the above-named 

RICHARD GEAST, ESQ., of Handsworth, progenitor, as above shown, of the existing 
owner of Merevale. 



FROM authentic information there seems no doubt that Bestwood was once a royal 
residence, and much frequented for hunting purposes by royalty, for King Edward 
the Third, by his letters patent, dated at his Park of Beskwood, 1st. September, 
37th. Ed. III., (1364,) pardoned and released certain rents issuing out of "Lindley 
Hay and Bullwell Eise, to the Priory of Newstede." And in the inquisition taken 
at St. John's House, Nottingham, the fourth of the nones of July, in 35th. Henry 
III., (1251,) before Geoffrey Langley, Justice of the Forest, it is called a "Hay or 
Park of our Lord the King, wherein no man commons." And earlier still, King 
Henry the First granted to the Priory of Lenton to have "two carts to fetch deal 
wood and heath out of Besewood." King Henry the Second also, about the year 
1160, granted the Convent to have every day "two carrs or three carretts to bring 
them dead wood or heath, as much as they should need for their own use." 

In 1329 the wood of Beskwood was granted by Edward the Third to Richard de 
Shelley for his . life. The same monarch, on the 22nd. of February, 1335, also 
granted to Richard de Shelley the dry zuches, which in English were then called 
stovenes or stubbes, within his Hay of Bestwood. 

Thoroton, who wrote in the year 1677, says, "Bestwood hath a very fair Lodge 
in it, and in respect to the pleasant situation of the place, and conveniency of 
hunting and pleasure, the Park and Lodge have for these many years been the 
desire and achievement of groat men. Three Earls of Rutland had it, Roger, 
Francis, and George. Before that, Thomas Markham, a great courtier and servant 
to Queen Elizabeth, had it; and before him, little Sir John Byron, a great favourite 
of King Henry the Eighth's. It is now on lease to William, Lord Willoughby of 
Parham. Before the troubles it was well stored with red deer, but now it is 
parcelled into little closes on one side, and much of it hath been plowed, so that 
there is scarce either wood or venison, which is also likely to be the fate of the 
whole Forest of Shirewood." 

Charles the Second, by Royal Letters Patent, about 1683, granted the Park of 
Bestwood to Henry Bcauclerc, or Beauclerk, created Duke of St. Albans, Registrar 
of the High Court of Chancery, and Master Falconer of England, with remainder 
to his heirs male. 



The ancestor of the family of the Duke of St. Albans was 

CHARLES BEAUCLERK, son of His Majesty King Charles the Second by Eleanor 
Gwynn, ,born May 8th., 1670, who married Diana, heiress of Aubrey de Vere, last 
Earl of Oxford, and was created BARON OF HEDINGTON and EARL OF BURFORD, December 
27th., 1676, and further elevated in the peerage, January 10th., 1683-4, as DUKE OF 
ST. ALBANS. His son, 

CHARLES BEAUCLERK, second Duke, K.G. and K.B., married, December 13th., 1722, 
Lucy, daughter and co-heiress of Sir John Werden, Baronet. His Grace was followed, 
at his decease, July 27th., 1751, by 

GEORGE BEAUCLERK, third Duke, who married Jane, daughter and co-heiress of Sir 
Walter Roberts, Baronet, of Glassenbury, Kent, but died without issue February 1st., 

1786, when the honours reverted to his kinsman, the grandson of the first Duke, 
GEORGE BEAUCLERK, ESQ., who succeeded as fourth Duke, but dying unmarried in 

1787, the title next went to his cousin, grandson, through another son, of the first 
Duke, namely, 

AUBREY, second Baron Vere of Hanworth, who succeeded as fifth Duke. He 
married, in 1763, Lady Catherine Ponsonby, daughter of William Earl of Bessborough, 
by whom he had a successor, 

AUBREY BEAUCLERK, sixth Duke, born August 21st., 1765. His Grace married, first, 
Miss Moses, by whom he had a daughter, Mary, married to George William, eighth 
Earl of Coventry, and secondly, Louisa, Countess of Dysart, by whom he left an 
only son, his successor, in 1815, 

AUBREY BEAUCLERK, seventh Duke, who died February 19th., 1816, the same day 
as his mother, when the honours reverted to his uncle, 

WILLIAM BEAUCLERK, eighth Duke, married, first, in 1791, Charlotte, daughter of the 
Rev. Robert Carter Thelwall, and heiress of Redbourne Hall, which lady died without 
issue in 1797, and secondly, in 1799, Mary Janetta, only daughter and heiress of 
John Nelthorpe, Esq., of Little Grimsby Hall, Lincolnshire, and by her left a large 
family, of whom the eldest son, 

WILLIAM AUBREY DE VERB BEAUCLERK, ninth Duke, born March 1st., 1801, married, 
first, Harriet, daughter of Matthew Mellon, Esq., and widow of Thomas Coutts, Esq. 
She died without children, August 6th., 1837. The Duke married, secondly, May 
29th., 1839, Elizabeth Catherine, youngest daughter of General Joseph Gubbins, of 
Kilrush, in the county of Limerick, and had 

20th., 1867, Sybil Mary, eldest daughter of Lieutenant-General the Honourable 
Charles Grey, and secondly, January 3rd., 1874, Grace, daughter of Bernal Osborne, 
Esq., of Newtown Annes. His heir is 








THIS picturesque building stands on an eminence in the middle of a park of 
considerable extent, abounding in natural beauties and extensive views. 

The inside of the structure is in keeping with its outside appearance. The prin- 
cipal reception rooms and hall contain many pictures of interest and value. 

The castle, which was greatly enlarged and beautified by the present peer's father, 
came into the possession of the Westenras by the marriage of one of their 
ancestors, Henry Westenra, Esq., M.P., Seneschal of the King's Manors in Ireland, 
with Miss Harriet Murray, daughter of Colonel J. Murray and Mary Lady Blayney, 
only child and heiress of Sir Alexander Cairns. 

The genealogy of this family, originally from Holland, is as follows: 

JACOB AARON VAN WASSENAER, a noble, married Lady Amelia Bentinck. Of the 
same family was 

WARNER WESTENRA, who settled in Ireland in the reign of Charles the Second, 
and was made a free denizen of that kingdom by Act of Parliament in 1662. He 
married Elizabeth Wybrantz, and had a successor, 

HENRY WESTENRA, ESQ., who married, in 1700, Eleanor, second daughter of Sir 
Joshua Allen, Knight, and sister of John Allpn, first Viscount Allen, by whom he 
had, with other children, an eldest son, 

WARNER WESTENRA, ESQ., M.P. for Maryborough in 1728. He married, in 1738, 
Lady Hester Lambart, second daughter of Richard Larnbart, fourth Earl of Cavan, 
and had with other issue, 

HENRY WESTENRA, ESQ., married to Harriet, one of the sisters of Elizabeth Murray, 
daughter of John Murray, Esq., (co-heiress of her mother, Mary, Dowager Lady 
Blayney, sole heiress of Sir Alexa.nder Cairns, Baronet,) who had married General 
Robert Cunningham, raised to the peerage of Ireland, October 19th., 1796, as BARON 
ROSSMORE, of Rossrnore Park, the patent of creation containing a reversionary clause, 
conferring the Barony, at his Lordship's decease, on the heirs male, at the time 
being, of two of her Ladyship's sisters successively, and the only son of the elder 
of the other sisters, Mrs. Jones, wife of the Right Honourable Theophilus Jones, 


having predeceased him, the Barony devolved on the eldest son of the younger 

WARNER WILLIAM WESTBNRA, born October 14th., 1765, who was ci-eated a Baron 
of the United Kingdom as BARON ROSSMORE, June 23rd., 1828. His Lordship had 
married, first, October 3rd., 1791, Mary Anne, second daughter of Charles Walsh, 
Esq., of Walsh Park, in the county of Tipperary, and by her had, with other 

HENRY ROBERT WESTENRA, born August 24th., 1792, who succeeded as third Baron. 
He married, first, Lady Anne Douglas, daughter of Douglas eighth Duke of Hamilton, 
who died issueless August 20th., 1844, and secondly, May 19th., 1846, his cousin, 
Josephine Julia Helen Lloyd, second daughter of Henry Lloyd, Esq., of Farrinrory, 
in the county of Tipperary, and had 

HENRY CAIRNS WESTENRA, an officer in the 1st. Life Guards, born November 14th., 
1851, who succeeded to the title as fourth Baron Rossmore. He died 28th. March, 
1874, and was succeeded by his next brother, the present Peer, 

DERRICK WARNER WILLIAM WESTENRA, Sub-Lieutenant 1st. Life Guards, born 7th. 
February, 1853. 



HISTORY notes Philiphaugh as a place of considerable mark in the south of Scotland. 
On its plains the celebrated battle between Generals Montrose and Leslie was fought 
in 1645, which decided the religion of Scotland, the Covenanting Presbyterians 
gaining the victory. 

The estate has been in the possession of the Murray family for centuries. The 
first of the family upon record was Archibald de Morovia, who lived in the reign of 
King Alexander III., and is mentioned in the Chartulary of Newbattle, Anno 1280. 
For centuries they possessed the greatest portion of the county of Selkirk, and a 
large extent of Peebleshire, besides lands in Midlothian. 

Among the ancestors of the present proprietor, who is a descendant in the direct 
male line from Archibald de Morovia, were many distinguished men both in the 
Scottish and English Parliaments. Among the most celebrated was the Outlaw 
Murray. He is mentioned as being of a prodigious size and strength, and among 
the most daring and foremost of the Border Chieftains, with five hundred retainers 

"A" in ae liverye clad, 
O' the Lincome grene sae gaye to see." 

On one occasion King James IV. had an interview with him not far from Philip- 
haugh, desiring him to become a faithful subject, and acknowledge him as king. 
At the interview (see Scott's "Border Minstrelsy," Song of the Outlaw Murray,) 
the King said 

"On gallows ye sail hanget be!" 
" Over God's forbode," quoth the outlaw then, 

"I hope your Grace will bettir be! 
Else, ere you come to Edinburgh port, 
I trow thin guarded sail ye be : 

" Thir landis of Ettricke Foreste fair 

I wan them from the enemy 
Like as I wan them, sae will I keep them, 
Contrair a' Kingis in Christentie." 


The King and his nobles attending him were so struck with the courage and noble 
bearing of the Outlaw, that he obtained forgiveness, and then said, on being asked 
by the King to name his lands 

" Fair Philiphaugh is mine by right, 

And Lewinshope still mine sail be; 

Newark, Foulshiells, and Tinnies baith, 

My bow and arrow purchased me. 

" And I have native steads to me, 

The Newark Lee and Hangingshaw; 
I have mony steads in the Forest schaw, 
But them by name I dinna knaw." 

The keys of the Castell he gave the King 

Wi' the blessing of his fair Ladye; 
He was made sheriffe of Ettricke Foreste, 

Sarely while upward grows the tree; 
And if he was na traitour to the King, 

Forfaulted he suld never be. 

Whaever heard, in ony times, 

Sicken an Outlaw in his degree P 
Sic favour get before a King, 

As did the Outlaw Murray of the Foreste free ? 

The present owner of the estate succeeded to the Baronetcy of Melgund, which 
title had been granted, and held by a junior member of the family since 1704. 
It was assumed shortly after the death of Sir Albert Joseph Murray, a Count of the 
Austrian Empire, by an order of the Sheriff in Chancery. 

Sir John Murray is the chief of the families of his name in the southern portion 
of Scotland. 

I quote the following from one of the printed accounts of the residence: 

"The situation of the Mansion House is very beautiful and romantic, backed by 
lofty hills, covered with the largest portion now extant of the well-wooded forest of 
Ettrick, with the lovely and classic river Yarrow in the foreground. The beauty and 
elegance of the hall and public rooms, with the suits and trophies of ancient armour; 
the numerous family portraits and fine paintings by old and modern artists; the 
collection of antique furniture, bronzes, and magnificent china of all periods, along 
with numerous relics from the battlefield, consisting of muskets, swords, cannon balls, 
and silver coins, make it one of the most interesting and attractive residences in the 
Scottish borders." 

Through the liberality of the proprietor, both the Mansion House and grounds are 
thrown open to visitors and tourists. 



THIS place, in the fifteenth century, formed part of the estates of John ap Ellis 
Eyton, who fought at the battle of Bosworth, and whose tomb, upon which are 
effigies of himself and of his wife, remains in one of the Wynnstay Chapels in 
Rhuabon Church. 

From the Eytons the estate passed by marriage to a family of the name of 
Evans, and from them, by the marriage of Jane, daughter and heiress of Eyton 
Evans, Esq., with Sir John Wynn, Baronet, Custos Rotulorum and M.P. for Merio- 
nethshire, to the Wynns. Sir John died without issue in 1719, aged ninety-one, 
and left his large possessions to his kinsman, Watkin, eldest son of Sir William 
Williams, Baronet, who thereupon assumed the additional surname of Wynn. Sir 
William was the eldest son and successor of the Right Honourable Sir William 
Williams, Baronet, who was Speaker of the House of Commons in the reign of 
King Charles the Second, and who died in the year 1700. 

The spacious park at Wynnstay, containing about five hundred head of deer, red 
and fallow, was enclosed, and the wall built, in the time of Sir John Wynn, who 
also planted the now venerable avenue. 

The house, prior to the lamentable fire in 1858, was an extensive but irregular 
pile, containing some fine apartments, and at the time of the fire was undergoing 
extensive alterations. The whole was destroyed, with the exception of the offices. 
Many pictures of great value, and a rare and valuable collection of books and 
manuscripts perished in the flames. Fortunately the pictures by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
were saved through the exertions of the French cook, who cut them from their 
frames before the flames reached them. 

The new mansion which has arisen upon the ruins is a spacious edifice, in the 
style of one of the old French palaces, from the design of B. Ferrey, Esq., and 
contains a valuable collection of pictures by the great masters. 

Wynnstay park is stated to embrace a circuit of eight miles. Within the park, at 
a mansion called Bodylltyn, lived in the sixteenth century, Edward ap Roger Eyton, 
of high authority as a Welsh herald and genealogist. A large folio volume, entirely 
in his autograph, is extant. He died in 1587. 

The inscription upon the handsome column in the park to the memory of Sir 


Watkin Williams Wynn, who died in 1789, was written by his brother-in-law, the 
talented Lord Grenville, "Filio optima, mater eheu! superstes." 

To say that this family is of Welsh origin, and that both paternally and maternally, 
is sufficient to shew its antiquity. To be of the Ancient British race is to date back 
to a period long antecedent to the arrival of Saxons or Normans in the country. In 
the male line the descent is from 

CADRODD HARDD (Cadrodd the Handsome), twenty-second ancestor of the owner of 
Wynnstay, and, in the female line, from 

RHODRI MAWR, King of Wales, himself the representative of a long line of regal 
forefathers, who was slain A.D. 876. The twenty-fifth successor to whom was 

WILLIAM WYNN, ESQ., whose daughter, Sydney Wynn, married Edward Thelwall, 
Esq., and their daughter became the wife of Sir William Williams, Bart., of Llanforda, 
who, on succeeding by will to the estates of the House of Wynnstay, assumed the 
additional surname and arms of WYNN. 





THE view towards the south from this fine seat is bounded by that range of 
hills which extends from Scotland southwards into the centre of England, and which 
here presents one of its most remarkable features, in the high hill called Mow Cop (a 
corruption of the old British word Moel, and the Saxon word Cop), which is about 
twelve hundred feet above the level of the sea, and surmounted by a ruined tower, 
and a singularly isolated rock, called "The old man of Mow," from its resemblance 
to a gigantic human figure. To the summit of this range of hills the handsome 
woods of the Moreton property extend, forming a splendid and picturesque view from 
the Hall beneath. 

The park is entered by two ornamental stone lodges. 

The ancient house on this property, built in the year 1602, was a fine specimen of 
the old black and white timbered mansions of Cheshire, with innumerable gable ends 
and carved wood work, but having fallen into a state of total dilapidation, the 
building was taken down in the year 1844 by the late owner of the property, Mr. 
Ackers, and in its stead, on a different site, a splendid Hall in the Gothic style was 
commenced by him in the year 1841, under the celebrated architect Mr. Blore, and 
finished in 1843. 

The house is built of stone from the Moreton quarries on Mow Cop, and presents 
a very handsome appearance, having a square tower in the centre, and many smaller 
turrets and towers of various forms. 

The interior is composed of a spacious entrance-hall and vestibule, each lined with 
Caen stone, elaborately carved; a splendid dining-hall sixty-four feet in length, with 
a massive wood pitched roof thirty-six feet high, walls of Caen stone, and richly-carved 
chimney-piece of the same material; a minstrel gallery at one end, with fine oak screen 
and a raised dais at the upper end of the hall, and lofty Gothic windows, ornamented 
with stained glass, complete this fine banqueting hall. From thence, passing through 
an ante-room of paneled oak, is a handsome saloon, fifty feet in length, and a smaller 
drawing-room hung with beautiful old Oudenarde tapestry in a high state of 
preservation. Besides these apartments the library and other rooms are spacious and 
well arranged. 

in. L 


GEORGE ACKERS, ESQ., of Moreton Hall, born August 19th., 1788, married, November 
8th., 1811, Harriet Dell, second daughter of Henry Hutton, Esq., of Leicester, and 
by her left at his decease, November 22nd., 1836, an only child, 

GEORGE HOLLAND ACKERS, ESQ., of Moreton Hall. He formerly belonged to the 
Royal Horse Guards Blue, was Lieutenant-Colonel of the Queen's Own Staffordshire 
Yeomanry, Commodore of the Royal Victoria Yacht Club, Magistrate and Deputy- 
Lieutenant for Cheshire, and served as High Sheriff for the County in the year 






HENGRAVE HALL is an admirable example of the fine old houses with which this 
country abounds. The date of its erection is fixed by the following inscription in 
three compartments, cut in stone on the outside of a curious oriel window over 
D'NI MCCCCC TRICESIMO OCTAVO." This inscription runs round a fillet beneath the bow 
window, and the second division of it is under the royal arms. 

This mansion affords a unique specimen of ancient domestic architecture. The 
whole is of brick and stone. "The gateway," observes Mr. Gough, "is of such 
singular beauty, and in such high preservation, that perhaps a more elegant specimen 
of the architecture of that age can scarcely be seen." It was once more extensive 
than at present, several alterations having been made, and some parts at the north 
and north-east angle taken away, in 1775. The building, which is still large, encloses 
a quadrangular court, and the apartments open into a gallery, the windows of which 
overlook this court. They formerly contained a quantity of stained glass, and the 
bay window in the hall still retains some fine specimens, consisting of various armorial 
bearings. The window also is richly adorned with mullions, fan-tracery, pendants, 
and spandrils, all of which nearly resemble the highly florid examples in King 
Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The turrets at each side of the entrance and at the 
corners of the building, as also two small turreted columns at the door, bear a 
striking resemblance to Moorish minarets, or the capitals of Indian edifices. 

Some years since this mansion was the abode of a sisterhood of expatriated nuns 
of Bruges, to whom the owner of Hengrave liberally afforded an asylum. During 
their residence here, they lost, by death, their superior, a lineal descendant of the 
great Sir Thomas More. When the decree in favour of the emigrants was issued 
in France, they availed themselves of the permission to return to their own country. 

Very near the hall stands a small church, which is distinguished by one of the 
ancient round towers that seem to be peculiar to this part of the kingdom. No 
use seems to have been made of the edifice for several years, the Rectory having been 
consolidated with Flempton. Of the monuments within it, the principal are those of 
the Kitsons; one of John Bouchier, Earl of Bath, who married into this family; one 
of his son, John, Lord Fitzwarren; one of Thomas, son of Earl Rivers; and several 
of the Gages. 


There is a fine marble tomb, in memory of Sir Thomas Kitson, the founder of 
Hengrave Hall, with effigies of himself and one of his wives; but it is rather singular 
that in the inscription a blank is left for the parentage of his first wife. This 
gentleman, who came from the obscure village of Yealland, in Lancashire, having 
obtained immense wealth by commercial speculation in the cloth trade, received the 
honour of knighthood. He purchased the manor of Hengrave from the crown, and 
possessed several other estates in Suffolk, Devonshire, Dorsetshire, and the city of 
London, for which he served the office of Sheriff. He was afterwards appointed by 
the Duke of Norfolk Steward of the Franchise of Bury St. Edmunds, and died 
September 13th., 1540, aged fifty-five. 

This ancient and distinguished family claims its origin from 

THE SIRE DE GAUGI, whose name is on the Roll of Battle Abbey as having fought 
at Hastings. It is represented by the head of the House, Lord Gage, one of whose 

SIR JOHN GAGE, BARONET, of Firle, married Lady Penelope Darcy, daughter and 
co-heiress of Lord Rivers. It is related of her that she "was wooed by three suitors 
at the same time, and the knights, as in chivalry bound, were disposed to contest 
the prize with target and lance; but the lady herself forbad the battle, and menaced 
the disobedient knights with her lasting displeasure, promising, jocularly, that if 
they had but patience, she would have them all in their turns; and she actually 
fulfilled her promise, for she married, first, Sir George Trenchard, of Wolverton, 
Dorsetshire; secondly, Sir John Gage, of Firle; and thirdly, Sir William Hervey, of 

The son of the second marriage, 

EDWARD GAGE, ESQ., was created a Baronet July 15th., 1662, and was followed by 
a direct line of successors in the title, of whom the ninth, 

SIR EDWARD ROKEWODE GAGE, BARONET, born March 20th., 1812, married, August 
2nd., 1842, Henrietta Mary, second daughter of the Rev. Lord Frederick Beauclerk, 
third son of the fifth Duke of St. Albans. 




I TAKE the following account of this place from the "Visitation of Seats and Arms," 
by Sir Bernard Burke: 

"Easton was an old Hall surrounded by extensive farm offices, and a considerable 
village inhabited by the servants of the family. The grounds were pleasantly diver- 
sified, and there were many great trees, and an old-fashioned garden, with a river and 
yew hedges. Considerable alterations were recently made in this old Hall and grounds, 
but in doing their quaintness was partly lost, which was their only claim to notice. 
A successor has completely changed the place. Retaining the best portions, both 
of the original building, and of the later alterations, he has given something of a 
feudal character to the whole, and has made extensive additions in excellent taste. 
The village and farm offices have been removed. New offices have been built in 
keeping with the manorial character which has been given to the house. A stone 
court has been constructed in front, which is entered under a gate tower, and 
through an arched gateway. The old garden has been restored, and terraces have 
been constructed, descending from the house to the stream. Many great additions 
have been made to the internal accommodation. The entrance-hall has been paneled 
with carved oak, and raised to the height of the second storey, and there is a handsome 
suite, of dining-room, library, two drawing-rooms, and conservatory. The fitting up 
of the interior has been made as much as possible to correspond with the style of 
the exterior, which is intended to represent the Elizabethan age." 

The three several families of Cholmondeley, Cholmeley, and Cholmley, claim each a 
common ancestry in 

WILLIAM DE CHOLMONDELEY, the head of the house in the reign of King Henry the 
Fourth. His second son, 

JOHN CHOLMELEY, the ancestor of the family of Easton Hall, had two sons, both, 
strangely as it seems to us, named John. Of these, the second, 

JOHN CHOLMELEY, was the father of 

RICHAED CHOLMELEY, who, by his wife Dionysia Philips, had two sons, of whom the 


JOHN CHOLMELEY, married Isabel Hare, and had 

(Sin) HENRY CHOLMELEY, of Easton, in Lincolnshire. He was knighted, and died 
in 1620, and was succeeded by his elder son, 

HENRY CHOLMELEY, of Easton, who died in 1632, having married Elizabeth, daughter 
of Sir Richard Sondes, of Throwley, and had a son and heir, 

MONTAGUE CHOLMELEY, of Easton, who died in 1652. He was father of, by Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir Edward Hartopp, Bart., of Buckminster, 

MONTAGUE CHOLMELEY, of Easton, who married, first, Alice, daughter of Sir Edward 
Brownlow, Bart., of Great Humby in the same county, and secondly, Elizabeth, 
daughter of Richard Booth, Alderman of London, a cadet of the family of Booth, 
Earl of Warrington, and was followed by his son, 

JAMES CHOLMELEY, of Easton, who died in 1735. He married Catherine Woodfine, 
by whom he had, with other issue, an eldest son, 

JOHN CHOLMELEY, of Easton, who died in 1768. He married Penelope, daughter 
of Sir Joseph Herne, of Twyford, and was succeeded by his son, 

MONTAGUE CHOLMELEY, of Easton, married to Mary, daughter of Humphrey Sibthorpe, 
of Canwick Hall, Lincolnshire, and had an heir, 

SIK MONTAGUE CHOLMELEY, of Easton, born in 1772, M.P. for Grantham. He was 
created a Baronet, March 4th., 1806. He married twice, his first wife being (married 
September 14th., 1801,) Elizabeth, daughter of John Harrison, Esq., of Norton Place, 
in the county of Lincoln, and had issue, of whom the eldest son, 

SIR MONTAGUE JOHN CHOLMELEY, BARONET, of Easton Hall and Norton Place, both 
in the same county, born August 5th., 1802, married, February 10th., 1829, Lady 
Georgiana Beauclerk, fifth daughter of William, eighth Duke of St. Albans, and had 
a second surviving son, 

HUGH AETHUR CHOLMELEY, M.P. for Grantham, born in October, 1839. 



PRESTON HALL, the seat of Henry A. Brassey, Esq., M.P., is of very ancient date, 
and was formerly the residence of the Colpepper family, who were proprietors of the 
Preston Hall estate, which comprises the manors of Aylesford, Eccles, Tottington, 
and Cossington. The estate passed from them to the Milners, from whom it was 
purchased by E. L. Betts, Esq. Since that time the old mansion has been removed, 
and the present handsome stone edifice erected upon a more elevated but not far- 
distant spot. Near the site of the old hall there is still a large barn, bearing the 
initials T. C., and the date 1102. 

The parish of Aylesford was anciently a royal demesne, and is mentioned as such 
in "Domesday Book," and within it the families of De Grey, Wyatt, Colpepper, 
Sedley, and Cosenton resided or held considerable property. 

Ancient Roman and other relics have been frequently discovered here. About the 
year 455, a battle was fought here between the Britons and Saxons, in which both 
Catigern and Horsa were killed, and which resulted in the Saxons leaving the 
kingdom for some time. It was here also that Edmund Ironside desisted from his 
pursuit of the Danes under Canute; and upon Blue Bell Hill, in the immediate 
neighbourhood, the traces of ancient military entrenchments are still discernible. 

In the possession of Druidical remains the parish of Aylesford is also remarkable. 
One of these, a cromlech, named Kit's Coty House, is described as being "composed 
of four large stones, three of them placed in an upright position, one across at the 
back between the other two, forming a rude shed, and the fourth lying flat upon 
the top of them, forming a roof. The two outside stones are each about eight feet 
high, eight feet broad, and two feet thick; the back stone is not so broad, but of 
a similar height; the top stone is about eleven feet long, eight feet broad, and 
two feet thick. The structure is capable of affording shelter to several persons. It 
is supposed to be a place of sepulture; tradition says it is the burial-place of 
Catigern." A larger structure of a similar kind originally stood somewhat nearer 
to the village of Aylesford, but having fallen down at some period unknown, the 
stones now lie in a confused heap, and are partly overgrown with trees. In a field 
close by the Tottington farm buildings many large stones of a like description are 
scattered, as well as at the bottom of a pond upon the same farm; and near these 
a solitary flat stone of huge dimensions, which, from its shape, is called the Coffin. 


This spot was evidently one of much importance among the Druids, and attracts 
many visitors. 

The Church at Aylesford, dedicated to St. Peter, is a handsome structure of the 
fourteenth century, and contains several ancient and costly monuments of the Col- 
peppers and Rycauts; one also of Sir John Banks, Baronet, who died in 1699. The 
parish register dates from the year 1653. 

A building, called The Friars, still existing upon the bank of the Medway, was 
the earliest foundation in England of the Carmelite Friars, who were brought over 
by Richard de Grey, of Codnor, on his return from the Holy Land, and who founded 
this priory, which was afterwards dissolved by King Henry the Eighth. The remains 
of Richard, Lord Grey, of Codiior, were brought from Normandy and buried here, 
as were also those of other members of that family. 

New National Schools were erected in 1872, the boys' school by subscription, 
largely aided by Mr. Brassey, who presented the site and play-ground; and the 
girls' school was built solely at the expense of that gentleman. 





THIS mansion is a handsome structure of considerable extent. 

The grounds are tastefully laid out, extending to the church at the west front of 
the house, and contain an artificial sheet of water. 

At the time of Edward the Confessor, Lawton, then called "Lautune," was divided 
into two unequal portions, both of which were held by Godric, and both became the 
property of Hugo de Mara, and are mentioned in the Domesday Survey. 

Hugo de Mara, a Fitz-Norman, who was the founder of the Barony of Montalt, 
conferred Lawton on the Abbey of St. Werburgh, Chester. 

A moiety of the township was possessed by a family bearing the local name in the 
time of Henry the Third, and which frequently occurs in grants to the superior 
lords, the Abbots. 

On the dissolution of the monasteries, the manor, together with the patronage of 
the church, was purchased from the Crown, in 1541, by William Lawton, of Lawton. 

In 1552, William Lawton was found to have held the Manor of Lawton, with 
court-leet and free-warren, and the advowson of the church of Church Lawton, from 
the King, in capite, by military service. 

HUGH LAWTON, of Lawton, married Isabella, daughter of John Madoc, and by her 
had issue 

JOHN LAWTON, who married and died in the lifetime of his father, leaving an only 
surviving son, 

RICHARD LAWTON, who succeeded his grandfather, and was himself succeeded by 

JAMES LAWTON, who left by Eleonora, daughter of Matthew More, a son and heir, 

WILLIAM LAWTON. He married Katherine, daughter of Thomas Bellott, Esq., of 
Moreton, in the same county. 

JOHN LAWTON, ESQ., living in 1580, had a son, by his second wife, daughter of 
Fulke Button, Esq., 

WILLIAM LAWTON, ESQ., whose eldest son, 

JOHN LAWTON, ESQ., married Clare, daughter of Ralph Sneyd, Esq., of Keele, in 
the county of Stafford, and left a son and successor, 



WILLIAM LAWTON, ESQ., who served the office of High Sheriff of Cheshire, in 
1672, and by Hester, daughter of Sir Edward Longueville, Bart., left at his death, 
in 1693, a son and heir, 

JOHN LAWTON, ESQ. He married, first, Anne, daughter of George, younger son of 
Henry, first Earl of Manchester, and sister of Charles, Earl of Halifax, by whom he 
had no surviving issue. By his second wife, Mary, relict of Sir Edward Longueville, 
Bart., he left a son and successor, 

ROBERT LAWTON, ESQ. He was Sheriff of Cheshire in 1754, and by Sarah, daughter 
of John Offley, Esq., M.P. for the County, he had a son and heir, 

JOHN LAWTON, ESQ., who married Anne, daughter and co-heiress of Charles Crewe, 
Esq., M.P. for Cheshire, by whom he left at his death, in 1804, four sons, and was 
succeeded by the eldest, 

WILLIAM LAWTON, ESQ., who died without issue, when the estates passed to his 
next brother, 

CHARLES BOURNE LAWTON, ESQ., who married, first, Anne, daughter of Henry 
Featherstonhaugh, Esq., of Tooting, in Surrey, and secondly, Mariana Percy, daughter 
of William Belcombe, Esq., M.D., of York. He was succeeded by his nephew, 

JOHN LAWTON, ESQ., of Lawton Hall, J.P., married, 1845, Emily Anne, youngest 
daughter of Thomas Legh, Esq., of Adlington, and had by her a son, 

WILLIAM JOHN PERCY LAWTON, ESQ., of Lawton Hall, born December 27th., 1849. 



THIS is a truly historical place, and is believed to have been visited by the 
Phoenicians of old, on their trading visits to the Ancient Britons, for the natural 
products of that part of the island. 

It has been celebrated for long ages on account of the singularity and beauty of 
its situation, as 

" That beauteous gem set in the silver sea." 

It derives its name from a supposed visit of the Archangel St. Michael, who was 
supposed to have honoured it with his presence. 
Here for some time lived 

" That valiante Cornishman 
"Who slewe ye Giante Cormoran." 

This stronghold was first taken by Henry de la Pomeroy, who obtained it by 
stratagem, and held it for John against his brother Richard the First. He soon 
afterwards died from fright, fearing the consequences of his rebellion. 

Part of the building is believed to be of such old date as the time of Edward the 
Confessor. The most interesting portions of it are the Guard Room, the Refectory, 
or Chevy Chase Room, and the Chapel. The Refectory remains to this day in its 
original state, except that it has had the addition of a splendidly carved roof of 
English oak. 

The Service of the Church of England was held in the Chapel by the last pro- 
prietor. One of the pinnacles on its tower is the famous St. Michael's Chair, of 

* See View on the Title-page. 


which it is said that whoever sits therein before marriage will rule cither wife or 
husband, as the case may be. 

"Within an open balcony, 

"That hung from dizzy pitch and high." 


There is thus much foundation of truth in the saying, that he or she must be a 
person of strong nerves who can trust himself or herself to the giddy height. Not 
a few, however, have done, and do so. It may, perhaps, therefore be that there are 
more strong-minded persons in the world than is commonly supposed. 

This old Cornish family is now represented by 

SIB EDWAKU ST. AUBYN, BARONET, so created July 3Ist., I860. 



Morris, Francis Orpen (ed.) 

A series of picturesque