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BR 60 .L52 V.20 
Augustine , 

Sermons on selected lessons 
of the New Testament 

V. 20 
































Serm. 67. (Ben. 117.) On the words of the Gospel, John i. "In the 
beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word 
was God," &c. against the Ariaus-, Page 487 

68. (118.) On the same words of the Gospel, John i. " In the beginning 
was the Word," &c. 502 

69. (119.) On the same words, John i. " In the beginning was the Word," 
&c. 505 

70. (120.) On the same words of John i. "In the beginning was the 
Word," &c. 508 

71. (121.) On the words of the Gospel, John i. " The world was made by 
Him," &c. 511 

72. (122.) On the words of the Gospel, John i, " When thou wast under 
the fig-tree, I saw thee," &c. 515 

73. (123.) On the words of the Gospel, John ii. "And both Jesus was 
called and His disciples to the marriage." 520 

74. (124.) On the words of the Gospel, John v. "Now there is at 
Jerusalem by the sheep gate a pool," &c. 524 

75. (125.) Again in John v. On the five porches, where lay a great 
multitude of impotent folk, and of the pool of Siloa. 527 

76. (126.) On the words of the Gospel, John v. " The Son can do nothing 
of Himself, but what He seeth the Father do." 540 

77. (127.) On the words of the Gospel, John v. " Verily verily I say unto 
you, The hour shall com«, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice 
of the Son of God, and they that shall hear, shall live," &c. and on the 
words of the Apostle, " Eye hath not seen," &c. 1 Cor. ii. 551 

78. (128.) On the words of the Gospel, John v. " If I bear witness of 
Myself," &c. and on the words of the Apostle, Gal. v. " Walk in the 
Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh. For the flesh lusteth," 
&c. 563 


79. (129.) On the words of tlie Gospel, John v. " Search the Scriptures, 
iu which ye think ye have eternal life," &c. against the Donatists. 573 

80. (130.) On the words of the Gospel, John vi. where the miracle of the 
five loaves and the two fishes is related. 580 

81. (131.) On the words of the Gospel, John vi. "Except ye eat the 
Flesh,"' &c. and on the words of the Apostles, and the Psalms, against 
the Pelagians. (^Delivered at the Table of the Martyr S. Cyprian, the 
9th of the Calends of October, 23d Sept. on the Lord^s Day.) 585 

82. (132.) On the words of the Gospel, Jolm vi. "My Flesh is meat 
indeed, and My Blood is drink indeed. Whoso eateth My Flesh," &c. 593 

83. (133.) On the words of the Gospel of John vii. where Jesus said that 
He was not going up unto the feast, and notwithstanding went up. 597 

84. (134.) On the words of the Gospel, John viii. " If ye shall continue 
in My word, ye are My disciples indeed," &c. 605 

85. (135.) On the words of the Gospel, John ix. " I am come to do the 
works of Him That sent Me," &c. against the Arians. And of that 
which the man who was horn blind and received his sight said, " We 
know that God heareth not sinners." filO 

86. (136.) On the same Lesson of the Gospel, John ix. On the giving 
sight to the man that was horn blind. 617 

87. (137.) The tenth chapter of the Gospel of John. " Of the shepherd 
and the hireling, and the thief." 622 

88. (138.) On the words of the (iospel, John x. " I am the good 
Shepherd," &c. against the Donatists. 635 

89. (139.) On the words of the Gospel, John x. " I and My Father are 
One." 645 

90. (140.) On the words of the Gospel, John xii. " He that believeth on 
Me, believeth not on Me, but on Him That sent Me :" against a certain 
expression of Maximinus, a bishop of the Arians, who spread his blas- 
phemy iu Africa where he was with the Count Segisvult. 650 

91. (141.) On the words of the Gospel, John xiv. " I am the Way, and 
the Truth, and the Life." 654 

92. (142.) On the same words of the (tospel, John xiv. " I am the Way," 
&c. 657 

93. (143.) On the words of ttie Gospel, John xvi. " T tell you the truth: 
it is expedient for you that 1 go away," &c. 666 

94. (144.) On the same words of the Gospel, John xvi. " He shall convince 
the world of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment." 670 

95 (145.) On the words of the Gospel, John xvi. " Hitherto have ye 
asked nothing in My Name ;" and on the words of Luke x. " Lord, even 
the devils are subjected unto us through Thy Name." 675 


96. (146.) On the words of the (lospel, John xxi. "Simon, son of John, 
lovestthouMe?" &c. 683 

97. (147.) On the same words of the Gospel of John xxi. " Simon, son of 
John, lovest thou Me more than these?" &c. 685 

98. (148.) On the words of the Acts of the Apostles, c. v. " Whiles it 
remained, did it not remain to thee?" &c. (^Delivered on the Octave of 
Easter Day, at the twenty Holy Martyrs.) 687 

99. (149.) In which questions proposed out of the Acts of the Apostles, 
c. X. and out of the Gospel, are resolved, or concerning four questions. 
First, of Peter's vision. Secondly, of the words of the Gospel, " Let your 
light shine before men, that they may see your good works," &c. and a 
little after, " Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be 
seen of them," &c. Thirdly, of the words of the Gospel, " Let not thy 
left hand know what thy right hand doeth." Fourthly, of the love of 
enemies. 688 

100. (150.) On the words of the Acts of the Apostles, c. xvii. "But 
certain philosophers of the Epicureans and Stoics conferred w^th 
him," &c. (^Delivered at Carthage.) <j99 

101. (151.) On the words of the Apostle, Rom. vii. " For the good that 
I would I do not; but the evil which I would not, that I do," &c. 709 

102. (152.) On the following words of the Apostle, Rom. vii. and viii. to 
" God sent His Own Son in the likeness of flesh of sin," &c. 716 

103. (153.) On the words of the Apostle, Rom. vii. " When we were in 
the flesh, the passions of sins which are by the Law, did work in our 
members, to bring forth fruit unto death," &c. Against the Manichees 
expressly, and tacitly against the Pelagians. 725 

104. (154.) On the words of the Apostle, Rom. vii. " We know that 
the Law is spiritual, but I am carnal," &c. against the Pelagians, who 
affirm, that a man can be in this life without sin. (^Delivered at the 
table of S. Cyprian, Martyr.) 735 

105. (155.) On the words of the Apostle, Rom. viii. " There is there- 
fore now no condemnation to them, which are in Christ Jesus," &c. 
Against the Pelagians. (Delivered in the Basilica of the Holy Martyrs 
of Scillita.) 747 

106. (156.) On the words of the Apostle, Rom. viii. " Therefore, 
brethren, we are debtors not to the flesh, that we should live after the 
flesh," &c. Against the Pelagians. {Delivered in the Basilica of 
Gratian, on the birth-day of the Martyrs of Bolitana.) 760 

107. (157.) On the words of the Apostle, Rom. viii. " We are saved in 
hope : but hope that is seen is not hope." 773 

108. (158.) On the words of the Apostle, Rom. viii. "Now whom He did 
predestinate, them He also called; and whom He called, them He also 
justified; &c. If God be for us, who can be against us?" against the 
Pelagians. ''^78 


109. (159.) On the words of the same Apostle, Rom. viii. or on Justifi- 
cation; and on the words of James i. " Count it all joy, my brethren, 
when ye fall into divers temptations," &c. 785 

110. (160.) On the words of the Apostle, 1 Cor. i. " He that glorieth, 
let him glory in the Lord." And on the verse of the 70th Psalm, 
" Deliver me in Thy righteousness, and rescue me." 792 

HI. (161.) On the words of the Apostle, 1 Cor. vi. " Be not deceived : 
neither fornicators, nor idolaters, — shall possess the kingdom of God. 
Know ye not that your bodies are the members of Christ?" &c. 800 

112. (162.) On the words of the Apostle, 1 Cor. vi. " Every sin that a 
man doeth is without the body; but he that committeth fornication 
sinneth against his own body," (^A Frn(/me7it.) 810 

113. (163.) On the words of the Apostle, Galat. v. " Walk in the Spirit, 
and fulfil not the lusts of the flesh," (^Delivered in the Basilica of 
Honorius, Sth Cal. Oct. [2Ath Sept.\) 816 

114. (164.) On the words of the Apostle, Gal. vi. " Bear ye one another's 
burdens." And on these, " Every man shall bear his own burden." 
Against the Donatists, delivered shortly after the Conference held at 
Carthage. 825 

115. (165.) On the words of the Apostle, Ephes. iii. " I desire you not 
to be enfeebled in my tribulations for you, which is your glory," &c. 
And concerning Grace and free-wiU against the Pelagians. {Delivered 
in the Basilica Majorum.) 836 

116. (166.) On the words of the Apostle, Ephes. iv. " Putting away 
lying, speak ye the truth;" and of the 116th Psalm, " Every man is 
a liar." 843 

117. (167.) On the words of the Apostle, Ephes. v. " See that ye walk 
circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise, redeeming the time, because 
the days are evil." 846 

118. (168.) On the words of the Apostle, Ephes. vi. " Peace to the 
brethren and love with faith." Or on the grace of tiod, according to 
the confession and doctrine of the vessel of election, that faith is a gift of 
God's mercy. 848 

119. (169.) On the words of the Apostle, Philip, iii. " For we are the 
Circumcision, who serve The Spirit of God," &c. against the Pelagians. 
{Delivered at the table of S. Cyprian, Martyr.) 854 

120. (170.) On the same words of the Apostle, Phil. iii. " According to 
the righteousness which is of the Law, I was without blame," &c. And 
of the words of the Psalm, cxliii. " Hear me in Thy Righteousness," &c. 
And, lastly, on the lesson of the Gospel, John vi. "My Father's will is, 
that of all wliich He hath given AFe, none should perish," &c. 871 

121. (171.) On the words of the Apostle, Phil. iv. " Rejoice in the Lord 
always," &c. 880 


122. (172.) On the words of the Apostle, 1 Thess. iv. " But we would 
not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, 
that ye sorrow not, even as the others which have no hope." And con- 
cerning works of mercy, whereby the dead are helped, 884 

123. (173.) On the same words of the Apostle, 1 Thess. iv. 887 

124. (174.) On the words of the Apostle, 1 Tim. i. " This is a human 
word, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the 
world to save sinners;" &c. and on the Lesson of the Gospel, Luke xix. 
of Zacchseus. Against the Pelagians. (^Delivered in the Basilica of 
Celerina on the Lord's Day.') 890 

125. (175.) On the same words of the Apostle, 1 Tim. i. " It is a faithful 
word, and worthy of all acceptation," &c. 897 

126. (176.) On the three lessons of the Apostle, 1 Tim. i. " It is a 
faithful word, and worthy of all acceptation," &c. Of the Psalm xciv. 
" O come, let us adore, and fall down before Him," &c. And of the 
Gospel, Luke xvii. about the ten lepers cleansed by the Lord. Against 
the Pelagians. 903 

127. (177.) On the words of the Apostle, 1 Tim. vi. " We brought 
nothing into this world, neither can we carry any thing away," &c. 909 

128. (178) On the words of the Apostle, Tit. i. " That he may be able 
also by sound doctruie to convince the gainsayers." Against the 
plunderers of other men's goods. 919 

1 29. (179.) On the words of the Apostle, James i. " Now let every one 
of you be swift to hear, but slow to speak." And of those words in the 
same chapter, " But be ye doers of the word, and not hearers only." 928 

130. (180.) On the words of the Apostle James, chap. v. " Before all 
things, swear not," &c. 936 

131. (181.) On the words of the first Epistle of John, c. i. " If we say 
that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us." 
Against the Pelagians. 947 

132. (182.) On the words of the first Epistle of John, chap. iv. " Dearly 
Beloved, believe not every spirit; but prove the spirits, whether they are 
of God," &c. Against the Manichees. 954 

133. (183.) Again, on the words of the first Epistle of John iv. " Every 
spirit that confesseth that Jesus Christ is come in the Flesh is of God." 


i h.> 






On the words of the Gospel, John i. " In the beginning was the Word, 
and the Word was with God, and the Word was God," &c. against 
the Arians. 

1. The section of the Gospel which has been read, most 
dearly beloved brethren, looketh for the pure eye of the 
heart. For from John's Gospel we have understood our Lord 
Jesus Christ according to His Divinity for the creating of 
the whole creation, and according to His Humanity for the 
recovery of the creature fallen. Now in this same Gospel 
we find what sort and how great a man was John, that from 
the dignity of the dispenser it may be understood of how 
great a price is the Word Which could be announced by such 
a man ; yea, rather how without price is That Which surpasseth 
all things. For any purchaseable thing is either equal to 
the price, or it is below it, or it exceeds it. When any one 
procures a thing for as much as it is worth, the price is 
equal to the thing which is procured; when for less, it is 
below it; when for more, it exceeds it. But to the Word of 
God nothing can either be ecjualled, or to exchange can any 
thing be below It, or above It. For all things can be below 
the Word of God, for that all things were made by Him; ^°^° ^ 
yet are they not in such wise below, as if they were the price of 
the Word, that any one should give something to receive That. 
/ K k 

488 Buying the Word loith ourselves, we gain ourselves. 

Serm. Yet if we may say so,and if any jirinciple or custom of speaking 
[ii7.ii.i^^'^iit t^'is expression, tlic price for procuring the Word, 


is the procurer himsell", wlio will have given himself for 
himself to This Word. Accordingly when we buy any thing 
we look out for something to give, that for the price we give 
we may have the thing we wish to buy. And that which 
we give is without us; and if it was with us before, what we 
give becomes without us, that that which we procure may be 
with us. Whatever price the purchaser may find it, it must 
needs be such as that he gives what he has, and receives 
what he has not; yet so that he from whom the price goes 
himself remains, and that for which he gives the price is 
added to him. But whoso would procure This Word, whoso 
would have It, let him not seek for any thing without himself 
to give, let him give himself. And when he shall have done 
this, he doth not lose himself, as he loseth the price when he 
buys any thing, 
ii. 2. The Word of God then is set forth before all men; let 

them who can, procure It, and they can who have a godly 

Luke 2, will. For in That Word is peace; and peace on earth is to 
men of good wilL So then whoso will procure It, let him 
give himself. This is as it were the price of the Word, if so 
it may in any way be said, when he that giveth doth not lose 
himself, and gaineth the Word for Which he giveth himself, 
and gaineth himself too in the Word to Whom he giveth 
himself. And what giveth he to the Word? Not ought that 
is any other's than His, for Whom he giveth himself; but 
what by the Same Word was made, that is given back to 
Him to be remade ; All things were made hy Him. If all 
things, then of course man too. If the heaven, and earth, 
and sea, and all things that are therein, if the whole creation; 
of course more manifestly he, who being made after the 
image of God by the Word was made man. 

.S. I am not now, brethren, discussing how the words, 

John I, Jfi iJie heginnivg was the Word., and the M'ord teas with 
God, and the Word was God, can be understood. After 
an ineffable sort it may be understood; it cannot by the 
words of man be made to be understood. I am treating 
of the Word of God, and telling you why It is not under- 
stood. I am not now speaking to make It understood, but 

The Word comprehends all^ comprehended hxj none. 48{) 

I tell you whvX hinders ]t from being understood. For He Serm. 
is a certain Form, a Form not formed, but the Form of all [I'l^B^j 
things form -d ; a Form unchangeable, witiiout failure, without ~ 

decay, without time, without place, surpassing all things, 
being in all things, as at once a kind of foundation in which 
they are, and a Head-stone under which they are. If you say 
that all things are in Him, you lie not. For This Word is 
called the Wisdom of God; and we have it written, Jn Wisdom Ps. 104, 


Jiast Thou rudde all things. Lo, then in Him are all things: 
and yet in that He is God, under Him are all things. T am 
shewing how incomprehensible is what has been read ; yet 
it has been read, not that it should be comprehended by 
man, but that man should sorrow that he comprehends it 
not, and find out whereby he is hindered from comprehending, 
and remove those hindrances, and, himself changed from 
worse to better, aspire after the perception of the unchange- 
able Word. For the Word doth not advance or increase by 
the addition of those who know It; but is Entire, if thou abide; 
Entire, if thou depart; Entire, when thou dost return ; abiding 
in Itself, and renewing all things. It is then the Form of all 
things, the Form unfashioned, without time, as I have said, 
and without space. For whatsoever is contained in space, 
is circumscribed. Every form is circumscribed by bounds; 
it hath limits wherefrom and whereunto it reaches. Again, 
what is contained in place, and has extension in a sort of 
bulk and space, is less in its parts than in the whole. God 
grant that ye may understand. 

4. Now from the bodies which are day by day before our iii. 
eyes, which we see, which we touch, among which we live, we 
are able to judge how that eiery body hath a form in space. 
Now every thing which occupies a certain space, is less in 
its parts, than in its whole. The ai'ui, for instance, is a part 
of the human body; of course the arm is less than the whole 
body. And if the arm be less, it occupies a smaller space. 
So again the head, in that it is a part of the body, is contained 
in less space, and is less than the whole body of which it is 
the head. So all things which are in space, are less in their 
several parts than in the whole. Let us entertain no such 
idea, no such thought concerning That Word. Let us not 
form our conceptions of spiritual things from the suggestion 

Kk 2 

A{)QEyecomprehendsnothodies^miich less God;the purereackto Him; 

Seum. of the flesh. That Word, That God, is not less in part than 

[117 B 1^" "^^^ whole. 

5. But tliou art not able to conceive of any such thing. 
Such ignorance is more pious than presumptuous knowledge. 
John 1, For we arc speaking of God, It is said, And the Word was 
^- God. We are speaking of God; what marvel, if thou do not 

comprehend? For if thou comprehend, He is not God. Be 
there a pious confession of ignorance, rather than a rash 
profession of knowledge. To reach to God in any measure 
by the mind, is a great blessedness; but to comprehend Him, 
is altogether impossible. God is an object for the mind, He is 
to be understood; a body is for the eyes, it is to be seen. But 
thinkest thou that thou comprehendest a body by the eye? 
Thou canst not at all. For whatever thou lookest at, thou 
dost not see the whole If thou seest a man's face, thou 
(lost not see his back at the time thou seest the face; and 
when thou seest the back, thou dost not at that time see 
the face. Thoa dost not then so see, as to comprehend; but 
when thou seest another part which thou hadst not seen before, 
unless memory aid thei3 to remember that thou hast seen 
that from which thou dost withdraw, thou couldest never say 
that thou hadst comprehended any thing even on the surface. 
Thou handiest what thou seest, turnest it about on this side and 
that, or thyself dost go round it to see the whole. In one 
view then thou canst not see the whole. And as long as thou 
turnest it about to see it, thou art but seeing the parts; and by 
putting together tliat tliou hast seen the other parts, thou dost 
fancy that thou seest the whole. But this must not be under- 
stood as the sight of the eyes, but the activity of the memory. 
What then can be said, brethren, of that Word? Lo, of the 
bodies which are before our eyes we say they cannot com- 
prehend them by a glance; what eye of the heart then com- 
prehcndeth God? Enough that it reach to Him if the eye be 
pure. But if it reach, it reacheth by a sort of incorporeal 
and spiritual touch, yet it doth not comprehend; and that, 
only if it be pure. And a man is made blessed by touching 
with the heart That which ever abideth Blessed; and that is 
this Very Everlasting Blessedness, and that Everlasting Life, 
Whereby man is made to live ; that Perfect Wisdom, Whereby 
man is made wise; that Everlasting Eight, Whereby man be- 

its blessedness ; Avian cavils. 491 

comes enliahtened. And see how by this touch thou art made Serm. 

T X \M T 

what thou wast not, thou dost not make that thou touchest be [ht.b.] 
what it was not before. I repeat it, there grows no increase 
to God from them that know Him, but to them that know 
Him, from the knowledge of God. Let us not suppose, iv. 
dearly beloved brethren, that we confer any benefit on God, 
because I have said that we give Him in a manner a price. 
For we do not give Him aught whereby He can be increased, 
Who when thou fallest away, is Entire, and when thoureturn- 
est, abideth Entire, ready to make Himself seen that He may 
bless those who turn to Him, and punish those with blindness 
who turn away. For by this blindness, as the beginning 
of punishment, doth He first execute vengeance on the soul 
that turns away from Him. For whoso turns away from the 
True Light, that is from God, is at once made blind. He is 
not yet sensible of his punishment, but he hath it already, 

6. Accordingly, dearly beloved brethren, lot us understand 
that the Word of God is incorporeally, inviolably, unchange- 
ably, without temporal nativity, yet born of God. Do we 
think that we can any how persuade certain unbelievers that 
that is not inconsistent with the truth, which is said by us ac- 
cording to the Catholic faith, which is contrary to the Arians, 
by whom the Church of God hath been often tried, forasmuch 
as carnal men receive with greater ease what they have been 
accustomed to see.? For some have dared to say, " The 
Father is greater than the Son, and precedes Him in time;" 
that is, the Father is greater than the Son, and the Son 
is less than the Father, and is preceded by the Father in 
time. And they argue thus; " If He was born, of course the 
Father was before His Son was born to Him." Attend ; may He 
be with me, whilst your prayers assist me, and with godly 
heed desire to receive what He may give, what He may 
suggest to me; may He be with me, that 1 may be able in 
some sort to explain what I have begun. Yet, brethren, I 
tell you before I begin, if I shall not be able to explain it, 
do not suppose that it is the failure of the proof, but of the 
man. Accordingly I exhort and entreat you to pray; that the 
mercy of God may be with me, and make the matter be so ex- 
plained by me, as is meet for you to hear, and for me to 
speak. They then say thus; " If He be the Son of God, He 

492 Meditation on Divine mysteries truer than words. 

Serm. vvas born." This we confess. For He would not be a Son, it 

[ii7.B.]'Hc were not born. It is jilain, tlie faith admits it, the 
Catholic Church approves it, it is truth. They then go on; "' If 
the Son was born to the Father, the Father was before the 
Son was born to Him." This the faith rejects, Catholic ears 
reject it, it is anathematized, whoso entertains this conceit is 
without, he belongs not to the fellowship and society of the 
saints. Then says he, " Give me an explanation, how the 
Son could be born to the Father, and yet be coeval with 
Him of Whom He was born.'"' 
V. 7. And what can we do, brethren, when we are conveying 

lessons of spiritual things to carnal men ; even if so be we 
ourselves tco are not carnal, when we intimate these spiiitual 
truths to carnal men, to men accustomed to the idea of 
earthly nativities, and seeing the order of these creatures, 
where succession and departure separates off in age them 
that beget and them that are begotten ? For after the father 
the son is born, to succeed the father, who in time of course 
must die. This do we find in men, this in other animals, that 
the parents are first, the children after them in time. 
Through this custom of observation they desire to transfer 
carnal things to spiritual, and by their intentness on carnal 
things are more easily led into error. For it is not the 
reason of the hearers which follows those who preach such 
things, but custom which even entangles themselves, that 
ihcy do preach such things. And what shall we Ao} Shall 
we keep silence ? Would that we might! For perchance by 
silence something might be thought of worthy of the un- 
speakable subject. For whatsoever cannot be spoken, is 
unspeakable. Now God is vuisp'.'akable. For if the Apostle 

^j"Y* Paul saith, that he ivas caiiylit up even luito the third 
Jieacen, and thai he heard unspeakable words; ho\v much 
more unspeakable is He, Who shewed such things, which 
could not be spoken by him to whom they were shewn } So 
then, brethren, it were better if we could keep silence, and 
say, " This the faith contains ; so we believe ; thou art not 
able to receive it, thou art but a babe ; thou must patiently 
endure till thy wings be grown, lest when thou wouldest 

'aura fly without wiugs, it should not be the free 'course of liberty, 
but the fall of tenieritv.'" Wliat do the\ sav against this.' 

Use of analogy in Divine things to refute not explain. 493 

" O if he had an}' thmg to say, he would say it to me. This Serm. 
is the mere excuse of one who is at fault. He is overcome n 17,3,1 
by the truth, who does not choose to answer." He to whom 
this is said, if he make no answer, though he be not con- 
quered in himself, is yet conquered in the wavering brethren. 
For the weak brethren hear it, and they think that there is 
really nothing to be said ; and perhaps they think right that 
there is nothing to be said, yet not that there is nothing to 
be felt. For a man can express nothing which he cannot 
also feel ; but he may feel something which he cannot 

8. Nevertheless, saving the unspeakableness of that 
Sovereign Majesty, lest when we shall have produced certain 
similitudes against them, any one should think that we have 
by them arrived at that which cannot be expressed or con- 
ceived by babes, (and if it can be at all even by the more 
advanced, it can only be in part, only in a riddle, only 
through a (jka^s; but not as yet, face to face,) let lis tool Cor. 
produce certain similitudes against them, whereby they may ' 
be refuted, not it comprehended. For when we say that 

it may very possibly happen, that it may be understood, 
that He may both be born, and yet Coeternal with Him of 
Whom He was born, in order to refute this, and prove it as 
it were to be false, they bring forth similitudes against us. 
From whence } From the creatures, and they say to us, 
" Every man of course was before he begat a son, he is 
greater in age than his son ; and so a horse was before he 
begat his foal, and a sheep, and the other animals." Thus 
do they bring similitudes from the creatures. 

9. What ! must we labour too, that we may find resem- yj, 
blances of those things which we are establishing.? And 
what if I should not find any, might I not rightly say, " The 
Nativity of the Creator hath, it may be, no resemblance of 
itself among the creatures } For as far as He surpasseth the 
things which are here, in that He is there, so far doth He 
surpass the things which are born here, in that He was born 
there. All things here have their being from God; and yet 
what is to be compared with God ? So all things which are 
born here, are born by His agency. And so perhaps there is 

no resemblance of His Nativity found, as there is notie found 

494 Coeval in things temporal analogous to coetemal. 

Serm. whether of His Subslance, Unchangeableness, Divinity, 
^j^y^^; Majesty. For what can be found here like these? If 
then it chance that no resemblance of His Nativity either be 
found, am I therefore overwhehned, because I have not found 
resemblances to the Creator of all things, when desiring to 
tind in the creature what is like tlie Creator ?" 

10. And in very truth, brethren, I am not likely to dis- 
cover any temporal resemblances which 1 can compare to 
eternity. But as to those which thou hast discovered, what 
are they? What hast thou discovered? That a father is 
greater in time than his son; and therefore thou wouldest 
have the Son of God to be less in time than the Eternal 
Father, because thou hast found that a son is less than a 
father born in time. Find me an eternal father here, and 
thou hast found a resemblance. Thou findest a son less 
than a father in time, a temporal son less than a temjjoral 
father. Hast thou found me a temporal son younger than 
vii. an eternal father ? Seeing then that in Eternity is stability, 
but in time variety; in eternity all things stand still, in time 
one thing comes, another succeeds ; thou canst find a 
son of lesser age succeeding his father in the variety of time, 
for that he himself succeeded to his father also, not a son 
born in time to a father eternal. How then, brethren, can we 
find in the creature aught coeternal, when in the creature 
we find nothing eternal ? Do thou find an eternal father in 
the creature, and T will find a coeternal son. But if thou 
find not an eternal father, and the one surpasses the other in 
time; it is sufficient, that for a resemblance I find something 
coeval. For what is coeternal is one thing, what is coeval 
another. Every day we call them coeval who have the same 
measure of times; the one is not preceded by the other in 
time, yet they both whom we call coeval once began to be. 
Now iff shall be able to discover something which is born 
coeval with that of which it is born ; if two coeval things 
can l)e discovered, that which begets, and that which is 
begotten ; we discover in this case things coeval, let us 
understand in the other things coeternal. If here T shajl 
find that a thing begotten hath begun to be ever since that 
which begets began to be, we may understand at least that 
the Son of God did not begin to be, ever since He that begat 

Coeval generation refutes Arian cavil against the coeternal. 495 

Him did not begin to be. Lo, brethren, jDerhaps we may Serm. 
discover something in the creature, which is born of some- [^117.5,] 
thing else, and which yet began to be at the same time as 
that of which it is born began to be. In the latter case, the 
one began to be when the other began to be ; in the former 
the one did not begin to be, ever since the other began not 
to be. The first then is coeval, the second coeternal. 

11. I suppose that your holiness has understood already ^'in- 
what I am saying, that temporal things cannot be compared 
to eternal ; but that by some slight and small resemblance, 
things coeval may be with things coeternal. Let us find 
accordingly two coeval things ; and let us get our hints as to 
these resemblances from the Scriptures. We read in the 
Scriptures of Wisdom, For she is the Brightness of the'^'^^^-'^-> 
Everlasting Light. Again we read, Tlie unspotted Mirror 
of the Majesty of God. Wisdom Herself is called, Hie 
Brightness of the Everlasting Light, is called. The Image 
of the Father; from hence let us take a resemblance, that 
we may find two coeval things, from which we may under- 
stand things coeternal. O thou Arian, if I shall find that 
something that begets does not precede in time that which 
it begat, that a thing begotten is not less in time than that of 
which it is begotten ; it is but just that thou concede to me, 
that these coeternals may be found in the Creator, when 
coevals can be found in the creature. I think that this indeed 
occurs already to some brethi'en. For some anticipated me 
as soon as I said, For She is the Brightness of the Everlasting 
Light. For the fire throws out light, light is thrown out 
from the fire. If we ask which comes from which, every 
day when we light a candle are we reminded of some invisible 
and indescribable thing, that the candle as it were of our 
understanding may be lighted in this night of the world. 
Observe him who lights a candle. While the candle is not 
lighted, there is as yet no fire, nor any brightness which 
proceedeth from the fire. But I ask, saying, " Does the 
brightness come from the fire, or the fire from the brightness?" 
Every soul answers me ; (for it has pleased God to sow the 
beginnings of understanding and wisdom in every soul;) 
every soul answers me, and no one doubts, that that bright- 
ness comes from the fire, not the fire from the bright- 

496 Coeval existence of substance and image. 

Serm. ness. Let us then look at the firu as the father of that 
PI ,-3 1 brightness; for I have said before that wo are looking for 
tilings coeval, not coeternal If I desire to light a candle, 
there is as yet no fire there, nor yet that brightness; but 
immediately that I have lighted it, together with the fire 
conies forth the brightness also. Give me then here a fire 
without brightness, and 1 believe you that the Father ever 
was without the Son. 
ix. 1'2. Attend; The matter has been explained by me as so 
great a matter could be, by the Lord lielping the earnest- 
ness ol your prayers, and the preparation of your heart, ye 
have taken in as much as ye were able to receive. Yet 
these things are ineffable. Do not suppose that any thing 
worthy of the subject has been spoken, if it only be for that 
things carnal are compared with coeternal, things temporal 
with things abiding ever, things subject to extinction to 
things immortal. But inasmuch as the Son is said also to 
be the Image of the Father, let us take from this too a sort 
of resemblance, though in things very different, as I have 
said before. 7'he image of a man looking into a glass is 
thrown out from the glass. But this cannot assist us for 
the clearing of that which we are endeavouring in some sort 
to explain. For it is said to me, " A man who looks into a 
glass, t)f course ivas already, and was bora beAjre that. 
The image came out only as soon as he looked at himself. 
For a man who looks in a glass, icas before he came to the 
glass." What then shall we find, from which we may be 
able to draw out such a resemblance, as we did from the fire 
and the brightness ? Let us find one from a \ery little 
thing. You know without any difficulty how water often 
throws out the images of bodies. 1 mean, when any one is 
passing, or standing still along the water, he sees his own 
image there. Let us suppose then something born on the 
water's side, as a shrub, or a herb, is it not born together with 
its image? As soon as ever it begins to be, its image begins 
to be with it, it docs not precede in its birth its own image ; 
it cannot be shewed to me that any thing is born upon the 
water's sidr, and that its image has appeared afterwards, 
whereas it first ap}>eared without its image; but it is born 
together with its image; and yel the image comes from it, 

Further Arian cavils. 497 

uot it from the image. It is born then together with its Serm. 
image, and the shrub and its image begin to be together, [u/.p,.] 
Dost thou not confess that the image is begotten of that 
shrub, not the shrub of the image ? So then thou dost con- 
fess that the image is from that shrub. Accordingly that 
which begets and that which is begotten began to be together. 
Therefore they are coeval. If the shrub had been always, 
the image from the shrub would have been always too. Now 
that which has its being from something else, is of course 
born of it. It is possible then that one that begets might 
always be, and always be together with that which was born 
of him. For here it was that we were in perplexity and 
trouble, how the Eternal Nativity might be understood. So 
then the Son of God is so called on this principle, that there 
is the Father also, that He hath One from Whom He derives 
His Being ; not on this, that the Father is first in time, and 
the Son after. The Father always was, the Son always from 
the Father. And because whatever is from another thing, is 
born, therefore the Son was always born. The Father 
always was, the image from Him always was; as that image 
of 'the shrub was born of the shrub, and if the shrub had 
always been, the image would also have always been born 
from the shrub. Thou couldest not find things begotten 
coeternal with the eternal begetters, but thou hast found 
things born coeval with those that begat them in time. I 
understand the Son coeternal with the Eternal Who begat 
him. For what with regard to things of time is coeval, with 
regard to things eternal is coeternal. 

13. Here there is somewhat for you to consider, brethren, x. 
'as a protection against blasphemies. For it is constantly i p opter 
said, " See thou hast produced certain resemblances; but the 
brightness which is thrown out from the fire, shines less 
brilliantly than the fire itself, and the image of the shrub 
has less proper ^ subsistence, than that shrub of which it is^propri- 
the image. These instances have a resemblance, but they 
have not a thorough equality : wherefore they do not seem 
to be of the same substance." What then shall we say, if 
any one say, " The Father then is to the Son, such as the 
brightness is to the fire, and the image to the shrub V See I 
have understood the Father to be eternal ; and the Son to 

498 Earthly analogies illustrate single sides oftntih. 

Sebm. be coeternal with Him; nevertheless say we that He is as the 

rj,7gi brightness which is thrown out from and is less brilliant than 

the fire, or as the image which is reiiected from and has less 

real existence than the shrub?. No, but there is a thorough 

equality. " 1 do not believe it," he will say, " because thou 

hast not discovered a resemblance."" Well then, believe the 

Apostle, because he was able to see what I have said. For he 

Phil. 2 '^'ays, He thought it not robbery to be equal ivith God. 

?• . Eciualilv is 'perfect likeness in every way. And what said 
'conjun- I ./ 1 J . , . 1 

gitur he ? Not robbery. Why ? Because that is robbery which 

belongs to another. 

14. Yet from these two comparisons, these two kinds, we 

may perhaps find in the creature a resemblance whereby 

we may understand how the Son is both coeternal with the 

Father, and in no respect less than He. But this we cannot 

find in one kind of resemblances singly: let us join both 

kinds together. How both kinds.? One, of which they 

themselves give instances of resemblances, and the other, of 

which we gave. For they gave instances of resemblances 

from those things which are born in time, and are preceded 

in time by them of whom they are born, as man of man. 

He that is born first is greater in time ; but yet man 

and man, that is of the same substance. For man begets a 

man, and a horse a horse, and a sheep a sheep. These 

beget after the same substance, but not after the same time. 

They are diverse in time, but not in nature diverse. What 

then do we praise here in this nativity } The equality of 

nature surely. But what is wanting ? The equality of time. 

Let us retain the one thing which is praised here, that is, the 

equality of nature. 13ut in the other kind of resemblances, 

which we gave from the brightness of the fire and the image 

of the shrub, you find not an equality of nature, you do find 

an equality of time. Wliat do we praise here ? Equality of 

time. What is wanting ? Equality of nature. Joiu the 

things which you praise together. For in the creatures 

there is wanting something which you praise, in the Creator 

nothing can be wanting : because what you find in the 

creature, came forth from the Hand of the Creator. What 

then is there in things coeval .'' Must not that be given to 

(iod which you praise herein.? But what is wanting must 

All yuod in creatures is image of God; imperfect, its oion. 499 

not be attributed to that Sovereign Maiestv, in the Which there Serm. 

. . . LXVII 

is no defect. See I offer to you things begetting coeval with [ny.B.j 

things begotten : in these you praise the equality of time, 

but find fault with the inequality' of nature. What yon find ' dispa- 

11 • ' -1 nlita- 

fault with, do not attribute to God; what you praise, attribute tem. 

to Him; so from this kind of resemblances you attribute to 
Him instead of a contemporaneousness a coeternity, that the 
Son may be coeternal with Him of Whom He was born. 
But from the other kind of resemblances, which itself too is 
a creature of God, and ought to praise the Creator, what do 
you praise in them } Equality of nature. You had before 
assigned coeternity by reason of the first distinction ; by 
reason of this last, assign equality ; and the nativity of the 
same substance is complete. For what is more mad, my 
brethren, than that I should praise the creature in any thing 
which does not exist in the Creator.' In man I praise 
equality of nature, shall I not believe it in Him Who made 
man? That which is born of man is man; shall not that 
which is born of God, be That Which He is of Whom He was 
born? Converse have I none with works which God hath 
not made. Let then all the works of the Creator praise Him. 
1 find in the one case a contemporaneousness, I get at the 
knowledge of a coeternity in the other. In the first I find 
an equality of nature, 1 understand an equality of substance 
in the other. In this then that is wholly, which in the other 
case is found in the several parts, and several things. It is 
then icholly here altogether, and not only what is in the crea- 
tures; I find it wholly here, but as being in the Creator, in so 
much higher a way, in that the one is visible, the Other Invi- 
sible; the one temporal, the Other Eternal; the one change- 
able, the Other Unchangeable; the one corruptible, the Other 
Incorruptible. Lastly, in the case of men themselves, what we 
find, man and man, are two men ; here the Father and the 
Son are One God. 

lo. I render unspeakable thanks to our Lord God, that He 
hath vouchsafed, at your prayers, to deliver my infirmity 
from this most perplexed and difficult place. Yet above all 
things remember this, that the Creator transcends inde- 
scribably whatever we could gather from the creature, whether 
by the bodily senses, or the thought of the mind. But 

500 The Word became man, that man might attain to God. 

SnRM. wouldest thou witli tlie mind reach Himr Purify tbv mind, 
LXVII. ^ . 

[ii7.R.i}^^ii'ify thine heart. Make clean the eye whereby That, 

Matt. 6, whatever It be, may be readied. For, bleased are the clean 
in heart, for they shall see God. I3ut wliilst the heart was 
not cleansed, wliat could be provided and granted more mer- 
cifully by Him, than that That Word of Whom we have 
spoken so great and so many things, and yet have spoken 
nothing worthy of Him; that That Word, by Whom all 
things were inride, should become that which we are, that 
we might be able to attain to That Which we are not ? For 
we are not God ; but with the mind or the interior eye of the 
heart we can see God. Our eyes dulled by sins, blinded, 
enfeebled by infirmity, desire to see ; but we are in hope, 
not yet in possession. We are the children of God. This 

John 1, gj^ijij John, who says, In the hcgianing icas the Word^ and 
the Word was with God, and the Word was God ; he who 
lay on the Lord's Breast, who drew in these secrets from the 

1 John ]3QgQ,^ Qf jjjg Heart; he says, Dearly Ix loved, ice are the 

children of God, and it doth not yet appear nhat we shall 
be; tie know that, when He shall appear, we shall be like 
Him, for we shall see Him as He is. This is promised us. 

16. But in order that we may attain, if we cannot yet see 
God the Word, let us hear the Word made Flesh ; seeing we are 
carnal, let us hear the Word Incarnate. Por for this cause 
came He. for this cause took upon Him our infirmity, that thou 
mightest be able to receive the strong words of a God bear- 
ing thy weakness. And He is truly called " milk." For He 
giveth milk to infants, that He may give the meat of wisdom 
to them of riper years. Suck then now with ])atience, that 
' avide ^i^f^y^ mayest be fed to thy heart's most^ eager wish. For how 
is even the milk, wherewith infants are suckled, made ? Was 
it not solid meat on the table ? But the infant is not strong 
enough to eat the meat which is on the table ; what does the 

2 incar- mother do ? She turns the meat^ into the substance of her 


flesh, and makes milk of it. Makes for us what we may be 
able to take. So the Word was made Flesh, that we little 
ones, who were indeed as infants with respect to food, might 
be nourished by milk. But there is this difference; that 
when the mother makes the food turned into flesh milk, the 
food is turned into milk ; wdiercas the Word abiding Itself 

Loioliness of God the roay to His loftiness. 50 1 

unchangeably assumed Flesh, that there might be, as it were, Serm. 
a tissue of the two. What He is, He did not corrupt orrj'iyj^'j 
change, that in thy fashion He might speak to thee, not 
transformed and turned into man. For abiding unalterable, 
unchangeable, and altogether inviolable, He became what 
thou art in respect of thee, what He is in Himself in respect 
of the Father. 

17. For what doth He say Himself to the infirm, to the 
end that recovering that sight, they may be able in some 
measure to reach the Word by Whom all things were made? 
Come unto Me, all ye thai labour and are heavy laden, «wc?Mat.ii, 
/ will refresh you. Take My yoke upon you, and learn of 
Me, that I am, meek and, lowly in heart. What doth the 
Master, the Sou of God, the Wisdom of God, by Whom 
all things were made, proclaim.? He calleth the human 
race, and saith, Come iin*o Me, all ye that labour, and learn 
of Me. Thou wast thinking haply that the Wisdom of God 
would say, " Learn how I have made the heavens and the 
stars ; how all tilings also were numbered in Me before they 
were made, how by virtue of unchangeable princijples* youn ratio- 
very hairs were numbered." Didst thou think that Wisdom""'" 
would say these things, and such as these.? No. But first 
that. That 1 am meek and lowly in heart. Lo, see here what 
ye can comprehend, brethren, it is surely a little thing. We 
are making our way to great things, let us receive the little 
things, and we shall be great. Wouldest thou comprehend 
the height of God ? First comprehend the lowliness of God. 
Condescend to be humble for thine own sake, seeing that 
God condescended to bo humble for thy sake too ; for it was 
not for His own. Comprehend then the lowliness of 
Christ, learn to be humble, be loth to be proud. Confess 
thine infirmity, lie patiently before the Physician; when 
thou shalt have comprehended His lowliness, thou risest 
with Him ; not as though He should rise Himself in that 
He is the Word; but thou rather, that He may be more and 
more comprehended by thee. At first thou didst understand 
falteringly and hesitatingly; afterwards thou wilt understand 
more surely and more clearly. He doth not increase, but 
thou makest progress, and He seemeth as it were to rise with 
thee. So it is, brethren. Believe the commandments of 

502 Obedienve the foundation of all hnowledf/e of God. 

Sekm. (iod, and do ihein, and He will give yon tbcslirngtli ol' un- 

my p-jdevstanding. Do not put the last first*, and, as it were, 

1 pra-su- prefer knowledge to the commandnients of God; lest ye be 

matis Qjjiy |.]^g lower, and none the more firnily rooted. Consider 

a tree; first it strikes downwards, that it may grow up on 

high ; fixes its root low in the ground, that it may extend its 

top to heaven. Does it make an effort to grow except from 

humiliation ? And wouldesl thou without charity comprehend 

these transcendent matters, shoot toward the heaven without 

Eph. 3, a root.'' This were a ruin, not a growing. With Christ 

17&19. ^jj^.j^ fliPf^llj^m {fj yonr hearts hy faith, he ye looted and 

grounded in chariti/, that i/e may he filled nith all the 

fulness of God. 


On the sfftne words of the Gospel, John i. " In the beginning was the 
Word," &c. 

1. All ye who are looking for a man's many words, under- 

John 1, stand the One Word of God, //a the beyinniny uas the Word. 

Gen. 1 ^ ow, In the beginning God made the heaven and the earth. 

1- But, The Word was, since we have heard. In the beginning God 

made. Acknowledge we in Him the Creator; for Creator is 
He Who made; and the creature what He made. For no 
crcatuie which was made, was, as God the Word was, by 
Whom it was made, always. Now when we heard The Word 
was, with Whom was It? We understand the Father Who 
did not make nor create the vSame Word, but begat Him. 
For, In the beginning God, made the heaven and the earth. 

John 1, Whereby made He them? The Word nas, and the Word 
a as with God ; but what kind of Word } Did it sound and 

2 volve- j,jj pass away ? Was it a mere thought, and motion^ of the 
mind? No. Was it suggested by memory, and uttered? No. 
What kind of Word then? Why dost thou look for many 
words from me ? The Word was God. When we hear. The 
Word was God, we do not make a second God ; but we 

'The Son not a creature, si /ice ail zrns made by Him. 503 

undersland the Son. For the Word is the Son of God. Lo, Sehm. 
the Son, and What but God ? For The Word it as God. What [Tis.B.i 
the Father? God of course. If the Father is God and the ~ 

Son God, do we make two Gods? God forbid. The Father 
is God, the Son God ; but the Father and the Son One 
God. For the Only Son of God was not made, but born. 
/;/ t/ie beginning God made the heaven and the earth; but 
the Word was of the Father. Was the Word therefore made by 
the Father? No. All tilings nere made by Him. If by Himver. 3. 
all things were made, was He too made by Himself? Do not 
imagine that He by Whom thou hearest all things were made 
was Himself made among all things. For if He were made 
Himself, all things were not made by Him, but Himself was 
made among the rest. You say, " He vvas made;" what, by 
Himself? Who can make himself? If then He vvas made, 
how by Him were all things made? See, Himself too was 
made, as you say, not I, for that He was begotten, I do 
not deny. If then you say that He was made, I ask by what, 
by whom ? By Himself? Then He was, before He was made, 
that He might make Himself. But if all things were made 
by Him, understand that He was not Flimself made. If 
thou art not able to understand, believe, that thou mayest 
understand. Faith goes before ; understanding follows after; 
since the Prophet says. Unless ye believe, ye shall not is. 7,9. 
understand. The Word was. Look not for time in Him,^®P*- 
by Whom times were made. The Word was. But you say, 
" There was a time that the Word was not." You say 
falsely; no where do you read this. But I do read for you, 
In the beginning was the Word. What look you for before 
the beginning? But if you should be able to find any thing 
before the beginning, this will be the beginning. He is mad 
who looks for any thing before the beginning. What then 
doth he say was before the beginning? In the beginning 
was the Word. 

2. But you will say, " The Father both was, and was before 
the Word." What are you looking for? In the beginning 
was the Word. What you find, understand ; seek not for 
what you are not able to find. Nothing is before the begin- 
ning. In the beginning was the Word. The Son is the 
Brightness of the Father. Of the Wisdom of the Father, Which 


504 The Son, the Coetcrnal Brightness of the Eternal Light. 

Serm. is the Son, it is said, For He is the brightness of the Ever- 

[118,13.] lasting Light. Are you seeking for a Sou without a Father? 

Wisd.?, Give me a licrht without briu;htuess. If there was a time 
26 . 

when the Son was not, the Father was a light obscure. For 

how was He not an obscure Light, if It had no brightness ? 

So then the Father always, the Son always. If the Father 

always, the Son always. Do you ask of me, whether the 

Son were born } I answer, " born." For He would not be a 

Son if not born. So when I say, the Son always was, 

I say in fact was always born. And who understands, " Was 

always born?" Give me an eternal fire, and I will give thee 

an eternal brightness. We bless God Who hath given to 

us the holy Scriptures. Be ye not blind in the brightness of 

the light. Brightness is engendered of the Light, and yet 

the Brightness is Coeternal with the Light that engenders It. 

The Light always, its Brightness always. It begat Its Own 

Brightness; but was it ever without Its Brightness ? Let God 

be allowed to beget an eternal Son. I pray you hear of Whom 

we are speaking; hear, mark, believe, understand. Of God 

are we speaking. We confess and believe the Son coeternal 

with the Father. But you will say, " When a man begets 

a Son, he that begets is the elder, and he that is begotten 

the younger." It is true; in the case of men, he that begets 

is the elder, and he that is begotten, the younger, and he 

arrives in time to his father's strength. But why, save that 

whilst the one grows, the other grows old? Let the father 

stand still a while, and in his growing the son will follow 

on him, and you will see him equal. But see, I give 

you whereby to understand this. Fire engenders a coeval 

brightness. Among men you only find sons younger, lathers 

older; you do not find them coeval: but as I have said, 

I shew you brightness coeval with its parent fire. For 

fire begets brightness, yet is it never without brightness. 

Since then you see that the brightness is coeval with its fire, 

suffer God to beget a Coeternal Son. Whoso understand- 

eth, let him rejoice: but whoso understandeth not, let him 

believe. For the word of the Prophet cannot be disannulled; 

Ts. 7, 9. Unless ve believe, ye shall not understand. 

Sept. ^ ^ 

Divinity of St. John''s Gospel. 505 


On the same words, John i. " In the beginning was the Word, &c." 

1. That our Lord Jesus Christ in seeking lost man was Serm. 
made Man, our preaching has never withholden, and your faith ^ 19 g \ 
has ever retained; and moreover, that this our Lord, Who ^ 
for our sakes was made Man, was always God with the 
Father, and always will be, yea rather always Is; for where 
there is no succession of time, there is no " hath been" and 

*' will be." For that of which it is said, " it hath been," is now 
no more; that of which it is said, " it will be," is not yet; 
but He always is, because He truly is, that is, is unchange- 
able. For the Gospel lesson has just now taught us a high 
and divine mystery. For this beginning of the Gospel St. 
John poured forth', for that he drank it in from the Lord's 'rue- 
Breast. For ye remember, and it has been very lately read ^'^^'*''' 
to you, how that this St. John the Evangelist lay in the Johnis, 
Lord's Bosom. And wishing to explain this clearly, he says," ' 
" On the Lord's Breast;" that we might understand what he ver. 25. 
meant, by" in the Lord's bosom." For what, think we, did 
he drink in who was lying on the Lord's Breast? Nay, let us^nonpu- 
not think, but drink-; for we too have just now heard what *g^ p'^^j_ 
we may drink in. temus 

2. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with ii. 
God, and the Wordivas God. O glorious preaching! O^ the ^°^'^ ^' 
result of the full feast of the Lord's Breast ! In the begin- ^ sagi- 
?ii?ig ivas the Word. Why seekest thou for what was before minici"" 
It? In the beginning was the Word. If the Word had been pertoris 
made, (for made indeed that was not by Wliich all things were tuare 
made;) if the Word had been made, the Scripture would have 

said, " In the beginning God made the Word ;" as it is said 
in Genesis, In tJie beginning God made the heaven and the Gen. 1, 
earth. God then did not in the beginning make the Word; ^' 
because, In the beginning was the Word. Tliis Word which 
was in the beginning, where was It? Follow on, A7id the 
Word was with God, But from our daily hearing the words 
of men we are wont to think lightly of this name of " Word." 
In this case do not think lightly of the Name of " Word;" 

Ll 2 

506 To vnderstand the JVord, abide in Him, not follow thejlesft. 

Serm. The Word was God. The Same, that is the Word, was in the 
\\\K\,B.\ber)inning ivith God. All things were made by Hi?n, and 

without Him teas nothing made. 

iii. 3. Extend 3'ouv hearts, help the poverty of my words. 

What I shall be able to express, give ear to; on what I shall 

not be able to express, meditate. Who can comprehend 

the abiding Word ? All our words sound, and pass away. 

Who can comprehend the abiding Word, save He Who 

abideth in Him? Wouldest thou comprehend the abiding 

Word ? Do not follow the current of the flesh. For this 

flesh is indeed a current; for it has none abiding. As it were 

from a liind of secret fount of nature men are born, they live, 

they die ; or whence they come, or whither they go, we 

know not. It is a hidden water, till it issue from its source; 

it flows on, and is seen in its course ; and again it is hidden 

in the sea. Let us despise this stream flowing on, running, 

Is. 40,6. disappearing, let us despise it. Alljlesh is grass, and all the 
glory of jlesk is as the flower of grass. The grass wilhereth, 

i'Pet.\,tl,e flower falleih auay. Wouldest thou endure? Bui the 
' * tcord of the Lord endureth for ever. 
IV. 4. But in order to succour us, The Word was made Flesh, 

14. ' and dwelt among ns. What is. The Word teas made Flesh? 
The gold became grass. It became grass for to be burned; 
the grass was burned, but the gold remained; in the gi'ass It 
perisheth not, yea. It changed the grass. How did It 
change it? It raised it up, quickened it, lifted it up to 
heaven, and placed it at the right Hand of the Father. But 
that it might be said. And the Word was made Flesh, and 

''•^^-^^- dwelt among us, let us recollect awhile what went before. He 
came unto His Own, and His Own received Him not. But as 
many as received Him, to them gave He power to become 
the sons of God. To become, for they were not; but He 
was Himself in the beginning. He gave them then power to 
become the sons of God, to them that believe in His Name; 
who icere born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor 
of the ivill of man, but of God. Lo, born they are, in 
whatever age of the flesh they may be; ye see infants; see 
and rejoice. Lo, they are born ; but they are born of God. 
Their mother's womb is the water of baptism. 
V- 5. lict no man in poorness of soul entertain this conceit. 

InterchancjeofGodt.heSon withus; waswith usandthe Father. 507 

and turn over such most beggarly thoughts in his mind, and Serm. 
say to himself, " How in the beginning was the Word, ««f^[ii9.B.f 
the Word tvas with God, and the Word was God: all things 
were tnade by Him; and lo, the Word was made flesh, and 
dwelt among nsT'' Hear why it was done. To those we know 
ivho believed on Him He hath given power to become the 
sons of God. Let not those then to whom He liath given 
power to become the sons of God, think it impossible to 
become the sons of God. TJie Word loas made flesh, and 
dwelt among its. Do not imagine that it is too great a thing 
for you to become the sons of God; for your sakes He 
became the Son of man. Who was the Son of God. If He 
was made, that He might be less. Who was more; can He 
not bring it to pass, that of that less which we were, we may 
be something more? He descended to us, and shall not 
we ascend to Him? For us He accepted our death, and 
shall He not give us His Life? For thee He suffered thy 
evil things, and shall He not give thee His good things? • 

6. " But how," one will say, " can it be, that the Word of vi. 
God, by Whom the world is governed, by Whom all things 
both were, and are created, should contract Himself into the 
womb of a Virgin; should abandon the world, and leave the 
Angels, and be shut up in one woman's womb.?" Thou 
skillest not to conceive of things divine. The Word of God 

(I am speaking to thee, O man, I am speaking to thee 
of the omnipotence of the Word of God) could surely do 
all, seeing that the Word of God is omnipotent, at once 
remain with the Father, and come to us; at once in the flesh 
come forth to us, and lay concealed in Him. For He would 
not the less have been, if He had not been born of flesh. 
He tvas before His own flesh; He created His Own mother. 
He chose her in whom He should be conceived, He created 
her of whom He should be created. Why marvellest thou? 
It is God of Whom I am speaking to thee : The Word 
was God. 

7. I am treating of the Word, and perchance the word vii. 
of men may furnish somewhat like ; though very unequal, 

far distant, in no way comparable, yet something which may 
convey a hint to you by way of resemblance. Lo, the word 
which I am speaking to you, I have had previously in my 

508 luiint analoyif J'roui man's ivord. 

Serm. heart : it came forth to thee, yet it has not departed from 

nJgBJme; that began to be in thee, which was not in thee; 
it continued with me when it went forth to thee. As then 
my word was brought forth to thy sense, yet did not depart 
from my heart; so That Word came forth to our senses, yet 
departed not from His Father. My word was with me, and 
it came forth into a voice : the Word of God was with the 
Father, and came forth into Flesh. But can I do with my 
voice that which He could do with His Flesh ? For I am 

1 tenere not master ' of my voice as it flies; He is not only master of His 
Flesh, that It should be born, live, act; but even when dead He 
raised It up, and exalted unto the Father the Vehicle as it were 
in which He came forth to us. You may call the Flesh of 

Lukeio, Christ a Garment, you may call It a Vehicle, and as perchance 
Himself vouchsafed to teach us, you may call It His Beast ; 
for on this beast He raised him who had been wounded by 
robbers; lastly, as He said Himself more expressly, you 

• may call It a Temple; This Temple knows death no more, 

Its seat is at the right Hand of the Father : in This Temple 
shall He come to judge the quick and dead. What He 
hath by precept taught, He hath by example manifested. 
What He hath in His own flesh shewn, that oughtest thou to 
hope for in thy flesh. This is faith ; hold fast what as yet 
thou seest not. Need there is, that by believing thou abide 
firm in that thou seest not; lest when thou shalt see, thou be 
put to shame. 


On the same words of John i. " In the beginning was the Word," &c. 

John 1, I rpj^^ beginning of John's Gospel, In the beginning was 
ihe Word. Thus he begins, this he saw, and transcending 
the whole creation, mountains, air, the heavens, the stars, 
Thrones, Dominions, Principalities, Powers, all Angels, and 
Archangels, transcending all ; he saw the Word in the 
beginning, and drank It in. He saw above every creature. 

God's works supply thoughts of Him, rejecting what is finite. 509 

he drank in from the Lord's Breast. For this same Saint Serm. 

John the Evangelist is he whom Jesus specially loved; inso- [•120.B.'] 

much that he lay on His Breast at supper. There was this 
secret, that therefrom might be drunk in, what in the Gospel 
was to be poured forth. Happy they who hear and understand. 
Of the next degree of blessedness are they who though they 
understand not, believe. For how great a thing it is to see 
This Word of God, who can explain in human words? 

2. Lift up your hearts, my brethren, lift them up as best ye 
can ; whatsoever occurs to you from the idea of any body 
whatsoever, reject. If the Word of God occurs to you under 
the idea of the light of this sun, expand, extend it how you 
^vill, set no bounds in your thought to that light; it is nothing 
to the Word of God. Whatsoever of this sort the mind 
conceives, is less in one part than in the whole. Of the Word 
conceive as Whole every where. Understand ye what 1 say; 
because of my stress of time I am limiting myself as much as I 
can for your sakes. Understand ye what I say. Lo, this 
light from heaven, which is called by the name of the sun, 
when it comes forth, it enlightens the earth, unfolds the clay, 
developes forms, distinguishes colours. Great blessing it is, 
great gift of God to all mortal men ; let His works magnify 
Him. If the sun is so beauteous, what more beauteous 
than the sun's Maker .? And yet look, brethren ; lo, he pours 
his rays through the whole earth ; penetrates open places, 
the closed resist him ; he sends his light through windows, 
can he also through a wall .^ To the Word of God all is open, 
from the Word of God nothing is hid. Observe another 
difference, how far from the Creator is the creature, especially 
the bodily creature. When the sun is in the East, it is not 
in the West. Its light indeed shed from that vast body 
reaches even to the West; but itself is not there. When it 
begins to set, then it will be there. When it rises, it is in 
the East ; when it sets, it is in the West. By these opera- 
tions of his, it has given name to those quarters. Because 
it is in the East when it rises at the East, it has made it be 
called the Rising Sun ; because it is at the West when it 
sets at the West, it has made it be called the Setting Sun. 
At night it is no where seen. Is the Word of God so ? 
When It is in the East, is It not in the West; or when 

510 The heart andi-idaiaU of God, what it cannot speak. 

Sekm. It is in the West, is It not in the East? or does It ever leave 
rjoyu'ithe earth, and go under or beliind the cartli ? It is Whole 
every where. Who can in words explain this? Who see it? 
By what means of proof shall I establish to you what I say ? 
I am speaking as a man, it is to men I speak ; I am 
speaking as one weak, to men weaker am I speaking. And 
yet, my brethren, I am bold to say that I do in some scrt 
see what I am saying to you, though through a glass, or darkly, 
I do in some sort understand even within my heart a word 
touching this thing. But it seeks to go forth to you, and 
finds no meet vehicle. The vehicle of the word is the sound 
of the voice. What I am saying within mine own self I seek 
to say to you, and words fail. For 1 wish to speak of the Word 
John 1 of God. How great a Word, What kind of Word ? All 
^* things leere made by Him. See the 'vorks, and stand in awe 

of the Worker. All things were made hy Him. 

3. Retiun with me, O human infirmity, return, i say. 
Let us comprehend these human things if we can. We are 
men, I who speak, am a man, and to men I speak, and utter 
the sound of my voice. I convey the sound of my voice to 
men's ears, and by the sound of my voice I somehow 
through the ear lay up iniderstanding also in the heart. Let us 
then speak on this point what and how we can, let us com- 
prehend it. But if we have not ability to comprehend 
even this, in respect of the Other what arc we ? Lo, ye 
are listening to me ; I am speaking a word. If any one 
goes out from us, and is asked outside what is being done 
here, he answers, " The Bishop is speaking a word." I am 
speaking a word of the Word. But what a word, of 
What a Word? A mortal word, of the Word Immortal; a 
changeable word, of the Word Unchangeable ; a passing 
word of the Word Eternal. Nevertheless, consider my word. 
For I have told you already, the Word of God is Whole 
every where. See, I am speaking a word to you ; what 
I say reaches to all. Now that what I am saying might 
come to you all, did ye divide what I say ? If I were to 
feed you, to wish to fill not your minds, but your bodies, and 
to set loaves before you to be satisfied therewith ; would ye 
not divide my loaves among you ? Could my loaves come 
to every one of you? If they came to one only, the rest 

Miracles of the /luman word suggest Majesty of ihe Divine. 511 

would have none. But now see, I am speaking, and ye all Sehm. 
receive. Nay, not only ull receive, but all receive it whole. n'goVi 
It comes whole to all, to each whole. O the marvels of my 
word! What then is the Word of God? Hear again. I 
have spoken ; what I have spoken, has gone forth to you, 
and has not gone away from me. It has reached to yon, 
and has not been separated from me. Before I spake, I had 
it, and ye had not ; I spake, and ye began to have, and I 
lost nothing. O the marvel of my word ! What then is the 
Word of God ? From little things form conjectures of things 
great. Consider earthly things, laud the heavenly. I am a 
creature, ye are creatures; and such great miracles are done 
with my word in my heart, in my mouth, in my voice, in 
your ears, in your hearts. What then is the Creator ? O 
Lord, hear us. Make us, for that Thou hast made us. Make 
us good, for that Thou hast made us enlightened men. These 
white-robed, enlightened ones hear Thy word by me. For 
enlightened by Thy grace they stand before Thee. This is Pa. 118, 
the dag which the Lord hath made. Only let them labour, ' 
let them pray for this, that when these days shall have gone 
by, they may not become darkness, who have been made 
the light of the wonders and the blessings of God. 


On the words of the Gospel, John i. " The world was made by Him," &c. 

1. By the Lord was the world 7nade, and the world john i, 
knew Him not. What world was made by Him, what world ^^' 
knew Him not } For it is not the same world that was made 
by Him, which knew Him not. What is the world that was 
made by Him } The heaven and earth. How did not the 
heaven know Him, when at His Passion the sun was darkened ? 
How did not the earth know Him, when as He hung upon the 
Cross, it quaked? But the world knew Him not, whose prince 
he is, of whom it is said, Behold, the prince of this worldcometh, JohnU, 
andfindeth nothing in me. Wicked men are called the world ; 
unbelieving men are called the world. They have gotten their 
name from that they love. By the love of God we are 

512 Conversion of the heathen foretold under the name of stones. 

Serm, made Gods; so by the love of the world, we are called the 

ri2i.B.i^'0'"^^- ^"^ ^^^ ^"* *^* Christ reconciling ike world unto 

2 Cor. 5, Himself, The world then knew Him not. What ? " all 

*^- men?" 

John 1, 2. He came unto His Own, and His Own received Him 

^^' not. All things are His, but they are called His Own, from 
among whom His mother was, among whom He had taken 
Flesh, to whom He had sent before the heralds of His advent, 
to whom He had given the law, whom He had delivered 
from the Egyptian bondage, whose father Abraham according 

John 8, to the flesh He elected. For He said truth. Before Abraham 
was, I am. He did not say, " Before Abraham was," or 
" before Abraham was made, I was made." For in the begin- 
ning the Word was, not, " was made." So then He came unto 
His Own, He came to the Jews. And His Oivn received 
Him not. 

John 1, 3. But as many as received Him. For of course the 

^^' Apostles were there, who received Him. There were 
they who carried l)ranches before His beast. They went 
before and followed after, and spread their garments, and 

Mat.2i, cried with a loud voice, Hosanna to the So7i of David, 
Blessed is He That cometh in the Name of the Lord. Then 

Lukei9, said the Pharisees unto Him, " Restrain the children, that 

^^' ^^' they cry not out so unto Thee." And He said, If these shall 
hold their peace, the stones will cry out. Us He saw when 
He spake these words ; If these shall hold their peace, the 
stones will cry out. Who are stones, but they who worship 
stones ? If the Jewish children shall hold their peace, the 
elder and the younger Gentiles shall cry out. Who are the 
stones, but they of whom speaketh that very John, who came 

John 1, to bear witness of the Light? For when he saw these self- 
same Jews priding themselves on their birth from Abraham, 

Matt. 3, ]-^g gg^j(j ^Q them, O generation of vipers. They called them- 
selves the children of Abraham ; and he addressed them, 
O generation of vipers. Did he do Abraham wrong? God 
forbid ! He gave them a name from their character. For 
that if they were the children of Abraham, they would 

John 8, imitate Abraham ; as He too telleth them who say to Him, 
We be free, and were never in bondage to any man; we have 

y-^^-^c- Abraham for our father. And He said. If ye ivere Abra- 

JVretchedness q/thejlrst, glory of the second Birth. 513 
ham's children, ve would do the deeds of Abraham. Ye Serm. 


wish to kill 3Ie, because I tell you the truth. This did not ^i^i^^^^ 
Abraham. Ye were of his stock, but ye are a degenerate ~~ 
stock. So then what said John ? generation of vipers., l^,].^, 3^ 
who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come?7. &c. 
Because they came to be baptized with the baptism of John 
unto repentance. Who hath warned you to flee from the 
tvrath to come? Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of 
repentance. And say not in your hearts., We have Abraham 
to our father. For Qod is able of these stones to raise up 
children unto Abraham. For God is able of these stones 
which he saw in the Spirit ; to them he spake ; he foresaw 
us; For God is able of these stones to raise up children 
unto Abraham. Of what stones ? If these shall hold their 
peace, the stones will cry out. Ye have just now heard, and 
cried out. It is fulfilled, The stones shall cry out. For 
from among the Gentiles we came, in our forefathers we 
worshipped stones. Therefore are we called dogs too. Call 
to mind what that woman heard who cried out after the 
Lord, for she was a Canaanitish woman, a worshipper of 
idols, the handmaid of devils. What said Jesus to her? 
It is not good to take the children's bread, and to cast it ^o Mat. 15, 
dogs. Have ye never noticed, how dogs will lick the 
greasy stones ? So are all the worshippers of images. But 
grace has come to you. But as many as received Him, to 
them gave He power to become the sons of God. See ye 
have here some just now born: to them hath He given power 
to become the sons of God. To whom hath He given it ? To 
them that believe in His Name. 

4. And how do they become the sons of God.? Who w^-ere john i, 
born, not of blood, nor of the will of man, nor of the will of^^- 
the flesh, but of God. Having received power to become 
the sons of God, they are born of God. Mark then: They 
are born of God, not of blood, like their first birth, like 
that wretched birth, issuing out of wretchedness. But they 
who arc born of God, what were they.? whereby were they 
first born? Of blood; of the joint blood of the male and 
female, of the carnal union of male and female, from this 
were they born. From whence now ? They are born of God. 

514 C()rrespo}ide7ice ami difference of our // v/v/'.s- liirt/i and our''s. 

Serm. The first birth of the male and female ; the second birili of 

f 121.13.1 ^^^ and the Church. 

5. Lo, they are born of God; whereby is it brought to 
pass that they should lie born of God, who were first born of 

ver 14. men? Whereby is it brought to pass, whereby? And the Word 
was made Flesh, that It migJit dwell among us. Wondrous 
exchange; He made Flesh, they spirit. What is this? What 
condescension is here, my brethren ! Lift up your minds to 
the hope and comprehension of better things. Give not 

1 Cor. 6, yourselves up to worldly desires. Ye have been bought with 

" ' a Price; for your sakes the Word was made Flesh; for your 
sakes He Who was the Son of God, was made the Son of 
man: that yc who were the sons of men, might be made sons 
of God. What was He, what was He made ? What were 
ye, what were ye made ? He was the Son of God. What was 
He made ? The Sou of man. Ye were the sons of men. What 
were ye made ? The sons of God. He shared with us our 
evil things, to give us His good things. But even in that He 
was made the Son of man. He is different much from us. 
We are the sons of men by the lust of the flesh ; He the Son of 
man by the faith of a virgin. The mother of any other man 
whatever conceives by a carnal union ; and every one is bom 
of human parents, his father and his mother. But Christ 
was born of the Holy Ghost, and the Virgin Mary. He 
came to us, but from Himself departed not far; yea from 
Himself as God He departed never ; but added what He was 
to our nature. For He came to that which He was not, He 
did not lose What He was. He was made the Son of man ; 
but did not cease to be the Son of God. Hereby the 
Mediator, in the middle. What is, " in the middle ?" Neither 
up above, nor down below. How neither up above, nor down 
below ? Not above, since He is Flesh ; not below, since He 
is not a sinner. But yet in so far as He is God, above 
always. For He did not so come to us, as to leave the 
Father. From us He went, and did not leave us; to us will 
He come again, and will not leave Him. 

Nathanael under Jig -tree ^ type of man under sin. 515 


Ou the words of the Gospel, John i. " When thou wast under the fig-tree, 
I saw thee," &c. 

1. What we have heard said by the Lord Jesus Christ to Serm. 
Nathanael, if we understand it aright, does not concern him Qog b i 
only. For our Lord Jesus saw the whole human race under the j 
fig-tree. For in this place it is understood that by the fig- 
tree He signified sin. Not that it always signifies this, but as 

1 have said in this place, in that fitness of significancy, in 
which ye know that the first man, when he sinned, covered 
himself with fig leaves. For with these leaves they covered Gen 3, 
their nakedness when they blushed for their sin ; and what '" 
God had made them for members, they made for themselves 
occasions of shame. For they had no need to blush for the 
work of God ; but the cause of sin preceded shame. If 
iniquity had not gone before, nakedness would never have 
been put to the blush. For l/iey were naked, and were not Gen. 2, 
ashamed. For they had committed nothing to be ashamed 
for. But why have I said all this ? That we may understand 
that by the fig-tree sin is signified. What then is, when John i, 
thou wast under the fig-tree^ I saw thee? When thou wast^^" 
under sin, I saw thee. And Nathanael looking back upon 
what had occurred, remembered that he had been under a 
fig-tree, where Christ was not. He was not there, that is, by 
His Bodily Presence ; but by His knowledge in the Spirit 
where is He not.'' And because he knew that be was under 
the fig-tree alone, where the Lord Christ was not ; when He 
said to him, When thou wast under the Jig-tree, I saw thee ; 
he both acknowledged the Divinity in Him, and cried out, 
27iou art the King of Israel. ver. 49. 

2. The Lord ?,diidi, Because I said tttilo thee, I saw thee y^T. 50. 
when thou wast tinder the Jig-tree, rnarvellest thou ? thou 
shalt sec greater tilings than these. What are these greater ii. 
things? And he said, Ye shall see heaven open, and 
Angels of God ascending and descending upon the Son of 
Man. liCt ns call to mind the old story written in the 
sacred Book. I mean in Genesis. When Jacob slept at a Gen.28, 

516 The Stone to which, in Jacob's vision, Angels descended, Christ. 
Serm. certain place, he put a stone at his head ; and in his sleep 


r|22.B.ihe saw a ladder reaching from earth even unto heaven; and 
the Lord was resting upon it ; and Angels were ascending 
and descending by it. This did Jacob see. A man's dream 
would not have been recorded, had not some great mystery 
been figured in it, had not some great prophecy been to be 
understood in that vision. Accordingly, Jacob himself, be- 
cause he imderstood what he had seen, placed a stone there, 
and anointed it with oil. Now ye recognise the anointing ; 

Ps. 118, recognise The Anointed also. For He is the Stone IVhich the 
builders rejected ; He was made the Head of the corner. 

Matt. He is the Stone of Which Himself said. Whosoever shall 
' ' stumble against This Stone shall be shaken; but on whomso- 
ever That Stone shall fall. It will crush him. It is stumbled 
against as It lies on the earth ; but It will fall on him, 
when He shall come from on high to judge the quick and 
dead. Woe to the Jews, for that when Christ lay low in 

John 9, His humility, they stumbled against Him. This Man, say 
they, is not of God, because He breaketh the sabbath dag. 

Matt. If He be the Son of God, let Him com,e down from the 
' ■ cross. Madman, the stone lies on the ground, and so thou 
deridest It. But since thou dost deride It, thou art blind ; 
since thou art blind, thou stumblest ; since thou stumblest, 
thou art shaken ; since thou hast been shaken by It as It now 
lies on the ground, hereafter shalt thou be crushed by It as 
It falls from above. Therefore Jacob anointed the stone. 

» signifi- Did he make an idol of it ? He shewed ' a meaning in it, but 
did not adore it. Now then give ear, attend to this Natha- 
nael, by the occasion of whom the Lord Jesus hath been 
pleased to explain to us Jacob's vision, 
iii. .3. Ye that are well instructed in the school of Christ, 
know that this Jacob is Israel too. They are two names; for 
they are one man. His first name .Jacob, which is by 
inteqDretation supplanter, he received when he was bom. 
For when those twins were born, his brother Esau was bom 

Gen.25, first; and the hand of the younger was found on the elder's 
foot. He held his brother's foot who preceded him in his 
birth, and himself came after. And because of this occur- 

2 plan- rencc, because he held his brother's heel ^, he was called 

^^^ Jacob, that is, Supplanter. And afterwards, when he was 

Jacob conquerinc/, hut lamed, the Jev)s believing and unbelieving. 517 

returning from Mesopotamia, the Angel wrestled with him in Seuw, 
the way. What comparison can there be between an Angel's i^^^\ 
and a man's strength? Therefore it is a mystery, a sacra- Gen. 32" 
ment, a prophecy, a figure ; let us therefore understand it. ^4. 
For consider the manner of the struggle too. While he 
wrestleth, Jacob prevailed against the Angel. Some high 
meaning is here. And when the man had prevailed against 
the Angel, he kept hold of Him ; yes, the man kept hold of 
Him Whom he had conquered. And said to Him, I tv ill not Gen. 32, 
let Thee go, except Thon bless me. When the conqueror was ' 
blessed by the Conquered, Christ was figured. So then that 
Angel, Who is understood to be the Lord Jesus, saith to 
Jacob, Thou shall not be any more called Jacob, but Israel Gen.35, 
shall thy name be, which is by interpretation, " Seeing God." ^^' 
After this he touched the sinew of his thigh, the broad part, 
that is, of the thigh, and it dried up ; and Jacob became 
lame. Such was He Who was conquered. So great power 
had this Conquered One, as to touch the thigh, and make 
lame. It was then with His Own will that He was conquered. 
For He had power to lay down His strength, and He had john 
power to take ft up. He is not angry at being conquered, ^^' ^^" 
for He is not angry at being crucified. For He even blessed 
him, saying. Thou shall not be called Jacob, but Israel. 
Then the " supplanter" was made " the seer of God." And 
He touched, as I have said, his thigh, and made him lame. 
Observe in Jacob the people of the Jews, those thousands 
who followed and went before the Lord's beast, who in 
concert with the Apostles worshipped the Lord, and cried 
out, Hosanna to the Son of David, Blessed is He that Mru. 
cometh in the Name of the Lord. Behold Jacob blessed. ^^' ^" 
He has continued lame until now in them who are at this 
day Jews. For the broad part of the thigh signifies the 
multitude of increase. Of whom the Psalm, when it pro- 
phesied that the Nations should believe, speaketh, saying, ^ pg. 17 
people whom I have not knoivn, hath served 3Ie; by ihe'^^-^^' 
hearing of the ear it hath obeyed Me. I was not there, and I8; 44, 
I was heard; here I was, and I was killed. A people ^^'^'^ ' 
tvhom I have not knoivn, hath served Me; by the hearing of ' 
the ear it hath obeyed Me. Therefore, faith cometh by Rom. 
hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ. And it goes ^*'' ^'^' 

518 The Cliiirc/i is J<uoh here, Israel, irhen if shall see God. 

Sekm. on, The slranqe children have lied unto Me; concorninsr the 
LXXII. ' ./ ' D 

fi22 P..1 Je^s. The strange children have lied unto Me, the strange 

children hare faded away and have halted from their paths. 

\ have pointed out Jacob to you, Jacob blessed and Jacob 


iv. 4. But as arising out of this occasion, this must not be 

passed over, u liicli may ha])ly of itself perplex some of you ; 

with what design is it, that when tliis Jacob's grandfather 

Abraham's name was changed, (for he too was first called 

Gen.l7, y^lji-axn, and God changed his name, and said. Thou shall 

not be called Abram, but Abraham;) from that time he 

was not called Abram. Search in the Scriptures, and you 

will see that before he received another name, he was called 

only Abram ; after he received it, he was called only Abraham. 

But this Jacob, when he received another name, heard the 

Gen. 32, same words, Thou shall not be called Jacob, but Israel shall 

10.' ' thou be called. Search the Scriptures, and see how that he was 

always called both, both Jacob and Israel. Abram after 

he had received another name, was called only Abraham. 

Jacob after he had received another name, was called 

both Jacob and Israel. The name of Abraham was to be 

developed in this world; for here he was made the father of 

many nations, whence lie received his name. But the name 

of Israel relates to another world, where we shall see God. 

Therefore the people of God, the Christian people in this 

present time, is both Jacob and Israel, Jacob in fact, Israel in 

hope. For the younger people is called the Supplanter of 

its brother the elder people. What! have we supplanted 

the Jews.'' No, but we are said to be their supplanters, for 

that for our sakes they were supplanted. If they had not 

been blinded, Christ would not have been crucified; His 

precious Blood would not have been shed ; if that Blood had 

not been slied, the world would not have been redeemed. 

Because then their blindness hath profited us, therefore hath 

the elder brother been supplanted by the younger, and the 

younger is called the Supplanter. But how long shall 

this be } 

V. 5. The time will come, the end of the world will come, and 

all Israel shall believe ; not they who now are, but their children 

who shall then be. For these present walking in their own 

Tlic ^^ greater ihbigs''' pramised.^ to see God face io face. 519 

ways, will go to their own place, will pass on to everlasting Seum. 

damnation. But when they shall have been made all one[]22.B.i 

people, that shall come to pass which we sing, / shall iePs. 16, 

satisfied when Thy glory shall he manifest ed. When the 2y"£Y* 

promise which is made to ns, that we see face to face, shall 

come. Now tee see through a gla><s darkly, and /// part ; i Cor. 

but when both people, now purified, now raised again, now '^' 

crowned, now changed into an immortal form, and into 

everlasting incorruption, shall see God face to face, and 

Jacob shall be no more, but there shall be Israel only; then 

shall the Lord see him in the person of this holy Nathanael, 

and shall sav, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom z^JolmJ) 

. . 47. 

?io guile. When thou dost hear. Behold an Israelite indeed; 

let Israel come into thy mind; when Israel shall come into 

thy mind, let his dream come into thy mind, in which he 

saw a ladder from earth even to heaven, the Lord standing 

upon it, the Angels of God ascending and descending. This 

dream did Jacob see. But after this he was called Israel; 

that is, some little time after as he came from Mesopotamia, 

and on his journey. If then Jacob saw the ladder, and he 

is also called Israel; and this Nathanael is an Israelite indeed, 

in whom is no guile: therefore when he wondered because 

the Lord said to him, I saw thee under the fig-tree ; did He say v- 4^. 

to him, Tliou shall see greater things that/ these. And so v. 50. 

He announced to him Jacob's dream. To whom did He 

announce it? To him whom He called an Israelite, in wJioni 

was no guile. As if He had said, " His dream, by whose name 

I have called thee, shall be manifested in thee; make no haste 

to wonder, thou shall see greater tilings than these. l^Cv. 51. 

sJiall see heaven open, and the Angels of God ascending and 

descending unto the Son of Man.'''' See what Jacob saw ; 

see why Jacob anointed the stone with oil ; see why Jacob 

prophetically signified and prefigured the Anointed One. 

For that action was a prophecy. 

6. Now I know what you are waiting for; I understand vi. 

what you would hear from me. This too will I briefly 

declare, as the Lord enableth me ; ascending and descending 

unto the Son of Man. How — if they descend to Him, He is 

here; if they ascend to Him, He is above. But if they 

ascend to Him, and descend to Him, He is at once above 

M m 

520 Christy above in His Person, below in His Members. 

Skrm. and here. It cannot any way possibly be, that they should 

[i22.B.i ascend to Him, and descend to Him, unless He be both 
there whither they ascend, and here whither they descend — 
How do we prove that He is both there, and that He is 
here ? Let Paul, who was first Saul, answer us. He found 
it by experience, when he was first a persecutor, and after- 
wards became a preacher; first Jacob, afterwards Israel; 

Phil. 3, who was himself too of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of 
Benjamin. In him let us see Christ above, Christ below. 
First, the very Voice of the Lord from heaven shews this ; 

Acts 9, Satil, Saul, ivhy persecutest thou Me? What! had Paul 
ascended into heaven } Had Paul so much as cast a stone 
into heaven } He was persecuting the Christians, binding 
them, haling them to be put to death, searching them out in 
every place where they lay hid, when they were found on no 
consideration sparing them. To whom the liord Christ 
saith, Saul, Saul. Whence crieth He ? From heaven. 
Therefore He is above. Why persecutest thou Me? There- 
fore He is below. Thus have I explained all, though briefly, 
yet as well as I could to you. Beloved, I have ministered 
to you according to my duty, and now for your duty, do ye 
think upon the poor. Let us turn to the Lord, &c. 


On the words of tlie Gospel, John ii. " And both Jesus was called and 
His disciples to the marriage." 

i, L Ye know, brethi'en, for ye have learnt it as believing in 

Christ, and continually too do we by our ministry impress it 
upon you, that the humility of Christ is the medicine of man's 
swollen pride. For man would not have perished, had he 
Ecclus, "ot been swollen up through pride. For pride, as saith the 
10, 13. Scripture, ^s- the beginning of all sin. Against the beginning 
of sin, the beginning of righteousness was necessary. If 
then pride be the beginning of all sin, whereby should the 
swelling of pride be cured, had not God vouchsafed to 
humble Himself? Let man blush to be proud, seeing that 

Humility of our Lord. 521 

God hath humbled Himself. For when man is told to Serm^ 
humble himself, he disdains it; and when men are injured, [i23.B.i 
it is pride that makes them wish to be avenged. Forasmuch 
as they disdain to humble themselves, they wish to be 
avenged; as if another's punishment could be any profit to 
any man. One who has been hurt and suffered wrong 
wishes to be avenged ; he seeks his own remedy from 
another's punishment, and gains a great torment. The 
Lord Christ therefore vouchsafed to humble Himself in all 
things, shewing us the way; if we but think meet to walk 

2. Among His other acts, lo, the Virgin's Son comes to the ii- 
marriage; Who being with the Father instituted marriage. 
As the first woman, by whom came sin, was made of a man 
without a woman ; so the Man by Whom sin was done away, 
was made of a woman without a man. By the first we fell, 
by the other we rise. And what did He at this marriage? 
Of water He made wine. What greater sign of power.? He 
Who had power to do such things, vouchsafed to be in need. 
He who made of water wine, could also have of stones made 
bread. The power was the same; but then the devil tempted 
Him, therefore Christ did it not. For ye know that when 
the Lord Christ was tempted, the devil suggested this to 
Him. For He was an hungred, since this too He vouchsafed 
to be, since this too made part of His Humiliation. The 
Bread was hungry, as the Way fainted, as saving Health was 
wounded, as the Life died. When then He was an hungred as 
ye know, the tempter said to Him, //' Tliou he the Son o/mhU. 4, 
God, command that these stones he made hread. And He"^' 
made answer to the tempter, teaching thee to answer the 
tempter. For to this end does the general fight, that the 
soldiers may learn. What answer did He make.? Man dolh\.A. 
not live by hread alone, hut hy every uord of God. And 
He did not make bread of the stones, Who of course could 
as easily have done it, as He made of water wine. For it is 
an exercise of the same power to make bread of stone ; but 
He did it not, that He might despise the tempter's will. 
For no otherwise is the tempter overcome, but by being 
despised. And when He had overcome the devil's tempta- 
tion, Angels came and ministered to Him. He then Who v. ii. 

M m 2 

522 Ourf.ord toolcFlesh uhich Hehadiiot^nol lost trJiat He liad. 

Serm. had so {^rcat power, why did He not do the one, and do the 

[123.B.] other? Read, yea, recollect what thou hast just heard, when 
Tie did this, whi-n, that is. He made of the water wine; what 

John 2, (]j(j ^\^Q Evangelist add? And His disciples believed on Him. 
Would the devil on the other occasion have believed on 
Him ? 
jjj_ 3. He then Who could do so great things, was hungry, 
and atl)irst, was wearied, slept, was apprehended, beaten, 
crucified, slain. This is the way; walk by humility, 
that thou mayest come to eternity. Christ-God is the 
Country whither we go; Christ-Man is the Way whereby we 
go. To Him we go, by Him we go ; why fear we lest we go 
astray? He departed not from the Father; and came to us. 
He sucked the breasts, and He contained the world. He 
lay in the manger, and He fed the Angels. God and Man, 
the same God Who is Man, the same Man Who is God. 
But not God in that wherein He is Man. God, in that He is 
the Word ; Man, in that the Word was made Flesh ; by at 
once continuing to be God, and by assuming man's Flesh ; 
by adding what He was not, not losing what He was. Thei'e- 
fore henceforward, having now suffered in this His humilia- 
tion, dead, and buried. He has now risen again, and ascended 
into heaven, there He is, and sitteth at the right Hand of the 
Father: and here He is needy in His poor. Yesterday too 
I set this forth to your Affection by occasion of what He said 

John 1, to Nathanael, Thou shall see a greater thing than this. For 
■ ^'" / say unto you, Ye shall see Heaven open, and the Angels of 
God ascending and descending unto the Son of Man. We 
searched out what this meant, and spake at some length ; 
nuist we recapitulate the same to-day ? Let those who were 
present remember; yet I will briefly run over it, 
iv. 4. He would not say, ascending unto the Son of 3Ian, 
unless He were above ; He would not say, descending unto 
the Son of Man, unless He were also below. He is at once 
above, and below; above in Himself, below in His; above 
with the Father, below in us. Whence also was that Voice 

Acts 9, to Saul, Said, Saul, uhy persecutest thou Me ? He would 
not say, Satil, Said, unless that He w^as above. But Saul 
was not persecuting Him above. He then Who was above 
w(nild not have said, Why ^Jcrsecufest thou Me ? unless He 


were below also. Fear Christ above ; recognise Him below. Serm. 

Have Christ above bestowing His bounty, recognise Him [i'23.B.'] 

here in need. Here He is poor, there He is rich. That 

Christ is poor here, He tells us Himself for me, / was an ^^\^^^ 
^ ' 35. 6ie. 

hunyred, I was thirsty, I was naked, I was a stranger, I was 
in prison. And to some He said, Ye have ministered unto Me, 
and to some He said, Ye have not ministered unto 3Ie. Lo, 
we have proved Christ poor; that Christ is Rich, who knows 
not.? And even here it was a property oflhese riches to turn 
the water into wine. If he who has wine is rich, how rich is 
He Who maketh wine ? So then Christ is rich and poor ; 
as God, rich ; as Man, poor. Yea rich too now as Very Man 
He hath ascended into heaven, sitteth at the right Hand of 
the Father ; yet still He is poor and hungry here, thirsty, and 

5. What art thou .? Rich, or poor .? Many tell me, I am v. 
poor; and they tell the truth. I recognise some poor having 
something, and some having want. But some have much 
gold and silver. O that they would acknowledge themselves 
poor ! Poor they will acknowledge themselves, if they ac- 
knowledge the poor about them. For how is it ? How 
much soever thou hast, thou rich man whosoever thou art, 
thou art God's beggar. The hour of prayer comes, and there 
I prove thee. Thou makest thy petition. How art thou not 
poor, who makest thy petition? I say more. Thou makest 
petition for bread. Wilt thou not have to say, Give us ourM.3itt.Q, 
daily bread? Thou, who askest for daily bread, art thou^^' 
poor, or rich ? And yet Christ saith to thee, " Give Me of 
that which I have given thee ? For what didst thou bring 
here, when thou camest hither ? All things that I created, 
thyself created hast found here; nothing didst thou bring, 
nothing shalt thou take away. Why wilt thou not give Me 
of Mine Own .? For thou art full, and the poor man is empty. 
Look at your first origin ; naked were ye both born. Thou 
loo then wast born naked. Great store hast thou found here; 
didst thou bring.onght with thee? I ask for Mine Own; give, 
and I will repay. Thou hast found Me a bountiful giver, 
make Me at once thy debtor. It is not enough to say, 'Thou 
hast found Me a bountiful giver, make Me at once thy debtor;' 
let Me regard thee as lending upon interest. Thou givest 

524 Bodily cures Utile as not lasting ; typesof cures of the soul. 

Serm. me but little, I will repay more. Thou givcst me earthly 
[I23.r5.] tilings, 1 will repay heavenly. Thou givest me temporal 

things, I will restore eternal. I will restore thee to thyself, 

when I shall have restored thee unto Me." 


On the words of the Gospel, John v. " Now there is at Jerusalem by 
the sheep gate a pool," &c. 

i. 1. The lesson of the Gospel has just sounded in our ears, 

and made us intent to know what is the meaning of what has 
been read. This, I suppose, is looked for from me, this I 
promise, by the Lord's assistance, to explain as well as I 
can. For without doubt it is not without a meaning, that 
those miracles were done, and something they figured out to 
us bearing on eternal saving* health. For the health of the 
body which was restored to this man, of how long duration 
James was it ? FoT what is your life? saith Holy Scripture; it is a 
^' ^^' vapour that appear eth for a little time, and then vanisheth 
away. Therefore in that health was restored to this man's 
body for a time, some enduringness was restored to a vapour. 
Ps. 60, So then this is not to be valued much ; Vain is the 
health of man. And, brethren, recollect that Prophetical 
Is. 40,6. and Evangelical testimony, for it is read in the Gospel; All 
James flesh is grass, and all the glory of flesh as the flower of grass; 
1' ^^- the grass withereth, the flower fal let h away, the Word of the 
24. 25. ' Lord endurethfor ever. The Word of the Lord communi- 
cateth glory even to the grass, and no transitory glory; 
for even to flesh He giveth immortality. 
ii. 2. But first passeth away the tribulation of this life, out 

Ps. 60, of which He giveth us help, to Whom we have said. Give 
us helpjfrom tribulation. And all this life is indeed a tribu- 
lation to the understanding. For there are two tormentors 

* Throughout this chapter there is the double meaning in the original of sal us 
for health and salvation. 


of the soul, torturing it not at once, but alternating their Serm. 
tortures. These two tormentors' names are, Fear and Sorrow. [124.6.] 
When it is well with thee, thou art in fear; when it is 
ill, thou art in sorrow. This world's prosperity, whom doth 
it not deceive, its adversity not break ? In this grass, and in 
the days of grass, the surer way must be kept to, the Word 
of God. For when it had been said, All flesh is grass, and 
all the glory of flesh as the flower of grass, the grass wither - 
eth, the flower falleth away ; as though we should ask, 
*' What hope has grass ? what stability the flower of grass ?" 
it is said, but the Word of the Lord endurethfor ever. And 
whence, you will say, is that Word to me? The Word loas ^^^^^ l 
made Flesh, and dwelt among us. For the Word of the Lord 14. 
saith to thee, " Do not reject My promise, for I have not 
rejected thy grass." This then that the Word of the Lord 
hath granted to us, that we might hold to Him, that we might 
not pass away with the flower of grass ; this, I say, that He 
hath granted to us, that the Word should be made Flesh, 
taking Flesh, not changed into flesh, abiding, and assuming, 
abiding What He was, assuming what He was not ; this, 1 say, 
that He hath gi-anted to us, that pool also signifies. j h 5 

3. I am speaking briefly. That water was the Jewish iU. 
people; the five porches, were the Law. For Moses wrote 
five books. Therefore was the water enclosed by five 
porches, as that people was held in by the Law. The trou- 
bling of the water, is the Lord's Passion among that people. 
He who descended was healed, and only one; for this is 
unity. Whosoever are offended at the Passion of Christ are 
proud ; they will not descend, they are not healed. And, 
say they, " Am I to believe that God was Incarnate, that 
God was bom of a woman, that God was crucified, scourged, 
dead, wounded, buried ? " Be it far from me to believe this 
of God, it is unworthy of Him." Let the heart speak, not the 
neck. To the proud the humiliation of the Lord seems 
unworthy of Him, therefore is saving health from such far 
off". Lift not thyself up ; if thou wouldest be made whole, 
descend. Well might piety be alarmed, if Christ in the flesh 
subject to change were only spoken of. But now the truth 
sets forth to thee, Christ Unchangeable in His Nature as the 
Word. For, hi the beginning was the Word, and the Word-^^^"^ ^» 

526 Our Lord's JiumUkiliona louer not Him, raise vs. 

Serm. was with God; not a word to sound, and so pass away ; for 
[n^^.] ^^^ Word was God. So then thy God endureth unchange- 
able. O true piety; thy God endureth, fear not; He doth 
not perish, and through Him, thou too dost not perish. He 
endureth, He is born of a woman, but in the Flesh. The 
Word made even His Mother. He Who was before He was 
made, made her in whom He was to be made Himself. He 
was an infant, but in the Flesh. He sucked. He grew. He 
took nourishment, He ran through the several stages of life. 
He came to man's estate, but in the Flesh. He was wearied, 
and He slept, but in the Flesh. He suffered hunger and 
thirst, but in the Flesh, He was apprehended, bound, 
scourged, assailed with railings, crucified finally, and killed, 
but in the Flesh. Why art thou alarmed ? The Word of the 
Lord endureth /or ever. Whoso rejecteth this humiliation 
of God, doth not wish for healing from the deadly swelling 
of pride, 
iv. 4. So then by His Flesh did the Lord Jesus Christ grant 
hope to our flesh. For He took on Him what we knew well 
in this earth, what aboundeth here, to be born, and to die. 
To be born and to die, abounded here; to rise again and to 
live for ever, was not here. Poor earthly merchandize found 
He here. He brought here strange and heavenly. If thou 
art alarmed at death, love the resurrection. He hath given 
thee help out of tribulation; for vain thy health had ever 
been. Let us acknowledge therefore and love the saving 
health in this world strange, that is, health everlasting, and 
live we in this world as strangers. Let us think that we 
are but passing away, so shall we be sinning less. Let us rather 
give thanks to our Lord God, that He hath been pleased that 
the last day of this life should be both near and uncertain. 
From the earliest infancy even to decrepit old age, it is but 
a short span. If Adam had died to-day, what woidd it have 
profited him, that he had lived so long? What " long time" 
is there in that in which there is an end ? No one recalleth 
yesterday ; to-day is pressed on by to-morrow, that it may 
pass away. In this little span let us live well, that we may 
go whence we may not pass away. And now even as we are 
talking, we are indeed passing away. Our words run on, 
and the hours fly by; so docs our age, so our actions, so our 

Renewed reading of Scripture^ though known, renews us. 527 

honours, so our misery, so our happiness here below. All Serm. 
passeth away, but let us not be alarmed ; The Word of ^odVf^^l^-, 
endurethfor ever. Let us turn to the Lord, &c. 


Again in John v. On the five porches, where lay a great multitude of 
impotent folk, and of the pool of Siloa. 

1. Subjects strange neither to your ears nor hearts are 
now repeated: yet do they revive the affections of the 
hearer, and by repetition in some sort renew us: nor is it 
wearisome to hear what is well known already, for the words 
of the Lord are always sweet. The exposition of the sacred 
Scriptures is as the sacred Scriptures themselves: though 
they be well known, yet are they read to impress the remem- 
brance of them. And so the exposition of them, though it 
be well known, is nevertheless to be repeated, that they who 
have forgotten it may be reminded, or they who chanced not 
to hear it may hear; and that with those who do retain what 
they are used to hear, it may by the repetition be brought to 
pass that they shall not be able to forget it. For I remember 
that I have already spoken to you, Beloved, on this lesson 
of the Gospel. Yet to repeat the same explanation to you 
is not wearisome, even as it was not wearisome to repeat the 
same Lesson to you. The Apostle Paul saith in a certain 
Epistle, To lorile the same things to you, to me indeed is Phil. 3, 
not wearisome, hut fur you it is necessary. So too with ' °' 
myself to say the same things to you, to me is not weari- 
some, but for you it is safe. 

2. The five porches ill which the infirm folk lay signify 
the liaw, which was first given to the Jews and to the people 
of Israel by Moses the servant of God. For this Moses the 
minister of the Law wrote five books. In relation there- 
fore to the number of the books which he wrote, the five 
porches figured the Law. But because the Law was not 
given to heal the infirm, but to discover and to manifest them ; 

for so saith the Apostle, For if there had been a law given Gal. 3, 
which could have (jiven life, verily righteousness should have 

528 Law given, to discover, not to cure, sin. 

Serm. been by the Law ; But the Scripture hath concluded all under 
fi25.B.V^'w, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might be given 
to them that believe; therefore in those porclies the sick 
folk lay, but were not cured. For what saith he ? If there had 
been a law given which could have given life. Therefore 
those porches which figured the Law could not cure the sick. 
Some one will say to me, " Why then was it given ?" The 
Apostle Paul hath himself explained: Scrij)ttire, saith he, 
hath concluded all under sin, that the irromise by faith of 
Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. For these 
folk who were sick, thought themselves to be whole. They 
received the Law, which they were not able to fulfil; they 
learnt in what disease they were, and they implored the 
Physician's aid ; they wished to be cured because they came to 
know they were in distress, which they would not have known 
if they had not been unable to fulfil the Law which had been 
given. For man thought himself innocent, and from (his 
very pride of false innocence became more mad. To tame 
this pride then and to lay it bare, the Law was given ; not 
to deliver the sick, but to convince the proud. Attend then, 
Beloved; to this end was the Law given, to discover diseases, 
not to take them away. And so then those sick folk who 
might have been sick in their own houses with greater 
privacy, if those five porches had not existed, were in those 
porches set forth to the eyes of all men, but were not by the 
porches cured. The Law therefore was useful to discover 
sins, because that man being made more abundantly guilty 
by the transgression of the Law, might, having tamed his 
pride, implore the help of Him That pitieth. Attend to the 
Rom. . 5, Apostle; The Law entered that sin might abound; but where 
^^' sin abounded, grace hath much more abounded. What is, 
The Latv entered that sin might abound? As in another 
Rom. 4 place he saith, For where there is no law, there is no trans- 
^^' gression. Man may be called a sinner before the Law, a 
transgressor he cannot. But when he hath sinned, after 
that he hath received the Law, he is found not only a sinner, 
but a transgressor. Forasmuch then as to sin is added 
transgression, therefore hath sin abounded. And when sin 
abounds, human pride learns at length to submit itself, and 
to confess to God, and to say, " I am weak.'' To say too 

Grace only enables to ful/il the Law. 529 

those words of the Psalm which none but the humbled soul Serm, 

saith, / said, Lord, be merciful unto me; heal my soul, for /[125.B.1 

have sinned against Thee. Let the weak soul then say this Ps.4i,4. 
that is at least convinced by transgression, and not cured, 
but manifested by the Law. Hear too Paul himself shewing 
thee, both that the Law is good, and yet that nothing 
but the grace of Christ delivereth from sin. For the Law 
can prohibit and command; apply the medicine, that that 
which doth not allow a man to fulfil the Law, may be cured, 
it cannot, but grace only doeth that. For the Apostle saith. 
For L delight in the Law of God after the inner man. Rom. 7, 
That is, I see now that what the Law blames is evil, and 
what the Law commands is good. For L delight in the Law 
of God after the inner man. I see another law in my 
metnbers resisting the law of my mind, and bringing me into 
captivity in the law of sin. This derived from the punish- 
ment of sin, from the propagation of death, from the con- 
demnation of Adam, resists the law of the mind, a?td brings 
it into captivity in the law of sin ivhich is in the members. 
He was convinced; he received the Law, that he might be 
convinced : see now what profit it was to him that he was 
convinced. Hear the following words, Wretched man that^^^'^-lj 

24. 25. 

/ amy who shall deliver me from the body of this death? yal'^,' 
Tlie grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord. 

3. Give heed then. Those five porches were significative 
of the Law, bearing the sick, not healing them; discovering, 
not curing them. But who did cure the sick? He that de- 
scended into the pool. And when did the sick man descend 
into the pool? When the Angel gave the sign by the moving 
of the water. For thus was that pool sanctified, for that the 
Angel came down and moved the water. Men saw the water; 
and from the motion of the troubled water they understood 
the presence of the Angel. If any one then went down, he 
was cured. Why then was not that sick man cured ? Let us con- 
sider his own words; 1 have no man, he says, when the water ^^^^"^ 5, 
is moved, to put me into the pool, but while I am coming, 
another steppeth down. Couldest not thou then step down 
afterwards, if another step down before thee ? Here it is shewn 
us, that only one was cured at the moving of the water. 
Whosoever stepped down first, he alone was cured: but who- 

5^0 Jens troubl€d,believingnot,as.<teeingnot, iheLcrdto beGod. 

Serm. ever stepped down afterwards, at that moving of the water 
[S.Z] ^^^s "o^ cared, but waited till it was moved again. What 
1 sacra- then docs this mystery^ mean? For it is not without a 
mentura nieaniug. Attend, Beloved. Waters are put in the Apoca- 
lypse for a figure of peoples. For when in the Apocalypse 
Rev. 17, John saw many waters, he asked what it meant, and it was 
^^- told hiin that they were peoples. The water then of the 
pool signified the people of the Jews. For as that people was 
held in by the five books of Moses in the Law, so that water 
too was enclosed by five porches. When was the water 
troubled? When the people of the Jews was troubled. 
And when was the people of the Jews troubled, but when the 
Lord Jesus Christ came? The Lord's Passion, was the 
troubling of the water. For the Jews vvere tronbled when 
the Lord suffered. See, what was just now read had relation 
to this troubling. The Jeivs urished to kill Him, not only 
18. ' because He did these things on the sabbaths, but because 
He called Himself the Son of God, making Himself equal 
with God. For Christ called Himself the Son after one 
manner, in another was it said to men, / said, Ye are 
' Gods, and ge are all children of the Most High. For if He 
had made Himself the Son of God in such sort as any man 
whatever may be called the son of God; (for by the grace of 
God men are called sons of God;) the Jews would not have 
been enraged. But because they understand Him to call 
Himself the Son of God in another way, accordmg to that, 
In the beginning ivas the Word, and the Word was tvith 
1. ' God, and the Word was God; and according to what the 
Apostle saith, Who being in the form of God, thought it not 
G. ' robber g to be equal with God; they saw a man, and they 
were enraged, because He made Himself equal with God. 
But He well knew that He was equal, but Wherein they saw 
not. For that which they saw they wished to crucify ; by 
That Which tliey saw not, they were judged. Wliat did the 
Jews see ? What the Apostles also saw, when Philip said, 
Shew us the Father, and it suj/icefh us. But what did the 
8. 'Jews not see? Whatnot even the A|)ostles saw, wlicn the 
Lord answered, Have I been so long time ici/h gou, and 
get hare ye not known Me? He that zeeth Me, seeth the 
Father also. Because then the Jews were not able to 

God rested not, as wearied, hut foreskewing our rest. 531 

see This in Him, they held Him for a proud and ungodly Serm. 
man, making Himself equal with God. Here was a troubling, Mgs.e i 
the water was troubled, the Angel had come. For the Lord 
is called also the Angel of the Great Counsel, in that He is is. 9, 6. 
the messenger of the Father's will. For Angel in Greek is ^^P** 
in Latin " messenger." So you have the Lord saying that 
He announces to us the kingdom of Heaven. He then had 
come, the Angel of the Great Counsel, but the Lord of all the 
Angels, " Angel" on this account, because He took Flesh; 
the " Lord of Angels," in that by Hhn all things if6>r6' •^ohn ] , 
made, and loithout Him was nothing made. For if all 
things, Angels too. And therefore Himself was not made, 
because by Him all things were made. Now what was made, 
was not made without the operation of the Word. But the 
flesh which became the mother of Christ, could not have 
been born, if it had not been created by the AVord, Which 
was afterwards born of it. 

4. The Jews then were troubled. What is this } Why 
doeth He these things on the sabbath days? And especially 
at those words of the Lord, 3Iy Father worketh hitherto, Johns, 
and I nor k. Their carnal understanding of this, that God ^'^^ 
rested on the seventh day from all His works, " troubled Cren. 2, 
them." For this is written in Genesis, and most excellently 
written it is, and on the best reasons. But they thinking 
that God as it were rested from fatigue on the seventh day 
after all, and that He therefore blessed it, because on it He 
was refreshed from His weariness, did not in their foolish- 
ness understand, that He Who made all things by the Word, 
could not be wearied. Let them read, and tell me how 
could God be wearied. Who said. Let it he made, and it 
was made. To-day if a man could so do, as God did, how 
would he be wearied.'' He said, Let there he liqht, and the Gen. l, 

3 6 7 

light was made. A gam. Let there he a firmament, and it 
was made: if indeed He said, and it was not done, He 
was wearied. In another place briefly, He spake, and they ^^-32,9. 
were made; He commanded, and they were created. HeSS.E.V. 
then who worketh thus, how doth He labour.? But if He 
labour not, how doth He rest? But in that sabbath, in 
wdiich it is said that God rested from all His works, in the 
Rest of God our rest was signified; because the sabbath of 

532 God resleth as not creating anew ; uorketh as up/wldin<j. 

Serm. this world shall be, when the six ages shall have passed away. 

1 125 r. i '^^^ ^^^ days as it were of the world are passing away. One 
day hath passed away, from Adam unto Noe; another from 
the deluge unto Abraham ; the third from Abraham unto 
David; the fourth from David unto the carrying away into 
Babylon; the fifth fi'om the carrying away into Babylon unto 
the advent of our Lord Jesus Christ. Now the sixth day is 
in passing. We are in the sixth age, in the sixth day. Let 
us then be reformed after the image of God, because that on 

Gen. 1, the sixth day man was made after the image of God. What 
'' formation did then, let reformation do in us, and what 
creation did there, let creating-anew do in us. After this 
day in which we now are, after this age, the rest which is 
promised to the saints and prefigured in those days, shall 
come. Because in very truth too, after all things which He 
made in the world. He hath made nothing new in creation 
afterwards. The creatures themselves shall be transformed 
and changed. For since the creatures were fashioned, 
nothing more has been added. But nevertheless, if He 
Who made did not rule the world, what is made would fall 
to ruin: He cannot but administer that which He hath 
made. Because then nothing hath been added to the 
creation, He is said to have rested from all His works ; but 
because He doth not cease to govern what He made, rightly 
did the Lord say, Mi/ Father tcorkelh even hit/terta. At- 
tend, Beloved. He finished. He is said to have rested ; for 
He finished His works, and hath added no more. He 
governeth what He hath made ; therefore He doth not cease 
to work. But with the same facility that He made, with the 
same doth He govern. For do not suppose, brethren, that 
when He created He did not labour, and that He laboureth 
in that He governeth : as in a ship, they labour who build 
the ship, and they who manage it labour too; for they are 
men. For with the same facility wherewith lie spaJxc and 
they irere made, with the same facility and judgment doth 
He govern all things by the Word. 

5. Let us not, because human affairs seem to be in disorder, 
fancy that there is no governance of human affairs. For all 
men are ordered in their ])roper places; but to every man it 
seems as though they have no order. Do thou only look to 

God maketh good^ ordereth the evil. 533 

what thou vvouldest wish to be ; for as thou shalt wish to be, Seum. 
the Master' knoweth where to place thee. Look at a painter. ^['^^ ^ \ 
Before hira are placed various colours, and he knows where i artifex 
to set each colour on. Questionless the sinner hath chosen 
to be the black colour; does not then the Artist^ know where 2 artifex 
to place him ? How many parts does the painter finish ofFwith 
the colour of black? how many ornaments does he make of 
it ? With it he makes the hair, the beard, the eye-brows ; he 
makes the face of white only. Look then to that which thou 
wouldest wish to be ; take no care where He may order 
thee Who cannot err, He knoweth where to place thee. 
For so we see it happen by the common laws of the world. 
Some man, for instance, has chosen to be a house-breaker : 
the law of the judge knows that he has acted contraiy to the 
law: the law of the judge knows where to place him; and 
orders him most properly. He indeed has lived evilly ; but 
not evilly has the law ordered him. From a house-breaker 
he will be sentenced to the mines ; from the labour of such 
how great works are constructed ? That condemned man's 
punishment is the city's ornament. So then God knoweth 
where to place thee. Do not think that thou art disturbing 
the counsel of God, if thou art minded to be disorderly. 
Doth not He Who knew how to create, know how to order 
thee ? Good were it for thee to strive for this, to be set in a 
good place. What was said of Judas by the Apostle ? He ^^ts 1 
went unto his own place. By the operation of course of^^- 
Divine Providence, because by an evil will he chose to be 
evil, but God did not by ordering evil make it. But because 
that evil man himself chose to be a sinner, he did what he 
would, and suffered what he would not. In that he did what 
he would, his sin is discovered ; in that he suffered what he 
would not, the order of God is praised. 

6. Wherefore have I said all this ? That ye, brethren, 
may understand what was most excellently said by the Lord 
Jesus Christ, My Father worketh even hitherto. In that 
He doth not abandon the creature which He made. And 
He said. As He icorketh, so do I also work. In this He at 
once signified that He was equal with God. My Father, 
saith He, worketh hitherto, and I work. Their camal sense 
touching the rest^ was troubled. For they thought that thcs^.^bbato 

534 Healiiuf of one nick type of unity of the Church. 

Serm. Jjovd beinu; wearied rested, that lie should work no more. 
I X \ V ^ 

/j 25. R] They hear, Mij Father icorketh eren hitherto: they are 

John 5, troubled. And I nork: He hath made Himself equal with 
^^' God: they are troubled. But be not alarmed. The water 
is troubled, now the sick man is to be cured. What mcaneth 
this ? Therefore are they troubled, that the Lord may suffer. 
The Lord doth suffer, the precious Blood is shed, the sinner 
is redeemed, grace is given to the sinner, to him that saith, 
Rom. 7, Wretched man that I am, ivho shall deliver me Jrom the 
Vulg!' ^^'^I/ of this death? The grace of God, through Jesus Christ 
our Lord. But how is he cured? If he step down. For 
that pool was so made, that men should go down, and not 
come up to it. For there might be pools of such a kind, so 
constructed, that men must go up to them. But why was 
this made in such a way that men must go down to it ? Be- 
cause the Lord's Passion searches for the humble. Let the 
humble go down, let him not be proud, if he wishes to be 
cured. But why was it but one ? Because the Church is 
only One throughout the world, unity is saved. When then 
one is made whole, unity is signified. By one understand 
unity. Depart not then from unity, if thou wouldest not be 
• salute without a part in this saving ' cure. 

7. What then does it mean that the man was in infirmity 
thirty-eight years ? I know, brethren, that I have spoken of 
this already; but even those who read forget, how much more 
they who hear but seldom? Attend therefore for a little 
!?Serm.i. while, Beloved, In- the number forty, the accomplishment of 
(5i.Ben.)j.ig|iteousness is figured. The accomplishment of righteous- 
ness, in that we live here in labour, in toil, in self-restraint, 
in fastings, in watchings, in tribulations; this is the exercise of 
righteousness, to bear this present time, and to fast as it wei'e 
from this world ; not from the food of the body, which we do 
but seldom; but from the love of the world, which we ought 
to do always. He then fulfils the law who abstains from this 
w^orld. For he cannot love that which is eternal, unless he 
shall cease to love that which is temporal. Consider a man's 
love: think of it as, so to say, the hand of the soul. If it is 
holding any thing, it cannot hold any thing else. But that 
it may be able to hold what is given to it, it must leave go 
what it holds already. This I say, sec how expressly I say 


it ; " Whoso loveth the world cannot love God ; he hath his Serm. 


hand engaged." God saith to him, " Hold what I give." He n25.B.] 
will not leave go what ho was holding; he cannot receive ~" 
what is offered. Have I said a man should not possess ought ? 
If he is able, if perfection require this of him, let him not 
possess. If hindered by any necessity he is not able, let 
him possess, not be possessed; let him hold, not be held; let 
him be the lord of his possessions, not the slave; as saith 
the Apostle, Hoivever, brethren, the time is short ; it rcmaineth i Cor. 7, 
that both they that have wives, be as though they had not; ^^~'^^- 
and they who buy, as though they possessed not; and they who 
rejoice, as though they rejoiced not; and they who weep, as 
though they wept not; and they ivho use this world, as though 
they used'^ it not; for the fashion of this world passeth away, i Vul^,. 
/ woidd have you be without carefulness. What is, '• Do not 
love what thou dost possess in this world?" Let it not hold 
thine hand fast, by which God must be held. Let not thy 
love be engaged, whereby thou canst make Ihy way to God, 
and cleave to Him Who created thee. 

8. Thou wilt say and make answer to me, " Yea, God knows 
that I possess innocently what I have." Temptation proves 
thee. There is a troubling of thy possessions, and thou dost 
blaspheme. It is but lately we were in such a case. There 
is a troubling of thy possessions, and thou art not found 
what thou wast, and dost shew that there is one thing in 
thy mouth to-day, and another in thy mouth yesterday. 
And 1 would that thou wouldest only defend thine own 
even with vehemence-; and not try to usurp with audacity ^clamore 
another's; and what is worse, to escape reprehension, 
maintain that what is another's is thine own. But why need 
I say more } This I advise, this I say, brethren, and as a 
brother advise; God bids, and I admonish because I am 
admonished. He alarmeth me, Who doth not allow me 
to keep silence. He exacteth of me what He hath given. 
For He hath given it to be laid out, not to be kept up. And 
if I should keep it and hide it. He saith to me, Thou wicked^^^^^^j 

22. 23. 

a)id slothful servant, wherefore gavest thou not My money to 
the exchangers, that at My coming I might require it with 
usury? And what will it profit me that I have lost nothing 
of that which I received ? That is not enough for my Lord, 

N n 

536 Duties, vot readiness to hear, the test of our real selves. 

Serm. He is covetous; but God's coveteousness is our salvation. 
pgs^pilTe is covetous, Ho looketli for His own money, He ga- 

■ thereth in His Own image. Thou shouldest have given, saith 

He, the money to the exchangers, that at My coming I might 
require it with usury. And if by any chance forgetfulness 
should make me fail of admonishing you, the temptations and 
tribulations at least which we are suffering, would be an 
admonition to you. Ye have heard at least the word of God. 
Blessed be the Lord and His glory. For ye are here 
gathered together, and are hanging on the word of God's 
minister. Turn not your attention to our flesh, by which the 
word is given out to you; for hungry men I'egard not the 
meanness of the dish, but the preciousness of the food. God 
is proving you. Ye are gathered together, ye praise the 
word of God ; temptation will prove in what manner ye hear 
it: ye will have the active business of life whereby your true 
character will be shewn. For so he who to-day is shouting with 
railings, was yesterday a ready listener. Therefore I forewarn ; 
therefore I tell you, therefore I do not withhold it, my brethren, 
that the time of questioning will come. For the Lord maketh 
question of the righteous and of the ungodly. This you know, have sung, this have we sung together; The Lord maketh 
ii!e.v. question of the righteous and the ungodly. And what follows ? 
But he that loveth iniquity, hateth his own soid. And in 
"Wisd.i, another place, Into the thoughts of the ungodly there shallbe 
questioning made. God doth not make question of thee 
there, where I question thee, 1 question thy tongue, God 
questioneth thy thoughts. For He knoweth how thou dost hear, 
and He knoweth how to require, Who ordereth me to give. 
He hath wished me to be a dispenser, the requiring He 
hath reserved to Himself. To admonish, to teach, to rebuke, 
is ours ; but to save, and to crown, or to condemn, and to 
Matt. 5, cast into hell, is not ours ; But the Judge shall deliver to the 
^°' ^^' officer, and the officer to the prison. Verily I say unto 
thee, thou shalt not go out thence, till thou payest the last 

9. Let us then return to our subject. The perfection of 
righteousness is shewn by the number forty. What is it to 
fulfil the number forty? To restrain one's self from the love 
of this world. Restraint from temporal things, that they 

Resira bit from the world speeds to God, taught in all Scr. 537 

be not loved to our destruction, is, as it were, fasting from Sekm. 
this world. Therefore the Lord fasted forty days, and Moses, [i'25.b.] 
and Elias. He then Who gave His servants the power to 
fast forty days, could He not fast eighty or a hundred ? Why 
then did He not will to fast more than He had given His 
servants to do, but because in this number forty is the 
mystery of fasting, the restraint from this world ? What is 
this to say ? What the Apostle says ; T/ie icorld is crucified Gal. 6, 
to me, and I to the world. He then fulfils the number ' 
forty. And what doth the Lord shew ? That because Moses 
did this, this Elias, this Christ, that this both the Law, and 
the Prophets, and the Gospel, teach ; that thou mayest not 
think that there is one thing in the Law, another in the 
Prophets, another in the Gospel. All Scripture teacheth 
thee nothing else, but restraint from the love of the world, 
that thy love may speed on to God. As a figure that the 
Law teaches this, Moses fasted forty days. As a figure that 
the Prophets teach it, Elias fasted forty days. As a figure 
that the Gospel teaches it, the Lord fasted forty days. And 
therefore in the mount too these three appeared, the Lord 
in the middle, Moses and Elias at the sides. Wherefore ? 
Because the Gospel itself receives testimony from the Law Rom. 3 
and the Prophets. But why in the number forty is the per-^^- 
fection of righteousness ? In the Psalter it is said, O Qod, /ps. 144, 
will sing a new song unto Thee, upon a psaltery of ten^' 
strings will I sing praises unto Thee. Which signifies the 
ten precepts of the Law, which the Lord came not to destroy, 
but to fulfil. And the Law itself throughout the whole 
world, it is evident, hath four quarters, the East, and West, 
South, and North, as the Scripture saith. And hence the 
vessel which bare all the emblematic animals, which was 
exhibited to Peter, when he was told. Kill and eat, that it -^cta 10, 
might be shewn that the Gentiles should believe and enter 
into the body of the Church, just as what we eat entereth 
into our body, and which was let down from heaven by four 
corners, (these are the four quarters of the world,) shewed 
that the whole world should believe. Therefore in the number 
forty is restraint from the world. This is the fulfilling of the 
Law: now the fulfilling of the Law is charity. And there- 
fore before the Pasch we fast forty days. For this time before 

N n 2 

538 Love o/GodS^matt, the two commands leading to salvation. 

Serm. the Pasch is the sign of this our toilsome life, wherein, in 

ri25.B.l toils, and cares, and continence, we fulfil the Law. But 

afterwards we celehrate the Pasch, that is, the days of 

the Lord's resurrection signifying our own resurrection. 

Therefore fifty days are celebrated ; because the reward of 

the denarius is added to the forty, and it becomes fifty. Why 

Mat.2o, is the reward a denarius? Have ye not read, how that they 

^" who were hired into the vineyard, whether at the first, or sixth, 

or the last hour, could only receive the denarius ? When to 

our righteousness shall be added its reward, we shall be in 

the number fifty. Yea, and then shall we have none other 

occupation, save to praise God. And therefore throughout 

those days we say, " Halleluiah." For Halleluiah is the 

praise of God. In this frail estate of mortality, in this fortieth 

number here, as though before the resurrection, let us 

groan in prayers, that we may sing praises then. Now is the 

time of longing, then will be the time of embracing and 

enjoying. Let us not faint in the time of forty, that we may 

joy in the time of fifty. 

10. Now who is he that fulfilleth the Law, but he that hatb 
Rom. charity.'' Ask the Apostle, Charity is the fuljilling of the 
' ^^' Laiv. For all the Law isjuljilled in one word, in that which 
Gal. 5, is written. Thou shall love thy neighbour as thyself. But 
Mat.22 tbe commandment of charity is twofold ; Thoii shall love the 
37—40. l^ord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and 
with all thy mind. This is the great commandment. The other 
is like it ; Thou shall love thy neighbour as thyself. They 
are the words of the Lord in the Gospel : On these txvo 
commandments hang all the Law and the Prophets. Without 
this twofold love the Law cannot be fulfdled. As long as 
the Law is not fulfilled, there is infirmity. Therefore he 
had two short, who was infirm thirty and eight years. What 
means, " had two short?" He did not fulfil these two com- 
mandments. ^Vhat doth it profit that the rest is fulfilled, if 
those are not fulfilled? Hast thou thirty-eight? If thou 
have not those two, the rest will profit thee nothing. Thou 
hast two short, without which the rest avail not, if thou have 
not the two commandments which conduct unto salvation. 
1 Cor. Jf J speak with the tongues of men and angels, and have not 
^'^' ' ' charily, I am become as sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. 

Xi came iofuljil the Law, giving charity uliich fulfils it. 539 

And if I know all mysteries, and all knowledge, and if Serm. 
/ have all faith, so that I could remove mountains; «wc/[-^25.b.] 
have not charity, I am nothing. And if I distribute all my 
substance, and if I give my body to be burned, and have not 
charity, it projiteth me nothing. They are the Apostle's 
words. All those things therefore which he mentioned are 
as it were the thirty-eight years; but because charity was 
not there, there was infirmity. From that infirmity who 
then shall make whole, but He Who came to give charity? 
A new commandment I give unto you, that ye love one another. John 13, 
And because He came to give charity, and charity fulfilleth ' 
the Law, with good reason said He, / came not to destroy Matt. 5, 
the Law, but to fulfil. He cured the sick man, and told j^J^j^ g 
him to carry his couch, and go unto his house. And so too 8. 9. 
He said to the sick of the palsy whom He cured. What is it Mark 2, 
to carry our couch } The pleasure of our flesh. Where we lie 
in infirmity, is as it were our bed. But they who are cured 
master' and carry it, are not by this flesh mastered. So'conti- 
then, thou whole one, master the frailness of thy flesh, that in 
the sign of the forty days' fast from this world, thou mayest 
fulfil the number forty, for that He hath made that sick man 
whole, Who came not to destroy the Law, but to fulfil. 

11. Having heard this, direct your heart to Godward. Do 
not deceive yourselves. Ask yourselves then when it is well 
with you in the world; then ask yourselves, whether ye love 
the world, or whether ye love it not ; learn to let it go before 
ye are let go yourselves. What is to let it go .'' Not heartily 
to love it. Whilst there is yet something with thee which 
thou must one day lose, and either in life or death let it go, 
it cannot be with thee always; whilst I say it is yet with thee, 
loosen thy love; be prepared for the will of God, hang upon 
God. Hold thee fast to Him, Whom thou canst not lose 
against thy will, that if it chance thee to lose these temporal 
things, thou mayest say, The Lord gave, the Lord hath taken job 1, 
aivay, as it hath pleased the Lord, so is it done, blessed if>2i.Sept. 
the Name of the L^ord. But if it chance, and God so wills 
it, that the things thou hast be with thee even to the last: for 
thy detachment from this life thou receivest the denarius, the 
fifty, and the perfection of blessedness cometh to pass in 
thee, when thou shalt sing Halleluiah. Having these things 

540 God Alone sufficeth the soul. 

Serm. which I have now brought foi-ward in your uiemoiy, may 

,^^-^^;they avail to overthrowing your love ol" the world. Evil is 
its friendship, deceitful, it makes a man the enemy of God. 
Soon, in one single temptation, a man offendeth God, and 
becometh His enemy. Nay not then becometh His enemy; 
but is then discovered to have been His enemy. For when 
he was loving and praising Him, he was an enemy; but he 
neither knew it himself, nor did others. Temptation came, 
the pulse is touched, and the fever discovered. So then, 
brethren, the love of the world, and the friendship of the 
world, make men the enemies of God. And it does not make 
good what it promises, it is a liar, and deceiveth. Therefore 
men never cease hoping in this world, and who attains to all 
he hopes for ? But whereunto soever he attains, what he has 
attained to is forthwith disesteemed by him. Other things 
begin to be desired, other fond things are hoped for; and 
when they come, whatsoever it is that comes to thee, is 
disesteemed. Hold thee fast then to God, for He can never be 
of light esteem, for nothing is more beautiful than He. For 
for this cause are these things disesteemed, because they 
cannot stand, because they are not what He is. For nought, 
O soul, sufficeth thee, save He Who created thee. Whatsoever 
else thou apprehendest is wretched; for He Alone can suflSce 
thee Who made thee after His Own likeness. Thus it was 

John 14, expi'essly said. Lord, shew us the Father, and it sufficeth us. 

^' There only can there be security ; and whei'e security can 

be, there in a certain sort will be insatiable satiety. For 
thou wilt neither be so satiated, as to wish to depart ; nor 
will any thing be wanting, as though thou couldest suffer 


On the words of the Gospel, John v. " The Son can do nothing of Himself, 
but what He seeth the Father do." 

i- 1. The mysteries and secrets of the kingdom of God first 

seek for believing men, that they may make them under- 
standing. For faith is understanding's step ; and under- 
' meri- standing faith's attainment'. This the Prophet expressly 


Believe, to understand ; not, understand, to believe. 541 

says to all who prematurely and in undue order look for Serm. 
understanding, and neglect faith. For he says, Unless yer^^J^'-t 
believe, ye shall not understand. Faith itself then also hath is. 7 9. 
a certain light of its own in the Scriptures, in Prophecy, in^^P*' 
the Gospel, in the Lessons of the Apostles. For all these 
things which are read to us in this present time, are lights in 
a dark place, that we may be nourished up unto the day. 
The Apostle Peter says, We have a more sure icord 0/2 Pet. 
prophecy, whereunlo ye do well that ye take heed, as unto ' ' 
a light in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day 
star arise in your hearts. 

2. Ye see then, brethren, how exceedingly unregulated 
and disordered in their haste are they who like immature 
conceptions seek an untimely birth before the birth; who 
say to us, " Why dost thou bid me believe what I do not 
see ? Let me see something that I may believe. Thou 
biddest me believe whilst yet I see not ; 1 wish to see, and 
by seeing to believe, not by hearing." Let the Prophet 
speak. Unless ye believe, ye shall not understand. Thou 
wishest to ascend, and dost forget the steps. Surely, out of 
all order. O man, if I could shew thee already what thou 
mightest see, I should not exhort thee to believe. 

3. Faith* then, as it has been elsewhere defined, is the firm ii* 
support of those who hope", the evidefice of things which aregtantia 
not seen. If they are not seen, how are they evidenced to "»"«»■'•«- 
be? What! Whence are these things which thou seest, 
but from That Wliich thou seest not ? To be sure thou dost ^• 
see somewhat that thou mayest believe somewhat, and from 

that thou seest, mayest believe what thou seest not. Be not 
ungrateful to Him Who hath made thee see, whereby thou 
mayest be able to believe what as yet thou canst not see. 
God hath given thee eyes in the body, reason in the heart; 
arouse the reason of the heart, wake up the interior inhabitant 
of thine interior eyes, let it take to its windows, examine the 
creature of God. For there is one within who sees by the 
eyes. For when thy thoughts within thee are on any 
other subject, and the inhabitant within is turned away, the 
things which are before thine eyes thou seest not. For to no 

" sperantium, as St. Aug. uniformly pecc. mer. ii. 31. S. Ambr. and S. 
reads, Tract 79. and 96. in Joh. de Jer. have the pass. 

542 God's daily miracles as marvellous as the unusual. 

Serm. purpose are the windows open, wlien he who looks through 
[126.B 1 them is away. It is not then the eyes that see, but some 
' one sees by the eyes ; awake him, arouse hira. For this lialh 

not been denied thee; God hath made thee a rational animal, 
set thee over the cattle, formed thee after His Own image. 
Oughtest thou to use them as the cattle do ; only to see 
what to add to thy belly, not to thy soul? Stir up, I say, 
the eye of reason, i:se thine eyes as a man should, con- 
sider the heaven and earth, the ornaments of the heaven, 
the fruitfulness of the earth, the flight of the birds, the 
' vim swimming of th - fish, the virtue ' of the seeds, the order of the 
seasons; consider the works, and seek for the Author; take a 
view of what thou seest, and seek Him Whom thou seest not. 
Believe on Him Whom thou seest not, because of these things 
which thou seest. And lest thou think that it is with mine 
own words that 1 have exhorted thee ; hear the Apostle say- 
Rom. i,ing. For the invisible things of God from the creation of the 
world are clearli/ seen by those tilings irhich are made. 

4. These things thou disregardedst, nor didst look upon 

them as a man, but as an irrational animal. The Prophet 

Ps.32,9. cried out to thee, and cried in vain. Be ye not like to horse 

and mule, ivliich have no understanding. These things 

I say thou didst see, and disregard. God's daily miracles 

were disesteemed, not for their easiness, but their constant 

iii. repetition. For what is more difl!icult to understand than 

a man's birth, that one who was in existence should 

2.secretaby d3dng depart into darkness^, and that one who was not, 

3publicaby being born should come forth to light ^? What so 

marvellous, what so difficult to comprehend? But with God 

easy to be done. Marvel at these things, awake; at His 

unusual works, thou canst wonder, are they greater than 

Matt, those which thou art accustomed to see ? Men wondered 

' ■ that our Lord God .Tesus Christ filled so many thousands 

with five loaves ; and they do not wonder that through a 

John 2, ^Q'fv grains the whole earth is filled with crops. When the 

water was made wine, men saw it, and were amazed ; what 

else takes place with the rain along the root of the vine ? 

He did the one. He does the other; the one that thou may est 

be fed, the other that thou mayest wonder. But both are 

wonderful, for both are the works of God. Man sees unusual 

Xt as the Creator^ did works analogous to the Creation. 543 

things, and wonders; whence is the man himself who wonders? Serm. 
where was he? whence came he forth? whence the fashion [-]^'26.BJ 
of his body ? whence the distinction of his limbs ? whence 
that beautiful form ? from what beginnings ? what con- 
temptible beginnings? And he wonders at other things, 
when he the wonderer is himself a great wonder. Whence 
then are these things which thou seest but from Him Whom 
thou seest not ? But as I had begun to say, because these 
things were disesteemed by thee, He came Himself to do 
unusual things, that in these usual ones too thou mightest 
acknowledge thy Creator'. He came to Whom it is said, * Artifi- 

Reneta signs. To Whom it is said, Sliew forth Thy marvel- _ , 

■^ . Ecclus. 

tons mercies. For dispensing them He ever was ; He dis- 6, 36. 

pensed them, and no one marvelled. Therefore came He ag^'^ ''* 
Little one to the little, He came a Physician to the sick, 17.E.V. 
Who was able to come when He would, to return when He 
would, to do whatsoever He would, to judge as He would. 
And this. His will, is very righteousness; yea what He 
willeth, I say, is very righteousness. For that is not un- 
righteous which He willeth, nor can that be right which He 
willeth not. He came to raise the dead, men marvelling 
that He restored a man to the light who was in light already, 
He Who day b}'^ day bringeth forth to the light those who 
were not. 

5. These things He did, yet was He despised by the many, iv. 
who considered not so much what great things He did, as 
how small He was ; as though they said within themselves, 
" These are divine things, but He is a man." Two things 
then thou seest, divine works, and a man. If divine works 
can not be wrought but by God, take heed lest in This Man 
God lie concealed. Attend, I say, to what thou seest, 
believe what thou seest not. He hath not abandoned thee, 
Who hath called thee to believe; though He enjoin thee to 
believe that which thou canst not see : yet hath He not given 
thee up to see nothing whereby thou mayest be able to 
believe what thou dost not see. Is the creation itself a 
small sign, a small indication of the Creator? He also 
came. He did miracles. Thou couldest not see God, a man 
thou couldest; so God was made Man, that in One thou 
mightest have both what to see, and what to believe. In the Jolm i, 

544 Humanity ofXt heals us ; His Divinity^ Angels' Sf our bliss. 

Serm. beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and 
[120.75.] ^^^ Word was God. This thou hearest, and as yet seestnot. 
Lo, He comes, lo, He is bom, lo, He comes forth of a woman, 
Who made man and woman. He Who made man and 
woman was not made by man and woman. For thou 
wouldest per adventure have been likely to despise Him for 
being born, the manner of His birth canst thou not despise ; 
for He ever was before that He was born. Lo, I say, He 
took a Body, He was clothed in Flesh, He came forth from 
the womb. '' Dost thou now see ? seest thou now, I say ? T ask 
as to the Flesh, but I point out as to That Flesh; something 
thou seest, and something thou seest not, Lo,in this very Birth, 
there are at once two things, one which thou mayest see, and 
another thou mayest not see ; but so that by this which thou 
seest, thou mayest believe that which thou seest not. Thou 
hadst begun to despise, because thou seest Him Who was 
born ; believe what thou dost not see, that He vvas born 
of a virgin. " How trifling a person," says one, " is he 
who was born !" But how great is He Who was of a virgin 
born! And He Who was born of a virgin brought thee a 
temporal miracle ; He was not born of a father, of any man, 
I mean. His father, yet was He born of the flesh. But let it 
not seem impossible to thee, that He was born by His 
mother only, Who made man before father and mother. 
V. 6. He brought thee then a temporal miracle, that thou 

mayest seek and admire Him Who is Eternal. For He 

Ps.19,5. Who came forth as a Bridegroom out of His chamber, that 
is, out of the virgin's womb, where the holy nuptials were 
celebrated of the Word and the Flesh : He brought, I say, a 
temporal miracle; but He is Himself eternal. He is coeternal 

John ij with the Father, He it is. Who In the beginning was the 

1- Word, and the Word loas with God, and the Word ivas 

God. He did for thee whereby thou mightest be cured, 
that thou mightest be able to see what thou didst not 
see. What thou despisest in Christ, is not yet the contem- 
plation of him that is made whole, but the medicine of the 

h The punctuation of the reprint of noted, Locus mcndosus. The meaning 

the Ben. has been followed, " Jamne may be, " It is of His Birtli in the 

vides jam, inquam, videsi' carnem iu- Flesh that I enquire, but I point out 

terrogo, sed carnem ostendo." The the mode of that Birth, i. e. of a 

Ben. pointed, " vides carnem," but Virgin." 

Arian error, arose from pride. 545 

sick. Do not hasten to the vision of the whole. The Angels Sebm. 
see, the Angels rejoice, the Angels feed Thereon and live;r\26.R"] 
Whereon they feed faileth not, nor is their food rainished. 
In the thrones of glory, in the regions of the heavens, in the 
parts which are above the heavens, the Word is seen by the 
Angels, and is their Joy ; is their Food, and endureth. But 
in order that man might eat Angel's Bread, the Lord of 
Angels became Man. This is our Salvation, the Medicine 
of the infirm, the Food of the whole. 

7. And He spake to men, and said what ye have now 
heard, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He John 5, 
seeth the Father do. Is there now any one, think we, that ^^* 
understandeth this? Is there any one, think we, in whom 

the eye-salve of the flesh hath now its effect to the discerning in 
any fashion the brightness of the Divinity ? He hath spoken, 
let us speak too ; He, because the Word ; we, because of the 
Word. And why speak we, howsoever we do it, of the 
Word? Because we were made by the Word after the like- 
ness of the Word. As far then as we are capable of, as far 
as we can be partakers of that ineffableness, let us also 
speak, and let us not be contradicted. For our faith hath 
gone before, so that we may say, / believed, therefore AavePs. lie, 
I spoken, I sj^eak then that which I believe; whether or 
no I also see, or howsoever I see ; He seeth rather; ye 
cannot see it. But when I shall have spoken, whether he 
who sees what I speak of, believe that I see too what I have 
spoken of, or whether he believe it not, what is that to me ? 
Let him only really' see, and let him believe what he will of '«inceri- 
me. '^' 

8. The Son can do nothiny of Himself, but what He seeth vi. 
the Father do. Here rises up an error of the Arians ; but it 
rises up that it may fall ; because it is not humbled, that it 
may rise. What is it which hath set thee^ off? Thou^movit 
wouldest say that the Son is less than the Father. For 
thou hast heard, The Son can do nothing of Himself but 
what He seeth the Father do. From this thou wouldest 
have the Son called less ; it is this I know, I know it is this 
hath set thee off"; believe that He is not less, thou canst not 

as yet see it, believe, this is what I was saying a little while 
ago. " But how," you will say, " am I to beheve against His 
own words ?" He saith Himself, The Son can do nothing of 

546 ' JV/iat He sect h tJw Fat /ter do,' implies not separate works 

Serm. Himself, hut what He seeth the Father do. Attend too to 
n26 b"] ^^^^ which follows; For what tldnxjs soever the Father doeth, 
the same also doeth the Son likewise ; lie did not say, " such 
things," Beloved, consider a while, that yc cause not confu- 
> strepi- sion ' to yourselves. There is need of a tranquil heart, a 
^""^ godly and devout faith, a religious earnest attention; attend, 
not to me the poor vessel, but to Hiui Who putteth the 
bread in the vessel. Attend then a while. For in all that I 
have said above in exhorting you to faith, that the mind 
imbued with faith may be capable of understanding, all that 
has been said has had a pleasing, glad, and easy sound, has 
cheered your minds, ye have followed it, ye have understood 
what I said. But what I am now about to say I hope there 
are some who will understand ; yet I fear that all will not 
understand. And seeing that God hath by the lesson of 
the Gospel proposed to us a subject to speak upon, and we 
cannot avoid that which the Master hath proposed ; I fear 
lest haply they who will not understand, who perhaps will be 
the greater number, should think that 1 have spoken to 
them in vain ; but yet because of those who will understand, 
I do not speak in vain. Let him who understandeth rejoice, 
let him who doth not understand bear it patiently ; what he 
doth not understand, let hhn bear, and that he may under- 
stand, let him bear delay. 

9. He doth not say then, " What things soever the Father 
doeth, such doeth the Son:" as if the Father doeth some 
things, and the Son others. For it did seem as though He 
had meant this when He said above. The Sou doeth nothing 
of Himself, bid xohat He seeth the Father do. Mark; He 
did not there either say, " But what He heareth the Father 
enjoin ;" but, What He seeth the Father do. Jf then we con- 
sult the carnal understanding, or sense rather. He hath set 
2artifi- before Him as it were two workmen-, the Father and the 
Son, the Father working without seeing any, the Son work- 
ing from seeing the P^ather. This is still a carnal view. 
Nevertheless, in order to understand diose things which are 
higher, let us not decline these lower and mean things, 
vii. First, let us set something before our eyes in this way ; let 
us suppose there are two workmen, father and son. The 
father has made a chest, which the son could not make, 
unless he saw the father making it: he keeps his mind on 


of the Father S^ the Son, since the Father did all by the Son. 547 

the chest which the father has made, and makes anothei* Serm. 
chest like it, not the same. I put off for a while the words r|26.B.l 
which follow, and now I ask the Arian ; " Dost thou under- 
stand it in the sense of this supposition ? Hath the Father 
done something, which when the Son saw Him do, He too 
hath done something like it ? For do the words by which 
thou art perplexed seem to have this meaning ?" Now He 
doth not say, " The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what 
He heareth the Father enjoin." But He saith, The Son can 
do nothing of Himself, hut what He seeth the Father do. 
See, if thou understand it thus ; the Father hath done some- 
thing, and the Son attendeth that He may see what He Him- 
self too hath to do ; and that, some other thing like that 
which the Father had done. This which the Father hath 
done, by Whom hath He done it? If not by the Son, if not 
by the Word, thou hast incurred the charge of blasphemy 
against the Gospel. For all things were made by Him. So John i, 
then what the Father had done. He had done by the Word; ' 
if by the Word He had done it. He had done it by the 
Son. Who then is that other who attends, that he may do 
some other thing which he seeth the Father do ? Ye have 
not been wont to say that the Father hath two sons : there 
is One, One Only-Begotten of Him. But through His 
mercy, Alone as regards His Divinity and not Alone as 
regards the inheritance. The Father hath made coheirs 
with His Only Son ; not begotten them like Flim of His 
Own Substance, but adopted them by Him out of His Own 
family. For loe have been called^ as Holy Scripture testi- Ephes. 
fieth, into the adoption of sons. ^' ^• 

10. What then sayest thou? It is the Only Son Himself That viii. 
speaketh; the Only-Begotten Son speaketh in the Gospel: 
the Word Himself hath given us the words, we have heard 
Himself saying, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but 
tvhat He seeth the Father do. Now then the Father doeth 
that the Son may see what to do; and nevertheless the Father 
doeth nothing but by the Son. Assuredly thou art confused, 
thou heretic, assuredly thou art confused; but thy confusion 
is as iVom taking hellebore, that thou mayest be cured. 
Even now thou canst not find thine own self, thou dost even 
thyself condemn thine own judgment and thy carnal view, 
I think. Put behind thee the eyes of the flesh, raise up 

548 The Operation of the Holy Trinity One; 

Sbrm. what eyes thou hast in thine heart, behokl things divine. 

[126.B.1 They are men's words it is tnie thou hcarcst, and by a man, 

"by the Evangelist, by the Gospel thou hearest men's words, as 

a man ; but it is of the Word of God thou hearest, that thou 

mayest hear what is human, come to know what is Divine. 

The Master hath given trouble, that He might instruct; hath 

• quEE- sown a difficulty', that He might excite an earnest attention. 

stionem yy^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ nothiny of Himself, hit what He seeth the 

2 conse- Father do. It might follow^ that He should say, " For what 
quens things soever the Father doeth, the like doeth the Son." This 

He doth not say ; but, WJiat tliinys soever the Father doeth, the 
same doeth the So}i likewise. The Father doeth not some 
things, the Son other things; because all things that the Father 
Johnii. doeth. He doeth by the Son. The Son raised Lazarus; did 
John 9. not the Father raise him? The Son gave sight to the blind 
man; did not the Father give him sight? The Father by 
the Son in the Holy Ghost. It is the Trinity; but the Opera- 
tion of the Trinity is One, the Majesty One, the Eternity One, 
the Coeternity One, and the Works the Same. The Father 
doth not create some men, the Son others, the Holy Ghost 
others; the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost create 
one and the same man; and the Father and the Son and the 
Holy Ghost, One God, createth him. 
ix. 11. You observe a Plurality of Persons, but acknowledge 
the Unity of the Divinity. For because of the Plurality of 
Persons it was said, Let Us make man after Our imaye and 
likeness. He did not say, " I will make man, and do Thou 
attend when I am making him, that Thou too mayest be able 
Gen. 1, to make another." Let Us make. He saith; I hear the Plurality; 

26 . . . 

after Our imaye; again I hear the Plurality. Where then is 
^. 27. the Singularity of the Divinity .'' Read what follows, And God 
made man. It is said. Let Us make man ; and it is not said, 
" The Gods made man." The Unity is understood in that 
it was said, God made man. 

3 inten- 12. Where then is that carnal view'? Be it confounded, 

hidden, brought to nought; let the Word of God speak to 
us. Even now as godly men, as believing already, as already 
< meri to imbued with faith, and having gotten some attainment^ of 
understanding, turn we to the Word Himself, to the Fountain 
of light, and let us say together, " O Lord, the Father doeth 
ever the same things as Thou; for that whatsoever the Father 

" Seeing^'' spoken of our Lord's Divine Nature. 549 

doeth, by Thee He doeth it. We have heard that Thou art SEitw. 
the Word in the beginning; we have not seen, but believed, no? ^i 
There too have we heard what follows, that all tilings were john i 
made hy Thee. All things then that the Father doeth, He ^' „ 
doeth by Thee. Therefore Thou doest the same things as 
the Father. Why then didst Thou wish to say, The Son 
can do nothing of Himself ? For I see a certain equality in 
Thee with the Father, in that I hear, What things soever 
the Father doeth, the same doeth the Son ; I recognise an 
equality, hereby I understand, and comprehend as far as I 
am able, / and My Father are One. What meaneth it, that John lo, 
Thou canst do nothing, but what Thou seest the Father do ? ^' 
What meaneth this ?" 

13. Peradventure He would say to me, yea say to us all; 
" Now as to this that I have said, The Son can do nothing, 
but what He seeth the Father do; My " Seeing" how dost thou 
understand.? My " Seeing," what is it? Put aside for a while 
the form of the servant which He took for thy sake. For in 
that servant's form our Lord had eyes and ears in the Flesh, 
and that human form was the same figure of a Body, such as 
we bear, the same outlines of members. That Flesh had 
come from Adam : but He was not as Adam. So then the 
Lord walking whether on the earth or in the sea, as it pleased 
Him, as He would, for whatever He would. He could; looked 
at what He would; He fixed his eyes. He saw; He turned 
away His eyes, and did not see; who followed was behind 
Him, whoso could be seen, before Him; with the eyes of 
His Body, he saw only what was before Him. But from His 
Divinity nothing was hid. Put aside, put aside, I say, for a 
while the form of the servant, look at the Form of God in 
Which He was before the world was made ; in Which He 
was equal to the Father; hereby receive and understand 
what He saith to thee. Who Being in the form of God, phii. 2 
thought it not robbery to be equal with God. There see*^- 
Him if thou canst, that thou mayest be able to see what His 

" Seeing" is. hi the beginning was the Word. How doth the 
Word see? Hath the Word eyes, or are our eyes found in 
Him, the eyes not of the flesh, but the eyes of godly hearts ? 
For, Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see God. Matt. 5, 

14. Christ thou seest Man and God; He doth manifest^' 

550 " Seeing'''' as spoken of God inseparable from Himself. 

Serm. to thee the Man, God He reserveth for thee. Now see how 
[126.b!] H<-^ reserveth God for thee, Who doth manifest Himself to 
johnU, thee as Man. W/toso loveth Me, saith He, keepeth My com- 
^^* mandments; wkoso loveth Me shall be loved of My Father, 
and I nill love him. And as if it were asked, " What wilt 
Thou give to him whom Thou lovest ?" And I will manifest 
Myself, saith He, to him. What meaneth this, brethren ? He 
Whom they saw already, promised that He would manifest 
Himself to them. To whom? Those by whom He was seen, 
or those also by whom He was not seen ? Thus speaking to 
a certain Apostle, who asked to see the Father, that it might 
JohnU, suffice him, and said, Sliew us the Father, and it sufficetJt 
^' us — Then He standing before this servant's eyes, in the form 

' deifi- of a servant, reserving for his eyes when " deified " the Form of 
God, saith to him, Have I been so longtime uith you, and have 
ye not known Me? He that seeth Me, seeth the Father also. 
Thou askest to see the Father ; see Me, thou seest Me, and 
dost not see Me. Thou seest what for thee I have assumed, 
thou dost not see What I have reserved for thee. Give ear 
to My commandments, purify thine eyes. For tchoso loveth 
Me, keepeth My com7nandments, and I will love him. To him 
as keeping My commandments, and by My commandments 
made whole, will I manifest Myself. 
xi. 15. If then, brethren, we are not able to see what the 
" Seeing" of the Word is, whither are we going ? what Vision 
it may be with too great haste are we requiring ? why are 
we wishing to have shewn us what we are not able to see? 
These things accordingly are spoken of which we desire to 
see, not as what we are able already ro comprehend. For if 
thou seest the ''Seeing" of the Word, peradventurein that thou 
seest the " Seeing" of the Word, thou wilt see the] Word Himself; 
that the Word may not be one thing, the/' Seeing" of the Word 
anothei", lest thex'e be Therein any thing joined, and coupled, 
and double, and compacted. For It is something Simple, of 
a Simplicity ineffable. Not as with a man, the man is one 
thing, the man's seeing another. For___sometimes a man's 

"Vid. S.Athanasius, Treatise against p. 236. and note c. Vide St. August. 
Arians, Oxford Edit. Nicene Def. eh. Ps. 49. §. 2. 
iii. 12. §. 14. and Disc. 1. ch. xi. §. 39. 

Truth as to the Holy Trinity cleared to meditating love. 551 

seeing is extinguished, and the man remains. This it is of Serm. 
which I said that I was about to say something which allnf^g'-, 
would not be able to understand ; the Lord even grant that 
some may have understood. My brethren, to this end doth 
He exhort us, that we may see, that the " Seeing" of the 
Word is beyond our powers; for they are small; be they 
nourished, perfected. Whereby? By the commandments. 
What commandments? He that loveth Me, keepeth iliyJohni4, 
commandments. What commandments? For already do^^' 
we wish to increase, to be strengthened, perfected, that we 
may^ see the " Seeing" of the Word. Tell us. Lord, now what 
commandments ? A new commandment I give unto you, johnis 
that ye love one another. This charity then, brethren, let us^'** 
draw from the plentifulness of the Fountain, let us receive it ; 
be nourished by it. Receive thou' that whereby thou mayest 'capeper 
be able to receive. Let charity give thee birth, let charity g^pax 
nourish thee ; charity bring thee to perfection, charity 
strengthen thee ; that thou mayest see this " Seeing" of the 
Word, that the Word is not one thing and His " Seeing" 
another, but that the " Seeing" of the Word is the Very Word 
Himself; and so perhaps thou wilt soon understand that 
that which is said, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but 
what He seeth the Father do, is as if He had said, " The 
Son would not be, if He had not been born of the Father." 
Let this suffice, brethren; I know that I have said that which 
perhaps, if meditated upon, may develope itself to many, rp^.^^^.^ 
which oftentimes when expressed in words may chance to 18 and 

u u JO 20 in 

be obscured-. joh. 


On the words of the Gospel, John v. " Verily verily I say unto you, The 
hour shall come, and now is, when the dead shall hear the voice of the 
Son of God, and they that shall hear, shall live, &c." and on the words 
of the Apostle, " Eye hath not seen, &c." 1 Cor. ii. 

L Our hope, brethren, is not of this present time, nor of 
this world, nor in that happiness whereby men are blinded 

o o 

552 Xtians believe icnseeivf/, that they may see lohat they believe. 

8erm. that forget God. This ought \vc above all things to know, 

\\-2l.V,\ ^"^ "^ ^ Christian heart hold fast, that we were not made 
Christians for the good things of the present time, but for 
something else which God at oi;ice promiselh, and man doth 

iCor.2, uQt yet comprehend. For of this good it is said, That eye 
hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered into the 
heart of man, what things Ood hath prepared for them that 
love Him. Because then this good, so great, so excellent, 
so ineffable, fell not in with man's understanding, it required 
God's promise. For what hath been promised him, man 
blind of heart doth not now comprehend; nor can it be 
shewn to him at present, what he will one day be to whom 
the promise is given. For so an infant child, if he could 
understand the words of one speaking, when himself could 
neither speak, nor walk, nor do any thing, but feeble as we 

' jacen- gee he is, unable to stand*, requiring the assistance of others, 
were able only to understand him who should speak to him 
and tell him, " Lo, as thou seest me walking, working, speak- 
ing, after a few years thou shalt be as I am ;" as he considered 
himself and the other, though he would see what was 
promised; yet considering his own feebleness, would not 
believe, and yet he would see what was promised. But with 
us infants, as it were, lying in this flesh and feebleness, that 
which is promised is at once great and is not seen ; and so 
faith is aroused whereby we believe that we do not see, that 

2 merea- we may attain^ to see what we believe. Whosoever derideth 

™"'^ this faith, so as to think that he is not to believe in that he 
doth not see ; when that shall come which he believed not, 
is put to shame: being confounded is separated, being 
separated, is condemned. But whoso shall have believed, is 
put aside at the right hand, and shall stand with great con- 
fidence and joy among those to whom it shall be said, 

Mat.25, Come, blessed of My Father, receive the kingdom which hath 
been prepared for you from the beginning of the ivorld. But 
the Lord made an end when He spake these words, thus, 

^- 46. These shall go into everlasting burning, but the righteous into 
life eternal. This is the life eternal which is promised us. 

2. Because men love to live on this earth, life is promised 
them ; and because they exceedingly fear to die, eternal life 
is promised them. What dost thou love .? To live. This 

Earnestness to live, an instinct to avoid eternal death. 558 

shalt thou have. What dost thou fear ? To die. Thou shalt ^erm. 
not suffer it. This seemed to be enough for human infirmity, [127.3.] 
that it should be said, " Thou shalt have eternal life." This 
the mind of man can comprehend, by its present condition 
it can in some sort comprehend what is to be. But by the 
imperfection of its present condition how far can it compre- 
hend it ? Because he lives, and does not wish to die ; he loves 
eternal life, he wishes to live always, never to die. But they 
who shall be tormented in punishments, have even a wish to 
die, and cannot. It is no great thing then to live long, or to 
live for ever ; but to live blessedly is a great thing. Let us ii. 
love eternal life, and hereby may we know how greatly we 
ought to labour for eternal life, when we see men who love the 
present life, which lasts but for a time and must be brought 
to an end, labour so for it, that when the fear of death comes, 
they will do w'hatever they can, not to put away, but to put 
off death. How does a man labour, when death threatens, 
by flight, by concealment, by giving all he has, and redeem- 
ing himself, by toil, by endurance of torments and uneasi- 
nesses, by calling in physicians, and whatever else a man 
can do.^ See, how that after exhausting all his labour and 
his means, he is but able to contrive to live a little longer ; 
to live always, he is not able. If then men strive with so 
great labour, with so great efforts, so great a cost, such 
earnestness, such w^atchfulness, such carefulness, that they 
may live a little longer ; how should they strive that they 
may live for ever ? And if they are called wise, who by all 
means strive to put off death, and live a few days, that they 
lose not a few days: how foolish are they who so live as to 
lose the day eternal ! 

3. This then only can be promised us, that this gift of God 
may in whatever measure be sweet to us, from this which we 
have at present; seeing that it is of His gift we have it, that 
we live, that we are in health. When then eternal life is 
promised, let us set before our eyes a life of such a kind, as 
to remove from it every thing unpleasant which we suffer 
here. For it is easier for us to find what is not there, than 
what is there. Lo, here we live; we shall live there also. 
Here we are in health when we are not sick, and there is no 
pain in the body ; there we shall be in health also. And 

o o 2 

654 The price of eternal life, thyself. 

Sekm. when it is well with us in this life, wc suflTcv no scourge ; we 
r'j27j}|] shall suffer none there also. Suppose then a man here below 
living, in sound health, sufieriug no scourge; if any one were 
to grant him that he should be for ever so, and that this good 
estate should never cease, how greatly would he rejoice? how 
greatly be transported ? how would he not contain himself in joy 
without pain, without torment, without end of life? If God 
had promised us this only, which I have mentioned, which 
I have just now in such words as I was able, described and 
set forth; at what a price ought it to be purchased if it 
were to be sold, how great a sum ought to be given to buy it ? 
iii. Would all that thou hadst suffice, even though thou shouldest 
possess the whole world? And yet it is to be sold; buy it if 
thou wilt. And be not much disquieted for a thing so great, 
because of the largeness of the price. Its price is no more 
than what thou hast. Now to procure any great and precious 
thing, thou wouldest get ready gold, or silver, or money, or 
any increase of cattle, or fruits, which might be produced in 
thy possessions, to buy this I know not what great and 
excellent thing, whereby to live in this earth happily. Buy 
this too, if thou wilt. Do not look for what thou hast, but 
for what thou art. The price of this thing is thyself. Its 
price is what thou art thyself Give thine own self, and thou 
shalt have it. Why art thou troubled? why disquieted? 
What? Art thou going to seek for thine own self, or to buy 
thyself? Lo, give thine own self as thou art, such as thou 
art to that thing, and thou shalt have it. But you will say, 
" I am wicked, and perhaps it will not accept me." By 
giving thyself to it, thou wilt be good. The giving thyself 
to this faith and promise, this is to be good. And when thou 
shalt be good, thou wilt be the price of this thing; and shalt 
have, not only what I have mentioned, health, safety, life, 
and life without end ; thou shalt not only have this, I will 
take away other things yet. There shall there be no weariness, 
and sleeping; there shall there be no hunger, and thirst; 
there shall there be no growing, and growing old; because 
there shall be no birth either where the numbers remain 
entire. The number that is there is entire ; nor is there any 
need for it to be increased, seeing there is no chance of 
diminution there. Lo, how many things have I taken away, 

Can toe believe, what toe can in no loay express""^ 555 

and I have not yet said what shall be there. Lo, already Serm. 
there is life, and safety; no scourge, no hunger, no thirst, no ^^7^31 
failing, none of these; and yet I have not said, tvhat eye 
hath not seen, nor ear heard, nor hath ascended into the 
heart of man. For if I have said it, it is false that is written, 
Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it ascended 
into the heart of man. For whence should it ascend into 
my heart, that I should say that which hath not ascended 
into the heart of man? It is believed, and not seen; not 
only not seen, but not even expressed. How then is it 
believed, if it is not expressed ? Who believes what he doth 
not hear? But if he hear it that he may believe, it is 
expressed; if expressed, it is thought of; if thought of and 
expressed, then it entereth into the ears of men. And 
because it would not be expressed if it were not thought of, 
it hath ascended also into the heart of man. Lo, already 
the mere proposing of so great a thing disturbs us, that we 
cannot put it forth clearly in words. Who then can explain 
the thing itself? 

4. Let us then attend to the Gospel; just now the Lord iv. 
was speaking, and let us do what He said. He that believeth John 5, 
in Me, saith He, passeth from death unto life, and cometh 
not into judgment. Verily I say unio you, that the hour v. 25. 
shall come, and now is, when the dead shall hear the Voice 
of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live. For as v. 26. 
the Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the 
Son to have life in Himself. By begetting Him He gave 
it; in that He begat, He gave it. For the Son is of the 
Father, not the Father of the Son ; but the Father is the 
Father of the Son, and the Son is the Son of the Father. 
1 say the Son is begotten of the Father, not the Father 
of the Son; and the Son was always, always therefore 
begotten. Who can comprehend this " always begotten ?'''' 
For when any man hears of one begotten, it occurs to him; 
" Therefore there was a time, when he who was begotten was 
not." What say we then? Not so; there was no time before 
the Son, for that all things were made by Him. If all John 1, 
things were made by Him, times also were made by Him ; ' 
how could times be before the Son, by Whom times were 
made? Take away then all timcp, the Son was with the 

556 Faith and worship strenythen to understand v)hat we believe. 

Srrm. Father always. If the Son were with the Father always, 
[127.0!] and yet the Son, He was begotten always; if begotten 
always, He Who was begotten was always with Him That 
begat Him. 

5. You will say, " This have 1 never seen, one begetting, 
and always with him whom he begat; but he that begat 
came first, and he that was begotten followed in time." 
You say well, " I have never seen this;" for this appertains 
to that which eye hath not seen. Do you ask how it may be 
expressed? It cannot be expressed; For the ear hath not 
heard, neither hath it ascended unto the heart of man. Be 
it believed and adored, when we believe, we adore; when we 
adore, we gi*ow ; when we grow, we comprehend. For as yet 
whilst we are in this flesh, as long as we are absent from the 
Lord, we are, with respect to the Holy Angels who see these 
things, infants to be suckled by faith, hereafter to be fed 
2 Cor. by sight. For so saith the Apostle, As long as we are in the 
6, 6. 7. })ody ive are absent from the Lord. For we walk by faith, 
not by sight. We shall some day come to sight, which is 
1 John thus promised us by John in his Epistle ; Dearly beloved, 
' ■ we are the sons of God, and it hath not yet appeared what 
we shall be. We are the sons of God now by grace, by faith, 
by the Sacrament, by the Blood of Christ, by the redemption 
of the Saviour; We are the sons of God, and it hath not yet 
appeared what we shall be. We know that when He shall 
appear, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He 
y^ 6. Lo,untothecomprehendingofwhatarewebeingnourished 
up ; lo, unto the embracing and the feeding on what are we 
being nourished up ; yet so as that that which is fed on is not 
diminished, and he that feedeth is supported. For now food 
supports us by eating it; but the food which is eaten, is 
diminished ; but when we shall begin to feed on Righteous- 
ness, to feed on Wisdom, to feed on that Food Immortal, 
we are at once supported, and That Food is not diminished. 
For if the eye knows how to feed on light, and yet doth not 
diminish the light ; for the light will be no less because it is 
seen by more ; it feeds the eyes of more, and yet is as great 
as it was before : both they are fed, and it is not diminished; 
if God hath granted this to the light which He hath made 

Faith and obedience the resurrection of the sou\. bbl 

for the eyes of the flesh, what is He Himself, the Light for Serm. 
the eyes of the heart? If then any choice' food weren.27.B.] 
praised to thee, on which thou wast to dine, thou wouklest i mag- 
prepare the stomach; God is praised to thee, prepare the°"^ 

7. Behold what thy Lord saith to thee; The hour shall 
come, saith He, and now is. The hour shall come, yea, that 
very hour, now is, when — what? when the dead shall hear the 
Voice of the Son of God, and they that shall hear shall live. 
They then that shall not hear, shall not live. What is, They 
that shall hear? They that shall obey. What is, They that 
shall hear? They that shall believe and obey, they shall 
live. So then before they believed and obeyed, they lay 
dead ; they walked, and were dead. What availed it to 
them, that they walked, being dead ? And yet if any among 
them were to die a bodily death, they would run, get ready 
the grave, wrap him up, carry him out, bury him, the dead, 

the dead ; of whom it is said. Let the dead bury their dead. Matt. 8, 
Such dead as these are in such wise raised by the Word of 
God, as to live in faith. They who were dead in unbelief, 
are aroused by the Word. Of this hour said the Lord, The 
hour shall come, and, now is. For with His Own Word did 
He raise them that were dead in unbelief; of whom the 
Apostle says, Arise thou that steepest, and rise up from the Ephes. 
dead, and Christ shall give thee liyhf. This is the resur- ' 
rection of hearts, this is the resurrection of the inner man, 
this is the resurrection of the soul. 

8. But this is not the only resurrection, there remains a vi. 
resurrection of the body also. Whoso riseth again in soul, 
riseth again in body to his blessedness. For in soul all do 

not rise again ; in body all are to rise again. In soul, I say, all 
do not rise again ; but they that believe and obey ; for, They 
that shall hear shall live. But as the Apostle says, All men 2Thess. 
have not faith. If then all men have not faith, all men do ' ' 
not rise again in soul. When the hour of the resurrection 
of the body shall come, all shall rise again ; be they good or 
bad, all shall rise again. But whoso first riseth again in 
soul, to his blessedness riseth again in body; whoso doth 
not first rise again in soul, riseth again in body to his curse. 
Whoso riseth again in soul, riseth again in body unto life ; 

558 Christ raises souls, as God, having life iji Himself; 

Sebm. whoso liseth not again in soul, riseth again in body unto 
r]27.B.] pwwishmcnt. Seeing then that the Lord hath impressed 
upon us this resurrection of souls, unto which we ought all to 
hasten, and to labour that wc may live therein, and living 
persevere even unto the end, it remained for Him to impress 
upon us the resurrection of bodies also, which is to be at the 
end of the world. Now hear how He hath impressed this 

9. When He had said, Verili/ I say unto you, The hour 
shall come, and now is, uhen the dead, that is, the unbe- 
lievers, shall hear the Voice of the Son of God, that is, the 
Gospel, and they that shall hear, that is, that shall obey, 
shall live, that is, shall be justified, and shall be unbelievers 
no longer; when, I say, He had said this, forasmuch as Ke 
saw that we had need to be instructed as to the resurrection 
of the flesh also, and were not to be left thus. He went on 
and said, For as the Father hath life in, Himself, so hath 
He given to the Son to have life in Himself. This refers to 
the resurrection of souls, to the quickening of souls. Then 
He added. And hath given Him pouter to execute judgment 
also, because He is t/.-e Son of 31a n. This Son of God, is 
Son of Man. For if the Son of God had continued the Son 
of God, and had not been made the Son of Man, He would 
not have delivered the sons of men. He Who had made man, 
was Himself made that which He made, that what He made 
might not perish. But He was in such wise made the Son 
of Man, as to continue the Son of God. For He was made 
Man by assuming that which He was not, not by losing That 
Which He was ; continuing God, He was made Man. He 
took thee. He was not consumed in thee. As such then 
came He to us, the Son of God, and Son of Man, the Maker 
and the Made, the Creator and the Created; the Creator of 
His mother. Created of His moilier; such came He to us. In 
resi)ect of His being the Son of God, He saith. The hour 
shall come, and now is, tvhen the dead shall hear the Voice 
of the Son of God. He did not say, " Of the Son of Man ;" 
ibr He was impressing the truth, wherein He is equal to the 
Father. And they that shall hear shall live. For as the 
Father hath life in Himself, so hath He given to the Son to 
have life in Himself; not by participation, but in Himself. 

He iviiljudge, as Son ofMan^in the Form wherein He was judged. 559 

For we have not life in ourselves, but in our God. But He, Serm. 
the Father, hath life in Himself; and He begat such a Son [127.B.] 
as should have life in Himself; not be made a partaker of 
life, but Himself be Life, of which life we should be partakers; 
that is, should have life in Himself, and Himself be Life. 
But that He should be made the Son of Man, He took from 
us. Son of God in Himself; that He should be the Son of 
Man, He took from us. Son of God of That Which is His 
Own, Son of Man of ours. That which is the less, took He 
from us ; That Which is the more, gave He to us. For thus 
He died in that He is the Son of Man, not in that He is the 
Son of God. Yet the Son of God died; but He died in 
respect to the flesh, not in respect to ike Word Which was John 1, 
made Jlesh, and dwelt among us. So then in that He died, 
He died of that which was ours ; in that we live, we live of 
That Which is His. He could not die of That Which was His 
own, nor could we live of that which is our own. As God 
then, as the Only-Begotten, as equal with Him Who begat 
Him, did the Lord Jesus impress this upon us, that if we 
hear, we shall live. 

10. But, saith He, He hath given Hi7n power to exe- vii. 
cute judgment also, because He is the Son of Man. So 
then that Form is to come to judgment. The Form of Man 
is to come to judgment; therefore He said. He hath given 
Him 'power to execute judgment also, because He is the Son 
of Man. The Judge here shall be the Son of Man; here 
shall That Form judge which was judged. Hear and under- 
stand : the Prophet had said this already, Theg shall look on Zech. 
Hint Whom theg pierced. That Very Form shall they see j^l^^ {q 
Which they smote with a spear. He shall sit as Judge, Who 37. 
stood at the judge's seat. He shall condemn the real 
criminals, Who was made a criminal falsely. He shall come 
Himself, That Form shall come. This you find in the Gospel 
too; when before the eyes of His disciples He was going 
into heaven, they stood and looked on, and the Angelic 
voice spake. Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye, 8fc. This A.ctsi, 
Jesus shall come in like manner as ye see Him going into 
heaven. What is, shall come in like manner? Shall come in 
this Very Form. For He hath given Him power to execute 
judgment, because He is the Son of Man. Now see on 

560 The siyht of God is the bliss of the Resurrection. 

Serm. what principle this was bcliovcfiil and right, that they wlio 
[i27.B.i^*^''^' to bo judged might see the Judge. For they who were 
Matt. 6, to be judged were both good and bad. But blessed are 
the pu7e in heart, for they shall see God. It remained 
that in the Judgment the Form of the servant shouUl be 
manifested both to good and bad, the Form of God be 
reserved for the good alone. 

11. For what is it that the good are to receive.? Behold 
1 am now expressing that which I did not express a little 
above ; and yet in expressing I do not express it. For I 
said that there we shall be in sound health, shall be safe, 
shall be living, shall be without scourges, without hunger and 
thirst, without failing, without loss of our eyes. All this I 
said ; but what we shall have more, I said not. We shall 

viii. see God. Now this will be so great, yea so great a thing will it 

be, that in comparison of it, all the rest is nothing. I said 

that we shall be living, that we shall be safe and sound, that 

we shall suffer no hunger and thirst, that we shall not fall 

into weariness, that sleep will not oppress us. All this, 

what is it to that happiness, whereby we shall see God ? 

I Cor. 2, because then God cannot be now manifested as He is, 

Whom nevertheless we shall see ; therefore, what eye hath 

not seen, nor ear heard, this the good shall see, this shall 
the godly see, this the merciful shall see, this shall the faith- 
ful see, this shall they see who shall have a good lot in the 
resurrection of the body, for that they have had a good 
obedience in the resunection of the heart. 

1 2. Shall then the wicked man see God too } of whom 
Isaiah saith. Let the ungodly be taken away, that he see not 

Is. 26, the Glory of God. Both the ungodly and the godly then 

Sept. shall see that Form ; and when the sentence, Zt^^ ///e unyodly 

be taken away that he see not the Glory of God, shall have 

been pronounced ; it remains that as to the godly and the 

good, that be fuUilled which the Lord Himself ])romised, 

when He was here in the flesh, and seen not by the good 

only, but by the eril also. He spake amongst the good and 

evil, and was seen of all, as God, hidden, as Man, manifested; 

as God ruling men, as Man appearing among men : He spake, 

John I say, among them, and said. Whoso loveth Me, keepeth My 

' ' coinmandntenls ; and he that loveth Me, shall be loved of My 

Xt, inform ofMan,to be seen by all; in Form oJ'Godjby such as love 561 

Father, and I will love him. And as if it were said to Him, Serm. 
And what wilt Thou give him ? And / will, He saith, mani- ^To7q\ 

/est Myself to him. When did He say this ? When He was 

seen by men. When did He say this ? When He was seen 
even by them, by whom He was not loved. How then was 
He to manifest Himself to them that loved Him, save in 
Such a Form, as they who loved Him then saw not? There- 
fore, seeing that the Form of God was being reserved, the Form 
of man manifested; by the Form of man, speaking to men, con- 
spicuous and visible. He manifested Himself to all, both 
good and bad, He reserved Himself for them that loved Him. 

13. When is He to manifest Himself to them that love j^. 
Him ? After the resurrection of the body, when the ungodly 
shall be taken away that he see not the Glory of God. For 
then whe7i He shall appear, we shall be like Him ; for we \ john 
shall see Him as He is. This is life eternal. For all that^' '^• 
we said before is nothing to that life. That we live, what is 

it? That we are in health, what is it? That we shall see 
God; is a great thing. This is life eternal; this Himself 
hath said, But this is life eternal, that they may know ^ . ,7 
Thee the Only True God, and Jesus Christ Whom Thou^. 
hast sent. This is life eternal, that they may know, see, com- 
prehend, acquaint themselves with what they had believed, 
may perceive that which they were not yet able to compre- 
hend. Then may the mind see what eye hath not seen^ nor 
ear heard, neither hath it ascended into the heart of man; 
this shall be said to them at the end. Come, ye blessed of My Mat.25 
Father, receive the kingdom which hath been prepared for^'^- 
you from the beginning of the world. Those wicked ones 
then shall go into everlasting- burning. But the righteous, 
whither? Into life eternal. What is life eternal ? This is 
lije eternal, that they may know Thee, the Only True God, 
and Jesus Christ, Whom Thou hast sent. 

14. Speaking then of the future resurrection of the body, x. 
and not leaving us thus. He saith. He hath given Him power 

to exec^iie judgment also, because He is the Son of 3Ian. 
Marvel not at litis, for the hour shall come. He did not 
add in this place, and now is; because this hour shall be 
hereafter, because this hour shall be at the end of the world, 
because this shall be the last hour, shall be at the last trump. 
Marvel not at this, because I have said. He hath given Him 

oii'2 Since God made us of nothing, He can remake us of the dust. 

Serm. potter to execute judgment also, because He is the Son of 
}'^^J^^:Ma/i. Marvel not. For this reason have I said this, 
because it behoves Him as Man to be judged by men. And 
what men shall He judge? Those Whom He finds alive? 
John 5, Not only those, but what ? The hour shall come, ivJien they 
that are in the graves. How did He express those that are 
dead in the flesh ? They who are in the graves, whose 
corpses lie buried, whose ashes are covered up, whose bones 
are dispersed, whose flesh is flesh no more, and yet is entire 
to God. TJie hour shall come, when all that are in the graves 
shall hear His Voice, and shall come forth. Be they good 
or bad, they shall hear the Voice, and shall come forth. All 
'infero- the bands of the grave' shall be burst asunder; all that was 
lost, yea rather was thought to be lost, shall be restored. 
For if God made man who was not, can He not refashion 
that which was ? 
xi. 15. I suppose when it is said, " God shall raise the dead 
again," no incredible thing is said; for it is of God, not of 
man, that it is said. It is a great thing which shall be done, 
yea, an incredible thing that shall be done. But let it not 
be incredible, for see, Who It is That doeth it. He it is 
said shall raise thee. Who created thee. Thou wast not, 
and thou art; and once made, shalt thou not be? God 
forbid thou shouldest think so ! God did something more 
marvellous when He made that which was not ; and never- 
theless He did make that which was not; and shall it be 
disbelieved that He is able to refashion that which was, by 
those very persons whom He made what they were not? Is 
this the return we make to God, we who were not, and were 
made? Is this the return we make Him, that we will not 
believe that He is able to raise again what He hath made ? 
Is this the return which His creature renders Him ? " Have 
I therefore," God saith to thee, " made thee, O man, before 
thou wast, that thou shouldest not believe Mo, that thou 
shalt be what thou wast, who hast been able to be what thou 
wast not?" But you will say, " Lo, what I see in the tomb, is 
dust, ashes, bones ; and shall this receive life again, skin, sub- 
stance, flesh, and rise again ? what ? these ashes, these bones, 
which I see in the tomb?" Well. At least thou scest ashes, 
thou seest bones in the tomb ; in thy mother's womb there was 
nothing. 7'his thou secst, ashes at least there are, and bones; 

Our Lord's witness true, but not to the unbelieving. 563 

before that thou wast, there was neither ashes, nor bones ; and Serm. 
yet thou wast made, when thou wast not at all ; and dost thou ['i^^7]b?]' 
not believe that these bones, (for in whatever state, of what- 
ever kind they are, yet they are,) shall receive the form 
again which they had, when thou hast received what thou 
hadst not? Believe; for if thou shalt believe this, then 
shall thy soul be raised up. And thy soul shall be raised up 
now ; The hour shall come, and now is ; then to thy bless- 
ing shall thy flesh rise again, when the hour shall come, that 
all that are in the graves shall hear His Voice, and shall 
come forth. For thou must not at once rejoice, because 
thou dost hear and come forth ; hear what follows, TTie^/ ^'- 29. 
that have done good unto the resurrection of life; but they 
that have done evil unto the resurrection of damnation. 
Turning to the Lord, &c. 


On the words of the Gospel, John v. " If I hear witness of Myself," &c. 
and on the words of the Apostle, Gal. v. " Walk in the Spirit, and ye 
shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh. For the flesh lusteth," &c. 

1. We have heard the words of the holy Gospel; and this 1. 
that the Lord Jesus saith, If I bear witness of Myself, My J°^" ^^ 
witness is not true, may perplex some. How then is not 
the witness of the Truth true ? Is it not Himself Who hath 
said, / am the Way, and the Truth, and the Life ? Whom then Johni4, 
are we to believe, if we must not believe the Truth ? For of 
a surety he is minded to believe nothing but falsehood, who 
does not choose to believe the truth. So then this was spoken 
on their principles, that you should understand it thus, and 
gather this meaning from these words ; Jf I bear witness of 
Myself, My witness is not true, that is, as ye think. For He 
knew well that His Own witness of Himself was true ; but 
for the sake of the weak, and hard of belief, and without 
understanding, the Sun looked out for lamps. For their 
weakness of sight could not bear the dazzling biightness of 
the Sun. 

564 Xt His own Witness in John and in the Martr/rs ; dwelling in them 

Serm. 2. Therefore was John sought for to bear witness to the 

r^i^gj^'j Truth ; and ye have heard what He said; Ye came unto 

^Ts^ John; He ?ra.<; a burning and a shining lamp, and ge were 

V. 35. willing for a season to rejoice in his light. This lamj) was 

prepared for their confusion, for of this was it said so long 

Ps. 132, time before in the Psalms, / have prepared a lamp for Bline 

Anointed. What ! a lamp for the Sun ! His enemies will I 

^' 18. clothe with confusion : hut upon Himself shall my sanctiji- 

cation flourish. And hence they were in a certain place 

confounded by means of this very John, when the Jews said 

Luke20, tQ ^j^g Lord, By what authority doest Thou these things ? 

Tell t(s. To whom He answered, Bo ye tell Me too. The 

baptism of John, was it from heaven, or of men? They 

heard, and held their peace. For they thought at once 

with themselves. //" ice shall say, Of men; the people will 

stone us ; for they hold John as a prophet. If ice shall say. 

From heaven; He will say to ns. Why then have ye not 

believed him? For John bare witness to Christ. So 

straitened in their hearts by their own questions, and taken 

in their own snares, they answered, JVe do not know. What 

else could the voice of darkness be ? It is right indeed for a 

man when he does not know, to say, " I know not." But 

when he does know, and says, " I know not ;" he is a witness 

against himself. Now they knew well John's excellency, 

and that his baptism was from heaven ; but they were 

unwilling to acquiesce in Him to Whom John bare witness. 

But when they said, We do not knou^ ; Jesus answered 

them. Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these 

things. And they were confounded ; and so was fulfilled, 

/ have prepared a lamp for Mine Anointed, His enemies 

will I clothe icith confusion. 

ii. 3. Are not Martyrs witnesses of Christ, and do they not 

bear witness to the truth.? But if we think more carefully, 

when those Martyrs bear witness, He beareth witness to 

Himself. For He dwelleth in tlie Martyrs, that they may 

bear witness to the truth. Hear one of the Martyrs, even 

^.^*""- the Apostle Paul ; Would ye receive a proof of Christ, Who 

Vulg. speaketh in Me? When John then beareth witness, Christ, 

Who dwelleth in John, beareth witness to Himself. Let Peter 

bear witness, let Paul bear witness, let the rest of the Apostles 

thro'' the Holy Spirit, Who is Love arid sheds love in the heart. 565 

bear witness, let Stejshen bear witness, it is He Who dwelleth Serm. 
in them all that beareth witness to Himself. For He without ^''28^g'4 
them is God, they without Him, what are they ? 

4. Of Him it is said, He ascended up on high. He /et/Ps. 68, 
captivity captive, He gave gifts unto men. What is, i^eEphes. 
led captivity captive? He conquered death. What is, He^^^- 
led captivity captive^ The devil was the author of death, 
and the devil was himself by the Death of Christ led cap- 
tive. He ascended t(p on high. What do we know higher 
than heaven? Visibly and before the eyes of His disciples 
He ascended into heaven. This we know, this we believe, 
this we confess. He gave gifts unto men. What gifts } The 
Holy Spirit. He who giveth such a Gift, what is He Himself? 
For great is God's mercy; He giveth a Gift equal to Him- 
self; for His Gift is the Holy Spirit, and the Whole Trinity, 
Father and Son and Holy Spirit, is One God. What hath 
the Holy Spirit brought us? Hear the Apostle; The love q/'Rom. 5, 
(?of/, saith he, hath been shed abroad in our hearts. Whence, 
thou beggar, hath the love of God been shed abroad in 
thine heart? How, or wherein hath the love of God been 
shed abroad in the heart of man? We have, saith he, this 2 Cot. 4, 
treasure in earthen vessels. Why, in earthen vessels ? 
That the excellency of the poiver may be of God f Finally, 
when he had said. The love of God, hatlt been sited abroad 
in our hearts; that no man might think that he hath this 
love of God of himself, he added immediately, By the Holy 
Spirit, Who hath been given to us. Therefore, that thou jjj^ 
mayest love God, let God dwell in thee, and love Himself in 
thee, thatis, toHislovelet Him move thee, enkindle, enlighten, 
arouse thee. 

5. For in this body of ours there is a struggle; as long as 
we live, we are in combat; as long as we are in combat, we 
are in peril; but, in all these things we are conquerors ^^^ g 
through Him Who loved its. Our combat ye heard of just now ^7. 
when the Apostle was being read. All the law, saith he, is Gal. 6, 
fulfilled in one word, even in this, TJtou shall love thy ^^• 
neighbour as thyself. This love is from the Holy Spirit. 
Thou shall love thy neighbour as thyself First see, if thou 
knowest yet how to love thyself; and then will 1 commit to 
thee the neighbour whom thou art to love as thyself. But if 

56G The soul must he subdued to God, thejksh to the soul. 

Sf.rm. thou dost not yet know how to love thyself; I fear lest thou 
[128. B.J shonldest deceive thy neighbour as thyself. For if thou lovest 
iniquity, thou dost not love thyself. The Psalm is witness; 
Ps. 10, But ivhoso loveth iniquity, hateth his own soul. Now if thou 
11 e'v ^^^'^ thine own soul, what doth it profit thee that thou dost 
love thy flesh? If thou hate thine own soul, and lovest thy 
flesh, thy flesh shall rise again; but only that thy soul may 
be tormented. Therefore the soul must first be loved, which is 
to be subdued unto God, that this service may maintain its 
due order, the soul to God, the flesh to the soul. Wouldest 
tliou that thy flesh should serve thy soul? Let thy soul serve 
God. Thou oughtest to be ruled, that thou mayest he able 
to rule. For so perilous is this struggle, that if thy Ruler 
forsake thee, ruin must ensue. 
iv. 6. What struggle ? But if ye Lite and devour one another, 
?5^'ir' ^^'^^^ heed that ye he not consumed one of another. But I 
say, Walk in the Spirit. I am quoting the words of the 
Apostle, which have been just read out of his Epistle. But 
I say, Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fulfil the lusts of 
the flesh. But I say, Walk in the Spirit, and the lusts of 
the flesh, he did not say, " Ye shall not have ;" nor did he 
say, " Ye shall not do;" but. Ye shall not fulfil. Now 
what this is, with the Lord's assistance, I will declare as I 
shall be able ; give attention, that ye may understand, if ye 
are walking in the Spirit. But I say. Walk in the Spirit, and 
ye shall not fulfil the lusis of the flesh. Let him follow on; 
if haply any thing, as this which is here obscure, may be 
understood more easily by the sequel of his words. For I 
saidj that it was not without a meaning that the Apostle 
would not say, " Ye shall not have the lusts of the flesh ;" 
nor again would even say, " Ye shall not do the lusts of the 
flesh;" but said, Ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the flesh. 
He hath set forth this struggle before us. In this battle are 
'Deomi- wc occupied, if we are in ' God's service. What then follows ? 
htamus p^^. i]^q fl^sJi lusteth against the spirit, and the spirit against 
the flesh. For these are contrary the one to the other, so that 
ye do not the things that ye would. This, if it be not under- 
stood, is with exceeding peril heard. And therefore anxious 
as I am lest men by an evil interpretation should perish, I 
have undertaken with the Lord's assistance to explain these 


Perilous abuse of Gal. v. " f cannot do the things I icoiild.^'' bQ7 

words to your affection. We have leisure enougli, we have Serm. 
begun early in the morning, the hour of dinner does notrj';,^^^^'^''' 
press; on this day, the sabbath that is, they that hunger after 
the word of God are wont especially to meet together. Hear v, 
and attend, I will speak with what carefulness I can, 

7. What then is that which I said, " Is heard with peril if 
it be not understood?" Many overcome by carnal and damn- 
able lusts, commit all sorts of crimes and impurities, and 
wallow in such abominable vmcleanness, as it is a shame even 
to mention; and say to themselves these words of the Apostle. 

See what the Apostle has said, So tJtatye cannot do the things Gal 5 
that ye ivould. I would not do them, I am forced, I am com- im- 
pelled, I am overcome, / do the things that I would not, as Rom. 7 
the Apostle says. The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and^^- 
the Spirit against the flesh, so that ye cannot do the things 
that ye would. You see with what peril this is heard, if it be 
not understood. You see how it concerns the pastor's office, 
to open the closed fountains, and to minister to the thirsty 
sheep the pure, harndess water. 

8. Be not willing then to be overcome when thou fightest. 
See what kind of war, what kind of battle, what kind of strife 
he hath set forth, within, within thine own self. The flesh 
lusteth against the Spirit. If the Spirit lust not also against 
the flesh, commit adultery. But if the Spirit lust against the 
flesh, I see a struggle, I do not see a victory, it is a contest. 
The flesh lusteth against the Spirit. Adultery has its 
pleasure. I confess that it has its pleasure. But, The 
Spirit lusteth against the flesh: Chastity too has its 
pleasure. Therefore let the Spirit overcome the flesh; or by 
all means not be overcome by the flesh. Adultery seeks the 
darkness, chastity desires the light. As thou wouldest wish 
to appear to others, so live; as thou wouldest wish to appear 
to men, even when beyond the eyes of men so live; for 
He Who made thee, even in the darkness seeth thee. 
Why is chastity praised publicly by all? Why do not ev^en 
adulterers praise adultery? Whoso then seeketh the truth, Johns, 
co)7ieth to the light. But adultery has its pleasure. Be^^". 

it contradicted, resisted, opposed. For it is not so that 
thou hast nothing wherewith to fight. Thy God is in 
thee, the good Spirit hath been given to thee. And not- 


568 The Spirit lustelh (Kf-if flesh oulij nhore He isi.e.imfgood. 

Skrm. withstanding tliis llesli of ours is permitted to lust against 

[l28.BJthe spirit by evil suggestions and reaP delights. Be that 

' genui- secured which the Apostle saith, Let not sin reign in your 

Rom. 6 ''^^oi'ft^l body. He did not say, " Let it not be tliere." It is 

12 there already. And this is called sin, because it has befallen 

' inerito us through the wages^ of sin. For in Paradise the flesh did 

not lust against the spirit, nor was there tliis struggle there, 

where was peace only ; but after the transgression, after 

that man was loth to serve God, and was given up to 

himself; yet not so given up to himself as that he could so 

much as possess himself; but possessed by him, by whom 

deceived; the flesh began to lust against the Spirit. Now 

it is in the good that it lusleth against the Spirit ; for in the 

bad it has nothing to lust against. For there doth it lust 

against the Spirit, where the Spirit is. 

y. For when he says, Thejiesh lusteth against the Spirit, 
and the Spirit against the flesh ; do not suppose that so 
much hath been attributed to the spirit of man. It is the 
Spirit of God Who tighteth in thee against thyself, against 
that which in thee is against thee. For thou wouldest not 
stand to God-ward ; thou didst fall, wast broken ; as a vessel 
when it falls from a man's hand to the ground, wast thou 
broken. And because thou wast broken, therefore art thou 
turned against thyself; therefore art thou contrary to thine 
own self. Let there be nought in thee contrary to thyself, 
vii. and thou shalt stand in thine integrity. For that thou mayest 
know that this office appertaineth to the Holy Spirit; the 
Rom. 8, Apostle saith in another place, For if ye live after the flesh, 
^•' ye shall die; hut if ye through the Spirit do mortify the 
deeds of the flesh, ye shall live. From these words man was 
at once uplifting himself, as though by his own spirit he 
were able to mortify the deeds of the flesh. If ye live after 
the flesh, ye shall die; bnt if through the Spirit ye do mortify 
the deeds of the flesh, ye shall live. Explain to us. Apostle, 
through what spirit } For man also hath a spirit appertaining 
to his pro])er nature, whereby he is man. For man consists 
1 Cor. of body and spirit. And of this spirit of man it is said, No 
man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man 
which is in him. I sec then that man himself hath his own 
spirit appertaining to his proper nature, and I hear thee 

2, U. 

ThatSpirit^hy IVhom we arenottsqf God, led, mortify thejfcsh. 569 

saying, Bid if through the Spirit ye do mortify the deeds of Serm. 
the flesh, ye shall live. I ask, through what sph'it; mym^g^Ri 
own, or God's ? For I hear thy words, and am still perplexed 
by this ambiguity. For when the word spirit is used, it 
is used sometimes of the spirit of a man; and of cattle, as it 
is written, that all flesh which had in itself the spirit of life, Gen.6, 
died by the flood. And so the word spirit is spoken of cattle, 7' 22. 
and spoken of man too. Sometimes even the wind is called 
spirit; as it is in the Psalm, Fire, hail, snow, frost, thevs.ur, 
spirit of the tempest. For as much then as the word spirit^ ^y^^' 
is used in many ways, by Avhat spirit, O Apostle, hast thou 148. 
said that the deeds of the flesh are to be mortified; by mine 
own, or by the Spirit of God ? Hear what follows, and under- 
stand. The difficulty is removed by the following words. 
For when he had said. But if through the Sjnrit ye mortify Rom. 8, 
the deeds of the flesh, ye shall live; he added immediately, 
For as many as are acted^ upon by the Spirit of God, they ' agun- 
are the sons of God. Thou dost act, if thou art acted upon, 
and actest well, if thou art acted upon by the Good. So 
then when he said to thee, If through the Spirit ye mortify 
the deeds of the flesh, ye shall live ; and it was doubtful with 
thee of what spirit he had spoken, in the words following 
understand the Master, acknowledge the Redeemer. For That 
Redeemer hath given thee the Spirit Whereby thou mayest 
mortify the deeds of the flesh. For as many as are acted 
upon by the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God. Tliey 
are not the sons of God if they are not acted upon by the 
Spirit of God. But if they are acted upon ])y the Spirit of 
Goil, they fight; because they have a mighty Helper. For 
God doth not look on at our combattings as the people do 
at the gladiators-. The people may favour the gladiator, help 2 veua- 
him they cannot when he is in peril. "'^^^ 

10. Sothenhere too ; The flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and viii. 
the Spirit against the flesh. And what means, So that ye cannot 
do the things that ye would ? For here is the peril with one 
who understands it amiss. Be it now my ofiice to explain it, 
howsoever incompetent. So that ye cannot do the things that 
ye xoould. Attend, ye holy ones, whosoever ye are that are 
fighting. To them that are battling do I speak. They who 

p p 2 

570 Here, not peace from Ihejleslt but victory. 

Serm. are fighting, understand; lie tliat is not fighting, understands 
r ^gYB.'f iiie not. Yea, he that is lighting, 1 will not say understands 
me, but anticipates nic. What is the chaste man's wish ? 
That no lust should rise uj) in his members at all opposed to 
chastity, lie wishelh for peace, but as yet he hath it not. 
For when we shall have come to that state, where there shall 
rise 11}) no lust at all to be oj)posed, there will be no enemy 
for us to struggle with ; nor is victory a matter for expectation 
there, for that there is triumphing over the now vanquished 
1 Cor. foe. Hear of this victory, in the Apostle's own words; This 
&c/' ' corruplihle must put on incur ruption, and this mortal must 
put on immortality. Now when this corruptible shall have 
put on incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on im- 
mortality; then shall be brought to 2jass the saying that 
is nrilten, Death is swalloiced up in victory. Hear the 
voices of them that triumph ; O death, tchere is thy con^ 
tention ? O death, where is thy sting? Tliou hast smitten, 
thou hast wounded, thou hast thrown down; but He hath 
been wounded for me Who made me. O death, death, He 
Who made me hath been wounded for me, and by His Death 
hath overcome thee. And then in triumjjh shall they say, O 
death, where is thy contention ? O death, ichere is thy sting ? 
ix, 1 !• But now, when the flesh lusteth against the Spirit, and 
the Spirit against thejlesh, is the contention of death ; we do 
not what we would. Why ? l^ecause we would that there 
should be no lusts, but we cannot hinder it .'' Whether we 
'titillant will or uot, we have them ; whether we will or not, they solicit', 
they allure, they sting, they disturb us, they will be rising. 
They are repressed, not yet extinguished. How long does 
the flesh lust against the Spirit, and the Spirit against the 
flesh ? Will it be so, even when the man is dead ? God 
forbid ! Thou puttest ofl" the flesh, how then shalt thou 
draw the lusts of the flesh along with thee .? Nay, if thou 
hast fought well, thou shalt be received into rest. And from 
this rest, thou passest to be crowned, not condemned ; that 
thou mayest after it be brought to the Kingdom. As long 
then as we live here, my brethren, so it is ; so is it with us 
even who have grown old in this warfare, less mighty 
enemies it is true we have, but yet we have tliem. Our enemies 

To fhe end evil desires uill rise, may he quelled. 571 

are in a measure wearied out even now hj age ; but never- Serm. 
tireless, wearied though they be, they do not cease to harass ri'gs^R f 
by such excitements as they can the quiet of old age. 
Sharper is the fight of the young; we know it well, we have 
passed through it : The flesh then lusieth against the Spirit, 
and the Spirit against the flesh; so that ye cannot do the things 
that ye woidd. For what would ye, O holy men, and good 
warriors, and brave soldiers of Christ ? what would ye ? 
That there should be no evil lusts at all. But ye cannot 
help it. Sustain' the wai', hope for triumph. For now in ' ^^^^' 
the meanwhile ye must fight. The flesh lusteth against the 
Spirit, and the Spirit against the Jlesh; so that ye cannot 
do the things that ye icoidd ; that is, that there should be 
no lusts of the flesh at all. 

12. But do what ye are able; what the Apostle himself x. 
says in another place, which I had already begun to repeat ; 
Let not sin reign in your mortal body, to obey the desires Rom. 6, 
thereof. Lo, what I would not; evil desires arise ; but obey ' 
them not. Arm thyself, assume the weapons of war. The 
precepts of God are thy arms. If thou listen to me as thou 
shouldest, thou art armed even by that which I am speaking. 
" Lei not sin, he says, reign in your mortal body. For as 
long as ye bear a mortal body, sin doth fight against you ; 
but let it not reign." What is. Let it not reign ? That is, 
to obey the desires thereof. If ye begin to obey, it reigns. 
And what is it to obey, but to yield your members as instru- 
ments ofiniqidty unto sin ? Nothing more excellent than this 
teacher. What wouldest thou that I should yet explain to 
thee ? Do what thou hast heard. Yield not thy members 
instruments of iniquity unto sin. God hath given thee power 
by His Spirit to restrain thy members. Lust riseth up, 
restrain thy members ; what can it do now that it hath risen ? 
Restrain thou thy members; yield not thy members instru- 
ments of iniquity unto sin ; arm not thine adversary against 
thyself. Restrain thy feet, that they go not after unlawful 
things. TiUst hath risen up, restrain thy members ; restrain 
thine hands from all wickedness ; restrain the eyes, that they 
wander not astray; restrain the ears, that they hear not the 
words of lust with pleasure ; restrain the whole body, restrain 
the sides, restrain its highest and lowest parts. What can 

572 Lvsts ^donc' i)imai),ifi)i hhn^nol \fulJiUedC eascepl hyhirn. 

Serm. lust do? How to rise up, it knoweth. How to conquer, it 
^"28^!] knoweth not. By rising up constantly Avithout effect, it Usarns 
not even to rise. 
'^^- 13. Let us then return to the words, which I had set 
forth out of the Apostle as obscure, and we shall now see 
them to be ])lain. For this I had sot forth, that the Apostle 
did not say, " Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not have the 
lusts of the llesh ;" because we must necessarily have them. 
Why then did he not say, " Ye shall not do the lusts of the 
flesh ?" Because we do them ; for we do lust. The very 
Eoin. 7, lusting, is doing. But the Apostle says, Noiv il is no 
'' more I tlint do if, hut si/t that dicelleiJi in me. What then 
hast thou to beware of? This doubtless, that thou fulfil 
them not. A damnable lust hath risen up, it hath risen, 
made its suggestion; let it not be heard. It burnetii, and is 
not quieted, and thou wouldest that it should not burn. 
Where then is, So that ye cannot do the lltinys that ye uould? 
Do not give it thy members. Let it burn without effect, 
and it will spend itself. In tliee then these lusts are done. 
It must be confessed, they are done. And therefore he 
said, Ye shall not fnljil. Let them not then be fulfilled. 
Thou hast determined to do, thou hast fulfilled. For thou 
hast fulfilled it, if thou determinest upon committing 
adultery, and dost not commit it, because no place hath been 
found, because no opportunity is given, because, it may 
be, she for whom thou seemest to be disturbed is chaste; 
lo, now she is chaste, and thou art an adulterer. Why ? 
Because thou hast fulfilled lusts. What is, " hast fulfilled?" 
Hast determined in thy mind upon committing adultery. 
If now, which God forbid, thy members too have wrought, 
thou hast fallen down headlong into deatli. 
xii. 14. Christ raised up the daughter of the ruler of the 
g^"'"^"''' synagogue who was dead in the house. She uas in the 
Vid. house, she had not yet been carried out. So is the man 
48.'(Ben.^^^° hath determined on some wickedness in his heart; he is 
•^8.) dead, but he lies within. But if he has come as far as to the 
action of the members, he has been carried out of the house. 
Luke 7, But the Lord raised also the young man, the widow's son, 
''''^' when he was being carried out dead beyond the gale of the 
city. So then I venture to say, Thou hast determined in 

Gradations of sin, analogous to the dead raised by Xt. 573 

tliine heart, if thou call thyself back from thy deed, thou wilt Serm. 

be cured before thou put it into action. For if thou repent r'm'a^DV 

in thine heart, that thou hast determined on some bad and 

wicked and abominable and damnable thing ; there where 

thou wast lying dead, within, so within hast thou arisen. 

But if thou have fulfilled, now hast thou been carried out; 

but thou hast One to say to thee, Young man, I say unto 

thee. Arise. Even though thou have perpetrated it, repent 

thee, return at once, come not to the sepulchre. But even 

here I find a third one dead, who was brought even to the 

sepulchre. He has now upon him the weight of habit, a 

mass of earth presses him down exceedingly. For he has 

been practised much in unclean deeds, and is weighed down 

exceedingly by his immoderate' habit. Here too Christ ' nimia 

crieth, Lazarus, come forth. For a man of very evil habit Jo^nn, 

. ■ 43. &c 

now stinketli. With good reason did Christ in that case 

cry out ; and not cry out only, but with a loud Voice cried 

out. For at Christ's Cry even such as these, dead though 

they be, buried though they be, stinking though tliey be, yet 

even these shall rise again, they shall rise again. For of 

none that lieth dead need we despair under such a Raiser 

up. Turn we to the Lord, &c. 


On the words of the (Jospel, John v. " Search the Scriptures, in which ye 
think ye have eternal life," &c. against the Donatists. 

1. Give heed. Beloved, to the lesson of the Gospel which i. 
has just sounded in our ears, whilst I speak a few words as 
God shall vouchsafe to me. The Lord Jesus was speaking to 
the Jews, and said to them, Search the Scriptures, in which -^ohn 5, 


ye think ye have eternal life, they testify of 3Ie. Then a 
little after He said, / am come in My Father's Name, and ye v. 43. 
have not received Me; if another shall come in his own name, 
him ye will receive. Then a little after; How can ye believe, v. 44. 
who look for glory one from another, and seek not the glory 
which is of God only? At last He saith, / do not accuse- ^^- 

C)l^TlieIemen of lhePharisees,receiiing(jloryfrom one another. 

Serm. you to the Father ; there is one that accuseth you, Moses, in 
[p9 13 1 '^^'honi ye trust. For had ye believed Moses, ye v)Oidd haply 
v74(r believe Me also, for he wrote of Me. But seeing ye believe 
^- "*''• not his icords, how can ye believe Me? At these sayings 
' (li villi which have been set before us from divine' inspiration, out of 
the reader's mouth, but by the Saviour's ministry, give ear 
to a few words, not to be estimated by their number, but to 
be duly weighed, 
ii. 2. For all these things it is easy to understand as touch- 

ing the Jews. But wc must beware, lest, when we give too 
much attention to them, we withdraw our eyes from our- 
selves. For the Lord was speaking to His disciples ; and 
assuredly what He spake to them. He spake to us too their 
Mat.28, posterity. Nor to them only does what He said, Lo, I am 
'^'^' with you alway even unto the end of the world, ^PPb'? ^^^ 
even to all Christians that should be after them, and succeed 
them even unto the end of the world. Speaking then to 
iMat. IG, them He said. Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees. They 
at that time thought that the Lord had said this, because 
they had brought no bread ; they did not understand that 
Beicare of the leaven of the Pharisees meant, " beware of 
the doctrine of the Pharisees." What was the doctrine of 
the Pharisees, but that which ye have now heard? Seeking 
glory one of another, looking for glory one from another, 
and not seeking the glory ichich is of God only. Of these 
liom- the Apostle Paul thus speaks ; / bear them record that they 
' ' have a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge. They 
have, he says, a zeal of God; I know it, I am sure of it; I 
was once among them, I was such as they. They have, he 
says, a zeal of God, but not according to knowledge. What is 
this, O Aposde, not according to knowledge? Explain to us 
what the knowledge is thou dost set forth, which thou dost 
grieve is not in them, and wouldest should be in us? He went 
on and subjoined and developed what he had set forth closed. 
What is. They have a zeal of God, but not according to 
Ibid. 3. knowledge? For they being ignorant of God^s rig/iteoi/sness, 
and uishing to establish their own, have not submitted them- 
selves unto the righteousness of God, To be ignorant then 
of God's righteousness, and to wish to establish one's own, 
this is to look for glory one from another, and not to seek 

The Church heiny the Body of Xt, speaks ic'iAh His tcords. 515 

the ylory which is of God only. This is the leaven of the Serm. 
Pharisees. Of this the Lord bids beware. If it is ser-^fjgj^; 
vants that he bids, and the Lord that bids, let us beware ; 
lest we hear, Why say ye to Me, Lord, Lord, and do not ihe^^^^*^- 7, 
things which I say ? Luke 6, 

3. Let us then leave a while the Jews to whom the Lord^*^:.. 
was then speaking. They are without, they will not listen 
to us, they hate the Gospel itself, they procured false 
witness against the Lord, that they might condemn Him 
when alive ; other witness they bought with money against 
Him when dead. When we say to them, " Believe on Jesus," 
they answer us, " Are we to believe on a dead man ?" But 
when we add, " But He rose again ;" they answer, " Not* at ' absit 
all ;" His disciples stole Him away from the sepulchre. The 
Jewish buyers love falsehood and despise the truth of the 
Lord, the Redeemer. What thou art saying, O Jew, thy 
parents bought for money; and this which they bought hath 
continued in thee. Give heed rather to Him That bought 
thee, not to him who bought a lie for thee. 

4. But as I have said, let us leave these, and attend rather to 
these our brethren, with whom we have to do. For Christ is 
the Head of the Body. The Head is in Heaven, the Body 
is on earth ; the Head is the Lord, the Body His Church. 
But ye remember it is said, Jliey shall be two in one J/esh. Ephes. 
Tins is a great mystery'^, says the Apostle, hut 1 speak //<2'^^'^^* 
Christ and in the Church. If then they are two in onementum 
flesh, they are two in one voice. Our Head the Lord Christ 
spake to the Jews these things which we heard, when the 
Gospel was being read. The Head to His enemies; let 
the Body too, that is, the Church, speak to its enemies. 
Ye know to whom it should speak. What has it to say? It 
is not of myself that I have said, that the voice is one; 
because the flesh is one, the voice is one. Let us then say 
this to them ; I am speaking with the voice of the Church. 
" O brethren, dispersed children, wandering sheep, branches 
cut off', why do ye calumniate me .'' Why do ye not acknow- 
ledge me? Search the Scriptures, in which ye think ye have 
eternal life, they testify of meC to the Jews our Headsaith, 

what the Body saith to you; Ye shall seek me, and shall not John 7, 


576 The (). T. prophesies of Xt andthe Church in 1/ same places. 

SEKM.Jind me. Why? Because ye do not search (he Scriptures, 

mg^B V^'"^"'*' ^^'^^ify of me. 

~^~ 5. A testimony for the Head; To Abraham, and his seed 

Gal. 3, were the proi/tisrs wade. He saith not, And to seeds, as of 

mauij, but as of one, And to tlnj seed, tvhich is Christ. A 

testimony for the body unto Abraham, which the Apostle 

^«^»-22, hath brought forward. To Abraham irere the promises made. 

As 1 live, saith the Tord, I snear by Myself, because thou 

hast obeyed My Voice, and hast not spared thine own 

beloved son for Me, that in blessiiiy I trill bless thee, and in 

multiplying I will multiply thy seed as lite stars (f heaven, 

and as the sand of the sea, and in thy seed shall all nations 

of the earth be blessed. Thou hast here a testimony for the 

Head, and one for the Body. Hear another, short, and almost 

in one sentence including a testimony for the Head and for 

the Body. The Psalm was speaking of the Resurrection of 

Ps. 67, Christ ; Be Thou exalted, O God, above the heavens. And 

immediately for the Body; And Thy ylory above all the 

Ps. 21, earth. Hear a testimony lor the Head; 7 hey diyyed My 

^'^g^^' Hands and My Feet., they numbered all My Bones; and 

V. 19. they looked and stared upon Me; they divided My yarmen^s 

16- '{'-'' (iniony them, and cast lots upon My vesture. Hear im- 

18. mediately a testimony for the Body, a {c\w \\ ords afler, All 

-£,Y,27.the en Is of the tcorhl shall remember themselves and be 

turned nnto the Lord, and all the kindreds of the nations 

v- 29. shall worship in His siyht; for the kinydom is the Lord\s, 

and He shall hnve dominion over the nalionS' Hear for the 

Ps. 19,5. Head ; And He is: as a bridegroom coining forth out (f His 

hride-chamber. And in this same Psalm hear for the Body; 

V. -1, Their sound uent out into all the earth, and their nords 

unto the ends of the world. 

V. 6. These passages are for the Jews, and lor these of our 

own brethren. Why so? Because these Scri]>ture.s of the 

Old Testament both the Jews receive, and these our brethren 

receive, liul Christ Himself, Whom the others do not receive, 

let us see if these last receive. Let Him speak Himself, 

speak both for Himself Who is the Head, and for His Body 

which is the Church ; lor so in us the head speaks for the 

bodv. Hear lor the Head; He was risen from tlie (l(>ad, lie 

Donatists,Antichr ists, claiming as (/leir otvn the giftsofXt. 577 

found the disciples hesitating, doubting, not bcHeving for Serm. 
joy; He opened their understanding that they might under- A\q^\ 
stand the Scriptures, and said to them. Thus it is written, Lake^i, 
and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise again from "' °" 
the dead the third dag. Thus for the Head; let Him speak 
for the Body too; And that repentance and remission of 
sins should be preached in His Name throughout all nations, 
beginning at Jerusalem. Let the Church then speak to her 
enemies, let her speak. She does speak clearly, she is not 
silent : only let them give ear. Ih'ethren, ye have heard the 
testimonies, now acknowledge me. Search the Scriptures, 
in which ye hope ye have eternal life: they testify of me. 
What I have said is not of mine own, but of my Lord's; and 
notwithstanding, ye still turn away, still turn your backs. 
How can ye believe me, tvho look for glory one from another, 
and seek not the glory which is of God only? For being Hom. 
ignorant of God^s righteousness, ye have a zeal of God, but^^'' '' ' 
not according to knowledge. For being ignorant of God^s 
righteousness, and wishing to establish your own, ye have 
not subuiitted yourselves to the righteousness of God. What 
else is it to be ignorant of God's righteousness, and to wisli 
to establish your own, but to say, " It is I who sanctify, it is 
I who justify ; what I may have given is holy ?" Leave to 
God what is God's; recognise, O man, what is man's. 
Thou art ignorant of God's righteousness, and wishest to 
establish thine own. Thou dost wish to justify me; it is 
enough for thee that thou be justified with me. 

7. It is said of Antichrist, and all understand of him vi. 
what the Lord said, / am come in My Falher''s Name, and John 5, 
ye have not received 3Ie ; if another shall come in his own ' 
name, him ye will receive. But let us hear John too : Ye ' '^°'^" 

. . 2 18. 

have heard that Antichrist cometh, and even now are there ' 
many Antichrists. What is it in Antichrist that we are in 
horror of, but that he is to honour his own name, and to 
despise the Name of the Lord ? What else doeth he that 
saith, " It is I that justify?'' We answer him, " I came to 
Christ, not with my feet, but with my heart I came; where 
I heard the Gospel, there did I believe, there was I baptized; 
because I believed on Christ, I believed on God." Yet says 
he, " Thou art not clean." Why.? " Because I was not 

578 DoitatUts makiny XCs (jifls depend on 7ne)i\s /loliiiesfi, 

Serm. there." " Tell me why am not I cleansed, a man who was 
ri29.B.i haptized in Jerusalem, who was baptized, for instance, among 
the Ephosians, to whom an Epistle you read was written, 
and whose peace you despise ? Lo, to the Ephesians the 
Apostle wrote; a Church was founded, and remains even to 
this day; yea, remains in greater fruitfulness, remains in 
greater numbers, holds fast that which it received of the 
Gal. 1, Apostle, If any man preach owjht to you than that ye have 
received^ let him he accursed. "What now? what dost thou 
say to me ? Am I not clean ? There was 1 baptized, am I not 
clean .?" " No, even thou art not." " Why ?" " Because I was 
not there." " But He Who is every where, was there. He 
W^ho is every where was there, in Whose Name I believed. 
Thou coming I know not whence, yea, rather not coming, but 
wishing that I should come to thee, fixed in this place, sayestto 
me, ' Thou wast not baptized duly, seeing I was not there.' 
John 1, Consider Who was there. What was said to John? Upon 


Whom thou shalt see the Spirit descending like a dove^ this 

is He Which haptizeth. Him hast thou seeking for thee; 

nay, for that thou hast grudged me who was baptized by 

Him, thou hast lost Him rather." 

vii. 8. Understand then, my brethren, our language and theirs, 

and look which ye would choose. This is what we say ; " Be 

we holy, God knoweth it ; be we unrighteous, this again He 

knowelh better; place not your hope in us, whatsoever we 

I Cor. 4, be. If we be good, do as is written. Be ye imitators of Me, 

'^'^^''"a* / also am of Christ. But if we be bad, not even thus are 

ye abandoned, not even thus have ye remained without 

Matt, counsel : give ear to Him, saying, Do what they say; but do 

' ' not ivhat they dor Whereas they on the contrary say, 

" If we were not good, ye were lost." Lo, here is another that 

shall come in his own name. Shall my life then depend on 

thee, and my salvation be tied up in thee? Have I so 

1 Cor. forgotten my foundation? Was not Christ the Rock ? Is it 

Matt. 7 not that he that buildeth upon the rock, neither the wind 

^^- nor the floods overthrow him ? Come then, if thou wilt, 

with me upon the Rock, and do not wish to be to me for the 


Johns, 9. Let the Church then say those last words also, If ye 

*^' had believed Moses, ye would believe me also ; for he wrote 

and ilisbelievin(/ His promise to the Church, despise Christ, bid 

of me ; for that I am His body of Whom he wrote. And of Serm. 
the Church did Moses write. For I have quoted the words of ^29.0.] 
Moses, In thy seed shall all nations of the earth be blessed. Gen. 22, 
Moses wrote this in the first book. If ye beUeved Moses, ' 
ye would also believe Christ. Because ye despise Moses' 
words, it must needs be that ye despise the words of Christ. 
They have there, saith He, 3Ioses and the Prophets, /e/Lukeie, 
them hear them. Nay, father Abraham, but if one wenf^^'^^ 
unto them from the dead, him they will hear. And He said,^, 31. 
If they hear not Moses and the Prophets, neither will they 
believe, if one rise again from the dead. This was said of 
the Jews: was it therefore not said of heretics? He had viii. 
risen from the dead. Who said, It behoved Christ to suffer, ^"^o^'^' 
and to rise again from the dead the third day. This I 
believe. I believe it, he says. Dost thou believe .? Wherefore 
believest thou not what follows ? In that thou believest, 
It behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise again from the dead 
the third day; this was spoken of the Head; believe also 
that which follows concerning the Church, That repent- 
ance and remission of sins should be pjreached throughout 
all nations. Wherefore dost thou believe as touching the 
Head, and believest not as touching the Body ? What hath 
the Church done to thee, that thou wouldest so to say 
behead her? Thou wouldest take away the Church's Head, 
and believe the Head, leave the Body as it were a lifeless trunk. 
It is all to no purpose that thou dost caress the Head, like 
any devoted servant. He that would take off the head, doth 
his best to kill both the head and the body. They are 
ashamed to deny Christ, yet are they not ashamed to deny 
Christ's words. Christ neither we nor ye have seen with 
our eyes. The Jews saw, and slew Him. We have not 
seen Him, and believe ; His words are with us. Compare 
yourselves with the Jews: they despised Him hanging 
upon the Tree, ye despise Him sitting in heaven ; at their 
suggestion Christ's title was set' up, by your setting- yourselves 1 stetit. 
up, Christ's Baptism is effaced. But what remains, brethren, f^®'^°*^' 
but that we pray even for the proud, that we pray even for 
the puffed up, who so extol themselves? Let us say to God 
on their behalf. Let them know that the Lord is Thy Name ; Ps. 82, 
and not that men, but Tho^i Only art the Most High over^^'^^^^ 
all the earth. Let us turn to the Lord, &c. is. 

580 ihir LuriVs miiacles contain mysteries. 


On the words of the Gospel, John vi. where the miracle of the five loaves 
and the two fishes is related. 

Serm. 1. It was a great miracle that was wrought, dearly beloved, 

rio^^^T for five thousand men to be filled with five loaves and two 

fishes, and the remnants of the fragments to fill twelve baskets. 

A great miracle : but we shall not wonder much at what was 
done, if we give heed to Him That did it. He multiplied 
the five loaves in the hands of them that brake them, Who 
multiplieth the seeds that grow in the earth, so as that a k\v 
grains are sown, and whole barns are filled. But, because 
He doth this every year, no one marvels. Not the incon- 

' viUtas siderableness' of what is clone, but its constancy takes away 
admiration of it. But when the Lord did these things. He 
spake to them that had understanding, not by words only, 
but even by the miracles themselves. The five loaves sig- 
nified the five books of Moses' Law. The old Law is barley 
compared to the Gospel wheat. Tn those books are great 
mysteries concerning Christ contained. Whence He saith 

John 5, Himself, If y^ Imd believed Moses, ye would believe Me also; 

^^'' for lie urate of Me. But as in barley the niaiTow is hid 
under the chaff, so in the veil of the mysteries of the Law is 
Christ hidden. As those mysteries of the Law are developed 
and unfolded; so too those loaves increased when they were 
broken. And in this that I have explained to you, I have 
broken bread unto you. The five thousand men signify the 
people ordered under the five books of the Law. The twelve 
baskets are the twelve Apostles, who themselves too were 
filled with the fragments of the Law. The two fishes are 
either the two precepts of the love of God and our neigh- 
bour, or the two people of the circumcision and uncircum- 
cision, or those two sacred personages of the king and the 
priest. As these things are explained, they are broken ; when 
they are understood, they are eaten. 

John 6, 2. Let us turn to Him Who did these things. He is Him- 

'*'' fieU The Bread Which came down froin heaven ; but Bread 

Xttook our Fleshy shed His Blood, togive us what Hegavefor us. 58 1 

Which refreshelh the faihng, and doth not fail ; Bread Which Serm. 

can be tasted', cannot be wasted. This Bread did the manna ^g^^^' 

also figure. Wherefore it is said, He gave them the Bread T^-^ 

of heaven, man ate Angels'" Bread. Wlio is the Bread of ^^™' 

. , . 1 potest, 

heaven, but Christ .? But in order that man might eat Angels' consumi 

Bread, the Lord of Angels was made Man, For if He had""^^^. 

not been made Man, we should not have His Flesh; if Ps. 77, 

24 25 

we had not His Flesh, we should not eat the Bread of thegg'^, ' 
Altar. Let us hasten to the inheritance, seeing we hare here- ^•^•''^• 
by received a great earnest of it. My brethren, let us long 
for the life of Christ, seeing we hold as an earnest the Death 
of Christ. How shall He not give us His good things. Who 
hath suffered our evil things .? In this our earth, in this evil 
world, what abounds, but to be born, to labour, and to die? 
Examine thoroughly man's estate, convict me if I lie: con- 
sider all men whether they are in this world for any other 
end than to be born, to labour, and to die } This is the mer- 
chandize of our country : these things here abound. To such 
mercliandize did that Merchantman descend. And forasmuch 
as every merchant gives and receives; gives what he has, 
and receives what he has not; when he ])rocures any thing, 
he gives money, and receives what he buys: so Christ too in 
this His traffic gave and received. But what received He ? 
That which aboundeth here, to be born, to labour, and to die. 
And what did He give? To be born again, to rise again, and 
to reign (or ever. O Good Merchant, buy us. Why should 
I say buy us, when we ought to give Thee thanks that 
Thou hast bought us ? Thou dost deal out our Price to us, 
we drink Thy Blood; so dost thou deal out to us our Price. 
And we read the Gospel, our title' deed. We are Thy ser-i instru- 
vants, we are Thy creatures: Thou hast made us. Thou hast""®"^™ 
redeemed us. Any on(3 can buy his servant, create him he 
cannot; but the Lord hath both created and redeemed His 
servants; created them, that they might be; redeemed them, 
that they might not be captives ever. For we fell into the 
hands of the prince of this world, who seduced Adam, and 
made him his servant, and began to possess us as his slaves. 
But the Redeemer came, and the seducer was overcome. 
And what did our Redeemer to him who held us captive ? 
For our ransom he held out His Cross as a trap ; he placed 

bS2Xttobe/eareil,i/etloi<edmorc;Hisjjast(/i/is y'' most wondrous 

SiiRM. in It as a bait His Blood. He indeed had power to shed 
rj'j;,,]^," His Blood, he did not attain' to drink it. And in that he 
'"monlit shed the Blood of Him Who was no debtor, he was com- 
manded to render up the debtors; he shed the Blood of the 
Innocent, he was commanded to withdraw from the guilty. 
He verily shed His Blood to this end, that He might wipe 
out our sins. That then whereby he held us fast was effaced 
by the Redeemer's Blood. For he only held us fast by the 
bonds of our own sins. They were the captive's chains. 
Mat.i2, He came. He bound the strong one with the bonds of His 
Passion ; He entered into his house, into the hearts, that is, 
of those where he did dwell, and took away his vessels. We 
are his vessels. He had filled them with his own bitterness. 
This bitterness too he pledged to our Redeemer in the gall. 
He had filled us then as his vessels; but our Lord spoiling 
his vessels, and making them His Own, poured out the 
bitterness, filled them with sweetness. 
Ps.33,8. 3. Let us then love Him, for He is sweet. Taste and see 
^.Y.3i J/iat the Lord is sweet. He is to be feared, but to be loved 
still more. He is Man and God; the One Christ is Man and 
God; as one man is soul and body: but God and Man are 
not two Persons. In Christ indeed there are two substances, 
God and Man; but one Person, that the Trinity may remain, 
and that there be not a quaternity introduced by the addition 
2homineof the human- nature. How then can it be that God should 
Serm. ^^^ have mercy upon us, for whose sake God was made Man? 
17. (G7 jMucli is that which He hath done already ; more wonderful is 

Ben.) iv. . 

(7) note that which He hath done, than what He hath promised ; and 
f/j*^^' ^y ^^^^^ which He hath done, ought we to believe what He 
hath promised. For that which He hath done, we should 
scarcely believe, unless we also saw it. Where do we see 
it? In the peoples that believe, in the multitude that has 
been brought unto Him. For that luithbeeii fulfilled which 
Gen. 12, was promised to Abraham; and from these things which we 
see, we believe what we do not see. Abraham was one 
single man, and to him was it said, In thy seed shall all 
nations be blessed. If he had looked to himself, when would 
he have belii.'ved ? He was one single man, and was now 
old; and he had a barren wife, and one who was so far 
advanced in age, that she could not conceive, even though 

Earth is by Xt noic raised to Heaven, believe we it of ourselves. 583 

she had not been barren. There was nothina- at all from Serm. 
which any hope could be drawn. But he looked to Him [13qrJ 
That gave the promise, and believed what he did not see. Lo, 
what he believed, we see. Therefore from these things 
which we see, we ought to believe what we see not. He 
begat Isaac, we saw it not; and Isaac begat .Jacob, and this 
we did not see ; and Jacob begat twelve sons, and them we 
saw not; and his twelve sons begat the people of Israel ; this 
great people we see. I have now begun to mention those 
things which we do see. Of the peojjle of Israel was born 
the Virgin Mary, and she gave birth to Christ ; and, lo, in 
Christ all nations are blessed. What more true } more 
certain ? more plain ? Together with me, long after the 
world to come, ye who have been gathered together out of 
the nations. In this world hath God fulfilled His promise 
concerning the seed of Abraham. How shall He not give 
us His eternal promises, whom He hath made to be Abra- 
ham's seed ? For this the Apostle saith ; But if ye be Gal. 3, 
Chrisfs, (they are the Apostle's words,) then are ye Abrahani's 

4, We have begun to be some great thing ; let no man 
despise himself: we were once nothing; but we are some- 
thing. We have said unto the Lord, Remember that we are Ps. 102, 
dust; but out of the dust He made man, and to dust He gave -^ 'y^ ' 
life, and in Christ our Lord hath He already brought this ^ 03. 
same dust to the Kingdom of Heaven. For from this dust 
took He flesh, from this took earth, and hath raised earth to 
heaven, He Who made heaven and earth. If then these two new 
things, not yet done, were set before us, and it were asked of 
us, " Which is the most wonderful, that He Who is God 
should be made Man, or he who is man should be made a 
man of God ? which is the more wonderful .? which the 
more difficult ?" What hath Christ promised us .? That 
which as yet we see not ; that is, that we should be His men, 
and reign with Him, and never die? This is so to say with 
difficulty believed, that a man once born should arrive at 
that life, where he shall never die. This is what we believe 
withaheartwell cleansed', cleansed, I mecin,ofthe world's dust; ' ex- 
that this dust close not up our eye of faith. This it is that'^"^^" 
we are bid believe, that after we have been dead, we shall be 

Q q 

584 Greatness of our security in Christ. even with our dead bodies in life, where we shall never die. 


[iso.B.j Wonderful it is; but more wonderful is that which Christ 

hath done. For which is the more incredible, that man 

should live for ever, or that God should ever die ? That 

men should receive life from God is the more credible ; that 

God should receive death from men I suppose is the more 

incredible. Yet this hath been brought to pass already: let us 

then believe that which is to be. If that which is the more 

incredible hath been brought to pass, shall He not give us 

that which is the more credible .'' For God hath power to 

make of men Angels, Who hath made of earthy and filthy 

•semina spawn', men. What shall we be ? Angels. What have we 
been? I am ashamed to call it to mind; I am forced to 
consider it, yet I blush to tell it. What have we been ? 
Whence did God make men ? What were we before we 
were at all ? We were nothing. When we were in our 
mother's wombs, what were we ? It is enough that ye re- 
member. Withdraw your minds from the whence ye were 
made, and think of what ye are. Ye live; but so do herbs 
and trees live. Ye have sensation, and so have cattle sen- 
sation. Ye are men, ye have got beyond the cattle, ye are 
superior to the cattle ; for that ye understand how great 
things He hath done for you. Ye have life, ye have sensa- 
tion, ye have understanding, ye are men. Now to this 
benefit what can be compared.'' Ye are Christians. For if 
we had not received this, what would it profit us, that we 
were men ! So then we are Christians, we belong to Christ. 
For all the world's rage, it doth not break us ; because we 
belong to Christ. For all the world's caresses, it doth not 
seduce us ; we belong to Christ. 

5. A great Patron have we found, brethren. Ye know 

sfenduutthat men depend- much upon their patrons. A dependant 
of a man in power will make answer to any one who threatens 
him, " Thou canst do nothing to me, as long as my lord's 
head is safe." How much more boldly and surely may we 
say, " Thou canst do nothing to us, whilst our Head is safe." 
Forasmuch as our Patron is our Head. Whosoever depend 
upon any man as patron, are his dependants ; we arc the 
members of our Patron. Let Him bear us in Himself, and 
let no man tear us away from Him. Since what labours 

The Body and Blood of Christy our Ransom, Meat and Drink. 585 
soever we shall have endured in this world, all that passeth Serm. 


away, is nothing. The good things shall come which shallpg^gi 
not pass away ; by labours we arrive at them. But when we 
have arrived, no one teareth us away from them. The gates 
of Jerusalem are shut; they receive the bolts too, that to that 
city it may be said, Praise the Lord, Jei'usalem, praise thy Ps. 147, 
God, Sion. For He hath strengthened the bolts of thy ' 
gates ; He hath blessed thy children within thee. Who hath 
made thy borders peace. When the gates are shut, and the 
bolts drawn, no friend goeth out, no enemy entereth in. 
There shall we have true and assured security, if here we 
shall not have abandoned the truth. 


On the words of the Gospel, John vi. " Except ye eat the Flesh, &c." and 
on the words of the Apostles, and the Psalms, against the Pelagians. 

Delivered at the Table of the Martyr St. Cyprian, the 9th of the Calends of 
October, 23rd Sept. on the Lord's day. 

1, We have heard the True Master, the Divine Redeemer, i. 
the human Saviour, commending to us our Ransom, His 
Blood. For He spake to us of His Body and Blood ; He 
called His Body Meat, His Blood Drink. The faithful re- 
cognise the Sacrament of the faithful. But the hearers what 
else do they but hear? When therefore commending such 
Meat and such Drink He said, Except ye shall eat My John 6, 
Flesh and drink My Blood, ye shall have no life in yoii;^*^' 
(and this that He said concerning life, Who else said it but 
the Life Itself? But that man shall have death, not life, 
who shall think that the Life is false,) His disciples were 
offended, not all of them indeed, but very many, saying 
within themselves, This is an hard saying, icho can hear it ? v. 60. 
But when the Lord knew this in Himself, and heard the 
murmurings of their thought. He answered them, thinking 
though uttering nothing, that they might understand that 
they were heard, and might cease to entertain such thoughts. 

Q q 2 

58(5 Allj'aifh, as hnf Sacraments, God's gift; His gentle drawing. 

Serm. What then did He answer? Dofli this offend you f What 

[131.rJ///6'« if ye shall see the Son of Man ascend np where 

\. 61, 62. He was before? What mcancth this? Doth this offend 
you ? " Do ye imagine that I am about to make divisions of 
this My Body Which yc see; and to cut up My Members, 
and give them to you ? What then if ye shall see the So?i 
of 3Ian ascend up where He was before .^" Assuredly, He 
Who could ascend Whole could not be consumed. So then 
He both gave us of His Body and Blood a healthful refresh- 
ment, and briefly solved so great a question as to His Own 
Entirencss. Let them then who eat, eat on, and them that 
drink, drink; let them hunger and thirst; eat Life, drink 
Life That eating, is to be refreshed; but thou art in such 
wise refreshed, as that that whereby thou art refreshed, faileth 
not. That drinking, what is it but to live ? Eat Life, drink 
Life; thou shalt have life, and the Life is Entire. But then 
this shall be, that is, the Body and the Blood of Christ shall 
be each man's Life; if what is taken in the Sacrament visibly 
is in the truth itself eaten spiritually, drunk spiritually. For 

V. 63. we have heard the Lord Himself saying, It is the Spirit 
That qiiickeneth, but the flesh profiteth nothing. The icords 

^- 64. ihat I have spoken unto you, are Spirit and Life. But there 
are some of you, saith He, that believe not. Such were they 
who said. This is a hard saying, who can hear it? It is 
hard, but only to the hard; that is, it is incredible, but only 
to the incredulous. 
ii. 2. But in order to teach us that this very believing is 

V. 65. matter of gift, not of desert, He saith, As I have said unto 
you, no man cometh unto Me, except it nerc given him of 
My Father. Now as to where the Lord said this, if we call 
to mind the foregoing words of the Gospel, we shall find 

^ • 44. that He had said. No man cometh unto Me, except the Father 

Which hath sent Me dran- him. He did not say lead, 

but draw. This violence is done to the heart, not the 

body. Why then dost thou marvel ? Believe, and thou 

. comest; love, and thou art drawn. Do not suppose here 

i any rough and uneasy violence; it is gentle, it is sweet; it is 

I the very sweetness that draweth thee. Is not a sheep drawn, 

j when fresh grass is shewn to it in its hiniger ? Yet I imagine 

that it is not bodily driven on, but last bound by desire. In 

Neither faithy nor perseverance in good works, of ourselves. 587 

such wise do thou come too to Christ; do not conceive of Serm. 
long journey ings ; where thou believest, there thou comest. |-j3Jjg^ 
For unto Him Who is every where we come by love, not by 
sailing, Eut forasmuch as even in this kind of voyage, 
waves and tempests of divers temptations abound ; believe on 
the Crucified; that thy faith may be able to ascend the Wood. 
Thou shalt not sinlc, but shalt be borne upon the Wood. 
Thus, even thus, amid the waves of this world did he sail, 
who said, But God forbid that I should glory, save in the G^i. 6, 
dross of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

3. But wonderful it is, that when Christ Crucified is 
preached, two hear, one despiseth, the other ascendeth. 
Let him that despiseth, impute it to himself; let not him 
that ascendeth, arrogate it to himself. For he hath heard 
from the True Master; No man cometh unto 3Ie, excejjt it 
were given unto him of My Father. Let him joy, that it 
hath been given; let him render thanks to Him Who giveth 
it, with a humble, not an arrogant heart; lest what he hath 
attained' through humility, he lose through pride. For even ^ meruit 
they who arc already walking in this Avay of righteousness, if iii. 
they attribute it to themselves, and to their own strength, 
perish out of it. And therefore Holy Scripture teaching 

us humility saith by the Apostle, Work out your own Phii. 2, 
salvation with fear and trembling. And lest hereupon they ^^" 
should attribute ought to themselves, because he said. Work, 
he subjoined immediately, For it is God Who worketh i/ 
you both to will and to do of His good pleasure. It is God 
Who worketh in you ; therefore uith fear and trembling, 
make a valley, receive the rain. Low grounds are filled, 
high grounds are dried up. Grace is rain. Why dost thou 
marvel then, if God resist the proud, and giveth grace unto Jumes 
the lowly '^ Therefore, uith fear and trembling; that is, ' 
with humility. Be not high-minded, but fear. Fear that Rom. 
thou mayest be filled ; be not high-minded, lest thou be ' 
dried up. 

4. But you will say, " I am walking in this way already; 
once there was need for me to learn, there was need for me 
to know by the teaching of the law what I had to do: now 
1 have the free choice of the will ; who shall withdraw me 
from this way ?" If thou read carefully, thou wilt find that iv. 

588 God keeps in us what He gave us, uuly if ice ascribe it to Him- 

Sfum. a certain man began to uplift himself, on a certain abundance 

rj'Jjijji'of his, which he liad nevertheless received; but that the 

Lord in mercy, to teach him humility, took away what He 

had given; and he was on a sudden reduced to poverty, and 

confessing the mercy of God in liis recollection, he said, 

Ts 29,G. ifi ijiy ahundance I said, I sitall never be moved. In my 

T..V. 30. fibundance I said. But I said it, I who am a man said it; 

Ps 1 iG, jii jf^fyjf ^jj-g iidfg • / said. Therefore, in my ahundance I said ; 

so great was the abundance, that I dared to say, I shall never 

^s.29,8. he )noved. What next? O f.ord,in Thy favour Thou yavest 

E.viso strength to my beauty. But Thou tnrnedst away Thy Face 

"'• from, me, and I was troubled. " Thou hast shewn me," 

saith he, " that that wherein I did abound, was of Thee. 

Thou hast shewn me Whence 1 should seek, to Whom 

attribute what I had received, to Whom I ought to render 

Ps. 68, thanks, to Whom 1 should run in my thirst. Whereby be filled, 

Sept. and with Whom keep that wherel)y I should be filled. For my 

^•^•^^i strength nill I keep to Tltee ; whereby I am by Thy bounty 

filled, through Thy safe keeping 1 will not lose. 3Iy strength 

tiill I keep to Thee. That Thou mightest shew me this, 

Tliou turnedst away Thy Face from me, and I was troubled. 

T'/'owJ/ff/, because dried up; dried up, because exalted. Say 

then thou dry and parched one, that thou mayest be filled 

Ps. 142, again ; My soul is as earth without water unto Thee. Say, 

E.v!^ * ^ly '^^'^^ ^^ '^•^' earth ivithout uater unto Thee. For Thou 

143. Jiast said, not the Lord, / sliall never be moved. Thou hast 

said it, presuming on thine own strength; but it was not of 

thyself, and thou didst think as if it were." 

V. 5. What then doth the Lord say? Serve ye the Lord in fear ^ 

^'^^'^^' and rejoice unto Him icith trembling. So the Apostle too, 

Work out your own salvation with fear and troubling. 

For it is God Who worketh in yoa. Therefore rejoice with 

trembling: Lest at any time the Lord be angry. I see that 

you anticipate me by your crying out. For you know what 

I am about to say, you anticipate it by crying out. And 

whence have ye this, but that lie taught you to Whom ye 

have by believing come? This then He saith; hear what ye 

know already; I am not teaching, but in preaching am 

calling to your remembrance; nay, I am neither teaching, 

seeing that ye know already, nor calling to remembrance, 

All sin remitted in Baptism, sickliness remains. 589 

seeing that ye remember, but let us say all together what Serm. 
together with us ye retain. Embrace discipline, and rejoice, ^i^^-q'^ 
but, with trembling, that, humble ye may ever hold fast v. 12. 
that which ye have received. Lest at any time the Lord be 
anyry; with the proud of course, attributing to themselves 
what they have, not rendering thanks to Him, from Whom 
they have. Lest at any time the Lord be angry, and ye 
perish from the righteous uay. Did he say, " Lest at any 
time the Lord be angry, and ye come not into the righteous 
way ?" Did he say, " Lest the Lord be angry, and He bring 
you not to the righteous way V or, " admit you not into the 
righteous way ? Ye are walking in it already, be not proud, 
lest ye even perish from it. And ye perish, saith he, from 
the righteous way.'" When His wrath shall be kindled in a v. 13. 
short ti)ne against you. At no distant time. As soon as thou 
art proud, thou losest at once what thou hadst received. As vi. 
though man terrified by all this were to say, " What shall 
I do then .?" It follows. Blessed are all they that trust in 
Him: not in themselves, but in Him. By grace are ^e'^Ephes. 
saved, not of ourselves, but it is the gift of God. ' 

6. Peradventure ye are saying, " What does he mean, 
that he is so often saying this? A second, and a third time 
he says it; and scarcely ever speaks, but when he says it." 
Would that I may not say it in vain ! For men there are 
unthankful to grace, attributing much to ])oor and disabled 
nature. True it is, when man was created he received great 
power of free-will; but he lost it by sin. He fell into death, Lnkeio, 
became infirm, was left in the way by the robbers half dead ; * °" 
the Samaritan, which is by interpretation keeper, passing by 
lifted him up on His Own Beast; he is still being brought 
to the inn. Why is he lifted uj) .'' He is still in process of 
curing. " But," he will say, " it is enough for me that in 
baptism I received remission of all sins." Because iniquity 
was blotted out, was therefore infirmity brought to an end.'' 
" I received," says he, " remission of all sins." It is quite 
true. All sins were blotted out in the Sacrament of 
Baptism, all entirely, of words, deeds, thoughts, all were 
blotted out. But this is the oil and wine which was poured in 
by the way. Ye remember, beloved brethren, that man who 

590 IVeahiesses to be healed, until God redeem us /rum corruption. 

g was wounded by the robbers, and half dead by the way, 

Lw I. how he was strengllicned, by receiving oil and wine for his 

^ — —wounds. His error indeed was aheady pardoned, and yet 

his weakness is in process of healing in the inn. The inn, 

if ye recognise it, is the Church. In the time present, an 

inn, because in life we are passing by: it will be a home, 

whence we shall never remove, when we shall have got in 

perfect health unto the kingdom of heaven. Meanwhile 

receive we gladly our treatment in the iini, and weak as we 

still are, glory we not of sound health : lest through our 

pride we gain nothing else, but never for all our treatment to 

be cured. 

7. Bless the Lord, O my soul. Say, yea say to thy soul, 

Ps. 103," Thou art still in this life, still bearest about a frail flesh, 

sdll doiJi the corruptihle body press do un the soul; still after 

j5 "'the entireness of remission hast thou received the remedy of 

prayer; for still, whilst thy weaknesses are being healed, dost 

Mntt G ^^^^^ ^^7' Forylve us our debts. Say then to thy soul, thou 

12. lowly valley, not an exalted hill; say to thy soul, Bless the 

Ps. 103, j^ord, O mij soul, aud forget uol all His heueJUs. What 

benefits.'* Tell them, enumerate them, render thanks. What 

benefits? ]Vho forgivetli all tliiiie luiquilies. This took 

place in baptism. What takes place now.? If ho healeth 

all thy nenknesses. This takes place now; I acknowledge. 

But as long as I am here, the corruptible body presselh 

down the soul. Say then also that which comes next, 

JVho redeemeth thy li/e from corruptiou. After redemption 

from corruption, what remaineth ? When this corruptible 
i (or. ' ' ' 

15,54. shall hare put on iucorruptiou, and this mortal shall have 
''^" />«< on imuiorlality, then shall be brouyht to j)ass the saying 
that is written, Death is suaUowed up in victory. Where, 
O death, is thy contention ? There rightly, O death, uhere is 
thy siiny ? Thou seekest its place, and findest it not. What 
is the stiny of deaths What is, O death, where is thy sling? 
Where is sin? Thou seekest, and it is no where. For the 
sting of death is sin. They are the Apostle's words, not 
mine. Then shall it be said, death, where is thy sling ? 
Sin shall no where be, neither to surprise thee, nor to assault 
thee, nor to inflame' thy conscience. Then it shall not be 

' titilkt -^ 

The crown of riykteousness is of Gocfs mercy and pity. 59 1 

said, Forgive us our debts. But what shall be said? O Lord Serm. 
our God, give us peace: for Tliou hasl rendered all things nsi' g i* 
unto us. Is. 26, 

8. Finally, after the redemption from all corruption, what i"^-.^ept. 
remaineth but the crown of righteousness ? This at least 
remaineth, but even in it, or under it, let not the head be 
swollen that it may receive the crown. Hear, mark well the 
Psalm, how that crown will not have a swollen head. After 
he had said. Who redeemeth thy life from corruption ; he 
saith, Wlio crowneth thee. Here thou wert ready at once to 
say, " Crownelh thee, is an aclinowledgment of my merits, my 
own excellence hath done it ; it is the payment of a debt, not a 
gift." Give ear rather to the Psalm. For it is thou again that 
sayest this ; and all men are liars. Hear what God saith ; Ps. 116, 
Who crowneth thee with mercy and pity. Of His mercy 
He crowneth thee, of His pity He crowneth thee. For 
thou hadst no worthiness that He should call thee, and 
being called should justify thee, being justified glorify thee. 
The remnant is sated by the election of grace. But if by Rom.ii, 
grace, then is it no more of works; otherwise grace is no 
more grace. For to him that worketh, the reward shall not Rom. 4, 
be reckoned according to grace, bat according to debt. The ** 
Apostle saith. Not according to grace, but according to debt. 
But thee He crowneth with pity and mercy ; and if thy 
own merits have gone before, God saith to thee, " Examine 
\\ell thy merits, and thou shall see that they are My gifts." 

9. This then is the righteousness of God. As it is called. 
The Lord's salvation, not whereby the Lord is saved, butps 3 9. 
which He giveth to them whom He saveth ; so too the grace |^E^'„ „ 
of God through Jesus Christ our Lord is called the righte- 
ousness of God, not as that whereby the Lord is righteous, 
but whereby He justifieth those whom of ungodly He maketh 
righteous. But some, as the Jews in former times, both ix. 
wish to be called Christians, and still ignorant of God's 
righteousness, desire to establish their own, even in our own 
times, in the times of open grace, the times of the full reve- 
lation of grace which before was hidden ; in the times of 
grace now manifested in the floor, which once lay hid in the 
fleece. 1 see that a few have understood me, that more 
have not understood, whom 1 will by no means defraud by 

keeping vsilence. Gideon, one of the righteous men of old, Judg. (>, 


592 Jews strive against hidden, Pelagians against open, grace. 

Serm. asked for a sign from the Lord, and said, " I pray, Lord, that 

ri3i r.']this fleece which I put in the floor be bedewed', and that 

icomplu- the floor be dry." And it was so; the fleece was bedewed, 

^^^^ the whole floor was dry. In the morning he wrung out the 

fleece in a bason ; forasmuch as to the humble is grace 

given ; and in a bason, ye know what the Lord did to His 

disciples. Again, he asked for another sign; " O Lord, I 

would," saith he, " that the fleece be dry, the floor bedewed." 

And it was so. Call to mind the lime of the Old Testament, 

grace was hidden in a cloud, as the rain in the fleece. 

Mark now the time of the New Testament, consider well the 

nation of the Jews, thou wilt find it as a dry fleece ; whereas 

the whole world, like that floor, is full of grace, not hidden, 

but manifested. Wherefore we are forced exceedingly to 

bewail our brethren, who strive not against hidden, but 

against open and manifested grace. There is allowance for 

the .Jews. What shall we say of Christians ? Wherefore 

are ye enemies to the grace of Christ ? Why rely ye on 

yourselves ? Why unthankful ? For why did Christ come ? 

Was not nature here before? Was not nature here, which ye 

only deceive by your excessive praise ? Was not the Law 

Gal. 2, here? But the Apostle says. If rigldeousness come by the 

Law, then Christ is dead in rain. What the Apostle says 

of the Law, that say we of nature to these men. " If 

righteousness come by nature, then Christ is dead in vain." 

X. 10. What the;i was said of the Jews, the same altogether 

Bom. do we see in these men now\ They have n zeal of God: I 

10, 2. l)Qar them record that they have a zeal of God, but not 

according to knowledge. Wh^t is, not according to know- 

V. 3. ledge? For being ignorant of God''s righteousness, and 

wishing to establish their own, they have not submitted 

themselves unto tJie righteousness of God. My brethren, 

share with me in my sorrow. When ye find such as these, 

2perver-do not hide them; be there no such misdirected^ mercy in 

you; by all means, when ye find such, lude them not. 

Convince the gainsayers, and those who resist, bring to us. 

For already have two "^ councils on this question been sent to 

the Apostolic see ; and rescripts also have come from thence. 

« Of Carthage and Milevis which Roman Pontiff, Innocent, (A. D. 417.) 
are among the Epistles of St. Angus- in the Epistles 181. 182. Bened. 
tine, 175. 176. And the rescripts of the Not. 


Catechumens hide from themselves the Divine Mysteries. 593 

The question has been brought to an issue ; would that Serm. 
their error may sometime be brought to an issue too! There- p,g*]^'', 

fore do we advise that they may take heed, we teach that 

they may be instructed, we pray that they may be changed. 
Let us turn to the Lord, &c. 


On the words of the Gospel, John vi. " My Flesh is meat indeed, and My 
Blood is drink indeed. Whoso eateth My Flesh," &c. 

\. As we heard when the Holy Gospel was being read, i. 
the Lord Jesus Christ exhorted us by the promise of eternal 
life to eat His Flesh and drink His Blood. Ye that heard 
these words, have not all as yet understood them. For 
those of you who have been baptized and the faithful do 
know what He meant. But those among you who are yet 
called Catechumens, or Hearers, could be hearers, when it 
was being read, could they be understanders too ? Accord- 
ingly our discourse is directed to both. Let them who 
already eat the Flesh of the Lord and drink His Blood, 
think What it is they eat and drink, lest, as the Apostle says, 
They eat and drink judgment to themselves. But they who l Cor. 
do not yet eat and drink, let them hasten when invited to^^' 
such a Banquet. Throughout these days the teachers feed 
you, Christ daily feedeth you. That His Table is ever ordered 
before you. What is the reason, O Hearers, that ye see the 
Table, and come not to the Banquet? And peradventure, 
just now when the Gospel was being read, ye said in your 
hearts, " We are thinking what it is that He saith. My Flesh John 6, 
is meat indeed, and My Blood is drink indeed: How is the 
Flesh of the Lord eaten, and the Blood of the Lord drunk? 
We are thinking what He saith." Who hath closed it against 
thee, that thou dost not know this ? There is a veil over it ; 
but if thou wilt, the veil shall be taken away. Come to the 
profession % and thou hast resolved the difficulty. For what 
the Lord Jesus said, the faithful know well already. But 
thou art called a Catechumen, art called a Hearer, and art 
* Baptismal profession. 

594 Chastity of women should shame men. 

Sekm. deaf. For the ears of the body thou hast open, seeing that 
ri32.B.i ^'^ou hearest the words which were spoken; but tlie ears of 
the heart thou hast still closed, seeing thou understandest 
'disputonot what was spoken. I plead', I do not discuss it. Lo, 
sero '""Easter* is at hand, give in thy name for baptism. If the 
sPascha festivity arouse thee not, let the very curiosity induce thee: 
V. 56. that thou mayest know the meaning of, Whoso eateth My 
Flesh and drinketh My Blood dtvelleih in Me, and I in 
him. That thou mayest know with me what is meant, 
^^^^'"^^ Knock, and it shall be opened unto ihee: and as I say to 
thee, Knock, and it shall be opened unto thee, so do I too 
knock, open thou to me. When 1 sjjeak aloud to the ears, I 
knock at the breast. 
ii. 2. But if the Catechumens, my brethren, are to be exhorted 
not to delay to approach to this so great grace of regene- 
ration ; what great care ought we to have in building up the 
faithful, that their approaching may profit them, and that 
they eat and drink not such a l>anquet unto their own judj^- 
inent? Now that they may not eat and drink unto judgment, 
let them live well. Be ye exhorters, not by words, but by 
your conduct; that they who have not been baptized, may in 
such wise hasten to follow you, that they perish not by 
imitating you. Do ye who are married keep the fidelity of 
the marriage-bed with your wives. Render what you require. 
As a husband thou requirest chastity from thy wife; give her an 
exainple, not words. Thou art the head, look where thou 
goesl. For thou oughtcst to go Avhere it may not be danger- 
ous for her to follow : yea, thou oughtcst to walk thyself 
where thou wouldest have her follow. Thou requirest strength 
from the weaker sex; the lust of the flesh ye have both of 
you: let him that is the stronger, be the first to conquer. 
And yet, which is to be lamented, many men are conquered 
by the women. Women preserve chastity, which men will 
not preserve; and in that they preserve it not, would wish to 
appear men : as though he was in sex the stronger, only that 
the enemy might more easily subdue him. There is a 
struggle, a war, a combat. The man is stronger than the 
Ephes. woman, the man is the head of the icoman. The woman 

5 23 ' 

' ' combats and overcomes ; dost thou succumb to the enemy .? 
Tlu; body stands firm, and does the head lie low ? But those 

Consciousness of God's presence protection of chastity. 595 

of you who have not yet wives, and who yet aheady approach Serm. 
to the Lord's Tabic and eat the Flesh of Christ, and drink ['i32]b!i 
His Blood, if ye are about to marry, keep yourselves for 
your wives. As ye would have them come to you, such 
ought they also to find you. What young man is there who 
would not wish to marry a chaste wife? And if he were 
about to espouse a virgin, who would not desire she should 
be unpolluted ? Thou lookest for one unpolluted, be un- 
polluted thyself. Thou lookest for one pure, be not thyself 
impure. For it is not that she is able, and thou art not able. 
If it were not possible, then could not she be so. But seeing 
that she can, let this teach thee, that it is possible. And 
that she may have this power, God is her ruler. But thou 
wilt have greater glory if thou shalt do it. Why greater 
glory? The vigilance of parents is a check to her, the very 
modesty of the weaker sex is a bridle to her; lastly, she is in 
fear of the laws of which thou art not afraid. Therefore it 
is then that thou wilt have greater glory if thou shalt do it ; 
because if thou do it, thou fearest God. She has many 
things to fear besides God, thou fearest God alone. But He 
Whom thou fearest is greater than all. He is to be feared in iii. 
public. He in secret. Thou goest out, thou art seen ; thou 
goest in, thou art seen ; the lamp is lighted, He seeth thee ; 
the lamp is extinguished. He seeth thee ; thou enterest into 
thy closet, He seeth thee; in the retirement' of thine own'incor- 
heart, He seeth thee. Fear Him, Him Whose care it is \-o ^J^' 
see thee ; and even by this fear be chaste. Or if thou wilt 
sin, seek for some place where He may not see thee, and do 
what thou wouldest. 

3. But ye who have taken the vow already, chasten your 
bodies more strictly, and suffer not yourselves to loosen the 
reins of concupiscence even after those things which are 
permitted; that ye may not only turn away from an unlawful 
connexion^, but may despise even a lawful look. Remem- 2 coucu- 
ber, in whichever sex ye are, whether men or women, that ye ''" 
are leading on earth the life of Angels : For the Angels are -^^^x^ 
neither given in marriage, nor marry. This shall we be, 22, so. 
when we shall have risen again. How much better are ye, 
who before death begin to be what men will be after the 
resurrection ! Keep your proper degrees, for God keepeth 

596 Rewards of virginity, tcedded chastity, holy widoichood. 

Serm. for you your lionours. The resurrection of the dead is 
f 132^3 1 ^"™P'^'*^'^^ to the stars that are set in heaven. For star 
1 CorT differeth Jrom star in glory, as the Apostle says; so also is 
16,41.2. ^^^g resurrection of the dead. For after one manner virginity 
shall shine there, after another shall wedded chastity shine 
there, after another shall holy widowhood shine there. They 
shall shine diversely, but all shall be there. The brilliancy 
unequal, the heaven the same. 
iv. 4. With your thoughts then on your degrees, and keeping 
your professions, approach ye to the Flesh of the Lord, 
approach to the Blood of the Lord. Whoso knoweth him- 
self to be otherwise, let him not approach. Be moved to 
compunction rather by my words. For they who know that 
they are keeping for their wuves, what from their wives they 
require, they who know that they are in every way keeping 
continence, if this they have vowed to God, feel joy at my 
words ; but they who hear me say, " Whosoever of you are 
not keeping chastity, approach not to that Bread, are sad- 
dened." And I should have no wish to say this; but what 
can I do } Shall I fear man, so as to suppress the truth ? 
What, if those servants do not fear the Lord, shall I there- 
Matt. fQj.g tQQ j^Q^ fear.? as if I do not know that it is said, " Thou 
wicked and slothful servant, thou shouldest dispense, and I 
require." Lo, I have dispensed, O Lord my God; lo, in Thy 
Sight, and in the sight of Thy Holy Angels, and of this Thy 
people, I have laid out Thy money ; for I am afraid of Thy 
judgment. I have dispensed, do Thou require. Though I 
should not say it, Thou vvouldest do it. Therefore I rather 
say, I have dispensed, do Thou convert, do Thou spare. 
Make them chaste who have been unchaste, that in Thy 
Sight we may rejoice together when the judgment shall 
come, both he who hath disj^ensed and he to whom it hath 
been dispensed. Doth this please you? May it do so! 
Whosoever of you are unchaste, amend yourselves, whilst ye 
are alive. For 1 have power to speak the word of God, but 
to deliver the unchaste, who persevere in wickedness, from 
the judgment and condemnation of God, have I no power. 

Risk, lesfsome misinterpret to their oivn hurt our Lord's words. 597 


On the words of the Gospel of John vii. where Jesus said that He was not 
going up unto the feast, and notwithstanding went up. 

1. I PURPOSE by the Lord's assistance to treat of this sec- Serm. 
lion' of the Gospel which has just been read; nor is there arj^g'g^g"' 
little difficulty here, lest the truth be endangered, and false- 1 p^^;. 
hood glory. Not that either the truth can perish, nor false- fu'° 
hood triumph. Now hearken for a while what difficulty this 
lesson has; and being made attentive by the propounding of 
the difficulty, pray that I may be sufficient for its solution. 
The Jeu-s' feast of tabernacles was at hand; these it seems John 7, 
are the days which they observe even to this day, when they ^* 
build huts^. For this solemnity of theirs is called from-casas 
the building of tabernacles; since o-xrjv^ means a " tabernacle," 
(TxrjvoTrrjy/a is the building of a tabernacle. These days were 
kept as feast days among the Jews; and it was called one 
feast day, not because it was over in one day, but because it 
was kept up by a continued festivity ; just as the feast day of 
the Passover, and the feast day of unleavened bread, and 
notwithstanding, as is manifest, that feast is kept throughout 
many days. This anniversary then was at hand in Judaea, 
the Lord Jesus was in Galilee, where He had also been 
brought up, where too He had relations and kinsfolk, whom 
Scripture calls, His hretJtren. His brethren, therefore, as we John 7, 
have heai'd it read, said unto Him, Pass from hence, and go 
into Judcea; that Thy disciples also may see TJiy works 
that Thon doest. For no mati doeth any tiling in secret., andv 4. 
himself seeketh to be known openly. If Thou do these things, 
manifest Thyself to the world. Then the Evangelist sub- 
joins. For neither did His brethren believe in Him. If then v. 5. 
they did not believe in Him, the words they threw out were 
of envy. Jesus answered them, My time is not yet come; but v. 6. 
your time is alway ready. The world cannot hate you; but v. 7. 
Me it hateth, because I testify of it that the icorks thereof 
are evil. Go ye up to this feast day. I go ^not up to this v. 8. 

* In the Greek it is oSttu iionduin, text, as tiaving the authority of the 
and so in some Latin copies ; (f^en. not.) Mss. D. K. most Verss. and the 
Griesbach and Seholz place ovk in the Fathers. 

598 All saying what is not done, not a lie ; The Truth cannot lie. 

Serm. feast day^for My lime is not yet accomplished. Then fol- 
ps.j.B.jlows the Evangelist; When He had said these words, He 
V. 9. Himself' stayed in Galilee. Bat uhen His brethren nere 
gone up, then went He also up to the feast day, not openly^ 
hut as it nere in secret. Thus far is the extent of the diffi- 
culty, all the rest is clear. 

2. What then is the difficulty ? what makes the per- 
plexity ? what is in peril ? Lest the Lord, yea, to speak more 
plainly, lest the Truth Itself should be tliought to have lied. 
For if we would have it thought that He lied, the weak will 
receive an authority for lying. We have heard say that He 
lied. For those who think that He lied, speak thus, " He 
said that He should not go up to the feast day, and He went 
up." In the first place then, let us, as far as in the press of 
time we can, see whether he does lie, who says a thing and 
does it not. For example, 1 have told a friend, " I will see 
you to-morrow;" some greater necessity occurs to hinder me ; 
I have not on that account spoken falsely. For when I 
made the promise, I meant what I said. But when some 

1 fijera greater matter occurred, which hindered the accomplishment * 
of my promise, I had no design to lie, but I was not able to 
fulfil the promise. Lo, to my thinking I have used no 
labour to persuade you, but have merely suggested to your 
2pru- good sense-, that he who pi'omises something, and doeth it 
dentiam j^^j^ does not lie, if, that he do it not, something has occurred 
to hinder the fulfilment of his promise, not to be any proof 
of falsehood. 

3. But some one who hears me will say, " Canst thou then 
say this of Christ, that He either was not able to fulfil what 
He would, or that He did not know things to come ?" Thou 
doest well, good is thy suggestion, right thy hint; but, O 
man, share with me my anxiety. Dare we to say that He 
lies. Who we do not dare to say is weak in power .? I for my 
part, to the best of my thinking, as far as according to my 
infirmity I am able to judge, would choose that a man should 
be deceived in any matter rather than lie in any. For to be 

Ps. 6,5. deceived is the portion of infirmity, to lie of iniquity. Thou 
hatest, Lord, saith he, all them that work iniquity. And 

V. G. immediately after. Thou shall destroy all them that speak a 
lie. Either iniquity and a lie are upon a level ; or, 77/0/^ slialt 


Difference between being deceived and lying. 599 

destroi/, is more than, Thou hatesi. For he who is held in Serm. 
hatred, is not immediately pmiished by destruction. ^^utr^^3^gj 
let that question be, whether there be ever a necessity to lie; 
for I am not now discussing that; it is a dark question, 
and has many lappings ' ; I have not time to cut them, and i sinus 
to come to the quick ^. Therefore let the treatment of it be 2 viv 
deferred to some other time; for peradventure it will be cured 
by the Divine assistance without any words of mine. But 
attend and distinguish between what I have deferred, and 
what I wish to treat of to-day. Whether on any occasion 
one may lie, this difficult and most obscure question I defer. 
But whether Christ lied, whether the Truth spake any thing 
false, this, being reminded of it by the Gospel lesson, have I 
undertaken to-day. 

4. Now what the difference is between being deceived, and 
lying, I will briefly state. He is deceived who thinks what 
he says to be true, and therefore says it, because he thinks it 
true. Now if this which he that is deceived says, were true, 
he would not be deceived; if it were not only true, but he 
also knew it to be true, he would not lie. He is deceived 
then, in that it is false, and he thinks it true ; but he only 
says it because he thinks it true. The error lies in human 
infirmity, not in the soundness of the conscience. But whoso- 
ever thinks it to be false, and asserts it as true, he lies. See, 
ray brethren, draw the distinction, ye who have been brought 
up in the Church, instructed in the Lord's Scriptures, not 
uninformed, nor simple', nor ignorant* men. For there are^rustici 
among you men learned and erudite, and not indifferently '^'°*^ 
instructed in all kinds of literature; and with those of you 
who have not learnt that literature which is called liberal, it 
is more that ye have been nourished up in the word of 
God. If I labour in explaining what I mean, do ye aid me 
both by the attention of your hearing, and the though iful- 
ness^ of your meditations. Nor will ye aid, unless ye are^pruden- 
aided. Wlierefore pray we mutually for one another, and*"^ 
look equally for our common Succour. He is deceived, who 
whereas what he says is false, thinks it to be true ; but he lies, 
who thinks a thing to be false, and gives it out as true, 
whether it be true or false. Observe what I have added, 
" whether it be true or false ;" yet he who thinks it to be 

R r 

GOO Christ cannot be deceived, much less deceive. 

Serm. false, and asserts it as true, lies ; he aims to deceive. For 

rjgy^jljwhat good is it to him, that it is true? He all the while 

thinks it false, and says it as if it were true. What he says 

is true in itself, it is in itself true ; with regard to him it is 

false, his conscience does not hold that which he is saying; 

he thinks in himself one thing to be true, he gives out another 

for truth. His is a double heart, not single; he does not 

bring out that which he has in it. The double heart has long 

Eccius. since been condemned. With deceitful lips in a heart and a 

^ l^' heart have they spoken evil things. Had it been enough to 

E.Y. 2, say, in the heart have they spoken evil things, where is the 

Ps.i2 2.^^^^*^/"^^ lips? What is deceit ? When one thing is done, 

another pretended. Deceitful lips are not a single heart; 

and because not a single heart, therefore in a heart and 

a heart; therefore in a heart twice, because the heart is 


5, How then think we of the Lord Jesus Christ, that He 
lied? If it is a less evil to be deceived than to lie, dare we to 
say that He lies Who we dare not to say is deceived ? But 
He is neither deceived, nor doth He lie ; but in very deed 
as it is written, (for of Him is it understood, of Him ought it 
to be understood,) Nothing false is said unto the King, and 
nothing false shall proceed out of His mouth. If by King 
here he meant any man, let us prefer Christ the King, to a 
man-king. But if, which is the truer understanding of it, it 
is Christ of whom he spake, if 1 say, as is the truer under- 
standing of it, it is Christ of Whom he spake; (for to Him 
indeed nothing false is said, in that He is not deceived ; from 
His Mouth nothing false proceedeth, in that He doth not lie;) 
let us look how we are to understand the section of the Gospel, 
J voragi- and let us not make the ' pitfall of a lie, as it were, on heavenly 
authority. But it is most absurd to be seeking to explain 
the truth, and to prepare a place for a lie. What art thou 
teaching me, 1 ask thee, who art explaining this text to me, 
what wouldest thou teach me ? I do not know whether 
you would dare to say, " Falsehood." For if you should dare 
to say this, I turn away mine ears, and fasten them up with 
thorns, that if you should try to force your way, I might 
through their very pricking make away without the expla- 
nation of the Gospel. Tell me Avhat thou wouldest wish to 

Better to con/ess ignorance ihaa to explain Scripture amiss. 001 
teach me, and thou hast resolved the difficulty. Tell me, I Serm. 

LXXX I [ f 

pray thee ; lo, here 1 am ; mine ears are open, my heart is [133. B.i 
ready, teach me. But I ask, what ? I will not travel through 
many things. What art thou going to teach ii?c ? Whatso- 
ever learning thou art about to bring forward, whatsoever 
strength to shew in disputation, tell me this one thing only, 
one of two things I ask; art thou going to teach me truth or 
falsehood ? What do we suppose he will answer lest one 
depart; lest while he is open mouthed and making an effort to 
bring out his words, I forthwith leave him: what will lie pro- 
mise but truth ? I am listening, standing, expecting, most ear- 
nestly expecting. See here, he who promised that he will teach 
me truth, insinuates falsehood concerning Christ. How 
then shall he teach truth, who would say that Christ is false? 
If Christ is false, can I hope that thou wilt tell me the truth ? 
6. Consider again. What does he say ? Hath Christ 
spoken falsely ? Where, 1 ask thee ? " Where He says, 
I go not up to the feast day ; and went up." For my part, I 
should wish thoroughly to examine this place, if so be we 
may see that Christ did not speak falsely. Yea rather, seeing 
that 1 have no doubt that Christ did not speak falsely, 1 will 
either thoroughly examine this passage and understand it, or, 
not understanding it, I will defer it. Yet that Christ spoke 
falsely will I never say. Grant that I have not understood 
it; I will depart in my ignorance. For better is it witli 
piety to be ignorant, than with madness to pronounce judg- 
ment. Notwithstanding we are trying to examine, if so be by 
His assistance, Who is the Truth, we may find something, 
and be found something ourselves, and this something will 
not be in the Truth a lie. For if in searching 1 find a lie, I 
find not a something but a nothing. Let us then look 
where it is thou sayest that Christ lied. He will say, 
" In that He said, / go not up to this feast, and went up," 
Whence dost thou know that He said so ? What if I were to 
say, nay, not I, but any one, for God forbid that I should say 
it ; what if another were to say, " Christ did not say this ;" 
whereby dost thou refute him, whereby wilt thou prove it .'' 
Thou wouldest open the book, find the passage, point it out 
to the man, yea with great confidence force the book upon him 
if he resisted, " Hold it, mark, read, it is the Gospel you have 

R r 2 

602 Since the Gospel is true, Xt, Wfiose it is, true in all tilings. 

Sekm. in your hands." But why, 1 ask thee, why dost thou so 
J'iYs'Jb"; rudely accost' this feeble one? Do not be so eager; 
1 contur- speak more composedly, more tranquilly. See, it is the 
^^' Gospel 1 have in my hands; and what is there in it? 
He answers : " The Gospel declares that Christ said what 
thou deniest." And wilt thou believe that Christ said it, 
because the Gospel declares it ? " Decidedly ibr that rea- 
son," says he. I marvel exceedingly how thou shouldest 
say that Christ lieth, and the Gospel doth not lie. But 
lest haply when I speak of the Gospel, thou shouldest 
think of the book itself, and imagine the parchment and ink 
to be the Gospel, see what the Greek word means; Gospel 
is " a good messenger," or " a good message." The messenger 
then doth not lie, and doth He Who sent him, lie ? This 
messenger, the Evangelist to wit, to give his name also, 
this John who w^rote this, did he lie concerning Christ, 
or say the truth? Choose which you will, I am ready to 
hear you on either side. If he spake falsely, you have no 
means of proving that Christ spake those words. If he said 
the truth, truth cannot flow from the fountain of falsehood. 
Who is the Fountain? Christ: let John be the stream. The 
stream comes to me, and you say to me, " Drink securely;" 
yea, whereas you alarm me as to the Fountain Himself, 
whereas you tell me there is falsehood in the Fountain, 
you say to me, " Drink securely." What do I drink? 
What said John, that Christ spake falsely ? Whence came 
John ? From Christ. Is he who came from Him, to tell 
me truth, when He from Whom he came lied ? I have 
Johni3 read in the Gospel plainly, John lay on the Lord's Breast; 
^^' but 1 conclude that he drank in truth. What saw he as 
he lay on the Lord's Breast? What drank he in? what, 
John 1 t»ut that which he poured forth? In the beginning teas 
1- ^"' the IVorcly and the Word was with God, and the Word 
was God, Tlie Same was in the beginning with God. All 
things ivere made by Him, and ivithout Him was nothing 
made. That which was made in Him was life, and the 
Life uas the Light of men ; And the Light shineth in 
darkness, and the darkness comprehended It not; never- 
theless It shineth, and though I chance to have some 
obscurity, and cannot thoroughly comprehend It, still It 

The Gospel attests Christ to be true, the Truth. 603 

shineth. There was a man sent from God, whose name was Serm. 
John ; he came to bear witness of the Light, that all men ri3i.B,i 
through him might believe. He iras not the Light: who? 
John: who? John the Baptist. For of him saith John the 
Evangelist He was not the Light; of whom the Lord 
saith, He was a burning, and a shining lamp. But a lamp Johns, 
can be lighted, and extinguislied. What then ? whence ' 
drawest thou the distinction ? of what place art thou en- 
quiring? He to Whom the lamp bare witness, Was ^^eJohni, 
True Light. Where John added, the True, there thou art^' 
looking out for a lie. But hear still the same Evangelist 
John pouring forth what he had drunk in; And we beheld,^- '^'^^ 
saith he. His glory. What did He behold? what glory 
beheld he ? The glory as of the Only- Begotten of the Father^ 
full of grace and truth. See then, see, if we ought not 
haply to restrain weak or rash disputings, and to presume 
nothing false of the truth, to give to the Lord what is His 
due; let us give glory to the Fountain, that we may fill 
ourselves securely. Now God is trite, but every man a liar. Rom. 3, 
What is this? God is full; every man is empty; if he will 
be filled, let him come to Him That is full. Come untoPs,33,6. 
Him, and be enlightened. Moreover, if man is empty, in that e!v!34 
he is a liar, and he seeks to be filled, and with haste and^- 
eageniess runs to the fountain, he wishes to be filled, he is 
empty. But thou sayest, " Beware of the fountain, there is 
falsehood there." What else sayest thou, but " there is 
poison there ?" 

7. " You have already," he says, " said all, already have 
you checked, already chastened me. But tell me how He 
did not speak falsely Who said, / go not up, and went up ?" 
I will tell you, if I can ; but think it no little matter, that 
if I have not established you in the truth, I have yet kept 
you back from rashness. I will nevertheless tell you, what 
I imagine you know even already, if you remember the words 
which I have set forth to you. The words themselves solve 
the difficulty. That feast was kept for many days. On this, 
that is this present feast day, saith He, this day, that is 
when they hoped, He went not up ; but when He Himself 
resolved to go. Now mark what follows. When He had said 
these tvords, He Himself stayed in Galilee. So then He did 


Serm. not go up on that feast day. For His brethren wished that 
[-133 p'jilc should go first; therefore had they said, Pass J'ro77i Jience 
into Judcea. They did not say, " Let us pass," as though 
they would be His companions; or, " Follow us into Judaea," 
as though they would go first; but as though they would 
send Ilim before them. He wished that they should go 
before; He avoided this snare, impressing His infirmity as 
Matt.2, Man, hiding the Divinity; this He avoided, as when He 
fled into Egypt. For this was no effect of want of power, 
but even of truth, that He might give an example of caution; 
that no servant of His might say, " I do not fly, because it is 
disgraceful ;" when haply it might be expedient to fly. As 
Matt. He was going to say to His disciples. When they have 
' " persecuted you in this city, flee ye into another ; He gave 
them Himself this example. For He was apprehended, when 
He willed, He was born, when He willed. That they might 
not anticipate Him then, and announce that He was coming, 
John 7, and plots be-^prepared ; He said, I go not up to this feast day. 
^' He said, / 170 not up, that He might be hid; He added 

'Aliquid#/f25, that He might not lie. Something He expressed', 
alic uid Something He suppressed, something He repressed ; yet said 
abstulit, He nothing false, for notliing false proceedeth out of His 
ciistui'it. Mouth. Finally, after He had said these words. When His 
V. 10. brethren were gone up; the Gospel declares it, attend, read 
what you have objected to me ; see if the passage itself do 
not solve the difficulty, see if I have taken from any 
where else what to say. This then the Lord was waiting 
for, that they should go up first, that they might not 
announce beforehand that He was coming. When His 
brethren ivere gone up, then went He also up to the feast 
day, not openly, but as it were in secret. What is, as 
it were in secret? He acts there as if in secret. What 
is, as it were in secret ? Because neither was this really in 
secret. For He did not really make an effort to be con- 
cealed, Who had it in His Own power when He would be 
taken. But in that concealment, as I have said, He gave 
His weak disciples, who had not the power to prevent being 
taken when they would not, an example of being on their 
guard against the snares of enemies. For He went up 
afterwards even openly, and taught them in the temple; 

OurLord also foretold our not keeping feasts of the Jeivs. 605 

and some said, " Lo, this is He; lo, He is teaching. Certainly Serm. 
our rulers said that they wished to apprehend Him : Lo, He [133.B.] 
speaketh openly, and no one layeth hands upon Himr v. 25,26. 

8. But now if we turn our attention to ourselves, if we 
think of His Body, how that we are even He. For if we 
were not He, Forasmuch as ye have done it unto one of the Matt. 
least of Mine, ye have done it unto Me, would not be true. ' 
If we were not He, 8aul, Saul, why persecutest thou 3Ie?A.cts9, 
would not be true. So then we are He, in that we are His 
members, in that we are His Body, in that He is our Head, 
in that Whole Christ is both Head and Body. Peradventure Eph. 1, 
then He foresaw us that we were not to keep the feast days ^'coj..* 
of the Jews, and this is, I go not up to this feast day. ^2, 12. 
See neither Christ nor the Evangelist lied ; of the which 
two if one must needs choose one, the Evangelist would 
pardon me, I would by no means put him that is true before 
the Truth Himself; I would not prefer him that was sent to 
Him by Whom he was sent. But God be thanked, in ray 
judgment what was obscure has been laid open. Your piety 
will aid me before God. Behold, I have, as I was best 
able, resolved the question, both concerning Christ and the 
Evangelist. Hold fast the truth with me as men who love 
it, embrace charity without contention. 


On the words of the Gospel, John viii. " If ye shall continue in My word, 
ye are My disciples indeed," &c. 

1. Ye know well, Beloved, that we all have One Master, i. 
and are fellow disciples under Him. Nor are we your masters, 
because we speak to you from this higher spot; but He is the 
Master of all. Who dwelleth in us all. He just now spake to 
us all in the Gospel, and said to us, what I also am saying to 
you; but He saith it of us, as well of us as of you. If ye shall ^0^^^, 
continue in My ivord, not of course in my word who am now 
speaking to you; but in His Who spake just now out of the 
Gospel. If ye shall continue in My word, saith He, ye are 
My disciples indeed. To be a disciple,it is not enough to come, 
but to continue. He doth not therefore say, " If ye shall 
hear My word;" or, " If yc shall come to My word;" or, " If 

606 Blessedness of continuing in Christ, and freedom by Him. 
Serm. ye shall praise My word;" but observe what He said, If ye 


[isi^R.] *'^^^^^ continue in My word, ye are My disciples indeed, and 

V. 32. ye shall know the truth, and the truth shall free you. What 
shall we say, brethren ? To continue in the word of God, is it 
toilsome, or is it not? If it be toilsome, look at the great 
reward; if it be not toilsome, thou receivest the reward for 
nought. Continue we then in Him Who continueth in us. 
We, if we continue not in Him, fall; but Pie if He continue 
not in us, hath not on that account lost an habitation. For 
He skilleth to continue in Himself, Who never leaveth 
Himself. But for man, God forbid that he should continue 
in himself who hath lost himself. So then we continue in 
Him through indigence ; He continueth in us through mercy. 
ii. 2. Now then seeing it hath been set forth what we ought to 
do, let us see what w^e are to receive. For He hath ap- 
pointed a work, and promised a reward. What is the work ? 
If ye shall continue in Me, A short work; short in descrip- 
tion, great in execution. If ye shall continue. What is, If 
Matt. 7, ye shall continue ? " If ye shall build on the Rock." O how 
great a thing is this, brethren, to build on the Rock, how great 
V. 25. is it! The floods came, the winds hleiv, the rain descended, 
and beat upon that house, and it fell not ; for it was founded 
upon a Rock. What then is to continue in the word of God, 
but not to yield to any temptations } The reward, what is it? 
Ye shall knoiv the truth, and the truth shall free you. Bear 
> obtu- with me, for ye perceive that my voice is feeble ' ; assist me 
n'ran- ^Y JOUY calm^ attention. Glorious reward! Ye shall know 
quilli- the truth. Here one may haply say, "And what doth it profit 
me to know the truth?" And the truth shall free you. If 
the truth have no charms for you, let freedom have its charms. 
In the usage of the Latin tongue, the expression, " to be 
free," is used in two senses ; and chiefly we are accustomed 
to hear tins word in this sense, that whosoever is free may 
be understood to escape some danger, to be rid of some em- 
barrassment. But the proper signification of " to be free," 
is " to be made free;" just as " to be saved," is " to be made 
safe ;" " to be healed," is, " to be made whole ;" so " to be 
freed," is " to be made free." Therefore I said, " If the 
truth have no charms for you, let freedom have its charms." 
This is expressed more evidently in the Greek language, nor 

All by nature, slaves ; nay, dead. 607 

can it be there understood in any other sense. And that Serm. 
ye may know that in no other sense can it be understood ; [134.5^ 
when the Lord spake, the Jews answered, We irere never in v. 33. 
bondage to any man ; how sayest thou the Truth shall free 
you ? That is, " the Truth shall make you free," how sayest 
thou to us, who were never in bondage to any man ? " How," 
say they, " dost Thou promise them freedom, who as Thou 
seest never bare the hard yoke of bondage ?" 

3. They heard what they ought ; but they did not what 
they ought. What did they hear ? Because I said. The 
truth shall free you ; ye turned your thoughts upon y^xxx- 
selves, that ye are not in bondage to man, and ye said, 
We were never in bondage to any man. Every one, Jew iii- 
and Greek, rich and poor, the man in authority and in pri- 
vate station, the emperor and the beggar, Every one that ''•34. 
co^nmitteth sin is the servant of sin. Every one, saith He, 
that commiiteth sin is the servant of sin. If men but ac- 
knowledge their bondage, they will see from whence they 
may obtain freedom. Some free-born man has been taken 
captive by the barbarians, from a free man is made a 
slave; another hears, and pities him, considers how that he 
has money, becomes his ransomer, goes to the barbarians, 
gives money, ransoms the man. And he has indeed restored 
freedom, if he have taken away iniquity. But what man 
has ever taken away iniquity from another man ? He who 
was in bondage with the barbarians, has been redeemed by 
his ransomer; and great difference there is between the ran- 
somer and the ransomed ; yet haply are they fellow-slaves 
under the lordship of iniquity. I ask him that was ran- 
somed, " Hast thou sin V " I have," he says. I ask the 
ransomer, " Hast thou sin ?" " I have," he says. So then 
neither do thou boast thyself that thou hast been ransomed, 
nor thou uplift thyself that thou art his ransomer; but fly 
both of you to the True Deliverer. It is but a small part of it, 
that they who are under sin, are called servants; they are even 
called dead; what a man is afraid of captivity bringing upon 
him, iniquity has brought on him already. For what.? 
because they seem to be alive, was He then mistaken Who 
said, Lei the dead bury their dead? So then all under sin^^***-^' 

608 Xt alone can free, icho took ourjlesh^ not its sin. 

Serm. are dead, dead servants, dead in their service, servants in 

{\3^.B.\ ^^^^"' death. 

4. Who then freeth from death and from bondage, save He, 

Ps.88,5. Who is Free ainuiig the dead '^ Wlio is Free among the 
dead, save He Who among sinners is without sin ? Lo, the 
prince of the world cometh, saith our Redeemer Himself, 

Johui4,our Dehverer, Lo, the prince of the uorld cometh, and shall 
find nothing in Me. He holds fast those whom he hath 
deceived, whom he hath seduced, whom he hath persuaded 
to sin and death ; in 3Ie shall heJind?iothing. Come, Lord, 
Redeemer come, come; let the ca^Dtive acknowledge thee, 
him that leadeth captive flee thee ; be Thou my De- 
liverer. Lost as I was, He hath found me in Whom the devil 
findeth nothing that cometh of the flesh. The prince of 
this world iindeth in Him Flesh, he findeth it; but what 
kind of Flesh ? A mortal P'lesh, which he can seize, which he 
can crucify, which he can kill. Thou art mistaken, O 
deceiver, the Redeemer is not deceived ; thou art mistaken. 
Thou seest in the Lord a mortal Flesh, it is not flesh of sin, 
it is the likeness of flesh of sin. For God sent His Son in 
the likeness of flesh of sin. True Flesh, mortal Flesh ; but not 

Rom 8, flesh of sin. For God sent His Son in the likeness of flesh of 

^" sin, that hi/ sin He might condemn sin in the Flesh. For God 

sent His Son in the likeness of flesh of sin ; in Flesh, but not 
in flesh of sin; but in the likeness of flesh of sin. For what 
purpose ? That by sin, of which assuredly there was none in 

■v-4. Him, He might condemn sin in the flesh; that the righte- 
ousness of the Law might he fulfilled in us, ivho tvalk not 
after the flesh, but after the Spirit. 

5. If then it was the likeness of flesh of sin, not flesh of 
sin, how. That by sin He might condemn sin in the Flesh ? 
iv. So a likeness is wont to receive the name of that thing of 
which it is a likeness. The word man is used for a real 
man; but if you shew a man painted on the wall, and enquire 
what it is, it is answered, " A man." So then Flesh having 
the likeness of flesh of sin, that it might be a sacrifice for sin, 
is called " sin." The same Apostle says in another place, 
2 Cor. 5, jfJe made Him to be sin for us. Who knew no sin. Him 
Iflio knew no sin : Who is He Who knew no sin, but 

Xtwas "made sin,'''' as a sin-offerinrj ; Satan, slaying Xt, lostman.GOd 

He That said, Behold the prince of the world cometh, and Serm. 

shall find nothing in Me ? Him Who knew no sin, made p^sYb^ 

He sin for us; even Christ Himself, Who knew no sin, God johnU, 

made sin for us. What does this mean, brethren ? If it were^^' 

said, " He made sin upon Him," or, " He made Him to 

have sin;" it would seem intolerable; how do we tolerate 

what is said. He made Him sin, that Christ Himself should 

be sin? They who are acquainted with the Scriptures of 

the Old Testament recognise what I am saying. For it is not 

an expression once used, but repeatedly, very constantly, 

sacrifices for sins are called sins. A goat, for instance, 

was offered for sin, a ram, any thing; the victim itself which 

was offered for sin was called sin ? A sacrifice for sin 

then was called sin ; so that in one place the Law says, That ^^7,*'"*' 

^ 1 29. Sept. 

the Priests are to lay their hands upon the sin. Him then, 

Who knew no sin, He made sin for us ; that is, " He 

was made a sacrifice for sin." Sin was offered, and sin was 

cancelled. The Blood of the Redeemer was shed, and the 

debtor's bond was cancelled. This is the Blood, That was Mat.26, 

sited for man y for the remission of sins. 

6. What meaneth this then thy senseless exultation, O ^'• 

thou that didst hold me captive, for that my Deliverer had 

mortal Flesh .? See, if He had sin; if thou hast found any 

thing of thine in Him, hold Him fast. The Word was made John i, 

Flesh. The Word is the Creator, the Flesh His creature. 

What is there here of thine, O enemy? And the Word is 

God, and His Human* Soul is His creature, and His Human i homi- 

Flcsh His creature, and the Mortal Flesh of God is His"'^ 

creature- Seek for sin here. But what art thou seeking ? 

The Truth saith. The prince of this world shall come, and Johni4, 


shall find nothing in Me. He did not therefore not find Flesh, 
but nothing of his own, that is, no sin. Thou didst deceive 
the innocent, thou madest thera guilty. Thou didst slay 
the Tnnocent; thou destroyedst Him from Whom thou hadst 
nothing due, render back what thou didst hold fast. Why 
then didst thou exult for a short hour, because thou didst 
find in Christ mortal Flesh? It was thy trap: whereupon 
thou didst rejoice, thereby hast thou been taken. Wherein 
thou didst exult that thou hadst found something, therein 
thou sorrowest now that thou hast lost what thou didst 


610 All born blind; Baptism is Enlightening. 

possess. Therefore, brethren, let us who believe in Christ, 
continue in His word. For if we shall continue in His 
word, wc are His disciples indeed. For not those twelve 
only, but all we who continue in His word are His disciples 
indeed. And ice shall know the Truth, and the Truth shall 
Johu fygQ Kff ; that is, Christ the Son of God Who hath said, 7 am 
the Truth, shall make you free, that is, shall free you, not 
from barbarians, but from the devil ; not fi*om the captivity 
of the body, but from the iniquity of the soul. It is He Only 
Who freeth in such wise. Let no one call himself free, lest 
he remain a slave. Our soul shall not remain in bondage, 
for that day by day our debts are forgiven. 


On the words of the Gospel, John ix. *' I am come to do the works of Him 
That sent Me," &c. against the Arians. And of that which the man 
who was born blind and received his sight said, " ^^'e know that God 
heareth not sinners." 

i. 1. The Lord Jesus, as we heard when the Holy Gospel 

was being read, opened the eyes of a man who was born 
blind. Brethren, if we consider our hereditary punishment, 
the whole world is blind. And therefore came Christ the 
Enlightener, because the devil had been the Blinder. He 
made all men to be born blind, who seduced the first man. 
Let them run to the Enlightener, let them run, believe, 
receive the clay made of the spittle. The Word is as it 
were the spittle, the Flesh is the earth. Let them wash the 
face in the pool of Siloa. Now it was the Evangelist's place 
John 9 to explain to us what Siloa means, and he said, ivhich is by 
^" interpretation, Sent. Who is This That is Sent, but He 

V. 4. Who in this very Lesson said, / am come to do the works of 
Him That sent Me. Lo, Siloa, wash the face, be baptized, 
that ye may be enlightened, and that ye who before saw 
not, may see. 

2. Lo, first open your eyes to that which is said; lam 
come, saith He, to do the tvorks of Him That sent Me. 
Now hero at once stands forth the Arian, and says, " Here 
you see that Christ did not His Own works, but the Father's 
Who sent Him." Would he say this, if he saw, that is, if he 

Since all of the Father is the So/i's, the Father's works are His. Gil 

had washed his face in Him Who was sent, as it were in Serm. 

Siloa? What then dost thou say? " Lo," says he, " Himself rjgg^^g'-i 

said it." What said He? / am come to do the works of 

Him That sent Me. Are they not then His Own ? No. 

What then is that which the Siloa Himself saith, the Sent 

Himself, the Son Himself, the Only Son Himself, Whom 

thou complainest of as degenerate ? What is that He saith, 

All things that the Father hath are Mine. You say that John 

He did the works of Another, in that He said, I must do the ' 

works of Him That sent Me. I say that the Father had the 

things of another : I am speaking according to your ' prin- ' cor 

ciples. Why would you object to me that Christ said, I am 

come to do His works, as if, " not Mine own but His That 

sent Mer 

3. I ask Thee, O Lord Christ, resolve the difficulty, put an ii. 

end to the contention. All things, saith He, tliat the Father 

hath are 3Iine. Are they then not the Father's, if they are 

Thine ? For He doth not say. All things that the Father 

hath He hath given unto Me ; although, if He had said even 

this, He would have shewn His equality. But the difficulty 

is that He said. All things that the Father hath are Mine. 

If you understand it aright. All things that the Father hath, 

are the Son's; all things that the Son hath, are the Father's. 

Hear Him in another place; All Mine are Thine, and Thine John 

are Mine. The question is finished, as to the things which ^^^ ^^' 

the Father and the Son have : they have them with one 

consent, do not thou introduce -dissension. What Heaiitigare 

calleth the works of the Father, are His Own works; for, 

Thine too are Mine, for He speaketh of the works of That 

Father, to Whom He said. All Mine are Thine, and Thine 

are Mine. So then, My works are Thine, and Thy works 

are Mine. For what things soever the Father doeth; Himself John 5, 

. 19 

hath said, the Lord hath said, the Only-Begotten hath said, 

the Son hath said, the Truth hath said. What hath He 
said ? What things soever the Father doeth, these also 
doeth the Son in like manner. Signal expression ! signal 
truth ! signal equality. All things that the Father doeth, these 
doeth the Sou also. Were it enough to say. All things that 
the Father doeth, these doeth the Son also? It is not enough; 
I add, *M like manner. Why do I add, in like mamier? Be- 
cause they who do not understand, and who walk with eyes 

(>1*2 Coeternity and Coequality of the Son. 

Serm. not yet open, are wont to say, " The Father cloeth tliem 
[i^25?B.l ^y ^*^y ^^ command, the Son of obedience, therefore not in 
like manner." But if in Uke manner, as the One, so the 
Other ; so what things the One, the same the Other, 
iii, 4, " But," says he, " the Father commands, that the Son 
may execute." Carnal indeed is thy conceit, but without 
prejudice to the truth, I grant it to you. Lo, the Father 
commands, the Son obeys ; is the Son therefore not of the 
same Nature, because the One commands, and the Otherobeys? 
Give me two men, father and son ; they are two men : he 
that commands is a man ; he that obeys is a man ; he that 
commands and he that obeys have one and the same nature. 
Does not he that commands, beget a son of his own nature .' 
Does he who obeys, by obeying lose his nature .^ Now 
take for the present, as you thus take two men, the 
Father commanding, the Son obeying, yet God and God. 
But the first two together are two men, the Latter to- 
gether is but One God ; this is a divine miracle. Mean- 
while if you would that with you I acknowledge the obedi- 
ence, do you first with me acknowledge the Nature. The 
Father begat That Which Himself is. If the Father begat 
ought else than what Himself is. He did not beget a true 
Ps. 109, Son. The Father saith to the Son, From the womb before 
E. v! '^'^ day-star, I begat Thee. What is, before the day-star? 
110. By the day-star times are signified. So then before times, 
before all that is called " before ;" before all that is not, or 
before all that is. For the Gospel does not say, " In the begin- 
Gen. 1, ning God made the Word;" as it is said, In the be finning 
^' God made the Heaven and the earth ; or, " In the begin- 

ning was the Word born;" or, " In the beginning God 
begat the Word." But what says it? He was, He teas, He 
John 1, was. You hear, He was; believe. In the beginning was the 
Word, and the Word tvas with Cod, and the Word ivas 
God. So often do ye hear. Was: seek not for time, for 
that He always was. He then Who always was, and w^as 
always with the Son, for that God is able to beget without 
time; He said to the Son, From the womb before the 
day-star I begat Thee. What is fi'om the womb? Had 
God a womb? Shall we imagine tliat God was fashioned 
with bodily members? God forbid! And why said He, 
From the itomb, but that it might be understood that He 

The Father andy^ Son have One Will, ($• Power; doy^ same works. 613 

begat Him of His Own Substance ? So then from the womb Serm. 
came forth That vvhich Himself was Who begat. Forr^^gV-B.] 
if He Who begat was one thing, and another came forth out 
of the womb; it were a monster, not a Son. 

5. Therefore let the Son do the works of Him That sent iv. 
Him, and the Father also do the works of the Son. " At 

all events," you say, " the Father wills, the Son executes." 
Lo, I shew, that the Son willeth, and the P'ather executeth. 
Do you say, " where dost thou shew this.?" I shew it at 
once. Father, I will. Now here if I had a mind to cavil, Johni7, 
lo, the Son commandeth, and the Father executeth. What" ' 
wilt Thou? That lohere 1 a7ii, they may be also with Ale? 
We have escaped, there shall we be, where He is; there 
shall we be, we have escaped. Who can undo the " I 
Will" of the Almighty .P You hear the will of His power, 
hear now the power of His will. As the Father^ saith He, John 5, 
raiseth up the dead and quickeneth them; even so the Son^^' 
quickeneth whom He will. Whom He will. Say not, The 
Son quickeneth them, whom the Father commandeth Him 
to quicken. He quickeneth Whom He will. So then 
whom the Father will, and whom Himself will: because 
where there is One Power, there is One Will. Let us then 
in a heart blind no more hold fast that the Nature of the 
Father and the Son is One and the Same ; because the 
Father is very Father, the Son is very Son. What He is, 
That did He beget : because the Begotten was not degenerate. 

6. There is a something in the words of that man who v. 
was blind, which may cause perplexity, and peradventure 
make many who understand them not aright despair. For 

he said amongst the rest of his words, the same man whose 
eyes were opened, IVe know that God heareth not sinners. John 9, 
What shall we do, if God heareth not sinners } Dare ' 
we pray to God if He heareth not sinners ? Give me 
one who may pray : lo, here is One to hear. Give me one 
who may pray, sift thoroughly the human race from the 
imperfect to the perfect. Mount up from the spring to the 
summer; for this we have just chanted. Thou hast made ^^■'''^^ 
summer and spring; that is, "Those who are already spiritual, E.V74*. 
and those who are still carnal hast Thou made;" for so the ^?" '^^' 
Son Himself saith, Thine Eyes have seen My imperfect being. E. v. 

' 139. 

014 God heareth the prayer of "penitent sinners. 

Serm. That wliich is imperfect in My Body, Thino Eyes have seen. 

[125, B.*] And what then? Have they who are imperfect hope? 

Undoubtedly they have. Hear what follows; A?id in Thy 

Book shall all be written. But perhaps, brethren, the spiritual 

pray and are heard, because they are not sinners ? What 

then must the carnal do? What must they do? Shall they 

perish? Shall they not pray to God? God forbid! Give 

me that publican in the Gospel. Come, thou publican, 

stand forth, shew thy hope, that the weak may not lose hope. 

For behold the publican went up with the Pharisee to pray, 

and with face cast down upon the ground, standing afar off, 

Lukeis, beating his breast, he said, Lord, he merciful to me a sinner. 

And he went doan justijied rather than the Pharisee. Said 

he true or false, who said. Be mereiful to me a sinner? If 

he said true, he was a sinner ; yet was he heard and justified. 

What then is that, that thou whose eyes the Lord opened, 

didst say, We know that God heareth not sinners"? Lo, God 

doth hear sinners. But wash thou thy interior face, let that be 

done in thy heart, which hath been done in thy iacc ; and 

thou wilt see that God doth hear sinners. The imagination 

of thine heart hath deceived thee. There is still something 

for Him to do to thee. We see that this man was cast out 

of the synagogue ; Jesus heard of it, came to him, and 

John 9, said to him. Dost thou believe on the Son of God? And 

V. 36. he said, Who is He, Lord, that I should believe on Him ? 

He saw, and did not see ; he saw with the eyes, but as yet 

V. 37. with the heart he saw not. The Lord said to him, Tho^t 

both seest Him, that is, with the eyes; and He that talketh 

V- 38. with thee is He. He then fell down, and worshipped Him. 

Then washed he the face of his heart. 

vi. 7. Apply yourselves then earnestly to prayer, ye sinners: 

confess your sins, pray that they may be blotted out, pray that 

they may be diminished, pray that as ye increase, they may 

decrease : yet do not despair, and sinners though ye be, pray. 

For who hath not sinned ? Begin with the priests. To the 

Lev. 16. priests it is said. First offer sacrifices for your own sins, and 

27. " 

•'' Theoph. and Euthym. understand who continue in sin, and whose prayer 

this not thus absolutely, but that God is not truly prayer, " prayer being not 

does not hear sinners so as to enable the profession of words, but of faith." 

them to wort miracles, the miracle being in Ps. 52. §. 13. 
allowed; S. Hilary applies it to those 

17ie Lord's Prayer convicts all of' sin, as sacrijices in the O, T. Gl -^ 

so for the people. Tlic sacrifices convicted the priests; that Serm. 
if any one should call himself righteous and without sin, it [135.B.] 
might be answered him, " [ look not at what thou sayest, but 
at what thou offerest; thine own victim convicteth thee. 
Wherefore dost thou offer for thine own sins, if thou have 
no sins ? Dost thou in thy sacrifice lie unto God ?" But 
peradventure the priests of the ancient people were sinners ; 
of the new people are not sinners. Of a truth, brethren, for 
that God hath so willed, I am His priest; 1 am a sinner; with 
you do I beat the breast, with you 1 ask for pardon, with you 
1 hope that God will be merciful. But peradventure the 
Holy Apostles, those first and highest leaders' of the flock,' arietes 
shepherds, members of The Shepherd, these peradventure had 
no sin. Yes, indeed, even they had, they had indeed; they 
are not angry at this, for they confess it. 1 should not dare. 
First hear the Lord Himself saying to the Apostles, In this Matt. 6, 
inanner pray ye. As those other priests were convicted by ^• 
the sacrifices, so these by prayer. And amongst the other 
things which He commanded them to pray for. He ap- 
pointed this also, Fo7-give us our debts, as we also forgive \. 12. 
our debtors. What do the Apostles say ? Every day they 
pray for their debts to be forgiven them. The}- come in 
debtors, they go out absolved, and return debtors to prayer. 
This life is not without sin, that as often as prayer is made, 
so often should sins be forgiven. 

8. But what shall I say ? Peradventure when they learnt 
the prayer, they were still weak. Some one, perhaps, will say vii. 
this. When the Lord Jesus taught them that prayer, they 
were yet babes, weak, carnal; they were not yet spiritual, 
who have no sin. What then, brethren? When they 
became spiritual, did they cease to pray ? Then Christ 
ought to have said, " Pray in such wise now ;" and to have 
given them, when spiritual, another prayer. It is one and 
the same. He Who gave it is One and the Same ; use it 
then in prayer in the Church. But we will take away all 
controversy, when you say the Holy Apostles were spiritual, 
up to the time of the Lord's Passion they were carnal ; this 
you must say. And indeed, the truth is, as He was hanging, 
they were in alarm, and the Apostles then despaired when 
the robber believed. Peter dared to follow, when the Lord 

s s 

HIG Apostles confess sins, that sinners mai/ not despair. 

Serm. was led to sufFering, he dared to follow, who came to the 

P3gg\" house, and was wearied in the palace, and stood at the lire, 
and was cold ; he stood at the fire, he was frozen with a 
chilling fear. Being questioned by the maid-servant, he 

Mat.26, denied Christ once ; being questioned a second time, he 
denied Him; being questioned a third time, he denied Him. 
God be thanked, that the questioning ceased ; if the question- 
ing had not ceased, long would the denial have been repeated. 
So then after He rose again, then He confirmed them, then 
did they become spiritual. Had they at that time then no 
sin ? The Apostles spiritual, wrote spiritual epistles, they 
sent them to the Churches; " they had no sin." This you 
say. 1 do not believe you, I ask themselves. Tell us, O holy 
Apostles, after the Lord rose again, and confirmed you with 
the Holy Ghost sent from heaven; did yc cease to have sin? 
Tell us, I pray you. Let us hear, that sinners may not 
despair, that they may not leave off to pray to God, because 
they are not without sin. Tell us. One of them saith. And 
who t Pie whom the Lord loved the most, and who lay on 

Johni3,the Lord's Breast, and drank in the mysteries of the kingdom 
of heaven which he was to pour forth again. Him I ask ; 

iJohni," Have ye sin or not.^" He maketh answer and saith. If we 


shall say that ive have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the 
John 1, truth is not in us. Now it is the same John who said. In the 
beginning was the Word, and the Word icas icith God, and 
the Word was God. See ye what heights he had passed, 
that he could reach to the Word ! Such an one, and so 
great, who like an eagle soared above the clouds, who in the 
serene clearness of his mind saw. In the beginning was the 
Word; he hath said. If ice shall sag that ue have no sin, 
1 John we deceive ourselves, and the truth, is not in us. But if we 
^'^" shall confess our sins. He is faithful and just to forgive us 
our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. There- 
fore i^ray ye. 

The hfind man Jiad sbt, but sin not the cause of his blindness. 617 


Oil the same Lesson of the Gospel, John ix. On the giving sight to the 
man that was born blind. 

1. We have heard the lesson of the Holy Gospel which Serm. 
we are in the habit of hearing; but it is a good thing to be ri''3''g^B j 
reminded: good to refresh the memory from the lethargy of 
forgetfulness. And in fact this very old lesson has given us 

as much pleasure as if it were new. Christ gave sight to one 
blind from his birth ; why do we marvel ? Christ is the 
Saviour; by an act of mercy He made up that which He had 
not given in the womb. Now when He gave that man no eyes, 
it was no mistake of His surely; but a delay with a view to a 
miracle. You are saying, it may be, " Whence knowest thou 
this ?" From Himself I have heard it; He just now said it; 
we heard it all together. For when His disciples asked Him, 
and said, Lord, who did sin, this man or Jus parents, that /je John9, 
teas born blind ? What answer He made, ye, as 1 did, heard. 
Neither hath this man sinned, nor his parents, but that the^' ^• 
works of God should be made manifest in him. Lo then 
wherefore it was that He delayed when He gave him no eyes. 
He did not give what He could give, He did not give what 
He knew He should give, when need was. Yet do not 
suppose, brethren, that this man's parents had no sin, 
or that he himself had not, when he was born, con- 
tracted original sin, for the remission of which sin infants ai^e 
baptized unto remission of sins. But that blindness was not 
because of his parents' sin, nor because of his own sin ; but 
that the works of God should be made manifest in him. For 
we all when we were born contracted original sin: and yet 
we were not born blind. However enquire carefully. And we 
were born blind. For who was not born blind .? blind, that 
is, in heart. But the Lord Jesus, for that He had created 
both, cured both. 

2. With the eyes of faith ye have seen this man blind, ye 
have seen him too of blind seeing; but ye have heard him 
erring. Wherein this blind man erred, I will tell you ; first, 
in that he thought Christ a prophet, and knew not that He 

s s 2 

1 8 Our Lord's rcords, not the bodily cure, enlightened the heart. 

Sfum. was ll)c Son of God. And then wc have heard an answer of 
rise.B.'l ^^^^ entirely false ; for he said, We know that God heareth 
V. .31. not sinners. If God hearetli not sinners, what hope have we } 
If God liearetli not sinners, why do we pray, and publish the 
record of our sin by the beating of the breast ? Where 
Lnkcl8, again is that Publican, who went up with the Pharisee into 
1 venti- the temple, and while the Pharisee was boasting, parading ' 
lante \y\^ own merits, he standing afar off", and with his eyes fastened 
on the«ovound, and beating his breast, was confessing his sins? 
And this man, who confessed his sins, went down from the 
temple justified rather than the other Pharisee. Assuredly 
then God doth hear sinners. But he who spake these words 
had not yet washed the face of the heart in Siloa. The sacra- 
ment had gone before on his eyes; but in the heart had not 
lieen yet effected the blessing of the grace. When did this 
blind man wash the face of his heart } When the Lord 
admitted him into Himself after he had been cast out by the 
Jews. For He found him, and said to him as we have heard; 
V. 35. Dggt iJiQii hclicve on the Son of God? And he, Who is He, 
^' ^' Lord, that I may believe on Him ? With the eyes, it is 
true, he saw already ; did he see already in the heart } No, 
not yet. Wait; he will see presently, Jesus answered him, 
V. 3;. / that speak with thee am He. Did he doubt ? No, forth- 
with I'.e washed his face. For he was speaking with That 
V- 7. Siloa, which is by inferprelation, Sent. Who is the Sent, 
John 4, but Christ ? Who often bare witness, saying, / do the will 
30; & e' f^f ^^y Father That sent Me. He then was Himself the 
3^- Siloa. The man approached blind in heart, he heard, 
believed, adored ; washed the face, saw. 

3. But they who cast him out continued blind, forasmuch 
as they cavilled at the Lord, that it was the Sabbath when 
He made clay of the spittle, and anointed the eyes of the 
blind man. For when the Lord cured with a word, the 
Jews o])enly cavilled. For He did no work on the 
Sabbath day, when He spake, and it was done. It was 
a manifest cavil ; they cavilled at Him merely command- 
ing, they cavilled at Him speaking; as if they did not 
themselves speak all the Sabbath day. I might say that they 
do not speak not only on the Sabbath, but on no day, foras- 
much as they have kept back from the praises of the True God. 

The Sabbath a type, for the time, of aur Lord iVho (jace it. G I 9 

Nevertheless, as I have said, brethren, it was a manifest Serm. 
cavil. The Lord said to a certain man, 8lrelch forth thine [isg.B.i 
hand; he was made whole, and they cavilled for that He ivi^!t7i2, 
healed on the Sabbath day. What did He do ? what work ^^• 
did He do? what burden did He bear ? But in this instance, 
the spitting on the ground, the making clay, and anointing 
the man's eyes, is doing some work. Let no one doubt it, it 
was doing a work. The Lord did break the Sabbath ; but 
was not therefore guilty. What is that 1 have said, " He 
brake the Sabbath ?" He, the Light had come, He was re- 
moving the shadows. For the Sabbath was enjoined by the 
Lord God, enjoined by Christ Himself, Who was with the 
Father, when that Law was given; it was enjoined by Him, 
but in shadow of what was to come. Let no man therefore Col. 2, 
judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holy day, 
or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days, ivhich are a 
shadow of things to come. He had novv^ come Whose coming 
these things announced. Why do the shadows delight us ? 
Open your eyes, ye Jews ; the Sun is present. IVe know. John 9, 
What do ye know, ye blind in heart? what know ye? That^^'.Q 
this man is not of God, because he thus breaketh the Sabbath 
day. The Sabbath, unha])py men, this very Sabbath did 
Christ ordain^, Who ye say is not of God. Ye observe thei prtedi- 
Sabbath in a carnal manner, ye have not the spittle of Christ. ''^''^*' 
In this earth of the Sabbath look also for the spittle of Christ, 
and ye will understand that by the Sabbath Christ was jiro- 
phesied. But ye, because ye have not the spittle of Christ 
in the earth upon your eyes, ye have not come unto Siloa, 
and have not washed the face, and have continued blind, 
blind to the good of this blind man, yea now no longer 
blind either in body or heart. He received clay with the 
spittle, his eyes were anointed, he came to Siloa, he washed 
his face, he believed on Christ, he saw, he continued not in 
that exceedingly fearful judgment; For fudgment I cajne v. 39. 
into this world, that they which see not may see, and that 
they which see may be made blind. 

4. Exceeding alarm ! That they which see not ma-/ see : 
Good. It is a Saviour's office, a profession of healing power, 
That they which see not may see. But what, Lord, is that 
I'hou hast added. That they which see may be made blinds 

()2() The LifjUt blinds yet more those wftu oicn not their blindness. 

Sebm. If we understand, it is most true, most righteous. Yet what 
1 136 B lis, They which see? They are the Jews. Do they then 
see? According to their own words, they see; according to 
the truth, they do not see. What then is, " they see?" Tliey 
think they see, they believe they sec. For they believed they 
did see,when they maintained the Law against Christ. Wehwio; 
therefore they see. Whatis We k no tv, hut we sec? Whaiis, this 
Man is not ofGol, because He thus hreakelh the sabbath day? 
They see; they read what the Law said. For it was enjoined 
Numb, that whosoever should break the Sabbath day, should be 
' * stoned. Therefore said they that He was not of God; but 
though seeing, they were blind to this, that for judgment He 
came into the world Who is to be the Judge of quick and 
dead; why came He? Tliat they which see not may see: 
that they who confess that they do not see, may be en- 
lightened. And that they which see may be made blind; 
that is, that they who confess not their own blindness, may 
be the more hardened. And, in fact. That they which see 
may be made blind, has been fulfilled; the defenders of the 
'Tracta- Law, Doctors' of the Law, the teachers of the Law, the under- 
standers of the Law, crucified the Author of the Law. O blind- 
Rom, ness, this is that which in part hath happened to Israel. 
11, 2o. -pjj^^ Christ might be crucified, and the fulness of the 
Gentiles might come in, blindness i7i 2)art hath happened to 
Israel. What is, ilial they which see not may see? That 
the fulness of the Gentiles might come in, blindness in part 
hath happened to Israel. The whole world lay in blindness ; 
but He came, that they which see not may see, and that 
they which see may be made blind. He was disowned by 
the Jews, He was crucified by the Jews; of His Blood He 
made an eye-salve for the blind. They who boasted that 
they saw the light, being more hardened, being made 
blind, crucified the Light. What great blindness? They 
killed the Light, but the Light Crucified enlightened the 

5. Hear one seeing, who once was blind, liehold, against 
what a cross they have miserably stumbled, who would not 
confess their blindness to the Physician! The Law had 
continued with them. What serveth the Law without grace? 
T"fnha]ipy mm, what can the Law do without grace? What 

The Law, vnthout grace, only makes 7nen more guilty. 621 

doeth tlie earth without the spittle of Christ? What doeth Sekm. 
the Law without grace, but make them more guilty? Why?p3g^gT 
Because hearers of the Law and not doers, and hereby sinners, 
transgressors. The son of the hostess of the man of God was 2 Kings 

. 4 29. 

dead, and his staff' was sent by his servant, and laid upon ' 
his face, but he did not revive. What doeth the Law without 
grace? What saith the Apostle, now seeing, now of blind, 
enliglitened? For if there had been a Law given which ^^^^^7 
could give life, verilij righteousness should have been by the 
Law, Take heed ; let us answer and say ; what is this that he 
hath said? If there had been a Law given which could give 
life, verily righteousness should have been by the Law. If it 
could not give life, why was it given? He went on and 
added, But the Scripture hath concluded all under sin,^-'^^' 
that the promise by the faith of Jesus Christ migltt be given 
to them that believe. That the promise of illumination, the 
promise of love by the faith of Jesus Christ might be given 
to them that believe, that Scripture, that is the Law, hath 
concluded all under sin. What is, hath concluded all under 
sin? I had not known concupiscence, except the Law had^'om.7, 
said. Thou shall not lust. What is, hath concluded all 
under sin? Hath made the sinner a transgressor also. For 
it could not heal the sinner. It hath concluded all under sin ; 
but with what hope? The hope of grace, the hope of mercy. 
Thou hast received the Law: thou didst wish to keep it, thou 
wast not able; thou hast fallen from pride, hast seen thy 
weakness. Run to the Physician, wash the face. Long for 
Christ, confess Christ, believe on Christ; the Spirit is added 
to the letter, and thou wilt be saved. For if thou take away 
the Spirit from the letter, the letter killeth ; if it kill, where 2 Cor. 3, 
is hope? But the Spirit giveth life. ^' 

6. Let then Gehazi, Elisha's servant, receive the staff, as 
Moses the servant of God received the Law. Let him receive 
the staff", receive it, run, go before, anticipate him, lay the staff 
upon the face of the dead child. And so it was; he did receive 
it, he ran, he laid the staff" upon the face of the dead child. 
But to what purpose? what serveth the staff"? If there had 
been a Law given which could give life, the boy might have 
been raised to life by the staff"; but seeing that the Scripture 
hath concluded all under sin, he still lies dead. But why 

(>'J2 Klislta rcafori/u/ the (Irml child, a ti/pc (^our Lord' s humiliation. 

PntM. liath it concluded all under sin ? T/iaf the promise by the 

[m^^\f(iifh of Jesus Christ might he given to them that believe. 
Let then Elisha come, who sent the staff by the servant to 
prove that he was dead ; let him come himself, come in his 
own person, himself enter into the woman's house, go up to 
the child, find him dead, conform himself to the members of 
the dead child, himself not dead, but living. For this he 
did; he laid his face upon his face, his eyes upon his eyes, 
his hands upon his hands, his feet upon his feet, he straitened, 
he contracted himself, being great, he made himself little. 

Phil. 2, jjc contracted himself; so to say, he lessened himself. For 
being in the Form of God, He emptied Himself, taking the 
form of a servant. What is He conformed Himself, alive to 

Eoiii. 8, the dead ? Do ye ask, what this is } Hear the Apostle; God 
sent His Son. What is, he conformed himself to the dead .'' 
Let him tell this, let him go on and declare it again ; In the 
likeness of flesh ff sin. This is to conform Himself Alive to 
the dead; to come to us in the likeness of flesh of sin, not 
in the flesh of sin. Man lay dead in a flesh of sin, the 
likeness of flesh of sin conformed Himself to him. For He 
died Who had not wherefore to die. He died. Alone Free 
among the dead; forasmuch as the whole flesh of men was 
indeed a flesh of sin. And how should it rise again, had not 
He Who had no sin, conforming Himself to the dead, come 
in the likeness of flesh of sin \ O Lord Jesus, Who hast 
suffered for us, not for Thyself, Who hadst no guilt, and 
didst endure its punishment, that thou mightest dissolve at 
once the guilt and punishment- 


The tenth chapter of the Gospel of John. Of the shepherd, and the 
hireling, and the thief. 

L Your faith, dearly beloved, is not ignorant, and I know 
that ye have so learnt by the teaching of that Master from 
heaven, in Whom ye have placed your hope, that our Lord 
Jesus Christ, Who hath now suffered for us and risen again, 
is the Head of the Church, and the Church is His Body, 

Love the health of the Body and oneness ivith Christ. 623 

and that in His Body the unity of the members and the Serm. 
bond of charity is, as it were, its sound health. But whoso- [fy^.B] 
ever groweth cold in charity, is become enfeebled in the 
Body of Christ. But He Who hath already exalted our 
Head, is able also to make even the feeble members whole ; 
provided, that is, that they be not cut off by excessive 
impiety, but adhere to the Body until they be made whole. 
For whatsoever yet adhereth to the body, is not beyond hope 
of healing; whereas that which hath been cut off', can 
neither be in process of curing, nor be healed. Since then 
He is the Head of the Church, and the Church is His Body, 
Whole Christ is both the Head and the Body. He hath 
already risen again. We have thei'efore the Head in heaven. 
Our Head intercedeth for us. Our Head without sin and 
without death, now propitiateth God for our sins; that we too 
at the end rising again, and changed into heavenly glory, 
may follow our Head. For where the Head is, there are the 
rest of the members also. But whilst we are here, we are 
members ; let us not despair, for we shall follow our Head. 

2. For consider, brethren, the love of this our Head. He !!• 
is now in heaven, yet doth He suffer here, as long as his 
Church suffereth here. Here Christ is hungred, here He is 
athirst, is naked, is a stranger, is sick, is in prison. For 
whatsoever His Body suffereth here, He hath said that Him- 
self suffereth ; and at the end, severing off" this His Body to 
the right hand, and severing the rest by whom He is now 
trodden under foot to the left. He will say to those on the 
right hand. Come, ye blessed of My Father, receive theM3it.25, 
kimjdom which hath been jjrepared for you from the begin- 
ning of the world. For what deservings-f* For I was an 
hungred, and ye gave Me meat; and so He goes over the 
rest, as if He had Himself received; to such a degree that 
they, not understanding it, make answer and say. Lord, when 
saw ice Thee an hungred, a stranger, and in prison ? And 
He saith to them, Forasmuch as ye have done it to one of 
the least of 3Iine, ye have done it unto Ble. vSo also in our 
own body, the head is above, the feet are on the earth ; yet 
in any crowding and throng of men, when any one treads on 
your foot, does not the head say, " You are treading upon me ?" 
No one has trodden on your head, or on your tongue; it is 

624 Christ, the Dour, us the Head; in His Bodi/, the Shepherd. 

Serm. above, in sal'uty, no harm has happened unto it; and yet 
pl'l^'^gV because by the bond of charity there is unity from the head 
even to the feet, the tongue does not separate itself there- 
from, but says, " You are treading upon n)e ;" when no one 
has touched it. As then the tongue, whicli no one has 
touched, says, " You are treading upon me ;" so Christ, the 
Head, Which no one treadeth on, said, I tons <in hii/i(/red, 
and ye <jaie 3Ie meat. And to them who did not so, He 
said, f was a/t hiinc/red, a/id ye yavc 3Ie vo meat. And how 
did He finish ? Thus ; These shall yo info eierlasl iny 
burning, bat the righteous into life eternal, 
iii. 3. When our Lord then was speaking on this occasion, He 
said, that He is lUe Shepherd, He said also that He is the 
Johnio,X)oo;-. You find them both in that place, both / am the 
'■^^' Boor, and / am the Shepherd. In the Head He is the 
Door, the Shepherd in the Body. For He saith to Peter, 
john2i,in whom singly He formeth the Church; Peter, lovest 
15. &c. ^j^^^^ j^j^r^ Yie answered. Lord, I do love Thee. Feed My 
sheep. And a third time, Peter, lovest Thou Me'^ Peter 
was grieved because He asked him the third time; as though 
He Who saw the conscience of the denier, saw not the con- 
fessor's faith. He had known him always, liad known 
him even when Peter had not known himself. For he did 
Luke not know himself at that time when he said, / will be with 
22,33. jy^^j^j ^,^.gff unto death; and how infirm he was he knew not. 
Just as it constantly happens in fact to invalids, that the sick 
man knows not what is going on within him, but the ]ihysi- 
cian knows; w^hen yet the former is suffering from the very 
sickness, and the physician is not. The physician can better 
tell what is going on in another, than he who is sick wliat is 
going on in himself. Peter then was at that time the invalid, 
and the Lord the Physician. Tiie former declared that he 
had strength, when he had not ; but tlie Lord touching the 
pulse of his heart, declared that he should deny Him thrice. 
And so it came to pass, as the Physician foretold, not as the 
sick presumed. Therefore, after His resurrection the Lord 
questioned him, not as being ignorant \s ith what a heart he 
would confess the love of Christ, but that he might by a 
threefold confession of love, efl'ace the threefold denial of 

The humble and penitent enter in by the Door. (>'25 

4. 'J'lierefore doth the Lord require this of Peter, Peter, Serm. 
hvest thou Me? As though, " What wilt thou give Me, what f J'37'',b"j 
wilt thou do for Me, seeino- that thou lovest Me?" What was ~i^" 
Peter to do for his Lord risen again, and going into heaven, 
and sitting on the right hand of the Father? As il EJe had 
said, " This shalt thou give Me. this shalt thou do for Me, if 
thou lovest Me, feed My sheep ; enter in by the Door, not 
go up by another way." Ye heard vrhen the Gospel was 
being read, He that entereth in by the Door, is the shepherd; Johnio, 
hut he that goetlt up another way, is a iJtief and a robber ; 
and lie seeketh to disperse, and to scatter, and to spoil. 
Who is he that entereth in by the Door? lie that entereth 
in by Christ. Who is he ? He who imitateth the Passion of 
Christ, who acknowledgeth the Humility of Christ; that 
whereas God was made Man for us, man may acknowledge him- 
self to be, not God, but man. For whoso wisheth to appear 
God, when he is man, doth not imitate Him, Who, being 
God, was made Man. But to thee it is not said, Be 
any thing less than thou art; but acknowledge what thou 
art. Acknowledge thyself feeble, acknowledge thyself man, 
acknowledge thyself a sinner; acknowledge that it is He 
That justifieth, acknowledge that thou art full of stains. Let 
the slain of thine heart appear in thy confession, and thou 
shalt belong to Christ's flock. For the confession of sins 
invites the physician's healing ; as in sickness, he tliat says, 
" I am well," seeketh not the ])hysician. Did not the Pha- Lukeis, 
risee and the Publican go up to the temple ? The one ^^• 
boasted of his sound estate, the other shewed his wounds to 
the Physician. For the Pharisee said, / thank Thee, O God,^- H- 
that I am not as this Pnblican. He gloried over the other. 
So then if that Publican had been whole, the Pharisee would 
have grudged it him; for that he would not have had any one 
over whom to extol himself. In what state then had he come, 
who had this envious spirit ? Surely he was not whole ; and 
whereas he called himself whole, he went not down cured. 
But the other casting his eyes down to the ground, and not 
daring to lift them up unto heaven, smote his breast, saying, 
God be merciful to me a sinner. And what saith the Lord? v. is. 
Verily I say unto you, thai the Publican went donn from v. 14. 
the temple justified rather than the Pharisee. For every 


V. 2. 

(i'2G "IVie liireiiny, ichoso seeks rcica/d, honour, praise, f rum men. 

Sekm. o)ie that exalteth himself shall be abased, and he that huin- 

^■"i'Jj'i' J/e/A himself, shall be exalted. They tlien who exalt thcni- 

selves, would go up iuto the sheepfokl by auother way ; but 

they who humble themselves, enter in by the Door iuto the 

sheepfold. Thei'ef'ore said He of the oue, lie enter cth in ; 

of the other, lie ijoeth up. He that goeth up, you see, who 

seeks exaltation, does not enter in, but falls. Whereas he that 

abases himself, that he may enter in by the Door, falls not, 

but is the shepherd. 

V. 5. But the Lord mentioned three characters', and our 

• perso- (j^^j.y jg jQ search them out in the Gospel, that of the shepherd, 

the hireling, and the thief I suppose you took notice when 

the lesson was being read, that He marked out the shepherd, 

John 10, the hireling, and the thief The Shepherd, said llii, laijelh 

down His life for the sheep, and eutereth in by the door. 

1- The thief and the robber, said He, go up by another way. 

' ' The hireling. He said, if he seeth a wolf or even a th'iei, Jleeth ; 

because lie caret It not for the sheep; for he is an hireling, 

not a shepherd. The one eutereth in by the door, because 

he is the shepherd; the second goeth up another way, because 

he is a thief; the third seeing them who wish to spoil the 

sheep feareth and fleeth, because he is an hireling, because he 

careth not for the sheep ; for he is an hireling. If we shall 

find these three characters, ye have found, holy brethren, both 

those whom ye should love, and those whom yc should 

tolerate, and those of whom ye must beware. The Shepherd 

is to be loved, the hireling is to be tolerated, of the robber 

must we beware. There are men in the Church of whom 

riiii. i,the Apostle speaks, who preach the Gospel by occasion, 

^^'^ seeking of men their own advantage, whether of money, or 

of honour, or human praise. They preach the Gospel, wishing 

to receive rewards in whatsoever way they can, and seek not 

so much his salvation to whom they ])reach, as their own 

advantage. But he who heareth the word of salvation Irom 

him who hath not salvation, if he believe Him Whom he 

preacheth, and put not his hope in him, by whom salvation 

is preached to him ; he that preacheth shall have loss ; he to 

whom he preacheth shall have gain. 

vi. 6. You have the Lord saying of the Pharisees, They sit 

iVJat.23, 4;i Musea'' neat. The Lord did not mean them onlv ; as if 

'"''Twir ofti'itthe tiij)e of Jewish and Gentile Church, one in Xt. 6*27 

He would send those who should believe on Christ to the Serm. 
school of the Jews, that they might learn there wherein is the Jj'gygV 
way to the kingdom of heaven. Did not the Lord come 
for this end, that He might establish a Church, and separate 
those Jews who had a good faith, and a good hope, and a 
good love, as wheat from the chaff, and might make them one 
wall of the circumcision, to which should be joined another 
wall from the uncircumcision of the Gentiles, of which two 
walls coming from different directions. Himself should be 
the Corner-Stone ? Did not the Same Lord therefore say of 
these two people who were to be one, And other sheep ^°y^^^-> 
I have, which are not of this fold ? Now He was speaking to 
the Jews ; Them also, said He, must I bring, that there 
may be onefold, and One Shepherd. Therefore there were 
two ships out of which He had called His disciples. TheyT^'ike5, 
figured these two people, when they let down their nets, and" 
took up so great a draught' and so large a number of fishes,' ^i"' 
that the nets were almost broken. And they laded, it is 
said, both the shijjs. The two ships figured the One Church, 
but made out of two peoples, joined together in Christ, 
though coming from different parts. Of this too the two 
wives, who had one husband Jacob, Leah and Rachel, are Gen.29, 
a figure. Of these two, the two blind men also are a figure, ^'i^^qq 
who sat by the way-side, to whom the Lord gave sight. And30. 
if ye pay attention to the Scriptures, ye will find the two 
Churches, which are not two but One, figured out in many 
places. For to this end the Corner-Stone serveth, for to 
make of two One. To this end serveth That Shepherd, for to 
make of two flocks One. So then the Lord Who was to 
teach the Church, and to have a school of His Own beyond 
the Jews, as we see at present, would He be likely to send 
those who believe on Him unto the Jews, to learn } But 
under the name of the Scribes and Pharisees He intimated 
that there would be some in His Church who would say and 
not do ; but, in the person of Moses He designated Him- 
self. For Moses represented Him, and for this reason did 
he put a vail before him, when he was speaking to the 
people ; because as long as they were in the law given up 
to carnal joys and pleasures, and looking for an earthly 
kingdom, a vail was put upon their face, that they should 

G'28 Godfevces in the meaniny of H. Scr. against perveraionii ; 

Sekm. not see Christ in the Scriptures. For when the vail was 

[137.B.1 taken away, after that the Lord had suffered, the secrets of the 

Mat.27, temple were discovered. Accordingly when He was hanging 

on the Cross, the vail of the temple was rent from the top 

even to the bottom ; and the Apostle Paul says expressly, 

2Cor.3, ^nt ii'iien thou slialt turn to Christ, the vail shall be taken 


away. Whereas with him who turneth not to Christ, though 
he read the law of Moses, the vail is laid upon his heart, as 
the Apostle says. When the Lord then would signify 
beforehand that there would be some such in His Church, 
Mat.23, what did He say .? The Scribes and Pharisees sit in Moses^ 

2 3 

seat. What they say, do; but do not what they do. 
vii. 7. When wicked clerics hear this which is said against 
them, they would pervert it. For I have heard that some 
do wish to pervert this sentence. Would they not, if they 
might, efface it from the Gospel? But because they cannot 
efface it, they go about to pervert it. But the grace and 
mercy of the Lord is present, and allows them not to do so ; 
'senten-for He hath hedged round all His declarations" with His 
truth, and in such wise balanced them; that if any one 
would wish to cut off" any thing from them, or to introduce 
any thing by a bad reading or interpretation, any right 
hearted man may join to the Scripture what has been cut off" 
from the Scripture, and read what went above or below, 
and he will find the sense which the other wished to inter- 
pret wrongly. What then, think ye, do they say of whom it 
is said. Do what they say ? That it is (and in truth it is so) 
addressed to laymen. For what does the layman who 
wishes to live well say to himself, when he takes notice of a 
wicked cleric } " The Lord said. What they say, do; xohat 
they do, do not. Let me walk in the way of the Lord, not 
follow this man's convei'sation. Let me hear from him not 
his words, but God's. 1 will follow God, let him follow his 
own lust. For if I should wish to defend myself in such 
wise before God as to say, ' Lord, I saw that thy cleric 
living evilly, and therefore I lived evilly;' would He not say 
to me, ' Thou wicked servant, hadst thou not heard from 
Me, What they say, do, but what they do, do not f But a 
wicked layman, an unbeliever, who belongs not to Christ's 
flock, who belongs not to Christ's corn, who as chaff" is only 

'* do not what evil Priests do," their acts, not sacrijice only. 620 

borne with in the floor, what does he say to himself when the Serm. 
woi'd of God begins to reprove him? " Away ; why talkestrj^gy^"! 
thou to me ? The very Bishops and Clergy do not do it, 
and dost thou force me to do it ?" Thus he seeks for himself 
not a patron for his bad cause, but a companion for punish- 
ment. For will that wicked one whosoever he be that he 
has chosen to imitate, will he ever defend him in the day of 
judgment? For as witli all whom the devil seduces, he 
seduces them not to be partakers of a kingdom, but of his 
damnation ; so all who follow the wicked, seek companions 
for themselves to hell, not protection unto the kingdom of 

8. How then do they pervert this declaration, when it is 
said to them in their wicked lives, " With good reason was it 
said by the Lord, What they say, do; what they do, do notV 
" It was well said," say they. " For it was said to you, that 
ye should do what we say ; but that ye should not do what 
we do. For we offer sacrifice, you may not." See the cun- viii, 
ning craftiness of these men; what shall I call them? hire- 
lings. For if they were shepherds, they would not say such 
things. Therefore the Lord, that He might shut their 
mouths, went on, and said, They sit in Moses'' seat; what Mat.23, 
they say, do; but what they do, do not ; for they say, and do 
not. What is it then, brethren ? If He had spoken of 
offering sacrifice; would He have said, For they say, and do 
not? For they do offer' sacrifice, they do offer unto God.'faciunt 
What is it that they say, and do not? Hear what follows; 
For they bind heavy burdens^ and grievous to be borne, and^- 4. 
lay them on meii's shoulders^ and they themselves will not 
touch them with one of their fingers. So openly did He 
rebuke, describe, and point them out. But those men when they 
thus wish to pervert the passage, shew plainly that they seek 
nothing in the Church but their ow-n advantage ; and that 
they have not read the G ospel ; for had they known but this 
very page, and read the whole, they would never have dared 
to say this. 

9. But attend to a more clear proof that the Church hath 
such as these. Lest any one should say to us, " He spake 
entirely of the Pharisees, He spake of the Scribes, He spake 
of the Jews ; for the Church hath none such." Who then are 

630 PVho seekethfrom God aught hut God, loveth not chastely. 

Sekm. they of whom the Lord saith, Not every one thai saith unto 
'j''yYj|'ji)/e, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven? 
Matry, And He added, 3Lany shall say to Me in that day, Lord, 
21- Lord, have we not jrrophesied in Thy Name, and in Thy 
h'htates Name done many miyhty^ works, and in Thy Name have 
eaten and drunken ? Wliat ! do the Jews do these tilings 
in Christ's Name ? Assuredly it is manifest, that lie s])eaks 
of them who have the Name of Christ. But what follows? 
V. 23. Then uill I say to them, L never knew yon ; depart from 
Me, all ye that work iniquity. Hear the Apostle sighing 
concerning such as these. He says that some preach the 
Gospel through charity, others by occasion; of whom he 
Phil 1, says, They do not preach the Gospel rightly. A right thing, 
J^- ^"'^ but themselves not right. What they preach is right; but 
they who preach it are not right. Why is he not right? Because 
he seeketh something else in the Church, seekelh not God. 
If he sought God, he would be chaste; for the soul hath in 
God her lawful husband. Whosoever seeketh from God 
aught besides God, doth not seek God chastely. Consider, 
brethren; if a wife love her husband because he is rich, she 
is not chaste. For she loves not her husband, but her hus- 
band's gold. Whereas if she love her husband, she loves 
him both in nakedness and poverty. For if she love him 
because he is rich ; what if, (as human chances are,) he be 
2proscii-2Quj]3^'e(]^ fli^fl all on a sudden be reduced to need ? She gives 
him up, mayhap; because what she loved, was not her 
husband, but his ]n'operty. But if she love her husband 
indeed, she loves him even more when poor; for that she 
loves with jnty too. 
ix. 10. And yet, brethren, our God never can be poor. He is 
rich, He made all things, heaven and earth, the sea and 
Angels. In the heaven, whatsoever we see, whatsoever we 
see not. He made it. But notwithstanding, we ought not to 
love these riches, but Ilim Who made them. For He hath 
promised thee nothing but Himself. Find any thing more 
precious, and He will give thee this. Beauteous is the 
earth, the heaven, and the Angels; but more beauteous is 
He Who made them. They then who preach God, as 
loving God; who preach God, for God's sake, feed the 
sheep, and are no hirelings. This chastity did our Lord 

Shepherds Jew ^ hirelings many. 631 

Jesus Christ require of the soul, when He said to Peter, Serm. 
Peter, lovest thou Me ? What is, Lovest thou 3Ie ? Art thou r'1'^37, b.'i 
chaste ? Is not thine heart adulterous ? Dost thou seek not John2i, 
thine own things in the Church, but Mine? If then thou be ' 
such an one, and lovest Me, feed My sheep. For thou 
shalt be no hireling, but thou shalt be a shepherd. 

II. But they did not preach chastely, concerning whom 
the Apostle sighs. But what doth he say? What Mew.? Phil, 1, 
Notwithstanding every way, whether by occasion or in 
truth, Christ is preached. He suffers then that hirelings 
there should be. The shepherd preacheth Christ in truth, 
the hireling by occasion preacheth Christ, seeking something 
else. Notwithstanding, both the one and the other preacheth 
Christ. Hear the voice of the shepherd Paul ; Whether by 
occasion or in truth, Christ is preached. Himsb-lf a shep- 
herd, he was pleased to have the hireling. For they act 
where they are able, they are useful as far as they are able. 
But when the Apostle for other uses sought for those whose 
ways the weak ones might imitate; he saith, / have sent I Cor. 4, 
unto you Timotheus, who shall bring you into retnembrance 
of my ways. And what doth he say ? " I have sent unto you 
a shepherd, to bring you into remembrance of my ways;" 
that is, who himself also walketh as I walk. And in send- 
ing this shepherd, what doth he say ? For I have no one *oPhil. 2, 
likeminded, who with sincere affection is anxious for you. ' 
Were there not many with him ? But what follows ? For 
all seek their own, not the things which are Jesus Christ's ; 
that is, " I have wished to send unto you a shepherd; for 
there are many hirelings ; but it were not meet for an hire- 
ling to be sent." An hireling is sent for the transaction of 
other affairs and business; but for those which Paul then 
desired, a shepherd was necessary. And he scarcely found 
one shepherd among many hirelings ; for the shepherds are 
few, the hirelings many. But what is said of the hirelings ? 
Verily I say unto you, they have received their reward. Matt. 6 
Of the shepherd, what saith the Apostle ? But whosoever shall ^' 

2 Tim 2 

clea7ise himself from such as these shall be a vessel untoi\, ' 
honour, sanctified, and useful to the Lord, prepared always 
unto every good work. Not unto certain things prepared, 

T t 

632 Who for fear of offending, icarns not bad rich men, a hireling 

6ERM. and nnto certain not prepared, but unto every good work 
[137. n.] prepared. So much have I said, concerning the shep- 
X. 12. But we will now speak of the hirelings. The hireling 

12.13.'^'*^'* Ae seeth the wolf lying in wait for the sheep, fleet h. 
This the Lord said. Why } Because he careth not for the 
sheep. So long then is the hireling of use, as he sccth not 
the wolf coming, as he seeth not the thief and the- robber ; 
but when he seeth them, he fleeth. And who is there of the 
hirelings, who fleeth not from the Church, wlien he seeth 
the wolf and the robber ? And wolves and robbers abound. 
They are they who go up by another way. Who are these 

' parte who go up ? They who of Donatus' ' way wish to make 
havoc of Christ's sheep, they go up by another way. They 
do not enter in by Christ, because they are not humble. 
Because they are proud, they go up. What is, " they go 
up V They are lifted up. Whereby do they go up ? By 
another way: whence they wish to be named from their 
way. They who are not in unity are of another way, and 
by this way they go up, that is, are lifted up, and wish to 
spoil the sheep. Now mark how they go up .? "It is we," 
they say, " who sanctify, we justify, we make righteous." See 

Luke whither they have got up. But he that exalteth himself, 

' * shall he abased. Our Lord God is able to abase them. Now 

the wolf is the devil, he licth in wait to deceive, and they 

Matt. 7, that follow him ; for it is said that they are clothed indeed 
with the skins of sheep, but inwardly they are ravening 
wolves. If the hireling observe any one indulging in 
wicked talking, or in sentiments to the deadly hurt of liis soul, 
or d^ing ought that is abominable and unclean, and notwith- 
standing that he seems to bear a chtu'acter of some import- 
ance in the Church, (from which if he hopes for advantage 
he is an hireling ;) says nothing, and when he sees the man 
perishing in his sin, sees the wolf following him, sees his 
throat dragged by his teeth to punishment ; says not to him, 
" Thou sinnest ;" does not chide him, lest he lose his own 
advantage. This I say is, IVhen he seeth the icolf, he fleeth; 
he does not say to him, " Thou art doing wickedly," This 
is no flight of the body, but of the soul. He whom thou 

God'sivorcls hy^ not of, wicked preachers.^ like vine among thorns. 633 

seest standing still in body flies in heart, when he sees a Serm. 
sinner, and does not say to him, " Thou sinnest ;" yea when ^37.6.] 
he even is in concert with him. 

13. My brethren, does ever either Presbyter or Bishop ^i» 
come up here, and say any thing from this higher place, but 
that the property of others must not be plundered, that there 
must be no fraud committed, no wickedness done ? They 
cannot say aught else who sit in Moses' seat, and it is it that ^J'^tt. 
speaks by them, not they themselves. What then is, Do Matt. 7, 
men gather grapes of thorn s^ or figs of thistles? and, Every}^^^^'^^ 
tree is known by his fruit? Can a Pharisee speak good 
things ? A Pharisee is a thorn ; how from a thorn do I 
gather grapes ? Because Thou, Lord, hast said. What they Matt. 
say, do; but what they do, do not. Dost Thou bid me^"^'^' 
gather grapes of thorns when Thou sayest. Do men gather 
grapes of thorns? The Lord answereth thee, " I have not 
bidden thee gather grapes of thorns : but look, mark well, if 
haply, as is often the case, the vine when it trails all along 
upon the ground, be not entangled in thorns." For we some- 
times find this, my brethren, a vine planted over sedge, how 

it has there a thorny hedge, and throws out its branches, and 
entangles them in the thorny hedge, and the grape hangs 
among the thorns ; and he that sees it plucks the grape, yet 
not from the thorns, but from the vine which is entangled in 
the thorns. In like manner then the Pharisees are thorny ; 
but by sitting in Moses' seat, the vine wraps them round, 
and grapes, that is, good words, good precepts, hang from 
them. Do thou pick the gvape, the thorn will not prick 
thee, when thou readest, Wiiat they say, do; but wliat 
they do, do not. But the thorn will prick thee, if thou do 
what they do. So then that thou mayest gather the grape, 
and not be caught in the thorns. What they say, do; but 
what they do, do not. Their deeds are the thorns, their 
words are the grapes, but from the vine, that is, from Moses' 

14. These then flee, when they see the wolf, when they 
see the robber. Now this it was that I had begun to say, 
that from this higher place they can say nothing, but, " Do 
well," " do not forswear yourselves," " defraud not," " cheat 
not any." But sometimes men's lives are so bad, that 

T t 2 

634 The shepherd rebukes sin; if not heard, iceeps before God. 

SER^f. counsel is asked of a Bishop on the taking away of another 

[137 pV man's estate, and from him is such counsel sought. It has 
sometimes happened to ourselves, we speak from experience: 
for we should not have believed it. Many men require from 
us evil counsels, counsels of lying, of fraud ; thinking that 
they please us thereby. But by the Name of Christ, if what 
we are saying is pleasing to the Lord, no such man has 
tempted us, and found what he wished in us. For with the 
good pleasure of Him Who hath called us, we are shepherds 

iCor.4, not hirelings. But as saith the Apostle, But with me it is 
a very small thing that I slionld be judged of you, or of 
man^s day; yea, l judge not even mine oun self For I am 
conscious of nothing by myself , but I am not hereby justified. 
But He That judgeth me is the Lord. My conscience is 
not therefore good, because ye praise it. For how praise 
ye what ye do not see ? Let Him praise. Who seeth ; yea 
let Him correct, if He seeth ought there which offendeth His 
Eyes. For T too do not say that I am perfectly whole ; but 
I beat my breast, and say to God, " Be merciful, that I sin 
not." Yet I do think, for I speak in His Presence, that I seek 
nothing from you, but your salvation; and constantly do I 

' vim. groan over the sins of my brethren, and I suffer distress', and 
am tormented in mind, and often do I reprove them ; yea, I 
never cease reproving them. All who remember what I 
say are witnesses, how often my brethren who sin have 
been reproved, and earnestly reproved, by me. 
xii. 15. I am now treating of my counsel with j'ou, holy 
brethren. In Christ's Name ye are the people of God, ye 
are a Catholic people, ye are members of Christ; ye are not 
divided from unity. Ye are in communion with the members 
of the Apostles, ye are in communion with the memories of 
the Holy Martyrs, who are spread over the whole world, and 
ye belong to my cure, that I may render a good account of 
you. Now my whole account, what it is ye know. " Lord, 
Thou knowest that I have spoken. Thou knowest that I have 
not kept silence. Thou knowest in what spirit I have 
spoken, Thou knowest that I have wept before Thee, when 
I spake, and was not heard." This 1 imagine is my whole 
account. For the Holy Spirit by the prophet Ezekiel hath 
given me sure hope. Ye know this passage concerning the 

Man's office to ivarn, not to judge. 635 

watchman ; O son of man, saith He, / have set thee a watch- ^^^^^; 
man unto the house of Israel; if when 1 say unto the wicked,\ rAi .B.] 

wicked man, thou shalt die the death, thou dost not speak; Ezek. 

, 1 \ -^j? 33, /.etc. 

that IS, (for 1 speak to thee that thou mayest speak ;) if thou 
dost not announce if, and the sword, that is, what I have 
threatened on the sinner, come, and take him aua>j; that 
wicked man indeed shall die in his iniquity ; but his blood 
will I require at the watclnnan's hand. Why.? Because 
he did not speak. But if the ivatchman see the sword coming, 
and blow the trumpet, that he may fly, and he look not 
to himself, that is, amend not himself, that it find him not in 
the pmiishment which God threateneth, and the sword shall 
come and take any one away ; that wicked man indeed shall 
die in his iniquity ; but thou, saith He, hast delivered thine 
own soul. And in that place of the Gospel, what else saith ?^^'^^' 
He to the servant? when he said. Lord, I knew Thee to be a Lukei9, 
difficult' ox hard Man, in that Thou reapest ichere Thou hast\^^^'^_ 
not sowed, and gatherest where Thou hast not strawed; and tam 

1 was afraid, and ivent and hid Thy talent in the earth, lo. 
Thou hast that is Thine. And He said, " Thou wicked and 
slothful servant, because thou knewest Me to be a difficult 
and hard Man, to reap where I have not sown, and to gather 
where I have not strawed, My very covetousness ought the 
more to teach thee, that I look for profit from My money. 
Thou oughtest therefore to have given My money to the 
exchangers, and at My coming I should have required Mine 
own with usury.'''' Did He say, " Thou oughtest to give, and 
require?" It is we then, brethren, who give. He will come 
to require. Pray ye, that He may find us prepared. 


On the words of the Gospel, John x. " I am the good Shepherd," &c. 
against the Donatists. 

1. We have heard the Lord Jesus setting forth to us the i- 
office of a good shepherd. And herein He hath doubtless 

G36 Murttjrdom, witkuut love, projlteth nothing. 

Seiim. given us to know, as we may understand it, that there are 

[138.B.] oO<^t^ shepherds. And yet that the multitude of shepherds 

Joimio, might not be understood in a wrong sense; He saith, I a7)i the 

good Shepherd, And wherein He is the good Shepherd, 

He sheweth in the words following; The good Shepherd, 

^- 12. saith He, layeth down His life for the sheep. But he that 

is an hireling, and not the shepherd, seeth the wolf coming, 

"• ^^- andjieeth ; because he careth not for the sheep, for he is an 

hireling. Christ then is the good Shepherd. What was 

Peter ? was he not a good shepherd ? did not he too lay 

down his life for the sheep ? What was Paul .? what the rest 

of the Apostles ? what the blessed Bishops, Martyrs, who 

followed close upon their times? What again our holy 

Cyprian .? Were they not all good shepherds, not hirelings. 

Matt. G, of whom it is said, Verily 1 say unto you, they have received 

their reward'^ All these then were good shepherds, not 

simply for that they shed their blood, but that they shed it 

for the sheep. For not in pride, but in charity they shed it. 

ii- 2. For even among the heretics, they who for their iniquities 

and errors have suffered any trouble, vaunt themselves in the 

1 deal- name of martyrdom, that with this fair covering disguised ' 

they may plunder the more easily, for wolves they are. Now 

if ye would know in what rank they are to be held, hear that 

good shepherd, the Apostle Paul, that not all who even give 

up their bodies in suffering to the flames, are to be accounted 

to have shed their blood for the sheep, but rather against the 

1 Cor. sheep. If, saith he, / speak with the tongues of men, and 

i^^l ' angels, but have not charity, I am become as sounding brass, 

or a tinkling cymbal. If I should know all mysteries, and 

have all prophecy, and all faith, so that I could remove 

mountains, but have not charity, lam nothing. Now a great 

thing truly is this faith that removes mountains. The}' are 

indeed all great things ; but if 1 have them without charity, 

saith he, not they, but I am nothing. But up to this point 

he hath not touched them, who glory in sufferings under the 

false name of martyrdom. Hear how he toucheth, yea rather 

pierceth them through and through. If I shoidd distribute, 

saith he, all my goods to the pjoor, and deliver my body to be 

burned. Now here they are. But mark what follows; but 

have not charity, it profitoth me nothing, Lo, they have 

Our Lord speaks of One Good Shejjherd, to incidcate imity. 637 
come to suffering, come even to the shedding of blood, yea Serm. 


come to the burning of the body ; and yet it profiteth them [isg.B.] 
nothing, because charity is lacking. Add charity, they all 
profit; take charity away, all the rest profit nothing. 

3. What a good is this charity, brethren ! What more iii. 
precious.? what yieldeth greater light? or strength.? or 
profit.? or security.? Many are the gifts of God, which 

even the wicked have, who shall say. Lord, we have pro- Matt. 7, 
phesied in Thy Name, in Thy Name have cast out devils, in 
Thy Name done many mighty works. And He will not 
answer, " Ye have not done them." For in the Presence of 
so great a Judge, they will not dare to lie or boast of things 
they have not done. But for that they had not charity. He 
ansvvereth them all, / know you not. Now how can he have 
so much as the smallest charity, who when even" convicted, 
loves not unity? It was then as impressing on good shep- 
herds this unity, that our Lord was unwilling to mention 
many shepherds. For it is not, as 1 have said already, that 
Peter was not a good shepherd, and Paul, the rest of the 
Apostles, and the holy Bishops who were after them, and 
blessed Cyprian. All these were good shepherds; and not- 
withstanding to good shepherds, He commended not good 
shepherds, but a good Shepherd. 1, saith He, am the good 

4. Let us question the Lord with such little understanding i^'* 
as we have, and in most humble discourse hold converse 
with so great a Master. What sayest Thou, O Lord, Thou 
good Shepherd? For Thou art the good Shepherd, Who 

art also the good Lamb ; at once Pastor and Pasturage, at 
once Lamb and Lion. What sayest Thou? Let us give 
ear and aid us, that we may understand. /, saith He, am the 
good Shepherd. What is Peter? is he either not a shep- 
herd, or a bad one ? Let us see, if he be not a shcphea-d. 
Lovesi thou Me? Thou saidst to Him Lord, Lovest thou '^ohn2\, 
Me? and he answered, " I do love Thee." And Thou to 
him. Feed 3Iy sheep. Thou, Thou, Lord, by Thine Own 
questioning, by the strong assurance of Thine Own words, 

* lleferring it would seem to the conf(irence lield hut a liitlo vvliilr liefoic (bis 
with the Donatist party at Carthage. 

638 All good shepherds and sheep one tinder The Shepherd. 

Serm. madest of the lover a shepherd. He is a shepherd then to 

[13)^ 131 whom Thou didst commit Thy sheep to be fed. Thou 
didst Thyself entrust them, he is a shepherd. Let us now 
see whether he be not a good one. This we find by the 
very question, and his answer. Thou didst ask, whether he 
loved Thee; he answered, " I do love Thee." Thou sawest 
his heart, that he answered truth. Is he not then good, who 
loveth so gi'eataGood? Whence that answer drawn from 
his inmost heart ? Wherefore was this Peter, who had Thine 
eyes in his heart for witnesses, sad because Thou askedst 
him not once only, but a second and a third time, that by 
a threefold confession of love, he might efface the threefold 
sin of denial; wherefore, I say, being sad that he was asked 
repeatedly by Him Who knew what He has asking, and 
had given what He heard; wherefore being sad, did he return 
such an answer, Lord, Thou knowest all things. Thyself 
knowest that I love Thee? What! in making such a con- 
fession, such a profession rather, would he lie ? In truth 
then, he made answer of his love to Thee, and from his 
inmost heart he gave utterance to a lover's words. Now 

Matt. Thou hast said, A good man out of the good treasure of the 
' "^^* heart hringeth forth good things. So then he is both a 
shepherd, and a good she|)herd ; nothing it is true to the 
power and goodness of the Shepherd of shepherds ; but 
nevertheless even he is both a shepherd, and a good one ; 
and all other such are good shepherds. 
v. 5. What means it then, that to good shepherds Thou dost 
set forth One Only Shepherd, but that in One Shepherd Thou 
teachest unity? and the Lord Himself explains this more 
clearly by my ministry, putting you, beloved, in remembrance 
by this Gospel, and saying, " Hear ye what I have set forth, 
I have said, / at?i the good Shepherd; because all the rest, 
all the good shepherds, are My members." One Head, One 
Body, One Christ. So then both the Shepherd of shepherds, 
and the shepherds of the Shepherd, and the sheep with their 
shepherds under The Shepherd. What is all this, but what 

i t-'or. the Apostle says? For as the body is one, and hath many 

' ' members, and all the members of the body, being many, are 

one body ; so also is Christ. Therefore if Christ be even so, 

with good reason doth Christ in Himself containing all good 

Luve of the Church for Christ understood by th ose icho love Him.6S9 

shepherds, set forth One, saying, " / am the good Shepherd. Serm. 
/ am, I Alone am, all the rest with Me are one in unity. ["^ssbI] 
Whoso feedeth without Me, feedeth against Me. He that Mmt. 
gathereth not with Me, scatter ethP Hear then this unity ^^' ' 
more forcibly set forth ; Other sheep., saith He, / have which Johnio, 
are not of this fold. For He was speaking to the first fold of 
the stock of the fleshly Israel. But there were others of the 
stock of the faith of this Israel, and they were yet without, 
were among the Gentiles, predestinated, not yet gathered in. 
These He knew Who had predestinated them : He knew, 
Who had come to redeem them with the shedding of His 
Own Blood. He saw them who did not yet see Him; He 
knew them who yet believed not on Him. Other sheep, 
saith He, I have which are not of this fold ; because they 
are not of the stock of the flesh of Israel. But nevertheless 
they shall not be outside of this fold,ybr them also I must 
bring, that there may be One Fold, and One Shepherd. 

6. With good reason then to This Shepherd of shepherds, vi. 
doth His Beloved, His Spouse, His Fair One, but by Him 
made fair, before by sin deformed, beautiful afterward through 
pardon and grace, speak in her love and ardour after Him, 
and say to Him, Where feedest Thou? And observe how, cant. l, 
by what transport this spiritual love is here animated. And''* 
far better are they by this transport delighted, who have 
tasted ought of the sweetness of this love. They hear this 
properly, who love Christ. For in them, and of them, doth 
the Church sing this in the Song of Songs ; who love Christ, 
as it seemed without beauty, yet the Only Beautiful One. 
For ive saw Him, it is said, a7id He had neither beaiity nor is.53,2. 
comeliness. Such He appeared on the Cross, such when^^P*" 
crowned with thorns did He exhibit Himself, disfigured, and 
without comeliness, as if He had lost His power, as if not 
the Son of God. Such seemed He to the blind. For it is 
in the person of the Jews that Isaiah said this, We saw Him, 
and He had no beauty nor comeliness. When it was said, 
If He be the Son of God, let Him come down from the Mark 
Cross. He saved others. Himself He cannot save. And \^'}^' 

cc 31 • 

smiting Him on the head with a reed, they said, Prophesy ^att. 
unto us, thou Christ, who smote Thee? Because He had^^^^^- 
neither beauty nor comeliness. As such did ye Jews see 

(>-l() Intense love of the Church for Christ, for Himself Alone. 

Serm. llim. For hUndness halh happened in part to Israel^ until 
[138.1?.] ^''^ fulness of the Gentiles enter in, until the other sheep 
Rom. come. Because tlien blindness hath happened, therefore did 
1 Co^^*2 y*^ ^^® ^^^^ Comely One without comeliness. For had ye 
8. knoirni Him, ye icould never have crucified the Lord of 

Glory. But ye did it, because ye knew Hira not. And yet 
Tie Who as though without beauty bare with you, all Beau- 
Luke23, teous as He was, prayed for you ; Father, sailh Ho, forgive 
them, for they know not what they do. For if He were 
without comeliness, how is it that she loveth Hira, who saith, 
Cant. 1, Tell me, O Thou Whom my soid loveth'^ How is it that she 
loveth Him ? how is it that she bunielh for Him ? how is 
it that she feareth so much to stray from Him t How is it 
that she hath so great delight in Him, that her only punish- 
ment is to be without Flim .? What w^ould there be for which 
He should be loved, if He were not beautiful ? But how 
could she love Hira so, if He appeared to her as He did to 
those blind men persecuting Hira, and knowing not what 
Ps. J5,2. they do } As what then did she love Hira .? As Comely inform 
above the sons of men. Comely in form above the sons of 
men, grace is poured abroad in Thy Lips. So then frora 
these Thy Lips, 21?// me, O Thou Whom my soul loveth. 
Tell me, says she, Thou Whom, not ray flesh, but, my 
Caiit. ^,soid loveth. Tell me where Thoufeedest, where Thou liest 
^^ ■ down in the midday ; lest hazily I light, as one veiled, upon 
the flocks of Thy companions. 
vii. 7. It seeras obscure, obscure it is ; for it is a mystery of 
Cunt. ], tho sacred marriage bed. For she says, Tlie King hath 
brought me into His chamber. Of such a chamber is this 
a mystery. But ye who are not as profane kept off from 
this chamber, hear ye what ye are, and say with her, if with 
her ye love; (and ye do love with her, if ye are in her;) say 
all, and yet let one say, for unity saith; Tell me, O Thou 
Acts 4, Whom my soid loveth. For they had one soul to Godicard, 
and one heart. Tell me where Thou feedest, where Thou 
liest down in the midday ? What does the midday'' signify ? 
" Great heat, and great brightness." So then, " make known 

^ It is not possible in English to this passage in the two senses of fhe 
preserve the same translation, for the noon or midday, and the South. 
word mcridtps, which occurs throughout 

Sin of the Donatists, in daimin(j Chrii;t''s fjifts as their own, G41 

to me who are Thy wise ones," fervent in spirit, and brilUant Serm. 
in doctrine. Make known to me Thy Right Handy and^lll''^\ 
men learned in heart, in wisdom. To them may I cleave ps. 89, 
in Thy Body, to them be united, with them enjoy Thee. i^y^|^ 
Tell me then, tell me, lohere Thou feedest, zvhere Thou liest 
down in the midday ; lest I fall upon them who say other 
things of Thee, entertain other sentiments of Thee ; believe 
other things of Thee, preach other things of Thee ; and have 
their own flocks, and are Thy companions; for that they live 
of Thy table, and handle the sacraments of Thy table. For com- 
panions are so called, because they eat together*, messmates Ps. 54, 
as it were. Such are reproved in the Psalm; For if Mine ^''^' 
enemy had spoken great things against Me, I would surely "^-^-^o, 
have hidden Myself from him; and if he that hated 3Ie /^rtf^isodales 
spoken great things against Me, I would surely have hidden^^^^ 
3Iy self from him ; but thou a man of one mind with Me, 3Iy sunt, 
guide, and My familiar, who didst take sweet 7neats together^. ^ 
with Me, in the house of God ice vjalked with consent, edant, 
Why then now against the house of the Lord with dissent, shmii 
but that they have gone out from us, hut they were not o/"eda]es. 
us? Therefore, O Thou Whom my soul loveth, WrsX I may 2, 19. 
not fall upon such, Thy companions, but companions such 
as Samson's were, who kept not faith with their friend, but Ju'^ges 
wished to corrupt his wife. Therefore, that I may not fall 
upon such as these, that I may not light upon them, that is, 
fall upon tliem, as one that is veiled, as one that is concealed, 
that is, and obscure, not as established upon the mountain. 
Tell me then, O Thou IVhom my soul loveth, where Tliou 
feedest, where Thou liest down in the midday; who are 
the wise and faithful in whom Thou dost sjjecially rest, 
lest by chance as in blindness I fall upon the flocks, not 
Thy flocks, but the flocks of Thy companions. For thou 
didst not say to Peter, " Feed thy sheep," but. Feed Af2/Jobn2i, 

8. Let then the good Sliepherd, and, tlie Comely in form viii. 
above the sons of men, make answer to this beloved one; 
make answer to her whom He hath made beautiful from 
among the children of men. Hear ye what He answereth 
and understand, beware of that wherewith He alarmeth, love 
that which He adviscth. What then doth He answer ? How 

t)4*2 Our Lord rebukes the Church, that she may love Him more. 

Serm. free from soft caresses, yea, to her caresses He returneth 
rYgg^plJ severity ! He is sharp lliat He may bind her closely, that He 
Can^tT may keep her. If thou know not th t/selj, saiih He, O thou 
8. Septyj^^y ^^^^ amoiuj uomen : for however fair others may be by 
the gifts of thy Spouse, they are heresies, fair in outward 
> visce- ornament, not within': fair are they without, and outwardly 
"^"^ they shine, they disguise themselves by the name of righte- 
Ps, 45, ousness ; but all the beaut ij of the Kitifs daugliter is within. 
^^' //"then thou know not thyself; that thou art one, that thou 
art throughout all nations, that thou art chaste, that thou 
oughtest not to corrupt thyself with the disordered converse 
2 Cor. of evil companions. //' tliou know not thyself that in upright- 
' * ness, he hath espoused thee to Me, to present you a chaste 
Virgin to Christ; and that in uprightness thou shouldest present 
V- 3. thine own self to Me, lest by evil converse, as the serpent be- 
guiled Eve through his suhtilty, so your minds too should be cor- 
rupted from my purity. If I say, thou know not thyself io 
be such, go thy way ; go thy way. For to others I shall say, 
Mat.25, Enter thou into the joy of thy Lord. To thee I shall not say. 
Enter in ; but. Go thy way ; that thou mayest be among those, 
who went out from us. Go thy way. That is, if thou know not 
thyself then, go thy way. But if thou know thyself, enter 
in. Bui, if thou know not thyself, go thy way by the foot- 
steps of the flocks, and feed thy kids in the tents o/ the 
shepherds. Go thy way by the footsteps, not " of the Flock," 
but, of the flocks, and feed, not as Peter, " My sheep," but, 
thy kids; in the tents, not " of the Shepherd," but, (f the 
shepherds; not of unity, but of dissension; not established 
there, where there is One flock and One Shepherd. The 
beloved one was confirmed, edified, made stronger, prepared 
to die for her Spouse and to live with her Spouse. 
ix. 9. These words which 1 have quoted out of the Holy 
Song of Songs, of a kind of bridal song of the Bridegroom 
and the Bride ; (for it is a spiritual wedding, wherein we 
must live in great purity, for Christ hath granted to the 
Church in spirit that which His Mother had in body, to be 
at once a Mother and a Virgin;) these words, I say, the Dona- 
tisls accommodate to their own per\erted sense in a very dif- 
ferent meaning. And how 1 will not conceal from you, and what 
ye may answer them, I will, by the Lord's help, as well as 1 shall 

Donatist perversion ojH.Scr. — Growth oftheChurch in Egypt. QA'S 

be able, briefly recommend. When then we begin to press them Serm. 
with the light of the Church's unity spread over the whole [iss.b.] 
world, and demand of them to shew us any testimony out of 
the Scriptures, where God hath foretold that the Church 
should be in Africa, as if all the rest of the nations were lost; 
they are in the habit of taking this testimony in their mouths, 
and saying; " Africa is under the midday sun; the Church 
then" they say, " asking the Lord where He feedeth, where He 
lieth down; He answereth, Under the midday sun;" as if 
the voice of her who put the question, were, Tell ?ne, O Thou 
W]iom my soul loreth, fe-here Thou feedest, where Thou liest 
down; and the Voice of Him Who answereth, were, Under 
the midday sun; that is, in Africa. If then it be the Church 
which asketh, and the Lord maketh answer where he 
feedeth, in Africa, because the Church was in Africa ; then 
she who asketh was not in Africa. Tell me, she saith, 

Thou Whom my soul lovetJt, where Thou feedest, xohere 
Thou liest down; and He maketh answer to some Church 
out of Africa, Under the midday sun, in Africa I lie 
down, in Africa I feed, as if it were, " 1 do not feed in thee." 

1 repeat, if she who asketh is the Church, which no one 
disputes, which not even themselves gainsay; and they 
hear something about Africa ; then she who asketh is out 
of Africa ; and because it is the Church, the Church is out 
of Africa. 

10. But see, 1 admit that Africa is under the midday sun; x. 
although Egypt is rather under the meridian, under the mid- 
day sun than Africa. Now after what fashion This Shepherd 
is there in Egypt, they who know, will acknowledge ; and 
for them that know not, let them enquire how large a flock 
He gathereth there, how great a multitude He hath of holy 
men and women vvho utterly despise the world. That flock 
hath so increased, that it hath expelled superstitions even 
thence. To pass over how it hath in its increase banished 
thence the whole superstition of idols, which had been firmly 
fixed tliere ; I admit what you say, O evil companions ; I 
admit it altogether, 1 agree that Africa is in the South, and 
that Africa is signified in that which is said. Where feedest 
Tliou, where dost Thou lie down tinder the midday sun? 

fi44 Donatist exposition turned against themselves. 

Serm. But do yc too equally observe how that up to this point 
[]38.B.J*-li<2se are the words of the Bride, and not yet of the Bride- 
groom. Hitherto it is the Bride that saith, Tell me, O Thou 
Whom my soul loveth^ where Thou fecde-sf, ichere Thou dost 
lie down in the middai/, lest hij chance I light, as one felled. 
O thou deaf, and blind one, if in the midday thou seest 
Africa, why in her that is veiled dost thou not see the Bride? 
Tell me, she saith, O Thou Whom my soul loveih. Without 
doubt she addresses her Spouse, when she says, Whom (in 
• quem the masculine') my soul loveth. Just as if it were said, 
- qiiam " Xell me, O thou whom (in the feminine-) my soul lovoth;" 
we should understand that the Bridegroom spake these words 
to His Bride; so when you hear, Tell me, Thou Whom (in 
the masculine) my soul loveth, ivhere Thou feedest, where 
Thou liest down ; add to this, to her words belongs also 
what follows, In the midday. I am asking, where Thou 
feedest in the midday, lest by chance I light as one veiled 
upon the flocks of Thy companions. I consent entirely, I 
admit what you understand of Africa; it is signified by, the 
midday. But then as you understand it, the Church of 
Christ beyond the sea is addressing her Spouse, in fear of 
falling into the African error, O Then Whom my soid loveth, 
tell me, teach me. For I hear that in the midday, that is in 
^conci- Africa, there are two parties, yea rather many schisms ^ Tell 
me, then, where Thou feedest, what sheep belong to Thee, 
what fold Thou biddest me love there, whereunto ought I 
to unite myself. Lest by chance I light as one veiled. For 
they mock me as if I were concealed, they mock me as 
destroyed, as though I existed no where else. Lest, then, as 
one veiled, as if concealed, / light upon the flocks, that is, 
upon the congregations of the heretics, thy companions; the 
Donatists, the Maximinianists, the Rogatists, and all the 
other pests who gather without, and who therefore scatter; 
Tell me, I pi-ay Thee, if I must seek my Shepherd there, that I 
fall not into the gulf of rcbaptizing. I exhort you, I beseech 
you by the sanctity of such nuptials, love this Church, be ye 
in this holy Church, be ye this Church; love the good 
Shei)hci-d, the Spouse so fair, Who deceiveth no one. Who 
desireth no one to perish. Pray too for the scattered sheep ; 

Believe, to understand; Xt The Sun hy nature, we sons by (/race. C15 

that tbcy too may come, that they too may acknowledge 
Him, that they too may love Him; that there may be Onej 
Flock and One Shepherd. Let us turn to the Lord, &c. 


On the Tvords of the Gospel,. John x. " I and My Father are One." 

L Ye have heard what the Lord God, Jesus Christ, the i. 
Only Son of God, born of God the Father without any 
mother, and born of a Virgin mother without any human father, 
said, I and My Father are One. Receive ye this, beheve it Johnlo, 
in such wise that ye may attain' to understand it. For faith ?*^' 

^ J ' mere- 

ought to go before understanding, that understanding may amini 

be the reward of faith. For the Prophet hath said most 

expressly, Unless ye believe, ye shall not understand. What is. 7, 9. 

then is simply preached is to be believed; what is with^*^^*' 

exactness discussed, is to be understood. At first then^ to^He 

imbue your minds with faith we preach to you Christ, theT^^Jf*" 

Only Son of God the Father. Why is added, " The Only dressing 

Son?" Because He Whose Only Son He is, hath manySchu-"" 

sons by grace. All the rest then, all saints are sons of God"^™^- 

by grace, He Alone by Nature. They who are sons of GodnotT.) ' 

by grace are not What the Father is. And no saint hath 

ever dared to say, what that Only Son saith, / and My 

Father are One. Is He not then our Father too ? If He be 

not our Father, how say we when we pray. Our Father, Matt. 6, 

Which art in heaven? But we are sons whom He hath^' 

made sons by His Own will, not begotten as sons of 

His Own Nature. And in truth He hath begotten us too, 

but as it is said, as adopted ones, begotten by the favour of 

His adoption, not by Nature. And this too are we called, for 

that God hath called us into the adoption of sons; we aresphes. 

though adopted, men. He is called the Only »Son, the Only '' •'^• 

Begotten, in that Lie is That Which the Father is; but we 

are men. The Father is God. In then that He is That 

Which the Father is ; He said, and said truly, / and My 

t)46 Scr. justifies use of analogies as to God; to illustrate only. 

Skrm. Father are One. What is, are One? Are of one Nature. 

[I39.B,J What is, are One ? Are of one Substance. 

li^ 2. Peradventure, ye but imperfectly understand what " of 

one Substance" is. Take we pains that ye may understand it; 
may God assist both me who speak, and you that hear ; me, 
that I may speak such things as are true and tit for you ; 
and you, that before and above all things ye may believe ; and 
then that ye may understand as best ye can. What then is 
" of One Substance ?" Let me make use of similitudes to you, 
that what is imperfectly understood may be made clear by 
example. As, suppose, God is gold. His Son is gold 
also. Tf similitudes ought not to be given for heavenly 

1 Cor. things from things earthly, how is it written, Noiv the Rock 
' ■ was Christ? So then, Whatsoever the Father is, This is 
the Son also ; as I have said, for example, " The Father is 
gold, the Son is gold." For he who says, " The Son is not of 
the Very Substance Which the Father is;" what else says he 
but, " The Father is gold, the Son is silver V If the Father 
be gold, and the Son silver ; the Only Son hath degenerated 
from the Father. A man begets a man ; of what substance 
the father is who begets, of the same substance is the Son 
who is begotten. What is, " of the same substance ?" The 
one is a man, and the other is a man ; the one hath a soul ; 
so hath the other a soul ; the one hath a body, so hath the 
other a body; what one is, that is the other. 

3. But the Arian heresy makes answer, and says. What 
says it to me } " Mark what thou hast said V What have 1 
said? " That the Son of a man may be compared to the Son 
of God." Certainly he may be compared ; but not as you 

' ad pro- suppose, in strictness of expression'; but for a similitude. 

t*ern ^' But tell me now what you would make of this. " Do you not 

' major see," says he, " that the father who begets is greater ' in age, 
and the son who is begotten less ? How then say ye ? tell 
me ; how then say ye, that the Father and the Son, God and 
Christ, are equal ; when ye see that when a man begets a 
son, the son is less, and the father greater.''" Thou wise 
one, in eternity thou art looking for times ; where there are 
no times, thou art looking for differences of age ! When the 
father is greater in age, and the son less, both are in time ; 
the one groweth, for that the other groweth old. For by 

Who believe the Son Consuhstaiitial, will believe Him Coequal. 647 

nature, the man, the father, did not beget one less, by Serm. 
nature, as I said, but by age. Wouldest thou know, ^j^g^g^^ 
how that by nature he did not beget one less ? Wait, 
let him grow, and he will be equal to his father. For 
a little boy even by growing attains to his father's full size. 
Whereas you assert that the Son of God is in such wise 
born less, as never to grow, and by growing even to 
attain to His Father's size. Now then a man's son born 
of a man, is born in a better condition than the Son of 
God. How ? Because the former grows, and attains to his 
father's size. But Christ, if it is as ye say, is in such wise 
born less, as that He must ever remain less, and no 
growth of years at least is to be looked for here. Thus 
then you say that there is a diversity in nature. But why 
say you so, but because you will not believe the Son 
to be of the Same Substance Which the Father is? Finally, 
first acknowledge that He is of the same Substance, and so 
call Him less. Consider the case of a man, he is a man. 
What is his substance? He is a man. What is he whom 
he begets ? He is less, but he is a man. The age is unequal, 
the nature equal. Do you then say too, " What the Father 
is, That is the Son, but the Son is less.''" Say so, make a step 
forward, say, " of the Same Substance, only less;" and you 
will get to His being equal. For it is not a little step you 
take, it is not a little approach you make to the truth, of 
acknowledging Him equal, if you shall acknowledge Him to 
be of the Same Substance, though less. " But He is not of 
the Same Substance," this you say. So then in that you 
say this, here is gold and silver; what you say is as if a 
man were to beget a horse. For a man is of one substance, 
a horse of another. If then the Son is of another substance 
than the Father, the Father hath begotten a monster. For 
when a creature, that is a woman, gives birth to any thing 
that is not a man, it is called a monster. But that it be not 
a monster, he that is born is that which he is that begat him, 
that is, a man and a man, a horse and a horse, a dove and 
a dove, a sparrow and a sparrow. 

4. To His creatures hath He given to beget that which iii, 
they are. To His creatures, to mortal, earthly creatures, 
hath God given, hath granted to beget that which they are ; 

u u 

648 Extrfime blasphemy of denying Coequality of the Son. 

Serm. and tliinkest tlioii that He hath not been able to reserve 
h'^gg'^gV this for Himself, He Who is before all ages? Should He 
Who hath no beginning of time, beget a son, different from 
That AVhich Himself is, beget a degenerate son ? Hear ye 
how great a blasphemy it is to say, that the Only Son of 
God is of another substance. Most certainly if He is so, 
He is degenerate. If you should say to any child of man, 
" Thou art degenerate," how great an offence is it ! And yet 
in what sense is any child of man said to be degenerate.? 
As, for example, his father is brav^e, he is a poltroon and a 
coward. If any one sees him, and would rebuke him, as he 
thinks of his brave father, what does he say to him.? " Get 
thee hence, thou degenerate one!" What is " degenerate 
one?" " Thy father was a brave man, and thou tremblest 
through fear," He to whom this is said, is degenerate by 
some fault, by nature he is equal. What is, " by nature he 
is equal ?" He is a man, which his father also is. But the 
one brave, the other a coward; the one bold, the other 
timid ; yet both men. By some fault then he is degenerate, 
not by nature. But when you say, that the Only Son, the 
One Son of the Father, is degenerate, you say nought else, 
but that He is not What the Father is ; and you do not say, 
that having been already born, He has become degenerate; 
but He was begotten so. Who can endure this blasphemy ? 
If they could in any sort whatever see this blasphemy, they 
would fly from it, and become catholics. 
iv. 5. But what shall I say, brethren? Let us not be angry 
with them ; but pray we for them, that God would give them 
'Arians. understanding ; for peradventure they were bom so". What 
is, were born so ? They received what they hold from their 
parents. They prefer their birth to the truth. Let them 
become what they are not, that they may be able to keep 
what they are ; that is, let them become catholics, that they 
may keep their nature as men ; that the creation of God in 
them perish not, let the grace of God be added to them. 
For they imagine that by their outrage of the Son they 
honour the Father. When you say to him, " Thou blas- 
phemest ;" he answers, " Why do I blaspheme ?" " In that 
thou sayest that the Son is not What the Father is." And he 
answers me, " Yea, it is thou who blasphemest." Why? 

Such dishonor The Father in the Son ; are rejected hy Both. 649 

" Because thou wouldest make the Son equal to the Father." Serm. 
" I do wish to make the Son equal with the Father, but is n^sg^B^i 
this to make a stranger equal ? The Father rejoiceth when I 
equal with Him His Only Son ; He rejoiceth because He is 
not envious. And because God is not envious of His Only- 
Son, therefore did He beget Him Such as He is Himself. 
Thou doest wrong both to the Son, and to the Father Him- 
self, for Whose honour thou wouldest do outrage to the Son. 
For in truth for this reason dost thou say that the Son is 
not of the Same Substance, lest thou shouldest do wrong to 
His Father. I will soon shew thee, that thou doest wrong to 
both." " How?" saith he. " If I say to any man's son, Thou 
art degenerate, thou art not like thy father ; degenerate, thou 
art not what thy father is. The son hears it, and is angry, 
and says, ' Was I then born degenerate ?' The father hears 
it, and is more angry still. And in his anger what says he ? 
' Have I then begotten a degenerate son ? If I then be one 
thing, and I have begotten another, I have begotten a 
monster.' What is it then, that whereas thou wishest to pay 
honour to the One by doing outrage to the Other, thou doest 
outrage to Both ? Thou offendest the Son, but thou wilt 
not propitiate the Father. When thou honourest the Father 
by outraging the Son, thou offendest both the Son and the 
Father. From whom wilt thou fly? to whom wilt thou fly ? 
When the Father is angry with thee, dost thou fly to the Son? 
What doth He say to thee ? ' To Whom dost thou fly, to Me, 
whom thou hast made degenerate ?' When the Son is 
oflended, dost thou run to the Father ? He too saith to 
thee ; ' To Whom dost thou fly, to Me Who, thou hast said, 
have begotten a degenerate Son ?' " Let this suffice for you ; 
hold it fast, commit it to memory, inscribe it in your faith. 
But that ye may understand it, pour out your prayers to God, 
the Father and the Son, Who are One. 

U u 2 

650 Contrast of the two Nativities of our Lord, both marvellovs. 


On the words of the Gospel, John xii. " He that helieveth on Me, helieveth 
not on Me, hut on Him That sent Me:" against a certain expression of 
Maximinus, a hishop of the Ariaus, who spread his hlasphemy in Africa 
where he was with the Count Segisvult. 

Serm. 1. What is it, hrcthrcn, which we have heard the Lord 
ri4^B i^^y^"gj -^"^ ^^^^^ helieveth on Me, helieveth not on 3Ie, hut on 
johni2 Him that sent Me? It is good for us to beheve on Christ, 
*'*• especially seeing that He hath also Himself expressly said 
y^^' this which ye have now heard, that is, that Ho had come 
12. ' « Light into the world, and whosoever helieveth on Him shall 
not v-alk in darkness, hut shall have the light of life. Good 
then it is to believe on Christ ; and a great evil it is not to 
believe on Christ. But because Christ the Son is. What- 
soever He is, of the Father, but the Father is not of the Son, 
but is the Father of the Son; He recommends to us indeed 
' autho- faith in Himself, but refers the honour to His Original'. 

2. For hold this fast as a firm and settled truth, if ye would 
continue Catholics, that God the Father begat God the Son 
without time, and made Him of a Virgin in time. The first 
nati\ity exceedeth times ; the second nativity enlighteneth 
times. Yet both nativities are marvellous; the one without 
a mother, the other without a father. When God begat the 
Son, He begat Him of Himself, not of a mother ; when the 
Mother gave birth to her Son, she gave Him birth as a 
Virgin, not by man. He was born of the Father without a 
beginning; He was born of a mother, as to-day'', at an ap- 
pointed beginning. Born of the Father He made us; born of 
a Mother He re-made us. He was born of the Father, that 
we might be; He was born of a mother, that we might not 
be lost. But the Father begat Him equal to Himself, and 
All Whatsoever the Son is, He hath of the Father. But What 
God the Father is. He hath not of the Son. Accordingly 
we say that the Father is God, of none ; the Son, God of God. 

* The Bened. conjecture that the added in order to adapt this Sermon to 
word " hodie" here and at the end was he preached on Christmas day. 

What TheFatheris, ThatistheSon,CoequalbyBirt.h,nottheSame. 651 

Wherefore all that the Son doeth marvellously, all that He Serm. 
saith truly, He attributeth to Him of Whom He is ; yet can [140.B.] 
He not be ought else than He of Whom He is. Adam was 
made a man; he had power to become something other than 
he was made. For he was made righteous, and he had power 
to become unrighteous But the Only-Begotten Son of God, 
What He is, This cannot be changed; He cannot be changed 
into any thing else, cannot be diminished, What He was He 
cannot but be, He cannot but be equal to the Father. But 
undoubtedly He Who gave all things to the Son by His 
Birth, gave it to One not needing ought; without doubt this 
very equality too with the Father, the Father gave to the 
Son. How did the Father give It? did He beget Him 
less, and add to Him to complete His Form, that He 
might make Him equal? If He had done this. He would 
have given it to one in need. But I have told you already 
what ye ought most firmly to hold fast, that is, that All That 
the Son is, the Father gave Him, gave Him, that is, by His 
Birth, not as in need of ought. If He gave it to Him 
by His Birth, and not as in need, then doubtless He 
both gave Him equality, and in giving Him equality, begat 
Him equal. And although the One be One Person, and 
the Other Another; yet is not the One one thing, and the 
Other another; but What the One is. That the Other also. 
He Who is the One, is not the Other; but What the One, 
That too the Other. 

3. He Who sent Me, saith He, ye have heard it; He Who Johni2, 
sent Me, saith He, He gave Me a commandment what I ' 
should say, and ivhat I shoidd sjwak ; and 1 know that His v. so. 
com/mandment is life everlasting. It is John's Gospel, hold 
it fast. He Who sent Me, He gave Me a commandment what 
I should say, and what I shotdd speak ; and I know that 
His commandment is life everlasting. O that He would 
grant me to say what I wish ! For my poverty, and His 
abundance straiteneth me. He, saith He, gave Me a coyn- 
mandment, what I should say, and what I should speak ; and 
I know that His commandment is life everlasting. Search 
in the Epistle of this John the Evangelist for what he hath 
said of Christ. Let us believe, he says. His True Son Jesus 1 John 
Christ. This is the True God and Everlasting Life. What^' ^^' 

052 Oneness o/t/ieSon with the Fathernotbywill,else manonewith God. 

Serm. is The True Ood.and Everlastinq Life ? The True Son of 
[HOB.] God, is the True God, and Everlasting Life. Why did He 
say, On His True Son ? Because God hath many sons, 
therefore was He to be distinguished, by adding that He was 
the True Son. Not by simply saying that He is the Son ; 
but by adding, as I have said, that He is the True Son ; 
therefore He was to be distinguished, because of the many 
sons which God hath. For we are sons by grace, He by 
Nature. We made by the Father through Him ; He 
Himself That Which the Father is; are we too That Which 
God is ? 

4. But some man coming across us, knowing not what he is 
Johnio saying, says, " For this reason was it said, / and My Father 
^'^' are One ; for that They have with One Another an agreement 
of will, not because the Nature of the Son is the Very Same 
as the Nature of the Father. For the Apostles too, (now this 
is what he said'' not t;) for the Apostles too are one with the 
Father and the Son." Horrible blasphemy! " And the 
Apostles," says he, " are one with the Father and the Son, 
in that they obey the will of the Father and the Son." Has 
he dared to say this ? Let Paul then say, " I and God are 
one." Let Peter say it, let every one of the Prophets say, 
" I and God are one." They do not say it; God forbid they 
should. They know that they are a different nature, a nature 
that needeth to be saved; they know that they are a different 
nature, a nature that needeth to be enlightened. No one 
says, " I and God are one." Whatsoever progress he may 
make, howsoever he may surpass others in holiness, with how 
great eminence soever of virtue he may excel, he never 
saith, " I and God are one;" for if he have excellence, and 
therefore saith it; by saying it, he loseth what he had. 

5. Believe then that the Son is equal with the Father; but 
yet that the Son is of the Father; but the Father not of the 
Son. The Original is with the Father, equality with the Sou. 
For if He be not equal. He is not a true Son. For what are 
we saying, brethren 1 If He is not equal, He is less ; if He 
is less, I ask the nature that needeth to be saved, in its mis- 
belief, " how is He born less V Answer, Doth He as being 

^ Maximinus in his Conference with St. Augustine, and St. Augustine in his 
Answer, b. ii. cont. Maxim, ch, 22. 

The Son,y^ Word S^Commandmentofy^ Father, not as man's ivordsGoS 

less grow or not ? If He groweth, then the Father growelh Serm. 
old. But if He will ever be what He was born ; if He waSr^^Qg j 
born less, He will continue less ; with this His loss He will ~ ~ 
be perfect; born perfect with this loss of the Father's Form, 
He is never to attain to the Father's Form. Thus do ye un- 
godly assail ' the Son ; thus do ye heretics blaspheme the Son. ' addici- 
What then saith the Catholic faith ? The Son is God, of '^ 
God the Father; God the Father, not God of the Son, But 
God the Son equal with the Father, Born equal; not Born 
less, not made equal, but Born equal. What the Father is, 
That is He also Who was born. Was the Father ever without 
the Son ? God forbid ! Take away your ever, where there 
is no time. The Father always, the Son always. The 
Father without beginning of time, the Son without begin- 
ning of time ; the Father never before the Son, the Father 
never without the Son. But yet because the Son is God 
of God the Father, and the Father God, but not of God 
the Son ; let not the honouring of the Son in the Father dis- 
please us. For the honouring of the Son giveth honour to 
the Father, it diminisheth not His Own Divinity. 

6. Because then I was speaking of what I had brought 
forward, And I knoiv, saith He, that His commandment wJohni2, 
everlasting life. Mark, brethren, what I am saying; / know^^' 
that His commandment is everlasting life. And we read 
in the same John concerning Christ, He is The True Godand^^ohad, 

. 20 

everlasting Life, If the Father's commandment is everlasting 
Life, and Christ the Son Himself is everlasting Life; the Son 
is Himself the Father's Commandment. For how is not That 
the Father's Commandment, Which is the Father's Word? 
Or if you take the commandment given to the Son by the 
Father in a carnal sense, as if the Father said to the Son, 
" I command Thee this, I wish Thee to do that;" in what 
words spake He to the Only Word 1 When He gave com- 
mandment to the Word, did He look for words ? That the 
Father's Commandment then is Life everlasting and that the 
Son Himself is Life everlasting, believe ye and receive, believe 
and understand, for the Prophet saith, Unless ye hetieve ye is. 7 9, 
shall not understand. Do ye not comprehend ? Be enlarged. ®®P*' 
Hear the Apostle: Be ye enlarged, bear not the yoke uith^^°'''^-> 
unbelievers. They who will not believe this before they 

654 Philosophers learnt that Godisy '^ LifeJ'oundiwty^xcay to Him- 

Serm. comprehend, are unbelievers. And because they have deter- 
tUo.B.]™ined to be unbelievers, they will remain in their ignorance. 
Let them believe then that lliey may understand. Most cer- 
tainly the Father's Commandment is everlasting Life. There- 
fore the Father's Commandment is the Very Son Who was 
born tliis day; a Commandment not given in time, but a 
Commandment Born. The Gospel of John exercises our 
' limat minds, refines' and uncarnalizes them, that of God we may 
think not after a carnal but a s])iritual manner. Let so much 
then, brethren, suffice you; lest in length of disputation, the 
sleep of forge tfuln ess steal over you. 


On the words of the Gospel, Johu xiv. " I am the Way, and the Truth, and 

the Life." 

i. 1. Amongst other things, when the Holy Gospel was being 

JohnH, read, ye heard what the Lord Jesus said, / ti?n the Way, and 
the Truth, and the Life. Truth and life doth every man 
desire ; but not every man doth find the way. That God 
is a certain Life Eternal. Unchangeable, Intelligible, Intel- 
ligent, Wise, Making wise, some philosophers even of this 
world have seen. The fixed, settled, unwavering truth, wherein 
2 ratio- are all the principles^ of all things created, they saw indeed, 
"^^ but afar off; they saw, but amid the error in which they were 
placed; and therefore what way to attain to that so great, and 
ineffable, and beatific a possession they found not. For that 
even they saw, (as far as can be seen by man,) the Creator 
by means of the creature, the Worker by His work, the 
Framer of the world by the world, the Apostle Paul is wit- 
ness, whom Christians ought surely to believe. For he said 
Bom. 1 , when he was speaking of such ; The ivrath of God is revealed 
18. from heaven ayainst all ungodliness. These are, as ye recog- 
nise, the words of the Apostle Paul; The urath of God is 
revealed from heaven against all ungodliness, and unrighte- 
ousness of men; who detain the truth in unrighteousness. 
Did he say that they do not detain the truth? No: but. 

All nature spake to man of God, but pride marred knowledge. 655 

They detained the truth in unrighteousness. What they Serm. 
detain, is good; but wherein they detain it, is bad. They .^^^^^ 
detain the truth in unrighteousness. 

2. Now it occurred to him that it might be said to him, 
" Whence do these ungodly men detain the truth ? Hath God 
spoken to any one of them? Have they received the Law as 
the people of the Israelites by Moses? Whence then do they 
detain the truth, though it be even in this unrighteousness?" 
Hear what follows, and he shews. Because that which can be ii. 
known of Qod, he says, is manifest in them; for God hath\. 19. 
manifested it unto them. Manifested it unto them to 
whom He hath not given the Law? Hear how He hath 
manifested it. For the invisible things of Him are clearly v. 2o. 
seen, being understood by the things that are made. Ask the 
world, the beauty of the heaven, the brilliancy and ordering 

of the stars, the sun, that sufSceth for the day, the moon, the 
solace of the night ; ask the earth fruitful in herbs, and trees, 
full of animals, adorned with men; ask the sea, with how 
great and what kind of fishes filled ; ask the air, with how 
great birds stocked^; ask all things, and see if they do not as ' viget. 
it were by a language^ of their own make answer to thee,2sensu. 
" God made us." These things have illustrious philosophers 
sought out, and by the art have come to know the Artificer. 
What then ? Why is the wrath of God revealed against this un- 
godliness ? Because they detain the truth in unrighteousness ? 
Let him come, let him shew how. For how they came to 
know him. He hath said already. The invisible things of Him, 
that is, of God, are clearly seen^ being imderstood Ijy the things 
that are m.ade; His eternal Power also and Godhead; so that 
they are without excuse. Because that when they knew God,y. 21. 
they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankfxd; but 
became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart 
loas darkened. They are the Apostle's words, not mine : 
And their foolish heart was darkened; for professing them- v. 22. 
selves to be wise, they became fools. What by curious 
search they found, by pride they lost. Professing themselves 
to be wise, attributing, that is, the gilt of God to themselves, 
they became fools. They are the Apostle's words, I say ; 
Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools. 

3. Shew, prove their foolishness. Shew, O Apostle, and iii. 

656 Christ, as Man, the Way to Christ as God. 

Serm. as thou hast shewn us whereby they were able to attain to 

[141.B.] the knowledge of God, for that the invisible things of Him 
are clearly seen, heivg understood by those things that are 
made; so now shew how, professing themselves to he wise^ 

V. 23. they became fools. Hear; Because, they changed, he says, 
the glory of the incorruptible God into the likeness of the 
image of a corruptible man, and of birds, and of four-footed 
beasts^ and of creeping things. For of figures of these 
animals, the Pagans made themselves gods. Thou hast 
found out God, and thou worshippest an idol. Thou hast 
found out the truth, and this very truth dost thou detain 
in unrighteousness. And what by the works of God thou 
hast come to know, by the works of man thou losest. Thou 

• totum hast considered the universe', hast collected the order of the 
heaven, the earth, the sea, and all the elements; thou wilt 
not take heed to this, that the world is the w^ork of God, 
an idol is the work of a carpenter. If the carpenter as he 
has given the figure, could also give a heart, the carpenter 
would be worshipped by his own idol. For, O man, as God 
is thy Framer, so the idol's framer is a man. Who is thy 
God } He That made thee. Who is the carpenter's god ? 
He That made him. Who is the idol's god ? He that 
made it. If then the idol had a heart, would he not worship 
the carpenter who made it? See in what unrighteousness 
they detained the truth, and found not the way that leadeth 
to that possession which they saw. 
iv. 4. But Christ, for that He is with the Father, the Truth, 

John 1, and Life, the Word of God, of Whom it is said. The Life 

*• was the Light of men; for that I say He is with the Father, 

the Truth, and Life, and we had no way whereby to go to 
the Truth, the Son of God, Who is ever in the Father the 
Truth and Life, by assuming man's nature became the Way. 
Walk by Him as Man, and thou comest to God. Qj Him 
thou goest, to Him thou goest. Look not out for any way 
whereby to come to Him, besides Himself. For if He had 
not vouchsafed to be the Way, we should have always gone 
astray. He then became the Way Whereby Ihou shouldest 
come ; I do not say to thee, seek the Way. The Way Itself 

«moribu8 ^ath come to thee, arise and walk. Walk, with the life % not 
with the feet. For many walk well with the feet, and with 

S7iares not in y^ way which is Xt, but " by y^ way'" i. e. out ofXt. 657 

their lives walk ill. For sometimes even those who walk Serm. 
well, run outside the way. Thus you will find men living [141.B.] 
well, and not Christians. They run well; but they run not 
in the Way. The more they run, the more they go astray; 
because they are out of the Way. But if such men as these 
come to the Way, and hold on the Way, O how great is their 
security, because they both walk well, and do not go astray ! 
But if they do not hold on the Way, however well they walk, 
alas ! how are they to be bewailed ! For better is it to halt 
in the way, than to walk on stoutly outside the way. Let 
this suffice for you. Beloved. Turn we to the Lord, &c. 


On the same words of the Gospel, John xiv. " I am the Way, &c." 

1. The divine lessons raise us up, that we be not i* 
broken by despair ; and terrify us again, that we be not 
tossed to and fro by pride. But to hold the middle, the 
true, the strait way, as it were between the left hand of 
despair, and the right hand of presumption, would be most 
difficult for us, had not Christ said, 1 am the Way, and the John 
Truth, and the Life. As if He had said, " By what way ^*' ^' 
wouldest thou go ? / am the Way. Whither wouldest 
thou go ? / am the Truth. Where wouldest thou abide .' 
/ am the Life.'''' Let us then walk with all assurance 
in the Way; but let us fear snares by the way side. 
The enemy does not dare to lay his snares in the way; be- 
cause Christ is the Way; but most certainly by the way side 
he ceases not to do so. Whence too it is said in the Psalm, Ps. 139, 
They have laid sttimhlinghlocks for me by the nay side.%^^^' 
And another Scripture saith. Remember that thou walkest 1^0, 5. 
in the midst of snares. These snares among which we walk 9 13. * 
are not in the way ; but yet they are by the way side. What 
fearest thou, what art thou alarmed at, so thou walk in the 
Way? Fear then, if thou forsake the Way. For for this 
reason is the enemy even permitted to lay snares by the way 
side, lest through the secuiity of exultation the Way be for- 
saken, and ye iall into the snares. 

658 The love of the tvorhl adultery ; shame, its healinfj. 

Serm. 2. Christ Humbled is tlie Way; Christ the Truth and the 
xcii • 
ri42.B.l Life, Christ Highly Exalted and God. If thou walk in the 

Humbled, thou shalt attain to the Exalted. If infirm as 
thou art, thou despise not the Humbled, thou shalt abide 
ii. exceeding strong in the Exalted. P'or what cause was there 
of Christ's Humiliation, save thine infirmity ? For sorely and 
irremediably did thine infirmity press thee in, and this cir- 
cumstance it was that made so great a Physician come to 
thee. For if thy sickness had been even such, that thou 
couldest have gone to the Physician, this infirmity might 
have seemed endurable. But because thou couldest not go 
to Him, He came to thee. He came teaching humility, 
whereby we might return ; for that pride allowed us not to 
return to life; yea had even made us depart from life. For 
the heart of man being lifted up against God, and neglecting 
in its sound state His saving precepts, the soul fell away into 
infirmity; let her in her infirmity learn to hear Him Whom 
in her strength she despised. Let her hear II im that she 
may rise. Whom she despised, that she might fall. Let her 
at length, taught by experience, give ear to what she had no 
mind, when taught by precept, to obtain. For her misery 
hath taught her, how evil a thing it is to go a w^horing from 
the Lord. For to fall away from that Simple and Singular 
Good, into this multitude of pleasures, into the love of the 
world, and earthly corruption, is to go a whoring fi-om the 
Lord. And He hath addressed her as in a sense a hai'lot, to 
warn her to return: very often by the Prophets doth He 
reproach her as a harlot, but yet not despaired of, for that 
He Who reproacheth the harlot hath in His Hands the 
cleansing of the harlot too. 
iii, 3. For He doth not so reproach as to insult her; but He 
would bring her to confusion of face to heal her. Vehement 
are the exclamations of Scripiure, nor doth it deal softly by 
James flattery with those whom it would by healing recover. Ye 
*' ^' adulterers, know ye not thai the friend of this world is con- 
stituted the enemy of God? The love of the world makcth the 
soul adulterous, the love of the Framer of the world maketh 
the soul chaste ; but unless she blush for her corruption, 
she hath no desire to return to that chaste embrace. Be 
she confounded that she may return, w^ho was vaunting her- 

The soul must love what is above or below it, forget itself or God. 059 

self that she should not return. It was pride then that Serm. 
hindered the soul's return. But whoso reproacheth doth iiotr"j[^.2 g'n 
cause the sin, but sheweth the sin. What the soul was loth ~ 
to see, is placed before her eyes ; and what she desired to 
have behind her back, is brought before her face. See thy- Matt. 7, 
self in thyself. Wliy seest thou the mote in thy brother's eye, 
hut perceivest not the beam in thine own eye? The soul 
which went away from herself, is recalled to herself. As she 
had gone away from herself, so went she away from her 
Lord. For she had respect to herself, and pleased herself, 
and became enamoured of her own power. She withdrew 
from him, and abode not in herself; and from her own self 
she is repelled, and from herself shut out, and she falleth 
away unto things without her. She loves the world, loves 
the things of time, loves earthly things ; who if she but 
loved herself to the neglect of Him by Whom she was made, 
would at once be less, at once fail by loving that which is 
less. For she is less than God; yea less by far, and by so 
much less as the thing made is less than the Maker. It was 
God then That ought to have been loved, yea in such wise 
ought God to be loved, that if it might be so, we should 
forget ourselves. What then is this change ? The soul halh 
forgotten herself, but by loving the world; let her now forget 
herself, bat by loving the world's Maker. Driven away even 
from herself, I say, she hath in a manner lost herself, and 
hath not skilled to see her own actions, she justifies her 
iniquities; she is puffed up, and prides herself in insolence, 
in voluptuousness, in honors, in posts of authority, in riches, 
in the power of vanity. She is reproved, rebuked, is shewn 
to herself, mislikes herself, confesses her deformity, longs iquse 
for her first beauty, and she who went away in profusion ''i?^*^ 
returas in confusion *. redit 

4. Seemeth he to pray against her, or for her, who says, ^'"?^"^^- 
Fill their faces icith shame? It seems to be an adversary, Ps. 82 
it seems an enemy. Hear what follows, and see whether a i'^" 


friend can offer this prayer. Fill, says he, their faces with E. v. 
shame, and they shall seek Thy Name, O Lord. Did he ^^' ^^" 
hate them whose faces he desired to be filled with shame ? 
See how he loves them whom he would have seek the Name 
of the Lord. Does he love only, or hate only? or does he 

660 God turns not aioay from man, hut man from God. 

Serm. both hate, and love? Yea, he botli hates, and loves. He 
[142.B.] ''^tes what is thine, he loves thee. What is, " He hates 

what is thine, he loves thee ?" He hates what thou hast 

made, he loves what God hath made. For what are thine 

own things but sins? And what art thou but what God 

made thee, a man after His Own image and likeness ? Thou 

dost neglect what thou wast made, love what thou hast 

made. Thou dost love thine own works without thee, 

dost neglect the work of God within thee. Deservedly dost 

thou go away, deservedly fall off, yea, deservedly even from 

Ps. 77, thine own self depart; deservedly hear the words, A spirit 

^y^^^'that goeth and returneth not. Hear rather Him That 

Zech. i,calleth and saith. Turn ye unto 3Ie, and I ivill turn unto 

3- you. For God doth not really turn away, and turn again ; 

Abiding the Same He rebuketh. Unchangeable He rebuketh. 

He hath turned away, in that thou hast turned thyself away. 

Tract. Thou hast fallen from Him, He hath not fallen away from 

Evanff. thee. Hear Him then saying to thee. Turn ye unto Me^ 

Joan, and 1 ivill turn unto you. For this is, " I turn unto you, 

in that ye turn unto INIe." He fblloweth on the back of him 

that flieth. He eiilighteneth the face of him that returneth. 

For whither wilt thou fly in flying from God ? Whither wilt 

thou fly in flying from Him Who is contained in no place, 

and is no where absent ? He That delivereth him that turn- 

eth to him, panisheth him that turneth away. Thou hast a 

Judge by flying; have a Father by returning. 

5. But he had been swollen up by pride, and by this 

V. swelling could not return by the strait way. He Who 

Matt. 7, became the Way, crieth out, Enter ye in by the strait gate. 

^^' He tries to enter in, the swelling impedes him ; and his trying 

is so much the more hurtful, in proportion as the swelling is a 

> vexat greater impedin)ent. For the straitness irritates ' his swelling; 

and being irritated he will swell the more; and swelling more, 

when will he enter in ? So then let him bring down the swelling. 

And how ? Let him take the medicine of humility ; let him 

against the swelling drink the bitter but wholesome cup ; 

drink the cup of humility. Why doth he squeeze himself? 

The bulk, not for its size, but for its swelling, doth not allow 

him. For size hath solidity, swelling inflation. Let not him 

that is swollen fancy himself of great size ; that he may 

Covet God, in Him thou hast all things. 6*61 

be great, and substantial', and solid, let him bring down his Serm. 
swelling. Let him not long after these present things, letrj^g.B.i 
him not gloiy in this pomp of things failing and corruptible ; i certus 
let him hearken to Him Who said, Enter in by the strait J ohni 4, 
gate, saying also, / am the Wag. For as if some swollen 
one had asked, " How shall I enter in ?" He saith, " / am 
the Wag. Enter in by Me ; Thou walkest only by Me, to 
enter in by the door." For as He said, I a?n the W^ay ; johnio, 
so also, / am the Door. Why seekest thou whereby to'^- 
return, whither to return, vrhereby to enter in? Lest thou 
shonldest in any respect go astray. He became all for 
thee. Therefore in brief He saith, " Be humble, be 
meek." Let us hear Him saying this most plainly, that 
thou mayest see whereby is the way, what is the way, 
whither is the way. Whither wouldest thou come } But 
peradventure in covetousness thou wouldest possess all 
things. All things are delivered unto Me of My Father, MsLt.n, 
saith He. It may be thou wilt say, " They were delivered 
to Christ; but are they to me?" Hear the Apostle speak; 
hear, as I said some time ago, lest thou be broken by despair; 
hear how thou wert loved when thou hadst nothing to be 
loved for, hear how thou wert loved when unsightly, deformed, 
before there was ought in thee which was meet to be loved. 
Thou wast first loved, that thou mightestbe made meet to be 
loved. For Christ, as the Apostle says, died for the ungodly. Rom. 5, 
What! will you say that the ungodly deserved to be loved? ' 
I ask, what did the ungodly deserve ? To be damned. Here 
you will answer, Yet, Christ died for the ungodly. Lo, what 
was done for thee when ungodly ; what is reserved for thee 
now godly ? Christ died for the ungodly. Thou didst desire 
to possess all things; desire it not through covetousness, 
seek it through piety, seek it through humility. For if 
thou seek thus, thou shalt possess. For thou shalt have 
Him by Whom all things were made, and with Him shalt 
possess all things. 

6. I do not say this as though the result of reasoning, vi. 
Hear the Apostle himself saying. He that spared not His Rom. 8, 
Own Son, but delivered Him up for us all; how hath He ' 
also not with Him, given us all things ? Lo, covetous one, 
thou hast all things. All things that thou lovest, despise, 

662 In Clirist, v;e have all things, even the Father. 

Serm. that thou be not kept back from Christ, and hold to Him in 

VpT T ^ 

ri42.B.i ^Vhom thou mayest possess all things. The Physician Him- 
self then needing no such medicine, yet that He might 
encourage the sick, drank what He had no need of; address- 
ing him as it were refusing it, and raising him up in his fear, 

Mat.20, He drank first. The Cup, saith He, which I shall drink of; 

" I Who have nothing in Me to be cured by that Cup, am yet 

to drink it, that thou who needest to drink it, may not dis- 
dain to drink." Now consider, brethren, ought the human 
race to be any longer sick after having received such a 
medicine? God hath been now Humbled, and is man still 

Mat.u, proud.'' Let him hear, let him learn. All thinys, saith He, 

* '* haiie been delivered unto 3fe of 3Iy Father. If thou desirest 
all things, thou shalt have them with Me ; if thou desirest 
the Father, by Me and in Me thou shalt have Him. No 
man knoweth the Father but the Soi. Do not despair; 
come to the Son. Hear what follows. And he to whom the 
Son will reveal Him. Thou saidst, " I am not able. Thou 
callest me through a strait way ; I am not able to enter in 

V. 28. by a strait way." Come, saith He, unto Me, all ye that 
labour and are heavy laden. Your burden is your swell- 
ing. Come unto Me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, 

V. 29. and I will refresh you. Take My yoke upon you, and learn 
of Me. 
vii. 7. The Master of the Angels crieth out, the Word of God, 
by Whom all reasonable souls are without failing fed, the 
Food That refresheth, and abideth Entire, crieth out and 
saith, Learn of Me. Let the people hear Him, saying. 
Learn of 3Ie. Let them make answer, " What do we 
learn of Thee.f'" For we must be going to hear I know not 
what from the Great Artificer, when He saith, Learn of Me. 
Who is it that saith, J^earn of Me ? He Who formed the earth, 
Who divided the sea and the dry land. Who created the fowls, 
Who created the animals of the earth. Who created all things 
that swim, Who set the stars in the heaven, Who distinguished 
the day and the night, Who established the firmament. Who 
separated the light from the darkness, He it is Who saith. Learn 
qf 3Ie. Is He haply about to tell us this, that we should do 
these things with Him } Who can do this ? God Only doeth 
them. " Fear not," He saith, " I am not laying any burden on 

Miracles given to some; the highest gift, given to all, humility. 663 

thee. Learn of Me, this which for thy sake 1 was made. Serm. 
Learn of Me^"" saith He, " not to form the creature which by rj^g.Bl 
Me was made. Neither do I tell you indeed, to learn those 
things which I have granted to some, to whom I would, not 
to all, to raise the dead, to give sight to the blind, to open 
the ears of the deaf; nor to wish as for some great thing to 
learn these things of Me." The disciples returned with joy 
and exultation, saying, Lo, even the devils are subject ?«i^oLukeio, 
us through Thy Name. And the Lord said to them, Ln this ^^ '^^ 
rejoice not, that the devils are subject unto you; rejoice 
rather, because your names are written in heaven. To whom 
He would. He gave the power to cast out devils, to whom 
He would. He gave the power to raise the dead. Such 
miracles were done even before the Incarnation of the Lord; 
the dead were raised, lepers were cleansed; we read of these 
things. And Who did them then, but He Who in after time 2 Kings 

. 4. & 5 

was the Man-Christ after David, but God-Christ before 
Abraham ? He gave the power for all these things, He did 
them Himself by men; yet gave He not that power to all. 
Ought they to whom He gave it not to despair, and say that 
they have no part in Him because they have not been 
thought' worthy to receive these gifts.? In the body areimerue- 
divers members: this member can do one thing, that"^""* 
another. God hath compacted the body together. He hath 
not given to the ear to see, nor to the eye to hear, nor to the 
forehead to smell, nor to the hand to taste ; He hath not 
given them these functions ; but to all the members hath 
He given soundness, hath given union, hath given unity, 
hath by His Spirit quickened and united all alike. And so 
here He hath not given to some to raise the dead, to others 
He hath not given the power of disputation ; yet to all what 
hath He given r Learn qf Me, that I am meek and lowly 
in heart. Forasmuch as we have heard Him say, / am 
meek and lowly in heart; here, my brethren, is our whole 
remedy. Learn of Me, that L ajn meek and lowly in heart. 
What doth it profit a man if he do miracles, and is proud, 
is not meek and lowly in heart ? Will he not be reckoned in 
the number of those who shall come at the last day, and say, 
Have we not prophesied in Thy Name, and in Thy Name Matt. 7, 
have done many mighty works? But what shall they hear.?^^* 

X X 

664 Humility the ground work of charity. 

Sebji. / know you not, Depart from Me^ all ye that work 
xcii • • 

ti42.Bo ''*^?^"^y- 

^^7^. 8. What tlien doth it profit us to learn ? That I am meek, 
viii. saith He, and lowly in heart. He engrafteth charity, and 
that most genuine charity, without confusion, without infla- 
tion, without elation, without deceit; this doth He engraft, 
Who saith, Learn of Jlle, that I am meek and lowly in 
'since- Jieart. How can one proud and pufled up have any genuine* 
m*am charity? He must needs be envious. And mayhap one 
who is envious, loves, and we are mistaken ? God forbid 
that any one should be so mistaken, as to say that an envious 
1 Cor. man hath charity. And so what saith the Apostle ? Charity 
^^' ^' envielh not. Why doth it not envy? // is not puffed up; 
he immediately annexed the cause for which he took 
away envying from charity. Because it is not pufled up, it 
envieth not. It is true, he said first. Charity envieth not; 
but as though thou didst ask, " Why doth it not envy?" he 
added, It is not puffed up. If then it envieth because it is 
puffed up ; if it be not puffed up, it envieth not. If charity 
is not pufled up, and therefore envieth not ; then doth He 
Matt, engraft charity Who saith, Learn of Me, that I am meek 
^^' ^ ■ and lowly in heart. 

9. Let any man have then what he will, let him boast 
lCor.13, himself of what he will. If I speak with the tongues qf 
■ "' men and of Angels, but have not charity, I am become as 
sounding brass, or a tinkling cymbal. What is more sublime 
than the gift of divers tongues ? It is brass, it is a tinkling 
cymbal, if thou take charity away. Hear other gifts ; If I 
^ sAcra.- should know all tnysteries". What more excellent? what 
inenta jj^ore magnificent ? Hear yet another ; If I should have all 
prophecy, and all faith, so that I could retnore mountains, 
but have not charity, I am nothing. He comes to still 
greater things, brethren. What else has he said ? If I 
should distribute all my goods to the jjoor. What more 
perfect thing can be done ? When indeed the Lord corn- 
Matt, mandcd the rich man this for perfection's sake, saying, If 
^^'^^" thou wilt be perfect, go, sell all that thou hast, and give to 
the ])oor. Was he then at once perfect, because he sold all 
his goods and gave them to the poor? No; and therefore 
He added, And come, follow Me. Sell all, saith He, give to 

To forsake all for Xt, still perfecteth not, but charity. QGo 

the poor, and come, follow Me. " Why should 1 follow Thee ? ^'L^^'^- 
Now that I have sold all, and distributed to the poor, am I[i42,B.] 
not perfect ? What need is there that I should follow Thee ?" 
Follow Me, that thou mayest learn that / am meek and 
lowly in heart. For what? can any man sell all he hath, 
and give to the poor, who is not yet meek, not yet lowly in 
heart? Assuredly he can. For if I should distribute all 
my goods to the poor. And hear still further. For some, 
who had left all they had, and had already followed the 
Lord, but not yet followed Him perfectly, (for to follow Him 
perfectly is to imitate Him,) could not bear the trial of 
suffering. Peter, brethren, was already one of those who 
had left all and followed the Lord. For as that rich man 
went away in sadness, when the disciples being ti'oubled, 
asked how then any one could be perfect, and the Lord 
consoled them, they said to the Lord, Behold, we have for- v. 27. 
saken all, and followed Thee ; what shall we have titerefore? 
And the Lord told them what He would give them here, 
what He would reserve for them hereafter. Now Peter was 
already of the number of those who had so done. But when 
it came to the crisis ' of suffering, at the voice of a maid- 1 articu- 
servant he denied Him thrice with Whom he had promised 
that he was ready to die. 

10. Take good heed then, Beloved : Co, saith He, *<?// a/^ ix. 
tliat thou hast, give to the poor, and thou shall have treasure 
in heaven, and come, follow Me. Peter is perfect, now that 
the Lord sitteth in heaven at the right Hand of the Father, 
then did he attain perfection and maturity. For when he 
followed the Loi'd to His Passion, he was not perfect ; but 
when there began to be no one on earth for him to follow, 
then was he perfected. But thou truly hast always One 
before thee to follow ; the Lord hath set up an example on 
earth, when He left the Gospel with thee, in the Gospel 
He is with thee. For He did not speak falsely when He 
said, Lo, I am with you always, even unto the end of the Matt, 
world. Therefore follow the Lord. What is, " Follow ^'^' ^*'" 
the Lord ?" Imitate the Lord. What is, " Imitate the 
Lord?" Learn of Me, that I am meek and lowly in heart. 
Because if I should distribute all my goods to the poor, and 
give up my body to be burned, but not liave cliarity, it 

X X 2 

666 Faith in Xt conoeived without sin, the only cure of all sin. 

Serm. profileth me nothing. To this charity then I exhort your 

[142.1?.] Charity; now I should not exhort to charity, but with some 

charity. I exhort then that what is commenced may be 

filled up ; and pray that what is begun may be perfected. 

And I beg that ye would offer this prayer for me, that what 

I advise may be perfected in me also. For we are all now 

imperfect, and there shall we be perfected, where all things 

Pliil. 3, are perfect. The Aposlle Paul says, Brethren, I do not 

V. 12, reckon myself to have apjrrehended. He says, iVo< that I 

have already attained, either am already perfect. And 

shall any man dare to vaunt himself on perfection ? Yea 

rather let us acknowledge our imperfection, that we may 

' mere- attain ' perfection. 



On the words of the Gospel, John xvi. " I tell you the truth: it is 
expedient for you that 1 go away," &c. 

i- 1. The medicine for all the wounds of the soul, and the one 

propitiation for the offences of men, is to believe on Christ; 
nor can any one be cleansed at all, whether from original sin 
which he derived from Adam, in whom all men have sinned, 
and become by nature children of wrath ; or from the sins 
which they have themselves added, by not resisting the con- 
cupiscence of the flesh, but by following and serving it in 
unclean and injurious deeds : unless by faith they are united 
and compacted into His Body, Who was conceived without 
any enticement of the flesh and deadly pleasure, and Whom 
Ps.5i,5,His Mother nourished in her womb without sin, and WIw 
2 -22. '^*^^ ^^^ *^'^ neither was deceit found in His Mouth. They 
verily who believe on Hiui, become the children of God; 
because they are born of God by the grace of adoption, 
which is by the faith of Jesus Christ our Lord. Wherefore, 
dearly beloved, it is with good reason that the same Lord 
and our Saviour mentions this one sin only, of which the 
Holy Ghost convinces the world, that it believeth not on 
.inhn]6,Him. 1 tell you the truth. He saith, It is expedient for 
" you that I yo away. For if I go not arvay, the Comforter 

uill not come unto you ; hut if I depart, I uill send Him 

Unhelief spoken of as the only sin, as retaining all beside. 667 

unto you. And when He shall come, He will convince the Serm. 
world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment. OfU^.^^^ 
sin, because they believe not on Me. Of righteousness, v. s. 9." 
because I go to the Father, and ye shall see Me no more. ^'^' ^^' 
Of judgment, because the prince of this world is already 

2. Of this one only sin then He would have the world to ii- 
be convinced, that they believe not on Him ; to wit, because 
by believing on Him all sins are loosed. He would have this 
one imputed by which the rest are bound. And because by 
believing they are born of God, and become children of 
God ; For, saith he, to them gave He power to become the John i, 
S071S of God, to them that believe on Him. Whoso then ^^" 
belie veth on the Son of God, in so far as he adhereth to 
Him, and becometh himself also by adoption a son and heir 
of God, and a joint-heir with Christ, in so far he sinneth not. 
Whence John saith, Whosoever is born of God sinneth not. i John 
And therefore the sin of which the world is convinced is this, ' ^' 
that they believe not on Him. This is the sin of which He 
also saith. If I had not come, they had not had sin. For what ! Johni5, 
had they not innumerable other sins } But by Flis coming "' 
this one sin was added to them that believed not, by which 
the rest should be retained. Whereas in them that believe, 
because this one was wanting, it was brought to pass that all 
should be remitted to them that believe. Nor is it v/ith any 
other viewtha.itheApost\GFsiu\\i, Allhavesinned,and have Rom. 3, 
need of the glory of God; that, whosoever believeth on Him,^^ o 
should not be confounded ; as the Psalm also saith. Come ye^^. 
unto Him, and be enlightened, and your faces shall not be con- Sept. ' 
founded. Whoso then glorieth in himself shall be confounded ; ^•^•>^'i) 
for he shall not be found without sins. Accordingly he only 
shall not be confounded who glorieth in the Lord. For all 
have sinned, and have need of the glory of God. And so when 
he was speaking of the infidelity of the Jews, he did not say, 
" For if some of them have sinned, shall their sin make the 
faith of God of none effect ?" For how should he say, " If some 
of them have sinned ;" when he said himself, For all have Ro^,^ 3 
sinned? But he said, //" some of them believed not, shall^- 
their unbelief make the faith of God of none effect Y That 
he might point out more expressly this sin, by which alone 

C,68Faifh,a lunging^ out ofourselveSifor Xt unseen ^thro' theH.Gh. 

Serm. the door is closed against tlic rest that they by tlie grace of 

[143.B.] ^od should not be remitted. Of which one sin by the 
jjj coming of the Holy Ghost, that is by the gift of His grace, 
which is granted to the faithful, the world is convinced, in 
the Lord's words, Of sin, because they believed not on Me. 

3. Now there would be no great merit and glorious 
blessedness in believing, if the Lord had always appeared in 
His Risen Body to the eyes of men. The Holy Ghost then 
hath brought this great gift to them that should believe, that 
Him Whom they should not see with the eyes of flesh, they 
might with a mind sobered from carnal desires, and inebriated 
with spiritual longings, sigh after. Whence it was that when 
that disciple who had said that he would not believe, unless 
he touched with the hands His Scars, after he had handled 
the Lord's Body, cried out as though awaking from sleep, 

Jolin20, 71/^ Lord, and my God; the Lord said to him, Because thou 
hast seen Me, thou hast believed ; blessed are they that have 
not seen, and yet have believed. This blessedness hath the 
Holy Ghost, the Comforter, brought to us, that the form 
of a servant which He took from the Virgin's womb, being 
removed from the eyes of flesh, the purified eye of the 
mind might be directed to This Form of God, in Which He 
continued equal with the Father, even when He vouchsafed 
to appear in the Flesh ; so as that with the Same Spirit filled 

2Cor.5, ^]jQ Apostle might say, Though ice have known Christ after 
the flesJi; yet noiv we know Him so no longer. Because 
even the Flesh of Christ he knew not after the flesh, but 
after the Spirit, who, not by touching in curiosity, but 
in believing assured, acknowledgeth the power of His 

Rom. Resurrection; not saying in his heart. Who hath ascended 
' '^ into heathen? that is. to bring Christ down; or, JVfto hath 
descended into the deep ? that is, to bring back Christ from 
the dead. But, saith he, tlte word is nigh thee, in thy 
mouth, that Jesus is the Lord ; and if thou shall believe in 
thine heart that God halh raised Him from the dead, thou 
shalt he saved. For with the heart man believeth unto 
righteousness, and tvith the mouth confession is made unto 
salvation. These, brethren, arc the words of the Apostle, 
pouring them forth with the holy inebriation of the Holy 
Ghost Himself. 

The Church, by a spiritual faith^ toucheth Xt ascended. Q6Q 

4. Forasmuch then as we could in no way have had this ^^'^^• 
blessedness by which we see not and yet believe, unless |-]43.b.-j 
we received it of the Holy Ghost; it is with good reason said, \y^ 
It is expedient for you that I go aivaij. For if I go not Johnie, 
awaij, the Comforter will not come unto you; hut if I depart, 
I will send Him unto you. By His Divinity indeed He is 
with us always ; but unless He had in Body gone away from 
us, we had always seen His Body after the flesh, and never be- 
Heved after a spiritual sort; by the which behef justified and 
blessed we might attain' with cleansed hearts to contemplate 'merere- 
the Very Word, God with God, % Whom all things were^"^^ 
made, and Who was made Flesh, that He might dwell among 
us. And if not with the contact of the hand, but ivith the 
heart man believeth unto righteousness ; with good reason is 
the world, which will not believe save what it sees, convinced 
of our righteousness. Now that we might have that righ- 
teousness of faith of which the unbelieving world should be 
convinced, therefore said the Lord, Of righteousness, because 
I go to the Father, and ye shall see Me no more. As if He 
had said, " This shall be your righteousness, that ye believe on 
Me, the Mediator, of Whom ye shall be most fully assured 
that He is risen again and gone to the Father, though ye 
see Him not after the Flesh; that by Him reconciled, ye may 
be able to see God after the Spirit." Whence He saith to 
the woman who represents the Church, when she fell at His 
Feet after His Resurrection, Touch Me not, for I am not ye^ John20, 
ascended to the Father. Which expression is understood 
mystically, thus. " Believe not in Me after a carnal manner by 
means of bodily contact; but thou shalt believe after a 
spiritual manner; that is, with a spiritual faith shalt touch 
Me, when I shall have ascended to the Father." For, blessed 
are they who do not see, and believe. And this is the righ- ^'• 
teousness of faith, of which the world, which hath it not, is 
convinced of us who are not without it; for the just liveth iy Habak. 
faith. Whether it be then that as rising again in Him, and?" '*• 
in Him coming to the Father, we are invisibly and in justi-ir. 
fication perfected; or that as not seeing and yet believing 
we live by faith, for that the Just liveth by faith; with these 
meanings said He, Of righteousness, because I go to the 
Father, and ye shall see Me no more. 

670 Satan, cast outfrom within, wars without; overcomehy theyoung. 

Serm. 5. Nor let the world excuse itself by this, that it is hindered 
ri43B^^y the devil from believing on Christ. For to believers the 
johni2, prince of the world is cast out, that he work no more in the 
^1- hearts of men whom Christ hath begun to possess by faith; 
Eph. 2, as he worketh in the children of unbelief, whom he is con- 
^" stantly stirring up to tempt and disturb the righteous. For 

because he is cast out, who once had dominion interiorly, 
he wageth war exteriorly. Although then by means of his 
Ps.26 9. persecutions, the Lord doth direct the meek in judginent ; 
nevertheless in this very fact of his being cast out, is he 
judged already. And of this judgment is the world con- 
vinced ; for in vain doth he who will not believe on Christ 
complain of the devil whom, judged, that is, cast out, and for 
the exercising of us allowed to attack us from without, not 
only men, but even women, and boys, and girls. Martyrs 
have overcome. Now in Whom have they overcome, 
but in Him on Whom they have believM, and Whom 
seeing not, they loved, and by Whose dominion in their 
'pessimo hearts they have got rid of a most oppressive' lord. And 
all this by grace, by the gift, that is, of the Holy Ghost. 
Rightly then doth the Same Spirit convince the world, both, 
of sin, because it believeth not on Christ; and of righteous- 
ness, because they who have had the will have believed, though 
Him on Whom they believed they saw not; and by His 
Resurrection have hoped that themselves also should be in the 
resurrection perfected; a?id of judgment, because if they 
had had the will to believe, they could be hindered by none, 
/or that the prince of this world hath been judged already. 


On the same words of the Gospel, John xvi. " He shall convince the world 
of sin, of righteousness, and of judgment." 

i. 1. When our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ was speaking 

at length of the coming of the Holy Ghost, He said among 

Johnie, the rest. He shall convince the world of sin, and of righteous- 

Belief on Christ includes hope and love. 671 

ness, and of Judgment. Nor when He had said this, did He Serm. 
pass on to another subject ; but vouchsafed to convey a n44,B.i 
somewhat more exphcit notice of this same truth. Ofsin,vTW. 
said He, because they believed not on Me. Of 7'ighteousness,y. lo. 
because I go to the Father. Of judgment., because the prince v. il. 
of this world hath been judged already. There arises there- 
fore within us a desire of imderstanding, why as if it were 
men's only sin, not to believe on Christ, He said it of this 
alone, that the Holy Ghost should convince the world; but 
if it is plain that besides this unbelief there are manifold 
other sins of men, why of this alone should the Holy Ghost 
convince the world ? Is it because all sins are by unbelief 
retained, by faith remitted ; that therefore God imputeth 
this one above all the rest, by which it comes to pass that 
the rest are not loosed, so long as proud man believes not 
in an Humbled God ? For so it is written ; God resisteth the Prov. 3, 
proud, but giveth grace unto the humble. Now this grace ja,nes4 
of God is a gift of God. But the greatest gift is the Holy 6. 
Ghost Himself; and therefore is it called grace. For foras- 
much as all had sinned, and needed the glory of God; Rom. 3, 
because by one man sin entered into the world, and death i^' g 
by his sin in whom all have sinned; therefore is it grace 12. 
because given gratuitously. And therefore is it given gra- 
tuitously, because it is not rendered as a reward after a 
strict scrutiny of deserts, but given as a gift after the pardon 
of sins. 

2. Therefore of sin are unbelievers, that is, the lovers of the ii. 
world, convinced; for they are signified by the name of the 
world. For when it is said. He will convince the ivorld of 
sin; it is of none other sin than that they have not believed 
on Christ. For if this sin exist not, no sins will remain, 
because when the just man lives by faith, all are loosed. 
Now the difference is great as to whether one believe that 
Jesus is Christ, or whether he believe on Christ. For that 
Jesus is Christ even the devils believed, and yet the devils 
believed not on Christ. For he believeth on Chiist, who 
both hopeth in Christ and loveth Christ. For if he have 
faith without hope and love, he believeth that Christ is, but 
he doth not believe on Christ. Whoso then believeth on 
Christ, by believing on Christ, Christ cometh unto him, and 

672 Xi came dozen in mercy^ went iqj in righteousness. 

Serm. in a manner uniteth Himself to him, and he is made a mem- 
ri44PJberin His Body. Which cannot be, but by the accession 

of hope and love. 

3. What mean again His words, Of righteousness, because 
I go to the Father ? And first must we enquire, if the world 
is convinced of sin, why it is also of righteousness? P'or who 
can rightly be convinced of righteousness ? Is it indeed that 
the world is convinced of its own sin, but of Christ's righte- 
ousness ? I do not see what else can be understood ; since 
He saith, Of sin, because they believed not on 3Ie. Of 
righteousness, because I go to the Father. They believed 
not, He gocth to the Father. Their sin therefore, and His 
righteousness. But why would He name righteousness in 
this only, that He goeth to the Father } Is it not righteous- 
ness also that He came hither from the Father ? Or is that 
rather mercy, that He came from the Father to us, and 
righteousness, that He goeth to the Father ? 
iii. 4. So, brethren, I think it expedient, that in so profound 
a depth of Scripture, in words, wherein perad venture there 
lies some hidden truth which may in due season be laid 
open, we should as it were together inquire faithfully, that 
' merea- we may attain' to find healthfully. Why then doth He call 
^^^ this righteousness, in that He goeth to the Father, and not 
also in that He came from the Father.? Is it that in that it 
is mercy that He came, therefore it is righteousness that He 
goeth ? that so in our own case too we may learn that righte- 
ousness cannot be fulfilled in us, if we are slow to give a 
2 priEio-place first ^ to mercy, not seeking our own things, hut the 
^^^^ things of others also. Which advice when the Apostle had 
given, he immediately joined to it the example of our Lord 
Phil. 2, Himself; Doing nothing, saith he, through strife or vain 
glory ; but in lowliness of mind, each esteeming the other 
better than themselves. Not looking every man on his own 
things, but also on the things of others. Then he added 
immediately. Let this mind be in each of you which was also 
in Christ Jesus, Who, being in the Form of Ood, thought it 
not robbery to be equal with God; but emptied Himself 
taking the form of a servant, being made in the likeness of 
men, and found in fashion as a man; He humbled Himself, 
having become obedient even unto death, yea the death of the 

Xticent Alone to heaven ; His Body, y^ Church, one xoithHim. 673 

cross. This is the mercy whereby He came from the Father. Serm. 

What then is the righteousness whereby He goeth to theri44 j^ j 

Father? He goes on and says; Wherefore God also hath 

exalted Him, and given Him a Name zvhich is above every 

name; that at the Name of Jesus every knee shoidd bow, of 

things in heaven, and things in earth, and things under the 

earth, and that every tongue should confess that the Lord 

Jesus Christ is in the Glory of God the Father. This is the 

righteousness whereby He goeth to the Father. 

5. But if He Alone goeth to the Father, what doth it profit iv. 

us? Why is the world convinced by the Holy Ghost of this 

righteousness ? And yet if He did not Alone go to the Father, 

He would not say in another place, No man hath ascended John 3, 

up to heaven, but He That descended from heaven, the Son^^- 

of man Who is in heaven. But the Apostle Paul also says, 

For our conversation is in heaven. And why is this ? Be- Phil. 3, 

cause he also says. If ye be risen with Christ, seek the thitigs q^^ 3 ^^ 

which are above, where Christ sitteth on the right hand of 

God. Mind the things which are above, not those which are v. 2, 

upon the earth. For ye are dead, and your life is hid with v. 3. 

Christ in God. How then is He Alone ? Is He therefore 

Alone because Christ with all His members is One, as the 

Head with His Body ? Now what is His Body, but the 

Church ? As the same teacher says. Now ye are the Body 1 Cor. 

of Christ, and members in particiUar. Forasmuch then as "' 

we have fallen, and He descended for our sakes, what is, 

No man hath ascended, hut He That descended ; but that 

no man hath ascended, except as made one with Him, 

and as a member fastened into His Body Who descended? 

And thus He saith to His disciples, Without Me ye can c/o Jolmis, 

nothing. For in one way is He One with the Father, and 

in another one with us. He is One with the Father, in that 

the Substance of the Father and the Son is One ; He is 

One with the Father, in that, Being in the Form of God, 

He thought it not robbery to be equal ivith God. But He 

was made one with us, in that He emptied Himself, taking 

the form of a servant; He was made one with us, according 

to the seed of Abraham, in whom all nations shall he blessed. 

Which place when the Apostle had brought forward, he said, 

He saith not, And to seeds, as of many ; hit as of one, And, to Gal. 3, 


074 Members of Xt partake His Righteousness, complete in glory. 

Serm. thy Seed., which is Christ. And for that we too belong to 
J144 [j'-ithat wliich is Christ, by our incorporation together, and 
coherence to That Head, It is One Christ. And also for that 
Gal. 3, he says to us too, There/ore are ye Abrahoni's seed, heirs 
^ ' according to the promise. For if the seed of Abraham be 
One, and That One Seed of Abraham can only be understood 
of Christ; but this seed of Abraham we also are; therefore 
This Whole, that is; the Head and the Body, is One Christ. 
V. 6. And therefore we ought not to deem ourselves separated 
from that righteousness, which the Lojd Himself makes men- 
tion of, saying. Of righteousness, because I go to the Father. 
For we too have risen with Christ, and we are with Christ 
Muterimour Head, now for a while* by faith and hope; but our hope 
will be completed in the last resurrection of the dead. But 
when our hope shall be completed, then shall our justifi- 
cation be completed also. And the Lord who was to com- 
plete it shewed us in His Own Flesh, (that is, in our Head,) 
Wherein He rose again and ascended to the Father, what we 
Rom. 4, ought to hope for. For that thus it is written. He was 
^^' delivered for our sins, and rose again for our justification. 
The world then is convinced of sin in those who believe not 
on Christ; and of righteousness, in those who rise again in 
2 Cor. the members of Christ. Whence it is said, That ive may be 
^) 21. tJiQ righteousness of God in Him. For if not in Him, in no 
way righteousness. But if in Him, He goeth with us Whole 
to the Father, and this perfect righteousness wnll be fulfilled 
in us. And therefore of Judgment too is the world con- 
vinced, because the prince of this tcorld hath been Judged 
cdready; that is, the devil, the prince of the unrighteous, 
who in heart inhabit only in this world which they love, and 
therefore are called the uorld ; as our conversation is in 
heaven, if we have risen again vrith Christ. Therefore as 
Christ together with us, that is His Body, is One ; so the 
devil with all the ungodly whose head he is, with as it were 
his own body, is one. Wherefore as we are not separated 
from the righteousness, of which tlie Lord said. Because I go 
to the Father; so the ungodly are not separated from that 
judgment, of which He said, Because the prince qf this world 
hath been judged already. 

Submissive "prayer heard, not restlessness, 675 


On the words of the Gospel, John xvi. " Hitherto have ye asked nothing 
in My Name;" and on the words of Luke x. " Lord, even the devils are 
subjected unto us through Thy Name." 

1, When the Holy Gospel was being read, we heard what Serm. 
in truth ought at once to put every earnest soul in motion r^^g n'-i 

to seek, not to faint. For whoso is not moved, is not 

changed. But there is a dangerous movement, of which it 
is written, Suffer not my feet to be moved. But there is Ps.66,9. 
another movement of him who seeketh, knocketh, asketh. 
What then has been read we have all heard ; but I suppose 
we have not all understood. It makes mention of that which 
together with me ye should seek, with me ask, for the re- 
ceiving of which ye should with me knock. For as I hope 
the grace of the Lord will be with us, that whereas I wish to 
minister to you, I too maybe thought' worthy to receive. • merear 
What is it, I pray you, that we have just heard that the Lord 
said to His disciples ? Hitherto leave ye asked nothing in Johni6 
My Name. Is He not speaking to those disciples, who, ^** 
after He had sent them, having given them power to preach 
the Gospel, and to do mighty works, returned with joy, and 
said to Him, Lord, even the devils are subject unto us through mkeio 
Thy Name? Ye recognise, ye recollect this which I have^'^* 
quoted from the Gospel, which in every passage and 
every sentence speaketh truth, no where false, no where 
deceiveth. How then is it true, Hitherto have ye asked 
nothing in My Name ? and, Lord, even the devils are subject 
unto us through Thy Name ? Of a surety this puts the mind 
in motion to ascertain the secret of this difficulty. There- 
fore ask we, seek, knock. Be there in us faithful godliness, 
not a restlessness of the flesh, but a submission of the mind, 
that He Who seeth us knocking may open unto us. 

2. What the Lord then may give to be ministered unto 
you, do ye with earnest attention, that is, with hunger, 
receive ; and when I shall have spoken it, ye will doubtless 

076 The laiv hasfearbyfrustin sel^', (jrace has hope by trust in God. 

Serm. with sound taste ^ api)rovc what is placed before you out of 
f 145.B.1 1^^^ Lord's store. The Lord Jesus knew whereby the soul of 

MTauci- man, that is, the rational mind, made after the image of 
^"^ God, could be satisfied: only, that is, by Himself. This He 
knew, and knew that it was as yet without that fulness. He 
knew that He was manifest, and He knew that He was 
hidden. He knew what in Him was exhibited, what con- 
Ps. 30, coaled. He knew all this. How r/r eat, says the Psalm, is tlie 
3i' 19^^ multitude of Thy sweetness, O Lord, which Thou hast hidden 
E. V. to them that fear Thee; ichich Thou hast wrought for them 
that hope in Thee ! Thy sweetness both great and manifold 
hast Thou hidden to them that fear Thee. If thou hidest it 
to them that fear Thee, to whom dost Thou open it? Thou 
hast lorought it for them that hojje in Thee. A twofold ques- 
tion has arisen, but either is solved by the other. If any 
one inquires after the other, what is this. Thou hast hidden 
it to them that fear Thee; wrought it for them that 
hope in thee'? Are they that fear, and they that hope, 
different? Do not the very same who fear God, hope in 
God? Who hopeth on Him who doth not fear Him? Who 
in a godly sort feareth Him, and hath not hope in Him ? 
Let this then first be solved. Somewhat would I say con- 
cerning those who hope and those who fear. 

3. The Law hath fear, Grace hope. But what difference 
is there between the Law and Grace, since the Giver both 
of the Law and Grace is One ? The Law alarmeth him who 
relieth on himself, Grace assisteth him who trusteth in 
God. The Law, I say, alarmeth ; do not make light of 
this because it is brief; weigh it well, and it is considerable. 
Look well at what I have said, take what we minister, prove 
wherefrom we take it. The Law alarmeth him who relieth 
on himself, Grace assisteth him who trusteth in God. What 
saith the Law ? Many things: and who can enumerate them ? 
I bring forward one small and short precept from it which 
the Apostle hath brought forward, a very small one ; let us 
2suppor-see who is sufficient^ for it. Thou shalt not lust. What is 


E,om. 7, this, brethren? We have heard the Law; if there be no 

^* grace, thou hast heard thy punishment. Why dost thou 

boast to me whosoever thou art that hearing this dost rely 

upon thyself, why dost thou boast to mc of innocence ? 

Fear without love justifies ?iot. 677 

Why dost thou flatter thyself thereupon? Thou canst say, Serm. 
"I have not plundered the goods of others;" 1 hear, I r'f.^^'-i 

believe, perhaps I even see it, thou dost not plunder the 

goods of others. Thou hast heard. Thou shall not lust. 
" I do not go in to another man's wife ;" this again I hear, 
believe, see. Thou hast heard, Thou shalt not lust. Why 
dost thou inspect thyself all round without, and dost not 
inspect within 1 Look in, and thou wilt see another law in 
thy members. Look in, why dost thou pass over thyself? 
Descend into thine own self. Thou wilt see another law in I^^f^* v. 


thy members resisting the law of thy mind, and bringing 
thee into captivity in the law of sin which is in thy members. 
With good reason then is the sweetness of God hidden to 
thee. The law placed in thy members, resisting the law of 
thy mind, bringeth thee into captivity. Of that sweetness 
which to thee is hidden, the lioly Angels drink ; thou canst 
not drink and taste that sweetness captive as thou art. Thou 
hadst not known concupiscence, unless the Law had said. 
Thou shalt not lust. Thou heardest, fearedst, didst try 
to fight, couldest not overcome. For sin taking occasion v. 8. & 
by the commandment wrought death. Surely ye recognise ^^" 
them, they are the Apostle's words. Sin taking occasion by 
the commandment, wrought in me all manner of concupis- 
cence. Why didst thou vaunt thyself in thy j)ride ? Lo, 
with thine own arms hath the enemy conquered thee. Thou 
verily didst look for a commandment as a defence : and, lo, 
by the commandment the enemy hath found an occasion of 
entering in. For sin taking occasion by the command7nent,^. ii. 
he saith, deceived me, and by it slew me. What means what 
I said, " With thine own arms hath the enemy conquered 
thee?" Hear the same AjDostle going on, and saying; 
Wherefore the Law indeed is holy, and the commandment y- 12. 
holy, and just, and good. Make answer now to the revilers' i The 
of the Law: make answer on the Apostle's authority, The^"^^' 
commandment is holy, the Law holy, the commandment just 
and good. Was then that which is good, made death unto v. 13. 
me ? Ood forbid! But sin that it might appear sin, by 
that which is good wrought death in me. Why is this but 
because on receiving the commandment thou didst fear, not 
love ? Thou fearedst punishment, thou didst not love righte- 

678 Love abstains from shi, for fear of losing the Face of God. 

Serm. ousncss. Whoso fearcth punishment, wisheth, if it were 
ri46.B.l possible, to do what pleaseth him, and not to have what he 
fcareth. God forbiddeth adultery, thou hast coveted an- 
other's wife, thou dost not go in unto her, thou dost not do 
so, opportunity is given thee, thou hast time, a favourable 
place is open, witnesses are absent, yet thou dost not do it, 
wherefore ? Because thou fearest the punishment. But no 
one will know it. Will not God know it } So it is clear, 
because God knoweth what thou art about to do, thou doest 
it not ; but here thou fearest the threatenings of God, not lovest 
His commandments. Why dost thou not do it? Because if 
thou do, thou wilt be cast into hell fire. It is the fire thou 
fearest. O if thou didst love chastity, thou wouldest not do 
it, even though thou mightest be altogether unpunished. If 
God were to say to thee, " Lo, do it, I will not condemn 
thee, I will not condemn thee to hell fire, but I will withhold 
My Face from thee." If thou did it not because of this 
threat, it would be from the love of God that thou didst not 
do it, not from the fear of judgment. But thou wouldest do 
it, perhaps I mean thou wouldest do so ; for it is not my place 
to judge. If thou do it not on this principle because thou 
abhorrest the contamination of adultery, because thou lovest 
' exigaa His precepts, that thou mayest obtain' His promises, and 
not because thou fearest His condemnation, it is the grace 
which maketh saints that aideth thee; it is all of grace, 
ascribe it not to thine own self, attribute it not to thine own 
strength. Thou actest from delight in it, well ; thou actest 
in charity, well; I assent, I agree. Charity worketh by 
thee, when thou actest with thy will. At once dost thou 
taste sweetness, if thou hope on the Lord- 

4. But whence hast thou this charity, if yet thou hast it } 
for I am afraid lest even yet it is through fear thou doest it 
not, and lest thou seem great in thine own eyes. Now if it 
is through charity that thou doest it not, thou art truly great. 
Hast thou charity ? " I have," you say. Whence } " From 
myself" Far art thou from sweetness, if thou hast it from 
thine own self. Thou wilt love thine own self, because thou 
wilt love that from which thou hast it. But I will convict 
thee that thou hast it not. For in that thou dost think that 
thou hast so great a thing from thine own self, by that very 

Charity not of ourselves, God's greatest (jift, by the H. Ghost. 079 

fact I do not believe thou hast it. For if thon hadst, thou Serm. 

wouldest know from whence thou hadst it. Hast thour]45B!] 

charity from thyself, as if it were some hght, some little 

thing ? If thon shouldest speak icith ike tongues of men ^ q^^. 

and Angels, but have not charity, thou ivonldest be a sonnd-^^,^-^^- 

ing brass and a tinkling cytnbal. If thou shmildest know 

all mysteries, and have all knowledge, and all prophecy, and 

all faith so that thou couldest remove mountains, but not 

have not charity, these things could not profit thee. If 

thon. shouldest distribute all thy goods to the poor, and 

deliver up thy body to be burned, but not have charity, thou 

ivouldest be nothing. How great is this charity, which if it 

be wanting, all things profit nothing ! Compare it not to 

thy faith, not to thy knowledge, not to thy gift of tongues ', i ],nguse 

to lesser things, to the eye of thy body, the hand, the foot, '"^ 

the belly, to any one lowest member compare charity, are 

these least things to be in any way compared to charity ? 

So then tiie eye and nose thou hast from God, and hast 

thou charity from thine own self? If thou hast given thyself 

charity which surpasseth all things, thou hast made God of 

light account with thee. What more can God give thee .'' 

Whatever He may have given, is less. Charity which thou 

hast given thyself, surpasseth all things. But if thou hast it, 

thou hast not given it to thyself. For what hast thou which i Cor. 4, 

thon hast not received? Who gave to me, who gave to thee? 

God. Acknowledge Him in His gifts, that thou feel not His 

condemnation. By believing the Scriptures, God hath given 

thee charity, a great boon, charity, which surpasseth all 

things. God gave it thee, because the charity of God hath^om. 5, 

been shed abroad in our hearts; by thine own self, perhaps ? 

God forbid ; by the Holy Ghost, Who hath been given ns. 

5. Return with me to that captive, return with me to m}"- 

proposition. " The Law alarmeth him that relieth on himself, 

grace assisteth him who trusteth in God." For look at that 

captive. He seeth another lata in his members resisting the'Rom. 7, 

law of his mind, and leading him. captive in the law of sin, 

which is in his members. Lo, he is bound, lo, he is dragged 

along, lo, he is led captive, lo, he is subjected. What hath 

that profited him. Thou shall not lust ? He hath heard. 

Thou shall not lust; that he might know his enemy, not 

680 lite Lmc gives knoivledge of sin ^ not victory. 

Serm. that he might overcome him. For he had not known con- 

ri45.B!l (^'fp^-^(^^fi(^'^i that is, his enemy, unless the Law had said, Thou 

Rom, 7, shaft not lust. Now thou hast seen the enemy, fight, 

^* deliver thyself, make good thy liberty, let the suggestions of 

pleasure be kept down, unlawful delight be utterly destroyed. 

Arm thyself, thou hast the Law, march on, conquer if thou 

canst. For what good is it that through the little portion of 

God's grace thou hast already, thou delighiest in the 

Laiv of God after the imvard man ? But thou seest another 

law in thy members resisting the law of thy mind; not re- 

sisting yet powerless for aught, but leading thee captive in the 

I's. 30, /fijiy of sin. Behold, whence to thee who fearest thai ple)iti- 

20. Sept. 

E. V. fulness of sweetness is hidden! to him that feareth it is 

31, 19. fiiJdQji^ ]^Qyy ig it wrought out for him that trusteth? Cry out 

under thine enemy, for that thou hast an assailant, thou hast 

an Helper too, Who looketli upon thee as thou fiohtest, 

Who helpeth thee in difficulty; but only if He find thee 

trusting ; for the proud He hateth. What then wilt thou cry 

Rom. 7, under this enemy.'* Wretched man that I am! Ye see 

it already, for ye have cried out. Be this your cry, when 

haply thou art distressed under the enemy, say ye, in your 

inmost heart say, in sound faith say. Wretched man that I 

am! Wretched that I am! Therefore wretched, because /. 

Wretched man. that T am, both because /, and because 

Ps.38,7. ynaw. For he is disquieted in vain. For though man 

39 e! walketh in the Image^ ; yet, wretched man that I am, 

^ l'J^\ who shall deliver me from the bodti of this death? Wilt 

01 Orod. . . 

Vid. thou thyself? where is thy strength, where is thy confidence? 

jJ^p^'^g'Of a surety thou both criest out, and art silent; silent, that 
is, from extolling thyself, not from calling upon God. Be 
silent, and cry out. For God Himself too is both silent, and 
crieth aloud; He is silent from judgment, He is not silent 
from precept; so be thou too silent from elation, not from 

Is. 42, invocation; lest God say to thee, / have been silent, shall 

14. Sept. J ^^ gllQjif always? Cry out therefore, ivretched man 
that I am! Acknowledge thyself conquered, put thine own 
strength to shame, and say, Wretched man that I am, who 
shall deliver me from the body of this death ? What did 
T say above? The Law alarmeth him that relieth upon 
himself Behold, man relied upon himself, he attempted to 


Apostles under the Late not yet freed from love of eminence. 68 1 

fight, he could not get the better, he was conquered, pro- Serm. 
strated, subjugated, led captive. He learnt to rely upon God, n45.B.] 
and it reraaineth that him whom the Law alarmed while he 
relied upon himself, grace should assist now that he trusteth 
in God. In this confidence he saith, Who shall deliver me Rom. 7, 

24 25 

Jroni the body of this death? The yrace of God by Jesus Yu\g.' 
Christ our Lord. Now see the sweetness, taste it, relish it ; 
hear the Psalm, Taste and see that the Lord is sweet. He Ps.34,8. 
hath become sweet to thee, for that He hath delivered thee. 
Thou wast bitter to thine own self, when thou didst rely 
upon thyself. Drink sweetness, receive the earnest of so 
great abundance. 

6. The disciples then of the Lord Jesus Christ while yet 
under the Law had to be cleansed still, to be nourished still, 
to be corrected still, to be directed still. For they still had 
concupiscence; whereas the Law saith. Thou shall not lust. E%od. 
Without offence to those holy rams, the leaders of the^^' " 
flock, without offence to them I would say it, for I say 
the truth : the Gospel relates, that they contended which 
of them should be the greatest, and whilst the Lord was 
yet on earth, they were agitated by a dissension about Luke22, 
pre-eminence. Whence was this, but from the old leaven?^** 
whence, but from the law in the members, resisting the law 
of the mind? They sought for eminence; yea, they desired 
it; ihey thought which should be the greatest; therefore is 
their pride put to shame by a little child. Jesus calleth Matt, 
unto him the age of humility to tame the swelling desire. ' ' 
With good reason then when they returned too, and said. Lord, 
behold even the devils are subject unto us through Thy Name. 
(It was for a nothing that they rejoiced; of what importance 
was it compared to that which God promised ?) The Lord, the 
Good Master, quieting fear, and building up a firm support, 
said to them, In this rejoice not that the devils are subject ^^vikeio, 
unto you. Why so ? Because many will come in 3Iy Ncmie, ^^tt. 7 
saying^ Behold, in Thy Name we have cast out devils; and'^'^- 
I will say to them., I know you not. In this rejoice not, but 
rejoice because your names are written in heaven. Ye cannot 
yet be there, yet notwithstanding ye are already written 
there. Therefore rejoice. So that place again, Hitherto Johnie, 
have ye asked nothing in My Name. For what ye have^ 

Yy 2 

682 The Ap. had " asked nothing,*' since all, saxte God, nothing. 

Serm. asked, in comparison with that which I am willing to give, 

ri46 B*l '^^ nothing. For what have ye asked in My Name ? That 

the devils should be subject unto you ? In this rejoice not, 

that is, what ye have asked is nothing; for if it were any 

thing, He would bid them rejoice. So then it was not 

absolutely nothing, but that it was little in comparison of 

that greatness of God's rewards. For the Apostle Paul was 

not really not any thing; and yet in comparison of God, 

\ Cor. 3, Neither is he that planteth any thing, neither he that 

tvatereth. And so I say to you, and I say to myself, both to 

myself and you I say, when we ask in Christ's Name for 

these temporal things. For ye have asked undoubtedly. 

For who doth not ask? One askeih for health, if he is sick; 

another asketh for deliverance, if he is in prison; another 

asketh for the port, if he is tossed about at sea; another 

asketh for victory, if he is in conflict with an enemy; and 

in the Name of Christ he asketh all, and what he asketh is 

John nothing. What then must be asked for ? Ask in 3Iy Name. 

16, 24. ^m[ i^g gaid not what, but by the very words we understand 

what we ought to ask. Ask, and ye shall receive, that your 

Joy may he full. Ask, and ye shall receive, in My Name. 

But what.? Not nothing; but what? That your joy 7nay be 

full; that is, ask what may suffice you. For when thou 

John 4, askest for temporal things, thou askest for nothing. Whoso 

^^' shall drink of this water, shall thirst again. He letteth 

down the wateiing pot of desire into the well, he taketh up 

whereof to drink, only that he may thirst again. Ask, that 

your joy may be fall ; that is, that ye may be satisfied, not 

feel delight only for a time. Ask what may suffice you; 

Johni4,speak Philip's language, Lord, shew us the Father, audit 

^' 9 svfficeth us. The Lord saith to you. Have I been so long 

Vulff. ^*^^<? with you, and have ye not known Me ? Philip, he that 

seeth 3Ie, seeth the Father also. Render then thanks to 

Christ, made weak for you that are weak, and make ready 

» fauces. your desires' for Christ's Divinity, to be satisfied therewith. 

Turn we to the Lord, &c. 

Awe of feeding Xt's sheep; God Himself our Inheritance. 683 


On the words of the Gospel, John xxi. " Simon, son of John, lovest thou 


1. Ye have observed, beloved, that in to-day's lesson it Serm. 

. . XCVI. 

was said by the Lord to Peter in a question, Lovest thou u^q^^\ 

3Ie? To whom he answered, Thou knowest, Lord, that I [] 

love Thee. This was done a second, and a third time; and at John2i, 


each several reply, the Lord said, Feed My lambs. To 
Peter did Christ commend His lambs to be fed. Who fed 
even Peter himself. For what could Peter do for the Lord, 
especially now that He had an Immortal Body, and was 
about to ascend into heaven ? As though He had said to 
him, " Lovest thou Me ? Herein shew that thou lovest Me, 
Feed My sheep."" So then, brethren, do ye with obedience 
hear that ye are Christ's sheep ; seeing that we on our part 
with fear hear. Feed My sheep ? If we feed with fear, and 
fear for the sheep; these sheep how ought they to fear for 
themselves ? Let then carefulness be our portion, obedience 
yours ; pastoral watchfulness our portion, the humility of the 
flock yours. Although we too who seem to speak to you 
from a higher place, are with fear beneath your feet ; foras- 
much as we know how perilous an account must be rendered 
of this as it were exalted seat. Wherefore, dearly beloved. 
Catholic plants, Members of Christ, think What a Head ye 
have ! Children of God, think What a Father ye have found. 
Christians, think What, an Inheritance is promised you. 
Not such as on earth cannot be possessed by children, save 
when their parents arc dead. For no one on earth possesses 
a father's inheritance, save when he is dead. But we whilst 
our Father liveth shall possess what He shall give ; for that 
our Father cannot die. I add more, I say more, and say the 
truth ; our Father will Himself be our Inheritance. 

2. Live consistently, especially ye candidates of Christ, ii- 
recently baptized, just regenerated, as I have admonished you 
before, so say I now, and give expression to my solicitude ; for 

the present lesson of the Gospel hath forced upon me a 
greater fear : take heed to yourselves, do not imitate evil Chris- 

(584 Schismatics bear the Name of Christ, hut have Him not. 

Serm, tians. Say not I will do this, for many of the faithful 

[146 gi do it. This is not to procure a defence for the soul ; but to 

look' out for companions unto hell. Grow ye in this floor of 

the Lord; herein ye will find good men to please you, if ye 

yourselves are good. For are ye our private property ? 

Heretics and schismatics have made their own private 

property out of what they have stolen from the Lord, and 

would feed, not Christ's flocks, but their own against Christ. 

It is true indeed, they place His title on these their spoils, 

that their robberies may be as it were maintained by the title 

of His Power. What doeth Christ when such as these are 

converted, who have received the title of His Baptism out 

of the Church ? He castelh out the spoiler, He dotiruot 

efface the title, and taketh possession of the house ; because 

He hath found His title there. What need is there that He 

should change His Own Name ? Do they take heed to what the 

Lord said to Peter, Feed My lambs, feed My sheep ? Did He 

say to him, " Feed thy lambs;" or, " Feed thy sheep ?" But 

for them who are shut out, what said He in the Song of 

Cant. 1, Songs, unto the Church ? The Spouse speaking to the Bride, 

^' ^^P*' saith. If thou know not thyself, O thou fair one among 

women, go forth. As though He said, " I do not cast thee 

out, go forth, if thou knoio not thyself, O thou fair one 

among uomen, if thou know not thyself in the mirror of 

divine Scripture, if thou give not heed, O thou fair woman, 

to the mirror which with no false lustre deceiveth thee; if 

Ps 57, thou know not that of thee it is said, Thy glory shall be 

Ps 2 s ^^ove all the earth ; that of thee it is said, / will give thee 

nations for thine inheritance, and the limits of the earth 

for thy jMJSsession ; and other innumerable testimonies n-hich 

set forth the Catholic Church. If then thou know not these, 

thou hast no part in Me, thou canst not make thyself My 

heir. Go forth then in t lie footsteps of the flocks, not in the 

fellowship of the flock ; and feed thy goats, not as it was said 

to Peter, My shecp.^'' To Peter it was said. My sheep; 

to schismatics it is said, * thy goats.' In the one place 

'sheep;' in the other ' goats ;' in the one \^\ace. Mine; in 

Matt, the other ' thine.' Recollect the right Hand and the left 

' ■ of our .Judge ; recollect where the goats shall stand, and 

where the sheep ; and it will be plain to you where i.s the 

S. Peter type of the unity of all good shepherds. 685 

riffht hand, where the left, the white and the black, the light- Serm. 
some, and the darksome, the fair, and the deformed, that ^^hich r j^g ^ j 
is about to receive the kingdom, and that which is to find 
everlasting punishment. 


On the same words of the Gospel of John xxi. " Simon, son of John, lovest 
thou Me more than these?" &c. 

1. Ye remember that the Apostle Peter, the first of all the i- 
Apostles, was disturbed at the Lord's Passion. Of his own 
self disturbed, but by Christ renewed. For he was first a 
bold presumer, and became afterwards a timid denier. He 
had promised that he would die for the Lord, when the 
Lord was first to die for him. When he said then, / tvill he Matt. 
with Thee even unto death, and, / will lay doiun my life for^^^^' 
TJiee; the Lord answered him, Will thou lay down thy life ^2, 33. 
for Me? Verily I say unto thee, Before the cock crow, thou-^^/^Q ' 
shall deny Me thrice. They came to the hour; and because 
that Christ was God, and Peter a man, the Scriptui'e was 
fulfilled, r said in my panic, Every man is a liar. And theps. 116, 
Apostle says. For God is True, and every man a liar.^' 
Christ true, Peter a liar. 4. 

2. But what now ? The Lord asketh him as ye heard 
when the Gospel was being read, and saith to him, /S^mow, john2l, 
son of John, lovest thou Me more than these ? He answered ^^* 
and said, Yea, Lord, Thou knowest that I love Thee. And 
again the Lord asked this question, and a third time He 
asked it. And when he asserted in reply his love. He com- 
mended to him the flock. For each several time the Lord 
Jesus said to Peter, as he said, / love thee ; Feed My lambs, 
feed My little sheep. In this one Peter was figured the ii. 
unity of all pastors, of good pastors, that is, who know that 
they feed Christ's sheep for Christ, not for themselves. Was 
Peter at this time a liar, or did he answer untruly that he 
loved the Lord.'' He made this answer truly; for he made 
answer of that which he saw in his own heart. Whereas 
when he said, / will lay down my life for Thee, he would 
presume on future strength. Now every man knows it may 

686 Man may know ichat he is, not what he shall be, nor of others- 

Serm. be wliat sort of man he is at the time when he is speaking; 
r|47 j^i'what he shall be on the morrow, who knows? So then Peter 

turned back his eyes to his own heart, when he was asked by 

the Lord, and in confidence made answer of what he saw 

there: " Yea, Lord, Thou knoicest that I love Thee. What I 

tell Thee, Thou knowest ; what I see here in my heart, Thou 

seest also." Nevertheless, he did not venture to say what the 

Lord had asked. For the Lord had not simply said, Lovest 

thou Me? but had added, Lovest thou Me more than these? 

that is, " Lovest thou Me more than these here do?" He 

was speaking of the other disciples; Peter coiUd not say 

ought but, / love Thee; he did not venture to say, " more than 

these." He would not be a liar a second time. It were 

enough for him to bear testimony to his own heait; it was no 

duty of his to be judge of the heart of others. 

iii. 3. Peter then was true; or rather was Christ true in Peter? 

Now when the Lord Jesus Christ would. He abandoned 

Peter, and Peter was found a man ; but when it so pleased 

the Lord Jesus Christ, He fdled Peter, and Peter was found 

true. The Rock (Petra) made Peter true, for the Rock was 

Christ. And what did He announce to him, when he 

answered a third time that he loved Christ, and a third 

time the Lord commended His little sheep to Peter? He 

V. 18. announced to him beforehand his suffering. When ihou wast 
young, saith He, thou girdedst thyself, and teeniest whither 
thou wouldest ; but when thou shall be old, thou shall stretch 
forth thine hands, and another shall gird thee, and carry 
thee whither thou wouldest not. The Evangelist hath ex- 

V. 19. plained to us Christ's meaning. This spake He, saith he, 
signifying by tchat death he should glorify God; that is, 
that he was to be crucified for Christ ; for this is, Thou slialt 
stretch forth thine hands. Where now is that denier? Then 
after this the Lord Christ said. Follow Me. Not in the same 
sense as before, when He called the disciples. For then too 
He said. Follow Me; but then to instruction, now to a 
crown. Was he not afraid to be put to death when he 
denied Christ ? He was afraid to suffer that which Christ 
suffered. But now he must be afraid no more. For he 
saw llim now Alive in the Flesh, Whon he had seen hang- 
ing on the Tree. By His Resurrection Christ took away the 

■ Temporal deaths even for judgment, may be in mercy. 087 

fear of death ; and forasmuch as He had taken away the fear Serm. 
of death, with good reason did He enquire of Peter's love. ri47.B."] 
Fear had thrice denied, love thrice confessed. The * three- 1 trinitas 
foldness of denial, the forsaking of the Truth; the three- 
foldness of confession, the testimony of love. 


On the words of the Acts of the Apostles, c. v. " Whiles it remained, did 
it not remain to thee? &c." Delivered on the Octave of Easter day, at 
the twenty Holy Martyrs. 

1. When the lesson was being read from the book entitled i. 
the Acts of the Apostles, ye perceived what befel those who, 
when they had sold a piece of land, kept back part of the 
price of the land, and laid (as though) the whole price at 
the Apostles' feet. Being immediately chastised, they both 
gave up the ghost, the man and his wife. To some this 
seems to have been too severe a chastisement, that for keeping 
back money of what was theirs, persons should die. The 
Holy Ghost did not this in avarice, but thus the Holy Ghost 
punished a lie. For ye heard the words of most blessed 
Peter, saying. Whiles it remained, did it not remain to thee? Acts 5, 
and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power? If 
thou hadst not been minded to sell, who would compel 
thee? If thou hadst a mind to offer half, who would re- 
quire the whole ? For if half was to be offered, it ought 
to have been called half. Half for the whole, this is a lie 
meet to be punished. Yet, brethren, let it not seem a severe 
chastisement, temporal death. x\nd, oh ! 1 wish vengeance 
may have reached only so far. For what great thing is this 
to happen to mortals who some time or other must die? But 
by their temporal punishment God would have discipline 
known. But we should believe that after this life God will 
have spai'ed them; for great is His mercy. Now of deaths 
which happen in vengeance, the Apostle Paul speakelh in a 
certain ])lace, rebuking those who handled unworthily the 
Body and Blood of Christ, and saying. For this cause many i Cor. 

^ ^ "^11,30. 

688 Ananias' death a learning otjainst breach of vows. 

Serm. are weak and sickly among you, and sufficient ' sleep ; 

[148. B.] sufficient, that is, lor enforcing discipline. Many among you 

' ;*«r»/ sleep, that is, die. For l)y the scourge of the Lord were they 
chastened; they were sick, and died. And he went on after 

"^•31 -32. these words, and said, For if we would judge ourselves, we 
should not he judged of the Lord. But when ne are judged, 
we are chastened of the Lord, that we should not he con- 
demned with the world. What then if some such thing 
befel this man and his wife .'' They were chastened by the 
scourge of death, that they shouhl not be punished with 
eternal punishment, 
ii- 2. Only attend to this, beloved brethren, that if it was 
displeasing to God to keep back part of the money which 
they had vowed to God, and that money of course had been 
necessary for men^s uses; how is God angered, when chastity 
is vowed, and not kept; when virginity is vowed, and not 
kept? For it is vowed to God's uses, and not to men's uses. 
What is that 1 have said, " to God's uses V Because of the 
Saints God maketh to Himself a House, He maketh to Him- 
self a Temple, wherein He deigns to dwell : and assuredly 
He would have His Temple abide holy. That may be said 
sane- then to a professed^ virgin who marries, which Peter said of 

ali the money: " whiles thy Virginity remained, did it not remain 
to thee, and before that thou hadst vowed it, was it not in thine 
own power?" But whoever shall have acted thus, shall have 
made such vows, and not made ihera good; let them not 
think to be chastened by temporal deaths, but to be con- 
demned in fire eternal. 


In which questions proposed out of the Acts of the Apostles, c. x. and out of 
the Gospel, are resolved, or concerning four questions. First, of Peter's 
vision. Secondly, of the words of tbe Gospel, " Let your light shine hefore 
men, that they may see your good works, &c." and a little after, " Take 
heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them, &c." 
Thirdly, of the words of the Gospel, " Let not thy left hand know what 
thy right hand doeth." Fourthly, of the love of enemies. 

1. I KEMEMBER that I made myself before the last Lord's 
day a debtor to you, holy brethren, for certain questions pro- 

Abstinence from eating unclean animals typical. 689 

posed out of the Scriptures. But now is the time of resolving Serm. 
them, as the Lord vouchsafes to give me power, that I may ri49 g -i 
not any longer owe, save only love, which is ever being paid, 
and ever owing. Touching Peter's vision, we had said that 
it must be enquired, what is the meaning of that vessel, as it Actsio, 
were alinensheetlet doivnfrom heaven hij four corners, wherein ' '^' 
were all manner of four-footed beasts of the earth, and 
creeping things, and fowls of the air: and what was said to 
Peter by a voice from heaven', Kill and eat; and its being' divina 
let down three times, and taken up again. 

2. Against those indeed who think that greediness was 
enjoined Peter by the Lord God, it is an easy matter to 
dispute. First, because even though we had a mind to take ii. 
the words. Kill and eat, to the letter; to kill and eat is not 

a sin, but to use the gifts of God, which He giveth to man to 
use, immoderately. 

3. For the Jews had received certain animals to eat, and 
certain to abstain from: which the Ajjostle Paul manifestly 
declares they received in significancy of things to come, 
saying. Lei no man there/ore Judge you in meat, or in drink, Col. 2, 
or in respect of an holy day, or of the new moon, or of the ' '' 
sabbath days, which are a shadow of things to come. Ac- 
cordingly in another place, now in the times of tiie Church, 

he saith, TJnto the ^lure all things are pure: but it is evil'^'^^-^i 
for that man who eateth with offence. For there were, at Rom. 
that time when the Apostle wrote these words, who eat^^'^^' 
flesh, to the offence of certain weak ones. For the flesh 
offered in sacrifice of those animals which the diviners 
offered, was then sold in the market, and many brethren 
abstained from eating flesh, lest even in ignorance they 
should fall in with that flesh, of which sacrifice had been 
offered to idols. Wherefore in another place the same 
Apostle, that the conscience might not in fear be alarmed, 
saith, Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, eat, asking no i Cor. 
question for conscience sake : for the earth is the Lord's, If' ^^' 
and the fulness thereof And again ; If any of them that 
believe not bid you, and ye be disposed to go; whatsoever is 
set before you eat, asking no question for conscience sake. 
But if any man say unto you^ This is offered in sacrifice 
unto idols; eat not for his sake that shewed it, and for con- 

690 Cloven hoof type of stedfastneas, cheicing the cud, of wisdom. 

Serm. science sake. All the cleanness then or nncleanness in 
[149 Bl these things, is placed not in the contact of the flesh, but in 
the purity or stain of the conscience, 
iii- 4. Whence a license was given to the Christians, which 
to the Jews was not given. For all the animals which were 
forbidden the Jews to eat, are signs of things, and, as has 
been said, shadows of things to come. As that circumcision 
signifieth the circumcision of the heart, which they bare in 
the llesh, and in the heart rejected ; so those feasts too are 
precepts of mysteries, and signs of things to come. As in 
Deut.i4.that which is written for them, that the animals which chew 
the cud, and jiart the hoof, these they may eat ; but those, 
to which either both or one of these was wanting, these they 
may not eat; certain men are signified, who have no part in 
the fellowship of saints. For the cloven hoof has respect to 
conduct, and chewing the cud to wisdom. Why the cloven 
hoof to conduct.? Because it does not easily slip. For 
slipping is a sign of sin. But chewing the cud, how hath it 
respect to the doctrine of wisdom ? Because Scripture hath 
Prov. said, A desirable treasure resteth in the mouth of the wise, 
1^'^^' but a foolish man doth swalloio it up. Whoso therefore 
heareth, and becometh forgetful through carelessness, as it 
were swalloweth up what he hath heard; so that he hath now 
no taste of it in the mouth, burying the very hearing in for- 
getfulness. But whoso meditateth in the Law of the Lord 
day and night, cheweth the cud as it were, and in a kind, so 
to say, of a palate of the heart, is delighted with the savour 
iv. of the word. This then which was enjoined the Jews, sig- 
nifies that to the Church, that is, to the Body of Christ, to 
the grace and fellow-ship of the Saints, they do not appertain, 
who are either careless hearers, or have an evil conversation, 
or who are censured in either fault. 

5. Thus all the other precepts which after this sort were 
given to the Jews, are shadowy significations of things to come. 
After that the Light of the world came, our Lord Jesus Christ, 
they are read only that they may be understood, not that 
they may be observed as well. License then has been given 
to Christians, that they may act not according to this vain 
custom, but may cat what tliey will, with moderation, with 
benediction, with thanksgiving. Peradventure then to Peter 

S.Peter type ofy^ Church^the'''- key s^' given to all y^ Apostles in him.6 9 1 

too, Kill and eat, was said in such a sense ; that he was not Serm. 
now to hold to the observances of the Jews: however, no?:7.^t^- 

[149. B.J 

whirlpool of the belly, so to say, and foul greediness was 

enjoined him. 

G. But yet that ye may understand that this which was shewn v. 
was in a figure, there were in that vessel creeping things. 
What.? could he eat creeping things? What then does this 
figure mean .? That re'^^c/ signifieth the Church: ihe four 
corners, by which it hung down, the four parts of the world's 
compass, through which the Church Catholic extends, 
which is diffused every where. Whosoever then would go 
into a part, and be cut off from the whole, hath no part in 
the mystery^ of ihe/our corners. But if he hath not part in ' sacra- 
Peter's vision, neither in the keys which were given to Peter. ° ""^ 
For from the four winds God saith His Saints shall be Mat.24 
gathered together at the end; because that now through ^^• 
these four quarters the faith of the Gospel is spread abroad. 
Those animals, then, are the Gentiles. For all the Gentiles 
which were unclean, in their errors and superstitions and 
concupiscences, before Christ came, at His coming having 
their sins forgiven them, were made clean. Whence now 
after the remission of sins, why should they not be received 
into the Body of Christ, which is the Church of God, which 
Peter represented? 

7. For Peter in many places of the Scriptures appears to vi. 
represent the Church ; especially in that place where it was 
said, / give unto thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. Mat.16 
Whatsoever thou shall bind on earth, shall he hound in ^^* 
heaven; and whatsoever thou shall loose on earth, shall be 
loosed in heaven. What! did Peter receive these keys, and 
Paid not receive them } Did Peter receive them, and John, 
and James, and the rest of the Apostles, not receive them ? 
Or are not these keys in the Church, in which sins are daily 
remitted? But since in figure Peter represented the Church, 
what was given to him singly, was given to the Church. 
Peter then represented the Church, the Church is the Body 
of Christ. Let her receive therefore the Gentiles now made 
clean, whose sins have been forgiven them ; wherefore Cor- 
nelius a Gentile man, and the Gentiles who were with him, 
had sent to him. This man's alms being accepted had 

692 Vessel type of the one Church; linen of incorruption. 

Sf.rm. cleansed him in sonic bort ; it remainud that as clean food 
[i49.R.]^ie should be incorporated into the Church, that is, the Body 

'trepi- of the Lord. But Peter hesitated' to deliver the Gospel to 
* *^ the Gentiles: because they of the circumcision who had 
believed, hindered the Apostles from delivering to the un- 
circumcised the Christian Faith ; and said that they ought 
not to come to the participation of the Gospel, unless they 
had received circumcision which had been delivered to their 
vii. 8. Thereforethat vessel took away all doubting: and so after 
that vision he was admonished by the Holy Ghost, to get him 
down and go with those who had come from Cornelius, and he 
went. For Cornelius and they that were with him were regarded, 
so to say, as of those animals, which had been shewn in the 
vessel, whom notwithstanding God had already cleansed, for 
that He had accepted their alms from them. Therefore 
were they to be eaten and killed, that is, that their life past, 
wherein they had not known Christ, should be killed in them; 
and they pass over into His Body, as it were into the new 
life of the fellowship of the Church, For so Peter himself, 
when he had come to them, explained briefly what was 

Act!! 10, shewn to him in that vision. For he says. Ye know too, how 
that it is an iDilauful thing for a man that is a Jew to keep 
company, or come unto one of another nation: but God hath 
sheued me, that I should not call any man common or un- 
clean. Which assuredly God then shewed, when that voice 

V. 15. was uttered. What Cod hath cleansed, that call not thou 
common. And afterwards, on coming to the brethren to 
Jerusalem, when certain made a noise, because the Gospel 
was delivered to the Gentiles, repressing their commotion, 

Acts 11. he rehearsed also this same vision: which would not have 
had to be rehearsed, if it had not relation to the same inter- 
viii. 9. Peradventure that may be enquired also, why that in 
which those animals were was of linen. Not assuredly 
without a cause. For we know, that the moth which spoils 
other garments, does not consume linen. Let each one 
drive out of his heart the corruptions of evil lusts, and be 
so incoiTuptibly stablished in faith, as not to be penetrated 
by wicked thoughts like moths, if he would have a part 

Alms not so to be given, that no one know they are given. 693 

in the mystery of that linen sheet, whereby the Church is Serm. 
figured. [149.B.] 

Why was it thrice let down from heaven'? Because all ix. 
these Gentiles, who belong to the four parts of the earth's 
compass, wherein the Church is spread abroad, which the 
four corner.? signified, by which \h^\,vessel was held together, 
are baptized in the Name of the Trinity, In the Name of 
the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, are they 
that believe renewed, that they may belong to the fellowship 
and communion of saints. Therefore Xh^four corners, and the 
thrice letting down, shews also the number twelve of the 
Apostles: as it were, three times reckoned by four. For three 
times four are twelve. Enough, as I suppose, has been said 
of this vision. 

11. Another question was deferred by me, why the Lord, x. 
in the Sermon which he delivered on the Mount, said to 

His disciples. Let your works shine before men, that they^ua.b, 
may see your good deeds, and glorify your Father which is 
in heaven. And a little after in the same Sermon saith, 
Take heed that ye do not your righteousness before tnen, to Matt. 6, 
be seen of them ; and, Let thine alms be in secret, and thy ^ 4 
Father Who seeth in secret shall reward thee. Oftentimes 
does the worker fluctuate between these two precepts, and 
knows not which to obey : when of course he wishes to 
obey the Lord, Who enjoineth both. How shall our works 
shine before men, that they may see our good deeds : and yiJ. 
how again shall our alms be in secret ? If I should wish io ^--^ {^^ 
observe the latter, I stumble against the former: if I shall Ox )*4. 
have observed the former, I sin in the latter. Therefore 
either place of Scripture must be so tempered, that it may 
be shewn that the divine precepts cannot be opposed to one 
another. For this seeming strife in the words, looks for the 
peace of one who understandeth them. Let every one have xi. 
agreement in the heart with the word of God, and there is no 
disagreement in the Scripture. 

12. Suppose then a man giving alms, so that no one at all 
knows it, if it be possible, not even he to whom it is given ; 
so that avoiding even his eyes he should rather put down 
for the other to find, than reach out for him to receive. 
What more can he do, to hide his alms-doing ? He surely 

()J)-1 Lamps without oil, works done for praise of men. 

Serm. vuns against that other sentence, and doeth not what the 

ru9 B 1 ^^^^ saith, Let your works shine b(fore men, that they may 
see your good deeds. No one sees his good deeds, he does 
not invite to imitation. The rest of the world will be barren, 
as far as lies in him, whilst they think that by no one is what 
God hath enjoined done, if men act so, that their good works 
may not be seen: whereas a greater mercy is done towards 
him, to whom is proposed an example for good imitation, 
than to him to whom is extended nourishment for the body's 

' venti- refreshment. Suppose another who parading* and boasting 
of his alms before people, wishes for nothing else in them 
than to be praised: tJtat his tvorks may shine before men. 
You see that he does not offend against that precept : but 
he does offend against the Lord's other precept. Who saith, 
Let thine alms be in secret. Such an one as this even grows 
sluggish, if there be any ungodly ones, who may chance to 
blame what he is doing. He hangs on the tongue of praisers: 

Mat.25,j^OYy ]^g jg ijj^g ^Q i]fQ virgins, who carry no oil with them. 
For ye know there were five foolish virgins, who carried no 

V. 4. oil with them ; and other wise ones, who did carry oil with 
them. The lamps of all were lighted; but some had not 
with them wherewith to feed that light, and they were so 
distinguished from those who had, that they were called 
foolish, the other icise. What then is, " to carry oil with 
them," but to have a conscious intention of pleasing God by 
good works, and not to ])lace the end of their rejoicing in 
this, if men praise, who cannot see the conscience ? For 
that he doeth, man can see: but with what mind he doeth, 
God sceth. 
^"- 13. Let us then suppose a man who observeth either 
precept, obeyeth either. He dealeth his bread to tlie 
hungry, and dealeth it before those whom he wisheth to 
make his imitators ; himself too imitating the Apostle, who 

?i'o'^:f* saith, Be ye imitators of me, as I also am of Christ. He 

16.&11, T J ^7 J 

1. deals then his bread to the hungry, open in work, devout in 

heart. Whether he seeketh therein his own praise, or God's 
glory, no man seeth, no man judgeth : but yet they who in 
benevolent intention are prepared to imitate him, believe 
that the good which they see done, is done also with a godly 
mind; and they praise God, by Whose precept and gift 

Whoso seeks God's glory only, thereby does alms in secret. ()9o 

they see such things done. His work therefore appears, Skrm. 
thai men may see, and glorify their Father Which is in r^^g q\ 
Heaven ; but his intention' itself is in the heart, that his rtiw.sieffectus 
■may be in secret, and the Father Which seeth in secret 
may reuard him. He has kept the clue mean, of neither 
precept the de8])iser, but of either the fulfiller. For he hath 
taken heed that his righteousness should not be done before 
men, that is, that h'j should not have his end there, to be 
praised of men; when he has wished not liimself, but God, to 
be praised in his good work. But because that will is within, 
in the very conscience, that alms was done in secret, that He 
may repay, from Whom nothing is hid. For who can lay 
open to men his heart when he doeth aught, so as to shew 
with what intention of the mind he doeth it ? 

Id. For these very words even, Brethren, were spoken by 
the Lord with sufficient exactness. Mark how He saith, 
Take heed that ye du not your righteousness before men, to 
be seen, saith He, of tJiem. If he hath placed the end in 
this that He said, to be seen of them i this is a reprehen- 
sible and blameable end, to be willing to do good up to 
men's praise, to seek no more of it beyond that. Whosoever 
then only acteth, that he may be seen of men, is reprehended 
by the Lord in this sertence. But in the other place where xiii. 
He enjoineth our good deeds to be seen. He did not place 
the end in this, that men only should see the man, and 
praise the man: but He passeth on to the glory of God, that 
the worker's intention should be carried forward even unto 
that. Let your works, saith He, shine before men, that they 
may see your good deeds ; but (his thou must not seek after. 
What then ? He addeth, and saith, and glorify, saith He, 
your Father Which is in Heaven. This if thou seek, that 
God may be glorified, fear not to be seen of men. Even so 
is thine alms within, in secret ; where He Only Whose glory 
thou seekest, seeth that thou art seeking this. Whence the 
Apostle Paul, after that he was struck down the persecutor 
of the Gospel, and raised up the preacher, saith. But I was Ga.1 1, 
unknown by face unto the churches of Judeea, which were^^~^^' 
in Christ. But they had heard only, that he which perse- 
cuted us in times past, note preachetJi the faith which once 
he destroyed ; and they glorified, saith he, God in me. He 

z z 

606 Let not tJiy left hand Syc. a command to seek to please God Alone. 

Serm. did not reioice because man who liad received, was known; 
ri49.B.j but because God Who had given was praised. For he said 
Gal. 1, himself, //" / ^jet pleased men, I should vat he the servant of 
\^- Christ. And vet in another place he says, Even as I please 

1 Cor. * ' . . . 

10, 3.3. all men in all tilings. And this is a similar question to the 
present. But what does he subjoin .? Not seeking, he says, 
mine own profit, hut the profit of many, that they may he 
saved. This is what in the other place he says, And they 
glorified God in me: which the Lord also saith, Tliat they 
may glorify your Father Which is in Heaven. For then 
are men made whole, when in the works which they see 
done by men, they glorify Him, from Whom men have 
received them. 

15. Two questions remain; but I fear lest I be burden- 
some to those who have already lost taste for them, yet again 
I fear lest I should defraud those who are still hungering. I 
remember nevertheless what I have paid, and what I owe. 
xiv. For it remains to see what is, Let not thy left hand know 
Matt. 6,^./,^^ f/iy rigJtt hand doctk : and touching the love of 
Matt. 5, enemies, why license seemed to have been given to them of 
*^" old, to hate enemies, the love of whom is enjoined us. But 
what shall I do } If I treat briefly of these things, perhaps 
1 shall not be understood as I ought; if at length, I fear 
lest 1 should weigh you down more by the burden of my 
words, than lift you up by any profit of my exposition. But 
by all means if ye do not sufficiently understand, hold me 
still a debtor, that these subjects may be discussed more 
fully at another time. Yet it is not proper that they should 
be now so left, as that nothing at all should be said of them. 
The left hand of the soul is carnal desire, the riglit hand of 
the soul is spiritual charity. If then when one doeth alms, 
he mixeth in the desire of temporal advantage, so as to seek 
in that work for any such thing, he mixeth the conscious- 
ness of the left hand with the works of the right. But if in 
simple charity, and a pure conscience before God, he helpeth 
a man, having an eye to nought else but to please Him 
Who enjoineth these things, the left hand knoweth not what 
the right hand doeth. 
XV. 16. But touching the love of enemies there is a more 
difficult question, nor can it be resolved in few words. But 

Pray for man,thyneighbour,tho'an enemy; hate thy enemy, Satan. 697 

as ye hear, pray for us; and peradventure the Lord God will Serm. 
quickly give what we think to be difficult. For of one [149.5,] 
granary do we live ; for that we are in one family. What then 
we think to be very deep within, in secret, He haply Who 
promiseth placeth at the entry, that it may with greatest 
ease be given to them that seek. The Lord Christ Himself 
loved His enemies : for as He hung on the Cross, He said. 
Father, forgive them, for Ihey know not what they do. Luke 
Stephen followed His example, when stones were being ' 
cast at him, and said, Lord, lay not this sin to their charge. Acts 7, 
The servant imitated the Lord, that no one of the servants *'^- 
may be slow, and think that this is something which could 
be done by the Lord Alone. If then it be too much for us 
to imitate the Lord, let us imitate our feilow-servant. For to 
the same grace have we been all called. Why then was it 
said to them of old, Tttou shall love thy neighbour, and 
hate thine enemy? Because haply the truth was said to 
them too; only to us more openly according to the dis- 
tribution of times, through His presence Who saw what was 
to be kept veiled, and what opened, and to whom. For if 
we have an enemy, whom we are enjoined never to love; and 
he is the devil: Thou shall love thy neighbour, man; and 
hate thine enemy, the devil. But because in men them- 
selves enmities oftentimes exist in the minds of those, who 
by unbelief give place to the devil, and they become his 
vessels, so that he ^^'07'A•e/^ in the children of disobedience ; 
but it may be, that a man may relinquish his malice, and turn 
himself unto the Lord ; even amid his violence, whilst he is 
yet persecuting, he must be loved, and he must be prayed 
for, and good must be done him; so thou wilt both fulfil the 
first precept, to love thy neighbour, man, and hale thine 
enemy, the devil; and the second, to love men, thine enemies, 
and pray for them who persecute thee. 

17. Unless haply you think that the Christians did not xvi. 
pray at that time for Saul the persecutor of the Christians. 
Peradventure for his conversion that voice of the martyr 
Stephen was heard. For he was in that number of his per- Acts 7, 
secutors, and kept the clothes of them that stoned him. 
The same too writing to Timothy, says, / exhort that first \ Tim. 
qf all, supplicaiions, prayers, intercessions, giving ofthanlcs,^y '• ^■ 

z z 2 

698 All to be loved, since all may be converted. 

Seum. be made for <tU men; for kinqs, and for all that are in 
(\4c>.ii\ eminent place, that we may lead a quiet and peaceable lije. 
He bade then that prayer be made for kings : and kings at 
that time ])ersecuted the Churehcs. But those Clunchcs 
which then praying for them they persecuted, now having 
been heard for them they defend. 
xvii. 18. Wouldesl thou then observe that precept of them of 
old too } Love tluj neighbour, that is, every man. For from 
the two first parents being all born, wc all of course are 
neighbours. For certainly the Lord Jesus Christ Himself, 
Who commanded that enemies be loved, testified that all the 
Mat.22, Law and the Prophets hung on these two precepts; Thov shalt 
^'' love the Lord Ihy God with all thine heart, and icith all thy 
V. 39. soul, and with all thy mind; and thou shalt love thy neigh- 
bour as thyself. He gave no precept in that place touching 
the love of enemies. Do not these two precepts then contain 
' absit the whole? Undoubtedly ' they do. Because when He saith, 
Thou shalt lovc thy neighbour, herein are all men included, 
even though they be enemies; because again as regards 
spiritual nearness thou knowest not what in the foreknowledge 
of Goil a man may be in respect of thee, who at the time seem- 
eth thine enemy. For seeing that the patience of God lead- 
eth him to repentance, peradventure he will know and 
follow Him Who leadelh him. For if God Himself, Who 
knoweth who shall persevere in sins, who shall relinquish 
Matt.5, righteousness and fall away irrevocably to iniquity, yet maheth 
His sun to rise on the good and evil, and sendeth rain on 
the just and «v//'//.s'/j inviting them doubtless to rej^entance 
through patience, that they who shall have disregarded His 
goodness, may in the end experience His severity ; with what 
anxious care ought man to be ready to be appeased, lest by 
chance when he knows not what sort of a person any may one 
day be, he should, through regarding his present enmity, 
hate him with whom he will reign in everlasting happiness.' 
Fulfil therefore the first precept, Love thy neighbour, exexy 
man ; and hate thine enemy, the devil. Fulfd the second too, 
Love thine enemies, men, that is, who are so: pray /'or tliem 
who persecute thee; for men, that is: do good to them who 
hale thee, to men, that is. 
■^^"^' IJ). If thine enemy hunger, feed Jiim ; if he thirsty give 

J '2, 20. 

Coals ofjire, penitence burning out. hatred. 699 

hiin drink; for by so doing thou slialt heap coals ofjire on Serm. 
his head. And here is a question. For how does a man ri49.BJ 
love him, whom he would have on fire with coals? But, if it 
be understood, there is no difficulty. For it is spoken of 
those desolating coals, wJiich are given to a man against the^^- ii9j 
deceitful tongue. For when a man doeth good to an enemy, (120 3. 
and not being overcome by his evil, overcometh the evil with ^' ^0 
gof.'d, very often he will repent him of his enmity, and will 
be angry with himself, that he has injured so good a man. 
Now this burning is repentance, which, as coals ofjire, con- 
sumes his enmitv and malice. 

SERMON C. [CL. Ben.] 

On the words of the Acts of the Apostles, c. xvii. " But certain philosophers 
of the Epicureans and Stoics conferred with him, &c." 

Delivered at Carthage. 

1. You took notice as we did, Beloved, when the Book i« 
of the Acts of the Apostles was being read, how Paul spake 
to the Athenians, and was called by them who mocked at the 
preaching of the truth, a sower of trords. It was spoken Acts 
indeed by them in mockery, but it is not to be rejected by ^^' ^^' 
believers. For he was in vd'ry truth a sotver of u-ords, but a.i^'>-iy»s 
reaper of good conversation. And we, insignificant though 
we be, and in no way to be compared with his excellency, 
in God's field, which is your heart, do sow the words of 
God, and look for an abundant harvest from your conver- 
sation. Nevertheless I conjure you to give your earnest 
attention to that which I am admonished to speak of to you. 
Beloved, vvhich is contained in the lesson itself, if by any 
means, through the aid of our Lord God, I say any thing 
which can neither easily be by all understood, unless it be 
spoken of; nor ought, when it is understood, by any to 
be despised. 

2. He was speaking at Athens. The Athenians were of 
surpassing fame among other peoples in all literature and 
learning. It was the country of great philosophers. From 

700 Unless preachers sow to waste, they will nut find the goodyround. 

SfjRM. thence vane<l and nniltiforni doctrine had spread itself through 

rjgQg-jall the rest of Greece and the other countries of the world. 

iCor. 1, There was the Apostle speaking, there proclaiming Christ 

23.24. crucified, to the Jens indeed a slumhlingblock, and to the 
Gentiles foolishness, but to them u ho are called, Jews and 
Greeks, Christ the Power of God and the Wisdom of God. 
How perilous it was to proclaim this among the proud and 
learned, it is for you to think. Finally, when he had ended his 
discourse, and they heard of the resurrection of the dead, 

Acte 17, which is a principal point of Christians' faith, some mocked; 

^^' and others said, JVe will hear thee again of this matter. 
Nor were there wanting some who believed, and among them 

V. 34. is named one Dionysius the Areopagite, a leading man that is 
among the Athenians; (tor the senate of the Athenians was 
called Areopagus;) and a certain noble woman, and some 
others. So then tliat multitude was divided into three parts 
as the Apostle spake, ordered by a wondrous distinction, 
in certain gradations, of mockers, doubters, believers. For 
some, as we heard it written, mocked; some said. We will 
hear thee again of this matter; these were the doubters: 
some believed. In the middle, between tlie mockers and the 
believers, are the doubters. Whoso mocketh, falleth : whoso 
believeth, standeth: whoso doubteth, wavereth. We will 
hear thee again of this matter, they say: uncertain, whether 
they would fall with the mockers, or stand with the believers. 
ii. But still did that sower of words labour in vain ? But if he 
had been afraid of the mockers, he would not have reached 
the believers; just as if that sower of the Gospel, whom the 
Lord makes mention of, (for doubtless this was Paul,) had 
hesitated to cast in the seed, lest some should fall by the way 
side, other some among thorns, other into stony places; the 
seed could never have got also into the good ground. So let 
us sow, let us scatter; do ye prepare your hearts, do ye yield 

3. This too, if ye remember, Beloved, we heard when it 
was being read, that certain philosophers of the Epicureans 
and Stoics conferred with the Apostle. Who these Epicu- 
rean and Stoic philosophers are, or were, what they held, 
that is, what they thought to be true, what they aimed at in 
their philosophy, doubtless many of you do not know; but 

All seek for happiness^ differ ii-herclu tojiiid if. 701 

since it is at Carthage that 1 am speakiDg, iiiaiiy do know. Serm. 
Let them assist me now who am about to speak to you. ^^riso bi 
is indeed much to the purpose, which I think ought to be 
spoken of. Let them give ear to us, both those that know 
not, and those that know; let those who know not be in- 
structed, those that know be reminded: let the one attain to 
knowledge, let the other refresh their knowledge- 

4. In the first place, hear generally the common aim of all iii. 
philosophers, in which common aim they had five divisions 
and differences of their peculiar opinions. In common, all 
philosophers in their studies, their enquiries, disputations, 
living, aimed at apprehending a happy life. This was the 
one ground of philosophizing: but I suppose that the philo- 
soj)hers have this in common with us also. For if I were to 
ask of you why ye have believed in Christ, why ye have 
been made Christians; every man answers me truly, "For 
a happy life." The aiming therefore after a happy life is 
common to philosophers and Christians. But where the 
thing as to which there is such agreement may be found, 
herein is the question, from this point the separation. For 
to aim after a happy life, to wish for a happy life, to desire a 
happy life, to long for it, to make pursuit for it, is, 1 suppose, 
the case of all men. Wherefore I see that I have not said 
enough, that this aiming after a happy life is common to 
philosophers and Christians; for I ought to say, common to 
all men, to all men whatsoever, good and bad. For both he 
who is good, is therefore good that he may be happy; and 
he who is bad, would not be bad, if he did not hope that he 
might be happy thereby. As touching the good, the question 
is an easy one, that they are therefore good, because they 
seek a happy life. As touching the bad, some peradventure 
doubt, whether they too seek a happy life. But if I could 
interrogate the bad, separate and divided from the good, and 
say, " Do you wish to be happy ?" no one would say, " I do 
not wish it." For instance, suppose a thief: I ask of him, 
" Why do you commit theft ?" " That I may have," he 
says, " what I had not." " Why do you wish to have what 
you had not.?" " Because it is wretched not to have." If 
then it is wretched not to have, he thinks it happy to have. 
But in this he is shameless and mistaken, in that he would 

702 Stoics Sf Epicureans by God's Providence^ dispute with S. Paul, 

Serm. be made happy by what is bad. For it is good to all to be 
[150.B.] ^^PPJ' Wherein then is he perverse ? In that he seeketh 
good, and doeth evil. What seeketh he then ? ITow doth 
the desire of the bad aspire after the reward of the good ? 
A happy life is the reward of the good : goodness is 
the work, happiness is the reward. God enjoineth the 
work, proposelh the reward: He saith, " Do this, and thou 
shalt receive this." But that bad man answers us, " Unless 
I act badly, I shall not be happy." As though one were to 
say, " T do not arrive at good, unless I am bad." Seest thou 
not, that good and bad are contraries ? Art thou seeking 
good, and doing bad .? Thou art running in a contrary direc- 
tion, when shalt thou reach the end ? 
'^ • 5. Let us then leave these, perhaps it will be in place to 
return to them, when we shall have iulfilled what we have 
purposed touching the philosophers. For 1 imagine it was 
not without a meaning, that by means of them who were not 
aware of it, some great thing was done. Divine Providence 
Itself so ordering it, that whereas there were very many sects 
of philosophers in the city of Athens, none conferred with 
the Apostle Paul, but the Stoics and Epicureans. F'or 
when ye shall have heard what they held in their sects, you 
will see how that it did not happen without a meaning, that 
of all the philosojihers they only should confer with Paul. 
For neither could he choose for himself the disputants wliom 
he would answer, but Divine Wisdom Wliich gov^erneth 
all things brought these before him, in whom almost the 
whole ground of the dissension of philosophers consisted. 
1 will speak then briefly: let the unlearned believe us, let 
the learned judge of us. I suppose that 1 do not dare to lie 
to the unlearned, v\ith the learned as judges; especially 
seeing that 1 am speaking of something, wherein both the 
learned and unlearned may alike judge truly. 7'liis then I 
say first, that man consists of soul and body. I do not ask 
you here to believe, but i even ask you to judge. For I do 
not fear, lest as to tliis saying any one who knows himself, 
should judge unl'avourably of me. Man then, as no one 
disputes, consisteth of soul and body. 'J'his substance, this 
thing, this person which is called man, seeketh a happy 
life; this ye know too; nor do I urge you to believe it, but 

comprise all heathen theories of happiness. 70S 

remind you that ye may acknowledge it. Man, I say, this Seum. 
no mean thing, surpassing all cattle, all things that fly, andnso'^i 
all that swim, and whatsoever carrieth flesh and is not man; 
man, I say, consisting of" soul and body ; not a soul of any 
kind wliatever, for beasts too consist of soul and body ; man 
then, consisting of a reasonable soul and mortal flesh, scekcth 
a happy life. When man shall have come to know what 
thing makes a hap])y life, unless he hold it fast, follow it, 
claim it for himself, take it to him if he has the power, ask 
for it if he has a difficulty, he cannot be happy. The whole 
question therefore is, what makes a happy life } Place Vid. 
then before your eyes the Epicureans, the Stoics, and the^^™* 
Apostle ; which I might also thus express, the Epicureans, (156.B.) 
Stoics, Christians. Let us first ask the Epicureans, what 
thing makes a happy life. They answer, " The pleasure of 
the body." Here now I ask you to believe, for I have 
judges. For whether the ICpicureans do say this, do hold 
this, you do not know, because you have not read those 
writings; but there are here those who have read them. 
Let us return to those who are to be questioned. What say 
ye, Epicureans, what thing makes a happy life ? They 
answer, " The pleasure of the body." What say ye. Stoics, 
what thing makes a happy lit'e } Tliey answer, " The virtue 
of the mind." Give heed with me, Beloved, we are Chris- 
tians, we are disputing with the philosophers. See ye why 
those two seels only were procured to confer with the 
Apostle.? There is nothing in man, that appertains to his 
substance and nature, besides body and soul. In one of 
these two, that is, in the body, the Epicureans placed the 
happy life ; in the other, that is, in the soul, the Stoics 
placed the happy life. As far as appertains to man, if his 
happy life is from himself, nothing remains besides the 
body and soul. Either the body is the cause of a happy 
life, or the soul is the cause of a happy life : if thou seek 
for any thing further, thou gettest out of man. Those then 
who placed man's happy life in man, could not any how- 
place it elsewhere, save either in the body or in the soul. 
Of those who ])laced it in the body, the Epicureans held the 
first place ; of those who })laced it in the soul, the Stoics 
held the first place. 

704 Epicureans place soul below the body : Xtian Epicureans ; 

Serm. (>. Lo, here they are, they confer with the Apostle ; has 
[160.B.1 ^^ Apostle any thing more than they ? or must he necessarily 

~ consent to one of these two sects, so that he too should 
place the cause of a happy life, either in the body, or in the 
soul? Paul would never place it in the body: for there is 
nothing great in this ; forasmuch as even the philosophers 
themselves, who have the best notions of the body, do by no 
means place the cause of happiness in the body. For the 
Epicureans have this same notion both of the body and of 
the soul, that they are both mortal. And what is more 
grievous and detestable, they say that the soul after death is 
dissolved before the body. " Whilst," they say, " after the 
breathing out of the spirit, the dead body yet remains, and 
the lineaments of the members endure for a while in their 
entireness, the soul, immediately it departs, is dissolved, 
beaten about as smoke by the wind." Let us not manel 
then, that they placed the supreme good, that is, the cause 
of happiness, in the body, which they held to be better in 
them than the soul. Could the Apostle do so ? Far be it 
from him to place the supreme good in the body. For the 
supreme good is the cause of happiness ; yea verily the 
Apostle was grieved, that some of the number of Christians 
chose the sentiment of the Epicurean — not men, but swine. 
1 Cor. For of this number were they, who by evil cnmmnnications 
v.-i2. corrupted good inamwrs^ and said. Let us eat and drink, for 
to-morrow we shall die. The Epicureans conferred with 
the Apostle Paul : there are Christian Epicureans too. For 
what else are they who are daily saying, Let us eat and 
drink, for to-morrow we shall die? To what tends, " There 
will be nothing after death, for our Hfe is the passing of a 
shadow.''" For they said amongst the rest in the unrighteous 
Wisd. 2, thoughts of their hearts, Let us crown ourselves with rose- 
* buds, before they be withered: let there not be a meadow, 

Vuig. which our riot shall not pass over, let us leave tokens of 
joyfulness in every place ; for this is our portion, and our 
lot is this. 
vi. 7. If with any severity we rebuke this, if with any vehe- 
mence we withstand these irregular desires, they will say 
Ibid. 10. also what follows. Let U3 oppress the poor righteous tnan. 
^ And notwithstanding in my position at least in this place, I am 

Fast, pray, give, for to-rnorroic toe die ; can any not fast, give more, 106 

not afraid to say, Be not ye Epicureans. Have indeed in Serm. 
your thoughts that which is said by these, using it in no right [i5o.'b.] 
sense, For to-morroiv we die: but we shall not die alto- 
gether; for after death abideth that which follows death. 
The dying man's companion will be either life, or punish- 
ment. Let no one say, " Who ever returned from hence 
hither?" That rich man clothed in purple wished to return 
too late, and could not get permission. In his thirst heLukeie, 

. . 23.24. 

asked for a drop, who had disdained the poor man in his 
hunger. Let no one therefore say. Let tis eat and drink, for 
to-morrow we shall die. If ye will say. For to-morrow loe 
shall die; 1 do not prohibit you; but say something else 
before it. The Epicureans indeed, as though they were not 
to live after death, as though having nothing but what 
delights the flesh, say. Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow 
we shall die. But let not Christians who are to live after 
death, yea rather to live in happiness after death, say, Let 
us eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die: but hold to 
the words, For to-morrow we shall die: and say, " Let us 
fast and pray, /or to-morrow we shall die?'' I add certainly 
another thing, I add a third thing, nor do I pass over what 
is especially to be regarded, that with thy fast the poor man's 
hunger be satisfied ; or if thou canst not fast, that thou the 
more feed him, by whose fulness allowance may be granted 
thee. Let Christians therefore say, " Let us fast, and pray, 
and give, /or to-morrow we shall die."" Or if they wish to 
make mention of two things, I prefer that they say, " Let 
. us give and pray," than, " Let us fast and pray." Far be it 
then from the Apostle to place in the body the supreme 
good of man, that is, the cause of happiness. 

8. But with the Stoics perhaps the contention is not unbe- 
coming. For, lo, when one asks where they place the vii. 
efficient cause of a happy life, that is, what in man makes a 
happy life ; they answer, that it is not the pleasure of the 
body, but the virtue of the soul. What says the Apostle ? 
does he assent.? If he assents, let us assent. But he does 
not assent ; for Scripture calls them back who trust in their 
own virtue \ And thus the Epicurean who places man's 

'^ Virtus throughout this part of the Sermon it» used in the double meaning of 
virtue and strength. 

706 Happiness not virtue in itself but God IVhu gives it. 

Sekm. supremo good in the body, places his hope in himself. 
[loO.B.i ^"* so *^*3 Stoic who places man's supreme good in the 
^soul, places it, it is true, in the better part of man ; but he 
too places his hope in himself. But both the Epicurean 
Jer. ];, and the Stoic arc men. Cursed therefore be every one that 
jmtteth his trnst in man. What then? Having now the 
three set before our eyes, the Epicurean, the Stoic, the 
Christian, let us ask each. Say, Epicurean, what thing 
maketh happy ? He answers, " The pleasure of the body." 
Say, Stoic! "The s'irtue of the soul." Say, Christian! 
" The gift of God." 
viii. 9. And thus, brethren, the Epicureans and Stoics have 
as before our eyes conferred with the Apostle, and by their 
conference have taught us what we ought to reject, and 
what to choose. A thing worthy of all jiraise is the virtue oi' 
the soul, prudence that distinguisheth things bad and good, 
justice which assignelh to every one his own, temperance 
"which restrainetli passion, fortitude which sustaineth trouble 
with evenness of mind. A great thing, thing worthy of all 
praise; laud it, O Stoic, as much as thou canst; but say, 
whence hast thou it? It is not the virtue of thy soul that 
maketh thee happy, but He Who hath given thee the virtue, 
Phil. 2, Who hath inspired in thee to will, and given thee the power 
to do. 1 know that thou wilt peradventure mock mc, and 
Actsi7,wilt be of them of whom it is written, that they hiocked Paul. 
^^' Though thou art the way, I am son itu): for I am a sower of 
words in my small measure. What was thy railing, is my 
office. I am sowing: what I sow falleth into thee, as into 
the hard ground. I am not slothful; and I iind good (/round. 
What can I do for thee? Thou hast been rebuked, and 
by a divine oracle rebuked. Thou art among those, who 
trust in their own virtui' ; thou art among those, who place 
hope in man. Virtue deliglitoth thee: a good thing delighteth 
thee: 1 know, thou art athirst; but thou canst not make 
virtue flow for thyself. Thou art dry ; if I shall shew thee 
the Fountain of life, thou wilt haply deride me. For thou 
art saying within thyself, " Am I to drink of this rock?" 
The rod hath been brought to it, and the water hath flowed. 
iCoT.\,For the Jews require signs; but thou, O Stoic, art not a 
■ ^' Jew: I know thou art a Greek; and the Greeks seek after 

Folly of philosophy to attribute its good to itself. 707 

wisdom. But ice preach Christ crucified. The Jew is Serm. 
offended, the Greek scoifs. For to the Jews an ojfence^and ry^^l^^A^ 
to the Gent ties foolish iH'ss : hut unto them which are called 
hath Jews and Greeks, that is, to Paid himself from Haul, 
and to Dionysius the Areopagite, and to such as these, both 
of the one and the other, Christ the Power of God, and the 
Wisdom of God. Now thou dost not mock the rock : 
recognise in the Cross the Rod, in Christ the Fountain ; 
and if thou art athirst, drink virtue. Be thou fulfilled from 
the Fountain, peradventure thou wilt burst forth into thanks- 
givings : what thou hast from It, thou wilt no more ascribe 
to thyself, but in thy bursting forth thou wilt exclaim, I will ^^•'^7, 2. 
love Thee, O Lord, my virtue. Now thou wilt no more say, (is, i. 
" The virtue of my soul maketh me happy." Thou wilt not^' ^'^ 
be among those, who when tJiey knew God, glorijied Him ^om. \, 
not as God, neither were thankful, but became vain in their ' " 
imaginations, and their foolish heart ivas darkened: for 
professing themselves to be icise, they became fools. For 
what is, professing themselves to be wise, but, to have of 
their own selves, to be sufficient for themselves ? They became 
tools: deservedly fools. False wisdom is very foolishness. 
But thou wilt be among those, of whom it is said. They shall ^^- f ^' 
walk, O Lord, in the light of Thy Countenance, and in Thy Se\it. 
Name shall they exult all the day, and in Thy righteous-^^'l^' 
ness shall they be e.xalied; for Thou art the Glory of their V.) 
virtue. Thou wast searching for virtue; say, O Lord, my ^/•'^l ■,'2'. 
Virtue. Thou wast searching for a happy life; say, Happy (^ig *]_ 
is the man whom Thou shall instruct, O Lord. For happy ^ ^-^ 
the people, not, who have the pleasure of the body, not, i2.Se]it. 
who have their own virtue; but happy is the people, whose ^^'^' 
God is the Lord. This is the country of happiness, which Ps. 143, 
all wish for, but all do not seek aright. But to such a ( *i*44^e! 
country let us not hit out as it were of our own heart a way ^" ) 
for ourselves, and devise wandering paths; the Way hath 
even come from thence. 

10. For what doth the happy man wish, what wisheth he, 
but not to be deceived, not to die, not to have sorrow .? And 
what seeketh he for.^ To hunger more, and to eat more? 
What, if it be better not to hunger.'' No one is happy, but 
he that lives for ever without an}' fear, without any deceiv- 

708 JV/iat is not blessed and eternal is not life. 

Serm. ableuess'. For the soul hateth to be deceived. How 

[iso.B.i g'catly the soul naturally hateth to be deceived, may be 

•fallacia understood by this, that they who laugh in disorder of mind, 

are bewailed by those who are in sound health ; 3'et doubtless 

man would rather laugh than weep. If these two things are 

proposed, " Wouldest thou laugh or weep?" Who is thei-e but 

would answer, " Laugh." Again, if these two are proposed, 

" Wouldest thou be deceived, or hold the truth?" every man 

answers, " Hold the truth." He prefers both to laugh, and 

to hold the truth : of the first two, laughing and weeping, to 

laugh ; of the last two, mistake and truth, to hold the truth. 

But such is the force of most invincible truth, that any man 

would prefer to weep with a sound mind, than to laugh with 

a mind disordered. There then, in that country there will be 

truth, deceitfulness and error, no where. Yea, there will be both 

truth, and there will be no weeping. For there will be both 

true laughing, and rejoicing in the Truth, in that there will 

be life there. For if there shall be sorrow, there will not be 

life ; for an everlasting and undying torment is not to be called 

25^1 life- Therefore the Lord doth not call that life which the 

ungodly are to have, though in the fire they are to live; they 

come to no end of life, lest they should come to an end of 

Is. 66, punishment: for their worm shall not die, and their Jire 

^^' shall not be quenched: still He would not call that life, but 

this He called life, which is hapjiy and eternal. Whence 

Matt, when that rich man asked the Lord, What good thing shall 

19> 16. J do, that I may attain eternal life? He too it is certain 

did not give the name of eternal life, but to that which is 

happy. For tlie ungodly shall have an eternal, but not 

a happy life, because full of torment. And so he said. 

Lord, what good thing shall I do, that I may attain eternal 

life? The Lord answered him touching the commandments. 

He said, All these have I done. But when He answered 

touching the commandments, what said He ? If thou wilt 

enter into life. He did not say to him, happy life; because 

a miserable one is not even to be called life. He did not 

say to him, eternal; for where the fear of death is, it is not 

again to be called life. Therefore life which is worthy of this 

name, to be called life, is none save a happy life; and happy 

it is not, if not eternal. This all wish, this we all wish. 

Holy Scripture gives occasion of sin to those who seek it. 709 

truth, and life ; but to so great a possession, to so great Serm. 
felicity, whereby is the way? The philosophers set up for^joo-B.] 
themselves ways of error; some said, " This way;" others, 
" Not this way, but this." The way was hidden from them, 
for God resisteth the proud. It would have been hidden James 
from us too, had He not come to us. Therefore saith the ' 
liord, I am the Way. Sluggish traveller, thou wouldest not Johni4, 
come to the way: the Way hath come to thee. Thou wast 
seeking whereby to go : / am the Way. Thou wast seeking 
whither to go: / am the Trvth and the Life. Thou wilt 
not go astray, when thou goest to Him, through Him. This 
is the Christian's doctrine, manifestly not to be compared 
with, but to be preferred beyond all comparison to the 
doctrines of philosophers, the filthiness of Epicureans, the 
pride of Stoics. 


On the words of the Apostle, Rom. vii. " For the good that I would I do 
not; but the evil which I would not, that I do, &c." 


1. There is reason to fear, lest the lesson which has been 
recited out of the Apostle Paul's Epistle, as often as it is read, 
being wrongly understood, should give occasion to men who 
seek occasion. Men are indeed prone to sin, and hardly 
restrain themselves. When then they hear the Apostle say- 
ing. For the good that I would, I do not; hut the evil which Rom. 7, 
1 would not, that I do; they do evil, and being displeased "' 

as they fancy with themselves because they do evil, they 
think that they are like the Apostle, who said. For the good ■ 
that I would, I do not; but the evil which I would not, that 
I do. This then is occasionally read, and then it forces on 
me a necessity of treating it, lest men taking it amiss turn 
wholesome food into poison. Be your love then intent, till 
I shall tell you what the Lord may vouchsafe me; that when • 
ye shall haply see me toiling in the difficulty of some obscu- 
rity, ye may by the affection of your piety aid me. 

2. First then call to mind, what, by God's mercy, ye are in 

710 In this life, war, triumph hereafter, yet at hand. 

Serm. the habit of heaviiiL% that the hfo of the rij^hteous in this 

CI . . . 

jioi.B.lhody is still ii war, not yet a triumph. Bui in this war 

there will be a triumph some day. Therefore hath the 
Apostle uttered both words of war, and words of triumph. 
Rom. 7, The words of war we have just now heard, For uhat I would, 
V. 16. thai do I not; but what I hate, thai do I. If then I do 
that which I hate; I consent unto the Law that it is yood. 
V. 18. To u-ill is present willt me, hut how to accomplish (hat 
V. 23. tcliich is good, I find not. But I see anolher law in my 
members, resisting the laic in my mind, and bringing me into 
captivity in the law qt sin which is in my members. When 
thou hearest of resisting, when thou hearest of bringing into 
ii. captivity, dost thou not recognise war.? The voice then of 
triumph is not yet; but that it shall be, the same Apostle 
1 Cor. teacheth thee, saying. This corruptible must put on incor- 
*c. ruption, and this morlal must put on immortality. But 
when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and 
this mortal shall hare put on immortality; here is the voice 
of triumph; then shall be brought to pass the saying that is 
written, Death is swallowed up in victory. Let the trium- 
phant say, O Death, icltere is thy contention I We shall say 
it then, some time or other we shall say it; and this some 
time or other will not be far off. For there rernaineth not 
of this world'^s course as much as hath run out already. This 
therefore we shall say then. But now in this war, lest this 
lesson by our wrong understanding of it be the enemy's 
trumpet, not ours, whereby he may be animated, not where- 
by he may be coiupiered; give heed, I beseech you, my 
brethren, and do yo who are contending, contend. For 
ye who are not yet contending, will not understand what 
1 say; ye who are already contending, will understand. My 
voice will be aloud, yours in silence. First call to mind 
what he wrote to the (jialatians, whereby this may be con- 
veniently ex])lained. For he saith, speaking to the faith- 
ful, speaking to the baptized, all whose sins of course 
had been forgiven them in the holy laver; yet speaking to 
these, but withal to those who were in combat speaking, he 
Gal. 5, saith, I say then. Walk in the Spirit, and ye shall not fnlfil 
^^' ^°- the Insts of the flesh. He did not say, " Shall not do:" but 
Shall not fulfil. Why is this? He goes on and saith, For the 

Fighting, long so for God, that all he subdued to Him. 711 

flesh lusteth against the Sjnrit, and the Spirit against the Serm. 
Jlesh. For these are contrary the one to the other, so ^^^^nsi.jsj 
ye cannot do the things that ye woidd. But if ye be led oj 
the Spirit, ye are not under the Law: assuredly not, but 
under grace. If yo he led of the Spirit: what is, to be led of 
the Spirit? To consent unto the Spirit of God enjoining, not 
to the flesh lusting. Nevertheless, it doth lust, and thou 
resistest; and it wishes somewhat, and thou dost not: per- 
severe, that thou mayest not wish it. 

3. Notwithstanding, thy desire should be such to Godward, iii. 
that there should not even be this concupiscence for thee to 
resist. See what I have said, Thy desire, I say, should be 
such to Godward, that there should not even be at all this 
concupiscence, for thee to be obliged to resist. For thou 
dost resist, and by not consenting dost conquer: but better 
is it not to have an enemy, than to conquer. This enemy 
some day will be no more. Cast back thy mind to the voice of 
triumph, and see if he will be. death, where is thy contention ? ^ Cor. 
It will be no more. O death, ivhere is thy sting? Thou shalt 
seek its place, and shalt not find it. For this is not, and 
ye ought to give especial heed to it; for this is not as it were 
some other nature, according to the Manichaean's madness. 
It is oiir weakness, it is our con'uption. It will not be in 
separation, in some other place, but, wlien healed, it will 
exist no where. Therefore, ye shall not fulfil the lusts of 
the flesh. It were better indeed to fulfil what the Lawsaith, 
Do not lust. This is the fulness of virtue, the perfection of Rom- 7, 
righteousness, the palm of victory, Do not lust. Because 
this cannot be fulfilled at present, let that at least be fulfilled 
which Holy Scripture also saith, Go not after thy lusts. Ecclus. 
Better it is not to have them; but seeing that they are, go not ' 
after tJiem. They will not go after thee: go not thou after 
them. If they will go after thee, they will cease to be; 
because they will not rebel against thy mind. They do 
rebel, rebel thou; they do fight, fight thou; they fight 
boldly, fight thou boldly ; look only to this, that they do not 

4. Lo, I will lay down one instance hereupon, whereby ye iv. 
may understand the rest. You know that there are sober 
men : they are few comparatively ; but there are such. You 

3 A 

712 Desire f/roivs hy ill habits, is weakened by good. 

Sekm. know too that there are drunkards: they abound. A sober 
[I51.B.1 ™^" ^^s been baptized : as far as drunkenness is concerned, 
]io hath not wlierewith to fight: he hath other hists, where- 
with to fight. But that ye may understand touching all the 
rest, let us set before us the contest with one enemy only. 
A drunken man has been baptized also: he has heard, and 
heard with fear, amongst the othtn- wickednesses for which 
the kingdom of God is shut up against those who live evilly, 
that drunkenness is also mentioned : because where it is 
1 Cor. 6, said, Neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor 
'effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor 
thieves ; there it is added, nor drunkards, <^c. shall inherit 
the kinfjdom of God. He has heard, and feared. He has 
been baptized, all his past sins of drunkenness have been 
forgiven him : the hostile habit remains. He hath then 
wherewith to fight, now that he is born anew. His past 
wickednesses have been all forgiven him: let him take heed, 
watch, fight, tliat he be not some future time intoxicated 
again. That lust of drinking then rises up, solicits the mind, 
brings dryness on the throat, lies in ambush at the senses : 
wishes even, if possible, to penetrate the wall itself, to come 
at him who is shut in there, to draw him away captive. It 
fights; fight thou against it. O if it did not even exist ! If 
by an evil custom it has grown, by good custom it will die: 
be thou only loth to satisfy it, satiate it not by yielding, but 
by resisting kill it. Nevertheless, as long as it exists, it is an 
enemy. If thou consent not to it, and art never intoxicated, 
it will be less and less every day. For thy subjection is its 
strength. I'or if thou shalt give way to it, and become 
intoxicated, thou givest it strength. What! against me, and 
not against thyself? I from this higher place advise, speak, 
preach: I denounce beforehand wliat evil must come upon 
drunkards. You have no ground for saying, " I have not 
heard:" you have no ground for saying, " God requireth my 
soul of his hand, who never spake to me." But thou art 
toiling because thou hast made for thyself a mighty enemy 
by an evil habit. Thou hast not toiled to nourisii him: toil, 
to conquer him. And if thou hast not strength enough 
against liim, pray to God. Yet if it shall not concpier thee, 
though this very evil habit of thine may struggle with thee, 

Concupiscence, inborn, may be diminished, not extinct here. 713 

if it shall not conquer thee, thou hast done what the Apostle Serm. 
Paul says, Ye shall not fulfil the lusts of the jlesh. Thej-^g^g-j 

lust was formed by its soliciting : but it was not fulfilled by Gal. 6, 

, • , . 16. 


5. What I have said of drunkenness, the same is true of v. 
all vices, of all lusts. For with some are we born, some we 
have created by habit. For because of those, with which we are — 
born, are infants baptized, that they may be loosed from the 
guilt of their descent, not of the evil habit which they had 
not. Therefore must we always fight; because this same 
concupiscence, wherewith we are born, cannot be ended as 
long as we live : diminished it may be day by day, ended it 
cannot be. Through this it is that this body of ours is 
called a body of death. Of this the Apostle speaks, For /Rom. r, 
delight in the Law of God after the inward man. But /y. '23. 
see another laio in my members, resisting the law of my 
mind, and bringing me into captivity in the law of sin, 
which is in my members. Then was this law born, when 
the first Law was transgressed. Then, 1 say, was this law 
born, when the first Law was despised and transgressed. 
What is the first Law ? That which man received in Para- 
dise. Were they not naked, and were not ashamed? Why^'^^- ^i 
were they naked, and not ashamed, but because there was as 
yet no law in the members resisting the Law of the mind ? 
Man did a deed meet for punishment, and found an impulse 
meet for shame. They ate against the prohibition, and their 
eyes were opened. What! did they before this wander up 
and down in Paradise with closed or blinded eyes ? Not so. 
For how did Adam give names to the fowl and the beasts, Ibid, 
when all the aniinals were brought to him? What did he 
give names to, if he did not see them? Then again it is 
said, The woman saw the tree, that it was p)leasant to ^AeGen. 3, 
eyes to see. They had then their eyes open ; and they were 
naked, and were not ashamed. But their eyes were opened 
to something which they had never been sensible of, which 
in the provocation^ of their body they had never beenimotu 
shocked at. Their eyes were opened to perceive, not to see:^*^* 
and because they felt shame, they took care for concealment. 
They sewed, it is said,^^ leaves together, and made thein- vi. 
selves aprons. What they covered, there they felt. Lo, 

3 A 2 

714 St. Paul speaks of his conjilct, that %ce, having it, despair not. 

Serm. whence original sin is derived, lo, whence no one is bora 
r J 5j^jj , without sin. Lo, wherefore the Lord would not be thus 
conceived. Whom a Virgin conceived. He dissolved sin, 
Who came without it: He dissolved it, Who came not 
from it. Whence one and One: one unto death, One unto 
Life. The first man unto death, the Second Man unto Life. 
And why the lirst man unto death? Because only man. 
Why the Second Man unto Life ? Because God and Man. 

6. The Apostle therefore doeth what he would not : for 
he would not lust, and yet he lusteth : therefore he doeth 
what he would not. Did that evil concuj^iscence draw the 
subjugated Apostle to fornication and adultery? God forbid. 
Let no such thoughts arise into our hearts. He wrestled, he 
was not subjugated. But because he was loth even to have 
this against which to wrestle, therefore he said, I do what I 
tfould not. 1 would not lust, and 1 do lust. Therefore do 
I what I would not; but yet I do not consent to lust. For 
Gal. 5, otherwise he would not say, Ye shall not fnljil the lusts of 
'^' thejiesh; if he himself fulfilled them. But he sets his own 
fight before thine eyes, that thou mightest not be afraid of 
thine. For if the blessed Apostle had not said this, when 
thou shouldest see thy lust stirred in thy members, though 
thou mightest not consent to it; yet when thou sawest it 
stirring, thou mightest haply have despaired of thyself, and 
said, " If I had any part in God, I should not be excited 
thus." See the Apostle fighting, and give not thyself up to 
desperation. / see another law, saith he, in my mcinhers 
resisting the laiv of wy mind. And because I would not 
that it should resist; for it is ray flesh, it is ray very self, it is 
a part of rae : what I tcould, that do I not; but the evil that 
vii. / hate, that do I; in that I lust. What good then do I ? 
In that I consent not to evil concupiscence. I do good, 
and I do not fulfil good : and concupiscence, mine eneray, 
doeth evil, and doth not fulfd evil. How do I do good, and 
do not fulfil good ? I do good, when I consent not to evil 
concupiscence : but I do not fulfil good, so as to have no 
concupiscence at all. Again, accordingly how doth ray 
enemy too do evil, and not fulfil evil? It doeth evil, in that 
it exciteth evil desire : it doth not fulfd evil, in that it draweth 
me not to evil. And in this war is the whole life of Saints. 

The ichole life of Saints one tear. 715 

Now what shall I saj of the unclean, who do not even fight? rfERM. 
They are dragged along in subjugation : nay not even dragged r]5i.*B.j 
along, because they follow willingly. This, I say, is the 
fight of Saints, and in this war man is ever in ])eril, until he 
die. But in the end, that is, in the triumph of that victory, 
what is said ? yea, what saith the Apostle even now in the 
anticipation of triumph ? Then shall be brought to pans ^^'^ l.^g"; 
saying that is written. Death is swallowed up in victory, s^c. 
O death, where is thy contention? The voice of the trium- 
phant. O death, where is thy sting? But the sting of death 
is sin ; by whose sting death was brought to pass. Sin is as 
a scorpion : it stung us, and we died. But when it is said, 
O death, ithere is thy sting? sting by which thou wast 
produced, not which thou didst produce. When then it is 
said, O death, where is thy sting? doubtless it will be no 
more; because sin will be no more. But the sting of death 
is sin. Against sin was the Law given. But the strength 
of sin is the Law . How is the Law the strength of sin? 
It entered that the offence might abound. How is this f Rom. 5, 
Because before the Law man was a sinner; when the liaw" 
had been given and transgressed, he became also a trans- 
gressor. Men were held guilty by sin : when the Law had 
been given, they became more guilty by transgression. 

8. Where is hope, save in what follows. Where sin vin. 
abounded, grace hath more abounded? And so, this soldier, 
so thoroughly exercised as it were in this war, so exercised, 
as to be also a leader, when he was in distress in this war 
against the enemy, and said, I see another law in my Rom. 7, 
members, resisting the law of my mind, and bringing me'^^- 
into captivity in the law of sin, which is in my mem- 
bers, a shameful law, a miserable law, a wound, a sore, a 
languor; subjoined: Wretched man that I am, who shall v. 2i. 
deliver me from the body of this death ^ And to his siglis 
relief is brought. How is relief brought? The grace of God, v. 25. 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. From the law of this "^' 
death, that is, from the body of this death. The grace Oj 
God, through Jesus Christ our Lord, tcill deliver thee. 
When wilt thou have a body, wherein no concupiscence 
shall remain? When this mortal shall have put on imnior- \ cor. 
tality, and this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, ^^' ^'*' 

716 Consent not, and concupiscence wearies but harms not. 

Serm. and it shall be said to death, O death, ivhere is thy conten- 
[151. B. ] ''^"-^ and it shall not be. O death, where is tliy sting'? 
Eom.T, and it shall no where be. But now how is it? Hear: So 
'^' then uith the mind I myself sen-e the Law of God, hut iiith 
the flesh the law of sin. Jf'ith the mind I serve the Law of 
God, by not consenting ; hut with the flesh the law of sin, 
by lusting. And with the miud the Law of God, and uith 
the flesh the law of sin. I at once delight in the one, and 
lust in the other; but I am not conquered; it solicits, lies in 
wait, knocks, endeavours to drag me away : JVretched i?ian 
that I am ! who shall deliver me from the body of this death? 
I would not be always conquering; but I would at length 
come to peace. Now then, brethren, hold to this limitation : 
with the mind serve the Law of God, but with the flesh the 
law of sin ; but by necessity, in that ye lust, not in that ye 
consent. Sometimes this concupiscence lieth so in wait 
against the Saints, as to do to them in their sleep, what it 
cannot do when they are awake. Why have ye all cried out 
in acclamation, but that ye all feel its truth ? Modesty for- 
bids me to dwell upon it; but be not slow to pray thereupon 
to God. Turn we to the Lord, &c. 


On the following words of the Apostle, Rom. vii. and viii. to " God sent 
His Own Son in the likeness of flesh of sin, &c." 

1. You ought to remember. Beloved, that I discoursed 
before you on a very difficult question, from the Apostle 

Rom. 7, PauVs Epistle, where he says. For what I would, that do / 
not; but what I hate, that do /. Ye who were present will 
remember : be present now with your attention, that ye may 
build on to that which ye have already heard. For the 
lesson which has been read to-day, follows, which indeed 

Rom. 8, the Reader began at this point: God sent His Own Son in the 
likeness of flesh of sin, and by sin condemned sin in the 
flesh: that the righteousness of the Law might be fulfilled 
in us, nho walk not after the fleshy but after the Spirit. 

Man cannot escape evil desires, can escape yielding. 717 

But those words which were then read, but not handled, are Serm. 
these which follow: So then with the mind 1 inyself serve ^i5'2.B.^ 
the Law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin. There f.?Rom. 7, 
therefore now no condemnation to them ivhich are in Christ "^'^^^ q 
Jesus. For the Law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus ^' 
hath made me free from the lata of sin and death. For-^.s, 
what the Lata could not do, in that it was weak through the 
flesh. And then follows what was read to-day: God sent 
His Own Son in the likeness of flesh of sin. There is no 
difficulty in obscure meanings, when the Spirit aideth. May 
He then aid me through your prayers ; for the very desire 
that ye wish to understand, is a prayer to God. From Him 
then it is that we must look for aid. For we, like peasants 
in a field, labour without. But if there were no One to 
labour within, the seed would neither take root in the ground, 
nor would the shoot develope itself forth in the field, nor the 
stalk' be strengthened, and come to a proper tree; nor branches, i virga 
nor fruit, nor leaves grow. Therefore the same Apostle, dis- 
tinguishing the operation of the labourers and the Creator, 
said; / have planted, Apollos watered; but God gave the iCot.3, 
increase. And he added, Neither is he that planteth any^'^"^' 
thing, neither he that water eth; but God Who giveth the 
increase. If God within give not the increase, in vain is this 
sound at your ears. But if He giveth it, what we plant 
and water availeth something, and our labour is not in vain. 

2. I have already told you, that what the Apostle says, Rom. 7 
With the mind L serve the Law of God, but with the flesh'^^- 
the law of sin, is in such sort to be taken : that ye allow 
nothing more to the flesh, than the desires, without which it 
cannot be. But if ye shall consent to evil desires, and shall 
not struggle against them, ye will mourn being conquered : 
and it is to be wished that ye should mourn, that ye lose not 
even the sense of sorrow. In all our vows then, in our will, 
in our prayers, when we say. Lead us not into teinptation. Matt. 6, 
but deliver us from evil ; this of a truth do we desire, that ^^* 
even these evil longings should not rise out of our flesh. 
But as long as we live here, we cannot so effect it. There- 
fore he saith, But to accomplish that ivhich is good, J Rom. 7, 
flnd not. To do what, do I find? Not to consent to evil^^' 
desire. To accomplish I flnd not: not to have evil desire. 

718 Cont-upisceuce nnyielded to wakes luit the baptized (juilty. 

Serm. It remains therefore in this fight, that with the mind not con- 
[ 162. B.] •'tenting to evil hists, thou serve the Law of God; but with 
the flesh lusting, but thyself not consenting, thou serve the 
law of sin. The flesh forms its desires; do thou too form 
thine. Its desires are not brought to nothing, are not ex- 
tinguished by thee ; let it not extinguish thine ; that in the 
contest thou mayest struggle, not be dragged conquered 
Rom. 8, 3. The Apostle then goes on and says, There its there/ore 
now no condemnation to them which are in Chriot Jesus. 
Though they have desires of the flesh, whereunto they do 
not consent ; though the law in their members resist the law 
of their mind^ and would bring the mind into captivity : 
yet because by the grace of baptism and the laver of regene- 
ration both the guilt itself wherewith thou wast born hath 
been done away, and all thy past acts of consent to evil lust, 
in whatsoever deed, whether of impurity, or violence, in 
whatsoever evil thought, in whatsoever evil word, all have 
been eflaced in that Fount, wherein thou didst enter a slave, 
whence thou camest out free : because, I say, these things are 
Eom. 8, so. There is now no cojidemnation to them which are in Christ 
Rom. 5 J^^^^- There is none now, before there was. From one all 
16. were unto condemnation. This evil had our birth done, 
Rom. 8, but this good hath our new birth done. For the Law of the 
^' Spirit of Li I'e in Christ Jesus hath made thee free from the 

law of sin and death. It is in thy members, but it doth not 
make thee guilty. Thou hast been set free from it; as free 
fight ; but see that thou be not conquered, and become a 
slave again. In fighting thou hast toil, but thou shalt have 
joy in triumi^hing. 

4. Now I have spoken to you, and ye ought to be specially 
mindful of it, that ye may not by reason of this fight, without 
which man cannot be, not even he who liveth righteously ; 
yea rather he is in it, who liveth righteously ; for he doth not 
even fight, who doth not live righteously, but is dragged 
along : that ye may not, 1 say, on this account, suppose that 
there are two natures, as it were from different principles, 
according to the Manichaean's madness, as though the flesh 
were not of God. It is false, both are of God. But Imman 
nature hath merited this strife within itsell" by sin. So then 

Law of the Spirit frees, law of works not, from Imv of sin. 719 

it is a sickness, it is made whole, and is no more. The Serm. 
discord which now is in the spirit and the flesh, labometh [152.B.] 
for concord; therefore doth the spirit labour, that the flesh 
may be in concord with it. Just as if a husband and wife 
have a dispute with one another in one house; the husband 
ought to labour to this end, to tame the wife. Let the wife 
when tamed, be brought into subjection to the husband; when 
the wife is brought into subjection to the husband, let peace 
be established in the house, 

5. But when he said. The Law of the Spirit of Life in 
Christ Jesus shall make thee free from the law of sin and 
death; he hath set these laws before us to be understood. 
Look into them, and distinguish; this distinction is necessary 
enough for you. The Law, he sailh, of the Spirit of Life, 
behold one Law, hath made thee free from the laiv of sin and 
death, behold another law. And then follows, For what the 
Law coidd not do, in that it was v:eak through the flesh, 
behold a third Law. Or perhaps this is from the other two? 
Let us enquire, and with the Lord's help see. Of that good 
Law what said he ? The Law of the Spirit of Life hath made 
thee free from the law of sin and death. This he did not say 
was powerless to produce its effect : The Law of the Spirit of 
Life, he saith, JiatJi made free from the law of sin and 
death. That good Law hath made thee free from this evil 
law. For what is the evil law ^. I see another law in my 
members resist ing the Law of my mind, and hrinyiny me 
into captivity in the law of sin, which is in my members. 
Why is this also called a law? Altogether rightly. For 
very legitimately has it come to pass, that the man who 
would not obey his Lord, his flesh should not serve him. 
Thy Lord is above thee, thy flesh below thee. Serve the 
superior, that the inferior may serve thee. Thou hast 
despised the superior, thou art tormented by the inferior. 
This then is the law of sin, this the law of death too. For 
death by sin. In the day that ye eat, ye shall surely Gen. 2, 
die. This law of sin then draggeth away the spirit, and 
striveth to bring it into subjection. But I delight in the LawUom, 7, 
of God after the inward man. And hereby is produced that 
combat, and in this contest it is said. With the mind I serve 
the Law of God, but with thejiesh the law of sin. The Law ofx, 25. 

720 Law of works good; Lav) of the Spirit^ life-giving. 

Serm. the Spirit of Life hath made thee free from the law of sin and 
[152.B.] ^<?f'^/<- For \\\\^ Law of the Spirit o/'Aj/b how hath it madethee 
Rom. 8,free ? First it gave forgiveness of all sins. For this is the Law 
Ps 118 °^ ^vhich it is said in the Psalin to God, And out of Thy Law 
29. Sept. have mercy upon me. The Law of mercy, the Law of faith, 
V.) ' ' not of works. What then is the Law of works ? Ye have 
heard already the good Law of faith : The Law of the Spirit 
of Life in Christ Jesus hath made thee free from the law of 
Rom. 8,sm and death. For ichat the Law could not do in that it 
was iveak through the flesh. This Law then which is named 
in the third place, doth not fulfil somewhat as it were: but 
that Lxiw of the Spirit of Life, hath fulfilled it; in that it 
hath made thee free from the law of sin and death. Accord- 
ingly this Law, which is named in the third place, the Law 
which was given to the people by Moses in the Mount 
Sinai, this is called the Law of works. It skilleth to threaten, 
not to help ; it skilleth to enjoin, not to aid. It is this which 
Rom. 7, saith, Thou shall not lust. Whence the Apostle saith, I had 
'' not known lust, except the Law had said, Thou shall not lust. 

And what did it profit me that the Law said, Thoii shall not 
V. 11. lust? Sin taking occasion by the commandment deceived 
me, and by it slew me. I was forbidden to lust, and I did not 
fulfil what was enjoined, but was conquered. Before the 
Law I was a sinner: after I had received the Law, I became 
a transgressor. For sin taking occasion by the command- 
ment deceived me, and by it slew me. 
V. 12. 6. Wherefore, he saith, the Law indeed is holy. This Law 
then is also good; (for this too the Manichaeans revile, as 
they do the flesh.) Of it the Apostle says, Wherefore the 
Law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, 
V. 13. and good. Was then that which is good made death unto 
me ? God forbid. But sin that it might appear sin, by 
that which is good wrought death to me. They are the 
Apostle's words; consider and give heed. Wherefore the 
Law indeed is holy. What so holy, as, Thou shall not lust? 
The transgression of the Law would not be evil, if the Law 
itself were not good. For if it were not good, it would not 
be evil to transgress an evil thing. Seeing then that it is 
evil to transgress it, therefore is it good. What so good, as 
Thou shall not lust ? The Lmw then is holy, and the com- 

Liaw of works shewed sin, Law of the Spirit removes it. 721 

mandment holy, and Just, and good. How he insists'! how Serm, 
he inculcates it! As though against its revilers he cries out, n52.B.] 
" What sayest thou, O Manichee ? Was the Law which was i satiat 
given by Moses evil ?" " It is evil," they say. What a 
prodigy ! what effrontery ! Thou hast said once, " it is evil ;" 
give ear to the Apostle, saying, The Law indeed is holy, and 
the commandment holy, and Just, and good. Art thou at length 
silenced? Was then, he says, that which is good made 
death unto 7ne ? God forbid. But sin, that it might appear 
sin, by that which is good wrought death to me. Here again, 
by that ivhich is good ; he in such wise accuseth the guilty, 
as not to recede from the praise of the Law. By that which 
is good, he says, ivroiigJtt death, to me. By what that is 
good? The commandment. By what that is good? The 
Law. How did it work death ? That it might appear sin ; 
that sill by the commandment might become above measure 
sinful. On that account above measure. When the sin was 
without the commandment, it was less : when the sin was by 
the commandment, it exceedeth measure. For when one is 
not forbidden, he thinks that he is doing well. When for- 
bidden, he begins to be unwilling to do it: he is conquered, 
dragged along, brought under: now it remains for him to 
call for grace; because he hath had no power to keep the 

7. And hereby that Law, of which it is said, For the Laiv o/'Rom. 8, 
the Spirit of Life hath made thee free from the law of sin 
and death, is the Law of faith, is the Law of the Spirit, is the 
Law of grace, is the Law of mercy. But that law of sin and 
death, is not the Law of God, but of sin and death. But that 
other, of which the Apostle says, The Laiv is holy, and the 
coriimandment holy, and just, and good, is the Law of God, but 
of deeds, the Law of works: the Lawof works, which enjoineth, 
not assisteth ; the Law which sheweth thee sin, not taketh sin 
away. By one Law sin is shewed thee, by another taken away. 
They are the two Testaments, the Old and the New. Hear the 
Apostle saying. Tell me, ye that desire to be under the Law, Gal. 4, 
have ye not read the Law ? For it is tvritlen, that Abraliam ' 
had two sons, the one by a bondmaid, the other by a free- 
woman. But he who teas of the bondwoman was born after 
ihejlesh; but he of the freewoman was by promise : which 

722 Christ Alone born in Flesh, not in flesh of sin. 

Serm. things are in allegory. For these are the two Testaments^ 

[162. B.l f^^^' ^"f^ '" ^ft^ inoiinl Sinai, which gendereth to bondage^ 

which is Agar, the handmaid of Saiah, wlio was given to 

Abraham, and brought forth Ishmael a servant. The Old 

perti- Testament then answereth' to Agar, nhich gendereth to 
nens . . . 

bondage. But the Jerusalem uhicli is above is free, which 

is our motlier. So then the children of grace, are the 

children of tlie freewoman: the children of the letter are 

the children of the bondwoman. Look out for the children 

2Cor.3, of the bondwoman: The letter killeth. Look out for the 

Rom. 8 children of the freewoman : But the Spirit giveth life. 

2* The Law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus hath made 

thee free from the latv of sin and death ; from which the 

V. 3. Law of the letter could not make thee free. For what the 
Latv could not do, in that it was ireak through the flesh. 
For thy flesh rebelled, thy flesh brought thee into subjection; 
it heard the Law, and it the more inflamed thy lust. The 
Law of the letter then was nealc through the Hesh : and 
hereby the Law of the letter could not make thee free from the 
law of sin and death. 

V. 3. 8. God sent His Own Son in the likeness of flesh of 

sin; not in flesh of sin. In Flesh indeed, but not in 
flesh of sin. The flesh of all other men then is flesh of 
sin. This only, not Flesh of sin; for that His Mother 
conceived Him not by concupiscence, but by grace : yet 
having the likeness of flesh of sin ; whereby He could be 
both nourished, and hunger, and thirst, and sleep, and be 
■wearied, and die. God sent His Own Son in the likeness of 
flesh of sin. 

▼.3. 9. And. by sin condemned sin in the flesh. By what sin ? 

What sin .-^ By sin He condemned sin in the flesh : that the 
righteousness of the Law might be fulfilled in us. Now be 
that righteousuess of the Law fulfilled in. ns ; he that righte- 
ousness which is enjoined now fulfilled in us through the 
Spirit Which helpeth: that is, let the Law of the letter by 
the Spirit of Life be Jul filled in ns ; who walk not after the 
flesh, but after the Spirit. By what sin then, and what sin 
did the Lord condemn.? I see, I see indeed what sin He 

John I, condemned, I see it thoroughly: Behold the Lamb of God, 
which taketh away the sin of the world. What sin ? All 

Some say, " by sin*'' of another " The Son condemned sin.^' 723 

sin, all our sin He condemned. But by what sin? He had Serm. 

• Cli 

Himself no sin: of Him it is said, Who did no sin, neither r^'^^^, 

was guile found in His mouth. None whatever, neither by i pet.2 

derivation, or addition: He had no sin, neither original, or of^^* 

His Own unrighteousness. His origin a Virgin maketh 

plain; but His holy conversation sufficiently sheweth that 

He did nothing whereby He could be worthy of death. 

Therefore He said, Behold, the prince of this icorld cometh, 3ohn\A, 

' . . 30 31 

(meaning the devil,) and shall find nothing in Me. The 
prince of death shall not find wherefore to kill Me. And 
wherefore then shalt Thou die.? But that all men may know 
that I do the Fathefs will, let us go hence. And He went 
forth to the suffering of death, a voluntary death, not of 
necessity, but of choice. / have power to lay down My life, Johnio, 
and 1 have power to take it again. No man taketh it from^'' ^^' 
Me, but I lay it down^ and I take it again. If thou marvellest 
at the power, understand the Majesty. He speaketh as God, 
Christ speaketh. 

10. By what sin then hath He condemned sin? Some 
have understood it, and arrived at no inconvenient' a sense, i impro- 
But still they have by no means, as I think, been able to^^™' 
trace out the Apostle's meaning. Yet they have not spoken 
amiss: this I will first tell you, and then what I think myself, 
and what Divine Scripture Itself shews to be the most true. 
When they are asked; " By what sin hath He condemned 
sin ? Had He sin?" they have said thus, " By sin He hath 
condemned sin, by sin not His own; nevertheless by sin 
He hath condemned sin. If then not by His Own, by 
whose ? By the sin of Judas, by the sin of the Jews. For 
whereby did He shed His Blood for the remission of sins ? 
Because He was crucified by the Jews. By whose betrayal? 
Judas. When the Jews killed Him, Judas betrayed Him. 
Did they do well, or did they sin ?" It is well said, and truly 
said, that by the sin of the Jews also Christ condemned all 
sin, in that, through their persecution He shed the Blood, 
Whereby He hath effaced all sin. Nevertheless, see what the 
Apostle saith in another place ; IVe ore am hassadorsfor Christ, 2 Cor. 
he says, as though God did beseech you by us, we pray you for ^^ 20. 
Christ, that is as though Christ prayed you, for Him we pray 
you, I0 be reconciled to God. And then follows: Him Whoy.2]. 

724 Christ was made sin, as a Sacrifice for sins, 

Serm. kneiv no sin. Him Who knew no sin, that is, Christ God, 

n52,B.iThat Christ, Who knew no sin, liath God to Whom we pray 

V. 21. you to be reconciled, made sin for us, that we might be the 

riyhteousness of God in Him. Can this be here understood 

of the sin of Judas, the sin of the Jews, the sin of any othei; 

man whatsoever? When you hean', He made Him sin for 

us, Who knew no sin. Who? Whom? God made Christ. 

God made Christ sin for us. He did not say, " made Him 

to sin for us;" but, made Him sin. If it be an impiety 

to say that Christ sinned, who would endure that Christ 

should be sin ? And yet we cannot contradict the Apostle. 

We cannot say to him, " What is it that thou sayest?" For 

if we should say this to the Apostle, we say it to Christ 

2 Cor. Himself. For he saith in another place, Do you seek ajrroq/' 

' * of Christ Who speaketh in 7ne? 

11. What is it then? Give heed, Beloved, to a great and 
deep mystery. Happy will ye be, if ye love it when under- 
stood, and when loved attain to it. Undoubtedly, undoubtedly, 
Christ our Lord, Jesus our Saviour, our lledeemer, was made 
sin, that we might be the righteousness of God in Him. How? 
Hear the Law. They who are acquainted with it, know 
what I am saying: and they who are not acquainted with it, 
let them read, or hear. In the Law the sacrifices also, which 
wei'e offered for sins, were called sins. You have it, when 
Levit.4,the victim for sin was brought, the Law saith, Let the priests 
2^^P5 lay their hands upon the sin, that is, upon the victim for 
29. 32— sin. And what else is Christ, but a Sacrifice for sin? As 
Kphes! 'Christ also, he saith, hath loved ns, and hath given Himself 
s> 2. for us, an offering and a sacrifice to God, for an odour of 
sweetness. Lo by what sin He hath condemned sin; by the 
sacrifice which He was made for sins, by this hath He con- 
demned sin. This is the Law of the Spirit of Life, which 
hath made thee free from the law of sin and death. Be- 
cause that other Law, the Law of the letter, the Law of 
commandments, is good indeed; The commandment is holy, 
and just, and good ; but it icas weak through the flesh, and 
what it enjoined could not be fulfilled in us. Let one Law 
then, as I had begun to say, shew thee sin, another take it 
away : the Law of the Letter shew sin, the Law of Grace take 
sin away. 

Man speaketh, God teacheth. 725 

SERMON cm. [CLTII. Ben.] 

On the words of the Apostle, Rom. vii. " When we were in the flesh, the 
passions of sins which are by the Law, did work in our members, to 
bring forth fruit unto death, &c," Against the Mauichees expressly, and 
tacitly against the Pelagians. 

1. We have heard, and responded in unison, and with Serm. 

. cm. 

concordant voice have chanted to our God, Blessed is ^/i^rissB.] 

man wliom Thoit, shall instruct, O Lord, and shalt teach ^^ 
him out of Till) Law. If ye give silence, ye shall hear. Ps- 93, 
Wisdom findeth no place, where patience is not. We speak, (94, 
but God insiructelh ; we speak, but God teacheth. For he E- ^-^ 
is not called blessed whom man teacheth, but whom Thou 
shalt instruct, O Lord. We can plant, and ivater, but it is 
God's to give the increase. He that planteth and he that 1 Cor. 
watereth, worketh without; He Who giveth the increase, " 
worketh within. The lesson which has been brought before us 
to speak of out of the Holy Apostle's Epistle, how difficult it 
is, how obscure, how (if it be not understood, or understood 
amiss) full of peril; I think. Brethren, yea I know, that when 
it was read to us, ye heard; and agitated ye were, if ye gave 
attention; or if any of you even understood it, ye saw with- 
out doubt how arduous a task it is. This lesson accordingly, 
and this whole place of the Apostle's Epistle, perplexing 
indeed and obscure, but to them who understand it healthful, 
have I undertaken, with the help of God's mercy, in this dis- 
course to expound. I know that I am a debtor to you, 
Beloved, I perceive that you exact the debt. As I pray, 
that you may comprehend these things: so do ye too pray, 
that I may be able to explain them to you. For if our 
prayer be in concert; God will both make you able hearers, 
and me a most trusty renderer of this debt. 

2. For ivhen we icere in the flesh, says the Apostle, the "• 
passions of sins which are by the Law did work in our mem- 5.°"* ' 
hers to bring forth fruit unto death. Here (and this to 
them who understand not is the first, and a serious danger) 

720 Context of Holy Scripture provides against misunderstanding. 

Serm. the Apostle seems to find fault with, and to blame the Law 
[153. B.i *^^ frod. You will say, " Far be this from the mind of any 

Christian whatsoever: wdio would dare, even in madness, to 
suspect this in the Apostle ?" And yet, my brethren, these 
words understood amiss, have ministered fuel of madness to 
the ManichiTjan's frenzy. For the Manichtcans say that the 
Law of God given by Moses was not given by God, and 
they contend that it is contrary to the Gospel. And when 
men dispute with them, they strive by these testimonies of 
the Apostle Paul, which they do not understand, to convince, 
what shall I call them, unintelligent, and not rather negligent 
catholics.'' For it is no great thing, if one would be diligent, 
after hearing calumnies from the heretic, at least to consult 
in the Book the context of the passage. And if he would do 
this, he will presently find there \\herewith to refute the 
loquacious adversary, wherewith to lay low the enemies and 
rebels against the Law. For though he be slow to under- 
stand the Apostle's words, the praise of the Law of God is 
manifestly expressed there. 

3. For see first and take heed. For when we were in the 
Jlesh, he saith, the passions of sins which are by the Law, 
did work. Here at once the Manichee raises his neck aloft, 
lifts up his horns, hits at thee, makes an onslaught: " See," 
says he, " the passions of sins which are by the Law. How 
is the Law good, by which the passions of sins are in us, 
and work in our members, to bring forth fruit unto death V 
Read on, advance a little further, hear the whole with 
patience, if not with understanding. For this that he says. 
The passions of sins which are by the Law, did work in our 
members, it is much for thee to understand : but be thou 
Jmerebe- fiist with me a praiser of the Law, and then shalt thou attain' 
''"* to become its understander. Thou hast a closed heart, and 
dost thou accuse the key } Lo, meanwhile let us put aside 
for a time what we do not understand, let us come to the 
praise of the Law which is express. The passions, he says, 
of sins which are by the Law, did ivork in our members to 
briny forth fruit unto death. But vow we are loosed from 

Ibid, the law of death, wherein we tcere held, that we should 
V. 6. 

serve in newness of the Spirit, and not in the oldnesti of the 

letter. 8o far he seems to reprove, lo blame, to disallow, to 

St Paul, praising the Laic, condemns its accusers. 727 

detest the Law: but not to the understanding. For when he Serm. 
says, fV/ien we were in the flesh, the passions of sins tvhich [153.B.] 
are by the Law, did work in our members to bring forth 
fruit nnto death. But now we are loosed from the law of 
death wherein we were held, that we should serve in newness 
qf the Spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter, he certainly 
seems, so to say, to accuse and blame the Law. He saw this 
too himself, he saw, he felt that he should not be understood, 
and that the thoughts of men would stir themselves against 
the obscurity of his words : he felt what thou mightest say, 
he felt what thou mightest urge in contradiction: and 
he wished to say it first, that thou mightest find nothing to 

4. What shall we sag then ? saith he. This comes next. iii. 
W/iat shall we sag then? Is the Law sin? Ood forbid."'^'^''^' 
By one word he hath absolved the Law, condemned the 
Law's accuser. Thou didst bring forth against me, thou 
Manichee, the authority of the Apostle, and saidst to me, 
when thou didst find fault with the Law, " Lo, hear the 
Apostle, read the Apostle : The passions of sins which are 
bg the Law, did work in our members to bring forth fruit 
unto deal It. But now we are loosed from the law of death 
wherein we were held, that we should serve in newness of the 
Spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter^ Thou didst 
boast thyself, didst cry aloud, didst say, " Hear, read, see :" 
these things hadst thou said, and having turned thy back, 
wast now desiring to go away. Wait, I have heard thee, 
hear me: nay, not I thee, nor thou me; but let us both 
together hear the Apostle, who looseth himself, and bindeth 
thee. What shall we sag then? saith he. Is the Law sin? 
This thou saidst, The Laic is sin, this, I say, thou saidst. Lo, 
ihou hast lieard what thou didst say, hear now what thou 
shouldest say. Thou saidst that the Law of God is sin, 
when in blindness and inconsiderateness thou didst find 
fault with it. Thou hast erred: Paul saw thy error. What 
thou saidst, he said himself. What shall we sag thenf Is 
the Laiv sin ? What thou saidst, say we ? Is the Law 
sin ? God forbid. If thou wert following the Apostle's autho- 
rity, weigh well that word, and take counsel therefrom. Hear, 
Is the Law sin? Godforbid. Hear, God forbid. If thou fol- 


728 .. The Law ^forbidding thy evil, cannot he evil. 

^^\\\' ^o^*^*^*^ ^'^*' Apostle, if thou valuest his authority very highly, 
[163. b!] hear, God forhid : and for thy former thought, God forbid it 
thee ! What shall ne say then ? What shall we say, seeing I 
have said, The passions of sins which are by the Law, did 
icork in our members to bring forth fruit unto death: seeing 
I have said, IVe are loosed from the law of death wherein we 
were held; seeing I have said, That ue should serve in new- 
ness of the Spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter. Is the 
Lata sin ? God forbid. Why then, O Apostle, hast thou 
said those so many things ? 
iv. 5. God forbid that the Law should be sin: Bui, he says, 
ver. 7. J 1^^^ ^^^^ known sin, but by the Law. For I had not 
known lust e.vcept the Law had said. Thou shall not 
lust. Now here at once I question thee, thou Manichee, 
I question thee, answer me. Is the Law evil which says, 
Thou shall not lust? Not even any dissipated and licentious 
man would make me this answer. For even the impure are 
put to shame, when they are reproved ; and when they ai'e 
among the chaste, they dare not shew their wantonness. If 
then thou sayest that the Law is evil, which says, Thoushalt 
not lust ; it is that thou wouldest lust with impunity, ihou 
accusest the Law, because it strikes at your lust. My 
brethren, if we did not hear the Apostle saying, Is the 
Lair sin ? God forbid: but merely quoting the words of the 
Law, where it is said. Thou shall not lust: even though he 
did not praise the Law, yet we ought nevertheless to praise 
it ; to praise it, to accuse ourselves. Lo, the Law, lo, the 
divine trmnpet from on high calls out to man, Thou shalt 
not lust. Thou shalt not lust, find fault if thou canst, if thou 
canst not find fault, do it. Thou hast heard. Thou shalt not 
lust, thou dost not venture to find fault. Because what it 
said. Thou shalt not lust, is good : to lust is evil. The Law 
blameth evil, the Law prohibiteth thee from thine own evil. 
So then evil lust the Law blameth, from thine own evil the 
Law prohibiteth thee. Therefore do what the Law enjoin- 
elh, do not what the Law forbiddeth, do not lust. 

C. But what saith the Apostle ? / had not known lust, 
except the Law had said, Thou shalt not lust. For I was 
going after my lust, and whither it drew, was I running, and from 
its enticements, soft, and from carnal sweetness pleasant, I 

The ivorld's laws comiive even at (jrievous sin. 729 

fancied to myself great happiness. For the sinner is praised, Serm. 
says the Law, in the desires of his soul, and he that doeth ic?i- [153 b'.] 
justly is blessed. You find a man following his carnal lusts, Ps.9,24. 
and giving himself wholly up a slave to them, catching at plea- /^q ^3 
sure from every quarter, living in fornication, drunkenness, E. v.) 
(I say no more ;) in fornication, I say, and drunkenness. ^'' 
These things have I mentioned which are committed by the 
allowance* of the laws, but not the laws of God. For who ' licite 
was ever brought before a judge, because he has entered a 
harlot's brothel.? Who was ever accused at the public 
tribunals, because with his^ ballad-singers he has passed his-lyis- 
life in loose and filthy wantonness ? What married man 
had ever to meet a charge, because he has corrupted his 
maid ? That is, in the civil courts, not in the court of 11 eaven : 
by the world's law, not by the law of the world's Creator. 
But this dissipated, filthy, and wanton man is said to be 
happy : to abound in pleasures, to enjoy delight. Yea 
verily, if he even steep himself in wine, if he drink measures 
without measure : it is not enough to say that he has had to 
meet no charge, he gets even the name of a brave fellow; by 
so much the more worthless, as he is the more difficult to be 
overpowered by his cups. When such things are praised, 
and men say, " He is happy, he is a great man, it is well 
with him;" and this is not only not thought to be a sin, but 
is even thought either a gift of God, or at all events, a sweet, 
an agreeable, and legitimate boon ; the Law of God comes 
forth and says, Thou shall not lust. That man who thought 
it to be a great good, and esteemed it a high happiness, not 
to deny to his lust whatever he could, to follow where it 
draws, hears, Thott shalt not lust; and he comes to know it 
to be sin. God hath spoken, man hath heard, hath believed 
God, hath seen his sin; what he thought good, he hath 
come to know to be evil ; he hath wished to bridle lust, not 
to go after it, he hath ])ut restraint upon^ himself, he hath^strinxit 
made an effort, he is conquered. He who was before igno- 
rant of his evil, has become instructed, and is conquered, in 
worse case than before: he hath begun to be not only a sin- 
ner, but a transgressor also. For a sinner he was even before ; 
but before he heard the Law, he did not know that he was a 
sinner. He heard the Law, he saw his sin : he made an effort 

3 B 2 

730 Sin increased hy the Liitv; since knoivingly against God. 

Serm. to conquer, he was overcome, and laid prostrate : lie became 
cm . 

[153.B ] ^^^'^^ ^ transgressor of" the Law, wlio was before an unwitting 

sinner. This is what the Apostle means, Is the Law sin? God 
forbid. But I had not known sin, but by the Law. For I had 
not knoxon lust except the Law had said, Thou shalt not lust. 
Kom. 7, 7 2ut sin taking occasion by the commandment wrought 
in me all concupiscence. Concupiscence was less, when 
before the Law thou sinnedst in security, but now that the 
bars of the Law are set against thee, the tide of concu- 
piscence was (so to say) bridled for a little while, not dried 
up : but as the force which carried thee on when there were 
no bars, increases, it overwhelms thee now that it hath burst 
its bars. Thy concupiscence was less, when it (sxcited thy 
passion, but it is all when it transgresses also the LaAv. 
Wouldest thou Imow how great it is .? See what it hath burst 
through: Thou shalt not lust. It is not man wiio hath 
spoken, God hath spoken, the Creator hath spoken, the 
Judge eternal hath spoken, no ordinary one hath spoken. 
Do then what He hath sjioken. Wilt thou not? Beware of 
Him That jndgeth Who hath spoken. But what canst thou 
do, O man ? Therefore thou hast not conquered, because 
thou hast relied upon thyself. 
^i- 8. Attend then now to the former words, which seemed 

obscure. For when tie icere in the flesh. To the words 
which we repeated above, with which the lesson which 
seemed obscure began, attend: For nhen ue were in the 
^ftesli, the passions of sins which are by the Law. Why are 
they by the La/v? Decause ue were in thejlesh. What is, 
Because we were in the flesh ? We relied on the flesh. 
For what ! had the Apostle who was speaking, already gone 
out of this flesh, or was he speaking to those who had already 
gone out of this flesh by death ? Of course not ; but after 
the manner of this life, both he uho spake, and they to 
whom he spake, were in the flesh. What then is. When we 
were in the Jlesh, hut when we relied on the flesh, that is, 
confided in ourselves ? For to man is it said, and of men is 
Is.40, said. All Jiesh. shall see the salvation of God. What is, 
Luke 3, All flesh shall see, but " all men shall see ?" And what is, 
John 1, The Word was made Flesh, but, " the Word was made 
'^- Mail ?" For the Word was not Flesh, and no soul in 

Concupiscence too strong for ma7i, unless he be in God. 731 

Hiiii: but under the name oi Flesh Man was signified, when Serm. 
it is read, The Word was made Flesh, Therefore, When M'e[i53.B'.] 
tvere in the Jtesli, that is, had our conversation in the lusts 
of the flesh, and placed therein all our hope, as if in our- 
selves; the passions if sins, which are hy the Law, were 
by the Law increased. For by the prohibition they made 
man a transgressor of the Law : because he who became a 
transgressor, had not God for an helper. Therefore, they 
did work in our members to bring forth fruit, unto what, 
but unto death ? If the sinner was deserving of damnation, 
what hope hath the transgressor ? 

9. Therefore, O man, thy concupiscence hath conquered 
thee : conquered, because it found thee in an evil place : it 
found thee in the flesh, therefore hath it conquered thee. 
Remove thence : what art thou alarmed at ? 1 have not told vii. 
thee to die. Be not alarmed, because I said, " Remove from 
the flesh." I have not told thee to die: yea rather, I venture 
to say, I have told thee to die. //' ye he dead loith Christ, Col.3, i. 
seek those things which are above. Though living in the 
flesh, be not thou in the flesh. All flesh is grass; bi/t thel^- '^^^^ 
Word of the Lord endwreth for ever. Let the Lord be thy i Pet. i, 
refuge. Concupiscence is pressing, urging thee, hath gotten " ' 
great power against thee, by the prohibition of the Law hath 
become greater, with a more powerful enemy hast thou to 
deal : Be the Lord thy refuge, a toiver of strength from the Ps.60,4. 
face of the enemy. Be not then in the flesh, in the Spirit ei, 3. 
be. What is, " \\\ the Spirit be?" Put thy hope in God. ^- ^• 
For if thou shalt put hope in this spirit, whereby thou art a 
man; thy spirit again falls back into the flesh, because thou 
hast not given it Him by Whom it may be holden up. It 
doth not contain itself, if it be not contained. Abide not in 
thyself, get beyond thyself too: put thyself in Him Who 
made thee. For if thou shalt have hope in thyself, on re- 
ceiving the Law thou wilt be a transgressor. The enemy 
findeth thee stripped of thy refuge, he attacketh thee : take 
heed lest haply he seize thee, as a lion, and there he none to^l'a'^'> 
deliver. Mark well the words of the Apostle lauding theSO.E.V. 
Law, accusing himself, acknowledging himself guilty under 
the Law, and it may be transferring thy person to himself, 
and saying to thee, I had not known sin but by the Law.'j-^"^' ' 
For I had not known lust, except the Law had said, Thou 

7 S'iTheJleshhasswcetuessJmt notlikethe siveetnessq/'Godto oiiewhole. 

Serm. s/uil/ )i()t liisl. /Jul sill, takiiiq occasion by the comniand- 

CIII ' ^ ^ 

[153.B.] w^"' irr ought in me all coucupisccnce. For without the 

V. 8. Tjuv, sill was dead. What is, was dead? It lay hid, did 

V.9. not appear at all, is, as if buried, unknown. But when 

the commandment came, sin revived. What is, revived? 

15egan to appear, began to be felt, began to rebel against 


10. And I died. What is, / died? I became a trans- 
V. 10. gressor. And the commandment which was ordained to life, 
was found to me. Observe how the Law is praised, the 
viii. commandment which was ordained to life. For what a life 
is it, to have no lust? O sweet life! Sweet indeed is the 
pleasure of concupiscence : it is true, nor would men follow 
it, if it were not sweet. The theatre, the show, the wanton 
harlot, the filthy song, these to concupiscence are sweet; 
Ps, 118, sweet decidedly, pleasant, delightful: but, TJie unrighteous 
^■^?^^' have told me delights, but not as Thy Law, O Lord. Sweet 
119. they are, pleasant are they, delightful are they: but hear thou 
better ; The unrighteous have told me delights, but not as Thy 
Law, O Lyord. Happy the soul which is charmed with delights 
of this sort, where it is defiled with no filthincss, and is purified 
by the clear light of truth. But let not him, whom the Law 
of God delighteth. and so delighteth, as to overcome all the 
Ps. 84, delights of wantonness, ascribe this delight to himself: The 
85 12' Lord shall give sweetness. What shall I say.? O Lord, give 
E. V. mg xhsii sweetness, or the other.? Thou art swret, O Lord, 
68. ' and in Tlty sweetness teaclt me Thy righteousnesses. In Thy 
sweetness teach me, and Thou dost teach me. Then I learn 
so as to do, if Thou teachest me in Thy .sweetness. But so 
long as iniquity hath charms, and iniquity is sweet, truth is 
bitter. In Thy street ness teach me; that truth may be sweet, 
that by Thy sweetness iniquity may be despised. Much 
better and sweeter is truth, but bread only to the whole is 
sweet. What is better and more excellent than the Bread 
> obstu- of Heaven.? But only if iniquity doth not set the teeth ^ on 
jfj.Q"y ' edge. For the Scripture saith. As a sour grape is hurtful to 
10,26. ij(ff teeth, and smoke to the eyes, so is iniquity to them who 
use it. What doth it profit that ye praise the Bread, if ye 
live evilly? What ye praise, ye eat not. When therefore 
thou hearest the word, when thou hcarest the word of righ- 
teousness and truth, and dost praise it; nmch more worthy 

Who presumes on self, is defeated ere he fights. 733 

ot" praise is it, if thou do it. Do then what thou praisest. Serm. 

• cm 

Wouldest thou say, " I have the will, but not the power ?" n53_B-| 

Wherefore hast thou not the power ? Because there is no 

health in thee. Whereby hast thou lost thy health, save 

that by sinning thou hast offended the Creator ? Therefore 

that thou mayest eat with sweetness, that is, with health, 

His Bread Which thou dost praise, say unto Him, / .sa/^/, Ps.4i,4. 

Lord, have mercy upon me, heal my soul, for I have sinned 

against Thee. Therefore, saith he. The commandment, ix. 

which ivas ordained to life, the same was found to be unto 

death to me. For he was before to himself an unknown 

sinner, he has become an open transgressor. Lo, wltat was 

ordained to life, was found unto death lo him. 

11. But sin, saith he, taking occasion by the co7nmand-^^^-1) 

ment, deceived me, and by it slew me. Thus it fell out first 

in Paradise: Taking occasion, saith he, by the commandment, 

deceived me. See the serpent whispering to the woman. 

He enquired of her, what God had said: she answered, God Gen. 3, 

hath said to tis. Of every tree, which is in the garden, ye shaW^^^ ^\q 

eat; but of the tree of knowledge of good and evil ye shall ^T' 

not eat. In the day that ye eat thereof ye shall surely die. 

This is God's commandment. The serpent on the other 

hand says. Ye shall not surely die. For God knew that in 

the day ye eat thereof, your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall 

be as gods. Sin then taking occasion by the commandment 

deceived me, and by it slew. With the sword that thou didst 

carry, the enemy hath slain thee : with thine own arms hath 

he conquered thee, with thine own arms destroyed thee. 

Receive the commandment; know that these are arms, not 

whereby the enemy may kill thee, but whereby he may be 

killed by thee. But rely not on thine own strength. See 

the little David against Goliath, see the little against the 

great ; but placing reliance on the Name of the Lord. Thou i_^Sam. 

comest to me, saith he, ivith a shield, and a spear, I in, the ' 

Name of the Almighty God. Thus, thus, in no other way ; 

in no other way whatever is the enemy laid prostrate. Whoso 

presumeth on his own strength, is prostrated himself, before 

he fights. 

12. Yet see, Beloved, see how again and again the Apostle x. 

Paul is a most express praiser of the divine Law against 

734 The Law occasioned not sin but the knowledge of it. 

Serm. the madness of the Manichees, see what he subjoins: Where- 
[l^i^.^fore the Law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, 
Rom. i^and jmt,and good. Could it be ])raised more fully? A little 
^^" before by that expression which he used, Gud forbid, he had 
defended it from an imputation, not praised it. It is one 
thing to defend from a charge imputed, another to extol with 
due encomium. The charge iinputed was, What shall 
we say then? Is the Law sin? The defence, God forbid. 
' By a word is the truth defended; for that great is the 
authority of the Apostle who defends. Why should he make 
2 Cor. any long defence ? God forbid, is sufficient. Would ye, 
^^' ^' he says, seek a proof of Christ Who speakcth in me ? But 
now: Wherefore the Law indeed is holy, and the command- 
ment holy, and Just, and good. 
Rom. 7, 13. Was then that which is good, made death unto me ? 
^^' God forbid. For death is not good. But sin that it might 
ajjpear sin, by that ichich. is good wrought death to me. 
The Law is not death, but sin is death. Now he had said 
some lime before. Without the Law sin icas dead. Where 
I gave you to understand, that by was dead, he meant, " lay 
hid," " did not appear." Now see with what truth this was 
said: Sin, saith he, that it might appear sin. He did not 
say, that it might be: because it teas, even when it did not 
appear. Sin that it might appear sin. What is, that it 
might appear sin ? For / had not known hist, except the 
Law had said, Thou shall not lust. He did not say, " I had 
not had lust," but, / had not known lust. So here also he 
does not say," That it might be sin;" but, that it might 
appear sin, by that which is good ivrought death to me. 
What death ? That it might by the commandment become 
above measure sinful or sin. Mark, above measure sinful. 
Why above measure ? Because now there is transgression 
Rom. 4, too. For where there is no law, there is no transgression. 
* J 14. See then, brethren, see how the race of mankind hath 

flowed from the first death of that first man. For sin from 
Rom. 5, the first man entered into this world, and death by sin, and 
so it passed through unto all men. It passed through, attend 
to the word which ye have heard: consider, see what is, eV 
passed through. It passed through: thence even the little 
infant is in guilt; it hath not yet done, but it hath derived 

Unlioliness of all human birth, holiness of our Lord's. 735 

sin. For that sin did not stay in the source, but passed Serm. 



through: passed through not to this and that man, but unto r^^^l^ 

all men. The first sinner, the first transgressor, begat sinners 
under the penalty of death. To make them whole, the Saviour 
from a Virgin came. In that He came to thee, not in 
the way thou camest; (for He came not of the concupis- 
cence of the male and female, not of that bond of concu- 
piscence. The Holy Ghost, it is said, shall come upon thee. Luke i, 
This was said to a Virgin, was said to one fervent in faith, ''* 
not inflamed by the concupiscence of the flesh : The Holy 
Ghost shall come upon thee, and the Power of the Highest 
shall overshadow thee. She who had such an Overshadowing, 
how could she be inflamed with the heat of passion ?) In 
then that He came to thee not in the way thou camest, He 
maketh thee free. Where found he thee \ Sold under sin, Rom. 7, 
lying in the death of the first man, deriving the sin of the ^'^' 
first man, having guiltiness before thou couldest have a 
choice. Lo, where He found thee, when He found thee 
as an infant. But thou hast got beyond the infant's age; 
lo, thou hast grown on, to the first sin hast added many; thou 
hast received the Law, hast become a transgressor. But be 
not troubled: Where sin abounded, grace hath much more Rom. 5, 
abounded. Turn we to the Lord, &c. ^^^ 


Oa the words of the Apostle, Rom. vii. " We know that the Law is 
spiritual, but I am carnal," &c. against the Pelagians, who atfirm, that 
a man can be in this life without sin. 

Delivered at the table of St. Cyprian, Martyr. 

1. Yesterday's lesson from the Apostle St. Paul's Epistle, 
ye who were present at the sermon, heard : to that lesson, 
the one which has been read to-day, is the sequel. That 
difficult and dangerous place is still in hand, which by the 
assistance of our Lord, so far as ye aid me by your religious 
affection with Him, and according to the strength which He 

736 The Lata discovered man to himself. 

Sekm. dcigus to give, 1 have undertaken to explain and unravel to 
r,gj g, you. Give me a patient attention, Beloved, that, if by reason 

ot the obscurity of tlie subject J have a difficult exposition, 

• vocem I may at least have an easy speaking '. For if both are 
difficult, my labour will be great; and I only wish my labour 
may not be in vain. But that my labour may be of use, 
let your hearing be patient. That the Apostle does not 
blame the Law, I satisfied (as I imagine) those who heard 
Rom. 7, me yesterday. For he said in that place, What shall ive say 
^- then 'f Is the Law sin ? God forbid. But I had not known 

sin, but by the Law. For I had not known hist, except 
V. 8. the Law had said. Thou shalt not lust. But sin, taking 
occasion by the commandment wrought in me all concu- 
piscence. For without the Law sin was dead, that is, was hid, 
V. 9. did not appear. But I icas alive without the Law once : but 
when the commandment came, sin revived. And I died, 
y 10. '^'^'^ f^^ commandment which was ordained to life, (for 
what has so close a relation to life, as thou shall not lust ?) 
V. 11. was found unto me to death. For sin taking occasion by 
the commandment deceived me, and by it slew me: it alarmed 
concupiscence, not extinguished it; it alarmed, did not get 
it under; it introduced fear of punishment, not love of 
V. 12. righteousness. Wherefore, says he, the Law indeed is holy, 
V. 13. and the commandment holy, and Just, and good. Was then 
that which is good, made death unto me ? Ood forbid. For 
the Law is not death, but sin is death. What then came by 
occasion of the commandment.^ But sin that it might appear 
sin: for it lay hid when it was called dead: by that which is 
good wrought death to me; that, with the addition of trans- 
gression, it might by the commandment become above measure 
sinful, or sin; because to sin there would not be transgression 
added, if there were no commandment. For the same Apostle 
Rom. 4, says expressly in another ])lace. For where no law is, there 
^^' is no transgression. What then .? How do we doubt that the 
Law was given to this end, that man might find out himself? 
For when God did not ])rohibit him from evil, man was 
unknown to himself; he did not find out his languid power, 
save when he received a law of prohibition. He found him- 
self out then, found himself out in evil case. Whither 
could he flee from himself? For whithersoever he would 

' Whatliad. I do not^'ifsaidofS.Paul^ofconcupiscence^notofsin.^'^' 
flee from himself, he foUoweth himself. And what profit is Serm. 


this knowledjje from the discovery of himself, to him whomrj^^^' 

self-knowledge only woundeth ? 

2. It is he then who hath found himself, who speaketh 

also in this lesson which has been read to-day. We know, Rom. 7, 
saith he, thai ihe Law is spiritual, but I am carnal, sold 
under sin. For that tvhich I do, I know not. For uhat 1 "• 

V. 15. 

would, that do I not ; but what I hate, that do I. There is 
a question in this passage for great diligence, who should be 
understood, whether the Apostle himself who spake ; or whether 
in a figure he transferred some one else to himself, that he 
might in himself touch him, as he said in a certain place, 
But all these tJtiugs I Jiave in a figure transferred to tnyself ^ ^^' ' 
and to Apollos for your sakes, that ye might learn in us. 
If then it is the Apostle wlio speaks, (which no one doubts,) 
and when he says, IVIiat I would, that do I not, but what I 
hate, that do I, he speaks not of any other, but of himself: 
what are we to understand, my brethren? Is it that the 
Apostle Paul, for example, would not commit adultery, and 
did commit adultery ? would not be covetous, and was 
covetous ? But who of us would dare to involve himself in 
such blasphemy, as to entertain this idea of the Apostle } 
Perhaps then it is some one else: perhaps it is thou; either 
it is thou, or it is he, or it is I. If then it be any of us, let 
us listen to him speaking as if of himself, and without aught 
of anger let us amend ourselves. But if it is he himself, for 
perhaps it is he himself; let us not understand his words, 
JVhat I would, that do I not ; but what I hate, that do I, 
in such sense, as if he would be chaste, and was an adulterer, 
or would be merciful, and was cruel; or would be pious, and 
-was ungodly. Let us not lake, What I would, that do I 
not ; but ivhat I hale, that do I, in such a sense. 

3. In what sense then ? I would not lust, and 1 do lust, m* 
What said the Law? Thou shall not lust. Man hath heard 

the Law, bath acknowledged his corruption ^: hath proclaimed ^'t'^i™ 
war, hath found captivity. But perhaps it is some other 
man, not the Apostle. What shall we say then, Brethren ? 
Had not the Apostle any concupiscence in his flesh, which 
he would not have : to which nevertheless though existing, 
provoking, suggesting, soliciting, inflaming, tempting, he 

738 S. Paul con/esses that he teas not yet perfected ; 

Serm. would not consent ? I tell you, Beloved, If we shall believe 
,j^J^\that tlic Apostle had no infirmity of concupiscence at all 

-— against which to struggle, we believe high things of him ; 

and I wish it may be so. For we ought not to envy the 
Apostles, but to imitate the Apostles. Nevertheless, Dearly 
Beloved, I hear the Apostle himself confessing, that he had not 
yet attained to so great perfection of righteousness, as we 
believe to be in the Angels ; an equality with which Angels 
we hope for, if we attain to that we wish for. For what else 
doth the Lord promise us in the Resurrection, when He 
Mat. 22, saith, Li the resurrection of the dead, they shall neither be 
^^\ giveh in inarriaqe, nor marry ; for they shall not die^ any 
35. 36. ' more, hut shall he equal to the Angels of God ? 
' .^°°^ 4. One will say then, " And whence knowest thou that the 
mori Apostle Paul had not yet the righteousness and perfection of 
an Angel?" I do the Apostle no injury, I only believe the 
Apostle himself, I seek no other witness ; I do not listen to 
surmises, I do not care for excessive praise. Tell me, holy 
Apostle, of thyself, where no one doubts that it is of thyself 
thou speakest. For when thou saidst. What 1 would, that 
Pelagi- do I not ; but what T hate, that do I: there are who say, 
DeGrat. t^^^t thou hast in a figure transferred to thyself some other 
Chr. lib. person, toiling, failing, vanquished, captive. Do thou tell 
(43.*) " me of thyself, where no one doubts that it is of thyself thou 
^°°Yk ^**t speaking. Brethren, says the Apostle, / count not myself to have apprehended. And what doest thou.? But one 
^^^o\t\lhinfi I do,for(jettin<j those things tvhich are behind, stretch- 
& lib. 6. ing forth myself unto those which are before, according to 
(70-4.) ^y aim^, he says, not according to perfection ; according to 
Phil. 3, my aim Ifolloio after the prize of the supernal calling of God 
^^'. in Christ Jesus. He had already said above. Not as though I 
2 secun- had already attained, or were already perfect. There is 
tendo^' gainsaying still, and it is said, " The Apostle said all this, 
nem. because he had not yet attained to immortality ; not because 
\^ he had not yet attained to the perfection of righteousness." He 
^ ^- was then already as righteous as the Angels, but not yet immor- 
tal as the Angels are. " So it is," say they, " it is altogether 
so." You have just said, " He was as righteous as the Angels 
are, but not immortal yet, as the Angels are." So then he 
possessed the perfection of righteousness already, but in 



had yet to fear undue elation. 739 

foUowinor after the supernal prize, he was seeking for im- Serm. 

, V, CIV. 

mortahty. [i54.B.] 

5. Shew us, holy Apostle, some other clearer passage, j^,_ 
where thou seekest not for immortality, but where thou con- 
fessest infirmity. Here again too there is a whispering 
already, gainsaying already. I fancy that I hear the 
thoughts of some, and it is said to me here, " It is true ; I know 
what you are about to say: he does confess infirmity, but of 

the flesh, not of the mind ; he does confess infirmity, but of 
the body, not of the soul ; now it is in the soul that perfect 
righteousness exists, not in the body. For who knows not 
of course that in the body the Apostle was frail, in the body 
was mortal, as he says; JVe have this treasure in earthen 2Cot. 4, 
vessels. What hast thou to do with the earthen vessel? Say 
something of the treasure. If it had any deficiency, if there 
were any thing that could be added to it for the gold of 
righteousness, let us find it." Let us hear him himself, lest 
we be thought to be doing him wrong. And lest, hy the '^ Cot. 
abundance of my revelations^ says the Apostle; lest by the ' 
abundance of my revelations J should be exalted above 
measure. Here surely ye recognise the Apostle, having 
an abundance of revelations, and fearing the downfall of 
elation. That you may know then, that the same Apostle, 
who wished to make others whole, was still in process of 
healing himself; that you may know that he was himself as 
yet in process of healing ; if you value his honour highly, 
hear what the Physician applied to him against swelling; 
hear not me, hear him himself. Hear him confessing, that 
you may feel him teaching. Hear; And lest by the abundance 
of my revelations I should be exalted above measure. Lo, I 
can now say to the Apostle Paul, Lest thou should be exalted 
above measure, holy Apostle ? Hast thou yet to beware, 
lest thou be exalted above measure? Hast thou yet cause 
to fear, lest thou be exalted above measure } Is medicine 
yet to be sought for thine infirmity, lest thou be exalted above 
measure ? 

6. What, saith he, art thou saying to me ? Do thou too v. 
hear what 1 am: and be not high-minded, but fear. Hearf^^^Q 
how the feeble • lamb should walk, when the ram is thus in'brevis 
peril. Lesi^ saith he, by the abundance of my revelations I 

740 Saints, while here, both carnal and spii'itiial. 

Serm. should be exalted above measure, there was qireu to me 
[I54.ri.j^ Ihorn in the Jlesh, an angel of Satan, to buffet mc. 

What a swelling had he to fear, who received so very smart- 

'epithe- ing an application ^ Now then say, that there was as great 

righteousness in him, as there is in the holy Angels. What, 

perhaps an holy Angel in heaven receives a thorn, an 

angel of Satan, wherewith to be buffeted, lest he be exalted 

above measure ? God forbid we should surmise this of the 

holy Angels. We are men, let us^ acknowledge the holy 

Apostles to be men; chosen vessels, but as yet frail, as yet 

in pilgrimage in this flesh, not yet triumphant in the heavenly 

2 Cor. country. Therefore since he besought the Lord thrice that 

12 8. . . 

' * this thorn might be taken away from hiui; and was not heard 

2exau- to his will, because he was better- heard to his health, perad- 
venture there is nothing unsuitable in his speaking of himself, 

Rom. 7, when he says. Now ye know that the Law is spiritual, but I 
am carnal. 

Gal. 6, 7. Is then the Apostle carnal, who said to others, Ye who 
are spiritual instruct such an one in the spirit of meekness : 
does he address others as spiritual, and is himself carnal? 
But what did he say to these same spiritual ones, for that 
they were not yet in heavenly and angelic perfection, were 
not yet in the security of that country, but were occupied in 
the solitude of this present pilgrimage : what did he say lo 
them? He certainly called thena spiritual: Ye, he says, 
ivho are spiritual, instruct such an one in the spirit of meek- 
ness, considering thyself, lest thou also be tempted. See, 
whom he before called spiritual, for him did he fear the 
frailty of temptation, by which the spiritual might be 
tempted, though not from the mind, certainly from the flesh. 
For he is spiritual, in that he liveth according to the Sj)irit; 
but as yet by reason of the mortal part, carnal: at once 
spiritual, and carnal. Behold the spiritual: With the mind 

B,om. 7 , f serve the Law of God. Behold the carnal: but with the 


flesh the law of sin. Is then the very same person at once 
spiritual, and carnal.^ The very same undoubtedly, as long- 
as he liveth here, so he is. 

8. Do not thou wonder, whosoever thou art, who yieldest 
and consentest to carnal lusts, who thinkest them either 
good for the satisfying of the lulness of passion, or at least 

To follow lust, wholly carnal ; not to lusty wholly spiritual. 741 

seest them bad only in such wise, as yet to consent by Serm. 
yielding to them, and to follow whither they lead, and to [154.3 j 
perpetrate the evils they suggest; thou art wholly carnal. 
Whosoever thou art, who art such as this, thou art wholly 
carnal. But if thou lust indeed, which the Law forbids, vi. 
when it saith, Thou shall not lust, but vet observest another P,^"*^'^' 

' . 21. Sept. 

thing which the Law also saith, Go not after thy lusts ; ^cc\a^^ 
thou art in the mind, spiritual, in the flesh, carnal. For it ^^' ^^• 
is one thing, not to lust : another, not to go after one's lusts. 
Not to lust, is the state of one altogether perfect ; not to go 
after his lusts, is the state of one fighting, is the state of one 
wrestling, is the state of one labouring. When the battle is 
raging, why despair of victory? When will victory be? 
When death shall be swalloued up in victory. For then 
will be the song of the triumphant, not the toil of the com- 
batant. What shall be that song of the triumphant, when 
this corruptible shall have put on incorruptiou, and this 1 Cor. 
mortal shall have put on immortality ? You see the con-^J 
queror, hear his exultation, await his triumph. Then shall 
be brought to pass the saying that is written, Death, is 
swaUoived up in victory. O death, where is thy contention ? 

death, where is thy sting? Where is it ? Lo, it was, and 
is not. O death, where is thy contention? Behold the con- 
tention of death ; What I would, that do I not. Behold the 
contention of death: We know that the Law is spiritual, 
but I am carnal. If then the Apostle speaks of himself; if, 

1 say, I do not decide it; if of himself the Apostle says, 
We know that the Law is spiritual, but I am carnal: for in 
the mind, spiritual, in the body, carnal: when wholly 
spiritual? When It is sown a natural body, it shall rise \ Cor. 
again a spiritual body. For at present, when the conten- ^^' ^'** 
tion of death is at its height, v:hat I tvould, that do I not; 

in part spiritual, in part carnal; in the better part spiritual, 
in the lower part, carnal. As yet I am in conflict, I have 
not yet overcome; a great thing it is for me not to be over- 
come. What I xcoidd, that do I not; but ivhat 1 hate, that 
do 1. What doest thou ? I lust. Though I consent not to 
my lust, though I go not after my lusts : nevertheless I still 
lust; and beyond doubt it is I myself even in this part of me. 
9. For it is not I in the mind, and another in the flesh. 

742 Who consents not to hist, consents to the Law. 

Seum. But wliat ? So then J myself ; because it is I in the mind, 

[154.B.] I ill the flesh. For there are not two contrary natures, but, 
vii. of both, one man ; because One God, by Whom man was 

Rom. 7, made. 80 then I myselj\ I myself, with the mind serve the 
Law of God; but with the jiesh the law of sin. With the 
mind 1 do not consent to the law of sin : but yet I would 
not there should be in my members any law of sin. In then 
that T would not, and yet there is ; what I icoidd, that do I 
not; in that 1 lust, and would not, what I would., that do I 
not; but what I hate ^ that do I. What do I hate ? To lust. 
I hate to lust, and yet I do so with the flesh, not with the 
mind ; what I hate^ that do I. 

V. 16. 10. Now if I do that which I would not; I consent unto 
the Lavj that it is good. Wliat is this, If I do that ichich I 
would not., I consent unto the Law, that it is good? Thou 
wouldest consent unto the Law, if thou didst what it would ; 
thou doest what the Law hateth, how dost thou consent 
unto the Law ? Certainly, If I do that which I would not; 
I consent unto the Law, that it is good. How ? Because 
the Law enjoins, Thou shall not lust. What would \: Not 
to lust. By wishing what the Law wishes, / consent unto 
the Laiv, that it is good. If the Law said, Thou shalt not 
lust, and I wished to lust; I should not consent unto the 
Law, and by that perverseness of will 1 should be in absolute 
divergence from it. For when the Law says, Thou shall 
not lust, and I wish to lust ; I do not consent unto the Law 
of God. What is the case at present? what sayest thou, O 
Law? Thoit shalt not hist. And I too would not lust, T 
too would not; what thou wouldest not, I would not; there- 
fore I consent, because what thou wouldest not, I would not. 
My infirmity doth not fulfil the Law: but my will praiseth 
the Law. So then if / do that ivhich I tcould not; I 
therefore consent unto the Law, in that I would not what it 
would not, not in that I do what I would not. For this 
doing is lusting, not consenting to lust; that no one may 
now in the Apostle seek for himself an example for sinning, 
and establish a bad example. What I woidd, that do I not. 
For what saith the Law ? Thou shalt not lust. And I would 
not lust, and yet I do lust; although I give no assent to my 
lust, although I go not after it. For I resist, I turn my mind 

Under grace, man " knows riof lust, in that he consents not to it. 7 A 3 

away, I refuse it arms, I hold in my members; and yet there Serm. 
takes place within me that which I would not. What the^jg^^^ 
Law would not, I with the Law would not ; what it would 
not, I wovdd not: therefore I consent unto the Law. 

11. But in that it is I in the flesh, it is I in the mind; 
yea, more I in the mind, than in the flesh. For in that it is 
1 in the mind, it is 1 in the governing part ; for the mind 
governs, the flesli is governed; and it is more I in that 
whereby I govern, than in that whereby I am governed. In 
then that it is more I in the mind; Noiv then it is no more viii. 
/ tliat do it. What is, Now then? Now then, now that^-^''^" 
1 have been redeemed, who was before sold under sin, now 
that I have received the Saviour's grace, that in the mind 
/ may delight in the Law of God, it is no more I that do it, 
but sin that dwelleth in me. For I know that in me. v. 18. 
Again then in me: hear what follows; that is, in my Jlesh, 
dwelleth no good thing. For to will is present with me. 
I know. What dost thou know .' That in me, that is, 
in my flesh, dwelleth no good thing. Thou hadst said some 
time since, That which I do, I know not. If thou knowest 
not, how dost thou know? Now thou sayest, / know not; 
now thou sayest, 1 know: I know not how to understand it. 
Is it this that I understand ? For where he says. That which 
I do, I know iiot : he meant by / know not, I approve not, 
I allow not, it does not please me, I do not consent, I do 
not praise it. For so Christ will not know those, to whom 
He will say, / knotv you not. By all means, I understand Matt. 7, 
this also, /or that which I do, I know not; in that, that which ^" 
1 do not, I do not know. For it is not I that do it, but sin 
that dwelleth in me. Therefore I know not: because it is 
not I that do it, as it is said of the Lord, Him Who knew2CoT.5, 
not sin. What is, knew not f' What then, did he not know ' 
what He reproved ? did He not know what He punished .'' 
If then He did not know what He punished. He punished 
unjustly. But in that He punished justly, He knew what 
He punished. And yet He knew not sin, in that He did no 
sin. For that ivhich I do, I know not: for what I would, 
that do I not; hut what I hate, that do I. If then Ido that 
which I would not, I consent unto the Law that it is good. 
Now then, now that I have received grace, z7 is not L thai do 

3 c 

744 Saints ' accomplish'' not, in that they would not have y'Jiesh rebel. 

Serm. it ; the mind is free, the llesh captive. It is not T that do 
[154.B.] ''» ^^'f ^^" ^^'f't duelleth in me. For I knoiv that in me, 

that is, in vnj flcsli, divel/cih no good thing. 

Kom. 7, 12. For to will is present with me, hut to accomplish 
that wliich is good, is not ])resent. To ivill is present, to 
aecomplislt is not present. He did not say to do, bnt to 
ix. accomplish. For thou art not without doing. Concupiscence 
rebels, and thou conscntest not; anotlier man's wife charms 
thee; and thou assentest not; thou turnest thy mind away, 
enterest into the secret of the mind. Thou seest con- 
cupiscence in uproar without, thou pronouncest sentence 
against it, keeping thy conscience pure. " I will not," thou 
sayest, " I will not do it." Suppose that it has delights, 

V. 22. T will not do it, I have wherein to find delight. For 1 delight 
in the Law of God after the inner man. Why raisest thou 
this uproar from thy flesh .'' Why tumultuously suggest 
foolish, passing, unstable, vain, hurtful delights, and in 

Ps. 118, garrulousness as it were tell them to me.? The unrighteous 

^yP*'/mi;e told me delights. Thence arises too this concupiscence. 

119- It tells me delights, but not as Thy Law, O Lord. For 
I delight in the Latv of God; not of myself, but of the 
grace of God. Thou concupiscence makest a tumult in the 

Ps.56,4. flesh, thou dost not subdue the mind unto thyself. / will 
hope in God, I will not fear what fiesh can do unto me. 
With myself, myself, that is, the mind not consenting, the 
flesh makes this tumult. In God, says he, loill I hope, 
I icill not fear tvhat flesh can do unto me. As not the 
flesh of others, so neither mine own. Does he then in 
whom these things are passing, do nothing? He does much : 
what he does is great, but yet he does not accomplish. For 
what is to accomplish ? O deaths ivhere is thy contention ? 
So then, to will is present ivilh me, hut to accomplish that 
which is good, not. 

Rom. 7, 13. For the good that I would, I do not; hut the evil that 

^^- / would not, that I do. And he repeats, Notv if I do that 
I would not, that is, if 1 lust; it is no more I that do it, but 

V. 21. sin that dwelleth in me. I find then a law when I ivould 
do good. I find the Law a good thing; the Law is a good 
thing, the Law is something good. Whereby do I prove it.? 
Because I wish to fulfil it. I find then a law, that when 

The soul, through its oicn delights, resists delights of the Jlcsh. 7J5 

/ would do good, evil is present with me. And this with me. Serm. 
For the flesh is none but mine own, it is neither flesh ofrjg^j^-i 
another substance, or flesh of another principle, or the soul 
from God, and the flesh of the nation of darkness'. God 
forbid. Sickness resisteth soundness. It lieth half dead by 
the way, it is yet under treatment, all its sicknesses are being Luke 
cured. What I would, that do I not ; but what I hate, thatpj ^q'^ 
do I. Now if do that I woidd not; then find I a law, that^- 
when I would do good, evil is present with me. What evil ? 

14. For I delight in the Law of God after the inner man. x. 

I see another law in my members, resisting the law of my ^^^]-^ ^ 
mind, and leading me captive in the law of sin, which 
is in my members; captive, but by the flesh ; captive, but 
by a part. For the mind resists and delights in the Law of 
God. For thus must we understand it, if of himself the 
Apostle speaks. Now then if the mind does not consent to 
sin, provoking, suggesting, flattering, if the mind does not 
consent, since it has other delights of its own within, de- 
lights which in no way are to be brought into comparison 
with the delights of the flesh ; if then it does not consent, 
and there is in me something dead, and something living, 
death still contendeth, but the living mind consenteth not. 
Is not this death in thee ? Doth not that which is dead, 
belong to thee .? Still hast thou contention. What is to be 
hoped for too from this state ^ 

15. Wretched man that I am: though not in the mind, v. 24. 
yet in the flesh a wretched man. For one is not man in the 
mind, and in the flesh not man. For who ever hated his EY>hef>. 
own flesh? Wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me ' 

from the body of this death? What is this, brethren .^ He 
seems to wish to be rid of the body. Why art thou in a 
hurry? If thy aim be only this, to be rid of the body; 
death will sometime or other come, and the last day, when it 
comes, will doubtless deliver thee from this body of death. 
What mean thy heavy sighs ? What mean thy words, Who 
shall deliver me? Thou who speakest art a mortal, thou 
who speakest must some day die. The separation of the 
mind from the flesh must come some day or other: by reason 
of the shortness of life it is never far off", by reason of daily 

» See Aug. Conf. Trans. Oxf. Edit. Note A at the end. 
3 c 2 

74() The evil loosed from the body of death, to have it again for ever ; 

Serm. chances, when it may be thou knowest not. So then, 
154^B.] ^vhcthcr thou art in haste or slow, all human life is short : 
wherefore thy heavy sif^hs, and thy words, Who shall deliver 
me from the body of this death? 
xi. 16. Then he subjoins : The grace of God through Jesus 

Rom. 7, Christ our Lord. For the Heathen who have not the grace 
Vuig. of God through Jesus Christ our Lord, shall they not die.? 
Shall they not sometime or other at the last day be loosed 
from the flesh ? shall they not in that day be delivered from 
the body of this death? What is it that thou wouldest 
ascribe, as something great, to the grace of God through 
Jesus Christ our Lord, in that thou shalt be delivered from 
the body of this death? The Apostle, if we have caught his 
meaning, yea rather because, by the Lord's help, we have 
doubtless caught it, answereth thee and saith, " I know what 
I am saying. You say that the Heathen are delivered from 
the body of this death, in that the last day of this life will 
come, and they shall be loosed for a time from the body of 
John 6, this death. Yea the day irill come, when all that aie in the 
' ' graves shall hear His Voice, and shall come forth ; they 
that have done good, unto the resurrection of life : behold, 
deliveredy>'ow the body of this death. They that have done 
evil, unto the resurrection of damnation : behold, they are 
returned to the body of this death. The body of this death 
returns to the ungodly, nor shall he be ever loosed from it. 
Then there shall not be eternal life, but eternal death, be- 
cause eternal punishment, 
xii 17- But do thou, O Christian, pray as much as thou canst, 

cry out and say, iVretched man that I am, uho shall deliver 
me from the body of this death ? Thou hast an answer : 
thou hast security given thee not of thyself, but of thy Lord : 
thou hast security given thee of thy pledge, Hope thou 
with Christ for Christ's khigdom ; thou boldest already the 
Blood of Christ as a pledge. Say, say. Who shall deliver 
me from the body of this death ? That it may be answered 
thee, The grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord. 
For thou wilt not in such wise be delivered from the body of 
this death, as not to have this body. Thou wilt have it, 
but not any more, of this death. It will be the same, but 
not the same. It will be the same, in that it will be the 

the good, to receive it free from death. 747 

self-same flesh : it will not be the same, in that it will not ^^^y- 
be mortal, tn such wise, in such wise wilt thou be delivered [154.B.] 
from the body of this death, as that this mortal shall pnt 
on immortality, and this corruptible shall put on incor- 
ruption. By whom ? Through whom ? By the grace of 
God through Jesus Christ our Lord. Since by one man came \^°^[ 
death, by One Man came also the resurrection of the dead. 22. 
As in Adam all die: hence thy groans. In Adam all die: 
hence thy groans, hence thy conflicts with death, hence 
the body of this death. But as in Adam all die, even so in 
Christ shall all be made alive. When thou art made alive, 
and hast received an immortal body, wherein thou sayest, 
death, where is thy contention ? thou shalt be delivered 
from the body of this death : yet not by thine own power, 
but by the grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord. 
Let us turn to the Lord, &c. 


On the words of the Apostle, Rom viii. " There is therefore now no 
condemnation to them, which are in Christ Jesus, &c." Against the 

Delivered in the Basilica of the Holy Martyrs of Scillita *. 

\. The Holy Apostle's lesson of yesterday terminated at i. 
the point, where it is said, So then ivith the mind I myself Rom. 7, 
serve the Law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin. By' 
which conclusion the Apostle made it plain, that he liad 
used the words he had said above, Now then it is no more /^- 17- 
that do it, but sin thaJ dwelleth in me; with this view, in 
that he did not with the mind do by consenting, but with the 
flesh by lusting. For this he calls by the name of sin, from 
whence all sins arise, that is, from carnal concupiscence. 
For whatsoever sins there be in words, in deeds, in thoughts, 

* These were twelve martyrs, of Actsof these Martyrs are extant. Vid. 
whom three were women, put to death Ruinart. Act. Pr. Martyr. These mar- 
in the seventh year of the Emperor tyrs were probably natives of ScilUfa, 
Severus under Saturninus Proconsul of a town apparently of the Proconsular 
Africa, the first who, as Tertulliaa (ad province of Carlhage. ViJ. Baron. 
Scap.c.3.)says, inflicted capital punish- Annal. Eccles. ad ann. 202. They are 
ment on the Christians at Carthage Q«« honoured in the Church on the 1 7th 
primus hie gladium in nos egit. The July. Vid. Martyr. Rom. Baron. 

748 In the Saints, sin loses its reiijn here, perislics hereafter. 

Skrm. arise not but from evil desire, aviso not but from unlawful 
C V 
[I6.5.B.J delight. If then we resist this unlawful delight, if we consent 

Kom. (), not to it, if we yield not our members as instruments; si7i 
doth not reign in our mortal body. For sin first loseth its 
reign, and so perisheth. In this life then, as far as the 
8aints are concerned, it loseth its reign, in the other it 
perisheth. For here it loseth its reign, when we go not after 

1 Cor. our lusts ; but there it perisheth, when it shall be said, O 
''' "■ death, where is thy contention ? 

2, Therefore when the Apostle had said, With the mind 
I serve the Law of God, but with the flesh the law of sin ; 
by not yielding his members to the commission of iniquity, 
but only by lusting, and yet not surrendering to unlawful lust; 
therefore when he had said, With the mind I serve the Law 
of God, but u-ith the flesh the law of sin; he went on and 

Rom, 8, said, There is therefore now no condemnation to them which 

^' .. are in Christ Jesus. To them which are in the flesh there is 
condemnation ; to iheni ichiclt are in Christ Jesus there is no 
conclem)iation. That you might not suppose that this was 
to be hereafter, he therefore added, now. Hereafter wait for 
this, that there be not even lust in thee, against which to 
contend, wherewith to have conflict, whereunto not to con- 
sent, which to bridle, and to tame; wait for this hereafter, 
for it shall not even exist. For if that which from the mor- 
tal body contendeth with us shall be hereafter also, O death, 
where is thy contention ? will be false. What then is to be 

1 Cor. hereafter, we may l<now. For then shall be brought to pass 

^^^ ^^' the saying that is written, Death is swalloued up in 
victory. O death, where is thy contention ? O death, where 
is thy sting? For the sting of death is sin, but the strength 
of sin is the Imw. Because by the prohibition desire is 
increased, not extinguished. The Law gave strength to sin, 
by enjoining only through the letter, not by succouring 
through the Spirit. So then then this shall not be; but what 
nowf Do you ask, what there is noiv ? What he said a little 

Rom. 7, before also: Noiv then it is no more I that do it: there too 
it is now. What is. It is not I that do it? I do not consent, 
I do not agree, I do not resolve, it is always displeasing to 
me : I restrain my members. And this is a great thing : 
since there is from the flesh concupiscence, and to the flesh 

Man set free by the Into of the Spirit in his heart. 749 

belong the members of the body, when sin, that is, the lust Serm. 
of the flesh, doth not reign, the mind hath more power to [165.B.] 
restrain the members of the flesh, that they be not yielded as 
instruments of iniquity, than the lust of the flesh itself hath 
to set in motion the members of the flesh. So then concu- 
piscence is of the flesh, and the members of the flesh ; yet 
the mind, forasmuch as it hath the supreme power ; if, that 
is to say, it be assisted from above, (lest whilst we ascribe 
much to it against the grace of God, we make it not a king, 
but a tyrant:) such power I say hath the mind, in such wise 
ruleth, when it is ruled, that with the members of the flesh 
itself, against the lust of the flesh itself, it is able to do what 
the Apostle says, Let not sin therefore reign in your mortal'Rom.6, 
body, to obey the desires thereof: neither yield ye your mem- 
bers as instruments of iniquity unto sin. 

3. There is therefore now no condemnation to them which m- 
are in Christ Jesus. Let them not be disquieted, if they 
are provoked by unlawful lusts: let them not be disquieted, 
for that there seemeth still to be a law in the members 
resisting the law of the mind. For there is no condemnation. 
But to whom? To whom even noiv? To them tchich are in 
Christ Jesus. Where then is that sentence, of which he 
spake just before, / see another law in my members resisting Rom. 7, 
the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity in the ' 
law of sin which is in my members'? Me, that is, he meant, 
by the flesh, not by the mind. Where then is that law, if 
there be no condemnation to them ivhich are in Christ Rom. 8, 
Jesus'^ For the Law of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus. ' 
For the Law, not that on Mount Sinai in the letter : For 
the Law, not that in the oldness of the letter: but, The Laiv 
of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus hath made thee free 
from the law of sin and death. For that thou shouldest 
delight in the Law of God after the inward man, whence 
shouldest thou have, had not the Law of the Spirit of Life 
in Christ Jesus made thee free from the law of sin and 
death ? Therefore, thou soul of man, that thou ascribe it not 
to thyself, that thou be not exceeding proud, nay, that thou 
be not proud at all, O soul of man, because thou dost not 
consent to the desires of the flesh, because the law of sin 
doth not depose thee from thy throne': The Law of ihe^nvce 

750 The Finger of God, by which the Law written, the Holy Ghost 

Serm. Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus hath made thee free from the 

pv ' ' • 

fioo.B.l'"^ of sin and death. That Law hath not made thee free, 

Rom. 7, whereof it was said above, That we should serve in new- 

®" ness of the Spirit, and not in the oldness of the letter. Why 

did not it make thee free ? Was not it also written by the 

Finger of God ? Is not by the Finger of God, the Holy 

Spirit understood? Read the Gospel, and see how when one 

Mat.i2, Evangelist says, when the Lord was speaking. If I by the 

Lukeil ^P^''^f of ^od cast out devils: another says, //' / by the 

20. Finger of God cast out devils. If then that Law was also 

w ritten by the Finger of God, that is, by the Spirit of God : 

by which Spirit Pharaoh's magicians being conquered said, 

Exod.8, This is the Finger of God: if I say this Law also, yea rnther, 

forasmuch as it also was written by the Spirit of God, that is, 

by the Finger of God, why is it not said of it. For the Laio 

of the Spirit of Life in Christ Jesus ? 

4. For this Law is not called the Ian- of death, thai Law, 

which was given on Mount Sinai is not called the law of sin 

iv. and death. That is called the law of sin and death, of which 

he saith with groaning, / see another law in my members 

resisting the laic of my mind. But that Law is this which 

is thus described, Wherefore the Law indeed is holy, and 

the commandment holy, and just, and good. And he went 

on. Was then that which is good made death unto me ? 

God forbid. But sin, that it might appear sin, by that 

which is good ivrought death to me, that it might be by the 

commandment above measure sinful or sin. What is, above 

measure? That transgression might be added. Therefore 

was that Law given, that infirmity might be discovered. 

This is too little to say, not that it might be discovered only, 

but even increased, and that thus at least the Physician 

might be sought. For if the disease were slight, it would be 

disregarded; if the disease were disregarded, the Physician 

would not be sought; if the Physician were not sought, the 

Rom. 6, disease would not be brought to an end. Therefore, where 

20. ° . 

sin abounded, grace hath much more ((bounded; grace which 

hath efniccd all the sins which it found, and hath ministered 

Se t"^'^'^" our struggling, will aid that it sin not; that this very will 

^44, 8. of ours might be praised, not in itself, but in God. For, In 

*'• ^'^ God lie shall be praised all the day. And, In the Lord shall 

availed not, writing^ in fear not love, on stone, not the heart. 751 

mij soul he praised, let the meek hear, and be glad. Let the Serm. 
meek hear: for the proud and the contentious hear "ot. q^Ja^ 
Why then is not this Law written by the Finger of God, the ps.33 3. 
same which giveth this succour of grace, whereof we sj^eak ? ?f P'* 
Why? Because it was written in tables of stone, not inE.'vi) 
fleshy tables of the heart. \ ^°'"- ^' 

5. Finally, my brethren, see in a great mystery the agree- v. 
ment, see the difference; the agreement of the Law, the 
difference of the people. Among the ancient people the 
Pasch is celebrated, as you know, by the slaying of a lamb 
with uideavened bread; where the slaying of the lamb denotes 
Christ, and the unleavened bread the new life, that is, without 
the oldness of the leaven. Whence the Apostle says to us, 
Purge out the old leaven, that ye may be a new lump, as ye 1 Cor. 5, 
are unleavened: for Christ our Pasch is sacrificed. The 
Pasch then was celebrated among that ancient people, was 
celebrated not as yet in the full effulgence of the light, but 

in the shadow of the figure; and after fifty days from the 
celebration of the Pasch, as any one will find on reckoning 
who chooses, the Law is given on Mount Sinai, written by 
the Finger of God. The True Pasch cometh, Christ is 
sacrificed; He passeth over from death unto life. For the 
Pasch in Hebrew is by interpretation Passing over: which the 
Evangelist hath expressed, when he says, Now ivhen the 3oh,iii3, 
hour was come, that Jesus should pass^ over from this world]' 
unto the Father. The Pasch then is celebrated, the Lord 
riseth again, He passeth over from death unto life, (this the 
Pasch is ;) and fifty days are reckoned, and the Holy Ghost, 
the Finger of God, cometh. 

6. But observe how in the one case, and in the other how. vi. 
There the people stood afar off, there was fear, there was no 
love: for so exceedingly feared they, that they said to 
Moses, Speak thou to us, and let not the Lord speak to us, Exod. 
lest we die. God descended, then, as it is written, in fire on^*^' ^^' 
Sinai: but terrifying the people standing afar off, and writing 
with His Finger on the stone, not in the heart. But when 

the Holy Ghost came hither, the faithful were all gathered 
together in one ; nor did He on a mountain caiise terror, but 
He entered into the house. Suddenly indeed tJiere came Acts 2, 
from heaven a sound as of a rushing mighty wind: there ^' ^^' 

752 To cure the loeahnesa ojthejiesli^ God sent His Son in True Flesh ; 

Serm. was a sound, but no one was dismayed. Thou hast heard 
CV ' . 

[i55.B.]the sound, see the fire tooj because in the mountain also 

there was both, both fire, and sound; but there there was 
smoke also, but here a clear flame. For there appeared 
tinto them, saith the Scripture, cloven tongues like as ofjire. 
What ! spreading terror fi-om a distance ? Far from it. For 
it sat upon each of them, and they began to speak with 
tongues, as the Spirit gave litem ntterance. Hear thou the 
tongue speaking, and understand by it the Spirit writing not 
on stone, but in the heart. The Law therefore of the Spirit 
of Life, written in the heart, not on stone; in Christ Jesus, 
in Whom the most True Pasch hath been celebrated ; hath 
made thee free from the law of sin and death. For that 
you may know that this is the most plain distinction between 
the Old and New Testament; whence the Apostle also says, 
2 Cor. 3, iVb< in tables of stone, but in fleshy tables of the heart: the 
Jer. 31 Loi't^ in the Prophet saith. Behold the dags come, saith the 
31" Lord, that I uill make a new covenant uilh the house of 
V. 32. Jacob, not according to the covenant that L made with their 
fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand, and brought 
them out of the land of Egypt. Then shewing this difference 
V. 33. evidently He saith ; / will put my laws in their hearts ; in 
their hearts, saith He, will I write them. If then the Law 
of God be written in thy heart, if it alarm not without, but 
soften within ; then the Law of the Spirit of Life in Christ 
Jesus hath made thee free from the law of sin and death. 
Rom. 8, 7. For ivhat the Law could not do. For this comes next 
' •■ in the lesson of the Apostle, What the Law could not do. 
And that the Law might not be blamed, what did he subjoin? 
Ln that it was weak through the flesh. For the Law 
enjoined, and did not fulfil ; because the flesh, where grace 
was not, resisted most invincibly. And the Laiv was weak 
through the flesh: for the Law is spiritual, but L am carnal. 
How then should the Law assist me, enjoining by the letter 
and not giving grace? Lt nas iceak through the flesh. What 
did God do, when there was this powerlessness of the Law, 
and it was weak through the flesh? God sent His Own Son. 
Whereby was the Law weak, and wherefore was this power- 
lessness of the Law ? It was iceak through thejiesh. What 
then did God do ? Against flesh He sent Flesh ; yea rather, 

yet in likeness only ofjiesh of sin, soHepaid lohatHe owednot. 753 

for flesh He sent Flesh. For It killed the sin of the flesh, Serm. 

It set free the substance of flesh. God sent His Oivn »S'o« r 155/3,-] 

in the likeness ofjiesh of sin. In true Flesh indeed, but not 
in flesh of sin. But what is, in the likeness of flesh of sin ? 
That is, that it might be Flesh, True Flesh. And wherein 
was the likeness of flesh of sin? In that from sin came 
death, death is assuredly in all flesh of sin; of which the 
Apostle says, That the body of sin might he destroyed. In Rom. 6, 
then that there is death in all flesh [of sin":] but there there ^" 
is both, both death and sin in all other flesh. In the flesh of 
sin there is both death, and sin; in the likeness of flesh of 
sin there was death, and there was no sin. For if it had been 
flesh of sin, and had for sin's desert paid the penalty of deatli, 
the Lord Himself would not have said. La, the prince of this Jolmi4, 
icorld Cometh, and shall find riolh in y in Me. Why then doth 
he kill Me ? Because I paid that which I took not away. Ps.69, 4. 
Decidedly what He did touching the tribute, this did He 
touching death. The tribute was exacted, the didrachma: Mat.17, 
" Why, it is said, do not Thou and Thy disciples pay tribute ?" 
He called Peter to Him, and said to him, Of whom do the 
kings of the earth exact tribute ? of their men children, or 
of strangers? It is answered. Of strangers. Then, saith 
He, are the children free. Notwithstanding lest we should 
offend them^ go thou to the sea, cast an hook, and that 
which first cometh up, that is, the First Begotten from the 
dead; open, saith He, his mouth, and thou s halt find there 
a stater, that is, two didrachmae, four drachmae: for a di- 
drachma, that is, two drachmae, was exacted a head. Thou 
wilt find there a stater, that is, four drachmae, give unto them 
for Me and thee. What is, for Me and thee ? Christ 
Himself, Peter, the Church of Christ, the four Gospels of 
the Church. A mystery lay concealed ; yet Christ paid the 
tribute that was not due. So also paid He death : He owed 
it not, and He paid it. If He had not paid what was 
not due. He would never have made us free from what was 

8. What then the Laiv which made the transgressor, viii. 
could not do ; in that the mind as yet unconvinced liad not 
sought the Saviour, in that it ivas weak through the flesh, 

* The word " {leccati," appears to have crept in from its frequent occurrence 
ill the context. [Ed.] 


Serm. Qod sent His Own Son in the likeness ofjlesh of sin, and 
ri55.B.]^y */« condemned sin in the flesh? How then had He not 
sin, if ht/sin He condemned sin in Ihejlesh -^ I have already 
> Serm. explained this to you on another ^ occasion : but let those 
84.(134. ^,|jQ remember, call it to mind; those who have not heard, 


(5) hear it; those who have forgotten, recal it. In the Law the 

jQg"*" sacrifice for sin was called sin. The Law has constantly 

(152. instances of this: not once, not twice, but very repeatedly 

io!& 11. sacrifices for sins were called m«*. Such a sin was Christ. 

For what would we say ? Had He sin ? God forbid. He 

had no sin, yet was He sin. He was sin, I said, according 

to that interpretation, in that He was a sacrifice for sin. 

Hear how that in this way He was sin, hear the Apostle 

himself. Speaking of Him he says. Him Who knew no sin. 

This sentence I explained to you, when I was speaking of 

these same words : Hint, says he. Who knew no sin, that is, 

2 Cor. 5, our Lord Jesus Christ, Hi?n Who knew no sin God the 

^^" Father made sin for us: that very Christ Who knew no 

sin, God the Father made sin for us, that we might he the 

righteousness of God in Him. Observe here two things, the 

righteousness of God, not our own; in Him. not in ourselves. 

Ps.35,7. Thereof are those great saints, of whom the Psalm says, Thy 

(36 *6 righteousness is as the mountains of God. And as if itwere said 

E. V.) in this Psalm, where it is said, Thy righteousness; for not llieir 

righteousness, but Thyrigh teousncss is as themoun ta ins of God: 

Ps. 121, Fori have lifted ujj mine eyes unto the mountains, fromiohence 

I, &2. j^qI^ shall come to me; but not from the mountains; for my 

help is from the Lord, Who hath made Heaven and earth. 
Therefore when he had said, Thy righteousness is as the moun- 
tains of God; as if it were asked, " Why then are other men 
born, who have no part in God's righteousness?" he subjoined. 
Thy judgments are as a great abyss. What is, as a great 

» inteu- abyss? Deep, impenetrable, inaccessible to man's research '. 

Rom. For the riches of God are unsearchable : unsearchable are His 

II, 33. Judgments, His ivays past finding out. So then here also, 

God sent His Own Son, because of the foreknown and pre- 
destined ones, who were to be called, to be justified, to be 
Eora. 8, glorified : that the mountains of God might say, If God be 
V. 3. for us, who can be against us ? God sent His own Son in 
the likeness ofjlesh of sin, and by sin condemned sin in the 
^■' 4- flesh, that the righteousness of the Law might befuljilled in 

Desires, unobeyed, hinder not fidjilment of righteousness. 755 

us. It was not fulfilled by itself, it was fulfilled by Christ. Seum. 
For He came not to destroy the Latv, but to fulfil. riso.B.l 

9. But how should the righteousness of the Law he ful- Matt. 5, 
filled in us, or how is it fulfilled in us, or in whom of us? ^': 
Would you hear in whom of us.? Who loalk not after the 

flesh, but after the Spirit. What is, to walk after the flesh? 
To consent to the lusts of the flesh. What is, to walk after 
the Spirit? To be by the Spirit assisted in the mind, and 
not to obey the lusts of the flesh. Thus then is the Law 
fulfilled in us, the righteousness .of God is fulfilled in us. 
Now in this world' is fulfilled. Go not after thy lusts, lintenm 
When you hear after thy lusts, understand it of unlawful jg^'^gQ®* 
lusts. Go not after thy lusts, ought to be fulfilled by our 
own will assisted by the grace of God ; Go not after thy 
lusts, ought to be fulfilled. For whatsoever of past sin the 
lust of the flesh hath brought about in us, whether in deeds, 
or words, or thoughts ; all was effaced by Holy Baptism, 
one act of pardon effaced all debts. There remains then a 
conflict with the flesh: because iniquity was effaced, but 
infirmity remains. The delight of unlawful concupiscence 
exists, solicits; fight, resist, consent not; and so is fulfilled 
even here. Go not after thy lusts; because if by chance they 
ever steal in, and usurp to themselves the eye, the ear, the 
tongue, the passing thought, let us not even so despair of 
our salvation. For this reason it is that we daily say, For- 
give us our debts. Thai the righteousness of the Law, heMatt 6, 
says, might be fulfilled in tts. 

10. But in whom of us? Who walk not after the flesh, x. 
but after the Spirit. For they that are after the flesh, c?oRoi"-8, 
mind the things of the flesh : but they that are after thef,5. 
Spirit, the things of the Spirit. For the wisdom^ of the^'p 

flesh is death : but the uisdom of the Spirit is life and peace, dentia 
For the wisdom of the flesh is an enemy to God. For it «« Vuiff. 
not subject to the Law of God; neither indeed can be."^-"^- 
What is, neither indeed can be ? It is not the man that 
cannot, it is not the soul that cannot, it is not finally the 
flesh itself, in that it is God's creature, that cannot ; but the 
wisdom of the flesh cannot, corruption^ cannot, not nature. 3 vitium 
Just as if you were to say, lameness is not subject to right 
walking : neither indeed can be. The foot can, but lameness 

75() The wisdom of y" Jlesh cannot he subject to God, y\/lesh may. 

SEKM. cannot. Take away lameness, and you will see right walk- 
[l55.B.]ing- But as long as the lameness exists, it cannot: so as 
long as the icisdom (if iJieJiesh exists, it cannot. Let there 
be no wisdom of the Jlesli, and the man can. The wisdom 
of the Spirit is life and peace. His words then, The wisdom 
cf the Jiesh is an enemy io God, do not understand in such 
sense, as tliough in its enmity it were able to hurt God. By 
resisting Him it is an enemy, not by killing. But it injures 
him, in whom tlie wisdom of the flesh is: in that the corruj)- 
tion of nature injures the nature in which it is. But the 
medicine w^as therefore discovered, that the corruption may 
be expelled, and the nature made whole. The Saviour 
therefore came to the race of man. He found none whole, 
therefore the Great Physician came. 

11. This have I said for this reason, because the Mani- 
chees in their wish to bring in another nature of evil against 
God, think that their error is in a measure helped on by this 
testimony of the Apostle, and they suppose that it is spoken 
•natura-as it were of the nature' itself, in that it is said, // cannot, it 
is an enemy to God : For it is not subject to the Law of 
God, neither indeed can be: and they have not considered 
that it is not said of the flesh that It cruniot ; that it is not 
said of the man, he cannot ; that it is not said of the soul, Ft 
cannot; but of t/ie wisdom of the flesh. This wisdom is a 
xi. corruption. Would you know what it is, to mind the things 
of the flesh f It is death. But that same one man, and the 
same nature created by the Lord God True, and Good, was 
yesterday minding the things of the flesh, to-day is minding 
the things of the Spirit: the corruption has been expelled, 
the nature has been made whole. For as long as this wis- 
dom of the flesh existed, it could not by any means be sidjfect 
to the Law of God. For as long as there is through corrup- 
tion lameness, there cannot in any way be right walking. 
But when the corruption is cured, the nature is rei^aired. 
Ephes. Ye were sometimes darkness, but now light in the Lord. 
T?' ' u 1*2. Observe then what follows : But then uho are in the 
8- flesh cannot please God, that is, they who trust in the llosh, 
who follow their own lusts, who dwell in them, who take 
delight in the pleasures of them, who make a blessed and 
hajipy life to lie in the delight they yield, these are in the 

JVhodo not works ofjie&li, nut ' hi' it, icho have t/icSjnrif,arc in It. 757 

flesh; they cannot please God. For the expression, TJiey Serm. 
who are in the flesh cannot please God: is not as if it were[i55g i 
said, " When men are in this life, they cannot please God." 
What then, did not the Holy Patriarchs please Him ? Did 
not the Holy Prophets please Him ? Did not the Holy 
Apostles please Him ? Did not the Holy Martyrs please 
Him, who before they laid aside the body by martyrdom, by 
confessing Christ, not only despised pleasure, but also in 
greatest patience endured pains ? They pleased Him, but 
they were in the flesh. They bare flesh, were not borne by 
flesh. For so to the paralytic was it said. Take up thy Jt-tZ. Mark2, 
They then who are in the Jiesh, in the sense I have spoken 
of, in the sense I have now explained, not by living in this 
world, but by consenting to the lusts of the flesh, cannot 
please God. 

13. Finally, hear the Apostle himself, resolving the ques- xii. 
tion without any doubt. He was speaking unquestionably 
to those who were living in this body, and yet he added, But '^om. s, 
ye are not in the flesh. Think ye there is any one here 
amongst us, to whom this was said ? Lo, he spake to the 
people of God, to the Church he spake ; he was writing 
indeed to the Romans; but he spake to the Universal Church 
of Christ; but to the wheat he spake, not to the chaff"; to 
the mass which lies hid he spake, not to the stubble that 
appears. Let each one see to it in his own heart. We 
speak to the ears, we do not see the conscience; nevertheless, 
according to the sense I have explained above, I think in 
Christ's Name that there are among Christ's people to whom 
it is said, But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit ; if 
so he that the Spirit of God dwell in you. Ye are not in 
the flesh,, in that ye do not the works of the flesh by con- 
senting to the lusts of the flesh ; but ye are in the Spirit, in 
that after the imvard man ye delight in the Law of God; 
and this is, If so be that the Spirit of God dtcell in you. 
For if ye rely on your own spirit, ye are yet in the flesh. If 
then ye are not in the flesh, that ye may be in the Spirit of 
God; for then are ye not in the flesh. For if the Spirit of 
God withdraw, the spirit of man falls back by its own weight 
into the flesh, returns to the works of the flesh, returns to 
the lusts of the world ; and the last state of that man shall l^uke 

11, 2G. 

758 Tke Spirit is in us, by love of riyliteousness and faith. 

Serm. be worse than the first. In such wise then have ye free- 
cv . • • 

r, 55 pi will, as to implore aid. Ye are not in the flesh, '\s this of 

~5^iii7~ your own strength? God forbid! Whence then? If so be 
that the Spirit of God dnell in yon. Hut if any man have 
not the Spirit of Christ, he is none of His. Let not then 
needy and corrupted nature stretch itself out, let it not boast 
itself, let it not arrogate strength to itself as its own. O 
human nature ! O Adam, when thou wast whole, thou didst 
not stand, and hast thou risen again by thine own strength ? 
If any man have not the Spirit of Christ ; (for the Spirit 
of Christ, the Same is the Spirit of God; for He is the Spirit 
both of the Father and the Son.) If on// man have not the 
Spirit of Christ, let him not deceive himself, he is none oj His. 
14. Lo, by the aid of His mercy, we have the Spirit of 
Christ: by the very love of righteousness, by an uncorrupted 
faith. Catholic faith, we know that the Spirit of God is in us. 
But what of that mortal flesh ? What of the late in our 
members which resisteth the Law of the mind/ What of 

Rom. 8, that groaning, JVretched man that I am? Hear: But if 
Christ be in you, the body indeed is dead because of sin, 
but the spirit is life because of righteousness. Must we 
then at once desjDair, you will say, of the body dead because 
of sin ? Is there no hope I Doth it in such wise sleep, as 
never to rise again ? God forbid. The body indeed is dead 
because of sin, but the spirit is life because (f riyhteousness. 

Ephes. Sadness remains for our body's sake. For no one ever hated 
' ■ his oivn flesh. We see with what anxiety the buiial of the 
dead is cared for. The body indeed is dead because of sin, 
but the spirit is life because of righteousness. You were 
saying at once for consolation, " I could wish indeed, that 
ray body were in life also : but because it cannot be, let at 
least my spirit be, let at least my soul be." Wait, be not 
xiv. 15. For if the Spirit of Him Who raised up Jesus from 

Rom. 8, ifiQ dead dwell in you ; He Who raised up Christ Jesus 
from the dead, shall quicken also your mortal bodies. What 
fear ye } Why are ye disturbed even for this very flesh } 

Luke2i, 77<ere shall not an hair qf your head perish. Adam by 

J2 ^ sinning condemned your bodies to death : but Jesus, if His 
Spirit be in you, shall quicken also your mortal bodies; in 

The flesh, our friend in bliss; its wisdom, not it, yiow our enemy. 759 

that He hath given His Blood for your salvation. Dost Serm. 
thou doubt that the promise will be made good, who boldest ^ggg-i 
such an earnest? Thus then, O man, that contention of 
death shall be no more, thus shall be fulfilled that which is 
said, Wretched man that I ant, who .shall deliver me from Rom. 7, 


the body of this death? Because Christ Jesus, if His Spirit 
dwell in you, shall quicken also your mortal bodies. Thus 
shalt thou be delivered from the body of this death, not by 
not having a body, or by having another body, but by not 
dying any more. For if he had not added, of this death, 
and had said, IVho shall deliver me from the body? per- 
chance error would have been suggested to the thoughts of 
men, and it would have been said, " Do you see that God 
doth not wish that we should be with a body T'' From the 
body, he says, of this death. Take away death, and the 
body is good. Let death, the last enemy, be taken away, 
and 1 shall have my flesh a friend for all eternity. For no Ephes. 
one ever hated his own flesh. Though the Spirit lusteth^'^^- 
against the flesh, and the flesh lusteth against the spirit; 
though there be now strife in this house, the husband 
in the quarrel seeks not the destruction but the agree- 
ment of the wife. God forbid, my brethren, God forbid, 
that in lusting against the flesh the spirit should hate 
the flesh. It hates the vices of the flesh, it hates the wisdom 
of the flesh, it hates the contention of death. Let this cor-i Cor. 
ruptible put on incorruption, and this mortal put on im- ^^ 
mortality, let it be sown a natural body, rise again a 
spiritual body, and you- will see a full and perfect agree- 
ment, you will see the creature praising the Creator. If 
then the Spirit of Him Who raised up Jesus from the dead 
dwell in you; He Who raised up Christ Jesus from the 
dead, shall quicken also your mortal bodies, because of His 
Spirit Who dwelleth in you; not because of your merits, 
but of His gifts. Turn we to the Lord, &c. 

3 n 

760 Some Scriptures plain, as a key to the mysteries of others. 


On the words of the Apostle, Roin. viii. " Therefore, brethren, we are 
debtors not to the flesh, that we should live after the flesh, &c." 

Against the Pelagians. 

Delivered in the Basilica of Gratian, on the birth-day of the Martyrs of 

Serm. i_ The depth of the word of God cxerciseth earnestness, 
[l56.B.]doth not refuse understanding. For if all things there were 
"T closed, there would be nothing whereby what is obscure 
might be laid open. Again, if all were closed, there would 
be nothing whereby the soul could gather nourishment, and 
get strength, whereby it might be able to knock at what was 
closed. In the above Apostolic lessons, which I have ex- 
pounded to you, Beloved, as the Lord vouchsafed to aid me, 
I have suffered much toil and anxiety. I sympathized with 
you, and was anxious both for myself and for you. But to 
my thinking, the Lord hath assisted both me and you ; and 
those things which appeared decidedly the most difficult, 
He hath vouchsafed in such wise to unravel by my ministry, 
as that no question should remain which can disturb the 
godly soul. For the ungodly soul hates even the very 
understanding; a man sometimes with a mind exceedingly 
disordered is afraid to understand, lest he be compelled 
to do what he hath understood. Of such the Psalm says, 
Ps.35,4. They would not understand, that they might do well. But 
f36^**3 y®' dearly beloved, for it is meet to think well of you, require 
E. V.) understanding, God requireth its fruit. For, understanding, 
lO.Sept! as it is written, is good for them that do thereafter. Never- 
(]ii. E.^i^giggg,^ ^}^ig which remains, and which has been read to-day, 
though it have not as great difficulty as the preceding have 
had, which we have already got through as we best could, by 
the Lord's assistance, yet looks for your earnest attention ; for 
it is as it were the conclusion, in reference to those things which 
have been spoken in the foregoinj^ lessons, where we exerted 

» The festival of these Martyrs called Calendar, (vid. Mabillon Vet. Anal. 

Boliiani, or Volifani, of the city Boli- torn. 3. p. 415. to have been 16 Cal. 

tana belonging to the Proconsular pro- Nov. (Oct. 17.) 
vince, appearsfrom an old Carthaginian 

The lfl'"-'given/hat seeing our disease, we might seek the Physician. 701 

ourselves, lest by any ance the Apostle should be supposed Serm. 
in any sort guilty of all sorts of sin in saying, jPor w'/'«^[i56.b.1 
/ would, that do I not. Then again, that it might notRomTT^ 
either seem that the Law could suffice for man having free ' 
will, even though no further Divine aid were given, or else 
be believed to have been given to no purpose, the cause why 
the Law was given, was also declared, that it too was given 
for an assistance, but not as grace is. 

2. For it was given, as we have explained already, and ye ii. 
ought to hold it fast, and our duty it is to set it forth to you 
more earnestly and more carefully; it was given that man 
might find out himself, not that the disease might be healed, Serm. 
but that the disease increasing by transgression, the Physician (iss.b.) 
might be sought out. And who is This Physician, but He 4. 
Who said, The whole need not a Physician, but they that^^^^-^' 
are sick. Whoso then confesseth not the Creator, in his 
pride denieth his Author. But whoso denieth his sickness, 
judgeth the Saviour superfluous. Therefore let us both in 
our nature laud the Creator; and for the corruption, which 
we have inflicted on ourselves, let us seek the Saviour. And 
with what view seek we the Saviour.? That He may give the ^al. 3 
Law ? This is but little:ybr if there had been a law given which ^'• 
could give life, ver ily righteousness should have been by the 
Law. If then there has not been a law given which could give 
life, wherefore was it given .? He goes on, and shews wherefore 
it was given; for even thus it was given as an aid, that thou 
mightest not think thyself whole. If then there had been a 
law given which could give life, verily righteousness should 
have been by the Law. And as if we asked, " Wherefore then v. 22. 
was it given ?" He saith, But the Scripture hath concluded all 
under sin, that the promise by faith of Jesus Christ might 
be given to them that believe. When thou hearest of the 
Promisor, expect the Fulfiller. Human nature was able by free 
will to wound itself: but once wounded and disabled, it is not 
by free-will able to make itself whole. For if thou choosest 
to live interaperately so as to be ill, thou dost not require a 
Physician for this: for ruin' to thy health thou art sufficient 'labem 
for thyself. But when by intemperate living thou hast begun 
to be ill, thou canst not so free thyself from ill health, as thou 
couldest by intemperance plunge thyself into it. And yet the 

3 D '2 

762 God heals us, that He may he Himself our lieward. 

Serm. physician eiijoineth temperance even on them that are in 
[156.B.] health, A good physician does so, he does not wish to be 
necessary to the invalid. So also the Lord God vouchsafed to 
enjoin temperance on man created without fault; and if he 
had observed it, he would not afterwards had to long for the 
Physician for his disease. But because he did not observe 
it, he became weak, he fell, infirm he created infirm ones, 
infirm, that is, he begat infirm ones. And yet in all the in- 
firm ones who are born, God worketh that which is good, by 
fashioning the body, by quickening the body, by affording 
nourishment, by sending His rain and sun on the good and 
evil: there is nothing wherein even the evil can accuse the 
Good One. Moreover also He would not leave tlie human 
race condemned by His just judgmenl to everlasting destruc- 
tion : but He sent also a Physician, He sent a Saviour, He 
sent Him to heal them freely ; nay, not only to heal them 
freely, to give them even, when healed, a reward. Nothing 
can be added to such benevolence I Who is there who 
would say, " Let me cure thee, and I will give thee a re- 
ward ?" He did surpassing well. For He knew that He 
had come The Rich to the poor ; He both healeth the sick, 
and to the healed He giveth, and nought else giveth He than 
Himself. The Saviour is the Succour of the sick, the Saviour 
too is the Reward of the healed. 
iii. ^- ThereJore,breth ren ,di^\\c. havebeen reminded to-day, «f.'e 
Rom. 8, df'g debtors, not to the flesh, that we stiould lice alter thejlesh. 
For to this end have we been succoured, to this end have 
received the Spirit of God, to this end also in our labours 
ask we daily aid. The Law, by not fulfilling what it enjoins, 
raaketh him whom it threateneth to be under itself: these 
1 Tim. are under the Law, not under grace. The Law is good, if a 
''®' man use it lawfully. What then is it to use the Law law- 
fully ? By means of the Law to come to recognise one's 
disease, and to seek divine aid for health. Because, as I 
Gal. 3, have said, and as is often to be said. If the Law could give 
life, verily righteousness should have been by the Law: nor 
would the Saviour have been sought, nor would Christ have 
come, nor sought with His Blood the lost sheep. For thus 
Gal. 2, =^aith in another place the same Apostle, For if righteousness 
21. he bji the Law, then Christ is dead in vain. What advan- 

TheLawfulJilkdnotby our uwnsfrengtk butbyy^ grace of Christ. 763 

tage then hath the Law, and what succour ? In that tJie Serm. 
Scripture hath concluded all under sin, that the promise ^y rPTl: , 
faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe, q^^ — 
So then, the Lau-, says he, was our pedagogue^ in Christ '2^- 
Jesus. From this similitude observe the thing whereofgogy^^" 
I am speaking. The pedagogue does not bring the boy to ^- 24- 
himself, but to the master: but when the boy well in- 
structed has once grown up, he will be no more under the 

4. The Apostle treating of this also in another place — for he ir. 
is very constantly impressing this: would it may not be to 
the deaf Now he is constantly impressing this, in com- 
mending faith to the Gentiles ; because by faith they obtain 
assistance to fulfil the Law, not by the Law, but obtaining 
strength to fulfil it by faith : for this cause the Apostle con- 
stantly mentions and impresses this subject, because of the 
Jews, who boasted of the Law, and thought that the Law 
was sufficient for their free-will; and hereby because they 
thought that the Law was sufficient for their free-will, being Rom. 
ignorant of God's righteousness, that is, of the righteousness ' 
given by God through faith, and wishing to establish their 
own rigliteousness, as though fulfilled by their own strength, 
not obtained by the cries of faith, tJiey have not, as he says, 
submitted tJiemselves unto the righteousness of God. For^-'^- 
Christ is the end of the Law for righteousness to every one 
that believeth. — When he is treating of this subject, I 
say, he brought this objection against himself. Why then.^^^-^t 
was the Law ? As if, " What is the advantage of the Law?" 
He answered, // was added because of transgression. This 
is what he says in another place. The Law entered that sin Ro"'- 5, 
might abound. And what did he add in that place I But 
where sin abounded, grace did much more abound. Because 
in the slighter sickness the aid of medicine was despised: the 
disease increased, and the Physician was sought out. Why 
then was the Law ? It was added, because of transgression ; 
that by it the neck of the proud ascribing too much to them- 
selves, and arrogating to their own will so much, as to think 
that their free-will could suffice them for righteousness, might 
be brought low ; their will, which then when it was in liberty 
unimpaired, that is, in paradise, displayed its strength, dis- 
played how much it could do, but to fall only, not to rise. 

7()4 Grace given to heal us by love. 

Serm, The Law then 7cas added because of transgression, till the 
CVI. J if ^ 

[156.B.1 *ft'^^ should come to tchom the promise was made, being 
Gal. 3, ordained by Angels in the hand of a mediator. 

5. Now a mediator is not of one; but God is One. What 
V. . '' . 

V. 20. i^, a mediator is not of one ? Because a merliator of course 
is between two. If God is One, and a mediator is not of 
one; between what and God do we look for a mediator? 
for a mediator is not of one, but God is One. Between 
What and what the Mediator is, w-e find out by the Apostle's 
iTim.2, own words: For there is One Mediator between God and man, 
^' the Man Christ Jesus. If thou hadst not been on the ground, 

thou hadst not needed a Mediator ; but because thou art on 
the ground, and canst not rise, God hath stretched out to 
Is. 53,1. thee His Arm, a Mediator as it were. But, to whom hath 
John]2,^;,g ^rm of the Lord been revealed? Let no one then say, 
" Since we are not under the Law, but under grace ; there- 
fore let us sin, therefore let us do what we will." Whoso 
saith this, loveth sickness, not soundness. Grace is a medi- 
cine. Whoso would always be sick, is ungrateful to the 
medicine. Therefore, brethren, now that we have received 
succour, now that divine aid, the Arm of the Lord, hath been 
extended to us from on high, yea, now that This Arm of the 
Lord, His succour, the Holy Spirit, hath been extended to 
us, ive are debtors, not to the flesh, that ice should icalk after 
the flesh. For faith cannot work well, except by love. For 
this is the faith of the faithful, that it be not the faith of 

Jam. 2, devils: {ov even the derils believe, and tremble. This then 

is the faith, meet for praise, this is the true faith of grace, 

Gal. 5, lohich worketh by love. But that we may have this love, 
and that we may be able thereby to have good works, can 

Rom. 6, we give it to ourselves, when it is written. The love of God 
hath been shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost, Who 
hath been given unto ns ? Love is so entirely a gift of God, 

lJohn4,that it is called God, in the Apostle John's words, God is 
Love, and he that duelleih in love, dwelleth in God, and God 
in him. 
vi. 6. Therefore, brethren, ue are debtors, not to the flesh that 

12 "i3^' "^ should live after the flesh. For if ye live after the flesh, ye 
shall die. Not that the flesh is an evil thing; for it too 
is God's creature, yea created by Him, by Whom the soul 
is also ; neither the one, nor the other a part of God, but 

Live after, v}hatyouliveby; y^fleshaftery'soul^y^soulaflerGod. 765 

both the one and the other a creature of God. Therefore Serm. 

the flesh is not evil; but to live after the flesh is evil. Godfisg.B.] 

is supremely Good, in that He is supremely. Who saith, /Exod. 

Am Thai I Am. God then is supremely Good: the soul is a ' 

great good, but not the Supreme Good. But when you hear 

that God is supremely Good, do not suppose that this is said of 

the Father only, but of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy 

Spirit. For This Trinity areOne,ItisOneGod,andissupremely 

Good. So decidedly is God One, that when you are asked 

of the Trinity Itself, you make this answer : lest peradventure 

when you hear, God is One, you think that the Father, the 

Son, and the Holy Spirit are One and the Same Person. It 

iij not so; but He Who is The Father in This Trinity, is not 

The Son ; He Who is The Son in This Trinity, is not the 

Father; He Who is the Holy Spirit in this Trinity, is neither 

the Son, nor the Father; but the Spirit of the Father, and 

also the Spirit of the Son. For the One Self-Same Holy 

Spirit, is the Spirit of the Father, and of the Son, Coeternal 

with the Father and the Son, Consubstantial, Equal. This 

Whole Trinity is One God, supremely Good. But the soul, 

as I have said, created by the supreme Good, yet not the 

supreme Good, but a great good. So again the flesh is neither 

the supreme Good, nor a great good: but yet a little good. 

The soul then this great good, though not the supreme Good; 

living between the supreme Good, and the little good, that is, 

between God and the flesh, inferior to God, superior to the 

flesh; why doth it not live after the supreme Good, but live 

after the little good ? Or more plainly, why doth it not live 

after God, but live after the flesh ? For it is not a debtor to 

the Jlesh, that it should live after the Jlesh. The flesh 

ought to live after it, not it after the flesh. Let the flesh 

live after it, in that it liveth by it. Yes, by all means let 

each live after that, whereby it liveth. Whereby liveth thy 

flesh? By the soul. Whereby liveth thy soul? By thy God. 

Let each of these live after its own life. For the flesh is not 

life to itself, but the soul is the life of the flesh. The soul is 

not life to itself; but God is the Life of the soul. The soul 

then which ought to live after God : for it is not a debtor to 

the flesli, thai it should live after the fiesh: the soul then 

VA'hich ought to live after God, if it live after itself, faileth ; 

7(>G The soul liviny after itself an far from God^ as if after y'^ Jiesk; 

Sekm. shall it then live after the flesh, aud make progress? But 

ri5gBV]then doth the flesh live rightly after the soul, if the soul live 

after God. For if the soul should choose to live, I do not 

say after the flesh, but after itself as I have said ; I am now 

about to tell you what it is to live after itself; for it is good, 

that you should know this, aud very wholesome. 

vii. 7. There were Philosophers of this world, some thought 

Senii there was no happiness, but living after the flesh, and they 

100. placed the good of man in the pleasures of the body. These 

(150. •) pj^iiQgfjpijgrs and others like them were called Epicureans, 

(6-9.) from one Epicurus their founder and master. But there 

were others, proud ones, who withdrew themselves as it were 

from the flesh, and establishing their whole hope of happiness 

in their soul, placed the supreme good in their own virtue. 

The godly aflection in you has recognised the voice of the 

Psalm ; you know, you are aware, you remember how they 

Ps.48 7. are derided in the Holy Psalm, uho trust in their own virtue. 

Sept. Such were the Philosophers, who M'ere called Stoics. The 

E. V.) first living after the flesh, the latter living after the soul, 

neither the one nor the other living after God. Therefore 

when the Apostle Paul came to the city of the Athenians, 

' ferve- where these schools of Philosophers were frequented' with 

^^*' extreme rivalry and contention, as it is read in the Acts of 

the Apostles, (and here I am rejoiced that by your recognising 

and remembering it you anticipate my words,) as it is 

Acts 17, written there, Certaiu Philosophers of the Epicureans aud 

^^' of the Stoics conferred witli him; they who lived after the 

flesh conferred with him, they who lived after the soul 

conferred with him, he who lived after God conferred with 

them. The Epicurean said, " It is good for me to enjoy the 

flesh." The Stoic said, " It is good for me to enjoy my 

Ps. 73, soul." The Apostle said. But it is good for me to cleave 

^^* unto God. The Epicurean said, " Blessed is he whose 

enjoyment is in the pleasures of his flesh!" The Stoic said, 

" Yea, blessed is he whose enjoyment is in the virtue of his 

Ps.39,6. soul." The Apostle said. Blessed is he, whose hope is the 

ff^^\ Name of the Lord. The Epicurean is in error: for it is 

(40, 4. •' ' . 

E. V.) false, that the man is blessed, whose enjoyment is in the 
pleasures of his flesh. The Stoic too is deceived ; for false 
it is, yea most utterly false, that the man is blessed, whose 

Carnal delights, unobeyed, cease to delight, and then are dead. 767 

enioyment is in the virtue of" his soul. Blessed therefore is Serm, 

he, whose hope is the Name of the Lord. And becauser^sg p n 

they are vain, and lie; he saith, And who hatli not had 

regard to vanities, and lying madnesses. 

8. Therefore, brethren, tee are not debtors to the flesh, viii. 
that we should live after the flesh, as the Epiciu'eans. But 
even if the soul would live after itself, it will be carnal; it 
savours of the flesh, it rises not above the flesh. For he has 

no means whereby to rise, who layeth not hold of the arm 
stretched out to him as he lies. For if ye live after the 
flesh, ye shall die. For in the Psalm where it is said, What P»- ^6, 
can man do unto me? in the same it is said, If hat can flesh 
do unto me? For if ye live after the fesh, ye shall die. 
Not with this death, when ye leave the body ; for with this 
ye will die, though ye live after the spirit; but with that 
death, of which the Lord in the Gospel speaks in accents of 
alarm; Fear Him, Who hath power to destroy both soul awt/, 
body in hell-fire. If then ye live after thefesh, ye shall die.'^ 

9. But if ye through the Spirit do mortify the deeds of ix. 
the flesh, ye shall live. This is our work in this life, through ^°™" ^' 
the Spirit to mortify the deeds of the flesh ; day by day to 
afflict, to minish, bridle, kill it. For how many things there 

are, which now no more give delight to those who are 
making progress, which before delighted them.? When then 
it yielded delight, and consent was not given to it, it was 
being mortified; in that now it does not yield delight, it has 
been mortified. Tread down that which is already dead, 
pass over unto that which is yet alive: tread down that 
which is laid low, struggle with that which still resists. For 
one delight is dead, but another liveth ; and this too, whilst 
thou consentest not, thou art mortifying ; when it shall have 
begun to yield no delight at all, thou hast mortified it. This 
is our business, this is our warfare. When we struggle in 
this contest, we have God our Spectator: when we travail 
in this contest, we implore God to be our Succour. For if 
He aid us not, we shall have no power, I do not say to con- 
quer, but not even to fight. 

10. When then the Apostle said, But if ye throvgli /Ae v. lib. 
Spirit do mortify the deeds of the flesh, ye shall live, that is, tr^^'^^k 
those lusts of the flesh, whereunto not to consent is great c.xi.(23.) 


Serm. praise, which not to have is perfection : these deeds of the 

[ib6.Vi.{fl^'^fh diseased, and from death deriving contention, if ye 
throiKjh the Sjyirit do mortify, ye shall lire. Here there is 
at once reason to fear, lest any one again rely on his own 
spirit for mortifying the deeds of the flesh. For not only is 
God a Spirit : but thine own soul is a spirit also, and thy 

Efm. 7, mind is a spirit. As when you say, With the mind I 
serve the Law of God, hut tenth the Jlesh the law of sin; 

Gz\.b, for the spirit lasteth ayalnst the Jlesh, and the flesh against 
the spirit. Therefore that thou mayest not rely on thine 
own spirit for mortifying the deeds of the flesh, and perish 
through pride, and God resist thee for thy pride, and not 

Jam. 4, grace be given thee for thy humility: for God resist eth the 
' 2)roud, but giveth grace unto the Jtumhle: lest then by 
chance this pride spring up in thee, take heed to what 
follows. For when he had said, If ye through the Spirit do 
mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live ; lest hereupon 
the spirit of man should uplift itself, and boast that it was 
sufficient, and of strength for this work, he went on, and 

' agiin- said. For as many as are actuated ^ by the Spirit of God, they 

^!^^ are the sons of God. Why then didst thou wish now to 

Rom. 8, J J 

14. uplift thyself, when thou heardest. If ye through the Spirit 
do mortify the deeds of the body, ye shall live ? For thou 
wast on the point of saying, " This my will can do, this my 
free choice can do." What will? what free choice? Unless 
He rule, thou fallest; unless He lift up, thou liest on the 
ground. How then through thine own spirit, when thou 
hearest the Apostle saying. For as many as are actuated by 
the Spirit of God, they are the sons of God? Dost thou 
wish to actuate thyself, dost thou wish to be actuated by 
thine own self for mortifying the deeds of the flesh? What 
doth it profit thee that thou shalt not be an Epicurean, if 
thou shalt be a Stoic ? Whether thou wilt be an Epicurean, 
or a Stoic, thou wilt not be among the sons of God. For as 
many as are actuated by the Spirit of God, they are the sons 
of God. Not they who live after their own flesh, not they 
who live after their own spirit; not they who are led by the 
pleasure of the flesh, not they who are actuated by their own 
spirit; but as many as are actuated by the Spirit of God, 
they arc the sons of God. 

Without God'sheIpmancandoevilonli/,t/etbein(/aciedon,acteth. 760 

11. One will say to me, " Then we are actuated, we do Sekm. 

not act." I answer, Yes truly, thou dost both act, and n jg/B i 

art actuated ; and then thou dost act well, if thou art ^j 

actuated by the Good. For the Spirit of God Who 

actuateth thee, is a Helper to thee in thy acting. For the 

very name of helper teacheth thee, that thou thyself too 

doest something. Call to mind what it is thou desirest; 

call to mind what it is thou acknowledgest, when thou dost 

say, Be Thou tny Helper, leave me not. Thou callest cer- Ps.26,9. 

tainly on God as a Helper. No one is helped, if nothing is (27. E. 

done by him. For as many, says he, as are actuated by the '^ 

Spirit of God, they are the sons of God: not by the letter, 

but by the Spirit: not by the Law enjoining, threatening, 

promising; but by the Spirit exhorting, illuminating, helping. 

We know, says the same Apostle, that all things work ^o-l^"""-^' 

gether for good to them that love God. If thou wert not a 

worker, He would not be a Worker together. 

12. But here be stoutly on your guard, lest haply your 
spirit should say, " If the cooperation of God and the aid of 
God were to withdraw itself, my own spirit will do this : 
though with labour, though with some difficulty, yet fulfil it ^' Lib. 
it can." Just as if one were to say, " We have reached it christi, 
indeed by rowing, but with some labour; O, had ^^o'q'M'X 
but had wind, we had reached it more easily." The aid ofetseq. 
God is not in such wise, the aid of Christ is not in such 
wise, the aid of the Holy Spirit is not in such wise. 
Assuredly if it be wanting, thou wilt not be able to do 

any good at all. Thou dost act it is true with free will 
without His help, but only evilly. For this thy will which 
is called free is sufficient, and by acting evilly, it becomes a 
servant subject to damnation. When I tell thee, " Without 
the help of God thou doest nothing," I mean, nothing good. 
For thou hast a will, without the help of God free for evil 
doing; though that will is not free. For of whom one is iq^*^ ' ' 
overcome, of the same is he the slave ; and. Whosoever cow«-'^°bn 8, 
mitteth sin, is the servant of sin ; and, If the Son shall 
make you free, then shall ye be free indeed. 

13. By all means believe this, that it is thus that ye act ^^^• 
with a good will. In that ye live, ye act of course. For He 
is not a Helper, if ye do nothing : for He is not a Worker 

770 Grace iieededto do any yuod, not to do better only ^ or more easily. 

Serm. together, if ye work nothing. Yet know ye that ye in such 

rjgggivvise do good as that the ruling Spirit, is thy Helper; and 

if He be wanting, ye can do no good at all. It is not as 

some have begun to say, who have been constrained at last 

to acknowledge the grace of God ; and we bless God, that 

they have said even this at length; for by making approaches 

they will be able to go forward, and to aiTive at that which 

is truly right. Now then they say that the grace of God is 

assistant, towards more easy doing. For these are their 

words; '* To this end," say they, " hath God given His grace 

to men, that what they are enjoined to do by means of free 

will, they might be able more easily to fulfil through grace." 

With sails more easily, with oars with greater difficulty; yet 

even with oars way is made. On horse more easily, on foot 

with greater difficulty; but yet even on foot, the point is 

reached. It is not so. For the True Master Who flattereth 

no one, deceiveth no one, at once the True Teacher and 

Saviour, to Whom that most hard pedagogue brought us, 

when He was speaking of good works, that is, of the fruits of 

the vine-shoots and branches, did not say, " Without Me ye 

can indeed do something, but more easily by Me ;" He did 

not say, " Without Me ye can bring forth fruit, but more 

abundantly by Me." He did not say this. Read what 

He said : it is the Holy Gospel, the proud necks of all are 

bowed. It is not Augustine who says this, it is the Lord 

johni5, Who saith it. What saith the Lord. f* Without 3Ie ye can 

*• do nothing. Now when you hear. As many as are actuated 

by the Spirit of God, tliey are the sons of God, do not give 

• demit- yourselves' up to carelessness. For God doth not so build 

*^'^ up His temple with you, as if with stones which have no 

motion of their own ; which are lifted up, and set in their 

Ephes. place by the builder. Not so are living stones ; And ye as 

I'Pet. living stones are builded together into a temple of God. Be 

*' ^' ye led, but do ye run yourselves also ; be ye led, but follow ; 

because when ye shall have followed, that will be true, that 9, u'ithout Him ye can do nothing. For it is not of him that 

willeth, nor of him that runneth, but of God, Who sheweth 


xui. 14. Peradventure ye were about to say, " The Law too is 

sufficient for us." The Law gave lear ; and sec what the Apo- 

Ohey^ijhidout of fear ^ that you may come to obey thro' love. 771 

stle afterwards subjoined when he had said, For as many as are Serm. 
actuated by t lie Spirit of God, they are the sons of God; for that m^J ^ i 
when they are actuated by the Spirit of God, they are actuated 
by love ; For the love of God hath been shed abroad in owr I^om. 5, 
hearts by the Holy Ghost, JJ'ho hath been given us; next he 
added. For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again Rom- 8, 
in fear. What is again ? " As under the terrors of that 
most hard pedagogue." What is again? " As ye received 
the spirit of bondage on Mount Sinai." One will say, " The 
spirit of bondage is one, the spirit of freedom another spirit." 
If it were another, the Apostle would not have said, again. 
It is the Same Spirit then, only on the tables of stone in fear, 
on the tables of the heart in love. Now you who were Serm. 
present the day before yesterday heard, how the noise, theB^n.)vi. 
flame, the smoke on the mount, terrified the people that were Ex. 19, 
placed afar off; but how at the coming of the Holy Spirit, ^^' 
this same Finger of God, how on the fiftieth day after the 
shadow of the Passover, He came, and in fiery tongues sat Acts 2, 
upon each of them. Now then not in fear, but in love ; that 
we may be not servants, but sons. For he who still doeth 
well for this reason, because he feareth punishment, loveth 
not God, is not yet of the number of sons ; yet would that he 
may even fear punishment ! Fear is a slave, love is free ; 
and, so to say, fear is the servant of love. That the devil 
possess not thine heart, let the servant go before in thine 
heart, and keep a place for the mistress who is to come. 
Act, act even in fear of punishment, if thou canst not yet for 
love of righteousness. The mistress will come, and the servant 
depart; because perfected love casteth out fear. For ye \ John 
have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear. It is^' 
the New Testament, not the Old. Old things are passed 1 Cor. 5, 
away, and behold all things are become new; but all are of 

15. And then what follows? As though you were to say, ^;„ 
" What have we received then ?" But ye have received the 
Spirit of Adoption, in Whom we cry, Abba, Father. A 
Master is feared, a Father loved. Ye have received the Spirit 
of Adoplion, in Whom we cry, Abba, Father. This is a cry 
of the heart, not of the lungs, not of the lips; it sounds 
within, it sounds to the ears of God. With closed mouth, 

772 The Spirit an earnest^ to be enlarged^ -perfected^ abide. 

Serm, with lips unmoved, did Susannah with this voice cry. But 
I jggj^ , ye have received the Spirit of Adoption, in Whom we cry, 
Matt. G, Ahfja, Father. Let the heart cry, Our Father, Which art in 
^' Heaven. Why then not Father only ? What means Abba, 

Father? For if you ask what Abba is, you are answered, 
Father. For Abba in Hebrew means Father. Why did 
the Apostle wish to express both .'' Because he had in view 
P8. 118, the Corner Stone, IVhich the builders rejected, and Which 
became the Head of the corner, not without reason called 
the Corner Stone, in that He receiveth in His embrace either 
wall coming from different quarters. On this side the Cir- 
cumcision, on that the Uncircumcision, as far apart from 
themselves and one another, as they are far from the Corner; 
but in proportion as they are near to the Corner, so of course 
near to one another. And in the Corner joined to one 
Eph. 2, another. For He is our Peace, Who hath made both one. 
So then on one side the Uncircumcision, on the other the 
Circumcision, the agreement of the walls, the glory of the 
Corner. Ye have received the Spirit of Adoption, in Whom 
we cry, Abba, Father. 
XV. 16. W^hat is the thing itself, if the pledge be such as this.'' 
And it ought not to be called o, pledge, but an earnest. For 
when a pledge is put down, when the thing itself is paid, the 
pledge is taken back. But an earnest is given out of the 
thing itself, which is promised to be given; so that when the 
thing is paid, what has been given is made up, not changed. 
Let each one then look to his own heart, whether from the 
inmost recesses of the heart and in love sincere he can say, 
Father. It is not now a question, how great this love is, 
whether it be great, or small, or middling ; I am asking 
whether it exist at all. If it is born, it grows in secresy, by 
growing it will be perfected, once perfected it will abide. 
For when it is perfected, it doth not decline into old age, 
and from old age will come to death ; to this end will it be 
perfected, that it may abide for ever. For see what follows. 
Rom. 8, We cry, Abba, Father. The Spirit Itself beareth icitness 
^^' to our spirit, that we are the children of God. It is not our 
own spirit that beareth witness to our spirit, that we are the 
children of God ; but the Spirit of God, the earnest beareth 
witness for that thing which hath been promised us. The 

God Himself our inheritance^ and tliat, ivith Christ. 773 

Spirit Itself heareth witness to our spirit, that we are the Serm. 
children of God. [156.B.] 

17. But if children, then heirs. For we are not children v. 17. 
to no purpose. This is the reward ; Then heirs. This is 
what I was saying a Utile time back, that our Physician boih^- 2. 
giveth us health, and moreover vouchsafeth to bestow a reward. 
What is that reward ? An inheritance. But not like the 
inheritance of any father among men. For he leaves it to 
his children, he does not possess it with his children ; and 
yet he makes much of himself, and desires that thanks be 
given him, because he has been pleased to give what he 
cannot take away. For when he dies, could he take it with 
him.? I imagine if he could, he would leave nothing to his 
children here. The heirs of God are in such wise heirs, that 
God Himself is our Inheritance, to Whom the Psalm saith, 
The Lord is the ]7oriion of mine inheritance. Heirs indeed Vs.i6,5. 
of God ; if this is not enough for you, hear that whereby ye 
may have ampler joy: Heirs indeed of God, and coheirs with 
Christ. Turn we to the Lord, &c. 


On the words of the Apostle. Rom. viii. " We are saved in hope: but hope 
that is seen is not hope." 

1. As your holiness, dearly beloved brethren, remembers i. 
that the Apostle said, Pfe are saved in hope, but hope that is Rom. 8, 
seen is not hope; for what a man seeth, why doth he hope^'^- 
for ? But if we hope for that we see not, then do we with v. 25. 
patience wait for it. The Lord our God Himself, to Whom 
it is said in the Psalm, Thou art my Hope, and my Portion ^3.142, 
in the land of the living, admonisheth me to give you here-^* 
upon some words of exhortation and consolation. He Himself, 
I say, Who is our Hope in the land of the living, enjoineth 
me to address you in this land of the dying ; that ye may 
not look at the things which are seen, but at the things which jg*^"''"^' 

774 Hope retained thro* patience onlt/, hy the meek and (jentle. 

Serm. are not seen. For the things which are seen are temporal; but 
[157.15. V^'^ things which are not seen are eternal. Because then we 
hope for that we see not, and nith patience wait for it: with 
Ps. 27, good reason is it said to us in the Psalm, Wait patiently on 
27.E^v '^^ Lord, do manfully, and let thy heart take courage ; yea, 
wait patiently on the Lord. For the world's promises are 
always deceiving, but the promises of God never deceive. 
But because the world seems as it" ready to give what it 
])romises here, that is, in this land of the dying, wherein we 
now are; but God will give what He promiseth, in the land 
of the living; many ai'e wearied of waiting patientl}' for the 
True, and blush not to love the deceitful one. Of such the 
Ecclus. Scripture saith, Woe unto them that have lost patience, and 
' have turned aside into crooked uays. With those who do 

manfull}', and with heart of good courage wait patiently on 
the Lord, the children of eternal death also cease not to 
mock, vaunting their transitory delights which for a time are 
sweet to their mouths, but afterwards shall they find them 
more bitter than gall. For they say to us, " Where is that 
that is promised you after this life ? Who hath returned 
hither from thence, and given information that the things ye 
believe are true.? Lo, we joy in the fulness of our pleasures, 
in that we hope for that we see ; but ye are tormented in the 
travails of continence, by believing what ye do not see." 
And then they subjoin the words the Apostle brought forward ; 
1 Cor. Let lis eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die. But see 
V. 33. what he advised us to beware of: Evil communications, saith 
V. 34. he, corrupt good manners, Be ye sober in righteousness, 
and sin not. 
jj 2. Beware then, brethren, lest by such communications 

your maimers be corrupted, hope overthrown, patience en- 
feebled, and ye turn aside into crooked ways. Yea rather 
in meekness and gentleness hold on the strait ways, which 
Ps.25 9. the Lord teacheth you; of whom the Psalm saith, The meek 
shall He direct in judgment, the gentle shall He teach His 
ways. Patience indeed among the toils of this life, without 
which the hope of the life to come cannot be maintained, 
can no one retain continually, but the meek and gentle; who 
Mat.ll,resisteth not the will of God, Whose yoke is easy, and His 
^^- burden light, but only to those who believe in God, who 

Walk after Christ in His Passion, to attain to His Resurrection. 775 

hope in Him, and love Him. So truly as meek and gentle Seum. 

ye will not only love His consolations, but as good children j^ygj 

will also endure His scourges ; that since ye hope for that ye 

see not, ye may with patience wait for it. So act, so walk 

ye. For so ye walk in Christ, Who said, / am llic Way. Johni4, 

How you must walk in Him, learn, not only by His word, 

but also by His example. For This His oicn Son //leRom. 8, 

• 32 

Father spared not, but delivered Him up for us all ; not ol 
course against His will, not refusing, but equally willing 
with the Father ; for that the Will of the Father and the Son 
is One in His equality in the Form of God, Being in which Pl'^l- 2, 
He thought it iwt robbery to be equal ivith God ; and pre- 
eminently' obedient, in His emptying of Himself, taking the^ singu- 
form of a servant. For He Himself loved us, and gave ^^j^^ 
Himself up for us an offering and a sacrifice to God for a;ilEphes. 
odour of sweetness. In such wise then the Father spared ' 
not His Own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, as that 
the Son Himself also delivered Himself up for us. 

.3. He then the High One, by Whom all things were made, "i- 
being delivered up, by reason of the form of a servant 3° " ' 
delivered up to the reproach of men, and the despising of 
the people, to contumely, to scourging, to the Death of the 
Cross, hath taught us by the example of His Passion, with 
how great patience we should walk in Him; and hath 
assured us by the example of His Resurrection what we ought 
in patience to hope from Him. For if we hope for that we see 
not, then do we with patience wait for it. We hope, it is 
true, for that we see not: but we are the Body of That Head, 
in Whom what we hope for hath been already perfected. 
For of Him it is said, that He is the Head of the Body, the Co\. 1, 
Church, the F/rst-Begolien, holding Himself the pre-emi- 
nence. And of us it is written, Now ye are the Body of^ ^°''- 
Christ, and members. Now if we hope for that we see not, 
then do we with patience wail for it, in firm assurance; 
since He Who hath risen again is our Head, He reserveth 
our hope. And in that before He rose again, our Head was 
scourged. He hath confirmed our patience. For it is written. 
For whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth; and scourge t ha eh. \2, 
every son whom He receiveth. Let us not then faint imder^" 
the scourge, that we may rejoice in the resurrection. For so 

3 E 

776 Xtiatis hope for tliincis certain, the inorld for tilings uncertain. 

Sr.iiM. true is it tliat IJc .scoifn/el/i ercry son u/ioni He rcceivelhy 
r J^r B.l t^'^*' ^^^ spared not even His Only Son, hut delivered Him 
nomTs, up for us all. Looking then at Him, Who without the 
^^- desert of sin was scourged, Who died for our sins, and rose 

Rom. 4, . . 1 r ^ 1- 

25. again Jor our justtjication, let us not tear lest we be cast 
away when we have been scourged ; but rather let us trust 
that we shall be received, having been justified, 
iv. 4. For although the fulness of our joy be not yet come; 
yet not even now have we been left without joy; for we are 
saved in hope. Accordingly the Apostle himself too, who 
Rom. 8, g^i^jj 7^ ^g, hope for that we see not, then do we with 
Rom. patience wait for it; saith in another place. Rejoicing in 
2^;,'^* hope, pa/ient in tribulation. Having then snch hope, let us 
3, 12. line much confidence ; and let our speech in grace he seasoned 
,.°' ' with salt, that we may know how we ought to answer every 
one. For we must say to them, who since they have lost, or 
have never received patience, dare even to insult, whereas 
they ought to imitate, us who wait patiently on the Lord, 
(because hoping for that tee see not, we do in jxitience wait for 
it,) " Where are your delights, for which ye walk by crooked 
ways?" We do not say, " Where shall they be, when this life 
hath passed away ;" but, " Where are they now ? When to-day 
has removed yesterday, and to-morrow is about to remove to- 
day, what is there of the things ye love that does not flit, and 
fly away? What is there that does not fly away almost before 
it is taken, since of this very to-day, not even an hour can be 
retained? For so the second is shut out by the third, just as 
the first was by the second. Of this very one hour, which 
seems present, nothing is present; for all its portions, 
and all its moments, are fleeting." 
V. 5. What man sins for, if he be not thoroughly blinded when 

he sins, let him at least, now he hath sinned, give heed. He 
might see that pleasui'e that is to pass away is without any 
wisdom longed for; or when it has passed away, is with 
repentance thought of. Ye laugh at us, because we hope 
for things eternal, which we do not see; whereas ye, enslaved 
to those tem})oral tilings which are seen, know not what 
kind of day to-morrow's sun will bring you : which when ye 
hope to be good, ye often find evil; nor if it shall be good, 
will ye be able to hold it that it fly not away. Ye laugh at 

We hope from Christ as God, tohat we see in Christ as Man. Ill 

us, because we hojje for things eternal; which when they Serm. 

come, shall not pass away ; because they do not even come, []57.b!] 

but abide ever; but we shall come to them, when by the ^ 

way of the Lord we shall have passed over those things which 

pass auay. But by you tliese temporal things never cease 

to be hoped for, and yet the things ye hope for frequently 

deceive you; nor do they cease to inflame you when they 

are yet to come, to corrupt when they come, to torment 

when they pass avv^ay. Are they not things which when 

coveted kindle hot desires, obtained are disesteemed, lost 

vanish into nothing ? We too make use of them as the 

necessity of this pilgrim state requires; but we do not fix 

our joys in them, lest we be overwhelmed with them when 

thev fall. For we use this world as not using it. that we i Cor. 

... 7 31 
may come to Him Who made this world, and abide in Him,^„|g' 

enjoying His Eternity. 

6. But what is that ye say, " Who hath come hither from vi, 

thence, and who hath informed men of what is passing among 

the dead V On this point too hath He shut your mouth, 

Who raised again a dead man on the fourth day, and on thejohnii, 

third day rose again Himself, now to die no more, and 

before He died, told us, as He from Whom nothing could be 

hid, in the narrative of the beggar at rest, and the rich man LukeiG, 

in flames, what sort of life receives those who die. But these ' ^' 

things they do not believe, who say, "Who hath returned hither 

from thence ?" They wish it to be thought they would believe, 

if one of their own ancestors were to return to life. But cursed Jerem. 

17 5. 

is every one who patleth his hope in man. For this reason 
then God, made Man, was pleased to die and rise again; 
that both what was to happen to man, might be shewn him 
in Man's Flesh, and yet that belief might be had in God, 
not in man. And at all events the Church of the faithful, 
spread over the whole world, is now before their eyes. Let 
them read of it promised so many ages before to one man, 
who against hope helieced in hope^ that he might heeome //'<?iiom. 4, 
father of many nations. \Vhat then was promised to one^^- 
man, Abraham believing, we see now fulfilled ; and do 
we despair of that coming which is promised to the whole 
world believing? Let them go now, and say, Let ns 
eat and drink, for to-morrow we shall die. They are still 

3 E 2 

778 GoiVs fourfold mercus the s(ifhj}iard of the predestinate. 

Sbum. saviiiL' dial thcv avo to die to-inorvDW, but wlieu they use 
CVII. • <=> • ' J 

[]57.B,]SUch language, the Truth fintlcth them dead ah'eady. But 

ye, brethren, children ot" the Resurrection, citizens of the 

holy Angels, heirs of (iod, and joint-heirs with Christ, 

beware yo of imitating those who die to-moiTOW in breathing 

out their last, and are buried in their cups to-day. But as 

the same Apostle saith, Let not evil cotrnininications corrupt 

ijour (jood iuanners ; be ye sober in rit/hteousness, and sin 

not; walking the naiTow road, but the certain way which 

leadL,'th to tlie expanse of the heavenly Jerusalem, which is 

our Eternal Mother; hope in firmest assui'ance for that ye 

see not, wait patiently for that ye have not yet; for that ye 

• fideli.s-})old Christ the True Promiser as a most* sure guarantee. 


SERMON evil I. [CLVllI. Ben. J 

On the words of the Apostle, Rom. viii "Now whom He did predestinate, 
them He also called; and wliom He called, them He also justified; &o. 
If God he for us, who can he against us?" against the Pelagians. 

i. 1. We have heard the blessed Apostle exhorting and 

Rom. 8, confirming us, when he said to us, // God be for us, iclto can 

^'- be ai/aiust us? Now for whom God is, he shews above, 

V. 30. when he says, N^ow whom He did predestinate, them He 

also called; and uhoin He called, them He also j ustijied ; and 

V.31. ivhom He justified, them He also glorified. What shall we 

then say to these things? If God be for us, toho can he 

against us? God for us, to predestinate us; God for us, to 

callus; God for us, to justify us; God for us, to glorify us. If 

God be for us, who can be against us? He predestinated 

us, before we were; called us, when we were turned away; 

justified us, when we were sinners; glorified us, when we 

were mortal. // God be for us, who can be against us? 

Let him who would oppose the predestined, called, justified, 

glorified of God, make himself ready, if he can war against 

God. For when we heard, // Ood be for us, who can be 

against us? none but he that conquereth God, hurteth us. 

And who is he that conquereth the Omnii)otent? Whosoever 

would struggle with Ilim, injurcth himself. This it is, which 

Acts 9, (jhi-ist called out of heaven too to Paul, as vet Saul, // is not 

God our Debtor thromjh His pruinises^ not j or our service. 779 

good for thee to kick against the goad. Be he violent, be he Serm 
violent as he can, whoso sendeth his heels against the goad, ^^g i; 
is not his violence against himself? 

2. Now in these four eminent particulars, which the Apostle ii. 
hath set forth, which pertain to them for whom God is, that 
is, predestination, calling, justification, glorification; in 
these four particulars, I say, we ought to consider what we 
have already, and what we still wait for. For in those 
things which we have already, praise we God the bounteous 
Giver; in those we have not yet, hold we Him our debtor. 
For debtor hath He become, not by receiving aught from us, 
but by promising what it hath pleased Him. For in one 
sense do we say to a man ; " You owe me, because J gave 
you:" and in another we say, " You owe me, because you 
promised me." When you say, " You owe me, because 
I gave you;" some boon has proceeded from you, but as 
a loan, not a gift. But when you say, " You owe me, 
because you promised me;" you have given nothing, and yet 
you exact. For His goodness Who hath promised will give, 
lest good faith be turned to evil. For whoso deceiveth, is evil. 
But do we say to God, " Render to me, because I have 
given Thee?" What have we given to God, when all we 
are, and all we have of good, we have from Him? Nothing 
then have we given Him. There is no way whereby we can 
require of God on this title', especially as the Apostle saith, i vooe 
For who hath known the Mind of the Lord, or who hath -Rq^^ 
been His counsellor? Or who hath first given to Him, and}h^'^- 
it shall he recompensed unto Him again '? Tn that way then 
may we require of our Lord, that we should say, " Render 
what Thou hast promised, for that we have done what Thou 
hast commanded; and this too Thou hast done, for that 
Thou hast aided us in our labour." 

3. Let no one say then, " Therefore Iiath God called me, iii. 
because I served God." How hadst thou served, if thou 
hadst not been called? If God hath called thee for this 
reason, for that thou hast served Him; then thou hast first 
given, and He hath recompensed thee again. Doth not the 
Apostle take this pretence^ from thee, when he saith. Or who ^xocem 
hath first given to Him, and it shall he recompensed unto 
him again? But, lo, when thou wast called, thou wast at 

780 Xtians alreadt/ predestinated and called; justified in part; 

Serm. least already. How couldest thou be predestinated, but 


n5g givvheu thou wast not? What gavest thou to God, when thou 

" wast not, to give aught? What did God then when He 

predestinated him wlio was not? What the Apostle says, 

Rom. 4, J^io calteth those things which are /toty as those that are. 
If thou already wast, thou couldest not be predestinated; 
unless thou hadst been turned away, thou couldest not be 
called; unless thou hadst been ungodly, thou couldest not 
be justified; unless thou hadst been earthly, and of low estate, 
thou couldest not be glorified. Who then halhjirst yiven to 

?^,°'"' Him, and it shall he recompensed vnto him againf For of 
Him, and through Him., and in Him are all things. What 
then do we render unto Him? To Him he glorg. For that 
we were not, when we were predestinated; for that we were 
turned away, when we were called; for that we were sinners, 
when we were justified; let us give God thanks, that we 
remain not unthankful. 

4. Now we had proposed to consider of these four par- 
ticulars, what we had attained already, for what we yet look 
to be attained. For we have been predestinated already, 
and even before we were. Called we were, when we were 
iv. made Christians. We have this then too already. Justified. 
What? What is, justified? Dare we say, that we have this 
third thing already ? And shall there be any one of us w ho 
would dare to say, " I am just?" For I suppose that this is, 
" I am just," namely, " I am not a sinner." If you dare to 

1 John say this, John meets you, If ue shall sag that we have no 
' ' sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. What 
then? Have we nothing of justice? Or have we, but have 
it not entire ? Let us then search into this. For if we have 
something, and something have not; let that we have grow, 
and that we have not shall be filled up. For sec; men have 
been baptized, all their sins have been forgiven them, they have 
been justified from sins; we cannot deny it; yet a wrestling 
with the flesh remains, a wrestling with the world remains, a 
wrestling with the devil remains. Now whoso wrestleth, some- 
times gives, sometimes receives a blow; sometime conquers, 
sometimes is worsted ; we wait to see how he comes out of the 
the lists. For if we shall sag that we have no sin, we deceive 
ourselves, and the truth is not in us. Again, if we shall say 

by faith in Baptism; more completely/ hy(jroioth in the Spirit. 781 

that we have nought of iustice, we lie against the gifts of God. Serm. 

. . . CVIII 

For if we have nought of justice, we have not even faith : if we nsg.B.] 

have not faith, we are not Christians. But if we have faith, 

we have somewhat of justice already. This somewhat, 

wouldest thou know, how great it is .'' The just liveth by Hab. 2, 

faith; the just, I say, liveth by faith; for that he believeth |" J^^'"'" 

that he seeth not. Cl^l- 3, 

6. Our fathers, holy leaders' of the flock, the Apostles, 10'^ 38. ' 
our guides, when they preached, not only saw ivith their eyes, v. 
but even Jiandled ivith their hands; and notwithstanding, the ^ '^phn^ 
Lord reserving for us the gift of faith, to a certain one ofi, 1. 
His disciples handling, feeling, searching out with his fingers 
and finding the Truth, exclaiming, 3Iy Lord and my God, John20, 
the Lord and God Himself said, Because thou Itast seen, thou ^^* ^^* 
haat believed. And having us in view who were yet to be, 
He said, Blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have 
believed. We have not seen, we have heard, and believed. 
We have been in anticipation pronounced blessed, and have 
we nought of justice? The Lord came in the Flesh to the 
Jews, and was killed; He came not to us, and was accepted. 
A people whom I have not knoivn hath served Me; by thePs.i7, 
heari/ry of the ear they have obeyed Me. This people are ^ept. 
we, and have we nought of justice? Most certainly we have, (i^, 43, 
Be we thankful for that we have, that what we have not may 
be added, and that we lose not that we have. This third thing 
also then hath already effect in us. We have been justified; 
but this justice increases, as we make advance. And how 
it increases I will say, and so to say confer with you, that 
each one of you, already established in this justification, 
having received to wit the remission of sins by the laver of 
regeneration, having received the Ploly Ghost, making ad- 
vancement from day to day, may see where he is, may go on, 
advance, and grow, till he be consummated, not so as to come 
to an end, but to perfection, 

6. Man begins' by faith ; what pertaineth to faith ? To 
believe. But let this faith be still distinguished from unclean vi. 
spirits. What pertaineth to faith? To believe. But the 
Apostle James says. The devils also believe, and tremble. S^mes 
If thou believest only, and livest without hope, or hast not ' * 
love; The devils also believe, and tremble. What great 

782 Hope oat of a tjood coiiaciciice essential to faii/i 

S'-iiM. thing i.s il, il ihou callest Christ the Son of God? This 
1158.711 lector said, and he heard, Blessed art t/ioit, Simon Barjoiia; 
Mat.iG, tlii!5 tlic devils said, and they lieard, Hold your peace. The 
^^' lirst blessed^ it is said to him, liecause jiesh and blood hath 
Mark \,not revealed it unto thee, but 3Iy Father Which is in Hea- 
T* if »^4 '"^'''" ^^^^ ^^^ others hear, Hold your peace ; they both say 
34.35. this same thing, and they are repulsed. The expression is 
the same; but the Lord questioneth the root, not the flower. 
Heh.i2, Whence to tlie Hebrews it is said, f^est any root ofbiltcrness 
sprinyiny up trouble you, and thereby many be defiled. 
.First then distinguish thy faith from the faith of devils. 
Whereby dost tliou distinguish it? The devils said this in 
fear, Peter in love. Add then to faith, hope. And what 
hope is thei'e, but from some goodness of conscience ? Aud 
to this hope add charity. We have from above a super- 
eminent way, as the Apostle saith, I shew unto you a super- 
1 Cor. eminent way: If I speak with the tongues of men and of 
Vi 1 ' (iiiyf-'l'^i <fn^^ have not charity, I am become as sounding 
brass, or a tinkling cymbal; and he enumerates the rest of 
good gifts, and affirms that without charity they profit 
nothing. Let then these remain, faith, hope, charity; but 
the greatest of these is charily. Follow after charity. Dis- 
tinguish then your faith. Already are ye of the predes- 
tinated, the called, the justified. The Apostle Paul saith. 
Gal. 5, Neither circumcision availeth any thing, nor uncircum- 
cision; but faith. Saj' on Apostle, add, distinguish; for. 
Even the devils believe, and tremble ,• go on then and dis- 
tinguish ; for the devils believe, and tremble at what they 
hate. Distinguish, O Apostle, and circumcise my faith, 
Ps.42,i.and, distinguish my cause from the unholy nation. He 
(43* E ^^^^ plainly distinguish, separate, circumcise it. Faith, 
V.) saith he, which worketli by love. 
vii. 7. Let each one then, my brethren, look into himself 
within, weigh himself, prove himself in all his actions, his 
good works, what he doeth with charity, not looking for 
temporal retribution, but the promise of CJod, the Face of 
God. For whatsoever God promiseth thee availeth nought 
without God Himself Most truly God would not satisfy 
me, unless He promised me Himself, Very God. What is 
the whole earth? What is the whole sea? What is the 

God Alone satisjieth the soul; hope of Him our stay. 783 

whole heaven? What are all the stars? What the Sun? Serm. 
What the Moon? What the hosts of Angels? The Creator [^^g^gj 
of them all I thhst after: Him I hunger after, Him I thirst 
after; to Him I say, For uith I'hee is the Fountain o/ Li/e,^^-^^,^- 
Who saith to me, / <im the Bread, IVhich came down from John 6, 
Heaven. Let my pilgrimage hunger and thirst, that my 
presence may be satiated. The world smiles with its 
multitude of objects, beauteous, strong, diversified ; more 
beautiful is He Who made them; stronger and brighter is 
He Who made them, sweeter is He Who made them. /ps. i6, 
ftjiall he satiated, nhen Thy Glory shall be manifested. ■(fj^f'^-S^' 
faith then which worketh by love is in you, ye already belong V.) 
to the predestinated, called, justified; let it then increase in 
you. ¥ ox fait It which worketh by love cannot be without 
hope. But when we shall have arrived, shall faith be any 
longer there ? Shall it be said to us, " Believe?" Assuredly 
not. IVe shall see Him, we shall contemplate Him. Dearly i John 
beloved, we are the sons of God, and it hath not yet appeared ' ' 
what tee shall be. Because it hath not yet appeared, there- 
fore is there faith. We are the sons of God, predestinated, 
called, justified ; we are the sons of God, and it hath not yet 
appeared ichat we shall be. Faith then is now, before tchat 
we shall be appeareth. We know that when He shall appear, 
ive shall be like Him. What ! because we believe ? No. 
Why then ? For we shall see Him as He is. 

8. What of hope? will it be there? Hope will be no viii. 
longer, when there shall be possession*. For this hope is ' res 
necessary to our pilgrimage, it is she which consoleth by the 
way. For when the wayfarer toils in walking, he endures 
the toil, because he hopes to arrive at the end. Take away 
from him the hope of arriving, forthwith his strength for 
walking is broken. Hope also then which is in this life 
appertains to our righteousness as pilgrims. Hear the Apo- 
stle hin)seli : Waiting, saith he, for the adoption, we stilluom.s, 
groan nithin ourselves. Where groaning is, that cannot ^^* 
yet be called the happiness, whereof the Scripture saith. 
Labour and groaning hath passed away. Therefore, saith is. 35 
he, ice yet groan within ourselves, wailing for the adoption, ^^-^^^i 
the redemption of our body. We yet groan. Wherefore ? Rom. 8, 
For we arc saved by hope. But hope that is seen is not^^' 

784 God the substance of all toe ever longed for. 

Skrm. hope. Far if d man seeth, what dolh he hope for f But if 

fi58 B ^^^ hope for iJttil ne see twt, we do with patience wait for it^ 

V. 25. In this patience then were the Martyrs crowned, ihey longed 
lor what they saw not, they despised wliat they endured. In 

V. .35. this hope they said, Who shall separate us from the love of 
Christ ? shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or 

V. 3(i. fa/nine, or nakedness, or the siaord? For for Tliy sake. 
And wliere is He for Whose sake ? For for thy sake, 
saith he, ice are killed all the day. For thy sake. And 

John20, where is, Blessed arc they that have not seen, and yet have 
believed ? Lo, wliere He is, He is within thee, because this 
faith also is within thine own self. Doth the Apostle 

Ephes. deceive us, who saith, that Christ dwelleth in our hearts by 

^'^'' faith? Now by faith, then by sight; now by faith, as long 
as we are in the way, as long as we are in pilgrimage. 

2 Cor. 5, For as long as ae are in. the body, tee are in pilgrimage 
from the Lord; for ne walk by faith, not by sight. 
ix. 9. If this is faith, v^hat shall sight be.'' Hear what it shall 

1 Cor. be. That God may be All in all. What is, AU;' Wliat- 
' ' soever thou didst here seek after, whatsoever thou didst here 
esteem highly, Himself shall be to thee. What didst thou 
wish here, what didst thou love .? To eat and drink ? He 
shall be thy Food, He shall be thy Cup. What didst thou 
v\ish here.'' A frail, transient health of body .^^ He shall be 
thy Immortality. What didst thou seek here? Riches? 
Covetous one, what I pray suffi..eth thee, if God Himself 
sufHceth not? But what didst thou love? Glory, honour? 

Ts. 3,3. God shall be thy glory, to Whom it is even now said. My 
Glory, and the exalter of mine Head. For He hath already 
exalted my Head. Our Head is Christ. But why marvel- 
lest thou? Because the Head, the rest of tlie members shall 
be exalted also; then shall God be All in all. This we 
now believe, this we now hope; when we shall have come, 
we shall hold it fast ; and then there will be vision, not 
faith ; when we shall have come, we shall hold it fast ; and 
then there will be possession, not hope. What of charity ? 
is it too now, and then shall not be? It we love in believing, 
and not seeing ; how shall we love in seeing, and holding 
fast ? Therefore there shall be charity, but it shall be perlcct: 
' ^<^\' as the Apostle says, Faith, hope, charily; these three ; but 

Martyrs alone fully perfected^ and so not jjrayed for. 785 

the (jreatest of these charity. Having this, and nourishing Serm. 
it in us, with His aid persevering in Him, let us with all [jog.B.i 
assurance say? Who shall separate its from the love of Christ'^ 
till He have mercy, till He make perfect. Shall tribulation , 
or distress, or /amine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? For 
for thy sake are we killed all the day, we are accounted as 
sheep for the slaughter. And who can bear uj)? who endure 
all this? But in all these things we are conquerors. 'Rom. s, 
Whereby? By Him Who loved us. So then. If God hefor^^' 
us, who can he against us? 


On the words of the same Apostle, Rom. viii. or on Justification ; and on 
the words of James i. " Count it all joy, my brethren, when ye fall into 
divers temptations, &c." 

1. Yesterday a discourse was delivered* at length con- i. 
cerning our justification which we have from the Lord our^j^^j^g 
God, by my ministry, through His gift, in your hearing. 
And whereas in this life we are laden with the burden of 
corruptible flesh, not of course without sin; for if we shall Jolm 1, 
say that we have no sin, we deceive otirselves, and the truth 
is not in lis; yet that we are justified according to the 
measure of our state of pilgrimage, living by faith till we en- 
joy sight, has been made clear, as I think, to you, Beloved. 
The beginning is made from faith, to arrive at sight; the way 
is traversed, the country sought. In this pilgrimage our 
soul says. For all my desire is before Thee, and my groan- Ps. 38, 
ing is not hid from Thee. But in the country there will be" 
no room for praying, but only for praising. Why will there 
be no room for praying? Because there is want of nothing. 
What is here believed, there is seen ; what is here hoped for, 
there is possessed; what is here asked, there is received. 
Nevertheless, there is in this life some perfection, to which 
the Holy Martyrs have attained. And therefore the Eccle- 
siastical Discipline has that custom, which the faithful know, 
when the Martyrs are in that place commemorated at God's 
altar, where no ])rayer is made for them ; but for the other 
departed, who are commemorated, prayer is made. For it 
were an injury, to pray for a Martyr, to whose prayers we 

78C Lawful delir/hU lUdif f/ladden, if righteousness more. 

Seum, ouglit to 1)0 commended. For lie hiilli slrwjijlcd (i</(iinsl sin 
,^^^^^-. even unto blood. But to certain as yet imperfect, and yet 
jjgbiy justified in part, the Ai)ostle to the Hebrews says, For f/e 
4- have not pet foiifjlit unto blood, stru<j(jlinij against sin. If 

they then had not yet fought unto blood, without doubt some 
had even iinlo blood. Who even unto bloods Assuredly ihe 
Holy Martyrs, of whom the lesson ot' St. James the Apostle 
James was just now heard. Count it all jo;/, mij brethren, uheii ye 
*'^* fall into dicers feinptalions. It is spoken to them who are 
Ps. 26, already perfect, who can even &a,y, Prove tue, Lord, and tempt 
James "^^' Knoiiing, sailh he, that iribitlalion irorkelh patience, 
1, 3. 4. and patience hath a perfect work. 
'^•:^' 2. For righteousness must be loved; and in this righteous- 
ness which must be loved there are steps of those who are 
making advancement. The first is, that not all the things 
which give delight be preferred to the love of righteousness. 
This is the first step. What is that which I have said } 
That among all the things which give delight, righteousness 
itself should give thee more delight ; not that other things 
should not give delight, but that it should give more. For 
some things naturally give delight to our infirmity, as meat 
and drink delight the hungry and the thirsty; as this light 
which is shed from the heaven when the sun is risen, or 
which shines from the stars and moon, or which is kindled 
I conso- on the earth by lights relieving^ the darkness of the eyes, 
lantibus (Jelights US ; a musical voice and most sweet melody give 
delight, a goodly odour gives delight; whatsoever things again 
pertain to any pleasure of the flesh delight our touch. And 
all these things, which delight us, in the senses of the body, 
some are lawful. For, as I said, these grand spectacles of 
nature delight the eyes ; but the spectacles of the theatres 
delight the eyes also. The one lawful, the other unlawful. 
A holy Psalm sweetly toned delights the ear; but the songs 
of stage-players delight the ear also. The one lawfully, the 
other unlawfully. Flowers and aromatics delight the smell; 
and these too are God's creatures ; frankincense on the 
altars of devils delight the smell also. The one lawfully, the 
other unlawfully. Unforbidden food delights the taste; the 
leasts of sacrilegious sacrifices delight the taste also. The one 
lawfully, the other unlawfully. 'I'he matrimonial union gives 
delight; that of harlots gives delight also. The one lawfully. 

EveJi in ^^s, things invisible are most esteemed. 787 

tlic other unlawfully. Ye see, dearly beloved, that in these Serm, 
senses of the body, there are lawful and unlawful delights, nggg . 
Let righteousness in such wise delight, as to overcome even ' 
lawful delights; yea prefer righteousness to that delight 
wherewith thou art delighted lawfully. 

3. Let us set before our eyes, with a view to what I have iii. 
said, an example of this contest. I ask whether you love 
righteousness; you will answer," I do." Which thouwouldest 
not answer with truth, if it did not in some measure delight 
thee. For notliing is loved, save what gives delight. Z>e-Ps. 37, 
/////// t/ii/s'/fin the Lord, saith Scripture. Now the Lord is 
Righteousness. For thou must not form to thyself an idea of 
God as of an idol. God is like unto things invisible; so in 
ourselves the things are best which are invisible. Faithful- 
ness is better than the flesh, faithfulness is better than gold, 
yea faithfulness is better than silver, than money, than farms, 
than household, than riches; and all these are seen, faithful- 
ness is not seen. To which then shall we think God more 
like, to the visible, or the invisible ? to the precious, or the 
valueless } 1 will speak of things of less esteem. You have 
two servants, one deformed in person, the other very beauti- 
ful; but that deformed one, faithful, the otiier unfaithful. 
Tell me, which do you love the most; and I see that you 
love the things invisible. What then, when you love the 
faithful servant, though deformed in person, more than the 
beautiful, unfaithful one, have you made a mistake, and 
preferred deformity to beauty.? Assuredly not: but you have 
preferred the greater beauty to deformity. For you have 
disregarded the eyes of the body, and have lifted up the eyes 
of the heart. You have questioned the eyes of the body, 
and what report have they brought back to you .? This one 
is beautiful, the other deformed. You have driven them 
away, have refused their testimony ; have lifted up the eyes 
of the heart on the faithful servant, and on the unfaithful 
servant; the first you have found deformed in body, the last 
beautiful ; but you have ]>ronounced, and said. What is more 
beautiful than faithfulness? than unfaithfulness what more 
deformed .'' 

4. Therefore before all pleasures, all even lawful delights, iv. 
that is, righteousness is to be loved. For if thou hast interior 

788 Interior se»ses have t/ieir ihli(/hts, analoyouti to the outward. 

Sekm. senses, all those interior senses are delighted with the 
r J 59^7^] pleasures of righteousness. If thou hast interior eyes, see 
P^6^9.thi' light of righteousness; For iri/Ii TJiee is the founldin of 

life, and in Thy Light shall tie see liyht. Of that light the 
P8.13,3. Psalm saith, Liyliten mine eyes, that I never sleep in death. 

Again, if thou hast interior ears, hear righteousness. Such 

Luke 8 ears did He seek, Who said, Who hath ears to hear, let him 


2CoY.2,hear, If thou hast an interior smell, hear the Apostle; We 

^^- are a good odour of Christ unto God in every place. If thou 

Ps.34,8.hast an interior taste, hear; Taste and. see, that the Lord. 
is siceet. If thou hast an interior touch, hear what the Bride 

Cant. 2, singeth of the Spouse; His heft Hand is under niy head, 

^' and His Right Hand shall embrace me. 

5. Let us then propose, as I had begun to say, an example 
of this contest. Let us see, my brethren, who it is; I will 
ask, and let him answer, in what I shall say, whether he is so 
delighted with righteousness, as to prefer it to all the other 
delights which appertain to these senses of the bodj-. Lo, 
thy gold delights thee, delights thine eyes; it is a beautiful 
metal, most brilliant, it gives delight. Beautiful it is, I 
do not deny it; for were I to deny that it is beautiful, I 
should do wrong to its Creator. The tempter then comes 
and saith to thee, " I will take tliy gold from thee, if thou 
wilt not give false witness for me; but if thou wilt, I will give 
thee more." Two delights are at strife within thee ; now I 
ask thee which thou dost prefer, which delights thee most, 
gold, or truth; gold, or true witness. Doth the former 
shine, and the latter not shine .? Fidelity is sought for in 
true witness. Doth gold shine, and fidelity not shine ? 
Blush, use thine eyes; what thou didst love in thy servant, 
render tliou unto thy Lord. For just now when I asked thee 
of thy two servants, one fiiithful and defornled, the other un- 
faithful and beautiful, which thou didst love the most; thou 
answeredst me rightly, and didst prefer that which ought to 
be preferred. Return thou into thine own self, for of thyself 
is the question now. Certainly thou didst love the faithful 
servant ; is thy Lord unworthy, to have a faithful servant in 
thee ? And what great ]iromise didst tliou make to thy 
faithful servant.? Howsoever great thy love, the highest 
revvard was liberty. What great promise didst thou make 

Ri(/htroumess to he foUoiued, as ivas sin, for its sweetness. 789 

to thy failliful servant? Temporal liberty. Do we not see Serm, 
many slaves in want of nothing, and free men beggars ? Yet rigg^j 
thou didst exact fidelity from him, to whom thou didst promise 
liberty ; and dost thou not preserve then fidelity to Him Who 
promiseth thee eternity ? 

6. It were long to run through the several senses of the v. 
body : but what I have said of the eyes, that understand ye 

of the rest ; and to the delight of the flesh prefer the delight 
of the mind. For unlawful pleasures delight your flesh; let 
righteousness, invisible, beauteous, chaste, holy, melodious, 
sweet, delight your mind, that ye be not forced to it by 
fear. For if ye are forced to it by fear, it doth not yet 
delight. Thou oughtest not to sin, not through fear of 
punishment, but through love of i-ighteousness. Flence the 
Apostle says, / speak after the maimer of rnen because of Rom. 6, 
the infirmity of your Jiesh. For as ye have yielded your ^^' 
inembers to serve imcleanness and iniquity unto iniquity ; 
even so now yield your members to serve righteousness unto 
holiness. What have I said .? I speak after the manner of 
men : I speak what ye are able to bear. When ye yielded 
your members to iniquity, for the perpetration of uncleanness, 
were ye drawn by fear, or invited by delight? What say 
ye? Answer us, because even ye who are now living well, 
perchance did once live evilly. When ye sinned, ye took 
delight in your sins ; did fear draw you to sin, or the sweet- 
ness of sin? Ye will answer, " the sweetness." Doth sweet- 
ness draw to sin, and fear constrain to righteousness? Prove 
yoiu'selves, look into yourselves. Let him that threateneth 
take the gold; righteousness is sweeter, righteousness is 
more brilliant. Let him that promiseth not give the gold ; 
righteousness must be preferred to gold, preferred by the 
delight it yieldeth, it is brighter, it is more brilliant, it is 
sweeter, it is more delicious. Now then if one try himself, 
and come off" victorious in this contest, he hath heard the 
Apostle saying, / speak after the manner of men because of 
the infirmity of your flesh. Doubtless he spared infirmity ; 
and tried to say something more grateful to those of little 

7. Lo, saith he, I speak what you are able to receive: Ye yi. 
have yielded your members to unlawful delights, ye liave 

790 To he perfect, despise pain, as ivell as pleasure, for holiness. 

Serm. been led bv the sweetness ol' sins, to do them; let the 
CIX. ' . 

[159.13.1 sweetness and pleasantness of righteousness draw you to 

ri!?;ht action; love righteousness, as ye have loved iniquity. 
Righteousness is worthy to obtain from you that ye yield to 
it what ye have yielded to iniquity ; this is, / speak after 
the manner of men, that is, what your infirmity is as yet 
able to bear. What then hath the Apostle suspended ? 
what hath he deferred to say ? T will tell you what he hath 
deferred, if I shall be able. Weigh righteousness and 
iniquity together: is righteousness worthy of as much as 
iniquity was worth ? Ought it so to be loved, as iniquity 
was loved \ God forbid that it should be so loved, but 
would it were even so. More then.? Undoubtedly more. 
In iniquity thou didst follow pleasure, for righteousness 
endure pain. In unrighteousness, I say, thou didst follow 
delight, for righteousness endure pain ; this is the more. 
Lo, some unchaste one of youth's slippery age, through the 
enticement of pleasui'e, hath cast his eyes on another man's 
wife, hath loved, desires to attain his end ; yet he seeks to 
be concealed ; for he in such wise loves pleasure as to fear 
pain more. Why seeks he to be concealed ? He fears to 
be caught, to be imprisoned, brought up, confined, produced, 
tortured, killed. Through fear of all this, iu that pursuit of 
1 aucu- his pleasures he seeks concealment; he looks' sharply out 
patur £^^j. j|-,g husband's absence, he fears to find even the accom- 
plice of his crime, because he di'eads to involve himself with 
one who is privy to it. And we see him drawn by pleasure; 
but that pleasure is not so powerful, as to overcome even fear 
and pain, and the dread of punishment. Give me beauteous 
righteousness, give me the beauty of faith ; let her come 
forth, shew herself to the eyes of the heart, inspire fervour 
in her lovers. Now she says to thee, " Wouldest thou enjoy 
me .'' Desj)ise whatever else dolighteth thee, despise it for me." 
Lo, thou hast despised it, it is not enough ior her : this is 
after the manner of men, because of the injirmity of your 
flesh. " It is not enough that thou despisest whatever de- 
lighted thee ; despise whatever terrified thee ; despise the 
prison, despise chains, despise the rack, despise torments, 
despise death. These thou hast overcome, thou hast found 
me." In either step shew yourselves lovers of righteousness. 

Fervor and hlessedttess of sou I, dying to aelf^to live lo God. 791 

8. We do find some perhaps who prefer the delight of Serm. 
righteousness to the pleasures and satisfaction of their body;jj59^j 
but for him who for it would despise punishment, pains and vii. 
death, thinkest thou there is any such among us? At least 

let us conceive what we dare not profess. What conceive 
we? Where conceive we it? There are thousands of martyrs 
before our eyes, those true and perfect lovers of righteous- 
ness. Of them is it said, Count it all joy, my brethren, ichen James 
ye fall into divers temptations; knowing that the trying of ' 
your faith icorketh patience ; and patience hath a perfect 
work. What can be added, that she should have a perfect 
work? She loves, loves ardently, fervently, treadeth down 
all things that delight, and passes on ; she comes to things 
rough, frightful, cruel, threatening, she treads them down, 
breaks them, and passes on. O what it is to love, O what it 
is to go onwards, O what it is to die to one's self, O what it 
is to attain to God! He that findeth his life shall lose it ; 

10 39 

and he that loseth his life for My sake shall find it unto /?/<? jo'hni2 
eternal. Thus must the lover of righteousness be armed, 25. 
thus must the lover of the unseen beauty be ai'med. What^^a. 

10 27 

/ tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light : and what ye ' 
hear in the ear, that preach ye upon the housetops. What is. 
What I tell you in darkness, that speak ye in light 9 What 
I speak, and ye hear in the heart, that speak ye con- 
fidently. And what ye hear in. the ear, that preach ye upon 
the housetops. What is. Ye hear in the ear? Ye hear in 
secret; for that ye fear as yet to profess and confess it. 
What is then. Preach ye upon the housetops^ Your houses 
are your bodies ; your house is your flesh. Get thee up 
unto the top, tread down the flesh, and preach the word. 

9. But first, my brethren, mourn for what ye were, that vni. 
ye may be able to be what ye are not yet. This which 

I am speaking of is a great thing. And whence does any 
great thing come to us? It is very exalted, it is perfect, it 
is most excellent; whence comes it to us? Hear whence it 
comes to us; Every good gift and every perfect gift is from James 
above, and comeih down from the Father of lights, with ' '' 
Whom is no variableness, neither shadow of turning. 
Thence is the good we have, thence is that we have not 
yet. Have ye it not? Ask, and ye shall receive. If ye,, 

3f 7.11. 

792 Adrance in jmtijication unlimited. 

Serm. saith the Saviour, If ye, being evil, know how to give good 
ri69.B.l ^\f^^ '^'^^^ your children^ how much more shall your heavenly 
Father give good things to them that ask Him ? Let every 
mau then examine himself, and whatsoever good he shall 
» perti- find in himself, which hath relation' to our justification, let 
him render thanks to Him Who gave it; and in rendering 
thanks to Him Who hath given, let Him also ask of Him 
that which as yet He hath not given. For thou dost not 
in receiving advance, and He in giving fail. Howsoever 
capacious the throat, howsoever cajDacious the belly thou 
bringest, the fountain doth surpass thy thirst. 


SERMON ex. [CLX. Ben.] 

On the words of the Apostle. 1 Cor. i. " He that glorieth, let him glory in 
71.E.V. the Lord." And on the verse of the 70th Psalm, " Deliver me in Thy 
righteousness, and rescue me." 

iCor.i, 1, We have been admonished by the Apostle, that, He 
^^' that glorieth, should glory in the Lord ; and to the Same 
Ps.7 1,2. Lord have we chanted. Deliver tne in Thy righteousness, 
and rescue me. This then is to glory in the Lord, to glory 
not in one's own, butin His righteousness. Now this righteous- 
ness is hidc3en to those, who glory in their own righteousness. 
And this vice appeared especially in the Jews refusing the 
Old Testament, and remaining in the old tnan. In vain 
and fruitlessly had they read in their books and sung, 
Rom. Deliver me in Thy righteousness. For they being ignorant 
' ' of God's righteousness, and wishing to establish their own 
righteousness, have not submitted themselves unto the righte- 
ousness of Ood. Let no one therefore glory as if of his own 
righteousness, even though he be righteous. For it is to 
him who glorieth in his own righteousness that it is said, 
1 Cor. 4, For tohat hast thou that thou hast not received? Therefore, 
let him that glorieth, glory in the Lord. For what more 
secure, than to glory in Him, in Whom no one can by any 
means be confounded.-' For if thou shouldest glory in a man, 

To glory in self, in itself convicts of folly. 793 

something may be found in a man, yea, many things may be Serm. 
found in a man, for which whoso glorieth in him may be Mg^ g j 
confounded. But when thou hearest that one must not 
glory in man, of course neither in thyself; for thou also art 
none other than a man. If then thou gloriest in thyself, thou 
gloriest in man; and this is more foolish, and more execrable. 
For if thou didst glory in some just, or some other wise man, 
he doth not glory in himself in whom thou gloriest; whereas 
if thou gloriest in thyself, thou art not wise, nor just; now if 
one must not glory in a wise man, nmch less must one glory 
in an unwise. But he that glorieth in himself, doth glory in 
an unwise. For he is convicted of being unwise by the very 
fact, that he glorieth in himself Therefore, /(e that (jlorieth, 
let him glory in the Lord; nothing more safe, nothing more 
secure. If thou canst, thou hast whereby to hold, glorying 
in the Lord thou shalt not be confounded. For nothing of 
blame can be found in Him, in Whom thou gloriest. And 
therefore he too who said not, " Deliver me in my righteous- 
ness;" hnt, deliver me in Thy righteousness; first said this. In Ps.71,1. 
thee have I hoped, O Lord, let me never be confounded. 

% For is it aught else, wherein the Jews erred, or by 
what other vice became they outcasts from the grace of the 
Gospel, save by that one whereof the Apostle refrained not 
to speak, which I have a little above quoted ? I hear them Rom. 
record, says he, tJiat they have a zeal of God, but not accord- ^^ '^" 
ing to knowledge. Where he praised, he also blamed. 
Wherein then were they faulty ? In that doubtless though 
they have a zeal of God, it is not according to knowledge. 
And as if we had consulted the Apostle, and said, " What is 
this that thou hast said, not according to knowledge '^ What 
is this knowledge which they have not, who yet have a zeal 
of God '( Wouldest thou hear what knowledge they have not? 
Attend to what follows; For they being ignorant of God's v- 3. 
righteousness, and tvishing to establish their owti righteous- 
ness, have not submitted themselves unto the righteousness of 
God. If then thou hast a zeal of God, and wouldest have it 
according to knowledge, and belong to the New Testament, 
to which the Jews could not belong because they had a zeal 
of God not according to knowledge; acknowledge the righte- 
ousness of God, and wish not to establish this righteousness, if 

3 F 2 

794 JV/io knows Christ (rucijied, kuvus (til things. 

Si RM. thou liast it, as thine own ; if thou livcst well, if thou keepest 

[leo.B.j God's precepts, think it not thine own work ; for this is to 

wish to establish one's own righteousness. Acknowledge from 

Whom thou hast received and hast what thou hast received. 

1 Cor. For nothing hast thou, which thou hast not received. Now 

4 7 

' ■ if thou hast received it, why dost thou ylory^ as if thou 
hadst not received it? For when thou gloriest, as if thou 
hadst not received, thou gloriest in thyself; and where 
is, He that (/lorieth, let him glonj in the Lord? Hold 
fast what hath been given, but acknowledge the Giver. 
When the Lord was promising that He would give His 
John 7, Spirit, He saith, ]fa)ni man thirst, let him come unto Me, 

37 38 . •' 

and drink. He that believeth on Me, out of Ids belly shall 

flow rivers of living loater. Whence is this river in thee ? 

Call to mind thy former di'ought. For if thou hadst not been 

dry, thou hadst not been thirsty ; if thou hadst not been 

thirsty, thou hadst not drunk. What is, " if thou hadst not 

been thirsty, thou hadst not drunk ?" U thou hadst not found 

thyself empty, thou hadst not believed on Christ. Before 

He said. Out of his belly shall flow rivers of living water; 

He said first, If any man thirst, let him come and dritik. 

Therefore shalt thou have a river of living water, because 

thou drinkcst ; thou dost not drink, if thou art not thirsty ; 

but if thou wert thirsty, why wouldest thou glory as though 

of thine own river? Therefore, he that glorieth let him glory 

in the Lord. 

I Cor. 3. And I, brethren, saith he, when I came to you came 

^'^■^' not in loftiness of speech, or of wisdom, declaring unto you 

'marty- ^^"-^ lestimony^ of God. He saith also. Did/ say that I knew 

"■'"^ any thing among you, save Jesus Christ, and Him Crucified? 

myste-' Though he knew only this, there is nothing which he knew 

''"™^ not. It is a great thing to know Christ Crucified: but he 

laid a treasure, so to say, covered up before the eyes of babes. 

Christ Crucified, saith he. How great things doth this 

treasure contain within.'' So again in another place, when he 

Col. 2, was afraid lor some, lest through philosophy and vain deceit 

^' * ^" they should be seduced from Christ, he promised the treasure 

of the knowledge and wisdom oi" God in Christ. Beware, 

saith he, lest any man seduce you through philosophy and 

vain deceit, after the elements of the world, not after Christ, 

The proud^offended at y*^ humility ofXt^aee notHisMajesty. 795 

in Whom are hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge. Seum. 
Christ Crucified, the hidden treasures of wisdom and know- [igo.B.] 
ledge. Be not then, saith he, deceived by the name of wis- 
dom. Apply yourselves to this covering, pray ye that it may 
be uncovered to you. Thou foolish philosopher of this world, 
what thou art seeking is nothing; He Whom thou seekestnot 
(is* every thing). What profit is it, that thou thirstest exceed- 
ingly, and thou dost pass over the fountain with thy* feet? ^^^' 
Thou despisest its lowliness, because thou dost not understand 
its majesty. For if they had known^ they would never have i Cor. 
crucified the Lord of Glory. Jesus Christ, Crucified, saith ' 
he. / did not say that I knew any thing among you, save 
Jesus Christ, and Him Crucified; His humiliation, which 
the proud deride, that that may come to pass in them, Thou hast ^^- ^ '^' 
rebuked the proud; for cursed are they who decline from 
Thy commandments. And what is His commandment, but 
that we believe on Him, and love one another ? Believe on 
whom .? On Christ Crucified. What pride will not hear, 
that let wisdom hear. His commandment is, that we believe 
on Him. On whom ? On Christ Crucified. This is His 
commandment, that we believe on Christ Crucified. This un- 
doubtedly ; but this proud one, with neck erect, and swelling 
throat, with tongue puffed up, and cheeks inflated, derides 
Christ Crucified. Cursed, then, are they, which decline from 
Thy commandments. Why do they deride, but because 
they see the poor mean garment wrapped round without, they 
see not the treasure that lieth hid within ? He sees the 
Flesh, sees the Man, sees the Cross, sees the Death; these 
he despises. Stay, pass not on, despise not, insult not. Wait, 
search ; it maybe there is something within which will much 
delight thee. If thou findest, What eye hath not seen, nor i Cor. 
ear heard, neither hath ascended into the heart of man. ' 
The eye sees the Flesh ; there is beneath the Flesh What eye 
seeth not. Thine ear hears a voice ; there is there What ear 
hath not heard. A Crucified and Dead Man ascends into thine 
heart, as from earthly thoughts ; there is there That which Exod.2, 
hath not ascended into the heart of man. For ordinary ^^\g - 
thoughts ascend into our heart; It ascended into the heart '^^^ 

* These words are supplied, as there Benedictine notes, Hie aliquid deest. 
is an evident omission here. The 

7f)(> The loorldcrucijied to ua Ihrotiyh the Cross of its Maker. 

Serm. of Moses, sailli the Scriuturc, to visit his brethren; this is a 
[i60.B.]tiuinan tliought'. And when the disciples were in doubt 
'cMmditio about the Lord Himself, and were saying among themselves, 
cogitatio when they saw Him on a sudden risen again, " It is He ; No, 
(text.) it is not; it is flesh, it is a spirit;" He saith to them. Why 
3Ci. ^ do thoughts ascend into^ your heart <^ 

2i»fl!/3«/- 4_ Let us then seek, if we can, not for that which may 
3 merea- ascend into our heart, but whither our heart may be thought' 
'"' worthy to ascend. For he shall be thought worthy to be 
glorified in Christ Keigning, who shall have learnt to glory 
in Him Crucified. Whence the Apostle himself seeing not 
only whither to ascend, but also whereby to ascend. For 
many have seen whither, and have not seen whereby ; have 
loved the country of exaltation, but have not known the way 
of humiliation. The Apostle, 1 say, knowing, and reflecting, 
and meditating beforehand, not only whither, but also whereby, 
Gal. 6, saith, God forbid that I should glory, save in the Cross of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. He might have said, " In the Wisdom 
of our Lord Jesus Christ," and said true; he might have said, 
"In the Majesty," and said ti'ue; he might have said, " In the 
Power," and said true; but he said, " In the Cross." Wliere 
the Philosopher of the world was ashamed, there the Apostle 
finds a treasure ; by not despising the mean covering, he 
got to the precious enclosure. God forbid, saith he, that 
1 should glory, save in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
A goodly burden hast thou borne, there is all that thou hast 
sought; and what great thing lay hid there hast thou shewn. 
Ibid. What kind of succour.? By Whom the world is crucified 
unto me, and I unto the world. How could the world be 
crucified unto thee, had not He been Crucified for thee, by 
Whom the world was made ? Therefore, He that glorieth, 
let him glory in the Lord. In what Lord ? In Christ Cru- 
cified. Where is humility, there is Majesty; where infirmity, 
there Power; where death, there Life. If thou wouldest 
attain to the one, despise not the other. 

5. Thou hast heard in the Gospel of the sons of Zebedee. 

Mat.20, They sought for elevation, begging that one of them might 

Mark **^ "' ^^^^ Right Hand, the other on the Left, of so Great a 

10, 37. Householder. Great truly was the height they sought for, 

great indeed; but since they neglected the whereby, Christ 

Cross on our forehead bids us glory in ChrisVs humility. 797 

calleth them from the whither they wished to go,to the whereby Serm. 
they must go. For as they asked so great elevation, what did rieo.B.l 
He answer them? Are ye able to drink of the Cup that /Mat.20, 
shall drink of? What Cup, save the Cup of humihation, save ^^' 
the Cup of suffering ? which when He was about to drink, 
and transforming our infirmity into Himself, He saith to the 
Father, Father, if it be possible, let this Cup pass from Me. Mat.26, 
Transforming into Himself these very Apostles who refused ^^* 
to drink such a Cup, and sought exaltation, neglected the 
way of humiliation. He saith, Are ye able to drink of the Cup) 
that I shall drink of? Ye seek Christ glorified'; return ' excei- 
unto Him Crucified. Ye would reign and glory on the^^°* 
Thrones of Christ; first learn to say, Ood forbid that I should Ga\. 6, 
glory, save in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ ! This is ^^* 
the Christian doctrine, the precept of humility, the commend- 
ation of humility, that we glory not, save in the Cross of 
our Lord Jesus Christ, For it is no great thing to glory in * 

Christ's Wisdom ; a great thing it is to glory in the Cross of 
Christ; wherein the ungodly insults thee, therein let the godly 
glory ; where the proud insults, therein let the Christian 
glory. Blush not for the Cross of Christ; therefore hast 
thou received this Sign on the forehead, as the seat of shame. 
Remember thy forehead, that thou stand not in fear of others' 

6. The sign of the Old Testament was circumcision in the 
secret flesh ; the Sign of the New Testament is the Cross in 
the open^ forehead. For there is concealment, here unveil- 2 nbera 
ing: that is under a veil, this on the face. For as long as'2 Cor. 3, 
Moses is read, a veil is placed over their heart. Wherefore ? 
Because they have not passed over unto Christ. For when\. I6. 
tJiou shall have passed over unto Christ, the veil shall be 
taken away ; tliat thou who hadst circumcision in secret, 
may est on the forehead bear the Cross. But tve with face y- 18. 
unveiled beholding as in a glass the Glory of the Lord, are 
transformed, saith he, into the same image from glory to 
glory, as by the Spirit of the Lord. Attribute not this unto 
thyself, think not this thine own doing, lest, being ignorant 
of God\s righteousness, and wishing to establish thine own 
righteousness, thou subtnit not thyself unto the righteousness 

708 Oircu incision a type of the Cross. 

Serm. of God. Pass over then unto Christ, O thou who gloriesl 
[leo^R.l in the Circumcision. For thou wishest to have glory from 
that which thou art ashamed to shew. " It is a sign," it is 
true, it was enjoined by God ; but it is a sign of conceal- 
ment; for the New Testament was veiled in the Old; the 
Old Testament is unveiled in the New. Therefore let the 
si<Tn pass over from concealment to open view, and that 
which was hidden under the garment begin to be on the 
forehead. For who doubts that in that sign Christ was fore- 
Josb. 5, announced .? Thence the knife of rock ; now the Rock 
1 Cor. ivas Christ. Thence the eighth the day of circumcision, and 
y.' ^- the Lord's Day of the Resurrection. Therefore the Apostle 
Serm. passing over from thence, coming from thence, passing over 
a69 B.)to wit unto Christ, that the veil might be taken away, knew 
c.ii.(.j.)^vherein to glory. Btit God forbid that I should glory, save 
14.' ' in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. For what had he 
'• *^- said before ? For neither they themselves who are circum- 
cised keep the Law; but desire to have you circumcised, that 
they may glory in your flesh. And thou. Apostle, what.? 
Transfer the sign to the forehead. But God forbid that 1 
should glory, save in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. 
Here, saith he, I have what before I knew not. The New 
Testament hath come, what was concealed hath been uu- 
Is. 9 2. veiled. They that sat in the shadow of death, upon them 
hath the light risen. What was concealed hath been un- 
veiled to them; what was hidden, is laid ojDcn. The Rock 
Himself hath come, hath circumcised us all in the Spirit, and 
stamped the sign of His Humiliation on the forehead of the 

7. Let glorying henceforth be in the Cross of Christ ; be 

' excels! we not ashamed of the Humiliation of the Most High '. 

How long the distinction of meats, and the circumcision of 

Phil. 3, the flesh ? Whose God is their belly, whose glory is in their 

shame! To them were fore-announced things to come, let 

things done be now believed. Let us not be ungrateful to 

Him Who hath come, if we waited for Him to come. But 

wherefore are the Jews outcasts from this grace, aliens, 

Bom. 10, fugitives } Because they have a zeal of God, but not a^cord- 

^* ing to knowledge. What knowledge ? Being ignorant^ saith 

IVe can wound, not heal, ourselves. 799 

he, of God's righteousness, and wishing to establish their own Serm. 
righteousness ; not acknowledging God save in His precepts, [igo.B.] 
and supposing that they could in their own strength fulfil 
the precepts, they were ignorant' of the help of God. For^ adju- 
Christ is the End of the Law, Christ is the Perfection of Dei i„. 
the Law, for Righteousness to every one that believeth. °°'"'^- 
And what doeth Christ? He justifieth the ungodly. For(marg.) 
by believing on Him Who justifieth the ungodly, not^^J."^" 
the godly, but the ungodly; making him godly, whomdevita- 
He found ungodly; to him, then, that believeth on Him^^^^s^ 
That justifieth the ungodly, his faith is counted for righ- 1- 4- 
teousness. For if Abraham were justified by works, as 5. ' ' 
if he had done them by himself, as if he had given this to ^^^^- ^• 
himself; he hath whereof to glory, but not before God. But, 
he that glorieth, let him glory in the Lord; and say with 
confidence. Deliver me in Thy righteousness, and rescue me. 
For He delivereth and rescueth those who hope in Him; 
who ascribe not what they have received to their own 
strength. For this very thing also is a point of wisdom, /o wisd.8, 
know Whose gift she is. Who said this? He who asked ^^• 
God to give him continence. What righteousness, what 
particle of righteousness can be fulfilled without some 
continence ? For there is a delight in sin ; for if there were 
not, it would not be done. But lighteousness delighteth 
less, it either delighteth not at all, or delighteth less than is 
meet. Whence is this, but from the sicknesses of the soul ? 
Bread is loathed, and poison delighteth. Whence shall this 
sickness be cured, I pray you. Shall it be by ourselves, and 
through ourselves? We who were all sufficient to wound 
ourselves, who of us is suflicient to cure what he hath done ? 
So too in these sins, who doth not, when he will, wound 
himself? But no one, when he will, healeth himself. Be there 
then a godly mind, a sincerely Christian mind, not un- 
thankful to grace. Let the Physician be acknowledged ; 
the sick man never maketh himself whole. 

^OOSinceXttookJksh ,y'b<Kly Hismenibcn's;sintwia</'^it ,\paririgXt 


Ou the words of the Apostle, 1 Cor. vi. " Be not deceived: neither forni- 
cators, nor idolaters, — shall possess the kingdom of God. Know ye not 
thtit your bodies are the members of Christ? &c." 

Serm. 1. We have heard the Apostle, when the lesson was being 

[161.B.] I'ead, rebuking and restraining the lusts of men, and saying, 

j^ Knoio yc not that your bodies are the members of Christ ? 

lCoT.6, shall I then take the members of Christ, and make them the 

members of an harlot? God forbid. He said then that our 

bodies are the members of Christ, since Christ is our Head, 

in that He was made Man for us; the Head, of Whom it is 

Ephes. said, He is the Saviour of our Body. Now His Body is the 

Col, i, Church. If then our Lord Jesus Christ had only taken a 

^^- human Soul, our souls only had been His members; but 

because He took a Body also, by Which also He is our 

Head, who consist of soul and body ; of a surety our bodies 

are His members also. If any one then desiring to commit 

fornication, was of small account with himself, and in his 

own person despised himself; let him not in himself despise 

Christ: let him not say, " 1 will commit it, I am nothing: 

I8.i0,6. All J/esh is grass." But thy body is a member of Christ. 

Whither wert thou going? Return. Whither wert thou 

desirous to throw thyself headlong as it were? Spare Christ 

iCor.6,in thee, acknowledge Christ in thee. Shall I then take the 

^^' members of Christ, and make them the members of an harlot ? 

For she who consenteth to thee unto adultery is an harlot; 

and, it may be, being herself a Christian, she is taking the 

members of Christ, and making them the members of an 

adulterer. Ye mutually despise Christin you, and acknowledge 

not your Lord, nor think of your Price. And What a Lord is 

He, Who maketh His servants His brethren? Nay, it were all 

too little lor Him to make them His brethren, if He had not 

made them His members. Is so great dignity held so cheap? 

Because it hath been so graciously accorded, is not honour 

paid Him? If it had not been accorded, it would have been 

longed for: because it hath been accorded, is it despised? 

Reverence due to our bodies, as temples of the Holy Ghost. 801 

2. But these our bodies, which the Apostle saith are Serm. 
members of Christ, by reason of the Body of Christ, Which rjgj g , 
He took of the nature of our body, these our bodies, I say, the jj 
same Apostle saith, are the Temple of the Holy Spirit in m*,v. 19. 
IVhoin we have of God. By reason of Christ's Body our 
bodies are the members of Christ; by reason of the inhabiting 
Spirit of Christ, oar bodies are the Temple of the Holy Spirit. 
Which of these dost thou despise in thyself? Christ, Whose 
member thou art? or the Holy Spirit, Whose Temple thou 

art ? This harlot, which consenteth to thee unto evil, thou 
dost not dare, it may be, to introduce into thy chamber, where 
thou hast thy marriage bed; but lookest out some mean 
and uncomely place in thy house, wherein to wallow in thy 
shame. Thou dost pay honour then to thy wife's chamber, 
and dost thou pay none to the Temple of thy God ? Thou 
dost not introduce a wanton woman, where thou sleepest 
with thy wife, and dost thou go thyself to a wanton, when 
thou art the Temple of God .? I imagine that the Temple of 
God is of more account than thy wife's bedchamber. For 
whithersoever thou goest, Jesus seeth thee. Who made thee, 
and when lost redeemed thee, and when dead died for thee. 
Thou dost not acknowledge thine own self; but He doth not 
turn His Eyes away from thee, not to help, but to punish. 
For the Eyes of the Lord are upon the righteous, and His Ps. 34, 
Ears are open unto their prayers. He went on forthwith, and ' 
alarmed those who were giving themselves an evil security, 
who were saying to themselves, " I will do this; for God 
doth not deign to take heed to rae doing such shameful 
things." Hear thou what follows, mark Whose thou art; 
since whithersoever thou mayest go, Jesus seeth thee; But^-iG- 
the Face of the Ldrd is upon them that do evil, to destroy the 
remembrance of them from the land. But from what land? 
Of which it is said. Thou art my Hojje, my Portion in the Pa. \42, 
land of the living. 

3. For peradventure the evil, the unjust man, the adulterer, iii. 
the fornicator, rejoice in that they do, and he is growing old, 

in whom lust grows not old, and he saith within himself, 
" Certainly it is true, Btit the Face of the Lord is upon 
them that do evil, to destroy the remembrance of them from 
the land. See I am now grown old, who from my early 

802 Pains in Hell, it may be, different, all intolerable. 

Serm. youth even unto this clay have been committing such great 
[lei.B.] crimes,, many chaste men have I buried before me, the corpses 
of many cliaste young men have I accompanied to the grave, 
and inipure as 1 am, I have survived the pure. What is that 
wliich is said, that, T/ie Face of the Lord is upon them that 
do evilf to destroy the remembrance of them from the landV 
There is another land where no unchaste one is, there is 
I Cor. 6, another land in the Kingdom of God. Be not deceived; 
neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effe- 
tninate, nor abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, 
nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, sh(dl possess /he 
Kingdom of God. This is, He shall destroy the remembrance 
of them from the land. For many while they commit such 
things promise themselves hope; because of those who, living 
abandoned lives, promise themselves hope in the Kingdom 
of God, whither they must not approach, it is said, He shall 
destroy the remembrance of them from the land. For there 
shall be a New Heaven, and a New Earth, which the 
righteous shall inhabit. There the ungodly, there the 
wicked, there the abandoned are not allowed to dwell. 
Whoso is such, let him now choose, where he would long to 
dwell, whilst there is time that he may change. 
iv. 4. For there are two habitations; one in eternal fire, the 
other in the Eternal Kingdom. Suppose that in that eternal 
fire one shall be tormented in this way, and another in that ; 
yet shall they all be there, all shall be tormented there ; one 
Matt, less, another more. For it shall be more tolerable for i^odojn 
j^^jt * in the day of judgment, than for another city; and some 
23, 15. compass sea and land, to make one proselyte, and uhen they 
have made him, they make liini tnofold more the child of hell 
than themselves. Suppose that some are doubly more than 
others; suppose that some are more, others less; it is no place 
where thou wouldest choose for thyself a spot. The lightest 
torments that are there, are worse than those thou dost dread 
in this life. Think how thou wouldest tremble, if one were 
to lay an information against thee, lest thou shouldest be 
cast into prison; and dost thou live wickedly against thine 
own self, that thou shouldest be cast into the fire ? Thou 
dost tremble, thou art disturbed, thou growest pale, thou 
runnest to the Church, thou desirest to see the Bishop, thou 

Dreadof earthly sufferingsshould teach men to dread Hell. 803 

throwest thyself at his feet. He asks, Why ? " Deliver me," ^ii5^- 
thou sayest. What is the matter? " Lo such an one is lay-[i6i.B'.] 
ing an information against me." And what would he do 
to thee? " My Lord, I am suffering violence, My Lord, I 
am being cast into prison ; have mercy on me, deliver me." 
See, how a prison is feared, how confinement is feared ; and 
the scorching of hell is not feared. Finally, when the 
calamity increases, and the oppression rages more violently, 
rages even unto death, when it seems a boon to a man to 
escape from death, from being killed, all cry out that succour 
ought to be given him, all manner of help is implored; " help, 
run for life." The utmost exaggeration of a calamity is, in 
that it is said, " for life." Succour should indeed be brought, 
nor ought help to be denied to this fear: what can be done, 
should be done by whom it can. 

5. Yet I would ask him who is in this danger, and who v. 
by this plea moves my pity'; when he says, " Run for my * viscera 
life." I at once answer him, " Run indeed I will for the life 
of thy flesh, would that thou wouldest run for the life of thy 
soul ^" And thou shouldest know, that it is for thy body I 
am running, and not for thy soul. I had better hearken to 
Christ saying the truth, than to thee complaining through a 
false fear. For the Lord Himself saith, Fear not them which Matt. 
kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul. Thou would- ' 
est have me run for thy life indeed; lo, he whom thou fearest, 
and under whose threats thou dost grow pale, cannot kill the 
life of thy soul; his violence extends but to thy body, bo not 
thou violent against thine own soul. By him it cannot be 
killed, by thee it can ; not by the spear, but by the tongue. 
The enemy who pierces thee, makes an end of this life : but 
the mouth that lietli, slayetli the soul. From these things Wisd.i, 
then that men fear in this life, let them conjecture what they ^^' 
ought to fear. For he feareth a prison, and doth he not fear 
hell ? He feareth the inquisitorial torturers, and doth he not 
fear the infernal angels? He feareth temporal torment, and 
doth he not fear the pains of eternal fire ? Lastly, he feareth 
to die for a little while, and doth he not fear to die for 
ever ? 

* The double meaning of anima life, and the soul, cannot be so well 
(•\^»;^«) as the principle of the animal maintained in an English Translation. 

804 Nonewithout us can deprive the soul ofits life which is God. 
Serm. 6. This man who is going to kill thee, whom thou fearest, 

CXI u u 

fiei.B.]^^ whom thou art dismayed, from whom thou fliest, by the 
fear of whom thou art not sufTcred to sleep, and at whom if 
thou seest him in a dream, as thou sleepest, thou art alarmed, 
what can he do to thee? He may separate thy soul from 
thy body ; see, whither thy separated soul shall go. For he 
cannot any otherwise kill thy body, except by separating 
from it thy soul, whereby thy body liveth. For by the 
presence of thy soul the body liveth, and as long as thy soul 
is present in thy body, thy body must necessarily live. 
Now he who seeks thy death, wishes to cast out from thy 
vi, body thy life, whereby thy body liveth. Thinkest thou 
there is not some life, whereby thy soul itself livoth? For 
the soul whereby thy body liveth is a certain life. Thinkest 
thou there is no other life, whereby thy soul itself liveth ; 
or as thy body hath a life, the soul whereby thy body liveth, 
is thy soul itself also so ordered, as to have some life of its 
own ? and as the body, when it dies, breathes out the soul, 
its life, so does the soul also, when it dies, breathe out some 
life of its own? If w^e shall discover what this life is, not of 
thy body, which is thy soul ; but the life of the life of thy 
body, that is, the life of thy soul, if we shall discover it, 
from this death, whereby thou fearest lest thy soul be driven 
out of the body, I suppose thou oughtest to fear more that 
death, lest the life of thy soul be cast out of thy soul. I will 
speak briefly then. And why do I detain myself with many 
words? The life of the body is the soul, the Life of the soul 
is God. The Spirit of God dwelleth in the soul, and by the 
1 Cor. soul in the body, so that om- bodies also are the Temple of 
^' ^^* the Holy Spirit, Whom we have of God. For the Spirit hath 
Rom. 5, come unto our souls; for that the love of God, hath been 
shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Spirit, Who hath 
been given unto us; and He possesseth the whole, Who 
1 princi- occupieth the ruling' part. In thee, of a truth, that is the 
P^'® ruling part, which is the better part. God, Who occupieth 
that which is the better part, that is, thine heart, thy mind, 
thy soul, of a surely by the better ])ossesscth also the inferior 
part, which is thy body. Let then thine enemy rage, let him 
threaten death, let him carry it into effect, if he be permitted, 
let him thrust out thy soul iiom the body; let not tliy 

If you fear deaths love God Who is thy life. 805 
soul thrust out from itself its own Life. If thou dost with Serm. 


reason bewail, and thinkest to say in piteous tone to thyr^gj^i 
powerful enemy, " Strike not, .spare my blood;" doth not 
God say to thee, Have mercy on thine own soul, pleasing Ecdus. 
God? Thy soul haply saith, " Pray him, that he strike not ; Vuiff. 
for so I leave thee. For if he strike, I cannot remain with 
thee. Pray him, that he strike not, if thou wouldest not 
have me leave thee." Who is it that saith, " If thou would- 
est not have me leave thee?" Thyself; for thou who 
speakest, art the soul. If then he wound the body, thou 
dost fly, thou passest out, thou removest, earth lieth stretched 
on the earth. Where shall that be which hath animated the 
earth ? that which was given thee by the Breath of God, 
where shall it be ? If it hath not breathed out its Life, that 
is its God, it shall be in Him Whom it hath not lost, it shall 
be in Him Whom it hath not driven from it. But if thou 
obeyest the infirmity of thy soul, saying to thee, " He 
striketh, and I leave thee;" dost thou not fear God, saying, 
" Thou sinnest, and I leave thee ?" 

7. From vain fear let us derive profitable fear. Vain is vii. 
the fear of all men who fear to lose things temporal, who 
must some time or other remove, yet who fear to remove, 
wishing ever to put off what they cannot put away. Vain is 
this fear of men ; and yet it exists, and is intense, and can- 
not be resisted. Hence are men to be reproved, hence are 
they to be chidden, hence are they to be bewailed, hence 
are they to be mourned for, who fear to die, and who strive 
after nothing else, save to die somewhat later. Why do they 
not strive not to die? For whatsoever they do, they do 
not bring it to pass that they die not. But can they do 
any thing, whereby to bring it about that they may never 
die ? By no means. Assuredly, with all thy doing, and all 
thy watchfulness, whithersoever thou mayest fly, whatsoever 
defences thou mayest seek, with whatsoever wealth thou 
mayest ransom thyself, with whatsoever subtleties deceive 
thine enemy ; a fever thou shalt not deceive. For thou gainest 
nothing in thy endeavours not to die at once by thine 
enemy, but to die somewhat later by a fever. Thou canst 
do something, that thou mayest never die. If thou fearest 
death, love life. Thy Life is God, thy Life is Christ, thy 
Life is the Holy Spirit. Thou dost not please Him, by evil 

806 Themotive of/ear not tu he sllyhted^sinceimpressedbyXt. 

Serm. doint^. He dolh not inhabit a ruinous temple, He doth not 

[161 B I enter a filtliy temple But pour out thy sighs unto Him, that 

He may cleanse a place for Himself; jwur out thy sighs unto 

Him, that He may build a Temple for Himself; that what thou 

> exter- hast destroyed, He may construct; what thou hast wasted', 

minasti ^^ ^^^^^ refashion; what thou hast thrown down, He may 

raise up. Cry out unto God with an interior cry, cry out 

where He heareth ; for that thou sinnest there, where He 

seeth ; there cry out, where He heareth. 

8. And when ihou shall have corrected thy fear, and begun 
to fear profitably, not temporal torments, but the punishment 
of eternal fire, and on that account shalt not be an adulterer: 
for of this we were speaking, because of the Apostle who 
1 Cor. 6, said. Your bodies are the Members of Christ: when, I say, 
on that account thou shalt have begun to leave off adultery, 
because thou dost fear to burn in everlasting fire, thou art 
not to be praised yet: not indeed to be so lamented as before, 
viii. but still not yet to be praised. For what great thing is it, 
to fear punishment? There is a great thing, but it is to love 
righteousness. I ask thee, and I find thee. Do thou look 
'ponan- into my audible^ questioning, and make a silent questioning 
™ of thyself. I say then to thee, " When overcome by lust 
thou hast another's consent, why dost thou not commit 
adultery.''"" x\nd thou wilt answer, " Because I fear Hell, I 
fear the punishment of eternal fire, 1 fear Christ's Judgment, 
I fear the society of the Devil, lest I be punished by him, 
and with him burn." What! Shall I say, " Thou learest 
amiss ?" as I did say to thee touching an enemy, because he 
sought to kill thy body. For there I said rightly, " Thou 
fearest amiss, thy Lord hath given thee security, saying, 
Ma.tio,Fear not them uhich kill the body. Now when thou sayest 
Lukel2 ^^ ™^' " ^ ^^''^^ Hell, I fear its flames, I fear to be punished 
*• everlastingly;" what shall 1 say? "Thou fearest amiss?" 

" thou fearest in vain ?" " I dare not, since the Lord Him- 
self, when He took away fear, added fear; and when He 
said. Fear not them wliich kill the body, and after that 
V. 6. have no more that they can do; said. But fear Him 
Who hath power to kill both body and soul in Hell fire; yea 
I say unto you, fear Him. When the Lord then hath 
impressed this fear, and impressed it with earnestness, and 
by repetition of the word redoubled the threatening, shall I 

Fear, so as not to sin, so shall love enter loith chaste fear. 807 

say, " Thou /barest amiss ?" 1 will not say so. Fear by all Serm. 
means ; thou canst fear nothing better ; nothing is there riei.B.l 
thou oughtest more to fear. But I ask thee, " If God did 
not see thee when thou art doing it, and no one could con- 
vict thee in His Judgment, wouldest thou do it?" See to 
thine own self. For thou canst not make answer to all my 
words, look into thine own self. " Wouldest thou do it?" 
If thou wouldest, then thou fearest punishment, thou dost 
not yet lovo chastity, thou hast not charity yet; thou fearest 
as a slave ; there is the fear of evil, not yet the love of good. 
But nevertheless fear, that this fear may guard thee, that it 
may bring thee on to love. For this fear, whereby thou 
fearest hell, and therefore committest not evil, restraineth 
thee ; and so sufFereth not the interior mind which hath the 
will to sin. For fear is a kind of guard, as it were a peda- 
gogue of the Law; it is the letter threatening, not yet grace 
assisting. Nevertheless, let this fear guard thee, whilst by 
fearing thou vefrainest from doing, and love will come, enter 
into thine heart, and in proportion as it entereth, fear goeth 
out. For fear did thus much, that it prevented thee from 
doing ; love doeth this, that thou hast no wish to do it, 
even though thou mightest commit it with impunity. 

9. I have said what ye ought to fear, I have said what ye j^. 
ought to long for. Follow after love, let love enter, give her 
admission, by fearing to sin, admit love that sinneth not, 
admit love that liveth well. As she entereth, as I had begun 
to say, fear begins to go out. By how much the more she 
shall have entered in, by so much the less shall fear be. 
When she shall have entered wholly, there will be no fear; 
for 2ierfect love casteth out fear. Love then entereth, she i John 
driveth out fear. But she doth not even enter by herself unac- ^' ^®' 
companied. She hath her own fear with her, which she 
introduceth herself; but that a chaste feai", enduring for ever 
and ever. There is a slavish fear, whereby thou fearest to burn 
with the Devil ; there is a chaste fear, whereby thou fearest to 
displease God. Consider, dearly beloved, and question these 
same affections in men. A slave fears to offend his lord, 
lest he command him to be beaten, command him to be put 
into the stocks, command him to be shut up in prison, com- 
mand him to be worn away by the mill. Through fear of 

3 G 

808 Even impure love may dread only loss oj what it loves, 

Srrm. all this the slave sins not; but when he knows that his 
ngi 13 J lord's eyes are away, and that he has no witness by whom 

he can be convicted, he does. Why does he? Because it 

was punishment he feared, not righteousness that he loved. 

But a good man, a righteous man, a free man, (for the 

John 8, righteous man alone is free ; for whosoever commilleth sin, 
is the slave of sin,) takes delight in righteousness itself; 
and if he can sin without a witness, he still fears a Witness 
in God ; and if he could hear God saying to him, " I see 
thee when thou dost sin, I will not condemn thee, but thou 
displeasest Me;" he, unwilling to displease the Eyes of a 
Father, not of a formidable Judge, fears, not lest he should 
be condemned, not lest he should be punished, not lest he 
should be tormented, but lest he should offend a Father's 
joy, lest he should displease the Eyes of Him Who loveth 
him. For if he loves himself, and feels that his Master 
loveth him, he will not do what is displeasing to Him Who 
loveth him. 
X. 10. Mark the case of loose and impure lovers ; if any man, 

wanton and licentious in the love of a woman, dresses other- 
wise than pleases her, dresses otherwise than jileases his 
paramour, or sets himself off otherwise than pleases her ; 
and she says, " I would not have you wear such a cloak;" 
he does not wear it; if in the midst of winter she says to 

'lacernahim, " I like you in a lighter' dress;" he chooses to shiver 
rather than displease her. What! will she whom he dis- 
pleases, condemn him? will she throw him into prison? 
will she call in the torturers? In this case this alone is 
feai'ed, " I will not sec you;" this alone is dreaded in this 
case, " You shall not see my face." If a wanton woman 
says this, and alarms: doth God say it, and not alarm? 
Surely, He shall exceedingly, but only if we love. But if we 
do not love, we are not alarmed by it; but are we alarmed 
as slaves, at the fire, at Hell, at the most frightful threats of 
infernal darkness, at the accumulated angels of the Devil, 
and his punishments? Let us be at least alai'med at this. 
If we have but little love of that, let us at least fear all this. 
xi. 11. Let there be then no fornication. Ye are the Temple of 

1 Cor. 3, Qod, and the Spirit of God dwelleth in you. If any man defile 

V. 1 7. the Temple of God, him shall God destroy. Marriage is lawful. 

Holy and resolved purpose of virgins out of love of God. 800 

seek nothing further. For no great burden is imposed. On Serm. 
virgins a greater love hath imposed a greater burden. Virgins rj^|^g -, 
have renounced what was lawful, that they might please Him ~~ 
the more to Whom they have devoted themselves. They 
have aspired to that greater beauty of their heart, " What 
dost thou enjoin ?" As though they said, " What dost Thou 
enjoin? That we be not adulteresses, enjoinest Thou this? 
Through love of Thee, we do more than Thou enjoinest." 
Concerning Virgins, the Apostle says, / have no precept of\ Cor. 
the Lord. Why then do they do this? But I give a counsel. ''' ^^' 
And they through love, by whom earthly nuptials are dis- 
esteemed, who have not longed after earthly ties ', have unto i am- 
such perfection accepted the precept, as not to refuse theP'^^"^ 
counsel : that they might please the more, have the more 
adorned themselves. For in proportion as the ornaments 
of this body, that is, of the outward man, are sought 
after, in the same proportion is the loss of the inner man 
great; but in proportion as the ornaments of the outward 
man are less sought after, in the same proportion is the inner 
man adorned with a beauteous conversation. Whence Peter 
saith too, Adorning themselves not with plaited hair. For i Pet. 
when he had said, Adorninn themselves; what else would ?'rr. "*• 
be in the thoughts of the carnal than these visible ornaments ? 2, 9. 
Immediately he took away from the thoughts what evil 
desire was looking for. Not, says he, in plaited hair, nor 
gold, nor pearls, or costly array ; but that hidden man of 
the heart, which is rich in the sight of God. For God 
would not give riches to the outward man, and leave the 
inner man poor: to the invisible He hath given invisible 
riches, and hath adorned the invisible invisibly. 

1"2. Earnestly intent after these ornaments the maidens of xii. 
God, holy virgins, have neither sought for what was lawful, 
nor have consented to what they were forced. For many by 
the flame of heavenly love have overcome even the oppos- 
ing efforts of their parents. A father hath been angry, a 
mother wept; she hath not heeded this, before whose eyes 
was ever floating The Beautiful before the sons of men. Ps.44,3. 
For Him in truth she desired to adorn herself, that for Him ^f^^' 

(45, 2. 

she might wholly care. For she that is married thinketh ofE. V.) 
the things of the world, how she may please her husband ; I ^I' 

3 G 2 

810 Holy beauty of viryins an encouragement to married chastity 

Serm. hill she uho is unmarried thiukclh of the things of God, how 
fi6KB 1*^^ WG// please God. See what it is to love. He did not 

say, " Thinketli liow she may not be condemned by God." 

For u]) lo this point tliis is that slavish fear, the guardian 
indeed of the evil, that they may keep themselves from evil, 
and by keejiino- themselves may be meet to give an entrance 
for charity to them, liut these do not think how they may 
escape being punished by God, but how they may please 
God, by the interior l)eauty, by the grace of the hidden man, 
by the attraction of the heart, where they are naked to His 
Eyes; naked within, not without; uncorrupted both within 
and without. Let at least the virgins teach marned men 
and women not to go unto adultery. They do beyond 
what is lawful, let not the others do what is not lawful. 


Oil the words of the Apostle, 1 Cor. vi. " Every sin that a man iloeth is 
without the body; hut he that coinmitteth fornication sinneth against his 
own body." 

A Fragment. 

I . The question from the blessed Apostle Paul's Epistle 

1 Cor. ^o the Corinthians, where he says. Every sin that a man 
' ' doeih is without the body; but he that committeth forni- 
cation sinneth against his own body : I know not whether it 
can be clearly resolved, though, by the help of the Lord, 

1 proba- something may be satisfactorily' said upon it; so profound 
' ''^"^ is it. For when the Apostle had said above in the same 

^'■^' Epistle, Z?e M0< deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, 
nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves 

V. 10. with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor 
revilers, nor extortioners shall possess the Kingdom of God. 

V. 15. And a little after, Knoiv ye not, says he, that your bodies are 
the members of Christ i Shall I then take the members of 
Christ, and make them the members of an harlot? Godfor- 

^' ' ^- bid. What ? know ye not that he which is Joined to an harlot, 

^' ^'^' is one body ? For they shall, saith He, be two in one jiesh. 

^' ^^ But he that is joined to the Lord is one Spirit. Flee forni- 
cation. And then he subjoined, Every sin that a man doeth 

Nosin excepthy y'^ body; how then is fornication aloneayst.y''body? 8 1 1 

is without the body; but he that committeth fornicatiun Serm. 
sinneth against his own body. What? know ye not that t-^q^.b'a 
your body is the Temple of the Holy Ghost Which is in you, v, i9. 
Whom ye have of God, and ye are not your own 'i For ye v. 20. 
have been bought with a great Price : glorify and bear God " ^* 
in your body. When, T say, he had first enumerated in this 
section many and horrible sins of men, to whom the Kingdom 
of God shall not be given ; which yet cannot be perpetrated 
by men except by means of the body ; which body, of the 
already baptized ' of course, he calls the Temjjle of the ' fide- 
Holy Ghost, Whom we have of God ; and the very members '""^ 
of our body he asserts with earnestness to be the members of 
Christ: of which in his reasoning, and in a sort, questioning, 
he says. Shall I then take the members of Christ, and make 
them the members of an harlot? and makes answer to himself, 
God forbid ; and still further goes on and says. Know ye not 
that he which is Joined to an harlot is one body ? For they 
shall be two, saith He, i?i one flesh. But he that is joined 
to the Lord is one Spirit, and concludes, Flee fornication. 
Yet he follows on aiid says, Every sin that a man doeth is 
without the body ; hut he that committeth fornication sin- 
neth against his own body; as though those sins which he 
distinctly enumerated, saying. Be not deceived; neither for- 
nicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor 
abusers of themselves with mankind, nor thieves, nor covetous, 
nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor extortioners, shall possess the 
kingdom of God ; all these sins of violence, and impurity — 
can they be done or practised except by means of the body ? 
Who with a sound brain would deny it? This whole passage 
indeed the Apostle w^as urging and maintaining because of 
the body itself now purchased with a Great Price, that is, the 
Precious Blood of Christ, by the Lord made the Temple of 
the Holy Ghost, that it should not be polluted by such 
wickednesses, but rather be preserved undefiled as the Habi- 
tation of God. Why then did he wish to add this, from 
which a difficult question would arise; to say, that is, Every 
sin that a man doeth is tvithout the body; but he that 
committeth fornication sinneth against his own body ? 
Since whether it be fornication itself, or other sins of this 
kind, which only by means of the body become sins, very 

8 1 2 Ally evil spiritual, sins, o.s " ?vorliS ofthejiesh ," done loith the body 
Serm. much like filthincss and fornication, cannot be carried 

p v T T 

(i62.B.']0^i and practised except by means of the body? For 
what? (not to speak of the rest which have been mentioned 
above,) can any one be a thief, or a drunkard, or a reviler, or 
an extortioner, without the operation of this body? Though 
neither idolatry, nor avarice even, can attain to their end 
and object without the service of this body. What then is, 
Every sin that a man doelh is wilhout the hudy, but he that 
comniittethfornicaiion sin net h against his own body? In the 
first place, seeing that man is placed in this body, whatso- 
ever even evil desire he may form in his mind merely, he 
cannot be said to do this without the body, since it is plain 

' sensu that he does it with the impulse' of the flesh, and the wisdom 
of the flesh, whilst he is still encompassed with this body. 

Ps.H,i.For this even which is written in the Psalm, The unyodly 
man hath said in his heart, There is no Cod; the same 
blessed Apostle Paul could not of course separate from 

Eom. bodily works, in that place where he says, JVe shall all 

2 Cor. stand before the judgment seat of Christ, that every one may 

5, 10. receive according to that lie hath done by the body, tvhether 
good or bad. Because you see the ungodly could not, save 
as placed in the body, say, There is no God. To say 
nothing of what this same Teacher of the nations says in 

Gal. 5, another Epistle, Now the works of the fiesh are manifest; 
' '''and he proceeds. Which are, fornications, tin cleannesses, 
lascivionsness, witchcrafts, enmities, contentions, emulations, 
wrath, dissensions, heresies, envyings, drunkenness, and such 
like; of the which I foretel you as I hare foretold you, that 
they which do such things shall not possess the Kingdoin of 
God. For does it not seem to us that the rest of those sins 
which he has inserted in the middle, emulations, wrath, dis- 
sensions, envyings, heresies, are done without the body ? and 

1 Tim. yet the Teacher of the nations in faith and verity assigns 

' these to the works of the flesh. What then is, Every sin 

that a man doeth is icithout the body ; and that naming one 

sin, of fornication only, he says, But he that committeth 

fornication sinncth against his own body ? 

2. It appears then to tlie slowest and the dullest how 
difficult a question this is; on which if the Lord shall 
vouchsafe to pour some light and to reveal it to our godly 

Fornication specialh/hivdsdonm Sj-minglesthesoulwithy^Jiesh. 813 

purpose, we may be able to say somewhat satisfactorily'. Serm. 
For the blessed Apostle, in whom Christ spake, seems either" j-jgg.Bi] 
to have wished to amplify the sin of fornication above all i ratio- 
other sins, which though they be committed by means of the °^°'"ter 
body, yet do not render the soul of man so bound and 
subject to the lust of the flesh, as in this single deed of 
bodily fornication, the mighty violence of lust makes the soul 
to be commingled with the very body, and to be cemented, 
so to say, in one and bound down with itj insomuch that in 
the actual moment, and practice of this so great abomination, 
a man cannot think, or attend to aught else save that which 
makes the mind over to itself, which this overflowing tide ^,- sub- 
and so to say, absorbing violence^ of lust and carnal con-3absor- 
cupiscence brings into captivity; so that this appears to be'^it'o 
that which is said. But he that couiniitletli fornication, 
sinneth against Iris oicn hodij ; in that then the heart of a 
man committing fornication becomes peculiarly and closely 
the slave of the body, especially at the time of this most 
wicked action; so much so that the same Apostle wishing 
with greater earnestness to set this wickedness forth before 
men as what was to be guarded against, said. Shall I then 
take the members of Christ and make tliem the members of 
an harlot ? And in execration and detestation of it he 
answered, God forbid. What? know ye not, says he, that 
he tv/iich is joined to an harlot is one body? For they shall 
he two, saith He, in one flesh. Could this be said of men's 
other crimes, of any other whatsoever ? For in any other 
wickednesses the mind of man has freedom, at once to be 
employed in any one of them, and at the very same time to 
engage itself in thought in some other direction ; which in 
the very act and moment of fornication the mind cannot do — 
be free to think of any other thing. For the whole man is 
so absorbed by and in the body, that the mind cannot then 
be said to be his own ; but the whole man together may be 
said to be flesh, or a spirit that goeth and retnrneth )iot. Ps- 77, 
Thus then may we understand, that every sin that a man^%^\\ 
doeth is without the body ; but he that committelh, fornica- 
tion, sinneth against his own body: that the Apostle may 

" Tlie ;ipodosis to this conjunction is not found till the middle of the following 

814 Fornication, generally ^, cleaving to the world for God. 

Serm. seem, as I have said, to have wished so to ainpUfy the sin ol 

ri62.B.] fornication, as in comparison of it, to think that all other 
sins whatsoever are to be regarded as without the body; to 
say that by this single sin of fornication only a man sins 
against his own body, because by the overpowering heat of 
lust, than which there is none stronger, the pleasure of the 
body holds him in bondage, and makes him prisoner. 

3. Let so much be said as to the special fornication of the 
body. But because fornication is reproved and expressed 
in the Holy Scriptures, not only in a special, but in a general 
sense; let us endeavour, by God's assistance, to say some- 
thing satisfactorily on this point also. General fornication 

Pd. 73, then is plainly laid open in the Psalm, where it is said. For 

^'^' hehold they that go far from thee shall perish; thou hast 
destroy vd every one that goeth a ivhoring from thee. And 
then immediately after, as to how this general fornication 
may be escaped and avoided, he went on saying, Bict it is 
good for me to cleave to God. So that from hence we may 
perceive clearly, that the general fornication of the soul of 
man is that whereby in not cleaving to God, one cleaveth to 

I John the world. Whence the blessed Apostle John says. If any 
' ' man love the ivorld, the love of the Father is not in him. 

James4, And the Apostle James says, Ye adulterers, know ye not that 
the friendship of this world is the enemy of God. In iew 
words then is it laid down, that whoso hath the love of the 
world cannot have the love of God ; and that whoso would 
be the friend of the world is the enemy of God. To this also 

Matt. 6, what the Lord says in the Gospel amounts. No man can 


serve two masters; for either he will hate the one, and love 
1 patie- the other; or else he will bear ' with the one, and despise the 
^uQ^i' other. And He concludes. Ye cannot serve God and mam- 
Vulg.) moH. This then is the general fornication of the soul, as has 
been said, containing all sins entirely in itself, whereby there 
is no cleaving to God, whilst there is a cleaving to the world; 
so that in this sense too, with reference to this general forni- 
cation, we may be able to understand what the Apostle says, 
Every sin that a man doeth is without the body; but he 
that committeth fornication sinnefh against his own body. 
Because if the soul of man commit not fornication, by cleaving 
to Ciod, and not 'leaving to the world, whatsoever other sins 

Then, otke?' sins' zvithouf.t/^ body* sinsjrom mere humanfrailness. 815 

of an entirely different' kind from carnal concupiscence Serm. 

• • CXIT 

a man may fall into by the mere frailness of his mortal state, Qg2.B] 

whether by ignorance, or negligence, or forgetfiilness, or i aliena' 
want of understanding, this may be what is said. Every sin 
that a man doeth is without the body ; because there shall 
no sin be able to be fomid here of bodily or temporal con- 
cupiscence ; whence any such sin it seems is with reason 
said to be without the body. But if a worldly man cleaving 
to the world, throweth himself far away from God, by going 
a whoring from God Himself, he sinneth against his own 
body; because through carnal concupiscence the mind of 
man is by carnal judgment and human wisdom distracted and 
dissipated upon all temporal and carnal things, serving the Rom. i, 
creature railier than the Creator, Who is Blessed for ever. 

4. Thus then, as it seems to me, without prejudice to the 
faith, may the sin of either fornication be understood, as well 
special, as universal, in this one section of so high and so 
great a Doctor, where he says, Every sin that a man doeth is 
without the body ; but lie that committeth fornication sinneth 
against his own body ; so that in the one^ case an amplifica-'^ aut 
tion of this special sin of fornication, in which it is obviously ^3 recte 
understood that a man sins against his own body, is made by 
the Apostle ; for that in nothing is the whole man so bound 
over and indescribably and inevitably fixed down to the plea- 
sure of the mere body, so that in the comparison of this exceed- 
ing wickedness, all other sins may appear to be without the 
body, though they be practised by means of the body. As a 
certain violence of imperious lust in fornication only subjects 
the man to its own terms'*, and makes him the wretched and*condi- 
special slave of the mere body, particularly at the time 
of the most filthy deed itself, so that a man's mind is not free 
either to think of, or attend to any thing besides what it is 
doing in the body. But if the Apostle wished to denote 
general fornication also, and with reference to it is thought 
to have said. Every sin that a man doeth is without the 
body ; but lie that committeth fornication sinneth against 
his own body; it must be taken and understood thus, that 
any one, whilst he cleaveth not unto God, in that he cleaveth 
to the world, loving and lusting after all temporal things, 
may be with good reason said to sin against his own body, 

8 1 G Ijove of the irorUl, one fornication ^serving h(sts,forsakai of God. 

Serm. given up, that is, and made subject to universal concupiscence 
|.^^^^j|;of the flesh, as if wholly the slave of the creature, alienated 

from the Creator Himself, througli tliat pride, the beginning 

Eccius. of all sin, oi vihich pride lite beginning, as it is written, is to 
10, 12. j^i^j^ offfrom God. From which general sin of fornication 
whoso is exempt, what other sin soeverhs may as man 
yet corruptible and mortal fall into, it may be understood to 
be without the body; to be, that is, without the evil of all 
bodily and temporal concupiscence, to be of another kind, to 
be, as has been often said, without the body. For only by 
the evil power of carnal and general concupiscence does the 
soul go a whoring throughout all things from God, bound and 
chained down as it were to bodily and temporal desires and 
grati(ications, it sinneth against its own body, whose con- 
cupiscence serving universally, it bows down to the world, 
and is alienated from God; which is, as has been said, The 
beginning of the pride of man is to fall offfrom God. And 
with a view to put us on our guard against this evil of general 
iJohn2, fornication, the blessed John admonisheth us, saying. Love not 
Vulff? ^''^ world, neither the things that are in the uorld ; for all 
that is in the world, is the lust of the flesh, and the lust of 
the eyes, and the pride of life, uhieh is not of the Father, 
hut of the icorhl. And the ivorld passeth away, and the lust 
thereof But he that doath the will of God, ahideth for 
ever, as lie abideth for ever. This love of the world then, 
which contains in itself the universal lust of the world, is the 
general fornication whereby a man sins against his own body ; 
in that the mind of man without ceasing serves all bodily, 
and visible, and temporal desires and pleasures, left in deso- 
lation and abandonment by the Creator Himself of all 

SERMON CXni. [CLXni. Ben.] 

On the words of the Apostle, Galat. v. " Walk iu the Spirit, and fulfil 
not the lusts of the flesh." 

Delivered in the Basilica of Honoiiu.s, 8th Cal. Oct. (24th Sept.) 

1. If we consider, brethren, what we were before the grace 
of the Lor<l, what by the grace of the Lord we have begun 

God icaJheth in us, if toe he enlarged by charity, His Gift. 8 1 7 

to be ; we find in truth, that as men are changed for the Serm. 
better, so also places of the earth which were before against rjgg ^ ', 
the grace of God, are now dedicated to the grace of God. 
For we, as the Apostle saith, are the Temple of the Living •iCor. 6, 
God, wherefore God saith ^ I will dwell in them, and walk in ^^' 
them. Whereas the images which were in these places 
knew how to be fixed, to walk they did not know. But in 
us the presence of Majesty walketh, if He find the enlarge- 
ment of charity. To this the Apostle exhorting us saith, Z^ev. 13.14. 
ye enlarged, hear not the yoke with iinhelievers. If we be 
enlarged, God walketh in us ; but that we be enlarged, let 
God Himself work. For if charity maketh this enlargement 
which knoweth no straitness, see ye how it is God that 
maketh for Himself the enlargement in us, as the Apostle 
himself saith, The Charity of God hath been sited abroad i'wRom. 5, 
our hearts by the Holy Ghost, Who hath been given unlo^' 
us. Because of this enlargement, I say, God walketh in us. 

2. Just now when the Epistle of the Apostle was in ii. 
reading, we heard. Walk in the Spirit, and fidjil not the Gal. 5, 
lusts of the flesh. For the flesh lusteth against the spirit, ' 
and the spirit against the flesh. For these are contrary the 
one to the other, so that ye cannot do the things that ye 
woidd. He was speaking to the baptized; but he was still 
building up the temple of God, not yet dedicating it. Con- 
sider, my brethren, how that when these mere earthly places 
are being improved, some things are pulled down and broken, 
others turned to better uses ; so is it too with ourselves. 
The works of the flesh were once in us. You heard them 
as they were enumerated ; Now the works of the flesh, saith v. 19. 
he, are manifest, ichich are these, fornication, inicleanness, 
idolatry, witchcraft^, contentions, enmities, heresies, envyings, v. 20.21 . 
drunkenness, and such like ; they must be thrown down, not 
altered, of the which I foretel you^ as I have foretold you, 
that they which do such things, shall not possess the Kingdom 
of God. These are to be, as idols, broken down in us. But 
the members themselves of our body are to be turned to 
better uses, that they which did serve the uncleanness of 
desire, may serve the grace of charity. 

* Here are some words omitted, as English ; veufificia, non heneficia, id 
being incapable of translation into est non a bonis ducta sed a venenis. 

818 Temple of God dedicated by the liesurrection^ is built on in us. 

Serm. 3. Now observe; what he said, and in\Q diliseut heed. 


fi63.B.] ^^ ^^^' God's labourers, the temple of God is still in 

~ jjj bnilding. It hath been dedicated already in its Head; 

1 Cor. 3, forasmuch as the Lord hath risen from the dead, having 
9. ... 

overcome death, an<l having abolished mortality hath ascended 

Ps, 29, into Heaven; in that of Him was written the Psalm oj the 
(30. E. Dedication of tlie House. Therefore after His Passion, He 
^•) sailh, Thoa hast turned for Me My mourning into joy, thou 
(U. 12. hast cut Aly sackcloth, and hast yirded Me with gladness, to 
• '^ the end that My glory may sing unto Thee, and I may not 
regret. That dedication then took place in the Resurrection 
after the Passion. Therefore our building up also takes place 
now by faith, that the dedication itself may take place after 
the last resuiTection. Again, after this Psalm of the Dedica- 
tion of the House, where the Rising again of our Head is 
shewn forth, there is another Psalm after it, not before it, of 
Ps, 95, which the title runs thus; When, the house was in building 
(96. E. nfl^'"' ^^1^ captivity. Recal the memory of the captivity; 
^•) wherein we were in time past, when the devil possessed the 
whole world as a mass of unbelievers Because of their 
captivity the Redeemer came; shed His Blood our Price; by 
the shedding of His Blood cancelled the instruments of our 
Rom. 7, captivity. The Law, saith the Apostle, is spiritual, but 
I am carnal, sold under sin. Before, sold under sin, but 
afterwards, freed by Grace. Alter that captivity, the house 
is now in building; and that it may be built, is the Gospel 
Ps.95,1. preached. For so this Psalm begins, Sing unto the Lord a new 
V.) song. And that you might not suppose that this house is 
built ill any one corner, as schismatics or heretics build ; 
mark what folio vrs: Sing unto the Lord, all the earth. 
1^'- 4. Sing unto the Lord a new song: in opposition to the 
old song, the New Testament, because the Old Testament is 
4 22!24. fii"st: the new man, that the old man may be put off. Put ye 
Col. 3, Qjf^ saith he, tJte old man with his deeds; and put ye on the 
new man, ichicJt after God is created in righteousness, and 
holiness q/ truth. Therefore, Sing to the Lord a new song, 
sing to the Lord all the earth. Sing, and build; sing, and 
P8 96,2. gij^g well. Tell out His Salvation, the Day j'roni Day; tell 
(96. E. out His Christ, The Day from Day. For what is His 
^■^ Salvation, but Christ? For this Sidvation prayed we in tiie 

Longing of the Patriarchs S,' Simeon to see Christ our Salvation. 819 

Psalm, Sliew us Thy mercy, O Lord, and grant as Thy Serm. 
Salvation. This the righteous men of old longed for, of^gg^; 
whom the Lord said to His disciples. Many have desired to Ps.85,7. 
see those tilings lahich ye see, and have not been able. ^woJr." 
grant us Thy Salvation. This the righteous men of old 
said. Grant us Thy Salvation: let us see Thy Christ, whilst 
we live in this flesh. Let us see Him in the flesh, Who 
shall deliver us from the flesh: let Flesh come cleansing 
flesh; let Flesh suffer, and redeem soul and flesh. And 
grant us Thy Salvation, Lord. In this desire was that aged 
Saint, Simeon; in this desire, I say, was that aged Saint, and 
so much graced' by God, Simeon; without doubt he too was'mentus 
saying. Shew us Thy mercy, O Lord, and grant its Thy 
Salvation. Jn this desire, in such prayers, he received an 
answer, that he should not taste death fill he had seen ^/^e Luke 2, 
Lord's Christ. Christ was born. He was coming, Simeon ^*^' 
going; but until He should come, Simeon did not wish to go. 
Already was mature old age thrusting out, but a sincere piety 
detained him. But when He came, but when He was born, 
but when he saw Him carried in His Mother's arms, and 
godly old age recognised the Infancy Divine ; he took Him 
up in his arms, and said, Noiv lettest Thou Thy servant, 
O Lord, depart in peace; for mine eyes have seen Thy^-'^^- 
Salvation. Lo, wherefore he said, Shew us Thy mercy, 
Lord, and grant us Thy Salvation. The old man's 
desire was fulfilled, in the declining old age of the world 
itself. He came to the old man, Who found the world old- 
aged. If then He found the world old, let the world hear: 
Sing unto the Lord a new song, sing unto the Lord, all the 
earth. Let oldness be destroyed, let newness arise. 

5. Sing unto the Lord a new song, sing unto the Lord. See v. 
the rivalry^ of the builders. Sing unto the Lord, bless His^cfixta,- 
Name. Tell out gladly, which is in Greek, evangelize. "^^J^q^^ 
What? The Day from Day. What Day from Day ? His^ept.'' 
Salvation. What Day from Day ? Light from Light, Son 
of the Father, His Salvation. Tell out His glory among the v. 3. 
nations, His wonders among all people. See how the House 
is in building after the captivity. He is to be feared above v. 4. 
all gods. Above what gods .? For all the gods of the nations v. 6. 
are devils, but the Lord made the Heavens. He made the 

8 '20 Victory incomplete here, since desires, vanquiskcd, exist. 

Seum. Saints, He made the Apostles. Fo?- the Heavens tell out the 
l^l^\()lory of God; there are no speeches, nor languages, where 
Fs.ii),i.'lheir voice is not heard. Their sound hath gone out into all 
^- ^- ■*• (he earth ; because all the earth singeth the new song. 

6. Let us hear then the Apostle also, the Master's master- 

j^*"""^' builder. As a wise master-builder, says he, / have laid the 

foundation. Let us hear this master-builder then, building 

Gal. 5, up certain new things, throwing down certain old. Walk, 

'*'' says he, in the Spirit, this is the new building: and fulfil 

not the lusts of the fesh, this is the destruction of the old. 

V. 17. For thefesh, says he, lusteth against the Spirit, and the 

Spirit against the flesh; for these are contrary the one to 

the other, so that ye cannot do the things that ye would. 

For hitherto ye are in building, ye are not dedicated yet. 

vi. So that ye cannot do the things that ye would. For what 

would ye ? That there should be no lusts of evil and 

unlawful delights at all. What Saint would not wish it? 

But he doth not gain his wish ; as long as he livetli here, this 

is not fulfilled. For thefesh lusfe/h against the Spirit, and 

the Spirit against tlie flesh. For these are contrary the one 

to the other, so that the things that ye would, that there 

should be no lusts at all of things unlawful in you, ye cannot 

do. What remains then.'* Walk in the Spirit; and, seeing 

that ye cannot succeed in destroying the lusts of the flesh, 

fulfil not the lusts of the flesh. You ought by all means indeed 

to wish to destroy and end and thoroughly to extirpate them ; 

Rom. 7, bul so long as they are in you, and there is another law in 

your members resisting the laiv of your mind, fxdfil not the 

lusts of the flesh. For what would ye? That there should 

be no lusts of the flesh at all. They do not allovv you to fulfil 

what ye would; do not ye allow them to fulfil what they 

would. What would ye? That they should not exist at all. 

But they do exist. The flesh lusteth against the Spirit ; let the 

Spirit lust against the flesh. So that ye cannot do the things 

that ye woidd, that is, that there should not be these lusts of 

the flesh in you; let not them either do what they would, 

fulfil their work. If they do not give way to thee wholly, 

do not thou either give way to them. Let the battle first be 

equalized, that some day there may be victory. 

vii. 7. For without doubt, my brethren, there shall be: let us 

God seems not to help ^ for our fuller victory ; is present still. 821 

believe, hope, love, some day there shall be victory, at the Serm. 
Dedication of the House which is in building now after the n(j3.B.i 
captivity. For the last enerny^ death, shall be destroyed, i cor. 
when this corruptible shall have put on incorruption, and^'^-'^- 
this mortal shall have put on immortality. Meditate 
beforehand on the words of the triumphant: death, ichere^.bo. 
is thy contention? This is the language of those in triumph, 
not in combat. But of the combatants the language is, 
Have mercy up)on me, Lord, for I am iveak; heal we, Ps-6,2. 
Lord, for my bones are troubled, and my soul is troubled 
exceedingly ; and Thou, Lord, how long ? See him labouring 
in the conflict. And Thou, Lord, hoiv long. What is, Hoiv 
long? Until thou art^ satisfied that it is I Who succour ' probes 
thee. For if I were at once to succour, thou wouldest not 
be sensible of the struggle; if thou wert not sensible of the 
struggle, thou wouldest pride thyself as on thine own strength ; 
and through this pride wouldest never attain to victory. It 
is said, it is true. Whilst thou art speaking, L icill say, Zo, Is. 58,9. 
here I am. But God even when he delayeth is present to '^'^P*' 
help; yea because he delayeth, he is present to help, and by 
delaying he is present to help; lest should he fulfil the too 
hasty wish, he should not fulfil perfect health. 

8. For He was not, my brethren, otherwise than present viii. 
to the Apostle Paul, who whilst he was struggling, feared 
lest he should be exalted. Lest I should be exalted, he2Cor. 
says, by the greatness of my revelations. See him in the con- ' 
flict struggling, not yet in security triumphant. Lest I 
should be exalted by the greatness of my revelations. Who 
says. Lest I should be lifted up ? O fear, O terror ! Who 
says. Lest L should be lifted up? When so many words of 
his beat down elation, repress swelling, doth he yet say. 
Lest I should be lifted up"? It is but little that he saith, 
Lest 1 should be lifted up; see the remedy which he says 
was applied to him. Lest L shoidd be exalted, saith he, 
there was given to me a sting of my flesh, an angel of 
Satan. O poison, which is not cured save by poison! 
There was given me a sting of my Jlesh, an angel of 
Satan to buffet me. The head was beaten, that the head 
might not be lifted up. O antidote, which is made, as it 
were, from the serpent, and therefore is called Theriaca I For 

822 The sharpness of the pain to S. Paul shews the depth of our sore. 

Serm. that scrnciit persuaded to pride. Taste, and ye shall be as 
[{q^jw^QOcIs; this is the persuasion of the devil. Whereby he fell, 
Gen. .s, thereby he cast down. With good reason then is the 
^' serpent's poison by the serpent healed. What says the 

2 Cor. Apostle ? For which cause I besought the Lord thrice^ that 
' ■ He ivould take it away from- me. Where is, Whilst thou art 
yet speaking^ J will say, Lo, here am I? For which cause^ 
not once, but twice, and thrice I besought the Lord. Did 
he not then also say, And Thou, Lord, hoiv long? But 
what! because He delayed, was He not therefore present to 
help, and was, Whilst thou art yet speaking, I will say, Lo, 
here am I, false? For what.^ is the physician })resent to 
help, when he gives what you desire ; when he uses the knife, 
not present to help? Do you not cry out under the phy- 
sician's knife that he would spare ; and because he is a 
greater help, he cuts the more ? Finally, that you may know 
that He was present to help, see what answer He made to 
V. 9. him who besought Him thrice. He said unto me, saith he, 
3Iy Grace is sufficient for thee ; for poifer is made perfect 
in infirmity. "1," saith He, "know; I, the Sovereign 
Physician," saith He, " know into what a swelling that which 
I wish to heal is running. Be still, let Me apply what I 
know. My Grace is sufficient for thee: thine own will is 
not sufficient for thee." These surely were the words of one 
in conflict, and in peril in the conflict, and begging the 
Divine assistance. 
ix. 9- But of the trium])hant, " what shall the words be?" 
The words of the combatant, whilst the house is in building; 
the words of the triumphant, when the house is dedicated at 
1 Cor. the last. death, where is thy contention'^ O death, 
gg' ^^" where is thy sting ? Now the sting of death is sin. The 
Apostle used these words as if he were already there. Fur- 
ther, after these words which it is plain are of the state of 
enjoyment to come, not of the present conflict, since he 
V. 54. says. Then shall be brought to pass ; not, " is now brought 
to pass," but, then shall be brought to pass. What shall 
then be brought to pass ? The saying that is written, Death 
is sivallowc/l up in victory. O death, ichere is thy conten- 
tion'^ death, v;here is thy sting? Then shall it be 
brought to pass, that the sting of death shall bo no where, 

The law made our case worse; Chrht forgave, doth all in us. 823 

no where shall sin be to be found. Why this haste? Then Serm. 

shall it be brought to pass; then shall it be brought to pass.fies.B.j 

Let humility in thee merit, that it be then brought to pass in 

thee: lest pride permit not that even then it should be brought 

to pass in thee. Then shall it be brought to pass. Now in the 

mean time, whilst thou art fighting, whilst thou art labouring, 

whilst thou art in peril, say, say. Forgive us our debts. Say Matt. 6, 

by all means whilst thou art fighting, say, say the truth, 

from thy heart say ; If we shall sag that we have no sin, we i ^^^ 

deceive ourselves. Thou wilt be a devil to thyself. We 

deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us. For we do not 

say the truth, in saying that we have no sin ; since here 

without sin we are not. Let us therefore say the truth, that 

we may some time find security. Be there truth in the fight, 

that security may be gained in the victory. Then shall he 

brought to pass, O death, where is thy sting ? For the sting 

of death is sin. 

10. But thou reliest on the Law, for that the Law hath x. 

been given thee, and the precept given thee. Good is it for 

thee that the Spirit quicken thee, lest the letter kill. I would 2 Cor. 

that thou shouldest wish, but it is not enough for thee to ' 

wish. Thou must be helped that thou mayest wish fully, 

and mayest fulfil what thou wishest. For wouldest thou 

see what power the letter commanding hath without the 

Spirit assisting ? lie hath told us there. When it was said, 

death, where is thy sting ? Now the sting of death is i Cor. 

sin; he subjoined immediately. But the strength of sin is ^q\ 

the Law. What is, The strength of sin is the Law? Not 

by enjoining what is bad, or forbidding what is good; nay 

rather, by forbidding what is bad, and enjoining what is 

good. But the strength of sin is the Law; because, 7y?e'Rom. 5, 

Law, saith he, entered, that sin might abound. What is, * 

that sin might abound^ Because where grace was not, the 

prohibition increased the desire ; and when there is reliance 

as it were on one's own strength, it becomes a great vice. 

But what did grace effect } Where sin abounded, grace did 

much more abound. The Lord came ; all that thou didst 

derive fi:om Adam, all that thou didst add thyself by thy 

corrupt conversation, all He forgave; He effaced all; He 

taught prayer, He promised grace ; He appointed the con- 


824 Man "shut up under si m" that hem iyh tfind no way sa ve to Ch rist. 

Seum. test: lie succoured llie labourins;-, He crowned the con- 

CXIII . . 

[ 163.B.1 qweror. And so, saith the Apostle, The Law indeed is holy, 

Rom. 7, and the commandmeiH huly, and Just, and good. Was then 

^"^' that which is good, made death unto me ? God forbid. But 

sin that it might appear sin. For when thou wa&t not pro- 
V. 7. hibited, it was; but did not appear. For, saith he, / had not 

known lust, except the Law had said, Thou shalt not lust. 
V. 11. »S'«?, therefore, having taken occasion by the commandment 
2 Cor. deceived me, and by it slew me. See what, The letter killeth, 



xi. 11- Tf then thou wouldest escape the Law threatening, flee 
to the Spirit aiding. For what the Law enjoineth, faith 
hopeth. Cry out unto thy God, that He may aid thee. Remain 
not under the Law guilty, but let God with His Spirit aid 
thee ; lest the proud Jew be like unto thee. For since the 
1 Cor. sting of death ivas sin, and the strength of sin the Laic, what 
'^' ^^" could human infirmity do, in which the will was exhausted ? 
Rom. 1, To will, saith he, is present with me, but to accomjiUsh xchat 
^^' is good, L find not. What then could he do ? Lo, the sting 
of death is sin, lo, the strength of sin is the Law ? Now the 
Rom. 5, Law entered, that sin might abound. For if the Law could 
Gal 3 9^^^ ^if^-) certainly righteousness should have been by the Law. 
21. 22. j^iit the Scripture hath shut up all under sin. How shut up ? 
That thou mightest not wander, mightest not precipitate 
thyself and be svmk ; the Law made barriers for thee, that by 
not finding whereby to get out, thou mightest fly at once to 
grace. But the Scripture hath shut up all under sin, that 
the promise. He Who promiseth, promiseth what He doeth, 
not what thou doest. If it was thou who wast to do it, God 
would be a Foreteller, not a Promisor. But, saith he, the 
Scripture Jtaih shut up) all under sin, that the promise by 
faith of Jesus Christ might be given to them that believe. 
Hear thou, might be given. Why this pride ? Hear thou, 
1 Cor. might be given. For what hast thou, ichich thou hast not 
I'cor received? Therefore seeing that the sting of death is sin, and 
15, ot). the strength of sin is the Laiv; and this by the good Provi- 
dence of God, that men should be shut up under sin, and 
seek a Helper, seek grace, seek God, not presume on their 
own strength; therefore when he had said in this place too, 
Now the sting of death is sin, and the strength of sin is the 

Prayjbr help, and God will speak to thy soul. 825 

Law: why dost thou fear? why art thou oppressed? why Serm. 
distressed'? Hear what follows: But thanks be to ^oc/, rjgs.B.i 
Who hath given its the victory through our Lord Jesus Christ, i sudas 
What then, dost thou give thyself the victory? Thanks be to^' 
God, Who hath given us the victory through our Lord Jesus 

12. Therefore when thou hast begun to labour in thy xii. 
struggle against the lusts of the flesh, walk thou in the 
Spirit, invoke the Spirit, seek the gift of God. And if the 
law in thy members resist the Law of thy mind from thy 
inferior part, that is, the flesh, and hold thee captive under 
the law of sin; this too shall be rectified, this too shall pass 
over unto the rights of victory. Only do thou cry out, only 
do thou invoke. Men ought always to pray, and not to faint. Luke 
Invoke by all means, invoke aid. Whilst thou art yet speaking, ^ ' ^' 
He saith, Lo, here am I. Afterwards give''' good heed, and'^intel- 
thou hearest Him saying to thy soul, / am thy Salvation, p^^gg 3 
When the law of the flesh then shall have begun to resist the 
Law of the mind, and to lead thee captive in the law of sin, 
which is in thy members; in prayer say, in confession say, 
Wretched man that I am! For what else is man ? What is'^^^- 7> 


man, saving that Thou art mindful of him. Say, Wretched Ps. 8 4. 
ma7i that J am : because if the Son of Man had not come, 
man had been lost. Cry out in thy straitness, IVho shall 
deliver me from the body of this death ? where the law in 
my members resisteth the Law of my mind. For L delight 1^°™ 7, 
in the Law of God after the inner man. Who shall deliver 
me from the body of this death ? If thou sayest this, believ- 
ingly, humbly ; in greatest truth the answer is made. The v. 25. 
Grace of God through Jesus Christ our Lord. Let us turn " ^' 
to the Lord, &c. 


On the words of the Apostle, Gal. vi. " Bear ye one another's burdens." 
And on these, " Every man shall hear his own burden." Against the 
Donatists, delivered shortly after the Conference held at Carthage. 

\. The Truth admonisheth us all by the Apostle, that we i, 
hear one ajiother's burdens; and in the very place wherein 5^^'- '^j 

3 H 2 

826 Ma7i bean his own biirdtn, hi/ sin, another'' s, hy charity. 

Serm. he adnionisheth us to bear one another's burdens, he sheweth 
rj^^nwith what jjrofit we do this, adding the words, And so shall 
yefnljil the Law of Christ; whieh will not be fulfilled, unless 
we do bear one another's burdens. What these burdens arc, 
and how they are to be borne, forasmuch as we all ought, 
according to our strength, to endeavour to fulfil the Law of 
Christ, I will by the Lord's help endeavour to shew. What I 
have proposed to make plain, do ye remember to exact of 
me; ask it not then, when I shall have made it good. This 
I have proposed to make plain, the Lord assisting my in- 
tention and yoiu' prayers for me, what are the burdens which 
the Apostle enjoins us to bear for one another, and how they 
are to be borne. This if we do, that wherein he hath placed 
the profit of it, will follow of itself, that we may fulfil the 
Law of Christ. 

2. Some one will say, " What! Has the Apostle spoken 
obscurely, that you should endeavour to explain what these 
burdens are, or how they arc to be borne for one another?" 
There is a difficulty here, which comjiels us to distinguish 
the burdens. For in this very section of the lesson you have 

V. 5. it laid down. Every man shall hear his own burden. It 
occurs then at once to your apprehension, " If every one 

V. 2. shall bear his own burden, how doth he say, Bear ye one 
another's burdens?^'' Except the burdens are to be dis- 
tinguished, that the Apostle be not supposed to contradict 
himself. For not far off, not in another Epistle, nor in this 
same Epistle long before or after; but in this very same place, 
so that the same words are close to one another, he hath 
laid down both, both that every man shall bear his own 
burden, and what he hath advised and exhorted us to, that we 
bear one another's burdens. 
ii. .3. Some burdens then there are, in which every man 

bears his own, and no one bears it with another, nor casts it 
upon another; and some burdens there are, in which you 
rightly say to yo':r brother, " I bear it with thee," or " I 
bear it for thee." If then we must distinguish, the meaning 
is not so easy. Against those then who thought that a man 
can be defiled by another's sins, the Apostle answered, Every 
man shall bear his own burden. Again, against those, over 
whom carelessness miglit hereby steal, as if, being secured 

Heavy harden of covetousness. 827 

against any defilements from others' sins, they need not care Serm. 
to reform any, he says, Bear ye one anot/ier's burdens. ^]Q4^ji'-^ 
Briefly spoken, and briefly is the distinction made ; and yet 
to my thinking, it hath not hindered the clear laying open of 
the truth. For ye have both heard briefly, and understood 
quickly. Your hearts I have not seen ; but 1 have heard 
your voices the witnesses of the heart. Now then as assured 
of your understanding it, let me discuss it somewhat more at 
large; not to convey it as something to be understood, but, 
as being understood, to impress it. 

4. The burdens of his own which every man beareth, are 
his sins. To men bearing the loads of these detestable 
burdens, and fruitlessly toiling under them, the Lord saith. 
Come iinto Me, all ye tJiat lahonr and are heavy laden, and Matt. 
/ will refresh you. How doth He refresh the laden with ' 
sins, but by the pardon of sins? The Preacher of the world 
calleth out as from a height' of exalted authority, " Hear, 0> specula 
human race, hear, ye sons of Adam, hear, toilsome and un- 
profitable race ; I see your labour, see ye My gift. I know, 

ye labour and are heavy laden; and what is more miserable, 
ye bind destructive burdens on your shoulders; besides this, 
what is worse, ye ask for burdens to be added to you, not to 
be taken off." 

5. Who of us can in a short time treat of the multiplicity iii. 
and variety of these burdens ? Nevertheless let us mention 

a few of them, and from these form a judgment of the rest. 
See that man laden with the load of covetousness, see him 
under this load sweating, panting, thirsting, and by toiling 
increasing the load. What art thou looking to, thou covet- 
ous one, in embracing thy burden, and by the chains of 
desire binding an evil load upon thy shoulders? What art 
thou looking for ? what art thou toiling for ? what art thou 
panting after? what art thou lusting for? To satiate covet- 
ousness forsooth. O empty desires, and deeds of greatest 
guilt! art thou looking then to satiate covetousness? It 
can press thee down, thou canst not satiate it. Or perhaps it 
is not heavy? Hast thou under this load even lost thy sense 
of feeling ? Is not covetousness heavy ? Why then doth 
she arouse thee from sleep, who sometimes doth not even 
suffer thee to sleep ? And peradventure you have another 

828 Self-chosen burdens hinder from coming to Christ. 

Serm. burdtn of sloth with her, and these two most wretched and 
[164. B.] conflicting burdens are oppressing thee, and tearing thee 

in pieces. For they do not command concordant, they do 

not enjoin hke things. Sloth says, '* Sleep on;" covetous- 

ness says, " Rise." Sloth says, " Do not expose yourself to 

the cold days;" covetousuess says, " Brave even tempests on 

the sea." The one says, " Be quiet;" the other does not 

suffer thee to have quiet. Her order is not only, " Go 

forth," but even, " Sail across the sea, seek lands you know 

not of" Merchandize must be freighted to the Indies; you 

do not know the Indian's language, but the language of 

covetousuess appears intelligible. You will come unknown 

to those who know not you; you give, receive, buy, load; 

through perils you arrived, with perils you return, and when 

tossed with the tempest in the sea, you cry out, " O God, 

deliver me." Dost thou not hear Him answering, " Why? 

Did I send thee ? Covetousness bade thee go gain what 

thou hadst not; I bade thee, without labour give what thou 

hadst to the poor before thy gate. Covetousness sent thee 

to tlje Indies to bring back gold; I placed Christ at thy 

gate, that from Him thou mightest buy the Kingdom of 

Heaven. Thou labourest at the bidding of covetousness, at 

My bidding thou labourest not. We both bade, thou hast 

not hearkened unto Me ; let her whom thou hast obeyed, 

deliver thee." 

iv. 6. How many are bearing these burdens ! How many 

placed under them are calling out now approvingly to me as I 

am speaking against these very burdens. With burdens they 

entered here, with burdens they go out; covetous they came 

in, covetous they go away. I am distressed in speaking 

against these burdens. If ye call out, lay aside what ye are 

bearing. Finally, do not listen to me, listen to your General 

Mat. 11, crying out, Come nnio Ale, all ye that labour and are heavy 

laden. For come ye will not, unless ye leave off to labour. 

Ye wish to run to Me with heavy burdens, but ye are not 

able. Come, saith He, itnto Me, all ye that labour and 

are heavy ladeu, and I uill refresh you. " I give pardon of 

sins past, I will take away wluit was oppressing your eyes, I 

will heal what hurt your shoulders. I will take away burdens 

indeed, but I will not leave you without burdens: I will take 

Humility^ the one lesson of Christ. 829 

away evil burdens, and impose good." For when He had said, Serm. 
And I ivill refresh you; He added, Take Myyohi upon you. ri64.B ] 
Desii*e had subjugated thee to thy curse, let charity subjugate v. 29. 
thee to thy saving health. 

7 . Take My yoke upon you^ and learn of 3Ie. If human 
teaching of what kind soever has been of small account with 
you, learn of Me. Cln-ist the Master calleth, the Only Son 
of God, the Only Faithful One, the True, the Truth calleth 
oni, Learn of Me. What.? That in the beginning was the John i, 
Word, and the Word was with God, and the IVord was ^ ' 
God, and all things were made by Him? Shall we be able 
to learn this of Him, to construct the world, to fill the Heaven 
with lights, to order the changes of the day and night, to bid 
the times and ages run their course, to give productive power 
to the seeds, to fill the earth with animals ? Nothing of all 
this doth the Heavenly Master bid us learn ; these things 
He doeth as God. But because being God He vouchsafed v. 
also to be Man, in that He is God, give ear that thou mayest 
be created anew ; in that He is Man, give ear that thou 
mayest imitate Him. Learn, saith He, of Me ; not to con- 
struct the world, and create natures ; nor those other things 
indeed which He wrought here, as God concealed, manifested 
as Man; nor doth he say again, " Learn of me to expel 
fevers from the sick, to put devils to flight, to raise the dead, 
to command the winds and tlie waves, to walk upon the 
waters;" no. He doth not say either, Learn this of Me. For 
these things He gave to some of His disciples, to some He 
gave them not: but this, Learn of Me, He saith to all; from 
this precept let no one excuse himself. Learn of Me, that 
L am meek and lowly in heart. Wherefore dost thou doubt 
to bear this burden \ Is this burden grievous, humility and 
piety? Is this burden grievous, faith, hope, charity? For 
these make a man lowly, these make him meek. And see 
how that thou shalt not be laden, if thou wilt hearken unto 
Him, For My yoke is easy, and My burden is light. What Mat. 1 1, 
is, is light. What if it have a weight, only a less one ? ^^• 
avarice more, righteousness less? I would not have you un- 
derstand it so. This burden is not the weight of one laden, 
but the wings of one ready to fly. For birds too have the 
burdens of their wings. And what do we say ? They bear 

830 Christ's burden up-bears us; covetous Communicants hurt 

Skum. them, and are borne. They bear them on the earth, they 
ri64 l^iarc borne by them in the air. If thou shouldest wish to 
sliew mercy to a bird, in the summer especially, and say, 
" The wings load this wretched little bird," and were to 
take off this burden ; the bird thou hast wished to help, will 
remain upon the earth. Bear then the wings of peace, receive 
the wings of charity. This is the burden, thus slmll he fuU 
Jilled the Law of Christ. 
vi. 8. The burdens have been distinguished. See now, some 
covetous person comes in: you know that covetous man, he 
is standing with thee, and thou art not covetous ; but even 
merciful, thou givest to the poor what thou hast, dost not open 
thy mouth greedily for that which thou hast not; thou givest 
iTim.(),ear to the Apostle, saying. Charge the rich of this world that 
Vuilr. they be not jjroud in their conceits, nor trust in tJie uncer- 
tainty of riches.^ but in the Liviny God, Who giveth us 
ahundanily all things to enjoy; that they he riclt in good 
works, thai they distribute easily, that they communicate, 
that they lay up for themselves a good foundation against 
' veram t]ie time to come, that they may hold on the True^ Life: 
Thou hast heard, acknowledged, learnt, held fast, practised 
it. Do on what thou art doing, grow not slothful, leave not, off. He that endurelh unto the end shall he saved. Thou 
hast done a kindness to some man, the man is ungrateful ; 
do not repent that thou hast done the kindness, lest by re- 
penting thou pour out what by pitying thou hast filled: say 
in thine heart, " he to whom 1 have done it regardeth it not, 
He for Whom I have done it doth regard it ; for if the man 
did regard it, if he were not ungrateful, it would be a gain 
to himself rather than to me. Let me hold fast to God, from 
Whom what 1 do is not hid; nor only what I do, but also with 
what intent I do it; let me look to Him to recompense me Who 
seekcth no witness of my doings." Such art thou, and it may 
be among God's people there standeth near thee a covetous 
plunderer, open-mouthed after other men's goods. Thou 
knowest him to be such an one, and he is one of the faithful, 
or rather is called one of the faithful, thou canst not expel him 
from the Church, thou hast no opening by correction and re- 
buke to reform him, he will approach to the altar with thee ; fear 
not; Every man shall bear his own burden. Remember the 

themselves, not others ; rich and poor lighten y other's burden. 83 1 

Apostle, that thou mayest approach with confidence ; Every Serm. 
man shall bear his own burden. Only let hhn not say to^g^y", 
thee, " Bear it with me." For if thou shouldest wish to share 
his avarice with him, his burden will not be lessened, but 
two will be oppressed. Let him then bear his own burden, 
and thou thine; since when thy Lord shook a like burden 
from off thy shoulders. He put on another, He shook off the 
burden of desire, He put on that of charity. So then accord- 
ing to his desires every ma,n beareth his own burden, the bad 
man a bad burden, the good, a good. 

9. Turn thyself now to that other precept also, Bear ye vii. 
one anothefs burdens. For thou hast Christ's burden, 
whereby to bear another's burden with him. He is poor, 
thou art rich ; His burden is poverty ; no such burden hast 
thou. Take heed lest haply when a poor man appeals to 
thee, thou say, Every ynan shall bear his own burden. Here 
give ear to the other precept; Bear ye one another'' s burdens. 
Poverty is not my burden, but it is my brother's burden. 
Look to it that riches be not thy greater burden. For thou 
hast not the burden of poverty, but thou hast the burden of 
riches. If you look at it properly, it is a burden. He hath 
one burden, thou another. Bear with him, and let him bear 
with tliee, that ye may bear one another's burdens. What 
is the burden of poverty } The having nothing. What is 
the burden of riches .? The having more than is necessary. 
Both he is laden, and thou art laden. Bear with him the 
having nothing, let him bear with thee the having superfluity ; 
that your burdens may be made equal. For if thou givest to 
the needy, thou dost lessen to him who hath nothing his burden, 
which was the having nothing ; if thou hast given to him, he 
begins to have; his burden which is called the having nothing 
is lessened; and he too lessens thy burden, which is called 
the having superfluity. Both of you are walking on God's 
way in the pilgrimage of this world ; thou wast bearing great 
superfluous wealth', and he had none; he hath joined himself sum- 
to thee, desiring to be thy companion ; do not neglect, do "** 
not despise, do not abandon him. Dost thou not see how 
much thou art bearing ? Give something of it to him who 
is bearing nothing, and hath nothing, and thou wilt at once 

SS'2 Communicating tvith. the evil, we communicate not with their evil. 

Sebm. assist thy companion, and relieve tliyself. The sentence of 
[■|g4_3ithe Apostle has, to my mind, been sufficiently explained. 

10. Let not them sell you smoke who say, " We are holy, 
we do not bear your burdens, therefore we do not communi- 
cate with you." Tiiese men bear the greater burdens of 
division, they bear the greater burdens of rending, the burdens 
of schism, the burdens of heresy, the burdens of dissension, 
the burdens of animosity, the burdens of false witness, the 
burdens of calumnious accusations. These burdens we have 
tried, and are trying to take off from our brethren's shoulders. 
They love them, holding them fast to them, they would not 
have them less, because by these very burdens they have 
swollen. For, in fact, whoso layeth aside a burden, which 
he was carrying on his neck, becomes, so it seems, less ; but 
it is weight, not size, that he has laid aside. 

11." But," you will say, " I will have no communication 
with men's sins." As if I were saying to thee. Come, have 
communication with other men's sins. I do not say this, 
T know what the Apostle says; but this 1 say, that thou 
shouldest not, because of other men's sins, even if they were 
truly theirs, and not rather thine own, desert the Lord's 
flock which is mixed up of sheep and goats ; shouldest not 
leave the Lord's floor, as long as the chaff" is in threshing ; 
shouldest not rend asunder the Lord's nets, as long as they 
are drawing good and bad fish to the shoi-e. " And how," 
you say, " should I endure him whom I know to be bad?" 
Would it not be better for thee to endure him, than to cast 
thyself out.? See, how thou mightest endure him: If thou 
wouldest give heed to the Apostle, saying, Erery ynan shall 
hear his own burden; this sentence would set thee free. 
For thou wouldest not communicate with him in his covetous- 
ness, but wouldest communicate at Christ's Table with him. 
And what harm would it do to thee, if thou wert to com- 
municate at Christ's Table with him.? The Apostle says, 
For he that catelh and drinkelh ii n worth i It/, eateth and 

I Cor. drinketli judament to himself. To himself, not to thee. If 

II 29. . . . 

'•:•' ' thou art a judge indeed, if thou hast received the power of 

judging, by the rule of the Church, if he is accused before 
thee, if he is convicted by true evidence and witnesses. 

Wheat is not carried far aicay, may he restored by compulsion. 833 

restrain, rebuke, excommunicate, degrade him. Let endurance Serm. 
be in such wise awake, that discipline sleep not. [164.B.J 

12. " But," say they, " Caecilianus was condemned"." 
Condemned ? By whom ? In the first place, in his absence, 
and then himself innocent by Traditors. These things were 
brought forward, inserted in the Acts, proved. They en- 
deavoured indeed to weaken the force of truth, and made 
efforts, to the utmost of their power, to darken its clearness 
by the clouds of groundless prosecutions. The Lord was at 
hand to help, His Clearness overcame their clouds. And 
observe how without knowing it they absolved the Church 
of the whole world, in whose communion we rejoice, how 
inconsiderable soever we are in her. It is not ourselves, 
but her cause that we maintain, defend, assert, in defending 
the Lord's floor, it is for the Lord's floor I speak. What 
I am in it. do not thou care. I wait for the /ay?. I would Matt.3, 

... 12. 

not, I say, thou shouldest care for this; or if thou wilt care, 
do not care in a contentious spirit, that thou mayest be able 
to cure thy brother. Cure the chaff, if thou canst ; but 
do not leave the wheat, if thou canst cure the chaff. There 
is sometimes shaken out of the Lord's floor both chaff, and 
sometimes even grains of corn, but not far. And there are 
good workmen, they go round about the floor, and what has 
been shaken out they drag with certain cleansing instruments, 
and call it back into the floor, though it be by dragging, though 
it be by compulsion. The cleansing instruments are these 
Imperial^ Laws. Call back, drag the wheat even with the'munda- 
earth, lest for the earth's sake the wheat be lost. " Ca^ci- "^' 
lianus was condemned," they say. He was condemned once 
in his absence, thrice acquitted when present. Thus we 
have answered them; and have briefly admonished these 
unruly men, as well as we could, by their own conduct, and 
have said, " Why do you quote against Cfficilianus the 
Council of seventy Bishops, pronouncing their judgments 
upon him in his absence ? More were pronounced by the 
Council of theMaximianists against Primianus in hisabsence." 
We have said, " Caecilianus was condemned by the former 
in his absence, Primianus was condemned by the latter in his 

» In their2nd Council, at Cabarsussi. sent. S. Aug. o. Cresc. iii. 13. see ab. 
Above 100 Donatist Bishops were pre- p. 169. n. e. 

834 Donatists overruled, like Caiaphas, to answer themselves. 

Serm. absence. As they are no ])reiudice lo the absent Primianus, 
CXIV. . .' I J 

[164.B.1'''0 neither could the otliers be a prejudice to the absent 


13. What answer do ye suppose they made in this strait? 

For what could they say ? Which way escape, caught as 

they were in the nets of truth ? In order that they might 

violently burst these nets, what have they said, in few words, 

yet absolutely for us? And indeed they said many things, 

and nearly all for us, as the Acts will shew, which being 

> propo- now on the point of being 'published you will soon read, 

• ^ Beloved. But in this place I beg you, and beseech you by 

Christ, that ye hold it fast, repeat it, always have it in your 

mouth. For there could not be pronounced a shorter, and 

surer, and clearer sentence for us. What then did he say, 

when we made this objection, " The seventy are just in the 

same way no prejudice to Caecilianus, as the Maximianists 

2 Indie. ^1*6 none to Primianus?" Their defendant said : " -(3ne cause 
Collat. (Joes not prejudice another cause, nor one ])erson another 
(Cone, person." O brief, clear, true answer ! For he knew not what 
t. 2. p. ^^ said; but like Caiaphas being High Priest, he prophesied : 
1442.) " One cause does not prejudice another cause, nor one person 
49. ' another person." If one cause does not prejudice anotlier 

cause, nor one person another person, then every man beareth 
his own burden. Let him go now and object Ctccilianus 
against thee ; object Cajcilianus not against thee, any in- 
dividual man, but against the whole world. Which when 
he does he objects an innocent man against those who are 
innocent. The Acts will shew it entirely, and most clearly. 
Caecilianus was cleared. But suppose that he was not 
cleared, sujipose that he was found guilty ; hear thine own 

3 ab. words echoed* by the whole world, " One cause does not 

prejudice another cause, nor one person another person." O 

* animo- heretical, incurable, « obstinate soul, why, when thou pro- 

nouncest sentence against thine own self, dost thou accuse 

5 Mar- the judge^? If I have corrupted him, to give judgment for 

ce inus.jjjg. ^j^Q hiilh corrui)ted thee, to condemn thine own self? 

X. 14. Would that they would at length reflect on these things, 

reflect even at this late hour, with their animosity subsiding, 

reflect, return to themselves, question themselves, thoroughly 

examine themselves, answer themselves, for the truth's sake 

Patience to he shewn to those without. 835 

not fear those to whom so very long tliey have been vendmg Seum. 
falsehood. For them they are afraid of offending; they n (545 'n 
blush at a natm-aP infirmity, and do not blush at the in- 1 huma- 
vincible force of truth. Yes, it is this they are afraid of, lest it"^ 
be said to them," Why then have ye deceived us ? why have ye 
seduced us ? why have ye told us so many wicked and false 
things?" They should answer, if they feared God, " It was 
a human fault to err, it is devilish through obstinacy to 
continue in error. It were indeed better, had we never 
erred; but at least let us do what is next best, at length 
amend our error. We deceived, because we had been 
deceived; we preached what was false, because we gave 
credit to those who preached what was false." Let them say 
to their people; " Together have we erred, together let us 
withdraw from error. We have been your guides to the 
ditch, ye followed when we led to the ditch, follow now 
too when we lead to the Church." This they might say : 
they might say it to indignant, angry ears ; but these too 
might in time lay aside their indignation, might even late 
love unity. 

15. Nevertheless, let us, brethren, be patient toward them. 
The eyes we are treating are in an inflamed and swollen 
state. I do not say that we should cease to treat them : but 
that we should not by insults provoke them to greater bitter- 
ness; let us render them a reason with gentleness, not 
proudly exult in our victory. For the servant of the Lord 2 Tim. 
ouylii not to strive, says the Apostle, hut to be gentle imto^''^^''^^' 
all men, apt to teach, patienti in modesty^ rehuking those 2 modes- 
who oppose themselves ; if God peradventure may give them y^ , 
repentance, and they may recover themselves out of the 
snares of the devil, hy whom they are held captive at his 
will. Bear then with patience, if ye are whole bear with 
patience, in proportion as ye are whole. For who is per- 
fectly whole ? When the Righteous King shall sit on His Prov. 
Throne, who shall boast that he hath a clean heart, or who g ' ^ ' 
shall boast that he is clean from sin? Therefore as long as 
we are such, tliis owe we to ourselves, to bear one another's 
burdens. Let us turn to the Lord, &c. 

836 Man has free-will, but insufficient for good. 


Oa the words of the Apostle, Ephes. iii. " I desire you uot to be 
enfeebled hi my tribulations for you, which is your glory, &c." And 
concerning Grace and free-will against the Pelagians. 

Delivered in the Basilica Majorum. 

Serm. 1- We have heard the Apostle, we have heard the Psahn, 
r^3y!*Twe liave heard the Gospel; all the divine lessons sound the 

[loo. B.J ' 

— I — same note, that we should place our hope not in ourselves, 
Ephes. ^"^ "^ ^^^^ Lord. / desire, saith the Apostle, you not to be 
3, 13. enfeebled in my tribidationsfor you, which is your glory. I 
desire you, saith he, not to be enfeebled, that is, that ye be 
not weakened, when ye hear that I am suffering tribulation 
for you; for this is your glory. He desires them then, that 
they would not be enfeebled; which he would not do, did he 
uot wish to stir up their will. For if they were to say, 
" Why dost thou desire us to do what we have not in our 
power to do.?" would they not seem to have returned him a 
fitting answer? And yet the Apostle, if he did not know 
that there was in them a consent of their own will, wherein 
they too might themselves do something, would not say, / 
desire. And if he were to say, " I enjoin," unless he knew 
that they could bring their will to bear on his injunction, 
this word would proceed out of his mouth in vain. But 
again, as he knew that man's will without God's help is weak, 
he not only (that they might not say, " We have no free 
choice of will") said, I desire: but also (that they might not 
say, " The free choice of the will is sufficient for us,") see 
what he added, For this cause. For what cause, but that 
V. 14. which he had expressed above, / desire you not to be 
enfeebled in my tribulations for you, which is your glory ? 
Because then ye have the free choice of the will, / desire. 
But because the free choice of the will is not sufficient for 
you to fulfil what I desire, For this cause I bow my knees 
V. 15. unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Of Whom all 
' "■«'■«'« ^paternity in Heaven and earth is named. That He looiild 
grant you. What, grant you ? I pray He would grant you, 
what I desire of you. For I desire of you, because of the 

Jll is of God's gift, hut to those only icho loill to receive. 837 

free choice of the will; I pray that He would grant you, Serm. 
because of the aid of His Majesty. [165.b!] 

2. But we are anticipating the Apostle's words. Perad- ii. 
venture you who do not retain in your memory the text of 
this same lesson are still waiting to hear, whether in real 
truth the Apostle does for this cause bow the knees unto 
the Father for them, that He would grant them what he had 
said to them, / desire, llemember then what he desired of 
thera. / desire you not to be enfeebled in my tribulations 

for you: this he desires of them. Now see what he desires 
for thera; / boiv my knees unto the Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, that He icould grant unto you, according to 
the riches of His glory, to be strengthened with power. 
What else is this, but not to be enfeebled.? To be strength- 
ened, he says, with power by His Spirit. This is the Spirit 
of grace. Observe what he desires. He desires of God, 
what he requires of men; because, that God may be willing 
to give, thou oughtest also to accommodate thy will to receive. 
How dost thou wish to receive the grace of the Divine 
Goodness, when thou dost not open the lap' of the willP'sinum 
Would grant you, he says. For ye have not, unless He 
grant you. Woidd grant you to be strengthened with power 
by His Spirit. For if He shall grant you to be strengthened 
with power, thereby He will grant you not to be enfeebled. 
In the inner man. That Christ may du: ell in your hearts v. \1. 
by faith. Would grant you all this. That being rooted and 
grounded in love, ye may be able to comjjrehend with all\. 18. 
saints. Comprehend what ? Would grant you to be strength- 
ened with power by His Spirit, and that Christ may dwell 
in your inner man by faith, and that so being rooted and 
grounded in love, ye may Ije able to comprehend with all 
saints: what? what is the breadth, length, height, and 
depth. Height indeed (altitude) in the Latin language 
signifies both; both that which is aloft hath the name of 
height; and that which is in the depth below, hath the 
name of height. Therefore the interpreter answered well 
with reference to that which is aloft upwards, in using the 
word " height;" to that which is far downwards, in using 
the word " depth." 

3. I will explain then, my brethren, to you what this is. iii- 

838 The breadth of the Cross, charity/; 

^^^- If perchance it is easier to any one, what then? because I 

[165.b!] have too little ability to comprehend, or give expression to 
these four things which the Apostle mentions, ilie breadth, 
length, height, and depth, shall I pass on from this ? Or 
shall I haply knock, and be aided by your prayers that I 
may bring forward something healthful for you ? Why 
roamest thou in heart, Christian man, through the width of 
the earth, the length of times, the height of heaven, the 
depth of the abyss? When shalt thou take in all this either 
in mind or body ? When, that is, either by the thought, or 
by the sight of the eyes of the flesh, shalt thou take in all 

Gal. 6, this? Hear the Apostle himself saying to thee; But God 
forbid that I should glory, save in the Cross of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. Let us too glory in It, even because we rest 
upon It. Let us all glory in It, my good brethren, let us 
glory in It. There peradventure shall we find both the 
width, and length, and height, and depth. For by these 
words of the Apostle is the Cross, so to say, set up before 
our eyes. For It hath the width, in which the Hands are 
fixed; It hath the length in the beam which reaches thence 
to the ground ; It hath the height again in that, which from 
the same transverse beam, in which the Hands are fixed, juts 
a little above it, where the Head of the Crucified is placed ; 
and It hath the depth, this it is which is fastened in the 
iv, ground, and is not seen. See ye here a great mystery'. 

> sacra- Yrom that depth which thou seest not, riseth all that thou 

mentum ' 

dost see. 

4. Where then is the width? Betake thyself to the life 
and conversation of the Saints, who say, God forbid that I 
should glory, sm:e in the Cross of our Lord Jesus Christ. In 
their conversation we find the width of charity; on which the 

2Cor.6, same Apostle admonisheth them, saying. Be ye widened, drau- 

' ' not the yoke ivith unbelievers. And because he himself was 

wide, who was exhorting them to width, hear what he says: 

Ibid. Q yg Corinthians, our moutli is open unto you; our heart is 
widened. Charity then, which alone worketh good works, 

2 Cor. 9, is the width. The width bringeth it to pass, that God loveth 
a cheerful giver. For if he be contracted, he will give in 
sadness; if he shall give in sadness, what he shall give is 
lost. Need then is there of the width of charity, that what- 

it's length, perseverance ; it's height, love of God for Himself. 839 

soever koocI thou cloest may not be lost. But forasmuch as Serm. 

the liorcl saith, When iniquity shall abound, the charity o/"ng5.B*-i 

many shall uax cold ; give me the length also; what is MeMat.24, 
length ? He that persevereth to the end shall he saved. ^'^^ ^^ 
This is the length of the Cross, where the whole body is 22. 
stretched; where, in a manner, it stands upright, in which 
standing is perseverance marked. If then thou who gloriest 
in the Cross, seekest to have the width of the Cross ; have 
the power of doing good works. If thou wouldest have the 
length of the Cross; have the long-suifering of perseverance. 
But if thou wouldest have the height of the Cross; acquaint 
thyself with what it is thou hearest and where thou hearest, 
" Up with the heart." What is, " Up with the heart?" 
There hope, there love; thence seek strength, there wait for 
the reward. For if thou doest good works, and givcst cheer- 
fully, thou seemest to have the width. If thou shalt persevere 
in the same good works unto the end, thou seemest to have 
the length. But if thou doest not all these things for the 
heavenly reward's sake, thou wilt not have the height; and so 
there shall be no more either the width, or the length. For 
what is to have the height, but to think of God, to love God, 
and to love God Himself for His Own sake, our Helper, 
God our Spectator, God our Crowner, God the Bestower 
of the reward, in a word to account Himself our Re- 
ward, to look for nothing else from Him but Himself? If 
thou dost love, love freely ; if thou lovest truly, let Him 
Whom thou lovest be thy Reward. What! are all things 
prized by thee, and is He Who made all things of small 
account ? 

5. That we may be able to do all this, the Apostle bowed 
his knees for us, to this end doubtless that it may be granted 
to us. For the Gospel also alarms us: For unto you it hath ^^^^ 13 
been given to know the mystery of the Kingdom, but to them 11.&12. 
it hath not been given. For whosoever hath, to hint shall 
be given. Now who hath to whom shall be given, but he 
to whom it hath been given? But whosoever hath not, from 
him shall be taken away even that he hath. Now who hath 
not, but he to whom it hath not been given ? Wherefore v. 
then hath it been given to one, and not given to the other? 
I am not slow to say, this is the depth of the Cross. 


840 Depth of Cross, God's judgments ; fools know not they are deep. 

Serm. From some depth of God's judgments, which we cannot 
r 1 65. B.l search through and explore, proceedeth all that we can do. 
From some depth, 1 say, of God's judgments, which as being 
inscrutable we cannot explore, we have not the power to 
search through, proceedeth all that we can do. What I can 
do I see; whence I can do, I do not see; except that this too 
I see so far, that I know it is of God. But why this man, 
and not that ; is too much for me, it is an abyss, it is the 
depth of the Cross; I can in admiration cry out, in disputa- 
tion I cannot explain. What can I cry out from this depth? 
Tb.99,,5. o Lord, how great are Thy Works. Tiie Gentiles are en- 
lightened, the Jews are blinded. Some little ones are washed 
in the Sacrament of Baptism, and some little ones are left in 
the death of the first man. O Lord, how great are Thy 
Works,Tliy Thoughts are exceeding deep. And it goes on: An 
y. (J. unwise man doth not know,and a fool doth not understand this. 
What doth not the fool and the unwise understand } That it 
is even deep. For if the foolish man doth not understand, 
and the wise doth understand, it is not exceeding deep. But 
if the wise man understandeth that it is deep, the fool doth 
not understand that it is even deep. 

6. Therefore many seeking to give an account of this 
depth, have gone away into idle tales of vanity. Some have 
said, that souls sin above in Heaven, and according to their 
sins are sent into bodies for their deserts, and shut up therein 
as in meet prisons. They have gone after their own cogi- 
tations; in wishing to dispute of the depth of God, they have 
sunk into the depth. For the Apostle wishing to set forth 
the value of grace hath met them, and hath made choice of 
Rom. 9, those twins in Rebecca's womb, and saith. For when they 
^^' were not yet horn, neither had done any good or evil. See 
how he hath taken away from vain men the idle fancies of the 
abode of souls before the body in heaven. For if they have 
had any abiding already there, they have already done some 
good or evil, and for their deserts have been thrust down 
into earthly bodies. If we so think, let us contradict the 
Apostle, who hath said. When they icere not yet born, nor 
had done any good or evil. But this, because by reason of 
the Apostle's plain declaration the catholic faith rejects it, 
that souls first live and abide in heaven, and there acquire 



Death of infants is through original sin. 84 1 

the earnings of the bodies they are to receive, these novel Serm. 
teachers* now do not dare to say. [165.B.] 

7. But what do they say ? Some of them (as we have ^ Pela- 
heard) reason thus: " Undoubtedly," they say, " all men die 
according to their deserts, in that they have sinned: for 
there would be no death, unless it came from sin." Most 
excellently indeed and truly said, " There would be no death, 
unless it came from sin." But I, when I hear this, com- 
mend it because I have my eye on that first death, and the 
sin of that first man. For I hear the Apostle; As in Adam | j^°^" 
all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive. By one 
man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and ,90 Rom- 6, 
death passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned. For 
all men were one. Do I hear you say that the death of man 
is from sin in this sense ? " No," says he. What do you say? 
" God now createth every man immortal." Marvellous no- 
velty ! What do you say .? " Yes," says he, " God createth 
every man immortal." Why then do little infants die ? 
For were I to say, Why do grown men die ; you would tell 
me, " They have sinned." Therefore I will not argue about 
the death of older people ; I will cite the infancy of babes as 
a witness against you. They speak not, and they convict : 
they are silent, and prove what I am saying. Lo, infants 
are of course in their own doings innocent, having nothing 
with them save what they have derived from the first man ; 
to whom the grace of Christ is therefore necessary, that in 
Christ they may be made alive, who are dead in Adam; that 
forasmuch as they are defiled in their first birth, they may 
by their second birth be cleansed. These then will I cite 
as witnesses. Answer me. Why do they die, if all men are 
born immortal, and die because they sin.'' What think you 
could be said ? What ears can bear it ? " They too have 
sinned." Where have they sinned ? I ask you, when 
have they sinned ? how have they sinned } They know not 
what good and evil is. Do they acquire sin, who are not capable 
of a precept ? Prove to me that infants are sinners : prove 
to me what you have said — in truth because you have for- 
gotten what you were — the sins of infants. What because 
they weep, do they sin ? because by the instincts^ of dumb^mt't'biis 
animals as it were, they repel annoyances, receive pleasiu'es, 

3 I 2 

842 One only grace for all, through our Lord's Birth of a Virgin. 

Sr.RM. do they iherefoie sin ? If these instincts are sins, they become 

riG5.R.l }r?i'eater sinners in baptism; in that when they are baptized, 

they struggle most vehemently. Why is not sin imputed to 

them in such great struggling, but because there is as yet no 

power of the will ? 

8. But 1 say more: These, for that they are born, as you 
• imagine, have sinned. For if they did not sin, you say, they 
would not die. What do you say of those who die in the 
womb.'' What a strait! " These too," says he, "have sinned, 
therefore they die." Dost thou lie, or art thou deceived ? 
Rom. 9 The Apostle contradicts you, Wlien they icere not yet horn, 
ii- tieilher had done any good or evil. I give ear to the Apostle 
rather than to thee ; I believe the Apostle rather than 
thee. When they were not yet born, neither had done any 
good or evil. Now if you gainsay this testimony, away 
with you rather to those strange vagaries, and say, " They 
sinned in heaven, and are cast down into bodies from 
thence." "I will not say so," says he. Why not.? 
" Because the Apostle says. When they were not yet born, 
neither had done any good or evil."" If then thou dost not 
accuse them in Heaven, wherefoi'e accusest thou them in the 
womb ? To both cases the Apostle answers, both answers 
them who say, " They sinned in Heaven;" and those who 
say, " They sinned in the womb," because to both cases 
those words which he says apply with force, " Before they 
were born, they had done neither good or evil." Why then 
do they die ? On this point too shall I give ear to thee, and 
not rather to the Teacher of the nations ? 
vii. 9. Tell me, x^postle Paul, wherefore do they die .'' By one 
Uom.Ojjjif^i)/ gill entered into the ivorld, and death by sin; and so 
deatlt passed upon all men, in whom all have sinned. Lo, 
the first man made the whole mass subject to condemnation; 
let Him come, let our Lord come, The Second Man; let 
Him come, let Him come; let Him come by another 
way, by a Virgin come; let The Living come, let Him find 
the dead; let Him die, that He may succour the dying, 
translate the dead to life, redeem the dead from death, pre- 
serve life in death, kill death by Death. This is the only 
grace for infants, the only grace for those of older years ; 
the only grace which delivers the small with the great. 

Depth of GocVs mysteries — trust in Him, deep knowledye. 843 

Why this one, and not that; why not this and that; I would Serm. 
not thou shouldest^nquire of me. I am a man : I consider [i65.b]] 
tJie depth of the Cross, I do not penetrate it; I stand in awe, 
I do not search it out. His judamenis are inscrutable, His Rom. 

11 33 

tvays untraceable. I am a man, thou art a man; he was a ' 
man who said, O man, who art thou tliat repliest against 'Rom. 9, 
God? It was a man who said it, to man he said it. Let" 
man give ear, lest man be lost, for whose sake God was made 
Man. In this depth of the Cross then, in this so great ob- 
scurity of the 'subject, let us hold to wliat we have just 
chanted ; let us not presume on our own strength, let us not 
in this question arrogate aught to the powers of our poor 
wit; let us repeat the Psalm, with the Psalm let us say. 
Be merciful unto me, O God, he merciful unto me. Why } Ps.57,i. 
Because I have any excellence whereby to purchase thy 
favour? No. Why? Because I bear about me a power of 
will, whereby desert of mine may precede Thy grace ? No. 
But why ? Because my soul trusleth in. Thee. Great science 
is this trust. Let us turn to the Lord, &c. 


On the words of the Apostle, Ephes. iv. " Putting away lymg, speak ye 
the truth-;" and of the 116th Psalm, " Every man is a liar." 

\. That this sentence, which the Apostle spake. Putting i, 
away lying, speak ye the truth, is not contrary to that^P''^^* 
declaration which is made in the Psalm, Every ntan is a J ,' 
liar, I will, if the Lord grant me understanding, briefly ex-il. 
plain. What then is, Butting aicay lying, speak ye the truth ? 
and. Every man is a liar? Doth God by the Apostle 
enjoin things impossible? No. What then doth He enjoin ? 
I venture to say ; and do ye receive what I say without 
cavilling, seeing that I say it at myself too : God enjolneth 
this, that we be not men. For were I to say, God enjoineth 
that ye be not men, ye might haply receive it with bitterness; 
and therefore I have joined myself with you, that no one 
may be angry. 

844 XtiaJis not mere men, nor what is said ofm(n, said of them. 

Seum. 2. For I say more to you, holy brethren: we find that 

riGG.B.i ^^^^ Apostle has brought it as a charge against men, that 

^j they are men ; for he has said this to men in reproof. Just 

as we in anger say to any one, " You are a beast ;" so he 

correcting them with the scourge of the Lord's discipline, 

objected it against men that they were men. What did he 

wish them to become, against whom it was a charge that 

1 Cor. 3, they were men? For whereas there is among you, says he, 

envyiny and strife; are ye not carnal, and nal/c according 

to man ? For ichen one sailh, I am of Paul, and another, I 

1 Vulg. of Apollos; are ye not men ' ? In reproof and chiding he 

says, Are ye not men '<* What then did he wish them to become, 
Ps.82,6.but that which is expressed in the Psalm, / Jiare said, Ye 
are Gods, and the children of the 3Iost Hiyh'^ This indeed 
God said ; for to this He calleth. But what doth He sub- 
'• ^* join ? But ye shall die like men, and fall like one of the 
princes. Here too a reproach is cast, when it is said. But 
ye shall die like men. For Adam was man, and not the son 
of man : whereas Christ is The Son of Man, and God. The 

2 perti- old man, that is, Adam, is concerned ^ with lying ; the New 

Man, the Son of Man, that is, Christ God, with truth. If 
thou puttest away lying, put off Adam ; if thou speakest 
truth, put on Christ ; and thou shalt find no contrariety^ in 
what has now been brought before you in the Scriplm-es. 
For it is in his admonition that the old man must be put off, 
and the new put on, that the Apostle says, Putting away 
lying, speak the truth; and the Psalm admonished and be- 
wailed those, who being unwilling to put off Adam, and put 
on Christ, desired not to be new men, but merely men ; 
such as they to whom it is said. Are ye not men ? And on 
you falls that which is spoken. Every man is a liar. 
iii. 3. If thou wouldest be a man, thou wilt be a liar. Be not 
minded to be a man, and thou wilt not be a liar. Put on 
Christ, and thou wilt be true ; that the words which thou 
shalt speak may not be thine, as if thine own, and originated 
by thee, but the Truth's, enlightening and illuminating 
thee. For if thou shalt be deprived of the Light, thou shalt 
remain in thine own darkness, and shalt not be able to speak 
John 8, aught but lies. For the Lord saith Himself, Whoso 
^^' speaketh a lie, speaketh of his own ; because, every man 

Truth is God's; ours, i/, receiving if, we own it His. 845 

is a liar. Whoso then speaketh the truth, speaketh not of Serm. 

his own, but of God's. Not indeed in such sense, as that nee. B.l 

we should say he speaketh what is another's ; for they be- 
come his own, when he loves what he receives, and renders 
thanks to Him Who gave. For if the enlightening of the 
Truth be taken away from a man, he will abide stripped as 
it were of the robe of light, and will not have the power to 
speak aught but lies. For this will remain in him, which is 
written in the Psalm, Every man is a liar. 

4. There is no ground then whereon any should cavil, iv. 
and say to me, " I must lie, seeing that I am man." For 1 
M'ould say to him too most confidently. Be not minded to 
be man, that thou may est not lie. " Shall 1 then," says he, 
" not be man ?" No, assuredly. For to this hast thou been 
called, that thou mayest not be man, by Him, Who for thy 
sake was made Man. Be not angry. For this, " that thou 
mayest not be man," is not said to thee in such sense as 
that thou shouldest be a beast; but so as that thou shouldest 
be of the number of those, to xvliovi God liath given power John i, 
to become the sons of God. For God wisheth to make thee "" 
a God ; not by nature, as He is Whom He hath begotten ; 
but by His Gift and Adoption. For as He by His Humanity 
was made partaker of thy mortality; so by tliy exaltation 
doth He make thee partaker of His Immortality. Render 
thanks then, and embrace what hath been given, that thou 
mayest attain ' to the enjoyment to which thou hast been ' mere- 
called. Be not Adam, and thou shalt not be man. If not 
man, then not a liar; for every man is a liar. And when 
thou shalt have begun not to lie, attribute it not to thyself, 
nor be puffed up, as though it were of thine own; lest as it 
were a lamp which is lighted at some other fire, thou be 
extinguished by the wind of pride, and remain again in thine 
own lie. Do not lie then, Brethren. For aforetime ye were 
old men : ye came to the grace of God, ye were made new 
men. Lying appertains to Adam, Truth to Christ. Putting 
away lying, then, speak the truth, that this mortal flesh too 
which as yet ye have from Adam, by the newness of the 
Spirit going before, may itself attain to renewing and change 
in the time of its resurrection ; and so the whole man deified 
may inhere in the Eternal and Unchangeable Truth. 


846 Life evil thro misery and sin: infants' tears projjhesy this. 



On pie wards of the Apostle, Ephes. v. " See that ye walk circumspectly, 
not as fools, hut as wise, redeeming the time, hecause the days are 

Sekm. 1. Yk heard the Apostle, when he was beiuf^ read; yea 
C X \' 1 1 • . . 

ij'g-pi' rather we all heard him, saying to lis, See that ye tvalk cir- 

j] cwnspectly, not as fools, but as wise, redeemituj the time, 
Ephes. hecause the days are evil. Two things, Brethren, make evil 
' ■ 'days, malice and misery. By the malice and misery of men 
evil days are passed. But these days, as far as the spaces 
of the hours are concerned, are regular; they follow one 
after another, they make up time; the sun rises, the sun 
sets, the times pass on. To whom are these times trouble- 
some, if men are not troublesome to themselves.'' Two 
things then, as I have said, make evil days, the misery of 
men, and the malice of men. Now the misery of men is 
common to all; malice ought not to be common to all. For 
from the time that Adam fell, and was driven out of paradise, 
there have been none but evil days. Let us ask these 
children, who are just born, why they begin with crying, 
who have equally the power to laugh. He is just born, 
and he cries at once; after I know not how many days he 
laughs. When he cried at his birth, he was the prophet of 
his own distress; for tears are the witnesses of misery. He 
does not yet speak, and be already prophesies. What does 
he prophesy } That he is to be in trouble, or in fear. 
Though he should live a good life, and be a righteous man, 
at least, as placed in the midst of temptation, he will always 
be in fear, 
ii. 2. What says the Apostle ? All that nill lire yodly in 
2 Tim. (j/irist Jesus shall suffer persecution. Lo, because the days 
' are evil, without persecution the righteous here cannot live. 

They who live among the wicked suffer persecution. All 
the wicked persecute the good, not with sword, and stones, 
but by their life and conversation. Did any one persecute 
holv Lot in Sodom? No one shewed him any violence; and 

Liose lawsuits, to gain time for God. 847 

yet he was living among the ungodly, and among the un- Seum. 
clean, proud, blasphemers, he suffered persecution, not bvrjg-gn 
bodily' violence, but by the sight of the wicked. Whoso- f"; ~ 
ever thou art that now hearest me, and art not yet living lando 
godly in Christ, begin to live godly in Christ, and you shall 
prove what I say. Again, the Apostle, when he was recount- 
ing his ])erils, says, In perils in the sea, in perils in the^Cor. 
rivers, in j)erils in the uilderness, in perils among rol'hers,^^}^^' 
in perils among false brethren. All the other perils may 
cease, per ils from false brethren can never cease even unto 
the end of the world. 

3. Let us redeem the time; because the days are evil. 
Ye are waiting hajaly to know from me, what it is to redeem 
the time. I am about to say what few give ear to, few bear, 
few attempt, {qw practise; yet say it I will, since these few 
who will give ear to me, are living among the wicked. This 
is, to redeem the time, when any one institutes a suit against 
thee, lose something, that thou mayest give thy time to God, 
not to litigation. Lose then,; out of that thou losest, is the 
price of time. When thou goest forth indeed for thy neces- 
sities 10 the market, thou dost give money, and buy thyself 
bread, or wine, or oil, or wood, or some household goods; 
thou dost give and receive, thou dost lose something, and 
get something, this is to buy. For if thou dost lose nothing, 
and hast what thou hadst not before; thou hast either found 
or received a gift, or acquired by inheritance. But when 
thou dost lose something to have something, then thou dost 
buy ; what thou hast, has been bought, what thou losest, is the 
price. As then thou losest money, to buy thee something ; 
so lose money, to buy thee rest. Lo, this is to redeem time. 

4. There is a well-known Phoenician ^ proverb, which I jij, 
will indeed give you in Latin, because ye do not all under- " l^uni- 
stand PhcEuician. For there is an old Phoenician proverb i*^ 

" The plague looks for a piece of money, give it two, and 
let it take^ itself off." Does not this proverb seem to bes^ucat 
derived from the Gospel.'' For what else than, Redeeming^^ 
the time, said the Lord, when He said. If any one will cow- Matt. 5 
tend with thee in judgment, and take away thy coat, let go'^^' 
thy cloke also unto him ? He wishes to contend with thee 
in judgment, and take away thy coat, wishes to call thee 

848 Vexatious lawsuits bring damnation. 

Ferm. away by litigation from thy God; thou wilt have no ([uiet of 
[167 j3i' heart, thou wilt have no tranquillity of mind, thou wilt be 
lever- tlivown' ioto coufusiou in thy thoughts, be irritated against 
'^^'^ this thine adversary. Lo, thou hast lost the time. How 
much better then is it to lose money, and redeem the iime? 
My brethren, if in your causes and affairs, when they come 
to us to be judged, I bid a Christian man lose something of 
his own for redeeming the time; with how much greater care 
and confidence ought I to bid him to restore what is 
another's ? For I am giving audience to two men, Christians 
"calum-both. Already, that trickster^, who wishes to institute a suit 
against the other, and to take somewhat from him at least 
by way of composition, is rejoicing at these words. " The 
Apostle has said. Redeeming the time, because the days are 
^ca.]mn- evil. I will therefore bring a vexatious^ suit against that 
Christian, whether he will or no, he will give me something 
to reedeem the time, hecgnise he will give ear to the Bishop." 
Tell me, if I must say to him, " Lose something, that thou 
mayest be ([uiet;" shall I not say to thee, " Trickster, 
abandoned one, child of the devil, why dost thou go about to 
rob the property of others. Thou hast no good plea, yet art 
thou full of vexatious accusation." If then I shall say to him, 
" Give him something, that he may desist from his vexatious 
action;" where shalt thou be, who shalt have the money 
from this vexatious action ? He who to avoid thy injustice 
redeemeth the tinae from thee, beareth with evil days here ; 
but thou who art feeding on unjust prosecutions, here shalt 
have evil days, and after these shalt have worse in the day 
of judgment. But this haply thou dost laugh at, because 
thou art plundering money. Laugh, laugh on, and despise; 
let me deal out, He will come to exact an account. 


On the words of the Apostle, Ephes. vi. " Peace to the brethren and love 
with faith." Or on the grace of God, according to the confession and 
doctrine of the vessel of election, that faith is a gift of God's mercy. 

L By the lessons, canticles, and divine sermons, and, 
which is the principal tiling, by His grace may the Lord 

Love separates faith of saints from that of devils. 840 

edify your hearts; that the truth which ye hear, ye may not Skrm. 
hear unto judgment, but unto reward. He will do this, [I'es.B.] 
since He Who hath promised, is able also to perform. Thus 
Abraham believed, giving glory to God, simply and most |l°'°- 4> 
fully believing, that what He had promised He teas able 
also to perforin. Our great rejoicing. He promised us to 
Abraham; we are the children of the promise. For when it Gal. 4, 


was said to Abraham, In thy seed shall all nations be blessed, Geu.2'2 
we were promised. He then hath made us children of the ^^' 
faith of Abraham, Who is able to perform what He hath 
promised. Let no one say, " I have performed it." For 
God doth not promise, and thou performest. But it 
may be rightly said, that what thou promisest, God per- 
formeth. For thou art infirm, thou art not almighty. When 
then thou dost promise, unless God performeth, thy promise 
is vain. But God's promise dependeth not on thee, but on 
Him. " But," you say, " I have believed." I grant it, yoii 
say true: thou hast believed, but thou didst not give thyself 
faith. And whereby hast thou believed, but by faith.? Faith ii. 
is the gift of God in thee. 

2. Hear the Apostle himself the disputant of faith, and 
the gre'at defender of grace; hear him saying. Peace to ///eEphes. 
brethren, and love iciih faith. These great things hath he ' 
named, peace, love, faith. He began at the end, ended at 
the beginning. For the beginning is in faith, the end in 
peace. For whereby we believe, this is faith. But it must 
be the faith of Christians, not of devils. For as the Apostle 
James says. The devils also believe, and tremble. Even the Jam. 2, 
devils said to Christ, Thou art the Son of God. The devils ^^' 
confessed what men did not believe. They trembled, men 
killed. For what! because the devils said, Thou art ///eMarki, 
Son of God, we know Who Thou art; shall they therefore ^^'^' 
reign with the Son of God? God forbid! The faith of 
devils then must be distinguished from the faith of saints. 
Must'be certainly distinguished with care and watchfulness. 
For Peter also said this to the Lord, Who asked Him, Whom, 
say ye that I anif Tliou art the Christ, the Son of the ''' °' 
Living God. And the Lord said, Blessed art thou, Simon 
Barjona. O Lord, the devils also said this unto Thee ; why 
are not they blessed? Why? Because tlie devils said it ia 

850 Faithi hve, peace, {the lohole of Christians) all of God. 

Serm. fear, Peter in love. Therefore the beginning is from faith. 

[Sb.I^"^ what liind of faitli? That which the Apostle hath 

GdTsr defined, Neither circumcisiofi araileth any thing, nor un- 

^' circumcision, hut faith. Say what faith ? Which tcorketh 

by love. This faith iihich norketh hy love the devils have 

not; but only the servants of God, only the Saints of God, 

only the children of Abraham by faith, only the children of 

love, the children of the Promise; therefore is it said, and 

love. These three things were mentioned by the Apostle, 

Peace to the brethren, and love with faith. Peace to the 

brethren. Whence is peace? And love. Whence is love? 

With faith. For if thou believest not, thou dost not love. 

Therefore said the Apostle, beginning thus from the end, and 

coming to the betrinning ; Peace, love, with faith. Let us 

say. Faith, love, peace. Believe, love, reign. For if thou 

believest, and dost not love ; thou hast not hitherto distin- 

Mark 1 g^ished thy faith from those who trembled and said, We 

2'i;&3,knofv Who Thou art, the Son of God. Therefore do thou 

^'* love ; for love with faith, itself bringeth thee safe unto peace. 

iii. What peace ? True peace, plenary peace, solid peace, 

secure |)eace; where no plague is, no enemy. This peace is 

the end of all good desires. Love tcith faith : and if thou 

sayest it thus, thou sayest well, " Faith with love." 

3. Great blessings then did the Apostle recount. Peace 
DeGrat. ^0 /Ae brethren, and love ivith faith ; great blessings. But 
et libero jgj^ |jj^^ g^y, whence these blessings are ? whence are they, of 
xyiii.(al. ourselves, or of God ? If thou sayest, " of ourselves;" thou 
^' *° eloricst in thyself, not in God. Ikit if thou hast learned 

40.) b J ' 

what this same Apostle also says. That he that glorieth, 

1 Cor. 1, . , r 1 ,• -i 7 -,7 

31. should glory in the Lord; confess that peace, love, with 

faith, come not to thee save from God. But you answer me; 

" This you say, prove what you say." 1 will: I will call the 

Apostle himself as a witness. Lo, ye have it: the Apostle 

has said. Peace to the brethren, and love with faith. He 

hath also said. What hath he said ? See, he goes on, Peace 

to the brethren, and love with faitli from God our Father 

1 Cot. 4, and the Lord Jesus Christ. What then hast thou that thou 

^* hast not received. Now if thou hast received it, why dost 

thou glory, as if thou hadst not received it '? For if Abraham 

gloried, he gloried in faith. What is plenary and perfect 

Conversion of S. Paul wholly of God's grace. 851 

faith? That which believeth that all our good things, and Serm. 
faith itself, are of God. Again the Apostle says, I ohtained\{Q^'Q\ 
mercy. What a confession ! He does not say, " I obtained 
mercy, because I was faithful j" but, I ohlained mercy, i/iatiCor.7, 
J might be faith/id. 

4. Let us come to his beginnings, let us see Saul in his iv. 
violence, let us behold him in his fury, let us behold him 
breathing out hatred, and athirst for blood. Let us behold 
him. Brethren, a wondrous spectacle. Lo, after the death of 
Stephen, after the pouring out of the blood of God's witness 

by stoning, when he kept the clothes of them that stoned Acts 7, 
him, so that he even stoned him by their hands, then were 
the brethren dispersed abroad, who had been gathered toge- 
ther at Jerusalem; and he in his rage, who thought it a little 
matter to have seen and shed the blood of Stephen, received 
letters from the Chief of the Priests that he might go to Acts 9. 
Damascus, and bring whatever Christians he might find 
there, bound. And he went on his way. This was Paul's 
way, whose way Christ yet was not; still Saul, not yet Paul. 
He went on his way. What had he in his heart? What, 
but evil ? Shew me his merits. If you look for merits, they 
are those of damnation, not deliverance. He was going on 
his way then to exercise his rage on the members of Christ, 
he was going to shed blood, he was going a wolf, the 
future shepherd: thus was he going on his way. For he 
could not go in any other mind after those designs for which 
he was going. And when he is walking thus, meditating, 
breathing out slaughter; when anger is guiding his feet, 
hatred setting his limbs in motion, whilst he is going on his 
way and walking, obeying cruelty as its slave; then, lo, a 
voice from heaven, Saul, Saul, why persecutest thou Me? Acts 9, 
See, why he said, / obtained mercy that I might be faithful, icor. 7 
He was an unbeliever; much more, he was cruel in this^^- 
unbelief; but he obtained mercy that he might be faithful. 
What wilt thou say to God, who saith, " 1 will this ?" What, 
Lord, him who hath done so much evil, who was desiring 
still to do so much evil against Thy Saints, dost Thou deem 
him worthy of such mercy ? " I will this." Is thine eye evil, Mat.20, 
because I am good? ^°' 

5. Have faith, but that ye may have faith, pray in faith, v. 

852 Faith precedes prayer ; how then is faith not our own? 

Seiim. But pray in faith ye could not, unless ye had faith. For 
ricg.B] nothing prayeth, save faith. For how shall they call on 
Kom.~ Him, in Whom they have not believed? or how shall they 
'**' '■^' believe in Him of Whom they have not heard? And how 
shall they hear without a preacher P or lioic shall they 
preach if they be not sent ? Therefore speak we, because 
we have been sent. Give ear to us, give ear to Him by us. 
One will say then, " We call on God, that He would grant to 
us to persevere in the good we have, and would add the 
> certe good we have not. Faith which prayeth then hath gone 
et libem^^cfore. How' Say you 'God giveth all?' For that He 
arb. c. might give to me, I prayed; that T might pray, I first believed, 
27,28.)" Therefore that 1 believed I gave myself, and God gave what 
in belief T prayed for." Let this difficulty be solved, for it 
is no slight one. 1 see that thou sayest this, that thou hast first 
given something to God, that He might give the rest to thee. 
For thou hast given to Him thy faith, and thy prayer. 
n°"i4 ^^^16^'^ iX^eia. is that which the Apostle says, For icho hath 
35! known the mind of the Lord, or who hath been His coun- 
sellor f Or who hath first given to Him, and it shall be 
recompensed unto him again ? See what sort of person thou 
wouldest be. Hast thou then first given to God, and given 
that which God gave not thee? Hast thou found wherewith 
to give? O beggar man, whence hadst thou it? Hadst thou 
then wherewith to give any thing ? For wltat hast thou, 
which thou hast not received? Of what is God's then givest 
thou to God; of that which He hath given thee. He receiveth 
from thee. For thy beggary, had He not first given, would 
have remained most empty. 

(). Hear ye whereby ye may more clearly prove this. Lo, 
' ye have received because ye have believed :' what say we 
of those who have not yet believed, such as was Saul, when 
he had not yet believed ? But he received that he might 
believe: after that he believed in Christ, then he began to 
call on Christ. From Him he received, that he might believe, 
and by believing call on Him, by calling on Him might 
vi. receive all other things. What think we, Brethren ? Before 
Saul believed, did they who already believed, pray for him, 
or did they not pray ? Let it be told me, if they did not pray 
Acts 7, for him, wherefore said Stephen, Lord, lay not this sin to 

S. Paul's faith fruit of the ChurcIC s prayer ; his humility/. 853 

their charge? Yes, prayer was made both for him, and for Serm. 
the other unbelievers, that they might believe. Lo, they rf^g^g'T 
had not faith as yet, and by the prayer of the faithful they ~ 
received faith. They had nothing yet to offer to God ; 
because they had not yet obtained vtei'ci/, that they might 
be faithful. Again, after that this Saul was converted, by one 
Voice struck down, and raised up, struck down the persecutor, 
raised up the preacher; after that he began to preach the Gal. i, 
faith, which once he laid tcaste, what said he of himself? 24". " 
But 1 was unknown by face unto the churches ofJudcea, 
which are in Christ; but they heard only, that he which 
persecuted us in times past, now preacheth the faith, which 
once he laid waste ; and they magnified God i?i me. Did he 
say, " And they magnified me in me." " Nay, in me who now 
preached the faith, which once I laid waste, they magnified 
not me, but God." It was He then Who brought it to pass, 
that having laid aside the old robe, tattered by sins, bloody 
by murders, that having laid aside this old robe, Saul should 
receive the robe of humility, and be made of Saul, Paul. 

7. What is Paul ? The least. For I am the least of the vii. 
Apostles. Lo, what Paul is. For Paul is in Latin, little. \P°q' 
We speak thus, when we say, I will see thee, post paulum, 
I will do it, paulo post. What is, paulo post ? A little after; 
post paulum, after a little while. Why then is he Paul ? 
Because little. Little, because the last. For, saith he, lam 
the last of the Apostles, that am not worthy to be called an 
Apostle, because I persecuted the Church of God. Thou 
say est well: by Whom thou didst worthily deserve' to be'debu- 
damned, from Him hast thou received whereby to deserve^ ^^a'^d b as 
be crowned? From Whom hast thou received whereby to 
deserve to be crowned ? Would ye hear from Whom he 
received it? Hear not me, hear him himself: / am noti Cor. 
worthy, saith he,/o be called an Apostle, because I persecuted "' 
the Church of God ; but by the grace of God I am tvhat 
I am. What thou wast then, thou wast by thine own 
iniquity; what thou art, thou art by the grace of God. And 
His grace, saith he, in me was not in vain. Lo, he preacheth 
the faith, which once he laid icastc; neither was this grace 
in vain in him, who saith, Was not in vain in me, but 
I laboured more than they all. Take heed, thou hast begun 

854 Faith y^ gift of God on others' prayer ; pray thenfor unbelievers. 

Sehm. to uplift thyself. Where art thou, Paul? Thou wast, *re- 

[168.13.] member, little. 1 laboured more than tJiey all. Tell me, 

» cette" whence. For what haul thou that thou didst not receive? 

iCor. 4, ji^^ forthwith looked back; and when he had said, [laboured 

more than they all; he was amazed, so to say, at his own 

words; and immediately subjoined himself, the lowly Paul, 

1 Cor. Yet not I, but the grace of God with me. 

' ' 8. Therefore, my Brethren, that ye should know that faith 

also comes to us from the Lord God, ye pray for them who 

have not yet believed. If any one peradventure have a 

friend that believeth not, I advise him to pray for him. Is 

it indeed needful for me to advise him .? A husband is 

a Christian, a wife an unbeliever; doth not he pray for his 

wife, that she may believe .? A wife is a Christian, a husband 

an unbeliever; doth not the rehgious wife pray for her 

husband, that he may believe ? When whoso prayeth prayeth 

for this, what prayeth he for, but that God would grant him 

faith .'' Faith therefore is the gift of God. Let no one puff' 

himself up, let no one arrogate aught to himself, as though 

1 Cor. 1, he have given himself aught. Whoso glorieth, let him glory 

in the Lord. 


On the words of the Apostle, Philip, iii. " For we are the Circumcision, 
who serve The Spirit of God, &c." against the Pelagians. 

Delivered at the Table of S. Cyprian, martjr. 

i- 1. Keep your ears and mind intent, Holy Brethren, on the 

Apostolic lesson, in aiding us by the godly disposition of 
your minds with the Lord our God, that what He vouch- 
safeth to reveal to us, we may fitly and healthfully be able to 
bring forward to you. When the lesson was read then, ye 
Phi). 3, heard the Apostle Paul saying. For we are the Circumcision, 
who serve the Spirit of God. I know that most copies have, 
Who serve God in the spirit. But as far as I have been 
able to examine, most of the Greek copies have this, Who 
serve the Spirit of God. But there is no difficulty here. 
For cither is plain, and accordant with the rule of truth. 

Xfians not righteous only, hut Righteousness, yet of God in Xt. 855 

because we both serve The Spirit of God, and we serve God Serm. 
not in the flesh, but in the spirit. For he serveth God in the [iggBJ 
flesh, who hopeth to please God by things of the flesh. 
But when the flesh itself too is subdued to the spirit unto 
good works, we serve God in the spirit; because we tame 
the flesh, that the spirit may obey God. For the spirit 
ruleth, the flesh is ruled: nor doth the spirit rule well, if it 
be not ruled. 

2. When he saith then, We are the Circumcision; 
observe what he would have understood by that circum- 
cision, which was given in the figure of the shadow, which 
was removed when the Light came. Now as to why he did 
not say, " We have the Circumcision;" but, JVe are the l 
Circumcision ; understand that the Apostle intended hereby ' 
to express this," We are righteousness." For Circumcision 
is righteousness. But it sets forth the value of it more, that 
he expresses it by saying that we are righteousness, than by 
saying that we are righteous; yet so as that when he says 
that we are " righteousness," we should understand " righ- 
teous." For we ai'e not that Unchangeable Righteousness, 
of Which we have been made partakers ; but as it is said, 
" There was much youth there," for many youny men ; so is 
it said " righteousness," that the " righteous" may be under- 
stood. Hear ye this same thing more plainly, by the same 
ApQstle, saying. That ue may he, saith he, the Riyliteousness'^ Cor,5, 
of God in Him. That we may be the Righteousness, not 
our own, but of God; received of Him, not acquired of 
ourselves ; imparted, not usurped ; given, not taken by force. 
jFor to a certain" being it was robbery to be equal with ^ Satan 
God; and forasmuch as he sought robbery, he found ruin. 
But our Lord Jesus Christ, Being hi the Form of Go</, Phil. 2, 
thought it not robbery to he equal with God. For to 
Whom equality with God was Nature, it was no robbery. 
But nevertheless He emptied Himself, taking the form of 
a sen-ant, that we might he the Righteousness of God in 
Him. For if He had avoided poverty, we should not have 
been rid of poverty. For He became poor, \vhen He was2CoT.8, 
Rich ; thai ue by His poverty, as it is written, might be made^' 
rich. What should His Riches make us. Whose poverty 

3 K 

850 Grace precedes merit, that merit may folioiv grace. 

Seum. iiiaketh lis rich ? The Aiiostle then did not deny thee the civ- 
CXIX • • • 

ri'69 13 jciiincision, but unfolded it; he exhibited the light, removed 

the shadow. 

ii. 3. We are, saith he, the Circinficisio/t, who serve God in 

the spirit, and glory in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence 

in the Jiesh. He had his eye on some who had confidence 

in the flesh ; these were they who gloried of the circumcision 

Phil. 3, of the Hosh. Of whom in another place he saith, Whose 
19. . 

God is their belly, and whose (jlory is in their shame. Under- 
stand then the Circumcision, and be thou the Circumcision ; 
Ps. Ill, understand, and be. For uttderstanding is good, to all. 
Gen 17 ^^^^ is, vjho do thereafter. It was not without a meaning 
12. truly, that the infant was ordered to be circumcised on the 
3, " 'eighth day, but because the Rock wherewith we are circum- 

Josh. 5, cised was Christ. For with knives of rock was the people 
2. Sept. ... . r r 

1 Cor. cncumcised; noiv the Rock was Christ. Why then on the 

0, 4. gjgjj^i^ day? Because in the week the eighth day is the same 

as the first. For when the seven days are ended, it returns to 

the first. The seventh is ended, the Lord buried ; it returns to 

the first, the Lord raised again. For the raising again of the 

Lord hath promised to us an everlasting day, and consecrated 

to us the Lord's day. That which is called the Lord's day, 

seems specially to belong to the Lord ; for that on that day 

the Lord rose again. The E,ock was restored, let them be 

circumcised, who would say. For we are the Circumcision. 

'Rom.4,j7'Qj. fjg ff.ffff delivered for our sitts, and rose again for onr 

justification. Thy justification, thy circumcision, is not of 

2'^8^*^9 thyself. By grace are ye saved through faith ; and this not 

of yourselves, hut it is the gift of God; not of works. Lest 

haply thou shouldest say, " I have deserved it, and have 

therefore received," deem not thyself to have received by 

deserving, who hadst not deserved, if thou hadst not received. 

Grace went before thy desert; grace is not from merit, but 

merit from grace. For if grace be from merit; thou hast 

Ps-S-^jg. bought, not freely received. For nothing, saith the Psalmist, 

(56, 7. -^halt Thou save them. What is, For nothing shalt Thou save 

^- ^0 them ? Thou dost find nothing in them, wherefore to §ave, 

and yet Thou savest. Freely Thou givest, freely Thou savest. 

Thou prevenlest all merits, that my merits may follow Thy 

»S'. Paul had^ ivltereby to have conjidence in the flesh. S57 

gifts. Yea, doubtless, freely dost Thou give, freely dost Serm. 
Thou save. Who dost find nothing wherefore to save, aud^igggi 
findest much wherefore to condemn. 

4. We then, saith he, are the Circumcision, who serve the iii. 
Spirit of God, and glory in Christ Jesus, Whoso glorieth, 3 ^' 
let him glory in the Lord. And have no conjidence in the i Cor 1, 

Jlesh. And what is, to have confidence in the flesh? Hear, phj], 3 
saith he; Though I might also, saith he, have confidence in^- 
the jlesh. If any other man thinketh that he may have con- 
fidence in the jlesh, I more. " Do not imagine," saith he, 
" that I despise what I have not." What great thing is it, 
if a mean, common, ignoble man despise nobility, and then 
make a show of real humility ? Though, saith he, / might 
also have conjidence in the jlesh. Therefore, saith he, " I 
am teaching you to despise it, since ye see that I have it to 
despise. If any other man thinketh that he may have con- 
fidence in the flesh, I moreT 

5. Now hear this confidence in the flesh: In the circum-^-^- 
cision of the eighth day: that is, not a proselyte, not a 
stranger joined to the people of God, not circumcised at an 
advanced age, but of my parents born a Jew, I have the cir- 
cumcision of the eighth day. Of the stock of Israel, of the 
tribe of Benjamin, an Hebrew of the Hebrews, according to 
the Law, a Pharisee. There were certain leading men, and 

set apart, as it were, for the .Jewish nobility, not commingled 
with the despicable people, who were called Pharisees. For 
this word is used to signify " separation," so to say, as in the 
Latin language egregius\^vis,ed.,di% one separated from the flock. 
Now Israelites, that is, of the stock of Israel, even those 
were who had been separated from the temple. But there re- 
mained attached to the temple the tribe of Judah and the 
tribe of Benjamin. The tribe of Levi in the priests, the 
royal tribe of Judah, and the tribe of Benjamin, these only 
remained attached to Jerusalem and the temple of God, when 
that separation took place under the servant of Solomon. 1 Kings 
Do not then lightly receive his words, Of the tribe of^'^' 
Benjamin; adhering to Judah, not departing from the 
temple. An Hebrew of the Hebrews ; according to the Zyaw, Phil- 3, 
a Pharisee; according to zeal, persecuting the Church. 
Among his merits he enumerates that he was a persecutor ; 

3 K 2 

858 S. PauVs hlnmelcssness in the righteousness of the Laio, good in 
Sv-.RM. (iccorclifH/ to zeal, he says. What zeal ? " I was not," says 

("X T X ' 

116!) B.l ^^^- " ^" inactive Jew; whatsoever it was that seemed contrary 
to my Law, I bore impatiently, 1 followed up vehemently." 
This was with the Jews, nobility; but with Christ is sought 
humility. Therefore hero the is Saul, here Paul. The 
name of Saul is derived from Saiil. Who Saul was, ye 

iSam.9, know; his high stature was chosen. Thus llie Scripture 

23. ' describes him, that he was higher than all, when he was 
chosen to be anointed king. Paul was not so, when he be- 
came Paul, that is. For Paul is small, therefore Paul is little. 
According to zeal, then, saith he, persecuting the Church. 
" Let men understand from hence what sort of person I was 
among the Jews, who persecuted the Church of Christ in zeal 
for the traditions of my Fathers." 
i^'. 6. He goes on. According to the righteousness which is in 
the Lnic, tvithout blame. Ye know, beloved, that Zacharias 
and Elisabeth were said to have walked in all the ordinances 

LnVe \, of fj,e Lord without hlame. Walking, sAith the Scripture, 
in all the ordinances of the Lord without blame. Lo, such 
too was our Paul, when he was Saul. He walked in the 
Jjaw tcithoiit hlame ; and what in Him was uithout blame, 
this made great matter of blame concerning him. What 
think w^e then. Brethren, that to be according to the righ- 
teousness which is in the Laiv, n-ifJioiit blame, is evil? If it 
be evil, to be according to the righteousness nhich is in the 
Law without blame ; is the Law then aught of evil? But 

Rom. 7, we have the same Apostle, saying. Therefore the Late is holy, 
and the Commandment holy, and just, and good. If tlie Law 
be holy, and the Commandment holy, and just, and good ; 
to have one's conversation, according to the righteousness 
which is of a holy law, without blame, how can it not be 
flood? how can it not be holy ? Is it haply holy ? Let us 

Phil. 3, j^gj^^ ji^j^ same Apostle ; sec ye what he says ; What things 
tvere gain to me, these I counted loss for Christ. He is 
mentioning his losses, and among his losses he reckons, that 
in tlie righteousness which is in the Law, he was without 

^' ^' blame. Yea, doubtless, saith he, and I count all things to 
be loss for the excellent knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord. 
" I look," saith he, " at my ])raises, I conij)arc them to the 
excellency of our Lord Jesus Christ. That I thirst for, this 

itself, yet a loss, when hindering from coming to Christ. 850 

1 despise." Nay, this is but little; For Whom, saith he, / Serm. 
count all things not only to he loss, but have esteemed them [leo.B.l 
even dung, that I may gain Christ. 

7. A more difficult question has arisen here, O Paul ! v. 
^' If according to the righteousness which is in the Law, thou 
hadst thy conversation without blame, and thou dost reckon 
this as forfeit, as loss, as dung, that thou mighlest gain 
Christ ; did then that righteousness keep thee back from 
Christ ? I pray thee, explain this a little." Let us rather 
address ourselves to God, that He would enlighten us too, 
by Whom he was himself enlightened, who wa'ote this 
Epistle to us, not with ink, hut with the Spirit of the Liviiig 2Coi:3, 
God. Ye see, dearly beloved, how arduous, how difficult it ^• 
is to understand this, when it is agreed that the Law is holy, 
and the Commandment holy, and just, and good; and it is 
fully agreed upon amongst all Catholics : so as that no one 
can dispute, but he who does not wish to be a Catholic, that 
this Law was not given, save by the Lord our God; that to 
have his conversation according to this righteousness which 
is in the Law, without blame, was an impediment to the 
Apostle, from coming to Christ; and that he had not come 
to Christ, if he had not reckoned this, which according to 
the righteousness which is in the Law was without blame, 
among what was loss, and forfeit, and dung. Let us follow 
then, and draw on a little, if haply in these very words of the 
Apostle some light may burst forth upon us, whereby this 
obscurity may be removed and done away. / believed, saith 
he, all these things to be forfeit, and esteemed them as dung, 
that I might gain Christ. Give heed, I pray. I esteemed 
these things loss, forfeit, dung, among which I mention this 
also, that according to the righteousness which is in the Law, 
I was without blame. / esteemed all these things, there- 
fore, /o//e«7, and dung, that I might gain Christ: and ^e Phil. 3, 
found in Him, not having mine own righteousness, tvhich is 
of the Law. You who have by your understanding antici- 
pated the exposition, consider that ye are walking, fleet of 
foot, so to say, in the way with those who are more slow. Let 
your speed be somewhat moderated, lest the slower companion 
be left behind. That, he says, / might gain Christ, and be 
found in Him, not having mine own righteousness, which is 
of the Law, If he had said mine own, why did he add, of 

860 The Law obeyed through fear, whivk chaiitjes not nature. 

Serm. the Law f For if it be of the Law, how is it thine own? 
f i<i!).B.] What! didst thou impose the Law on thine own self? God 

gave the Law, God imposed the Law, God enjoined thee to 
obey His Law. If the Law did not teach thee how thou 
oughtest to hve, how couldest thou have righteousness without 
blame, according to the Law ? if thou hast it according to 
the Law, how sayest thou, N(ji having mine oion righteous- 
ness^ which is of the Law, but that which is through the faith 
of Christ, which is of God ? 
vi. 8. I will at once then speak as I shall be able ; may He, 
Wlio possesseth you, reveal it better, may He grant both un- 
idonabit derstanding, and good affection. For He will give a' good 
>=i dona- effect, if He shall give a good affection. For this is wliat I 
t'it af- ^ould say : when the Law of God is proposed, for it hath said, 
Exod. Thou shall not lust; when the Law of God, I say, is proposed, 
^^' ^'' setting aside those carnal sacraments, which were shadows of 
things to come; when the Law of God is proposed, who- 
soever swelleth, and thinketh that he is able to fulfil it by his 
own strength, and doeth what the Law enjoineth, not from 
love of righteousness, but from fear of punishment; he hath 
been indeed, according to the righteousness uhich is of the 
Law, a man iviihout blame; he doth not steal, doth not 
commit adultery, doth not bear false witness, doth not commit 
murder, doth not covet his neighbour's goods; this he can 
do, he can perhaps do: whence? Through fear of punish- 
ment. Although he who lusteth not from fear of punish- 
ment, I suppose, really doth lust. By the overpowering 
terror of arms and weapons, and of a multitude perhaps sur- 
rounding, or approaching, even the lion is called back from 
his prey; and nevertheless he came a lion, a lion he returns; 
he hath not carried away the prey, his malice he hath not laid 
aside. If thou art such, there is yet but that righteousness 
whereby thou consultest for thyself that thou mayest not be 
tormented. What great thing is it to fear punishment? 
Who doth not fear it? what robber, what villain, what abo- 
minable person ? But there is this difference between thy 
fear, and the robber's fear, that the robber fears the laws of 
men, and therefore commits robbery because he hopes he 
may elude the laws of men; but thou fearest His Law, thou 
fearest His punishment, Whom thou canst not elude. For 
if thou couldest elude it, what wouldest thou not have done? 

Delight in good, the gift of God. 861 

So then love doth not take away thine evil concupiscence, Serm. 
but fear represseth it. The wolf conjes to the sheepfold ; by n^g.B.l 
the barking of the dogs, and the shout of the shepherds, the 
wolf retires from the sheepfold; yet is he ever a wolf Let 
him be turned into a sheep. For this also the Lord doelh; 
but this is His righteousness, not thine own. For as long 
as thou hast thine own, thou canst fear punishment, not love 
righteousness. So then, my Brethren, iniquity hath its de- vii. 
lights, and hath not righteousness hers? Evil delightelh, 
and doth not good delight.? Assuredly it doth; but. The Ps. 85 
Lord shall give sweetness, and our land shall yield its fruit. ^^' 
Except He first give sweetness, our land will have nought 
but barrenness. This righteousness then the Apostle longed 
for, he was delighted ; he remembered God, and nas de- Ps.76 4. 
lighted: his soul longed, a)id was inflamed after the courts f^^^- 
of the Lord ; and all things which he had highly esteemed, E. V.) 
were of small account, became loss, forfeit, dung. Ps.84,2. 

9. For from hence was that also, that he persecuted the 
Church according to zeal for the traditions of his fathers; Gal. 1 
from thence it was, because he was establishing his own ^^' 
righteousness, not seeking the righteousness of God. For 
see how it was from thence that he persecuted the Church. 
What shall we say then? says the same Apostle in another Rom. 9 
place. That the Gentiles which followed not after righteous-^^- ^°- 
ness, have attained to righteousness. And what righteous- 
ness? Even the righteousness which is of faith. Yes, the 
Gentiles which followed not after the righteousness, which 
is of the Law, as though their own, which is produced by 
the fear of punishment, not by the love of righteousness ; 
because they followed not after righteousness have attained 
to righteousness ; even the righteousness which is of faith. 
But Israel, he sa.y a, following after the Law of righteous- 
ness, hath not attained to the Law of righteousness. Where- 
fore? Because they sought it not by faith. What is, 
Because they sought it not by faith ? They did not hope in 
God, did not seek it from God, did not believe on HimRom.4, 
Who justi/ieth the ungodly; were not like the publican ' 
casting his eyes down upon the ground, smiting his breast, 
and saying. Lord, be merciful to me a sinner. Therefore Lukeis, 
ihow^h. folloioiug c{f'ter the law of righteousness they have not ' 
attained to the Law of righteousness. Wherefore? Because 

8G2 Fear in .S Paul jivcpnrcd for love, could noi (jive it. 

Serm. ihey sought it vot hij faith, but as it were Inj irorks. For 
fi«/.H.] tlieij stumbled at the Stumbling Stone. See whence it was 
that Saul persecuted the Church, For when he was perse- 
cuting the Church, he stumbled at the Stumbling Stone. 
Christ in His humility was lyinf? on the earth; in heaven 
indeed He also was, His Body after It had been raised from 
the dead, being taken up thither; but unless Christ had 
been lying on the earth too. He would not have cried out 
Acts 9, to Saul, Why persecutest thou Me? He was, then, lying, 
*■ because He was shewing forth humility ; Saul stumbled, 

because he did not see. And all this not seeing, whence was 
it ? By the swelling of pride. What is, " By the swelling 
of pride?" As if by his own righteousness. Of the Law 
indeed, yet his own. What is, " Of the Law ?" Because in 
the commandments of the Law ? What is, " Of his own ?" 
As though by his own strength. Love was wanting, the 
love of righteousness, the love of the Charity of Christ. 
And whence had he this love? Fear alone possessed him, 
but was keeping a place in his heart for charity which was 
to come. When he was raging in his pride, boasling him- 
self, glorying amongst these Jews, that according to zeal for 
the traditions of his fiithers he was persecuting the Church ; 
when he seemed to himself to be in exaltation, he heard from 
above the Voice of our Lord Jesus Christ, sitting now in 
Heaven, and still impressing humility, " Saul, .SVA///,"saitli He, 
V. 6. " why persecutest thou Me ? It is hard for thee to kick 
against the goad. I might abandon thcc; for thou wouldesl 
be distressed by My pricking, I should not be broken by thy 
heels; but I will not abandon thee. Thou art infuriated, 
and I have pity. Why persecutest thou 3Ie? For 1 have no 
fear of thee, lest thou shouldest crucify Me again ; but I 
would thou shouldest come to know Me, lest thou kill not 
Me, but thine own self" 
•:• 10. Therefore was the xApostle horror struck, stricken 

down, and laid low, raised up, and instructed. For that 
Deut. loo^ place in him; / nill smite, and I will make whole. 
32, 39. Pqj. jjy (Jq^Ij i,Qt j^-jy^ " I ^yiu niake whole, and I will smite ;" 
but, / will smite, and I will make whole. " 1 will smite thee, 
and will give Myself to thee." Being thus laid ]m)strate, ho 
was horror struck at his own righteousness, in which lie had 
truly been uithout blame, estimable, great, glorious, so to say. 

Law fulfilled thro' righteousness given by God thro'' love. 863 

amono'st the Jews ; he esteemed it forfeit, he counted it loss, Serm. 

' ' • • CXIX 

he reckoned it dunr/, that he might be found in Him, not t^qq^^ 

having his own righteousness, which is of the Law ; but that 

which is through the faith of Christ, which is, saith he, of 

God. But they who stumbled at the Stumbling Stone, what 

saith this Apostle of them? Because they sought it not by Uom. 9, 

faith, but as it were by works. For these as if in their ovvn^^' ^°* 

righteousness stumbled at the Stumbling Stone; as it is 

written, Beliold I lay in Sion a Stumbling Stone, and a Rock i,_ 28 

of offence; and. whosoever believeth on Him shall not ^gi^.Sept. 

coifounded. For whoso believeth on Him shall not have 

his own righteousness, which is of the Law, though it be 

a good Law ; but shall fulfil this Law, by a righteousness 

not his own, but given of God. For so shall he not be 

confounded. For Love is the fulfilling of the Law. And Rom. 

whence hath this love been shed abroad in our hearts ? ^^' ^*^' 

Not assuredly by ourselves, but by the Holy Ghost Who 5. ' ' 

hath been given unto us. They stumbled therefore at the -Rom. 9, 

Stumbling Stone, and Rock of offence. And he says of them, ^'^" 

Brethren, verily the good will of my heart and my prayer ^^^^^ 

to God is for them unto salvation. The Apostle prays for 10, 1. 

them who believed not, that they may believe ; for them 

who had aversion^, that they may obtain conversion. Ye 1 pro 

see how that not even conversion is without the help of^^^"^^^^ 

^ ut con- 
God. My prayer, he says, /o God is for them unto salva-YeTUn- 

tion. For I bear them record that then have a zeal of God. 
So also had he once himself; he had a zeal of God. But 
how had he ? Just as they had : but not according to 
knowledge. What is this, not according to knowledge ? For ^^ 3. 
being ignorant of God's righteousness, and wishing to 
establish their own. Whence he, when reformed, saith. Not 
having mine oun righteousness. They wish to establish 
their own, k still delighteth them to be lying in the dung. I 
have not mine own righteousness, but that which is through 
the faith of Christ, the righteousness of God; the righteous- 
ness, I say, of God, Who justijieth the ungodly. 

IL Away with thee, away with thee, I say, from thine j^ 
own self, thou dost hinder thyself; if thou buildest thine 
own self, thou dost build a ruin. Except the Lord build the ps 127 
house, they labour in vain that build it. Wish not then to ^• 
have thine own righteousness. Assuredly it is of the Law, 

864 True righteousness not our own, but of grace; 

Sebm. without doubt it is of the Law; assuredly, God gave the 

[I69.n.] Law, and because it is the righteousness of the Law, let it not 
be thine own. It is the Apostle Paul who speaks; let not 
those who love their own righteousness cavil against me. Lo, 
where thou hast him; open, read, hear, see. Wish not to 
have thine own righteousness; the Apostle accounts it dung, 

1^0™- though it be of the Law; yet because it is his own. For they 
' ' being ignorant of GocTs righteousness^ and wishing to esta- 
blish their own, have not submitted themselves unto the 
righteousness of God. Do not think that because thou art 
called a Christian, therefore thou canst not stumble at the 
Stumbling Stone. Thou dost stumble at Him, from Whose 
grace thou derogatest. It is a less crime to stumble at 
Christ hanging on the Cross, than sitting in Heaven. Be 
there righteousness, but be it unto tliee of grace, be it of 

Ps. 132, God; let it not be thine own. Let thy priests, saith David, 
be clothed ivith righteousness. A garment is received, it 
does not grow with our hair; the cattle are clothed by their 
own. This garment the Apostle preacheth ; be it unto thee 
from God. Groan that thou mayest obtain, weep that thou 

Joel 2, mayest obtain, believe that thou mayest obtain. Whosoever 
shall call on the Name of the Lord, it is said, shall be saved. 
Do ye think that, Whosoever shall call on the Name of the 
Lord shall be saved, is so meant, as if it were from fever, 
or plague, or gout, or any pain of the body? No, not so : 

Matt. 9, but shall be saved, " shall be righteous." For they that are 
whole have no need of a physician, but they that are sick. 

V. 13. He explained this when He said, / came not to call the 

righteous, but sinners. 

X. 12. See then what follows. And be found in Him, ho sa.\s, 
Phil. 3 ^ 5 . J 

9. ' ' not having mine oivn righteousness, which is of the Laic; 

though of the Law, yet mine own ; but that which is through 

the faith of Christ; which is obtained from God, which is 

V. 10. ^ God, the righteousness in faith, to know Him, and the 

power of His Resurrection. It is something great to know 

the power of ChrisVs Resurrect ion. Think ye that this is 

the great thing, that He raised His Own Flesh again ? Did 

he call this the power of His Resurrection ? Shall there 

not be a resurrection of ourselves too at the end of the 

1 Cor. world? Shall not this our corruptible body too put on incor- 

45- 15, fiipiion, and this mortal put on immortality ? As He rose 

yiven, increased, perfected, by God, yet nut ivithout our loill. i^iib 

aeain Himself from the dead, and now diet/i no more, and Serm. 

. • CXIX 

death shall have no more dominion over Him, shall it not rieg.B."] 

be so with us too, even in a more wonderful manner, so to Rom. 6, 
saj ? For His Flesh saw not corruption, ours is restored^" 
from ashes. A great thing indeed it is, that He went before 
as an Example, and shewed us what we might hope for: but 
this is not the only thing in his view who was speaking of 
righteousness, not his own, but that which is of God, and 
there made mention of iJie power ofChrisfs Resurrection; 
therein acknowledge thine own justification. For by His 
Resurrection we are justified, as though circumcised by the 
Rock. Wherefore he began with this, We are the Circum- 
cision. Whereby is the Circumcision t By the Rock. 
What Rock? Christ. How.? On the eighth day. As the 
Lord rose again on the Lord's Day. 

13. Let us then, my Brethren, both hold fast this justifi- xi. 
cation, in so far as we hold it, and increase it in so far as we 
are deficient, and pei'fect it when we shall have come thither, 
where it shall be said, O death, where is thy victory^ O death, i Cor. 
where is thy sting ? But all of God : yet not as though we 
should sleep, not as though we should make no effort, not as 
though we should have no will. Without thine own will the 
righteousness of God will not be in thee. The will indeed is 
none save thine own, the righteousness is none, save God's. 
The righteousness of God can be without thy will, but cannot 
be in thee without thy will. It hath been shewn thee what 
thou oughtest to do; the Law hath commanded, " Do not this, 
nor that; do this and that." It hath been shewn thee, hath 
been enjoined thee, it is clear to thee, if thou hast any heart, 
thou understandest what to do; pray that thou mayest do it, if 
thou knowest the power of Christ's Resurrection. For He was ^°^- ^' 
delivered for our sins, and rose again for our justification. 
What IS, for our justification? That He might justify us, 
that He might make us righteous. Thou wilt be the work of 
God, not only in that thou art a man, but also in that thou 
art righteous. For it is a better thing for thee to be righ- 
teous, than to be a man. If God made thee a man, and 
thou makest thyself righteous ; thou raak est something better 
than God made. But God made thee without thyself. For 
thou didst not give any consent, that God might make thee. 

866 The fellowship in. Christ's Siifferings only through charity. 

Sekm. How didst thou consent, who wast not ? lie then Who 
[I69.iii n^ide thee without thine own self, doth not justify thee 

witliout thyself, lie made thee then without thy knowledge, 

Ue justifieth thee with thy will. Nevertheless it is He That 

justifieth, lest it should be thine own righteousness, lest thou 

shouldest return to loss, and forfeit, and dung, not able to 

find in Him thine ow)t righteousness nhich is of the Lair, 

but the righteousness through the faith of Christ nhich is of 

God: the righteousness of faith, to know Him, and the fouer 

of His Resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings. 

' virtus And this will be thy power': the fellowship of Christ's suf- 
ferings will be thy power. 

14. But what will there be in the felloiv ship of Christ's 
sufferings, if there be not eharity? Are there not found 
robbers under torture with such strong endurance of body, 
that some of them will not only not betray their accom- 
plices, but would not even choose to declare their names, 
amidst tortures, and torments, with the laceration of their 
sides, and the loss almost of their limbs, the mind will remain 
firm in its most wretched obstinacy.? See then what love 
they had. Still do such things they could not without great 
love. But not so the lover of God. God is not loved 
except from God. The robber loved something else from 
the flesh, as a man. Whatever it be he loved, whether he 
loved his associates, or loved the private consciousness of 
his own wickedness, or loved the glory of his crimes, what- 
ever it be that he loved ; he loved greatly who could endure 
such torments, and could not give way. If then he who 
could endure torments, and could not give way, could not ; if 
ho could not, I say, endure such cruel pains without love ; 
neither wilt thou be able without love to have fiellowship in 
the sufferings of Christ. 
xii. 15. But 1 ask, what love.'' Let it not be desire, but be it 

1 Cor. charity. For if saith he, / shall deliver my bodg to be 
' ' burned, and have not charity, it profileth me nothing. 
That the fellowship of ChrisTs sufferings may profit thee, 
let charity be present. Whence hast thou charity.'' O most 
beggarly infirmity, whence hast thou the Charity of God? 
Wouldest thou I should shew thee whence thou mayest 

» horre- \^^y^, \^ ? j^^^ ]^[^^ t^ljg Lord's Storekeeper -. For if the Charity 

The Holy Ghost gives charity ^enlorgin(j ^ indioeViiiy ^possessing. 867 

of God shall be in thee, tliou shalt have fellowship in Christ's Serm. 

sufferings, and shalt be a true Martyr. In whom charity isngggi 

crowned, he shall be a true Martyr. Whence then hast thou 

it? We liave this treasure in earthen vessels, saith the same 2 Cor. 4, 

Apostle, thai the excellency of the pouer may he of God, '' 

and not of us. Whence then hast thou charity, but because 

it hath been shed abroad in oar liearts by the Holy GJiosty 

Who hath been given to us ? Lo, after what thou must groan. 

Despise thine own spirit, receive the Spirit of God. Let 

not thy spirit fear, lest, when the Spirit of God shall have 

begun to dwell in thee, it suffer straitness in thy body. 

When the Spirit of God shall have begun to dwell in thy 

body, He will not drive out thine own spirit thence ; fear 

not. If thou receivest any rich man into thine house, thou 

dost suffer from straitness, thou dost not see where tliou 

canst stay thyself, where a bed can be got ready for him, 

where thy wife, thy children, thy domestics are to be. " What 

am I to do ?" you will say " Whither shall I go ? whither 

remove.^" Receive thou the Rich Spirit of God: thou shalt 

be enlarged, not straitened. " Thou hast enlarged Thy steps 

under me," you will say. You will be saying to thy Guest, 

Thou hast enlarged my steps under me. When Thou uastPs. is 

not here, 1 suffered straitness ; thou hast filled my homestead', ?^" „ 

1 nni , 1 . ceDam 

and Ihou hast driven out not me, but my straitness. For 

when he saith, The Lore of God is sited abroad, this very 

shedding abroad betokens enlargement. Be not then afraid 

of straitness, receive this Guest; and let Him not be a guest 

as one of them who pass along. For He cannot give by 

going away; let Him come and dwell in thee, and He hath 

given. Be thou His, let Him not leave thee, let Him not 

remove from thee; hold Him fast by all means, and say to 

Him, O Lord our God, possess us. Is. 26, 

16. To this end then, saith he, let us have the righteous- ^:;; ' 

ness which is of God, to know Him, and the power of His 

Resurrection, and the fellowship of His Sufferings being 

made conformable to His Death. For we have been buried, Rom. 6 

saith he, wilJt Him by baptism into death, that like as'^' 

Christ rose again from the dead, even so tee also should ivalk 

in newness of life. Die, that thou mayest live ; be buried, 

that tliou mayest rise again. For when thou shalt have been 

868 iS. PaiiVs exceeding gifts, yet he owns himself imperfect. 

Serm. buried, and risen again ; then shall be true, " We lift up our 

ri69 B 1 ^learts." You relish what I have now said. Would these 
words have been relislitd, if there were not in yourselves an 

Phil. 3, internal sweetness } Being made conformable, says he, to 

^^' ^^' His Death, if by any means I may attain unto the resurrec- 
tion of the dead. He was speaking of righteousness, the 
righteousness which is of the faith of Christ, the righteous- 
ness which is of God, and so he went through the whole. 

V. 9. And whereas he was seeking after righteousness, saying, That 
I may be found in Him not having mine own righteousness 
which is of the Law, but the righteousness which is of 
the faith of Christ, which is of God; he now says, If 
by any means I may attain unto the resurrection of the 
dead. Wherefore saidst thou, If by any means I might 

^'- '^- attain? Not as though I had already attained, or were 
already perfect ; but I follow after, if by any means I may 
apprehend, wherein I have also been apprehended of Christ 
Jesus. His Kighteousness hath prevented me, let mine 
follow Him. And then shall mine follow, if it be not mine. 
If by any means I may attain. Not as though I had already 
attained, or were already perfect. They began to wonder, 
who heard the Apostle saying this; Not as though I had 
already attained, or were already perfect. ^\^lat is it 
which he had not yet attained ? He had faith, he had 
virtue, he had hope, he burned with charity, he wrought 
miracles, he preached with power unconquerable, he endured 
all sorts of persecutions, in all ]jatient, loving the Church, 
bearing in his heart the anxious care of all the Churches ; 
what had he not yet attained ? Not as though I had already 
attained, or were already perfect. What is it thou sayest ? 
Thou speakcst, and we wonder; thou speakest, and we are 
amazed. For we know what we hear: what sayest thou.? 

V. 13. Brethren, he says. What is it thou sayest? what sayest 
thou ? I count not myself to have apprehended. Be not, says 
he, deceived in me; I know myself better than ye do. If 
I know not what is wanting to me, I know not what is 
present. / count not myself to have apprehended. But 
one thing : this / count not myself lo have apprehended. 
Many things 1 have, and one thing 1 have not yet appre- 

Ps.27,4.hendcd. One thing have I asked of the Lord, this will 

Blessed to live by the Word thi^o' His words; what, without! 869 

I seek after. What hast thou asked, or what seekest thou Serm. 
after ? That I man dwell in the House of the Lord all the ngg.B.l 
days of my life. Why ? Tliat I may contemplate the delight 
of the Lord. This is the one thing which the Apostle said 
he had not yet apprehended ; and in so far as it was wanting 
to him, so far was he not yet perfect. 

17. You remember, my Brethren, that lesson of the Gospel, xiv. 
where the two sisters, Martha and Alary, received the Lord. Lukeio, 
You recollect it without doubt, Martha was employed in ' "• 
much serving, and was occupied about the care of her house; 
for she had received the Lord and His disciples into her 
house. She was busied with the most religious care, that the 
saintly visitors might suffer no disrespectful* treatment at hen injari- 
hands. When she v/as then occupied about much serving,^"" 
her sister Mar}' was sitting at the Lord's feet, and listening 
to His Word. Martha amidst her labour vexed because she 
saw her sister sitting still, and caring nothing for her labours, 
appealed to the Lord ; " Doth it please Thee, Lord," she says, 
" that my sister hath left me, and, lo, 1 am toiling alone in 
serving ?" And the Lord, Martha, Martha, thou art occupied 
about many things. But one thing is necessary. Mary hath 
chosen the belter part, ichich shall not be taken away from 
her. Thou, a good, but she, a better. Thou, a good, (For 
good it is to be employed in good offices to the Saints;) but 
she, a better. Again, what thou hast chosen, passeth away. 
Thou ministerest to the hungry, thou ministerest to the 
thirsty, thou ministerest beds to those who want sleep, thou 
givest house room to those who want a home; all these 
things pass away. The time shall be, when no one will 
hunger, no one thirst, no one sleep. Therefore thy care 
shall be taken away from thee. Mary hath chosen the better 
part, which shall not be taken away from her. Shall not be 
taken away; she hath chosen contemplation, hath chosen to 
live by the AVord. What a Life will that be by the Word 
without a word ! At that time present she was living by the 
Word, but by the help of words articulate. There shall be 
a Life by the Word, without the help of words articulate. 
The Word is Life Himself. We shall be like Him, for et'eijohns, 
shall see Him as He is. This was the one thing, that he^- 
might contemplate the delight of the Lord. This in the 

870 To attain, huh not hack, forget the jmst, advance. 

Sekm. niifht of this world wc cannot do. In ilte mornlnq will 
ri69.B.i ^ fftand before Thee, and uill contemplate. Therefore, 

Ps.5, 4. saith he, / count not niyfielfto have apprehended. But one 

Sept.(.->, .7 • 

XV. 18. What do I then? Forgetting the things ichich are 
Phil. 3, behind, stretching forth myself unto those things which are 
before, I follow on according to my aim. I am still following 
on : to the prize of the supernal calling of God in Christ 
Jesus. I am still following on, still making progress, I am still 
walking, still in the way, 1 am still stretching myself out, 1 
have not yet attained. Therefore if thou too art walkmg, if 
thou art stretching thyself out, if thou art thinking of the 
things which are to come ; forget the past, do not look back 
upon them, lest thou remain there where thou hast looked 
Lukei7, back. Remember LoCs wife. Let us therefore as mami as 

82. . 

Phil. 3 ^^ p(^tf^(^f-> ^^6 thus minded. Pie had said, " 1 am not per- 
'^- feet;" and now he says, let as many of us as be perfect, be 
thus minded. I count not myself to have apprehended. 
Not as though I had already attained, or were already per- 
fect ; and he now says, Let as many of us as be perfect be 
thus minded. Perfect, and not perfect; perfect travellers, 
not yet perfect possessors. And that you may know that he 
speaks of perfect travellers ; (they who are now walking in 
the way, are perfect travellers ;) that you may know that he 
spake of travellers, not inhabitants, not possessors, hear what 
follows; Let as many of us as be perfect be thus minded. 
And if in any tiling ye be otherwise minded, lest perad- 
venture the notion steal over you, that you are some- 
Gal. 6, thing. Now whoso thinketh himself to be something, when 
iCor.8 ^'^^ '*' nothing, deceiveth himself. And whoso thinketh that 
2- he knoweth any thing, knoweth nothing yet as he ought to 

know. Therefore, And if in any thing ye be otherwise 
minded, as little children, this also will God reveal unto you. 
Phil. 3, Nevertheless whereunto we have attained, therein let us 
^^" walk. That God may reveal to us that even in which we 
arc olheru'isc minded, let us whereunto ice have attained, 
not therein abide, but therein walk. You see that we are 
travellers. You say, " What is it to walk?" I say briefly, 
" To make advancement;" lest haply ye should not under- 
stand, and walk on sluggishly. Make advancement, my 

Self-satisfaction destructive. 871 

Brethren, sift yourselves well, always without deceit, without Serm. 
flatteiy, without self-pleasing'. For there is no one within [leg.B.j 
with thee, before whom thou needest blush, or vaunt thyself, \palpa- 
There is One there, but One Whom humility pleaseth, let 
Him prove thee. Do thou too prove thine own self. Let what 
thou art be ever displeasing to thee, if thou wouldest attain 
to what thou art not yet. For where thou hast once pleased 
thyself, there thou hast stood still. But if thou shalt have 
said, " It is enough;" then art thou lost. Be ever adding, be 
ever walking, ever making progress ; stand not still in the 
way, return not back, go not out of the way. He standeth 
still, who doth not advance; he returneth back, who relapses 
into the state whence he had once departed; he goeth out of 
the way, who apostatizes. The lame man gets on better in 
the way, than the swift-footed out of the way. Let us turn 
to the f^ord, &c. 


On the same words of the Apostle, Phil. iii. " According to the righteous- 
ness which is of the Law, I was without hlame, &c." And of the words of 
the Psalm, cxliii. " Hear me in Thy Righteousness, &c." And, lastly, on 
the lesson of the Gospel, John vi. " My Father's will is, that of all which 
He hath given Me, none should perish, &c." 

L The Divine lessons are all so connected with one !• 
another, as if they were but one lesson; for that they all 
proceed from One Mouth. The mouths of those who bear 
the ministry of the Word are many ; but the Mouth of Him 
Who filleth the ministers is One. We have heard the Apo- 
stolic lesson, and peradventure what is there written may give 
perplexity to some, Accordinff to the riijhleousncss which i? Phil. 3, 
of the Law, I was without hlame. What things if ere gain y* 7, 
to me. these I counted loss for Chrisfs sake. After that he 
went on and said. Not loss only, hut I esteemed them even ^- ^• 
as dung, that J might gain Christ, and he found in Him,^'^- 
not having mine own righteousness, ivhich is of the Law, 
but the righteousness which is of (he faith qf Jesus Christ. 
For how did he esteem it as dung and loss, to hare a con- 

3 L 

872 Paul, before (/race, at once a Julfiller and guilty of the Law. 

Serm. versalion, nccordina to the righteouanean which is o/' the 

Fi7o.T!.l ^'ff'f'i witlioul hlauie? For Wlio gave the Law? Did not He 

Himself give the Law, Who came afterwards with pardon to 

lliose who were guilty of the Law ? But to these we believe 

He came with pardon, whom the Law held guilty. But did 

the Law hold them guilty, whose conversation according to 

the righteousness which is of the Law was without blame ? 

If then the Lord brought pardon and forgiveness of sins to 

those who were guilty of the Law, did He not bring it to the 

Apostle Paul, who says, that he had his conversation in 

the Law without blame ? But let us hear him in another 

Tit. 3, place: Not by icorks, sailh he, whicli tee hare done, but 

^' accordiiiy to His mercy He saved us, by the laver of Reyene- 

1 Tim. ration. And again, Who teas before a blasphemer, and a 

' ■ persecutor, and injurious; but I obtained mercy, &ic. Here 

he represents that he had his conversation in the Law without 

blame, there he confesses himself to have been such a sinner, 

that no sinner should despair of himself for this reason, 

I meruit bccause that Paul had been vouchsafed' pardon. 

ii. 2, See, brethren, and observe the force of these words, 
how the Apostle Paul counts it loss and dung, where he says 
that he had his conversation uithout blame. Here a 
fulfiller of the Law, there guilty of the Law, at one and the 
same time, before baptism, before grace. But it is not with- 
out a reason that he says it was loss; lest noxious thoughts 
should steal in, that the Apostle Paul had said this, because 
one gave the Law, another the Gospel ; as the Manichee in 
perverseness of mind thinks, and the other heretics, who 
have said that one was the giver of the Law, which was 
given by the hand of Moses, and Another the Bounteous 
Giver of the grace of the Gospel ; the first indeed, an evil 
God, and the second the Good God. Why mai'vel we, 
Brethren ? In the obscurity of the Law, as it were in closed 
doors, they suffered darkness ; because they did not knock with 
piety. We find the same Paul sometimes saying most 
Eom. 7, expressly, that the Law is good ; and yet he says that it was 
V?' - (liven, that sin muiht abound, and that sin abounded, that 
20. grace might more abound. For men presumed on their own 
strength, and in doing whatsoever they thought they might, 
they sinned against the hidden Law of God. Wherefore 

Oar Lord, God IVlio nms '^ judyed''' as Man, alone sinless. 873 

this open Law was promulgated to them, who did not seem Serm. 
to themselves in any wise guilty. The Law was given tOj-j^Qg^j 
them, not to heal them, but to prove them sick. The Law 
ran before the Physician, that the sick man, who thought 
himself whole, might find that he was sick; and said, Thou, 7, 
shall not lust. And because before the Law was given 
there was as yet no transgression; For where no law i?, Rom. 4, 
saith he, there is no transgression; beforetirae, without the 
Law there was sin, but, when the Law was given, after that 
there is sin, there is more sin; because it is sin with trans- 
gression. Man found himself conquered by his lusts, which 
by evil habit he was nourishing against himself; he who had 
descended from Adam's stock with the obligation also and 
bond of sin. Whence the Apostle says, JVe too were some- Ephes. 
time hij nature the children of wrath. Hence it is, that he ' ' 
saith that not even the infant of one day is clean from sin ; Job 14, 
not by that which it hath committed, but by that which it §' j. 
hath contracted. 

3. Hear the Psalm giving utterance to interior things, and iii. 
singing forth the secrets of our sins. For in the person of 
mankind it is said to Christ, Against Thee only have I sinned, Ps.6i,4. 
and done evil in Thy sight. Not in the person only of 
David saith he this, but in the person of Adam, of whom is 
the race of mankind. For hear what follows. Against Thee 
only, saith he, have I sinned, and done evil in Thy sights 
that Thou niayest he justified in Thy words. To Christ is it 
said ; whereby do we understand this ? Hear what follows ; 
and inayest overcome when Thou art judged. God The 
Father was not judged, God the Holy Spirit was not judged; 
we find but the Son Only judged in this Flesh, Which of our 
substance' He vouchsafed to take; not by the tie of the ' massa 
concupiscence of the man and woman; a Virgin believed, 
a Virgin conceived, a Virgin brought forth, a Virgin she re- 
mained. And therefore is it said. And niayest overcome, 
when Thou art judged. For He was judged, and overcame; 
for that He was judged without sin. His submission to 
judgment was of patience, not of guilt. Many innocent per- 
sons are judged, innocent, that is, as to the particular cases in 
hand. For for the rest, without sin they are not ; because as 
before men is the sin of deed, so before God is the sin of 

3 L 2 

874 The world, all who dwell in it, not in body only, hut by love. 

Serm. tlioiiglit. Tliy thought is before the Eyes of God thy deed. 

fj7Q^ I Tlic witness of the deed is the Judge Himself; the accuser 
of the deed conscience herself. He then was judged, truly 
Innocent, and therefore He overcame. For Alone He over- 
came, not the judge Pontius Pilate, nor the furious Jews, but 
the Devil himself, who with the carefulness of envy searcheth 
out all our sins. 

4. And what saith the Lord Jesus concerning this Devil ? 
iv. Lo.^ the prince of this world cometh. You have been often 

g^"^"^*' already told, Beloved, that sinners are called this xoorld. 
And wherefore are sinners called by the name of the world .? 
Because by the love of the world they dwell in the world. 
For they who do not love the world, do not dwell in that 

Phil. 3, they love not. Our conversation, saith the Apostle, is in 
^' heaven. If then whoso loveth God, dwelleth in heaven with 
God ; whoso loveth the world, dwelleth in the world with 
the prince of the world. All the lovers of the world, accord- 
ingly, arc themselves the world: the inhabitants of the world, 
not in the flesh, which all the righteous are, but in the mind, 
which sinners only are, whose prince is the Devil. Just as 
the inhabitants of an house are called the house; according 
to which meaning we say that a house of marble is a bad 
house, and a poor smoky one a good house. I'ou find a 
smoky house, which good men mhabit, and you say, " A good 
house." You find a house adorned with marble, and with 
vaulted roof, which wicked men possess, and you say, " A 
bad house ;" giving the name of house not to the walls and 
the receptacles of bodies, but to the inhabitants themselves. 
Thus Scripture hath given the name of the worlfi to those 
who inhabit the world by the concupiscence of love, not by 

•JohiiH, the conversation of the body. Therefore, saith He, behold the 
'prince of this xoorld cometh, and jindeth nothing in 3Ie. In 
Him Alone doth the Devil find nothing. And as though it 
were said to Him, " Wherefore then dost Thou die ?" He 

V. 31. follows on in that place. But that all may know that I do the 
tcill of 3Ty Father ; arise, let us go hence. He ariseth, and 
goeth to His Passion. Wherefore.'* Because / do the ivill 
of My Father. By reason then of this singular innocence, 

p 51 4-^^*' Psalm saith. Against Thee only have I sinned, and done 
evil in Thy sight, that Thou mayest be justified in Thy words, 

To keep from evilmakes hlamelessto man; to covet^fj mltu to God. 875 

and may est overcome when Thou art judged; in that be Serm. 
fnideth nought of evil in Thee. But wherefore findeth he it [170.B.] 
in thee, O human kind? In that he followeth on, and saith, 
For I was conceived in iniquity, and in sins did my mother v. 5. 
conceive me. This saith David. Ask whence was David 
born ; you will find of a lawful wife, of no adultery. In refer- 
ence to what manner of descent doth he say, / was conceivea 
in iniquity, unless that there is something in it of the germ 
of death, which every one draweth with him, who is born of 
the union of man and woman ? 

5. As every one then hath concupiscence, let him attend to v. 
the Law, saying. Thou shalt not lust; he findeth in himself what Exod. 
the Law forbids, and becomes guilty of the Law. But find- g ' ^^ ' 
ing in himself that whereunto he is subjected, let him begin 
at once to say, I delight in the Law of God after the inner Horn. 7, 
man; but I see another la/a in my members, resisting the'' 
haw of my mind, and bringing me into captivity in the law 
of sin, tcliich is in my members. He has acknowledged 
himself sick, let him implore the Physician: Wretched man 
that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death ? 
TiCt the Physician answer, The Grace of God through Jesus 
Christ our Lord. The Grace of God, not thy merits. 
Wherefore then didst thou say that thou hadst thy conversa- 
tion in the Law with righteousness without blame ? Attend: 
Without blame, he meant, of men. For there is a certain 
righteousness, which man is able to fiilfil, that no man should 
complain of man. For it saith, TIiou shall not covet what is 
another's. If thou shalt not plunder another's, there will be 
no blame of men. At times then thou dost covet, and plun- 
dercst not. But the judgment of God is over thee, in that 
thou covetest; thou art guilty of the Law, but in the eyes of 
the Lawgiver. Thou dost live without blame, why then this 
loss? why this dung? This is a considerably tighter knot: 
but He Who ' useth, will loose it. But let us merit this, not ' sed 
I only by a godly submission, but all ye by a godly atten- q°i^soiet 
tion. Whatsoever the Jcavs did, that men might not com- 
plain, and that they might have a conversation in the Law 
without blame, they attributed to themselves, and this righ- 
teousness according to the Law they ascribed to their own 

870 None in this lifejustijied in God's sight. 

Serm. strength; fulfil it they could not, but they did it as far as they 
[iTo.B.'l could; by attributing it to themselves, they did not even 
fulfil this religiously, 
vi. 6. This then he means by " to fulfil the Law," that is, 
" not to lust." Who that lives can do this ? Let the Psalm 
Ps. 143, which was just now sung, assist us; Hear me in Thy Righ- 
teousness; that is, " not in mine." If he had said, " Hear 
'vocaretme in my righteousness;" he would, so to say, have alleged^ 
merit. In some places it is true he calls it his own righteous- 
ness also; but here he makes a more exact distinction, 
because even when he calls it " his own," he calls it given ; as 
Matt. 6, vve say. Give us this day our daily bread. How ours; how 
Luteli,5'«ve.^ In this place therefore speaking more distinctly he 
p says, Hear me in Thy Righteousness. And he goes on. And 

1.2. enter not itito judgment with Thy servant. Wlmi is, Enter 
not into Judgment with Thy serraut? " Stand not with me 
in judgment, in exacting of me all that Thou hast enjoined, 
in exacting of me all that Thou hast commanded. For Thou 
wilt find me guilty, if Thou shalt enter into judgment with 
me. Need therefore have T," saith he, " of Thy mercy, rather 
than of Thy most clear judgment." Wherefore then. Enter 
not into judgment with Thy servant ? He goes on and says. 
For in Thy Sight shall no man living be justified. " For 1 am 
a servant; wherefore standestThou up with me in judgment? 
Let me enjoy the mercy of the Lord." Wherefore ? For in 
Thy Sight shall no man living be justified. What hath he 
said } As long as one lives in this life, no man is justified, 
that is, in the Sight of God. Not in vain did he add, in Thy 
Sight: but because one may be justified in the sight of men, 
so that that too may be fulfilled. According to the righteous- 
ness which is of the Laiv, I was icithout blame, in the sight 
of men. Recur to the Sight of God ; In Thy sight shall no 
man living be justijied. 
vii. 7. What then are we to do .? Let us cry. Enter not into 
judgment with Thy servant, hci us cry. Wretched man 
that [ am, who shall deliver me from the body oj' this death ? 
The Grace of God, through Jesus Christ our Lord. This 
then have we heard the Psalm, this have we heard the 
A])ostle cry ; because when that Righteousness shall be, 

This li/'e's righteousness, compared with that to come, dnnc/. 877 

according to which tlie Angels live, when that Righteousness Serm. 
shall be, where there shall be no concupiscence, thereby [170.B!] 
let each one measure what is now, and what shall be then; 
and he will find in comparison of that righteousness, that 
this is loss, and dung. But whosoever deemeth that he is 
now able to fulfil righteousness, when he shall have lived 
well and innocently according to the uncertainty ' of human ' proba- 
estimation ; hath stopped by the way ; he desires no better, ^^^' 
because he thinks he hath fulfilled; and more than all, attri- 
buting it to himself, he will be proud. And a humble sinner 
is better, than a proud righteous one. Therefore he saith. 
And he found in Him, not having mine own righteousness, phii_ 3 
which is of the Law, as the Jews thought, b^U the Righteous- ^• 
ness which is of the faith of Christ Jesus. Then afterwards 
he saith, i/6y any means I may attain unto the resurrection v. 11. 
of the dead. There he believed that he should fulfil righte- 
ousness, that is, should have a plenary righteousness. In 
comparison of that resurrection, the whole life we now spend 
is dung. Hear the Apostle speaking still more expressly. 
If by any means I may attain unto the resurrection of the 
dead; not as though I had already attained, or were already v. 12. 
perfect. And then he wove in, Brethren, I count noitnyselfv. 13. 
to have apprehended,- How doth he compare righteousness 
to righteousness, salvation to salvation, faith to sight, exile 
to the city ? 

8. Attend how he fulfils this; Brethren, I count not viii. 
■myself to have apprehended. But one thing. What one, but 
to live by faith, by the hope of eternal salvation, where shall 
be plenary and perfect righteousness, in comparison of 
which the things which are to pass away are loss, and the 
things which are to be disallowed, dung. What then? But"^- ^^' 
one thing, forgetting the things which are behind, stretching 
forth myself to those which are before, I follow on according v. 14. 
to my aim to the prize of the supernal calling of God in Christ 
Jesus. And to those who might flatter^ themselves on their - pr^esu- 
perfection. But let us as many as be perfect, he thus minded, y. 15. 
He had but now called himself imperfect, and now perfect. 
Why, but because this is man's perfection, to have discovered 
that he is not perfect ? But let us, as many as he perfect, 
be thus minded. And if peradveniure in any thing ye he 

878 Sioeetness of the sight of the Face of God ; 

Serm. otherwise minded^ this also Ood will reveal unto you ; that 
[i70.B.]is, that if in am^ progress of soul ye judge yourselves justi- 
fied, by reading the Scriptures, and iinding what is the True 
and Perfect Righteousness, ye may find yourselves guilty, 
and by the longing for things to come, may condenni things 
present, may live by faith, and hope, and cliarity ; and under- 
stand that what ye still believe, ye do not yet see; what ye 
still hope for, ye do not yet hold fast; what ye still long for, 
ye do not yet fulfil. And if such be the charity of those in 
exile, what shall be that of them who see ? Therefore, he 
who taught the Righteousness of God, and established not 
his own, cried out in the Psalm, Hear me in Thy Righte- 
ousness: and enter not into judgment with Thy servant; for 
in Thy Sight shall no man living be justified. 
ix. 9. According to this life it is said to Moses, " No man 

Exod. hath seen the Face of God, and lived." For we must not 
' " live in this life, that we may see That Face. We must die 
to the world, that we may live to God eternally. Then we 
shall not sin, not only in deeds, but not even in concupis- 
cences, when we shall see That Face, Which conquereth a\l 
concupiscences. For Tt is so Sweet, my Brethren, so Beau- 
tiful, that when It is seen, nothing else can give delight. It 
will be an insatiable satiety, no loathing; we shall alway 
hunger, we shall always be full. Hear these two sentences 

Eccius. from Scripture; They that drink J/<?, saith Wisdom, shall yet 

' ' be thirsty, and they that eat 3Ie, shall yet be hungry. But 

that thou mayest not deem that there shall be want and 

John 4, hunger there, hear the Lord; Whosoever shall drink of this 
water, shall never thirst. But you say, " When will this 

Ps. 26, he?" Whensoever it shall be, yet expect the Lord, wait 

(27. E. patiently on the Lord, do manfully, and let thy heart take 

^ '^ courage. What I does as much remain, as has passed 
already ? Look from Adam even to this day, how many ages 
have passed away, and behold they are now no more. But a 
few days, so to say, remain ; for so what remains may be said to 
be in comparison of the ages past. Let us exhort one 
another, let Him Who hath come to us exhort us, Who hath 
run the way, and said, " Follow ;" Who hath ascended first 
into Heaven, that, as the Head, He may fiom on high succour 
the rest of the members labouring on earth ; Who called 

the One Object to long for here . 879 

from Heaven, Saul^ Saul, why persecutest thou Me? Tliere- ^^^' 
fore let no one despaii*; what hath been promised shall m [170.B.] 
the end be rendered to us ; there shall that righteousness be Acts 9, 
fulfilled. ^' 

10. Ye have heard that the Gospel too accords with these ^* 
words. The will of the Father, saith He, is, that all which ^°^^^^ 
He hath given Me should not perish, but have eternal life ; 
and I will raise them up at the last Day. Himself, on 
the first Day, us, at the last Day. The first Day for the 
Head of the Church. For our Day the Lord Christ hath no 
setting. The last Day, will be the end of the world. I would 
not have you say, " When will this be ?" For the race of 
mankind it will be long first, to each individual of men it 
will be nigh ; for each man's last day is the day of his death. 
For when thou shalt depart hence, thou wilt be received 
according to thy deserts, and wilt rise again to receive the 
things that thou hast done. Then will God ci-own not so 
much thy merits, as His own gifts. Whatsoever He hath 
given thee, if thou hast kept it, He will recognise. Now 
then. Brethren, let not our longing be but for Heaven, 
let it not be bui for life eternal. Let no one be well- 
pleasing to himself, as one who hath lived here righteously, 
and compare himself with those who live evilly, after the 
manner of the Pharisee, who justified himself, who had not 
heard the Apostle, Not as thouglt I laid, already attained, 
or were already perfect. He had not then attained to what 
he was still longing for. He had received the earnest, so he 
said; WJio hath, given unto us the earnest of the Spirit. To 2 Cor. 5 
that whereof He was an earnest, did he desire to attain; a^" 
certain participation, but very different. In one sort do we 
now participate, in another shall we participate then. Now 
by faith, by hojx;, in the Same Sj^irit ; but then there will be 
sight, will be possession; but the Same Spirit, the Same 
God, the SauK.' Fullness. He Who calleth to the absent, 
will exhibit to the present; He Who calleth the exiles, will 
nourish and support in the Country. 

] 1. Christ hath become the Way to us, and do we despair xi. 
of reaching the end ? This Way cannot be brought to an end, 
cannot be sto})pe(l, cannot be spoiled, neither by rains, nor 
floods, nor Idocked up In' robbers. Walk thou securely in 

880 Joy in the Lord, ever to increase; in the tvorld, to decrease. 
Serm. Christ, walk; stumble not, fall not, look not back, stop not 

y-1 Y XT 

rj7Qpiin the way, get not out of the way. Only avoid all these 
things, and thou hast reached the end. When thou shall have 
reached it, then glory thou at once herein ; glory not in 
thyself. For whoso praiseth himself, doth not praise God, 
but turneth himself away from God ; as when a man chooses 
to withdraw from the fire, the fire continues warm, but he 
grow's cold; as when a man chooses to withdraw from the 
light, if he withdraw, the light continues bright in itself, but lie 
is in darkness. Let us not withdraw from the heat of the 
Spirit, from the light of Truth. Now have we heard the Voice, 

1 Cor. i^fii then shall we see face to Face. Let no one be well pleased 
with himself, let no one insult another. Let us all in such wise 
wish to make advancement, as not to envy the advancing, 
insult not those who fail; and so in us will be with joy ful- 
filled what hath been promised in the Gospel, And I uill 
raise them up at the last day. 


On the words of the Apostle, Phil. iv. " Rejoice in the Lord always, &o.'' 

i. \. The Apostle enjoins us to rejoice, but in the Lord, not 

Jam. "J, in the world. For zvhosoever will be a friend q/' this world, 
as saith the Scripture, shall be accounted the enemy of God. 
Matt. 6, For as no man can serve two masters; so can no one rejoice 
both in the world and in the Lord. These joys differ much 
from one another, and are altogether contrary. When there 
is rejoicing in the world, there is no rejoicing in the Lord ; 
when there is i*ejoicing in the Loixl, there is no rejoicing in 
the world. Let rejoicing in the Lord prevail, till the rejoicing 
in the world be ended. Let the rejoicing in the Lord be 
always on the increase ; the rejoicing in the world always 
lessening, till it come to an end. And this is not said as 
though when we are in the world we ought not to rejoice ; 
but that when we arc even in the world, we may rejoice 
already in the Lord. But a man will say, " I am in the 

Our Lord, the good Samaritan. 881 

world; of course if I rejoice, 1 rejoice there where I am." Serm. 
What! because thou art in the world, art thou not in the rj^j'j^i 
Lord? Hear the same Apostle speaking to the Athenians, 
and in the Acts of the Apostles saying of God and the Lord 
our Creator, In Him we live, and move, and are. For He Acts ij, 
Who is every where, where is He not? Did he not exhort us 
hereunto? The Lord is very niyh, be careful for nothing. Vh\\. 4, 
This is a great thing, that He is ascended above all Heavens, 
and is very nigh them who are on the earth ! Who is this 
far oflfj and very nigh, but He Who in mercy became very 
nigh to us ? 

2. For the whole race of mankind is that man, who lay in ii. 
the way left half dead by robbers, whom the Priest and the 
Levite passing by disregarded, and a Samaritan as he passed 
by came up to take care of him and help him. Now whence 
came the occasion of this narrative ? He gave a certain man 
who asked, what are the best and highest precepts in the 
Law, to understand that they are two, Thou shall love the Lukeio, 
Lord tliy God with all thij heart, and nith all thy soul, and'^'' '^'^ 
tvith all thy mind; and thou shall love thy neighbour as 
thyself. And he said. And who is my neighbour ? And the 
Ijord answered, A certain man went down from Jerusalem 
to Jericho. (He shews him in a manner to be an Israelite.) 
And fell among thieves. When they had stripped him, and 
grievously wounded him, they left him in the way half dead. 
A Priest passed along, a neighbour by blood of course, and 
passed by him as he lay. A Levite passed along, he again 
a neighbour by blood, he too disregarded him as he lay. A 
Samaritan passed along, distant in blood, in mercy a neigh- 
bour, and he did what you know. And in this Samaritan the 
Lord Jesus Christ would have Himself to be understood. 
For Samaritan is by interpretation Keeper. Therefore He Hom. u, 
rising from the dead, dieth no more^ and death shall have 
no more dominion over Him; for He Who keepeth Israel P>i\2i) 
doth neither slumber nor sleep. Again, when the Jews * 
blasphemed Him with so great revilings, they said, Say we john g^ 
not truth that Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil ? 4^- 
Forasmuch then as there were two reviling woi'ds cast in the 
Lord's teeth, and it was said to Him, Say we not truth, that 
Thou art a Samaritan, and hast a devil ? He might have 

882 Ood, very Jar from man by sin, very nigh hy taking his mortality. 

Serm. answered, " I am neither a Samaritan, nor have I a devil;" 
rj^i'^ibut He answered, I have not a devil. That which He 
answered. Me refuted ; that, on whicli He was silent. He 
confirmed. He denied that He had a devil, Who knew tliat 
He drave out devils; He did not deny that He wasaKee])er 
of the weak. Therefore t/ic Lord is very nigh; in that the 
Lord was made very nigh unto us. 
iii. 3. What so far, what so remote, as God from men, the 
Immortal from mortals, the Just from sinners? Not far in 
place, but in unlikeness. For thus too we are wont to 
s])eak, in speaking of two men, when their characters are 
different: " This one is far from the other." Even though 
they should be standing side by side, even though they 
should dwell in close neighbourhood, even though they 
should be bound by one chain ; the godly is far from the 
ungodly, the innocent is far from the guilty, the just is far 
from the unjust. If this is said of two men, what of God 
and men ? Forasmuch then as the Immortal and Just One 
was far from us, as from mortals and sinners, He descended 
to us, that That Far One might be made very nigh unto us. 
And what did He? Forasmuch as He had two good things, 
and we two evil things; He, two good things, Righteousness 
and Immortality; we two evil, iniquity and mortality; if He 
had takeii both our evil things, He would liavc become like 
unto us, and together with us had needed a deliverer. 
What then did He, that He might be very nigh unto us ? 
Very nigh, not that which we are, but nigh us. Mark the 
two things: He is Righteous, He is Immortal. In thy 
two evil things, one is guilt, the other is penalty; the guilt 
is, that thou art unrighteous, the penalty, that thou art 
mortal. That He might be very nigh, He took thy penally, 
He did not take thy guilt ; and if He took it. He took it to 
efface, not to incur it. The Righteous and Immortal, far 
from the unrighteous and mortal. Mortal sinner, thou wert 
far from the Righteous Immortal One. He was not made a 
sinner as thou; but He was made mortal, as thou. Abiding 
Righteous, He was made mortal. By taking the penalty, 
and not taking the guilt. He effaced both the guilt and 
penalty. The 7.o;f/, therefore, ?.s- very nigh, he careful for 
twilling. Though in Body He hath ascended above all 

Impunity in sin, the world's Jot/, God's greatest wrath. 883 

Heavens, He hath not withdrawn in His Maiesty. He is Serm. 
every where present, Who made all things. ri7i.B3 

4. Rejoice in the Lord alnays. What is rejoicing in the -^ ~ 
world? Rejoicing in iniquity, rejoicing in filthiness, rejoicing Phil. 4, 
in what disgraces and deforms. In all these doth the world 
rejoice. And all this would not be, if men had not willed it. 
Some things there are which men do, others which they 
suffer, though they will not, they endure them. What then 

is this world, and what the rejoicing of the world? I say, 
Brethren, with all the brevity I can, as the Lord helpeth me, 
in haste, and briefly I say; The joy of the world is un- 
pvmished wickedness. Let men live in luxuriousness, in 
fornication, in the trifles of the spectacles, let them wallow 
in drunkenness, pollute themselves with filthiness, and suffer 
no evil; and see the rejoicing of the world. Those evils 
which I have enumerated, let not famine chastise, nor the 
fear of war, nor any fear, nor any disease, nor any adversities ; 
but let iheir all be in abundance of substance, in the peace 
of the flesh, in the security of an evil mind, lo, see the 
rejoicing of the world. But God thinkelh not as man ; the 
thought of God is One, that of man another. It is of 
great mercy, not to leave wickedness unpunished ; and He 
vouchsafeth now to chasten with the scourge, that He may 
not be compelled to condemn to Hell at the last. 

5. For wouldest thou know, how great a punishment no 
punishment is, not however for the righteous, but for the 
sinner, who hath a temporal punishment, that there may not 
succeed an eternal ? Wouldest thou then know, how great a ^^ 
punishment no punishment is? Ask the Psalm ; The sinner ps.9 34. 
hath provoked the Lord to anger. He exclaimed with ^^P*- 
vehemence, he gave heed, considered, cried out; The sinner e. V.) 
hath provoked the Lord to anger. Wherefore, I pray ? what 

hast thou seen? Now he who made this exclamation, saw a 
sinner living with impunity in luxuriousness, doing ill, 
abounding in good things, and he cried out, The sinner hath 
provoked the Lord to anger. Wherefore hast thou said this? 
For what hast thou seen? For the greatness of His wrath 
He doth not require it. Understand ye. Christian brethren, 
the mercy of God. When He chastiseth the world. He 
doth not wish to condemn the world. For the greatness of 

884 Sorrow for friends departed, nature and nllowed, 

Serm. His wrath He dotli not require. Therefore He doth not 

CXXI. . . 

[I7LB.] '"^n"^^'*-'> hecause His anger is great. Great is His anger. 

' severi- ^h' sparing He is severe, l)ut justly severe. For severity ' is, 

tassfflvagg j^ were, severe verity. If then He is severe at any time 
Veritas . ... . . . 

in sparing, it is good for us that He succour us in chastising. 

And yet if we consider the doings of mankind, what do we 

Pa. 103, suffer? He hath not done unto us according to our sins. 
10. / 

lor we are sons. Whereby do we ])rove this? The Only 
Son died for us, that He might not remain Alone. He would 
not be Alone, Who died Alone. For the Only Son of God 
made many sons of God. He bought brethren to Himself 
by His Own Blood, the Disapproved approved, the Sold 
redeemed, the Disgraced honoured, the Slain quickened. 
Dost thou doubt that He will give thee His good things. 
Who hath not disdained to take thy evil things ? Therefore, 
Brethren, rejoice in the Lord, not in the world; that is, 
rejoice in the truth, not in iniquity; rejoice in the hope of 
eternity, not in the flower of vanity. So rejoice ye; and 
wheresoever ye be, and how long soever ye shall be here, 
TAe Lord is very nigh, be carefnlfor nothing. 


Un the words of the Apostle, 1 Thess. iv. " But we would not have you to 
he ignorant, hrethren, concerning them which are asleep, that ye sorrow 
not, even as the others which have no hope." And concerning works of 
mercy, wherehy the dead are helped. 

i. 1. The blessed Apostle admonisheth us, that, concerning 

\ Thesfi. fji^jjf i(^jif(^-fi fjjc asleep, that is, our dead dearest ones, tve 

should not sorrotr, as the others which have no hope, the 

hope, namely, of the Resurrection and eternal Incorruption. 

For therefore doth the most true usage of Scriptm-e also call 

them sleeping, that when we hear of sleeping, we may in no 

wise despair of their waking again. Whence also it is 

P8.40,9. chanted in the Psalm, Shall he that sleepeth no more rise 

fr^^s '^i^^^" ^ ^ ^6re is then concerning the dead for those who 

E. V.) love them a certain sorrow in some sort natxiral. Not 

Prayers ojtf Churchy the Sacrifice^ alms, benefit faithful dead. 885 

opinion, indeed, but nature, hath an horror of death. Nor Serm, 
would death have happened to man, but by tlie punishment [172. b. 

which guilt had preceded. Wherefore, if animals which are 
so created as to die each in its own time, flee death, love 
life, how much more man, who had been so created, as that 
had he willed to live without sin, he had lived without end ! 
Hence therefore it must needs be that we be sad, when those 
we love, by dying leave us; because, although we know that 
they are not leaving us who are to remain behind, for ever, 
but a little while preceding us who are soon to follow; yet 
death itself which nature flieth, when it seizeth a beloved 
one, saddens within us the affection of this very love. 
Therefore the Apostle did not admonish, that we sorrow not; 
but not as the others which have no hope. We sorrow then 
in the deaths of our friends by the necessity of losing them, 
but with the hope of recovering them. By the one we are 
distressed, by the other consoled ; on the one side infirmity- 
afflicts, on the other faith refreshes; on the one the condition 
of humanity pains, on the other the divine promise heals. 

2, Wherefore the pomp of funerals, the crowding of rites, 
the costly care of burial, the rich construction of monuments, 
are solaces such as they are, for the living, not aids to the 
dead. But it is not to be doubted that by the prayers of ii. 
Holy Church, and the saving Sacrifice, and alms which are 
expended for their souls, the dead are aided; that the Lord 
should deal more mercifully with them, than their sins have 
deserved. For this tradition of the Fathers, the Universal 
Church observes, that for them who have deceased in the 
communion of the Body and Blood of Christ, when they are 
commemorated in their proper place at this Sacrifice, prayer 
be made, and it be announced that that Sacrifice is offered 
for them also. But when for the sake of recommending 
them works of mercy are duly done', who can doubt thaticele- 
they help them, lor whom prayers are not without effect put^'^"**^*" 
up to God.? It is not by any means to be questioned, that 
these do profit the departed ; but only such as have so lived 
before death, that these things may be useful to them after 
death. For they who have departed this life without the Gal. 6, 
faitli which workcih hy love, and its sacraments, in vain for 
them are paid by their friends such like offices of piety, of 


Serm. which whilst ihev were here, they were without the earnest, 
[I72.('..i eitlHM- not receiving, or receiving in vain the grace of God, and 
laying up in store for themselves not mercy, but wrath. No 
new merits then are purchased for the dead, when their friends 
do any good work in their behalf, but to their's going before 
these following are joined. For it was brought to pass only 
whilst they were living here, that these things should be of 
any avail to them, when they had ceased to live here. And 
therefore any one who finishes this life, will not be able to 
have aught after it, save what he hath merited in it. 
' pia 3. Let then the affectionate' hearts of dear friends be 

allowed to sorrow for the deaths of those belonging to them 
with a grief that shall admit of cure, and let them by their 
mortal condition, pour forth tears that shall admit of conso- 
lation ; and let the joy of faith quickly stop them, whereby 
the faithful are believed, when they die, to depart a little 
while from us, and to pass on to a better estate. Let also 
the offices of brotherly love console them, whether those 
2 funeri- which are rendered to the departed^, or those which are 
ministered to the mourners, lest the complaint of those be 
Pis. 68, just who say, / waited for one that would he sad together 
(69 20. y^ith 7ne, and there was none, and for corriforters, and I 
^" ^-^ found none. Let care be had for burying and building 
sepulchres according to men's power; for that these too are 
reckoned in Holy Scripture among good works ; and not 
only in the case of the bodies of Patriarchs and other Saints, 
and of all, whosoever they be, that lie in human carcases; but 
even in that of the Body of the l^ord Himself they are held 
up and praised who have so done. Let men fulfil towards 
their friends these offices of a last duty, and alleviations of 
their human sorrow. But those things which help the souls 
of the departed, oblations, prayers, almsgivings, let those 
much more carefully, earnestly, abundantly lay out for them, 
who love their Iriends dead in flesh, not in spirit, not only 
in a fleshly but in a spiritual manner also. 

JJay^^ofif departedhring ihouijhts ofexceedingfear ^ hope. 887 


On the same words of the Apostle, 1 Thess iv. 
]. When we celebrate the days of departed brethren, we Skrm. 


ought to have in mind both what should give hope, and[i73B.j 
what should give fear. For on this score ought we to have i. 
hope, forasmuch as precious in the sight of the Lord is the^^- 1'^, 
death of His Saints: but on this score ought we to have 
fear, in tliat, The death of sinners is very evil. And there- ^^\^^^ 

1 1 11 , • J • 22.Sept. 

fore with a view to hope, The fust shall be tn everlasting 34,21. 

memory; with a view to fear, From the evil hearing he shall^-^^^^ 

not fear. For there shall be an evil hearing than \\hich 7. Sept. 

there can be none worse, when to those on the left hand g y 

it shall be said. Depart ye into everlasting fire. From this '^^^^■'2^, 
evil liearing the just shall not fear. For he shall be at the 
right hand amongst those to whom it shall be said, Come, ye ^- ^^^ 
blessed of my Father, receive the Kingdom. But in this life, 
wliich is passed midway before the supreme goods and 
before the supreme ills, in the midst of middle goods and 
ills, that is, on neither side, the supreme ; because both what- 
ever good things a man may have here, in comparison of the 
eternal good things they are nothing ; and whatever evil things 
a man has trial of in this life, they are not even to be reckoned 
in comparison of eternal fire ; in this middle state of life then, 
we ought to hold fast what we have now heard out of the 
Gospel, He that believeth in Me, saith He, liveth, though he^°^^'^^, 
die. lie both announceth life, and denieth not life. He 
that believeth in Me, liveth though he die. What is, liveth 
though he die ? Though he die in body, he liveth in spirit. 
Then He adds. And whoso liveth and believeth in 3Ie shall v- 26. 
not die for ever. Though he die mark ye' ; how, if he shall ' certe 
not die ? But though he die for a time, he shall not die for 
ever, Tims is this question solved, that the words of truth 
may not be contrary to one another, and may be able to 
instruct the affection of picly. Therefore though we must 
die in body, we live if we believe. 

3 M 

888 Our f,or(Vs tears for deaf h, not for y^ (lead, sand ion onrs. 

Serm. 2. But our faith is exceedingly difTerent from all the faith 

p^^g'^"jof the Gentiles on the resurrection of the dead. For this 

^ they do not at all receive ; because they have no place to 

Prov, 8, receive it. For the will of man is prepared by the Lord, 

^^ P^that it may be a receptacle of faith. The Lord saith to the 

John 8, Jews, 3Iy Word hath no hold in you. Therefore hath it 

hold in those, in whom it findeth what can hold. For in 

them doth the word which hath hold, find what can hold, 

Lukeis, whom God in promising deceiveth not. For He Who 

seeketh the lost sheep, both knoweth what He seeketh, and 

where to seek it, and how to collect its scattered limbs, and 

to bring it back to the one Salvation, and so restore it as 

never more to lose it. Let us then console one another, even 

by these our words. A man's heart may not possibly sorrow 

at the death of one very dear; but better is man's heart when 

it sorrows made whole, than by not son-owing, made inhuman. 

John 11. Mary clave closely to the Lord, and sorrowed for her brother 

"who was dead. But why marvellest thou that Mary sorrowed 

then, when the Lord Himself wept? Now it may perplex a 

man, how did He weep for the dead, when He forthwith 

gives the order for him to live ? He did not wee^ for the 

dead one, whom He raised up ; but for death which man by 

sinning procured for himself. For if sin had not gone 

before, doubtless death had not followed. Therefore the 

death of the body also followed, which the death of the soul 

preceded. The death of the soul preceded by forsaking 

God, and the death of the body followed by the forsaking of 

the soul. In the first he forsook with his own will, in the 

second he was forced to forsake against his will. As though 

it were said to him, " Thou hast withdrawn from Him Whom 

thou oughtest to love, withdraw from that thou hast loved." 

For who wishes to die ? No one assuredly ; yea so truly no 

John2l,one, that it. was said to the blessed Peter, Another shall gird 

^^' thee^ and carry thee whither thou ivouldest not. If then 

there were no bitterness in death, there would be no great 

courage in Martyrs. 

iii. 3. Therefore also the Apostle saith, I would not have you 

4 y^"^' to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which are asleep, 

that ye sorrow not, even as the Oentiles which have no hope. 

He doth not simply say, that ye sorrow not ; but, that ye 

Wemaysorrowat'if wreck of death, yetwithhopeofendlessjoy.S^d 
sorroiv not in such wise as the Gentiles, which have no hope. Seum. 


For it must needs be that ye should sorrow; but when thou[]73,B/j 
sorrowest, let hope console thee. For how dost thou not 
sorrow, when the body which liveth by the soul, becomes 
lifeless, by the soul's departure ? He who did walk lieth 
on the ground, who did speak is silent, the closed eyes 
receive not the light, to no voice are the ears opened ; 
all the members' offices are ceased ; there is none to move 
the steps to walk, the hands to work, the senses to perceive. 
Is not this the house which some invisible inhabitant 
once adorned ? He hath departed who was not seen, 
there hath remained what may with pain be seen. This 
is the cause of soiTowing. If this be the cause of sorrowing, 
let there be this sorrow's consolation. What consolation ? 
For the Lord Himself with commandment^, and ivith thcv.xa. 
voice of an Archangel, and at the last trump, shall descend "*•'*■"'■ 
from Heaven, and the dead in Christ shall rise first; then tve^^ j; 
which, are alive, and remain, shall he caught up together 
leith them in the clouds to meet Christ in the air. Is this 
too for a time ? No : but what is it ? And so shall we ever 
he with the Lord. Perish sadness where there is so great 
consolation ; let mourning be chased from the soul, let faith 
drive away sorrow. In so great a hope the temple of God 
ought not to be sad. Therein dwelleth the Good Comforter, 
therein, the Promiser Who never deceiveth. Why bewail 
we long the dead ? Because death is bitter ? Through it 
even the Lord hath passed. Let these few words suffice 
for your affection ; may He Who doth not withdraw from 
your heart more abundantly console you; but vouchsafe in 
such sort to dwell, that He may vouchsafe also at the end to 
change us. Let us turn to the Lord, &c. 

3 M 2 

8i)0 Scr. loves to dioell on exceedivg love ofXt taJdng man into Him. 


On the words of (lie Apostle, 1 Tim. i. " This is a human word, and 
worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save 
sinners; &c." and on the Lesson of the Gospel, Luke xix. of Zaccheeus. 
Against the Pelagians. 

Delivered iu the Basilica of Celerina on the Lord's Day. 

Serm. 1. We have heai'd the blessed Apostle Paul saying, It is a 

[i/i.B.] human word, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ 
\ Jesus came into the world to save sinners, of whom I am 

1 Tim.i , the first. A human word then, and worthy of all acceptation. 
Why human, and not divine? Doubtless unless this human 
word were divine also, it would not be tcorthy of all accepta- 
tion. But this human word is in such wise divine also, as 
Christ Himself is both Man and God. If then we do right to 
understand that this icord is not human only, but divine also; 
why did the Apostle prefer calling it human to divine ? For 
as he would not have spoken falsely had he called it divine, 
he hath not doubtless without a cause preferred to call it 
human. He hath made choice then of that, whereby Christ 
came into the world. For Pie came by that whereby He is 
Man. For Whereby He M'^as God, He was here always. For 

Jer. 23, where is God not, Who hath said, I fill Heaven and Earth? 
Christ is assuredly the Power and Wisdom of God; Whereof 

■Wisd.8,it is said. It reachcih from end to end mightily, oud su-cetly 
doth it order all things. He was in the world then, and the 

John 1, world was made hii Him, and the world knew Him not. 

10. J ^ 

He was both here, and He came; He was here by Divine 
Majesty, He came by human infirmity. Because He came 
then by human infirmity, therefore in announcing His advent, 
he said, A human word. The human race had not been 
delivered, had not the Word of God vouchsafed to be human. 
For so that man even is called human, who shews himself a 
man, and especially who receives a man into his house. If 
then he is called human who receiveth a man into his house, 
how Human is He Who liath received Man into Himself? 
ii. 2. Therefore // is a human word and worthy of all accept- 

ation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners. 
Mark the Gosjiel ; For the Son of Man hath come to seek 

How weak man's iviil, seen m Adam; JwwfuUgrace^ iny'^ Man Xif 89 1 

and save that which was lost. If man had not been lost, Serm. 
the Son of Man had not come. Therefore man was lost, thon74_B.] 
Man-God came, and man was found. Man was lost by free- 
will; the Man-God came by liberating Grace. Dost thou 
ask what power for ill free-will hath ? Call to mind man 
sinning. Dost thou ask what power to aid God and Man 
hath ? Mark in Him liberating Grace. In no way could it 
be so shewn, how great the power of man's will is when usurped 
by pride, to avoiding evil without the help of God; it could 
not be more and more clearly manifested than in the case of 
the first man. Behold then the first man was lost, and 
where should he have been, had not the Second Man come? 
Because the first was man, therefore the Second also Man, 
and therefore the word, human. Yes verily, in no way doth 
the kindness of grace, and the bounty of God's omnipotence 
so appear, as in the Man, iJie Mediafor between God and ^ Tim. 
men, the Man Christ Jesus. For what are we saying, my ' 
Brethren r I am speaking to those who have been nui'tured 
in the Catholic Faith, or gained over into Catholic Peace. 
We know and maintain that the Mediator between God and 
men., the Man Clirisl Jesus, in so far as He was Man, is of 
the same nature as vre ourselves are. For our flesh and His 
Flesh are not of a di/Ferent nature, nor our soul and His 
Soul of a different nature. He assumed this nature, which 
He judged right to save. In nature He had nothing less 
than we, but in guilt had He nothing. Nature pure, but not 
human only. There was God, there was the Word of God. 
And as thou one man, art soul and flesh ; so He too One 
Christ, God and Man. Will any one then dare to say, 
that our nature in Him, the Mediator, first merited God's 
favour by free-will, and so deserved to be assumed, that 
Man and God might be the One Christ Jesus ? Lo we may 
say that by our virtues, by our conduct, by the conversation 
of our lives, we have merited to be made the children of 
God ; we may say, " We have received the commandment, if vjj 
we keep it, and live well, we shall be admitted into the num-^^""™- 
ber of the children of God." But did He first live as the Son o;.) iv'.' 
of Man, and by well-living was Ho made the Son of God ^ ^^^' '^•^ 

note h. 

He began by It, yea by It began, and by His assuming was Oxf.Ed. 
made. For the Word icas made Flesh, that It mvjht direll j^i^^ i 


802 Z(icch<('us a lype nf (til loicly seekers of Jesus. 

yERM. among us. The Word of God, the Only Son of God, as- 

[i74.^B,l sunied the Soul and Flesh of man, not before deserving it of 
Him, nor labouring in his own strength to receive that height 
of glory, but altogether freely. For nothing ])receded that 
assumption ; by the assumption He was made. A Virgin 
conceived: before the Virgin's conception was there a man, 
mediator? He was not assuredly before that just.' For how 
was He just. Who was not even } A Virgin conceived, and by 
the assumption of Man He thence began. With good reason 

Ibid. was it said, We saw His glory, the glory as of the Only- 
Begotten of the Father, full of grace and truth. Thou art a 

Lukei6, lover of f\-ee-will, thou art about to say to thy Father, Give 
me my substance which falleth to me. AVhat, art thou 
committing thyself to thine own self? Better is He able to 
]n-eserve thee, Who was able, before thou wert, to create thee, 
i'i- Acknowledge Christ then, He is full of grace. He willeth 
to pour out upon thee this whereof He is full ; He saith to 
thee, " Seek thou My gifts, forget thine own merits ; for if 
I were to seek for thy merits, thou wouldest not come to My 
gifts. Lift not up thyself, be small, be Zacchaeus." 

Lukei9, 3. But you will say, " If T should be Zacchaeus, I shall 
not be able to see Jesus for the crowd." Be not sad, ascend 
the Tree, where Jesus hung for thee, and thou shalt see 
Jesus. And what kind of tree was it that Zacclifeus ascended ? 
A sycamore tree. In our country it either grows no where 
at all, or perhaps in some {^vf places rarely; but in those 
parts there is abundance of this kind of tree and fruit. 
Sycamores are said to be a sort of fruit like figs ; but still 
there is some difference, which those who have seen or tasted 
them can perceive. But as is indicated by the interpretation 

' fatuc-c of the word, sycamores are in Latin by interpretation insipid' 
figs. See now my Zacchaeus, see him, I pi'ay thee, wishing 
in the crowd to see .Tesus, and not able. For he was low, 
the crowd was proud ; and this crowd was a hindrance to 
itself for seeing the Lord well, as is the case usually with a 
crowd; he ascendedfrom the crowd, and now with no hindrance 
from the crowd saw Jesus. For the crowd says to the lowly, 
to those who are walking the way of lowliness, who leave 
their injuries with God, who require not vengeance of their 
enemies, the crowd insults them, and says, " Defenceless one. 

ToseeChrist,ascendlreeofthe Crosft^benr it on y^/oreftead. S93 

who canst not avenge thyself!" The crowd hinders Jesus Serm. 
being seen; the crowd glorying and exulting when it hath n^^^g'i 
the power to avenge itself, hinders Him being seen Who as 
He hung said, Father, /org ive them, for they know not what^^^^^s, 
they do. Him then Zaccheeus, in whom was figured the person " ' 
of the lowly, wishing to see, regarded not the hindering crowd ; 
but ascended the sycamore, so to say, the tree of insipid fruit. 
For we, saith the Apostle, preach Christ Crucified, to the^^^^-^y 
Jeivs indeed a stumbling block : mark the Sycamore ; aiid to 
the Qentiles foolishness. And again upon the Cross of 
Christ the wise of this world insult us, and say, " What a 
heart have ye, who worship a Crucified God?" What a heart 
have we ? Not, it is true, yours. The wisdom of this world is ^^^^' ^' 
foolishness with God. For we have not your heart. But 
ye say that our heart is foolish. Say what ye will; let us 
ascend the Sycamore, and see Jesus. For for this reason 
cannot ye see Jesus, because ye are ashamed to ascend the 
Sycamore. Let Zac