Skip to main content

Full text of "Servian conversation grammar"

See other formats

This book belongs to 


purchased with the aid of 

The MacDonald-Stewart Foundation 

The Canada Council 

!! 5! 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 

University of Toronto 








DAVID NUTT (A. G. Berry), 212 Shaftesbury Avenue, W. C. 

DULAU & CO., 37 Soho Square, W. 

SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON & CO., 100 Southwark Street, S.E. 

NEW YORE: BRENTANO'S, Fifth Avenue and 27th Street. 


G. E. STECHERT & CO., 151—155 West 25th Street. 

E. STEIGER & CO., 25 Park Place. 


149 a Tremont Street. 

THE SCHOENHOF BOOK CO., 128 Tremont Street. 




The Gaspey - Otto - Sauer Method has become my sole property by 
right of purchase. These books are continually revised. All rights, 
especially those of adaptation and translation into any language, are 
reserved. Imitations and fraudulent impressions are forbidden by law. 
Suitable communications always thankfully received. 

Heidelberg, Julius Groos, 


A few years ago I wrote, among other works, an 
English Grammar for the use of the Servians, and it 
has met, contrary to my expectations, with a conside- 
rable success. My modest hopes arose mainly upon 
the fact that the Enghsh language has never been intro- 
duced as a subject in the schools of the Servian State, 
obviously because of the lack of direct communication 
between the two nations, Servia having been hitherto 
the only European State, except Switzerland, without 
an outlet to the sea. 

Now, when the brave Servian nation has finally 
secured with arms for herself what she has longed for 
ever since her liberation from the Turks, and when 
she can hope to have constant intercourse with the Eng- 
lish people, it seems almost a necessity for both to learn 
each other's language. It is to be hoped that the pre- 
sent Servian Grammar may render our language ac- 
cessible not only to the Slavologues of England, but 
also to the numerous tourists, merchants and those 
otherwise interested in the development of the Servian 
national life. 

It is well known that the Servians are, so to speak, 
cousins with the Russians, Poles, Tcheks (Bohemians), 
Slovaks, Slovenes, and Croatians. The Bulgarians, 
although of Tartaric origin, use deliberately a language 
which could well be called, a dialect of the Servian, 

IV Preface. 

so great is the resemblance between the two; for they 
have Hved together for centuries, having been alter- 
nately subjugated by each other according to their 
military hegemony. But it is a well estabhshed fact 
that, when a nation conquers and subjugates another, 
the more civilised of the two, be she victorious or van- 
quished, imposes her language and her civilisation on 
the more barbarous. 

Needless to say, the Servian language is the most 
harmonious and most expressive of all the Slavonic 
sisters; this has been even officially acknowledged, some 
fifty years ago, at a Panslavistic conference at Moscow, 
by the majority of the delegates. The formidable intel- 
lectual productions of the Servian nation deserve un- 
doubtedly the attention of the whole civilised world. 
We Servians are proud to say that of all Slavonic 
nations we have the most beautiful and the richest 
collections of epic songs whose poets are unknown, the 
nation herself being the author. In beauty and ima- 
gination they surpass by far Homer's Iliad and Odyssey 
as well as Mahabharata and Ramayana. Vouk Stefa- 
novitch-Karadgitch alone has collected during the few 
decades of the last century five large volumes of heroic 
epic songs and two others containing some fine lyric 
songs, whose the author is again the Servian nation her- 
self. And how many more are there yet to be collected? 

The Servian (or Serbian) language is generally 
spoken not only in the actual Kingdoms of Servia, 
Montenegro and Croatia, but also in the newly con- 
quered provinces of Old Servia and Macedonia, as well 
as in those still under the Austrian rule — namety: in 
Bosnia, Herzegovina, Batchka, Banat and Sreni (Syrmia), 

It goes without saying that in writing this I have 
made use of the excellent philologic study of the learned 
professor Gyouro Banitchitch ('06jrHii,H CpncKora JesHKa, 

Preface. V 

3^^ ed., Belgrade, 1863'), of the numerous and no less 
brilliant linguistic works of Danitchitch's worthy student 
M. Stoyan Novakovitch, the President of the Servian 
Royal Academy of Sciences, as well as of many other 
competent sources, among which more especially the 
'Vergleichende Grammatik' by MiUoshitch. 

It gives me a real pleasure to tender my cordial 
thanks to M. S. Novakovitch for masterly advice he was 
pleased to give me while I was preparing in Belgrade 
my MS. of the German edition of this grammar. May 
His Excellency M. Tchedomille Miyatovitch, formerly 
Servian Minister to the Court of St. James, also please 
to accept my sincere gratitude for his kind permission 
to use a part of his excellent treatise 'Servia and the 
Servians' (London, 1908) for translation exercises in 
this volume. 

With the utmost confidence I beg to submit this 
work to both the learned and students, trusting they 
will honour me with their opinions with regard to 
possible amendments. 

WoYslav M. Petrovitch. 

August, 1913. 

Clyde House, Clyde Street, 
Redchffe Gardens, London, S.W. 



Introduction 1 — 10 

First Part. 

1st Lesson. Gender of the Servian Substantives . . 11 — 13 

2iid » Declension of Substantives 13—17 

Srd » » » » (continued). . 17 — 19 

4tti » Declension of Feminine Nouns .... 19 — 22 

b^^ » Declension of Neuter Nouns 22 — 25 

6tli » Adjectives 25—28 

7th » Prepositions 28—32 

8th » Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb 6hth 

to be; to have 32—37 

9th » Hints on the Regular Conjugation . . 37 — 41 

IQth » Negative, Interrogative and Conditional 

Forms 41 — 44 

11th » Personal Pronouns 44—48 

12th » Demonstrative Pronouns 48 — 51 

13th » Definite and Indefinite Pronouns . . . 51 — 55 

14tli » Declension of Adjectives with Apocopated 

Terminations 55 — 60 

15th , Cardinal Numbers 60-64 

I6th » Ordinal » 64—68 

17th » Adverbs 68-72 

18th » Conjunctions 72—76 

19th » Interjections 76—79 

20th » Aspects of the Verb 79-82 

Alphabetic List of some most important Irregular and 

other Verbs 82—84 

PasroBopH H3 o6HiHor ^KBBoxa, Dialogues from Daily Life 85—92 

Contents. VII 


Second Part, Page 

1st Lesson. Remarks on the Gender of Substantives 93—96 
2"d » Formation of the Feminine Forms derived 
from substantives which denote a mas- 
culine being 97—102 

3i-d » Formation of the Plural of Substantives 103—107 

4th » » » » » » »(contM) 107—111 

5th » Declension of Substantives 112 — 116 

6th » Augmentatives and Diminutives . . . . 116 — 120 
7^h » How to express the English Modal Auxi- 
liaries 120—126 

8th » How to express some English Preposi- 
tions 126—135 

9th » How to express some English Preposi- 
tions (Continuation) 135 — 143 

lO^h » How to express some English Preposi- 
tions (Continuation) 143—150 

11th » How to express some English Conjunc- 
tions 150—156 

12th » How to express some English Idioms . 156 — 161 

13th » Remarks on the use of some Pronouns 161 — 166 

14th » » » » » » » » . 166—173 

15th » Formation of Verbal Aspects 173—179 

16th » Remarks on the use of the Imperative 

and Infinitive 179—183 

17th » Impersonal Verbs 184—187 

18th » Remarks on the use of some Cases . , 188 — 193 

19th » Remarks on the use of some Cases (cont'd) 194—199 

20th » Formation of Servian Words 199—206 

Samples of Servian Poetry 206—2.34 


Conjugation of the most importants Irregular Verbs . 235—243 

English Servian Vocabulary 244 — 263 

Servian-Enghsh » 264—278 

Samples of Handwriting 279—294 


I. The Servian Alphabet. Classification 

of Letters, 

1. The Servians and Kroatians have iu general 
one and the ^aiiie language. The shght differences 
between them are due to the territories and to foreign 
influence. We will take into consideration only the 
Servian language. 

2. There are two alphabets in the written language, 
viz.: the KyriJIic and the Latin, the former being 
used by most Servians and the latter by all Kroatians. 

3. The Servian language is absolutely phonetic, and 
all tvords are pronounced as they are spelt, and vice 
versa : all Servian ivords are spelt as they are pronounced, 
Tliere are no exceptions to this rule. 

4. The Kyrillic alphabet was framed by the Slav 
apostel Kyrillos and his brother Methodius in the 
ninth century on the basis of the Greek alphabet. The 
modern Servians, Russians, and Bulgarians have adopted 
that alphabet with slight differences. 

5. The Servian alphabet has special letters for every 
sound, expressing even complex sounds by means of 
only one character. There is no difference between the 
sounds and characters. There are no diphthongs and 
no double consonants. 

Servian grammar. 


II. Pronunciation. 

§ 1. The Servian alphabet consists of the following 
30 characters: 

Kyriilic or Servian 

Latin or Kroatian 


Printed. Written. 

Printed. Written. 













^ A a 


GyZ a 


(in Shah 







I c/ 


g s 

as the 
Itahan j 
in giorn 


Kyirillic or Servian 

Latin or Kroatian 



Written. 8 Printed. 




-{ Hi 

I H 



I n 

h !h 



E e 




&f& ^ 









as the 

French j 

in jour 





£' /■ 


y (hke the 
Gerroan j) 

hke the 
Itahan gl 
in egli 


Kyrillic or Servian 

Printed. | Written. 

Latin or Kroatian 

Pro nun 



H H 

W lb 

M M m 

//^ N n 

n n 

p p 

C c 

T T 





8 s 







like th 

Italian || 

ill ogn 










s7 / 



Kyrillic or Servian 



Latin or Kroatian 




St (t> 



. X 

; u 


C 6 


F f 


q C C 



(] c 


8 s 




ty (as one 


h (like the 
^^ Gerroanch) 



i c/^ 





ledge, judge 


6 Introduction. 

§ 2. Classification of Letters. 

Of the 30 Servian letters there are: 5 vowels 
(a, e, H, 0, and y) and 25 consonants (6, b, r, ji;, ^, sk, 
3, j, K, ji, Jb, M, H, a, n, p, c, T, h, (j), X, ^, % ^, m). 

With regard to the organs that give utterance to 
the various consonants, the following classification is 
obtained : 

Labials: 6, n, b, 4>? m. 

Gutturals: t, k, x. 

Dentals: ;i„ t, 3, c, ^. 

Hissings: %, ^, j, Jb, a, t, % i^, in. 

Palatals: Ji, h, p. 

§ 3. Pronunciation of Vowels. 

A, a. 
Its proper sound is that of a in father, and can be 
either short ('or") or long ('or"), eg.: 

6a6a [hahali] grandmother; cjiiiBa [slava] glory; 
sanaji; [sapad] west; xpaM [hram] temple, etc. 

E, e. 
It has uniformly the sound of e in met\ 
jiiejio [delo] deed; [sselo] village. 

H, H. 

This vowel is pronounced like the English sound 
ee in "tree": 

BiiHO [veeno] wine; cioa [seeJJa] power, force. 

0, 0. 
Its sound is like in "note" : 
3B0H0 [^vono] bell; ;i,om [dom] house. 

It has uniformly its proper sound of 00 in "moon" : 
pyKa [rooha] hand; ByK [vook] wolf. 

§ 4, Pronunciation of Consonants. 

The lahials: 6^ n, b^ (j)^ and m have the same 
sound as their English equivalents (b, p, v, f, m). 

Pronunciation. 7 

The gutturals: Tj e, and x are pronounced as in 
English, but the Servian x has the aspirate sound 
which is heard in the German Dach, ich, mich, etc. 

The dentals: 3 and t sound just as their Enghsh 
equivalents d and t in done and turn: ;i;pBO [drvo] tree; 
TepeT [teret] burden, load. 

The consonants c and 3 are pronounced respecti- 
vely like the s in safe and z in icone: cecTpa [sestra] 
sister; sboho [svono] bell. 

The dental 13, is always pronounced as ts in ivits: 
ii,ap [tsar] emperor; jiiiij;e [litze or litse] face. 

.1 and H do not differ from 1 in life and 11 in note ' 
jijjidL flotdaj pipe; hob fitovj new. 

With the Servian r, great care is required not to 
lisp it, as Englishmen frequently do (arm, northern), 
but to pronounce it rather as if it were double, as in 
the word hurry. In the beginning of a word or syllable 
as well as between two consonants the r is used as a 
vowel, egr. : BpT [vrrtl garden; KpcT [krrst] cross; 
PpTaH» [rtagne] name of a Servian mountain, etc. 

j sounds like the English y after a vowel as in 
the word day: ja6yKa [yhooha] apple; jaje [yaye] egg. 

ffl^ 5K^ and ^i correspond respectively to sh in shid, 
to z in amre, and to teh or ch in eliarm : nienmp [she- 
shir] hat; a^ena [sena] woman; ^cjiek [tehelik] steel. 

\ corresponds to the Italian g in giorno: ^aK [dyaJcJ 
student; Bot^a [vodya] leader; guide. 

Jh (Ij) corresponds to the Itahan gl in egJi [it is 
pronounced by pressing the tongue against the palate 
whereby the lower teeth are touched by the top of the 
tongue], egr.: ^y6aB [IjubavJ love; BO^a [volja] will; 
nocTe.^a [postegla] bed. 

HE» (nj) corresponds to the Italian or French gn in 
cgni or campagne, egr.: H>HBa [njeeva] camp; CBnaa 
[sveenja] pig. 

fc is a compound sound of t and y (German j) 
which have to be pronounced as only one sound : KyLa 
[kootya] house; neh [pety] oven. 

jjL sounds like Enghsh j or dge in John or judge: 
iwji [jahh] sack; oij[aK [odgaM] chimney. 


Law of Permutatioii. 

In the various changes that words undergo through 
declension, conjugation, composition and derivation, the 
linal letter of the root is frequently changed according 
to fixed phonetic rules, which it is of the utmost im- 
portance to commit to memory as soon as possible. 

When after 6, ;i;, r, :k, ^, 3, u; come ii, t, k, m, 
ti, c, ^i, the former are changed in the pronunciation 
to the latter if followed by any soft consonant. 

§ 5. Accents. 

No general rules can be given in regard to the 
accents. It may be remembered, however, that the 
accent never falls on the last syllable in words of tv/o 
and three syllables. 

There are four signs for accents: 

1. Short (') as in the words: 6Hcep pearl, noTOK brook, 
Maoa fog, cfejio village, yKpac ornament. 

2. Very short (") as in the words: cjraBa glory, ;i,ejro 
work, deed, ciLia force, KOjro wheel, Kyta house, op^o 

3. Long () as in the words: ca6op fair, meeting; 
peKa river, ;i,iiKa honour, glory, po^a stork, pyKa hand, 
Bp6a willow. 

4. Very long (") as in the words: MapBa cattle, tSjo 
body, KpnB;i,a injustice, iioJbQ pales, iaypKa turkey, spT 

There are a few words which change their meaning 
with a change of accent: 

rpaji; hail and rpaji; fortress; town 

;i,pyra the second (fem.) » Apyra lady-friend 
nac dog » nac girdle, belt 

ropa worse (fem.) » ropa wood; mountain 

^ejio village » eejo soiree (evening party) 

jiyra stave » ;i,yra rainbow. 

Keading Exercises. 9 

Reading Exercises. 

^,A 3aiiiT0 lUH^e Ha CBeii,a?^^ 

KypjaK ce sapeKao, ^a He KO^e BHme HMnixa ii ;i;a 
Eb je^e Meca, h n6mao y nycTHity, ^a ce nocBeTH. y;i,a- 
pHBinii y TOM nyTy Her;i,e nbpejii rycaKa, rycaK, no 66h- 
Hajy, Aiirue oaBy h CTane infiKaTu, a oh ra yxBaTH h 
noje^e. Kaji; ra ^OBe^y na cyji; h CTany ra HHTaxH, saniTO 
je TO yTOHHO, OH 5;i,roBopH: „A saniTO mme na CBei^a?" 

safumo uewt^e 

/^^i eoee^a?^^ 

c^y/imn^ ce saJie^ae^ 

m /^e H^oAe 6f4ia^e /^^i/cuma 

uouf^e few Meeaj u nocuao- 

n^je^nu^Uj era ee nocoe- 



Reading Exercises. 

6) y ^ 

mm^u /^e^m n€^/?eo^ 2-uca 


'c^O'^ ^uea'f^^ no oow^t^M/ 



U'^/^e ^^O'Vu u emaMe luu- 


'?9uifnu, saiufj^'w fe mo ^/ 




"^u/^uo-^ OHomovom^^: ^^ 


First Part. 

Elements of the Language. 

First Lesson, 
Gender of the Servian Substantives. 

The Servian language has no article, either defi- 
nite or indefinite. Thus OTau; signifies indiff'erently the 
father, a father, father, it being left to the sense of the 
sentence to indicate whether the substantive is taken 
in a definite, indefinite or general sense. 

Number and case are distinguished by means of 
inflections alone — hence the necessity of a careful 
study of the Servian declensions. 

There are three genders in Servian, as in English; 
but this distinction applies in Servian to inanimate ob- 
jects also. In many cases, however, the gender of sub- 
stantives may be known either by their signification or 
by their termination. 

Masculine by their signification are all appellations 
of male beings, whatever may be their termination. 
The same rule is applied for the feminines and neu- 
ters. Thus: 

Masculine are: 
TBopau; Creator ' yjaK uncle 

cnacHTe.Zb Saviour 6iik bull 

ii;ap Emperor neBau; cock 

Kpa.Zb King MJia;i;fi}i youth 

6Tai3; father BJiaj^uKa bishop 

B6JB0Aa duke. 

Feminine are: 
ii;apnii;a Tzarina MaJKa mother 

Kpa.7bE[i];a Queen mena woman 


Lesson 1. 

cynpyra wife 
A^BOJKa girl 
TeTKa aunt 

icpaBa cow 
KHeniita pi 
K66iiJia mare. 

KHeniita princess 

Aexe child calf 
^Ape6e foal 

By their termination 

Neuter are: 

npace little pig 
UHje chick 
jarite lamb, 
are : 
Masculine: all nouns ending in a consonant, egr. : 
HOBe/i man k6^ horse 

A&H day jyHaK hero 

'MiiBom life opax' nut 

TpTOB-du merchant seiaj) wind 

cjyna; case; accident 6pam brother. 

Feminine: substantives ending in a: 
KBbMra book Tpeniaa cherry (fruit and 

KpyniKa pear peKa river [tree) 

vfrna rose Riasa head 

mHB6THfta animal meua woman. 

Neuter: all substantives ending in o or e: village ;i,eT^ child 

Jik6o heaven; sky Jiiiii,e face 

M^po pen uojbe field 

jyxpo morning ime name. 

Bemarlcs. (a) There are some substantives and proper nouns 
ending in a which are masculine by their signification, as, for 

example: cy^nja judge, BoJBoji,a duke^ BJiaj^HKa bishop, IIjiHJa, 
Bjia;i,eTa, Jyna, etc. 

(b) Besides those ending in a, there are many substantives 
(especially abstracts) which are feminine although ending in a 
consonant, egr.: uoh power^ oojiecT illness, jikiR lie, caacT sweet- 
ness; .^y5aB love, CTBap thing, sanoBecT order, me^ thirst, etc. 




jecy or cy 

(they) are 












but; and 






(he, she; it) is 






still; more 

k6;i; KytiO 

at home (icyha 




ja5yKa f. 


Ktiep /'. 


KHBia f. 


B6r m. 




Declension of Substantives. 13 

Exercise 1. 

Tfiopau,. JKtiHa. KpyuiKa. IlMe. Bpax. Ja6yKa. 
Kiiiua. Jlat^a. Bor je CBy;i,a. Bpax je joni TaMO, a cecipa 

je Beti 6B;i,e. K6 je ko;i; Kyhe? OTan; je nbjj, Kyte. 

BpaT II TeTKa cy Tano, a cecxpa h MaJKa cy 6B;i;e. 
Ka;i; je yjaK koji, Kj4e? YjaK je jianac koa Kyte. Tjib 
je Kp5'inKa a r;i;e (je) ja6yKa? Kp3^niKa je og^e '^ jaSyica 
je TaMO. 

Translation 2. 

God. The book. A time. The field. Life. The 
word. A sister. God is the Creator. Who is there? 
The mother is there, but (a) the daughter is here. 
AVhen is the father at home? The father is at home 

The mother and aunt are (cy) already at home, 
but (a) the sister is still here. What is (je) there? 
The pear is there, but the apple is here. Who is here? 
The brother is still here, but the father is already there. 


r^ie je oiaii;? Oiau; je koji KyKe. 

K6 je xaMo? TaMo je cecipa 

A Ko je OBie? Osjie je lexKa. 

Illxa je OBO? To je Kaiira. 

K6 je CBjjia? Bor je csyia. 

Ulia je Bor? Bor je TBopau;. 

Illxa je KoiB? KoH. je atHBoiHH,a. 

Second Lesson. 
Declension of Substantives. 

The Servian deelension (npoMena) has two numbers: 
singular (je;i,HHHa) and plural (MHOiKiiHa). 

Besides the usual cases, common with other lan- 
guages (nominative, genitive, dative, accusative), there are 
in Servian three more cases: the vocative, used for cal- 
ling and direct address, egr.: One nam! Our Father! 
etc.; the instrumental, answering to the questions by 
ivliom? or ivith ivhat? and the prepositional, so called 
because it is always preceded by one of the prepositions: 
0, no, npH, etc. 


]^eeson 2. 

The declension of nouns is divided, according to 
their terminations, into five classes. 

First Class. 

To this class belong all masculine nouns having 

no termination in the 

nominative singular, as well as 

a few 


nouns ending in o or e. 

Model I. 





(a, the) deer (stag) 



(of a, of the) deer (or deer's) 



(to a, to the) deer 



(a, the) deer 






with the deer 



about a (the) deer. 



the deer 



of the deer (or deer's) 


jaiCH-HMa to the deer 



the deer 





je.neH-mia with the deer 


jejieH-MMa about the deer. 

Model H. 




5pa^ (a 

, the) plough- opa^-M (the) ploughmen 




(of a, of 

the opa^-a etc. 


















Model HI. 

(Proper nouns in o or e.) 






MMOJ-e Miloje 

Gen. MiipK-a etc. 

MMOJ-a etc. 

Decleneion of Substantives. 15 

Dat. MiipK-y MMOJ-y 

Ace. MiipK-a MMOJ-a 

Voc. MiipK-o MiLioj-e 

Instr. MnpK-OM MiiJioj-eM 

Prep. MiipK-y. Mnjioj-y. 

It will be noticed from the above examples that: 
the dative is always the same in form as the preposi- 
tional both in the singular and plural; in the plural 
three cases have the same form: the dative, the instru- 
mental, and the prepositional. Nominative and vocative 
are also equal in the plural. The declension of mascu- 
line nouns denoting inanimate objects differs from that 
of animate beings only in the accusative singular^ 
which in the former is the same as the nominative^ 
whereas in the latter it is the same as the genitive. 

Eemark 1, Masculine nouns ending in the nominative in 
a hissing consonant (jy Jb, Tb, ^, fi, ow, v, m) obtain in the voca- 
tive sing, a y and in the instrumental an eM. If the nomina- 
tive ends in i, k, x and v^ a permutation takes place before the 
e in the vocative, namely: k and t^ are changed into ^; % into 
:k; X into m; egr.: jynaK (hero), voc: jynaqej; cxpHn, (uncle), voc: 
CTpnqe; Bor (God), voc: Boa:e; rpex (sin), voc: rpenie; ;iyx (spi- 
rit), voc: Ayine. 

Eemark 2. Some masculine nouns having an a before the 
termination of the nom. sing, elide that a in all other cases with 
exception of the gen. pi. The same rule applies to those nouns 
ending in an o originating from a vocalized Ji. Egr. : nom. HOKax 
(nail), gen. HOKxa, dat. HOKxy, etc; — nom. nexao (originally: nexaJi^ 
cock), gen. nexjia, dat. nexjiy, etc. but gen. pi.: nexajia, HOKaxa* 
Nevertheless, the proper nouns such as: Mnjiae, Cxcjan, etc., keep 
that a throughout the declension. The a is in the same manner 
retained by all monosyllabic nouns such as : ;taH (day), ;^aHa, ;^aHy, etc 

Eemark 3. Many substantives (especially monosyllabic) in- 
tercalate in the plural an OB (eventually «eB» in case the noun 
ends in a hissing consonant) between the root and the ter- 
mination, egr.: rpaji. (fortress), pi. rpa^OBH; Kpa^B (king), pi. 
Kpa.i)eBH; ii,ap (Emperor), pi. ii,apeBH; Hoai (knife) — HoatesH; MHin 
(mouse) ~ MHHieBH. 

Eemark 4. Substantives denoting nationality, religion, or 
some special quality or order, ending in hh, lose that «nH» in 
the plural, egr.: TypHHH (Turk) [where the real root is Typn], 
pi. : TypnH, ByrapHH [root : Byiap Bulgarian], pi. : Byrapn ; rpa^anHH 
[citizen], pi.: rpal^aHH, etc 


oaKOH, m. 
xjih6y m. 


give (pi.) 

n^Kap, m. baker 

cx6(orig.cxoji) table 

(ja) bh;i;hm [m. I see (am seeing) 


Lesaon 2. 

(th) BHJlHni 

youaee(2i^(^p. sg.) 

Ko;ii (prep.) 

at, by 

(ja) roBopHM 

I speak (am spea- 

c, ca 

with, by means of 


py'iaK, 7)1. 


y'leHHK, 771. 

pupil; student 



(th) roBopHin 

thou speakest 

HPiM, Hibie 

by what 


about; over 

66pH ce 

he fights (fences) 

CHpOMax, 711. 


5ope ce 

they fight (fence) 


you speak (pi.) 

jaiaraH, 7n. 

yatagan (Orien- 

Kyha f. 


tal swords) 

pajtHHK, 7)1. 



not ; no 

HOBaii;, TYi. 


ruyr, ??2. 


.A^naK, m. 



he works 

J^BOp, 171. 

castle; palace 

cpncKH, adj. 

Servian (adj.) 

JIOB, 771. 




=na (prep.) 

on, upon 

paT, 7n. 


Exercise 3. 

3aK0H Bora. Jl^ajxe cupoMaxy xjie6a. Ja bh;i,mm Koifea. 
Tfi BHAHin paAHHKa. Jl^aJTe pa;i,HHKy H6Baii;a. Ja roBO- 
pHM CTbjij a TH roBopHin hOjKy. Jl^e^aK je koh; 6ii;a. 
Ja BH^HM ;i,B6poBe Kpa^eBa. .JIob na jejiene. JejieHH cy 
^KHBOTHiBe. MiipKO je k6ji; ii;apa na py^Ky. Ja roBopiiM 
o ji,B6py Kpa^a C})6HJe. Th BHii,iini jynaKa a ja BHii;ifM 
•opa^a. Ja roBopHM e npujaTe^oM a th roBopiini c y^e- 
HHKOM, ^iiMe ce 6opH TJ^p^HH? Typii,n ce 6ope jaxa- 
raHHMa. HoiK je na CTOjiy. Jl^ajxe paOTHUiHMa H6Baii;a. 

Translation 4. 

The laws of God. The breads are on the table 
(na CTOjiy). I see the king and the emperor. Give 
bread (xjreSa) to the workman. The houses of the mer- 
chant. The bread is upon the table. I am speaking 
about the castles of the kings ("of" is not to be trans- 
lated) of Servia. With what is the ploughman working? 
The ploughman works with (the) plough. With what 
fight (the) Turks? The Turks fight with yatagans. 
Where is the King of Servia? The King of Servia is 
in Belgrade (y Beorpa;i,y). Thou speakest about (the) 


Ja join He roBopHM jto5po cpncEH. 

Ja BMjinM ,iaBa n opjia. 

KoA 6paTa je Kpaji> c ytiHTe.i&eM. 

Opa^ pa^H njiyroM. 

Kpa^B je y Beorpajiiy. 

Bhahm Kpaj&a h njapa. 

TOBOpHie JIH cpncKH? 
Bhjihiu JIH JiaBa? 
Ko je Ko;i; 6paTa? 

^zMe pajin opaH? 
r^e je Kpa.^? 
Eora BH^HTe ca;^? 

Declension of Substantives. 


lUia pw Typi];H y paiy? 
Kaji; je oTaii, y jiBopy? 

TypuH ce 6ope y paxy jaxara- 

^ HHMa. 

Oxaii. je A^Hac y jiiBopy. 

Third Lesson, 

Declension of Substantives (continued). - 

Second Class. 

To this class belong all feminine nouns ending in 
the nominative singular in a, for example: ajena woman, 
wife; Kyta house, and are declined according to the 
following model: 


Nom. ^eH-a woman 

Gen. 5KeH-e etc. 

Dat. mfen-H 

Ace. aien-y 

Voc. aKCH-o 

Instr. SKeH-OM 

Prep. 5KeH-M 

The dative sing, is the same as the prepositional 
sing. In the plural nom.^ ace, and voc. are the same; 
further, dat. instr. and prep, are equal just as with the 
masculine nouns. 

mhB-e women 
jKeH~a eijc. 




Thus are dechned: 

i];apHi];a tzarina, empress 

genitive : 


Kpa.zbHi];a queen 
yA^BHi],a widow 



nnejra (or qejia) bee 



pyaca rose 
c66a room 




Ma^Ka cat 



rjiaBa head 



TpaBa grass 
TaJHa secret 
inyna wood, forest 


Taj He 

To this class belong also some nouns which are 
masculine by their nature, but, nevertheless, having an 
a in the termination are declined as owena. Such are: 

Servian grammar. 


Lesson 3. 

cy^nja the judge 

cjiyra a man-servant 
BJik;i,HKa a bishop 
BoJBo;i;a a duke 


IIjTHJa proper names of 
TaOTJa male persons. 

Bemarlc 1. If the root of the feminine nouns is ending in 
r, K or X in the dative or prepositional eing., a permutation of 
those consonants takes place before the dative's or prepositional's 
termination h; namely, k is changed into n;; i into 3; x into c, 
egr. : pyKa (hand), dat. or prep.: pyn,H; KH>iira (book) — Kitnan; 
CHaxa (daughter in-law) — cnaCH etc. 

Bemark 2. Substantives of three or more syllables whose 
root is ending in n, change in the vocative the termination o 
into e: Kpa.^Hi];a (queen) — xioc.\ Kpa^iinie; BoropoAnii;a (God's mother) 
— ijoc: BoropojiHue; also some proper names of persons: JejiHii;a, 
wc.\ JejiHi];e; PyjEHi];a, "coc. Pya:Hii;e. 

Bemark 3. There are some words, such as: 6Bii;a sheep, 
Tpemita cherry, etc., which insert an epenthetic a between the 
two consonants of the termination in the genitive pi., which dis- 
appears again in all other cases: gen, pi. OBaii,a, xpemaaa etc. 


M^HH (or mh) 

to me (dat.) 



OH yKpamaBa 

he ornaments 




I beg, please, if 



you please 

iirpa ce 

he plays 

Moj, -a, -e 

my; mine 


just (adj.) 

cjiyataBKa, f. 


-^ea, -HHO 

cynpyra, f. 


MH j^JteMO 

we eat 

BH pajiiHTe (or 

you work [or do] 

jien, -a, -o 

handsome, beau- 


tiful, fine 

6oja, f. 


jenoxa, f. 


HBCT, m. 


pajiiocT, f. 




OH je Kynno 

he bought, he 

MHoro, adv. 


has bought 

ja caM BHji;eo 

I saw, or I have 

CJIHKa, /". 



Kopna, f. 



if (interrogative 

3HaK, m. 

sign, mark 

particle in in- 



direct questions) 

KaraHKa, f. 


6ainTa, f. 


BH.i,yinKa, f. 


Kyjia, f. 


Exercise 5. 

Ja can BH;i;eo Kyfey. JI^aJTe KpaBana TpaBe. Jl^ajie 
MH, m6j[hm, KH)Hry H cjiHKy. Py^a je Kpa.zbHi];a ii;BeTOBa, 
6Ha je 3HaK jrenoTe h pk;i;ocTH. ^ajxe cjiymaBi^H H6Baii;a. 
Mh je;i;eMO KamnKOM h BH^ymKOM. HlTa pa;i,HTe ca;i,? 
Oh je Kynno Kyty c 6aniT0M. Cjji,HJa je npaBH^an. Boj- 

Declension of Feminine Nouns. 19 

Bo;i;a je Kynno ;i,b6p c Kyjiana. Tfl^e je cjiyra? Ja can 
BiUeo cjryry koji; B5JBo;i,e. 

Translation 6. 
Give me (some) bread (xjie6a), please. The mother 
ornaments (the) room with pictures. I saw the niece 
with a book. Upon the table are knives, spoons and 
forks. The father has bought sheep (gen. pi.). I saw 
the rose in the garden. Who plays usually with the 
cat? The girl plays with the cat in the room (y c56h). 
My sister is a widow. Mileva is a fine woman. Militza 
and Yelitza are fine women. I often see the duke 
(BOJBO;i;y) with the queen. 


JecH .iH BH;i;eo pyate y myMH? Ja can BHji.eo pyate y 6ainTH KOJ^ 

"^HMe yKpamaBa MaJKa co6y? MaJKa yKpamasa co5y cjiHKaMa h 

Ko ce nrpa c na^KOM? Moja cHHOBHii;a h ciyataBKa ce 

iirpajy c Ma^KOM. 
Ko je Bii;i;eo KMry Kpa^eBa? Ja caM BH;i;eo KMry Kpa.^Hii,a h 

cjiHKy u,apHn;a. 
IIlTa pajiHie ca^? Ja pa/i;HM cjiHKy Epa^Ba Cp5HJe. 

Fourth Lesson. 

Declension of Feminine Nouns (continued). 

Third Class. 

To this class belong the feminine nouns, especially 
abstract nouns, which end (in the nom. sing.) in a 
consonant: jiasK a lie; CTBap a thing; Mob the power; 
KopscT the profit, the usefulness, etc. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. CTBap the thing CTBap-H (the) things 

Gen. CTBap-H CTBap-ii 

Dat. CTBap-H CTBap-HMa 

Ace. CTBap CTBap-M 

Voc. CTBap-H CTBap-H 

Instr. CTBap-H (or jy) CTBap-HMa 

Prep. CTBap-H CTBap-HMa. 

It will be noticed that nearly all cases end in an h. 



Lesson 4. 

Such are: 
pe^i, /'., word 
^y6aB, f\, the love 
3Ke^ the thirst 
rjiaji; the hunger 
np6nacT the perishing 

jecen the autumn 
sanoBecT the order 
Kan the drop 
nacT the honour 
BJiacT the authority 

Bapom a city, town. 

All substantives ending in oct^ ecT or hct belong 
also to this class: 

Mjrk;i,ocm the youth 
CTapocl?^ the advanced 

pMocm the joy 
CMejiocm the audacity 
TJijuocm the nonsense 

6bMcm the illness 
Bhd^ecm the swoon 
npimecm the Communion 
CBec?n the conscience 
Kop^/cm the profit, useful- 

Bemarlc 1. However, the following monosyllables are mas- 
culine : 

MOCT, m., a bridge nocx, m., the fastening 

npcT, m., a finger KpcT, m., the cross. 

There are a few feminine nouns ending in an o (originating 
from a Ji) which are declined as the model cmeap, e.g.: MHcao 
(originally: MHCJit) the thought; c6 (originally: cojit) the salt, etc., 
gen.: mecjih, cojih etc. 

EemarJc 2. In the instrumental singular and before the ter- 
mination jy the root consonants m, w, Ji and d are united with 
the initial j forming thus a hissing sound, namely: m with j 
form t; «J = a; Aj = Jb; dj ^= %, e.g.: MacT lard — instr, 
Mamiiy (instead of: MacT-jy); njiecan mould — instr. njremH>y (in- 
stead of: njiecH-jy); c6 (from coji) salt, — instr. coJbj (instead of: 
coji-jy); nponoBejii speech, — instr. nponoBC^y (instead of: iiponoBe;i;-jy). 

Bemarlc 3. Main mother and kM (which can also have these 
nominative forms: Maxep and Khep) deserve a special attention 
and are declined as follows: 




MaxH (or Maxep) 






















KhH (or Khep) daughter 















KKep-jy, -H 





Declension of Feminine Nouns. 


However, there are more usual synonyms: MaJKa 
and tepKa, which are becoming more and more general, 
to such an extent that in some parts of Servia the 
above correct forms have fallen in complete desuetude. 


BacHa, /". 



he sings (makes 

o;t (^prep.) 

of, from 


BHCHHa, f. 

the height 

HCMa (impers.) 

there is (are) not 



HMa (impers.) 

there is, or are 

Bapom, f. 

city, town 

CMepnocT, f. 


BejiHKH, -a, 

-0 great, large 

Myii;pocT, f. 


OBaj, -a, -0 




.lyjlocT, /*. 


jieitocT, f. 

laziness, idleness 



nopoK, m. 


TpaBa, /. 



to die 

n^CHHK, m. 

a poet 


died, dead. 

about, over 

Exercise 7. 

BacHe cy o;i; EopncTH sa Mjia;i;eac. Osa je Baponi 
BejTHKa. Ja eaivi 6ho y Bapomn. Mj[aji,ocT — jiy^ocT; 
CTapocT — 66jiecT. IlecHHK n^Ba o ^y6aBH h MJia;i;ocTH. 
^eBOJKy KpacH CMepnocT, a .^eny My^pocT. Mjia;i;ocT 6e3 
CMejEOCTH je oynocT. Oji; Moje noMoiiH nena KbpHCTii.. 
YMpeTH oji; rjia;i,ii h 3Kei)H. JleBbocT je MaTH nopoKa. "^15- 
BCK 6e3 TiacTH. JI^aJTC mh xjieSa h cojih. HeMa My;i;pocTE 
6e3 CTapocTH. 

Translation 8. 

The man without honour. (The) idleness is the 
mother of (the) vice. There is no (ncMa) wisdom {w^jir 
pocTH) without old age. The mother speaks with the 
daughter about (the) modesty. The poet makes poetry 
about (the) youth and love. The usefulness of fables is 
great. The poet has -died from hunger (oji; rjra;i;H). Give 
to the daughter the book of wisdom. (The) illness 
accompanies (npaTn) (the) old age. 


r;i;e je Main ffanac? 
^eMy roBopHTe ca;i;? 


Haia JIH KopacTE oji; .lajKH? 
Ox ^era je yMpeo necnnK? 

MaxH je y Bpiy c Ktiepjy. 


Be3 CTapocTH Hena Myji;pocTH. 
JIaat je nopoK. 
IlecHHK je yMpeo oji; rja^n h ate^n. 


Lesson 5. 


Fifth Lesson. 

Declension of Neuter Nouns. 

Fourth Class, 

To this class belong all neuter nouns ending (in 
the nom. sing.) in o or e, eg.: cejro village; MecTO place; 
nbjbe field; jriii^e face. 

The accusative and the vocative are the same as 
the nominative of both numbers. Also: dative sing, is 
equal to the prepositional; in the plural the dative, 
instrumental and prepositional are the same. 

The following are the models according to which 
all neuter nouns are declined: 


Nom. ceji-0 village 

Gen. ceji-a 

Dat. cfeji-y 

Ace. ceji-o 

Voc. ceji-o 

Instr. cejr-OM 

Prep, ceji-j 

Such are: 

ji;ejro work, deed 
Tejio body 
CTa;[i;o flock, herd 
jesepo lake 

Nom. n6.zb-e field 
Gen. n5.^-a 
Dat. n5.zb-y 
Ace. n6^-e 
Voc. jibjh-% 
Instr. n6.^-eM 
Prep. n5ib-y 

Such are: 
jrime face 
Bece.zbe joy 


ceji-a villages 

orjie;i;aj[0 looking-glass 
niiBO beer 
BHHO wine 

nepo pen. 

Model n, 









H3o6fi.zbe abundance 
SHaae knowledge 

Declension of Neuter Nouns. 


nosopHniTe theatre H3HeHal)eH>e surprise 

HMaae fortune, property cpi];e heart 

Mope sea cyHi];e sun. 

Bemarlc 1. Neuter nouns whose root ends in a group of 
consonants (except: jkji;, 3ji;, ct and hit) insert in the gen. x)lur. 
an a which disappears in all other cases, Qgr.\ p^6po rib, gen. 
plur. p^6apa, cto. pe6pHMa etc.; secjio oar, gen. pliir. nhcsLJidi; nncMO 
letter, ge7i. plur. nacaMa; c^j^jto saddle, gen. plur. c^^ajia etc. 

Bemark 2. Substantives oko eye, and yxo ear, are declined 
in the singular as the first model of this class (c^jio) and in the 
plural as cmedp (third class). 

Fifth Class. 

To this class belong all neuter nouns which have 
in the nominative singular no termination, but the 
root of which ends in a consonant. Such neuter nouns 
are: njiene the tribe (root: njifenen); Tane ball, bullet 
(root: TaneT); He6o the sky, heaven (root: He6ec). 

Model I. 




nJieMe the tribe 

nJiCMfen-a the tribes 


















Model II. 


Tane the ball 



TaneT- a 
















Model III. 


He6o the sk}^ 





















Lesson 5. 

As model I. are declined: 

6peMe the burden Bioie the udder 

HMe name cene seed 

T^Me crown; top Bpene time; weather. 

As model 11. : 

6ype barrel Tejre calf 

;i,eTe child jape little goat 

jarae lamb uiiJie chicken. 

As model III. : 

^y;i;o wonder tcjio body. 

Bemarlc. Nearly all neuter nouns which are declined in the 
singular as the model "Tane" have another plural form in a;i;, 
the so-called "collective plural" which is used after numbers 
beginning with five, eg.: 5ype,, 6ypeTa and 6ypaA; nnjie 
— iiHJieTa and nnjaji;; jarae — jaraexa and jaraaji;. 

However: ;i,eTe child has in the nom. pi. besides «;i;eTeTa» 
also ;i;eii;a, gen. j^eii;e, dat. ;iieii.H, ace. A^uy, voc. ^eiiio, instr. ji;eii,OM, 
prep. Aei^i. 


Il0CJIOBHII.a, f. 


Hapoji;, m. 




j^yma, f. 


jecie JiH ^H- 

have you read? 


is not (no, after 






are not 


but, however 

oBaj, OBa, OBO 



on, upon, upon; 


men; people 

after; to 



iirpajy ce 

they play 

Meaajy ce 

they change 

HMa Jin? 

is (or are) there? 


y^HTe ! 

learn! (imperat.) 

ji;eo, m. 

a deal 

HOB, -a, '0 


CHJia f. 

power, force 

Kaate, b^jih 

he says 

HOti, f. 


BHi^e ce 

are seen 


he carries. 

CMpT, f. 

the death 

Exercise 9. 

IIocjiOBHi^a cy orjieji;aj[0 ^ynie Hap8;i;a. Ja rbsopHM 
cejiy a th roBbpHiu o noiby. MJt^ mh niiBa h Bima. 
JecTC JIH TOTajiH ;i,ejra ByKa Ct. Kapaij[Hiia? .^y^H rbBope 
^lecTO ;i;a ce BpoMena Meaajy, ajin BpeMcna ce ne Meaajy; 
^y;i;H ce neaajy c BpeMeHOM. ^ OTau; ce lirpa c Aeii,OM. 
X^^^ ce iirpajy c jaraeTOM. HMa ml BHHa y dypexy? 
y 6ypeTy Hema Bfrna ajin iiMa miBa. Snaae je CMa, 
BHaae je Mot;. ygnxe Khufi, ^an h Hoii. BH;i;eo can na 
cejry: npacaji;, Tfejiaji;, japaji,, janta^i;, .^K;i,pe6a;i, ii t. ;i;. J 
nosopHniTy ce ^ecTO BH;i,e ^y^eca. 


Adjectives. 25 

Translation 10. 

There are no lakes in Servia. Thou speakest about 
the wonders of the sky, and the uncle speaks about the 
villages and herds. A proverb says: "Times change, 
whereas we change with the times." The children play 
in (na) the field. We know nothing about the time of 
our death. The play causes (npn^niLaBa) the children 
(dat,) pleasure. Have you read the new Lazarevitch's 
works about Servia? 


Ulia BH;i;Hm? Bhji;hm He6o n cyHii;e. 

niTa pa;i,HTe? IlrpaM ce c jiieii;oM. 

Hmc jih Cp6HJa Mopa ? Cp6HJa Hejia hh Mopa hh jesepa. 

^eMy roBopHxe? roBopHMO o BajiKaHCKOM Ilojiy- 


Pjiie cy ;i;ei];a? JI^eii,a cy y cejiy na n6.^y. 

niia cxe BHji.ejrH y nosopHmxy? Bii;i,ejiH cmo ny^eca. 

Sixth Lesson. 

Adjectives in Servian may be property divided into 
two principal classes: 

I. Qualifying adjectives, such as: Ao6pH good, 

kind; xpa6pH brave. 
II. Possessive adjectives, such as: IleTpoB Peter's, 
o^ieB father's or "of the father". 
Both agree in gender, number and case with the 
noun with which they are coupled. 

Qualifying adjectives have a hvofold termination: 
the fall and the apocopated.^ 

The full termination is used when the adjective is 
employed attributively — i.e., when it quahfies a sub- 
stantive which generally follows it: xpa6pH paTHHK the 
brave warrior. 

The apocopated or abridged termination is used 
when the adjective is employed predicatively — i.e., after 
a verb : paTHHK je xpa6ap the warrior is brave. 

We will consider first the attributive adjectives, 
whose terminations in the nom. sing, are as follows: 

^ It is derived from the Greek uko away, and xottto) I cut. 


Lesson G. 

Masc. Fern. Neutre 



Maec. Fern. Neutre 

-H -e -a. 

Example of full termination. 


G. myT-ora (or -or) 

D. :}KyT-OMe (or -om) 

A. 3KyT-ii (-ora^ -or) 

V. :acyT-n 

I. :^yT-HM 

P. 3KyT-0M (-OMe) 












3KyT-ora (-or) 

5KyT-0Me (03iy^-0M) 






N. 5KyT-H 5KyT-e ^yT-a 

G. ;jKyT-iix for all three genders 

D. 3KyT-IIM (-HMa) » » » » 

A. m^T-e atyT-e myT-a 

V. myT-M ^VT-e jKyT-a 

I. 3KyT-HM (-HMa) for all three genders 

P. ;jKyT-HM (-HMa) » > » » 

Bemarlc 1. If the root of an adjective ends in a hissing 

m) the neuter form has an e 
Bpy^a, Bpyte (and not spytio); 

JK; J; 

Jb, H), h., H, JJ., 


consonant (^, 

instead of o, egr.: Bpyte 

Ty]^if foreign, Tyj^a, xy^e. 

Bemarlc 2. The accusative is the same as the nominative 
if an inanimate object is referred to; if an animate being, the 
accusative is the same as the genitive. 

The following examples may be declined: 
h5bii rpaji; the new town 66raTH ^oBeK the rich man 
Be^HKa Kyiia the large house 66raTa rocnol^a the rich lady. 

JTeTO, n. 
roj^HHa, f. 

-lUHa, -IlIHO 
HHCKH, -a, -0 
jiiBop, m. 
3Be3;i,a, f. 
.^y6H^B[i];a, f. 
pojiHTeyBH, j^l. 
BpaxHo ce 


niHpoKH, -a, -0 



(oh, oea, oho) 

(he, she, it) has 




jiiajieKO BHme 

(by) far more 

;iiao, -Jia, -jo 



(past part.) 

the palace, court 



the star 

CBOj, -a, -e 

his, her, its 

the violet 

egKhm AeJioM 

greatly, mostly 

the parents 



he has returned 

-xna, -XHO 

he lives 

Map^^HB, -a, -0 

industrious, dili- 






they cause 


presented, gifted 

Majn, -a, -o 

small, little 


(he, she, it) lasts 

y3H^a, f. 

the street 


(he, she, it) lasted 

xp]^aBH, -a, -0 


KpacaH, -cna, 



the same as 


njiaBH, -a, -o 


iiacTHp, m. 

the shepherd 

65jiaK,^ m. 

the cloud 

ca;i,afflH>H, -a, -e 

the present (adj.) 

OKHO, n. 

a pane of glass, 

xauKH, -a, -0 

thin, lean 


KasHa, f. 

the punishment 



pexKH, -a, -0 



the Koman Em- 


they read 




3 interesting 

I^apeBHHa, f. 

the tsardom, em- 

MJia;i;H, -a, -o 




they esteemed 

KOMaji;, m. 

the piece 

HeK0.iHK0(^ni«mv)8ome; several 

;iyraHKH, -^Ka, 


Kyrino, -Jia, -^o 



Brpa^Ka, /". 

the plaything 

jienn, -a, -o 

nice, beautiful. 




saHHMajy ce 

they busy them- 

fle;i;aBHo (adv.) 



npnnoBeTKa, f. 

a story 

oji;jH^HH, -^Ha, 






pleasant, agree- 

MHoro (adv.) 

much; many 



yieHHK, m. 

student, pupil 

Meceii;, m. 

a month; moon 

ipr, m. 

the market. 

Exercise 11. 

KojiHKO r6j];HHa Tpajame 6ap6a? CnpoMarnHH .z&y;i;H 
3KHBe no HHCKHM KjtiaMa. SBes^e cy BehHM ;i,ejioM H6no- 
KpeTHa Tejia. MaJKa pa/T,H c Bpe,T,HHM KKepMMa. Kitepa 
yKpaniaBajy CT5jroBe njraBHM .zbH6HqHii;aMa. Map^iiBH y^e- 
hhij;h npH^HaaBajy p6;i,HTe^HMa MHoro 3aji;oB6^CTBa. JI,6- 
6pa ji,feii;a ce iirpajy c jaraeTOM. IlacTHp ce spaTMO KytH 

Ca CBbJHM MajlEM CTa;i,GM. 

Ja can yKpacHO BfejiHKy c66y (c) njiasHM 5KHHMa. 
npHMHO caM TBoje KpaTKO nncMO. BoraTH TproBan;, kojh 
^ELBH y BejiHKOj KyJiH y mHp6K0J yjrHi];ii, ma je;i,Hor CHp6- 
ManiHor 6paTa h jeAny CHpbMaraHy cecTpy. J ob5j KytiH 
Ha Tpry ^KHBe Mnbrn CTapn jl^a^^- ^ CTapa BpeMfena 
6ejanie PiiMCKa HnnepHJa licTO niTO je caji; PycKa I],ape- 

BHHa; ajiH je y CTapoj PimcKOJ HMnepnJH ^HBejio A^jreKO 
BHme CTanoBHHKa nero y ;i.aHamaoj PycKOJ I],apeBHHH. 

Translation 12. 

The widow of the good Peter gave the poor man 
a bit of bread. What is the good child doing in the 
large yard? The horse has a beautiful head, a long 


Lesson 7. 

body, and long (high) and slender legs. Bad actions are 
punished [transl. punish themselves, instr.) with rigorous 
laws. Winter nights [are] often lighted up (ocBeTcZbeHe) 
by the aurora borealis. In the handsome rooms of the 
uncle [there are] many rare things. I know your old 
friend very w^ll. He showed us the high room with 
great pleasure. 

We recently read in a new book the interesting 
story of a young merchant. There is the high house 
of the rich Frenchman [gen, <3&paHij;y3a). The children 
played in the long street. The rich people in the town 
spoke with the poor old man of the rare things. My 
good old father wrote me a very agreeable letter. The 
ancient peoples worshipped the moon, the stars and the 
forces of nature. In northern countries, where the night 
continues (Tpajn) several months, the moon and the 
stars light up the earth. 


IHia CTe BHuejin na o6ajraMa 
{|)paHi];ycKHx peKa? 

KaKBe je Kaiire Kynno yneHHR? 

IQia je noKjfOHHo Ao6pH oTan; 
CBOJOJ MapibEBOJ jiieii,H? 

KaKBo je Bpene caji,? 

UlTa cxe HHTaJH ;i;aHac y hoboj 


"^IiTMe ce aaHHMajy Map^nBii cxa- 


Ko TH je ,T^ao to BejiHKo napne 
x.Tie6a ? 

Ha o5ajiaMa (}3paHu,ycKHx pena 


3^^iennK je Kynno MHoro ji,o6pHx 

Ji;o6pH oxan; je noMOHHo CBojoj 

Map.i)HB0J A^uM MHoro iirpa^aKa. 
He5o je noKpnBeno cypEM o5jia- 

Mh CMC ^HiajiH Map.^nBBM paji;- 

HHii,HMa KOJH cy pa;i;HjiH koa 

6oraTor xproBua. 
CTaHOBHHi];H oBe BeiEKe Bapomn 

saEHMajy ce pasHOBpcHHM no- 


^eea cvipoMaranora pa^eHHKa mh 
je Aajia BejiHKo nap^e xjie5a h 
Hamv o;!;jin^Hor BHHa. 

Seveiitli Lesson. 

I. Prepositions which alv/ays govern the same case. 

(a) With the genitive. 
6fe3 without H3 out, of 

;i,o till, until Hcno^i; under 

Prepositions. 29 

3a for 6;i; of 

H3a behind y in 

ii6cjie after. 

(b) With the dative. 
K, Ka at, towards, to. 

(c) With the accusative. 

Kpo3 through, throughout ys upward 
HH3, HH3a downward mhmo by, near. 

(d) With the instrumental. 

c, ca with. 

(e) With the prepositional. 

nps by, at, near, in the presence (or time) of, during. 

Ee3 6i]i;a n Oes MaJKe without father and mother 
Kyta 6e3 np63opa a house without windows. 
Jl^o CMpTH until death. 

Hnje A^JieKO od BapomH it is not far from the town. 
Us Bebrpa^a from Belgrade. 
3a rocn6;i,aHa H. for Mr. N. 
Od ;i,aHa do ;i,aHa from day to day. 
Uocjie py^Ka after dinner. 
Kpo3 Bapoin through the city. 
Hu3 BO Ay down stream. 
y3 BO^y up stream. 
JI^ot;H K MCHH comc to me (my house) 
IIpH py^Ky at dinner. 

II. Prepositions which govern two cases. 

(a) With the accusative and instrumental. 
n6;i; under 3a behind 

npeji; before (place) 3a for. 

When implying motion with the accusative, when 
implying rest with the prepositional. 

Bai];HTH KaHry nod cto to throw a book under the table. 
Ilod ct5jiom je KBHra the book is under the table. 


Lesson 7, 

nocTiiBniiie CTpa^Ky nped Kyhy they put guards before 

the liouse. 
On je 6mo npeji; KytoM he was (standing) before the house. 
XBajia BaM sa KiBiiry I thank you for the book. 
3a r6pHij;oM CTy^ena B6OTu;a behind the forest is fresh 


(b) With the accusative and prepositional. 

y in (rest)] to (motion) na on, upon, against, to. 

y Beorpa^y in Belgrade. 
y BeorpaA to Belgrade. 
Ohh o;i;oiue y niKOJiy they went to school. 

The preposition o generally governs the preposi- 
tional when employed for about, concerning, and the 
accusative when taken in the sense of against: 

Oh y^apH pyKOM o cto he struck (against) the table. 

Ja roBopnM o BpeMeny I speak about the weather. 

(c) With the genitive and instrumental. 

c, ca with; from; about. 

Generally speaking, c governs the instrumental when 
it signifies ivitli, the genitive when it signifies from or 

c MecTa from the place 

c je;i;He CTpane from one side 

lETan c npcTa A^6eo a stick about one finger thick 

G KHM? with whom? 

c THM ii;i,ejaMa with those ideas. 



parted, left away 

fflemnp, m. 

the hat 

-jia, -JIO 

nyT, m.; nyio- 

the travel, th 



Baae, n. 


onacHo je 

it is dangerous 

xpa6ap, -6pa; 

brave (adj.) 


I dine 



to listen, hear 


for Goodness 


tell (imper.) 


nao, -jia, -.lo 


MaJio fadvj 

a little, a few 

peKa, f. 

the river, stream 

KMOMeTap, m. 

a kilometer 


to beg, request 

opao, m. 

the eagle 


to pray 


to drive 


go (keep) away 

jyHaK, m. 

a hero 



send (imper.) 


pe^HHK, VI. 

a diction ary, vo- 

Baxpa, f. 

the fire 




HeKaji; (adv.) 

formerly; some- 

MOOT, m. 

a bridge 


cyce;^, m. 

a neighbour 

HKona, f. 

an ikon, image 



KpCT, m. 

the cross 

J^OIlaJIia MH ce 

I like 

ca6opHa mpKBa 

the cathedral 

6ypa, f. 

a storm 

CTOiete, n. 

a century 

xpacT, m. 

an oak 

o6jiaHH ce 

he dresses him- 

Bpxap, m. 



Exercise 13. 

B5raTH je TproBaii; npiicneo jyne ca ;^i,ajieKor nvTa, oh 
je 6ho Bpjro ^yro y Be6rpa;i,y. A^ii;o, OA^asHTe c Mbcxa, 
5nacH0 je b53hth ce npeKO M6cTa. ^anac py^iaM koa 
cyceji,a. 3aHHM:.ZbHBa UBHQOBeTKa o xpa6poM jynaKy Bpjio 
MH ce A6na;i;a; ay je npnjaTHO cjiymaTH. 

OBaj je pe^HHK sa Map.zbHBora y^ennKa a OBe saniiM- 
yLHBe KH)Hre cy 3a itferoBy MJia;i,y cecTpy. 3a ime BosKHJe, 
;i,aJTe rnhjio xjie6a CHpbMainHOMe paAeHHKy. Jy^e je 6i'Lia 
BejEHKa 6ypa na jesepy. Beorpaji; jremn na peKaMa CaBH 
H ^ynaBy. BH;i,eo caM Kpa^a Kpo3 npo3op. 

Translation 14. 

I left Belgrade and arrived at Heidelberg. How 
many kilometers (are there) from Belgrade to Berlin? 
Keep away from the fire! To-day 1 dine at the tea- 
cher's. Go to the gardener, please, and tell him that 
he may come to-morrow. It is dangerous to pass over 
the bridges. 

Where didst thou rest, in the room or under the 
tree? I rested under the oak. The bird flies through 
the square (npcKO Tpra). There is a room without win- 
dows. Fairy tales (npn^e, CEacKe) are agreeable to listen 
to. The sister prayed (Mojinjia ce) a long time before 
the ikon (image) of the Holy Virgin (Borop6;i,Hi];e). The 
cross fell from the top of the cathedral. 


3aniTo cie ociajin CHHoti TaKo 

;i;yro y nosopninTy? 
Pjte CTe ce cpein c BaniHM npn- 

Ha Kojoj pei];H jieaKH J^pe3;^a? 
Ka^ je jEHseo CoKpar? 

Ja caM ocTao Mora 6paTa paji;n. 

Cpeo caM ra na yjinniH. 

^pe3ji;a JieatH na peii,H Eji6h. 
CoKpaT je Mseo y neTOM BCKy 
npe XpHCTOBar Po^eaa. 


Lesson 8. 

Ko je iiao c KoiLa? 
IUt^ je nhjio y peKy? 

Pj^e je OTiimao oian;? 

Ka;i; cie ce BpaxHjiH h3 Xajjieji- 

^eny miicjhm ca^? 

BoJHHK je uao c Koita. 
lUemHp je iiao y peKy. 

Oxaii; je oTiimao y mexiBy c MaJKOM. 
BpaxHo caM ce npe jise roAHHe. 

Mhcjihm BaxpH, a xn mhcih^i 


Eight Lesson. 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb 6hth to be; 

to have. 

There is only one auxiliary verb in Servian «6b[th» 
which corresponds to both English auxiliaries: to he 
and to have, e.g.: ja caM 65raT I am rich; ja caM 
roBOpHO I have spoken. 

Indicative Mood, 

Ja caM or jfecaM I am 
TH CH or jecH thou art 
OH, 6Ha, OHO je or jecT he (she, it) is 

MH CMO or jecMO we are 
BH GTe or jecTe you are 
OHH, 6He, bna cy or jecy they are. 


By;i,H be (thou) 6yji;HM0 let us be 

H^Ka 6jfl,e let him be 6y;i,HTe be (you) 

HCKa 6y;i;y let them be. 



(Ja) 6hx 

6fejax or 


I was 

(th) 6h 



thou wast 

(oh) 6h 



he was 

(mh) 6hcmo 



we were 

(bh) Shcto 



you were 

(ohh) 6Hnie. . 



they were. 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb 6iiTH to be; to have. 33 

Perfect Tense. 

Ja caM 6ho or 6ho can I have been 

TH CH 6ho >^ 6no en thou hast been 

OH je 6ho ^ 6ho je he has been 

MH CMO 6HjrH » 6hjih cmo we have been 

BH CTe 6hjih » 6hjih CTe you have been 

OHH cy 6hjIH » 6hjih cy they have been. 

Bemarlc. The Past Participle ouo has for the feminine gen- 
der this form: oiuaj and for the neuter: 6hjio. In the plural: 
6h;ih (m.), (f.), OHJia (n.). 


Ja iiy 6iiTH or 6Hhy I shall be 

TH ixem » » 6HheHi thou wilt be 

OH te » » 6Hlie he will be 

MH teMO » » 6HheM0 we shall be 

BH texe » » diilieTe you will be 

OHH te » » diilie they will be. 


Ja 6hx 6ho or 6ho 6hx I should be 

TH 6h 6ho » 6ho 6h thou wouldst be 

OH 6h 6ho » 6ho 6k he would be 

MH 6hcmo 6hjih » 6hjih 6hcmo we should be 

BH 6HCTe 6hjih » 6hjih 6HCTe you would be 

OHH 6h 6h.ih >' 6hjih 6h they would be. 


Past. Bho, -Jia, -jio; 6hjih, -Jie, -Jia been. 
Present. By;i,yhH being. 


1. Whenever the person is evident from the ter- 
minations, the personal pronoun is omitted, except in 
the case when the stress of the sentence falls on the 
pronoun; (for example: ja caM ra BH^eo it is I who 
saw it.) 

2. The long forms of the Present, Future, etc. (je- 
caM, jecH etc. or dnty, Snteni etc.) are used specially in 
the interrogative sentences (by means of the interrogative 
particle jih), in the beginning of a sentence, and when 
the verb is employed alone, e.g.: 

Servian grammar. 3 

34 Lesson 8. 

JecH Jii 6oraT? JecaM. 

Are you rich? Yes (Servian: I am). 

3. The interrogative form is obtained by adding 
to the long forms the interrogative particle ;iii: 

JecaM .^^f? am I? etc. 

Bejax .i^f? was I? etc. 

JecaM Ml 6ho? have I been? etc. 

4. The negative form is obtained by preceding the 
short forms with the negation He (not), e.g.: 

Present. HiicaM I am not; hhch thou art not, etc. 
Imperf. He 6ejax I was not, etc. [ue 6ex, ue 6iix). 
Ferfeet. HncaM 6ho I have not been. 
Future. Hety 6hth I shall not be. 

5. The interrogative form of the Future is obtained 
by employing the full form of the verb xtcth = to be 
willing: xoty jih 6hth, xotieni jih 6hth, xote jih 6hth, 
xoteMO JIH 6hth, xoheTe jih 6hth, xote jih 6hth? shall 
I be? etc. 

6. The Aorist denotes a momentaneous action whilst 
the Imperfect denotes a lasting action, e.g.: cecTH to 
sit; c6;i;eTH to be seated. 

7. The Pluperfect (6ejax 6ho I had been) and the 
Second Future (6y;i.eM 6ho I shall have been, etc.) are 
used very rarely in the spoken language. All preterites' 
are expressed mostly by the Perfect tense. 

8. "To have" (HMaxn) as an auxiliary does not 
exist in Servian and is used always in the sense of "to 
possess": ja HMaM je^ny Kanry I have (or possess) a book. 

That verb miamu to have, to possess, is conjugated 
as follows: 

(Ja) HMaM I have (or possess) (mh) HMaMO we have 
(th) HMam thou hast (bh) HMaTe you have 


has (onej [ HMajy they have. 

(oh) I he 

(oHa) HMa she 
(OHO) J it 


ilMaj! have (thou)! HMaJMo! let us have! 

HCKa HMa! let him have! iiMaJTe! have (you)! 

HCKa HMajy! let them have. 

Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb 6hth to be; to have. 35 




HMa^ax I had, 


iiMal}anie etc. 









Perfect Tense. 

Ja caM HMao 

or HMao caM I have had 

TH CH » 

HMao CH etc. 

OH je » 

HMao je 



BH CTe » 


OHH cy » 

HMajiH cy. 


Ja hj HMaTH 

or HMaty I shall have, 

TH ixem » 

HMateni etc. 

OH iie » 


MH teMO » 


BH teTe » 


OHH te » 



Ja 6hx HMao 

or HMao 6hx I should have, 

TH 6h » 

HMao 6h etc. 

OH 6h » 

HMao 6h 

MH 6hcmo HMajiH HMajH 6hcmo 

BH 6HCTe » 


OHH 6h » 

HMaJIH 6h. 

Present, HMajytn having, possessing. 
Fast. HMao, -.aa, -jio; -jih, -jie, -Jia had. 

Compound Perfect Participle (active). 
HMaBHiH having had. 

Interrogative and Negative Forms, 
Fres. llMaM ;^w? have I?; uhidM I have not. 
Imp. IlMa]^ax auI had I?; weMa^x I had not. 
Ferf. JecaM .m HMao? have I had?; uutdM HMao I have 

not had. 


Lesson 8. 

Fut XoiiY .^n HMaTH? shall I have?; neliy HMaxH I shall 
not have. 

Negative-Interrogative Forms. 
Present. HenaM jin (ja)? have I not? etc. 
Imperf, Henai^ax jih (ja)? had I not? etc. 
Perf. HncaM jih HMao (ja?) have I not had? etc. 
Future, Hehy jih HMaTH (ja)? shall I not have? etc. 

Bemarh. The compound tenses of the verb UMamu (as well 
as of all other verbs) are formed by means of the auxiliary 6umu 
(to be). 



BeHHo (adv.) 


H3 jyxpa \ 
jyipoM I 
y Be^e \ 
c BenepH / 

jy^e y jyxpy 

we know 

in the morning 

in the evening 

the day after 

yesterday mor- 


y Jiexo 

poAHTe.^H, 'pl, 





y myMH 




in summer 


(she) said, told 


this evening 

also, too 

in the forest 

I think 


Exercise 15. 

Bo^Kc, (th) jecH, (th ch) 6ho (ch) h tii teni bchhto 
6hth (6Hliein)! V]ifi je 6hjio j^eTe jy^e y jyxpy? Mh nfe 
3HaM0 r;i;e je 6ho 6iijio jy^e y jyTpy; ajin jy^e y Be^e 
5ho je 6hjio y myMH. Cyce^i; iiMa cima h Ktep (je;i,Hor cilHa 
H je^Hy Ktep). Mh HMaMO (je^nor) nca (je;i,no Ky^e) h (je;i;Hy) 

Ma^iKy. Ohh cy iiMajiH MHoro naca. Ja TaKot^e raaM naca. 
J^anac caM ja k5;i; Kyte, a bh tieine 6hth cyxpa h 
npeKO cyTpa k6;j; Kylie. IIlTa raaM ja? Bh neMaTe HiiniTa? 
y JieTO teMO 6hth na cejiy a 3hmh cmo yBCK y BaponiH. 
Mh HMaMO (jfeji,Hy) Kyty na cejiy a on ima (jfe^ny) Kyhy 

y BaponiH. Ona iiMa MHoro HOBai];a. HMaie jth (bh) H5Bai];a? 

Translation 16. 

God is, was, and shall be eternally. Where will 
the parents be the day after to-morrow? Where were 
you yesterday morning? Your sister (Baina cecTpa) was 
at home and said to me: "My sister (Moja cecTpa) will 
be back this evening; she is now at [her] mother's." 
She told the truth: I was there. I have the bread, 
and you have the basket. 

Hints on the Regular Conjugation. 37 

Where will the friends be? They will be in the 
garden. We should have been this morning in the 
forest, if you had been [transl were) there. When will 
the brother and sister be at home? You have many 
friends. You had a house in town. Yesterday it was 
very (Bpjio) hot, to daj^ it is also hot, and I think that 
to-morrow it will be hot too. 


^J^e je 6iio Bam oxan; jianac? J^anac je 5ho 6Bji;e a cyipa te, 

BepoBaxHo OTiiyTOBaTH y Xaj- 

BHj^nie .iH 3aMaK qDncKor Kpa^ba? Jl^a, bh;i,hm. 

Jecxe jiH BHjiiejiH cjiona jy^e y Ja caM 6ho y Bapomn a cjiona 
cejiy? HHcaM BH;i;eo. 

HMaxe JIH Hoat? J a neMaM Hoata (gen. sing.). 

Je JIH y^Hxe.^ koji; Bac? JI|a, y^Hxe.i) je ko;i; nac (or sim- 

ply: "jecxe"). 

Jecxe JIH BH;^eJIH necHHKa? JecaM. 

HMam .iH Kaiiry? IlnaM. 

Ninth Lesson. 

Hints on the Regular Conjugation. 

1. Formation of the Present. 
The Servian verb is the most complicated part of 
the speech, and presents to the beginner remarkable 
difficulties. Presently we will show the most necessary 
and regular parts. 

The Present, as well as most other tenses, is formed 
from the Infinitive mood by substituting for the ter- 
mination -TM (of the Infinitive) the personal terminations 
(often under the modification of the root's termination) : 
Sing. 1'* pers. -m PI. 1'^ pers. -mo 

2^^^ » -in 2^^ » -Te 

3""^ » no termin. 3''*^ » -e^ -y or -jy. 

Thus, from the verb neBaTH to sing, we obtain: 
Sing. 1. p. neBa-M I sing PL ncBa-MO we sing 

2. p. ncBa-ni thou s. neBa-Te you sing 

3. p. neBa he sings neBa-jy they sing. 
In like manner are conjugated: 

HHTaTH to read liMaTH to have, possess 

cnaBaTH to sleep caEbaTii to dream 

miTaxH to ask HVBaTH to keep. 

neBao je 


OH le neBao 

nesajiH cmo 


Mil CMO neBajiH 

neBajiH CTe 


BH CTe neBaiH 

neBajiH cy 


OHH cy iieBajiH. 

38 Lesson 9. 

The verbs having ini as the 1^^ p. sing, termina- 
tion, have in the 3'^ p. plur. an e in the Present tense. i 
If the P^ p. ends in e3i, the 3^^ p. plur. has the termi- ■ 
nation y — e.g., roBop-ioi I speak (or I am speaking) — 
roBop-e they speak; 5peM I plough — opy they plough. 

2. Formation of the Imperative. 

The Imperative has only three proper forms (two 
for the 2^^ p. sing, and pi. and one for the 1^* p. pi.) 
which are obtained by adding an ii to the verbal root. 
If the verbal root ends in a vow^el, this n is changed 
into j: 

Sing, 2^^ p. neBaj! sing (thou)! 
Fl. 2^^ p. ncBaJTcl sing (you)! 

1^* p. ncBaJMo! let us sing! 
The 3^*^ p. of both numbers is expressed by means 
of the word uena and the Present tense: uena nesa! let 
him sing! uena neBajy! let them sing! 

3. The Imperfect has the following terminations: 

Sing. P* p. -X PL 1^^ p. -cmo 

2"^ p. -me 2"^ p. -cxe 

3^^ p. -me 3^^ p. -xy. 
Sing. 1^^ p. neBax I sang PL neBacMO 

2^*^ p. neBaiiie neBacxe 

3^^ p. neBame neBaxy. 

4. The Perfect Tense. 
In Servian the Perfect Tense is used mostly to 
express the past. It is obtained by combining the Past 
Participle of the desired verb with the Present of the 
auxiliary 6iimu where the short form of the Present 
(without the personal pronouns) is placed behind the 
Participle. If, how^ever, the accent falls on the pronoun, 
it must be placed in the beginning, thus: 

ncBao caM or ja caM nesao I have sung, 
neBao en » th ch ncBao etc. 

Hints to the Regular Conjugation. 39 

5. The Participle is obtained by changing the In- 
finitive termination th into: 
for the masculine sing, jiii for the mascul. plural 


» » 

feminine sing. 

.le » » feminine plural 


» » 

neuter sing. 

Jia » » neuter plural. 


from neBa-mir 


m. f. 



neBa-0, neBa-Jia, neBa-Jio 

Flur, neBa-JiH, ncBa-jie, neBa-Jia. 

6. The Future is mostly formed by placing the 
future tense of the auxiliary 6ii}mi before the infinitive 
of the desired verb: 

ja hy ncBaTH or neBafcy I shall sing, 
TH tein » » neBateui etc. 

OH he » » neBake 

MH iiCMO neBaTH >> ncBaiieMO 
BH texe » » neBateTe 
OHH Ke » » neBate. 

7. The Conditional is obtained in the same man- 
ner as seen already with the auxiliary (i.e., by prece- 
ding or following the P. P. of the desired verb by the 
Aorist tense of the auxiliary ; in the latter case the per- 
sonal pronouns are omitted): 

ja 6hx HCBao, -Jia, -jio or ncBao 6hx I should sing, 
TH 6h neBao, -jia, -jio ncBao 6h etc. 

OH 6h ncBao, -jia, -jo neBao 6h 

MH 6hcmo ncBajiH, -jie, -Jia ncBajiH 6hcmo 
BH 6HCTe ncBajiH, -Jie, -jra neBajin 6HCTe 
OHH 6h ncBajiH, -.le, -jra ncBajiH 6h. 

8. The Present Participle is obtained by adding 
the syllable tn to the S""*^ p. of the Present tense of the 
desired verb: neBajy-iiH singing. 

9. The Passive Past Participle is formed by adding 
to the verbal root the following terminations: 

Sing. m. -h Fhir, m. -hh 

f. -Ha f. -He 

n. -HO n. -Ha. 

Ex.: neBaw, neBawa, ncBawo 1 

' ' ) sungj. 

ncBawi^, neBawe, HCBawa ( ^ 

10. The Compound Perfect Participle (active) is 
formed by adding to the verbal root the syllable buih: 
neBasHiH having sung. 


Lesson 9. 

11. The reflexive verb can be recognised in Ser- 
vian by the particle ce which comes before or behind 
the verb. Such verbs are conjugated in the same man- 
ner as other verbs. 

Conjugation of 

a Reflexive Verb. 

oOjia^iHTH ce to dress oneself. 


Ja ce o6jia^HM or 

oojia^HM ce 

I dress myself, 

TH ce o6jia^Hni » 

o6jraqHin ce 


OH ce o6jiaHH » 

o6jiaqn ce 

MH ce o6jaHHMO » 

o6jiaqHMO ce 

BH ce o6jra^iiTe » 

o6jraHHTe ce 

OHii ce o6ji2me » 

o6.iaqe ce. 


Ja ce o6jia^Hx or o6jraqHx 

. ce I dressec 

. mvself, etc. 


Cbg HayKe all sciences 

CBOJHM ycne- 

of, or: with his 

HaMepeo willingly 



Tbjij6, m. pigeon 

rpana, f. 

a branch (of a 

HenpecTaHO incessantly 



Bpaea, f. \ 
raBpan, m. ) 


CBp Ka, f. magpie 

ce;i;eTH to be seated 


to be silent 

HnaK, HO — however 

TH Bepyjem 

thou believest 

saHCTa, jtoHCTa indeed 

jej^Ba B^pyjeai 

I hardly believe 

pasyMCTH to understand 


this one, that one 

ji]3Bo, n. tree 



jiexexn to fly 

Bpjio xptiaBo 

very badly. 

Exercise 17. 

IllTa pa;i,HTe Be^epac? HiiniTa ho pa;i:HM0. Hlia 
MHCJie yqeHHi],H? Ohh Miicjie ^a snajy cbc iiayKe. Oh 
ce xBajiH CBoJHM ycnecHMa. IIlTa pa;i,e ;i,fei];a TaKO pa;i,o. 
Ohh cjiymajy y^HTCzbeBe pe^H. UlTa pa^ r6jiy6? Oh 
jreTH no Bas^yxy h CKaKytie no rpanana ;!;pBeTa. Bepyjem 
JEH TH niTO caM TH HpHHao? BepyjoM, jep th HHKa;i; ne 
jia5Keni. Bor ^lyBa cnpoMaxe. Oh ne Bepyje niTO caji; 
roBopH. KyBap cnpeMa py^aK a pH6ap jiobh pH6y. SaniTO 
He nyninni? 3aT0 ihto po^HTe^bH roBope ji;a je nynieae 
mK0ji;^HB0. THu;a nesa. IleBaTe jih h bh? JI,eu;a cy 
HCBajia iy^e a mh neBano ^anac. Ja 6hx ncBao Ka^ 6hx 
HMao BpoMena. Ka;i; tcTe bh neBaxH? IleBatieMO cyTpa. 

Negative, Interrogative and Conditional Forms. 41 

Translation 18. 

What are doing you there? I am Working, and 
vou do nothinp*. He thinks that he knows all sciences, 
and incessantly boasts of his success. We willingly 
listen [to you] when you tell [something]. What did you 
[do] yesterday? We do not know [trans, we know not). 
To-day I shall answer, and you will answer to-morrow 
or the day after to-morrow. 

Listen, child, when the teacher tells [a story]! 
The magpie jumped on (no dat,) the branches of a tree 
and incessantly chattered; but the raven sat [tranquil] 
and was silent. — "What dost thou, friend? Perhaps 
(mh) thou dost not believe what I tell thee?" asked 
the magpie at last. — - "I hardly believe," answered the 
raven, '„[for] he who chatters so much as (Kao) thou, 
he [Taj] indeed slies 2much lalso." 


niia pa;i:e Aeii,a? Jtenia nesajy. 

Tj^e cxe 6hjih ciiHoti? Bhjih cmo y nosopHniTy. 

Ko je nesao jy^e aok can ja Moja cecTpa je neBa.ia jiok cie 


Ko he pasjiejiHTH HOBaii; net/y Cecxpa h MaJKa lie paajtejiniH 

pajinnnHMa? HOBan,. 

Ko HyBa cnpoMaxe? Bor nysa cnpoMaxe. 

C KHM iiexe roBopHXH cyipa? Cyipa ty pobophtet c y^Hie^^eM. 

Ko nymH y c65m? OTaii; nymn. 

Jecie .iH nncajiH ony? Jecaai. 

Teiitli Lesson. 
Negative, Interrogative and Conditional Forms. 

1. The negation is expressed by means of the ne- 
gative particle He which is placed always before the 
verb; in the compound tenses ne precedes the auxiliary. 
This particle is not even suppressed when the verb is 
accompanied by a negative pronoun or adverb. 

Positive, Ja roBopHM iiCTHHy I speak the truth. 
Negative, Ja ne roBopHM HCTHHy I do not speak the truth. 
Th ne BH;i,Hni Koaa thou dost not see the horse. 
Ja wt^caM 6iio y Beorpa^y I have not been 
in Belgrade. 

42 Lesson 10. 

Negative. Ja nmimm nc ^mxaM I read nothing. 

Oiia HUKad mtje 6Hja OB^e she never was here. 

2. The Interrogative form: 
M^nxaM .in (ja)? do I read? 
Hiixax .in (ja)? did I read? 

JecaM .m HHTao (ja)? have I read?^ 
JecMO jiu HHTajiH (mh)? have we read? 
XoheTe Au ^HTaTH? will you read? etc. 
This is the usual structure of an interrogative sen- 
tence in Servian. But when there is at the beginning 
an interrogative pronoun or adverb, such as: no who, 
umio or uima what, nad or nada when, ide or mjda where, 
and others, the interrogative particle Jiii must be sup- 
pressed, and the verb may indifferently be placed before 
or after the subject: 

niTa je roBopHJia ona? What did she speak? 

Ka/i; Lem 6iith ko;i; Kyte? When wilt thou be at home? 

3. The conditional (subjunctive) moods are entirely 
wanting in Servian. To express the idea of dependence 
or uncertainty conveyed by these moods in English, 
one must have recourse to the mere conditional tense 
(gHTao 6hx, ^HTao 6h etc.), which is frequently combined 
wdth nad or da, or nad a when, to render the subjunctive 

In most cases, however, the English conditional or 
subjunctive are expressed in Servian by means of the 
corresponding indicative tenses: 
Ja oux 6ho saAOBOibaH ^a I should be (or have been) 

CTe BH GHaKO pa;i,HJiH KaKO satisfied, if you had done 

caM ja xTeo. as I wished. 

Ohh 6u 6hjih OB^e nad 6iicme They would be here, if you 

BH 6njiH TaMO. were (or had been) there. 

^a (or Ka;i; rie 6h cTe) HHCTe If you were not my friend, 

Moj npnjaTeyi>, ja 6hx by- I would not speak. 


OnacHocT, f. danger 
jiHCT, m. the leaf 

'pl. jiHfflKe the leaves 

micMo, n. letter 

''?<=' '.»• . \ lesson 

^ Of course, the usual distinction of genders takes place also 
in the interrogative, negative and the conditional forms: jecaM 
jiH HHxa.'ia? (woman) etc. 

Negative, Interrogative and Conditional Forms. 



to receive 



'JbUSiy -JbEO 



to wish; to be 

(}).iayTa, f. 

flute; flageolet 

^a 6iL 

that, in order to 



He 3HaM 

I do not know 

pe^; /". 

the word 



6HTKa, f. 




BGTap, m. wind 

cacBHM quite 

npecTOHHii;a capital 
cyceji;Ka, f. (lady) neighbour 
Kitiira Cmpth the Book of 

i^apesHHa, f. empire 
epecTH to meet 

jiaraTH to lie 

Fres.: .laacear, jiaatem, Jiaate 

jiajKeMo, jiameTe, jiaaty. 

P. p. Jiarao, -Jia, -jig etc. 

Exercise 19. 

Ko He rbBopn licTHHy Hiije noniTeH qoBCK. Tocno- 
ji;HHe, BH HeMaxe npaBO. JecTe jih BH;i,ejiH Koae Kpa^a- 
iiHHe? Ka;i; CTe 6iiJiK chhoL ko;i; Kyte? Bho caM oeo 
6caM caTH koa Kyhe. r;i,e cy Baine Kaiire? Kanre cy 
Ha CTojiy. J a niiKaji, micaM 6ho y Be6rpa;i,y. JecTe jih 
HKa;i,a bhagjih Bepjinn? Joni HHKaji; HHcaM BH;i,eo npecTO- 
HHH;y H^Ma^Ke u;apeBHHe. Hnje jth y^HTe^ cHHofc. 6ho koji; 
Kaernae? Hnje. Jecxe jih npo^HTajiH Kanry Cmpth? 
JecaM. Ka^i; HMaM BpeMena ja neBan. CecTpa ne 6h joni 
;ii6ffljia KytH ;i,a Hiije cpejia cyceji;KHHy Kbep. Bepyjeie 
JIH ;iia je ;i;eTe ncTHny roBopHjio? He snaM, ajiH Ka;i, 6h 
Jiarajio Bnnie ne 6hx HHKa;i, BepoBao aeroBHM pe^HMa. 

Translation 20. 

Did you not speak with the warriors? No, we did 
not speak with the warriors. Dost thou speak of (about) 
the table or of the hatchet? I do not speak of the 
table, and you do not see the tables. Does the teacher 
praise the pupils? No, the teacher does not praise the 
pupils; he blames them. Hadst thou (already) read the 
letter of the father?' No, I did not read the letter of 
the father. 

The brother would be quite satisfied if he had 
many dogs and cats. Why did you not read the letter? 
Because I have no time to read letters. The wife 
would be here if the husband were here also. You 
would not believe what I 2tell lyou if I were not your 
friend (Bani npHJaTe.ZB). Have you already seen the 
magpie? I have not yet seen the magpie, but 1 saw 
the raven, when it jumped on the branches of a tree. 


Lesson 11. 


B^pyjexe .in bh ^lOBeKy Kojn Bac 

^ecTo .laHte? 
Jl^a .in 6ncTe iiiiLin Be^epac y 

Biicie .in eii mofjih ;^a mh Himnie 

KaKo liy ukj6ojhe uay^HiH cpncKH? 

Ulxa xpe6a napo^nxo y^nxn na 

TaKOMG ^lOBCKy ce ne iioaie se- 

Ilmao 6hx Kaji; 6nx iiMao J^pyI^xBa. 

Ja Cmx xo pa^o niinno Ka;i; 

6nx caMo iiMao BpeMena. 
^Hxajyhn h yqetn na nayci cee 

luxo BaM ce ;i;onajiHe. 
Hj^HOMaxcKe pe^ennue, noc.ioBHii,ey 

arier;iioxe h xaKo asljlq. 

Eleventh Lesson. 

Personal Pronouns. 


First person. 

N. ja I 

G. Mene, Me of me 
D. Meim, MH to me 
A. Mene, Me me 

I. MHOM (MHOMe) witli me 
P. MeHH about me. 

Second person. 
Til thou 

Te6e, Te of thee 
Te6M, TH to thee 
Te6e, Te thee 
TH thee 

t66om with (by) thee 
Te6H about thee. 

Third person. 
Masc. and nent. Fern. 

N. OH he; oho it ona she 

G. M>era, ra of him, of it ae, je of her 

D. aeMy, My to him, to it aoj, joj to her 

A. aera, ra etc. ay, jy, je her 

I. aHM, aHMe aoM, (aoMe) with her 

P. a^My. aoj about her. 


First person. Second person. Third person. 

Masc. Fem. Nent. 

BH you ohh; bne; ona they 

N. MH we 

G. Hac of us Bac of you aiix, hx » 

D. HaMa,HaMtous BkMa, BaM aHMa,HM> 

A. Hac us Bac [etc. aiix, hx » 

I. HaMa by us BaMa aHMa » 

P. HaMaaboutus. BaMa. amia » 

of them 
to them 
til em 
by them 
about them. 

Possessive Pronouns. 



1. As seen from the above declensions, the perso- 
nal pronoun for the third person (oh, OHa, oho) is de- 
clined regularly as the adjective. 

2. The short forms: Me, mh; Te, th; ra, My; je, joj; 
HaM; BaM; hx, hm, etc., are used when the pronouns are 
not specially accentuated, e.g.: A^JTe mh Kanry give 
me the book; but: To ivhom shall I give this book? 
KoMe Tpe6a ^a ;i,aM OBy Kanry? Memi = to me, 

3. The accusative is always like the genitive, ex- 
cept in the feminine third person singular. 

4. Second person singular «th» is used only in 
intimate intercourse; in other circumstances «bh», or 
«Bh» ('-German ISie", French ''vous", English "you") 
is generally used. 

5. The reflexive pronoun ce6e, ce (nominative is 
wanting) is declined exactly as me6e, and corresponds, 
according to the circumstances, to myself, thyself, him- 
self, herself, itself, ourselves, etc. Combined with verbs, 
it is contracted into ce. 

Possessive Pronouns, 

First person. Singular.^ 

Plural for all 3 genders. 

Masc. and neuter. 



. MOJ; MOje 

M6ja my, 

m5jh, Moje, M6ja my, mine 

my, mine 



. M6jera, (Mora) 


m6jhx for all 3 genders 


. M6jeMy (momc) 


M6JHM(a) » » » » 


. — N.^ or G. 


M5je » » » » 




m6jhm » » » » 


M6jeM (mom). 


m6jhm » » » » 

Singular (of the possessed object). 


Feminine. Neuter. 


N. Hani our, ours nama our, ours name our, ours 


G. Haniera (-er) 


Hamera (-er) 


D. HkmeMy (-cm) 


HanicMy (-cm) 

A. Hamera (-er) 




I. HaniHM 




P. HameM. 



^ Of the possessed object. 


Lesson 11 

Plural (of the possessed objects). 

Masc. Fern. Neut. 

N. Hamn name nama 

G. HauiHX for all 3 genders 

D. HauiHM (-HMa) » » » » 
A. name Hame nama 

I. HaniMM (-HMa) for all 3 genders 
P. HamHM (-HMa) » » » ^> 

1. According to the above paradigms (moj and nam) 
are modified and declined also the following possessive 
pronouns : 

(a) as MOJ, -a, -e: 

TEOJ, -a, -e; -h, -e, -a thy, thine 

aeroB, -a, -o; -h, -e, -a his; its 

aen, -a, -o; -h, -e, -a her, hers 

CBOj, -a, -e; -h, -e, -a his, her, its, ours, yours, their, etc. 

(b) as nam, -a, -e: 

Bam, -a, -e; -h, -e, -a your, yours 
H>HXOB, -a, -o; -H, -e, -a their, theirs. 

2. Remark also: 

Oh je yseo CBOJy Kanry. He took his own book. 

Ona je ysejra CBOJy KiBHry. She took her own book. 
Mh CMC ysejiH CBOJy KBbHry. We took our own book, etc. 



how much, how 



to order 









to forget 


he (she, it) can 


I forget 

cetiaTH ce 

to remember, re- 




-tiHa, -tiHO 


to spare, econo- 

^ocaj^Ho MH je 

I am wearied 







the passport 

cxH;i;exH ce 

to be ashamed 

KaKo CTe? 

how are you? 

Present : 

cxH^HM ce 

SApaB^e, n. 



to come, to arrive 

caBex, m. 





to praise 


to pay 

Byna, f. 


ojiiejio, n. 

the clothing, 

CHp, m. 



HO, Beti 

but, and 







to supply. 

Possessive Pronouns. 47 

Exercise 21. * 

Ceiiam jih ce tii Mfene? (Cetaui jik Me ce)? Ja ce 
Hfe cetaM Te6e, ajrn ce A66po cetaM TBora CTapnjera 
6pkTa. Ja Te nety 3a66paBHTH y HecpeiiH. Oh je cacBHM 
3a66paBHO na Mene h aera. noiuTe;i,H je; ona je Bpjio 
H^cpeliHa. Ko li^e Tano? To je moj 6paT. He, bh ce 
BapaTe, to je AjieKcaH;i,ap. ^paryTHH Te xbIih, XBajrn h 
TH Ebera. On Bam ^lecTO niime nncMa a bh hx e ho ^h- 
TaTe. Ebo PHHe, ona roBopn c aiiMa o Bana. Menn je 
BpjEO ;i,6ca;i,H0 6e3 Bac, ^oi^HTe k Menn TOmhe. Je jih 
KO^i; Bac MOJ caT (tocobhhk)? Hiije koji; Mene, oh je koji; 
^acoBHH^apa (cajij:HJe). JecTe jih npo^iiTajiH Mojy Kaiiry? 
JI,a, ja caM je raTao, ona mh ce Bpjio ^ona^a. Kojihko 
CH HJiaTHO 3a ay? HiiiuTa HHcan njiaTHO 3a ay, ji;56ho 
can je o;i; y^HTe^a. Ja can ^66ho o;i, CBor cyce;i,a hobh 
nifemnp, ajiH mh ce oh ho ^^na^a, ja caM ra nocjiao TBOMe 
6paTy. OBn,a nac CHa6;i,eBa cbojom BynoM 3a o;i,ejro h 
CBOJHM MecoM (3a xpany). Th ho ce^Hiic na CBoje MecTO 
Bet Ha Moje. Ce;i,H na CBoje MecTO. 

Translation 22. 

What did the teacher relate to you about me? He 
blamed thy Servian translation. Please will you dine 
to-day with me? Your mother knows me (thee, him, 
her, us, you, them). Where were you with his sister? 
I was in the theatre with her; the performance (npe- 
CTaBa) has pleased her (joj ce ji;0HaJia) very much. We 
play with you and with the children of our neighbour 
in my uncle's garden. You were not coming to see us 
for a long time; why do we see you so seldom? I was 
not at home; I was with your brother in Servia and 
Montenegro. We were speaking with Mr. Novakovitch 
about the count (rpa(|)) and his horses. Tell me please, 
where are now Mr. Popovitch and his wife (h SKena Mt/)? 
His wife [weioea JKena) is at my sister's, but I have not 
seen him. I was in France with my wife, then we 
went to Servia to show (to) my wife how Servians 
(Cp6h) live (mHBe). How did you like Servia? Thank 
you, I like Servia, but I like (BHOie bojihm) England 


Lesson 12. 


HncTe JiH jom Ghjih Kojii m^hg? 

IlMaie JiH BpeMena jia roBopnTe 

Oji; Kora cy xa nncMa? 
Hemy Ban je oh TaKo ;^y^o 

KaKo cxe? KaKO je Baiue 3;i;pa- 

B^be ? 

He, join HHcaM iuiao to aa^o- 


He, ;^pa^H moj, ca^ newaM Bpe- 

He 3HaM, MHCJiHM ^a cy oa itera. 
Oh mh je npii^ao je;i,Hy nniepe- 

caHTHV HCTopnjy. 
Xoaja Bory, Ao6po; KaKo 

cxe BH? 

Twelfth Lesson. 

Demonstrative Pronouns. 

Masc. Fein. Nent. 

1. p. oBaj oBa OBO this 

2. p. Taj Ta TO this 

3. p. 6Haj 6Ha oho that 


Masc. Fern. Nent. 

5bh 6Be 6Ba these 
TH Te Ta these 
OHH 6He 6Ha those. 


M. N. F. 

N. OBaj 6bo OBa this 

G. 5Bora (-or) oBe of this 

D. oBOMe OBOJ to this 

A. oBora (-or) 6By this 

I. OBHM 6bom by this oBHMa 

P. 6B0M(-0Me} oBOJ about this. oBHMa 

Such are: 

M. F. N. 

OHaKaB, -KBa, -kbo; 
or OHaKH, -a, -o; 

TaKaB, -KBa, -kbo; 
or TaKH, -a, -o; 


TOJiHKH, -a, -o; 


M. F. N. 

5bh 6Be OBa 

oBfix for all 3 genders 
bBHM (-Ma) » » » » 

» » 

» » 



F. N. 

OHEKBH, -KBe, -KBa 1 SUCh 

OHaKH, -e, -a J (like that) 
TaKBH, -KBe, -KBa I such 
TaKH, -e, -a ((like this) 
HCTH, HCTe, HCTa the same 
TomKH, -e, -a as large as. 

Interrogative and Relative Pronouns. 

Ko who? lUTO (niTa) what? 


■e; -H, -e, -a 


KoJH, -a, -e; -h, -e, -a = which? [which? 

EaKas, -KBa, -kbo; -kbh, -kbc, -KBa = what kind of; 
or KaKH, -a, -o; -n, -e, -a =^- what kind of; which? 
EojiMKM, -a, -o; -n, -e, -e = how large? how great? 

Interrogative and Eelative Pronouns. 


N. k6 who 
G. K5ra of whom 
D. K5Me to whom 
A. Kora whom 
I. KoJHM by whom 
P. K6M(e) about w^hom. 

uiTO (ou niTa) w^hat 
Hera of what 

Heny to what 

niTO (or mia) w^hat 
Hime (or tom) by what 
^eM about what. 

Other interrogative and relative pronouns are de- 
chned as ^<06aj». 


rocn6AHH, uitjy cecTpy bh The gentleman whose sister 

BHAKTe. you see. 

Ot{)Hi],Hp, Huje CTe KOH>e Ky- The officer whose horses 

HMJiH. you bought. 

Kpa.^Hii;a, o mtjeM ABopy ja The queen of whose palace 

roBopHM. I speak. 

KojiiM KiLiiraMa mhcjihtb Ofwhat books do you think? 


Ha Kojtt Ha^HH? 

y^itjeM 6paTy npHna^a xa 

HHJoj KyiiH roBopHTe? 

^itjy CTe cecTpy BH;i;ejiH? 

In what manner? 

To whose brother does this 

house belong? 
Of whose house do you 

Whose sister have you seen ? 


Cjioh, iw. 






instead of 


to throw, to cast 

jiyranaK, -HKa, 



to sell 


PocnojiiHH, vu 

Mr. [Mister] 



rocno;i;ap \ 
^a3J^a / 



to return 


npeji;eo, m. 

the region ; eoun- 

c o6e CTpane 

from (on) both 

cyHii,o6paH, m. 



TproBHHa, f. 

trade, commerce 

SBaiH ce (30- 

to have the name 

cypjia, f. 

trunk (of an 


BCM ce) 

of, to call one- 

KynaTH ce 

to take a bath 

n6po;^Hii.a, f. 


nacT, f. 


6oracTBo, n. 





a physician, doc- 


it seems 


ynosHaiH ce 

to become 


o6ajia, /*. 

the shore, bank 

HtHBOTHBba, f. 


xjiaji;, m. \ 
xjiaAOBHHa, f. i 

the shade 

Ha^HH, m. 



to belong 

Servian grammar. 


50 Lesson 12. 

noKibaiH \ to show, to de- I KaMeu, m. stone 

yKiiaaxn | monstrate j iipo.Tefie, n. the spring 

Ha H3yCT by heart j cnpone, n. an orphan 

Exercise 23. 

Cji6h HMa cypj[y, kojom ce ciyacH y mgcto pyKe; c 
o6e CTpane una oh ;i;Ba 3y6a k6jh nan ;i,ajy TiiKO 
SBany cjioHOBy koct. ^eii,a, hhjh cy po;i,HTe^H yMpjH, 
HasHBajy ce cnpo^HiiH. J^ei];a, ^nje cy o;i,ejia np^aBa, ne 
j^ona^ajy ce niiKOMe. lio je jreH>, Taj He tohh hh y ^eny 
ycnexe. Cjryra, no ubue can Ban nocjiao hhcmo, BpaTHO 
ce KviiH. CehaTe jih ce Apseia y TOJen cmo ce jraTi;y teko 
^ecTO oj^MapajiH? Cefeaiu jth ce CTape rpa(|)Hii,e (rpo(|)Hi],e) 
TOJe cy KtepH TaKO MHoro iirpajie ko;i; nac? CehaM je ce 
Bpjio ji;^6po. 

y OBHM npeji;ejrHMa saHHMajy ce CTaH6BHHij,H TproBH- 

HOM. y OHOJ KH>H3H HMa MHoro ciiiKa. IIlTa CTe pa^HJIH 
y H>feroBOJ c66h? Mh hhcmo 6mh y aeroBOJ c66h, Toc- 
n6ji;nHe, mh cmo ce o6jra^HjrH y oboj (c66h). Oh ce6e ne 
nosnaje, ajin MH5ro mhcjih o ce6H. JecTe jih Befc. BH;i;ejiH 
TaKBy KH>Hry? Ja joni micaM BH;i;eo xaKBe Kaiire. Ka;i; 
CTe ce (bh) Kynajin y oboj p6h;h? To ne snaM. 3aHHMa 
JIH ce TocHOAHH H. H. joni TaKHM hocjiom? Tjie^aj CBoja 
Hocjra, npHJaTe^y Moj ! 

3hmh ce 6bh CTaH6BHHu;H saHHMajy je;i,HHM (oBaKHM) 
n6cjroBHMa a JieTH ^pyrHM. Oh ce 5neT cnpeMa sa paT, 
jep OH 3Ha ;i;a te na jieTO 6hth paTa. IIosHajeni jih th 
oBor r6cno;i;HHa? He, ja ra ne HosnajeM; ajH mh H3rjre;i;a 
M caM ra BH;i,eo y 5hoj BaponiH. IIlTa je? KaKO saM 
HsrjieAa obo? 

Translation 24. 

He is that physician with whom I became acquain- 
ted in Belgrade. I gave him that book of which you 
spoke with me yesterday. Whose book is this? It be- 
longs to the brother of the boy who is playing (kojh 
ce Hrpa) with my sisters in the garden. Which woman 
spoke with you? The ladies who were at my aunt's 
yesterday are the daughters of this gentleman. Do 
you know the lady who was at the concert to-day? 
What do you want? I want to buy the same book 
(onaKy Kanry) as my friend bought yesterday. What 
kind of a book was it? It is a study of the Servian 

Definite and Indefinite Pronouns. 51 

national customs. The letter which I received from 
my friend gave me much pleasure. Whose dog is this? 
To whom did you write a letter? With whom did your 
mother speak? About what did she speak? Which of 
(o;i;) your sisters is unwell? Louisa. Which of your 
friends returned to America? What does she say? In 
which room were you? At what o'clock? What a 
winter we have! What flowers are there in the garden? 
Which of these books belongs to your teacher? Do 
you know the house in which they live? This is the 
picture w^hich I showed (EOKasao) to your sister. The 
garden of which you speak belongs to my father. The 
bird which flew away (oji^JibTejis) is in the garden of the 


KojiHKo c65a raa y toj EyiiH? Y oboj Eytia ma mhofo c66a. 

KoMe npHna;i;a osa KH>iira? Ta KMra h to nepo npHna;i,ajy 

OBOMe y^eHHKy. 
Kajt cie ce BpaiHiH (bh) h3 He- Ja can ce BpaxHo h3 HeMa^KO 
Ma^Ke? HCTe roji,HHe Kaji; je no^eo paT 

c $paHi];ycKOM. 
Jecie jiH Beti ^HxajiH oBy Kaiiry? Ja caM je TaKo ^ecTo ^Hiao ;i;a 

je roTOBO 3HaM na naycT. 
Kg je 6ho y toj co5h? (Oeaj) rocnoji,HH, Kora CTe Be^epac 

BkjiejiTi y Toj co5h, jecTe moj 

;i;pyr (npHJaTea) HBan IleTpoBHt . 

Thirteentli Lesson. 

Definite and Indefinite Pronouns. 
I. Definite Pronouns. 

CBaKO everybody; CB^niTa everything 
CBaKH, -a, -o; CBaKH, -e, -a everyone; all; each 
caB, CBa, CBc; cbh, cbc, CBa the whole; all 
HCTH, -a, -o; iiCTH, -e, -a the same 
caM, -a, -o; caMH, -e, -a self (ja caM myself; oh can 
himself; ce6e caMora oneself [ace. case]). 

All these pronouns are declined as «06aj>\ 


62 Lesson 13. 

II. Indefinite Pronouns. 

(a) Simple: 

jenaH, -;i;Ha, -ji;ho; je;i,HH, -;i,He, -;i,Ha one; some; a certain 
APJTH, -a, -o; ApyrH, -e, -a the other; some (see Nu- 

(b) Compound: 

V -^ } some, a certain 

HCKO ] ' 

wemTO something 

weKaKaB some one 

weKOJiHKH, -e (until 5) some (in number) 

weKOJiHKO (from 5 up) some (in number) 

we^HJH etc., somebody's, anybody's 

Kojem, etc., whosoever 

KOJemTdi whatsoever 

Kojeiib]ii any, whoever 

KojemKdiE any (of whatever quality) 

Koje^ii]^ whose ever (no matter whose it may be) 

Hiiiio nobody, no one 

w^i^niTa nothing 

wiKaKas ';^obody, no one (in quality) 

w^^qHJH nobody's (not belonging to anyone) 

wmojrHKO (only neuter) nothing at all (of number) 

. r [ whoever (he) might be 
KG — My — opmo J V / f5 

^1f ' [ whatever it might be 
niTO My — opaio J ^ 

KaKaB — 6ujio \ s^ i • j i» i. x x. 

. . of any kmd, oi whatever sort 
KaKaB — My — opmo J -^ 

HHJ — 6uw 1 whose ever, no matter to whom 

HHJ — My — dpdio J belonging. 


1. When the pronouns with hh (compound) are 
used with a preposition, the preposition is placed be- 
tween the Mi and the pronoun proper: 

Hh c khm with nobody. 

Hh y KOM cjryTiajy in no case. 

Hh oko niTa about nothing. 

Hh y je^HOJ KyiiH in no house. 

Definite and Indefinite Pronouns. 


2. Bmko, wtiimia (and other pronouns compound 
with mi) must always be accompanied by a negative 
adverb when combined with a verb, — although they 
have already a negative sense themselves: 

HiiKO Me mqe bwx^o nobody has seen me. 

Mh ue roBopHMO mi o ^leny we do not speak about 

Rimo mdHTa He sna nobody knows anything. 

3. CaM has also the signification of 'Very, just": 
Ha caMOM Bpxy at the very top. 

4. Each other, one another, are rendered by jedau 
— djpyioi: 

Je;i;aH c ;i;pyrHM with one another. 
Je;i,aH o ApyroM(e) about each other. 





to pray 


to learn 

Hapoji;, m. 

the people 

cjiyx, m. 


npHJaTHOCT, f. 

pleasure; conve- 

xapxHJa, /". 



uipKBa, f. 



'. inconvenience 



Tpyji;, m. 

efl'ort, struggle 


to cover 

BHine (adv.) 


nOKpHTH / 

rp^KH (adv.) 


y TOKy 

in the course of 


to recognise 

paTHHK, m. 

the warrior 

norpeniKa, /". 

a fault, mistake 


most difficult 


to put 



5p^r, m. \ 
ropa, f.^ J 

the mountain 

o6paTETH ce 

to apply 
the next 

HSBemTaj, m. 

a report, account 

EBpona, f. 



to esteem 

AycTpnja, f. 


Toiiai, -iijia, -njio hot ; warm 


people, men 

xjia^aH, -;i;na, 


Bpjo /tyro 

very long 


CMpxan, -THa, 


je^HOM \ 


jeAannyT \ 

once, sometimes 

CBpniETH (ce) 

to end, finish 

HeKa;!;a J 

na npoTHB 

on the contrary. 

Exercise 25. 
Ja caM noKpHBaM cto xapTHJOM. Bor je OTaii; CBHJy 
.TBYOT. Pei];HTe to, mojthm Bac, Ma komc. Hs Hii^era iieni 
Ha^HHHTH HHinTa. y CBaKOM cejiy HMa i];pKBe. Y TOKy 


^paHi];y3H ce B6jie (sbjie jeji;Hn ;i;pyre). Hne nyniKiiiiOBO 
je nosnaTO no i];ejroM cseTy. Hh o ^eny Bai^i Biinie nety 

54 Lesson 13. 

Bm jom HiiKa;i, HilcTe c itfiMa cumhm roBopnjiH. To 
je H>eroBa concTBena Kvha. IIo-Koja ji^eu^di HHcy xpa6pa. 
TciJiec, je;i;aH rpHKH ({)hji630(}), 66hhho roBopame: HajxeiKe 
je nosHaTii ce6e caMora a HajjraKme BM^eTe norpeniKe 
;i.pyrHX. Mn cmo pa^HJiH h3 CBe cnare. Th teni hIih y 
ineTH>y c ibom caMOM. CBaKH o;a; Bac 3Ha ;i;a ce 3eM^a 
OKpehe OKO cyHij;a. Bojih Bora BHnie ho HniTa a CBora 
6jrHmH>era Kao ck6e caMor. 

Translation 26. 

I shall soon have an opportunity to thank him for 
some books which he gave me. Cover the books and 
papers with something! Someone spoke about that 
aflfair, but nobody believed him. I myself w^as in the 
city. The most difficult of all things is to know one- 
self. Do you know the weight of our earth? I never 
(HHKa;i;) spoke with him. I shall show that to nobody. 
Every man is mortal. Nobody can say that he never 

Some people live very long. Not one was caught; 
all took to flight (no6erjiH). Give him the medicine 
every two hours (cBaKHx ;i,Ba caxa). In this world [there 
is] nothing [that is] durable (gen.). Even the birds and 
animals love their native country. In the street [some] 
workmen construct something and speak with one 
another. In the fortress something is being done. 
I think, on the contrary, that they are doing nothing 
in the fortress, because I saw nobody there. 


^HMe noKpHBaxe (bh) cto? 06h^ho ra noKpHBaM xapinjaMa. 

Je JiH HHKO HHJe 6ho KOji; Mene JI^aHac cy 5hjih koji; Bac neKH .^pn. 


Hhctg JIH HyjiH neniTO o Toj Ja HHniTa HHcaM ^yo o aoj. 


JecTG JIH BeK roBopHJiH c ifcima He, ja join HHcaM roBopno e ifeiiMa. 


Kg Mome pefiH ^a miKa^ nnje Hhko ne Moa:e peKn jiia HiiKaji; 
rpeuiHo? HHJe rpemno. 

Declension of Adjectives with Apocopated Terminations. 55 

Fourteenth Lesson. 

Declension of Adjectives with Apocopated 

I. The apocopated terminations are, as the name 
plainly indicates, shortened terminations which the ad- 
jective takes when it acts as predicate of a verb. 

The difference in the declension appears only in 
the masculine form: 

Masc. Fern, Neuter. 

[attributive: 3KyTH the yellow; SKyTa 5KyTo] 
predicative: ^kjt yellow; atyTa JKyTO. 



Masc. and nent. 

Masc. and nent. 


jKyx; myTO 

jKyTH ; 3KyTa 









atyT-e; ^yia 










II. We have in Servian another particular kind 
of adjectives, the so-called appellatives, which are de- 
clined as the attributive adjectives. 

These appellative adjectives are derived generally from 
names of animals (sometimes also of persons and other 
names) and denote a quality belonging to a kind or sort. 

JlHCHqnJH pen fox tail jy^epamBBH xjife6 yesterday's 

TOTHJH rjiac birds' voice bread 

np6jieiiH0 ii,Befc.e spring flo- j];yBaHCKaKyTHjatobacco-box 
wers ' KOsa^KH kobe> Kozak's horse. 

These adjectives have, by their nature, no predi- 
cative forms. 

III. A third kind of adjectives are those posses- 
sives derived from proper personal names and, per 
extension, also from some collective nouns denoting 
persons (as, for example: father, mother, sister, etc.). 

They are deserving particular attention, both with 
regard to their formation and use as well as their 

56 Lesson 14. 

declension. As to their use, we must state that they 
do not correspond to any English adjectives, but to 
EngHsh substantives employed in the genitive (posses- 
sive) case. As to their [declension, they always take the 
apocopated terminations. 

They are formed by adding to the substantive the 
folio w^ing suffixes: 

M. F. N. M. F. N. 

Sing, -OB, -OBa, -obo Plur. -obh, -OBe, -OBa 

-eB, -eBa, -cbo -eBH, eBe, -eBa 

-HH, -HHa, -HHO -HHH, -HHC, -HHa. 

Proper Name, Adjective. 

IlBaH HfiaHOB, -a, -o etc. 

MnjEopa;!; MHj[opa;i,OB, -a, -o etc. 

ToMa ToMHH, -a, -o etc. 

ITonoBMi.. nonoBHteB, -a, -o etc. 

Bemarh. The final vowel of a substantive is elided before 
the adjective termination: ToMa — Tq-^uh (and not ToMa-un). 

Further Examples. 
o^eB KOH) instead of koib 6i];a^ (the) father's horse 

cecTpHHa xa.zbHHa » » xa^HHacecTpe(the)sister's dress 
MaTepHHa iby6aB » » .Zby6aB Maxepe mother's love 
H'pkjbeB ;i;b6p » » ji;Bop Kpa^a (the) king's palace. 

Degrees of Comparison. 

1. The comparative is formed by adding to the 
predicative adjective the suffix jii (iijn): 

Positive: cjiaBaH celebrated; Comparative: cjislbrujh 
xpa6ap brave; xpa6p^yt^. 

A very few adjectives form their comparative by 
means of the suffix imh: jien beautiful — comp, jreninn; 
MCK soft — comp). MeKiuH ; jiaK light, easy — comp. jiaKmH. 

Nearly all monosyllabic (and a few polysyllabic) 
adjectives ending in a guttural (r, k, x), dental (3, ^i;, t), 
or lingual (j, h), modify their final consonants into the 
corresponding hissings; viz.: 

1 The genitive is very rarely used in Servian to indicate 

Degrees of Comparison. 


I before j into 5K 

H before j into m 

K » 

J » ^ 

d » j 

» ^ 

X » 

J » M 

7n » j 

» t 

3 » 

j » SIC 

ji » j 

» .^. 


;i;par dear 

comp. ]i^h.oic]i 

i];pH black 



jaK strong 
TEX mild, 

6p3 rapid 

Mjiaji; young 
3KyT yellow 
6eo (origin- 
ally 6ejr) 




Polysyllabic adjectives in rk^ Ok and ok lose those 
syllables before the comp. suffix JH, thus being consi- 
dered as monosyllabic: 

Cjra;i;aK sweet — comp. cjia^H 

TanaK thin — Ta/6H 

ji,ajieK far (away) — ji,a.^H 

BHCOK high — BHmH. 

Irregular comparatives have the following adjectives: 
;i;66ap good comp. 6o^h 

xpi^ae bad ropn 

MajTH small, little MaiBH. 

2. The superlative is obtained by preceding the 

comparative by the prefix naj : 

comjj. xpa6pHJH superl. Hajxpa6pHJH 

6bjbK » Haj6o^H. 

Bemarlc. "Than" after the comparative is rendered in Ser- 
vian by «we^o», <<Heio Auy> or «wo». Of = oji;. After the superla- 
tive o;i; or Me%j, usue^y (between, amongst) or else y (in) are 
usually employed: 

Bh cxe jaHH nero ja you are stronger than I. 

Oh je Hajja^H Mel^y CBima or oa CBHJy he is the strongest of all. 


Jleio, n. 




xHiap, -ipa; 

smart, quick 

xjia;i;aH, -ji,Ha, 






Ayr, -a, -0 


sanaK, m. 






Hema^Ka, f. 


-cna, -CHO 

CBejE,, -aj "6 


H3roBop, m. 


jiea, -a, -e 

lazy, idle 

jesHK, m. 

language ; tongue 


peopled ; popu 

Te^taK, -jnKa, 

difficult; heavy 






Lesson 14. 

BepaH,-pHa,-pHo true 

yqeHHUia, f. 

(lady) pupil 


small, little 

CHJaxn ] 
CBexjiexH 1 

to shine 


) powerful 

jepe60ua, f. 


Pycnja, f. 



to kill 

^paHi^yCKa, f. 


Be.irnja, f. 


Ci)6HJa, f. 


A3HJa, f. 


npeBo,T, m. 



doubt; suspicion 

BejK6aH,e, n. 




rBO^ttjG, n. 




Mexaj, m. 



lame; cripple 





cpeopo, n. 


yieBaH \ 


ji.HJaMaHT, m. 


yien / 



(perhaps; nearly) 


. ignorant 

[interrog. word 

meKep, m. 


which is not to 

mehepna xp- 


be translated in 

CKa, f. 




xpacT, m. 



faith; religion 

BpeMe, n. 

time; weather 

o^iiJiH^aH, -^Ha, 

excellent, distin- 


for, because 



sjiaxo, n. 


66jiecaH, -cna, 

ill, sick 

nnlie, n. 



cpejiiCTBO, n. 

means ; tool 


clear, plain 



Meceii;, m. 

month; moon 



sen;, m. 



to win; obtain 

opaxop, m. 1 

^ac, m. \ 


rOBOpHHK, m. 

> orator 

JIeK^Hja, f, 1 


6ece;iiHHK, m. J 

CKpoMan, -MHa; 





Exercise 27. 
Jecy jiH ji,yrn ji^kmi jieTH? Obo je nepo cJBHnie 
MeKO, OHO nfiine pl^aBO. JlHCHii,a je Bpjio xiiTpa. Xaj- 
;i;eji6epfflEH sanaK je Bpjio iKHBonscaH. PaTHHK, Kora cmo 

BH^ejiH Ha M6cTy y BaponiH, jecTe Bpjro xpa6ap. HsroBop 
cpncKor jesHKa Hiije Bpjio Teji^aK. Ilepa, Koja CTe mh 
KynHjiii, CKvna cy ne iinaK p^Ba. Sjiaxo h cpe6po cy 
;i;par6u;eHH MeTajiH. Moj je 6paT jbqk 6ho jrea. Uac h 
KOH, cy Bpjio BepHH. PycHJa je Bpjio 66raTa h MotHa; 
HeMa^Ka je MHoro^yji,Ha; $pkHi];ycKa je nji6;i,Ha; CpSnja 
je Majra a nji6;i,Ha. 

Bpene je y^eHHM ^y;i,HMa CKynoD;eHHJe Hero nesna- 
jiHi];aMa. BepjiiiH je Hkjjrennia Baponi Hena^Ke. Moja cy 
Be5K6aH>a Te^ica, Hero jih Be3K6aH)a Moje cecTpe. Cpe6po 
je CKynoi];eHHJe o;i. rBomt/a, ajin rBOJK^e je naJKopHCHHJH 
MeTaji. ^HJanaHT je TBpt/H o;i, rBoaci/a. BfejisKH (ciaBHH) 

Degrees of Comparison. 59 

^y;i,H cy 66mHO ckpomhhjh Hero He3HajiHi];e. Ilcn cy Bep- 
HHJH o;i;^ MaqaKa. Ko je o;i. Bac CTapHJn, be hjih Bain 
6paT? 6bo je bhho ^ejieKO 66jbe Hero oho. Sap je 
Bama cecxpa MJial/a o;i; Bac? Moja je cecTpa ;i;ajieKO Mjiki^a 
o;i; Mene; ona je HaJM.ial^a y nanioj BejiHKoj n6po;i,Hi];H. 

Translation 28. 

The teacher was satisfied with the pupil, because 
he was diligent. In summer the days are very long. 
This pen is bad. This castle is picturesque. The 
warrior whom you saw on the bridge is very brave. 
Have you seen the brother's sword? The pronunciation 
of the English language is very difficult. The ocean 
is very deep. The feathers which you bought at your 
neighbour's are very dear, and nevertheless they are 
not good. Thy brother is very idle. The shoes of the 
teacher are too narrow. 

The eloquence of Demosthenes w^as celebrated 
through all Greece. Who was ill? I do not know, 
I am healthy. The sister was also ill, but now she is 
well. Would you be happy, if you were rich? Wilt 
thou be satisfied? Be satisfied (plural) \ The sister's 
translation contains many mistakes. The situation of 
Heidelberg is superb. The view from this tower is 
superb. The teacher's watch is old. The watch which 
I bought yesterday is good, but dear. 

Your house is high, the house of your neighbour 
is higher, but the house of your friend is the highest 
house in the whole street. To-day the weather is 
more agreeable than yesterday. Gold and silver are 
costlier than iron, but iron is more useful than gold 
and silver. This wine is worse than water. The mor- 
ning was beautiful, but the evening was more beautiful. 
The richest people are not always the happiest. Simple 
means are the best [means]. The dog is more faithful 
than the cat. Stone is harder than metal. I am more 
diligent than you and he. The cow is more useful 
than the sheep, the horse is more useful than the cow, 
but the most useful of all is the elephant. 

The rose is more beautiful than the tulip. The 
happiest people do not always live in palaces and castles. 
The hardest and costliest stone is the diamond. The 


Lesson 15. 

best sugar is extracted from (cnpaB^a ce oa) the sugar- 
cane. Your pen is a little worse than mine. The di- 
ligent artist is usually more modest than the lazy [one]. 
The teacher is more rigorous than the school-mistress. 
This wine will be incomparably better than that beer. 


IlMeHyjxe mh najcjiaBHiijer pHM- 

CHor roBopHHKa? 
KaA cy AaHH jijkh, Jiexn ejih 

3HMH ? 

ia je 01 OBiix ji,eBojaKa naj- 

Je .IH ^OOpO TO nEBO, 

Hajc.iaBHHJH pHMCKH opaTop 6ho 
je, 6e3 cyMH,e, ItHi^epoH. 

JTeTii cy ;i,aHH HecpaBH>eHo ;iya»,H 
a SHMH cy Bpio KpaTKH. 

HaJBecejiHJa Met^y obhm ji;eB0JKaMa 
je MjiaAa K^ep xpoMora Kane- 

Oho je rpt/e ho dito mh je oh 

Fifteenth Lesson. 
Cardinal Numbers. 

1 je;i;aH, je;i;Ha, je^m 

2 ;i;Ba (m. and n.), ;i,Be (f.) 

3 Tpn (m., f. and n.), etc. 

4 -^eTiipH 

5 neT 

6 mecT 

7 ce;i,aM 

8 ocaM 

9 ji,eBeT 

10 jr,eceT 

11 je^aHaecT 

12 ;i;BaHaecT 

13 TpimaecT 

14 TieTpnaecT 

15 neTHaecT 

16 niecHaecT 

17 ce;i,aMHaecT 

18 ocaMHaecT 

19 ^eBCTHaecT 

20 ;i,Ba;i,eceT 

21 ^Ba;i,eceT h je;i,aH (-Asa, 

22 ;i,BaAeceT h ;i,Ba (;i,Be) 


» » 



» » 



» » 



» » 



» » 



» » 



» » 









nieccT (or inecAeceT) 










CTO jbji^diU 

(or CTO M 



CTO neT 


CTO n^THaecT 


CTO Tpii;i;eceT h niecT 



) (or ;i,BecTa) 

Cardinal Numbers. 


300 Tpii CTOTHHe (or TpiiCTa) 

400 ^eTHpn CTOTHne 

500 iieT CTOTHHa 

600 mecT CTOTfina 

700 ce;i;aM CTOTfma 

800 ocaM CTOTHHa 

900 ^^BeT CTOTfma 

1000 xH.i>a;i,a (or xH.zba;i,y) 

2000 ;i,Be xH^a;i;e 

3000 Tpn xH^a^e 

4000 ^eTHpn xH^a^e 
5000 neT xM^a;i;a 
6000 HiecT xMaAa 
100,000 CTO xkJb2iAa 

1,000,000 MHJIHOH 

2,000,000 ;i;Ba MHjiHOHa 
3,000,000 Tpn MHjiHOHa 
5,000,000 neT MHjiHOHa 

Declension of Numbers. 

Je;i;aH, jeAHa, je;i;Ho; (pi) je^HH, je^He, je^Ha, are 
declined just as the attributive adjectives. 

/r,Ba^ /i,Be and 


Masc. and neut 


For the three genders. 

N. ji;Ba 






D. ;i;BeMa 



A. ji;Ba 



V. jiiBa 



I. ji,BaMa 



P. ;i,BaMa. 



BemarTcs. (a) Wemu^u four, is declined as mpu with the ex- 
ception of Dative, Instr. and Preposit. where the latter h is eli- 
ded: ^exHpMa. 

(b) 06a, o6e, o6a or o6adea, o6adee, o6adea (both) are declined 
as dea. 

(c) Jteoje, o6oje, xpoje, ^eTsopo, neTopo are collective numbers 
and have only the form for the neuter gender. They have the 
following declension: 

N. ;i;Bdje ' ^eiBopo 

G. ;i;B6ra (;i;Bojera) HeiBopora 

D. jiiBOMe (;i;B0Ma, jiiBojeMy) neTsopMe (^eisopMa) 

A. j^Boje HGTBOpO 

V. ;i;Boje ^eiBopo 

1. ABOMa ^exBopMa 

P. ;i,B6Ma. ^CTBopMa. 

(d) ILo jej!;aH, no ;i;Ba, no xpH etc. are distributiye numerals 
and denote: how many each or every time is accounted; e.g.: 
no ;i;Be Eanre tw^o books each ; CBaEO he ji;eTe ji;o6hth no nex jtHnapa 
each child will have five francs; nonia^HTe mh no ji;Ba npHMepKa 
HaJHOBHJHx pe^HHKa send me two copies each of the newest dic- 


Lesson 15. 

Syntactic Fades, 

1. Je;i,an5 je,T,Ha^ J^rTHO are considered as attribu- 
tive adjectives when combined with a substantive, and 
consequently agree in the case with the respective sub- 

je^aH TiOBeK, je;i;Hora ^lOBCKa; je^ne sKene. 

2. ^sa^ xpH and ^eTHpii, when combined with 
substantives, adjectives and pronouns, govern the geni- 
tive case singular; but nex and the following numbers 
govern the genitive plural, viz.: 

ji;Ba TOBfeKa whereas nex Jh^Aii 
Tpii KBiire inecT KEbiira 

HCTHpH Koiba ocaM KOBba. 

3. In aggregate numbers generally the last is declined. 

4. After xiubctdy (xitjbada), Miuubu and the plural 
of and the following substantive takes generally the 
genitive plural. 

5. Instead of dea, mpti, nemupu, etc., may also be 
used for masculine persons: deojm^a (the two), mpojima 
(the three [men understood]), uemeopuua (the four), etc. 
up to 100 (exclusive) which are considered as feminine 



to compose ; to 


to count 


Ta^aH,-HHa,-^Ho exact, precise 

J^HHap, m. 

the dinar (franc) 


to send, forward 

napa, f. 

the parr a (cen- 


the world's ex- 


jiojKda, /". 


khjIO, n. or 

a kilogram 


to wound 

KHjiorpaM, m. 



cyKHO, n. 

cloth, woollen 


to discover; un- 



MacjTo, n. 


lUnaHHJa, f. 


JIHCT, m. 

a leaf; a sheet 

px, m. 

the cape 

of paper 


a Portuguese 

;i;eceTaK, num. 

some ten 


to take away 

opax, m. 







to perish 

JTOB, m. 

the hunt 

;i;yKaT, m. 

a ducat (old mo- 


a duck 

netary unity, 

^pH, -a, -0 


equivalent to 


I shall show 

about 10 shil.) 


to cut off 


an inhabitant 

p66a, /*. 

the goods, mer- 

cxaje (3rd p. s.) 

(it) costs 


cxajy {^"^^ p. p.) (they) cost 

rOCTHOHHIl,a, f. 

a hotel 


to distroy 

Cardinal Numbers. 



KpyniKa, f. 
CTOKa, Map- 

Ba, f. pi. 
paspeji;, m. 


Moatem jih? 
cpna, /. 
:iHCHij;a, f. 


Meiap, m. 


pure, clean 
a pear 

a class 

to live, to inhabit 

can you (thou)? 

the roe; doe 

a fox 

to excuse, pardon 

a meter 

the height 

pa^iyH, m. \ 
o6paqyH, m. I 


;iBo5oj, m. 
CnacHTe^, m. 




apuiHH, m. 
npecxynna ro- 

an account, bill 

how much is . . 
to solve, resolve 
a duel 
to part, leave 
a pound 
a hen 

arsheen [yard] 
a leap year. 

Exercise 29. 

neTi;^ceT (ii) abb He;i,e.zbe mjth TpiiCTa (Tpn CTOTHHe) 
inec;i;eceT (nieceT) h hgt ;i,aHa ca^naaBajy je^Hy r6;i,HHy. 
Cto napa ca^HaaBajy jeji;aH ^HHap. J obom rpa^y HMa 
HeTpji,eceT ji,o ne^eeeT xH^aji;a CTanoBHHKa. Kojihko tohh 
TO CBe? To TOHH TpiiCTa KHjra h ;i,BaAeceT rpana. /I,ajTe 
MH (jeAan) Mexap ;i,66por cvKHa. IIlTa CTaje KMorpaM 
MacjEa y IlapHsy? KiiJiorpaM Macjia CTaje y llapiisy niecT 
;i;o 6 can ji;HHapa (^panaKa), 

Ha CTOJiy jie^ie ;i;eceTaK KpymaKa h nojia KMorpana 
opaxa. HfeMaM hh no (nojia) ^HHapa. Th iiMani ;i;Ba cima 
H Tpii Ktepn. Ko^i, nac na MapBenoM Tpry HMa neT Koaa, 
;i;Ba;i,eceT BOjiOBa h hgkojihko OBai];a. J Aouji^oHy iiMa oko 
ABecTa ^eTp;i;eceT (h) ;i;eBeT xE[^a;i;a h ilbt CTOTHHa 
(249,500) ;i;6M0Ba h BHine o;i; mecT h no {6^12) MnJinona 
CTanoBHHKa. Kojihko ^hho cto TpH;i;eceT n mecT nyTa 
;i;Be XH^a;i;e ji^Be ctothho ;i,BaAeceT h ;i;Ba (136X2222)? 
To ^HHH Tpn CTOTHHe (h) ;i,Be xH^zba^e cto ;i,eBeAeceT h 
^Ba (302,192)? 

Translation 30. 

Twelve months make a year. Fom^ weeks make a 
month. Three hens 'were in the yard. In our school 
there are five dihgent pupils. We lived ten years in 
Paris. Twenty four pupils were do-day in the school. 
In the month of June (Meceii; jynn) [there are] thirty 
days. How many years were you abroad? In your 
copy-book [there are] still thirty-two clean sheets. How 
many pounds [are there] in three kilograms? How old 
is your brother? He is forty years old. 

What does three quarters (fourths) of a pound of 
good oil cost? A pound of such oil costs twenty-two cen- 


Lesson 16. 

times. Give me two meters of black cloth. Both bro- 
thers walked with my two (both) sisters. My brother 
has a hundred and seventy-five sheep. In a year [there 
are] three hundred and sixty-five days, and in a leap 
year three hundred and sixty-six days. Eleven times 
three hundred make three thousand [and] three hundred. 
My uncle will pay six thousand nine hundred [and] 
thirty-seven francs and ninety centimes. I have four 
hundred dinars. 


KojiHKO CHHOBa HMa cdiji, Baui yjaK? 
rji;e cy Bame jiise cecipe? 
KojHKO cxe BpeMGHa cxaHOBajiH 

BH y Beorpajiy? 
KojiHKO ^HHe 16 X 1125? 
KojiHKo je 6X9? 
KojiiiKo cejiMHiiia cannitaBajy je;i;Hy 

KojiHKo HMa upKaBa y Beorpajty? 

KojiHRo HMa cxanoBEHKa y Beo- 

KojiiiKo HMa Cp5a y Kpa^eBHHH 
Cp6HJH a KOJIHKO y CBHMa cpn- 

ociajiHM 3eM.i)aMa Koje HHKaji; 
HHcy 6iijie cpncKG? 

Moj yjaK HMa cai riex chhobh. 
Moje cy cecxpe ca;i;a y ii,pkbh. 
Ja caM cxanoBao (a^HBeo) y Beo- 

rpajiy oko ;i,ecex rojiiHHa. 
15 X 1125 = 16,875. 
6 X 9 = 54. 
Je;^Hy roAHHy ca^naaBajy ne^e- 

cex H ;^Be ce;i.MHii.e. 
y Be6rpa;i;y iiMa oko ABa^ecex h 

nex ii.pKaBa. 
y Beorpa^y raa oko ocaM;i;eceT 

ji;o ;iieBeji,ecex xkjhMSi cxaeoB- 


y Kpa^esHHH Cp5HJH pa^yna ce 
Aa HMa oKo 2,825,000 Cp6a, 
a y ocxaJiHM cpncKHM seM^aMH 
OKO mecx MHJiHOHa, h xo: 
y BocHH H Xepue- 
rOBHHH .... 
y XpBaxcKOJ h Cjia- 

BOHHJH .... 

y JtajiMaii,HJH oko . 
y Cxapoj Cp6HJH h 


y Apnoj lopH OKO . 
y CBHMa ocxajiHM SGM^aMa 

AMepHKOM OKO 1,000,000. 




Sixteenth Lesson. 

Ordinal Numbers. 

IIpBH, -a, -0 (the) first 
j!;pyrH, -a, -o second 
TpehH, -a, -e third 
^eTBpTH, -a, -0 fourth 

neTH, -a, -o fifth 
mecTH (etc.) sixth 
ce;i;MPi 7*^ 
OCMH 8*^ 

Ordinal Numbers. 


;i;eceTii 10*^ 
jejianaecTH 11*^' 
;i;BaHaecTM 12^^ 
TpfmaecTH 13*^' 
HeTpnaecTH 14^^ 
ncTHaecTH 15*^ 
niecHaecTH 16*^ 
ce;i,aMHaecTH 17*^ 
ocaMHaecTH 18^^ 
;i;eBeTHaecTH 19^^ 
;i,BaAeceTH 20^^ 
ABa;i,eceT npBii 2P^ 
ji;Ba;i,eceT Apyrn 22"'^ 
TpiUeceTH 30*^ 
qeTp;i,eceTM 40^^ 
neAecera 50^^ 

iiieceTH 60*^ 
ce;i,aM;i,eceTM 70^^' 
ocaM^eceTH 80*^ 
ABBeAeceTM 90^^ 
CTOTH 100*^' 

CTO npBK lOP^ 

CTO ApyrH 102"^ 

Tpn CTOTHHHTH 300^^ 
XH^ajl,HTH 1000^^ 

xiijbajiy npBH 1001^* 
;i,Be xH.zbaji,HTH 2000^^ 
TpH xH^a;i,HTH 3000*^ 
;i,^ceT xH^a^HTH 10,000^^' 

CTO XH^a^HTH 100,000*^ 
MHJIHOHTH 1,000,000*\ 

ro;i,HHe xiijb3.ji,j ocan CTOTHHa nieceT deeeme. 
In the year 1869. 

Ordinal numbers do not dififer in their declension 
from qualifying adjectives having the same terminations. 
They agree therefore in gender, number and case with 
the noun with which they are combined: 

npBH nac the first lesson 
;i;pyra KitHra the second book. 


1. In expressing dates and years the last number 
only receives the ordinal form and inflections, as seen 
from the above example. 

2. The hours of the day or night are expressed thus: 

KojiHKO je caTH? 
Je;i,aH caT. 
JI^Ba caTa. 
KaA bcTe AoiiH? 

y (or OKO) HCT caTH. 

Jom HCTBpT ;i,o neT. 

IleT H HO. 

HeTHpH H ABe;i,eceT neT. 

What o'clock is it? 
One o'clock. 
Two o'clock. 
When are you coming? 
At (or about) five o'clock. 
A cjuarter to five. 
Half past five. 
Twenty five (minutes) past 

Servian srammar. 


Lesson 16. 

3. Here belong also the circumstantial and pro- 
portional numbers: ApyrH other, second, nocjieAH>H last, 
jeAiiHH sole, alone, ;i,BOjaK twofold, abojhh double, TpojHH, 
TpocTpyKH treble, ternarj^ ^eTBopocTpyK quadruple, cto- 
CTpyKH centuple, etc., which have the meaning and 
declension of adjectives. 

4. The answer to the question "when" is rendered in 
Servian either by the mere accusative, or instrumental, 
or even by the genitive; further, by y and accusative 
or prepositional; by the expression "y TOKy" (in the 
course of) with the genitive, viz.: 

(a) Most usually by y with accusative, e.g.: 
y noHe;i,e^aK, y nex caTH, y Be^e. 

(b) y with the prepositional is used generally by 
statement of age: 

y ;i,Baji;eceT neTOJ ro;i,HHii in his 25*^^ year of age 
y ;i;pyroM Beny in the 2°^ century. 

(c) By general statements of years and months, 
mere genitive is usual: 

MapTa Meceii;a in the month of March. 

r6;i;HHe xH^a;i;y ji,eBeT CTbTHna jeAanaecTe in the 

year 1911. 
"^eTBpTor anpnjia on the 4*^ of April. 

(d) Mere instrumental is used for stating general 
dates or the four seasons, e.g.: MH»y by day, Hoiiy by 
night, 3HMH in winter, jrexH in summer. 

5. "Upe" means both "ago" and "before": 
Ilpe Tpn ro;i;HHe three years ago. 

Oh Hehe to CBpniHTH npe noHeAeoHHKa. 

He will not be able to finish it before Monday. 


Heiie^a, f. 


anpiij, m. 


noHe;i;e./E.aK (or 


Maj, m. 



jyen, m. 


yxopaK {or , 


jyjiH, m. 


yTopHHK), m. 

aerycT, m. 


cpe^a, f. 


cenxeMoap, m. 


^leTBpxaK, m. 


OKToSap, m. 


neiaK m. 


H0BeM6ap, m. 


cyooia, f. 

wS a turd ay 

ji.ei],eM6ap, m. 


jaeyap, m. 


6p6j, m. 


(i)e5pyap, m. 



the new style 

Mapr, m. 



we live(are living) 

Ordinal ] 



nyT, m. 

the way; travel 

AoiiH ty K Te5H 

I shall come to 




-THa, -THO 


I must; am obli- 

YcKpc, m. 




HCTOpHJa, f. 


;i;e;i;, m. 


poAHO ce 

was born 

;teo, m. 

part, deal 

po;i;HTH ce 

to be born 


to arrive 

CTOjete, n. \ 

BCK, m. ( 

century; age 




to abandon, to 




CTBO, n. 

3eT, m. 


Exercise 31. 

HMCHa HanojieoHa Epsora, $pB:;i,pHxa Jl^pyrora, Xen- 
pnxa ^leTBpTor h Jlyja ^eTpnaecTora cy 6ecMpTHa y hcto- 
pnJH. IlpBH A^H ceji,MHii;e je — He;i,e.zba, Apyrn — none- 
;i;eoHHK, Tpebn — yTopHHK, ^eTBpTH — cpe;i;a, iiexH — 
^eTBpTaK, mecTH — nexaK, ce;i,MH — cy6oTa. EeTap IIpBH 
je H3o6paH 3a Kpa^a Cp6HJe jyna Meceiiia, xH.zbaji,y ji,eBeT 
cTOTHHa Tpehe ro^Hne. YcKpc ncTO^He i],pKBe 6Hiie OBe 
ro;i,HHe npBor anpfijia no hobom CTMy, hjih ji,eBeTHaecTora 
Mapxa no CTapoM. 

Moj 6paT BopHcaB poji,HO ce neTHaecTor hjih mec- 
naecTor aBrycTa, xH.zba;i;y ocaM CTOTHna ocaM;],eceT Tpehe 
ro^HHe. KoJH je ;i,aHac ji,aTyM? Jl^anac je ocaMnaecTH 
jyjiH (no CTapoM) a Tpn^eceT npBH jyjiH (no hobom), ro;i,HHe 
XH.zba;i;y ji;eBeT cTOTHna je^anaecTe. BeorpaA, 12-or cen- 
TeM6pa, 1910. roji;HHe. EnrjiecKH Kpa.zb JaKOB Jtpyrn ynpeo 
je 6-or cenTeM6pa, 1701 roAnne. fteroB seT Bn^zbeM III 
yMpeo je ocMora Mapxa, 1702 ro^He. Mh a^HBHMO y 
;i,BaAeceTOM BeKy. CpncKH II,ap ^ynxan Chjihh 6eine Ta- 
Koi|e Kpa.z& Byrapa, Ap6aHaca h TpKa. J XIV BeKy By- 
rapcKa 6enie cpncKa npoBHHu;Hja. 

Translation 32. 

The first month in the year is January, the second 
February, the third March, the fourth April, the fifth 
May, the sixth June, the seventh July, the eighth 
August, the ninth September, the tenth October, the 
eleventh November, the twelfth December. John is now 
the twenty-third pupil in the class, and Gregory (Fjih- 
ropnje) the thirty-first. To-day [it is] the fifteenth of 
May. Schiller (Elnjiep) was born the tenth of Novem- 
ber in the year one thousand seven hundred and fifty- 



Lesson 17. 

nine. Peter the Great was born the eleventh of July 
in the year one thousand six hundred and seventy-two, 
and died at St. -Petersburg the eighth of February in 
the year one thousand seven hundred and twenty-five 
in the fifty-third year of his life. 

A month makes the twelfth part of a year. In an 
hour [there are] sixty minutes, it makes the twenty- 
fourth part of a day and the thousand seven hundred 
and sixtieth part of a year. Towards (oko genit.) nine 
o'clock I come to you. [It is] on the twenty-fourth of 
October of this year [that] I first arrived at St. -Peters- 
burg; I was then twenty-four years old. The last great 
universal industrial exhibition was opened at Paris in 
the month of May in the year one thousand nine hund- 
red. The celebrated Russian poet Pushkin (IlyinKHH) 
was mortally wounded in a duel on the twenty seventh 
of January in the year one thousand eight hundred 
and thirty-seven. 


Snaie jih bh Koje je r6;i,HHe Kpn- 
cth4)op KojiyM5o oiKpHO Amc- 

Snaxe jih bh Koje je ^o;^HHe 6ho 
BejinKH noatap koJh je nopyuiHo 
MHoro Kyha y HapHrpaji;y? 

KoJiHKO je ibpH norHHyjio y njia- 

Koje je roAHHe poteen Kees AjieK- 

caH^ap, npecTOJioHac.te;i.HHK 


Oh ce Kpeeyo ns lIInaHHJe ro^HHe 

JI^Ba^ecei cejiMora cenTeM6pa, 1720 
ro^HHe, nojKap je pasp^niHO y 
Hapnrpaxy 12,000 Kyta; jyjia 
Meceii;a ooe rcuHHe raKot^e je 
ropeo I],apHrpajt. 

BHuie OA ceji,aM xMa;i;a jiyma je 
rioriiHyjio y njiaMeny. 

Bb. K. JB. Knea AjieKcanjiap ce 
po^Ho 4. Aeii;eM6pa, 1889 roAiine 

Seventeenth Lesson. 


Servian adverbs (npiiJiosH) are, like those of other 
languages, divided into different classes according to 
their meaning; there are: 



1. Adverbs of quality or manner, as: 
TaKO so, thus Hapo^HTO specially 

;i,o6po well, good 
xpt/aBO ill, badly 
6p30 quick, rapidly 
y 3ajiy;i; in vain 
HHane otherwise 

HaMepHO purposely 
neaiKe on foot 
jiaraHO slowly 
jacHO plainly, distinctly 
TaJHO secretly. 

2. Adverbs of time, as: 

;i;aHac to-day cyTpa to-morrow 

jy^e yesterday pane early, soon 

npeKO-jy^ie the day before. ca;i;, ca;i;a now, at present 

yesterday jyTpOM in the morning 

npcKO-cyTpa the day after BeqepoM in the evening 

to morrow^ npe, npej^e before, formerly 
nocjie after, afterwards. 

6Bji,e here 

TaMO there 

Herji.e some-, anywhere 

HHr;i,e nowhere 

CBt;i,a everywhere 

OBY;i;a hither 

3. Adverbs of place, as: 
Ty;i;a thither 

KOji; Kyte at home 
KyhiH home 
6jiH3y near, nearly 
rope up . . . 
;i;6jre down . . . 
;i,ajreKO far (away). 

Certain adverbs of place govern the genitive case 
when they are used as separable prepositions. Such 
are: 6j[H3y near, at, iiope;i, by the side of ; okojio about, 
round, around, c npoiiy opposite, mhmo by, near, etc. 

4. Adverbs of quantity, as: 
Majio (a) little caMO only 

MHoro much Bpjio MHoro very much 

HeiETO some cyBHme too much 

:i,0B0yi)H0, ji,ocTa enough roTOBO nearly 

TOJiHKO so much KOJiHKO how much? 

5. Adverbs of affirmation, interrogation, etc., as: 
;i,a, jecT, yes sancTa indeed 

He no ;i;a66rMe of course 


Lesson 17. 

TRKO je in truth Kaji.? when? 

HMKaKO not at all ;i.OKJie? how long? how late? 

6e3 cyMH>e undoubtedly r;;e? Ky^a? where? 

o;ii Ky;i.a? whence? 

There are also a great many more adverbs which 
can easily be learnt by practice and reading. 

It wull have been seen that adverbs are for the 
most part nouns in the instrumental and adjectives in 
the apocopated termination of the neuter singular. 

Such adverbs in o as are derived from adjectives 
have degrees of comparison: 

Becejio joyously Becejinje more joyously 

Ao6po well, good 6ojbe better 

HajBecejiHJe most joyously 
Haj6o^e best. 

Some adverbs, also, which denote quantity, place, 
and time, have likewise degrees of comparison, such as: 

MHoro much BHme more naJBHine most 

6jiii3y near 6j\iLme nearer Haj6jiH3i^e nearest 

pano early pannje earlier Hajpannje earliest 

;i,ajieKO far jykjbe further Haj;i,a^e furthest 

Majro little Maae less HajMaH>e least. 


HaBHKa, f, 
jiehH (cnaBRTH) 
ycxajaiH \ 
ycTaxH J 


BotKa, /". 

4380, n. 

HMaM npaBo 






6ap, 6apeM 
CTapaxH ce 

custom, habit 
to go to bed 

to get up 

to pardon 
a fruit-tree 
a tree ; wood 
to convince 
1 am right 
to ascend upon 

the throne 
to begin, start 
the glass 
to reign, to rule 
means; then 
to brake 
at least 
to endeavour 







npomao \ 

npoiujiH I 




6hth ( 

6HBaTH ( 

Mepa, f. 

infallibly; inevi- 



to sleep 

prudent; clever, 

to learn 

flourished (imp.) 

passed; is, are 


to sing 


to be 

the measure. 

Adverbs. 71 

Exercise 33. 

SnaMeHHTn <E>paHKJiHH je HMao o6MHaj roBopHTu, Aa 
k6 pano jieme a pano ycxaje, 6Hiie 6oraT, 3;j,paB h naine- 
TaH. Ja HiicaM BH;i,eo totobo hh mbjio Baponi H. ; Kaji; can 
npiicneo Tano 6eme Beh MpaK (noii) a pano y jyTpy can 
Bet OTnyTOBao. JI,oi],HHJe naK HHcaM HHKaKO Tano 6m. 
HHr;i,e neMa TaKor MHoro^yACTBa Kao y Khhh. Mnoro 
roBopHTH a Majio mhcjihth jecTe snaK jraKOMiicJieHOCTH. 

3aniT0 HfiCTe cnpeMHJH Banie 3a;i,aTKe? HnajiH CTe ^5- 
BOJbEO BpeMena sa to. — C Boron! 

Mnorii .zby;i,n nnniy 6o.zbe Hero (ho) dito roBope, a 
;i,pyrH 6o.zbe roBope Hero niTO nnmy. Jecy jih jieno DiBe- 
Tajie BohKC? JI,a, Jiennie cy ujBeTajie nero np5mjie (jrmcKe) 
ro;i,HHe. KaKO roBopn ca;i,a tboj 6paT enrjiecKH? Chji, 
roBopH neniTO 66.;i»e nero npe ro^HHe ji,aHa. 3aniT0 roBO- 
pHTe TaKO jacHO (rjracHo) a6u,o? FoBopHTe ranie! Je jih 
Koroji; KO;i; Kyhe? JI,a, Kyn,aJTe cano cacBHM nojraKO na 
BpaTHMa. OBaj jxeqaK TeniKO y^H na iisycT, jep nna xpl^aBO 
naMheae. Ja CTanyjeM ^ojre, a rope cianyje cjiaBHa ne- 
BaTiHu;a o Kojaj roBopn nejra Bapom. Moatna ty ra bh- 
;i;eTH; OH;i,a ty My petn oho hito CTe mh nape^HJiH (ji;a 
My peneM). HcTHHa je TaKO Kao mTO CTe mh KasajiH 
(peKJin); nficaM Morao BepoBaxn ajin ca;i, can yMBopen ^a 
(bh) HMaxe npaBO. 

Translation 34. 

Will you come to see us to-day? Formerly they 
knew neither railways nor electric telegraphs; the latter 
were invented only towards (oko) the first quarter of 
the 19*^ century; the invention of the former took place 
(;i;ecHjro ce) at about the same time (o^ npHJiHKe y hcto 
BpeMe). You speak too rapidly for me. I am sorry 
you related (hito ere jajnpnjiajiH) to her such terrible 
events (o TaKBHM CTpaniHHM ;i;oral)aJHMa). Did you ever 
(jecTe JIH HKa;i,a) see such a man? Indeed, he is very 
prudent. Is it true that you intend to leave our city? 
Is it possible that you have not yet seen the King of 
Servia, Peter I.? You are mistaken, I used to see 
(BHl^ao caM ra) him nearly every day in Toptchider, near 
Belgrade. How^ long did Doushan the Powerful (Jl^yman 
Chjihh) Emperor of Servia rule? Etienne Doushan Ne- 
manitch, the Powerful, was born in the year 1308; he 

72 Lesson 18. 

ruled as King of the Servians up to 1346, and since as 
Emperor of Servia up to his death, 1355. Have you 
tinae enough? No, I must go now; I shall come again 

oauiTo BH yBGK TaKo AoiJ,KaH JI,aHac caM ;i;()ii,KaH yc'^^'O .'jaxo 

yciajeTe ? inxo Hohac HHcaM Morao cnaBaiH. 

KojiiKO je (;^y^o) B.ia;;ao Knej Kees A.ieKcaHjiiap Kapal^opt^eBnL 

AjieKcaHAap Kapat)6pi;eBHti? je B.ia;i,ao spjio KpkxKo BpeMe. 

Jecxe jiH HaMepHo pasdniiH okqo He, ja can xo yhmhho c;iyqaJHo. 

y OBOM npo3opy? 
Hehexe Jin caji; Mih k BameM 6pa- To 6h 6hjio y 3ajiy;ii, oh BenepoM 

xy? HHRa^a HHJe k6;i; Kyhe. 

KojiHKO cxe nyxa Mk- IIpo^Hxao caivi hx jeji;aH hjh jibsl 

BOX H J[ejiSi KapaJ;apl/a? nyxa, ajin Moj 6pax hx je npo- 

HHxao 5 nyxa. 
Bh ce HMmxa ne xpy^nxe; Ha xaj Tpy/iHM ce kojihko Mory, a.m cpn- 

Ha^HH HHKaji; nehexe nayiHTH ckh je jesHK Heo6HHHO xeiKaK; 

cJjncKH je3HK. OH je HajxeatH Me^y CBHMa 

OBponcKHM je3Hii;RMa; ajin je 
6apeM H HajjienniH. 

Eighteenth lesson. 


The conjunctions most frequently used in Servian 
are the following: 

1. Copulation and junction: 

H, a and, but 

a H, join and also 

H — H, KaKO — TaKO H as w^ell as 

lie caMO — Hero h not only — but also 

a Hapo^HTO and especially 

HCTO TaKO — Kao H the same as 

TaK6t)e, TaKol^e h also 

HaK, na ^laK even, and even 

TOK HH, na ^aK hh not even; and not even. 

2. Contrast or opposition: 
MjiH or; HJiH — HJiH either — or 
^kc — TOO now — now 

ajiH, HO, Hy but (after negation) 
a but (shght contrast) 
Mel/yTHM while, whilst, whereas 

Conjunctions. 73 

mTO — TO the — the (with comparative) 
na HnaK, nnaK, y npKOC nevertheless, despite 
Ha np6THB, Ha cynpoT on the contrary 
3aT0 therefore. 

3. Comparison: 
Kao, Kao H as, as well as 
6affl Kao, 6ani Kko h just as, just as well as. 
4. Question or astonishment: 
jiH (used after some other words) if, as if 
sap rather! w^ell! (no exact equivalent in Enghsh) 
e ;i,a really? 

5. Consequence. Intention: 

;i;aKjre, ejie well! well then! well now! why 

c.^e;i,CTBeHO consequently 

npena Tone, 36or Tora therefore, for that reason 

ji;a 6h to, in order to 

a ;i;a ne not to, in order not to. 

6. Reason or motive: 
jep far, because 

36or Tora, saTO, 3aT0 ihto therefore, because (of) 
nomTO, noniTO — to as, since. 

7. Condition, will etc.: 

aKO — h; Ekj{ — h if . . . then 

npeTHOCTaBHMO ;i,a . . . suppose 

aKO He — oH^a if not . . . then 

HHa^e otherwise 

aKO 6h, Kaji; 6h, aKO 6h ^aK if . . . still, if even 

caMO aKO, aKO caMO if only 

6ap, 6apeM at least 

na HeKa h, neKa naK even, even if. 

8. Consequence in time: 

Kaji,, noHiTO when, once, after having . . . 
TjHM — TO as soon as . . . 
3a BpoMe ji;0K 1 -, • • .i .• 

Me^yTHM ) ^^^i^g' 1^ the meantime. 

;i,or6;i:, ;i;oKjre ro^i; as long as 
AOK He, Aoroji; ne not so long as 
npe, npe Hero hito before . . . 
oji; Ka;i;, o;i; KaKO since. 

9. Negation: 

HH — HH, HHTH — HHTH neither . . . nor. 


Lesson 18. 


1. For and, the most important of all conjunctions, 
there are two words in Servian : h and a. 

H indicates a simple copulation between single 
words, whereas a joins sentences with the idea of con- 
trast or opposition, as may be seen by the following 
examples : 
BpaT li cecTpa cy koji, Kyhe. The brother and sister are 

at home. 
Oh yBCK ysHMa a HHKaji, ne He always takes and never 

Ti;aje. gives. 

BpaT je OTHinao a cecTpa je The brother left and the 

ocTajia Ko;i, KyL.e. sister remained at home. 

2. With mi — nu the sentence must assume a 
negative turn: 

Hh mh hh oh He 6ejacM0 TaMO. 
Neither we nor he were there. 



to visit, to 
to see 


HSBemfie, n. 

news, informa- 


to write 

je JiH Moryhe? 

is it possible? 

OH xohe 


yBepaBaxH \ 

tn flRRiire 


to accept 

yBepHTH / 

ViKJ dOOUlv? 


noble, of 



to change 



to spare, to eco- 


to refrain, 

to re- 




^BopaK, m. 

the starling 

ij,eo, -jia, *jio 

whole, entire 

yMeiH, 3HaTH 

to be able, to 


to dazzle 

know how 


to forget 


to call 


to inform 


to amuse 

iByx, rneBas 



to go out 


I think 

CTHA, f. 



I can 

Ha npHMep 

for instance 



^BopHuL, m. 

little starling 


you wish, 


THjiHii,a, f. 

little bird 

npejiiJior, m. 


caKpHTH (ce) 

to hide [se 

ropjtocT, f. 



to please, to amu- 

cyjexa, xam- 


OKO, n. 


THHa, f. 

O^H, pi. 


Exercise 35. 

BjiaropoAHa (njieMeniiTa) r6p;i,ocT tocto yKpamaBa 
TOBCKa H y3;i;p3KaBa ra oji, nopoKa; ajin rojia oxcjioct ne 
caMo niTO je CMeniHa Bet nan ^ecTO h nauiKO^aBa y nanieM 

Conjunctions. 75 

seMa^CKOM mnBOTy, jep nac ona TaKO sacjien^yje ;i,a mh 
He BHAHMO Haiue norpeiuKe h xpt)aBe naBHice. J no hckhm 
CJiy^ajeBEMa MO^e ropAOCT 6hth h Bprana aok je TaniTHHa 
yBGK nopoK. Ako ce TBpAHi],a ojtpime Kopucnora h HyiK- 
Hora, niTO My je jiaKO ocTBap^HBO npena aeroBOM MMmy, 
OH^a (to) H>eroB TBp;i,HqjryK nocTaje rjiynocT. 

Ja MHCJiHM H, c^e^CTBeHO, nocTOJHM. CnpT He niTeji;H 
HHTH 6oraTor hhth cnpoMaxa. H[36eraBaj TaniTHHy, jep 
je OHa H3Bop MHorHx HopoKa. Ax! KaKO je HenocTOjana 
TOBe^iHJa cpeta! ^ecTO je neMoryte ^OBCKy ^a Bepyje 
HaK H CBOJHM concTBeHHM o^HMa. Oh je ^ac BejiMKOAyniaH, 
iiac TBp;i,Hii;a. Bh ce bc^hto TyatHTe, ji;ok 6h mhofh 6hjih 
cpeiiHH Ka;i; 6h imajiH caMO ocmh ji,eo Banier nnma. 

Translation 36. 

Although he was in town, he did not visit us. I 
could not write the exercise, because I had no dictio- 
nary. He is rich, but he is very avaricious. [Either] 
thou or he must remain at home to-day. They speak 
sometimes in the (na prejy.) Russian, sometimes in the 
English, but never in the German language. Let him 
do what he desires; this is not my affair. What does 
this boy desire? He desires sometimes one thing, some- 
times another. If you have not them, then I shall 
give them to you. Do you desire them? I thank you; 
[it is] with pleasure [that] I accept your proposal. 

My dear sister, — Three whole weeks have passed 
since I received news from you, and all this time 
I have awaited a letter [of yours] with great anxiety. 
You must no doubt be persuaded that your silence 
gives me great sorrow. Is it possible that I [may] so 
soon [be] forgotten? Can you not find a few minutes 
to inform me of your health? I assure you that I am 
very angry. If you wish me to change my opinion 
of you, send me your news, in order that I may remain 
your affectionate brother N. N. 

Reading Exercise. 

y Miijionia BpTapa 6eme je;i,aH ^BopaK, kojh snat^ame 
roBopHTH no Kojy pe^i. Ka^ 6h ra k6 na npHMep sanii- 
Tao: „^BOTi&liy, T^h ch?" to 6h ^iBopaK yBCK o^roBopno: 
„Ebo Me (6B;i,e)!" 


Lesson 19. 

Ofia je TH^iHua Miioro saHHMajia Miijiora llaBJia, cyce- 
ji,OBor CHHa H OH qecTO AOJiasaiue e Epxapy. Je;i,HOM Ceme 
,T,oniao UaBJie koji; Miijioma Kaja; OBora He 6enie ko;i; Kyhe. 
}[eH&K yxBaTH Tiiu;y, caKpH je y yen, h tck hito xTe;i,e 
OTniiH KyliH ca jlom, Ka^ Bpxap yl/e y co6y. 

MiijTom xTe;i,e ^a 3a6aBH najio AeqaKa, Kora je oh y 
onniTe BOjieo, h noBHKa: „MBopHHiiy w ch?" Y hctom 
TpenyxKy o^roBopH TMqHU,a h3 raxara (yena) IlaBJiOBor: 
„Ebo Me!" 

MajiH jionoB M6pa;i,e BpaxHTH thuv h ne Moraine o;i, 
CTH^a sa^yro Hsatin Epxapy na ohh. 


Jecxe JiH 3a;^OBo.LHH ca BainHM 


Xotieie JIH MH OIipOCTHTH Mojy 


Bh HHCie jj^ipoc ;^6pyHK0Ba.I^? 
3ap HHCTe rjiaji;HH? 

IleheTe .^n nonHiH je;i,Hy naray 
xjraji;Hor OMBa? 

3auiT0 je TaKO xJIaJ^^o y Bamoj 

oap HHoiia TOMe Hiicie ^5^.ih'? 

MopaM .iH jom jiyro MeKaiH na 
Bamer 6paTa? 

Jecxe JIH BHjtejiH ji.aHac Kpa^La h 
Hauiy ji;o5py Kpa.^nii;y? 

He, ja caM Bpjio neiajioBOJBaH c 
MM, OH je Bjiamae, a nehn ce 
3^;paBo (Bpjio) i3})aB0 Jibme (sa- 

OnpocxHty Ban je, aKo mii o5e- 
£axe Aa Bnnie neKexe Bpet^axH 
Bainy cecxpy. 

Bancxa HFcaM jiopynKOBao, ajin 
caM xaKo jMopan oji; (oBor) Mor 
iiyxa ji;a HHKaKBy rjiaji; He ocetaM. 

CaB can rojia Bojia, iia ce 66jhm 
Aa ce He pacxjiajiHM niijyiiH 

Jiaj^HO HHBO. 

HncaM Hape^no asl ce Ha.ioatH, 

Hiimxa HHcaM nyo h aKo can y 

caMoj cooH 6ho. 
He, He Mopaxe ra BMuie neKaxn, 

ja Ky My peKn jta cxe bii obj^b 

6h.-ih h Ha H.era ;i;yro HenajiH. 
HHcaM BH^eo hh Kpa^a hh Kpa- 

.^nity; Kai can ja upiicneo 5iijio 

je BeK ji,oii,KaH. 

Niiieteentli lesson. 


The principal interjections are: 

1. To express astonishment (qji^efte): ax! hx! ox! jy ! 

2. To express approbation (o;iio6paBaite, noxBajia): 
TaKo! so! Jieno! fine! mecTOKo! 6paBo! 

3. To express joy (pa;i,ocT): ^hbco! long life! for 
ever! God save! 

Interjections. 77 

4. To express confirmation (vBepaBaite) : Bora mh! 
or TaKO MM Bora! or TaKO mh Bor noMoro! [so help me 
God! TaKO je! WHCTa! sancTa! really 1 certainly! 

5. To call (3BaTH): ej! ej th! nyj! you! I say! listen! 

6. To reply to calling: a! niTa! niTa je! (used 
only by common people). 

7. To laugh (cMOjaTH ce): xa! xa! xa! xe! xe! xe! 
xh! xh! xh! 

8. To offer, to present (hyahth): na. 

9. To express fear(cTpax): ay! jaoj! joj! 

10. To threaten (npeTHTn): ^enaj! Menaj-^eKaj! 
wait! ;i,o6po! ii;o6po — ji,o6po! well! 

11. To impose silence (tyTaae): Map! silence! kyTn! 
keep silent! iict! nasn! nasHTe! look out! 

12. To indicate direction (noKasiiBaae) : eBo! cto! 
here! TaMo! there! cto TaMo! there it is! 

There are some other words, and especially adverbs, 
which can be used as interjections, e.g.: ;i,o Bpara! ;i,o 
t^aBOJia! to the devil! ;i,iibho! KpacHo! nice! fine! ena 
jieno! well then! 07^ na ;i,o6po! all right! etc. 

Some other exclamations express imitations of cer- 
tain sounds: 6yn! indicates a falling; 6yt! dropping in 
the water; han! Da$! to seize, to catch up; ni.zbac! 
mjiHc! the blow, stroke; rpy! Tpec 1 6yM! the shot; ^hhi- 
;i,aHr-;i;HHr ! tinghng, etc. 


CnameHH cmo 

we are saved 

MHcao, f. 

a thought 


let UB drink! 



paji;ocT, f. 

the joy 


to damage, to 


unbearable, in- 

injure, to harm 



to think 



KJiCTH ce 

to swear, to take 



an oath 


to present, in- 




KOHHJain, m. 

the coachman 


to wait 


to run 

^yjnan HOBeK \ 
oco6eH>aK | 

queer fellow, 

06MaH,HBaTH \ 

o5MaHyTH 1 

to cheat, to de- 

strange person 


noyKa, /*. 

morals ; repri- 

X0pH30HT, W. 



6jiH3y, adv. 






CTpejiHrnie, m. 

shooting place 


quotidian, daily 


the deliverer 

apaTH, Y\jbk^- 

to plunder 


.the enlightener 



Lesson 19. 


certainly, really 

6ecMMC.iHi;a, /". 



to step 


to shoot 


long life! 


to fill, to fill out 

ii6;i;jiocT, f. 



to regret 


to ring 


a painter 

ciirnyxH ce 

to bow 


Kopifca'ia, f. 


CMaxpaxH 3a 

to consider as, 

MjiaAfiti; m6- 

a young (fellow) 

to take for 

MaK, m. 

Manryn, m. 


Bece.inxn ce 

to rejoice, to en- 

y.lOBHXH \ 

eajioBHXH / 

to catch 



po6, m. 

to pass (time) 

ycxyimxH ( 
ycxynaxH / 

to cede; to yield 

iipecxyn, m. 

violation (of law) 

jiapMa, /'. 

a noise 

ipymiBO, n. 

society ;company 

r.ia,;ii, f. 


Exercise 37. 

Xfiajia Bory, niTO cxe (;i,oinjiH) koji; nac! Caji; cmo 
cnanieHH! Ej, 6patio, nonnjMO na pa;i;ocT no ^ainiii,y 
;i,o6pora BEHa! Hx! Ham ji,66pH cyceji, ynpe a ji;eii,H ocTaBH 
ji,a je;i,Ba Mory nnaTH Hacymnor xjie6a. Y noMoh! Kpa;i,y. 
Ko TO H;i;e! ^a nac Bor caqyea TaKBHx npHJaxe^Zba! ^ecTO 
HaM je^aH npHjaTe.zb naniKOAH Biiine nero ;i,eceT nenpHja- 
Te.Zba! Bh CTe, sancTa, necHOCHH ca BaniHM noyKana. Bo- 
BopHty ja Majio nocjie c Bana! ^pajxe ce! KaKo Momexe 
TaKO nocTynaTH npena .zby;i;HMa KojHMa Tpe6a ji,a CTe 6jia- 
ro/i;apHH? Xajji;e! no^Te 6p3Ke, Kp^teTe ce Kao KaKBa 
Kopaa^a! Y Banie 3;i,paBibe! 3a HMe Boatje noMarajTe! 
(or uoMosHTe!) CHpoTO ce ;i;eTe ;i,aBH! JI,a jkhbh (or 3km- 
Beo)! Hani ;i;o6pH rocno^ap! 

npnqeKajTe caMo! Bh texe Bet BH^eTH niTa te Bac 
cnatn! Ha je;i,aHnyT ce Bpaxa OTBopnnie: ji,HHr-AaHr-^HHr! 
H Hani oco6eH,aK yl^e (ynyxpa) Kao Aa ce nnniTa h niije 
ji;or6;i,HJio. Ax niTo niije BeL. Be^e! Cpu;e Me 6ojrH h 
rae^H ce, Kao ^a mh KaKBa BejiHKa onacHOCT npexn. Eto! 
BH CTe MH KpacaH tobok! 06eiiajiH cto mh w^ih; Bac 
HeKajy a bh ce, Bor sna r;i,e, 3a6aB.ZLaTe h np66aB^aTe 
BpeMe ca, Bor lie snaTH, KaKBHM .zby;i,HMa! TaKO, ca;; 
BH;i;HTe ji,a raaM npano, a npe^e hhcto xtcjih BepoBaTH 

MoJHM pe^HMa. 0/i;^a3K! rjiyna^e je^an! Ebo ra! najsa;!; 
ra BH^HM Hocjie tojihko ^eKaaa. 

Translation 38. 
Ah what a misfortune (necpeta)! Who could ever 
have expected it! God save King Peter I. of Servia! 

Aspects of the Verb. 79 

How can you believe such things! Go away from here 
Ha! ha! ha! and you really think I believe you! So, 
you do not hear me! (sap Me ne ^yjeTe?!) Look here! 
Oh, stop telling me such nonsense! That's it! (TaKO 
je!) Get away (o;i,jia3H) or I shall shoot you! Silence! 
do you not hear? Well, then, you will regret what 
you have done! It is very strange! Stop! stop! we 
shall not speak any longer about that! Be quiet, it is 
not time to speak about that! For Goodness sake! 
(3a HMe Bomjel). Now! go ahead! 


Hna JiH KaKBa Kojia oji;aB^e sa He snaM, aJin mhcjihm ^a iiMa, 
Beorpaji;? noniTo nesia ;Keji>e3HHii,e HSMet/v 

OBe Bapomn h Beorpajiia. 
SnaTe jih w je oxnyTOBao oBaj Kasajrn cy mh jia je oinyTOBao 

HOseK? nyTiiH^KHM bosom sa UapHS. 

Hy^^HOBaTo m He Mory nkhji Kap- oap ce ee cetaxe ;i,a cie hx 
le; He SHaie jih bh r^e caM ocTasHJiH y KOBqery kojh je 

HX ocxaBHo? nopejt Bac? 

Hyi! KaKBa je to JiapMa? To pnoapn nesajy na 66ajiH: h,h- 

xoBa je necMa Becejia; Bepo- 

BaxHo cy naxBaxajiH MHoro pH6a. 

ITorjiejiiajxe ! CyHUie sajiasn a Me- (Ja xo) BHJ^HM. Jeji'xe OBaj h3- 

ceii, ce pal^a Ha Kpajy xopn- rjieji; ne ycxyna nnuixa H3rjieji;y 

soHxa. ca 6pHJicKe Tepace y JI,pe:3ji;n? 

He 3Haxe jih kojihko je caxn? Bjimy ;i,Ba n no (^oa nojra xpn). 

JI,a JIH je xojiHKO (xaKo)? BepyjeM ;i;a jecxe, jep je ^acoBHHK 

He^aBHO h36ho ;iBa h ^exBpx. 

Twentieth Lesson. 

Aspects of the Verb. 

A feature peculiar to the Slav languages is the 
subdivision of verbs into various aspects. These aspects 
are different forms of one and the same verb with re- 
gard to the time required for the performance of an action. 

The Servian verb has two principal aspects: im- 
perfective and perfective. 

The imperfective aspect denotes that the action 
is going on, or that it has not ceased at the moment 
when we are speaking, e.g.: tohhth to do, to be doing; 
ceji,eTH to sit, to be seated; r;ife;iiaTH to show, to be loo- 
king at. 


Lesson 20. 

The perfective aspect sliows that the action has 

been quite completed, or that it will definitely cease at 

the moment when we are speaking, e.g.. y^iMHHTH to 

do (i.e., to finish doing); bmagth to see (i.e., to have 

seen); onasHTH to notice (instantly), etc. 

Bemarlc. The perfective verbs in Servian have no Present 


ll,eo,, -Jio 




nHiaae, n. 
BpaxHTH ce 
xpaHHTH ce 
npo^aTH, perf. 

mneACKSi^ f. 
nojiyocTpBO, n. 
npyacaiH 1 
jiiaBaxH I 




pasHH, -e,-a,pZ. 
rpMH, impers, 
na;i;a KHma 

opMaii, m. ) 
CKpnaa; f. \ 
nposop, m. 
Bexap, m, 
CT6jrHij,a, /*. 
OMejiaJio, n. 

entire, whole 
to finish 
to cook 
to punish 
the question 
to return 
to feed,to nourish 
to continue 

to sell 

a Swede 



to give, to furnisli 

to build 

to invite 

a plant 

to wait, to await 

various, different 

it thunders 

it rains 

it is lightening 

a cupboard; 


a window 

the wind 

a chair 

a looking-glass 

square, quadratic 

Taaan, m. 
no;;, m. 

ciiacatia cooa/. 
TpneaapHJa, y. 
npeTCo6.^e, n. 
KyJHa. /". 
roBet)HHa, f. 
Te.ietiHHa, /. 
BeHHT, -a, -0 
Biime BOJiexH "j 
npeTnocxa- > 

ByLaXH ) 

Mat^apcKa, f. 


Bote, n. pi. 
iiapoxHJa, f. 
cjiana, f. 

^IHHHJa, /'. 



TypcKa, f, 
AOKxop, jiCKap 
eiiHCKon, m. 

a ceiling 

a floor 



hall, antecham- 

kitchen [ber 





to prefer, to like 



to congratulate 



straw [scribe 

to copy, to tran- 

a dish, plateau, 

a peasant woman 
to spoil 
to take down 

physician, doctor 
to roast 

Exercise 39. 

XoteTe JiH nucaTH ehcmo sa PycHJy? Ja can to 
niicMo Beh Haniicao, ca^ ty niicaTH hhcmo momc 6paTy. 
Jy^e can i];ejior ji;aHa nncao ;ii^K ch ce th ineTao, h ;i;aHac 
hy oneT aJto niicaTH. IIlTa CTe pa;i,HjiH CHHot? Uo^Haao 
caM TOTaTH MHore (pasne) Kitiire, ajiH hh je;i,Hy HiicaM npo- 
^HTao. Jecy jih IllBeTCKa h HopBeinKa oCTpBO? He, tc 
ABe 3eM.zbe ^iiHe (ca^iHitaBajy) je;i,HO nojiyoCTpBO h yjejiii- 

Aspects of the Verb. 81 

H>eHe cy cvbom seM^LOM (KonHOM). r;i;e ctg KynnjiH Bani 
caT? KynHO caM ra y Beorpajiy Kaji; caM npBH nvT TaMO 
6m. Hania KyBapHij;a Kpa HSBpeny cyny (^6p6y). Pe][];HTe 
KyBapy ;i,a mh ;i;a CBHBbeTHTe, (jep) caM Bpjio rjia;i:aH. 

EHRies ca kojhm ce Bam 6paT pasroBopao, jecxe Kpa- 
Jhwmn jreKap. He Jiyname jth Koro^ na BpaTHMa? Poj^m- 
Te^H Bojie CBojy ;i;eii;y. Eo je co3H;i;ao osaj ;i,B6pai];? He- 
MOJTe Ka3HHTH, r6cnoi)0, Mojy cecTpy, raaJTe jom CTpn- 
^eaa, ona tie 6hth Map^Hsa. SaniTO hiich ;i;oBpinTO tboj 
(j)paHiJ,ycKH npeBOji;? Mopao can pa;i;iiTH 3a enrjiecKH ^lac. 
Th MHoro jiapfflHM, ;i;parH Moj, 6yAE Bet je;i;HOM Miipan! 
3amT0 He o^roBapaTe iia Moje niiTaiBe? Ja HiicaM pasymeo 
Banie niiTaae. Bii roBopHie cyBsme 6p30. Jl,aHac nefey 
py^aTH Koji; icyLe; je;i,aH MOJ ^oSap npHJaTe^i>, kojh Tei; 

iHTO ce BpaTHO H3 Cp6Hje, noBBao Me na py^aK. Hna 
^HEoTHE&a Koje ce pane caMO 6H.ZBKaMa a iiMa hx Koje ce 
pane cano MecoM. ^OBeicy kojh yBeK roBopn licTHHy cbh 

Bepyjy. yHeEiiK, eojh je iikj6ojbe Hcnpimao ncTopsjy, 

6effle IleTap HBaHOBMii. P66a, Koja ce H3pai)yje y Enrjie- 
CKOj, je H^j6o^a. noniTO cmo ce Majio oji;M6pHjrH npo;i,y- 
scHCMO nyT. JI,OK caM o^eKHBao je^pio nficMO o^i; sac, hii- 
caM 3Hao iHTa ^a pa^HM. 

Translation 40. 

Were yon already in Tnrkey? Go, please, to the 
doctor and tell him that my sister is ill. Onr cook 
understands better [how] to make soup than to roast 
the meat. Have our children already taken a walk? 
No, they have not yet taken a walk; they played in 
the yard with the son of our good neighbour. I bought 
[some] paper, but it is not good; I must (MopaM) buy 
[some] better (genitive). Did these girls weep? Did 
you already see the fair of Nizhny-Novgorod (Baniap y 
HoBropo^y). I often saw the fair of Frankfort. Will 
you not buy an estate in Hungary? No, I shall not 
buy an estate in Hungary, 1 bought a house in 
Vienna (y Be^y). 

The celebrated Duval, librarian of the emperor 
Francis I. often ansvv^ered: "I do not know" to the 
questions that were put to him (KOja cy My nocxaB^aJiH). 
''But, sir, they pay (to) you to know," said a courtier 

Servian grammar. 6 

82 Alphabetic List of some most important Irreg. and other Verbs. 

to him once. "Yes, the emperor pays me only for what 
I know," answered the modest scholar. ''If he wished 
to pay me for what I do not know, all the treasures 
(ooraTCTBa) of the monarchy would not be sufficient." 
— A very rich bishop congratulated a very poor clergy- 
man on (c instr.) the excellent air of the place where 
his parish was situated (najiasHJia ce). "Yes," answered 
the clergyman, "the air would be excellent if one could 
nourish oneself with it." 


K6 je Kynno buy HOBy Kytiy, bk 

HJiH Bani 6paT? 
JecTe jiH BH caMH HanncajiH osaj 

^J^e CTe iiocjiajiH Mora cjiyry? 
Ko je 6ho jiiaeac na ipry? 
HosHaje jih hobck cdMor ce6e? 

^;^e CTB nocjiajiH Earner cjiyry ? 

HnjeTe jm pa;i;o cjiaxKa BHna? 

Ko HCne^e obo xejieiie ne^eae? 
Ilpo;i;aje jih OBaj TproBan; ;^o6pe 

Ja He 3HaM ko je Kynno. 

He, ja ra HHcaii caM iianHcao. 

Ilociao can ra kgji; mod o6yLapa- 

Moja KyBapHua. 

To je Bpjio xeniKo, 66hhho HOBeK. 

noanaje Apyre 6o.*e Hero ce6e 

Jlocjiao caM ra ko;i; BHH^pcKor 

H^, ja HHKa;^ He nnjeM cjaxKa 


Moj Kysap ra je HcneKao. 
IIoHeKaji; iiMa o;i;jiHHHe pH6e, a 
noHeKaji; h Bpjio xpt/aBe. 

Alphabetic List of some most important 

Irregular and other Verbs. 
Infinitive. — Present Tense. — Past Part, (active). 

[imp, = imperfective ; perf. = perfective.] 

Inf. ApaxH (imp.) to plunder; 

pres. apaM; past part, apao 
ap^HTH {imp.) to dissipate; ap- 

^hm; apHHO 
arnHKOBaxH (imp.) to caress; to 

make love to; aniHKyjeM, ainn- 

BHpaxH (imp.) to choose, to 

elect; 6E[paM; 6Hpao 
6hxh (imp.) to be; jecan; 6ho 
OHXH (imp.) to l>eat to strike; 

(jHJeM; 6ho 

5oji6BaxH (imp.) to be ill; 60Jiy- 
jcm; 6ojiOBao 

60CXH (imp.) to sting, to pierce; 
6oji;eM: 66 (from 6ojr, 600) 

6y;i;HXH (imp.) to wake; 6pHM; 

6yHHXH (imp.) to disturb; to re- 
bel; 6yHHM; 6yHH0 

6yfflHXH (imp.) to bore; to drill; 
6ymHM, 6yfflH0 

Ba.i.axH (imp.) to roll; Ba^an; 

Alphabetic List of soaie most important Irreg. and other Verbs. 83 

B^^axH (imp.) to be worth; 

Bai&aM; B^^bao 
liapaxH (imp.) to deceive; Bapan; 

BHji;eTH (perf.) to see, to notice; 

bhahm; BH;i;eo 
BHKaxH (imp.) to cry, to shout; 

bhhcm; BHKao 
rjie;i;aTH (imp.) to look at, to see ; 

rjie^aM; rjie;i;ao 
rypaxH (imp.) to push; rypan; 

rypnyTH (iperf.) to give a push; 

lypneM; rypnyo 
/l,aBaTH (imp.) to give; ;i;ajeM; 

;^ejiHTH (imp.) to divide; ji;eJiHM; 

jiOBecTH (perf.) to bring with, to 

fetch; aobcacm; ji;oBeo 
ji,oca^BaTH (imp) to trouble; 

;iocat|yjeM; j];oca^HBao 
jipxTHTH (imp.) to tremble; ;tpx- 

hen; ipxiao 
SKaJiHTH (imp.) to pity, to regret ; 

jKajjHM; HtajiHo 
MBCTH (imp,) to live; jkhbhm; 

jKypHTH ce (imp.) to hurry, to 

make haste; atypHM (ce); atypno 

3b^th (imp.) to call ; soBen ; SBao 
MrpaTH (imp.) to play ; to dance ; 

HrpaM; nrpao 
H36etH (imp.) to avoid; to es- 
cape; HsderHCM; H36erao 
iiCKaTH (imp,) to demand; HnrieM; 

KasaiH (perf.) to say, to tell; 

Kastem; Kasao 
KasHBaTH (imp.) to be saying, 

telling; KasyjeM; KasHBao 
K^jaxH ce (imp.) to repent; 

K^jeM ce; Kajao ce 
KJi^TH (imp.) to slaughter, to 

kill; KOJheM; KJiao 
K.ieKHyTH (perf.) to kneel down ; 


KjieiH (imp.) to swear; to swear 

by; KyncM; KJieo 
KpacTH (imp.) to steal, to rob; 

Kpa;ii;eM; Kpao 

KpHTH (imp) to hide, to conceal; 

KpHJeM; Kpiio 
JlerHyiH (perf.) to lay, to lay 

down; jrerHCM; jierao 
jieataTH (imp.) to be laying; 

jieatHM; jieatao 
jreTCTH (imp) to fly ; jicthm ; jreieo 
MexaTH (imp) to be putting; 

MetcM; Mehao 
M^xHyxH (perf.) to put; mcxhcm; 

MHpHcaxH (imp.) to smell, to 

smell sweet ; MnpnineM ; Mnpncao 
MpexH (imp,) to be dying; Mpen; 

Mp3HXH (imp.) to hate, to detest; 

MP3HM; Mp3eo 
HaCpaxH (perf.) to gather, to 

collect; HadepeM; Ha5pao 
HanHcaxH (perf.) to write; na- 

nHincM; Hanncao 
natiH (perf.) to find; na^CM; 

06aBe3axH (perf.) to oblige; 

o5aBeateM; o6aBe3ao 
o5petiH (^peryV to promise; o6pe- 

hcm; o6peKao 
o6pHcaxH (perf.) to wipe off; 

odpnnieM; o6pHcao 
o5ytiH (perf.) to put on; o5y^eM; 

o;i;BecxH (perf.) to take away; 

o;i;Be;i;eM; ojtBeo 
o;i;peKH (perf.) to renounce; 

o;i;peHeM; ojtpeKao 
0Ay3exH (perf.) to take away, to 

subtract; o;ty3MeM; OAy3eo 
onHcaxH (perf.) to describe; 

onameM; onncao 
onpaxH (perf.) to wash oflf; 

onepeM; oripao 
ocxaxH (perf.) to remain; ocxa- 

hcm; ocxao 
oxexH (perf.) to deprive, to take 

away; oxMeM; oxeo 
HacxH (perf.) to fall ; riajiiHeM ; nao 
nacxH (imp.) to pasture, to feed; 

naccM; iiaco 
HHcaxH (imp.) to write; nnnieM; 

nofflxoBaxH (imp.) to esteem ; nonr- 

xyjeM; nomxoBao 


84 Alphabetic of eomo most important Irreg. find other Verbs. 

jiyroBaTH (imp.) to travel; iiyxy- 
jeM ; ii}^TOBao 

Fd,ii;nTii (imp.) to vrork; pa;i.H3i; 

pa. 1110 
panoHTii (imp J to break; pas- 

6njeM; payoiio 
peaaTii (imp.) to cut; peJECii; 


CaKpnxH (perfj to hido; cartpn- 

jcm; caKpiio 
cacTajaxH ce (im.p.) to meet 

together; cacxajeM ce; cacxa- 

jao ce 
CBvhn (perf.) to pull down; to 

undress; cBy^efli; CByifao 
ce;i;exH (imp.) to be seated; 

cejiHM; ce^eo 
CKaKaxH (hnp.) to julyj}); cKa^CM; 

CKoiHXH (perf.) to make a jump; 

cko^ihm; CKO^mo 
cxanoBaxH (imp.) to inliabii;; to 

live; cxanyjeM; cxaHOBao 
cxHjiiexH ce (imp.) to be ashamed; 

cxH,nKM ce; cxH;i.eo CG 

TpecTM (imp) to shake; xpeccM: 

xprouaxji (imp.) to trade; xpry- 
jeM; xproBao 

xp'iaxH (imp.) to run; xp^nM; 

, xp^ao 

ycxaxii (perf.) to get up; ycia- 
iicm; ycxao 

yHHHRxiT (perf.) to do, to make; 
yTOiiiiM; TiimViO 

Xpaiiirrn (imp.) to feed ; to nou- 
rish; xpaiiH-.i; xpaHPio 

xxexn (imp.) to be willing; 
xoKy; xxeo 

"^leKaxii (imp.) to wait; neKaM; 

"^em^axn (iynp.) to comb; ^em- 
^a:vi ; ^lem^Lao 

HyxH (perf.) to hear; to under- 
stand; ^yjcM; 'lyjo 

IIIaimyxH (perf.) to vvhisper; 
manHCM; mannyo 

manxaxH (imp.) to whisper 
manlieM; manxao 

myiiixaxn (imp.) to rustle; mym- 
xiim; uiymxao. 

Dialogues from Daily Life. 

TOBOpiITe JfH cpncKH? 

BiiaTe jm neMa^Kii? 

KoJH je Bain MaTepaa jesiiK? 

Moj MaTepiBH jesHK je cpn- 


CpncKH jesHK je naJMHjro- 
SBY^HHja Met?y cjioBencKHM 
je3HU,HMa; oh je HTajiH- 
jaHCKH y cjiOEeiicKoj rpa- 


Bpjio je TeniEO nay^KTH 


IlnaK TO HHje TaKO TeniEo 

Kao niTO BH saMHUTcZbaTe. 

FoBopHTe ca mhom ysep: 


JI,o6po, roBopnbeMO ^ecTO. 
Bh jeiio M jacHO roBOj)MTe. 

PasyMeTe am. pycKH? 
PaayMeM npiLin^HO ajiii p!ja- 


Tpeoa ^a ce Be^KfJaTe. 

lie roBopHTe TaKO 6p3o! 
SIojiHM sac roBopiiTe jaKine ! 
Ea;i; 6p30 roBopHTe Re Mory 
M sac pasyMeM. 

Do you speak Servian? 

Do you know German? 

What is your mother ton- 
gue? ^ 

My native tongue is Ser- 

The Servian language is 
the most harmonious of 
all Slavonic languages; 
it is the Italian in the 
Slav, family. 

It is very difficult to learn 
Servian correctly. 

Yet it is not so difficult as 
you imagine. 

Please speak always Ser- 
vian with me. 

Well, we shall speak often. 

You speak clearly and 

Do you understand Russian? 

I understand it fairly weh, 
but I speak it badly. 

You should have some 

Do not speak so fast! 

Please speak slower! 

When you speak too fast, 
I cannot understand you. 


Dialogues from Daily Life. 

Eiioesy je tgiuko roBopn- 
TH cpncKH. 

To je HCTHna; ajiH Ka;i, ce 
3Ha cpncKH OHji,a cbh ocTa- 
jiH cjiOBeHCKH jesHip ;i;o- 
jiase Kao noKJioaeHH. 

It is difficult for the Eng- 
lish to speak Servian. 

That is true; but, once one 
has learnt Servian, all 
other Slav languages 
come as a gift. 

JI,o6ap Aan! (rocnoAHHe, roc- 

not)0, rocn]^Hi];e.) 
KaKO CTe? 

Xsajia Bory! Bpjio ji,o6po. 
KaKO ca 3;i,paB.zbeM? 

KaKO Ha AOMy (ko^i; Kyte) 

je jiK CBe 3;i;paB0? 
KaKO Bam OTaii;, je jih 3Apa- 


IfccMy HeniTO HHje ;i,o6po. 
niTa My je? 

TjiaBa ra 6ojih. 
Mopa ;i,a je Ha3e6ao. 

SoBHTe JieKapa! 

KaKO Bama rocno]^a cyiipyra? 

EbeHO Me 3;i,paB^e TaKO^e 

6ai];a y dpnry. 
JI^Ba ji,aHa KaKO jie:a.iii y iio- 


He 6oJTe ce, 6iih.e 6ojbe. 

J[o6ipo bcto! 
JIaKy Hoh! 
C BoroMl 
Ji;o6po jyTpo! 

Good day! (sir, madame, 

How do you do (how are 

Lord be thanked! very well. 
How is your health (how 

is it going with the 

How is everybody at home, 

are they all well? 
How is your father, is he 

He is not quite well. 
What is the matter with 

him? [literally: what is 

to him)? 
He has a head-ache. 
He must have caught a 

Send for a physician! 
How is Mrs. . . . (M"" j^our 

The condition of her health 

disquiets me also. 
She has been bed-ridden 

for two days. 
Do not be afraid, she will 

be better. 
Good evening! 
Good night! 
Good-bye ! 
Good morning! 

Dialogues from Daily Life. 



KojiHKO je cara? 
Caji; je ocan caTH. 
HnaTe jih nacoBHEK (cax)? 
3Eao MH je, HenaM ^acoB- 


^oi];KaH (KacHo) je. 

Pano je. 

Bnte Bet KacHO. 

3opa je. 

IloAHe; npe no;i,He; no no- 

Ilponijro je ;i;Ba caxaxa. 
Bpene 6p30 npojrasn. 
y Tpn caTa MopaM 6hth 

KOA Kyte. 
Ea;ii i.eTe ji^ohn k mohh? 

Haj;i;yme ^o hot caxH. 

IIojKypHTe ce Aa ce iie 6h 

Beh caM ce 3a;i;oi];HHO. 
Moj ^acoBHHK saocTaje. 
Moj naK H;i,e nanpeji;. 
Moj caT CTOjH; ne pa^n. 

JecTe JIH naBHJiH Bani ^la- 


BpeMe je HOBau;. 

What o'clock is it? 
It is eight o'clock. 
Have you (got) a watch? 
I am sorry, I have no watch. 

(Look) what time is it? 

It is late. 

It is early. 

It will be late (already). 

It is down. 

Midday (noon) ; before noon ; 

after noon. 
It is after two o'clock. 
The time flies quickly. 
I must be (at) home at 

three o'clock. 
When are you coming to 

see me? 
(Till) five o'clock at the 

very latest. 
Make haste, in order not 

to be too late! 
I am too late already. 
My watch is too fast. 
And mine is too slow. 
My watch has stopped ; it 

does not work (go). 
Did you wind up your 

Time is money. 


KaKBO je BpcMC Aanac? 

Jleno je Bpene. 

JI,aHac te 6hth jieno Bpene. 

Jy^e je 6hjio pyatno Bpene. 

na;i;a jih KHHia? 

He, a jih je neSo MyTHO. 

How is the weather to-day? 

It is beautiful weather. 

The weather will be fine 

Yesterday was nasty wea- 

Is it raining? 

No, but the sky is dull. 


Dialogues from Daily Life. 

Lnhe rpMJbaBHHe. 

r3ii;i,iiTe Am one ij;pne o6jraKe? 

Myje ce Bet rpM.LaBHHa. 

CeBa II rpMii. 

Mil HMaMO rpoMo6paH. 

IlMaTe JiH Knino6paii? 
Ki'iffla je Beti CTaJia. 

Pa^a ce cyHi],e. 
3opa je. 
Bjiji;ho je. 
Brnhe JieE ;i.aH. 
Bpjio je npnjaTHO. 
^MBHO Bpene. 
IIpaBO MajcKO BpeMe. 
CyHii;e sajiasii. 
Befc. je xjia;i;HO. 
IIa;i;alie cner. 

CnyniTa ce hoIl. 

IIs.iasH Meceij;. 
Cnja Meceij;. 
Mece^HHa Eao ;i,aH. 
jI,yBa BeTap. 
Ilajia je Marjia. 

Ilxe 3nMa Kao oniTpa ca6^a, 

BHhe jaKe 3HMe. 

rp;r,Ha MehaBa ; ceBepau; 


Cse je CMpsHyTO. 
Cner ce tohm. 
oHMa iionyniTa. 
Ebo oneT iipojiena. 

There will be a storm. 

Do you see those black 

One hears it thunder al- 

It is lightening and thun- 

We have a lightning-con- 
ductor, [la? 

Have 3^ou (got) an uinbrel- 

The rain has stopped ah 

The sun is rising. 

It is dawn. 

It is clear (light). 

It will be a fine day. 

It is very^ agreeable. 

Fine (glorious) weather. 

Real May-weather. 

The sun is setting. 

It is cold already. 

It will snow (the snow will 

It is growing dark (the 
night is descending). 

The moon is appearing. 

The moon is shining. 

The moon-light is like day. 

It is windy (the wind blows). 

It is foggy (the fog has 

The winter is coming like 
a sharp word. 

There will be a severe 

It is a severe snow-storm; 
the north wind is blo- 

Everything is frozen. 

The snow is thawing. 

The winter is relaxing. 

Here is the spring again. 

Dialogues from DaiJy Life. 



KaKO cxe cnaBa.iH? 
J a yBGK Ao6i)0 cnaBaM. 
Ka;i; ctg sacnajiii? 
OjiMax caM saciiao. 
^J^OKJie CTe cnaBajiH? 

;i;o je^anaecT caTM. 

To CTe BM Bpjio TBp;i,o cna- 

Je paHO jie^eM h pano ycTa- 

HncaM CBy Eoti OKa saTBO- 

IIpoAYAHTe Me cyTpa pano! 

JxTaJTe rociio;i;ime! 
O^Max ty ycTaTE. 
Ko pano panH, ;i,Be cpete 

How did you sleep? 

I sleep always well. 

When did you fail asleep? 

I fell asleep at once. 

How long (time) did you 

Till eleven o'clock. 

Than j^ou have slept very 

I go to bed early and get 
up early. 

I have not closed my eyes 
all night long. 

Wake me up early to-mor- 

Get up, sir! 

I shall get up right away. 

The earlv bird catches the 


worm \lUerally: He who 
gets up early catches two 


06yi];HTe ce 6p30. 

r;i,e cy Moje ^lapane, ^laK- 

niHpe H o6ylaa? 
Moje cy pyKaBHixe a j^enne 

Mapane y opMany. 
KaEO BaM ce ;i,ona;i;a obo 

Bpjio je Jieno. 
yMHTe ce 6p30. 
O^Max \q 611TH roTOB. 
Je JiH npa^zba ^onejia py6.^e? 

O^eTKaJTe mh nieinnp. 

Je JIH ce rocno;i,HH Bet o6y- 

Bam ce caji; o6jiaiiPi. 

Ckhkhto icanyT. 

Dress yourself quickly. 

Where are my socks, trou- 
sers and shoes? 

My gloves and handker- 
chiefs are in the wardrobe. 

How do you like this suit 
(of clothes)? 

It is very fine. 

Wash yourself quickly! 

I shall be ready right away. 

Has the laundry - girl 
brought the linen? 

Brush up my hat! 

Is the gentleman already 

He is just now dressing 

Take your coat off! 


Dialogues from Daily Life. 

MopaM ce CByhn. 
CKHHHTe MH oGyty. 

I must undress myself. 
Take mv shoes oiff! 

MoaceMO jiH ji,opyHKOBaTH? 
O^Max te Te Aopy^KOBaxH. 

^opyqaK je totob. 
IlHjeTe JIH KaBe hjih ^aja? 
M0.IHM 3a fflo^y TypcKe 

ffi,ejiHTe JIH i];pHor hjih 6e- 

jior xjie6a? 
BojTHTe jiK Macjia? 
JoDDE je paHO 3a py^iaK. 

Je JIH nocTaB^en cto? 
Py^aK je totob. 
HpHjaTHO ! 

JI,OHecHTe MH Tianiy nHBa. 
JKejiHTe JEH cecTH? 
Hnaxe jih ji,o6pHx BHHa? 

Koje BHHO paOTJe nnjexe, 
n,pHor HJIH 6ejior? 

J^OHecHTe MH jeji;Hy 6oii;y 

6ejior BHHa. 
KaKBe cyne HMaTe? 


To je ;i;o6pa cyna. 

KaKO BaM ce Aona;i;a bhho? 

Bhho je Bpjio Ao6po ajiH 

BojiHTe JIH pH6e? 
BojiHM caMO pe^HO pH6e. 

KaKO BaM ce ;i,onaAa roBe- 

Obo je Meco Bpjio co^nano. 
Ja He MapHM 3a MacHO Meco. 

Can we breakfast? 

You will breakfast right 

The breakfast is ready. 
Do you take coffee or tea? 
I request (beg for) a cup 

of Turkish coffee? 
Do you wash some white 

or brown bread? 
Do you like butter? 
It is too early for the din- 
Is the table prepared? 
The dinner is readv. 
Good appetite! 
Bring me a glass of beer. 
Will you sit down? 
Have you (got) some good 

Which wine do you like 

better, red [Servian : black) 

or white? 
Bring me a bottle of old 

white wine. 
What soup have you got? 
Please read the bill of fare. 
This is a good soup. 
How do you find the wine? 
The wine is very good, but 

too cold. 
Do you like fish? 
I like only fish from fresh 

(sweet) waters. 
How do you like the beef? 

This meat is very juicy. 
I do not like fat meat. 

Dialogues from Daily Life. 


MojiHM, cjivjKHTe ce 3e^eM. 

'SeJhe je Ao6pa xpana. 
Ca;i; hhjmo najro BHua. 

y Bauie SApaB^Le! 

HMaTe jiH Tejieter ne^ieita? 

Ja 6hx SKejieo ryni^njer ne- 

Koje Bohe Hajpa;i.Hje jeji;eTe? 

^OHecHTe MH rpo^t^a. 
IlMaMO H jianHx KpyinaKa. 

leno, ;i,OHecMTe naM Tpema- 
aa, ai.zbHBa, 6pecaKa, ja- 
ro;i;a, ja6yKa, opaxa, Jieni- 
H>aKa H CMOKaBa. 

r;i,e texe cyTpa py^iaxn? 

Xajji,e oneT 3aje;i,H0 j^a py- 

Je JIH Moj Kpoja^ Aoniao? 
Ssao caM Bac ^a mh ysneTe 
Mepy 3a oj^ejo. 


JKejiHTe JIH npcjiyK h ^laK- 

HapaBHo, Kynno can ^oje 3a 

^HTaBO o;i,ejio. 
Jl^a BH^HMO ;i;a jih mh ji.o6po 


Hncy JIH pyKaBH ;i,yra^KH h 

niHpoKH ? 
TecHO MH je. 

3oBHTe jieKapa! 
KaKO BaM je? 

BpjIO MH je 3JI0. 

Please, help yourself to 
vegetables ! 

Vegetables are a good food. 

Now let us drink a little 

To your health! 

Have you got some roast 

I would like some roast 

What fruit do you like 

Bring me some grapes. 

We have also some good 

Well, bring us some cher- 
ries, plums, peaches, 
strawberries, apples, wal- 
nuts, hazel-nuts, and figs. 

Where will you dine to- 

Let. us dine together again! 


Has my tailor come? 

I called you to take a mea- 
sure for a suit of clothes. 

In the newest fashion. 

Do you want vest and trou- 

Of course, I bought some 
cloth for an entire suit. 

We shall see how it fits you. 

Are the sleeves not too long 

and wide. 
They are narrow. 


Send for a physician. 
How are you feeling? 
I am very ill. 


Dialogues from Daily 1A[. 

CacBHM caM cjia6. 

i jaBa Mir je TeiiiKa, iiore 

Me je;r,iia iioce. 
0;i, Ka;r, BaM je sjio? 

KaKO je OTno^ejia CojiecT? 

r^e Bac ca;i; 60JI11? 


,l,aJTe MM pvKy ;i,a oimTaM 

liMaxe Majiy rpo3HHiJ,y. 
HeMaTe ce ^era 6ojaTH. 
lIlTa MH Baj^a paAHTH? 
lIpoiiMcaiiy Ban pei];enT. 

TonjEO ee o^eBajTe. 

I am quite nick. 

My head is heavy, I can 
hardly walk. 

How long is it since j^ou 
were ill? 

Wliat was your sickness in 
the beginning? 

Where do you feel pains 

I feel pains in my stomach. 

Show me your tongue! 

Let me have your hand to 
feel your pulse. 

You have a slight fever. 

You have nothing to fear. 

AVhat should I do? 

I shall give you a prescrip- 

To keep oneself warm. 


How to express some English Idioms. 

OcTaBHTe ra Ha MHpy. 

Oh je Ha CTany h xpann ko;i, 


Oh je 6TiiyTOBaonapo6po;j,OM. 
Bho caM cHHob Ko;i, Bac. 

Ako je TO TaKO. 

To he 6mth ji^bBOJhiio. 

Ja caM CBpfflHO c aiiMe. 

Ohk My ce noTCMCBajy. 

Oh je CKJioH HHJancTBy. 

EojKe Moj! 

Oh je yijecTBOBao y tomc. 

HHiUTa He Mory y^HHMTii. 

Xo^ie/re jih tyTaTH? 

JKypHM ce. 

ByAHTO Kao ko,t; CBOje Kyte! 

Cbc jejXHO. 

I[peji,OMHCJiHO caM ce. 

lIoCTaBETH JlWTixJhe. 

Let him alone. 

He hoards and lodges with 
his aunt. 

He went on hoard a steamer. 

I called at your house yester- 
day evening. 

If that is the case. 

That will do. 

I have done with him. 

They make fun of him. 

He is given to drinking. 

Good gracious! 

He had a hand in it. 

I cannot help it. 

Will you hold your tongue? 

I am in a great hurry, 

Mal:e yourself at home! 

No matter, 

I have changed my mind. 

To 'jnd' a question. 

Second Part 

Syntactical and Supplementary Rules, 

First Lesson- 
Remarks on the Gender of Substantives. 

As the Servian, or Croatian, language has no ar- 
ticles, the gender of the noun can be recognised only 
by signification (sex) or by termination (grammatical 

By signification are: 

1. Masculine, most names of animate beings, espe- 
cially of those denoting male individuals: 

oTaii; the father k6h> the horse 

Bor God 6paT the brother 

TBopai]; the Creator cjiyra the servant 

jaB the lion BJ[a;i,HKa the bishop 

B6jB0ji.a the duke Kpa^ the king. 

2. Feminine: 

jKeiia the ivoman Kpasa the cow 

MajKa the mother cecTpa the sister 

jr^BHi];a the lioness BHjra the fairy queen. 

3. Neuter '. 

ji;eTe the child jape the little goat 

nrae the chicken - npace the little (of a) pig 

jara&e the lamb Marape the little (of an) ass. 

By termination are: 

1. 3Iasculine: all substantives ending in a conso- 
nant and some proper names of persons ending in a and o: 

rocno^HH Mr., sir, gentleman HjiHJa j 

6Tai]; the father Ta]i,irja proper names 

jejien the deer CTaiiKO | of persons, 

BpTap the gardener CjraBKO ! 

94 Lesson 1. 

2. Feminine: substantives ending in a, e.g.: 
jK^Ha the woman c66a the room 
AeBOJKa the girl seM.ija the earth 
B6;i,a the water Kyha the house. 

3. Neuter: substantives ending in o or e, e.g.: 
cejo the village jrnii,e the face 

MecTO the place n5.i>e the field 

nepo the pen sp^Me the weather; time. 

HemarTc. Some substantives may have two genders (mascu- 
line or feminine): 3Bep the wild beast; rjiaji; the hunger. Be^e, 
may have all three genders. 

Translation 1. 
Servians or Croats. 

Servians (or Serbians), one of the members of the 
great family of Slavonic nations, are twin brothers 
(6jiH3Hai]iH) with Croats. The sole difference between 
Servians (or Srbi, as Servians call themselves) and Croats 
(or Hrvati) consists of the fact that the Servians cling 
to the Greek Orthodox Church, while the Croats belong 
to the Roman Catholic Church. Besides, the Servians 
use the so-called Cyrilhan letters (TLHpi[JiHii,a) which are 
based on the Greek alphabet and commonly used also 
by the Russians and Bulgarians; the Croats, however, 
are using in their literature (KanaceBHOCT) the Latin cha- 
racters, which are generally used also by the Poles, the 
Tchecks (or Bohemians) and Slovaks. 

At the beginning of the seventh century of the 
Christian era Servians or Croatian s were still living on 
the northern slopes of the Carpathians, from which the 
Servian brother Croats took their name (Carpati, Hor- 
vati, Hrvati). It is not known what decided them to 
leave their old home, if it was not the pressure exer- 
cised by the invasion of the Asiatic hordes; but it is 
an undoubted historical fact that with the permission 
of the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius they came, in 637 
(A. D.) to settle down in the depopulated north-western 
corner of the Byzantine Empire of that time. Since 
then they have occupied the territories which are known 
as: Servia (the present Kingdom of Servia), Old Servia 
(otherwise Kossovo Vilayet), Bosnia, Herzegovina, Mon- 

Kemarks on the Gender of Substantives. 


tenegro and the north-western jiart of Montenegro. Be- 
sides that they form now the majority of the population 
of Dalmatia, Croatia, Srem (Smyrna), Banat and Bachka 
(Southern Hungary). Their total number is computed at 
about eight millions. 


^;^e cxe ociajiH chhoL TaKO ja^yvo ? 

A jecTe JiH 6;i;Max othiejih h3 
nosopHmia EyhH? 

JecTe JH a65HJiH ji.o5py Be^epy? 

A KanaB ce KOMaji; J^aBao? 
A fflxa ce ji;aBajio y onepn? 

Je Ji' BaM ce Aonajo nesaae? 

XoKeie jih h cyipa hJih y noso- 

Ja ty 6hth npecpetan ^a Bac 

Ofl^a c Boiom! ao BH^eaa ;i,6Be4e! 

Bh.ih CMC y nosopHuixy; J^aBao ce 
HeKH KOMaji; kojh je xpajao ro- 
TOBO Ao noHoKn. 

He; H aKo HHcaM 6ho hh eaj- 
Maae rjiaAaH to can Hnaa 
OTHinao y jejiiHy rocTHOHHi];y. 

JI,6cTa jiioopy, noniTo ce yane y 
063HP ;i;a ce oko noHoLn xeinKo 
,mxo H Mome jiio5HXH. 

«HBKOBa CjiaBa» oji; Cx. CpeMii;a. 

T^Mo ce ;i;aBajia «KaBajiepHJa 

Jecxe; ajia ja nnaK BHine ii,eHHM 

^ rjiyMy. 

Hmao 6hx Ka;t 6h cxe h bh xxejH 


XBajia; nocjiatiy Ban Moja KOJia 
xa^Ho y ocaM h ji;Ba;iiecex. 

C BoroM ocxajxe! Moj pyK0j!by5 
Bamoj Majii;H ! 

Reading Exercise. 
1. CTesaH HeMaHE»a. 

IleT H no BeKOBa o;i; CBOje ceo6e na BajiKaHCKO no- 
jiyocTpBO iieKao je cpncKH Hapo^i;, ;i;ok My ce y aeroBoj 
cpe^HHH HHje po;i;HO h o;i;raJHO MysK, kojh te ;i;0BpinHTH 
;i,ejio ocjio6o]9eBba h yjejiiHBbeaa cpncKHX njieMena. Ha tom 
;i,ejiy pa^eno je h ;i,o Tora Bpenena, ajiH h aKO ce noKa- 
niTO H ;i,ojia3Hjio ^0 oc^oSot^eHa h yje;i,HH>esa Hapo;i;Hora, 
OHO HHTH 6effle HOTHyHO, HHTH ;i,y3Kera BeKa. ^OBeK, kojh 
je 6ho 6oibe cpefee, kojh je BHme yjeji,HHH0, h ^Hje je 
;i;ejio 6hjio mhofo TpaJHHje, 6ho je Cmeeau HeMaJba. 

CTaae cpncKora Hapo;i;a npeji; pot)eH.e HeMaanno, a 
H HeKOjiHKO ;i,eceTHHa ro;i,HHa ji,oi];HHje, 6Hjro je Bpjio ata- 
JTOCHO. Cbo je 6Hjro hjth cacBHM no;i; Tyt^HHOM hjth je 
npH3HaBajro Ty^y BpxoBny B.iracT. JejiiHH ce nacjiaaaxy 
Ha BnsaHTHJy, a ;i;pyrH na YrapcKy, a HajBetn je a^o XTeo 
H Ha ;i;a.zbe ji,a 6yAe pacnap^an na mhohitbo ;i;p5KaBHi];a. 

98 Lesson 1. 

HeMaiia ce poAHO y 6ypH0 ;r,o6a, Ka^ je pax Cecneo 
no cpncKPiM seM^aMa. Ha jyrosanaAHOj CTpaim cpncKe 
3e:\Li.e ii no JI,yKibH, /T,ajiMau;HJH h TpaBynHjn 6ho je ne- 

HeMaiLHH OTau; 3Bao ce Saeuda. Bpatia iteroBa AHrny j 
ce Ha Ebera, h SaBn^a Mopaji;e 6e;KaTH y CBOjy nocTOj6HHy 
^yK^^by, H Ty My ce y MecTy PiiOmmu, na peij;H Scth (6jin3y 
;i.ananii*e IIoji,ropRu;e), po^H MyniKO ^e;i,o, KOMe je Bojkjhim 
npoMHCJiOM cyl^eno, ^a o6noBii CBOje nponajio h pas- 
;i;po6^eHO OTa^acTBO, ocjro6oAM aeroBe E3ry6^i>eHe o6jracTii 
iicnoji; Tyl^era japna, y ;i,p:KaBHO ex je;i;HHCTBO CKynn ii 
uy;i:e y^nxe^ h nacTnp Hapo^HH. 

HeMaaa je 6ho KpniTen najnpe y KaTO.iiH^KOj ixpEBH, 
a AOiiHnje, Kaji; My ce OTan; BpaxHO y CBOjy npecTOHHn;y, 
Pacy, KpcTHO je ji,eTe nonoBO y npaBOCJiaBHOj n;pKBH. 

3aBHji;a je HMao ^leTEpn CHHa: Ilpeocjiaea, Cpaii^uMupa, 
MitpocMwa II HeMawy. 

Ka;i; je HeMasa o;i;pacTao, ;i;o6Hje h oh cboj ;i;eo o;i: 
o^eBiix 3eMayi)a no TaAamaeM o6H^iajy. ^o6ho je iicyne 
liCap, TonjiHn;y, PacHHy h PeEe h npE[ji;pyatHO hx J^y6o- 
^mn;ii, Kojy je pannje ;i,o6ho na hokjioh oa BH3aHTE[jcKora 
irapa MaHOj^ia. Kao h ona ji,Ba CTapnja 6paTa aeroBa, 
TaKO je H HeMaE»a cjiymao ii npMBHasao BjiacT najcTapK- 
jera UpBOCJiasa, ajiH je y CBOjoj seM.z&H ima^e no CBOjO] 
iiaMeTii ynpaB^i)ao. Cxapao ce o noTpe6aMa Hapoji;HHM, na 
Kao iiaMeTaH h no6omaH BJia;i.ap snao je, KaEO cy Hapo;i:y 
ii0Tpe6He u;pKBe, a H>eMy oneT o;i; EaKBe fee noMotn Bhtk 
Kajiy^epn h CBeniTeHHn;H, h 3aT0 o^iMax no^ne ji;H3aTH nip- 
KBe y TomiHn;H. TaEO je ji;Hrao u;pEBy CBeTOj Boropoji,Mu;H 
npeMa yniiiy peEe KocaHiin;e n n;pEBy cbctom Hheojiv 
cnpoby ynita peKe BaacKe. Obhm sajiiymSnHaMa npoczaBH 
HeMaaa ce6e jaEO n npH;i;o6HJe ce6H h napoji, ii CBeniTencTBO. 


Ko je ocjiooojiiHo h yjeji,HHHo cpiiCKa njieMena? 

KaKBo je 6hjio ciaae npe HeMaite? 

KaKBH cy ojiHocH BJiaji;ajiii}y Cp5a h BnsaHTHJe? 

KaEO ce csao HeMaann oTau,? 

Pj^e je 3aBn;i;a Mopao 6e/KaTn? 

K0.1HK0 je CHHosa imao 3aBHji;a? 

Ko je 6ho sH3aHTHJCKH ii;ap y ;ii66a HeMaEbe? 

Je jiH HeMaaa snjiiao Eojy ixpKBy? 

Formation of the Feminine Forms. 97 

Second Lesson. 

Formation of the Feminine Forms derived from 
substantives which denote a masculine being. 

Most appellations of masculine beings permit the 
formation of feminine forms, viz. : 

1. By modifying the masculine terminations -hk or 
-an, into the feminine termination -Hii,a: 

6eAHHK the poor man 6e;i;HHnia the poor woman 

rjiyMaii; the actor rjiyMHii;a the actress 

y^eHHK the boy student y^eHHi];a the girl student 

BojrecHHK the sick man 6ojiecHHii;a the sick woman. 

2. By adding -Ka or -iiii,a to the masculine form: 
ygHTe.zb the teacher yHHTe.ZbHii,a the lady teacher 
cnacHTe.ZE) the Saviour cnaciiTe.ZbKa the Saviour, /. 
npHjaxe^ the friend npHjaTe.ZbHi];a the lady friend 
mvrsiTeJb the reader HHTaTe.ZbKa the lady reader 
6B^ap the boy shepherd OBqapEa the girl shepherd. 

3. By adding -Hii,a to the masculine form, especially 
to those words denoting animals and titles: 

jiaB the lion jiaBima the lioness 

Marapaii; the ass (male) MarapHri;a the ass (female) 

KypjaK the wolf KypjapHii;a the she-wolf 

BpaSan; the cock-sparrow Bpa6Hi];a the hen-sparrow 

u,ap the emperor i];apHi];a the empress 

Kpa^ the king Kpa.ZbHiiia the queen 

rpa(|) the count rpa(|)Hi],a the countess 

SapoH the baron 6ap6Hnii;a the baroness. 

4. By adding a: 

cynpyr the husband cynpyra the wife 

KyM the godfather - Kyna the godmother. 

5. By adding HBba: 

KHe3 the prince KHeriiaa the princess 

6or god 66rHH,a the goddess 

xepi];or the duke xepii;orHH,a the duchess 

cjiyra the servant CJiyniKHaa the girl- servant 

Typ^HH the Turk TypKHaa the Turkish lady 

Bjrax the Roumanian Bjiaxnaa the Roumanian lady 

<J>paHii;y3 the Frenchman $paHi];ycKHBba the French lady 

Enrjies the Englishman EnrjiecEHaa the English lady. 

Servian grammar. 7 

98 Lesson 2. 

6. Special feminine forms are the following: 

iiou the priest nona;i,HJa the wife of a priest 

CBeKap the father-in-law CBeKpBa the mother-in-law 

rocnbAHH Mr., sir, gentleman rocnot/a Mrs., lady, madam 

npiiHij; the prince npHHij,e3a the princess. 

Translation 2. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

Except about 250,000 Roman Catholics in Bosnia 
and about 350,000 Mohammedans in the same province 
and in Hertzegovina, all other Servians belong to the 
Eastern Orthodox Church. The church books are writ- 
ten and the church services read in the Old Slavonic 
language, the same which is used in the Russian and 
Bulgarian churches. This circumstance forms an im- 
portant link of union between the Balkan Slavs (Ser- 
vians and Bulgarians) and strengthens their ethnogra- 
phic relationship with the Russians. 

Although the Byzantine provinces, into which the 
Servians immigrated in the seventh century, were prac- 
tically depopulated, the Servians met there Albanian 
settlements, Latin colonies and the nomadising Wallachs 
(Welsh!). The mixture with them in the course of cen- 
turies has somewhat modified the Slavonic type of the 
Servians. There are now to be found among them 
more Roman or Greek dark eyes than the grey eyes 
of the pure Slavs. The handsomest types of the Ser- 
vians are to be found in Hertzegovina and Montenegro. 

Ethnographically one nation, the Servians lived 
politically divided into a number^ of independent coun- 
ties, or, as they called them, Zupaniyas. When it 
happened that a Zupaniya had at its head a more 
energetic Zupan (Count), he would try to subdue and 
unite with his own some of the neighbouring Zupa- 
niyas. In this direction was prominently active Vishes- 
lav (towards the end of the eighth century), Zupan of 
Zagorye (Lim, Tara, ^Piva), and more especially his 
great-great-grandson Zupan Chaslav (931 — 960), who 
succeeded in forming a united Servian state stretching 
from Antibari on the Adriatic, to the river Cetina in 
Dalmatia, and from the Adriatic coast to the rivers 

Formation of the Feminine Forms. 99 

Koliibara and Ibar in the east. But after his death 
this first union of Servian Zupaniyas broke down, and 
the Servians came first under the rule of the Bulgarian, 
and then (in the beginning of the eleventh century) 
under the direct rule of the Byzantine Emperors. An- 
other attempt was made towards the end of the eleventh 
century by the Zupan Michael Visheslavich to unite 
Servian provinces into one kingdom, but he also failed. 
At last Stephan Nemanya, as Great Zupan of Rashka 
(the country around present Novi Bazar), succeeded in 
the second half of the twelfth century in uniting most 
of the Servian countries under his sceptre, establishing 
his own family (Nemanyichi) as the reigning dynasty 
of Servia (1169 — 1371). Stephan Nemanya never took 
for himself the title of King («Kral» — the last con- 
sonant pronounced as liquid), but his son Stephan was 
formally crowned as the first Servian king, in the church 
of Zicha, in 1222. 


KaKas je TO 6e;iHHK? To je chh jeji,Hor 66raTor 6ii;a aiH 

je BeJIHKH pasBpaTHHK. 
Kaiio iirpajy Bamn r;iyMii,H? J^66po iirpajy, ajiH rjiyMi[ii;e nrpa- 

jy 6bjhe. 
T]i,e cy OTnyiOBajiH khcs h Kae- OinyTOBajiH cy y JTohj^oh na Kpy- 

rnita? HHcasbe 6pHTaHCKor Kpa.^a. 

Jecy jiH Cp6H HMajrn cbojhx na- Jecy. HajcjiaBHHJn nap cpncKH 
peBa? 6ho je ^yman Chjihh. 

Reading Exercise. 
2. PaT HeMaaHH c fipatoM, 

Bpaiia no3aBHji;e cjraBH naJMJial^era 6paTa h nonjiaine 
ce 3a BJiacT. XlosoBy ra k ce6H, na My pcKHy: 

«niTa TH TO TiHHHm, Hpe HO niTO CH ce c nana o 
TOM ;i;oroBopHO, Kao niTO je BaH>ajro?» 

Oh hx na to norjie^a h o^roBopH hm kpotko, thxhm 

«Bpa}io Moja MHjra! HeMojTe ce .zbyTHTH na Me 36or 
OBora Mor ;i;ejra, niTO caM ra y hmc Bo^je noneo h roTOBO 
CBpmHO. Mh, h aKO cmo po^ena 6pajKa, obo je ji^ejio caMO 
Moje, na aKO je Ao6po, HCKa 6y;i,e mchh, a aKO je 3jio, 
HeKa oncT 6jji,e Menn. Bh thm HHniTa ne ry6HTe!» 

100 LesHon 2. 

Upahy yMHpe OBe pe^iii. IleMaita ^OBpiiiH cacBMM: 
OTno^ieTO ;i,ejio. 

A.iH nocjie iieKor BpeMena 6palia ce oneT iio6oje sa 
CBOjy BJiacT, jep Henaity ^y6^axy h noniTOBaxy cbh, h 
cxany CMHm.i»aTH, KaKO ;i;a ra yKJione. JI,oroBope ce, Te 
nosoBy K ce6H 6e3Jio6Hora, yxBaxe ra, OKyjy My Hore h 
pyKe H 6aii;e ra y KaMennTy nehnny, Kao mTO cy neKaji; 
opata Bpjrora JocH(})a y jany 6aii;ajiH, nixa je BoacjH npo- 
MHcao 3a H>era oji,pe,^HO. 

TaKO HeMaiLa ji,onaAe TaMHiiii;e, y Kojoj je qaMHO neKO 
BpeMe MOjretH ce cb. T)yp^y n ya^ajyiiH ce y noMot BojKjy 
H CBora Hapojiia. H oh ce ji,oncTa ocjro6oji;H TaMHHii;e. Y 
3HaK 3axBajiH0CTH Ha CBOMe cnaceay o;i,Max no^ne 3H;i;aTii 
xpaM CB. T)yp]^y. To cy ^yBenn 'Byp^eeu Cmy6o6ii y 

TaKBO nonaniaae 6paiie npena aeMy 3a6ojiejio ra je, 
H OH je y HCTO Ao6a CMHin^ao, Aa BpaTH 6pahH mhjio 3a 
;i,paro, thm npe, niTO ce Mopao 6ojaTH, ;r,a 6pata jom 
je^HOM He noHOBe to c hhm. ^Ihm ce ocjio6o;i,ho xaMHime, 
HOXHTa y CBOJ Kpaj, CKynn BOjCKy h y^apn na 6pahy, no- 
6e;i,H nx h nporjiacH ce 3a BejiHKor jKynana 1169. 

Bpata H3ry6e h 6HTKy n 3eM.!by h no6erHy y BH3aH- 
THjy. Ty CKyne BOjcKy h y H>y HonpHMajy n nonanMajy 
H rp^Ke BOJHHKe h ji;pyre Hapo;i;e h ycTpeMe ce npoTHB 
6e3Jio6Hora h yl^y y H>eroBO oxa^acTBO c Be.iHKOM bojckom 


HeMaaa ;i,o^eKa CBy Ty CHJiy koji; MecTa IlaHTHHa. 
Pacnope^H jieno CBOjy BOjcKy h o^ynieBH je 6eceji,0M, Kojy 
3aBpniH OBHM pe^HMa: «KaK0 iviene BH;i,HTe, TaKO m bh 
pa^HTe ! » 

Boj ce OTHO^ne. BeTniHHa HeMaanna h cpncKO jy- 
HaniTBO o;i.p3Ke no6e;i:y. HeMaaa node^n CBOje nenpHja- 
Te./be H Tyt)e Hapo;i,e, h ohh cbh tv H3rHHynie h aeroBHM 
opy^KjeM caxpBeHH 6Hnie, ;i,a hm hh Tpara hh rjiaca y 3eM^H 
He ocTa. Je^HH na;i,onie o;i, opy^Kja, Apyrn ;i;ona;i,onie 
cysKancTBa, HajBetn hx ce ago no^aBH y peii;H, a ocTajio 
no6e^eHO BpaTH ce naTpar. H cana Ta peKa, Ha3BaHa 
CHTHHn;a, Kao ^a je 6HjTa BoroM nay^ena, npHMH y Ay^nny 
cBojy MHoniTBO HenpHjaTe^La h BOJBO^y anxoBa, 3aE0H0- 
HpecTyHHora 6paTa IIpBOCJiaBa, kojh ce Ty y 6htii;h npo- 
THB HeMaae 6opHO, h na^HHH oa shxobhx TCJieca moct, 
TaKO, ^a ce Morjio npeKO anx Kao ho cyxy ra3HTH. H 

Formation of the Feminine Forms. 101 

TaKO MM yrHHy cnoMen ca jiHii;a sen^e, H»HMa, kojh cy 3a 
Tyt/MM 'jKYji^ejiii, na cy h CBOje M3ry6ajiH. 

Ta je Biia^ajHa no6e;i;a 6HJia 1169. ILom je HenaEba 
yHHniTHO CTapH Hepe;i; h CTapy noij;enaHOCT, ocHOBao ji;Be- 
CToro;i,imiH>y ji,HHacTHjy HeMaiLHta h jaKy cpncKy jiipiKaBy. 

Oninxa ncTopHJa. II:3pa;i,H0 Joean "Eap^eeuK. 

3. NemaDJa oslobadja i ujedinjuje srpske zemlje. 

Posle boja kod Pantina Miroslav i Stracimir su se 
morali pomiriti s najmladim bratom i priznati ga za 
velikoga zupana. Potpomognut od brace krene se Ne- 
manja, da dalje oslobada i ujedinjuje srpske zemlje. 
Imao je osim zemalja brace svoje i Hum i Trebinje. 
On sad napadne na Zetu^ koja je imala svoga vlada- 
oca, ali je bila pod grckom vrhovnom vlascu, Pobedi 
vladaoca te zemlje i osvoji celu zemlju s gradovima. 
Pobedama ovim povratio je pod svoju vlast BiMju i 
Dahiaciju^ prvu kao ocevinu svoju i postojbinu, a drugu 
kao svoju dedovinu, na silu zauzetu od Grka, koji su 
u toj oblasti sazidali gradove, da bi se po njima pro- 
zvala grcka oblast. Mnoge je gradove ostavio, a naro- 
cito je odlikovao grad Kotor tim, sto je u njemu sagra- 
dio sebi dvor. Ostale je pak gradove porusio, razorio 
i velicinu njihovu preobratio u pustinju istrebiv ime 
grcko, da se vise nikako u tim oblastima ne cuje. To 
je bilo 1170. god. 

Posle ovoga rata nasta neko vreme mir. To vreme 
upotrebi Nemanja, da jos bolje ucvrsti u zajednici sve, 
sto je ujedinio. On je te zemlje silom i oruzjem skupio 
u jedinstvo, ali je sad trebalo blagom i jakom vezom 
vezati sve te zemlje. Medutim i verski smo bili poce- 
pani u nekoliko vera. Bilo je Srba pravoslavne i rimo- 
katolicke vere, bilo je bogumila, pa nesto i mnogobo- 
zaca. I svi su se medu sobom mrzili, kao da nisu 
jednoga istog naroda sinovi. Najopasniji su bili hogu- 
mili^ kojih je mnogo bilo, a svojim ucenjem su jako 
smetali smerovima Nemanjinim. 

Toga radi sazove Nemanja drzavni sabor u stoni 
grad Ba^ti, Tu dode arhijerej Kalinik, mnostvo monaha 
i svestenika, mnoge velmoze i staresine. Tu bude re- 

102 Lesson 2. 

seno, da se bogumili i mnogobosci pozovu, da se vrate 
u pravoslavnu veru, a ako ne ushteju, da se prinude 

Bogumili se ne htese vratiti u pravoslavlje. Tada 
Nemanja digne vojsku na njih i oruzjem ih svlada. 
Mnogi padose, a mnogi izbegose u susedne zemlje. I 
tako sasvim iskoreni tu neveriju, da joj se u njegovoj 
drzavi ni imena ne zna. 

Godine 1183. Nemanju sreca lepo posluzi, on os- 
voji zupe Levac, Belicu, Lepenicu, gradove Nis, Svrljig, 
Ravni i Kozelj, Bogastvo i slavu ovih gradova pretvori 
u bogastvo i slavu svoga otacastva i u slavu velmoza 
i Ijudi svojih. Zatim osvoji i Sredac i porusi ga. 

U svom daljem ratovanju neprestano je sirio gra- 
nice svoje drzave i medju mnogim gradovima, koje 
zauze, bill su i Vranje, Velhuzd^ SJcople i Prizren. Ti 
uspesi ohrabre i Srbe u Povardarju, te se i oni pobune 
protiv Grka. 

Ali ova srpska osvojenja uplase jako vizantiskoga 
cara Isaka Angela. On napregne sve sile i krene se 
na Nemanju 1191. Ovoga puta Nemanju izda stara 
ratna sreca. Srbi izgube na Moravi bitku, a s njom i 
neke ranije osvojene zemlje, koje su docnije povratili 
od Vizantije potomci Nemanjini. 

Posle ovoga trajao je mir za sve vreme potonje 
vladavine Nemanjine. On se je ne samo pomirio, nego 
se i orodio s carem. Ozenio je svoga sina Stevana 
sinovicom carevom Evdohijom, 


SaoiTO cy 6paiia IleMaay 6aij,HJiH y TaMHHii,y? 

KaKo ce HeMaaa ocjio66;;ho TaMHHue? 

Je JiH no5e;i.Ho HeMaaa CBOjy 6paKy? 

KaKO ce 30Be Mecio r;i;e je Henaita oApjKao n65eji;y Ha;i; cbo- 

joM 6pahoM? 
Koje je 6op6e Bojtno HenaiLa iiocjie xe n6oejr,e. 
SaniTo je BHsanTHCKH nap paxoBao npoTHBy Cp5a? 
Je JiH ce HcMaita hsmhpho ca BHsanxHCKHM ii;apeM. 
Kora je o;ii cbojhx cnnoBa ojKeHHo chhobhi];om ii,apeBOM? 

Formation of the plural of substantives. 103 

Third Lesson. 

Formation of the Plural of Substantives. 

1. The plural termination of masculine nouns, 
in a consonant, is -ii: 

Nom. sing. Norn. plui\ 

jfejieH the deer jejienii the deer 

6pa^ the ploughman opa^H the ploughmen 

npHjaTe^ the friend npHjaxe^H the friends 

saKOH the law 3aK0HH the laws. 

BemarJc. Masculine nouns which have an a before their 
final consonant (e.g.: -am, -an, -au, -miy etc.) elide that a in the 
nom. pi. as well as in all other cases except the gen. pi. : 

Nom. sing. Nom. plur. 

CBeTaii; the saint CBeii;H the saints 

HbKaT the nail h5kth the nails. 

However, those substantives having a long a before 
their final consonants, retain the same: ji,aH — ;i,aHH, 
niicap — HHcapH. The same happens with the mono- 
syllabic masculine nouns. 

2. A certain number of masculine substantives 
ending in ^, k, or x modify those sounds into 3, ii,, or 
€, respectively: 

per the horn poan the horns 

jynaK the hero jyHaii,H the heroes 

6pax the nut opacH the nuts. 

3. Nouns denoting persons and ending in -hh, 
elide that syllable before the plural termination -h: 
rpa]^aHHH a citizen rpat^aHH citizens 

C|)6hh a Servian Cp6H Servians 

ByrapHH a Bulgarian Byrapn Bulgarians. 

4. The majority of monosyllabic masculine nouns 
insert in the plural the syllables -ob or -eB: 

BCK the century, age bckobh the centuries, ages 

non the priest nonOBH the priests 

BO the ox BOJiOBH the oxen 

MOOT the bridge m5ctobh the bridges 

Epaj the end KpajeBH the ends 

66j the battle 66jeBH the battles 

HOiK the knife HomeBH the knives. 

Bemark. 3eii; the hare; and nyx the way, have in the plural 
both ae^eBH, nyTesn and sei^OBEr, nyxoBH. 

104 Lesson 3. 

Traiislatioii 3. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

Servians under the Ncmanyich Dynasty, — The po- 
licy of the kings of the Nemanyich dynasty was to profit 
by the disorganisation of the Greek Empire, to conquer 
from the Greeks all the provinces inhabited by the 
Servians, to form a strong kingdom of Servia, and to 
bring the same into prosperous commercial relations 
with Venice and Italy in general. They introduced into 
the country the Saxon miners and made Servia, by 
their help, one of the most important silver-producing 
countries of Europe during the Middle Ages. They 
entered into political relations with Germany, and once 
or twice made treaties of alliance with France and with 

The greatest of the Servian sovereigns during the 
Middle Ages was Stephan Dooshan Nemanyich (1331 
till 1355). Perceiving the dangers which were menacing 
the Balkan countries from the rising power of the Turks 
in Asia Minor, and not less from Venice and from 
Hungary, he conceived the idea of uniting all the Balkan 
nations into one empire and combining their powers of 
resistance. He annexed Albania and the Greek pro- 
vinces of Macedonia (with the exception of Salonica), 
and took the title of Emperor of the Greeks, Bulgarians 
and Servians (proclamation at the end of 1345), coro- 
nation on Easter-Day, 1346). He made the Servian 
Church absolutely independent of the Greek Patriarch 
in Constantinople and raised the Archbishop of Servia 
to the dignity of a Patriarch (who took the title of 
Ipek, his residence having been placed at Ipek, near 
the great Monastery ofDechani). In 1349 he convoked 
his Parliament at Skoplye (Uskub) and submitted to 
the same for approval a Codex of civil and criminal 
laws, known as '^Zakonik" (Codex of laws), of the Tsar 
Dooshan. The historians of the evolution of civil and 
criminal laws in Europe find that Dooshan's Zakonik 
compares favourably with the laws in other European 
countries of that time. He entered into an alliance 
with Venice against Hungary, and was making prepa- 
rations to march on Constantinople when he suddenly 

Formation of the Plural of Substantives. 105 

died (December 1355), in the forty-sixth year of his 
very active and successful life. 

Reading Exercise. 

He npol^e MHoro BpeMcna h HcnyHH ce cjiyTaa h 
sedaa HeMaanna. 

HcnaKOCTH ce ByKaH na CBora 6paTa h nosBa Yrpe 
Ha CBOjy AOMOBHHy H Ha CBora 6paTa, jep xTe;i,e ;i,a 6y;i;e 
OH BejiHKH atynan. 

H npoHjiaKa cpncKa sen^a, jep ce o6arpH KpB^y ji^ejie 
CBOJe. Ha npecTO ce;i;e OTMH^ap, ycjiy^KHa cjiyra Tyl>HH- 
CKora Kpa.zba. A napo^ ce cpncKii pacTypn, jep HacTa^Offle 
TeniKH AaHH sa cpncKO njicMe. IIoAHB^a HHTOMa seM^zba 
cpncKa, H.HBe o6pacTonie TpaBOM, He pal)a 3eM.zba hh bhhom 
HH nnieHHi];oM, a ;i;HB^e SBepnae H3H;i,e h3 cbojhx Mpa^- 
HHX CTanoBa na Bo;kjh ^an h nanaAame na ^y;i;e. Snona 
yMyKonie, Becejie necMe npecTaAonie. CTCBaH ce yKJiOHH 
y je;i,aH ;i;eo CBOje ^pacaBe. H TaKO je Tpajajio neKOJiHKO 
jiCTa. A Ta;i;a ^ol^e ByKan k ce6ii, jep ra rpnaanie casecT, 
a Ha CHy My ce jaB^ame CTapn HeMaaa h Kopame ra 
CTpaniHHM pe^HMa. 

Je^e HotiH Tpa^e ce ByKan Hsa cna, h oe, ^y hckh 
niyM H BH;i,e, r;i,e ce saBoca oji, maTopa pacii;enH h y nia- 
Top ynnt^e cxapn Henaaa. HHKa;i,a ra xaKO CTpamna ne 
BH^e ByKan. Yi/e, h nacjioaen na Ma^, kojh My ;i;apoBa 
CTapn Bap6apoca, npo36opH Ty^HHM rjracoM, rjiacoM o;i; 
Kora ce 3ajie;i;H cBa KpB y acHjiaMa ByKanoBBM: «He;i;ocTOJHH 
CHHe! TBOJa He;i,ejia ne ji;ejy mh, ;i;a Mnpno no^HBaM no;!, 
KaMOHHTHM CBOjtOBHMa Be^He Kybo Moje. ByKane! 3ap 
HH TpH JiCTa ;i;a ne npe^HBH ;i;ejro MOje, a ja caM ra 3a 
BeKOBO cnpeMao! h3 ;i,0Ma 3aBH;i;HHa Majio npojin- 
Bene kpbh npoTOKJio xjra;[i;H0M Chthhh;om, ;i;ok caM ;i;oKOHao 
;i,ejio MOje, a th ra obo Bet KBapnni. HesaxBajiHH cnne, 
BpaTH 6paTy Kpyny, a Mnp cenn ouia TBora y rpo6y!» 
TaKO pene cen HeMaaHna h necTaj^e je h3 CBHjiena maTopa, 
a Ha no^y ce ^ynie npBH rjracn BecHHKa 3opHHHX. 

H ByKan BH;i;e ;i,a je on n;HrjiH bhhobhhk cbhx 6e;oi;a, 
HiTO Hant/ome na njicMe aeroBO. H nocpaMH ce y ^yniH 
CBOjoj, noKaja ce h noBpaTH BjiacT 6paTy cbomo h 6pafea 

ce HSMHpHHie. 

106 Lesson 3. 

A 3a 60JLJ Bepy h cnoMeii nsMnpeita aiixoBa nociame 
KH>Hry 6paTy cBOMe Crbh h no3Bame ra ;i;a Aol^e, ^a 6jia- 
rocjiOBH MHp H>HX0B. A y KTBH3H OBaKO 6eme HanncaHo: 
«IIo;i,Hrim Tejio CBexora h npenoAo6Hor oii,a nainer h 
y^HHH HaM 6paTCKy ^i.y6aB h ynpaBO mhjioct, na ce h 
can noTpyjiH, Te ;i:oHecH OBano aeroBe CBeTe mohith, ji,a 
ce ji,OHOCOM OBe BejiHKe CBexHiLe h tbojhm ;i;ojracKOM OTa- 
qacTBO name nocBeTH h npocBeTH. Jep ce 3eM^a nama 
ocKBpHH HaraHM 6e3aKOH>eM H orpe3Hy nan OTa^acTBO y 
KpB CHHOBa CBOJHX, a Ha HenpnjaTe^CKH na^HH npojiHseHOj, 
Te na;i;ocMO n nocTa^ocMO ujien Tyi/HHaiiia h nenpHJaTe^M 
ce HamH npeKO Mepe 0CHJiHnie.» 

H y^HHH CaBa OHaKO, KaKO ra OTau; 3aKjie, a 6paiia 
3aM0J[Hine. J[o%e y 3eMcZby cpncKy, Kojy ;i,aBHO ocxaBHO 
6eme, h caxpaHH lejio CBora oi];a y KaneHHTy rpo6HHii,y y 
CTyji;eHHi];H. IIoy^H 6paiiy CBOjy, n o;i; Ta;i,a ce cjiaraxy 
6palia Kao CO H XJie6. Cmeean Cpeuan^. 


Ko udara tako pozno u diibini nocnog mira 
Na kapiji zatvorenog svetogorskog manastira? 

«Vec je proslo clavno vece, i nema se ponoc hvata, 

Sedi oci kaluderi, otvor'te mi teska vrata, 

Svetlosti mi dusa hoce, a odmora slabe noge, 

Klonulo je moje telo, umorne su moje noge, 

Ar je krepka volja moja, sto me nocas k vama vodi, 

Da posvetim zivot rodu, otadzbini i slobodi. 

Prezreo sam carske dvore, carsku krunu i porfiru, 

I sad evo svetlost trazim u skromnome manastiru. 

Otvor te mi, casni oci, manastirska teska vrata 

I primite carskog sina ko najmladed svoga brata». 

Zaskriptase teska vrata, a nad njima sova prnii 
I s krestanjem razvi krila i skloni se u noc crnu, 
A na pragu hrama svetog, gde se Bozje ime slavi, 
Sa buktiDJom upaljenom nastojnik se otac javi. 
On buktinju gore dize iznad glave svoje svete 
I ugleda, cudeci se, bezazleno, boso dete. 

Formation of tiie Plural of Substantives. 107 

Visoko mu bledo celo, pomrsene guste vlasi, 
Ali celo uzviseno bozanstvena mudrost krasi. 
Za ruku ga starac uze, poljubi mu celo bledo, 
I kroz suze prosaputa: «Primamo te, milo cedo!» 

Vekovi su prohujali od cudesne ove noci, 
Vekovi su prohujali, i mnogi ce joste proci, — 
Ar to dete joste zivi, jer njegova zivi slava, 
Jer to dete bese Rastho, sin Nemanjin, sveti Sava, 

Vojislav J. Ilijc. 

Fourth Lesson. 

Formation of the Plural of Substantives (cont'd.). 

1. Feminine nouns in -a have in plural -e: 

jKena the woman :ji{eHe the women 

cecTpa the sister cecTpe the sisters 

MaJKa the mother MajKe the mothers 

Kyka the house icyiie the houses 

KBiira the book Kifciire the books. 

2. All those substantives which are masculine by 
their sex, but which end in -a, have also -e in plural: 

B6JBo;i,a the duke B6jB0;i,e the dukes 

cjiyra the servant (boy) cjiyre the servants 

BJihjijma, the bishop BJia;i,HKe the bishops 

cyjpja the judge cy;i;Hje the judges. 

3. Many feminine nouus (especially abstracts) which 
end in a consonant have an h in the plural: 

CTBap the thing; 2)1. CTBapn Hoh night; pi. hoIih 

pCT the word; j9?. pe^n noMoii the help; pi. nbuoiiR 

Moh the power; pi. moIih Kan the drop; pZ. Kann 

KOCT the bone; pL koctm 66jiecT the illness; pi. 65- 

rjiaji; the hunger; 2)1. rjia^n jiecTH 

Ji&m the lie; pi. mmn .7by6aB the love; pi. .zby6aBH 
me}) the thirst; ^9/. :Ket)M. 

4. To this category belong also the feminine nouns 
ending in -oct, e.g.: 

108 Lesson 4. 

3IMJI0CT the grace; mercy rjiynocT foolishness — rjiy- 


pa;i,ocT the joy — pa;i,ocn^ CTajiHOCT persistence — 
MajieuKOCT tritie — Majren- cTajiriocT?^ 

KOCT^^ CMejiocT audacity — CMejiocTn 

MJia;i,ocT youth — MAhji^ocTu CTapocT old age — CTapocn*. 

5. Neuter nouns in -o or -e have in plural -a, e.g.: 
cejio village; cejia n6.zbe Held; uojhci 

ji^ejio deed; )i^ejia jiHii,e face; JiHij;a 

MacTHJio ink MacTiiJia siime knowledge; snaaa 

nepo pen; iiept^ C})i];e heart; cpij;a. 

6. Irregular plural have the following: 
njiene a tribe — njCMena ,T;eTe child — /i,eii,a 
TCJio a body — Tejieca 5ko eye — ohh 
He6o sky — iie6eca yxo ear — yiuH 

^y;i;o wonder — ^y;i,feca jape little goat — japnLn 

;i,pBO tree — ;i,pBete nnjie chicken nnjiaji, and 

;i;pBO w^ood — ji,pB^e nn^intH 

Tejie calf — TCJiaji, jarite lamb — jaraa^i.. 

Translation 4. 

Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

Under the reign of his son, "Oorosh Neyald" 
(Oorosh the youthful, or "the not strong one"), Tsar 
Dooshan's empire went speedily into dissolution. The 
Greek provinces reverted to the Greek Empire, Mace- 
donia became a separate kingdom with Vookashin, and 
after him with his son Marko, as kings, the Adriatic 
coast with both Zetas (to-day Montenegro) acknowled- 
ging the princes of the Franco-Servian house Balshas 
(Balzos in Italian, de Baulx in French) as their sove- 
reigns, while the northern provinces acknowledged Knez 
(Count) Lazar, the husband of Militsa, a relation of the 
House of Nemanyich, as their ruler. Knez Lazar (who 
never took the title of "King," much less of Tsar, but 
in the national ballads is always called "Tsar Lazar") 
worked to organise a coalition of the Bulgarians, Rou- 
manians, Bosnians and Hungarians with the Servians 
against the Turks, but before this coalition was organ- 
ised, the Turks, under the Sultan Moorad I, attacked 
Servia, and on the 15^^ of June, 1389, defeated the 

Formation of the Plural of Substantives. 109 

Servian army under Lazar on the field of Kossovo. 
Before the battle, one of the Servian Voyvodas (generals), 
Milosh Obilich by name, smarting under false accusa- 
tions of his enemies that he had intended to betray 
his chief and father-in-law, Knez Lazar, to the Turks, 
went to the Turkish camp, asked an audience with 
Moorad, and assassinated him in his own tent. As in 
the battle Knez Lazar was made a prisoner and be- 
headed, and as on that occasion the flower of the Ser- 
vian aristocracy perished, the battle of Kossovo made 
a deep impression on the Servians, who to this day 
believe that their independence and their liberty were 
lost in that famous battle of Kossovo, In reality the 
Servian state lived under Lazar 's son Stephan, and then 
under his grandson, George Brankovich, up to 1454 a. D., 
when it came definitely under the direct Turkish Go- 
vernment, while another Servian kingdom, Bosnia, was 
subdued by the Turks in A.D. 1462. 

Reading Exercise. 
Cxapa nocTOJ6aHa CjiOBena m Cp6a. 

Cp6H cy ^jraH BejiHKe h MHoro6poJHe nopoji,Hi];e, y 
Kojy ce 6poje obh Hapo;i;H: Cp6u ca xpsaTHMa h CjiOBen- 
i],HMa, Eyiapii, Pyai, 'Vecu ca cjiOBai];HMa, Ilojbamc h 
JLyowiiHKii cp6ii. 

Cbh obh Hapo;i,H HMajiH cy nopeji; cbojhx iioce6HHx 
H cBOje 3aje;i;HH^K0 iine. TaKBHx saje^TiHiinKHx HMena 
6hjio je BHine, jep cy hx jtpyK^iHje nasHBajiM Ty^H Hapoji;H, 
a ;i;pyK^Hje cy ce ohh cann 3Ba.iH. Oji; thx HMena naj- 
3HaTHHja cy ji,Ba: CTapnje hmc Cp6im h Mjia^e Cjioeemm, 
Obhm ce nocjreAH>KM hmchom sosy cbh nanpe^i; noMeHyTH 
Hapo;i,H, a h ji;pyrH hx Hapoji,H thm hmghom nasHBajy. 
CxapHje HMe «Cp6», neEaji, oninTe cbhm cjiOBencKHM napo- 
ji;HMa, ;i;aHac je ocTajio Kao noce6HO Hapo;i;HO hmc nana h 

J[y5KH^lKHM Cp6HMa. 

Cbh cjiOBencKH Hapo;i;H CTanoBaxy Herji,a je;i;aH ji,o 
;i:pyrora y CTapoj dSLJej^mmiO} nocTOj6HHH CBOjoj na ncTOKy 
EBpone. Ty cy acHBCJiH MHoro BeKOBa npe XpncTa h 
HeKOjiHKO nocjie Xpscxa, y THrannH, ;i;ajreKO oji o6pa30- 
BaHHJHx EapoAa, c KOJHMa cy ce cjia6o MemaJiH, tc c Tora 
H cjia6o 3Hal)affle ocTajiH cbct 3a ibhx. A Ka;a; nacTa Be- 

110 Les.son 4. 

jHKa ceo6a Hapo^a y Eiipoim, oiuuiH ce h ko;i, cjiOBena 
jkebjlu iiOKpeT H pasMeiuTaj. Jcahii ocTaAome y CTapnM 
ceAMuiTHMa CBOJHM (PycH), a Apyrn ce uoMaKOiue A^Jbe na 
3ana;i, (M^ecn h Ilo^i.aij,H), a TpeliH ;i,a^e OBaMO Ha jyr 
EBpone (Cp6h). 

H Cp6H cy HcnpBa CTanoBajiH y 3aje;i;HHqK0j nocTOj- 
6viim cjiOBeHCKOj, a to je ca;i,amifca rajiHii;HJa oko HSBopa 
BHCJie, Byra h JI^itecTpa. Ty cy sKSBejiH nacytn CTOKy h 
pa^etiH 3eM^y. Kaji; je nacTajia orimTa ceo6a napo^a, 
Kpeny ce h ohh h3 ceBepnnJHX KpajeBa y Jienine, jyFvHHje 
seM^e, A^ noTpa3Ke 6oJbe name sa cTOKy h njro;i,HHje 
3eM^e 3a o6^ejiaBaH)e. 

Cp6H ce HHcy y je;i,aH nyx ;i;ocejiHjrH Kao napo^, nero 
y HeKOJiHKO nyTa, njiene no njiene. Tpn najrjraBHHje 
cpncKe ceo6e 3a6ejre3KHj[a je HCTopnja. Jl,Ba nyxa cy ce 
ji;ocejrHJiH y ji,pyniTBy ca ji;pyrHM napoAHMa, a TpeLn nyT 
caMH Cp6H H XpsaTH. To ;i,oce^aBaH»e cpncKHx njienena 
Tpajajio je oji, nojiOBHHe neTora ;i,o nojiOBHHe ce^Mora BeKa 
(o;i; 450 — 650 ro^HHe), jr,aKJie neKHX ;i,Be cTOTnne ro;i,iiHa. 
OnniTa ncxopHJa. H.^pajijEo Joean ^op^eeiiK. 

Srpske zemlje. 

U polovini sedmoga veka dovrsena je bila seoba 
srpskih plemena doseljenjem nasih starih u drustvu sa 
Hrvatima. Goneci svoja stada sve od pasnjaka do 
pasnjaka oni su prejezdili istocne ogranke Alpa i preko 
reke Mure i Drave pali Da Savu od izvora do uvora 
njena. Pa i kad su presli tu reku, oni su opet sa svo- 
jim stadima zauzeli planine, i kako onda, tako i danas, 
ti su Srbi stocarski narod, dok su naprotiv oni, sto su 
ranije dosli, i bili i ostali narod zemljoradnicki. 

Ovom su poslednjom seobom dosla na Balkansko 
poluostrvo najratobornija plemena srpska, dosla su silom, 
macem prokrcila sebi put i zauzela zemlje. Ta su ple- 
mena zatekla u novoj svojoj postojbini mnoga i srpska 
i tuda plemena. Sa onim srpskim plemenima, koja su 
ranije dosla, lepo su se slagala, a tuda su plemena 
potisla ili pretopila u se. Tako su Srbi postali gospo- 
dari zapadne polovine Balkanskoga poluostrva i u njoj 
su se naselili. Te zemlje, sto su ih nasi stari naselili, 
zovu se danas ovim imenima; Srhija, Stara Srhija, 

Formation of the Plural of Substantives. Ill 

MaJcedonija, JBosna i Hercegovina, Hrvatska^ Dalmacija 
s Dubrovnikom, Crna Gora i severna Arianija. Ali neke 
od tih istih zemalja imadahu onda drukcija imena. 
Tako se onaj deo kraljevine Srbije i Stare Srbije, koji 
se pruza izmedu reka Tare, Drine i Ibra zvao onda 
jRaska. Ona je u raznim vremenima imala kad veci, 
kad manji obim. Sa napredovanjem srpskim granice 
su joj se sirile, a s opadanjem opet suzavale. Crna 
Gora se ranije zvala DuMja, a docnije Zeta. Danasnja 
Hercegovina postade od tri stare zemlje, od Trehinja, 
Huma i Neretve, a svaka od tih zemalja imadase i svoje 
primorje. Sve su se te zemlje delile onda na Primorske 
i Zagorske zemlje i na Podgorje. 

Osim ovih zemalja bilo je srpskih naselja i na Se- 
vern od Save i od Dunava, u BacJcoj, u Banatu i u 
Slavoniji. Tu su zaostali i naseliJi se nasi stari u doba 
seljenja Srba, jos pre dolaska Madzara. 

Srbi su rado ziveli u drustvu. Najmanje udruzenje 
bila je porodica, vece zadmga, a najvece pleme. Svako 
to udruzenje imalo je svoga staresinu. Staresina ple- 
mena zvao se iupan, a staresina nad vise plemena 
veMM mpan. 

Srpska su plemena rado zivela svako za se i nisu 
tezila, da se ujedine u jednu narodnu drzavu. Zato i 
nismo zadugo imali narodne drzave, nego samo plemen- 
skih drzavica, i toga radi se plemena zadugo radije 
nazivahu svojim raznim plemenskim imenima, nego za- 
jednickim imenom Srhi. 

Opsta istorija. Izra^lio Jovan Bordevic, 


KaKo ce sosy noje;i;HHH cjioBencKH Hapo;i;H? 

Tj^e cy cxanoBajiH Cp6H npn BejiHKe ce66e napoj^a? 

r;i;e cy ce ;i,6u.HHJe HacianHJiH? 

Koje cy cpncKe seM^e? 

KaKO ce sosy yj^pyateaa; Koje je naJBetie; KOJe naJMaae? 


Fifth Lesson. 

Declension of Substantives. 

I. Irregular Masculine Nouns. 

(a) As the nouns of the masculine gender have no 
termination in the nom. sing, (the ancient flexions ^ and 
h having completely disappeared) the nominative has 
the same form as its radical. The real radical of some 
nouns, however, is obtained by cutting ofi^ the termi- 
nation from other cases, e.g.: 

Nom. JiaKaT elbow Benap pig (male) necaK sand 
Gen. .laET-a senp-a necK-a. 

(b) Many monosyllabic masculine nouns insert in 
plural syllables ob or eB before the termination h, e.g.: 
Sing, nom knife Fl. HOJKeBH knives 

Kpajb king Kpa.zbeBH kings 

i];ap emperor i];apeBH emperors 

xpaM temple xpanoBH temples. 

The following are the exceptions to this rule: 
Sing. MpaB ant Fl. MpaBH ants 

i];pB worm ii:pBH worms 

rocT guest r6cTH guests. 

II. Irregular Feminine and Neuter nouns. 

(a) A few substantives (especially proper nouns of 
persons) which by their natural gender (sexe) are mas- 
culine although ending in a, are declined as feminine 
nouns; such are: 

cjryra the servant (boy) Hjinja 

BJiaji,HKa the bishop JlyKa 

cyAHJa the judge Ta;i;HJa 

B6JB0^e the duke rpyHii;a 

(b) The three substantives: pvKa hand; Hora leg, 
foot; and cjiyra servant, have in the gen. pi. (besides 
the regular plural: pyKa, Hora, cjiyra) also the ancient 
form: pyKy, Hory, CJiyry. 

(c) The feminine nouns koct bone, KOKoni hen, and 
tipcH (the latter used exclusively in the plural) have in 
the gen, pi, both forms: Kbcifi, K0K5infi, npcfi and: 
KbcTHJy, KOKbmnjy, npcHJy. 

proper names 
of persons. 

Declension of Substantives. 113 

(d) Some neuter nouns insert in the gen. pi. an a 
between the consonants of the radical (except the groops: 
3d, ofcd, cm and mm), e.g.: 

Nom, sing. Gen. pliir. 

pfe6po rib pfe6apa of the ribs 

DHCMO letter nncaMa of the letters 

3JT0 evil sajia of the evils. 

Translation 5. 

Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

Servians under the Turldsh ride. Practically from 
the middle of the fifteenth to the beginning of the 
nineteenth century the entire Servian nation, with the ex- 
ception of a handful of hardy mountaineers of Monte- 
negro, was transformed into the Turkish ''Rayah," the 
''conquered infidels," who had no rights or privileges, 
wdio paid to the Sultan "haratch", and a tenth of the 
product of their labour, and who were at the mercy of 
their Turkish landlords, Turkish officials and warriors. 
The life, the honour, the propertj^ and possessions oi 
the Servians had no protection on the part of the Tur- 
kish rulers during nearly four centuries. The only pro- 
tection they had sometimes came from the "Hydooks." 
From the loss of Servian independence to the first de- 
cades of the nineteenth century, bands of armed Ser- 
vians moved through the Servian mountains and forests, 
hurrying from one point to another, w4:iere a specially 
brutal misdeed of Turks against the Christian men and 
women was to be avenged. The Hydooks were a sort 
of irregular national force, insurgents who were per- 
manently leading a guerilla war against the Turks. 
They were the original model of the Committadjis of 
our days, only without a central leadership and without 
committees. Fear of the Hydooks was the only consi- 
deration which restrained the Turkish lawlessness, rapa- 
city and violence. The Turks called them "brigands," 
and whoever of them fell into their hands was merci- 
lessly impaled alive. The people called them the national 
heroes (narodni yunatsi) and sang their deeds and 
glorified them in ballads. At the same time, it ought 
to be acknowledged that the Turks left the Servian 

114 Lesson 5. 

village autonomy intact, that they never did anything 
to convert the Servians to the Islam faith, that they 
gave them full liberty to attend to their own religion 
and their own church, except that as a rule they did not 
allow them to build new churches or to repair old ones. 

Reading Exercise. 
norjie;!, c KonaomiKa. 

Bhji,hk je KonaoHUKOB BeoMa npocTpaH h Heo6HqHo 
^HBaH. Oh saxBaTa roTOBO nojroBHHv CEe CpncKe Qemjbe. 

RieAajyiiH na hctok, o;i;Max, xaEO peliH, noA HoraMa 
HamHM, BHAeteMO HHCKy Kocy JIeneHii;a, Koja ce npoji.y- 
sKyje y JacTpe6ai];. Ho;!; JacTpenii;eM 6ejrH ce c jejune 
CTpane PtpymeBan;, a c ;i;pyre npoKynyi)e, y nHTOMOj To- 
njiRU^iL. y MCTOM npaBuy, caMO Majio ccBepHHje, jd^WiKe 
ce Cxapa njraHHHa. IIpaBO na hctok bbjijs. ce rojieTHa 
rpoMaj^a ^y^Ha H3rjie;r,a, Cyxa njiaHHna. IIoji, ibom ce 
6ejiH HnmaBa h na aoj Hnm. BHHa^Ka MopaBa bhji,h ce 
Kao Ayro, 6ejro njiaTHO. 

Ako ce OKpeHeMO npaBi];e jyry, BHAetcMO npeji, co6om 
Cxapy Cp6Hjy. Kocobo no^e ^hhh ce cacBSM paBHO. Kpo3 
aera BHjyra CHTHHii;a. Oko KocoBa no^a nopet)aHa cy 
OHiiaca 6pj!;a, iiajr, KOJHMa ce bhcoko ca CHe^HHM BpxoM 
H3Aii3Ke niap. 

Uoji, caMEM KonaoHHKOM 6ejm ce Hobh Ilasap; hUji; 
H>iiMe ce BH;i;e Tiypi^eBH CTy6oBH; no^a^e naii, npaBO na 
jyr, y KocoBy, 6ejrH ce IIpEniTHHa. 

Ako ce OKpeneMO 3ana;iiy, carj[eji,aiieMO y ji^SiJbEEii 
i^pHoropcKe njraimfie, KOje na^iiBHfflyjy Komobh. 0^ KoMOBa 
na ccBep HH^te ce ^HTaB cnjiCT o;i; Koca h BHCOBa, H3Ha;i; 
KOJHx ce no;i; o6jiaKe ji^irAie 6ejiH ^ypMHTop. 0;i; Jl^ypMH- 
Topa na ceBcp BH;i,e ce 6ocaHCKe njianHfie, KOje ce, H^ytn 
CaBH, CHH3KaBajy e 3aHjia3e 3a nania no;i;pHHCKa dp^a. 

Kaj!, ce c obc bhchhc norjre;i;a Cp6HJa, ^hhh ce totobo 
CBa paBHa e noKpEBeHa inyMOM. H3 Tora 3ejieHEjia a^^J 
ce BHms EJiB HB3KH ^yKapH. TaKO npena 3ana;i,y BE;i,e ce 
CTy;i;eHE^Ka 6pAa; 3a tem: OABpalieHEri;a, JaHKOB KaMCH, 
FojiEJa, BacEJiEH Bpx, MyiaS), BpxoBE 3jraTE6opa, TopHEK 
E ^EFOTa. Ha ceBepo3ana;iy y3AB3Ke ce OB^ap; Majro na 
;ii,ecHO PyjiKMK E OcTpBEi];a, 3aTEM Bengal];, KocMaj e ABa^a 
Ha oco6eto Be;i;poMe ^aey BE;i,etLeMO e CHECKy KOcy $pyinKe 
Tope. Eao MajiE npapj:eH Marjie, e Ecno;i; H>e J^ynaBO. Ha 

Declension of Substantives. 115 

ceBepy saxBapajy bhji,hk KapnaTH, ^Hje jy^KHe rpaiie npe- 
jiaae y nainy seM^y npeKO jI^yHaBa. Merjy i&HMa najBHine 
y o^H na^ajy: XoMO^e, Be^aHHij;a n Cto, a Hapoq[HTO 
PTaa, wsuaji, 6aiLe A-ieKcnna^Ke. IlpeMa ceBepy o;i; Konao- 
HHita H3^HHie ce SKecZbHH, saTHM Ctojiobh, kojh ynnpy 6ani 
y caMy Mopasy. BdaduMup Kaptcfi. 

ManacTiip MnjiomeBa. 

Osy cjraBiiy h snaMeHHTy cpncKy sa^yiKdHHy ca3H;i:ao 
je Kpa^ cpncKH Bjia^ncjiaB, cpe;i,H»H chh CTeBana IIpBO- 
Bjeii^aHora, a ciiHOBaii; CBeTora CaBe, o^ npsjiHKO y ;i;py- 
roj nojroBHHH XIII BHjeKa. 

ManacTHp je osaj ^yaen HajBHnie c Tora, niTO je ya 
nojio^eno Tiijejio CBeTora Case, Ka;i; ra je Kpayi> Bjidijiji- 
cjiaB npeHHO ii3 TpnoBa. Tnjejio je CBeTHTe^eso ly no^H- 
BajTO CBe ;i,o 1595. roAHee. Te ro;i,HHe Hana^He CHHan- 
nama na ManacTHp, nopo6H ra h pasopn, Kajiyl^epe Beha- 
HOM HCHje^e, a Tnjejio CBeTora CaBe co6om o;i.Hece h npe;i; 
BHorpaji,OM Ha Bpa^apy cnaJiH. 

lIofflTO je CBeTHita h3 ManacTiipa OAHecena, MnjroineBa 
je iiOTOJia onaAaTH. Typij;H cy ii KacHHje nanaji^ajiH na 
a H pyniHJiH ra, a Eaji, nonjiaBa pHjeKe MHJ^emeBKe pa- 
3opH ;i;o ociiOBa ocTaTKe o;i; 3rpaji,a, Kajryl^epH ce pa3H^y 
He CMHjyiiH HOBe noji,ii3aTH. 

MHore pymeBHHe, ihto ce h ;i,aHac BH;i,e oko Mana- 
CTHpa, CBje^OK cy Her;i,aiiiH)OJ KpacoTH h BejiH^Hnn aero- 
Boj. H OH HHJe 3HaMeHiiT caMo no TOM, niTO je qynao 
MOniTH CBeTHTOcZba CaBe, ho hito je y H>eM caxpaaen h 
Kpa.^ Bjia;i,HCJiaB, ihto ce y H>eM Bjenqao 6ocaHCKH Kpa^ 
Tbptko Ha npHjecTO Kpa.TbecKH, h ihto ce y aen naxo- 
AHJia cpncKa niTaMnapiija. 

ManacTHp jiemn y jy^KHOM Kpajy XepH;eroBHHe, caxaT 
;i,ajieKO o;i; rpa^a EpHjeiio^a, y Bpjio jiHJenoM h yro^HOM 
nojiomajy, ca cbhx CTpana onKO^en niyMOM. Ilopeji; aera, 
c ji,ecHe CTpane, npoTs^e pnjeKa MnibemeBKa, o^ Koje je 
no CBOj npHjiHi];H h can ManacTHp hmo ao6ho, a c jinjeBe 
pje^Hi];a KocaiianKa (EocaTHii,a), odajiBHje ce cacTajy no;i; 
BpTOM ivianacTHpcKHM H yTje^y ko,ii; IIpHJeno.i)a y JIom. 

He;r,ajreKO oji, ManacTHpa, no;i; je;i,HHM 6pHjeroM, na- 
xojF,e ce ABHJe Majie neiiHHe. Hapo^ iipHiia, ji;a je y jeji,- 
Hoj o;]; Tiix ueiiFiHa cbcth CaBa ^yro hoctho, J Apyroj 


116 Lesson 6. 

je je;j,HO mrjio Bpejio, Koje ce ;iOBe Cafniua aoda. Ha obo 
Bpejro ;i;ojia3e ne caMO npaBocjiaBHH, Hero n MyxaMeAOBij,H, 
M ji;oBo;i,e CBOje 6ojiecHHKe c BjepoM, ;i;a te 03;i,paBHTH, 
^iHM ce yMHJy, oKynajy hjih nannjy Te Bo;i;e. 

OBaj AHBHH ManacTHp cpncKH jie/Kao je y pasBajiH- 
HaMa CBe ao 1863. ro^HHe. PeBHOCHHM .saysHMaaeM na- 
po;i;a H H>eroBHx ;i,yxoBHHx OTai];a H3;i;a OTOMancKa Bj7a;i;a 
Te ro;i;HHe 4>^PMaH, ji;a ce ManacTHp cne cjro6o;i;HO o6ho- 
BHTH. Hapoji, caB ycxHteH npnone na nocao, h roji;HHe 
1868. ManacTHp 6h AOBprnen. 

II,pKBa je npHJiH^HO BejiHKa h jiHjena, ca ^einpn Ky- 
6eTa. HnjKe apxnjepejcKora CTOJia je hobhcokh ;i,pBeHH 
caH;i;yK, kojh npHKasyje rpo6 CBeTora CaBe, Kony Hapo^ 
iipncTyna CMnpeno h no6o5KHO, Kjiaaa My ce h i];jejiHBa. 
HsHyTpa je i];pKBa npocTa, 6e3 HKaKBa yKpaca, nena hh- 
je;i,He HKOHe hh KanjiHJia oji; BpHjeAHOCTH, a Kano jih 
KaKBHX CKynoi];jeHHX ;i.pyrHx ii,pKBeHHx CTBaps. 

UopeA ManacTHpa, o;i;Max no aeroBy o6KOB^eH>y, no- 
;i,HrHyTa je n jejuna npocTa 3rpa;i,a aa niKOJiy. 

Bocancua Bujia. 


IIlTa BHjtHMO c KonaoHHKa rjie^ajy^n na mctok? 

IIlTa BHjiHMo c KonaoHHKa rjieji;ajytLH Ha ceBep, jyr hjih sanaji;? 

Ko je ca3H;i;ao ManacTHp MiiJiomeBy? 

nixa je y^HHHO CiiHaH-nania c MaHacTnpoM h xeiOM cb. Case? 

rji;e JiejKH ManacTHp MiiJiomeBa? 

Illia ce HaJiasH y 6jih3hhh ManacTHpa? 

Sixth Lesson. 
Augmentatives and Diminutives. 

It is an advantage of the Servian language that 
by means of various terminations, one and the same 
substantive may become augmentative and diminutive. 
These modifications are especially frequent in the collo- 
quial language. 

1. Augmentative substantives show the unusually 
large size of an object, its ugliness and little value. 
Such ideas are conveyed by terminations: -nna^ "JP^^ 
-ypima^ -y^Mma^ -eTiiiia^ e.g,: 

Augmentatives and Diminutives. 117 

Bpeta sack — Bpfet^ma big sack 

31171; wall — 'siiji^tma large wall 

rjiac voice — TJikcima strong voice 

;i,feB6jKa girl — ji^eBoi'iypa ugly girl 

rjiaBa head — TJihBypa large (stupid) head [grass 

TpaBa grass — TpaB?/^^ma, or TpaBy^zbHHa bad (large) 

6a6a grandmother — 6a6emuHa ugly old woman. 

2. Diminutive. This class comprises the complimen- 
tary or caressing form, used when naming favourite 
persons or objects. The most usual terminations of 
diminutives are the following: 
-Ht, e.g: rpa;i; fortress, ipadu^ a little fortress 

CHH son, cuHHuK dear httle son 
-KO, » ;j;e;i; grandfather, deuo dear grandfather 
-Ka, » 6a6a old woman, 6aKa dear old woman 
-^e, » ce^aK peasant, cejbaue young, little peasant 
-aHii,e, » nceTO dog, ncemduue dear little dog 
-eHU,e, » ;i,eTe child, demeuue dear little child 
-an;, » 6paT brother, 6pdmau dear brother 
-ij,e, » BiiHO wine, 6um^e delicious (favourite) wine 
-Hii,a, » THi];a bird, miimma little bird. 

To the numerous class of diminutive nouns belong 
also the various and often obscure alterations which 
Christian names undergo, not only in familiar but also 
sometimes in hterary language: 

AjieKcaH;i;ap Alexander Aii,a, Cama 

B6pHcaB Boris Bopa, B6pK0 

B6jHCJraB Voislav Boja 

KaTapfma Katharine Kaxa, Kaja, Kaj^e, KaTHi];a, 

KaTHHKa, KajKa, Pima 

KoHCTaHTHH Koustautin K6cTa, KocTa;i,HH, K5cto, 

Koja, Kojo, KojaH, KoHji,a, 
Ko^ia, Kojie. 

Translation 6. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 
The Servian Church and the municipal autonomy, 
together with the national bards (Gooslari), helped the 
people to preserve the remembrance of their old national 
independence and of the remarkable incidents and 
glorious deeds of their past history. It is quite extra- 

118 Lesson 6. 

ordinary how tlio poorest and most illiterate of the 
Servian peasants knows mucli of the national history, 
simply because on every fair and on every kirchmass 
he has heard the "goosslars" sing of Stephan Nemanya, 
Tsar Dooshan, Knez Lazar, the Kossovo heroes, and 
even of the exploits of the famous leaders of the Hy- 
dooks during the dark ages of Turkish oppression. 

The remembrance of the past naturally nourished 
hopes for a better future. These were increased and 
intensified when, in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, Austrian wars with Turkey showed the Ser- 
vian Rayah that their Turkish masters w^ere not invin- 
cible. The occupation of the Pashalik of Belgrade by 
the Austrian armies and administration during some 
thirty years gave the Servians to taste something of 
the peaceful and prosperous life in a well regulated 
state. The Servian Hydooks, as w^ell as other Servians, 
were always joining as volunteers the Austrian armies 
whenever they made an invasion into the Turkish 
provinces. And as volunteers, and acting with an 
European army under famous generals (Elector of Ba- 
varia, Prince Eugen of Savoy, General Loudon), the 
Servians learned something of the mihtary art. 

In that way the Servian National Church, the 
municipal autonomy of the villages, the national bards, 
the Hydooks, the Austrian v^^ars with Turkey, especially 
those towards the end of the eighteenth century, and 
the general anarchy in the Turkish Empire in the 
beginning of the nineteenth century, all combined to 
prepare the Servian revolution against the Turks in 
the beginning of that centurJ^ 

Reading Exercise. 

MapKO KpajEeBiili y napo^HOM npiFiaH»y. 
(ByK Ct. Kapai;iEii «CpncKH Fje^HHK».) 

HHKaKora Cp6HHa neMa KOjii ne sna sa iiMe MapKa 
Kpa^eBHiia. Ja ty OB;i:je nasna^HTH o H>eMy oho niTO ce 
cjia6o y njecMana na^iasH, Hero ce npHnoBHje;];a. 

UpHHOEHjeAa ce ;i;a je MapKO 6ho mhoio ja^H o^ 
ocTajiHjex caTi,afflH,HJex a jaMa^HO ii OH;i;ainHiiijex JhjAB.) 
y 72-oj njecMH Apyre KiLHre («Typi];H y MapKa na c.iaBH». 

Augmentatives and DiminuUves. 119 

njeBa ce ji;a je y iteroBOM dysAOBany, KOJHjeM je oh je;i;- 
HOM pyKOM Maxao h H>HMe ce 6aii,ao, (mjio iiie3,a,eceT n 
mecT OKa. Ja can y ;i,jeTHibCTBy rjrejxao y CpnjeMy, y 
Kp^MH ManacTHpa KpymeAOza, r;i;je je MapKO HaMOjroBaii 
KaKO je^HOM pyKOM MaTopora BOJia jij)}mi 3a pen npeKO 
paMena h hoch na jiei^HMa, ii,ii,yiiM ynpaBo. J njecMH 
67-oj (^MapKO Epa^eBiib h Myca Keceijiija») njesa ce 
KaKO je yseo y pyKy cyxy ;i,peHOBHHy «ca Tasana oji ab- 
BeT ro;i;iiHa», na Ka^i; jy je CTHcnyo pyKOM, oiia iipcjia na 
jj^BOje, na Tpoje, h ABSje Kany^e BOji,e HCKO^iHje m3 ae. 
Oh 6e3 BHHa nnje Mora HHKyji;, h npeMa ja^iMHH CBOjoj 
MHoro ra je Morao nonnTs /!;a ce ne onnje. 

3a aeroBa inapi];a je^Hn npHnoBHje;i,ajy ^a My ra je 
noKjiOHHjia HeiiaKa BHjia, a je;i;HH oneT ;i,a ra je Kynno y 
HeKaKHjex KHpnijHja. DpHje I]Iapi];a Bejie ji;a je MHJeaao 
MHoro KOH>a, na ra Hnje^aH nnje Morao hochth. Ka^ y 
HeEaKHJex KspH^nja bh;i,h niapeno ry6aB0 MyniEO 5k;i,ph- 
je6e, y^HHH My ce ;i;a fee o;i; H>era ;i;o6ap koe> 6iiTH, n 
y3Me ra 3a pen ^a OMaxne oeo ce6e Kao ihto je ocxajie 
Eoae orjie^ao, ajiH ce oho ne ;i;aAHe hh c MjecTa noMatH. 
OH;i,a ra Kynn y KHpnijceja, E[3.iHje^H ra oji; ry6e h Hay^H 


3a cMpT MapKa Kpa.zbeBHiia pa3JiH^H0 ce npnnoBHjeAa. 

Je;i,HH BOJie Aa ra je ner^je y cejiy PoBnnaMa y6H0 
neKaKas KapaBJianiKH BOJBo;i;a Mnp^eTa 3.iaTH0M CTpnjejiOM 
y ycTa, Kaji; cy ce Typi^n 6ujih c KapaBjacMMa. J,pyrii 
Ka3yjy ji;a My ce y TaKOBOMe 6ojy 3arjm6HO Illapaii, y 
HeKaKOj 6apH ko,ii, JI^ynaBa, h ^a cy OH;i,je o6ojMi!;a npo- 
najH. y KpaJHHH HeroTUHCKOj npHnoBiijeji,a ce ;i,a je to 
6h;io y je;i,HOj 6apH OH;i,je 6jiH3y HeroTHHa, ncnoji; H3Bopa 
Il^apH^HHe. OHji;je HMa h caA 6apa h 3Hji,HHe oa CTape 
n;pKBe, 3a Eojy roBope ^a je 6iijia Ha^iHBbeaa na rpo6y 
MapKOBy. Tpefctii Kasty ;i;a je y TaKOMe 6ojy tojieko &jm 
H3rimyjio, ;i,a cy no kpbh Eoan h ^y,ii;M, na 
MapKO OH;i;a npyajiio pyEe k He6y h peKao: «Bo5Ke, niTO 
iiy ja caA!» Ha to ce Bor CMiiJiOBao, h HeKaKHjeM ^yji;- 
HHJeM na^MHOM npemio h aera n IIIapi];a y neKaKy neiiHHy, 
y Kojoj H caji; o6ojmi;a sEHBe: oh, 3a6o;i;aBniH CBOjy ca6^y 
UOK rpe;i;y hjih je y,]]iapHBniH y KaMen, jerao, Te 3acnao, 
na je;i,HaKO cnaBa, npe;i; inapi];eM ctojh Majio MaxoBiine, o^i; 
Koje no Majio je;i;e, a ca6iba cbo no Majio H3Jia3H ncnoji, 
rpe^e hjih h3 KaMena. Ila Ea^i; lUapan; MaxoBHHy noje;i;e, 

120 Lesson 7. 

H ca6^i)a HcnoA rpeji,e hjih h3 KaMena ncnaAne, OH;i,a he 
ce H OH npo6yAHTH h oneT na cBHjeT MSHiiH. 

Je^HH roBope ^a je oh y tv netEHy no6jerao Ka;i; 
je npBH iiyT bhaho nyniKy, h noniaBniH ^a je orjie^a (ji;a 
jm je HCTHHa ^a je onaKa Kao niTO ce npHnoBHJe;i,a) npo- 
6ho m3 H>e caM ce6H ji.JiaH, na OH;i;a peKao: «Ca;i; He no- 
Ma^Ke jyHamTBO, jep najropa p^a M03Ke y6HTH Haj6o^era 


Hna JiR Kora Cp6HHa ko ne 6h anao sa ime Kpa^eBHJia MapKa? 

lIlTa ce iieBa y iiecMH «Typii;pi y MapKa na cjiaBn?» 

Ulxa ce neca y jipyrHM necMaua Koje bh noGeajeie? 

HeMy je iiay^HO Kpa^LeBHt MapKo CBora Koaa? 

niTa ce Bepyje y Hapo;i;y o CMpxH Kpa^^eBBta MapKa? 

KaKO je KpaiteBHti MapKo ji,6inao ao cBor inapeHor Kosba; KaKo 

ce 30Be aeroB koh>? 
Illxa paAH caji; Illapan; (no Hapo;i,HOM Beposaay)? 
IIlTa je ypa^Ho Kpa^eBHK MapKO Kaji; je npsH nyx BH;i;eo nyniKy? 
Kojy je SHaM^HHxy peiennny nsroBopno xom npajiHKOM? 

Seventh Lesson. 

How to express the English Modal Auxiliaries. 

The absence of such verbs in Servian, and their 
frequent use in Enghsh, render it almost impossible to 
determine by rules how to express them. Their various 
significations can only be shown by examples, and by 
observing certain expressions. 

May, can (might, could). 

yHHHHTe TO, aKO MOHccTe. You may do it, if you can. 

JKejiHM BaM ;i,a ycneTc! I wish you may prosper 1 

HcKa 6y;i;e cpetaH! May he be happy! 

Ako M6ry toko pehn. If I may say so. 

Moat;i;a je Beh pipeo. He may be dead now. 

He Mory a ;i;a Ban ne KaaceM. I cannot help telling you. 

3ap KancTaH ne MO^e ;i,aHac Can the captain not dine 

pyqaTH c nana? with us to-day? 

JI,03B6jiHTe ASi Bac HHTaM. May I ask you? 

Hnje jm BaM no b5.^h ^lama May I offer you a glass of 

xeja? tea? 

How to express the English Modal Auxiliaries. 


Shall (should), 

Ja ty ce lueTaTH. 

Ona lie saM to ymiEwiiL. 

Ja 6hx Hinao, ajiH HOMaM 

MopaM iiiiH y Cp6HJy. 
X61ieTe JTH ;i;a ce nponieTaMO? 
Bh teTe ;i;66hth Harpa;i,y. 
niTO ce Mopa, Mopa. 
Bh to He CMeTe peliii. 
Bh Tpe6a ji;a nay^HTe to 

Ha H3ycT. 
Tpe6a ;i;a nnnieM je^HO hh- 

CMO y 3arpe6. 

Will (would) 

IBeMy be 6HTn mhjio ji;a sac 

XoteTe jiH M roBopHTe c 

ffiejiHTe JIH Tiamy niiBa? 

Ja 6hx My ;i;ao H5Bau;a Ka;i; 

6hx Morao. 
X6teTe JTH 6hth TaKO Jbj- 

6a3HH ;i;a mh nosaJMHTe 

Bani nepopes? 
He Mory Bac nycTHTH ji,a 

H;i;eTe cann. 
HeKa ji,6]^e, aKO cne. 
HoKa ce oce;i;jia Moj eoh>. 
H3Hi|PiTe H3 c56e! 
OcTaBHTO Me Ha Miipy! 
HeMOJTe niiH! 

must, ought. 

I shall take a walk. 
She shall do it for you. 
I should go, but I have no 

I should go to Servia. 
Should we take a short walk ? 
You shall have a reward. 
What must be, must. 
You must not say so. 
You ought to learn this 

by heart. 
I ought to write a letter to 


let, to leave. 

He will be glad to see you. 

Will j^ou speak to him? 

Will you have a glass of 

I would give him the mo- 
ney if I could. 

Will you be so kind as to 
lend me your penknife? 

I cannot let you go alone. 

Let him come, if he dare. 
Let my horse be saddled. 
Leave the room! 
Let me be alone! 
Do not leave! 

Translation 7. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

The first Servian rising against the Turks. By 
the Treaty of Peace of Swistow (1791), Austria stipu- 
lated that no Janissaries should be allowed to garrison 
Belgrade and other Servian fortresses. The Sultan at 

122 Lesson 7. 

first executed that stipulation faithfully, and the Ser- 
vians enjoyed quite an unusual measure of freedom 
from molestation and extortion from their Turkish 
masters. In grateful acknowledgment of the humane 
treatment which they experienced si the hands of the 
new Vizier of the Belgrade Pashalik, Hadji-Mustapha 
Pasha, they gave him the sobriquet of ''Srpska Mayka" 
— The Mother of the Servians. This Pasha had full 
confidence in the loyalty of the Servians, to such a 
degree that he organised quite a little army from among 
them, and sent it under the command of his own son 
to fight the Sultan's rebel, Paswandji Oglu of Widin. 
Then by an evil advice the Sultan, desiring to 
weaken the same rebel, Paswandji, who gathered aro- 
und him all the Janissaries expelled from Servia, anno- 
unced to the eTanissaries that thej^ were free to return 
to Servia. This was an open infraction of the Treaty 
of Swistow, but the Sultan and his advisers did not 
care much about it. A certain number of Janissaries 
really left Widin and returned to Belgrade. They w^ere 
commanded by four captains, called ''Dahees" (in the 
Servian "Dahiye"). They managed to introduce them- 
selves into the fortress of Belgrade, murdered the kind- 
hearted and wise Vizier Mustapha, and the four cap- 
tains, forming a peculiar political, military and commer- 
cial partnership, proclaimed themselves masters of the 
entire Pashahk of Belgrade. They covered the country 
with a net of wooden block-houses ('^Hans"), which 
were occupied by their armed agents, who lived there 
at the expense of the neighbouring villages, and coll- 
ected the increased taxes and nev/ imposts introduced 
by the Dahees. Under this new oppression the Servians 
showed themselves the more restless that for a few 
years previous to this change they had enjoyed fully 
the humane administration of Hadji-Mustapha Pasha. 
They demonstrated against the innovation and repea- 
tedly wrote long petitions to the Porte asking the Sul- 
tan's protection against the tyrannies of the Dahees. 
The Grand Vizier, at the order of the Sultan, wrote 
to the Dahees advising them to be just and humane 
towards the Rayah, and to return their obedience 
to the Sublime Porte, otherwise the Padiessa would 

How to express the Englifih Modal Auxiliaries. 123 

be obliged to send against them an army that, 
not being composed of Mohammedans, would proceed 
against them mercilessly. "What army could that be?" 
the Dahees asked themselves, and came to the con- 
clusion that the Sultan contemplated arming the Servians 
against them. At the same time rumours, or probably 
the reports of their agents among the villages, came 
to state the increasing restlessness among the people, 
frequent meetings of their chief men, consultations and 
preparations for a rising. 

Reading Exercise. 
EpcHO HMe y nOMopaB,i.y. 

Hs «JypMyce h $aTHMe» M. T>. Mnjint^eBHl^a. 

roAHHe 1832 rojKOBHiiH cjiaB^axy CBOje Kpcno hmc, 
CBexora Tomy. JI,o6pH jlja^r, rocTO.zby6HBB: ^OMatsHH, 
ro36eHH CBe^apn, oim nnaxy ;i,0CTa SBannu^a h rocTHJy, a 
Ha;i,ajiH cy ce h nyTHHii,HMa ii HaMepHHii,HMa, kojh cy ce 
H OHaKO necTO yBpatajiH: na anxoBy Kyhy. Bpene o Cbc- 
TOM ToMH 6enie Jieno; y MOsroBCKOM npncojy jeceae cyHii;e 
rpejame tohjio, h hmcto SBarae CBe niTO je ^hbo, ji,a ce 
Harpeje h nannje ^KHBOTBopne TonjiOTe aeroBe. 

— CyH^ajTe ce, cyHnaJTe — hhhh th ce ;i,a oho 
npcKO HJiaBor JacTpeni];a roBops h .zby^HMa h skhbothibh 
— KonaoHHK h JKe.ZBHH join HHcy o6ejrejiH, JacTpe6ai]; h 
PTaH) join HHcy JiMii;a CBOja saBSJiH MarjiOM, a miM ce ohh 
na^yxe, bh Mene iieiieTe car.iejiiaTH no ^iiTase .^eceTune 
ji,aHa; cyn^aJTe ce! 

CBC^apn 6exy nocTaBHJiH Tpnesy 3a rocTe npeji; KyhoM 
y Boty, a 3a ronibe noji; CTpeinKOM oj{ je^Hora BajaTnta. 
TocTe je Hyji;H0 rojiorjiaB JaKuM, a ronilie MajKa My, 6a6a 
HeTpHja. Jl^pyra ^ejhaji, pa;i;Hjia cy pasne nocjiOBe y KytiH 
H OKO Kyie. 0;i; ;i,eB0jaKa, Mapnja je naJBuine ;i,0H0CHJia 
jejio H nnte sa rocTHHCKy coBpy, Mnjiana naK nocjiy;}!^^- 
Baja je oko cospe acencKe. rocTH cy ce^eJiH, jejin, 
E pasroBapajiH ce. Ka/i; 6h npeji, no;i;He, m3 Kyiie H3Hi)e 
JainMOBa ^ena CMH^ana, Hocatn y pyiiaMa na je^noj 
npojH cAaecmt kojiom h na KOJia^y npcuy ceeHy, neKOJiHKO 
rpyMenoBa maAmaua h neinTO Kjseiia — cbo nOEpKBeno 
^HCTHM 6ejiHM neniKHpoM. Kojia^ CMHibaHa cnycxn y 
ropan Kpaj conpe, na onji^a npnt^e k JabsMy, icao ji,0Ma- 

124 Lesson 7. 

liHuy, Te ra no./byoH y pyKv; iiocie itera wMJbj6ii oea y 
pyKy CBe rocTe, iiOHHiLyhn oa ropH>er ^lejia. 

— .HtiiBa 6Hjra, h cpetan th KOJiaq — o,ii,roBapa joj 
cBaKii, ji.ajyhH pyKy ji,a jioJbj6E. 

Kojiauap, MHJia;i,HH LI,ohh1i, Met^y thm, ;i,a KOjra^ ne 
6h cxajao iiOKpHBen, CKM^e iiemKiip c itera, h npy^KH ra 

CMH.TbaHa, nocjie Tora, ji;oHece Jatnaiy Majiy Ka;i,HOHHi],y 
ca ^apoM; ji;oMaiiHH yse c KOjia^ia CBety, npeKpcTH ce, 
no.i)y6H CBehy, na OKpeHyBmn ce rocTHMa CBHMa, pe^e: 

— IIpocTHTe H 6jiarocjroBHTe, ^a najiHMO CBety Bory 


— Bor H Phctoc! o;i,roBopHine focth, h cbh ycTHnie 
Ha Hore, h nocKH;i,aiiie Kane. 

JI,OMafeHH ynajiH CBeKy, ycy y Ka;i,HOHHi],y TamBana 
H Ka;i: ce pasrope, OKa;i,H najnpe CBety roBopetm: 

— /I,a ce noMOJiHMO TocnoAy Bary! rocno;i;e Boa^e 
6jrarH, noMOSH, pasroBopn h o6paji,yj, mojihmo th ce! 

ToBopeliH TO OKa;i,H CBe rocTe imsa coBpy. BpaTHBniH 
ce 03;i,o, H Kaji,eiLH CBety no npyrn nyT, oh roBopn: 

— Jl,a ce noMOJiHMO Focnojiiy Bory h CBeTOj TpoJHD;H, 
CBeToj lleTKH H CBeToj He^eibH. One y ro;i,HHH ^lecTO 
;i,oj[a3e, nac rpenine najrase, ^a nac ii36aBe oji, CBaKe MyKe 
H ;i;ymMaHCKe pyKe! 

— Kaji; CBpniH h Tpete Ka^eae nnsa coBpy, n BpaTH 
ce y ropH>e hojio, yse ^amy h pe^ie: 

— 3anoBeji,ajTe cbh pe;i;oMl 

— y ;];o6pH ^ac! o;i,roBopHme focth. 

— JI,a HHjeMO, npo^yiKaBa ji,OMatHH, no namy BHHa 
3a cjiaBe h 3aKona. r;i;e ce cjiaBa cjiaBHjia h ;i,H3a.ira, Ty 
H noMarajia! HacjiaBHjia pa;i, h 6epHlieT, ^khbot h 3ApaB^e, 
cjiory H npaBjiy! 

Caji: HasApaBH ^iHKa Apcennjy, kojh cet^ame ;iio KOJia- 
Mapa. JI^OKjie cbh y coBpn, na h ;],OMaiiHH, OKycnme oji; 
BHHa «3a cjiane h 3aK0Ha», ;i,OTjie tocth ;i;Ba h ;i,Ba neBajy: 

«Ko 3a cjiaBy bhho nnje, 
IToMOSH My Bor! 
noM03H My Bor!» 

«IIoMorJia My cjiaBa Bo5Kja 
H caM Bocnoj!; Bor! 
H caM Focnojr, Bor!» 



How to express the English Modal Aoxiliariee. 125 

Ka;i; ce yiiyTame neBa^M y MyiuKOj coBpn, OTneBanie 
^ene: ^HoMorja My cjiaBa Bomja 

H cam rocnoji; Bor! 
H caM rocnoA Bor!» 
Kaji; ce to CBpnin, j^OMahne naTO^H qamy BHHa, h 
CTaBH je npeji; KOJiaiiapa. Kojra^ap ysMe ho^k h KOJia^, 
na oKpenyBniH ce rocTHMa, pe^e: 

— IlpocTHTe H 6jiaroc.iOBHTe, ^a ceqeno KOJia^ Bory 


— Bor H Phctoc, OAroBopHine ohh. 

Kojra^ap ce npeKpcTH, h no^e peaaTH KOjia^, roBopeiiH : 

— y ciaBy H ^acT CBeTOM Tomh. 

Ha Ha je;!.aH Max cTa;i,e nacpeji; KOJia^ia h BHKHy: 

— IlHfflH niTa teni ;i,OMatHHe, sane njiyr sa naa! 

— Ap;i;oB BHHa h ne^ena CBHH>a, pe^e ;i;oMaliHH CMe- 
nietiH ce. 

Ta^ KOJia^ap npepesa KOja^ ynaitpcT, npejrn ra bhhom 
Ha ^eTHpH MecTa, roBopehs: 

— Ba HMe 0Ji;a, aMHH; h cnna, aMHH; n CBeiaro 
;i,yxa, aMHH. 

H KOJiMKO ce Morarae, BpaTH oho bhho c KOjra^a y ^aniy. 

Caji; K H>eMy npHCTynn JatHM, h h>hx ;i,BOJHn;a ysenie 
KOJiaq o6eMa pyKaMa, a tocth, kojh Moraxy npHXBaTHme 
ra 6ap ho je^noM pyKOM, h no^eme ra OKpexaTH onaKO 
KaKO ce ceje arnxo, roBopebn: 

— rocno;i,e, noMHJiyj ; rocno;i,e, noMHJiyj ; Bocno^e, 
noMHJiyj! OKpenyBmH KOjia^i jeji;HOM, H3;i,HrHynie ra na 
pyKaMa, roBopefen: 

— BejiH^aj, Bo3Ke, aom h ji;oMat.HHa! Bejin^aj, Bo^e, 
,i;oM H ji;oMatHHa! Bejin^aj, Bo^e, ;i,om h ;i;oMaiiHHa! 

BocTH caA nycTHHie KOJia^; a KOJia^ap h ;i,OMaliHH 
npejiOMHnie ra, cacTasHnie nojre je;i;Hy ys Apyry, h xpn 
nyxa no.ZBy6Hnie KOJia^ h noiBy6Hffle ce y o6pa3, roBopetn : 

— Phctoc nocpe/i, nac! 

Ho TOM o6oJKi];a pasjiOMnme CBaKH CBOJy nojiy na 
TOTBpTH, na H3 jieBy pyicy, onaKO ynaspcT, cnycTHme na 
coBpy, H3 ;i;ecHe naK KOJia^ap MeTny na nojiHn,y, a ;i,OMa- 
tiHHy HpHCTynH ji;oMafeHi];a ca chtom, Te aeroBy ^eTBpT 
npHMH y CHTO, «;i,a je CHTa ro;i;HHa». 

JaiiHM joHi H3Ba;i;H je^an ji;HHap, Te cnycTH ;i,OMaliHij;H 
y CHTO cpefee pa;i,H. 3a thm yse ^aray BHHa, h, Kao ny- 
;i;etH je CBHMa rocTMMa, pe^e: 

126 Lesson 8. 

— ;kiiOBe;i,ajTe. 

— CxapMJM ISor, iia ;i,0MaiiHH! OAroBopHine ohh. OH;i,a 
ce OH npeKpcTH, iiokjiohh ce iLHMa, na pe^e: 

— XBajia M iiOKJiOH CBHMa peAOM! IIhcmo 3a cjiaBe 
H 3aK0Ha; ca^ A^ nMJeMO sa KpcTa h KpcHHX HMena: r^e 
ce KpcHO EMe noMHEbajio, Ty h noMarajio! 

H HasjtpaBH Ctojkv MnTpHhy. Ctojko oneT nasjiipaBH 
KOjraqapy MHJia;i;HHy. 3a to Bpene tocth neBajy ;i;Ba h ;i;Ba: 
«Ko nnje ehho 3a Kpcno nne, 
EoM03* My Borne, h KpcHO HMe!» 
HoniTO CBH rocTH H CBH KyLaHH cpKHyme o;i; BHHa 
3a Kpeno EMe, ji;0MaiiMH pe^e: 

— JI,a ce noKJiOHEMO rocno;i,y Bory e ;i,aHaniH>eM 
CBexBTe^y ! 

TocTE ce npEKjiOHEme, KpcTetE ce neKOJiEKO nyTa; no 
TOM MexHyme Kane na oaBe e noceji;aine, roBopetn: 

— HeKa je na 3;i;paB^e! jl^a Bor ^a ca cpeKoM! 


Koja je n6pojiHii;a cjaBEjia cb. Tomv roji;HHe 1832? 

KaKo ce sosy ohh kojh npiiMajy noceTe; KaKO ohh kojh ^nne 

nocexe na ;i,aH Kpceor HMena? 
Koje ce njaHime npy^ajy y okojihhh IIoMopaB^a? 
r^e 5exy CBe^apn nocxaBHjiH xpnesy sa rocxe, 3BaHHi],e, nyx- 

HHKe H HaMepHHKe? 
nixa je 6eo nocao MapnJHH, a mxa MnjianHH? 
nixa cy ^HHHjiH rocxH 3a xo Bpene? 
IJlxa 03HaHaBa ciaBCKH KOJiai? 

Illxa je HHHHO AOMatiHH JatHM C Kajl,H6HHIi;0M ? 

lUxa je OH npH xom roBopno? 

lExa cy rocxn na xo oji^roBapajin? 

KojiHKo je nyxa Ha3;ipaB^ao ;i,0MatiHH h y HHJe mie? 

Koje necMe neBajy rocrii xom npMHKOM? 

y ^Hjy ce cjEaBy ce^e KOJia^? 

Illxa ce roBopn iiphjihkom ce^ieaa KOJia^a? 

Eiglitli Lesson, 
How to express some English Prepositions, i 

This can be learnt only by numerous examples, of 
which Tve give below some arranged in the alphabetical 
order of English prepositions: 

How to express some English Prepositions. 127 

About OKo, 0, npn, etc. 

It was about five o'clock. Bmo je oko nex caTH. 

He told me all about it. Oh mh je o CBfeny npn^ao 


Have you any money about HnaTe jih H6Bai];a npn cfedn. 


The country about Paris is OKOJiiiHa IlapHsa je Bpjio 

very beautiful. jiena. 

He was about to speak. Oh je xtco ;i,a rbBOpn. 

She is about to go to Ser- Ona ce cnpeMa ^a H;i,e y 

via. Cp6HJy. 

I am about to go away. Ja cam npn nyTy. 

Mind what you are about! IIpoMHCJiH niTa pajiiHui! 

This is very far about. To je n6;i;aJieK0. 

He always has his wits Oh je yBCK npHce6aH. 

about him. 

The army consisted of BojcKa ce cacTbjajia o^ ne- 

about ten thousand men. khx ocaM xH^a;i;a .Zby;i,H. 

I wish he would go about BoJbe ;i;a ce oh ho Mema y 

his business. Moje CTBapn or 6o.zbe 6h 

6hjio ;i;a rjie;i;a CBOJa nocjia. 

Above Ha;i;, Hsnaji;, BHnie, npe, Bpx, jom, etc. 

He lodges a story above me. Oh 3khbh na ropacM cnpaTy. 

The clouds stood above 06jiai];H ce CKj[6nHine naji, 

our heads. naniHM rjiasaMa. 

The one sat above, the J6;i,aH je ce;i;eo BHme a ;i;pyrH 

other below me. Hii^e Mfene. 

It is above his comprehen- To je Bnnie ho hito oh mo- 

sion. me pasyMera. 

We were there above three Bmh cmo TaMO Binne oji; 

hours. Tpii caTa. 

I cannot remain above an He Mory 5cTaTH Biiine o;i; 

hour. jfe^Hor caxa. 

She is above twenty years. Ifcoj je npeKO ji;Ba;i;eceT r6- 


I detest lying above all Mp3HM Jia^ BHnie aero nniTa. 


Above all, don't forget me. Ilpe CBera ne mojtc mo sa- 


He is above me in every- Oh je y CBCMy 6bjbR oji, 
thing. Mene. 


Lesson 8. 

He is still above ground. Oh je joni mm. 

All good comes from above. CBe niTO je o;i; Bora ;i,o6po je. 

To give over and above JlhTH npiijiie. 
the bargain. 

At y, npn, koa 

At five o'clock. 

At my brothers. 

At daybreak. 

At table. 

I know what he aims at. 

The horse goes at a great 

I am at loss what to answer. 

At first I took him for you. 

If my honour were not at 

stake, I would do it. 
I am quite at your service. 

, Ha, 3a, etc. 

y ncT caTH. 
Koji; Mor 6paTa. 
Hpeji; 3opy. 

3a CT0.30M. 

SnaM ja niTa oh xohe. 
KoH> H;i,e 6p30. 

He 3HaM mxa ji^sl My o;i,r6- 


Hs HO^eTKa can mhcjiho 3a 
aera ;i,a CTe to bh. 

Jl^a MO] a ^acT HHje y nnTaay 
ja 6hx to yqiiHHO. 

Ct5jhm BaM Ha pacuojiomeay. 

By no, HOMoty, c, 

This grammar was written 

by me. 
I came by water, by land. 
You came by rail. 
He stood by her bed. 

We shall go to St. Peters- 
burg (via) by Berlin. 
I saw the soldiers pass by. 

We shall be back by four 

By the time you come, 

everything shall be ready. 
I found him by chance. 
This painting is by Raphael. 

By good luck we saw him. 
Little by little. 

MHMO, y, npH, etc. 

Ty caM rpanaTHKy ja nann- 

IIpHcneo can MopcM, cyBHM. 
Bh CTe ;i:6nijm meJE>e3HHD;oM. 
Oh CTojanie nope;i; H>eHe 

Mh teMO niiH y IleTporpa;!, 

npeEo Bepinna. 
BH;i;eo caM BOJHHKe Ka;i; cy 

Mh tcMO ce BpaTSTH oko 

iieTHpn caTa. 
KaA BH j!;6t)eTe CBe ie 6hth 

Cjiy^aJHO can ra namao. 
OBy je ciHKy nspa^o Pa- 

CpeLiOM CMO ra BRji^ejiVL. 
Majio no Majio. 

How to express some English Prepositions. 129 

He has two children by Oh HMa ABOje ji,ei];e h3 npBor 

his first marriage. 6paKa. 

He is a nobleman by birth. Oh je njieMnt no pol/eiby. 

A lawyer by profession. A;i;BOKaT no saHHMaay. 

It is four by my watch. Ho mom caxy je ^eTHpn. 

I abide by what I have said. OcTajcM npn ohomc hito caM 


Day by day. Hs jtana y ji;aH. 

By no means. Hhhoiuto, HHKaKO. 

By seven years. J TOKy ceji;aM ro;i,HHa. 

By the favour of night. IIo hoIiH. 

Translation 8. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

At last some letters (or probably only one letter) 
was intercepted, from which it appeared that some of 
the Servian chiefs were placing themselves in commu- 
nication with the Austrian Commander of the garrisons 
on the Turkish frontiers. All this alarmed the Dahees 
very much indeed. The danger of a general insurrection 
seemed to them more imminent and serious than it 
probably was in reality. They thought the safest and 
quickest way of preventing the insurrection was to 
murder at once and simultaneously all the more pro- 
minent men who were, or could eventually be, the 
leaders of the people. They made a list of the Servians 
who were to be killed and sent bands of their Janis- 
saries in all directions. Some of the more important 
men were publicly beheaded, others were surprised in 
their homes and killed. A few of the proscribed ones 
escaped; among them was a chief of a band of Hy- 
dooks, the Black George, or Kara-George, living in the 
village of Topola. 

The news of this massacre spread like wildfire 
through the country. A panic seized the people, who 
believed that the Dahees intended to kill every Servian. 
All the able-bodied men, who had some sort of arms 
(and since the last Austrian war, and since Mustapha 
Pasha's organisation of Servian Militia, they had some 
arms), rushed to the mountains and forests, met there 
with other equally panic-stricken villagers, formed them- 

Servian grammar. 9 

130 Lesson 8. 

selves into bands, resolved to defend their own lives 
and revenge the murders of so many of their best men. 
The leaders of these bands met at the village of Ora- 
shats (in the centre of Servia), decided to fight the 
Dahees and their Janissaries, and chose George Petro- 
vitch, of the village of Topola, called Kara-George, or 
Black George, as their Commander-in-Chief. This hap- 
pened about the middle of February, 1804. 

Servians under the Leadership of Kara-George (1804 
till 1813). Practically there were only a few thousands 
of fighting Turks in Servia, whereas the insurgents in 
the very beginning numbered about 20,000 men. And 
as the Dahees and their Janissaries were rebels against 
the Sultan, and as the Servians declared that they rose 
against these rebels, who were their tyrants, and not 
against the Sultan, the Porte did not help the Dahees, 
who were soon besieged in the fortress of Belgrade by 
the Servians. The Dahees found their situation hope- 
less, and tried to escape by the Danube to Widin. But 
they were pursued by the Servians and killed on the 
Danubian island, Ada-Kaleh. 

Thus the rising of the Servians against the Dahees 
was quickly and completely successful, and Servia was 
already liberated from them in the summer of 1804. 

But when the new Governor of the Belgrade Pa- 
shalik (as Servia was then called), sent by the Porte, 
requested the Servian insurgents to deliver their arms 
to him and to disperse, the Servians naturally desired 
to benefit by the new situation, and not only refused 
to surrender their arms, but formulated certain demands 
which practically amounted to self-government. The 
Porte refused to listen to such demands, and ordered 
the Pasha of Nish to proceed with his army to Belgrade, 
and, if need were, by force to disarm the Servians and 
re-establish the old order of things in that province. 
The Servians, under the personal command of Kara- 
George, met the Sultan's army at Parakin and defeated 
it. Thus they found themselves suddenly at war with 
the entire Turkish Empire. 

The Servian revolution against the Sultan lasted 
from the beginning of 1805 to the autumn of 1813. 
On the eve of a war with Russia, the Porte offered in 

How to express some English Prepositions. 131 

1807 to acknowledge Kara-George as Prince of Servia, 
under the suzerainship of the Sultan, and to grant the 
Servians internal autonomy. But on the advice of 
Russia, Kara-George rejected those overtures, and refu- 
sed to ratify an arrangement embodying those conces- 
sions, which his representative signed in Constantinople. 
He and his Servians preferred to join the Russians as 
their allies, hoping that the victorious Russia would 
obtain for them full independence. But in view of the 
approaching invasion by Napoleon's armies, Russia had, 
in great haste and with many sacrifices, to conclude 
peace with Turkey at Bucharest in 1812, leaving Servia 
under the direct rule of the Sultan, stipulating, however, 
that the Porte was to make an equitable arrangement 
with the Servians to secure their country from extortion 
and abuses of the Turkish officials and the lawless 
Turks in general. The Servians were terribly disap- 
pointed at such a result of their alliance with Russia. 
They tried to obtain better conditions from the Turks 
by direct negotiations; but the Grand Vizier entered 
Servia during the summer of 1813 with a considerable 
force. The Servians, who had been fighting without 
interruption since 1804, were practically exhausted, and 
their army, disorganised by the dissensions amongst its 
leaders, could not any longer resist the onslaught of 
the Grand Vizier's superior force. On the 21^* Septem- 
ber, 1813, Kara-George left the country, accompanied 
by the more prominent chieftains. The Turkish army 
occupied the fortresses, and in the autumn of 1813 
Servia became again the 'Tashalik of Belgrade," a 
Turkish province under the direct rule of the Sultan. 

Reading Exercise. 

y 16. ce BCKy M05K;i;a najo^MTHJe noKasajra y Hapo;i;a 
cpiiCKora BCZba ;i,a skhbh, a osa je ^onijia o;i; jaKe cnoco6- 
HOCTH Hapo;i;He ^a Kao caMOCTajiHH Hapo^i; atHBH. CpncKa 
je ;i,pataBa nponajia 6Hjra; necTajro je Myji,pHx rjiaBa, KaKaB 
je 6mo CTapn TBypat BpaHKOBHii, h HecTajio je otbhhx 
jyeaKa, KaKaB je 6ho Tiypal; KacTpnoTHli, necTajio je bo^, 
OKo KOJHX 6H ce Hapoji; CKynnTH Morao, HecTajro je epe- 


132 Lesson 8. 

Ainie, ws Koje 6m ;ui6pyjao iviac, ;i,a aarpeje cpij,e m ^a 
iiapoA y nejiHHH iteroBOJ noBe;i;e cjiaBHOJ 6op6ii c iieiipM- 
jaTe.T^eM npocBelienocTM h cjio6o;i,e. H oiieT ce OBaj napoA 
iipioiH, ji,a H 6e'S Bot^a bo;i,h paT, iia Ma h bghhth paT, 
c HeiipPijaTc^eM cpncKe cjio6oAe ii xpiimhaHCKe npocBe- 
iienocTH. Ype^eim paT ca Macana BOJHHKa Ha JieBOM h na 
AecHOM KpHJiy II ca H3a6paiTOM cpeAHHOM, Kao cpij;eM BOJcKe, 
iipecTao je, — TaKBe cy paTOBe c Typi];MMa bo;i,mjih iJ,apeBH, 
Kpa^eBH M ;i,ecnoTH cpncKii, a h>hx bhiug nnje 6hjio; ot- 
no^ieo ce naK APyrn je;i,aH paT, 6e3 Kpnjia h 6e3 cpeOTHe, 
ajiH y KOMe cy Typip Bas^a HaTKpii^eHH CmBajivL h Ba3;i,a 
onKOcZbGHH. Xajjiy^KO ^leTOBaae, to je pa;i,H>a Hapo;i,a cpii- 
CKora y 16., 17. h 18. BeKy. KaKO nan Hapoji,He necMe 
UpTajy npBe xaj;i,yKe, hh najnaKOCHnja naivieT ne Moace 
saMHCJiHTH HHCKe no6y;i,e naTan anxoBOJ. Be;i,pHHa ji,yme 
E cpi];a Hamnx npBHx xaj^yKa Kasyje h>hxobo noy3;i;aH>e y 
6oJbj 6y;i,yiiH0CT Hapo;i,Hy, a ;i,a ce napoA HeiipecTano y3;i;ao, 
ji;a he ce CTBapn Ha6o.zbe OKpenyTH, CBe;i;o^e CTpann nyT- 
hhi];h, KOJH cy Taji;a HaniHM 3eM.zbaMa npojra3HjiH h ohhch- 
BajiH 3eM^y h Hapo^i;, a joni Haj6o.zbe caivm ycKoim- YcKOiiiH 
cy xa];i,yii,M, kojh 3a ocHOBy CBOJoj pa^itH npoTHB TypaKa 
yseme ocjiOHaij; Ban CBOJe 3eM.zbe, y Kojoj cy Typi];ii, ajiH 
yje;i,HO ocjiOHaii;, eojhm ce CpncTBO HacjraH.ajio na cjio6oji,He 
Hapojiie xpHintancKe. Bhjio je ycKOKa na MHornM MecTHMa 
^ysK rpaHHi];e TypcKe, ajin ce ohm HMrji;e ne nojaB^yjy Kao 
CTajine ^eTO y 3ajeAHHHK0J pa;i,H>M npoTHB TypaKa, Kao 
niTO ce jaB.zbajy y ^ajrMai];MJH, h to npBO y rpa;i;y KjiMcy. 
OBOMe te 6hth neniTO yspoKa h y tom, hito je Xepi];ero- 
BMHa nocie^aa najia. 

KpajeM 15. mjth 6ap oji,Max y no^eTKy 16. BeKa, Kaji; 
je cpncKa ;i;pjEaBa cacBHM nponajra, nojaBci»yjy ce ycKOii;H 
npMBJia^ejiM na ce6e nasKay jeBponcKora CBeTa. H eBO 
HiTa BejiM aMMa apxM6MCKyn 3aji,apcKH MnHyh, kojm je 
Hanncao scTopnjy ycKOKa: «Typi];H, kojm ce paninpHnie no 
YrapcKOJ, Fp^iKOJ, ByrapcKOJ, Cp6HJH h PaniKOJ, yna;i,axy 
y XpBaTCKy h y /!;ajiMau,HJy, na MHorn ^yji;H, niTO HMaAome 
cpiiia, Te He Morome ;i;a mrbq hO/t; TypcKHM 3yjiyM0M (a 
3HajyiiH ^a cy po^enn y sepn JeBanl/e^a), ocTaBnnie CBOJy 
3eM.ZBy, y Kojy Typu;H Bet ;i,ouijih 6exy, na ce CKjEOHnme 
y xpHHiliaHCKa TBpji^a MecTa. 0;i,aTjre totobo CBaKH ji;aH 
H3jreTaxY na TypKc m 6Hme ce c anna, jep mm je TeniKO 
6hjio, niTO ii3ry6Hme 0Taij[6HHy CBOJy n Ao6pa CBOJa. ^,o6po 

How to express some English Prepositions. 133 

cy 3HajiH ^eMiBY h bh^ihh 6exy npojraaHMa n KpmeBiiMa, 
a cTajajm cy y noTaJHOJ bgcJH ca cpoAHHipMa h iipHJa- 


llpBO H HaJ3HaTHHJe MecTO, niTO ra ycKOnn H3a6paiue 
Kao TaMaH bfoaho, a2l ws itera H3j[eiiy Ha TypKe, 6pijra je 
TBp})aBa Kjihc, HSHa^ CnjieTa, 6awsy pasBajipma CTape 
Ca.ioHe. Ba^KHO je 6Hjro mgcto Kjihc Beh h no tom, hito 
jeAHHH nyT, koJhm ce c Mopjia^iKHx n.iaHHHa CHjrasHjio k 
Mopy, 6aui Ty/i,a npojiamaffle. IleTap KpycnL, BjiacTejiMH 
yrapcKH, kojh Ta;i,a ji,p^aine KjiHcy, ;i,aji;e pa;i;o ycKOii;HMa 
saKjiOHa, a to kojihko oa wdpe BO^e, tojihko ohgt iuto 
je MHCJiHO, ji,a he My rpaji; cnrypHHJn 6hth h ;i,a fee Mofen 
c noMohy ycKOKa pasMaKHyTH Meiiy sen^n TypcKOJ. Hs 
KjiHca Hcna^axy ycKOi];H y xypcKe 3eM^e, ji,ok Typii,HMa 
Bet He ji,o;i,nja, na 1537. ro;i,HHe onca^e Kjihc Typu;HMa 
He 6h HHKa;i,a na yn najio, ra ra onca^yjy, jep je to rpaji; 
6ho, KOMe ce mhcjhjio, ;i,a ce HHKaKO h ne MO^e y3eTK, 
ajiH je Kpycnfe ca cbojhm ycKOu;HMa 6ani npeTepao 6ho. 
Typu,H noAHrome npena KjiHcy ^se Kyjie hjih ji,Ba rpa;i,Hiia, 
;i,a Kjihc nany^e rjiai^y, e ;i;a 6h ce KaKO npe^ao. ycKOu;H 
ce BeoMa ji,o6po ii;p3Kaxy, Bnme oa ro^HHy ,T,aHa cy ce 6pa- 
HHjiH. Ajih no HecpeiiH y je^HOM H3JieTy norH6e Kpycnfe, 
Te ycKOu;H, ocTaBniH 6e3 Bol^a, Hpe7i,aji;onie rpa^i,. Onncy- 
jytiH naji; KjiHca h3hoch nan Mnnyii h OBaj ;i,ora^j h3 
onca;i,e Tora rpa;i,a, 3a kojh nejin ji,a ra 3aT0 naBO^, ihto 
H>eMy ne 6eine ;i,o aera HHr;ie nnniTa KasHBano: «y 
TypaKa 6enie neKaKaB A^JiHJa, no HMeny Baropa, jm^an h 
jyna^an ^OBeK. OBaj ^ejiHJa H3a3HBauie CBaKH ;i;aH one 
y rpa;i;y na Mer;i;aH, na hm ce pyranie, ihto ce Kpnjy H3a 
3a;i;HHa h hito nenajy 6ani hh najio cpu,a jynaqKora. Ajjh 
OBH oneT CBe n;pBeHenie oji; CTH;i;a h o;i; cpana, ajin hhko 
ne CMeji;e ^a ce MaKne npeKO niaHu;a, jep hm KaneTan 3a- 
6paH>HBanie H3J[a3HTH. OH;i;a he najnocjie je^an MOMaK 
KpycHhen, no HMeny MpiJiom, oth^h, ^a ce mojih KaneTany, 
,'i,a My ;i,onycTH nsahn Typ^nny na Merman. Kpycnh My 
roBopame, ^a ne 6yAajiH, ;i,a ce Maxne Tora, ne Mome ce 
OH c H>HMe MepHTH. A MnjiOHi oneT nejin, KaKO ce y3;i,a, 
ji;a he c Bojkjom noMohn 6ani Ho6e;pTH Typ^inna, a naj- 
nocjie, aKO h ne no6eAH, nehe 6hth hh niTeTe hh cpaMOTe 
no cpncKy ;i,py^HHy, aKO TaKna jyna^nna, Kao hito je xaj 
Typ^iHH, caBjia;i,a Mjiajiia ^OBeKa, Kao hito je on. ji^OHCTa 
je MOMaK OBaj, Kao ano jr,aBM;i„ 6ho BoroM H3a6paH, jiia 

134 Lesson 8. 

Ka3Hii iiOHOiiLT^iiBOcT BoropMHV. ll'sn^e na MerAaii, iipaheH 
MO.iHTBaMa M y3;i,HcaJMMa xpniiihana, iia iipBHM y;i,apu,eM, 
ynpaBO iipBMM MaxoM ca6;Le y cbom ;KHBOTy, pann Typ^iwHa 
no 6yTy. Ajih OBaj iie xTe nonycTHTH, nero ce ^BpcTO 
;i,piKaiue, iia 6ecno ypjiHKaiiie m TaKO ce iiOMaMiio Bjra;i,ame, 
;i;a xpa6pa Mh.ioui, h aKO ra o6jieTaine h c jejune h c 
;i,pyre CTpane, jta 6h ;i,OBpiuiio no6e;i,y CBOJy, ne Moraiiie 
My HH 6jiH3y ji;otiH nero My h caMOM BacZbaji,e 6hth na 
oiipesy, ;i;a oji,6HJe yji,apij;e noMaMna Typ^ana. Hajnocjie 
OBaj saMaxne cbom cnaroM, ji,a y;i;apH Mnjioiiia, ajin Mnjioni 
ce OKpeTHO HSMaKHy, Te Typ^HH, HeMajyJiH Beh cnare m 
ce Ha HoraMa ;i;p5KH, na;i;e jiHii;eM na seM^y h ncnycTH 
ca6^y. Taii,a My Mhjioiu npHCxynn h H>eroBOM BJiacTHTOM 
ca6»zbOM OApyfiH My rjiasy h KJiHKyjyiiH o^ece y KjrHC.» 

Ilocjie naji,a Kjmca ycKoij;H ce CKJiOHnme y Cea, y 
saTOHy KBapnepcKOM. Hat)Ome, ;i,a je to MecTO noji;ecHO 
3a H>HX, jep jie^KH TBp;i;o, a h carpa'^eno je BeniTO. Ca 
cyBa My ho Moate BOJCKa npncTynHTH, KOH>Hi];a My ne MOiKe 
HH 6jiR3j AotiH, a join Maae apTH^epaja, npTibar n Apyro, 
niTO bojcii;h Tpe6a, cTora, ihto cy ynaoKOJio 6p;i;a h niyMe. 
C Mopa My ce ne nome AOcaji.HTH, jep hh naJMaae jia^e 
HOMajy r;i;e, ^a ciirypHO CTOJe. Ochm Tora onacno je h 
HaJKpahe ce BpeMe 3aji;p3KaBaTH y oboj boot, jep 6ypa, 
BeTap ca ceBepa, ji;yBa BeoMa ^lecTO. 

Typi];H ce cnpeMaxy caji;, ;i,a y3My h Cea, a MHin^ZBaxy, 
;i,a Ha to HMajy npaBa h CTora, hito je oho yrapcKO mocto, 
a cyjiTan je CyjieJMaH na ca6^H ocbojho Kpa^eBHHy Yrap- 
CKy H Bet je h cto jiruj y cbojhm pyKaMa HMao. II,apa 
$ep;i;HHaHAa y36yHH Taj oac, a oco6hto, Kaji; ce ceTH, niTa 
ce Ty CKopo noiiHHH c Kjihcom, Te ^a ne 6h h ^a^e 
ocTaBHO onaKO Ba^KHO mccto, ne caMO no aera nero h no 
u;ejiy IlTajmjy, y cjia6HM pyKaMa — y Ceay cy OHji,a 6hjih 
KHe30BH ^JpanranaHOBHtiH — oji;jiyiiM, ;i,a Cea npncjoOTHH 
CBOjoj KpyHH, na ;i,a ra npe^a ycKOu;HMa n ;i;a hm joni h 
;i,o8po njiaiia, caMO ;i,a ra 6paHe o;i; Typaica. Jep ycKOu,H 
He caMO ji,a Mory ;i,o6po ^a n^y, nero h ^a cKo^e, ji;a 
CHrypnoM HoroM nol^y no Aps^y m no KaMeay, na ce 
^naame u;apy, ;i,a he to TaMan 8hth Jbjm, kojh he Mohn 
oji,6hth TypKe oji, rpaHHu;e n MCTncnyTH mx m3 JIhko h h3 
Kp6aBe. H ji;0HCTa, OBaj My njian no^e 3a pyKOM. ycKOu;H 
y^apaxy na TypKe chjiho h Hsnena^a h Knaaxy hx ne- 
npecTano cbojhm na^mnoM BOJeBaaa. 

How to express some English Prepositions. 


H TaKO HMaMO y HCTopnjH ycKOKa sa^ieTaK mhcjih o 
ycTanoBH rpann^apa, a y Cesby npsH KaneH BOJHe rpa- 
HHi];e. AycTpHJa je EacHHJe ;i,y:K ii;ejre rpaHHi];e CBOje npena 
TypcKOj, HacejiHjia Cp6e kojh cy cbojhm rpy;i,HMa 6paHHJiH 
sanaji, o;i; naBajie TypaKa. y:edoMujb MujamoeuK, 


y KOM cy BCKy Cp6H naJBHrne imaJiH xaJAyHKHx ^eia? 
Kg je nncao Hcxopnjy ycKOKa? 
ynexe jth HcnpH^axn yKpaxKO oncajty rpa^a Kjinca? 
KaKo je xeKao J^Bo6oj (Merjian) Hsne^y Typ^nna h Mnjouia? 
Ko je no6eji;HO h KaKO? 

Jl^a JiH je Mejiodi xpe5ao oxcetn rjasy Typ^nny kojh je nao 
H ociao 6e3 ca5^e? 

Ninth Lesson. 

How to express some English Prepositions. 


He died for his country. 

She did it for me. 
It is a shame for you. 
She suffered for her cre- 

He wept for joy. 
He could not go for want 

of time. 
Can you lend me that book 

for a few days? 
He will be absent for the 

whole summer. 
Take it for granted, I shall 

meet you to-night. 
I am for going home. 
We were waiting for j^ou. 
Are you looking for any- 
The old man begged for 


Oh je yMpeo sa CBojy oTai^- 

Ona je to yraHHJia 36or nene. 
To je cpaMHO sa Bac. 
Ona je CTpa;i;ajia 36or CBOJe 


Oh je HJiaKao oji; pa;i;ocTH. 
Oh HHJe Morao othIih 36or 

KpaTKote BpeMena. 
MoHteTe JIH MH nosajMHTH Ty 

KH>Hry 3a kojh ji;aH? 
Oh he 6hth oTcyTan H,ejior 

JI,5Be^e fey Bac HacnrypHO 


Ja caM 3a to ;i;a ce H;i,e Kybs. 
Mh cmo Bac ^eKajiH. 
TpajKHTe JIH mToro;i;? 



Lesson 9. 

Can you account for it? 
For the worthiness of his 

You are a fool for behe- 

ving it. 
I cannot for my Hfe. 
It is for wicked men to 

dread death. 
Once for all. 

Mo^exe jih: to o6jacHHTH? 
lis noniTOBaiha npena ibero- 


Bh CTe oynaK aKO to bc- 

He Mory HMnoniTO. 
CaMO ce n6AJrai],E[ 6oje cmpth. 

Je;i,H0M 3a CBar;i,a. 

From oji;, h3, c, etc. 

I received a letter from 

your sister. 
1 come from America. 
I will write to you from 

They went from me very 

Translated from the Servian. 
He slept from six o'clock 

till eight. 
He hindered me from going 

to Belgrade. 
Painted from Nature. 
From the creation of the 

From bad to worse. 
We have not yet heard 

from him. 
From above. 
From afar. 
From behind. 
From beneath. 
From forth. 
From hence. 
From thence. 
From where. 
From within. 
From without. 

JI,o6ho caM je;i,H0 nficMO o;i; 

Baffle cecTpe. 
nHcahy Baffl h3 HoBropo^a. 

Ohh cy Me Bpjio pano ocTa- 


IIpeBe;i,eH0 ca cpncKor. 
Oh je cnaBao o;i; 6 ^o 8 caTH. 

Oh mh HHJe ;i,ao ;i;a H;i;eM y 

CjiHKaHO c npTipo;i,e. 
Oa nocTaHKa CBexa. 

Ca 3Jia Ha rope. 
Joffl HiiCMO HyjiH rjiaca oji, 


H3 A^JieKa. 


0;i; ca^a. 
Oa Ta^a. 
Oa Kyji;a. 
C no.zba. 

How to express some English PrepoBitions. 


In^ into y 

In Moscow. 

Let us go into the dining- 

Put the knife into your 

He will return in a month. 

Your brother is in good 

In this case you are right. 
He is well versed in Greek. 
They were taken in the act. 

He is always in good hu- 

I was in boots. 

Who is that lady in mour- 

In token of friendship. 

Sick in body, but sound 
in mind. 

Kpo3, etc. 


Xaj;i,eMO y Tpnesapnjy. 

MeTH Rom> y yen. 

Oh iae ce spaTHTH Kpo3 Me- 

cen; ;i;aHa. 
Bam je 6paT s^paB. 

Ty HMaTe npaBO. 

Oh ;i,o6po sna rp^KH. 

Ohh cy 6HjrH yxBateHii Ha 

Oh je yBCK pacnoji6jKeH 

Ja caM 6ho y ^HSMana. 
Kg je Ta rocno^a y atajiocTH? 

y 3HaK npHJaTe.zbCTBa. 
He3;i;paB tcjiom ajiH 3ApaB 

Of oji,, 0, 

The house of my friend. 
She is a relation of mine. 
The kingdom of Saxony. 
The month of June. 
The city of Moscow. 
This is of pure gold. 
I never dreamt of such a 

You ought to remind him 

of his promise. 
We are convinced of his 

I am not ignorant of it. 
They are proud of their 

He was found guilty of 


H3, etc. 

Kyta Mora npHJaTe.zba. 

Ona je (neKa) Moja pbt^aKa. 

Kpa.zbeBHHa CaKCOHCKa. 

Mecen; jynn. 

Baponi M6cKBa. 

Obo je OA ™cTor sjiaxa. 

Ja ce HHKaA ne Ha;i,ax TaKOM 

Tpe6a ;i;a ra noTceTHTe na 

HjeroBO o6etiaH)e 
Mh cmo y6el)eHH o aeroBOM 

To MH je n63HaT0. 
Ohh ce Honoce cbojhm ycne- 


HamjiH cy a^ je KpnB 36or 

138 Lesson 9. 

This came of your negli- To je npoHsauijio oa Banie 

gence. HeMapHOCTH. 

This is well done of you. To CTe Ao6po j^hhhjih. 
Is it of your own making? Je jih to Bania cbncTBena 

How can I judge of it? IIlTa Mory ;i,a mhcjihm o TOMe? 

Translation 9. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

Servian second rising under Milosh Ohrenovich, Only 
one Servian chieftain (''Voyvoda," as the Servians cal- 
led them) did not leave the country. This was the 
Voyvoda of Roodnik, Milosh Obrenovich. When he 
was urged to join Kara-George and other voyvodas in 
leaving the country and crossing the river to Hungary, 
he answered: 'T prefer to share with the people what- 
ever happens." He thought it was not right that the 
people should be abandoned by its chiefs. He was soon 
rewarded for his patriotism. The Turks, having re- 
conquered Servia, wished to pacify the country. They 
wanted someone who had some authority and influence 
with the people. There was no other chieftain who 
had that authority and influence but Voyvoda Milosh. 
He came to Belgrade to offer to the Vizier the sub- 
mission of the people, and was at once recognised by 
the Turks as the people's representative and chief. He 
kept peace for about a year and a half, using that time 
to pacify Turkish suspicions, and working secretly 
amongst the people to prepare a new rising. On Palm 
Sunday, 1815 A.D., he appeared before an assembly 
of notables and crowds of armed Servians gathered 
around the little wooden church of Takovo, dressed in 
his costume of a voyvoda, with the national standard 
in his hand, and addressing the people laconically, 
''Here I am, and here is the war with the Turks!" 
proclaimed a new insurrection against the Turkish au- 

After a few lost battles the Turks offered to nego- 
tiate. Milosh, who was a born diplomatist and states- 
man, entered into such negotiations, and by his abihty 
and moderation succeeded in obtaining for his people 
practical autonomy in 1816. Matters were just begin- 

How to express some English Prepositions. 139 

niiig to settle down, and the people had returned to 
their pacific and rural occupations, when suddenly 
Kara-George returned from Bessarabia to Servia, accom- 
panied only by a servant. He came to the Prefect of 
Somendria district, one of the men to whom he gave 
the rank of Voyvoda. This Prefect, however, considered 
it his duty to report to Milosh on Kara-George's arrival. 
Milosh, on his part, informed the Turkish Vizier of 
Belgrade, who at once demanded the head of the famous 
leader of the first Servian revolution. Probably Milosh 
would have given orders for the assassination of Kara- 
George, even if the Sultan's Vizier had not demanded 
his head, but he emphasized his order to the Prefect 
of Semendria by the peremptory demand of that Vizier 
and by all the risks to which the peace of the country, 
hardly secured after so many sacrifices and difficulties, 
would be exposed if the Vizier's order were not obeyed. 
In the early morning of the 25*^ July (13^^ according 
to old style), 1817, the famous leader of the first Ser- 
vian insurrection was murdered by a blow of an axe, 
which severed his head, while he was sleeping. The 
head was delivered to the Vizier of Belgrade, who sent 
it to Constantinople, where it was exposed for a few 
days at the gates of Seraglio. Of course the national 
conscience reproached Milosh for having been the author 
of Kara- George's death. It may be said that from that 
day commenced the feud between the House of Obre- 
novich and the House of Kara-Georgevich, which, be- 
sides the assassination of Prince Michael Obrenovich 
in 1868, finished on the 11*^ June, 1903, with the as- 
sassination of King Alexander the last Obrenovich. 

In the autum of 1817 the Servian National Assembly 
proclaimed Milosh (who up to that time was only leader 
or the first Voyvoda of the nation) hereditary Prince 
of Servia. He succeeded in obtaining from the Sultan 
the confirmation of that dignity and position. He ob- 
tained it independently of Russia and without the help 
or even the knowledge of the Russian diplomacy. This 
independent establishment of a hereditary national 
throne in the Balkan Peninsula was the first cause of 
Russia's dissatisfaction with Milosh. Still Milosh felt 
that Russia was for that time the only country which 

140 Lesson 9. 

could lielp Servia, and directed all liis efforts to deter- 
mine the Tsar to place the concessions, which the Ser- 
vians had already obtained, on an international basis 
by an international act. Russia entered into these 
views, and at the conference of Akerman, in 182G, 
signed a convention by which the vague Article VIII 
of the Treaty of Peace of Bucharest w^as explained by 
more detailed concessions in the interests of the Ser- 
vians. The Porte made these concessions not only be- 
cause she was pressed for them by Russia, but also 
because Milosh, by his refusal to join the Haeterists, 
succeeded in wanning the confidence of the Sultan. 

Servia under Prince Milosh Ohrenovich I. Milosh 
at once took in hand the organisation of Servia as a 
modern European state. He succeeded rapidly in this 
task, as hundreds of educated Servians came from 
Hungary and entered his service. He established schools, 
organised the administration of the country, a small 
regular army, courts of justice and the Church hier- 
archy. He invited able lawyers from Hungarian Servia 
and entrusted them with the task of waiting the civil 
and penal law. He organised the country's finances 
and, being practically himself a farmer, or rather an 
agriculturist, he greatly encouraged agriculture. At the 
same time he never ceased to work in Petersburg, in 
order that the Russian Court should place Servia's po- 
litical acquisition under the protection of an international 
act. Russia did this by the Treaty of Adrianople, in 
1829, obtaining for herself at the same time the right 
to be called, and to act as, the Protector of Servia. 

Russia's protectorate became very speedily a source 
of great inconvenience to Servia. Russia claimed, in 
virtue of it, the right to control the inner administration 
of the country. When Milosh gave his people the first 
constitution, in 1830, Russia declared that he had no 
right to give such a constitution without the previous 
consent of the Protecting Court and of the Sublime Porte. 

Reading Exercise. 

TopHba KJiHcypa iia J^ynasy. 

jIjt njiaHHHCKH Kjianaii;, Kpo3 kojh ce o;i; Pojiynna ao 
Kja.TOBa My^jHO h y :Ky6opy, ^lac Bpjro 6p30, ^ac ciiopo 

How to express some English Prepositions. 141 

Bepyra BejiHKa Maca ji,yHaBCKe BOji,e y ^y^KMHy oa AeBe- 
;i,eceT KHjioMeTapa, ^ihhh ;i,yHaBCEy KJiHcypy. Ty je JI,yHaB 
npoKp^HO ce6H nyT Epos bgjihkk Jianaii, Kpe^HHx h rpa- 
HHTHHx 6peroBa, kojh ce ws YrapCEe cnyinTajy y Cp6HJy. 

^0 rojrynii;a ^ynaB nna npoce^ny mnpHHy o^ xny^^a^y 
MCTapa, o;i,aTJie na ao MHJiaHOBii,a, h join BHnie ;i,o Kjia- 
AOBa, OH ce jaKO cy^Kasa. IIoHHiLyiiH mnpHHOM o;i; 360 m. 
ji,yHaBCKO je KopHTO Ha noje;i;HHHM MecTHMa TaKO ysano, 
H CTpne o6ajie je;iHa ;i.pyroj TaKO npHMaKHyTe, ji;a BejiHKa 
Maca Bo;i,e je;i;Ba npoMH^e Epos osy EjiHcypy, Eojoj je jij- 
^HHa ^HTaBHX ;i;eBe;i,eceT xH^ba^a MeTapa. 

Oji, Basjaina ^o rojiyni];a je ;i;y6HHa BO^e nsMel^y 2 — 16 
MeT., a o^aTjie ao CxeHEe je MHoro Beia, 24 — 36 m. J 
^BibeM. TOEy Epo3 EjiHcypy ;i,y6HHa ^ecTO npejiasii h3 je^ne 
EpaJHOCTH y Apyry: na noje;i;HHHM je MecTpma iiJiHTKa 
Hcno;i; 1 m., ji,a ^lecTO He Mory jialje hjiobhth, a na ;i,pyrHM 
naE ;i;ocTH5Ke orpoMny ;i,y6HHy, npeEO 60 m. Jlo Tojijn^a, 
je na;i, EopnTa 6jrar h naJBeta 6p3HHa Bo;i;e 1,20 m. y ce- 
EYHAy, a y EJiHcypii je ^ecTO na^ Bets, h 6p3HHa TOJiHKa, 
^a cy jiai^e HSJtomene BejiHEOJ onacnocTn; na nojeji;HHMM 
MecTHMa neH>e ce o^ Tpn ^o nex MeTapa y ceEyn^y, Te 
CTBapa npaBe BOji;onaji,e, — EaxapaETe. 

Il^ejia je ;i,yHaBCEa EjiHcypa no^e^ena na ;i;Ba jiejiB.: 
Ha Iopn>y h na Jl^omj KJiucypy. Topaa ce npyma ;i,o Mii- 
jiaHOBii,a H Ha3HBa ce h Mamt "Eepdan, 0;i;aTjie na ji,o 
Kjia^OBa npocTHpe ce ^o/^a EJincypa — Be/iumt "Bepdan. 
EOJH ce HasHBa jom h Feosdena lianuja, a TypuiH cy My 
;i.ajrH HMe ^emup Eanu. 06e cy EJincype pa3;i;B0JeHe Epa- 


FopTha KJiucypa HMa y ;i;ymHHH 40 EHJiOMexapa. Iljia- 
HHHCEH jranai];, eojh ce noBHJa no TOEy j^ynaBCEOM, a y 
KOMe cy Tojie njraHHHe c bhcoehm II,phhm BpxoM, 3aTHM 
Tpeden n JlecEOBau, njianHna, cbojom ceBepnoM na;i;HHOM 
jaEO ynnpe y Jl^ynaB, ^a My ji;a^HHa BeHu;a o^i; o6ajie Hena 
HH HeEOJiHEO EKJiOMeTapa. Ha n,ejiOM tom npocTopy ji,o 
MiijraHOBn;a cy cano ^eTHpn Majiena h cnpoMamna cejia. 
Oh je BeiiHHOM o6pacTao 6yE0B0M uiyMOM, Eoja ce neME- 
jiHn;e ynponaniiiyje. 

Ka^i; ce y^e y Fopay E^incypy, nacEopo no^HH>y Ea- 
TapaETe n ji,pyre 6po;i;apcEe CMei'ae. IlyTHHE ce ;i;hbh 
jienoTH H Heo6HTiHOCTH o6ajia, a h ne cjiyTH, ji,a je no;i; 
H>HM 036H^Ha onacHOCT, ji,a je no^ noBpinnnoM Bo;i,e mi- 

142 Lesson 9. 

TaBa ropa oji Kpnie^a m cTerta, Koje cy necTo BeoMa ;i,y- 
ra^Ke. Bhhhh KpMap Mopa oiipesHO ;i,a yBHJa jiai^oM no 
y3aH0M Kanajiy nsMet^y no^BOAHMX CTpauiHjia odnjiaseiiH 
MX: jia^a je necTO y onacHOCTu, ;i,a ce pasdnje o omTpe h 
CTeiiOBHTe cnpy;i,OBe. TeK na nojeji,HHHM MecTHMa, na ko- 
JHMa ce BOAa iipuMeTHO y6p3aBa o6pa3yjytiH spTJiore, bh;i,h 
ce, ;ia ce no;i; noBpniHHOM CKpHBajy jesHBe CTBapH. 

Ha ;i,yHaBCKOj rpaHHij;H noacapeBa^Kor OKpyra Haxo^H 
ce iiOBete cejio J(offpa. Koji; ^o6pe ce najrase pHMCKe 
pa3BajiHHe, o;i; kojhx cy ii,HriBe ynoTped^ene 3a 3HAaH)e 
;i,o6paH>CKe ii;pKBe. ^r,o6pa je ^ysena oco6hto ^o6pHM Ka- 
MeHHM yr^eM, kojh je Baman ne caMO 3a npoH3BOAH>y 
CBeTjrehera raca h no^JiaraiLe ManiHHCKHX Ka3aHa, Beb je 
no3HaT H Kao Haj6o^H yra^ 3a KOBa^Ke nocjiOBe. Yra^ 
ce BaAH H Ha yrapcKOj cxpaHH. 

Bpjio je saHHM^HB norjie;i; o6ejy CTpana ;i,yHaBCKHx 
Ha OBOM MHCTy; MpKO CTeae, Maj^ancKa OKna, py;i,apcKe 
KytiHi];e na CTenana, y3aHe h Beona CTpne CTeneHHu;e, ninne 
3a cnyniTaae HaTOBapennx Kojia, moctobh npeKO CTena h 
npoBajiHJa, — CBe to H3a3HBa Heo6H^aH yTHcaic. Pa;i,HHii;H 
py;i;apcKH H03ApaBcZbajy 03ro c MpKHx CTena CBaKy Jiat)y, 
Koja Ty;i,a npot^e. 

JIoBO oji; JI,o6pe, h Majro nnme o;i, H,e, na aycTpo- 
yrapcKOJ o6ajrH, Hajra3H ce necTO ^peuKoeo. ^o ^penKOBa 
ce HjroBH KJiHcypoM 6e3 BejiHKHx onacHOCTH. TeK o;i; Tora 
MecTa nacTajy MHoro onacHHJH cnpy;i,0BE[ h 6p3ai];H, na ce 
o;i; H>era h pa^yna npaBH Ma/iu "Bepdan. Y aeny cy: 
Iluojie^ Rsjias, TaxmaMtja, Bpan h FpeSeu. 

IlHOjie cy CTene, Koje CTp^e na^ bo^om, ajin nncy 
onacne 3a Hji0BH^6y. OnacHHJH cy 6p3aniH H3Jia3 h Tax- 
TajiHJa, KOJH 3axBaTajy y ji;y;KHHy ^o 1800 m. IIpeKO obhx 
TpyAOBa, KOJH cy ojs, MpKO-n,pBeHora nop(|)Hpa, njiOBe Jiat^e 
caMO npH Betoj BOjiiH, ny h Ta^a Bpjro na^K^HBO. Jla^a 
ce HMHie jypeiiH BejiHKOM 6p3HHOM. CaMO je^an Horpeman 
Max Ha KpMH MOJKe ynponacTHTH jral^y n cypBaTH je y 
KaneHHTe ^e^bycTH. 

Jla^ ce cy^a npeKO obhx 6p3aKa h BpTJiora, a Bo;i;a 
HOMaMHO jypH y;i,apajyiiH o CTe/^e h nonyMajyiiH ce. IlyT- 
HHKy yniH 3arjiyHy oji, CHJiHora xy^a^6a, a ohh CKpeLy ^ac 
jieBo ^ac ^ecHO na BHCOKe ;i,yBapoBe oji; CTena, kojh ce 
ysAHJKy 400 — 800 m. bhchho, a ^Hja ce myMOBHTOCT na 
noje;i,HHHM MecTHMa HpeKH;i;a rojiHM, CTenoBHTHM ;i;ej[OBHMa. 

How to express some English Prepositions. 143 

Ty je KJiHcypyKa cjiHKa ;i,HBHa; aen npnsop BejiH^aHCTBen, 
He-Ma My .laKO cjia^Ha! . . . 

IIcno;i; TaxxajiHJe Haxo;i;H ce noji, boji;om Bpan, MpKH 
Kpe^HH rpe6eH, a oji,Max ao Tora cnpy;i;a HS^Baja ce oji; 
Hanie o6ajie rpe6eH, orpoMan KaMCHHTH px oji; ii,pBeHora 
MepMepa, bhcok 68 m. TpeCen tojihko yjiasH y JtynaB, 
;i;a ra npn Maaoj bo^h cyacaBa Ha 200 m. JleBO o;i; Fpe- 
6eHa y3;i,H^e ce Kymjeea, a H3Met)y Ta ;i;Ba BHca je sjo- 
rjiacHH rpe6eHCKH npojias, Kpos kojh Bo;i,a jypn CTpaxo- 
BHTOM 6p3HHOM. JesoBHTO yxH^e xy^aiBe BpTJiora h 6p3aKa 
Ha TOM MecTy. 

CBe ]ifi CKopa rpe6eH 6enie jejuna o;i; HaJ3aHHM.zbB:BH- 
jHX CTena y ji,yHaBCKOJ KJincypH. OBaj orpoMHH 6per, kojh 
MpnapHMa 3aAaBaine CTpax, ne hoctojh BHnie. IteroBa 
3JiorjracHa yjiora, Kojy je BeKOBHMa nrpao na ^ynaBy, 
CBpmena je; T^eMy je naMeaeno, ;i;a 6y;i;e Hce^ieH h ;i;HHa- 
MHTOM pacnpcKan, ^a ra necTane c o63opja KJiHcypHHora, ji;a 
Ha JtynaBy 6y;i;e je^HO CTpamnjio Maae. Cpemen J. CmojnoeuR, 


Ulxa ca^HaaBa ropay ;i;yHaBCKy KJincypy? 

KojiHKa je mnpHHa JfynaBa ao r6jiynii;a? 

KojiHKa je ;i;y6HHa J^ynasa na tom Mecxy? 

Ha KOJiHKo je ;iejioBa no;i,eibeHa ;^yHaBCKa KJincypa h KaKo ce 

TH ;i;ejioBH 30By? 
OnHiEHTe 'Bepjiian cbojhm pe^nna! 
KaKBa je cy;ii6a rpedenoBa? 

Tenth Lesson. 

How to express some English Prepositions. 

On, upon Ha, y, k, Ka, etc. 

It lies on the table. Oho (to) jiejKH na CTOjry. 

I depend upon you. Ja ce ocjiaaaM na sac. 

She is on a journey. Ona je na nyTy. 

I shall call upon you to- Ja ty Bac noceTHTH cyTpa. 


He is on the verge of ruin. Oh je na HBHn;H npbnacTH. 

Who is waiting on the Ko cjiy^KH r5cTe? 


Put on your gloves. HaByii;HTe pyKaBHiie. 


Lesson 10. 

You must go on with your 

They resolved on selhng 

their estate. 
You must reflect upon the 

On the first of April. 
On foot. 
On horseback. 
On purpose. 
On seeing. 
On entering. 

Over Haji;, 
A storm hang over us. 
The Emperor reigns over 

his people. 
I went over the new bridge. 

The report spread over the 

He lives over the water. 
We stayed there over night. 
She has a veil over her face. 
You have spilt the coffee 

over my gown. 
They gained a great victory 

over the enemy. 
He is over head and ears 

in debt. 
All may change over night. 

The storm is over. 
We read the book over. 
The Neva is frozen over. 
It is all over with him. 
All over the world. 

Bh Mopaxe npo;i;y;KHTH Bauie 

Ohh cy ce pemnjiH ;i,a npo- 

Aa^y CBoje HMaibe. 
Bh MopaTe mhcjehth na 6y- 

IIpBor anpiijia. 
Ha KOiby. 



no, na, etc. 

Bypa HaM npeTHjanie. 
II,ap Bjia;i;a na^i, cb5jhm na- 

Ja caM npemao npcKO HOBor 


Tjiac ce npbHece no Bapomn. 

Oh 5KHBH na 66ajiH. 
Mh cmo npendhnjiH TaMO. 
Ona HMa neo npcKO j[Hn;a. 
Bh CTe np5cyj[H KaBe no 


Ohh cy 6;i,HejiH cjiaBny n5- 
6e;i,y na^ nenpHJaTCZbeM. 

Oh ce 3aBajiH0 ;i;o rynie y 

CBe ce MO^e npoMenHTH ^o 

Bypa je np6nijra. 

Mh CMC npo^HxajiH Kanry. 

HcBa ce saMpsjra. 

HcMa BHme niiniTa o;i; H)era. 

Ho n;ejroM CBCTy. 

To K, y, ^0, Ha, c, etc. 

This book belongs to me. To je Moja Kibnra. 
God has revealed his wall Bor je oTKpno CB5jy Bb^y 
to man. ^OBeEy. 

How to express some English Prepositions. 


Up iia, 

Let us go upstairs! 

He is walking up and down 

the street. 
The parhament is up. 
My blood is up. 
The quarter is up. 

From my youth up. 

Up to the present moment. 

y3, no etc. 

Xaj;i,eMO rope (y3 CTeneHHij;e). 
Oh ce mexa r6pe-ji,6jie no 

CKynniTHHa ce pasimiJia. 
Moja je KpB ysaBpejia. 
^leTBpT ro;i,HHe je ncTeKJio, 

Oa Moje MJia;],ocTn; joni Kao 

One ji,o ca,ii,a. 

I am satisfied with him. 

He w^as w^ounded with a 

With your permission. 

With all possible speed. 

She lives with her grand- 

It is a rule wdth me. 

He is angry w^ith you. 
With all my heart. 
He was mad with joy. 
It w^as the same with us. 
I met with it by chance. 
I trust you with all my 

Things do not go w^ell with 

He goes on with his villainy. 

Did that business succeed 
with him? 

With c, ca, KOA, o;i;, y etc. 

Ja caM 3aji,0B0.zbaH c h>hm. 
Oh je 6ho paaen HOiKeM. 

C BamoM ;i,53B0Ji0M. 
Cbom MorytiOM 6p3nHOM. 
Ona ^khbh ko^i; cbof ;i,e;^e 

(or Ti;e;i;a). 
To je MOje npaBHjio; or: ko,t; 

Mene je to npaBHJio. 
Oh ce JbyT]i na Bac. 
Oji, CBer cpn;a. 
Oh je Kao jijji oji, pa;];ocTH. 
To ce iiCTO H c nana ;i,ecHjio. 
Ja caM TO Haniao cjiyqajno. 
Ja BaM noBepaBaM CBe CBOJe 

Taj He. 
ILeMy He ii;i;e ;i;o6po. 

Oh ce He OKaayje pi^aBiix 

Je JiH OH ycneo y Tone? 

Without 6e3, a ^a h ne, h ne, HSBan etc. 

He is never without an Oh yBCK nal^e onpaB^aaa. 

Without speaking to him. He roBopHsniH c H>HMe. 

Servian grammar. 10 

146 Lesson 10. 

The house stands without Kyta jie^KH H3BaH BaponiH, 

the towu. 

He is without. Oh Hiije kg;; Kyhe. 

He win not do it without Oh to nehe yhmhhth aKa 

you speak to him. My He roBOpMTe. 

Translation 10. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

She forced him to withdraw that constitution, and 
then she and the Porte imposed on the country a con- 
stitution which the Russian Ambassador in Constanti- 
nople and the Porte prepared, and which, ignoring the 
popular and ancient institution of the National Assem- 
bly, vested the legislative power in a Senate whose 
seventeen members could be deposed only by the Porte 
and not by the Prince of Servia. It was only too natural 
that the Prince and the Senate should soon come into 
conflict. Milosh, having a strong individuality, and 
accustomed to command and see his own will done^ 
could not easily bear the control and interference of 
the seventeen oligarchs. He tried to get rid of the 
foreign constitution and, trying to obtain Great Britain's 
support, worked for the substitution of the exclusively 
Russian protectorate by a General Protectorate of all 
the European Powers. That was quite enough to seal 
his destiny in the eyes of Russia. As Milosh practically 
reigned as a despot, he created many malcontents and 
even enemies, who, organised and led by the Russian 
Consul, managed to force him to abdicate in 1839. 

Servia under Prince Alexander Kara-Georgevich (1842 
till 1858). — Milosh's eldest son, Milan Obrenovich II., 
having died a few weeks after his father's abdication,, 
his younger son, Michael Obrenovich III., was called 
to the throne. But men who sent away his father did 
not feel safe with him, and thought it better to force 
him to leave the country. They did that in 1842, and 
called to the throne Prince Michael's aide-de-camp, 
Alexander Karageorgevich , the younger son of the 
leader of the first Servian Revolution. 

Prince Alexander submitted to the ascendancy ol" 
the Senate and followed its guidance meekly. ThiS' 

How to express some P]nglish Prepositions. 147 

secured to the country a number of years of internal 
peace which was wisely used for cultural and econo- 
mical progress. His government did not aspire to 
successes in the national policy, and kept most friendly 
relations with the Porte and with Austria. During the 
Hungarian Revokition in 1848 and 1849 Prince Alexan- 
der allowed Servian volunteers to cross to Hungary to 
assist the Hungarian Servians who were fighting for 
Austria against the Magyars. On the eve of the Cri- 
mean War the Servian Senate decided on a strict neu- 
trality, contrary to the suggestions of the Russian 
political agents, who wished the Servians to rise against 
the Turks and create an important diversion. The 
defeat of Russia by the Allies brought about the dechne 
of the Russian and the increase of the Austrian in- 
fluence in Belgrade. Russia, sure of the devotion of 
the Servians, decided to remove from the Servian throne 
a Prince who never showed any spirit, and who was 
considered a thorough Austrophil. The friends of the 
Obrenovich dynast}^ .eagerly availed themselves of the 
Russian assistance and managed to create a difficult 
and complicated situation, which ended in Alexander 
Karageorgevich being dethroned by the Servian National 
Assembly in December, 1858. The old Milosh Obre- 
novich I. was recalled from exile and placed again on 
the Servian throne. 

Servia under the second reign of the Ohrenovich 
Dynasty (1859 — 1903). — Milosh was much too old to 
mark his second reign by any important deed. Besides, 
he died very soon after his second accession. His son, 
Michael Obrenovich HI., succeeded him to the throne. 
He immediately started a vigorous national policy. He 
increased the regular army and organised and armed 
the national militia. He reorganised Servia on a more 
modern basis, and showed himself proudly independent 
of the Porte. Early in his second reign the Turkish 
garrison of the Belgrade fortress bombarded the city 
of Belgrade, on some trivial pretext (June, 1862). This 
created for Prince Michael the first objective of his 
policy — to clear away all Turkish garrisons from the 
fortresses in Servia. When he had strengthened his 
finances and had under his command a hundred thou- 


148 Lesson 10. 

sand armed Servians, he demanded formally the with- 
drawal of the Turkish garrisons from Servia. To prev- 
ent war in tlie Balkans, the Great Powers advised the 
Porte to sm-render the Tm'kish fortresses in Servia to 
the keeping of Prince Michael and the Servian army. 
He followed that advice, and on the 6/18 April, 1867, 
the fortresses of Belgrade, Semendria, Shabats and 
Ujitse were delivered to the Servians. 

Hardly a year after this, Prince Michael was cruelly 
assassinated in the Park of Koshutnyak, near Belgrade, 
by some devotees of the dynasty Karageorgevich (10 June, 
1868). As he left no sons by his wife, Juha Countess 
Hunyad)^, the Servian National Assembly elected Milan, 
the son of Prince Michael's first cousin Milosh Yephrem 
Obrenovich, who, a boy of fourteen, ascended the 
throne as Obrenovich IV. During his minority his 
Regents gave a new and somewhat more liberal con- 
stitution than the one which Prince Michael gave. Milan 
came of age in 1871. In the beginning he followed 
the guidance from St. Petersburg. In 1876 he declared 
war on Turkey. The Servian army was beaten by the 
Turks, but that very circumstance forced the hand of 
the peace-loving Tsar, Alexander IL, who in 1877 de- 
clared war on Turkey. After the fall of Plevna, the 
Servians joined the Russians as allies, and under the 
command of Prince Milan, forced the Turkish garrison 
ofNish to capitulate. They occupied Pirot, Procooplye, 
Kurshumlye, Leskovats, Wranya, Koomanovo and part 
of the Kossovo plain, when the armistice stopped their 
further progress. 

But at San Stefano, General Ignyatieff refused to 
give the Servians anything more than an insignificant 
"rectification of the frontier," while at the same time 
creating a big Bulgaria enveloping in her limits coun- 
tries inhabited by the Servians. At the Congress of 
Berlin, Prince Gortchakoff' plainly told the Servian 
representatives that Russia could not do anything for 
Servia, and that they should address themselves to 
Austria. And the Servians had really to thank Austria 
that Pirot, Leskovats and Wranya were, together with 
the Toplitsa valley, added to the territory of Servia, which 
at the same time was declared an independent country. 

How to express some English Prepositions. 149 

After the experiences of San Stefano and at the 
Berhn Congress, Prince Milan refused to follow any- 
longer the guiding from St. Petersburg, and arrived at 
a friendly understanding with Austria. 

Reading Exercise. 
Narodno verovaiiije. 


Sveci, roditelji, vladaoci, vladike i svestenici, po 
naisljenju Srba seljaka, mogu da ukunu tako, da se bas 
stece onom, kom kletvu upute, ono, sto mu reku. 
^ U narodnoj pesmi JBolovanje JaJcsica Jovana kazuje 
se, kako je Jovan bolovao devet godina i kako se ispo- 
vedio majci, da je, kao hajduk, poharao nekakav ma- 
nastir i razbio zlatni civot, u kom su bile svetice Fetka 
i Nedelja, koje su ga i proklele, da tako dugo boluje. 
Narodna pesma Uros i Mrnjavcevici prica, kako je 
kralj A^ukasin, Ijut na sina, sto je rekao, da je carstvo 
na Urosu, a ne na njemu, ovako kleo: 

^<Sine Marko, da te Bog ubije! 

Ti nemao groba, ni poroda! 

I da bi ti dusa ne ispala, 

Dok turskoga cara ne dvorio!» 
Kralj ga kune, veli pesma, a car blagosilja: 

«Kume Marko, Bog ti pomogaoj 

Tvoje lice svetlo na divanu! 

Tvoja sablja sekla na megdanu! 

Nada te se ne naslo junaka! 

Ime ti se svuda spominjalo, 

Dok je sunca i dok je nieseca! 
I pesma^ savrsuje ovako: 

«Sto su rekli, tako mu se steklo!» 
Velimir Bogati, u Kljucu, kraj reke Lepenice, u 
Kolubari, bio je velikas u vreme kneza Lazara, pa ne- 
kad nije docekao niti ugostio kneza, kad je on dohodio 
u Mionicu. Zato ga je knez prokleo, te mu se jedan 
sin udavio u reci Lepenici, drugi pao s konja i poginuo, 
a trecega, vec jedinoga, otac zatvori u kulu i nikud ga 
nije pustao, da mu se ne bi kakva nesreca dogodila. 
U jesen mu donese zreo grozd, da dete bar po tom 
vidi, koje je doba od godine. Iz grozda ga peci gujce, 

150 Lesson 11. 

te i on umre! Etc, da se iie luoze, vele seljaci, uteci 
od kletve. 

Kletca mozc da stigne onoga, koga ukunu drugi, 
a ona nioze da siistigne i onoga, koji se sara za stogod 
krivo zakune. 

Prica se, da je nekakav seljak hteo da prisvoji 
tudu njivu, pa svoga sincica zakopao u zemlju, posto 
ga je najpre naucio, sto ce odgovoriti, kad se zapita. 

Sudija i parnicari dodu na njivu, i tu onaj, sta 
hoce nepravdom tude da prigrabi, rekne: «0 crna 
zemljo, ti sama kazi, cija si.» 

— Tvoja sam, tvoja. Zacuje se detinji glasak iz 

Pravi gazda, cuvsi to, trgne se. I sudija presudi, 
da DJiva pripada onom, koji je nepravedno trazi. 

Sud se razide. 

Onda otac, s motikom u rukama, navali kopati 
zemlju, da izvadi dete, ali deteta nema! Zove ga. Dete 
se odziva, ali sve dalje bezi. I tako se pretvori u Jcrticiil 

Tako je, vele, postala prva krtica. 


Ko Mo^Fte ji.a yKyne, no MHin^Beay Cp6a? 

y KOJHM ce Ilapo;^HHM necMana iioMHi&y oeiBe? 

KoJHM ce CTiixoM saBpmaBa necaia «yponi h MpH>aB^ieBnLn»? 

Ctmc jih KJiexBa h oHora ko ce caivi saKyee KpHBO? 

KaKO je riociavia iipsa Kpinua no napoj^noM iipeMay? 

Eleveiitli Lesson- 
How to express some English Conjunctions. 

Though the lesson was dif- H aKO je JieKii;HJa 6iim tcui- 

ficult, (yet) I have learnt Ka, nnaK caM je (jy) Hayrao. 


Though you will not ack- Ma ^a HeKeTe npHsnaTH iinaK 

nowledge, yet you can- He MO^eTe no6HJaTH {J)aKT. 

not deny the fact. 

Whether he will go or not, Xoiie jir oh iihn hjih He, 

it is the same to me. to mh je coe je^o. 

You may take either this Momexe yacTS (hjih) obo hjih 

or that. OHO. 

How to express some English CoDJunctions. 151 

I shall not go to the aca- 
demy, either to day or 

She can neither read nor 

I was here, but I did not 
speak to him. 

Do but hear ho w^ it thunders . 

I have but just seen him. 

She lost all her teeth but 

He does nothing but laugh. 

Buy whatever (thou likest), 
but that. 

The house was all but des- 

She cannot see tears, but 
she must weep herself. 

But for you, we should 
have lost all our fortune. 

I cannot but love him. 

1 have not been at the 
university to-day, nor 
shall I be there to-mor- 

Nor is he richer than I. 

He is as diligent as his 

He is not so dihgent as 
his brother. 

As he writes, so does also 
his brother. 

The Emperor was so con- 
descending as to speak 
to the warrior. 

Be so kind as to write to 

No sooner had he seen her, 
than he ran away. 

Heiiy hIih y aKaAeMHJy hh 
Aanac hh cyTpa. 

Ona He yne hh ^a ^Hxa hh 

;i.a HHHie, 
Ja caM 6ho OB^e ajin HHcaM 


CaMo cjiymajTe KaKO rpMH. 
TeK HiTo caM ra Bii;i,eo. 
Ona je nory6Hjia CBe 3y6e 


Oh ce caMo CMeje. 

EynH Ma hito Apyro, caMO 

He TO. 

Kyta je 6Hjia potobo nopy- 

Ona He Mome jia bk^h cyse 

a ^a ce h caMa ne sa- 

J[£i HHje 6Hjro Bac mh 6hcmo 

H3ry6HjiH CBe CBOje nnaae. 
He Mory (a) ji,a ra ne bojihm. 
Ja HHcaM ^anac 6ho na cbc- 

y^HJIHfflTy HHTH liy HtiH 


Hhth je OH 6oraTHJH o;i, Mene. 
Oh je Bpe^an Kao h H>eroB 

Oh HHje TaKO spe^an Kao 

H>eroB 6paT. 
KaKO OH HHuie TaKO h aeroB 

Il^ap je 6ho TaKO CHHCxojr,»/i)HB 

ji,a je roBopno c bojhhkom. 

Bvj],H TaKO .zbv6a3aH na mh 


Hhm jy je BH;i;eo oh vTew. 

152 Lesson 11. 

Translation 11. 

Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

This displeased in the highest degree Tsar Alexan- 
der III., who decided that Milan the Austrophil should 
be by all and every means removed from the Servian 
throne. This was especially the case since in February, 
1882, Prince Milan assumed the title of King of Servia^ 
proclaiming his country an independent kingdom. Hence- 
forth he had to struggle against the underground w^ork 
of the Russian Panslavists who espoused the cause of 
Prince Peter, the eldest son of Prince Alexander Kara- 
georgevich, who was naturally the Pretender to the 
throne of Servia. 

King Milan might have continued successfully to 
repel all the Russian attacks on his position, but for 
two mistakes which gave his internal and external ene- 
mies great opportunities. In the autumn of 1885 he 
started a war against Bulgaria to prevent her annexing 
Roumeha. His army was repulsed by the Bulgarians 
at Slivnitsa, and lost even the important town ofPirot. 
The Bulgarian army under Prince Alexander Battenberg 
might have marched into Nish if Austria had not stop- 
ped its progress. Peace was made, however, without 
any material loss to Servia, except the loss of prestige. 
But naturally the failure of King Milan's war against 
Bulgaria somewhat damaged his political position. Even 
more damage was caused by his unfortunate attempt 
to get divorced from his wdfe Queen Nathalie. The 
European public opinion was entirely against him in 
that case. At last he felt tired of the long struggle^ 
and after having given the country the most radical 
constitution in Europe, he abdicated the throne in fa- 
vour of his only son, Alexander (3 March, 1889). 

King Alexander was most unfortunate. As a little 
boy he grew up in a Court w^hich was torn by dif- 
ferences between his parents and all sorts of scandaL 
As a boy of thirteen years he was left on the thorny 
and shaky throne of Servia quite alone, his mother and 
father living far avray in exile. No proper education 
was given to him. The rough and not exactly highly- 

How to express some English Conjunctions. 153 

cultured oft'icers who were attached to him, poisoned 
his mind with distrust and the conviction that he was 
surrounded by enemies, who were constantly compassing 
his ruin, and who could be repelled only by the exhi- 
bition of merciless and unscrupulous force. When he, 
as a young man of seventeen, by a cleverly arranged 
but not honourable act, proclaimed himself of age, 
retaining his regents for one night as prisoners in the 
palace, the Radical Party called by him to form the 
Government extolled him as a genius, a ruler who 
was likely to eclipse even Alexander the Great of Ma- 
cedonia. When, in 1894, he suspended the radical 
constitution w^hich his father had given the country, and 
replaced it by the old conservative constitution of 1869, 
Servia congratulated him on his pluck and courage. 
He played with cabinets and with the national assem- 
blies, and they all — Radicals, Liberals, Progressists 
and neutrals — bowed before his will, and rather en~ 
couraged him to reign as a small edition of the ""Hoi 
Soleiiy He came to the conclusion that he could do 
whatever he liked. He was rapidly losing his popula- 
rity and was alienating from himself the most devoted 
friends of the dynasty. This was especially the case 
when in June, 1900, he, to the consternation of all the 
Servians, married his mistress, Draga Mashin, the widow 
of a mining engineer. He behaved cruelly to his father 
and to his mother, as to most of his dynasty's old 
friends. To harm his enemies, and seemingly to for- 
tify his position, he repeated one coup d'etat after the 
other. Although the Tsar consented to act by a repre- 
sentative as best man at Alexander's wedding with 
Draga, Russia had no need of his services the moment 
King Milan died unexpectedly in Vienna in January, 
1902, and withdrew from him her protecting arm. 
Abandoned by Russia as well as by Austria, abandoned 
by many of the old friends of the dynasty, he was 
attacked in the old palace in Belgrade by a body of 
officers and most cruelly murdered, together with his 
Queen, Draga (11^^ June, 1903). The revolutionary 
Government called the Senate and the National Assem- 
bly together, and a few days after the assassination of 
the last of the Obrenoviches, Peter Karageorgevich, the 

154 Leaeon 11. 

grandson of the leader of the first revolution against 
the Turks, was elected King of Servia. 

A glance at the history of constitutionalisyn and the 
present eo)istitntion of Servia. The Servian kingdom 
during the Middle Ages had its own Parliament. There 
was only one Chamber, composed of the great temporal 
Lords (Velika Vlastela) and the representatives of the 
Church. In the great struggle against the Turkish 
Invasion, lasting practically for nearly a hundred years 
(1371 — 1462), many noble families were extinguished, 
others went into exile into Italy, Hungary, Moldavia and 
Russia, where their descendants are still to be found; 
some of them (and especially many in Bosnia) embraced 
Islam to preserve their estates, the present great Moham- 
medan landlords of Bosnia being the descendants of old 
Bosnian ''Velika Vlastela" (High Aristocracy). The Tur- 
kish immediate rule completed the process of social and 
pohtical leveUing, so that the beginning of the ninete- 
enth century, on the eve of the first rising, all Servians 
in the present kingdom of Servia were equally poor and 
downtrodden peasants, filled with hatred against their 
masters and oppressors. They were, and they are still, 
the most democratic people in Europe. 

The moment they began, after their military suc- 
cesses, to organise their country (1806), they wanted to 
limit the autocratic power of Kara-George, who, being 
a successful commander-in-chief in the battlefield, 
wished to act as such in the political field. The struggle 
between Kara-George on one side, and the Voyvodas 
and Senators on the other, was one of the causes which 
prevented the consolidation of Servia under his rule, 
and which was in a great measure responsible for the 
catastrophe in 1813. 

Milosh, although himself, like Kara-George, incli- 
ned to the despotic autocracy, preferred to act with 
the national representatives coming together every year 
as the ''Narodna Skupshtina" (National Assembly). As 
long as he had the Narodna Skupshtina he was safe. 
The moment Russia and the Porte discarded his con- 
stitution and replaced it by their own creation of an 
independent Oligarchical Senate, he Vv^as doomed. 


How to express some English Conjunctions. 155 

Reading Exercise. 

y Cp6HJH cBaiai ii,pKBa MMa cBOJy cjiaBy, m OHa je 
€JiaBM OHaKO, Eao uiTO H cBaKa Kyta cjiasM CBOJe KpcHO 
HMe. OBHM ;i,aHHMa cKynjbajy ce koa ij;pKaBa h Mana- 
cTHpa ca6opii, kojh cy 3a Bpene Typana napo^y Mnoro 


Joui yo^m cjiaBe ii;pKBeHe m aa BHCOKa cyH]j;a no^Htbe 
HapoA i];pKBH ;i;ojra3HTH. Ha KOJiHMa, iia KoibMMa m neniKe 
BpBH CBeT y CTajaheM pyxy ca cbmx cxpana. CBaKM ce 
;atypH ;i,a nal/e ^ro^HO MecTO, r^e A^ ycTaBH KOJia h ^a 
€MecTH CBOjy nopo;i,iiij;y, r;i,e jjh ;i,a cnycTM CBOjy Top6y. 
CsaKH rjieji,a, ji,a je 6j\.WAi^ cbojhx cyce^a, cbojhx no^HaiiMKa. 

Ohm, KOJH ;KeJie ji,a Tpryjy na ca6opy, ;i,omjm cy join 
paHHje, yxBaTHJiH hjih aaKyimjm sro^na necxa h Hsrpa- 
;i,E[JiH iia comHi];aMa oribHuiTa, ^a iieny Kasy h ;i,a roTOBe 
jejia. HeKH je noAHrao ce6H h MajiKO nacjiona o;j, cyHij;a 
MJiH OA KHnie. Ty je nopei>ao CBOje cy;!;e c nntieM h oa 
nocyi^a, uito je o;i; noTpe6e, ^a ce rocT MOHce nocjiy^KHTH: 
Ty je KaBa, niehep, cjiaxKO, paKHJa, bhho m nHBO. 

CyTpa ;i,aH je cjTyHt6a y ii;pKBM. Ilocjie cjiyjK6e ca6op 
nocTaje ;kpibjbh. Oko He6pojeHHX Baxapa OKpehe ce pasHO 
nei];HBO. CBy;i,a ce Beh noHiiEbe tohmtm nnhe, a Ky;i, ro;j; 
ce OKpeiieui cjiy^KH ce KaBa. 

Oko no;i;He mjth Majio ji,oii,HHJe nacraje py^iaK. Aeo 
KOJH ;i,OMaiiinT una koa upKBe iiapo^HTy carpai^eiiy, nopo- 
;i,HHHy coeinj, oh 3ace;i,a ca cBOJHivia TaMO. KoJM HOMa 
coBpe, OH 6Hpa xjraA KaKBora ;i,pBeTa, h ly pyna m oji,- 
Mapa ce. 3a speMe py^iKa ;i,HJKe ce y cjiaBy, m Ta;i,a ny- 
u,ajy npanrHJe h sboho upKBena BBona. HoniTO ce npe- 
py^a, CTapnJH ce;i:e, nMJyH;Kajy h paaroBapajy ce; ^OD;HMJe 
npoxoAajy Majio h no ca6opy, a OMJia;i,HHa xp^M y kojio, 
iirpa H BecejiH ce. 

HaJBetiH ca6opn 6MBajy o TpoJHjj;aMa, IIpeo6paiKeH>y 
Be.iHKOj H Majioj Tocno^, a h o CnacoBy ;i,Hy, BjiaroBe- 
CTHMa H I],BeTHMa. Ha to ca6ope bpbh napoA ne cano as 
o6jimKH>HX, Hero tocto h h3 BeoMa ji,ajieKMX KpajeBa. Ako 
je Jieno Bpene, o6hhho ce Kpete u;ejia nopo;r,Hi];a, a ko;s; 
Kyhe ocTane TeK no je^no. BnBa noKaTKa;i;, ;i,a ce koji; 
HeKHX n;pKaBa caKynn no neKOJinKO XH.Zba;i,a ;i,ynia na ca6op. 
IIo MiiMmy Id. MiiJiuKeeufiy h Bjiadimiqjy KapiiKy. 

15G Lesson 12. 

1. Koinarac i vo. 

Komarac stane volu iia I'og, pak ga stane svaki 

ens zapitkiviti: 

«Ako sani ti tezak, a ti mi kazi, pa cu otici.» 
«Ti meni tezak ?» odgovori mu vo naposletku. «Ja 

to i ne osecam, kao da te i nije iia svetu.» 

Iz basana Dositija Obradocica, 

2. JlaB M Marapaii,. 

.ilaB H Marapaii; no})y y jiob. Marapaii; cbojom bhkom 
iioiiJiauiM H y36yHH MHore .KHBOTHiLe H HCTepa hx h;5 
ujyMe, a jraB hx CBe iioxBaxa. IToiioceKH ce cbojom yciy- 
roM aaiiMTa Marape jraBa: «Xe, ca^ mh Ka^H, dito tm ce 
HMHH o;i; Mojera r;iaca?» — «IIaK join nHTain», o;i,roBopH 
jaB, «H ja caM, ;i,a Te He snaM ko ch, 6hx ce oa TBOje 
BMKe ynJiauiHO.» II3 Bacana J^ommuja OCpadoeufia. 


MMajy jiH cpiicKe upKBe CBoje cjiaBe? 
IIlTa je TO ca6op, m KaKo ce oh m3bo;i;h? 

Hrpa Jin na ca6apy h Ka;i.? 
Ulxa je oAroBopHo KOMapaii, Bojy? 
Mifja je 6acHa «KoMapau, h b6»? 
lIlTa rmaiH jraBon ojtroBop Marapii.y? 

Twelftii Lesson. 
How to express some English Idioms. 

Idioms are modes of speaking peculiar to a lan- 
guage, which cannot be literally translated into another. 
We give therefore a list of those which are most fre- 
quently used in English, with their Servian equivalents: 
Let him alone. OcTaBHTC ra Ha MHpy. 

To keep up apioearances. 0;j,pa;aBaTH npHCTOJan ciio- 

jh^^mihVL H3rjre;i,. 
For auglit 1 know. Y kojimko ja snaM. 

He hoards and lodges with Oh je na cxany h xpann 

his aunt. ko;i, CBOje tctkc. 

He went on hoard a steamer. Oh o;i,e jrai^OM. 
The vessel was hound for .JIai)a je Tpe6aja hIih 3a 

Malta. Ma.TiTv. 

How to express some English Idioms. 


This will hreah his heart. 
When the transaction was 

brought to hght. 
Go about your business. 
By and by. 
By the by. 
I called at your house 

yesterday evening. 
If that is the case. 
That will do. 
I have done with him. 
To be on duty. 

Let me have the bill of fare. 
They make fan of him. 
He is given to drinking. 

Good graciousl 

He had a hand in it. 

She writes a good hand. 

He was within hearing. 

I cannot heljy it. 

A meeting will be held next 

Will you hold your tongue? 

I am in a great hurry. 

To lay a wager. 

He had like to have been 

He lives from hand to 

I am quite at a loss to 

Make yourself at home. 

They made away as fast 
as they came. 

To make up one's mind. 

What is the matter? 

No matter. 

3Iind you come before din- 

Oji; Tora he My npenyhH cpii;e. 
KoA ce j\,ejio o6ejiOAaHHJio. 

Tjie^ajTe CBOJa iiocjia. 


ysrpeA; y 3roji;HH ^lac. 

BhO CaM CHHOli KO/I, Bac. 

Ako je TO TaKO. 
To he 6hth jiOBOJbEO. 
Ja caM CBpuiHO c EbWMe. 
Bhth Ha ;i,y^hoct; 6hth 

Ji,ajTe MM jejiOBHHK. 
Ohh My ce noxcMeBajy. 
Oh je CKJiOften (or ckjioh) 


Bo3Ke Moj! 

Oh je y^iecTBOBao y tomc. 
Ona HMa Jien pyKonnc. 
Oh je Morao ^yTM. 
HnniTa ne Mory j^vlewuk. 
ILj^jhe ne^eibe 6Hhe cacTaHK. 

Xohexe JiH hyTaTH? (or je- 

3HK 3a 3y6e!) 
Ja ce jKypHM. 
Kjia;i;HTH ce. 
oa Majio niTO ce HHJe y;i,aBH0. 

Oh ;khbh oa Aanac ji,o cyrpa. 

HsKaKO He Mory ;i,a pasyMCM. 

By;i,HTe Kao ko;i; CBOje Kyhe. 
Ohh o;i,onie 6pme Hero hito 

PemHTH ce. 

IllTa je? (y ^CMy je CTBap?) 
He MapH. Cbc je;i,HO. 
He 3a6opaBHTe ji;a ;i,ol;eTe 

npe py^Ka. 

158 Lesson 12. 

I liave a great mind to do it. iMoHw ce ripoxTejio ;i,a to 


I liave clianged my mind IIpoMeHHO caM MHiu^eK»e. 

Ill tlie dead of tJie niciJd. llo iioliHOj tmiiihiih. 

He had to fight against On je Mopao ;i.a H3;i,pacn 

great odds, Hejeji,HaKy 6op6y. 

To pid a question. CTaBHTK nMTaibe. 

You will drive me out of Bh LeTe Me iipocTO 3ajry;i,eTH. 

my senses. 

Translation 12. 

Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

Although a despot in his habits, yet he really 
struggled to re-establish the right of the nation to con- 
trol the executive by the National Assembly. 

Prince Alexander Karageorgevich convoked a Nati- 
onal Assembly only once in 1848. But the national 
representatives showed such dissatisfaction with his rule 
that he hurried to dissolve it. Ten years later, in 1858, 
he convoked his second National Assemblv, which im- 
mediately pronounced his dethronement. 

Prince Michael replaced the old Turkish Constitu- 
tion by one of his own initiative, according to which 
the freely elected representatives of the nation met every 
three years to hear the report of the Government, make 
its own observations and criticisms, and express what 
the nation wished to see done. Of course, the young 
generation of the pohticians, most of them returning 
from the French and German Universities, could not 
be satisfied with such a small part played by the na- 
tion against the bureaucratically-organised state. Their 
dissatisfaction and agitation gave the conspirators the 
idea that the extinction of the dynasty of Obrenovicb 
and the recall of the Karageorgevich would be greeted 
with joy. 

The demand for a more liberal constitution having 
indirectly encouraged the murderers of Prince Michael, 
the Regents for the young Milan Obrenovich IV. thought 
it to the interest of the dynasty to grant a somewhat 
more hberal constitution. Yovan Ristich, the second 
Regent and the leader of the Liberal Party which, in 
1858, recalled the Obrenovich, was responsible for the 

How to express some English Idioms. 159 

constitution. The National Assembly, composed of about 
99 members elected by the people, and 33 members 
elected by the Prince, met every year to vote the bud- 
get and to consider, amend or reject the bills, or propose 
any bill on its own initiative. This limitation, and 
especially the appointment of such a large proportion 
of the members by the Government, were weak points 
in Mr. Ristich's Constitution, and the Opposition did 
not hesitate to avail itself of them. But practically that 
constitution worked well for fully twenty years, until 
it was replaced by the Radical Constitution of King 
Milan in 1888. 

To wipe away the painful impression which his 
divorce from his wife, Queen Nathalie, made in Servia 
as well as in other countries, King Milan convoked a 
great commission, with the best and ablest men of all 
the three political parties (Liberals, Radicals and Pro- 
gressists) and together with them elaborated a new, 
entirely Radical constitution, w^hich was submitted en 
hloG by the Great National Assembly in Belgrade, on 
the 12/24 December, 1888. Two months later. King 
Milan, by his own initiative, abdicated, leaving his young 
son in the hands of a Liberal Regency and a Radical 

The great civil and political liberties which the 
Radical constitution of 1888 gave were used by the 
political parties exclusively for themselves. Citizens 
who did not belong to the party of the Government 
were treated as a sort of conquered race which had 
no rights whatsoever. Most unjuct political persecutions 
were often enacted, and the country was torn by poli- 
tical feuds and dissensions. The Servians had one of 
the most liberal constitutions in Europe, but they them- 
selves lacked as yet the true constitutional spirit. This 
state of things gave King Alexander a plausible pre- 
text for the suspension of the Radical constitution, 
replacing it by Mr. Ristich's constitution of 1869. Of 
course, the true motive for his action was that the 
Radical constitution did not agree with his autocratic 

To reconcile the people to his marriage with Mme. 
Draga Mashin, he replaced in April, 1901, the consti« 

160 Lesson 12. 

tution of 18()D by a new constitution, which on the 
M'hole was more liberal than that just mentioned, al- 
tliough not so hberal as that of 1888. The new feature 
of King Alexander's constitution was that it introduced, 
for the first time in the Servian constitutional hfe, the 
representation of the nation by two Chambers (the 
National Assembly and the Senate). 

AVhei], after the assassination of King Alexander, 
the National Assembly and the Senate unanimously 
elected Prince Peter Karageorgevich King of Servia, 
they at the same time abolished King Alexander's con- 
stitution of 1901, and replaced it by the Radical con- 
stitution of 1888, and by a few modifications made it 
rather more radical than ever. King Peter, before he 
started from Geneva for Belgrade, gave the assurance 
that he would faithfully respect every constitution the 
Servians gave themselves. He accepted that one voted 
by the Congress, and since his accession has conducted 
himself really as a strictly constitutional monarch. 

Reading Exercise. 
Pas i krmak. 

Zavirio pas krmku u korito, gdje bjese punano 
skroba i kukuruza, pa mu pozavidje i rece: «Blago tebi, 
moj lijeni i debeli druze! Tebi je vazda punano korito 
na pretek, a nikakve koristi kuci ne cinis, a ja, siromah, 
koji cuvam i glavu i imanje nasega gospodara, u korito 
ne mogu ni privirit, nego kad i kad po koju golu kost 
oglodem, pa svu dragu noc po kisi i po snijegu okolo 
kuce obigravam, da nam ne bi neprijatelj naudio.» 

Uzdahne krmak, pa rece psu: «Nemas mi na cem 
zavidjeti, moj prijatelju, nego ja tebi zavidim. Ti jos 
ne znas, zasto mene kuca ovako dobro ziri, a doznaces 
kroz koji dan, kad budes moju krv lokao.» 

Narodne basne. Skupio Vulc S. Vrcevic, 

Lav i mis. 

Spavao lav u svojoj pecini, a oko njega trckarah 
misevi. Jedan se toliko oslobodi, da htede preko lava 
pretrcati. Lav se trgne iza sna, sgrabi misa sapom i 
htede ga udaviti. Ali mu se mis stane moliti: «Pusti 
me, care svih zivotinja! Kakva ce slava biti za tebe 

Remarks on the use of some Pronouns. 161 

silnoga, da mene slaboga udavis? Pasti me, moze biti 
da cu ti biti kadgod od pomoci.» Nasmeje se lav i 
pusti misa rekavsi mu: «Tesko meni, ako ja jos i u 
tebe ustrazim pomoci!» 

Naskoro posle toga cuje mis strasmi riku i pozna 
glas svoga gospodara. Pode, da vidi, sta mu je. Kad 
dode, ima sta i videti: sapleo se lav u jaku mrezu, sto 
su je lovci namestili, pa nikud ni maci. Odmah mis 
pritece u pomoc caru zivotinjskom: pregrize mrezu i 
oslobodi lava. Iz basana Dositija Obradovica. 


^lera je 6iiJio y KopHxy npeji cbhbe>om? 

Illxa je 11 ac peicao cbhh>h (kpmk}')? 

lUia My je KpMaK Ha to ojiiroBopHo? 

Ulra je xprjio Jiasa Hsa cna? 

niTa je peKao mhiii jiaBy kslji, ra je OBaj yxBaxHo? 

KaixBy iioyKy MOJKeMo H3ByliH h3 .^Bajy npexxoAHHx dacana? 

Thirteenth Lesson. 
Remarks on the use of some Pronouns. 

The personal pronouns ja, th, oh, ona, oho, mm, bh, 
OHH, one, ona, as subject in connection with a verb 
need not be expressed ; however, they are used sometimes 
when the emphasis falls on the subject. The following 
are the apocopated forms for the genitive, dative and 
accusative when in connection with a verb: 

Ist person. Singular. 2nd person. 

G. (MCHe) or ine of me (Te6e) or to of thee 

D. (MeHH) or MH to me (Tedn) or th to thee 

A. (Mene) or Me me. (Te6e) or xe thee. 

Masc. & neuter. 3rd person. Feminine. 

G. (H>era) or ra of him (Ebe) or je of her 

D. (H>eMy) or My to him (h>oj) or joj to her 

A. (aera) or ra him. (ity) or jy her. 


1st person. 2nd person. 3rd person. 

G. — — (h,hx) or HX of them 

D. (HaMa)orHaMtous (BaMa)orBaMtoyou (H)HMa)» mm to them 

A. — — (h>hx) or HX them. 

Servian grammar. 11 

162 Lesson 13. 

The dative of the personal pronoun for 3rd person? 
is sometimes used instead of the possessive pronomi 
after a substantive, e.g.: oxaii; h chh my the father and 
his son; 6paT h cecTpa My the brother and his sister.. 

The indefinite pronoun one (French on, German 
ma7i) has no equivalent in Servian. To render it, it 
is necessary to give another turn to the sentence. 
''^OBeK", or "ce" are usually employed to express the 
inapersonal meaning: 

^5BeK He Mome yBCK 6iith One is not always young 
MJiaji; H Jien. and handsome. 

KoA Kyhe je yBeic 6bjbe Hero One is always better at 
Ma r;i,e na ;i;pyroM Mfecxy. home than elsewhere. 

Ho BameM ce jrim;y bh^h ;i,a One sees by your look that 
CTe He3;i,paBH. you are ill. 

It has already been stated that the possessive pro- 
noun referring to the subject of the sentence is always 
CBOJ, -a, -e, without any regard to person or number. 
This rule is, however, sometimes disregarded for the 
sake of pointing out contrast or opposition: 

Ja can yseo M6jy Kaiiry a I took my book and you 
TH CBOjy. (took) yours. 

Translation 15. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

Servian literature. The old history, Servian literature 
began with the year in which the Servian Church adop- 
ted the translation of the Holy Writ into Slavonic 
language such as was spoken in the ninth century in 
Panonia (Hungary) and Macedonia. That translation 
was made about the middle of that century by two 
brothers, Cyrillus and Methodius, Greek noblemen of 
Salonica, who early became missionaries among the 
Slavonic Nations, and learned (probably while yet they 
were children) the Slavonic language perfectly. They 
are generally called "The Slavonic Apostles." Their 
translation of the Bible and of other Church books was 
eagerly received by the Servian and Bulgarian Churches, 
in which the Church service until then had been read 
in Greek, or in Latin (on the Servian sea-coast of the 

Remarks on the use of some Pronouns. 163 

It was quite natural that the so-called "Old Sla- 
vonic" language, in which the Bible and the Church 
books were translated, became the first literary language 
of the Servians. That language was not identical with 
the vernacular Servian of that time, but it was suffi- 
ciently intelligible to the people. Literature was consi- 
dered as a special privilege of that much privileged class, 
the ecclesiastics, the monks and the priests, and they 
very naturally continued to write their books (mostly 
*'Lives of the Saints," or some "Chronicles") in the same 
language in which the first Church books were written. 
But they could not emancipate themselves entirely from 
the influence of the vernacular in which the people 
actually spoke, and from the middle of the twelfth cen- 
tury the Servian authors wrote in a language which 
was essentially the same as the Old Slavonic, but with 
modification in the pronounciation of certain vowels. 
That language is known among the Slavologues as the 
"Old Slavonic of the Servian reduction." All the books 
of the Servian literature of the old period (that is to 
say, from the twelfth to the eighteenth century) were 
written in that language, excepting the books written 
by the Servians of the famous Ragusan Republic and 
of Dalmatia. 

The best and the most celebrated Servian author 
at the very beginning of that old period was Saint 
Slava, the youngest son of Stephan Namanya, the first 
sovereign of the united Servian provinces. Prince Rastko 
(St. Slava's baptismal name) was born A.D. 1176. 
When a young man of hardly seventeen years, having 
heard that his parents were looking for a bride for him, 
he joined some monks and with them went secretly 
to Mount Athos, which at that time was not only a 
republic composed entirely of convents and monks, but 
also the highest theological school in the Eastern Or- 
thodox world. He there became a monk, and a few 
years later he induced his old father to abdicate the 
throne, and to come to finish his days as a monk in 
the "Holy Mount," as the Servians called Mount Athos. 
There these two raised up a Servian monastery — "Chi- 
lendary" (or, as the Servians prefer to call it: "Vilin- 
dar'' — "the gift of a fairy"), which practically became 


164 Lesson 13. 

the bigli theological school for the Servian ecclesiastics 
and the seat of the Servian learning and literature in 
the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Later, St. Slava 
was consecrated as the first Archbishop of Servia, and 
as sucli estabhshed nine bishoprics in the Servian king- 
dom, encouraged schools and education, and to this 
day is worshipped among the Servians as the Patron 
Saint of the schools. He wrote several works concer- 
ning the Church discipline and Church rules and 
regulations, but his most famous work was his "Life 
of St. Simeon," viz: the life of his own father, Stephan 
Namanya, who on making himself a monk took the 
name of Simeon. 

As St. Slava was the most remarkable Servian au- 
thor of the twelfth century, so was Archbishop Danilo 
(d. 1338) the best writer of the fourteenth. He wrote 
a really remarkable book, "The Lives of the Servian 
Kings and Archbishops," which is one of the principal 
sources for the Servian history of the Middle Ages. 
In the beginning of the fifteenth century, the Servian 
Prince Stephan Lazarevich Vissoki (the Tall One) trans- 
lated several books from the Greek into Servian. An 
original "Essay on Love" (Slovo Lyuhve), written by 
him, has been preserved. His own life and reign was 
described (A.D. 1432) by his Court chaplain, Constan- 
tino the Philosopher, a Bulgarian by birth, but highly 
appreciated by the Servian Synod for his learning and 
literary skill. 

Outside of the biographical and historical works 
the Servians had hardly any original literary creations 
in the first period of their literarj^ history. But they 
had many translations of Byzantine literary works or 
imitations of such works. 

Reading Exercise. 
CBy;!,a no^H^ ;i,OMa ;i,oi;H. 

y HBana UpHOjeBiitia, rocno;i;apa naji; 3eT0M h I],pHOM 
PopoM, no3HaTa y Hapo;i,y iioji HMenoM B[BaH-6era, ;i,BopHO 
je ,i;o6ap ;i,H0 CBora BHJeKa ByK Jl^oj^eBiiti. Byk je 6iio 
ty.TH Becejre, yna oinTpa h oiiCTpa, naMCTs 3;i;paBe h ;i;oc- 
jeTc/i>HBe, Te ra je CTora rocnoAap HBan Bpjio pa;i,o HMao 
H BOJiHO je, ;i;a ce c tlmmg HamajiH. 

Eemarks on the use of some Pronouns. 165 

Je;i,HOM ce 3a6aBH rocnoAap liBan ay^kg BpeMena y 
Mj[eii,HMa. IlpeA noBpaTaK ji,030Be oh Byna k ce6ii h pe^e 
My: «H;i,e BpHJeMe na BpHJene, npiicyKao ce senaH, jia 
ji,OMa H;i;eMO, a th MjieTKe hh o6imiao HHJecii. ilHTalie tg 
3eM./i»aiiin, KaKBa je osa MjeTa^ma npecTOHMii,a, KaKBe cy 
i];pKBe, ABopii, 3rpa;i,e, TBopHHuiie h ocTa.iie j^hbotg, inTO hx 
y CBHjeTy neMa, a th hg yMHJem KasaTH HHuiTa, naK te 
TH c pasjioroM pebn: TnKBa noni.Tia, THKBa ;i,onijia. HGro 
3Hani Koja je, namao can th Boi)j, ji,a c h>hmg o6at^Gni 
rpaji; h H>eroBy ^^GnoTy, ^a yMHJGin npn^aTH 3GM^aij;HMa.» 

ByK CG no;i,y^G OMHii,ao h OAroBapao, ajiH ra hg Mora 
npoiiH, ;i;a cg hg noKopn. 

Ha;i,a ce, ^a JG 6er 3a6opaBHO, Kaji; gbo ra jg^ho jyTpo 
c Bot)OM, 30BHy ra h pg^g: «Jgch jih qyo, heto caM th na- 
Pg;i;ho?» a ByK: «JGcaM, rocnoji.apy!» — A oh: «Jg;i;hojg 
ymaTH, a ;i;pyro jG cjiymaTH; ho xaj;i,G gbo th npa.THOD;a, 
naK ynaMTH cbg, ihto ^yjom h BH;i,Hin.» EpGny ByK c bo- 
i^OM, ;i,a npGrjiGAa MjiGTa^Ky avlkj. Pa3rjiG;i,ajyiiH rpaji; 
CBHJGM jG nyTGM HGRpGCTaHO ji;G^ao 6pHTBHD,0M je^Hy i&ycKy 


HoniTO CG CHT nariG^ao u,pKaBa n jiBopoBa, cjiHKa h 
npHjiHKa, a nacjiyniao Bot^nna iipH^aiba, kojh 3Ha;i;HJaii[G 
CBaKOJ H HajMaaoj CTsapn BHJGHaii; ohjigcth, pG^iG ByK 
BotjH: «Ja caM orjia;i,HHO, a rjia;i;nH ^ogk hg mo,;kg hh ;i,a 
CG Bory mojih. Obo jg cbg jthjgho h KpacHO, h mhjio mh 
JG, ;i,a caM ra bhaho 3a jg^ho opysKJG; hgfo CBpaTHMO y 
Kojy Kp^my, ;i,a cg hokphjghhmo, jop npasna BpGba hg 
MO^KG CTaTH Ha y3ropLi;y.» IIoniTO cg no;i;MHpEfflG jgjiom, 
pGbG BO^a: ^<HMaM hghito nocjia y cycjGCTBy, hgfo mg th 
npn^GKaj Ty, ^,ok cg nospaTHM, gbo mg naTpar y o^hh TpeH.» 

^Igk, ^gk ByK ;i,Ba ;i,G6Gjra caTa: Bot^a ra, noniTO ra 
3aBGAG y AUG rpa^a, MGt^y rpo3AOM KyKa, a chjgtom yjnin^a, 
ocTaBH caMa, ji,a bh;i,h, xoLg jih cg ByK yxMJGTH ji,OMa Bp- 
HyTH. ByK CG Hajsaji;, Ka;i. My ;i,oca;i;H HGKaTH, ji^waie, tg 
no Tpary ohhjgx cjeKOTHHa, ihto hx je pe3ao nyTeM, no- 
jraKO H no.jraKO ;i;onpHJe KonaKy 3ApaB0 h Becejio. 

TocnoAap, Kaji; ra bh;i;jg caMa, ynsTa ra (Ka ^a hg 
3Ha, H 6hjih ;i,oroBopHH, ;ia cg c ByKOM majiG): «A r;i.jG 
TH jG ona jian,MaH?» — A JI^oj^GBHh My o,ii;roBopH: Mhcjtho 
caM npn nojiacKy HanoBpaTaK: «C6yda no:^u, doMa dofti,» 

Tocno^apy IlBany 6h MHjra ByKona ;i,oc]Gt^!&hboct, naK 

ra AapHBa JGJ!,HnM /I,yKaT0M. Cmjenan M.. JBy6maa, 

166 Lesson 14. 


K6 je iiiican one npi'inoBeTKe? 

Ki\rtO ce 3Bao rociioAap sexe h UpHe Tope? 

Tllxa je pajtHO ByK jloj^eenh iiyieM? 

Je Jin ycne.ia inajia MBaH-6eroBa? 

Illra je Bvk iia nocjiexKy o^iroBopno? 

Fourteenth Lesson. 

Remarks on the use of some Pronouns. 

The possessive pronouns in Servian are very com- 
plicated when compared with the EngUsh, as there is 
a special form of possessive pronoun for each person 
in the singular and plural; the gender of the possessor 
(or possessors) as well as of the possessed object (or 
objects) must be observed, e.g.: 

Singular. Plural. 

MOj 6paT my brother mojh HoatCBH my knives 

Moja cecTpa my sister Moje Kanre my books 

Moje ;i,eTe my child. MOja nepa my pens. 

In like manner: 
TBOJ, TBOja, TBOje; TBOJH, TBOje, TBOJa thy 
aeroB, aeroBa, aeroBO; iBeroBH, iteroBe, aeroBa his 
H>eH, H>eHa, H>eHo; acHH, aene, aena her. 

Singular. PluraL 

Ham H03K our knife naniH HoateBii our knives 

Hauia Kanra our book nanie KaHre our books 

name nepo our pen. Haiua nepa our pens. 

In like manner: 
Bain, Bania, Banie; Bamn, Banie, Bania your 
anxoB, anxoBa, anxoBo; anxoBn, anxoBe, anxoBa their 
(for all three genders). 

Myself, thyself himself, herself ourselves, yourself, 
yourselves, themselves can be rendered in Servian by the 
personal pronouns and: caM, caivia, caMO, cann, caMC, 
caMa: ja can I, myself. 

Osaj or Taj correspond to the EngHsh demonstra- 
tive pronoun this; oiiaj to that. 

Remarks on the use of some Pronouns. 167 

Such, such a could be rendered in Servian by: 

•OBaKaB, OBaKBa, OBaKBo; OBaKBH, OBaKBe, OBaKBa, or 
OBaKH, OBaKa, OBaKo; OBaKH, OBaKe, OBaKa, or 
TaKaE, TaKBa, TaKBo; xaKBH, TaKBe, TaKBa, or 
TaKH, TaKa, TaKo; TaKH, TaKe, TaKa. 
Certain, a certain = neKH, -a, -o; -h, -e, -a, or 
HCKaKaB, HeKaKBa, neKaKBo; neKaKBH, neKaKBC, HCKaKBa. 
Somebody, some one = HeKO, -a, -o; hckh, -e, -a. 
Nobody, no one = hhko for all three genders or 
»HHKOJH, -a, -e; hhkojh, -e, -a. 

Everybody = CBaKH, -a, -o; CBaKH, -e, -a. 
Whoever, whosoever = Ma kojh etc., or kojh My 

Whatever, whatsoever = lUToro^, Ma ikto, inTO 

(Most) anybody (derogatory) KOjeKO, -ja, -je etc. 

Translation 16. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

For instance, they had a very much read book, 
"The Story of Alexander the Great," also a ''Story of 
the War of Troy," and many half-religious and half- 
romantic legends. A very popular work seems to have 
been an Indian story, which in the Byzantine, and 
afterwards in the Servian, reproduction was called 
''Steffanite and Ichnitat.'' But the most popular of the 
romances of that early time was the story of "Vladi- 
mir and Kossaray Vladimir was the Servian Prince 
of Zetta (parts of Montenegro and North Albania). At- 
tacked by the Bulgarian Tsar Samuel (A.D. 988), he 
was defeated, made a prisoner and sent to the Bulga- 
rian capital. There the Tsar's daughter Kossara saw 
him, fell in love with him, and managed to obtain 
her father's consent and blessing to their marriage. 
Vladimir obtained his province back as a sort of dowry 
with the Tsar's daughter. These historic events have 
been taken for the subject of that Servian romance, 
one of the oldest novels in Europe. 

Of course, the Servian literature received quite a 
new impulse by the discovery of the printing-press. 
Fifty years after Gutenberg's invention, the Servians 

168 Lesson 14. 

already had their books printed, but always in the 
Old Slavonic, slightly Servianised. The first Servian 
printed book, ''Cliasslovats'' (The Hours) was issued by 
Andreas de Theresanis de Aula, in 1493, in Venice. 
But towards the end of that year we find a printing- 
press at Obod (Montenegro), working at ''Octoiclu^' which 
issued from that press in the beginning of 1494. A 
copy of this rare book is to be seen in the British 
" Museum. The first Servian printer, to whom the prin- 
ting-press at Obod belonged, was a Servian nobleman, 
by name Bojidar Vookovich of Podgoritsa. During 
the first half of the sixteenth century the Servians had 
several printing-presses in different parts of their country,. 
viz.: at Belgrade, Skadar-on-Boyana, Gorazda, Mileshevo, 
Mrkshina Crkva. But in the second half of that cen- 
tury, Servian printing-presses had ceased to exist, as 
the Turkish direct rule fell like a terrible nightmare 
over all the Servian countries. 

Servian x^oets of Balmatia, From the fifteenth to 
the nineteenth century the onlj^ Servian country which, 
although permanently menaced, was free of the Turks, 
was Dalmatia. The centre of her literary activit}^ was 
the republic of Ragusa, called Doohrov^iih in the Ser- 
vian. The Servian population of the. Dalmatian town& 
— being almost in constant contact with the Italians, 
often sending their young men to the high schools at 
Rome, Padua, Florence and A/'enice, — was that por- 
tion of the Servian nation which comparatively early 
was inspired with the notions and ideas of Western 
European civilisation. More especially from the sixteenth 
to the eighteenth century, the representative men of 
the genius of the Servian nation were the literary men 
of Ragusa, Spalato and Dalmatia in general. 

The first Servian who made efforts to write in the 
language which the people spoke, was Mario Manilich^ 
a Servian nobleman of Spalato, born in that town in 
A.D. 1450. He studied at the famous University of 
Padua, and was a highly cultured and intensely reli- 
gious man. He died as a monk, in 1524. His best 
work was a poem called "The Story of the Holy Wi~ 
dow Judith." 

Another fine port of that time was Hannihal Lit- 

.Remarks on the use of .some Pronouns. 169 

cliicli (1480 — 1525), who wrote beautiful lyric songs and 
a play entitled ' Robinyd' (The Slave), which is the 
oldest drama in Servian literature. The plot of the 
play is very simple. The prett}^ daughter of the Lord 
of Belgrade secretly admired the j^oung Lord Derenchan, 
Suddenty she was carried away by some Turks, who 
sold her as a slave to a Ragusan, Meanwhile the 
King of Hungary had published a proclamation offe- 
ring a very high reward to whoever should discover 
her and bring her to her father. The young Lord 
Derenchan decided to go in search of the girl. He 
disguised himself as a merchant, and going from place 
to place he arrived at Ragusa, found the girl there — and 
fell in love with her. He told her that he was able and 
willing to buy her from her master and make her free, 
if she would promise to marry his friend when she 
returned home. The girl thereupon told him that that 
would not be difficult for her, as she was really in 
love with Lord Derenchan, only she kept her love secret, 
not daring to reveal it to anyone. The apparent mer- 
chant then threw off his disguise, appeared what he 
was, viz: the real Lord Derenchan, bought the girl's 
freedom and immediately married her there in Ragusa. 

Luchich translated some of Ovid's poems and 
wrote many a love-song. Altogether he was a real poet. 

Another of the remarkable Dalmatian poets was 
Peter Hectorovich (1487 — 1572). His best work in the 
Servian language (he wrote some poems in the Latin 
and some in the Italian) was ''Eibanye and PiiharsliO 
prigovaranye' (The fishing and the fishermen's talk). 
He describes how he went into a small boat to fish 
with his two fishermen, Pasco and Nicholas. Fishing, 
they tried to while away the time by singing songs, 
telling stories and putting riddles to each other. 

Ragusa has quite a number of poets to show in 
the first half of the sixteenth century. The most distin- 
guished among them w^ere: Sigismiind Menchetick, who 
left 575 love-songs, taking Ovid as his model; George 
Dr^ich, also a lyric poet, Maiiro VetranicJi, who, under 
the influence of Ovid's Metamorphoses, wrote a great 
allegory called "Peregrm'; Steplian Goochetich, who 
wrote a satirical poem called ''DervisJiiada' ; Choohra- 

170 Lesson 14. 

novich, who became very popular with his poem ''Yer- 
yyooplia' (The Gipsy Woman). 

But by far the greatest poet that the Servians of the 
Dalmatian sea-coast had during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries was Ivan Gundulich (b. 1550, d. 1638). 
He translated into the Servian ''Gerusaleme Liber ata,'' 
and wrote numerous plays, the subjects of which were 
taken mostly from Greek classic times. But the work 
which made him famous was his great poem, ''Osmany 
His theme was the struggle between Christianity and 
Islam — in itself a very grand subject indeed! He 
described in twenty cantos the war between Poland 
under King Vladislav and Turkey under Sultan Osman 
in 1621, not without giving expression to his own admi- 
ration of the bravery of the Turks, but of course with 
still greater joy over the victory of the Christians. 

Reading Exercise. 
Tijpa^ Bp<aHKOBMb m /I^ydpoB^ami. 

JI,ecnoT T>ypal| ocTaBH By^y anpHjia Meceii;a 1441. 
roji;. H Ha 6poAy T)yp^ Ty^eTMiia ji,oi)e y JI,y6poBHHK. 
«Mhc.7ho je, ;i,a te y TOj cjio6o;i,hoj ji,pjKaBH MohH cjio- 
^o^no nojKHBeTH. Hhhhjio My ce, icao ji,a ce ca BejiHKe 
MopcKe 6ype cnacao y npHCTaHHiuTe, r;i,e he MoiiH CHrypHO 
H MHpHO ;i,a noHHBH, Te ^a ce noyTemn, niTO ra h3 ;i,p- 
maBe iLeroBe nporHaine.» IIIto je "Bypaii noy3ji;aHO snaTH 
Morao, TO je, jia cy My y ^y6poBHHKy ^hbot, ^acT h 
MMaH>e cacBHM o6e36e^eHH. HenpHKOCHOBeHOCT ohhx, kojh 
noji; saniTHTy sacTaBe cb. Bjiaxa A^%y, JI,y6po^iaHH cy CTa- 
BJbajiH Ha npBO mccto Me^y na^ejia nciHTnqKe My;i;pocTH, 
H Kpo3 CTOTHHe ro;i,HHa, H y HajTeaciiM npH./iHKaMa, CBar;i,a 
cy je CBCTO o^p^KaBajiH. HncTOTa h ysBHineHOCT ;i,y6po- 
Ba^Kora npaBa sauiTHxe h npHfie^KHuiTa ctckjih cy y oho 
;i;o6a BejiHKy cjiaBy, a Kpo3 CBa BpeMena cjiyatniie My na 
Be.iHKy nacT. CaMOMe T&ypt^y ^aBajiH cy 6hjih Jty6poB^aHH 
Beh ;i,o Ta^a y Biime nyxa jiOKase CBOje HcnpaBHOTTH, hito 
ce TH^e OApJKaBaiba 3aAaTe pe^H. Hapo^HTO ce T)ypal^ 
Mopao c ;i,y6oKOM 3axBajiHonitiy cetaxH, KaKO cy My Maxep 
Mapy H 6patiy H>eroBy c h>hm 3aje;i,H0 npiijaTeJbCKS npn- 
MHjiH, Kaji; cy hx Typij;H, OTpoBaBmn ByKa BpaHKOBHha, 
nporoHiiJiH H3 ;i,p;t:aBe iteroBe, h Ka;i, cy o;i, J^y8poBHiiKa 

Remarks on the use of some Pronouns. 171 

saxTeBajiH, ^a hm hg HSjiaje HOBiiie, Koje je ByK ibeuj na 
noxpany npe;i;ao 6110. "Bypa^ je ;i;oniao Mel^y npHjaxejLe, 
^Hjoj ce BepHOCTH ;i;aBHO h HecyMH>HBnM HaqnuoM ocBe- 

HHr;i.e ce HHje 6ojbe snajro, luxa CBe 6HBa no Cp6HJH 
HO y JI,y6poBHMKy, h3 Kojera 6h CBaKH ;i,aH iisjiasHJiH Ka- 
paBaHH, ^a no cbhm npaBu;nMa no cpncKHM seMJbaMa nol^y, 
— H ycpe;i; paxa n Kpo3 cpe;i; op;i,H]a TypcKHx, — y J\j- 
6poBHHKy, y KOJH 6h CBaKH ;i;aH CTHsajin TproBu;H, uito 
cy nponijTH 6hjih ynaKpcT seMJbe oa Cojiyna ji,o JtynaBa h 
o;i; Je;i,peHa ao Cnibera Mopa. Cxapn je ji:ecnoT Tpe6ajro 
caMO Aa npHKJiOHH yxo CBOje Ka xjraji,HHM sn^HHaMa ^y- 
6poBHHKa, na ji,a ^yje, Eaico Kyn;a tohjio cpn;e TeniKO na- 
tienora napojta cpncKor. J ^y6poBHHKy je ^yo, KaKO ce 
CHjina BOjcKa TypcKa oneT cjierjra oko HoBora Bp;i;a, tojih- 
KOM KpBjby Beii naKBamenora n tojihkom cjraBOM OKniienora. 
Obo je Bet HOTBpTa roji,HHa, KaKO napo^i; oko Honora 
Bp^a hht' ope, hht' atae, Bet jynaniTBOM, KaKBora ^OTjie 
HHJe, 6paHH ce6e 6e3 npeKnji,a o;i; rojiene cmie xyp- 
CKe. IIlTa jiH TBOje cpn;e, ciapn rocno;i,apy napo;i;a 
cpncKora, cjiyxn, Ka^ h3 JI,y6poBHHKa MHCJiHMa jre6;iiHni Ha;r, 
jynaHKHM tbojhm rpawM y ;i;ajbnnH?! Hnje jih Te My;i;pocT 
TBOja nanajajia ropKHM cysana, noKasyjytn th ynanpeji; ;i,aH 
onaj, y Kojn te, rjra^y ynopena, panana nsnypena, ;i;a 
Kjione ona Mnninua, niTO 6paHH Hobo Bp;i,o?! 

Ajth je y obhm ;i,aHHMa TeniKHX Spnra n u,pHHX cjiyTH>H 
^HBajio H ^acoBa, y KojHMa cy noBa Ha;i;aifca pacTanajia 
jieA OKO cpu;a "Bypl/eBa. CTHsajiH cy rjiacoBH, ji;a nana 
HacTOjaBa, ji,a ce y^nnn Kpaj neTesKHMa y YrapcKOj, na ;i,a 
ce npe;i,y3Me KpcTauiKPi noxoji; npoTHB TypaKa. ^lyjio ce, 
j^a ce nojio^Kaj Kpajta Bjia^cJiaBa IIojbCKora nonpasjLa 
H yTBpt^yje, h ji,a on, h ycpeji; ynyTpamifcHx HenpnjiHKa, 
MHCJiH na paT c Typn;HMa. 

Je;i,Hora ji,aHa, npe;i; CBpmeTaK Meceu,a jyjia, craace y 
JI,y6poBHHK Hayni je^an ca BHcoKe IIopTe h npeji;a;i;e KHe3y 
nncMa noKa. KHe3 ca3Ba Bete, Te My hx npoHHTa. CyjiTan 
saxTOBame, a^ My ^y6poBHHK npe;i,a ;i,ecnoTa T^ypl^a y 
pyKe. 3a obo oh ycxyname onniTHHH cbo 6jiaro T&ypJ^eBO 
H ji;aBanie Bepy, ;i,a te 3a Be^HTa speMena ocTaTH npn- 
jaxejb H 3amTHTHHK H>e3HH. Ako hm hh to HHJe ;i:ocTa, 
cyjiTaH je totob, ;i,a hm onpocTH je^HoroAHniH>H jiianaK h 
jom A2i mi ycTynn «CBy 3eMJBy ^ecnoTOBy o;i; Bojane ao 

172 Lesson 14. 

KoTopa.» OBa imcoKa ii,eiia, Kojy Uopxa nyi^auie, caMO ;i,a 
ce ;i,OKona .iiimhoctii AeciioxoBe, 6oj>e m UMiiie Hero iiniTa 
;i.pyro iiOKasyje BejiMKe cnocodnocTH h BiicoKy no.inTii^iKy 
BpeAHOCT Toypi)a EpaHKOBiiiia, h kojihko cy ra 'i'ypuH 3a 
onaciia npoTHBHHKa CMaTpajiH. 

Ilnje Majiena CTBap Gnjia saMepura ce ciuiHOMe ij;apy 
TypcKOM. A y oho Ao6a hh 3a Kora HHJe tojihko onacHO 
6njio 3aMepETH My ce, ko.ihko 3a onuiTHHy ;i,y6poBaqKy. 
Ona je ynpaBO jKHBe.7ia oji, TproBHHe no o6jracTHMa, KoJHMa 
cy Typu,H 3aBJia;i,ajiH 6hjih. CyjiTan je 6ko y craH^y, ;i;a 
caMO jeAHPiM MHroM, H He ^HSiyiiH BOjcKe, Ay6poBa^KOj 
onniTHHH Hanece HeHSMepne uiTeTe. C ji,pyre CTpane oneT, 
Kao niTO BHAecMO, je;i,HO o;i, HajcTapHjux h najcBeTHJHX 
npaBHjia OBe cjiaBHe onuiTHHe, 6Hjra je noTnyEa cnryp- 
HOCT H cjro6oAa BOJbe ohhx, Koje ]e rpan na Bepy npsMHO. 
HsMet^y onacHOCTH o;i; Typana h npeAai^a cbojhx HamjiH 
cy ce JI,y6poBMaBii y ne najioj HenpH.iHii;H. Ha Beiiy je 
6hj[0 Jbyji;E, kojh cy o;i,cyji,HO h c rnymaaeM OAfisjajiH h 
caMy npeTHOCTaBKY, ;i,a te ^y6poBHHK xtoth ;i,a yqiiHH 
TaKO H3ji,ajcTB0. JI,o6po HMe H ji,ocTOjaECTBO onniTHHe 6Hjro 
HM je MHJiHje HO CBe 6jiaro. J tomo cy 6h.tih cbh cjio^khh, 
jia ce HH no;i KOjy n;eHy ne MOiKe ^mhhth na^ajcTBO Tiyp^y 
BpaHKOBHtiy. Ajih 6hjio hx je ^ocTa, kojm cy Tpa^njin, 
He 6h JIM ce namao hyt, kojhm ce ne 6h cy.iTan cp^iio, 
hh ^acT onniTHHe npjbajia. Bes cynae je oa obhx Jby;i,H 
HSHHiao npe;i;jior, ^a ce e can ji,ecHOT rBypat) y ce;i,HHn;y 
no30Be. Ka;i; ;i.ecnoT w^e, caonuiTe My, niTa Hopxa Tpa^KH. 
Kamy, ;i,a je TBypal^, cjryniajyiiE niTa My ce Kasyje, can 
npe6jie;i,eo 6ho. BjiacTOJia Ay6poBa^iKa, BEAeBum ra no- 
Tpecena, npo36opEme My npBjaTejbCKE e pasroHEine My 
CBaKy 6oja3aH. Jl,ecnoT ce 6p30 npE6pa. SaxBajiH seiiy 
H KHe3y Ha cay^enitiy, ajiE E3jaBE, ^a he o;i;Max, ^em ce 
caMO cnpeME, rpa^i, ocTaBEXH, «jep», roBopame, «HEje pa;ii, 
ji,a CBOje Ao6pe npEjaxexe AOBe;i,e y saMepKv y cy.iTana, 
E m EM HenpHjiEEe npaBE». 

II fl^a cy OAHOCE Rsme^j Tiypl^a e ^y6poBHEKa ocxa^is 
H AaJbe cpji^a^HE h HCKpenH, najdojBE je A0Ka3, hito je 
iDypai) npE nojiacKy ocxaBEO ^y6poBHEKy joni 150,000 aj- 
Kaxa Ha noxpany, a y ce6e 3aApJKao ne;i,eceT TEcyha. IIo- 
cjre;i,JbEX Aana Meceu,a jyjia ham npBHX ;j,aHa aBrycxa 1441 
;i,ecnoT je ocTasEO JI,y6poBHEK e o^Besao ce y CKpaAHH, a 
o;i,aTjie na CBOja ,T,o6pa y YrapcKy. y:edoMujb MujamoeuK. 

Formation of Verbal Aspects. 178 


Koje je roji;HHe h Ha MiijeM 6po;iy ji;6iuao jiecnox 'E>ypa^ Bpan- 

KOBHti y Jl,y6p6BHnK? 
oaniTO je BpaHKOBnh TaMO ;i;oiuao? 
JI,a Jin je join k6 oa Toypt/ene n6po;i;pii],e npe aera 5ho y Jlj- 

KaKO cy ce Jty^poBHann noHamajiH np^Ma 'Bypt^y ; a KaKO npeiwa 

H>eroBOJ Majii,H? 
Kaiio je T>ypa| casnaBao niTa ce ;iieiiiaBa y iteroROM rpa;i;y h 


Ko je jiomao ca BHCOKe IIopTe n mxa je npe;i;ao KHeay JIj- 


Illxa je saxTCBao cyjixan oji, JI,y6p6BqaHa? 
Jecy jin ohh npiiCTajiH na cyjixanoBy nonyjty? 
r^e je oTHoiao nocie xora 'Bypa^ h kojihro je HOBai^a ocTaBHo 
J^yopoB^aHHMa ? 

Fifteenth Lesson. 
Formation of Verbal Aspects. 

1. The most usual manner in which to form the 
perfective aspect is: to prefix the imperfective infinitive 
by prepositions y, us, o, od, na etc., which by themselves 
express the termination of an action, e.g.: 

imperfective perfective 

pa;i,iiTii to work ypa;i,HTH to finish working, to 

ry6HTii to lose H3ry6HTn [have done etc. 

cnpoxeTH to grow poor ocHpbTexH 

micaTH to write iianHcaTH. 

The joining vowel (in pa;i,^TH and ypa^^iTH etc.) 
remains the same in the above examples. 

2. A great number of verbs distinguish their per- 
fective aspect from the imperfective one by the sole 
modification of the jointing vowel in the infinitive, without 
taking any prefix. The infinitive termination -aTH de- 
notes general^ the imperfective aspect and -hth the 
perfective, e.g.: 

imperfective perfective 

6ai];aTK to throw 6ai],HTH 

nyniTaTH to let nycTHTH 

jaB^aTH to announce jaBHTH 

nonpaBibaTH to correct iionpaBHTH 

CMiifflibaTii to reflect cmhcjihth. 

174 Lesson 15. 

3. Some other verbs, however, form their imper- 
fective aspect by extending the radical: 

(a) By insertion of Ba, iiBa, eBa: 

perfective imperfective 

nosHaTH to recognize ii03HaBaTH 

;i,aTH to give ;i,aBaTH 

npepa^HTH to remake, remodel iipepai^HBaTH 

pasMCHPiTH to change pa:3MeibHBaTH 

pasyneTH to understand pasyneBaTH. 

(b) By insertion of ii: 

perfective imperfective 

ca6paTH to add; collect ca6HpaTH 

nosBaTH to invite nosHBaTH. 

(c) The verbs in -peTH have in the imperfective 
aspect the termination -Hpaxii: 

perfective imperfective 

sacTpeTH to cover, carpet sacTHpaTii 

yMpeTH to die ynnpaTH 

npoApeTH to rush in; go through npo^HpaTH. 

Translation 17. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

The poem is full of interesting episodes, which, 
however, detract much from the unity of the principal 
and central action. Gundulich was the first Servian 
poet who emancipated himself from the slavish imitation 
of the Italian models. His language is pure and musi- 
cal, and his taste always that of a man of classic cul- 
ture. Two cantos of this great poem (cantos XIV. and 
XV.) were lost while yet in manuscript. 

A very gifted poet was Gion Falmotich (1606—1657). 
He was principally a dramatic author. Most of his 
dramas were written after foreign models, or their 
subjects were taken from some other poets. For in- 
stance: his ''Atalantd' was written after Ovid, ''Armida' 
after Tasso's ""Gertisaleme Liberata^'' ''Alcina' after Ari- 
osto's ''Orlando Ftirioso.'' But he wrote a few dramas 
quite independent of foreign models, as for instance; 
''PavUmira,'' "'Captislava,'' the subjects of which are 
taken from the old traditions or history of Ragusa. 

Formation of verbal Aspects. 175 

He took great care to write in a pure Servian language, 
such as in his time was spoken in Bosnia and Hertze- 
govina. His principal poem, "Christiada" (in 24 cantos) 
was not an original work, but only the enlargement 
of a poem, written in Latin, in six cantos, by Giorolamo 
Vid in 1535 A.D. 

The last great poet in the Dalmatian section of 
the Servian nation is Ignatius Gyorgyich (b. in Ragusa 
1675, d. 1737). He studied in Rome and as a very 
young man entered the Order of Jesuits, but did not 
remain longer than seven years in it. He was a very 
learned man and as such was appointed professor at 
the University of Padua. He translated the first book 
of Virgil's ''JEneid" into Servian, wrote the tragedy of 
'* Judith," a poem "The Sighs of the Repenting Mag- 
dalene,'' and several eclogues. But his best work is 
considered his rendering of David's psalms into the 
Servian verse ''Saltiyer SlavinsJcL'' 

Hardly any of the Servian authors and poets of 
Dalmatia (with Ragusa) have shown independent spirit 
and originality. They took ideas and forms from clas- 
sic or even pseudo-classic models. But about the middle 
of the eighteenth century a Franciscan monk, Andreas 
Kachich Mioshich (b. 1696 in Brist, Dalmatia; d. 1760), 
took a new departure. He was a man of learning, the 
author of philosophical essays (written in Latin), and as 
such well acquainted with classic literature. But he 
did not bend his poetical gift under the yoke of clas- 
sicism. Having travelled much, as the Pope's Emissary, 
through the Servian countries of Dalmatia, Hertzegovina 
and Bosnia, he had great opportunities of hearing Ser- 
vian bards sing national songs. He inspired himself 
with their spirit and their manner of versification. In 
1756 he published, in Venice, a book entitled ''Raz- 
govor Cogodni Naroda Slovinslwga'' (Pleasant Talk of 
the Slavonian People). That book contained 261 songs 
in the manner of the Servian national songs. One or 
two of them were simply reproductions of national poems ; 
others were his own creation. He sang the famous 
deeds ''of the heroes of the Slavonian people,'' comprising 
under that general appellation Servians, Croats and 
Bulgarians. He added many a historic note to explain 

176 Lesson 15. 

events or to instruct his readers. His book became 
very popular. The only thing the people did not like 
in it was its title, and they changed it and called it 
simply ^'Fesmaritsa^' "The Book of Songs." It was this 
book which inspired Vook Stefanovich Karajich to under- 
take to collect the Servian national songs. In more 
than one sense Kachich was the presursor of Karajich. 

The Servian books which were written and pub- 
lished in Ragusa and other Dalmatian towns had mostly 
Roman Catholic Servians for their authors. But the 
great majority of the Servians — living in Southern 
Hungary (Banat, Bachka, Syrmia), Kingdom of Servia, 
Old Servia, Montenegro, Hertzegovina, Bosnia and Mace- 
donia — belonged to the so-called Orthodox Greek 
Church. That part of the Servian nation had been 
under the crushing government of the Turks ever since 
the middle of the fifteenth century. The principal pre- 
occupation of the people was how to preserve bare life 
and get food, and of the cultivation of literature even 
the monks in their convents did not think. But towards 
the end of the seventeenth century Hungary became 
entirely liberated from the Turks, and the Servians living 
in the Southern provinces of that kingdom began to 
show immediately some interest in schools, culture and 
literature. Besides the Servians of Dalmatia and Croatia, 
the Servians of Southern Hungary had just claims to 
be considered as the most civilised portion of the Ser- 
vian nation during the eighteenth and the first half of 
the nineteenth centuries. 

The first literary eff'orts among the Servians belonging 
to the Eastern Orthodox Church, after the liberation 
of Hungary from the Turkish yoke, were written in a 
language which was not the Servian vernacular, but 
the old Slavonic Church language, mixed strongly with 
Russian. The reason why the Old Slavonic mixed with 
Servian forms was given up, was this: The Russian 
Church, during the reign of Tsar Peter the Great, be- 
g:an to supply the churches and monasteries of Bulga- 
ria and the Servian countries with Church books written 
in the old Slavonic mixed with Russisms. The first 
schools established in Servia, and in the Hungarian 
provinces inhabited by the Servians, had to bring teachers 

Formation of Verbal Aspects. 177 

and professors from Russia. The Russian teachers 
spoke only Russian, and taught their first Servian pu- 
pils the Russianised Old Slavonic. Whenever one of 
their pupils took up a pen to write a book, they thought 
it right to use the language of the newest Church books, 
which were in the Old Slavonic of the Russian Redac- 
tion. Some of them thought that the dignity of science 
and literature demanded that the books should not be 
written in the language of the common people, but in 
the language of the sacred Church books. But the 
people understood very little of that language, and cer- 
tainly could not give any encouragement to the authors 
of such books. The influence of the living language 
began to assert itself, and towards the end of the eigh- 
teenth century the Servian books were written in a 
curious language of which the foundation was the Old 
Slavonic of the Church books, strongly mixed with Ser- 
vian words and Servian forms. The authors themselves 
called their language ''Slaveno-SerisW (Slavonic-Servian). 
But even this ^'mixture" did not win the sympathy and 
support of the Servian reading public, not numerous 
in itself. 

Most of the books which appeared during the eigh- 
teenth century (whether in the Old Slavonic of the Rus- 
sian type, or in the SJavonic of the Servian type) had 
no originality — being mostly translations from other 

Reading Exercise. 

nopo;i,Hii;a je ^anac na cejiy ;i;BOjaKa, cjioacena h npo- 
CTa. y cjiojKeHoj ochm po^MTejBa h iBHxoBe ,ii,ei];e HMa h 
ynyKa, na ^ecTO h npaynyKa, a y npocTOj cy caMO OTan; 
H MaTH c Aei];oM. Ja^nna ce nopoAHii;e ii;eHH no 6pojy oji,- 
pacjiHX MyniKHX oaBa; OHa, y Kojoj je ^ocTa TaKHX Masa, 
30Be ce 3a;i,py3KHa, a nopo;i,Hi];a, y KOjoj je msljlo hjeh hh- 
Majio OApacjiHx MymKHx iijraHOBa, y KOjoj je, ji;aKjie, Majio 
pa^HHx pyKy sa Teaca^KH nocao, sobc ce HHOKOcna, na 
6HJia npocTa hjih cjioatena. 

y CBaKOj Kytn Mopa 6hth KyTH>H CTapemnna, n to 
je o6nqHO oxan; nopo;i,HHHH. Ka^ OTan; ocTapn n nnje 
BHnie HH 3a pa;i; hh 3a ynpaBy, on ycTyna cTapemnncTBO 

Servian grammar. 12 

178 Lesson 15. 

KOM CHHy, ajiH He yseK HajcTapnjeMy, Hero mccto ii kom 
Mjiat^eM, aKO My ce y^HHn, ;i;a je pa36opHTHJH h 3a cxape- 
niHHCTBO iipnjiH^iHHJH. Ako yMpe, a ne 6yji;e Hape^o 
HHfflTa nocjie ce6e, nopoAMij,a ce He pacna^a, eeh Tpaje h 
;i,ajbe, a 3a cTapeniHHy ;i,ojia3Pi, 6hjio ^oroBopoM, dnjia 
tyTKe, HajcTapnjH y KvtiH. Hy n OBaKO 6HBa, ;i,a CTape- 
niHHCTBO npHnaji,He kojh nyx h Mjiai^eM no ro^HHaMa, aKO 
ce paHHJe noKasao, h sna ce, ji:a je nocjiy ^opacTao. 

CrapernHHa KyTan, 6no oh MJiaji; hjih CTap, MO^Ke 6hth 
yseK ;i,pyrHM saMeaen, aKO sa^pyrapH nal^y, ;i,a je to 3a 
Kyty noTpe6HO h KopncHO. 

YnpaBJbajyliH KyhoM CTapemnna KyTH>H Tpe6a ^a ce 
,T,oroBapa h caseTyje y BamnnjEM nocjiOBHMa ca cbhm o;i,pa- 
cjiHM HjraHOBHMa y H>oj, na ^aK h OH;i,a, Ka;i; y Kytn jkhbh 
OTau; ca cbojhm CHHOBHMa. Be3 npncTanKa anxoBa oh 
HOMa npaBa, ;i;a pacnojrame nopo;i,H^HOM hmobhmom hh sa. 
3KHB0Ta, hh nocJie cmpte. 

Ha CTapeniHHH je KyTH>eM norjraBHTa 6pHra o w6py 
H HanpoTKy KyTH>eM. Oh je ;i;oMaliHH y Kyhn h napet^yje 
H MOMqa;i,H H o^pacjiHMa, Ky^a te kojh hLh h niTa te 
pa;i;HTH, a ;i;yacHOCT je CBaKora, ;i;a ra cjiyma. CTapemHHa 
KyTH>H sacTyna Kyty npeji; BjracTHMa, oh Hji,e na 36opoBe 
H jioroBope, OH c ji,oroBopoM Kytana npo;i,aje, hito je 3a 
npo^ajy, h Kynyje, hito Tpe6a KynHTH, oh ap^kh Kecy c 
HOBH;HMa H 6pHHe ce, KaKO te njiaTHTH Hope3 h ocTajie 
ji;ai];HJe; hslji, ce MOJie Bory, oh no^HH>e h CBpniyje, Ka;i; 
HMa y KyiiH rocTHjy, oh ce c H>MMa pa3roBapa h c H>HMa 
py^a H Be^epa, ;i,ok MOM^aji, jeji,y 3a apjtom coBpoM. 

Ajih h aKO CTapemHHa HMa TaKO ojiJiH^an nojioacaj. 
Met^y CBOJHM 3a;i;pyrapHMa, nnaK Bajba ;i;o6po ;i;a ce ^ysa, 
Aa Her^e ne HCTaKHe h caMOBOJty CBOjy, 6hj[o npoMa ^Jia- 
HOBHMa nopoAHHHHM, 6Hjro y ynpaBH h y pacHope;i,y ca 
HMaH>eM H ca tokobhhom, jep 6h Ta;i;a CBaKH ^jian HMao 
npaBa, ;i,a My ce o;i;ynpe. 

ynyTpamaHM HOCJiOBHMa KyTH>HM, a napo^HTO o 
nocjiOBHMa, KOJH na;i;ajy na :aceHCKy ^ejbaji;, bo;i;h 6pHry 
AOMatiHn;a, o6HqHO CTapemnnHHa ^Kena, hjth, aKa me noMa,. 
HJiH He Mome THM jta ce 6aBH, OH;i;a ;i;pyra, najcTapnja h 
HajHCKycHHja atena y Kytn. Poaobhh, CBaKO^neBHE hocjiobh 
pacnope%jy ce na y^aTe mene, Koje hx Bpme nope;i;oM, 
no HeAOJby jijana, Kao pejiynie. BpeMe naK, Ban OBora 
pe;i;oBaH)a, one npoBo;i,e TKytn, niHjyiiH h njeTyhn 3a cBOj^ 


Remarks on the use of the Imperative and Infinitive. 179 

MVJKeBe H A^^J' Ako hmr ^eBOjaKa, one hm y tom noMa^y. 
Ajih Ka;i; ce CTeKy nojtcKH pa;i,OBH, OHjta h one CBe, h 
TKeue H ;i,eBOJKe, pa;i,e s y nojby. BjiaduMup KapuK. 


KaKBHx HMa nopo;i;Hua jtaeac na cejiy y CpncKHM seM^aMa? 

KaKo ce soee cjioateHa n6po;i;nu,a? 

Kg je 66h^ho ciapeuiHHa, a kg aeroB noc;ie;i,HHK? 

inia cy jifsKEocTVL jejiiHGr cTapemnHe? 

Illxa cy jiyacHOCTH je;tne ;iiGMatnn;e? 

KaKo ce pacnope!/yjy AOMatiH iiocjigbh? 

nixa cy TO «pejiiyffle»? 

Pa^e jiR H atencKH HjiaHOBii no^CKe iiocjoBe? 

Sixteenth Lesson. 

Remarks on the use of the Imperative and 


1. An order to several persons amongst whom the 
speaker himself is included, is expressed in Servian by 
the 1^^ person plural of the present tense without the 

, personal pronoun mh: 
I roBopHMol let us speak! 

bcTajMO OB;i,e! let us remain here! 

2. The first person singular and the third person 
singular and plural are described by particles HCKa or 
^a, e.g.: 

HCKa norHHeM! let me perish! 
;i,a Bor ca^yBa! God forbid! 
HeKa H;i,e! he may go (permission)! 
HCK yjrase! let them enter! 

3. "Long life to the King" (God save the King) is 
expressed in Servian either by the S""^ person sing, of 
the perfect without the auxiUary or by the 3^* pers. sing, 
of the present tense together with the particle /i,a, e.g.: 

^ - , } lone: hie to the Kiner 
;i,a ^HBH Kpa.^! J ^ ^ 

4. Finally, the imperative can be expressed either 
by the perfect tense and particle ;i,a: 

ji;a CH oji,Max OTHmao o;i;aB;i,e ! get (go) away from here ! 
or by the future tense, especially when the absolute 
obedience is expected, e.g.: 


180 Lesson 16. 

ocTaheiu Ty h Heitaheni na Mone! 

you will remain here and wait for me! 

5. The Infinitive is used in Servian as in EngHsh 
generally after verbs expressing request, will, order, hope, 
fear, promise etc. — when referring to the future, e.g.: 

BOJiHM yMpeTH ^acHO Hero cpaMHO ^KHBexH 1 prefer to 
die honestly than to live dishonestly 

OH Mopa OBor naca 6hth 0B;i,e he must be here this 
very moment. 

6. "In order to" is rendered in Servian by the 
particle ji,a in connection with the conditional: 

;[i.aHac can pa^no Aa 6hx ce cyTpa Morao ineTaTH I worked 
to day in order to be able to take a walk to- 

7. The Infinitive can also be used as subject in a 
sentence, e.g.: 

JKHBCTH 6e3 H,e 6enie My HCMorytie to live without her 
(it) was impossible for him. 

Translation 18. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

The first author who had some originality, who 
really created the Servian reading pubhc, and who won 
for himself a lasting place in the heart of the Servian 
people as well as in the history of Servian literature, 
was Dossithey Obradovich. He was born in 1739, in a 
small village (Chakovo) in the Banat. As a boy of 
fourteen he entered the monastery of Hopovo and 
became a monk, firmly determined to make himself 
a Saint by fasting and praying. But soon he saw the 
futility of such endeavours. His thirst after knowledge 
forced him to leave the monastery and plunge into the 
world in search of science. He travelled all over Europe, 
came to England and lived in London for several months, 
supporting himself by giving lessons in Greek. He was 
fortunate enought to win the patronage of a well-known 
philanthropist of that time. Dr. W. Fordyce, who seems 
to have appreciated highly his learning and character. 

Dossithey was the first author among the Servians 
of the Eastern Church who emphasised the necessity 
of writing the books in the language of the people, so 

Remarks on the use of the Imperative and Infinitive. 181 

that the readers could without difficulty understand 
what they read. He himself tried with great success 
to write in that way, although here and there he used 
words which were borrowed from the Old Slavonic. 
He made a great hit by publishing a book of ^sop's 
Fables {''Basne Esopove,'' Vienna, 1788), attaching to 
each fable a discourse full of wdsdom and moral teachings 
for the practical life of his readers. Of his other works 
(published in several editions) the most interesting is 
his own autobiography. His works, just because of their 
inteUigible language, even for the simplest of Servians, 
and of their luciditj^, sincerity and moral courage to 
expose, and condemn fraud and superstition, won an 
extraordinary popularity. He was considered the most 
learned Servian of his time, and was generally called 
''The Servian Philosopher." When the Servians, led 
by Kara-George, cleared their country of the Turks 
and began to organise a regular European state, Dossi- 
they was called to Belgrade and appointed the first 
Minister of Public Education in Servia (A.D. 1809). 
As such he established the first High School (Velika 
Shkola) among the Servians. He died in Belgrade, 1811. 

But the upholders of the old Slavonic-Servian literary 
language did not consider them selves so easily vanquished. 
''The Father of the History" among the Servians, Archi- 
mandrite Yovan Baich (d. 1801) wrote his history in 
that language. (''Istoria ramiih slavenskih narodov, nai- 
pacheje Bolgar Horvatov i Serhov,'' 4 vols. Vienna, 1794; 
second edition, 1829, in Buda.) Even such a highly 
cultured man and poet as the Archimandrite LooJciyan 
Mooshitshy was, wrote his hexameters in Slavonic-Serviaui 
in the first half of the nineteenth century! 

Dossithey did not succeed in firmly establishing the 
national language as the literary language, but he prepar- 
ed the way for the success of Vook Stefanovich Karajich. 

Karajich was born in a Servian village near the 
river Drina (in the kingdom of Servia), in 1787. He 
was a self-taught man, and began his public career as 
clerk to some Servian Voyvodas of the first insurrection, 
and left Servia with many other refugees in 1813. In 
Vienna he pubhshed, in 1814, his first collection of 
Servian National Songs. 

182 Lepson 16. 

Reading Exercise. 

Hapo;i,He nocjiOBiin,e. 

Hs 36HpKe Mujama CmojanoeuRa. 

1. Ako je II Jioeau, mtje lomoe uoean, 

BejiH ce, Kaji; ko roBopn ji,a My to hjih oho, ooaKO 
HJiH OHaKO Mopa notiH 3a pyKOM. MoiKe 6hth, aKO Bor 
ji;a, ajiH ne Mopa. H Haj6o^K jroBan; Ka;i,inTO ;i;ot)e iipa^aH 

H3 JIOBa. 

2. Ako je u Oyuap, npeipa6u ce. 

BejiH ce, Ka;i; ko 6e3o63Hpii;e Tpomn hjih HOBi];e hjih 
Ma icaKBO HMaH>e; hjih, Ka^ ko mhcjih: 6oraT je, HMytan 
je, He MO^Ke HHKa^a cse hctpohihth, naK hhth niTeji;H, 
HHTH yMepaBa, nero TpatiH n TponiH Kao Bo;i;y h3 Synapa, 
a He Kao nnte Koje ce o6htiho MepoM to^h. 

3. Ako je u KO/iuSa, uama je. 
BejiH ce, Kaji; ko ^njy CTBap, hhjh nocao jiohihm na- 
3HBa, H Tyt/e xnajiH; hjih Ka^ 3a6aB^a CBOjeMy h npesnpe 
ra, a Tyl^e y3BHniyje h cjiaBH. Tyl^e ce Moace npH3Ha- 
BaTH H HoniTOBaTH, ajiH CBOje Ba^a ^y6HTH h CTapaiH ce 
Aa nocTaje CBe 6ojBe h caBprnenaje. 

4. Ako umam 6pama, nyeaj u no6pamuMa. 

BejiH ce, Kaji; ko Kame ;i,a Moace 6hth 6e3 OBora h 
OHora, hjih: niTa te mh to h to, Ka;i; HMaM Bet obo h 
oho! no6paTHM je Bepan jipyr, a y3 po]^eHor 6paTa Ao6po 
je HMaTH H Ho6paTHMa, h 6paTHha, h cpoji,HHKa, h npiija- 
TeJba, H KyMa, h cyce;i;a, h 3HaHD;a. Ys HOBy xajbHny 
Ao6po je HMaTH h CTapy, y3 hihjio h oriBHjio — h 6yp- 
rnjy, y3 nyniKy h Ky6ypy, ys ho3K h 6pHTBy, y3 MjieKO h 
cypyTKy; ys Konjbe h Ma^ jioSpo je HMaTH h najiHii,y, y3 
Kyty H ciajy, y3 ;i,yKaT h Kpaji];apy. 0;i; o;i;BHfflKa ne 6ojih 
rjiana, nero o^ ne^ocTaTKa h Kpnapeaa. 

5. Ako cpefiy ne cpevne, ne cmuowe je mmada. 
Kaate ce, Kaji; ^oneKy ^oi^e ;i,o pyKe Jiena 3roji;a h 
npHJiHKa, a oh je nponycTH HeynoTpedjbeny, h>om ce ne 
KopncTH, naK ^eKa ;i,a My oneT ^o^e pyKe, hjih tohh 3a 
h>om y noTepy Kao 3a 6eryHu,eM, Kora je TeniKO cthLh. 

Remarks on the use of the Imperative and Infinitive. 188 

6. Eojbe je u npasna mop6a, ueio epai y mop6ii. 

Bojbe je HHfflTa nenaTH, Hero HMaTH oho hito ^OBeKa 
Kyma n HaBO^H na 3jio h nanacT, hito orop^asa 3Khbot 
H ysHMa HoniTeHO HMe h ynecpehaBa. Sao naK ji;pyr Be- 
jiHKO je 3JI0: ;i,ajieKO je 6ojbe ne HMaTH ra. 

7. lUmo je c epaiOM oneueuo, epai u oduece. Kano 
doittjio, mano omitiajio. 

IIIto ce CTe^e HenpaBeAHHM, kphbom na^HHOM, Bapa- 
jytn H xapajyiiH, Apyre rj[o6eiiH h OTHMajyhn, y OHOMe 
Hena 6jiarocjiOBa, oho y 3jry h npojiasn. 

8. /lodaj 6ode, docmi ffpamua, cee eeKa noiaua, 

HsMaKJio ce y Kyfen xjie6a, na ;i;oMatiHnia najiosKH 
BaTpy Ha oranniTy, ^a ncne^e nora^y. Hpoceje 6ejia 
^pamna, h ynecH noraTiHU,y. Ka;i; je CTane TaaHTH, y^HHH 
joj ce TecTo o;i,BHnie TBpjio, ji,0JiHje Bo;i,e ^a ra pasMOKnia; 
CTane oneT MecTH, ajiH joj ce yqHHH npeMeKano, to Aocne 
oneT 6paniHa, to noTBp;i,o, na oneT ^ojinje Bo;i,e: — h 
TaKO, AOK y;i,ecH KaKO Ba^a, ynecn nora^eTHny, Kojy je 
je;i;Ba Morjia nenejioM sanpeTaTH na oranniTy. TaKO ce 
;i,oral)a h npn nocjiy, Ka;i; ce mhoio nonpaB^a h norpai/yje. 

9. BujiaMa ce KOfbu ne ced^ajy. 

BejiH ce, Ka;i; koioa Kora Hana;3;a c oqnjy 3jihm na- 
^HHOM, a nete jrennM, kojhm ce 6o^e ycnesa h nanepa 
nocTH3aBa, hjih Ka^ ko Bpet^a, a Morjio 6h ce npotiH 6e3 
yBpe;i,e h CBai^e. 

10. Jyi je jauu od ceeepa a/i y ceoje epcMC. 

Pe^ pe^ena h ;i,ejio y^naeno y npaBO spene HMajy 
BejiHK yTHu;aj. Hena rope Hero Kaji; ce Mopa pehn: KacHO 
je, ji;oii,KaH je, caji; net to ho nonage! CBaKa CTBap HMa 
CBOje BpeMe, h Kaji; oho npot^e, csa joj CHjra npojiasn. 


06jacHHTH H npoTyMa^HTH CBOJHM pe^HMa CBaKy oji, ropBHx 

HaBe^HTe Kojy nocjioBHii,y h3 enrjiecKor Hapo^a h y^ope;^HTe 


HMa jiH y eHoecKOM jesHKy nocjioBHii;a Koje xanHo o;i;roBapajy 


184 Lesson 17. 

Seventeenth Lesson. 

Impersonal Verbs. 

1 . The impersonal verbs are used in the S""^ person 
sing, or plural when they have the form of active verbs: 

na^a Knnia it is raining (the rain is faUing). 

The past takes always the neuter gender. When 
the 3^^ person plural is used, words jbydu (people), mhoiu 
(many — i.e., many people), nenu (some — i.e., some 
people) are understood: 

^ > people, they say, instead of roBope ^y;i;H. 

2. If a reflexive verb is used impersonally, the 
3'^ person singular is employed: 

HHHH MH ce it seems to me. 

3. Impersonal verbs are also formed by means of 
a substantive or with an adverb and an auxiliary: 

BpeMe je ycTaTH it is time to get up 

HHje Bpe/i,HO TOMe roBopHTH it is not worth while 

speaking about it 
pane je it is too early 
KacHO je it is too late. 

4. Impersonal verbs in connection with the genitive 
are used instead of a personal verb in order to express 
a very large number of objects, e.g.: 

CKynHJio ce napoAa a great many people met together 
6ai];ajro ce HOBai];a much money has been w^asted. 

Translation 19. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

Even he, the father of the new Servian Literature, 
called the first book ''Slaveno-Serhsha Pyesnaritsa' (The 
Slavonic-Servian Book of Songs). He had the good for- 
tune to be introduced in Vienna to one of the most learned 
Slavists of that time, Bartholomew Kopitar, a philologist 
and archaeologist of European reputation, who encouraged 
Karajich to give himself entirely to the study of the 
Servian language and to the collecting of the unwritten 
creations of the Servian people — National Songs, Stories, 
Proverbs, etc. His first collection of ''Zhenske Fyesme' 
(The Women's Songs) and YoonacJiJce Pyesme (The Songs 

Impersonal Verbs. 185 

on Heroes) made quite a sensation in Europe, and 
showed to the Servians themselves what a rich and 
beautiful language they possessed for literary produc- 
tions. Karajich wrote the first Servian Grammar [''Fis- 
menitsa SerhsJcago Yezilca,'' Vienna, 1814) and the first 
Dictionary of the Servian language (''Lexicon Serbico- 
GermanicO'Latinum,'' Vienna, 1818). In the interest of 
his work he travelled repeatedly through almost all the 
Servian countries. His thorough knowledge of the Ser- 
vian language led him to reform the Servian Alphabet, 
until then in common use, throwing out of it several 
letters which had no place in the Servian language, 
and introducing some others which represent certain 
vowels or soft consonants of the language, but which 
had no special sign in the old alphabet. Karajich in- 
troduced the principle: "Write as you speak, read as 
it is written." His system proved to be the only scien- 
tific one and works smoothly and admirably. 

Of course, such important reforms could not be 
introduced in one day, nor without strong opposition 
on the part of those who were accustomed to the old 
method of writing and to the old literary language. 
Karajich and his adherents had to sustain the most 
violent and passionate attacks through no less than 
forty years. It was only after 1860 that the Servian 
Government withdrew the interdict against the new 
Alphabet and Orthography. But already before 1850 
all unprejudiced authors, and especially the younger 
men, ranged themselves on the side of Vook S. Kara- 
jich, adopted his alphabet and orthography, and wrote 
their books in pure Servian language. This gave a 
powerful impulse to the development of modern Servian 

Servian poets of modern time. It is not surprising 
that the people, whose simple and illiterate bards have 
composed hundred of ballads on national heroes and 
their struggles with the Turks, should have among its 
cultured and schooled sons many a poet. The Servians 
of modern times have indeed too many poets ! Strictly 
and critically speaking, w^e cannot say that we have 
yet had a really great poet. But we certainly have 
had several who came very near to greatness. We will 

186 Lesson 17. 

mention here only those of whom the Servians will 
never cease to be proud. 

1. LooKiYAN MoosNiTSKY, Abbot of the Monastery 
Shishatovats, 1814 — 1828; after that Bishop of Carlovits 
(d. 1837). He wrote patriotic odes in old classic forms, 
and mostly in Slavonic-Servian language. Only the 
higher class of cultured men could appreciate the ele- 
vation of thought, the purity of sentiment and rhyth- 
mical beauty of his hexameters. It is quite natural 
that with the mass of people his poetry found no favour. 

2. SiMA MiLOOTiNOViCH Sarayliya. Born in Sara- 
yevo, the capital of Bosnia, in 1791, died in Belgrade, 
the capital of Servia, the last day of 1847. He was 
the most original of all the Servian poets of the nine- 
teenth century. Being an ardent patriot, he put into 
song the principal events of Servian history, more espe- 
cially the events of the first Servian revolution against 
the Turks under Kara-George, and of the second one 
under Milosh Obrenovich. His principal work is ''&r- 
hiyanka,'' in which the heroic struggle of the Servians 
has been ardently, patriotically and poetically described. 
To give the desired expression to his poetic visions, he 
often had to borrow w^ords from the Old Slavonic, and 
sometimes from the Russian, but most frequently he 
created new words which he wanted, but the true mea- 
ning of which was hardly known to his readers. It is 
difficult to understand him without commentaries. 

Reading Exercise. 


H3 TporojiHinite HCTopnje Cumb MujiymunoeuKa. 

I. 3a eepy. 

y HryMana TpnaBCKora^ 6ho je o;i; HCKyA y Mana- 
CTHpy je^an noBejiHKH l/aK, MJia^Hti oko jiiBaji;eceTe ro;i,HHe 
yspacTa CBOjera, ;i,HBaH ii ;i,H^aH, Kojera Typii;n 3aT0 caMO, 
niTO je IlajcHjeB t^aK h cjiyra — hjih, Kao ihto cy My 
Typii;H BOJiejiH npnuiHTH, xaj;i.yK — ysMy h o;i,Be;i,y y 

1 To je najcHJe, nryMan Man. BjiaroBeraxeifca y OKp. HanancKOM, 
KOJH je 1814 r. c BojBo;^OM XaijH-IIpoAaHOM ^Hrao 6yHy na Typne, 
HO ra Typi;H yxeaxe h Ha Ko.iai; HaxaKHy. 

Impersonal Verbs. 187 

Beorpaji;, na ;i;o HeKOJiHKO ;i,aHa nocjre IlajcHjeBe CMpTH 
noBe;i,y h H>era na ry6EJiHniTe, ynpTHsniH My na pane h 
roTOB saoniTpen KOJiau;. Bo;i;eiiH ra CBe nonajjiaK ao MecTa, 
CBii cy ra pe^OM Hy;i;HjiH h rposana h CBaKOJaKHM o6e- 
taaHMa CKJiaaajiH, ;i,a ce noTyp^n h ^a TaKO Mjraji; ii jien 
He rnne y3ajiy;i;, Kaji; Mome m jkhbh h cpeTan h ^gctht 
na o6a CBexa ;i;a nocTane. Ha to 6h hx oh ynHTKHBao: 
«A yMHpy Jill Ka;i,ro;!; h Typi];n?» Ha CMenieLn ce, hh o;i,- 
roBopa HM He m^eKaBmn, saneBao 6h jynaMKH OBaKo: 
«HeMa Bjepe 6o^e oji; xpHnitancKe! 
Cp6 je XpucTOB, pa^yje ce cmpth, 
BoatjH CTpamHH cy;!; h TypKe ^eKa, 
Ila BH HHH Te HiTO je Bana Aparo, 
CKopo heie, TypuiH, ji;ojiHjaTH, 
Bor Ban jeMan; h Bomnja npaB;i;a.» 
BaKa HeKaKBa jiecHjia ce ys anx, h npncTajra 6eine 
3a H>HMa HaroBapajyiiH ra neKa ce h noTyp^H, a ;i;a ocTane 
mHB: Bor bh;i;h hito je Hy3K;i;a h HeBO^:Ba, na My to nete 
y rpex nocTaBHTH. Ajie oh soj oji,roBopH: 

<MaJKO Moja, na MJijOKy th XBajia! 
Bpso teni ce o6pa;i;oBaT' cnny, 
JI^OK npe;i; jiHii;e Bo^je nsai^eno. 
Cmpt H36aB^a oji; CBaKHJex 6'jeji;a, 
I^B'jeT Hpo^eTHH no 3hmh ce jaB^a, 
B.7raro CBaKOM ko pannje yMpe, 
Maae je MyKe h rpnjexa, 
Ha niTo Aa^HO cnac h Bjepa KOMe, 
A jom HMa Spate na CBHJeTy.» — 
TypuiH ce y;i;HBe tojihkoj HeycTpaniHOCTH je^nora Mjra- 
AHia H TBp;i;oj Bepn, Te My ce CMHjiyjy, ji,a My npe HOJKeM 
(jaTaranoM) cpH;e npoSo^y, na ra na Kojran; MpTBa naTny 
H ycnpaBe, nocaji,HBniH ra Me^y ocTajie na CBOje mocto 
yKpaj nyTa k Tepa3HJH, nomaBnin H3a CTaM6ojrKanHje Ba- 


KaKO ce aose ManacTHp y komc je ^HBeo iiryMan IlajcHJe? 
K^KO je norHHyo nryMaa UajcHJe; a Kano aeroB ^aK? 
Jecy -iH HKa;i;a EnrjesH t^ko yMHpajiH? 

Jl^a JiH TypuH H ;naHac, y ABaAeceioM eeKy, HHne TaKa 3j6t- 
BopcTBa npeMa xpHiutaHCKHM napojiiHMa y CBOJoj ii,apeBHHH? 
Cetaie jih ce JepMencKor rioKO^a? 

188 Lesson 18. 

Eighteenth Lesson. 

Remarks on the use of some Cases. 

Use of the genitive case. 
The genitive case is used: 

1. With words expressing quantity, weights, mea- 
sures, date: 

MHOro Aeii;e many children 
MCTap cyKHa a meter of cloth 
Tpetier anpnjia the third of April 
nama niiBa a glass of beer. 

2. After the adjectives docmojan worthy, nyu full, etc. : 
;i,6cT0JaH noniTOBaiLa worthy of respect 

Keca nyna HOBai];a a purse full of money. 

3. After certain prepositions and after most of 
adverbs used as prepositions: 

6e3 MjKe HCMa nayKe nothing without labour 
6jiH3y peKe near the river. 

4. With such active and reflective verbs as express 
wish, expectation, privation, obedience, fear, such as: 
mejieTK to wish noTpe6oBaTH to want 
XTCTH to desire, to wish 66jaTH ce to fear 
MOJiHTH to request jihiuhth ce to be depri- 
CTHACTH ce to be ashamed ved of. 

5. As "genitivus qualitatis": 

^OBCK ;i;o6pe napaBH a man of good humour. 

Use of the dative case. 
The dative case is used: 

1. To express advantage, utility, gain, pleasure, 
aim, detriment, dislike etc.: 

cjiy^HTH rocnoAapy to serve the sovereign 
Bpe;i,eTH komc to be useful to somebody 
;i,ajTe CHpoMaxy MHJiocTHH>e! give alms to the poor man 
TO BaM MOJKe iuk6;i,hth this maj^ hurt you. 

2. After verbs of affection, such as: 
pa;i,0BaTH ce (neMy) to be glad 
OTBHTH ce (^eMy) to admire 

CMejaTH ce (^ifeMy) to laugh. 

Remarks on the use of some Cases. 189 

3. After many impersonal verbs: 
Tpe6a My he needs 

Moryte My je it is possible for him 
BpeMe My je it is time for it 
;i;o6po mh je I am well 
BpyhHHa mh je I am warm. 

4. With the auxiliary 6umu to express relationship, 
friendship, etc.: 

OH MH je OTaii; he is my father 

OH mh je HpiijaTe.zb he is a friend of mine 

TH CH My cyce;i; you are his neighbour. 

5. Remark especially the following verbs as gover- 
ning the dative in Servian and not in English: 
np^THTH to threaten no;i,pa3KaBaTH to imitate 
AOcat^HBaTH to bore onp6cTHTH to pardon 
3aBH;i;eTH to envy cjryacHTH to serve 
OCBCTHTH ce to avcuge c^eji;oBaTH to follow. 

Translation 20. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

3. Branko Eadichevich (b. 1824, d. 1853). Deci- 
dedly the most lyric poet among the Servians in the 
nineteenth century. His songs are written in a most 
melodious and correct Servian ; his rhyming is light and 
perfect. Most of his songs describe the light-hearted 
gaiety of youth. But during the few years before his 
death he wrote several elegies and sad and melancholy 
songs. His love-songs are very fine and tender. The 
most popular of his poems is "The Students' Good-bye," 
in which he described the life of the pupils of the 
highest school in Carlovitz, the residence of the Patriarch 
of the Hungarian Servians, and the landscape beauty 
of the neighbourhood. One of the hills which he most 
beautifully described in that poem bears now, in his 
honour, the name ''BranJcov Vis' (Branko's Hill). 

4. Peter Petrovich Nyegosh, the last Prince-Bishop 
of Montenegro. Born 1813, in the village Nyegosh in 
Montenegro, became Prince-Bishop of his country in 
1830, as a boy of seventeen; died in 1851. He was 
the pupil of Sima Milootinovich Sarayliya, and apparent- 
ly learned from him to express his thoughts and visions 

190 Lesson 18. 

in a powerful and effective manner. His best and most 
remarkable work was: ''GorsJci Viyenats' (The Moun- 
tain's Wreath). It is a drama in verse, but without 
dramatic action, and rather a series of original and 
beautiful lyric poems, describing the life of the Monte- 
negrins, their ideas about the world, their superstitions, 
and above all their heroism. It is full of noble senti- 
ments and grand thoughts. I consider it the finest 
poetical creation in modern Servian literature. Not less 
fine is his ''Loocha Microcosma' (The Torch of Micro- 
cosmos), a poem in six cantos. It is evident that Nye- 
gosh wrote it under the influence of his admiration of 
Dante and Milton. The poet aspires to the solution of 
the great problem of man's position and existence in 
the Universe. The human soul is led by an Angel to 
the throne of God, and then is shown the Universe 
before the creation of this world and during the rebel- 
lion of Satan against God, in which rebellion another 
fallen Angel, Adam, helped him. But Adam repents 
in time, and instead of being thrown down to hell, he 
is placed on a new planet, the earth, which God had 
created specially for the purpose of serving as a place 
of punishment for Adam and his descendants. It is 
altogether a very remarkable poem. His drama, "The 
False Tsar, Styepan Mali," is interesting only as a des- 
cription of Montenegrin life and manners. 

6. Zmay Yovan Yovanovich. Born 1833, died 1904. 
He distinguished himself as a successful translator of 
foreign poetry into exquisite Servian verse. His original 
songs are mostly lyrical, but many are satirical and 
humorous. During the last years of his life he com- 
posed numerous songs for children. The purity and 
melodiousness of his language, the natural lightness and 
beauty of his rhyme, the wealth of ideas and the warmth 
and depth of sentiment, made Yovanovich one of the 
most popular modern poets of the Servians. 

6. Gyoora Yakshich (b. 1832, d. 1878) a painter 
and a poet. His lyrical and epical poems have much 
fire and passion and are very popular. He has much 
originality. His poetry made a great impression on the 
people's imagination. With Nyegosh and Zmay Yovan 
he is considered as a great figure on the Servian Par- 

Kemarks on the use of some Cases. 191 

nassus. Besides songs and poems he wrote twenty-nine 
short stories, and three dramas. These latter have not 
much value, but the stories are well- written and give 
true pictures of the vihage life of the Servian people. 

7. Laza Kostich is still living, but he belongs to 
the group of the gifted poets of the second half of the 
nineteenth century. He is a highly cultured man and 
a fine lyrical poet ; but his principal distinction is that 
he wrote the three best dramas that Servian literature 
has had so far, viz.: "Maxim Tsrnoyevich^'' ''Pera Sege- 
dinats' and ''GordanaJ' Another great merit of his 
consists in his successful translation into Servian of 
Shakespeare's ''Romeo and Juliet," "King Lear," ''Ham- 
let" and "Richard HI." 

8. Nikola Petrovich Nyegosh, Prince of Montenegro. 
The reigning dynasty of Montenegro, Petrovich Nyegosh, 
was for several generations giving to the Servians not 
only able and successful rulers of Montenegro, and great 
and victorious leaders of the Montenegrin armies, but 
also men otherwise distinguished by their gifts, and 
more especially by the gift of poetry. I have already 
mentioned that the last Prince-Bishop of Montenegro, 
Peter Petrovich Nyegosh, was the greatest poet of the 
Servian nation in the nineteenth century. The father 
of Prince Nikola, Grand Voyvoda Mirko, was himself 
a born national bard, and composed twenty-nine poems 
describing the battles and glorifying the victories of 
the Montenegrins against the Turks during the decade 
1852 — 1862. It is well known that all the sons and 
daughters of Prince Nikola are highly gifted in one way 
or another. I need only mention his daughter Yelena 
(Queen Helen of Italy), who is no mean painter and 
poet; while her sister Anna (Princess Frances of Batten- 
berg) and her brother Prince Mirko are known for their 
musical compositions. 

Prince Nikola commenced his poetical creations as 
a boy of not quite seventeen (in 1858). His lyric songs 
gave expression to his personal religiousness, his piety 
towards the memory of his parents and forefathers, his 
patriotism, and later on to his love for home life, his 
wife and children. His patriotic song, ''Onamo! OnamoT 
set to fine music is sung as the patriotic National Hymn 

192 Lesson 18. 

by all the Servians. He ventured with much success 
into the epical poetry: "The marriage of Beg Lyoobo- 
vich," "The Sehm Begs Castle," ''Haydanna," "Irene, 
or The Conquest of Constantinople," "The Poet and 
the Fairy," and others. 

But his most important creation is ''Balkanska 
Tsaritsa' (The Empress of the Balkans), a drama in 
verse in three acts. It describes the heroism of the 
Montenegrin women, to whom the work was inscribed 
by the Royal poet. This drama was played with great 
success in the Servian theatres in Belgrade, Cettinye, 
and Novi Sad (the Athens of the Servians of Hungary). 
It was translated into German, Dutch and Magyar, 
parts of it into Itahan. 

Reading Exercise. 
BosKHtna paji,0CT. 

HacTynno je npasHHK, npasHHK Bo^Hba h pa;i;ocTH. 
H Mjiaji,o H CTapo, h Majro h bcjihko pa;i,OBajio ce TOMe 
CBeTJioM jiiany, a ja;i,Ha HBana, CHpoTa yAOBHi],a, CTpennjia 
je o;i, aera. Tpe6ajro je sa ^eiiiy cnpeMHTH 6oacHtHy ne- 
^eHHi];y, a ona HeMat/anie. 

^ot^e BaAH>H A^H, H ona saK/ra je;i,Hora typana. Jl^e- 
^Hii,a ce HPpajia oko Baxpe, r^e ce itypan ncKao, pa;i;yjyiiH 
ce cyTpaniaeM npasHHKj, cyTpamaeM OMpmajy. 

y Be^e je npocTpTa CBy;i,a Cjiana no KytepKy. J^e^Hii;a 
cy HHjyKajra h pa^OBajia ce, o;i; pa;i,ocTH HHcy Morjia hh 
Be^epaTH, nero je nHTaxy: 

— Je Ji' Hano? 

— Oj pane! 

— A Ka;ii te BorHH a^h? 

— CyTpa, pano. 

— Je Ji', Ka;i; cnaBaMO? — nHTame Tenajytn MajiHrna. 

— JecTe, AHKo! 

— Cejo! Xaj;i;e ;i;a cnaBaMo, ncKa npe ;i,ot;e BorHH ;i;aH!.. 
H Ae^Hi];a nojeranie h nocname. 

IIoinTo ycnpeMH no Kytn h MCTHy joni je^HO ;i;pBO 
y net, jie^e h HBana Kpaj ;i;en;e. 

Ka;i; 6h npeA 3opy, ycTane Hsana h najioiKH naxpy. 
y TO ncKO sajiyna na npaTa. «nojrameHHK», homhcjih 

Remarks on the use of some Cases. 193 

IlBana h npiil/e, Te OTBopH. J Kytiy CTynn nona CTojan 
c ne^GHHiiiOM Ha paneny, a sa E>mi cjiyra Homanie Bpeiiy 
Ha jietjHMa. 

— XpscTOC ce po;i;h! — pene noii nyn pajiocTK. 
IlBana saxBaTii h3 KoniHtia KyKypysa, nocy sioie nony 

h OAroBops: 

— Ba HCTHHy ce pojiin! 

IlBana ce TaKOM nojiaJKeHHHKy nnje HHKaKO Ha^ajia. 
Cyse joj y^ape na o^h h npai^e oboj CBeToj pyii,H, Koja 
TaKO 6jiarocn^a. 

— ffiHBa 6HJia, kepH ! — pe^e nona, a n aemy nyne 
o^H cysa. 

— CeOT, nono! — pe^e HBana. 

— Ba^a ce! — pe^ie nona n ce^e, a ona ra orpTe 
je;i;HOM noaaBOM. 

— Je Ji\ Hano, je .i' caji; Bornn ;i,aH? 

— JecTe, pane! ... Eho, niTa saM je Bora nocjiao! 
— H noKasa j!;eu;H ne^ennuy. 

' — rHn;a! rHn;a!... Jla Bn'ni, cejo, rni^y! — ysBHKHy 
MaJinnia h saTannia pyKaMa. 

H ;i:e^Mn;a noBpBonie h3 co6e n CTa;i,onie nrpaTs oko 

— XBajia TH nono ! Tn mohh paji;ocTn, Bor Te6n 3;];paB.Zba ! 

— Hnje mohh! Homoj Menn pehn XBajia, Hero Bory. 

— rHn;o!... rHn;o!... ysBHKHBaxy ji,en;a. 

— H joni HemTO, HBana. Ty y Bpeiin HMam 6paniHa 
3a ^ecHHi];y, a eBO th h napa y TiecHiin;y, — na joj npy- 
mn ;i;yKaT. 

H oneT, CHpoTHii;a, Hm.z&y6H one CMe^Eypane, cjia6a^Ee 
pyKe, H nona nsn^e nanoibe. 3a anM ce ^yjia secejia BHKa 
;i;e^HHa n ycKJiHK nyn MOJiHTBe: «Bor th 3ji,paBj)a ;i;ao!» 

nona o;r.e y nipKsy n oji,cjiymH cjiy^Koy Bo^Kjy, cpehan 

H 3aji;0B0JbaH KaO nnKaA AOTJIO. Jamo BeceAumouR. 


KaKo ce sobg npasHHK XpncTOBa Poi|eHE»a? 

Ko HHJe 5ho Beceo Tora jiana y oboj npiinoBeTii;^ ? 

Illra je y^HHHJia ona na Bajtan Jan? 

KaKo ce sose rocT kojh iipsn jiS)%Q y Kjty na BOi'KHK? 

KaKo ce nos^pas^ajy Cp5H na Taj ;i;aH? Illxa je iios^^paB a 

mia oji;roBop.^ 
Ko je noxojtno HBaey? 

Servian grammar. 13 

194 Lesson 19. 

Niiieteeiitli Lesson. 

Remarks on the use of some Cases (continuation). 

The accusative case is used: 

1. After all transitive verbs: 

HHcaTH to write paji,HTH to work 

MHTaTH to read y^mtk to learn 

roBopHTM to speak npeB5;i,HTH to translate. 

2. Even after some intransitive verbs: 

Ona je cnaBajia cbj hoIi she slept the whole night. 
The instrumental case is used: 

1. With the active^ neuter and reflective verbs to 
designate the agent, instrument or means: 

^pmyM KHHry pyKana. I hold the book with my 

YMiiBaM ce b6;i,om. I wash myself with w^ater, 

0xpH;i;cK0 jesepo odiuyje Lake Ohrid abounds in fish. 

Oh ce xnajiH c Bana. He jokes with you. 

2. With the names oi place and manner: 

iitiH ^ojiHHOM to go through the valley 
pe;i,OM in order, in turn 
THM Ha^HHOM in such a manner 
nianaTOM whispering. 

3. After the prepositions: sa, naji;, noA, npeji;, c, ca: 
3a CTOJiOM at the table 

Haji; naniHM rjiasaMa above our heads 
npeA nana before you 
c H)HM wdth him. 

4. After the verbs ynpasjbaTH to govern, BJia;i,aTH 
to rule, KOMaH;i;oBaTH to command, etc. : 

KpaJb IleTap I. BJia;i,a Cp6HJ0M King Peter I. rules 

5. To indicate or to determine the quality expres- 
sed by the adjective: 

6oraT HCKycTBOM rich in experience 
CHpoMamaH 3HaH>eM poor in knowledge. 

Eemarks on the use of some Cases. 195 

Translation 21. 
Servians or Croats. (Continuation.) 

Servian dramatists and novelists. The Servians have 
a comparatively large number of writers of dramas. 
They have so far not produced a really great dramatist, 
but there are several authors whose dramas deserve to 
be mentioned as being of decided merit. 

The first place among them belongs to Mateeya 
Ban (b. 1818, d. 1903), poet and publicist. Of his 
fifteen dramas and tragedies by far the best are: ''Mey- 
reema^'' '''The Fall of the Great Novgorod,'' ''Tsar Lasar," 
For more than fifty years "Meyreema' has kept her 
place in the repertory of the Servian theatres. — A 
prolific writer of dramas, tragedies and comedies was 
Yovan Popovich Steriya (1806—1856). His best comedy 
*'Tvrditsa" (Avarice), is played even now at the begin- 
ning of the twentieth century. His best tragedy is 
considered to be "King Stefan Dechanski". — George 
Maletieh (1816 — 1888) wrote several good dramas which 
were popular between 1850 and 1880, more especially 
so: "The Apotheosis to the great Kara-George," "The 
Forerunners of Servian Liberty," "The Death of the 
Bulgarian Tsar Michael." I mentioned a little earlier 
the dramas of Laza Kostich and Prince Nikola. 

Among the men of the younger generation (from 
1880 to the present day) excellent dramas have been 
written by Dragootin Ilich ["King VooJcashin," " YaJcvinta,'' 
"For Freedom and FaitJi'), Milosh Ovetich ("Nemanya,'' 
"Tsar Booshan^' "Todor of Stalaeh''). Most popular 
comedies have been written by Milosh Glishich and 
Branislav Nooshich. — I ought to say that comedies 
written by Kosta Trifkovich (1843—1875) were very 
popular in the second half of the nineteenth century. 

It is somewhat remarkable that the Servians, so 
rich in lyric poets and dramatists, have hardly any 
novelists. Early in the first half of the nineteenth 
century they had only the romantic and sentimental 
novels of Milovan VidaJcovich (1780 — 1841). His novels 
— more especially "The Lonely Youth," "Lyoobomir 
in Elysium," "Siloan and Milena, or, A Servian Girl 
in England," were very popular with the people of the 


196 Lesson 19. 

time when they appeared. Since Vidakovich the Ser- 
vians have had only one novelist of somewhat greater 
merit — Ycikov Igmjatovich (1824 — 1889). He wrote an 
historical novel, ''Gyooragy Branlcovich," one from the 
social life of the Servians, "'Milan Naranjich,'' and one 
somewhat romantic — ' Mansor and Jemilla." 

As a compensation they can show quite a goodly 
number of very gifted waiters of short stories. The very 
first of them is Laza K. Lamrevich (1851 — 1890) with, 
unfortunately, only eight short stories, but which, with 
their felicitous choice of subjects, deep psychological 
stud}^ and elegant prose, are deservedly considered as 
models of what a short story ought to be. — The most 
original of the writers of short stories was undoubtedly 
the Dalmatian Servian, Styepan Mitrov Lyoobisha (1824 
till 1878). His "Stories from the Sea-coast and Monte- 
negro," as well as "The Stories of Vook Doychinovich," 
written in a vigorous and picturesque style, abounding 
in local and provincial colour and forms, quickly made 
him highly popular. — Milan Gy. MiUchevich, Iliya 
VooJcichevich, and Yanlco Vesselinovich, gave us delightful 
sketches of the life in Servian villages and provincial 
towns. A writer who, for humour and good natured 
satire, seemed on tlie way to become the Servian 
Dickens, Stevan Sremats, died unfortunately too earty 
(1906). Some of his histories, ''Ivhova Slava,'' for instance, 
have been successfully dramatised. — One of the ablest 
writers of stories at the present day in Servia is Sima 
Matavooly, who, born in Dalmatia, takes his subjects 
mostly from that country and the neighbouring Mon- 

In strictly scientific tvorJcs we had once (in the eigh- 
teenth century) the Dalmatian Servian, Rugiero Bosk- 
Jcovich^ the world-famed philosopher, mathematician, 
astronomer and physicist. In the nineteenth century 
we had a great botanist, Dr. Josif Panchich (1814 till 
1888), and we have still one of the greatest electrical 
physicists of our times — Nikola Tesla, who, always a 
good Servian patriot, is now a citizen of the United 
States. — At present two young professors of the Bel- 
grade University have drawn on themselves the attention 
of the scientific men of Europe. One is Dr. Cviyich, 

Eemarks on the uee of some Cases. 197 

whose geographical researches in the Balkan Peninsula 
have been highly appreciated by the Geographical So- 
cieties of Vienna, Berlin, Paris and London. The other 
is the Professor of Metaphysics at that University, 
Dr. Branislav Petroniyevich, whose original conception 
of great philosophical problems has made him already 
well known in Em^ope and the United States. 

In the science of language we have, besides the 
famous VooJv Stefanovich Karajich, his pupil and friend, 
Gyooro Danichich, with his numerous philological works 
and the great Dictionary of the Croatian or Servian 
language. A worthy pupil of Gyooro Danichich is Stoyan 
NovaJcovich, with his many grammatical and philological 
studies. Novakovich, now the President of the Royal 
Servian Academy, is at the same time the foremost 
Servian historian of our time. His edition of ''The 
Zakonih Tsara Booshana' (The Codex of Laws of Tsar 
Dooshan) is in every respect a model one. 

In historical research, besides Stoyan Novakovich, 
Professor Lyooba Kovachevich, Lyooba Yovanovich, Yovan 
Tomich have distinguished themselves. But the greatest 
services to historical science and to critical study of 
Servian History have been rendered by Archimandrite 
lUaryon Roovarats (1842 — 1906). I myself have written 
a study of Servia in the fifteenth century (Gyooragy 
Brankovich), which was well received. My monograph 
on the Conquest of Constantinople by the Turks has 
been translated into English, Russian and Spanish. 

Reading Exercise. 

nocjiOBHi^e H nHTajiHH^e. 

1. Eoi, 

1. Mimo Boga nikuda. 

2. Ka,a; Bor ;i,aje, He nMTa, ^iij en cmh. 

3. U Boga su pune ruke. 

4. Sto je od Boga, slade je od meda. 

5. Jl^o6ap je Bor, aji' cy h l^aBOJiH jaKH. 

6. Kaji, Bor xotie Kora ^a KasHH, najnpHJe My oa- 
ysMe naneT. 

7. Brat bratu, drug drugu, a Bog svima. 

198 Lesson 19. 

8. Ko ce HYBa, h Bor ra ^VBa. 

9. Bor He Tpy6H, aanix' ^OBeKa ry6M. 
10. Bor je cxapH ^iy;i,OTBopaiji;. 

2. JloM u doMOsuna. 

1. Svi za jednog, jedan za sve. 

2. Ko He 3Ha cbojckh, Taj Mopa Tyl^HHCKH. 

3. r^e ca KO poji;MO, Taaio My je MncHp. 

4. Sto jacih kuca, to lepsa crkva. 

5. BjiH3Ka je Koniy^Zba Hero xa^nna. 

6. IIjieTH KOTaii;, r;i;e th h oxaii;. 

7. He CTOJH Kyiia na seM^s, nero na acena. 

8. Ce6HpoA ;i,OBeKa oji,po;i;. 

9. Tyt^a pyKa CBpa6a ne Heme. 

10. Ko nece brata za brata, tudina ce za gospodara. 

3. JesiiK, 

1. BpsopoKa nyn rpnjexa. 

2. Jeziku zubi tvrda ograda. 

3. Duboka je reka, koja muci. 

4. Oa 3Jia jesHKa MyKa sejiHKa. 

5. Rec iz usta ide u iievrat. 

6. Ne kazuj sve, sto mislis, ali sto ces reci, dobro 

7. Glava je skuplja s jezikom, nego bez jezika. 

8. Oa nianyTa jio roBopa: xpoMor Bpai[ii,a ckok. 

9. Sedi krivo, ali reci pravo! 

4. Mir i sloga. 

1. Bolje s mirom, nego s cirom. 

2. Od mira glava ne boli. 

3. 0;i; HHaTa HOMa roper sanaTa. 

4. r;i;e je nnp, Ty je nnp. 

5. BaTHHa nna jiiBa Kpaja. 

6. Cjiora oa Bora, a Hecjiora o;i: sjiora. 

7. Kad jedan nece, nikad se dva zavaditi ne mogu. 

8. Be3 cjiore nena cjio6o;i,e. 

9. Gde je sloga, tu je i pobeda. 
10. Cjiora Kyhy si^a, necjiora o6apa. 

Formation of Servian Words. 199 

5. Bad i vrednoca, 

1. J[oK CMO 3KHBH, pa^HMO ; Kaji; yMpeMO, JieanMo. 

2. Nema slade vecere, do sobom steceue. 

3. Ustajte, leni, Bog srecu deli! 

4. Ilpejia — jejia; mnjia — nHjra. He npejia — He 
jejia; ne innjia — ne nnjra. 

5. Radi ko mrav, pa ces postici carev grad. 

6. Marape ne yMe njiHBaTH, aok My EO^a j[0 ymnjy 
He ;i,o^e. 

7. HHr;i,e HHJe hjiot Ko6acHri;aMa onjieTeH. 

8. Bele ruke tud posao miluju. 

9. HnniTa ne 6HBa Hajeji;aHnyT. 
10. nperaoH;y Bor MaxoBe ^aje. 

Twentieth Lesson. 

Formation of Servian Words. 

A great number of substantives are derived from 
other substantives, from adjectives and verbs, chiefly 
by means of terminations: 

To form abstract nouns the terminations, ocm, cmeo, 
una, are often used: 

ACTC child ;i;eTHH>cm<?o childhood 

HOB new HOBocm novelty 

THX tranquil mimima tranquility. 

Names of tradesmen and tvorJcers are formed with 
the suffixes aiJ, an, huk, tuau: 
pH6a fish pH6ap fisherman 

3b6ho bell SBOHap bellringer 

Tpy6a trumpet Tpy6a^ trumpeter 

Mope sea . Mopnap seaman 

CTO table CTOJiap cabinetmaker 

^JiaraJHa treasury 6.iiarajHHK treasurer 

npeBo;]; translation npeB6;i;HJiaii; translator. 

A great many nouns are derived from verbs by 
means of the suffixes, eihe^ afhe, fie^ 6a, etc. : 
HHTaTH to question niiTaae the question 

nyniHTH to smoke nymeae the smoking 

najiHTH to set fire na^6a the salvo (of guns) 

HHTH to drink niitie the drinking. 

200 Lesson 20. 

Every Servian word, whether primitive or derivative, 
simple or compomid, is thus traceable to a root or 
reducible to certain radical letters or syllables, which 
become words by junction of other letters or syllables. 

The latter are by no means destitute of signification 
by themselves, and must be considered as auxiliary roots ^ 

Let us take for example the word pod race, cpodcmeo 
parentage and npiipoda nature. It is evident that their 
common root is po;i; wliich has assumed various signi- 
fications by the addition of c, mieo, and npu. 

By means of derivation and composition many 
words are formed from one and the same root. Thus, 
e.g., from the root pod: 

p6ji;MTH to engender poji,6HHa relation 

po;i;HTeJB father poat;i;ecTBO (old word) nati- 

poji;iiTe.^H parents vity, Christmas 

po/i,iiTe.i>CKn paternal etc. 

po;i;Hii native 
pot^eH born 
po^eBbe birth 
p5^aK a relative 
p6^eHK[ german (of brothers) 

Selections from the Servian people's Proverbs^ 

Without tools there is no trade. 

Without discussion no resolution. 

He who works has much; he who saves, still more. 

What is taken by force or unjustly, is cursed. 

It is better to have an ounce of wisdom than a 
hundred-weight of physical strength. 

It is better to serve a good man than to give orders 
to a bad man. 

Better ever than never. 

It is better not to commence than not to finish. 

Better to die honestly than to live dishonestly. 

It is better to have a good reputation than to have 
a golden belt. 

Where the elders are not heard, there God does 
not help. 

Formation of Servian Words. 201 

As long as a man does not dishonour himself, 
nobody can dishonour him. 

As the master is, so also are his servants. 

Who does good will receive better. 

Who does evil will receive worse. 

Who judges hastily will repent quickly. 

Who up to his twentieth j^ear does not learn, and 
up to his thirtieth year does not save some money, will 
be a burden to the family to whom he belongs. 

Who does not know how to serve cannot know 
how to command. 

Do good, and you will not have to repent it; do 
evil, and you will have to expect it. 

A wise man walks slowly, but reaches his goal 

God does not settle His accounts with men every 
Saturday, but the day comes on which He settles them. 

When God wills not, all the Saints together can- 
not help. 

Heading Exercises. 
JejieH H BHHorpa/i,. 

(Hs 6acaHa Jl^ocumeja 06padoeuKa.) 

JeJieH, oeaietiH o;i; jiOBau;a, caKpHJe ce y sejen bhho- 
rpa^. A Ka;i, npot^y jiobij,h, OH;[i,a oh no^ne ^lynaTH jEHnifee 

H jeCTH. 

Ynase aob^ii rji^e ce .losa HHja, npncTyne, BH;i,e je- 
jTBHa, H y6HJY ra. 

«npaBe.ii,Ho CTpa;i,aM», peKne obh cas y kpbh, «3ainT0 
Bpei^aM Jiosy Koja Me je caHyBajra?» 

HHKaji, HHKora ne Ba.zba Bpe^ara, a 3a EaJBHme one 
KOJH cy HaM Ka;i, ro;i; ji,o6po y^HHHjiH h jby6aB noKasajiH. 

EaKO ce Cp6H Bory. 

(ByK C7n. Ka^ay^uK, «CpncKn pjeHHHK».) 

Cp6H ce o6imRO MCie Bory TpHnyT na ji,aH: y jyTpy, 
KaA ycTany; y Be^e, Ka^ xohe ab. Be^epajy; h nocjiHJe 
Benepe, Kaji; xohe ^a cnaBajy. 

y JyTpy ce MOJie Bory, Ka;i, Koje ycTane; nocjiHje 
Be^epe, Ka;i, Koje ;i,ocnHje ji,a cuaBa; a npe^ Bewpy cbh 

202 Lesson 20. 

ce MOJie sajeAHo: MyniKapii,H (nomxo ce yMHJy, jep ce 
ooKHHO CBar^a npe^ je™ yMiiBajy no pyKana, a no na- 
pofflHMa M nocJiHJe je.ia, Kao m typij,M) CTany HanpHje;i;, 
a mene h AJeii,a sa anna, m Hnje^HO ne CMHje npecTaiH 
HH cjecTH ;i,OK CTapjemHHa ne CBpnin. 

Ohh ce ne MOJie Bory je^naKO, nero niTO KOje 3Ha, 
OHO H roBopn (mantiytin; caMO CTapjemnna mojko roBO- 
pHTH Majio no6o^e, ;i,a ce ^yje), n niTO ;KejiH, oho h nniTe. 
Ha npHMJep, ja can cjiymao KaKO ce Moja Main mojth 
Bory 3a Mene n 3a Mojera 6paTa, ;i,a joj 6yAeM0 atHBn h 
3ji:paBH H cpetiHH. TaKO cecxpa, aKO je cnpeMHjia 6paTa 
Ha BOjcKM, MOJiH ce Bory ;i,a joj 3ji,paB0 ^oi^e, ht^i;. Mnorn 
OBaKO no^HH>y: ^Jla ce ca CTpaxoM homojihmo h hokjiohhmo 
rocno;i;y Bory h Boropo^uiH, 6.iaroMe PncTy n qacnone 
KpcTy. » 

Yo^H He;i;jejbe h yo^n BejiHKHjex npasHHKa 3anajre 
BOfflTany CBHjehy h npnjiHJene 3a 3h;i., na ysMe CTapjenmna 
Baxpe H TaMJana, Te OKaji,n Hajnpnje CBHJeiiy (h HKony 
aKO HMajy), no tom ce OKa;i,e cbh pe^OM, n MOjre ce Bory 
npena CBBjetn. 

OcHM Tora Cp6HH nna o6H^aj pehn Eoowe noMOsu n 
npeKpcTHTH ce: Ka^ cje;i,a 3a Tpne3y ji,a je^e; Ka;i; xoKe 
Aa ycTane B:3a Tpne3e (ajin Ta;i,aj Ka^e: Eoi da noMome 
u da uacnopu); Ka;i, xotie ^a ce nannje paKHJe hjih Bnna; 
Kaji; xofee ji^sl jie^Ke cnaBaTH ; Kaji; xohe ji;a ysjanie na Koaa, 
H Ka^ KHxne. Kaji; niTO no^nae pa^nTH^, OH;i,a caMO pe^e: 
EocHce noMosu, a ne Kpcin ce. TaKO h Ka;i; xofee ji;a ce 
Hannje Bo;i,e, Ka^ 3HjeBHe h Kaji, y3;i;axHe, OH;i,a pe^e: 
Eoowe MUAOcmueu, mu noMOSu hjih : Miiea Eoiopodime. mu 
noMosu! A Kaji; yrosapa niTO ji;a pa;i,H hjih ;i,a n^e Kyjija, 
OH;i;a pe^e: Ano Eoi da hjih Ako Eoi da sdpasjbe! 


Hapoji;Ha npnnoBeTKa. 

^HBejia ;i,Ba 6paTa y ^Ba ce.ia; je^an 6oraT, a ji;pyrH 
capoMax. y 6oraTora ;i;o^e 6jiar ;i;aH, a cnponax My not/e 
y rocTe. ^onxaBmn pe^e My: «y Te6e, 6paTe, ji;aHac 6jiar 
^an, xotiem jih Me no^acTHTH bhhom?» «Xoliy, KaKO ne 
6hx, o;i,roBopH 6oraTH, exo y TecTHjaMa, na ce nanaj 
KOJiHKO xoiieni!» A y TecrajaMa 6Hjia je BO^a; e 6paT 
nocjiyma, Te ce nannje. Ilo^e Haipar KytiH, h CTane ne- 

Formation of Servian Words. 203 

BETH, a yHHHH My ce ;i,a join neKO nesa c h>hm. YrmTa 
KO TO nesa, a neKO ojtroBopn : «Ja!» «A ko ch tm?» «Ja, 
oji;roBopH, ja caM HeBO^a». «lla Kyji;a iieni?» «C to6om 
caM nomjia, oji;roBopH>^ «KaK0 ca mhom?> «C to6om ja 
6e3 npecTaHKa H;i;eM.» «A Ky;i;a en npHCTa.ia ca mhom, 
ja can cnpoMax, na hy ynpeTH ^ihm ;i,ot^eM Kytiii.^ «E[ ja 
hy c To6oM.» Eaji; ji;o^e Kytn, oh oiMax Ha^HHH canjtyK, 
H noBH^e: «0 neBO^o, eso .lesn y caH;i:yK». Ha je no 
TOM samiTa: «HeBO^o, jecn jih jierjia y caHj!;yK?» «Je- 
caM, eBO Me», o/i,roBopn ona. II oh je nonece na rpo6^e, 
saKona je, n o;i, to Ao6a ce no^ne o6oratiaBaTH. BoraTn 
6paT casna sa to h nosaBn^n My. «IIlTa je to caji;, ynnTa 
: OH, OTKyji, ce TH o6oraTn?» — «Ceiiani jik ce, o;i,roBopH, 
KSLji, caM 6ho KOji; Te6e na rosdn, Ka;i; oho Me th noHyji,n 
Bo;i;OM, Te ce nannx. Ja ce oa one Bo;i;e onnjeM, m no- 
maBHiH KyiiH, CTaneM noBaTH. Ka;i; CTaneM ocjiyniKHBaTn, 
a OHO jom neKO ca mhom neBa h npnneBa mh. YnnTaM 
ja: Ko TO ca mhom neBa? Hoko o;i;roBopH: Ja! A ko ch 
TH? Ja caM HeBO^a». Onj^a ra 6oraTH ynnTa: «na Ky^i, 
je ;i;eHy?» «MeTHyo caM je y rpo6 h 3aKonao». BoraTora 
o6y3Me saBHCT, Te no^e na rpo6jBe, OTKona rpo6 neBO- 
JBHH, H 30BHe je. «Ebo Me, je;i;Ba caM :KnBa», oji,roBopn 
ona. A OH joj pew: «Xajji,'MO k 6paTy; cas ce o6ora- 
THO». A ona my o;i,roBopH: «HeMOj, nero ;i;a no^eMO k 
Te6H; c H>HMe caM ce ;i,ocTa HaMyqHjia». 11 no^e c ohhm 
6oraTnM. A onaj hito je neBOJby saKonao, h caA Jieno 
;khbh y cpeLn CBOJoj. 

CpncKM ManacTHpH, 

no^eiaK onnca, nncaH 1820. rojiiHue oji B. Cm. Eapayu^a. 

I. HuKOJba (c.iaBH cb. HnKOJiy JbeTHora, 9. Maja), y 
HaxHjn Pyji;HnqKOj, na .injeBOM 6pnjery Mopase noji; Ka- 
6jiapoM H OB^apoM, oeo Tpn caTa ojs; ^a^Ka y3 MopaBy 
nnytiH. OBaj je ManacTnp y HencKasaHOj BpjieTH n Tjec- 
Ko6n: o^OByji; ce Haji,HHJejie na^ aera CTHjene Ka6jiapcKe, 
a o;i;oHy;i;, h3 npoKO Mopane, OB^apcKe; a n oji; 03ao, 
norjie;i;aBmH hh3 MopaBv, TaKO cy ce CTHjene obhx ABHJy 
n^iannna CKJioniiJie, ji;a ce nninTa ne Bnji;H ji,o npe;i; co6om 
Mopasa, y Kojy ce c ;i.HBaHaHe MOJKe njBynyTH, a naoKOJio 
CTHjene (nerjije rojie, a noHajBnnie oopacjie MajiOM myMOM), 
H rope He6o, na KOMe ce cyHi];e TeK oko no^ne je^sa 

204 Lesson 20. 

jiOKaByje. Oo;i;o ce y3 MopaBv trko TiijecHiiM ii CTpaiiiHHM 
nyxeM Mopa Aotiii, ;i,a ^lOBjeK, kojh ce y paBEii po^no h 
yapacTao, Mopa ^ecTO CMpT norjre;i,aTH ; na neKEM MjecTHMa 
caMO ^a ^lOBjeK nocpne, na ;i,a ce Majio OTMcne c nyxaibe, 
He 6h My HH KOCT c KOiiihy ;i.o MopaBe ;i,oinjia: a ys 
MopaBy je jom rope, saniTO ce npeKO cxpane hjik, ynpaBO 
peliH, npeKO KaivieaaKa caMO njemnn^e n^e, a c KOiLen ce 
ApyK^Hje He Mo;Ke ao ys MopaBy, Ka;i; je Bo;i,a Majia, nao 
niTO caM M ja npomao. 

He 3Ha ce ^Hja je 3aji.yiK6HHa, n no npnnoBEje;i,aH>y 
HHKa;i; ce y ibojsn nnje saxpa racnjia (t. j. nnje 6HBaja 
nycTa), h y CTapa BpeMena ^KHBjejio je y Bojsii oko mjm- 
cma Kajiyt^epa; a ca^ mx nena ao caMO ji;BOJHu;a (HeoBHT, 
poAOM H3 CjeflHU,e, h MejiOHTHJe h3 cejia ^yqejroBntia h3 
^para^eBa) h apxHMaH;i,pHT, Xai^n-ATaHacHje, TpeiiH. IIpeM- 
;i,a je HHKaKaB 3y.iyM mije najino, ajiH je ;iBanyT ropjejra 
HexoTHu;e: npBH nyT Kamy a^- je t^ane HOKaKBO 3anajiHJio; 
a M3a Tora niTO je 6Mjia ocTajia je;i,Ha cTpana, 3anajiHjro 
ce HeKaixO neKaji, yo^H Boajiitia, Ka;i; cy apa^jiHje 6HJie na 
KOHaKy; n caji; CTOje 3H;i,HHe oji; CTapnx bejiHja. U^pKBima 
je Majra, 6e3 Ky6eTa. IIpeA XaijH-ATanacHjeM Kamy ji;a je 
6ho apxHMaH;i:pHT XaijH-T>opl)iije, kojh je h3 ManacTnpa 
J^o6piijroBHHe yTeKao oji; 3yjiyMa TypaKa Ko.ianiHHan;a, h 
jom ca HeTHpH Kajiyi^epa ^^ocejiHO ce y HsKOJby h ji,ohmo 


HHKOJba HMa 3a yacHTaK CBOj HeKo:mKO cejia Hypnje, 
H HHiKe ManacTHpa neniTO Majro niJbHBa, h c ony CTpany 
MopaBe 3eMJbe h oneT neniTO nuBusa ii BnHorpa;i.a, 
a oco6hto caji; joj je CBHjeT.TiH h ^ecTHTH Knes h Tocno- 
jiap Mnjiom 06peH0BMti Kynso h hokjiohho je^ny BO^e- 
HHU,y, M oko H>e jiHJeno nap^e 3eMJbe, ;i;o.i>e no^ cejiOM 

II. Tpojuua, HaKpaj OB^apa {vjije ce Bet no^nae 
n.iaHHHa CuKHpa) noji: caMHM BpxoM, jinjen ManacTHp, h 
Ha npHJiH^ny MjecTy na bhchhh. 0;i; ManacTHpa ao Mo- 
paBe HMa BejHKa CTpana, a oji; 03ro je npnnpo OB^ap; 
a OKO ManacTHpa HMa Boha, oco6hto ja6yKa, h npeji; Ma- 
HacTHpoM jHjena Bo;i;a 3a nnhe. I],pKBa je c Ky6eT0M, h 
TBpt^a je OA 6.iaroBjemTeHCKe, ho nnje MOJiOBana, nero 
ce eh;i;h KaMeae h H3HyTpa, a.iH je oji, cnre cpe3aH0 Bpjo 
jiHJeno, Kao oji, cnpa, oco6e:to H3HyTpa. Tiejinja HMa c 
;i,0H>y CTpany /T;ocTa (oko ^ecex co6a), h ochm no^^pyMa 

Formation of Servian Words. 205 

HMajy ji,B2i KaTa; a h ochm Tora pe;i,a HMajy jom ;i,BHje 
BejHKe Kvtie, ajm cy o6aTajbe!ie ii roTOBe nacTH. 

He 3Ha ce ^mja je 3aAy^6HHa h Ka,ii, je 3H;i,aHa. Eo 
mmBeHOM 3H;i;y peKao 6h tobge a^ HHje ;i;aBHO 3Hji,aHo; 
roBopn ce ;i;a cy je 3Hji;ajiH Kajryj^epn h3 CpexeHiija, Te 
HM je OBO 6ho Kao ^rtjijk, Ka./iyl^epa y obom ManacTHpy 
caji; HeMa HHJe;i;Hora, Hero y aeny a^PiBe ;i;Ba nona (oTaii; 
H chh) ca ^icenaMa M c ji,jeii;oM (h Ka^i, ja Ti,ojra3Hx, ne 6jenie 
HH je^Hora ko;i; ManacTHpa, Hero OTHin.JiH y nypnjy ;i;a 
oSiijajy HeKaKe KyKypy3e). 

III. Cpememtje, MajiH ManacTHpHh, na JiHJeny MjecTy 
y je^HOMe ;i;o.iy yBpx Os^apa npena Typ^HHOBi];y m Cse- 
TOj Bo;i;h. Bani npeji; ManacTiipoM H3BHpe JiHJena BO/T;a 3a 
nntie. Enme ManacTiipa, noA caMHM BpxoM Ofi^apa, HMa 
jejuna ji;o.iiiiHa Koje ce 30Be Mcua Kopoua, a same Te ao- 
jiHHe je;i;aH saTaBanaE, na KOMe nna n MajiH H3Bop, sose 
ce BeMina Eopoua: a Hcno;i; ae 30Be ce KopyncKu JI^o. 
IIpnnoBHJe/i,a ce ;iia cy y cxapa Bpenena, Kaji; cy OBaj Ma- 
HacTHp Hajnpnje XTjejEH rpa^HTii, 6ai];ajH Kpymj y He6o, 
jj;a r.iieji,ajy Ha kom he ce MJecTy ycTasHTH, na 0H;i;je ^a 
rpa;i,e H;pKBy; h oa Tora ocTajio HMe Eopoua. 

Kaji; je OBaj ManacTHp Hajnpnje rpa^en, He 3Ha ce; 
6ho je nycT o;i,aBHO, na ra caji; (1818) hohobho onaj hcth 
Hhkh(|)op (poji,OM H3 yjEH^Ee HaxHje, e3 cejia JeHceBHi];e), 
KOJH je h IIpeo6paaceHHje hohobho; oh je OB;i,je Ha^HHHO 
Majiy n;pKBHHiy ii je^ny KytiHi];y, rAje ^hbh oh h ;]i,BOje 
i}a^aji;H; a CTapa je H;pKBa 6Kjia BejHKa h naoKOJio CBy^i; 
orpal^ena tejEHjaivia, oji; kojhx ce 3HAHHe h caji; 3Haji:y, 
Kao H TeMejB o;i, n;pKBe. IIpHnoBHjeji;a ce ^a ce h3 OBora 
ManacTHpa, Kao 113 rpa^a, ;i;yro oji; Tamapa, Ka;i; 
€y H Typ^HHOBan; 6¥.jm\ na hohito je y3eT Typ^HHOBan;, 
OH;i;a cy h obhm ManacTHpoM 3aBjia;i;ajiH, 11 onaKO JbyxH 
nonajiEjiH ra h pasBajiHJiH. — II OBjije ce caji; jivhbh KaKO 
roi) H y npeoSpa^KOHHjy: hhth sMa KaKe ctoko, hii ny- 
piije, hjih ;i;pyre 3eMJBe, ochm hito je OBaj npaBH Kajiy- 
i^ep H Ji>y6HTeJb OTa^ancTBa CBora OKp^no cbojhm pyKana 
Majio OKO ManacTHpa, Te no;i; MOTHKy cnje noMajio KyEy- 
py3a H noBptia KOjeEaEa; a Meco ce hh OB;i;je ne je^e 

IV. Caetmau, y HaxHJH Py^HH^EOJ, na jiHjeBOM 6pH- 
jery pnjeEe /^s^HHe, 6jiH3y n^iaHEHe Poacaa, na po- 
MaHTH^iHOM MjecTy, HpeEpacHa HOBa n;pEBa, Kojy je OBe 

206 Lesson 20. 

rojTime (1820) npBH nyT casH^ao cbhjgt.ih h ^gcthth 
Itnes, rocno;i;ai) Mu.iom Oopenoeufi H osa ii,pKBa nna 
Ky6e, H cBa je oa KaMena cpesana KaKO roi) ;i,a je o;i, 
CMpa. Bam npeji; upkbom, iipeKO CBe ^n^nne, HMa jejiHa 
CTHjeHa, npeKO Koje BO^a npexje^e, a OHa na MHoro Mje- 
CTa ocTaje cyBa BHme Bo;i;e; n na :nijeBOj CTpaHH (o;i; uip- 
KBe) y /^H^HHH H3 Te CTHJeHe M3BHpe HiJBop CaeuuaK, h 
TaKO H36Hja KJby^, ;i,a 6h Mooa Ma.ia BOji;eHEHHii,a MJbexn. 
A no OHOM KaMeiLy, no bo;i;h, cxoje pyne (r;i,jeKOje) Kao 
CTone HOBje^Hje n pasjE^nnx ;i.pyriix mHBOTHH,a. H Jby;i,H: 
OHAamibH npHnoBHje;i;ajy ^a je OHy;i.a nniao cBexH CaBO 
(na My ce n caji; CTone 3Ha;i,y), h ony Bo;i,y cbojom ^y^o- 

TBOpHOM lETaKOM H3 KaMBHa H3Be0. H 3aT0 CBaKG Mjia^e 

Heji;jejbe ;i;oja3H na xy Bo;i,y h3 okojihhx cejia mhohixbo 
Eapoji,a, oco6hxo acena h ji,jeBojaKa, xe ce yMHBajy h najy 
BOAy; Kaaty ;i,a mhofh 6ai];ajy n nape y onaj H3Bop. 

Xobe JiH CaBHHau; 6hxh Kajiyl^epcKH Manacxnp hjih 
caMO nonoBCKa uipKBa, xo ce jom ne 3Ha; jrann ;i;pyrn 
napoAHH nocjroBH nnjecy AonycxnjiH ;i,a ce xo o;i;pe;i;H h 
CBpniH, Hero cy cano 3a caji, o^tpei^enn CBenixeHHn;H, xe 
y aeMy He;i;jejbOM h o npasHMUiHMa cjiy^Ke jiexypt^njy, n 
napoji;, kojh h onaKO BO^e paji;H ji,ojra3H, mojih ce Bory. 
FoBopeno je h xo a^ t^e ce na CaBHnau; npeMjecxHxn ca- 
ji,aniH>a BpycHHn;a n nacejinxn ce Bapom, samxo je Bpyc- 
HHn,a Bpjio y xjecKo6H h na He3ro/i,Hy Mjecxy 3a Bapom. 

Samples of Servian Poetry, 

1. Marko Kraljevic i soko. 

Rasbolje se Kraljevicu Marko 

Pokraj puta, druma junackoga, 

Vise glave koplje udario, 

A za koplje Sarca privezao, 

Jos govori Kraljevicu Marko: 

«Ko bi mene vode napojio, 

«Ko li bi mi hladak ucinio, 

«Taj bi dusi mjesto uhvatio.» 

Tu dopade soko tica siva, 

U kljunu mu vode donosio, 

Pa je Marka vode napojio; 

Nad Markom je krila raskrilio, 

Pa je Marku hladak nacinio. 

Jos govori Kraljevicu Marko: 

«0 sokole, siva tico mojal 

«Kakvo sam ti dobro ucinio, 

«Kad si mene vode napojio, 

«I kad si mi hladak nacinio ?» 

Soko tica odgovara Marku: 

«Ne budali, Kraljevicu Marko, 

«Kad 'no bjesmo na Kosovu bojnom, 

«Teski bojak mi s Turci trpljesmo, 

«Onda Turci mene uhvatise, 

«Oba moja krila odsekose; 

«Ti si mene uhvatio Marko, 

«Metnuo me na jelu zelenu, 

«Da me turski konji ne pregaze, 

«Nahranio i napojio me; 

«Tad si meni dobro ucinio. » 

Srpska narodna pjesma. 

208 Samples of Serviaa Poetry. 

2. KocoBCKii 6oj. 

Ka/i; y jyTpy ;i;aHaK ocBanyo, 
"^y/i;Ha rpaja y no^By Kocosy; 
06a,T;Be ce Hapel^yjy Bojci-ce, 
C o6e CTpane sajiehy BiiTesn : 
Ha EocoBO y;];apHme Typiui. 

Mane BOJCKy BorTi;aH Jy:}Ke CTapn, 
C /i,eBeT CHHa, ;!;eBeT JyroBnlia, 
KaKO ;];eBeT chbhx coKOJiOBa, 
y CBaEor je /i;eBeT xH^^a/i;' BOJCKe^ 
A y Jyra ;i;BaHaecT XH.La/i;a. 
Ha ce 6Hnie n ceKOine c Typn;ii; 
Ceii;aM naina 6iime h yoiime. 
Ea/i; ocMora 611T11 sanonenie, 
Aji' norH6e Bor;i;aH Jy^^e CTapK, 
II H3rn6e ji^eBOT JyroBiiha, 
EaKO /T^eseT ciibhx coKOJiOBa, 
H KbHxosa CBa nsmSe BOJCKa. 

MaKOin' BOJCKy Tpn MpibaB^eBnlia, 
Ban yr^enia h BOJBO/i,a roJKO 
H ca EbHMa ByKaniHHe Kpa^e, 
3^ CBaieora Tpii'ecT xn^a/i;' BOJCKe, 
Ha ce 6Hine h ceKonie c Typii;H : 
OcaM naina 6iinie h y6Hnie, 
Jl^eBeTora 6HTn sano^ieme^ 
norH6oiiie ;i,Ba MpEbaB^eBiiha, 
Ban Yr^Lenia 11 BOJBO/i;a roJKO, 
ByKaniHK je rp/];HHX pana ;i,on'o, 
Ifcera Typrs;!! c KOH>Ma nperasiiine. 
H Ebiixosa CBa nsriioe BOJCKa. 

Mane BOJCKy xepii;e^e CTJenane, 
y xepi3;era Miiora CHJina BOJCKa, 
Mnora BOJCKa niesfleceT xii^a;i;a, 
Te ce 6iime h ceKonie c Typii;H : 
^eBeT naiua 6nnie h y8Hnie, 
/[eceTera 6hth sanonenie, 
Aji' norH6e xepi];e5Ke CTJenane^ 
H iteroBa CBa H3rii6e BojcKa. 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 209 

Mane BOJCKy cpncKH khgs JIasape, 
y JIase je chjihh Cp6avi> 6ho, 
Ce/i;aM;i;eceT h ce;i;aM xH^a/i,a, 
Ila pasroHe no KocoBy TypKe, 
He A^AY c^ HH rjie;i,aTH TypKOM, 
Jl^a KaMO jiH 6ojaK 6hth c TypnH; 
Ta/i; OH JIasa Ha/i,Bjia;i;ao TypKe. 

Aji' Tjs^e cpelia, Ty je h necpeha, 
Bor yGiio ByKa BpanKOBHha, 
Oh H3/r,a;i,e TacTa na KocoBy, 
H o;i,Be;i,e ftBaHaecT XH.^a/i,a, 
Bpaho Moja, ^yTor oKJionnnKa. 
HpoKJieT 6ho h ko ra po/i,HO, 
IIpoKJieTO my nJiene h Ka^tenol 

Ta;i;a Jlasy Ha;];Bj[aflanie TypnH 
H nornSe cpncKH Knes JIasape, 
B[ H>eroBa CBa H3rH6e BOJcKa 
Ce;i;aM/i,eceT h ce;i;aM xH^a/i,a! 
Cbc je CBeTO h necTaTO 6hjio, 
H MHJiOMe Bory npncTynanHO. 

Cpnaca najpodna njecma, 

3. Putnik na uranku. 

Tama dolom, tama gorom, 
Naokolo sve pociva, 
Samo voda sa zuborom 
Sa kamena sto se sliva, 

Samo sto se kasto petli, 
Samo klepka sto se cuje, 
Samo s' onde malko svetli, 
Jer se danak priblizuje. 

Bela zora vec je tuna, 
Joste putnik jedan — glajl 
Pored stene, pored zbuna 
Na vrletni stize kraj. 

Kako stize, sunce granu, 
Svetli s' gora i dolina, 
A putniku dusa planu, 
Pa zaklikta od milina: 

Servian grammar. 14 

210 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

«0j sunasce, sto razgonis 
Puste noci silne tame, 
Oj ti, nebo, sto 'no ronis 
Rosne svoje suze na me, 

Oj ti goro, sto 'no gajis 
Mile pesme, mile tice, 
Oj livado, sto se sjajis 
Puna rose i travice, — 

Doljo, stado, janjci dragi, 
Vrulo, cvece mirisavo, 
Mili vetre, vetre blagi, 
Oj izvore, zdravo, zdrayo!» 

Branlio Badicevic, 

4. Myiiia. 

IIIyMa, TO je 6amTa, r;i;e ^OBC^ja pyKa 
Hiije nocai];Hjia HHJe;i;Hora CTpyKa, 
Vji^e no HeKOM pe/i;y, Kojii mii ho snaMO, 
Cbo je HaMeniTeHO, niTO ro/i,e rjie;!;aMO. 

Una HeKii saKon — CBOJeBO.^be HKJe — 
niTO ce OKaj 6pin/Lapi oko cTa6jia bhjb, 
IIIto ce ona rpana npy:}KHjia OBaKO, 
IIIto ce OHa naBHT npeBHjia onaKO. 

OBaj xpacT BCJiHKii Ty je Mopo hhIiii, 
He /i;pyK^e, Beti TaKO Mopo c' rope j^mhii; 
HHJe;i;Ha rpaH^Hii;a, ikto na lieaiy CTOJe 
He CMe flpyK^a 611T11, tiero oho ihto je 

Ona CTpMCH, niTO ce y jj^ojiukj pomi, 
Pjiac Majior cJiaByja, ihto Kpos inyny sbohii, 
Ona jinna niTO ce no^ejia ji^a cyniii, 
Onaj noTOK uito ce onaKO neHyinii, — 

To cbo HMa yspoK 11 npaBiijia HOKa, 
H MpaB, fl^R Kopa^ii, Ha sanoBOCT ^leKa. 
HMa uenu sanon, nojii sanoeeda, 
fl^a ce ipoM u mpynna dpMe ceoia peda, 

JBy6oMiip U. HenadoenK, 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 211 

5. Hot. 

PyJHa 3opa jecTe Jiena, 
A ;i;aHaK je pa/i;ocT npasa, 
H Be^iep je TaKO MHJia, 
Hohy Ba^a — /i;a ce cnaBa. 

Aji' aKO ce Ka/i^ro;]; 113 cna 
Th npo6y/i;Hi[i, c o;i;pa ckohh, 
Ila norjie/i;ai Kpoa nposope 
J^HBHy cjiHKy MHpne Hohir. 

Th norjie/i;aj hiiJiHM onaj, 
EiiM Hac Hohy Bor noKpiiBa, 
YMopena Tejia j^jma, 
^a niTO cjial^H canaK CHHBa. 

Harjie/i;aj ce Te MHjiHHe, 
Ila ce /i;hbh BHiniBOJ moIih: 
Bory 3ope h Be^iepH, 
Bory /i,aHa, Bory hoIih. 

Joe an JoeanoeiiK Smuj. 

6. 3Be3;i,a. 

Hoh je Be;i;pa, 6jiara, 
BjieflH Mecen; cja, 


BacHOHa csa. 

H SBesji^Ku^e MHJie 

Pacnnajy 3paK . . . 
CaMO je/i,Ha Tpenny, 

Ila je noKpn MpaK. 

"^HJa 6eme 3Be3/i,a? 

Bor je;];HHH 3HaI 
CnoKOJHa je, Mnpna 

BaCHOHa CBa. Bojucme HmK. 

7. CseTOMe CaBH. 

OcTaBHO 6a6oB sanaK 
H Bap^HBe /i,BopcKe cjaje, 
OTHinao c ;i,yxoBHHi],H 
y HesHane, Tyl^e Kpaje. 


212 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

Ha aTOircKOJ hciiochiiu;!! 


IIpoBo;i,iio /i,anc ;i,yre 


Cpij;e TH je 3a po;i; 611J10, 
Hhctotom ch Bepe cjao, 
Mhjiom po/i,y II rocrio/i,y 
Ha cjiy:jK6y ch ce6e ;i,ao. 
Me^y 6paliy yTyjiiio 
flCecTOK njiaMGH 6op6e Jinnne, 


H meMCJbe nenoMH^iHe. 

OTpoK, ce6ap h BJiacTejiHH 
Ilpe/i, T060M cy 6iiJin pasHH, 
Cbh njianoBH je/i;Hor TCJia 
Hepasjiy^HH, nynonpaBKH. 
Bece/];aMa tbojhm, o^ie, 
TpenTajia je CBera jKniia, 
Ax^ niTO CTapa, xjia/],Ha iie 3Ha, 
^a HX TBOJoj /i,ei],ii npn^a. 

Oko ce6e CKyn^ao cii 
^e^y Majiy, cpncKy na^y, 


Chtho] kh>h3h, CBeTOM pa;i;y; 
Gejao CH tg itHBHi];e 
Je/i;pHM 3pH0M Bo:scJHx cjiOBa, 
A ;KeTBy ch nnmeKHBO 
0/1, Bomjera 6jiarocjiOBa. 

Hay^H H Hac cjia6e, 
y3op-Cp6e, CBG^e Bpjin, 


BpniHT' noco neyMpjin; 
0/i,pHri,aT' ce TaniTiix iiacTH, 
EpcT TepcTa chocht' bo^lho, 
A y rpy/i,'Ma Ba3/],a hocht' 
Cpue micmo, sadodOJbuo, . / 

MuAo^pad TI, lUanHanun. 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 213 

8, 3h]jicko jyTpo. 

Jyrpo je. OniTap ivipas cnajiHO sejieno Jincje, 
A TanaK h 6eo cner noKpno no.La h paBHH, 
H cmiCKH, TpmnaHH KpoB. y /i;a.i>H ry6e ce 6pe3H 
H Kpyme BH/i;oKpyr TaBHH. 

y cejiy BJiaTi;a Mnp. Join hhko ycTao HHJe, 
A 6y/i;aH neTao Beh, ^khbocho jiynHyBniH KpimoM, 
IIo3/i,paB^a 3HMCKH ;i;aH — h SByxiHHM peMCTH rjiacoM 
Taj MHp, y Tiacy mhjiom. 

Hji' KaTKa/i; caMO tge 3Biim/i;aH>e jacHO ce ^yje, 
H TG^aK, npoMyKO rjiac. To JiOBaii; npojia3H cejiOM 
H 6p30 MaMeh nee, norypen y no^e ^Kypn, 
IIoKpHBeH KonpenoM 6ejiOM. 

CBy;i;a je nycTOin h Miip. Hohna ce KaH/i;HJia race, — 
A CBemn, jyTapiBH /i,ax npojiehe ji^ojinjie Mnpne, 
H niyM ce pasjieme 6jiar, Ka/i; cbojhm CTy/i;eHHM KpiiJiOM 
y rojie rpaHTiHi];e ;i,HpHe . . . 

JBojiiCAae J. HjiujK. 

9. IlecMa paTapoBa. 

XaJTe bou;h mojh, 
nEnpoM no^e ctojh, 
O^eKyje njiyr; 
JTena 3eM^a ^eKa, 
A Hoh H3 /i;ajieKa 
06aBHJa jiyr! 

y He/i,ap]j;a 3eM.^e 
Mh 6ai];aM0 cone, 
IIpocHnaMO njio/i;; 
Ilpojiehe je 6:Taro, 
Ha HCKJiHJa jiaKO 
no3JiaheHH poii;. 

3eM^a MH je 6jiaro, 
Cse KaMeH>e /i;paro, 
niTa je npena Eboj ? 
Obo chtho :jkhto, 
IIIto ce H>Hnie bhto, 
To je HaKHT Moj ! 

214 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

H OHaj, lUTO pa;i;H, 
H Taj, niTO He pa/j,ii, 
norjie/i,yje ca/i,: 
Ha niHpoKO no^Le, 
Ha sejiene js^o.^e, 
Ha paTapoB pa/i;. 

XaJTe, boi];h mojh, 
niiipoM no^e CTOJH, 
JoniTe Majio, xoj 1 
Jlena seM^a ^eKa, 

Oj ropHi];e sejiena, 
Oj CTy/i,eHO Bpejio, 
XpaHHTe MH, noJHTe 
Moje CTa/1,0 6ejio ! 

MiiAopad n. UlanuaHUH. 

10. Cjiasyj. 

Mnjia HaM je THi];a TaKa, 
HIto HaM necMOM Ayi^y ii>HJa, 
Mnjia HaM je THri,a CBaKa, 

— Aji' cjiaByjaK naJMnjinja. 

y Jiyry ce cJiaByj CKpnBa, 
Hs CBor jiyra /],a^e Hehe; 
y THniHHH paj ymHBa, 

— Oh ce HHKOM ne naMehe. 

HeBa ce6H, nesa Jiyry, 
IleBa 3opH, ;i;aHy, Hohn, 
Cbojoj rte^H, CBOMe Apyry, 

— Hpn^e^Kyje y caMohn 

Oh je BeheM neBaT' cbhko, 
Ha H He6o Ka/i; ce MyTH. 
He cjiynia Ji' My rjiaca hhko, 
CjiaByj 3aT0 ne sahyTH. 

necMHi],e My pa3/i;paryjy, 
An' H Tyra Kpo3 Hjhx jeri,a; 

— H OH BOJiH, Ka/i; ra nyjy 
Bhjio ^y^H, 6hjio flei];a. 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 215 

CTane ji' Koro;i;, na ra cjiyina, 
Opii My ce rjiac y cnarn, 
Ko j\a, MOJiH cpo/i,Ha ji^Y^na,: 
«IIeBaj H TH, 6paTe ;i;parHl» 

Joean JoeanoeuK 3Maj. 

11. JleTiiH ;i,aH. 

no;],He je nponijio. 
Ha ABopy 6H^e Mnpno, na Kao can /i;a CHHBa, 
IIoHeKa/i; caMO jiHinlieM hji' ii;BeTHHM KJiacoM Maxne. 
BeTap y spTy /i;peMa, caBKO KpiiJia jiaKa, 
na KaTKa/i; caMO ^lacKOM ko /i;a ce h3 cna npene, 
JlaraHHM /i;axoM cbojhm Kpos nycTO rpaibe nnpne, 

Te rpana rpany ji^inpue. 

CyHi];e npn^^^Hme. 
KoKoniKe cbg no/i; CTpexoM na seM^'ty y npax Jierjie, 
nHJiHhH OKO KBO^Ke hyhopc, KO }j,a inanhy, 
IIoHeKO caMO oji^e, le, :;siej\B.o, boji^q nnje, 
K-BO^iKa My THxo KBOi];He, ko ;i;a My HeniTO peKiie^ 
A neTO caMO nasii, KaKO ce jacTpe6 BHJe, — 

Bh;i;ii ce^ bgco HHJe. 

He6o ce MyTii. 
"BepaM ce y bhc Amvo, a KOBa hhcko najia, 
Ha 3H;i;y cen o/i; I?epMa, a Hbena qaK y TpaBii, 
y jiOKBy npace Jierjio, na KaTKa/i; caMO rpoKne, 
Ho 3H;i,y nj[aniwi>HB ryniTep onpesno, 6p30 xoii;a, 
A OKO HBcha JienTiip niapenn thxo jieTii, — 

Hac iLSiji^iie, "tiac o;];jieTH. 

Ha KpoBy Bpa6ai];. 
Hpe/i; KyhoM nceTO cnasa, na y cny yxoM Mp;i;He, 
y xjia/!;y nsa Kylie ;i,eBOJKa syny ^eni^i>a, 
Ha ceTHa, yMopna jiiLu^a,, caiBHBO rjiaBOM KJiHMa, 
Oko H>e Myxe 3yje, na HjOJ3h na hoc cjiehy, 
A Her/i,e y /i^a^nnn ^eKnli ce TcniKH ^yje, — 

To KOBa^i cpehy Kyje. 

BjiaduMup M. JoeanoeuK, 

216 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

12. KaKO ce Kpciio iDie cjymir. 

CBei],a cjiaBH cpnciai u;ap-CTenaiie, 
CBeii,a cjiaBii, CBCTor Apxanljejia, 
Cby rocno/i,y na CBeii,a casBao, 
CasBao je TpiiCTa cBeniTeHiiKa 
H /i,BaHaeCT BejiHimx BJia/i^HKa 
H ^eTHpn CTapa nponryM'iia. 
Jleno Hx je i];ape nocaji^RO, 
Cbg kojicho je;i;aH ji^o Ti;pyrora, 
A ri;ap CTenan xjia/i;HO biiho cjiyacn. 
rocno/i;apoM pe/i;0M ^lamy j^eLJe, 
EaKO i];apcKH Ba^ta h Tpe6yje 
nocjiy:acHTH KpCHO HMe CBOJe. 
Aji' 6ece;i;e rocno/i;a xpHnihancKa : 
«I^ap' ^ecTHTH, orpejajio cyHi];e! 
To je nana sasop h cpaMOTa, 
^a TH HaMa xjia/i;HO bhho cjiy^Knni^ 
Hero ce;i;H c HaMa sa Tpnesy, 
CjiyraM* no/i;aj, /i;a th bhho cjiy>Ke.» 
HpeBapn ce cpncKH n;ap CTenane, 
Te OH ce/i,e c H>HMa sa Tpnesy, 
A joni HHJe HH cjiase Hanno^ 
A sancTa hh MeTanHcao, 
CjiyraM' a^A^:* ft^ ^Y bhho cjiyace. 
He nocjiymn KpcHO hmo CBOJe 
Je;i;aH /i,aHaK, Kao je/i^an ^acaK. 
^OK H;ap CTenan na Hory CTajanie 
^ CTajanie My CBeTH Apxanl^eo, 
CTajame My na /i;ecHOM paMeny, 
Mnjiyje ra KpnjiOM no o6pa3y, 
Ea/i; H;ap CTenan ce;i;e sa Tpnesy, 
Pacp/i,H ce CBOTH Apxanl^eo, 
y/i,'pH n;apa KpnjiOM no o6pa3y, 
Ha OTH;i;e h3 n;apeBa /i;Bopa. 
To H3 ;i,Bopa hhko ne BH/i,eo, 
PasMa jefl^^B. Kajiyl)epe CTapn, 
Ha OH npojiH cyse hh3 o6pa3e. 
rjie/i;aj[H ra n;apeBa ftBopann, 
Ila cy ftCMy thxo 6ece/i,HJiH: 
«niTO je Te6pi, CTapn Kajiy^epe, 
niTa TH j' Majio y n,apeBy /i;Bopy? 

Hji' TH j' MaJIO H3eCT' HJl' nOHHTH, 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 217 

Hjih ch ce, CTapn, npenanyo, 
Il^ap TH Hehe MiiJiocTHH>e /i;aTH?» 
Aji' 6ece/i;H CTapii Kajiyl^epe : 
«npoI/Te Me ce, u;apeBH /],BopaHH, 
Hht' mh j' Ma^o HsecT* hh nonHTii, 
HiiTH can ce, CTapaii;, npenanyo, 
IIIto m' i];ap nelie MHJiocTHEbe s^th, 
Hero BH/i;ex, niTO BH/i,eo iiHcaM: 
^OK ii,ap CTenaH na Hory CTajame, 
CTajame My cbcth ApxaHf)eo, 
CTajame My na /i,ecHOM paMeny, 
Mnjiyje ra KpnjiOM no o6pa3y. 
Ea/i; ii;ap CTenan ce/i;e sa Tpnesy, 
Pacp;i,H ce CBeTH xlpxanljeo, 
y^'pn i];apa KpnjiOM no o6pa3y, 
Ha OTH;i,e 113 n;apeBa ;i;Bopa.» 
To /i;BopaHH i];apy /i,0Ka3auie, 
OH/i,a i];ape na nore ycTa/i;e 
H no/i;Hme TpncTa CBeniTennKa 
H /i;BaHaecT BejinKHX BJia;],HKa 
H ^CTiipn CTapa nponryM'na, 
Te yseme Kanre CTapocaTnne, 
H /i;p3Kame BejiHKa 6/i;eHiija 
3a Tpn /i,aHa n Tpn nohii TaBne. 
Mojie c* Bory h cbct' Apxanl^ejiy, 
Te ce na to je/i;Ba CMHJiOBao, 
CMHJiOBao CBCTH Apxanl^ejie, 
Te je ii,apy rpexe onpocTHO, 
IIIto je n;ape ceo 3a Tpne3y, 
A joui HHJe HH cjiaBe nanno, 
A sancTa hh MeTanncao. 

13. Soke i vrana. 

Lov lovio soko tica siva, 
Lov lovio, dok je ulovio, 
Pak je seo lovak blagovati 
U torn njega vrana obletala 
I najposle prema njemu stala, 

Pa othuknuv prozbori sokolu: 
«Ala ti se oba umorismo, 

218 Samples of Servian Poetr}^ 

Dok taj lovak sebi ulovismo!» 
Vrani soko odgovara kratko: 
A ti jedi, sto si ulovila!» 

Sima Milutinooic SarajUja, 

14. Tj]^e nepje, 

THii,e, Ka/i; H36pauie y BpeMena CTapa, 
Opjia iyna^Kora sa CBOra rjiaBapa, 
Je/i;aH ;i,aH o,n;pe/i;e, ;i;a ce cbg iiCKyne, 
no/],BopeH>eM CBOJiiM opjiy Ti,a npncTyne, 
^a noKa^Ky ce6e Ha ca6opy tomg 
C neBaH>eM h nepjen norjiaBapy cbomg. — 

Ea;i;a 6y/i;e Bpene, cbg thi];g jspjieTe, 
Csora ii;apa oipjia, o/i; CBy/i;a oSjigtg. 
Hy /i;a Buji^iim ^aBKy, j\a, 6h jiGnina 6HJia, 


^ojiGTG H CTa/i,G ycpG/i; npBor pGy3,a, 
IIoHOCH CG ORj\Si, CBaKH y liy rjiGfla. 

H opo JG rjiG/i;H, jighoth cg ;i,hbii, 
ysHJa CG ^aBKa Kao f)aBO schbh. 
Aji' Ka;i; thij,g 6o^g y iBy 3arjiG;i;aniG, 
Ha H>oj 0/i;Max CBOJa ncpa no3Ha/i,oniG : 
OH;i,a CBaKa cbojg ncpo nm^ynajia, 
IIocpaM.^GHa ^laBKa ii;pHa JG ocTajia. 
Ilpe lu nocjie Mopa ceanoM mano 6umu, 
Eo ce myi)iiM nepjem nao uasKa mimii. 

.^y6oMup II. IlenadoeuK. 

15. Tycjiapeea CMpT. 


Ha 3ana/i,y cyHij,G najio 
Ha KaMGHO ctghjg; 
Hajio, naK cg pacnpniTajio 
y p.-paro KaMGH>G. 

A no HG6y hg6poJhii;g 
3bg3/i;hi];g cg cjaJG, 
Eao Ha 3GM^H niTO TpcnGliy 
Cy3G Ty^HG paJG. 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 219 

C Kora paja cyse Jinje, 

TaKO 6e3 npecTanKa? 

C TonaiL-nanie, niTO y ca/i; Jiero, 

Aji' My HCMa caHKa. 

Cko^h nama, ^lejio rape, 
Bee My KH/i,a rpy/i;H: 
«HeMa 6ora, HeMa npaB;i,e^ 
Jhjji^ii ey He^y/i;H!» 

«npojiHO eaM Mope KpBH 
Te npoK:ieTe paje, — ■ 
Iloeej'o eaM y eBe Kpaje 
TopKe y3;i,Heaie.» 

«Ky;];-ro;]; npoI;eM, seM^a eTpenn, 

A paja eKanasa — 

Hh Moj /i;opo Bo;i;e nehe, 

Ka/i; HHJe E;pBaBa.» 

«Eho 6jiara ee/i;aM Kyjia^ 
Join je He6pojaHO, — 
y xapeMy nyno i];ypa, 
Aji' eaM hx ee MaH'o.» 

«He ro;i,H mh, ho npnja mh, 
IIpasHe ey mh rpy/i,H — 

CjiaBHO HMC, ;i;iI^HO HMO, 

3a THM Tonaji :icy/i,H.» 

«ryejie, ryejie! — Pajo! pajol — 
IIpoKJieTH aj;i,yi];H! — 
Sap /i;a c' Baine iimc ncBa, 
Bh noropeKH Byii;H!» 

«Mp3HM 6jiaro, MpsHM sjiaTO, 
Ta eBe mh je TaBHo; 
Tonaji-nama neeMy xohe, 
Xohe HMe ejiaBHO ! » 

«3ap Ta paja eaMO rniiyT' 
Sna o/i; Mora Mana? 
Sap TO po6^e nehe sjiaTa, — 
He fl^a, MH neBa^a?» 

220 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

TaKO nauia 6ecHH, pn^e, 
KH/i,ajy ra :ace^e . . . 
«Xa3ypajia, Typa/i,H30 

— CnpeMaJTe Beceyi>e!» 

«^OBe;i,'Te mh CTapij,a MiipKa — 
Sap join HHJe Tyna! 
J^OBe;i,'Te mh Tor rycjiapa — 
Ox! ji^a, /i,HBHHx CTpyHa!» 

«HeK Me neBa, hgk mg cjiaBH, 
CjiaBa je MMJinna ... 
Jy^ep caM My nory6iio 
CBa ^GTHpn CHiia.» 


Cjienai]; ce;i,H, rycjie flpmii, 
Ys rpy/i;H iix CTen^e! 
Typa;i;HJa neBa, KJinKhq^ 
Cbg ce pacTOjie^e. 

Typi];H nnjy, Tonaji nehe, 
Hsiji^KBifl, nexap 6ai],H! 
Majio nol^e, aji* My ;i;pxliy 

MaMGHII KOpail,!!. 

Cjienai], ce;i;H, rycjie flp^H, 
CysoM HX nojiHBa; 
Ce;i;a Koca ;i;ojie najia, 
Ha rycjie noKpnBa. 

«Hy/i;ep, hchho! — He, He TaKO, 
Beh CTapHHO ;i;para! 

— 5^ ^Hjoj cy pynH rycjie, 
y Tora je CHara.» 

«KaKBa CHara, ^ayp KJieTii ... 
O/i; Ky/i, H>eMy cnare! — 
He — He cjiyniaj — neBaj CTap^e. 
O/i; BO^e TH ;i;pare!» 

HeBaj /i;ejia Tonaji-naine, 
HMe My yKpacH; 
Ocjia/i,H My ropKH :?khbot 
O/i; CMpTH ra cnacH!» 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 221 

«^aj, ;i,a ^yjeM, KaKO c' nesa 
Moja BejiiinHHa, — 


Csa ^eTiipn CHHa.» 

««nycTHheni iix?!»» — KJiiiKHy CTapau;. 
«Xohy, me^o ;i;para, 
H ;i,ahy th cpe6pa, sjiaTa, 
He6pojeHa 6jiara.» 

Tycjiap hyTH, rycjiap 6jie/i,ii, 
— Ox, p^a, ropKHX MyKa! 
J^nme rycjie h ry;],ajio, 
Aji' My /i,pxhe pyica. 

«neBai, CTap^e, ox, Ta neBaj, 
Ja ce cjiaBHT' MopaM! 
Hji' sap He snani, niTa Te ^leKa, 
Ako ch ynopaH»; 

«TBOJy cpehy, TBOJy Ha/i,y, 


IIojiOMHhy, noKOCnhy 
Kao TiGTHp Kpiina.» 

YsApxTa ce cjienaii; cxapn, 
XTe/i,e j\a, sary/i^i, — 
Aji' My npBa, My^iHa, TeniKa, 
3acTa/i;e y rpy/],H. 

Cyse Kan-ty, rycjie KBace, 
A rycjiap nocpny — 
Tpecny rycjie, pacnpniTa hx 
3eM.i>Hri,y npiiy. 

««y6oJHii;o, noTypHi];o, 
Il3;i;aJHi};o KneTn! 
J^HH-/i,yniMaHe po;i,a CBora! 
KpBaBa aBeTH!»» 

««noi[OMH MH cpehy Mojy, 
IIoKOCH MH Ha/i,y, 
Ajih rycjie — cpncKe rycJie 
JIaraTH ne 3Ha;],y . . .»» 

222 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

To nspe^e — bhuig Hehe — 
KjiOHy, na nocpny: 
MpTaB na;i,e Kpaj rycajia 
Ha 3eM^Hii,y u;pny. 

II^HKHy nama. — Aji' My c jiHi];a 
HecTame o6jiaii,H: 
Jl^ecHy pyKy k ^ejiy ji^am^e — 
KpcT Ha ce6e 6ai];H. 

Ejie^e nope;]; npTBa CTapij;a, 
^a rycjie no./i>y6H — 
Je;i;HO Type ca6^0M Maxny, 
PjiaBy My o;i,py6n. 

Bajiaji;a Smcij Joeaua Joeauoeufia. 

16. H3 „ropcKOr BHJeHna^^ 

HiyMan Cme^an. 

Ja caM nponia' cpito h peuieTO, 

OBaj rp/i,HH CBHJeT HcnnTao, 

OTpoBH My Tianiy HCKanno, 

IIosHao ce c rpKiijeM mnBOTOM — 

CBe niTO 6HBa h ieto Mome 6htii, 

MeHH HHiETa HPije HenosnaTo! 

IIIto to]\ pfiije, ja caM My nape/j^an. 

3jia no/i; He6oM niTO cy CBaKo:iiHKa, 

"'^OBJeKy cy nphiija na seM^y. 

Th ch MJia/i; jouit h HeBJeniT, Bj[aTi,HKo! 

HpBe Kan^e h3 ^lanie OTpoBH 

Hajrpiie cy h HajynopHHJe. 

0, /i;a 3Ha/i,eni, iuto Te joniTe ^leKa! 

Cbjct je OBaj Tnpan TnpaHHHy, 

A KaMO jiH AyniH 6jiaropo;i;HOJ' 

Oh je cacTaB naKJiene necjiore: 

yH> paTyje AY^^ ^^ thjchom, 

yH> paTyje Mope c 6peroBHMa, 

Yh) paTyje SHMa h Tonjinna, 

yH> paTyjy BJeTpn c BJeTpoBHMa, 

yH> paTyje mHBHHa c ^hchbhhoM;, 

yib paTyje napo/i; ca Hapo;i;oM, 

yH> paTyje ^^OBJeK ca ^lOBJeKOM, 

yH> paTyjy ^neBH ca HohnMa, 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 223 

Yib paTyjy aY^h c He6ecHMa; 
TjeJio CTGEbe no/i; ciijiom /i;ymeBHOM, 
KojieSa ce /i;yiua y THJejiy; 
Mope CTeiLe no/i; chjiom He6ecH0M, 
Eojie6.Ly ce y Mopy He6eca; 
BojiHa BOJiHy ymacHO noniipe, 
6pHJer ce jiOMe o6o;i;BHJe. — 
Hhko cpehaH, a hhko ;i;0B0^aH, 
Hhko MHpaH, a hhko cnoKojan, — 
CBe ce ^OBJeK 6pyKa ca ^OBJeKOM — 
rjie;i,a MaJMyn ce6e y 3pii;ajio. 

Tlemap UempoeuK-JByeiom, 

17. Kpa^eBHt MapKO h BHJia PaBHJojjia. 

IIoje3;i;Hnie /i,o ;i;Ba noSpaTHMa 
IIpeKO KpacHe Mnpona njieHnne, 
Ta je;i;HO je Epa^LeBnhy MapKO^ 
A APyro je B03Bo;i,a Mmioniy! 
Hanope/i;o jesji^e /i;o6pe K0H>e, 
Hanope/i;o Hoce Kon^Ba 6oJHa, 
Je/i;aH ;i,pyroM 6jejio jinu^e ^y6ii 
Oji^ MHJioniTe ;i;o ;i;Ba no6paTHMa; 
IlaKe MapKO na inapri;y 3a/i;peMa, 
IlaK 6ece;];H no6paTHMy CBOMe: 
«A Moj 6paTe BOJBO]];a Mnjiomy! 
TeniKO Me je canaK o6pBao, 
IleBaj 6paTe Te Me pa3roBapaj!» 
Aji' 6ece/i;H BOJBO/i;a Mmioniy; 
«A MOJ 6paTe, Epa^eBiihy MapKO ! 
Ja 6h Te6e, 6paTe, noneBao 
Aji' caM CHHoh MHoro nno bhho 


IlaK je MCHe 3anpeTHJia BHJia, 
Ako MCHe Tiyje j\a, noneBaM, 
Xohe MCHe ona ycTpejiHTH 
H y rpjio H y cpn;e mHBO.» 
Aji' 6ece/i;H Epa^eBnhy MapKo: 
«neBaj, 6paTe, th ce ne 6oj BHJie 
JI^OK je MCHe Epa^CBHha MapKa 
H MO j era BH/i;OBHTa ]IIapi];a 
H Mojera niecTonepa 3JiaTHa!» 
OH;i,a Mnjioni no^ie /i;a noncBa, 

224 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

A Kpaciiy ]*e necMy sano^eo, 
0/1, CBH naiUH 6o^H ii CTapiijii 
KaKO j' KOjH ;i,pm'o Kpa^eBHHy, 
Ho ^ecTiiTOJ no Malie/],OHHJH, 
KaKO ce6e HMa 3a/i,yH^6iiHy ; 
A MapKy je necMa OMHJiii.ia, 
HacjiOHii ce ceji^Jij ^a o6jiy^je! 
MapKO cnaBa, Mhjioiu noniijeBa, 
Sa^yjia ra BHJia PaBHJajjia, 
Ha Mnjiomy no^e ^a OTneBa, 
Mnjiom neBa, BUJia My OTneBa, 
Jlennie rpjio y Mnjionia i];apcKO, 
JecTG jiennie Hero jih y bhjig; 
Pacp;i;H ce BHJia PaBHJojjia, 
Ha o;i,CKaTie y Mnpa^ njiaHnny, 
3ane jiyKa ii /i,Be 6ejie CTpejie 
Je/i;Ha y/i,'pii y rpjio Mnjionia, 
^pyra yXv^ Y cp^e jyHanKO. 
Pe^fie Mnjioni: «Jao, Moja Ma]*Ko!» 
«Jao/ MapKO, BoroM no6paTE[Me! 
Jao, 6paTe, BHJia Me ycTpejin! 
A HiicaM JIH Te6H 6ecje;],H0, 
J^a He neBaM Kpas Mnpo^i njiamiHy ?» 
A MapKO ce Tpme H3a caHKa, 
Ha o/i,CKO^H c KOH>a nrapenora, 
^o6po IIIapH;y KOJiane noTe:?Ke 
]IIapii;a KOH)a h rpjin h ^y6H: 
«Jao, Illapo Moje ;i;ecHO Kpnuo, 
^ocTHrHH MH BHJiy PaBHJajjiy : 
^HCTOM hy Te cpnOM noTKonaTH, 

"^HCTHM CpeSpOM H memeHHM SiiaTOM, 

noKpnhy Te cbhjiom j\o KOJiena 
O/i; KOjiena Kwre ji^o Konnxa; 
PpHBy hy TH HSMeniaTH sjiaTOM 


Ako jih mh He /i;ocTHrHeni BHJie, 
06a hy th OKa H3Ba/i,HTH, 
Cbc iieTHpH Hore hojiomhth, 
Ha hy t' OBj\e TaKO ocraBHTH, 
Te ce Tyi];H oj\ jejie ;i;o jejie, 
Eo ja, MapKO 6e3 Mor no6paTHMa.» 
^OBaTH ce ]IIapi],y Ha paMena 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 225 

Ha noTp^ia hub Miipoti njiannHy; 
Biijia JieTii no spxy njiaHime, 
Illapau; je3/i,H no cpe/i;H njianHna. 
RuTji^e BHJie nyTH hh Biiji^eTii. 
Ea/i; je lllapan; carjie/i;ao BHJiy, 
no Tpn Kon^a y Bncnny CKa^e, 
no c ^GTHpn /i,o6pa y Hanpe/i;aK; 
Bpso niapan; ;i;ocTHrHyo Bnjiy, 
Ka/i; ce BHJia BH/i;e na neBO^BH, 
IIpxHy ia/i;Ha He6y no/i; o6jiaKe. 
IIoTe;5Ke ce 6y3/i,OBaHOM MapKO 
06opH je Ha 3eM^Hii;y napny, 
IlaK je CTa/i;e 6hth 6y3/i,OBaHOM : 
npeBphe je c ;i;ecHa na jinjeBy, 
IlaK je 6HJe uiecTonepoM 3JiaTHHM: 
«3aniT0 BHJiO;, /i;a Te Bor y6HJe! 
SauiT* ycTejiH no6paTHMa Mora? • 
Jl^aj TH 6H^e OHOMe jynaKy, 
Jep ce neheui HanocHTn rjiaBe.» 
Cxa ra BHJia BoroM 6paTHMHTH : 
«BoroM 6paTe, Kpa^eBnhy MapKol 
BnmiBHM BoroM n cbcthm JoBanoMl 
Jl^aj Me nyuiTaj y njianimy mnsy, 
Jl^a Ha6epeM na Mnpo^y 6H^a, 
Jl^a saracHM pane na jyHaKy» 
. Aji' je MapKO mhjiocthb na Bora, 
A majiocTHB na cpn;y jyHa^KOM: 
IlycTH BHJiy y nJiamiHy acpiBy, 
Bn^e 6epe no Mnpo^iy BHJia, 
Bn^e 6epe, ^ecTO ce 0Ti;3HBa: 
«Ca;i; hy ;i;ohH, BoroM no6paTHMe!» 
Ha6pa BHJia na Mnpo^y 6H^a, 
H 3aracH pane na jynaKy: 
Jlennie rpjio y Mnjiouia n;apcKO, 
JecTe jieniue nero uito je 6hjio; 
A 3/i;paBHJe cpi];e y jynaKa, 
Bam 3;i,paBHJe nero niTO je 6hjio; 
0;i;e BHJia y Mnpo^i njiannny, 
0/i;e MapKO c no6paTHMOM cbojhm 
OTH/i;ome nope^KOJ KpaJHHH, . 

H Thmok cy BO/i;y np^6po;i;HJiH, ^1 

Ha BperoBy ce.iy BejiHKOMe ^ 

Servian grammar. 15 

226 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

Ha o;i;oine KpajiiHii Bii;i,iihckoj 
Ajih BHJia Mel}' BiiJiaMa Ka;Ke : 
«no^iyJTe Me BiiJie, ;],pyrapHii;e ! 
He CTpe^aJTe no ropii jynaKa 
^OK je rjiaca Kpa^cBiiha MapKa 
H aeroBa BH/i,OBiiTa inapi],a 
H H>eroBa inecionepa sjiaTna; 
IIIto caM ja;i;Ha o/i; H>er' npeTpnejia 
Je/i,Ba caM BaM ^iiBa 0CTaHyjia!» 

18. C^ipT JiaJKe JjTOBulia, 

Mhjih Boace, ^y/i,^ BejiiiKora, 
Ea/i; ce cjieme na Kocobo BojcKa 
y Toj bojcii;h ;i;eBeT JyroBnha 
H /i;eceTii CTap-Jyme Bor/i;aHe. 
' • Bora MOJiH JyroBnha MaJKa, 
^a joj Bor ;i;a o^h cokojiobo 
H 6HJejra Kpnjia jia6y/i;0Ba 
^a o;i;jieTH na Eocobo pasno 
H /i,a bh;i;h ;i;eBeT JyroBiiha 
!H j3;eceTor cTapJyra Bovj^sma, 
IIIto MOJinjia, Bora ;i;oMOJiHJia: 
Bor joj ;i;ao o^h coKOJioBe 
H 6HJejia Kpnjia jia6y/i,0Ba; 
Ona jieTH na Kocobo paBHO, 
MpTBHX Hal)e ;i;eBeT JyroBHha 
H ;i;eceTor CTap-Jyra Bor/i,aHa, 
H BHHie H)HX ji^eBOT 60JHHX Kon^a^ 
Ha KonBbHMa ;i;eBeT coKOJiOBa, 
Oko Kon^a ;i,eBeT /i;o6pHx KOH>a, 
A nope/i; h>hx /i,eBeT ^yTiix jiaBa. 
Ta/i;' saBpnniTa /i;eBeT ;];o6pHX KOH>a 
H sajiaja ;i;eBeT ^tyTHX jiaBa, 
A saKJiHKTa ;i;eBeT coKOjioBa. 
H Ty MaJKa TBp;i;a cpri;a 6HJia, 
^a oj\ cpii;a cyse ne nycTHJia, 
Beh ysHMa ;i;eBeT floSpiix Koma, 
H ysHMa js^eBeT ^yTHX jiaBa, 
H ysHMa ji^eBBT coKOJiOBa, 
HaK ce BpaTH A^opy 6HJejiOMe. 
Jl^ajieKO je cnaxe ynjie/i,ajie, 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 227 

Majio SjiH^e npe/i; H>y nnieTajie. 

3aKyKajio ;],eBeT y;i,OBHi];a, 

3anjiaKajio ;i,eBeT ciipoTiiii,a 

SaBpnniTajio ;i;eBeT ;i,o6pHX KOH>a 

Sajiajajio ;i;eBeT wi>yTiix jiaBa, 

SaKJiHKTajio ;i;eBeT coKOJiOBa. 

H Ty MaJKa TBp;i;a cpn,a 6HJia, 

Jl^a o/i; cpi];a cyse ne nycTHJia. 

Ea/i; je 6hjio Hohii y noHohn, 

Aji' saBpnniTa ^aMJanoB SejieHKO. 

niiTa MaJKa ^aMJanoBe ^y6e: 

«CHaxo Moja, .^y6o ^aMJanoBa, 

IIIto HaM BpiiniTH ^aMJaiiOB SejiCHKO? 

A:i' je rjia;i;aH iiiHkHii;e 6ejEHu;e, ^ / 

Ajih me;i;aH BO/i,e ca 3BenaHa?» / 

IIporoBapa ^Ly6a ^aMJanoBa: 

«CBeKpBHi],e^ MaJKO JI^aMJaHOBa: 

Hht je rjia/i;aH nieHHi],e 6ejiHii;e, 

Hht je ^e;];aH Bo;i;e ca SBeqana. 

Beh je H>era ^aMJan naymio 

Ji^o no Hohn CHTHy 306 3o6aTii, 

O/i; no Hohn na ;i,pyM nyTOBaTn; 

IlaK OH majiH CBora rocno/];apa, 

IIIto ra nnje na ce6ii /i;oHeo.» 

H Ty MaJKa TBp,ii;a cpi];a 6HJia, 

Xa o/i; cpii;a cyse He nycTHJia. 

^^K y jyrpy A^naK ocBanyo 

Ajih JieTe ^Ba Bpana raBpana 

KpBaBa HM Kpnjia ;i,o paiviena, 

Ha K^ynoBe 6ejia nena Tprjia: 

Ohh Hoce pyKy o/i; jynaica, 

H na pyi];H 6ypMa nosjialiena; 

Baii;ajy je y Kpnoiije Majri;H. 

Yse pyKy JyroBnha MaJKa, 

OKpeTajia, npeBpTajia c HjOmo, 

Ila ;i;03HB^e ^anjanoBy ^y6y: 

«CHaxo Moja^ ^y6o J^aMJanoBa, 

Bhji' no3Hajia ^inja j' obo pyKa?» 

IIporoBapa .^y6a ^anjanoBa: 

« CBeKpBHii;e, MaJKO ^aMJanoBa, 

Obo j' pyKa nauiera ^aMJana, 

Jepa 6ypMy ja nosnajeM, naJKO, 


228 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

BypiMa ca mhom na Ben^iaibv 6iijia.» 
Yse MaJKa pyKv T^aMJaHOBy, 
OKpeTaJia, npeBpTajia c ibomg. 
IlaK je pyii;H thxo 6ece6HJia: 
«Moja pyKO, sejiena ja6yK0, 
Tji^e CH pacjia, r;i,e ji' cii ycTprHyxa! 
A pacjia CII Ha Kpiioii,y momc, 
YcTprnyTa na EocoBy paBHOM.» 
To HsycTH, jiaKy AYiny nycTii. 

(Hapodua necMa.) 

19. ^o6aHHHii II Ho6aHHHii,a. 

MoM^nh qyBa jaraHEi;e 
y sejieHOJ inyMiii];!!^ 
Te OH cje/i;!! na KaMen, 
H norjie/i,a no no^y: 
OTy/i; H/i;e l^eBOJKa; 
Bo/i;h KpaBe h Tejia/i;, 
Jl^a HX noJH Ha Bo;i;y. 
MoM^e i];ypy KJiHKyje : 
«0j l^eBOJKo! oX aMo! 
PoHH Kpase OBaMO, 
^a cje/];HMO y Jia;],y.» 
Ona HDGMy roBopii: 
«Hehy, mom^g, Tep neliy, 
Th ch MOM^e njiaxHTO, 
Heheni inheTH MnpoBaT'; 
Men' je MaJKa saKJiejia, 
Ka/i; Me OBaM cnpeMHJia^ 
^a ce tiyBaM MOMiieTa, 
E cy MOMi];n BparoBii.» 

(Hapodua necMa.J 

20. Tpn TiiHHii;e. 

Tpn TH^Hi];e ropy npejiehejie, 
CsaKa HOCH y K^Lyny snaueihe: 


^pyra hoch KJiacaK o/i; nieHHii;e, 
Tpeha hoch 3;];paB^a h Bece^a. 


Ta je najia na ipyniKy ropnrijy; 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 229^ 

Koja HOCH KJiacaK o/i; nieHHi];e, 
Ta je najia na 6oraTy Ma^By; 
Eoja HOCH 3/i,paB./La h Bece^a 
Ta je najia na namy Tpnesy 
Jl^a CMO Ba3/i,a 3;i,paB0 h Becejio. 

(Hapodna necMa.) 

21. ]i^o\)ii K Memi ;i,paraHe. 

IlyHH MH, nyHH, jrai^anel 
^oI^H MH, /i,of)H, ;],paraHe, 
y Mojy 6aniTiy sejieny, 
Ho/i; MOJy pymy pyMeny, 
BeseM TH sjraTHy MapaMy 
npHcnehe TeSii Bo^nhy, 
HocH je H noHOCH ce, 
CnOMen' ce TBOJe /i,paraHe. 

(Hapodna necMa.) 

22. MoMaK CTeKao siuiy^ a ^^pym My je npHnaMHO 

npo6y/i,HX ce y ^y6aBii, ^y^eae Moje, 
3anyx BHJiy y /i;y6paBii, I)e iijecMe noje, 
A y3 njecan ^e npiinjeBa cjiaBJe o/i; rope, 
Bprox OKO Ha /i,y6paBy, BH^^ex joj Kpyny, 
H BHJiHHy pycy Kocy 6Hcepa nyny, 
H peKOx joj : ]5fiY)' ]ifi Mene, :?Kyl7eH>e Moje ! 
Ilpnl^e Mene, ;i;ojieTHyjia k'o CTp'jejia nepna 
PyKaMa Me 3arpjiHJia, BHJia rocnol^a, 
Cjiaf)H MH je i];jejrHB ;i;ajia, cjia]^H o/i; Me/i;.a. 
Ta;i; ja h>oJ3h Bac moj ^hbot, Bac Moj ynpjiHl 
^oI;e APyrn H3a Mene, na je npeMaMH. 
He HOCTaja hh /i;aH hh Ti;Ba, CTa ce KajaTH, 
Pa3MHiH^ajy!i' y H^ajiocTH hito yTinmix ja! 
Bor MH /i;a^e pajcKe bhjic, na je /];pyroM ^ax. 
niTO He rpa;i;HX Be^e rpa/i;e, /i^a je 3aTBopHMl 
A He rpa;i;HX 3JiaTHe Kc/i>yTy:e, ;];a je 3aK^y^aM. 
Jl^a He bh/i;h 3paK cyn^iaHH Ka/i; cbjct o6acja. 

(Hapodna necMa.) 

23. 3aiKT0 Me? ... 

3aniT0 Me ne .^y6Hni, 
Mor mHBOTa pajy? 
Be3 .^y6aBH ^lacn 
IIIto /i,a npona;i,ajy? 

230 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

3aniT0 Hohii qapne 
y caMoIiH CTOJiim? 
IIIto rpy/1,11 neMapne 
Ca CTy/i;eH>y roJHni? 

IIoTaMHehe jiHij;e 
H Te o^H ii;pHe; 
Oxjia/i,Helie cpij,e, 
Ea/i, 3HMa Harpne. 

Cbg TBOJe JienoTe, 
MnjiHHe H cjiacTii, 
Cbg niTO cpii;e xohe 
^ocTa lie nponacTH. 

Ila saTO He ry6H: 

TBOr npojieha ji^eme: 

Bell Me rpjiH, ^Ly6ii 

^OK Hac He caxpane. :Eypa JanmuK. 

24. Ha Jlnnapy. 

I. Bene. 

JecTe jiH MH po/i;, cnpomiliH Majin? 
nji' cy H Bac MO^/i;a ja/i;H OTpoBajiH, 
Mjih Bac je cjia6e nporoHHO CBeT, — 
Ila ;i;ol)ocMO caMO, /i;a Ka/i; ^y/!;e snaMO, 
^a ce H MH Majio 6o/Be ynosnaMO 
y /i,BoneBy TymnoM neBajyliH cgt? . . . 

Mh cmo Majie, 
Aji' CMO snajie 
^a Hac Hehe 
Hpiko xtcth, 
Hhko cmcth 
Eao TH — 
— TiHJy Iih! 

Moje THi];e Jiene, je/i;HHH /i,pyrapH, 
y HOBOMe CTany no3HaHHi];n CTapn, 
Cpue BaM je ^o^po^ necMa BaM je mc/i;; 
A JIH MOJe cpi];e, ajin MOJe rpy;i,H 
JIe;i;eHOM cy 3jio6om pa36HJajiH -i>yAH, 
Ha ce MecTO cpi];a yxBaTHO .le/i;. 

Samples of Servian Poetry. 231 

C 6ejiOM 6yjiOM 
Ca 3yM6yjiOM 
IIIapeH — pajeM 


n^BeheM MiipoM, 
Ca jiencniipoM 


Cpi];e TonHTii — 
— .liHJy hn! 

Moje THii;e Majie ja/i;HH cpipoTami, 
IIpomjiH cy MH /];aBHO mojh Jienpi /i;aHH, 
YBeJio je ii,Behe, o/i,6ero Me Maj, 
A Ha AyinH <^CTa ko cKpxana 6H^Ka 
Hji' ko Ty^aH Mnpnc yBejior 6ocH^Ka, 
JeflHa TeiuKa pana^ TeacaK y3/];Hcaj. 

11. IIoHoK, 

noHoh je, 

y i];pHOM njianiTy neMa 6orHKba, 

Cjro6o/i;He j^jnie to je CBeTiiEba, 

To rjiyBO ;i;o6a, raj ii;pHH ^ac. 

Aji' KaKaB rjiac? — 

no TaMHOM KpHJiy HeMe noHohn, 

Ko rp/i,aH Tajiac je/i;aH je/i,HHH 

Jl^a ce no MopoKOJ Ba^a ny^iHHH, 

JIaraHO xyjn, ko ;i;a yMnpe, 

Hji' ;i,a H3 i];pHe seM^e nsBHpe. 

Mo3K;i,a TO /i;ycH seM^n roBope? 

Hji' seM.La Kyne CBOJe noKope? 

Hji' He6o M05K/i;a ;i;a^e nyTyje, 

Jl^a Mojy KJieTBy BPiine He nyje, 

Ila 3Be3;i,e njia^y, He6o Tyryje, 

nocjie/i;H>H nyT ce c 3eM/i>0M pyKyje? — 

Ha 3ap /i,a He6a CBeTy HecTane? 

Ha 3ap ji^a, seujbii Bunie ne CBane? 

Sap fl^a, ocTane 

TaMa? ... 

H xoj\ ce ^yje. 
Jl^a Ji' TO noHoh TaKO Miipno nyTyje? 
Hh Ba3/i,yx TaKO thxo ne ra3ii. 

232 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

Eo /i,a ca OHor CBCTa /i;ojia3ii? 

Hji' Kpa/i;oM oojiaK H/i;e na BHine? 

Hji' 60HHK KaKaB TeuiKO y3/i,iinie? 

Hji' aHi)o Me.ieM c He6a ji^oiioctl? 

IIji' oniTpy Kocy /i;a ra noKOCii? 

^a ^y6aB ne H;i;e? . . . ^a 3jro6a imje? . . 

Mom/i;a ce Kpa/i;e /i;a naM nonnje 

H OBy jeji^Hj "^aniy pa/i,ocTii? 

Hji' MOTKj^a, cyaa H/i;e ^ajiocTH, 

^a Hac opocH Tymna Kan.i3Hi];a? — 

Hjih HaM MpTBe Bpaha 3eMyLHri;a? 

BpaTa niKpimyme . . . 
0, Ayine! o, MiiJia cghh! 
0, MaJKO Moja! o, 6jiaro mghh! 
Mnoro je ;i;aHa, MHoro ro/i;HHa, 
Mnoro je ropKHX 6hjio HCTiina; 
MHoro MH nyTa /i;pxTanie rpy/i,!!, 
Mnoro mii cpi^a Rename »^y/i;H; 
Mnoro can Kajo, MHoro rpemno, 
H xjia/i;HOM CMepliy ce6e Teinno; 
Mnory can ropKy -qaniy nonno, 
Mhofh caM KOMa/i; cy30M Toniio . . . 
0, MaJKO;, MaJKO ! o, MHJia cghh ! 
Ofl, Ka/i; TG MaJKO, HHcaM Biiji^eo, 
HnKaKBa /i;o6pa HiicaM bh^go. — 
Hji' Mom/i,a MHCJinni: «Ta ;i,o6po My JG, 
Ea/i; OHO thxo TKatbG hg wjg 
IIIto nayK bg3G mH[ii;0M TananoM 
Ha/i; OHHM HaniHM ii;phhm TasaHOM: 
— MGf^y ./i>y/i,iiMa cii, MGi)y 6jiH;KH>iiMa.» 

Aji' 3JI0 JG MaJKO, 61ITH MGiy ILHMa : 

IIo/i; pyKy c 3jio6om naKOCT nyTyJG, 

C H)HMa CG 3aBncT 6paTCKH pyKyJG, 

A Jiam CG yBGK oiiji^e naxo/i;!!;, 

Tj5;e HX no CBGTy no;i;jiocT npoBO/i;n; 

JlacKa HX ftBopn, H3/i,ajcTB0 cjiymn 

A HGBGpa CG ca H>HMa ;i;py:}KH. 

0, MaJKO, MaJKO ! cbgt jg naKOCTan, — 


Samples of Servian Poetry. 233 

III. 3opa, 

IleTao neBa, 

Tpehn je Beli nyT necMy OTneBao. 
Aji' ;i;a My HHJe ;],ajia npHpo/i;a 
Tjiae 6y/i,HJiHHKa ropa caMohHHX, 
EpeniTeiiHM rpjiOM 6h jih HKa;i;a 
BeTpno Tany MpKe noHohii, 
Cjro6o;i;eii' cpii;e ycaM^enora? 
He 6h HHKa/i;a! He 6h hh snao! 
y OBOM Jiyry Hiije HMao 
niapene CBOJTe 6paTa CTapnjerj 
Jl^a My HCKycTBa yMOM ;i;03pejrHM 
BpeMena Hohnor Ta^ne poKOBe 
no;i;ejiH BeniTO no MHHyTHMa: 
CaMoyqe je, caM ce y^no. 

Ea;i;, ca ncKycTBa ropKOM TeiiHoniiiy 
Omy^en, :^hbot XTe/i;e nponacTH, 
CKynHBHiH /i;yxa cnary nocjie;],H>y 
YMopan naflox y OBaj Jiyr. 
^aH>y MH opo KJiHKOM xpanaBHM, 
npoKH/i;ajyhH MaxoM flHB^njeM 
06jiaKa u;pHHX rycTe CBo;i;oBe, 
no/i;Hme AyniH ysBHrnen JieT 
H, BO/i;eIiH Me mypHO sa co6om, 
Hy/i;H Me cnjraH annM npecTOJiOM 
Ca Kojera je neKa/i; JyniiTep, 
BoroBCKe BO.^e MyiiOM oriBeHOM 
CeJiene rop;i;e nycTy yTpo6y 
Pa3;i;HpyIi' rneBHO, inH6ao CBer. — 
Ha KO join nnje 6jiaT0M hhckocth 
06eni^acTH0 ;i,ynie CBeTiiiLy, 
Ha CHJEHO KpHJio op^a ;i,HBHJer 
OcjEOHHB CHare ^y/i,CKy 'q:ecTHi]i;y, 
A HaflseMa^CKHM Honien MHCJiHMa, 
Ha npecTO cTyna, ko 6HBinH Bor, 
H, yseB MyH>e /i;aBHO no^HBiner, 
Ha OHy rpy/i;y norjie;i; ynpaB^a 
HIto je CTBopHTe^eBa HeMHJiocT — 
O/i; OHor npaxa niTO je 3Be3/i;aMa 
Ca CBeTHX Hory -r^a^^b OTnao — 
y 3JiOKo6HOMe ^acy CTBopiuia, 

234 Samples of Servian Poetry. 

A ;i,a CBpineHCTBa CBOJe CBeMohH 
C HecaBpineHCTBOM CBGTa ;i,OKOHTia. 
O/i; OHor npaxa BJiamne npainime 
IIoKasa cyHii,y np^aBH CTBop. 

^OBeK! . . . 
IIpoMHJie ij;pB ... 
no;i;MyKJio yM^e — naKOcna kpb! . . . 

'By pa JaKiauK. 

25. Koje je 6o^e? 

Je;i,aH Majien ;i;enKO 
Hnje HHEiT* ymHB'o! 
Cbg je cxBaT'o Tymno, 
Cbg je cxBaT'o KpnBO. 

My^HJia ra ^ecTO 
H Ta MHcao njpna: 
«3aniT' HHJe/i,Ha pynca 
^a HHJe 6e3 TpHa?» 

Taj je /i;eiiKO hm'o 
Becejiora APyra, 
Eojer HHJe jiaKO 
06apajra Tyra. 

A saniTO jih hkjc? 
BepyJTe mh, saTO 
IIIto je CBaniTa Jienme, 
BecejiHJe cxBaT'o. 

Ha OH H ca/i; pene: 
«PaAyJMO ce, ;i;pyme, 
IIIto ce h na TpH>y 
Mory Hahn py^e.» 

Joean JoeanoeuK, 


Conjugation of the most importants irregular 


6htii to beat. 


Cadam%e ejoeMe. 
Je;^HHHa. Mno^Hna. 

1. jmjs.e (ja) 6HjeM (mh) 6HjeM0 

2. > (th) 6HJein (bh) SnjeTe 

3. » (oh) 6HJe (oim) 6Hjy. 

Upefjamne necepmeno epejsie. 

1. jiHii;e (ja) 6Hjax (mh) 6HjacM0 

2. » (th) fifijanie (bh) dnjacTe 

3. » (oh) 6Hjame (ohh) 6Hjaxy. 

Ilpe^aume cepiaeuo epeMe, 

1. jmne 6hx 6hcmo 

2. » 6h 6HCTe 

3. » 6h 6Hnie. 

EydyKe epeue. 

Bniiy hjeh ja hj 6b[th SflheMo hjih mh iieno 6hth 

6Htem » TH h.em » 6HiieTe » bh teTe » 

6Mxe » oh te > 6Hiie » ohh iie » 

UpomJio epeMe. 
Bho caM HJIH ja caM 6no 6hjih cmo hjih mh cmo 6hjih 

6hO CH » TH CH » 6hJIH CTe » BH CTe » 

je » OH je » 6hjih cy » ohh cy » 



Bejax 6ho 
6ejanie » 
Cejame » 

1. Jim^e — 

2. » 6h{j) 

3. » HeKa 6Mje 

Ja 6hx 6ho 
TH 6h » 
OH 6e » 

Jiaenonpoiajio epcMe. 

6ejacM0 6iijiH 
CejacTe » 
6ejaxy » 

Sanoeednu namm. 

1. jiHii;e 6hjmo 

2. » 6HJTe 

3. » HeKa 6Hjy. 

Jloioddemi namm. 

MH 6hcmo 6ujih 

BH 6HCTe » 
OHH 6h » 

UpiiAOi ep. cadamn>ei. 

Hpujioi ep. npomjioi. 
Bho. 6Hjia, 6Hjro; 6hjih, 6Hjie, 6HJia. 

BHKaTH to cry, 


Cadatime epeue. 


1. jiHii;e (ja) bh^gm 

2. » (th) BH^ein 

3. » (oh) BHHe 

(mh) BH^eMO 

(bh) BH^exe 
(ohh) BH^y. 

(Ja) BHKax 
(th) BHKanie 
(oh) BHKame 

Jlpe^aiime necepuieno epeMe. 

(mh) BHKaCMO 
(bh) BHKaCTe 

(ohh) BHKame. 

npe^aume cepiaeno epeMe. 

BydyKe epeMe. 

BHKateni » th tern > BHKaheTe » bh toTe » 

BHKate » OH ie » BHKate » ohh te » 


Upomjio epcMB. 

Ja caM BHKao 




OH je BHKao 


JfasHonpotuAO epeMe. 

Ja 6ejax BHKao 

MH 6ejacM0 BHKajrn 

TH Sejame » 

BH 6ejacTe » 

OH 6ejanie » 

OHH 6ejaxy » 

Sanoeednu nauun. 

1 . jiHn;e — 

1. jmUfi BH^HMO 

2. » BH^H 

2. » Bimwie 

3. » HeKa BH^e 

3. » HeKa BH^y. 


IIoioddeHU namm. 

Ja 6hx BHKao hjih BHKao 6hx 
TH 6h » » » 6h 

OH 6h » » » 6h 

BH Shcto » » » 6HCTe 

OHH 6h » » » 6h. 

IIpuAOi ep. cadaiuThet, 

npujioi ep. npovjLAOi. 

BHKao, BHKajia, BHKajio; BHKajiH, BHKajie, BHKajia. 


1. jrHii;e (ja) 36BeM 

2. » (th) 3oBeni 

3. » (oh) 36Be 

(Ja) soBHjax 
(th) soBHjame 
(oh) 30BHjaine 

3B^TH to call (to name), 

nOKa3HH Ha^HH. 

Cadam%e epeMe. 


(mh) 30BeM0 

(bh) 30BeTe 
(ohh) 36By. 

npe^. uecep. epeMe. 

(mh) 30BHJaCM0 
(bh) 30BHJaCTe 

(ohh) 30BHjaxy. 

238 Supplement. 

llpe^. cepmeno epcMe. 
(J a) 3Bax (mh) 3BacM0 

(th) 3Bame (bh) 3BacTe 

(oh) 3Barae (ohh) 3Baxy. 

EydyKe epe.ue. 

3Baty HJiH ja ty 3BaTH SBateMO hjth mh teMo 3BaTH 

SBaheni » th tern » SBatexe » bh teTe » 

3Batie » oh te » SBate > ohh te » 

IIpoiujio epCMe. 
3Bao caM hjih ja can 3Bao 3BajiH cmo hjih mh cmo SBajin 

» CH » TH CH » » CTe » BH CTe » 

» je » OH je » » cy » ohh cy » 

JJ^aenonpouiJio epeue, 

(Ja) 6ejax 3Bao (mh) 6ejacM0 3BajiH 

(th) 6ejame » (bh) 6ejacTe » 

(oh) » » (ohh) 6ejaxy » 

Sanoeeduu namiu. 
1. j[HD;e — 1. jinu,e 30bhmo 

2. » 30BH 2. » 30BHTe 

3. » HeKa 30Be 3. » neKa 30By. 

Hoioddeuu nauun. 
Ja 6hx 3Bao mh 6hcmo SBajin 

TH 6h » BH 6HCTe 3BaJIH 

OH 6h > OHH 6h 3BajrH. 

JIpuAOi ep. cad. 

IIpiu, ep. npomjioi. 

3Bao, 3Bajia, 3Bajio; 3BajEH, 3Bajre, SBajia. 

KJiaTH to sloughter. 

nOKa3HH Ha^HH. 

CadaviTbe epeme. 
Jeji;HEHa. MHoatHna. 

1. JiHu;e (ja) KO.;(BeM (mh) ko^zbomo 

2. » (th) KO^em (bh) Ko^zbCTe 

3. » (oh) mojhQ (ohh) KO^zby. 



(Ja) KO^ax 
(th) KO^ame 
(oh) KO^aine 

Ilpe^, uecep. epeMC. 

(mh) KO^aCMO 

(bh) KO^acTe 
(ohh) KO^axy. 

(Ja) KJiax 
(th) KJiame 
(oh) Kjrame 

Ilpe^, cep. epcMe. 

(mh) KjracMO 
(bh) KjiacTe 
(ohh) KJiame. 
BydyKe epeme. 
KjEaty HjiH ja hy KJiaTH KJEateMO hjih mh heMO KJiaxH 

KJiafeem » th hem » KJialieTe » bh heTe » 

Kjiahe 3> oh te » EJiatie » ohh te » 

Ilpomdo epeMe. 

BH CTe » 

OHH cy » 
J^aenonpoiHAO epeMe. 

MH 6ejacM0 KJiajiH 
bh 6ejacTe » 
OHH 6ejaxy » 

Sanoeeduu uamm. 


2. » 

3. » 

IIotod6eHU nanuH. 

MH 6hcmo KJiaJIH 


» OHH 6h KjrajiH. 

HpuAOi ep. cad. 


Hpuji. ep. npoiajioi. 
Kjiao, KJiajia, KJFajio; KjrajiH, KJiajie, KJiajia, 

TKaTH to weave. 


Cadamne epeMe. 

Ja caM KJiao 

TH CH » 

OH je » 

Ja 6ejax Kjrao 
TH 6ejanie » 
OH 6ejanie » 

1. jiHi];e — 

2. » KO^H 

3. » HeKa KOJbe 

Ja 6hx KJiao 
TH 6h » 
OH 6h » 


HGKa KO^By. 



1. Ji. TKaM or tkom or tom 


or tkomo or homo 

2. jr. TKam » TKem » qem 


» TKeTe » HOTe 

3. JI. TKa » TKe » He 


2> TKejy » nejy. 



(Ja) TKax 
(th) TKame 
(oh) TKame 

Ja tiy TKaTH 
TH hem » 
OH he » 

Ja caM TKao 

TH CH » 

OH je » 

Ja 6ejax TKao 
TH 6ejanie » 
OH 6ejanie » 

1. jiRU^e — 

2. » TKaj 

3. » HeKa TKa 

Ja 6hx TKao 
TH 6h TKao 
OH 6h TKao 

Ilpefjaiime necep. epcMe. 

(mh) TKaCMO 

(bh) TKacTe 
(ohh) TKame. 

IIpe^aiuThe cop. op. 

EydyKe epeue. 

BH tieTe TKaTH 
OHH tie TKaTH. 

npomjio opcMe. 

BH CTe > 

OHH cy » 

Jl^aoHonpoiajio epeMC. 

MH 6ejacM0 TKajiH 

BH 6ejacTe » 

OHH 6ejaxy » 

Sanoeeduu nanuu. 

1. jiHH;e TKajMO 

2. » TKajTe 

3. » HeKa TKajy. 

IIoiod6eHu nauuH, 

BH 6HCTe » 

OHH 6h » 

JIpuJioi ep. cadam'tbei. 

IIpuji. ep, npouiAOi, 

TKao, TKajia, TKajio; TKa.iH, TKajre, TKaJia. 


1. jiHD;e H;i;eM 

2. » H;iieM 

3. » Hfte 

HhH to go. 

Cadamtbe epeue. 


1. jiHii;e HAOMO 

2. » Hji;eTe 

3. » HAy. 



Ja nt^ax 
TH H^anie 
OH H^ame 

TH H;i;e 
OH H^e 

Ja iiy ntiH 
TH heni » 
OH fee » 

Tlpef^. necep, epCMe, 


BH nt^acTe 
OHH Hl)axy. 

Ilpe^. cepmeno epeue, 

MH h;i,ocmo 


OHH H;i,onie. 

EydyKe epeMC, 

MH tiGMO HtiH 
BH tiGTe » 
OHH tie » 

Ja caM nniao 

TH CH » 

OH je » 

Ja 6ejax nniao 
TH 6ejanie » 
OH 6ejanie » 

1. jiHii,e — 

2. » h;i,h 

3. » HeKa Eji,e 

Ja 6hx Hfflao 

TH 6h » 

OH 6h » 

UpouiAO epeme. 

BH CTe » 

OHH cy » 

Jl^aeHonpouuo epeme. 

MH 6ejacM0 hhijih 
BH 6ejacTe » 
OHH 6ejaxy » 

Sanoeednu nauuu. 

1. jiEi];e Hji,HMO 

2. » H^HTe 

3. » HeKa H;i,y. 

Uoiodoemi uauuH, 

BH 6HCTe » 
OHH 6h » 

JIpuAOi ep. cadam^bei, 


HpUA. ep. npomjioi. 
Hniao, Hinjia, hhijio; hhijih, nnijie, HuiJia. 

Servian grammar. 16 



EJICTH to swear (to damn). 

IT K a 3 H H H a ^ H H. 


Cad. epe.ue. 


1. JTHUie KyneM 

2. » KyneiH 

3. » Kyne 

1. j[Hii,e KyneMO 

2. » KyneTe 

3. » Kyny. 

(Ja) KyHHJax 
(th) KyHHJame 
(oh) KyHHjanie 

Ilpef uecep. epeue. 

(mh) KyHHJaCMO 

(bh) KyHHjacTe 
(ohh) KyHHjaxy. 

(Ja) Kjiex 
(th) KJieme 
(oh) KJienie 

Ilpe^. copia. epeue. 

(mh) KjrecMO 
(bh) KjrecTe 
(ohh) Kjreme. 

Ja ty KjieTH 
TH iiem » 
OH tie » 

EydyKe epene. 

MH tieMO KJieTH 

BH heTe » 
OHH tie » 

Ja caM Kjreo 

TH CH » 

OH je » 

UpouiAO epcMC. 

BH CTe » 

OHH cy » 

Ja 6ejax K.iieo 
TH 6e]anie » 
OH 6ejanie » 

J^aenonpoiajio epeue, 

MH 6ejacM0 KjrejiH 
BH 6ejacTe » 
OHH 6ejaxy » 

Sanoeedmi uanuH. 

1. jiHn;e — 

2. » KyHH 

3. » HeKa Kyne 

1. JIHll,e KyHHMO 

2. » KyHHTe 

3. » HOKa Kyny 

Ja 6hx Kjreo 
TH 6h » 
OH 6h » 

IIoiod6eHU nauun, 

MH 6hcmo KjrejiH 

BH 6HCTe » 
OHH 6h » 



JIpuAOi epeM. cadamtbci. 


IIpuA, ep. npomAOi. 

Kjreo, KJiejra, Kjrejio; kjigjih, KJiejre, Kjiejia, 

XTCTH to be willing. 


1. jiHii,e xohy 

2. » xotiem 

3. » xohe 

(Ja) xoTHjax 
(th) xoTHJame 
(oh) xoTHJanie 

(Ja) xTeji;ox 
(th) xTe;i;e 
(oh) xTe^e 

Ja hy xTeTH etc. 

Ja caM xTeo etc. 

Ja 6ejax xTeo etc. 

Ja 6hx XTeo etc. 


Cad, epeMe. MfloatHoa. 

1. jrHu;e xobeMO 

2. » xotieTe 

3. » xohe. 

Upe^am'tbe necepm, epeMe. 


(bh) xoTHjacTe 
(ohh) xoTHJaxy. 

Ilpef cepia. epeMe. 

(mh) xTe;i;ocMO 
(bh) xTe;i;ocTe 
(ohh) xTe;i,onie. 

BydyKe epeMe. 


Upomjio epeMe. 

MH CMO XTdH etc. 

Jfaenonpoiajio epeMe. 

MH 6ejacM0 xtcjih etc. 

Sanoeeduu nauuH. 

Ilotoddemi nanuu. 

MH 6hcmo xtcjih etc. 

Hpujioi ep. cad, 

IIpuAOi ep. npoiUAOi. 
Xtco, XTCJia, xTejTo; xtcjih, XTejre, xTCJia. 


English-Servian Vocabulary. 


abbey onaTHJa, napoxnja 

abound ooHJiOBaTH 

above npeKO ; rope 

abroad imnojbe; j HHocTpaHCTBo 

absence ocyciBO 

absent oTcyiaH; to be — ocy- 


accent narjiacHTH, aKE;eHTOBaTn 

accent aKu.eKaT, HarjiacaK 

accept npHMHTH 

accident cjry^aj, jiora^aj 

accompany npaxHTH 

account pa^yiiaTH ; o5paHyH ; npn- 

Haae h t. ji;. 
accuracy la^HocT 
accusation onTy}K6a 
accuse onTy^KETH 
acbe 60 JI 

acquaintance nosnaHCTBo 
acquire 3apaji,HTH, ;i;o5hth 
across npcKO 
act pajiMTH, nocTyiiaxH 
action paAifea, iiocTyuaEt; 
add AOAaTH, cadpaxn 
addition ji,oiaBaiLe, ca5EpaH)e 
address ocjiobhth; a;i,peca 
adieu c BoroM 
adjourn o;i;ro;i,HTH, OAJioatnTH 
admire nyjiHTH ce, j;hbhth ce 
admit npHMEXH, npHcraTH 
adorn KpacHTH, khthth 
advance ysAHtiH, yHanpeAHXH 
advertisement o53HaHa, o5jaBa 
advise caBCxoBaxn 
adviser caBexHHft, caBexoAaBaii; 
affair nocao, pa^ita 
afflict OHiajiocxHXH 

affliction oaiajiomLeH,e 
afford o5eiiaxH; ji;oiiycxHXH 
afraid 3a6pnHyx; to be — 60- 

jaxH ce 
after iiocjie, nomxo 
afternoon nocJie iioj^na 
again onex, jom, noHOBO 
against Ha cynpox, npeiwa 
age Aooa, bck; of — cxap 
ago npe 

agreeable npHJaxan 
agriculture scM^opaAaa 
air Hsrjie^; Basj^yx 
ale riHBo; — house uvlbeu^b, 
algebra ajire6pa 
alive JKHB, y ^HROxy 
all caB, ij;eo 

all right cacBHM xaKO, npaBO 
ally caBesHHK, 

almost roxoBO, CKopo, 6e3 najio 
alone caM, ycaM^en 
along j^yjK, ya, c 
also H, xaKo^e 

although Ma^a, iipeMji;a, n aKO 
always yBBK 
among M3Mei)y, Mel)y 
amount h3hoc (cyaia) 
amuse aaHHiviaxH ce, 3a6aB^axH ce 
amusement sanHMaae, 3a6aBa 
ancient cxap, (cxapoBpcMCKn) 
and H 

angel ant/eji 

angry ^yx, iiepaciiojiOJKeH 
animal stHBOxnita 
ankle 3r.iaBaK 
Anne Atia 
announce jaBHXH 
answer oAroBopHXH; oj^roBop 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


anxious CTpain^HB; pajiosnao 
any neKH; — more join neKH; 

— thing iieniTO 
appear nojaBHTH ce 
appearance nojasa; cno^araHOCT 
apple-tree ja6yKa (jupso) 
application ipaa^eae; npnMena 
appoint o;^peAHTH, iiocTaBPiTH 
approach npHMaKHyiH ce, npn- 

6jihkhth ce 
April anpHJi 
architect apxHTCKx 
argument ji;oKa3, no^aTaK 
arithmetic apHTMexHKa, panynaae 
arithmetical lesson ^lacpanyHaita 
arm pyKa, MHmnii.a 
army BojcKa; yooJHa CHJia 
arrival npHcneBasbe, j^ojiasaK 
arsenal opy2:HHii.a, apcenaji 
artery apxepHJa 
article HJian, npejiiMeT 
artificial BemTa^KH 
as Kao; niTo ce TH^e 
ascend noneTH ce; yajaxaiH 
ashamed cthji;^hb 
ashes neneo 
ask rmxaTH, majiHTH; — for na- 

asleep y cey, sacnao 
asparagus mnapria 
ass Marapan; 

assent carjacje, cjora; npncTanaK 
assume npHMHTH 
assure yBepaBaxn 
astonished sa^y^en 
ate ja jel^ax 
attack HanacTH; nanaji; 
August aBpycT 
aunt TCTKa, yjna 
author nncaix, ayKxcp 
autumn jecen 

awake iipo6y;^HXH ce; 6yj!;aH 
away, he has gone — oxHuiao je 
awful cxpaman 
axe CEKHpa 
axis ocoBHHa 
azure njae. 


back naxpar 
bacon cjraHHiia 
bad(ly) p^aB 

bag ];raK, Top5a, xf.en 

ball HrpaHKa 

bank o5ajia; Kjiyna 

barber 6ep6epHH 

barometer 6apoMexap 

baron 6apoH 

base HH3aK 

bath KynaxHJio, Kyiiaite 

bathe Eynaxn ce 

battle 6oj, 6MXKa 

bear hoccxh, hoahochxh 

beard 6ap,ii;, necHHK 

beast mHBoxHH>a; — of burden 

xepexHa a^HBoxniLa 
beat yjiiapaxH, xyKn 
beautiful Jieii 
beauty jenoxa 
because jep, nomxo 
bed nocxe^a 
bee HCJia 
beef roBe]^iiHa 
beer nnBO 
before npe, najnpe 
beg mojihxh; I — your pardon 

MOJiHM Bac 3a onpomxaj 
began no^ex 
begger npocjaK 
beginner no^exHHic 
behave noHainaxn ce 
behaviour noHamaBbe 
behead ocetiH oaBy 
behind H3a, nosaji;^ 
belive Beposaxn 
bell 3B0H0, 3B0Hii;e 
belly xp5yx 
belong npHiia;i,axH 
below Hciioji;, ji,ojie 
bench cyjiiHHii;a 
bend caBHXH 
berry jaro;i.a 

beset nocxaBHxn; 3ay3exH 
besiege oncecxH 
best Haj6o^H 
better 6ojbvi 
between HSMC^y 
beverage nnte 
bid farewell onpocxHXH ce 


bill o6pa^ya 
binding Be3a 
bird xHn;a 
birth pol^eae 


English-Servian Vocabulary. 

birthday pot)eH-;i;aH 

black upH 

blackboard ixpna Ta6jia 

blame kyahth, KOpHTH 

bless 6jiarocjioBHTH 

blessing 6jarocjiOB 

blind Ba^BaK, saeoj 

blood Kpe 

blona ii.BeTaTH 

blossom uBBTaae 

blotting-paper nHJyta xapiHJa 

blow ;i;yBaTH; yJ^ap 

blue Hwias 

bluish-grey chb, saracHT 

blush noupBeHexH, iiopyMeeeTH 

board Ta6jia, cto 

boast cjiaBa 

boat ^yH, ^aMan; 

body xejio 

boil KyBaTH 

boiling K^ynajiH 

bold cMeo 

book KH>Hra 

bookbinder KanroBesaii; 

booking-office oji^eJbeBye 3a npe- 

Aajy iipT^ara 
book-keeper KH,HroBot|a 
book-seller Kanaiap 
boot ^H3Ma 
born po^eH 
both o6oje 
bottle 6oii;a 
bottom jiHO 
bought Kynnx; Kynno 
bound Beaax, Besao 

bow CaBHTH; nOKjlOHHTH 06 

bowels ;i;po6, ii;peBa 

box caHjiyK, CKpHH.a; jioksl 

boy ^e^SLK 

bracelet rpnBHa 

branch rpana 

brave xpapap; npKocHTH 

bravery xpa6pocT 

bread xjie6 

breadth mnpHna, npocTop 

break cjiomhth 

breakfast ;i;opyiaK, jnopy^KOBaiH 

breast rpy;i,H, npca 

breeze Beiap, ceBepaii, 

brick i];Hrjra 

bridge moct, Lynpnja 

bring J^0HeTH 

British 6pHTaHCK« 

Briton BpHTanau, 

brittle xpanaB, rpy5 

broke off iipeKunyin 

brooch HFjia, 6pom 

broom Mexjia 

brother 6paT 

brother-in-law yex, luypaK, iiaine- 

nor H X. ji;, 
brought ;i;ouex; ;i;oHeo 
brown MpK 
building arpa^iia 
built rpa;iiHXH, anjiiaxH 
built rpa^Hx, rpaAHO 
bull 6hk 
burn iiperopeo 
burnt-out nsropeo 
bury saKonaxH 
bus = omnibus 
bush rpn; KHxa; BpeiKa 
business nocao 
busy y nocjiy, sayaex 
but ajiH, ho; caaio 
butcher iiecap, KacanHH 
butterfly jienxHp 
buy KynnxH 
by o;ii; noMotiy; c. 

cab KOJia 

cabin Ka^nne, oj^e^teae 

cage KpjiexKa^ Kasea 

calamity Hecpeha 

calf xejie 

call 3BaxH; — upon nocexHXH 

calm MHpan, CMHpee, 6jiar 

calmness MEp, xHfflHHa 

calves xeiia;i; 

came ;i,o^ox 

canditate KaH;i,H;i;ax 

cane mxan (aa inexay) 

cannon-ball ijjJie, xane 

cannot ne Mory 

can't HO Mory 

cap nana 

capable MotiaH, y cxaay 

capital (KanHxaji); npecxoHHii,a; 


captain Kanexan 

card Kapxa 

cardinal points ;i;ejioBH CBexa 

care 6pHra; 6pHHyxH ce 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


careful opniK^HB 

carpet Lh.ihm 

carriage KOJia 

carrots i^pne ii;BeKJie 

carry hochth; — on bo;i,hth; — 

out H3BeCTH 

cart TypeTHa Koja 

carve pasjioatHTH, paiKiaBHTH 

case cjiyqaj 

cast 6aii,HTH 

castle 3aMaK 

cat Ma^iKa 

cattle MapBa 

caught yxBaxHx, yxBaiHo 

cauliflower Kay^iHH, Kapa(t)HOJi 

cause yapoK, npoj^spoKOBaiH 

cease iipecxaTH 

ceiling TaBaHKua 

celebrate cjiaBHTH 

celebrated cjiaB^een, cjiaBan 

centre cpe/tHuiie 

century CTcie^e, bbk 

certain(ly) BSBecian, -cho 

chain jiaHau. 

chair CTOJiHi];a 

chairman ii,pece;i;HHK 

chalk Kpe;i;a 

chamber co5a 

chancellor KaHi];ejiap 

change npoMCHnrH 

character KapaKxep, oco5ima 

charm ji.paiK, jienoTa 

chase jiob 

cheap jeBTHH 

cheek jaro;i;Hii;a 

cheese cnp 

chemistry xcMHJa 

chest rpyj;H 

chicken nnje 

chief justice najrjiaBHHJH cy;i;HJa 

chiefly norjiaBHTii 

chief town HajrjiaBHHJa Bapom 

child ;^eTe 

childhood ji;eTHiLCTBo 

children ji;eii;a 

chimney oijait, KaMHH 

chin 6paji;a, ^0Jl,6pa;^aK 

chose H3a6paTH 

Christmas BoatHli 

church ii;pKBa ; — clock i];pKBeHH 


circle Kpyr; onacain 

circuit OKpyr, oKOJiHHa 

circular ticket icapia sa KpTyatHii 

city Bapoin, ^pa;^ 
civil rpat^aHCKH 

civilised H3o6paateH, yixHB 
claret ii,pHo bhuo 
class pa3pe;i; laaca 
class-room y^HOHHii;a 
clean ^hcx 
clear jacan 

clerk ^HHOBHHK 

clever nanexaH, Ba^an 
climate KJiHMa 
climb nyataxH ce, nexn ce 
cloack-room oj^e^eae 3a npe;iajy 

py^HHx cxBapa 
clock cax, HacoBHHK (bgjihkh) 
close Hccx; 6jiH3y, koji; 
cloth xKaHHHa 
clothes xayLHHC, oji,elia 
cloud o5jiaK 
couldy o6.ia^iaH 
coachman KOHHJain 
coal yra^, iiynyp 
coast o6ajia 
cocoa KaKao 
coff'ee Ka({)a 
coin HOBaii; 
cold xjia^aH, na3e6; to catch, get 

— Ha3e6cxn; I am — xjiaAHo 

MH je 
collect CKyn^axH 
college niKOJia, BCJiHKa niKOJia 
col en el nyKOBEHK 
colony KOJioHHJa, Haceo6HHa 
colour 6oja 

comb ^ema^; ^era^LaxH ce 
come AotiH; ;i;omao 
comfortable yro;i,aH 
command sanoBe^axH; sanosecx 
commander sanoBeAHHK 
commerce xproBHHa 
commercial school xproB. niKOJia 
commit o6hIih 
common onnixH, o6Hian 
communicate caonmxHXH 
companion jipyr, caBesHHK 
company ;i;pyfflXBo 
compartment ojiejbeE^e 
compass KOMnac, 6ycojia, Marnex- 

CKa nrjia 


English-Servian Vocabulary. 

compliment no^ipaB 

compose cjojKnTH 

comprise o6yxBaTaTH, noApa:3y- 

concert KOimepx 
condamn ocyAHTH 

conduct BOAHTH 

conduct Bol/eite, HaBo;i; 
confident noBep^nB 
confirmation noTBp^a 
conflagration noatap 
confusion 3a6yHa 
connect y bcsh 
conquer ocbojhth 
conqueror ocBaja^ 
conscience caBecT 
considerable SHaxaH 
consist of cacTOJaiH ce h3 
consonant cyrjiacHHK 
consort cynpyra 
constantly ciajiHo, HenpeciaHo 
construction rpa^a 
contain ca^pJKaBaTH 
contented saAOBo^^an 
continent KOHTHHeHi 
continue ^po;^yatHTH 
conversation paaroBop 
convey bo;i;hth 
cook KyBap, -Hii;a 

coolness XJIaJ^HOKpBHOCT 

coolly xjiaAHo 
copper 6aKap 
copy npenncaxH; npennc; CBecKa 

copy-book CBecKa 3a npennc 
corn 3pH0 

correct xa^an, ncnpaBan 
cost KomxaxH, cxaxn 
could Morax 
count 5pojaxH 
count rpa(}), (Kiies) 
country 3eMiba; — man 3eM^aK; 

in the — na nd>CKOM Ao5py 
county rpa(j)OBHJa 
couple nap 
courage xpa5ocx 
courageous xpa6ap 
course tok; of — npHpo;i;HO 
court jiiBop; cyji;, -HHn.a 
cousin 6pax hjih cecxpa oji cxpn- 

n;a hjih yjee 
cover noKpHXH 

cow KpaRa 

cradle Ko.ieBKa 

crash npacaK, nyuaae 

create CTBopnTH 

creature cxBop, -eae 

criminal itpHBau, npecxynHHK 

crop jK,exBa, 6ep6a 

cross npotiH; Kpcx 

crowded iiyii, npenye 

crown Kpyna 

crumble pacnacxn (ce) 

crush MpBHXH, jipoGnxH 

cry BHKaxH; nJiaKaxH 

cup fflo^a 

curiosity pa;i;o3Hajiocx ; HHxepe- 

curious HHxepecaHxaH 
custom-house n,apHnapHHn,a 
cut cetiH 
czar n.ap 
czarina n,apHn;a 


daily ineBHO 

dairy-farm MjreKapHHK; 6aHHJaH)e 

damp BJia^an 

dance nrpaxn 

danger onacHocx 

dangerous onacan 

daughter Ktep, tepKa 

dauntless neycxparaHB 

day ^an; by the — jiaay; in 

broad — light y cpe;^ 6ejia ^ana 
day-book j^neBHHK 
dead MpxaB, yMpeo 
deaf rjiyx 
deal jieo; ;i;ejrHXH; a great — 

Bpjio MHoro 
dear Apar, mho; CKyn 
death cMpx 

debate /i;e6axa, npennpita 
debt syr, AyroBaae 
December Aen,e]yi5ap 
declare o6jacHHXH ; njiaxHXH nopesy 
deep j^y6oK; Ay5HHa 
defeat nopa3; no6ejiiHXH 
defence oi6paHa 
degree cxenen, ^pai^ 
delight pa;i;ocx 
delighted o6paji;oBaH 
deliver npe;i;axH 
demand HCKaxH, 3axxeBaxH 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


depart OTnyroBaTH 

describe onncaTH 

description onnc 

desert iiycTOin, nycTHH>a 

design naMepa 

desire a^ejieTH 

desk nHcahH cto 

despatch SBanH^iHO nncMO 

destination onpejiie^eae 

destroy nopeMeTEXH 

determination oji;iy4HOCT 

determine oj^pe^HXH, o;i;jiy^HTH (ce) 

divil ^aso 

dialogue pasroBop yABOJe 

dictation jivlktslt 

dictionary peqHHK 

did yHHHHx 

die yMpcTH 

diflference pasJiHKa 

difficult TcataK 

difficulty TefflKota 

dig KonaTH 

digging pyji,oKon 

diligent Bpe^an 

dine py^axn 

dinner py^aK 

direct ynyxHTH, ynpaBHXH 

direcly o;i,Max, c Mccxa 

dirty np^tas; np^axn 

discover oxKpnxH, npoiiatiH 

dish ^iHHHJa, njiHXHi;a 

dishonesty ne^acxHocx 

disobey ne iioKopaBaxH ce 

disposition pacnojioateae 

distant y^a^en 

distinct jacaa 

distinguish pasjiHKOBaxH 

district oKpyr; Ksapx 

disturb nopeMexHXH 

divide ji;eJiHXH 

division jte^eite 

do hhhhxh; that will — ;iiocxa je 

doctor ;ioKTop, jieKap 

does OH HHHH 

dog nac, Ky^e [aa 

domestic animal jtoaiaha jkhboxh- 
done yHHHHo, hhhho 
door Bpaxa 
double j;bojhh 
doubt cyMita; -xh 
dove rojiy6 
down jiiojie; hhcko 

drama ;i;paMa 

dramatic j^paaiCKH 

drawing-lesson nac i^pxaaa 

drawing-room co5a aa ;i;pyinxBO 

dread cxpax 

dreadful cxpainaH 

dress o;i;ejio; o6ja^HTH ce 

drink nnxH 

drive xepaxH 

drop Kani&axii 

drunk nno; nanHBGH; nnjan 

dry cys; cyinnxH 

duchy BOJBo;i;HHa 

duck moxKa, njioBKa 

duration xpajaae 

during 3a Bpene, j^ok 

duts npamHHa 

duty ]i,YKuocT. 


each (adj, hjih subs.) CBaKH 

eagle opao 

ear yso 

earl rpa({) (enMecKH), jiop;i; 

earl paea 

earth seMisa 

east HcxoK, hsxg^hh 

Easter ycKpc 

easy jiaKo 

eat jecxH 

eaten jeo 

eccentricity eKCHienxpH^Hocx, npe- 

edifice srpajiia 
editor nsAaBa^ 
^^S jaje 
eight ocaM 
eighth ocMH 
eighty ocaMjiieceT 
either — or hjih — hjih 
elder cxapnjn 
elect HsadpaxH 
election H36op 
eleven je^aHaecx 
emblem seaK, snaMeae 
emotion ysoyl^eae 
emperor HMnepaxop, ii.ap 
empire ii;apcxBo 

employ yiioxpconxH; ;i;axH nocao 
employer hhhobhhk, cjiy3K6eHHK, 
empty npasaa 
end Kpaj ; CBpuiHXH 


English-Servian Vocabulary. 

endeavour iioMyqHxn ce 

enemy nenpnjaxe.L 

enforce naMopaiH 

engage 3ay:3eTH 

engine Mamnna; .lOKOMOTHBa 

England EerjiecKa 

English enrjiecKH 

enjoy yaiHBaxH 

enough ;^0CTa 

enraged decan 

enter ytn; — a room yJiH y co5y 

enterprise npejiiyaeTH 

entirely iioxnyHO 

entry KitHroBojiiCXBO 

envy saBECx 

equally je;i;naK 

erect uanpaenxn, coonnxn 

esteem nonixoBaxn, ii,eHHxn 

even oain, na naK h 

evening se^e 

ever HKajta 

every CBaKH (y oniuxe) 

everybody csaKH (no na oco6) 

exact xa^aH 

examine ncnnxaxH 

example npyiviep 

exception HsyaexaK 

exclaim HsaBBaxn 

excuse HSEnneite; h3bhhhxh ce 

execute HSBprnnxH, H3Becxii 

execution Hsepmeite 

exercise BCJE^aite 

exist iiocxojaxH 

expect o^eKHBaxH 

expedition noniHibKa 

expend nsjiaxH, norpomHTH 

expense xpomaK; at the — na 

expensive CKyii 
explain o5jacHUXH 
expression Espas 
extent iipya:aH,e, mnpeite 
extraordinary HSBaHpeAan 
extremely npeKoaiepHO 
eye oko; — ball 3enHu,a. 


face jiHii,e 

fade BGHyxH, yseHyxH 

fail npoMamnxH 

fair Jien 

faith Bepa, noBepeae 

faithful BepaH 

fall niicxH; — aslep :;acnaxH 

fallen nao 

fame rjiac, ciaea 

family iiopo;tHU,a 

famous cjiaBaa 

far J^aJIeK 

fare Bo^ita, noji;B03 

farewell onpoiiixaj 

farm tbo^cko jioopo 

farmer sGM^opaAHiiK 

farther jiSiJbe 

fast 5p3; 6p3o 

fat jie6eo, Macxan 

fatal KooaH, cyA6oHocaH 

father oxan; 

fatigue yMop, saMop 

fatiguing sanopaa 

fault norpeiuKa 

favour noBOyLBOcx 

favourite mhjiochhk, uixnhefiHK 

fear cxpax, 6oja3aH 

fearless HeycxpauiHM 

feather nepo (xn^HJe) 

February ^}e6pyap 

feel oceiaxn 

fellow HOBCK 

fertile njioji,aH 

fetch AonexH 

fever rposHHua 

few MaJio (h>ex) 

field rio^e 

fifth iiexH 

fifty 50 

fight 6opHXH ce 

figure <j)Hrypa, cxac; ii.n({)pa 

fill nynuxH 

finally najsaji; 

find HaiiH 

fine len 

finger npcx 

finish CBpniHXH 

fire Baxpa 

firm HBpcx 

first npBH 

fish pH6a 

fit 6hxh xaMan, cxojaTH ji,o6po 

five nex 

^^ y^BpCXHXH 

flame nJiaMen 

flat paBaH, njbocHax 

flock jaxo; cxa;io 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


fly Myxa 

foe HBiipHJaTe^B 

fog Marjia 

follow C^BGAOBaTH 

fond HeataH; to be — BOJieTH 

food xpana 

fool Jiyfl,siKy 5yAajia 

foolish 6y;iajiacT0 

foot Hora 

for 3a 

force CHjia; by — chjiom 

forefinger KajKHnpcT 

forehead nejio 

foreign cipan, lyl) 

forepart npe;;H)a cxpana 

forest inyna 

forget 3a6opaBHTH 

forgetful 3a6opaBaH 

forgotten 3a5opaBHO 

fork BH^yuiKa 

form o6jihk 

formerly npe, pannje, npetje 

fortune cyji,6a; naiaae 

forward nanpeji; 

fought 6opax ce; 6opHo ce 

found Ha^ox; Hamao 

foundation ocHHBaBe 

four HGTHpH 
fox JIHCHUa 

fragrant Mnpani^aB 
Frederick ^pn^pHx 
free cjio5oAaH 
freedom cJo5oji,a 
freeze MpsnyiH (ce) 
French 4>paHii;ycKH 
frequently ^ecTO 
fresh CBeat 
Friday nexaK 
friend npnjaTe^ 
friendship iipHJaTejBCTBO 
from oji; 
fruit ujio]i,\ — tree BotKa 

fulfill HCnyHHTH 

full nyn 

fun ma^a 

fundament oceoBa, TBMe^ 

furniture HaMemraj 

future 6y;i;ytiH0CT ; 6yji;ykH. 

gain ji;o6hth, ji,o5ht 
gallery ra^iepaja; xo^hhk 

garden Bpx, 6ainqa 

gardener Bpiap 

gas rac 

gate Bpaia, KanDJa 

gather caKynyLaxH, npHdnpaiH 

gay Beceo 

geese rycKC 

general reuepaji; onniTH 

generally o6vmno 

generous BeJlHKOJ^yI^aH 

gentleman rocno;i,HH (oxMeHn) 

gently npHcxoJHo, Jiarano 

geography seM^bonnc 

German Hewa^KH; HeMaii; 

Germany HeMa^Ka 

get ;i;o6hxh; nocxaxH 

ghost ji;yx 


girl AGBOJKa 

give AaxH 

given ;i,ao 

glad pa^ocxaH, Beceo 

glass cxaKJio, ^ama 

globe rjro6, scm^. Kyrjia 

glorious cjaBaH 

glory cjiaBa 

glove pyKaBHii,a 

go hKh; to be — ing 6Hxn naRie- 

paH; to — on npo;i,yavHxn 
God Bor 
gold 3Jiaxo 
golden sjiaxaH 
gold-finger ;^0MaJiH (npcx) 
gone Hinao 
good jio6ap; — natured ,^o5po- 

good-bye c BoroM 
good-for-nothing HHrnxaBajio 
goods po6a 
goose rycKa 

govern ynpas^axH, Biaji;axH 
government ynpaBa, BJia^a 
gracious mhjiocxhb 
grace MOJiHXBa 
grain spno 
grammar rpaMaxHKa 
grand-duchy BejiHKa BoJBOjiiHHa 
grandfather ji,eA 
grandmother 6a6a, cxapa-MaJKa 
grapes rpojK^e 
grass xpasa 
grateful 6jiaro;iapaH 


English-Servian Vocabulary. 

gratitude 6.TaroAapHOCT 

great Be.iiiKH (^yxoai) 

Greek FpK; rp^KH 

green rie.ien (6oja) 

grey cub 

ground ochob; pa3.iior; ;iho 

grow pacTH 

guard qyBaxn; ^yBap; crpaJKa 

guest rocT 

guide BOt;, BO^lITH 

guilty KpHB, norpemaH 
gun Ton; nymKa 
gymnastics rHMHacTUKa. 


habit nasHKa 

had HMat/ax; HMao 

hail rpa^, naj^axK rpaji; 

hair Koca, BJiacn, ;!..iaKe 

half nojiOBHHa, iiojia 

halve npeiiojoBHTH 

hand pvKa 

handkerchief ijenna MapaMa 

handsome jieir, AHeaii 

handwriting pyKO-nHC 

hansom ;iBOKOjmii,e 

happen ioro;i,HTH ce, ;iiecHTH ce 

happy cpetan 

hard ;i;e2taK, TBpjt 

hardly je^Ba, c MyKOM 

hare sen, 

harm 6ojr, 3Jio 

harrow jip^aTH, B.!iaHHTH 

harvest SKCiBa 

hastily atypHo 

hat inemnp 

have HMaiH 

hay ceno 

he OH 

head rjiaea; — ache rjiaBo5oj5ba 

head-boy Haj6oiE)H t/aK 

heading naTiiHC, uacjiGB 

head-master ^^npeKiop 

heal H3Jie^HTH; 03ji,paBHTH 

health sjipaB^e 

healthy 3ji,paB 

hear nyxH 

heard nyx; nyo 

heart cpij.e; by — na ii3ycT 

heat BpytiHHa 

heaven He6o 

heavy Tea:aK (o Tepexy) 

Hebrew EBpemi; eepejcKH 

height BHCHHa 

heir uac^eAHHK 

help iioMohn ; noMoh 

hen KOKomKa 

hence nocjie, saxHM; oji,aBj^e 

her oua; H>oj; H>y h x. ;i;. 

here oBjie 

hereditary Hac^eAHii 

hero jynaK 

hesitation ycxesaite 

high BHCOK 

highly naJBHine; ysnmeHO 

him ifcera, aejiy 

his H>eroB 

history ncxopHJa, noBecHHii,a 

hock 6ejio bhho 

holiday npa3HHK; ocycxBO 

home oxaijOHHa; moji Kyte 

home exercise ;i,0Matie BeiK^aae 

honest ^acxan 

honesty nacxHocx, noraxeite 

honour (honor) ^acx 

hope HaAaxH ce' Ha^a 

horizon xopH30HX 

horse koh. 

hot xonaji, Bpyh; I am — mchh 

je BpyLsua 
hour nac, cax 
house KyLa 
housemaid cjiyjEasKa 
how KaKO? 

however Met/yxHM, ho, Hnait 
human HOBe^aHCKH 
humble noHHsan 
hungry Ma^an 
hurry Kypoa 
husband uym. 
hut K0.iH5a 
hyphen Be3Hn;a, ii;pxHu,a. 


I ja 

ice jieji; 

idle jies. 

idleness jieaocx 

if Aa, Ka^ 

ignorant He3HaJiHi];a 

ill 6ojecxaH, aao ; bjio 

illness 6ojiecx 

imagine 3aMHCJiHXH (ce) 

immediately OAMax, c Mecxa 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


immense orpoMan 

impassable nenpojiasaH 

importance saiKHOCT 

important BajKan 

improve nonpaBHTH 

include yMexHyxH 

income iipHxcji. 

inconvenience Hesro^a, sa^yna 

indeed sancia 

indistinct nejacaa 

industrious Map^LHB, BpejtaH 

industry HHjiycTpHJa, paAHHOCT 

infinitely 6ecKpajaH 

influence yxHuaj, ynjine 

inform HSBecTHTH 

ingathering caKyn^taite 

inhabit cxanoBaTH 

inhabitant cxanoBHHK 

ink MacxHJio 

inkstand MacxHOHHi];a 

inn KpHMa, Mexana 

innocent hgbhh 

instead of y mgcxo, Ha mccxo 

insult yBpe;i;HXH, narpAHTH 

intelligible jacan, pasroBexan 

intention HaMcpa 

interest HHxepec 

interval iiaysa 

into y, ynyxpa 

introduce yBecxn; npecxasHXH 

invitation iioanB 

invite no3BaxH 

Irishman Hpau; 

iron iBoa^lie 

irregular HenpaBHJiaH 

island, isle ocxpeo. 


James JaKOB 
Jane JoBanKa 
January janyap 
join BeaaxH 
joke majia 
journey nyx, -OBaite 
, joy pa;i;ocx 
judge cyATija 
judicial cy;i,CKH 
July jy.iH 
jump CKaitaxH 
June jyHH 

just Gain, ynpaBo; xa'iHO 
justice npaBjiia. 


keep ;ipjKaxH, nyBaxH 

key KJby^. 

kill y6HXH 

kind Bpcxa; ^y5a3aH 

kindle sanajinxH 

kingdom Kpa^bCBHea 

knee itojieHo 

knife iioat 

knock jiynaxH 

know 3HaxH, irosHasaxH 

knowledge snaite. 


laden naxoBapHxii 

lady rocnotja (oxMena) 

lake jeaepo 

lamb jarae 

land scM^a, HCKpii,axH ce 

landlady ra3;iiapHi;a 

lane (yjinniaX ji.pyM, nyx 

language jesHK 

large Be.iHKH (Kpynan) 

last nocjreAan; — night chhoK 

last xpajaxH 

late AOii,KaH; I am too — ja ao- 

jra3HM cyBHine AOii,KaH 
Latin JiaxHHCitH 
latitude reorp. mnpHHa 
laugh CMejaxH ce ; cmcj 
law 3aK0H 

lay jie^KaxH, nocxasHXH 
lazy jien. 
leader Bot^a 

leading article yBOJ^HH ^jranaK 
leading powder BejiHKa CHJia 
lead-pencil oJOBKa 
leaf jiHCx 

leap-year npecxynHa ro;iiHHa 
learn yquxs 
learned Hayieii 
least naJMaan 
leave nanycxHXH, oxnyxoBaxn; 

leg Hora 

lend no3aJMHXH (hji; HOKora) 
length ;i;y;KHHa 
lesson ^ac HacxaBe 
let nycxHXH 
letter bhcmo 
Lewis JFyABHr, .Zbyj^BBHr 
liar jiaiKOB 


English-Servian Vocabulary. 

liberty c.io6o;i;a 
library CHOJiHOxeKa 
lie jiaraTH; jiaa: 
life atHBOT 
light jiaK 

light (S.) CBBTJIOCT 

lighten ceeaTH 

lightning MyH>a 

like BOJieTH; I should — ja 6hx 

xxeo; how do you — ? KaKO 

BaM ce JI;o^a;^a? 
lily ^H^ae, KpHH 
limited to orpanHHeH na 
line jiHHHJa, ii,pTa 
lip ycHa 
liquid TeHHOCT 
list jiHCTa 

listen cjymaTH, o6paTHTH naaeay 
literally oa pe'iH ;i;o pe^n, 6yKBajiH0 
live atHBeiH, cxanoBHTH 
liver ii;pHa ijHrepHii;a 
lodge CTaHOBaxH 
lodging cxan 
logic JiorHKa, jrorniaH 
long ;i.yraqaK 
longer ^y^H 
look HsrjiejiaxH, rjieAaxn; norjie^; 

BHAn! — for xpamnxH 
lord Jiop;i;; rocno^HH; ra3;^a 
lose H3ry6HXH 
Iqss ry6HxaK 
lot cy;ii6a, yjiiec 
love ^y6HXH; ji.y6aB 
lovely ^y6a3aH 
low Jiaran; HH3aK 
luck cpeKa 
luggage npxibar; — office ojiic- 

^eae 3a npx^tar; — van Koja 

3a npx^bar 
lump KOMaji;, rpyji;Ba 
lungs njiyta; 6ejia ^rHrepHu.a. 


machine Maranna 

madam rocnol/a 

made hhhhx; qHHHo; iipaBHx; 

magazine Maraii,HH 
magnificent BejiH^aHCXBCH, AHBae 
majesty BdHHaHCXBO 
mail-van nomxaHCKa KOJia 

make ^nnnxH, npaBHxn; to — out 
H3HaliH; to — fun of riOACMG- 
BaxH ce 

make haste atypHXH ce 

man ^obck; — of war paxna Jia^a 

manly HOBenaHCKH, ^y^cKH 

manner na^HH ; noHamaite 

man-servant cjiyra 

manual art py^iHH pa^ 

manufacturers (j)a6pHKaxH 

many MHorn, BHme itHx 

map Mana 

March iiapx 

march xoji;; xoj^axH, bYivl 

mariner Maxpo3, Jial:)ap 

mark ii,h^; 03na^HXH 

marriage CBa;i;5a 

marry oiKeimxH ce; y^axn ce 

Mary Mapnja 

master rocno;i;ap ; Majcxop ; y^Hxe./B 

masterpiette peMeK-^ejio 

matter cxBap; noBoji.; what is 
the — with you? mxa xh je? 

May Maj 

may (1) cmcm, Mory 

me MGHH, Mene 

meadow Jinsasa 

meal o.5e;^, o6poK 

meaning CMHcao 

meant MHin^ax; mhc.iho 

meantime, in the — sa xo Bpeiie 

meat mcco 

meet cpecxH 

meeting ceAHHii,a; 36op 

melancholy cnyatj^eHocx 

melt xonnxH ce 

member HJian 

memorable snaMeHHx 

mention noMeeyxH 

merchant xproBan; 

mercy mhjiocx 

mere ^hcx 

merry pacnojoateH, Be^ap, Beceo 

metal Mexai 

method Mexojiia 

midday no;iiHe 

middle cpe^HHa 

might Mot, CHJia 

mighty MoiaH, cHJiaH 

mild xHx, 6jiar 

military bojuh 

milk MJieKo 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


million mhjihoh 

mind so^^a; CMHcao; ;i,yx 

mine Moj (caMociajieo) 

mineral MHHepaji 

minute MHiiyr 

misfortune Hecpeha 

miss norpeuiHTH, iio6pKaTn 

Miss rocno^nii;a 

mistake norpemKa 

mistaken, to be — 6hth na no- 

rpemnoM nyxy, sapaTH ce 
Mister (Mr.) rocnoAHH 
Mistress (Mrs.) rocno^a 
mix iioMeinaTH 
modest yMepen 
moment TpeayraK 
monarch Monapx 
Monday uonejieJhSiK 
money HOBan; 
monk Kajiyt)ep, Monax 
monument cnoMenHK 
moon Mecen; (na iie6y) 
more BHrae; no — HHuiTa BHrne 
morning jyxpo; in the — h3 

JyTpa, y jyrpy 
morning-gown jyTapita xa^nna 
mortar MajEiep 
most HaJBHffle, Behnna 
mother MaJKa 
motion H36yi|eH»e 
motive yspoK, mothb 
mount up nonOTH ce 
mountain 5per, njiaHHHa 
mountainous 6peroBHT 
mouse MHin 
mou8tache(s) 6pK0BH 
mouth ycxa ; by word of — yc- 


move noKpeiaiH ce; cejiHTii ce 


mower Koca^ 

much MHoro 

murder y6HTH 

museum Mysej 

music MysHKa 

music-book KH>Hra c HoiaMa sa 

music-lesson nac MysHKe 
music-master y^HTe^B MysHKC 
must (MopaTH) MopaM 
mutton OBHOCKO (neco) 
my Moj (HecaMocTajHo). 

naked ro 

name hmc; what is the — KaKO 

ce 30Be?; by — hmchom 
namely nanMe 
nasty ra^an, rpoaan; pyatan 
nation napoA 
national HapojtHH 
national school ocnoBHa mKOJia 
native pot^eiin, ypot/eHHit; — 

country 0Tai;[6HHa 
nature IIpHpo;^a 
naughty Hey.^yiaH 
naval iioMopcKH 
navigator MopenjiOBan; 
near 6jiH3y, y 6.ih3hhh 
neccessary noTpe6aH; — of life 

acHBOTHa noTpe6a 
need noTpe6oBaTH 
neighbour cyceji; 
neighbourhood cycecTBO 
neglect saHOAiapHTH 
never imKaji; 
new HOB 


newspaper hobehc 

next Haj6jiHatH,;i;etn, H;^yhn 

nice Jieii, .i>y6aK 

niece nehaKa 

night Hot 

nightingale cjiasyj 

nine jijcbbt 

no HH je^an, hhko 

noble njieMHK, njiCMeHHT 

noise jiapMa 

none hh jejuaH; hhko 

nor HH, HH — HH 

nose HOC 

nosegay pyKOBex, 6yKeT 

not He 

nothing HnniTa 

notice, to take — npHMexHTH, 

November H0BeM6ap 
now caji;, caji,a 
nugget ipyAua 3JiaTa 
nut opax. 


oak xpacT 

oath 3aKieTBa [noKopan 

obedient (noHHsan), nocjiyraaH, 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 

obey noKopasaTH ce 

oblige ooaBecTH, aajiyatniH 

observatory 3Be3Aapa 

observe npHMexHTu 

obtain iipHMUxE, ;^o6HTH 

occasion iipujiHKa 

occupation saysexocT 

occupy 3ay3HMaxH 

ocean oKean 

October oKTo(5ap 

of o;^, c 

oflfence yBpe^a 

offer noHy^HXH 

office cjiyatoa 

officer o({)Hii,Hp 

official cjiy;K6eHHK; cJiyjK^eHH 

often HGCTo 

oil jjhe 

old cxap 

omit nponycxHXH 

omnibus OMHHoyc 

on Ha, Koji,; /i,a^e 

once joahom; at — oji, je^annyT 

one je^aH; ^oBeK; ce 

only caMO 

open OTBopnxH 

opinion MHin;beH»e 

opportunity npnjiHKa, 3ro;i;a 

opposite npeito-nyxa, na cynpoT 

or HJin 

orange noMopaHi^a, uepanija 

orchard BotiH»aK 

ornament yKpac, naKHT 

other ji,pyrH 

ought wopax 

our Ham 

out H3, oji;- 

over npCKO, nopejt 

overtake naBajinxH 

owe 6hth ji,ya?aH; ^yroBaxn 

own concTBen. 


pack naKOBaiH 

page cxpana (y kh>h3h); naa: 

paid HJiaxHx, iijiaTHo 

pain 6oji 

paint cjiHKaxH 

painter cjiHKap 

painting cjiHKa 

pair nap 

palace najiaia, ^Bop, 3aMaK 

pane okho y npo3opy 

parents poAHxe^H 

Paris llapns 

parliament napjiaMenx 

part AGO 

partial npncxpacap 

party ApyuiTBO 

pass npohn 

passage iipajia3 

patience cxpn^eae 

patient cxpne^HB 

patron aamxnxHHK; ras^a 

pave Kajifl,pMHcaxH 

pay njiaxHXH 

pea rpamaK 

peace MHp 

pear KpyuiKa 

peasant ce^aK 

pen nepo 

pen-case ysjiaKa (sa nepo) 

pen-holder Apa^aisa 

people napoA; cBex; nacejinxn 

perceive onasHXH 

perfect caBpmeH 

peril onacHOCx 

perpetual Be^mx, cxajiae 

person, jih^hocx 

persuade yBcpHXH 

petition Mo;i6a 

phrase pe^ienni^a, H3pa3 

physics (i)H3HKa 

picture cjiHKa (6ojaMa) 

piece KOMaA; nap^e 

pig CBEaa 

pigeon rojiy6 

pink KapaH4)HJi 

pious no6ojKaH 

pipe Jiyjia 

pistol IlHfflXO,^ 

place Mecxo 

plague HGcpetia; Kyra 

plan njian, Haii,px 

plant 6H^Ka 

plaster Majixep 

plate xaanp 

platform n,iax(})opMa ; KpoB 

play nrpaxH ce; nrpa 

playground nrpajiHrnxe 

play-wright nosopEfflHH iiHcan; 

please mojihm Bac; if you — aKO 

BaM je no BO^^H 

pleasure saAOBOiBCXBO 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


plenty mhoihtbo 

plough njiyr; opaTH 

plum-tree m^HBa 

pocket i;ren; — handkerchief 

ijenna Mapana 
poem necMa cneB 
poet necHHK 
point Ta^Ka 
point out o6jacHHTH 
police nojiHii,HJa 
polite yiTHB 
politics nojiHTHKa 
pond 6apa 
poor CHpoMax 
poorly cnpoMaaiKH, 6ejiiH0 
population Hace^LOHocT 
populous Hace^LBH 
pork CBHiLeTHHa 
port npncTaHHuiTe 
porter Hoca^; cjyjKHTeib 
position nojiojKaj 
possess HMaTH, noccAOBaTH 
possession HMaH>e 
post nomTa 

post-office nomxa (arpajta) 
potato KpoMnnp 
poultry atHBHHa 
pound (j)yHTa 
power CHJia, moK 
powerful CHJiaH; MotiaH 
praise xBaJiiLTH; XBajia, cjiaBa 
pray mojihth 
prayer MOJiHiBa 
precious ;^pa^0I];eH 
prefer Bnme BOJieTH, npeTnocTa- 

preparation npnnpeMaae 
prepare npHnpeMaxn 
presence ca;i,amitocT 
present hoooheth; npecxaBHTH 
press npnxHCKaxH 
pretty Jien; npHjia^no 
prevent ripenpe^nxH; ca^ysaxH 
prime Mjia^iiocx; ii,Bex MiaAOCxH 
prince npHHU, khcs; — royal 

Kpa^BBCKH npuHii; 
princess iipHHii;e3a, Kaernaa 
principal rjiaBHH 
principality KHemeBHHa 
printer mxaMnap 
prison saxBop, anc 
prisoner saxo'ieHHK, 

private npHBaxan 
prize ii,eHa 
probable BepoBaxan 
probably BcpoBaxHO 
proceed Hanpe;i;oBaxH 
produce hsbgahxh, npoHSBo^HXH 
product iipoH3Bo;i; 
professor npo^ecop 
profit J^o6Hx 

promise o6etiaxH; o6etaH>e 
pronounce naroBapaxH 
pronounciation HsroBop 
proof ji;oKa3 

proper concxBGH, cbojcxbch 
properly npHCxoJHO 
property HMaite, CBOJHna 
proprietor coricxBeHHK 
prorogue oji.roAHXH 
prospect H3^JIeJ^ 
protect samxnliaBaxH 
prove ;i;oKa3axH 
provide CHa6ji,exH 
province noKpaJHHa 
prudent namexan 
Prussia IIpycKa 
Prussian Ilpyc, npycKH 
public jaean 

pudding nyji,HHr (eHU. jejo) 
punctual xa^an 
punctuality xa^Hocx 
punish Ka3HHXH 
pupil y^eHHK^ 
pure HHCx 
purpose ujijb 

purse KGca, HOBnanHK; 6ep3a 
put MexyxH, cxasHXH; — on o6y- 
tiH; — off o;i;jro;KHXH. 

quality KaKBoha 
quantity KOJiHHHHa 
quarter ^exBpxHua 
queen Kpa^iiii,a 
question nnxaae 
quick(ly) 5p3; 6p30 
quiet MHpaH, xhx 
quite cacBHM 
quotient KOJinnnnK. 


race paca, poji; 

rage 6ecHBJio; 6ecHHXH 

Servian grammar. 



English-Servian Vocabulary. 

railway aie;Be3HHii;a 

rain KHina; ;^a/KAHTH 

rainy khihobht 

raise ysAHtn 

rank paur, cxenen 

rapid 6p3 

rat nauiOB 

rather pa^HJe; npajimno 

raw rpy6, cnpoB 

reach ;^ocTHtlH, nocTHrnyTH 

read ^HTain 

reader \^ 

reading-book / 

ready roTOB 

real ciBapan; hcthhht 

rear ipsaTH ce 

reason paajior 

reasonable pasjroacaii; yMepen 

receipt npnjeM 

receive npHMHin 

reckon paHynaTH 

reckoning pa^ynaae, pa^ye 

red ii;pBeH 

refer oihochth ce 

refreshing ocBeJKaBajyti 

reginaent nyK, perHMenia 

regret caaea^SBaTH 

regular npasHjiaH 

reign ynpasa; ynpaBAaxH 

relate npn^axH 

remain ocTaxH 

remainder ocTaxaK 

remark npMMeA6a 

remarkable SHaxae 

remedy JieKapHJa 

remember ceKaxH ce 

remembrance ceKaae 

remote yia^en 

renown yrjieji;, cjasa 

repair iionpaBHXH 

repeat nonoBHXH 

reply o;i,roBopHXH, oji;roBop 

report HSBemxaj 

repose oji;MapaxH ce; o^Mop 

representive 3acxynHHK 

require saxxcBaxH 

resemble HajininxH 

reside cxanoBaxn 

residence o6HxajiHfflxe 

resolve ojiiiy^HXH (ce) 

respect nomxoBaite 

restaurant rocxHOHHii,a 

retire noByLn ce 

return iiOBpaxHXH ce 

review nperjie;^ 

ribbon naHx^^HKa 

rich 6orax 

riches ooracxBO 

ride jaxaxn 

right npas; I am — ja luiaM 

ring npcxcH 
ring 3B0HHXH 
riot no6yHa 
riotous y36yH;bHB 
rise ycxaxH 
river peKa 
road (yjHii;a), ApyM 
roast netiH 

roast beef roBel/e ne^eae 
rock cxena 
roll Koxp^axH 

Eoman phmckh; PHM^^anHH 
roof KpOB 
room co6a 
root Kopen 
rose pyjsa 
round oKpyrao 
route nyxHH njian 
royal Kpa^eBCKH 
rude cnpoB, rpy6 
ruins pasBajinne 
rule npaBHjio; ynpasibaxH 
ruler .leftHp 
run xpnaxH 
lural 3eM.^opaji;eHii>H 
rush HanacxH; irpcnyxH 
rusty 3ap^o. 

said peKOx; peKao 

sail njioBHXH, je^pHXH 

sailor jial/ap 

saloon caJiOH 

salt CO 

same hcxh 

sand necaK 

satchel mKOjrcKa xop5a 

satisfied 3aJ^OBo^aH 

Saturday cy6oxa 

save cnacxH 

saying (roBopeLn) 

says OH KasKC 

scarce(ly) je;i,Ba, xgk 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


scarlet raap;rax 

scene i^eea, nojaBa 

scent MHpnc 

school niKOja 

science sHaite 

Scotch IIIkot; uikotckh 

scythe Koca 

sea Mope 

sea- sick 6o.iecTaH oji; MopcKC 60- 

sea-sickness MopcKa 6ojiecT 
season roj^nmBbe BpcMe, cesona 
seat cejiiHiuTe 
seated ce;i;eLH 
second ccKynj^a 
secret laJHa 
see (oeAaTn) BH;i,eTH 
seed ccMe, ceMCHKa 
seem Har.ieAaxH; ^hhhth ce 
seen bhaco 
seize 3rpa6HTH 
sell ^po;^aBaTH 

send nocjiaTH; — for nosBaiH 
sense CMHcao; ocetaj 
sentence pe^eHHu,a 
separate pasABoJHXH 
September cenTeM6ap 
sergeant Hapeji;HHK 
serious 036H^aH 
sermon roeop 
servant cjiyra 
serve cjiyatHTH 
session ceji;HHii;a 


seven 7 

several BHme h>hx 

severe(ly) cxporo 

shade ccHKa, aaceHaa 

shadow (jia;i,OBHHa), ccHKa 

shape npHjiHKa; bhj^ 

share jiejinxn 

sharp omxap 

shatter pasopnxH, paspymnxH 

she GHa 

sheep OBii,a 

shilling iDHJiHHr (1,25 ^hh.) 

shinbone ro-ien, ii;eBaHHii,a 

shine cnjaxH; H3rjie;iiaxH 

shining cjajaH 

ship jia^ 

shirt Komy^a 

shock y;i;ap 

shocking cxpaman 
shoe o6yiia (i^nne.ia) 
shop AyliaH, pa^ita 
shore odajia 
short KpaxaK 
shoulder paMCHa 

shout 3BaXH, BHKaXH 

show noKa3axH 
shut saxBopHXH 
sick 6ojiecxaH 
sigh ysjiHcaj 
sight BHl^eae, norjieji; 
sign 3HaK; iioxnHcaxH 
signal cnrHaJT, 3HaK 
silence tyxaae, xHinniia 
silent tyxAHB, xhx, Mnpan 
silver cpe6po; cpe6pHXH 
simple npocx 
simplicity npocxoxa 
sin rpex, rpexoxa 
since oa, oji; Kaji; 
sincere HCKpen 
singular jejiHHCXBeH, napo^Hx 
sir rocnoxHH (caMocxajHo); Mister 
(y3 HMe); gentleman (y onmxe) 
sister cecxpa 
sit cecxH 
situated nojioateH 
skate xon,H^axH ce 
skilful oKpexaH, Bemx 
sky Heoo 
sleep cnaBaxH 

slide oMaKHyxH ce, 0KJiH3HyxH ce 
slow Jiaran 
small MaJH 

smile CMeniKaxH ce; ocMejaK 
smoke ;iiHM; nymnxH 
snow CHsr, (na;i;axH cner) 
so xaKO 

soft MCK 

soil 3eM^Hfflxe 
soldier bojhhk 
solemnity CBe^anocx 


something neinxo 
sometimes no Ka;i;-Kaj^ 

son CHH 

song iiecMa 

soon CKopo, ycKopo 

sorrow 6pHra; xyra 

sorrowful atajiocxan [je 

sorry atajiocxaH; I am — atao mh 



English-Servian Vocabulary. 

sort Bpcra 

soul Ayuia 

sound jeK, 3ByK 

soup cyiia, Hop6a 

source iisBop 

south jyr 

southern jyatHH 

sovereign cyBepen, rociiojiap 

sow cejaTH 

sow KpMa^a 

spare niTeAeTH 

spark HCKpa, BapHHii;a 

speak roBopHTH 

special school cxpy^Ha niKOJia 

spectacles nao^apH 

spend iioxpofflHo 

spirit jtyx 

spiritual ji;yxoBHH 

splendid ;i,HBaH, cjajaH 

spoke roBopax 

spoken roBopHO 

sponge cynt/ep 

spoon KamHKa 

spot MeCTO 

square HexBpTacT 

square mile KBaji;paTHa MH^Ba 

stable mxaia, cxaja 

stack roMHJia 

staff mxan 

stammer 3aMyi],KHBaxH 

stand cxajaxH; — up ycxaxH 

standard sacxaBa 

star 3Be3Aa 

start oxHtiH, o;i,BecxH ce 

state ^^pataBa 

statesman ;i.pjKaBHHK 

station cxaHHii,a 

stay ocxaxH 

steal KpacxH 

steamer napo5poji; 

steel-pen TiejiHiHo nepo 

steep CXpM, -GHHX 

steeple upkbghh xopait 

step out HCxynHXH 

stick fflxaii 

still joni; yseK 

stillness xHuiHHa, MHp 

stolen yKpao 

stomach cxoMaK, 5Kejiy;i,aD; 

stone KaMCH 

stood cxajax 

stop saycxaBHXH (ce) 

story HcxopHJa; npnqa 

stout II HBO saxBopene 6oje 

stove neli 

strand Kpaj, ooajia 

strange cxpaii, xyh 

straw cjiaMa 

strawberry jaro;ia 

stream BGJiHKa peKa 

strength jainna, CHara 

strike y;i;apHXH 

stroke yji.ap 

strong jaK, cHaataH 

student ynenHK, cxy;i;eHx 

study yHHXH 

subject no;i;iiHHHXH; ^o;^ajeHK 

subtract noji,^HHHXH ojiiyaexH 

succeed ycnexn; I — in doing 

Hciiajio MH je aa pyKOM 
success ycnex 
successful ycneman 
succession nocxeneHOCx 
such xaKaB 
sudden(ly) H3HeHaji;a 
suffering naxaa 
sufficient jnoBO^taH 
sufficiently ji^oBOJhuo 
sugar jneiiep 

suit oji;ej[o ; npncxcjaxH, 6hxh xamaH 
sum cyMa, (hshoc) 
summer jiexo 
sun cyHii.e 

Sunday Heji;eita(npBH ji;aH ce;^MHii,e) 
superiority HaAMamaj ; yaBameHOCx 
supper BeqepaxH; Be^epa; at — 

3a Be^epoM 
supply 3aji;oBOibHXH ; CHa6;i;exH 
sure CHxypaH 
surface iioBpfflnna 
surprised H3HeHa^eH 
swallow nporyxaxH 
swear laexH (ce) 
sweat 3H0JHXH ce; 3Hoj 
sweep ^hcxhxh; 6pHcaxH 
sweet cjia;i.aK 
sword Ma^ 
system cncxeMa. 


table cxo; acxaji 
tailor Kpojai 

take yaexH; — leave oxhLh, 
onpocxHXH ce 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


taken yseo; sayseT 
talent ^ap, Tajienr 
talk roBopiiTH, pasrosapaTH 
task sajtaiaK 
taste ynyc 
tea naj, xej 
teach noy^aBaxH 
teacher y^Hie^ 
tear cysa 
tear pacTprnyTH 

technical school TexHHKa niKOJia 
tedious j^ocaj^aH 
tell KaaaxH; petn 
temples cjiene ohh 
temporal CBeTCKH; seMa^CKH 
ten 10 

tender ne^Kan 
terrible CTpaman 
territory noKpaJHHa 
Thames TeM3a 
than Hero, oa (y3 KOMiiap.) 
thank aaxBajinxH (ce) 
thanks! XBajia! 
that oHaj 

the OAp. 4JiaH (laj, la, to, th, le, xa) 
theatre nosopnuixe 
their h>hxob 
them H>Hx, H>HMa 
then oH^a, Ta;i;a 
there xaMo 

thereupou noxoM, saxHM 
these OBH 
! they ohh 
thick jiie6eo, rycx 
thief jionoB 
thigh 6yxHHa, 6e;^po 
thin xanaK 
thing cxBap 
think mhcjIHxh 
thirsty atCAan; to be — ,6nTH 

this onaj 

thorough xeMeiBHx; pasjioHiaii 

those OHH (noK. saM.) 

though Maji;a, npenjia 

thousand xH^a^a, xHcyfia 

three 3 

throne npecxo 

through Kpo3; noMoiiy 

throughout Europe Kpo3 u^e^j 

throw 6aiiiHXH; xHxaii, 

thumb iiajiaij; 

thunder rpaiexn; rpoM 

thunderstorm nenoroAa, o.iyja 

Thursday ^exBpxaK 

thus xaKO, Ha xaj Hagnn 

ticket icapxa (sa noABOs); return 

— iiOBpaxna Kapxa; circular 

— Kapxa 3a KpyatHo nyxosaae 
till ;i;o, AOK 

time BpeMe; nyxa; in — na speMe 
time-table pacnopeji; nacoBa, — 

tired yMopan 

title THxyjia, Ha3HB, HacnoB 
tobacco ji;yBan 
to-day ;i;aHac 
toe npcx Ha ho3H 
token 3HaK 
told peKox; pcKao 
tomb rpo6 
to-morrow cyxpa 
tongue jesHK 
too cyBHme; xaKo^e 
took y3ex 
tooth 3y6 

toothache 3y6o6o^a 
tool cnpaBa, ajiax 
top Bpx 

torrent 6yJHij,a, (noxoK) 
toss 6aii;HTH; xpecxn, j^pmaxH 
touch jinpnyxH, iinnaxH 
tow^ards npeiyia 
tower Kyjia 
town rpaA, Bapoin 
twopence 2 nenn, -a 
tract paBHHHa 
trade HHiycxpHJa, aanax 
traffic caoopaliaj 
train bo3 ; fast, express — 5p3H-B03 
tram xpaMBaj, BapomKa JKeje3HHi],a 
translate npcBecxH 
translation npeBO^i; 
transport o;i;bo3hxh, npeHocHXH 
travel nyxoBaxH 
traveller nyxHHK 
treason H3ji.ajcxB0 
treasure 6jiaro 
treat nocxynaxn 
tree jiipso 

tremendous cxpaxoBHx 
trial HCHHT, McnHXHBaae; day of 

— ji;aH cac.iymaiBa 


English-Servian Vocabulary. 

trouble yaneMHpHTH, ;i,ocat;HBaTH ; 

troublesome j^ocaAan 
trousers iiaHiajioHe, ^aKuinpe 
true ncTHHiiT; HCTHHa 

truly HCTHHHT 

trunk (npx^Lar), Ky(()ep, Top6a 

truth HCTHHa 

try noKymaTH, iipo5aTH 

Tuesday yxopaK 

tulip .lajia 

turn OKpeHyxn; peji; 

turnips 6ejra pena 

twentieth jJiBa^eceTH 

two 2 

tyranny THpannja 

tyrant iHpaHHH. 

ugly ra;i;aH, pyjKan 

umbrella Knmo5pan 

under Hcnojn 

understand paayMeiH 

uneasy neBeceo, sjEOBO^an 

unhappy HecpetiaH 

unit je;iHHHii.a 

unless aKo ne, naa' jiia 

unsuccessful HeycHemaH 

until ;i;o, jigk 

unto = to 

unwell 6ojiecTan, pt/aB 

unwilling HexoTHHae 

unworthy 6e3 Bpe;i,HocTH 

upholsterer npoAaBaii, HaMemxaja 

upon Ha 

use ynoTpe6a 

use ynoxpe6ibaBaxH, HMaxH ooH^aj 

useful KopncxaH 

usual odniaH. 

vain cyjexan 

valuable n,eH>eHH, jiparon^en 

value Bpe^Hocx; H,eHHXH 

various pasHOBpcaH 

veal xejietiHHa 

vegetables se^e 

vehicle cpecxBo aa Boacay 

vein JKHjia 

Venice BeHen,HJa 

very Bpjio 

vest in yjioatHXH 

via Belgrade iipeKo LeorpaAa 
vice nopoK 
vicious nopoHan 
victorious no6eAOHocau 
victory no6eAa 
view norjieji 
village cejio 
violent CHaatan, jaK 
violet ^y6HMHua 
visit nocexa 
visitor nocexHJian; 
voice rjiac 
voiced rjiacan 
voiceless 6e3rjiacaH 
volume CBecKa (itaH. Kanre) 
vote ojio6pHXH; rjiac 
vowel BOKaji, caMorjiacHHK 
voyage nyxoBaae (no Mopy). 


waggon KOJia (xepexna) 

waistcoat npcjyK 

w^ait HCKaxH; — on npecxaen- 

TH ce 
waiting-room HeKaoHHii.a 
walk hKh, inexaxH 
want noTpe6oBaxH 
war pax 
ware po6a 
warlike paxo6opaH 
warm xonaji, spyh 
warrior paxHHK 
was 6ejax 
wash npaxH 

watch cax (i^enHn), HacoBHHK 
water Bo;i;a 
way nyx; na^HH ; cpecxBa 

we MH 

wealth 6oraCTBO 

wear hochxh (na ceon [o^ejio . .]) 

w^eather Bpene 

Wednesday cpe^a 

week nejieiba, ceji;MHii,a 

weight xeatHHa 

well jioSap, 3;i;paB 

were 6ejacM0 h x. ji;. 

wet MOKap 

what mxo, mxa; KaKaB 

when Kaji;, nofflxo 

whether jta jih 

whilst } '^ ^P^^'« 

English-Servian Vocabulary. 


whistle immTa^Ka 

white 6eo 

Whitsuntide JI^yxoBH, CB.TpoJHii.a 

who KG 

w^hole 11,60 

whom KOMe, Kora 

whose TiHJH 

why saniTO 

widow y;^0BH^a 

wild mvJhTi 

will Bo^a 

William Bn^en 

win ;^o5ETH; no6e;i.HTH 

wind BGiap 

window iipo3op 

windy BeipoBHT 

wine BHHo 

winter 3HMa (ro;^. speMe) 

wisdom MYjiipocT 

wise Myj^ap 

wit ji;oceTKa, ayxubhtoct 

with c, ca 

without 5e3 

witness noxsp^a 

w^itty ji.yxoBHT 

wolf ByK, KypjaK 

woman atena 

women ateHe 

wonder ^y;i,HTH ce; Hyji;o 

wonderful j^HBan; HyJ^HOBaT 

wood ;^pB0 (sa ropHBo); myMa 

wool ByHa 

word pe^ 

work pa;^, nocao; paAHTH 

world CBex 

worm upB 

worse ropH 

worst HajropH 

worth Bpe^HOCT 

worthy Bpeji.aH ('jtparon.eH) 

wound paHHTH; pana 

wretched 6e;ian, jajian 

write nHcaxH 

WTiter nncan;, ayrop 

writing iincaae, cnnc 

writing-materials nHcahH npH6op 

written nncao 

wrong HeiipaBo; I am — ja ne- 

MaM npaBo 
wrote nncax. 

yard apmHH; ;tBopHinTe 

year roj;HHa 

yellow atyx 

yes jecx, Aa 

yesterday jy^e 

yet caji;, Beti; not — jom ne 

you BE, XH, Bac H X. A- 

young MJiaji; 

your Baiu, xboj h x. h. 

youth MJiSifljih.; MJiaAOCx. 


zeal Map^HBOcx, xpy^o^byo^e 
zone 30Ha. 


Servian -English Vocabulary. 


a conj. and; but. 

a6ep 711, new; announcement, 

asrycT m. August 
aBCT f. ghost 
ara m. lord; master 
a;ii m. hell 
aji;a f. islet 
a;^B6KaT m. lawyer 
ajiiex m. custom 
anni^ap m. jewel 
aatji;aja f. dragoon 
a36yKa f, alphabet 
ajge! inter j. come!; go! 
aJAyK m. bandit 
ajiax m. instrument; tool 
ana conj. but 
aM6Hc w. precipice 
anocTOJi m. apostle 
anocTpo(|) m. apostrophe 
anoTCKa f. pharmacy 
anpHJi m. April 
apfflHH m. arshin, yard 
acTaji m. table 
ax! inter j. ah! 
amiiKOBaTH, -KyjoM to court 
amoB m. shovel. 

6a5a f, grandmother 
6a5oBHHa f, inheritance 
6aBHTH ce, -HM ce to remain; to 

busy oneself 
6aB.i)eH)e n. the stay, sojourn 
6aJ^aBa adj. gratis, for nothing 
6aji;eM f. almond 
6aJKa f. fable 
6aKa f. old woman 
6aKap m. copper 
6aKpa^ m. kettle 
6aKpeH, -a, -o of copper, copper 

- (adj.) 
6aKfflHin m. a tip, drink-money 
6aH)a f. bath 
6ap adv. at least 
6apjaK m. the flag 
6ap6H m, baron 

6acna f. fable (see 6aJKa) 

6aTHHa f. stick 

6ai];aTH, -hm throw, cast 

6am adv. just 

6amTa f. garden 

6e! inter j. bah! 

6e6a f. baby 

6eji;a f. misery 

6e3 prep, without 

6e3CieAan; -ji,Ea, -jiho sure, safe 

5e35o}KaH, -atna, -atHO impious 

6ejiHTn, -HM to whiten 

6ep6a f. crop 

6ec m. rage 

6ece;iia /". speech 

6ecKoea^aH, -nna, -hho endless 

6ecKpajaH, -jea, -JHO endless 

6ecMHCJiHi];a /*. nonsense 

6ecMpTaH, -THa, -tho immortal 

6ecHHJio n. rage (see; 6ec) 

6ecHHTH, -HM to be enraged 

6ernocjieH, -Jiena, -jeno out of 

6ecnpaBaH, -BHa, -bho illegal 
6etiap m. bachelor 
6H6ep m, pepper 
6hbo, -BOJia m. buffalo 
6Hcep m. pearl 

6HCTap, -Tpa, -Tpo limpid, clear 
6hth, jecaM, 6ho to be 
6hth, 6HJeM to beat 
6HTKa f. battle 
6wi m. whip 
6jiaraJHHK m. treasurer 
6jiaro adv. soft, shght, mild 
6j[arojiapaH adj. thankful 
6jaroji,apHTH to thank 
6jiarocjiOB m. blessing 
6jiarocT f. mildness 
6jiarocTaH,e n. welfare 
6jiaT0 n. mud 
5jie;i;; -a, -o pale 
6jiH^e adv. nearer 
6jih3o, 6jiH3y adv, near 
666 m. 2L kind of beans 
B6r m. God 
6ora./b m. lame, cripple 
6oraT, -a, -o rich 
6oratieH)e n. enriching 

Servian-English Vocabulary. 


()oraniTnHa f. richness, wealth 
66rMe interj, upon my word 
66atHli m. Christmas 
6oaEtJH, -ja, -je divine; heavenly 
66j m. battle 
66ja f. colour 
6oihiKJhVLB^ -a, -0 timid; shy 
6oja3aH, -3HH f. fear 
6ojaTH ce to be afraid 
66JHTH, -HM to colour, to dye 
6oK m. side, flank 
66jiecT f. illness 
6oj[eTH, 5ojiH to ache 
6bjhe adv. better 
6bjbii, -a, -e adj, better 
66p m, pine-tree 
66pa f. wrinkle 
6opaBaK m. stay, sojourn 
60CTH, 5oji;eM to prick, to sting 
6paBa f. lock 
6paAa f. chin, beard 
6paK m. marriage 
6paHHTH, -HM to defend 
6paT m. brother 
5p;i;o n. mountain 
6peMe, -eea n. burden, load 
6p3, -a, -0 adj. rapidity, quick- 
6p3HHa f. rapid, quick 
6p30 adv. rapidly, quickly 
6pK m. moustache 
5pojiaH, -;i;Ha, -;tHO navigable 
6po;i;HTH to navigate, to sail 
5poAOJioM m. shipwreck 
6p6j m. number 
6y;i;yLH, -a, -e adj. future 
5y;^yiiH0CT f. the future 
5yjra f, Turkish woman 
6yji6yji m. nightingale 
6ype, -exa n. barrel 
5yi;ia f. club; heavy weapon 


BaAHTH, -HM to take out 
BaaeaH, -JKna, -jkho adj. impor- 
BaatHTH, -HM to be worth 
BaatHocT f. importance 
Basjta adv. always 
Basiyx m. the air 
Ba3;iyfflaH, -mna, -mHO of air, airy 

Baj m. wave 

BajiOBHT, -a, -0 waving, undula- 

sa^Ban, -a, -0 good ; honest, nice, 

Bd^aiH, -aM to roll 

BaiBaTH, -aM to be usefnl 

BapaTH, -aM deceive 

Bapoin, -H town, city 

BacKpc Easter 

Bam, -a, -e pron. your 

Beat6aH.e n. exercise 

Be3K5aTH ce to practise 

Bes m. embroidery 

BGK m. century 

BeKOBe^aH, -^na, -hho eternal 

BejieH3j^aja f. high treason 

BejiHKH, -a, -0 great, large 

BejiHHancTBee adj. magnificent 

BejinnaHCTBO n. Majesty 

BejiH^aTH, -aM to enlarge 

BCJiHHHea f. greatness 

BCHime n. wedding 

Bepa f. religion 

Bepan adj. faithful 

B^peae n. betrothal 

BepHTH, -HM to betroth 

Becjiaae, n. rowing 

BecJiaxH V. to row 

BecJio, n. row 

BecHHK m. nuncio 

BecT f. new 

B^Tap m, wind 

BeTpHTH V. to air, to ventilate 

Betna dj. greater, larger 

BetiHHa f. majority 

setiMa adv. more 

BG^an adj. eternal 

Be^e n., se^ep f. evening 

Be^epHja^a /*. evening star, Venus 

Be^epoM adv. in the evening 

Be^HT adj. eternal 

Be^HOCT f. eternity 

Bemajia n. pi. gibbet 

BeraaiH v. to hang 

BeniT adj. clever 

BeuiTHHa f. the art 

BeinTHii;a f. sorceress 

BH pron. you 

BHjt m. the sight 

BHieJio n. light 

BH;i;eTH v. to see 


Servian-English Vocabulary. 

luu^HB, -a, -0 visible 

Biit^GH adj. seen ; esteemed 

BiiKaTH, -HCM to shont 

BHJia f. the fairy 

BUJiHua f. jaw 

BH^tyuiKa /'. fork 

BiiHO n. wine 

BneorpaA m. vineyard 

BiiCHTH i\ to be hanging 

BHTe3 m. knight 

BHTKOCT f. flexibility 

Bjia^a, BHHa f. government 

BJiaji,ajian ni. ruler 

B.^aJ^aTH v. to rule 

BJia;i,HKa m. bishop 

BJiacT f. authority, might 

BjiacTejia f. nobility, aristocracy 

BJiacTejiBH ni. the nobleman 

BO, BOJia m. ox 

Bo;i,a f. the water 

BOji;eH, -a, -o adj. aqueous, watery 

BOAHTH, -HM to couduct, to lead 

Bojioiiajii m. waterfall 

BOAopaBaH adj. horizontal 

Bo;i;ocKOK m. waterspout, fountain 

Bo^, Bot/a m. leader, chief 

603 m. train 

BOJBo;;a, BOJeBo;i,a m. voyvoda, 

BoJHHK m. soldier 
BOJCKOBot)a mander,general 
BOJiCTH, -jiHM to love, to like 
Bo;&a f. wish 
BocaK m. wax 
Bote 71. the fruit 
Bpa6aii; m. sparrow 
spar m. devil 
Bpaaa f. crow 
BpaT m. the neck 
spaTa n. pi. the door 
Bpaiap m. the porter 
BpaxHTH V. to return 
BpaijOHHa f. magic 
Bp6a f. willow 

BpejiaH adj. industrious, diligent 
BpeAHTH V. to be worth 
Bpeji,HOCT f. price; value 
Bpei/aTH V. to offend 
BpeJio n. spring, source 
BpeMG n. time; weather 
BpHCHyxH V. to scream out 
BpjiH, -a, -0 eminent 

Bpjio adv. very 
BpcTa f. kind 
Bpx m. garden 
Bpiap m. gardener 
Bpyti adj. warm, hot 
BpytiMHa f. heat, warmth 
Bpx m. top, end 
Bpx p7'ep. above 
ByK m. the wolf 
syea f. the wool 
ByHGH adj. woollen 
ByhH V. to drag, to draw 


raBpae m. raven, crow 

^k3J^a m. master, landlord 

raJAani m. bagpiper 

raJAe f. pi. bagpipe 

racHTH t?. to extinguish, to blow 

raxKa f. fable . 
rahe f. pi. drawers 
rBoail/e n. iron 
r^e adv. where 
rH6aK, -nna, -nKO flexible 
rH3AaB adj. pretty 
niMHasHJa f. gymnasium, college 
rnnKOCT f. flexibility 
rjiasa f. head 
oaBHO adj. principally 
rjiaB66o.^a f. head-ache 
rjiaroji m. verb 
rjiaA f. hunger 
rjiac m. voice 
rjiacoBHp m. piano 
rjiacoy^ap m. accent 
rjia^axH v. to polish 
FJie! inter j. look! 
rjieji;axH v. to look at 
pjiyMaii, m. actor 
rayn, a-, -o stupid 
rjiyx, FJiyB deaf 
iMHjiexH V. to creep 
rnesAO n. nest 
rnycaH adj. abominable 
rO; rojia, rojio naked 
roBCjia n. pi. cattle 
roBop m. speech 
roBopnxH V. to speak 
roAHHa f. an, year 
roAHuiaH adj. annual, yearly 

Servian-English Vocabulary. 


r6.iy6 m. pigeon 
roMHja f. heap, pile 

rOHHTH, -HM V. tO purSUG 

ropaK, -pKa, -pKo adj. bitter 
rop;^, -a, -o adj, proud 
rope adv. higher 
rope adv, worse 
ropuHHa f. bitterness 
rociia f. a lady 
rocnoA (Bor) m. Lord (God) 
rocno;i;ap m. lord, master 
rocnojlHH ???. Mister 
rocno^a f. a lady, madam, Mrs. 
rocno^Hii,a /*. a youog lady, Miss 
rocT VI. guest 
roCTHOHHii,a f. hotel 
roTOB adj. ready 
roTOBHTH V. prepare, to get ready 
roTOBO adj. ready 
rpaji; jn. hail 
rpaji; 771. fortress 
rpat/a f. materials; building 
rpa^eBHHa f. building, edifice 
rpaja f. noise 
rpaHHi];a f. frontier, border 
rp6 m. arms, armorial bearings 
rp;i;HTH v. to grumble, to scold 
rpj^aa f. scolding 
rpejiia /'. post; stake; pillar 
rpejaae n. heating 
rpejaTH, jeM. v. to heat, to worm 
rpex m. sin; trespass 
rpemHTH v. to sin, to trespass 
rpemHHii;a sinner, transgressor (7-^ 
rpHBa f. mane (horse -hair) 
rpHCTH, rpHscM V. to bite 
rpjiHTH, rpjiHM V. to embrace 
rpjio n. throat 
rpo6 m. tomb, grave 
rpoai^e n. grape, grapea; raisin 
rposae, -sna, -3ho rich in grapes; 
rp63;i m. bunch, cluster [cruel 
rp63HHi];a f. fever 
rpoM 771. thunder; lightning 
rpom m. piastre (coin) 
rpHHTH, -HM V. to couvulse 
ryja f. viper 
rypaxH v. push 
rycap m. pirate 
rycKa f. goose 

rycjie f. pi. goossle (musical in- 
strument used by the Servians) 

rycT adj. dense 
ryxaTii v. to swallow 
ryfflHTH V. to sufifocate 
ryraxep 1??. lizard 

Aal adv. yes 

jlk co7ij. that 

Aa5ap, -6pa beaver 

;taBaTH, AajeM to give 

;^aBHH, -a, -0 ancient, old 

ABjTrji, 771. rain 

Aaoe coTij. then; well 

;i;aMHa f. distance 

fl,2iJb\ibBiiji, adj. long-sighted; far 

jiaH m. day 

Aanac adv. to-day 

J^aH^y6HTH v. to lose time 

^ap m. gift, present 

;tapeac./BHB, -a, -0 generous, open- 

;nap6BHT adj. talented, gifted 

J^acKa f. board, plank 

;^aTH, j^an v. to give 

Asa nu77i. two 

;i,BOOoj m. duel 

ji,BorjraB adj. two-headed 

jtBop 771. palace, castle, court 

;i,e6eo, -ejia, -ejio adj. thick 

jlGBep 771. bride's (best) man 

;i,eBeT nur7i. nine 

;^eBeTH num. ord. ninth 

Aeji,, -a m. grandfather 

;i;ejinTH «'- to divide 

;i.ejio n. work; deed 

J^eo 771. part 

AacHH, -Ha, -HO adj. right 

;i,ecHHiiia f. the right hand 

AeciioT 771. despot 

J^eTe f. child 

jiHB 711. giant 

AHBaH adj. superb, magnificent 

;i;hbhth ce, -hm ce v. to admire 

xiiBJhTi, -a, -e adj. savage 

jiiHBOTa f. splendour; beauty 

AHKa f. honour; pride 

IHM 771. smoke 

j^iiMHTH. -HM V. to smoke 

HHHap 7n. dinar, franc 

;i,HpaTH, -aM v. to touch 


»^ervian-English Vocabulary. 

AHcaTH, AHmeM v, to respire 

jiHhn, AHrHBM V. to lift 

jiJiaKa f, hair 

a6 p?'6'j9. till, until 

Ab6ap, -6pa, -6po acZ;. good 

;^66po aciv.well; good 

AOBeie acZi;. to-night 

;^OBo;BHo ac?^. enough, sufficiently 

Aor6;i; adv, as long as 

;;or6;i.HTn ce v. to happen 

jioJHTH, JHM V. to suckle 

j^OKas m. proof 

jiiOJiHHa f. valey 

;^0M m. house 

AOMatiH acy. domestic 

;^OMahHH m. host 

;^0MahH^a f. hostess 

jiiocaAaH, -;^Ha, -;!i,ho troublesome 

ji;6cTojaH, -jna, jho adj. worthy 

ji;ocTOJaHCTBO M. dignity,worthi- 

;i,6qeK come; to arrive 

;^pa^, -a, -o adj. reception, wel- 

IoKh, ;^o]^eM v. deer; expensive 

jipara sweetheart (f.) 

;i;parH, -era sweetheart (m.) 

jiparoBOibHO adv. gladly; willingly 

;i;par6ii;eH adj. precious 

ji;pa;KHTH, -hm v. to excite 

jipBCH, -a, -0 adj» wooden 

jl]3B0, ;;pBeTa n. tree; wood 

jipjKaBa f. state 

jipsaK, -CKa, -CKO adj. audacious 

jiipyr, m. comrade; friend 

ji;pyKHHJe adv. otherwise 

;iipyM m. road 

Ai3XTaTH, ;i;pinheM v. tremble 

AyBaa m. tobacco 

jiyBap m. wall 

jiyr m. debt 

;tyr ac?;. long 

J^y^a /". rainbow 

Ayra /*. stave 

;i.yraHaK, -^Ka, -^ko adj. long 

ji,yHte ac^i;. longer 

AyKax m. ducat 

j!iyaa f. quince 

nyhaH m, shop 

Hyx i>2. spirit; ghost 

;^yxoBHT adj. witty, clever; 

Ayma f. soul 
AymeK m. mattress 
jiyuiMaH m. enemy, foe 

t|aBO, -ojia m. devil 

l^aK, m. student; scholar 

^aKOH m. deacon 

t/CM m. bit 

t/enepa.! m. general 

t;y6pe, -exa n. manure, fertilizer 

^yji m. rose 

^yjie, -CTa n. ball. 


e! inter j. eh; well 

eBant/ejiHJe n. Gospel, Evangel 

CBo! inter j. here is 

CKcep m. nail 

ejie! inter j, well; so! 

enncKon m. bishop 

ecHa(j) m. guild, corporation 


mada f. frog 
^arop m. noise 
jKajiHTH, -iHM t?. to regret 
jKajiocTHB, -a, -0 adj. compas- 
aiao adv. sorry 

jKapHTH, -HM V. to worm ; to burn 
mjiepaiH. -CM V. to devour 
jKera f. sultriness 
ateian, -Ana, -jiiHO adj» thirsty 
me!| /*. thirst 

at^jiyji;aii;, -jiii;a wi. stomach 
jKe^&aH, -^Ha, -^ho adj. greedy 
ate^eao n, iron 
^tena f. woman; wife 
3KeHHji;5a f. marriage 
jKeHHTH ce, -HM ce V. to marry 
jKCHKa /*. female 
atencKH, -Ka, -kg adj. feminine 
atCTsa f. crop 

3KHB, -a, -0 adj. living, alive 
jKiiBa Z'. mercury, quicksilver 


atHBHea f. poultry, fowls 

Servian- English Vocabular5^ 


3KHB0 adv. lively, quickly 

aciiBOiiHC m. painting 

atHBOT m. life 

jKHJia f. vein 

2KHT0 n. cereals 

atyjiiaH, -jina, -^ho adj. greedy 

atyiuiH m. count 

jKypHTH ce, -HM ce v, r. to hurry 

atyT, -a, -o adj. yellow 

asyi f. gall 


3a prep, for; behind; after 

3a6aBa f. divertisement 

3a6ejieTH, -hm v. to dawn (day- 

3a6;iyji.a f. error 

saseaaxH, meu v. to bind 

sasepa /*. conspiracy 

3aBeT m. vow 

saBH^eTH, -HM V. to envy 

3aBHCT, -H f. envy 

3aBH^aj m. fatherland, country 

saBoji; m. establishment, institu- 

3aB03 m. bandage, dressing 

3arpejaTH, -jeM to worm 

sarymHTH, -hm to be suffocating 

3aji;aTaK, -TKa m. task; exercise 

3a;i;aTH, -aM v. p. to order; to 

3aji;oBO^CTBo n. pleasure 

3a;ii6i];HHTH, -hm v. to be late 

sa^pyra f. union of a family 

3ajaM, -JMa m. loan 

3aKa3aTH, -jkcm to state; to 
appoint (of time) 

3aKacHHTH, -HM V. to be late 

3aK.iaTH, saKOiteM v. to throttle 

saKJiexBa f. to swear, to take an 

saKJiexH, -KyHCM vow ; oath 

saooH m. refuge; cover; shield, 

saK^y^aK, -^Ka conclusion 

3aK0H m. law 

sajiesaTH, -aM v. to water 

3ajieiiHTH, -HM V. to stick; to paste 

3ajiHB m. bay 

3ajiyTaTH, -aM v. to lead or go 

3ayi>yoHTH ce, -hm ce v. r. 

to become enamoured 
3aMajio adv. nearly; shortly 
3aMeHHu,a f. pronoun 
sanax m. trade, profession 
3aiioBecx f. order 
3acxaBa f. flag 
3ay3exH, -smcm v. to occupy 
3axBajiHXH, -HM to thank 
saxoji; m. sunset 
adinxHxa f. protection, shield 
3afflxo why 
36hp m. addition 
36or prep, for, because of 
3Be3;i,a f, star 

3Bep f. & m. savage beast 
3rpaji;a f. edifice, building 
3jtpaB, -a, -0 adj. healthy 
3ejxHH m. oil 
sejien, -a, -o adj. green 
se^Be n. vegetables 
3eMJBa f, earth 
seM^onnc m. geography 
3ex m. son-in-law 
sen; m. hare 
3HJ^ m. wall 
3HMa f. winter 
3HMH adv. in winter 
3JiaxaH, -xna, -xho adj. golden 
Bjiaxo n. gold 
3ji6 n. evil 

3MHJa /". serpent, snake 
3HaK. m. sign 
3HaMeHHXH, -a, -o adj. celebrated, 

3HaH>e n. knowledge 
36pa f. dawn, daybreak 
3paK m. ray, beam 
3peo, -ejia, -ejio adj. ripe, mature 
3pH0 n. grain 
3y5 m. touth 
syjiyM m. violation. 


H conj. and; also 

H6pii[uaM m. silk thread 

HBHi^a f. edge 

Hr;i;a adv, ever 

H^J^e adv. wherever, wheresoever 

nrjia f. needle 

Hip a f. play, game 


Servian-English Vocabulary. 

iirpaxn, -aM v. to play, to have 

a game 
H3 prep of, out 
H3a prep, behind 
H:3a6paTH, -6epeM v. to choose, 

to select 
H^ahH, -at^GM V. to go out 
M36op m. election 
H3Ban adv. besides, outside of 
H3BemTaj m, report 
HSBOji; m. precis, extract 
H3Bop m. source 
M3roBop m, pronunciation 
HsryoHTH, -6hm to lose 
H35aBa^ m. editor 
H3AaxHyTH, -HBM V. to expire; 

to die 

H3Ht)LH, H^eM V. to gO OUt 

Hsjyipa adv. in the early morning 

H3Jia3 m. exit 

H3Met)y prep, between, amongst 

H3HaA prep, above 

H3pa3 m. expression 

HsysexaK, -TKa m, exception 

HKO, era pron. whosoever 

HKona f. icon 

HJiH corfj, or 

HMaH>e n. fortune 

HMe n. name 

HCKaxH, -mxeM t\to ask, to demand 

HCKonaxH, -aM v, to dig out 

HCKpcH, -a, -0 adj. sincere 

HCKuasaae f. landing 

H3Kyn m. ransom 

HCKycTBo, -CTBa f. experience 

HCMeBaxH, -BaM v. to make fun 

of, to deride 
HcnHx m. examination 
nciiyHHXH, -nM v, to fill out 
HCXHHa f. verity, truth 
HCxoK m. Orient, East 
Hcxyii m. excess, crime 
hKh, H;i,eM V. to go, to walk 
Hm,e3aBaTH,-aBaMt,.» J 
HinHe3HyTH, -Hen v. } ^^ 

HiniynaxH, -an v. to root out 

ja pron. I 
ja6yKa f, apple 
jaBa f. reality 

jaBaH, -Bna, -biio adj. public 

jaBHXH, -BHM V. to anuouuce, to 
inform publicly 

jaBHo ado. publicly, openly 

jarjiyK m. silk handkerchief 

jarH>e n. lamb 

jaro^a f. strawberry 

ja^ m. grief, sorrow 

jaAHTH ce, -HM ce to complain 

jaje, -exa n. egg 

jajue n. a small egg 

jaK; -a, adj. strong 

jaKO adv. only; just 

jaKo adv. strongly; hard, se- 

jaHHHap m. January 

japaK, -pKa m, ditch 

japaii,, -pu,a m. goat 

jape, -exa n. kid 

jape6Hii,a f. partridge 

jacxyK m. cushion, pillow 

jaxo w. flight of birds; flock 

jayK m. cry, shout 

jayKaxH, -^eji v. to cry, to 

jaxaxH, -meM v. to ride on horse- 

je V. is 

je^aH num, one; a certain ... 

jeji;aH, -laa, -jiro anj. angry; 

jeMnan;, -Hiiia m. only son ; 

jeAHHHH a f. only daughter; 

jeAHima f. singular 

jeji;HOBpeMeH, -a, -o adj. simulta- 

je;i;Hocjio2taH, -atna, -atHo adj. 

jeJ^pHJo n. mast 

j^;i;po n. sail 

jeat m. hedgehog 

je3a f. shudder 

jesHK m. language, tongue 

jeK m. sound 

jejra f. pine-tree 

jejio n. dish 

jep conj. for, because 

jecen m, autumne 

jecx, j^cxe v. is, it is 

jecxH, jeji;eM v. to eat 

je^iaM, -HMa m. barley 

jorynacx, -a, -o adj. obstinate 

Servian-English Vocabulary. 


joj I interj. alas 

join, -T, -TO, -Tep adv. still; more; 

jyr m. south 

jy^an, -mna, -atno southern 
jynaK m. hero 

jypHTH, -HM V. to chase, to pursue 
jypHM m. assault; storming 
jyxpo n. morning 
jyTpoc adv. this morning 


K, Ka prep, to, towards 

Ka6aHHii;a f. cloak, mantle 

Kasa /'. coflfee 

Eases m. cage 

Kail, Ka;i;a adv. when 

Kaji,HBa f. velvet 

KajiHJa m. Kadi, judge 

KasaH m. caldron, kettle 

KasaTH, -^eM v. to say, to tell 

KaKaB, -KBa, -kbo pron. what, who 

KaKO adv. how 

KajiaMHTH, -HM V. to graft 

KUJijipMa f. pavement 

KajieHAap m. calendar 

Kajiyt/ep m. monk 

Kajiyn m. model 

KaMGH m. stone 

KaMHjia f. camel 

KaMo adv. ^vhere? 

KaH^HJio n. night-lamp 

KaHi^a f. claw 

Kaiia f. cap 

KaneTaH m. captain 

Kannja f. gate, door 

Kan^a f. drop 

KapaH(j)HJi m. carnation 

KapaxH, -aM to grumble 

Kapia f. card 

Kac m. trot 

Kaca /. safe 

KacaTH, -aM v. to trot 

KacHHTH, -HM V. to be late 

KarapKa /. mast 

KumsLJby 'jbSi m. cough 

KaniHKa f. spoon 

KaniibaTH, -cm v. to cough 

Kep m. hound 

KH^aTH, -an v. to tear 

EHpnja f. rent 

KHTHTH, -HM V. tO adom 

KHiMa f. dorsal spine 

KHina f. rain 

KJiajiHTH ce, -HM ce v. r. to bet, 

to wager 
KJiaHHii,a f. slaughter-house 
KJiaaaxH ce, -aM ce v. r. to 

stoop down; to bow 
Kjiac m. ear (of corn) 
KjiaxH, KOiseM V. to slaughter 
KjicBexa f. slander, calumny 
KJieKHyxH, -KHCM V. to kneel down 
KJHB 7)1. nail 
K^tysaxH, -yjcM v. to peck (of 

K^yH m. beak 
K^y^ m. key 
KHes m. prince 
Kanra f. book 

KH>HroBojicxBO n. book-keeping 
KH>Hatap m. book-seller 
KH>HateBHHK m. literary man 
KauatCBHocx, -H f. literature 
k6, Kora p7^on. who 
KO^HJia f. mare 
KOBaxH, KyjcM to forge 
KOBHer m. trunk 
k6;i; prep, by, at; with 
Koaca f. skin 
Kosa f. she-goat 
KOJH, -ja, -je pron. who 
KOKoinKa f. hen 
Kojra n. pi. carriage 
KOJiai m. cake 
KOJio n. wheel; kolo (Servian 

national dance) 
KOMaji; m. piece 
KOH> m. horse 
KonaxH, -aM v. to dig 
Kopa f. bark (of trees) 
KopaK m. step 
Kopa^axH, -aM v. to walk step 

by step 
Kopen m. root 
KopHCx f. advantage, use 
KopHcxan, -cna, -cho adj. useful 
KopnxH, -HM v. reproach 
Koca f. hair 


Kocx f. bone 
KoxapHij,a f. basket 
KOHHJani m. coach-man 
KoinHHii,a f. beehive 


Servian-English Vocabulary. 

Komy^a f. shirt 

KpaBa f. cow 

Kpa!^a f. theft, robbery 

Kpfij m. end 

Kpa^b m. king 

Kpacae, -cna, -cho adj. beautiful 

KpacTH, -a;i,eM v. to rob 

KpB f. blood 

KpiiB, -a, -0 adj. curved 

KpHJio n. wing; lap 

KpiiTH, -iijeM V. to hide 

KpoB m. roof 

KpcT m. cross 

Kpyr m. circle 

Kpyna f. crown 

KpyniKa f. pear 

Kpi m. godfather 

KynHTH, -HM V. to buy 

Kyha f. house. 


jra6aB, -a, -o adj. loose 

jia6yA vn. swan 

jiaB m. lion 

jiaBdpHKa f. laurel 

jiaraeo adv. slowly 

jiaraxH, jiajKeM v. to lie 

jia^a f. ship 

jiajia f. tulip 

jianan;, -Hi];a m. chain 

jiapna f. noise 

jiacKaxH, -aM v. to flatter 

jiacTa /*. sw^allow 

Jiaxop m. zephyr 

Jieji; m. ice 

jiGK ?n. medicine 

jieKap m. doctor, physician 

ji6h), -a, -0 adj. idle, lazy 

Jien, -a, -o adj. beautiful 

jiexo n. sunamer 

ji^Toc adv. this summer 

JiHBaj^a f. meadow 

JiHK m. face 

jiHCHii,a f. fox 

JiHCT m. leaf 

JiHii,e n. face 

JIOBHTH, -HM «?. to llUUt, tO ChaSC 

Jiouaii;, -Hii.a m. pot 
.iy6eHHii;a f. melon 
JiyK m. bow 
JiyKaB, -a, -o adj. sly 

Ji5'ja f. pipe 
jiynaTH, -aw ?;. to knock 
jiyxaTH, -an v. to wander 
jiyxKa f. doll. 

Jby62i f. consort, wife 

ji>y6aB f. love 

jby 62i3uocT f. amiability, kindness 

;by6HHacx, -a, -o ac^j. violet (colour) 

.j>y6H^Hii,a f. violet (plant) 

.^y66Bi^a f. sweetheart, love 

^y66Mopa f, jealousy 

Jbfjiji n. pi. people 

^byibaxH, -aM v. to swing 

./byxHx, -a, -0 adj. angry. 


Marapau;, -pii;a m. ass, donkey 
Marjia /". fog 
MaJKa f. mother 
MaJMyH m. monkey 
MaKase f. pi. scissors 
MajiH, -a, -0 adj. small, little 
Majo adv. a little 
Mana f. vice 
MaeacxEp m. convent 
MaHHX adj. mad 
MapaMa f. handkerchief 
MapBa f. cattle 

Map^HB adj. diligent; industrious 
Mapx m. March 
MacjiBHa f. olive 
Ma^ m. sword 
MaiKa f. cat 

Mame f. pi. tongs (for fire) 
Mamxa f. fancy 
Me;^ m. honey 
Meji f. copper 
Me;i;Be;i; m. bear 

MciiyxHM adv. however, never- 
MCK, -a, -0 adj. soft 
MCKaH adj. soft 
Mepa f. measure 
Meceu; m. moon! month 
Meco n. meat; flesh 
Mexjia f. broom 

M^xByxH, -HCM V. to put, to place 
MeiuaxH, -aM v. to mix 

Servian-English Vocabulary. 


MH pron. we 

MHrHyxH, -rHCM v. to wink 

MHjioBaae 71. caressing 

MHJiocT f, charity, pity 

MHJiocTHaa f, alms 

MHpau, -pea, -pno adj. good; 

tranquil, calm 
MHpnc m, smell 
MHpHO adv. calmly 
MHin tn. mouse 
MJiaA adj. ybung 
Mjia;i,a f. bride 
MJiaji;HK rn. young man 
MJIa;^ocT f. youth 
MJieKo 71. milk 
MHoro adv. much 
MHOMHa f. plural; many . . . 
MorytiHOCT f. possibility 
MoaaK, -3ra m. brains 
Moj, -a, -e pron. my 
MOJHTH, -HM to rcquest, to beg 
Mope n. sea 
Moh f. power, might 
MpaB m. ant, emmet 
Mpas m. frost 
MpaK m. might, obscurity 
MpxaB, -Tsa, -TBO adj. dead 
My;iipocT f. wisdom 
Myat m. man; husband 
Myaa /. lightning 
MycTH, MyaeM v. to milk (the cows) 
Myxa f. fly 

My^HTH, -HM V. to torture 
MyniKH adj. masculine. 


Ha prep, on upon 

Ha6aBHTH, -HM V. to procure, to 

HaBCK adv. always, for ever 
HaBHKa f. habit, custom 
HaBHTH, -HJeM v. to wiud up 
HaBHliH, -HKHCM V. to accustom 

oneself to a thing 
Har, -a, -0 adj. naked, bare 
HarjiacaK, -CKa m. accent, stress 
HaroH m. instinct 
Harpa^a f. reward 
Haj^axH ce, -^aM ce v. r. to hope 
Hajiisop m. superintendence, con- 

Ha;^MoilaH, -tHa, -iiHo adj. stron- 
ger, superior 
HasBaxH, soBCM V, to call, to name 
HaHMe adv. namely, that is (to say) 
HajsaA adv. at last, finally 
Hajnpe adv. first, in the first place 
HaKHx m. ornament, adornment 
HaKJiOHOcx f. inclination 
HajHK, -a, -0 adj, resembling, 

najior m. order, commission 
naMemxaxH, -an v. to appoint 
HaeoBO adv. again 
Hanajl m. attack 
HanaMex adv. by heart, to com- 
mit to memory 
HanHcaxH, nnmoM v, to write down 
Hanpe;i;aK, -xKa m. progress 
HanpoxHB adv. on the contrary 
napaBHO adv. naturally, of course 
Hapanna, HapaHi;ia f. orange 
Hape]^eH>e n. arrangement, order 
Hapo;i; m. nation, people 
HapoAHocx f. nationality 
nacjiOB m. title, address 
naxpar adv, backwards, back, 

turn back 
HaiiH, HatiCM V. to find 
HayqHXH, -hm v. to teach ; to learn 
na^ejio n. principle; maxim 
Ha^HH m. manner 
Ham, -a, -e pron, ours, our 
He adv. no 

He6o, He6eca n, sky - 
HCBepa f, unfaithful (f.) 
HeBCceo, -Jia, -jig adj. sad 
HeBHH, -a, -0 adj. innocent 
HeBd>a f. trouble, distress 
Her;i,e adv. somewhere, in some 

place or other 
He^e^a f. Sunday; week 
hcm, -a, -0 adj. dumb, mute 
Heo6HqaH, -HHa, -iho adj. strange, 

He^o^o;^a f. violent storm, thun- 
Henoseax adj. unknown 
nepcA m. disorder 
H^cpeha f. misfortune 
HetaK n. nephew 
Heyro;i;aH, -^na, -jiho adj. un- 
comfortable, disagreeable 

Servian grammar. 



Servian-P^nglieh Vocabulary. 

HeniTO, neiera jorow. something 

HMKO, -ora pron. nobody 

HOB, -a, -0 adj. new 

HOBan;, -Bii.a m. money 

HOfiiiHa f. an innovation 

Hora f. foot ; bone 

Hoat m. knife 

Hoti f. night 

Hohac adv. last night 

Houiaa f. fashion 

Hyjia f. zero. 

a^roB, -a, -o pron. his, her 
H,HBa f. field 
MxoB, -a, -0 theirs 
ayniKa f. snout. 


prep, of, about, on, upon 
o! interj. oh! 
66aBe3a f. obligation 
o6aji;Ba, -ABe, -absl num. both 
65ajia /*. bank, share 
o63Hp m. consideration 
o6H4aj m. custom, habit 
o6jaBa f. advertisement 
o6jiaK m. cloud 
66pa3 m. cheek 
o6pa30BaH0CT f. civilisation 
o5ytH,-y^eM v. to put on (cloth) 
OBaj, -a, -0 this; this one 
OBaMO adv. here 
ooeAajio n. mirror, looking-glass 
OA prep, from 
6;i;ap, -;i;pa m. bed 
6;^^OBop w. answer, reply 
ojiiMopHTH ce V. r. to rest 
o;^pH^aTH ce, -hcm ce v. r. to 

deny; to renounce 
omeHHTH ce, -hm ce v.r. to marry 
0310 adv. over, above, from above 
03HO adv. under 
oKean m. ocean 
OKO n. (pi. oih) eye 
OH^a adv. then, at the time of 
onacHocT f. danger 
onnc m. description 
onpocTHTH V. to pardon 
onmTH, -la, -xe adj. common; 


opao, opjia m. eagle 
opax m. nut 
ocaM num. eight 
ocehaae n. sensibiHty 
ocjio6o;i,HTH V. to free 
bcooHTO adv. especially 
OTBopHTH V. to Open 
OTHMaxH V. to take away ; to snatch 
OTMCH, -a, -0 distinguished 
oxpoB m. poison 
oxpa6pHTH, -HM V. encourage 
6ii,eHa f. estimate; mark 
o^ajaBaxH, -hm v. to despair 
o^eBHjtan, -ji;Ha, -;i;ho adj. evident 
o^HCXHXH, -HM V. to cleau 
omxpoyMaH, -Mna, -mho adj. sa- 
gacious, ingenious. 


na conj. and; but; after 

naji; n. fall 

najieat m. case 

iiaKjieH, -a, -o conj. infernal 

najian;, -Jinia m. inch 

naMex n. memory; wisdom 

nap m. pair, couple 

napa f. steam 

napa f. Servian money (1 cent.) 

^apo5poJ^ m, steamer 

nac m. girdle, belt 

nac, nca m. dog 

naxHXH, -HM V. to suffer 

nayK m. spider 

neji;ecex num, fifty 

iieneo, -Jia m. ashes 

nepo n. pen 

necaK, -CKa m. sand 

necMa f. song, poem 

nexaK, -xKa m. Friday 

nexao, -xjia m. cock 

neti, -H f. stove 

nehnna f. grotto, cavern 

ne^eH»e n. rest 

nHBo n. beer 

HHcaibKa f. pencil 

OHCMO n. letter 

DHxaxH V. to ask, to question 

nnxH, nnjcM v. to drink 

HJiaKaxH, -^eM v. to cry, to weep 

njiaxHO n. linen, cloth 

njieMHh m. nobleman 

Servian-ICnglish Vocabulary. 


Men m» prey 

njiOBKa f. duck 

njyr m. plough 

nooeji; m. look, glance 

^6;^, -a m. floor 

noAMCT m. subject 

nosBaxH, soBBM V. to invite 

nosApae m. greeting, salutation 

ROSHB m, invitation 

nojaM, -JMa m. conception 

noJHTH, -HM V. to water (animals) 

noKpniH, -HJCM V. to cover 

no.! m, sex; pole 

no.Ji>e n. field 

uoHOBHTH, -BHM V, to repeat 

non, nona m. clergyman 

nope;i; j^rep, by the side of; near 

nopet}eae n. comparison 

n6po3 m. impost 

nopo;iiHii,a f. family 

nocjyatHTe^ m. servant 

nocTaiH, -aHCM v. to become 

noTOK m. brook 

noxoA nu visit; invasion 

no^exaK, -iKa m. commence- 
ment, beginning 

noHeTE, -HGM V. to begin 

noniTeH adj. honest 

noniTO adv. after; since, as 

npas^a f. justice 

iipasHJio, -ja n, rule 

iipaBKTH, -HM to make, to manu- 

upaBonncm. orthography,8pelling 

npeBapHTH, -hm v. to deceive 

iipcBojiHTH, -HM V. translate 

npeAroBop m. foreword, preface 

npeMa prep, towards 

npeiiaji; 711. surprise 

npecy^a f. sentence 

iipeiHTH V. to threaten 

npHJasa f. announcement; appli- 

npHjiHKa f. occasion 

npHMep m. example, instance 

npnneB m. refrain 

npnpoK m. predicate 

npHcxaeaKj-HKa m.con8ent,a8sent 

npHxoji, m. income 

npnia f. tale 

npniecT f. communion 

np6;i;aTH, -an to sell 

npo;tymeH>e n. continuation 

np63op m. window 

iipoMeea /'. change 

npocHTH, -HM to woo, to ask in 

npocTop m. place, space [ry 
npoTHBHHK m. opponent, adversa- 
nponurocT f. past 
npcTCH m. ring 
iiyKOBHHK m. colonel 
iiyH adj. full 
nyx m. way 
nyTHHK m. traveller 
nyniKa f. rifle 
nqejia f. bee 
nineHHn,a f. wheat. 


paji; m. work 

paj^H prep, for, for the sake of 

pajijHTH, -HM V. to work 

pa;i;o adv. gladly 

pat/axH, -aM to bear, to bring forth 

pasdHTH, -HJeM to break 

pasBecTH, -e;teM v. to separate; 
to divorce 

pasBpaxan, -xHa, -xho adj. squan- 
derer; libertine 

pasroBop m. conversation 

pasAejiHXH, -j[HM V. to divide, to 

pa3;i,eo, -ejia m. section; part 

pa3j[HqaH, -^Ha, -^ho adj. different 

pasjior m. reason, cause, motive 

pa3pe;i, m. class (school) 

paj m. paradise 

paKHJa f. brandy 

paMC, -ena n. shoulder 

pana f. wound 

pacKom m. luxury 

pacxH, -GM V. to grow 

pax m, war 

panyH m. account 

pt^a f. rest 

p]^aB, -a, -0 adj. bad 

peji; m. order, tourn 

peKa f. river 

pen m. tail 

peieHHua f. sentence, phrase, 

peniHXH, -HM V. to decide 



Servian-English Vocabulary 

pH6a f. fish 

por m. home 

poca f. dew 

pyaea f. rose 

pyKa f. arm; hand 

pyKaBHua f. j^love 

pyqaK, -HKa m. dinner. 

c, ca prep, with, by 

ca6HpaTH, -aM v. to add 

ca6jta f. sable 

ca5op m. assembly, meeting 

cases m. alliance 

caseT m. advise 

caBnTH, -HJeM v. to bend, to bow 

caBJId;^aTH, -hm v. to vanquish; 

to overcome 
cajt ar:^t?. now, at present 
caM, -a, -0 adj, alone 
caMO a^v. only 
caMorjiacHHK m. consonant 
caiiyH m. soap 

CBaA6a f. marriage, wedding 
CB^;i;oK m. witness 
cseat adj. fresh 
CBeaa f. star 
CBGT m. world 
CBCTJIOCT f, light 
CBenan adj. solemn 
CBHJia f. silk 
CBHJieH adj. silk, silken 
CBHaa f. swine, hog 
CBHpaTH, -aM V. to play (a musical 

CBOJ, -a, -e pron. one's (my, his, 

her, ours, etc.) 
cspmeTaK, -TKa m. end 
cejtaM num. seven 
cejiaM;!,eceT num. seventy 
ceji,aMHaecT num. seventeen 
cejteTH, -HM V. to sit down 
ce^jio f. saddle 
ceAMHua f. week 
c^jio n. village 
ce.^aK m. peasant 
ceMe, -eea n, seed 
ceHO n. hay 

cetaTH ce, -aM to remember 
c^iiH; ceieM v. to cut 
CHrypan, -pna, -pHO adj. sure 

CM-ia f. power, force 

CHjiaH, -jiHa, -jieo adj. powerful 

CHH m. son 

CHp m. cheese 

CHT, -a, -0 arlj. satiated 

CKaKain, -hcm v. to jump 

CKopo adv. soon 

CKyBaTH, -BaM v. to be cooked ; 

to cook 
CKyn, -a, -o adj. dear, expensive, 

CJiaBa f. glory; celebration in 

memory of the house-patron 
CJiasyj m. nightingale 
cjiajiaK, -TKa, -tko adj. sweet 
cjiawa f. straw 
Cjiae, -a, -o adj. salt (adj.) 
CJieir, -a, -o blind 
CJiHKa f. picture 
CJiOBo n. letter (type) 
cjiyatHTH, -HM V. to serve 
CMpx f. death 
CHara f. strength 
CHer 7)1. snow 
CO, cojiH f. salt (subst.) 
c65a f. room 
cnaBaTH, -aM v. to sleep 
ciiHC m. literary work 
cpe6po n. silver (metal) 
cpejiCTBo n. meanS; way 
cpii;e, -era n. heart 
ciaH m. habitation, abode 
CTap adj. old 
CTBap, -H f. thing 
CTOJietie n. century 
CTona f. foot 
CTpan, -a, -o strange 
CTpacT, -H f. passion 
CTpaman, -mna, -uiiio adj. terrible 
CTpHU m. uncle 
cyB adj. dry 
cyAHJa m. judge 
cyMH>aTH, -aM v. to doubt, to 

cynpyra f. wife, consort 
cyaiHTH, -HM V. to dry. 


Ta pron. this (f.J 
xasaH m. ceiling 
Ta;i;, -a adv. then 

Servian-English Vocabulary. 


Taj Ha f. secret 

idKO adv. so, thus 

xajiac m. wave 

Taiaa f. obscurity, darkness 

TaMHHn;a f, prison 

TanaK, -HKa; -hko adj, thin 

TBopau, -pi^a m. creator, author 

TBpJ^, -a, -0 hard 

TBp^asa /. fortress 

TeataK, -inKa, -uiko adj, heavy; 

TCJie, -exa n. calf 
xecan, -cna, -cho adj. narrow 
TH jpron. thou 
TonHTH, -HM V. to melt 
Tpasa f. grass 
xpecTH, -ce3i V. to shake 
xp^tiH, -ta, -te num. ord. third 
xpn num. three 
xpH;^eceT num. thirty 
xpnnaecx num. thirteen 
xpH m. thorn 
xpp m. effort 
xpyn m. stump, trunk 
xp»iaxH V, to sun 
xyra f. grief, affliction 
xyatoa f. complaint 
xypcKH, -a, -0 adj. Turkish 
xytH, -^eM V. to beat. 

hepKa f. daughter 

tecap m. Austrian Emperor 

he(f) m. pleasure; freak, caprice 

tiypaH m. turkey 

typ^HJa m. furrier 

hyinKaxH, -an v. to push, to jostle. 

y p7'ep. in, at, by 

y6aB, -a, -o adj. pretty 

y6eji;HXH, -hm v. to convince 

y6HXH, -HJeM V. to kill 

y5ocxH, -CM V. to prick, to sting 

yopyc m. towel 

yBCK adv. always 

yB03 m. importation 

yra.^, -r^a m. coal 

yracHXH, -hm v. to extinguish 

yrjia^en adj. polite, polished 

yroBop m. contract, treaty 

y;^ m. member (anat.) 

yJ^6Ba^, -Bii;a m. widower 

yji;6BHu,a f. widow 

yatuBaxH, -an v. to enjoy 

ys, ysa prep, on; near; against 

yaajryji; adv. in vain 

ysexH, ysMGM v. to take 

yapoK m. cause, reason 

yjaE m. uncle (mother's brother) 

"jjbQ n. oil 

yM m. reason, intellect 

yMHBaxH ce, -aM ce v. r. to wash 
one's face 

yaipexH, -peM v. to die 

yo6paHi,eH, -a, -o adj. imagined 

ynoxpe6a f. use, usage 

ycoHK m. exclamation 

ycjiyra f. service 

ycnex m. success 

ycxa, -H pi. mouth 

ycxaB m. constitution 

yxopaK, -pKa m. Tuesday 

yxeaxHXH, -hm v. to seize, to catch 

yxo n. ear 

ymxeji;exH, -hm v. to spare, eco- 


(i)aj;i;a f. profit; advantage 

4)ejia f. species, kind 

(t)epei;[a f. Turkish ladies' dress 

(j)^c m. fez 

(i)HH, -a, -0 adj. fine 

(|)jiayxa f. flute. 


xajji;yK w. haidook; brigand 

xa^HHa f. robe, dress 

xaHijap m. handgar, sword 

xaijH, -ja m. pilgrim 

xMaji,a f. thousand 

xiixap, -xpa, -xpo adj. alert, quick 

x^aji; m. shade 

xjiajiau, -AHa, -jiiHo adj. cold, cool 

xjie6 m, bread 

xoA m. gait, way of w^alking 

xpa6pocx f. courage 

xpaM m. temple 

xpaHHXH; -HM V. to uourish 

xxexH, xoty v. to wish, to be 

xyKa f. noise. 


Servian-English Vocabulary. 

uap m. tzar, emperor 

ii,apHna/. custom -house duty, tax 

uapcTBO n. empire 

UBCT m. flower 

UBcte n, coll. flowers 

nejiHB w. kiss 

i^ejiHBaTH, -aM v. to kiss 

ij,eo, -Jia, -Jio adj. entire 

UHfJia f. brick 

ii;h.'i m. aim, goal 

ii;H(j)pa f. cipher 

1I.PB m. worm 

i^pBCH, -a, -0 adj. red 

i],pH, -a, -0 adj. black 

nypa f. young lady, girl. 

Ha;3,op m. tent, pavilion 

Haj m. tea 

^laKiEHpe f. pi. trousers 

^aMan,, -Mn,a m. canoe 

^ac m. moment; lesson 

^acoBiiHK m. watch 

nama f. glass 

^e;^o n. child (poetry) 

^eKaxH, -aM v. wait, await 

^ejra f. bee 

qejiHK m. steel 

n^jio 9^. forehead 

^era f. companj^ (milit.) 

^eTBpxaK, -TKa m. Thursday 

^einpH num. four 

^eTpji;eceT num. forty 

^CTpnaecT mim, fourteen 

^ema.^, -in^a m. comb 

TO6yK m. tchibook (Turkish pipe) 

'iH3Ma /'. high boot 

^HM adv. as soon as 

^HHHTH, -HM V. tO do 

^HCT, -a, -0 adj. clean 
HiiTaxH, -aM V. to read 
MJiaH m, member 
HOBCK m. man 

^yBaiH, -aM v. to guard, to keep 
HyAan, -jiea, -jhho adj. strange; 

i^aK m. sack 
ij[6yH M. bush 
ijiirepHii,a /. liver 
i?HH m. giant. 

uiajia f. joke 

majiHTH ce, -hm ce v. to joke 

maMap m. box on the ear, slap 

in the face 
mapen, -a, -o adj. party-coloured, 

of different colours 
inaTop m. tent 
mcBa /". lark, sky-iark 
inecjiieceT, in^ceT num. sixty 
mecHaecT num. sixteen 
mecT num. six 
inetep m. sugar 
niHpoK, -a, -0 adj. broad 
niKOJia f. school 

mMBa f. plum-tree ; prune^ plum 
ima num. what 
inxaMna f. printing 
fflxan m. pocket 
mxejiiaa f. economy, savings 
mxexa f. damage, injury 
mxo, ^era jpron. what, that 
myMa f. wood, forest 
myna.1), -n.^a, -lUbQ adj. empty. 
myniKaxH, -aM v. to whisper. 

Printed by C. F. Winter, Darmstadt. 

v//ti..n«^ ^/.^ Y''^*^^ r7M<-^K^ ijtccu^D o^ (l^, U Il3.'fri 

«,4v« Cyt>cyjC^ 

i,^ r<.^-» huAo.^^» C*<^AO*. Air^^^A . Uaqn< ^ f^ 

•^'•7'"' '^" - yy^'^-^t: .f^-frj'-b '(jrj'^' -y^ 

Hj^*yti^/iffii^ l^ u eA\'}..tUli'9-^ It-X^A-^ 

Jv-^«.')l £>4♦i^/^««Mi• ^o^^.jh^ l^jix-ifiy^f, . n^h>u^c ''-**t^ 

/?^t^t^ O'J ^M.^^-^-T'/w-^x i^r4n/\^- u^.^.^tXr Uyj^cJ^ 

A^vi ♦^ 

Ar-«^ *v4U/.*,t^ 

-•1 ^<,r-«-^ *v4u/ 

/ / 


"^.^cvj.*-^ i.»i\nvj \Cr V\«l 

\V^o.>»*«_ N^»j^«jNr<.^ ■a:«^«^«A/« o-v \sy*\'^* '^^ a*^.^M>^«*^ 

*.%J^S ■ 


N^v*-^ vK>JsJ^«^ , v» 


- " V — >s o«-^:^^%_ <^^-*-*^^s*.^v>.^ -vAJilLo.>vkJp-_ vMl "* ''^"^ ^--^~«s^ 

v/^>-^«.>K«rv«. ov^o 

V.O >f^AxM,v>^ ^^wWvv^^'^'v Sb-K^ vnaX;-*- Tvi.":zr^ crv-J(^ 

^"^CXV^ ^ A"v*o-«^K. — ; ^ V*"^ ^**" ^*- ^•*' ^>>»^ ^ -^Ji «x<>IirvvA« . 
... V 


:s=^*^^ ;r*. 5i^ 

2" '^ ^y^-^^-^i^XA. ad^Oy^ 


7 /ye^^-^ -^^^^4^ y^ ^ 


ciJl^ yvii^^ ^^''^ 


;^k.^ .S.^,6/^ f^^ 

6 -^^u/^^^ ^ ^ /^^^ 


^ ^a t-o^ *i<^w.-M«» *<-e vx-irt^TW*: «-t-iA.^::^J.A:^ Ob-^tS-^^ _ 

v.^^. c ♦ox c.^^^^^ ^ ^ /-^ 7 f^- "^^-^^^ 

/c ^ i/i ..^^ , ^Jl^ ^ .,70....^^ ^iojcCo c,^-*— v; ^.^ ^-^t:i» 

^^^^!^^L-y^. . ♦^^ --^ ^ 20. . . - «J. K«ri-(^ ^ ...^.x;.^' c^^JiU^ ...^^ c* 

"S^^^,^ S.., /f/^. 




r — 

.^^^^^^^^^^-^^--^ -^ J^-^^-^-^- 

Petrovoc, V. p^ 

Servian conversation grammar .Pk6 

:^. ,.rruTE 



59 QU2 



i^ PARK