Skip to main content

Full text of "Sermones catholici, or, Homilies of Aelfric : in original Anglo-Saxon, with an English version ..."

See other formats


PiM^mMMliiii^iiffilHp 



imtxf 

mm 

iBMStl 



Of 



= 0) 

=o 

'CD 

'cr> 
=o 



vwm 






CO 



i^aViT 



THE HOMILIES OF 



riTi: ANGLO-SAXON CHURCH. 



■JUK FIHSr rAKT. 



CCIVTAINING 

rm-: sermones cATiioEin, 

OR 

HOMILIES OF .ELFKIC. 

I\ T\\\: OKKilNAI. AN(;l.(>S.\XON. WTm w 
HNGLISH VKKSION. 

VOL II. 



Hv HENJA.MIN IIIOKPK, F.S.A. 



A\[y^nci^J^ 



t?6csilS 




L O X D O N : 

PR I XT El) von TilK .ELFUir SOCIETY 
MDUCXLVI. 



.^ 



c^1:r r 



rruNTF.D nv 



AM) JDHN E. TAYLOR, 
TIN COVRT, FLEET STREET. 



rLAMM4M. 




\ 



ADDENDA AND CORRIGENDA. 



VOL. I. 

i'af^c KC, line 7, lie hri^udc. atU in tttmtblioH, He wu teized with fever. 

— Il.'i, — ]l, /vr \^c rend \c. 

— l\'.i, — H , ybr one rearf certain on«t. 

— 121, — I fruni Iviitoiii, _/J/r rr rra*/ be. 

— 1.10, — I'J, /'/r (frfr< inroam rearf gffremmAn. 

— \y.t, — 4 from bottom, q/ttr temple add, m it wu appointed in Go<ri 

law. 

— l.M, — 12, _/br ncoxna rra// neorxna-. 

— 1G7, — 7, for \c\\ rraii c\iHiMtion. 

— iH'j, — IH, after prophecy add. Now an th- two inttilutiont, puUni- 

ftinjrinft and prophecy. 

— 217, — 21, y«/r r\rning read v\v . »o line 27, Salunlay ni^it and Sunday 

night, art Ike nightt preceding (kuK dayi. 

— 2.H.'). — 3 from iHittoni./'/r {.' /Will. 

— 31.1, last line. /"or precepts read ...v. 

— 3j3, line H, for common thinfr* mtd timplc viandt. 

— 116, — b, for fr\\\i\xm read 

— 122, laitl line, /or {nidum rrr..; . :„ 

— J2:), line lH, fur liadc«l rr,-..: , .1. 

— 12H, — 1, 2, for ccac-fulnc read ceac fulnc. 

— 42y, — 2, /or jugful rw(/ Jug full. 

VOL. II. 

Page 17, line .'i from l>ottom, fl<^'> <»(lctji lu hca\cn wjth 

great joy." At ^ . . !. 

— .1(1, — 20, for we arS read wear.N. 

— 31, — 15, /"or followeil re(j</ l)elievrd 

— 10, — 21, ./f/r (.ri>te reorf ("n»t. 

— r»2, — 12. /or min rra// mid. 

— 152. — 2 from bottom, ,^r liSe hige redrf liSchigr. 



SERMONUM RUBRICiE 



QUI IN HOC VOLUMINE COXTINEXTUR. 



Page 

Prsefatio 1 

Praefatio, Saxonice '^ 

I. Nativitas Domini 4 

II. Natale S. Stephani Protomartyris '2-i 

III, Sermo in Epiphania Domini -iG 

IV. Dominica II. post Epiphania Domini. ''4 

V, Dominica Septuagcsima 72 

VI. Dominica in Scxagcsima 88 

VII, Dominica I. in Quadragesima 98 

VIII, Dominica II. in Quadragesima 110 

IX. S. Grcgorii PajJX Urbis Uoniana; Inclyti 116 

X. Depositio S. Cuthberhti Episcopi 132 

XI. S. Benedicti Abbatis l.')4 

XII. Dominica in Media Quadragesima? 188 

Secunda Sententia de hoc ipso 212 

XIII. Dominica V. Quadragesima? 224 

XIV. Dominica Palmarum. De Passione Domini. . . . 240 
XV. Sermo de Sacrificio in die Pascac 2G2 

XVI. Alius Sermo de die Pascae 282 

XVII. Feria IV. in Hebdomade Pasex 288 

XVIII. Apostolorum Philippi et Jacobi 294 

De S. Jacobo Apostolo 298 

XIX. Inventio S. Crucis 302 

XX. SS. Alexandri, Evenlii et llieoduli 308 

XXI. Feria Secunda. Litania Majore 314 

XXII. In Litania Majore. Feria Tertia 332 

XXIII. Alia Visio 348 

XXIV. Hortatorius Sermo de Efficacia S. Missae 356 



CONTENTS. 



I'ra'fiitiu 

Frffacc 

I. The Nativity of the Lord 

II. The Nativity of St. Stephen ProtomHiiyr 
III. Sermon on the I>ord*s Eitijihiiny . 
I\'. 'i"he Second Sunday after Uie Ix)rd'8 Kpiphany 
v. Septuagesima Sunday 
y\. S' "ma Sunday . . 

\'1I. lilt I irst Sun(l:iy in lAtil .... 

\'I1I. Tlie Second Sunday in Ix*nt 

IX. St. (Jreirory tl»e (ircat, Poj>e of Kome 

X. Thf Drposition of St. CuthlHrht. Hi«h«»p . . 
XI. St. Benedict , Ablwt 
XII. Midlent Sunday 

Second Oi^coup-e on the ?ame . . 
XIII Tlie Fifth Sunday in Ix-nt . . 
XI\'. I'alin Sunday. On the I^ord'a IV>*»ii«n 
X\'. A Strinon on the Sacrifice on Haster-<lay 
X\'I. Another Sermon on Ea«tcr-day .. 

XVII. Wednesday in Ea.Hter Week 
.Win. The Apoctlcs Philip and James 

Of St. Jrtmes the Apostle 

XIX. 'i'lie Invention of the Holy Cro?8 

XX. The Saints Alexander, Evcntius and The«M!ulu 
XXI. Monday. On the Greater Lilai v 

XXII. On the (rreater Litany. Tucbilay 

.X.XIII. Another Vi!»ion 

.X.\I\ . A Hortatory Sermon on the Kfficary of the Holy 
Ma?!* 



I 
3 



•25 
.-$7 
o.i 
73 

sn 

9y 

111 

117 
133 
15.') 
1S9 
213 
T2o 
241 
2C3 
2S3 
2R9 
20.» 
•2U9 
303 
.Tin 
315 
333 
349 

)7 



\1 



CONTENTS. 



Page 

XXV. In Litania Majorc. Feria IIII. 360 

XXVI. Dominica III. post Pentecosten 370 

XXVII. Alia Narratio de Evangelii Textu 378 

XXVIII. In Festivitate S. Petri Apostoli 380 

Item de S. Petro 384 

XXIX. Dominica V. post Pentecosten 394 

XXX. Dominica IX. post Pentecosten 404 

XXXI. Natde S. Jacobi Apostoli 412 

XXXII. SS. Septcm Dorraientium 4'24 

XXXIII. Dominica XII. post Pentecosten 4'JC 

XXXIV. Assumptio S. Maria? ^'irf^inis 438 

XXXV. Dominica I. in Mense Septembri, quando kgitur 

Job 446 

XXXVI. Dominica Scxtadccima post Pentecosten 460 

De Sancta Maria 466 

XXXVII. Natale S. Matlirci Apostoli et Evangelistae .... 468 

Passio ejusdein 472 

XXXVIII. Passio SS. Apo.«tolorum Siraonis et .ludsc 480 

XXXIX. Dcpositio S. Martini Kpi.scoj)i 498 

De ejus Obitu 516 

Excusatio Dictantis .')'20 

XL. In Natale Unius Apostoli 520 

XLI. In Natale Plurimorum Ajjostolorum 528 

XLII. In Natale SS. Martyrum 5.?6 

XLIII. In Natale Unius Confessoris 548 

XLIV. In Natale SS. A'irginum 562 

XLV. In Dcdicatione Ecclcsia; 574 

Pater Noster, Se Laessa Creda, Mjcssc-Crtila, 

Orationcs .596 

De Poenitcntia . (ju2 



CONTENTS. vii 

P^ 

XW. Oil the Greater Litany. Wednesday . 3G1 

X.WI The Third Sunday after Pentecost 371 

XX\ II. Another Narrative on the Text of the Gos|)cl . . 379 

XX\III. On the Festival of St. Peter the Ajwstlc 381 

Likewise of St. Peter 385 

XXIX. 1 he Fifth Sunday after Pentecost 3'J5 

XXX. The Ninth Sunday after Pcntccott 405 

X XXI I'hc Nativity of St. Jame? the Aj^stU 413 

XXXII. 'llic Seven Holy Sleepers 425 

XXXIII. The Twelfth Sunday after Pentcco«.t . ,. 427 

XXXI\ . 'Hie Atsumption of the Holy Virgin Mary 439 

XXX\'. 'n)c Firwt Sunday in Scptcml>or. when Job is read 447 

XXXNI. The Sixteenth Sunday after PenU-cost . 4C1 

Of Saint Man- 4fi7 

XXX\II. Tl»c Nativity of St. Matthew. Apoftle and P^van- 

gclipt ... AGO 

Pawion of the same 473 

XXX\'1II. Tl>e Pa««inn (»f the Holy Apostles Simon and Jude 481 

XXXIX The DejKJHition of St. Martin. Bishop 490 

Of hi!» Death 517 

llie Inditer'ft Ajwlogy 521 

XL. On the Nativity of One Ajmstlc . . . . 521 

XLI. On the Nativity of Several Apostle" . . 529 

XLII. On the Nativity of Holy NLirtyrs 537 

XI.III. On the Nativity of one Confessor 549 

XM\'. On the Nativity of Holy Virjrins 563 

XI,\'. On the Dedication of a Church 575 
Tlie Pater No.-ter, the Minor Cretu. tuc .Nhu-.*- 

Crced, Prayers 597 

UfPinitiiuc .. 603 



INCIIMT l'U/KFA'H() III .11 s LUiKl 



IN NOMINE CHRISTI OMNIPOTKNTIS. 

yiLLFIUCLS, Imiuilis horvuluh Clirihti, lionornhili ct ainnn- 
do Arcliirpiscopo Sigcrico pcrprtiiain hot-pitalrni <»ptat in 
Dotniiio. Fatodf Aliuitati tun*, Doniiic vciuTahili!«, oiuni- 
iiKxiis inc in(iii;uuin, rt tpinMi HiipiTt>titi()Miin, (jiiod prc- 
huinpbi tibi alltxpii diviiiis Hcrinociriationibtis, vidi-lici-t prr 
codirclluin i\\wm iiupcr tu.r auctoritati din-xiniu» : hcd tpiia 
notitnini studitiin niiuiuin laudahti, t;rat;intcr illaiu intrrprc- 
tatidiK'in suKcipirnfi, fcstiiiaviniUH luinc pccpicntcin lihniin, 
Hicuti OiiinipdtcntiH I)»i gratia nol.iji dictavit, iiitorpri'tare, 
noil garrula virlM)HiUito, aut igiiotis scniuinibus, hrd puris ct 
npirtis vrrbJH lingna* luijus gcritis, cupiciitch phis prodcsM* 
n(i(litnribu»i biinplici locutioiic rpiain laudari artificioid srr- 
luonis roinpositionc, f|iiaiii lu'rpiaqnain didirit iiotttra n\m- 
plicitas ; ct licet imiltis injiiriiH iiifcxtitiin piratariini connitic- 
bainur, post<piain pnrfatiiin lilKdIiiin tii.r SanctiUiti traiiH- 
inibiinus, taincn nolcntcn rcpporiri fal>idici pnmiisorci*, do- 
liMilc aiiitiu) Ijoc ()pu» pcrfcrinujs. Igitur in antcriore (»pcrc 
ordinavinuis xl. srrim)iic», in isto vcro non initiur luiincrus 
scntotitiaruin invcnitur, (piainvi;* aliipia- illaruin brcvitate 
nngvislnitur. Hoc ({uo(|Uc opus coniinciidanniN tua* auctori- 
tati rorrigcnduin, qucinadnioduni ct prcccdciif, prccantes 
obnixo nc parcas oblittorarc, si ali(juas inalignw Ii;rrc8i8 
niaculaM in co rcppcrics, (piia nialo apiid nriiigiiit,itcin tuam 
iioM. \ oi . II. B 



reprehend! quam incauta scductioiic apud inscios laudari. 
Perlegat queso Benignitas vestra haiic iivostrani intcrpreta- 
tionem, queinadniodiim et priorem, et dijudicet si fidelibus 



PR.EFATIO. 



IC ^LFRIC munuc awcnde ]ni» boc of Ledeiium bucinn to 
Engliscum gereorde, j^aiu inanmim to ranlennc )>e )>{et Ledcii 
ne cunuon. Ic hi geiiiim of halguin godspelhun, and a»fter 
gebungcnra larcowa tralitiiungum hi asmeade, j'jera hireowa 
iiaman ic awrat on iSjere a^rraii bee, on 5wre Ledenaii forc- 
spr;ece. Ic gesettc on tuiini l)6cuni )>a gercccednyssc So ic 
awcnde, forSan Se ic Sohtc )j;et hit wa^re Ifpsse seSryt to ge- 
hyrenne, gif man Sa aue hoc ra't on anes gcares ynd)ryne, 
and "Sa o5re on Sam jeftran gcarc. On jpgScr |>fpra boea sind 
feowertig cwyd.i, baton JSa^re forcspra^cc, ac hi ne sind na 
ealle of godspellum genumcne, ac sind forwcl fcla of (lodea 
halgena life olStSe ))ro\vunge gcgadcrode, ]>fera linra ]»e Angel- 
cynn mid freols-dagum wurlSaS. yEtfcjran adeum ewyde we 
setton Sa swutchmgc on Leden, ma^g swa-Seah so ^e wile 
l^a capituhis jefter S;erc forcspra'cegcendebyrdian. Nn bidde 
ic and halsige, on Godes naman, gif hwa Sas bfJe awritan 
M'ylle, )7fEt he hi geornhee gerihte be Sjere bysne, ))c-la»s ^e 
we, j>nrh gymeleasnm writernni, geleaiitrode beon. Mieel yfcl 
deiS se ^e leas writ, baton he hit gerihte, swilce he gebringc 
Sa soSan hire to Icasani gedwylde : forSi sccal geliwii ge- 
rihtlaecan ]'fet |)ait he aer to woge gebigde, gif he on Godee 
dome unscyldig beon wile. 



catliolicis habenda est, an abicienda. Xctjuacjuam nos in- 
vidorum reprebensio movet, ei hoc mumis twiv bonitjne auc- 
toritati non disj)licucrit. Vale in Cliribto jujjitcr. Amoii. 



PRKFACK. 

1 ^ELFIIIC the iiionlv \iMv turned this book from Latin 
books into the Knglihh tongue, for lh(>sc men to reatl \\ Im 
know not Latin. I have taken it from the h(»ly gospel**, and 
treated it after the expohilioni* of highly venerable doctors, 
the names of which doctors I wrote down in the former book,- 
in the Latin preface. I have set the matter which I have 
turned in two books, because I thought that it were less 
tedious to hear, if the one book were read in the course of 
one year, and the other in the year following. In each of 
these books there are forty disc(»urses, without the preface, 
but they are not all taken from the gospel^, but are very 
many of them gathered from the life or passion of (iod's 
saints, of those only whom the Knglibh nation honours with 
feast-days. Hefore each jliscourse we have set the argument 
in Latin, though every one who will, may order the chapters 
according to the preface. I now pray and implore, in the 
name of (jod, if any one will transcribe this b(M)k, that he 
carefully rectify it by the copy, lest, through negligent writers, 
we be blamed. lie does great evil who writes false, uidess 
he rectify it, as though he brought the tnie doctrine to false 
heresy; therefore should everyone correct that which he had 
perverted to wrong, if he will be guiltless at (lod's doom. 



h '2 



NATIVITAS DOMINI. 



AMMONITIO. 



Unum adhuc vellem preponere huic libcUo, iion quasi pre- 
fationem, seel quasi ammonitionem : scilicet, cavende ebrie- 
tatis, sicut Dominus in Levitico ad Aaron his verbis locutus 
est, " Dixit Dominus ad Aaron, Vinum et omnc quod inebri- 
ari potest non bibes tu et filii tui, quando intratis tabcrna- 
culum testimonii, ne moriamiui, quia preceptuni est sempi- 
ternum in generationes vestras, et ut habcatis scicntiam dis- 
cernendi inter sancUuu et prophanum, inter pollutuni et 
mundum." In Novo Testaniento quoque Dominus ammo- 
nivit discipulos suos, his verbis, diccns, " Adtenditc autem 



INCIPIT LIBER .SERMONUM CATIIOLICORUM 
ANGLICE, IN ANNO SECUNDO. 

CATHOLICUS S?:RM0 DE NATALE DOMINI, AD POPULUM 

EXCKRITUS. 

DE TESTIMONIIS PROPHETARrM. 

VIII. KL. JANUAR. 
NATIVITAS DOMINI. 

Mine gebro^ra JSa Icofostan, on |»isum dipge we wur^iab 
ures Htslendes acennednysse aefter ^iBve menniscnysse. He 
waes to-daeg acenncd of 5am halgan meedene Marian mid 
lichaman and mid sawle, seSe wa^s a?fre mid ^am Fteder 
wunigende on \)peve Godcundnysse. He is tuwa accnned, 
and aegSer aceimednys is wundorlic and unasecgendlic. He 



THE NATIVITY OF THE LORD. 5 

vobis, ne forte praventur corda vcstra in crapula et cbrietatc 
et curis liujus vit<e, et supervcniat in vos rcpontina dies ilia." 
Tantuni vitiiun t'st cbrictas, ut Paulus apostolus et doctor 
gentium adtestctur, " Ebriosos regnuni Dei possidcre non 
posse." O (juani beati sunt qui Deo vivunt, et non seculo, 
virtutibus, ct non vitiis; et <juannis sanctorum patrum jejunia 
vel abstinentiam non valeamus imilari, necjuaquam tamen 
debemus encrvitcr succumberc nefandis crapulis et jebric- 
tatibus, Domini no>tri et Dri terribilibus conimoniti coni- 
minationii)us. Sufficiunt ha'c monita docibilibus, nam in- 
docibilibus et duris cordc nulla sudiciinit bortamenta. Iterum 
roijo et optd ut valeas, vencrabilis Arcbiepiscope Sigericc, 
jugiter in Cbristo. Amen. 



IIKRK HKCilXS Tin: HOOK OF CATHOLIC SER- 
MONS IN ENGLISH, FOR THE SECOND YEAR. 

A CATHOLIC SERMON ON THE LORD'S NATIVITY, 
SELECTED FOR THE PEOPLE. 

ON THE TESTIMONIES OF THE TROPHETS. 

DECEMBER XXV. 
THE NATIVITY OF THE LORD. 

]\l Y dearest bretbrcn, on this day we celebrate our Saviour's 
birtii according to Innnanity. lie was to-day born of the 
holy maiden Mary, with body and with soul, who was ever 
existing with the Father in the (jodhead. He is twice Ixirn, 
and each birth is wonderful and unspeakable, lit was ever 



6 NATI VITAS DOMINI. 

wses fefre of ^am Fteder acenned, fort)an ^e he is )>fes Fa?dcr 
Wisdom, J'urh 'Sone he geworhte and gcsceop ealle gesceafta. 
Nu is -Seos acennednys buton angiiine, forban ]>e se Fa^der 
vvffis sefre God, and his Wisdom, ]>fet is, his Sunu, waes afre 
of him acenned, buton aelcere meder. 

peos acennednys, ]>e we nu to-d;pg wurbiaJS, w^es of eor<S- 
liceve meder, buton selcum eorSlicum fteder. Se Fwder 
•Surh bine gesceop us, and eft, ^a^a we forwyrhtc w.eron, ))a 
asende he )?one ylcan Sunu to Sisum life to ure alysednysse ; 
forban j^e Adam, se forma mann, agylte wiJS God, and liis 
Scyppendes bebod tobrwc, and deofles hire gehyrsumodc, and 
wearb deofle bet;eht, he and eal mancynn into helle witc. pa 
aefre smeade God fram frymSe middaneardes, hu he mihte 
mancynnes gchelpan, and fram deofles anwealde ahreddan. 
pa nolde he asendan to ure alyseiinysse na«Sor nc cngcl, ne 
heah-engel, ne wTtegan, ne apostohis ; ac sende se F;eder his 
ancennedan Sunu to J^rowungc and to ewale for mancynnes 
alysednysse. Da geswutelode God hu miccle lufe he luefdc 
and hcpfS to us, })aba he asende his ivgen Beam to siege for 
us. Hwa dorste )?«s gewilnian j>;et se ^Elmilitiga Cyning 
sceolde besceofan to cwale his ancennedan .ESeliiig, and swa 
ahreddan j>one Seowan ? Naes se Suiui na genyd ]npt he mann 
gewurde, and siSSan for us Srowian sceolde, ac he wjes gc- 
hyrsum his Feeder fefre o5 dea\S. He wa?s ancenned mid his 
Faeder on heofonum ; Sa nolde he ana beon, ac wolde habban 
gebroSru, and com to us, forSi jj.et he wolde us to his rice ge- 
bringan, J)aer we to gesccapcne wferon. pa gif he come on 
baere Godcundnysse buton menniscnysse, )7onne ne mihte ure 
tyddernys aberan his mihte. Ne seo Godcundnys ne mihte 
nan ^ing j^rowian, forSan j^e heo is unbrowigendlic. pa ge- 
nam se ^Imihtiga Godes Sunu 5a menniscnysse of anum 
msedene, and wear^ gesewenlic mann and j^rowigendlic ; and 
swi^e gedafenlic hit waes, ^aSa he mann wolde beon, j^aet he 
ne geceas na him wlf to meder, ac geceas cleene mseden ; and 



/ 



THE NATIVITY OF THE LORD. 7 

born <jf tlie Father, for he is the Wisdom of the Futlier, 
through whom he wrought and created all creatures. Now 
this birth is without begimiing, because the Fatlier was ever 
God, and iiis Wisdom, that is, liis Son, w.is ever horn of him, 
without any mother. 

Tliis birth, that we now to-day celebrate, was of an cartldy 
motiier, without any earthly father. Tiie Father created us 
through him, and afterwards, when we were fordone, he 
sent the same Son to this life for our redemption ; because 
that Adam, the first man, sinned against God, and brake his 
Creator's commandment, and obeyed the devil's teaching, 
and was delivered to the devil, he and all mankind, into hell- 
torment, "^riien God ever meditated from the beginning of 
the world, how he might help mankind, and rescue them from 
the power of the devil. Then he would not send to our 
redemj)tioii either angel, nr nrehangel, or prophets, or apo- 
stles ; but the Father sent his only-begotten Son to sulTering 
and to death for the redemption of mankind. Then (iod 
manifested how great love he ha<l and hath for us, when he 
sent his own Child to be slain for us. Who durst desire that 
the Abnighty King should urge to death bis oidy-begotten 
Prince, and so save the servant ? The Son waj* not forcecl to 
become man, and afterwards to suffer for \is, but he was ever 
obedient to his Father unto death. lie was only-lK'g«itten 
with his Father in heaven ; then would he not be alone, but 
would have brothers, and came to us, because be woidd bring 
us to bis kingflom, to which we had been created. But if he 
had come in the Godhead without hmnanity, then could our 
weakness not have endured his might. The (iodhead could 
sutler nothing, because it is im])nssibli'. The Almiglity Son 
of God assumed humatiity of a maiden, and became a visible 
and passibli' man ; and very fitting it was, when he would 
become man, that he chose not a woman for bis mother, but 
chose a pure maiden ; and also, when a maiden bhf)uld bear, 



8 N ATI VITAS DOMIM. 

eac, ^a^a inaeden acennan sceolde, )?<et heo acende God .El- 
mihtigne, se^e is aeg^Ser ge God ge mann, an Crist. He on- 
gaiin beon jja^t he iic-es, ac he |?urh\vunode j;a-t he aer waes. 
He ongann on Sfere nienniscnysse, se^e aefre wtes and .-efre 
biS God. Nis nah\v«5ere gerunncn togcedere sec Godcund- 
nys and seo menniscnys, ac seo Godcnndnys is ymbscryd 
mid ]>xre nienniscnysse, swa ]>xt hiP.r nys nabor geniencgcd- 
nys ne todal. 

Marian nifegiShad wffs nienigfcaldlice getiicnod on )>;ere 
ealdan ae. God behead Moyscn ]'ani heretogan j'a^t he ge- 
name twclf drige gyrda ;pt jnun twelf nifPgJSiun Israhehi ISeoda, 
and alede hi ;etforan iSani halgan serine, binnon ISani micchm 
getekle : and he wolde ^urh ^a gyrda geswntelian liuirne lie 
to biscope gecoren h;efdc. pa, on JSani oJSruni da*gc, wfes 
Aiironcs gyrd genictt growendc mid boguni, and blowende, 
and berende hnyte. Witodlice seo drige gyrd, )»e nu^s on 
eortJan aphintutl, nc mid niinre rinde befangen, ne mid sa'pe 
acucod, and swa-Seah greow, and bleow, and haT linyte, 
hiefde getacnunge |);ere eadigan Marian, }>e nafde weres ge- 
manan, and s\va-'«Seah )>one ITflican wjcstni ab.er, seSc is soi> 
Biscop and nre sawhi Alysend. 

Mennisc gesceapcnnys is on feower \\ ison. Se frnniscea- 
pena niann Adam lues gcstryncd ne accimed, ac God hine 
gesceop. Seo ober gesceapcnnys wa^s swa j^aH God gesceop 
Euan of hire weres sidan. Ne sind j>as twa gesceapennyssa 
nanum oSruni gelicc. Seo Srichle gesceapcnnys is, pa^t men 
beoS gestrynede <Surli wer and J^urh wif, swa swa we da^g- 
hwomlice geseoS, and |)eos an gesceapcnnys is ge\\'unelic. 
Seo fcorSe gesceapcnnys waes swa ]>iet Crist wearb acenned 
of mredene buton were. Nis ^eos gesceapcnnys nanum obrum 
gelic. pa twa forman gesceapeimyssa feollon on liryre, and 
seo ^ridde wfes on hryre acenned ; ac seo fcorSe alysde 5a 
■Sreo. Sc ylca Godes Sunu, se^e ealle ^ing gesceop, he eac 
gesceop his agene moder, and on hire innoS sylf becom, and 
^eeron geworhte his agenne iichaman, and wearb of hire ge- 



Tin: NATIVITY OK THE LORD. 9 

that she bare God Almit^htV; who is both God and man, one 
Christ. He began being what he was not, but he continued 
what he before had been. lie beg:uj in humanity, who ever 
Wda and ever will be Gotl. Yet are tlie Godiicail and the 
humanity not mingled together, but the Godhead is invested 
witli the humanity, so that there is neither admixture nor 
separation. 

The maidenhood of Mary was manifohllv betokened in the 
old hiw. God bade Moses, the leader, take twelve dry rods 
from the twelve tribes of the people of Israel, and lay them 
before the holy ark within the great tabernacle: and Ijc would 
by those rods declare whom he had chosen for bishop. Then, 
on the second day, Aaron's rod was found growing with 
boughs, and blowing, and bearing nuts. Verily the dry rod, 
which was not [jlanted in tin' earth, nor clothed with any 
rind, nor with sap (juickened, and yet grew, and blew, and 
bare nuts, betokened the blessed Mary, who had no society 
of man, and yet bare the Living Fruit, who is the true Bishop 
and the Kedeemer of our souls. 

Human creation is in four ways. The first-created man, 
Adam, was not begotten nor born, but God crcatecl him. 
The second creation was so that God created Eve from her 
husband's side. These two creations are like to none other. 
The third creation is, that nu n are begotten by man and by 
woman, as we see daily, and this creation iti alone common. 
The fourth creation was so that Christ was born of a niiiiden 
without man. This creation is like to none other. Th*» first 
two creations fell into perdition, and the third was in per- 
dition born ; but the fourth redeemed the three. The same 
Son of God, who created all thifigs, created also his own 
mother, and came himself into her womb, and therein w rought 
his own bodv, and of her was born, a true man in soul and 



10 NATIVITAS DOMINI. 

boren, so5 man on sawle and on lichaman ; and seo niodor 
nses na gewemmed j^urh |;fet cild, ac wses gehalgod. Mji^den 
heo waes beforan Sfere cenninge, and niaeden on Siere cen- 
ninge, and nifeden sefter btere ceiniinge. Nc biS nan ma^gS- 
had forlorcn on cenninge, ac h'vh forlorcn on hiemede. ponne 
hwilc meeden mid luste weres bricS, j'onnc biS bire nifeglSbad 
jefre sib^an adylegod, bwbbe lico cild na'bbe heo. Ac )>cEt 
claene meeden Maria bwfde behaten bire ma^g^bad Gode, and 
wses mid )?am Ilalgum Gaste afyllcd, and gescyldwiS ;clcere 
costnungc. Ne unhist on bire mod ne becom, ne beo weres 
ne breac ; |?a wtes beo forJJi ma-den, )>eab Se beo Cild bjefde. 
Nis nan wifbadcs mann bire gelica, f<)r^i naSer ne ier ne siS- 
"San nffis nan madden j'jpt beam gebaMT, and sy^S^an maulen 
j^urbwunodc, baton bire uiire. Sindon )>cab-li\vjC(Sere sume 
gesceafta )>e tymaS buton ba^mede, and bi^ a^g^er ge seo 
modcr manlen ge seo dobtor ; j^a^t sind beon : In tyniaN lieora 
team mid clwnnysse, of JSam bunige bi bredaJS beora brod, 
and beo^ aceimcde }?a geongan mid nueglSliade, and JSa yldran 
wunia^ on nifegShadc. Eac >>eo lialige Godcs gela^ln)g, \>ipt 
is, eal cristen folc, is genemncd to anum maedene, swa swa se 
apostol Paubis c\v;p5 to 5am folce J»e he to Gode gebTgdc, 
" Ic bevveddode eow anum were, jjjet ge sccoldon gearcian 
clfene nifeden Criste." Eac lobannes sc FuHubtere j^us cwseS 
be Criste, " Se be bryde ha^fJS, be is brydguma." And se 
sealm-wyrbta Dauid sang be Criste, jnis cweScnde, " Swa swa 
brydguma begwS forS of bis bryd-bedde." 

Ealle cyrcan on middanearde sind getealde toanre cyrcan, 
and seo is gebaten Godes gebi^ung, for^an ^e we sind ealle 
gela^ode to Godes rice. Nu is ^eos gelaiSung Cristes bryd, 
and ))urhwuna(S maeden, swa swa seo halige Maria. Seo ge- 
la^ung is ealra cristenra manna moder on gastlicere acenned- 
nysse, swa swa Crist sylf cwae^ on his godspelle, " Buton 
gehwa beo tuwa acenned, ne maeg he na faran into beofonan 
rice." Hu bi^ se mann tuwa acenned ? ^Elc man bi^ acen- 
ned lichamlice of fa^dcr and of medcr, ac be ne biS Godes 



THE NATIVITY OF THE LORD. 11 

in body ; and the mother was not defiled through that child, 
but was hallowed. Maiden she was before the birth, and 
maiden in the birth, and maiden afler the birth. No maiden- 
hood is lost in birth, but is lost in intercourse. When any 
maiden with desire associates with man, then is her maiden- 
hood destroyed for ever after, whether she have a child or 
not. But the pure maiden Mary had promised her maiden- 
ho(Kl to God, and was filled with the Ilnly (ihost, and 
shielded against every temptation. No evil desire came into 
her mind, nor had she intercourse of man ; therefore was she 
a maiden, though she had a Child. There is no woman like 
unto her, for, neither before nor since, was there any maiden 
that bare a child and afterwards continued a maiden, save her 
alone. There are, neverthelesa, some creatures that teem 
without intercourse, and both the mother is maiden as also 
the daughter; such are bees : they bring forth their offspring 
in purity, from the honey they nourish their brood, and the 
young are brought forth with maideidiood, and the elder con- 
tinue in maidetdiood. Also the holy church of God, that is, 
all christian people, is consecrated to one maiden, as the 
apostle Paul said to the people whom he converted to God, 
" I have betrothed you to one man, that ye might prepare a 
pure maiden for Christ." John the liaptist also thus spake 
of Christ, " He who hath a bride is a bridegroom." And the 
psalmist David sang of Christ, thus saying, *' As a bridegroom 
he goeth forth from his bride-bed." 

All churches in the world are reckoned as one church, and 
it is called the congregation of God, because wc arc all called 
together to God's kingdom. Now this congregation is (iod's 
bride, and continues a maiden like the holy Mary. The con- 

' mm 

gregation is the mother of christian men in ghostly birth, as 
Christ himself said in his gospel, '* Urdess every one be twice 
born, he cannot go into the kingdom of heaven." How is a 
man twice born ? Every man is born bodily of father and 
of motiier, but he is not a child of God, unless he be born 



12 NATIVITAS DOMINI. 

beam, buton he beo eft acenned of Saere gastlican meder, of 
Cristes bryde, swa swa he sylf cwfeS, " Buton gcluva beo ge- 
edcenned of waetere and of San Halgan Gastc, nc ni^eg he 
faran into Godes rice." Al\c man biJS mid synnum gestryned 
and geboren, ^urh Adams forg;egednysse, ac he l)i5 eft Cristc 
acenned on Saere halgan gelaSunge, j'fet is, on Godes cyrcan, 
]?urh fulluht. pffit wieter aSwehS )>onc licliaman, and so 
Halffa Gast aSwchS 5a sawle fram ealhnn svnnum ; and se 
gefuUoda man biS ]n)nne Godes bcarn, gif he onriht hylt 
faedcr and nioder, |^;et is, Crist and Ids bryd, scoSe dwg- 
hu'omlice acenS gastlice cild, and liw^eSere JSurhwunaS on 
chfinum mjeglSliade. 

Ure ealda fader, Adam, us gestrynde t(j deaJSe, and Crist 
us gestryn^ gastlice to iSam ccan life, gif we forbugaJS deofles 
lare, and beo5 urum Drilitne gehyrsume on his beboduni. 
Ealle ^a Sing Se Crist dyde for us, ealle hi wjcron jnr gefyrn 
gewitegode, ]7;et men sceoldon gelyfan )>;«*t he is soSfffst, 
]?onne he h.efS swa fela gewitan ]>e cySdon his to-cynie, and 
hu he geboren wjes, and hu he Srowode dcaS his agenes 
j^ances, and hu he of dcaSe aras and astah to heofonum, and 
hu he cym^ eft to t5am micclum dome, to demenne ealluin 
mancynne, jelcum be his gewyrhUun. 

Se yElmihtiga God behet gefyrn worulde Abrahame )»am 
heahffedere, j'fet on his cynne sccolde beon eal mancynn ge- 
bletsod, and him eac swagclaste. Of Abrahames cynne com 
se maera cyning Dauid, and of ^am cyne-cynne com seo halige 
Maria, and of Marian Crist wearS acenned, and );urh Crist is 
eal mancynn gebletsod, )>a "Se rihtlice gelyfaS. Eft, se witcga 
Hieremias cwie^ be Sam Hcelende, " Des is ure God, and nis 
nan oSer geteald to him. He arjerde and gesette steore and 
Jjeawfeestnysse his folce Tsrahel. He wws si S San gesewen 
ofer eor^an, and mid mannum he drohtnode." Eft, o^er 
witega Micheas witegode be Cristes to-cyme, pus cweSende, 
" ponne biS sib on eor^an, j^onne ure Drihten cym^ to urum 
lande, and Sonne he gap S into urum husum." Eft, Isaias se 



THE NATIVITY OF THE LORD. 13 

again of the ghostly mother, of Christ's bride, as he liimsclf 
said, " Unless every one be born again of water and of the 
Holy Ghost, he cannot go into God's kingdt)m." Everyman 
is begotten and born with sins, through Adam's transgression ; 
but he is again born to Christ in the holy congregation, that 
is, in God's church, through baptism. The water washes the 
body, and the Holy Ghost washes the soul from all sins; and 
the baptized man is then a child of God, if he rightly hold to 
father and mother, that is, to Christ and his bride, who daily 
bears ghostly children, and yet cotitinues in pure maidoti- 
hood. 

Our old father, Adam, begat us to death, and Christ be- 
gets us spiritually to eternal life, if we eschew the precepts 
of the devil, and be obedient to our Lord in his command- 
nunts. All thr things that Christ h:is done for us, they were 
all prophesied long brfore, that n^en might believe that he is 
true, when he has so many witnesses wht) declared his advent, 
and how he was Ixirn, and liow he buffered death of his own 
free will, and how he arose from death and ascended to hea- 
ven, and how he will come again to the great doom, to judge 
all mankind, each according to his works. 

The Almighly God promised in the time of old to the 
patriarch Abraham, that in his race all mankind should Ik* 
blessed, and also fidfilled his promise. Of Abraham's race 
came the great king David, and of that royal race came the 
holy Mary, and of Mary Christ wjuh l)orn.and through Christ 
all mankind is blessed, those who rightly believe. Again, 
the pmphet Jeren)iah said of Jesus, "This its our God, and 
there is none other accounted with him. He hath raised an<l 
established direction and discipline to his people Isniel. He 
was afterwards seen upon earth, and with men he dwelt." 
Again, another prophet, Micah, prophesied of Christ's ad- 
vent, thus saying, " Then shall peace be on earth, when our 
Lord conuth to our land, and when hegoith into our houses." 



14 NATI VITAS DOMINI. 

witega awrat on his witegunge, and ]>us cw.ne^, '* Efne an 
mjeden sceal geeacnian, and acennan Sunu, and his nama biS 
Emniaiiuhcl," )?cEt is gercht, 'God is mid us.' Eft, Ezcchiel 
witegode be ^eere byrig Hierusiilem and be Criste, "Sus cwe^- 
ende, '^ pin Cyning cym^ to 'Se eadmod, and ge-edstaJSchiJS 
]>e." Danihel se witega sette eac on liis witegunge, )';et se 
heah-engel Gabrihcl him com to flcogende, and him )'us to 
cwae^, " Ic eom cumen to ^e, Danihel, to iSi ]r<et ic sceal Se 
tfEcan, and }m understand mine spra^ce, aiul understand ]>as 
gesih^e. Feower hund geara and huiid-nigontig geara sind 
getealde of Sysum d^ege ofer 5e, and ofer JSinum folce, and 
ofer ^aere byrig Ilierusalcin ; and j'onne biS seo ealde for- 
gfegednys geendod, and synn nndcrfeiiS gecndunge, aiul un- 
rihtwisnys biS adylegod, iiiul biS gebroht ece rihtwisiiys, 
and gesihS and witegunga beoS gefyllede, aiul biJS gcsmyrod 
ealra halgcna Halga." Eallc bas JSing sind gefyllede )>urh 
Cristes menniscnysse. 

/Efter )?am fyrstc and andagan, )'C se heah-engel Gabrihel 
gecwee^ to Danilule, )nn-h Cri^t is geendod Adanu's forgte- 
gednys and his synn ; and Crist adylegode a^lce unrihtwis- 
nysse, and astealde Sa ecan rihtwisnysse, and he gefylde calle 
witegunga jmrh hine sylfne, and he is ealra halgena Ilalga, 
fortSan ];e he is heafod ealra haligra manna. I Id is he ge- 
smyrod ? Man sniyrab cyning mid gehalgodum ele, ])onne 
man hine to cyningc gehalgaS, and on jelcere hadunge, ge on 
diaconhade, ge on preosthade, ge on biscopliade, iefre se tJe 
"Saer gehadod biS, he bicS gcsmyrod mid gehalgodum ele. 
Crist is soblice ealra biscopa Biscop, and ealra cyninga 
Cyning. Nu is he gcsmyrod na mid corMicum ele, ac mid 
seofonfealdre gife })ces Ilalgan Gastes ; forSan |7e on Criste 
wuna^ eal gefyllednys beere Godcundnysse lichamlice. 

Eft, be Cristes acemicdnysse Dauid se sealm-wyrhta sang 
and cwae^, j^aet he gehyrde Cristes stemne, |>us cweSende, 
*' God cwffiS to me, Du cart min sunu, nu to-daeg ic ge- 
strynde ]?e." Eft ]>8es Faeder stemn be his Bearne clypode, 



tup: nativity of the lord. 15 

A(?ain, Isaiah the prophet wrote in his prophecy, and thus 
said, " Ikhold a maiden shall conceive, and bear a Son, and 
his name shall he Emanuel," which is interpreted, ' God is 
with us.' Attain, Ezckiel prophesied of the city of Jerusalem 
and of Christ, thus saying, "Thy King comcth to thee hum- 
ble, and shall re-establibh thee." Daniel the prophet set also 
in his prophecy, that the archangel Gabriel came to him fly- 
ing, and thus spake to him, " I am come to thee, Daniel, in 
order to teach thee, and do thou imderstand my speech, and 
understatid this vision. Four hundred and ninety years are 
reckoned from this day ovt-r thee, and over thy people, and 
over the city of Jerusalem; and then shall the old transgression 
be ended, and sin shall ha\c an etui, and unrighteousness 
shall be rootc<l out, and everla^ting righteousness shall be 
brought, and vision and i)rophecies shall be fulfilled, and 
the Holy of all holies shall be anointed." All these things 
are fidfillcd through Chri^t's humanity. 

Aft<'r that space aiul term, which the archangel Gabriel 
announced to Daniel, Adam's transgression and his sin arc 
ended through Christ ; and Christ has rooted out every un- 
righteousness, and established evrrlanting righteousness, and 
he fulfilled all prf)phecies through himself, and he is the Holy 
of all holies, for he is the head of all h(dy men. How is he 
anointed r A king is anointed with hallowed oil, when he is 
hallowed for king ; and in every ordination, as well in deacon- 
hood .is in priesthood and in bishophood, he who is invested 
therewith is anointed with hallowed oil. Hut Christ is Bishop 
of all bishops, and of all kings King. Ht is not anointed 
with earthly oil, but with the sevenfold urace of the Holy 
Ghost ; for in Christ dwells bodily all perfection of the God- 
head. 

Again, David the psalmist sang of Christ's birth, and said, 
that he heard the voice of Christ thus saying, " God said 
unto me, Thou art my Son, now to-day have I begotten 
thre. ' Again, the voice of the Father cried concerning his 



]0 NATIVITAS DOMINI. 

and cwffi(S, " He sjlf clypode to me, pii eart min Feeder." 
And eft, se Feeder be him cwae^, " Ic beo him Feeder, and 
he biS me Sunu, and ic gesctte bine frumconnedne and 
healicne toforan ealhnn eorSlicum cynegum." Isaias eft 
witegode be Cristes acennednysse, " Us is Cild acenned, and 
us is Sunu forgifen, and his caldordom is on his cxhim, and 
he biS gehatcn Wundorlic, Rjedbora, Strang God, and Feeder 
baere toweardan worulde, a?id sibbe Ealdor ; his rice and his 
anweald biS gcmenigfyld, and ne biS nan ende his sibbe." 

Be "5am uundrum ))e Crist geworhte wTtegode Iliercmias 

to "psere byrig Hierusalem, )>us cweiSende, " To ^e cymS j^in 

Alysend, and )ns biS his tacn, He geopenaS blindra manna 

eagan, and deafum he forgifS lieorcnunge, and mid his stemnc 

he araerS J?a deadan of heora byrgenum." And be ISam ylcan 

cwaeS Isaias, "Secga^S ]>am wac-modum, )>a?t hi beon gehyrtc, 

and nan ^ing ofdrjcdde : lier cynvJS God sylf and geh.ellS us. 

ponne beoS geopcnode blindra manna eagan, aiul dealTra 

manna earan gehyraJS ; j'onno hleapjj se healta swa sua 

heort, and dumbra mamia tungan beo5 s\vi5e getinge." Be 

his "Srowunge cwteS Isaias, " He is gelied to siege swa swa 

seep, and he suwade, and his mu5 ne ondyde, swa swa lamb 

detS, Jjonne hit man scyrS." And eft cwa»5 Dauid, " Hi 

jjurh^ydon mine handa and mine fet, and hi da-ldon min 

reaf betwux him." Be Cristes deaSe witegode se ylca Dauid, 

and cwffiS be Cristes lice, " Min lichama gerest on hihte, 

for^an j'e |ni ne forlaetst mine sawle on helle, ne "5u ne geSa- 

fast l^set min lichama gebrosnige." Das word Crist gecly- 

pode to his Faeder ; and siSJSan he cwjeS be his aeriste, " Ic 

aras of dea^e, and ic eft mid ]>e eom." Be his upstige cwae^ 

se ylca Dauid, " God astih^ up to heofonum mid micelre 

myrh^e." And eft se ylca cwse^, " SingaS ))am Gode "Se 

astah ofer heofonas to east-dfele." Be ^am ]?e Crist sitt a;t 

his Faeder swi^ran, cwae^ se ylca witega, " God cwae^ to 

minum Drihtne, Site her to minum swiSran." Be ^am ^e 



Tin: NATIVITY UF THE LORD. 17 

Son, and said, " He himself called to ine, Thou art my 
Father." And again, the Father said of him, " I will be to 
him a Father, and he shall be to me a Son, and 1 will set 
him first-born and exalted before all earthly kintjs." Isai;.h 
attain prophesied of Christ's birth, " To u^ a Child is born, 
and to us a Son is tfiven, and his authority shall be on his 
shoulders, and he shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, 
Powerful (iod, and Father of the world to come, and Prince 
of peace; his empire atjd his power shall be multiplied, and 
of his peace there shall be no end." 

Of the wonders which Christ wrought, the prophet Jere- 
miah proj)hesied t(» the city of Jerusali-m, thus sayinL^ " To 
thee Cometh thy Redeenier, and this is his token. He shall 
open the eyes of bliiul meti, aiul to the deaf he shall give 
hearing, and with his voice he shall raise the dead from their 
Hepidchrcs." And of the Kame said Isaiah, *' Say imlo the 
weak-minded, that they be heartened, and nothing fearful: 
here comelh God himself and healeth us. 'I'hen shall be 
opened the eyes of blind men, and the ears of ileaf men shall 
hear; then shall the halt leap as a hart, and the tongueis of 
dumi) men shall be very eloquent." Of his pa>sion Isaiah 
said, " lie is led to slaying as a sheep, and he held silence, 
and uiulid not his mouth, as a latnb doeth when it is shorn." 
And agairi said David, " They pierced my hands and my feet, 
and they parted my garment among them. ' The same David 
prophesied of Christ's death, and said of Christ's body, " My 
body rests in hope, for thou wilt not leave my sold in hell, 
nor wilt thou p« rmit my body to decay. ' These words 
Christ cried to his Father; and afterwards he said t)f his 
resurrection, " I have arisen from death, and I am again 
with thee." Of his ascension the same David said, "Sing 
to God who ascended above the heavens to the east part." 
Of Christ's sitting on the right of his Father, the same 
prophet said, " God said to my Lord, Sit here at my right." 

JIOM. vol,. 11. c 



18 NATIVITAS DOMINI. 

Crist ealle ^ing gewylt, witegode se ylcii Dauid, " Ealle 
cyningas onbugaS him, and ealle })eoda him ^eowiaJS." Eft, 
be his to-cyme to 5am micclum dome, cwaeS se ylca, " God 
cym« svvutellice, and he ne suwa5 ; fyr byrnS on his gesihSe, 
and stiSlic hreohnys biS onbuton him." Be mancynnes 
ieriste witegode Isaias, " pa deadan sccolon artsan, and }ja 
•Se licga^ on byrgcnum hi" ge-cdcuciab." Be JSam dome 
Dauid cwffi^ to Gode, " pu, Drihtcn, forgyltst c'pIcuui be his 
weorcum." 

Gif we willaS arcccan ealle JSa gcwitnyssa j'c be Criste 
awritene sind, );onne ga^JS ]);or swiSe micel hwTl to ; ne ])cah- 
hwieSere we ne magon hi ealle gereccan, forM na )>a't an )>}et 
halige witegan be him wTtcgodon, ac eac swilcc h;«''5cne men 
setton on heora bocum be eallum Msum Mngum )»e we nil 
beforan eow rjpddon. An ]';ria \v;rs Sibylla, )'e awnit on 
leoS-civeftes wiyon be Cristcs acenncdnysse, and be his 5row- 
ungc, and be his a'riste, and he his npstige, and be his to- 
cyme to Sam micclum dome, swiSe swutellice, and swa-Seah 
waes haeSen. Swa gclice eac se hfeSena cyning Nabuchodo- 
nosor, he gcseah ehsyncs))ies Lifigendan Godes Smui,and hinc 
gecneow. Hit wa?s swa ])a?t se Nabuchodonosor gelicrgode 
on Godes folcc, and aweg gehedde micelne d;fl ]';i's folces to 
his rice, pa ara'rde he lueSengyld, and behead calhnn his 
folce, be heora life, )'ret hi sceoldon feallan adune, and In 
gebiddan to 5<ere anlicnysse \)c be arjerde : gif hwa hit for- 
soce, \>set he sceolde beon forb;erncd on hatum fifne. pa 
WfEron \>8&T ^ry cnihtas swiSe gelyfede on jjonc soISan God : 
ya. wseron gehatene, Annanias, Azarias, Misahel. pa gecwae- 
don l^aet hi noldon bugan to nanum deofolgilde fram heora 
Scyppende. pa cwaeS se cyning him to, "■ Hwa^t is se God 
]>e msege eow ahreddan of minum handum ?" Da cwjedon 
Annanias, Azarias, Misahel to ^am cyninge, " Se yElmihtiga 
God, ]>e we wurSiab, is swa mihtig J^aet he eaSe nifeg us 
ahreddan of ^inum byrnendum ofne, and of iSinuni handum. 
And wite ]>\i gewiss, j^aet we naefre ne buga^ to -Sinum hfeSen- 



THK NATIVITY OF THK LORD. 19 

Of Christ's ruling over all things, the same David prophesied, 
"All kings shall bow to him, and all nations shall serve 
him." Again, of his coining to the great doom, the same 
said, " God comcth manifestly, and he will not be silent ; 
fire burns in his sight, and a raging storm is about him." 
Of the resurrection of mankind, Isaiah propliesied, " The 
dead shall arise, aiul those who lie in sepulchres shall be re- 
quickened." Of the doom David said to (jod, " TIh»u, Lord, 
wilt recjuite every one according to his works." 

If we will recount all the testimonies that are written 
concerning Christ, a very great time will be passed therein ; 
yet can we not reckon theni all, because not only have 
holy prophets prophesied of him, but heathen men also have 
set in their Ixtoks concerning all these things which we 
have now read before vou. One of these was Sibylla, who 
wrote in song-craft wise of Christ's birth, and of his pa.s- 
sion, and of his resurrection, and of his ascension, and of 
his coming to the threat doom, very uianifestly, and yet 
was a heathen. In like manner also the heathen king 
Nebuchadne//ar, he saw orularl) the Son of the Living 
God, and knew him. It was when Nebucliadne/7,ar warred 
on God's people, and led away a great part of the people 
♦o his kingdom. Then raised he an id<d, a>id commiuuled 
all his people, on their life, to fall down aiul worship the 
image which he had raised : if any one refused, that he 
shovdd be burned in a hot ovin. Then were there three 
younir men who firmly believed in the true God : they were 
called Ilananiah, A/.ariah, Mishael. They said that they 
would not incline to an\ idol from their Creator. Then said 
the king to them, " Who is the God that may deliver yoii 
from my hands ?" Then said Ilananiah, Azariah, Mishael 
to the king, " The Almighty God, whom we worship, is so 
mighty, that he may easily diliver us from thy burning oven, 
and from thy hands. And know thou for certain, that we 
will never bow to thy heathenship." He wa< theti filled with 

c J 



20 NATI VITAS DOMINI. 

scipe." He wear^ f?a afylled mid graman, and hot ona'lan 
)7one ofen swi^e dearie, and het gebindan ba cnihtas haudum 
and fotum, and awurpan into Sam byrnendum ofne. pa wws 
•Sses cyninges hses jnerrihte gefyllcd, and hi wteron aworpene 
into ISam byrnendan ofne, and se lig sloh ut of JJam ofne 
feorr up, and forbjernde to dcaSe Sa be hi inn awurpon ; and 
\>set fyr ne derede naht )'am brim cnihtum be on God bolyf- 
don ; ac hi wurdon j'^errihte uiibundene, and codon orsorhlice 
on ^ani fyre, and herodon God. Da code se cyning to bam 
ofne, and sceawode geondice ; |>a gescah he b^er feower mcnn 
gangende binnon ^am fyre, and he cwjeb ba to hin cnihtum, 
" Hula, no wurpe we j^ry cnihtas into bam fyre ?" Hi 
cwifidon iiim to, "Sob \>u segst, cyning." )"'a cwjrb 8e 
cyning, " Ic geseo b;pr feower weras giirigendc nn middan 
j?am fyre ungewemmede and unforswHdede, and se feorba is 
gelic Godes Bearne." pa geseali se hiebena cyning j^onc 
Lifigendan Godes Sunu, and he l)ine gecneow burh Godes 
onwrigenysse ; and he ba genealfehte bam ofne, and cwjrb to 
"bam |)rini Godes cnihtum, " Ge Godes menn, Annania, 
Azaria, Misahel, gab ut of bam ofne, and cumab t(» me." 
Hi" J>airrihte lit-eodon of bam byrnendum ofne a'tforan ealhim 
"bam folce. Hi sceawodon hcora fex and heora lichaman, and 
swibe wundrodon |)a^t hi ealswa gehalc and swa gesunde vit- 
eodon of ^am fyre, swa hi imi aworpene wjeron. pa cwa?5 
se cyning, " Gebletsod sy cower God, sebe eow abredde swa 
mihtelice of bam fyre. Ic sette im bis gebami an eallum 
minum folce, \nBt nan man ne beo swa dyrstig, \>iet he ienig 
word obbe aetiig tal cwebe ongean eowerum Gode : gif hit 
hwa bonne de«, he sceal bolian his {ehta and his agenes lifes." 
Crist wolde |wt manega witegan, and eac ^a hfe^enan 
sceoldon bodian his to-cyme, and cyban his faer, j^aet man- 
cynn waere |>aes ^e geleaffulre and hies \>e gewisre on hwaene 
hi sceoldon gelyfan, and calle cwe^an, fpg^ber ge mid niu^e 
ge mid mode, swa se sealm-scop sang be Gode, " pu eart 
maere and micel «e wundra wyrcst ; ])u eart ana God." Wc 



THE NATIVITY OF THE LORD. 21 

anger, and commaiulcd Ihc oven to be heated very intensely, 
and cuninianded the youtlis to be bound liands and feet, and 
cast into the burning oven. Tlien was llie king's beliest 
straightwayt. fulfilled, and tiiey were east into the burning 
oven, and the flame struck out of the oven far up, and burned 
t<j death those who had ca^t them in ; and llic fire injured 
naught the three youths who believed in God ; but they «erc 
btraightuays unbound, and went fearlessly in the fire, and 
praibcd (iod. Then went the king lo the oven, and l(K»ked 
earnestly ; and he saw there four nun g«>ii»g within the fire, 
and he said to his attendants, " How is this, cast we not thri'C 
youths into the fire ?" They said to him, "The so<»th thou 
savest, kinir-" Tlien said the kintr, " I sec there four men 
going amid the fire unhurt and ind)urned, and the fourth ii> 
like unto the Child of Uod." Then the heathen king saw 
the Son of the Living God, and he know him through God's 
revelation ; and he then drew near to the «>ven, and saiti to 
the three servants (»f God. " Ye men of Gotl, Hananiah, 
A/.ariah, Mishael, go out of the oven, and come to me." 
They straiirhlwavs went out of the burning oven l)efore all 
the people. They beheld their hair and their binlies, and 
greatly wondered that they as whide and as sound went out 
of the fire as thev were when they were cast in. Tiicn said 
the king, " Blessed Ik* your G»k1, who hath delivere«l y<iu »m) 
pnwerfullv from the fire. I now make this decree among all 
ni\ people, that no man be so daring that he speak any word 
or any l>lasphemy against your God : if any one then so do, 
he shall forfeit his possessions, and his own life." 

Christ would that many prophets, and also the heathen 
should announce his ad\ent, and make known his course, 
that mankind mi^ht be the more believing, and the n)ore 
certain in whom they should believe, and all say, both with 
mouth and \\'\\h mind, as the psalmist sang of Ciod, " Thou 
art clorious and great w ho workest wonders ; thou alone art 



22 NATIVITAS DOMINI. 

sceolon segSer gelyfan Godes wundra, and eac mid micelrc 
lufe ge^ancian jjani Hcoibiilican Ffpdcr, Gode .Elmihtigum, 
J?8et he wolde asendan his ancennedaii Sunu to Sysum life for 
ure alysednysse, 5aSa we forwyrhte \va?ron. We sceoU^n eac 
Cristes acennednysse and his gcbyrd-tide mid gastlicerc blisse 
wurSian, and us sylfe mid goduni wcorcum geglcngan, and 
tis mid Godos lofsangum gehysgian, and 5a «Sing onscunian 
^e Crist forbytt, pa^t sind, Icahtras and deoflcs wcorc ; and ISa 
^ing lufian be God behead, j'a^t is, cadmodnys and niild- 
heortnys, rihtwisnys and soiifjestnys, «'ehnes-d;pda and gemet- 
fsestnys, ge}>yld and chennys. pas »Sing hifaS God, and hum 
^a clffinnysse, 5e he sylf burh hine and ISurh |>a't chi-ne 
maeden, his modor, astealde. Swa eac ealle his geferan be 
liim fdigdon, eulle In wa^ron on chmnysse wuniendc ; and so 
mfesta djJel j^jera manna ]>e Gode geScoS, }>urh cl.fnnysse hi 
geScoS. WarniaS eow wilS ofcrfylle and oferdrencc, swa 
swa Crist cM'jeS on his godspeUe, *' Beo5 wfere, )».pt cowere 
heortan ne beon gchcfgode mid ofcrfyHe, and druncennyssc, 
and mid woruld-caruni, and se fa'riica deab becume ofer 
eow." 

Uton beon eac gemyndigc hli micelrc gelSincSc sy ]>iet 
halige maeden Maria, Cristes moder : heo is gcbletsod ofer 
eallum wifiifides mannnm ; luo is sec heofenliec cwen, and 
ealra cristenra manna frofer and fultum. Urc ealde moder 
Eua us beleac heofenan rices geat, and sec halige Maria hit 
eft us geopenode, gif we hit sylfe nu mid yfcluin Meorcum us 
ne belucab. Micel ma^g heo »t hire Bearne abiddan, gif heo 
bi^ geornlice to-gemynegod. Uton forbi mid micelrc georn- 
fulnysse hi gebiddan, ])jet heo us Singige to hire agenum 
Bearne, se^e is teg^er ge hire Scyppend ge hire Sunu, so^ 
God and so^ mann, an Crist, seSe leofaS and rixaS mid 
Faeder and mid Halgum Gaste, hi bry an God a on ecnysse. 
Amen. 



THE NATIVITY OF THE LORD. 23 

God." We should both believe God's wonders, and also 
M-ith ^reat love thank the Heavenly Father, God Almighty, 
U)r having sent his only-begotten Son to this life for our re- 
demption, when we were fordone. We slunild also honour 
Christ's nativity and his birth-tide with ghostly joy, and 
adorn oursclve«} with good works, and busy ourselves with 
songs of praise to God, and shun the things which Christ 
forbids, which are sin.** and the works of the devil ; and love, 
those things which God has enjoined, that is, lowliness 
and mercy, righteousness and truth, alms-deeds and tempe- 
rance, patience and chastity. These things God loves, and 
especially chastity, which he himself through himself and 
through the chaste maiden his mother established. So also 
all his companions who followed him, they were all living in 
chastity; and the greatest part of those men who thrive to 
God thrive through chastity. (juard yourselves against ex- 
cess in eating and drinking, as Christ himself said in his 
gospel, *' Be wary, that your hearts be not oppressed with 
excess of eating and drinking, and with worldly cares, and 
sudden death come over you." 

Ix't us also be mindful of how great dignity is the holy 
maiden Mary, the mother of Christ : she is blessed above all 
women ; she is the heavenly (|ueen, and the comfort and sup- 
port f)f all christian men. Our old mother Eve shut to us 
the gate of heaven's kingdom, and the holy Mary opened it 
figain to us, if we ourselves by r\ il works shut it not against 
us. Much may she obtain of ht r Child, if she be fervently 
thereof reminded. Let us, therefore, with great fervour, pray 
to her, that she mediate for us to her own Child, who is 
both her Creator and her Son, true God and true man, one 
Christ, who liveth and reigncth with Father and with Holy 
Ghost, those three one God to all eternity. Amen. 



24 



VII. KL. JAN. 
NATALE SCl STEPHANI PROTOMAR-n'RIS. 

AUGUSTINUS, se wisa biscop, sprtec to his folcc be Sam 
wundrum and tacnum ]>e se halga wer Stephanus, 5e ^ve 
to-dcEg wurSiaS on his neawiste geworhte, and \>us cwa?JS, 
Mine gebrobra )>a leofostan, we truwiaS, );onne ge gch)ni- 
lice gehyrab ^a nia^rHcan wundia ]';ps eadigan cyScrcs Ste- 
phanes, j^aet heora forwel fchi on eowcruni gcniyndc f«pste 
beo^, and na mid gynielcaste adylegode. 

Sum Yponienscis m;p(kMi \\ carJS deofol-seoc, |^a gesmyrode 
sum msesse-prcost ht mid do Yivs halg:in c) Seres Sti'phanes, 
and hco |>;prriiitc wcarS gcwiltig. Sum l)hnd uif com to 
\nere halgan cyrcan, |>c wa-s on wurSmyntc )>isrH eadigan 
weres gchalgod, and hi gei>a'(l, and j'jrrrihte geseaii. Hco 
"Sa gewcnde ongean blissigcnck^, huton hilteowe, seoSe ar 
blind I'idcr gcla-d waes. Eucharius hatte sum nia*ssc-preost, 
on ]>am hnule j'o is gchaten Ili.spania, se wjps Searlc geswenct 
mid langsumum broce. Da gebrohtc se biscop Possidiua 
sum Sing lytles of Sa-re forcsa'dan cyrcan )»}ps eadigan Ste- 
phanes, and se preost jnirh J>{et uearS geha'led. Eft sySSan 
him bccom oScr untrumnys, ])a>t lie forSfcrde, and his lie 
bewunden beg ; ac him man U-dc on-uppan his agene tunecan, 
^e vvjps gebroht fram |'a^re cyrcan \ws eadigan cySeres, and 
he of deaSe aras. Martialis hatte sum hipSen wcr, on win- 
trum gcripod ; he onscunode micclum cristenra manna eaw- 
faestnysse. pa was his dohtor cristen svviSe gelyfed, and 
hire wer vvies, on ^am ylcan geare, gefullod. pa gesawon hi 
bine adligne, and mid wope buedon ]'a>t he cristen wurde jer 
his ende; ac he wiScwaeS Jjwyrlice, and hi mid gedrefedre 
^bilignysse him fram adraf. pa \vear« Sam a|)umnie to rjede 
ge^uht, jJiBt he eode to "Saere halgan cyrcan J^jes foresa-dan 
cy^eres, and ])ses eadigan Stephanes pingunge ba^de to «an 
^hnihtigan, j^aet he forgeafe godne willan j^am seocan hceSe- 



25 



DECKMBKU XXVI. 
THE NATIVITY OF ST. STKI'IIKN, IMIOTOMARTYR. 

AUGUSTINE, the u isc bihliop, spake to his people con- 
cerning tlie wonders and tokens which the holy man Stk- 
PHEN, whom wc to day honour, wrouj^ht in his neighbour- 
hood, and thus said, My dean>t brothers, we trust, when ye 
repeatedly liear the noble wonders of the blessed martyr 
Stephen, that very many of them will be fa>.t in your minds, 
and not obliterat«'d by heedlessnetis. 

\ maiden of Hippo waj< possessed of a devil, when a m;u»s- 
priest anointed her with oil of the holy martyr Stephen, and 
she forthwith became sane. A blind woman cann" to the 
holy church, wliich had been hallowed in honour of this 
blessed man, and she prayed, and forthwith saw. She then 
returned bleseing, without a guide, wlu> had before been led 
thither blind. Kucharius a moMS-priest was named, in the 
land which is called Spain, who was much aHlicted with a 
protracted disease. Then the bishop Possidius brought some 
little thing from the aforesaid church of the blessed Stephen, 
and thereby the priest was healed. Again another sickliest* 
befell him, so that he died, and iiis corpse lay inwrapt ; but 
they laid upon him his own tunic, which had lu'cn bnnight 
from the church of the holy martyr, and he arose from death. 
There was a certain heathen man named Martial, ripe in 
years; he zealously shunned the religion of christian men. 
Now his daughter was a christian very believing, and her 
husband had, in the san»e yt ar, been bapli/cd. They then 
saw him sick, and w ith w ceping prayed that he would become 
a christian ere his end ; but he perversely refused, and w ith 
troubled anger drove them from him. Thin it seemed ad- 
visable to the son-in-law to go to the ciiurch of the aforesaid 
martyr, and to pray for the intercession of the blessed Ste- 
phen to the .Vlmighty, that he would grant ginul will to the 



26 NATALE S. STEPHANI PROTOMARTYRIS. 

nan, J^aet he leng ne elcode to his geleafan. pa dyde se aSum 
swa mid orm;etre geoineriinge and wope, and syferlice mid 
byrnendre arfestnysse ; and sume blostinan of ISam halgan 
weofode genam, and gelede under j'jes hieJSenan hcafod. He 
^a, on ];8ere ylcan nihte, iefter his frum-slsepe, neodiice cly- 
pode, biddonde ]?set man ISone biscop to him gcfctte. pa 
andwyrdon his frynd, and cwa'don, )>ait he on ncawiste nwre. 
He ^a eft geornhce b;pd, }';et liim man sumnc ma'ssc-preost 
gelangode ; cwfeS pjet he on (Jod gclyfan woUle, and ead- 
modlice to fulhihte gcbugan. His frynd j'jes micchnn wini- 
drodon and bhssodon, and he ?>;prribte wearS gcfuHod, and 
liffifde him on mu5e, o5 his forSsiJS, |>a ylcan word )»e se 
eadiga Stephamis on his cndc to Gode gccwieS, " Criste, 
accipe spiritum mcum :" \net is, "Crist, onfoh miniie gast." 
And he swa iet ncxtan mid )»am worde gewat. Nyste he ju-ah 
8er J^aet se eadiga wcr, Stcphanus, on his Srowunge swa cly- 
pode, ac ^urh liis «5ingunge he wcarS to fulhdite and to iSam 
wordum onbryrd. 

piBV w^eron cac geha^lede J'ry fCt-adlige men )»urh 5one 
halgan cySere, twcgen landcs mcnn and lin jelScodig. {""a 
landes men wurdon ));»'rrihte gehfek'de, and Sam H^lSeodigan 
wearS geswutelod l»\v;rt he to Iiis fotum Iccgan sceohle ; and 
he swa dyde swa him geswutelod wa-s, and seo scociiys 
paerrihte gcswac. Sum cild plogode gymelcaslicc, and beam 
under anum yrnendum hweole, and wear? to deaSe tocwyscd. 
Seo modcr ]>a dreorig ba^r )»;ps cildes lie to )'am forcsjeduiu 
gemynde J^aes halgan Stephanes, and hit sona ge-edcucode, 
and ansund aeteowode. An eawftest myneceuu heg swiSe 
geswenct, orwene telcere edwyrpinge. pa asende man hire 
tunecan to J^aere halgan cyrcan, ac heo gewat ter se ff;rend- 
raca ongean come. Hire magas 5eah oferbraddon ]>aet lie 
mid jjaere tunecan, and heo sona cucu aras. Sum gelyfed 
man gebfed aet ]>iere cyrcan for his adligan dehter, and hire 
reaf ]nder abaer : efne, Sa^a he ham gecyrde, j?a urnon his 
hiwan him togeanes, and hire for^siS him gecyddon. He ^a 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. STEPHEN. PROTOMARTYR. 27 

sick heathen, that he might no longer dchiy his belief. Then 
the son-in-lau' did so with infinite groaning and weeping, 
and purely with burning piety ; and took some flowers from 
the holy altar, and laid them under the heathen's head. He 
then, on the same night, after his first sleep, anxiously cried, 
prayirjg that they would fetch the bi>hop to him. I lis frirnds 
then answered, that he was not in the neighbourhood. He 
then again eagerly entreated that they would send for a mass- 
priest; he said that he would believe in God, and humbly 
submit to ba|)tism. At tliis his friends greatly wondered and 
rejoiced, and he was immediately baptized, and had in his 
mouth, till his departure, the same words which the blessed 
Stephen at his end said to God, *' Christe, accipe spiritum 
meum :" that is, " Christ, receive my spirit." .Vnd he so at 
last with those words departed. Vet knew he not before 
that the blessed man, Stephen, at his passion so cried, but 
through his intercession he was stimulated to baptism and 
to those words. 

Theri- were also healed three men lame of fcKit lliro\igh the 
hf)ly marljr, two men of tlie country and one a stranger. 
The men of the country were healed forthwith, and it was 
manifested to the stranger what he should lay on his foot ; 
and he did as was manifested to him, and the disease forth- 
with ceased. A child was playing heedlessly, and ran imdcr 
a nnuiing wheel, and was crushed to death. The mother 
then sad bare the child's corpse to the In'foresaid memorial 
of the holy Stephen, and it soon requiekened and appeared 
sound. A pious mynchen lay greatly afflicted, htipeless of 
any recovery. They then sent her tunic to the holy chrrch, 
but she had departed before the messenger returned. Her 
relatives, nevertheless, spread the tunic over the corpse, and 
she instantly arose alive. A believing man prayed at the 
church for his sick daughter, and bare her garment thither : 
behold, when he returned home, his household ran towards 
him, and announced to him her departure. H»- then covered 



28 NATALE P. STEPHAXI PROTOMAUTYRIS. 

mid |>am leafe }?cet lie oferwreah, and seo dohtor Jjferribtc to 
life aras. Eft, sumes o^res maniies sunu ]nirh uiitrumnysse 
gevvat, ac "Sa^a his frynd |'a ITc-^enuiige gearcodon, pa tihte 
heora sum ])ist man ]?ies cnapan lie smyrian sceolde mid cle 
pees halgan Stephanes. IIT sua dydon, and he gc-cdeucode. 
Eft, sum ]?egen brohte his suna lie to Sam forcsanlan gemynde 
J78es halgan eySeres, and mid mieeluni wope hine gcba'd, and 
aefter his gebcde he ahuf })aet eild up ge-cdeueod and aii- 
sund. 

Gif we wyllaS eallc '?ia w undra and h;pl«Sa awntan, }>e we 
oncneowon gefrcmode )>urh bone wuldorfullan cybcre Ste- 
phanum, JSonne wyrce we mancga bee, tfrSan Se we hi ealle 
gegaderion ; and Seah In ne magon beon ealle gcgadcrode, 
sind ]>eah sumc ]>c ie forsuwian ni' ni.rg. An ;p)>L'lboren wTf 
wcarS micclum gcswenet mid langsumere untrumnysse, and 
hire ne mihte nan heeecra>ft fremian. p.i hrrde lii sum 
iudcisc man, J);et heo name aMine werna'gel of sumes oxan 
hriegc, and bccnytte to anum hringc mid hire snode, and mid 
]nxm hi to naccdum ITee bcgyrde. {""a ferde lieo swa begvrd 
to )?aes halgan cySeres cyrcan, |>{et heo iter hire hfple abjpcle. 
pa wicode heo be wege wiJS jwre ea j^e is gehaten Bagrade, 
and on a?rne-merien siJSode, swa swa heo gemynt hjefde. f)a 
geseah heo ITegan Sonc bring on ^am wege wtforan, mid 
snode mid eallc, and |)a^s micelum wundrode. pa wende heo 
]7aet se bring toburste, oSJSe seo snod toslupe ; ae 5a5a heo 
afunde ])one bring gebalne, and |)a snode mid eallum cnottum 
swa faeste gewriJJen swa heo ter wws, Sa understod heo j^a-t 
)7aet wundor gelamp )nirh ^{es halgan mihte 5e heo to fundode, 
and micelum truwode hirehfele toweard 5urh his geearnung- 
um, and wearp bone bring mid )?am bendum into ^am flow- 
endum streame. Heo fcrde Sa mid bliSum mode to Saere 
halgan cyrcan, and Sa'.r hire heele gefette, j^urh iSaes halgan 
cy^ercs Singunge. 

An wundorlic tacn gelamp aet ]?»s halgan gemynde, swa 
widmaere, ic wene, |)<pt feawa wwron on }>;pre neawiste j^e 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. STKPHF.X, PROTOMARTYR. 29 

the corpse over with the garment, and the daiiijhter straiglit- 
uays arose to life. Again, the son of another man died 
tlirough sickness, but while his friends were preparing the 
last offices, one of them induced them to anoint the corpse of 
the boy with oil of the holy Stephen. They did so, and he 
re(juickencd. Again, a thane brought the corpse of his son 
to the beforesaid memorial of the holy martyr, and with great 
weeping prayed to him, and after his prayer he raised the 
child up ({uickened and sound. 

If \\v will record all the wonders and cure.s that we know 
to have been performed by the glorious martyr Stephen, then 
may we make many books before we gather them all ; and 
though they may not all be gathered, vet are tliere some 
which I may iu)t pa>^s in silence. A woman of noble birth 
WHS greatly afllictcd with long sickness, and no Icechcraft 
avaiU'd her au;4ht. Tlicn a Jewish man counselled her to take 
a wart from an ox's back, and tie it to a ring with her fillet, 
and with that gird her naked body. Shi then so girded went 
to the church of the holy martyr, that she might there by 
prayer ol)tain her health. (Jn the way she pitched her tent 
by tlu" ri\er which is called Bagrada, and at earlv morn 
journeyed on, as she had intended. There she saw Iving 
ln'f(Me lur on the way the ring togrther with the fillet, and 
thereat greatly wondered. She imagined that the ring hat! 
burst, or that the fillet had become loose ; but when she found 
the ring whole, and the fillet with all its knots as firudv bound 
as it was before, then understood she that that wonch'r hap- 
pened through the holy might to which sin* was bending her 
way, and firmly trusted that her health was at hand through 
his merits, and cast the ring with the bands int(» the fl«)wing 
stream. She went then with cheerful mind to the holy 
church, and there obtained her health, through the interces- 
sion of the holy martyr. 

One wonderful miracle took i)lace at the memorial of the 
saint, so ci-lpbr.itrd, I \\cn), th;it thrre were fvw in the 



30 NATALE S. STEPHANI PROTOMAR'n'RIS. 

I^aet ne gesawe, o^Se ne gehyrde. Seofon gebroSru waeroii 
and ^reo geswustra, anre wydewan cild, on Saere byrig 
Cappadocia, ae]?elborenre maeg^e. pa wearJS sco uiodor biter- 
lice gcgremod, aefter hire weres forSsiSe, fraui liire anum 
cilde, to "San swi^e ]?aet heo on Easter-tide eode to cyrcan, 
and wolde ^one sunu j^e hi getirigde mid wyriungum gebin- 
dan. pa gemette heo aenne deofol on niannes hiwe, se befrun, 
hvvider heo woldc. pset earnie wif andwyrde, and c\va?c), )7a?t 
heo wolde to cyrcan gan, and \}one sunu be hi tirigde awyrian. 
pa andwyrde se deofol on |?am nienniscum hiwe, " Riht «Su 
dest and vvel, gif ^u calle Sine cild tosoinne wyrigst ; forlSan 
^e hi ealle on andwyrdny.sse stodon, SaSa se an Se tynde, and 
noldon )?e ealgian wi5 hcora brcSer ; ne hi Sinnc tconan ne 
besargodon : wyrig hi calle toga^dere." pa^t earnie uif gc- 
lyfde his Wfelhreowuni geSeahtc, and wcarS mid niaran wod- 
nysse astyrod. Eode ]»a to Sam fantfete, and tolysde hire 
feax, and bcdyptc on Sam fanto, and mid miceire hathcort- 
nysse ealle hire bcarn miinfuUice wirigde. .Efter })isum 
gecyrde ham, and gemette calle hire beam mid orma^tre 
cvvyliiiinge cwacigcnde eallum limuni. pa we ar'S heo mid 
miceire sarnysse Surhslegen, |);et heo swa micel man gefre- 
mode ; code iSa, and hi sylfe on grine aheng jnet heo fotum 
span. Witodlice se ylca deofol Se In tihte fer to Sjere man- 
fullican wyriunge, se hi eft siSSan to hire agenre hengene 
gelfprde. 

pa carman beam ne mihton Sa leng for sceame on )?a^re 
byrig a^olian, for -Ssere atelican cwacunge, ac ferdon wori- 
gende geond eallum Romaniscum ymbhw^rfte. Twegen 
jiissera becomon to us, broker and swuster, Paulus and Pal- 
ladia, wTdcu^e ^urh heora yrm^e. Hi comon twam wucan 
fcer Eastron, and daeghwomlice geneosodon ^a halgan cyrcan, 
on l^aere ^e wees J^aes wuldorfullan Stephanes gemynd, bid- 
dende J?aet he him God gegladode, and him ^a ^rran haele 
forgeafe. pa on ^am Easter-daege eodon hi, swa hi gewunode 
waeron, to j^aere cyrcan, and se broSor hine gebaed set )?am 
halgiim reliquium. pa wear^S he fa^rlice astreht, and slapen- 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. STEPHEN, PROTOMARTYR. 31 

neighbourhood who saw it or heard of it not. There were 
seven brothers and three sisters, children of one widow, 
in the city of Cappadocia, of a noble family. Now the 
mother was so bitterly irritated, after the death of her hus- 
band, by one of her children, that at Easter-tide she went 
to church, and would bind by curses the son who had pro- 
voked her. She then met a devil in man's i,'uise, who in- 
quired whither she was going. Tbe poor woman answered 
and said, tiiat she would go to church and curse the son 
who had provoked her. Then answered the devil in human 
form, " Right thou wilt do and well, if thou curscst all tliy 
children together; for they all stood present, when the one 
reviled thee, and would not defend thee against their brother ; 
nor lamented they thy injury : curse them altogether." The 
poor woman followed his barbarous counsel, and was troubled 
with greater frenzy. She then went to the font-vessel, and 
loosened her hair, and dipt it into the font, and with great 
fury sinfully curbed all her children. After this she returned 
home, and found all her children (juaking with immense tor- 
ments in every limb. riien was she penetrated with great 
sorrow for having perpetrated so great a crime ; and went 
and hung herself in the halter, that she had spvm with her 
feet. Verily the same devil who had ere instigated her to 
the wicked cursing, afterwards seduced her to her own hang- 
ing. 

The poor children then for shame could no longer remain 
in the city, on account of the h«)rrible (piaking, but went 
wandering over all the Roman dominion. Two of these came 
to us, brother and sister, Paul and Palladia, noted for their 
misery. Thev came two weeks before Easter, and daily visited 
the holy church, in which was the memorial of the glorious 
Stephen, prayitig that he would reconcile God to them, and 
give them their former health. Then on the Easter-day they 
went, as they were wont, to the church, and the brother 
prayed at the holy relics. He then* became siiddcnlv pro- 



3-2 NATALE S. STEPHANI PROTOMARTVRIS. 

duni gelicost Iseg, na swa-^eah cwacigeiidc, swa swa him on 
slcepe gewunelic wfces. Efiie, Sa he aras, and nateshwon ne 
cwacode, for^an ^e he wies gehjeled and stud gesund, sceaw- 
igende |?a ]7e hiiie sceawodon. Eornostlice hwa niilite (Sa 
forsuvvian Godes herunge ? SoSlice seo cyrce wcarS gefylled 
mid clypungum ^aes blissigendan folces, and hi urnon to nie, 
an aefter anum, ^aer ic inne stet 5a gearo to ganne ; tele aefter 
oSrum cydde me J>aet wundorlice Godes tiicn, and ic S^s 
niicckim Gode Sancode. pa fet nextan stop inn sc geh;pleda 
cniht, and hine to niiinnn cneowum gebigde, and ic iiine to 
niinmncosse anerde. Ic eode 5a to Godes 5eiiunge, and |>a"t 
folc gebletsode, and him Godes gerihtn dyde. Ic gehi5ode 
|?one gchjelcdan cniht to urum geroorde, and he us rclite ealle 
his broSerlicere and moderhcere yrm^e racu. On ISam 5rid- 
dan Easterlicum dfpge ic bet standan \>ouc geb.eledan broker 
aetforan ^am folce, and liis swuster samod, and ic him rehte 
5a race be endebyrdnysse. pa^t folc bchcohl pone bro5cr 
standan buton fitclicere cwucungo, and sco swuster ealhim 
limum egeslice cwacode. pa 5e bine a»r ne gesawon, and 
nyston fram Invilccrc yrm5e Godes mihibeorttiys hine ge- 
hailde, lii militon tocnawan on 5aere swuster bifunge. 

pa bet ic aefter tStcre gereccednysse in h\\c«tlnvega ufor 
gan ; and ic ougann be ^am cu5an intiiigan liwfethwega 
geornlicor smeagan. Efne 5a faerlice wurdon gehyrede o5re 
clypunga niwre blisse of )?a?s martyres gemynde, and pa^t 
folc beah ^yderweard. Seo cwacigende swuster code of 5am 
stffipum, ]^e heo on astod, to 5am halgan cy5ere, wolde hi 
gebiddan, and heo ^ferrihte, swa heo j^aet gesceot hrepode, 
laeg swilce heo mid slaepe fornumen waere, and aras si55an 
hal. paet folc 5a mid miceh'e faegnunge, and singalre herunge, 
hi gelaeddon to ^aere stowe paer heo lytle aer cwacigende stod, 
and micclum faegnodon j;aet heo vvaes J>am bre5er gelic, 5am 
■5e heo hwene ter ^urh '5a egeslican bifunge ungelic wees. 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. STEPHEN, PROTOMARTYR. 33 

strated, and lay most like to one sleeping-, yet not quaking, 
as was usual with him in sleep. Lo, he then arose, and 
quaked not at all, for he was healed and stood sound, looking 
on those who looked on him. Who could then refrain from 
uttering the praise of God ? Verily the church was filled 
with the exclamations of the rejoicing people, and they rati 
in to me, one after another, where I was sitting, ready to go ; 
each after other declared to me the wonderful nnracle of 
God, and I greatly thanked (jod f(»r it. At last in slept the 
healed youth, and howed himself to niv knees, and I raised 
him to my kiss. I went then to God's ministry, and hlessed 
the people, and celehrated God's rites hefore them. I in- 
vited the healed ytuith to our refection, and he related to us 
all the history of his fraternal and maternal misery. On the 
third Easter-day, I desired the healed hrother to stand hefore 
the people, and his sister with him, and I recounted to them 
the story from heginning to end. The people heheld the 
hrother standing without the horrible (juaking, and the sister, 
ill all her limbs, ([uaked dreadfully. Those who had not seen 
him before, aiul knew not from what misery God's mercy 
had healed him, they might know it by the trembling of the 
sister. 

After the narrative, 1 bade them go a little higher, and I 
begati to iiKjuire somewhat more diligently concerning this 
notable matter. Behold then suddenly other exclamations of 
new joy were heard from the martyr's memorial, and the people 
bent their course thitherwards. The (juaking sister had gone 
from the steps on which she had stood to the holy martyr, she 
wished to pray, and straightways, as she touched the railing, 
she lay as if she had been seized with sleej), and afterwards 
rose up hale. The people then, with great rejoicing and in- 
cessant praise, led her to the place where a little before she 
had stood (juaking, and greatly rejoiced that she was like to 
her brother, to whom a short time previously, through that 
dreadful trembling, she was unlike. All then together re- 

iiOM. yoL. 11. u 



34 NATALE S. STEPHAM I'ROTOMARTYRIS. 

IhviBt ^a, ealle saniod blissodon on Godes herungum swa 
micclimi, j^aet ure earan earfo^lice mihtoii hcora stemiie 
arsefnian. Hwfet wfes on JSfera blissigendra heortan buton 
Godes geleafa, for San pe Stcphanes blod agotcn wtes ? 
Hvvaene niaersiaS j^aswundra mid lieora seSungc buton Crist, 
)7e on so^re menniscnysse geboren wfes, and mid flaesce of 
dea^e aras, and mid flaesce to hcofonum astah r Witodlice 
^es halga cy^ere and his ;eftcrgcngan waTon gewitan |>yscs 
geleafan, and Sisum gelcafan hi cyddon gecySnyssc, ofer- 
swi^ende |;isne feondlican iniddancard, na ongcan foolitcndo, 
ac sweltende. 

pes eadiga wcr, Stcplianus, pc \vc ymbc sprccaS, and mid 
cyrclicum Senunguni wurJJiaS, is se forma cyScre, J>e iercst 
feftcr Cristes upstige to heofonan rice wuldorful bcconi. He 
filigde Cristes fotswaSum swiJSe nean, and his gebysnunge 
arfjestlice geefenhehte. Crist mihlheortlice his cwcllcrum 
to Sam ^Elmihtigum F.'rdcrgcSingode, j'aSa he on rode-heng- 
ene ahafen wa s, jnis cweSendc, " Min Drihtcn, miltsa liim : 
nyton hi hwc'pt hi doS." Eft, se halga Stcphanus under )'ani 
heardum stanuni his cncowa gcbigde, and for his staenen(hui 
slagan ]>us b;ed, " Drihten min, ne sete \>\i him Sas da^da to 
synne." He is fyrmest on martyrdome, and fyrmest on 
lareowdome, for San ]>e he ealhnn ey Serum Cristes bysnc 
aeteowode, betwux Sam he hylt ealdordom a buton endc. 

Nis nanum men al\ fed j'lEt lie oSerne wyrige, forSan J^e 
se apostol Paulus cwyS, j?a?t Sa wyrigendan Godes rice ne 
geagnia^. Ne wyrige nan man oSerne, ne yfeles ne wisce, 
J>y-l8es ^e he Surh Sa wyriunge his sawle swilce mid deoflicum 
rapum gewri^, and Sa wrace Srowige on his gaste \>c |>a't wtf 
on liehaman Srowade, ]^e be deofles raede hire agenne team 
mid wyriunge geyrmde, and hi sylfe mid grine acwealde. 
Gyman ealle fa?deras and moddru ))fet hi heora cild mid 
gramlicum wyriungum deofle ne betfficon ; and warnian Sa 
beam }>ifit hi na^er ne fteder ne moder mid teonan ne ge- 
tyrion to heora wyriungum ; forSan hit is awriten on Godes 



THE NATIVITV OF ST. STEPHEN, PROTOMARTVR. 35 

joiced with praises to God so greatly, that our ears might 
hardly endure their voices. What was in the heart of those 
rejoicing hut the praise of God, for wlioni the hlood of 
Stephen had heen shed ? Whom do these miracles with their 
confirmation magnify, hut Christ, who was horn in true 
humanity, and with flesh arose from death, and w ith flesh 
ascended to heaven ? Verily the holy martyr and his succes- 
sors were witnesses of this hclief, and to this helitf they hore 
testimony, overcoming this hostile world, tiot hy fighting 
against it, but by dying. 

This blessed man, Stephen, concerning whom we speak, 
and with churcli services honour, is the earliest martyr, who 
first, after Christ's iu*cension, came glorious to the kingdom 
of heaven. lie followed the footsteps of Christ very near, and 
piously imitated his example. Christ mercifully interceded 
for his murderers to the Almi^^hty Father, when he was raised 
on the cross, thus saying, " My Lord, have mercy on them : 
thev know not what thev do."' Afterwar<l> the ludv Stephen 
under the hard stones bowed his knees, and for his stoning 
slayers thus prayed, *' My Lord, lay not thc.HC deeds to them 
as sin." He is fir>t in martyrd(»m, and first in teacher.'«hip, 
for he manifested Christ's example to all martyrs, among 
whom he hcdds precedence erer without end. 

It is permitted to no man to curse another, for the apostle 
Paul says, that the cursers shall not possess the kingdom of 
God. Let no man curse nor wifh evil to another, lest through 
that cursing he hind his soul, as it were, with devilish ropes, 
and sufl'er in his spirit that penalty which the woman suflVred 
in body, who, through the counsel of the <levil, afflicted her 
own family with cursing, and destroyed herself with a halter. 
Let all fathers and mothers take heed that they with cruel 
curses deliver not their children to the devil ; and let the 
children be careful not by contumely to provoke cither father 
or mother to curse them ; for in God's law it is written. 



36 SERMO IN AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

fe, " Arwur^a ^inne fajder and ]>'me moder, )>8et ]>n lang lif 
ofer eorSan wunie." Ne meeg nan man oSerne wyrian, and 
him sylfum gebeorgan ; ac he fordeS his agene sa\A Ic mid 
)?8ere manfullan wyriunge, getiniige Sam oSrum swa him ge- 
timige. Ure tunge is gesceapen to Godcs herungum, and to 
gesceadwisum spreecum, na to deofollicum wyriungum. Ne 
magon we mid aninn mu^e blctsian and wyrian. 

Mine gebro^ra, understandaJi pis : ne slihJS se dcma )>one 
forscyldgodan sceaiSan, ac he haet his underlSeoddan hine 
belifian. Witodhce se ^e o^erne wyrigS, he set hine sylfne 
to deman, and God to slagan. ponne he bitt ]?aet God pone 
oSerne fordon sceolc, hwiet deS he bonne baton swilce he 
deme, and God slea ? Uton boon gemyndigc hwjet Driiitcn 
be ^ysum ta^hte : he cwfeS, " LufiaJS eowrc fynd, doiS J?am 
tela "Se eow hatiaS, and gebiddacS for eowcrum chterum and 
tynendum, j'jet ge boon cowrcs Fa?der bcarn srbc on licofonum 
is." Sy him wuldor and lof a on ccnyssc. Amen. 



VIII. IDUS IAN. 
SERMO IN AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

DES daeg is gehaten on bocum Swutelung-DjEG, forSan 
pe on "Sisum dtege wearJS Crist mancynne geswutclod, merest 
^am prym cynegum, ]>e him lac brohton, and eft gewislicor 
■SaSa he on byssum dfege gefullod waes. 

Se iElmihtiga Godes Sunu, paba he mann beon wolde, ^a 
sende he his bydel toforan him, lohannem pone Fulluhtcre, 
paet he sceolde Cristes to-cyme mannum cyban,paet hi, Surh 
"bone bydel, gelyfdon on bone godcundan Cyning. Se Johan- 
nes waes acenned swa swa o^re menn beo^, of feeder and of 
meder, and wees anfeald man, moere and gebungen, swa swa 
Crist be him cw*^, " paet on wifa bearnum naPS nan meerra 



SERMON OX THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 37 

" Honour thv father and tliv mother, that thou mayest live a 
long life on earth." No man can curse another and secure 
himself; for he fordoes his own soul with that wicked cur- 
sing, betide to the other whatever may betide. Our tongue 
is shapen for praises of God, and to rational speeches, not 
for devilish cursinirs. With one mouth we may not bless 
and curse. 

My brothers, understand this : the judge slays not the 
condem?ied robber, but he commands his sid)ordinates to 
deprive him of life. But he who curses another sets himself 
up as judge, and God as the slayer. Wlicn he prays that 
God shall fordo the other, what does he then but as though 
lie judges and (iod slays? Let us be mindful of what the 
Lord taught concerning this : he said, " Love your foes, do 
good to those who hate you, and pray for your persecutors 
and calumniators, that ye be children of your Father who is 
in heaven." Be to him glory ami praise ever to eternity. 
Amen. 



JANUARY VI. 
SERMON ON THE LORD'S EPNMIANV. 

THIS day is called in books ^L^^IFESTATIo^•-DAV, because 
on this day Christ was manifested to mankind, first to the 
three kings, who brought him gifts, and again, more espe- 
cially, when he on this day was baptized. 

The Almighty Son of (iod, when he would be man, sent 
his proclaimer before him, John the Baptist, to annoimce the 
advent of Christ to men, that they, through that proclaimer, 
might believe in the divine King. John was born as other 
men are, of father and of mother, and was a simple man, 
great and illustrious, as Christ himself said of him, " Tliat 
among the children of women there was no greater man than 



38 SERMO IN AEPIPHAMA DOMINI. 

mann ]?oniie lohannes se Fulluhtere." Crist naes na of wife 
acenned, ac wees of maedene, forSi na^s he geteald to Syssere 
wiSmctennysse. lohannes, "Sat^a he gestiSod wfes, tSa wolde 
he forbugan ^a unSeawas \>e nienn bcgaS, and ferde "Sa to 
westene, and ^fer wunode, oS));et he fulhveaxen wtes, and fjaer 
swi^e sti^lice leofode : ne dianc he na^or ne M'ln, ne beor, 
ne eaUi, ne nan Sfera wietan 5e nienn of (h-uncniaS ; ac set 
him ofet, and j^tet ]net he on \vuda findan niilite. Eall his 
reaf wees geworht of oluendcs ha're. pa^a he geSogen wies, 
)>a com him to Godes bcbod, )';pt he sceoUle faran to mannmn, 
and bodian fuUuht on synna forgifenysse, and sceoklc fulhan 
J^aet folc 5e liini to come mid his iigenum fulluhtc, on 5am 
fuUuhte n«'es nan synne forgifcnyss ; and he gceolde eac cySan 
ymbe Cristes fulhiht, J>e towcard wtes, on bam "Se beoS calle 
synna forgyfeiie. 

lohannes com "Sa, sua sua him beboden wjrs, to JSare eii 
J^e is gehaten lordanis, and cl) pode to ealhini f(dce, and bus 
cvvfe^, " Behreowsiab eowrc synna, and wyrcab da'dbote, 
forSan |)e Godes rice gencahehS :" ct reli(iiia. pas word he 
clypode be Criste, forbi j'c Cristes fuUuht bwehlS J;one man 
aegSer ge utan ge innan : ]);pt water wibutan, and se Ilalga 
Gast wiSinnan. lohannes fuUuht Swoh ))one mannan wib- 
utan, and nan Sing wiSinnan, forSi 5e he ne seaUle nane synne 
forgifenysse, swa swa Crist dyde ))urh 5one Ilalgan Gast. 

paSa Crist wws j'ritig wintra, j?a com he on Sisuni dtege 
to lohannes fulluhtc, ict bfere ea ))e is gehaten lordanis, and 
w^olde beon gefullod st his handum. DatSa lohaimes hine 
geseah cumende to liim, ]?a cwifiS he be him, " Her geeS 
Godes Lamb, se^e aetbryt and adylega^ middaneardes synna. 
Be "Sysum ic seede eow aer, ^ Se be iefter me cymS, he is be- 
foran me, forban ^e he wees eer ic gewurde.' " He cwte^ J>a to 
Criste, " La leof, ic sceal beon gefullod fet ^inum handum, 
and ]>u cymstto minum fuUuhte." Crist ^a him geandwyrde, 
" Lffit nil bus, and gebafa "bis ; swa unc gcdafenab, \nBt wit 
gefyllon calle rihtwisnysse." lohannes ba gebafode ]>iei he 



SERMON ON THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 39 

John the Baptist." Christ w»as not of woman born, but was 
of a maiden, therefore was he not reckoned in this comparison. 
John, wlien he was grown up, would eschew the vices which 
men commit, and went to the wilderness, and there dwelt 
until he was full-grown, and there lived very rigidly : he 
drank neither wine, nor beer, nor ale, nor any of those li(}Uors 
from which men become drunk ; but ate fruit, and what he 
could find in llie wood. All his raiment was wrought of 
camels' hair. When he was grown to maturity, God's com- 
mandment came to him, that he should go to men, atid preach 
baptism in forgiveness of sins, and should bapti/e the people 
who came to him with his own baptism, in which baptism 
there was no forgiveness of sin ; and he should also declare 
concerning Christ's baptism, whicii was to come, iti which 
all sins are forgiven. 

John came then, as he had l)cen commanded, to the river 
which is called Jordan, and cried to all the people, and thus 
said, *' lli'pent your sins, and do penance, for the kingdom 
of God draweth near," etc. These words he cried of Christ, 
because Christ's baptism washes the man Ivith without and 
within : the water without, and the IIol\ Ghost within. 
John's baptism washed the man without, and not within, for 
ho gave no forgiveness of sin, as Christ did through the 
Holy (ihost. 

AVIien Cliri^t was thirty years old, he came on this day to 
John's baptism, at the river which is called .Jordan, ajid 
would be baptized at his hands, ^Vhen John saw him coming 
to him, he said of him, " Here cometh the Lamb of God, 
who takcth away and extirpateth the sins of the world. Of 
this one I said to \f)U before, * He who cometh after me is 
before me, for he was before I was.' " He then said to Christ, 
" () beloved, I should be baptized at thy hands, and tlio\i 
comest to my baptism." Christ then answered him, "SulTer 
it now thus, and consent to this ; so it befittcth us to fulfil 
all righteousness." John then consented tr) baptize Christ, 



40 SElliMO IX AEPIPHAXIA DOMINI. 

Crist gefuUode. pa^a he gefullod wfes, )?a wearci seo heofon 
geopenod biifon his heafde, and Godcs Gast com on anre 
culfran hiwe, and gesfet bufon Criste ; and |>ces Fflpder stemn 
clypode of heofonuni, and }ms cwee^, " pes is niin leofa Sunn, 
and he me wel licaS." 

Her sind hranllice gestede micele Codes wundra, and we 
behofia'5 J>aet we wtsra lareou a trahtnunga be Sisum "Singum 
understandan. lohannos cwa^S be Criste, j^iet he ware Codes 
Lamb, seSe fetbrude middaneardes synna. God sette on 
Saere ealdan te, and het ninian anes geares himb set felcum 
hiwisce, and snician on Easter-tide, and wyrcan mid j^aes 
himbes blodc rode-tacn on heora gedyrum, and on oferslegum, 
and braedan |>a't liimb, and hit swa ^icgan ; gif JJajr hwjjet 
laefde, forba'rnan : and ht wjeron 5a jnirh \r.vt gebletsode and 
gescyhle wiJS deofol. pis nis nu alyfed nanum men to donne, 
forSan <Se ]>iea himbes siege getacnode Cristes sk*ge. He no 
wiSerode ongean, ne ne fealit )'e swi5or ]>e himb deS, ac ge- 
■Safode swibe geJSyldelice pa^t he wa;re geofTrod for ealles 
middaneardes symmm ; forSi buton he JSrowode for us, ne 
mihte ure nan cuman to Godcs rice. 

Criste wolde beon gcfuUod, na forJSi Se him neod Wccre 
{finiges fuUuhtcs, forSi «Se he nwfre nane synne ne geworhte, 
ac he wokle mid his eadmodnysse astellan 5a bysne, j^aet nan 
cyniiig ne nan rice man ne sceolde jnncan to huxlic ]>iBt he 
gebugc to Cristes fuHuhte, )>a5a he sylf gemedcmode j^tet he 
wolde gebigan his halige heafod to his Seowan handum. Da- 
"Sa he into 5am waitere code, "Sa waes jjset waiter and ealle 
wyll-springas gchalgode ]nirh Cristes lichaman to urum ful- 
lulite. Micel vvaes Cristes eadmodnys, "SaSa he com sylf to 
"Sam Fulluhtere; and micel waes lohannes eadmodnys, 5aSa 
he ne dorste Crist gefuUian, aer^an ^e he gehaten Wres ; ac 
forSi ]?e nan eadmodnys nis fulfremed, buton hire gefera beo 
gehyrsunmys, ]>n gefylde heeadmodlice piet ]>iet he terwi5s6c 
forhtigende. Se ILelcnd cwaeS, "GcSafa j'^et ic beo gefullod 



SERMON OX THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 41 

When he had been baptized, the heaven was opened above 
his head, and the Spirit of God came in the form of a dove, 
and sat above Christ ; and the voice of the Father cried from 
heaven, and thus said, " This is my beloved Son, and he well 
plcaseth me." 

Here great wonders of God are (juickly said, and it be- 
hoves us to understand the commentaries of wise instructors 
concerning these things. John said of Christ that he was the 
Lamb of God, who should take away the sins of the world. 
God appointed in the old law and commanded a lamb of one 
year to be takt-n of every family, and slain on Easter-tide, 
and to make with the blood of the lamb the sign of the cross 
on their door-posts and on the lintels, and roast the lamb, and 
so eat it ; if there were any left, to burn it : and they wore then 
blessed through tbat, and ^liicldrd against the devil. Tiiis is 
not allowed now to anv ukui to do, because the slaving of the 
lamb betokened the slaying of Christ. He resisted not, nor 
fought more than a lamb dots, but consented very patiently 
to be sacrificed for the sins of all the world : because, unless 
he had sufTered for us, none of us could come to the kingdom 
of God. 

Christ would be baptized, not because he needed any bap- 
tism, for he had never wrought any sin, l)\it he would by his 
humility set the example, that no king nor powerful man 
should think it too degrading to submit to Christ's baptism, 
when he himself vouchsafed to bow his holy head to the hands 
of his servant. AVhen he went into the water, then was that 
water and all well-springs hallowed 1)\ Christ's body to our 
baptism. Great M-as Christ's humility, when he himself came 
to the Baptist ; and great was the humility of John, when he 
durst not baptize Christ, ere he was commanded ; but because 
no humility is perfect, unless its companion be obedience, he 
then performed humbly that which he had before refused from 
fear. Jesus said, " Consent that I be baptized at thy hands 



42 SERMO IN AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

fet ■Sinum handum on wsetere, and 5u sibSan, swa swa ^u 
gewilnast, beo eet minum handum gcfullod \>\irh bone Halgan 
Gast : swa wit sceolon gefyllan ealle rihtwisnysse;" )'<et is 
•Sa soban eadmodnysse. 

Heofonas weeron geopcnodc bufon Cristc, baSa he gcfullod 
w«es, and him to com se Halga Gast. ^Efre him waeron 
heofonas geopenode, and wfre him waes se Ilalga Gast mid- 
wunigende : ac ]>'ceX getaciiab ]?{Et us bib gcopcnod heofonan 
rice sefter urum fulluhte, and se Ilalga Gast, purli his gife, 
onbryrt ure mod to telccre godnyssc, gif we hine ne drifab 
fram us mid yfclum weorcum. 

Pier com ^a stemn )>h^s Feeder of hcofoinun, buscwebende, 
"Des is min leofa Sunu, be me wel licab." Sob is ]fiet se 
seahn-wyrlita to Gode gecwjeb, " Drihten, bine gecj-^bnyssa 
sindon swibe gelcaflicc." II u niihte bcon marc gocybnys be 
Criste ];onne bier gcdon wies ? pivv stod se Suiui on bfere 
menniscnyssc, and se Feeder clypode of hcofonum, and se 
Halga Gast nibcr astah to Cristc. pair wfes ba eal sco Ilaligc 
Drynnys, seobe is an God untodadcdlic. Se Fanlcr nis of 
nanum obrum gecumcn, ac he wsrs iefrc God. Se Sunu is of 
"bam Fieder call ]nct lie is, na gcworht ne gesceapen, ac acen- 
ned ffifre of bam Fa^der, for|;an be he is ^ffis Feeder Wisdom, 
J?urh "bone he geworhte calle gesccafta. Se Ilalga Gast is 
Lufu and Willa )'a^s Ffcdcr and ]>ies Sana ; and hi siiuloii ealle 
gelice mihtigc, and icfre hi bry an God untodicledlic : ]u-y on 
liadum, and an on Godcundnysse, and on gecynde, and on 
eallum weorcum. Ne trucab hcora nan ana burh unmihte, 
ac "burh gecynde anre Godcundnysse hi wyrca^ ealle aefre an 
weorc. Nis na se Feeder mid jjsere menniscnyssc befangen, 
ne se Halga Gast, ac se Sunu una ; beah-hwsebere hi ealle 
"bry ]78et gera^ddon and gefremodonj )?aet se Sunu ana p»a men- 
niscnyssc undcrfeng. 

Lytel wses se Halga Gast gebuht, ^a(Sa he waes gesewen 
on anre culfran anlicnyssc, ac hwae^ere he is swa micel pact 
he is .Elmihtig God, and he gefylb ]?urh hine sylfne ealle ^as 



SERMON ON THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 43 

in water, and be thou afterwards, as thou desirest, baptized 
at my hands through the Holy Ghost : so wc sliall fulfil all 
righteousness;" that is the true huuiility. 

The heavens were opened above Christ, when he was bap- 
tized, and the Holy Ghost came to him. Ever were the 
heavens opened to him, and ever was lie co-existing with the 
Holy Ghost : but that betokens to us that the kingdom of 
heaven will be opened to us after our baptism, and the Holy 
Ghost, through his grace, will stinmlate our minds to every 
goodness, if we drive him not from us with evil works. 

There came then the Father's voice fr»)m heaven, thus say- 
ing, " This is my beloved Son, who well pleaseth me." True 
is that which the psalmist said to (lod, " Lord, thy testi- 
monies are very faithful." How couUl there be a greater 
testimony of Christ than was there given ? There stood the 
Son in human nature, and the Father cried from heaven, and 
the Holy Ghost descended to Christ. There was then all the 
Holy Trinity, which is one God indivisible. The Father is 
not come of any other, for he was ever (lod. The Son is of 
the Father all that he is, neither made nor created, but ever 
born of the Father; for he is the ^Visdom of the Father, 
through whom he made all creatures. The Holy Ghost is 
the Love and Will of the Father and nf the Son ; and they 
arc all alike mighty, and those three ever one God indivisi- 
ble : three in persons, and one in Godhead, and in nature, 
and in all works. Not one of them fails alone through weak- 
ness, but through the nature of one Go<ihcad they all work 
ever one work. The Father is not invested with humanity, 
nor the Holy Ghost, but the Son only ; nevertheless they all 
counselled and efTected, that the Son alone should assume 
humanity. 

Little did the Holy Ghost seem, Mhen he appeared in the 
likeness of a dove, but yet he is so great that he is Almighty 
God, and he fills of him>elf all this world, as it is written of 



44 SERMO IN AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

woruld, swa swa be him awriten is, " Godes Gast gcfylS 
ealre eor^an ymbhwyrft," ^Efter Cristas browuuge and his 
upstige, com se Halga Gast bufan bam apostohim on fyres 
hivve, and )?set htis call gefylde mid fyre, ^ter Saer hi inne 
Scieton, swilce hiteal burne ; and se Ilalga Gast 5a heora ealra 
mod, ]?e ^ffir-inne wseron, |>fet sindon, an hund manna and 
tvventig manna, swa onbryrdc and ona-lde, j^a^t hi cubon tele 
gereoid \>e on middanearde is, and hi burh Sone lialgan Gast 
ealle ^a bee and ^one wisdom awriton and asctton be Godes 
]?eowas rseda^ geond calle ^as wornld ; and hi \\ ;eron swa 
gehyrte, ]>fEt hi him ne ondredon nabor ne hfebenra cyninga 
|?eowraean, ne nanes cynnes pinunga, ac cpfre hi bodedon )>am 
folce rihtiie gclcafan, and Godes m<£rba, and his mildlicort- 
nysse, ob heora lifes geendunge. 

liwT com se Ilalga Gast ba on fyres hiwe ofer bam apo- 

stolon, and ofer Criste on his fulhihte on culfran gclicnysse ? 

Nis ■bees Ilalgan Gastes gecynd oj'j'c micehiyss on bam hTwe 

wmiigcnde be he ba on gesewen wa^s, ac he com ofer Criste 

on culfran hiwe, forbi ])iei he wolde getacnian mid )>am \net 

Crist waes on bijere menniscnysse swibe libe and uiihearm- 

georn. He ne cidde, ne he ne lirymde betwux mannum, ne 

he sace ne astyrede, ne he biterwyrde n;es ; ac mid ealre lib- 

nysse and sobre lufe he drohtnodeon bisum life. We nedab 

on bocum be "baere culfran gccynde, ]npX heo is swibe gesibsum 

fugel, and unsciebbig, and buton geallan, and unrebe on hire 

clawuni ; ne heo ne leofab be wyrmum, ac be eorblicum 

waestmum. For bjere unsctebbignysse waes se Halga Gast 

asteowed bufon Criste on j^aes fugeles hiwe. pa apostoli wteron 

gecorene and gesette lareowas eallum mancynne ; ]n\ com se 

Halga Gast ofer him on fyres hiwe, to ^i ]?aet hi sceoldon 

beon byrnende and caue to Godes willan, and forniman aelcne 

un^eaw mid heora lare, swa swa fyr fornimb swa hwaet swa 

him to cym^. 

On twam hiwum waes se Halga Gast aeteowed, on culfran 
and on fyres, for J^am getacnungum ^e aelc cristen man hab- 



SERMON ON THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 45 

him, " The Spirit of God fillelh the circumference of all the 
earth." After Clirist's passion and liis ascension, the Holy 
Ghost came over the apostles in form of fire, and filled all 
the house with fire, where they sat within, so that it all 
burned ; and the Holy Ghost tiien so stinndated and fired 
the minds of all those who sat therein, that is, one hundred 
and twenty men, that they knew every tongue which is in 
the world, and, through the Holy (ihost, they wrote aiul 
establisiied all the books and the wisdom which God's ser- 
vants read throughout all this world ; and they were so 
animated that they dreaded neither the threats of heathen 
kings, nor torments of any kind, hut they ever preached to 
the people right belief, and the glories of God, and his mercy, 
to their life's end. 

Why came the Holy Ghost then in form of fire over the 
apostles, and over Christ at his baptism in likeness of a dove ? 
The nature and greatness of the Holy Ghost are not dwelling 
in the form in uliicli he was then seen, but he came over 
Christ in the form of a dove, because he uould thereby be- 
token that Christ in his humanity wa> very meek and harm- 
less. He eluded not, nor cried he among nu n, nor stirred 
he up strife, nor was he inclined to bitterness ; but with all 
meekness and true love he lived in this life. We read in 
books on the nature of tlic dove, that it is a very peaceful 
and innocent bird, ami without gall, and not fierce with its 
claws ; nor lives it on worms, but on earthly fruits. For its 
innocence the Holy Ghost appeared above Christ in the form 
of that bird. The apostles were chosen aiul appointed teach- 
ers to all mankind ; therefore came the Holy Ghost over them 
in form of fire, to the end that they might be ardent ami 
prompt for God's will, and consume every vice with their lore, 
as fire consumes whatsoever comes to it. 

In two forms the Holy Ghost appeared, in a dove's and in 
that of fire, for the qualities tiiat every christian man shall 



46 SERMO IN AEPIPIIANIA DOMINI. 

ban sceal, J^aet is, ]fpet he hfebbe bilewitnysse ^aere culfran, 
and hsebbe so^e sibbe to cristenum mannum, and beo butan 
biternysse, swa swa seo culfre is buton geallan, and ne be- 
gange nan reaflac, ne naiies marines ne ehte, 5e uia ]>e seo 
culfre de^. Beo he eac onbryrd and byrncnde on Godes lufe 
swa swa fyr, j^aet he celc yfel on him sylfum adwiesce, and 
eac on o^rum, ]?sev ^ter he mseg ; and gemetegie J?ifit fyr "5a 
bilewitnysse, )?ffit heo to slcac ne sy ; and eft gcteniprie seo 
bilewitnys )jcfit fyr, )j?p,t hit to re^e ne sy. 

Same men sind ge<Suhte bilcwite, ac hi sind sleace : hi sind 
gescwene mid liSnysse, ac heora liSnys is so^lice asolcennys 
and nytennys ; ac se man (Se n;efb Godes Gast on him, he 
nis na Godes. Se ^e facn lufaJS, and smeaS hu he mage him 
sylfum gestrynan and na Godc, luefS he na culfran JScawas, 
ac haefS ]>a?s blacan hrcmmes. Se be rcaflac lufaiS, he biS 
glida, and na culfre. 05re lytle fugelas sind la^ssan )>onne 
heo sy, and hwa'bere lu ofsleaS sum Sing, huru 5as fleogan ; 
ne de^ seo culfre na swa, ne Icofab heo be nanuin deaSe. 
Mare we mihton sprccan be Sjere culfran gccynde, gif hit to 
langsum neere. Uton habhan jegScr ge b«re culfran unscfe^- 
Signysse and ^les fyrcs bryne, ]>iPt we bcon ;pfrc .scinendc on 
bilewitnysse, and wcallendc on Godes lare. 

lu wieron sume gcdwolmen ]>c cvvaedon )>aet lohanncs ful- 
luht Wcpre mare and betere Sonne 'Sis fulluht sy |;e nu stent 
on Godes cyrcan, for<Si Jwt Crist waes gefullod on lohannes 
fulluhte ; ac hi dwelodon mid jnere spraece. Nfes nan synne 
forgifenys on lohannes fulluhte ; on urum fulluhte beo^ ealle 
synna adylegode. HwT Sonne fullode lohannes ? For^i jjaet 
he sceolde Crist fullian, seSe ne behofode nanre synne for- 
gifenysse. Hwi fullode he a ma manna );onne Crist £enne ? 
ForSi ]>ddt we ne sceoldon wenan J^aet his fulluht W{ere swa 
god, J>tet nan man ne moste beon on ^am gefullod buton Crist 
ana. Hwanon com lohanne ])xt fulluht ? Fram Criste. 
Ealle -Sing sind purh Crist geworhte. SoSlice swa swa he 
gesceop his agene moder Marian, and si^tJan wa?s geboren of 



SERMON ON THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 47 

have ; that is, that he have the meekness of the dove, and 
have true peace towards christian men, and be without bitter- 
ness, as the dove is without gall, and commit no rapine, nor 
persecute any man, any more than the dove does. Be he also 
stimuhited and burning for love of God as fire, that he may 
extinguish every evil in himself and also in others, whereso- 
ever he may ; and let the fire regulate the meekness, that it be 
not too slack ; and again let the meekness temper the fire, 
that it be not too fierce. 

Some men are thought meek, bvit they are slack : they 
appear with mildness, but their mildness is in sooth sloth 
and ignorance ; but the man who has not the Spirit of God 
in him is not of God. He who loves guile, and devises how 
he may gain for himself and not for God, has not the (juali- 
ties of the dove, but has those of the black raven. lie who 
loves rapine is a kite, and not a dove. There are other little 
l)irds less than it, and yet they slay something, flics at least ; 
the dove docs not so, it lives by no death. More could we 
say of the dove's nature, if it were not too longs(»mc. Let 
us have both the innocence of the dove and the heat of the 
fire, that we may be ever shining in meekness, and burning 
^vith the lore of God. 

Formerly there were some heretics who said, that John's 
baptism was greater and better than this baptism is which 
now stands in God's church, because Christ was baptized 
with John's baptism ; but they erred with that speech. 
There was no forgiveness of sin in John's baptism : in our 
baptism all sins are extirpated. Why then did John bai)tize ? 
Because he should baptize Christ, who needed no forgiveness 
of sin. "Why did he ever baptize more men than Christ 
only r Because we might not imagine that his baptism was 
so good, that no man might be baptized by it save Christ 
only. Whence came baptism to John ? From Christ. All 
things are wrought through Christ. Verily as he created 
his own mother Mary, and was afterwards born of her, so 



48 SERMO IN AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

hire, swa eac he forgeaf j'fet fulhiht lohanne, and wies eft 
gefullod a^t lohanne. Naes nanum men forgifen ])iet he nioste 
habban o^Se gecwe^an his agen fulhibt buton lohanne annm, 
and for^i he is gebaten lohannes se Fulhihtere. Hwilc ful- 
luht sealde he ? His agen fulluht, on nanre sj'iine forgife- 
nysse, ac to behreowsunge, and gearcunge to Cristes fuHuhte. 
pa men ]>e lohannes fulk)de, j^a wa^ron eft gcfuUodc on 
Cristes fulhihtc, forSan "5e hi nc inihton beon gehealdene |>iirh 
loliannes fulhihte. Ilwilc is ure fulhilit ]>e we beoJS on ge- 
fuHode ? Ic cwe^e, Cristes fulluht. Fcawa manna Crist 
sylf gefidlode, ac he forgeaf bone anweald iiis apostolon, and 
eallum gehadcdum mainium, )';et hi sceoldon fidlian mid 
Godes fulhihtc, on naman Sjerc Ilalgan Drynnysse; and swa 
gefullod mann ne bco na eft olSre siSe gefullod, )'a't ne sy 
forsewen |?{ere Ilalgan Drynnysse to-clypuug. 

Same lareowas sindon beteran Sonne sume, swa swa wapron 
}?a apostoli ; sunie sind waccran, swa swa we beoS ; nis hwfp- 
iSere forbi |wt fidluht, ^e we nu mid fulliaiS, mislic, \)iet is, 
na^or ne betere ne MTrse )>urh urum geearnungum, forban Se 
]78et fulluht nis nanes mannes, ac is Cristes, seSc «efre is god, 
)?eah iSe we wace sindon. peah Se hwa wiSsace Crist fcftcr 
his fulluhte, o^Se heafod-leahtras gewyrce, ne Scarf he beon 
eft gefullod, ac he sceal his synna bcwepan, and mid soSre 
behreowsunge gebetan, wftcr wfsra liircowa ticcungc ; and lie 
hsef^ ponne Godes rice. 

preo healice Sing gesette God mamnini to cla^nsunge : an 
1 1 is fulluht, oSer is husel-halgung, ))riddc is dredbot, mid ge- 
swicennysse yfelra dieda, and mid bigencge godra weorca. 
pffit fulluht us a|nvehS fram eallum synnum, se husel-gang 
us gehalga^, seo so^e dfedbot gehwlS ure misdfeda. Godes 
"Scow, seSe had underfehS, sceal beon on Sa wison gelogod 
])e God tffihte, and swa swa i5a waeron "Se Godes gelaSunge 
ffirest gesta^elodon. DoS swa swa Crist taehte. Gif se 
lareow riht taece, do gehwa swa swa he taec^ ; and gif he yfel 
bysnige, ne do ge na be his gebysnungum, ac doS swa swa 



SERMON ON THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 49 

also he gave baptism to John, and was afterwards baptized 
by John. To no man was it granted to have or announce 
liis own baptism, save to John only, and therefore he is called 
John the Baptist. What baptism did he give? His own 
baptism, with no forgiveness of sin, but for repentance and 
a preparation to the baptism of Christ. Those men whom 
John baptized were baptized again in Christ's baptism, i)e- 
cause they could not be saved through the baptism of John. 
\Vhich is our baptism in which we are baptized ? I say, 
Christ's baptism. Christ himself baptized few men, but he 
gave the power to his apostles and to all ordained men t^ 
baptize with Ciod's bai)tism, in the name of the Holy Trinity ; 
and let not a man so baptized be afterwards a second time 
baptized, that the invocation of the Holy Ghost be not con- 
tenmed. 

Some teachers are better than others, as were the apostles ; 
some are weaker, as we are ; yet the baptism with which we 
baptize is not on that account different, that is, neither better 
nor worse, throvigh our merits, because baptism is of no man, 
l)ut ih of Christ, who is ever good, though wc are weak. 
Though any one deny Christ after his baptism, or perpetrate 
deadly sins, he need not be again baptized ; but he shall 
bewail his sins, and with true repentatjcc atone for them, 
according to the teaching of wise doctors ; and he shall then 
have God's kingdom. 

Throe ])rincipal things God has appointed to men for puri- 
fication : one is baptism, the second is housel, the third is 
penance, with cessation from evil deeds and practice of good 
works. Baptism washes us from all sins, housel hallows 
lis, true penance heals our misdeeds. The servant of God 
who assumes orders should be disposed in the way taught by 
God, and as those were who first established God's church. 
Do as Christ taught. If the teacher teach right, let every 
one do as he teaches ; and if he give evil example, do ye not 
by his e.xamples, but do as he teaches. Every teacher shall 

HOM. VOL. 11. K 



Uc. 



50 SERMO IN AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

he taRC^. ^Ic lareow sceal agyldan gescead Gode ealra ^H?ra 
manna sawla ^e him betaehte syndon, to-eacan his agenre 
sawle : |7onne gif ^a lareowas wcl tfPcaS and wel bysniaS, 
];onne beoS hi gehealdonc. Gif hi" mist;eca5j obJSe mis- 
bysnia^, hi forpseraS hi sylfc. 

Be Saes folces gchyrsumnysse, c\va>;5 Crist to his hircowiun, 
" Se ^e eovv gehyrsumaS, he gehyrsumaS me ; and se 5e eow 
'A5_ forsih^, he forsihJS me." Uton beon gcmyndige h\v;et \\q 
Gode beheton on urun\ fulhihte. Xu cwej'st Su, ' llwaet 
behetic Sa^a ic ciUl wa?s, and sprccan ne mil.te ?' Wc ranhiS 
on i5am ealdum gcsctnyssum, ]net ^a halgan larcowas tahton 
J»onesoban gelcafan |nim mannum J)e to cristendomc gebugon, 
and axodon hi", hw.PiScr In \voklon wiJSsacan deofle, and on 
God gclyfan. IIi bchelon j'a't hf \v()hh)n swa don, and wur- 
don "Sa gefullode on halgum fantc, mid )>am bcliate. pa un- 
spreccndan ciUl In fulhjdon Surii gelcafan )>;ps fjpder and S;erc 
meder, and se godfanlcr Wies )>a^s ciUles forspreca and borh 
\vi5 God, ])a*t hit hcolde )'one cristcndoin I)c Godes ta>cunge ; 
for^an Se se cwydc is swiSe cgcsHc j'e Crist c\va*b, pfet nan 
ungefullod mann nc bccyniiS to Sam ccan life. Nu stent Seos 
gesetnys on Godes gelaSungc, jnet man Sa nnsprecendan cild 
fullige, and hi bcoS gehcaldene ]>urh oSra manna geleafan, 
swa swa hi wa^ron ]>urh oSra manna synna geniSerade ; for- 
"San iSe hit biS twylic, hwaeSer hit on life aSolige oSj^jpt hit 
))am lareowe mid gelcafan andwjrdan mage. 

We habbaS full swutele bysne pises Singes. Sum wTf waes 
"Se com to Criste, and ba^d for hire dehter, ])e Iteg on woduni 
dreame. pa cwae^ Crist to hire, ]>iP.t " hit n.-ere na rihtlic 
]7cEt man name his eiltlra hlaf, and wurpe hundum. Heo 'Sa 
andwyrde, Gca, leof Drihten, and ]>eah-hwa^^erc oft iSa 
hwelpas gelasccaS ];a cruman ];e fealla^ of |>;ps hlafordes beode. 
Da andwyrde se Htelend, and cwae^, Eala ^u wif, micel is 
■Shi geleafa : getimige ^e swa swa ^u wilt. Hire dohtor 
wear^ ]?terrihte gewittig." pa waes seo dohtor gehfelcd )?urh 
^ljji_^ geleafan Sjere meder ; swa bee's eac c)a ungewittigan cild 



SERMON ON THE LORD S EPIPHANY. 51 

render an account to God of the souls of all those men which 
are committed to him, in addition to his own soul : then, if 
the teachers teach well and give good example, they shall he 
saved. If they misteach, or give evil example, they destroy 
themselves. 

Concerning the people's obedience, Christ said to his teach- 
ers, " He who oheyeth you, obeyeth me ; and he who con- 
temnelh you, contenmelh me." Let us be mindful of what we 
promised to God at our baptism. Now \\\h thou say, ' ^^'hat 
did I j)r()mise when I was a child, and could not speak ?' 
We read in the old institutes, that holy teachers taught the 
true belief to those men who turned to tliristianity, and 
asked them, whether they would renounce tlir (li\il, and 
believe in God. They promised that they would do so, and 
were then baptized in the holy font, with that promise. Un- 
speaking chiklren they baptizi'd through the belief of the 
father and of the mother, and the godfather was the child's 
sponsor and surety to God, that it should hold Christianity 
according to God's teaching ; for the sentence is very awful 
that Chri^t spake. That no imbapti/.ed man shall come to 
eternal life. Now this law stands in (iod's church, that 
unspeaking children he baptized, and they shall be saved 
through the belief of other men, as through other men's sins 
they had been condemned ; for it is doubtful \\ hether it con- 
tinue in life until it can answer the teacher with belief. 

W c have a very manifest example of this thing. There 
was a woman who came to Christ, and prayed for her 
(laughter n\ ho lay in a fit of frenzy. Then said Christ to 
her, that " it were not right that one should take his chil- 
dren's bread and cast it to the dogs. She answered. Yes, dear 
Lord, and, nevertheless, the whelps often lick the crumbs 
that fall from the master's table. Then answered Jesus, and 
said, () thou woman, great is thy belief : betide thee as thou 
wilt. Her daughter straightways became sane." The?i was 
the daughter healed through the belief of the mother ; so are 

K 2 



52 SERMO IN AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

gehealdene on ^am fulluhte ];urh geleafan ^jes fteder and ^aerc 
meder, and ^urh foresprsece ]?aes godfseder. Se nisesse-preoi^t 
axa^ ]>iet cild, and cweJS, "WiSsaecst ^u deoflc ?" Donne 
andwyrt se godfeder ]>ies cildes wordum, and ewe?!, " le 
wi^sace deofle." ponne axaS he eft, " WiSsaecst 5u ealluni 
his weorcum ?" He cweS, " To wiSsace." He axaS J;riddan 
srSe, " WiSsfficst ^u ealluni his gctotuni ?" He cwyS, " Ic 
wi^sace." ponne hjefS he wiJSsacen, on Sisum JSryni wordum, 
deofle and ealluni leahtruni. Donne axa^ lie gyt, " Gelyfst 
^u on ^fere Halgan Drynnysse and soSre Annysse ?" He 
andwyrt, " Ic gelyfc." Se Godcs Sen befrinS j;onne gyt, 
" Gelyfst 'Su j'a^t we sceolon callc arisan niin urum lichanian 
on domes d.egc, togeanes Criste, and |>a't Ster gehwa onfo 
edlean ealra his weorca, swa swa lie <pr on life gecarnode?" 
He andwyrt, " Ic gclyfe." And se preost gefullaS |>a^t cild 
mid ])isuni geleafan. Hit wcxS, and g;eS forS, and ne cann 
l^yses geleafan nan iSing. Is nu forM micel neod gehwum 
J?{fit he leornige ;et his liireowc hu he his cristendom healdan 
sceole mid |)am soban geleafan ; and hu he mage deofol for- 
bugan and hclle-witc, and gecarnian \net ece lif and Sa ecan 
myrhSe mid Godc ; for^an Se se apostol Paulus spra^c swi^e 
egeslice be ungeh fedum mannum : he cw^eS, " pa Se Godes 
ie ne cunnon, and buton Godes a^ syngiaS, lit eac buton Godcs 
w losiaS." And eft, " Se mann ])e God forgyt, God forgyt 
eac bine." Uton don forSi swa swa se ylca apostol treble, 
" GenealaicaS to Gode, and God geneahebS to eow." And 
se seabn-scop us mynegaS eft, c)us cweiSende, " Eadig biS 
se wer seSe bine ondra^t (jod, and auent his willan to bis 
bebodum." 

To ^yssere eadignysse, and to "5;ere ecan eadignysse ge- 
bringe us se ^Imihtiga God, se^e leofa^ and rixat) a buton 
ende. Amen. 



SERMON ON THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 53 

also the witless children saved in baptism through the belief of 
the father and of tlic motiier, and through the sponsion of the 
godfather. The mass- priest asks the child, and says, " Dost 
thou renounce the devil ?" Then answers the godfather in 
the words of the child, and says, " 1 renounce tlie devil." 
Then again he asks, "Dost thou renounce all his works?" 
lie says, *' I renounce." lie asks a third time, " Dost thou 
renounce all his vanities ?" lie says, " I renounce." Then 
will he have renounced, in these three sentences, the devil 
and all sins. Then he yet asks, " Believest thou in the Holy 
Trinity and true Unity?" He answers, "I believe." The 
minister of God iiKjuires yet further, " Believest thou that 
we shall all arise with our bodies on doom's day before Christ, 
and that there every one will receive the reward of all his 
works, as he has merited in life ?" He answers, " I believe." 
And the priest baptizes the child with this belief. It waxes, 
and goes forth, and knows nothing of this belief. It is now, 
therefore, verv needful to every one to learn of his teacher, 
how he shall hold his Christianity with the true belief; and 
how he may eschew the devil and hell-punishment, and merit 
eternal life and eternal joy with God; for the apostle Paul 
spake very awfully concerning imbelieving men : he said, 
"Those who know not God's law, and sin without God's 
law, they shall also without (iod's law peri>h." And again, 
"The man who forgets God, God will also forget him." Let 
us do, therefore, as the same apostle taught, " Draw near 
unto God, and God will draw near imto you." And a^ain. 
the psalmist reminds us, thus saying, " Blessed is the man 
who feareth God, and turneth his will to (iod's command- 
ments." 

To this blessedness, and to the everlasting blessedness may 
the Almighty God bring us, who livelh and reigneth ever 
without end. Amen. 



54 



DOMINICA II. POST AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

NUPTIE facte sunt in Ghana Galileae : et reliqua. 

loliannes se Godspellere cwteS on \neTe godspcllican race, 
jjset " gifta waeron gewordene on anum tune ISe is gcciged 
Ghana, on ?ani Galilciscan cardc, and tSjer wjes Maria, \>ies 
Hfielendes nioder ; se Ilielciid \v;i\s cac gchiSod to ]'ani gift- 
uni: " et rclitjua. 

Se lareow Beda c\v;e^, ])jet Drihten hine sylfne geniode- 
mode pcfit he to woruhllicum giftuni gehiSod com, and In mid 
]>cxin forman tacne his wundra gehalgodc, to Si }>;et ho \\oUle 
geswutelian ]>iet JSa giftu beoi> l)crigcndlicc, Se for bearn- 
teame beoiS gefremode swiJSor )>oiuie for gahiyssc. ^Kfter 
gasthcum andgite Drihten com to giftum on iSisum middan- 
earde, forban Se he 5a halgan gehiSunge him to brydc gcccas, 
swa sua se apostol to geleaffuHum folce cwieS, *' Ic bewed- 
dode cow anum were, j'irtge gcarcian Griste an cUcne maHlcn." 
Grist is se cla^ia brydguma, and his gchiSung, |>;et is sec 
gclcaffullc menigu, is his bryd, seoISe acenS djeghwomlice *Sa 
gastlican cild )>urh geleafan and fuUuht, and swa-Seah JSurh- 
wunaS on chiMium mjpgShade. 

pa giftu wseron gcgcarcode on Sam tune ]>e is geciged 
Ghana Galilciscre scire. Ghana is gereht, ' linda,' and Gali- 
lea, * oferfterekl.' Anchi is twyfeakl, jnet is, yfel and god. Yfel 
biS se anda ))e andaS ongean godnysse, and se anda is god 
"be mid lufe andaS ongean yfehiysse, to ^i )>aet he yfel onscu- 
nige, and god lufige. pa be ]?us andiab ongean unriht, and 
farab fram leahtrum to UKcignum, hi belimpab to bam gast- 
licum giftum, J>a?t is, to Gristes geiabunge, seobe is ure gast- 
lice moder. 

Win ateorode aet bam giftum to bi ]>ast Drihten mid selran 
wine ]>ci gebeoras geghidode, and his godcundnysse mihta mid 
];ani tacne geopenode. Drihten cwae^ to his medcr, " F<emne, 
hvvcfit is mc and be to ban r" Swilce he cwfede, ' Ne wyrcb 



55 



THE SFXOND SUNDAY AFTER THE LORD'S EPIl'llA.NV. 

NUPTLE factK* sunt in Ghana GaUlcH" : ct reliqua. 

John the Evan^'clist says in this cvani^clical narrative, that 
" nuptials took phicc in a town which is called Cana, in the 
Galilean country, and there was Mary, the mother of Jesus ; 
Jesus was also invited to the iniptials," etc. 

The doctor Beda said, that the Lord vouchsafed to come 
invited to a worldly marriage, and hallowed it with the first 
token of his miracles, hecause he w<»uld manifest that that 
marriage is praiseworthy which is made rather for the sake 
of a family of children than for lust. According to its ghostly 
signification, the Lord came to a marriiige in this world 
because he had chosen the holy church for his bride, as the 
apostle said to the believing people, " I have wedded you to 
a man, that ye may prepare for Christ a pure maiden." 
Christ is the pure bridegroom, and his church, that is, the 
believing multitude, is his bride, who bears daily ghostly 
children through belief and baptism, and yet continues in 
pure maideidiood. 

The marriage was prepared in the town which is called 
Cana of the G.dilean province. Cana is 'iu\L'r\nQtei\ Jealoust/, 
and Galilea, /xissi/ii^ nrer. Jedousy is twofold, that is, 
evil and good. Evil is the jealousy which is jealous against 
goodness, and the jealousy is good which with love is jealous 
against evil, so that it may shun evil and love good. Those 
who are thus jealous against unrighteousness, and go from 
vices to virtues, belong to the ghostly marriage, that is, to 
Christ's church, which is our ghostly mother. 

Wine was wanting at the marriage, that the Lord might 
gladden the guests with better wine, and open the powers of 
his divinity with that miracle. The Lord said to his mother, 
" Woman, what is with me and with thee in this •' As if 



56 DOxMINICA II. POST AEPIPHANIA DOMIiNI. 

seo meniiiscnyss ^e ic of "Se genani )?aet tacn )>e iSu bitst, ac 
seo godcundnys j^e ic 5e mid geworhte. pomie min ^row- 
ung-tima cymS, ]?onne geswutelaJS seo menniscnys hire un- 
trumiiysse.' 

Ilydriae sind gehatene waeter-fatu, forSan 5e on Gieciscuin 
gereorde is waeter geciged *ydor.' Eornostlice wffter gctac- 
iia^ ingehyd haligra gewrita, }?aet a^weahiS his hi) steras frain 
synna horewum. pa btaMienan waeter-fatu sind estfuUe heort- 
aii haligra lareowa, |ki aheardia^ on stanes gecynde oDgcan 
deoffellicuin c(js;tnunguin. yEt bam giflum ascortode win, 
forSan 5e seo ealde gccySnys ateorode on Cristcs andwerd- 
nysse fram fl;csclicum weorcum, and wearb awend to gast- 
licum ^eawum. Swa micclum swa wTn is dcorwurvSre )?omic 
waeter, swa micclum is Cristcs hir, )'o he ]>uv\\ his andwerd- 
nysse hisapostolum ta^htc, deorwur^rc bonne w;ere seo ealde 
gesetnys, "be he j^urh Moysen gcdihle ; forban «Se Moyses je 
waes flaisclic, and Cristcs gesetnys is gastlic. Seo ealde a^ 
■waes swilce scadii and gctiicnung ; Cristcs bodung is sobfa>st- 
nys, and gcfylS gastlice swa hwa^t swa seo ealde gecySnys 
mid mislicum gesetnyssum getacnode. 

" -iEt ]>am giftum wa^ron gesette six stsenene wa?tcr-fatii, 
aifter biera ludeiscra chensunge, healdcndc tenlipige twyfealde 
gemetu, obSe |?ryfealde." Nis gecweden on bam godspelle, 
J?aet "Sa waeter-fatu, sume heoldon twyfealde gemetu, sume 
)?ryfealdc, ac tenlipige hi heoldon twyfealde gemetu, obSe 
bryfealde ; forban be ba halgan lareowas hwilon sprecab be 
bam yElmihtigan Faeder and his Sunu, hwilon swutoUice embe 
baere Halgan Drynnysse ; and j^eah be se Ilalga Gast ne 
beo swutollice genemned to bam Faider and to bam Suna, 
swa-'beah he bib symle baerto undcrgyten, for ban be he is 
heora begra Lufu and Willa, aefre mid him bam. pa ludeis- 
can waeron swa gebeawode ])<&i hi setton waeter-fatu on 
flora aet heora gebeorscipum ; and sceolde ielc be inn come 
his handa abwean, aerban 'be he gesaete, gif he buton tale 
beon wolde. pa waeron gesette for bam beawc six staenene 



THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 57 

he had said, ' The humanity whicli I have taken of thee 
worketh not the miracle which thou askest, but the divinity 
by which I have created thee. AVhcn my hour of suffering 
Cometh, then will the humanity manifest its weakness.' 

Water-vessels are called hydrife, because in the Greek 
tongue water is called vSwp. Now water betokens know- 
ledge of the lioly writings, which washes its hearers from the 
foulness of sins. The stone water-vessels are the devout 
hearts of holy teachers, which harden in the nature of stone 
against diabolical temptations. At the marriage the wine 
ran tihort, because the old law ceased in Christ's presence 
from fleshly works, and was turned to ghostly morals. By 
as nmch as wine is more precious than water, by so much is 
Christ's doctrine, which by his presence he taught to his 
apostles, more preciotis than was the old law, which he dic- 
tated through Moses ; because the law of Mose> was fle^hly, 
and Christ's institute is ghostly. The old law was, as it 
were, a shadow and a sign ; the preaching of Christ is truth, 
and fulfils spiritually whatsoever the old law by various pre- 
cepts betokened. 

" At the marriage were placed six stone water-vessels, ac- 
cording to the purification of the Jews, holding singly two or 
three measures." It is not said in the gospel that the water- 
vessels held some two measures, some three, but that they 
held singly two or three measures ; because the holy doctors 
speak sometimes of the .Mmighty Father and his Son, some- 
times manifestlv of tlie liolv Trinity ; and though the Holy 
Ghost be not manifestly named with the Father and the Son, 
he is, nevertheless, always understood therewith, because he 
is of both the Love and Will, and ever with them both. The 
Jews were so accustomed that they set water-vessels on the 
floor at their entertaiinnents ; and every one who came in 
must wash his hands before he sat, if he wovdd be without 
reprehension. There were set for that custom six stone 



58 DOMINICA II. POST AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

wseter-fatu set ^isum giftuni. pa six waeter-fatu getacnodon 
six ylda ^yssere worulde. Seo forme yld waes fram Adiime 
o5 Noe. Seo oSer yld wa?s fram Noe o5 Abraham. Seo 
)?ridde yld vvses fram Abrahanie oh Dauid. Seo feorSe frajn 
Dauide oSj^aet Nabochodoiiosor hcrgode on ludeiscre Icode, 
and hi hwftlingas to Babilone gela^ddc. Seo fifte yld wws 
fram Babiloniscre hereguiige o5 Cristes accnnednysse tefter 
^aere menniscnysse. Seo sixte yld stent nu .fram Cristes 
acennednysse, mid ungewisre geendunge astreht o5 Ante- 
cristes to-cymc. 

Mine gebrobra, uton sccau ian nil hii cias .six wfeter-fatu 
vvaeron afyllcde mid hahvendum wa'terc bficlicra gewrita. 
Uton eac under.standan hii |>an vice wjeter wcarb awend on 
wynsumum wines swtfcce. Witodliee mihte Drihten jemtigc 
fatu mid wine afyllan, se^e ealle ^iing of nahtc gesceop, ac 
he wolde swi^or j'a^t wanne wjeter to mH*rlicnm wine awen- 
dan, and mid )>am geswutelian )?a*t he ne com to JSy ]>iet he 
wolde towm'pan «Sa ealdan a^ obSe witegan, ac wolde hi jefter 
gastlicum andgite gefyllan. 

On anginne middaneardes w;es Adam, {""a slep Adam, pfet 
Eua wurde of his sidan gesceapen, him to gemacan. Crist 
gewat on Saere rode, and his side wearS mid spere geopenad, 
and of btere fleowon J)a gerynu ))e his gela^ung wearS mid 
gesceapen him to cUenre bryde. On 5;prc ylcan ylde wfes 
Abel, Adames sunu, rihtwis and Code andfenge, pone ofsloh 
Cain his brobor unscyldigne |'urh lindan. Sebe nu a^fter 
gastlicum andgite understent be Adame, swa swa we cwaedon, 
and jjset se mwgslaga Cain getacnode ]7a*ra ludeiscra geleaf- 
leaste, "Se Crist mid niSe acwealdon, and pjet Abeles siege 
getacnode Drihtnes Srowunge, buton twyn he gemet ]>iet 
wseter to winlicum swwcce awend. 

On ^aere oSre ylde |>issere worulde wcarlS eal middaneard 
mid flodes y^um adylegod, for synna micelnysse, buton Sam 
rihtwisan Noe anum, and his seofan hiwon, pe on Sam arce 
belocene wseron to anes geares fyrste ; and hi sib San eal 



THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 59 

water- vessels at this marriage. These six water-vessels be- 
tokened six ages of this world. The first age was from Adam 
to Noah. The second age was from Noah to Abraham. The 
third age was frotn Abraham to David. Tiic fourth from 
David until Nebuchadnc//ar warred on the Jewisii nation, 
and led them captives to Babylon. The fifth ago was from 
the Babylonian war to the birth of Christ, according to 
humanity. The sixth :ige stands now from the birth of 
Christ, extended with uncertain ending to the coming of 
Antichrist. 

Mv brothers, let us now see how the six water-vessels were 
filled with the salutarv \\ atcr of booklv writintrs. Let us also 
understand how the same water was turned to the pleasant 
taste of wine. Verily the Lord, \\ iio created all things from 
naught, could have filled empty vessels with wine, but he 
would rather change tlic pale water to noble wine, and there- 
by manifest that he came not to overthrow the old law or the 
prf)phets, but in a ghostly setise would fulfil them. 

In the beginning of tbe world Avas Adam. Tben ,\dam 
slept, that Kve might be created from his side as a mate for 
him. Cbrist died on the cross, and his side was opened with 
a spear, and from it flowed the mysteries with which his 
church was created as his pure bride. In the same age was 
Abel, Adam's son, righteous and acceptable to (lod, whom 
innocent his brother Cain slew through envy. He who now 
understands concerning Adam accordinij to a chostlv sense, 
as we have said, and that the man>layer Cain betokened the 
unbelief of the Jews, who slew Christ throiigh envy ; and 
that the slaying of Abel betokened the Lord's passion, he, 
without doubt, will find the water turned to a jileasant taste. 

In the second age of this world all the earth was destroyed 
by the waves of the flood, for the greatness of sins, except the 
righteous Noah alone and his seven inmates, who were shut 
in the ark for the space of a year ; and they afterwards begat 



60 DOMINICA II. POST AEPIPHANIA DOMLNI. 

mancyn gestryndon. Gif we gleawlice, ffiftergastlicum and- 
gite, tocnavva^ ]?aet se svvymmcnda arc getacnodc Codes ge- 
laSunge, and ]><Bt se rihtwisa Noe getacnode Crist, and ]>cet 
ySigende flud, ]?e iSa synfuUan adylcgode, gebicnode ]>iEt 
halige waiter ures fulhihtcs, |'e ure synna adilogaS, |>onne 
gewisslice biS us awend ]>n't oSer WcPtcr-faet to wunderlicuni 
wtne ; forSan 5e we geseoS ure chensungc, and halgunge, 
and rihtwisnysse gewitegode on h;vvc caldan gereccednyssc. 
Witodlice 5a eahta meini, \>c se arc on liis bosnie abier, wur- 
don ahrcdde wiS )/'ani yciigendnm flodc, and ealle oSre eorS- 
lice gesceafta ]>iet brade waiter adydde : swa eac nu, 5a ^e 
on Godcs gela5ungegclcaffullc 5urhwunia5, beo5 gehealdcne 
wiiS woruldiiciun y5uni and dwolliccrc dcopnyssc. Da un- 
geleaffallan, ])C baton Godcs gclaSunge dwollicc drolitnia5, 
untwylice forwur5a5 on ecnysse. 

Precor lunnilitcr quosquc pcritos, nc nos uitupercnt, co 
quod historian! propter ignorantes tani apcrte hie ponimus. 

On '5tEre jniddan yldc afiindodc God Abrahames gehyr- 
sumnysse, and het |>;et he name his leofan sunn Isaac, and 
bine on anre dune ium gcoffrodc, and ofsloge. pa wjes 
Abraham baton clcunge gearo to Godes hfese, and si5ode 
arodlicc to 5a3re dune 5e him God gewissode, and his sunu 
samod. Efne, 5a5a he 5;pre dune gencahphtc, jni cw;c5 he 
to his cnihtum, " Andbidia5 lier : ic and )'is cild wiUa5 us 
gebiddan fet J^tere stowe |>e us God geswutclode." Isaac pa 
baer wudu to forba^rnenne 5a offrunge, and Abraham haifde 
him on handa fyr and swurd. Isaac 5a befran 5one fa^der, 
and cwai5, " Efne her is fyr and wudu, min fader, hwa^r is 
seo oifrung ? " Abraham andwyrde, " Min beam, God fore- 
sceawa^ him sylfum J?cfire onsiegednysse offrunge." Hwiet 
^a, Abraham, 5a^a ht to 5aire stowe comon, geband his leofan 
sunu, and his swurd ateah, \>ie.t hehine Gode geoffrode. Efne 
"Sa Godes engel clypode of heofonum, and mid hhiddre stemne 
cwaeS, " Abraham, ne astrece 5u ^ine hand bufon ^am cilde, 
ne him nane dare ne gedo. Nu ic oncneow ]>cet 5u God on- 



THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 61 

all mankind. If we wisely, according to the ghostly sense, 
perceive that the swimming ark betokened God's church, and 
that the righteous Noah betokened Christ, and that the bil- 
lowing flood, which extirpated the sinful, signified the holy 
water of our baptism, wliich extirpates our sins, then cer- 
tainly for us will be changed the second water-vessel to won- 
derful wine; for we see our purification, and hallowing, and 
righteousness prophesied in the old narrative. Verily the eight 
persons, whom the ark bare in its bosom, were saved from 
the billowing flood, and the broad water destroyed all other 
earthly creatures : so also now, those who contin\ie faithful 
in God's church will be saved from worldly billows and the 
abyss of error. The unbelieving, who live in error w ithout 
the church of God, will undoubtedly perish to eternity, 

Precor humiliter quosque peritos, ne nos vitnperent, eo 
<ju()d historiam propter ignorantes tam aperte hie jxuiimus. 

In the third age (iod proved Abraham's obedience, and 
connnanded him to take his beloved son Isaac, and ofl'cr him 
on a mountain, and slay hin». Then was Abraham without 
delay ready at God's command, and journeyed quickly to the 
mountain that God had pointed out, and his son w\l\\ him. 
Lo, when he drew near to the mountain, he said to his ser- 
vants, *' Abide here : I and this child will pray at tlie place 
which God hath manifested to us." Isaac then bare wood to 
burn the offering, and Abraham had in his hand fire and a 
sword. Isaac then asked his father, and said, " Behold here 
are fire and wood, my father, where is the offering ?" Abraham 
answered, "'My child, God w ill provide for himself an offering 
for sacrifice." Lo then, when they came to the place, Abraham 
bound his beloved son, and drew his sword, that he might 
offer him to God. Rohold then the angel of God called from 
heaven, and with loud voice said, '* Abraham, stretch thou 
not thine hand above thy child, nor do him any harm. Now 



62 DOMINICA 11. POST AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

draedst, and ]>u ne arodest jnimm ancenncdan siina for his 
haese." pa beseah Abraham underbaec, and Saer stod an 
ramm betwux |7am breniehiin, getiged be 5ain hornuni. He 
^a gcniim bone ramm, and Gode geoffrode for JSam cilde. 
.^fter bisum clypode eft Godes engcl of licofonum to 
Abrahame, )7us cweiSende, " God cwjelS, Ic swor j'urh me 
sjdfne, forSan 'Se j^u j^as dr-ede dydest, and Sinum ancennedan 
bearne ne arodest, ic gebletsige JSc, and ]>inne ofspring ic ge- 
menigfylde swa swa steorran on heofenan, and swa swa sand- 
ceosol on Scielicuni strande. pin s;^d soISIice geagnab his 
feonda gatu, and on JSinum stede beo^ gebk^tsode ealle eorS- 
lice niffigba ; forSan ^e ^u gchyrsumedcst niinre stcmne." 
Abraham <Sa ham gecyrde, mid ansuiidan bearne and mid 
ecere bletsunge. 

We sceolon undcrstandan on Abrahiimc )'nnc /Ehnihtigan 
Feeder, and on Isaacc his U'ofan Sunu, urne Ilfelend Crist, 
be "Sam cwa^^ se Ileofonlica Fanlcr, " pes is min Icofa Sunu, 
Se me wel licaS." And we sceolon tocnawan on Isaaces 
offrungc Drihtnes browungc, be Sam cwieS se apostol Pauhis, 
]>set " God Feeder ne sparode his agenum Bearne, ac for us 
eallum hine to deabe sealde." Isaac bjer ^one wuda to his 
agenum baernete, and his feeder bendum ne wiScwHiS ; swa 
eac Crist waes gehyrsum his FaederoS deaS, and him sylf his 
rode abeer. Naes ^eah Isaac ofslegen, ac se ramm hine 
spelode, for^an "Se Crist waes unSrowigendlic on jnere God- 
cundnysse, and seo menniscnys ana dcab and sar for us 
Srowade ; swilce se sunu waere geoffrod, and se ramm of- 
sniden. Ge sceolon eac gelyfan ]>set seo bletsung ^e God 
behet Abraliame gaeS ofer us, and we sind Abrahames sfed, 
swa swa Paulus, ];eoda lareow, cwae^, *' Eornostlice gif ge 
Cristes sind, J^onne sind ge Abrahames seed, and aefter behate 
yrfenuman." purh "Sis deope andgit us bib awend j^aet ^ridde 
wffiter-fsRt to halwendum wine, mid J^am we magon ure mod 
gastlice gegladian. 

On ^aere feor'San ylde geceas Israhela folc him sylfum 



THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 63 

I know that thou fearest God, and that thou didst not spare 
thine only-begotten son at his behest." Then Abraham 
looked back, and there stood a ram among the brambles, tied 
by the horns. He then took the ram, and offered it to God 
for the child. After this the angel of God again called from 
heaven to Abraham, thus saying, "God hath said, I have 
sworn by myself, for that thou hast done this deed, and hast 
not spared thine only-bcgottcn son, I will bless thee, and 
thine offspring I will midtiply as the stars in heaven, and as 
the sand-grains on the sea strand. Verily thy seed shall 
possess the gate of his foes, and in thy seed shall all earthly 
tribes be blessed ; because thou hast ol)eyed my voice." 
Abraham then returned lionu' with his rhild sound, and with 
everlasting blessing. 

By A])raham \\ c are to understand the Almighty Father, 
and by Isaac iiis belo\cd Son, our Saviour Christ, of whom 
said the Heavenly Father, "This is my behned Son, who \\ell 
pleaseth me." And in the offering of Isaac we are to perceive 
the Lord's passion, of which the apfistle Paul >ai(l, that 
" God the Father spared not his own Child, but gave him to 
death for us all." Isaac bare the wood for his own burning, 
and refused not his father's bonds ; so also was Christ obe- 
dient to his Father unto death, and himself bare his rood. 
Yet Isaac was not slain, but the ram took his place, because 
Christ was impassible in the (iodhcad, and the humanity alone 
suffered death and pain for us ; as if the son had been offered, 
and the ram slain. Ye are also to believe that tlie blessing 
which (iod promised to Abraham goes over us, and that we 
are Ai)raham's seed, as Paul, the teacher of the gentiles, said, 
" Verily if ye are of Christ, then are ye Abraham's seed, and 
heirs according to the promise." Through this deep signi- 
fication, the third water-vessel will be turned for us to salu- 
tary wine, witii which we may spiritually gladden our minds. 

In the fourth age the people of Israel chose for themselves 



64 DOMINICA II. POST AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

Saul to cyninge, oiigean Godes willan, ]?eah iSe he hit geSyl- 
delice forhfere : and he wearS Gode ungehyrsum, and nolde 
faran be his dihte. pa spr*c God to his witegan Samuhele 
^isum wordum, " Hu lange wilt ^u bewepan Saules siiS, 
|?oinie ic hine awearp, ])pet he leng ofer Israhela Seode ne 
rixige ? Afyll ^in elefait, and far to ^fere byrig Bethleem, to 
Isai : ic foresceawode of his sununi nie gecorenne cyning. 
Far, and gela^a Isai mid his sunum to Sinre onsaegednysse, 
and ic geswutclige 5e hwilcnc bu to cyninge gehalgian sccalt." 
Saniuhel Sa ferde, be Godes haese, to Bethlecnn, and God 
geceas Dauid of his seofon gebroSruni him to cyninge ofer 
his folce. Hwffit 5a, Samuhcl gehalgode Dauid to cyninge on 
middan his gebroSrum, and Godes Gast liim w;es on wuni- 
gende a^fre of 5am dcPge. Witodlice Godes Gast gewat fram 
Saule, and hine astyrode se awyrigeda gast fram Gode. Si5- 
"San aefter ^an genam Saul micelne ni5 to 5am gecorenan 
Dauide, and ofthrakllice hine acwellan wolde. Dauid wearS 
J7a of his earde aflymed, and Saul liis symle chte, o5)>ret he 
on "Saere dune Gelboe hine sylfne acwealde, and Dauid feng 
to his rice, and on 5am Gode gecwemlice feowertig geara 
rixode. 

JEher gastlicum andgite we magon undergytan on Daiiide 
Cristes getacnunge : on Saules ehtnysse, jnera ungeleatTulra 
ludeiscra ehtnysse ongean Crist and his gela5unge ; and heora 
eor^lice rice wearb toworpen for heora niandfedum, fefter 
Saules gelicnysse. Cristes rice and his gela5unge stent on 
ecnysse ofer eallum Seodum. Gif we ^us understandaS J>a 
ealdan gereccednysse, jjonne biS ]?8et waeter us awend to 
winlicum swfficce, for5an ^e we tocnawa^ urne Cyning Crist, 
and his rice and ure rice ^ler awritene, j^ser we aer swilce be 
o^rum mannum gereccednysse raeddon. 

On ^c-ere fiftan ylde middaneardes wearS ]>ict Israhela folc 
forscjidegod wi5 heora Scyppend, and beah se cyning Sede- 
chias to heej^engylde, and Israhela folc samod, and on mis- 
licum forgaegednyssum )?one iElmihtigan getyrigdon. pa 



THE SECOND SUXDAY AFTER THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 65 

Saul for king, against the will of God, though he patiently 
endured it : and he was disobedient to God, and would not 
walk by his direction. Then spake God to his prophet 
Samuel in these words, *' How long wilt tiiou bewail the fate 
of Saul, when I have rejected him, that he may no longer 
reign over the nations of Israel ? Fill thine oil-vessel, and go 
to the city of Betiilehem, to Jessse : I have provided me ft 
chosen king from his sons. Go, and callJesse with his sons 
to tliy sacrifice, and I will manifest to tlicc Mhich thou shalt 
liallow as king." Samuel then went, by Gods command, to 
Bethlehem, and God chose him David from his seven brothers 
as king over his people. So Samuel hallowed David as king 
in the midst of his brothers, and the Spirit of God was dwell- 
ing in him ever from that day. But the Spirit of God de- 
parted from Saul, and the cursed spirit moved him from God. 
After that Saul entertained great envy towards the chosen 
David, and was often desirous to slay him. David was then 
driven from his a)untry, and Saul constantly persecuted him, 
until he slew himself in the mountain of (iilboa, and David 
succeeded to his kingdom, and in it reigned acceptably to 
God forty years. 

In a ghostly sense we may see in David a sign of Christ : 
in Saul's persecution, the persecution by the unbelieving Jews 
of Christ and his church ; and their earthly kingdom was 
overthrown for their wicked deeds, in likeness of Saul. The 
kingdom of Christ and of his church stands for ever over all 
nations. If we thus understand the Old Testament, then \\\\\ 
the water be turned for us to a pleasant flavour, because we 
perceive our King Christ, and his kingdom, and our kingdom 
there recorded, where we had ere read the narrative as of 
other men. 

In the fifth age of the world the people of Israel were guilty 
towards their Creator, and the king Zedekiah turned to hea- 
thenism, and the people of Israel with him, and by divers 
transgressions provoked the Almighty. God then sent the 

HOM. VOL. ir. F 



66 DOMINICA II. POST AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

sende God )?one Chaldeiscan cyning, Nabochodonosor, mid 
ormaRtre fyrdinge to Hierusaleni, and hi tobraecon J)a burh 
grundlinga, and ]>pp.t maere Salomones tempi forbterndon, and 
J)one msestan dael jjses folces ofslogon, and Sone ofer-eacan 
haeftlingas aweg gelccddon to Chaldea rice, paes cyniiiges 
sunu 111 ofslogon a^tforan his gesiliiSe, and hine si^ban ablend- 
ne to Babilone gelaeddon, and Sa madm-fatu )'aes temples 
ungerime, gyldene and sylfrene, mid oJSrum goldliordum forS 
samod ferodon. Israhela folc Sa }?eowde pam cyningc Nabo- 
chodonosor and his aeftergengum hund-seofontig geara, obj^aet 
Cyrus fengtorice, seasende ptet folc ongean mid wurbmynte 
to heora carde, and het hi ge-edsta<Selian Sa burh Hierusalem, 
and paet tempi eft ar;eran mid his fultume. II\v;et ba lesus, 
Godes sacerd, be bics cyniiigc8 hffise Cyrcs and fultume, \>iet 
Israhela folc to carde gel^dde, and J?a burh-weallas samod 
mid )>am temple ge-edstabclode, and Godes biggcngas ge- 
edniwode. 

Se Babilonisca cyning, Nabochodonosor, ])e j'tet synfulle 
Godes folc sum acwealde and sum gchieft to his rice gehedde, 
getiicnode j'one dcofol, ]?e ba synfuUan mislice fordeb, and to 
his byrig, ]>iitt is hell, gchaefte geket, to gescyndnysse. 
Babilonia, seo Chaldeisca burh, is gereht 'gescyndnys.' Sen 
getacnab belle, on ]>iere beob symle gcscynde }>a be hire to 
cumab. Hierusalem is gecwcden *visio pacis,' j^aet is, ^ sibbe 
gesihb.' peos Hierusalem luefdc getacnunge •bare heofon- 
lican Hierusalem, on baere is fulfremed sibb, to ^aere we sind 
gelabode, and we bider cuma^ untwylice, gif we hit on and- 
weardan life geearnia^. Das twa burh wibria^ betwux him 
symle swa lange swa ]>es middaneard stent. Hierusalem 
winb for rihtwisnysse, and Babilonia winb ongean for un- 
rihtwisnysse : seo o'ber for so^faestnysse, ober for ydelnysse. 
Deere heofonlican Hierusalem Cyning is Crist ; )>aere scand- 
lican Babilonian cyning is deofol, se geherega^ ]>a. synfullan, 
and gehaefte to )?8ere hellican byrig gelaet, to deoflicum ^eowte. 
Seo gode burh, Hierusalem, haefb gode ceaster-gewaran, and 



THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 67 

Chaldean king Nebuchadnezzar with an immense army to 
Jerusalem, and they destroyed the city to the ground, and 
burnt the great temple of Solomoji, and slew the greater part 
of the people, and the overplus they led away captives to the 
realm of Chaldea. The king's son they slew in his sight, and 
himself blinded they afterwards led to Babylon, and the in- 
numerable costly vessels of the temple, of gold aiid silver, 
with other treasures they at the same time carried away. 
The people of Israel then served the king Nebuchadnezzar 
and his successor seventy years, until Cyrus obtained the 
kingdom, who sent the people back witii honour to their 
country, and commanded them to re-establish the city of 
Jerusalem, and raise up tiie temple again witii his aid. Then 
Jesus, the priest of God, at the behest of the king Cyrus, 
and with his aid, led the people to their country, and re- 
established the high walls together with the temple, and 
renewed the service of God. 

The Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar, who of the sinful 
people slew some and led others captive to his kingdom, be- 
tokened the devil, who in divers ways fordoes the sinful, and 
leads them captive to his city, that iy, to hell, to confusion. 
Babylon, the Chaldean city, is interpreted nnifiision. It 
betokens hell, in which those are always confounded who go 
to it. Jerusalem is interpreted visio pacis, that is, sig/it of 
peace. This Jerusalem was a type of the heavenly Jerusalem, 
in which is perfect peace, to which we are called, and we shall 
undoubtedly go thither, if we merit it in the present life. 
These two cities are ever at strife, each with other, as long aa 
this world stands. Jerusalem fights for righteousness, and 
Babylon fights against her for unrighteousness : the one for 
truth, the other for vanity. The king of the heavenly Jeru- 
salem is Christ ; of the infamous Babylon the devil is king, 
who wars on the sinful, and leads them captives to the hellish 
city, in devilish thraldom. The good city, Jerusalem, has 



68 DOMINICA II. POST AEPIPHANIA DOMINI. 

seo yfele Babilonia hasfS yfele ceaster-gewaran. Sindon |?eah 
sume menn ])e bellmpaS to ^aere heofonlican Hierusalem, and 
swa-^eah mid sumere ^enunge ]>enia"S Babilonian ; swa swa 
wseron ^a "Sry gelyfedan ciiihtas, Sidrac, Misac, Abdenago, 
]?e Nabochodonosor gesette him to weorc-gerefan. Eft, Crist 
bebead ]>iet gehwa sceolde agildan Sam casere \>iet him ge- 
byre^, and Gode ]>set him gebyre^. Petrus se apostol bead 
eac on his pistole 'Seowum mannum j'^et lii w;eron heora 
hlaforde getreowe and holde, waere se hlaford good, wa*re he 
yfel. Sind eac sume Babilonisce ceaster-gewaran, |>e^me 
"Senunga doS ]?a?re heofonlican Hierusalem ; swilcc swa wjeron 
ludei ]>c Crist acvvealdon us to alysednysse, and him sylfum 
to forwyrde ; and swilce swa sind unrihtwise liireowas on 
Godes gclaSunge, be 'Sam "Se Crist cwjeS on his godspcllc, 
"DoS swa swa hi tfEcaS, and ne do ge swa swa hi doS." 
pus sind gemengde J^a godan ceaster-gewaran and Sa yfclan, 
swa swa corn and ceaf, oS)>aet se Dema cymS, Se gcgaderaS 
]>ip.t clfene corn into his bcrne, )>jet sind ]ni rihtwisan into 
heofonan rice. p;et ceaf he forb<ernS on unadwaiscendlicum 
fyre, forSan 'Se ^aera manfulra smTc astihS on ecnysse. 

Hiesus, se mtera Godes sacerd, hedde |)a^s folces lafe ;pfter 
hund-seofontig geara fram Babilonia to heora earde, and Hie- 
rusalem ge-edstaSelode ; forSan Se ure Drihten lesus Chris- 
tus, se^e is soS Sacerd, geliet ]>a dfedbetendan, jeftcr soSre 
daedbote, to Saere uplican Hierusalem, ]>e he sylf getimbrode 
and gearcode eallum Sam ]>e hine lufiaS. Unt\r}'lice on Sisum 
andgite us biS awend J;aet fifte w»ter-faet to wynsumum wTne, 
gif we cunniaS hu we |?a deofollican Babilonian forfleon ma- 
gon, and becuman to ^aere heofonlican Hierusalem. 

On Saere sixtan ylde wear^ ure Drihten geflcESchamod and 
to menniscum men geboren, and on Sam eahteoSan d;pge his 
acennednysse he waes ymsnyden aefter Moyses te, and on ^am 
feowerteoge^an daege he waes mid aelicum lacum to Godes 
temple geferod, and raid bletsunge underfangen. Cristes 
ymsnydennys haefS maenigfealde getacnunga, and swa-Seah 



THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 69 

good citizens, and the evil Babylon has evil citizens. Yet are 
there some men who belong to the heavenly Jerusalem and, 
nevertheless, with some service serve Babylon ; as were the 
three believing youths, Shadrach, Mcshach and Abcd-nego, 
whom Nebuchadnezzar appointed as his work-reeves. Again, 
Christ commanded that every one should pay to C;esar what 
was due to him, and to God what was due to him. Peter the 
apostle also, in his epistle, commanded serving-men to be 
true and faithful to their lord, whether the lord were good, 
whether he were evil. There are also some Babylonian 
citizens who perform some services to the heavenly Jeru- 
salem ; such were the Jews who slew Christ, for our re- 
demption, and for destruction to themselves ; and such also 
are unwise teachers in God's church, of whom Christ said 
in his gospel, " Do as they teach, and do ye not as they 
do." Thus are mingled the good citizens and the bad, as 
corn and chaff, until the Judge comes, who shall gather the 
(Kan corn into his barn, that is, the righteous into the king- 
dom of heaven. The chalT he will burn in unquenchable fire, 
for the smoke of the wicked ascends for ever. 

Jesus, the great priest of God, led the remnant of the j)eo- 
ple, after seventy years, from Babylon to their country, and 
re-established Jerusalem ; l)ccause our Lord Jesus Christ, 
who is a true priest, le.ids the penitent, after true penitence, 
to the Jerusalem on high, which he hiniself constructed and 
prepared for all those who love him. Undoubtedly in this 
sense the fifth water-vessel will be turned for us to pleasant 
wine, if we endeavour how we may flee from the devilish 
BaJjylon, and come to the heavenly Jerusalem. 

In the sixth age our Lord was incarnated and born as a 
human being, and on the eighth day from his birth he was 
circumcised, according to the law of Moses, and on the 
fortieth day he was with the lawful gifts borne to God's 
temple, and received with blessing. The circumcision of 
Christ has manifold significations, and yet chiefly points to 



70 DOMINICA II. POST AEPIPHAXIA DOMINI. 

swi^ost belimp^ to "Sam gemeenelicuni aeriste on 'Sissere 
worulde geendunge, on ^sere biS seo galnys forwyrht, and on 
^aere ablin^ aelc hijemed, and biS ure deadlica lichama awend 
to undeaSlicnysse, and we beo^, aefter ^am gcnifenelicum 
dome, geferode to gesih^e j^aes godcundlican Ma^genSrym- 
mes mid urum lacum, ]>8et is, mid godum weorcum, and we 
symle sy^San on ^am heofonlicum temple )?urhwunia5. 
Witodlice mid J^ssere getacnunge us hvS awend j^aet sixte 
waetcr-faet to deorwurSum wine, and we magon clypian so^- 
lice to Criste, ]>tet he sparode \xt gode win o5 his agenuni 
to-cyme, j>aet he scencS nu geond his gelaSunge o5 cnde 
)7ises middaneardcs. 

pises godspclles traht sprcc^ gyt menigfealdlicor ymbe ^as 
wseter-fatu and heora getticniingum, ac wc ondrffduS us )>cet 
ge "Sas foresa'dan gctacnunga to gymelcaste doi5, gif wc cow 
swiSor be 5nm gcrcccaS. Sc trahtnere cwiS, J)iet ];set gyftlice 
^us M'aes "Sry-flcre, forban Se on Godcs gehiSunge sind )?ry 
stippas gecorcnra manna. Sc nj-^Semysta sta'pe is on ge- 
leaffuUum laewcdum mannum, )'c on rihtum sinscipe wuniaS, 
swiSor for bearn-tcame ]?onnc for gabiysse. Se o5er sta^pe 
is on wydewan-liade, |Je aefter rihtre jewe on chennysse 
wuniaS, for begeate |>aes upplican lifcs. Se hchsta st^epe is 
on mapgSiiades mannum, pa "Se fram cildhadc cl.'enlice Gode 
peowigende, ealle middancardlice gwlsan forhogiaS, 

" Se driht-ealdor cwaeS to ^am hrydguman, -^Ic man syl^ 
on-foran daege his gode vrin, and pset waccre jjonne "ba gc- 
beoras druncniaiS j ]m so^lice heolde }>aet gode win o^ ■Siss." 

Se driht-ealdor getacnab ]>a. lareowas on Codes gelabunge : 
hi tociiawa^ ]'one swaecc Cristes lare, hu micel tostent seo 
godspellice so^faestnyss fram sceade ^aere ealdan ae. So^lice 
eal seo Ealde Gecy^nys waes witegung and getacnung fram 
Adanie o^ lohannem Baptistam, and witegode obSe mid 
Avordum o^^e mid weorcum Cristes meuniscnysse and cris- 



THE SECOND SUNDAY AFTER THE LORD'S EPIPHANY. 71 

the common resurrection on the ending of tliis world, at 
which hist will be extinguished, and at which all cohabitation 
will cease, and our mortal body will be turned to immortality, 
and we shall be, after the universal doom, borne to the sight 
of the divine Majesty with our gifts, that is, with good works, 
and we shall ever after continue in the lieavenly temple. 
Verily with this signification the sixth water-vessel will be 
t\irned for us to precious wine, and we may truly cry to 
Christ that he has spared the good wine till his own advent, 
which he now pours out throughout his church till the end of 
this world. 

The exposition of this gospel speaks yet more manifoldly 
concerning these water-vessels and their significations, but 
we fear that ye will treat witli heedlessness these before-said 
significations, if we relate to you further about them. The 
expositor says that the marriage-house was three-floored, 
because in God's church are three degrees of chosen men. 
The lowest degree is of believing laymen, who live in lawful 
marriage, more for the sake of a family of children than of 
lust. The second degree is of widows, who after lawful 
matrimony live in purity for the attainment of the heavenly 
life. The highest degree is of persons of the virgin Btate, 
who from childhood purely serving God, despise earthly 
lusts. 

*' The lord of the feast said to the bridegroom, Every man 
giveth early in the day his good wine, and the weaker when 
the guests are drunken ; but thou hast holden the good wine 
until now." 

The lord of the feast betokens the teachers in God's 
church : they know the taste of Christ's doctrine, how greatly 
evangelic truth differs from the shadow of the old law. But 
the Old Testament was prophecy and betokening from Adam 
to John the Baptist, and prophesied either by words or by 
works the humanity of Christ, and life of christian men. But 



72 DOMINICA SEPTUAGESIMA. 

tenra manna lif. Ac ure m^S nis ]>ist we ealle Godes ge- 
corenan on ^am syx yldum ]7yssere worulde eow namcuSlice 
gereccan ; god we tella^, gif we "Syssera gemyndige beoS, 
]?e ge nu gehyred habbaS. 

" pis tacn worhte se Haelend on angyinie his wundra, on 
"Sam Galileiscan Ghana, and geswutelode his wuldor, and his 
leorning-cnihtas on hine gelyfdon." He geswutelode mid 
]7am tacne |?ffit he is Wuldres Cyning, and Brydguma Ssere 
halgan gelaSunge, se^e com swa swa mann to gyftum ge- 
laSod ; ac he awende jjset gesceaft, swa swa vElmihtig Scyp- 
pend. And swagetrymde his leorning-cnihtageleafaa Htclend 
Grist, seSe IcofaJS and rixaS mid Feeder and Ilalgum Gastc 
a on ecnysse. Amen. 



DOMINICA SEPTUAGESIMA. 



DRIHTEN sa?de pis bigspel his Icorning-cnilitum, Kus 
cweSende, Simile est regnum ccclorum homini patrifamilias, 
qui exiit primo mane conducere operarios : et reliqua. Se 
Hfelend cwjeS |>;et hcofenan rice wtere gelic sumuni hiredes 
ealdre, se^e ferde on eerne-merigen, and wolde hyrian wyrhtan 
into his wTngearde : et reliqua. 

Gregorius se trahtnere cwjeS, ];aet j^is godspel hiefS langne 
tige on his trahtnunge, ^a he wile mid sceortre race befon, 
J7aet hit to hefigtyme ne ^ince )7am heorcnigendum. 

Mine gebroSra, gelome ic eow sxde paet heofonan rice ge- 
tacnaS J>as andwerdan gelaSunge, forSan ])e rihtwisra manna 
gegaderung is gecweden heofenan rice. Se hircdes ealdor is 
lire Scyppend, seSe gewylt Sa ^e he gesceop, and his gecore- 
nan on ]>isum middanearde geagna"S, swa swa hlaford his hired 
on his healle. He haefS ]?one wingeard gewislice ealle ^a 
geleaffuUan gela^unge, swa swa se witega cwee^ Isaias, 
" Soblice Godes wingeard is Israhela hiwraeden." Mid )7am 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY. 73 

it is not within our capacity to recount to you by name all 
God's chosen in the six a^es of this world ; good we account 
it, if we are mindful of these of whom ye now have heard. 

" This miracle Jesus wrought in the beginni ng of his 
wonders, in the Galilean Cana, and manifested his glory, and 
his disciples believed in him." He manifested by that miracle 
that he is the King of Glory, and Bridegroom of the holy 
church, who came as a man invited to the marriage ; but he 
turned the creature as Almighty Creator. And so confirmed 
the belief of his disciples Jesus Christ, who liveth and reigneth 
with the Father and tiie Holy Ghost to all eternity. Amen. 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY. 



TIIE LORD spake this parable to his disciples, thus saying, 
Simile est regnum C(L'lorum homini patrifamilias, (jui exiit 
[)rimo mane conducerc operarios : et relicjua. Jesus said that 
the kingdom of heaven was like unto a chief of a household, 
who went out at early morn, and would hire workmen into 
his vineyard, etc. 

Gregory the expositor said that this gospel has a long 
series for its exposition, which he will comprise in a short 
discourse, that it may not seem too tedious to the hearers. 

My brothers, often have I said to you that the kingdom of 
heaven betokens this present church, because a gathering of 
righteous men is called the kingdom of heaven. The chief 
of a household is our Creator, who rules those whom he has 
created, and owns his ciiosen in this world, as a lord his 
houseiiold in his hall. He has certainly for a vineyard all 
the believing church, as the prophet Isaiah said, " Verily 
God's vineyard is the house of Israel." By that name is 



?4 DOMINICA SEPTUAGESIMA. 

naman is geswutelod eal Godes folc. Be ^am wingearde 
cwae^ Driliteii to ludeiscre ^eode, " Ic secge eow, |7aet Godes 
rice biS eow aetbroden, and bi^ forgyfen Swre ^eode |>e his 
waestmas vvyrca^." pes ^vlngea^d sprytte Godes gecorenan, 
frain ^am rihtwisan Abel oS ^am cndenextan halgan ^e on 
ende J^yssere worulde acenned biS, swilce he swa fela wtn- 
boga getyddrode. Witodlice "Saes hiredes caldor gehyrde 
M'yrhtan into his wingearde on eerne-merigenj eft on undern, 
and on midne daeg, on non-tide, and on Stere endlyftan tide ; 
forSan ]}C lie frara frymSe middaneardcs oShis gecndiinge no 
abliiiS to asendenne bydelas and lareowas to herennc his folc, 
J>8et hi synile \>a. miswcaxendan bogas of-ascreadian, j'iet 5a 
toweardan ciconde bcon. Witodlice gif se svingeard nap.fS 
J?onc ymbhwyrft, and ne biS onriht gescrcadod, ne biS he 
AVj-fistmbfere, ac for hraJSc awildaS. Swa eac Godes folc, buton 
"Sa lareowas screadian synile 5a leahtras )>urh heora lare aweg, 
ne bis ])itt laewcde folc wfestnibfere on goduni weorcum. 
Eornostlicc se j'er-merigcn w;ps frain Adam o5 Noe, se undern 
fraiii Noe oi) Abraham, se midda^gfram Abraham o 5 Moysen, 
se non frani Moyse o5 Drihtncs to-cyme, seo endlyfte tid 
fram Drihtncs accnnednysse o5 ende j'ises middaneardcs. 
Drihten sendc his wyrhtan on callum ))isum foresa^dum tiduni 
to beganne his wingeard ; for5an 5e he asende wrest heah- 
faederas to Itierenne his folc, and si55an, a^lice lareowas and 
witegan, and ret nextan his apostolas, and ^urh ^a his folces 
•Seawas beeode, swilce he 5urli wyrhtan on wingeardes big- 
gencge swunce. 

^Ic '58era manna ]>e mid rihtuni geleafan god weorc beeode 
Tvaes untwylice 5ises wingeardes wyrhta. Se merigenlica 
tilia, and j^aere Sriddan tide, and |>aere sixtan, and Saere 
nigoSan, getacnia^ )>set ealde Ebreisce folc, ]?e fram frym^e 
middaneardcs mid rihtum geleafan God wurSode, swilce hi 
swmicon on wingeardes biggencge mid gecneordlicere teo- 
Imige. To ^aere endlyftan tide so^lice wurdon ]>a hae^enan 
geclypode, and J^am waes gesced, " To h\n staiide ge her ealne 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY. 75 

declared all God's people. Of the vineyard the Lord said to 
the Jewish nation, " I say unto you, that the kingdom of 
God shall be withdrawn from you, and given to the people 
who cultivate his fruits." This vineyard produced God's 
chosen, from the righteous Abel to the last saint which shall 
be born at the end of this world, as if it sent forth so many 
vine- boughs. Verily the chief of the household hired work- 
men into his vineyard, at early morn, again at the third hour, 
and at mid-day, at noontide, and at the eleventh hour j because 
from the beginning of the world till its ending, he ceases 
not to send mes:!cngers and teachers to teach his people, that 
tlicy may constantly prune off the misgrowing boughs, that 
the future ones may be thriving. Verily if the vineyard have 
not compass, and be not rightly pruned, it will not be fruit- 
hearing, but Mill very soon become wild. In like manner 
the people of God, unless teachers constantly prune away sins 
by their teaching, the lay-people will not be fruit-bearing 
in good works. Verily the early morn was from Adam till 
\Noah, the third hovir from Noah till Abraham, the mid-day 
from Al)raham till Moses, the noon from Moses till the 
Lord's advent, the eleventh hour from the birth of the Lord 
till the end of this world. Tiie Lord sent his workmen at 
all these aforesaid times to cultivate his vineyard ; for he sent 
first patriarchs to teach his people, and afterwards teachers 
of the law and proi)hets, and at last his apostles, and through 
these cultivated the morals of his people, as if by workmen 
he had laboured in the cultivation of a vineyard. 

Each of those men, who with right belief cultivated good 
works, was undoubtedly a workman of this vineyard. The 
morning husl)andman, and those of the third hour, and of the 
sixth, and of the ninth, betoken the old Hebrew people, who 
from the beginning of the world have worshiped God with 
right belief, as if they had laboured on the cultivation of the 
vineyard with diligent tilling. At the eleventh hour verily 
the heathen were called, and to them was said, '* Why stand 



76 DOMINICA SEPTUAGESIMA. 

dcfig ydele ? " pa hae^enan stodon ealne dxg ydele, for San ^e 
la forgymeleasodon J^aes ecan lifes teolunge on swa lang- 
sumere tide middaneardes. Ac understandaiS hu hi and- 
wyrdan J?ees wingeardes hlaforde : hi cwiedon, " ForSan J>e 
nan man us ne hyrde." Witodlice mss nan heahftf'der, ne 
nan witega asend to liJcSenum folce, ]>e lieora gedwyld behlgc, 
a?r Drihtncs to-cyme |?urh his menniscnysse. II\v?et is to 
cweSenne, J^fet nan man us to Sam wTngearde ne gehyrde, 
baton J^.-et nan man us ne bodade lifes weig ? 

Mine gebroSra, hwylce bcladunge mage we habban, gif we 
godra Aveorca gcswicaS, we tSe fram cild-cradole to Godcs 
geleafan comon ? Wc magon eac tias ylcan mislicnyssa Siera 
forestiedra tida to aniun gchwylcum menn }>urh his ylda tidum 
todr'elan. Witodlice urcs andgites merigen is ure cildhad, 
ure cnihthad swylce undcrn-tid, on jnim astihb ure geogoS, 
swa swa seo sunne dc5 ymbe ]7ivTC ISriddan tide ; ure fulfre- 
meda waestni swa swa middieg, forSan be on midne d;pg biS 
seo sunne on Sam ufemcstum rync stigcndc, swa swa se ful- 
fremeda wfestm biS on fulre strencSe |?e6nde. Seo non-tid 
bib ure yld, forSan ^e on non-tide asiiib seo sunne, and ^aes 
ealdigendan manncs m^egen bib wanigcnde. Seo endlyfte tid 
bi^ seo forwcrodc ealdnyss, |>am deabe gencala^cende, swa 
swa seo sunne setlunge gencala^hb on )?aes dfcges geendunge. 
Eornostlice ]jonne gume beob gelcedde on cildhade to goduni 
"beawum and rihtum life, sume on cnibthade, sume on gcbun- 
genum wsestme, sume on ylde, sume on forwerodre ealdnysse ; 
J>onne bib hit swylce hi beon on mislicum tidum to "bam win« 
gearde gelabode. 

Mine gebroSra, behealda^ eowere "beawas, and gif ge gyt 
Godcs wyrhtan sind, sceawia^. Smeage gehwilc hwaet he 
de^, and behealde hwaeber he on Godes wingearde swince. 
Se ^e on andwerdum life him sylfum teolab, and na Gode, 
ne com se na gyt binnon Godes wingearde. pa tylia^ sob- 
lice Gode, l^a ^e ne secab heora agen gestreon -burh gytsunge, 
ac smeaga^ ymbe Godes teolunge, hu hi magon unriht alec- 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY. 77 

ye here all day idle?" The heathen stood all day idle, 
because they had neglected the cultivation of eternal life 
during so long a time of tlie world. But understand how 
they answered the lord of the vineyard : they said, " Because 
no man hath hired us." For there was no patriarch, nor 
prophet sent to the heathen people, who might refute their 
error, before the Lord's advent tiirough his humanity. What 
is it to say, that no man hath hired us into the vineyard, ex- 
cept that no man hath preached to us the May of life ? 

My brothers, what justification can we have, if we abstain 
from good works, we who from the child-cradle came to 
God's belief? We may also divide the saine unlikencsses of 
the before-said times according to the periods of every man's 
age. The morning of our understanding is evidently our 
childhood ; our boyhood is, as it were, the third hour, on which 
rises our youth, as the sun docs about tiiat time ; our com- 
plete growth as mid-day, for at mid-day the sun is rising in 
his iiighest course, even as complete growth is flourishing in 
full strength. The noon-tide is our age, for at noon-tide the 
sun sinks, and the senescent man's power is waning. The 
eleventh hour is worn-out age, approaching to death, as the 
sun approaches its setting at the day's ending. Verily some 
arc led in childhood to good courses and righteous life, some 
in youth, some in mature growth, some in age, some in worn- 
out agedness ; then is it as though they had at divers times 
been called to the vineyard. 



My brothers, behold your cotuluct, and see if ye yet are 
God's workmen. Let every one consider what he docs, and 
behold whether he labours in God's vineyard. He who in 
the present life toils for himself, and not for God, is not yet 
come within God's vineyard. They truly toil for God who 
seek not their own gain through covctousncss, but meditate 
on God's tillage, how they may suppress \nirighteousness 



78 DOMINICA SEPTUAGESIMA, 

gan, and rihtwisnysse fyr^rian, o^runi menn fremigan mid 
gecneordnysse ^aere soSan lufe, and Sa "Se caria^ mid wacelum 
mode hu hi o^ra manna sawla Gode gestrynan, and mid him 
to "Sam ecan life gelfedan. Se be him sylfuni leofalS, and se 
^e on his fliesclicum lustum liS, rihtlice he is ydel geSread ; 
forSan 5e he ue teola^ nanes waestmes j^aes godcundlican 
weorces. 

pa "Se mid gymelcaste heora dagas aspendab, and nelhvS 
Gode lyhban oS heora endencxtan yhle, hi standaS ydele o^ 
•Sa endenextan tide. To swilcum sleacum cwe^ se hiredcs 
ealdor, " To hwt stande ge her eahic dieg ydele ?" Swilce he 
swutcllice cwccde, ' Gif ge noldon Gode lybbaii on cildhiidc, 
ne on geogoSe, gecyrraS nu huru- JSinga on ylde to lifcs wege, 
nu ge habbaS hwonlice to swincenne.' And swa-5cah Syllice 
gelaSaS se hiredes hlaford, and forwel oft hi onfoiS heora 
cdlean hraSor, forSan ^e hi gewitaJS to hcofcnan rice hrfpd- 
licor Jjonne 5a ^e fram cildluide Gode )>eo\vodon. Witodlice 
se scea^a )>e mid Criste )>ro\vade, and on hinc gclyfonde his 
synna geandette, com on "Sa^re endlyftan tide, na Surh ylde, 
ac "Surh yfelnysse. Scyldig he w;rs to hcilicerc susle for his 
mandiedum, ac he geandette his synna Drihtnc sylfum on 
baere rode-hcngene mid fulhun gcleafan, and Cristcs mild- 
sunge ))isum wordum abfed, " Drihten, beo min gemyndig 
]?onne ^u cymst to binum rice." Drihten him aiuhvyrde, 
" So^ ic "be secge, nu to-daeg J>u bist mid me on ueorxena 
wange." 

Witodlice fram bam endenextan ongann se hiredes ealdor 
to agyldenne Jjone pening, ba^a he gclaedde ])one scea^an into 
heofenan rice, sermon ^e he leedde Petrum obbe his obre 
apostolas, and rihtlice swa, for^an ^e se scea^a gelyfde on 
•bam timan on Crist, ))aba his apostolas on mycelre tvvynung 
waeron. Eala hti fela heahfaederas aer Moyses ae rihtlice 
leofodon, and hu fela witegan under ]?aere ae Gode gecwemlice 
drohtnodon, and hi s\va-t5eah naeron gelaedde to heofonan 
rice ^r^an ^e Drihten ni^er-astah, sebe neorxena wanges 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY. 79 

and further righteousness, and benefit other men with the 
diligence of true love, and they who care with watchful mind 
how they may gain the souls of other men to God, and lead 
them with them to everlasting life. lie who lives for him- 
self, and he who lies in his fleshly lusts, is rightly accused of 
idleness ; for he cultivates no fruit of divine work. 

They who with heedlessness waste their days, and will not 
live to God till their last age, stand idle till the last hour. 
To such slack ones the chief of the household says, " Wliy 
stand yc here all day idle?" As if he had manifestly said, 
' If ye would not live to God in childhood, nor in youth, turn 
now at least in age to the way of life, now ye have but little 
to labour.' And, nevertheless, the lord of the household calls 
such ones, and very often they receive their reward sooner, 
for they pass to the kingdom of heaven more speedily than 
those who have served God from childhood. Verily the thief 
who sufi"ered with Christ, and, believing in him, confessed his 
sins, came at the eleventh hour, not through age, but through 
evil. Obnoxious he was to hellish torment for his deeds of 
wickedness, but he confessed his sins to the Lord himself on 
the cross with full belief, and in these words prayed for 
Christ's mercy, " Lord, be mindful of me when thou comest 
to thy kingdom." The Lord answered him, "Verily I say 
unto thee, now to-day thou shalt be with me in paradise." 

Verily from the eleventh hour the chief of the household 
began to pay the penny, Mhen he led the thief into the king- 
dom of heaven, before he led Peter or his other apostles, and 
rightly so, for the thief believed in Christ at a time when his 
apostles were in great doubt. Alas, how many patriarchs 
before the law of Moses rightly lived, and how many pro- 
phets under the old law passed their days acceptably to God, 
and yet were not led to the kingdom of heaven before the 
Lord descended, who by his own death opened the fastness 



80 DOMINICA SEPTUAGESLMA. 

faesten mid his ageiium deaSe geopcnode, and hi Sa mid lang- 
sumere elcunge heora mede iindcrfcngon, ]'a ^e we buton 
elcunge, j'cerrihte swa we of urum lichaman gewitaJS, under- 
foS. SoSlice (5a ealdan heahfiederas and geJSungene witegan 
bferon "Sa byrSene and ^aes dseges h;ietaii, forcSan Se hi frani 
angiune niiddancardes oS Cristes to-cyme on helliccrc cly- 
sungc andbidodon, j>eah be hi on Abrahanies wununge buton 
pinungum for hcora godnysse wunedon, and swilcc ifftcr 
ceorunge |?onc pening undcrfengon, JSaSa hi jeftcr hingsunicre 
tide to heofonan bccomon. Witodlice no nndcrfciiJS n;in 
ccorigende sawul Godcs rice, ne nan ceorian ne ma^g, se^e 
to ^ani becynib. Ac jvnera ealdf;edcra ceorung is to nndcr- 
standennc heora gnornung, j'a^t liT rilitlice for licofonan rice 
leofodon, and swa-JJeah mid hmgsuniere elcunge hit undcr- 
fengon. We soSlice, pe to ^.-erc endlyftan tide conion, a'fter 
nrum geswince, natcshwon ne ccoriaJ), and we underfoii ))one 
pening, forSan we Se cumaS .pfter )>a^s ILolendes niemiisc- 
iiysse, we beoS gelanlde to his rice )>a?rrihte fefter urnni f()r^- 
siSc, gif we jer on life rihtlice leofodon ; and we Sonne buton 
yldingc underfoS j^aet |)fet ^a ealdf;ederas fefter langsuniere 
elcunge underfengon : be Sam cwa^S sc hiredes ealdor, " Ic 
wille syllan Sisuni endenextum eal swa micel swa ^e.'' 

And forSan |^e sco onfangenes jws rices is of Godcs god- 
nysse, rihtlice is her bieftan gecweden on cndebyrdnysse ]7fes 
godspellcs, "La hu, ne mot ic don ]>iet ic wille?" Dyslic 
biS mamies ceas ongean Codes godnysse. Sum ceorung 
mihte beon, gif he his behat ne geljeste, and nan, ^eah ^e he 
mare ne sealde. Be Sam is gytgclimplice gecweden, *' 055e 
^in eage is yfel, forSan |?e ic eom god ?" Ne onhebbe bine 
nan man on his weorcum, ne on langsumum Seowdome, 
j;onne seo SocSfjestnys clypaS, " pus beob )?a endenextan fyr- 
meste, and ]?a fyrmestan endenexte." Efne nu, ^eah we wMton 
hu fela god, o^^e hu micele we gefremodon, nyte we ^eah 
gyt mid hwylcere smeaSancelnysse se upplica Dema ^a afan- 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY. 81 

of paradise, and they then, after a loiii^some delay, received 
their reward, whicli we without delay, straightways as we 
depart from our bodies, receive. Verily the old patriarchs 
and venerable prophets bare the burthen and heat of the day, 
for they fnjni the beginning of the world till the advent of 
Christ waited in the enclosure of hell, though, for their good- 
ness, they dwelt in Abraham's dwelling without torments, 
and, as it were, after murmuring received the penny, when 
after a longsome time they went to heaven. Verily no mur- 
muring soul receives God's kingdiiin, nor may any one 
nuirmur who comes to it. But by the murmuring of the old 
fathers is to be understood their mourning, because they had 
rightly lived for the kingdom of heaven, and yet received it 
after a long delay. But we, who come at the eleventh hour, 
after our labour, murmur not at all, and we receive the penny, 
because we who come after the humanity of Jesus will be led 
to his kingdom immediately after our death, if we have pre- 
viously lived rightly in life ; and we then without delay shall 
receive that which the old fathers received after long ex- 
pectation : of these the chief of the household says, '* I will 
give to these last as much as to thee." 

And because the reception of the kingdom is of God's 
goodness, it is here afterwards rightly said in the course of 
the gospel, "What, may 1 not do what I will?" Foolish is 
man's contention against the goodness of God. Some mur- 
muring there might be, if he performed not his promise, but 
none though he gave not more. Of this it is yet justly 
said, " Or is thine eye evil because I am good ? " Let no 
man exalt himself on his works, nor on long service, when 
the Truth e.xelaims, "Thus shall the last be first, and the 
first last." Lo now, though we may know how much or how 
great good we have performed, we know not yet with what 
scrutiny the Judge on high will try it ; and surely it is for 

HOM. VOL. N. o 



fl2 DOMIXICA SEPTUAGESIMA. 

da^ ; and witodlice gehwilcum men is Searlc to blissigcnne, 
J^eah "Se he endenext on Godes rice sy gcendcbyrd. 

pises godspelles geendung is swiSe ondra?dendIic : " Fela 
sind gela^ode, and feawa gecorene." Drihtcn cwjeJS on ocire 
stovve, l^c'et " fela cumaS fram east-dtele and frani wcst-da>lo, 
and gerestaS mid j'am hcalifffiderum, Abrahume, and Isaiice, 
and lacobe, on heofenan rice." Hwa^t eac jjcs ylca trahtnere, 
Gregorius, on sumes oSres godspelles trahtnunge, cwhpS, j'iPt 
Bvva micel werod menniscra manna sceal astigan ]>cjet hcofon- 
lice rice, swa fela swa "bcera gecorenra engla on heofonum 
belifon aefter "Saera modigra gasta hryre. peah JSa gecorenan 
Godes cempan sind feawa gebuhte on andwerdum life betwux 
fla^sclicum mannuni, JSe heora lustum gehyisumiaJS, ac hi ne 
beo5 feawa Sonne hi gegaderode beoJS. Ne gedafenaJS )>am 
gastlicum pjet hi 5am fltesclicum geefenhecon, ne hi hnxlice 
forseon, forSan "Se we gescoJS hw^et nu to-d;pg is, ac we nyton 
hwffit to-merigen biS toweard. Forwel oft cyniS se bicftan us, 
\>e us mid swyftnysse godre drohtnunge forestappS ; and we 
earfoiSlice him filiaS to-merigen, seSe nu to-d;eg is ure folgcre 
geSuht. Witodlice SaSa se forma cyJScre, Stcphanus, for 
Godes geleafan gestf^ned w;es, Sauhis heold ealra JS^ra stje- 
nendra hacelan, and swa-tieah Paulus siSSan forestop Ste- 
phanum on Godes gclaSungc mid mcnigfcaldum geswincuin, 
]?one ^e he <er ehteude martyr gemacode. 

Twa Sing sind j^e we sceolon carfuUice scrutnian : jerest, 
\>adt lire nan be him sylfum to dyrstelice ne truwige ; sySSan, 
|>aet ure nan be his nextan ne geortruwige, Seah Se he on 
leahtrum befeallen sy ; for^an J>e us sind uncuSe j^a micclan 
welan Godes mildheortnysse. pyssere mildheortnysse welan 
besceawode se sealm-sceop, iSa^a he to Gode pus clypode, 
" Min Gefylsta, Se ic singe, for^an Se Su, God, eart min 
Andfenga, min God, and min Mildheortnyss." Efne se psalm- 
wyrhta understod on hwilcum gcdcorfum ]?is mennisce Iff is 
gelogod, and for^i clypode God his Gefylsta. He gecTgde 
Drihten his Andfenga, for^an Se he underfehS (is into ecere 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY. 83 

every man greatly to rejoice, tliough he be placed last in 
order in the kingdom of God. 

The ending of this gospel is very a\\ ful : " Many are called, 
and few chosen." The Lord has said in another place, that 
" many shall come from the cast part and from the west part, 
and shall rest with the patriarchs, Abraham, and Isaac, and 
Jacob, in the kingdom of heaven." And the same expounder 
also, Gregory, in the exposition of another gospel, said, that 
as great a number of human beings shall ascend to the 
heavenly kingdom as there was of chosen angels remaining 
in heaven after the fall of the proud spirits. Though the 
chosen champions of God seem few in the present life among 
fleshly men who obey their lusts, yet are they not few wlun 
they are gathered. It befits not the ghostly to imitate the 
fleshly, nor contumeliously to despise them, for we see what 
is now to-day, l)ut we know not what is to come to-morrow. 
Very often he comes after us, who had preceded us in swift- 
ness of good conduct ; and we with difliculty follow him to- 
morrow who to-day seems to be our follower. For when the 
first martyr, Stephen, was stoned for God's faith, Saul held 
the garments of all the stoners, and, nevertheless, Paul after- 
wards preceded Stephen in God's church with many labours, 
whom he had before persecuting made a martyr. 



There are two things that we should carefully attend to : 
first, that none of us be too boldly confident in himself; next, 
that none of us despair of his neighbour, though he have 
fallen into sins ; for the great abundance of God's mercy is 
unknown to us. The psalmist contemplated this abundance 
of mercy, wlun he thus cried to God, *' My Helper, thee I 
sing, for thou, God, art my Receiver, my God, and my 
Mercy." Verily the psalmist \mderstood in what tribula- 
tions this human life is i)laced, and, therefore, called God his 
Helper. He called (jod his Receiver, because he receives us 

G 2 



84 DOMINICA SEPTUAGESIMA. 

teste, fram Sisum andweardum geswince. He beheold I'let 
God gesih^ ure yfelnyssa, and urc gyltas forbyldgaS ; and 
swa-^eah he spara^ us arfaestlice, and biirh behreowsimge to 
"Saere ecan mede gehylt. Da nolde he gecigan God n\ild- 
heortne, ac het hine his Mildheortnyss, ]>\is cweSende, " MTii 
God and nun Mildheortnyss." Uton gemunan \ire i^rran 
sjTina, and uton besceawian ^a niicchvn Godes arfa^stnysse, 
hu he uruni gyltuni niiltsaS, and 5{er-t()-oacan |>a^t heofonlice 
rice behiet soSlice da^dbetendum iefter gyltum. Uton forSi 
ealle clypian mid inweardre hcortan, swa swa se sealm-sceop 
clypode, " pu eart min God and niTn Mildheortnys." Godes 
mildheortnys us forestfppS, and his niihlheortnys us fyligS. 
paSa we wel noldon, 5a forliradode Godes mildheortnys us 
Jjaet we wel woldon. Nu wo wel willaJS, us fyligS Godes 
mildheortnys j^a^t ure willa ydcl ne sy. He gearcaS urnc 
godan willan to fultumigenne, and he fylst ISani willan gc- 
gearcodne, seSe leofaJS and rixaS nu and symle on woruldc. 
Amen. 



We willab eow secgan be ^yssere andweardan tide, hwi seo 
halige gelaSung forhet on Godes cyrcan ' AUeluian ^ and 
' Gloria in excelsis Deo,' fram Sisum andwerdum d;pge o5 
J)a halgan Easter-tide. Sum wis lareow hatte Amalarius, se 
avvrat ane boo be cyrclicum Seawum, hwaet tia gesetnyssa 
Godes ]7enunga of gearlicum ymbryne getucnia^, and cwa^JS 
be Syssere andwerdan tide, ]>e is gecweden Septuagesima, ]>{et 
heo gefylS ba gctacnunge ]>fera hund-seofontig gcara )>e Isra- 
hela folc on haeftnede Babiloniscuni cyninge |7eowde. Se- 
ptuagesima is hund-seofontigfeald getel. Seo tid ongin^ on 
"Sisum Sunnan-daege, nigon wucon eer Eastron, and geenda^ 
on ^am Saternes-dfpge J»aere Easterlican wucan : toiSam daege 
sind heonon getealde hund-seofontig daga ; and \>i£t Israhcla 
folc, for heora mandcedum and forg;egednyssinn, wurdon 
gehergode, and hund-seofontig geara on Babiloniscum |'eow- 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY. 85 

into everlasting rest from this present labour. He beheld 
that God sees our evihiesses, and patiently bears with our 
sins ; and yet he kindly spares us, and through penitence 
preserves us for the eternal reward. He would not ihen call 
God merciful, but called him his Mercy, thus saying, " My 
G<k1 and my Mercy." Let us remember our former sins, 
and let us contemplate the great kindness of God, how he 
pities our sins, and, moreover, promises the heavenly king- 
dom to the truly penitent after sins. Let us, therefore, all 
cry with inward heart, as the psalmist cried, "Thou art my 
God and my Mercy." God's mercy goes before us, and his 
mercy follows us. When we desired not well, God's mercy 
has prevented us, so that we have desired well. Now we will 
well, God's mercy follows us that our will be not vain. He 
will be ready to support our good will, and he will aid the 
ready will, wlio liveth and reigneth now and for ever. Amen. 



We will say to you at this present tide, why the holy con- 
gregation onnts in God's church ' Ilalklujah' and ' (ilori.i in 
excelsis Deo,' from this present day until the holy Easter- 
tide. There was a wise doctor called Amalarius, who wrote 
a book on ecclesiastical customs, what the ceremonies of 
God's services of yearly recurrence betoken, and said of this 
present tide, which is called Septuagesima, that it fulfils 
the betokening of the seventy years that the people of Israel 
served the king of Babylon in captivity. Septuagesima is a 
seventyfold number. Tlie tide begins on this Sunday, nine 
weeks before Easter, and ends on the Saturday of the Easter- 
\veek : hence to that day are reckoned seventy days, and the 
Israelitish folk, for their wicked deeds and transgressions, 
were harrowed, and for seventy years continued in Baby- 



86 DOMINICA SEFTUAGESIMA. 

dome, butoii blisse and myrhSe, wunodon. Nu hylt Godos 
gelaSung ]?is hund-seofontigfealde getel sylfwilles for hire 
gyltum, swa swa se ealda Israhel neadunge heold on lueft- 
nunge, o^]?8et se mildheorta God eft, fefter lieora gedrcfed- 
nyssum, hi ahredde, and to heora earde gelaedde. 

Se witega Hieremias witegode be ^fere Israhela Seode, })tet 
hi sceoldon, on "Sam hund-seofontig geara faece, geswican 
blisse stemne and ffegnunge, brydguman stemne and bryde. 
Nu on ^aere gelicnysse forl^taS Godes ^eowas Sa lieofonlican 
lofsangas, * AUcluian ' and ' Gloria in excelsis Deo,' on JSis- 
sere Septuagesinia, forSan |>e us gcdafenab ptet we sylfwilles 
frani ^isum andwcrdan d.'Pge mid sunicre stiSnysse to Sam 
gastlicum gefeohte us sylfe gcgearcian, swa swa seo cyrclice 
}?enung us manaS to heofunge and to ure synna bereowsunge. 

/Erest on «Swre mressan officio we singab ' Circumdedcrunt 
me gemitus mortis *: * Dea}>cs geomerunga mc bccodon, and 
hclle sarnyssa me bccodon, and ic on minrc gcdrcfcchiysse 
Drihten clypode, and he of his halgan temple mine stemne 
gehyrde.' Eft, on Stere mfpssan coilcctan we cwcSaS, * Qui 
juste pro pcccatis nostris affligimur,' ]>iEt is, ' We 5e riiitlice 
for urum synnum sind geswencte.' Eac se apostol on Sam 
pistole cwaeS, " -rElc Soera J?e on gecampe winS, forlia'fS hine 
sylfne fram eallum bingum." 

Witodlice Sas dfeg^erlican Scnunga cy SaS ]>a't fram Sisum 
dsege o5 Eastron is ure heofung-tid and bercowsung-tid ure 
synna mid sumere stiSnysse. ' Alleluia ' is Ebrcisc word, ])ddt 
is on Leden ' Laudate Dominum,' and nan gereord nis swa 
healic swa Ebreisc. Nu forhete we ]>iet healice gereord on 
ure Septuagesima, and cweba^ on Leden, ' Laus tibi, Domine, 
Rex aeterne gloriae '; paet is, ' Sy "be, Drihten, lof, eces 
wuldres Cyning.' We geswuteliab mid j^sere eadmodan Leden 
sprsece, pset we sceolon us sylfe to eadmodran drohtnunge on 
byssere tide gebigan. ' Alleluia ' is, swa we cwfedon, heofon- 
lic sang, swa swa lohannes se apostol cwfeb, pfet he gehyrde 
micele stemne on heofonum, sw\ Ice bvmcna dream, and hi 



J 



SEPTUAGESIMA SUNDAY. 87 

Ionian servitude, without bliss and mirth. Now God's church 
holds this seventyfold number voluntarily for its sins, as the 
old Israel held it by compulsion in captivity, until the merci- 
ful God ai,Min, after their tribulations, delivered them, and 
led them to their country. 

The prophet Jeremiah prophesied of the nation of Israel, 
that in that space of seventy years tiiey should cease from 
the voice of bliss and rejoicing, from the voice of the bride- 
groom and the bride. Now in imitation of that, God's ser- 
vants omit the heavenly hymns, ' Hallelujah ' and ' Gloria in 
cxcclsis Deo,' in this Septuagcsima, because it is fitting that 
we voluntarily from this present day prepare ourselves Mith 
some strictness for the ghostly fight, as the church service 
exhorts us to lamentation and to repentance of our sins. 

First in the office of the mass we sing ' Circunulcderunt 
me gemitus mortis,' 'The moanings of death surrounded me, 
and the pains of hell encompassed me, and in niy affliction I 
cried to the Lord, and he from his holy temple heard my 
voice.' Again, in the collect of the mass we say, ' Qui juste 
pro peccatis nostris affligimur,' that is, 'We who are justly 
afflicted for our sins.' The apostle also said in the epistle, 
"Each of those who strive in warfare, abstains from all 
things." 

Verily these daily services show that from this day till 
Easter is our mourning tide, and tide of repentance of our 
sins, with some strictness. * Hallelujah ' is a Hebrew word, 
which in Latin is ' Laudate Dominum,' and no tongue is so 
sublime as Hebrew. We now leave that sublime tongue in 
our Septuagcsima, and say in Latin, ' Laustibi, Domine, Rex 
.-etern.-E gloriae,' that is, ' Praise be to thee, O Lord, King of 
eternal glory.' By the humble Latin speech we show, that 
we should incline ourselves to a humbler life at this tide. 
' Hallelujah' is, as we said, a heavenly song, as John the apostle 
said, that he heard a great voice in heaven, as it were the 



88 DOMIXICA IN SEXAGESIMA. 

sungon ' Alleluian.' * Gloria in excelsis Deo ' sungon cnglas, 
J7a];a Crist on middanearde lichamlice acenned wjes. Nii 
forlfete we "Sas heofonlican lofsangas on ure bercowsung-tide, 
and we bidda^ mid soSre eadmodnysse Sone .-Elmihtigan, j'aet 
we moton geseon his heofcnlican Easter-tide, sefter jniin gc- 
niffinelicum jeriste, on 5am we him singaS ecelice Allehiian 
butan geswince. Amen. 



DOMINICA IN SEXAGESIMA. 



CUM turba phu-ima conueniret ad lesum : et rcli(iua. 

" On sumere tide, JSalSa miccl mcnigu samod com to ^am 
Ila^lende, and fram gchwilcum bnrgum to him gcncahehton, 
\\x s^ede he him ]>is bigspel : Sum siedcrc fcrdc to sawcnnc his 
Sied :" et relic ua. 

Gregorius se trahtuere cw.'pS, |?{et forSi wolde Drihten 
getrahtiiiafi ]>urli hine sylfiic ]nvt bTgspel "5e he stede, )>Jtt we 
cutSou sccan o5ra Singa gt'tiicnuuge on 5am, ^e he nolde j'urh 
hine syifne geswutelian, and )>a't ge beon gewisse, -Sonne ure 
tyddernys his worda gcUiciiuiiga eow gcopcnaS. Ilwa wolde 
me aefre gelyfan, gif ic wolde gcreccan ))}et 5ornas getacnodon 
welan, Sonne Somas priciaS, and Sa welan gelustfuUiaS ? 
Ac swa-Seah hi sind untwylice •Somas, Sonne hi Sa sawla 
toteraS mid pricunguin mislicra geSolita, and biS, 'Sonne hi 
"Sa sawla to synne gcteo^, swilcc hi mid on-beslagenre wunde 
hi geblodigian. llihtlice se oSer godspellere, Matheus, het hi 
lease welan, forSan "Se hi ne magon lange mid us wunian. 
Lease welan hi sind, forSan ^Se hi ne adra^faS ure saule hafen- 
leaste. Ac se welega nat ]?aet he is wajdla, forSan ^e he 
nsefS rihtwisnysse speda and ])<fis heofenlican vvisdomes gold- 
hordas, |?e sind soSe welan, and heora lufigcndne gemacia^ 
weligne ecelice. Gif ge wilniaS |?tet ge rice beon, lufiaS }'a 
so^an welan, I'c'pt sind halige mtegnu. Gif ge geSincSe soSes 
wurSmyntes secaS, efstaS J^onne to Sam heofenlican rice, on 



se:xagksima Sunday. sq 

sound of trumpets, and they sung ' Hallelujah.' Angels sung 
' Gloria in excelsis Deo,' when Christ was born bodily in the 
world. Now we leave the heavenly hymns at our penitence 
tide, and with true humility pray the Almighty that we may 
see his heavenly Easter-tide, after tiie universal resurrection, 
in which we will sing to him eternally Hallelujah without 
weariness. Amen. 



SEXAGESIMA SUNDAY 



CUM turba plurima convenirct ad Jcsum : et rcliqua. 

" On a time wiien a great multitude came together to 
Jesus, and drew near to him from several burghs, he said to 
them this parable : A sower went to sow his seed," etc. 

Gregory the expositor said, that the Lord would himself 
expound that parable which he had said, because we might 
seek the betokening of other things in it, which he through 
himself would not manifest, and that ye may be certain, when 
our infirmity opens to you the significations of his words. 
Who woidd ever believe me, if I would explain that thorns 
betokened riches, when thorns prick and riches afford plea- 
sure ? But, nevertheless, they arc undoubtedly thorns, when 
they tear souls with the prickings of divers thoughts, and 
are, when they draw souls to sin, as if they cause them to 
bleed with an inflicted wound. Rightly the other evangelist, 
Matthew, calls them false riches, for they cannot long remain 
\\\\\\ us. False riches they are, for they drive not away the 
indigence of our souls. But the wealthy knows not that he 
is poor, because he has not riches of righteousness and trea- 
sures of heavenly wisdom, which are true riches, and make 
jiim who loves them wealthy to eternity. If ye desire to be 
rich, love true riches, that is, holy virtues. If ye seek honour 
of true dignity, hasten then to the heavenly kingdom, in wliich 



90 DOMINICA IN SEXAGESIMA. 

"■55. 

"Sam ge beo8 engla geferan 011 wulderfulluiu wiirtiscipc ciule- 
leaslice. * 

Mine gebroSru, us gedafena^ )7aet we mid arf.'estuui gelca- 
fan underfon Drilitnes trahtuuiige, and ^a Sing })e he liefde 
us to trahtnigenne we sceolon mid scortre race tSa befon. 
Drihten sylf geopenab us |?<fit j^aet sfed is Godes word, and 
jjffit mislice land getacna^ mislice heortan j^ajra heorcnigendru 
manna, pone sfiedere he behefde us to secenne. Ac we ne 
magon nwnne s^edore Godes lare rihtlicor undergytan JSonne 
hine sylfnc, Godes Sunu, seSe ferde to sawenne his sted, 5aSa 
he of his Fa^der bosme forSstjeppende, becom to pisum mid- 
danearde, to "Si ]nBt he gcwitnysse soJSfa^stnysse cydde, and 
mid his halgan lare middaneardlic gedwyld adwipscte. 

piet s<ed \)c fcoll be 5am wcge mid twyfealdre dare losode, 
tJaSa wcgfcrende hit fortrwdon, and fugelas toba'ron. Se 
wcg is SCO fortredene iicorte fram yflum geSohtum, J?e ne 
gcnihtsumiaS to undcrfonne Godes word, ne nsenne Wfestm 
to spryttamie ; and forSi swa hwa't swa "JS.'ps gddan saidcs on 
swylcum wcge bcfylJS, biJS mid yfelum getSohtum oftrcden, 
and Surh deoflum gela?ht. Dcoflu sind fugelas gecigcde, for- 
(San <Se hi fleoS gcond pas lyft ungesewenlice, swa swa fuge- 
las do5 gesewenlice. Matheus awriit |nis be JSisum, and sjiide, 
" ^Elc (Sjera "Se gehyrJS ]>iet hcofcnlice word, and he hit ne 
understent, "Sonne cymS se yfcla and gehehS hit." Mid jnim 
is geswutelod }'aet '5a sind wi5 pone wcig gesawene, 5e Godes 
word gehyraS, and hit nellaS mid gclcafan ne mid nanum 
andgite onfon ; ponne a^tbret se fleogcnda sccocca "Sa^rrihte 
paet halige sjed of swilcera gedwolena heortan. 

paet Sisd pe bufon 5am stjenigum lande feol sprytte hwfet- 
hwega, ac ^a5a seo hjete com, 5a forscranc hit, forSan ^e hit 
na'fde ntenne Wfetan. Swa do5 sume menn ; ponne hi gehyra^ 
Godes word, ponne beotS hi onbryrde to sumum fyrste, and 
ponne seo hcete cym^, pset is, seo costnung and earfo^nyss, 
ponne abreo5a5 In, forSan pe se weeta ne gefaestnude hcora 
wvrtruman. Ilweet is seo staenigc eorSe buton hcard-heort- 



SEXAGESIMA SUNDAY. 91 

ye will be comp:inions of angels in glorious worship without 

CMcl. 

My brothers, it is befitting us that with pious belief we 
receive the Lord's exposition, and that the things which he 
left for us to expound \\c should then comprise in a short 
discourse. The Lord himself discloses to us, that the seed is 
Ciod's word, and the unlike lands betoken the unlike hearts 
of hearkening men. The sower he left us to seek. But we 
cannot more rightly understand any sower of God's precepts 
than himself, the Son of God, u ho went out to sow his seed, 
when, proceeding from the bosom of his Father, he came to 
this world that he might bear witness of the truth, and ex- 
tinguish worldly error by his holy doctrine. 

The seed that fell by the way perished by a double injury, 
when the wayfaring trod it down, and the birds bare it away. 
The way is the heart corrupted by evil thoughts, which are in- 
capable of receiving God's word, or of sending forth any fruit ; 
and, tlierefore, whatsoev<>r good seed falls on such a way, is 
troddi'U down by evil thoughts, and snatched away by devils. 
Devils are called birds because they fly invisibly through this 
air, as birds do visihly. Of these Matthew wrote thus, and 
said, " Every of those who hear the heavenly word, and un- 
derstand it not, then cometh the evil one and seizeth it." Hy 
this is shown that those are sown by the way who hear God's 
word, and \\\\\ not receive it with belief nor with any under- 
standing ; then the flying devil straightways takes away the 
holy seed from the hearts of such heretics. 

The seed that fell on the stony land sent forth a little, but 
when the heat came it shrank, because it had no moisture. 
So do some men ; when they hear the word of God they arc 
stinndated for a time, and when the heat comes, that is, 
temptation and difliculty, then they perish because no moisture 
had fastened their roots. What is the stonv earth but hard- 



02 'DOMINICA IN SEXAGESIMA. 

nyss ? Hvvaet is se wtetii butoii lufu and anrffidnys ? ILebbc 
se mann heard-heortnysse and ungewyldelic mod, and njebbe 
■5a so'San lufe and anra^dnysse, }>onne forsearaS swiSe hraSe 
l^aet halige sjed on his heortan. 

Hwene ^r we spnecon be ^ani stede ]>e betwux )?ani 5or- 
num sprang, and mid heora waestme forSrysmod wearS. 
Drihten sylf truhtnode be Sisum : p^et 5a sind |;e Godes 
word geiiyraS, ac hi sind gebysgode mid heora weUnn, and 
mid heora lifes lustuui forsmorode, and ne bcra5 nienne 
waestm. Woruld-cara, and wchm, and fl;esclice lustas for- 
smoria^ ^aes modes Srotan, and ne geSafiaS godne wiUan 
infaran to his heortan, swilcc hi JSone liflican bla'd forSrtestne 
acwellon. Twii wiScrnedc 5ing gcSeodde Drihten on (Sisum 
owyde, jnet sind ymlmlignyssa and lustas. Ymhidignyssa 
ofSricca^ |)jpt mod, and unhistas tolysaS. pwyrlice Sing, 
"5e heora Idafordas do5 geswcncte frani carum, and slipere 
J;urh unst;e55ignysse. Witodlice on oSrum tiiiian hi gc- 
swenca5 heora hlaford )nnli ymhidignysse heordrt'edene, and 
on oSrum timan, jnirh ofcrflowednysse, to unhistum ge- 
hnexiaS ; forSan Se Sam histe and geswenccdnysse naht ea^e 
on anuni timan ne gewyrS. 

Se dael |>aes stedes Se on godre eorSan befool, )'it't sind Sa 
'5e Godes word on godre heortan healdaS, and bringaS wjestm 
on geSylde. SoiSlicc gcJSyld is micel mrt'gen on haligre 
drohtnunge, swa swa Drihten cwstj to his leorning-cnihtum, 
" On eowrum geSylde ge jiabba^ eowcre sawla." Seo gode 
eorSe agifS hire wjestmas |mrh ge^yld, "Sonne seo eslfulle 
heorte, ye Godes word underfehS, ne biS tobryt for nunum 
ungelimpum, ne eft on nanum gesundfulnyssum ne bib bc- 
paeht, ac biS gebyld on Gode betwux ungelimpum, and ead- 
mod betwux gesundfulnyssum. 

Se o'Ser godspellere awrat, ]>iet sum d;el J^aes saedes pe on 
"Sam godan lande asprang ageaf Sritigfealdne weestm, sum 
sixtigfealdne, sum hundfealdne. Agustinus Magnus sic docet : 
GelealTulle la^wedo menu, ]>e on rihtum sinscipe hbbaS, agifaS 



SEXAGESIMA SUNDAY. 93 

lieartcdncss ? What is the moisture hut love and stead- 
fastness ? If a man have hard-heartedncss and an unifovern- 
ahle mind, and have not true love and steadfastness, then 
the holy seed is very soon seared up in his heart 

A little before we spake of the seed which sprani; among 
tliorns, and was choked up by their growth. Tlic Lord him- 
self expounded this : Tiiat they are those who hear God's 
word, but are busied with their riches, and choked with the 
pleasures of their life, and bear no fruit. Worldly cares, ai'.d 
riches, and fleshly lusts choke the throat of the mitid, and 
suffer not good will to enter the heart, as if they killed by 
crushing the living fruit. The Lord associated two contrary 
things in this sentence, wiiich are solicitudes and lusts. Soli- 
citudes choke the mind, and evil desires relax it. Perverse 
things, which make their possessors troubled with cares, and 
slippery through unsteadiness. Verily at one time they 
trouble their possessor through solicitude of guarding, and at 
another time, through superfluity, seduce to evil desires ; for 
desire and trouble do not easily agree together at one time. 



The part of the seed that fell on good earth is those who 
hold the word of God in a good heart, and bring fruit in 
patience. Verily patience is a great virtue in holy life, as 
the T^ord said to his disciples, " In )Mur patience ye have 
your souls." The good earth yields its fruits through 
patience, when the pious heart, which receives (iod's word, 
is not broken by any calamities, nor, on the other hand, is 
seduced by any prosperity, but is bold in God amid calamities, 
and humble amid prosperity. 

The other evangelist wrote, that some part of the seed 
which sprang up on the good land yielded fruit thirtyfold, 
some sixtyfold, some an hundredfold. Augustinus Mjignus 
sic docet : Believing laymen, who live in lawful wedlock. 



94 DOMINICA IN SEXAGESIMA. 

}?riti<rfealthic wa^stni godrji woorca, gif hi hcora aewe aefter 
boclicum gesetnyssuni liealdaiS, Jnet is, paet ht for bcarnes 
gestreonc, on alyfeduin timan, h;emcd began, and bcarn- 
eacnigende vvif and nionab-seoc forbiigan ; and eionne hco 
leng tynian ne nia^g, geswican hi hfeniedes. Sind sua-iieah 
niiccle ma ba^ra }'c be hcora tigenuni kistuni lybban wilhiJS, 
l^onne 'Saera ]fe Sysre deopnyssc cepan. pis is hewedra 
manna rcgol, a?ftcr bocliccre gesetnysse ; so ISc jns tobrecc, 
bete swa him his scrift tiecc. Da <Se chenlicc on wydewan 
hade for Godes hifon ])^rh\vunia^, lii agyfaiS sixtigfealdne 
waestm. Hit is swiSe ungedafenlic and scandlic, pa^t for- 
werode mcnn and untymende gifta wilnian, ^onne gifta n*c 
sind gesette for nanuni Sitige baton for bearn-tcanic. pa ^e 
on chpnuni nKeg^hil(lc SurhuuniaJS, for gefcan 5;es ccan lifes, 
ht bringaiS forS Innidfealdne Wifistm. pes st<rpe belimp^ 
swiSost to Godes Scowuni and (Sinemnn, |»a JSe frani cildhiide 
chenlice on Gofles JJeowdonic singallice drolitniaJJ. 

yElcnni menn gedafcnaiS cltcnnyss, and swiiSostgehadothnn 
Godes Seowuni. pa^t is jm^s hewedan niannes cbennys, J'a't 
he his a'we healdc, and alyfcdlice, for folces eacan, beam 
gcstreone. p;pt is Jijes gehadodan mannes chennyss, ]>aM'a 
Se Gode j'eniaiS, pa't iii eallunge fram fla'sclicuni lustum In" 
forhabbon, and hini gedafenaJS J>a*t hi Gode gestrynon 5a 
cild, |>c Sa hewedan menn to iSysscre worulde gestryndon. 
Gemtenes hades preostuni is alyfeii, a-fter eia-s halgan Gre- 
gorius taicinge, }?eet hi syferlice sinscipes brucon. Witodliec 
"Sam obrum J^>e fet Godes weofode |>enia(S, |>a^t is nifessc- 
preostum and diaconum, is eaUunge forboden ie\c htemed. 
preo hund biscopa and eahtatyne gesetton 5one canon, \>iet 
nan mresse-preost o<55e diacon on his wvmunge uifhades 
manii na^bbe, baton hit sy his modcr, o<Sbe sweoster, obJSe 
faSu, obbe moddrie ; and gif he dearnunge oSbe eawunge 
wTfes bruce, ]>iet he his hades Sohge. Ne heora nan gercf- 
scipe oSbe mangunge ne drife, forSan Se hi sind gecorene of 



SEXAGESIMA SUNDAY. 95 

yield tliirtyfold fruit of good works, if they keep their 
marriage according to the written institutes, that is, that 
they coliabit for the procreation of children at pcrniilted 
times, and abstain from a pregnant and month-sick woman ; 
and when they can no longer procreate, cease from cohabita- 
tion. Tliere are, nevertheless, many more of those who will 
live according to their own lusts, than of those who keep 
this precept. This is the rule for laymen, according to the 
written institute ; let him w ho breaks it make atonement as 
his confessor shall teach him. Thev who chastlv, for love of 
(jod, continue in widowhood, yield fruit sixt\fold. It is 
very unfitting and shamefvd that worn-out and impotent men 
desire marriage, while marriage is ordained for nothing hut 
the procreation of children. They who continue in pure vir- 
ginity, for till- joy of everlasting life, bring forth fruit an 
hundredfold. This degree belongs chiefly to (iod's servants, 
male and female, those who from childhood ever chastlv live 
in the service of Clod. 

Chastity is befitting to every man, and above all to tiie 
ordained servants of God. The cha.-tity of a lavman is, that 
he hold to his marriage, and lawfully, for the increase of 
l)eoplc, beget children. The cha&tity of a man in orders, of 
those who serve (iod, is, that they wholly abstain from fleshly 
lusts, and it is befitting them that they beget to God the 
children which laymen have begotten to this world. To 
priests of common order it is allowed, according to the teach- 
ing of St. Gregory, that they may chastly enj«)y wedlock. 
15ut to the others who serve at God's altar, that is, to mass- 
priests and deacons, all sexual intercourse is wholly forbid- 
den. Three hundred and eighteen bishops established the 
canon, that no mass-priest nor deacon should have any female 
in his dwelling, unless it be his mother, or sister, or father's 
sister, or mother's sister ; and if he secretly or publicly have 
intercourse with woman, that he forfeit his order. Let none 
of them midertake any reeveship or mongering, for thev art- 



96 DOxMINICA IN SEXAGESIMA. 

woiukl-niajinum to Godes tcoliingum, ]>iv.t lii "Surh hyra lare 
and cristendome ]>ipt hewede folc Gode gestrynan. We 
sceolon callum Godes folce samod j^a boclicaii lare secgan, 
j^aet ^am goduin ]>e hit gehealdan \\ illaJS, ne sy oftogen sco 
gastlice dcopnyss ; and |;a bwyran beon gcSreade, jnet hi spt 
sumuni Sffile to Godes rihte gebugan. Se apostol Petrus ha'fde 
vvif and cild, and eac sume SaoSre apostohis, ler hi to Cristes 
lareowdoine gecyrdon ; ac hi geswicon flfesclicera lusta and 
dffida si5<San he hi to JSani apostolican hade geceas : su a swa 
Petrus to Drihtne gecwreS, " Efne we forleton calle Sing, 
and -Se folgiab." 

Hwjet wille we fiirJSor ynibc "Sis smeagan, hutoii ]'a>t se 
beef 5 )ni mede Se he geearnaS, sctSe tobrecS )ja canon ican 
gesetnyssc : iiiin is but alyfed and geswicon\ s ; se 5e on for- 
ga^gednyssc jnirhwunae), he geniet swiSc stiSne doin on Sam 
tovveardan life. 

Gregorius rehte sunie b}sMe be JSain worde Se Drihten 
cwa^S, jjrpt SCO gode eorSe hire wicstmas forSbrincS on ge- 
Syldc. He cwieS j^a^t he cuSe sunine man on llomcbyrig, 
his nania w;es Scruulus, Searfa on a'htum, and welig on ge- 
earnungum. Sc la^g bedryda fram cildhadc oS his geendunge. 
He Iceg singallicc, and iifefrc sittan ne nnhte, ne bine on o"Sre 
sidan bewendan, ne his handa to his muSe gera?can. Him 
•Senode his moder and broSer, and swa hwjet swa him Godes 
frynd on felmcssan forgeafon, j'fct he daelde forS oSrum 
"Searfum. Ne cuSe he bodice stafas, ac begcat him halige 
bee, and gclaSode him to geherede mcnn, and him olcjehte, 
\>set hi Saera boca andgit singallice him trahtnodon ; and he 
swa becom to "Sfera boca andgite, ]?eah ^e he sylf nrenne staef 
ne cu^e. He symle on his legere Gode Sancode, and daeges 
and nihtes mid lofsangum bine wur^ode. pa^a se tima becom 
J>iEt his miccle geSyld wurde gewuldrod fram Gode, ^a awende 
seo sarnyss ealra his lima to ^xre heortan. Efne ^a^a he 
ongeat );ifit se deaS him genealeehte, ]?a baed he ^a ael^eodigan 
weras, Se on cuman liTwe him mid wunodon, \>ift hi astodon, 



SEXAGESIMA SUNDAY. 1*7 

chosen from worluly men to Gods labours, that through their 
doctrine and cliristianity th(>y may gain the lay people to 
God. We should declare the written doctrine to all God's 
people together, that its ghostly deepness be not withheld 
from those who are desirous of observing it ; and that the 
perverse may be reproved, so that they at some time turn to 
God's right. The apostle Ptter had a wife and children, and 
also some of the oilier apostlciv, before they turned to Christ's 
doctrine ; but they ceased from fleshly lusts and deeds after 
they had chosen the apostolic state : as Peter said tn the 
Lord, '• Behold we have forsaken all things, and follow thee." 

What shall we further consider concerning this, but that he 
w ill have the meed which he merits, who breaks the canonical 
institute ? atonement is permitted, and cessation ; he who per- 
sists in transgression will find a very stern doom in the life 
to come. 

Gregory has related an example relative to the words which 
ihc Lord spake, that good earth brings forth its fruits in 
patience. lie said that he knew a man at Rome, whose name 
was Servulus, poor in posses&ions, and rich in deserts. lie 
lay bedridden from childhood to his end. He lay constantly, 
and could never sit, nor turn himself on the other side, nor 
r( iich his hand to his mouth. His mother and brother 
ministered to him, and whatsoever the friends of God gave 
iiim in alms, he distributed toother indigent ones. He knew 
no book-characters, but got him holy books, and invited to 
him learned men, and prevailed (»n them constantly to ex- 
pound to him the sense of those books, and he so arrived at 
the sense of thotjc books, ihougli he himself knew not a letter. 
On his bed he incessantly thanked God, and day and night 
honoured him with hymns. When the time came that his 
great patience should be glorified by God, the disease of all 
his limbs turned to the heart. When he was sensible that 
death \\ as a[)proaching him, he prayed those strangers, who 
dwelt wiih him as -uests, that they would stand by, and 

IJOM. VOL. II. 11 



98 DOMINICA I. IN QUADRAGESIMA. 

and on his forSsiSe heora sealnias sungon. Hwaet 8a, for- 
lice, "Sa^a he sylf mid J?am ael^eodigum preostum sang, Sa 
clypodc he mid micclum ogan, and heora sang gestikle, and 
cwtE^, " Suwia^ : hwaet la ; ne gehyre gc hii myrige lofsan- 
gas swegaS on heofonum?" Efne Sa, mid |>am pe he hlyste 
"Sees heofonlican sanges,^a gewathis sawul of 5am geswcnctan 
lichaman to ecere reste. pa wear5 |>cfit hus afylled mid wun- 
derlicuni brfe^e, svva ]>8et ealle '5a licmenn wurdon afyllede 
mid ^am wynsumum stence, and se braeS on heora nos5yr- 
lum ne ateorode, o^paet se halga lichama bebyriged wa^s. 
Swa agcaf );es goda mann his wsestm Gode jjurh ge5yhl, for- 
5an ])e he forbaer Godcs swingcle switJe emlicc, and si55an 
to edlcanes cCcre becom. 

Mine gcbroora, understandaS be Sisum hwilce beladunge 
haibbe we c'et Godes dome, gif we asleac ia5 fram godum 
weorcum, we 5e habba5 urc h;ele and adita, mi j'cs hnna 
Wiiedla baton handcnefte Godes bebo(hi irefv^Ie. Ic bidde 
cow, gcbro5ra, tihtaS eowcr mod to gccnyrihiysse godra 
weorca, Jjtet ge mid gebylde go(hie WcBstm to Godcs handa 
gebringon, j^wt gc mid him and his halgnm |>fet ece lif hab- 
ban moton on ealra worulda worukl. Amen. 



DOMINICA I. IN QUADRAGESIMA. 

MEN \>a leofostan, eow callum is cu5 ])fet Ses gearlica 
ymryne us gebrinc5 efne nu |>a chenan tid Lexctenlices 
Fi^ESTENES, on bam we sceolon ure gymeleaste and forgwged- 
iiysse urum gastlicum scrifte geandetian, and us mid ffestenc, 
and wajccum, and gebcdum, and aihnes-djedum fram synnum 
a^wean, j^aet we bealdlice, midgastlicere blissc, ba Easterlican 
nifersunge Cristes aeristes wurbian moton, and j^aes halgan 
busies l^igene mid gcleafan underfon, us to synne forgifen- 
nysse, and to gescyldnysse deofellicera costnunga. 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IX LENT. 99 

sing their psalms at his departure. Lo then, suddenly, while 
lie hiuiself was singing with the stranger priests, he cried 
with great awe, and stilled their song, and said, " Be silent: 
what is that ? hear ye not how merrily the hymns sound in 
heaven ?" Lo then, while he was listening to the heavenly 
song, his soul departed from the afflicted body to everlasting 
rest. Tiicn was the house 611ed with a wondrous odour, so 
that all the corpse-bearers were filled with the winsome 
fragrance, and the odour ceased not in their nostrils until 
tlie holy body was buried. Tiius did this good man yield his 
fiuit to God by patience, for he bare God's scourging very 
calmly, and afterwards went to the field of reward. 

My brothers, understand by this what justification we can 
have at God's doom, if we slacken from good works, we who 
have our health and possessions, while this lame pauper with- 
out handicraft fulfilled God's commandments. I pray you, 
brothers, stimulate your minds to the cultivation of good 
works, that with patience yc may bring good fruit to God's 
hand, that with him and his saints ye may have everlasting 
life to all eternitv. Amen. 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN LENT. 

MEN most beloved, it is known to you all that this yearly 
course just now brings us the pure time of the Lenten 
Fast, during which we should confess our heedlessness and 
transgressions to our ghostly confessor, and wash ourselves 
from sins with fasting, and watchings, and prayers, and 
alms-deeds, that we may boldly, with ghostly joy, honour the 
Easter celebration of Christ's ascension, and with faith par- 
take of the holy housel, for the forgiveness of our sins, and 
protection against devilish temptations. 

II 2 



100 DOMINICA I. IN QUADRAGESIMA. 

Witodlice ]>is feowertij^fealde faesten wies asteald on ScTre 
Ealdaii Gecy^nysse, ^aSa se heretoga Moyses f*ste feower- 
tig daga and feo\vertig nilita tosamne, to "bi yeei he mosto 
Godes ie underfon. Eft siSSan se maera uitcga Elias eal- 
swa laiig fffisten, jjurh Godcs mihte, swa sua se o^er gefylde, 
and si^ban he wear^ geferod lichamlice on heofenlicuni craete 
to ^ain npplican life, and c\ inS eft, he and Enoch, togcanes 
Antecriste, to ^i ]>ffit hi j^a^s deofles Icasunge mid Godes soiS- 
ffestnysse ofersta^lan. Drihten eac on "Saere Niwan GecyS- 
nysse faeste jnirh his godcnndan niihte fcowertig daga and 
nihta frani ealhun corblicuni bigleofuni. pus wjbs ure lenc- 
tenlice frPsten astcahl ; ac \vc ne iwagon for ure tyddernysse 
"Sillic f;esten jnirliteon. Nu is us alyfcd, }'urh lareowa ealdor- 
doni, I'.et \vc d.i'glmonilice, on |>ysscrc lenctcnlican tide, ure 
liclianian geroordigan mid forhjefednysse, and syfernyssc, and 
cljfinnysse. Stunt liie fa'st se lenctenlic fiesten seJSe on bisum 
claenum timan hinc s\lfne mid "ahiyssc bcfylb. Unrilitlic 
bib \>8dt se cristena nnann lliesclice histas gefrcmmc on bam 
timan |>e he fl;esc-mettas forgan sccal. Witodlice on ealhun 
tidum gedafenab cristenum manmim, |?a't hi gode weorc 
began, and a^lmcs-dieda, and swa-'beah swibost on ]>isum 
gemjenelicum faestene. Se be on obrum dagum slcac wajie 
to godnysse, he sccal huru-biiiga on bisum dagum acucian 
on godum biggengum. Se ^e aer gla^dlice mid godum weor- 
cum bine sylfne geglengde, him gedafenab j^aet he nil on 
"bisum dagum geornlicor mid weallendre hife his godnysse 
gecybe. Ne bi^ nan faesten Gode gecwcme, buton se mann 
hine sylfne fram leahtrum forhwbbe. Beob gemyndige baera 
twegra worda ]>e Drihten cwae^ on his godspelle : lie cwae^, 
*' Forgyfab, and eow bib forg}fen. Syllab, and eow bib 
geseald." pas tvva aelmessena cynn us sind to beganne mid 
micelregecnyrdnysse : ]>8et we obrum mannum mid inweardre 
heortan forgifon, gif hi awar us getebiligdon, to bi )?aet God us 
forgyfennysse do ure synna. And uton don J>carfuni and 
wannspedigum sume hi^^e ure goda, |;ara iElmihtigum Gode 



THE FIRST SUNDAY I.\ LENT. 101 

Manifestly this fortyfold fast was established in tiie Old 
Testament, when the leader Moses fasted forty days and forty 
nights together, in order that he might receive God's law. 
Again afterwards the great prophet Elijah accomplished, 
through God's might, a fast as long as the other, and he was 
afterwards borne bodily in a heavenly car to the life above, 
and will come again, he and Enoch, against Antichrist, that 
they may confute the devil's leasing with God's truth. In 
the New Testament also the Lord, through his divine might, 
fasted forty days and nights, without all eartiily food. Thus 
Mas our lenten fast established, but we cannot, by reason of 
our weakness, accomplish such a fast. Now it is allowed 
us, by the authority of teachers, daily at this lenten tide to 
nourish our bodies with abstemiousness, and soberness, and 
chastity. Foolishly he fasts the lenten fast, who at this pure 
time defiles himself with libidinousness. Unlawful it is for 
a christian man to iudulire in flcshlv lusts at the time when 
he shall forgo flcbh meals. Verily it is irt, all times befitting 
christian men to perform good works and alms-deeds, and 
yet most of all at this general fast. He who on other days 
may be remiss in goodness, should at least on these days be 
active in good practices. To him who previously had ghidly 
adorned himself w ith gfiod works, it is fitting that he on these 
days more earnestly with ardent love show his goodness. No 
fait will be acceptable to God, unless a man abstain from 
sins. Be mindful of the two sentences which the Lord spake 
in his gospel : he said, '* Forgive, and ye shall be forgiven. 
Give, and to you shall be given." These two kinds of alms 
are to be practised by u.s witii great diligence : that with in- 
ward heart we forgive other men, if in aught they have 
offended us, to the end that God may grant us forgiveness of 
our sins. And let us bestow some advantage of our goods 
on tiie poor and needy, for the honour of Almighty God, 



102 DOMINICA I. IN QUADRAGESIMA. 

to wurSmynte, ])e hit us alaende, ]>{et he us mare on iSam to- 
weardan forgife. 

Mildheortnyss is synna Isecedom ; heo alyst fram ^am ecan 

dea^e, and ne ge^'afa^ us jjfet we to forwyrde becnmoii. 

Mildheortnys ana gemundaS us on ^ani miccluni dome, gif 

we on andwerdum life hi o^runi mannum cy^aiS. "Witc/dlice 

^am biS dom baton mildhcortnvsse, seSc nn oiSruni denrS 

buton mildheortnysse. Of rihtwisuiii gestreonuni man sceal 

aelmessan d«lan, swa swa hit aAvriten is, " ArwurSa 'Sinne 

Drihten mid J^inum «htum, and of c5innm fruiu-Mfestmum 

syle Searfum." ]?a sehuessan J>e of rcaflace beo5 gcsealde 

sind Gode swa gecweme, swilce hwa acwelle oSres mannes 

cihl, and bringc "Sam feeder \veX hcafod to lace. God bebyt 

l^aet man eelmessan wyrce, and he forbead I'acn and reaflac. 

Se unrihtwisa bcryp^ o^re and blissa^ : eft, gif se Searfa 

hine bitt felmessan, )?onne geunrotsaS he, and awent his neb 

aweg, and forgyt |?a^s witegan cwyde, j'e cwa?5, " Se "Se awent 

his neb fram clypigcndum Searfan, lie sylf clypaJS eft to Gode, 

and his stemnc ne bi^ gehyrcd. Ahyld ^in eare to 5;es 

wfedlan bene, jjset God eft iSine stemne gcl\yrc. Dtel of Sam 

■Se "Se God forgeaf, and ]jin god beoS gemenigfyldc. Gif "Su 

forgymcleasast to di^lenne selmessan, God J?e benaemS pinra 

goda, and jni belifst siSSan wiedla." 

God forgifS ricum welan genihtsumlice, and "Sam pearfum 
oftihS. IIwi swa ? pa^t he afandige ^a rican j)urh his ^ear- 
fena hafenleaste. God geworhte welegan and Searfan, and 
wolde )78p.t se waedla waere afedd ];urh ^one rican. God ge- 
sette "Sone welegan dselere on his godum : hwi sceal he Sonne 
him anum geagnian )?ffit him bam is forgifen ? Gif Su talast 
to 'Sinum geswince j^iet ]?;fit ^u haefst, o^Se gif ^u wenst j^fet 
•Saere eorSan weestmas -Sine sind, "Sonne cwe^S se ^Imihtiga 
Wealdend to "Se, * Efne nu ic "Se ofteo minne fultum, and 
hafa Se \\w geswinc. Ic ofteo mine ren-scuras, and ic wyrce 
iSin land unw;=estmb8ere. Gif j^set land ^in is, se ren is min. 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IX LENT. 103 

who has lent them to us, that he may give us more in the 
future. 

Mercy is the medicine of sins ; it redeems from eternal 
death, and allows us not to come to perdition. Mercy alone 
will be our guardian at the great doom, if in the present life 
we show it to other men. But to those shall be doom with- 
out mercy, who now without mercy judge others. From 
righteous gains one should distribute alms, as it is written, 
" Honour thy Lord with thy possessions, and of tliy first 
fruits give unto the poor." The alms that arc given from 
rapine arc as acceptable to God as if any one, having killed 
another man's child, should bring to the father its head as a 
gift. God commanded alms to be given, and he forbade fraud 
and rapine. Tiie unrighteous robs others and rejoices : then, 
if the needy ask alms of him, he is offended, and turns his 
face away, and forgets the saying of the prophet, who said, 
" He who turns his face from the crying poor, shall after- 
wards himself cry unto God, and his voice shall not be heard. 
Incline thine ear to the prayer of the needy, that God may 
afterwards hear thy voice. Deal from that which God hath 
given thee, and thy goods shall be nmltiplicd. If thou neg- 
lectest to deal alms, God will take from thee thy goods, and 
thou shalt afterwards remain poor." 

God gives to the rich wealth in abundance, and takes it 
away from the poor. Why so ? That he may try the rich 
through the indigence of his poor. God made the wealthy 
and the needy, and woiild that tiie poor should be fed by the 
rich. God appointed the wealthy a distributer of his goods : 
why tlien should he appropriate to himself alone that which 
is given to both ? If thou ascribe to thy labour that which 
thou hast, or if thou ween that the fruits of the eartii are 
thine, then will the Almighty Ruler say unto thee, ' Behold 
now I will withdraw from thee my support, and have thou 
thy labour. I will withdraw my rain-shoMcrs, and I will 
make thy land barren. If the land is thine, the rain is niinc. 



101 DOMINICA I. IN QUADRAGKSIMA. 

Teoh 5u for^ ren-scuras, gif ^n niiht, and gcwaetera tJine 
a^ceras. Gif ^u mage, do j^rpt suiine scTiie, jjaet ^ine aeceras 
ripion.' AVitodlice \>xt sylfe land ]>e ^u Se geagnast nis 5iii, 
ac is "Sees -^Elniihtigan, swa swa se witcga cwa^S, *' Seo eorSe 
and hire gefyllednys is Godes." God cwylS eft to "Se, ' Mine 
Searfan lybbaS buton ^e ; leofa, gif "Sii mage, buton me. 
Mine ^earfan habbaS ealle tiing, gif hi me ienne habbaS. 
Hwa?t hffifst ^u, gif Su me nwfs-t?' pu hiwast swilce ]n\ 
^inum cildum hit sparige, and nast liwam hit gcscyt, swa 
swa se witega cwa^b, " On idel swincS se "Se goldiiordalS, 
and iiat hwam he hit gegadera^." peah ^e |>in feoh ne 
ateorige, "Scah geenda^ )'in lif ponne ^u la^sl wenst ; swa 
swa Crist sylf cwjeS be sumon rtcan menn on his godspcUe : 
he cw£fi5, "Sum welig mann wws on worulde, and liis wa^st- 
mas genihtsumlicc |?ugon. pa smeade se rlca, and cwjeS, 
Hwiet do ic la, nu ic n;ebbe hw.er ic nifpge callc mine w;est- 
mas gegaderian ? Eft he cwjeS, Ic wille ryman minne ber- 
tun, and mine bernu gecacnian, and cSidcr gogadrian callc 
mine wwstmas, and cwc^all to minre sawlc, Min sawul, Sii 
hjefst fcla god to mancgra gcara bricc : gcrest be nu, and et, 
and drinc, and gewislfulla. pa cw;e^ God to iSam rican, Du 
stunta, nu to-niht ^u sccalt Mn ITf ahetan. Ilwa^s bcoJS 
l^onnc ]nne tcolunga ? Swa biS se "5e him sylfum gold- 
horda^, and nis on Gode welig.".' Efne bu ondrwtst 5e on 
]>am gcdale : ne ondraet 5u iSc to dfe.lenne, \>\i ^e nast hwaeSer 
"Su merigenes gebide. Cy5 mildhcortnysse earmuin mannum 
mid J^inum bcgcate ; lie forliet se ^-Elmihtiga God ^e, se^e iSe 
to dteiere gcsette. Be ^isum cwfeS Drihten on his godspelle, 
" Ne bchydc ge eowcrne goldhord on eorSan ]>xv iS;jer onim 
and moS^an hit awestab, and "Seofas adelfaS and forstelaxS ; 
ac hordiacS eowerne goldhord on heofenum, }>aer ne cym^ to 
ne om ne nio^^e, ne );eofas ne delfaS ne ne jetbreda^. So5- 
lice 'Saer 'Sfer j^in goldhord is, j'.'cr bib ])in heorte." Ilu mage 
we iivno goldhord on heofonum bchvdan buton burh wlmcs- 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN LENT. lOJ 

Draw thou forth rain-slio\Aerb, if thou canst, aud water thy 
fields. If thou canst, cause the sun to shine, that thy fields 
may ripen.' Verily the very land which thou ownest is not 
thine, but is the Almighty's, as the prophet said, " The earth 
and her fullness are God's." God will again say unto thee, 
' My poor will live without thee ; live, if thou canst, without 
me. My poor uill have all things, if they have me only. 
What hast thou, if thou hast not me?' Thou pretendest 
that thou sparest it for thy children, and knowest not to whom 
it may fall, as the prophet said, " In vain he laboureth who 
hoardeth gold, and knoweth not for whom he gathcretli it." 
Though thy money fail not, yet thy life ends when thou least 
imaginest, as Christ himself said in his gospel of a rich man : 
he said, " There was a rich man in the world, and his fruits 
throve abundantly. Then the rich man meditated, and said, 
What shall I do, now I have not where I can gather all my 
fruits ? Again he .said, I will clear my barton, and cidargr 
mv barns, and thither gather all mv fruits, and sav to my 
.soul, My soul, ihou hast much good for many years' use : 
rest thee now, and eat, and drink, and be u)crry. Then said 
God to the rich man. Thou fool, now to-night ihou shalt yield 
up thy life. Who^e then will be what thou hast provided ? 
So is he who hoardeth for himself, and is not rich in God." 
Lo thou fearest to distribute : fear not to distribute, thou who 
knowest not wlu ther thou wilt abide the morrow. Show 
mercy to poor nun with thy gain ; the Almighty God v. ill 
not forsake thee, who has appointed thee as a distrihuter. 
Of this the Lord said in his gospel, " Hide not your treasure 
in the earth, where rust and moths destroy it, and thieves 
delve and ste.'.l ; but hoard your treasure in heaven, where 
neither rust nor moth comes, nor thieves delve nor take it 
away. For where thy treasure is, there \\ ill be thy heart." 
How can we hide our treasure in heaven but throusjh ahns ? 



1)6 DOMLNICA I. IN QUADRAGESIMA. 

san ? Swa hwaat swa we be anfealdan Godes )?earfum for his 
Jufan syllaiS, lie hit us forgylt be huudfealduin on Sam to- 
weaidan life. 

Gif ealle nieim on worulde rice waeron, ]?onne naefde sco 
niildheortnyss n.enne stede, )?8et seo iehnysse ure synna lig 
adwtfiscte, swa swa hit awriten is, " Swa swa waeter adwrescS 
fyr, swa adweesc^ seo jehnysse synna." Nis nan Searfa fram 
a;lmes-d<edum ascyred. Witodlice sum earm wydewe njefde 
cah'a fehta buton ienne feorSling, pone hco brolite to Godes 
wcofode on Cristes andwerdnyssc, and he hi Sjerrihte mid 
his liulgan mu^e gehcrodc, and cwjeS, " SoiS ic eow secge, 
pset Seos earmc wydewe brohte maran lac ^ionne fenig oScr 
mann on JSisum da^ge ; forSan JSe hco brohte eal j^a^t heo 
h;(>fde mid cstfullum mode." Eft on o«Sre stowe cwieS 
Drihten on his godspcllo, " Swa hwa swa syl5 anum ISur- 
stigum mcmi c^ald Wictcr on minmn naman, ne foriyst he his 
mcde p.ere da^de." Soblice ne bib lis to jelmessan gctcald, 
gif we bam mannuni syllab ]'e hcora neodc sylfe habbatS, 
forSan ^e God ne het us gewelgian Sa h;ebbcndan, ac |';et wc 
Sa wa^dliijciulan ijcfultumedon. 

We willab gyt jeime cwyde Jnere godspcllican gcrecccd- 
nysse eow gcreccan on ]/isum ylcum andgite : Drihten sprtec 
ynd)e his to- cyme to 5am micclan dome, and |>us cwfeiS, 
" Witodlicc maiincs Bcarn cymS on his maegcnSrymme, and 
ealic englas samod mid him to Sam niicclum dome ; )jonne 
sitt he on ^am setlc his m;egenSrymnyssc, and beo5 gega- 
derode ffitforan him ealle ^eoda, and he toscaet hi on twa, swa 
swa scephyrde toscjet seep fram gatum. ponne gelogab he 
"Sa seep on his swibran hand, and Sa gset on his wynstran." 
We willaS eow geswutelian mi rt-rcst, gif cower hwilc nyte 
hwfet mannes Beam sy, jjifit Crist sylf is mannes Beam, se^e 
is anes mannes Sunu, ]>isre cadigan Marian, on 'Saere mcn- 
niscnysse, and seo menniscnys biS gesewen on Sam dome, 
];onne he sylf sitt on his dom-setle, and 'Sa rihtwisan on his 
swi^ran hand gesett, and ^a synfullan on his wynstran. 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN LENT. 107 

Whatsoever we give single to God's poor, for love of him, he 
will requite us an hundredfoM in the life to come. 

If all men in the world were rich, then would mercy have 
no place, that alms might extinguish the flame of our sins, as 
it is written, " As water exti'iguisheth fire, so do alms ex- 
tinguish sins." No needy person is exempted from alms- 
deeds. Verily a poor widow had for her whole property but 
one farthing, which she brought to God's alUir, in Christ's 
presence, and he straightways with his holy mouth praised 
her, and said, " Verily I say unto you, that this poor widow 
hath brought a greater gift than any other person on this day; 
for she hath brought all that she had with a devout mind." 
Again, in another place, the Lord said in his gospel, '* Who- 
soever giveth to one thirsty man cold water in my name, 
shall not lose his meed for that deed." liut it will not be 
accounted as alms, if we give to those men who themselves 
have for their need ; for God commands us not to enrich those 
who have, hut to aid the indigent. 

We will yet recount to you one sentence of the evangelical 
narrative in this same sense : the Lord spake of his advent 
to the great doom, aiid thus said, " Verily the Son of man 
will come in his majesty, and all the angels together with 
him, to the great doom ; then will he sit on the seat of his 
majesty, and all nations shall be gathered before him, and he 
will part them into two, as a shepherd parts the sheep from 
the goats. Then will he place the sheep on his right hand, 
and the goats on his left." We will now fH>t manifest to 
you, if any of you know not who the Son of man is, that 
Christ himself is the Son of man, who is the Son of one per- 
son, the blessed Marv, in humanity, and his humanity will be 
visible in the doom, when he himself will sit on his doom- 
seat, and the righteous be placed on his right hand, and the 



108 DOMIXICA I. IN QUADRAGESIMA. 

'' ponne cwyS se Cyning Crist to ■Sum )?e on his swiSran 
hand btandaS, Cunia^ ge bletsodc mines Feeder, and geag- 
niaS jjcfit rice Se eovv gegearcod Wfes fram frimSe mid- 
daneardes. Me hingrode, and ge me gcrcordodon ; me 
(Syrste, and ge me scencton; ic wies cuma, and ge me under- 
fengon on eowerum gest-husum ; ic Wies nacod, and ge me 
strryddon ; ic waes gcuntrumod, and ge me gencosodon ; ic 
wjES on cweaiterne, and ge comon to me and me gcfrcfrodon. 
Donne andswariab ]?a riht\vi.>?an Criste, and cwcSaS, Drihlen, 
hwffinnc gesawe we ^e hungrinc, and \\c 5e gereordodon ? 
o5Se Jnirstignc, and we 5c scencton ? o55e hwjeiuie wa;re Su 
cuma, and we Se undeifongon ? oSSe hwa^nne gesawe we 
Se imtrumne o|>]'e on cwoartcrnc, and we 'Se gencosodon ? 
ponnc andwyrd se Cyning Sam rihtwisum ]>isum wordum, 
Sob ic cow secge, swa hinge swa ge dydon linum J^isum Ijpstan 
on minum naman, ge hit dydon mc sylfum. Dotme cweS he 
eft to Sam synfullum, |>c on liis wynstran licalfe standaS, 
GevvitaS fram me, ge awyrigedan, into Sam ecan fyre, j?e is 
gegearcod Sam deofle and his awyrigechnn gastum. Me hin- 
grode, and ge me aetes forwyrndon ; me Syrste, and ge me 
drincan ne srahlon ; ic wa's cuma, and ge me underfon nol- 
don ; ic w;es nacod, noUle ge mc wreda tiSian ; ic wies un- 
trum and on cwearternc, noldc gc me gcneosian. ponne 
andbwariaS Sa unrihtwisan manfulhin. La icof, hwjennc ge- 
sawe we ^e hungrine, oSSe Surstine, oSSe cuman, o|>J?c na- 
codne, oSSe gcuntrumodnc, o]>]>e on cwearterne, and we ^e 
noldon Senian ? ponne andwyrd se Cyning him, and cwyS, 
SoS ic eow secge, swa lange swa ge forwyrndon anum of 
^isum lytlum, and noldon him on minum naman tiSian, swa 
lange ge me sylfum his forwyrndon. ponne fara^ ^a uncys- 
tigan and Sa unrihtwisan into ecere cwic-susle, mid deofle 
and his awyrigedum englum ; and ^a rihtwisan gecyrraS fram 
"Sam dome into Sam ecan life " mid Criste and his gecorcnum 
englum, mid |>am hi libbaS and rixiaS on lichaman and on 
sawlc on ealra worulda woruld. Amen. 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN LENT. 109 

sinful on his left. "Then will the King Christ say to those 
who stand on his right hand, Come, ye blessed of my Fatlier, 
and possess the kingdom which hath been prepared for you 
from the beginning of the world. I was hungry, and ye fed 
me ; I was thirsty, and ye gave me to drink ; I was a stranger, 
and ye received me in your hostels ; I was naked, and ye 
clothed me ; I was sick, and ye visited me ; 1 was in [)rison, 
and ye came to me and comforted n>e. Then will the righteous 
answer Christ, and say. Lord, when sa^v we thee iiungry, 
and we fed thee ? or thirsty, and we gave thee to drink ? or 
when wast thou a stranger, and we received thee ? or w hen 
faw we thee sick or in prison, and we visited thee? Then 
Mill the King answer the righteous in tliese words, Verily 1 
say imto you, as long as ye did it for one of these least in n)y 
name, je did it for myself. Then will he afterwards say lo 
the sinful, who stand on his left side. Depart from me, ye 
accursed, into the everlasting fire, which is prepared for the 
devil and his accursed spirits. I was hungry, and ye denied 
nu- fotnl ; I was thirsty, and ye gave me not to drink ; 1 was 
a stranger, and \ i' would not ri'ccive me ; I \". a> naked, and 
ye wovdd not give me clothing ; I was sick and in prison, ye 
would not visit me. Then will the unrighteous sinful answer, 
Lord, when saw we thee hungry, or thirsty, or a stranger, or 
naked, or sick, or in prison, and we would not serve thee ? 
Then will the King answer them, and say, Verily I say unto 
you, so long as ye denied to one of these little ones, and 
would not give to them in my name, so long denied \e it lo 
myself. Then will the avaricious and the unrighl<:'ous go 
into everlasting torment, with the devil and his accursed 
angels; and the righteous will pass from the doom into 
eternal life" with Christ and his chosen angels, wit); whom 
they w ill live and reign w ith body and w ith soul for ever and 
ever. Amen. 



110 



DOMINICA SECUNDA IN QUADRAGESIMA. 

EGRESSUS inde lesus, secessit in partes Tyri ct Sidonis : 
ct reliqua. 

Drihtcn Hfelend ^reade mid worduiu J^a^ra ludeiscra tSwyr- 
nysse and geleafleaste, and tii mid liospe liis lare forsawon. 
pa ferde he JSanon to "Sfere burhscire ]>e is gehaten Tyrus, and 
to hiere oSre j^e is geliaten Sidon. Efnc 6a ferde an C'hana- 
neisc wTf of bam gema^rum togeanes bam (lajlende, and him 
to clypode, J?us cwebende : et relicjiia. 

pis Ciiananeisce wif wa?s of ha^benum folce, and h;efde 
getacnuiigc Godcs gelabunge, j^e frani h^ebenscipe to Ciiste 
mid sobum geleafan gtbeah, J;a5a J>a ludeiscan hinc forleton. 
pa't wif Wifis afaren fram gemaTum hire e Seles, for ban be 
hco forlet ba <'akhin gedwyld liire haibenseipes, and mid 
geleaiTuihnn mode J^one soban lla^lend gesohte, to biddenne 
hire wodan dehter gesundfuhiysse. lleo elypode, " Dauides 
Beam, gemiltsa me : min dolitor is yfele fram deofle gech'eht." 
Hit WcEs soblice swa geddn. Ac seo dolitor, ]^e on wodum 
dreame Iteg dweligende, geiacnode J)fera luebenra manna sawle, 
Se Wferon yfele };urh deofol gedrehte, baba hi ne ciibon heora 
Seyppend, ac gelyfdon on deofolgyldum. Seo modcr cwteb, 
*' Dauides Beam, gemiltsa min j" and Godesgelabung, seobe 
is ure moder, gelyfb |)iet Crist is Danides Beam on piere 
menniscnysse, and heo bitt us miltsunge tet him, forban be 
he is God -^Elmihtig ure Alysend. 

-^fter beawlicum andgite, se ^e leahtras begye^, deofle to 
gecwemednysse, his Scyppcndc on teonan, his dohtor is un- 
twylice awedd, forban be his sawul is bearle burh deofol 
gedreht ; ac him is neod ])ist he his agenc wodnysse tocnawe, 
and mid geleafan aet Godes halgum }>ingunge bidde, and mid 
micelre anraednysse Drihtnes fet gesece, biddende J^a^t he his 
sawle fram bam wodan dreame ahredde, swa swa he dyde 
l^tet Chananeisce mseden. He ne andwyrde bam wife ast 



HI 



THE SECOXD SUNDAY IN LENT. 

EGRESSUS indc Jesus, seccssit in partes Tyri et Sidonis : 
et reliqua. 

The Lord reproved witli words the perversity and unbelief 
of the Jews, and they with contumely despised his doctrine. 
Then went he thence to the territory which is called Tyre, 
and to the other which is called Sidon. Behold, there came 
a Canajinitish woman from the confines towards Jesus, and 
cried to him, thus saying, etc- 

This Canaanitish woman was of a heathen people, and had 
for tokening the churcii of God, which from heathenism 
turned with true belief to Christ, when the Jews forsook him. 
The woman came from the confines of her country, because 
she forsook the old error of her heathenism, and with be- 
lieving mind sought the true Jesus, to pray for the health of her 
insane daughter. She cried, *' ('hild of David, have pity on 
me : my daughter is grievously tormented by a devil." Verily 
it was so done. But the daughter, who lay delirious in a state 
of madness, betokened the soul of heathen men, who were 
grievously tormented by the devil, when they knew not their 
Creator, but believed in idols. The mother said, " Child of 
David, have pity on me ;" and God's church, which is our 
mother, believes that Christ is a Child of David in his 
humanity, and she prays him to have pity on us, for he is God 
AlinigliLy our Redeemer. 

According to the figurative sense, he who commits sins, to 
the gratification of the devil, and in contumely to his Creator, 
his (laughter is undoubtedly mad, for his soul is sorely tor- 
mented by the devil ; but it is needfid to him that he know 
his own madness, and with belief pray to God's saints for 
their intercession, and with great steadfastness seek the feet 
of the Lord, praying him to save his soul from that state of 
madness, as he did for the Canaanitish maiden. He did not 



112 DOMINICA SFXUNDA IN QUADRAGESIMA. 

fruinan, na for modignysse, ac he nolde liis cwyde awendan 
•Surh ^one ]'e he bead his Iconiing-cnihtuni ier his Srowunge, 
|?us cvve^ende, " Ne fare ge on hieSenra manna wege, and on 
Saaiaritaniscra burgmn ne became ge." He nolde syllan 
intingan J^am ludeiscum, Jjtet lie hi forsawe <Se Godes a? heokl- 
on, and ]>'ddt haeSene folc him to getuge, pe deofolgiUl be- 
eodon. Nu suwade Crist aet fruman \vi5 ]}ie.s wifes clypungc, 
foreman 5e he ^a liflican bodiuigc on his aiidwcrdnysse ha^bc- 
imni leodum bt digclode. AVitodlice a^ftcr iiis a^ristc of deaSe, 
lie behead his apostolum, ]>us cweSende, "' Fai-aS, and heraiS 
calle Seoda, and fulliaS hi on naman }>{es yEhnihtigan Fjedcr, 
and his Suna, and |^aes Ilalgan Gastcs ; and hi'raJS hi ))iet hi 
healdon eallc 5a 5ing jn- ic cow behead." 

Cristcs Icorniiig-cnditas lo him geneahi'Iiton, and JSam wife 
to him ge^ingodon, )nl^- cweJSende, " La Icof, forhet hi, forJSan 
■5e heo clypaJS a>ftor us." SwiU-e \i\ c\\K*don, Forhet JSone 
gylt, and forgif hire j'ine milttiunge, forSaii ^e heo in-iie 
fultum mid inweardrc hcortan sehS. Ne clypode heo synder- 
liee to Petre, ne heo ne manode Andream, ne hcoia naniio 
synderlice, ac eal j^jet apostolice werod samod mid miceirc 
anr;ednysse b;ed, |';jet hi to bam mlldheortan Iladende hire 
geSingodon. Drihten andwyrde his apostolum mid |^isum 
woidum, and cwa'b, " Ne com ic ascnd huton to Sam sceap- 
um Israiiela hiwra-'dene, \>e losedon." SoSlice se yElmiiitiga 
Fanler asende his ancenncdan Sunu mid soSre mennisciiysse 
befiingenne to Sam ludeiscum folce, j^aet hi sceoldon terest, 
gif hi vvoldon, to fulluhte bugan, ■Surh Cristes lare. Him 
gedafenode )?jet hi wrest on Crist gelyfdon, forSan Se hi 
heoldun pa ealdan ae, and ha?f<l()n cyS^e to Code fram ealdum 
dagum. Da bodadc Crist purh bine sylfne "Sam anum folce, 
and of ^am his apostolas geceas and fela o^re gecorene hal- 
gan : ac SaSa he geseah J^aet se mtesta diel Sijere Seode his 
lare forsawon, and sume eac ymbe his lif syrwdon, ^a forlet 



THE SECOND SUNDAY IN LENT. 113 

answer the woman at first, not from pride, but he would not 
that his speech should be inconsistent with that in which he 
enjoined his disciples before his passion, thus saying, " Go 
not in the way of heathen men, and come not into the cities 
of the Samaritans." He would not give the plea to the Jews, 
that he despised them who held God's law, and drew to him 
the heathen folk who worshiped idols. Now Christ was silent 
at first on the crying of the woman, because while present 
he would conceal his vital announcement from the heathen 
nations. But after his resurrection from death, he commanded 
his apostles, tjuis saying, ** Go, and teach all nations, and 
bapli/x' them in the name of the Almighty Father, and of 
his Son, and of the Holy Ghost ; and teach them that they 
observe all the things which I have commanded to you." 

Christ's disciples approached him, and interceded willi 
him for the woman, thus saying, *' O Sir, dismiss her, for 
she crieth after us." As if they had said, Dismi.ss the sin, 
and grant her thy mercy, for she seeks our aid with inward 
heart. She did not crv exclusively to Peter, nor did she 
exhort Andrew, nor any of them exclusively, but besought 
all the apostolic company together with great earnestness, 
that they would intercede for her with the merciful Jesus. 
The Lord answered his apostles with these words, and said, 
" I am not sent save unto the sheep of the family of Israel 
that arc lost." Verily the Almighty Father sent his only- 
begotten Son invested with true humanity to the Jewish peo- 
ple, that they might the first, if they would, turn to baptism 
through Christ's doctrine. It was befitting them th.it they 
should the first believe in Christ, because they held the old 
law, and had knowledge of God from old days. Christ, there- 
fore, preached himself to that ong people, and from them chose 
his apostles and many other chosen saints : but when he saw- 
that the greatest part of that people despised his doctrine, 
and that some also plotted against his life, he left them in 

noM. voi>. II. I 



114 DOMINICA SECUNDA IN QUADRAGESIMA. 

he hi on heora geleaflsRste, and geceas 5a hseSenan leoda, |?e 
geond ealne middaneard on deofolgyhhnn gelyfdon oS ]>;et. 

paet wtf com, and hi astrehte ietforan Urihtne, J)us cwe^- 
ende, " Drihten leof, lielp min." prco halige nifegnu we 
gehyra^ be ^isum Avife on Sissere ra^dinge : )>aet is, gcleafa, 
and geSyld, and eadmodnyss. Gcleafan lico h;<^fde, foi^an 
■5e heo gelyfde ]>a^t Drihten niihte hire awcddan dohtor gchie- 
lan. GeSyld hco liiefdc, iSa^a heo forseMen waes, and swa- 
"Seah anrfedlice on liire benum jmrhwunade. Eadniod hco 
vvaes, ^a^a hco hi sylfc to hwclpum gcemnette. Drihten 
cwae^ to "Sam wife, " Nis na god ]><'pt man nime his bcarna 
hlaf, and wurpe hundum." pa-t Isralula folc mjps gyo 
gcteakl to Godes bearnum, and hfpJSen folc geond ealle woruUl 
to hundum, for heora fuhnn Scawum. Nu is seo cndebyrd- 
nys )';era nanicna awcnd mid ^am geleafan. Hi sind gchii- 
tene hundas, and we seep. Witodlice se wTtega cwa^IS be 
Cristes ehterum, ^e hine acweahlon, " Fehi hundas me ymbe 
codon." Se wTtega, ]>urh Godes Gast, hct "ba ludciscan 
Cristes slagan hundas, ])e hine mid fiicenfulhnn mode ymbe 
eodon. Eft Crist sjlf cwfeS be us. " Ic h;ebbe o5rc seep, j^a 
"Se ne sind of byssere eowde, and '5a ic sceal ItSedan, and la 
gehyra5 mine stemne." 

piet wif cwa?5 to Criste, " Gea, leof Drihten, swa-5eah ^a 
hwelpas etartS of ^am crumon ]>e fcalla5 of heora hlafordes 
mysan." Swi5e getacnigcndlice sprfec )ns wTf. Witodlice 
seo niyse is seo bodice lar, seo^e us ^ena^ lifes hlaf. Be 
^sere mysan cwse^ se witega, '* Drihten, ])u gegearcodest 
mysan on minre gesihSe, togeancs ^am j;e me gcdrfefdon." 
So^lice oefter gastlicum andgite |?a hwelpas eta^ 5a cruman 
|?e of heora hlafordes beode feallaS, ]^onne ^a ^eoda, ]>e on 
h8e5enscipe ^r lagon, nu sind mid geleafan to heora' Scyp- 
pende gebigede, and j^aere gastlican lare haligra gewrita 
bruca^. We hedaS )>a^ra cntmena iSses hlafes, and 5a ludeis- 
can gnaga^ ]>a rinde ; for^an ^e we understanda^ J?aet gast- 
lice andgit j^eera boca, and hi raeda^ }?a staeflican gerecced- 



THE SECOND SUNDAY IN LENT. ii5 

their unbelief, and chose the heathen nations, which through- 
out all the world believed in idols until then. 

The woman came and prostrated herself before the Lord, 
thus saying, " Dear Lord, help me." Three holy virtues we 
hear of this woman in this reading : namely, belief, and 
patience, and lowliness. She had belief, because she believed 
that the Lord could heal her distracted daughter. Patience 
she had, when she was neglected, and yet steadfastly persisted 
it) her prayers. Lowly she was, when she compared herself 
to the whelps. The Lord said to the woman, '' It is not 
good that a man take his children's bread, and cast it to the 
dogs." The people of Israel were of yore accounted as the 
children of God, and the heathen people, throughout all the 
world, as dogs, for their foul practices. Now is the order of 
those names changed with the belief. They are called dogs, 
and we sheep. Verily the prophet said of Christ's persecutors, 
who slew him, '* Many dogs encompassed me." The prophet, 
through the Spirit of God, called the Jew ish slayers of Christ 
dogs, who with guileful mind encompassed him. Afterwards, 
Christ himself said of us, " I have other sheep, which are 
not of this fold, and those I will lead, and they will hear my 
voice." 

The woman said to Christ, " Yea, dear Lord, yet the 
whelps eat of the crumbs that fall from their master's table." 
Very significantly spake this woman. Verily the table is the 
written lore, which ministers to us the bread of life. Of the 
table llie prophet said, " Lord, thou hast prepared a table 
in my sight, against those who troubli-d me." But in a 
ghostly sense the whelps eat the crumbs that fall from their 
master's table, when the nations, which before lay in heathen- 
ism, are now with belief turned to their Creator, and partake 
of the ghostly lore of the holy writings. We heed the crumbs 
of the bread, and the Jews gnaw the crust ; for we under- 
stand the ghostly signification of those books, and they read 
the literal narrative without signification. All their books, 

I 2 



IIG S. GREGORII PAPE URBIS ROMANE INCLITI. 

nysse buton andgite. Ealle heoia bee, "Se se lieretoga Moyses 
o^^e witegan be Godcs dihte gesetton, calle hi sprecaS ymbe 
Ci'istes menniscnysse, and ymbe cristenra nuiiiiia lif mid 
digehim andgite, and ^a ludeiscan nc hedaS na mare buton 
"Sfere sUeflican gerecccdnysse. We cristene men soJSIice 
licgaS under Godes mysan, and etab ]ni cruman liis gastlican 
lare ; forSan "Se we sind eadmodlice, mid lichaman and mid 
sawle, godcundlicum spra?cum undeiLJcodde to gefyllcnne his 
bcboda, |>fet he us his bchat gelfeste. 

" Drihten andwyrde J>am Chananeiscum wife, and cwie^, 
Eala ^u wif, micel is ^in geleafa. Getimige Se swa swa Su 
M'ylt. And liire dolitor wearS )?a geha^led of ^;ere tide." For 
•Sam micclum gelcafan j'a^re meder forlet se deofol Sa dohtor. 
Mid "Sam is geseald bysen urum fulhihte, |>;et ^a unspre- 
cendan cild beoS gehealdene on Sam fuUuhte, Surh gelcafan 
]>iBS ffeder, aiul Sa'iv moder, and }'ais forcsprcccndan god- 
fa^der, Seah ^e pjet cild nytcn sy. 

Cristenra manna gelcafan hfefS se .Elmilitiga (jod mid 
maneguni lacnum gewurSod |)urh his halgan : a'rest on heora 
life, and siSSan a^t heora halgum l)yrgen\un, )>am gy wuldor 
and wurSmynt a on ecnysse. Amen. 



nil. ID. MART. 
SCI GREGORTI PAPE URBIS ROMANE IXCLITI. 

GREGORIUS se hfdga papa, Engliscrk ^kode apostol, 
on "Sisum andwerdan dcjege, fcfter menigfealdum gedcorfum, 
and halgum gecnyrdnyssum, Godes rice gesa?liglice astiih. 
He is rihtlice Engliscre ^eode apostol, for San ^e he, |;urh his 
I'tfid and saiide, us fram deoflcs biggengum ;etbrced, and to 
Godes gelcafan gebigde. Manega halige bee cy SaS his droht- 
nunge and his halige lif, and eac ' Historia Anglorum,' Sa "Se 



ST. GREGORY THE GREAT, POPE OF ROME. 117 

which the leader Moses or the prophets composed by God's 
direction, all speak of Christ's humanity, and of the life of 
christian men, with a hidden signification, and the Jews heed 
no more than the literal narrative. We christian men truly 
lie under God's table, and eat the crumbs of his ghostly lore; 
for we are humbly, with body and with soul, and by divine 
precepts, made subservient to the fulfilling of his conunand- 
ments, that he may perform his promise imto us. 

*' The Lord answered the Canaanitish woman, and said, 
O thou woman, great is thy belief. Betitle thee as thou wilt. 
And her daughter was healed from that time." For the 
great belief of thi' mother the devil forsook the daughter. 
Thereby is given an example for our baptisni, that the un- 
speaking children will be saved by baptism, through the 
belief of the father and of the mother, and of the responsible 
godfather, though the child be unconscious. 

The Almighty God has honoured the belief of christian 
men by many tokens through his saints : first in their lives, 
and afterwards at their holy sepulchres, to whom be glory 
and dignitv ever to cternitv. Amen. 



MARCH XH. 
ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. POPE OF ROME. 

GREGORY the holy pope, ruK atostlk of thk E.nglish 
NATION, on this present day, after manifold labours and holy 
studies, happily ascended to God's kingdom. He is rightly 
the apostle of the English nation, for he, through his c<mnscl 
and mission, withdrew us from the worship of the devil, and 
ttirned us to the belief of God. Many holy books manifest 
his conduct and his holy life, and also the * Ilistoria Anglo- 



118 S. GREGORII PAPE URBIS ROMANE INCLITI. 

-Alfred cyning of Ledeiie on Englisc awende. Sco boc 
sprecS genoh swutelice be ^isum halgan were. Nu wylle we 
sum ^ing scortlice eow be him gcreccan, forSan ^e sec 
foresaede boc iiis cow callum cuS, )>euh Se heo on Englisc 
awend sy. 

pes eadiga papa Gregorius waes of teSelborcnre mffg"5e 
and eawfjestre acenned ; Romanisce witan wjeron his magas ; 
his fffider hatte Gordianus, and Felix, se eawfjesta papa, vnes 
his fifta faider. He Wfes, swa sua we cwa^don, for Moruldc 
ffiSelboren, ac he oferstah his jp5ell)orcnnyssc niiil iialgum 
"Seawum, and mid goduni weorcnm geglende. Gregorius is 
Grecisc nama, se sweigJS on Lcdenum gcreorde, * Uigilan- 
tius,' pipt is on Englisc, ' Wacolre.' He wjps swiSe wacol 
on Godes bebodum, JSaSa he sylf herigendlice leofode, and he 
wacollice ynibo mancgra Seoda j'carfe hogode, and him lifes 
weig gcswiitelode. He w;ps fram cildhade on boclicum liirum 
getyd, aiul he on (Sjere hire swa gcsa^liglice Scab, ]rddt on 
ealre Romana-byrig n.-es nan his gclica getSuht. He ge- 
cneordlffihte lefter wisra liireowa gebisiunigum, and mea for- 
gyttol, ac gefjestnode his lare on faesthafelum gemynde. He 
hlod ^a mid )>urstigum breoste ^a flowendan lare, tSe he eft 
aefter fyrste mid hunig-swettre ]>rotan jneslice bealcette. On 
geonglicum gcarum, 5aSa his geogo^ a^fter gccynde woruld- 
"Sing lufian sccolde, ]ni ongann he bine sylfne to Gode getSeo- 
dan, and to eSele Jjses uppllcan lifes mid eallum gewilimngum 
or^ian. Witodlice a?fter his ffeder fortSsiSe he arierde six 
munuc-lif on Sicilia-lande, and ])aet seofoSe binnon Roniana- 
burh getimbrode, on 'Sam he sylf regoUice under abbodcs 
hfesum drohtnode. pa seofon niynstru he gelende mid his 
agenum, and genihtsumlice to deeghwomlicum bigleofan ge- 
godode. pone ofer-eacan his aehta he aspende on Godes 
]?earfum, and ealle his woruldlican aeSelborennysse to heo- 
fonlicum wuldre awende. He code eer his gecyrrcdnysse 
geond Romana-burh mid pcellemmi gyrlnm, and scinendum 
gymmum, and readum golde gefrretewod : ac fefter his gecyr- 



ST. GREGORY THIi GREAT, POPE OF ROME. 119 

rum,' which king Alfred turned from Latin into English. 
Tiiis book speaks manifestly enough of this holy man. We 
will now briefly relate to you something concerning him, 
because the aforesaid book is not known to you all, all hough 
it is turned into Englis-h. 

This blessed pope Gregory was born of a noble and pious 
family ; his relations were Roman senators ; his father was 
called Gordianus, and Feli.x, the pious pope, was his fiftii 
father. He was, as we have said, of noble birth in the eyes 
of the world, but he surpassed his noble birlh by holy prin- 
ciples, and adorned it with good works. Gregorius is a 
Greek iiame, which in the Latin tongue signifies I'igilantius, 
that is in English, Ifntcliful. lie was very watchful of God's 
commandments, seeing that he himself praiseworthih' lived, 
and watchfully meditated for the need of many Jiations, and 
nuinifested to them the \\ay of life. He was from childhood 
instructed in book-learning, and in that learning he so happily 
throve, that in all the city of Rome there was none thought 
his like. He was studious of the examples of wise teachers, 
aiul was not forgetful, but fastened his learning in a retentive 
memory. He then drew in with a thirsty breast the flowing 
lore, which he again, after a time, aptly poured forth with a 
throat sweeter than honey. In his young years, when his 
youth, according to nature, might love worldly things, he 
began to attach himself to God, and to breathe with all his 
desires towards the realm of life on high. For after his 
father's decease he raised six monasteries in Sicily, and built 
a seventh within the city of Rome, in which he himself 
lived according to rule, under the commands of an abbot. 
These seven niynsters he endowed with his own lands, and 
enriched abundantly for their daily subsistence. The overplus 
of his possessions he distributed among God's poor, ami 
turned all his worldly nobilitv to heavenlv clorv. He went 
before his conversion through tlie city of Rome with ptirple 
garments, and shining gems, and adorned with red gold ; but 



120 S. GREGORII PAPE URBIS ROMANE INCLITI. 

rednysse he "Seiiode Godes ^earfuiii, he sylf ^earfa, mid 
waciim wsefelse befangeii. 

Svva fulfi'emedlice he drohtnode on anginiic liis gecyrred- 
nysse swa J^aet he mihte ^a gyu bcon geteald on fulfremcdra 
halgena getele. He hifode forhtefednysse on mettuni and on 
drence, and waeccan on syndriguni gebeduni ; ]>;ier-to-eacan 
he ^rowade singallice untruninyssa, and swa he stiJSlicor mid 
andwerdum untrumnyssum ofsett wfes, swa he geornfullicor 
Y^ea ccan lifes gewilnode. 

pa undergeat se papa, ]>c on JSain tiinan ])fet apostolicc sell 
gesaet, hu se eadiga Gregorius on halgum nifegimm Seonde 
waes, and he Sa liine of (Sjere nminiclican drohtnungc gcnam, 
and him to gefylstan gesettc, on diaconhiide gccndebyrdne. 
Da gelamp hit jet sninum Side, swa swa gyt for oft deS, ^lei 
Englisce cVpnicnn brohton heora ware to Roniana-byrig, and 
Gregorius eodc be ^fere strait to JSam Engliscum mannum, 
heora ^ing sceawigcnde. pa gescah he bctwux ^am waruni 
cype-cnilitas gesette, })a wa^ron hwites lichaman and fa^geres 
andwlitan menn, and ffibcllico gefoxode. Gregorius Sa be- 
heold )7ffira cnapcna wlite, and bcfran of hwilccre peode hi 
gebrohte wferon. pa sfetle him man j^ffit hi of Engla-huide 
wieron, and j'tet 'Sffirc ^code mennisc swa wlitig wajre. Eft 
'?a Gregorius befran, hwffiScr ]);es landes folc cristen waere ^e 
hffiSen. Him man ssede, ]>^t hi hfe^ene wferon. Gregorius 
"Sa of inn\Aeardre heortan langsnme siccetunge teah, and 
fwaeS, " Wahiwa, J?aRt swa faegeres hiwes menn sindon ^am 
sweartan deofle under^eodde." Eft he axode, hu "Saere 
Seode nania waere, j^e hi of-comon. Him wjes geandwyrd, 
jjfet hi Angle genemnode wsercn. pa cwae^ he, " Rihtlice hi 
sind Angle gehatene, forSan Se hi engla wlite habbaS, and 
swilcum gedafenaS |7<et hi on heofoinim engla geferan beon." 
Gyt Sa Gregorius befran, hu ^tere scire nama waere, ]>e ^a 
cnapan of-alffidde wferon. Him man stede, ]>iet ^a scirmen 
Wcfiron Dere gehatene. Gregorius andwyrde, " Wei hi sind 
Dere gehatene, forSan ^e hi sind frani graman gencrode, and 



ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. POPE OF ROME 121 

after his conversion he ministered to God's poor, himself 
poor, clad in a mean habit. 

So perfectly he lived at the beginning of his conversion, 
that he might then have been already reckoned in the number 
of perfect saints. He loved abstinence in meats and in drink, 
and watchingo in solitary prayers ; in addition to which he 
suffered incessant infirmities, and the more severely he was 
alHicted with present infirmities, the more earnestly he desired 
the eternal life. 

Then the pope, who at that time occupied the apostolic scat, 
learned how the blessed Gregory was thriving in holy virtues, 
and he took him from the monastic life, and appointed him 
his assistant, after he had been ordained deacon. It happened 
then at one time, as it yet often does, that English ciiapmen 
brought their wares to Rome, and Gregory went along the 
street to the Englishmen, viewing their things. He then 
saw among their Mares youtiis placed for sale ; they were men 
wjiite of body and of comely countenance, with noble heads 
(if hair. Gregory then beheld the beauty of the lads, and 
iiupiired from what country they had been l)rought. ^Vhere- 
upon they said to him that they were from England, and that 
the people of that country were as comely. Gregory then 
again a>ked whether tlu- people of that country were chris- 
tians or heathens. 'J'hey said to liim that they were heathens. 
Gregory then from his inwaid heart drew a long sigh, and 
said, " Alas that men of such fair appearance should be sub- 
ject to the swart devil." Again he asked what the name of 
the nation was, whence they came, lie \\as answered that 
they were named Angles. Then said he, " Uii^htly thev are 
called Angles, for they have the beauty of angels, and it is 
fitting that they shoidd be the companions of angels in 
heaven." Gregory yet inquired what the name of the shire 
was, from which the youths had been brought. They said to 
him that the shiremen were called Dere. Gregory atiswered, 
" Well are they called Dere (Ueira). for they are saved from 



122 S. GREGORII PAPE URBIS ROMANE LNCLITI. 

to Cristes mildheortiiysse gecygedc." Gyt ^a lie befran, 
" Hu is ^aere leode cyning geliaten ?" Him waes geand- 
swarod, |?;fit se cyning ^lle gehaten waerc. H\v<et "Sa Gre- 
gorius gamenode mid iiis wordum to ^am naman, and cwaeS, 
" Hit gcdafenaS J^aet Alleluia sy gesungen ou Sam lande, to 
lofe l^ies /Elniihtigan Sc}'ppendcs." 

Gregorius ba sona code to <Sam papan ]>ves apostolican 
setles, and hine baed, ]?fet he Angelcynne same Uircowas 
asende, "Se hi to Criste gebigdon, and cwa^S, j'fet he sylf gcaro 
waere j^aet weorc to gefrcmmemie mid Godes fultiime, gif hit 
Sam papan swa gelicode. pa ne niihte se papa \>iet geSafian, 
)?eali Se he eall wolde ; forSaii Se Sa Romaniscan ccastcr- 
gewaran noldon geSafian jm^t swa gctogen iiiann, and swa 
goSungen lareow pa burli oallunge forletc, and swa fyrlen 
wraecsiS genamc. .Efter Sisum gelainp )'a't miccl mann- 
cwealm becom ofer S.ere Romanisican leode, and merest Sone 
papan Pelagium gestod, and baton yldingc adydde. Witod- 
lice c-efter Sws papan gcendunge swa miccl cwcalm wearS Jues 
folccs, l^wt geliWtfir stodon aweste hus geond )>a burh, buton 
bugigendum. pa ne milite swa-^eah sco Romana-burh buton 
papan wunian, ac eal folc "Sone eadigan Gregoriuni to Sane 
geSincSe anmodlice gcccas, J^eali Se he mid eallum nia\gne 
wiSerigende wfere. Gregorius Sa asende fenne pistol to Sam 
casere Mauricium, se wtes his gefa^dera, and hine halsode, 
and inicclum baed |><et he nfefre Sam folcc ne geSafode ]>iBt 
he mid ];»s wurSniyntes wuldre geuferod. waere, forSan Se he 
ondred |>;et he Surh Sone micclan had on woruldlicum wuldre, I 

]>e he iev awearp, set sumum saele bepa;lit wurdc. Ac ^aes ' 

caseres heah-gerefa Germanus gelsehte "Sone pistol iet Gre- 
gories eerendracan, and hine totaer ; and si^San cydde )>am 
casere, ]>aet J^aet folc Gregoriuni to papan gecoren haefde. 
Mauricius Sa se casere j^tes Gode Sancode, and hine gehadian 
het. Hvvaet "Sa Gregorius fleames cepte, and on dymhofon 
aetlutode j ac hine man geliehte, and teali to Pctrcs cyrcan. 



ST. GREGORY THE GREAT, POPE OF ROME. 123 

wrath, and called to Christ's mercy." He yet inquired, 
*' IIo\v is the king of that country called r" He was 
answered, that the king was called .Elle. Then Gregory 
played with his words at that name, and said, " It is fitting 
that AUelujah be sung in that land, to the praise of the 
Almighty Creator." 

Gregory then immediately went to the pope of the apostolic 
see, and besought him to send some teachers to the English 
people, that they might turn to Christ, and said that he him- 
self was ready to perform that work, with tiie aid of God, if 
it so were pleasing to the pope. But the pope could not 
consent to it, though he all desired it ; for the Roman citizens 
would not consent that so learned and so venerable a teacher 
should wholly leave the city, and undertake so far a journey. 
After this it happened that a great plague came over the 
Roman people, and first attacked the pope Pelagius, and 
without delay carried him off. Verily after the death of the 
pope the mortality of the people was so great, that every- 
where throughout the city houses stood desolate without in- 
habitants. Hut the city of Rome might not, however, con- 
tinue without a pope; but all the people unanimously chose 
the blessed Gregory to that dignity, although he with all his 
might opposed it. Gregory then sent an epistle to the 
emperor Mauricius, who was his gossip, and besought him, 
and earnestly prayed that he would never consent that he 
should be exalted with the glory of that dignity, for he 
dreaded that, through that high oflSce, he might at sopietime 
be seduced by worldly glory, which he had before renounced. 
But Gcrmanus, the emperor's prefect, seized the epistle from 
Gregory's messenger, and tore it to pieces ; and afterwards 
informed the emperor that the people had chosen Gregory for 
pope. The emperor Mauricius then thanked God for it, and 
commanded him to be consecrated. Whereupon Gregory 
took flight, and concealed himself in obscure places ; but 
they seized him, and drew him f<i St. Peter's church, that he 



124 S. GREGORII PAPE URBIS ROMANE IXCLITI. 

])iet he ^{er to papan gehalgod \Mirde. Gregorius Sa wr his 
liadunge |7aet Romanisce folc for Sam onsigendum cwcalinc 
"Sisum worduni to bereowsunge tihte : 

" Mine gebroSra ]>i\ leofostan, us gedafeuaS ]>ist we Godes 
swingle, j^e we on aer towearde ondnedaii sceoldon, ]'fet we 
hum nu andwcrde and afandode ondripdan. Geopenige ure 
sarnys us infter soSre gec) rrednysse, and ptet wite ^e we 
"Srowia^ tobrcce ure heortan licardnysse. Efnc nu Jiis folc 
is mid swurde ]\es heofonlican graman ofslegen, andgehwilce 
aenlipige sind mid frerlicum slihte awcste. Ne seo adl 5am 
deaSe ne forcsta^pb, ac ge gcseoS \nei se sylfa deae) )>;ere adle 
yldinge forhradaS. Se geslagcna biS mid doaSe gcgripcn, 
terJSan ^e he to hcofungum soJSie bchrcowsunge gecyrran 
ma\ge. IlogiaJS forbi hwilc so bccumc ffitforan gesihJSe p-.es 
strecan Deman, se5c nc ma^g ]>a>t yfel bewepan "Se he ge- 
frcmode. Gehwilce eorSbugigende sind jotbrodene, and 
hcora bus standaS awcste. Fffderas and moddru bestandaiS 
hcora bearna lie, and hcora yrfcnuman him sylfum to for- 
wyrde forcsta^ppaiS. Uton cornostlice flcon to heofunge 
sotSrc d;cdbotc, )'a hwilc be we moton, fcrSan J?e se facrlica 
siege us astrecce. Uton gcmunan swa hwiet swa we dwdi- 
gende agylton, and uton mid wope gewitnian ]»cet ]>;et we 
munfuUicc adrugon. Uton forhradian Godes ansync on 
andetnysse, swa swa se witcga us mana^ : ' Uton ahcbban 
ure heortan mid handmu to Gode;' j^aet is, )7?et we sccoloii 
Sa gccnyrdnysse ure bene mid geearnunge godes weorces up- 
areeran. He forgifb truwan ure forhtunge, seSe p>urh his 
witegan clypaS, * Nylle ic ]>aes synfuUan deaS, ac ic wille j^aet 
he gecyrre and lybbe.' " 

" Ne gcortruwige nan man bine sylfne for his synna micel- 
nysse : witodlice ^a ealdan gyltas Niniueiscre "Seode 'Sreora 
daga bereowsung adilegode ; and se gecyrreda scea^a on his 
dcabes cwyde j^tes ecan lifes mede gecarnode. Uton awcndan 
ure heortan, hrwdlice bi"S se Dema to urum benum gebTgcd, 
gif we fram urum bwyrnyssum beoS gcrihtlcfihte. Uton 



ST. GREGORY THE GREAT, POPE OF ROME. 125 

niisifht there be hallowed for pope. But Grec^ory, before his 
consecration, stimulated the Roman people to repentance, on 
account of the impending pestilence : 

" My dearest brothers, it is befitting us that God's scourge, 
which we before ought to have dreaded as future, we should 
certainly now dread present and experienced. Let our aOlic- 
tion open to us the entrance to true conversion, and let the 
punishment wc sufTer i)reak the hardness of our hearts. 
Behold now this people is slain with the sword of hcaveidy 
anger, and every one individually is destroyed by a sudden 
stroke. Disease precedes not death, for ye see that death 
itself prevents the tarrying of disease. The stricken arc 
seized by death ere they can turn to the sighs of true repent- 
ance. Reflect therefore of what like he will come before the 
face of the stern Judge, who camiot bewail the evil which he 
has perpetrated. Many of earth's inhahitants are carried off, 
and their houses stand desolate. Fathers and mothers stand 
around the corpses of their children, and their heirs precede 
themselves to dissolution. T^el us earnestly flee to the sigh- 
ing of true penitence, while we may, ere the sudden stroke 
lay lis prostrate. Let us remember whatever sins we erring 
have perpetrated, and let us with weeping chastise that which 
we sinfully have tolerated. Let us hasten God's coimtenance 
by confession, as the pro[)het exhorteth us : ' Let us raise 
our hearts with hands to God;* that is, that we shoidd 
heighten the fervency of our prayer Mith the merit of good 
works. lie giveth confidence to our fear, w ho through his 
prophet callcth, * I doire not the death of the sinful, but I 
desire that he turn and live.' " 

*' Let no man despair of himself for the greatness of his 
sins; for a rei)entance of tlireedays obliterated the old trans- 
gressions of the Ninevitisli people ; and the converted thief 
by his dying words earned the meed of everlasting life. Let 
us turn our hearts ; the Judge will quickly be inclined to our 
prayers, if we be corrected from our prrvor^Itiev.. Lit us 



126 S. GREGORII I'APK URBIS ROMANE INCLITI. 

standan mid gemaglicum wopum ongean Sam onsigcndiim 
sw'urde swa miccles domes. Soblice gcmagiiys is ]nim soSan 
Denuui gecvveme, j^eah ^e heo mannum unSancwurSe sy ; 
forSan Se se arfeesta and se mildiieorta God wile ]ni>t we mid 
gemaglicum benum his mildheortiiysse ofgan, and he nele swa 
micclum swa we geearniaS us geyrsian. Be Sisum he cwcbS 
purh his witegan, ' Clypa me on dfege ^inre gedrefednyssc, 
and ic ^e ahredde, and Su m;ersast me.' God sylf is his 
gewita l^aet he miltsian wile him to clypigcndum, seSe nianaX 
)7{fit we him to clypian sceolon. ForcSi, mine gcbroSra j'a 
leofostan, nton gecuman on liam feorSan djpge j^ysre wucan 
on aerne-merigen, and mid estfulluin mode and tcarum singan 
seofonfcalde laetanias, J'aet se streca Dema us gciiiige, |>oimc 
he gesihb ]?;et we sylfe ure gyltas wrecab." 

Eornostlice 5a5a miccl mcnigu, a^gScr ge preosthades ge 
munucluidcs menu, and )>;et la'wcdc folc, ;i'ftcr Saes eadigan 
Gregories ha;se, on ])one Wodnes-da^g to «Sam scofonfealdum 
letanium gecomon,to Sam swiSe awcddc se forcsjedacwealm, 
)?set hund-eahtatig manna, on ^{ere anre tide fcallcndc, of life 
gewiton, ba hwTle ]>e jjaet folc ^a letanias sungon. Ac se 
halga sacerd ne geswac )>a't folc to manigenne ]?aet hi Stjere 
bene ne geswicon, o5|?aet Godes miltsung J?one reSan cwealin 
gestilde. 

Hwaet Sa Gregorius, siiSJSan he papan-had undcrfeng, ge- 
munde hw;et he gcfyrn Angelcynne gemynte, and ^^errihte 
J^aet luftyme weorc gefremode. He na to Saes hwon ne mihte 
)?one Romanifecan biscop-stol eallunge forlfetan, ac he asende 
oSre bydekis, geJSungene Godes ^eowan, to Sysum Tglande, 
and he sylf micclum mid his benum and tihtingum fylste, ]>iBt 
Saera bydela bodung for^genge, and Gode waestmbeere wurde. 
paera bydela naman sind |>us gecigede : Augustixus, Mel- 
LiTus, Laukkntius, Petkus, Iohanxes, Justus. Das 
lareowas asende se eadiga papa Gregorius, mid mancgum 
obrum munecuui, to Angelcynne, and hi i5isum wordum to 



ST. GREGORY THE GRfZAT. POPE OF ROME. 127 

ptaiid with persevering weeping against the descending sword 
of so great a judgement. Verily perseverance is pleasing to 
the true Judge, though it be not grateful to men ; for the 
benignant and merciful God desires that we with persevering 
prayers implore his mercy, and he will not be angry \\i\\\ us 
so much as we deserve. Of this he spake thro\igh his pro- 
phet : * Call to me in the day of thy trouble, and I will save 
thee, and thou shall glorify me.' God himself is his witness 
that he will be merciful to those who cry unto him, who 
exhorts us that we should cry unto him. Therefore, my 
dearest brothers, let us come on the fourth day of this week 
at early morn, and with devout mind and tears sing seven- 
fold litanies, that the stern Judge may have compassion on 
us, when he sees that we ourselves avenge our sins." 

But when the great multitude, of men both of the priest- 
hood and the monastic order and the layfolk, according to 
the command of the blessed Gregory, were come on the 
Wednesday to the sevenfold litany, the aforesaid pestilence 
raged to that degree, that eighty men, falling at that one 
hour, departed from life, while the folk were singing the 
litanies. liut the holy priest ceased not to exhort them not 
to cease from prayer, until God's mercy should have stilled 
the cruel pestilence. 

But Gregory, after he had undert;iken the papal dignitv, 
remembered what he of old had meditated for the English 
race, and forthwith completed that grateful work. He could 
not on any account altogether forsake the Roman episcopal 
see, but he sent other messengers, venerable servants ol God, 
to this island, and he himself, by his prayers and exhorta- 
tions, greatly aided, that the preaching of those messengers 
succeeded and bare fruit to God. The names of these mes- 
sengers are thus called: Augustinus, Mellitus, L.\u- 
renth;s, Pktris, Joii.\nnes, Justus. The blessed pope 
Gregory sent these teachers with many other monks to the 
English nation, ar)d stimulated them to the journey in these 



128 S. GREGORII PAPE URBIS ROMANE INCLITI. 

^fCre fare tihte : " Ne bco ge afyrhte ^urh geswince y^es laiig- 
sunian faereldes, o^Se );urh yfelra manna y!nbe-sprnece ; ac 
niicl ealre anrpednysse and wylnie J^jere soSan lufe pas ongun- 
nenan Sing JHirh Godes fultum gefrenimaS. And witc ge 
)7aet eower med on Sam ecan edleane swa miccle mare biS, 
swa micclum swa ge mare for Godes willan swincaS. Ge- 
hyrsumiab eadmodlice on eallum Singnm Augustine, j'onc 
"Se we eow to ealdre gcsettoji : lilt fremaS eowruni sawlum 
swa hwffit swa ge be his myncgunge gefyllaS. Se/EImibtiga 
God |?urh his gife eow gescylde, and geunnc me j?fet ic mote 
eoweres gesvvinces Wfestm on Sam ecan eSele geseon, sua 
]>iRt ic beo gemet saniod on blissc eoweres edleanes, Seah Sc 
ic mid eow swincan ne uuege ; forSon Se ic wille swincan." 
Augustinus Sa mid his geferum, \net sind gcrehte feowerlig 
weru, ferde be Gregories h;ese, oS)'K>t In" to Sisuni ighmdc 
gesundfullice becomon. 

On ciam daguin rixode .Ej'clbyrht cyning on Cantware- 
byrig riclice, and his rice Wfcs astreht fram Sa're micchm ea 
Ilumbre oS suS sae. Augustinus h;efde gcmnnen wealhstodas 
of Francena rice, swa swa Grcgorius him behead, and he, 
Surh Stf ra wealhstoda muS, ))am cyninge and his leode Godes 
word hodadc : lui se mikilieorta Hjck'nd, mid his agenre 
Srowunge, ]>ysne scykiigan middaneard alysde, and geleatTul- 
lum mannum heofonan rices infaer geopenode. paandwyrde 
se cyning ^ESelbrilit Augustine, and cwaeS, j^ict he ffegere 
word and beliat him cydde ; and cwicS, J?iet he ne mihte swa 
hrsedlice ])one ealdan gewunan Se he mid Angelcyime heold 
forl{€tan : cwieS ])iet he moste freolice Sa heofonlican lare his 
leode bodian, and ]>iet he him and his geferan bigleofan Senian 
woklc ; and forgeaf him "Sa wununge on Cantwarebyrig, seo 
vvflBS ealles his rices heafod-burh. 

Ongann Sa Augustiims mid his munecum to geefenlaecenne 
]?aera apostola lif, mid singalum gebedum, and waeccan, and 
faestenum Gode^eowigende, and lifes word ])am Se hi mihton 



ST. GREGORY THE GREAT. POPE OF ROME. 



129 



words : " Be ye not jifraid throu^li the toil of the tedious 
journej', or through tlie speeches of evil men ; but with all 
steadfastness and fervour of true love perform the thing 
begun through the aid of God. And know ye tiiat your meed 
in the everlastir)g reward will he so much the greater, by 
how much the more ve toil for the will of God. Obey 
Augustine humbly in all things, whom we have appointed to 
vou for chief: it will benefit your ^ouls whatsoever ye fulfil 
by his admonition. .May Ahnighty God through his grace 
shield you, and grant to me that I may see the fruit of your 
toil in the eternal country, j?o that I may be found together 
with \()u in the ioy <>f sour reward, tho\igh 1 may not toil 
with you; for I have the will to toil." Augustine then \\ith 
his companions, v ho are reckoned at forty men, journeyed 
by Gregory's command, till they came safely to this island. 



In those days king ^Ethelbyrht reigned powerfully in 
Canterbury, and his realm was stretched from the great river 
Ilumber to the south sea. Augustine had taken intcr|)reters 
from the realm of the Franks, as Gregory had commanded 
him, and he, thntugh the mouth of those interpreters, 
preached the word of (lod to the king and his people: how 
the merciful .Jesus by his own passion redeemed this guilty 
\vorld, and opened to believing men an entrance into the 
kingdom of heaven. Then king .Kthelbyrht answered 
Augustine, and said, that he announced to him fair words 
and promises, and said that he could not so hastily forsake 
the old usage, \\ hich he with the Knglish nation observed : 
he said that he might freely preach the heavenly doctrine to 
his people, and thai he would supply subsistence to him and 
his companions ; aiul gave him then a dwelling in Canter- 
bury, which was the head city of all his realm. 

Augustine then with his monks began to imitate the life of 
the apostles, serving God with constant prayers, and watch- 
ings, and fastings, and preaching the word of life to those to 

IIOM. yoL. II. K 



l:{() S. GREGORII PAPE URBIS ROMANE INCLITI. 

bodigende, ealle middaneardlice ^ing, swa s\^a aelfremede, 
forhogigende ; ^a ]nng ana |?e hi to bigleofan beliofedoii 
underfonde, be ^am ^e hi taehton sylfe lybbende, and for 
Saere soSfiestnysse ^e hi bodedon gearowe waeron ehtiiysse 
to ^oligenne, and dea^e sweltan, gif hi cSorfton. 

Hvvait ^a gelyfdon forwel menige, and on Godes iiaman 
gefuUode wurdon, wundrigende ])a^re bilewitnysse heora un- 
scie^Sigan ITfes, and svvetnysse heora licofonlican lare. Da 
aet nextan gelustfullode Sam cyninge ^E^clbrihte heora cltene 
Iff and heora wynsume behat, ]>d soSlice wurdon mid mane- 
gum tacnum gesebde; and he ba gelyfende wear^ gefullod, 
and micclum Sacristenan gearwurSode, and swa swa hcofon- 
lice ceaster-gewaran lufode : nolde swa-bcah na^nnc to cris- 
tendome geneadian, forSan 5e he ofaxodc aet Sam lareowum 
his hade, )7fet Cristes Seovvdom ne sceal beon geneadad, ac 
sylfwillcs. Ongunnon ^a d;eghwomlice forwel nuMiige efstan 
to geliyrenne ^a halgan bodunge, and forlcton heora hsben- 
scipc, and hi sylfe gccScoddon Cristes gclaiSunge, on hine 
gelyfende. 

Betwux Sisum gcuendc Augustinus ofer sae to «Sam crcc- 
biscope Etherium, and he hine gehadode Angelcynne to 
ercebiscope, swa swa him Gregorius i*ir gewissode. Augus- 
tinus ^a gehadod cyrde to his biscop-stole, and asende ferend- 
racan to Rome, and cydde Sam eadigan Gregorie \>'cei 
Angelcynn cristendom underfeng, and he eac mid gewritum 
fela Singa befran, hu him to drohtnigenne wtere betwux ^ani 
nig-hworfenum folce. Hweet ^a Gregorius micclum Gode 
•Sancode mid blissigendum mode, jJSRt Angelcynne swa ge- 
lumpen waos, swa swa he sylf geornlicegewilnode, and sende 
eft ongean aerendracan to ^am geleaffullan cyninge yEJ^el- 
brihte, mid gewritum and menigfealdum lacum, and oSre 
gewritu to Augustine, mid andswarum ealra'Saera ^inga j^e he 
hine befran, and liine eac "Sisum wordum manode : " BroSer 
min se leofosta, ic wat ]>aet se /Elmihtiga God fela wundra 
Jjurh Se ]>ieve ^code ^e he geceas geswutela^, ]?a?s Su miht 



ST. GREGORY THE GREAT, POPK OF ROME. 131 

whom they could, despising all worldly things as extraneous; 
receiving those things only which were necessary for their 
subsistence, living themselves conformably to what they 
taught, and for the truth which they preached were ready to 
undergo persecution and sutTir death, if they had cause. 

Hereupon very many believed, and were baptized in God's 
name, wondering at the meekness of their harmless life, and 
the sweetness of their heavenly lore. Then at last king 
yEtheibyrht was delighted with their p\ire life and pleading 
promises, which truly were verified by many miracles ; and 
he then believing was baptized, and greatly honoured the 
christians, and as heavenly citizens loved them: yet would 
he not compel any one to Christianity, fj)r he had been in- 
formed by the teachers of his salvation, that Christ's service 
should not be forced, but voluntary. Very many then begun 
to hasten daily to hear the holy preaching, and forsook their 
heathenism, and joined themselves to the church of Christ, 
believing in him. 

In the meanwhile Augustine went beyond sea to the arch- 
biishop Etherius, and he ordaiiud him archbishop of the 
English nation, as Gregory had previously directed him. 
Augustine tiicn being ordained, returned to his e|)iscopal 
see, and sent messengers to Rome, and announced to the 
blessed Gregory that the ]'>nglish nation had received Chris- 
tianity, and he also by letters asked many things, as to how 
he should live among the newly converted people. Hereupon 
Gregory ferventJN thanked God with joyful mind, that it had 
so taken place in the Eiigli>h nation as he himself had 
earnestly desired, and sent messengers again to the believing 
king .Ethelbyrht, \\ith letters and manifohl gifts, and other 
letters to T^lhgustine, with answers to all the things he had 
asked him, and admojiished him also in these words : " My 
dearest brother, I know that the Ahnighty God manifesteth 
many miracles through thee to the nation that he hath chosen, 

K 2 



132 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHHERIITI EPISCOPI. 

blissigan and euc Se oiidrjedaii. pu miht blissigan gewisslice 
]7aet "Saere •Seode sawla ]/urh -Sa yttran wundra beob getogene 
to "Saere incundan gife; ondrted be swa-beah ]7fet "bin mod 
ne beo ahafeii mid dyrstignysse on ^am tacnum )>e God burh 
•be gefrema^, and ]>u bonon on ulclum widdre befealle wib- 
innan, ]7onon ^e bu wibutan on wurbmynte ahafen bist." 

Grcgorius ascnde eac Augustine halige lac on maesse-rcaf- 
um, and on bocum, and ^aera apostola and martyra roliquias 
samod ; and bebead )';et his aeftorgengan symle ^one pallium 
and bone crccbad tet bam apostolican setle Ronumiscrc ge- 
la^Junge feccan sccoldon. Augustinus gesette aefter bisum 
biscopas of his gefcrum geiiwilcum burgum on Engla beode, 
and hi on Godes gclcafan beonde burhwunodon ob bisum 
dfegberlicum d;pgc. 

Se eadiga Grcgorius gcdihtc manega halige traht-bcc, and 
mid n)icelrc gecnyrdnysse Godes folc to bam ecan life ge- 
M'issodc, and fela wundra on his life geworhte, and wuldor- 
fuUice |>;es papan setles geweold breottyne gear, and six 
monbas, and tyn dagas, and sibban on bisum da'ge gcwat to 
bam ecan setle heofcnan rices, on bam he leofab mid Gode 
/Ehnihtiguu) a on ecnysse. Amen. 



XIII. KL. APRILIS. 
DEPOSITIO SUI CUTIIBERHTI EPISCOPI. 

CUTHBERliTUS, se halga biscop, scinende on manegum 
geearnungum and healicum gebincbum, on heofenan rice, 
mid )?am ^Imihtigum Scyppende on ecere blisse rixiende 
M'uldraS. 

Beda, se snotera Engla beode lareow, pises halgan lif ende- 
byrdliee mid wunderfuUum herungum, aeg^er ge aefter an- 



THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT, BISHOP. 133 

for which thou mayest rejoice and also fear. Thou mayest 
certainly rejoice that the souls of that people have through 
those outward wonders been drawn to inward grace ; yet 
fear that thy mind he not lifted up witli arrogance by the 
miracles which G(k1 through thee pcrformeth, and thou 
thence fall into vain-glory within, because thou art raided 
in dignity withont." 

Gregory also sent to Augustine holy gifts of mass-robes, 
and books, together \\i\]\ relics of the apostles aiul martyrs ; 
and commanded that his successors should always fetch the 
pall and the archiepiscopal dignity from the apostolic seat of 
the Roman church. Augustine after this established bishops 
from among his companions over all the cities of the English 
nation, and they have continued prospering in God's faith to 
this present day. 

The blessed Gregory composed many holy treatises, and 
with great diligence directed (lod's people to everlasting life, 
and wrought many miracles in his life, and gloriously ruled 
the papal seat thirteen years, and six months, and ten days, 
and then on this day departed t<> the eternal seat of heaven's 
kingdom, in which he livrth with (lod Almighty ever to 
eternity. Amen. 



MARCH XX. 
THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT. BISHOP. 

CUTIIR1\UIIT, the holy bishop, shining with many merits 
and high honours, reigning in the kingdom of heaven, with 
the Almighty Creator, in eternal joy, is glorified. 

Beda, the wise doctor of the English nation, has Mritten 
the life of this saint in the order of events, with wonderful 



134 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTI EPISCOPI. 

fealdre gereccednysse ge aefter leoblicere gyddunge awrat. 
Us sffide soblice Beda, J?fet se eadiga CuSberhtus, (SaSa he 
Wffis eahta wintre cild, arn, swa sua him his nytenlice yld 
tihte, plegende mid his efen-ealdum : ac se -i^hiiihtiga God 
wolde sty ran J7tere nytennysse his gecorcnan CuJSberhtes, 
]?urh mynegunge gelimpliccs larcowes, and asende liim to an 
t>ry-wintre cild, ]};et hit his dyslican plcgai> mid stiebSiguni 
wordum wiblice ^reade. Soblice j^iet fores^dc Sry-wintrc 
cild )?one gfemnigeiidan CuJSberhtum bcfriin, "To hwT uii- 
derj?eodst ]m ^e sylfiie }?isum ydelum plegan, j)u ISe eart fram 
Godc gehalgod mid rodcrlicum uurSmynte ? Ne gedafcnalS 
biscope |>cet he beo on d^edum folces manninn gclic. GcswTc, 
la leof, swa unSteslices plegan, and gcSeod Se to Gode, be be 
to biscope his folces geccas, j?am <Su scealt hcofonan rices 
infier gcopenian." Hw.'et ba Cubbcrhtus |'a-gyt mid his 
plegan forb-arn, objuot his lareow mid biterum tearum drco- 
riglice wcpende, ealra tifera cildra plegan fa'rlice gestilde. 
Witodlice call se cildlica heap wolde 1>hps anes cildes dre«)rig- 
nysse gefrcfrian, ac hi ealle ne mihton mid heora frofre his 
dreorigiiysse adwjescan, terban \>e Cubberhtus hit mid arf^est- 
um cossum gegladode, and he sylf sibban, a'fter ]fxs cildes 
mynegunge, on healiccre stw^bignysse symle burhwunode. 

JEftev "bisum wearb ]'jes eadigan Cubbcrhtes cneow mid 
heardum geswelle alefed,s\va j^iet he mid criccum hisfebnnge 
underwrebode. pa gesfet he sume daege, under sui\n-beame, 
ana on sundran, and his scencan beSode, him com ba ridcnde 
to sum arwurbe ridda, sittende on snaw-hwitum horse, and he 
sylf mid hwitum gyrlum befangen waes ; and he ^one halgan 
mid gesibsum wordum swaeslice grette, biddende J^aet he him 
dceg-wistes gedafenlice ti^ode. Cubberhtus Sa to bam eiigle 
anmodlice cwae^, " Ic wolde bine bcnunge sylf nu gearcian, 
gif ic me mid febunge ferian mihte. Min adlige cneow is 
yfele gehfefd, }>aet ne mihte nan laece-wyrht awiht geliSian, 
]7eah be heo gelometo geled waere." pa gelihte se cuma, and 
his cneow grapode mid his halwendum handum, and het hinc 



THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT, BISHOP. 135 

praises, both in a simple narrative and in a poetic composition. 
Beda has truly informed us, that the blessed Cuthberht, when 
he was a child of eight years, ran, as his thouglitless age 
urged him, playing with his coevals : but Ahiiighty God 
would correct the thoughtlessness of his chosen Cuthberlit, 
by the admonition of an opportune teacher, and sent to him 
a child of three years, that it might wisely reprove his witless 
play with serious words. Verily the aforesaid child of three 
years asked the gamesome Cuthberht, '* Why dost thou devote 
thyself to this idle play, thou who art hallowed of (iod with 
heavenly dignity ? It bcGtteth not a bishop to be in deeds 
like nan of the people. Cease, dear friend, from so un- 
becoming a play, and attach thyself to God, who hath chosen 
thee to be a bishop of his people, to whom thou sbalt open 
the entrance of the kingdom of heaven." But Cuthberht 
still ran on with his play, till his monitor with bitter tears 
sadly weeping, suddenly stilled the play of all the children. 
Wiiereupon all the childish company would comfort the sad- 
ness of that one child, but they all with their comfort could 
not assuage its sadness, before Cuthberht gladdened it with 
kind kisses, and himself afterwards, according to the child's 
admonition, continued ever in profound seriousness. 

After this the blessed Cuthberht's knee was lamed with a 
hard swelling, so that he supported his gait with crutches. 
As he one day sat under the sunbeam, apart from others, and 
bathed his leg, there came riding to him a venerable horse- 
man sitting on a snow-white horse, and he himself was clad 
in white garnients ; and he courteously greeted the saint with 
peaceful words, praying that he would, if convenient, give a 
day-repast. Cuthberht thereupon frankly said, " I would now 
prepare your refection myself, if I could walk. My diseased 
knee is sorely afflicted, so that no medicament may aught 
relieve it, though it be frequently laid on it." The stranger 
then alighted, and grasped his knee with his healing hands, 



136 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTI EPISCOPI. 

geniaiaii hwietene smedenian, and on meolc awyllan, and sua 
mid ^cfire hsetan ]>'<et toSundene lim gewricSan ; and jefter 
^isum vvordum his hors bestiad, on hum siSfete ^e he Sider 
com aweg-ferende. Hwiet Sa CuSberhtus, aefter j^aes engles 
lare his cneow beSode, and he sona gesundfull his ffereldcs 
breac, and ongeat j^a^t God |?urh his engel hine geneosode, 
se^e giu {ler ]?one blindan Tobian, purh his hcah-cngel 
Raphahel, niilitelice onlihte. 

Efl se halga Cuc)berlitus, Saba lie wacode mid hyrdeman- 
num on felda, on his gcogoiSe, geseah heofonas opcne, and 
englas gelaeddon Aidanes biscopes sawle mid micclum wuldre 
into (Sfere lieofonlican myrhSe. Hwilon eac CuiSberhtus 
ferdc geond land, bodigende Godcs gcleafan. Sa for unwedre 
gecyrde he to sumcs hyrdes cytan, j^e stod weste on 5am 
westene iSe he ofcrferdc, and getigde his hors S;er binnon. 
Da mid 5am |>e he his gcbcdu sang, 5a t<er |>{et hors j'^et 5a^c 
of ^aere cytan hrofe, and jner feoll adune, swilce of ^ani 
hrofe, wcarmhliif mid his syflinge ; he 5a geSancode Gode 
]>:ere sande, and mid |';ere hine sylfne gereordode. 

Se eadiga Cu}^berhtus ;efter ^isum ealle woruld-5ing call- 
unge forlet, and mid halgum iSeawum hine sylfne to nmnuc- 
life geScodde; and he hriedlice si55an he munuc wip.s wear^ 
geset cumena 5en, j^fet he cumena-huses gymde, and mynster- 
licum cumum geSensum wjere. paa^t sumon s^le on wintres 
da^ge, him com to Godes engel on cuman hiwe, and Cu^- 
berhtus hine mid ealre cumliSnysse underfeng. pa gecyrde 
he ut ymbe j^aes cuman ^enunge, ac he ne gemette ntemie 
cuman, ^a5a he inn com, ac lagon ^ry heofonlice hlafas, on 
lilian beorhtnysse scinende, and on hrosan brae^e stymende, 
and on svvfjecce swettran );onne beona hunig. pa sceawode 
se halga Cu^berhtus on ^am snawe gehwter hvvyder se cuma 
sibigende ferde, ac 5a^a he nane fotsvva^e on ^am snawe ne 
geseah, 5a ongeat he j^fet se cuma wa?s engel and na mann. 



TIIK DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT, BISHOP. 137 

and bade liim take wheatci) flour, and boil it in milk, and 
bind the swollen limb with the hot preparation ; and after 
these words bestrode his horse, departing by the way w hich 
he came thither. Thereupon Cuthberht bathed his knee ac- 
cording to the angel's instruction, and forthwith in lualth 
possessed his power of walking, and was sensible that God 
had visited him through his angel, who in time of old had 
powerfully relieved the blind Tol)ia>, tijrough his archangel 
Gabriel. 

Afterwards the holy Cuthberht, while watching with shep- 
herds in the field, saw the heavens open, and angels leading 
the soul of bishop Aidan with great glory into the heavenly 
joy. (^n a time also C'uthi)erht was journeying through the 
country, preaching God's faith, when on account of a storm 
he turned into a shej)her(i's cottage, which stood desolate in 
the wilderness over \\ hich he was traveling, and tied his horse 
within it. Then while he was singing his prayers, the liorse 
tore the thatch from the roof of the cottage, and there fell 
down, as from the roof, a w arn> loaf with its accompaniment ; 
he thereupon thanked God for the repast, and therewith re- 
fected himself. 

The blessed CuthlKiht after this wholly forsook all worldly 
things, and with holy observances subjected himself to the 
monastic life ; and soon after he was a monk, he was ap- 
pointed superintendent of the guests, so that he took care of 
the strangers* lodgings, and ministered to the u)ona»tic guests. 
Then on a certain time on a w inter's day, an angel of God 
came to him in the guise of a stranger, and Cuthberht received 
him with all hospitality. He then went out for the service 
<»f the guest, but found no guest when he came in, but there 
lay three heavenly loaves, shining w ith the lily's brightness, 
and exhaling the rose's fragrance, and in taste sweeter than 
bees' honey. Then the holy Cuthberht looked everywhere in 
the snow whither the stranger had passed in his way. hut 
when he saw no foot-traces in the snow, hr knew that the 



138 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTI EPISCOPI. 

se^e -gone heofonlicaii fodau him brohte, and ^aes eor^lican 
lie rohte. 

pes foresffida halga wer waes gewunod ptet he wolde gan on 
niht to sie, and standan on bam sealtan brynime o5 his 
svvyran, syngende his gebcdu. pa on sumere nihte hlosnode 
sum o^er munuc his fa^reldcs, and mid sleaccre stalcunge his 
fotswa^um filigde, oSjjjet hi begcn to sie beconion. Da dydc 
CuSberhtus swa his gewuna waes, sang his gebedu on stelicere 
y^c, standcnde oS ]7one swyran, and syJSiSan his cneowa on 
"Sam ccosle gebigde, astrehtum handbredmn to heofeidicum 
rodoie. Efnc i5a comon twegen seolas of sjelicum grunde, 
and hi mid hcora flyse his fet drygdoi), and mid lieoia bhede 
his leoma bcbedon, and sibJSan mid gcbcacnc his bletsunge 
baedon, licgcndc set his foton on fcalwum ceosle. pa CuS- 
berhtus Sa srieiican nytcnu on sund asende mid soSre blet- 
sunge, and on merigenlicere tide mynster gesohte. WearS 
)?a se munuc micclum afyrht, and adlig on {erne-mcrigen bine 
gecadmette to ci;es halgan cncowum, biddende ]>iei he his adl 
ealhmge afligdc, and his fyrwitnysse f;ederlice miltsodc. Se 
halga <Sa sona andwyrde, " Ic Sinum gedwylde dearnunge 
miitsige, gif Sn Sa gesihSe mid svvigan bedtglast, 0(S]>iet min 
savvul heonon sicJige, of andwcrdum life gelabod to heofonan." 
CuSberhtus Sa mid gebede his sceaweres seocnysse gehaelde, 
and his fyrwites ganges gylt forgeaf. Fela wundra wurdon 
geworhte Surh bone halgan Cubberht, ac we wyllab for 
sceortnysse sume forsuwian, Sy-laes Se Seos racu eovv to lang 
"bince. 

Witodlice Cubberhtus ferde, swa swa his gewuna waes, 
ymbe geleaffulre bodunge, j;ajt he bam ungelaeredum folce 
lifes vveig tiehte ; |?a fleah sum earn setforan him on siSe, and 
he his geferan befrinan ongann, hwa hi to Sam daege afedan 
sceolde ? Da cwaeS his gefera, ]?8et he gefyrn smeade hwaer 
hi bigleofau biddan sceoldon, baba hi Sa fare ferdou buton 
wiste. CuSberhtus Sa him togeanes cwaeS, " La hwaet se 
uElmihtiga God maeg for-eaSe unc jnxrh Sisne earn aet fore- 



THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT, BISHOP. 139 

stranger was an angel and not a man, who liad brought him 
the heavenly food, and recked not of the earthly. 

The beforesaid holy man was wont to go at night to the 
sea, and stand in the salt ocean up to his neck, singing his 
prayers. Then one niglit another monk awaited his coming, 
and at a slow pace followed his footsteps, till they both came 
to the sea. Tlien Cuthberht did as was his wont, sang his 
prayers in the sea-wave, standing up to the neck, and after- 
wards bowed his knees in the sand, with palms outstretched 
to the heavenly firmament. Lo then came two seals from 
the sea-ground, and they with tlair fur dried his feet, and 
with their breath warmed his limb<, and afterwards by a sign 
begged his blessing, lying at his feet on the fallow sand. 
Tlien Cuthberht sent the marine animals to the sea with a 
sincere blessing, and at morning tide sought the mynster. 
Tlien the moidi became greatly terrified, and ill at early morn 
prostrated himself at the knees of the saint, praying that 
he would wholly drive away his ailment, and paternally 
compassionate his curiosity. The saint forthwith answered, 
"I will privily compassionate thy error, if thou with silence 
wilt conceal that sight, until my soul shall have journeyed 
hence, called from the present life to heaven." Cuthberht 
then by prayer healed the sickness of his observer, and for- 
gave him the guilt of his walk of curiosity. Many wonders 
were wrought by the holy Cuthberht, but we will for short- 
ness pass some in silence, lest this narrative appear too long 
to you. 

But Cuthberht, as was his wont, went preaching the faith, 
that he might teach the ignorant people the way of life, when 
an eagle flew before him on his journey, and he began asking 
his companion, who for that day should give them food ? 
Then said his companion, tliat he had long been considering 
where they should ask for sustenance, as they had gone the 
journey without provisions. Then Cuthberht said to him, 
*' Lo Almighty (iod ran very <\Tsily provide food fr)r us 



140 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTI EPISCOPI. 

sceawian,se^e giu ser Elian afedde jjurh bone sweartan liremm, 
fer he to heofonaii sibodc." Hi ^a ferdon forb-sibigende, 
and efne se earn on Sam ofre gesaet, mid fisce geflogen, pone 
he ^{firrihte gefeng. pa cwieS se halga to his geferan, " Yrn 
to bam earne, and him of-anim ]>ies fisces djel be he gcfangen 
h^fb, unc to gereorde. Sy lof bam .Ehnihtigan, \>e unc burh 
^isne fugcl fedan wolde. Syle swa-bcah sumne dfel bam 
earne to edleane his geswinces." 

Hi baaeftcr gereorde on heora weg ferdon, and Cubberhtus 
bam folce fjegere bodade, jnet hi wiere wjeron wib deofles 
syrwum, }jy-lfps be he mid leasunge heora geleafan awyrde, 
and fram bwre bodunge heora mod abrade, pa^t folc ba f<er- 
lice ongaim forb-arjesan hetwux )>ysserc minegunge, micclum 
bep?eht, |>iet hi btere hue to lyt gymdon. Hwiet se swicohi 
feond hi swibe bedydrode, swilee bier bum hus soblice for- 
burne, brastligende mid brandum, gedwymorlice swa-^eah. 
pa wolde |>iet folc j>iet fyr ad\v;pscan, gif hit aMiig w;eta wanian 
inihte : ac bfes halgan andwerdnyss eabelice acwencte J^tes 
deofles dyderunge, )?c hidwollice filigdon, and bfes lifes word 
lytlnvon gymdon. pa4 folc ba ofscamod ongean cyrde to 
ba?rc hire be hi jer forleton, biddendc fet bam lareovve libe 
miltbunge, ))H*t liT his lare ipv to lyt gymdon, baba he ^a 
fraecednyssc him fore sii'de. 

Cubberhtus swa-^eah on obrum timan eall-byrnende hus 
ana ahredde wib fyres dare, mid halgum benum, and bone 
wiiides blipd aweg fligde, sebe ier for oft ba cCttrigan flan 
deoflicere costnunge on him sylfum adwa^scte, |?urh gescyld- 
nysse sobes Drihtncs. He wolde gclome leodum bodian on 
fyrlenum lande unforhtigende. Hwffit ^a him geucSe se 
^■Elmihtiga God fa?gre getingnysse bam folce to lare, and him 
men ne mihton heora mod bchydan, ac hi eadmodlice him 
geandetton lieora digelnyssa, and elles ne dorston, and be 
his dihte digellice gebelton. 



THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT, BISHOP. 14 1 

through this eagle, who of yore fed Elijah through the swart 
raven, before he journeyed to heaven." They then went on 
journeying, and lo, the eagle sat on the shore, having flown 
thilher with a fish which he iiad just caught. Thereupon 
the saint said to his companion, " Run to the eagle, and take 
from him a part of the fish which he has caught, for our re- 
fection. Praise be to the Almighty, who would feed us 
through this bird. But give a part to the eagle in reward of 
his labour." 

After the repast they went on their way, and Cuthbcrht 
beautifully preached to the people, that they should be guarded 
against the wiles of the devil, lest with lea-iing he should 
corrupt their faith, and draw their minds from the preaching. 
The people then begun suddeidy to rush forth in the midst 
of this admonition, being greatly deceived, so that they too 
little heeded the precepts. For the deceptive fiend had greatly 
deluded them, as if there really were a house burning there, 
crackling with brands, though illusively. Then the people 
would extinguish the fire, if any water might diminish it : 
but the presence of the saint easily (jucnchcd the delusion of 
the devil, whom thev erringly had followed, and but little 
heeded the word of life. The people then ashamed returned 
to the instruction that they had before left, praying their 
teacher's kind pity for having before too little heeded his 
precepts, when he related the peril before them. 

I5ut Cuthberht at another time saved alone a burning house 
from the fire's damage, with holy prayers, and drove away 
the blast of wind, who had ere very often extingui^lK•d the 
envenomed darts of devilish temptation directed against him- 
self, throiigh the protection of the righteous Lord. He would 
oftentimes fearlessly preach to the people in a disUmt land. 
Verily the Almighty had given him a sweet eloquence for 
people's instruction, and men could not hide their minds from 
him, but humbly confessed their secrets to him, and durst not 
do otherwise, and by his direction privily made atonement. 



142 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTI EPISCOPI. 

Sum eawfest man eac swilce luefde micele cySSe to Sam 
halgan CuSbcrhte, and gelomlice his lare breac. pa geti- 
mode his wife wyrs bonne he beSorfte, ]>iet heo ^urh wod- 
nysse micclum waes gedreht. pa com se eawfesta to ^am 
eadigan Cu^berhte, and he waes on Sam timan to prafoste 
geset on "Sam munuc-life ]>e is Lindisfarnea gehaten. pa no 
mihte he for sceame him opcidice sccgan, jnut his cawfieste 
wif on ^aere wodnysse l{5eg ; ac bcpd ]'a4 he asende sumne 
broSer, ]?e hire gorihta gcdflii mihte, ^r^an ^e hco of life 
gelaed wurde. Da wiste CuSbcrhtus cal be Sam wife, and 
wolde J>urh bine sylfiie sona hi gencosian ; forSan Sc heo 
aeriSon eawfa^st Icofode, Seah "Se se unsiS iiire swa gclumpe. 
pa begann se wer drcorig wepan, anSracigende Sips unge- 
linipcs. CuSbcrhtus bine Sa mid wordum gefrcfrodc, cwa'.S 
pffit se deofol, ]>c hire dorigan wolde, on his gencosunge for- 
Ifetan sceoldc, and mid niicelre fyrhte aweg llcon, and jjast 
wif mid gewittc wcl sprecendc him togeanes gan, and his 
bridel onfun. Hit Sa gelanip, be Sfes larcowcs wordum, piet 
l^fet wTf gewittig bine mid wordum gegrotte, bfed ])iet heo 
moste him mete gearcian, and cydde hii se deofol hi dcar- 
nunge forlct, and swiSc forhtigcnde flcames ceptc, SaSa se 
halga ynlov siSode. 

CuSberhtus se halga siSSan gefremode mihtiglice wundrn, 
on Sam mynstre wunigcnde. Begann Sa on mode micclum 
smeagan hu he ^jes folces lof forfleon mihte, )?y-hes ^e he 
wurde to hlisful on worulde, and )'ces heofcnlican lofes fremde 
M'aere. Wolde "Sa anstandende ancer-lif adreogan, and on 
digelnysse eallunge drohtnian. Ferde Sa to Fame, on flow- 
endre ySe. pa^t igland is eal bevvorpen mid sealtum brym- 
me, on sje middan ; and wiSinnan call, jer ^am fyrste, mid 
sweartum gastum swiSe waes afylled, swa J^tet men ne miht- 
on pa moldan bugian, for Seowracan sweartra deofla; ac hi 
ealle ^a endemes flugon, and ]>aet igland eallunge gerym- 
don Sam ae^elan cempan ; and he Saer ana wunode, orsorh 
heora andan, ]?urh ^-Elmibtigne God. pa waes ]?f'et igland 



THE DEPOSITION OK ST. CUTHBERHT, BISHOP. 143 

A pious man also had great intimacy with the holv Cuth- 
berht, and frccjucntly enjoyed hi.s instruction. It befell his 
wife worse than he needed, so that she was greatly afflicted 
by madness. Thereupon tlie pious man came to the blessed 
Cuthberht, and he was at that time set as provost in the mo- 
nastery which is at Lindisfarne. But he could not for shame 
openly say to him that his pious wife lay in a state of mad- 
ness ; but begged that he would send a brother to perform 
her last offlces, before she were taken from life. But Cuth- 
l)erht knew all about the woman, and would himself imme- 
diately visit her ; because she had previously lived piously, 
although misfortune had so bifalkii her. Then the man 
began sadly to weep, deploring his misfortune. But Cuth- 
berht by Ills words comforted him, and said that the devil, 
who would injure her, should on his visit forsake her, and 
flee away in great fright, and the woman in her senses, well 
speaking, come to meet him, and receive his bridle. It hap- 
pened, according to the teacher's words, that the woman in 
her senses greeted him by words, prayed thi»t she might 
prepare him meat, and informed him how the devil had 
secretly left her, and, greatly fearing, had taken flight, while 
the saint was journeying thither. 

The holy Cuthberht afterwards performed mighty wonders 
w'hile dwelling in the mynster. lie then began to devise in 
his mind how he might flee from the people's praise, lest he 
should be too famous in the world and a stranger to heavenly 
praise. He woidd, therefore, lead a solitary anchorite life, 
and live wholly in obscurity. Whereupon he went to Fame 
in the flowing wave. That island is all beaten by the salt 
ocean, in the middle of the sea ; and all within, before that 
time, was very full of swart ghosts, so that men could not 
cultivate the soil for the threats of the swart devils ; but 
they at last all fled and entirely vacated the island to the 
noble champion ; and he there dwelt alone, regardless of their 
envy, through Almighty God. But that island was wholly 



144 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTl EPISCOPI. 

mid ealle bedfeled wseteres wynsumnysse, on ^ani wcstuiu 
cluduni, ac se halga wer ^a sona het J>a heardnysse swiJJe 
holian on niiddaii ba^re flore his fogeran botles, and \>a?.t 
wseter seddre ^a wynsuni asprang, werod on sw^ecce, )>ani 
were to brice, seSe hwilon waiter to wiidicum svvjecce wnn- 
dorlice awende, ^a^a hit wolde God. 

Se halga "Sa het him bringaii srtd ; wolde on "Sam westene 
wfestmes tilian, gif hit swa geu^e se /Elniihtiga God, |>{et he 
mid his fotoii liine fedau moste. He seow "Sa hwa^te on 
beswuncenum lande, ac hit to wfestme aspringan ne moste, 
ne furSon mid g^prse growende naes. pa het he him l)ringan 
bere to siedc, and ofer ;elcne timan Sa corSan ascow. Hit 
weox "Sa mid wynnc, and wcl geripode. pa woldon hremmas 
bine bereafian a^t his gedcorfum, gif hi dorston. ¥)a c\va;5 
se halga to 5am heard-ncbbum,"Gif so /Elmihtigacow Sises 
geutSc, brucaJS ))a^ra wjestma, and me nc biddalS. Gif he 
^onne eow biscs ne getiSode, gewitalS aweg, wadhrcowe 
fugelas, to eowrum ebclc, of Sisum iglando." Hwfet Sa 
hremmas ^a ricene flugon, ealle tosomne, ofer bone sealtan 
brym, and se halga ba his gcswinces breac. 

Eft Sa si S ban o<Sre twegen swearle hremmas si Slice comon, 
and his bus tieron mid heardum bile, and to neste bferon, 
heora briddvun to hleowbe. pas eac se eadiga mid ealle 
afltgde of bam ebele mid anum worde : ac an ^tera fiigela eft 
fleogende com ynd)e bry dagas ]?earle dreorig, fleah to his 
foton, swibe biddende J?iet he on bam lande lybban moste, 
synde unscaibbig, and his gefera samod. Hwset ^a se halga 
him ])ies geu^e, and lii lustbaere j^ffit land gesohton, and broht- 
on ^am lareovve lac to medes, swines rysl his scon to ge- 
dreoge ; and hi beer sib ban unscrebbige unnedon. 

Da wolde se halga sum bus timbrian to his nedbricuni, 
mid his gebro^ra fultume. Da bied he hi anre sylle, ]>set he 
mihte }>aethus on ^a sae bealfe mid ]?fere underlecgan. pa ge- 
brobra him beheton, J^ffit hi woldon \>fet treow, |>onne hi" eft 



THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT, BISHOP. 145 

deprived of the blessing of water in its barren rocks, but the 
holy man forthwith bade the hardness be hollowed, in the 
middle of the floor of his fair dwelling, and the pleasant 
water then quickly sprang up, sweet in taste, for the man's 
use, who on a time wonderfully turned water to winclikc 
flavour, when God so willed it. 

The saint then ordered seed to be brought him ; he would 
in the waste cultivate earth's fruits, if it so should grant Al- 
ujighty God, that he with his feet might feed himself. He 
then sowed wheat on prepared land, but it could not spring up 
to fruit, nor was it even growing with grass. Then he bade 
barley be brougiit him for seed, and after the season sowed 
the earth. It waxed abundantly and well ripened. Then 
would the ravens rob him at his labours, if tiiey durst. Then 
said the saint to the hard-nibbed ones, " If the Almiglity 
have allowed yon this, partake of the fruits, atid ask not me. 
But if lie have not granted it to you, depart, bloodthirsty 
birds, to your own home from this island." Whereupon the 
ravens instantly fled all together, over the salt sea, and the 
saint then enjoyed his lai)our. 

After that two other swart ravens came journeying, and 
tore [the thatch of] his house with their hard bills, and bare 
it to their nest, as a shelter for their young ones. These also 
the blessed man drove from the place with a word : but one 
of those birds, flying back, came after three days exceedingly 
sad, and flew to his feet, earnestly praying that he might live 
in that laiul ever harmless, aiul his mate with him. Where- 
upon the holy man granted him this, and they joyfully sought 
tliat land, and brought to the teacher a gift as reward, swine's 
fat to oil his shoes ; and they afterwards abode there harm- 
less. 

Then the saint would build a house for his use, with the 
aid of his brothers. He, therefore, begged of them a log, 
that he might sujiport the house with it on the sea side. 
The brothers promised him that they would bring the tree 

HOM. VOL. 11. L 



146 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTI EPISCOPI. 

comon him gebringan. Da comon hi, swa swa hi cwfedon, 
and wurdon s\va-5eah ^Hes treowes ungemyndige ; ac se 
^hiiihtiga God his waes gemyndig, and him 5a sylle sylf 
asende mid )?am Sfelicum flode ; and ]}iet flud hi awcarp Saer 
"Saer he sylf smeiide J^aet hus to ara^renne, on 5am sealtum 
ofre. pa wunode se halga wer manega gear on 5am ancer- 
life swiSlice stiSe, and hine geneosodon gelome eawfa^ste 
mcnn, and be his lare heora lif gerihtlwhton. 

Da com him to sum abbudysse, seo wfes zElflfed gchaten, 
"ScEs cyninges sweoster Ecgfridcs, wolde jnirh his mynegung- 
um hire mod getrymman. ]^a betwux heora spra^ce bcgiinn 
heo to halsigenne 6onc ludgan wcr pjet he sceolde hire sec- 
gan hu hinge hire br()5()r Ecgfri(his moste his rices brucan. 
pa andwyrdc hire se iialga mid twylicere spnece, and csvaj^, 
" For nahte bi5 gcteaUl ancs geares hist, j>a;r Ster se swearta 
dea^ onsigende hi 5." D.i undcrgeat heo ]>H't se broScr nc 
moste his lifes brucan otVr 5am anum geare, and |;<errihte 
dreorigHcc wepende hine befniii, " La leof, sege me, hwa 
sceal to liis rice fon, j'onne he bro5er ntf'f5, nc he beam ne 
bphef5." Da cw{e5 se halga wcr eft to 5am ma-dcne, " Se 
yElmihtiga Scyppend ha^f5 gchealdcn sumne gecorenne }>ys- 
sere leode to cyningc, and sc hi 5 5e swa leof swa im is se 
o^er." pa gedyrsthehtc )>a't maiden jnct heo him 5a-gyt to 
spraec, and cwjeS, " Mislice smeaga5 manna heortan, sume 
wilnia5 ge5inc5e })yssere worulde, sume gefylla5 heora fra- 
cedan lustas, and hi eallc sj''55an sorhlice wjedliatS. pu for- 
sihst '5one hcalican wurSmynt, and "5e is leofre on 5isum 
wacnm scrtefum 5onne ^u on healle healic biscop sitte." Da 
cwfeS se witega, j^aet he wurSe nfere swa miccles hades, ne 
•Sffis heahsetles, ac swa-|?eah nan man Godes niihte ne for- 
flihS on nanum heolstrum hcofenan, o|)]?e eor^an, o]>]>e sie 
•Sriddan. " Ic gelyfe swa-^Seah, gif se ^Elmihtiga me htett 
]7aes hades beon, piet ic eft mote ^is igland gesecan, sefter 
twegra geara ymbrene, and ^yses e^eles brucan. Ic bidde 
]?e, ^Elfla^d, |)cet 5u uncrc spra^ce on niiimm life nanum ne 
ameldige.' 



THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT. BISHOP. ur 

when they again came to him. They came, indeed, as they 
had said, but were, notwithstanding, unmindful of the tree; 
but Ahuigiity God was mindful of it, and sent him the log 
himself with the sea flood ; and the flood cast it where he 
himself tliought of erecting the house on the salt shore. 
There the saint dwelt many years, living very rigidly an 
anchoret's life, and pious men frecjucntly visited him, and by 
his instruction rectified their lives. 

Then came to him an abbess wiio was named ^Elfl;ed, a 
sister of king Ecgfrith ; she would by his admonitions fortify 
her mind. Amid their discourse she began to beseech the 
holy man to inform hor how long her brother Ecgfritii might 
possess his kingdom. Whereupon the saint answered her 
with ambiguous speech, and said, "As naught is counted 
one year's pleasure, where swart death is impending." Then 
she understood that her brother might not enjoy his life over 
that one year, and straightways sadly weeping, asked him, 
" O dear friend, tell me who shall succeed to his kingdom, 
since he has no brother nor leaves he a child." Then said the 
holy man again to the maiden, "The Almighty Creator lias 
preserved a chosen one for king of this nation, and he will 
be as dear to thee as is now the other." The maiden yet 
ventured to speak to him again, and said, " Diversely cogi- 
tiite the hearts of men ; some desire honour of this world, 
some satisfy their shameful lusts, and they all afterwards are 
poor. Thou despisest high dignity, and to thee it is more 
desirable to sit in this mean hovel than as a high bishop in 
hall." Then the prophet said, that he was not worthy of so 
great a state, nor of the lofty seat, but, nevertheless, no man 
could flee from the power of (jod in any recesses of heaven, 
or of earth, or, thirdly, of sea. "I believe, however, if the 
Almighty commanded mo to be of that degree, that I should 
again seek this island after the course of two years, and enjoy 
this country. I beseech thee, /Elfla^d, that thou mention not 
oiw discourse to any one during m\ life." 

L 2 



148 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTI EPISCOPI. 

^fter ■Sisuni wordum wear's gemot gchfefd, and Ecgfridus 
]7?Eroii gesfpt, and peodorus, Sises Tglandes ercebiscop, mid 
manegum 0(5rum ge^ungenum witum ; and hi ealle anmodlice 
l^one eadigan CiiSberhtum to biscope gecuron. Da sendon 
hi sona gewritu mid )?am ferende to "Sam eadigan were, ac hi 
ne mihton hine of his mynstre gebringan. pa reowse cyning 
sylf Ecgfridus to "Sam Tglande, and Trumwine biscop mid 
oSrum eawfcsstum werum, and hi ^one halgan swibc halso- 
don, heora cncow bigdon, and mid tearum beedon, o^)?fet hi 
hine wependc of ^;lm westenc atugon to Sam sinoSe samod 
mid him, and he Sone had be heora hspse underfeng, swa swa 
hit gefyrn ser gesaed waes Surh 5aes cildcs mnS, and ]'a^s 
masran biscopes BoTsilcs, ^e him mid soSrc witegunge his 
lifes endcbyrchiyssc s;ede. 

On "Sam ylcan gcare wearS cac ofslegen Ecgfrichis sc ?e"5ehi 
cyning on his unsiSc, SaSa he on I'cohtum begann to feoht- 
enne to dyrstelicc ofcr Drihtnes wilhm, and his cyfes-borena 
broSor siSSan rixode, seSo for wisdome ucnde to Scottnm, 
]>iet he feiSccxhg on l;ire geSugc. pa Wrcs gcfylled seo fore- 
Sfede sprfec, swa se halga wer saede )nim nifedcne be hire ge- 
broSrum, ;er he biscop wjere. Ilwret Sa siSban se halga 
CuSberhtus, Lindisfarnensiscere gehiSnnge leod-biscop, mid 
ealre gecneordnysse liis folccs gymde, to geefenhecunge ^iera 
eadigra apostola, and hi mid singahmi gcbcdum gcscylde wiS 
deofol, and mid hahvendum myngungmn to heofonan tihte ; 
and he swa leofode swa swa he sylf Iferde, and a his bodiinga 
mid gebysnungum astealde, and eac mid wundrum wel ge- 
glengde, and mid soSre lufe symle geswette, and gemetcgode 
mid micclum geSylde, and waes swi^e estful on felcere sprsece. 
He nolde awendan his gewunelican bigleofan, ne his gewaeda 
•Se he on westene hfefde, ac <Sa sti^nyssa his stearcan bigleofan 
betwux hewedum folce on his life geheold. He waes swi^e 
welig waedlum and Searfum, and symle Iiim sylfum swi^e 
hafenleas. 



THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT, BISHOP. 149 

After these words a gemot was holclcii, ami Ecgfrith sat 
tlierein, and Theodore, the archbishop of this ishmd, with 
many other venerable councillors ; and they all unanimously 
chose the blessed Cuthbcrht for bishop. They then imme- 
diately sent letters with that message to the blessed man, 
but they could not bring him from his mynster. Then the 
king himself, Ecgfrith, rowed to the Island, and bishop Trum- 
wine with other pious men, and they earnestly besought the 
holy man, bent their knees, and with tears prayed him, until 
they drew him weeping from the waste to the synod together 
with them, and he at their command undertook tlie dignity, 
as it had long ago been said by the mouth of the child, and 
by that of the great bishop Boisil, who with true prophecy 
had said to him the course of his life. 

In the same year also P>gfrith, the noble king, was slain 
in his imfortunate expedition, when he too rashly, against 
the Lord's will, resolved to make war on the Picts, and his 
base-born brother afterwards reigned, who for the sake of 
wisdom had gone to the Scots, that he might increase in 
learning in a foreign land. Tiien was fulfilled the before- 
said speech, as the holy man had said it to the maiden of her 
brother, before he was a bishop. The holy Cuthbcrht tlien, 
suffragan bishop of the church of Lindisfarne, with all dili- 
gence took care of his people, in imitation of the blessed 
apostles, and with continual prayers shielded them against 
the devil, and with salutary admonitions excited them to 
heaven ; and he so lived as he himself taught, and always 
confirmed his preachings with examples, and also well em- 
bellished them with miracles, and constantly sweetened them 
with true love, and tempered them with great patience, and 
was very devout in every speech. He would not change his 
usual diet, nor his garments that he had in the wilderness, 
but held to the severities of his iiard diet among lay people 
dining his life. He was very wealthy for the poor and nccdv, 
and always very iiuliirnit for him>clf. 



150 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTI KPISCOPI. 

pa geworhte he fela wundra eac binnon Sam fyrste Sc he 
biscop wfes. Mid halgum wjetere he gchiekle sum wTf, anes 
ealdormannes aewe, fram earmlicere co^e, and heo sona gesmid 
him sylfum Senode. Eft on ^sere ylcan tide he mid ole gc- 
smyrode an licgende mjeden on langsumum sare, ^urh hefig- 
tymum hcafod-ece, and hire sona \va?s bet. Sum eawfa^st 
wer waes eac yfelc gehfefd, and l«g fet forJSjsiSe, his freondum 
orwene : |>a hsefde heora sum iialigne hlaf, j^one se cadiga wer 
aer gebletsode, and he ^one )?ierrihte on waetcr bedypte, and 
his adligum m?ege on ]7one mu5 begeat, and he Srerrihte j'a^t 
adl gestilde. Eac on oSrum timan sum adlig cniht ferlice 
wearS geferod ffitforan ^am witan, SaSa he mid lare geond 
land ferde. pa bfedon ^a bairmen his bletsunge georne, and 
he Sterrihte jjone cniht ara^rde, sua )>tet he gesundful siSode 
on fotum, seSe on ba^re |'ider geboren wjps. Sum earm modcr 
uneaSelice bjer hire samcuce cild, suiSe dreorig, on Sam 
ylcan wege ]?e se wita terde. pa bcsargode he ^aere sorhfullan 
meder, and geswseslice 5a hire sunu cyste ; cw^eS \)^t hire 
cild gcsund beon sceolde, and eal hire hiwisc haelSe brucan : 
and Sees witegan word wurdon gofyllede. 

^Iflted Sa eft, jnet a^tSele madden, ))one halgan lareow to 
hire gela^ode. Da gesfet he aet mysan, micclum onbryrd he 
beseah to heofonum, and his sex awearp. pa axode hine seo 
eadige fa^mne, hwT he swa hra^dlice his gereord forlete ? Da 
cwje^ se biscop mid onbryrdum mode, " Efne nu ic geseah 
englas ferigan gesaelige sawle of ^inum boclande to healicre 
heofenan mid halgum sange, and his nama ^e bi^ ardlice 
gecydd on {erne-merigen, jjonne ic offrige Gode |?a liflican 
lac on geleaffulre cyrcan." Hit wear5 5a gewTdnifersod, swa 
swa se witega cw8e5, yeidt hire hyrdeman ^urh holdraedene ^a 
sume ac astah, and his orf laeswode mid treowenum helme, 
and he hearde feoll, gewat of worulde, mid wuldre to Gode, 
for 5a?rc hylde his hirdraedene. Hwa maeg a?fre ealle ge- 
reccan ]?a niihtigan tacna Sises halgan werci?, hu oft he ea5e- 



THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CITHBERHT, BISHOP. 151 

He also wrouirht many miracles during the time that he 
was a bishop. With holy water he healed a woman, the wife 
of an ealdorman, from a miserable disease, and she being soon 
well ministered to him. Again, at the same lime, he anointed 
with oil a maiden lying in longsomc pain through a tedious 
head-ache, and she was forthwith better. A pious man also 
was sorely afflicted, and lay at the point of death, given over 
by his friends: one of them, however, had iioly bread, which 
the blessed man had previously blessed, and he straigiitways 
dipt it in uater, and poured it into the mouth of his sick 
kinsman, and straigiitways stilled the sickness. At another 
time also a sick bo\- was suddenly borne before the siige, 
when he was on a journey of instruction through the coun- 
try. Tlie bearers then earnestly craved his blessing, and he 
straightways raised up the boy, so that he went sound on 
foot who had been borne thither on a bier. A poor mother 
bore with difficulty her half-dead child, \ cry sad, on the same 
way which the sage was going. He then had pity on the 
sorrowful mother, and kindly kissed her son, saying that her 
child should be well, and all her family enjoy healtii : and 
the words of the prophet were fulfdled. 

i4£lflaHl afterwards, the noble maiden, invited to her the 
holy teacher. While sitting at table, greatly moved he looked 
towards heaven, and cast away his knife. The blessed female 
then asked him why he so (piickly left his meal ? Then said 
the bishop, with excited mind, " Lo, just now I saw angels 
bearing a blessed soul from thy bocland to high heaven with 
holy song, and his name will be forthwith known to thee at 
early morn, when I offer to God the vital gift in the faithful 
church." It was then pvdjiished abroad, as the prophet had 
said, that her herdsman, in discharge of his duty, had ascended 
an oak, and was feeding his cattle with its woody crown, and 
he fell hardly, and departed from the world, with glory to 
(iod, through kindness to his herd. \Vho may ever relate 
all the might} miracles of this holy man, how oHen he easily 



152 DEPOSITIO S. CUTHBERHTI EPISCOPI. 

lice adlige geluelde, and ^a. sweartan gastas symle afligde, 
and fa?gra manna forSsiS foregleaw stede, wis Surh witegunge 
wisdomes gastes ? 

pa wunode sum sacerd swiSe gelyfed on ancer-setlc, jefter 
his lare, and on gehwilcum geare hine geneosode, Here- 
berhtus gchaten, liohful on mode. Cubbcrhtus 5a sona hine 
on-sundron gespra^c, cwaeS ptet he 5a sccolde s\vi51ice befri- 
nan his nyd}>parfnysse, aer his nextan dtege, cwteS j^iet he ne 
moste on menniscuni life hine eft gescon of Sam andu cardan 
deefife. Hereberhtus ^a s\vi5e hohful wearS, and feol to his 
fotum mid flowenchnn tearum, bted ]>eet he moste liiiu mid 
sibian to iieofcnlicum Srymme of tiysum gewinne, swa swa 
he on life his larc gehyrsumode. IlwfPt JSa se biscop his 
cneowa gebtgde to bissere bene nTwl bh5um mode, and sy5- 
San ■bone sacerd sona gefrcfrode, cwteS \>iet him geuSe se 
.^hnihtiga Wcaldcnd )>jrt hi .-etsomne siSian moston of 5isum 
earfobnyssum to ccere myrhSe. Hereberhtus 5a ham ge- 
wcnde, and on leger-bedde licgende abad ]>ies o5res geend- 
imge mid iidiium lymuni. CuM)crhtus se halga |?a s\vi5e 
onette to ^am ancer-setle Seer he *r gcsfet ; iSurh halige 
myngunge Mihtiges Driiitncs, noldo on 5am lande his lif 
geendian, }>fer 5cer he aer lange lybbenile drolitnode ; and he 
on 'bam lande ba gelegered wearb, on his for^sibe swibe fus 
to Gode, on bam briddan geare his biscophados ; and on 
bisum djege to Drihtne gewat, and Hereberhtus samod, se 
halga sacerd, swa swa hi on life jer geleornodon, ])urh Godes 
Gast, mid godum willan. His lie wearb bebyrgedon Lindis- 
farneiscre cyrcan, j^jer wurdon geworhte wundra forwel fela 
burh gcearnungmn liis cadigan lifes. pa gelicode hit bam 
leod-biscope Eadberiite sylfum, his feftergcngan, ];aet he his 
lichaman up ba gelogode, on ^am endlyftan geare his geend- 
unge. pa wear^ ]>ifit halige lie hal on eorban gemet, gesund- 
ful licgende, swilce he slapende wa>rc, libe bige on limum, 
swa swa he geled waes. 



THE DEPOSITION OF ST. CUTHBERHT, BISHOP. 153 

healed the sick, and constantly drove away the swart spirits, 
and the departure of men marked for death sagaciously fore- 
told, wise through prophecy in the spirit of wisdom ? 

There dwelt in a hcrnjitage a priest very orthodox, accord- 
ing to his precepts, and visited him every year, called Ilere- 
berht, of pensive mind. Cuthhcrht then soon spake with him 
apart, saying he should then fully ask what he needed, ere his 
last day, and said that he might not again see him in human 
life, from that present day. llcreherht was then very sad, and 
fell at his feet with flowing tears, praying that he might journey 
with him to heavenly ulory from this toil, as he had in life 
obeyed his precepts. The bishop hereupon bowed his knees 
at this prayer with cheerful mind, and immediately after- 
wards comforted the priest, saying that the Almighty Kuler 
had granted them that they might journey together from these 
tribulations to everlasting joy. llcreherht then returned 
home, and lying on his sick-bed awaited the other's end 
with afllicted limbs. C'utliberht the holy then with all >peed 
hastened to the hermitage where he had before been seated ; 
through the monition of the Mighty Lord, he would in that 
land end his life, where hi had living long before passed his 
days; and in that land he was then confined to his bed, very 
ra[)i(lly hastening on his departure hence to God, in the third 
year of his bishophood ; and on this day went to the Lord, 
and llcreherht with him, the holy priest, as they in life had 
before been informed, through the Spirit of God, with good 
will. His body was buried in the church of Lindisfarnc, 
where very many wonders were wrought through the merits 
of his blessed life. It afterwards pleased the suffragan bishop 
Eadberht himself, his successor, that he would have hi.s body 
placed there, in the eleventh year after his [Cuthberht's] 
death. Then the holy corpse was found lying in the earth 
whole and sound, as if he were sleeping, pliant in the lindjs, 
so as he had been laid. 



154 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

Sy wuklor and lof J^ani welegau Drihtiu', seSe his gccorenaii 
swa cystelice wiirSaS, aefter deadlicum life mid him lybbciidc 
a on ecnysse ealra worulda. Amen. 



XII. KL. APRILIS. 
SCI BKNEDICTI AUBATIS. 



BENEDICTUS so hakni Abbud on Sisuin andwenhnn djege 
gewat of (Sisnm deadlicum life to Sam ecan, be he <erdcoplice 
mid haligre drohtiiungc gcearnode. 

He Wips of cawfa^stum magum jPiSellice geborcn, and hi 
hine on cildhfide to lare bofa'bton on Romobyrig gela^rcdum 
uSwitum. paJSu he on wisdome wel Seonde w;es, ^a begann 
he to onscunigcnne woruld-manna unJScawas, and sceoc digel- 
liee of ^a?re byrig, and him folgodc his foster-modcr, oSjja^t 
hi becomon to •bsere stowe be is Efide gchatcn, and eaw f;este 
menn hine ^jer sume hwile geletton. Da aba^d his fostor- 
modcr an hridder, and toba^rst on emtwaon Sa^re liEne. Seo 
fostor-modor Sa sarlice weop f(jr iSan-e awyrdan la^ne, ac se 
eawfsesta Bencdictus besargode his fostor-moder siirnysse 
swiSe arfa^stlice, and gcnam 5a sticcu |>a>s toclofenan hrid- 
dores, and mid wope on his gebedum cneowode. Ac SaSa 
he of his gel)edum aras, Sa gcmette he ]><et (mt wiS hine lic- 
gende swa gehal ]>;jet Sfer nan cinvi on njes gesewen. pa 
wearS ]?is wundor on ^mve stowe sona gewTdnipersod, and hi 
for wundrunge j'a^t hridder up-ahengon fet heora cyrcan geate, 
|?aet men mihton tocnawan ]7aes m*ran Benedictes m^rSa, 
hwylce gebincSe he h«efde aetforan Gode ba giu on his cild- 
hade. 

Ac Bencdictus gewilnode swi^or to boligenne earfoiSnyssa 
and geswinc for Godc, ]?onne he cepte woruldlice he[runga, 
obbe )>ises lifcs hlisan, and forflcah )'a deornunga }>a fostor- 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 155 

Be glory and praise to the bounteous Lord, who so muni- 
ficently honours his chosen, after uiorlai life living with him 
to all eternit\ . Amen. 



M.\RCH XXI. 
ST. BENEDICT. ABBOT. 

Bl'^Xl^DlCT, the holy Abbot, on this present day departed 
from this mortal life to the life everlasting, which he had 
before truly merited by his holy conduct. 

He was nobly born of pious parents, and they in his child- 
hood intrusted him for it)struction to learned [)hilosophers at 
Rome. When he was well thriving in wisdom he began to 
shun the immoralities of worldiv men, and fled secretly fronj 
the city, and his foster-motlur followed him, till they came 
to the place which is called Ellide, and pious men there some 
while detained him. His foster-mother there borrowed a win- 
nowing sieve, and it brake in two during the loan. The foster- 
mother then sorely wept for the itijured loan, but the pious 
Benedict grieved for his foster-mother's affliction very affec- 
tionately, and took the pieces of the split sieve, and weeping 
knelt down in prayer. But when he arose from his prayers, 
he found the vessel lying by him so whole that no chink 
was visible in it. This miracle was soon made known in the 
place, and as an object of wonder they hung up the sieve at 
their church gate, that men might know of the glories of the 
great Benedict, what honour he had before God already in 
his childhood. 

But Benedict desired rather to undergo hard.-ihips and toil 
for God, than he cared for worldly [praises, or renown of 
this life, and secretly fled from his foster-mother lo a desolate 



156 S. BENEDICTl ABBATIS. 

modor to anre westenre stowe, ]>e is Sublacus gecweden, 
feovvertig mila fram Romebyrig, |7fier liine afedde sum eaw- 
faest munuc, Romanus hatte, J^reo gear, and him to munuc- 
licuni gyrlum fylt^te. pa aheng sc munuc ane lytle bellan on 
*Sam stan-clude, J^set Bciiedictus mihte gchyran, ]>urli Saere 
bellan sweg, liwtenne he his bigleofan J^aer feccan sceolde ; 
forSan j^e se Romanus ne mihte him to gegan for '5am stan- 
clude. pa sume da^ge, se niiSfulla deofol, |>e andode on 'Saes 
munuces soSan lufe, and on ^aes oSres bigleofan, wcarp ^a 
aenne stan to ^fere bellan, jjiet heo eall tosprang ; ac se leSela 
munuc ne geswac na ^e hrabor j^am oSrum to j^enigenne on 
gedafcnlicum tidum. ^Kfter Sysum geswutclode se /EI- 
mihtiga God sumum arwurJSan maesse-preoste be 5am halgan 
Benedicte, and se preost j>a bine gcsohte on Easter-tide mid 
lacum, swa sua him bcboden w;es. He 5a hine gemette, on 
■5am halgan Easter-da^ge, on anum scrjefe, and hine gespraec, 
and he wcar5 )>a cu5 hyrdcmannum, and his nama geond eall 
sprang. Ilwcet 5a forwel m;enige bine geneosodon, and him 
lichamlice bigleofan brobton, and he him of his mu5c j^a heo- 
fonlican lare forgeaf, beora sawle to bigleofan. 

On sumum d{pge, |)a5a he ana waes, j?a com him to se 
costere. Witodlicp an blac );rostle flicorode ymbe his neb 
Hwa gemahlice, ])iei he hi mid his handa gefon mihte, gif he 
swa wolde ; ac he hine bletsode mid ];?ere halgan rode-tucne, 
and se fugol sona aweg gewat. pa gestod hine swa micel 
lichamlic costung, )?aet he unease j^aere lichamlican ontend- 
nysse wi5standan mihte ; ]>a. bc5ohte he hine sylfne, and un- 
scrydde bine ealne, and uylode hine sylfne oji 5am j^iccuni 
bremlum and ];ornum and nctelum, 5e paer on 5am westene 
]?icce stodon, swa lange |>eet he eall toclifrod aras, and swa 
]7urh ■5aere hydc wunda adwaescte his modes wunda ; fortian 
^e he awende pone unlust to sarnysse, and J'urb J)a yttran 
ontendnysse acwencte )7a inran. Witodlice he oferswi'5de }>a 
synne, forban ^e he awende pa ontendnysse. So^lice of 
Saere tide, swa swa he sylf sy55an saedc, aelc gallic ontendnys 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 157 

place which is called Subiaco, forty miles from Rome, 
where a pious monk fed him, called Romanus, for three 
years, and helped him to monastic garments. The monk then 
hung a little bell on the stony rock, that Benedict might hear, 
by the sound of that bell, when he should thence fetch his 
nourishment ; because Romanus could not go to him by 
reason of the stony rock. Then one day, the envious devil, 
who was jealous of the monk's true love, and of the other's 
nourishment, cast a stone at the bell, so that it brake in 
pieces; but the noble monk refrained not the more from 
serving the other at fitting times. After this Almighty Ciod 
made known to a venerable mass-priest concerning the holy 
Benedict, and the priest sought him at Easter-tide with gifts, 
as he had been commanded. He found him, on the holy 
Easter-day, in a cave, and addressed him, and he then be- 
came known to the herdsmen, and his name pervaded every- 
where. Whereupon very many visited him, and brought him 
bodily food, and he from his mouth gave them heavenly lore, 
as food for their souls. 

One day, when he was alone, the tempter came to him. 
A black throstle to wit flickered about his face so boldly, that 
he could have taken it with his hatid, if he had so desired ; 
but he blessed himself with the holy sign of the cross, and 
the bird instantly went away. He was then assailed with so 
great a corporal teniptation, that he could hardly withstand 
the bodily fervour ; but he bethought himself, and unclothed 
himself entirely, and rolled himself in the thick brambles and 
thorns and nettles, which stood thicklv there in tlie wilder- 
ness, so long that lie arose all scratched, and so through the 
wounds of the skin extinguished the wounds of his mind ; for 
he turned evil lust to pain, and through outward inflammation 
quenched the inward. Verily he overcame sin, in changing 
the excitement. But from that time, as he himself afterwards 



158 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

wearS eallunga on him advvsesced, uiid lie luefre sySSan iiaht 
•(Syllices on him sylfum ne gefredde. 

pa waes ]78er gehende sum munuc-lif, and hcora abbud waes 
}>a niwan forSfaren : ]>sl comon hi ealle to Kam halgan Bcnc- 
dictCj and mid micelre anr^ednysse ba?don \>iet he heora abbud 
beon sceolde. He 5a wiScwte^ mid hmgsumere elcunge, and 
saede, j^^et heora ]7eawas ne mihton his dihte geJSwterlaecan ; 
ac ^SaSa hi anrfedlicc on -Sfere bene ]?urh\vunodon, ]>a aet 
nextan getiSode he him, and on heora mynstre rcgolHcc 
drohtnunge astealde. Hi Sa gesawon \>iet heora wohnys on 
ISam regole his rihtwisnysse fetspearn, forcSan pe hi ne moston 
purh unalyfedlice weorc faran, swa swa hi fer gcwunodc 
w^ron. pa bcgunnon hi to cidenne arrest him betwynan, 
]?ffit hi his ealdordomes b;edon, and );a ;Et nextan neddon ]>a't 
hi mid attre hine acwealdon. Gemengdon 5a unlybban to 
liis drcnce, and so |?en stod feorran mid anum ghesenum fete, 
on 5am w.es wTncs drenc mid |>am cweahnbaunnn attre 
gemengcd. Se pen 5a, ;efter mynsterlicum peawe, to his 
blctsunge mid 5am fjete aleat, and he mid rode-tiicne \>iBt f<et 
of his sctlc bletsode, and hit {^wrrihte jnirh 5a blctsunge to- 
bcfirst, swilee lie for rode-tiicne sumne stiin |><rron bcwurpe. 
Da ongeat se halga wer )'<et sc drenc dcadba^ra WcCS, )ni5a he 
ne mihtc ITfes tlicn abcran ; and j^aerrihte aras, and mid 
glfedum mode |>a gebro5ru gcspnec : " Gebro5ru, miltsige 
eow se yElmihtlga God : hwT wolde ge me J>as J'ing gcbeodan ? 
Ne sa^de ic cow on £r ]>dit me and cow ne mihte gewur5an ? 
Fara5 nu, and seca"5 eow caldor a^fter eowerum j^cawum, for- 
"5an ]?e ge ne magon me heonon-:for5 habban." And he }?a 
gecyrde to 5am westene, and his sylfcs gymdc. 



Hwffit J>a him fleowon to forwel menigc, and hi gcgade- 
rodon to ]>eowdome drohtnigende, swa ]>ie.t he getimbrode on 
^aere stowe, ]?urh Cristes fultum, twelf mynstru, on ^am 
tenlipium he gesette twclf munecas, and ane fcawa he geheold 



ST. bt^tUlLT, ABliOT. 159 

said, all hiistful fervour was in him totally cxtingui:shcd, and 
lie never afterwards felt anything of the same kind in himself. 

There was near at hand a monasterv, the ahbot of which 
was lately deceased : they all then came to the holy Benedict, 
and with great perseverance prayed that he woidd he their 
abbot. lie refused for a long time, and said, that their 
manners might not accord with his disposition ; but w hen 
they perseveringly persisted in their prayer, he at last granted 
it to them, and established a course of regular life in their 
mynster. They then saw that their depravity spurned at 
the rule of his righteousness, because they might not proceed 
in unallowed works, as they had before been accustomed to. 
They then begun to (juarrel, 6rst among themselves, that 
they had {)raycd for his superiority, and at last counselled 
to kill hirn with poison. They minified then venom in his 
driid\, and the servant stood at a di^tarlee with a glass ves- 
sel, in which was a drink made of wine mingled with the 
deadly poison. The servant then, according to monastic 
usage, bowed with the vessel for his blessing, and he with the 
sign of the cross blessed the vessel from his seat, and through 
the blessing it straightways burst in i)ieces, as if, instead of 
signing it \\ ith the cross, he had ea^t a stone on it. Then 
the holy man perceived that the drink was deadly, w hen it 
could not i)ear the token of life ; and he straightways arose, 
and with cheerful spirit addressed the brothers : " Brothers, 
may Almighty God be merciful to you : why woidd ye impose 
these things on me ? Said I not to you before, that I and 
you could not agree ? Go now and seek for yourselves a 
superior according to your own habits, for yv may not hence- 
forth have me." And he then returned to the \\il(lorncss 
and took care of liimself. 

Very many then flowed to him, and they were gathered 
together, living for [God's] service, so that he built in that 
place, through Christ's support, twelve monasteries, in each 
of which he placed twelve nioiiKs, and a few he retained with 



ICO S. BEXEDICTI ABBATIS. 

mid him sylfum. Ongunnon \>a. Sa ffi^elborenan on llome- 
byrig him to befsRstenne heora cild to Godes lareowdome, of 
"Sam waes sum gehatcn Placidus, and sum oSer Maurus. pa 
sceolde se Placidus feccan waeter fet ]>iere ea, and befeol ofcr 
■Sam stcTs^e into )>ani streame. Da wiste se halga wer Bcne- 
dictus jnirh Godes Gast, ])iet J?aet ciUI on micelre frecednysse 
waes, and cw^eb to Maure, " Broi5or Maure, yrn ricenc, for- 
•San ]>e se stream berb aweg Placidum." Maurus j'ffirrihte 
abcP.d his bletsungc, and arn uppon )nim strcanic unmynd- 
lunge, swilce lie on festre eorSan urno, and gelwhtc ))ffit cild 
be ^am loccum, and mid swyftum ryne to lande arn, and 
undergeat ))a a;t ncxtan )'«;t he uppon bam uvetcre arn, and 
]>ies micclum wundrode. pa cydde lie his lareowe hu him 
getimodc, and Benedictus Sfiedc j^fet him swa gctimode, |>urh 
Godes mihtc, for his gehyrsumnyssc. And Maurus sa^de, )?wt 
hit for his hfpse swa genurdc ; and ]'a't cild Placidus cwa?^, 
paet he gcsawe bufon his heafde Benedictus ca^ppan, and him 
wffis gebuht )>aet seo ca^ppe hinc atuge of bam streame. 

Sum munuc Ma^s unstjebbig on Godes lofsangum, and ne 
mihtc his tidsangas gestandan mid his gebrobrum,] ac code 
him ut worigende. pa gcscah se halga wer Benedictus ]>iPl 
sc dcofol on anes blacan cildcs hiwe teah ut bone munuc be 
"bam fna^de his gyrclan. Eft on obrum d;pge gemette Bene- 
dictus bone mumic fram his tidsange, and gcsloh hine mid 
his gyrde, for ba-rc blindnyssc his heortan, and se feond ne 
mihte hine sybban of brerc cyrcan If^dan, swylce he sylf mid 
]7fiere gyrde geslcgcn wa?re. 

Of bam twclf mynstrum j^e he gcstaSolode, waron ^reo 
asette on hcalicum muntum, and wjes ^am gebrobrum micel 
frecednys to astigennc daighwomlice of J'am cludum to wfeter- 
scipe ; and comon iSa to bam halgan were, biddende ]?ffit he 
^a mynstra gchendor ^am wjeterscipe timbrian sceolde. He 
"ba geswffislice hi gefrcfrode, and on "bfere ylcan nihte astah 
mid bam cilde Placide, \>c we (pv ymbe spreecon, up to i5am 
mmite, and Sfpr langlicc on hh gchedum Iffig, and mearcode 



ST. BENKDICT, AIJBOT. iGl 

liimsclf. The iioblc-born of Rome begun then to intrust 
tlieir children to him for divine instruction, of whom there 
was one named Placidus, and anotlicr Maurus. Placidus had 
once to fetch water at the river, and fell over the bank into 
the stream. But the holy man Benedict knew, through the 
Spirit of God, that the child was in great peril, and said 
to Maurus, " Brother Maurus, run instantly, for the stream 
is bearing away Placidus." Maurus straightways besought 
his blessing, and ran on the stream unmindfully, as if he were 
running on the firm earth, and seized the chikl by the locks, 
and with swift course ran to land, and perceived then at last 
that he had been running on the water, and thereat greatly 
wondered. lie then informed his teacher how it had befallen 
him, and Benedict said that it had so befallen him, through 
God's might, for his obedience. And Maurus baid that it so 
hai)pened for his command ; and the child Placidus said, that 
he saw above his head Benedict's cowl, and it seemed to him 
that the cowl drew him from the stream. 

A monk \\as irregular in God's hymns, and could not 
attend to his canonical hours with his brothers,] but went 
out rambling. Then the holy man Benedict saw that the devil 
in the form of a black child drew the monk out by the hem 
of his garment. Again, on another day, Benedict fomid the 
monk away from his canonical hour, and struck him \\\\\\ his 
rod, for the blindness of his heart, and the fiend could not 
afterwards lead him from the church, as though he had him- 
self been stricken with the rod. 

Of the twelve mynst<?rs which he founded, three were 
[)laced in lofty mountains, and it was a great peril to the 
monks to descend daily from the rocks to the aqueduct, and 
they came to the holy man, praying that he would build the 
niynsters nearer to the water. But he kindly comforted 
them, and in the same night, with the child Placidus, of 
Mhom we before spake, ascended the mountain, and there 
lay h)ng in prayer, and marked the place, and went privily to 

IIOM. VOL. II. M 



162 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

■Sa stowe, and eode dicfellice to niynstre, and hct ^a gebroSru 
si^^an ]?aei' adelfan fenne gehwaedne pytt, ^aer S.'er he ser 
gemearcode : cwae^ ]),net se ^Elniihtiga God mihtc on "Saes 
muntes cnolle him wseter forS-ateon, and heora geswinc him 
aetbredan. J^a gebro^ra ^a eodon be his haese to ^am mere- 
else, and gemetton ^one clud ^a iu swwtende ; and ht <Sa 
hwffithwega holodon, and 'Saerrihte J^aet wfpter swa gcniht- 
sumlicc ut fleow, j^set hit arn streamrynes of 5am muntc, and 
naefre siSSan ne geswac his genilitsiminysse. 

Huilon eac befeoll an siSe of 5am smede into anum dcttpan 
sea^e. pa. eode Bencdictus to, and wolde gefrefrian bone 
wyrhtan ^e J^c'et tol amyrde, and heohl ^a jmne snied biifon 
■5am \va2terc i5ffir j^aet iscn asanc, and ^aerrihte liit becom 
swymmendc to "Sam sna^de, and to 5am 5yrle |je hit ier of- 
asceat. 

pa waes sum mffssc-preost j'rpr on ncawiste mid ni5e 
af\ lied ongcan 5onc halgan wcr, his nama u'fps Fh)rcntius, se 
wolde habban swilcne hlisan s^va Bencdictus, ac he nolde 
herigcndlice lybban. Wolde 5a bine mid attrc acwellan, and 
asende him fonnc focan to lace mid attre gemencged. Da 
waes sum wilde hrem gewunod jnet he d^eghwomlice fleah 
fram wuda to mynstre, and gcfctte his bigleofan let Bene- 
dictes handum. He 5a wearp 5am hremme )>one gefettrodan 
hlaf, and behead him, on Godes naman. j^a^t he ^one cwelm- 
bseran hlaf aweg b^ere, and on swilcere stowe awurpe, "Saer 
bine nan man findan ne mihte. Se fugol wearS gehyrsum liis 
hsesum, and mid ]n\u\ hlafe to wuda tengde, and sy"55an ymbe 
"Sreora tida faece fette his bigleofan, swa his gewuna waes. 
pa undergeat se preost )?aet he ne mihte -Sone halgan wer 
lichamlice acwellan, and wolde '5a his leorning-cnihta sawla 
fordon, and gemacode ]>eet seofon uacode wimmen urnon 
plegende on heora gesih^um, \>eet heora mod wurde ontend to 
galnysse, |?urh ■5aera scylcena plegan. pa geseah se halga 
wer ]>xs arlcasan preostes ni5fullan ehtnysse, and wende ^a 
aweg mid his gebro'Srum fram ^sere stowe, J^y-lfes ^e aenig 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 163 

the mynster, and then bade the brothers dig a moderate- sized 
pit there where he had previously marked, saying that Al- 
mighty God could on the mountain's summit draw forth water 
for them, and withdraw from them their toil. The brothers 
then at his command went to the place marked, and found the 
rock for some time sweating, and they hollowed it a little, and 
straightways the water flowed out so abundantly, that it ran 
streaming from the mountain, and never afterwards ceased 
its abundance. 

At one time a sithe fell from the handle into a deep pit. 
Benedict then went, and would comfort the labourer who had 
lost the tool, and held the handle above the water where the 
iron had sunk, and straightways it came swimming to the 
handle, and to the hole out of which it had fallen. 

Then there was a mass-prieat in the neighbourhood filled 
with envy against the holy man, his name was Florentius, 
who would have as great renown as Benedict, but he would 
not live praiscworthily. He would then kill him with poison, 
and sent him a loaf as a gift mixed with poison. There was 
then a wild raven accustomed to fly daily from the wood to 
the mynster, and fetch his food from the hands of Benedict. 
He threw to the raven the poisoned bread, and commanded 
him in God's name to bare away the deadly loaf, and cast it 
in such a place as where no one could find it. The bird was 
obedient to his connnands, and with the bread hastened to 
the wood, and after about three hours' space fetched his food, 
as was his wont. When the priest perceived that he could 
not bodily kill the holy man, then would he fordo the souls 
of his disciples, and caused seven naked women to run play- 
ing in their sight, that their minds might be inflamed to lust 
through the play of those harlots. When the holy man saw 
the envious persecution of the impious priest, he went with 
his brothers from the place, lest any of his disciples might 

M 2 



164 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

his leorning-ciiihta ])urh his andan losian sccolde. Ilweet^a, 
se preost stod on his up-flora micclum faegnigeiide Sees oSres 
fram-feeres ; ac seo up-flering tobferst J7flerrihte under his 
fotum, and hine egesHce acwealde, and jjset hus eal ansund 
aSolode, buton Sccre anre fleringe, Se 'Sone Godes feond of- 
■Srihte. Da geaxode Maurus hu 5am preoste getimode, and 
he mid blissigendum mode cvvaeb lo his lareowe, " Gccyrr 
ongean, forSan ^e se preost ^e ^in ehte is adwtesced." Be- 
nedictus ^a mid swierlicum heofungum bcmtende ]?iet his 
leorning-cild Maurus 5ies oSres dea^es fsgnian sceokle, and 
ta^hte him \>is& diedbotc, bcbeodende J)ait he on his feondes 
forwyrde ftegnian ne sceokle. 

Bencchctus }'a ferde to 5am munte )?e is gccwcden Casinum, 
se astihS up 5rco mila on heannysse. Dier waes ge\vur5od 
fram eakUnn dagum sum hije5engild ]nei Wit's gelialen Apollo. 
Da towende se halga wcr pa^t deofolgild grundlunge, and 
arierde 5;er cyrcan See Martine to uur5mynte, and o5er 
gebed-hus "5am halgan Fulluhtero loiianne to lofe, and )>ajt 
haj^ene hmdfulc to Cristcs geleafan mid singalre bodunge 
gcbigde. pa ne mihte se ealda deofol );as danla mid swigan 
forberan, ac mid opeidicere gesih5e hine a?tco\vodc 5am 
halgan were, on alelicum hiwe, mid byrncndum nm5e and 
iTgenum eagum, wedende him togeanes, and mid micclum 
hreame his si5 beniiende, swa j^tet 5a gebro5ru 5a deofellican 
stemne swutelUce gehyrdon. .'Et fruman he hine clypode be 
his naman, " Benedicte," ]}iet is, ' Gcbletsod.' Da suwade 
se halga wer, and se deofol ]>an-rihte eft clypode, " Malcdicte, 
non Benedicte, ]?u awyrigeda, and na gebletsod, hvvaet witst 
"Su me, hwi ehtst "Su mm ?" peer Iseg ^a sum ormfeta stan, 
on middan }?am getimbrungum, 5one woldon ^a wyrhtan to 
•5am weorce ahebban, ac hi ealle ne mihton hine awecgan, 
for^an ^e se ungesewenlica deofol }ner on-uppan saet. Da 
wyrhtan 'Sa clypedon ^one halgan wer, and he com sona, and 
mid gebede J?one deofol afligde, and his bletsunge sealde, and 
hi ^one Stan swa leohtlice ahofon, swilce he buton hefe waere. 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 165 

perish through his jealousy. Whereupon the priest stood in 
his upper floor greatly rejoicing at the other's departure; but 
the upper flooring straightways burst asunder under his feet, 
and awfully killed him, and the house continued sound, 
except that one flooring, which had crushed the foe of God. 
When Maurus l)eard how it had befallen tlie priest, he with 
joyful mind said to his instructor, " Return, for the priest 
who persecuted thee is extinguished." Benedict then with 
grievous lamentations bewailed that his disciple Maurus 
should rejoice at the other's death, and therefore enjoined 
him a penance, commanding that he should not rejoice in the 
destruction of his foe. 

Benedict then went to the mountain which is called Cas- 
sino, which rises up three miles in height. There \vas wor- 
shiped from days of old an idol that was called Apollo. The 
lioly man then overthrew the idol from its foundation, and 
raised there a church to the honour of St. Martin, and 
another oratory to the praise of the holy Baptist John, and 
turned the heathen country folk to the faith of Christ by 
constant preaching. Now the old devil could not endure these 
deeds in silence, but openly to view appeared to the holy 
man, in a horrid form, with burning mouth and flauMng eyes 
raging towards him, and with a great cry bewailed his lot, so 
that the brothers plainly heard the devilish voice. At first 
he called liim by his name, " Benedictus," that is, Blessed, 
Then the holy man was silent, and the devil forthwith again 
cried, " Maledictus, non Benedictus, thou accursed, and not 
blessed, wherefore dost thou torment me, why dost thou per- 
secute me ?" There lay there an immense stone, in the midst 
of the buildings, which the workmen wished to raise to the 
work, but they all could not move it, because the invisible 
devil sat upon it. The workmen thereupon called the holy 
man, and he came instantly, and by prayer drove away the 
devil, and gave his blessing, and they raised the stone as 
lightly as if it Mere without weight. The holy man then 



166 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

Se halga wer ^a het delfan "Sa eorSan ))aer se stan Iseg, and 
111 gemetton ]?8er ane aerene anlicnysse, \>e se deofol ]>iev gcfri- 
•(Sode. pa wiirpon hi ^a anlicnysse inn to heora kycenan, 
and feerlice ^a weai-^ him ealhini getiuht swilce fyr eode of 
■Saere anlicnysse, swa j^atseo kycene eal forburne ; ac hit ntES 
svva him geSuht \v;es, ac wtes j^aes deofles dydrung. Hi 
urnonto ablicgede, and woldon )>a?t fyr mid weetere ofgeotan. 
Se halga wer com 5a, and geseah hu se awyrigeda gast hi 
bedydrode, and cncowode ]>cerrihte on his gebedum, and 
gedyde }?cEt Sa gebroSra, ])c wa^ron mid bam gedwymorlicum 
fyre gebysgode, gesawon "Sa soSlice \>eet seo kycene gehal 
stod, aetforan heora gesihSum. 

Eft sume da^ge stod se eadiga Renedictus on Ins gebedum, 
and })a gebrobra eodon to bum weall-weorce. pa jeteowode 
se deofol bine |'am halgan were, and cw^e^ mid olle )?aet he 
wolde ait 5am weorce gecuman. Da sende Benedictus swi^e 
hrjodlice and warnode 5a gebro5ra \vi5 j^aps deofles to-cyme ; 
ac aer se aerendraca mihte to 5am gebro5rum becun\an, jer 
haefde se deofol towcnd )>one wcall, and wear^ mid pam hryrc 
sum mumic-cild call tocwysed. pa het Benedictus beran j?a 
tocwysedan lima on aiium hwitle into his gebed-huse, and 
beclyscdro chira anr;edlice on his gebedum Iceg, o^ }>aKt to- 
cwysede cild, ])urli Godes mihte, ge-edcucode : vvunderlic 
•Sing. On Saere ylcan tide se halga w er asende 5one cnapan 
ansundne eallum limum to iSam weall-weorce, mid 5aes dea^e 
se deofol wolde ]?one halgan wer gebysmrian ! 

Hwaet "Sa, se halga wer Benedictus waes tieonde on wite- 
gunge, swa }>8et he, 5urh Godes Gast, mihte towearde Sing 
cySan, and Sa 5ing geseah 5urh witegunge, 5e him bsftan 
gefremede wurdon. Hit waes svva gewunelic on his munuc- 
life, ]?aet "Sa gebro"5ra ^e on sunmm aerende ut gewendon, 
)7aethi ne moston, buton his leafe, metes 5icgan, gif hi igdaeges 
to mynstre gecyrran mihton. pa on sumon djege ferdon 
twegen gebroSra ymbe j^ffis mynstres neode, and tobraecon 
^one regol, swa j^aet hi butan leafe mid sunium eawfaestum 



ST. BENEDICT. ABBOT. 167 

ordered the earth to be dug where the stone had lain, and 
they found there a brazen image, which the devil had there 
protected. They tlien cast the image into their kitchen, and 
suddenly it seemed to them all as if fire issued from the 
image, so that the kitchen was all burning; but it was not as 
it seemed to them, but was an illusion of the devil. They ran 
to appalled, and would extinguish the fire with water. Then 
came the holy man, and saw how the accursed spirit had 
deluded them, and straightways kneeled in prayer, and did so 
that the brothers, who were busied with the illusory fire, saw 
truly that the kitchen stood whole before their sights. 

Again, one day the blessed Benedict was standing at his 
prayers, and the brothers had gone to the wall work. The 
devil then appeared to the holy man, and said ooutumeliously 
tiiat he would go to the work. Thereupon Benedict sent very 
(piickly and warned the brothers against the devil's coming ; 
but before the messenger could come to the brothers, the 
devil had overthrown the wall, and with the fall a monastic 
child was all crushed. Benedict then i)ade them bear the 
crushed limbs on a blanket into his oratory, and, having 
closed the door, he lay steadfastly in prayer, until the crushed 
child, through God's might, was recpiickened : a wonderful 
thing. At the same time the holy man sent the boy, sound in 
all his limbs, to tiic wall work, with whose death the devil 
would insult the holy man I 

The iioly man Benedict was, moreover, increasing in the 
gift of prophecy, so that through (iod's grace he could know 
future things, and through prophecy saw the things which 
were accomplished after him. It was usual in his monastery, 
that those brothers who went out on an errand might not, 
without his leave, partake of meat, if they could on the same 
day return to the mynster. Then one day two brothers went 
about requisites of the mynster, and brake the rule, so that 
without leave they ate with a pious woman, and so returned 



168 S. BENKDICTI ABBATIS. 

•wife hi gereordodou, and swa to mynstre gecyrdon. pa 
befran se halga wer, on hwaes gesthusc lit metes onbirigdon ? 
Hi cwaedon J?8et hi nanes jetes on ^sere fare ne onbirigdon. 
Da genemnode se halga wer ]>ast eawfeste wTf Se hi gekiSode, 
and "Sa sanda tealde Se heo him gebfer, and eac hu oft hi 
druncon him so^lice siede. Hi ^a feollon to his fotum afyrhte, 
gecnsewe heora gyltes, and him miltsunge baedon. 

On Sam timan rixode sum reSe cyning, se waes Totilla 
gehaten ; se ferde sume daege wiS ]>fes halgan \vcrcs mynster, 
and sende his forridel, het cySan his to-cyme 5am halgan 
were, pa wolde se waelhreowa fandian hwa'Ser Boncdictus 
witegvingc gast htefde, and asende his swurdboran, Riggo 
gehaten, gescrydnc mid his cynelicuni gyrelum, mid his 
Segnum to Sam mynstre, swilce he hit sylf wiere. pa gesjet 
Bencdictus forn ongcan Sam Riggon, ])c mid Sam Icaslicum 
getote inn-eode, Scarlc Srutigendc. Da clypode se cadiga 
Godcs ^eow him togeanes, and cwjeS, " MTn beam, do Sa 
gyrlan "Se fram pe 5u berst, ne sind hi na Sine." pa astrehte 
se Riggo hine to corSan mid ealluni his gefcrum swiSe forht- 
igende, J'.ot In his fandian dorston, and gecyrdon to heora 
hlaforde forhtmode, cySende hu hrffidlice hi arasode wurdon. 
Totilla Sa sylf to mynstre eode, and swa hraSe swa he Sone 
halgan feorran sittende geseah, swa astrehte he hine sylfne to 
eorSan wi5 his weard. Bcnedictus hine het arisan, ac he ne 
dorste aetforan "Sam halgan were on his fotum gestandan. pa 
eode se halga to "Sam astrehtan cyninge, and hine up-araerde, 
and hine for his weorcum mid wordum ^Sreade, and mid wite- 
gunge gewislice saede, hu him on his life gelimpan sceolde. 
He cwaeS, " Fela yfela Su wyrcst, and fela 5u worhtest : 
geswic nu callunga Sinre unrihtwisnysse. Witodlice "Su 
becymst to Romebyrig, ofer sae Su seglast, nigon gear Su 
rixast, on Sam teoSan ]>\i swyltst." pa wearS se cyning 
Searle afyrht )7urh "Sas \vitegunge, and baed ^a his bletsunge, 
and of Saere tide be diele his reSnysse geswac. Him aeode 
swa se halga him gewitegode, j^aet he on Sam teoSan geare 
his cyncrices and his lifes Solodc. 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 169 

to the mynster. The holy man then asked in whose hostel 
they had tasted meat ? They said that they had tasted no 
food on the way. The holy man then named the pious woman 
who had invited them, and told the dishes which she had set 
before them, and also truly said to them how often they ha:l 
drinik. They thereupon fell at his feet afTrii:^hted, acknow- 
ledged their guilt, and prayed to him for mercy. 

At that time reigned a cruel king who was called Totila; 
he went one day towards the holy man's mynster, and sent 
liis harbinger to announce his comintr to the holv man. Then 
would the bloodthirsty tyrant prove whether Benedict had the 
spirit of prophecy, and sent his swordbearer, named Riggo, 
clad in his royal garments, with his thanes to the mynster, as 
if it were he himself. Then sat Benedict opposite to Uiggo, 
Mho entered with the false pomp, strutting exceedingly. 
Then cried the blessed servant of God to him, and said, 
" My son, put from thee those garments which thou bearest, 
they are not thine." Higgo (herenpon prostrated himself on 
the earth, with all his companions, greatly affrighted that they 
had dared to prove him, and returned fearful to their lord, 
announcing how (piickly they had been discovered. Totila 
himself then Mcnt to the mynster, and as soon as he saw the 
saint sitting afar off, he prostrated himself on the earth 
towards him. Benedict bade him arise, but he durst not 
staiul on his feet before the holy man. The saint then went 
to the prostrate king, and raised him, and reproved him with 
M'ords for his works, and with prophecy truly said, how it 
should befall him in his lifi'. lie said, " Many evils thou 
workest, and many thou hast wrought : cease now wholly 
from thine unrighteousness. Verily thou wilt go to Rome, 
over the sea thou wilt sail, nine years thou wilt reign, in 
the tenth thou wilt die." Then was the king exceedingly 
alTrighted through this prophecy, and besought his blessing, 
and from that time partly ceased from his cruelty. It befell 
him so as the saint had foretold him, that in the tenth year 
he lost his kini^dom and his life. 



170 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

On ^aere ylcan tide avvedde sum preost Aquineiiscisre gela- 
tSuiige, and he wearS on bfere wodnysse geh'Ed to )>ani eadigan 
Benedicte. He Sa |>urli lialgum beniini ]>onc deofol adrajfde 
of ^am ofsettan preoste, and hine bisum worduni gespraec, 
" Far nu, and of Sisum dnegene gcneala?c Su Godes Senung- 
uni, ne "Su fltesc-niettas ne bicge ; and gif Su aefrc gcdyrst- 
Ifehst |7aet "Su Godes Scnungum gencalffice, Sonne bist Su eft 
]>ses deofles anwealdum betffiht/' Se preost Sa })is bcbod lo 
languni fyrste heold, and swa-Scah set nextan 'S;es halgan 
weres ha^se forseab, and mid dyrstignyssc haligne had under- 
feng. Ilwait 'Sa, se deofol, Sc liine a?r unSances forlet, hine 
sona geltfihtc, and oS deaS gedrehtc. 

Sum eawftest man sende Sam halu:an were t\ve<ren butrucas 
mid Mine to lace, be anum cnr.pan. Da behydd se cna[)a 
]>one oSernc be wege, and ;enne Sam halgan were gebrohte. 
He undcrfcng Sa lac mid Sancunge, and cwieS to Sam cnapan, 
" Min bcarn, beo Se waur j'a't Su ne drince of Sam wine )>e 
Su be wege hjddcst, ac ahyld hit wrerlice; )?onne gesihst Su 
hvviet Seer on-iiman sticaS." He gccyrde Sa mid sceame, 
and ahylde ]>io.t Min wjerlice, and S;er gewende ut of tJam fiete 
an fiih naddre. Fela Sing siedc se halga wer Surh haligre 
witegunge, Se us sind langsume to goreccenne, and cow to 
gchyrenne on "Syssere scortnysse. 

Sum ffiSelboren cild heold leoht ietforan his mysan, and 
ongann modigian paet hit on swa waclicum Singum him ^^ ic- 
nian sceolde. Se halga Sa sona undergeat his modignysse, 
Surh Godes Gast, and hine Searle 'Sreagende cwaeS, " BroSor, 
hletsa Sine heortan," and het animan J^iet leoht him of, and 
hine sittan ; and he stede his gebro'Srum ^jes cildes modig- 
nysse geendebyrdlice. 

On sumere tide com micel hunger on Sam lande, and 
gehwser j^aet landfolc micchim geangsumode. pa getimode 
swa micel hafenleast on Benedictes mynstre, ]>set "Sa gebroSra 
nsefdon buton fif hlafas to heora ealra gereorde. Se halga 
wer ■Sa Benediclus mid geswfesum wordum his gebro^ra 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 171 

At that same time a priest of the church of Aquinum lost 
his reason, and in his madness was led to the blessed Bene- 
dict. He by holy prayers drove the devil from the possessed 
priest, and spake to him in these words, " Go now, and from 
this day approach not God's services, nor eat flesh-meats; 
and if thou ever darest to approach God's services, then wilt 
thou again be delivered into the power of the devil." The 
priest held his command for a long time, but, nevertheless, at 
last disreirardcd the command of the holv man, and with 
temerity undertook a holy oftice. The devil thereupon, who 
had before un\\ illingly forsaken him, soon seized him, and 
afflicted him till his death. 

A pious person sent to the holy man two flasks of wine as a 
gift, by a boy. The boy then hid one by the way and brought 
the other to the holy man. He received the gift with tiuiidis, 
and said to the boy, " My child, be cautious not to drink of 
the wine which thou hast hidden bv the way, but incline it 
carefully ; thou wilt then see what is sticking within it." 
He returned then with shame, and inclined the wine carefully, 
and there turned out of the vessel a variegated serpent. The 
holy man said many things through holy prophecy, which it 
were tedious for us to recount, and for you to hear in this 
shortness. 

A noble-born child held light before his table, and began to 
take offence that he had to serve him in such mean things. 
The saint, through God's Spirit, soon perceived his pride, 
and, severely reproving him, said, " lirother, bless thy heart," 
and ordered the light to be taken from him, and hiui to sit; 
and he related to his l)rothers the pride of the child in 
detail. 

At one time a great famine came into the land, and every- 
where greatly afflicted the country people. Then there befell 
so ffreat a want in Benedict's mynster, that the brothers had 
five loaves only for the refection of them all. The holy man 
Benedict then with kind words comforted the sadness of his 



172 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

iinrotnysse gofrefrode, and cwae^, *'Nii to-daeg we hivbba^ 
hwoiilice behlaf, ac to-merigen we sceolon habban geiiibt- 
snmlice." Hwset ^a, paes on merigen Avurdon gemette eet- 
foran heora gedyruni twa hund mittan nicluwes on feetclsum, 
•Sa se vEhiiihtiga God liis beowum asende ; ac swa-'Seab njes 
naniim men cu^ bu hi Sider comon. 

Sum cawfffist ^egen baed Sone halgan wer, ])iet lie mid his 
munecumon his hmde him munuc-lif aiJjeran sceolde, and he 
lustb.'ere Stes getiSodc, and cwaeb to 'Sam gcbro«Srimi \>dit he 
wolde sylf on -bam duege -Se he gecwteS hiev gecumari, and 
J78es mynstres gctimbrungc gcdiiitan. Da munecas ba ferdou 
be his ha^se and bletsungc to Sies -begencs hmde, and georne 
tiaes andagan ccpton. pa jeteowode se halga wer Benedictus 
on swefne liine sylfnc bam numece J>e he to caldre geset 
haefde ofcr iSam mynstre, and iiis profoste tamod, and hi 
gcwissode swiSe smeabancellice ymbe ba?s mynstres gebyt- 
lungnni, on )ncrc nihtc |'e se andaga on merigen wa^s. pa- 
"Sa, hi awocon, se eakhjr and his profost, ba rehte lieora tegber 
obrum hwjet ht on swefene ges^awon, and J;ies micclum wun- 
drodon. Eft sibban J>a se andaga agan waes, and se halga 
wer ne com, swa swa he gecweden haefde, ba comon hi eft 
wib his, |7us cwebende, " We andbidodon bin, halga fanlcr, 
]jcPt "bu us Jjaes mynstres gebytlu dihtan sceoldest, and ]>u ne 
come, swa swa ^u us behete." Da andwyrde se halga, and 
cwfe^, " Mine gcbrobra, hwi secge ge j^at ic tic come ? 
Ilwset la, ne ffiteowode ic inc bam slapendum, and ealle ba 
gebytlunge gewisslice tajhte ? Fara^ mi, and araerab ]>eet 
mynster swa swa ic cow on swefne dihte." Hi ^ba mid 
micelre wundrunge to bam lande gewendon, and swa ba 
gebytlunge gcfadcdon, swa swa him on swefene a?teowod 

M'SPS. 

Nu seg^ se halga Gregorius, sebe ]7isne cwyde on Leden 
awrat, ]>?et God ^Elmihtig gctibode his leofan Benedicte, J^aet 
he ^urh gast ferde to bam slapendum gebrobrum, and him to 
^am gastlican life gcwissode, sebe giu aer, burh his engel, 



ST. BENEDICT. ABBOT. 173 

brothers, and said, " Now to-day we shall have but little 
remaining, but to-morrow we shiiU have abundantly." Lo 
then on the morning after were found before their doors two 
hundred i)ushels of meal in sacks, which the Almighty God 
had sent to his servants ; it was, however, known to no man 
how thev came thither. 

A pious thane prayed the holy man, that he witii his monks 
would erect for Jiim a monastery on his land, and ho witli 
pleasure consented, and said to the brothers that lie would 
himself come on a day which lie named, and direct the build- 
ing of the mynster. Tiie monks then went by his command 
and with his blessing to the thane's land, and anxiously 
awaited the day appointed. Then the iioly man Benedict 
appeared in a dream to the monk whom he had set as principal 
over the mynster, and to his provost also, and directed them 
very circumstantially concerning the building of the mynster, 
on the night the morrow of which was the day apptjinted. 
AVhcn the principal and his provost awoke, they related each 
to other what they had seen in a dream, and thereat greatly 
woiidi'ied. Again afterwards, when the appointed day was 
passed, and the holy man can)e not, as he had said, they went 
back to him, thus saying, " We awaited thee, holy father, 
that thou mighlest direct us in the building of the mynster, 
aiul thou hast not come as thou didst promise us." Then 
answered the saint, and said, " My brothers, why say ye that 
I came not? Wiiat, did I not appear to you both while 
sleeping, and distinctly planned the whole building ? Go 
now, and erect the mynster as I directed you in the dream." 
They then with great wondering went to the land, and so 
conducted the building as had been shown to them in the 
dream. 

Now the holy Gregory, who wrote this relation in Latin, 
says that God Almighty permitted iiis beloved Benedict to 
go in spirit to the sleeping brothers, and direct them in the 
spiritual life, who of old, thro\igh his angel, swiftly conveyed 



174 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

^one witegan Abbacuc lichamlice fram ludea lande to Chal- 
dea rice swiftilice ferode, j^set he lichamlicne bigleofan j'am 
hungrian Danihelc brohte, seSe bet^vux ))am leonum uiiscyl- 
dig ascofen waes. 

Tvva myiiecena waeron drohtiiigeiide on gehendnysse his 
mynstres of seSelborenre msegSe aspruiigene, ]'am gewTcnode 
sum eawfaest wer on woruld-caruni. pa wa^ron hi .nefter 
eej^elborennysse ofcrhydige and hearni-cwydolc, and )K)ne 
ee^elan wer oft gedrehton. Da cydde se ea\vf;esta ucr J?ani 
eadigan Benedicte hu micelne teonan he forSyklcgode mid 
•Sam foresfpdmu mynecenum. Se halga wer ascnde "Sa to, 
and him "(Sisum wordum behead, " Gerihtl;eca5 eowere 
tungan : glf ge ne doS, ic cow amansumigc." Hi swa-beah 
iSurinvunedon on heora tconfulhmi wonhun, and wurdon '5a 
fairlice forcJferedcj and binnim hivrc cyrcan bebyrigede. pa 
Wrcs hit gewunelic on 5am dagum ]>xt sc diacon clypode ffit 
ailcere nuessan, a'r 5am husel-gange, " Se 5e husel-ganges 
imwur^e sy, gange ut of (Sjere cyrcan." J)a wjeron j^a aman- 
sumedan mynecena binnon hierc cyrcan bebyrigede, swa swa 
we eer Sccdon ; and hi arison of heora byrgcnum on manna 
gesihSum, and ut-codon be 5cjes diacones hiiese, forSan 'Se hi 
waeron fram 5am halgum husle ascyredc. pa gclamp him 
swa aet aelcere niaissan, j^ijet ht ne mihton wimian binnon ciaere 
cyrcan aet '5am husel-gange, after pses diacones clypunge. 
Da wear^ J?is gecyd pinn halgan Benedicte mid miceh-e dreo- 
rignysse. Benedictus ]m sona asende ane ofeletan, and het 
mid ]?<'Ere masssian for ^am mynecenum ; cwae^ J^aet hi sitiiSan 
unamansumode waeron. His ha^s wear5 gefylled, and ]>a 
mynecena naefre si^5an ne wurdon gesewene ut-gangende aet 
■Saes diacones clypunge, for^an ^e hi underfengon j^a halgan 
maensumunge cet Gode, |7urh his ^eowan Benedicte, j^e hi aer 
for heora stuntum wordum ^iwde to amansumigenne. 

Sum munuc-cild drohtnode on his mynstre, and hasfde 
micele lufe to his ffeder and to his meder. Swi'Sor for ^aere 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 175 

the prophet Hab.ikkuk bodily from the h\nd of Judea to the 
kingdom of Chaklca, that he might bring bodih' sustenance 
to the hungry Daniel, who had been thrust guiltless among 
the lions. 

Two mynchens were living in the neighbourhood of his 
mynstcr, sprung of a noble family, who in worldly cares were 
served by a pious man. These bj' reason of their noble birth 
Mere haughty and calumnious, and often afflicted the noble 
man. Tben said the pious man to the blessed Benedict how 
great contumely he endured from the aforesaid mynchens. 
Thereupon the holy man sent to them, and in these words 
enjoined them, " Correct your tongues : if ye do not, I will 
excommunicate you." They, nevertheless, persisted in their 
contumelious words, and then died suddenly, and were buried 
within the church. In those days it was usual for the deacon 
to cry at every mass, before the administering of the housel, 
'• Whosoever is unworthy to partake of the housel, go out of 
the church." Now the e.vcommnnicatcd mynchens were, as 
we before said, buried within the church ; and they arose from 
their graves in sight of the people, and went out at the 
deacon's command, because they had been cut ofT from the 
holy housel. It befell them so at every mass, that they could 
not remain within the church at the administration of the 
housel, after the deacon's calling. This was then made 
known to the holy Benedict with great sadness. Benedict 
then instantly sent an oflete, and commanded mass to be 
celebrated with it for the mynchens, saying that they would 
afterwards be unexcommunicated. His command was ful- 
filled, and the mynchens were never afterwards seen going 
out on the deacon's calling, because they had received the 
holy communion from God, through his servant Benedict, 
who, for their foolLsh words, had before been instigated to 
excommunicate them. 

A monastic child lived in his mynstcr, and had great love 
for his father and mother. He longed immoderately more 



irO S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

sibbe I'onne for Godes deele wearS ]?a oflaiigod ungemctlice, 
and arn buton bletsunge of mynstre to his niagum, and swa 
hra^e swa he him to com ydpeges swa gewat he of ^isum 
andwerdum life, pa he bebyriged wtes, ba ne mihte seo 
byrgen hine gehealdan, ac wearS his lie on merigcn afundcn 
bufon psere byrgene. His magas hine eft bebyrigdon, and lie 
wear^ eft up-aworpcn, and swa gelomlice. pa magas ^a 
comon, and mid micclum Mope J'aes halgan weres fet ge- 
sohton, his gife biddendc. Se halga Benedictus him scalde 
Godes husel mid his agenre handa, and ewoeiS, " LecgaiS |>is 
halige husel uppon his breoste, and bebyriaci hine swa." Da 
l^is gedun WcPS, ^a heold seo eorbe \>oue lichaman, and sySban 
ne awearp. 

Sum ober munuc wearS unstabolfa^st on his mynstre, and 
mid gemaglicum bemmi gewihiode ]>iot he moste of ^am 
munuc-lifc, ac se halga u er him forwyrnde, and swiSe mid 
wordum Arcade his unstabolfa^stnysse. /Et nextan, Saba he 
swa fus wjes, Sa wcarS se halga wer gehathyrt burh his un- 
stcfi^Signysse, and het hine aweg faran. Hwaet "Sa se munuc 
ut-gewat, and gemette sonaa^ine dracan him togcancs stand- 
ende, mid gynigendiun mube, }>cet he hine forswulgc. Se 
munuc "Sa swiSe bifigcnde and forhtigende hrymdc, " Yrnab, 
yrnaS, forSan be |?es di-aca me forswelgan wile." pa mynster- 
munecas urnon to, and swa-beah nateshwon j^one dracan ne 
gesawon, forban j^a^t wies se ungesewenlica deofol : ac hi 
laeddon "bone munuc swa bifiijrendne binnoii bam mynstre. 
He iSa sona behet j^iet he na?fre si^ban of bam mynstre 
sceacan nolde; and he eac on bam behate symle ^urhvvunode. 
purh Benedictes gcbedum him waes se ungesewenlica draca 
aeteowod, bam ^e he aer filigde na geseonde. 

Benedictus eac gehalde aenne cnapan mid his gebedum, on 
micelre hraednysse fram "bam nicEstan broce ^e is gecweden 
elephantinus morbus. 

Sum hafenleas man sceolde agyldan healf pund anum menn, 
and \\ 8ps oft gemanod and bearle geswenct for ^aere Iccne. 



ST. BENEDICT. ABBOT. 177 

after his kindred than after God's part, and ran without 
blessing from the niynster to his parents, and as sooji as he 
came to them, on the same day, he departed from this present 
life. When he was buried the grave might not hold him, byt 
his body was found on the morrow ;ib()\e the grave. His 
parents buried iiim again, and lie was again thrown up, and 
so frequently. The parents then came, and with groat wail- 
ing sought the feet of the h(dy man, imploring his grace. 
The holy Benedict gave them God's housel with his own 
hand, and said, " Lay this holy housel upon his brciust, and so 
bury him." When this was done the earth held the body, and 
did not cast it up afterwards. 

Another monk was unsteadfast in his mynster, and with 
importunate prayers desired that he might go from the mona- 
stery, but the holy man forbade him, and strongly with words 
reproved his unsteadfastness. At last, as he was so bent, the 
holy man was irritated by his unsteadiness and bade him go 
away. Thereupon the monk went out, and immediately 
found a dragon standing opposite to him, \\\\h gaping njouth, 
that he might swallow him. The monk then sorely trembling 
and fearing, cried, "Run, run, for this dragon u ill swallow 
me." The mynster-monks ran to him, and yet saw not any 
dragon, for it was the invisible devil : but they led the monk 
so trembling within the mynster. He then immediately pro- 
mised that he would never after depart from the mynster; 
and he also ever continued in that promise. Through the 
prayers of Benedict the invisible devil appeared to him, whom 
he had before followed without seeing. 

Benedict also healed a boy by his prayers with groat 
|)romi)titudc from the greatest of diseases, which is called 
elophantinus morhus. 

Ati indigent man had to pay half a pound to a nuui, and 
was often applied to and exceedingly harassed for the loan. 

IIOM. VOL. II, N 



178 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

Da bfed he ^onc halgan wer J^ses feos, and Bcncdictus his 
hafeuleaste mid geswaesum wordum gefrcfrode, cvvaeS ]net 
he naefde ]>i&t feoli him to alaenenne, ac het htne cuman bin- 
non ^rim dagum eft to him. He ^a soSlice, swa his gewuna 
waes, gebysgode hine sylfne on his gebedum on callum JSam 
fyrste. Se hafenleasa com on Sam Sriddan dwge, and efne 
"Sa Avear^ gemet j^aet feoh and twcntig pcnega to-cacan uppon 
anre corn-hryccan. Se eadiga Benedictus Sa het him syllan 
J^aet healfe pund, paet he his l<ene forgulde, and forgeaf him 
"Sa twentig penega to his agenum bricum. 

Sumum men wks unlybba geseald, ac hit ne mihte hinc 
adydan, ac awcndc his hiw to wunderliccre fagnysse, swa ]>a?t 
he wearS on Ids Hce reoflium menu gclTc. pa bccom lie to 
■Sam halgan Benedicte, and swa hraSe swa he hine gehrepode, 
swa underfcng he his hfclSe, and eal seo fagnys aweg gewat. 

An subdiacon b.-ed |>one halgan wer sumne dael eles to his 
bricnm, forSan <Se hi SicgaJ) on Sam earde ele on hcora big- 
leofum, swa swa we doS buteran. pa hiefde se halga wer 
gedfcled )?aes mynstros Sing hafonleasum mannum for Sam 
hungcr-gcarc to San swiSe, yxt him na^s nan ele belffifcd to 
his gebroSra bricum, buton on anum lytlan gljesenan faite. 
Da het he his horderc l^iet gh-psene f^et syllan Sam biddcndau 
subdiacone. Se hordere cwaeS him to andsware, gif he Sone 
gehwaedan dail j^a^s eles Saui biddendum sealde, j^aet he nan 
■Sing nfefde his gebroSrum to syllenne. Se halga wer Sa 
M'earS astyred on mode, and het o-Serne munuc awurpan ut 
]7aet glaesene fa;t mid ele mid ealle, Sy-ltes Se hit j^urh unge- 
hyrsmnnysse ]??er-inne belife. pawearp se broSor ]>iet glajs- 
ene faet ut aet Sam eh-Syrle, uppon Sam heardan stane, ac 
hit ne mihte toberstan, ne Sone ele ageotan. Da het Bene- 
dictus eft ahebban ]>8et ele-faet, and syllan Sam subdiacone ]>e 
his aer baed, and Searle ^one ungehyrsuman hordere Sreade, 
and cneowode siSSan on his gebedum mid his mynster-mu- 
necum. pa stod Saer an aemtig cyf oferwrogen, and ongann 
to flowenne mid ele, swa ]>aet hi brudon of Sone claS, and se 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 179 

He then besought the holy man for the monej', and Benedict 
comforted his indigence with kind words, saying that he had 
not the money to lend him, but bade him come to him again 
within three days. But he, as was his wont, busied himself 
in prayers during all that time. The poor man came on the 
third day, and behold, there was found the money with twenty 
pennies besides upon a corn-rick. The blessed Benedict then 
commanded the half pound that he owed for his loan to be 
given to him, and gave him the twenty pcmiies for his own 
use. 

Poison had been given to a man, but it was unable to 
destroy him, yet turned his exterior to a wonderful eruption, 
so that in his body he became like a leprous man. He came 
to the holy Benedict, and as soon as he touched him he re- 
ceived his health, and all the eruption went away. 

A subdeacon requested of the holy man a portion of oil for 
his use, because they eat oil in that coujitry with their food 
as we do butter. But the holy man had di^tl•ibuted the pro- 
visions of the mynster to indigent persons in the year of 
famine so bountifully, that there was no oil left for the use 
of the brothers, except in one little glass vessel. lie then 
bade his steward give that glass vessel to the recjuesting sub- 
tleacon. The steward said in answer, that if he gave that little 
portion of oil to the api)licant, he would have nothing to give 
to his brothers. The holy man was then troubled in mind, 
and bade another monk throw away the glass vessel with the 
oil both together, lest it should through disobedience remain 
therein. The brother then threw out the glass vessel at the 
window, upon the hard stone, but it would not break, nor 
spill the oil. Benedict then bade the oil-vessel be again taken 
up, and given to the subdeacon who had before asked for it, 
and strongly reproved the disobedient steward, and knelt after- 
wards in prayer with his mynster-monks. There stood there 
then an empty cask covered over, and it began to flow with 
oil, so that they drew off the cloth, and the oil flowed o^•er 

N 2 



180 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

ele fleow ofer inn to ^aere flore. Benedictus "t5a aras of his 
gebedum, and se ele gcswac Saere fledingc. 

Sume daege eode se halga wer to cyrcan and gemette ])one 
deofol, and bcfran hvvider he wolde. Se deofol cwaeS, j^aet he 
wolde beran drincan his gebroSrum. Se halga wer Sa hine 
ardlice gebaed, and gecyrde ongean, and efne "Sa se awyrigeda 
gast gemette aenne ealdne munuc waetcr hladende, and ge- 
M'earp ^one niunuc to eorSan, and hine mid wodnysse j^earlc 
drehte. Se eadiga Benedictus J)a sloh Sone muimc under ])iet 
vvencge mid anre handa, and se fula deofol jj.-errihte him fram 
gcwiit, and naefre siSSan him gcncahecan ne dorste. 

Sum gedwolman, Thcsalla hatto, ehte cristenra manna on 
^am timan mid ornuetre reSnysse, swa ]het gif ;enig proost- 
hades mann, oiSbe nnnmchades him gencahehte, no mihtc his 
handum cucu jetwindan. lie Sa fet sumon sa>le gehehte 
ffinne cristeiinc mamian, and hine mid mislicum tiiitrogum 
cwylmde, and Surh gytsimge ontendnysse mid JSam tintregum 
wolde his .'el\ta aet him ofgan. Se cristena man Sa cwa^JS, ]m^t 
he htpfde his ?iing and hine sylfne bet;eiit ))am halgan were 
Bencdictc. Se wjelhreovva chtere Tlicsalla )'a geswiic ^jera 
tintrcgena, and geband hine mid strangum bcndum, and draf 
liine {etforan him ridcndum, j^aet he him geswutelode hw<et se 
Benedictus wa-re, "JSe iiis tiing underfangen haefde. Hi hi\ 
becomon to cSaes mj'nstres geate |?;es halgan wores, and hine 
gemetton jet his nedinge sittan. pa cw^eS se waclhreowa 
Thesalla mid micelre reSnysse to ^am halgan were, " ArTs, 
aris, and agif ^ises ceorles yddysce." Da heseah se halga 
wer wi^ his clypunge, and beheold "Sone gebundenan mann, 
and his bendas sona wurdon alysede mid unasecgendlicere 
hraednysse. Ilwaet 'Sa Thesalla "Surh "Sas micclan mihtc 
AvearS afyrht, and his waelhreowan hneccan to ScPs halgan 
weres fotswaSum gebigde, biddende his miitsnnge and iSing- 
raedene. Benedictus swa-^eah nateshwon fram his raedinge 
ne aras, ac het his gebroSru hine to cyrcan laedan, and blet- 
sunge syllan. Se eadiga Benedictus Sa aefter "Saere bletsunge 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 181 

on to the floor. Benedict then arose from his prayers, and 
the oil ceased from flowint^. 

One day the holy man was going to church and met the 
devil, and inquired whither he was going. The devil said 
that he would bear drink to his brothers. The holy man then 
(juickly prayed and turned back, and just then the accursed 
spirit met an old monk drawing water, and threw the monk 
on the earth, and grievously afflicted him with madness. But 
the blessed Benedict struck the monk under the cheek-bone 
M ith one hand, and the foul devil straightways departed from 
him, and never afterwards durst approach him. 

A heretic named Zalla persecuted christian men at that 
time with excessive fierceness, so that if any man of priest's 
degree or of monk's degree approached him, he might not 
escape alive from his hands. He at one time seized a christian 
man, and tortured him with divers torments, and through the 
burning of covetousness \\ ould by those torments extort from 
him his possessions. The christian man then said, that he 
had conuuitted his property and himself to the holy maji 
Benedict. The bloodthirsty persecutor Zalla then aban- 
doned the torments, and bound him with strong bonds, and 
riding drove him before him, that he might show him who 
Benedict was, who had received his property. They came to 
the gate of the holy man's mynster, and found him sitting at 
his reading. Then said the bloodthirsty Zalla with great 
fierceness to the holy man, " Arise, arise, and give up this 
churl's property." The holy man looked up on his calling, 
and beheld the bound man, and his bonds were instantly 
loosed with unspeakable quickness. Zalla was then af- 
frighted through the great miracle, and bowed his blood- 
tiiirsty neck to the footsteps of the holy man, imploring his 
mercy and intercession. Benedict, however, arose not from 
his reading, but desired his brothers to lead him to the 
church, and give him blessing. The blessed Benedict then. 



182 S. BENEDICTl ABBATIS. 

niiinode j^one reSan chtere pxt he "Seere wodlican reJSnysse 
geswice, and he ^a j^earle ablicged avveg tengdc, and tpt "Sam 
cristenan menn nan Sing habban ne dorste, ^one Se se eadiga 
Bencdictus na handhnige ac on-beseonde fram his bendum 
alysde. 

An geleafful yr'Sling baer his deadan suna lie to Bcnodictcs 
mynstre, and mid drcorigum wope lirynule to bam halgan 
were, " Agif me minne sumi, agif me mii)nc sunu." Se halga 
wer andwyrde, " Hwaet la, setbraed ic ^e j^inne sunu?" Se 
yrJSling andwyrde, " La leof, he is dead : gang to and aner 
hine." Se eadiga wer cw?e5 to his gebroSrum, " GaS aweg ; 
nis Sis na ure d;ed, ac is ^aera halgena apostola." pa Surh- 
wunode se ceorl on his bene, swerigende Jjfet he aweg ne 
cyrde, buton se halga his sunn ara-rdc. Hwjet 5a, Benedie- 
tus code to bais cnapan lice, and 5aer on-uppon gelieg, and 
aras, and his handbrcdu astrehte witS heofenas weard, )Jus 
cwe^ende, " Miu Urihten, ne beheald J>u mine synna, ac ge- 
leafan Sises mannes, se JSe bitt ara^ran his sunu : and agif nu, 
Drihten, Sa sawle "Se ^u name into Sisum lichaman." Sona 
5a tefter Sisum gebede ge-edcucode se deada cnapa, and se 
halga wer hine betiiehte ansundne his feeder. 

Se halga wer hfefde ane cawfjeste swustor, Scolastica ge- 
haten, seo waes fram cildhade Gode gehalgod, on nifegShade 
him Seowigende, on gehendnysse his mynstres wunigende j 
]ja geneosode se halga wer symle aene ymbe geares ymbrene. 
pa gecom he sume diege to hyre cytan fefter gewunan mid 
sumum his gebroSrum, and hi ealne ^one dfeg on Godes he- 
rungum and halgum spreecum adrugon. Efne 5a on aefnunge, 
5a5a In a?t gereorde sieton, cwai5 ]?aet halige nifeden to hire 
arwurSfullan breSer, " Ic bidde Se, broSer min, ne forlaet 5u 
me on ]nssere nihte, j^aet wit magon smeagan ymbe gefean 
])aes heofenlican lifes o5 merigen." Da andwyrde se arwur^a 
bro5or, " Hwaet cweSst |)u, sweoster? Ne mseg ic nateshwon 
buton mynstre nihtes wunian." And wees Sa swa stille 
Avedfr, ]>cet nan wolcn luei; on 5a? re lyfte gesewen. Ilwcjet 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 183 

after the blessing, exhorted the fierce persecutor to cease 
from his frantic fierceness, and he then exceedingly appalled 
hastened away, and durst not have anything from the christian 
man, whom the blessed Benedict, not by power of hands but 
by looking on him, had released from his bonds. 

A believing husbandman bare the corpse of his dead son to 
Benedict's mynster, and with sad weeping cried to the holy 
man, "Give me back my son, give me back my son." The 
holy man answered, "What, have I taken away thy son ?" 
The husbandman answered, " O sir, he is dead : go and raise 
him." The blessed man said to his brotiiers, "Goaway ; this 
is not our act, but is of the holy apostles." But the churl 
persisted in his prayer, swearing that he would nut go away, 
unless the saint raised up his son. Whereupon Benedict 
went to the boy's body, and lay thereon, and arose, and 
stretched out his palms towards heaven, thus saying, "My 
Lord, behold thou not my sins, but the belief of this man, 
who prays that his son may be raised up : and restore now, 
O Lord, the s<ml which thou hast taken into this body." 
Innncdiatciy after this prayer the dead boy recpiickened, and 
llic holy man delivered him sound to his father. 

The holy man had a pious sister, named Scholastica, who 
had from childhood been hallowed to God, serving him 
in ^i^ginity, dwelling in the neighbourhood of his mynster, 
whom the holy man constantly visited once in the course of 
the year. He came one day to her cottage, acconling to his 
wont, with some of his brothers, and they passed the whole 
day in God's praises and in holy speeches. Lo, in the even- 
ing, when they were sitting at their refection, the holy maiden 
said to her venerable brother, " I pray thee, my brother, leave 
me not this night, that we may discourse concerning the joy 
of the heavenly life until morn." Then answered the reverend 
brother, " What sayest thou, sister ? I may not continue out 
of the mynster at night." And it was then such still weather, 
that there was no cloud seen in the air. Whereupon the 



184 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

iSa, seo mynecyiiu, Saba heo his andsaec gehyrde, beclypte 
hire neb mid handuni, and ahylde hire heafod to JSierc tuysan, 
biddende j^one vEhiiihtigan DrihtcMi. pa inid JSam Se heo 
hire heafod of Stere mysaii ahcfde, Sa absrst swa micel LJunor 
and liget, and swilc storm ySigcnde feoU, swa j^aet se halga 
wer and his gebroSra ne miiiton, for "5am ormfetan gyte, 
heora fet of Stjere cytan astyrian. Da c\v;e5 se halga wer to 
his sweoster, " Arie "Se se ^Ehiiihtiga God, sweostcr : hwa^t 
li«fst ])u gedon ?" Heo aiidwyrde, " Efne ic baed |)e, and ])u 
me noldest tiiSian; 5a b;ed ic minne Drihtcn, and he me ge- 
hyrde. Gang nu to mynstre, gif Su mage, and me ana for- 
Ic'et." He "Sa ne mihte baton 5am hrofe acumaii, ac "Sfer 
vvunodc J)a nilit unuilles, se5e sylfwillcs nolde. And hi ealle 
5a niht mid halgum spr;ecum ])xs gastlican ITfcs '5urhwacole 
aspendon. Eft si55an ymbe 5ry d;igas stod sc halga wer on 
his gehedum, and bescali ut, and gcseah 5icre ylcan myne- 
cene his sweoster sawle lanlan to hcofenan, on anre culfran 
hiwe. He "5a hire wuldres blissigende, "5am yEhnihtigan 
Gode l^ancode, and hire for5si5 his gebro5runi cy5dc, and 
sende hi '5aerrilito, j^a^t hi hire lie to mynstre feredon, and on 
his agenre byrgene, J)aer he sylf licgan wolde, mid arwur5- 
nysse bebyrigdon ; ])iet heora lichaman on anre byrgene ht 
gereston, swa swa heora mod on annysse symle Gode 5eow- 
ode. 

Eft on o'5rum timan, stod se halga wer on his gebcdum up- 
pon anre upflora, pier his bedd inne waes : |?a gestod he ist 
anum eh-"5yrle o5 for"5 nibtes, |>one ^'Elmihtigan God bid- 
dende; ]>a. faerlice asprang micel leoht bcorhtre "Sonne a^nig 
d}€g, swa \>set se halga wer oferseah ealne middaneard, and 
ofseah betwux 5am micclum Icoman laedan mid engla werode 
anes biscopes sawle to heofenum ; his nama waes Germanus. 
Da wolde se halga habban him gewitan ]7fere wunderlican 
gesihSe, and ofclypode his diacon him hraedlice to, and he 
geseah sumne dael j^ses leohtes. pa sonde se halga wer swyft- 
ne ferendracan to j^aes biscopes ceastre, j'cet he sccolde ge- 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 185 

mynchen, when she hoard his rcfusiil, covered her face with 
her hands, and inclined her head to the table, praying to the 
Ainiighty Lord. Then when she raised her head from the 
table there bin^^t forth so much thinuler and lightning, and 
such a storm fell in torrents, that the holy man and his 
brothers could not, on account of the excessively great in- 
midatioii, move their feet from the cottage. Then said the 
holy man to his sister, " May the Almighty God have mercy 
on thee, sister : what hast thou done ? " She answered, " Lo, 
I prayed thee, ami thou x^ouldst not comply ; I then prayed 
my Lord, and he has heard me. Go now to the myuster, if 
thou canst, and leave n)e alone." He could not then go from 
under tiie roof, but luiwillingly remained there the night, 
who of his own will would not remain. And all the night 
they spent thoroughly awake in holy discourses of the ghostly 
life. Three days aftir, the holy num was stimding at his 
prayers, and looked out, and saw the soul of the same myn- 
chen, his sister, led to heaven in form of a dove. He then 
rejoicing in her glory, thanked the Almighty God, and an- 
nounced her departure to his brothers, and straightways 
sent them to bear her corj)se to the mynster, and to bury 
it honourably in his own se])ulchre, where he desired to lie 
himself; that their bodies might rest in one grave, as their 
minds had in unison ever served God. 

Again, another time, the holy man was standing at his 
prayers on an upper story, w herein his bed was : there stood 
he at a window till far in the night, praying to Almighty 
God ; when suddeidy there sprang up a great light brighter 
than any day, so that the holy man saw over all the world, 
and perceived among the great beams of light the soul of a 
bishop led by a host of angels to heaven ; his name was Ger- 
manus. Then would the saint have witnesses of that won- 
derful sight, and called his deacon quickly to him, and he 
saw a part of the light. The holy man then sent a swift 
messenger to the bishop's city, that he might learn wliether 



188 S. BENEDICTI ABBATIS. 

axian lnva;^er he lifes waere. Se serendraca "Sa hiue gemette 
deadne, and smealice ymbe his forSsiS befran, and geaxode 
'5a, |?ast he on ^aere tide gewat "Se se halga Benedictus his 
sawle to heofenan ferian geseah. 

Wunderlic gesihS, ])iet an deadlic man niihte eahie niid- 
daneard oferseon ; |>cah gif se man gesihS Godcs Icoht, |jonne 
biS J^ffit gesceaft swiSe nearu geSuht, and ISies mannes sawl 
bi^ on Gode mid |7am Icohte tospried, sua ])iet heo ofcrstiht) 
middaneard, and eac hi sylfe. Hwilc wundor waes, '5eah se 
halga wer eahie middaneard fetforan him gesawe, "SaSa he 
waes ahafen on his modes leohte ofer middanearde ? Witod- 
lice l^aet leoht ]>e he wiJSutan geseah Wivs on his mode sei- 
nende, and his mod to Sam upplican abned, and him {eteow- 
ode hu nearowe ealle Sa niSerlican gesceafta him waeron 
geSuhte, |>urh orma^tnysse piEn godcundhcan leohtes. 

pes eadiga vver Benedictus awriit muneea regol mid mic- 
clum gesceade, mid beorhtre sprjece, on -Sam nifeg gehvva 
tocnawan ealle d;eda his lareowdomes ; for^an "Se se halga 
swa leofode svva he taehte. Se eadiga wtes blitie on andwlitan, 
mid hwitum h^erum, ffegere gehiwod, and mid micelre lufe 
on mode afylled, swa )>a^t he on heofonlicum eSle eardigende 
waes, peah 5e he on eorSan 5a-gyt wunode. pses geares ^e 
he gewat he cybde his forJSsib on ier sumuni his leorning- 
cnihtum mid him drohtnigendum and sumum oSrum on fyr- 
lenum stowum wunigendum. Seofon nihtuni fier he gewite, 
he het his byrgene geopenian, and he ^aerrihte mid swiSli- 
cmn fefore geond ^a seofon niht ];earle gedreht wearS. On 
"Sara sixtan daege his legeres he het hine beran into cyrcan, 
and paer hine gehuslian. He ^a astod betwux his gebro^ra 
handmn, astrehtum handuni wib heofonas Aveard, and betwux 
his gebedum his gast ut-ableow. On Sam ylcan daege wear^ 
aeteowod his twam leorning-cnihtum an weg fram ^am huse 
]>e he on gewat, on ^ani east-daele, astreht oS heofonan. Se 
weg waes mid paellum gebricgod, and mid ungerimum leoht- 
fatum scTncnde. Daer on uppon stod sum arwurSe wer mid 



ST. BENEDICT, ABBOT. 187 

he were alive. The messenger found him dead, and accu- 
rately inquired concerning his decease, and learned tliat he 
departed at the time that the holy Benedict saw his soul 
borne to heaven. 

A wonderful sight, that a mortal man could see over all 
the world ; though if a man see God's light, then will the 
creation appear very narrow, and the man's soul will be in 
God expanded with that light, so that it will rise above the 
world and itself also. What wonder was it, though the holy 
man saw all the world before him, when he was exalted in 
his mind's li-^ht above the world ? For the li^ht which he 
saw without was shining in his mind, and drew up his 
mind to heaven, and sliowed him how narrow all sublunary 
creatures would appear to him through the immensity of the 
divine light. 

This blessed man Benedict wrote the rule of monks with 
great judgement, in hrilliant language, in which every one 
may know all the acts of his tcachership ; for the saint so 
lived as he taught. The blessed man was cheerful in aspect, 
Avith white hair, beautifully formed, and in mind filled with 
great love, so that he was dwelling in the heavenly country, 
although he still continued on earth. The year that he de- 
parted he announced his decease beforehand to some of his 
disciples living with him, and to some others dwelling in 
distant places. Seven days liefore he departed he ordered his 
grave to be opened, and he straightways was greatly afllicted 
with a violent fever throughout those seven days. On the 
sixth day of his illness he commanded them to bear him into 
the church, and there to housel him. He then stood between 
tne hands of his brothers, with hands outstretched towards 
heaven, and between his prayers breathed out his spirit. On 
the same day appeared to two of his disciples a way from the 
house in which he departed, on the east part, extended to 
heaven. The way was laid with palls, and shining with 
numberless lamps. Thereupon stood a venerable man with 



188 DOMINICA L\ MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

beorhtum gyrluin, axigcnde hvvaes se wcg wtere ]>e In bcheold- 
on ? Hi" cwaedon Jjaet hi nyston. pa cwae^ se engel him to, 
" Dis is se weg ^e Godes dyrling, Benedictus, to heofenum 
on-astah." 

His halga lichama wearS ^a bebyriged to his sweostcr 
lice Scohisticai), swa swa he sylf bcbcad, binnou lohaniies 
cyrcan j^ses halgan FuUuhteres, on ^am niunte Casino ; ac he 
waes siSSan a-fter nianegum gcarum geferod to Franccna rice, 
to ]?am mynstre ^e we hataS Florege, on ^jere stowc his ban 
resta^ on micclum vvui"Smynte and on wundnnn scinendc, 
and his sawl symle gcswlig rixa'5 mid Gode on heofenum 
for godum geearnungum. paet scnef Se he terest on droht- 
Tiigende wies, gyt oS ISis on wundrum sctnendc JSurhwunaS. 
Witodlice sum gcmyndloas wif ferde worigende geond wudas 
and feldas, and iSa?r gcheg ]>isr hi seo teorung gelette. Da 
beeode hco sume da^ge |nirh nytcnnysse into Sam scrfefe J?{es 
eadigan Benedictes, and ]';er hi gercste, and aras "S/es on 
merigen swa geuittig swik'c heo njpfre on nanre wodnysse 
naere, and swa siSSan symle 'Surhwunode. Ilwa m.neg on 
worulde ealle Sa wundra gereccan 5e se yElmihtiga Scyp- 
pend, "Surh tSisne ieSelan wer, middanearde gcswutelode ? 
Sy him wuldor and lof a on ecnysse, mid eallum his halgum, 
scSe ana is unasecgendlic God. Amen. 



DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

MEN "Sa Icofostan, we reedaS nu ait Godes iSeimngum ymbe 
gesetnysse ]>a&re ealdan is : nu wylle we eow sume geswute- 
lunge be ^aere Gecj' Snysse sceortlice secgan, ]?aet ge eallunge 
J^aes andgites orhlyte ne syn ; for^an Se ure msS nys J^aet 
we eow be fullum andgite hi geopenian magon, ne ge eac 
nateshwon hire deopan digelnyssefulfremedlice understandan 
ne magon. 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 189 

bright garments, asking what way it was that they beheld ? 
They said that they knew not. Tlien said the angel to them, 
"This is the way on which God's darling, Benedict, ascended 
to heaven." 

His holy body was then buried by the corpse of his sister 
Scholastica, as he had himself commanded, within the church 
of John the holy Baptist, on the mount Cassino ; but he was 
nianv years after conveyed to the realm of the Franks, to the 
mynster which we call Fleury, in which place his bones rest in 
great veneration, and shining with miracles, and his soul ever 
blessed reigns with God in heaven for its good deserts. The 
cave in which he first lived continues until now shining with 
miracles. For a witless woman went rambling through the 
woods and fields, and lay there where exhaustion had stopt 
her. She then in ii^norance went one day into the cave of 
the blessed Benedict, and there rested, and arose the morn- 
ing after as sensible as if she had never been iti a state of 
madness, and so contiimed ever afterwards. Who can in the 
world relate all tiie wonders that the Ahnighty Creator hath 
manifested to the earth through this noble man ? Be to him 
glory and praise ever to eternity with all his saints, who alone 
is unspeakable God. Amen. 



MIDLENT SUNDAY 



MOST beloved men, we now read at God's services con- 
cerning the institute of the old law : we will now give shortly 
some illustration of the Testament, that ye may not be wholly 
ignorant of its sense ; for it is not within our capacity to ex- 
plain it to you in its full signification, nor also can ye by any 
means perfectly understand its deep obscurity. 



190 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

pry timan sind on |)yssere woruldc : Ante legem, Sub lege, 
Sub gi\itiu ; |)8et is, aer ee, under ie, under Godes gife. Se 
tima is "aer se," gecweden, ]>e waes fram Adam buton ae oS 
Moysen, Sa gesette God « "Surh Moysen ; and se tima waes 
gecweden *' under cie," oS Cristes to-cyme on menniscnysse, 
•Sa awende Crist ^a ealdan jk to gastlicere getacnunge. Nu 
is se tima fram Cristes Srowunge gebaten " under Godes 
gife," foreman he liis gifu gewissaS ha gecorenan synde to 
soSfaestnysse and to lifes bebodum, ]>fpX hi ^a Sing gastlice 
gehealdon 15e seo ealde le lichamlice bebead. 

Abraham hatte se heahfaeder, ISe wrest aefter Sam micclum 
flode to Gode cy55e hjefde : he waes Godes gespreca, and his 
bebodum j'earle geliyrsuniode : )?a forgeaf se yKbnibtiga Gotl 
liim and liis ofspringe ))one eard to biigienne )?e is gehateii 
ludeahmd, on Sam is seo burh Hierusalein, Sc Crist on Srow- 
ode, Seah Se hco nu on oSre wisan getyinbrod sy. pa cwaiS 
se /Ehnihtiga God to Abrahilme, " Wite Su J7;et Sin cynn 
sceal a^lSeodig wunian on oSrum earde feower liund geara, 
and hi hi on Seowte gebringaS, and micchmi swencaS. SoS- 
lice ic detnc Sam folce, and Sin m;egS siSSan mid micclum 
aditum of Sam lande fterS, and on iSam feorSan cneowe hi 
gecyrra"S hider ongcan." Abraham siSSan gestrynde sunn 
Isaac, and se Isaac gestrynde twegen, lacob and Esau. Se 
lacob waes Godes gecoren, and gestrynde twclf suna, ^a sind 
gebatenc twelf heahfccderas. 

pa becom se maesta hunger ofer eallum middanearde scofon 
gear tosomne, buton on Egypta-lande, on "Sam anum waes 
corn, swa hit gecweden is, " Swa fela swa biS sand-ceosol 
on S{«." Da ferde se lacob mid his twelf sunum and his 
suna sunum, ealles hund-seofontig manna, to Egypta-lande, 
]?aer ^Saer hi bigleofan fundon ; and ]?per eardodon feower bund 
geara, swa swa se ^Imihtiga God Abrahame saede. pa aet 
nextan aras Pharao, se Egyptisca cyning, and j^aet Israhela 
folc call on Seowte gebrohte, bet hi wyrcan his burhweallas. 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 191 

There are three times in this world : Ante legem, Sub lege, 
Sub gratia ; that is, Before the law, Under the law, Under 
God's grace. The time is called " before the law," which 
was from Adam without law till Moses, when God esta- 
blished the law through Moses ; and the time was called 
"under the law " till the advent of Christ in humanity, M'hen 
Christ changed the old law to a ghostly signification. Now 
the time from Christ's passion is called "under God's grace," 
because his grace always directs the chosen to truth and to 
the commandments of life, that they may spiritually hold 
those things wiiich the old law enjoined bodily. 

Abraham the patriarch was named, who first after the great 
flood had personal knowledge of God : he spake with God, 
and fervently obeyed his commandments : tlicn the Almighty 
God gave to him and his offspring the land to inhabit which 
is called Judca land, in which is the city of Jerusalem, in 
which Christ suffered, though it is now built in anotiier man- 
ner. Then said the Almighty God to Abraham, " Know thou 
that thy kin shall be a stranger in another country four hun- 
dred years, and they shall bring them into thraldom and 
greatly afflict them. But I will judge that people, and thy 
race shall afterwards go with great possessions from the land, 
and in the fourth generation they shall return hither again." 
Abraham afterwards begat a son, Isaac, and Isaac begat two, 
Jacob and Esau. Jacob was God's chosen, and begat twelve 
3ons, who are called twelve patriarchs. 

Then came the greatest of famines over all the earth, for 
seven years together, except in the land of Kgypt, in which 
alone there was corn, as it is said, "As much as is the sand 
in the sea." Jacob, therefore, went with his twelve sons and 
his sons' sons, altogether seventy men, to the land of Egypt, 
where they found sustenance ; and there dwelt four iunidred 
years, as the Almigiity God had said to Abraham. Then at 
last Pharaoh, the Egyptian king, arose, and brought all the 
people of Israel into thraldom, commanded them to make his 



192 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

and hi bysmorlicc geswcncte, and het acwellan abIc hys cild 
of "Sam cynne. Betwux Sisum asprang Moyses and his 
bro(Ser Aaron of ^aere ylcan niaeg^e. To ^am Moyse spraec 
se iEhnihtiga God J'isum worduni, ''Ic geseah mines folces 
geswinc on Egypta-landc, and heora hreani ic gchyrde, 
and ic niSer-astah Jjset ic hi ahrcdde of Egyptiscra manna 
handuni, and ic hi gelfede of "Sam cardo to gfldan lande and 
briidnm, J>»t '5e flcowiS mid mcolce and mid liunigo." God 
cwfE(S |?a to Moysen, " Far to i5am cyninge Pharao, and beod 
him j^ffit he min folc forhete (»f his leode faran." Moyses 5a 
and his broSor Aaron fcrdon to Pharao mid ajrende jnes yEl- 
mihtigan Godes, and c\v;edon, " pus c\vy5 Drihtcii Israluda 
God, Forhet min folc \>xt hit me lac offrige on wcstenc, swa 
ic him gcwistjige." Pharao him andwyrdc, " Ilwait is se 
Drihten |)aet ic his stemne gchyran sceolc, and Israhel for- 
I.ptan? Niit 'c tSone Drihten, and ic Israhel nc forla^te." Da 
sende se^lmihtiga tyn cynna wita ofer Sam 5\vyran cyninge 
and ofer his leode, jerSan "Se he pffit folc forla'tan wolde. 
Moyses, biirh Godes mihte, awende eal heora wjeter to read- 
urn blode, and he afylde eal heora land mid froggon, and 
siiSSan mid gn;ettum, eft mid hundes lusum, Sa flugon into 
heora mu5e and heora nresSyrlum; and se /Elmihtiga Sone 
inudigan cyning mid |>am eaJSelicnm gesceaftnm swa ge- 
swencte, se'Se mihte bine mid wildum beruiu and Iconum 
gewyldan, gif he swa wolde : and nan byssera geswenced- 
nyssa ne becom on "Sam ende j^tes eardes Se paet Godes folc 
on eardode. 

paet fifte wite waes cwealm on heora orfe, swa |;aet on ^am 
lande fornean nan orf ne belaf, buton Israheles ];e ansund 
gestod. peet sixte wite wies, piet mislice geswel and bhedran 
asprungon on heora lichaman on eallum his folce. paet seo- 
fo^e wite wees, ^set swa micel ^unor and hagol becom on 
•5am leodscipe, paet aelc ^ing wjes adyd |?fet ute wearS gemet, 
and {file treow on "Sam earde tobaerst. pset eahto^e wite waes, 
j^aet gserstapan ofereodon eall ]'wt land swilce swa nfefre 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 193 

burgh walls, and contumeliously afflicted them, and com- 
manded every male child of that race to be slain. At this time 
Moses and his brother Aaron sprun<; up of the same tribe. 
To Moses the Almighty God spake in these words, " I have 
seen the affliction of my people in the land of Egypt, and I 
have heard their cry, and I have descended, that I might 
deliver them from the Egyptian men's hands, and I will lead 
them from the country to a land good and broad, which 
floweth with milk and honey." God then spake to Moses, 
"Go to the king Pharaoh, and command him to let my folk 
depart from his people." Moses and his brother Aaron then 
went to Pharaoh with the message of the Almighty God, and 
said, "Thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Let my folk depart, 
that they may offer me an olTeriiig in the wilderness, as I shall 
direct them." Pharaoh answered him, " Who is the Lord, 
that I should hear his voice and let Israel depart ? I know 
not the Lord, and I will not let Israel depart." Then the 
Almighty sent ten kinds of plague or. the perverse king and 
on his peoj)le, before he would let the folk depart. Moses, 
through the power of God, turned all their water to red blood, 
and he filled all their land with frogs, and then \\ ith gnats, 
afterwards with dog-lice, which flew into their mouths and 
their nostrils; and the Almighty thus afflicted the proud king 
with the small creatures, who might have (juelled him with 
wild bears and lions, if he had so desired : and none of these 
afflictions came into the end of the country in which the 
people of God dwelt. 

The fifth plague was nuirrain among their cattle, so that 
in the land scarcely any cattle remained, save that of the 
Israelites, which stood sound. The sixth plague was, that 
divers boils and blisters sprung up on their bodies among all 
his people. The seventh plague was, that so much thunder 
and hail came on the nation, that everything that was found 
without was destroyed, and every tree in the country was 
shivered. The eighth plague was, that locusts passed over 

HOM. VOL. II. o 



194 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

ffirSan naeron, ne eft iicTRfre ne gewiirba^ ; and hi forgnogon 
swa hvvset swa se hagol belaefde, oSbe on treowum oS5e on 
o^rum waestmum. piet nigo^e wite waes, ]>cRt becoraon Sicce 
^eostru and egeslice ofer eallum Egypta-lande, swa j^iet lieora 
nan binnon ^rini dagura oi5ernc ne geseah, ne hi of ^vere stowe 
styrian ne mihton, and on Israhela JSeode waeron gewunelice 
dagas. pfEt teobe vvite waes, |?aet on aelcuni huse ealre ^aere 
^eode, on unre nihte, laeg an dead mann, and }net wjes se 
frum-cenneda and se leofosta pam lilaforde. 

pa aet nextan forlet Pharao Israhela folc of his earde siSian 
mid niicchnn fehtum, and God gcsetteSone foresiedan Moysen 
his folce to heretogan, and his broSer Aaron to sacerde ; and 
hi laeddon ))fet folc to Ssere Readan s«e mid micclre fyrdinge, 
\>ddt wasron six hund )nisenda wigcndra manna, baton wifmn 
and cildinn. Da ofiSuhte Pharao j'tet he \}nit folc swa freolice 
forlet, and tengde a-ftcr mid callinn his here, and ofFerde hi 
aet (Saere Readan s;e, pa cw;et) se ^Imihtiga to Moysen, 
*'Astrece <Sine hand ofer Sa s;p, and tod;el hi." And Moyses 
^a sloh ]>a^re sae ofer mid his gyrde, and seo sje toeode on 
twa, and eal ]>iet Israhela folc eodc ofer "8a s;e be drium 
grunde, and ]net waeter stod him on twa healfa swilce o^er 
stan-weall. Pharao JSa him filigde ast Sam hon mid his ge- 
beotlicum crietum and gilplicum ridduin. pa cwae^ se JEl- 
mihtiga God to Moysen, "Astrece Sine hand (;fer Sa sae, j^jet 
past waeter gecyrre to bam Egiptiscum, ofer heora craetum 
and riddum." Moyses ^a astrehte his hand ongean "Saere ste, 
and heo oferarn Pharao, and ealle his craetu and riddan mid 
ySum oferwreah, swa J>aet ^aer naes fur"5oii an to lafe ealles 
^aes heres ]7e him filigde. Israhela folc soSlice code be ^ani 
drium grunde, and hi sungon Godes lof mid geleafan, Godes 
mihta maersigende. 

-(Efter Sisuni him com bigleofa of heofenum, swa hwacr 
swa hi wicodon geond ]?aet westen, and geliwilc mann })aes 
heofonlican metes swa micel gegadrode swa he to Sam d;ege 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 195 

all the land, so a3 had never been before, nor ever again will 
be ; and they gnawed up whatsoever the hail had left, either 
of trees or of other productions. The ninth plague was, that 
thick and awful darkness came over all the land of Egypt, so 
that for three days no one saw another, nor could they stir 
from the place, and among the people of Israel were ordinary 
days. The tenth plague was, that in every house of all that 
people, in one night, lay a dead man, and that was the first- 
born, and dearest to the master. 

Tiicn at last Pharaoh let the people of Israel journey from 
his country with great riches, and God set the aforesaid 
Moses as leader of his people, and his brother Aaron as 
priest; and they led the people to the Red sea with a great 
host, they were six hundred thousand fighting men, besides 
women and children. Then Pharaoh repented that he had so 
freely let the people depart, and hastened after them with all 
his army, and overtook them at the Red sea. Tlien said the 
Almighty to Moses, " Stretch thine hand over the sea, and 
divide it." And Moses then struck the'sea over with his rod, 
and the sea separated in two, and all the people of Israel 
went over the sea on dry ground, and the water stood on the 
two sides of them as another stone wall. Piiaraoh then fol- 
lowed them at their heels with his threatening chariots and 
proud horsemen. Then said the Almighty God to Moses, 
'* Stretch thine hand over the sea, that the water may return 
to the Egyptians, over their chariots and horsemen." Moses 
then stretched his hand towards the sea, and it overwhelmed 
Pharaoh, and all his chariots and horsemen covered with its 
waves, so that there w as not even one left of all the army 
that had followed him. But the people of Israel went on dry 
ground, and they sung the praise of God witli belief, mag- 
nifying God's miracles. 

After this, food came to them from heaven, wheresoever 
they encamped throughout the wilderness, and every man 
gathered so much of the heavenly meat as he couhl eat in 

o 2 



196 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

geSicgan mihte ; and him daeghwomlice edniwc of licofenum 
com, pa. feowertig geara ^e hi on Sam westene ferdon. On 
"Sam westene naes nan ^a^ra waetera ]>e him to bearfe mihte 
for ^aere biternysse; ac God het Moyses slean mid his gyrde 
)?one heardan stan-chid, and of bam stane am ormjete stream 
wffiteres ealhmi Sam folce and heora orfe to genihtsumnysse. 
Dam folce code ;etforan symle Godes wolcn swilce ormaite 
swer, se waes fyren ge^uht on nihthccrc tide, and on gcwune- 
lices wolcnes hiwe on d?ege ; and hi Sam wok-nc synde filig- 
don : swa hwfer swa hit ffitstod, pair hi wicodon, and eft, swa 
hra^e swa ]?;pt wolcn styrode, swa siSode samtingcs eal seo 
fyrd {efter Sam wolcnc. Binnon feowertig geara fsece njes 
nan man gelegerod on oalluni Sam folce, nc heora rcaf ntps 
tosigen, ne him se heofcnlica mete nc ateorode, oSl>cet hi. tt) 
"Sam earde becomon ]>e him se /Elmihtiga God ]>urh hine 
sylfne behet. 

God cvvaiS to Moysen ]'ipt lie wolde cmnan, and hine 
a-tforan Sam folce gcsprecan, j'jet hi" Sy leafFulran wferon ; 
and het in beon gearowe on Sam Sriddan d«ge. Da on ^am 
fifteogoSan diege^fes Se hi fram Egypta-lande ferdon, wearS 
Godes wuldor gesewen on Sam westene uppon anum munte 
se is gehatcn Synay, to Sam astab se iElmibtiga Scyppend, 
and efne iSa jjser begann to brastligennc micel Simor, and Hget 
sceotan on Saes folces gesihSe, and byman bleowan mid swiS- 
licum dreame, and micel wolcn oferwreab calne Sone munt. 
Betwux Jnsum dreame clypode se ^Elmibtiga Drihten Moysen 
him to, and cwaeS, " Astih eft adune, and bebcod ^am folce 
\>sdt heora nan tiam munte ne genealaece : swa hwaet swa hine 
hrepa^, oSSe mann oj^pe nyten, he ne leofaS sona. Astih 
nu eft up to me, and Aaron samod." Moyses "Sa Godes 
h;ese gefylde, and eft up to him astah. pa awrat seiElmiht- 
iga God him twa sttenene wex-bredu mid his agenum fingre, 
on ^am waeron awritene tyn word, ]?aet sind tyn aelice beboda. 
paera worda wseron ^reoon anre tabelan awrilene, and seofon 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 197 

that clay; and daily there came new to him from heaven, the 
forty years that they journeyed in the wilderness. In the 
wilderness were none of those waters tiuit mi<ijht serve for 
their use, on account of the bitterness ; but God commanded 
Moses to strike the hard stone rock with his rod, and from 
the stone there ran an immense stream of water for the re- 
[)k'ti()n of all the people and their cattle. Ever before the peo- 
ple went God's cloud like an immense pillar, w hich seemed 
(jf lire in the night time, and in the form of a common cloud 
by day ; and they constantly followed that cloud : m hereso- 
I'ver it stood, there they cncaniped, and again, as soon as the 
cloud stirred, so journeyed at the same time all the host after 
the cloud. Within a space of forty years no man was afflicted 
with sickness among all the peoi)le, nor were their garments 
decayed, nor ilid the heavenly meat fail them, until they came 
to the country which the Almighty God through himself had 
promised them. 

God said to Moses that he would come and speak to him 
before the people, that they might be the more believing ; and 
commanded them to be prepared on the third day. Then on 
tlie fiftieth after tiieir departure from the land of Egypt, 
God's glory was seen in the wilderness on a mount wliich is 
called Sinai, on which the Almighty Creator descended, and 
lo, great thunder began there to rattle, and lightning to dart 
in sight of the people, and trumpets to blow with a loud 
sound, and a great cloud covered all the mount. Out of this 
sound the Almighty Lord called Moses to him, and said, 
"Go down again, and command the people that none of them 
approach the mount : whatsoever touchcth it, whether man 
or beast, shall forthwith not live. Come now again up to 
me together with Aaron.'" Moses then fulfdlcd God's behest, 
and again went up to him. Then the Almighty God wrote 
for him two stone tables with his own f\u<jcr, on which were 
written ten ordinances, which are the ten lawful command- 
ments. Of these ordinances, three were written on one table, 



198 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

on ^aere o^re. pset forme bebod is, " Drihten 5in God is an 
God." piet o^er word is, " Ne underfoli Su ^ines Drihtncs 
naman on ydelnysse." pset ^ridde word is, *' Beo bu ge- 
niyndig )7fet "Su ^one resten-daeg freolsige." Das 5reo word 
stodon on anre tabulan. On ^aere o^re tabelan wjes j^aet 
forme bebod, " Arwur^a Sinnc f;eder and jnne moder/' piet 
oSer bebod, " Ne ham ^u unrihtlice." paet "Sridde, " Ne 
ofslih 5ii mannan." pjet feorSe, " Ne stala Su." piet fifte, 
" Ne beo "Su leas gewita." piet sixte, " Ne gewihia Su oSres 
mannes wifes." piet seofoSe, " Nc gewilna 5u oSres manncs 
iehta." Das tyn beboda synd calhun mannum gcsette to ge- 
healdenne. Moyses ^a wies wunigende up on tSa>re dune 
feowertig daga and feowcrtig nihta tosomne, and lie on call- 
uni "5am fyrste nuncs corSlices bigleofan ne onbyrigde ; and 
he awrat be Godcs dihte j^a fif ielican bee ; aerest be fruui- 
seeafte, pe nan rorSlic man ^a nyste, and sicJSan be Adamea 
ofspringe, and Noes flode, and jjaera enta getimbrunge, and 
svva forS oS )>;et he com to »Sam dom-bocum J^e se Ileofenlica 
Wealdend his folce gesette to some, and to sehtnysse, and to 
rihthecunge ealra forg.egednyssa; and swiSost be Godes big- 
gengum, hu men hine ienne ^Elmihtigne wureJian sceolon. 
And he sylf het Moysen him gewyrcan an geteld, mid wun- 
derlicum dilite gefadod, on menigfealdre getacminge. On 
5am getelde hi sceokloii |>a godcundan lac symle geofFrian, 
forSan ^e hi ne mihton on 5ifire fare cyrcan arieran. On 
"5am getelde he het him offrian cucu orf, and si55an jet ^am 
weofodc acwellan, swa swa nan man nu lichamlice don ne 
mot. 

Ac we willa^ eow secgan )?aet gastlice andgyt ))yssera ealdra 
gesetnyssa, for5an 5e sec ealde ae is mid gastlicum andgyte 
afylled, and Crist geopenode us ^a deopan digelnyssa, and 
hi 5urh hine sylfne gastlice gefylde, swa swa he to his leorn- 
ing-cnihtum cwieS, " Ne wene ge na j^tet ic come to ^i Jjaet 
ic wolde towurpan J;a ealdan ae o55e witegena gesetnyssa : ic 
ne com to 5i |'i€t ic hi towurpe, ac ]>iei ic hi gcfyldc. SoS ic 



MIDLE.NT SUxXDAY. 199 

and seven on the other. The first commandment is, " The 
Lord thy God is one God." The second ordinance is, "Take 
not thy Lord's name in vain." The third ordinance is, "Be 
thou mindful that thou keep holy the day of rest." These 
three ordinances stood on one table. On the other table the 
first connnandment was, "Honour thy father and thy mother." 
The second commandment, " Commit not adultery." The 
third, " Slay no man." The fourth, " Steal not." The fifth, 
" Be not a false witness." The sixth, " Desire not another 
man's wife." The seventh, " Desire not another man's pos- 
sessions." These ten commandments are appointed for all 
men to iiold. Moses then continued on ti)e mount forty days 
and forty nigiits together, and in all that time he tasted no 
earthly food ; and he wrote by God's direction the five law 
books; first of the creation, of which no earthly man then 
knew, and afterwards of Adam's ofi'spring, ami Noah's flood, 
and of the building of the giants, and so fortii, until he came 
to the doom-books which tlie Heavenly Ruler aj)poiMtcd to 
his people, for concord, and for reconciliation, and for the 
correction of all transgressions ; and above all, with regard 
to the worship of God, how men should honour him the one 
Almighty. And he himself comnumded Moses to make him 
a tabernacle disposed with wondrous contrivance, with mani- 
fold betokening. In that tabernacle they were constantly to 
offer the divine offerings, because they could not on their 
journeying raise a church. In that tabernacle he commanded 
living cattle to be offered to him, and afterwards to be slain 
at the altar, so as no man may now do bodily. 

But we will say to you the ghostly sense of these old in- 
stitutes, for the old law is filled with ghostly sense, and 
Christ has opened to us the deep mysteries, and through 
him.self spiritually fulfilled them, as he said to his disciples, 
" Ween not that I come to overthrow the old law, or the 
institutes of the prophets : I come not to overthrow them, 
but to fulfil them. Verily I say unto you, One stroke or one 



200 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

COW secge, An strica o^^e an staef ^aere ealdan ae ne biS for- 
gffiged o^jJcEt hi calle gef3'llccle been." pus tnim is seo caltle 
ie, ac heo sceal been gcfylled 5urh Godes Seowas refter gast- 
licuni andgite, and na lichanilice. Hit biS swiSe langsum, 
gif we calle 'Sas getacnunga eow nu fetsomne gcreccaS, ac we 
wilkiiS nu sunie eow gcopenianj and sunie eft on gcliuipliccre 
tide. 

paet Egypta-land hffifde gctacnungc |>yssere woruldc, and 
Pharao getacnode j^one ISwyran dcofol, ]^e symle Godes gc- 
corenuni chtnysse on bcsett on andwerduni life. Swa swa 
se yEhnilitiga God ^a his folc ahredde wi5 pone cyning 
Pharao, and hi heddc to ^am earde J>e he Abrahanie and his 
ofspringe behet, swa eac he arett da^ghwomlice his gecorenan 
wis })ono ealdan dcofol, and hi alyst frani his ISeowte, and 
frain ISyssere geswincfullan woruldc, and gcUct hi to "JSam 
ecan cc)clc 5e we to gcsccapcncwteron. Seo lieade s^ h?efdc 
gctacnungc ures fulluhtcs, on "Saere adranc Pharao and iiis 
licrc saniod ; swa eac on uruni gastlicum fulluhtc hiS se dco- 
fol forsmorod frani us, and calle urc synna bco5 adylcgode, 
and we "Sonne sigefceste, mid gclcafan Godes 16f singati, an- 
bidigcnde mid gciSyldc )>;es ecan eScles. Witodlicc pa^t westen 
and ]>iet feowertig gcara f;pc is urc anbidung on mislicum 
costnungum fcfler \n*um fulluhtc, otSj^jet we becumon ISurh 
gchcaldsumnysse Godes beboda to 5am upplican cSclc, on 
Sam "Se we ecclicc eardian sceolon. p<et wolcn waes symle 
Sees folces latteow on ealre Saere fare, ge aerSan "Se hi |)a 
Rcadan sje ofcrcodon, and eac si S San on ^am westenc. past 
M'olcn getacnode Crist, seSe is ure latteow on gastlicum Sing- 
um ; and he waes liSe on his menniscnysse swilce on wolcncs 
hiwe, and he biS swiSe egefull on fyres gelicnysse on ^am 
micclum dome, }?onne he scTnS Sam rihtwisum and byrn'S 
Sam unrihtwisum. SoSlice gehwilces rihtwises mannes lif 
is dfcge wiSmeten, and jjaes synfullan nihtlicum Scostrum; 
and Drihtcn biS liSe iSam rihtwisum, and egefull Sam un- 
rihtwibum. 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 201 

letter of the old law shall not be transgressed, until they are 
all fulfilled." Tims firm is the old law, but it shall be ful- 
filled by God's servants according to a ghostly sense, and 
not bodily. It will he very longsome, if we now recount to 
you all these signs together, but we will disclose some to you 
now, and some afterwards at a more convenient time. 

The Egyptian land was a type of this world, and Pharaoh 
betokened the perverse devil, who is constantly inflicting 
persecution on God's chosen, in this present life. As the 
Almighty God then delivered his people from the king 
Pharaoh, and led them to the country which he had promised 
to Abraham and his offspring, so also he delivers daily his 
chosen from the old dc\il, and releases them from his thral- 
dom and from this world of toil, and leads them to the eternal 
country for which we were created. The Red sea betokened 
our baptism, in which Pharaoh and his host were drowned 
together; so also in our ghostly baptism the devil is suffocated 
by us, and all our sins arc obliterated, and we then trium- 
phant, with faith sing the praise of God, awaiting with 
patience the eternal country. Moreover, the wilderness and 
the space of forty years are our stay in divers temptations 
after our baptism, until we come, through observance of God's 
commandments, to the realm on high, in w hich we shall eter- 
nally dw ell. The cloud was constantly the people's guide in 
all their journeying, both before they had crossed the Red sea, 
and also afterwards in the w ilderness. Tlie cloud betokened 
Christ, who is our guide in ghostly things ; and he was gentle 
in his humanity, as in semblance of a cloud, and he will be 
very awful, in likeness of fire, at the great doom, when he 
will shine to the righteous and burn to the unrighteous. 
Verily the life of every righteous man is compared w ilh day, 
and of the sinful with the nightly darkness ; and the Lord 
will be gentle to the righteous, and awful to the um-ightcous. 



202 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

Se apostol Paulus cvvaeS be Sam Israhela folce, )>iet hi ealle 
wfcron on ^eere see gefullode, and hi ealle teton ^one gastlican 
mete, and Sone gastlican drenc druncon. SoJblice se mete Se 
him of hcofenum com haifde Cristes getacnunge, seSe be him 
sylfum cwseS, " Ic eom se liflica hlaf, p»e of heofcnum astah ; 
and swa hwa swa of Sam hliife geett, he leofa^ on ecnysse ; 
and se hlaf Se ic sylle for middaneardes life is min lichama." 
On Sam halgan husle we SicgaS Cristes lichaman : se hlaf is 
soSlice his lichama ga^tlice, Seah Se se ungcljereda j^fes ge- 
lyfan ne cunne. Be Sam stane ^e )>aet waeter on Sam west- 
ene ut-aflcow, cw^S se ylca apostol, " Hi dnmcon of Sam 
gastlican stane, and se stun wies Crist." Nfes Seah se slan 
lichamlice Crist, ac he hfefde Cristes getacnunge. His side 
Wifts on Stcre rode gewundod, and }>a'r fleow ut blud and 
wteter samod ; j'jet blod to ure alysednysse, and ]mt waiter 
to urum fullulito. On Sam fifteogoSan da\gc ]fiRS folces fjer- 
eldcs wfes seo ealde fiP gesctt, and on Sam iiftcogoSan diege 
a^fter Cristes jeriste com se Halga Gast of heofcnum ofer his 
apostolum in fyres hiwc, and iiini Surh his gife ealle Sing 
tfehte, and ealle middaneardlice gereord him forgeaf. On 
Sam munte Synay, j^e se .4l^lmihtiga on becom, wearS micel 
"Sunor gehyred, and stcmn, and liget gesewcn, swa swa sci- 
nende Icoht-fatu, and j'^er Wfes bymena dream idude swegen- 
de, and eal se munt smocigende stod. On "Sam stemnum 
and on Sam |)unore we understandaS j^jera bydela hream, \>c 
God sende geond ealne middaneard to bodigenne geleafan 
]7aere Halgan Drynnysse. On Sam leuht-fatum ]7fes ITgettes 
waes getacnod seo beorhtnys J^aera wundra "Se "Sa halgan by- 
delas on Godes naman gefremcdon. paera bymena cyrm is 
seo strange bodung, ]>e aefter 'Sses Halgan Gastes to-cyme 
ferde geond ealne middaneard. On "Sam fyre and on Sam 
smyce wees getacnod, ]>iet gehwilce arfaeste men and geleaf- 
fulle beo^ symle onlihte Surh Godes gesetnyssum, and Saera 
arleasra manna eagan beoS purh gedwyldes smyce symle 
aSystrode. 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 203 

The apostle Pawl said of the people of Israel, that they 
were all baptized in the sea, and they all ate the ghostly 
meat, and drank the ghostly drink. Now the meat that came 
to them from heaven was a type of Christ, who said of him- 
self, " I am the living bread, which came down from heaven, 
and whosoever eateth of that bread, shall live for ever ; and 
the bread v\ hich I give for the life of the world is my body." 
In the holy housel we eat Christ's body : the bread is truly 
his body spiritually, though the unlearned cannot believe this. 
Of the stone, out of whici the water flowed in the wilderneirs, 
the same apostle said, "They drank from the ghobtly stone, 
and the stone was Christ." Yet was the stone not Christ 
bodily, but it was a type of Christ. His side was wounded on 
the rood, and there flowed out blood and water together ; tlie 
blood for our redemption, and the water for our baptism. 
On the fiftieth day of the people's jourmying the old law was 
ehtablished, and on the fifliith day after Christ's ascension 
the Holy Ghost came from heaven over his apostles in like- 
ness of fire, and through his grace taught them all things, 
and gave them all earthly tongues. On mount Sinai, on 
which the Almighty came, great thunder was heard, and a 
voice, and lightning was seen, like shining lamps, and there 
was the noise of trumpets loudly sounding, and all the mount 
stood smoking. In the voices and in the thunder we perceive 
the cry of those messengers whom God sends through all the 
world to preach belief of the Holy Trinity. In the lamps of 
the lightJiing was betokened the brightness of the miracles 
which the holy messengers performed in the name of God. 
The noise of the trumpets is the strong preaching, ^\hich 
after the coming of the Holy Ghost pervaded all the world. 
By the fire and by the smoke was betokened, that all pious 
and believing men shall ever be enliglitened by God's ordi- 
nances, and the eyes of impious men shall by the smoke of 
error be ever darkened. 



204 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

God awiat tJa eaidan fie mid his fingre on "Sam sttenenuni 
weax-breduni. Godes finger is se Halga Gast, swa swa Crist 
on his godspelle c\v?e^, " Gif ic, on Godes fingre, deofla 
adr;efe;" and se o^er godspcllere awrat, " Gif ic, on Godes 
Gaste, deofl adr^fe." Nis na to nnderstandenne be Sees 
limes micehiysse, ac be Saera fingra frennninge. Nis us nan 
lim swa gewylde to ;elcum weorce swa Qs sind ure fingras, 
and se Halga Gast is gecweden Godes finger, forSan ^e he 
awrit (Surh his gife on manna heortan Sa gastlican bebodu, 
and tod;el5 his gife mannum be Sam (Se he wile, for^an be 
he is -rElmihtig Wyriita, mid F.eder and mid Suna, hi iSry 
an God, aefre unbegunnen and ungecndod. Da st;enenan 
weax-bredu getacnodon j'fera ludeiscra manna heardheort- 
nysse, be "Sam cwwb se wTtega Ezechicl, " Ic a^tbrede him 
JSa stfenenan heortan, and ic forgifc him flcjcscene heortan;" 
}»;et is andgitfulle heortan. 

Tyn beboda awrat se .Elmihtiga on *5am twam tabelnm ; 
"Sreo word on anre tabelan, Sa belimpaJS to Godes lufe, and 
seofon on cStere oSre, ]>a gcbyriaS to manna lufe and to gcfer- 
nedene ure nextan. pa twii tabelan getacnodon Sa twa be- 
bodu l^e ic nu namode, Godes lufu and mamia, and eac "Sa 
twa Gccybnyssa, ])a Eaidan and Sa Niwan. 

pfet forme word is, " Drihten JSin God is an God." An 
God is ealra Singa Scyppend, on '5rim hadutn Surhwunigendc, 
]7aet is, Fffider, and his Sunn, and hcora begra Gast, ealle 
gelice mihtige, and aefre on anre Godcundnysse wunigende. 
Hi ne magon beon togiederc genemncde, ac hi ne beoS naefre 
tod;elede. pisne aenne God we sceolon mid soISum geleafan 
and so Lire lufe symle wurJSian, forSan "be he is ana God ure 
Scyppend, and nis nan o5er God buton him anum. 

paet ©"Ser bebod is, " Ne underfoh Su "Sines Drihtnes naman 
on ydelnysse." paet is, Ne gelyf Su J^aet Crist ]/m Drihten 
sy gesecaft, ac gelyf ]>jet he is gelic his Feeder, eefre of him 
acenned, |nu*h 5onc sind ealle Sing geworhte. AVitodlice a^lc 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 205 

God wrote the old law with his finger on the stone tables. 
The finger of God is the Holy Ghost, as Christ in his gospel 
said, " If I, by the finger of God, drive out devils." And 
the other evangelist wrote, " If I, in the Spirit of God, drive 
out the devil." Not to be considered is the magnitude of 
that limb, but the efficacy of the fingers. We have no limb 
so trained to every work as are our fingers, and the Holy 
Ghost is called the finger of God, because he writes through 
his grace in the hearts of men the ghostly connnandments, 
and distributes his grace to men, according to his will, for he 
is the Almighty Worker, with Father and with Son, they 
three one God, ever unbegun and unendcd. The stone tables 
betokened the hardheartedncss of the Jewish men, of which 
the prophet Ezekiel said, " I w ill take from them the hearts 
of stone, and I will give them hearts of flesh ;" that is, hearts 
filled \;ith understanding. 

Ten commandments the Almighty wrote on the two tables ; 
three ordinances on one table, wiiich have reference to God's 
love, and seven on the other, which relate to love of men and 
to fellowship with our neighbom-. The two tables betokened 
the two commandments which I have named, the love of God 
and of men, and also the two Testaments, the Old and the 
New. 

The first ordinance is, "The Lord thy God is one God." 
One God is the Creator of all things, existing in three per- 
sons, that is, the Father, and his Son, and the Spirit of them 
both, all e(iually mighty, and ever existing in one Godhead. 
They may not be named together, but they are never sepa- 
rated. This one God we should with true belief and true love 
ever worship, for he alone is God our Creator, and there is 
no other God but him alone. 

The second conmiandment is, " Take not thy Lord's name 
in vain." That is, Believe not that Christ thy Lord is a 
creature, but believe that he is equal to his Father, ever of 
him born, through whom all things are made. B«it every 



206 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

gesceaft is ydelnysse underSeod, Jjaet is, awciuledlicnesse, 
for^an ^e hi beo^ awendc fram brosnunjye to iiiibrosiiunoce. 

paet ^ridde bebod is, " Beo Sii geinyndig ]>ieX ]?u "Sone 
resten-daeg gehalgige. On six dagum geworhte God ealle 
gesceafta, and geeiidode hi on (Sam seofoban." paet is se 
Saetcrnes-daeg, "|>a gereste he hine, and 5one daeg gclialgodc." 
Ne gereste he hine foi^Si Jj.'jet he werig waere, se^e ealle ■Sing 
deS buton gesuince, ac he geswac Sa his weorces : he geswac 
•Saes dihtes ealra his weorca, ac he no geswac na to genienig- 
fyldenne |>aera gesceafta ffiftergengnyssa. God geswac ^a his 
weorces svva j^fet lie na nia gecynda sibSan ne gesccop, ac 
svva-iSeah he genienigfylt da?ghwonilice \ni ylcan gecynd, 
swa swa Crist cwwS on his godspclle, *' Pater ineus usque 
tnodo operatur, et ego operor : " j'c-et is on Englisc, " Min 
F^der wyrcS d^eghwomlice o5 )?is, and ic wyrcc." Se 
^Ehnihtiga F;ed(T gcdihte ealle gesceafta jurh his Wisdom, 
and se Wisdom is his Sunu ; and he hi ealle gelilTaeste J^urh 
^one Halgan Gast, and on 5am deopan dihte stodon ealle |>a 
"Sing 5e Sa-gyt n<eron. Witodlice we waeron on pam dihte, 
and eac 5a 5e eefter us cumaS, oJS ))yssere worulde geendungc. 
God gesceop 5a ffit fruman twegcn men, wer and wif, and he 
geswac ba Jja^ra gesceapennyssa, swa ]>cet he na ma cynna on 
mannum ne gesette, ac he gemenigfylt 5a twa cytin daeg- 
hwomlice, swa paet he gescypS felces mannes lichaman on his 
moder inno5c, and him sawle si55an on besett. Ne beo5 5a 
sawla nahwar aer5an wunigende, ac se ^Imihtiga Wyrhta hi 
gescypS ffilce dwg, swa swa he de5 j^a lichaman. God ge- 
sceop 5a nytenu, and fixas, and fugelas, and ealle eorSlice 
Wc-estmas ; ac he gescypS aelce geare o5re edniwe 5aes ylcan 
gecyndes ; forSan 5e 5a serran ateoria5. Se Seeternes-dfeg 
waes 5a gehaten resten-dseg o5 Cristes 5rowunge : on 5ain 
daege Ifeg Cristes lie on byrigene, and he aras of dea5e on 
5am Sunnan-daege, and se daeg is cristenra manna resten-daeg, 
and halig 5urh Cristes aerist : )^one daeg we sceolon symle 
freolsian mid gastlicere arwur5nysse. Se S;eternes-daeg waes 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 807 

creature is subject to vanity, tliat is, to mutability, for tbcy 
will be cban<:^ecl from corruption to incorruption. 

The third commandment is, " Be mindful that thou hallow 
the day of rest. In six days God wrought all creatures, and 
finished them on the seventh." That is the Saturday," when 
he rested, and hallowed that day." He rested not because he 
was weary, who does all things without fatigue, but he ceased 
then from his work : he ceased from the disposition of all 
his works, but he ceased not to nuiltiply the successions of 
created beings. God, therefore, ceased from his work so that 
he created no more kinds afterwards, but, nevertheless, he 
daily multiplies the same kinds, as Christ said in his gospel, 
" Pater mens usque modo opcratur, ct ego operor : " that is 
in English, " My Father works daily until now, and I work." 
The Almighty Father disposed all creatures through his 
Wisdom, and his Wisdom is his Son ; and he quickened them 
all through the Holy Ghost, and in that profound disposition 
stood all those things which yet were not. But we were in 
that disposition, and also those who come after us, until the 
ending of this world. God created at the beginning two 
persons, man aiul \\()man, and he ceased then from those 
creations, so that he placed no more kinds among men, but 
he nniltiplies those two kinds daily, so that he creates the 
body of every man in his mother's womb, and afterwards 
places in him a sonl. Souls are nowhere existing previously, 
but the Almiirhtv Worker creates them everyday, as he does 
the bodies. God created the beasts, and fishes, and birds, 
and all earthly fruits ; but he creates every year other new 
ones of the same kind ; because the fornier ones decay. The 
Saturday was called the day of rest until Christ's passion : 
on that day Christ's body lay in the sepulchre, and he arose 
from diMth on the Sunday, and that day is the christians' 
day of rest, and holy through Christ's resurrection : that day 
we should ever solenniize with ghostly veneration. Saturday 



208 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

gehtilgod mid micelre gehcaMsumnyssc on "Saere ealdan ae, 
for 'Sasre getacnunge Ciistes ^lowunge, and his reste on ^aerc 
byrgene ; ac se Sunnan-daeg is nu gehalgod |?urh so^Sfaistnysse 
his <eristes of dea^c. OSer resten-dwg is us eac toweard, 
|?aet is, |?get ece lif, on ^am biS an dfeg baton a^lcerc nihte, 
on |>am we us geresta^ ecelice, gif we nu beowtliccra weorca, 
J^aet sind synna, geswica^. 

paet feor^e bebod is, ^' ArwurSa ))inne feeder and c5inc 
nioder. Se ^e wyrigS f;edcr o^Se moder, oJ))?e hi tyrigS, se 
is deaSes scyldig." La hwaine wile se man arwurSian, gif ho 
■5one ]>e hine gestryndc, and Sa moder "Se hine gcb;er and 
afedde nele arwurSian ? yEftcr gastiicuni andgite God is tSin 
fjedcr, and his gelabung is Sin nioder : arwurSa hi on ealhnn 
(Singuni. 

paet fifte bebod is, " Ne unrilit-hjem 5u." /Elc S^era 
manna ]>e haSmS baton rihtre ffiwe, he haJmS unrihtlico ; and 
se Se ofer his aewe hiemb, he is forlir Kuril his {ewbrice. 

paet sixte bebod is, " Ne ofslih "Su mann." Manslaga bib 
se ^e man ofslihJS ; and se "be oSerne to dea^e forsegiS, and 
se "Se o"Sres sawle forpaerS, se "5e hungriguni o55e nacoduni 
gchelpan maeg and nele, ac laet hine acwclan on 'Saere hafcn- 
leaste, ]^onne bi<S se eac ^urh his waelhreownysse manslaga 
getcald. 

paet seofoSe bebod is, " Ne stala ^u." Dis bebod wi5- 
cvveS aelcum reaflace, and is gehwilcum menn full cu5. 

paet eahteo^e bebod is, " Ne beo "Su leas gewita." pis 
bebod wi^cweS leasunge. 

paet nigo^e bebod is, " Ne gewilna Su oSres marines wifes." 
Manfullic daed bi'5 j^aet hwa oSres wif gebysmirige ; forSy is 
geboden )>aet ^u "Saes ne gewilnigc. Witodlice gif ^u "Saes ne 
gewilnast, ne becymst "Su naefre to "Sam pleolicum leahtre. 

paet teoSe bebod is, •' Ne gewilna Su oSres mannesaehta." 



MIDLEXT SUNDAY. 209 

was hallowed with great observance by the old law, in be- 
tokening of Christ's passion, and his rest in the sepulchre ; 
but Sunday is now hallowed by the truth of his resurrection 
from death. Another day of rest for us is also to come, that 
is, the everlasting life, in which will be one day without any 
night, in which we shall rest eternally, if we now cease from 
servile works, that is, from sins. 

The fourth commandment is, " Honour thy father and thy 
mother. He who curses father or mother, or provokes them, 
is guilty of death." O whom will a man honour, if he will 
not honour him who begat him, and the mother who bare 
and brought him forth ? In a ghostly sense God is thy father, 
and his church is thy mother : honour them in all things. 

The fifth commandment is, " Commit not adultery." 
Every man who lies except with his lawful wife, commits 
adultery ; and he who lies with another besides his lawful 
wife, is an adulterer through breach of his marriage vow. 

The sixth commandment is, " Slay no man." A man- 
slayer is he who kills any one ; and he who traduces another 
to death, and he who destroys another's soul, he who can 
and will not help the hungry or naked, but lets him die in 
want, then will he also for his cruelty be accounted a man- 
slayer. 

The seventh commandment is, " Steal not." This com- 
mandment forbids all robbery, and is fully known to every' 
man. 

The eighth commandment is, " Be not a false witness." 
This commandment forbids leasini;. 

The ninth connuandment is, '* Desire not another man's 
wife." It is a wicked deed that any one defile another's wife ; 
therefore is it forbidden to desire her. For if thou desirest 
her not, thou wilt never come to that perilous crime. 

The tenth connuandment is, " Desire not another man's 

HOM. VOL. II. p 



210 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

Dis bebod wi^cwe^ unrihtwisre gewilnunge and woruldlicere 
gitsunge. 

Is eac to understaiidenne, )?aet ]>aet Egyptisce folc wearJS 
mid tyn wTtum geslagen ; and tyn bebodaweeron awritene on 
"Sam twam tabclum, Godcs folce to rihtinge, j^aet ^ii dcofelli- 
can leahtras Siirh ^a bebodii adydde beon. piet miccle geteld 
J>ffit God mid mcnigfealdum crwftc gcdihte, h£efde getacnunge 
J^aere halgan gelaSunge 'Se Crist Surh his to-cyme astcalde, 
and Jnirh his apostolas and lareowas gctimbrode. On Sisnni 
gctelde Wc'eron menigfcalde fiihnyssa, and fornean imasec- 
gendlice fra?t\vunga : swa beoS eac on Godcs gelaJSungc me- 
nigfcakle fa^gernyssa Surh godra manna drohtnunge, ]>e Saes 
ecan lifcs eallunge gewihiiaS. Da menigfcaldan otTrunga )'e 
se ^hnilitiga hct on Sam gctelde symle offrian, getacnodon 
Cristes Srownnge ; and he 'Sa eahhm ons.egednyssa calie ge- 
stikle, )»aSa he sylf soSlicc wearS gcolTrod )>am .Ehnihtigan 
Fwdcr for urum synnum. 

pa cahian sacerdas offrodon ccalf, and jet "Sam wcofode 
snidon. Crist sylf waes on Sam ccalfc getacnod, for ^aere 
niihte his iSrowunge. IIT oflfrodon lamb binnon Sam gctelde, 
and he waes eac on Sam getacnod, for his unscaeSSignysse ; 
he waes on rammes siege getacnod, for his ealdordome ; he 
wa^s on buccan siege getacnod, for gelicnysse synfulles 
flaesces, ])V£t he mid urum flfesclicum gecynde ure synna adi- 
legode. Eac gehwilce oSre offrunga luefdon getacnunge his 
toweardan dea^es, and bigencges Godcs Seowdomes. 

We so^lice aefter ^eawlicum andgite cealf offriaS Gode to 
lace, gif we ures lichaman modignysse for his egc oferswiSaS. 
Lamb we offriaS on Godes lace, gif we unscaeSSignyssc on 
urum ^cawum symle healda^, and J^a unsceadwislican sty- 
runga on stae^^ignysse awenda^. Buccan we offria'S, ©"S^e 
ticcen, gif we ures lichaman galnysse oferswiSa^. Culfran 
we offria"S, gif we so"Se bilewitnysse on urum mode healda^. 
Turtlan we offriaS, gif we on chennysse wunia"5. peorfe 
hlafas we bringaS Gode to lace, ^onne we buton yfclnysse 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 211 

possessioDS." Tliis commandmcnl forbids unrighteous desire 
and worldly covetousness. 

It is also to be understood, that the Egyptian folk were 
stricken witii ten plagues ; and ten commandments were 
written on the two tables, for a direction to God's people, 
that devilish sins might be destroyed by those commandments. 
The great tabernacle that God with manifold craft directed, 
was a type of the holy church which Cliribt by his advent 
founded, and by his apostles and teachers constructed. In 
this tabernacle were manifold colours, and almost unspeak- 
able ornaments: so also in God's church there are manifold 
beauties through the converse of good men, who fervently 
desire the everlasting life. The manifold offerings, which 
the Almighty commanded to be constantly offered in the tem- 
ple, betokened the passion of Christ ; and he abolished the old 
sacrifices, when he himself truly was offered to the Almighty 
Father for our sins. 

The old priests offered a calf, and slew it at the altar. 
Christ was himself betokened in that calf, in virtue of his 
passion. They offered a lamb within the tabernacle, and 
he was also betokened in that, for his innocence ; he was be- 
tokened in the slaying of a ram, for his authority ; he was 
betokened in the slaying of a buck, for likeness of the sinful 
flesh, that \vith our fleshly nature he might extinguish our 
sins. Every other offering also was a type of his future 
death, and of the observance of God's service. 

But we in a figurative sense offer a calf as a gift to God, 
if, for awe of him, we overcome the pride of our body. A 
lamb we offer as a gift to God, if we ever preserve innocence 
in our morals, and turn irrational perturbations into steadi- 
ness. A buck we offer, or a kid, if we overcome the lust of 
our body. \ dove we offer, if we preserve true meekness 
in our mind. A turtle-dove we offer, if we continue in 
chastity. Unleavened loaves we bring as a gift to God, when 

p 2 



212 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

bcorman on "Seorfnysse sjfenn'sse and so^ftestnysse fai"i(5. 
Hunig waes forboden on eallum Godes lacum, forban Se him 
ne lica^ on his gecorenumnanelustfulhingaob^e werodnyssa 
|?yssere worulde. On aelcum lacum sceolde beon scalt ge- 
nienged, gewisslice ]>jet we ealle Godes benunge mid sealte 
wislices gesceades symle gemengan. Ele sceolde oac mid 
Godes lacum beon geoffrod, for ^an'e getacnuuge j'<Et we 
sceolon don mid glyednysse swa hwaet swa we Gode gedo^, 
for^an "be he lufaS j^one gh-edan syllcnd. 



SECUNDA SENTEXTIA DE HOC IPSO. 

MOYSES and Aaron, and «Sa yldcstan caldras Israhela bcode 
gecndodon heora lif on bierc langsuman fare, swa-Seah buton 
legere ; and God gesette losue JSam folce to lierctogan, y<et 
he hi to Sam behatenan cbele hedan sceolde : and he him 
behet j^aet he wolde on ealhun bingum his gcfylsta beon, swa 
swa he wpes Moyses ; and he gesette Aarones sunu, Eleazar, 
to sacerde JSam folce. pxt folc tjnuie micelne team on ^am 
westene, and wurdon gewcxene to wTge ful strange, binnon 
Sam fyrste feowertig geara. IIi ferdon tia mid fultumc j^aes 
folces menigu, and mid gcscyldnysse sobes Drihtnes, to Sam 
leodum ^e hi gelabode waeron. Da lordanis seo ea on emtwa 
toeode, and for ^aes folces fare flowan ne mihte, and wtstod 
se stream swa steap swa munt, and Israhel code call be bam 
grunde dryge to lande, and seo ea eft to-arn. Hi becomon 
"Sa to anre byrig lericho, seo waes sellice getimbrod, mid 
seofon weallum beworht, and wel wi^innan geset. pa code 
Israhela folc on ymbhwyrfte }?agre byrig seofon dagas on an, 
ealle suwigende, felce daege aene, swa swa se ^Imihtiga het ; 
and on ^bam seofoSan daege swi^lice bleowan seofon sacerdas 
mid sylfrenum bymum, and Israhela folc call samod hrymde. 
Da burston "ba seofon weallas ealle tosomne, and hi inn-eodon 
swa hwaer swa hi stodon, and ofslogon ^a suibe ^ba haeSenan, 
})fet ^aer nan ne belaf ^aera ungelyfedra cucu. Hwaet ^a losue 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 213 

without the barm of cvilnci^s, we walk in the unleaven of so- 
berness and truth. Honey was forbidden in all God's offer- 
inn's, for no luxuries, no sweetnesses of this world are 
pleasing to him among his chosen. With all offerings salt 
should he mingled, undoubtedly that we should always mingle 
all service to God with the salt of wise discretion. Oil also 
should be offered with offerings to God, as a betokening 
that Me should do with gladness whatsoever we do for God, 
because he loves the glad giver. 



SECOND DISCOUUSK ON THE SAME. 

MOSES and Aaron, and the chief elders of the people of 
Israel ended their lives on the longsome journey, though 
without sickness ; and God set Joshua as leader of the people, 
that he might conduct them to the promised land : and he 
promised that he would in all things be his supporter, as lie 
had been of Moses ; and he set Eleazar, the son of Aaron, as 
priest of the people. The people begat a great progeny in the 
wilderness, and were grown full strong for war, within the 
space of forty years. Tiny went then with tlie support of 
the muhitude of people and with the protection of the true 
Lord, to the nations to which they had been called. Then 
the river Jordan separated into two parts, and for the people's 
passage might not flow, and the stream stopt as steep as a 
mount, and all Israel went along the ground dry to land, and 
the river again ran together. They came to a city called 
Jericho, Avhich was excellently built, encircled witii seven 
walls, and well ordered within. Then went the people of 
Israel round about the city for seven days together, all hold- 
ing silence, each day once, as the Almighty had commanded ; 
and on the seventh day seven priests blew loudly with silver 
trumpets, and the people of Israel all cried together. Then 
the seven walls all burst at once, and they went in where- 
soever they stood, and vigorously slew the heathen, so that 
not one of the unbelieving remained alive. Joshua after- 



214 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

si^^an ferde mid Israhela "Seode to eallum leodum |?.nes ee'Se- 
lan eardes, and hi ealle ofsloh : |?a Se him oSflugon, "Sam 
feollon stanas on-uppan micele of heofonum, and hi mid calle 
fordydon. losue se heretoga mid sige wearb gebyld, and 
cw8e"S to ^aere sunnan mid swiSlicum worde, ]>ieX heo of Ssere 
stowe styrian ne sceolde, aer^an ^e his fynd feallende swulton. 
pa stod seo sunne swi^e healic ongean Gabao, be Godes 
htjese, anes daeges faec, ccr^an "Se lieo yrnan dorste, oS]'aet ^a 
sigcfffistan lieora fynd aledon. Seofon Seoda hi ofslogon 
mid swurdcs ecge, on ^am waeron getealde twa and Srytig 
cyninga : "Sa wurdon ealle endemes adylegode. II\v£et Sa, si^- 
•San sc sigefjesta ccmpa ]>one card calne enilice dieldc betvvux 
twelf m;Rgt)uni])8es jfiSelan mancynncs, Abrahiimesofspringcs, 
"Sc hit eal ge^vann, and hi on (Sam hinde leofodon siJSSan, 
oSj>aet sc ^Elmihtiga Cyning of JSam cynne asprang, Drihtcn 
Haelend, ure sawle to ha^lc. We habba^ nu c)as race anfcald- 
lice gcreht ; wc willaS eac ]?aet andgit cow gcopcnian, and Sa 
dygelnysse cow nc bcdyrnan. 

losuc luTcfde ]>pes Hajlendcs getacnunge on naman and on 
djedum, Scab hit eow digcle sy. He wfes gehaten mid hal- 
wendum naman losuc and Icsns, ludeiscra latteow. lesus 
waes gehaten ure Hcclend Crist fram Sam engle aerSan "Se 
he mennisclice acenned waerc. lesus is Ebrcisc nama, J^aet 
is on Leden ' Saluator,' and on Englisc ' ILelend,' for^an 
•Se he geha^lS his folc fram heora synnum, and geliet to "Sam 
ecan earde hcofenan rices, swa swa se heretoga lesus gelaedde 
)?one ealdan Israhel to Sam earde ]?e him behSten wjes. 

Seo burh lericho mid hire seofon weallum getacnode "Sas 
ateorigendlican woruld, ]7e tyrnS on seofon dagum, and hi 
symle ge-edlaeca^, o'SJ?aet seo geendung calhim mannum be- 
cume. lericho is gereht * Mona,' and se mona haifS |?issere 
worulde gelicnysse, for^an ^e he is hvviltidum weaxende 
hwiltidum wanigende, swa swa "Seos woruld. losue se here- 
toga mid Israhela folce, beeode ^a burh seofon si^um, and 
^a Godes (Seowas brcron ]>Het haligc serin mid Sam heofcn- 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 215 

wards went with the people of Israel to all the nations of that 
noble country, and slew them all : on those who escaped from 
him srreat stones fell from heaven, and totally destroyed them. 
Joshua the leader was emboldened by victory, and said to 
the sun with mighty words, that it should not stir from that 
place, before his foes falling died. Then stood the sun very 
high against Gibeon, by God's command, for the space of a 
day, before it durst run, until the conquerors had laid low 
their foes. Seven nations they slew with edge of sword, 
among which were counted thirty-two kings : these were all 
finally extirpated. Thorcupon the victorious champion equally 
divided all the country among the twelve tribes of the noble 
race, Abraham's ofTspring, who had won it all, and they 
afterwards lived in tiie land, until the Almighty King sprang 
from that race, the Lord Jesus, for our souls' salvation. We 
have now simply narrated this narrative ; we will also open 
the sense to you, and not hide the mysteries from you. 

Joshua was a type of Jesus in name and in deeds, though 
to you it be obscure. He was called by the salutary name 
of Joshua and Jesus, the guide of the Jews. Our Saviour 
Christ was by the angel called Jesus before he was humanly 
born. Jesus is a Hebrew name, which is in Latin Salvator, 
and in English Healing, because he heals his people of their 
sins, and leads them to the eternal country of the kingdom 
of heaven, as the leader Jesus led the old Israel to the 
country which had been promised to them. 

The city of Jericho with its seven w;dls betokened tins 
perishable world, which turns in seven days, and always re- 
peats them, until the ending comes to all men. Jericho is 
interpreted Jluon, and the moon has a likeness to this world, 
because it is sometimes waxing sometimes waning, like this 
world. Joshua the leader with the people of Israel went 
about the city seven times, and the servants of God bare the 
holy ark with the heavenly covenant, and the city was not 



216 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

licum haligdome, and seo burh naes mid nanum wige gewuu- 
nen, ac mid j?am ymgange ; and burh^jBra saceixlu blawunge 
toburston ^a weallas. Swa eac "Surh Cristes to-cyme to 
^yssere worulde, and ^urh his apostola bodunge, tofeollon 
•Sa wiSerweardan weallas J^yssere worulde ungeleaftulnysse, 
oS)?aet on ende ure tida biS se feondlica dea^ farlice towor- 
pen, and se dea^ sitSSan us deriaii ne ma^g. losue '5a siJSJSan 
and Israhel ofslogon seofon Seoda mid bam foreswdum cyne- 
gum, and he ^one eard ealne todailde betwux Sam twelf 
maegSum pe him mid fuhton. 

Hit waes alyfed on ^aere ealdan ie, \>nit geluva moste his 
feond ofslean, swa swa Crist sylf to his leorning-cnihtum 
cwse^, " Go gchyrdon bwset gecweden wxs <Sam ealdum 
mannum on Moyses te : Lufa Sinne nextan, and hata binne 
feond. Ic so^lice eow secge, LufiaS cowere fynd, dob jnim 
tela ^e eow hatiaS, and gebiddaS for eowerum chterum and 
eow tynendum, j>8et ge bcon cowcrcs Fjeder beam seSe on 
heofonum is, se^e deS his sunnan scinan ofer iSa yfelan and 
ofer 'Sa godan, and syl5 ren-scuras 5am rilitwisum and '5am 
unrihtwisum. Gif ge '5a ane lufiaS ]?e eow lufia5, huilcc 
mede h.cbbe ge );onne set Gode?" pus t.-ehte Crist on iSaere 
Niwan Gecy5nysse eallum cristenum mannum to donne. 
Gif hwam seo lar ollicigc, nc yrsige he nateshwon wi5 us, 
•Scab '5e we Godes bebodu mannum geopenian ; for5an "5e he 
cw8e5, " So5 ic eow secge, Buton eower rihtwisnyss mare sy 
Jjonne '5aera ludeiscra bocera and sunder-halgena, ne becume 
ge into heofenan rice." 

Crist gesette "Sa ealdan ae, and seo stod ^a liAvile ^e he 
wolde; and he hi eft awende to gastlicum i5ingum on his 
andwerdnysse ; for'San "Se he is ^iLlmihtig God, and we 
sceolon his gesetnyssum gehyrsumian, "Seah 'Se he gyt wolde 
]7as Niwan Gecy^nysse eft awendan : ac we witon ]7aet he 
nele. peah ^e se hlaford cwe^e to his men. Do )?is, and he 
eft cwe"5e, Ne do ])\i "Sis, ^am ieftran worde he sceal gehyr- 
sumian, na ^am aerran. Cristenc men sceolon gastlice feohtan 



MIDLEXT SUNDAY. 217 

won by any war, but by that going about; and through 
the blowing of the priests the walls burst asunder. So like- 
wise through Christ's advent to this world, and through the 
preaching of the apostles, the adverse walls of this world's 
unbelief fell, until at the end of our times hostile dcatli 
will suddenly be cast down, and death can afterwards not 
injure us. Josiuia then and Israel slew seven nations with 
the aforesaid kings, and he divided all the country among the 
twelve tribes which had fought witii him. 

It was allowed in the old lau-, that every one might slay 
his foe, as Christ himself said to his disciples, " Ye have 
heard wiiat was said to the men of old in the law of Moses : 
Love thy neighbour, and hate thy foe. But I say unto you. 
Love your foes, do good unto them who hate you, auti pray 
for your persecutors and injurers, that ye be children of your 
Father who is in heaven, who maketh his sun to shine over 
the evil and over the good, and giveth rain-showers to the 
righteous and to the unrighteous. If ye love only those wiio 
love you, what reward have ye then from God ? " Thus 
taught Christ in the New Testament all christian men to do. 
If any one mislike the doctrine, let him not be at all angry 
M'itii us, though we disclose God's commandments to men ; 
for he said, " Verily I say unto you, Unless your righteous- 
ness be greater than that of the Jewish scribes and pharisees, 
ye will not come into the kingdom of heaven." 

Ciirist established the old law, and that stood as long as 
he would ; and he afterwards changed it to a gliostly sense 
by his presence ; for he is xVlmighty God, and we should 
obey his ordinances, even though he would change the New 
Testament : but we know that he will not. Though the 
lord say to his man, Do this, and he afterwards say, Do this 
not, he shall obey the latter command, not the former. 
Chrii^tian men should fight spiritually against sins, as Paul, 



218 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

ongean leahtrum, swa svva Paulus, ^eoda lareow, us tshte 
•Sisuin wordum, " Ymbsciyda^ eow mid Godes vvaepnunge, 
]>eet ge magon standan ongean deofles syrwungum ; forSan 
■Se us nis nan gecamp ongean flaesc and blod, ac togeanes 
deofellicuni ealdrum and gastlicum yfelnyssum. StandaS 
eornostlice mid begyrdum lendenum on soSfestnysse, and 
ymbscrydde mid rihtuisnysse byrnan ; and nymaiS )?aes gc- 
leafan scyld, and "Saes hihtcs helm, and ];8es lialgan Gastes 
swurd, |>jfit is, Godes word." Mid J'isum gastlicum wtepnum 
we sceolon ongean Sam awyrigedum gastum, j^urh Godes 
mihte, stranglicc fcohtan, gif we willaS sigcftestc to "Sam 
behatenan cardc hcofenan rices becuman. 

Witodiice losue and Israiiela folc oferwunnon seofon 
Seoda : eahtoSe wses Pharao, "Se ier mid his leode adranc ; 
and hi si^^an sigefaeste J>one behatenan card him betwynan 
dtf'ldon. Swa sceolon eac cristene men ^a eahta heafod- 
leahtras mid heora Mcrodum eallc oferwinnan, gif hi aefre 
sceolon to 5am eSclc becuman, iSo him on frymSe sc Ilcofen- 
lica Faider gemynte, gif hi his bebodum bliSelice gehyrsu- 
miaS. Se forma heafod-leahter is gyfernyss, se o'Ser is gal- 
nyss, (Srydda gytsung, feorSa weamet, fifta unrotnys, sixta 
asolcennyss oS^e aemclnys ; seofoSa ydel gylp, eahteoba mo- 
dignyss. pas eahta hcafod-leaiitras fordoS and geniSeria^ 
]?a unwa^ran into belle- wite. Hit is gecweden }>aet se ealda 
Israhel oferwann seofon "Seoda, eahtcoSe w'a^s Pharao, ac hi 
oferwunnon micele ma |?onne "Saer genamode vv^ron ; swa 
eac aelc "Syssera heafod-leahtra haefS micelne team, ac gif we 
•Sa raodru acvvella^, );onne beoS heora beam ealle adydde. 

Gifernys bi^ past se man eer timan bine gereordige, obSe 
set his maele to micel ^icge, mid oferflowendnysse setes o55e 
wfetes. Of 'Sisum leahtre beoS acenncde oferfyll, and drun- 
cennyss, and unclaennys lichaman, and modes unstjeSSignys, 
and ydel gaffetung, and fela o^re unSeawas, "Se woruld-men 
to nanum la^e ne talia^, o^Jjaet hi on ende hi eft geinetaS. 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 219 

the teacher of the gentiles, taught us in these words, " Arm 
yourselves with God's armour, that ye may stand against the 
wiles of the devil ; for to us it is no contest against flesh 
and blood, but against devilish princes and ghostly vices. 
Stand firmly with loins girded with truth, and armed with 
the breast-plate of righteousness: and take the shield of be- 
lief, and the helm of hope, and the sword of the Holy Ghost, 
that is, the word of God." With these ghostly weapons we 
must through God's might fight strenuously against the ac- 
cursed spirits, if we will come triumphant to the promised 
country of heaven's kingdom. 

Now Joshua and the people of Israel overcame seven 
nations : the eighth was Pharaoh, who had been previously 
drowned with his people ; and they afterwards victorious 
divided the promised land among them. So also should 
christian men overcome all the eight chief sins with their 
hosts, if they shall ever come to the country which the 
Heavenly Father designed for them at the beginning, if they 
cheerfully obey his commandments. The first chief sin is 
greediness, the second is libidinousness, the third covetous- 
ness, the fourth passion, the fifth discontent, the si.\th sloth- 
fulness or aversion, the seventh vain-glory, the eighth pride. 
These eight chief sins fordo and condemn the unwary to hell- 
torment. It is said that the old Israel overcame seven na- 
tions, the eighth was Pharaoh ; but they overcame many 
more than were there named ; so also each of these chief sins 
has a great progeny, but if we kill the mothers, then will all 
their children be destroyed. 

It is greediness when a man takes food before his time, or 
at his meal eats too much, with a superfluity of food or fluid. 
Of this sin are born gluttony, and drunkenness, and un- 
cleanncss of body, and unsteadiness of mind, and idle obsce- 
nity, and many other vices, which worldly men account as 
no sin, until they at the end meet them again. Verily through 



220 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

Witodlice ^urh gifernysse waes Adam se frumsccapcna man 
bepseht, ^a^a lie onbirigde ]?aes forbodenau fepples. Se ober 
heafod-lcahter is gecweden forliger o^Se galnyss, ]?aet is ]>pet 
se man ungehealdsum sy on haemedcj and hnesce on mode 
to fljesclicum lustum. Of Sam leahtre cumaS modes nifegen- 
least, and ungemctcgod lufu, hatung Godes beboda, and hige- 
leas plega, fracodlic sprfec, and eagcna unstaeSSignys. Se 
^ridda leahtor is gitsung, se ontent symle Sjes mannes mod 
to maran .•ehte, and swa he mare htjefS swa he gra^digiM biS. 
Of "Sisum leahtre beo5 acennede leasunga and aiidaii, facn 
and reaflac, stala and forsworonnys, leas gewitnyss and un- 
mfeSlic neadung. Se feorSa leahtor is wcamet, ]>iei se man 
nage his modes geweald, ac baton selcere foresceawunge his^ 
yrsunge gefremaS. Of Sam leahtre cymS bream, and .ebi- 
lignys, dyslic dyrstignys, and mansliht. Se fifta leaiitor is 
unrotnys Sisscre worulde, ]>iBt se man geumotsigc ongean 
God for ungelimpum Sises andwerdan lifes. Of Sam biS 
accnned yfelnys and wacmodiiys, heortan biternys and his 
sylfes orwcnnys. Twa unrotnyssa sind : an is Seos derigcnd- 
lice, oScr is halwendlic, j^aet gchua for his synnum unrotsigc 
mid soSre d<edbote. Se sixta heafod-leahtor is asolcemiys 
o^Se temelnys. Se leahtor deS )?;Ht Sam men ne lyst nan 
Sing to gode gedon, ac gieS him asolcen fram aelcere dugcSe. 
Nis se leahtor plcolic geSuht, ac he gcbrincS swa-Seali Sone 
mann to micclum yfele. He acenS idelnysse and slapolnysse, 
gemagnysse and wordlunge, woruiige and fyrwitnysse. Se 
seofo^a heafod-leahter is gehaten idel-wuldor, ]?Kt is gylp 
o^Se gctot, )?onne se man gewilna^ J>a3t he hlisful sy, and 
cyrten, and nele foresceawian ]>set ure lichaman beot) awende 
to duste, and ure sawla sceolon agyldan gescead ealra Sfera 
ydelnyssa "Se hi unnytwurSlice nu bega§. Of ydelum gylpe 
biSacenned pryte and aebilignys, ungeSwfernys and hywung, 
and lustfullung leasre herunge. Se eahteo^a leahter is mo- 
dignys. Se leahter is ord and ende ielces yfeles : se geworhte 
englas to deoflum, and aelcre synne anginn is modignys. 



MIDLENT SUxNDAY. 221 

greediness was Adam, the first-created man, deceived, when 
he tasted the forbidden apple. Tlie second chief sin is called 
fornication or libidinousness, that is, when a man is incon- 
tinent in sexual connexion and voluptuous in mind for fleshly 
lusts. Of this vice come imbecility of mind, and immoderate 
love, hate of God's commandments, and senseless play, ob- 
scene speech, and unsteadiness of eyes. The third sin is covet- 
ousncss, which ever inflames a man's mind to greater posses- 
sion, and as he has more so is he the greedier. Of tliis sin arc 
born Icasings and envy, fraud and rapine, stealing and for- 
swearing, false witness and immoderate violence. The fourth 
sin is irascibility, when a man has not command of his mind, 
but without any foresight gives efiect to his anger. Of this sin 
come uproar, and irritation, fool-hardiness, and murder. The 
fifth sin is discontent of this world, so that a man is discon- 
tented with God for the mishaps of this present life. Of this 
are born cvilness and pusillanimity, bitterness of heart and 
despair of one's self. There are two discontents : one is 
this pernicious one, the other is salutary, when every one is 
discontented, on account of his sins, with true penitence. 
The sixth chief sin is slothfulness or disgust. This sin 
causes a man to have no desire to do anything good, but to 
go disgusted from every virtue. Tiiis sin is not regarded as 
perilous, but it, nevertheless, brings a man into great evil. 
It gives birth to idleness and sleepiness, petulance and babble, 
randiling and idle curiosity. The seventh chief sin is called 
vain-glory, that is pride or pomp, when a man desires to be 
famous and specious, and will not foresee that our bodies will 
be turned to dust, and that our souls shall render an account 
of all the vanities which they now uselessly commit. Of 
vain-glory are born pride and irritation, discord and hypo- 
crisy, and lust of false praise. The eighth sin is pride. This 
sin is the beginning and end of every evil : it made angels into 
devils, and of every sin the beginning is pride. When a man 



222 DOMINICA IN MEDIA QUADRAGESIME. 

Donne se man ^urh nioiiignysse forsilrS his Scyppendes 
beboda, J^onne sona sceal he befcallan on sumum seabe 
svveartra synna. Modignys is endcnext gesett on getele 
^aera heafod-leahtra, forSan iSe se unwaera on ende oft nio- 
dcgaS on godum weorcum, and ncle Gode "Sancian, "JJe hine 
mid halgum maegnum healice geglengdc. pes leahtor acenS 
forsewennysHC and ungehyrsumnysse, andan and yfel-sacuj)ge, 
ceorunge and gelomlicc tala. 

pisum heafod-leahtrum we sceolon symle on urum iSeawum 
wi^cweSan, and Surh Godes fultum mid gastlicum w.-vpnum 
ealle ofcr\vinnan,gif we "Sone heofenlican eard habban wilhiS. 
To Sam earde we waeron gesceapene, ac wc hit forwyrhton. 
Nu naebbe we hit naefre, butoii we hit cftgcwiimon mid gast- 
licum gecampc Surh Godcs fultum, swa swa Israhel JSone 
eard gewann Se Abrahamc ;er beliatcn wics. Wc sceolon 
oferwinnan terest gifernysse mid gemetogunge tetes and 
wffites; forltgcr o«S5e giilnysse mid claMinysse, swa }?aet se 
Iffiweda his jjewe hcalde, and se gchadoda Godes "Seow symle 
on claennysse wunige, swa swa se canon him cu Slice scgS. 
We sceolon oferwinnan woruldlice gytsunge mid cystignysse 
ures chenan modes, and wcatnettc mid wislicum gcSylde, 
and woruldlice unrotnysse mid gastlicere blissc, asolccnnysse 
mid soSre anraidnyssc, ydelnegylp mid incundre lufe, modig- 
nysse mid micelre eadmodnysse ; j^onne sylS us to leane se 
sigeffcsta lesus "Sone ccan eSel mid eallum his halgum, on 
"Sam we a sySSan gesajlige rixiaS, aelces yfeles orsorge, gif 
we hit nu geearnia"S. 

paet Israhela folc geSafode ]?set sume Sa haeSenan on heora 
Seowte kofodon, to wudunge and to wreterunge on "Sam wid- 
gillan lande ; swa eac we ne magon mid ealle adwa^scan aelcne 
un'Seaw of urum lichaman ; ac Sa ma;stan we sceolon miiitig- 
lice oferwinnan, and symle on ^am laessan eadmodnysse 
leornian, na on geSafunge swa-Seah Swyrlicera dffida. 

Seo sunne stod stille on heofonum oSj^aet Israhel ealle ofer- 
wann Sa Swyran hsSenan mid stiSum gefeohte ; swa gelice 



MIDLENT SUNDAY. 22S 

through pride despises the commandments of his Creator, 
then shall he forthwith fall into a pit of swart sms. Pride is 
set last in the number of the chief sins, because the heedless is 
at last often proud of good works, and will not thank God, 
who had highly adorned him with holy virtues. This sin 
brings forth contempt and disobedience, envy and evil strife, 
murmuring and frequent calumnies. 

These chief sins we should in our conduct ever oppose, 
and with God's support overcome them all \\ilh ghostly 
weapons, if we are desirous to have the heavenly country. For 
that country we were created, but we forfeited it. Now we 
shall never have it, unless we again win it with ghostly con- 
flict, through the aid of God, as Israel won the country which 
had before been promised to Abraham. We must first over- 
come greediness by moderation in eating and drinking ; for- 
nication or libidinousness by chastity, so that the layman 
hold to his wife, and the ordained minister of God ever con- 
tinue in chastity, as the canon plainly tells him. We u\\\>t 
overcome worldly covetousncss by the bounty of our pure 
mind, and irascibilit) Ijy wise patience, and worldly discontent 
with ghostly joy, slothfulness by true steadfastness, vain- 
glory by inward love, pride witii great humility; then will 
the triumphant Jesus give us for reward the eternal country 
with all his saints, in which we shall ever after reign happily, 
careless of every evil, if we now will merit it. 

The people of Israel allowed some of the heathen to live in 
their service, to supply wood and water in the wide-extended 
land ; in like manner also we cannot wholly eradicate every 
vice from our bodies ; but the greatest we should strenuously 
overcome, and in the smaller ever learn humility, yet not in 
approval of perverse deeds. 

The sun stood still in heaven until Israel had overcome 
the perverse heathens in obstinate battle ; so also does our 



224 DOMINICA V. QUADRAGESIME. 

cac deS urc Drihtcn Crist, sebc is gecTged rilitwisnysse Sunne : 
he fiht mid us ongean tSam fuhuu leahtrum, seSe jer his up- 
stige us eallum behet J^sethedteghwomlicemid us beoii wolde 
o~S geendunge ^issere worulde. pa Godes Seowas t5a on 
Israhela Seode naiie land-are hlcotan iie moston, forban be 
God bebead aer "Surh Moysen, ));et hi be his lacum lybbaii 
sceoldoM : cwaeS paet lie sylf waere hcora yrfwcardnj'ss ; swa 
sceolon eac nu "Sa se^elau Godes "Seowas lybban be Godcs 
daele, gif hi rihtlice doS, and his rihtwisnysse symle ar^eran, 
and ^a gastlican teolunga Gode gestreonan, and been his 
folces forebingcras, a wissian hi eac, and mid weorcum gc- 
bysnian, and habban him pa;t cdlean on ^ani ecan life. 

Hwa nifleg tefre on life calie gcreccan Godes m;erlican 
mihta, "Se he mannuin cydde fram Adiimes anginnc ot) j>isne 
andweardan dipg ? Sy him wuldor and lof a to worulde. 
Amen. 



DOMINICA V. QUADRAGESIME. 

DEOS tid fram bis um andwerdan dfege ob ba halgan Easter- 
tide is gecwedcn Cristes bROwuNG-TiD, and ealle Godes 
^eowas on baere halgan gelabnnge, mid heora circlicum be- 
nungum wurbiab and on gemynde healdab his browunge, 
])urh ^a we ealle alysede wurdon. Secgab eac ure bee ]>iBt 
we sceolon iSas feowertyne niht mid micelre geornfulnysse 
healdan, for genealaecunge j^aere halgan "browunge, and j^aes 
arwurbfuUan aeristes ures Haelendes. On ^isum dagum we 
forlffitab on urum rcpsum 'Gloria Patri,' for geomerunge 
baere halgan ^rowunge, buton sum healic freols-daeg him on 

besceote. 

Dis daegberlice godspel sprecb ymbe baera ludeiscra -bwyr- 
nysse, hu hi wi^erodon ongean Cristes lare burh ungeleafful- 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY IN LENT. 285 

Lord Christ, who is culled the Sun of Righteousness : he 
fififhts with us auainst foul sins, who before his ascension 
promised to us all that he would be with us daily until the 
ending of this world. To the servants of God then among the 
people of Israel might not be allotted any land-possession, 
because God had before commanded through Moses, that 
they should live by his offerings : he said that he himself was 
their iidieritance ; so also now should tiie noble servants of 
God live by God's portion, if they would do rightly, and ever 
exalt his righteousness, and gain ghostly produce to God, and 
be the intercessors of his people, also constantly direct them, 
and give example by works, and have their reward in ever- 
lasting life. 

Who may ever in life recount the great powers of God, 
which he hath manifested from Adam's beginning until this 
present day ? Be to him glory and praise to all eternity. 
Amen. 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY IN LENT. 

THIS tide from this present day until the holy Easter-tide 
is called Ciiuist's Passion Tide, and all God's ministers in 
the holy church with their church-services honour, and in 
remembrance hold his passion, through which we were all 
redeemed. Our books also say, that we should hold these 
fourteen days with great earnestness, on account of the ap- 
proach of the holy passion and honourable resurrection of 
our Saviour. On these days we omit in our responses 'Gloria 
Patri,' on account of our lament for the holy passion, imless 
some high festival-day occur during them. 

This daily gospel speaks of the perversity of the Jews, how 
they opposed Christ's doctrine by unbelief, with envious mind. 

HOM. VOL. II. Q 



226 DOMINICA V. QUADRAGESIME. 

nysse, mid JiitSfullum mode. Diihten cwaeS to baera ludeiscra 
meiiigu, and to ]>am caldor-biscopum, " Quis ex uobis arguet 
me de pcccato ? Si ucritutem dico, quare uos non creditis 
mihi ?" et reliqua : j^aet is, on urum ge^eode, " Huilc eower 
'brea^ me be synne ? Gif ic so5 sccge, hwi nelle ge me gely- 
fan?" et reliqua. 

We willaS trahtnian ^is godspel aefter Augustines and 
Gregories dihte. Wc sceolon smeagan mid arfestre hcortan 
ures Drihtnes manSwfernysse. lie com to ^i j'set he wolde 
synna forgifan, and he cwc'eeJ, " Ilwilc eower SreaS me for 
synne?" Nc ^uhte him to huxlic, Jj;et he mid gcsceade hinc 
bctealdc unsynninne, se^e ^urh Godcundnysse mihte "Sa syn- 
fullan gerihtwisian. He cwaeeJ, " Gif ic sob sccgc, hwi nelle 
ge me gelyfan? Se ^e fram Gode is, he gchyrti Godcs word: 
forbi ge ncUaS gehyran, forSan Se ge ne sind fram Gode." 
pa ludeiscan wa^ron fram Gode, and hi n.-rron fram Gode. 
Hi \vfr,ron fram Gode gcsceapene, ac hi w.'eron gelcahtrode 
]?urh deofol, and "Surh nianda?dum hi wepron deoflcs beam ; 
s\ra s\ra Crist on 'Sisum godspelle her-bufan him to c\v;t^^, 
'* Ge sind dcofles beam, and ge willaS eoweres ffeder willan 
wyrcan : he waes manslaga fram frymSe, and he ne wunode 
on so"(Sfsestnysse, for San Se nan soSfa?stnys nis on him." Da 
ludeiscan noldon gehyran Cristes soSf^estnysse, fofSan ^e hi 
NVferon afyllede mid hcora feeder yfclnysse and leasunge : ac 
swa swa heora faeder ]?urh Sudan ofsloh ^a frumsccapenan 
men, swa eac ^a ludeiscan smcadon niSfullice ymbe Cristes 
cwale, gecuenlae.cende heora fteder, |?tet is, deofol^ Se fram 
frymSe vvres manslaga, na Surh wsepnum, ac Surh yfelre 
tihtinge. 

Wite gchwa sc'Se oSerne to Icahtrum forspenS, )?6et he is 
manslaga, |?onne he ^aes o^res sawle forpaerS }?urh his yfelum 
tihtingum. ^Ic gesccaft is god on gecynde, ac hit biS 
geleahtrod Jnirh yfelnysse. pa ludeiscan waeron gode on 
gecynde and on gebyrde, for^an ^e hi waeron Abraham cs 
ofspring ; ac hi waeron yfele and deofles beam "Surh euen- 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY L\ LENT. 227 

The Lord said to the luultitiulc of Jews aiul to the chief 
bishops, "Quis ex vobis arguct me de peccator Si veritatciii 
dico, quare vos non crcditis uiihi?" et reliqua : that is, in our 
tongue, "Which of you convicteth me of sin? If I say the 
truth, why will ye not believe me?" etc. 

We will expound this gospel according to the authority of 
Augustine and Gregory. We should contemplate with pious 
heart our Lord's meekness. He came to the end that he 
might forgive sins, and he said, "Which of you convictctli 
nie of sin?" It seemed not to him too humiliating with reason 
to prove himself unsinning, who through Ins divine nature 
might justify the sinful. lie said, " If I say the truth, why 
will ye not believe me ? He who is from God hcareth God's 
word : ye will not hear, because ye are not from God." The 
Jews were from God, and lluy were not from God. They 
were created from God, but they were corrupted by the devil, 
and through deeds of wickedness they were children of the 
devil ; as Christ in this gospel here above said to them, ** Ye 
are children of the devil, and ye will work your father's will: 
he was a manslayer from the begiiiiiitig, and he existed 
not in truth, because there was no truth in him." The 
Jews would not hear Christ's truth, because they were filled 
with the evilncss and leasing of their father : but as their 
father through envy slew the first created persons, so like- 
wise the Jews enviously deliberated for the slaying of Christ, 
imitating their father, that is, the devil, who was a manslayer 
from the i)eginning, not by weapons, but through evil in- 
stigation. 

Let every one know who entices another to sins, that he 
is a manslayer, when he perverts the other's soul by evil in- 
stigations. Every creature is good in its nature, but it is 
corrupted by evil. The Je\^ s were good by nature and by 
birth, for they were Abraham's offspring ; but they were evil 
and children of the devil through imitation, not by natm'e. 

Q 2 



228 DOiMINICA V. QUADRAGESIME. 

Isecunge, nn (Surh gecyndc. Hit is gewunelic on halguin 
gewritura, ]><tit gehwam bib feder genamod be his gecfen- 
la?cunge : gif he geeuenlaecS Gode on godum weorcum, he 
bib ]/onne Godes beam gecTged ; gif he geuenlfecb deofle on 
manlicuni dsedum, he bib bonne deofles beam, })uih his yfehm 
geeuenliecunga, na gecyndelice. 

Drihten cwse^ on "byssere ylcan rsedinge her-wibufan to 
•bam ludeiscunij " Sob sob ic eow secge, -^Ic 'bfera be synnc 
wyrcb, he bi^ ];onne ■bjere sy nne "beow." Witodlice se syn- 
fulla ^eowab ]>am ^v'yrstan bcowte : j^eah be he bruce brades 
rices, he is earni ^eowthng, na ancs Idafordcs ; ac swa mane- 
gum leahtrum swa he gehyrsumab, swa manega deofla him 
beob to hlafordum gesette. 

Gehwa mteg hine sylfne tocnawan on bam wordum \fc 
Drihten cw^e^, "Se "be is fram Gode he geliyrb Godes word." 
God yEhnihtig bebytt mainmm )>iet ht sccolon hcofonan rices 
ebel symle gcwihiian, and j^yssere worulde ydclnysse forscon ; 
obrcs mannes aehta ne gewihiian, his agon cysteHce diehm ; 
sobfestnysse and rihtwisnysse mid anraedum mode symle 
healdan. Smcaga nu gehwa on his mode, gif bas beboda and 
obre |)illice habba^ ienigne stede on his heortan, bonne to- 
cnajwb he hwa;ber he is fram Gode. Witodlice se is fram 
Gode ]ye Godes beboda mid gehyrsumum eare gehyrb, and 
gecneordlice hi mid weorcum gefylb. Se ]'e ne ma^g histlice 
Godes word gcliyran, ne nele hi on weorcum awendan, he 
bi^ ■baera arleasra ludeiscra efenhlytta, be "bam |?c Crist 
cwae^, ^' For'bi ge ncllab gehyran, forban "be ge ne sind fram 
Gode." 

pa ludeiscan cwaedon be Criste ]?set he waere Samaritanisc, 
and hwfde deofol on him. Samaria hatte an burh, ba burh 
forsawon ]?a ludeiscan to "ban swi^e, ]>a&t swa hwilcne swa hi 
to hospe habban woldon, "bonne cwaedon hi be ^am ]fset he 
waere Samaritanisc. Twa bysmolice word hi cweedon to 
Criste : an is, j^aet he waere Samaritanisc, ober past he deofol 
on him haefde, ]>iBt we cwei5a^ on Englisc be wodum menu, 



I 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY L\ LENT. 229 

It is usual in the holy writings, that to every one a father be 
named according to his imitation: if he imitate God in good 
worics, he will then be called a child of God; if he imitate 
the devil in wicked deeds, he will then be a child of the 
devil, through his evil imitations, not naturally. 

The Lord said in this same text here above to the Jews, 
"Verily, verily I say unto you, Each of those who work sin 
shall then be the servant of sin." But a sinful man is a ser- 
vant in the worst servitude: though he enjoy a broad realm, 
he is a miserable thrall, not of one master ; but so many vices 
as he obeys, so many devils arc set over him as masters. 

Every one may know himself by the words which the 
Lord said, "He who is from God hcareth God's word." God 
Almiglity commands men constantly to desire the country of 
heaven's kingdom, and to despise this world's vanity; not to 
desire another man's possessions, to distribute his own boun- 
tifully; ever to observe truth and righteousness with steadfast 
mind. Let every one now consider in his mind, whether 
those couunandments and others like unto them have any 
place in Ins heart, then will he know whether he is from 
God. Verily he is from God who with obedient ear hears 
God's commandments, and by works diligently fulfds them. 
He who camiot joyfully hear God's words, and will not turn 
them to works, is a participator with the impious Jews, ac- 
cording to what Ciirist said, "Therefore ye Mill not hear, 
because ye are not from God." 

The Jews said of Christ that he was a Samaritan, and had 
a devil in him. Samaria was the name of a city, which city 
the Jews so greatly despised, that ^^'hatever man they would 
hold in scorn, they said of him that he was a Samaritan. 
Two reproachful sayings they said to Christ : one is, that he 
was a Samaritan, the other, that he had a devil in him, what 
we sav in English of a mad man, * thou art mad.' Christ then 



230 DOMINICA V. QUADRAGESIiME. 

*);u eart wod.' pa wi^soc Crist swi^e lihtlice ]>£ei he dco- 
fol on him nsefde ; ac he ne wi^soc ]wt he nsere Samaritanisc, 
for^an ^e Samaritanisc is gecvveden ' Hyrde,' and he is se 
so^a Hyrde, swa swa se witega cwae^, " Buton Drihtcn t^a 
burh gehealde, on ydel wacia^ ]>a hyrdas ^c hi healda^." 
Eft cwae"S se ylca witega, "Ne slaepS ne ne hnappaS se "5e 
hylt Israhel." 

An 'Saera hosp-M'orda he forbser suwigende, j'aet J>aet he be 
him sj'lfum oncneow ; ]7aet o^er he so^lice wicSsoc, ]>pet he 
deofol on him n;efde ; ac hi waeron witodlice mid deofle afyl- 
lede, "SaiSa hi swa wodlice to tSam ^veluillcnda^ Ha^lende 
sprfficon. lie nolde sccgan |'£rt so^ wtes, ])aet hi wode waeron, 
)7y-lses "Se hit waere gcSuht ]nvt he hi for his teonan Mode 
hete, na aefter so^um ^incge. Mid 5am getiylde he sealde 
cristcnum mannum soiSe l)ysiie j'.rt hi sccolon forsuwian 
heora gefcrcna unSeawas, JSonne hi fram him gctyrigdc bcoS, 
"Sy-lcEs ^e hi ^urh heora soiSscgcne unge<Syldige beon, gif hi 
heora hosp mid so5c sjemtingcs wrecaS. 

Drihten cwavS, " Ic arwurSige minne Faeder, and ge unar- 
wurbiaS me." Swilce he cwsede, ' Nclle ic me sylfiic arwur- 
^ian on eowere gesihSe, ]>}-ljes 5e ic beo gylpcndc geSuht.' 
^' Ic arwur^ige mimie Fabler, and gc woldon me arvvurcJian, 
gif ge me rihtlice oncneowon. Ne sece ic min wuhlor : se is 
"Se sec^ and tosctet." Drihten nis na oJSrum mannum to wi5- 
metenne, ■Scab "Se he mann sy geworden ; ac his Heofonlica 
Feeder bine wurt^ode toforan calhnn his dj5phiymendum on 
•Saire menniscnysse, ]>e he for manna alysednysse under- 
feng. 

We menu beo'5 mid synnum acennede : ne we ne beoS be 
agenum dihte acennede, ne we ne lybbaiS swa lange swa us 
lyst, ne we swa ne swelta^ swa we sylfe geceosaS. So^lice 
Crist, jercSan iSe he acenned waere, geceas him mreden to 
meder, and wees buton aelcere synne acenned, and mid wun- 
drum geswutclode ]?aet he God is, and swa hinge leofode on 
•Sisum dcadlicum life swa he sylf wolde, ajid be his agenum 



i 

J 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY IN LENT. 231 

denied very rightly that he had a devil in him ; but he did 
not deny that he was a Samaritan, because Samaritan is in- 
terpreted Keeper, and he is the true Keeper, as the prophet 
said, " Unless the Lord guard the burgh, in vain will the 
keepers watch who guard it." Again, the same prophet said, 
"He neither slcepeth nor slumbereth who guardeth Israel." 

One of their reproaches he bore silently, that which he 
knew of himself ; but the other he denied, that he had a devil 
in him ; but they were undoubtedly filled with a devil, when 
they so madly spake to the benevolent Jesus. He would not 
say, what was true, that they were mad, lest it should appear 
that he in recrimination called them mad, not according to 
the truth. By that patience he gave christian men a true 
example that they should pass in silence the vices of their 
companions, when they are provoked by them, lest they 
through their truth-telling be impatient, if they always with 
truth avenge their contumely. 

The Lord said, " I honour my Father, and ye dishonour 
me." As if he had said, * I will not honour mvsclf in vour 
sight, lest I appear boastful.' " I honour my Father, and ye 
would honour me, if ye rightly knew me. I seek not my 
glory: there is one who sceketh and distinguisheth." The 
Lord is not to be compared with other men, although he 
became man ; for his Heavenly Father honoured him before 
all his participators in the humanity which he assumed for 
the redemption of men. 

We men are born with sins : we are not born at our 
own pleasure, nor live we so long as we list, nor die we so 
as we ourselves choose. But Christ, before he was born 
chose him a maiden for mother, and was born without any 
sin, and by miracles manifested that he is God, and lived as 
long in this mortal life as he himself would, and by his own 



232 DOMINICA V. QUADRAGESIME. 

dihte dea^ geceas, and gewat ISaba he wolde. On Siere byr- 
gene he laeg swa lange swa he wolde ; he aras of ^fere byr- 
gene "Sa^a he wolde, swilce of anum bedde. Eal Sis belunpS 
to "Sfere menniscnysse ; seo godcunduys is unasmeagendlic 
and unasecgendlic. Micel is betwux Cristes wuldre iefter 
"Saere menniscnysse, and betwux o^ra manna wuldre. Be 
his menniscum wuldre he cwae^, " Ic ne sece min wuldor, is 
swa-'Scah se^e secS and toscait." Se Ileofenlica Fteder wul- 
draS his Beam, and toscfet his wuldor fram obra manna 
wuldre "Searle unwiSmetenlice. 

Be '5am godcundum wuldre cwjeS Crist to <Sam ludeiscum, 
"SoS so5 ic eow secge, Swa hna swa min word hylt, ne ge- 
sihS he dea^ on ecnysse." Ilrr scalde Crist bysne eaHum 
larcowum, Jnet In ne sceolon, for yfeha manna bwyrnysse, 
heora bodungc alccgan, ac swiSor gecacnian, swa swa se 
Haelend dydc, ^aSa he "Scera ludciscra hosp-word gehyrde. 
pa ludeiscan cw<edon, " Nu wc oncnawaS J?fet "Su eart wod. 
Abraham forSfcrde and witegan, and Su scgst, Swa hwa swa 
min word hylt, ne onbyrigS he deaSes on ecnysse." Crist 
nicende ^one ecan deaS, to |>am nc bccumaS |?a Se his bcbodu 
healdaS ; and "Sa ludeiscan mjcndon jnsne andweardan dcaS, 
"Sam ne {etwint nan eorSlic mann. Ilwe'et is godra manna 
deaS buton awendednys and fierr fram dea^e to ^am ecan 
life ? Se lichama awent to eorSan, and anbidaS leristes, and 
on "Sam fyrste nan Sing ne gefret. Seo claene sawul anbidaS 
eac |?ses ecan ieristes, ac heo wunaS on wuldre on ^fere hwile 
mid halgum. paes manfullan mannes dea^ is, J)a3t his sawul 
faeriS fram ^issere scortan blisse to Sam ecum witum, on Sam 
heo sceal ecelice cwylmian, and swa-^eah Uccfre ne ateoraS. 
Disum deaSe genealeehton ^a ludeiscan, and Sa giu hi wffiron 
deade, J'a^a hi to Criste hosplice word ^vedende spraecon. 
Se biS dead ecum deaSe, se^e is forestiht to ^am ecum dca^e. 
He leofa^ on lichaman, and is swa-^eah so^lice dead. Abra- 
ham forSferde and witegan gemaenelicum deaSe, ac hi lybbaS 
on ecnysse mid Godc. 



THE FIPTII SUNDAY IN LENT. 233 

will chose (Iciith, and departed when he would. In the sepul- 
chre he lay as long as he would ; he arose from the sepulchre 
when he would, as from a bed. All this belongs to his hu- 
manity; his divinity is inscrutable and unspeakable. Greatly 
differs the glory of Christ according to humanity from the 
glory of other men. Of his human glory he said, "I seek 
not my glory ; there is, nevertheless, one who seeketli and 
distinguishcth." The Heavenly Father glorifies his Son, and 
distinguishes his glory from other men's glory most incom- 
parably. 

Of this divine glory Christ spake to the Jews, *' Verily, 
verily I say unto you. Whosoever observeth my words shall 
not see death to eternity." Here Christ gave an example to 
all teachers, that they should not, for the perversity of evil 
men, abate their preaching, but rather a\igment it, as Jesus 
did when he heard the reproaches of the Jews. The Jews 
said, "Now we know that thou art mad. Abraham departed, 
and the prophets, and thou sayest, ^^'hosoever observeth my 
words, shall not taste of death to eternity." Christ meant 
the eternal death, to which those shall not come who hold 
his commandments ; and the Jews meant this present death, 
from which no earthly man escapes. What is the death of 
good men but a change and passage from death to ever- 
lasting life ? The body turns to earth and awaits the resur- 
rection, and in that space feels nothing. The pure soul also 
awaits the eternal resurrection, but it continues in glory in 
that interval with saints. Tlie wicked man's death is, that 
his soul passes from this short joy to eternal torments, in 
which it shall suffer eternally, and yet never perish. To this 
death the Jews approached, and they w'ere already long dead, 
when they raging spake reproachful words to Christ. He is 
dead in eternal death, who is predestined to eternal death. 
He lives in body, and, nevertheless, is truly dead. Abraham 
departed, and the prophets, by common death, but they live 
to cternitv with God. 



234 DOMINICA V. QUADRAGESIME. 

Hi befruiion Crist, "Hwilcne wyrcst Su "Se sylfue?" 
Drihten andwyrdc, " Gif ic me sylfne wuldrige, |?onne biS 
mill wuldor naht. Min Feeder is ^e me wuldrab, be ^am ge 
secgatS ]?aet he eower God sy, and ge hine ne oncneowon." 
His wuldor he tealde to his Fiedcr, of Sam 'Se he is eall ]j;et 
he is. He wuldraS his Fa^der, and se Fteder wuklracS hine ; 
forSan "Se him is an wuldor gem^ne, and an Godcundnyss, 
mid ^am Halgum Gastc. He cwteS be his Ffeder, " Ge sec- 
gaS l^aet he eower God sj^, and ge hine nc oncneowon." Gif 
hi so^lice J)onc Halgan Fa^der oncneowon, Sonne underfcngon 
hi mid gcleafan his anccnnecUm Sunu, ]?e he asende to mid- 
danearde. He cwae^, "Ic hine cann, and gif ic sccge ]??et ic 
hine ne cunnc, ]>onne bco ic leas cow gcKc." pas word mihton 
beon gelSuhte fljcsclicum mannum swylcc hi mid gylpc gc- 
clypode w?eron. Witodlicc gylp is to forbugrnne, ac swa- 
•(Seah na swa ]>jetsoS sy forheten. Drihten cwaeS, "Abraham, 
eower fanler, blissode ]?tet he minne d;eg gcsawe, and lie ge- 
scah, and p;es ftegnode." Abraham se heahfanler underfeng 
bry enghis on his gcst-huse, on hiwe Siere Halgan Drynnysse, 
to "Sam he spraec swa swa to annm ; forSan "Se seo Halige 
Drynnyss gecyndelicc wunaS on anrc Godcundnysse, fefre an 
God untodieledlic. pa geseah Abraham Drihtnes (heg, |)aj?a 
he "Sas gerynu tocneow. Eft is oSer Sing ]>c Abraham mid 
micelre getacnunge gedyde. DaSa he ealdode, and his sunu 
wTfian sceolde, ]>a clypode he his yldestan cniht him to, and 
het hine settan his hand under his Scoh, and swerian Surh 
■Sone Heofonlican God, j^aet he naefre geSafode ]>aet his sunu 
Isaac on hse^enre maegSe wTfian sceolde, ac of "Sam geleaf- 
fullum folce |?e Abraham on afedd waes. Hwaet belamp 
Abrahames Seoh to Sam Hcofenlican Gode ? OSSe hwaet 
miende se aS swa gesworen, baton pjet mid Sjere diede waes 
getacnod se Heofenlica God toweard on lichaman of Abra- 
hames cynne ? AVitodlice j^aet ^eoh getacnode his cynn, and 
Abraham Surh witegunge stafodc |>one aS, j;a^a he geseah 
Drihtnes daeg toweard of his sfede. His saed he getacnode 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY IX LENT. 235 

They asked Christ, "Whom makest thou thyself?" The 
Lord answered, " If I glorify myself, then will my glory be 
naught. It is my Fatiier who glorifieth me, of whom ye say 
that he is your God, and ye know him not." His glory he 
ascribed to his Father, through whom he is all that he is. 
He glorifies his Father, and the Father glorifies him ; for 
there is one gh^ry and one Godhead common to them with 
the Holy Ghost. He said of his Father, "Ye say that he is 
your God, and ye know him not." For if the\ had known 
the Holv Father, then would thcv with belief have received 
his only-begotten Son, whom he sent to the world. He said, 
" I know him, and if I say that I know him not, then shall 
I be false like unto you." These words might appear to 
fleshly men as if they iuid been uttered in pride. Pride is 
undoubtedly to be eschewed, but yet not so that truth be 
abandoned. The Lord said, "Abraham, your father, rejoiced 
to see my day, and he saw it, and rejoiced thereat." Abraham 
the patriarch received three angels in his hostel, in the form 
of the Holy Trinity, to whom he spake so as to one; for the 
Holy Trinity exists by nature in one Godhead, ever one God 
indivisible. Abraham then saw the day of the Lord, when 
he understood these mysteries. There is again another 
thing which Abraham did with a great betokening. When 
he waxed old, and his son should take a wife, he called his 
eldest lad to him, and bade him set hi§ hand under his thigh, 
and swear by the Heavenly God, that he would never consent 
that his son Isaac should take a wife in a heathen tribe, but 
from the believing folk among which Abraham was born. 
Wiiat had Abraham's thigh to do with the Heavenly God ? 
Or what meant the oath so sworn, except that by that deed 
was betokened that the Heavenly God was to come in body 
of Abraham's kin ? For the thigh betokened his kin, and 
Abraham through prophecy dictated the oath, when he saw 
that the day of the Lord was to come of his seed. His seed 



236 DOMINICA V. QUADRAGESIME. 

mid |;am worde ^e he cweeS, " Sete •Sine hand under minuni 
Seo.'^ His Drihten he getacnode |ja]?a he cwaeS, " Sweru 
'Surh ^one Heofenlican God." 

Hvvset ^a ludeiscan yrsigende cwaedon to Criste^ " Hw<Kt 
la, git ^u ne eart fiftig geara, and gesawe "Su Abraham?" 
Drihten him andwj'rde, " SocS soS ic eow secgc, ^rxSan 5e 
Abraham gewurde ic eom." Abraham wcarS gesceapcn, swa 
swa gesceaft : Crist hine gesceop, swa swa Scyppend, sebe 
toweard wees on fla?sce of Abrahiimes ofspringe. Ne cwjcJS 
se Hffilend, ^/ErSan Se Abraham wrere ic w;es,' ac he cwreS, 
"^rSan ]>e Abraham gewurde ic com." pjet word bclimpb 
synderlice to Gode anum, *' Ic com " j forSan cSe he is ana 
biiton anginnc and cndc, swa SMa he sylf cwa^^ to Moysen, 
*' Ic eom se^e eom, and scge Israhehi bearnum, Se 5e is scnde 
me to eow." Gesceafta sind ]>;et ]r,vX hi sind, ac cJis word ne 
mK"g soblice been be him gecweden, (Sonne hi nabbaS nane 
wunungc |'arh hi sylfe, ac "5urh God, seSe ana is ]nirh hine 
sylfne wunigende, and ealle gesceafta healdcndc baton ge- 
s wince. He iiic'eg sobiicc cweJSan, " Ic com," j^iet is on 
Lseden, " Ego sum." " HT iSa namon stanas, ]>i£t hi hine 
torfodoii." Hi hffifdon stienene heardiiysse on heora heortan, 
and forbi to Sam stanum urnon, Sam Se hi gelice wieron. 
Se Ila'lend soSlice hine bchydde, and code of Sam temple. 
He forbcah heora stanas swa swa mann, swa swa eadmud, 
se'Se mihte )?urh his Godcundnysse gedon ])aet seo eorSe hi 
forswulge, oS)>aet hi fserlice f ealle iide swulton ; ac his geSyld 
wees to San micel, paet he nolde naenne dom ^a gesettan, "SaSa 
he to ^rowigenne com. Eac is sum Sing digele on |;aere 
daede : he behydde hine lichamlice wiS )><'era ludeiscra st;Jen- 
inge, and he behydde hine gastlice fram heora sta^nenum 
heortum. 

Lucas se Godspcllere aurat on oSre stowe, Jjset "Sa ludei 
laeddon Crist ajt sumum sfele to anum clife, and woldon hine 
niSer ascufan ; ac he code betweonan heora handum aweg, 
swa ]?eet heora nan nyste hwrer he becom. He noldc ^one 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY L\ LENT. 237 

lie betokened by the words which he spake, "Set thine liand 
under my thigh." His Lord he betokened when he said, 
"Swear by the Heavenly God." 

The Jews then in anger said to Christ, " What, thou art 
not yet fifty years old, and hast thou seen Abraham ?" The 
Lord answered them, " Verily, verily I say unto you, before 
Abraham was, I am." Abraham was created as a creature : 
Clirist created him as Creator, who was to come in flchh of 
Abraham's ofTspring. Jesus said not, ' Before Abraham was, 
1 was,' but he said, " Before Abraliam was, I am." That 
expression, " I am," belongs exclusively to God alone; for 
he is alone without begimiing and end, as he himself said to 
Moses, " I am that I am, and say to the children of Israel, He 
who is hath sent me to you." Creatures are that which they 
are, but this expression cannot truly be said of them, as they 
have no existence through themselves, but tiu'ough God, who 
alone is existing tiirough himself, and preser^'ing all creatures 
without toil. He may truly say, " 1 am," that is in Latin, 
"Ego sum." "They then took stones, that they might 
stone him." They had stony hardness in their hearts, and, 
therefore, ran to the stones, to which they were like. But 
Jesus hid himself, and went from the temple. He avoided 
their stones as man, as a humble one, who juight through 
his Godhead have caused the earth to swallow them, until 
suddeidy falling they died ; but his patience was so great, 
that he would not then fix any doom, when he came to 
suffer. There is also something mysterious in the deed : he 
hid hiiuself bodily from the stoning of the Jews, and he hid 
himself spiritually from their stony hearts. 



Luke the Evangelist wrote in another place, that the Jews 
at one time led Christ to a cliff, and would shove him down ; 
but h.e went away from between their hands, so that no one 
knew what became of him. He would not suffer the death 



238 DOMINICA V. QUADRAGESIME. 

deaS J^rowian 'Se hi gccuron, ac "Sone 'Se aer gewitegod waes, 
and '5one "Se he sylf gecwreS. lohannes se Godspellere awrat, 
J;aet Drihten cwaede to Nichodeme, an 'Saera ludciscra ealdra, 
SaSa he mid gcleafan his lare sohte, " Swa svva Moyses ahof 
^a nffiddran on Sam westene, swa gedafenaS j^iet ic beo 
ahafen ', J^aet aelc ^sera j^e on me gelyfS ne losige, ac j^set he 
haebbe |>fet ece lif." On ^isum wordiim is micel getacnung, 
ac eow eallum nis cu5 naSor ne seo getacnung ne hu hit 
gedon waes. pa^t Israhcla folc, SaSa hit ferde fram Egypta- 
landc, wear's on ^am westene wiSerraede ongean God. pa 
sende he betwux him fyrene n^eddran, |>a totaron Saes folccs 
fela manna, and to deaSe gCcEttrodon. pa clypode j^a^t folc to 
Moysen Sisum wordum, " We syngodon ongean God and 
ongean "Se : bide for us, J^ast sc .Ehnihtiga God }nis na^ddran 
fram us afyrsige." Hw;et Sa Moyses for Sam folce gebjed, 
and God |;;errihtc bcbead Moysc l><et he gcworhte ane ccrcne 
Dfeddran, and sette up to tacne, and |?cet he manode |>{et folc, 
]?ifit swa hwa swa fram «Sam njeddrum abiten waere, besawe 
up to Sjere aerenan naeddran, and he wurde gehreled. Hit 
wearS swa gedon. Da nfeddran hi totaeron, and hi bcsawon 
to 'Saere aerenan n.-eddran, and hi wurdon gehadede fram ISam 
deadbccrum attre j^^era fyrenra naeddryna. Ilwaet getacnodon 
]?a terendan njeddran buton synna on urum deadlicum fljesce ? 
Hwa^t wjes seo up-ahafcne n;eddre buton Cristes deaS on 
rode ? Seo aerene n;eddre haefde naeddran gelicnysse, ac heo 
wees buton aelcum attre ; swa eac Crist hfefde ure gelicnysse, 
ac he naefde nane synne on his leomum, ac Surh his up- 
ahafennysse on tJ^ere rode he geluelde ure synna. purh 
naeddran us beconi deatS, and forSi waes ]7urh "Saere naeddran 
gelicnysse Cristes dea^ getacnod. Daera naeddrena geslit 
wses deadlic ; Cristes dea^ waes liflic. Nu behealde we ^a 
naeddran, ]^aet seo naeddre us ne derige. Hwaet gemaenS )?aet ? 
We behealdaS Cristes deaS, ]?aet us se deaS ne derige, ]?e of 
"Saere luneddran asprang seo^e Adam forspeon. Hwaes dea^ 
behealde we ? Lifes deaS. Hwa is Itf buton Crist ? se^e 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY IN LENT. 239 

which they chose, but that which had before been prophesied, 
and which he had himself said. John the Evangelist wrote, 
that the Lord said to Nicodemus, one of the Jewish elders, 
when he with belief sought liis instruction, " So as Moses 
lifted up the serpent in the waste, so is it fitting that I be 
lifted up ; that everyone of those who believe in me may n(;t 
perish, but that lie may have everlasting life." In these 
words there is great signification, l)ut it is not known to you 
all, neither the signification nor how it was done. The 
people of Israel, when they went from the land of Egypt, 
were in the wilderness rebellious against God. lie then sent 
among them fiery serpents, which tore of the people many 
men, and poisoned them to death. Then the peo[)le cried to 
Mcses in these words, '•' We have simicd against God and 
against thee : pray for us, that the Almighty God may re- 
move from us these serpents." Thereupon Moses prayed 
for the people, and God straightways connnandcd Moses to 
make a brazen serpent, and set it up as a token, and to 
counsel the people that whosoever had been bitten by the 
serpents should look up to the brazen serpent, and he would 
be healed. It was so done. The serpents tore them, and 
they looked to the brazen serpent, and they were healed of 
the deadly poison of the fiery serpents. What betokened the 
tearing serpents but sins in our mortal flesh ? What was the 
up-lifted serpent but the death of Christ on the rood ? The 
brazen serpent had a serpent's likeness, but it was without 
any poison ; in like manner Christ had our likeness, but he 
had no sin in his members, but by his being raised up on the 
rood he healed our sins. Through a serpent came death to 
us, and, therefore, through the likeness of a serpent was 
Christ's death betokened. The bite of those serpents was 
mortal, the death of Christ was vital. AVe now behold the 
serpent, that the serpent may not hurt us. AVhat does that 
mean ? We behold the death of Christ, that death may not 
hurt us, which sprang from the serpent which seduced Adam. 
Whose death do we behold ? The death of life. What is 



240 JJOMINICA PALMARUM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

cwtetS, " Ic eom serist and lif : se ^e gelyf 5 on me, );eah ^e 
he dead beo he leofab ; and aelc "Saera ]>e leofab, and on me 
gelyf^, ne swelte he on ecnysse." Crist is Iff, and swa-^cah 
he waes on rode ahangen. He is so^ lif, and swa-"5eah he 
waes dead on "Saere menniscnysse, na on godcundnj-sse. On 
Cristes dea^e waes se dcaS adydd, forSan ]>e ]?8et dcade h'f 
acwealde ^one deacS, and he Wces fornumen on Cristes licha- 
man . 

Mine gebro^ru, uton beheakhm }?one ahangcnan Crist, ]>iet 
we beon fram ^am cRttrigum synnum gchcelcde. AVitodlice 
swa swa paet Israhela folc besawon to ^ccre aerenan naeddran, 
and wurdon gehaelede fram ^aera na^ddrcna gcslito, swa beoS 
nu gehaelede fram lieora synnum jja Se mid geleafan bchcaldab 
Cristes deaS and his aarist. IIi wwron geh.'elede fram deaSe 
to hwTIwendlicum life, and her is gecwedcn jm^t we sceolon 
habban jjtet ece lif; swa micel is betwux |>aere gchiwodan 
anlicnysse and ^am soJSan Singe : seo gcbiwode anhcnys 
getiSode |>am toslitenum mannum hwilwendhc lif; paet so5e 
"Sing, |?e Surh ^a ^renan nieddran getacnod waes, |>ffit is 
Cristes dcaS, getiSaS us |?aet ece lif. purh trcow us com 
dea^, ]?a"Sa Adam geaRt |?one forbodcnan a>ppcl, and Surh 
treow us com eft ITf and alyscdnyss, SaSa Crist hangode on 
rode for ure alyscdnysse. Dsere halgan rode tacn is ure 
blctsung, and to "Saere rode we us gebiddaS, na swa-Seah to 
Sam treowe, ac to Sam yElmihtigum Drihtne, ^e on 'Saere 
halgan rode for us hangode, Sy him lof and wuldor his 
ormeetan eadmodnysse on ealra worulda woruld. Amen. 



DOMINICA PALMARUM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

DRIHTNES DROWUNGE we willa^gedafenliceeow secgan 
on Engliscum gereorde, and Sa gerynu samod ; na swa-^eah 
to langsumlice, gif we hit swa gelogian magon. 



PALM SUNDAY. ON THE LORD'S PASSION. 241 

life but Christ ? who said, " I am the resurrection and the 
life : he who believeth in me, though he be dead he shall 
live ; and every one of those who live and believe in me shall 
not die to eternity." Christ is life, and, nevertheless, he was 
hanged on a rood. He is true life, and, nevertheless, he was 
dead in his human nature, not in his divine nature. By 
Christ's death was deatl) destroyed, for that mortal life killed 
death, and he was annihilated in the body of Clirist. 

My brothers, let us behold the crucified Christ, that we 
may be healed of venomous sins. Verily as the people of 
Israel looked on the brazen serpent, and were healed of the 
serpents' bite, so will now be healed of their sins they who 
with belief behold the death of Christ and his resurrection. 
They were healed from death to transitory life, and here it is 
said that we shall have life everlasting ; so great is the differ- 
ence between the apparent likeness and the true thing : the 
apparent likeness imparted to the torn men transitory life ; 
the true thing, which was betokened by the brazen serpent, 
that is, the death of Christ, imparts to us life everlasting. 
Through a tree death came to us, when Adam ate the for- 
bidden apple, and through a tree life came again to us and re- 
demption, when Christ hung on the rood for our redemption. 
The sign of the holy rood is our blessing, and to the rood 
we pray, though not to the tree, but to the Almighty Lord, 
who for us hung on the holy rood. To him be praise and 
glory, for his boundless humility, to all eternity. Amen. 



PALM SUNDAY. ON TilE LORD'S PASSION. 

WE will relate to you THE LORD'S PASSION suitably 
in the English tongue, together with the mysteries ; not, 
however, at too great a length, if we may so order it. 

II OM. VOL. II. a 



242 DOMINICA PALMARUM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

Crist forcsaede gefyrn, mid fea\Fuin wordunij his agene 
"Srowunge, aerSan ^e hit gevvurde, forSan calle ?ing he 
ealhiiige vviste aer^an ^e ^eos woruld wurde gesceapen. 
Moyses and Elias eac swilce s;«don his t>rowunge on aer 
uppon anre dune ^e se Hfelend astah mid ^rim leorning- 
cnihtum, and his ansyn setforan him eal scean swa swa sunne, 
and his geweeda scinon on snawes hwitnysse. pa wokle Petrus 
slean sona Sreo geteld, for t)jere gesih(5e, ac ^aer swegde 5a 
steinn "Saes Heofonlican Feeder healice of wolcne, " Des is 
min leofa Sunn, on ^am me wel lica^ : gehyruIS liine." And 
J>aet wolcn ^a toglad. pa gencahelite sc d;pg his deorwurSan 
■Srowungc, and ba Luk'iscan eahh'as geornlice smcadon hu 
hi Hjelend Crist acwcllan mihton ; ondredon him swa-Seah 
J^aes folces forestcall. Hwfet ^a se dcofol into ludan hestup, 
an "Saera twclfa Drihtncs «Segena, and he sona eode to ^c'era 
ludeiscra nede, and opcnlice befran, hwfet hi liim feos 
geuSon, gif he ^one Ha-lcnd him belaewan mihte. Hi "Sa 
|78es fffignodon, and |>fet fcoh gesetton on JSrittig sciliingum, 
gif he iSone unscapStSigan belfewde. 

pa com se Hailend on assan sittende into Hierusalem, aer 
■Sam symbel-da'ge, and gcheold Sa Easter-tid aefter "Saere 
ealdan ae. On fefnunge hi aeton ealle jetsomne, on Sam fiftan 
daege ^e ge Dunres hataS. pa aras Driliten of Sam gereorde, 
and awearp his reaf swit)e ricene : vvearS ]>a bewaefed mid 
ante waeter-scytan, and his gingrena fet eadmodlice aSwoIi, 
and eft his reaf ardhce genam, and hi sittende ^isum wordum 
gcsprffic: " Ic gesette eow nu soSe gebysnunge, ]?ast eower 
ffilc sceole oSres fet a^wean, swa swa ic lareow eow liSebig 
aSwoh." Se Hfelend hi a^woh mid ]?\veale wi^utan fram 
fenlicere fuhiysse mid his faegerum handum, and wi^innan 
eac heora andgit aSwoh fram ealium horwum heahcra leahtra ; 
and het gehwilcne o^erne aiSwean fram fulum synnum mid 
foreSingunge, and eac wiSutan eadmodnysse cy^an mid ge- 
swaesre ^enunge symle gebro'Srum. 

He eode eft sittan si^San mid his ^egnum, and on his 



PALM SUNDAY. OX THE LORD'S PASSION. 243 

Christ had already in few words foretold his own passion, 
before it took place, for he knew all things perfectly before 
this world was created. Mo^cs and Elias also previously 
aiuiounced his passion on a mountain which Jesus had 
ascended with three disciples, and all his countenance shone 
before them as the sun, and his garments shone ^ith the 
whiteness of snow. I'hcn w ould Peter forthwith pitch three 
tents on account of that vision, but there sounded then the 
voice of the Holy Father above from a cloud, *' This is my 
beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased: obey him." And 
the cloud then glided away. Then approached the day of 
his precious passion, and the Jewish elders earnestly delibe- 
rated how they might slay Jesus Christ ; but they dreaded a 
rescue by the people. Whereupon the devil entered into 
Judas, one of the twelve servants of the Lord, and he forth- 
with went to the council of the Jews, and openly asked, 
what money they would give him, if he would betray Jesus to 
them. At this they rejoiced, and fixed the money at thirty 
shillings, if he betrayed the innocent. 

Then came Jesus sitting on an ass into Jerusalem, before 
the feast-day, and held the Easter- tide according to the old 
law. In the evening they all ate altogether, on the fifth day 
which ye call Thursday. Then the Lord arose from the re- 
fection, and cast aside his garment very suddenly : and was 
then girt with a napkin, and hundily washed the feet of his 
disciples, and afterwards quickly resumed his garment, and 
addressed them sitting in these words : " I have now set you a 
true example, that each of you shoidd wash another's feet, so 
as I your teacher have meekly washed you." Jesus washed 
them with an ablution without from nuiddy foulness with his 
fair hands, and also washed their understanding within from 
all the dirt of deadly sins ; and commanded each to wash other 
from foul sins by intercession, and also without ever to mani- 
fest humility with kind service to brothers. 

He went afterwards to sit again with his disciples, and at 

R 2 



244 DOMINICA PALMARUiM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

gereordc he gcunrotsode, cwaeS pjet heora an hine belsewan 
wolde. Hi Sii ealle mid angsumum mode wnlipige cwjedoi), 
" Eom ic hit, Drihten ?" pa aiidwyrde se Haelend him sona 
"Sus, " Se ^e bedyp^ on disce mid me his hlaf on hepeldre, 
he is min laewa. Wa Sam men J?e me beltewS ! betere him 
was re J>fet he geboren naere." pa befran ludas gif he hit 
wtere ? Da cvvae^ se Heelend, " Du hit siSedest." Drihten 
sJede mid soSum worde, " Mihte ic h;ebbe mine sawle to 
syllenne, and ic eaSelice nijeg hi eft geniman." He genam 
"Sa hlaf and hine ITflice gchalgodo, toda^kle his ^egnum, and 
hi ^icgan het; cwfeilJ ])-<et hit wtere his agen lichama to 
husle gehalgod him to alyscdnysse. Eft svva gelice gehehte 
aenne calic, senode mid swi^ran, and scalde his gingrum, of to 
supenne fefter gereordc ; s;pde j'aet liit w;erc soblicc his blod 
"Sjerc Niwan GecyJSnysse, juet he for mannum ageat, on synna 
forgyfennysse, "Saer iSser se geleafa biS. 

Drihten c\vu?S soShce be 5am swicehm ludan, ]);et him selre 
ware p^et he geboren mere. Nis ]>iet na to understandcnne 
aiiiigum gesceadwisum swilce he awar wa^re {erISan Se he 
geboren waere, ac hit is anfealdlicc gccweden, pfet him betere 
waere ]>iet he na?fre naere, ISonne he yfele ware. Forwel fela 
manna onscuniaS liuhin bcla'winge, and swa-Seah nella^ 
forwandian ])fet hi ne syllon soSfeestnysse vvi^ sceattum. Se 
Haelend sylf is eal soSffestnys, and se ^e so^fjestnysse be- 
ceapaS wiS feo, he biS ludan gefcra on fyrenum witum, seiSe 
Crist beltewde for ly^rum sceatte. 

^fter gereorde Crist bletsode huscl, for^an ^e he wolde 
■5a ealdan jb aer gefyllan, and si(i5an ^a niwan gecy^nysse 
halwendlice onginnan. Hi teton j^aet lamb tefter "Sam ealdan 
gewunan, and he sySSan sona senode husel, seSe hine sylfne 
for urum synnum geoffrode liflice onsa^gednysse his leofan 
Faeder. Eft se Hcelend sijede soSlice his gingrum, " Ealle 
ge me aeswicia^ on "Sissere anre nihte. Hit is so^lice awriten, 
Ic ofslea ^one hyrde, and 5a seep si^^an sona beo^ tostencte. 
^fter ^an ^e ic arise of deaSe gesund, ic eow eft gemete on 



PALM SUNDAY. OX THE LORD'S PASSION. 24.5 

his refection he was sad, saying tliat one of them would 
betray him. They then all with anxious mind singly said, 
" Am I he, Lord ? " Jesus then forthwith answered them 
thus, " He who dippeth with me his bread in the dish is my 
betrayer. Wo to the man who betrayeth me ! better were it 
for him that he had not been born." Then asked Judas if it 
were he ? Then said Jesus, *' Thou hast said it." The Lord 
said with true words, " I have power to give my soul, and I 
can easily take it again." He then took bread and vitally 
hallowed it, distributing it to his disciples, and bade tlicni 
eat ; saying that it was his own body liallowed as houscl for 
their redemption. Afterwards in like manner he took a cup, 
signed it with his right hand, and gave it to his disciples to 
sip after the refection ; saying that it was truly his blood of 
the New Testament, which he shed for men for forgiveness 
of sins, wheresoever there is belief. 

The Lord said truly of the treacherous Judas, that better 
were it for him had he not been born. That is not to be 
understood by any sensible person as if he were anywhere 
before he was born, but it is simply said, that it were better 
for him that he had never l)een, than that he should evilly be. 
Very many men shun the treachery of Judas, and yet fear 
not to betray truth for money. Jesus himself is all truth, 
and he who sells truth for money will be the companion of 
Judas in fiery torments, who betrayed Christ for vile pelf. 

After the refection Christ blessed the housel, because he 
would first fulfil the old law, and afterwards salutarily begin 
the new covenant. They ate the lamb after the old custom, 
and he immediately afterwards signed the housel, who offered 
himself for our sins a living sacrifice to his beloved Father. 
Again, Jesus truly said to his disciples, " Ye shall all be 
offended with me on this one night. Verily it is written, I 
will slay the shepherd, and the sheep shall afterwards be 
forthwith scattered. After that I shall have arisen sound 



246 DOMINICA PALMARUM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

Galileiscum earde." pa andwyrde Petrus ana mid gebeote, 
" Ic ^e iiffifre ne aeswicige, ^eah ^e ealle o^re don." 
Drihten eft andwyrde anraedlice Petre, " pu me wiSsfPCst 
"Sriwa on ^issere nihte, ser^an "be se hana hafitigende crawe." 
Petrus cwseS J7aet he nolde hine naefre wiSsacan, ^eah ^e he 
sceolde samod mid him sweltan ; and ealle "Sa o^re ealswa 
cwffidon. ludas se swicola swi^e hrabe code to Sam arleaiJum 
ehterum, ]?e he aer gesprfec, and genam him fultum set 'Sam 
phariseum, and hi ^a eodon ealle gewfepnode and mid leoht- 
fatum to "Sam Lifigendum Drihtne. pa cwae^ se Ifewa to 
^am laSum flocce, " Swa hwilcne swa ic cysse, ccpaS his 
sona." And he ^a mid cosse Crist beUewde. Hwjet Sa se 
Hfelend him togcancs stop, and unforht axode, hwjene hi 
sohton. Hi 5a cwa^don |>{et hi Crist sohton. Da stedc he 
him, ^' Ic hit soSlice eom." Hi 5a mid j'am worde wendon 
underbaec, feallende to corSan, mid fyrhte fornumene. Eft 
"5a siSSan axodc se Htelend hwa^ne lit sohton swa swiSe 
gewtepnode. Hi eft andwyrdon mid ]?am aerran worde, 
cwaedon j^aet hi Sonc Haelend habban woldon. pa andwyrde 
he mid |>am ylcan worde, ** Ic eow saede aer j^aet ic se eom. 
Gif gc me sccaS, ItftaS mine gyngran aweg." Da abraed 
Petrus bealdlice his swurd, and gesloh heora anum ]>iet 
swiSre care of: ac Crist him styrde mid stiSuni wordum, 
and het hine hydan |>a?t liearde isen ; cwseS ]?aet he mihte ^a 
ma Sonne twelf eoroda heofenlicra engla aet his Feeder abid- 
dan, gif hit weorSan ne sceolde swa swa witegan cwaedon. 
And se Haelend Sserrihte j^aet eare geha^lde. 

Wise men tealdon an eorod to six Susendum, and tvielf 
eorod sind twa and hund-seofontig "Susend. Swa fela "Susend 
engla mihton eaSe bewerian Crist wiS iSam unmannum, mid 
heofenlicum wsppnum, gif he 'Srowian nolde s) Ifwilles for us. 
Ne he nolde 5a-gyt his gingrena deaS, ac heold hi to lareowum 
eallum leodscipum ; and het Sa ehteras hi ealle forlaetan. 
He geswutelode his mihte on Sam manfullunvSaSa he mid 
anum worde hi ealle astrehte, forlite to eorSan feallende un- 



PALM SUNDAY. OX THE LORD'S PASSION. 247 

from death, I will again meet you in the Galilean country." 
Then Peter alone answered with a promise, " I will never be 
offended with thee, though all others should." The Lord 
again answered Peter impressively, " Thou w ilt deny me 
thrice in this nigiit, ere that the cock, clapping its wings, 
shall have crowed." Peter said that he would never deny 
him, though he should die together with him ; and all the 
others said the like. Judas the traitor very speedily went to 
the impious persecutors, to whom he had before spoken, and 
took him aid from the pharisees, and they then went all 
armed and with torches to the Living Lord. Then said the 
traitor to the hostile party, " Whomsoever I kiss, take him 
forthwith." And he then betrayed Christ with a kiss. 
Thereupon Jesus went towards them, and fearless asked 
them, whom they sought. Tiiry said that they sought Christ. 
Then said he to them, " I truly am he." At these words 
they went backwards, falling to the earth, seized with fear. 
Again Jesus asked whom they sought, so strongly armed. 
They again answered with the former words, saying that they 
would have Jesus. Tlien answered he in the same words, 
** I said to you before that I am he. If ye seek me, let my 
disciples go away." Peter then boldly drew his sword, 
and struck off the right ear of one of them : but Christ re- 
proved him with stern words, and bade him hide the hard 
iron ; saying that he could obtain from his Father more than 
twelve legions of angels, if it were not to be as the prophets 
had said. And Jesus straightways healed the ear. 

Wise men have reckoned a legion at six thousand, and 
twelve legions are seventy-two thousand. 80 many angels 
might easily have defended Christ against those inhuman 
ones, with heavenly weapons, if he would not voluntarily 
have suffered for us. He desired not yet the death of his 
disciples, but preserved them as teachers to all nations ; and 
bade the persecutors let them all go. He manifested his 
power over the wicked, when with a word he prostrated them 



248 DOMINICA PALMARUM. DE FASSIONE DOMINI. 

derbeec, and pa&s arleasan eare ea^elice geluelde, to geswute- 
lunge his unscaeSSignysse, and to seSunge soSre godcund- 
iiysse. Naes Petrus gewunod to nanre w«pnunge, ac 'Saer 
wseron tvva swurd siSlice gebrohte to ^am wiberstealle, gif hit 
swa Crist wolde. Ac he forbead \net gevvinn mid wordum 
iSearle, jjset nan Godes 5eow ne sceolde on him sylfum tru- 
wian, ne mid waepnum winnan wi^ woruldlicum cempum, 
gif he Cristes fotswa^um filigan wile. 

Se Haelend ISa geSafode j^aet hi hine namon, and gelanldon 
on bendum to heora ealdor-biscopc, and his geferan ^a mid 
fleame aetburston ; ac Petrus him filigde feorran sarig. Da 
heoldon ba ludci )>one H^elend ofer niht, and mid anum 
wfefelse his neb beuundon, sleande mid handbrcdum huxlice 
and gelome, and heton hine raklan hwa hine hrcopode, and 
mid mcnigfealdum hospe hine gegremedon, and mid leasum 
gewitum forleogan woldon. paaxode hine se eaklor-biscop, 
and mid aSe gchalsode, ]>iBt he cpcnlice stetle, gif he Godes 
Sunu soblice waere. Se Hfelcnd him cw{e^ to, *' Ic eom swa 
"Su sietlest ; and ic sittende beo aet mines Faeder swiSran, and 
on wolcnum ic cume on ^issere worulde geendunge." Da 
cWcfiS se ealdor-biscop mid orgel-worde, " Hwaet ^incS eow 
nu be Sissere scgene?" HI ealle andwyrdon, mid anre 
stemne, j^aet he scyldig waere witodlice to deaSc : and hi hine 
bespfetton, huxlice sprecende. 

Drihten soSlice us sealde hjeki purh Sam ear-pljettum, and 
ece alysednysse ; and Sa sptetlu aSwogon ure sweartan gyltas. 
Petrus stod ofcalen on "Sam cauertune, aet micckmi fyre mid 
manegum oSrum. Da cwae^ him an wyln to, ]78et he waere 
mid Criste, ac he sona wi^soc \>xt hit swa naere. pa. eft 
ymbe hwile cwae^ sum o"Ser wybi, Jj^et he mid ^am Hwlende 
on hyrede waere, and he eft wibcwaeS )?aet he hine ne cu^e. 
pa genealaehton ma hine meldigende, ac Petrus wi^soc gyt 
briddan siSe, and se hana sona hlud-swege sang. Da becyrde 
se Haelend and beseah to Petre, and he sona gemunde his 
micclan gebcoles, and mid biterum wope his wiSersaec be- 
hreoMsode. 



PALM SUNDAY. ON THE LORD'S PASSION. 249 

all, fearful falling backwards on the earth, and easily healed 
the ear of the impious one, in manifestation of his innocence, 
and in proof of his true divinity. Peter was not accustomed 
to any arming, but two swords had been temporarily brought 
for resistance, if Christ had so willed it. But he strongly 
forbade the contest by his words, that no servant of God 
should trust to himself, nor with weapons strive against 
worldly soldiers, if he will follow the footsteps of Christ. 

Jesus then allowed them to take him, and lead him in 
bonds to their chief bishop, and his companions then escaped 
by flight; but Peter followed him afar sorrowing. The Jews 
then held Jesus over night, and wrapt his face with a cover- 
ing, contumeliously and frequently striking him with the 
palms of their hands, and bade him guess who had touched 
him, and with manifold insult vexed him, and would lie with 
false witnesses. Then asked the chief bishop, and with an oath 
besought him openly to say, if he truly were the Son of God. 
Jesus said to him, " I am as thou hast said ; and I shall l>e 
sitting at my Father's right hand, and I shall come in clouds 
at the ending of this world." Then said the chief bishop with 
arrogant words, '* What think ye now of this speech ? " They 
all answered with one voice, that he was certainly guilty of 
death : and they spat on him, contumeliously speaking. 

But the Lord gave us salvation through the ear-buffets, and 
eternal redemption ; and the spittle washed away our swart 
sins. Peter stood chilly in the hall, at a great fire with many 
others. Then said a maid-servant to him, that he was with 
Christ, but he immediately denied that it was so. Again 
after a while another maid-servant said, that he was in the 
party with Jesus, and he again denied that he knew him. 
Then more drew near identifying him, but Peter denied yet 
a third time, and the cock forthwith sang with a loud sound. 
Then Jesus turned and looked on Peter, and he instantly re- 
membered his great promise, and with bitter wail repented 
his denial. 



250 DOMINICA PALMARUM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

Hvvi vvolde aefre ge^afian se -^Imihtiga Wealdend ]?aet his 
gecorena ^egen, j^e he eallum gesette geleaffullum leoduiii 
lareovv and hyrde, J?aet he hine for jTcSe swa oft wiSsoce ? 
Ac se mildheorta Crist wolde him seteowian, on his agenum 
gylte, hu he o^rum sceolde mannum gemiltsian on mislicum 
gyltum, nu he eallunge liwfS heofonaii rices csege ; ]?{fit he 
nsere to stiJS unstrangum mannum, ac gemiltsode oSrum, swa 
swa se ^hiiihtiga him. Eft Sa on drPgerede Drihtnesehteras 
comon ealle tosonnie to heora sunder- spraece, and hine |?a 
laeddon to ^jere leode ealdre, n)id miceh-e wrohte hine wre- 
gende. Ac se Hfelend nolde hine betellan mid nanre soS- 
segene, "Seah ^e he unscyldig Wierc. ludas Sa gescah Sonc 
re^an dom, and gcbrohte j^set feoh, |?c he mid facne genam, 
to "Sam ealdor-biscopum, gcbolgen swiSe, and hine sylfne 
aheng sona mid grine, and rihtlice gewraS ^a forwyrhtan 
"Srotan, seoSe lytic ter bchewdc Drihten. Da noldon ^a ludei 
l^aet feoh gelecgan on heora fjetolsum, swilce lit ffecne nferon, 
ac gebohton aMine iecer aelScodigum to byrgcisum, Jjiet Sies 
witegan word wurdon gef\llede, pe ier be bam feo ealsvva 
witegode. Yfele behreowsode se arleasa hewa his manfullan 
difida mid his agenum deatic. On Criste he syngodc, and 
swiSor on him sylfum, forSan pe agenslaga on ecnysse 
browaS. Se gebohta iScer belimpS to us, we 5e on Sysscre 
woruldc {eliSeodige wuniaS ; we us geresta^ on Sam liflicum 
wurSe, and ludas ne moste Saes landes brucan, ac tobairst on 
emtwa, and his inno^ tofleow, nateshwon gelogod on nanre 
byrgene. 

Se Haelend "Sa stod on ^am domerne gel^edd. pa axode 
Pilatus hine orgollice, gif he ludeiscre beode cyning on 
eornost waere. Da andwyrde se Hcelend, " Du hit sadest." 
pa gemunde se ealdormann ]>iet Herodes m'sbs on ^tere scire 
Sa, and asende Crist him to. Herodes soSlice waes swiSe 
geblissod mid ^sere gesihSe, for his swiSlicum tacnum, and 
vvolde geseon sum wundor fram him ; ac Crist him nolde 
nan bing to gecweban, ne on ^am timan nane tacna wyrcan. 



PALM SUNDAY. ON THE LORD'S PASSION. 251 

Why would the Ahiiighty Ruler ever allow that his chosen 
servant, whom he had set as a teacher and guardian over all 
believing people, should through fear so often deny him ? 
But the merciful Christ would show him, in his own sin, how 
he should be merciful to other men for divers sins, now that 
he fully possesses the key of heaven's kingdom ; that he 
should not be too rigorous towards weak men, but should be 
merciful to others, as the Almighty was to him. Again, at 
dawn the Lord's persecutors all came together to their sepa- 
rate council, and then led him to the ciiicf of the people, 
accusing him with a great accusation. But Jesus would not 
exculpate himself with any defence, though he was innocent. 
Judas then saw the cruel doom, and brought the money, 
which he had taken with guile, to the chief bishops, very 
wroth, and forthwith hanged himself in a noose, and justly 
bound the accursed throat, which a little before had betrayed 
the Lord. But the Jews would ncjt lay the money in their 
bags, as if they had not been guileful, but bought a field for 
the burials of foreigners, that the words of the prophet might 
be fulfilled, who had before so prophesied. Sadly did the 
impious traitor repent of his wicked deeds with his own 
death. Against Christ he sinned, but more against himself, 
because a suicide suffers eternally. The bought field has 
reference to us, who dwell in this world as strangers ; wc 
rest in the vital field, and Judas might not partake of the 
land, but burst asunder in two, and his entrails flowed out, 
not deposited in any grave. 

Jesus was standing, having been led into the judgement- 
hall. Pilate then asked him haughtily, if he really were king 
of the Jewish people. Jesus then answered, "Thou hast 
said it." Then the governor recollected that Herod was in 
the province, and sent Christ to him. Verily Herod was 
greatly rejoiced at the sight, on account of his potent miracles, 
and would see some wonder from him ; but Christ would 
say nothing to him, nor at that time work any miracles. 



252 DOMINICA PALMARUM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

Da forseah Herodes hine swi^e mid his liirede, and be his 
hvvituni reafuni huxlice sprtec, and asende hine sona to bam 
foresaedan Pihite, and hi wurdon "Sa gefrynd, for ^9ere d;ede, 
swa swa hi nferon naefre aer on life, pa clypode Pihitus eft 
to Sam folce, cwseS be Sam Hcelende, ]>8et he unscyldig wiere, 
forSan Se Herodes ne he eac ne mihte na>nne gylt on him to 
dea^e afindan : cwaeS )?aet he vvolde hine beswingan, and to 
life ahetan, gif him swa gelicode. Da heoldon ^a ludei on 
healicum gewunan, J^ajt hi aelce geare a^nne scyldigne abfedon 
ajt Sam ealdormenn to heora Easter-tide, and hsefdon Sa on 
bcndum aenne bealdne 5eof, Barraban gecTgedne, for man- 
slihte to siege, pa bcfran Pihitus paes folces menigu, hw;e- 
iSernehi gecuron, Ha4end oSSe Barraban ? pa^t folc him to 
cwasb, ]>ieX hi gecuron Barraban. Da axode Pihitus eft net 
^am folce, hwaet he be Drihtne gedon sceolde? pa cwjedon 
hi ealle midanre stcmne, " Sy he ahangen on healicere rode." 
Da geseah Pilatus Saera ludeiscra gehlyd, and aSwoh his 
handa on heora gcsihSe, cwaeS l^aet he unscyldig his sieges 
waere. pa cw<edon ba ludei hin> to andsware, " Beo his 
blodes gyte ofcr urum bearnum, and eal seo wracu on us 
M'unigende." Da het Pilatus bone liaelend beswingan, and 
beta^hte hine Sa to heora benum, swa ]?aet he wailhreawlice 
vvurde ahangen. Ilwtet Sa his cempan hine geliehton on "Sam 
domcrnc mid dyrstigum anginnc, and hine unscryddon his 
agenum gyrelum, and mid wolcn-readum wajfelse hine be- 
Avaefdon, and mid pyi'nenum helme his heafod bcfcngon, and 
for cyne-gyrde him hreod forgeafon, bigende heora cneowu, 
and cvvcSende mid hospe, " Sy Su hal^ leof, ludeiscre leode 
cyning." Hi Sa hraedlice eft hine unscryddon ]>an\ readan 
waefelse, and his reaf him on dydon, and woldon ]?ferrihte 
hine to rode gelaedan. paet ludeisce cyn is yfele bebunden, 
mid }>am ^e hi cwaedon be Cristes blode, j^aet seo wracu 
waere on him wunigende, and on heora bearnum ; nu biS 
hit eac swa : aer hi sind gebundene aer hi beon geborene. 
Hi gecuron manslagan, na Metoda Drihtcn, forSan hi habbaS 



PALM SUNDAY. ON THE LORD'S PASSION. 253 

Herod then with his household greatly despised him, and 
spake scornfully of his white garments, and forthwith sent 
him to the aforesaid Pilate, and they then became friends, 
for that deed, as they never had been before in life. Pilate 
then called again to the people, saying of Jesus, that he was 
innocent, for that neither Herod nor he also could find any 
guilt in him deserving of death : he said that he would scourge 
him, and leave him alive, if it so pleased them. The Jews 
then held it as a solemn custom, that they every year obtained 
a criminal from the governor at their Easter-tide, and they 
had at that time a bold thief in bonds, named Barabi)as, con- 
demned to death for murder. Pilate then asked the multi- 
tude of people, which they would choose, Jesus or liarabbas ? 
The people said to him, tliat they would ciioose Barabbas. 
Pilate again asked the people, what he should do ^^ilh Jesus? 
They all said with one voice, " Let him be hanged on a high 
rood." Pilate then saw the uproar of the Jews, and w.'vshed 
his hands in their sight, saying that he was guiltless of his 
death. The Jews said to him in answer, " Be the shedding 
of his blood upon our children, and all tlie vengeance resting 
on us." Pilate then commanded Jesus to be scourged, and 
delivered him to their prayers, so that he should cruelly be 
hanged. Thereupon his soldiers seized him in the judgement- 
hall, with daring violence, and stript him of his own garments, 
and clothed him in a scarlet robe, and encircled his head 
with a thorny crown, and for a sceptre gave him a reed, 
bowing their knees, and saying with mockery, " Hail to thee, 
sir, king of the Jewish people." They then quickly stript 
him of the red robe, and put his raiment on him, and Mould 
straightways lead hiiu to the rood. The Jewish race is 
grievously bound by what they said relative to the blood of 
Christ, that the vengeance should be resting on them and on 
their ciiildren ; it is even now so : they are bound before 
they are born. They chose a murderer, not the Creator 



254 DOMINICA PALMARUM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

nu ];one hetolan deofol him to hlaforde, na ^one Lifigendan 
Crist. 

paera cempeiia hosp hfefde getacnunge on gastlicum ^iiiguni 
)7aet hi him to gamene gedydon. Se wolcn-reada waefels 
wislice getacnode ures Drihtnes dea^ mid ^aere deage hiwe. 
So'Slice ^urh ^ornas synna beoS getacnode, swa swa ^1- 
militig God to Adame cwae^, "Dornas and bremelas ]>c sceolon 
wexan, forSan ^e "Su waere J?inuni wife gehyrsum swiSor 
J?onne me, Mihtigum Drihtne." Nu wurdon ure synna eft 
adylegode Surh ^one Syruenan hehii on ^one Hffilend be- 
slagen. IIi cwjedon mid hospe )>a^t he cyning waere, seiSe 
soSlice is |)eoda Waldend. IIi liine unscryddon, and eft 
gescryddon, forban ^e he wolde his lichaman forhetan, and 
siStSan undeadlicne eft araran. Ilwaet Sa cempan hine 
gelaiddon to JSaere cweahn-stowe, jjaer man cwealde sceaSan, 
and him budon drincan gebitrodne win-drenc, ac he hit 
asceaf sona fram his mu5e; noldc his onbyrian for ^aere 
biternysse. pes gebiteroda drcnc h;efde getacnunge his deaSes 
biternysse, "Se he "ba onbyrigde; ac he hine hrjedHce mid his 
aeriste awearp. Da?r Wieron gela^dde mid ^am Lifigendan 
Drihtne twegen scyldige sceaJSan, for heora synnum to 
honne. pa hengon Sa cempan Crist on aele middan, and 
l^a twegen sceaban him on twa healfa ; and Pilatus awrat 
J^aes wites intingan on anre tabelan mid j^rim gereordum, 
Ebreiscum, and Greciscum, and Ledcnum samod : " pes is 
se Haelend, ludeiscra Cyning;" and asette ^is gewrit sona 
to ^aere rode, bufon Cristes heafde, healice to tacne. And 
•baer liangode se Haelend on rode, ludeiscra Cyning, weelhreaw- 
lice gefaestnod. 

pa dteldon ba cwelleras Cristes reaf on feower, heora {elcum 
his dael, swa him demde seo ta ; and heoldon his tunecan 
untoslitene, forban ^e heo waes eal buton seame, and seo 
getacnode "ba so^an annysse ^aere halgan gehibvmge, seo"be 
aefre bib vvib gedwohnannum J^urh Drihtne gescykl. Drihten 
waes gefaestnod mid feower naegehmi, to west-daele awend ; 



PALM SUNDAY. ON THE LORD'S PASSION. 255 

Lord, therefore have they now the hateful devil for lord, not 
the Living Christ. 

The mockery of the soldiers was a token that in ghostly 
concerns they held him in scorn. The scarlet robe wisely 
betokened our Lord's death by its dyed colour. Verily by 
thorns sins are betokened, as the Almighty God said to Adam, 
" Thorns and brambles shall wax for thee, because thou hast 
been obedient to thy wife rather than to me, the Mighty Lord." 
Now are our sins again obliterated by the thorny crown 
placed on Jesus. They said with mockery that he was a 
king, Mho is truly the Ruler of nations. They stript him, 
and again clothed him, because he would forsake his body, 
and afterwards immortal rise again. Tiie soldiers then led 
him to the place of execution, where thieves were executed, 
and bade him drink an imbittered wine-drink, but he in- 
stantly thrust it from his mouth ; he would not taste it for 
its bitterness. Tiiis imbittered drink betokened the bitterness 
of his death which he then tasted ; but he (juickly cast it away 
by his resurrection. There were led with the Living Lord two 
guilty thieves, to be hanged for their sins. The soldiers then 
hanged Christ in the middle, and the two thieves on each side 
of him ; and Pilate wrote the occasion of the punishment 
on a tablet in three tongues, Hebrew, and Greek, and Latin 
together : " This is Jesus, the King of the Jews ; " and im- 
mediately set this writing on the rood, above the head of 
Christ, on high for a token. And there hung Jesus on the 
rood, tiie King of the Jews, cruelly fastened. 



Then the executioners parted Christ's garments into four, 
to each of them his part, as the lot had adjudged to them ; 
and they held his tunic untorn, because it was all without 
seam, and it betokened the true unity of the holy church, 
which will be ever shielded by the Lord against heretics. 
The Lord was fastened with four nails, turned to the west 



256 DOMINICA PALMARUM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

and his wynstra heold "Sone scynendan su^-dael, and his 
swi^ra norS-dtcl, east-dtel his hnol ; and he ealle alysde 
middaneardes hvvemmas sua hangiende. Da reSan ludei 
beheoldon feorran, and mid hospe clypodon to Haelendum 
Criste, " Gif ^u Godes Sunu sy, ga of Saere rode, and we 
si^^an swa on ^e gelyfa^." Se mildheorta Drihtcn cwaeS to 
his Fiedei*, " Min Heofenlica Fjeder, ic ^c nu bidde, forgif 
^as dfede ];isum gedvvohnannuni, forSan ^e hi nyton hwcBt hi 
nu doS." 

An ^aera scea^ena cac swilce clypode, " Gif ^u Haelend 
Crist sy, gehael 5e and us." pa andwyrde so oSer, hine 
^reagendc, " Hwast "Su la, earming, nc ondrietst 5u ^c God ? 
Wit synd gewitnode for wa^lhrcawum da^duni, and j>cs halga 
Haelend liungaS her unscyldig." Eft ^a se ylca clypode to 
Criste, " Gemun Su min, Driiitcn, |>onne ^u mihtig becymst 
to iSinum agcnuni rice, rodcres Wealdcnd ! " Se Hitdend him 
cwaeS to mid soJSum behute, " Nuto-djeg 5u biston neorxena 
wangc mid me." pes sceaSa gesadig siSode to heofcimm, 
and se oScr gewende wslhreaw to helle. On Sisum twam 
sceaSum wteron gctucnode seo ludeisce Seod and J'aet haeSene 
folc. piEt ludeisce folc noldc on Crist gelyfan, ^one ^e hi 
mid hospe on hengene ftestnodon ; and J^ijet hfe^ene folc on 
hine gelyfde, |>reagende 5a o5re }?earle mid geleafan. 

Se halige Maria, j^aes Haelendes modcr, stod wiS Sa rode 
"Searle dreorig, and lohannes samod, hire swuster beam. Da 
clypode Drihten to his dreorian meder, " Efne her hanga^ 
nu ^in sunu, faemne:" swilce he cwaede, ' pis is ^in gecynd 
"Sus 'Srowigendlic, ^e ic of ^e genam.' He cwae^ to lohanne, 
" Her stffint ^in modor." pa haefde lohannes hire siSSan 
gymene mid geswaesum ^enungum, a on iSisum life. Eft ^a 
cwae^ se Haelend, ]?aet him hearde Syrste. Da arn to ^am 
ecede sum arleas cempa, and bedypte ane spincgan, and baer 
to his mu^e. Hwaet ^a, ymbe midne daeg wearb middaneard 
aSeostrod, and seo sunne behydde hire hatan leoman o^ 5a 
nigo^an tide, ^e we non hata5. Da clypode Drihten, and 



PALM SUNDAY. ON THE LORDS PASSION. 257 

part ; and his left held the shining south part, and his right 
the north part, the cast part the crown of his head ; and he 
redeemed all the regions of the world, thus hanging. The 
bloodthirsty Jews beheld from afar, and with mockery cried 
to the Saviour Christ, " If thou art the Son of God, go from 
the rood, and we will then believe in thee." The merciful 
Lord said to his Father, *' My Heavenly Father, I pray thee 
now, forgive these misled men for this deed, for they know 
not what they now do." 

One of tlic thieves also cried in like manner, "If thou art 
the Saviour Christ, save thyself and us." Then answered the 
other, reproving him, " O thou miserable, dreadst thou not 
God ? We are punished for cruel deeds, and this holy Jesus 
hangeth here guiltless.'' Afterwards the same cried to 
Christ, " Remember me, Lord, when miglity thou comest to 
thine own kingdom. Ruler of the skies!" Jesus said to him 
with true promise, " Now to-day thou shalt be with me in 
paradise." This thief passed happy to heaven, and the other 
went bloodthirsty to hell. By these two thieves were beto- 
kened the Jewish nation and tlie heathen people. The Jewish 
people would not believe in Christ, whom with mockery they 
fastened on a gibbet ; and the heathen people believed in him, 
strongly reproving the others by their belief. 

The holy Mary, the mother of Jesus, stood over against 
the rood very sad, and John, her sister's child, with her. The 
Lord then cried to his disconsolate mother, " Woman, be- 
hold here hangeth now thy son:" as if he had said, 'This 
is thy nature thus suffering, which I took from thee.' He 
said to John, *' Here standeth thy mother." John then had 
care of her afterwards, with kind offices, ever in this life. 
Afterwards Jesus said, that he greatly thirsted. Then an 
impious soldier ran to the vinegar, and dipt a sponge in it, 
and bare it to his mouth. After that, about mid-day the 
earth was darkened, and the sun hid his hot beams until the 
ninth hour, which we call noon. Then cried the Lord, and 

HOM. VOL. II. S 



258 DOMINICA PALMARUM. DE PASSIONE DOMINI. 

cwse^ to his Faeder, "Ic betaece, Feeder, ]?e nu niinne gast." 
And he ahyldum heafde hine sona ageaf. Efne "Sa tobaerst 
]>(&& temples wah-ryft, fram "Saere fyrste ufan o5 Sa flor 
neoSan, and eal eor^e bifode, and toburston stanas, byrgenu 
openodon mid deadum banum, and halgena lichaman leohtlice 
arison, conion to "Saere byrig, cu^lice ateowode manegum 
mannum, swa swa Matheus avvrat. Se hundredes ealdor 
so^licc clypode, aefter Sisum tacnum, " pes is so^ Godes 
Beam." And seo oSer menigu ^e 5aer mid stodon beoton 
heora breost, bugende to Gode. 

pjfit ludeisce folc waes on ealdum dagum Gode gecoren, 
swa swa god win ; ac hi wurdon awende to <Sani wyrstum 
ecede, and forSi gebudon eced 5am Drihtne, unwynsumne 
waetan, swa swa hi sylfe waeron. 

Seo swearcigende snnne, and <Sa gesceafta samod, eahie 
middaneard endcmes aSeostrodon mid sweartre nihte, for 
heora Scyppendcs ^rowunge. NcSorftc sc Ha^lend for ^am 
n;egehmi gewitan Sa-gyt swa hraedlice, ac he ageaf his gast 
•tSnrh godcundre mihte, swa swa Godes Sunn. Da bifode seo 
eorSe, and toburston stanas, j^fet eal middaneard eft wurde 
astyrcd )jurh Cristes ^rowunge to so^um geleafan, and 5a 
heardheortan haeiSenra 5eoda to heora Scyppende siSSan 
gebigde. pfes temples wah-ryft eac wear^ toborsten, "Se iSa 
uigelnysse eallungc bedyrndc |>;pre ealdan jje, on ^am terran 
timan, oS|)tEt Drihten sylf 5a digelnysse cydde ealhim gelcaf- 
fuUum aefter his 5rownnge. Eac swilce geopenodon ealdra 
manna byrgenu, and hi ansunde arison mid heora Scyppende 
on ecum jeriste, and orsorge dea^es ; and heofenan rice mid 
Hfelende astigon, swa swa wise lareowas geleaflice secga^. 

Se Hcclend for his ehterum eadmodlice gebaed his ^hiiiht- 
igan Faeder on ^iere menniscnysse, se^e aefre mid him ealle 
^ing geti^a^ on ]'aere godcundnysse godes willan mannum ; 
and his ben 5a gebigde, ^e ydel beon ne mihte, ^one hun- 
dredf ; ealdor and eahta ^usend manna, ^e aefter his "Srowunge 
ealle gecyrdon, 5urh Petres bodunge, mid so^re dwdbote. 



PALM SUNDAY. ON THE LORD'S PASSION 259 

said to his Fatlier, " Father, I now to thee commit my spirit." 
And with head inclined he forthwith gave it up. Lo then 
the temple's veil burst asunder, from the summit above down 
to the floor bencatii, and all the earth trembled, and stones 
burst in pieces, graves opened with dead bones, and the 
bodies of saints freely arose, came to the city, and publicly 
appeared to many men, as Matthew has written. The cen 
turion truly cried, after these tokens, "This is a true Son of 
God." And the other multitude wiio stood there beat their 
breasts, inclining to God. 

The Jewish folk was in old days chosen by God, as good 
wine ; but they were changed to the worst vinegar, and 
therefore ordered vinegar for the Lord, a litjuur unpleasant, 
as they themselves were. 

The darkening sun, and the heavenly bodies together, at last 
obscured all the world with swart night, for their Creator's 
passion. Jesus needed not yet so quickly to withdraw from 
the nails, but he gave up his ghost through divine power, as 
the Son of God. Tiicn the earth trembled, and stones burst 
in pieces, so that all the earth was through Christ's passion 
excited t« true belief, and the hardhearted nations of heathens 
afterwards turned to their Creator. The veil of the temple 
was also rent, which wholly concealed the mystery of the old 
law, in the former time, until the Lord himself manifested 
that mystery to all the faithful after his passion. In like 
manner also were opened the graves of ancient men, and they 
arose uncorrupted with their Creator in an eternal resurrec- 
tion, and free from fear of death ; and ascended to the king- 
dom of heaven with Jesus, as wise teachers credibly say, 

Jesus in his humanity humbly prayed for his persecutors 
to his Almighty Father, who ever with him grants in his 
divine nature all things with good will to men ; and his 
prayer, which might not be vain, inclined the centurion and 
eight thousand men, who after his passion were all converted, 
through the preaching of Peter, with true repentance, though 

s 2 



J^cah ^e "Sa heafod-men hearde wit)cwaedon, and mid for- 
sewennjsse symle ^wyrodon. 

Da waelhreowan ludei noldon geSafian, for iSam symbel- 
dsege, pffit hi swa hangodon cuce on ^.im rodum, ac woldon 
hi acwellan, and bfedon Pilate, j^aet man lieora sceancan to- 
braece aer ]?fere Easter-tide, and of Sam rodum awurpe. fa 
comon ^a cempan mid cwylmbaerum tokun, and sona ^aera 
sceaSena sceancan tobrtecon, "Se "Sa-gyt cwyhnigcndc cuce 
hangodon. Hi gcmetton Sa Crist middanearde deadne, and 
liis halgan sceancan sctenan ne dorston ; ac an ^aera cempena 
mid cweahnbserum spere his sidan gcopcnode, and of Sfere 
ut-fleow blod and waeter samod mid sobre gerynu. pa^t ut- 
flowcnde blud wiBs ure alysednys on synna forgifenysse, mid 
soSum geleafan. pxt wteter witodlice w;ps ure fulluht, on 
Sam beo5 ubwogene Seoda menigu fram fyrnlicere synne'Saes 
frumsceapcnan manncs. 

Of geswefcdum Adame wans Eua gcsceapcn, and Drihten 
on rode mid dcaSc wa?s geswefod, ])iet seo halige gclabung 
eac gcsceapcn wurde burh 5a gerynu ^^ere readan wunde, 
seoSe hahvcnde waRs sobfaestum gchwilcum ]>e on Godes gela- 
"Sunge mid geleafan drohtniab. God /Elmihtig gesceop man 
on 'Sam sixtan daege, ^aSa he gesceafta Scyppende gedihtc, 
and on Sam seofo^an daege bine sylfne gereste, geendodum 
weorcum, swa swa he sylf woldc. Eft soSlicc se Scyppend, 
on Sam sixtan da^ge, on rode hangiende, his hand-geweorc 
alysde, Adames ofspring, mid his agenum dea^e, and on 
byrgene si^^an anbidiciide laRg on ^am seofo^an daege, "Se ge 
Sseternes hataS. pa sum rice ^egen "Searle waes gelyfed 
dearnunge on Drihten, for ^am dyrstigum folce, his nama 
Wees Joseph ; and he genealaehte Sa hraedlice on aefen to 'Sam 
ealdormen, baed )>aet he moste Drihtnes lie bebyrian. pa 
wundrode Pilatus ])aet he swa hra^e gewat, and ge^afode ^am 
"Segene ]?aet he bine behwurfe. Da com eac Nichodemus mid 
gemengedre scalfe of myrran and alwan manegra punda 
gewyht ; and hi bewundon his lie mid linenre scytan, gedeced 



PALM SUNDAY. ON THE LORD'S PASSION. 261 

the chief men obstinately refused, and with contempt always 
acted perversely. 

The bloodthirsty Jews would not consent, on account of 
the feast-day, that they should hang so alive on the roods, 
but would kill them, and prayed to Pilate that their legs 
might be broken before the Easter-tide, and that they might 
be cast from the roods. The soldiers then came with the 
deadly tools, and forthwith brake the legs of the tiiieves, who 
yet hung alive in torment. They found Christ dead to the 
world, and durst not break his holy legs ; but one of the 
soldiers opened his side \\ ilii a deadly spear, and from it 
flowed out blood and water together, m ith a true mystery. 
The out-flowing blood was our redemption in forgiveness of 
sins, with true belief. The water verily was our baptism, in 
which are washed the multitude of the gentiles from the ori- 
ginal sin of the first-created man. 

Of Adam made to sleep was Eve created, and the Lord on 
the rood was put to sleep by death, that the holy church also 
might be created through the mystery of the red wound, 
which was salutary to every just one who lives with belief in 
the church of God. God Almighty created man on the sixth 
day, when he, the Creator, had disposed the creatures, and on 
the seventh day rested, his work being ended, as he himself 
would. Verily afterwards the Creator, on the sixth day, on 
the rood hanging, his handiwork redeemed, Adam's oflspring, 
with his own death, and in the grave then awaiting lay on 
the seventh day, which ye call Saturn's. Then was a rich 
thane fervently believing in the Lord, secretly, on accouiit of 
the daring folk, his name was Joseph ; and he (juickly at eve 
approached the governor, praying that he might bury the 
Lord's body. Then Pilate wondered that he so quickly had 
departed, and allowed the thane to attend to him. Then also 
came Nicodcmus with a mixed ointment of myrrh and aloes 
of many pomids weight; and they wound his body in a linen 



mid wyrtum, swa swa heora gewuna vvfes. pa stod on ^fere 
stowe sum steenen ^ruh, on ^aere naefre ne laeg nan eorSlic 
mann. Da ledon ^a )?egenas ^one Hfielend ^seron, and mid 
hlide belucon ure ealra Alysend. Rihtlice wtes seo byrgen 
swa niwe gefunden, and naenne o^erne njefre ne underfeng, 
swa swa Alaria Wfes, nioder Cristes, mjeden and modor, and 
o^erne ne gebaer. Hwaet ^a ludei eodon to Pilate, bapdon 
]jfet he bude ^a byrgene besettan mid wacelum weardum, 
]>iBt he ne wurdc forstolen, and ^am folce gesiSd, }>aet he sylf 
aryse. pa getSafode Pihitus j'jet hi hine besfeton mid ymtrym- 
mincge, and ^a Sruh ge-innsegelodon ; ac Crist aras swa- 
^eah of "Sam deaSe gesund, on 5am ^riddan d.'ege a^fter his 
iSrowunge, ofcrswiJSdiwn dcaJSe. Sy liim a wuldor mid his 
Heofonlican Fa:der and -Sam Halgan Gaste, on anre God- 
cundnysse on ecere woruldc. Amen. 



Ne mot nan man secgan spell on |'am Srim swig-dagum. 



SERMO DE SACRIFICIO IN DIE PASCAE. 

MEN jnileofostan, gelome eow is gesaed ymbe arcs Haelendes 
aeriste, hu he on ^isum andwerdan dfege, aefter his ^rowunge 
mihtiglice of deaiSe aras. Nu willc we eow geopenian, ]mvh 
Godes gife, be ^am halgan huslk '5e ge nu to gan sceolon, 
and gewissian eower andgit ymbe j^sere gerynu, aeg^er ge aefter 
■Sa3re Ealdan Gecy^nysse ge eefter ^aere Niwan ; })y-laes "Se 
aenig tvvyning eow derian mage be ^am liflicum gereorde. 

Se JElmihtiiga God bebcad Moysen ^am heretogan on 
Egypta-lande, J^ajt he sceolde bebeodan Israhela folce |/aet hi 
namon aet aelcum heorSe anes geares lamb, on "Saere nihte ^e 
hi ferdon of Sam lande to ^am behatenan earde, and sceoldon 
)?get lamb Gode geoftVian, and siSISan sniSan, and wyrcan 



A SERMON ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 263 

sheet, with spices covered, as their wont was. There stood 
in that place a tomb of stone, in which no earthly man had 
ever lain. Then the thanes laid Jesus therein, and with a 
lid closed up the Redeemer of us all. Rightly was a grave 
found so new and which had no otlicr ever received, so as 
Mary was, mother of Cliriat, maiden and mother, and no 
other bare. Hereupon the Jews went to Pilate, praying that 
he would command the sepulchre to be beset with watchful 
guards, that he might not be stolen, and the people be told 
that he had himself arisen. Then Pilate permitted them to 
watch him with a guard, and to seal the scpidchre ; but 
Christ, nevertheless, arose sound on the third day after his 
passion, having overcome death. Be to him ever glory with 
his Heavenly Father and the Holy Giiost, in one Godhead 
to eternity. Amen. 



No sermon mav be said on the three ^till davs. 



A SERMON ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-UAY. 

MEN most beloved, it has frequently been related to you con- 
cerning our Saviour's resurrection, how he on this present 
day, after his passion mightily arose from death. We will 
now disclose to you, through the grace of God, concerning 
the HOLY iiousEL to which ye are now to go, and direct 
your understanding with regard to that mystery, both accord- 
ing to the Old Testament and according to the New ; lest 
any doubt may injure you concerning the vital refection. 

The Almighty God commanded Moses the leader in the 
land of Egypt, that he should command the people of Israel 
to take for every hearth a yearling lamb, on the night in 
which they departed from that land to the promised country, 
and to offer that lamb to God, and afterwards to shiughtcr 



rode-tacn on heora gedyrnm and oferslegum mid ^ccs lambes 
blode, etan siS^an "Saes lambes flaesc gebraed, and ^eorfe 
hlafas mid feldlicere lactucan. 

God cwee^ to Moysen, " Ne ete ge of "Sam lambe nan ^ing 
hreaw, ne on waetere gesoden, ac gebraed to fyre. Etab ]>set 
hcafodj and Sa fet, and paet inncwearde, ne his nan ^ing ne 
belife o^ merigen : gif ^a^r hwaet to lafe sy, forbfiernaiS J^aet. 
Dicga^ bit on "Sas wison. Begyrda^ eowere lendenu, and 
beoS gesceode, habba^ eow staef on handa, and etaiS ardlice : 
]?eos tid is Godes ffereld/' And wearS "Sa on ]?<ere nihte 
ofslegen on aelcum huse geond cal Pharaones rice ]?cet frum- 
cennede cild ; and waes j^fet Godes folc Israhel ahrcdd fram 
■Sam faerlican deaSe j^urh ^;es lambes offrunge, and his blodes 
mearcunge. pa cwoeb God to Moysen, "HealdalS |nsne dieg 
on eowerum gemynde, and freolsiaS bine mterlice on eovver- 
lun cynrenum mid ecum biggcncge, and etaS J^corfne Idaf 
symlc seofon dagas fet Sissere freolstide." /Efter ^issere 
deede la^ddc God ))fet Israhela folc ofer <Sa Readan sae mid 
drium fotum, and adrencte Saeron Pharao and ealne his here 
samod, Se heora ehton, and afedde si^San yast Israhela folc 
feowertig gcara mid hcofenlicum] bigleofan, and him forgeaf 
waeter of heardiun stan-clude, o^j^aet In comon to ^am be- 
hatenan e^ele. Sume ^as race we habbaS getrahtnod on 
oSre stowe, sume wewillaS nu geopenian, ]?aet J^e belimpS to 
"Sam halgan husle. 

Cristene men ne moton healdan nu iSa ealdan ae lichamlicc, 
ac him gedafena^ |>3et hi cunnon hwaet heogastlice getacnige. 
paet unscaebSige lamb, l^e se ealda Israhel ^a ofsnaS, haefde 
getacnunge, aefter gastlicum andgite, Cristes ^rowunge, scSe 
unscae^Sig for ure alysednysse his halige blod ageat; be ^am 
singa^ Godes ^eowas set aelcere maessan, " Agnus Dei, qui 
tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis: " J?aet is on urum ge- 
reorde, " pu Godes Lamb, Se aetbretst middaneardes synna, 
gemiltsa us." paet Israhela folc wearS ahredd fram )?am 
faerlican deaSe, and fram Pharaones beowte J)urh J^aes lambes 



A SERiMON ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 265 

it, and to make the sign of the cross on their door-posts 
and lintels with the lamb's blood, to cat afterwards the lamb's 
flesh roasted, and unleavened loaves with field lettuce. 

God said to Moses, "Eat ye not of the lamb anything raw, 
nor sodden in water, but roasted at the fire. Eat the head 
and the feet, and the inward parts, nor let anything remain 
of it till morning : if there be aught left, burn it. Eat it in 
this wise. Begird your loins, and be shod, have your staff 
in hand, and eat in haste : this tide is God's passover." And 
on that night there was slain in every house throughout the 
realm of Pharaoh the first-born child ; and Israel, the people 
of God, was delivered from that sudden death through the 
offering of the lamb, and the marking with its blood. Then 
said God to Moses, " Hold this day in your memory, and 
celebrate it solemnly in your generations with eternal obser- 
vance, and eat unleavened bread constantly for seven days at 
this feast-tide." After this deed God led tiie people of Israel 
over the lied sea with dry feet, and drowned therein Pharaoh 
and all liis host together, who had persecuted them, and after- 
wards fed the people of Israel for forty years with heavenly 
food, and gave them water from the hard stony rock, until 
they came to the promised country. Some of this narrative 
we have expounded in another place, some we will now ex- 
plain, namely that which relates to the holy housel. 

Christian men may not now hold the old law bodily, but 
it is fitting that they know what it betokens spiritually. The 
innocent lamb, which the old Israel then slaughtered, was a 
token, according to the ghostly sense, of Christ's passion, 
who innocent shed his holy blood for our redemption ; in 
reference to which God's ministers sing at every mass, 
"Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi, miserere nobis:" that 
is in our tongue, " Thou Lamb of God, who takest away the 
sins of the world, have mercy upon us." The Israelitish peo- 
ple were delivered from sudden death, and from Pharaoh's 



266 SERMO DE SACRIFICIO IN DIE PASCAE. 

offrunge, ^e h?efde getacnunge Cristes ^rowunge, "Surh ^a 
we sind alysede fram ^am eciim deaSe and J^aes reSan deofles 
anvvealde, gif we rihtlice gelyfa^ on ^one so^an Alysend ealles 
middaneardes, Hselend Crist, past lamb wtes geoffrod on 
eefnunge, and ure Hselend Srowade on ]?8ere sixtan ylde ]>ys~ 
sere worulde ; seo yld is geteald to jefnunge j^ises ateorigend- 
lican middaneardes. Hi mearcodon mid Sfes lambes blode, 
on heora gedyrum and oferslegum, Tau, ]?aet is, rode-tacen, 
and wurdon swa gescylde fram ^am engle Se acwealde )?aera 
Egyptiscra frumcemiedan cild. And we sceolon mearcian 
ure forewearde heafod and urne lichaman mid Cristes rode- 
tacne, piet we beoii ahredde fram forwyrde, ponne we beob 
gemearcode iegber ge on foran heafdege on heortan mid blode 
]78ere drihtcnlican ^rowunge. 

D;et Israiicla folc {ett ));es lambes flsesc on heora Easter- 
tide, ];a]ni hi ahredde wurdon, and we JSicgaS nu gastlice 
Cristes lichaman, and his blod drincaS, J>oiine we mid soSum 
gclcafan |;iet halige husel bicgaS. pone timan ht heoldon 
him to Easter-tide, seofon dagas mid micclum wurSmynte, 
Se hi ahredde wurdon wiS Pharao, and of 5am earde ferdon ; 
swa we eac cristcne men hcaldaS Cristes aerist Gs to Easter- 
tide J7as seofon dagas, forSan ^e we sind, ]:>iirh his Srowunge 
and jeriste, alysde, and we beoS gechensode j>urh "5,'es halgan 
husel-ganges, swa swa Crist sylf cwaeS on his godspelle, 
*' So^ so5 ic eow secgc, naebbe ge lif on eow, baton ge eton 
min flaesc and driricon min blod. Se "Se et min flaesc and 
min blod drinc^, he wunaS on me, and ic on him, and he 
haef^ |?tfit ece lif, and ic hine araere on ^am endenextan daege. 
Ic eoQi se liflica hlaf ^e of heofonum astah. Na swa swa 
eowere for^faederas eeton |>one heofenlican mete on westene, 
and sibSan swulton ; se "Se et ^isne hlaf, he leofaS on 
ecnysse.' He halgode hlaf aer his ^rowunge, and todaelde 
his discipulum, J>us cwecSende, *' EtaS }?isne hlaf, hit is min 
lichama; and doS j?is on minum gemynde." Eft he bletsode 
win on anum calico, and cwae^, " DrincaS calle of Sisum : 



A SERMON ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 267 

thraldom through the offering of the lamb, which was a be- 
tokening of Christ's passion, through which we are redeemed 
from eternal death and the power of the cruel devil, if we 
rightly believe in the true Redeemer of all the world, Jesus 
Christ. Tiie lamb was offered in the evening, and our Saviour 
suffered in the sixth age of this world ; that age is considered 
as the evening of this perishable world. They marked with 
the blood of the lamb, on their door-posts and lintels, the 
letter Tau, that is, the sign of the rood, and so were shielded 
from the angel who slew the first-born children of the Egyp- 
tians. And we should mark our foreheads and our bodies 
with the sign of Christ's rood, that we may be saved from 
destruction, when we are marked botii on the forehead and 
in heart with the blood of the divine passion. 

The people of Israel ate the flesh of the lamb at their 
Easter-tide, when they were delivered, and we now partake 
spiritually of Christ's body, and drink his blood, when with 
true belief we partake of the holy housel. The time they 
held as their Easter-tide, for seven days, with great venera- 
tion, in which they were delivered from Pharaoh, and de- 
parted from the country ; so likewise we christian men hold 
Christ's resurrection as our Easter- tide, during these seven 
days, because, through his passion and resurrection, we are 
redeemed, and we shall be purified by partaking of the holy 
housel, as Christ himself said in his gospel, "Verily, verily 
I say unto you, ye have not life in you, unless ye eat my flesh 
and drink my blood. lie that eateth my flesh and drinketh 
my blood, he dwelleth in me, and I in him, and he shall have 
everlasting life, and I will raise him at the last day. I am 
the living bread, which came down from heaven. Not so as 
your fathers ate the heavenly meat in the wilderness, and 
afterwards died ; he who eateth this bread shall live to eter- 
nity." He hallowed the bread before his passion, and dis- 
tributed to his disciples, thus saying, " Eat this bread, it is 
my body, and do this in my remembrance." Afterwards he 
blessed wine in a cup, and said, " Drink all of this : this is 



268 SERMO DE SACRIFICIO IN DIE PASCAE. 

|?is is min blod, pset ^e biS for manegum agoten on synna 
forgifenysse." pa apostoli dydon swa swa Crist het, ])iet hi 
halgodon hlaf and win to husle eft si^San on his gemynde. 
Eac swilce heora aeftergencgan and ealle sacerdas, be Cristes 
haese, halgia^ hlaf and win to husle, on his naman, mid J'tere 
apostolican bletsunge. 

Nu smeadon gehwilce men oft, and gyt gelome smeagaS, 
hu se hlaf, ]>e bi^ of corne gegearcod, and iSurh fyres hjetan 
abacen, mage beon awend to Cristes lichaman ; o^5e Jjaet 
win, "Se biS of manegum beriuni awrungen, weor'Se awend, 
)?urh eenigre bletsunge to Drihtnes blode ? Nu secge we 
swilcum mannum, j^cet sume "Sing sind gccwedene be Criste 
|>urh getacnunge, sume Surh gewissum Singe. So5 )^ing is 
and gewiss, |)fet Crist wses of maideneacenned, and sylfwillcs 
^rowade deaS, and wies bebyriged, and on ^isum daege of 
deaSc aras. He is gecweden hlaf ]nirh getacnunge, and lamb, 
and leo, and gehu clles. He is hlaf gehaten, forSan "Se he is 
ure lif and engla; he is lamb gecweden for his unscae^Sig- 
nysse ; leo for "Sfere strencSe pe he ofcrswic)de |>one strangan 
deofol. Ac swa-"Seah, aefter so^uni gecynde nis Crist natJor 
ne hlaf, ne lamb, ne leo. Hwi is "Sonne ]><Bt halige husel 
gecweden Cristes lichama o^Se his blod, gif hit nis so^lice 
j^aet l^aet hit gehaten is ? SoSlice se hlaf and j^aet win, "Se 
beo^ Surh sacerda massan gehalgode, o"Ser ^ing hi seteowia^ 
menniscum andgitum wiSutan, and oSer "Sing hi clypia^ 
wiSinnan geleaffullum modum. Wi^utan hi beo"S gesewene 
hlaf and win, aeg^er ge on hiwe ge on swsecce, ac hi beoS 
so^lice, t-efter ^aere halgunge, Cristes lichama and his blod 
];urh gastlicere gerynu. Hae^Sen cild biS gefullod, ac hit ne 
bret na his hiw wiSutan, Seah (5e hit beo wi^innan awend. 
Hit biS gebroht synfuU }?urh Adames forgaegednysse to "Sam 
fant-faete, ac hit biS a^wogen fram eallum synnum wi^innan, 
]?eah "Se hit wiSutan his hiw ne awende. Eac swilce |?aet 
halige fant-waeter, ]>e is gehaten lifes wyl-spring, is gelic on 
hiwe obrum waeterum, and is underfeed brosnunge ; ac )?aes 



A SERMON ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 269 

my blood, which shall be shed for many in forgiveness of 
sins." The apostles did as Christ commanded, in afterwards 
hallowing bread and wine for housel in his remembrance. 
In like manner their after-comers and all priests, at Christ's 
behest, hallow bread and wine for housel, in his name, with 
the apostolic blessing. 

Now certain men have often inquired, and yet frequently 
inquire, how the bread, which is prepared from corn, and 
baked by the heat of fire, can be changed to Christ's body ; 
or the wine, which is wrung from many berries, can by any 
blessing be changed to the Lord's blood ? Now we say to 
such men, that some things are said of Christ typically, 
some literally. It is a true and certain thing that Christ was 
born of a maiden, and of his own will suffered death, and 
was buried, and on this day arose from death. He is called 
bread typically, and lamb, and lion, and whatever else. He 
is called bread, because he is the life of us and of angels ; he 
is called a lamb for his innocence ; a lion for the strength 
wherewith he overcame the strong devil. But yet, according 
to true nature, Christ is neither bread, nor a lamb, nor a lion. 
Why then is the holy housel called Christ's body or his blood, 
if it is not truly that which it is called ? But the bread and 
the wine which are hallowed through the mass of the priests, 
appear one thing to human understandings without, and cry 
another thing to believing minds within. Without they ap- 
pear bread and wine, both in aspect and in taste ; but they 
are truly, after the hallowing, Christ's body and his blood 
through a ghostly mystery. A heathen child is baptized, but 
it varies not its aspect without, although it be changed 
within. It is brought to the font-vessel sinful through 
Adam's transgression, but it will be washed from all sins 
within, though it without change not its aspect. In like 
manner the holy font-water, which is called the well-spring 
of life, is in appearance like other waters, and is subject to 



270 SERMO DE SACRIFICIO IN DIE PASCAE. 

Halgan Gastes miht geiiealseh^ ]?am brosniendlicum waetere 
^urh sacerda bletsunge, and hit maeg si^San lichamaii and 
sawle a^wean fram eallum synnuni Surh gastlicere mihte. 
Efne nu we geseo^ twa Sing on Sisum ainun gesceafte. ^fter 
so^uni gecynde ]?8et waeter is brosniendlic wiJeta, and aefter 
gastlicere gerynu haefS halv\-ende mihte ; swa eac, gif we 
sceavviab j^cct halige husel ffifter lichauilicum andgite, );onne 
geseo we j^set hit is gesceaft brosniendlic and awendedlic. 
Gif we ^a gastlican mihte ^aeron tocnawab, j^onne undcrgyte 
we })aet 'Ster is lif on, and forgifci imdoadlicnysse Sam ]>e hit 
mid geleafan ]?icga^. Micel is betwux l^aere ungesewenlican 
mihte ])ies halgan busies and ]?am gesewenlican hnve agenes 
gccyndes. Hit is on gecynde brosniendlic hlaf, and brosni- 
endlic win, and is ffifter mihte godcundes wordes soSlice 
Cristes lichama and his blod ; na swa-5eah lichamlice, ac 
gastlice. Micel is betwux |nam lichaman ]'c Crist on Srowade, 
and -(Sam lichaman ]>e to husle biS gchalgod. Se lichama 
so^lice 5e Crist on iSrowode was geboren of Marian flfesce, 
mid blode and mid baimm, mid felle and mid sinum, on 
menniscum limum, mid gesceadwisre sawle gelTffiest; and 
his gastlica lichama, Se we husel hataS, is of manegum 
cornum gegadcrod, buton blode and bane, limleas and sawul- 
leas, and nis forSi nan Sing )?teron to understandenne licham- 
lice, ac is call gastlice to understandenne. Swa hwffit swa 
on ^am husle is ]>e us lifes edwist forgifS, j?set is of -Ssere 
gastlican mihte and ungesewenlicere fremminge : for^i is paet 
halige husel gehaten gerynu, foi-San ^e o^er Sing is 'Seeron 
gesewen, and oSer ^ing undergyten. paet ]7«fit "Saer gesewen 
is hsefS lichamlic hiw, and J'set ]>ist we -Saeron understanda"S 
hfef^ trastlice mihte. Witodlice Cristes lichama "Se dca^ 
Srowade, and of dea^e aras, ne swylt nsefre heonon-for^, ac 
is ece and unSrowiendlic. peet husel is hwilwendlic, na ece ; 
brosniendlic, and biS sticmselum todaeled ; betwux to^um to- 
cowen, and into Sam buce asend : ac hit biS |7eah-hwaeSere, 
aefter gastlicere mihte, on aelcum daele eall. Manega under- 



A SERMON ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 271 

corruption ; but the might of the Holy Ghost approaches the 
corruptible water through the blessing of the priests, and it 
can afterwards wash body and soul from all sins tlirough 
ghostly might. Lo now we see two things in this one crea- 
ture. According to true nature the water is a corruptible 
fluid, and according to a ghostly mystery has salutary power ; 
in like manner, if we behold the holy housel in a bodily sense, 
then we see that it is a corruptible and changeable creature. 
But if we distinguish the ghostly might therein, then under- 
stand we that there is life in it, and tiiat it gives immortality 
to those who partake of it witli belief. Great is the ditTor- 
ence between the invisible might of the holy housel and the 
visible appearance of its own nature. By nature it is cor- 
ruptible bread and corruptible wine, and is by power of the 
divine word truly Christ's body and his blood ; not, however, 
bodily, but spiritually. Great is the difference between the 
body in which Christ suffered, and the body Avhich is hallowed 
for housel. The body verily in wliich Christ suffered was 
born of Mary's flesh, with blood and with bones, wiili skin 
and with sinews, with human limbs, quickened by a rational 
soul ; and iiis ghostly body, which we call housel, is gathered 
of many corns, without blood and bone, limbless and soulless, 
and there is, therefore, nothing therein to be understood 
bodily, but all is to be understood spiritually. Whatsoever 
there is in the housel which gives us the substance of life, 
that is from its ghostly power and invisible efficacy : therefore 
is the holy housel called a mystery, because one thing is seen 
therein and another thinij understood. That which 's there 
seen has a bodily appearance, and that which we understand 
therein has ghostly might. Verily Christ's body which suf- 
fered death, and from death arose, will henceforth never die, 
but is eternal and impassible. The housel is temporarj^, not 
eternal; corruptible, and is distributed piece-meal; chewed 
betwixt teeth, and sent into the belly: but it is, nevertiieless, 
by ghostly might, in every part all. Many receive the holy 



272 SERMO DE SACRIFICIO IN DIE PASCAE. 

fo^ )?one halgan lichaman, and he bi^ swa--Seah on aelcuni 
daele eall, a^ftcr gastlicere gerynu. peah sumum men gesceote 
Isesse dsel, ne bi^ swa-^eah na mare miht on Sam maran dfele 
]7onne on ^am Ifessan ; forSan ^e hit bi^ on aeghwylcum 
menn ansund, aefter Saere ungesewenlican mihte. 

peos gerynu is wedd and hiw ; Cristes lichama is so^faest- 
nyss. Dis wed we healda^ gerynelice oSpaet we becumon to 
"Saere so^faestnysse, and ^onne biS J^is wedd gccndod. So'S- 
lice hit is, swa swa we iev cw.-edon, Cristes lichama and his 
blod, na lichamlice ac gastlice. Ne sceole ge smeagan hu hit 
gedon sy, ac healdan on eowerum geleafan ]?aet hit swa ge- 
don sy. 

We raeda^ on "Saere bee ^e is gehatcn * Uitac Patrum/ )?aet 
twegen niunecas baedon act Gode sume swutclunge be "Sam 
halgan husle, and aefter iSjere bene gestodon him macssan. 
Da gesawon hi iicgan an cild on ^am weofode pe se niaesse- 
prcost ;et ma^ssodc, and Godes engcl stod mid hand-sexe, 
anbidicnde o5|/\et se preost jjaet husel tobrjec. pa toliSode 
se engel ]yxt cild on ^am disce, and his blod into ^am calice 
ageat. Eft, 5aSa hi to ^am husle eodon, ^a wearS hit awend 
to hlafe and to wine, and In hit iSygedon, Gode Sancigende 
};aere swutelunge. Eac se halga Gregorius abaed aet Criste, 
)>aet he aeteowode anum twynigendum wife embe his gerynu 
micele seSunge. Heo code to husle mid twynigendum mode, 
and Gregorius begcat a^t Gode j^acrrihto, j^oet him bam wear^ 
aiteowed seo snaed |?aes busies ^e heo Sicgan sceolde, swilce 
■Saer laege on "Sam disce anes fingres li^ eal geblodgod : and 
}?aes wifes twynung wear^ ^a gerihtlaeccd. Uton nu gehyran 
}?aes apostoles word embe ^as gerynu. 

Paulus se Apostol cwae'S be ^am ealdan folce Israhel, ^Sus 
writende on his pistole to geleaffullum mannum : " Ealle ure 
foriSfaederas waeron gefullode on wolcne and on sae, and ealle 
hi aeton j^one ylcan gastlican mete, and ealle hi druncon |?one 
ylcan gastlican drenc. Hi" druncon so^lice of aefterfiligendum 



A SERMOxN ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 273 

body, and it is, nevertheless, in every part all, by a ghostly 
miracle. Though to one man a less part be allotted, yet is 
there no more power in the great part than in the less; 
because it is in every man whole, by the invisible miglit. 

This mystery is a pledge and a symbol; Christ's body is 
truth. This pledge we hold mystically until we come to the 
truth, and then will this pledge be ended. But it is, as we 
before said, Christ's body and his blood, not bodily but spi- 
ritually. Ye are not to incjuire how it is done, but to hold 
in your belief that it is so done. 

We read in the book that is called * Vit<TB Patrum,' that 
two monks prayed of God some manifestation concerning 
the holy housel, and after the prayer assisted at mass. Then 
saw they a child lying on the altar at which the mass-priest 
was celebrating mass, and God's angel stood with a hand- 
knife, waiting until the priest should break the hoiisel. The 
angel then dismembered the child in tiie dish, and poured its 
blood into the cup. Afterwards, when they went to the 
housel, it was changed to bread and to wine, and they par- 
took of it, thanking God for that manifestation. The holy 
Gregory also obtained from Christ, that he would show to a 
doubting womaji some great proof with reference to hie my- 
stery. She went to housel with doubtful mind, and Gregory 
straightways obtained of God, so that there appeared to them 
both the morsel of the housel that she should eat, as if there 
lay in the dish the joint of a finger all bloody: and the 
woman's doubt was then rectified. Let us now hear the 
words of the apostle with reference to this mystery. 

Paul the Apostle said of the old people of Israel, thus 
writing in his epistle to believing men : "All our forefathers 
were baptized in the cloud and in the sea, and they all ate 
the same ghostly meat, and they all drank the same ghostlv 
drink. Verily they drank from the stone that followed after 

noM. VOL. ir. X 



274 SERMO DE SACRIFICIO IN DIE PASCAE. 

stane, luul se stan wfes Crist." Naes se stan 5e j^fet Wicter Sa of 
fleow lichamlice Crist, ac he getacnode Crist, Se clypode l^us 
to eallum geleaffuUum mannum, '• Swa liwam swa Syrste, 
cumetome and driiice, and of his innoSe fleowS liflic waeter." 
pis he Sciede be ^am Halgan Gaste, ^e Sa underfengon Se on 
hine gelyfdon. Se apostol Paiilus cvvae^, ])iet j^aet Israhela 
folc aete Sone ylcan gastlican mete, and drunce 'Sone ylcan 
gastlican drcnc, forSan <!Je se heofenlica nicte \>c hi afedde 
feowertig geara, and J;cet wseter j^e of Sam stane fleow, hc'efde 
getacnunge Cristes lichaman and his blodes, |>e nii beoS 
geoff'rode dffighwonilice on Godes cyrcan. Hit Wirron Sa 
ylcan Se we nu offriaS, na lichamlice ac gastlice. 

VVe sfedon eow hwenc jjer, J)ffit Crist halgode hlaf and \\u\, 
aer his Srowunge, to husle, and cwaeS, " pis is min lichania 
and min blod." Ne Srowodc he ^a-gyt, ac swa-Seah he 
awende Surh ungesewenlicere mihle pone hlaf to his agcnum 
lichaman, and ))a}t wtn to his blode, swa swa he jer dydeoji j^am 
westcnc, ierSan Se he to men geboren wurde, ^a^a he a\\ende 
Sone heofenlican mete to his fljesce, and piet flowende waeter 
of Sam stane to his agenum blode. Fcla manna aeton of c5am 
heofonlican mete on ^am westene, and druncon ]>onc gastlican 
drenc, and wurdon swa-^eah deade, swa swa Crist saede. Ne 
mtende Crist Sone deaS pe nan man forbugan ne maeg, ac he 
m^ende pone ecan deaS, ]>e sume of Sam folce for heora 
geleafleaste geearnodon. Moyses, and Aaron, and manega 
oSre of Sam folce pe Gode gelicodon, seton pone heofenlican " 
hlaf, ac hi naeron deade pam ecum deaSe, "Seah Se hi gem<e- 
num dea^e forSferdon. Hi gesawon p^et se heofonlica mete 
wees gesewenlic and brosniendlic, ac hi understodon gastlice 
be ^am gesewenlican "Singe, and hit gastlice ^igdon. Se 
Haelend cwaeS, " Se ^e et min flaesc, and drinc^ min blod, 
he hfefS ece lif." Ne het he etan pone lichaman ^e he mid 
befangen w;es, ne pfetblod drincan "Se he for us ageat; ac he 
mtende mid pam worde pset halige husel, pe gastlice is his 



A SERMON ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 275 

them, and the stone was Christ." The stone from which the 
water then flowed was not Christ bodily, but it betokened 
Christ, who thus cried to all believing men, "Whosoever is 
thirsty, let him come to me and drink, and from his inside shall 
flow living water." This he said of the Holy Ghost, whom 
they received who believed in him. The apostle Paul said, 
that the people of Israel ate the same ghostly meat, and drank 
the same ghostly drink, because the heavenly meat which fed 
them forty years, and the water which flowed from the stone, 
were a type of Christ's body and his blood, which are now 
off"ered daily in God's church. Thev were the same which we 
now off*er, not bodily but spiritually. 

We have said to you a little before, that Christ hallowed 
bread and wiiu^, before his passion, for housel, and said, 
" This is my body and my blood." He had not yet suffered, 
but, nevertheless, he changed, through invisible might, the 
bread to his own body, and the w ine to his blood, as he had 
before done in the wilderness, before he was born as man, 
when he changed the heavenly meat to his flesh, and the 
flowing water from the stone to his own blood. Many men 
ate of the heavenly meat in the wilderness, and drank the 
ghostly drink, and, nevertheless, became dead, as Christ said. 
Christ meant not the death which no man may avoid, but he 
meant the eternal death, which some of the people had me- 
rited for their inibelief. Moses and Aaron, and many others 
of the people who were pleasing to God ate the heavenly 
bread, but they died not the eternal death, although they de- 
parted by the common death. Tiiey saw that the heavenly 
meat was visible and corruptible, but they understood spiri- 
tually concerning the visible thing, and partook of it spiri- 
tually. Jesus said, " He who eateth my flesh, and drinketh 
my blood, shall have everlasting life." He did not comnumd 
the body with which he was invested to be eaten, nor the 
blood to be drunk which he shed for us ; but he meant by 
that speech the holy housel, which is spiritually his body and 



276 SERMO DE SACRIFICIO IN DIE PASCAE. 

lichama and his blod : and se ^e |7?es onbyrigS mid geleaffulre 
heortan, he h£ef^ ];aet ece Iff. 

On ^aere ealdan ae geleaffulle menn offrodon Gode mislice 
lac, "Se haefdon towearde getacnunge Cristes lichaman, Se he 
sylf, for uriim synnum, siSSan geoffrode his Ileofenlican 
Faeder to onsasgednysse. Witodlice jns husel, ^e nu biS 
gehalgod aet Godes weofode, is gcmynd Cristes lichaman, ];e 
he for us geoffrode, and his blodcs, ]'c lie for us ageat, swa 
svva he sylf bet, " DoS |?is on minum gemynde." 

^ne "Srowadc Crist Surh bine sylfne, ac swa-"beah daeg- 
hwomlice bib bis ]>ro\vung ge-edniwod |nirb gcrynu ])fes hal- 
gan busies set ^aere halgan nuessan ; forSi fremaS seo balige 
maesse micclum ge ]?am lybbcnduni ge Sam forSfarenum, swa 
swa bit for oft geswutelod is. Us is eac to smcagcnne, ]?;et 
);aet balige husel is aegSer ge Cristes lichama ge ealles gcleaf- 
fullcs folces, aefter gastlicere gcrynu, swa swa se wisa Au- 
gustiniis be "San cwaetS, " Gif gc MJllaS undcrstandan be 
Cristes licbanuin, gcliyraS j?one apostol Paulum, ];u8 cweS- 
ende, Ge soSlice siiidon Cristes lichama and Icornu. Nu is 
cower gcrynu geled on Godes mysan, and ge undcrfoS cower 
gcrynu, to San ]>e ge sylfe sind. BeoS ])aet |?aet ge geseoS 
on "Sam weofode, and underfo^ j^fct ]7apt ge sylfe sind." Eft 
cwae^ se apostol Paulus be ^isum, '" We mancga sindon an 
hlaf and an lichama." UnderstandaS im and blissia^ ; fela 
sind an hlaf and an lichama on Criste. He is ure heafod, 
and we sind his lima. Ne bi^ se hlaf of anum cornc, ac of 
manegum ; ne Jnet win of anre berian, ac of manegum. Swa 
we sceolon eac babban annysse on urum Drihtne, swa swa 
hit awriten is be ^am geleaffullan werode, ]'aet hi waeron on 
swa micelre annysse, swilce him eallum waere an sawul and 
an beorte. 

Crist gehalgode on his beode ]?a gerynu ure sibbe and ure 
annysse. Se Se underfeb^ )>aere annysse gerynu, and ne hylt 
Sone bend ]?fere so^an sibbe, ne underfebS he na gerynu for 
him sylfum, ac gecy^nysse togeanes him sylfum. Micel god 



A SERMOX ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 277 

his blood : and he who tastes that with believing heart shall 
have everlasting life. 

In the old law believing men offered to God divers gifts, 
which had a future tokening of Christ's body, which he him- 
self, for our sins, afterwards offered to his Heavenly Father 
as a sacrifice. Verily this housel, which is now hallowed at 
God's altar, is a remembrance of Christ's body, which he 
offered for us, and of his blood, which he shed for us, as he 
himself commanded, " Do this in remembrance of me." 

Christ suffered once through himself, but yet his passion 
is renewed daily through the mystery of the holy housel at 
the holy mass ; therefore the holy mass greatly benefits both 
the living and the departed, as has very often been manifested. 
We have also to consider, that the holy housel is both the 
body of Christ and of all believing people, by a ghostly 
mystery, as the wise Augustine said of it, "■ If ye will under- 
stand concerning the body of Christ, hear the apostle Paul, 
thus savini;, Ye are tndv Christ's body and limbs. Now 
your mystery is laid on God's table, and ye receive your 
mystery, for which ye yourselves are. Be that which ye see 
on the altar, and receive that which ye yourselves are." 
Again the apostle Paul said of this, " We many are one bread 
and one body." Understand now and rejoice ; many are one 
bread and one body in Christ. He is our head, and wc are 
his limbs. Tiie bread is not of one corn, but of many ; nor 
the wine of one berry, but of many. So we should also 
have unity in our Lord, as it is written of the faithful com- 
pany, that they were in so great unity, as if there were for 
them all one soul and one heart. 



Christ hallowed on his table the mystery of our peace and 
our unity. He who receives the mystery of unity, and holds 
not the bond of true peace, receives not the mystery for 
himself, but as a witness against himself. Great good it is to 



278 SERMO DE SACRIFICIO IN DIE PASCAE. 

biS cri-steiium niannum J^aet hi geloine to husle gan, gif In 
unscffiSSignysse on heoni hcortan bera^ to Sam wcofode, gif 
hi ne beo5 mid leahtrum ofsette. pam yfelan men ne becymS 
to nanum gode, ac to forwyrde, gif he "Sees halgan busies 
unwurSe onbyrigS. Halige bee beodaS j^aet man gcmencge 
waiter to t)am wine ^e to husle sceal, forcian "Se ]>iet wfeter 
hajfS l^cBS folces getacnunge, swa swa j^eet win Cristes blodes ; 
and forbi ne sceal naSor buton oi5rum beon geoffrod aet Sjfire 
halgan m;essan, ]>set Crist bco mid us, and we mid Criste j 
piBt iieafod mid ]^ani leomum, and "Sa Icomu mid 5am hcafde. 

We woldon gefyrn trahtnian be <Sam lambe, ]>e se ealda 
Israhel jet hcora Easter-lide geoffrodon, ac we \^■oldon terest 
eow geieccan ymbc Sas gerynu, and si<S5an hu hit man 
Sicgan sceal. j^.et getaenigendlice lamb waes geoffrod *!t 
heora Easter-tide, and se apostol Paulus cw;e5 on Sisum 
(hegj'erlicum pistole, jnct Crist is ure Easter-tid, se^e for 
(is WcES geoffrod, and on |?isum daege of deaSe aras. Israhel 
JSigde )^ces lambes fla^sc, swa swa God behead, mid j^eorfum 
hlafum and feldlicum lactucum ; and we sccoloti tSicgan pfet 
halige husel, Cristes lichaman and his blod, buton beorman 
yfelnysse and maiifulnysse. Swa swa se beorma awent pu 
gesceafta of heora gecynde, swa awendaS eac leahtras ])ies 
mannes gecynd fram unscseSbignysse to gewemmednysse. 
Se apostol taehte ]>{et we sceoldon wistfuUian na on yfelnysse 
beorman, ac on JK^orfnyssum syfernysse and soSfcfistnysse. 
Lactuca hatte seo wyrt ])e hi etan sceoldon mid ^am |;eorfum 
hlafum ; heo is biter on "Sigene : and we sceolon mid biter- 
nysse soSre behreowsunge ure mod gechensian, gif we willa^ 
Cristes lichaman bicgan. Na^s J^aet Israhela folc gewunod to 
hreawum flasce, |?eah be God him bebude \>(et hi hit hreaw 
ne «ton, ne on waitere gesoden, ac gcbr;ed to fyre. Se wile 
bicgan Godes lichaman hreawne, se^e buton gesceade wen's 
J?aet he waere anfeald man us gelic, and naere God. And se 
^e, fefter menniscum wisdome, w ile smeagan ymbe tia gerynu 
Cristes flfesclicnysse, he deb swilce he seobe bfes lanibes 



A SERMON ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 



m 



christian men that they frequently go to housel, if they bear 
innocence in their hearts to the altar, if they are not possessed 
with sins. For the evil man it turns to no good, but to per- 
dition, if he unworthy taste the holy housel. Holy books en- 
join that water be mixed with the wine destined for housel, 
because water is typical of the people, as the wine is of the 
blood of Christ ; and, therefore, that neither sl)ould be 
offered without the other at the holy mass, that Christ may 
be witii us, and we with Christ ; the head with the limbs, 
and the limbs with the head. 

We would long since have treated of the lamb, which the 
old Israel offered at their Eastcr-tide, but we woukl first re- 
late to you concerning this mystery, and afterwards how it is 
to be eaten. The typical lamb was offered at their Easter- 
tide, and the apostle Paul said in this day's epistle, that 
Christ is our Easter-tide, who was offered for us, and on this 
day arose from death. Israel ate the flesh of the lamb, as 
God commanded, witii unleavened bread and field lettuces ; 
and we should partake of the holy housel, Christ's body and 
his blood, without the barm of evilness and wickedness. As 
barm changes creatures from their nature, so also sins change 
the nature of man from innocence to corruption. The apostle 
taught that we should feast not on the barm of evilness, but 
on the unleavened loaves of soberness and truth. Lettuce the 
plant was called which they were to eat with the unleavened 
loaves ; it is bitter In the eating : and we should purify our 
minds with the bitterness of true repentance, if we desire to 
partake of Christ's body. The people of Israel were not ac- 
customed to raw flesh, though God commanded them not to 
eat it raw, nor sodden in water, but roasted at the fire. He 
will partake of God's body raw, who without reason weens 
that he was a simple man like unto us, and not God. And 
he who, according to human wisdom, will incjuire into the 
mystery of Christ's incarnation, does as though he seethed 



2aO SERMO DE SACRIFICIO IN DIE PASCAE. 

flfBSC on waetere ; forlSan ^e waster getaciia'S on pyssere stowe 
mennisc ingehyd. Ac we sceolon witan, Y<et ealle Sa gerynu 
Cristes menniscnysse waeron gefadode )?urh mihte j^'c-es Ilalgan 
Gastes, ]?onne ^icge we his lichanian gebraedne to fyre, 
forSan "Se se Halga Gast com on fyres hivve to "Sam aposto- 
liim, on niislicum gereorduni. Israhel sceoldc etan j?£es 
lambcs heafod, and <Sa fet, and )?;et innewerde, and ];{er nan 
"Sing belifan ne nioste ofer niht ; gif )?fer hwfet belife, for- 
bcernan |?8et on fyre ; and ne tobrtecon Sa ban. ^fter gast- 
licuni andgite we eta^ J?aes lanibes lieafod, J^onne we underfoS 
Cristes godcundnysse on uruin geleafan. Eft, bonne we his 
nienniscnysse mid lufe undcrfoS, [?onne ete we |;a^s lambes 
fet, forSaii iSc Crist is angynn and endc, God {er ealle worulda, 
and man on |>y&sere worulde geendunge. Ilwait is ]>ies 
lambcs innowcrde buton Cristes digelan bcbodu ? Sa we etaJS 
J?onne we lifcs word mid grjedignyssc underfot). Nan ^ing 
ne mostc pH?s lambes belifan o5 mcrien, forSan |>c Godes 
cwydas sind to smcagenne mid swa micelre carfulnysse, swa 
|?fet ealle his beboda mid andgite and weorce bcon asmcadc 
on nihte 'Sises andwerdan lifes, isrSan ^ se endencxta dfeg 
\>iBS gema^nelican jeristes teteowige. Gif we Sonne ealle Sa 
gerynn Cristes flfeesclicnysse ^urhsmcagan ne magon, "Sonne 
sceole we )^a lafe bet;pcan ]?8es Ilalgan Gastes mihte mid 
soSrc cadmodnysse, and na to dyrstelice embe "Sa deopan 
digelnyssa ofer ures andgites niieSe smeagan. 

Hi seton J^aet lamb mid begyrdum lendenum. On Icndennm 
is seo galnys Sees lichaman, and se ^e wile \>iBt husel ^icgan, 
he sceal gewri^an \>n galnysse, and mid clasnnysse "Sa halgan 
Sigene onfon. Hi waeron eac gesceode. Hwiet sind gescy 
buton deadra nytena hyda ? We beoS soSlice gesceode, gif 
we gcefenlaeca^ mid urum faerelde and weorce forSfarenra 
manna lif, ])cera Se Gode geSugon ))urh gehaltsumnysse his 
beboda. 

Hi htefdon him st^f on handa aet ^sere Sigene. Se stfef 
gctacnaS gymene and hyrdrcrdenc. J^a Se bet cunnon and 



A SERMON ON THE SACRIFICE ON EASTER-DAY. 281 

the flesh of the lamb in water ; for water in this place be- 
tokens human knowledge. But we are to know, that all the 
mysteries of Christ's humanity were ordained through the 
might of the Holy Ghost, then eat we his body roasted at 
the fire, because the Holy Ghost came in form of fire to the 
apostles, in various tongues. Israel was to eat the lamb's head, 
and the feet, and the inward part, and nothing might there 
remain over night ; if anything remained, it was to be burnt 
in the fire ; and they were not to break the bones. In a 
ghostly sense we cat of the lamb's head, when we receive the 
divinity of Christ into our belief. Again, when we with love 
receive his humanity, then cat wc the feet of the lamb, for 
Christ is beginning and end, God before all worlds, and man 
at the ending of this world. What is the lamb's inward part 
but Christ's occult connnands? those we eat when with 
eagerness we receive the word of life. Nothing of the lamb 
might remain until morning, because the words of God are 
to be considered with so great carefulness, that all his com- 
mands, with imderstanding and effect, be pondered over in 
the night of this present life, ere the last day of the universal 
resurrection appears. But if wc caimot investigate all the 
mysteries of Christ's incarnation, then should we with true 
humility commit the remainder to the might of the Holy 
Ghost, and not too daringly, beyond the compass of our un- 
derstanding, inquire concerning those deep secrets. 

They ate the lamb with girded loins. In the h)ins is the 
lust of the body, and he who will cat the housel shall bind 
up lust, and with chastity receive the holy aliment They 
were also shod. What arc shoes but the hides of dead beasts ? 
We shall be truly siiod, if in our course and work we imitate 
the lives of men departed, who throve to God through ob- 
servance of his commandments. 

They had staff in hand at the refection. The staff betokens 
care and guardianship. They who better know and can should 



282 ALIUS SERMO DE DIE PASCAE. 

nuigon, sceolon gyman o'Sra manna, and mid heora fultuine 
underwry^ian. Dam gemettum vvies bebodcn ]>iet hi sceoldon 
caflice etan, forSan ^e God onscuna^ pa sleacnysse on his 
Segnuni, and "Sa he lufa^ ]>e mid Godes cafnysse )78es ecan 
lifes myrhSe seca^. Hit is awritcn, " Ne elca "Su to ge- 
cyrrenne to Gode, ^y-laes ]>e se tima losigc }?urh Sa slcacan 
elcunge." pa gemettan ne moston j^aes lambes ban scaenan, 
nc -Sa cempan 5e Crist ahcngon ne moston tobrccan his 
halgan sceancan. swa swa ht dydon jjfera twcgra scea*Sena, 
•5e him on twTi healfa hangodon. Ac Drihten aras of deaSe 
gcsund, buton ielcore forrotodnysse, and In sceolon geseon 
{fit "(Sam micchm dome hwaene hi geuundodon wtelhreawlice 
on rode. 

peos tid is gehatcn on Ebreiscum gereordc Pasciia, that 
is on Leden ' Transitus,' and on Englisc ' Fjercld'; forSan 
•(Se on ■Sisnm d'pge fcrde Godes folc fram Egypta-lande ofer 
"Sa Readan sa', fram 'Seowte to ^anl beliatenan carde. Urc 
Drihten fcrde cac on ])isne timan, swa swa se godspellcre 
lohannes cWrTeJS, fram cJisuni niiddancarde to his Ileofonlican 
Faeder. We sceolon fyligan urum Ileafde, and faran fram 
deofle to Criste, fram ^issere unst«i^SiSigan worulde to his 
staSelfffistan rice; ac we sceolon aerest, on urum andwcrdan 
life, faran fram leahtrum to halgum maegnum, fram unSeawum 
to godum beawnm, gif we willaS aefter -Sisuni laRnan life 
faran to c)am ecan, and, a^ftcr urum aeriste, to ILelende Criste. 
He us geUede to his Lifigendan Ffeder, |?e hine sealde for 
urum synnum to deaSe- Sy him wuldor and lof J>aere wcl- 
daede on ealra worulda woruld. Amen. 



ALIUS SERMO DE DIE PASCAE. 

HIT is swi^e gedafenlic, |?aet ge on Sisum drihtenlicum teriste 
sume larlice word aet eowerum lareowum gehyron. 

Lucas se Godspellcre awrat on Cristes bee, j^ael on Sisum 



ANOTHER SERMON ON EASTER-DAY. 283 

hiive care of other men, and support them with their aid. 
The partakers were commanded to eat quickly, because God 
abominates shickness in his servants, and he loves those who 
with the speed of God seek the joy of everlasting life. It is 
written, •' Tarry not to turn to God, lest the time be lost 
through slothful delay." The partakers migiit not break the 
bones of the lamb, nor might the soldiers who hanged Christ 
break his holy legs, as they did those of the two thieves who 
hung on the two sides of him. But the Lord arose from 
death sound, without any corruption, and they shall see at 
the great doom him whom they cruelly wounded on the 
rood. 

This tide is in the Hebrew tongue called Pascha, that is 
in Latin, Trausifus, and in English, Passover; because on 
this day God's folk passed from the land of Egypt over the 
Red sea, from thraldom to the promised country. Our Lord 
also passed at this time, as the evangelist John said, from 
this Morld to his Heavenly Father. We should follow our 
Head, and pass from the devil to Christ, frou) this unsteady 
world to his steadfast kingdom ; but we should first, in our 
present life, pass from sins to holy virtues, from vices to good 
morals, if we desire, after this transitory life, to pass to the 
life everlasting, and, after our resurrection, to Jesus Christ. 
May he lead us to his Living Father, who gave him to death 
for our sins. Be to him glory and praise for that beneficence 
to all eternity. Amen. 



ANOTHER SERMON ON EASTER-DAY. 

IT is very fitting, that on this divine resurrection ye hear 
some instructive words frotn your teachers. 

Luke the Evangelist wrote in the book of Christ, that on 



284 ALIUS SERMO DE DIE PASCAE. 

Easterlicnm d<ege " eodon twegen Drihtnes leorning-cnihtas 
to an re by rig, seo waes fif mila fram Hierusalem, Emmaus 
gehaten : ]?a eodon hi, sprecende ymbe J^aes Hielendes prow- 
unge hitn betwynan;" et reliqua. 

On ^isum andwerdan daege gelanip 5is, |»eah "Se J^is godspel 
aet o^re nifessan geraed sy. Gregorius, se halga papa, ure 
apostol, trahtnode |?is godspel mid sceortre trahtnunge, and 
cwcR'S, Mine gebroSra Sa leofostan, efne ge geliyrdon )7aet 
ure Drihtcn refter his feriste hine SRteowode on si*5fete his 
tvvam leorning-cnihtuni, na fulfremedlice be him gclyfendum, 
ae be him sprecendum ; and he nolde for Saere twynunge him 
aeteowian his oncnawennysse. Swa dydc Drihten on heora 
gesihbe swa swa hi sylfe dydon on heora heortum. Hi 
so^lice hine hifodon wiSinnan, and swa-^eah him twynode 
be his ffiristc ; Driiiten him waes andwcrd wibutan, and swa- 
Seah him ne gcswutelode hwaet he waes. He gefyldc his 
behat, J^e he <er his Srowunge gccwaeS, " Swa hwfcer swa beo^ 
twegen o^Se ^ry gegadrodc on minum naman, J?aer ic sylf 
beo him to-middes." He Sreadc heora andgites hcardiiysse, 
and him geopenode ISa halgan gewritu 5e be him wjeron 
gesette ; and swa-^cah he waes him geSuht swilce ael^eodig 
for ^aere twynunge. 

Be ciison Me magon tocnawan j^fet us is twyfeald neod on 
boclicum gewritum. Anfeald neod us is, }>aet we "Sa boclican 
lare midcarfulliim modcsmeagan ; oSerj^aet we hi to weorcum 
a\vendan. Gif Moyses and ealle witegan witegodon j^aet 
Crist sceolde, ^urh nearunysse his "Srowunge, into his heo- 
fonlican wuldre faran, humeta maeg ^onne se beon cristen 
geteald, se^e nele, be his andgites mae^e, ]?a boclican gewritu 
aspyrian, hu hi to Criste belimpaS, ne ^urh nanre earfo^nysse 
]>gdt ece wuldor mid Criste geearnian ? 

Hi ^a gclaSodon hine to heora gest-huse, and him mete 
gebudon, and hine on 'Sam gereorde oncneowon, );one "Se hi 
ne mihton on onwrigennysse haliges ge writes oncnawan. 
Naeron hi onlihte j^urh j^aet j^aet hi Godes beboda gehyrdon, 



ANOTHER SERMON ON EASTER-DAY. 285 

this Easter day " two of the Lord's disciples went to a town, 
which was five miles from Jerusalem, called Emmaus : then 
went they, speaking among themselves of the passion of 
Jesus : " et reliqua. 

On this present day this happened, though this gospel is 
read at another mass. Gregory, the holy pope, our apostle, 
has expounded tiiis gospel in a short exposition, and said, 
My dearest brothers, behold ye have heard that our Lord 
after his resurrection appeared on a journey to his two dis- 
ciples, who did not fully believe concerning him, but were 
speaking of him ; and he would not, on account of their 
doubt, show that he knew them. The Lord did in their sight 
as they themselves did in their hearts. They truly loved him 
witliin, and yet doubted as to his resurrection ; the Lord was 
present to them without, and yet did not manifest to then) 
M ho he Mas. He fulfilled his promise, which he made before 
his passion, " Wheresoever two or three shall be gathered 
together in my name, there 1 myself will be in the midst ol 
them." He reproved the hardness of their understanding, 
and opened to them the holy writings which had been com- 
posetl concerning him ; and, nevertheless, he appeared to 
them as a stranger, because of their doubt. 

By this we may know that we have a twofold need in book- 
writings. Our simple need is to consider with careful mind 
the written lore ; the other, to turn it to works. If Moses and 
all the prophets prophesied that Christ, through the anguish 
of his passion, should pass into his heavenh glory, how then 
can he be accounted a christian, who will not, according to 
the capacity of his understanding, search the book-writings, 
how they I'efer to Christ, nor through any ditliculty merit 
with Christ eternal glory ? 

They then invited him to their guest-house, and offered 
him meat, and knew him at the refection, whom they might 
not know by the revelation of the holy writ. They were 
not enlightened because they had heard the commandments 



286 ALIUS "SEIIMO Dl£ DIE PASCAE. 

ac hi vvurdon onlihte pa^a hi Godes beboda to weorce awen- 
don, )?nrh "Sa cumlibnysse ; for^aii ^e hit is awriten, Jjset "Sa 
ne beoiS rihtwise getealde mid Gode, J?a "Se buton weorce his 
beboda geh} raS ; ac 5a beo5 rihtwise getealde, ]>e mid weor- 
cum his beboda gefylla^. Efne ure Drihten na?s onciiawen, 
iSaSa he on siSfjete hi gespra^c, ac Saba he mid him gereor- 
dode, j;a wearS he oncnawen |>urh heora cumliSnysse. Mine 
gebrobra, lufiaS cumliSnysse and soSre hife weorc, swa swa 
se apostol Paulus ^a geleatTullan Soode J>isuin wordum tihte, 
" Wunige betwux cow hifu soSre broScrraedcne, and ne 
forgymeleasige ge cumliJSnysse." 

Sume gecwemdon englum on heora gcst-hiisum undeifinig- 
enum })nrh cumli5nyi?se. Be Sisnin eac cwfeS se apostol 
Petriis, " BcoiS cumliSe eow betwynan, buton ceorungum." 
Drihten sylf cWceS, " Ic waes cuma, and ge me underfongon." 
Witodlicc cumliSnys is swiSe hlisful Sing, and astcald Surh 
halguni heahfjederum. Sum hiredes ealdor beeode cnniliS- 
nysse mid micelre gecneordnysse, anddc'eghwomlicc alSeodige 
men aet his mysan gereordode. Hwtfit Sa, on sumum da^ge 
com sum aelSeodig man betwux "bam oSruin to his mysan, 
and se hiredes ealdor, swa swa his gewuna wfes, b;er him 
waeter to han(hnn. pa fa^rlice fordwan se foresa'da a^lSeodiga 
of his gesihSum, and he S^-s micclum wundrode. Eft on 
J?cere ylcan nihte, cwifiS se Ilffilend iSurh onwrigennysse to 
^am hiredes hlaforde, " OSrum dagum Jni underfenge me on 
minum limum, gyrstan-daeg |?u underfenge me on me sylfum." 
SmeagaS nu, mine gebroSra, hu micel miht stent on cumli^- 
nysse, gif heo bi^ orhlyte ydeles gylpes. Drihten gelaeste 
Jjam hiredes hlaforde J^aet j^aet he on his godspelle gecwaeS, 
" Se ^e underfehS ffinne lytling on minum naman, he undcr- 
feh^ me sylfne." Sy lof and wuldor a -Sam welwyllendan 
Haelende. Amen. 



ANOTHER SERMOX ON EASTER-DAY. 287 

of God, but they were enlightened when they turned the com- 
mandments of God to work, by hospitality; for it is written, 
that they shall not be accounted righteous with God, who 
without work hear his commandments ; but they shall be ac- 
counted righteous, who fulfil his commandments with works. 
Lo our Lord was not known, when he spake with them on 
the journey, but when he ate with them, tiien he became 
known through their hospitality. My brothers, love hospi- 
tality and works of true love, as the apostle Paul stimulated the 
faithful people in these words, " Let the love of true brother- 
hood dwell among you, and neglect not hospitality." 

Some through hospitality have given pleasure to angels, 
whom they received into their guest-houses. Of this also 
the apostle Peter said, " Be hospitable among yourselves, 
without murmuring." The Lord himself said, " I uas a 
guest, and ye received me." Verily hospitality is a very 
excellent thing, and was established by the holy patriarchs. 
A chief of a household practised hospitality with great assi- 
duity, and daily entertained strangers at bis board. Behold 
on a certain day a stranger came among others to his table, 
and the chief of the household, as was his wont, bare water 
to him for his hands. The before-said stranger then sud- 
denly vanished from his sight, and thereat he greatly won- 
dered. Afterwards, on the same night, Jesus through reve- 
lation said to the master of the household, " On other days 
thou hast received me in my limbs, yesterday thou receivedst 
me in myself." Consider now, my brothers, what great 
virtue exists in hospitality, if it be void of vain-glory. The 
Lord made good to the master of the household that which 
he said in his gospel, " He who receivcth one little one in my 
name, he receiveth myself." Be ever praise and glory to 
the benevolent Jesus. Amen. 



28S 



FERIA IV. IN HEBDOMADE PASCAE. 

GELOME aeteowode ure Drihtcn hine sylfne his leorning- 
cnihtum fefter his sriste, and mid him ^igde lichamlicc 
bigleofan, and hi mid his lare gctrymde. Sume his geswute- 
hnige we eow saedon on oSre stowe, sume we wiila^ eow nu 
sccgan, nn gc her gcgaderodc syndon. We wenaS ]hpX ge 
culle on andwerdnysse her ne beon to ham dpRgc ^e we )><et 
godspel nrdan sceolon. 

lohannes se Godspellcre awrat on |i;prc feorSan Cristcs 
bee, ^us cweScnde, " Manifestauit se lesus ad mare Tybe- 
riadis :" ct rclicjua : " Se Hfelcnd hine ges\vutch)dc tefter his 
feriste set ■Sicre see Tybcriadis his seofon Icorning-cnihtum," 
etc. 

Gregorius trahtnodc )ns godspel, and smcadc hwi Pctrus 
0i!)5c heora tenig to San oft fcngc \>e he jjer forlet. VVitodHcc 
Pctrus waes fisccre fier his gecyrrcdnysse, and Matheus wa^s 
tollcre. Pctrus gccyrde eft to his fixnoSe, and Matheus 
nfefre a^fter his gecyrrcdnysse set toU-setle ne saet ; forSan 
"Se o"Ser is j^ait man him JSurh fixno'Se bigleofan tilige, and 
o'Ser paet man Surh toll fcoh gegadrigc. Sume teolunga 
sind l^e man began m.'cg buton synnum, sume siiid 5e man 
carfoiSlice mseg oS^e nateshwon buton synnum began. Is 
forSi neod J^am ^e to Gode annedlice bihS, j^iet his mod ne 
ge-edlfece 5a teolunga ];e hine fram Gode wemaS. Pctrus 
hffifde mipleolice teolunge iev his gecyrrcdnysse, and he eac 
for Si eft buton pleo to his fixno^e gecyrde. 

Se Haelend stod on ^am strande, ^a^a he hine geswutelode 
his Icorning-cnihtum after his eeriste, and nolde gan up on 
■5am sielicum ySum, swa swa he dyde {3er his ^rowunge. Seo 
sifi getacna^ ]>as andwerdan woruld, and |7fet strand getacnode 
^a ecan sta^olfccstnysse )?aes towerdan lifes. Hi swuncon 
on Saere sae, for^an '5e hi waeron ^a-gyt on geswincfuUum 
y^um |?ises deadlican lifes. Se H.'i^lend stod on 5am strande, 



289 



WEDNESDAY IN EASTER WEEK. 

OUR Lord, after his resurrection, frequently appeared to 
his disciples, and with them bodily ate food, and confirmed 
them with his teaching. Some of his manifestation we have 
related to you in another place, some we will now relate to 
you, now that ye are here assembled. We ween that ye will 
not all be present here on the day when we shall read that 
gospel. 

John the Evangelist wrote in the fourth book of Christ, 
thus saying, " Manifestavit se Jesus ad mare Tiberiadis," et 
reliqua : " Jesus showed himself after his resurrection at the 
sea of Tiberias to his seven disciples," etc. 

Gregory has commented on this gospel, and considered 
why Peter or any of them again took to that which they had 
before abandoned. For Peter before his conversion was a 
fisher, and Matthew a toll-gatherer. Peter turned again let 
his fishing, but Matthew after his conversion never sat at the 
toll-seat; because it is one thing that a man provide himself 
sustenance by fishing, and another that a man accumulate 
money by toll. Some occupations there are that a man may 
follow without sins, some there are that a man can hardly, 
or not at all follow without sins. It is, therefore, needful for 
him who steadfastly inclines to God, that his mind approach 
not those pursuits which may seduce him from God. Peter 
had an occupation void of peril before his conversion, and he, 
therefore, turned again v.ithout peril to his fishing. 

Jesus stood on the strand, when he t^howcd himself to hii 
disciples after his resurrection, and would not go upon the 
sea waves, as he did before his passion. The sea betokens 
this present world, and the strand betokened the eternal 
stability of the life to come. They toiled on the sea, because 
they were yet in the toilsome waves of this mortal life. Jesus 
stood on the strand, because, through his resurrection, he 

HOM. VOL. IT. U 



290 FERIA IV. IN HEBDOMADE PASCAE. 

forSan ^e he haefde 5urh his aeristealle deadlicnyssaaworpen, 
swilce he mid weorcum hi gesprsece, ' Nelle ic on sjje eow 
aeteowian, forSan 5e ic ne eom mid cow on geswincfuHum 
ySum anJwerdrc deaSlicnyssc.' 

Heora fixnoSe gelamp micel earfoSnys, j^aet Cristes tacne 
gehmipe micel mjersung. Wc raedab on Cristes bee, ]7ffit 
Drihten hete tuwa awurpan net on fixnoSe ; tene wr his <Srow- 
mige, and o^re siJSe aefter his aeriste. He het ter his ^row- 
unge wurpan, nc he ne scyrde on hw^eSere healfe hi ])aet net 
wurpan sceoldon. yEftcr his {eriste he het wurpan ]?aet net 
on ^a swiSran healfe ]y,es rewetes, for tSaere getacimnge. Seo 
swiSre healf getacnaS Sa godan, and seo wynstre ba yfclan. 
Se aerra fixnoS ^r Cristes Srowunge getacnode |>as andwerdan 
gelacSunge ^e we on sindon; and se teftra fixnoS, {efter 
Drihtncs leriste, getacnode \>d towerdan gclaSunge gecorenra 
manna to 5;im ecan life. On Sam a^rran fixnoSe wurdon 
swa fela geliehte |>a^t paet net tobaerst ; and SMa fela manna 
gebugaS to gelcafan on iSissere andwerdan gelaSunge, |)aet 
hi sume oft ut-l)erstaS JSurh wiJSercorennysse and leahtrum 
heora ^wyran lifes. On Sam ccftran fixnoSe wurdon gclaehte 
mict'lc and mancga fixas, and ])iet net swa-^eah aSolode, for- 
San Se nan man ne aetbcrst ut of Saere toweardan gelaSunge, 
siSSan he to Godes rice becymS ; ac hi wunaS a^fre siSSan 
ealle on singalrc sibl)e, on ecere staSolfaestnysse. 

Petrus teah ]?aet net to lande, forSan "Se him is sinderlice 
betaeht hyrdraeden ofer eallum cristenum mannum, swa swa 
Drihten him to cwaeS "briwa aet ^isum ylcan gereorde : he 
cwae^, " Petrus, lufast ^u me ? He cwffi^, Driliten, ^u wast 
ealle "Sing, and ]>n wast |7aBt ic ^e lufige. Drihten cwae^ him 
to, Gif Su me lufige, laeswa mine seep." Drihtnes seep 
sindon cristene men; swilce he cwade, ^Gif ^u me lufige, 
cyS |?a lufe "Se "Su to me haefst minum folce, mid ^inre gy- 
mene.' Witodlice Petrus tih"S ^a geleaffullan of ySigendre 
sffi |?yssere worulde, and fram fla?sclicum lustum to ^aere ecan 



WEDNESDAY IN EASTER WEEK. 291 

liad cast off all mortalities, as if he in reality said to them, 
' I will not appear to you on the sea, because I am not with 
you in the toilsome waves of the present mortality.' 

Great vexation attended their fit^hing, that a great glory 
might attend Christ's miracle. We read in the book of 
Christ, that the Lord twice commanded the net to be cast in 
fishing; once before his passion, and the second time after 
his resurrection. Before his passion he commanded it to be 
cast, but he did not distinguisii on wliich side they should 
cast the net. After his resurrection he commanded them to 
cast the net on the right side of the ship, for a tokening. 
The right side betokens the good, and the lift the evil. The 
former fisiiing, before Christ's passion, betokened this pre- 
sent church in which we arc ; and the second fishing, after 
the Lord's resurrection, betokened the future church of men 
chosen to everlasting life. In the former fishing so many 
were caught that the net burst ; and so many men turn to 
belief in this present church, that some of them again burst 
out through reprobation and the sins of their perverse life. 
In the second fishing great and many fishes were caught, and 
the net, nevertheless, continued sound, because no man will 
escape from the future church, after he comes to the kingdom 
of God ; but they will dwell ever after in constant peace, in 
everlasting steadfastness. 

Peter drew the net to land, because to him is especially 
committed the guardianship over all christian men, as the 
Lord thrice said to him at this same refection : he said, 
" Peter, lovest thou me ? He said. Lord, thou knowest all 
things, and thou knowest that I love thee. The Lord said to 
him, If thou lovest me, feed my sheep." The Lord's sheep 
are christian men ; as if he had said, ' If thou lovest me, 
show the love that thou hast for me to my people by thy 
care.' Verily Peter draws the faithful from the billowy sea 
of this world, and from fleshly lusts to the eternal steadfast- 

u 2 



292 FERIA IV. IN HF.BDOMADE PASCAE. 

sta^olfestnyssf, 'Surli his liire, JSiirh taciia, Surh -^ingrifidene, 
"Surh miltsunge him forgyfcure mihte. 

pset getel Siera fixa hsef^ maran getaciiunge ^onne ge 
understaiidan magon. Hi gemetton fyr, and fisc on uppon, 
and hlaf on em, <Sa5a hi to hmde comon. Se gebrfedda fisc 
and se hhlf h^efdon ane getacnunge. Se fisc getacnode J)one 
Haelend, ]>e Wfes on ^sere earfoSnysse his Srowunge gebra^d ; 
and he is se liflica hlaf, "Se afett segSer ge englas ge menn. 
paet fyr getacnode bone Halgan Gast, Surh ^one wc bco5 
gehalgode, and calle synna beo5 ^urh hine forgyfene. We 
raedai) on oSre stowe, ]?a?t Crist tete a^fter his feriste gebrfedne 
fisc and hunies beobread. Hwast getacnode se gebrfpdda fisc, 
buton Sone geSrowodan Crist ? Hwffit Stes hunies beobread, 
buton his Godcunihiysse swetnysse ? Beobread is on twam 
"Singuni, on weaxe and on hunie. Crist is on twam edwistum, 
on unagunncnrc Godcundnysse and on ongunnenre niennisc- 
nysse. He \v<es us geworden on his Srouunge gebrted fisc, 
and on aeriste hunies beobread. He gercordode hine aefter 
his teristc mid seofon leorning-cnihtum, for San be he ge- 
swutelode mid }>aere da;de, )><et 5a men becumaS to his ecan 
gereorde, j;e on anwerdum life burh geearnungum becumaS 
to seofonfealdre gifc ]ves Halgan Gastcs : \>a. sind wisdom 
and andgit, raed and strengS, ingehyd and arffestnys : Godes 
ege is se scofoba. purh bas seofon ma?genu bib J;a:*t ece lif 
geearnod. Witodlice se be Cristes Gast on him na?fb, nis se 
his. 

Eow is to witenne paet ^eos wucu is geteald to anum daege, 
aefter gastlicere gerynu. Be "bam daege cwaeb se witega, 
" Haec est dies quam fecit Dominus ; exultemus et laetenmr 
in ea:" " Des is se daeg |?e Drihten worhte ; uton blissian 
and faegnian on "bam daege." We sceolon blissian on urum 
Drihtne and on ure alysednysse, na on higleaste obbe on 
woruldlicuni gedwyldum. Uton beon swa swa we singa^, 
*' daeg, and na "beostru." Forwel fela sind ]>e wylla^ on 
"Sisuin dagum drincan o^ speow^an, and fracodlice him be- 



WEDNESDAY IN EASTER WEEK. 293 

ness, through his doctrine, through miracles, tlirough media- 
tion, through merciful use of the power given to him. 

The number of the fisiies'has a greater tokening than ye 
can understand. They found tire, and fish upon it, and bread 
close by, when they came to land. The broiled fish and the 
bread had one tokening. The fish betokened Jesus, who was 
broiled in the anguish of his passion ; and he is the bread of 
life, which feeds both angels and men. The fire betokened 
the Holy Ghost, through \\ hom \^e are hallowed, and all sins 
will through him be forgiven. We read in anotiier place, that 
Clirist ate after his resurrection broiled fish and honey-comb. 
What betokened the broiled fish but the suftering Christ ? 
What the honey-comb, but the sweetness of his Divinity ? 
A honey-comb consists of two things, of wax and of honey. 
Christ is of two substances, of Divinity without beginning, 
and of humanity with beginning. For us at his passion he 
became a broiled fish, and at his resurrection a honey-comb. 
He refected himself after his resurrection with seven dis- 
ciples, because he would l)y that deed manifest, that those 
men come to his eternal refection, who in the present life 
through merits come to the sevenfold grace of the Holy 
Ghost : whicii are wisdom and understanding, counsel and 
strength, knowledge and piety : awe of God is the seventh. 
Through these seven virtues everlasting life is earned. But 
he who has not the Spirit of Christ within iiim is not his. 

Ye are to know tliat this week is accounted as one day, 
according to a ghostly mystery. Of that day said the pro- 
phet, " Hwc est dies quam fecit Dominus ; exultemus et^ 
IfEtemur in ea :" "This is the day which the Lord hath 
made; let us exult and rejoice in that day." We should 
exult in our Lord and in our redemption, not with heed- 
lessness or with worldly irregularities. Let us be as we sing, 
" day, and not darkness." Very many there are who on this 
day will drink to vomiting, and shamefully hranl among 



294 APOSTOLORUM PHILIPPI ET lACOBI. 

tvvynan sacian ; ac ^illice ne magon singan |)one lofsang 
" pes is se daeg Se Drihten worlite." Him andwyrt }?aerrihte 
Drihten, ' Ge siiid j^eostru, and iia leolit. Gif ge willaS beon 
se daeg j)e ic worhte, lybba^ ]7onne rihtlice, ]>eet ge habbon 
so'Sfijestnysbe leoht on eowerum licortuni, and ]';et ne beo 
naefre ^urh leahtras acwenced.' 

paet so^e Leoht, Hcelend Crist, iSe onlihte ealne mid- 
daneard, onlihte ure mod mid liis godcundan leohte ; and J?aet 
ne beo njefre Surh Sone laban dcofol adwaesced, J?;et we mid 
leohte ures geleafan and godum geearnungum to 5am ecum 
life becuman moton. Amen. 



KAL. MAIL 
APOSTOLORUM PHILIPPI ET lACOBI. 

PHILIPPUS, se Godes Apostol, 5e we on Sisum dfege 
wurJSiaS, bodade godspel annedlice haiSenum J?eodum gcond 
twentig geara fa?ce iefter Cristes brownnge, on Sam lande 
J?e is gehaten SciSbia. Da gehehton hine |>a hceJScnan, and 
geheddon to heora dcofolgyldc, ]r,ei' (5;er wws an ormaete 
draca, se ofsloh bajrrihte Stes hsejjengyldan snnu, scbe baer ]7a 
stor-cyllan to ba^re olTrunge. Se draca ofsloh eac twegen 
gerefan ba^re ylcan scire, on ]?fera hfeftnedum waes se apostol 
Philippus gehfefd. Witodlice ^urh "5aes dracan blaed eal seo 
menigu micclnm wearlS geuntrumod. pa cwae^ se apostol 
Philippus to 5am ymbstandendum folce, " Hlysta^ mines 
riedes, and eower htel bi'5 ge-edniwod, and j?as deadan beo^ 
arserede, and se draca, ^e eow derigendlic is, bi^ aflyged on 
mines Godes naman." Hi ealle cwsedon, " Hw;et tjccst "Su 
us to rsede?" Se apostol cwaeb, ^' Towurp ]?is deofolgild, 
and tocwysaS, and ariera^ Cristes rode-tacn on Saere stowe, 
and gebidda^ eow to "Sjere." Da ongunnon "Sa hryman, "pe 
^urh j^aes dracan bla^de alefode waeron, " Wurde ure miht ge- 



THE APOSTLES PHILIP AND JAMES. 295 

themselves ; but such may not sing the hymn, " This is the 
day which the Lord hath made." Tlic Lord would straight- 
ways answer them, ' Ye are darkness, and not light. If ye 
will be the day that I made, live then rightly, that ye may 
have the light of truth in your hearts, and that that be 
through sins never quenched.' 

May the true Light, Jesus Christ, who enlighteneth all 
the world, enlighten our minds with his divine light ; and 
may tliat never, through the hostile devil, be extinguished, 
that we with the liglit of our belief, and with good deserts 
may come to the evcrhisting life. Amen. 



MAY I. 
THE APOSTLES PHILIP AND JAMES. 

PHILIP, the Apostle of God, whom we on this day honour, 
steadfastly preached the gospel to the heathen nations 
during a period of twenty years after Christ's passion, 
in the land which is called Scythia. Then the iieathen 
seized liim, and led iiim to their idol, where there was an 
ijumense dragon, which straightways slew tiic son of the 
idohiter who bare the censer to the offering. The dragon 
slew al.so two counts of the same shire, in whose custody the 
apostle Philip was held. Verily by the dragon's breath all 
the multitude was greatly sickened. Then said the apostle 
Philip to the folk standing around, " Listen to my counsel, 
and your health shall be renewed, and these dead siiall be 
raised, and the dragon, which is destructive to you, shall be 
put to Hight in the name of my God." Tiiey all said, 
*' WJKit teachest thou us for counsel?" The apostle said, 
" Cast down this idol, and crush it, and raise up the sign of 
Christ's rood on the place, and pray to that." Then begun 
those to cry, who had lieen hurt by the dragon's breath. 



296 APOSTOLORUM PHILIPPI ET lACOBI. 

ediiiwot], )?onne towurpe we "Sis deofoli,nlc]." Da cwae-S se 
apostol to ^am dracan, " Ic ^e bebeode, on naman ILelendes 
Cristes, j^tet ^u gewite of ^yssere stoue, and far to westene, 
■Sier 'Saer manna drohtnung nis; and ]>u nanum men on Siiium 
fram-faere ne drece." Da ferde se reba draca ardlice aweig, 
and nahwar sibSan ne aeteowode. Se apostol Philippus 
anerde 5a of dea^e, on Godes naman, ba )>ry deadan |?e se 
draca acwealde, and ealle ^a menigu gchjelde, j?e ^urh ])fes 
dracan bleed geuntrumod waes. 

Ilwast iSa ongunnon ealle his ehteras mid soSre dredbote to 
him gebiddan, Mcndon jnet he wjere witodlicc God. pa 
ongann se apostol hi ealle la?ran ofcr twelf monaJS 5a dcopan 
lare be Drihtnes to-cyme to bysserc worulde on so5re mcn- 
niscnysse, and hu he mid his dcaSe mickhmcard alysde, and 
<efter his a.n*iste bine sylfne teteowode his leorning-cnihtuni, 
and him ge-edniwode ]>a yican lare ]?e he jjer hi mid la'rde, 
and hu he to heofonum astah on heora ealra gesih'Se, and hijn 
sibban sende ]?one so'San frofer ]>aes Ilalgan Gastes, swa svva 
he him ;er behet : " Nu com ic to cow j>urh "Sffis /Elmihtigan 
sande, and ic dyde eow witan, Surh Drihtnes mihte, ];,'et "bas 
deofolgild eow sind derigendlico, ^ba ^e ge mid ydelnyssc o^ 
]7is wurbodon." Durh )>as bodunge gdyfdon fcla biiscnd 
manna on bone so^an God ]>e se apostol bodadc, and wurd(ni 
gefullode binnon feawuin dagum. Da gchadode se apostol 
on ^am earde gehwaer biscopas and nuessepreostas, diaconas 
and Godes ^eowas, and Gode cyrcan araerde. Gewende "ba 
to Asiam, ^urh onwrigenysse Godes, to anre byrig seo is 
Geropolis gccTged, and he "baer adwaescte "ba deofellican lare 
]?e gedwolmen araerdon dyrstiglice ongean God. 

Se apostol haefde twa dohtra, gestryned aer^an ^e he gecure 
Crist to lareowe. pa burhwunodon on maegShade, maerlice 
(Irohtniende, on ^aere ylcan byrig j^e weaer namodon, ^aba se 
faeder Philippus bider feorran com. purh ^a maedenu begeat 



THE APOSTLES PHILIP AND JAMES. 297 

"Let our strength be renewed, then will we cast down this 
idol." Then said the apostle to the dragon, " I command 
thee, in the name of Jesus Christ, to depart from this place, 
and go to the wilderness, where intercourse of men is not ; 
and to afflict no jnan on the way hence." Then the fierce 
dragon went hastily away, and appeared nowhere afterwards. 
The apostle Philip then raised from death, in the name of 
God, the three dead whom the dragon had killed, and healed 
all the multitude, w Inch had been sickened by the dragon's 
breath. 

Hereupon all his persecutors begun to wor>hip him with 
true repentance, imagining that he rc;illy ^^ as God. Then 
the apostle undertook to teach them all, for more than twelve 
months, the deep lore of the Lord's advent to this world in 
true humanity, and how by his death he redeemed the world, 
and after his resurrection appeared to his disciples, and to 
them renewed the same lore which he before had taught with 
them, and how he ascended to heaven in the sight of them 
all, and afterwards sent to them the true comfort of the Holy 
Ghost, as he had before promised to them : " Now I am come 
to you by the sending of the Almighty, and I have made you 
to know, through the Lord's might, that these idols are de- 
structive to you, which ye vainl)' have until now honoured." 
Through this preaching many thousand men believed in the 
true God whom the apostle preached, and were baptized 
within a few days. The apostle then ordained everywhere in 
the country bishops and mass-priests, deacons and ministers 
of God, and raised churches to God. He went then to Asia, 
through a revelation of God, to a city \\ hich is called Gero- 
polis, and he there extinguished tlie devilish doctrine which 
heretics had daringly raised against God. 

The apostle had two daughters, begotten before he had 
chosen Christ for teacher. These continued in maidenhood, 
honourably living, in the same city which we before named, 
when their father Philip came thither from afur. Through 



298 DE S. lACOBO APOSTOLO. 

se ^Iniihtiofa Wealdend fela oSre ma^denu to his m^ran 
wuldre. 

Philippus se apostol defter Sisum gecygde his gingran him 
to, and ]>aere leode biscopas, stede jnet he sceolde on (Sam 
seofo^an diBge gewitan of worulde, and hierde hi gcorne, ]>eet 
hi on geleafan Surhwunedon ; and gewat siSSan seofon and 
hund-eahtatig geara to ^am Lifigendan Drihtne, ]>c he on life 
folgodc. His lie w»s bebyriged on Sa^,re foresjedan byrig ; 
and his twa dohtra sicJSan gcwiton jefter feawum gearum 
fcCgre geendode. Hi waeron gelede on twa hcalfa his byrgene. 
Daer geticSaS Drihten, 'Surh ^a deorvvyrSan halgan, micele 
wel-da^da and wundra gelomc, gclcaffulhnn mannuni, seSe 
leofaS a. Amen. 



DE SCO lACOBO APOSTOLO. 

WE wurJSiaS eac on Sissere andwerdan freolstide ocScrne 
apostol, Iacoh ]?one Rihtwisan, se wa'S on Sisum da>ge ge- 
martirod. He waes haligcs lifes niann fram his cildhade. 
Ne dianc he Mines drenc, ne nan 5wra ujetena )?e druncen- 
nysse styriaJS, ne nan "Sing ^e a?fre cucu wees ne com on his 
nmSe ; ne he uxs geefesod, ne eac bescoren o^^e gebaSod, 
be ^an ^e bee secgaS. He feng to Cristes setle ;efter his 
^rowungc, and gymde j'fes halgan iii redes "Se 5am Haelende 
filigde, and Sfera gelcaffulra manna 'Se on hine gelyfdon. He 
geheold Cristes setl geond Srittig geara f»c, and gelome Sing- 
ode for iSaes folces gyltum, bigende his cneowu on gebedum 
symle, swa )?aet him vveoxon wearrige ylas, on olfendes gelic- 
nysse, on his liSegum cneowum. 

J7a ongunnon pharisei him betwynan ^wyrian on Hieru- 
salem for Cristes geleafan. Same hi gelyfdon ^urh lacobes 
lare, sume wi^socon "Sone so^an Haelend. pa com seo burh- 
waru samod to ^am apostole, cw«don J^aet hi woldon his lare 
gehyran : " Sege ^isum folce soS be ^an Hjelende. Du eart 
eal rihtwis, and nanum ne onbihst : we bidda^ j'aet ]}\x astige 



OF SAINT JAMES THE APOSTLE. 299 

these maidens the Ahnighty Ruler gained many other 
maidens to his great glory. 

After this Philip the apostle called to him his disciples and 
the bishops of tlie people, saying that on the seventh day he 
hhould depart from the world, and zealously instructed them 
that they should persist in belief; and after eighty-seven 
years departed to the Living Lord, wiiom he had followed in 
life. His corpse was buried in tlie aforesaid city, and his 
two daughters departed a few years after by a happy ind. 
They were laid on the two sides of his grave. Tiiere the 
Lord permits, througli those precious saints, great benefits 
and frequent miracles to beliex ing men, who livcth eternally. 
Amen. 



OF SAINT JAMES THE AI'OSTLE. 

WE honour also, at this present festival, another apostle, 
James the Righteous, who was on this day martyred. He 
was a man of holy life from his childhood. He drank no 
wine drink, nor any of those liquors wiiicii cause drunken- 
ness, nor came anytliing that ever was living into his mouth ; 
nor was he shaven, also not shorn or bathed, according to 
what books say. He succeeded to Christ's seat after his 
passion, and had charge of the holy family which had fol- 
lowed Jesus, and of the faithful men who believed in him. 
He held Christ's seat for a space of thirty years, and fre- 
quently interceded for the people's sins, bending his knees 
constantly in prayers, so that there grew callous substances, 
in likeness of a camel, on his pliant knees. 

Then the pharisees begun to disagree among themselves in 
Jerusalem, on account of belief in Christ. Some believed 
through James's instruction, some denied the true Saviour. 
Then came the citizens together to the apostle, saying that 
they would hear his instruction : " Say to this folk the sooth 
concerning Jesus. Thou art all rigiiteous, and bendest to no 



300 DE S. lACOBO APOSTOLO. 

to -Sam sticclan scylfe, |?aet we J^e ealle geseon, and 'Sine 
stemne gehyron, hwilce cy^nysse ^ii wilt cySan be Criste." 
Hwaet ^a boceras "Sa bine up-gebrohton to ]?c'es temples scylfe, 
and him si^San to clypodon, " Du rihtwisosta wcr, ]>e we 
wyllaS gebyran, cy^ us nu be Criste, "Se acweald wjes on 
rode." Da andwyrde se apostol mid ornifetre stemne, "To 
hwi axige ge me be "Sam H.elende ^us ? Efne he sitt on 
heofenum fet his Feeder swiSran, and he cymS on wolcnum, 
on Sissere worulde gcendunge, j^fet he gehwilcum deme be 
his serran deedum." Da wurdon ba geleaffnllan, a^fter ]>issere 
clypunge, micclum gegladode, and wuldrodon God, cweS- 
ende, " Osanna Sam soSan Ilcclende." 

pa cwffidon ^a gedwolmen i5e Drihtcn wiSsocon, " Yfele 
we dydon mid jnssere axunge ; ac uton up-astigan, and hine 
under-bcEc sceofan, ]>ai{ oSre forhtian, and fram Criste bu- 
gan." Da ongunnon Sa clypian, ]'c ))a^t gedwyld lufodon, 
]>aet se rihtwisa dwclodc, ]?e swa be Drihtne spr;ec. Hf ^a 
up-astigon, and hine under-bc'ec scufon, and mid slannm tor- 
fodon j^one soSffestan lacob. Ac he n£Bs acweald "Surh ^am 
healican fyllc, iic gcbTgde his cneowu on gebedum sona, and 
b.ed ];one yElniihtigan for Sam arlcasum cwellerum, ptet he 
him forgeafe ]>a fyrnlican synnc. pa ongunnon Sa ludei 
hine eft torfian mid hearckmi stanum, and heora an hine slob, 
mid ormaetum slrencge, inn o5 |>aet bragen. pus wear^ ge- 
maitirod se mtera apostol, and on ^sere stowe bebyriged, wi^ 
J?a^t miccle tempel, binnon liierusalem, ludea cyiie-stol. 

Se mildheorta God wolde Sa-gyt gcbigan "Sajra ludeiscra 
mod, mid micclum tacnum, to Sam soSum geleafan, gif hi 
sylfe woldon, j^fet hi mid daedbote adwgescton heora synna ; 
and asende him to syllice tacna, swa paet an steorra stod, se 
wees swurde gelic, bufon Hierusalem, beorhte scynende. Eac 
an cometa ofer ealne gear scean mid egeslicum lige, aefre 
byrnende. An cu wear^ gebroht eft to Sam temple, ]>ist man 
hi geoffrode on Sa ealdan wisan : ^a wolde heo cealfian on 



OF SAINT JAMES THE APOSTLE. 301 

one : we pray thee to mount on the steep piiiuacle, that \^ e 
may all see thee, and hear thy voice, what announcement 
thou wilt announce concerning Christ." Whereupon the 
scribes brought him up to the pinnacle of the temple, and 
then cried to him, "Thou most righteous man, whom we 
desire to hear, inform us now concerning Christ, who was 
killed on a rood." Then answered the apostle with a loud 
voice, " Why ask ye me thus concerning Jesus ? Lo he sits 
in heaven at the right of his Father, and he will come in 
clouds at the ending of this world, that he may doom every 
one according to his former deeds." Then were the belie- 
ving, after this announcement, greatly gladdened, and glorified 
God, saying, " Ilosannah to the true Saviour." 

Then said the heretics who denied the Lord, " We did 
badly with this retpiest ; but let us go up and shove him 
backwards, that others may fear, atul turn fr>'m Christ." 
They begun then to cry, those who loved error, that the 
righteous man erred, who of the Lord so spake. They then 
went up, and shoved him backwards, and with stones stoned 
the righteous James. But he was not killed through the high 
fall, but immediately bowed his knees in prayer, and prayed 
to the Almighty for the impious murderers, that he would 
foririve the flai^itious sin. Then begun the Jews to stone him 
again MJth hard stones, and one of them struck him witli 
immense force into the brain. Thus was martyred the great 
apostle, and buried in the place, against the great temple, 
within Jerusalem, the royal seat of Judea. 

The merciful God would vet incline the minds of the Jews, 
with great signs, to the true belief, if they themselves would, 
that they with penance might extinguish their sins ; and 
sent to them wondrous signs, so that a star stood above Jeru- 
salem, which was like to a sword brightly shining. Also a 
comet shone over all the country with awful flame, ever 
burning. A cow was afterwards brought to the temple to be 
sacrificed after the old custom : then she would calve in sight 



302 INUENTIO S. CRUCIS. 

gesihSe |?aes folces, ac heo eanode lamb ongean hire gecynde. 
Eft si^San wearS gesevven, vviS sunnau sctlunge, geoiul ealne 
"Sone eard, yrnende here up on ^am wolcmim, mid ormtetre 
wwpnunge. Eft on ^aere byrig begann sum uplendisc mam) 
egeslice hryman to ^am arlcasum burhwarum, " Fram east- 
daele stenin, fram west-daele stemn, fram feowcr windiim 
stemn, Wa Sissere burliware." pa arn se ceorl geond ealle 
•Sa straet, dfjeges and nihtes dreorig hrymende, oSjJiet '5a liea- 
fod-men hine hctelice swungon aine and o5re si^e, obj^aet "Sa 
ban scinon ; ac he nolde biddan nanre miltsungc, ne nfefre 
mid wope his wunda bema?nan, ac symle clypode mid 
swiSlicere ]?oterunge, svva svva we aer sjnedon, " And wa Sissere 
burhwarc." Fcla o5re tacna wurdon eac gesewene on lude- 
iscrc It'ode, ]>c mi sind lange to reccenne. Hwa?t Sa, sc 
yEhnihtiga, "Se ealle 'Sing wat, geseah |wt ht nohlon heora 
synna behreowsian, )>;rt hi ;pfre dorston heora Drihten ahon, 
and siMSan his apostohis sume eac adyddon ; '5a ascnde he 
him to 5one scearpan here of Ilomana rice, mid reSum waep- 
num. pa wearS ]>iet earme mennisc, for heora mand;edum, 
sum mid hungre acweald, sum mid heardum isene, and seo 
burh toworpen, swa swa gewritu secgaS, and j^a^t micele 
tempi mid eallum his mter^um. 

Uton nu, gebro5ru, biddan geornlice ^as halgan apostolas, 
■5e we to-d»g wurSiaS, l^jet hi us bingian to urum Scyppcnde, 
se^e ana rixaiS on ecnysse God. Amen. 



V. NON. MAIL 
INUENTIO SCAB CRUCIS. 



MEN -Sa leofostan, nu to-d?eg we wurSiaS ]>iBre Halgan 
Rode gemynd, ^e ure Drihten on "Srowode; forSan iSe heo 
w<ES geswutelod on ^isum daege mannum. 



THE INVENTION OF THE HOLY CROSS. 303 

of the people, but she yeaned a lamb against her nature. 
Afterwards was seen towards sunset, over all the country, an 
army running upon the clouds, with an immense arming. 
Afterwards in the city a man from up the country began to 
cry terrifically to the impious citizens, " From the east part 
a voice, from the west part a voice, from the four winds a 
voice. Wo to these citizens." Then the churl ran through all 
the street, day and night, dismally crying, until the chief men 
severely scourged him, once and a second time, until the bones 
appeared ; but he would not pray for any mercy, nor ever 
with weeping his wounds bemoan, but constantly cried, with 
powerful howling, as we before have said, " And wo to these 
citizens." Many other sijjns were also seen among the 
Jewish people, which are now long to relate. Whereupon 
the Almighty, who knows all things, saw that they would 
not repent of their sins, that they had ever dared to crucify 
their Lord, and afterwards also destroyed some of his 
apostles ; he then sent to them the keen army of the Roman 
empire, with cruel weapons. Then were the miserable people, 
for their evil deeds, killed, some by hunger, some by hard 
iron, and the city was overthrown, as writings say, and the 
great temple with all its glories. 

Let us now, brothers, earnestly pray to the holy apostles, 
whom we to-day honour, that they intercede for us to our 
Creator, who alone rcigneth God to eternity. Amen. 



MAY III. 
THE INVENTION OF THE HOLY CROSS. 

MEN most beloved, now to-day we honour the remembrance 
of the IIoLY Rood on which our Lord suffered ; because it 
was on this day manifested to men. 



304 INUENTIO S. CRUCIS. 

Hieroiiimus, se wisa mtessepreost, awrat on "Sare bee ^e 
we hata^ ' Ecclesiastica Historia/ pjet sum Romanise casere 
waes Constantinus gehatcn, se waes eawfest on ^eawum and 
arfaest on daedum, cristenra manna fultumigend, and naes 
"Seali gyt gefullod. pa wann him ongean sum waelhreow 
heretoga, Maxentius gehaten, mid micclum ^rymme, wolde 
him benaeman his lifes and his rices. J)a fcrde se casere 
swiSe earful mid fyrde, and gelome beheold wi^ heofonas 
weard, biddende georne godcundne fultum. Da geseah he on 
svvefne, on bam scinendan east-daele, Drihtncs rode-tacn 
deorwurSlice scinan ; and him sfiedon ba to gesewenhce en- 
glas, " pu casere Constantine, mid bisum tacne oferswiS bine 
wiServvinnan." And he awoc ba blibe for biere gesihbc and 
for ban beliatenan sige, and mcarcodc liim on hcafde halig 
rode-tacn, and on his gubfanan, Gode to wurbmynte. He 
het eae smibian of snuetum goldc anc lytle rode, ba he lacdde 
on his swibran, biddende georne |>one ^i^imilitigan Wealdend, 
]?aet seo swibre ne wurde ;efre gewemmcd burh readum 
blode Romaniscre leode, bam be he geube felcere dugebe, gif 
Maxentius ana him wolde abugan, be ba burh geheold mid 
hetelum gebancc. pa het Maxentius mid micclum swicdome 
oferbricgian ^a ea, eal mid scipum, and sybban ^ylian swa 
swa obre bricge, }?a^t se casere sceolde bter-on becuman ; ac 
him sylfum getimode swa swa he ^am otSrum gemynte. Se 
lirleasa gewende ana of baere byrig, and het ^one here him 
fefter ridan ; he ne gemunde "ba, for "bam micclum graman, 
"baere leasan bricge, ]?e he alecgan het, ac rad him ana to 
ormaete caflice. pa scipu toscuton, arid he ^one grund ge- 
sohte mid horse mid ealle, and se here aetstod ahred fram 
frecedrjysse for his anes dea^e. Sua wear^ gefyllcd j^aes 
caseres ben, ]'iet his hand naes besmiten, pe ba rode hcold, 
mid agotenum blode his agenre burhware. Da wear^ eal pset 
folc micclum gegladod, }>aet hi moston gesunde cyrran to 
"baere byrig ; and underfengon bone casere, swa swa him ge- 



THE INVENTION OF THE HOLY CROSS. 305 

Jerome, the ^vise masis-priest, wrote in the book which we 
call ' Ecclesiastica Historia,' that there was a Roman empe- 
ror called Constantine, who was pious in morals and honour- 
able in deeds, a supporter of christian men, and was yet not 
baptized. Then a bloodthirsty general, named Maxentius, 
warred against him with a great host, he would take from 
him his life and his empire. Then the emperor departed very 
full of care with the army, and frequently looked heaven- 
wards, fervently praying for divine support. He then saw in 
a dream, in the shining east region, the sign of the Lord's 
rood preciously shining, and visible angels said to him, 
" Thou emperor Constantine, with this sign overcome thine 
adversaries." And he awoke then blithe on account of the 
vision and tiie promised victory, and marked on his liead the 
lioly sign of the rood, and on his gonfanon, in honour to (iod. 
He bade then be forged of beaten gold a little rood, which he 
laid on his right hand, fervently praying the Almighty Ruler 
that his right hand mi^ht nc-\tr be polluted with tin* red 
blood of the Roman |)eople, to whom he would grant every 
good, if Maxentius only would submit to him, who held the 
city with hostile thought. Then Maxentius with great fraud 
commanded the river to be bridged over, all with ships, and 
then to !)e floored as any other bridge, that the emperor 
might come thereon ; but it befell himself as he had intended 
for the other. The impious one went alone to the bridge, 
and conunanded the army to ride after him ; he did not then, 
in his great fury, remember the false bridge, which he had 
ordered to be laid, but rode to it alone with boundless speed. 
The srhips parted asundt r, and he sought the ground with 
horse and all, and the army stopt, saved from peril by the 
death of him alone. So was fulfilled the emperor's prayer, 
that his hand, which hud held the rood, was not sullied with 
the shed blood of his own citizens. Tnen was all the people 
greatly gladdened, that they might return whole to the citv ; 
and they received the emperor as it was con^^Miial to them ; 

HOM. VOL. II. X 



30G IXUENTIO S. CRUCIS. 

cyndc wfes ; and he mid sige gesset si'S^an his cynestol, ge- 
fullod on Criste, )?e his folc geheold. 

His niodor wips cristen, Elena gehaten, swiSe gelyfed 
mann, and Searle eawfaest. pa ferde heo to Hierusalem, mid 
fullum geleafan, wolde ^Sa rode findan "Se Crist on 'Srowade. 
Heo becom to j^iere stowe, swa hire geswutelode God, ]mrh 
heofenlicerc gebicnunge, and afunde Sreo roda, an waes "(5a?s 
Haeleudcs, and 5a o^re -Saera ^eofa. Da nyste heo gewiss 
hwilc ware Cristes rod, aer^an 5e he mid tacnum hi geswute- 
lode. pa vvearS seo cwen micclum gegladod, ))tEt heo moste 
"Sone ma^m on nioldan findan, and sicSJSan (Surh tacnum swu- 
telungeoncnawan. Araerde ^a cyrcan on ^fere cwealm-stowe, 
J>,'er seo rod on laeg, |?am leofan Drihtne, and bewand fenne 
dael ^ffire halgan rode mid hwTtum seolfre, and hi ^ter gesette, 
and ^one oSerne d{pl la^dde to hire suna, and ^a isenan nae- 
glas, |>e wseron adrifene jnirh Cristes folman, 5a5a he gefest- 
nod vvaes. 

Dus wrat Hieroninms, se wisa trahtnere, be ^iere halgan 
rode, hu heo vvearS gefundcn. Gif hwa elles secgc, we sceo- 
ta^ to him. 

Cristene men sceolon so^lice abugan to gehalgodre rode, 
on "Saes Haplcndcs naman, for^an 5e we nabbaS ^a ^e he on 
^rowade, ac hire anlicnys biS halig swa-]>eah, to ^aere we 
abugaS on gebedum symle to 'Sam Mihtigan Drihtne, ]?e for 
mannum Srowade ; and seo rod is gemynd his maeran jn'ow- 
unge, halig ^urh bine, ^eah "Se heo on holte weoxe. We hi 
wur^ia^ a for wurSmynte Cristes, se^e us alysde mid lufe 
"Surh hi, ]?aes we him ^ancia^ symle on life. 



THE INVENTION OF THE HOLY CROSS. 307 

and he victoriously afterwards possessed his throne, baptized 
in Christ, nhoni his people followed. 

His mother was a christian, called Helena, a very faithful 
person, and very j)ious. She went to Jerusalem, with full 
belief, she wished to find the rood on which Christ had suf- 
fered. She came to the place, as God had manifested to her, 
through a heavenly sign, and found three roods, one was 
that of Jesus, and the others those of the thieves. She then 
knew not for certain which was Christ's rood, ere that he by 
signs manifested it. Then was the queen greatly gladdened, 
that she was permitted to find the treasure in tlie earlli, and 
afterwards by signs to know its manifestation. She raised 
then a church to the dear Lord, on the place of execution, in 
which the rood lay, and encircled a part of the holy rood with 
white silver, and placed it there, and brought the other part 
to her son, and the iron nails, that were driven through 
Christ's palms, when he was fastened. 

Thus wrote Jerome, the wise expositor, concerning the 
holy rood, how it was found. If any one say otherwise, we 
refer to him. 

Christian men truly should bow to the hallou ed rood in the 
name of Jesus, for although we have not that on which he 
suffered, its likeness is, nevertheless, holy, to which we ever 
bow in our prayers to the Mighty Lord, who suffered for 
men ; and the rood is a memorial of his great passion, holy 
through him, though it grow in a wood. We ever honour 
it for the honour of Christ, who redeemed us with love 
through it, for which we thank him ever in life. 



X 



308 



EODKM DIE. 
SCORUM ALEXANDRI, EUENTII ET THEODOLI. 

ON ^isum deet^e ))ro\vode sum arwurSe papa Alexander 
gphuten, mid twain msessepreostiim, Euextius and Theo- 
DOLUS, ffitforan "Sam casere, Aurclianus genamod, \>e hi ge- 
martirode. He w«ps vA-aelhreaw cwcllcre cristeiira manna, 
and fela belifode gelyfedra manna, pa het he gelangian );one 
halgan lareow, and cwfeS him sona to mid sjerwigendum 
mode, " Alexander papa, ic scce aerest iet ])e, ]>cet |?u me ard- 
lice secge hw{et se intinga sy ]?Het ge wyllaS sueltan sylf- 
willes for Criste, ferSan ^e gc aefre his geleafan ^viSsacan." 
pa andwyrde se papa ^am cwellere ^us, " paet j^fet iSii axast 
is svviSe halig ^ing ; ac Crist us forbcad ]>apt hundum to 
syllaime." Da cwaeS Aurelianus, " Eom ic hund ge^uht?" 
Alexander JSa Miscte, " Eala gif Su waere hund! Hund is 
sawuUeas, and on helle ne SrowaS. Se man \>e forsih^ his 
Scyppend on life, sceal aefre Srowian on ecum tintregum." 
p.i iSywde se casere hine to swingennc, gif he him ne s«de 
swa hwses swa he axode. Alexander cwaeS, )?rjet he ondrede 
God, and naenne o^erne, on andwerdum life. " pu dwelast, 
casere, )7urh dyrstignysse, gif Su buton geleafan a?t us leornian 
wylt -Sa halgan gerynu, Surh heardum swinglum." Aurcli- 
anus andwyrde orgelice swiSe, " Ic ana gewealde calles mid- 
daneardcs, and Su specst ^us dyrstiglice swilce to sumum 
deman ; ac "Sin sawul sceal, swiSe getintregod, gewitan of 
^am lichaman aer ic ^e forlaete." Alexander sfJede, " Hwaet 
dest ^u nivves nu ? Da ane aetwundon J^inum waelhreawum 
handum, ^e for ^inum tintregum heora Drihten wiSsocon. 
Ic so^lice sceal aet ^e sweltan dea^e, for^an "Se ic nelle naefre 
Crist wi^sacan." 

-^fter "Sisum wordum het se wailhreowa hine hon on 
heardre hengene, and his sidan baernan mid hatum ligum, and 
mid hengene "Srawan to langere hwtle ; ac he naht ne ge- 



309 



ON THE SAME DAY. 
THE SAINTS ALEXANDER, EVENTIUS AND THEODULUS. 

ON this (lay suffered a venerable pope called Alexander, 
with two mass-priests, Eventius and Tiieodull's, before 
the emperor named Aureliaii, who martyred them. He was 
a bloodthirsty slayer of christian men, and many belie- 
ving men deprived of life. Then he commanded the holy 
doctor to be sent for, and directly said to him with insidious 
mind, "Alexander pope, I seek fir^t from thee, that thou 
(juickly tell me what the cause is that ye will voluntarily 
die for Christ rather than ever deny his faith." The pope 
answered the murderer thus, " That which thou askest is a 
very holy thing ; but Christ forbade us to give that to the 
dogs." Then said Aurelian, " Do I seem a dog ?" Alexaiuler 
then wished, *' Ah, if thou w ere a dog ! A dog is soulless, 
and suffers not in hc-il. The man who despises his Creator in 
life, shall for ever suffer in eternal torments." The emperor 
then threatened to scourge him, if he toUl liim not whatso- 
ever he asked him. Alexander said, that he feared God, and 
none f)ther, in the present hfe. "'Thou errest, emperor, 
through temerity, if, without belief, thou desirest to learn 
from us the holy mysteries by hard stripes." Aurelian 
answered very proudly, " I alone hold sway over all the 
world, and thou speakest thus audaciously as to some judge ; 
but thy soul shall, sorely tortured, depart from thy body 
before I leave thee." Alexander said, " What new \»iltthou 
do now ? They only escaped from thy cruel hands, who 
through thy torments denied their Lord. But 1 shall perish 
by death from thee, for I will never deny Christ." 

After these words the cruel tyrant commanded him to be 
hanged on a hard gibbet, and his sides to be burnt with hot 
flames, and to be a long while tormented on the gibbet ; hut 



310 S. ALEXANDRI, EUENTII ET THEODOLI. 

cwseb. pa befran se arleasa casere, hvvi he suwade. pa stede 
se halga, j^aet he spriece to Criste. Eft hine axode se arleasa 
casere, Huineta he wolde his geogoSe amyrran, cwaeS l^aet he 
^a waere ge^uht jn-ittig geara. pa vviscte se biscop }>aet se 
wifilhreowa ne sceolde his sawle amyrran ^urh his mandaR- 
dum. Da sende seo cweri ^is aerende him to, " Beorh ^e ic 
biddc, and forlff't 'Sone biscop, elles Su earma scealt yfehim 
dea^e sweltan, and ic bco forlfjeten wudewe on life." pa 
cwaeiS sc casere, ]net hi waeron gesibbe, and forcSi spraece 
|>illice word him fore. He het swa-)'eah-h\vfe^ere Sone 
halgan forUetan, and gelangian 5a preostas to his la^an and- 
werdnysse, and befran Sone papan hwiet hi wa^ron gehrefde. 
pa stede se biscop, ]>set hi soMice wa^-on iialige nifessepreo- 
stas, -bam Hielende Seowigende. pa axode se casere }>one 
jenne preost, hu his nama wfere, oiiSe hu gef}rn he gclyfde. 
He cwfeb j^aet he hatte Euentius fram ingc*Se, and waere ge- 
fnllod for hund-scofontig geara, and to ma^sscpreoste gchalgod 
for manegum gcarum. pa het se casere hine Crist wiSsacan, 
and he moste beon maerlice mid him. Euentius him saede 5a 
mid soSre lare, j^aet he sceolde behreowsian his rcban daeda, 
and gelyfan on Crist, )7«et he his niiltse begeate. pa het se 
waelhrcowa him gelangian to Sone otScrne preost, and him 
sona to cwfpJS, '' Eart bu peodolus, "Se mine haese forsihst ?" 
Da saede Deodolus, Jjaet he forsawe his haese, and eac hine 
sylfne for nahte tealde, forSan Se he Godes halgan hyndo mid 
witum. Aurelianus cwae^ to bam arwurban preoste, " Ne bist 
bu orhlyte callunge baera witena." peodolus saede, |?aet he 
truwode on God ]>aet he naere ascyred fram sobum martir- 
dome ]7aes halgan weres, his holdan papan. Da het se wael- 
hreowa gewriban ^one papan, and ^one oberne preost to his 
hricge hindan, and wurpan lit begen into byrnendum ofne ; 
and het Deodolum standan aet 'bam mu^e, |>aBt he for "bam 
ogan him abiigan sceolde. Hi vvurdon ba aworpene, swa se 



THE c\L\TS ALEXANDER, EVENTIUS AND THEODULUS. 311 

he said nothing. Then the impious emperor inquired why 
he was silent. Then said the saint, that he was speaking to 
Christ. Again the impious emperor asked him, Wiiy he 
woukl sacrifice his youth, saying, that he then appeared to 
him to be thirty years oUL Then the bishop wished that the 
bloodthirsty emperor might not sacrifice his soul through his 
wicked deeds. The queen then sent this trrand to him, 
"Save thyself, I pray, and leave the bishop, else thou, mise- 
rable, shalt die an evil death, and I shall be left a widow for 
life." Then said the emperor that they were akin, and there- 
fore she spake such v.ords before him. lie, nevertheless, 
commanded the saint to be left, and the priests to be sent for 
to his hateful presence, and questioned the pope who the 
[)risoners were. Then said the bishop, that they were truly 
h(jly mass-priests, servants of Jesus. Then the em[)eror 
asked one of the priests what his name was, or how long he 
had believed. He said, that he was called Eventius from his 
youth, and had been baptized seventy years ago, and hal- 
lowed a mass-priest for many years. The emperor then com- 
manded him to deny Christ, and he might be exalted with 
him. Eventius then said to him, with true instruction, that 
he should repent of his cruel deeds and believe in Christ, that 
he might obtain his mercy. Then the cruel tyrant com- 
manded the other priest to be sent for, and directly said to 
him, " Art thou Theodulus, who despisest mv Ijehest ?" 
Then said Theodulus, that he despised his behest, and him- 
self also accounted as naught, because he afflicted God's 
saints with torments. Aurelian said to the venerable priest, 
"Thou shalt not be wholly exempt from those torments." 
Theodulus said, that he trusted in God that he should not be 
excluded from the true martyrdom of the holy man, his be- 
nign pope. Then the cruel tyrant ordered the pope to be 
bound, and the other priest behind his back, and both to be 
cast into a burning oven ; aud commanded Theodulus to 
stand at the mouth, that from fear he might submit to him. 



312 S. ALEXANDRI, EUENTII ET THEODOLI. 

woilhreowahetjinto ^am byrnendum ofne,gebuiidene Swyres- 
ac se lig him ne niihte nateshwon derian. Da clypode se pap;» 
to bam oSrum preoste, " Bro^or Deodole, gang hider in to 
us : se ylca is herinne "Se giu aer ahredde Sa gelyfcdan cnihtas 
vviiS Nabocliodonosor, ^e hi gebundene wearp into byrn- 
endum ofne." pa sceat Deodolus sona to Sam papati, unforht 
on ^am fyre, fegnigende mid sange, " Drihten, Su afandodest 
us on ^isum fyre, and nis on us gemctt jienig unrihtwisnys." 
pis wear^ -Sa gecyd |7am casere sona, and he wcarS gcang- 
sumod mid ormjetum graman, and het boheafdian Sa halgan 
preostas, and "Sfes papan limagelome prician, ocSj^aet he swulte 
"Surh swylcum pinungum. .-Eftcr Sisum wearS gehyred of 
hcofonum clypung to Sam casere, Sa^a he heora dea^es ffeg- 
node, " pu Aureliane, 5e is hell gcopenod, and Sisum marty- 
rum is myrcS gegearcod." Da cwacode he sona, and cwaet 
to his M ife, " Sum nifere iungling com mid gyrde to me, sec 
wtes eal isen, and eac byrnende, and wearp hi ^a to me, iSas 
word cweSende, Ilnfa Se, Aureliane, swa Su sylf gecure ; and 
ic siSSan cwacode eal on fcfore. Gebide nu for me ]7one 
God ^e Su w ur^ast." pa andwyrde J'a^t wif, Seueriana ge- 
haten, *' Ic wille Sa halgan bebyrian, |?y-lies ^e me swa ge- 
timige." And heo sona swa dyde mid so^um geleafan, and 
mid arwur^ny!-se hi calle bebyrigde ; efste ham siSSan to 
Sam earman casere. Da laeg se earming, his yrmSe bemae- 
nende, and bat his tungan |?a?t heo on blode fleow. He ge- 
wat Sa of worulde to \^ {elhreawum cwic-suslum ; and Seue- 
riana gecom to Sa^ra halgeiia byrgenum, mid hfieran gescrydd, 
and ]>heT wunadc swa, oSj^aet Sixtus biscop com fram East- 
dffile, and |?;er be hire bene biscop gehadode, "Se mihte be- 
hwyrfan Sa halgan martiras mid gastlicum sangum, and Codes 
gerihtum. Seo stow hsefde siSSan symle hire biscop, oS 
l^isne andweardan dteg. Sy Sam ^Imihtigan lof, seSe ana 
ricsaS on ecnysse God. Amen. 



THE SAINTS ALEXAXDILU, EVENTIUS AND TIIEODULUS. 313 

They were then cast, as the tyrant commanded, into the 
burning oven, bound crosswise ; but the flame might not at 
all hurt them. Then cried the pope to the other priest, 
"Brother Thcoduhis, come in hither to us: the same is 
herein who of yore delivered the believing youths from Nebu- 
chadnezzar, who had cast them bound into a burning oven." 
Then Thcoduhis instantly darted to the pope fearless into the 
fire, rejoicing with song, " Lord, thou hast tried us in this 
fire, and there is not found in us any unrigiiteousness." This 
was then immediately announced to the emperor, and he be- 
came troubled with bomuUess anger, and commanded the 
holy priests to be beheaded, and the limbs of the pope to be 
repeatedly pricked, until he died through such tortures. 
After tliis was heard a calling from heaven t«> the emperor, 
while he was rejoicing at their deatii, "Thou Aurelian, for 
thee hell is opened, and for these martyrs joy is prepared." 
Then he instantly quaked, and said to his wife, " An illus- 
trious youth came to me with a rod, which was all iron, and 
also burning, and cast it U) me, saying these words, Have, 
Aurelian, that which thou thyself hast chosen ; and I after- 
wards quaked all in a fever. Pray now for me to the God 
whom thou worshipst." Then answered the wife, called 
Severiana, " I will bury the saints, les't it so befall me." And 
she forthwith did so with true belief, and buried them all with 
reverence ; she then hastened home to the miserable emperor. 
There lay the wretch bemoaning his misery, and bit his tongue 
so that it flowed with blood. He then departed from the 
world to cruel torments ; and Severiana came to the graves 
of the saints, clad in hair-cloth, and there so continued, until 
bishop Sixtus came from the East, and there, at her prayer, 
ordained a bishop, who might minister to the holy martyrs 
with ghostly songs and divine rites. The place had con- 
stantly ever since its own bishop until this present day. 
Praise be to the Almighty, who alone reigncth (iod to ctcr- 
nitv. Amen. 



314 

FERIA SECUNDA. 
LETANIA MAIORE. 

L.EWEDE MENN behofiaS jjaet him lareowas secgon Sa 
godspellican lare, )Se hi on bocum leornodoii, ]><st men for ny- 
tcnnysse misfaran nc sceolon. Ure Drihten St'ede to sumum 
Irireowe, 'Sa'Sa he bine axode be ^ani hehstan bebode, " Lufa 
iSinne Drihten mid eah-e Sinre heortan, and mid eallum mode : 
y\s is ]>aet m«ste bebod. Is eft oSer bcbod Sisum swiSe gelic, 
Lufa ^inne nextan swa swa ^e sylfne : )'as twa bebodu behi- 
ca5 ealle bee." Nis us nan gemet on ^am lerran bebode, 
forSan ^e we sceolon urne Scyppend hifian ofer ealle magas 
mid unametenre lufc. On 5am oSrum bebode we habbaS 
gcmet, ]i;pt wc oScrne lufian sua swa us sylfe, \>a Se |?urh 
gelcafan us gelenge beo5, and 5urh cristendom us cy^Se to 
habbaS. Se Se ha^fS Sa so^an lufe, he hylt ealle gewritu 5e 
sind gelogode on langsumum cwydum. lie hylt ])fet |^a>t him 
cuS is on Cristes gewritum, and |'a>t Jjfet him digelc is on 
heora deopnysse, gif he "ba soban lufe hylt on his Seawum. 
Ne fremaS cristeinun menn, j^eah he fela god wyrce, buton be 
symle haebbe Sa soSan lufe on him. Manega sind beboda 
mannum gesette, ac hi ealle hangia^ on ^isuni twam wordum. 
Swa swa of anum treowe springab manega bogas, swa gaS of 
anre lufe manega obre uiihta. 



Eft cwte^ se Ha^lend to his leorning-enihtum, " Se ^e me 
lufa^, he hylt min bebod, and min Ficder hine lufaS for ^aere 
hvrsumnysse ; and wit cuma^ him to, and him mid wuniab." 
Gehyra^, mine gebrobra, hwaet se Haelend cwae^, " Se "Se 
me lufa^, he hylt min bebod." pare lufe fandung is }?a?s 
weorces fremming. lohannes se apostol eac be ^isum cwse^, 
" Gif hwa cwy^ j^aet he lufige |?one Lifigendan God, and his 
beboda ne hvlt, he bib leas bonne." Soblicc we lufia^ ^one 



315 

MONDAY. 
ON THE GREATER LITANY. 

LAYMEX require tliat teacliers should impart to them the 
evangelical lore, which they have learned in books, that men 
should not err through ignorance. Our Lord said to a 
teacher, when he asked him concerning the highest com- 
mandment, " Love thy Lord with all thine heart, and with 
all thy mind : this is the greatest commandment. There is 
again another commandment very like unto this. Love thy 
neighbour as thyself: these two commandments comprise all 
the books." AVe have no limit in the former commandment, 
because we should love our Creator above all relations with 
unbounded love. In the other commandment we have a 
limit, that we slu)uld love another as ourselves, those who 
through belief are related to us, and through Christianity are 
allied to us. He who has true love holds all the written pre- 
cepts that are contained in long discourses. He holds that 
which is known to him in Christ's scriptures, and that 
which is dark to him in their depth, if he holds true love in 
his morals. It profits not a christian man, though he do 
much good, unless he constantly have true love in him. 
Many are the commandments appointed for men, but they all 
hang on these two sentences. As from one tree there spring 
many boughs, so from one love there proceed many other 
virtues. 

Again said Jesus to his disciples, *' He who lovclh me 
holds my commandment, and my Father loveth him for the 
obedience; and we will come to hini, and dwell with him." 
Hear, my brothers, what Jesus said, " He who loveth me 
holds my commandment." The proof of love is the perform- 
ance of work. John the apostle also said of this, " If any 
one say that he loveth the Living God, and holdclh not his 
commandnx nt>, he will then be a liar." But wc love the 



316 LETANIA MAIORE. 

leofan Driliten, gif we are uiiSeawas gcciniiettat5 be his 
hissum, and ure wohi)ysse be his wordum gerihtaS, and ))urh 
unlustum his lufe ne wi^cwe^aS. Seo Haiige Drynnys, ^e 
is |jrym\vealdend God, cymb ungesewenlice to gcswaesre 
heortan, j^e gehyrsum bi^ his haesum mid weorcc, and hoo 
biS geglenced Jjurh Godes neosunge, and mid his on-wunungc 
vvi?^innan onliht. Menn dseftaS heora bus, and wel gedreog- 
leecaS, gif hi sumne freond onfon wilhvS to him, |wt nan un- 
Sseslicnys him ne ^urfe derian ; and we sceolon us cla^nsian 
fram unclwnum daedum, ])iet se Militiga God on urum mode 
wunige, se"Se aenne gchwilcne |>urh his Gast geneosaS, and 
^a fidan forla?t fur heora fracodnysse, leohtes bcdadede; for- 
San "Se hi ne lufiaS bine. 

Ure Drihten tjede on Sisum soSum spclU', '' Se 5e me ne 
lufaS, ne hylt he mine word." Godcs lufu geswutelaS hi 
sylfe mid weorcum, and gif hco ydcl bi^, nis beo Sonne lufu. 
Se 5e God ne bifaci, ne iufaJS lie bine sylfnc ; forcJan "Se he 
ne geJSybS na^fre biiton Gode. Drihten soblice saedc on his 
bodunge, " Ge beoS mine frynd, gif ge wyrcende bcoS Sa 
Sincir 5e ic bebeode eow to ijebealdenne." Micel mildheort- 
nys ]><ES Metodan Drihtnes, \)iei we beon gecigedc swa gesae- 
liglice ures Scyppendes frynd, gif we his haese gefyllaiS, we 
(Se naeron wurlSe beon his wealas gecigde, and we babbaS 
swilce geSincbe jmrh 5a gehyrsumnysse. We blissiab on 
mode for <Saere micclan gebincSe, ac we sceolon hogian hu we 
hi begyton. Ne ortruwige nan man for ormaetum synnum, 
]?8et he geearnian ne maege |?one micclan wurbmynt, and beon 
Godes freond, }»urh godum geearnungum, gif he ne ge-edlaeb-g 
his aerran misdaeda. For synfuUum mannum sealde Crist his 
ITf. Ortruwige se ana Se endeleaslice syngaS, and aer his 
endenextan daege dtedbote ne gewyrcS. Uton lufian God 
mid godum ingehyde, and eac ure nextan swa swa us sylfe. 
God wunaS on us, gif we us betwynan lufiaS, and his soSe 
lufu bi^ swa on us gcfylled, and we magon bis iv mid Sam 
anum gefyllan. 



ON THi: GRKATER LITANY. 317 

beloved Lord, if we lovel our \ices by his commands, and 
rectify our depravity by his words, and through evil desires 
thwart not his love. The Holy Trinity, which is God power- 
ful in majesty, comes unseen to the pious heart, which is 
obedient to his behests in deed, and it shall be adorned 
through God's visitation, and enlightened by his sojourn 
within. Men put their houses in order, and are well cont^mt, 
if they desire to receive a friend to them, that no impropriety 
may offend him ; and we should cleanse ourselves from un- 
clean deeds, that the Mighty God may dwell in our mind, 
who visits every one through his Spirit, and forsakes the foul 
for their depravity, deprived of light ; because they love him 
not. 

Our Lord said in this true discourse, " lie v»ho lovcth me 
not holdeth not my words." Love of God manifests itself by 
works, and if it is idle, then is it not love. He who loves not 
God loves not himself; because he will never thri\e without 
God. But the Lord s;iid in his preaching, " Ye are my 
friends, if ye do the things which I commanded you to ob- 
serve." It is a great mercy of the Lord Creator, that we are 
so benigidy called our Creator's friends, if we fulfil his behest, 
we who were not worthy of being called his thralls, and that 
we have such honour through obedience. We rejoice in mind 
for the great honovw, but we should meditate how to obtain it. 
Let no man, on account of enormous sins, despair of merit- 
ing that great dignity, and of being the friend of God, through 
good deserts, if he repeats not his former misdeeds. For 
sinful men Christ gave his life. Let him only despair who 
endlessly sins, and before his last day makes no repentance. 
Let us love God with good knowledge, and also our neigh- 
bour as ourselves. God will dwell in us, if we love each 
other, and his true love will thus be completed in us, and we 
may by that alone fulfil his law. 



■lis LETANIA MAIORE. 

Hwa is lire nexta ? Uton nxian Crist. Witodlice he 

cwae^ be eallum cristenum, " Ge ealle sind gebro^ra, and 

aenne Faeder habba^, se^e on heofonum is healice sittende." 

Nu is eow gesied, ]?urh ^one so ban Crist, piet ge sind gebro- 

^ra, gif ge ^one bend healda^ so^re broberraedene untobro- 

cenne. Hwa is me nu near bonne inin brobor ? Ic bine eac 

1 ^ . . 

'ufige, and he is min nexta. lohannes se apostol awrat on 

his pistole, and cwae^, jjaet we oncneowon Cristes hifc on us 

]?urh J^aet, ]?{et he sealde hine sylfne for us, and we sceolon 

syllan us sylfe for gebrobruin. Se ^e speda hjef^, and ^a 

aspendan nclc bafenleasum breSer, luefb he soSe lufe. Gif 

•Su gyt swa inicel ne mibt burhtcon, |>fet bii sylf swelte for 

sumes broker life, syle j^ine jehta liim to fnltiune. Gif bu 

sua ne dest on sibbe for Gode, hwwnne wylt bu syllan be 

sylfne for hine on earfobrc ehtnysse arleasra cwcllcra ? Us 

gedafenab to doMiie dugcbc on sibbo, mid estfiilhnn mode 

menniscuni gesceafte, and eft on chtnysse ure ITf syllan for 

^one soban God, or for sumne broker, swa swa se Hielend 

sealde hine sylfne for us. Ac se swicola feond Ffew^ unge- 

^Wffirnysse botwux maneynne jnirh mislicc intingan, and tyht 

oberne niann to uruni fehtuin, and ure mod ontent mid mic- 

clum graman ongean Saene oberne be ure ehtan uilc. ponne 

forleose we burh -ba lytlan aehta ba soban lufe, j^e is selost 

aehta. Ac we sceoldon gescyldan jja soban lufe a seo^e us 

gehet to bam Lifigendan Gode, swibor ]>onne "ba sehta ^be us 

ateoriab. Soblice ne maeg ure sawul gefleon to heofonan rice, 

buton heo hffibbc libera |?8ere so"ban lufe Scyppendes and 

manna, 'be ma ^e aenig fugel his flyhtes gewylt, gif his o-ber 

fi^ere forod bib on isr. 

Smeage nu gehwa hwaet his hade gedafnige, forbari Se 

menu magon, purh modes gecnyrdnysse, on aelcere endebyrd- 

nysse "bam ^Imihtigan gecwenian. Cyninge gerist riht- 

M'isnys and wisdom ; him is nama gesett of soSum reccen- 

dome, ]>fet he hine sylfne, and siSSan his leode mid wisdome 

wissige, and wel gerihtlffice. pa?t folc bib gesjeiig J?urh 



ox THE GREATER LITANY. 319 

Who is our neighbour r Let us ask Christ. Verily he 
says of all christians, " Ye are all brothers, and have one 
Father, who is high-sitting in heaven." Now it is said to 
you by the true Christ, that ye are brothers, if ye hold the 
botid of true brotherhood unbroken. But who is nearer to 
me than my brother ? I also love him, and he is my neigh- 
bour. John the apostle wrote in his epistle, and said, that 
we know Christ's love for us, because he gave himself for us, 
and we should give ourselves for our brothers. He who has 
riches, and will not spend them for an indigent brother, has 
not true love. If thou yet canst not accomplish so much as to 
die thyself for a brother's life, give thy riches for his siipport. 
If thou doest not so in peace for God, when wilt thou give 
thyself for him in the calamitous persecution of impious mur- 
derers ? It is incumbent on us to do good in peace, with 
bounteous mind to the human creation, and again in perse- 
cution to give our life for the true God, or for a brother, as 
Jesus gave himself for us. But the guilefid fiend sows dis- 
cord among mankind through divers causes, and instigates 
one man to our possessions, and inflames our minds with 
great anger against another who will persecute us. Then 
we lose, through a little wealth, true love, which is the best 
of wealth. But we should ever shield that true love which 
leads us to the Living God, rather than the possessions which 
will perish from us. Verily our soul may not fly to the king- 
dom of heaven, unless it have the wings of true love of the 
Creator and of men, more than any bird has power of fliglit, 
if one of its wings have been previously broken. 

Let every one now consider what befits his state, for mm 
may, through diligence of mind, in every stage, propitiate the 
Almighty. In a king arc becoming righteousness and wis- 
dom ; on him a name is set of true governorship, that he may 
direct himself, and afterwards his people with wisdom, and 
well correct them. The people are happy in a sagacious 



320 LETANIA MAIORE. 

snotenie cyiiiiig, sigefest and gesundful Siirh gesceadwisne 
reccend. And hi beo5 geyrmede ^urh unvvisne cyning, on 
mancgum ungclimpnm, for his misraede. Biscop sceul Iteran 
his leoda symle, mid boclicere lare, and him bysnian wel, 
'^reagan "Su "Swyran, and ^a "Seawfaestan hifian, beon heora 
hyrde hold under Criste, ealle ofcrsccawigendc, swa svva his 
nama swcg^, and yfel ne forsuwige, ne unriht no geSafige. 
Biscopas and maesscpreostas sind to bydclum gesettc, |?fet hi 
laewedum folce geleafan bodion, and him eac ge<Singion to JSam 
^hiiihtigum Godc ; forcSi him gedafena'S ]>iet hi dugeSe hab- 
bon, and mid fa?gerum ^eawum gefrjptewode beon. Hu maeg 
se ungcljereda larcowdom bealdan, and laewedum folce faegre 
bodian ? Be Sam cwa^iS se Haelend to his discipuluni, " Gif 
se blinda man bib obres bliiidan latteow, jjonnc bofcallat!) lii 
begen on sumum blindum seabe." Lange sceal leornian se "Se 
laeran sceal, and habban geSincSe and ]»('a\vf}estnysse, ]?y-lj«s 
be he forhi^de ba laewcdan mid him. Se liireow luefb lytic 
gebincbe, ]>c mid yfelre gebisnunge his bodunge towyrpb. 
Se bi^ maere Ifireow, "be mammm bodab, and eac mid weorcum 
him wel gebysnab. Ne maeg se prcost mannum iSingian, ne 
eac him sylfum, gif he synnum underlib, and mid fulum 
daedum bine fracodnc gedc^, buton he aerest arise of -bam 
reocendum meoxe, and mid sobre dfedbotc hint- sylfnc abwea, 
]?aet he clypunge hiebbe cublice to Drihtne. God cwa-b be 
lareowum on his larspclle, " Se ^e eow gehyr^ he gehyr<S me, 
and se ^e eow forsihb be forr«il)^ me." For^i gedafena^ eow 
]>i£t ge Drihten gehyron burh halige lareowas, ]>e his gespelian 
sind. Hi beob orsorge, beah ^e hi man forseo, and cwe'SaiS 
mid |?am witegan to weroda Gode, " Ic ne forsuwade, 
Drihten, |>iiie sobfaestnysse, ne ic on heortan behydde -bine 
rihtwisnysse ; ac hi me forsawon forb mid ]?aere segene." 

Sum witega clypode to eallum demum, " Lufiab rihtwis- 
nysse, ge ^e on eorban denial ; oncnawab eowerne God mid 
godnysse symle, and mid heortan anfealdnysse seca^ hine 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. 321 

king, victorious and prosperous through a discreet ruler. 
And they are made miserable through an unwise king, by 
many mischances, from his misguidance. A bishop should 
constantly instruct his people with book-learning, and set 
them a good example, reprove the perverse, and love the 
virtuous, be to them a faithful shepherd under Christ, over- 
seeing all, as his name indicates ; and not conceal evil, ncr 
consent to injustice. Bishops and mass-priests are set as 
criers, to announce the faith to lay people, and also to inter- 
cede for them to Almighty God ; it, therefore, befits them to 
have goodness, and to be adorned with fair morals. How 
can the unlearned hold a teacher's authority, and aptly preach 
to the lay-folk ? Of these Jesus said to his disciples, " If a 
blind man be another blind one's guide, then will they both 
fall into a blind pit." Long shall he learn who is to teach, 
and have authority and obedience, lest he misguide the lay- 
folk with himself. That teacher has little authority, who with 
evil example makes void his preaching. He is a great teacher 
who preaches to men and also sets them a good example by 
works. The priest may not intercede for men, nor even for 
himself, if he lie under sins, and by foul deeds make himself 
criminal, unless he first arise from the recking dunghill, and 
with true penitence wash himself, that he may with certainty 
have calling to the Lord. God said of teachers in his ser- 
mon, " He who hearcth you heareth me, and he who de- 
spiseth you despiseth me." It is, therefore, incumbent on 
you that ye hear the Lord through holy teachers, who are his 
deputies. They will be fearless, though men despise them, 
and will say with the prophet to the God of hosts, " I have 
not held silence. Lord, concerning thy truth, nor in my heart 
have I hidden thy righteousness j but they ever despised me 
with that saying." 

A certain prophet cried to all judges, " Love righteous- 
ness, ye who judge on earth ; know your God with goodness 
ever, and with simplicity of heart seek him earnestly." Again, 

HOM. VOL. II. V 



322 LKTANIA MAIORE. 

georne." Eft, o-Ser M'itega be ^am ylcan cwee^, " Ge manna 
beam, dema-S rihtlice." Eac lire Drihtcn on his godspelle 
cwse^, " Bee's miklheorte, swa swa eower Fteder is. Eovv 
bi^ anieten swa swa ge amjeton, on ■Sam ylcan gemete ^e ge 
mannum do^." lacobus se apostol be ^an ylcan saede, " Se 
•Se dom geset buton niildiieortnysse, him biS eft gedemed 
buton mildheortnysse." Isaias manaS eac manna deman, 
*' HelpaS ofsettum, and steop-cildnm demaS ; beweria^ wy- 
dewan wi"5 wselhreawum eliterum, and SreagaS me siSiSan. 
pis stiede Diihten, and gif eowere synna wseron wolcn-rcade 
aer "San, hi beoS scincnde on snawesh wTtnysse. Gif ge me 
gehyraS, ge etaS ]>apre eorSan gnd ; gif ge me geyrsia'S, eow 
fornim^ min s\\urd. W;i Sam "Se talaS, mid treowlcasum 
mode, yfel to godc, and god to yfele ; ]>eostru to leohte, and 
leoht to •Seostrum. Wd San Se Strang bi^ to swiSlicum 
drencum and to gemencgenne Sa micclan drunccnnysse. 
Swilce gerihtwisiaS j'one arlcasan for sceattum, and J>am riht- 
wisum fetbrcdaS his rihtwisnysse swa. ForSi hi fornimS 
helle fyr swa swa ceaf, and heora wyrtruma biS swa swa 
windige ysla." Eft cwfeS Salomon be swilcum gedwolum, 
" III blissiaS on yfelnysse and on arleasum da^dum, and In 
slaep ne iindcrfoS, buton lit yfel gefremmon. And rihtwisra 
siSftet is swilce scinende leoht, and weaxende symle oS soSre 
fulfremednysse." 

Se apostol awrat be eawfaestum werum, " LufiaS, ge weras, 
eowere wif on eewe ; ne beo ge bitcre him ungebeorhlice, and 
healdaS eowere aewe, swa swa eow licaS }>cet eowere m if heald- 
on hi wis forligre : paet j^aet se wer gewTtnaS on eawbraccum 
wife, j?8et gewitnaS Drihten on eawbraecum were. Wif sceo- 
lon gehyrsumian heora werum gedafenlice, and hi symle 
arwur^ian swa swa agene hlafordas." Ure Drihten forbead 
mid his agenum muSe ^a yfelan twaeinincge betwux twam 
sewum ^us : " Swa hwa swa his aewe forlset, and o"Ser genim"S, 
he bi^ jjonne eawbrfBce and eac forligr." Eac se "Se wifa^ on 
■Sam forlsetenum wife, bi^ unriht-haemeregehaten fram Gode. 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. 323 

another prophet said on the same subject, " Ye children of 
men, judge rightly." Our Lord also in his gospel said, " Be 
merciful as your Father is. To you shall be measured as ye 
have measured, by the same measure which ye give to men." 
James the apostle said on the same, " He who passeth judge- 
ment without mercy shall afterwards be judged without 
mercy." Isaiah also exhorts the judges of men, '* Help the 
oppressed, and judge step-children ; defend the widow against 
cruel persecutors, and rebuke me afterwards. This said the 
Lord, and if your sins before were scarlet, they shall be 
shining with the whiteness of snow. If ye obey me, ye shall 
eat the good of the earth ; if ye anger me, my sword shall 
consume you. Wo to them that with truthless mind account 
evil as good, and good as evil ; darkness as light, and light 
as darkness. Wo to those that are strong to powerful drinks 
and to mingle great drunkenness. Such justify the impious 
for treasures, and from the righteous so take away his righte- 
ousness. Therefore shall the fire of hell consume them as 
chatT, and their root shall be as windy ashes." Again, Solo- 
mon said of such heretics, " They rejoice in evil and in 
wicked deeds, and they take not sleep, unless they have per- 
petrated evil. And the way of the righteous is as it were a 
shining light, and ev.r waxing unto true perfection." 

The apostle wrote of married men, " Ye husbands, love your 
lawful wives ; be not bitter towards them unreasonably, and 
hold to your marriage, as it is pleasing to you that your 
wives hold themselves against adultery : that which the hus- 
band punisheth in an adulterous wife, that the Lord punisheth 
in an adulterous husband. W^ives should fittingly obey their 
husbands, and always honour them as their own lords." Our 
Lord with his own mouth forbade evil separation between two 
married persons, thus : " Whosoever forsaketh his lawful 
wife and taketh another, committcth adultery and also forni- 
cation." Also he who marries the forsaken wife is called an 

Y 2 



324 LETANIA MAI ORE. 

Eft, gif uTf awyrpS hire agenne wer, and o"Serne gecyst, heo 
bi^ so^ eawbrpece ; ac gif hi sene togaS, hi sceolon eft ge- 
gadrian, oS^e si^San wunian symle buton hsemede. Tw^e- 
ming is alyfed )?ani "Se lufia"5 swi^or "Sa healican claennysse 
|)onne ^a liohfullan gahiysse. Eac hi magon on sinscipe hi 
sylfe bedyglian, and heemed forgan, gif him swa God ge- 
wissa^. God so^lice fordem^ pa dyrnan forlTras, and ^a un- 
riht-hfeineras on helle fordeS, buton hi eer geendunge heora 
yfel gebcton. 

Ne gesceop se ^hiiihtiga God men for galnysse, ac )?apt hi 
gestrynon mid gesceade hcora team, and eft on heora ylde 
mid ealle p«t forlteton, Sonne ^ass vvifes inno^ unwfestmbaere 
bi^ gehtefd. God forgcaf gescead menniscum gesceafte, and 
ungesceadwisum nytcnum asetne timan, jnet men sceoldon 
lybban hcora lif mid gesceade, swa swa ^a claenan nytenu 
cepaS lieora timan. Se mann is gesceapen to his Scyppendes 
anlicnysse, and soMice Sa nytenu sindon sawullcase. Nu 
bi^ mannum sceamu jj^t hi mislybban sceolon, and Sa nytenu 
healdaS heora gesctnysse. Ne sfew^ nan yrSling ^enne wcer 
ttiwa, ne nan wer ne sceal his wife gcneahecan siSSan heo 
mid bcarnc sw.'prlice gcbunden gceS, "Se-lfes <Se hi amyrron 
heora gemaene cild. pis is swiSe hefigtyme eow to gehy- 
renne ; gif we hit forsuwian dorston. ne stede we hit eow. 

Se "Seoda lareow la'rde manna beam, J>tet hi gehyrsume 
beon heora ffederum a ; and 5am faederum behead, ]?iet hi 
heora beam ne gewbiligdon, ]>iet hi ne wurdon gewaehte ^urh 
wacmodnysse. Eft, is awriten on oc>re stowe, " Arwur^a 
•Sinne faeder and eac "Sine moder ; and se "Se faeder o^Se modor 
manlice wyrig^, he sceal deabe sweltan. pis saede Drihten." 
Godes wisdom Siede, )?urh Salomones mu5, " Styr binum 
cilde, and sleh hit mid gyrde, and ^u swa alyst his savvle frara 
deaSe. Se "Se spara^ his gyrde, he hata^ his cild ; and se ^e 
hit lufa^, he laer^ hit anraedlice." Cildru behofia^ swiSlicere 
steore and godre gymene to godum beawum, ]?8et se wisdom 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. 326 

adulterer by God. Again, if a wife casts off her own husband, 
and chooses another, she is a true adultress ; but if they part 
jointly, they shall come together again, or afterwards ever 
continue without intercourse. Separation is allowed to tiiose 
who love exalted chastity more than anxious lust. They may 
also conceal themselves by wedlock, and forgo intercourse, if 
God so direct them. But God condemns secret fornicators, 
and fordoes adulterers in hell, unless, before their end, tliey 
atone for their evil. 

The Almiglity God created not men for lust, but that tliey 
migiit with discretion beget their family, and afterwards, in 
their age, wholly cease therefrom, wlien the woman's womb 
is considered unfruitful. God gave reason to the human 
creation, and to the irrational aninuils a fixed time, that men 
might live their life with reason, as the pure animals ob- 
serve their times. Man is created in his Creator's likenes.s, 
and verily the beasts are soulless. Now it is a shame to men 
that they should mislive, and the beasts observe their esta- 
blished law. No husbandman sows one field twice, nor 
sliould any man approach his wife, after she goes heavily 
bound with child, lest they destroy their common offspring. 
This is very wearisome for you to hear ; if we had dared to 
pass it silently, we should not have said it to you. 

The teacher of the gentiles taught the children of men, that 
they should ever be obedient to their fathers ; and enjoined 
fathers not to provoke their children, that they might not be 
excited through wcakmindcdncss. Again, it is written in 
another place, " Honour thy father and thy mother; and he 
who wickedly curselh father or mother shall perish by death. 
This said the Lord." God's wisdom said, through the mouth 
of Solomon, " Correct thy child and strike it with the rod, 
and thou so shalt redeem his soul from death. He who 
spareth his rod hateth his child ; and he who loveth it, teach- 
cth it soundly." Children require vigorous correction and 
good heed to good morals, that wisdom may be dwelling in 



326 LETAxNIA MAIORE. 

mage on him wunigende beon, se^e nele wunian on yfel-wyl- 
lende sawle, ne eac on "Sam lichaman ^e liS under synnum. 
Se wisdom is halig, and hine sylfne aetbret fram modes hiw- 
unge and myndleasum ge^ohtum. Rilitwis vvaes Eli, and 
he forwearS swa-^eah for his bearna synnum, ba begen svvul- 
ton under svveordes ecge for hcora synlicum daHhmi, and 
heora feeder feoll, foredum swyran, on <5am ylcan dffige, 
]?urh Drihtnes wrace, forSan ^e he ne stj'rde heora stunt- 
nysse fler. Be sumum cilde we raeda^, J?e w;es rcceleaslice 
afedd. Hit wolde M'yrian wa^lhrcawlice Drihten ; and se 
fiedcr ne roiite his rcceleasnysse. pa set nextan comon 
cwehiibjere deoflu swutcUicc geseweno, on sweartum hiwe, 
in to <Sam ciUle, and iiit sona hrynide, " Fteder niin, fiedcr 
min, me niniaS Jias deoflu;" and behydde his heafod on his 
fffider bosnie, and wyrigde Drihten, and svva gewat sona mid 
Jnim sweartum deoflum, forscyldgod to hclle. Dacild I5e bcoJS 
syfcrlice afeddc, and wie> unJSeawum caUunge gestyrede, hi 
geJSeo^ Gode, swa swa God sylf gecwaeb, SaSa he bletsodc 
"Sa gcbrohtan cild, and siede his gyngruni, " S\^■ilcra is Godes 
rice. 

peowemen manode eac se maera apostol, )?us to-clypigcnde, 
" Eala ge Seowan, beob geliyrsume eowerum hlafordum ; 
swa hwjet swa ge wyrcaS, wyrcaJS mid mode, swa swa Gode 
sylfum, and he syl<S eow mede. Ne Seowigc ge to ansyne, ac 
mid liufealdrc heortan, ne swilce beforan mannum, ac mid 
Godes ogan." pa hlafordas he manode J»aet hi milde waeron 
heora "Scowum mannum mid j^aeslicnyssc. Se hlaford and se 
■(Seowa gelTce clypiaS to Sam Heofonlican Feeder on lieora Pat. 
nre. Begen hi sind men on middanearde acennede, and hi 
habbaS set Gode swa hu swa hi geearnia^. JE\c Seowt bi^ 
geendod on ^isum andwcardan life, butoii ^aera anra ]>e syn- 
num "SeowiaS, hi habbaS ecne ^eowt, and "Sa oSre beoS frige, 
Seah "Se hi on life lange ler ^eowdon. 

Eft, se Seoda lareow laerde ^a rican, }>jet hi hi ne onhebbon 
on healicere modignysse, ne hcora hiht ne beset ton on ^am 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. 327 

them, which will not dwell in a soul desirous of evil, nor also 
in the body which lieth under sins. Wisdom is holy, and 
withdraws itself from simulation of mind, and from senseless 
thoughts. Eli was righteous, and he, nevertheless, perished 
for his children's sins, who both died under tlie edge of the 
sword for their sinful deeds, and their father fell, and brake 
his neck on the same day, through the Lord's vengeance, 
because he had not before corrected tlieir foolishness. We 
read of a child that was recklessly nurtured. It would cruelly 
curse the Lord ; and the father recked not of its recklessness. 
At last came deadly devils manifestly seen, of black aspect, 
in to the child, and it forthwith cried, " My father, my father, 
these devils are taking me;" and hid its head in its father's 
bosom, and cursed the Lord, and so forthwith departed with 
the swart devils, condemned to hell. Those children that are 
prudently nurtured, and thoroughly corrected against vices, 
thrive to God, as God himself said, when he blessed the chil- 
dren brought to him, and said to his disciples, " Of such is 
the kingdom of God." 

The great apostle also exhorted serving-men, thus address- 
ing them, " O ye servants, be obedient to your nuisters ; 
whatsoever ye do, do with heart, as for God himself, and he 
will give you meed. Serve not for appearance, but with 
simple heart, not as it were before men, but with awe of 
God." Masters he exhorted to be mild to their serving- men 
with reasonableness. The master and the servant call alike 
to the Heavenly Father in their Pater noster. They are both 
men born in the world, and they will have from God MJiatso- 
ever they shall have merited. Every servitude will be ended 
in this present life, save of those only who minister to sins, 
they will have everlasting servitude, and the others will be 
/ree, although they in life long before had served. 

Again, the teacher of the gentiles taught the rick not to 
exalt themselves with lofty pride, nor to set their hope in 



328 LETANIA MAIORE. 

swicelum welum, ac hihton on God, |?fera goda Syllend. Fela 
sprsec se H.-plend, and hefiglice be ricum ; ac he hi eft gefre- 
frode, ^us f;egre tihtende : " Sylla^ ^one ofereacan eow to 
sehiies-daedum, and efne ealle ^ing eow beo5 geclaensode. 
Hvvast frema^ aenigum men, ^eah ^e he eahie middaneard to 
his anwealdum gebige, gif he ana losa^ ? " 

Cypmannum gedafenaS ]>xt hi soSfjestnysse healdon, and 
heora sawla ne syllon 5urh swicole aSas, ac h)fian heora Sing 
buton laSre forsworcnnysse. God soblicc fordeS Sa swicolan 
and leasan. 

Ealle we sceolon standan eefter ^isuni life setforan Cristes 
dom-setle, J^aet aelc ^aer underfo swa hwaet swa he on licha- 
man adrcali, oiSSe god oj^J^e yfel. Se ylca apostol inanode 
eac '5a medenian, ]uet hi beon gchcaldene on heora bigleofan 
and scrude. pearfan he Iferde J^aet hi on lifes waedlunge ge- 
"Syidigc beon, and symlc blissian. Hi beo5 ges^elige, gif hi 
so5 lufiac), and buton hiwunge iiini aiidlyfan hiddatS. Gif 
hwa "(Soarfan forsihb, he tfelS his Scyppend. Be untrumuni 
mannum se iElinihtiga cwseS, " Ic ^reage and swinge )'a ^e 
ic lufige." Paiilus se apostol eac be Sisum cwse^, " Ne 
forgym Su, inin beam, l^ines Drihtnes stcore, ne "Su beo 
gewfeht |>onne he Se ]?i-ea(S : "Sone ^e Drihten lufaS, }>one he 
■5rea"5, and soSlice beswingS aelcne sunn "Se he underfehS." 
Gif we untrunie beoS, uton beon geSyldige, swa swa se 
eadiga lob lis eallum bysnode, be Sam is nu langsum on 
"Sisum lytlum cwyde eow to gereccenne ; ac we raedaS |)is eft. 
Gif us ungclimpas on aihtum getimiaS, p>onne sceole we 
niman geSyld fefter lobe, seSe ealle his a?hta anes d<jeges for- 
leas ; ac he hsefde geSyld, J?us cweSende sona, " God forgeaf 
"Sa sehta, and God hi eft setbraed : sy his nama gebletsod." 
And forbser |?us eaSelice. 

Menigfealde beoS |7?es Metodan Drihtnes egsan and swingla 
ofer scyldigum mannum, j^aet Sa sceortan witu Sises geswinc- 
fullan lifes forscyttan Sa toweardan, j'e naefre ne ateoriaS. 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. 329 

treacherous riches, but to hope in God, the Giver of good 
things. Much spake Jesus and grievously concerning the 
rich ; but he again comforted them, thus kindly inciting : 
'' Give your overplus in alms-deeds, and lo, all things shall 
be purified for you. What doth it profit any man, though he 
bead all the world to his power, if he alone perish ? " 

To merchants it is fitting that they hold truth, and give 
not their souls through deceptive oaths, but praise their 
things without hateful perjury. Verily God will fordo the 
cheats atid liars. 

We shall all stand after this life before the judgement-seat 
of Christ, that each nuiy there receive whatsoever he may 
have transacted in the body, either good or evil. The same 
apostle exhorted also those of middling condition to be frugal 
in their diet and clothing. The poor he taught to be patient 
in the indigence of life, and ever to rejoice. They will be 
happy, if they love truth, and without hypocrisy pray to liiin 
for sustenance. If any one despises the poor, he calumniates 
his Creator. Of bick men the Almighty said, " I chastise 
and scourge those whom I love." Paid the apostle said also 
of these, " Be not heedless, my child, of thy Lord's correc- 
tion, nor be thou vexed when he chastiseth thee : whom the 
Lord loveth, him he chastiseth, and verily scourgeth every 
son that he receiveth." If we are sick, let us be patient, as 
the blessed Job has given an example to us all, of which it is 
now longsome in this little discourse to recount to you ; but 
Me will read this afterwards. If misfortunes betide us in our 
possessions, then should we take patience after Job, who lost 
all his possessions in one day ; but he had patience, thus say- 
ing forthwith, " God gave the possessions, and God hath 
taken them away: be his name blessed." And thus suffered 
easily. 

Manifold are the Lord Creator's terrors and scourges over 
guilty men, that the short punishments of this painful life 
may prevent those to come, which will never fail. The 



330 LETANIA MAIORE. 

Se ^Imihtiga God cyS his godnysse us, and hwiloii us ge- 
olaeh^, and hwilon eac beswing^. Naere nan tihting, gif he us 
ne olaehte ; naere nan rihting, gif he us ne Sreade. Se "Se God 
lierian wille on his healicum wcl-df-eduui, herige eac hine on 
edleane and on egesUcum swinghini. Manega tacna and 
niicele yrmSa becuma^ on middanearde ofer manna bearnum, 
maran and maran oS J>am gemaenan ende. Se be aefre ^urh- 
vvimaS on anrajdum geleafan, se bilS geheaklcn, swa swa se 
Ilwlend sfpde. He het us eac beon on gebedum \vacole, 
gelomlice us biddendc mid bcaldum geleafan, j^aet we moton 
forfleon ^a toweardan frecednyssc, and stiindan on gesihSe 
his soSan menniscnysse. Micel magon gebcdu mamium 
fremian, be Sam spraec se pistol tet Syssere niHRssan : past we 
sceolon andcttan ure syima gelome, and aelc for oSerne ge- 
biddan, ]>iBt we beon gcheahlcnc. Ilclias se witega waes us 
mannuni gelic, "iSrowicndHc swa swa we, and he swa-5eah 
abwd jjffit ren wfes forwyrned 5am wiSerwcardum folcc to 
Sreora gcara fyrste, and syx monSa fiece. He abad eft si5- 
'ban set Sam so San Gode, pa^t he renas forgeaf, and eor Slice 
vvaestmas. Gif hwilc man gcbigS oSerne frani gedwylde, he 
alyst his sawle soSlice fram deaSe, and fela synna adylcgaS 
purh ^ffis gcdwolan rihtinge. pis is sceortlice gescJed : uton 
secgan word gyt. 

Se ^eoda lareovv s;ede mancynne, )'wt dyrne forligcras o^Se 
deofolgyldan, scea^an and reaferas, oSSe reSe manslagan, gyt- 
seras and drinceras, J?e dollice lybbaS, nabbaS Godes rice on 
rodorlicere heofonan. Eac swylce drymen, )/e mid dydrunge 
faraS, and feondlice wiccan and o<Sre wigeleras, beo^ to helle 
bescofene for heora scincreeftum. Oft us men secga^ J'set hi 
unsynnige beon, "Seah ^e hi leohtlice mettas him on mti^ 
bestingon, on swilcum fjesten-dagum mid friecere gyfernysse, 
and nellaS understandan hu Adam us forpaerde "Surh anes 
{epples Sigene ]>e he set forboden. Nis nan man fsestende }?e 
underfeh^ mid niu^e feniges gesceaftes sffi oS^e eorSan, ac 
Sa beoS scyldige ^e 5a gesetnysse tobrecaS ]>iere halgan gela- 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. 331 

Almighty God manifests his goodness to us, and sometimes 
caresses us, and sometimes also scourges. There would be 
no excitement, if he caressed us not ; tlierc would be no cor- 
rection, if he chastised us not. He who will praise God for 
his noble benefits, let him also praise him in retribution and 
in terrific chastisements. Many sii^ns and many miseries will 
come in the world over the children of men, greater and 
greater until the general em]. He who ever continues in 
steadfast belief shall be saved, as Jesus said. He conunanded 
us also to be watchful in prayers, fretpiently praying with 
bold faith, that we may escape from future peril, and stand in 
sight of liis true humanity. Much can prayers profit men, of 
which the epistle at this nuiss spake : That we should fre- 
(juently confess our sins, and each pray for other, that we 
may be saved. Elijah tlie prophet was like to us men, pas- 
sible as we, and he, nevertheless, obtained by prayer that rain 
was denied to the perverse people for a space of three years 
and six months. He obtained afterwards b\- prayer from the 
true God, that he gave rains and earthly fruits. If any man 
turn another from error, he truly redeems his soul from 
death, and blots out many sins by the correction i)i the 
heretic. This is shortly said : let us say a word yet. 

The teacher of the gentiles said to mankind, tiuit adulterers 
or idolaters, thieves and robbers, or cruel murderers, covetous 
men and drunkards, who foolishly live, shall not possess 
God's kingdom in the ethereal heaven. In like manner 
wizards, who go about with illusion, and odious witcncs and 
other sorcerers, sliall be thrust into hell for their magic arts. 
Men often say to us that they are sinless, though the\- lightly 
put meats into their mouth on such fast-days with shameless 
greediness, and will not understand how Adam ruined us by 
the eating of one apple, which he ate forbidden. No man is 
fasting who receives in his n)outh any creature of sea or of 
earth, but they are guilty who break the institute of the holy 



332 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA TERTIA. 

"Suiige mid unalyfedre "Sigenej and fyllaS heora wambe fra- 
codlice ^r timan. 

Uton we geearnian ]?jet ece lif mid Gode, Surh geswicen- 
ysse yfeles, and ^urh fremminge godes : jjaes us getiSige se 
^Imihtiga Wealdend, seSe a rixaS on ecnysse. Amen. 



ITEM. 
IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA TERTIA. 

MEN "Sa leofostan, Paulus se Apostol, ealra "Seoda lareow, 
awrat be him sylfuni j^set he wfere gola?dd up to heofonum, 
o^jJa?t he becom to Saere JSriddan heofoiian ; and lie waes 
geh'ed to ncorxiia-wangc, and ])ier '5a gastlican dygehiysse 
gchyrdc and gcseah ; ac he ne cydde na eorcilicum mauiuun, 
"Sa^a he ongcan com, h\v?et he gehyrde o5Se gesawe, ISisuni 
wordum writende be him sylfum : " Scio hominem in Christo, 
ante annos (luatuordcccm, raptum usque ad tertium ccelum ; 
et iterum quomodo raptus est in paradisum, et audiuit archana 
uerba, qufe non licet homini loqui." past is on Englisc, " Ic 
wat "Sone mann on Criste, pe waes gegripen nu for feowertyne 
gcarum, and gehed oS «Sa ])riddan heofenan ; and eft he wfes 
gelffid to neorxna-wange, and Saer gehyrde ^a digehm word 
]?e nan eorSlic mann sprecan ne mot." 

Humeta rfeda^ sume men 'Sa Icasan gesetnysse, "Se hi hatacS 
Paulus gesihSe, nu he sylfe saede |?aet he ^a digelan word ge- 
hyrde, ]>e nan eor^lic mann sprecan ne mot ? 

We w}dla^ nu eow gereccan oSres mannes gesihSe, ^e 
unleas is, nu se apostol Paulus his gesih^e mannum ameldian 
ne moste. 

Sum Scyttisc preost wjes, gehaten Furseus, ae^elboren for 
worulde, arwur^es lifes, and gelyfed swi^e. He wees fram 
cildhade gelsered, on claeimysse wunigende, estful on mode, 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. TUESDAY. 333 

church by unallowed eating, and wickedly fill their belly be- 
fore the time. 

Let us merit the everlasting life with God, by cessation 
from evil and by performance of good : may the Almighty 
Ruler grant us this who ever reigncth to eternity. Amen. 



ITEM. 
ON THE GREATER LITANY. TUESDAY. 

MEN most beloved, Paul the Apostle, the teacher of all the 
gentiles, wrote concerning himself tiiat he was led up to the 
heavens, until he came to the third heaven ; and he was led 
to paradise, and there heard and saw the ghostly secrets ; but 
he did not make known to earthly men, when he came back, 
what he had heard or seen, writing of himself in these words : 
" Scio homincm in Christo, ante annos (juatuordccim, raptum 
usque ad tertium Cd'lum ; et itcrum quomodo raptus est in 
paradisuin, et audivit arcana verba, qu.e non licet homini 
locjui." That is in English, " I know a man in Ciirist, who 
was snatched fourteen years since, and led unto the third 
heaven ; and again he was led to paradise, and there heard 
the secret words, which no earthly man may speak." 

How do some men read the false composition, which they 
call the vision of Paul, when he himself said, that he heard 
Hhe secret words, which no earthly man may speak ? 

We M ill now recount to you the vision of another man, 
which is true, since the apostle Paul might not announce his 
vision to men. 

There was a Scottish priest named Furseus, noble-born in 
the world's estimation, of honourable life, and great faith. 
He was learned from childhood, living in chastity, devout in 



334 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA TERTIA. 

lufigendlic on gesihSe, and on halgum maegnum diegluromlice 
^Seonde. pa forlet he faeder, and modor, and magas, and on 
o^rum earde eel^eodig leornode. ^"Efter Sisuni aenerde niyn- 
ster, and |78et mid eawfestum mannum gesette. Eft, aefter 
fyrste, getimode him untrumnys, swa paet he wear^ to forb- 
siSe gebroht. pa genamon twegen englas his sawle, and, 
fleogende mid hwitum fySerhanian, betwux him ferodon. An 
^ridda engel fleah him tetforan, gewaepnod mid huitum 
scylde and sctnendum swurde. Da ^ry enghis gelicere 
beorhtnysse scinende waeron, and Snere sawle Munderlice 
wynsumnysse mid heora fitSera swege on belauldon, and mid 
heora sanges dreame micclum geghidodoii. Hi sungon, 
" Ibunt sancti de uirtute in uirtutem ; uidebitur Deus deo- 
I'uni in Sion :" ));Et is on Englisc, " Da halgan faraS fram 
mihte to mihtc ; caha goda God biS gesewen on Sion." Da 
gehyrde he eft oSerne sang swilce uncuJSnc, mancga cJusenda 
enghi, (Sus cwe^ende, " Exierunt obuiam Christo," pa;t is, 
" Hi eodon togeanes Cristc." 

Hwiet '5a, an engel of ISam upplicum wercdum behead (Sam 
gewaepnodum engle 5e (Sa sawle gelaedde, J^aet hi eft ongean 
hi" gelaedan sceoldon to San lichaman )?e heo of-gehed waes. 
pa cwae^ se engel him to, Se him on tia swiSran hand fleah, 
Du scealt eft Sinne lichaman underfon, and agyfan Gode |;inre 
carfulnysse weorc and fremmincge. Da cwaeS se halga 
Furseus, ]>spX he nolde his willes heora gefcrraedene forleetan. 
Se engel him andwyrde, ^Efter binre carfulnysse godre frem- 
mincge, we cumaS eft to "Se, and "Se genimaS to us. Hi ^a 
sungon, and seo sawul ne mihte undergitan hu heo on iSone 
lichaman eft becom, for ^fes dreames wynsumnysse. Da 
betwux hancrede laeg se halga wer ge-edcucod, mid roseum 
hiwe ofergoten, and "Sa licmen his neb j^serrihte unwrugon. 
Da befran Furseus, hwT heora gehlyd swa micel waere, o^Se 
hwaes hi swa micclum wnndrodon ? Hi ^a him andwyrdon, 
and saedon, ]>iet he on aefnunge gewite, and jjset his lie laege 
on flora ealle 5a niht o^ hancred. He ^a up gesset, smea- 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. TUESDAY. 335 

spirit, amiable of aspect, and in holy virtues dailj^ thriving. 
Then he forsook father, and mother, and relations, and 
learned, a stranger, in another country. After this he raised 
a mynster, and planted it witli pious men. After a time 
sickness befell him, so that he was brought to death. Then 
two angels took his soul, and, flying with white wings, bore 
him between them. A third angel flew before him, armed 
with a white shield and a shining sword. The three angels 
were shining with like brightness, and conveyed to the soul 
wondrous pleasantness with the sound of their wings, and 
with the melody of their song greatly gladdened it. They 
sung, " Ibunt sancti de virtute in virtutem ; vidchitur Dens 
dcorum in Sion :" tliat is in English, "The saints go from 
virtue to virtue; the God of all gods shall be seen in Sion." 
Then he iieard afterwards another, as it were, unknown song, 
many thousand angels tiius saying, *' Exierunt obviani 
Christo :" tiiat is, " They went to meet Christ." 

Whereupon an angel of the celestial hosts commanded the 
angel wiio was leading the soul, to lead it back again to the 
body from which it had been led. Then said the angel to 
him, wiio flew on his right hand, Thou shalt receive thy body 
again, and give to God the work and efficacy of tliy solicitude. 
Then said the holy Furseus, tiiat he would not voluntarily 
leave tiieir society. The angel answered him, After the good 
efficacy of thy solicitude, we will come again to thee, and will 
take thee to us. They then sung, and the soul could not 
understand how it again came into the body, by reason of the 
pleasantness of the melody. Then about cockcrowing the 
holy man lay requickened, suff"used with a rosy hue, and the 
corpse-bearers straightways uncovered his face. Furseus 
then asked, wiiy their noise was so great, or at wiiat they so 
greatly wondered ? They answered him, and said, that he 
had died in the evening, and that his corpse had lain on the 
floor all night till cockcrowing. He then bat up, reflecting 



336 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA TERTIA. 

gende his gesih^e, and het hine huslian, and swa untrum 
leofode twegen dagas. Eft Sa on ^sere jn-iddan nihte middan, 
astrehte his handa on gebedum, and bliSe gewat of 'Sisura 
gesvvincfullum life, pa comon eft "ba "Sry foresc^dan englas, 
and hine geleeddon. Ilwjet iSa comon iSa avvirigedan deoflii 
on atelicum hiwe ^aere sawle togeanes, and heora an cvvaeS, 
Uton forstandan hi foran mid gefeohte. pa deoflu feohtende 
scuton heora fyrenan flan ongean ^a sawle, ac ^a deofellican 
flan wurdon )7£Errihte ealle adwaescte ]?urh baes gewaepnodan 
engles scyldungc. pa englas cwaedon to (Sam awirigcdum 
gastum, Hwi wille ge Icttan ure siKftet ? Nis ]>es man dael- 
inmcnd coweres forwyrdes. Da wiberwimian cwsedon, ])vet 
hit unrihtlic w fere, J>{fit se man Se yfel geSafodc sceolde baton 
wite to reste faran, Sonne hit awriten is, jjiet ba beo^ ealswa 
scyldigc ]'e unriht geJSafiab, swa swa "5a be hit gewyrcaS. Se 
engel ^a feaht ongean 5am awyrigdum gastum to 5an swiSe, 
]>8et ]'am halgan Mere wfes ge5uht ]>;et ]>ies gefeohtes hream and 
•Sfera deofla geiilyd mihte beon gehyred geond ealle eor^an. 

pa deofla eft cwjedon, Yfele spelluiige he beeode : ne sccal 
he ungederod ])aes ecan lifes brucan. Se halga engel cwaecS, 
Buton ge iSa hcafod-lealitras him on bef;estnian, ne sccal he 
for bam laessan losiaii. Sc calda wregere cwfeS, Buton ge 
forgifoM mannum heora gyltas, ne forgif5 se Heofonlica Feeder 
eow eowere gyltas. Se engel andnyrde, On hwam awrsec 
J7es man his teonan ? Se deofol cweeS, Nis na awriten piet hi 
wrecan ne sceolon, ac, Buton ge forg5'fon of eowerum heortum 
wi"5 eow agyltendum. Se engel cwae^. Us bib gedemed aet- 
foran Gode. Se ealda sceocca eft cwsb. Hit is awriten, 
Buton ge beon swa bilewite on unscaebbignysse swa swa cild, 
naebbe ge infaer to heofenan rice, pis bebod he natcshwon 
ne gefylde. Se Godes engel hine beladode, and cwae^, Milt- 
sunge he haefde on his heortan, beah be he manna gewunan 
heolde. Se deofol andwyrde, Swa swa he j?8et yfel of ^am 
menniscum gewunan underfeng, underfo he eac swa J^aet wite 
fram "bam upplican Deman. Se halga engel cwseb. We beob 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. TUESDAY. 39/ 

on his vision, and bade them housel him, and thus sick lived 
two days. Then again, on the third midnight, he stretched 
forth his hands in prayer, and blithely departed from this toil- 
some life. Then came again the three aforesaid angels, and 
led him. Whereupon came the accursed devils with horrid 
aspect towards the soul, and one of them said. Let us obstruct 
them with battle. The devils then fighting shot their fiery 
darts against the soul, but the devilish darts were straight- 
ways all extinguished by the shielding of the armed angel. 
The angels said to the accursed spirits, Why will ye hinder 
our journey ? Tiiis man is not a party to your ruin. The 
adversaries said that it was unjust, that a man who had con- 
sented to evil should go to rest without punishment, when it 
is written, that they are as guilty who consent to wrong as 
they who perpetrate it. The angel then fought against the 
accursed spirits so vigorously, that it seemed to the holy man 
that the cry of the battle and the noise of the devils might 
be heard over all the earth. 

The devils again said, Evil discourse he practised : he shall 
not unhurt enjoy the everlasting life. The holy angel said, 
Unless ye can fix on him the deadly sins, he shall not perish 
for the less. The old accuser said, Unless ye forgive men 
their sins, the Heavenly Father will not forgive you your 
sins. Tiie angel answered, On whom has this man avenged 
his injuries ? The devil said, It is not written that they shall 
not take vengeance, but, Unless ye forgive from your hearts 
those sinning against you. The angel said, We shall be 
judged before God. The old devil again said. It is written, 
Unless ye be as meek in innocence as a child, ye will not 
have entrance into the kingdom of heaven. This command- 
ment he has in no wise fulfilled. The angel of God absolved 
him, and said, Mercy he had in his heart, though he observed 
the usage of men. The devil answered, As he received that 
evil from human usage, lot him also so receive the punishment 
from the Judge above. The holy angel said, AVe shall be 

HOM. VOL. II. Z 



338 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA TERTIA. 

sRtforan Gode gesemde. pa wi^erwinnan wurdoii "Sa ofor- 
swiSde, ]7urh ^ses engles gewinne and ware. 

Da het se halga eiigel jjone eadigan wer beseon to m'ul- 
danearde. He "Sa beheold uTidcrbfec, and geseah swilce an 
"Seostorful dene, swiSe ni^erlic ; and geseah (Sier feower 
orm^te fyr atende : and se engel cwfeS him to, pas feower 
fyr ontenda^ eahic middaneard, and ona^hitS }>jera manna sawla 
\>c heora fulluhtes andctnysse and behat "Surh forga^gednysse 
awsegdon. paet an fyr ontent ]>ffira manna sawla tie leasungc 
lufedon ; ]>xt oSer ^ara 'Se gytsunge filigdon ; paet Sriddc 
|?fera ]>e ceaste and twyraednysse styredon ; ]>PRt feorlSe fyr 
forb;ern5 |>aera manna sawhi ))e facn and arlcasnysse beeodon. 
Da geneahehte J^jet fyr Sam halgan were, and lie sona afyrht 
to ^an engle cwae^, paet fyr gcncahphS wi5 nun. Se engel 
andwyrde, Ne byrnS on ^e ))urh wite, )»iet j'fet "Su on life nc 
onffldest ^urh leahtras. peah ^e ]>is fyr egeslic sy and micel, 
]>eah-hwa3^ere hit onaelS felcne be his gewyrhtnm. Swa swa 
se lichama biS ontend ^urh unalyfede lustas, swa eac byrnS 
aeo sawul 5urh neadwis wite. Se gewiJepnode engel ^a flcah 
him jetforan, tod;elende "Sone lig, and ^a o^re twegcn him 
flngon on twa healfa, and hine Mi5 \yvcii fyres frecednysse ge- 
scyldon. pa deoflu 'Sa mid gefeohte ongean ^a sawle seuton, 
and heora an to ^am englum cWc'eS, Se ^eowa "Se wat his 
hlafordes willan, and ncle hine gefrcmman, sceal beon gewit- 
nod mid micclum witum. Se halga engel befran, Hwa^t ne 
gefyldc |;es man his Ilhifordes Millan ? Se sceocca andwyrde, 
Hit is awriten, |?a^t se healica God hata^ unrihtwisra gife. 
He haifde genumcn ^lytle ser sumne claS tet anum swyltendum 
men. pa cwaeS se engel, He gelyfde )>tet gehwilc ^e him 
aenige gife sealde, behreowsunge on life gedyde. Se deofol 
andwyrde, ^rest he seeolde heora daedbote afandian, and 
si^San heora sylene undcrfon. Se engel andwyrde, Uton 
sceotan to Godes dome. Se awyrigeda gast andwyrde, God 
gecwae^, J^aet aelc synn "Se neere ofer eorSan gebet, seeolde 
beon on ^issere wornlde gedemed. pes mann ne geelaensode 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. TUESDAY. 339 

reconciled before God. The adversaries were then overcome, 
through the angel's fighting and caution. 

The holy angel then bade the blessed man look on the 
world. He then looked back, and saw, as it were, a dark 
dell, very low ; and saw there four immense fires kindled : 
and the angel said to him, Tiicse four fires will consume all 
the world, and burn the souls of those men who througli 
transgression have made void the confession and promise of 
their baptism. That one fire will burn the souls of those 
men that loved leasing ; the second, of those that followed 
covetousness ; the third, of those that stirred up strife and 
discord ; the fourtii fire will burn the souls of those men who 
have practised fraud and improbity. The fire then approached 
the holy man, and he forthwith terrified, said to the angel, 
The fire approaclies me. The angel answered, That will not 
burn thee for a punishment which thou hast not in life kindled 
by sins. Though this fire is terrible and great, nevertheless, 
it burns every one according to his works. As the body is 
inflamed by unallowed lusts, so cilso burns the soul in inevi- 
table punishment. The armed angel then flew before him, 
parting the flame, and the other two flew at his two sides, and 
shielded him from the peril of the fire. The devils then in 
fight shot towards the soul, and one of them said to the 
angels. The servant who knows his master's will, and will not 
execute it, shall be punished with great punishments. The 
holy angel asked, In what has this man not fulfilled his 
Master's will ? The devil answered, It is written, that the 
God on high hateth the gift of the unrighteous. He had 
taken a little before a garment of a dying man. Then said 
the angel. He believed that every one that had given him any 
gift, had shown penitence in life. The devil answered, First 
he should have proved their repentance, and then received 
their gift. The angel answered. Let us refer to the judgement 
of God. The accursed spirit answered, God said, that every 
sin that was not atoned for on earth, should be judged in this 

z 2 



340 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA TERTIA. 

his synna on eorSan, ne her nan wite ne underfeht? : hwfler is 
nu Godes rihtwisnys ? Se engel hi Sreade, and cwfeS, Ne 
taele ge to dyrstelice, for^an ^e ge nyton Godes digelan domas. 
Se deofol andwyrde, Hwfet is her bedigclod ? Se engel cvvae^, 
JEire bib Godes mildheortnys mid J?ani men, |?a hwile "Se "Saer 
bi^ gevvened genig behreowsung. Se deofol andwyrde, Nis 
nu his tima to behreowsienne, on ^yssere stowe. Se engel 
andwyrde, Nyte ge Sa micclan deopnysse Godes gerynu ? 
Weald ]?eah him beo alyfed gyt behreowsung. pa cw;eS sum 
oiSer deofol, Hit is awriten, Lufa 'Sinne nextan swa swa Se 
sylfne. Se engel andwyrde, pes wer dydc god his nextan. 
Se wiSerwinna andwyrde, Nis na genoh ]>i&t man his nextan 
god do, buton he bine lufige swa swa bine sylfne. Se halga 
engel andwyrde, pa godan d;eda sind geswutchuiga Saire 
soSan lufe, and God forgylt alcum men be his da^dum. 
Hwaet se deofol t»a mid hospe cw;c5, pes mann behet )?aet 
he wolde eallc woruld-Sing forlaetan, and he siSSan lufode 
woruld- Sing ongean his agen behiit, and ongean \hbs apostoles 
bebode, j^e cwaeS, Ne lufige ge ^isne middancard, ne ^a Sing 
•Se on middanearde sind. Se halga engel andwyrde, Ne lufode 
he woruldliee iehta for his neode ana, ac toda^lenne eallum 
waidliendum. Se ealda wregere eft cwaeS, Hit is awriten, 
Buton pu gcstande Sone unrihtwisan, and him his unrihtwis- 
nysse secgc, ic ofga his blodes gyte iet Sinum handum. pes 
mann nolde cy San -Sam syngigendum heora synna. Se engel 
cwae^. Hit is awriten be ^am yfelum timan, }?aet se snotera 
sceal suwian, ^onne he gesihS J78et seo bodung naefS najnne 
forSgang. 

On eallum ^isum geflitum waes -Stera deofla gefeoht swiSe 
sti^lic ongean -Sa sawle and "Sa halgan englas, oS)?ret ^urh 
Godes dom Sa wi^erwinnan wurdon gescynde, and se halga 
wer •<Sa wearS mid ormaetum leohte befangen. pa beseah he 
up, and geseah fela engla werod on micelre beorhtnysse sei- 
nende, and "Seera halgena sawla wiS his fleogende mid unasec- 
gendlicum leohte, and afligdon ^a deoflu him fram, and j^aes 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. TUESDAY. 341 

world. This man cleansed not his sins on earth, nor here 
receives he any piiiiishmpnt : where now is God's justice ? 
The angel rebuked them, and said, Blame not too presumptu- 
ously, for ye know not God's secret judgements. The devil 
answered, What is here secret ? The angel said. Ever will 
God's mercy be with a man, while there is any penitence 
hoped for. The devil answered, It is not now his time 1o 
repent, in this place. The angel answered. Know ye not the 
great deepness of God's mysteries ? Repentance may yet be 
allowed him. Tlien said another devil, It is written. Love 
thy neiglibour as thyself. The angel answered. This man did 
good to his neighbour. The adversary answered. It is not 
enough that a man do good to his neighbour, unless he love 
him as himself. The holy angel answered. Good deeds are a 
manifestation of true love, and God requites every man ac- 
cording to his deeds. Whereupon the devil said tauntingly, 
This man promised that he would forsake all worldly things, 
and he afterwards loved worldly things against his own pro- 
mise, and against the apostle's command, who said, Love not 
this world, nor the things which are in the world. The holy 
angel answered, lie loved not worldly possessions for his 
need alone, but to distribute to all the poor. The old accuser 
again said. It is MTitten, Unless thou correct the unrighteous, 
and say unto him his unrighteousness, I will rccpiirc his 
bloodshed at thy hands. This man would not make known 
to the sinning their sins. The angel said, It is written of the 
evil time, that the wise shall be silent, when he sees that 
his preaching hath no success. 

In all these disputes the fighting of the devils was very 
obstinate against the soul and the holy angels, until, through 
God's doom, the adversaries were confounded, and the holy 
man was then invested with an immense light. lie then 
looked up, and saw a host of many angels shining with 
great brightness, and the souls of the holy flying towards him 
with indescribable light, and put the devils to flight from 



■\ 



342 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA TERTIA. 

fyres ogan him fram adydon. pa gecneow he betwux 'Sam 
halgum twegen arwur^e sacerdas, ]>e ffir on life waeron his 
landes menu swi^e namcu^e. Hi ^a genealffihton, and him 
cuSlice to sprjecon. An ^aera hatte Beanus, o^er Meldanus. 
pa wear^ "Sa geworden micel smyltnys 'Ssere heofenan, and 
twegen englas flugon swilce ^urh anre duna in to "Saere heo- 
fenan, and ^a sloh ISaer micel leoht utaefter^am englum, and 
Wfes gehyred feower engla weroda sang, ^us cweSende, 
" Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus Dominus Deus sabaoth." Da 
Bffide se engel ^am eadigan were, j^aet se dream Wc-ere of ^am 
uppllcum werode, and hct hine geornej'ws hcofonlican sanges 
hlystan, and cwieb, SoSiice on Sisum heofenlicum rice nc 
becymS ntefre unrotnys buton for manna lyre. 

Eft ■Sa conion fleogende of "Saerc hcofcnlican digelnysse 

englas, and cyddon |>a>t he sceolde eft to worulde gecyrran. 

Fnrscus 5a wearS, purh "Sas bodunge ablicged, and 5a twegen 

forcs;edan sacerdas ab.-edon set 'Sam englum ])set hi moston 

hine gcsprecan, and cwaedon him to, Hwaes ondrtetst "Su ^e ? 

Anes daeges f^ereld ]f\i hieht to si5igenne. Furseus ^a befran 

be gecndunge |>ises middaneardes. Hi cwaedon, Ne biS seo 

geendung )?yssere worulde na gyt, ^eah "Se heo gehcnde sy, 

ac mancynn bi5 geswenct mid hungrc and mid cwcalme. 

purh feower Sing losiaS manna savvla, J'iet is, "Surh leahtras, 

and 5urh deoflcs tihtinge, and ^urh lareowa gymelcaste, and 

■5urh yfele gebysnunge unrihtwisra heafod-manna. Ofer ^am 

lareowum is Godes yrre swy5ost astyred, for5an "Se hi for- 

gymeleasia5 ]>a godcundan bee, and ymbe "Sa woruld-^ing 

eallunge hogiaS. Biscopum and sacerdum gedafena^ ]78et hi 

heora lare gymon, and iSam folce heora 5earfe sccgon. Myn- 

ster-manimm gedafenab ]?aet hi on stilnysse heora ITf adreo- 

gon. pu so51ice cy5 j^ine gesih^e on middai'<^arde, and beo 

hwiltidum on digelnysse and hwiltidum betwux mannum. 

Donne ^u on digelnysse beo, heald ]?onne geornlice Godes 

bcboda ; and eft, ^onne ])U ut-faerst, betwux mannum, far for 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. TUESDAY. 313 

liim, and turned away from him the terror of the fire. Then 
he knew among the holy two venerable priests, who before in 
life had been his countrymen, very celebrated. They ap- 
proached, and spoke to him familiarly. One of them was 
called Bean us, the other Meldanus. Then was there a great 
serenity in the heaven, and two angels flew, as it were, through 
a hill into heaven, and then a great light darted out there 
after the angels, and the song of four hosts of angels was 
heard, thus saying, " Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus Dominus 
Deus sabaoth." Then said the angel to tlie blessed man, 
that the melody was from the celestial host, and bade liim 
listen attentively to the heavenly song, and said. Verily into 
this heaveidy realm sadness never comes save for men's 
perdition. 

Again there came angels flying from the heavenly secrecy, 
and declared that he should again return to the world. Fur- 
seus was then, through this announcement, astoimded, and 
the two aforesaid priests obtained from the angels that they 
might speak to him, and said to him. What dost thou dread ? 
Thou hast one day's journey to travel. Furseus then inquired 
concerning the ending of this world. They said, The ending 
of this world will not be yet, though it be near, but mankind 
will be afllicted with famine and with pestilence. Through 
four things the souls of men perish, that is, through sins, and 
through the instigation of the devil, and through the heed- 
lessness of teachers, and through evil examj)le of unrighteous 
chiefs. Over the teachers is God's ire most excited, because 
they neglect the divine books, and are wholly solicitous about 
worldly things. To bishops and priests it is fitting that they 
attend to their doctrine, and say to the people their need. To 
monastic men it is fitting that they lead their lives in still- 
ness. Do thou make known thy vision in the world, and be 
sometimes in privacy, and sometimes among men. When 
thou art in privacy, hold sedulously the commandments of 
God ; and again, when thou goest out among men, go for 



344 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA TERTIA. 

hcora 8awla hfelu, na for woruldlicum gestreonum. Ne beo 
"Su earful ymbe woruldlicuni gestreonum, ac miltsa eallum 
"Sinum wiSerwinnum mid hluttre heortan, and agyld god for 
yfele, and gebide for ^inum feondum. Beo 'Su svva swa ge- 
treowe dihtncre, and nan ^ing 5e negeabnige, buton bigleofan 
and scrude. Afed "Sinne licbanian mid alyfedum niettum, 
and {file yfel forseob. /Efter Sisuni mynegungum and menig- 
fcaldum oSrum laruni, gewende eal ]?«t heofcnlice werod up 
to bam lieofonlieum Srymme, and 5a twegen saccrdas, Beanus 
and Mcldanus, samod. Furseus soSlice mid ^am "Srym en- 
glum gewende to eorSan. 

Hi beeomon ^a eft to "Sam •\vitnicndlieum f}Te, and se ge- 
waepnoda cngel rymdc bim vveg J'urb J>aet fyr, todselcnde^one 
lig on em-tvva. Hwiet "Sa deoflu ^a scuton of ^am fyre, and 
awurpon ane unribtwise sawle byrnendc uppon 5am eadigan 
were Furseum, swa )?a2t bis seuldor and bis blcor wurdon 
ontcndc mid 5am witniendlieum fyre. Furseus oneneow 
Bona 5a sawle ; se waes his tun-man ^r on life, and be genam 
tet bis lice sumne cla5, swa swa we lytle ier eow Sciedon. pa 
englas 5a gchebton 5a sawle, and wurpon eft into ^am fyre. 
Da cvv^ai^ sum '5cera deofla, Swa swa ^u underfenge {er bis 
god, swa "Su secalt beon bis efcnblytta on bis witum. Godes 
engcl audwyrde, Ne underfeng be bis "Sing for nanre gyt- 
sunge, ac for bis sawle alysednysse : and |?8et fyr sona geswac. 
pa cwajS se Godes engel to 5am were Furseum, p?et J^aet "Su 
sylf onfeldest, ]?aet barn on ^e. Gif "Su ne underfenge ]?ises 
synfullan mamies reaf let bis for^si^e, ne mibte bis wite ^e 
derian. Boda nu eallum mannum dffidbote to donne, and 
andetnysse to sacerdum, o^ <5a endenextan tide heora lifes ; 
ac swa-'5eab nis to underfonne nanes synfulles mannes aebta 
on bis geendunge, ne bis lie ne sy on baligre stowe bebyriged ; 
ac beo him gesfced, eer he gewTte, '5a teartan witu, f'eet his 
heorte mid ^sere biternysse beo gebrepod, ]?aet he eft mage set 
sumon saele beon geclaensod, gif be his unribtwisnysse huru 
on his fortisi5e bebreowsa^, and genihtsumlice eelmessan 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. TUESDAY. 345 

the Balvation of their souls, not for worldly gains. Be not 
solicitous about worldly gains, but be merciful to all thy ad- 
versaries with pure heart, and requite good for evil, and pray 
for thy enemies. Be as a true steward, and appropriate no- 
thing to thyself, but sustenance and raiment. Feed thy body 
Mith allowed meats, and despise every evil. After these ad- 
monitions and other manifold instructions, all the heavenly 
host went up to the heavenly company, and the two priests, 
Beanus and Mcldaims, with thcni. But Furseus with the 
three angels returned to earth. 

They then came again to the penal fire, and the armed 
angel cleared the way for him through the fire, dividing the 
flame in two. The devils then shot from the fire, and cast 
an unrighteous soul burning upon the blessed man Furseus, 
so that his shoulder and his face were burnt by the penal fire. 
Furseus instantly knew the soul ; he had formerly in life 
been his townsman, and he had taken a garment from his 
corpse, as we said to you a little before. The angels then 
seized the soul, and cast it again into the fire. Then said 
one of the devils. As thou before didst receive his property, 
so shalt thou be his associate in his torments. God's angel 
answered, lie received not his property from any covetous- 
ness, but for the redemption of his soul : and the fire instantly 
ceased. Then said God's angel to the man Furseus, That 
which thou thyself hast kindled, that burned on thee. If 
thou hadst not received the garment of this sinful man at his 
decease, his torment could not have injured thee. Preach 
now to all men to repent and make confession to priests, 
until the last hour of their lives ; but yet the possessions of 
no sinful man are to be received at his end, nor let his corpse 
be buried in a holy place ; but ere he departs let be said to 
him the sharp torments, that his heart may be touched with 
the bitterness, that he may at some time after be purified, if 
he at least at his departure repent of his unrighteousness, and 
distribute alms abundantly. But let not the priest receive 



346 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA TERTIA. 

dael^. Ne underfo se sacerd swa-'Seah nan ^ing jja^s synfullan 
niannes ashta ; ac hi man dsele ^earfum iet his byrsene. 

^fter "Sissere sprfece conion "Sa englas mid ]?aere sawle, 
and gesseton uppon Saere cyrcan hrofe, ])cev )?aet lie l;pg mid 
mannum besett ; and ^a englas hine heton oncnawan his 
agenne lichaman, and hine eft undcrfun. Furseus ^a beseah 
to his lichaman swilce to uncuiSum hreawe, and nolde him 
genealaecan. Se halga engel cwajS, Hwi onscunast Su to 
iinderfonnc }?isne liciiaman, pone "Se Su miht buton leahtra 
gewinnc hconon-forS habban ? SoSlice ]>u oferswiSdest on 
"Sissere gedrefednysse J^a unalyfedlican lustas, paet hi heonon- 
for^ ongean ]>e naht ne magon. pa gcscah he geopenian his 
lichaman under bam breoste, and se engel him cwffiS to, 
Donne t)u ge-cdcucod byst, ofergcot Sinne lichaman mid fant- 
waetere, and ]>u ne gcfretst nane sarnysse buton Sam bternette 
ye ^u on ■Sam fyre gchehtest. Do well on eallum Sinum life, 
and we sibiSan {efter Sinum weldredum bliSne ^e eft genimaS 
to us. 

Se halga wcr Furseus aras Sa of deaSe oj^re si^e, and geseah 
him onbuton micele menigu liewedra manna and gehadodia, 
and mid micclre geomcrunge hcora mennisce anginn and 
dysig bcmsende. He gesiet Sa, and Siiede be cndcbyrdnysse 
calle his gesihSe, ]>c him Surh Godcs cnglum on Sffire hwile 
gcswutdod WfCs. He wearS begoten mid fant-Wietere, svva 
swa se engel het, waes 'Seah ];aet baernet, ))e he gchehte aet <Sam 
unrihtwisum were, on his sculdre and on ansyne (efre gesewen. 
Micci wundcr |?jet hit wearS gesyne on ^am lichaman, ])adt 
jjffit SCO sawul ana underfeng ! He ferde ^Sa geond eal Yrrland 
and Scotland, bodiende ^a Sing }?e he geseah and gehyrde, 
and waes mid Godcs gife wundcrlice afylled, nanes eorSlices 
binges wihiigende. Eallum goduni mannum he waes lufiend- 
lic, unrihtwisum and synfullum egcslic. On godcundum 
wundrum he sccan, and afligde deoflu fram ofsettum mannum, 
and Searfan gehyrtc. Ferde ^a twelf gear swa bodiende 
bctwux Yrum and Scottum, and siS^an ofer eal Angelcynn, 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. TUESDAY. 347 

anything of the sinful man's possessions j but let them be 
distributed to the poor at his grave. 

After this speech the angels came with the soul, and set it 
on the roof of the church, where the corpse lay surrounded 
with people ; and the angels bade him recognise his own 
body, and again assume it. Furseus then looked on his body 
as on an unknown corpse, and would not approach it. The 
holy angel said, Why shunnest thou to receive this body, 
wliich thou maycst without the strife of sins henceforth 
have? Verily thou hast in this tribulation overcome unallowed 
lusts, so that they henceforth may have no power against 
thee. He then saw his body opened under the breast, and 
the angel said to him, When thou shalt be rcquickcned, 
sprinkle thy body with font-water, and thou wilt feel no sore- 
ness, save the burn that thou caughtest in the fire. Do well 
in all thy life, and we then after thy good deeds will again 
take thee happy to us. 

The holy man Furseus arose from death a second time, and 
saw about him a great multitude of men, lay and ecclesias- 
tical, and with great lamentation bewailed their human under- 
takings and folly. He sat then, and said in order all his 
vision, which to him, through God's angels, in that while 
had been shown. He was sprinkled with font-water, as the 
angel had ordered, yet was the burn, that he had caught from 
the unrighteous man, on his shmddor and on his face ever 
visible. A great wonder that that was seen on the body 
wliich the soul only had received ! He went then o.'er all 
Ireland and Scotland, declaring the things that he had seen 
and heard, and with God's grace was wonderfully filled, 
desiring no earthly thing. To all good men he was kind, to 
the unrighteous and sinful terrible. In divine miracles he 
shone, and drove out devils from men possessed, and cheered 
the poor. He went twelve years thus preaching between the 
Irish and Scots, and afterwards over all the English nation. 



348 ALIA UISIO. 

and eac sum mynster on 'Sisum iglande arserde ; wende si SSan 
su^ ofer sae to Francena rice, and ^aer mid micelre arwurS- 
nysse underfangen wies, and mynster-lif araerde. pa aefter 
lytlum fyrste wear^ he geuntrumod, and gewat to heofenan 
rice, to ^tere ecan myrhSe, ]>e he aer geseah, on Stere he lyfa^ 
gesselig simle mid Gode ; and his lie wearb bebyrged mid 
micelre arwur^nysse, and eft ymbe feower gear, [ansund, 
buton gewemmcdlicre brosnunge, on o^re stowe bebyiiged ; 
]7aer beo^ jeteowde his geearnunga purh wundrum, )>am JEA- 
mihtigum to lofc, sctSe is calra leoda Wealdend. Amen. 



ALIA UISIO. 

BEDA, lU'C larcow, awrat, on Sa^re bee j'e is gehuten ' Hi- 
storia Anglorum,' be sumcs mannes eeriste, on bisum iglande, 
l^isum [wordum writende : 

On ^am timan w?es sum ]>egcn Drihtclm gehaten, on 
Nor^hymbra lande, bilewite on andgyte, gemetegod on "Seaw- 
uni, arffESt on life, and his hiu'ra^dcnc to ^am ylcan ge- 
wissode. pa wear^ he geuntrumod and to ende gebroht : he 
ba gewat on iefnunge, and his lie Iteg ealle |?a niiit inne beset; 
ac he aras of deaSe on aerne-merigen. Da licmenn ^a ealle 
mid fyrhSe fornumenc, flugon awcg, buton J>ain wife anum, 
|>e hine svvibost lufode, belaf j^aer afyrht. He ^a hi gefre- 
frode, and cwae^, " Ne beo ^u afaered for^an "Se ic aras of 
dea^e ; me is alyfed eft to lybbenne mid mannum, na swa- 
J^eali swilcuni life swa ic aer leofode." He aras ];a );aerrihte, 
and code to circan, and j^urhwunode on gebedum ealne pone 
merien. Daelde sySSan his aehta on ^reo, aenne dael his wife, 
o"Serne dael liis cildum, J^riddan )?earfuni. Forlet sySSan ealle 
woruld-j^ing, and beah to ^am mynstre pe is Magilros ge- 
haten, and wearb bescoren, and "Sam abbude yEj^elwolde 
underj^eod ; and be his lare his lif adreah on sumere digel- 



ANOTHER VISION. 349 

and also raised a mynster in this island ; went then south 
over sea to the realm of the Franks, and was there received 
with great veneration, and erected a monastery. Then after 
a little interval he fell sick, and departed to the kingdom of 
heaven, to the eternal joy, which he before had seen, in which 
he lives happy ever with God ; and his body was buried with 
great veneration, and after about four years, sound, without 
corruptible decay, was buried in another place ; where his 
merits are shown by miracles, to the praise of the Almighty, 
who is Ruler of all nations. Amen. 



ANOTHER VISION. 



BEDA, our doctor, has written, in the book which is called 
' Ilistoria Anglorum,' of a certain man's resurrection in this 
island, in these [words writing : 

At that time there was a thane called Drihthclin, in the 
Northumbrians' land, simple of mind, temperate in habits, of 
pious life, and who directed his family to the same. He then 
was sick and brought to his end : he departed in the evening, 
and his body lay all night watched in his house ; but he arose 
from death early in the morning. The attendants then, all 
seized with fright, fled away, save his wife alone, who loved 
him most, who remained there affrighted. He then com- 
forted her, and said, " Be not afraid because I have risen 
from death ; it is allowed me again to live with men, though 
not such a life as I lived before." He then straightways 
arose, and went to church, and continued in prayers all the 
morning. He afterwards divided his property into three, one 
part for his wife, the second for his children, and the third 
for the poor. He then left all worldly things, and entered 
the mynster which is called Melrose, and was shorn, and 
placed under the abbot yEthelwold ; and by his precept passed 



350 ALIA UlSIO. 

nysse, on micelre forhtefednysse modes and lichaman, oS his 
lifes ende. He sjJede his gesihbe j'aere leode cyniiige, ^Elfride, 
and gehwilcum eawfaestum nuinnum, |?us reccende : 

'' Me com to an scinende engel on ^am iefenne j^e ic gewat, 
and laedde me to east-daele, suwicnde. Da become wit to 
anre dene, seo waes ormaetlice deop and wTd, and fornean on 
lenge ungccndod ; seo wfes weallende mid auSrwcum ligum 
on anre sidan, on oSre sidan mid hagole and grimlicum cyle, 
bhivvende buton to-forlietennysse. Seo dene w;ps afylled mid 
maima sawlum, )?a scuton hwiltidum of (Sam weallendum fyre 
into ^am anbra^cum cyle, and eft of Sam cyle into Kam fyre, 
buton aelcere to-forla?tennysse. pa |?ohtc ic pa^t paet \va?re 
seo hell, ]>e ic oft on life ynibe secgan gehyrde ; ac min lat- 
teow andwyrde J>ferrihte minuin geSance, and cwaeS, Nis ]>[s 
wite seo hell ]>e ^u wenst. i Se engel me Icedde ^a furSor to 
anre |)eostorfulre stowe, seo wees to "ban swiSe mid piccum 
jjeostrum ofer)>eht, \)iet ic nan ]'ing geseon ne mihte buton 
mines latteowes scinende h'low and gewa^du. Efne ^a fser- 
lice aeteowdon gelomhecende ligas sweartcs fyres up-asti- 
gende, and min latteow me j^aer ana forlct on Sam J>eostrum 
middum. Ic ba beheold |?one onnfetan lig ]7e of -Saere niwel- 
nysse astah. Se lig vvaes mid manna sawlum afylled, and hi 
asprungon up mid tiam fyre, swa swa spearcan, and eft ongean 
into "Sffire niwelnysse ; and ]>iBr sloh ut of ^aere niwelnysse 
ormaete stenc mid 5am eebmum, se afylde ealle )?a |?eostor- 
fullan stowe* paSa ic -Saer lange stod, ormod and ungewis 
mines ftereldes, j^a gehyrde ic j^set "Sa deoflu gela?ddon ftf 
manna sawla, hreowlice gnorniende and grimetende, into 
Sam sweartan fyre. Sum ]^a?ra wtes preost, sum laewede 
mann, sum wimman j and "Sa deoflu sffigdon, hlude hlihhende, 
]?aet hi ^a sawla for heora synnum habban moston. Betwux 
■Sam ascuton ]>a. awerigcdan gastas sume of ^aere niwelnysse 
wi^ mil), mid byrnendum eagum, and of heora mu^e and 
njfi!>-)>yrlum stod stincende steam ; and woldon me gelaeccan 



ANOTHER VISION. 351 

his life in some priviicy, in great continence of mind and 
bodv, to his life's end. He related his vision to tlie kins: of 
that nation, Aldfrith, and to certain pious men, thus nar- 
rating : 

" On the evening that I departed, a shining angel came to 
me, and led me to the east in silence. We then came to a 
valley whicli was immensely deep and wide, and in length 
almost endless ; it was l)urning with horrible flames on one 
side, on the other side blowing without cessation, w ith hail 
and fierce cliill. The valley was filled with men's souls, 
which from time to time shot from the burning fire into the 
horrible chill, and again from the chill into the fire, without 
any cessation. Then thought I that that was the hell about 
which I had in life often heard speak ; but my guide straight- 
ways answered my thought, and said, This punishment is not 
the hell that thou weenst. fThe angel then led me further to a 
darksome place, which was so overspread with thick dark- 
ness, that I could see nothing save my guide's shining aspect 
and raiment. Behold then suddenly appeared frequent flames 
of swart fire ascending, and my guide left me there alone in 
the midst of the darkness. I then beheld the immense flame 
which ascended from the abyss. The flame was filled with 
men's souls, and they sprung up with the fire like sparks, and 
then again into the abyss ; and there proceeded out of the 
abyss an intolerable stench with the vapours, w hich filled all 
the darksome place. I When I had long stood there, fearful 
and uncertain of my course, I heard that the devils were 
hading the souls of five persons, cruelly bewailing and howl- 
ing, into the swart fire. One of tiiem was a priest, one a 
layman, one a woman ; and the devils said, loudly laughing, 
that they must have those souls for their sins. In the mean- 
w Idle some of the accursed spirits shot up towards me from 
the abyss, with burning eyes, and from their mouths and 
nostrils came forth a stinking steam j and they would seize 



352 ALIA UISIO. 

mid hcora byrnendum tangum, nc M ne mihton J>urh Godes 
gescyldnysse me hreppan. Efue Sa ffierlice aeteowode min 
latteow svva swa scinende steorra, fcorran fleogende, and wi^S 
min onette. pa toscuton ^a deoflu sona ]>e me mid heora 
tangum geUeccan woldon. Se engel me l»edde Jjserrihte to 
east-daele, on miccles Icohtes smyltnysse, into anrc byrig, 
]>adr biunan waes swiSe sniebe feld and brad, mid blowendum 
wyrtum and grennysse eall afyllcd, and mid beorhtran leohte 
)7onne aenig sunne scinende ; binnon "Sam wealluni wa^ron 
ungcrimc mcniu h^Tttra manna, on micelre blisse. Ic ]>a, 
betwux 5am weorodum )>am cngle fylgcnde, pohte j>a^t hit 
wsere heofonan rice, ac min latteow cwaeS J^aet hit swa nrere. 
He Iwdde me ]>a gyt furSor, and ic geseah j^fer fftforan us 
micclo marc leoht, and ic jni-r wynsumc stomne ormstes 
dreames gehyrdc, and wundorlices br^eiSes swaec of "Saere 
stowe ut fleow. Hw;pt ])a min latteow laedde me ongean to 
"Saire blostmb;eran stowe, and me bcfran, hw.ecier ic wiste 
hw.et Sa I'ing wseron tSe ic gesewen ha^fde ? Ic cwae^ ]?aet ic 
nvste. He me andwyrde, and cwaeS, Seo miccle byrnende 
dene, J?e ^u aerest gesawe, is witinmg-stow, on Sfere beo^ 
manna sawla gewitnode and gccla^nsode, ]'e noldon heora 
synna gerihtbocan on gehalum |>ingum, luefdon swa-^eah 
bchreowsunge aet heora endenextan di€ge, and swa gewiton 
mid J^ffire bchreowsunge of worulde, and becumaS on domes 
daege ealle to heofonan rice. Eac hi sume, |jurh freonda ful- 
tum, and aelmes-dajdum, and swiSost |jurh halige maessan 
beoS alysede of Sam witum a^r Sam micclum dome. Witod- 
lice seo swearte niwelnys ^e ]>u gesawe mid |?am ormaetum 
jjeostrum and fuium] stence, seo is helle muS, and se 'Se tene 
J)*ron bcfylS, ne wyrS he naefre on ecnysse Sanon alysed. 
Peos wynsume and Seos blostmbaere stow is ^sera sawla 
wunung "Se on goduni weorcum geendodon, and swa-^eah 
naeron swa fulfremede J'aet hi Saerrihte moston into heofenan 
rice, ac swa-]^cah hi ealle becumaS to Cristes gesih^e and 
myrhSe aefter Sam micclum dome. Witodlice "Sa "Se fulfre- 



I 



ANOTHER VISION. 353 

me with their burning toners, but through God's protection 
they could not toucii nic. Behold then suddenly appeared 
my guide like a shining star, flying from afar, and hastened 
towards me. The devils were then immediately scattered, who 
would have seized me with their tongs. The angel straight- 
ways led me to the east, in the serenity of a great light, into a 
city, wherein was a very smooth and l)road field, all filled w ith 
blowing plants and verdure, and shining with a liglu brighter 
than any sun ; within the walls was an innumerable multitude 
of men in v\liite, in great joy. I then, among the multitudes 
following the angel, thought that it ^^■as the kingdom of 
heaven, but my guide said that it was not so. lie then led 
me yet further, and 1 there saw before us a much greater 
light, and I there heard the winsome voice of a great melody, 
and an odour of wondrous fragrance flowed out of the place. 
Whereupon my guide led me again to the flower-bearing 
place, and asked me, whether I knew what tiie things were 
that I had seen ? I said that I knew not. lie answered me 
and said, The great burning valley which thou first sawest is 
the penal place, in which the souls of men are punished and 
cleansed, who would not correct their sins in life and health, 
but yet were penitent at their last day, and so departed from 
tlie world with repentance, and u ill on doom's day all come 
to the kingdom of heaven. Some of them also, through aid 
of friends and alms-deeds, and, above all, through holy 
masses, will be delivered from those torments before the great 
doom. But the swart abyss that thou sawest with the bound- 
less darkness and foul] stench is the mouth of hell, and he 
who once falls therein will never to eternity be thence de- 
livered. This winsome and this flower-bearing place is the 
dwelling of those souls that ended in good works, but yet 
were not so perfect that they might straightways enter into 
the kingdom of heaven, though they, nevertheless, will all 
come to sight of Christ and joy after the great doom. But 

HOXf. VOL. II. 2 A 



354 ALIA UISIO. 

mcde bcoS on geSohte, on worde, on weorce, swa hra^e swa 
hi of vvorulde gewita^, swa becuma^ hi to heofenan rice ; of 
"Sam ^u gesawe ]><'et micele leoht mid iSani wynsumum brieSe, 
and ]jonon ^u gehyrdest Sone feegeran dream, pa soMice, 
nu ^u to lichaman gecyrst, gif '5u wylt Sine da^da and Seawas 
gcrihtlfecan, Sonne underfchst 'Su ffifter forSsiSe ]k\s wyn- 
sumun wununge, ]?e ^u nu gcsihst. Da^a ic ^e ana forlet on 
"Sam "Seostrum, to 'Sy ic dyde swa, ]>dit ic u olde witan ymbe 
■Sin ffer, hti se .Eimihtiga embe Se wolde. DaSa se engel 
]>us gereht hjefdc, ^a oflicode me Scarle pfet ic eft to Sam 
lichaman sceolde fram S;ere stowe wynsumnysse and Sa^ra 
halgcna gcfjerrfedene ; nc dorste ic swa-Seali nan Sing wiS- 
cweSan. /Eflcr Sisum ic wcarS gebrolit and ge-edciicod 
betwux mammm." 

Drihtehn w unode Sa on Sjes mvnstres diiichiysse o^ his 
lifes endc, stiSlice drohtnigcnde. He code geh^me on winter- 
licum cyle lo San*c ca, and stud on his gci)edimi on Sam 
waetcre hwilon lo his gyrdlc, hwTlon to his swuran. Eode 
him siSSan mid Sam ylcum claSum, oS|>;etht on his lichaman 
wearmodon and adriiwodon. DaSa bine man axode hu he 
mihte Sone micclan cyle forhcran, he andwyrdc, " Maran 
cyle ic gescah, and wyrsan." Eft, ^a^a hi axodon hu he 
mihte swa stearce forh;efednysse healdan, he andwyrde, 
" StiSran and wyrsan ic gescaii." Swa he hit macode on his 
life, and manega o^re gerihtljehtc mid worde and gebysnnnge. 

We rfedaS gehwter on bocum, ]}iet oft and gelome men 
wurdon of Sisum life geltedde, and eft to life ara^rdc, and hi 
fela witnung-stowa and eac halgena wununga gesawon, swa 
swa Gregorius, se halga papa, awrat, on Ssere bee ]?e is ge- 
haten ' Dialogorum,' be aimm men, Jjfet his sawul wearS 
gelaedd of Sisum life, and fela Sing geseah. pa betwux Sam 
oSrum geseah he hwaer man bytlode ane gebytlu, eal mid 
smsetum golde, and ^a wyrhtan worhton ^a gebytlu on "Sam 
Saeternes-dffige, and wiBS ^a fornean geendod. He befran "Sa 
h\Aam ^a gebytlu gemynte weeron, swa mserlice getimbrode ? 



ANOTHER VISION. 355 

those who are perfect in thought, in word, in work, as soon 
as they depart from the work! they come into the kingdom of 
heaven ; from that thou sawest the great Hght witli the win- 
some fragrance, and thence thou heardest tlie sweet melody. 
But thou, now thou returnest to tlie hody, if thou wilt amend 
thy deeds and morals, then wilt thou receive after death this 
winsome dwelling, which thou now seest. Wlien I left thee 
alone in the darkness, I did so because I \\ould know con- 
cerning thy destination, how the Almighty would resolve 
concerning thee. When the angel had thus related, it greatly 
displeased me that I again should return to the body from 
the winsomencss of that place and the fellowship of saints ; 
though I durst not say anything to the contrary. After this 
I was brought and rcquickened among men." 

Drihthelm dwelt in a secret part of the mynster until his 
life's end, rigidly living. He went frequently in the wintry 
cold to the river, and stood at his prajers in the water, some- 
times to his girdle, sometimes to his neck. He then went 
with the same clothes, until they became warm and drv on 
his body. When any one asked him how he coidd bear that 
great cold, he answered, " I have seen a greater and worse 
cold." Again, when they asked him how he could observe 
such rigid abstinence, he answered, " I have seen a more 
rigid and worse." Thus did he in liis life, and corrected 
many others by word and example. 

We read everywhere in books, that oft and frequently men 
have been led from this life, and again raised to life, and they 
saw many places of punishment, and also the dwellings of 
the saints, as Gregory, the holy pope, has written, in the 
book which is called ' Dialogi,' of a man, that his soul was 
led from this life, and saw many things. Then amongst 
others, he saw where they were building a building, all of 
beaten gold, and the workmen were making the building on 
a Saturday, and it was then nearly ended. He inquired then 
for whom the building so gloriously constructed was de- 

2 A 2 



35G SERMO DE EFFICACIA S. MISSAE. 

Him waes gesaed )?aet hi waeron gcmynte aniini sutere on 
llomana-byrig, and hine eac namode. /Efter JSisnm aras se 
deada, and axode geornlice ymbe ^one sutere, hu he geworht 
wsere on woruldhcere drohtnunge, and man afunde 5a jjset 
his gewuna wajs, j^aet he worhte his weorc to seofon nilitinn, 
and scalde on iSonc Sfeternes-daeg; nam iSa of his eneftehim 
bigleofan, and dfielde 5one ofer-eacan jjearfum mid estfuHum 
mode ; and waeron forbi )?a gebytlu on bam diege svvi«Sost 
geworhte, ^e he ^a ffihnessan gewunelice da^lde. 

Micel is Godes mikllieortnys ofer mancynne, ]>nm "Se vvel 
vviUae). We on "Sisum life magon hclpan jnun forbfarenum 
J7e on witnunge beo5, and we magon us sylfe betwux us on 
life aelc oSrum fultumian to ^am upplican life, gif we ^cES 
cepacS : and |?a "be fulfremede waM'on, and to Godes rice be- 
comon, magon fultumian trgSer ge us ge <Sam forbfarenum \>e 
on witnungc liind, gif hi mid ealle forscyldgode ne beoS. Sy 
wuldor and iof 6am welwillendum Gode a on ecnysse. Amen. 



HORTATORIUS SERMO DE EFFICACIA SCAE MISSAE. 

WE nedaS gehwa^r on halguni gewritum )?aet seo halige 
maesse micclum fremige {egber ge ^am lybbcndum ge ^am 
forSfarenum, swa swa Beda, se snotera lareow, awrat on Hi- 
storia Anglorum be sumum ^egene, |^isuin andgite reccende : 
On "Sfere tide ]>c. Ehfrid, Nor^hymera cyning, and -^iSel- 
red, Myrcena cyning, wmmon him betwynan, "Sa set sumon 
gefeohte wear^ an Segen yE|?elredes cyninges mid oSrum 
cempum afylled, se wees Ymma gehaten. Se lieg diPg and 
niht geswogen betwux ^am ofslegenum. He wearS Sa gehyrt, 
and his wunda gewraS, and wolde him sum gener secan. 
Hine gela'hton ^a sume ];aes Norseman folces, and to heora 



A SERMON ON THE EFFICACY OF THE H. MASS. 357 

signed ? They told him that it was designed for a shoemaker 
in Rome, and also named him. After this the dead man 
arose, and diligently inquired about the shoemaker, how he 
had acted in worldly life, and it was then found that his 
practice was, that he wrought his work for seven days, and 
sold on the Saturday ; then took from his craft his suste- 
nance, and with bounteous spirit distributed the overplus to 
the j)oor ; and therefore was the building chiefly made on the 
day on wiiich he usually distributed alms. 

Great is God's mercy over mankind, to those who are 
benevolent. We in this life may help the (lei)artcd that are 
in torment, and we may, among ourselves in life, aid each 
other to the life above, if we observe this ; and those who 
were perfect, and have attained to the kingdom of God, may 
aid both us and the departed that arc in torment, if they 
are not totally condemned. Be glory and praise to the bene- 
volent God ever to eternity. Amen. 



A HORTATORY SERMON ON THE EFFICACY OF THE 

HOLY MASS, 

WE read in many places in holy writings that the holy mass 
greatly benefits both the living and the departed, as Beda, 
the wise doctor, has written in the Historia Anglorum of a 
certain thane, narrating to this effect : 

At the time that Ecgfrith, king of the Northumbrians, and 
^^thelred, king of the Mercians, warred against each other, 
in a certain battle a thane of king /Ethelred named Ymma 
was with olhicr soldiers stricken down. lie lay day and 
night senseless among the slain. He then revived, and 
bound up his wounds, and would seek some asylum. Some 
of the Northern folk then seized him, and brought him to 



358 SERMO DE EFFICACIA S. MISSAE. 

ealdorinen broliton. He ^a het hine lacnian, and 'Sa^a he 
hal wiss, het hine gebindan, "Sy-laes ^e he fleames cepte. Ac 
his bcndas toburston swa hraSe swa he gebunden wjes. lie 
haefde fenne bro^or, Tuna gehaten, msessepreost and abbud, 
and ^aSa he his broSor siege ofaxode, J>a ferde he to ^ani 
vvaele his lie secende, and gemette tenne o^erne him swi^e 
gelicne, ferode "Sone to his mynstre mid arwurSnysse, and 
gelomlicc for his sawle alysednysse mtessan sang, and J^urh 
^a halgan mjessan toburston J^aes broSor bendas. 

pa axode se ealdorman |7one haeftling, hwjecSer he ^urh 
drycra^ft o^5e Surh ruiistafum his bendas tobnece ? He and- 
wyrde, and c\vae<S, |;iet lie b.es cr;pftes nan Sing ne cu^e : 
" ac ic htebbe fenne mtesscpreost to breScr on minum eSele, 
and ic wat }>aet he \ven5 piet ic ofslagen sy, and gelome for 
mine savvle mjessan singS. Witodlice gif ic nu on oJSre 
worulde Wcerc, )'a wurde min sa'.vul frani witum alysed ]^urh 
^a halgan nia^ssan." 

yEfter Sisuni scalde se ealdorman hine sumum Frysan of 
Lundene. Se Frysa hine gcwraS eft gelomlice, ac hine ne 
mihte nanes cynnes haeftnung gehealdan. Ymbe undern-tid, 
|7a^a se broSor Wies gewunod to m;essigenne, toburston ^a 
bendas oftost. Se Frysa Sa, |?a^a he hine gehjcftan ne mihte, 
let hine faran on his truwan feftcr 5am feo ^e he him fore 
gesealde, and he swa dyde. He "Sa com to his brewer, and 
his sib be endebyrdnysse saede. pa tocneowon hi ]>iBt his 
bendas toburston on ^tere tide J^e se broSor mid esfullum 
mode, for his sawle alysednysse, j^am ^■Elmihtigum Gode \>a. 
liflican lac geoffrode. Eac se halga papa Gregorius awrat on 
"Saere bee Dialogorum hu micclum seo halige maesse manegum 
fremode. Seo boc is on Englisc awend, on ^eere mjeg gehwa 
be ^ison genihtsumlice gehyran, seSe hi ofcrnjedan wile. 



A SERMON ON THE EFFICACY OF THE H. MASS. 359 

tlu'ir ealdorman. He caused iiim to be cured, and when he 
was well, ordered him to be bound, lest he should take to 
flight. But his bonds burst asunder as quickly as he was 
bound. He had a brother, named Tunna, a mass-priest and 
abbot, who, when he heard of his brother's death, went to 
the battle-field seeking his body, and found another very like 
him, bare it to his mynster with honour, and frequently sang 
masses for the redemption of his soul, and through the holy 
masses the bonds of his brother burst asunder. 

The ealdorman then asked the captive, whether through 
witchcraft or through runes he brake his bonds ? He an- 
swered that he knew nothing of that craft : " but I have a 
brother in my country, a mass -priest, and I know that he 
imagines that I am slain, and frequently sings masses for my 
soul. If, therefore, I were now in the other world, then 
were my soul released from torments through the holy 
masses." 

After this the ealdorman sold him to a Frisian of London. 
The Frisian also frequently bound him, but confinement of 
no kind might hold him. About the ninth hour, when his 
brother was wont to celebrate mass, the bonds burst oftenest. 
The Frisian then, when he could not confine him, let him go 
on his faith after the money that he had given for him, and 
he did so. He then came to his brother, and related to him 
in order what had befallen him. They then found that his 
bonds burst asunder at the hour that the brother with pious 
spirit olTered, for his soul's redemption, tlie living offering to 
Almighty God. The holy pope Gregory also has written in 
the book of Dialogues how greatly the holy mass has benefited 
many. The book is turned into English, in which every one 
may hear abundantly on this subject, who will read it over. 



360 



IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA IIII. 

lOHANNES se Godspellere awrat on "Sisum daeg"5erlicum 
godspelle, hti se Hielend, fundigciule of Sissere worulde to 
his Heofenlican Fffider, spraec : " Subleuatis lesus oculis in 
caelum, dixit, Pater, uenit hova ; clarifica Filium tuum, ut 
Filius tuus clarificet te :" et reliqua : ];aet is on urum gereorde, 
" Se Haeleiid cwteS to his Fieder, up-ahafenum caginn to 
heofenum, Fteder nun, se tima com ; nifersa Sinne Sunn, j^jet 
•<Sin Sunu ^e ni;prsige," etc. 

pis godspel belimpS swiSe Jjearle to Sfere niaeran freols- 
tide ]>e to-merigen bib ; forSan Se on Sam dsge astah se 
Hdelend fefter his feriste up to his Heofenlican Fffider. Nu 
to-dfpg is se uigilia ])cvve nia^ran freols-tide Se to-merigen 
biS, and for^i riedaS Godes ^eowas Sis godspel nu to-da»g, 
]>e sprecS ymbe his fundunge, and hu he betaehte eallc "Sa 
gcleaffullan his Fteder, aerSan Se he up-astige. We iiima^ 
nu pone wisan Augustinum to Sissere trahtnunge, ^am Se we 
vvel truwiaS to swa micelre deopnysse. 

Drihten cu.eS, " Fjeder, se tima com ; miersa Siiine Sunu, 
|>ffit Sin Sunu Se mjjersige." He wies acenned of San Ecan 
Feeder, buton ulcere tide, and Surh hine sind ealle tida ge- 
sette. He gcceas him timan to acennenne on menniscnysse, 
to ■Srowigenne, to arisenne of deaSe, to astigenne up to heo- 
fenan mid j^am lichaman Se he on middanearde gefette. pa 
waes his nifjersinig-tima, |>aet se Feeder hine maersode swa J^ait 
he hine sette to his swiSran on heofenan rice, and him forgeaf 
andweald on heofenan and on eor^an, and eac ofer helhvarum. 
Deos is Cristes msersung aefter ^ajre menniscnysse ; witod- 
lice aefter Saere Godcuudnysse he haefde aefre |?isne andweald 
buton anginne. Nu forgeaf se ^Elmihtiga Feeder his ancen- 



nedan Suna ^onc ylcan andweald aefter S«re menniscnysse 
and hiiie swa maeisode, |7cet ealle gesceafla, heofonwara 



361 



ON THE GREATER LITAXY. WEDNESDAY. 

JOHN the Evangelist has written in the gospel for this day, 
how Jesus, hastening from this world to his Heavenly Father, 
spake : " Sublevatis Jesus oculis in cocluui, dixit, Pater, venit 
hora; clarifica Filium tuuni, ut Filius tuus clarificet te :" et 
reliqua : that is in our tongue, " Jesus said to his Father, 
lifting up his eyes to heaven, My Fatlicr, the hour is conic; 
glorify thy Son, that thy Son may glorify thoc," etc. 

This gospel bears a very especial relation to the great 
festival which will be to-morrow ; because on that day Jesus, 
after his resurrection, ascended to his Heavenly Father. Now 
to-day is the vigil of the great festival which will be to- 
morrow, and therefore God's servants read this gospid now 
to-day, which speaks of his departure, and how he committed 
all the believing to his Father, before he ascended. We will 
now take the wise Augustine for this exposition, in whom wc 
\vc\\ trust for so great deepness. 

The Lord said, "Father, the time is come; glorify thy 
Son, that thy Son may glorify thee." He was born of the 
Eternal Father, without any time, and through him are all 
times established. He chose him a time to be born in hu- 
manity, to suffer, to arise from death, to ascend to heaven 
with the body which he had assumed on earth. Then was 
the time of his glorification, that the Father glorified him so 
that he set him at his right in the kingdom of heaven, and 
gave him power in heaven and on earth, and also over the 
iimiates of hell. This is the glorification of Christ according 
to his humanity ; but according to his divine nature, he had 
ever this power without beginning. Now the Almighty 
Father gave his only-begotten Son the same power according 
to humanity, and so glorified him, that all creatures, inhabit- 
ants of heaven, inhabitants of earth, inhabitants of hell, bow 



362 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA IIII. 

eor^wara, helwara, onbugaS gebigedum cneowe bam Haelen- 
dum Criste, soSum men and soSum Gode on anum hade. 

Hu maersode se Sunn ^one Feeder, ^onne his m^rsung naes 
nsefre gewanod J?urh menniscum hiwe, ne eac ne mteg beon 
geyht on his godcundaji fulfremednysse ? Soblice Saes Fteder 
msersung waes sefre fulfremed on heofcnan rice, ac hit nyston 
eorblice men ter Cristas Srowunge. Se ^Ehnihtiga God wses 
cu5 be sumon dffile on Iiidea folce, "Surh Moyses # ; ac JSurh 
Cristes menniscnysse wearS se Feeder cutS calhim iSeodum, 
fram east-daele middaneardes o^ \vest-d*l. i)us maJrsode se 
mennisca Crist his Heofenlican Feeder on eorblicum mannum, 
■be hine aer ne cuSon. pjet godspcl cwyb, " Swa swa bu 
forgeafe him aiuhveald ealles fla^sces, |>fet he forgife ece lif 
"bam ealhim be bu him forgeafe." Her is gesett sum i\spA for 
eaUum, eal fleesc for eallum mancynne; swa swa se apostol 
Pauhis, on obre stowe, sette da'^l for eallon, baba he cwstS, 
*' /Elc sawul sy underbeod healicrum anweahlum;" ]>a?t is, 
Beo cclc man underbeod mihtigran men bonne he sylf sy. 

EaUum ^am forgifb Crist ece lif, )>e his Feeder him forgcaf. 
peos gifu is to understandcnne be Cristes menniscnysse, swa 
swa we eer cwsedon. " pis is soSlice ece lif, ]7;et hi ^e eenne 
oncnawon so^ne God, and "bone ^e ^u ascndest, Ha^lend 
Crist." Augustinus gecndcbyrde ^as word |?us, " peet hi "be 
and 'bone "be bu asendest, Heelend Crist, oncnawon aenne 
so^ne God." Herto bib understanden se Halga Gast, sebe 
is }><fis Feeder Gast, and J^aes Suna, heora begra Lufu and 
Willa, him bam efen-edwistlic. Ne sind hi "bry Godas, 
Feeder, and Sunu, and Halig Gast, ac seo Drynnys is an so^ 
God. Nis swa-beah Feeder se be Sunu is, ne se Sunu se "be 
Feeder is, ne heora na^or Halig Gast ; forcSan ^e hi" sind "bry. 
Feeder, and Sunu, and Halig Gast ; ac seo Drynnys is an 
God. Deos tocnawennys is ece lif, forban be we habbab J^aet 
ece lif ^urh geleafan, and oncnawennysse )?aere Halgan Dryn- 
nyssc, gif we ba oncnawennysse mid arwurbnysse healda^. 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. WEDNESDAY. 363 

with bended knees to the Saviour Christ, true man and true 
God in one person. 

How did tiie Son glorify the Father, when his glory was 
never diminished by human form, nor can be increased in his 
divine perfection ? Verily the Father's glory was ever perfect 
in the kingdom of heaven, but earthly men knew it not before 
Christ's passion. The Almighty God was known in some 
degree among the folk of Judea, through the law of Moses ; 
but through Christ's humanity the Father became known to 
all people, from the east part of the world to the west part. 
Thus did the human Christ glorify his Heavenly Father 
among earthly men, who before knew him not. The gospel 
says, *' So as thou hast given him power of all flesh, that he 
may give eternal life to all those whom thou hast given him." 
Here is put a part for all, all flesh for all mankirid ; as the 
apostle Paul, in another place, put a part for all, when he 
said, "Let every soul be subjected to higher powers;" that 
is. Let every man be subject to a mightier man than he is 
himself. 

To all those Christ gives eternal life whom his Father gave 
him. This gift is to be understood of Christ's humanity, as 
we before said. " Verily this is life eternal, that they might 
know thee, one true God, and him whom thou hast sent, 
Jesus Christ." Augustine has disposed these words thus, 
"That they may know thee and him whom thou bast sent, 
Jesus Christ, one true God." Hereto is understood the 
Holy Ghost, who is the Spirit of the Father and of the Son, 
the Love and Will of them both, cosubstantial with them 
both. They are not three Gods, Father, and Son, and Holy 
Ghost, but the Trinity is one true God. Nevertheless, he 
is not Father who is Son, nor he Son who is Father, nor 
either of them Holy Ghost; because they are three, Father, 
and Son, and Holy Ghost ; but the Trinity is one God. This 
knowledge is eternal life, because we have the eternal life 
through belief and knowledge of the llfijy Trinity, if uc hold 



364 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA IIII. 

Witodlice gif Godes oncnawennys us gearca^ ]>set ece lif, swa 
miccle swi^or we efsta^ to lybbcnne swa inicclum swa we 
swiSor on "Sissere oncnawennysse 'ISeonde beoS. SoSlice ne 
swelte we on ^am ecan life ; ];onne biS us Godes oncnaw- 
ennys fulfrcmed, jjonne J?8er nan dea^ ne biS, ];onne we God 
geseo^, and butan geswince ecelice heria^. Ac we sceolon 
on andwcrduni life leornian Godes oncnawennysse, and bine 
mid estfullum mode herian, )?ajt Me moton bccuman to bis 
fulfremcdan oncnawennysse and to Sfere swincleasan berungc. 

Dribten cw;e5, " Ic mwrsode "Se ofer eorSan, ic gefylde 
]7aet M'eorc ^e \>u me forgeafe to wyrcenne." Ne cwaeiS he 
na, * j?u hete me,' ac " forgeafe me." Mid 5am worde is sec 
gifu geswutelod ])e be on ^tere mennisciiysse underfeng. Sec 
menniscnys w?es underfangcn fram (Sam godcundum worde, 
"(Snrb )»«t ^e ealle j'ing sind geworbte. Heo is underfangen 
to annysse anes bades, and nan cSing yfeles ne gefremode, ac 
ealle gode "Sing '5urh '5a godcundan gife. Dribten gefylde 
J^aet weorc \>e his Fa^der him forgcaf, ^a5a be ^urii bis iSrow- 
unge mancyn alysde, and si 5 San sigeffest, ofcrswi^dum 
dea^e, astab to beofenum, on ^am daege ]>e to-merigen biS. 

He cwaeS, " Maersa me nu, Ffeder, mid jjaere mfiersunge ]>e 
ic mid "Se baefde ierSan ]ye middaneard gewurde." Seo God- 
cundnys wjes mid ^am Feeder fierSan 5e middaneard gewurde 
aefre ffibnihtig ; and seo menniscnys naes ferban "Se he hi 
genam of 5am maedene Marian ; ac svva-Seah-bwae^ere seo 
menniscnys waes aefre forestiht on "Sam godcundan raede ^r 
middaneardcs gesetnysse, swa swa Paulas se apostol cwae^, 
" Qui predestinatus est Filius Dei in uirtute :" ]>(Bt is, " Se- 
•Se is forestiht Godes Sunu." ^fter "Sissere forestibtunge 
WcES seo menniscnys gemaersod mid )?am Feeder «rSan "Se 
middaneard waere. Se tima com j^aet Crist baefde, lybbende 
on his Feeder swibran, j^a meersunge ]>e be heefde mid him on 
forestibtunge bis menniscnysse. Eac svvilce be us cwae^ se 
ylca apostol Paulus, ]>set we waeron forestibte, "Sus writende, 
" Quos autem predestinauit, illos et uocauit:" |;aet is, "Da 



ON THE GREATER LITANY. WEDNESDAY. 365 

that knowledge with veneration. Verily if knowledge of God 
prepares for us the eternal life, by so nuieh the more we 
hasten to live by as much more as we are thriving in this 
knowledge. But we die not in the eternal life ; then will 
our knowledge of God be perfect, then will there be no death, 
then shall we see God, and ^^ithout toil eternally praise him. 
But we should in the present life learn knowledge of God, 
and with devout mind praise him, that we may come to a 
perfect knowledge of him, and to his toilless praise. 

Tlie Lord said, " 1 have glorified thee on earth, I have ful- 
filled the work that thou gavest me to do." He said not, 
' thou commandedst me,' but " gavest me." By those words 
is shown the gift which he received in the humanity. The 
humanity was received from the divine word, through wlucii 
all things are made. It is received for tlie unity of one 
person, and nothing evil ever perpetrated, but all good things, 
through the divine gift. The Lord fulfilled the work that his 
Father gave him, when through his passion he redeemed 
maidvind, and afterwards triumphant, having overcome death, 
ascended to heaven, on the day which will be to-morrow. 

He said, *' Glorify me now. Father, w ith the glory which 
I had with thee before the world was." The Godhead was 
with the Father ever almighty, before the world was ; and 
the humanity was not before he took it of the maiden Mary ; 
but, nevertheless, the h\mianity was ever predestined in the 
divine council before the foundation of the world, as the 
apostle Paul said, " Ciui prfpdcstinatus est Filius Dei in 
virtute :" that is, " He who is predestined the Son of God." 
By this predestination the humanity was glorified m ith the 
Father before the world was. The hour was come when 
Christ, living at his Father's right, had the glory which he 
had with him at the predestination of his humanity. In like 
manner, the same apostle Paul said of us, that we were pre- 
destined, thus writing, " Quos autem praedestinavit, illos et 



366 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA I II I. 

■Se he foiestihte, |?a he eac clypode liim to ; and ^Sa tie he him 
to clypode, "Sa he gerilitwisode, and ^a ^e he gerihtwisode, 
j?a he gemj^^rsode." 

Eft cwaeS se ylca, " Svva swa he us geceas on Criste eer 
iniddaiieardes gesetnysse." " Manifestaui nomen tuum ho- 
minibus:" " Ic gcswutelode Sinne nanian mannum, "Sam ];e 
■Su me forgcafe of middanearde." He geswutelode his Fseder 
naman ^rest his leorning-ciiihtum, and siiSJSan ealiuni gek'af- 
fulluni mannum, j^e he of middancardlicuni gedwyldum n^t- 
brted to his rice, ))iirli his Ffeder gife. He cwa?^, " J^ine hi 
wairon, and 5u hi me forgeafe." Ntpfde se Ffeder na^fre nan 
iSing synderlices buton his Sana, se^e aefre mid liim w?es 
^hnilitig God, buton anginne of him acenned ; ac he undcr- 
feng us ^urh his Fit^dcr gife on ^fero menniscnysse, forSan 
•Se he na^s fefre man, '5eah )?e he ;efre yEhuihtig God wrere. 

Cristes gewuna \V£es J?fet he tealde cahie his wurJSmynt to 
his Faeder, forSan Se he is of Sam Feeder eal )'fet he is. Se 
Feeder forgeaf us his Bcarne, and j^a't Beam sylf, {efter mihte 
l^ff.re Godcundnysse, forgeaf us him sylfum, mid )'am Fjeder 
and Sam Halijan Gaste, Ssera weorc is symle untotwiemed. 
Se Ha^lend c\va?S on oSre stowe to his Icorning-cnihtum, 
*' Ic eow geceas of middanearde." SoSlice Sa gecorenan ]>e 
Crist geceas of middanearde mid ]?am Ffeder, ^a ylcan lie 
nam to gife on Sfpre menniscnysse set tiaiii F'feder of mid- 
danearde. He cwte^, " Hi lieoldon Sine sprfece, and hi 
oncneowon ]7cet ealle ^ing j^e Su me forgeafe sind fram j^e ; 
for^an ^e ic forgeaf him "Sa word Se Su me forgeafe, and hi 
hi underfengon, and oncneowon ];fet ic fram "Se ferde, and hi 
gelyfdon ]>pei Su me sendest." Das word nifigon be6n 
sceortlice getrahtnode. Crist sealde 'Sa heofeidican lare his 
leorning-cnihtum, and hi forS ealhun geleaffullum Seodum, 
and hi underfengon his bcboda, and oncneowon J^fet Drihten 
fram his Ffeder ferde, and gelyfdon j^fet he hine to middan- 
earde sende. 

He cwaeS, "Tc bidde for hi; ne bidde ic for middanearde. 



0\ THE GREATER LITANY. WEDNESDAY. 367 

vocavit :" that is, " Those whom he predestined, he also called 
unto him; and tiiose whom he called unto him he also justi- 
fied, and those whom he justified he glorified." 

Asi^ain, tiie same said, '•' So as he chose us in Christ before 
the foundation of the world." " Manifestavi nomen tuum 
hominibus :" " I have manifested thy name to men, to those 
whom thou hast given me of the world." He manifested his 
Father's name first to his disciples, and afterwards to all 
believing men, whom he withdrew from worldly errors to 
his kingdom, through his Father's gift. He said, " Thine 
they were, and thou gavest them to me." The Father never 
had anything separate from his Son, who ever was with him 
Almigiity God, without beginning of him begotten ; but he 
received us through his Father's gift in humanity, because he 
was not always man, though he always was Almighty God. 

It was Ciirist's Mont to ascribe all his honour to his 
Father, because he is of the Father all that he is. The Father 
gave us t(; his Son, and the Son himself, by virtue of the 
Godhead, gave us to himself, m ith the Father and the Holy 
Ghost, whose work is e\er undivided. Jesus said in another 
place to his disciples, " I have chosen you from the world." 
But the chosen whom Christ chose from the world with the 
Father, those same he took as a gift in his humanity of the 
Father from the world. He said, "They have o!)served thy 
saying, and they knew that all things which thou gavest me 
are from thee ; therefore have I given them the words that 
thou gavest me, and they received them, and knew that I 
came from thee, and they believed that thou didst send me." 
These words may be shortly expounded. Christ gave the 
heavetdy lore to his disciples, and they thenceforth to all 
believing people, and they received his commandments, and 
knew that the Lord came from his Father, and believed that 
he sent him to the world. 

He said, " I pray for them ; I pray not for the world, but 



3G8 IN LETANIA MAIORE. FERIA IIII. 

ac for ^a ic bidde ]>e ^u me forgeafe." Drihten nolde biddan 
for niiddancarde : ]??et is, for bam mai)mim \>e beo5 begriw- 
ene on middaneardlicum lustum, and mid mtiran gewil- 
nunge ]>ies ateorigendlican lifes hogiaS Sonne ^aes ecan. Se 
godspcllere awrat her-beforan, )net se Ha^lend cwaedc to his 
Feeder, " Ne bidde ic na for JSisum anum, ac eac swilce for 
"Sa ^e on me gelyfab )mrh heora word." Mid p.ere bene he 
beleac calle ba gcleaft'ullan, J>e burh bfera apostola bodunge 
gebugon to Cristes geleafan, and gyt bugab dfeghwondice o5 
l^issere worulde geendunge. He cvvse^ eac swibe hold lice be 
us, " Faider mtn, ic u ille )?aet ^a );e bu me forgcafc beon mid 
me "bfer "ba^r ic beo, )?a>t hi mine niierbe geseon, be bu me 
forgcafc ; forban -be "bu lufadcst me wr niiddancardes geset- 
nysse." IIu;et ma^g beon mare bliss to gehyrcnne ponne j^tet 
we moton wunian mid pies -lElmihtigan Godcs Suna on his 
heofcnlicum brymme ecelice, gif we hit nu, on bisum scortan 
life, geearniaii ulllab ? 

He cwjcb, " Ealle mine bing sindon bine, and bine bing 
sindon mine. Ic eom gemairsod on him, and ic on middan- 
earde ne com. Hi sindon on middanearde, and ic cume to 
"be." Sumnc dtel |?ises andgitcs \vc trahtiiodon hwaene ier, 
l^aet ealle "bing sind gema^ne ];am F;eder and his Suna, and 
heora begra Lufe, )?»t is, se Halga Gast. peos Halige K)ryn- 
nyss hylt us and calle gesceafta : na hwTltidum se Faider, 
ne hwiltidum se Sunu, ne hwiltidum sc Halga Gast, ac swa 
swa hi bry sind an God untoda^lcdlic, swa is eac heora hyrd- 
rseden untodfeledlic ofer us and ofer eallum gesceaftum, ]>e 
"baere anre Godcundnysse hyrsumiab. 

On middanearde waes se Hielend andwerd his leorning- 
cnihtum, baba he ^us be his gecorenum spraec ; and he astah 
si^ban up to his Heofonlican Faedcr, swa swa he cwaeb, " Ic 
cume to ^e." He ferde to heofenum mid J?am lichaman |?e 
he on eor^an gefette, ac he is, )7urh his godcundan mihte, 
segber ge her ge ^aer, swa swa he behet aeriSan "be he up- 
astige, •' Efne ic beo mid eow eallum dagum, o^ gefylled- 
nysse Syssere worulde." 



0\ THK GREATP:R LITAXV. WEDNESDAY. 369 

for those I pray whom thou hast given me." The Lord 
Avould not pray for the world : that is, for those men who are 
engaged in worhlly lusts, and are solicitous with greater 
desire of the transitory life than of the eternal. The evange- 
list wrote here before, that Jesus said to his Father, " I pray 
not for these alone, but also for those who believe in me 
through their word." With that prayer he included all the 
believing, who through the preaching of the apostles turned 
to belief of Christ, and yet daily turn, till the ending of this 
world. He said also very kindly of us, " My Father, I will 
that they whom thou hast given me be with me where I am, 
that they may see my glory which thou hast given me ; be- 
cause thou lovedst me before the foundation of the world." 
What bliss can be greater to hear of than that we may dw rll 
eternally with the Son of the Almighty God in his heavenly 
majesty, if we now, in this short life, will deserve it ? 

lie said, " All my things are thine, and thy thirigs are 
mine. I am glorified in them, and I am not in the world. 
They are in the world, and I come to thee." Some part of 
the sense of this we explained a little before, that all things 
are common to the Father and his Son, and to the Love of 
them both, that is, the Holy Ghotst. This Holy Trinity pre- 
serves us and all creatures : not sometimes the Father, nor 
sometimes the Son, nor sometimes the Holy Gliost, but as 
those three are one God indivisible, so also is indivisible 
their guardianship over us and over all creatures, that obey 
one Godhead. 

In the world Jesus was present to his disciples, wiien he 
thus spake of his chosen ; and he afterwards ascended to his 
Heavenly Father, as he had said, " I come to thee." He 
went to heaven with the body that he had assumed on earth, 
but, through his divine might, he is both here and there, as 
he promised before he ascended, " Behold I will be with you 
on all days, until the completion of this world." 

IIOM. VOL. II. 2 b 



370 DOMINICA III. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

Mine gebrobra, arwur^iu^ j^isne aefen, and Sone mj3eran 
freols-dfeg, ]?e eow to-nierigen becym^, mid so^um gcleafan. 
On ^am dflege abaer se ^Elmihtiga Godes Suuu urne lichaman 
to ^am heofonlican e^le, ]?cer ^aer naefre aer ne becom nan 
"Sing ^aes gecjndes. SettaS eowerne hiht on ^ani Haelende, 
and on ^am wordum ]>e he be us ealluui spraec fier^an "Se he 
heonon siSode. Nis ■Seos lar ]>e we eow secga^ niwan ar<^red, 
ac sind ]7a ylcan word ]>e Crist mid his agenuni mu^e spraec, 
and siS^an onwreah wisuni lareowum, ]?urh gife 5ies Halgan 
Gastcs. peos lar stent on Cristes bee mid Lcdenum gercorde 
eow bedigclod ; and eallc lareowas |?e j^tet Leden cuSon, 
saedon Godes folce |ja boclican lare ; ]>& ^e hit ne cuSon, hi 
hit forsuwedon. Nu bchoHgc go, hewede men, miceh*e lare 
on "Sisne timan, forSan ^e j^eos woruld is micclum geswenct 
"Surh mcnigfealduui gcdrefednyssinn ; and hwa near ende 
J;yssere worulde swa mare ehtnys ]>ies deciles, and bitS un- 
strengre mennisc Surh maran tyddcrnysse. ' Nu beliofige ge 
"Saes J)e swi^or j/tes boclican frofres, })aet ge "Surh Sa lare eower 
mod awendon of iSisum wraecfuUum life to ^am ecum )?e we 
ymbe sprecaS. Se mann Se biS dreorig, he behofaS sumcs 
frofres, sM'a eac we wyllaS eow yurh ^as boclican lare gefre- 
frian, forSan ^e we geseob J7aet "Seoa woruld is on micelre 
earfo^nysse gelogod : awurpab forSi hire lufe fram eowerum 
heortum, and gewilniaS ]?aes heofoidican rices, ^e us Crist 
on ^isum godspelle bchet, se^e leofacS and rixaS mid Faeder 
and Sam Halguin Gaste a on ecnysse. Amen. 



DOMINICA HI. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

HOMO quidam fecit cenam magnanij et uocauit multos : et 
reliqua. 

Se Haelend saede J^is bigspel his leorning-cnihtum, and 
cvvae^, " Sum man gearcode micele feorme, and Saerto manega 
gela^ode :" et reliqna. 



THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 371 

My brothers, honour this eve, and the great festival, which 
comes to-morrow, with true belief. On that day the Son of 
Almighty God bore our bodj^to the heavenly country, where 
never before came anything of that kind. Set your hope in 
Jesus, and in the words that he spake concerning us all be- 
fore he journeyed hence. This doctrir)e which we say to you 
is not newly raised up, but is the same words that Christ 
spake with his own mouth, and afterwards revealed to wise 
teachers, through the grace of the Holy Ghost. This doc- 
trine stands in the book of Christ, concealed from you in the 
Latin tongue ; and all teachers who knew Latin have de- 
clared to God's people the written doctrine ; those who knew 
it not have held silence concerning it. Now ye recjuire, 
laymen, great learning at this time, because this world is 
greatly afflicted through manifold troubles ; and as the end 
of this world is nearer, so is the persecution of the devil 
greater, and mankind will be less strong through luxury. 
Now need ye so much the more the comfort of books, that, 
through their precepts, ye may turn your minds from this life 
of exile to the eternal one of which we are speaking. The 
man who is sad re<iuires some comfort, so likewise we desire 
to comfort you through this book doctrine, for we see that 
this world is placed in great affliction : cast, therefore, its 
love from your hearts, and desire the heavenly kingdom, 
which Christ has promised us in his gospel, who liveth and 
reigneth \\ ith the Father and the Holy Ghost to all eternity. 
Amen. 



THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 

HOMO quidam fecit cuenam magnam, et vocavit multos : et 
reli(jua. 

Jesus said this parable to his disciples, and s;iid, " A cer- 
tain man prepared a great feast, and thereto invited many," 
etc. 

2 n •: 



372 DOMINICA III. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

Gregorius papa us saede, J^aet se man ^e ^a micclan feorme 
worhte is ure Haelend Crist, seSe is God and niann on anum 
hade, se^e gearcode burh his to-cyme us ^a ecan feorme on 
his rice, gif we "Sa gesecan willaS. He sende his Seowan to 
la^igenne mancynn to ^aere ecan feorme, paSa he asende his 
bydelas geond eahie middangeard, to bodigenne geleafan and 
heofonan rices myrliSe ; and aelc ba?ra ))e J^aet boda^ is Godes 
bydel, )?eah ^e heora sum waclic ge^uht sy. pjere feorme 
tid is seo geendung j^ises middancardes on Saere we sind, swa 
swa Paulus se apostol cwajS, " We sind "Sa "be worulda ge- 
endunga on becomon." He cwicS, " Ealle mine Sing sind 
gegearcode," forban t)e ^urh Cristes JSrowunge wurdon Saera 
witegena gyddunga gefyllede, and ]not ece lif gcgearcod 
eallum gelealTulkim. 

God bead mancynne }?aet hi hine biddan sccoldon, and he 
wile syllan unabcden j^aet )>a^t we iis ne wcndon j'urh vu'c 
bene. He cy5 gearwe cst-mettas jjaes ecan gercordes, and 
swa-Scah hi callc samod hi beladiab. Se forma cwaeS, " Ic 
bohte if nne tun, and me is ncod to farcnne and Sone geseon. 
Ic bidde be, belada me." Hwaet is Surh bone tun getacnod 
buton eorbUce aehta ? Se f<er^ to sccawienne his tun, sebe 
ymbe "ba eorblican speda singallice hoga^, and ba ecaji ge- 
streon ne tcohib. Sum ober cwfeb, " Ic bohte fif getymu 
oxena, and ic wille faran fandian baera." Da fif getyma ge- 
tacniab "ba fif andgitu ures lichaman, j^aet sind gesih^, hlyst, 
swaecc, stenc, hrepung. pas fif andgitu hfef^ se ^e hal bi^. 
We geseo^ )>urh ure eagan, and ealle bing tocnawab ; burh 
^a earan we gehyrab ; on bam mube we habba^ swaecc, and 
tocnawab hwie^er hit bi^ j^e wered ^e biter jjaet we bicgaS ; 
^urh ];a nosu we tostincab hwsRt claene bib, hwaet ful ; on 
handum and on eallum lichaman we habbab hrepunge, j^aet 
we magon gefredan hwaet bi^ heard, hwaet hnesce, hwaet 
smebe, hwaet unsmebe, and swa gehwaet. pas andgitu sind 
rihtlice wibmetene fif getymum oxena, forban ^e ht beo"b 
getwyfylde on twani hadum, ]>aet is, on werum and on wifum. 



THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 373 

Gregory the pope has told us, that the man who made the 
great feast is our Saviour Christ, who is God and man in one 
person, who by his advent has prepared for us the eternal 
feast in his kingdom, if we will seek it. He sent his servants 
to invite mankind to the eternal feast, when he sent his 
messengers over all the world, to preach belief and the joy of 
heaven's kingdom ; and each of tliose who preach that is 
God's messenger, though some of them may seem of small 
account. The feast-tide is the ending of this world in which 
we are, as Paul the apostle said, " We are they on whom the 
endings of worlds will come." He said, "All my tilings are 
prepared," because through Christ's passion the utterances 
of the prophets were fulfilled, and tlie everlasting life pre- 
pared for all the believing. 

God enjoined mankind that they should pray to him, and 
he will give unj^rayed for that which we expected not through 
our prayer. He announces as ready the delicacies of the 
eternal refection, and, nevertheless, they all together excuse 
themselves. The first said, " I have bought a vill, and it 
is needful that I go and see it. I pray thee, excuse me." 
What is betokened by the vill but earthly possessions ? He 
goes to view his vill, who is unceasingly solicitous about 
earthly riches, and toils not for everlasting treasure. An- 
other said, " I have bought five teams of oxen, and I wish 
to go to try them." The five teams betoken the five senses 
*of our body, which are sight, hearing, taste, smell, touch. 
These five senses he has who is whole. Through our eyes 
we see and distinguish all things ; through the ears we hear ; 
in the mouth we have taste, and distinguish whether it be 
sweet or bitter what we eat ; through the nose we smell what 
is clean, what foul; in the haii^ls and in all the body we have 
touch, that we may feel what fs hard, what soft, what smooth, 
what unsmooth, and so everything. These senses are rightly 
compared to the five teams of oxen, because they are doubled 
in two persons, that in, in men and in women. He goes and 



374 DOMINICA III. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

Se fjfirS and fandiiS Jjissera fif andgita, se^e jjurh fywittjysse 
and unstiliiysse hi aspeiit on unnyt. Hefigtyme leahter is 
ungefoh fyrwitnys ; ac we sceolon awendan urne lee frani 
yfelre gesihSe, urne hlyst fram yfelre spnece, urne svvaecc 
fram unalyfedum bigenum, ure nosa fram derigcndlicum 
stencum, ure handa and ealne lichanian fram fuUicnm and 
leahterlicum hrepungum, gif we Millab becuman to bam 
estum J>aes ecan gereordes. 

Hi baedon 'bone bydel jwt he hi bcladode, \>onne he cvvyb, 
** Ic bidde ^e peet bu me ladige," and forsihb to cumcnne : 
iSonne swcg^ eadmodnys on his stemne, and modignys bib 
feteowod on iiis dfede. ponne se lareow, )>e is Godes bydd, 
gestent sumne bwyrne and uinihtwisne, and hine manab to 
riljtwisnysse and to Godes rice ; gif he ^onne cwyiS on his 
gebance, * Ne ma?g ic ^tere stibnysse befeolan, ye ^u me to- 
tihst ; ic eom synful man: gebide for me;' hwtet deb he 
Sonne buton bitt, and hine bcladab? 

Se tiridda cwa^b, " Ic iirel)be nu gewTfod, and fortSi to Saere 
feorme cnman nc maeg." ]''urh ba wTfunge sind getacnode 
baes lichaman histas, and se Se ungcmetlice liis fljesclicum 
lustum gehyrsumab, him bincb a^bryt to gehyrenne ymbe Sa 
chennysse Se God lufab, obbe ymbe Sa heofeidican bodunga 
be his lustum wibcwebab. 

Se beowa gecyrde liam, and ssede his hlaforde bfera gela- 
Sodra forsewennysse. Se Idaford Sa gehathyrt, cvv^eS to his 
beowan, " Far ardlice geond j'as straeta and wic, and gega- 
dera bearfan and alefede, blinde and healte, and gelied hider 
inn." pearl'an sind gecvvedene, and wannhale, Sa Se hi sylfe 
wacc taljab, and unstrange, to wiSmetennysse geSungenra 
halgena. pa sind blinde, pe J^aet leoht Saes larlican andgites 
nabbab. pa beob healte, Se rihtne gang on godum weorcum 
nabbab. Soblice Sa gelaSodan, j^e cuman noldon, wajron 
synfulle, and Sas Searfan, ]>c Sa;r cumaS, sindon eac synfulle ; 
ac Sa modigan synfullan beob forsewene, and Sa eadniodan 
synfullan beob gecoreive. Da gecyst God ]?e iniddaneard 



THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 375 

tries these five senses, who through curiosity and unstiliness 
wastes them uselessly. Immoderate curiosity is a grave sin; 
for we should turn our look from evil sight, our hearing from 
evil speech, our taste from unallowed aliments, our noses 
from hurtful smells, our hands and whole hody from foul and 
sinful contacts, if we are desirous of coming to the delicacies 
of the eternal refection. 

They prayed the messenger that he would excuse them, 
when he says, " I pray thee to excuse me," and disdains to 
come : then humility sounds in his voice, and pride appears 
in his deed. When the teacher, who is God's messenger, 
urges a perverse and unrighteous man, and exhorts him to 
righteousness and the kingdom of God ; if he then say in his 
tiiought, * I cannot sul)mit tf) the severity to which thou 
urgest me ; I am a sinful man : pray for me ;' wiiat does he 
then but prays and excuses himself ? 

The third said, " I have taken a wife, and therefore can- 
not come to the feast." By the taking to wife are betokened 
the lusts of the body, and he who immoderately obeys his 
fleshly lusts, to him it seems tedious to hear concerning the 
chastity which God loves, or concerning the heavenly preach- 
ings, which speak against his lusts. 

The servant returned home, and said to his lord the con- 
tempt of those invited. The hjrd then angry said to his 
servant, " Go quickly through the streets and lanes, and 
gather the poor and the maimed, the blind and the halt, and 
lead them in hither." They are called poor and infirm, who 
account themselves weak and feeble in comparison with 
venerable saints. They are lilind, who have not the light of 
the doctrinal signification. They are halt, who have not a 
direct course in good works. But the invited, who would 
not come, were sinful, and the poor, who come there, are 
also sinful ; but the proud sinful t-hall be despised, and the 
humble sinful shall he chosen. God chooses those that the 



376 DOMINICA III. POST PENTECOSTExN. 

forsih^, swa swa Paulus se apostol cwae^, " God gecyst ba 
untruman ]?ises middaneardes, \fdst he Sa strangan gescynde." 
pearfan and wannhale, blinde and healte beo5 gelabode to 
Godes gereorde, and hi cunia^, forSan ^e gehwilce untrume 
and forsewenlice on Sisuni middanearde swa miccle hraSor 
Godes stemne gehyraS, swa niicchnn swa hi lytle lustfullunge 
on Sisum life habbaS. 

Se ^eowa cwae^, " Hlaford, hit is gedon swa Su hete, and 
her gyt is rymet aenitig." Micel nienigu ge^eah Gode of 
ludeiscre ^eode, frain ealdum dagum 0(S Cristes to-cynie, 
heahfedcras and witegan, ac Sa-gyt wtes ure rymet renitig, 
we 5e of ealluni middanearde to Sjere feorme cumaJi ; be ^am 
cvvaeS se hhiford to San Seowan, " Far nu geond wegas and 
hegas, and nyd hi inn to faronne, j^iet niin hus beo gefyllcd." 
Mr he het faran to strjetum and to wTcum, getacnigende ))ait 
ludea folc, \>c Surh cySbe )>cere ealdan ie on gehendnysse 
wa^ron. Nu he het faran to wegumand to hcgum, getacni- 
gende j^a^t wilde folc ])C he gegaderode of ealluni middai)- 
earde. Same sind gelaSode, and forhogiaiS to cumeinie ; 
sume sind gelaSode, and cumaS ; sume sind geneadode ]?8et 
Yii cumaS. Se biS geneadod to cumenne, sebe ^urh unge- 
linipum ))issere worulde, o^Se ]jurh untrumnysse, bi^ tetbro- 
den his lustuni and idclnyssuni andwerdcs lifes, and ^urh 
Godes gife biS oiibryrd to 5an ecan life. 

Se hiredcs ealdor cwte^, " Ic secgc eow to soiSan, |;a3t nan 
baera wera be gela^ode cunian noldon, ne onbirig^ mines 
gereordes." Efne God gelaba^ us ['urh bine sylfne, he ge- 
laSab |)urh englas, burh heahfflederas, j^urh witegan, ^urh 
apostolas, J>urh lareowas, deeghwomlice. He gelaSa^ us for- 
wel oft )>urh wundruni, hwilon ^urh swinglum, hwilon burh 
gesundfulnysse )?ises lifes, hwilon ^urh ungelimpum. Ne 
forseo nan nuin Godes stemne and his gearcunge, )7y-laes ^e 
he hinc nu bcladige, and eft wylle j^onne he ne nifleg. Ge- 



THE THIRD SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 377 

world despises, as Paul the apostle said, " God chooses the 
infirm of this world, that he may confound the strong." 
Poor and infirm, blind and halt are invited to God's refection, 
and they come, because all the infirm and despicable in this 
world hear the voice of God by so much the more quickly by 
as much as they have little pleasure in this life. 

The servant said, " Lord, it is done as thou hast com- 
manded, and yet there is room here empty." A great multi- 
tude had thriven to God of the Jewish people, from old days 
until the advent of Christ, patriarchs and prophets, but yet 
our room was empty, we who from all the world come to the 
feast ; of whom the lord said to the servant, " Go now 
through the ways and hedges, and compel them to come in, 
that my house may be filled." He had before commanded 
him to go to the streets and lanes, betokening the Jewish 
people, who, through knowledge of the old law, were at hand. 
Now he commands him to go to the ways and to the hedges, 
betokening the wild people whom he gathered from all the 
world. Some are invited, and disdain to come; some are 
invited, and come ; some are compelled to come. lie is 
compelled to come, who through the mishaps of this world, 
or through infirmity, is taken from his lusts and the vanities 
of the present life, and through God's grace is stimulated to 
the life everlasting. 

The chief of the household said, *' I say unto you in sooth, 
that none of those men, who invited would not come, shall 
taste of my refection." Lo, God invites us through himself, 
he invites us through angels, through patriarchs, through 
prophets, through apostles, tiirough teachers, daily. He 
invites us very often through miracles, sometimes through 
stripes, sometimes through prosperity of this life, sometimes 
through misfortunes. Let no man despise the voice of God 
and his preparation, lest he now excuse hiuiself, and after- 
wards will ^^hen he cannot. Hear how the w isdom of God 



378 ALIA NARRATIO DE EUANGELII TEXTU. 

hyraS hu Godes wisdom clypode j^urh ^one snoteran Salomon, 
" ponne hi clypiaS to me, and ic hi ne gehyre ; hi arisa^ on 
aerne-merigen, ac hi ne gemeta^ me." 

pis godspcll is nu scortlice getrahtnod : uton biddan ^one 
^hnihtigan Drihten, j^aet he us gebringe to his ecan gebeor- 
scipe, seSe |?urh his to-cyme us "Sterto gela^ode. 



ALIA NARRATIO DE EUAxXGELII TEXTU. 

MINE gebroSrii, we wylhib eow gereccan sume Cristes 
vvundra, to getrymmincge eowcres geleafan. We sind ge- 
cnffiwe |?tet we hit forgymelcasodon on ^am diege j^e manu 
]><et godspel r?edde, ac liit mu:>g cow nu fremian swa micclum 
svva hit (Sa mii;te. 

Urc Drihti'u astah on scip, and him filigdon his leoriiing- 
cnihtas. " Efne cia ffjerlice aras micel styrung and hrcohnys 
on ^f'ere sje, swa l^aet ]>iet scip wearb mid ySum oferSelit. 
Se wind him stod ongean mid ornifptum bliede, and se 
Hffilend weartS on slaepe on Sam steor-setle :" et reliqua. 

Se Ilffilend geswutelode mid ^am slfspe his so^an men- 
niscnysse, and mid "Sam wundre his godcundan ma^gen- 
Srymnysse. He slep swa swa soS man, and he Sa y^i- 
gendan sae mid anre hiese gestilde, sua swa yEhiiihtig Scyp- 
pend, |7e ter gesette 5a?re Sie gemaeru, |;jp.t heo nateshwon ne 
mot middanoard ofergaii. " Hi Sa ofer-reovvon "Sone brym, 
and gelendon on ^am lande \)e is gehaten Gerasenorum. Efne 
•SaSa 1)1 up-eodon, arn an wod man togeanes "Sam Heeleiide, 
se huefde wununge on haeSenum byrgenum, and bine ne mihte 
nan man mid racenteagum, ne mid fot-copsum geheeftan :" 
et reliqua. 

An eorod is on bocum geteald to six Susendum, and swa 
fela awyrigedra gasta wffiron Sam anum men getenge, oSj^aet 
se uiildlicorta Drihten to Sam laiidc rcou', and hine ahiedde. 



ANOTHER NARRATIVE ON THE TEXT OF THE GOSPEL. 379 

cried through the sagacious Solomon, " Then will they cry 
unto me, and I will not hear them; they will arise at early 
morn, but they will not find me." 

This gospel is now shortly expounded : let us pray the 
Almighty Lord tiiat he bring us to his everlasting feast, who 
through his advent has invited us thereto. 



ANOTHER NARRATIVE ON THE TEXT OF THE GOSPEL. 

MY brothers, we will rt'hite to you some of the miracles of 
Christ, for the confirmation of your belief. We are aware 
that we neglected it on the day that the gospel was read, but 
it may profit you now as much as it might then. 

Our Lord entered a ship, and his disciples followed him. 
" Behold then suddenly arose a great tempest and roughness 
on the sea, so that the ship was covered wilh the waves. 
The vvind stood against them wilh exceedingly great blast, 
and Jesus was asleep in the steerage," etc. 

Jesus by that sleep manifested his true human nature, and 
by the miracle his divine power. He slept as true man, and 
he stilled the billowy sea, by his sole behest, as Almighty 
Creator, who had before set bounds to the sea, that it might 
not overflow the world. " They then rowed over the sea, 
and landed in the land which is called that of the Gadarenes. 
Behold as they went up, a madman ran towards Jesus, who 
had a habitation in the heathen tombs, and no man could 
confine him with chains nor with fetters," etc. 



A legion is in books reckoned at six thousand, and so 
many accursed spirits w(mo weighing down that one man, 
until the mcrtiful Lord roucd to that land, and (h'Tncred 



380 IN FESTIUITATE S. PETRI APOSTOLI. 

pa deoflii oncneowou urne Drihten Crist, and j^set ludeisce 
folc hine dwollice wiSsoc, and sind forSi wyrsan )?onne ^a 
avvyrigedan deoflii |^e feollon to his fotum, mid fyrhte fornu- 
mene. Ne dorston ^a deoflu, ^a5a hi adrjefde vvseron, into 
^am swynum, gif he him ne sealde leafe, ne into naniun men, 
forSan ^e se Metoda Drihten ure gecynd hajfde on him 
sylfum genumen. Da swyn hi gecuron for Sam sweartum 
hiwe, and for iSa?re fuhiysse fenlices adelan. Se man 5e htefS 
swynes ^eawas, and wyle hine aSwean mid wope fram syn- 
num, and eft hine befyhm fullice mid leahtrum, swa swa 
swyn deS, Se cyrb to meoxe aefter his Sweale, ]?eawlcas 
nyten, )?onne bib he betaeht )7am atelicum deoflum, for his 
fCdum dipdum, j'e he fyrnlice ge-edheh5. Se Se oft gegrema« 
God J^urh leahtrum, and {fifre ge-edltehS his yfehm d^da, he 
biS swyne gelic, and forscyldgod wi^ God. 

Uton we herian urne Driliten symle on his micclum wun- 
druni, and us miltsunge biddan, and yfel forlaitan, and eft ne 
ge-edl{ecan, ]net we moton stwindan Sam WHelhreawimi 
deoflum, and Gode geSeon ]?urh godre gehaltsuninysse, j^am 
sy wuldor and wurSniynt a to worulde. Amen. 



III. KL. lULII. 
IN FESTIUITATE SCT PETRI APOSTOLI. 

LUCAS se Godspellere us stede on Sissere pistol-riedinge, 
]7aet " Herodes cyning wolde, aefter Cristes upstige to heo- 
fenum, geswencan sume of ^eere gelaSunge, and sende werod 
ymbe |?cet. pa ofsloh he lacobum, lohannes bro^or, ]>iES 
Godspelleres, and geseah \>iet hit gelicode j^am ludeiscum ; 
and wolde gelaeccan Petrum. He ^a hine gefeng, and on 
cwearterne gebrohte, and betsehte hine on Sam heefte sixtyne 
cempum to healdenne. Hit waes ^a Easter- tid, and for Si he 
elcodc his sieges. Petrus Sa waes gehaifd on Sam cwearterne^ 



ox THE FESTIVAL OF SAINT PETER THE APOSTLE. 381 

him. The devils acknowledged our Lord Christ, and the 
Jewish people erroneously denied him, and are therefore 
worse than the accursed devils that fell at his feet, seized with 
fright. The devils durst not, when they were driven out, 
enter into the swine, if he had not given tliem leave, nor into 
any man, because the Lord Creator had taken our nature on 
himself. They chose the swine for their swart hue, and for 
the foulness of the fenlike mud. The man that has a swine's 
habits, and will wash himself with weeping from sins, and 
afterwards foully defile himself with sins, as a swine does, 
which returns to its dunghill after its washing, an ill-con- 
ditioned beast, he will then be delivered to the hateful devils 
for his foul deeds, which he swinishly repeats. He who often 
angers God by sins, and ever repeats his evil deeds, is like 
unto a swine, and guilty towards God. 

Let us ever praise our Lord for his great wonders, and 
pray for mercy, and forsake evil, and repeat it not afterwards, 
that we may escape from the cruel devils, and thrive to God 
through good continence, to whom be glory and honour ever 
to eternity. Amen. 



JUNE XXIX. 
OX THE FESTIVAL OF SAIXT PETER THE APOSTLE. 

LUKE the Evangelist has told us in this epistolary lesson, 
that " Herod the king, after Christ's ascension to heaven, 
would aflflict some of the church, and sent an army for that 
purpose. He then slew James, the brother of John the Evan- 
gelist, and saw that it was pleasing to the Jews ; and would 
seize Peter. He then took him, and brought him into prison, 
and delivered him to be held in the keeping of sixteen soldiers. 
It was then Easter-tide, and therefore he delayed the sla\ ing 
of him. Peter was then confined in the prison, and all the 



382 IN FESTIUITATE S. PETRI APOSTOLI. 

and eal seo geleaffulle gela^ung buton to-forl^etennysse him 
fore bwdon. pa heg Petrus, on ^fere nihte |>e Herodes wolde 
bine on merigen for^laedan, betwux twam cempum slapende, 
mid twam racenteagum gettged ; and ^a wcardas hcoldon 
\nes cwearternes Juru, swa swa him geboden whss. Efne Sa 
com Godes engel scinende, and ]>iet blinde cweartern eal mid 
leohte afylde. He cnyste ^a Petres sidan, and cwse^, Aris 
hra"(5e ; and J?a racenteagan feoUon Sa^rrihte of Petres haiiduni. 
Se engel cw«^, Begyrd ))e, and sceo ]?e, and fylig me. Petrus 
"Sa him filigde, and ^uhte him swilce hit swefen wtere. Hi 
"Sa ofereodon ^a tvva weard-setl, oS)?aet hi becomon to "Sam 
isenan geate, and ]?aet tosprang pferrihte him togeanes. Hi 
eodon forS, o5}ja?t hi comon to anre wic, and se engel him 
gewat fram. Petrus Sa beSohtc bine sylfne, and cvvaiS, Nu 
ic vvat to soSan |;fet Drihten asende his engel, and me ahredde 
fram Herodes h.andum, and fram felcere anbidunge ludeisces 
folces. He becom ba to his geferum, and cnucode aet ^aere 
dura. Him arn to sum madden j)a^s geleaflullan \\eredes, 
hire nama waes gecigcd Rode ; and Sa«Sa heo oncneow Petres 
stemne, ne miiite for S;ere blisse ^a duru geopenian, ac cyrde 
ongean, siede ]>ipt Petrus ])aer stode. pa geleaffidian cvvredon 
J>{et hit nffire Petrus, ac waere his engel. Petrus cnucode 
forS, oS|>wt hi bine inn leton, and micclum his wundrodon. 
He rehte «Sa him, hu God bine ahredde, )nn-h his engel, of ^am 
cwearterne, and cwaeS, Cy^aS |?is lacobe and urum gebro- 
"Sriim ; and code Sa to sumere oSre stowe. Hwaet "Sa, on 
merigen wearS micel styrung betwux iSam cempum ]>e bine 
healdan sceoldon. And Herodes gewende to Cesaream, and 
■Sser haefde gemot vvi^ Tyrum and Sidoniscum, Da mid ]fi\m 
Se he swiSost motode, on his dom-setle sittende, mid cyne- 
licum reafe gescryd, J?a stop him to Godes engel, and bine 
ofsloh, forSan ^e he ne sealde Gode nfenne wur^mynt; and 
he Sffirrihte, mid wyrmum fornumen, gewat of life." 

pry Herodes we rteda^ on bocum. An waes se ^e ^a cild 



ON THE FESTIVAL OF SAINT PETER THE APOSTLE. 383 

faithful clmrch without intermission prayed for him. Peter, 
on the night that Herod would lead him forth on the morrow, 
lay sleeping between tvvo soldiers, bound with two chains ; and 
the keepers held the door of the prison, as they had been 
commanded. Behold then came an angel of God shining, 
and filled all the blind prison with light. He then struck 
Peter's side, and said, Arise quickly ; and the chains straight- 
ways fell from Peter's hanrls. The angel said. Gird thee, 
and shoe thee, and follow me. Peter then followed him, and 
it seemed to him as it were a dream. They then passed by 
the two ward-seats, imtil they came to the iron gate, and 
that straight ways sprang open towards them. They went 
forth, until they came to a street, and the angel departed 
from him. Peter then bethought himself, and said. Now I 
know for sooth that the Lord hath sent his angel, and de- 
livered me from the hands of Ilerod, and from every expecta- 
tion of the Jewish people. He came then to his companions, 
and knocked at the door. There ran towards him a maiden 
of the faithful company, her name wa.s called llhoda ; and 
when she knew Peter's voice, she could not open the door 
for gladness, but returned, saying that Peter was standing 
there. The faithful said that it was not Peter, but was his 
angel. Peter continued knocking, \nitil they let him in, and 
greatly wondered at him. He then related to them, how- 
God had delivered him, through his angel, from the prison, 
and said, Announce this to James and our brothers ; and 
then went to some other place. Whereupoji, on the morrow, 
there was a great stir among the soldiers who should have 
held him. And Herod went to CtEsarea, and there lield a 
council against the Tyrians and Sidonians. Then while he 
was most occupied, sitting in his judgement-seat, arrayed in 
kingly raiment, the angel of God approached him, and slew 
him, because he gave no honour to God ; and he straight- 
ways, consumed by worms, departed from life." 

We read of three Herods in books. One was he u ho 



384 ITEM DE S. PETRO, 

acwellaii het on Cristes aceiinediiysse ; o^er waes his sunn, 
se^e lohanncs J>one Fulluhtere beheafdian het, and ge^waer- 
laehte wi^ Pilate, aet ures Drihtnes ^rowunge ; ]>ridda is Ses 
Herodes, "Se we nu embe reccaS. Hi ealle iSry forferdon, 
and eac Pilatus wear^ swa micchnn geangsumod |'aet he hine 
sylfne acwealde, swa swa seo hoc ' Ecclesiastica Historia' 
rec^. 

Eow la?weduni mannuni mag ^eos anfcalde racu to trym- 
niinge, peah ^e ge ^a digehiysse (Steron ne cunnon. Nags 
swa-^eah ^is gedon on ^isuni andwerdan da^ge, ac we hit 
healdab on ^a?re nihte J;e ge hatab Hlaf-messe. 



ITEM DE SCO PETRO. 

MATHEUS se Godspellere awrat on Cristes bee, hu se halga 
Potrus eode uppon ^jere s}€ mid Criste, )?us cwe^ende : lussit 
lesus discipulos ascendere in nauicuhini, et precedere euni 
trans fretum, donee diniitterct turbas : et rcli(iua. 

Se Iliflcnd wies gebysgod betwux micelre menigu on anum 
westene : ])ix " het he hia leorning-cnihtas faran to scipe, 
and ofer-rowan j^one bryni, o5))a?t he "Sa menigu forhetan 
mihte :" et rcliqua. 

Se maera Augustinus us onwreah j^issere raedinge andglt, 
and cwae^, jjast seo sae getacnode pas andwerdan woruld, ])e 
is swiSe y^igende for mislicum styrungum and costnungum. 
On Saere see swuncon Cristes leorning-cnihtas on nihtlicum 
rewette, forSan Se Godes gelaSung swinc^ on Sissere worulde 
styrungum and hreohnyssum hwilwendlice, oSp^theo becuine 
to staSelfaestnysse ]?ffira lybbeiulra eor^an. 

" Crist ana astah up to 5c€re dune, J^aet he hine gebaede." 
Seo heage dun getacnab j^iere heofenan heahnysse, to "Saere 
astah se Haelend ana, swa swa j^aet godspel seg^, " Nemo 
ascendit in coelum, nisi qui de coelo descendit, Filius hominis, 



LIKEWISE OF ST. PETER. 385 

commanded the children to be killed at Christ's birth ; the 
second was his son, who commanded John the Baptist to be 
beheaded, and was reconciled with Pilate, at our Lord's 
passion ; the third is this Herod, about whom we now relate. 
They all three perished, and Pilate also was so greatly 
afflicted, that he killed himself, as the book ' Ecclesiastica 
llistoria ' relates. 

To you laymen this simple narrative may serve as a con- 
firmation, though ye know not the hidden sense therein. 
This was not, however, done on this present day, but we 
observe it on the night which ye call Lammas. 



I-IKKWISE OF ST. I'KTER. 

MAITHEW the Evangelist has written in the book of 
Christ, how the holy Peter went upon the sea with Christ, 
thus saying : Jussit Jesus discipulos ascendere in naviculam, 
et pryecedere cum trans fretum, donee dimittcret turbas : et 
reliqua. 

Jesus was busied among a great multitude in a wilderness : 
then " he commanded his disciples to go to a ship, and row- 
over the sea, until he could dismiss the multitude :" etc. 

The great Augiistinc has revealed to us the sense of this 
lesson, and said, that the sea betokened this present world, 
which is very billowy through divers commotions and temp- 
tations. On that sea toiled the disciples of Christ in a 
nightly rowing, because God's church toils temporarily in 
the commotions and tempests of this world, until it arrives at 
the steadfastness of the earth of the living. 

" Christ went up to the mount alone, that he might pray." 
The high mount betokens the highness of heaven, to which 
Jesus alone ascended, as the gospel says, " Nemo ascendit 
in coclum, nisi qui de coelo descendit, Filius hominis, (|ui est 

noM. VOL. II. 2 c 



386 ITEM DE S. PETRO. 

qui est in coelo :" paet is, on Englisc, " Nan man ne astih^ to 
heofonum, buton sc ^Se of heofenuni astah, mannes Beam, 
se^e is on heofenum." Dis fers is swiSe deoplic eow to un- 
derstandenne. Crist is ana mannes Beam, anes mannes and 
na tvvegra, nifedenes and na vveres. He waes on eor^an 
wunigende |?a^a he ^is cwaeS, and his lichama ne com ^a-gyt 
to heofenan rice, and swa-^eah he cwje^, " Mannes Beam |>e 
of heofenum astah, and on heofenum is." Ne astah his men- 
niscnys of heofenum, ne ^a-gyt to heofenum ne com, Sa^a he 
5is gecwfeS, ac he cwaeS ];is unleasHce for "Ssere soSan an- 
nysse his hades. lie is on twam gecyndum an Crist, so5 man 
and so5 God, and se mannes Sunu is Godes Sunu, and se 
Godes Sunu is mannes Suiiu, anes mannes, swa Me aer cwae- 
don, Marian pjes ma^denes. Rihtlice is gecweden, for Saere 
annysse, j^set se mannes Sunu of heofenum astige, and on 
heofenum waere ier his upstige ; forSan ^e he hsefde on Ssere 
Godcundnysse Se hine underfeng, ]>a3t |?aet he on menniscum 
gecynde habban ne mihte. Witodlice seo Godcundnys |;e 
on Sam men sticode, waes aeg^er ge on heofenum ge on 
eor^an, and seo gefylde j'ysne earfoSan cwyde ^urh Sa an- 
nysse Cristes liades. 

Gyt her is oSer cnotta ealswa earfoSe, paet is, " Nan man 
ne astih^ to heofenum, buton se Se of heofenum astah ;" and 
Crist cwaeS on oSrum godspelle, " ppev J)fer ic sylf beo, j^aer 
bi^ min "Sen." Witodlice Cristes 'Senas, ytet sind, apostohis 
and martyras, andeteras and halige faemnan, becomon to heo- 
fenan rice, swa swa he sylf cwae^ ; and ealle Sa j^e ^urh 
claenre drohtnunge and godum geearnungum Criste iSenia^, 
becumaS untwylice to his rice. He is eah-a geleaflfulra manna 
Heafod, and we sind his lyma, swa swa se apostol Paulus 
cwaeS, " Ge sind Cristes lichama and his lyma." paet Heafod 
ana astah mid his lymum ; and eft on domes daege, ]7onne he 
us gegadera^ and ahef^ to heofenum, he astihS swa-^eah ana, 
for^an ^e j^aet heafod mid his lichaman is an Crist. Augu- 
stinus dixit, quod Christus etiam in die iudicii solus ascendit 



LIKEWISE OF ST. PETER. 387 

in coelo:" that is, in English, *' No one ascends to heaven, 
save him who descended from heaven, the Son of man, who 
is in heaven." This verse is very deep for you to understand. 
Christ alone is tlie Son of man, of one man and not of two, 
of a maiden and not of a male. He was sojourning on earth 
when he said this, and his body had not yet gone to the king- 
dom of heaven, and, nevertheless, he said, "The Son of man 
who from heaven descended, and is in heaven." His humanity 
descended not from heaven, nor had yet gone to heaven, when 
he said this ; but he said it triilv bv reason of the true unity 
of his person. He is in two natures one Christ, true man 
and true God, and the Son of man is the Son of God, and 
the Son of God is the Son of man, of one man, as wo before 
said, of Mary the maiden. It is rightly said, by reason of 
that unity, that the Son of man descends from heaven, and 
was in heaven before his ascension ; because he had in the 
(iodjjead whicii received him, that which he in human nature 
could not have. For the Godhead whicii was inherent in the 
man, was both in heaven and on earth, and that fulfilled this 
difficult sentence through the unity of Christ's person. 

There is yet another knot equally difficult, that is, " No 
man ascendeth to heaven, except him who came down from 
heaven ;" and Christ said in another gospel, " There where I 
myself am, there shall my servant be." Now the servants 
of Christ, that is, apostles and martyrs, confessors and holy 
women, attain to the kingdom of heaven, as he himself said ; 
and all those who through a pure life and good deserts serve 
Christ, undoubtedly attain to his kingdom. He is Head of 
all believing men, and we are his limbs, as the apostle Paul 
said, "Ye are Christ's body and his limbs." The Head 
alone ascended with his limbs ; and again on doom's day, 
when he shall gather and raise us to heaven, he will, never- 
theless, ascend alone, because the head with its limbs is one 
Christ. Augustinus dixit, quod Christus etiam in die judicii 

2 c 2 



388 ITEM DE S. PETRO. 

ill caelum, quamuis sua membra secum eleuet, quia caput 
cum corpore suo unus est Christus. He astah ana up to ^a?re 
dune hine to gebiddenne, forSan ^e he astah to heofenum, 
y<Bt he wolde us ^ingian to his /Ehiiihtigan Faeder, and swa- 
"Seah "Sa hwile ^e he for us gebitt on Saere heannysse, swincS 
]>itit scip, jjcet is, seo gela^ung on 5am deopum y'Sum Jnssere 
worulde. Seo gelaSung mwg beon gedrefed on ^am sf^licum 
y^um ^yssere worukle, ac heo ne maRg beon besenced, for^an 
Se Crist for hi gebitt. peah j'eos woruld wede, and windige 
ehtnysse astyrige ongean Cristes gehiSunge, ne bi^ heo swa- 
^eah besenced. 

Drihten com to his leorning-cnihtum ])ier bfer hi on re- 
wette gedrefede wwron, on ^jere feorJSan wteccan. An vvfecce 
hfpf^ ];reo tida ; feower wteccan gefyUaS twelf tida ; swa fela 
tida haefS seo niht. He com Sa on JSa^re niiite gcendunge, 
and he cymJS on cnde ]7yssere worukle, geendodre nihte un- 
rilitwisnysse, to demenne cucum and deadum. He com nu 
wunderlice gangcnde on ^sere sae; |>a ySa arison, ac he hi of- 
trfed ; se bryni hwoSerode under his fotswabum, ac swa-Seah 
he hine baer, wolde he nolde he. peah be arlease woruld- 
memi arison ongean us, swa-JSeah ure Heafod, Crist, oftret 
heora heafod, gif we us sylfe ne forwyrcab wi^ hine. 

" Da^a Drihten Sam scipe genealaehte, Sa wurdon hi 
afyrhte, wendon |>8et hit sum gedwimor wanre. Drihten 
cweeS him to, HabbaS eow truwan ; ic hit eom ; ne beo ge 
ofdraedde." Ne eom ic na scinnhiw, swa swa ge wenaS : 
oncnawa^ J>one )?e ge geseoS. " Petrus him andwyrde, 
Drihten, gif 5u hit sy, hat me gan to "Se bufon Sam wfeetere." 
Petrus wfes fyrmest on Sam werede, and cafost on Cristes 
lufe. He wolde gelome ana andwyrdan for hi ealle, swa swa 
he dyde SaSa Crist hi befran hu men cwyddodon be him, and 
sySSan axode hi, *' Hu cweSe ge be me ? pa cwaeS Petrus, 
Du eart Crist, ]?fes Lifigendan Godes Sunu." An andwyrde 
for manegum, forSan Se annys waes on him manegum. Crist 



LIKEWISE OF ST. PETER. 389 

solus asccndit in cuelum, quamvis sua membra secum elcvet, 
quia caput cum corpore suo unus est Cliristus. He went 
alone up on the mountain to pray, because he went up to 
heaven, that he might intercede for us to his Almighty 
Father, and, nevertheless, while he is praying for us on the 
height, the ship, that is, the church, is labouring in the deep 
waves of this world. The church may be afflicted in the sea- 
like waves of this world, but it may not be sunk, because 
Christ prays for it. Tiiough this world rage, and stir u[) 
windy persecution against Christ's church, yet will it not be 
sunk. 

The Lord came to his disciples where they were toiling in 
rowing, in the fourth watch. A watch has three hours ; four 
watches complete twelve hours ; so many hours has the night. 
He came at the ending of the night, and he will come again 
at the end of this world, when the night of unrighteousness 
shall be ended, to judge the quick and the dead. He came 
now wonderfully walking on the sea ; the waves arose, but 
la- trod them down ; the sea roared under Ids footsteps, 
but yet bore him, willingly or unwillingly. Though impious 
worldly men arise against us, yet shall our Head, Christ, 
tread down their heads, if we do not fordo ourselves towards 
him. 

" When the Lord drew near unto the ship they were afraid, 
thinking that it was an apparition. The Lord said unto them. 
Have trust ; it is I ; be ye not afraid." I am not a phantom, 
as ye ween : know him whom ye see. " Peter answered him. 
Lord, if it be thou, bid me come unto thee on the water." 
Peter was foremost in the company, and readiest in love of 
Christ. He would frequently answer for them all, as he did 
when Christ questioned them how men spake concerning 
him, and afterwards asked them, " What say ye of me ? 
Then said Peter, Thou art Christ, the Son of the Living 
God." One answered for many, because unity was in the 



390 ITEM DE S. PETRO. 

cwae^ to him betwux oSrum wordum, " Ic secge j^e, pu eart 
Petrus, and ofer ^isne stan ic getimbrige mine cyrcan." 
Augustinus tractauit, quod Petrus in figura significat eccle- 
siam, quia Christus petra, Petrus populus christianus. /Er 
■bam fyrste waes his nama Simon, ac Drihten him gesette 
J>isne naman, Petrus, ]>adt is, ' steenen,' to 5i ])<et he haefde 
getacnunge Cristes gela^unge. Crist is gecweden ' petra,' )?£Et 
is ' Stan,' and of ^am naman is gecweden ' petrus ' eal cristen 
folc. Crist cwfe^, " pu eart stienen, and ofer ^isne stan, |).'jet 
is, ofer ^am geleafan ]?e Su nu andettest, ic getimbrige mine 
cyrcan." 'Ofer me sylfne ic getimbrige mine cyrcan, ofer 
me ic getimbrige ^e, na me ofer tie. Ic eom seo trumnyss 
be be healdan sccal, and ealle 5a getimbrunge cristenre gela- 
bunge.' Nu berb Petrus )^;et hiw obbe getacnunge ]>ie.re 
halgan gehxbunge, on baere he is ealdor under Criste, and mid 
his gauge getacnode segber ge ba strangan ge "ba unstreingan 
on Godes folce. Cristes gehibung htefb on hire aeg^er ge 
trume ge untrume. lleo ne m;eg beon buton strangum, ne 
buton unstrangum. paSa Petrus caflice stop up on ^am 
sffilicum ybum, j^a getacnode he ba strangan. Eft, ^aba him 
twynode, and be sumon dtele deaf, ^a getacnode he ba un- 
strangan. Hwfet sind ^a strangan, hwffit ba unstrangan ? 
Da beob strange and trume, be jnirh geleafan and godum ge- 
earnungum wel beonde beob. Da sind unstrange \>e shiwe 
beob to godum weorcum. Be bam cwaeb Paulus se apostol, 
" We strange sceolon beran baera uustrengra byrbene." 

On Petres gauge so^lice waeron getacnode, swa swa we ier 
sj^don, a^g^er ge ba truman ge ba untruman, forban ^e Godes 
gela^ung nis buton nab rum ^aera. Petrus cwae^b, " Drihten, 
hat me gan to ^e up on ^am vvaetere ;" ' ]?8et ic ne maeg don 
|7urh me, ac ic mffig j^urh be; gif j^u haetst, bonne nifeg ic' 
Drihten cwaeb, '' Cum to me." And Petrus );airrihte, buton 
felcere twynunge, code of ^am scipe, swibe gebyld ];urh 
Drihtnes h^se, and eode up on bam waetere, swa swa his 
Drilitcn ; na burh hinc sylfne, ac burh bone -^Imihtigan 



LIKEWISE OF ST. PETER. 391 

many. Christ said to him among other words, " I say unto 
thee, Thou art Peter, and over this stone I will build my 
church." Augustinus tractavit, quod Petrus in figura signi- 
ficat ecclesiam, quia Christus petra, Petrus populus christi- 
anus. Before that time his name was Simon, but the Lord 
appointed him this name, Petrus, that is, of stone, to the 
end that he might be typical of Christ's church. Christ is 
called * petra,' that is, stone, and from that name the whole 
christian people is called ' petrus.' Christ said, "Thou art 
of stone, and over this stone, that is, over the belief which 
thou now professest, I will build my church." ' Over my- 
self I will build my church, over me I will build thee, not 
me over thee. I am the firmness that shall hold thee, and 
all the structure of the christian church.' Peter now bears 
the semblance or type of the holy church, in which he under 
Christ is chief, and by his walking betokened both the strong 
and the ueak among God's people. The church of Christ 
has in it both firm and feeble. It cannot be without strong, 
nor without weak. When Peter quickly stcpt on the sea 
svaves, he then betokened the strong. Afterwards, wiien he 
doubted, and to a certain degree sank, then he betokened the 
weak. Who are the strong, who are the weak ? They are 
strong and firm, who through belief and good deserts are well 
thriving. They are weak who are slow to good works. Of 
them said Paul the .ipostle, " W^e strong should bear the 
burthen of the weak." 

Verily by the walking of Peter were l)et(»kcned, as we be- 
fore said, both the firm and the feeble, for God's church is 
without neither of them. Peter said, " Lord, bid me come 
to thee upon the water ;" * I cannot do it through myself, 
but I may through thee; if thou biddest, then may I.' The 
Lord said, *' Come to me." And Peter straightways, with- 
out any doubting, went from the ship, vcrj- bold through the 
Lord's behest, and went upon the water, like unto his Lord ; 
not through himself, but through the Almighty Lord. Then 



392 ITEM DE S. PETRO. 

Drihten. Da geseuh he faerlice pone strangan wind, and 
begunn hine to dndrsedenne, and mid ]'am ^e he deaf, cly- 
pode to his Drihtne, "Drihten. gehelp min." He gedyrst- 
Icehte to ganne up on ^sere see jjurh Crist, )>fet lie mihte burh 
God, ac him twynode swa svva men. Ne biS nan man trum 
"Surh God, buton se ^Se hine undergyt untrumne j^urh hine 
sylfne. Se "Se wile 5urh his agenum crjefte Godes rice 
astigan, he sceal feallan underbjjec. We sceolon cweSan mid 
^am witegan, " Si dicebam motus est pes mens, misericordiu 
tua, Doinine, adiuuabat me:" j^iet is, " Gif min fut aslad, 
Drihten, 5in mildheortnys geheolp me." 

Ne forlet Drihten Petrum, beah iSe he ^iirh his twynunge 
bedufe, ac astrehte his hand, and hine gchcold ; forSan Se 
hit is awritcn, " yElc Sfera manna ]fc Godcs naman clypa^, 
biS gehcaldcn." Witodlice se 5e ortruwaS Godes mildheort- 
nysse, se losao. Drihten tJreade Petrum, and cwfeS, " pu 
lytles gelcafan, hui twynode \>c ?" Se is lytlcs geleafan, se^e 
hwjethwcga gclyf 5 and hw;ethwcga twynaS. Se Se mid ealle 
twynaiS, he is geleafleas ; and swa swa se gelcafa strcngra 
bi^, swa biS J>pes costneres miht Ifesse. 

Mine gebroJSra, behealdaS 5jf s woruld swa swa sae. We 
sceolon beon on ^issere worulde hreohnyssum strange on 
geleafan, and eft on hire smyltnysse swiSe wtere. Seo 
hreohnys is open costnung, and sco smyltnys is stulor and 
digele swica. Gif Su lufast God, J^onne fortrctst "Su J^a 
woruldlican styrunga ; gif ^u lufast |?as woruld, heo besenc^ 
"Se, forSan "Se heo ne cann aberan hire lufigendas, ac canu 
bepfBcan. Gif Sin heorte floteraS on 'Sissere worulde gyt- 
sunge, oSSe on yfelre gewilnunge, and ])u wylle hi oferswySan, 
clypa to Cristes fultume. Ne cep ^u swa swiSe J?ises mid- 
daneardes stylnysse, ac asmea Sine heortan, hweeSer heo on 
stilnysse sy. Hawa ]>set se inra wind |;e ne towende. Micel 
gesselS biS J?e, j^set ^u on ^inre gesiel^e ne forfare. Leorna 
)78et ^u cunnc fortrcdan ^as Moruld : trua on Crist, and gif 
^u hwTlon d}fst f'urh woruldlicuni lustfullunguni, cweS to 



LIKEWISE OF ST. PETER. 393 

saw he suddenly the strong wind, and hegan to dread, and 
when lie was sinking, he cried to his Lord, " Lord, help me." 
He dared to go upon the sea through Christ, which he might 
through God, but he doubted as man. No man is firm 
through God, except him who perceives himself feeble 
through himself. He who will by his own power ascend to 
the kingdom of God, shall fall backwards. We should say 
with the prophet, " Si diccbam motus est pes mens, miseri- 
cordia tua, Domine, adjuvabat me:" that is, "If my foot 
slided, Lord, thy mercy helped me." 

The Lord left not Peter, though through his douhi he was 
sinking, but stretched out his hand, and saved him ; because 
it is written, " Every man who calleth on God's name, shall 
be saved." Verily he who despairs of God's mercy shall 
perish. The Lord rebuked Peter, and said, " Thou of little 
faith, why didst thou doubt ? " He is of little faith, who 
believes a little and doubts a little. He who altogether doubts, 
is void of faith ; and as the faith is stronger, so is the might 
of the tempter less. 

My brothers, behold tliis world as a sea. We should, in 

the tempests of this world, be strong in belief, and afterwards 

in its calm very heedful. The tempest is open temptation, 

and the calm is stealthy and clandestine deception. If thou 

lovest God, then wilt thou tread down worldly commotions ; 

if thou lovest this world, it will sink thee, because it cannot 

bear those who love it, but can deceive them. If thine heart 

floats on the covetousness of this world, or on evil desire, and 

thou wishest to overcome it, call for the support of Christ. 

Regard not so greatly the stillness of this world, but consider 

thine heart, whether that be in stillness. Look that the 

inward wind do not cast thee down. It will be a great bliss 

to thee, that thou perish not in thy bliss. Learn that thou 

mayest tread down this world : trust in Christ, and if thou 

sometimes sink through worldly enjoyments, say to thy Lord, 



394 DOM. V. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

^inum Drihtiie, " Drihten, ic losige : help min." CweS 
'^ ic losige," 5y-l^s "Se Su losige. Drihten astrecb his hand, 
and ^e gehylt, gif "Su anraedlice his fultumes gewilnast. 

Drihten, "SaSa he to lande beconi, gehjelde ealle ^a untrii- 
man \>e him to gelfedde wferon, |?urh his reafes hrepunge. 
Deor\vur"Se vvferon ^a fnaedu ]>e swa eaSelice ]>a untrumnyssa 
aflygdon, swa swa we raedaS be sumon wife, " ]>e wses twelf 
gear geuntrumod ^iirh blodes ryne. Da eode heo betwux 
]7ferc menigu be se Hwlcnd onferde, and cwae^ to hire sylfre, 
Gif ic hum his reafes gefneedu hreppe, ic beo sona hal." Heo 
creap Sa betwux ^am niaiinum, ba^ftan |?ani Ha^lende, and 
forstrel hire htelu, swa j>;et heo hrcpode his reafes fnaHlu, and 
hire blodes gyte sona aetstod. " pa cwc-e^ se Hcelend, Hwa 
hreopode me ? Petrus him andwyrde, La leof, )>cos menigu 
(Se ofSrincS, and ^u axast hwii (Se hreopode. Drihten cwjeS, 
Sum man me hreopode : witodlice ic gefredde j^eet Saere hfelSe 
miht of me eode." pfet folc bine j'rang, ac ]>8et wTf bine 
hrepode synderlice mid gcleafan. Heo geseah ^a J^tet bit 
digele na^s, and feol bifigende to "Sffis Hfelendes foton, and 
stede ffitforan eallum Sam folce hwi heo bine hrepode, and 
hu heo baerrihte gehteled wearb. Drihten hire cwaeS to, 
" Dohtor, bin geleafa ]>e gebjelde. Gang Se nu on sibbe." 

We biddaS nu Sone ^-Elmibtigan Drihten, j^fet he us fram 
synnum geclsensige, and ure sawla gehajle, and fram eallum 
frecednyssum abredde, Surb his apostola Singrfedene, Petres 
and Paules, ]?e we to-da^g wurSia^. Sy him wuldor and ]C)f 
on ealra worulda woruld. Amen. 



DOM. V. POST PENTECOSTEN. 



CUM multa turba esset cum lesu, nee haberent quod man- 
ducarent : et reliqua. 

Marcus se Godspellere cwse^ on "Sisum daeg'Serlicum god- 
spellc, ]?aet "on sumerc tide w«s micel menigu mid |>am 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 395 

"Lord, I perish: help me." Say "I perish," lest thou 
perish. The Lord will stretch out his hand, and save thee, 
if thou earnestly desire his aid. 

The Lord, when he came to land, healed all the sick that 
were led to him, through the touching of his garment. Pre- 
cious were the hems that could so easily put sicknesses to 
flight, as we read of some woman, " who was twelve years 
afflicted with a running of blood. She then went among the 
multitude that Jesus preceded, and said to herself. If I only 
touch the hems of his garment, I shall forthwith be whole." 
She crept then among the men, behind Jesus, and stole her 
health, so that she touched the hems of his garment, and her 
running of blood forthwith stopt. "Then said Jesus, Who 
touched me ? Peter answered him, Sir, this nuiltitude presseth 
thee, asid thou askest who touched thee. The Lord said, 
Some one touched me ; for I felt that the power of healing 
went from me." The people pressed him, but tlio woman 
alone touched him with belief. She saw that it was not secret, 
and fell trembling at the feet of Jesus, and said before all the 
folk why she had touched him, and how she was straightways 
healed. The Lord said to her, " Daughter, thy belief hath 
healed thee. Go now in peace." 

We pray now the Almighty Lord, that he cleanse us from 
sins, and heal our souls, and save them from all perils, through 
the mediation of his apostles, Peter and Paul, whom we to- 
day honoin*. Be to him glory and praise for ever and ever. 
Amen. 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY ATTER PENTECOST. 

CUM multa turba essct cum Jcsu, ncc habercnt quod man- 
ducarent : et reliqua. 

Mark the Evangelist said in this day's gospel, that " on a 
certain time a great multitude was with Jesus in a wilderness 



396 DOM. V. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

Htelende on anum westene meteleas. pa clypode se Hteleiul 
his leorning-cnihtas him to, and cwaeS, Me ofhreow^ })issere 
nienigu :" et reliqua. 

On o'Sre stowe we rjeda^ ]r<et se Hfelend gereordode mid 
fif berenum hlafum and mid twani fixum fif buscnd manna, 
and ^aer waeron to hife tuera crumena twelf wylian fulle. ^^i 
"Sisum gereorde waeron seofon hlafas and feawa fixa. Her 
Wferon gereordode feowcr busend maima, and seofan spyrtan 
afyllede mid |;am bricum. On 5ani jerran gereorde wjps ge- 
tacnod seo dihle lar j?e stod on fif Moyscs bocum, )nn*h Sam 
fif berenum hlafum, ]>e Sa mcnigu gereordodoii. pajra fif 
boca andgit gcopenodc se .tlhnihtiga Lareow Crist his leorn- 
ing-mannum, and hi siSJSan oSrum, oSj^a^t hit to Us becom. 
SoSlice on ^isum gereorde \v«>s getiicnod sco soSfa^stnyss 
and seo gifu 5e (Surii Crist gcfremod wearS on 'Sa?rc Niwan 
GecySnysse. Drihten c\v;e5, " Me of hreow^ ]?yssere mcnigu, 
forSan 5c hi nu for 5rim dagum her min andbidodon, and hi 
nabbaS hwa^t hi eta^." Durli his soSan menniscnysse him 
ofhreow Saes folces meteleast, and j?urh liis a^hnihtigan God- 
cundnysse lie hi eaSdice gereordode. paet folc andbidode 
^ry dagas mid "Sam Ilfelende for ha»lSe heora untrumra, and 
nu dceghwomlice Godes gecorenan mid geleafan ]?fere Ilalgan 
Drvnnvsse anbidiacS, biddende heora sawla bailee, and heora 
freonda, and aweiida^ heora gcSohtas, and word, and wcorc 
to Gode. 

He cwae^, " Gif ic hi forla'te f^estende ham gecyrran, )?omie 
ateoria^ hi be wege." Drihten nolde forlaetan jja nienigu 
fjestende him fram gecyrran, 5y-lfes "Se hi be wege gewaehte 
ateorodon ; for^ian Se he fett "Sa ^e i5urh d^dbote him to 
bugaS mid bigleofan ]>ffire halgan lare. Gif he hi forltel buton 
^am godspellican fodan on heora andgite, ]?onne ateoria^ hi 
be wege 'Sises andwerdan lifes. " Sume hi comon feorran." 
Sume men sindon on Godes gela^unge, ^e on lytlum ^ingum 
wis God agvlton, and bi^San mid soSre diedbote to Gode 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 397 

meatless. Then Jesus called his disciples to him, and said, 
I have compassion on this multitude," etc. 

In another place we read that Jesus fed with five barley 
loaves and with two fishes five thousand men, and there were 
left of the crumbs twelve baskets full. At this refection there 
were seven loaves and a few fishes. Here were fed four 
thousand men, and seven baskets filled with the fragments. 
In the first refection, the hidden lore that stood in the five 
books of Moses was betokened by the five barley loaves, 
which refected the multitude. The sense of the five books 
the Almighty Teacher Christ opened to his disciples, and 
they afterwards to others, until it came to us. But in this 
refection were betokened the truth and the grace which were 
accomplished through Christ in the New Testament. The 
Lord said, " I have compassion on this nmltitude, because 
tiiey now for three days have awaited me here, and they have 
not anything to eat." Through his true humanity he had 
compassion on the people's want of food, and through his 
almighty Godhead he easily fed them. The people abode 
three days with Jesus for the healing of their sick, and now 
daily God's chosen, with belief, await the Holy Trinity, 
praying for their own and their friends' souls' health, and 
turn their thoughts, and words, and works to God. 

He said, " If I send them away to return home fasting, 
they will perish bv the way. ' The Lord would not send 
the midtitude from him to return fasting, lest, fainting by 
the way, they might perish ; because he feeds those who by 
repentance turn to him, with the food of the holy doctrine. 
If he sends them away without the evangelical food in their 
understanding, then will they perish by the way of this pre- 
sent life. " Some came from afar." Some men are in God's 
church, who in little things have siimed against God, and 
afterwards with true repentance returned to God : such have 



398 DOM. V. POST FEiNTECOSTEN. 

gecyrdon : );yllice iie comon na feorran, forbaii Se hi Surh 
heora imscee^JSignysse him gehende wferon. Sume sindon 
J?e aefter fyrnlicum leahtrum, sume sefter facne and sefter leas- 
gewitnysse, sume aefter stale, sume sefter reaflace, sume aefter 
manslihte, to so^re daedbote gecyrra^, and to ^am wynsuman 
geoce Godes )?eowdomes : |?as Syllice cuma^ feorran, forSan 
•Se swa hi swiSor dwelodon on Swyrlicum daedum, swa hi 
swiiSor fram '5am yEhnihtigan Gode fyrr gewiton. Ilim biti 
swa-^eah foda forgifen, forSan 5e JAam gecyrredum synfullan 
biS gegearcod mete ^aere lialgan lare, j^aet hi ge-edniwian 
niagon on Gode ba nirt'genu \>e hi on leahtrum forluron. Eac 
■5a 5e of ludeiscum folce on Crist gelyfdon, comon liim iiean 
to, formal! '5e hi waeron be him geUerede JHuh 5a ealdan ae and 
•Saera witegena cwydum. pa so^lice 5e gelyfdon on Crist of 
hfe^enum folce, 5a comon him feorran to, for5an ^e ht naeron, 
5urh nanre bociicere lare, be his geleafan gemanode. 

Das seofon hlafas aet pisum gcreorde sind gesette on geryne 
^a^re Niwan Gecy5nysse for 5aere seofonfealdan gife ]>ies 
Halgan Gastes, )?e Godes gecorenum bi5 oiiwrigen and for- 
gifen. pa seofonfealde gife we saedon eow hwilon aer, and 
gyt wylla5. An is se Halga Gast ]>e syl^ gecorenum man- 
num ^a seofonfealdan gife, ]7aet is, wisdom and andgit, r^d 
and strengS, ingehyd and arfaestnys ; Godes ege is seo seo- 
fo5e. Se 5e Jjissera gifa orhlyte eallungc bi^, naef^ he ge- 
manan mid Godes gecorenum. 

JEi 5am serran gcreorde, saet seo menigu uppon ^am gaerse, 
and on ^isuni gcreorde nis ]fses gaerses nan gemynd, ac Crist 
hi het sittan uppon latere eor^an, for^an "Se us is beboden, 
"Surh gewrite Saere ealdan ae, ofsittan and fortredan ^a gevvil- 
nigendlican lustas ; and on iSaere Niwan Gecy^nysse us is 
beboden )>aet we sceolon forlaetan ]>i\s eorSan and ^a hwil- 
wendlican aehta, gif we willa^ fulfremede beon. pis is swa- 
•Seah feawra manna daed, ]?aet hi ealle eor51ice ■5iiig saemninga 
forlfetan magon. Se ^e eallunge ^a eorSlican gestreon for- 
laetan ne maeg, forlaete hi swa-5eah mid his ge^ance, swa ]>set 
he ne besette his hiht on 5am ateorigendlicum spedum, ac on 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 399 

not come from afar, because, by reason of their innocence, 
thev were near to him. Some there are who after old sins, 
some after fraud and after false witness, some after stealing, 
some after rapine, some after homicide, turn to true repent- 
ance, and to the winsome yoke of God's service : such as 
these come from afar, because the more they erred in perverse 
deeds, by so much the more they seceded further from Al- 
mighty God. To them shall, nevertheless, food be given, 
because for the converted sinful meat of the holy doctrine 
shall be prepared, that they may renew in God those virtues 
which they lost in sins. Those also of the Jewish folk, who 
believed in Christ, came near to him, because they had been 
instructed concerning him by the old law and the sayings of 
tiie prophets. But those of the heathen folk wiio believed 
in Christ came to him from afar, because they had not by any 
book-lore been admonished concerning his belief. 

The seven loaves at this refection are set in the mystery of 
the New Testament for the sevenfold grace of the Holy 
Ghost, which will be revealed and given to God's chosen. 
The sevenfold grace we have mentioned to you a while before, 
and will yet again. It is the Holy Ghost alone who gives to 
chosen men the sevenfold grace, that is, wisdom and under- 
standing, counsel and strength, knowledge and piety ; awe of 
God is the seventh. He who is wholly devoid of tliese gifts, 
has no communion with God's chosen. 

At the former refection, the multitude sat on the grass, 
and in this refection there is no mention of the grass, but 
Christ bade them sit on the earth, because it is enjoined us, 
by the writing of the old law, to press down and tread on the 
concupiscent pleasures ; and in the New Testament it is en- 
joined us to forsake the earth and transitory possessions, if 
we desire to be perfect. This is, however, the deed of few 
men, to be able at once to leave all earthly things. Let him 
who cannot wholly forsake earthly treasures, forsake them at 
least in his thought, so that he set not his hope in perishable 



400 DOM. V. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

iSam iElmihtigaii Drihtne, and freinige hafenleasum mid his 
liaefene. We rada^ on Cristes bee, j^eet sum welig maiin 
com to ^am Haelende, and feoll to his fotum, ^us cweSende, 
" Eahi ^u goda lareow, hwaet sceal ic don ptet ic htebbe J^eet 
ece lif ? Drihten him andwj rde, Gif 5u wylt becuman to 
^an ecan life, heald j^as bebodu : Ne ofslili ^u mann, Ne 
unriht-hrem Su, Ne stala ^u, Ne beo ISu leas gewita, Arwur^a 
]?inne feeder and ^ine modor, and Lufa binne nextan swa svva 
•Se sylfne. Da andwyrde se rica, and cwaeS, Ealle 5as }>ing 
ic heold symle fram minum geogo^hade. Him andwyrde eft 
s<? Haelend, and cwaeJS, Anes Singes 5e is wana : far nu, and 
beceapa wiS feo ealle Sine fphta, and dael ^earfum, and \>\i 
hfpfst ^onnc |>inne goldhord on heofonan rice ; and cum, and 
filig me." pis is, swa we jer cwsdon, feaw ra mainia d<ed, 
and swa-^eah fulfremedra. 

Drihten Sancode aerSan JSe he ba hlafas tobrfece, swuteli- 
gende hu miccluni he blissab for mancynnes ha^lu ; and us 
mid San tihte ])d^t we sceolon him Sancian, swa oft swa we 
urne lichaman mid corSlicum biglcofan, oSSe ure sawle mid 
halwendre lare gereordiaS. Se Haelend Sa tobrtec Sa hlafas, 
and sealde his leornerum, pa^t hi hit ^am folce djelan sceol- 
don, forSan iSe he Sa gastlican lare him forgeaf, ]}mt hi hi 
dieldon eallum geleaffullum Seodum. Be Sam gedale cwae^ 
sum witega oSrum andgite : " Paruuli petierunt panem, nee 
erat qui frangeret eis :" j^jet is, on urum gereorde, " Da lytlan 
cild baedon him hlafes, ac j^ser naes nan mann ^e j^one hlaf 
him betwynan tobraece." pset is, j^a ungelcieredan sohton 
■Sone bigleofan Godes wordes, ac hi nsefdon ^one lareow ^e 
him cu^e |?a digelan lare geopenian, and hi to so^faestnysse 
wege geweman. Hlaf is ^ees lichaman bigleofa, and lar is 
•Spere sawle foda. pa fixas on Sisum gereorde getacnodon -Sa 
lareowas ^e ^a larlican bee awriton, be dihte pass Halgan 
Gastes. " past folc set, and hi wurdon ealle gefyllede." Da 
gereordiaS of Drihtnes hlafum, and beoS gefyllede, ]>a. Se his 
lare gehyracS, and "Surh Sa hi sylfe gerihtlaPcaS ; forSan |>e 



THE FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 40] 

riches, but in the Ahiiighty Lord, and do good to the indigent 
with his wealth. We read in the book of Christ, that a 
wealthy man came to Jesus, and fell at his feet, thus saying, 
" O thou good master, what shall I do that I may have ever- 
lasting life? The Lord answered him, If thou wilt attain unto 
everlasting life, hold these commandments : Slay no one, 
Commit not adultery. Steal not, Be not a false witness. Honour 
thy father and thy mother, and Love thy neighbour as thyself. 
Then answered the rich man, and said. All these things I 
have ever held from my youth. Jesus again answered him, 
and said. One thing is wanting to thee : go now, and sell for 
money all thy possessions, and distribute it to the poor, and 
thou wilt then have thy treasure in the kingdom of heaven ; 
and come, and follow me." This is, as we before said, the 
deed of few men, and yet of perfect ones. 

The Lord thanked before he brake the loaves, manifesting 
how greatly he rejoices for the happiness of mankind ; and 
thereby prompts us to thank him, as often as we nourish our 
bodies with earthly food or our souls with salutary doctrine. 
Jesus then brake the loaves, and gave to his disciples, that 
they might deal them to the folk, for he then gave them 
the ghostly lore, that they might propagate it among all 
believing nations. Of this distribution a profjiiet said in 
another sense, " Parvuli petierunt panem, nee erat qui fran- 
geret eis :" that is, in our tongue, " The little children begged 
them bread, but there was no man to break the bread among 
them." That is, the unlearned sought the food of God's 
word, but they had not a teacher that was able to open to 
them the hidden lore, and incline them to the way of life. 
Bread is the sustenance of the body, and instruction is the 
food of the soul. The fishes in this refection betokened the 
teaciiers who wrote the books of the law, by direction of the 
Holy Ghost. "The folk ate, and were all filled." They 
feed on the Lord's bread, and are filled, who hear his instruc- 
tion, and through it correct themselves ; for instruction is 

HOM. VOL. II. 2 » 



402 DOM. V. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

seo lar biS on ydel gehyred, baton hco beo to weorcum 
awend. peah "Se j^e man bere mete toforan, hwonlice ■Se 
frema^ ]?set "Su hine geseo, buton 5u his onbyrige. Swa eac 
"Se ne fremaS, |?eah ^e bu j^a halgan lare gehyre, buton 5u hi 
to godum weorcum awende. 

" Of ^aere lafe wseron gefyllede seofan sp^Ttan." pa seo- 
fan spyrtan habbaS J'a ylcan getacnunge ]>e Sa scofon hlafas 
haefdon. Spyrte bib, swa swa ge sylfe witon, of rixum ge- 
broden, o5be of pahn-twygum. Rixe wcaxst gewunelice on 
w?eterigum stowum, and se palm is sigc-beacen ; and Godes 
gecorenum gcdafonaS J^fEt hi heora heortan wyrtruman on 
"Sam llflicum wylle, |)a^t is, God, gelogian ; )>y-l(jps Se In for- 
searian frani his ccan lufe ; and hi" sceolon, mid sige )>a^s 
gastlican gccanipcs, to him eft gecyrran, J^e ht to Sam gcfeohte 
^r asende. Se 5e wile campian ongean Sam ret5an deofle 
mid f^estum geleafan and gastlicum wa'pnum, he l)egyt sige 
Snrh Godes fyli^te ; and se Se feohtan ne dear mid Godes 
gewjepnungc ongean Sone ungcsewenlican feond, he biS ]7onne 
mid Sam dcofcllicuin bendvmi gewyld, and to tintregum ge- 
laedd. 

" paer w^eron gcrcordode feowcr |>usend manna." Mid 
•San feowcrfealdum gctele waes getacnod seo feowerfealde 
Cristes boc, J?e "Sa gelcaftullan, j^iirh hire lare, d;pghwomlice 
gereorda^. 

Mine gebro"Sra, ne ^ince eow to hcfigtyme ]>ipt ge iSas god- 
spellican lare gehyrdon. We aweria^ us mid paere segene, 
aweriaS eow mid ]?flere lare fremminge, )?aet we ealle habban 
moton "Sa mede \)e mannes eage ne geseah, ne eare ne ge- 
hyrde, ne on mannes heortan ne astah, )7a "Se God gearca^ 
Sam eallum |?e hiiic lufia^, se^e leofa^ and rixaS on ealra 
worulda woruld. Amen. 



THI-: FIFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 403 

heard in vain, unless it be turned to works. Though meat 
be brought before thee, little will it profit thee that thou see 
it, unless thou taste it. In like manner, it will not profit 
thee, though thou hear the holy lore, unless thou turn it to 
good works. 

" Of the remainder were filled seven baskets." The seven 
baskets have the same betokening as the seven loaves had. 
A basket, as ye yourselves know, is platted of rushes or of 
palm-twigs. The rush grows usually in watery places, and 
the palm is the sign of victory ; and it is befitting God's 
chosen that they place the root of their hearts in the well of 
life, M hich is God ; lest they become seared up from his 
eternal love ; and they should, with victory in the ghostly 
fight, return again to him, who had before sent them to that 
figiit. He who will strive against the fierce devil with firm 
belief and ghostly weapons, will get the victory through God's 
support; and he who dares not fight with God's weaponing 
against the invisible foe, will be constrained by the dcviiisli 
bonds, and led into torments. 

"There were fed four thousand men." liy the fourfold 
number was betokened the fourfold book of Clirist, which 
through its lore daily feeds the believing. 

My brothers, let it not seem too tedious to you that ye 
have heard this evangelical lore. We secure ourselves with 
the saying, do you secure yourselves with the fulfilling of the 
precepts, that we may all have the meed which eye of man 
never saw, nor ear heard, nor entered into the heart of man, 
that which God prepares for all those that love him, who 
liveth and reigneth to all eternity. Amen. 



2 d2 



404 



DOM. IX. POST PENTECOSTEN. 



ADTENDITE a falsis prophetis, qui ueniuiit ad uos : et re- 
liqiia. 

Drihten cwae^ to his leorning-cnihtuni, " Beliealdab eow 
wi^ leasum witeguni, ]^c to eow cumaS on sceapa hiwum :" 
ct reliqua. 

pis godspel is nu aiifealdlice gesjed. Da leasan witegan, |>e 
Crist foresfiede his Iconung-cnihtum, waeron gedwolmen on 
halgum hnve drohtnicndc, and woldon awcndan ]>one soban 
geleafan, j^c God sylf tjehte, of Sam rihtan regolc to heora 
gedwyldum, and setton lease bee ongean bam sobum geleafan, 
to bepjecenne ba unscreSiSigan cristenan. Nu siud obre lease 
witegan, j?cet sind ealle he on halgum htwe yfele weorc bega^, 
and hiwiaS hi wiSutiin mid eawfwstum Scawum, and wi^in- 
nan sind geiettrode mid arleasnysse. Be swilcum cvvfe^ se 
Haelend on o5re stowe, " Ge rihtwisiaS eow aitforan mannum, 
and God cann eowerc heortan." Eft he cw<fi^, " Wa eow 
hiwerum, ge sind gelice gemettum ofer-geweorcum, ))e beoS 
wiSutan wlitige mannum aeteowode, and seo byrgen beali biS 
afylled mid deadum banum and forrotodnysse ; swa sind ge 
eac fEteowode wiSutan rihtwise on manna gcsihbum, and ge 
sind wiSinnan afyllede mid hiwunge and unrihtwisnysse." 

Drihten cwieS, " BehealdaS eow wiS leasum witegum :" 
swilce he cwaede, ' WarniaS eow georne \vi5 swilcum licce- 
teruni, forSan ]>c hi ne sind na seep, ac sind wulfas on sceapa 
hiwum. Hi sind wiSutan eawfaeste, ac hi sind wi^innan 
buton sobfffistnysse, cristenra manna ehteras, and reaferas, 
swa swa rcSe wulfas. Ge oncnawaS \u be heora wsstmum. 
Ne behealde ge heora neb-wlite, ne gyme ge heora eawfiestum 
gyrlum, ne hlyste ge heora geswHesan lyffetunge, ac behealda^ 
heora weorc. Hi maersia^ Godes halgan mid heora muiSe, 
ac hi wiScwe^aS Godes halgum mid heora ]7wyrlicum daedum. 
Hi ofsetta^ )?a geleaffullan, and j^eah Se hi God mid wordum 



405 



THE NINTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 

ATTEXDITE a falsis prophetis, qui veniuut ad vos : et rc- 
liqua. 

The Lord said to his disciples, "Guard yourselves aj^ainst 
false prophets, who will come to you in semblances of 
sheep," etc. 

This gospel is now simply said. The false prophets, that 
Christ foretold to his disciples, were heretics living in holy 
semblance, but who would turn the true belief, that God him- 
self taught, from the right rule to their heresies, and set false 
books against the true belief, to deceive the innocent chris- 
tians. Now there are other false prophets, which are all 
who in holy semblance perpetrate evil works, and clothe 
themselves without with pious practices, and within are en- 
venomed with impiousness. Of such Jesus said in another 
place, " Ye justify yourselves before men, but God knoweth 
your hearts." Again he said, " Wo unto you hypocrites, ye 
are like unto painted sepulchres, which appear beautiful to 
men without, and the grave is, nevertheless, filled with dead 
bones and rottenness ; so ye also appear righteous without 
in the sight of men, and ye are within filled with deceit and 
unrighteousness." 

Tiie Lord said, " Guard yourselves against false prophets :" 
as if he had said, ' Be diligently cautious against such hypo- 
crites, because they are not sheep, but are wolves in the 
semblances of sheep. They are pious without, bat within 
they are without truth, persecutors of christian men, and 
robbers, like fierce wolves. Ye will know them by their 
fruits. Look not at their countenance, heed not their pious 
habits, listen not to their sweet flattery, but behold their 
works. They praise God's saints with their mouth, but they 
gainsay God's saints by their perverse deeds. They oppress 
the believing, and though they calunuiiate not God bywords, 



406 DOM. IX. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

lie tseloii, hi tsela^ hine swa-^eah mid yfelum ^eawum.' 
" Hwa gadera^ tefre winberian of Sornuni, o]>])e fic-seppla of 
bremelum ?" Hwa nifeg aefre of leahterfullutn mannum, ob^e 
of ^wyrum, senige godnysse gegaderian ? Be Sisum Sornum 
and bremeliiin cwaeS se yElmihtiga God to Adame, defter ^an 
^e he of San foi-bodenan treowe Sigde, " Seo eorbe, j^e is 
awyrigcd on ^inum weorce, agifS ]>e bornas and brenielas." 

*' ^Ic god treow wyrcS gode wa^stnias, and yfel treow 
wyrcS yfele wsstmas." Ne nif^nde ure Drihten mid )nsum 
wordnm ]m treowa ]>e on {pppel-tune wcxab, )?a ^e sind 
liflease, sawullease, and andgitlease, ac Jnirh heora hivv he 
gebicnode }'a gesceadwisun men, iSe andgit habbaS and be 
agemim willan wyrcab, swa god swa yfel. God bi<5 )78et 
treow tie godne wa^stm for*SbrincS, yfel biS ]fiet Se unwjestni- 
bsere stent, wyrse biS ))}et be yfelne w<estni byrS ; and se man 
bi^ berigendlic Se mid godum weorcnm hine sylfne bysga^, 
and obrum gebysna^ ; se biS unhcrigendlic Sc unnyt leofa^ ; 
se biS cwcahnbfere and twyfealdlice dead, swa swa se apostol 
cm'ckS, seSe on godnysse unwaestmbjere biS, and on yfehiysse 
aefre growende and waestmba^re. 

** Ne iiiieg )7tet gode treow wyrcan yfele waestmas, ne ]>iet 
yfele treo\v gode wa^stmas." Ne cwae'S se H«lend ])iBt se 
yfela ne mihte gecyrran and beon god, ac swa lange swa he 
yfel bi^, ne mteg he wyrcan godne wa^stni. -lErest sceal se 
mann hine sylfne awendan fram yfele, pajt his weorc magon 
beon awende. So'Slice gif se man Jnirhwuna^ yfelj »e niceg 
he habban gode weorc ; and gif se goda man ^urhwunaS on 
his godnysse, ne maeg he yfele waestmas forSbringan ; for^i 
sette God lare, and het l»ran ^a ungeleeredan, Jjset men sceo- 
lon yfel forlietan, and to gode gebugan, and on godnysse 
^urhwunian. 

" -^Ic treow ^e ne wyrc^ godne wsestm bi^ forcorfen, and 
on fyre aworpen." Be Sisnm cyrfe spraec se Heelend on 
o^re stowe ^urh bigspel, ]fas cweSende : " Sum hiredes hlaf- 
ord heefde aplantod an fic-treow binnon his wingearde, and 



THE NINTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 40; 

they calumniate him, nevertheless, by evil manners.' " Who 
ever gathers grapes from thorns, or figs from brambles ?" 
Who can ever from sinful or perverse men gather any good- 
ness ? Of these thorns and brambles the Almighty God 
said to Adam, after he had eaten of the forbidden tree, 
^' The earth, which is accursed through thy work, shall yield 
thee thorns and brambles." 

" Every good tree workcth good fruits, and an evil tree 
worketh evil fruits." By these words the Lord meant not 
those trees which grow in an orchard, which are lifeless, 
soulless, and void of understanding, but by their similitude 
he indicated those rational men, who have understanding, 
and work by their own will, cither good or evil. Good is the 
tree that brings forth good fruit, evil is that which stands 
barren, worse is that which bears evil fruit; and the man is 
praiseworthy who busies himself with good works, and sets 
example to others ; he is not praiseworthy who lives useless ; 
he is pernicious and doubly dead, as the apostle said, who is 
barren in goodness, and in evil ever growing and fruit-bear- 
ing. 

"The good tree cannot work evil fruits, nor the evil tree 
good fruits." Jesus said not that the evil man might not 
change and be good, but so long as he is evil, he cannot work 
good fruit. First shall a man turn himself from evil, that 
his works may be turned. But if a man continue evil, he 
cannot have good works ; and if a good man continue in his 
goodness, he cannot bring forth evil fruits; for God esta- 
blished instruction, and commanded the unlearned to be 
taught, that men should forsake evil, and turn to God, and 
contiime in goodness. 

" Every tree that worketh not good fruit shall be cut down, 
and cast into the fire." Of this cutting Jesus spake in an- 
other place through a parable, thus saying : ** A master of a 
household had planted a fig-tree within his vineyard, and 



408 DOM. IX. POST PENTECOSTExN. 

com ccfter fyrste to ^am treowe, solite waestm Sieron, and 
naenne ne gemette. He cwae"S "Sa to ]>cBS wiugeardes big- 
gengan, Efne im Sreo gear ic sohte waestm on "Sisum fic- 
treowe, and nseune ne funde : forceorf hit ; to hwT hrenTS hit 
"Sisne stede ? Se biggenga him andwyrde, Hlaford, liiet hit 
standan gearlangcs, o"Sj>;et ic hit bedelfe, and mid meoxe be- 
wurpe, and hit witodlice waestm wyrc^ ; gif hit ^onne beran 
nele, ^u cymst and forcyrfst hit." pa Sreo gear getacnodon 
"Sry timan ^issere worulde : ante legem, sub lege, sub gratia : 
]>xt is fer ae, under ^, under Godes gife. Se tima is agan j^e 
waes aer Moyscs ae, and se tima is agan 5e waes under Moyses 
ae, se tima stent gyt '5e is under Godes gife, |>«^t is fram 
Cristes to-cyme on mcnniscnysse o5 ])yssere worulde geen- 
dunge. On iSisum JSrym timan andbidaJS God mancynnes 
rihtingo and godc w;estmas. Hwjes bi? J^aet unwiestmbtere 
treow wyrSe aefter Sisum ])rim timum, buton scearpre texe ? 
Se biggenga bjed |?am treowe fyrst aet 5am hlaforde, swa swa 
se apostol Paulus cw.'eS, " Ic bige mine cncowu to (Sam ^El- 
mihtigan Faeder for eow, ]>iet ge beon on soSre lufe gewyrt- 
rumodc, J'a^t ge magon underfon mid eallum halgum hwaet sy 
bradnyss, langnyss, hcahuyss and deopnyss on Godes geset- 
nyssum ; and tocnawan eac "Sa oferstigendan soSan lufe 
Drihtnes Cristes, |>aet ge beon gefyllede on calre Godes ge- 
fyllednysse." Se apostol ^inga^ for us, bigende his cneowu 
to "San ^Imihtigan Hlaforde, j^aet we nc beon forcorfcne. 
Uton beon waestmbaere on godum weorcum, J7i-laes ^e se 
Hlaford lis waestmlease gemete, and hate us mid dea^es aexe 
forceorfan, and siSSan into ^am ecum fyre avvurpan. 

paet treow bi^ bedolfen and mid meoxe beworpen, ^onne 
se cristena man mid sobre eadmodnysse his synna behrcow- 
sa'S. Daes treowes ymb-gedelf is seo cadmodnys p»aes be- 
hrcowsiendan mannes ; f'aet meox is j?aet gemynd his fulan 
dffida, on ^aere daedbote. Hwaet is fulre ^onne meox ? and 
swa^^eah, gif ^u his wel notast, hwaet bi6 wn'stmbaerre ? 
Awend j'ine heortan mid so^rc daedbote, and Sin weorc biS 



THE NINTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 409 

came after a time to the tree, seeking fruit thereon, and found 
none. He said then to the dresser of the vineyard, Behold 
now for three years I have sought fruit on tliis fig-tree, and 
fouijd none : cut it down ; why cumbereth it this place ? The 
dresser answered him, Lord, let it stand a year longer, until 
I delve around it, and dress it with dung, and it then make 
fruit ; if it then will not bear, thou wilt come and cut it 
down." The three years betokened the three times of this 
world : ante legem, sub lege, sub gratia : that is, before the 
law, under the law, under God's grace. The time is gone 
that was before the law of Moses, and the time is gone that 
was under the law of Moses, the time stands yet that is under 
God's grace, that is, from Christ's advent in humanity until 
the ending of this world. In these three times God awaits 
the amendment of mankind and good fruits. Of what is the 
barren tree worthy after these three times, but of the sharp 
a.\e ? The dresser prayed a time for the tree of the lord, as 
the apostle Paul said, " I bow my knees to the Almighty 
Father for you, that ye may be rooted in true love, that ye 
may receive with all the holy what breadth, length, height 
and depth there is in God's laws ; and also know the sur- 
passing true love of the Lord Christ, that ye may be filled 
with all God's fullness." The apostle mediates for us, bow- 
ing his ktiees to the Almighty Lord, that we may not be cut 
do\Mi. Let us be fruitful in good works, lest the Lord find us 
barren, and conunand us to be cut down with the axe of 
death, and afterwards ca^t into the everlasting fire. 

The tree is delved around and dressed with dung, when the 
chrisliaii man with true lowliness repents of Ids sins. Tlie 
delving about of the tree is the lowliness of the repentant 
man ; the dung is the remend)rance of his foul deeds, in that 
penitence. ^Vhat is fouler than dung ? and yet, if thou well 
use it, what is more fruit-bearing ? Turn thy heart with 
true penitence, ami thy work will be turned. Root up greedi- 



410 DOM. IX. POST PEXTECOSTEN. 

awend. Awyrtwala griedignysse of Sinre heortan, and aplanta 
j7reron )?a soSan lufe. Seo grffidignys is. swa svva se apostol 
Paulus cwcP^, wyrtruma eelces yfeles, and seo so5e lufu is 
wyrtruma aelces godes. 

pu mann wylt habban god, iSu wilt liabban haelu }nnes 
lichaman, ac swa-^eah ne tala ))u l^a-t to niicclum gode )?aet 
•Se beefs eac swilce se yfela. Du wilt babban gold and seolfor : 
efne ^as Sing sind gode, gif Su In wel notast : gif Su sylf 
yfel bist, ne mibt Su In wel notian. Sind nu forSi gold and 
seolfor yfcle yfelum, and gode goduni. Hwaet frcmaS ])e )?aet 
■Sin cyst stande ful mid godum, and Sin ingehyd bco .-enitig 
eelces godes ? Du wilt babban god, and nelt Se sylf beon 
god. Sceaniian Se niaeg ])ddt Sin bus biebbe jelces godes 
genoh, and ba?bbe ]>e aenne yfelne. SoSlice nelt Su nan Sing 
yfeles liabban on Sinuni a^btuni : nelt Su babban yfcl wif, ne 
yfele cild, ne yfele Seowe men, nc yfel scrud, ne furSon yfele 
sceos ; and wylt swa-Seab babban yfel lif. Ic bidde |?e |?aet 
"Su Ifete buru Se Sin lif deorre |>onne Sine sceos. pu wilt 
babban ealle fa^gere Sing and acorcnc, and wilt ^e sylf beon 
waclic and unwurS. Dine aehta mid stylre stemne wyllaS ]7e 
wregan to Sinum Dribtne : * Efne Su forgeafe J^isum men J7us 
fela goda, and be sylf is yfel. Hwret fremaS bim ])x\, ]?{Rt he 
haefS, ]7onne be Done n^fS |?e bim Sa god forgeaf \>e he 
hsefS ?' Gif nu eowcr sum, onbryrd j>urb ^isum wordum, 
smeaS hwaet god sy, ponne secge we, ]fiBt ]?cet is god }>e Surh 
nanum ungelimpe forloren beon ne maeg. pu mibt forleosan 
unSances 'Sa Sing Se ateorian magon, ac gif ^u sylf for Gode 
god byst, ]78et "Su ne forlyst najfre unSances. 

Dribten cwjeS, " Ne faer^ into beofonan nee ie\c Sjera "Se 
cweiS to me, Dribten, Dribten ; ac se ^e wyrc^ mines Fajder 
willan |)e on beofonum is, se faerS into beofonan rice." Da 
■Se mid twyfealdum geSance clypia"S Dribten, Dribten, and 
cwe^a^ ]njet hi God cunnon, and bine swa-'Seab wi^sacaS mid 
heora yfelum daedum, nabbaS hi infser to beofonan rice ; ac 



THE NINTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST, 411 

ness from thy heart, and therein plant true love. Greediness 
is, as the apostle Paul said, the root of every evil, and true 
love is the root of every good. 

Thou man wilt have good, thou wilt have health of thy 
hody, hut yet account not that as a great good which the evil 
also has. Thou wilt have gold and silver : lo, these things 
are good, if thou well use them : if thou thyself art c\ il, thou 
canst not well use them. Gold and silver, therefore, are evil 
to the evil and good to the good. What profits it thee that 
thy chest stand full of good things, and thy mind he empty 
of every good ? Thou wilt have good, and wilt not thyself 
be good. It may shame thee that thy house has abundance 
of every good, and has thee alone evil. Thou wilt not for- 
sooth have anything evil in thy possessions : thou wilt not 
have an evil wife, nor evil children, nor evil serving-men, nor 
bad raiment, not even had shoes ; and will, nevertheless, 
have an evil life. I pray thee to let thy life be at least dearer 
to thee than thy shoes. Thou wilt have all fair and chosen 
things, and wilt thyself be mean and worthless. Thy pos- 
sessions with still voice will accuse thee to thy Lord, ' Lo, 
thou hast given to this man thus much good, and he himself 
is evil. What piofiteth him that which he hath, when he 
hath not Ilim who gave him those good things that he 
hath?' If now one of you, stimulated by these words, 
inquire what is good, then say ue, that that is good which 
cannot through any mishap he lost. Thou mayest, against 
thy will, lose the things that may perish, but if thou thyself 
art good for God, that thou wilt never lose against thy will. 

The Lord said, " Every one of those goeth not into the 
kingdom of heaven who say unto me, Lord, Lord ; but he 
who doeth the will of my Father who is in heaven, goeth into 
the kingdom of heaven." Those M'ho with twofold thought 
cry Lord, Lord, and say that they know God, and yet deny 
him hv their evil deeds, will not have entrance to the king- 



412 NATALE S. lACOBI APOSTOLI. 

\>a. ^e wyrca^ )?j£S Heofonlican Feeder willan fara^ into heo- 
fenan rice. Crist cwjeS on suniere stowe, " Hoc est opus 
Dei, ut credatis in euni qucni misit ille :" " paet is Godes 
wcorc, l^aet ge on ^one gelyfan j^e he asende." Dis is j^set 
fyrmeste weorc and se fyrmesta willa, ]?aet we gelyfon on ^one 
ancennedan Godes Sunu, Hfelend Crist, |)0Jie ^e se ^'Elmihtiga 
Faeder for vu-e alysednysse asende ; and 5one geleafan we 
sceolon, mid hluttruni mode and cawfestum 'Seawum ge- 
glengan, ]}iet we habbou infer to heofenan rice, swa swa 
Crist sylf eallum geieafTullum behet. Ilwilc eorSlic man 
dorste aefre gewibiian ]>a^t he moste to heofenan rices myrhSe 
becmnan, gif hit Crist sylf us ne behete, and for Si to inid- 
dancarde gewende, ]>iet he us to him gefette ? Sy him wwldor 
and lof, mid Ftedcr and Halgum Gaste, on eah-a worulda 
woruld. Amen. 



nil. KL AUGUSTI. 
NATALE SCI lACOBI APOSTOLI, 

ON pisum d.'pgc wc wurSia^ on urum lofsangum and on 
freolse ];one maeran Apostol Iacobum, lohannes bro^or ])sp& 
Godspelleres. Hi begen sind Cristes moddrian suna. pas 
he genam oftost, and Petrum to his sundcr-spraece, swa swa 
we on Cristes bee gehwaer reeda^. 

pes apostol lacobus bodode on ludea-lande, and on "Saere 
byrig j^e is Samaria gchaten. Da gelamp hit )?aet sum diy, 
Hermogenes gehaten, asende his gingran Philetum to iSani 
foresaedan apostole, jjaet he his lare Surh drycraeft adwellan 
sceolde. Philetus ^a com mid sumum phariseum to Sam 
apostole, and begann to wiScweSenne ^am geleafan "Se se 
apostol tcehte. Hw«t Sa lacobus se apostol, gebyld }?urh 
tJoiie Halgan Gast, aydlodo ealle j?aes dryes seSunge, and 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. JAMES THE APOSTLE. 413 

doni of heaven ; but tliose who do the Heavenly Father's 
will go into the kingdom of heaven. Christ said in some 
place, " Hoc est opus Dei, ut credatis in eum quern misit 
ille:" '* This is God's work, that ye believe in him whom 
he sent." This is the first work and the first will, that we 
believe in the only-begotten Son of God, Jesus Christ, whom 
the Almighty Father sent for our redemption ; and that belief 
we should adorn with pure mind and pious manners, that we 
may have entrance to the kingdom of heaven, as Christ him- 
self has promised to all the faithful. What earthly man durst 
ever desire that he might come to the joy of heaven's king- 
dom, if Christ himself had not promised it to us, and come 
to the world that he might fetch us to him ? Be unto him 
glory and praise, with Father and Holy Ghost, to all eternity. 
Amen. 



JULY XXIX. 
THE NATIVITY OF SAINT JAMES THE APOSTLE. 

ON this day we honour with our hymns and with festivity 
the great Apostle J.vmks, the brother of John the Evangelist. 
They are both sons of Christ's maternal aunt. These and 
Peter he took oftenest to his private speech, as we read 
everywhere in the book of Christ. 

This apostle James preached iii Judca, and in the city 
which is called Samaria. It then happened that a sorcerer, 
named Hermogenes, sent his disciple Philetus to the before- 
mentioned apostle, that he might make void his lore by 
sorcery. Philetus then came with some pharisees to the 
apostle, and began to gainsay the belief which the apostle 
taught. Whereupon James the apostle, emboldened by the 
Holy Ghost, rendered all the sorcerer's proof vaiji, and mani- 



414 NATALE S. lACOBI APOSTOLI. 

geswiitelode, ^urh witegena seSunge, \>iet Crist is so^ Godes 
Sunu. pa gecyrde se Philetus to his dwollicum lareowe 
Hermogenem, and cwse^, " Wite )m J^aet Su nateshwon ne 
miht ^urh Sinum drycraeftum |?oiie Godes apostol lacobum 
oferswi^an. Soeilice ic geseah jjset he, on Cristes nanian, 
deoflu adrffifde of woduni mannum, and jjaet he blinde onlihte, 
and hreoflice geclaensode ; and eac me holde frynd sjedon, 
J7fet hi gesawon hwter he iSa dcadan to life aicPrde. Ealle 
halige gewritu he haefb on gemyiule, J?a soSlice scSab paet se 
is Hfelend Crist, and nis nan oScr Godes Sunu, buton se ^e 
fram ludeum on rode ahangen wfes. Genim ^e nu minne 
Tied, and gecum to ^am apostole lacobe, and gebide Se milt- 
sunge )?ines gcdwyldes. Gif bu )?us ne dest, wite ^u ]>iet Sin 
drycrffift be to nanre frenie ne becyinJS. Ic wylle to him ge- 
cyrran, and biddan j^a^t ic mote hconon-forlS his leorning-man 
l)eon." 

Da wcarb se dry Ilermogcnes mid graman afylled, and 
geband jjone Philetum swa jja^t he hine bcwendan ne mihte, 
and cwfeb, " We sceolon geseon hvvaeScr bin lacobus be alyst 
fram bisum beudum." J)a asende se Philetus of bam benduni 
his cnapan ardlice to bam apostole, and he him asende sona 
his swat-clab, and cwaeb, " Nime he |>isne clab, and cwe^e, 
Drihten Crint arter^ |?a forscrcnctan, and he alyst ba gecyp- 
sedan." Philetus wearb ba alysed fram J^aes drycs bendum, 
swa hra^e swa se swat-cla^ hine hrcpode ; and he arn to "bam 
apostole, bysmrigende j^aes drj'es yfel-dfedum. 

Hwset ^a Hermogenes se dry clypode him deoflu to, and 
asende to t?am apostole, ]ms cwe^ende, " Fara^ nu ardlice to 
lacobe, and gebringa^ hine to me, and Philetum samod, 
minne leorning-cniht, ]?8et ic minne teonan on him gewrece, 
Jjaet mine o^re leorning-men me swa ne gebysmrian." Da 
deoflu ^a becomon to ^am apostole, )?8er he on his gebeduni 
stod, and ongunnon hryinan up on ^aere lyfte, ]>\is cwebende, 
" Eala "bu lacob, Godes apostol, gemyltsa us, for^an iSe we 
nu efne byrna^ eeriSan ^e se tima come ure ontendnysse." 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. JAMES THE APOSTLE. 415 

fested, through proof of the prophets, that Christ is the true 
Son of God. Philetus then returned to his tnisleadinsr 
teacher Ilerniogenes, and said, " Know that thou canst not, 
by any means, through thy sorceries, overcome James the 
apostle of God. Verily I saw that he, in the name of Christ, 
drove devils out of mad men, and that he enlightened the 
blind, and cleansed lepers ; and also faitliful friends said to 
me, that they had seen where he raised the dead to life. All 
the holy writings he has in memory, which truly prove that 
he is the Saviour Christ, and none other is the Son of God, 
save him who by the Jews was hanged on a rood. Take 
now my covm^el, and go to the apostle James, and pray thee 
mercy for thy error. If thou do not this, know that thy 
sorcery will turn for thee to no profit. I will return to him, 
and pray that I may henceforth he his disciple." 

Then was the sorcerer Hermogenes filled with rage, and 
he bound Philetus so that he could not turn himself, and 
said, " We shall sec whether thy James w ill loose thee from 
these bonds." Then Philetus from his bonds sent his servant 
(piickly to the apostle, and he forthwith sent him his sweat- 
cloth, and said, " Let him take this clotli, and say, The Lord 
Christ raiseth the oppressed, and he looscth the shackled." 
Philetus was then loosed from the sorcerer's bonds, as soon 
as the sweat-cloth touched him ; and he ran to the apostle, 
reviling the sorcerer's evil deeds. 

Hereupon Hermogenes the sorcerer called devils to him, 
and sent them to the apostle, thus saying, " Go now quickly 
to James, and bring him to me together with Philetus my 
disciple, that I may avenge my wrong on him, that my other 
disciples may not so revile me. ' The devils then came to 
the apostle, where he was standing at his prayers, and begun 
to cry up in the air, thus saying, " O thou James, apostle of 
God, have pity on us, for even now we are burning before the 
hour is come for our conflagration." The apostle said to 



416 XATALE S. lACOBI APOSTOLI. 

Se apostol hiin cwae^ to, " Hwi coine ge to me ?" Da deoflu 
andvvyidon, " Hermogcnes us asende, and het us Uedan him 
to ^e and Philetum ; ac Godes engel us gewraS mid fyrenum 
racenteagum, swa hraSe swa we hider comon, and we nu 
cwylmiaS." Se apostol lacobus cwae^, " On naman )78es 
^Iniihtigan Fasder, and his Suna, and Haliges Gastes, un- 
binde eow Godes engel, swa j^set ge faron to liermogenem, 
and hine gewri^enne, baton aeicere dare, liider gebringan." 
pa deoflu "Sa gecyrdon ongcan to Sam dryc, and gewriSon 
his handa to his hricgc, and swa laeddon to ^am apostole, ]ms 
cweSende, " pii asendest us ]'jer we wjeron ontcnde, and ge- 
wri^ene, and unaberendlice fornumcne." 

Da cw;e^ se apostol to <Sam dry, " pn dysegost manna, ]?u 
hopast ])iet ^u hfebbe Softnedene to '5am awyrigedan deofle, 
mancynncs feonde, pone hu ba>de p{et he 5e asende his deo- 
fellican englas to nniirc dare. Hwi nelt "Su bcsceawian J^jet 
ic liim gyt ne geSafige |?;et hi hcora Imtheortnysse on i5e 
aeteowian r" Da deoflu eac swilce cwaedon, " L^t hine on 
urum anwealde, j^^et we magon JSinne teonan wrecan, and ure 
ontendnysse." Se apostol cwc'eS, " Efne her stent a?tforan 
eow Piiiletus : hwT nelle ge hine niman, swa swa Hermogenes 
eow het?" Da deoflu and\\yrdon, " Ne mage we hreppan 
furSon fcnne wyrm binnon Sinuni clyfan." pa cWfP,^ se 
apostol to Piiiletum, " Hermogenes pe gewraS, unbind pu 
hine, ]>xt 5u oncnawe ures Drihtnes rcgol, J'eet men leornion 
agyldan god for yfele. He t)e wolde fram deoflum gebun- 
denne to him alfedan ; alys ^u hine nu fram deoflum gehfeftne, 
and Icet hine gan frigne." Philetus "Sa alysde his dwoUican 
lareow fram ^am deofellicum bendum, and se dry |?aer stod 
eadmod and ofsceamod. Da cwse^ se apostol, " Far ^e frig 
swa hwider swa "Su wille ; nis na ure gewuna |?aet aenig man 
un^ances to Gode gecyrre." Hermogenes him andwyrde, 
" Ic cann georne j^a^ra deofla hatheortnysse : buton Su me 
sylle sum Sinra }>inga mid me, hi gelaecca^ me, and mid 
mislicum witum acwella^." Se apostol cwae^, " Hafa 'Se 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. JAMES THE APOSTLE. 417 

them, " Why come ye to nic ? " The devils answered, " Her- 
mogenes has sent us, and bade us conduct to him thee and 
Philetus ; but God's angel bound us witii fiery chains as soon 
as we came hither, and we now suffer torment." The apostle 
James said, " In the name of the Almighty Father, and of 
his Son, and of the Holy Ghost, let the angel of God unbind 
you, so that ye may go to Ilermogcncs, and bring him hither 
bound, without any injury." The devils then returned to 
the sorcerer, and bound his hands to his back, and so led him 
to the ai>ostle, thus saying, " Thou didst send us where we 
were burnt, and bound, and intolerably tormented." 

Then said the apostle to the sorcerer, " Thou most foolish 
of men, thou trustest that thou hast fellowship with the ac- 
cursed devil, the foe of mankindj whom thou didst beseech 
that he would send his devilish angels to my injury. Why 
wilt thou not behold that I do not yet permit them to manifest 
their rage on thee r" "^Ihe devils also said, " Leave him in our 
power, that we may avenge thy wrong, and our conflagra- 
tion." The apostle said, " Behold here before you stands 
Philetus : why will ye not take him, as Hermogenes com- 
manded you?" The devils answered, "We may not touch 
even a worm within thy chamber." Then said the apostle 
to Philetus, " Hermogenes bound thee, unbind thou him, that 
thou mayest acknowledge our L«)rd's nde, that men shoidd 
learn to requite good for evil. He would have brought thee 
to him bound by devils ; loose him now confined by devils, 
and let him go free." Philetus theii loosed his erring master 
from the devilish bonds, and the sorcerer stood there humble 
and abashed. Then said the apostle, " Go free whithersoever 
thou wilt ; it is not our wont that any man turn to God 
against his will." Hermogenes answered him, " 1 well know 
the fury of the devils : unless thou give me one of thy things 
with me, they will seize me, and with divers torments kill 
me." The apostle said, " Have with thee my staff in hand, 
HOM. vor.. II. 2 k 



418 NATALE S. lACOBI APOSTOLI. 

minne stfpf on handa, and gang be orsorh svva hwider swa bu 
wille." Se dry "Sa nam |;one stfef, and gewende ham, and 
genam ealne his drycrfeft, and brohte to ^am apostole, and 
begann hi to forbaernenne. Se apostol cwaeS, " py-laes ^e se 
smic heora ontendnysse derige "Sam unwarum, awurp stanas 
and lead samod into ^am pusum, and besenc hy on sailicum 
y^um." Hermogenes swa dyde, and siJSban ]';es apostoles 
fet gesolite, biddende and cweSende, " pu sawla Alyscnd, 
underfoh me nu behreowsiendne, ]7one 5e 'bu o^ |?is andi- 
gendne and tfelendne forbtere." lacob se apostol him and- 
wyrdfe, " Gif ^u Gode so^e deedbote gcotTrast, his soeJan 
miltsunge j^u begyttit." Hermogenes cwaib, *' To ban snibe 
ic geoffrige Gode sobe behreowsunge, ])iet ic ealle mine bee, 
on "bam |?e se drycrieft onstod, awearp, and ic wibsoc eallum 
deofles crieftum samod." Se apostol andwyrde, " Far nu 
geond |?a^ra manna bus, be |m mid )ninnn drycrzefte forl<erdest, 
and gebig hi eft to heora Drihtne. Sege him ]>iet J>iEt is so^ 
);8et ^u iJer awaegdest, and ]>jct ]?tet is leas ]>iet "bu fier him to 
so^an tcehtest. piet deofolgyld, }>e "bu {er wui-bodest, to- 
brec ; and )>8et feoh, ^e ^u mid yfelum craefte begeate, aspend 
on Godes bearfum ; and swa swa ^u jer weere deofles beam, 
him geefenlaecende, swa ^u hist nu Godes beam, Gode ge- 
cfenh-ecende, seSe dfeghwomlice getiSab wel-da^da unbanc- 
wurbuni, and bine forseondum bigleofan gearcab. Gif se 
niildhcorta God be god wfes }>aba bu yfel waere, hu miccle 
swibor bib he ^e welwyllende, gif bu yfcles geswicst, and 
hine mid godum weorcum gegladast." Ilwfet se dry ba on 
eallum bingum paes apostoles lare gehyrsumode, and swa on 
Godes ege gebeah, paet he fela wundra geworhte on Godes 
nam an. 

Da gesawon ^a ludeiscan ]?aet se dry swa to Gode gecyrde, 
and ealle his frynd and leorning-cnihtas samod, ]>\nh lacobes 
lare. on Crist gelyfdon, sealdon ba feoh ];am tvvam hundrcdes 
ealdrum ]>e ^a burhware bewiston, and gebrohton pone apostol 
on cwearterne. Wear^ j'a micel styrung on ^am folce, and 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. JAMES THE APOSTLE. 419 

and go fearless whithersoever thou wilt." The sorcerer then 
took the staff, and went home, and took all his sorceries and 
brought to the apostle, and began to burn them. The apostle 
said, "Lest that the smoke of their conflagration hurt the 
dnwary, cast stones together with lead into the bags, and 
sink them in the sea waves." Hermogenes did so, and after- 
wards sought the apostle's feet, praying and saying, " Tiiou 
Redeemer of souls, receive nie now repenting, whom envying 
and reviling thou hast until now endured." James the 
apostle answered him, " If thou offercst to God true peni- 
tence, thou wilt obtain his true mercy." Hermogenes said, 
" So heartily do I offer to God true repentance, that I have cast 
away all my books in which the sorcery stood, and I have 
renounced all the crafts of the devil together." The apostle 
answered, " Go now among the houses of those men whom 
thou hast misguided by thy sorcery, and incline them again 
to their Lord. Say to them that that is true which thou be- 
fore didst contravene, and that that is false which thou before 
taughtest them for truth. The idol, which thou before didst 
worship, break in pieces ; and the nioncy, which by evil craft 
thou hast gotten, distribute among God's poor ; and as thou 
before wast a child of the devil, imitating him, so wilt thou 
now be a child of God, imitating God, who daily grants 
benefits to the thankless, and for those despising him prepares 
food. If the merciful God was good unto thee when thou 
wast evil, how much more will he be benevolent to thee, if 
thou cease from evil, and gladden him with good works!" 
Hereupon the sorcerer obeyed the apostle's precepts in all 
things, and throve so in awe of God, that he wrought many 
miracles in God's name. 

When the Jews saw that the sorcerer had so turned to 
God, and that all his friends and disciples together, through 
the doctrine of James, believed in Christ, they gave money 
to the two centurions who governed the inhabitants, and 
brought the apostle into prison. There was then a great stir 

2 K 2 



420 NATALE S. lACOBI APOSTOLI. 

wear^ geraedd, j^st he after \)'d?re ie hine beteakle. pa 
cvvifidon ^a sunder-halgan, "To hwi bodast "Su Crist, j^one 
man ]>e betwux scea^um ahaiigen wees ?" Hwfet ^a lacobus 
se apostol wearS afylled mid tiam Halgan Gaste, and him 
swutellice stede ]?a3ra witegena sebunge be Criste, be his 
acennednysse, be "Sam wundrum ])e he on Syssere worulde 
gefreniode, be his ^rowunge, be his feriste of deaSe, be his 
tipstige to heofenum, be his to-cyme on domes d;pge, \>kI he 
aelcum men agylde be his agenum gevvyrhtum. 

To l^yssere gerecccdnysse geniim se apostol mcnigfealde 
gyddunga and gewitnyssa heahfaedera and witegena, to ofer- 
drifenne Sa arleasan ludeiscan, and cwjeS, " Wenc ge, mine 
gebrobru, gif ge |?yses ne gclyfaS, j^aet ge magon fetwindan 
]?am egeslicum witum ])ies ecan fyres, bonne "Sa haebenan 
leoda gelyfab ^{era \v itcgena gcsctnyssum be Criste ? Be- 
wepab, ic bidde, eowere fyrn-lealitras mid heofigendum stem- 
num, ]>8eX se arffesta Miltsigend eowere behreowsunga underfo, 
|?i-lfes ^e eow getimige swa swa getimode Dathan and Abiron, 
•ba^a hi Moysen on ]?am westene forsawon, and "bone ^1- 
mihtigan God ]?earle gegremodon, swa swa hit gersed is : 
Seo eor^e gcopenode and forswealh Dathan, and heo ofer- 
wreah Abiron and his gegaderunge, and heofenlic fyr barn on 
heora gesamnunge, and ba synfuUan forbfernde." 

Hwaet ba, aefter jjysscre bodunge, forgeaf se mildheorta 
Drihten swa miccle gife his apostole, ]>iBt hi calle mid anre 
stemne clypodon, " We syngodon, we dydon unrihtlice ; syle 
us forgifennj'sse. Hwfet sceole we don ?" Se apostol and- 
wyrde, " Mine gebrobra, nelle geortruwian, gelyfab on Crist, 
and beo^ gefullode, and ealle eowere synna beob adilogode." 
^fter -bisum, ymbe feawa dagas, geseah Abiathar, -bfera 
ludeiscra heafod-biscop, ]>eet swa micel mennisc Iiideiscre 
maeg^e on Crist gelyfde, and wearS mid andan afylled, and 
sealde sceattas, and astyrede micele ceaste on "baere menigu, 
swa ]?pet an snnder-halga geband f'one apostol, and hine ge- 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. JAMES THE APOSTLE. 421 

among the people, and it was resolved that he should clear 
himself according to law. Then said the pharisees, " Why 
preachest thou Christ, the man who was hanged hetwcen two 
thieves ?" Whereupon James the apostle was filled with the 
Holy Ghost, and plainly said to them the confirmation of the 
prophets concerning Christ, of his bii'th, of the miracles 
which he performed in this world, of his passion, of his 
resurrection from death, of his ascension to heaven, of his 
coming on doom's day, that he may reward every man ac- 
cording to his own works. 

For this narrative the apostle took manifold utterances and 
testimonies of patriarchs and prophets, to confute the impious 
Jews, and said, " Do ye, my brothers, imagine, if ye believe 
not this, that ye can escape from the dreadful torments of 
the everlasting fire, when the heatlicn nations believe the 
traditions of the prophets concerning Christ ? Bewail, I 
beseech you, your sins of old with lamenting voices, that the 
clement Merciful may receive your repentance, lest it befall 
you as it befell Dathan and Abiram, when they despised Moses 
in the wilderness, and greatly provoked the Almighty (lod, 
as it is read : The earth opened and swallowed up Dathan, 
and it overwhelmed Abiram and his gathering, and heavenly 
fire burned in their assembly, and consumed the sinful." 

Whereupon, after this preaching, the merciful Lord gave 
to his apostle so much grace, that they all with one voice 
cried, " We have sinned, we have done unrighteously r give 
us forgiveness. What shall we do ?" The apostle answered, 
" My brothers, despair not, believe in Christ, and be baptized, 
and all your sins shall be obliterated." After this, within a 
few days, Abiathar, the Jewish head-bishop, seeing that so 
many people of the Jewish tribe believed in Christ, was filled 
with rancour, and gave money, and stirred up great strife in 
the multitude, so that a pharisee bound the apostle, and led 



422 NATALE S. lACOBI APOSTOLI. 

Ifedde to pies cyntres rlomeriie H erodes, se wies |)aes eukUin 
Herodes suna sunn -, and he het hine Sa beheafdian. 

Se sunder-halga "Sa, losias, Isedde )?one apostol to j^aere 
cwealm-stowe, and piev Iseg be ^am wege an bcdreda clypi- 
gende to Sam apostole, " Eala 5u lacob, Cristes apostol, 
alys me fram minum sarnyssum, forSan ^e ealle mine lymu 
sindon niicclum gccwylmode." Se halga apostol him cweeS 
to, " On mines Drihtnes naman aris hal, and bletsa "binne 
Haelend." Hwaet ^aerrihte aras se bedreda, and arn blissi- 
gende, and Cristes naman bletsigende. paSa se sunder- 
lialga losias jjtet tacn gcseah on (Sam bedredan men, )?a feol 
he to }?ffis apostolcs fotum, and cwaeiS, " Ic halsige be pfet ^u 
me do miltsunge iS;es Se ic wiJS Se agyltc, and do };aet ic beo 
daelnTmend on Driiitncs halgan naman." Da undergcat se 
apostol )>;et his hcorte wfes gencosod [-urh Godes Gast, and 
c\vaj<S, " Gelyfst bu \>iet Drihten Htelend, bone be Indei on 
rode-hengene acwealdon, is )>fes Lifigcndan Godes Sunu?" 
losias cw;eb, *' Ic gclyfe, and |^es is min geleafa fram "bissere 
tide, ];aet Crist is J^aes Lifigendan Godes Suim." pa het 
Abiathar, se ealdor-biscop, geniman bone losiam, and cwse^ 
him to, " Gif bu be hrabor ne gewitst fram lacobe, and buton 
bu \\yrigc Cristes naman, )ni scealt beoii beheafdod samod 
mid him." Da cwccb losias, " Sy bu awyriged on binum 
gedwyldum, and sy gebletsod Haelcndcs Cristes nama a to 
vvorulde." Abiathar ba het cnucian his mub, and sende to 
"bam cyninge Herode, and begeat ]?iet he moste hine beheaf- 
dian samod mid lacobe. 

Hi bccomon ^a to Sjere cwealm-stowe, and se apostol 
abffid him waeter beran. Him wearb ^a geboren to bucful 
waeteres, and he cwse^ to losian, " Gelyfst ^u on "bone ^El- 
mihtigan Fffider, and on his ancennedan Sunu, and on ^one 
Halgan Gast?" losias cwae^, " Ic gelyfe." Se apostol 
hine begeat mid bam Maetere, and cwse^, " Syle me sibbe 
coss." He hine cyste ba, and se apostol hine bletsode mid 



THE NATIVITY OF ST. JAMES THE APOSTLE. 423 

him to the judgement hall of the king Herod, who was the 
son's son of the old Herod ; and he then commanded him to 
be beheaded. 

Then the pharisee Josias led the apostle to the place of 
execution, and there lay by the way one bedridden, crying to 
the apostle, " O thou James, apostle of Christ, free me from 
my pains, for all my limbs are greatly tormented." Tlie 
holy apostle said to him, " In the name of my Lord arise 
whole, and bless thy Saviour." Whereupon the bedridden 
straightways arose, and ran rejoicing, and blessing the name 
of Christ. When the pharisee Josias saw that miracle in 
the bedridden man, he fell at the apostle's feet, and said, " I 
beseech thee that thou have mercy on me for that in which I 
have sinned against thee, and do tiiat I be a partaker in the 
Lord's holy name." Then the apostle understood that his 
heart was visited by the Spirit of God, and said, " Believest 
thou that the Lord Jesus, whom the Jews put to death on a 
rood, is Son of the Living God?" Josias said, *' I believe, 
and this is my belief from this time, that Christ is Son of the 
Living God." Then Abiathar, the chief bishop, commanded 
Josias to be taken, and said to him, "If thou the more 
(juickly dost not withdraw from James, and unless thou 
cursest the name of Christ, thou shalt be beheaded together 
with him." Then said Josias, " Be thou accursed in thy 
errors, and be the name of Jesus Christ blessed to all eter- 
nity." Abiathar then ordered them to strike him on the 
mouth, and sent to the king Herod, aijd obtained that he 
might behead him together with James. 

They came then to the place of execution, and the apostle 
prayed for water to be borne him. A bucketful of water was 
then borne to him, and he said to Josias, " Believest thou in 
the Almighty Father, and in his only-begotten Son, and in 
the Holy Ghost?" Josias said, "I believe." The apoetle 
sprinkled him with the water, and said, " Give me the kiss 
of peace." He then kissed him, and the apostle blessed him 



424 SANCTORUM SEPTEM DORMIENTIUM, 

rode-tacne, and he swa fulfremed on Godes geleafan under- 
feng beheafdunge mid )?ani apostole, and hi sigefeste samod 
ferdon to Criijte, Sam is wuldor and wurbmynt on eah'a 
worulda woruld. Amen. 



VI. KL. AUGUSTI. 
SA.NXTORUM SEI^EM DORMIENTIUM. 

WE \\ illaiS eow eac gereccan sceortlice, |>{fit nu wfter t\vani 
dagum is S^era Skofon Slapeua geinynd, ]?teranaman sind 
"Sus gecwedene, Maximianus, Malclius, Martinianus, Dioni- 
sius, lohannes, Scraphioii, Constantinus. pas seofon geleaf- 
fulhm Godes cempan wan-on, on Decies dagum j^ies casercs, 
wunigende on ^dere byrig Ephesum. Hi waaron a?5elborene 
for worulde, and wurdon to ^am haebenan cwellere gewrehte 
for heora cristendomc. Da nolde he hi saemtinges acwelhin, 
ac let him fyrst, for heora {e);elborennysse, J^tet hi hi be- 
"Sencan sceoldon, and bugan to his hiebcngylde, )?onne he eft 
come ; o^^e heora lichaman sceoldon beon mid mislicum 
tintrcgum gecwylmede. Decius "Sa gewende to o^rum burgiun, 
to tintregienne ^a cristenan, and "Sa seofan Godes Scgenas 
beceapodon lieora aihta wi^ feo, and piet Searfum digellice 
daildon, and eodon of ^aere byrig into anum micclum screafe 
under anre dune, and J?ter on gebcdum Surliwunodon dwges 
and nihtes. 

Eft ^a^a Decius com, ^a het he hi gelangian. pa wear^ 
him gesfied J^aet hi on 'Sam scrtefe behydde Wccron, and he ^a 
gehathyrt het fordyttan j'ses scraefes mu^ mid orma^tum 
weorc-stauum. Ac se mildheorta God hjefde lytle ^r hi 
ealle geswefode binnon "Sam scrwfe, and hi swa slapende 
lagon "Sreo hund geara, and twa and hund-seofontig geara, 
o^)?a6t cristendom becom ofer ealne middaneard. Eft Sa defter 
Sisum fyrste, on Stes caseres dagum Theodosies, seSe micclum 



THE SEVEN HOLY SLEEPERS. 425 

with the sign of the rood, and he thus perfect in the belief of 
God received decapitation with the apostle, and they trimn- 
phant went together to Christ, to whom is glory and honour 
for ever and ever. Amen. 



JULY xxvn. 

THE SEVEN HOLY SLEEPERS. 



WE will also shortly inform you, that now in two days is 
the memory of the Seve.n Sleepers, whose names are thus 
said, Ma.ximianus, Malchus, Martinianus, Dionysius, Johan- 
nes, Soraphion, Constantinus. These seven l)elieving soldiers 
of God were, in the days of the emperor Decius, dwelling in 
the city of Ephesus. They were of noble birth before the 
world, and were accused to the heathen slayer for their Chris- 
tianity. He would not slay them immediately, but granted 
them time, on account of their noble birth, that they might 
bethink themselves, and bow to his idol, when he came again ; 
or their bodies should be tortured with divers torments. 
Decius then went to other cities, to torment the christians, 
and the seven servants of God sold their possessions for 
money, and secretly distributed it to the poor, and went from 
the city into a great cave under a mountain, and there con- 
tinued in prayer day and night. 

When Decius again came, he commanded them to be sent 
for. It was then said to him that they were hidden in the 
cave, and he then enraged conunanded the mouth of the cave 
to be closed with iuunense hewn stones. But the merciful 
God had a little before put them to sleep within the cave, and 
they so lay sleeping three hundred and seventy-two years, 
until Christianity spread over all the world. Subsequently, 
after this time, in tlie days of the emperor Theodosius, who 



426 DOMINICA XII. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

on Crist belyfde, getimode \>set sume wyrhtaii afundoii bone 
Stan set j^aes scraefes mu^e, and hine aweg awiligdon. Hweet 
"Sa se ^Imihtiga Scyppend forgeaf 5am seofon halgum )?e on 
"Sam scraefe lagon ITf and aerist, aefter swa langum slsppe ; and 
hi wurdon ^a ameldode J?am burhwaruni. pis wundor wearS 
■Sa |?am cristenum casere Theodosie gecyd, and he mid blibum 
mode ^ider siSode mid ealre ])ipre burhware, and biscopum, 
and heafod-mannum. 

Da halgan martyras ^a ut-eodon of Sam scrjefe togeanes 
"Sam casere, and heora nebwlitu scean swa swa sunne. Se 
casere ^a Theodosius feoll {etforan him, and hcora aelcne 
synderlice cyste, micclum blissigcndc, and cwaeS, " Swa ic 
geseo eovv swilce ic gesawe Ha?lend Crist, ]?a§a he Lazarum 
of his byrgene arffirde.'' pa cwjeS se yldesta, Maximianus, 
to ^am casere, " Gelyf us, for ^e arserde se ^Ehnihtiga God 
us of eor^an xr ^am micchun da'ge, )>ffit 5u butoii twyn gclyfe 
l^aet deadra manna ferist biS. Nu we arison of deaSe, and we 
lybbatS. Stande nu Sin cynedom on sibbe and on so^um 
gcleafan, and Crist hine gescylde wiS deofles costnungum." 
-^ftcr Sison feollon hi eft ealle ietforan |'am casere, swa swa 
God behead, and heora gast ageafon. pa wolde se casere 
wyrcan him eallum gyldene scryn, ac hi aeteowodon him on 
^aere ylcan nihte, and sf^don, " Of eorSan we arison, laet us 
on eorSan gcrestan, oSJ^aet God us eft fera^re." Se casere "Sa 
and his biscopas araerdon maere cyrcan ofer heora lichamaii, 
to lofe 'Sam ^hnihtigan Gode, seSe leofaS and rixa^ a on 
ecnysse. Amen. 



DOMINICA XII. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

DIXIT lesus ad qnosdam qui in se confidebant tanquam 
iusti, et aspernabantur ceteros, parabolam istam : et reliqua. 
"Drihten sj«de ]>\s bigspel be sumum mannum }>e on him 



THE TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 427 

fervently believed in Christ, it happened that some workmen 
found the stone at the cave's month, and rolled it away. 
Whereupon the Almighty Creator gave to the seven saints 
that lay in the cave life and resurrection, after so long a 
sleep ; and they were then announced to the citizens. This 
miracle was then made known to the christian emperor Thco- 
dosius, and he with joyful mind journeyed thither with all 
the citizens, and bishops, and head men. 

The holy martyrs then went out from the cave towards the 
emperor, and their countenances shone like the sun. Then 
the emperor Theodosius fell before them, and kissed each of 
them separately, greatly rejoicing, and said, " I so see you as 
if I saw Jesus Christ, when he raised Lazarus from his 
sepulchre." Then said the eldest, Maximianus, to the empe- 
ror, " Believe us, for thee the Almighty Gotl hath raised us 
from earth before the great day, that thou without doubt may 
believe that there will bo a resurrection of dead men. We 
have now arisen from death, and we live. May thy kingdom 
stand in peace and in true belief, and may Christ shield it 
against the temptations of the devil." After this they all 
again fell before the emperor, as God had commanded, and 
gave up their ghosts. Then would the emperor make for 
them all golden siirines, but they appeared to him on the 
same night, and said, " From earth we arose, let us rest in 
earth, until God again raise us." Then the emperor and his 
bishops raised a great church over their bodies, to the praise 
of Almighty God, who livcth and reigneth ever to eternity. 
Amen. 



THE TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 

DIXIT Jesus ad quosdam qui in se confidebant tanquam 

justi, et aspernabantur ca^teros, parabolam istam : et reli(|na. 

" The Lord said this parable of some men who trusted in 



428 DOMINICA XII. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

sylfum truwodon ]>set hi rihtwise waeron, and oSre forsawon, 
j>us cweiSende, Twegen men eodon into Godes temple In to 
gebiddennc, an w;es sunder-halga, and oScr Mjes openlice 
synful :" ct reliqua. 

pis godspel mseg beon twyfealdlice getrahtnod : arest be 
ludeiscum folce, and be hfe^enum beodum J^e to cristendonie 
gebugon ; and eft si^^an be aelcnm nienn be bine sylfne 
godne talab, and o^re forsihS. pmt ludeisce folc wtes up- 
ahafen swilce |>urh rihtwisnyssum piere ealdan te, and on ^tere 
hi sylfe herodon ; and ]><et hteSene folc, feor fram Godc, 
andettc mid cadmodnysse his synna, and wearS Gode genea- 
];eht and ahafen, and }>iet ludeisce folc gewat fram Gode for- 
sewen, jnn'h hoora up-ahefednysse and agenre bogunge. .^^i^lc 
man, ^e bine godne talaS and oiSre forsibS, biS fram Gode 
forsewen swa se sunder- balga Wfes, ]>e bine sylfne (Surh 
agenum geearnungum godne tealde, and 5one oSerne hyrwde. 
He code into Godes temple bine to gebiddenne; |>a nolde he 
bine gebiddan, ac hcrian ; tealde his godan dteda, swilce God 
hi nyste. He cwaiS, " God ! ic ^ancige 5e ])iei ic ne eom nu 
swilce o5re menn ;" eallcs to micel clypung, j^cet he niere 
OtSrum mannum gelTc. Huru gif he cwiode |?ajt he neere 
suniMm obrum mannum gclTc, — ac be cwseS, " Ic ne eom 
Bwilceswa oSre men ;" swilce be cwflede, * Ic ana eom rihtwis, 
and Sa o^re sind synfulle.' 

" Ic fcEste twegen dagas on ^sere wucan, and ic teo^ie calle 
mine tebta." Nis her nan gebed on 'bisum wordum, ac is 
gylp. Se synfulla stod feorran, gecnaewe his misdaida, and 
ne dorste his eagan up-ahebban, ac sloh his breost, ];us cweS- 
ende, " Deus, propitius esto mibi peccatori :" pmt is, "God 
^Elmihtig, gemiltsa me synfullum." Her is gebed on ^isum 
wordum, and her is synna andetnys. Betere biS J^aet se man 
mid fcawuni wordum, mid onbryrdum mode to -Sam ^Elmihti- 
gan Gode clypige, ]?onne he menigfealdlice sprece, and bis 
worda ne gymc. Mid anre clypunge wearb jjes synfulla 



THE TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 429 

themselves tliut they were righteous, and despised others, 
thus saying. Two men went into God's temple to pray, one 
was a pharisee, and the other was openly sinful," etc. 

This gospel may be doubly expounded : first of the Jewish 
people, and of the heathen nations that turned to Christianity; 
and then again, of every man that accounts himself good, and 
contemns others. The Jewish people were, as it were, exalted 
through the righteousness of the old law, and for which they 
praised themselves ; and the heathen folk, far from God, 
confessed their sins with humility, and became near to God 
and exalted, and the Jewish folk withdrew from God despised, 
through their arrogance and own perversity. Every man, 
that accounts himself good, and contemns others, will be 
contemned of God, as the pharisee was, who, through his 
own merits, accounted himself good, and contemned the 
other. He went into God's temple to pray ; then would he 
not pray, but praise himself; he reckoned up his good deeds, 
as if God knew them not. He said, " God ! I thank thee 
that I am not as other men ;" an exclamation altogether too 
great, that he was not like to other men. At least if he had 
said that he was not like to some other men, — but he said, 
" I am not as other men ;" as if he had said, ' I alone am 
righteous, and the others are sinful.' 

" I fast two days in the week, and I tithe all my posses- 
sions." Here is no prayer in these words, but there is vaunt. 
The sinful stood afar off, conscious of his misdeeds, and 
durst not lift up his eyes, but beat his breast, thus saying, 
" Deus, propitius esto mihi peccatori :" that is, " God Al- 
mighty, have mercy on me a sinner." Here is prayer in 
these words, and here is confession of sins. It is belter that 
a man with few words, with compunctious mind, cry to the 
Almighty God, than that he manifoldly speak, and be not 
heedful of his words. With one crying this sinful man was 



430 DOMINICA XII. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

gerihtwisod, swa swa Diihten be him cwae^, " So^S ic eow 
secge, He code ham gerihtwi^od fram bam obrum." 

Is svva-tieah swiSe fremfullic, \>xt gehwa hine gelome and 
georiilice to Gode gebidde, gif his mod biS to San switie 
onbryrd ; elles man sceal hine sceortlice, mid onbryrdnysse 
and behreowsunge, gebiddan. Ne sceole we telhm, gif we 
hwaet lytles to gode gedob, ac we sceolon gcriman ure mis- 
dfeda mid wope and geomnmge, and ]>tera miltsunge gebiddan. 
peah ^e hwa micel to gode gedo, and sibJSan mid gylpe ifit- 
foran Gode his wel-da^da gerime, )jonne beo(S hi Gode swa 
gccweme swa him wferon J>;es gylpendan sunder-halgan. Nis 
Gode nan neod ure godan drtnhi, ac hi frcmiaS us sylfum to 
"San ccan life, gif lii buton ydchun gylpe for his lufan beo5 
gefrcmode. He sect) godne willan on urum daHlum, na his 
neode. peah ^e hwa fede a^nne Searfan oJSbe ma, for Godes 
naman, hu m^eg he ]r,pt to miccluni tollaii, ]?onne God afett 
hine and ealne middaneard ? Gif he sum bus Gode arterS, 
hwfet ma^g j'a^t to \\ iSmetennysse ]>,evc healican heofenan, 
and Saere ecan wununge ]'e God him gcarcaS on his rice, to 
edleane )';es lytlan buses ? 

Se witega Ezechiel awrat be ^am feowcr nytenum )?e him 
a^teowode Wieron, \>ipt hi h*fdon cagan him on aelce healfe. 
An "Sajra nytena wa-s on menniscre ansyne him steowod, 
oiSer on leon ansyne, j^iidde on cealfes, feorSe on earnes. 
pas feowcr nytenu getacnodon iSa feower godspelleras, Ma- 
theus, Marcus, Lucas, lohannes, and eac ealle Godes bydelas 
]?e "ba godspellican lare bodedon. pa feower nytenu h;efdon 
eagan on aelce healfe heora lichaman, forSan -Se Godes ge- 
corenan sceolon foresceawian heora dteda on ;elce healfe, svva 
pffit hi symle god gewilnian, and wi^ yfel hi gewarnian. Ac 
hit getimaS oft, for ure tyddernysse, j^set we sume ^ing for- 
gymeleasiaS, }>a hwile ]>e we ynibe sume hogiaS ; and buton 
twyn nsebbe we nan cage \>eer Seer seo gymcleast bib. Efnc 
]7es sunder-halga, ]>e we aer ymbe-spivecon, hfefde opene 
eagan to forb^efednysse, to aelmes-da^dum, to bancigerme 



THE TWELFl^H SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 431 

justified, as the Lord said concerning him, " Verily I say unto 
yen, He went home from the other justified." 

It is, however, very profitable, that every one pray to God 
oft and fervently, if his mind be greatly stimulated thereto ; 
else a man should pray shortly with compunction and repent- 
ance. We should not proclaim it, if we do some little good, 
but we should enumerate our misdeeds with weeping and 
groaning, and implore mercy for them. Though any one do 
much good, and afterwards with vaunt before God enumerate 
his good deeds, then will they be as pleasing to God as were 
those of the vaunting pharisee. God has no need of our 
good deeds, but they facilitate to us ourselves the everlasting 
life, if without idle vanTit they are performed for his love. 
He seeks good will in our deeds, not his need. Though any 
one feed one or more poor, for God's name, how can he ac- 
count that as much, when God feeds him and all the world ? 
If he raise a house to God, what can that be in comparison 
with the high heaven, and the eternal dwelling which God 
prepares for him in his kingdom, in reward for that little 
house ? 

The prophet Ezekiel wrote of the four beasts which ap- 
peared to him, that they had eyes on every side. One of 
those beasts appeared to him with the face of a man, the 
second with a lion's face, the third with a calf's, the fourth 
with an eagle's. These four beasts betokened the four evan- 
gelists, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and also all God's 
messengers who preached the evangelical lore. The four 
beasts had eyes on every side of their bodies, because God's 
chosen should consider their deeds beforehand on every side, 
so that they ever desire good and guard themselves against 
evil. But it often happens, through our weakness, that we 
neglect some things, while about some we are solicitous ; and 
without doubt we have no eye there where the heedlessness 
is. Lo this pharisee, of whom we before spake, had open 
eyes for abstinence, for alms-deeds, for thanking God, but he 



432 DOMINICA XII. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

Gode, ac he naefde naenne wferscipe p^t he iSa so^an cadmod- 
nysse on his wel-daedum geheolde. La hwaet frema^ S^ere 
burhvvare j^eah ^e ])ist port beo trumlice on aelce healfe ge- 
tinibrod, gif Ster bib an hwem open forlfeten, ]?<'et se onwin- 
nenda here {jurh ^am infaer h;ebbe ? 

We sceolon on urum wel-daedum blissian mid so^re ead- 
modnysse, and urum Drihtne geornlice bancian his gife, ]nRt 
he us geu^e |;;et we moston his wilhm gewyrcan jjurh sume 
wel-d;ede. Ne maig nan man naht to gode gcdon buton 
Godes gife, swa swa se apostol Pauhis cw;eS, " pu mami, 
hw£fit haefst Su ]>ies ^e ^u fram Gode ne undcrfenge? Hwi 
wuldrast Su swilce ^u nan ^ing ne underfenge?" Be ^an 
ylcan cwaeS eac ure Drihten, " Ne mage ge nan Sing to gode 
gedon buton me." peah be ure dfeda beon gode gebuhte, to 
hvvan magon hi, gif ht Gode ne liciab ? 

" /Elc ba.'ra be hinc onhefb bib geeadmet, and se "be hine 
sylfne geeadmet, se bib ahafcn." Ne bib pes cwyde na symle 
sona gefylled on manna gcsilibum, bib svva-beah forwel oft, 
swa swa we on bocum gehwter ra^.dab, |)ait se ^hnihtiga 
Scyppend for oft ba ofermodati unbanccs geeadmette. An 
•bfera wws Nabochodonosor, ober wtes his sunu Balthasar, 
and manega obre him to-eacan, jjeah ^e we bas sinderlice 
namian. Nabochodonosor, se htebena cyning, gehergode on 
Godes folce, on ludea hinde, and for lieora mandjedum God 
Jjset ge^afode. Da genam he ba mabm-fatu, gyldene and 
sylfrene, binnon Godes temple, and to his lande mid him ge- 
laedde. Hit gclamp eft siSban J^aet he on swefne ane gesihbe 
be him sylfum geseah, swa swa him sybban aeode. ^fter 
■bison ymbe twelf mona^, eode se cyning binnon his healle 
mid orniffitre up-ahefednysse, herigende his weorc and his 
mihte, and cwse^, " Hu ne is ]?is seo micde Babilon ^e ic 
sylf getimbrode to cyne-stole and to "brymme me sylfum, to 
wlite and to wuldre, mid minum agenum maegene and 
strengbe?" Ac him clypode j^aerrihte to swibe egeslic stenm 
of heofenum, pus cwe^ende, " pu Nabochodonosor, |»in rice 



THE TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 433 

had no care to hold true lowliuess among his virtues. Ah 
what profits it the citizens though the gate be firmly con- 
structed on every side, if there be a corner left open, that the 
assailing host through that have entrance ? 

We should rejoice in our good deeds with true lowliness, 
and fervently thank our Lord for his grace, that he grant us 
that we may work his will through some good deed. No 
man can do aught of good without God's grace, as the apostle 
Paul said, " Tliou man, what hast thou that thou hast not 
received from God ? Why gloriest thou as if thou hadst re- 
ceived nothing r " C)f the same our Lord also said, " Ye can 
do nothing good without me." Though our deeds may ap- 
pear good, to what purpose are they, if they are not pleasing 
to God ? 

" Every one of those which exalt themselves shall be hum- 
bled, and he who humblcth himself shall be exalted." This 
saying is not always forthwith fulfilled in the sights of men, 
yet is very often, as we read everywhere in books, that the Al- 
mighty Creator very often humbles the proud against their will. 
One of these was Nebuchadnezzar, another was his son Bcl- 
shazzar, and many others besides them, though we name these 
particularly. Nebuchadnezzar, the heathen king, warred on 
God's folk, in the land of Judea, and God permitted it for 
their crimes. Tlien took he the vessels of gold and silver 
within God's temple, and brought them with him to his land. 
It afterwards befell that he in a dream saw a vision concern- 
ing himself, as it afterwards happened to him. About a 
twelvemonth after this the king went into his hall with un- 
bounded arrogance, praising his works and his might, and said, 
" How, is not this the great Babylon, which I myself have 
built for a royal seat and for grandeur to myself, for beauty 
and for glory, with my own main and strength ?" But a very 
awful voice straightways called to him from heaven, thus 
saying, "Thou Nebuchadnezzar, thy kingdom shall depart 

UOM. VOL. IF. 2 F 



434 DOMINICA XII. POST PENTECOSTEN. 

gewit fram ^e, and \>n bist fram maniuim aworpen, and -Sin 
wunung biS mid wildeorum, and j^u etst gaers, swa swa oxa, 
seofon gear, o^j^aet bu wite |?aet se healica God gewylt manna 
ricu, and j^aet he forgifS rice ^am ^e he wile." 

" Witodlice on |7iere ylcan tide wfes )?eos spr?ec gefylled 
ofer Nabochodonosor, and he arn to wuda, and wunode mid 
wildeorum, leofode be grerse, swa swa nytcn, obj'aet his feax 
wxox swa swa wimmanna, and his naeglas swa swa earnes 
clawa." Eft sii5ban him forgcaf se yElmilitiga Wealdend his 
gewitt, and he cwae^, " Ic Nabochodonosor ahof mine eagan 
tip to hcofonum, and min andgit me wearb forgiftn, and ic 
■Sa bletsode )>onc Hehstan God, and ic herode and wuldrode 
J?one ^e leofaS on ecnyssc, forSan 5e his miht is ece, and his 
rtce stent on nuegSe and on mjegc5e. Ealle eorS-bugiende 
siiid to naiite getealde on his wiSmetenysse. /Efter Iiis willaii 
he deS a^gber ge on heofonan ge on eorban, and nis nan "Sing 
]>c his mihte wiSstandc, oiSSe him to cweSe, IIwi dest "Su 
swa ? On ^{ere tide min andgit gcwende to me, and ic becom 
to wurJSmynte mines cynerices, and min mennisce hiw me 
becom. Mine witan mo sohton, and min n)}erS wear^ ge- 
eacnod. Nu eornostlice ic maersige and wuldrige ^one Heo- 
fonlican Cyning, forSan "Se ealle his weorc sind soSe, and his 
wegas rihtwise, and he maeg geeadmettan Jja 5e on modig- 
nysse faraS." 

pus geeadmette se .-Elmihtiga God Sone modigan cyning 
Nabochodonosor. Balthasar his sunu feng to rtce iefter his 
feeder geendunge, and nses gemyndig his faeder swingle, ac 
wear^ ahafen mid modignysse ongean "Sam -^Imihtigum. 
*•' On sumere tide he feormode ealle his witan, and het beran 
for^ J7a gyldenan and sylfrenan maSm-fatu, pe his faeder on 
Godes temple binnon Hierusalem genam. Hi druncon ^a 
of ^am halgum fatum, and herodon heora hae^enan godas ; ac 
|>{errihte wearS gesewen swilce anes mannes hand writende 
on "Stere healle wage, aetforan iSam cyninge, ]?as word. Mane, 



THE TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 435 

from thee, and thou shalt be cast out from men, and thy 
dwelling shall be with wild beasts--, and thou shalt eat grass, 
as an ox, for seven years, until thou knowest that God on 
high ruleth the kingdoms of men, and that he giveth empire 
to whomsoever he will." 

'^ Verily at that same time this speech was fulfilled upon 
Nebuchadnezzar, and he ran to the wood, and dwelt with 
wild beasts, lived on grass, as a neat, until his hair grew like 
women's, and his nails like the claws of an eagle." After- 
wards the Almighty Ruler again gave him his wit, and he 
said, " I Nebuchadnezzar lifted mine eyes up to heaven, and 
my understanding was given unto me, and I then blessed the 
Most High God, and I praised and glorified him who liveth 
to eternity, for his might is everlasting, and his kingdom 
standeth from generation to generation. All earth-dwellers 
are accounted as naught in comparison with him. According 
to his will he docth both in heaven and on earth, and there is 
nothing that can withstand his might, or say unto him. Why 
doest thou so ? At that time my understanding returned 
unto me, and I came to the honour of my kingdom, and my 
human form returned to me. My counsellors sought me, 
and my greatness was increased. Now verily I magnify and 
glorify the Heavenly King, for all his works are true, and his 
ways righteous, and he can humble those that walk in pride." 

Thus humbled the Almighty God the proud king Nebu- 
chadnezzar. Belshazzar his son succeeded to the kingdom 
after his father's end, and was not mindful of his father's 
chastisement, but was lifted up with pride against the Al- 
mighty. " On a certain time he feasted all his counsellors, 
and bade be borne forth the golden and silver vessels which 
his father had taken in God's temple within Jerusalem. 
They drank then from the holy vessels, and praised their 
heathen gods; but straightways was seen as it were a man's 
hand writing on the wall of the hall, before the king, these 

2 F 2 



436 DOMINICA XII. POST PENTECOSTEX. 

TuECHEL, PiiAUKs. pa wearS se cyning to ban swibe 
afyrht, j^ait he eal scranc, and him man l^edde };one witcgan 
to Danihel. He cw8e"5 to ^am witcgan, Rjed me )>is gewrit, 
and ic ^e forgife eal purpuran reaf and gyldeinie swur-beah, 
and l^u hist se ^I'idda mann to me on minum nee. Danihel 
him andwyrde, Gif 5am ]7e ^u wille ^ine sylene, "Sis gewrit 
ic "Se gerecce. Du noldest Se warnian jnirli )>ines ffeder 
Sreale, ac drunce of Godes mabm-fatum, and herodest JSine 
hffixSenan godas, dumbe and deafe. Nu asende se yEhnihtiga 
God |>e '5is gewrit ^c on JSinre hcalle wage stent : Mane, 
Tiiechel, Pliares. Mane, jjiet is, God h<ef5 geteald |?in nee, 
and gecndnd ; Tiiechel, paet is, he awaeh Sin rice on weegan, 
and he hit afunde gewiinod ; Phares, ]>,et is, "Sin rice is to- 
dceled and forgifen Medum and Persciscum. pa het se 
cyning syllan 'Sam witcgan Danihcle purpuran rcaf and gyl- 
denne swur-bcah, and het cySan geond call, j^jet he waere se 
"Sridda man to him. On Sjerc ylcan niiite comon Mcdas, and 
ofslogon ])onc Balthasfir, and Darius Mcda feng to his rice." 



Fela bysna we mihton eow gereccan be "Sison andgite, hu 
se yElmilitiga for oft Sa modigan gccadmette, and )?a ead- 
modan geufcrode and ahof ; ac ge magon be Sison, gif ge 
wylhiS^ niicel understandan, and Surh jjas race ge magon eow 
sylfe gerihtlaecan to soSre eadmodnysse, gif ge gesaelige beoS. 

Geunne eow se ^Imihtiga, ]>urh his maegeniSrymme, on 
"Syssere worulde gesundfulnysse and so"Sre eadmodnysse, and 
eow ahebbe to his heofonlican rice, se^e ana gewylt ealra 
gesceafta. Amen. 



THE TWELFTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 437 

words, Mexe, Tekel, Peres. Then was the king so greatly 
affrightcdj tliat he all shrank, and they led to hun the prophet 
Daniel. He said to the prophet, Read me this writing, 
and I will give thee a robe all purple, and a golden neck- 
chain, and thou shalt be the third man after me in my king- 
dom. Daniel answered him, Give thy gift to whom thou 
wilt, I will interpret tliis writing unto thee. Thou wouldst 
not take warning througii thy father's punishment, but didst 
drink from God's vessels and praise thy heathen gods, (hnnb 
and deaf. Now hatii Almighty God sent thee this writing 
which standcth on the wall of thine hall : Mene, Tekel, 
Peres. Mene, that is, God hath numbered thy kingdom, 
and ended it. Tekel, that is, He hath weighed thy kingdom 
in the balance, and he hath found it wanting. Peres, that is, 
Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medcs and 
Persians. Then commanded the king a purple robe and a 
golden neck-chain to be given to the prophet Daniel, and 
commanded it to be proclaimed everywhere, that lie should be 
the third man after him. In the same night came the Medes, 
and slew Belshazzar, and Darius the Mede took bis king- 
dom." 

Many examples wc could relate to you in this sense, how 
the Almighty hath very often humbled the proud, and exalted 
and raised up the lowly ; but ye may, if ye will, understand 
much by this, and through this narrative ye may direct your- 
selves to true lowliness, if ye will be happy. 

May tlu; Almighty, through his power, grant you in this 
world prosperity and true humility, and raise you to his 
heavenly kingdom, who alone ruleth all creatures. Amen. 



438 

XVIII. KL. SEP1\ 
ASSUMPTIO SOE MARIiE UIRGINIS. 

MEN "Sa leofostan, Invilon ^r we rehton eow ^one pistol pe 
se halga Hicronimus sette be forSsiSc ]?sere eadigan Marian, 
Cristes nieder, )?urh ]?oiie he achvaescte tSa dwoUican geset- 
nysse J?e sainl;5erede men stedon be hire forSsitSc. Nu wylle 
■vve eow gereccan be ^am halgaii godspelle ])e man jet ^yssere 
m&essan eow aitforan raedde : " Intrauit lesus in (luoddam 
castelhun :" et reliqua; " Se Hselend bccom into sumere 
eaSelican byrig, and an wif, Martha gehaten, gehibode hine 
to l)ire gereorde :" et reliqua. 

Ne sprecb )ns godspcl nan )nng sindcrlice be Cristes meder, 
ac man hit raet swa-beah gcwunelice aet hire mflessan, for 
tSwre cyrclican gcsctnysse. Augustincs trahtnungc we fyliab 
on Sisum godspelle. 

pas twa wif, Martha and Maria, wieron ])xs Lazares ge- 
swustru, pe se Hfelend of deaSe araerde. HI waeron butu 
"pies Hailcndes leorning-men, and he gclome cEt heora huse 
hine gereorde mid his leorning-cnihtum. Hi waeron gecyr- 
rede to micelre eawfa^stnysse Surh Cristes liire and wundrum, 
and he ht lufode forbi. He underfeng heora Senunga, forSan 
iSe he hiefde soSne lichaman, J?urh Sone 5e him hingrode and 
pyrste. Se underfeng ]?8era wimmanna |?enunge in Sam hnse 
se'Se on westene waes fram englum gereordod. Nu "SencaiS 
sume men ))iet Sa wTf waeron gesaelige p?et hi swilcne cuman 
underfengon. Sob jjaet is, gesselige hi waeron, ac swa-beah 
ne "burfe we ceorian |?aet Drihten nis lichamlice on iSyssere 
worulde wunigende nu, swa swa he ^a waes, |>aet we mihton 
hine eac to us gela^ian, forban ^e he cwae^, " Swa hwaet swa 
ge do^ on minum naman anum ^am laestum, paet ge do^ me 
sylfum." 

Martha wa^.s swibe bysig ymbe Drihtnes benunge, and hire 
swuster Maria saet stille aet Drihtnes fotum, hcorcnigcnde 



439 



AUGUST XV. 
THE ASSUMPTION OF THE HOLY VIRGIN MARY. 

MEN most beloved, a while ago we interpreted to you the 
epistle wliich Saint Jerome composed on the death of the 
blessed Mary, the mother of Christ, by wliich he extin- 
guished the»erroneoiis tradition that half-learned men related 
concerning her death. We will now narrate to you concerning 
the holy gospel which has been read before you at this mass : 
'^ Intravit Jesus in quoddam castellum :" et reliqua; "Jesus 
came into a certain town, and a woman, named Martha, in- 
vited him to her refection," etc. 

Now this gospel says nothing in particular concerning the 
mother of Ciirist, but it is, nevertheless, usually read at her 
mass, for the church lesson. Augustine's exposition we fol- 
low in this gospel. 

These two women, Martha and Mary, were the sisters of 
Lazarus, whom Jesus raised from death. They were both 
disciples of Jesus, and he frequently took refection at their 
house with his disciples. They liad turned to great piety 
through Ciirist's precepts and miracles, and he loved them 
on that account. He received their services, because he had 
a true body, through which he hungered and thirsted. He 
received the women's services in tlie house, who had been fed 
in the wilderness bv anijels. Now some men will think that 
the women were blessed in receiving such a guest. It is 
true, they were blessed, but yet we ought not to murmur that 
the Lord is not now dwelling in this world bodily, as he then 
was, so that we could also invite him to us, for he said, 
" Whatsoever ye do in my name for one of the least, that ye 
do for myself." 

^Llrtha was very busy about ministering to the Lord, and 
her sister Mary sat still at the Lord's feet, hearkening to his 



440 ASSUMPTIO S. MARI^ UIRGINIS. 

his lare. Martha swaiic, and Maria sset semtig. On bisinn 
twam gcsvvustrum wferon getacnode twa lif, ]/is geswincfuUe 
^e we onwunia^, and j^aet ece "Se we gewihiia^ ; j^aet an lif 
is wraecful, ]>iet oSer is eadig ; an hwilwendlic, oSer ece. 
Martha sprtec cuSlice to 5ani Heelende, wolde |?cet he hete 
hire swuster hire fylstan set ■Siere Senunge, j^e heo micchnn 
ymbhogode. pa heladode Drihtcn Marian, and cwteS, 
" Martha, Martlia, ]>u eart earful and bysig ynibe fcla Sing : 
uitodlice an 'Sing is nyd-behof." An "Sing biS geset toforan 
callum : nis ]>iet an Sing fram nianeguni, ac manega "Sing sind 
fraai "Sam anum ; fela Sing siind geworhte, ac an is seSe ge- 
worhte hcofcnas and corSan, ste and ealle gesceafta: ]ni ealle 
gesccop and gcworhte an God, se^e ana is soS God on Srini 
haduni wunigende. Efne Sa gcsceafta sindon swiSe gode, ac 
se ana is bctcre Se hi ealle gcsceop ; |»ises anes gcwilnode 
Maria, SaSa heo gesfcet set Godcs fotum, his word heorcni- 
ende. Martha w^es geornful hu heo mihtc God fcdan ; Maria 
hogode swiSor hii heo niihto, jnirh Godes lare, hire sawle 
gereordigan ; forSan J?e "S.'es modes gereordung is betere 
l^onne Sfere wambe. Soo swuster lit wolde habban to hire 
bysegan, ac Drihten w^es hire forcspreca, and heo Siet "Sa 
orsorhgrc. 

Drihten cwaeS, " Maria gcceas pone selestan da^l, se ^e ne 
biS hire njefre a?tbr6den." God Wces Marthan Senung, SaSa 
heo "Sam ^hnihtigan |>enode, ac swa-Seah Maria geceas |?one 
selran dal. Hwi selra ? for^an Se hit ne biS hire niefre 
aetbroden. Witodlice ]>azt \>xt Martha geceas is hire nu ajt- 
broden. Heo geceas geswinc, ac hire is j^aet setbroden, for^an 
Se Crist hi gcbrohte to ecere reste on his rice, swa swa he 
bchet eallum him ^eniendum, pus cwe^ende, *' Deer "Saer ic 
sylf beo, |?«r biS min ^en." Martha swanc "Sa swilce on 
rewette, and Maria siJet stille swilce set 'Ssere hy^e. Heo 
WcBS bysig ymbe anum Singe, and heold paes witegan cwyde, 
pe cwffi^, " Me is god paet ic me to Gode ge^eode, and sette 
minnc hiht on Drihtne." Swi^e god Senung is and heri- 



THE ASSUMPTION OF THE HOLY VIRGIN MARY. 441 

lore. Martha toiled, and Mary sat unoccupied. By these 
two sisters were betokened the two lives, this toilsome one in 
which we exist, and the everlasting which we desire ; the one 
life is an exile, the other is happy ; one transitory, the other 
everlasting. Martha spake plainly to Jesus, desiring that he 
would command her sister to aid her in tlie serving, about 
which she was greatly solicitous. Tlien the Lord exculpated 
Mary, and said, " Martha, Martlia, thou art careful and busy 
about many things : but one thing is needful." One tiling 
is set before all : that one thing is not from many, but many 
things are from that one ; many things are wrought, but it is 
one who wrought the heavens and the earth, the sea and all 
creatures : all these one God created and wrought, who alone 
is true God, existing in three persons. Lo, the creatures are 
very good, but he alone is better who created them all ; him 
only Mary desired, when she sat at the feet of God, heark- 
ening to his word. Martha was anxious how she might feed 
God ; Mary was more solicitous how she niight, through 
God's lore, refect her soul ; for the refection of the mind is 
better than of the belly. Her sister would have her busied 
with her, but the Lord was her advocate, and she sat then 
more at ease. 

The Lord said, " Mary hath chosen the best part, u hich 
shall never be taken from her." Good was Martha's mini- 
stering, when she ministered to the Almighty, but, neverthe- 
less, Mary chose the. better part. W!iy better ? because it 
shall never be taken from her. But that which ^L•\rtha chose 
is now taken from her. She cho.-e toil, but that is taken 
from her, for Christ has brought her to everlasting rest in his 
kingdom, as he promised to all those that served him, thus 
saying, " There where I myself am, there shall be my ser- 
vant." Martha toiled as in a ship, and Mary sat still as at 
the hitlie. She was busy about one thing, and held the say- 
ing of the prophet, who said, " It is good to me that I cleave 
unto God, and set my hope in the Lord." It i;^ very good and 



442 ASSUMPTIO S. MARl^ UIRGINIS. 

gendlic, j^eet gehwa Godes bearfuin beiiige, and swiSost ■baui 
eawfaestum Godes ^eowum ; ac swa-Seah mare is ]fiBt man 
|?a hcofenlican lare secge j^am ungelaeredum, and heora sawla 
gereordige, ]>e naefre ne ateoria^, ];onne man Sone deadlican 
lichaman mid brosniendlicum mettum afylle. 

^g^res men behofiab, ge bigleofan ge lare ; ac swa-"5eah 
hwonlice froma^ j^aes mannes llf "Se bi^ nytene gelic, ^e 
bawaS symle to Saere corSan, j^aet is, to eorSlicum JSingvnn, 
and for andgitleaste ne cann bis mod awendan to <Sam uppli- 
cum Singum, ne to Sam ecan life. Paulus c\va?S, " Se Se ne 
cann, bine man eac ne cann." Eft be cwaeS, " pa Se baton 
Godes te syngiab, "Sa losiaS eac buton Godes ae." 

On "Sisum wnecfulium life we sceolon earmra manna 
belpan, we sceolon Sa bungrian fcdan, nacode scrydan, cuman 
undcrfon, lueftlingas ut-alysan, 5a ungeSwaeran gesibbian, 
nntrnme geneos'an, deade bcbyrian. Das Senunga sindon on 
bisum life, ]>e Martba gelacnode. Witodlice on Sam to- 
weardan life, ^e Maria getiicnode, ne beoS 5as neoda, ne "Sas 
Senunga ; |>.'er we beoS gefeddc, and we ^aer nsenne ne afedaS ; 
J>aer biS fulfremcd j^aet Maiia lier geceas. Be San life cwaeS 
se Hrelend, }){et be de^ his lialgan sittan, and be sylf farende 
him ^enaS. Dam he "SenaS ]>onne, iSe iiim nu SeniaS ]>urh 
Searfena Senunge ; forSi is Martlian Senung swiSe heri- 
gendlic, Surh hi waes Maria geherod. peah ^e se lareow 
halig beo, bra^e asleacaS his tunge to ^aere godcundan 
bodunge, gif he nfef S J'one lichamlican fodan ; is swa-"Seah 
selre ]?aet |)aet ece is. 

We saedon eow and gyt secga"5, jjset ^as twa geswustru 
hffifdon getacnunge "Sises andwerdan ITfes and ^aes ecan. On 
Sam anum huse waeron twa lif, and J>aet so^e lif, Crist. On 
Martban waes getacnung ^ises andwerdan lifes, on Marian 
"Saes toweardan. paet ];aet Martha dyde, ]>ier we sind ; |?aet 
\>i&t Maria dyde, to ^am we hopiaS. yEg^er lif is berigendlic, 
ac ]?aet an is swa-'Seab geswincful. Ne beo se carfulla leah- 
terful, ne se ne lufige idelnysse seSc on stilnyssc is; ]?a ^e 



THE ASSUMPTION OF THE HOLY VIRGIN MARY. 443 

praiseworthy ministering, that every one minister to God's 
poor, and above all to the pious servants of God ; but yet it 
is greater to declare the heavenly lore to the ignorant, and 
refect tlieir souls, which never perish, than to fill the mortal 
body with corruptible meats. 

Man stands in need of both, of sustenance and of lore 5 but 
yet little profits that man's life who is like unto a beast that 
ever looks to the earth, that is, to earthly things, and for lack 
of understanding cannot turn his mind to things on high, nor 
to the everlasting life. Paul said, " He who knoweth not, him 
also no man knoweth." Again he said, " Tiiey who sin with- 
out God's law, shall also without God's law perish." 

In this life of exile we should help poor people, we should 
feed the hungry, clothe the naked, receive the stranger, deliver 
captives, reconcile those at variance, visit the sick, bury the 
dead. Tiiese ministerings are in this life, which Martha be- 
tokened. But in the life to come, wiiich Mary betokened, 
there will not be these needs, nor these ministerings ; there 
we shall be fed, and we shall there feed no one ; there will 
that be perfect which Mary chose here. Of that life said 
Jesus, that he will cause his saints to sit, and he himself 
going about will serve them. Tiiose he will serve then, who 
now serve him by serving his poor ; therefore is the service 
of Martha very praiseworthy, through it was Mary praised. 
Though the teacher be holy, his tongue will quickly slacken 
from divine preaching, if he have not bodily food ; neverthe- 
less, that is better which is eternal. 

We have said to you and yet say, that these two sisters 
were tyjiical of this present life and of the eternal. In that 
one house were two lives, and the true life, Christ. In 
Martha was a type of this present life, in Mary of that to 
come. That which Martha did, there we are ; that which 
Mary did, for that we hope. Either life is praisewortiiy, but 
the one is, nevertheless, toilsome. Let not the solicitous be 
sinful, nor him love vanity who is in stillness; let those who 



444 ASSUMPTIO S. MARI/E UIRGINIS. 

ymbe oSra manna bigleofan and scrude hogia^, )?a geefen- 
laeca^ Marthan ; )7a ^e gj'ma^ j^aere heofenlican lare, Sa gc- 
efenlaeca^ Marian, Se Drihtcn swiSor hcrode. Witodlice 
swa oft swa we ymbe oSra manna ncode hogia^, we geefen- 
laeca^ Marthan j and swa oft swa we to Godes huse gab, bis lof 
to gehyrenne and us to gebiddenne, we gecfenlaecaS Marian. 

pis godspel is nu sceortlice getrabtnod, and we secgab eow 
]>8et nan man bine ne sceal beladlan ]?set be Godes cyrcan ne 
gesece, Seah "Se he fyrlcn sy. Swa he feorran Godes bus 
gesecb, swa bis med mare bib. Nis nan twyn ]';et eow ne 
beo forgolden jfilc b;era stapa be ge to Godes huse stieppab, 
ymbe eowere sawle tSearfe. 

Hwaet wille we eow swibor secgan be bisum symbcl-dipge, 
buton I'tet Maria, Cristes modor, wcarb on bisum dwge, of 
"bisum gcswincfulhnn middaneardc, gcnumen up to heofenan 
rice, to hire Icofan Suna, be beo on life ab;er, mid ^am beo 
blissab on ecere myrbbe a to worulde. Gif we mare secga^ 
be "bisum symbel-da^ge Jjonnc we on bam balgum bocum 
rtedab, |?e burb Godes dibte gcsette wa^ron, ])onne beo we 
"Sam dwobnannum gelice, j^e be bcora agenum dilite, ob^e be 
swcfnum, fehi lease gesetnyssa awriton ; ac ba gcleaHulhui 
lareowas, Augustinus, Hieronimus, Gregorius, and gchwilce 
o'bre, |>urh beora wisdom, hi towurpon. Sind swa-^eah gyt 
ba dwollican bee, a^gber ge on Leden ge on Englisc, and hi 
rwda^ ungerade menn. Genob is geleaffullum n)annum to 
rsedenne and to secgenne ]>ae.t j'aet so^ is ; and feawa is "biera 
manna "be mage ealle "ba balgan bee be j^urh Godes mub, 
o^^e iSurb Godes Gast gedibte waeron, fulfremedlice purb- 
smeagan. Lffite gebwa aweg ba dwollican leasunga, "be "ba 
unwaeran to forwyrde liedab, and raede gebwa, oSbe blyste, 
|)8ere balgan lare, be us to heofenau rice gewissa^, gif we hi 
gehyran wyllab. 

Uton nu geornlice biddan }>a eadigan Marian, ]>e nu to-dcCg 
wees abafen and geuferod bufon engla "brymme, J)jet beo us 
bingige to "bam ^^hnihtigan Godc, sciSe Icofab and rixab on 
ealra worulda woruld. Amen. 



THE ASSUMPTION OF THE HOLY VIRGIN MARY. 4 45 

are solicitous about other men's food and raiment, imitate 
Martha; those who treasure up heavenly lore, imitate Mary, 
whom the Lord more praised. Verily as often as we are 
solicitous about other men's need, we imitate Martha ; and as 
often as we go to God's house, to hear his praite and to 
pray, we imitate Mary. 

Tins gospel is now shortly expounded, and we say unto 
you that no man hhall excuse himself from seeking the church 
of God, though he be far off. The farther he seeks God's 
house, so will his meed be greater. There is no doubt tiiat 
every one of the steps that ye step to God's house, for your 
souls' need, will be indemnified to you. 

Wiiat more shall we say to you of this feast-day, but that 
Mary, the mother of Christ, was on tiiis day, from this world 
of toil, taken up to the kingdom of heaven to her dear Son, 
whom she had borne in life, with whom she rejoices in eternal 
mirth to all eternity. If we say more of this feast-day tiian 
we read in the holy books that have been composed by the 
inspiration of God, then should we be like unto those heretics, 
who from their own imagination, or from dreams, have re- 
corded many false traditions ; but the orthodox teachers, 
Augustine, Jerome, .Gregory, and many others, have, through 
their wisdom, rejected them. These heretical books, never- 
theless, yet exist, both iji Latin and in English, and igno- 
rant men read them. It is enough for believing men to 
read and to sa\- that which is true ; and few are those men 
that can perfectly examine all tiie holy books that have been 
inspired by God's mouth, or by the Spirit of God. Let every 
one cast away the heretical Icasings that lead the unwary to 
perdition, and let every one read, or listen to, the holy lore, 
which directs us to the kingdom of heaven, if we will hear it. 

Let us now fervently pray the blessed Mary, who was to- 
day raised and exalted above the host of angels, that she in- 
tercede for us to the Almighty God, who liveth and reigneth 
for ever and ever. Amen. 



4-16 

UOMLMCA I. IN MENSE SEPTEMBRI, 
QUANDO LEGITUR TOE. 

MINE gcbro^ra, we r^dab nu aet Godes ^enungum be ban 
eadigan were Iob ; nu wille we eow hwaet lytles be him ge- 
reccan, for ban be seo dcopnys ^aere race oferstihb ure andgit, 
and eac swibor ]ja^ra ungelii^redra. Man sceal liewedum 
mannuni secgan be heora andgites niffibe, swa J^aet hi ne boon 
(Surh "ba deopnysse femode, ne burh ^a langsumnysse aebrytte. 

" Sum wer wfes geseten on j^ani lande J?e is gehaten Hus, 
his nama waes lob. Se wcr WcPs swibe bilowite and rihtwis, 
and ondrwdcnde God and forbugcndc yfcl. Him waron 
acennede seofan suna and brco dohtra ; he h^efdc scofon 
■busend sceapa and breo buscnd olfcnda, fif hund getymu 
oxena and fif hund assan, and ornupte micehie hired. Se 
wcr wjes swibe m;erc betwux callum Eastcrnuni, and his 
suna ferdon and benode a^lc obrum mid his godum on 
ymhwyrfte Kit his huse, and ])ferto heora swustru gehibodon. 
Iob so^iice aras on bam cahteoban diPge on jerne-nicrigen, 
and offrode Gode seofonfealde lac for his scofon sunum, ^y- 
laes ^e hi wib God on heora gebance agylton. Dus dydc Iob 
eaUum dagum for his sunum, and hi swa gehalgode. 

Una transslatio dicit " filii Dei," ct altera dicit " angcli 
Dei." 

" Hit gelamp on sumum diege, baba Godes englas comon, 
and on his gesihbc stodon, "ba waes eac swylce se scucca him 
betwux, to bam cwaeS Drihten, Hwanon come ^u ? Se 
sceocca andwyrde, Ic ferde geond pas eorban, and hi beeode. 
Drihten cwaeb, Ne beheolde ^u la minne "beowan Iob, J?8et 
nan man nis his gelica on eorban, bilewite man and rihtwis, 
ondraedende God and yfcl forbugende ?" 

Swa stod se deofol on Godes gesih^e swa swa de^ se blinda 
on sunnan. Seo sunne ymbscin^ J?one blindan, and se blinda 



44: 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN SEPTEMBER, 
WHEN JOB IS READ. 

MY brothers, we read now at God's service concerning the 
blessed man Job ; we will now relate to you some little con- 
cerning him, for the deepness of the narrative transcends our 
understanding, and yet more that of the unlearned. One 
should speak to laymen according to the measure of their 
understanding, so that they be not disheartened by the deep- 
ness, nor by the length wearied. 

" A certain man was settled in the land which is called Uz, 
his name was Job. The man was very meek and righteous, 
and fearing God and eschewing evil. To him were born 
seven sons and three daughters ; he had seven thousand sheep 
and three thousand camels, five hundred teams of oxen and 
five hundred asses, and an immensely great household. The 
man was very great among all the Easterns, and his sons 
went and served each other with his goods in turn at his 
house, and thereto invited their sisters. 15ut Job arose on 
the eighth day at early morn, and olTcred sevejifold gifts to 
God for his seven sons, lest they might have sinned against 
God in their thought. Thus did Job on all days for his sons, 
and thus hallowed them. 

Una translatio dicit " filii Dei,'' et altera dicit " angeli 
Dei." 

" It happened one day, when God's angels came, and stood 
in his sight, that there was also Satan among them, to whom 
the Lord said, Whence comest thou ? Satan answered, I have 
been walking over the earth, and going about it. The Lord 
said, Ilast thou not beheld my servant Job, that no man is 
his like on earth, a meek and righteous man, fearing God 
and eschewing evil ?" 

The devil so stood in the sight of God, as a blind man does 
in the sun. The sun shines about the blind, and the blind 



448 DOMINICA I. IN MENSE SEPTEMBRI. 

ne gesih'S j^aere sunnan leoman. God geseah cSone deofol, 
and se deofol swa-Seah wees bedwled Godes gesihbe and his 
wuldres. Eor^e is gecweden Godes fot-sceamel, and seo 
heofen is his ■?5rym-setl. Nil stod se sceocca, swilce aet 
Godes fot-sceamel e, lip on -Saere eor"San, ]>ar8a se ^hnihtiga 
hine axode hwanon he come. He cwaeS );aet he ferde geond 
f>as eor^an, forban "Se he faer'5, swa swa Petrr.s se apostol 
cwae'S, " Beo^ syfre and wacole, forban (5e se deofol, cower 
wi^erwinna, faerS onbutan s'tva swa grymetende leo, secende 
hwaene he abite ; wiSstandaS pam strange on goleafan." 
Micele waeron |?ises mannes geearnunga, ]ja se ^'Elmihtiga be 
him cwaeiS, |?aRt his gelica n;ere on eoiSan. Ge inagon ge- 
hyran sume his ^eawas, swa swa he be him sylfum awrat. 

lob cwfflS, " Ic alysde hrymende |?earfan, and "Sam steop- 
beariie, |>c biiton fultumc w;es, ic gohcolp, and wydeuan 
heortan ic gefiefrodc. Ic wiPs ymbscryd mid rihtwTsnysse, 
ic waes blindum men eage, and healtum fot, and );carfena 
fa^der. Of flysum minra sceapa waeron gehlywde bcarfena 
sidan, and ic bearfum nc forwyrnde ]?8es be hi gyrndon ; ne 
ic ne ;et ana minnc hlaf buton stcop-bearne, ne ic ne blissode 
on niinum menigfealdum welum. Ne faegnode ic on mines 
feondes hryre, ne beg jelSeodig man M'iSutan minum hegum, 
ac mill duru geopenode symle wegfercndum. Ne behydde ic 
mine synna, ne ic on minum bosme ne bcdiglode mine un- 
rihtwisnysse." Ne saede lob Sis for gylpe, ac forSan Se he 
waes eallum mannum to bysne geset. 

pus maerne man wolde se manfuUa deofol, jnirh Sam 
micclum costnungum be he him to dyde fram Gode gewe- 
man, and cwaeS to Drihtne, " Ne ondraet lob on idel God : ];u 
ymbtrymedest hine and ealle his aehta, and his hand-geweorc 
|?u bletsodest, and his aehta weoxon on eorSan. Ac astrece 
hwon "Sine hand, and getill ealle Sa |7ing be he ah, and he Se 
on ansyne wyrigS. Drihten cwaeS to Sam sceoccan, Efne 
nu ealle Sa Sing Se he ah sindon on 'Sinre handa, buton Sam 
anum, |?aet Su on him sylfum Sine hand ne astrecce." Ne 



1 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN SEPTEMBER. 449 

sees not the light of the sun. God saw the devil, and, never- 
theless, the devil was deprived of the sight of God and his 
glory. The earth is called God's footstool, and the heaven 
is his throne. Now Satan stood, as it were at God's foot- 
stool, upon the earth, when the Almighty asked hiui whence 
he came. He said that he had been walking over the earth, 
because he walks, as Peter the apostle said, " Be sober and 
watchful, because the devil, your adversary, walkctii about as 
a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour ; withstand him 
strong in belief." Great were the merits of this man, when 
the Almighty said of him, that his like was not on earth. Ye 
may hear some of his ways, as he has written concerning 
himself. 

Job said, " I delivered the crying poor, and the step-child, 
that was without support, I helped, and the heart of the 
widow 1 comforted. I was clothed with righteousness, I 
was to the blind man an eye, and to the halt a foot, and of 
the poor a father. From the fleeces of my sheep the sides of 
the poor were covered, and I refused not to the poor that 
which they desired ; nor ate I my bread alone without the 
step-child, nor did I exult in my manifold riches. I rejoiced 
not in the fall of my foe, nor lay the stranger without my 
hedges, but my door ever opened to the wayfaring. I hid 
not my sins, nor in my bosom concealed I my unrighteous- 
ness." Jol) said not this for vaunt, but because he was set 
to all men as an example. 

So great a man the wicked devil would, through the great 
temptations that he inflicted on him, seduce from God, and said 
to the Lord, " Job fearelh not God in vain : thou hast fenced 
him about and all his possessions, and his handiwork thou 
hast blessed, and his possessions have waxed on the earth. 
But stretch forth thine hand a little, and touch all the things 
that he owncth, and he will curse thee to thy face. The 
Lord said to Satan, Behold now, all the things that he owneth 
are in thine hand, save that alone, that thou on himself stretch 

noM. VOL. II. 2 o 



450 DOMINICA I. IN MENSE SEPTEMBRI. 

derode lobe naht \>iBS deofles costnung, ac fremode, forlSan 
^e he waes fulfremedre on ge|)inc5um. and Gode near after 
]?ses sceoccan ehtnysse. 

Se deofol gcwende ^a fratn Godes gesih^e, and acwealde 
ealle his eehta anes daeges. " Sum terendraca com to lobe, 
and cwaef), pine syll eodon, and "Sa assan witS hi laesvvodon, 
]>a. fjerlice comon Sahei, and hi ealle us benamon, and |nne 
yr'Slingas ofslogon, and ic ana a-tb;erst, ]mt ic '5e ))is cydde. 
Mid ]?am "Se se yrbling ]ns sj^de, ba com sum oSer, and 
cwse^, Fyr com fiJerlice of hcofenum, and forbfernde ealle 
"Sine seep, and i5a hyrdas samod, and ic ana aetwand, ])a^t ic 
"Se ^is cydde. pa com se "Sridda jerendraca, and cvvait). Da 
Chaldeiscan comon on ^rim floccum, and urc olfendas ealle 
gehrhton, and iSa iiyrdas mid swurde ofslogon ; ic ana tet- 
fleah, |>a^t ic Se |ns cydde. Efne tSa-gyt com se feor^a arend- 
raca inn, and cwaetJ, Dine suna and JSinc dohtra jeton and 
druncon mid hcora jldestan breSer, and efne )>a frprlice 
swegde swiJSlic wind of ^am westene, and tosloii }>iet bus aet 
^am feowcr bwenimum, ]>iet hit hreoscnde bine beam oflSrilite 
and acwealde; ic ana a'lbjerst |?a>t ic (Se }>is cydde. II\va?t 
^a lob aras, and totier his tunecan, and his loccas forcearf, 
and feol to eorSan, and cwieS, Nacod ic com of minre modor 
innoSe, and nacod ic sceal heonan gewendan. Diihten me 
forgoaf 5a iehta, and Drihten hi me eft benam ; swa swa him 
gelicode, swa hit is godon ; bco his nama gebletsod. On 
eallum "Sisum "Singum, ne syngode lob on his welerum, ne 
nan "Sing dysliccs ongcan God ne spr^ec." 

Eal "Sis dyde se ealda deofol to gremienne ]^one godan man, 
and symle he laefde a^nne cucenne, him to cy^emie his aehta 
lyre, j^aet his mod wurde fram Gode awend, '5aSa he "Sa un- 
gelimp geaxod ha?fde. paet fyr com ufan 'Se ]?a seep for- 
baernde, ac hit ne com na of heofenum, \>eah "Se hit swa ge- 
hiwod wsere ; furSan ^e se deofol wses on heofenum n^fre 
si^^an he 'Sanon ]nu-h modignysse afeol mid his geferum. 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN SEPTEMBER. 431 

not forth thine hand." The devil's temptation hurt not Job, 
but profited him, because he was more perfect in honours, 
and nearer to God after the persecution of Satan. 

The devil went then from the sight of God, and slew all 
his possessions in one day. " A messenger came to Job, 
and said, Tiiy ploughs were going, and the asses were grazing 
beside them, when the Sabeans came suddenly, and took 
them all from us, and slew thine husbandmen, and I alone 
have escaped, that I might announce this unto thee. While 
the husbandman said this, there came another, and said. Fire 
came suddenly from heaven, ami burned up all thy sheep, 
and the shepherds together, and I alone have escaped, that I 
might announce this unto thee. Tiien came a third messen- 
ger, and said, The Chaldeans came in three bands, and seized 
all our camels, and slew the keepers with the sword; I alone 
have fled away, that 1 might announce this unto thee. Lo 
yet came a fourth messenger in, and said. Thy sons and thy 
daughters were eating and drinking with their eldest brother, 
and lo, a strong wind suddenly sounded from the wilderness, 
and struck the house at the four corners, so that falling it 
crushed thy children, and killed them ; I alone have escaped, 
that I might announce this unto thee. Hereupon Job arose, 
and tore his tunic, and cut his locks, and fell to the earth, 
and said. Naked I came from my mother's womb, and naked 
I shall go hence. The Lord gave me the possessions, and the 
Lord hath taken them from me ; as it hath pleased him, so is 
it done ; be his name blessed. In all these things, Job simied 
not with his lips, nor spake anything foolish against (lod." 

The old de\ il did this to exasperate the good man, and he 
always left one alive, to announce to him the loss of his pos- 
sessions, that his mind might be turned away from God, 
when he had been informed of those misfortunes. The fire 
came from above that burned up the sheep, but it came not 
from heaven, though it was so feigned ; for the devil was 
never in heaven after he through pride fell thence m ilh his 

2 G 2 



452 DOMINICA I. IN MENSE SEPTEMBRI. 

Eall swa deS Antecrist, ^onne he cymS ; he asent fjT ufan, 
svvilce of heofenum, to bepaecenne ]>iei earme mancynn ^e he 
on biS. Ac wite gehwa, jjset se ne mseg nan fyr of heofenum 
asendan, se^e on heofenmii sylf cuman nc mot. " On eallum 
"Sisum ^ingum ne syngode lob on his welcrum." On twa 
wison men syngiaS on heora wplerum ; ]>iet is, gif hi unriht 
spreca^, oj^j^e rilit forsuwia^ ; ac lob ne syngode on his 
welerum, for^an Se he dyslice ongcan God ne spncc, ne eac 
Godcs herunge ne foisuwade. He cydde \>ist he buton gyt- 
sunge swa niicele aihta haefde, SaSa he hi swa eaSelice buton 
unrotnysse forlet. 

" Eft siSSan, on sumum diege, |>a}?a Codes englas stodon on 
his gesihSe, |?a wjes eac se scucca him betwynan, and Drihtcn 
him cwaeS to, HwaRt la, ne bclicolde JSii mirme Seowan lob, 
)?;et his gclica nis on eorSan, and gyt he hylt iiis unsc;eS(Sig- 
nysse ? pu astyrcdest me togeanes him, j^^et ic Searflcas 
hine gcswencte. Se scucca anduyrde, Fel sceal for fclle, and 
swa hwfet swa man h;ef6 he syl5 for his life. Astrece nu 
|jine hand, and hrepa his bun and his fljesc, Sonne gesihst 5u 
|7wt he be on an syne wirigS. Drihten cwccb to San scuccan, 
Efne he is nu on Siiire handa, swa-|>eah-hwai5ere hcald his 
sawle." Ne gebafode God y'ls to forwyrdc )nim eadigan were, 
ac ]>ffit he waere to bysne eallum gclcafTullum mannum, and 
wurde swiSor gemfersod |>urh his miccle gebyld and earfoS- 
nyssum. " Da gewende se deofol of Drihlnes gcsihSe, and 
sloh lob mid );aere wyrstan wunde, fram his hnolje ufewerdan 
oS his ilas neoSewerde. lob sat Sa sarlice, cal on anre 
wunde, up on his mixene, and ascraep Sone wyrms of his lice 
mid anum croc-scearde. His wif him cwaeS to, Gyt Su )>urh- 
wunast on Sinre bilewitnysse ; wyrig God and swelt. lob 
hire andwyrde, pu spraece swa swa an stunt wif. Gif we god 
underfengon of Godes handa, hwi ne sceole we eac yfel 
underfon ? On eallum Sisum Singum ne syngode lob on his 
welerum." Se swicola deofol genam paet wif him to gefyl- 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IX SEPTEMBER. 453 

companions. In like manner Antichrist will do, when he 
comes ; he will send fire from ahove, as from heaven, to 
deceive the miserable mankind among which he is. But be 
it known to every one, that he can send no fire from heaven, 
who may "ot himself enter into heaven. " In all these 
things. Job sinned not with his lips." In two ways men sin 
with their lips ; that is, if they speak contrary to right, or 
silently withhold the right; but Job sinned not with his lips, 
because he spake not foolishly against God, nor also did he 
silently withbold God's praise. He manifested that he had 
had so great possessions without covetousness, when he so 
easily without sorrow (juitted them. 

"Again afterwards, on a certain day, when God's angels 
stood in his sight, there was Satan also among them, and the 
Lord said unto him, Well, hast thou not beheld my servant Job, 
that his like is not on earth, and yet he holds his innocence? 
Thou didst excite me against him, so that I have needlessly 
afflicted him. Satan answered. Skin shall be for skin, and 
whatsover a man hath he will give for his life. Stretch forth 
now thine hand, and touch his bone and his flesh, then wilt 
thou see that he will curse thee to thy face. The Lord said 
to Satan, Behold, he is now in thine hand, yet, nevertheless, 
save his soul." God did not consent to this for the blessed 
man's destruction, but that he might be for an example to 
all believing men, and be more glorified through liis great 
patience and tribulations. "The devil then went from the 
sight of the Lord, and smote Job with the worst wound, 
from his crown upward unto his soles d()^\■nward. Job then 
sat painfully, all with one wound, upon his dunghill, and 
scraped the corruption from his body with a potsherd. His 
wife said to him, Yet thou persistest in thy meekness ; curse 
God and die. Job answered her, Thou hast spoken as a 
foolish woman. If we have received good from the hand of 
God, why should we not also receive evil ? In all these 
things Job sinned not with his lips." The guileful devil took 



454 DOMLNICA I. IN MENSE SEPTEMBRI. 

Stan, piftt he ^one halgan wer 5urh In geswice, swa swa he 
eer Adam |?urh Euan beswac ; ac se ylca God ]>e gebafode 
]>pet he swa gecostnod wjere, heold hine wi^ |>aes deofles syr- 
wungum, and wi5 his sawle lyre. 

" Witodlice fia geaxodon j>ry cyningas, ^c him gcsibbe 
vvc'eron, eal his ungelimp, and comon him to of heora rice, 
|?»t ht hine geneosodon. Heora naman wferon -Sus gccTgde, 
Elifaz, BaldaS, Sofar. HI gecwapdon, |j{Pt hi samod cumende 
liine gencosodon and gefrefrodon. Hi 5a comon and hine nc 
oncneowon for Stere orma^tan untrumnysse, and hrymdon 
|?;frrihtc wcpcnde. Hi totjnron heora reaf, and mid duste 
licora heafod bestreowodon, and him mid Sfeton manega 
dagas." Hit waes swa gewunelic on ealdum dagum, ));pt gif 
hwam sum fjerlic sar become, |>fet he his reaf totfere, swa swa 
Tob dyde, and eac "Sas ^ry cyningas. Hi comon hine to ge- 
frefrigenne, "Sa awendon ht heora frofer to cdwite, and hine 
mid heora wordum tirigdon, swilce he for his synnum swa ge- 
tucod wserc, and cv.fedon, " Wite com ofer ^e, and ^u ateo- 
rodest ; sarnys Se hrepode, and "Su eart geunrotsod. Hw«r 
is nu "bin Godes egc and Sin strenc^ ? Hwffir is ^in geSyld 
and binra dteda fulfremednys ?" and mid manegum "Srafungum 
hine geswencton. " lob cwse^, Eala gif mine synna and min 
yrmS, j^e ic "tSolige, w;eron awegene on anre Wfegan, |>onne 
wajron hi sw.Terran fxesewene "Sonne sand-corn on sie. To 
•Sreagenne ge logiaS eowere sprwce, and ge Senca'S to awen- 
denne eowerne freond. Mannes lif is campdom ofer eorSan, 
and swa swa medgildan dagas swa sind his dagas." He 
cwae^ ]>ist mannes lif is campdom ofer eorSan, forSan ]?e selc 
■Saera Se Gode ge^ihS, biS on gewinne wi^ ^one ungesewen- 
lican deofol, and ongean his agenum lustum, ]7a hwile ^Se he 
on life biS : and swa swa se hyrman his edleanes anbida^, 
swa geanbida^ se gastlica cempa his edleanes set ^am ^1- 
mihtigum Gode. Godes gecorenan sind on gewinne on ^yssere 
worulde, and ISa arleasan on hire blissiaS ; ac ^aera rihtwisra 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN SEPTEMBER. 435 

to him the woman as a helper, that he might through her 
deceive the holy man, as he had before deceived Adam 
througii Eve; but the same God that permitted him to be so 
tempted, preserved him against the devil's machinations, and 
against the loss of his soul. 

" Now three kings, who were akin to liim, heard of all his 
misfortune, and came to him from their kingdom, that they 
might visit hiui. Their names were thus called, Elipha/, 
Bildad, Zophar. They said, that coming together they would 
visit and comfort liim. They came then and knew him not 
for the exceedingly great sickness, and straightways cried 
out weeping. They tore their garments, and bestrewed their 
heads with dust, and sat with him many days." It was so 
customary in ancient days, that, if a sudden affliction befell 
any one, he tore his garments, as Job did, and also these 
three kings. They came to comfort him, then turned they 
their comfort to reproach, and irritated him with their words, 
as if for his sins he were so chastised, and said, " Punishment 
came over thee, and thou didst faint ; soreness touched thee, 
and thou art troubled. Where is now thy awe of God and 
thy strength ? Where is thy patience and the perfectness of 
thy deeds?" and with many reproaches tormented him. 
*' Job said. Oh if my sins and my misery that I sulTer were 
weighed in a balance, then would they appear heavier than 
the sand-corns in the sea. For reproof ye compose your 
speech, and ye think to pervert your friend. Man's life is a 
warfare on earth, and as the days of a hireling so are his 
days." He said that the life of man is a warfare on earth, 
because every one of those who thrive to God, is in strife 
against the invisible devil, and against his own lusts, while he 
is in life : and as the hireman awaits his reward, so awaits 
the ghostly soldier his reward from Almighty God. God's 
chosen are in strife in this world, and the wicked rejoice in 
it ; but the strife of the righteous turns to joy, and the joy of 



456 DOMINICA I. IN MENSE SEPTEMBRI. 

gewinn avvent to blisse, and Seera arleasra bliss to bitcriim 
sarnyssum on Saere ecan worulde, |>e gewclgaS "Sa jwlmodan. 

Ealle ^as costnunga deofol^ and Saera aehta lyre, his bearna 
deaS and his agen iintrumnys, his wifes gewitleast, and his 
freonda edwit, ne mihton awecgan lob of his modes anrfed- 
nysse, ne fram his niicclan geleafan, Se he to |>an ^Ehnihtigan 
Gode symle h<efde ; ac se scucca wear^ gescynd, ]>e liine 
besvvican wolde. 

lob cwae^ eft, " Min flaesc is ymscryd mid forrotodnysse 
and mid dustes horwum, min liyd forsearode and is for- 
scruncen. Me habbaS geswcncednysse dagas, and on niht 
min ban biS mid sarnysse }>uihc)yd; and ^a ^e me eta^ ne 
slapaS. Ic com lame wiSmeten, and yslnm and axum ge- 
anlicod." Eft he cwae^, " Ara me, Diihtcn ; ne sind mine 
dagas nahte." Eft he cwa^S, " Ic wat soblice ])iet min Aly- 
send IcofaS, and ic on ^am endcnextan daege of eorSan arise, 
and ic beo eft mid minum folic befangcn, and ic on minum 
Ha?sce God geseo, ic sylf and na ober ; jjes hiht is on minum 
bosme geled," 

We siiedon eow, and gyt secgaS, j^fet we ne magon callc 
Sas race eow be ejidebyrchiysse secgan, forSan ^e seo boc is 
swi^e micel, and hire digcie andgyt is ofer are maeSe to 
smeagenne. 

Da "Sry cyningas "Sa ha^fdon langsnme sprfece wiS |?one 
gedrehtan lob, and gewendon him ham syj^J^an. Ac God hi 
gespraec }>a, and cwasc5, ]>ret he him eallum ^rim gram u.'ere, 
for]?an ^e hi" swa rihtlice aetforan him ne spraecon, swa swa 
lob his iSegen. God cwaeS him to, " NimaS eow nu seofon 
fearras and seofon rammas, and fara^ eft ongean to minum 
^eowan lobe, and geoftria^ "Sas lac for eow ; lob soSlice, min 
"Scowa, gebit for eow, aiul ic his ansyne underfo, J^aet eow ne 
beo to dysige geteald, j^aet ge swa rihtlice to me ne spraecon 
swa swa min ^eowa lob." Hit wss gewunelic on ealdum 
dagum, |>aet man Gode ^yllice lac offrode on cucan orfe, and 
Sa acwealde^ ac seo offrung is nu unalyfcdlic aefter Cristes 



1 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN SEFFEMBER. 457 

the wicked to bitter afflictions in the eternal world, which 
enriches the patient. 

All these temptations of the devil, and the loss of his pos- 
sessions, the death of his children and his own sickness, his 
wife's witlessness, and his friends' reproach, niitjht not move 
Job from the steadfastness of his mind, nor from his great 
faith, which he had ever had in Almiglity God; but Satan 
was confounded, who would have beguiled him. 

Job said again, " My flesh is clothed with corruption and 
with the filth of dust, my skin is seared up and is shrunken. 
Days of affliction have me, and at night my bone is pierced 
through with pain; and those that eat me sleep not. I am 
compared to loam, and likened to cinders and ashes." Again 
he said, " Have mercy on me, Lord; my days are not naught." 
Again he said, " I know truly that my Redeemer liveth, and 
I on the last day shall from earth arise, and I shall be again 
clothed with my skin, and in my flesh 1 shall see God, I 
myself and not another ; this hope is laid in my bosom." 

We have said to you, and will j'ct say, that we cannot re- 
count to you all this narrative in detail, because the book is 
very great, and its hidden sense is above our capacity to 
investigate. 

The three kings then had long speech with the afflicted 
Job, and afterwards went home. But God then si)ake to 
them, and said, that he was wroth with them all three, be- 
cause they had not so rightly spoken before him as Job his 
servant. God said to them, " Take now seven bullocks and 
seven rams, and go again to my servant Job, and ofl'er these 
gifts for yourselves ; but Job my servant shall pray for you, 
and I will accept his countenance, that it be not accounted to 
you as folly, that ye have not spoken to me so rightly as my 
servant Job." It was usual in old days, that men off'ered 
such gifts to God of living cattle, and then slew them ; but 
that oflering is now unallowable after Christ's passion. Eli- 



458 DOMINICA I. IN MENSE SEPTEMBRI. 

^rowunge. Elifaz ^a, and BaldaS, and Sofar ferdon ongeaii 
to heora ma»ge lobe, and didon swa swa him God bcbead ; 
and Drihten underfeng lobes ansyne, and heora synne Surh 
his ^ingrjedene foigeaf. Deah ]>e lobes ansyn wtere atelice 
toswollen, and his lie eal nia^ian weolle, s\va-J7eah is awriton, 
l^aet se -^Ehnihtiga underfeng his ansyne, JKi]ni he for his 
freonduui gebfed. Drihten eac ?a gecyrde to lobes behreow- 
sunge, ^aSa he for his niagum geb<ed, and bine gehfelde frani 
ealluni his untrumnvssnm, and his aelita him ( alle forcfeald be 
tvvyfealdum. Be ^isum is to undcrstandenne, ]fxt se ^e for 
obrum gebit fremaJS him sylfum miccUmi, swa swa ]?ret hahge 
gewrit segS, ]>fet ^a^a lob for his frcondum gebjrd, ]>a gecyrde 
God to his belireowsunge, and swa eaSelice bine eft gehielde, 
swa he bine jjer geuntrumode. 

lob haifde ler liis ur)truinnysse seofon ^uscnd sceapa and 
"Sreo "Susend olfenchi, ftf bund getyme oxena and fif bund 
assan ; him wit* ron eft forgohlcne feowertyne ^iiscnd sceapa 
and syx jjuscnd olfcn(hi, j'uscnd getyme oxena and )>usend 
assan ; and Drihten bine bletsode swiSor on ende Sonne on 
angynne. lie h;efde seofon suna and tSreo dohtra ier, and 
siiScSan eft eal swa fehi. Hwt nolde God him forgykhxn his 
beam be twyfealduni, swa swa he dyde bis aehta ? He nolde 
forSi l^e his beam n;eron forlorene, swa swa bis ff.hta vvferon ; 
his aehta waeron ealle amyrrede, and his tyn beam acwealde ; 
ac ^a beam waeron swa-Seah gehcaldcne on iSam digelan life, 
betwux halgum sawlum ; and he forbi underfeng |?aera bearna 
gctel be anfealdon, forSan \>e <5a oSre him waeron gehealdene, 
•Se |7urh ]?tes deofles ehtnysse acwealde wieron. Hwaet 'Sa 
lobes gebro^ra, and geswustru, and ealle ^a j^e bine aer cuSon, 
oomon him to, and bine gefrefrodon, and his micclum wun- 
drodon, and him gife geafon. Naeron geniette on ealre eor^an 
swa wlitige wimmen swa swa waeron lobes dohtra. He so^- 
lice leofode aefter his swingle an bund geara and feowertig 
gcara, and geseah bis bearna beam o^ "Sa feor^an niceg^e. 



THE FIRST SUNDAY IN SEPTEMBER. 459 

phaz then, and Bildad, and Zophar, went again to their kins- 
man Job, and did as the Lord commanded them ; and the 
Lord accepted Job's countenance, and through his interces- 
sion forerave their sin. Though Job's countenance was hor- 
ribly swollen, and Iiis body all swarmed with worms, it is, 
nevertheless, written, that the Almighty accepted his counte- 
nance, when he prayed for his friends. The Lord also then 
turned to pity of Job, when he prayed for his kinsmen, and 
healed him from all his diseases, and repaid him all iiis pos- 
sessions by twof(dd. By this is to be understocui, that he 
who prays for others profits himself greatly, so as the holy 
writ says, that when Jol) prayed for his friends, God turned 
to pity on him, and as easily healed him again, as he had 
before with disease afflicted him. 

Job had before his sickness seven thousand sheep and 
three thousand camels, five hundred team of oxen and five 
hundred asses ; there were paid back to him fourteen tho«i- 
sand sheep and six thoiisand camels, a thousand team of oxen 
and a thousand asses ; and the Lord bU'ssed him more at the 
end than at the beginning. He had seven sons and three 
daughters before, and again afterwards as many. Why 
would not God give him back his children by twofold, as he 
(lid his possessions ? He would not because his chiklren 
were not lost as his possessions were ; his possessions were 
all destroyed, and his ten children killed ; but the children 
were, nevertheless, preserved in the hidden life, among holy 
souls ; and he, therefore, received the number of children 
onefold, because the others were preserved, which, tnrough 
the devil's persecution, had been killed. Job's brothers tiien, 
and sisters, and all those who had before known him, came to 
him, and comforted him, and greatly wondered at him, and 
gave him gifts. There were not found on all the earth 
women so beautiful as were the daughters of Job. He verily 
lived after his affliction an hundred and forty years, and saw 
his children's children unto the fourth generation. In all 



460 DOM. SEXTADECIMA POST PENTECOSTEN. 

On ealluui his life he leofode twa hund geara and ealita and 
feowertig geara. He waes se fifta man fefter Abrahanie pam 
heahfjedcie. On "Sam tinian wjes swiSe langsum lif on nian- 
cynne. 

Gif hwilc gcl^red man ]'as race oferraede, o^Se rtedan 
gehyre, )>onne bidde ic piBt he ^as scyrtinge ne taele : him 
nicPg his agen andgyt secgan fullice be "Sisum ; and eow 
laewechnii mannum is ^is genoh,"Seah (Se ge 5a deopan digel- 
nysse 'Sferon ne cunnon. Hit gchuiip "Sus so^lice be lobe 
swa swa he sylf aurat, ac t.wa-^eah seo gastlice getacnung 
]?aere gereccednysse bclimpS to Cristes menniscnysse and to 
his gclaSunge, swa swa lareowas trahtnodon. Gif ure 
aenigum sum imgolimp becume, ^oirne sccolc we boon ge- 
myndige j^iscs mteran weres, and geSyldige beon on ^am 
Swyrnyssum |;e us se yEhnihtiga on besent, and habban maran 
care urc sawle |?onne S<fire scortan gesielJSe ]>e we sceolon U)V- 
hetan. 

Sy wuldor and wurSmynt Sam wclwyllcndan Scyppende 
ealra his wundra and his wel-danhi, seSe ana is God a on 
ccnysse. Amen. 



DOMINICA SEXTADECIMA POST PENTECOSTEN. 

NEMO potest duobus dominis seruire : et rcli(|ua. 

Drihten cwyeS on sumne timan to his leorning-cnihtum, 
" Ne maeg nan man t\^am hlafordum samod ^eowian ; o5Se 
he "Sone aenne hata^ and ^one oSerne lufab, o^Se he bine to 
■5am anum geSeot and ]7one oSerne forsih^ :" et rehqua. 

Beda trahtnode sceortlice ^is godspcl, and cwae^, ]>pet we 
sceoldon "Sa hwtlwendhcan ^ing to urum bricum habban, na 
on ure heortan lufe healdan. Drihten sylf geopenode hwaet 
■5a twegen hlafordas sind, mid pam 5e he cwaeS, " Ne mage 
ge Gode Seowian and coweres feos geslreone." Gehyre se 



THE SIXTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 461 

his life he lived two hundred and forty-eight years. He was 
the fifth man from Abraham the patriarch. In that time 
was a very long life among mankind. 

If any learned man read over this narrative, or hear it read, 
then I pray him not to blame this abridgment: to liim his 
own understanding may speak fully on this subject ; and for 
you laymen this is enough, though ye know not the deep 
mystery therein. It truly befell Job thus as he himself has 
written, but, nevertheless, the ghostly signification of the 
narrative refers to Christ's humanity and to his church, as 
doctors have expounded. If to any of us some mishap befall, 
then should we be mindful of this great man, and be patient 
under the crosses that the Almighty sends on us, and have 
greater care for our souls than for the short happiness that 
we shall forsake. 

Be glory and honour to the benevolent Creator for all his 
wonders and benefits, who alone is God to all ctornitj'. 
Amen. 



THE SIXTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 

NEMO potest duobus dominis servire : et reliqua. 

The Lord said at a certain time to his disciples, " No man 
can at the same time serve two masters ; he will citl-er hate 
the one and love the other, or he u ill attach himself to the 
one and despise the other," etc. 

Beda has shortly expounded this gospel, and said, that we 
should have transitory things for our use, not hold them in 
the love of our heart. The Lord himself disclosed who the 
two masters are, when he said, *' Ye cannot serve God and 
your own pecuniary gain." Let the covetous hear these 



462 DOM. SEXTADECIMA POST PENTECOSTEN. 

gytsere pixs word, seiSe leaslice is cristen gecweden ; gehyre 
he, l^aet he ne niaeg his gytsunge Seowian, and Criste samod. 
Nis svva-^eah gecweden, se "Se welan ha?fS, ac se "5e "(Seowa'S 
•Sam wehnn. Witodlice se iSe is j^aera achta ^eow, he ^eowa"S 
him swa swa hlaforde, and se "Se is )>aera aehta hhiford, he 
dselS hi swa swa hlaford. Se ^e gytsunge him haefb to hhif- 
ordc, se forsiliS his Scyppend ; and se Se his Scyppende 
"Seowa^ mid hifo, swa swaldaforde, he forsihS Sa feondlican 
gytsunge, seocSe is wyrtruma ajlces yfeles. Drihtcn us 
manode, j^aet we n^eron ealles to carfuUe ymbe urne fodan, 
oS^e embe ure gewaeda. We sceolon mid gcswince us metes 
tilian, for Adames ofergtegednysse j ac we sceolon iSa ymhi- 
dignysse fram us awurpan. 

" Betere is seo sawul Sonne se mete, and se lichama betera 
"bonne his scrCid :" swilce he cwjede, ' Se God Se eow \ni 
beteran Sing, |>a?t is sawie and lichaman, forgeaf, and eow to 
men gcsceop, sc ylca maig eow eaSelice foresceawian bigleofan 
and IdeowSe, gif ge his willan gefremmaS.' Wite gehwa 
\>iBt seo sawul is gast, and be eorSlicum mettum ne leofaS, ac 
ure hwTlwcndlice lif biS mid mettum gefercod. For synnum 
oftihS se ^Eimihtiga Wealdend hwilon mannum bigleofan, ac 
swa-Seah se Se hungre acwelS, we gcl}faS |>aet he gegseS 
Gode, buton he ]>e swiSor forscyldgod wa^re. He cw<e^, 
" BehealdaS )nis fleogendan fugelas, ^e ne savva^ ne ne ripab, 
ac eower Heofonlica Feeder hi afet." Gif ^a wacan fugelas, 
J>e nu to-daeg beo^, and beoS to-merigen to nahte awende, 
habbaS butan care bigleofan, Surh heora Scyppendes fore- 
sceawunge, hu miccle swiSor wile God foresceawian urne 
bigleofan, we ^e sind ece on urum sawlum, and eac beo^ on 
lichaman unateorigendlice a;fter ^am genijjenelicum aeriste ? 

Drihten cwaeS, J?aet we sind miccle rottran ponne ^a fuge- 
las ; for^an "Se se man is "be Gode gcSih^ ealra gesceafta 
rotost, and Gode leofost, buton "Sam heofenlicum englum, ]>e 
naefre ne syngodon. Mannes gecynd is micclum gewurSod, 
)>urh ])iet ]>c se ^Imihtiga Godes Sunu bine sylfne gemede- 



THE SIXTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 403 

words, who is falsely culled a christian ; let him hear, that 
he cannot serve his covetousness and Christ together. It is 
not, however, said, he who hath riches, but he who servetii 
those riches. Verily he who is the servant of his posses- 
sions, serves them as a master, and he who is the master of 
his possessions, deals them as a master. He who has cove- 
tousness for a master, contemns his Creator ; and he who 
serves his Creator with love as a master, contemns hateful 
covetousness, which is the root of every evil. The Lord ex- 
horted us not to be altogether too careful about our food, or 
about our garments. We should gain us meat \a ith toil, for 
Adam's transgression ; but we should cast solicitude from 
us, 

" Better is the soul than meat, and the body better than 
its clothing :" as if he had said, 'The God that gave you the 
better things, that is, soul and body, and created you as man, 
the same can easily provide you food and covering, if ye per- 
form his will.' Let every one know that the soul is a spirit, 
and lives not on eartlily meats ; but our transitory life is 
sustauied by meats. For sins the Almighty God sometimes 
withdraws sustenance from men, but, nevertheless, we believe 
that he who dies of hunger goes to God, mi less he were 
greatly criminal. He said, " Behold the flying birds, which 
nor sow nor reap, but your Heavenly Father fecdeth them." 
If the weak birds, that are now to-day, and will to-morrow 
be turned to naught, have sustenance without care, througii 
their Creator's providence, how much more ^^ill God pro- 
vide our sustenance, we who are eternal in our souls, and 
shall also be unperishable in body after the comuion resurrec- 
tion ? 

The Lord said, that we are much more joyous than the 
birds ; because the man who thrives to God is of all creatures 
the most joyous, and to God dearest, save the heavenly angels, 
who never simied. Man's nature is greatly honoured thereby, 
that the Almighty Son of God vouchsafed to assume that 



464 DOiM. SEXTADECIMA POST PENTECOSTEN. 

mode |?8et gecynd to underfonne. He cwae^, " Hwilc eower 
niaeg geican ane elne to his lenge?" Witodlice ne become 
we J?urh ure foresceawimge to "Sam waestme, j>e we on iirum 
lichaman habl)aS ; uton forSi Ijetan ]>pes reafes ymhidignysse 
to ^aes dihte pe 5am lichaman ^a lenge forgeaf. Wyrta sind 
eaSeiice gesccafta, and ^urh winterlicne cyle symle for- 
seariab ; swa-beah j^ses /Elmihtigan cystinys hi geglencS mid 
swa wlitigum blostmum, |>aet hi oferstigaS mid heora f»ger- 
nysse ealle corSlice gebleoh. Ne mihte se wuldorfuUa Salo- 
mon, ne nan eorSlic cyning swa wlitigc deagunge his hraeglum 
begytan swa swa rose ha^fS, and lilie, and fcla o^re wyrta |?e 
wundcrlice scinaJS : 5a wyrta beo5 nu to-dfeg blowendo on 
wynsumnyssc, and to-merigcn bco5 forbjprnde. Morigen is 
getcald on bocum for towcardrc tide, ]'eali ge "Sa bysne ne 
cunnon. 

Hwi forgifS God ]>am wacum wyrtum swa fa^gerne wlite, 
and us forbyt j^jet we ne sceolon hogian ymbe ure fnetewunge, 
buton forJSan 5e we sceolon mid wacnysse and soSre ead- 
modnysse |>a hcofenlican ffegernysse and fr.-etewunge gcear- 
nian, jjc Adam foileas, forSan 5e he woldc, j^urh hies dcofles 
tihtinge, nuerra boon j^onnc he gesccapcn wies ? Ne sceole 
we wuldrian on woruldlicere fr^etewunge, forban pe sco fraetc- 
wung and sc lichama sind brosniendlice swa swa ^aera wyrta 
blostm. Drill ten bead j^aet we naeron bysige and carfulle, 
cvveSende, " Hwset sceole we etan, obSe hw^et drincan, o^^c 
mid hwam beon ymscrydde?" and cw^e^, "Witodlice eower 
Heofenlica Faeder wat j^iet ge j^yssera 5inga behofiaS : seca5 
aerest Godes rice, and his rihtwisnysse, and ealle 5as 5ing 
eow beo5 j^aerto geeacnode." We sceolon merest secaii Godes 
rice and his rihtwisnysse : |?aet is, "pipX we sceolon swiSor 
hogian embe J^aet ece ITf, jjonne ymbe 5one ateorigendlican 
bigleofan, "Sone us geeacna'S God ^aerto, gif we "Saes o^res 
swibor cepa^. Ne cwaeS he na j^aet us beo5 j?a ateorigend- 
lican bigleofan forgyfene, ac J^aerto geeacnode, for^an "Se he 
tala^ )>aet ece ITf to his gife, and 'Sone eorSlican bigleofan to 



THE SIXTEENTH SUNDAY AFTER PENTECOST. 465 

nature. He said, " Which of you can add one ell to his 
length?" Verily we come not through our own providence 
to the stature that we have on our bodies ; let us, therefore, 
leave care of raiment to the disposal of him wiio gave to the 
body its length. Plants are tender creatures, and through 
wintery chill always wither ; nevertheless, the bounty of the 
Almighty adorns them with such beauteous blossoms, that 
they excel by their fairness all earthly colours. Neither the 
glorious Solomon, nor any earthly king could get such beau- 
tiful dyeing for his garments as the rose has, and the lily, 
and many other plants which appear wonderful : these plants 
are to-day blowing in winsomeness, and to-morrow are 
burnt. In books to-morrow is reckoned for future time, 
though ye know not an example. 

Why gives God to the mean herbs so fair an aspect, and 
forbids us to be solicitous about our decoration, but because 
we should by simpleness and true lowliness merit the hea- 
venly fairness and decoration, which Adam lost, because he 
would, through the instigation of the devil, be greater than 
he was created ? We should not glory in worldly decoration, 
for the decoration and the body are corruptible as the blossom 
of plants. The Lord enjoined that we should not be busy 
and careful, saying, " What shall we eat, or what drink, or 
with what be clothed?" and said, "For your Heavenly 
Father knowcth that ye need these things : seek first the 
kingdom of God, and his righteousness, and all these things 
shall be added unto you." We should first seek God's 
kingdom and his righteousness : that is, that we should be 
more solicitous about the everlasting life than about the 
perishable sustenance which God adds for us thereto, if we 
are more observant of the other. He said not, that perish- 
able sustenance will be given us, but added thereto, because 
he accounts the everlasting life as his gift, and the earthly 

HOM. vol.. II. 2 H 



46G DE SANCTA MARIA. 

hwilwendlicere laene. paet ece lif us forgifS God, and }?urh 
his genihtsumnysse us ^one hwilwendlican fodan ^aer-to- 
eacau wyrpS, swuteligende j^aet se foda nis na ure med, ac 
J?aet ece lif is ures geswinces edlean. 

Dseghwomlice we sceolon gewilnian )?aes ecan lifes, and 
ure synna symle wanian ; for^an ^e hi beo"b gegaderode to 
micelre hypaii, gif we hi weaxan laeta^. Oft of ^innum ren- 
scurum flevv^ seo eoi-5e. 

pis godspel ^incS dyseguni mannuni sellic, ac we hit 
secga^ swa-^eah, weald ^eah hit sumum men licige, God 
lis gcrihtltece, and to ^am ecan life gel^edc, swa swa he behet 
"Sam 5e hine lufiaiS. Sy him wuldor and wur^mynt on ealra 
worulda woruld. Amen. 



DE SANCTA MARIA. 



IIW.,ET wylle we secgan ymbe Marian gebyrd-tide, buton 
]>pet heo Wfes gestryned ]>urh fteder and ^urh moder swa swa 
olSre men, and wa-s on 5am daege acenned ]?e we cweiSa^ 
scxta idus Septembris ? Hire faeder hatte loacliim, and iiire 
moder Anna, eawfaeste men on ^tere ealdan » ; ac we nella^ 
be Sam na swiSor awritan, J7y-laes ^e we on aenigum gedwylde 
befeallon. Eac ]>fes daeges godspel is swi^Se earfo^e Iwwedum 
mannum to understandenne ; hit is eal maest mid haligra 
manna naman geset, and hi habba^ swiSe langsume traht- 
nunge, aefter Sam gastlicum andgite ; bi we hit laeta^ unseed. 



OF SAINT MARY. 467 

sustenance as a temporary loan. God gives us the everlast- 
ing life, and, through his abundance, casts to us, in addition 
thereto, temporary food, manifesting that the food is not our 
meed, but that everlasting life is the reward of our toil. 

Daily should we desire the everlasting life, and unremit- 
tingly lessen our sins ; for they will be gathered into a great 
heap, if we let them wax. Oft from thin rain-bhowers the 
earth is flooded. 

This gospel will to foolish men seem extraordinary, but 
we, nevertheless, say it, seeing that to some it may be pleasing. 
May God direct us, and lead us to the everlasting life, as he 
hath promised to those that love him. Be to him glory and 
honour to all eternity. Amen. 



OF SAINT MARY. 

AVHAT shall we say of the birth-tide of Mary, save that 
she was begotten by fatlicr and by mother as other persons, 
and was born on the day that we call the eighth of Sep- 
tember ? Her father was named Joachim, and her mother 
Anna, pious persons according to the old law ; but we will 
not write further concerning them, lest we fall into any error. 
This day's gospel is also very difficult for laymen to under- 
stand ; it is all chiefly occupied with the names of holy men, 
and they require a very long exposition according to the 
ghostly sense ; we therefore leave it unsaid. 



2 H 2 



468 



XI. KL. OCTOBRIS. 

NATALE SANCTI MATHEI APOSTOLI ET 
EUANGELISTAE. 

SE GoDSPELLERK Matheus, j/c we to-daeg wur^ia'5, awrat 
be him sylfum hu se Hielend hine geceas to his geferraedene, 
Jjus cwe^ende, " Cum transiret lesus, uidit honiinem in ihe- 
lonio sedentom, Matlieum nomine:" et reliqua : " Daba se 
Haelend ferde on sumere byrig, Sa geseah he sittan sumne 
mannan aet toll-setle, Matheus gehaten ; and he cwae^ to him, 
Folga me. Matheus aras paerrihte fram his tolle, and fdigdc 
^ani H^elende:" et reliqua. 

We nimab ]>iBt andgit )nses godspelles ff'gcScr ge of Mathees 
gesetnysse ge of Lucas. Matlicus is Ebreisc nama, ])i^t is 
on Leden ' Donatus,' and on EngUsc ' Forgifen,' oStJc * Ge- 
godod.' God hine godode swaj^aet he hine awcnde of tollere 
to apostole, and him forgeaf Sa gife )){et he awrat ^a forman 
Cristas hoc, and is godspellerc Jmrh Godes micclan cyste. 
" He hine geseah sittan set tolle." He hine geseah na |?8et 
an mid lichamlicere gesih^e, ac eac swilce mid incundre milt- 
sunge, swa J^aet he hine geceas to heofonlicere ge(Sinc5c, and 
cwffiS, " Folga me." ' Folga me na ]>iet an on fotlicum gange, 
ac eac swilce on godra ^eavva geefenlaecunge,' swa swa se 
apostol cw8rS, " Se ^e cweS "pstt he on Criste wunige, he 
sceal faran swa swa Crist ferde." 

Matheus aras, and forlet his tollscire, and fiiligde Criste ; 
forban j^e he mid ungesewenlicere onbryrdnysse his mod 
Ifcerde, swa swa he mid his worde wi^utan hine clypode. "Ma- 
theus l^a gearcode micel gereord ]?am Haelende, and hine to 
his huse gelaSode." He gearcode him gebeorscipe on his 
huse, ac he gearcode him micele )?ancwur^ran gereord on his 
heortan, ^urh geleafan and so^re lufe, swa swa he sylf cw.'e^, 
" Ic stande tet ^sere dura cnucigende, and swa hwa swa mine 
stemne geliyrS, and ^a duru me geopena^, ic gauge in to 



469 



SEPTEMBER XXI. 

THE NATIVITY OF SAINT MATTHEW, APOSTLE AND 

EVANGELIST. 

THE Evangelist Matthew, whom wc to-day honour, 
wrote of himself how Jesus chose him to his fellowship, thus 
saying, " Cum transiret Jesus, vidit hominem in telonio 
sedentem, Matthipum nomine:" et reliqua : ** As Jesus 
passed hy in a certain town, he saw a man sitting in the toll- 
seat, called Matthew ; and he said unto him, Follow me. 
Matthew arose forthwith from his toll, and followed Jesus," 
etc. 

We take the sense of this gospel both from the tradition of 
Matthew and of Luke. Matthew is a Hebrew name, which 
is in Latin Do?iutus, and in English Giveti, or Endowed. 
God endowed him so that he turned him from atoll-gatherer 
to an apostle, and gave him the grace that he wrote the first 
book of Christ, and is an evangelist through the great good- 
ness of God. " He saw him sitting at the toll." He saw 
him not alone with bodily sight, but also with inward com- 
passion, so that he chose him for heavenly honouj", and said, 
" Follow me." ' Follow me not only by walking on foot, but 
also in the imitation of good practices,' as the apostle said, 
*' He who saith that he dwclleth in Christ, shall walk as 
Christ walked." 

Matthew arose, and left his tollship, and followed Christ, 
because with invisible stimulation he instructed his mind, as 
he with his word called him from without. *' Matthew then 
prepared a great feast for Jesus, and invited him to his 
house." He prepared him an entertainment in his house, 
but he prepared him a much more thankworthy feast in his 
heart, by belief and true love, as he himself said, " I stand at 
the door knocking, and whosoever heareth my voice, and 
opcnelh the door to me, I will go in In jiim, and feast w ith 



u_ 



470 NATALE SANCTI MATHEI. 

him, and mid him gereordige and he mid me." God afandalS 
cclces mannes heortan, and se ^e underfeh^ his neosunge mid 
godum willan, se biS gereordod wi^innan ]?urh gife )?aes 
Halgan Gastes ; and God wuna^ mid him, gif he on godum 
weorcum ^urhwuna^. 

pa sunder-halgan and t)a boceras, ]>e beciddon |)jet Crist 
mid J?am synfulluni mannum hine gereordode, wjeron mid 
twyfealdum gedwylde befangene, forSan <Se hi \hbs Haelendes 
mildhcortnysse on "Sam synfulluni hyrwdon, and hi sylfe 
rihtwise tealdon. Drihten him cuaeS to, " Ne behofiaS "Sa 
halan nanes Iceces, ac ^a untruman." He is ' Htelend ' ge- 
haten, forSan |7e he hfei^ a?g^er ge manna lichaman ge heora 
sawle ; and forSi he com to mancynne, )>8et he woldc Sa syn- 
fullan gerihtlffican, and hcora sawla gehaelan. " Se 5e vven^ 
l^aet he hal sy, se is unhal." ptet is, se he truua-S on his 
agenre rihtwisnysse, ne hogaS he be 5am heofcnlican laece- 
dome. 

He c\va?<S, " FaraJS, and leorniaS hwfet ]>azt nifene, Ic wylle 
mildhcortnysse, and na otVrunge." pis cwseS sum witega, 
ffirSan ^e Crist to men geboren wurde. Ne biS Gode nan 
offrung ne nan lac gecweme buton mildhcortnysse. Deah ]>o 
sum wielhreowa Gode lac gcoffrigc, ne biS heo Godc and- 
fenge, buton he his Wielhreawnysse awurpe, and mildhcort- 
nysse lufigc. pa ludeiscan wuldrodon on hcora aelicum 
offrungum, and Crist saede ]><et him waerc Icofrc liSe heortan, 
and het hi forSi leornian bwaet se witega maende mid baere 
clypunge. Gode is swiSe leof ])iet he mancynne myltsigo, 
and him is leofre j^ait he us miltsige ^urh sumne intingan, 
■(Sonne he us for urum scyldum geni^erige ; and ^a mildhcort- 
nysse ]>e him is gecyndelic, "^a he wile habban pet us swi^or 
l^onne ure lac. 

He cwae^, "Ne com ic na to clypigenne ^a rihtvvisan, ac 
■8a synfuUan to daedbote." Da synfullan he gebig^ to daed- 
bote, and iSa rihtwisan he geeacnaS mid maran rihtwisnysse. 
Ne clypaS he Sa him to 5e hi sylfe rihtwise taliaS, swilce 



THE NATIVITY OF SAINT MATTHEW. 471 

him and he with me." God tries the heart of every man, 
and he who receives his visitation with good will, will be 
feasted within, through the grace of the Holy Ghost ; and 
God will dwell with iiini, if he persist in good works. 

The pharisees and the scribes, who complained that Christ 
ate with sinful men, were possessed with a twofold error ; be- 
cause they blamed Christ's mercy on the sinful, and accounted 
themselves righteous. The Lord said to them, " The hale 
need no leech, but the sick." He is called Healing, heainse 
he heals both the bodies of men and their souls ; and he came 
to mankind, because he would direct the sinful, and heal their 
souls. " He that thinks he is whole, is sick." That is, he 
who trusts in his own righteousness, is not solicitous for hea- 
venly medicament. 



He said, " Go, and learn wliat that means, I will have 
mercy, and not offering." This a prophet said, before Christ 
was born as man. To God no offering nor any gift will be 
pleasing without mercy. Though some cruel tyrant offer a 
gift to God, it will not be acceptable to God, unless he cast 
away his cruelty, and love mercy. The Jews gloried in their 
lawful offerings, and Christ said that a tender heart was 
dearer to him, and, therefore, bade them learn what the pro- 
phet meant by that exclamation. It is very pleasing to God 
to have mercy on mankind, and it is more pleasing to him to 
have mercy on ua for some cause, than to condemn us for 
our sins ; and the mercy which is congenial to him he will 
have from us rather than our gifts. 

He baid, " I came not to call the righteous, but the sinful 
to repentance." The sinful he inclines to repentance, and 
the righteous he increases with more righteousness. He calls 
not unto him those who account themselves righteous, such 



472 PASSIO EIUSDEM. 

swa Sa sunder-halgar) wferon, )?e mid aiidan ceorodon ]>iei he 
mid ^am synfullum aet. Eal meniiisc wfes synfull, ac Drihten 
gerihtwisode, buton geearnunguin, ^urh his gife, "Sa iSe he 
geceas, swa swa he dide j^ys^ne godspellere Matheum, "Se we 
nu to-da>g wurSiuS. lie waes hedofon on deoppre n3ten- 
nysse woruldlicra gewihiuiiga, ac Drihten hine ;etbrfed of 
Sam fenlicum adehin to heofeiilicum gebincbum, and hine 
gesette eallum Seodum to godspellere. Sy him )»{es wuldor 
a on ecnysse. Amen. 

PASSIO EIUSD£M. 

DES ylca apostol and godspellere becom, )>urh Godes sande, 
a^fter Drihtnes upstigc to heofcnum, to Ethiopian, \>iet is 
(Sa^ra Silhearwcna rice, and gcmette J>aer tvvegcn drymen, 
Zorot s and ArfaxaS, dwcliende jnet folc mid heora drycra^fte. 
Hwiet Sa Matheus arasode heora deofles crfeft, and ealle Sa 
geluelde pe hi alcfcdon, and fela oSre untrume }>airto-eacan, 
]mrh j^aes H;elendes naman, ]>e hine ^ider asende. 

An piRS cynges cnihta waes aer afarcn to Hierusalem, and 
wearS be wcge, Surh Godes apostol Piiilippmn, gefullod, se 
underfeng pone godspellere Matheum mid ealre estfulnysse, 
and hine axian ongann, " La leof, sege me humeta canst ^u, 
nu Su eart Ebreisc, Grecisc gereord, and Egyptisc, and eac 
Ethiopisc?" Matheus andwyrde, "Eal middaneard iiaefde 
ane spraece, aerSan "Se seo dyrstignys asprang fefter Noes 
flode, p<et men woldon him araeran swa heahne stypel, paet 
his hrof astige to heofenum ; ac se ^Elmihtiga towearp heora 
anginn, swa J^aet he forgeaf aelcum "Saera wyrhtena synderlic 
gereord, and heora nan nyste hwaet o^er gecwaeS. Eft 
sySSan, ]7aes /Elmihtigan Godes Sunu, ]?aSa he wolde, com to 
middanearde, and taehte mid hwilcere getimbrunge we sceolon 
to heofonum astigan, and asende us his apostoluni ]?one 
Halgan Gast of heofenum on fyres hivve, se us onaelde swa 



PASSIOxN OF THE SAME. 473 

as the pharisees were, who nmrmured with envy because he 
ate with the sinful. All human kind was sinful, but the Lord 
justified, without merits, through his grace, those whom he 
chose, as he did this evangelist Matthew, whom we now to- 
day honour. He was steeped in the deep barbarism of 
worldly cupidity, but the Lord drew iiim from the fenlike 
nuul to heavenly honours, and set him as an evangelist to all 
nations. Be to him therefore glory to eternity. Amen. 



PASSION OF THE SAME. 

THIS same apostle and evangelist came, through the sending 
of God, after the Lord's ascension, to Ethiopia, that is the 
kingdom of the Silhearwas, and found there two wizards, 
Zaroes and Arphaxat, misleading the people with their sor- 
cery. Whereupon Matthew exposed their devil's craft, and 
healed all that tiiey had afflicted with disease, and many other 
sick in addition thereto, in the name of Jesus, who sent 
them thither. 

One of the king's servants, who had before jourmyed to 
Jerusalem, and was baptized on the way by God's apostle 
Piiilip, received the evangelist Matthew with all devotedncss, 
and began asking him, " Sir, tell me how dost thou, who art 
a Hebrew, know the Greek tongue, and the Egyptian, and 
also the Ethioi)ic?" Matthew answered, "All the world 
had one speech, before the audacity sprang up after Noah's 
flood, that men would raise them so high a tower, that its 
roof should mount to heaven ; but the Almighty overthrew 
their undertaking, so that he gave to each of the workmen a 
separate language, and not one of them kriew what another 
said. Afterwards, the Son of Almighty God, wl)en he willed 
it, came to the world, and taught with what building we 
should cascend to heaven, and sent to us his apostles the Holy 
Ghost from heaven in semblance of fire. Avhich heated us as 



474 PASSIO EIUSDEM. 

swa fyr de^S isen, and us forgeaf ingehyd ealles wisdomes and 
ealra gereorda );yssere worulde. And to swa hwilcere leode 
swa we cuinab, we cunnon Sasre gereord, na medemlice ac 
fiilfremedlice." 

^fter l^yssere spniecc conion Sa drynien, and haefdon him 
mid twegen ormaete dracan, Saera or^ung acwealde )?aet earme 
mennisc : ac se apostol Matheus pa dracan geswefode, and 
sib San of ^am lande adraefde, swa }?;et hi naefre si 5 San )?aer 
gesewene naeron. -rEfter Sisum )>{«rrihte gewat \>ais cynges 
sunu, and ^a drymen stodon let his forj^siSe, leasetende ]>iPX 
hi vvoldon hine eft to life arteran. DaSa him j'aes ne speow, 
"Sa ScJedon hi ^am cyninge, ]?a}t he weerc gclaeht to lieora 
godum, and sceolde beon an Saera goda, and he wurSe waere 
|)aet him man worhte anlicnysse, and tempi araerde. paes 
cynges cniht Sa, seSe ha?fde geinnod J^one godspellere Ma- 
theum aet his huse, saede "Sfere cwene be him. Se cyning Sa, 
Eglippus, sende his arwur^ostan Segenas to "Sam apostole, 
and he com Sa, and )>one ieSeling Eufranon, on Drihtnes 
naman, of dea^e anerde. To Syssere da^de wearS |>;cs cynges 
hcorte ablicged, and he hct his Icode cuman and hi gebiddan 
to ^am apostole, cwfeS ]?aet he god waere on mannes hi we 
lutiende. 

Da com j^aes landcs meiiigu mid Icohtfatum and mid 
taperum, mid store and mid mislicum offrungum ; woldon 
"Sam godspellere swa swa gode offrian. Ilwjet ^a Matheus 
hi Sisum wordum gespraec, " Ne eom ic na god, ac ic eom 
Godes ^eowa, se asende me to eow, J^aet ge bugon fram eow- 
erum haeSengilde to Sam so^an Scyppende, se^e atja is God. 
Nima^ eower gold and eower seolfor, j^e ge me beodaS, and 
faraS and araeraS pum yElmihtigan Gode tempel, and gadria^ 
eow ^aer to gehyrenne Godes word." Hwa^t Sa sixtig Susend 
manna ferdoii to ^an weorce, and binnon Sritig daga |?aet 
tempel geendodon. Matheus ^a se apostol sceop Saere cyrcan 
naman ' Resurrectio,' ]?8et is '^rist,' forSan Se Surh ^aes 
ae^elinges aerist waes se intinga j^a^re cyrcan getimbrunge. 



PASSION OF THE SAME. 475 

fire does iron, and gave us knowledge of all the wisdom and 
all the languages of this world. And to whatsoever people 
we come, we know their language, not incompletely but 
perfectly." 

After this speech came the wizards, and had with them 
two immense dragons, the breath of which killed the mise- 
rable people : but the apostle Matthew lulled the dragons to 
sleep, and afterwards drove them out of the land, so that they 
were never afterwards there seen. After this the king's son 
suddenly died, and the wizards stood by at his decease, pre- 
tending that they would raise him again to life. When they 
did not succeed in this, they then said to the king, that he 
was taken to their gods, and should be one of their gods, 
and that he was worthy that an image were made to him and 
a temple raised. The king's servant then, who had enter- 
tained the evangelist Matthew at his house, spake to the 
queen concerning him. The king then, Egyppus, sent his 
most venerable thanes to the apostle, and he came, and, in 
the name of the Lord, raised the prince Eufranan from 
death. At this deed the heart of the king was amazed, and 
he commanded his people to come and worship the apostle, 
saying that he was a god concealed under the form of a man. 

Then came the multitude of the land with lamps and with 
tapers, with frankincense and with divers offerings ; they 
would offer them to the evangelist as to a god. Wiiereupon 
Matthew spake to them in these words, *' I am not a god, 
but I am a servant of God, who hath sent mc to you, that ye 
may turn from your idolatry to the true Creator, who alone 
is God. Take vour gold and vour silver, which ye offer to 
me, and go and raise a temple to the Almighty God, and 
gather yourselves there to hear God's word." Thereupon 
sixty thousand men went to the work, and within thirty days 
finished the temple. Matthew the apostle then gave to the 
church the name of ' Resurrectio,' that is ' Resurrection,' 
because through the prince's resurrection was caused the 
building of the cliuicli. 



476 PASSIO EIUSDEM. 

On \>iere cyrcan vviinode se godspellere ^reo and twentig 
geara, and gehadode niaissepreostas and diaconas, and on ge- 
hvvilcuni burgum biscopas gesette, and fela cyrcan arterde. 
Se cyning Eglippus wearS gefuUod, and his gebedda Eufc- 
nissa, and hcora sunu Eufranon, seSe ]>isr areered waes, and 
his swuster Effigenia, seo ISurhwnnode on nifegShade for 
Cristes liifan. pa twegen drymen, Zoroes and Arfaxa'S, 
wurdon gescynde of ^am eardc, swa liraSe swa se ae))eling of 
deaSe aras. Langsum is to reccenne hu fela blinde se apostol 
onlihte, o]}]>e hu fela bcdredan he gehaclde, hu fela reoflige he 
geclfensode, hu fela wode he gebrolite on gewitte, hu fela 
deade he arserde, and hu cristen se cyning wearS, and hu 
eawfaest seo ae)?ele cwen, and hu estfull cal ]>iRS cyningcs folc. 
Das race we IsetaS for^c'erc liingsumnysse, and we willaS eow 
secgan j^ses halgan godspellcres browunge. 

Se cyning Eglippus Icofode his lif on cawftestre droht- 
nunge, and on fulre ylde fcrdc to Gode, and his brobor sunu 
Irtacus, yfele geworht man, feng to his nee. Se wolde 
niman his magan to wife, j>a?s cyninges dohtor, seoSe waes to 
abbudissan gehadod ofer ma Sonne twam hund mjedenum, 
and behet |?am apostole healf his rice, gif he niihte hi gebigan 
to his synscipe. pa bet se apostol Sone cyning cuman to 
cyrcan mid his folce, and ealle Sa nifedenu saniod. Hi 5a 
comon, swa heora gewuna w.es, and se apostol him eallum 
s^de hwaet gebyraS to sinscipe, hwa?t to wydewan hade, 
hwaet to maigShade, and hwfet to ajlces mannes ^eawum "Se 
on Godes gela^unge mid geleafan wuna^. And cwae^ ^a aet 
nextan, ])cEt, Gif hwa ])ies cyninges bryde gewemde, ]>ip.t he 
wyrSe waere )?8et hine man on byrnendum ligum bescufe. 
** pu nun leofe beam, Irtace, nu "Su wast piet Effigenia, Sines 
foregengan dohtor, is )?ees Heofenlican Cynges bryd, and mid 
halig refte gehalgod : hu miht 5u |?am ^Elmihtigan his bryde 
beniman, and ^inum sinscipe geSeodan ?" Irtacus ^a wearS 
swi^e geyrsod, and Sonon swa gewat. 

Da astrehte seo abbudisse Effigenia hi aet y,e& apostolcs 



PASSION OF THE SAME. 477 

In that church the evangelist dwelt tlirec and twentj' years, 
and ordained mass-priests and deacons, and set bishops in 
every city, and raised many churches. The king Egyppus 
was baptized, and his consort Eufenissa, and their son 
Eufranan, who had tlierc been raised, and his sister Effi- 
genia, who continued in maidenhood for love of Christ. The 
two wizards, Zaroes and Arphaxat, were driven from tlie 
country, as soon as the prince had arisen from death. Long 
is it to relate how many blind the apostle enlightened, or how 
many bedridden he healed, how many lepers he cleansed, 
how many mad he brought to their wits, how many dead lie 
raised, and how christian the king became, and how pious 
the noble queen, and how devout all the king's folk. 'i'Jiis 
narrative we leave for its longsomeness, and wx' will rccoinit 
to you the holy evangelist's passion. 

The king Egyppus lived his life in pious tenour, and in full 
age went to God, and his brother's son Hyrtacus, an evil-con- 
ditioned man, succeeded to his kingdom. lie would take Ids 
kinswoman to wife, the king's daughter, who had been 
ordained as abbess over more than two hundred maidens, 
and promised the apostle half hi.s kingdom, if he could incline 
her to wedlock with him. Then the apostle bade the king 
come to church with his folk, and all the maidens also. They 
came then, as was their wont, and the apostle said to them 
all what is befitting to wedlock, what to widowhood, what to 
maidenhood, and what to the duties of every man. who with 
belief continues in God's church. And said at last, that. If 
any one defiled the king's bride, he would be worthy to be 
thrust into burning flames. "Thou my dear son, Hyrtacus, 
now thou knowest that Effigenia, thy predecessor's daughter, 
is the bride of the Heavenly King, and hallowed with the 
holy veil : how canst thou take his bride from the Almighty, 
and join her with thee in wedlock ?" Hyrtacus then became 
extremely wroth, and so departed thence. 

Then the abbess Effigenia stretched herself at the apostle's 



478 PASSIO EIUSDEM. 

fotum eetforan eallinn ^am folce, and cvvjfib, " Ic bidde tJe, 
)jurh ^one God ^e t)e to apostole gcceas, ]?aet ^u asette "Sine 
hand ofer me and ofer eallc ^as gehadodan maedenu, and ge- 
bletsa us, ]>fet we magon setberstan San "Se us gebysmrian 
wile." Matheus "Sa, truwigende on his Drihtne, lede halig 
reft ofer hire heafod, and ofer ealra Sacra nia^dena heafdu ^e 
hire mid waeron, mid );yssere bletsunge, " God aElmihtig, 
lichamena Scyppend and saula Blawend, J;u Se nane ylde ne 
naenne had ne forsihst ; ac "Su eart eah-a Scyppend, and gclice 
Alysend ; geheald )?as "Sine )>incna wi5 felcere gcwcnnned- 
nysse, and gestranga hi on halgum ma^gnum, ]>iKt hi mid 
wulder-beage eces maeg^hades to Sines Suna Haelendes 
Cristes claenan gcj^codnysse becuman moton." /Efter )>issere 
bletsunge and menigfcaldre tihtinge, nifessode se apostol Sam 
folce, and hi siSSan ham gewcndon ; ac se apostol belaf biii- 
non "Sam temple, hinc gebiddende set ^am halgan \veof(jde. 

pa sende se waelhreowa cyning Irtacus ainne cwellere to 
^am apostole, J>aet he hine acwellan sceolde. Witodlice ^aSa 
he stod on his gcbcdum, astrehtum handum, ];a ^yde se 
cwellere hine b»ftan mid atogenum swurde, and hine swa 
gemartirode. pus wcaiS sc apostol and godspellere Matheus 
on "Sisum dsge gemartirod, and his halige sawul gewende to 
heofenan rice to Ha^lende Cristc. pa wear^ paet cristen folc 
swi^e astyred for ^aes apostoles siege, and woldon forbaernan 
inne ]?one arleasan cyning, ac ^a eawfaestan maessepreostas 
and diaconas hi earfo^lice gestildon. paet halige maeden, 
Effigenia, aspende hire gold and hire seolfor, and araerde 
cyrcan ^am apostole to wurSmynte, and ^a lafe ^earfum 
daelde. 

Da asende se cyning Irtacus aeSelborene wif to ^am 
masdene Effigenian, j^aet hi hi forspeonon to his lustum ; ac 
^a^a hi ne mihton hire mod to ^am gebigan, j^a clypode se 
cyning him drymen to, and wolde mid drycraefte hi to his 
willan geweman. Eft Sa^a him )?yses ne speow, ^a het he 
ontendan eal hire botl, |?aer heo mid hire meedeniun on ge- 



PASSION OF THE SAME. 479 

feet before all the people, and said, " I pray thee by the God 
that hath chosen thee for apostle, that thou set thine hand 
over me and over all these consecrated maidens, and bless 
us, that we may escape from him who will dishonour us." 
Matthew then, trusting in his Lord, laid a holy veil over her 
head, and over the heads of all the maidens that were with 
her, with this blessing, " God Almighty, Creator of bodies 
and Inspirer of souls, thou who despisest not any age nor 
any condition ; for thou art of all Creator, and likewise Re- 
deemer ; preserve these thine handmaids against all pollu- 
tion, and strengthen them in holy virtues, that they with the 
glory-crown of eternal maidenhood may come to the pure 
fellowship of thy Son Jesus Christ." After this blessing and 
manifold exhortation, the apostle massed to the folk, and 
they then went home; but the apostle remained within the 
temple, praying at the holy altar. 

Then sent the bloodthirsty king Hyrtacus an assassin to 
the apostle, that he might slay him. While then he was 
standing at his prayers, with outstretched hands, the assassin 
stabbed him from behind with a drawn sword, and so mar- 
tyred him. Thus was the apostle and evangelist Matthew 
martyred on this day, and his holy soul went to the kingdom 
of heaven to Jesus Christ. Then were the christian folk 
greatly stirred for the slaying of the apostle, and they would 
burn the impious king in his house, but the pious mass- 
priests and deacons stilled them witli difficulty. The holy 
maiden, Effigenia, spent her gold and her silver, and raised 
a church in honour of the apostle, and distributed the re- 
mainder to the poor. 

Then the king Hyrtacus sent noble-born women to the 
maiden Effigenia, that they might seduce her to his desires; 
but when they could not incline her mind thereto, the king 
called wizards to him, and would by sorcery corrupt her to 
his will. Afterwards, when this did not succeed, he gave 
order to set fire to all her house, where she with her maidens 



480 PASSIO SANCTORUM APOSTOLORUM SIMONIS ET lUDE. 

bcdum Surhwuiiode. Huset ypet fyr ^a barn onbutan tJain 
botle, ac ^aerrihte aeteowode Godes engel mid ^ani apostole 
Matheo, and cwaeS to j^am nifedene, " Beo ^u anrffide, Effi- 
genia, and unforlit; )?is fyr sceal gecyrran to )>am ^e hit 
asende.'^ Hwaet ^a Driliten anerde micelne Mind, and se ge- 
laehte ealne J?one lig, and abafi* hine to ^aes cyninges botle, 
swa |?fet him ne belsefde nan )>ing unforburnen, and he sylf 
earfoSlice J^am fyre cEtbaerst. Him wtere svva-Seah betere 
]>iet he forburne p'onne he a^tburste ; forban t5e his ancenneda 
sunu sona awedde, and hine sylfne geslod seo miccle coSii 
\>e laecas hataS elefantinus morbus, mid ^fere he wws ofset 
fram "Sam hnolle ufan o5 his fotwylmas neoSan. He geseah 
"Sa l^aet hine ne mihte nan laece gehselan, and sette his swurdes 
ord togeanes his inno^e, and feol him on uppon, j>aet him 
"Surheode. Rihtlice swa, j^set he him setforan underfcnge <et 
his agenum handum, J^jet )'ait he don het )>am halgan apostole 
aet his ba^ce ! 

piet folc ]>VL gesctte Effigenian brobor, Ucor geliatcn, to 
cyninge, seSe w^es <fir gebletsod aet \>'ees apostoles handnm. 
Se rixode on ^am cynerTce ^reo and sixtig geara, and siSSan 
sette his aenne sunu to ealdormcn, and oSerne to cyninge. 
paet rice uunode siSSan on so^um gelcafan o^ )?isne and- 
vverdan dffig, ]?am yElmihtigan to lofe, seSe is calra Icoda 
Cyning. piev beoS gefremode fela wundra gelome, i5urh 
geearimnge |ja?s eadigan apostoles, Surh Godes mihte, man- 
num to frofre. Sy j^aes Gode lof a on ecnysse. Amen. 



V. KL. NOVEMB. 
PASSIO SANCTORUM APOSTOLORUM SIMONIS ET lUDE. 

MEN ^a leofostan, we wylla^ eow secgan ]>aera apostola ^rc 
wunge ^e we nu to-d<eg wur^la^, Simones and Iudan. 



THE PASSION OF THE APOSTLES SIMON AND JUDE. 481 

were continuallj' at prayers. Whereupon the fire burnt about 
the house, but straightwaj-s God's angel appeared with the 
apostle Matthew, and said to the maiden, " Be steadfast, 
Effigenia, and fearless ; this fire shall return to him that 
sent it." Whereupon the Lord raised a great wind, and it 
caught all the flame, and bare it to the king's dwelling, so 
that there remained nothing to him unburnt, and he himself 
with difficulty escaped from the fire. Yet better had it been 
for him to have been burnt than to have escaped ; for his 
only-begotten son forthwith became mad, and the great dis- 
ease attacked himself, which leeches call elephantinus morbus, 
with which he was afflicted from the crown above to the soles 
of his feet below. He saw then that no leech might heal 
him, and set his sword's point against his belly, and fell upon 
it, so that it pierced him through. Rightly so that he should 
receive that before him at his own hands, which he had com- 
manded to be done to the holy apostle behind his back ! 

The people then set Effigeuia's brother, called Ugor, as 
king, who had before been blessed at the apostle's hands. 
He reigned in the kingdom sixty-three years, and afterwards 
set his one son as ealdorman, and the other as king. That 
kingdom has since continued in true belief until this present 
day, to the praise of Almighty God, who is of all nations 
King. There are performed many miracles frequently, 
through the merit of the blessed apostle, through might of 
God, for comfort to men. Be therefore praise to God to all 
eternity. Amen. 



OCTOBER XXVIII. 
THE PASSION OF THE HOLY APOSTLES SIMON AND .lUDE. 

MEN most beloved, we will say to you the passion of the 
apostles whom we to-day honour, Simon and Jude. 
noM. VOL. If. 2 I 



482 PASSIO SANCTORUM APOSTOLORUM SIINIONIS ET lUDE. 

Hi ferdon, |>urh wissunge ]>fes Halgan Gastes, to Sara earde 
]?e is gehaten Persida, and |?aer gemetton <5a twegen drymen, 
Zarocn and ArfaxaS, |7e aetflugon iSani apostole Matheo, of 
beera Silhearwena lande, and mid mislicum scyncraefton \>set 
folc dwelodon. pa hcTefdc se cyning Xerxes gecweden gefeoht 
oiigean ^a Indiscan, and sende his ealdorman ])iim here to- 
geanes. Se ealdorman ^a offrodc his lac )'am h?e^enum 
godum, ac "5a deoflu ]>e on JSam anlicnyssum sticodon ne 
mihton nane andsware syllan, swa swa heora gewuna waes, 
t)a ferdon hi to oiSrum deofolgilde. and )>apr befrunon, hwt 
heora godas him andwyrdan ne mihton ? pa andwyrde se 
deofolj and c\v;p<S, ]>iet heora godas ne mihton him andsware 
syllan for 5am twain apostolum 5c ]).'er cumene w.-eron, an 
•SaRra hatte Simon, o5er ludas. "Das habhaS swa micele 
mihte fram Gode, ]net nan dcofol no dear on heora andwerd- 
nysse sprecan." pa hot se ealdorman Uuarardah hi him to 
gelangian, and hi l)efran h\v;et hi wppron, o55e hwanon hi 
comon, oj^l^c hwT hi 5ider comon ? Da apostoli cwaedon, 
" We sind Ebreisce, Ha-lendes Cristcs )>cowan, and we comon 
hider for cowere haele, ]>cet ge eowere deofolgild forheton, and 
oncnawon )>one soSan God ]>e on heofonum is." Da dydon hi, 
Jnirh ])aes ealdormannes bene, ]>dst 5a deoflu spraecon, swa swa 
heora gewuna wtes, and stedon }>KJt |>wr wiere micel gefeoht 
towcard, and on aeg5re healfe [manega] sceoldon feallan. 

Hwtet ^a apostoli ^a hlogon j^a^ra deofla leasunga, and se 
ealdorman cvvae^, " Me stent ege j^ysse andsware, and ge 
hlihaS." Da apostoli him andwyrdon, " Ablinne "Sin ege, 
for5an ^e sib com mid us to 5issere scyre. Beo iSe stille 
dffiglanges ^inre fyrdinge, and to-merigen, ymbe undern, 
cuma5 |?ine serendracan ^e ^u asendest, and cy^a^ |?e }>aet Sa 
Indiscan willa^ beon eowere gafol-gylderas, and mid ealre 
sibbe cow under^eodan." Hwaet "ba hae^engyldan, ^a "Se 
J7aet tempel and j^^ra goda gymdon, cwaedon to |;am ealdor- 
men mid micclum graman, " La leof, ne scealt "Su ^a arwur- 
•5an godas ^e ^e so^ secga^, forseon, for ^issera leasra manna 



THE PASSION OF THE APOSTLES SIMON AND JUDE. 483 

They went, through direction of tlie Holy Ghost, to the 
country which is called Persia, and there met the two wizards, 
Zaroes and Arphaxat, who had fled from the apostle Matthew 
from the Ethiopians' land, and with divers magic arts de- 
ceived the people. At that time the king Xerxes had declared 
war against the Indians, and sent his general against their 
army. The general then olTered his gifts to the heathen gods, 
but the devils that abf)de in the images might not give any 
answer, as had been their wont. They then went to another 
idol, and there in(|uired, why their gods might not answer 
him ? Then the devil answered, and said, that their gods 
might not give him an answer because of the two apostles 
tiiat were come there, one of whom was named Simon, the 
other Jude. " These have so great might from God, that 
no devil dare speak in their presence." Then the general 
Warardach commanded them to be brought to him, and asked 
them who they were, or whence they came, or why they came 
thither ? The apostles said, " We are Hebrews, servants of 
Jesus Christ, and we are come hither for your salvation, that 
ye may forsake your idols, and know the true God that is in 
heaven." They did then, at the prayer of the general, so 
that the devils spake, as was their wont, and said that a great 
fight was at hand, and on cither side [many] should fall. 

Hereupon the apostles laughed at the devils' leasings, and 
the general said, "Awe seizes me through this answer, and 
ye laugh." Tiic apostles answered him. " Let thine awe 
cease, for peace is come with us to this province. Be still 
for a day's space from thy march, and to-morrow, about the 
third hour, thy messengers w ill come whom thou hast sent, 
and announce to thee that the Indians will be your tribu- 
taries, and with all peace submit to you." Hereupon the 
idolaters, who had care of the temple and the gods, said to 
the general with great anger, '* () Sir, thou shouldst not 
despise the venerable gods w ho say the truth to thee, because 

2 I 2 



484 PASSIO SANCTORUM APOSTOLORUM SIMONIS ET lUDE. 

and ffilSeodigra segene ; ac hat hi healdan, J^y-lses Se hi 
fleames cepoii." Da andwyrde se herctoga, " Ic hate healdan 
hi and eow, o^jjaet heora sagu afundod sy ; siSSan we witon 
hwilce we sceolon gearwurSian, hwilce fordeman." 

Hit wearJS ^a geUest on merigen sua swa Sa apostoli be- 
heton, jnet ^a bodan comon fram tSani Indiscimi, mid gafole 
and mid fuh-e sibbe. pa het se ealdorman ontelan ormate 
ad, and wolde Sa hse'Sengildan forba?rnan, 5c <Sam apostohun 
wiScWccdon ; ac Sa apostoli begen hi astrchton jet \>ibs caldor- 
manncs fotum, biddcnde |><Et hi iic'eron for hcora intingaii 
acwcaldc : " Wc comon for manna hcelSe hider ; nu sind we 
geSulitc l^iet we men acwcllon." Ill lagon forJS astrehte, 
and dydon dust uppon heora heafod. Da cwjeS se ealdor- 
man, " Wundor me JSincS cower bingrauien ; and hi sealdon 
sceattas niinum Segenum, to 5i ]net ic eow cuce forba^rnde." 
pa apostoli cwaedon, " pis is arcs lareowes Cristcs rcgol. 
Ov5re men hatiatJ heora fynd, and yfcl mid yfele forgyldaS, 
we soSlice lufiaS ure fynd, and \min teala dob \>c us hatiaS." 
Da andwyrde se ealdorman, " GeSafiab Inini |>a!t man ealle 
heora *hta eow sylle." And he het iSa mid J^am wordc 
sceawian heora fehta. ]7a wurdon ^a^r getealde an hund j?;era 
hce5(Migylda pe S^es temples gynidon, and nan man ne milite 
heora iehta gcrtman, on golde and on seolfre, on orfe and on 
reafe. 

Da bead se ealdorman 5a aehta )n\m apostolum, ac hi wiS- 
socon, "Sus cwe'Sende, " Nis us alyfed aihta to ha^bbenne ofer 
eor5an, for5an "Se ure jehta sind ece on heofenum, ]>udr ^ler 
undeadlicnys ricsab." Se ealdorman cwaS, " UndcrfoS sum 
•Sing, forSan 5e ge sind aelSeodige and Searfan." pa apostoli 
andwyrdon, " Ne sind we na ^earfan, forSan Se we habbaS 
lieofenlice welan. Ac gif Su wilt ]>iet ])\s feoh becume to 
Sinre sawle Searfe, todail hit Sonne Searfum and wanhalum, 
wydewum and steop-bearnum, and hafenleasum gafelgyldrum: 



I 



THE PASSION OF THE APOSTLES SIMON AND JUDE, 485 

of the saying of these lying men and foreigners ; but bid 
them be held, lest they take to fliglit." Then answered the 
leader, " I will order them and you to be held, until their 
saying be proved ; afterwards we shall know which we shall 
reverence, which condemn." 

It then took place on the morrow as the apostles had pro- 
mised, that messengers came from the Indians, with tribute 
and with full peace. The general then commanded an im- 
mense pile to be kindled, and would burn the idolaters, who 
had gainsaid the apostles ; but both the apostles stretched 
themselves at the general's foot, praying that for their sake 
they might not be killed : " We are come iiithcr for the 
salvation of men ; now it seems to us that we kill men." 
They continued lying prostrate, and put dust on their heads. 
Then said the general, " Your intercession seems to me a 
wonder; and they gave money to my servants, that I might 
burn you alive." The apostles said, "This is the rule of 
our teacher Christ. Other men hate their foes, and requite 
evil with evil, but we love our foes, and do good unto them 
that hate us." The general then answered, " Consent at 
least that all their possessions be given to you." And he 
then with that speech commanded them to view their pos- 
sessions. There were then reckoned an hundred of the 
idolaters that had charge of the temple, and no man could 
number their possessions in gold and in silver, in cattle and 
in raiment. 

Then bade the general those possessions be given to the 
apostles, but they refused, thus saying, " It is not allowed us 
to have possessions on earth, because our possessions are 
eternal in heaven, where immortality reigns." The general 
said, " Receive something, because ye are strangers and 
poor." The apostles answered, " We are not poor, for we 
have heavenly riches. But if thou wilt that this money turn 
to thy soul's need, distribute it to the poor and the sick, to 
widows and Btei)-childrcn, and indigent tributaries : but we 



486 PASSIO SANCTORUM APOSTOLORUM SIMONIS ET lUDE. 

we so^lice ne behofiaS jjj^ssera eorSlicera {phta ; ne hi ne 
magon 'Sam sweltendan men heonon folgian." Se ealdorman 
"Sa )?a apostolas mid him to ^am cyninge Xerxes gelaedde, 
and tealde him be endebyrdnysse hu hit gedon wabs. pa 
waeron Sa foresaedan dry men ]>aer, Zaroes and ArfaxaiS, and 
yfele spraecon be ^am apostolum, and bccdon ]>iBt hi moston 
heora mihte cy^an on sumum maniuim, ]>pet se cyning gesavve 
hwaeSer hi so^faeste waeron. 

pa bet se cyning clypian him to unbesorge men, and het hi 
habban geflit wi^ 5a drymen ; and hi dydon Sa, mid deofles 
crccfte, JJcEt hi ealle wurdon adumbode, and cNAaedon to 5ani 
cyninge, " paet "Su wite ]>iet we sind of Siera goda getele, we 
hetaS In nu sprecan, ac we gedoS |?aet hi gan ne magon." 
paSa hi Sis gedon ha?fdon, Sa cw?edon hi eft, " We forgifa^ 
him nu gang, ac we doS paet hi openum eagum naht ne 
gcsco^." DaSa hi ^is dydon, "Sa forhtode Saes cyngcs heorte, 
and Saes ealdormannes, and hyra frynd sfjedon, |?aet hi ne 
sceoldon Sa drymen forseon, )?i-la^s Se hi )7as lefunge on heora 
limum gcbrohton. pa gebrohte se ealdorman Sa alefcdan 
men miccUmi gedrehte to -Sam apostohim, and cwaeS, " Ic 
ha^bbe afunden ^a menn \>e eow wyllaS heran, and tjecan hu 
ge magon ];aera drymanna scincraeft oferswiSan, swa J^aet hi 
gescynde heonon fleoS." Da astrehton hi ealle hi aet his 
fotum, biddende J^aet he j^aet behat mid weorcum gefylde. pa 
ongunnon Sa apostoli hi to laercnne, and to secgenne hti 
Adam for his ofergaegednysse wearS on deofles ^eowdome 
gebroht, and past se mildheorta God swa-^eali forgeaf |>am 
mannuni \>e bine aenne wur^ia^, paet se deofol him derian ne 
maRg. *' Nu sind ge ^urh deofl bepaehte, paet ge gelyfa"S on 
ydelum anlicnjssum, and forlaetaS eowerne Scyppend pe eow 
geworhte, and he forlaet eow, and se deofol eow tawode purh 
his drymen, swa swa he wolde, forSan ^e ge ungebletsode 
waeron. Behata^ nu paet ge wyllaS pam deofolgyldum wiS- 
gaean, and pone soSan God, pe eow gesceop, MurSian, and to 



THE PASSION OF THE APOSTLES SIMON AND JUDE. 487 

need not these eurthly possessions ; nor may they follow 
hence the dying man." The general then led the apostles 
with him to the king Xerxes, and recounted to him in detail 
what had taken place. Then were there the bcforesaid wizards, 
Zaroes and Arphaxat, and spake evilly of the apostles, and 
prayed that they miglit show their might on some men, that 
the king might see whether they were true. 

Then the king commanded unconcerned men to be called 
to him, and commanded them to have a dispute with the 
wizards ; and they did then, with the devil's craft, so that 
they were all struck dumb, and said to the king, "That thou 
mayest know that we arc of the number of the good, we will 
now let them speak, but we will do so that they may not go." 
When they had done this, they said again, " We will now 
give them the power of going, but we will do so that with 
open eyes they see nothing." When they had done this, 
the king's heart feared, and the general's, and their friends 
said, that they should not despise the wizards, lest they 
should bring this lameness on their limbs. The general then 
brought the lamed men greatly afflicted to the apostles, and 
said, " I have found men who are willing to instruct you, and 
teach how ye may overcome the magic of the wizards, so that 
they flee hence confounded." Then they all stretched them- 
selves at his feet, praying that he would fulfil that promise 
by works. The apostles then begun to teach them, and to 
say how Adam for his transgression was brought in the 
thraldom of the devil, and that, nevertheless, the merciful 
God has granted to those men who worship him alone, that 
the devil may not hurt them. " Now ye are deceived through 
the devil, so that ye believe in vain images, and forsake your 
Creator who wrought you, and he has forsaken you, and the 
devil has scourged you through his wizards, as he would, 
because ye were unblessed. Promise now that ye will re- 
nounce idols, and worship the true God who created you. 



4&8 PASSIO SANCTORUM APOSTOLORUM SIMONIS ET lUDE. 

him eow gebiddan ; and we mearcia^ eowere foran-heafdu 
mid Cristes rode-tacne, and so^lice hi ne magon si^San eow 
ofcrswy^an." 

Da astrehton hi ealle hi set Jjsera apostola fotum, j^us cwelS- 
ende, " DoS huru ]>i£t hi ne magon urc tungan gchremman, 
ne us alefian ; and beo si5<San Godes grama ofer us, gif we 
aefre to haebenum gylde bugaS." Da apostoli Sa, aeftcr j^isum 
behate, gebletsodon ]>a. gedrehtan men, and hi Gode beta?hton ; 
and sc ealdorman hi gelfedde to Sam drymannum. Da woldon 
hi don swa swa hi aer dydon, ac hi ne mihton. pa clypode 
an l^fera manna, Zebeus gehatcn, and cwteS to Sam cyninge, 
" Eala J^u cyning, }>as fulan wuhta J>u sceoldest awurpan of 
Sinum nee, Sy-hes ]>e hi mid heora fyl^e Qs ealle besmiton. 
Hi habbaS mid liim awyriendne cngel, mancynnes feond, and 
se haefS andweald on 5am mannum Se heora Scyppcnd for- 
seoc), and to deofolgyldum bugaS. Godes apostolas us blet- 
hodon mid Cristes rode-tacne, and efne we nu, Surh |?a blct- 
sunge, "Sas dry men gebysmriaS." Hi oalle cwwdon, " Gif ge 
aht magon, doS nu swa swa ge gyrstan-d^eg dydon." 

pa drymcn ^a wurdon gcyrsode, and gemacodoii, )mrh 
heora scincrieft, j^iet kim comon to creopende fela nfeddran. 
Da cwaedon hi ealle to Sam cyninge, " La leof, hat clypigan 
"Sa Godes apostolas." Hi wurdon Sa hra^dlice gccigde, and 
gemetton ^aera drymanna basingas mid nfeddrum afyllede. 
pa apostoli "Sa heton Sa nseddran, on Cristes naman, ]>iet hi 
sceoldon "Sa drymen toslitan, and hi ^eerrihte ongunnon to 
ceowenne heora lichaman, swa j'set hi ^otorodon swilce oSre 
wulfas. Da cwee^ se cyning Xerxes to ^am apostolum, 
" Laeta^ hi abitan o^ dea^." Hi andwyrdon, " We sind 
asende to gecigenne mancyim fram deaiSe to life, na to scu- 
fenne fram life to dea^e." pa cwaedon "Sa apostoli to ^am 
naeddrum, " On Cristes naman gewita^ to eowere wununge, 
and ateo^ j^aet attor ut of 'Sisum dryum, ]fset ge him on 
aguton." Da ongunnon ealle Sa naeddran to ceowenne heora 
flaesc and heora blod sucan, j^aet hij^tet attor ut-atugon. pat^a 



THE PASSION OF THE APOSTLES SIMON AND JUDE. 489 

and pray to him ; and we u ill mark your foreheads with the 
sign of Christ's rood, and verily they will not afterwards be 
able to overcome you." 

They then all stretched themselves at the apostles' feet, 
thus saying, *' Do at least that they may not tie our tongues, 
nor lame us ; and may the anger of God afterwards be over 
us, if we ever bow to an idol." The apostles then, after this 
promise, blessed the afflicted men, and committed them to 
God ; and the general led them to the wizards. Then would 
they do as they did before, but they could not. One of the 
men then, named Zebeus, cried, and said to the king, " O 
thou king, thou shouldst cast out these foul wights from thy 
kingdom, lest they defile us all with their filth. They have 
with them an accursed angel, a foe of mankind, and he hath 
power over those men that despise their Creator, and bow 
to idols. God's apostles have blessed us with the sign of 
Christ's rood, and, behold, we now, through that blessing, 
deride these wizards." They all said, " If ye aught can, do 
now as ye did yesterday." 

The wizards were then exasperated, and caused, through 
their magic, that many serpents came creeping to them. 
They then all said to the king, " O Sir, command the apostles 
of God to be called." They were then quickly summoned, 
and found the cloaks of the wizards filled with serpents. The 
apostles then connnanded the serpents, in the name of Christ, 
to tear the wizards, and they straightways begun to chew 
their bodies, so that they howled like other wolves. Then 
said the king Xerxes to the apostles, " Let them be bitten to 
death." They answered, " We arc sent to call mankind 
from death to life, not to drive frojn life to death." Then 
said the apostles to the serpents, " In the name of Christ 
depart to your habitation, and draw the poison out of these 
wizards, that ye have shed into them." Then begun all the 
serpents to chew their tlesh and suck their blood, that they 
might draw out the poison. When the serpents had departed. 



490 PASSIO SANCTORUM APOSTOLORUM SIMONIS ET lUDE. 

]>i\ naeddran awei^-tugon, ]>a, cwaedoii ^a apostoli to ^am dry- 
inanmim, " Ge arleasan, gchyraS ]7aet haligc gewrit, |?e ^us 
cwae^, Se ^e oSerne wyle beswican, aerest he beswicS hine 
sylfne. Dyssera naeddrena gcslit cow mihte to dcaJSe ge- 
bringan, o|^]?e lunglice geswencaii ; ac nu biiiDOii Srim dagum 
ge beoS Jjysscra wuiida gehfplede ; ]>rBt ge huru eovver ar- 
leasiiysse geswicon, |?oiine ge Godes godiiysse on eow sylfmii 
afiindiaS. pas Sry dagas ge beo5 gedrehte, jnet eow ofMiice 
eower gedwyld." 

Da heton ^a apostoli hi abcran to heora innc, and hi (Srini 
dagum ne onbirigdon aetes ne wretcs, ac synile lirynidon and 
grinietcdon for 'Sam ormaptum tintrcgum. .Efter ban briddaii 
difige, ]?a)?a hi forncan waeron adydde, "Sa conion bcgen Sa 
apostoli, and cwjedon liini to, " Ncle se yEiniihtiga God 
habban genydne |?covvdoni. ArisaS nu hale, and habbab eow 
agenne eyre, to gccyrrcnnc fram yfcle to gode, gif gc wyllaS." 
Hi Sa |>urln\ uuodon on licora gclcaflcastc, and ictflugon ]nun 
apostoluni, swa swa hi ler aetflugon )'am godspellcrc Mathco, 
fram bicra Silhcarwena rice, pa baed se cyning Xerxes and 
his ealdorman Uuarardah Sa apostolas ]nvt hi Saer wunian 
sceoldon, and hi Sa wunodon binnon S;ere scire Babilonia, 
wyrccnde miccle wuudra, oiilihtende Sa blindan, and dcafum 
hlyst forgcafon, reoflige geclaMisodon, and dcoflu fram witt- 
seocum mannum afligdon. Hi hjefdon him mid fcla Icorning- 
cnihta, of J)am hi hadodon mssscpreostas and diaconas, and 
fela circan araerdon. 

pa wearb an Saera diacona, Euphrosinus, betogen forligres, 
ac Sa apostoli heton hedan forS j^one diacon, and j^tet cild 
forSbcran )^e Saer acenned wses, and waes Sa anre nihte eald. 
Da apostoli cwaedon to Sam cilde, " We halsiaS j^e, on naman 
Hfelendes Cristes, j^aet Su sprece and secgc, gif Ses diacon 
pas unrihtwTsnysse gefremode." Hwaet |7aet cild Sa getinge- 
lice spraec, and cwaeS, " pes diacon is halig wer and claene, 
and nipfre his lichaman ne besmat." Da biedon ba magas 



THE PASSION OF THE APOSTLES SLMON AND JUDE. 491 

the apostles said to the wizards, " Ye impious, hear the holy 
writ, which hath thus said. He who will deceive another first 
deceiveth himself. The bite of these serpents might bring 
you to death, or long afflict you ; but now within three days 
ye shall be healed of these wounds ; that ye may at least 
cease from your impiety, when ye prove the goodness of God 
on yourselves. These three days ye shall be tormented, that 
ye may repent of your error." 

Then the apostles commanded them to be borne to their 
house, and for three days they tasted neither food nor drink, 
but continually cried and roared because of the excessive 
torments. After the tliird day, when they were almost de- 
stroyed, came both the apostles, and said to them, "The 
Almighty God will not have compelled service. Arise now 
hale, and have your own choice, to turn from evil to good, if 
ye will." They then persisted in their infidelity, and fled 
from the apostles, as they had before fled from the evangelist 
Matthew, from the kingdom of the Ethiopians. Then the 
king Xerxes and his general Warardach prayed the apostles 
that they would there continue, and they continued within 
the province of Babylon, working many wonders, enlighten- 
ing the blind, and to the deaf they gave hearing, cleansed 
lepers, and expelled devils from wit-sick men. They had 
with them many dibciples, from among whom they ordained 
mass-priests and deacons, and they raised many churches. 

Then was one of the deacons, Euphrosynus, accused of 
fornication, l)ut the apostles commanded the deacon to be 
led forth, and the child to be borne forth tliat there had 
been born, and was then one day old. The apostles said to 
the child, " We beseech thee, in the name of Jesus Christ, 
to speak and say, if this deacon lias perpetrated this unrighte- 
ousness." Whereupon the child then elocjuently spake, and 
said, " Tliis deacon is a holy man and pure, and has never 
defiled his body." Then the relations prayed them to ask 



492 PASSIO SANCTORUM APOSTOLORUM SIMONIS ET lUDE. 

)>8et hi sceoklon befrinan hwa )?jet forligr gefreinode. J^a 
apostoli andwyrdon, " Us gedafenaS ]>iet we "Sa unscteSSigan 
alyson, and us ne gebyraS to ameldigcnne Sa scyldigan." 

^fter Sison gelamp ]?iet 'Saes cyninges ma^g, Nicanor, 
wearS gcscoten mid anre fla on Sam cneowe a^t sumon ge- 
feohte, swa ])'eet nan man liI no mihte of Sam banc ateon ; ac 
se eadiga apostol Simon, on Cristes nanian, hi ut-adyde, swa 
hra^e swa he hi hrepode ; and seo wund wcarS Sairrihte ge- 
hailcd, swa J^aet "Saer nan dol-swa}?u mes gesyne. Eac siSSan 
gelamp ]>ie.t twa hre^e deor, |;e sind tigres goliiitcne, ]>iei' 
urnon, and abiton swa hwiet swa hi gemctton. pa fleah ])ist 
folc eal to 5am apostolum, and hT, 5urh Codes mihte, Sa deor 
swa getemedon, ]?wt hi him fyligdon to hcora innc, and mid 
him unscajSbige wunodon. Da cw;edon ])a apostoli to Sam 
folce, " pas reSan deor geliyrsumiaS Godes mihte, and sind 
cow to gewitnysse ]>xt he is /Ehnihtig God, seSe cow gcsceop, 
and syl5 cow renas of hcofcnum, and hlaf of cor^an, win and 
ele of treowum, and eac oSre wa^stmas. Nu mynegiaS ])as 
deor eow, mid sumon gemcte, ]>cet ge n;pnne o'Serne ne 
MurSion eow to Gode, buton j'one Se we bodiaS, |?urh "S^es 
naman sind )>as reSan tigres betwux eow swa tame swa seep. 
We sceolon nu faran to oSrum scirum, godspel bodigende, 
and Sone so San gcleafan." pffit folc Sa weop, and baedon ])iet 
hi Sanon ne gewendon ; and hi Sa, be hcora bene, feowertyne 
monaS }?a?r wunodon, and ]>iBt folc gefullodon, and fela wun- 
dra geworhton, and eac ^a deadan to Kfe arterdon, and ge- 
setton jjser genne biscop, Abdias gehaten, se^e mid him ferde 
fram ludea-lande, and se ylca geseah |7one Hfelend mid his 
eagum. pjet land wearS ^a to geleafan awend, and heora 
burh mid cyrcan afylled ; and Sa apostoli fcrdon, swa swa 
him Godes Gast gewissode, to ^am twelf scirum on "Sam 
carde Persida, and "Sser feowertyne gear on heora burgum 
Godes ffcleafan bododon, mid micclum tacnum. 

pa forcsciedan drymen, Zaroes and ArfaxaS. fcrdon him 
a?tforan mid hcora scinciccfte, j^eet folc dwclicndce Swa lange 



I 



THE PASSION OF THE APOSTLES SIMON AND JUDE. 493 

who had perpetrated the fornicatioTi. The apostles answered, 
" It is befitting us that we deliver the innocent, and it be- 
comes not us to denounce the guilty." 

After this it befell that the king's kinsman, Nicanor, was 
shot with an arrow in the knee at some battle, so that no 
man could draw it from the bone ; but the blessed apostle 
Simon, in the name of Christ, took it out as soon as he 
touched it ; and the wound was straightways healed, so that 
no scar was there seen. It afterwards also happened that 
two fierce animals, which are called tigers, ran there and 
devoured whatsoever they found. The folk tlun all fled to 
the apostles, and they, tli rough God's might, so tamed the 
animals, that they followed them to their dwelling, and con- 
tinued with them harmless. Then said the apostles to the 
folk, " J^hese fierce animals obey the might of God, and are 
to you as a witness that he is Almighty God, who created 
you, and gives you rains from heaven, and bread from earth, 
wine and oil from trees, and also other fruits. Now do these 
animals remind you, in some measure, that ye should honour 
none other as your God, but him mIioiu we preach, through 
whose name tliese fierce tigers arc among ycm as tame as 
sheep. We shall now go to other j)rovinces, preaching the 
gospel and the true belief." The folk then wept, and prayed 
that they would not go thence ; and they then, at their 
prayer, continued there fourteen months, and baptized the 
people, and wrought many wonders, and also raised the dead 
to life, and set there a bishop, named Abdias, who had gone 
with them from the land of Judea, and the same had seen 
Jesus with his eyes. Tiiat land then was turned to belief, 
and their city filled with churches ; and the apostles went, 
as God's Spirit directed them, to the twelve provinces in the 
country of Persia, and there for fourteen years preached 
God's faith in their cities, with great miracles. 

The aforesaid wizards, Zaroes and Arphaxat, went before 
them with their magic, misleading the people. So long they 



494 PASSIO SANCTORUM APOSTOLORUM SIMONIS ET lUDE. 

hi wunodon on gehwilcere byrig o^j^aet hi gcaxodon |?a apo- 
stolas tovvearde. Hi becomon "Sa aet nexlan to anre hcafod- 
byrig, Suanir gehaten, on Saere wees inicel tenipel and hund- 
seofontig hai^engyldan, J^e 5aes temples begynulon, and heora 
aelcuni gcsceat an pund goldes, swa oft sua man p«re sunnan 
feorme worhte. pa cwa^don (Sas drymen to j^jes temples 
haeSengildum, "Her cuma^ to eow niulice twegen Ebrcisce 
men, ^a sind ealra goda fynd. Hi taecaS eow oSeriie ge- 
leafan, and lo oSrum Gode gewenia^; jjonne beo ge eower 
{ehta bedfolede, and to nalite forsewene. Foispreca'S hi foran 
to bisum folce, j^aet, Swa hra"be swa hi becumaS to c^ysserc 
byrig, gehjeftab hi, and doJS j'ret hi to cowcrnm godinn bugon, 
oSSe ge sceolon sylfc forfaran." Hit gelfunj) JSa ]>;rt Sa 
apostoli becomon to )>;ere foresu'dan byrig Suanir, and wuno- 
don ffit sumes inannes huse se waes Seuimeus gehaten. Efne 
Sa on aerne-merigeu comon iSa haeJSengiJdan uiid ungerinunn 
folce, and atugon <Sa apostolas mid )'am Scmmege to J^aere 
sunnan temple. pa onguinion Sa deoflu grimetian, and 
cweSan, " Hui come ge to us, 'Saes LTfigendan Godes apo- 
stolas ? For eowerum to-cymc we sind mid ligum forswae- 
lede." 

Da stod pa^re sumian crjut mid feower horsum of golde 
agoten, on ane liealfe }»;es temples ; on ocSre liealfe stod ^iea 
monan craet of seolfre agoten, and Sa oxan ^aerto. pa on- 
gunnon (Sa hfebengiidan neadian ^a apostolas ]>nit hi sceoldon 
hi gebiddan to ^fere sunnan anlicnysse, and to )7aes monan ; 
and |ni twegen foresaedan drymen -Saer oferstodon. Da betwux 
Sisum gesawon ^a apostolas Drihten on heofenum, betwux 
his engla ^rymme, hi clypigende, and sum engel him aeteow- 
ode, and cwae^, " Beo^ gebyrte, and geceosa^ eow o^^e 
Syssera hae^enra faerlican deaS, op])e ge mid bylde Godes 
gewinnes efstaS to wulder-beage eoweres martirdomes." pa 
apostoli andwyrdon 5am engle ^e him to spraec, " Us is to 
biddenne Drihtnes inildheortnysse, )?aBt he "bisum mannum 
miltsige, and us fultumige, j^wt we moton to "bam wulder- 



THE PASSION OF THE APOSTLES SIMON AND JUDE. 495 

continued in every cit}- until they learned that the apostles 
were about to come. They came then at last to a chief city, 
called Suanir, in which there was a great temple and seventy 
idolaters that had charge of the temple,