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56 Victoria. 

Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers. 

A. 1893 

also Numerical List, page 3. 






Note. — In order to find quickly whether a paper has been printed or not, the mark (n.p.) has been 
inserted when not printed ; papers not so marked, it may be understood, are printed. Further information 
concerning each paper is to be found in the List, commencing on page 3. 

Adulteration of Food 66 

Agriculture, Annual Report 7 

Archives, Canadian la 

Auditor- General, Annual Report 1 

Banks, Chartered 3 

Banks, Unclaimed Balances in 3a 

Baptisms, Marriages and Burials (n.p-) 75 

Beet-root Sugar (n.p.) 34 

Bonds and Securities (n.p. ) 36 

Bonne Esperance, Fishery Officer for (n. p. ) 20/i 

Boundaries of Quebec . . 43 

Bounties, Fishing (n.p.) 20, 20a, 206, 20Z 

Bridge Across the Richelieu River . .. . . (n.p.) 44 

British Canadian Loan and Investment Co. (n.p.) 55 

British Columbia Fishery Commission 10c 

British Columbia Quarantine Station (n.p.) 68 

Canadian Cattle, Scheduling of 50 

Canadian Fishermen, Treatment endured by 



Canadian Pacific Railway 30 

Canadian Pacific Railway, Lands sold by 30a 

Canal Statistics 9a 

Caron, Sir A. P., Charges against 27 

Census of Canada, 1890-91 Vol. A. 

Census of Canada, 1890-91 (n.p. ) 46, 46a 

Central Ontario Railway Co (n.p.) 62 

Chartered Banks 3 

Cheese (n.p.) 70 

Cholera, Prevention of (n.p.) 65 

Civil Service Board of Examiners 166 

Civil Service Examination (n.p.) 39 

Civil Service List 16a 

Civil Service, Superannuations 28 


Commander's Certificate, Fishery Protection 

(n.p.) 20 i 

Commercial Relations, Canada 2e 

Commissions to Public Officers 31 

Conference at Washington , 52 

Conference, Canada and Newfoundland 20^ 

Cosgrove, John J (n.p.) 216 

Criminal Statistics Jc 

Culverts on Railways (n.p. ) 61 

Customs Department (n.p. ) 41 

Custom-house, Montreal . . .(n.p.) 77 


Dividends, Unpaid in Banks . 3« 

Dominion Lands 29 


Ellis, Wm (n.p.) 76 

English Financial Agents (n.p.) 53 

Esquimalt, Defences of 32 

Estimates 2 

Exchequer Court, Rules , 25 

Excise, etc. Q 

Expenses, Unforeseen . . , (n.p. ) 23 

Experimental Farms, Annual Report 76 

Experimental Farms, Reports (n.p.) 40 

Exports and Imports (n.p. ) 64 


Financial Agents of Canada (n.p.) 53 

Fisheries Statements and Inspectors' Reports . . 10a 

Fishery Commission, British Columbia 10c 

Fishery Officer for Bonne Esperance (n.p.) 20h 

Fishery Overseers (n.p. ) 20A; 

Fishery Protection, Commander's Certificate 

(n.p.) 20 i 

Fishing Bounties (n.p.) 20, 20a, 206, 202 

Fishing Licenses (n.p. ) 54 

Food, Adulteration of 66 

French Treaty 51, 51a, 516, 51c 

56 Victoria. 

Alphabetical Index to Sessional Papers. 

A. 1893 

Geological Survey Report . . . 


Governor-General's Warrants. 

. . 13a 
49, 60 
.. 22 

Haekett. Edward (n.p.) 48 

Harkaway, Post Office (n.p.) 59a 

Herchmer, Lawrence. Charges against. . .(n.p.) 47 

Horses. Trade in • - 


Imports and Exports (n.p.) 6i 

Indian Affairs, Annual Report 14 

Inland Revenue. Annual Report 6 

Insurance. Annual Report 4 

Insurance Companies 4a, 46 

Intercolonial Railway : 

Time-table of Passenger Trains (n.p. 

Working Expenses 


Atkinson, C. A (n.p 

Running Privileges (n.p.) 26cZ 

Interior, Annual Report 13 




Justice. Annual Report. 



Kingston Penitentiary. 

(n.p.) 38 


Labrie, Chas. I 

Lands. Dominion 2y 

. Edouard (n.p.) 21a 

Library of Parliament, Annual Report 17 

Licenses to U. S. Eishing Vessels (n.p. ) 54 

Lobster Industry 10d 

Lurcher Shoal (n-P-) 72 


Manitoba School Acts 

....!33, 33«,33&,33c,33rt' 

Marine and Fisheries, Annual Report 

Militia and Defence, Annual Report 

Militia, Establishment Lists . . • • ■ 

Mines and Minerals 

Miscellaneous Unforeseen Expenses (n.p, 

Montreal Custom-house (n.p.) 77 

Mounted Police, Annual Report 15 

Murphy, O. E (n-P-) 6G 









McDougall, Lauchlin (n.p.) 

McGreevy, R. B (n-P-) 

Mclntyre, Postmaster (n.p.) 

McNamee&Co (n.p.) 


Newfoundland and Canada, Conference. . . . 20i 

Newfoundland and Canadian Trade 20/ 

Newfoundland Bait Act 20c 


Newfoundland Eishermen (n.p.) 20/ 

North-west Mounted Police 15 

Notre Dame du Rosaire Post Office (n.p.) 59 

Oyster Eisheries of Canada 106 


P. E. I. Tunnel (n.p.) 58 

Pig Iron 37, 37a, 376 

Postmaster-General, Annual Report 12 

Prosser, Wm (n.p.) 20c 

Public Accounts, Annual Report 2 

Public Officers' Commissions 31 

Public Printing and Stationery 1M 

Public Works, Annual Report 8 

"Quadra, "Steamer ... .(n.p.) 74 

Quarantine Station, British Columbia (n.p.) 68 

Quebec, Boundaries of 43 

Quebec Oriental Railway (n.p. ) 45 


Railway Culverts.. ,-(n.p.) 61 

Railways and Canals, Annual Report 9 

Railway Statistics 96 

Receipts and Payments. ..(n.p.) 24, 24a, 246, 24c, 24a* 

Richelieu River, Bridge across the (n. p. ) 44 

Rouleau, F. F (n.p.) 20g 

Royal Commission, Liquor Traffic (n.p.) 67 

Royal Commission, Sir A. P. Caron . . .• 27 

Rules, Exchequer Court 25 

Scheduling of Canadian Cattle., = 50 

Secretary of State, Annual Report 16 

Small-pox in British Columbia ... (n.p.) 56 

Soulanges Canal (n.p. ) 42 

Steam-boat Inspection 11 

St. Sebastien Post Office (n.p.) 596 

Superannuations, Civil Service., 28 

Supplementary Estimates 2 


Telegraphic System of the Empii^e 35 

Trade and Navigation, Annual Report 5 

Trade and Trade Openings ..... 2 c 

Trades Unions.. . (n.p. ) 57 

Treaty with France ... 51, 51a, 516, 51 c 

Trudeau, T (n.p.) 28a 

Tunnel between P.E.I, and Mainland . . .(n.p.) 58 

Unforeseen Expenses, Miscellaneous (n.p.) 23 


Warrants, Governor-General's 22 

Washington Conference 52 

Weights, Measures and Gas 6a 

Welland Canal (n.p.) 76 

| Wetmore, Justice, Report of (n.p. ) 47 

56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 

See also Alphabetical Index, page 1. 


Arranged in Numerical Order, with their Titles at full length ; the Dates ivhen 
Ordered and when Presented to both Houses of Parliament ; the Name of 
the Member who moved for each Sessional Paper, and whether it is ordered 
to be Printed or Not Printed. 


Census of Canada, 1890-91. First Volume Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 


1. Report of the Auditor General on Appropriation Accounts for the year ended 30th June, 1892. Pre- 

sented 27th January, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 


2. Public Accounts of Canada for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1892. Presented 27th January, 1893, 

by Hon. G. E. Foster. 2a. Estimates for the year ending 30th June, 1894 ; presented 30th 
January, 1893. 2b. Supplementary Estimates for the financial year ending 30th June, 1893 ; 
presented 17th February, 1893. 2-16*. Further Supplementary Estimates for the year endin°- 
30th June, 1893 ; presented 16th March, 1893. 2c. Supplementary Estimates for the year ending 
30th June, 1894 ; presented 27th March, 1893 Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

fid. Trade with Great Britain— Horses Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

2e. Commercial Relations, Canada, No. 1. Reports upon Trade and Trade Openings in Great Britain and 
other countries, to 31st December, 1892 Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

3. List of Shareholders in the Chartered Banks of Canada, as on the 31st December, 1892. Presented 

24th March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster. Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 


3a. Report of dividends remaining unpaid and amounts, or balances, in respect to which no transactions have 
taken place, or upon which no interest has been paid for five years or upwards prior to 31st Dec- 
ember, 1892, in chartered banks of Canada Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

4. Report of the Superintendent of Insurance for the year ending 31st December, 1892. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

4a. Preliminary abstract of the business of the Canadian Life Insurance Companies for the year ending 
31st December, 1892. Presented 20th February, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 
46. Abstract of statements of Insurance Companies in Canada for the year ending 31st December, 1892. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional wavers. 

\\ 3 

56 Victoria, List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 


5. Tables of the Trade and Navigation of Canada for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1892. Presented 

27th January, 1893, by Mr. Wood (Brockville.). Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

6. Inland Revenues of Canada. Part I., Excise, &c, for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1892. Presented 

L'Gth January, 1893, by Mr. Wood, (Brockville). .Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

So. Inland Revenues of Canada. Part II., Inspection of Weights, Measures and Gas, for the fiscal year 

ended 30th June, 1S92 Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

6b. Inland Revenues of Canada. Part III., Adulteration of Food, for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 
1S92. Presented 27th January, 1893, by Mr. Wood (Brockville). 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 


7. Report of the Minister of Agriculture for Canada, for the calendar year 1892. Presented 23rd Feb- 

ruary, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

7a. Report on Canadian Archives, 1892 Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

7b. Report of the Director and Officers of the Experimental Farms, for the year 1892. Presented 20th 

March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

7c. Criminal Statistics for the year 1892 Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 


S. Annual Report of the Minister of Public Works, for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1892. Presented 
20th February, 1893, by Hon. J. A. Ouimet. . .Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

9. Annual Report of the Minister of Railways and Canals, for the past fiscal year, from the 1st July, 1891, 

to the 30th June, 1892. Presented 10th February, 1893, by Hon. J. G. Haggart. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

9a. Canal Statistics for Season of Navigation, 1892. Presented 10th February, 1893, by Hon. J. G. Haggart. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

9b. Railway Statistics, and Capital, Traffic and Working Expenditure of the Railways of Canada, fpr 
1892. Presented 29th March, 1893, by Hon. J. G. Haggart. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 


10. Annual Report of the Department of Marine and Fisheries for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1892. 

Presented 27th January, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

lOa. Fisheries Statements and Inspectors' Reports for the year 1892. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

106. Report on the Oyster Fisheries of Canada, 1892. Presented 30th January, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 
lOc. Report of British Colmnbia Fishery Commission, 1892. 

Printed for both distribution and sessioncd papers. 
KM. Report on the Lobster Industry of Canada, 1892. ..Printed for both distribution and sessioncd papers. 


11. Re[Xjrt of the Chairman of the Board of Steam-boat Inspection, etc., for calendar year ended 31st 

1 )ecember, 1892 Printed for both distribution and sessioncd papers. 

1&. Rejx^rt of the Postmaster-General of Canada for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1892. Presented 

3rd February, 1893, by Sir A. P. Caron Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

13. Annual Report of the Department of the Interior, for the year 1892. Presented 22nd March, 1893, 

by Hon. T. M. Daly Printed for both distribution and sessioncd papers. 

18a. Summary Report of the Geological Survey Department for the year ended 1892. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1898 


1-4. Annual Report of the Department of Indian Affairs' for the year ended 31st December, 1802. Pre- 
sented 7th March, 1893, by Hon. T. M. Daly. . . .Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

15. Rei>ort of the Commissioner of the North-west Mounted Police Force, 1892. Presented 3rd March, 

1893, by Hon. W. B. Ives Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

16. Report of the Secretary of State of Canada for the year ended 31st December, 1892. Presented 6th 

March, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

16a. Civil Service List of Canada, 1892. Presented 9th February, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

166. Report of the Board of Civil Service Examiners, for the year ended 31st December, 1892. Pre- 
sented 29th March, 1893, by Hon. J. C. Patterson. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

16c?. Annual Report of the Department of Public Printing and Stationery of Canada, for the year ended 
30th June, 1892, with a partial report for services during six months ending 31st December, 1892. 
Presented 28th February, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

17. Report of the Joint Librarians of Parliament, on the state of the Library of Parliament. Presented 

26th January, 1893, by Hon. Mr. Speaker Printed for sessional papers only. 


IS. Report of the Minister of Justice as to Penitentiaries in Canada, for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 
Presented 27th January, 1893, by Sir John Thompson. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers* 

19. Annual Report of the Department of Militia and Defence of Canada, for the half-year ended 30th 
June, 1892. Presented 31st January, 1893, by Hon. J. C. Patterson. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

19a. Establishment Lists of the Active Militia for the financial year 1893-94. Presented 25th March, 1893. 
by Hon. J. C. Patterson Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

2 0. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 23rd March, 1892, for a return showing the 
number and names of men and vessel-owners applying for bounties for the years 1889, 1890 and 
1891, and not receiving the same, giving the reasons why such applications were not granted ; also 
whether any were refused and afterwards granted, the names, amounts and reasons given why 
such were afterwards granted ; also all papers and correspondence since 1888 in reference to the 
bounty system and in regard to applications granted and ungranted. Presented 27th January, 
1893. — Mr. Bonders ■ Not printed. 

£Oa. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 27th May, 1891, for a return giving a compara- 
tive statement for the years 1882 to 1891, inclusive, (by province) of : {a) Total number of bounty 
claims received by department, (b) Total number paid, (c) Number of vessels, tonnage, and 
number of men entitled to bounty in each year, (d) Number of boats among which bounty was 
distributed, and number of men. engaged in boat-fishing receiving bounty, (e) Total number of 
men receiving bounty, (f.) Total annual payments of fishing bounty. Presented 30th January, 
1893.— Mr. Flint Not printed. 

20b. Statement in reference to fishing bounty payments for 1891-92, required by chapter 96 of the Revised 
Statutes of Canada. Presented 6th February, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan Not printed. 

20c. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 30th May, 1892, for a copy of all correspondence, 
papers and reports relating to the investigation into the conduct of William Prosser, fishery over- 
seer for the district- fronting the county of Essex, on lake Erie, and his dismissal from office. Pre- 
sented 8th February, 1893. — Mr. Allan Not printed. 

29d. Copy of the proceedings of the conference recently held at Halifax between delegates from the gov- 
ernments of Canada and Newfoundland upon the fishery question and other questions between the 
two governments. Presented 8th February, 1893, by Sir John Thompson. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 


50 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 

VOLUME 10— Continued. 

•■iO. . Further papers respecting the enforcement by the Newfoundland authorities against Canadian vessels 
of the Newfoundland act respecting the sale of bait to foreign fishing vessels. Presented 9th 
February, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan, Printed for sessional papers only. 

SBO/. Further papers respecting the several questions at issue between the dominion of Canada and the 
colony of Newfoundland. Presented 13th March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

20 /. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 27th 
July, 1891, for copies of all documents, petitions and letters in relation to the fishing rights of 
F. F. Rouleau, Esq., advocate, of Rimouski, which said rights he and his predecessors have always 
exercised on his property at Rimouski. Presented 13th March, 1893. — Mr.Choquette. 

Not printed. 

'ZO/i. Return to an order of the Hous£ of Commons, dated 1st March, 1893, for copies of all correspondence 
between the government and the Quebec board of trade, respecting the appointment of a fishery 
officer in the place of Mr. W. H. Whitely, for the Bonne Esperance division, from Checatica to 
Blancs Sablons. Presented 29th March, 1893. — Mr. Joncas Not printed- 

HOi. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 13th Maach, 1893, for a return showing a copy 
of a certificate of qualification held by each of the commanders of the fishery protection service 
last season, as follows: Commander O. G. V. Spain, "Acadia;" W. H. Kent, "Agnes Mac- 
donald ; " E. Dun, "Bayfield;" Geo. M.May, "Constance;" J. H. Pratt, " Dream ; " Wm. 
Wakeham, " La Canadienne ; " A. Finlayson, "Stanley;" C. T. Knowlton, "Vigilant." Pre- 
sented 29th March, 1893.— Mr. McMullen , . . . Not printed. 

£©/. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 20th 
March, 1893, for copies of all documents, reports and correspondence between the government and 
the Quebec Board of Trade, or any other person, in relation to the treatment endured by Canadian 
fishermen from Newfoundland fishermen along the Canadian Labrador coast. Presented 30th 
March, 1893.— Mr. Joncas Not printed. 

'ZOk. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th March, 1893, for : 1. Copies of instructions 
issued to the fishery overseers of Berthier, Maskinonge, St. Maurice, Champlain, Nicolet, 
Yamaska and Richelieu, since 1st January, 1892, and of all correspondence on the subject between 
the Government and the said fishery overseers ; or between the government and any other persons* 
from 1st January, 1892, up to this date, in relation to such instructions and the enforcement there- 
of. 2. A statement of fishing licenses issued in the counties aforesaid during the years 1891 and 1892, 
separately. 3. A statement of the quantity and value of the various kinds of fish taken in the 
said counties — separately — during the years 1891 and 1892. Presented 30th March, 1893. — Mr. 
Bruneau Not printed. 

£0/. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th February, 1893, for a return of all persons 
receiving fishery bounties in the counties of Victoria and Guysboro', N.S., for the year 1892, with 
amount paid each. Presented 30th March, 1893.— Mr. Frascr Not printed. 

21. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 2nd May, 1892, for a return giving all papers, 
letters, petitions, applications, and every other document relating to the dismissal of the post- 
master of Mclntyre, and the appointment of his successor. Presented 27th January, 1893.— Mr. 
Landi rkvn Not printed. 

"il'i. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th February, 1893, for copies of all letters, 
correspondence, petitions and other documents received and exchanged by the government, re- 
Bpecting the dismissal of Edouard Lesage, postmaster of St. Leon, in the county of Maskinonge, 
and to any appointment or appointments made to the position since the discharge of the said 
official. Presented lfith March, 1893.— Mr. Lcgris Not printed. 

'21b. Return to an address of the Senate, to his excellency the Governor-General, dated the 7th March, 
1893, for copies of the order in council, information, evidence and papers upon which the dismissal 
of John J. Cosgrove, an officer of the inland revenue department, proceeded and was determined. 

I 'resented 23rd March, 1893.— Hon. Mr. O'Donohue , Not printed. 

*•£. Statement of Governor-General's Warrants issued since last session of parliament, in accordance with 
the Consolidated Revenue and Audit Act, section 32, subsection b. Presented 30th January. 
1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster Printed for distribution only. 


56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 

VOLUME 10— Concluded, 

23. Statement of expenditure on account of miscellaneous unforeseen expenses. Presented 30th .January, 

1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster Not printed. 

24. Ten days' statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, from the 11th to the 20th January, 

1892, and from the 11th to the 20th January, 1893. Presented 30th January, 1893, by Hon. G. E. 
Foster Not printed. 

24a. Statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, 1891-92 and 1892-93, to 31st January. Presented 
6th February, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster Not printed. 

£-46. Statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, 1891-92 and 1892-93, to 10th February. Presented 
17th February, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster Not printed. 

24c. Statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, 1891-92 and 1892-93, to 10th March. Presented 
15th March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster Not printed. 

&4d. Statement of the receipts and payments of Canada, 1891-92 and 1892-93, to 20th March. Presented 
21st March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster - Not printed. 

25. Rules of the Exchequer Court of Canada in respect to any proceeding that may be had or taken in 

the Exchequer Court of Canada to impeach any patent issued under " The Patent Act. " Pre- 
sented 27th January, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan Printed for sessional papers only. 

26. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 9th July, 1892, for 

a copy of the latest time-table adopted to govern the running of passenger trains on the Inter- 
colonial Railway. Presented 30th January, 1893.— Hon. Mr. Power Not printed. 

26a. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 6th February, 1893, for a statement of the work- 
ing expenses of the Intercolonial Railway for the year 1890-91 and also for the year 1891-92, and 
from the 1st July, 1892, to the 31st December, inclusive, under the following headings, viz. : — 
Locomotive power, car expenses, maintenance of way and works, station expenses, general 
charges, car mileage. Presented 27th February, 1893.— Sir Hector Langevin. 

Printed for distribution only. 

266. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 6th February, 1893, for a statement showing 
the revenue of the Intercolonial Railway for the years 1890-91 and 1891-92, and from the 1st July, 
1892, to the 31st December, inclusive, under the following headings, viz. : — Passengers, freight, 
mails and sundries ; giving also the number of passengers and the number of tons of freight carried 
in each of the above-named years. Presented 27th February, 1893. — Sir Hector Langevin. 

Printed for distribution only. 

26c Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 13th March, 1893, for copies of all correspondence, 
reports and other documents relative to the reduction in rank of C. A. Atkinson from conductor 
to brakesman, on or about October, 1887. Presented 30th March, 1893. — Mr. Wood {Westmore- 
land) , . Not printed. 

26d. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 28th March, 1892, for copies of all letters, 
telegrams and correspondence relating to the use by the Canadian Pacific Railway of running 
privileges over the Intercolonial Railway between Halifax and St. John ; and copies of all agree- 
ments between the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Intercolonial Railway, or any department 
or officer of the government of Canada, relating to the running privileges given to the Canadian 
Pacific Railway over the Intercolonial Railway and to the payments to be made therefor ; and 
also of all agreements for the payments by the Intercolonial Railway to the Canadian Pacific 
Railway for the cars and engines of the latter run over the Intercolonial Railway. Presented 
1st April, 1893.— Mr. Davies Not printed. 

27. Copy of the Report of the Commissioners appointed by Royal Commission to take evidence as to the 

truth or falsity of certain charges made against Sir Adolphe P. Caron, member of the House of 
Commons and of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, with copies of the evidence and exhibits 
thereto pertaining. Presented 6th February, 1893, by Sir John Thompson. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 


56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 


B8. Statement of all superannuations and retiring allowances in the civil service, giving the name and 
rank of each person superannuated or retired, his salary, age and length of service ; his allowance 
and cause of retirement, whether vacancy has been filled by promotion or new appointment, etc., 
for year ended 31st December, 1892. Presented 7th February, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

USa. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 1st 
March, 1893, for copies of all correspondence, papers or orders in council relating to the superan- 
nuation or retirement of Mr. T. Trudeau, late deputy of the minister of railways and canals. Pre- 
sented 21st March, 1893.— Mr. Edgar Not printed. 

29. Return of orders in council of 1892 relating to the department of the interior, in accordance with 

clause 91 of the Dominion Lands Act, chapter 54, Revised Statutes of Canada. Presented 9th 
February, 1893, by Hon. T. M. Daly Printed for sessional papers only. 

30. Return under resolution of the 20th February, 1882, in so far as the same is furnished by the depart- 

ment of the interior, respecting the Canadian Pacific Railway Company. Presented 9th Feb- 
j uary, 1893, by Hon. T. M. Daly Printed for sessional papers only. 

30<<. List of all lands sold by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company from the 1st October, 1891, to the 
1st October last. Presented 9th February, 1893, by Hon. T. M. Daly. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

31. List of public officers to whom commissions have issued under chapter 19 of the Revised Statutes of 

Canada, during the past year, 1892. Presented 9th February, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan. 

Printed in No. 16. 

35. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 17th 
March, 1892, for copy of all correspondence between the imperial government and the Canadian 
government concerning the defences of Esquimalt. Presented 10th February, 1893. — Mr. Laarier. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

33. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 6th 
February, 1893, for copy of all petitions, memorials, appeals, and of any other documents addressed 
to his excellency in council, since the 15th March, 1892, relating to the Manitoba School Acts of 
1890 and to section 22 of the " Manitoba Act ''and section 93 of the " British North America Act." 
Also copy of all reports to and of all orders in council in reference to the same. Also copies of 
all correspondence in connection therewith. Presented 10th February, 1893. — Mr. LaRiviere. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

33". Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 6th 
February, 1893, for a copy of the judgment of the judicial committee of her majesty's privy council 
in the appealed case of Barrett vs. the City of Winnipeg, commonly known as the "Manitoba 
School Case." Also copy of factums, reports and other documents in connection therewith. Pre- 
sented 14th February, 1893.— M r. LaRiviere Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

336. Further return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, 
dated 6th February, 1893, for a copy of the judgment of the judicial committee of her majesty's 
privy council in the appealed case of Barrett vs. the City of Winnipeg, commonly known as the 
" Manitoba School Case." Also copy of factums, reports and other documents in connection 
therewith. Presented 20th February, 1893.— Mr. LaRiviere. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

33c. Supplementary return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-Gen- 
eral, dated 6th February, 1893, on the subject of the Manitoba School Acts of 1890, with a certified 
copy of a report of a committee of the honourable the privy council, approved by his excellency 
the Governor-General in council on 22nd February, 1893, relative to the settlement of important 
questions of law concerning certain statutes of the province of Manitoba relating to education- 
Presented 1st March, 1893.— Mr. LaRiviere Printed for both distribution and sessioiial papers. 

33'/. Partial return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 3rd Feb- 
ruary, 1893, for: 1. A copy of the deliberations, resolutions and ordinances of the former council 
of Assiniboia, relating to educational matters within its jurisdiction as it existed on the banks of 

56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 

VOLUME 11— Continued. 

the Red River before the creation of the province of Manitoba. 2. A statement of the amounts 
paid by the said council of Assiniboia for the maintenance of schools, showing the persons to whom 
such payments were made, the schools for which such amounts were paid, and the religious denomi- 
nation to which such schools belonged. 3. A statement of the amounts paid by the Hudson's 
Bay Company or by its agents, to the .schools then existing in the territories forming to-day the 
province of Manitoba. 4. A copy of all memoranda and instructions serving as basis for the 
negotiations as a result of which Manitoba became one of the provinces of the confederation ; 
together with a copy of the minutes of the deliberations of the persons charged, on both parts, to 
settle the conditions of the creation of the province of Manitoba and of its entrance into the con- 
federation ; and also a copy of all memoranda, returns and orders in council, establishing such 
conditions of entrance, or serving as a basis for the preparation of "The Manitoba Act." 5. A 
copy of the despatches and instructions from the imperial government to the government of 
Canada on the subject of the entrance of the province of Manitoba into the confederation, com- 
prising therein the recommendations of the imperial government concerning the rights and privi- 
leges of the population of the territories, and the guarantees of protection to be accorded to the 
acquired rights, to the property, to the customs and to the institutions of that population by the 
government of Canada, in the settlement of the difficulties which marked that period of the history 
of the Canadian west. 6. A copy of the acts passed by the legislature of Manitoba relating to 
education in that province, and especially of the first act passed on this subject after the entrance 
of the said province of Manitoba into the confederation, and of the laws existing upon the same 
subject in the said province immediately before the passing of the acts of 1890, relating to the 
public schools and relating to the department of education. 7. A copy of all regulations with 
respect to schools passed by the government of Manitoba or by the advisory board in virtue of the 
laws passed in 1890, by the legislature of Manitoba, relating to public schools and the department 
of education. 8. A copy of all correspondence, petitions, memoranda, resolutions, briefs, factums, 
judgments (as well of first instance as in all stages of appeal), relating to the school laws of the said 
province of Manitoba, since the 1st June, 1890, or to the claims of catholics on this subject ; and also 
a copy of all reports to the privy council and of all orders in council relating to the same subject 
since the same date. Presented 30th March, 1893.— Hon. Mr. Bernier. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

34. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 13th April, 1892, for copies of the instructions 

issued to Prof. Saunders when he was directed to inquire into the question of the growing of 
sugar-beet and the manufacture of beet-root sugar in Canada, or since that date up to the time 
when his report was laid before this House. Presented 10th February, 1893 — Mr. Beausoleil. 

Not printed. 

35. Return to an Address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 6th 

February, 1893, for all correspondence, documents, reports and orders in council about a special 
commission to inquire into the most feasible means of completing the telegraphic system of the 
empire. Presented 10th Februaiy, 1893— Sir H. Langevin Printed for sessional papers only. 

36. Detailed statement of all bonds and securities registered in the department of the secretary of state of 

Canada, since last return, 1892, submitted to the parliament of Canada under section 23, chapter 19, 
of the Revised Statutes of Canada. Presented 13th February, 1893, by Hon. J. Costigan. 

Not printed 

37. Statement showing quantity and bounty paid on pig iron produced in Canada since date of last return 

to House of Commons, 16th March, 1892. Presented 16th February, 1893, by Mr. Wallace. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

37 a. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th February, 1893, for return showing the 
quantity of pig iron produced in Canada in the years 1870, 1871, 1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876, 1877, 
1878, 1879 and 1880, and bounty paid, if any, during those years ; also amount of pig iron 
imported from Great Britain and the United States respectively, and the total amount imported 
during those years. Presented 28th February, 1893. — Mr. Macdonald (Huron). 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

376. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 6th February, 1893, for a return showing the 
quantity of pig iron produced in Canada in the years 1881, 1882, 1883, 1884, 1885, 1886, 1887, 1888, 
1889, 1890, 1891, 1892 ; and the bounty paid for the production in each of those years. Presented 
13th March, 1893. — Mr. Mc Mullen Printed for sessional papers only. 


56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 

VOLUME 11— Continued. 

3S. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th February, 1893, for the evidence taken 
before Mr. James G. Moylan, inspector of penitentiaries, in connection with the investigation or 
Investigations held by that official at Kingston penitentiary during the past year which resulted in 
the dismissal or resignation of certain officials of that institution. Presented 22nd February, 1893. 
—Mr. Some rville Not printed. 

•**i>. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th February, 1893, for a copy of the questions 
put and the subjects submitted to the parties who presented themselves for preliminary or qualify- 
ing examination, or both, at the last examination for the civil service. Presented 23rd February, 
1893. — Sir Hector Langevin Not printed. 

40. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th February, 1893, for a return showing the 

number of Experimental Farm Reports published for the year 1891 ; the number published in 
English and French respectively ; the number allotted to each member of the House of Commons 
and Senate, and the number still on hand. Presented 24th February, 1893. — Mr. Grieve. 

Not printed. 

41. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 20th 

February, 18!>3, for a copy of any report to council made by Hon. J. A. Chapleau when minister 
of customs, on the reorganization of the customs department or recommending changes regarding 
that department. Presented 24th February, 1893. — Mr. Landerkin Not printed. 

42. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 6th February, 1893, for a list of the names of all 

tenderers for section eight of the Soulanges canal, also of the residence of each such tenderers, and 
of the amount of each tender. Presented 27th February, 1893. — Sir Hector Langevin. Not printed. 

43. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 2nd 

February, 1893, for copies of all correspondence, memorials, departmental orders and orders in 
council, not already laid before the House, respecting the north-western, northern and eastern 
boundaries of the province of Quebec, together with all reports of surveys or explorations ordered 
thereon or in connection therewith, by the government of Canada, since last session of parliament, 
including the instructions for said surveys or explorations. Presented 27th February, 1893. — Sir 
Hector Langevin Printed for sessional papers only. 

44. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor General, dated 6th 

February, 1893, for a copy of any order in council or other document which gave power to the 
"Stanstead, Shefford and Chambly Railway Co." or their successors "The Vermont Central 
Railway Company " to build a bridge across the Richelieu river at St. John's, P.Q. Presented 
28th February, 1893.— Mr. Bechard ...Not printed. 

45. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 6th 

February, 1893, for copies of all petitions, correspondence and documents whatsoever respecting 
the granting of a subsidy to the Quebec Oriental Railway. Presented 28th February, 1893.— Mr. 
Vaillancourt Not printed. 

4<». Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 1st March, 1893, for copies of instructions to 
officers employed in the taking of the third census of Canada, 1891, and copies of forms used. 
Presented 1st March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster .' ^Not printed. 

4Go. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 6th February, 1893, 
for information, accompanied with full explanatory remarks, from the officer in charge of the 
direction and superintendence of the last Canadian Census of 1891, on the following points: 
1. Was the enumeration of the French element of the population, in the taking of the Census of 
1891, intended and carried on to convey the same information as was furnished by the previous 
On -us of 1851 and 1861 of the former province of Canada, and the Canadian Census of 1871 and 
1881 '.' 2. What was the meaning intended and the interpretation given, in the taking of the 
Census of 1891, to the words French- Canadian and Canadian-French as heading of one of the 
column- of Census Schedule No. 1 ? 3. What is the precise meaning and what is to be understood 
by the various words made use of in the Census Bulletin No. 11, signed George Johnson, statisti- 
cian, namely, the words Nationalities, Nationalites, French-speaking, English-speaking, Canadiens- 
Anglais, as part of the new nomenclature adopted? 4. Were there people of French nationality, 
real Frenchmen, excluded from the registration of the French element of the population on account 
of being born outside of Canada, and were there French people included among the English- 


56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 

VOLUME 11— Continued. 

speaking on account of being able to speak the English language ? Is there any connection between 
such cases and the nomenclature of Bulletin No. 11, and if not, why is it that the simple word 
French, formerly used as meaning the French element, was abandoned, to be variously replaced 
by the words French-speaking, French-Canadians, and so forth ? 5. What were, in addition to the. 
printed instructions, the practical explanations and directions given to the officers, commissioners 
and enumerators, as regard* the registration of the French element of the population, or persons 
of French origin or nationality ? G. Was the actual enumeration of the French, in 1891, uniform- 
ally carried on throughout, in the various Census districts, subdistricts and divisions ? 7. Are 
there reasons to apprehend, from direct investigation, personal knowledge, or statistical criticism, 
that the figures given as representing the number of French people, are notably deficient in some 
or many returns of the enumeration of 1891 ? 8. Were the returns delivered by the enumerators 
examined by the commissioners, the officers, and at the central office under the supervision, the 
responsibility of the superintendent, in view to test their accuracy and to correct apparent errors ? 
9. Was it noticed by some of the officers or the superintendent, that very serious discrepancies 
existed in the return of the French between the Census of 1891 and the statistical series of previous 
censuses, and was thereby trouble taken to investigate the serious question raised by the very 
striking want of concordance ? 10. Is there any rational explanation of the returns of 1891 by which 
the French appear to have met abnormous losses in their number, especially in Nova Scotia, 
Ontario and the Territories ? 11. Are there local or accidental causes capable of explaining the 
vast differences in the multiplication of the French which would have taken place, if the figures of 
the Census of 1891 were correct, between Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, 
for instance ? 12. Was there, at any time, steps taken to ascertain the cause and extent of such 
extraordinary returns ; if not, what was the cause of that omission ; if so, what were the proceed- 
ings adopted, and what the results ? 13. Has the superintendent of the Census of 1891 taken 
notice of the very determined objection to accept the extraordinary figures of 1891, as representing 
the actual number of the French in Canada, and has any serious investigation of this important 
question been undertaken by him ; if so, what are the conclusions arrived at, including the 
statistical criticism involved ? 14. And that the said information include all instructions given to 
the enumerators in the several years, 1881 and 1891, be brought down with the return. Presented 
30th March, 1893.— Hon. Mr. Tasse Not printed. 

47. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 20th 
February, 1893, for a copy of the report of the Honourable Mr. Justice Wetmore, appointed by 
royal commission to inquire into certain charges against Lawrence Herchmer, commissioner of the 
North-west Mounted Police. Presented 3rd March, 1893. — Mr. Bavin .Not printed. 

45. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 20th 
February, 1893, for a return of all correspondence, telegrams, reports and other papers relating 
to the suspension of Mr. Edward Hackett, Inspector of Fisheries, Prince Edward Island, in the 
year 1892 ; together with copies of the charges made against Mr. Hackett, the authority given to 
the commissioner in Prince Edward Island to take evidence on such charges, together with the 
evidence taken, and the report of the minister of marine thereon, together with any letters, cor- 
respondence, orders or reports relating to the reinstatement of Mr. Hackett. Presented 6th 
March, 1893. --Mr. Davics , . . Not printed. 

49. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 6th 

February, 1893, for a statement showing total amount of money paid by years since confederation 
on each of the following accounts : (a) Salary of Governor-General, {b) Travelling expenses of 
Governor-General, (c) Expenditure on Rideau Hall on capital account and maintenance ; expen- 
diture on Rideau Hall grounds on capital account and maintenance, (d) Expenditure on fur- 
nishings of all kinds for Rideau Hall, (e) Allowance to Governor-General for coal and light. 
(/) Expenditure on any other account in connection with the office of Governor-General. 
{(j) Expenditure on any other account in connection with Rideau Hall and grounds, (h) Total 
expenditure of every kind since confederation in connection with the office of Governor-General. 
{i) Total expenditure of every kind in connection with Rideau Hall and grounds. Presented 6th 
March, 1893. — Mr. Mulock Printed for sessional papers only. 

50. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 6th 

February, 1893, for a return of all letters, correspondence, reports and all other matter on record, 
passed between the department of agriculture and the high commissioner of Canada in London, 


56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 

VOLUME 11— Continued. 

the imperial board of trade or any other officials of an authoritative body in reference to the 
scheduling of Canadian cattle in the ports of Great Britain and Ireland, on and after 20th 
October, last. Presented 6th March, 1893. — Mr. Sproule Printed for sessional papers only. 

51. Agreement entered into between Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Inland and the President of the French Republic, regulating the commercial relations between 
Canada and France in respect of customs tariffs. Presented 6th March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. 
Foster Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

51a. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, for copies of 
correspondence and other papers in relation" to an agreement entered into between Her Majesty 
tlie Queen of the United Kindom of Great Britain and Ireland and the President of the French 
Republic, regulating the commercial relations between Canada and France in respect of customs 
tariffs. Presented 15th March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

51b. Supplementary return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-Gene- 
ral, dated 15th March, 1893, for copies of correspondence and other papers in relation to an 
agreement entered into between Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and 
Ireland and the President of the French Republic, regulating the commercial relations between 
Canada and France in respect of customs tariffs. Presented 20th March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. 
Foster Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

51c. Further supplementary return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor- 
General, dated 15th March, 1893, for copies of correspondence and other papers in relation to an 
agreement entered into between Her Majesty the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain 
and Ireland and the President of the French Republic, regulating the commercial relations between 
Canada and France in respect of customs tariffs. Presented 25th March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. 
Foster . . " Printed for both distribution and sessional papers. 

53. Papers relating to the conference held at Washington in February, 1892, between the delegates of the 
Canadian government and the secretary of state of the United States upon the several subjects 
therein mentioned. Presented 7th March, 1893, by Hon. G. E. Foster. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

53. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 1st 

March, 1893, for copies of all letters, telegrams and correspondence between the government or any 
member thereof, and the late English financial agents of Canada in London and the Bank of Mon- 
treal in reference to the recent change of agency at London. Presented 7th March, 1893. — 
Sir Richard Gartwright Not printed. 

54. Copy of an order in council of the 17th January, 1893, authorizing the issue of licenses to United 

States fishing vessels during the year 1893, for the purchase of bait, ice, lines and all other sup- 
plies, the transhipment of catch and shipping of crews. Presented 7th March, 1893, by Hon. 
J. Costigan Not printed. 

55. Statement of the affairs of the British Canadian Loan and Investment Company, on 31st December, 

18!)2. Also a list of shareholders on the 31st December, 1S92. Presented 30th March, 1893, by 
Hon. Mr. Speaker Not printed. 

56. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 21st February, 1893, 

for copies of all letters, communications and telegrams between the minister of agriculture or any 
official under him, or any other minister or official of the Dominion government and the Canadian 
Pacific Railway Company, the British Columbia government, the mayors of the cities of Victoria 
and Vancouver, the Dominion health officers of the ports of Victoria and Vancouver, relating to 
the introduction of smdl-pox into Victoria and Vancouver, in May and June, 1892, by the mail 
from Japan and China. Presented 9th March, 1893.— Hon. Mr. Melnncs (Victoria). 

Not printed. 

57. Return of applications for registration under the provisions of chapter 131, Revised Statutes 

of Canada, "An Act respecting Trades Unions." Presented 15th March, 1893, by Hon. J. 

Costigan Not printed. 


56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 

VOLUME 11— Continued, 

58. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 15th March, 1893, for a statement showing 

in detail the expenditure incurred since last session of parliament, in carrying on the borings 
in the Straits of Northumberland to obtain data as to the probable cost of a tunnel, also for all 
contracts, correspondence, telegrams or papers in anywise relating to such borings or such expen- 
diture. Presented 15th March, 1893.— Mr. Perry Not printed. 

59. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th February, 1893, for copies of all petitions, 

letters and documents whatsoever, in relation to the change in the location of the post office of 
Notre Dame du Rosaire. Presented 20th March, 1893. — Mr. Choquette . . .Not printed. 

59a. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 6th February, 1893, for a return of all petitions, 
documents and letters in relation to a request made for increased mail service at the Harkaway post 
office, during the past six years. Presented 29th March, 1893. — Mr. Landerkin Not printed. 

596. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 1st March, 1893, for copies of all correspondence 
and petitions asking for a change in the post office of St. Sebastien, in the county of Beauce; and 
of the report of the post office inspector in relation thereto. Presented 29th March, 1893.— Mr. 
Godbout Not printed. 

60. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 1st March, 1893, for copies of all accounts, letters, 

receipts and other documents in relation to the claim of Charles I. Labrie, of Levis, for professional 
service in connection with expropriation, during the construction of the St. Charles Branch. Pre- 
sented 20th March, 1893.— Mr. Fremont . . . .Not printed. 

61. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 1st March, 1893, for copies of petitions from 

county councils and other municipal corporations asking that railways under Dominion control 
be compelled to build culverts on natural watercourses crossing their lines, and correspondence re- 
lating thereto. Presented 21st March, 1893. — Mr. Casey . . . Not printed . 

62. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 1st 

March, 1893, for copies of all communications, memorials, etc., addressed to his excellency in 
council, to the Dominion government or any member thereof, since 1888, urging the granting of a 
federal subsidy to the Central Ontario Railway Company, to enable that company to extend its 
line from Coehill northward. Presented 21st March, 1893. — Mr. Corby Not printed. 

63. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 1st 

March, 1893, for all correspondence, petitions and papers that are in the possession of the govern- 
ment relating to the disallowance of chapter 1 of the Acts of Nova Scotia, dated 1892 : "An act 
to amend and consolidate the Acts relating to Mines and Minerals," including any petition of 
David McKeen, Esq., M.P., and others, in respect of the said act. Presented 21st March, 1893. — 
Mr. Weldon Printed for sessional papers only. 

64. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 6th February, 1893, for a return, in the form 

used in the statements usually published in the Gazette, of the exports and imports from the first 
day of July, 1892, to the first day of January, 1893, distinguishing the products of Canada and 
those of other countries ; and comparative statements from the first day of July, 1891, to the first 
day of January, 1892, Presented 21st March, 1893.— Sir E. Carttvright Not printed. 

65. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th February, 1893, for all papers, documents, 

correspondence, etc., addressed to the government in relation to the best means to be adopted to 
prevent the spreading of cholera. Presented 23rd March, 1893. — Mr. Landerkin Not printed. 

66. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 15th March, 1893, for copies of all correspon- 

dence between the minister of justice and the Hon. J. G. Bosse, judge of the court of Queen's 
Bench, in relation to the trial and condemnation of R. H. McGreevy and O. E. Murphy, charged 
with a conspiracy to defraud ; of all recommendations and of all reports made by the said Hon. J. 
G. Bosse in relation to the conviction of the said Murphy and McGreevy and to a commutation 
of the sentence of R. H. McGreevy ; of the order for the commutation of the sentence of R. H. 
McGreevy, and of any petitions, letters, etc., in relation thereto. Presented 24th March, 1893. — 

Mr. Tarte Not printed. 


56 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A. 1893 

VOLUME 11— Continued. 

67. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 23rd February, 
1893, for: 1. A copy of the commission issued appointing and constituting certain persons a 
royal commission to obtain reliable data respecting the operation and effects of legislative prohi- 
bition of the traffic in intoxicating liquors. 2. Also a copy of any and all instructions given for 
the guidance of the said royal commission by or under the authority of the government. 3. Also 
copies of any and all documents and statistics furnished to the said royal commission, by any of 
the departments of the civil service, or any officer of the government, embodying information or 
suggestions in relation to the subjects which the said royal commission was appointed to examine 
and report upon. Presented 15th March, 1893. — Hon. Mr. Vidal Not printed. 

6S. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 7th February, 1893, 
for copies of all letters, communications and telegrams between the minister of agriculture, or any 
official under him, or any other minister or official of the Dominion government, and the govern- 
ment of British Columbia or any official thereof, the British Columbia board of trade, and the 
local Dominion engineer, relating to the erection of a proper quarantine station at Albert Head 
or William Head, British Columbia. Presented 15th March, 1893.-270?!.. Mr. Mclnnes {Victoria). 

Not printed. 

69. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 7th March, 1893, 

for a copy of the royal instructions from her most gracious majesty the Queen to his excellency, 
on his appointment to his present office. Presented 20th March, 1893. — Hon. Mr. Wark. 

Printed for sessional papers only. 

70. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 6th February, 1893, for copies of all correspon- 

dence between Mr. Robertson, dairy commissioner for Canada, and the department of agricul- 
ture, in relation to a certain resolution adopted by a committee of the board of trade of Bristol, 
England, against accepting as Canadian chesse, cheese designated by the said committee under the 
name of "French Cheese" and manufactured in the province of Quebec. Copies of all speeches, 
letters and reports made by the said dairy commissioner, Mr. Robertson, on the value of cheese 
manufactured in the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. Presented 25th March, 1893. — Mr. Rinfret. 

Not printed. 

71. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 

20th February, 1893, for copy of the claims made by Messrs. F. B. McNamee & Co., con- 
tractors, in connection with the recommendations made by a select committee of the House of 
Commons, June, 1887, with all reports, orders in council and other papers relating thereto. 
Presented 28th March, 1893. — Sir Hector Langevin Not printed. 

72. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 20th February, 1893, for copies of all correspon- 

dence and reports accumulated between the years 1876 and 1893 in the hands of the government 
relating to the Lurcher Shoal, near the entrance to the Bay of Fundy, and proposed means for 
the protection of navigation in that vicinity. Presented 29th March, 1893. — Mr. Bowers. 

Not printed. 

73. Return to an order of the House of Commons, dated 13th March, 1893, for 'copies of all correspon- 

dence relating to the claim of Mr. Lauchlin McDougall, of Victoria County, Nova Scotia, for 
superannuation allowance, together with the amounts paid him as lighthouse-keeper in St. Paul's 
and Ingonish, giving the separate amounts for each year. Presented 29th March, 1893.— Mr. 
Frasi r > Not printed. 

74. Return to an address of the House of Commons to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 13th 

March, 1893, for copies of all tenders, letters, telegrams and correspondence between the govern- 
ment and their agents and any other persons, in regard to the contract let for the repairing of the 
Dominion steamer " Quadra.' 1 Presented 30th March, 1893. — Mr. Prior Not printed. 

75. General statements and returns of baptisms, marriages and [burials in the districts of Chicoutimi, 

Gaspe, Joliette, Iberville, Montmagny, Ottawa and Saguenay, for the year 1892. Presented 30th 
March, 1893, by Hon. Mr. Speaker Not printed. 

76. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 14th March, 

1893, for a statement and account showing the amount said to have been improperly retained by 
William Ellis, superintendent of the Welland canal, and subsequently refunded by him, and not 
included in a return laid before the Senate, in answer to an address of the Senate of the 18th June, 
1 891 . J 'resented 28th March, 1893.— Hon. Mr. McCallum Not printed. 


66 Victoria. List of Sessional Papers. A 1893 

VOLUME 11— Concluded. 

77. Return to an address of the Senate to his excellency the Governor-General, dated 28th February, 1893, 
for a list giving the names of all persons employed permanently or temporarily at the custom-house 
at Montreal, on the first day of January, 1868 ; also a similar list of those so employed on the first of 
January, ultimo, with, in both cases, their ages, nationality, religion, salary, occupation and date 
of appointment. Presented 30th March, 1893. — Hon. Mr. BeUerose Not printed. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 












[No. 14—1893.] Price 25 cents. 

Department of Indian Affaira 



Report of the Superintendent General of Indian Affairs „ vii 

do Deputy do do ix 

Special Appendix " A " xxviii 

do " B " xxx 



Grand River Superintendency — E. D. .Cameron, Superintendent 1 

Walpole Island Agency — Alex. McKelvey, Agent 2 

Western Superintendency, 1st Division — A. English, Agent 3 

do do 2nd do Thos. Gordon do 3 

do do 3rd do John Beattie do 4 

Northern do 1st do Jas. C. Phipps, Visiting Superintendent 5 

do do 2nd do Thos. S. Walton, M.D. do 7 

do do 3rd do Win. Van Abbott, Indian Lands Agent 10 

do do 4th do J. P. Donnelly, Agent 11 

Golden Lake Agency — Edmund Bennett, Agent 13 

Tyendinaga do Matthew Hill do 14 

Lake Simcoe do J. R. Stevenson do 14 

Cape Croker do J. W. Jermyn do 15 

Saugeen do James Allen do 15 

Alnwick do John Thackeray do 16 

Rice and Mud Lake do Edwin Harris do 17 

Rama do (no report) D. J. McPhee, Agent 

Penetanguishene do do H. H. Thompson do 

Scugog do Geo. B. McDermot, Agent 18 

New Credit do P. E. Jones, M.D. do 18 

Mount Elgin Industrial Institution— Report on— Rev. W. W. Shepherd, Principal : . . 20 

Wikwemikong do do do Rev. D. Duronquet do 21 

Shingwauk and Wawanosh Homes do Rev. E. F. Wilson do 22 

Mohawk Institution do Rev. R. Ashton do 23-26 


Caughnawaga Agency — A. Brosseau, Agent 27 

St. Regis do Geo. Long do , 27 

Viger (Cacouna) do N. Lebel do 28 

Maria do J. Gagne, Ptre. do 28 

Lake St. John do L. E. Otis do 29 

Restigouche do V. J. A. Venner, M. D. , Agent 29 

River Desert do James Martin, Agent 30 

Jeune Lorette do A. 0. Bastien do 31 

North Temiscamingue Agency — A. McBride, Agent 32 

St. Francis do P. E. Robillard do 32 

Becancour do H. Desilets, M.D. do .33 

North Shore River St. Lawrence Superintendency — No Superintendent 

New Brunswick. 

North Eastern Superintendency — Chas Sargeant, Superintendent 33 

South Western District, 1st Division — James Farrell, Agent 35 

Northern Division do do 37 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Nova Scotta. 


District No. la -Geo. Wells, sen., Agent 38 

do 1/'— F. McDormand do 38 

do It* — Geo. R. Smith do 39 

do 2— Chas. E. Beckwith do 39 

do 3 and 4— Rev. Thos. J. Butler, Agent 39 

do 5— Rev. D. O'Sullivan do 40 

do 6a — James Gass do 41 

do 6b— D. H. Muir, M.D. do 41 

do 7— F. A. Rand do 41 

do 8— Rev. R. McDonald do 42 

do 9— W. C. Chisholm do .43 

do 10— Rev. John C. Chisholm do 43 

do 1 1 — Rev. D. Mclsaac do 44 

do 12 — Rev. R. Grant, no report do 

do 13 — Rev. A. Cameron, D.D., Agent 44 

do 15 — E. T, Ferguson do 45 

Prince Edward Island. 

John 0. Arsenault, Superintendent 45 

Manitoba and the North-west Territories. 

Report* of the Indian Commissioner for Mantioba, Keeivatin and the North-west Territories, the 
Inspectors of Indian Agencies and Reserves, the Inspectors of Schools, and the Principals of 

Industrial Schools, &c. , 6cc. 

Hayter Reed, Indian Commissioner, &c 46 

E. McCollj Inspector of Indian Agencies and Reserves in Treaties 1, 2, 3 and 5 54 

T. P. Wadsworth do do do 4, 6 and 7 59 

Alex. McGibbon do do do 4, 6 and 7 89 

Francis Ogletree, Agent — Treaty No. 1 142 

A. M. Muckle do do 1 143 

H. Martineau do do 2 145 

R. J. N. Pither do do 3 145 

F. C. Cornish do do 3 146 

John Mclntyre do do 3 147 

Hilton Keith do Touchwood Hills Agency, Treaty No. 4 148 

J. B. Lash do Muscowpetung's do do 4 , . . , 149 

J. A. Markle do Birtle do do 4 : 151 

John P. Wright, Acting do File Hills do do 4 153 

W. S. Giant do Assiniboine do do 4 154 

VY. E. Jones do Fort Pelly do do 4 155 

Lt. Col. A. Maedonald do Crooked Lakes do do 4 156 

J. J. Campbell do Moose Mountain do do 4 162 

Joseph Reader do The Pas do do 5 163 

A. Mackay do Berens River do do 5 167 

R. S. Mckenzie do Duck Lake do do 6 167 

P. J. Williams do Battleford do do 6 169 

( '•(;<>. C. Mann do Onion Lake do do 6 170 

John Ross do Saddle Lake do do 6 172 

D. L. Clink, Acting do Peace Hills do do 6 175 

Chas. de ( lazes. Agent, Edmonton Agency, Treaty No. 6 176 

.J . Finlayson do Carlton do do 6 178 

S. f>- I- do Sarcee do do 7 179 

A. G. Irvine do Blood do do 7 179 

Magnus Begg do Blackfoot do do 7 181 

\V. Pocklington do Piegan do do 7 182 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

J. A. Macrae, Inspector of Protestant Schools in Manitoba and the North-west Territories. 
Albert Betournay, Inspector Roman Catholic Schools do do do .... 

Qu'Appelle Industi 

•ial School, 

Treaty No. 4- 

-Report on- 

—Rev. J. Hugonnard, Princi 



do 4 


Rev. A. J. McLeod do 



do 6 


Rev. Thos. Clarke do 

St. Joseph's 


do 7 


Rev. A. Naessens do 

Rupert's Land 




Rev. W. A. Burman do 

St. Boniface 




Sister S. Hamel do 

Harry Guillod 


R. H. Pidcock 


P. McTiernan 


J. W. Mackay 


Michael Phillips 


W. L. Meason 


C. Todd 


R. C. Loring 


British Columbia. 

A. W. Vowell, Visiting Superintendent 

W. H. Lomas, Agent, Cowichan Agency 

West Coast Agency 

Kwawkewlth do 

Lower Fraser do 

Kamloops and Okanagan Agency 

Kootenay Agency 

William's Lake Agency 

North-west Coast Agency 

Babine Agency 

J. R. Scott, Metlakahtla Industrial School, Report on 

Rev. Michael Hagan, Kamloops do do 

Rev. G. Donckele, Kuper Island do do 

Rev. N. Coccola, Kootenay do do 

Rev. J. M. J. Lejacq, Williams Lake Industrial School — Report on 

P. O'Reilly, Indian Reserve Commissioner 


John C. Nelson, D.L.S., in charge of Indian Reserve Surveys, N. W.T 269 

A. W. Ponton, D.L.S., Manitoba .and the North-west Territories 222 

F. A. Devereux, B.C 266-267 

E. M. Skinner, B.C , 268-269 


Geo. T. Orton, M. D. Manitoba 401 


No. 1 — Showing the number of acres of Indian lands sold during the year ended 30th June, 
1892, the total amount of Purchase Money, and quantity of surveyed surrendered 

Indian Lands remaining unsold at that date 282 

Annual Report-^-Land Sales Branch 284 

No. 2— School Statistics 285-286 












No. 3- -Census Returns 

Statement showing quantities of Grain and Roots sown and harvested on Indian Reserves, 
&c. , in the North-west 

Statement showing the number of Indians in the North-west Territories and their where- 
abouts in 1892 

Return showing Crops sown and harvested by individual Indians in the North-west Terri- 
tories, 1892 

Statement of Earnings of individual Indians in the North-west Territories for the year ended 

30th June, 1892 


Officers and employees at Headquarters 

do do Outposts 

Nova Scotia 

New Brunswick 

Prince Edward Island 

British Columbia 

Indians of Manitoba and the North-west. 






-Statements of Expenditure 14-16 

Indian Trust Fund 17 to 20 


Department of Indian Affairs. 




Department of Indian Affairs, 

Ottawa, 11th January, 1893. 

To the Honourable T. Mayne Daly, 

Superintendent-Greneral of Indian Affairs, 
&c, &c, &c. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the Report of this Department for the year 
ended the 31st December, 1892. 

It is gratifying to be able to state that the condition generally of Indian Affairs 
throughout the Dominion has been most satisfactory during the past year. 

The general health of the Indians has, as a rule, been good; the sanitary 
measures inaugurated by the Department, and to which it insists upon its agents 
giving effect, have no doubt contributed largely towards this state of affairs. 

With the exception of New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island, the popula- 
tion of the Indians of the older provinces has increased. 

In the newer provinces and territories, as was to be expected, inasmuch as the 
Indians resident therein have not as yet become accustomed to the change in the 
mode of living incidental to their altered circumstances, there has, as a rule, been a 
falling off in numbers. * 

But it is believed that, as has been the case with the Indians of the older pro- 
vinces, the reverse must in the course of time occur, as the result of the Indians of 
the newer parts becoming habituated to their present way of living. It is noticeable 
that even now in not a few bands in the North-west Territories and in Manitoba 
there are increases in the population. 

There has been no general epidemic during the year among the Indians ; though 
in some bands that virulent type of influenza, popularly known as " la grippe ", 
prevailed with, in some instances, fatal results; measles also attacked some of the 
Bands in British Columbia, more especially in the Williams' Lake district, where a 
malignant form of quinzy was likewise prevalent, which resulted fatally in many 
cases of children. 

Small-pox broke out at one or two points on Vancouver Island; but the pre- 
cautionary and prompt measures adopted by Dr. Hannington, the Department's 

14— B 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

medical officer at Victoria, prevented that much dreaded disease becoming general 
among the Indians of the Songhees Beserve; only three cases having occurred on 
that reserve; on the West Coast, however, there were six deaths from it. 

The absence, as a rule, of crime among the wards of the country is likewise a 
subject for congratulation. This is, no doubt, in the main, attributable to the lau- 
dable efforts for their moral improvement put forth by the missionaries of the 
various denominations working among them, as well as by the Indian agents, and the 
school teachers resident upon the reserves. The stringent provisions of the Indian 
Act, for the punishment of any parties selling or giving intoxicants to Indians, have 
however also contributed in no small measure towards the Indians' immunity 
from crime ; inasmuch as when an Indian does commit a breach of the law, it can 
be, I may say, invariably traced to over-iudulgence in liquor; for while perhaps no 
people are so little prone to do anyone an injury than are Indians when sober, on 
the other hand when they are intoxicated, they become, for the time, frenzied and 
capable of committing the foulest deeds. Hence the obligation that rests upon any 
magistrate before whom parties may be cited for selling or giving intoxicants to 
Indians, to inflict severe punishment upon the violators of the law in this most 
serious respect. It is most gratifying however to observe in the agents' reports a 
universal testimony borne to the good conduct of the Indians in every portion of 
the Dominion. 

The principal dependence of the Indians living on reserves within the more 
thickly settled parts of Ontario is on agriculture: while those whose reserves are 
not so situated combine, to a greater or less extent, that industry with hunting and 
fishing. A similar remark may be made in respect to the Indians of Quebec aud 
the Maritime Provinces. 

Prosperity has, as a general thing, attended the efforts of the Indians of the 
older provinces to support themselves ; and, as in previous years, so in this, assis- 
tance has only been rendered by the Department to the aged, sick and infirm. 

In Manitoba and the District of Keewatin a similar condition of matters ob- 
tained; and only in the fulfilment of obligations imposed by the Treaties made with 
the Indians of those parts by the Government, had any expenses to be incurred in 
the relief of able-bodied Indians; and as these obligations involved, besides the 
annuities payable under the Treaties, only the provision of cattle and farming imple- 
ments for bands who had not previously received the same, the expense thus incurred, 
while obfigatory, as before intimated, was likewise quite in accord with the Depart- 
ment's policy of encouraging the Indians to pursue agriculture as a means of subsis- 

In British Columbia the Indians also succeeded in supporting themselves by 
their own industry in the pursuits followed by them, which it may be stated are of 
a varied character; combining, as they do, agriculture, fruit culture, cattle raising, 
sealing, fishing, hunting, mining, timber cutting and rafting, working at saw-mills, 
on the railways, on farms of settlers, constructing and repairing the public highways; 
in fact these Indians are represented in almost every line of manual labour, excep- 
ting the vocations of skilled artisans : and in these the Department expects to have 
Indian representatives in the pupils now attending the several industrial institutions, 
when they shall have completed their course of instruction in the respective trades 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

they are learning, when they will be able to compete with artisans of other origin, 
for a share of the public patronage in the lines of industry of which they shall have 
acquired a knowledge. 

To the very aged and sick of the Indians of British Columbia alone has the De- 
partment been called upon to extend assistance; excepting that, in some instances, 
implements were, to a limited extent, supplied to Indians struggling to follow farm- 
ing for a living. 

No treaty obligation, however, rested on the Government to do this ; but the 
generosity of Parliament has for some years past enabled the department to assist 
the laudable efforts of Indians in this manner. 

The Indians of the North-west Territories alone, of all the Indians in the 
Dominion, are not wholly self-supporting, and, indeed, as a matter of fact, the large 
majority of these Indians are dependent as yet on the Government. But when one 
considers how suddenly they were deprived of what was to them the staple of life, 
namely, the buffalo, and how few years have elapsed since they were roaming the 
plains in wild independence, obtaining from this animal plenty to eat and ample 
wherewith to clothe and house themselves, delighting in war, the Cree against the 
Biackfeet, and the Blackfeet against the Cree, the progress already made by them 
towards becoming self-supporting, and the peaceful habits which now distinguish 
them are phenomenal. 

The reports of the Indian Commissioner, the inspectors and the agents, show 
that remarkable progress in the march of civilization is being made by the Indians 
in the Districts of Assiniboia and Saskatchewan, the country of the Crees. Sufficient 
grain was reaped on the various reserves in several of the agencies to supply the 
Indians with all the flour they required. The grain grown on other reserves, while 
not so bountiful, was sufficient to greatly reduce the cost of feeding them, their root 
crops also contributing in no small measure towards the support of the Indians ; 
while the increasing herds of cattle, and that important factor in their subsistence, 
the milk supplied by their cows, to say nothing of the meat of animals, which, 
having been condemned for one cause or another as unfit to work, are therefore killed 
for the public benefit, all assist in reducing the cost to the Government of support- 
ing the Indians of the above districts ; and one can look hopefully forward to a not 
distant day when, like their brethren in the other parts of the Dominion whose con- 
dition has been previously reviewed, the able-bodied among these Indians, at least, 
will cease to be dependent on the Government, and will become contributors to, 
instead of consumers of, the wealth of the country. 

A different condition of matters exists in the District of Alberta, at least in so far 
as the Blackfeet and the kindred branches of that, of yore, essentially warlike tribe, 
the Bloods and Piegans, as well as their allies, the Sarcees, are concerned. In these 
Indians the Department has had other material to deal with than it had in the more 
northerly bands of Crees and Saulteux. They have always shown a strong aversion 
to settle down to what is to them the drudgery of tilling the soil ; nevertheless 
indications are not wanting of a change of sentiment in this respect, and in order 
to fan, so to speak, the flickering flame into a steady light, changes have been made 
in the staff of employees ; men of practical ideas, and who are capable of giving 
effect to the same, as evidenced by their success in similar positions held elsewhere, 
have been transferred to the reserves of these Indians; and it is hoped that, by 
their energy and abilities, a fresh impetus will be given to the work of improving 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

the condition of these Indians, so as to render them, within a reasonable time, if not 
wholly, at least to an appreciable extent, self-supporting. As, however, in the case 
of other Indians, so in a greater degree in the case of these, more is to be expected 
from such of the rising generation as are now being educated and industrially trained 
in the Industrial Institution on the Blackfoot Eeserve, and in the boarding schools 
on the Blackfoot, Sarcee, Blood and Piegan Eeserves, than from the older Indians or 
the VOUDg men who have not been brought under the influence of such training as 
these children are being subjected to. 

The Stonys whose reserve is situated at Morleyville in the District of Alberta, 
are becoming quite adepts at stock raising ; their herd of cattle is rapidly increasing. 
These Indians have for many years had the benefit of receiving religious instruction 
from missionaries of the Methodist Church; the Boarding School known as " The 
McDougall Orphanage " has also for a length of time been successfully conducted 
by that denomination on the reserve. 

During the past year they pursued their usual steady course of industry and 
they are rapidly (for Indians) advancing towards independence. 

The Crees in the northern part of Alberta both at Peace Hills and in the 
Edmonton Agency for some years did not make as great progress as their brethren 
of the Districts of Saskatchewan and Assiniboia; they appear, however, to be now 
rapidly overtaking them. During the past season both in agriculture and stock 
raising they were most successful ; and as regards the Peace Hills Indians the agent 
reports that at their present rate of progress they ought to be independent in ayear 

or two. 

There was a net decrease of expenditure during the past year on account of the 
Indians of the North-west Territories and Manitoba of about $76,000 compared with 
that of 1891. 


Increased efforts have been put forth during the year by all interested in this 
the most effective means for the elevation of the Indian race, with the result that 
satisfactory progress has been made : and the increase in the average number of 
pupils at the various Industrial Institutions and Boarding Schools demonstrates that 
the prejudice of the Indians against such establishments is being rapidly overcome; 
and that a change of sentiment in that respect has set in. This is very creditable to 
the management of these schools ; for it must be mainly due to the same, that the 
Indians have been brought to see educational matters in a different light from that 
in which they used to view them ; a result effected no doubt by their observing the 
kind treatment extended to their children, and the great improvement in the 
appearance and manners of the latter, after a course passed at the schools, as well 
as the acquisition by them of useful knowledge both of a literary and industrial 


Increased accommodation at several of the Industrial Institutions will, if 
Parliament votes the necessary money for the purpose, be provided during the present 
year, so as to admit of the advantages of education and manual training being extended 
to a larger number of youths. 

It is hoped also that the buildings for the institutions proposed to be established 
at Brandon in Manitoba, Eed Deer Eiver Crossing in the North-west Territories, and 
Alert Bay in British Columbia will be completed and ready for occupation at an 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

early dale. It is considered to be preferable to fill the institutions already in opera- 
tion, and, if necessary to enlarge the buildings, so as to afford increased accommod- 
ation for pupils, than to erect any more new structures, until at least an absolute 
necessity for doing so is made clearly manifest. With this object in view, amounts 
have been placed in the estimates for 1893-94 to be submitted to Parliament, which 
if voted, it is intended to expend in the enlargement of the institutions on Kuper 
Island, at Kamloops, and at^ Williams' Lake in British Columbia to such an extent as 
will admit of fifty instead of, as at present, twenty-five pupils being lodged in each of 
those institutions. No new industrial school buildings have, therefore, been esti- 
mated for ; and as regards boarding schools, only two additional institutions of this 
class will be established ; one of which it is proposed to locate at Medicine Hat, the 
other in the eastern part of the District of Saskatchewan. 

The number of industrial institutions and boarding schools in each of the pro- 
vinces and in the North-west Territories now in operation or that will shortly be, is 
as follows : — 

Ontario, Industrial Institutions 6, Boarding Schools 2. 
Manitoba " " 4 li " 4. 

North-west Territories " 5 " " 20. 

British Columbia " • 7 " " 2. 

It will be observed from the foregoing statement that with the exception of the 
Provinces of Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick aud Prince Edward Island, there 
are institutions of the above types for the instruction and industrial training of 
Indian children in all the civilized portions of the Dominion; and I would emphasize 
the views expressed in the report of this Department for 1891, as to the desirability 
of similar advantages being at an early date also afforded the Indian youths of those 

The day schools in the various provinces, the District of Keewatin, and the 
North-west Territories may be enumerated as follows : — 

Ontario 76 Day Schools. 

Quebec 20 

Nova Scotia 6 

New Brunswick 5 " 

Prince Edward Island 1 " 

Manitoba (including Keewatin) 50 " 

North-west Territories (two of these are of the 

semi-boarding type) -. 70 " 

British Columbia 13 

It will be seen from the foregoing figures that the aggregate number of Indian 
day schools in the Dominion is 241. And it is a remarkable fact that the best 
reports of attendance and progress are received from schools situated in those por- 
tions of the Dominion where industrial institutions and boarding schools are in 
operation, the prospects of being considered fit for promotion to schools of a higher 
type, seeming to act as a stimulus to the pupils to excel. And it goes without say- 
ing that the Indians of Ontario, where these higher institutions for instruction exist 
and have for many years been in operation, are far superior in enterprise, intelligence 
and business capacity to Indians of the provinces above mentioned, where none of 
such institutions are in existence. The Indian race of Ontario has its representa- 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

tires in all the learned professions, as well as in every other honourable vocation. 
But I have yet to hear of such being the case with the Indians of Quebec or the 
Maritime Provinces. 

>so doubt the same satisfactory results will in time follow the existence in 
Manitoba, the North-west Territories and British Columbia, of schools of higher 

As regards the day schools on Indian reserves, as has been repeatedly said, the 
circumstances incidental to their being established on reserves of themselves make 
them a very imperfect means of education; and the salaries which the Department 
finds itself able to offer are totally inadequate to induce well qualified and certificated 
teachers to undergo the hardships and deprivations attendant upon filling such posi- 
tions on Indian reserves. It is, therefore, only in cases where the amount paid by 
the Department is supplemented by a grant from the religious denomination, under 
whose auspices the school is conducted, that a properly certificated teacher's services 
can be obtained ; and even then, it is with difficulty, as no residences are provided 
for the teachers. To meet this want there are, therefore, only two alternatives open 
to the teacher, neither of which can be regarded as pleasant, viz., either to lodge at 
an Indian house, or to occupy a portion of the school building as a residence. 
Either of these modes of lodgment necessarily involves very cramped quarters, with in 
the former, the additional discomfort of uncongenial surroundings, if nothing worse. 



The Indians of the central portion of this province had, as a rule, fairly good crops. 
As was the case with white farmers, however, in some localities owing to wet 
weather, and in others as a result of long continued drought, the crops were light. 
These Irdians are mainly dependent on agriculture for a subsistence. 

In the northern parts of the province, excepting on the Great Manitoulin Island 
in Lake Huron, the Indians depend principally on hunting and fishing, intermingled 
on some of the reserves with farming, or more properly gardening. On the Great 
Manitoulin Island the Indians' chief dependence is on agriculture and fishing; com- 
bined, in the case of those residing on the southern portion of the island, which has 
not yet been ceded to the Crown by the Indian occupants, with timber cutting; they 
themselves being the licensees, and selling the timber under the supervision of their 
superintendent to timber merchants and paying to the Department the regular dues 
and charges on all timber cut, which are carried to the credit of the band and go to 
swell the capital invested for them; while they receive the benefit of the surplus 
paid by the purchasers of the timber. 

Many of the Indians in these northern portions of the province derive profitable 
employment in the open season from acting as boatmen and guides for sportsmen, 
some of them likewise work in saw-mills, and as boatmen on steamers and other 

The increase in the Indian population of this province during the past year 
was forty-one. 


The Indians of this province subsist chiefly by the sale of manufactured Indian 
wares hunt ng and fishing; and on some of the more extensive reserves, such as 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

those of Caughnawaga, St. Kegis, Maniwaki, Temiscamingue and Lac St. Jean, they 
combine with these industries farming ; and on almost all of the reserves gardening 
to a greater or less extent is practiced. 

The Indians of the Lower St. Lawrence supplement their other resources with 
the profit derived from acting as guides to tourists. 

No complaints have been received of any exceptional want existing : though in 
Indian, as well as white communities, there are aged and infirm paupers to whom 
periodical assistance has to be rendered. 

Encouraging reports of progress in agriculture and building have been received 
from some of the agents for the more extensive reserves. While all the agents 
unite in representing the Indians under their charge to be well behaved and law- 

There was an increase of eighty-two in the Indian population of this province 
during the past year. 

Nova Scotia. 

All the agents of this province, with one exception, report favourably of the 
Indians in their respective districts for their morality, good conduct and industry. 

They pursued their usual avocations of hunting, fishing, coopering, manufac- 
turing baskets, lumbering, farming and gardening with successful results. 

The sanitary condition of the Indians was as a rule good ; " la grippe," 
however, was prevalent on a few of the reserves. 

There was an increase of forty-nine souls in the Indian population of this 
province during the past year. 

New Brunswick. 

The Indians of this province proved a remarkable exception to those of all the 
other older provinces, excepting Prince Edward Island, in the fact of there having 
been a notable decrease during the past year, in the population on thirteen out of 
fifteen of the reserves. No cause is assigned by the Indian Superintendents for this 
diminution in numbers; but it is presumed that the prevalent disease known as 
" la grippe " was largely responsible for the same. On thirteen reserves there 
were decreases in population, varying from one to ten, and amounting in the aggre- 
gate to thirty-nine souls; while there were increases on two reserves only of four 
in one case, and one in the other. There was therefore a net decrease of thirty-four 
in the total Indian population of this province. 

As stated in previous reports of this Department, the Indians of the western 
portion of the province are of the Amalecite Tribe, while those of the eastern section 
are Micmacs, being the same Tribe as are the Indians of Nova Scotia and Prince 
Edward Island. 

The occupations engagecf in by these Indians are very similar to those followed 
by their brethren of Nova Scotia. 

They appear to have been successful during the past year in obtaining a fairly 
comfortable subsistence. The Amalecites are for the most part industrious and 
thrifty; and the Micmacs were sufficiently so at least, not to be obliged to call upon 
the Department for more than the usual amount of aid for the sick and aged 
members of the different bands. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Prince Edward Island. 

The Indians on the two reserves on Lennox Island and in Township 39, known 
as the Morell Eeserve, made considerable progress during the past year. Satis- 
factory accounts of extended building operations and success in farming have been 
received, and altogether these Indians may be described as being in comfortable 
circumstances. „ 

As in the case of the Indians of New Brunswick, death was busy among them 
during the past year, there being a decrease of two in the population. 

Manitoba and Keewatin. 

With the exception of the reserve at St. Peter's, agriculture is not engaged in 
to any great extent by the Indians of Manitoba and Keewatin. On the other 
reserves those who follow that industry at all, confine themselves, as a rule, to gar- 
dening. On the reserves in the vicinity of Lake Manitoba, however, stock raising is 
becoming quite an enterprise with the Indians occupying the same. The pasture 
land on those reserves is rich and abundant. The lake also affords them good fishing, 
and this with their other resources of hunting and stock raising renders them quite 
comfortable in their circumstances. 

On the St. Peter's Eeserve steady progress in farming and other industrial pur- 
suits was made with consequent prosperity. Here too the Indians obtain from the 
Eed Eiver quantities of fish to supplement their other means of living. Crops of 
all kinds, especially hay, were abundant on the reserve. The St. Peter's Band may 
be regarded as the wealthiest Indian community in real and personal property in the 

Farming was engaged in to some extent on the reserves in the more westerly 
portion of the province with fair results ; these reserves and the Indians owning 
them are under the supervision of an agent resident at Birtle. 

The Indians of Manitoba, or at least those whose reserves are situated in the 
vicinity of towns and white settlements, have many opportunities of obtaining re- 
munerative employment outside of the reserves, of which they are not slow, in many 
instances, to take advantage. 

In the District of Keewatin a different condition of matters obtains; it being but 
sparsely settled, the Indians are wholly dependent upon hunting and fishing, with 
here and there a little gardening, for a subsistence. It is little to be wondered at 
therefore, if the Indians of that district are alarmed at the rapid depletion of fish in 
the waters of the same, which has been going on for some years; and, unless vigorous 
measures are adopted to stop the same, fish will certainly cease to be the important 
factor it is, and always has been, in the subsistence of the Indians of the district. 

The Indians of Manitoba, Keewatin and that part ©f Ontario covered by Treaty 
No. 3, which lies west of the water-shed of Lake Superior and south of the height 
of land (the general affairs of whom are dealt with in that portion of this report 
which treats of matters affecting the Indians of Ontario), are under the superin- 
tendency of an Inspector stationed at Winnipeg. 

There was an apparent increase in the Indian population of the Province of 
Manitoba, District of Keewatin and the North-west Territories covered by Treaty 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

No. 3, of one hundred and seventy-eight souls. This was caused by the return to 
treaty relations with the Government, which they had relinquished in 1887, of the 
Sandy Bay Band of Indians of Treaty No. 2. 

Had it not been for that circumstance, however, there would have been a net 
decrease of thirty-six in the population. 

North-West Territories. 

The Indians of this district did remarkably well during the year. Farming and 
stock raising proved very successful. In a few of the agencies sufficient grain was 
raised to admit of the Indians supplying themselves with almost as much flour as 
they required. Several of the bands in this district competed successfully at the 
agricultural exhibition held last season at Hegina. These Indians are gradually 
becoming skilful as farmers and herders of cattle; this is more especially the case 
with bands whose reserves are situated in the prairie portion of the district, where 
the buffalo formerly roamed, upon which animals the Indians wholly subsisted. But 
the buffalo having disappeared, and there being no other game on the prairies, 
these Indians who are unaccustomed to hunting in a wooded country, do not resort 
to the woods for game, and they consequently are not diverted by following the 
chase from engaging in industrial pursuits. Such is, however, not the case with the 
Indians of this district whose reserves are situated in the wooded parts, and where 
game indigenous to the same is still to be found. 

The progress, however, made in cattle raising and farming, even by the Indians 
so situated, notwithstanding the greater attractiveness to them of the chase, has 
been by no means inconsiderable. 

The opportunity afforded the Indians of this district whose reserves ars situated 
near white settlements, of engaging as labourers or herders of cattle with the 
settlers, and thus earning wages, is taken advantage of by many of them. Apart 
from the monetary profit thus reaped, there is the equal, if not greater gain derived 
from such employment of the experience acquired in such industries, which must be 
of inestimable advantage to them, in connection with the working of their own 
farms and raising cattle. There are numerous other industries in which the Indians 
of this district engage outside of and on these reserves, from which they derive a 
revenue. And there seems to be no reason why in the course of a few years, as the 
country becomes more thickly settled with farmers and other employers of labour 
of white origin, the Indians of Assiniboia, or those at least whose reserves are in the 
vicinity of the settlements, should not, by the greater opportunities which will, by 
the new fields for engaging in profitable labour, be afforded them of obtaining an 
increased revenue, as well as by the cultivation of their own land, become self- 
supporting as are now their brethren in the Province of Manitoba. 

There was a decrease of eleven in the Indian population of this district during 
the past year. 


In all the agencies from Carlton to Edmonton satisfactory results attended the 
efforts of the Indians to become self-supporting. 

In several of the agencies sufficient grain was harvested by the Indians to admit 
of their supplying nearly all the flour they required. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Large herds of cattle are now owned by the different Indian Bands; the same 
being the result of careful management in looking after the increase from year to 

Although the Indians of this district have not as great or varied opportunities 
to make money outside Of their reserves, as the Indians of the District of Assiniboia, 
they nevertheless, have succeeded in a remarkable degree, considering the circums- 
tances surrounding their position, in advancing towards the goal, which the Depart- 
ment is endeavouring to make them reach, namely self-support. 

It need scarcely be said that the progress made has been only effected by the 
exercise of considerable judgment and patience combined with very great labour 
and at much cost, augmented as the latter necessarily was by the very high prices 
of food and clothing in a country where the facilities of transport are extremely 
limited. It is, however, exceedingly gratifying to know that most satisfactory 
results have followed the efforts made, and that the money expended was not lost. 
The change which has taken place in the condition of matters among these 
Indians certainly justifies the expenditure and labour which effected it. 

There are of course bands in the more easterly part of the district who still 
look to the resources of hunting and fishing as the main means for supplying their 
wants. The reserves occupied by these Indians, however, are situated in a wooded 
country, where game and fish are still comparatively abundant; it, therefore, appears 
unnecessary to incur the cost of instructing them in industrial pursuits, at least for 
the present; and they are. therefore, encouraged to avail themselves of the resources 
that nature supplies, for their subsistence; which they do with sufficient success to 
enable the Department to confine the assistance given by it to the sick, helpless and 

There was a decrease of ten*souls in the Indian population of this District during 
the past year. 


The Indians of the northern part of this district, viz., the Crees of Peace 
Hills, are making satisfactory progress towards independence. 

During the past year they were able to raise sufficient grain and roots to con- 
tribute considerably towards their own support. Their herd of cattle has increased 
to such proportions as to give promise of in a year or two supplying all the meat 
required by the Indians. The moral tone of these Indians is reported to have 

The Stonys of the central portion of the district, who have been under Christ- 
ianizing influences for many years, pursued their usual course of peaceful industry 
during the year. Their interest seems to be more centred in stock raising than in 
agriculture. The fine grazing grounds on their reserve afford them a splendid 
opportunity to pursue the former industry with success. 

The Sarcees, whose reserve is situated further south than that of the Stonys, 
experienced disappointment in their crops, which were a total failure owing to severe 
drought. The general condition, however, of these Indians is satisfactory when 
compared with what it was a few years ago. There is a great improvement in their 
habits, and more interest is taken by them in their reserve, cultivating land,&c. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The Blackfeet suffered a loss in the death, during the year, of their head chief 
Three Bulls, who succeeded in that position the celebrated Crowfoot, of whom, he 
was also brother. He was a quiet, sensible man, and had considerable influence 
with his people. The Department furnished a headstone to be placed over the grave 
of the two brothers. This was greatly appreciated by the Indians. 

The soil on the Blackfoot Reserve is more adapted for raising root than grain 
crops. These Indians are evincing greater industry in cultivating the land, building 
better houses, as well as in other respects. They have become more moral in their 
habits, and are less prone to leave the reserve. The Indian mode of dress is being 
gradually abandoned, and that of the white man adopted instead. 

The Blood Indians, who comprise the most numerous branch of the Blackfoot 
Tribe, behaved well during the year. A portion of the reserve occupied by this 
Band on the Belly and St. Mary's Rivers was subdivided into lots of eighty acres 
each for the purpose of endeavouring to induce the Indians to take up land in 
severalty, as it is believed that, if they would do so, they would take more interest 
in and cultivate their holdings better than they do at present when the land is 
worked in common, and individuals know not what their respective shares of either 
land or crops raised thereon are. Mr. J. Willson, a practical man who was previously 
the farming instructor of the band, was recently appointed to the position of agent. 
It is hoped that, through his energy and practical knowledge, a fresh impetus will be 
given to industrial matters among these Indians. They certainly require to be egged 
on to accomplish more than they have done in the past towards becoming self- 
sustaining ; and it is believed that the time has arrived when more energetic measures 
can, with safety, be adopted, having this object in view ; though it is doubtful whether 
this could have been done sooner, without incurring more or less risk. 

The sun-dance held last season by these Indians, it is believed, will be the last 
celebration of that ceremony. This is certainly indicative of progress in civilization 
and a change of sentiment. On the Blackfoot Reserve a sun-dance was aho celebrated, 
but the torturing, which used to form such a prominent feature in the ceremony, 
was altogether omitted. This also looks promising. 

The Piegan Indians, whose reserve is situated on the Old Man's River, and 
west of that of the Blood Indians, had excellent crops of grain and hay, besides 
raising a quantity of roots of various kinds. 

These Indians mined a considerable quantity of coal for the use of themselves 
and the agency on the banks of the St. Mary's River. Their habits are much improved , 
they are more industrious, better behaved, adopting the dress of whitemen, and 
occupying a better class of house. They have also improved in their morals. 

A sun-dance was likewise celebrated by them last season, but, like their brethren 
the Blackfeet and Bloods, the Piegans are evidently losing interest in it. 

The Indian population of the District of Alberta diminished in number by 537 
souls during the past year ; which was largely the result of " la grippe," or the 
after effects of that disease. 

British Columbia. 

The Indians of the Cowichan Tribe, whose reserves are situated on the south 
eastern portion of Vancouver, on the Straits of Georgia and Juan de Fuca, owing to 
failure to obtain employment in the other lines of industry in which they were in 
the habit of engaging, viz., at saw-mills, salmon canneries on the Fraser, and hop- 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

picking in Washington Territory, were obliged to devote more attention to cul- 
tivating the soil, with the result, that considerable progress in agriculture was made 
by them. Thus what appeared to be, and certainly was, for a time at least, a serious 
loss, may turn out to have brought about a real and permanent advantage to these 
Indians, in showing them the resources which the cultivation of the land in their 
reserves affords them for a subsistence, independently of the precarious help which 
may or may not be obtained from outside sources. 

Several, of the reserves were subdivided last spring into separate locations for 
occupation by the Indian owners in severalty. To this arangement the Indians 
gave a ready acquiescence, recognizing the superior advantage of individually hold- 
ing the land they cultivate to cultivating the same in common. 

The conduct of the Indians of the Cowichan Agency was on the whole good 
during the year; though,* owing to the introduction by whitemen, who were prose- 
cuted and severely punished, qf liquor on some of the reserves, disorder temporarily 

The Kuper Island Industrial Institution has done, and is doing excellent work 
for the education and industrial training of the Indian youth of this agency. It is 
a great boon to the Indians to have at their doors, so to speak, the means for provid- 
ing their children with intellectual, as well as practical knowledge, which is the best 
legacy they could leave them; and that without cost to themselves. 

West Coast Agency of Vancouver Island. 

The main dependence of the Indians of this region is on fishing, hunting and 
sealing. In the latter pursuit they appear to have been successful during the past 
season, notwithstanding the prohibition which rendered Behring Sea a mare clausum, 
in so far as sealing is concerned. The Indians who engaged in this industry are 
reported to have obtained for their season's work from $200 to $600 each. 

The Indian Band known as thcTreshahts, whose reserve is situated on theAlberni 
Eiver, are an exception to the other Indians of the district in that they are making 
progress in clearing and fencing their land, and erecting frame houses. 

There appears to have been little or no distress from want of food among any 
of the Indians of this agency during the year. The ocean affords them an inex- 
haustible store house, so to speak, from which to obtain their food supplies. 

Kwaw-Kewlth Agency. 

A satisfactory report as to the condition of matters generally among the Kwaw- 
kewlth Indians has been received. 

Their conduct was excellent during the past year. 

The liquor traffic, which was formerly carried on extensively amoug them, has 
received a great, and, it is hoped, a permanent check, by the inauguration of a tem- 
perance society. 

The improvement in the character of these Indians is steady, though gradual. 

Education appears to be taken more interest in by them than was formerly 
the case. The school at Gwayas-dumo,. conducted under the direction of the Rev. 
Mr. Hall, is very well attended, and the pupils are making fair progress. 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

As in the case of the Indians of the West Coast, so in that of the Kwaw- 
kewlths, the sea amply supplies their needs; and they earn money besides at the 
canneries, and by engaging in manual labour of other kinds. 

11 La grippe " was very prevalent among them during the year. 

North- West Coast Agency of Mainland. 

The Indians of this extensive agency, which also includes those of the Queen 
Charlotte Islands, pursued an even course of peaceful industry during the year in 
the occupations in which they enga'ge, namely fishing, hunting find trapping. 

They were rewarded, as good prices were obtained, especially for the furs cap- 
tured by them. 

These Indians possess such ample resources, independent of agriculture, for 
supporting themselves in comfort, that it is not probable the latter industry will 
engage their attention for years to come. 

Intemperance appears to be subsiding among them. 

The general health of the various Bands has been good. 

The Babine Agency. 

The condition of matters with the Indians of this agency is very similar to that 
of the Indians of the North-W est Coast Agency just described. 

Their behaviour during the year was unexceptionally good. They, like their 
brethren of the Coast, were most successful in their fur-hunt and catch offish. Alto- 
gether these Indians may be described as being in a prosperous condition, and making 
good progress. 

Lower Fraser River Agency. 

The Indians generally of this agency occupy an enviable position, having such 
varied and ample resources from which to obtain a livelihood. As an instance of 
how little dependent they are upon any special line of industry, it may be mentioned 
that although the salmon fishery, in which they generally engage to a very great 
extent, was almost a total failure last season, they were able to secure without diffi- 
culty an ample subsistence from other branches of industry. 

These Indians may be described as an enterprising, industrious people, ptopping 
at nothing to obtain a living. 

It is to be regretted, however, that some of them, especially the Musqueams, 
are still imbued with such superstitious ideas as to engage, as they did last season 
much to their own loss, in the celebration of that wasteful, to describe it mildly, 
ceremony known as the " potlatch," whereat so much valuable property is parted 
with by the givers of the feast as often to leave them in impoverished circums- 

The Department has done its utmost to prevent, by discountenancing, the cele- 
bration of this festival, and notwithstanding it is also prohibited by the Indian Act 
under pain of imprisonment of any Indian or Indians engaging therein, for a term not 
to exceed six and to be not less than two months, yet now and then in some of the 
agencies this worse than useless festival is celebrated. It. must, however, be added 
that its celebration is much less frequent than was formerly the case. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Some of the Indian bands in this agency own considerable herds of cattle and 
numerous horses. 

Kamloops and Okanagan Agency. . 

The condition of the Indians in these parts is most satisfactory from a material 
stand-point. As in the case of the Indians of the Lower Fraser country, these Indians 
likewise have unlimited resources from which to derive a subsistence; and they 
not only succeed in doing this, but some of them are really well off. 

With scarcely, an exception, the various bands have made and are still making 
gratifying progress. Those of them who have land adapted for cultivation use the 
same to the best possible advantage. 

Many of them are also successful producers of fruit. 

" La grippe," that virulent type of influenza, was very prevalent among these 
Indians, as was also an epidemic of measles. A considerable number of them fell 
victims to these diseases. 

As a rule, morality characterises the Indians of this agency, and they may be 
described as industrious, law-abiding and well-behaved. 

Williams Lake or Lillooet Agency. 

The Indians of this agency, while not possessing the varied resources for 
securing a livelihood which their brethren in the Kamloops and Okanagan Agency, 
and in the Lower Fraser Agency, have managed, nevertheless, to support themselves 
in comfort. The most of them cultivate what arable land there is on their reserves ; 
but many of them are prevented, through want of water for irrigation, from doing 
so to the extent they otherwise would. 

It is much to be regretted that the liquor traffic with these Indians cannot be 
stamped out. The lack of constables to enforce the law against the vendors often 
allows the latter to go unpunished, and this of course emboldens them to extend 
their operations. 

With the exception of drunkenness, and its concomitant evils, these Indians' 
behaviour is, as a general thing, good. 

The industrial institution established recently in this district will afford an 
opportunity to the Indian children to acquire a thorough knowledge of useful trades 
and agriculture. 

An epidemic of measles and a malignant type of quinzy prevailed in some bands 
with fatal results in many cases. 

Kootenay Agency. 

The behaviour of the Indians of the Kootenay country- was remarkably good 
during the past year. The agent for the district reports that no charges against 
them were laid before him. 

These Indians suffered extremely from " la grippe " and pneumonia. Many of 
them succumbed to these diseases. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

While some of the Indians farm to a limited extent, the great majority of them 
subsist on the products of the chase. 

A most pleasing change has taken place in the condition of the Tobacco Plains 
Band. They have taken to farming with a will, fenced their lands, and erected dwell- 
ings. This condition of affairs is doubtless due to the energy and influence of the new 
Chief, who succeeded his father, the latter having died at a good old age. He was 
known as a buffalo Chief from his skill in hunting that animal, in the hunts for 
which he always led his people, as he also did in their wars with their hereditary 
foes across the Eocky Mountains, the Blackfeet, Bloods and Piegans. 

There was a decrease of three hundred and thirty-four in the Indian population 
of the province during the past year ; which is to be accounted for from the pre- 
valence, with fatal results in numerous cases in many of the bands of that virulent 
type of influenza known as " la grippe," as well as measles, and quinzy. 

Reserve Commission. 

The work of the Commissioner during the past season consisted for the most 
part of allotting reserves in the extensive territory known as " New Caledonia." 
He set apart thirty-eight reserves, of an aggregate area of 23,270 acres. 

The Commissioner also re-adjusted and defined the reserves at Nicomen, Chi- 
li wack, Vancouver and Cowichan, some complications having arisen in regard to 
boundaries in somes instances, and changes desired by the Indians in other cases. 


The surveyors in the service of the Department in British Columbia were 
employed in running the boundaries of the reserves allotted to the Indians as 
follows : — 

Mr. A. H. Green, who is attached to the Commissioner's staff, defined the 
allotments made in New Caledonia District and elsewhere by the Commissioner. 

Mr. F. A. Devereux worked, up to July, on the North-west Coast opposite the 
Queen Charlotte Islands, in surveying the reserves allotted to the Kitlathla aud 
Kita. s or Indians. During the remainder of the season he surveyed those on the West 
coast of Vancouver Island. 

Mr. E. M. Skinner surveyed the remainder of the reserves allotted on the West 
Coast of Vancouver Island. 

The following statements regarding each branch of the Department show 
approximately the amount of work which has been done at Headquarters during 
the year; although there has been, of course, a considerable quantity of additional 
work, of which no record has been or could be correctly kept : — 

Accountant's Branch. 

The amount at the credit of the numerous Trust Fund Accounts on the 30th 
June, 1892, aggregated in principal and interest $3,582,534.86 j being an increase of 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

$67,301.19 over the sum at the credit of the same accounts on the 30th June, 1891. 
The expenditure from these funds during the last fiscal year amounted to $323,107.18, 
being $37,616.19 more than was expended during the preceding year. 

The expenditure from the parliamentary appropriations for Indian purposes in 
Manitoba, Keewatin, the North-west Territories, British Columbia and the Maritime 
Provinces, consisted of the following amounts : — 

Manitoba, Keewatin and the North-west Territories.. .$773, 653 37 

British Columbia 90,021 79 

Nova Scotia 6,099 07 

New Brunswick 6,060 43 

Prince Edward Island. 1,957 58 

The pay-cheques prepared and issued during the year numbered 13,038, being 
544 more than were issued in 1891; the number of files acted on was 13,000. 

The number of certificates for credit issued by the branch was 80, and the num- 
ber of statements prepared for the Auditor General was 96. Statement C, and the 
subsidiary statements following, show the revenue placed to the credit of and the 
expenditure charged against the various accounts of the Indian Trust Fund ; similar 
information with respect to the parliamentary appropriations can be obtained from 
statements B 1, 2, 3, 4, 5. The statements referred to are published as appendices 
to this report. 

Land and Timber Branch 

The quantity of surrendered land sold during the past year, for the benefit of 
the Indians concerned, was 22,816 acres, and the amount for which they were sold 
was $45,185.29. 

There still remain unsold 460,244 acres of surrendered lands. 
From old and new sales of land and timber there was realized $65,684.37, and 
from leased lands $21,119.83. 

There remained unpaid on the 30th June last on account of lands sold, arrears 
of purchase money, and of interest thereon, to the amount of $192,416.44. 

The quantity of land sold, as well as the area remaining unsold in each town- 
ship are described in Statement 1 attached to this report. 

The following statement describes the principal work done in this branch during 
the year : — 

Agents' returns examined and entered 578 

New sales entered • 301 

Sales cancelled 10J 

Number of timber licenses issued 17 

Number of timber licenses renewed 39 

Leases prepared and entered 35 

Payments entered 1,178 

Notices to purchasers in arrears! 1,445 

Assignments examined and entered 282 

Assignments registered , 191- 

Le.^criptions prepared for patents 310 

Patents engrossed, registered and despatched 311 

Patents cancelled 5 

Location tickets prepared and entered 31 

Files dealt with 3,953 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Statistical, Supply and School Branch. 

Files dealt with, many of them entailing reports and other 

work 2,650 

Quarterly school returns examined 1,004 

Requisitions for teachers' salaries, being 59 over those 

received in 1891, checked and scheduled for payment. 985 

Blankets forwarded to Indian Agents for Ontario and 

Quebec , 898 

Requisitions on Queen's Printer and Stationery Depart- 
ment for printing, stationery-and school material 66*4 

Acknowledgments of above supplies 664 

Much work was involved in checking the numerous requisitions, which were 
heavier than those of the previous year, received from the agents of the Department 
for school material and books, and in the preparation of orders for the same, as well 
as in preparing requisitions for stationery and printing for the agencies and for the 

1 All statistical and school returns and all statements respecting supplies issued, 
cattle and implements owned, elections of Chiefs and Councillors, &c, &c, are 
examined and reported upon by this branch. 

The special appendix (B) attached to this report, and the tabular statements 
respecting schools and population, which likewise form appendices hereto,^were 
prepared by this branch. 

Technical Branch. 

The work in this branch extending from 1st December, 1892, to 1st December, 
1893 under the head of Engineering, comprises the following : — 

Drawing of plans and specifications of bridges, wharves, roads, drains, culverts, 
&c, &c, and the examination of similar work prepared by engineers in the employ 
of contractors and others, and sent to the Department with tenders for work to be 
done on Indian reserves. 

Under the head of Architecture the following are included: the preparation of 
designs, plans, sections, detailed drawings and specifications of buildings for schools, 
for Indian Council houses, for residences, and offices for agents, and for farm and 
other employees, also for storehouses, barns, blacksmiths' shops, roothouses, &c, 
and the examination of similar w^ork when prepared by others and sent to the 

Under the head of Surveying the work consists of compiling, drawing and copy- 
ing plans, reducing or enlarging the same as required; the examination of returns 
of surveys, also the preparation of instructions for surveys, and giving descriptions 
of lands, computing areas, &c. 

Under the head of Accounts is embraced the examination, checking, &c, of 
accounts for work done in any of the above lines. 

Under the heading Miscellaneous are embraced the examinations of contracts, 
reports, estimates and calculations in connection with tenders sent in, &c, &c. 

14— c 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 


Plans and Tracings , 6 

Eeports 79 

Examinations 177 

Specifications 2 

Estimates, &c 14 


Estimates and Specifications 46 

Drawings 36 

Eeports 93 

Examinations 154 


Maps and Drawings 10 

Tracings and Sketchings 181 

Eeports 255 

Examinations 1,464 

Instructions 3 

Copies of Field Notes, &c 14 


Statements 3 

Eeports 10 

Examinations 6 


Calculations, entries, and plottings 135 

Contracts 4 

Descriptions 23 

Eeports 56 

Examinations r 72 

Two of the officers of this branch were for some time engaged in outside work 
for this Department. 

Correspondence Branch. 

The number of letters, drafted, transcribed and entered during the past year 
was 17,993, covering 22,206 folios, being an apparent decrease compared with the 
previous year of 772 letters, covering 1,167 folios. This decrease is due to the fact 
that a large number of letters enclosing cheques which last year were copied in the 
Letter Books are not now entered therein. 

In addition to this official correspondence there is a large volume of work done 
by my stenographic staff in the way of semi-official correspondence, reports to the 
Superintendent General and to His Excellency the Governor General in Council, of 
which it is impossible to give an accurate idea. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Eegistry Branch. 

The number of letters received during the past year was 22,797, being an 
increase of 1,874 over the number received and registered in 1891. 

The usual tabular statement showing the number of Indians resident on the 
various reserves in the Dominion, their property, the crops raised by them in the 
season of 1891, and the value derived from the other industries engaged in by them, 
will be found herewith attached as a special appendix. 

Reports from the numerous officers connected with the outside service of the 
Department, as well as from the principals of the various industrial schools are 
likewise placed herewith ; also the usual statements in tabular form, respecting 
schools of all classes, the population of the various bands of Indians, the agricultural 
operations of the Indians in the North-west Territories, and other interesting data 
in connection with those Indians ; likewise statements showing though, as previously, 
stated, in a different manner than has been hitherto done, the revenue and expendi- 
ture in connection with each account kept by this Department. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Deputy of the Superintendent- General of Indian Affairs. 


56 Victoria. 

Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 

A. 1893 


Provinces, Agency ob Band. 


Grand River Superintendency — 

Six Nations . . . .' 

Mississaguas, N.C 

Walpole Lsland Agency 

Western .Superintendency — 

l<t Division .'.. 

2nd do 

3rd do 

N< >rthern Superintendency — 

1st Division 

2nd do 

3rd do 

4th do 

Golden Lake Agency 

Tyendinaga do 

Lake Simcoe 
Cap*' Croker 


Mud and Rice Lake Agency. . 

Rama Agency, 1891 

Penetanguishene Agency, 1891 
Scugog Agency 



Caughnawaga Agency . 

St. Regi, 


St. Francis 

Lake St. John 



River Desert 

Jeune Lorette 


North Shore, River St. Lawrence 

Superintendency, 1891 

Becancour Agency 

Temiscamingue Agency 










i m movable property, 
Land Cultivated 

and Fresh 
Land Ploughed. 













































1224 705 8945 


































390| 364 
92 70 
89 51 






































> ° 












16 ! 20 
3 10 

21 7 

1 X 
6 2 

301 536 



















C c8 


















785 J 
180 ! 



















27 597 







Department of Indian Affairs. 







&c • 








































' 2 







33 i 






























610, 3712 3626 971 6573 








Grain and Hoots Harvested. 



42312 41239 
6000 20000 
4836 { 2468 

5094 j 11347 
8045 1 19136 
3210 2056 











82808 138185 


Bush. .Bush 

20120 4609 

2550 6400 

265 .... 

724 ^ 826 
1085 323 
1139 ... 




10 ... 
6000 14000 

310 ... . 
1200 .... 

700 ... . 
2305 1110 




43234 28458 








350 j 18500 
2593 8384 

1100 1G00 
1091 430 





20 110 1265 

81 485 

568 172 


541 3113 




35 . 

33006 2755 2067 





















1200, .... 

3281 5870 

60 1800 

196 1 800 

100 1450 

545 3873 

50 3560 

25 2000 





Bush. Bush 

1435 79 


2442 79 



















Fish, Finis 




$ cts. 

9,500 00 
1,500 00 
8,029 05 

3,120 00 

400 00 

37,460 00 

10,418 00 

15,250 00 

51,050 00 

915 00 

200 00 

3,125 00 

2,775 00 

7,650 00 

6,472 00 

10,365 00 

3,300 00 

681 00 

2,450 00 


174,660 05 











25,000 00 
9,250 00 
2,160 00 

20,000 00 

6,970 00 

567 00 

1,800 00 

15,450 00 

22,650 00 

43,600 00 

687 00 

3,040 00 

151,174 00 


56 Victoria. 

Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 

A. 1893 











Immovable Peg 

Land Cultiv 

and Fres 

Land Plougi 






c s 


Provinces, Agency or Band. 













C to 









s § 

£ i 







iVr no Brunswick. 

North-Eastern Superintendency . . . 

St mth-Western Superintendency — 

1st Division 

2nd do 









# 267 


































3 . . . 



Nora Scotia. 































1 5 












Queen's and Lunenburg 




2 .... 









" 5 












Victoria (1891) 

Cape Breton County. . 

32 ... . 

20 ... . 











106 .... 

Prince Edward Island. 








. . . .. 



British Columbia. 
Cowichan Agency 























173 2 

3 . . . . 

Lower Fraser Agency 
















William's Lake do 

Kamloopa do 

Okanagan do 











North-west Coast Agency. 

Babine and Upper Skeena River 

843 1 R 



















Department of Indian Affairs. 

B "- -Continued. 


(train and Roots Harvested. 

Fish, Furs 


other In- 









O . 
















































$ cts. 

2,600 00 

9,900 00 
11,425 00 
















23,925 00 








' 350 














450 00 








345 00 

8,172 00 


134 00 

90 00 



600 00 









1,025 00 
170 00 




















3,150 00 
981 00 









1,980 00 

160 00 

1,310 00 











19,167 00 











6,358 00 






















! 4255 














2 6 16 40 

76 000 00 

1 2 1 

94 517 986 

.... 1 246 3151 

.... 3471 2202 

4 1 415! 3716 
.... I 20 1593 
.... 1 19 30 

6 32 


' '7591 






' '2853 



156 ' 

] 753 

1 . .. . 

6,750 00 
76,300 00 
30,150 00 
70,618 00 
23,970 00 

1,500 00 
291,240 00 

93,100 00 

229 2208 12127 



24892 33426 








669,628 00 

* Vegetables. 


56 Victoria. 

Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 

A. 1893 




Immovable Property, 


Land Cultivated 
and Fresh 


ok Band. 

■ g 







Province^, Agency 





>i CD 

,r ti 





,Ti » 











.a s 

• 5 ry ^ 











■ O 










Manitoba and JSf. W. Territories. 



F. Ogletree, agent, Treaty No 

. 1.. 












A. M. Muckle 













H. Martineau, Treaties 

1, 2 and 4. 






' 28 





R. J. N. Pither, Treaty No 











F. C. Cornish 












( .) 

.John Mclntyre 
Touchwood Hills Agcy 

























Mu8Cowpetung's do 







137 " 









Birtle Agency 















Fort Pelly Agency 















File Hills do 















Assiniboine Res. Agcy. 












25 1 

Crooked Lakes do 













177 3 

Moose Mountain do 













4<s 2 

A. Mackay, agent 











12l! 12 

Joseph Reader, agent 












Saddle Lake Agency 















Peace Hills do 












.... 1696 


Battleford do 















Onion Lake do 












" 1 




Duck Lake do 















Edmonton do 















Carlton do 















Sarcee do 


i . . 












Blood do 


t . . 











Blackfoot do 


7. . 









Peigan do 


























Department of Indian Affairs. 

B " — Concluded. 


Grain and other Roots Harvested. 

Fish, Furs 

other In- 


















































































































23,925 00 








25,500 00 

8,895 00 

11,160 00 

12,033 00 

18,913 00 

5,235 00 

15,849 00 

21,704 01 

8,084 01 

1,934 50 

1,036 75 

7,095 79 

2,249 00 











' ' '267 



3146 10 
2240 ! 1029 
2952 2334 






" io 
















' 197 












' '2156 


















' ' '381 

" 1425 





' ' 30 




' 166 









36,750 00 
37,038 42 
7,053 00 
6,000 00 
5,626 99 
7,800 00 
2,997 00 
4,580 00 
4,510 04 
5,077 00 
1,200 00 













2,320 63 















264,567 14 

14— D 


Department of Indian Affairs. 




Indian Office, 

Brantford, Ont,, 9th September, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir,— I beg to submit my annual report in duplicate, and tabular statement on 
the Six Nations of the Grand Eiver, for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The crops for the past year were generally good; the Indians are taking more 
interest in agriculture and at present there are very few who do not cultivate their 
land, while many are increasing the acreage cultivated. Corn, wheat, oats and 
potatoes are chiefly raised ; the hay crop was very poor, but stock-raising is increas- 
ing. The Indians compete successfully with their white neighbours at the fairs and 
are rapidly advancing ; they are now realizing that their success and prosperity 
depend on themselves and they are competing in everything they possibly can 
with surrounding farmers. 

Large contracts have been awarded to members of the Six Nations by neighbour- 
ing whites and the manner in which they were executed gave general satisfaction. 
Those not engaged in farming, or in business of other descriptions, look for employ- 
ment off the reserve; during the berry and hop-picking season some hundreds are 
taken as assistants by the whites, also during harvest time, so that it is often difficult 
to get help on the reserve. 

Two companies of volunteers from the reserve are attached to the 37th Battalion 
of Haldimand. The Six Nations fall fair occupied three days, and was largely attended 
each day; the prizes offered were equal to those given at any township fair and the 
exhibition was certainly successful. Nine threshing machines are owned on the 
reserve and all are kept very busy during the season. 

Two brass bands, belonging to the reserve, compete in band tournaments very 
successfully and have frequent engagements in cities and large towns. 

Ten schools are under the control of the Six Nations School Board and one is 
under the control of the chiefs. A new frame school-house was erected last year by 
the Board ; the attendance at all the schools was better than that of the previous 
year and the educational results were satisfactorj^. 

Eleven church services are held every Sunday and all are well attended; about 
seven hundred and eighty-three members of the band who call themselves Pagans, 
hold their old custom services regularly. 

The health of the Indians has been fai rly good as a community, the only epidemic 
of importance was the "grippe," which prevailed during the latter months of last 
winter. Inflammation of the lungs was very prevalent and among the old and very 
young, or those enfeebled by a prior attack or other disease, a large number of 


,56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

fatal eases occurred. Malarial diseases form a large percentage of sickness on the 
reserve, owing principally to the want of wells and proper drainage. The habit of 
■drinking water from creeks has caused diarrhoea and dysentery. 

The physical development of the people is high, their average weight, particu- 
larly among the females, is much greater than lhat of their white neighbours, and, 
though contrary to the prevailing opinion, I do not believe they are more prone to 
consumption than the latter. 

The population of the reserve increased thirty-four during the past year. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Visiting Superintendent. 

Walpole Island Agency, 

Wallaceburgh, Ont., 31st August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Str, — I have the honour to transmit herewith my annual report and tabular 
statement on the Chippewas and Pottawattamies of Walpole Island for the year 
ended 30th June, 1892. 

Owing to the continuance of wet weather through the seeding and planting time 
last spring, there was not as much sown as would have been had the weather been 
more favourable; but, notwithstanding this, there will be a fair crop on the island 
this year, not nearly so much as last year, but the people will be able to get along 
very well. The wheat crop (fall wheat) is very good, which will give the most of 
them their bread, and that is one great point. 

If the frost keeps off as long as usual there will be quite a crop of corn, though 
it was all planted after the rain in the spring, and of course late. 

Potatoes and roots generally will not be very good from the late planting and 
the dry weather which followed. 

I am glad to be able lo report that the people of Walpole Island are nearly all 
in the best of health. No diseases among them ; in this respect they are better 
than they ever were. I have just finished taking the census for this year, and have 
visited every house within the last three weeks and only found two persons con- 
fined to bed with sickness. I found the houses and grounds adjacent, for the most 
part, clean and well kept, in this respect there is much improvement manifest. 

In my report for 1891 I was able to report a substantial increase in the popula- 
tion, and am able to report now a continuance of the same in a much more marked 
degree, the Chippewas having increased nine and the Pottawattamies fifteen since 
taking the census for 1891. 

The schools have been regularly kept during the year with a fair attendance of 
scholars. The teachers are all Walpole Island born and are giving good satisfaction. 

Services are held regularly in the churches every Sunday, and the report of last 
year as regards morals and drinking habits will apply equally to this year, there 
being very little to complain of in respect to either. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent, 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

Western Superintendencj — 1st Division, 

Sarnia, Ont., 2nd September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — T have the honour to transmit herewith my annual report and tabular 
statement for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

I am able to report some progress in farming operations, as the most of the 
Indians now depend entirely on farming for a living and consequently have given 
that industry greater attention than formerly. The crops last year were good, but 
this year they are pretty light, as it was almost impossible to get the seeding done 
in time ; it rained almost continuously through April and May ; but they had a much 
larger acreage sown this year which will in part make up for the short crops. 

Two very good brick houses have been built this season on the Sarnia Reserve. 
Chief Wilson Jacobs and James Manass, sen., are each putting up a brick dwelling on 
the banks of the St. Clair River. 

The Indians held their first agricultural fair last fall, and it was very successful, 
especially in grain and roots. 

The school on the Sarnia Reserve is very well attended and good progress is the 
result. The school on Kettle Point Reserve has not been so well attended ; and the 
attendance at the school on Au Sable Reserve has been small on account of the 
Pottawattamies who usually inhabited that reserve and attend the school, having 
moved off to Kansas last winter, but they have returned this summer. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Western Superintendency — 2nd Division, 

Strathroy, Ont., 31st August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report and tabular statement 
showing the condition and progress of the three Indian bands within my agency, 
for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

, Oneidas of the Thames. 

This band lives within the township of Delaware, in the county of Middlesex, 
and is largely composed of a quiet, industrious people. They have three schools on 
their reserve, one of which is under the care of the Church of England aud taught 
by a white female teacher. Two are under the care of the Canadian Methodist 
Society, one of which is taught by an Indian female teacher and the other by a 
white. The Church of England and the Canadian Methodist Society have each a 
mission, and appear to be doing good work. 

The Ghippewas of the Thames. 

This band lives in the towuship of Caradoc, within the county of Middlesex. 
A large number of them are intelligent and well conducted. They have three 
schools under their jurisdiction ; two are taught by Indian teachers and one by a 

The Church of England and Canadian Methodist Society each have a mission, 
which are influencing the Indians for good. 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The Munceys of the Thames. 

This band lives upon the same reserve as the Chippewas of the Thames and is 
fairly prosperous. 

They have a school of their own, taught by a white female teacher and under 
the care of the Church of England. 

The usual distribution of blankets to the sick, aged and infirm Indians on the 
Caradoc Reserve, has been made. 

Upon the western portion of the reserve, there are living four families of Potta- 
wattamies who are located for land, but claim no interest of any money for 
distribution to the other Indians. They are a very quiet and inoffensive people^ 
and use the land upon which they live to good purpose. 

In reporting generally on the Indians in my agency, I beg to state that their 
general health during the year was good, there being no contagious disease among 
them. All the schools have been kept open during the year. The roads and 
bridges are kept in a much better state of repair than formerly. 

Divine service has been regularly held in the several churches (of which there 
are nine) ; a very respectable percentage of Indians are church members. 

Before closing, I am happy to state that the Mount Elgin Industrial Farm 
and School, under the able management of the Rev. W. W. Shepherd, are in a 
very satisfactory condition. 

The number of Indians in each band is as follows : — 

Oneidas of the Thames 726 

(An increase of two since last census.) 
Chippewas of the Thames 442 

(An increase of six since last census.) 
Munceys of the Thames 135 

(An increase of six" since last census.) 

In addition to the above there are : 

Pottawattamies 12 

Total 1,315 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Western Sdperintendency — 3rd Division, 

Highgate, Ont., 29th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir,— I have the honour to transmit herewith my annual report and tabular 
statement giving statistics of the condition and progress made by the Indians of the 
Moravian Band of the Thames for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The population of the band is three hundred and four, an increase of one since 
last report. It may be interesting to state that in 1879 the population of the band 
was only two hundred and seventy-two, showing that they have increased since that 
time by thirty-two. ' 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The crops were nearly all good, the quality of the wheat, oats and corn being 
first-class, owing to better cultivation of the land and rotation of erops, there is not 
near so much wheat sown year after year on the same field as there used to be. 

There is great improvement in the farm stock; there is a large number of good 
horses and well-bred cattle now on the reserve. 

Two good substantial frame houses and a number of Jog stables have been erected 
since my last report. 

The reserve is supplied with two schools with first-class school-houses and 
grounds, and the teachers are capable and take an interest in trying to bring the 
pupils forward in their studies. 

Three different churches attend to the spiritual welfare of the Indians in a satis- 
factory manner. 

In my last report I stated that the health of the Indians was not good, that 
consumption was increasing among them ; but I am pleased to report now that there 
is not at the present time a single case of the disease on the reserve, strict sanitary 
measures were taken and carried out with beneficial results. 

The roads and bridges arc nearly all good and are being made better every 

One or two large drains to carry the water not only from the reserve but also 
as an outlet to drains from the adjoining township are under consideration. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Northern Superintendence, Ontario — 1st Division, 

Indian Office, Manitowaning, 31st August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit my report and tabular statement showing 
the condition of the Indian bands within this superintendency for the year ended 
30th June, 1892. 

The Ojlbways of Lake Huron. 

Thessalon River Indians. — There is not much to remark in the condition of 
this band, which is very similar to last year. The census shows a decrease of five, 
caused by two families (who have been living in the United States) having been 
removed from the pay list. These Indians are mostly fishermen, their 
agricultural operations being on a small scale. They earn money by loading vessels 
and working at saw-mills. Their school is fairly attended. 

The Magnettawan Band has decreased two in number ; they live for the most 
part at West -Bay, Manitoulin Island, are good farmers, and earn money by loading 
vessels with lumber, for which work they receive one dollar and seventy-rive cents 
per day. They have good farms and are prosperous. Their children attend school 
at West Bay. 

The census of the Spanish River Band shows a decrease of two. The portion 
of this band who live on the unceded part of Manitoulin Island are farmers and 
fishermen and are prosperous ; those living on the Spanish River Indian Reserve 
are al*o fairly well-to-do, but as much cannot be said for those living at Pogumasing 
and Biscotasing. Fur having become very scarce and hard to get, the Indians main- 
tain themselves entirely by hunting in winter and canoeing in summer. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The White Fish Lake Band is another hunting band. They feel the scarcity of 
game very much. Their chief, who is an intelligent Indian, was anxious for 
information as to the provisions of the new Ontario Game Law, and fears that its 
operation will be injurious to the band. These Indians get work from the Canadian 
Pacific Eailway Company, which helps them considerably, although the work is not 
exactly to their liking. They have two schools. The census shows an increase 
of two. 

The Ojibways of Mississauga Eiver is another hunting band; very little farming 
being done. They are numerically the same as last year, and have a school on their 

The Point Grondine Band are only fifty in number, the same as last year. 
They have very comfortable and well-built dwelling-houses on their reserve; are 
intelligent and well-to-do. Their farming is on a small scale. A lot of money is 
earned by them by picking berries and fishing. They are prosperous. 

The census of the Serpent Eiver Band shows an increase of two. These 
Indians are mostly hunters, but some of them work in the saw-mills, of which 
there is one near their reserve. They have a school under the auspices of the 
Catholic Church. 

The French Eiver Band has decreased three during the year. They are farm- 
ers, have land on the Sheguiandah Indian Eeserve, are prosperous and contented. 
Their school is under the auspices of the Church of England, and they have also a 
handsome church. 

The White Fish Eiver Band numbers seventy-nine, the same as last year. 
They are enterprising and progressive. They have good and productive gardens, 
also a church and school-house. Over one million feet of saw logs were taken out 
by them last season, and they will probably do as much the coming season. 

The Tahgaiwinini Band are good farmers and fishermen. They live mostly on 
the unceded part of Manitoulin Island. The census shows a decrease of one. This 
band is very prosperous. 

The Manitoulin Island Indians Unceded. 

This band numbers one thousand and ninety-two, an increase of thirteen, there 
having been sixty-eight births, fifty-four deaths, two increases by immigration and 
three decreases by emigration. They are prosperous. Many of their dwelling- 
houses are creditable structures. There is a temperance society at Wikwemikong, 
with a membership of about one hundred, which does much good. These Indians 
farm, fish, get out timber, and are exceedingly prosperous. There are five schools 
on the reserve, which have a large attendance. 

The Ojibways and Ottawas of Manitoulin Island. 

The Cockburn Island Band numbers thirty-seven, an increase of one. They 
are farmers and fishermen, and are fairly prosperous. 

The Sheseguaning Band numbers one hundred and sixty-nine, an increase of 
four. They have a school, are good farmers and fishermen and are industrious 
workers. They have recently completed the erection of a fine church at their 

The West Bay Band numbers two hundred and fifty, an increase of three. 
They are good farmers and have excellent land in their reserve, on which good crops 
are raised. They are a well-ordered and progressive band. 

The Sucker Creek Indians number one hundred and ten, the same as last year; 
their farming has been successful and they are prosperous. They have a school which 
is fairly well attended ; the school and church are under the auspices of the Church 
of England. 

The South Bay Band numbers seventy-four : they are fishermen and farmers. 
The church and school at their village are under the auspices of the Eoman Catholics. 

The Sheguiandah Band numbers one hundred and fifty-three, an increase of one; 
they farm successful \y and are prosperous and contented. Their church and school 
are under the auspices of the Church of England. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The Sucker Lake Band numbers twenty-one, the same as last year. They 
occupy a small reserve near Manitowaning and are farmers. 

The Obidgewong Band numbers twenty-two. a decrease of two. They are all 
Pagans. They farm successfully and are yearly increasing their clearings. 

Sixteen schools have been in operation during the year, the progress of the 
pnpils on the whole may bo considered satisfactory; if a more regular attendance 
could be obtained better results would be secured. It is to be hoped that this will be 
reached in the near future. 

The health of the Indians generally has been fair. There was an outbreak of 
diphtheria at the Wikwemikong Girls' School in February last: prompt measures 
were taken to isolate the building, the spread of the disease was stopped ; those 
attacked received medical treatment and all speedily recovered. 

The crops last year have been fair, except hay which was almost a failure. The 
season commenced with a protracted period of drought during which the seed sown 
did not germinate ; in July abundant rains fell, too late, however, to save the hay- 
crop. The yield of potatoes was much in excess of the average, and that of the grain 
fair. At the time of writing this report the prospects of an abundant harvest are 

The distribution of annuity and interest money to the Indians of this superin 
tendency during the year amounted to eleven thousand two hundred and sixty-two 
dollars and twenty-one cents. 

The past year has been one of considerable material prosperity. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



Parry Sound, Ont., 27th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report and the inclosed 
tabular statement showing the condition and progress of the various Indian bands 
in my superintendency during the year ended 30th June last. 

Parry Island Band. 

This band may be represented as being in such a fairly satisfactory condition 
that it is rather difficult to find anything sufficiently noteworthy to report. If the 
deaths of several infants and one adult are excepted, nothing of a nature much to 
be regretted has occurred. In two cases only was there any need to render relief 
from the funds of the band to any sick. 

The crops were satisfactory last year and promise to be even more abundant 
this season. These circumstances combined with a large demand for labour at 
neighbouring lumber mills, place this band in a vovy comfortable position. The 
road improvements on the island are yearly receiving more attention and fair roads 
now exist where formerly only trails were trodden. 

The two schools in operation are doing average work. The great drawback to 
educational success is the irregularity in the attendance of the pupils. Regulations 
however have been passed and approved inflicting fines for irregularity or non- 
attendance of children of school age. The time for collecting these fines has not yet 
arrived. It is hoped and expected that after the first imposition of these penalties 
the school attendance will improve. 

Shawanaga Band. 

As usual this band shows probably less progress than any other tribe in this 
superintendency. Nevertheless, they seem happy and contented. During the year 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

they report having caught at least one hundred and twenty-four barrels of fish, and 
fur to the value of $450, and to have raised upwards of one thousand two hun red 
bushels of produce from the soil. 

Several of the younger men seem inclined to devote their attention to deep lake 
fishing. Though such occupation is not to be compared with agriculture as a means 
of promoting comfort and well-being, still it is much to be preferred to that of 
hunting. It is hoped that many who refuse to be farmers will become fishermen. 

The school shows marked progress. A new white teacher took charge last 
October, and the reading, the spelling by dictation and the arithmetic have 
improved. While, however, the pupils read well and also write well to dictation, 
there is a great suspicion in my mind that they know little of the meaning of what 
they read or write. How to remedy such defect in this and other Indian schools 
is a matter that is continually kept before the teachers, and I hope to be able next 
year to report material improvement in this respect. 

Henvey Inlet Band. 

I found this band plunged in the gloom and sorrow of bereavement. A whole 
family, consisting of six souls, had during a hurricane squall three days before 
perished in the angry waters of the Georgian Bay, and at the time of my visit none 
but the little body of the baby swathed to its Indian cradle, had been recovered. 
The band mustered impatiently for census purposes, hurriedly received their 
annuity money and then hastened away to bury the found dead and search further 
tor those still unfound. There was therefore little chance of my having with the 
chiefs and councillors that usual and friendly conversation which informs the 
superintendent of such a remote band as this as to their general condition and 

I gathered, however, that the past year had been uneventful, that neither 
decided prosperity nor heavy adversity had fallen to their lot, and that, except in 
the matter of the accident that had just befallen them, all had been well with them. 

The school which I had visited in early spring showed gratifying signs of 
improvement, though there is still abundant room for further progress. The 
attendance had increased, and what seemed to me of almost more importance, the 
pupils were more alive to and familiar with school work and ways than formerly. 

JVipissing Band. 

This band whose reserve is situated on the northern shores of Lake Nipissing, 
are in the enjoyment of a satisfactory amount of prosperity. Their reserve is 
rapidly increasing in value, and they have been approached with the view of sur- 
rendering a considerable part of it at a price of about $2.50 per acre. At the 
present, however, they refuse to entertain any such proposal even for a moment, 
and they were much gratified when I assured them that till they freely surrendered 
it for sale not one square foot could be taken from them for any purpose whatever, 
save that of some such public work as a railway. 

Several of the band are devoting themselves largely to agriculture, and one 
man last year cut ten tons of timothy hay, and raised upwards of two hundred 
bushels of other farm produce. A large proportion, however, hunt and trap, and act 
as guides, and as fourteen of them reported to me that they had caught upwards of 
$2,000 worth of fur, their success must, I suppose, have been satisfactory. 

The only annoj^ance that has for years troubled this band, namely, the unfenced 
state of the Canadian Pacific Eailway track, while it runs through their reserve, is 
being rapidly removed ; and I was glad to find the eastern ten miles well fenced, and 
to he informed that the same work on the western side was being pushed forward 
with satisfactory speed. 

The school in operation on this reserve is not accomplishing the work it ought 
to do in consequence of the migratory habits of many members of the band. The 
number of pupils on the roll is much too small. Those few families who reside 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

permanently near the school-house do send their children with fair regularity, so 
that last year with a roll of twelve there was an average daily attendance of eight 
and a half, but, unfortunately, too many do not send their children at all. 

Dokis Band. 

For some reason with which I am at present unacquainted, this band failed to 
meet me at the time and place appointed. I am, consequent^ 7 , unable to make any 
extended report concerning them. From inquiries made from their near neighbours, 
the Nipissings, 1 gathered that they were in their usual satisfactory condition. 

Temogamingue Band. 

In this as in every other band in this supenntendency there is a slight decrease 
in the census list this year. Why this should be so, generally, it is impossible to say, 
as all my Indians seem comfortable and in average circumstances. In this particular 
band the decrease is caused' by some disease having carried off three members of 
one family in January last, while otherwise, births and deaths balanced each other. 

In this, as in most of the bands, I introduced the subject of vaccination and as 
soon as I had succeeded in inducing one or two to submit their children to the 
operation, I found that it suddenly became fashionable. I need not say that I took 
advantage of the fashion and vaccinated twenty-one children, some of whom, however, 
were those of non-treaty Indians. While parents willingly forced their children to 
submit themselves to the operation they refused to submit themselves, and as this is 
usually the case it will be extremely difficult to carry out your instruction to vac- 
cinate every Indian once in seven years. 

The ability of this band to sustain themselves in comfort was put to a severe 
test during last winter when provisions ran short and some hardship resulted. Not- 
withstanding this they welcomed spring in fair condition, and at the time of my 
visit seemed as happy and contented as usual. 

The principal men of the band again made inquiry as to the laying out of a 
reserve for them and expressed the hope that your department would not cease 
from 3'our efforts till their whole band became settled all near each other, on land 
that their descendants could for ever call their own. 

Gibson Band. 

During the past year there has been a continuance of material prosperity in 
this band. With the exception of hay their crops were abundant last year, and this 
season they promise to beat least twenty-five per cent more than usual. Their live 
stock has increased in the proportion of two hundred and six to one hundred and 

Unfortunately their social condition has not kept pace with that progress that can 
be measured by dollars and cents. A minority of the band began about six 
months ago to agitate for the introduction of the Indian Advancement Act and were 
met with opposition from the majority. Instead of conducting the agitation by 
peaceful methods and trusting to time to bi'ing the majority to their views, there is 
reason to believe that the minority allowed their energy to take an erratic course 
which has much embittered the majority and I fear reduced the minority to a 
smaller number than it was a few months ago. I judge that the application of the 
Indian Advancement Act to this band would be beneficial, but I also judge that it 
would be prudent to allow the present social storm to expend its force before such 
application is made. 

During the year four elderly persons and one child have died, and there have 
been five births. The considerable decrease in the census return is accounted for by 
a number of itinerant Okas having been placed prematurely on the census list of 
1891. These and one family have left, hence the decrease. 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The improvement in the school, which is under the control of the Methodist 
Missionary Society, is very manifest. With a school roll of eighteen there was, last 
quarter, an average daily attendance of about eight and a half. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Superintendent. 

Northern Superintendency — 3rd Division, 

Sault Ste. Marie, 8th September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th 
June, 1892, of the three bands under my charge. 

Garden River Band. 

The chief of this band, Pequetchenene, was elected last year and resides with 
his people on the reserve, which is situated twelve miles from here on the St. Mary's 
River. There has been a great deal of sickness, chiefly among the children, and the 
doctor has had to make a number of extra visits ; there were ten deaths. The sani- 
tary condition of the Indians has been satisfactory ; the houses have a better appear- 
ance and the land is well fenced. The crops this year are good ; corn is sown in 
small quantities and is looking well. The potato crop is excellent and the hay is better 
than it has been for years past. The members of the band still continue to earn their 
living by cutting pulp wood, which has become quite an industry, and working in 
the shanties getting out saw logs for the owner of the timber limits. The burning r 
last fall, of Messrs. Hollister & Co.'s mill kept many of the Indians out of employ- 
ment this spring; some got work in other parts loading lumber, &c. 

This band is composed of both Church of England and Roman Catholics, and 
both denominations have good churches on the reserve; they have two schools, both 
of which are being better attended than formerly. 

Batchewana Band. 

Chief Nubenagooching of this band is a life chief and resides with the greater 
number of this band at the bay, Garden River Reserve. The remainder of the Indians 
are scattered along the shore of Lake Superior to Agawa River, about ninety miles 
from here ; these earn their living by fishing, hunting, canoe making and picking 
berries, large quantities of which are gathered along the shore and are mostly sold in 
the United States at good prices. The fishing has been better during the past year, 
but the fur catch was not good, the prices of which have greatly fallen. During 
my last visit up the lake I fed about forty Indians and gave them tobacco, pipes and 
blankets as is my usual custom. The Indians living at the bay work in the shanties 
and drives, but do not participate in the wood and timber cut on Garden River 
Reserve. The school has been fairly well attended. The band are mostly Roman 
Catholic with a very few Methodists. 

Michipicoten and Big Head Band. 

The chiefs of this band are Sanson Lagard and Gros Jambette ; the former 
resides at Michipicoten River with fourteen families and the latter at Chapleau with 
about twelve families; the remaining members of the band are scattered inland and 
are paid by me through the officer of the Hudson Bay Co. at Michipicoten River. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The Indians live chiefly by hunting and fishing, they also fish for those holding 
licenses to do so, and cut and sell wood to the tishing tugs during the open season. 
There has been a great deal of sickness during the year and several deaths. The 
majority of the band are Eoman Catholic, only about fifty being Methodists. Their 
reserve at Michipicoten .River is about three hundred acres, on which they grow 
potatoes and other vegetables. Their houses are good and comfortable. They have 
a Eoman Catholic church and a school-house which is not used at present. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Lands Agent. 

Northern Superintendence — 4th Division, 

Port Arthur, Ont., 25th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement on 
Indian affairs in my agency, for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

Fort William Band. 

I am pleased to be able to report again this year a gradual increase in the pros- 
perity of this band. Their crops are unusually good ; they put in last spring about 
five hundred bushels of seed, principally potatoes, some oats, peas and garden seeds. 
Their hay crop will be greater than ever this year, on account of their having 
drained Whiskey Jack Lake, situated immediately back of their farm settlement ;. 
it about one mile long and surrounded with tamarack swamp. This has been for 
many years a hindrance to their extending their farms further back and it limits 
their cattle range for feeding. During July they cut a ditch from this lake, twenty- 
five hundred feet long, leading into a ravine which carries the water into the 
Kaministiquia River. This involved an excavation of three thousand five hundred 
and sixty-five cubic yards mostly through soil, mirey muskeg and some clay, and 
the ditch looks like a small canal. It lowered the water of the lake about six feet 
and dried up the surrounding swamp referred to, which now grows tall waving hay 
where before it was covered with water. They have already commenced extendingtheir 
fences, and some are clearing land and enlarging their farms. This extensive work 
they could not have done without the assistance of the department. The levels 
were taken by an engineer and fifteen cents per cubic yard was paid for excavating. 

The Indians are giving special attention to stock-iaising and have now five 
horses, twenty-six milch cows, thirty head of young cattle and fifteen working oxen. 
To show their advancement in this line, it is only a few years ago since^he depart- 
ment furnished them with two yoke of oxen to do the work connected with their 
garden patches, while now they have their own oxen to work their farms. 

The most of them have abandoned the hunt ; fur-bearing animals are becoming 
more scarce and this occupation does not pay as well as farming. Only a few indolent 
Indians hunt and fish and they only manage to* get a very poor livelihood as com- 
pared with the more industrious farmer. In the winter season they get cordwood, 
cedar, telegraph poles and posts and square cedar off their reserve and from other 
lands. Each Indian gives two days' statute labour yearly, thereby keeping their 
roads, ditches and bridges in good order. The Indian boys' and girls' school is well 
attended and the orphanage is kept by the Sisters of St. Joseph in a most neat and 
orderly manner. The girls are taught needle and fancy work in addition to their 
ordinary studies ; the pupils have good medical attendance. There has been a good 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

deal of sickness in the band, of whom a certain number have been vaccinated each 
year. Very few of these Indians now indulge in intoxicants; a few whites have 
been fined and imprisoned for giving liquor to them; their general prosperity 7 and 
advancement is a proof of their temperate habits. 

This band numbers three hundred and fifty-seven persons. 

Red Rock Band. 

This band has been improving their reserve for the past year in the way of 
clearing and building; the} 7 have good gardens and will have afair crop of potatoes. 
Their reserve is situated on the Nipigon River, where tourists from different parts 
of America resort every summer ; they employ the Indians and their canoes at high 
wages, this diverts their attention from their farms. Hunting is followed in the 
winter season, but each year the fur-bearing animals are decreasing in number and 
in a few years the Indians will be forced to turn their attention to agriculture. They 
gel plenty of fish irom Lake Helen, one mile from their reserve, in the summer season, 
and take trout and whitefish in the fall for their winter use. 

It came to my knowledge that sportsmen engaging Indians as guides sometimes 
gave them liquor ; this I put a stop to by giving them notice, through different 
agencies, that anyone giving liquor to an Indian would be fined $300 and receive six 
months' imprisonment. This has put a stop to the practise. 

Their school is taught by a female teacher, and their church is well attended 
when the missionary priest visits them, about four limes a year. I vaccinated a 
good many of them this year, and some who evaded the operation before came tome 
this year to be vaccinated having heard of two cases of small-pox in Port Arthur. 

This band numbers two hundred and one persons, a decrease of two from last 

Pays Plat Band. 

This band only numbers fifty-two persons. They have comfortable log houses 
situated on the banks of the Pays Plat River. The Canadian Pacific Railway runs 
through their reserve; they are an industrious and well-to-do people. They have a 
good bull to plough their land and a few cows and young cattle; each year they im- 
prove a little. They complain of not being able to get fish as formerly on account 
of the depletion in Lake Superior by pound-net fishing. 

They are very desirous of having a school and teacher; their chief is a man 
with a common English education, enterprising and industrious, and keeps a small 
trading store for the Hudson Bay Company. 

Pic Band. • 

This band numbers two hundred and sixty, an increase of seven persons over 
last year. They have good crops of potatoes and some turnips ; th^y have taken 
good care of their oxen which have done all the ploughing for the band. The 
Indians worked last winter and this summer getting out pulp spruce wood for the 
American market, this has enabled them to clothe their families and live more com- 
fortably. They have had very little sickness ; a number who were left widows, with 
young children, last year received assistance in the way of food during the winter 
from the department, and, if the rabbits are not plentiful this coming winter, they 
will require further assistance. In the summer season they can always manage to 
get fish in the inland lakes and game. 

Long Lake Band. 

This band lives entirely by the chase. The department furnished them with 
seed potatoes and turnip need last year to give them a start and I furnished them 
with twenty bushels more this year, but the effort to induce them to cultivate has 
proved a failure. Their land is a cold clay and not suitable for agricultural purposes, 
but will grow hay. In the summer months .the Indians are employed getting in 
supplies from Lake Superior up the Pic River; thence across the height of land into 
the Little Albany River; thence into and across Long Lake to the Long Lake House, 
rnakitjg twenty-eight portages. The fur-bearing animals in this country are not 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

decreasing as they aro in more thickly -settled localities. No white trappers or par- 
ties who resort to these hunting grounds are interested in their preservation; 
the Indians are ever careful of them and when travelling they always extinguish 
their camp fires with water, which accounts for their never having a bush tire. 
Their hunt last winter exceeded that of the previous year by several thousand 
dollars ; they dress better and are more comfortable in many ways than some of the 
frontier Indians. The Hudson Bay Company take great care of their Indian 
hunters; they live in wigwams all the year round and are not so subject to con- 
sumption as those living in houses in the winter and changing to wigwams in the 
summer, which is the custom of many. This band numbers three hundred and 
thirty-one persons, a decrease of eight from last year. 

JSlipigon Band. 

This band numbers five hundred and twenty, au increase of seven over last year. 
These Indians live principally by the chase, many of them have built good log 
houses at different points where the soil is good, and they raise potatoes and other 
root crops; their object in settling in different places is to get fish, because if they 
all settled on their reserve that portion of the lake would soon be fished out, as it is 
not a good fishing ground at all times of the year. The hunt was more productive 
this year than iast. In the summer season many of the Indians make money with 
the tourists, fly-fishing, being employed with their canoes at high wages. The lake 
and river, in addition to the attraction of fishing, presents the most picturesque 
and lovely scenery in America; it is over one hundred miles long by fifty in width. 
At Jackfish Island they have a well-attended school with a good teacher, it is also 
used as a Roman Catholic Chapel. About one-third of this band are Pagans, the 
others are Roman Catholic. They are altogether a cleanly, well-behaved and happy 
people. In my agency I have successfully vaccinated two hundred and thirty Indians 
this year. 

English Church Mission Reserve. 

This year I did not visit this reserve, as the Indians were all away, being em- 
ployed by tourists on the Nipigon River which takes it rise or source close to their 
reserve. The families were away picking berries, it being holiday time for the 
children. The chief informed me that their potato crop was very good, and the bull 
that does all their ploughing and other work is in good condition ; they had plenty 
of hay for the winter ; they also have a fine church and school-house, the latter being 
well attended. Their minister was removed and now resides in Toronto, but it is 
hoped the bishop will replace him, as the mission will not prosper without a resident 
minister. They live in good houses and are a well-behaved, industrious people. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

County of Renfrew, Golden Lake Agency, 

South Algona, Ont., 7th October, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th 
June. 1892. 

The Indians on this reserve are prospering each year. They have got some new 
ploughs and spring tooth harrows at their own expense. The sanitary condition of 
the Indians has been good. Their dwellings are neat and clean; they are contented 
and happy. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

County of Hastings, Tyendinaga Agency, 

Shannonville, Ont., 29th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The band now numbers one thousand one hundred and twenty, this being the 
result of forty-one births and twenty-one deaths, while five have emigrated and 
three been admitted into the band. 

The sanitary condition of the people is y;ood. Doctors Newton and Whiteman 
attend to their physical wants, while the Eev. G-. A. Anderson, missionary on the 
reserve, looks after their spiritual needs, very effectually. 

The crops were good last year and provisions plentiful. 

The four schools are in operation and are progressing favourably under the 
jurisdiction of John Johnston, rl^sq., Inspector of Public Schools for South Hastings, 
who spares no pains in selecting an efficient staff of teachers and who pays a semi- 
annual visit of inspection to each school. 

A number who have given their attention to farming and gardening are fairly 
prosperous; while others find employment in the mills of the Eathbun Company at 
Deseronto, and thereby obtain a comfortable living. 

The sobriety and morality of the band is improving and is fairly good. 

The interest money distributed among the people, during the year, amounted to 
$4,261.14, and the usual supply of blankets was distributed among the aged and infirm 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Indian Agency, G-eorgina, 8th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the yea'r ended 30th June, 1892. 

The population of the band is now one hundred and twenty-four, a decrease of 
one since last census. 

Sickness prevailed to an alarming extent during the quarter ending 30th March, 
1892, involving a large medical account. 

Dr. Pringle's treatment proved very successful and satisfactory, and with 
one or two exceptions all are again in excellent health. 

The school continues to be efficiently conducted by Mr. Mayes. The attendance 
is very good, discipline and progress also very good. 

The new council-house has been finished and furnished, and is a credit to the 

Farming operations were very satisfactory, grain and root crops yielding an 
excellent return. Several planted for tho first time and were proud of their little 

Live stock was well wintered and in the spring looked much better thanagreat 
deal of the stock of the white men. 

A few aged and infirm make a scanty living, yet with a little assistance from 
kind friends are kept from want. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The crops again this year look most promising. The leading road through the 
settlement on Georgina Island ia now in good condition and the premises of the 
different families kept neat and tidy. 

There remain now only two families on Snake Island, with comfortable homes. 
Island life has its disadvantages; one of these the difficulty of access at certain 
seasons. It has also its advantages ; one of these removed from daily contact with 
the white man whose habits are not always exemplary. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Cape Croker Agency, 25th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-G-eneral of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement on 
Indian affairs for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

This band now numbers three hundred and ninety-six, being an increase of two 
since last year. The general health of this people has been fairly good and in most 
cases their sanitary condition is satisfactory. 

On account of the continued drought last spring and early summer the crops 
were very poor, especially hay, which was a total failure. This being the case 
many of the Indians were forced to dispose of the greater part of their live stock 
for want of fodder. 

The unusually rough weather in the fall prevented them from catching more 
than half the quantity of fish they usually take. These causes alone were sufficient 
to make many of them feel that economy was a necessity in their mode of living. 
However, with the aid and advice of Chief McGregor and myself, they managed to 
get through the winter without applying for assistance elsewhere. 

The hay crop this year is excellent and other crops promise an abundant yield, 
which will materially assist them through the coming winter. 

The new Methodist church erected here this summer is a complete structure ; 
it is said to be one of the best churches in the county, and reflects credit on the 
Indians of this band who so liberally voted funds from their capital to build it. 

The missionary here, the .Rev. Mr. Carson, is an energetic man and is a zealous 
worker amongst those under his charge. 

The three schools on this reserve have been open most of the year and it is 
pleasing to note that the average attendance of pupils is on the increase and also 
that they are making fair advancement in their studies. 

Hoping this course may be continued, 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Saugeen Eeserve, 
Chippewa Hill, Ont., 23rd August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my report and tabular statement 
of the Chippawa Indians of the Saugeen Eeserve for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 
This band now numbers three hundred and seventy-nine. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The sanitary condition of the reserve has been good, no contagious disease 
having been prevalent. 

Three schools have been kept in successful operation, and with the advantages 
afforded by the Muncey Institute we may expect much improvement in the educa- 
tion of Indian youth in the future. 

They are again blessed with prospects of a bountiful harvest and should the 
weather prove favourable until the crops are saved, the people should be in com- 
fortable circumstances during the coming winter. 

The fishing industry last fall brought very poor returns, for although they 
worked very perseveringly the fish did not visit their grounds in any large numbers. 
They are not discouraged however, but are preparing for the fall season with 
renewed energy, which may prove very remunerative should they have a good run 
of fish. 

The two government roads are nearly completed. They will be of very great 
advantage to the children in going to school and should increase the attendance, and 
will also afford the Indians easy access to every part of the reserve. 

It is gratifying to be able to report that scarcely a case of intoxication has come 
to my knowledge, which is a great improvement compared with some years previously. 

During the past year the most modern and finest Methodist church on any 
reserve in the Dominion, it is said, has been completed, which is largely attended 
by Indians and also whites from the surrounding neighbourhood, and does no doubt 
exercise a very beneficial influence. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Alderville Agency, 

Eoseneath, Ont., 11th July, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I inclose herewith tabular statement in connection with the Mississagua 
Indians at Alnwick, for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

This band now numbers two hundred and forty-three, an increase of one 
over la>t year. The Indians are slowly but steadily advancing in agriculture 
and otherwise, as the statements returned each year will show. In 1890 
they raised four thousand nine hundred and ninety-five bushels of grain, three 
thousand five hundred and sixty-two bushels of potatoes and turnips, and 
fifty-three tons of hay; and in the year 1891 they raised nine thousand five 
hundred and thirty-^iine bushels of grain, three thousand three hundred and 
sixty bushels of potatoes and turnips, and one hundred tons of hay. In 1888 
they only raised one thousand seven hundred and thirty-seven bushels of grain, 
and one thousand two hundred and six bushels of potatoes, &c, and eighteen tons of 
hay. In 1888 they earned in wages, basket-making, &c, $3,533, while in 1891 they 
earned $5,538. It is true that there is not as much rent money paid to the Indians 
as there was a few years ago, from the fact that many of them work their own land 
who formerly rented it. They now own forty-eight horses and twenty cows, and in 
1883 they only had eleven horses aud twelve cows. I think that their productions 
for the present year will greatly exceed those of last year. Many of the Indians are 
embellishing as well as improving their locations by building straight fences and 
planting maple shade trees in front of their lots, &c. It is very encouraging to see 
the improvements that many of them have made during the past few years in build- 
ings and otherwise; they have built twenty-seven good frame houses and four good 
frame barns since 1883. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The sanitary condition of the band is at present excellent. T do not know of one 
case of sickness, due, I think, to their improved condition and less camping out when 
trapping and fishing. 

The school is, as it has been for the last four years, taught by the Rev. 
John Lawrence; there are forty-four pupils on the school register and the daily 
average attendance for the past school year was twenty-nine. I think that the 
scholars are doing fairly well. Three of the pupils were at Cobourg recently writing 
on the entrance examinations for the high schools, but I have not yet heard the 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Eice and Mud Lake Agency, 

Gore's Landing, Ont., 26th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report and tabular statement 
showing the state of the Indians under my charge for the year ended 30th June, 


Rice Lake Reserve. 

The Indians have given still more attention to farming, and the grain crop is 
the largest that has ever been grown on this reserve by Indians. 

Those who have not given their attention to farming have made a very good 
living by gathering and selling the wild rice that grows in Eice Lake, by sugar- 
making, trapping, shooting, fishing, basket-making and working as labourers. 

There has been no serious illness ; in fact, very little sickness of any kind. 

The year has passed away very quietly and pleasantly, and apparently very 

The school has been taught by Miss Millard, who has given a great deal of 
attention to the children, and they have, through her kindness and attention, made 
considerable progress. 

Mud Lake Reserve. 

The Indians generally have enjoyed good health, which is no doubt largely due 
to the improved condition of things in and around their houses; they are also pros- 
pering in material things. Nearly all are now possessed of good board canoes in place 
of their former heavy log " dug outs." Five got new canoes ranging in value from 
$16 to $25 ; and three got new guns ranging from $13 to $35 ; two have 
built new houses, while several- others have reshingled and otherwise improved 
their houses, thus adding greatly to the appearance of the place and to their own 

They are now turning their attention much more to farming. Every available 
spot was under crop of seme kind this year and yielded a good return for their 
labour, and those who have given a good portion of their time to agriculture will be 
in a fairly good position to put through the winter. 

The young men are mostly good workers and find ready employment at good 
wages among the drives and lumber camps and among the farmers. 

The women as a rule are very industrious, making baskets and fancy work for 
which they find a ready sale. 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

About half the people attend the church regularly, about a quarter fairly well, 
the balance never darken the door except for a tea-meeting or entertainment. 

The sabbath school is open all the year and is well attended by the young people 
of all ages. 

The day school is well attended and the children make good progress. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 
Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Scugog, Ont., 1st September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement of 
the Mississaguas of Scugog Band for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

This band now numbers thirty-eight, a decrease of four since my last report, 
there having been six deaths and two births. The deaths were all from natural 
causes, as the band was completely free from any contagious disease. 

The crops were good, and averaged about the same as last season ; they are 
nearly all harvested, and, with the exception of wheat, which turned outpoorly, are 
really good. The potatoes and roots are far above the average. 

I am glad to be able to report that intemperance is still decreasing, and with 
one or two exceptions, the band is becoming more comfortable and prosperous. 

They still find fishing a great source of profit, being able to catch plenty for 
home consumption as well as for the market. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Mississaguas of the Credit, 

Hagersville, Ont., 27th September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — The report I have the pleasure of submitting to you in respect to this 
agency for the year end^d 30th June, 1S92, is more than usually encouraging, 
especially in the matter of education and public works. 

The Census. 

The census taken last October showed a decrease of one in population. The 
deaths, however, were four from consumption, and two from infantile complaints. 
Since October, 1891, there have been only two deaths, both from consumption, and 
the general health of the band has been remarkably good. 


Since my last report, the new school-house, mentioned therein, has been erected. 
It is a fine red brick building, with white brick facings. The inside is furnished with 
Oxford folding seats, and four large slate blackboards, and is otherwise fully equipped 
as a first-class country school-house. The band pay their teacher and caretaker, 
and supply all books and material needed. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The grounds have been tastefully planted with ornamental trees, and the out- 
buildings and sidewalks are in keeping with the main building. 

The teacher, Miss Meehan, and the children have not neglected the inside of the 
school, it is plentifully supplied with flowers and pictures. 

The school-house is built in the centre of the reserve and is finely situated from 
a sanitary point of view. What has been the result ? A year ago the number upon 
the roll was thirty-nine, now it is fifty-two. A year ago the average daily attend- 
ance was 135, now it is thirty-six. The school by-law is being carried out, and the 
children receive their prizes for attendance, proficiency, good conduct, &c, and the 
parents are fined if they do not send their children to school the required number of 
days. There is now a high school in the village of Hagersville, and there is no 
reason why the young Indians of this band should not acquire gpod education as 
rapidly as their white neighbours. 

The appurtenances of this school are all excellent, and experienced teachers 
have assured me that it is better equipped than nine-tenths of the public schools are, 
even in the cities. 


The crop of wheat was about the same as that of previous years, but the weight 
of the grain was greater and it was of a superior quality. There was an increase in 
the yield of oats, barley and potatoes, and an average crop of peas, rye and ha}'. 

This year there is every appearance of an abundant harvest, and a careful 
account of it will be taken. 

I inclose the tabular statement for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 


The church is still presided over by the Eev. T. S. Howard ; the congregations are 
large, and there is a well attended sunday school and an active temperance society. 
The only member of the band who might have been called an habitual drunkard, 
died this year. 

Public Works. 

The bridge over Spring Creek has been built with massive stone piers. A large 
amount of grading has been done upon the roads which has been covered with gravel, 
and nearly all the culverts upon the reserve are now built of stone. 

The Methodist Missionary Society decided to brick in the large parsonage, raise 
it, and put a new foundation under it; this has all beeu done. The council were only 
asked to give $100 towards the new foundation, which they did; the Missonary 
Society spending over $300. The council, however, thought that the front should 
have a veranda, and they have built one forty feet long, at an expense of over $100. 

There is very little in the line of public works to be done upon this reserve now. 
The buildings, council-house, school-house, church and mission-house, are all brick, 
neat and substantial. The bridges will last for many years ; the cemeteries have been 
newly fenced, and the ciilverts built of stone. In fact there is nothing now of im- 
portance to do, except it ma}' be to gravel the roads, and there is a feeling amongst 
the council that hereafter they will macadamise one mile each year until all the 
main thoroughfares are covered with stone. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Mount Elgin Industrial Institute, 

Muncey, Ont., 16th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you a brief report of the condition and 
prospects of the Mount Elgin Industrial Institute for the year ended 30th June, 

Over one hundred and twenty pupils, representing twelve reserves, have shared 
the advantages of this institution during the year; thirty-six of whom were enrolled 
for the first time, while thirty-three have withdrawn during the year ; eleven of 
whom had attended less than one year, 

12 between 1 and 2 years. 

6 " 8 ; ' 4 " 

3 " 4 " 5 " 

1 , " 5 " 6 " 

Among the withdrawn during the year was John Case, of Muncey, a competent 
mechanic who obtained a situation in London, Ontario. This boy has a certificate 
as a teacher, but prefers to work at his trade. 

Another, Alexander Charles, of Oneida, who also has a certificate, is a competent 
farmer, and finds that he can make more money as such than at teaching ; he is 
employed with a white man at liberal wages. When this boy wrote at the entrance 
examination one hundred and twenty passed, of whom only three were in advance 
of him. 

Another, Levi Doxtator, of Oneida, who passed the entrance examination, is 
now living in the home of one of the missionaries,, and expects to continue his 

Out of the seventeen pupils who during the last few years have taken certificates 
as teachers, about one-half are teaching or have taught, but the salaries paid on the 
reserves have not much attraction for our male pupils, some of whom obtained high 
wages for work in the tunnel at St. Clair, and are now employed on the steamers 
on the lakes. 

Within a distance of ten miles of the reserve, there are not fewer than twenty 
of our ex-pupils working for white men. The same is true with regard to ex-pupils 
belonging to other reserves who acquired a good knowledge of farming while here. 

The progress made in the schools has been most satisfactory, as shown by the 
quarterly schedule and Public School Inspector's report. 

The health record of the school for the year has been all that could be desired. 
We have not required a professional call from a physician during the year. During 
the eleven years of our incumbency we have only had one death in the establishment. 

Since the architect gave his decision that the building is not sufficiently strong 
to carry an additional story, and cannot with safety be enlarged as proposed, we 
have been exceedingly anxious to know what will be done. The pressure is upon 
as for enlarged accommodations, but we are compelled to refuse many applications. 
A new building with all modern improvements is what we should have with the 
least possible delay. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 




Department of Indian Affairs. 

Wikwemikong, 25th July, 1892. # 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — It is now my duty to send you a report about the Wikwemikong Indus- 
trial School, of which I am the Principal, for the year which has just elapsed. 

The number of pupils is pretty near the same as it was last year — that is, about 
one hundred, equally divided among the boys' and girls' branches of the institution. 

The moral conduct of the children has been very satisfactory indeed, so much 
so that it elicited this laudatory testimony from one of the teachers who has been 
engaged for many years in teaching and educating children. " I never met," said he, 
" but one school which for good conduct could compare with this." He referred to the 
boys' school, but a testimony at least as good as that just mentioned could be given 
of the girls' school. • 

lam happy to say that both disciplinarians and teachers have found their task 
light and easy, and also that the pupils have spent an agreeable year, the rules of 
the institution having been enforced in a firm and yet paternal manner, and care 
having been taken to remove from the children all just causes of complaint, they 
haviug been supplied with wholesome and abundant food, good clothing, and made 
to enjoy themselves during recreations and recesses by varied plays and amuse- 
ments. Several boys on their way home, after the close of the year, were met by a 
missionary, to whom they expressed themselves willing to forthwith return to school 
if asked to do so. 

After what has been just said, you will find it to a certain extent natural to 
learn that though different diseases, but especially " la grippe," have visited this pro- 
vince — as they have nearly the whole world, last year — there has comparatively been 
but little sickness among our pupils, and but one fatal case. Of course it is the 
Almighty God we refer the signal favour of having been preserved from sad acci- 

I now come to speak of the class-room, of the intellectual training of the 
pupils. My aim is to say the truth without exaggeration. In the boys' school the 
first class has not improved as much as we wished, but this is owing to the fact that 
though the teacher possesses all the knowledge required for the position, he unfor- 
tunately lacks the talent of imparting to his pupils what he knows. I ought to add 
that he has already severed his connection with this institution, and will be suc- 
ceeded by a well-qualified person. 

As to the second class containing over two-thirds of the boys, the teaching there 
has proved to be a complete success. The teacher is the man whose great experi- 
ence as a teacher has been above alluded to. He has in an excellent degree the skill 
of making what he knows pass into the minds of his pupils. He is, moreover, very 
methodical and persevering, driving instruction, if I may use the comparison, into 
the heads of the little Indians, as the wedge into the log. His eulogy will be com- 
plete, when I have said that he perfectly knows each one of his pupils as to char- 
acter, judgment, &c, and though very firm with them, the children love him very 
much. There were in the village a certain number of persons unfavourable to the 
school — one of them had two of his grandsons, aged nine and eleven years, to spend 
their vacations with him last New Year's, haviug made them read their class book, 
do sums in arithmetic, &c, he was so satisfied with the progress they had made 
that he often spoke of it afterwards and became very friendly to the institution. In 
the girls' school very good progress indeed has been obtained in all the branches of 
learning to which the pupils have been applied. A good number of boys have been 
taught trades, some blacksmithing, others shoemaking, others again carpentering, 
&c, with very satisfactory success ; a young blacksmith apprentice shows extraordi- 
nary liking and talent for his trade. We have resolved to give special attention to 
the teaching of agriculture, which is certainly of still greater importance than the 
trades just alluded to, and we hope to have several farmer apprentices next year. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

m Circumstances have not allowed us this year to pay much attention to the 
music, as far as the boys were concerned, but the contrary has been the case among 
the girls. Neither did we make any progress in bringing the boys to speak English in 
recreation, nevertheless we do not abandon the undertaking and hope eventually 
to succeed. Here again the girls are far in advance of the boys. There were no 
military drill and no Indian club exercises this year. As to the uniform spoken of in 
last year's report, matters have remained in statu quo. 

I append the following information with respect to the career of the ex-pupils 
mentioned, since they left this institution: — 

J. B. Werkekijik taught school at Shishigwaning last year. 

William Kinajamag is teaching at the same place this year. 

Elizabeth Proulx is at Wikwemikong. 

John Shabokwam is our master shoemaker. 

lgnace Osawanimiki works occasionally as blacksmith in the village. 

I am, sir, your humble servant, 



Sault Ste. Marie, 5th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I regret that owing to illness and absence from home to recuperate my 
strength I have bqen unable to furnish you earlier with my usual annual report 
of our Indian Homes, and even now that I have returned, I fear I can offer but a 
meagre statement of our work, as I have been entirely shut out from all connection 
with it during the past four months, and I regret to say that on my return home a 
few days since, I found things in a very unsatisfactory condition, several employees 
having left and their places not filled, and the number of the pupils very much reduced 
at both theShingwaukand Wawanosh Homes. I shall, however, now do ray best to 
refill the homes with pupils, make up the needful staff of employees, and have the 
buildings and grounds got into proper order. 

Just at the present time there are thirty-one boys at the Shingwauk Home and 
eighteen girls at the Wananosh Home. A new schoolmaster for the Shingwauk 
has just arrived and a new matron is expected this week. During the two months 
that the Shingwauk was left without a teacher, Joseph Loney, a late pupil, who 
has received some education also at Trinity College School, Port Hope, filled the 
vacancy, and acquitted himself satisfactorily. 

Our printed annual report (to 31st December, 1891), of which I inclose you a 
copy, shows that at our Homes at Sault Ste. Marie and at Elkhorn, Manitoba, we 
received during the year a total of one hundred and forty pupils ; also, that since 
the first inception of the work in 1874, we have received five hundred and sixteen 
pupils in all, of whom three hundred and thirty-four were Ojibways, fourteen 
Mohawks, forty Sioux, forty-six Cree, twenty-three Delaware, thirty-three Ottawa, 
four Blackfeet and fifteen Pottawattamies. 

With the opening of the new year, January 1st, as I have already advised the 
department, I separated myself from the branch homes established at Medicine 
Hat and at Elkhorn, the former being given over to the Bishop of Qu'Appelle, in 
whose diocese it was built, and the latter being placed in charge of my son, A. E. 
Wilson, under the auspices of the Indian Department and the Church of England in 

1 have now only the Shingwauk and Wawanosh Homes at Sault Ste. Marie 
under my charge, and the Bishop of Algoma and two other residents of the town 
act with me as a Committee of Management. Since the additions made to our 
Shingwauk buildings last summer, we have accommodation now for about seventy- 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

four boys, and the Wawanosh having room for twenty-six girls, our number of pupils 
ought, as soon as possible, to be raised to one hundred. Of this number, the 
department at present contributes towards the partial support of seventy- 

In your letter to me of last April, requiring this annual report, you requested 
me to state as far as possible what had become of the pupils who had left us. Had 
it not been for my illness, I had intended this summer to visit all the Indian 
reserves from which we draw our pupils, and I had already prepared a note-book 
with the names of all whom we have had from the very first, intending to collect 
full statistics as to what had become of them all. My illness has prevented this 
for the present, but I intend as soon as practicable to carry out my plan. In 
the meantime, I inclose a letter from Adam Kiyoshk, who was the very first 
pupil to enter our Shingwauk Home in 1874 and who married Alice Wawanosh, 
one of our first girl pupils. Their little son, Arthur Lewolyn Kiyoshk, aged 
twelve, is now with us. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



" Cheboygan, Mich., 9th May, 1892. 
"Kev. E. F. Wilson. 

" Dear Sir, — I inclose you the sum of five dollars for my boy's fare to go home 
for holidays. Please let me know when you can send him home, or when are the 
holidays going to commence ? If you can spare him soon as you can, I would like 
for him to go at once, as his mother is sickly and he would be a great help to her. 
I think I shall let Mrs. Kiyoshk take a trip to Shingwauk Home this summer for 
her health and to see the old Home. I am glad to say that I am getting good wages 
and not much to do. I have worked myself up so that different wrecking companies 
want me to work for them. I am now pretty well known all over the lake ports as 
being a good diver, and I am treated as a gentleman wherever I go. I also inclose 
one of my recommendations for you to see. Please return it by next mail. 

" I greet you all, I am your son who loves you, 

" Adam Kiyoshk." 

Mohawk Institution, 

Brantford, Ont., 20th September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you a report on the Mohawk Institution 
for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 


During the year thirteen boys and eleven* girls entered, and twelve boys and 
nine girls left the institution, the number in attendance being ninety-three. 

The periods of attendance of the pupils who left during the year were as 
follows : — 

Under 1 year 1 

From lto2years 2 

" 2to3 " 6 

" 3 to 4 " 9 

" 4to5 " 1 

Over 5 years 2 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Average attendance: boys, three j'ears and one month ; girls, two years and ten 

Average attendance, 1890: boys, two and a half years ; girls, two years and rive 

Of the three pupils who remained in attendance less than two years, one died, 
one was sent home as being unfit for industrial training, and the other, a boy having 
no home, was fetched away to attend the funeral of the woman who brought him 
here, and did not return. 

The average number of pupils boarded and clothed was ninety-one. 

The principal permanent improvements were the erection of a greenhouse, 
additional fire escapes, fitting the kitchen with wire-net doors and window screens, 
and the building of a silo for the farm. 

The cost for maintenance is, and will be, somewhat higher than in former years, 
as the pupils remain throughout the year. 

Health and Conduct. 

. This year has been remarkable for the uniform general good health of the pupils, 
and also, I regret to say, for the only death which has occurred in the institution 
during the past eleven years. 

The conduct of the pupils has been satisfactory. 


During the early portion of the year the progress of the senior school fell short 
of that of former years, largely through the teacher's inability to adapt his methods 
to the special requirements of giving instruction in (to the pupils) a foreign language, 
and I was obliged to make a change which I am happy to say has been much to the 
advantage of the school. 

One pupil passed the entrance examination to the Collegiate Institute, but 
through constitutional nervousness failed to successfully pass the six months special 
training required to obtain our diploma as an Indian school teacher. 

Two students will write for their third-class certificates this midsummer, and 
one for promotion to the second form in the Collegiate Institute, and three for the 
entrance examination. 

In all branches of industrial training the results have been satisfactory. A 
competent gardener has been added to our staff, a greenhouse has been built and 
flowers, fruits and vegetables are regularly sent to market. I look upon this as a 
most promising and instructive industry. 

Passed Pupils. 

This year is the twentieth of my superintendency, and it is my intention during 
the year to collect the fullest information possible respecting all pupils who left the 
institution during that period. 

Since 1872, twenty-two boys and thirty-one girls passed the entrance examina- 
tion to the high schools. 

Twenty boys and twenty-five girls have been engaged as Indian school teachers. 

Five boys and ten girls are now teaching. 

Obtained Professional Standards. 

1 B.Sc, D. and P.L.S. 

1 M.D. 

2 2nd class public school teachers. 
1 3rd do do 

6 passed Civil Service examination (four hold appointments in the service). 
4 are attending collegiate institutes. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Table showing the present condition of the hundred and fourteed Pupils who left 
the Institution during the four years ended 31st December, 1891. 


Farming at hire or for parents 



Working at trades, as clerks or in factories 

Domestic service, Indian 




do white ■ 

15 Ifi 

* Teaching school 

Attending other institutions or colleges 

Living with friends. . 

Readmitted • 

Doubtful, wandering or idle 











Married ......... 







One returned under "Teaching" and " Married." 


Hon. Secretary. 


Financial Statement. 


1891-92. To Balance brought forward $ 984 82 

Annual Grants — 

New England Company $1,000 00 

Indian Department 400 00 

Six Nations Council 1,500 00 

Methodist Conference .... 250 00 

3,150 00 

Bank interest 25 87 

$4,160 69 


1891-92. By Salaries $2,705 48 

Buildings and grounds 675 60 

Fuel 85 00 

School requisites .• 36 59 

Printing and office expenses 23 06 

Prizes 50 00 

Insurance. 41 50 

Sundries 5 98 

Schoolfees 10 65 

3,633 86 

Balance in bank 526 83 

$4,160 69 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Report for the Year ended 30th June, 1892— Comparative Condition of Schools. 

Name of Teacher. 








Rate per cent < .f aver- 
age upon the Regis- 
ter Number. 













Result of Examination, 
30th June, 1892. 

Percentage of Passes 
upon Number pre- 
sented, 1892. 

er pre- 















Mr. B. Carpenter, pro tern. 
Miss K. Maracle. . . 











16 2 











• 1 








30 1 































. II 































69 1 























Mrs. Weatherell 

Mr. E. Bearfoot 










Mr. R. Tobias 















Miss. S. Russell ... 

Miss M. Davis 



























Mrs. Scott 

Miss S. Davis 

Miss F. Davis . ....... 

159 364 




39 8 


















86 6 

.. .|... 
































In the above statement showing the condition of schools, School No. 5, shows 
an apparent falling off in the number passing the examination ; in reality, however, 
there has been very great improvement in the standard of the school, some pupils 
having been advanced two classes. Last year there were no pupils presented above 
the third class, this year there were six examined in the fourth and two in the fifth. 

The number on the roll decreased from four hundred and seventy to four hundred 
and fifty-nine, but the average attendance was increased by nine, and the rate per 
cent of the average attendance increased three. There were fifty-seven more pupils 
present at the examination. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

I recommend that in the future the examinations be held in March as the older 
and more advanced pupils are seldom present during the summer months, and con- 
sequently the schools do not make so fair a showing in the upper classes when the 
examinations are conducted in June. 

During the year a new school has been erected for section number one, in a 
more central position, we may expect a large increase in the attendance. 

Members of the School Board. 

lev! J.'k S St T ro N ng, } presenting the New England Company. 

E. D. Cameron, Esq., " Indian Department. 

Chief Joab Martin, ") 

Chief Bent. Carpenter, > " Council of the Six Nations. 

Chief Nelles Monture, ) 

W. Wilkinson, Esq., " Methodist Conference. 

Eev. I. Bearpoot, Superintendent. 

Hon. Secretary. 

Caughnawaga, Que., 30th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report for the year ended the 30th June 
last, with a tabular statement of the affairs of the Iroquois Indians of Caughnawaga. 
There were eighty-two births and fifty-one deaths during the year on the 
reserve, giving an increase in the population of thirty-one. 

The boys' school, under the diiection of Mr. 0. Boy, leaves much to be desired 
as regards the assiduity of its pupils. 

There was no contagious disease on the reserve this year. 

I am happy to be able to say that the Indians of this reserve have cultivated 
more this year than usual ; some of them are now residing on their land. A Mr. 
Thomas Jocks built, this year, a fine house and an expensive barn on his land and 
cleared almost forty acres of it ; he also owns a number of cattle. It is hoped that 
his example will be followed by others before long. 

The affairs of the tribe in general are prosperous and the crops promise a good 
yield. The Indians of this tribe will probably realize enough to purchase the 
necessaries of life for the current year. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

St. BlCGis, P. Q., August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit my report and tabular statement for the 
year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The crops on the reserve and on the different islands for the last year were 
very favourable for the Indians. They had an ample supply to carry them through 
the winter. The Indians are doing very well in cultivating the lands, repairing and 
putting up new buildings, fences, houses and outbuildings, but there is still room for 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The Indians here in general are very healthy. There has been no epidemic of 
any kind among them, although many suffer from pulmonary disease, which seems 
to follow their race. In June the Indians, with their families, turn out in large 
numbers to go strawberry picking. About the first of September they go hop- 
picking, which they seem to enjoy, as they like to be travelling. They are still 
manufacturing baskets in large quantities, also lacrosse sticks, for which they 
receive fair value. John Angus is pilot on the steamers running the rapids from 
Kingston to Montreal, making daily trips, going down by boat and returning by 
train to Prescott, for which he receives good pay. There are five Indian schools on 
the reserve, one Protestant and four Catholic. The attendance is fair. It is diflicult 
to have them take an interest in sending their children regularly to school, as they 
do not seem to realize the benefit. The Kev. Mr. Mainvilie and myself do all in our 
power and urge on them the benefit of regular attendance. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Cacouna, P.Q., 30th August, 1892. 
To the Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my annual report and tabular state- 
ment for the year ended the 30th June last. 

The sanitary condition of the Indians here is satisfactory. Only one person 
died from contagious disease (diphtheria). There were three other deaths, an old 
man and two children. 

We have some families who appreciate education, and these send their children 
regularly to school. 

Hunting and fishing are becoming less and less remunerative every year, but 
they manufacture Indian curiosities, which they sell with advantage to the tourists 
visiting the locality during the summer season. 

I am very glad, before ending, to be able to assure you of the gratitude of our 
Indians for what the department has done for them. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

N. LeBEL, 

Indian Agent. 

Maria, P.Q., 31st August, 1892. 
The Honourable. 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my annual report and tabular 
statement on the affairs of the Micmac Indians of Maria, for the year ended 30th 
June last. 

I have been missionary to these Indians for the last seventeen years and during 
that time there has been no increase in the population* the deaths having equalized 
the births. The adults usually die of consumption. 

During the year many persons suffered from sickness and those most in need, 
received assistance out of the grant allowed by the -generosity of the department. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. GAGN^, Ptre, 

Indian Agent. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Lake St. John, P.Q., 19th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you ray annual report for the year ended 
the 30th June last. 

Consumption, a disease from which, from congenital causes often aggravated by 
imprudence, the Indians are apt to suffer, has caused several deaths since my last 

These Indians had very little success in hunting, and they are, in consequence, 
in rather poor circumstances. 

The appearance of the crop is good, and a fair yield is expected. 

Several houses have been constructed and new clearings made. 

Judging from the improvements which are being made and those that are pro- 
jected on account of the new survey recently made by Mr. H. Dumais, I have no 
doubt that an impetus will be given to agriculture. 

The proprietors will in future easily find out the position of their respective 
lots, the surveyor paving run lines for that purpose, and much trouble will be 

Many more patients were admitted to the hospital during the present year than 
in former years. 

The pupils have attended the classes more regularly than usual. 

The Indians of the Lower Saguenay were not visited this year, but the cure's 
of those places report poverty among them, owing to the chase having been almost 
a complete failure. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

L. E. OTIS, 

Indian Agent. 

Indian Agency op Ste. Anne de Eestigouche, P^Q., 

Campbellton, KB., 17th October, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my annual report and tabular 
statement on the affairs of the Indians of my agency, for the year ended 30th of 
June last. 

These Indians, with the exception of a few who always manage to procure 
intoxicants, either at Campbellton or atDalhousie, are generally well-behaved. The 
use of liquor on the reserve is decreasing, but it is to be regretted that those 
Indians are able to procure intoxicants, it is their greatest drawback. They do not 
get liquor direct from the traders themselves, for these are well watched, and they 
know very well the severe penalty attached to the offence ; they employ white 
go-betweens for that purpose, and the traders themselves cannot be reached by the 
law, for the' Indians absolutely refuse to divulge their names. 

In general, the Indians are very remiss to sending their children to school; 
they give various reasons for their neglect to do so, none of which are satisfactory. 

The change which recently took place in the direction of this school will, I 
hope, improve matters. By the attendance book it was found that the number of 
pupils frequenting school had increased from thirty to fifty-six, which is a greater 
number than the school should contain, on hygienic principles. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The grain crop was twice as good as that of last year, but the potato crop was 
far from being as good, and as that tuber is the main support of the destitute Indians, 
the diminished crop was a great misfortune. 

The greater portion of the male population during the summer season hire 
themselves as guides to sportsmen who go salmon fishing on the Restigouehe River 
and its tributaries ; the others work in the saw-mills of Campbellton and Dalhousie. 
The women during the fruit season occupy themselves in gathering wild fruits, 
such as strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries, &c, from the sale of 
which they derive a certain revenue. 

During the winter months all the available men go to the shanties, and as they 
are very capable in the manufacture of logs and the running of rafts they are paid 
good wages. 

The sanitary condition of the tribe was satisfactory. The number of births 
counterbalances that of the deaths ; it was twenty-six in both cases. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

River Desert Agency, 

Maniwaki. 22nd August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The sanitary cqndition of the River Desert Band has been satisfactory during 
the past year, there having been but seven deaths, a rate of two per cent, which is 
low for an Indian community. 

The number on last spring's pay-list was three hundred and forty-nine, an 
increase of thirteen over the spring of 1891. Some of these, however, were names 
replaced on the roll which had previously been taken off owing to absence from the 

One of the deaths, that of Alexander Stephens, occurred very mysteriously. He 
came from his hunting camp in the woods to dispose of his fur, arriving in the 
village after night on 11th January. After taking supper in a hotel he went to a 
store in the vicinity to make arrangements for the sale of his fur. He returned to 
the hotel for his pack, and before leaviug said he would sleep there that night. When 
he disposed of the proceeds of his hunt he left t the store about midnight accompanied 
by an intoxicated Indian woman. He informed the merchant that he would sleep 
at the hotel and return next morning to purchase supplies for his camp where he 
left his two bags, as he intended returning there in a few days. The merchant saw 
Stephens and the woman going towards the hotel, and when they were about half 
the distance, he closed the store and retired for the night. That was the last time 
Stephens was seen alive, having disappeared as effectually as if the ground had 
swallowed him. He did not sleep at the hotel, and not returning in a day or two, the 
merchant made inquiries, but no one had seen Stephens. After two weeks I was 
notified and at once instituted inquiries and subsequently held an investigation 
under oath, examining every person who had seen or heard of Stephens the night of 
his disappearance, but failed to elucidate the mystery. On the 15th June his body 
was found in the Gatineau about eight miles from the village. He evidently fell or 
was thrown into the Desert River, and when the ice had gone the body floated into 
the Gatineau. A coroner's inquest was held and although thirteen witnesses were 
examined, no clue could be obtained as to how Stephens met his death. The physi- 
cians who performed the autopsy testified that there were no fractures or wounds 
on the body, and that to the best of their belief Stephens was alive when put into 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

the water. The jury returned a verdict that the deceased came to his death by 
being put into the water whilst alive, but the evidence given was not sufficient to 
show by whom the murder was committed. The case was a very remarkable one 
and created quite a sensation among the Indians. I have urged upon the Provincial 
Government the necessity of taking some steps to discover and punish the parties 
who caused the death of Stephens. 

One hundred dollars was expended on the Gatineau front road last fall. This 
summer the road has been completed at a cost of fifty dollars. As usual the foreman 
and labourers were members of the band. 

The crops on the reserve last summer were above the average, and the pros- 
pects of an abundant harvest this season are very good. 

The usual grant of blankets to those requiring them has been made, and about 
eighty dollars was distributed in relief last winter amongst the indigent members of 
the band. 

The school continues in operation, but the attendance is not as satisfactory as 
could be desired. Some of the parents cannot be induced to send their children to 
the school, alleging that they have not suitable clothes. 

The following statistics of this band may be of interest : — 

Population represented by pay-list to 30th June, 1892 353 

Composed of men 89 

Women 104 

Boys 69 

Girls 91 

It will be perceived that there is a considerable disproportion between the 
sexes, the females being largely in the majority. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Jeune Lorette, P.Q., 24th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my annual report and tabular state- 
ment for the year ended 30th June last. 

The Huron Band of Lorette Indians numbers three hundred and one, being an 
increase of two over last year. 

With the exception of a few cases of diphtheria, sothe of which proved fatal, the 
tribe has enjoyed fairly good health. 

The departmental instructions, concerning the adoption of certain sanitary 
measures, have been fully carried out, with the best results. 

The regulations, framed by the chiefs, in regard to cleanliness, and sanctioned 
by His Excellency the Governor General in Council on the 21st September, 1891, 
have also been well observed. 

Temperance is improving and the many disorders which existed formerly have 
been considerably repressed. 

Trade in moccasins and snow-shoes is falling off owing to the competition in 
the price of these articles. Several families were compelled to leave for the water- 
ing places in order to dispose of their Indian curiosities, but they were not very 

Ninety Indians on this reserve were successfully vaccinated in November last. 

Very little improvement is noticeable in agriculture, but the potato crop was 

The pupils' attendance at school was fairly good, the average being fifty-five. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Owing to the scarcity of work in the vicinity and the price of fancy Indian 

wares having gone down, a number of the Indians had to go hunting. The tabular 

statement, accompanying this report, shows that they sold a large quantity of furs. 

As usual several of the Indians hired themselves as guides to tourists on their 

tishing and hunting expeditions. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

North Temiscamingue, P.Q., 25th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 



Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The condition of the Indians of this reserve has not materially changed since 
my last report. Their health as a general rule is not good. The pure Indians are 

The Indians made very good progress in farming, the crops are looking well. 
Some of them made a good living by their hunt last winter. 
The school on the reserve has beeu fairly attended. 
I have the honour to be, 'sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Pierreville, P.Q., 30th June, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June instant. 

There were sixteen deaths during the year — nearly all children — and seventeen 

The Indians of this band still manufacture baskets, canoes, &c, which 
they sell with profit in different places in the United States frequented by 

A number of those Indians employ the profits they have realized in improving 
their homes and paying the debts which they may have contracted during the 
previous winter, but some pass their time in the streets of the adjoining village, 
squandering all the}' may have made in the summer, and often procuring intoxicants 
in some mysterious manner. 

The Indians resist temptation with difficulty, but were the liquor establish- 
ments in the vicinity of the reserve closed, we would only have praises to give 
these Abenakis who in other respects give entire satisfaction. 

In general, the conduct of these Indians is very good, and we have to complain 
only of a few. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

Becancour, P.Q., 17th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my annual report and tabular state- 
ment for the year ended 30th June last. 

The Indians of this band have made very little progress ; although very impro- 
vident, they have suffered less this year than heretofore, owing to the fact that the 
crops were better and the department came to the relief of those who were most in 
need. Only one member of this band went out hunting. 

There is not much cultivation done by the Indians of Becancour; some hire 
themselves as guides to sportsmen who go fishing in the lakes of the Upper St. 
Maurice, but their principal occupation is the manufacture of baskets from which 
they derive considerable profit. 

The Indians of Becancour are improving in sobriety, they make less use of 
intoxicants than formerly. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

North-eastern Superintendency, 

Chatham Head, N.B., 14th October, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report for the year ended 30th June, 
1892, also tabular statement of Indian affairs in connection with the band under my 

Eel Biver, Restigouche County. 

I cannot report much improvement in this band. They do not take much 
interest in farming, the land where they live is poor and sandy, and as a matter of 
course their principal means of support is fishing, although the local regulations 
deter them from privileges which they had in former olays. 

Papineau Reserve, Gloucester County. 

A number of the Indians of this reserve have moved nearer the town, which 
has not improved them much. A few families still live on the reserve, and are very 
comfortable, they give some attention to farming, and are employed a great portion 
of the summer season as guides for sportsmen, the river being much frequented by 
parties seeking pleasure by the rod and gun. They hunt in winter, and on the 
whole make a good living. 

Bed Bank, Northumberland County. 

The advantages on this reserve for making a good living are favourable. It is 
the junction of the Little South-west and the Main North-west Eivers, both*being 
lumbered on extensively. It is thickly settled close by with white people, and any 
of the Indians that exert themselves can be comfortable. There is a nice church on 
the reserve, and a resident priest, and a short distance from the reserve there is a 
saw and grist mill. 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Eel Ground, Northumberland County. 

This is a fine reserve, sloping nicely to the river and well adapted for farming, 
yielding tine crops if it gets any preparation. Their houses are fairly comfortable, 
They have a neat church and school-house. As they are but a short distance from 
the saw-mills and also from the shipping stations, they work among the lumber and 
earn good wages, which are not always judiciously expended. These Indians are 
fairly well-to-do. 

Burnt Church, Northumberland County. 

This band, on account of location, should be very wejl off; they can fish nearly 
all the year round. In the summer season they can catch salmon, bass, mackerel, 
herring" and codfish, and in the winter they fish smelt, all of which has a market as 
soon as caught. The land is fairly good, and they raise more or less potatoes, oats, 
corn, &c. There is a fine old church on the reserve and a neat school-house, with a 
young lady as teacher. The population is about two hundred. They always 
celebrate the festival of Ste. Anne in July, during which time all work is ignored. 

Big Cove, Kent County. * 

This is a very fine reserve, and as a rule the Indians are better individuals than 
in many other places. The soil is good, and when an effort is made they raise good 
crops. "A number of them work on the river running lumber from the mills to the 
place of shipping. This reserve has the largest population in my superintendency. 
There is a very nice church here, and I am pleased to know they are anxious 
to keep it in good order and repair, and those that try can make themselves 

Indian Island, Kent County. 

Fishing is the chief maintenance of this band; most of them do a little farming. 
They have a church here, and as a rule are sober, steady people. 

Buctouche, Kent County. 

This band is not holding its own. They have good opportunities, but as in all 
cases where they live so near the white people they do not get on so well. Some 
have left, but those on the reserve are doing pretty well. 

Shediac, Westmoreland County. 

This band is very much broken up. They have moved to various places 
hrough the country, and are as a general thing unsettled. A few who live far away 
rom the white settlements are doing pretty well. They have not given any 
attention to farming for the last year or two. 

Fort Folly, Westmoreland County. 

The land on this reserve is very poor, it is dry and stony and not adapted for 
farming, but quite convenient for fishing. There is a stone quarry close by, which 
is a help to them. There is a church on this reserve. I cannot report much or 
any improvement in this band. On the whole there is but little change, a >iight 
decrease in the population. They have not so many opportunities for procuring 
liquor, on account of the stringency of the Dominion Act, and the fact of the Scott 
Act being more fully carried out. There is nothing that renders them so perfectly 
miserable as the use of liquor, and I trust the improvement visible will continue. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 




Department of Indian Affairs. 

South-western District. 1st Division, 

Fredericton, 31st August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to present my annual report and tabular statement 
relating to the Indian affairs of this agency for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

St. Manfs Reserve. 

This reserve, situated directly opposite Fredericton, comprises a popula- 
tion of one hundred and eleven, a decrease of ten compared with last year's 
report. This decrease is due to the removal of a few Indians to other parts 
of the agency. The births and deaths for the year were four each. Their mode 
of living and condition generally are much the same as referred to last 
season. In May last, as usual, they received in proportion to their land, 
some potatoes and garden seeds. These were mostly planted in gardens in 
and about their dwellings, and this crop, although small, usually supplies their 
wants until about Christmas of each year. The habits of the band, consider- 
ing their situation and surroundings, have been very fair. Of course there are 
always a few Indians who at times will indulge in the use of liquor. These cases 
are only of short duration and are always promptly dealt with. Recently a party 
was discovered supplying liquor to a family on this reserve, for which he was 
obliged to pay a fine of $100, with costs of prosecution. This has proved beneficial, 
as it is most difficult for Indians to purchase intoxicants and they can only procure 
liquor by the most indirect means. 

Your instructions relative to sanitary measures were enforced in May last by 
the removal of all nuisances from the reserve. The place, however, being so small 
(two acres and a quarter) for the number living thereon, it is often difficult to keep 
the premises as clean as might be desired. During the year the health of the adults 
was good, but in June and July the children of St. Mary's, Woodstock, Kingsclear, 
and even Oromocto Reserves, were mostly all visited with measles. Some had the 
disease very badly, but I am pleased to report all recovered. 

The school on this reserve for the past term was under the supervision of Miss 
M. H. Martin. The number of children on the register was twenty-five. The 
branches taught were reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, &c. Some of the 
children, owing to the migratory habits of their parents, were very irregular in 
attendance, whilst those who live permanently on the reserve were regular 
attendants and are making rapid progress in their respective studies. The average 
attendance for the year was 12-50. The furniture and apparatus are in good condi- 
tion, and at all times due regard is paid to the health and comfort of the children. 

Kingsclear Reserve. 

The Indians on this reserve number one hundred and eight. The births for the 
year were six and the deaths four. Their entire living is derived from farming and 
agriculture. A few of the young men engage in river employment. Wages for 
this work generally range from $1.50 to $2 per day. Farming is carried on more 
extensively at this place than in any other part of the agency. They of course 
received the greater part of the seed allowance last May, after an inspection of their 
lands, they received from the appropriation seeds, superphosphate and ploughing 
to the amount of $200. The ploughing was very requisite as the few horses owned 
by the Indians are of an inferior class and I considered it useless to supply seeds 
without rendering some assistance to put them in the ground. The crops for last 
year, including the hay, were a good average and added largely to supply their 
wants for the past winter. This year all of the crops look very promising; the 
Indians are through haying and have commenced harvesting, and should the weather 
prove favourable during next month, I am satisfied that the yield will be even better 
than last year. 


14-3 \ 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

In May last this band, in the interest of health, removed all offensive accumu- 
lations from their premises. Their reserve is very favourably situated, all of their 
buildings being erected on a slope of land that always affords a natural system of 
drainage and, were it not for the "measle epidemic before referred to, they would 
have been free from all sickness other than cases arising from natural causes. 

The school at this reserve was under the supervision of Miss B. L. Crowley for 
the full term. The attendance for the year was remarkably good. No child is per- 
mitted to be absent without good reason. The branches taught were spelling, read- 
ing, writing, geography, arithmetic, &c. The number on the register was twenty- 
live, with an average of eighteen for the year. The subjects taught have been well 
mastered and the progress of the pupils has been noticeable at each examination. 
The health and comfort of the children are carefully looked after both in winter 
and summer. 

Woodstock Reserve. 

This reserve, situated three miles below the town of Woodstock, is occupied by 
eight families, being all related. They exclude all other Indians of the county as 
much as possible from their reserve. Like other Indians of the agency they chiefly 
derive their living from the sale of Indian wares, which are easily disposed of at 
Woodstock and elsewhere. Last year they gave but little attention to farming- 
only raising, from seeds supplied, some potatoes and oats. This year, however, they 
decided to do better and received twenty-five and one-quarter bushels of potatoes, 
thirty bushels of oats, besides beans, grass and garden seeds; these will raise suffi- 
cient produce to supply their wants for the coming winter. 

During my recent visit to the reserve I discovered that all of the children were 
sick from the measles, but were fast recovering. I further found, and in fact the 
band freely admitted, that the epidemic was caused by the Indians visiting Kings- 
clear .Reserve in June last. The most of the Indians of this county are located in 
shanties at Upper Woodstock and on the road leading to Houlton State of Maine ; 
some experience considerable hardship owing to old age and their situation, but are 
assisted from means allowed for this purpose. 

The remainder of Indians under my supervision are located at Oromocto, Sun- 
bury Co. ; Upper Gagetown, Queen's Co. ; Apohaqui, King's Co. ; St. Andrew's, 
Charlotte Co., and a few in St. John, N.B. 

Their occupation is much the same as that of last year, viz., milling, fishing 
and Indian wares. The latter articles are generally sold to farmers and when money 
is not available they will take trade. 

A few seeds are supplied yearly to some of the Indians which are planted on 
the lands of their white neighbours. The results of this mode of farming only serve 
their wants during the fall season. 

At Oromocto, Sunbury Co., considerable sickness prevailed amongst the aged 
and children; four of the former, whose ages ranged from eighty to ninety years, 
died within the year. The latter although visited with a bad type of measles, sur- 
vived their sickness. 

The total population of this agency for the fiscal year is four hundred and fifty- 
six. The births were eighteen and the deaths seventeen, which accounts for an 
increase of one, compared with the returns of 1891. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Northern Division, Fredericton, 29th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the counties of Madawaska and Victoria for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

Tobique Reserve. 

This reserve, situated at the mouth of the Tobique River, comprises forty-one 
families, a total population of one hundred and ninety-three, being an increase of births 
over deaths of four for the fiscal year. 

Their chief industries for the past year were the same as for years past, such 
as lumbering, stream driving, rafting, farming, manufacture of Indian wares, and 
often acting as guides for tourists and sportsmen. Employment, as stated, is always 
available in this section of New Brunswick, therefore, as most of the band are active 
young men, their services are always in demand, consequently with but very few 
exceptions, they are a self-supporting body of Indians. 

A few of the band devote considerable attention to farming. Most of them, 
however, plant only potatoes, raising therefrom sufficient to answer their wants. 
The total produce raised for the year was twenty bushels of wheat, three hundred 
and fifty bushels of oats, two hundred and fifty bushels of buckwheat, twelve 
hundred bushels of potatoes, and thirty tons of hay. 

Sanitary measures in and around their dwellings each year receive marked 
attention by the removal, before the approach of warm weather, of all winter accu- 
mulations. The health of the band for the past year has been remarkably good, for, 
with the exception of two cases of typhoid fever, there has not been a case of sick- 
ness of a contagious nature amongst them, consequently very little medical aid or 
medicine was required for the period mentioned. 

For the last ten months the school has been under the efficient teaching of Mrs. 
Killeen. The number enrolled are thirty-one ; the subjects taught are reading, 
writing, arithmetic, geography, dictation, drawing, &c, in which the children are 
making fair progress. The daily sessions are three hours in the forenoon and the 
same in the afternoon. The average attendance was seventeen. This school for the 
term — excepting holidays, that are allowed — has been regularly taught. The school 
building and outside premises are properly cleaned, making the place both pleasant 
and healthy for the children. 

Edmundston Reserve. 

This reserve, situated near the Madawaska Eiver, contains about four hundred 
acres of excellent land, is divided into lots and occupied by six families. Their 
number is thirty-nine, an increase of one for the year. Practically they are not 
progressive farmers, as too much time is spent in hunting and the manufacture of 
Indian wares. Last year they fanned the seeds supplied on shares. The hay is 
usually sold whilst standing or after it is cut by some of the Indians, the proceeds 
of which are devoted to defray living expenses. Both the hay and other c>-ops 
raised are a very fair average. The health of the band for the year has been good, 
as no bills for medical attendance have been received. 

In closing I am pleased to report that the habits and customs of each band are 
exceptionally good. A few occasionally indulge in the use of intoxicants, but, as a 
rule, seven-eighths of all the Indians are an industrious and thrifty class of people. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Annapolis, N.S., 22nd August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. • 

I have but little change to report this year amongst the Indians of my agency. 
The crops, so far, look exceedingly well. The Indians at Lequille are a very in- 
dustrious class of people and they earn considerable by fishing in the spring; the 
young men work in the lumber woods in the winter and are smart and capable when 
spring opens at stream-driving. There was much sickness last spring amongst the 
older Indians and children, but there were no deaths; two births increased the popu- 
lation by this number; the health of the Indians is generally good. Peter Jamary, 
at Middleton, is quite a farmer and has put in a good crop this season and is very 
industrious. Those who remain at home during summer are coopers, making mast- 
hoops, jib-hanks and baskets. The children who attend school are making fair pro- 
gress and the average is the same as that of last year. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Bear Eiver, Digby Co., N.S., 

District No. lb., 1st September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

I have little of importance to note in the affairs of the Indians, as they still pur- 
sue the callings and pursuits of former years with little or no change for the better. 
There was considerable sickness on the reserve during the fall and winter, resulting 
in eight deaths, all but two being quite young children. There were eight births; 
the population has increased by twelve persons and now numbers one hundred and 
fifty-nine, the" difference is caused by some of the young men having married wives 
in other counties and the arrival of a family from New Brunswick. 

The potato crop was excellent last season, unaffected by blight, except in a few 
instances, and many of the Indians had enough to last them through the winter. 

The school has been in operation for the past year and the pupils, under the 
excellent and thorough tuition of Mr. J.L. DeVaney, are making fail- progress in the 
elementary branches of education. The average attendance has not increased as we 
were led to expect, from the promises given by the parents when the new teacher 
began his work; this is owing to the wandering habits of the Indians which are not 
favourable to the punctual attendance of their children at school, especially in the 
summer season when they go to the Bay of Fundy in quest of the porpoise, or camp 
in proximity to towns and villages to dispose of their wares, there being only a 
few families left on the reserve. 

The sanitary measures, recommended by the department, have been carried out 
and, with few exceptions, the houses and surroundings are clean and neat. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

Yarmouth, N.S., 9th July, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following report and tabular statement 
for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

During the winter and spring nearly all of the Indians of this agency were 
attacked by u la grippe," some fatally. 

There were three births and three deaths during the year. 

According to the last census there is an increase in the population of seven, the 
result of one family returning to the county who were absent at the time the last 
census was taken, making the total number eighty-seven. 

Those Indians living on the reserve have done much more planting this spring 
than at any time previous, the women doing a large part of the work, while the 
men are employed on the streets in the town at good pay. 

As a whole, they are temperate and industrious. * 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Agency No. 2, Nova Scotia, 

Kentville, 15th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to inclose to you tabular statement for this agency for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

There is not much change in the Indians of this agency; the greater part of 
them are hard-working, quiet and industrious people, making a comfortable living 
with such assistance as they receive from tire department, but some of the younger 
men are inclined to roam about and pick up a living as best they can ; but, upon 
the whole, I think they do as well as can be expected ot them. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Caledonia, Queen's Co., N.S., 10th October, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward my annual report and tabular statement. 
The Indians of Queen's County are settJed principally at Milton, Mill Village, 
Greenfield, Wild Cat and Caledonia Corner. 

The majority of them reside at Milton. Those there live in comfortable 
houses, are clean and tidy in their habits, and obey the sanitary regulations of the 

Very many of them delight in cultivating flower gardens, besides attending 
to the cultivation of the seed received from Government. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Some of them have this year cleared more land in order to put in a larger crop 
next spring. 

The land on which they reside and expend so much labour is not theirs, and more 
is the pity. Had they sense enough to live on the reserves, and work thereon to 
the same extent, a few years would see them self-supporting. 

At Mill Tillage are two or three families who hunt, fish and make baskets for a 
living. In the spring the men earn considerable money salmon fishing, which is 
6old at a high figure. 

Those at Caledonia Corner and at G-reenfield pass their days moose hunting, 
acting as guides for sportsmen, making baskets, mast hoops, &c. 

An old Indian woman and her son live at Wild Cat. The son has a large tract 
of land cultivated, and is an industrious young man. The land is reserve ground, 
of good soil, and shows what the Indian can accomplish who has push and 

The Indians of Queen's are a quiet, inoffensive class of people. 

I am happy to state that I have not heard of one case of drunkenness 
amongst them during the past year. The one or two who in the past were 
addicted to this vice are now reformed men. 

Those living at Milton, on account of its proximity to Liverpool, a seaport 
town, are in more danger of temptation than elsewhere, yet they are all sober 

I am glad of this, knowing the sober, industrious Indian makes as good a 
citizen as his white neighbour. 

In Lunenburg County I do not notice any change in the habits and circumstances 
of the Indians compared with last year. 

They reside chiefly at Bridgewater, Gold Eiver, and on the reserve at New 

At Gold Eiver lives an old lady, Mrs. Penal, with her three sons and two 
daughters. The sons have houses and lands of their own, and support their mother 
and daughter, who live together. 

There are a few families at Bridgewater. They are not over and above 
industrious, still they manage to live. 

The majority of the Indians of Lunenburg County reside on the grant, at New 
Germany, and have splendid soil, fine farms, good nouses, large stock, aud are a 
happy and contented people. 

There is no laziness there, no poverty, no begging. 

They are as good as their white neighbours, as independent, and as much 
respected. They have a fine school-house, built some years ago by the Indian- 
Department, with a painstaking young lady as teacher, and a large attendance. 

The children are taught many and useful branches of knowledge. I am 
pleased to say they have made good progress in their studies, so that in years to 
come, when they take upon themselves the cares and responsibilities of life, they 
will be the better able to understand and to fulfil their duty. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Sheet Harbour, N.S., 1st October, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit my annual report for the year ended 30th 
September, 1892. 

The Indians of this agency are peaceable, but not very industrious. Only some 
of the Indians planted potatoes last spring. Those who have planted expect to have 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

a very good crop. Some of the Indians make baskets. There have been three 
cases of diphtheria, some cases of" la grippe " and some of other kinds of sickness. 
About a dozen families have been vaccinated. There has been only one death this 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant. 


Indian Agent. 

Shubenecadie, N.S., 6th October, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I inclose herewith tabular statement for the year ended 30th June? 

I have nothing of importance on which to make report. The Indians of the 
district are getting along in their usual quiet way. 

During the past few months there has not been very much sickness among 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Truro, N.S., 5th October, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of. Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your inspection my annual report and 
tabular statement for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

I have to report the Indians under my care as comfortable and in good condi- 
tion to face the coming winter. Two or three new frame houses have gone up on 
the Truro Keserve during the past }'ear, which will compare favourably with those 
of pooi- white settlers. 

The past year has been unusually healthy on the reserve, not much sickness, or 
deaths, occurring. 

Several prosecutions have taken place for illegal selling of liquor to the Indians, 
two convictions with heavy lines were the result, and I believe this will have a good 
effect in the future. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

D. H. MUIE, 

Indian Agent. 

District No. 7. 
Parrsboro', Cumberland County, N.S., 29th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to inclose my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The Indians who reside on or near the reserve, spend most of their time in 
summer working on their farms. In winter they hire with lumbermen in the 


nG Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

vicinity and make a very good living. Those living in other portions of the 
county hunt, make baskets, mast-hoops, tubs, &c, &c. With very few exceptions, 
all are sober and industrious. Through aid kindly furnished by the department 
one Indian was enabled to erect during the summer a very comfortable dwelling- 
house, and others are about to follow his example. 

In spite of the fact that the potato bugs were never before so numerous, the 
crops are looking well and promise an excellent yield. 

During the year there has been a great deal of sickness, but at the present time 
there is very little. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

F. A. KAND, 

Indian Agent. 

Pictou, N.S., 1st September, 1892, 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — With the tabular statement I submit the following report on matters 
relative to Indian affairs in my district for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The health of the Indians is comparatively good. There is no contagious disease 
among them. Up to the 31st August there were two deaths in excess of births. 
The prevailing sickness among them is lung disease contracted from ill-usage rather 
than from inheritance. This ill-usage arises frequently from deficiency of clothing 
during cold weather. 

Sobriety is fast becoming a virtue with them. I believe there are fewer cases of 
drunkenness among them now than formerly. They seem to realize every day the 
injury and danger of the habit of drinking. They show a great deal of energy at 
times to make up a sum of money, but scatter it equally fast. They lack persever- 
ance. Many of the young men of the tribe are very industrious and have adopted 
the methods of living of white people. Several of them are employed at the iron 
works of Eureka and Bridgeville; while others are engaged loading and unloading 
vessels. Farming is not congenial to them. It is difficult to impress them with the 
importance of farming. It requires too much attention. The little attention they 
pay the crop when it is placed in the ground, shows necessarily poor results. 

The whole tribe this year, as usual, gathered to the Indian Island to celebrate 
the festival of Ste. Anne their patron saint. They have shown a great deal of sincere 
piety. It is their great desire to have their beautiful little church entirely finished. 
They have already spent on it and the house for the priest, in the vicinity of two 
thousand dollars, the most of which was paid by themselves. The benefit of gather- 
ing to this island once every year is not to be viewed alone from a religious stand- 
point. The priest or agent can confer with them as a body on matters affecting 
their temporal welfare, and impress upon them the advantage of adopting the 
improved methods in their various avocations. 

The gathering of the tribe this year on Indian Island was specially interesting 
on account of the election of a new chief to replace the late Paul Paul. The name of 
the new chief is Noel Paul, a near relative of the late chief. The Paul family 
have held the crown with few interruptions for many years. For the first three 
years the newly elected chief is only on trial, and if at the end of that time he 
proves himself worthy, he is confirmed in office for life. Noel Paul, the present 
chief, is of good disposition and of fair intelligence, and seems to have a great deal of 
influence among them. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

eodekick Mcdonald, 

Indian Agent, District No. 8. 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

Heatherton, Antigonish Co., N.S., 13th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Tndian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

There are no changes of importance to relate in the condition of the Indians of 
this district. 

There were two deaths, that of their chief and Captain Gabriel, who was pro- 
bably the oldest Indian in Nova Scotia, being over a hundred years. Almost the 
whole band was affected last wiuter by " la grippe " which caused much suffering 
and destitution among them and left not a few of them with shattered constitutions. 
They still continue fo make a living by coopering, trapping, fishing and basket- 
work, comparatively few giving much attention to farming beyond planting a few 

The few that devote themselves to agriculture are making encouraging pro- 
gress and the comparative comfort they enjoy as a result of their industry in that 
direction, will, I hope, be the means of encouraging others to give more of their time 
to farming. The potato and oat crops promise favourable results, but hay is a 
failure. The majority of the Indians are sober and well-behaved. A few of them, 
however, were in the habit of getting drunk last winter. The persons who supplied 
them with liquor were prosecuted and as a consequence little or no drinking has 
been done by them since. A new chief, Joseph Salome, was elected by the Indians 
at their annual festival on the 26th July. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent, District No. 9. 

St. Peter's, C.B., 1st September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — As it is not yet a year since I have received my appointment as Indian 
Agent of Salmon .River, I cannot have much to say in this my first report, in 
addition to the statistics already forwarded to your department. 

I am glad to say that the Indians under my charge are, as a rule, sober, 
religious and law-abiding ; to this end conduces, in a most marked degree, the 
mission held annually on Chapel Island. During the mission the constant aim of 
the priests in charge is to teach the Indians to be good Christians, faithful to God, 
and honest in their dealings with all men. 

The Indians of Salmon River are, on the whole, a fairly industrious class of 
people. Many of them cultivate plots of ground, and now that coopering no longer 
pays, not a few are engaged during the summer in fishing. 

Of course there are some who do not take kindly to any kind of industry, but 
depend for the mo>t part on the generosity of their more thrifty neighbours. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Eiver Inhabitants, N. S. — District No. 11, 

Glendale, 30th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — In making a report for the year 1891-92, I have little to say in addition 
to what 1 told you in my report of last year. The Indians of my agency, especially 
on the Whycocomagh Reserve, are yearly devoting themselves more industriously 
to agricultural pursuits. The coming winter will, however, witness more destitution 
among tbem than for some years past, unless the fatherly care of the Government 
provides additional relief for their increased necessities. A long-continued drought 
in May, June and Jul} T , has caused the hay crop to fall short of one-half on the 
uplands, and on the meadows and marshes to be very light. This, with the advent 
of the Colorado potato bug — with which we are almost powerless to cope — causes 
many of them to look forward to the coming winter with much concern. 

On the Malagawatch Reserve there has been an influx of some families from 
the vicinity of St. Peter's, in Richmond County. This is partly due to the adjacent 
waters being an excellent fishing ground. Bush fires during the drought did much 
damage on the reserve, having ruined all the valuable timber. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Christmas Island, C.B., 8th October, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The condition of the Indians of this agency has not materially changed since 
my last report. . They were free from all contagious and infectious diseases, and 
the few deaths that' did occur were chiefly the result of lung trouble. Several 
families who were absent for the past two, three or more years have returned, and 
consequently the band is increased by fifty-seven over last year. This increase, 
however, may be only very temporary; they are of the migrating class, and may 
leave again as suddenly as they came. There were nine births and eight deaths 
during the year. The potato crop was a failure last year; and this with other 
causes mentioned in my last report, has strengthened the tendency to abandon the 
reserve, and locate near villages, mines and towns. On account of proximity to 
market, and the good demand for all those articles at which the Iudians are adepts, 
those who leave the reserve generally succeed in making a better living whilst their 
health holds good. But once the bread-winner is disabled, through sickness or 
accident, from plying his craft, starvation stares the family in the face. They have 
nothing to fall back upon. The charity of neighbours, supplemented by aid from 
your department, must then furnish them the wherewith to keep them in existence. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

County of Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 30th June, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit to your department my annual report and 
tabular statement in connection with Indian affairs in this agency for the year 
ended 30th June, 1892. 

The circumstances of the Indians in this agency have undergone no material 
change since my last report. There have been two deaths among them, and a few 
are moving about. It seems the natural propensity of an Indian to roam, but they 
are a very intelligent and law-abiding lot of people. They are with few exceptions 
quite industrious and moral. I never knew of Any of them being drunk. A few of 
their children attend the public schools, but the most ot them are adverse to doing 
so, yet some of those who do attend are making marked progress in school. They 
are very grateful to the " Big Man at Ottawa " (the Government) for the seeds 
supplied to them, as but very few of them are able to provide themselves with 
seeds to plant in the spring. Some of them suffered severely last winter with " la 
grippe," and there were some cases of scarlet fever, but now they are almost entirely 
free from sickness. 

I endeavour to impress them with the necessity of observing the sanitary rules 
of the department, and I am pleased with the result. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant. 


Indian Agent. 

Egmont Bay, P. E. I,, 22nd August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my annual report and tabular state- 
ment for the year ended 30th June last. 

As regards the cultivation of the land, the Indians of Lennox Island are doing 
as well as can be expected. There appears to be a Certain emulation among them 
in improving their condition and in imitating their well-to-do white neighbours. 
They have made considerable progress during the last fifteen years. Formerly they 
had only a few houses on the Island, whereas now they all possess a home. Some 
of their houses are quite comfortable and well furnished. They also had only a few 
animals, but now have eighteen horses, ten cows, eight oxen, ten sheep and sixteen 
young animals. They formerly cultivated very little, but last year they sowed 
thirty-seven bushels of wheat, one hundred and two bushels of oats and planted 
two hundred and thirty bushels of potatoes. 

I am happy to be able to report that the school on the Island is well conducted, 
the Indians appear to be much interested iu its success, and it is well attended. 

Morell Reserve. 
There are only four families at present on this reserve. Two of them are in 
easy circumstances and live on the produce of their land. They all reside in 
houses and their land is good and tolerably well cultivated. One of these Indians, 
Ben Nicholas, is the proprietor of a fine orchard which yields him over twenty 
bushels of apples every year. He also owns a horse, harness and carriage, a cow 
and pigs, and is as well-to-do as any of his neighbours. At present he is sick and 
under the treatment of Dr. Toombs, of Mount Sherwood. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 

Kegina, 31st October, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit ray annual report for the fiscal year 1891-92, 
which will be found to compare not unfavourably with that of the preceding year, 
much as the latter contained indicative of progress and prosperity. 

General Progress. 

Marked as the advancement is seen to be, when the present condition of our 
Indians is contrasted with what it was a few years ago, it has often been difficult to 
measure the steps taken during single years considered by themselves, but in the 
course of the year now under review, there is a widespread feeling among those 
engaged in the work, that well marked progress has been achieved, and the more 
confident tone with which many of them now speak of the approach of the day when 
their Indians will be able, at any rate in so far as the supply of food is concerned, 
to provide for their own requirements, is worthy of note and full of encouragement. 

Saving in Food Supplies. 

Three years ago I expressed the belief that a succession of two or three good 
seasons would relieve the Government of the burden of finding food for a large 
proportion of the Indians beyond the limits of Treaty 7. Unfortunately the year 
following that upon which this statement was made was not a favourable one, but 
last year, as was shown in my repurt, there was effected an aggregate saving in 
the distribution of destitute supplies of three thousand nine hundred and thirty-three 
sacks of flour, sixty-four thousand five hundred and thirty-seven pounds of bacon, and 
one hundred and ninety-six thousand five hundred and fOrty-six pounds of beef. 

During the year 1891-92, a further reduction in the quantities of such assistance 
has been made, as follows: — 

In flour two thousand four hundred and sixty-three sacks; in bacon twenty-five 
thousand five hundred and sixty-eight pounds, and in beef two hundred and fifty 
thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven pounds; or during the past two years an 
aggregate reduction of — in flour six thousand three hundred and ninety-six sacks; 
in bacon ninety thousand one hundred and five pounds, and in beef four hundred and 
forty-seven thousand three hundred and eighty-three pounds. 

Since the diminution, through death, in the number of the aged and infirm (of 
whom until the generation originally taken into treaty disappears, many must be 
dependent on the Government) is at least counterbalanced by the annual influx of 
hunting and other Indians who, abandoning their former pursuits in favour of farm- 
ing, have for a time to be almost wholly supported, it is obvious that the large 
retrenchment shown has only been rendered possible by the progress which the 
Indians generally have made on the road to independence. 

Indiv idua I Ea rnings. 

This naturally excites the expectation of finding that the individual earnings of 
the Indians have been increasing, nor upon turning to the records will this expec- 
tation be disappointed. 

As was shown last year, there was, as compared with the preceding one, an 
increase in such earnings amounting to sixteen thousand seven hundred and ninety- 
nine dollars and eighty cents, and during 1891-92 another advance to the extent of 
fifteen thousand nine hundred and fifty dollars and eighteen cents has taken place in 
the same direction, or during the last two years there has been an aggregate increase 
amounting to the sum of thirty-two thousand seven hundred and forty-nine dollars 
and ninety-eight cents. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Aggregate reduction of Expenditure. 

In this connection it may be pointed out that notwithstanding an extension of 
educational facilities, necessitating a corresponding outlay, there has been in the 
amount expended upon the Indians in the Territories for all purposes, as compared 
with the preceding year, a reduction of over one hundred thousand dollars, of which 
the sum of sixty-three thousand six hundred dollars has been saved from destitute 

It was pointed out last year that in other directions the limit of true economy 
had been very nearly if not quite reached for the present, but notwithstanding this 
an appreciable further reduction has been made with regard to general expenses, 
and farm maintenance. The latter, however, was rather of an experimental charac- 
ter, and it is doubtful to what extert it can be profitably maintained. 

Causes operating against Retrenchment. 

There are one or two points worthy of notice in order to further appreciate the 
significance of the extent to which the Government has been relieved of the supply 
of provisions to Indians. 

It has to be remembered that a very large proportion of such assistance is con- 
sumed by the Indians of Treaty No. 7, and that from the comparatively short time 
they have been under civilizing influences, and the fact of their being located in a 
ranching rather than in a grain producing district, it has been impossible so far to 
get them to contribute to their own support in any way proportionately to what 
has been effected with regard to Indians in other treaties. At the snme time, the 
peculiarity of their position renders it advisable to treat them with exceptional 
liberality in order to remove temptation to commit depredations upon the large 
ranches which surround them, raids into other parts of the Territories, or forays 
across the border. 

Again it should not be forgotten that the game is steadily and rapidly disap- 
pearing from every district, and numbers of the best hunters are now so steadily 
engaged in their agricultural and kindred industries as to be unable to follow up 
such game as is left to the comparatively distant haunts to w T hich it has retired 
before the advance of settlement. 

Other obstacles to getting the full value of the products of the Indians' farming 
still exist. 

I refer to the distance to which many of them have to haul their grain before 
they can find a mill to grist it, the exorbitant toll commonly levied by millers, 
whose charges in the Territories are not regulated by law, and the cost of getting 
threshing mills to go to some of the reserves. 

Agricultural Operations. 

The harvest of last fall, the result of operations in the spring of the fiscal year 
1890-91, was the subject of my last report. In it I pointed out how vigorously the 
preparation and seeding of the ground were takeu hold of by the Indians, and what 
a trifling contribution was asked from the department towards the supply of seed, 
also that at the time of writing a bountiful harvest had become assured. 

Of course the last mentioned statement was of a general character, for it is 
obviously idle to expect that localities so widely separated from each other as are our 
agencies and reserves and scattered over so vast an extent of territory, can during 
any one season faro alike. Some crops were not a success. 

In the Pelly, File Hills and Touchwood Hills agency the grain suffered more or 
less severely from various causes ; however, only one complete failure occurred and 
that was at the Sarcee Agency. 

With these exceptions more or less abundant returns of, in every case, grain of 
excellent quality were secured ; and even in the few cases mentioned as exceptional 
with regard to the return from cereals, the singularity did not extend to root crops, 
which were everywhere very satisfactory. 


5G Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Those results of course greatl}' encouraged the Indians who not only went at 
their work last spring with renewed zeal, but were joined by a good many who had 
so far held aloof. The whole contribution asked from the department for field seed 
grain lo provide the new beginners and the unfortunate, only cost the compara- 
tively small sum of about $1,000. 

Increased Area cultivated. 

The preceding year's increase of area put under crop was some four hundred 
acres in extent, but in consequence of the impetus given by success the area was 
extended in 1891-92 by about thirteen hundred acres, the total area under cultiva- 
tion covering about one thousand acres more than the year before. This is as much 
as consists with the department's policy to have what is cultivated well worked, and 
as far as possible, without the aid of the labour-saving implements, which are likely 
to be beyond acquisition by the majority of Indians for some time after the}' may 
have been thrown upon their own resources. 

Stock. . 

The unusual length and severity of the winter, following upon, in many places, 
a rather less prolific crop of hay than usual, furnished a severe test of the willing- 
ness and ability of the Indians to care for cattle. It is gratifying to find that although 
not under the most favourable circumstances ample provision was made of hay to 
cany the animals comfortably over the long winter and unusually backward spring. 

Interest aroused. 

.Reference was made last year to the difficulties which had been overcome in 
imbuing the Indians with a due regard for stock. 

The policy of letting them become individual owners through the operation of 
the " loan system " and, as circumstances justify it, realize through the occasional 
sale of an animal, the value of cattle is steadily working the effect intended, and 
speaking generally the greatest interest in and care of their animals is taken. What 
with this, and the improved class of bulls which have of late years been gradually 
introduced, a number and quality of animals are accumulating in the hands of the 
Indians, which will soon reach a profitable stationary limit, and produce a yearly 
surplus such as will largely contribute to the independent maintenance of their 

Success of Government Herds. 

It was predicted last year, from the success of the Government herds at Mus- 
cowpetung's and Onion Lake, that these agencies would this year be off the assisted 
List as far as beef is concerned, and although touching upon what properly belongs 
to the current fiscal year, it may be stated that the prediction has been fulfilled. 

Cattle required for Treaty No. 7. 

The benefits to be expected from the extension of these herds to other agencies, 
and more especially to those in Treaty No. 7, were referred to last year. 

The urgency of the need of cattle for Treaty No. 7 is so great that its causes 
may be recapitulated here. 

They are the large quantity of beef consumed in the treaty, which may be more 
cheaply raised than purchased, the adaptation of the country to stock-raising rather 
than the production of cereals, the more congenial nature of stock-raising as an 
occupation tor Indians constituted as these are, their awakened desire to possess 
stock, as evinced by their repeated requests for it, and expressed willingness to trade 
off their ponies for cattle. 

In fact, as far as can be foreseen, the one hope of these Indians being usefully 
employed, and materially contributing to their own maintenance, is contingent upon 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

their getting herds of cattle, and the success which has attended the small herds 
belonging to the Piegans and Stonies, since the introduction of a system of close- 
herding, justifies the expectation that excellent results would follow from an 
extension of the industry. 

General Industries. 

No effort is relaxed to find means to usefully occupy time which would other- 
wise be wasted, if not put to worse purpose by the Indians. 

The earnings, which have been already mentioned, have been gained in many 
ways, according to the varying circumstances and surroundings of the bands. 

Some reserves are of course much more favourably situated than others for 
affording employment to Indians, whether in the way of directly hiring out their 
labour, or of getting a market for their hay, wood, or whatever else they may have 
for sale, but as settlement progresses this inequality will gradually disappear. 

The ways in which money has been earned include freighting, the filling of hay 
contracts, sale of dead timber in the shape of firewood, mining coal, wintering 
cattle for settlers, tanning hides, the manufacture of baskets, the collection of 
senega root, burning of lime, sale of furs, of berries, hiring out services to settlers, 
and in fact everything by which an honest penny may be made. 

Articles formerly purchased now made by Indians. 

It must not be supposed that the sole saving to the Government resulting from 
the industries of the Indians is represented by their direct earnings, for the large 
reduction in expenditure for destitute supplies is considerably helped, by omission 
in whole or in part of such articles as axe and hay-fork handles, ox collars, milk 
pans, churns, rope, harness, bob-sleighs, &c, which the Indians are now required to 
make for themselves. 

Aptitude for certain Manufactures. 

The aptitude displayed for certain manufactures is striking, and it is veiy 
interesting to note the progress made. The manufacture of straw hats and baskets 
has been going on for years past on some of the older reserves, and lately a 
strong effort has been made to extend tnese industries to other agencies. 

Marked improvement in some Industries. 

At the agricultural exhibition recently held in this town, an opportunity was 
afforded of observing among the exhibits sent in from various reserves, the different 
stages of progress in such arts. 

The hats and baskets sent from Edmonton, the result of efforts recently made 
for the first time, and that too without instruction, provoked a smile, while those 
from the more practised hands excited. surprise and admiration. 

The improvement appaient during the last year in all the industrial products 
has been more marked than perhaps during any two or even three years heretofore. 

When it was first announced to agents and their subordinates that such'articles 
as above referred to, would not be supplied, but should be made at home, the idea 
was generally greeted with an indulgent smile, but no one in the face of recent 
Indian exhibits can longer doubt the wisdom and practicability of the policy, for the 
public has seen what Indians can accomplish in such directions, and what they can 
do in one place, they can be taught to do in another. For the first time horse-collars 
were exhibited, nor need anything better for Indian use be desired. As an example 
of their ingenuity, a combined garden-rake and roller, which could be reversed to 
act in either capacity, may be noticed as among the exhibits sent from Edmonton. 

The woollen manufactures, too, have much improved, as evidenced by the*better 
shaping of socks, stockings, mitts, &c. The cutting and sewing of various garments 
are really surprising. Boys' suits were shown which would bear comparison with 
what are sold in the stores, and the stitching of some dresses and shirts was so evenly 
done, that it required minute examination to dispel the idea that they had been sown 
by a machine. 

14—4 49 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Crooked Lakes Agency had one exhibit which excited much interest, viz., a 
sample of the bannock made in the year 1872, another of that in 1882, and lastly the 
loaf bread of the present day. 

Moreover the wheat grown for the manufacture of the last mentioned, and the 
flour made from it by the mill at the agency, showed how completely, at any rate 
in one direction, these Indians could supply their wants from within their own 


The health of the Indians may on the whole be reported as having been good. 
There was, however, in some places a return in the winter or spring of the epidemic 
which under the designation of " la grippe " did so much harm two years ago, and 
left such bad effects behind it. It seems to have acted on the occasion of its second 
visit in a very capricious manner with regard to the selection of reserves to invade, 
attacking bands at Pelly, Moose Mountain, Onion Lake, Saddle Lake, and Sarcee 
Agencies, and passing over the others. The only other sickness which appeared in 
epidemic form was whooping-cough, which confined itself very much to Moose 
Mountain and Touchwood Hills Eeserves, the latter of which had in addition an out- 
break of measles. 

The large majority of deaths continue to be attributable to scrofula and con- 
sumption, and the prevalence of the latter is without doubt largely due to the 
predisposition caused by the scrofulous condition of so many of the Indians. Fresh 
beef, cod-liver oil, and where Indians can be induced to attend to it, better ventila- 
tion, are to some extent ameliorating influences with regard to the two scourges 
mentioned, but that is about as such as can be said. 

Sanitary Precautions. 

Great pains are taken to impress upon the Indians the necessity for cleanliness 
inside and about their dwellings. Garbage is collected and burned, and houses are 
whitewashed. To get Indians to take active interest in such precautionary measures 
is of course difficult; however, they seem to be at last, if somewhat slowly, awaken- 
ing to the importance of the matter. Every year effort is made to have any who 
may have evaded the operation, and recently-born children, vaccinated. 

The news of a caseof small-pox which occurred at Macleod, followed shortly by 
others at Calgary, had a wonderful effect in bringing to reason such Indians as had 
so far resisted vaccination, and prompt action was taken to have these done, and to 
confine Indians within the boundaries of their reserves, in the affected districts, 
until all danger had disappeared. 


Every year witnesses a certain amount of improvement upon their buildings 
made by the Indians, and the erection of some new houses and stables. More has 
been ctone perhaps in this direction by the Bloods and Elackfeet than by any 
others, but it is observed that wherever new buildings are put up, they are an im- 
provement on the old style. 

Very little has been done in the way of building during the year by the depart- 
ment, and indeed but little required to be done. 

There have been the usual number of repairs made, and minor improvements, 
but with the exception of the completion of the new agency house at Saddle Lake, 
a house for the clerk at Carlton, an office, carpenter's and blacksmith's shops at 
the Bloods, a laundry at the Regina Industrial School, the removal to another site 
and tfTilargement of the warehouse here, there is nothing deserving of special notice. 


The principal field work performed by the surveyors during the year, was the 
selection of a timber limit at Castle Mountain for the Blackfoot Indians, the survey 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

at White Whale Lake of a reserve for that portion of the Alexis Band, under their 
headman Paul, which had not previously had land allotted, and the subdivision of 
the Oak River Sioux Reserve, and of parts of the Mistawasis', Ahtahkakoop's and 
Petty-quaw-key's Reserves in the Carlton Agency. These subdivisions are made in 
pursuance of the policy which takes advantage of everything tending to inculcate 
and foster a spirit of individuality. 


The behaviour of the Indians in so far as respect for the law is concerned, has 
left little to be desired, and compares, greatly to their favour, with that of the white 

The North-west Mounted Police have apparently succeeded by their careful 
system of patrolling the boundary line, iu practically putting an end to such raids into 
the United States territory as the wilder spirits among the Indians of Treaty 7 
would engage in from time to time, until comparatively recent date, and little if 
anything has been heard of the complaints which in former years have been made 
with more or less justice, of cattle-killing on the ranches in the neighbourhood of 
the reserves. 

One or two but quite exceptional cases of the class of offences just referred to 
have come to light. A few young Bloods were imprisoned by the authorities across 
the line, for horse-stealing there, and a party of Bloods were caught by the police 
last fall in possession of newly-killed meat which their actions showed they had not 
come by honestly. One of their number named Steele, a man of bad reputation, 
promptly fired at the police, who returning the fire, shot him through the lungs. 
He eventually recovered, and was tried and convicted, but no sympathy was 
manifested for him by the other Indians, who evidently thought that he had 
brought what happened to him upon himself, and deserved all he got. 

Such isolated offences as have occurred, have almost invariably been attribut- 
able to the effects of drink, which in spite of all our own officials can do and the 
efforts of the police, will reach Indians occasionally. 

There can be no doubt that the danger from this source has been very seriously 
increased by the recent introduction of the license system into the Territories, and it 
is greatly to be feared that as a consequence, it will not be possible to report so 
favourably of the Indians' conduct next year, as has been done here. 

The great difficulty to be contended with is the fact that there are always so 
many intimately connected with them, who are only too ready to act as mediums for 
the conveyance of liquor to the Indians; however, the police and our own people are 
alive to the situation, and everything possible, with existing means, will be done in 
the direction of prevention. 

Eeports have appeared from time to time of trouble being caused in Montana and 
Turtle Mountain Districts, by Indians said to belong to the Dominion, but it will be 
found, I think, that those referred to in the latter district are half-breeds, and not 
Indians at all. 

The same may be said about probably the majority of those complained of in 
Montana, although there doubtless are among them Indians who left the Territories 
after the disturbance in 1885, and who having remained away ever since, have there- 
fore been beyond our control. 


Fair progress has been made throughout with regard to education. 

The aggregate number of names on the roll has been somewhat less than for the 
preceding year. This is in part due to accidental fluctuation incidental to local cir- 
cumstances, and to some extent to the gradual extension of the operation of the 
policy which aims as far as possible to substitute industrial and boarding schools at 
a distance from the reserves for day schools on them. 

Indian parents are \ery reluctant to send their children to a distance, although 
they may be comparatively willing to have them go to a day school from which 
they return to their homes every evening, and the wonder is that such objections are 
being overcome as fast as is the case. 

14— 4 J 51 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No, 14.) A. 1893 

In support of the wisdom of the policy just referred to, in so far as insuring 
more regular attendance, to say nothing of the great advantage of isolation from 
home influences, it may be noted that despite the reduction in the enrolment, 
there has been an advance of one hundred and thirteen in the number of the aggre- 
gate average attendance. 

Teachers have had the necessity for caution regarding the too early advance- 
ment of pupils from lower to higher standards very carefully impressed on them, and 
in many cases those prematurely promoted have had to be put back again. Bearing 
this in mind, the progress indicated below is regarded as satisfactory. 

1890-91. 1891-92. 

Standard 1 1,635 1,403 

2 501 538 

3 316 374 

4 213 226 

5 81 76 

No schools have been closed during the year, but five day schools have been 
opened at Bull Shield's Village in the Blood Agency, Many Shot At's in the Black- 
foot Agency, Blue Quill's Reserve in the Saddle Lake Agency, Montreal Lake Reserve, 
and Lesser Slave Lake, respectively. 

Industrial Schools. 

The cost of pupils at industrial schools, wholly supported by the Govern- 
ment, varies a good deal, the main causes being the comparative cost of laying down 
supplies and of securing the services of efficient employees at different points. I may 
remark in passing that to get suitable employees, more especially females, to go to 
points distant from railways, and to remain, is a matter of extreme difficulty, and 
necessitates the offer of proportionate inducements. 

It is obvious too that the larger the number of pupils handled by the same staff 
of officers and employees the smaller will the cost of each individual pupil appear 
to be. 

Striking an average between the four schools at Qu'Appelle, Battleford, High 
River and Regina respectively it is found that the^er capita cost of instructing, feeding 
and clothing each pupil has been $121. 75f. 

It will thus be seen that the cost of maintenance is considerably less than at 
kindred institutions in the United States, but a considerable proportion of the ex- 
penditure there made on such purposes, is understood to be defrayed by philanthropic 
societies, whereas the whole cost of our industrial schools proper falls directly 
upon the Government. 

Comparatively small as is the cost, the question has been raised as to whether 
an equivalent return has been obtained. 

In determining this question it must be remembered that results need not be 
expected until after such institutions have been in operation for some few years, and 
it is entirely in the faith of deferred results that the cost of the preliminary years is 

It. was shown last year how the disturbing influences at work in 1885 had 
resulted in what necessitated practically a fresh start from the very threshold, of 
much that had been commenced and accomplished during the two preceding years; 
how the strong prejudice entertained by Indian parents, especially in Treaty No. 7, 
to parting with their children had to be overcome, and how in order to get a start 
made at all, it had been necessary in some instances to take pupils irrespective of 
their suitability in point of health and age, etc., for reception. 

It was stated that as the time at which results could, under the circumstances 
described, be reasonably expected approached, they were being found, and had 
already become apparent in the manner indicated in my report, more especially with 
regard to the Qu'Appelle school, where the conditions had been least unfavourable. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

That another year's growth under favourable conditions has produced corres- 
ponding favourable results will be seen from the following : — 

At the Qu'Appelle Institution, the number of girls hired out as domestic ser- 
vants has increased from fourteen last year to eighteen at the present time, and 
seventeen boys are hired out in various capacities, some being carpenters, but the 
majority being with farmers. 

This system is being extended to the other industrial schools as they become 
ripe for its application, and during the year some half dozen pupils were sent out 
from the St. Joseph's Institution. At Battleford not much has been done in this 
direction, but a beginning has been successfully made. 

At Regina school it is of course too soon to expect anything of the kind. 

A retrospective glance will show how many pupils have entered each school, 
and the proportion having received beneficial impression. From causes already 
referred to, a large number have had to be discharged as for some reason or another 
unsuitable for industrial training, or else decoyed away by parents, or given up to 
them when they have so determinedly insisted upon it, as to induce the fear that 
refusal would militate, before the firm establishment of the institutions, against the 
prospect of getting more pupils for them. 






















Not in school 
long enough to 
show results. 




.5 * 

'3 ^ 

Doing badly. 

St. Joseph 's. 






" Y 












Girls .... 





















" Y 





Industrial Schools receiving $100 per capita grant from the Government. 

The St. Boniface Institution has proved a great success, being always full to the 
utmost limit of its capacity. 

St. Paul's school has been flourishing and producing most satisfactory results. 

Elkhorn cannot be reported of so favourably. 

So much difficulty was experienced by the Rev. Mr. Wilson, who has to devote 
most of his care to older and kindred institutions elsewhere, in finding funds to sup- 
port the Washakada Home, that he decided to send away a number of pupils for the 
winter, but they are being gradually recovered, and it is hoped that under the man- 
agement of Mr. Wilson, jun., the school will become more successful than ever. 

Boarding Schools. 

The assistance given these schools has been increased from an annual per capita 
grant of $60 to one of $72. 

Since teachers of mixed boarding and day schools were in receipt, on account of 
the service rendered in the latter capacity, of an allowance from the department of 
$300 per annum, in addition to the $60 for boarders, it seemed only fair to allow 


bG Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

boarding schools something for tuition, and this was done the more readily because 
it was felt that for the return given, there was almost too great a difference between 
the 8100 and the $60 grants. 

From St. Albert's Orphanage the most encouraging reports of progress in all 
directions have been received. 

The McDougall Orphanage has been filled to the extent of its new accommoda- 
tion, and has maintained its well-earned reputation in the past. 

Bound. Lake, Birtle and Crowstand schools are all in flourishing condition, and 
despite the drafts made on them for the Begina Industrial School, maintain their 
full complement. 

The school at Lake's End has gone down greatly in point of numbers, but this 
is no fault of any one, since its children have almost all been transferred to the 
Begina Industrial Institution, with a view to giving them the benefit of the superior 
advantages to be obtained in an institution of that class. 

Marked improvement is noticed in the school at Enoch's Beserve, in the 
Edmonton Agency. 

File Hills boarding school has more than held the advance reported last year, 

Xot much can be said so far regarding the few boarding schools in Treaty No. 
7, but the attitude of the Indians is rapidly changing, and before long greater advan- 
tage will, without doubt, be taken of them. 


The usual statements accompany this report, and Mr. McColl will, in accordance 
with custom, report on Indian affairs for Manitoba. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



Manitoba Superintendence, 

Office of the Inspector, 

Winnipeg, 29th October, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for the information of the department my 
fifteenth annual report of inspection of the different Indian agencies and reserve* 
within this superin tendency. 

It is extremely gratifying, in taking a retrospective view of what has already 
been accomplished in the civilization of our Indian population, to contemplate their 
future advancement under the enlightened progressive policy adopted by the 
Government in establishing industrial institutions, where all the advantages for 
obtaining a thorough practical education are liberally provided for them. 

With the exception of a small assistance in provisions, supplied those who are 
destitute in consequence of sickness or infirmity, the Indians under my supervision 
are self-supporting. Although most of them subsist chiefly by hunting and fishing, 
and scarcely devote any attention to agriculture, beyond the cultivation of corn and 
potatoes, yet many of them manifest commendable industry in producing, in 
addition to those commodities, considerable quantities of wheat, oats, barley and 
other cereals, besides raising a number of horses, cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry. 

The increased interest in the education of their children, the gradual improve- 
ment in the construction and cleanliness of their dwelling-houses, and the enlarge- 
ment and better cultivation of their gardens are most encouraging indications 
of their intellectual and physical development. The prevalence of scrofula, 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

consumption and other constitutional diseases among them, occasions con- 
siderable fatality, but otherwise their sanitary condition is satisfactory. On 
account of the alarming outbreak of small-pox in the province last summer, the 
Indians generally were successfully vaccinated by the medical superintendent, hence 
no extensive mortality is to be apprehended from this loathsome epidemic for 
several years. I consider that Dr. Orton is deserving of an appropriate recognition 
for skilfully and successfully performing a complicated operation in the removal of 
a large ovarian tumor from an Indian girl of Fort Alexander, who had beeu attend- 
ing the industrial school at St. Boniface. 

I am happy to inform you that generally the different Indian agents within my 
inspectorate are efficiently attending to the laborious duties incumbent upon them 
in connection with their responsible positions, and that the welfare of the Indians 
within their respective agencies is carefully looked after by those experienced and 
competent officers. 

I cannot, in this connection, refrain from giving expression to the irreparable 
loss sustained by the Indians of this district in the recent death by drowning in the 
Nelson Eiver, of Chief Factor Belanger, one of their greatest and most generous 
benefactors, and one of the ablest and most prominent officers in the Hudson's Bay 
Company's service. No destitute Indian who appealed to him for relief was ever 
turned away empty-handed, as the sympathetic tears coursing sorrowfully down 
many a swarthy cheek in the district of Cumberland and Norway House will silently 
testify more emphatically than the most eloquent words ever spoken or written 
can possibly express. 

I am deeply indebted to the efficient staff of faithful clerks in my office for the 
invaluable assistance which they have rendered me in attending to the voluminous 
correspondence received, and in the performance of various other official matters. 

The condition of Indian schools within this superintendency is perceptibly 
improving ; more capable teachers are employed ; the services of incompetent 
ones are dispensed with, and more commodious school-houses are erected for the 
convenience of instructors and pupils. 

The Agency of Mr. Ogletree. 

On account of the unfavourable rainy season, experienced last spring, it was 
impossible to have the seeding done as early as usual, the amount harvested was 
therefore considerably below the average of previous years. From one hundred 
and fifty acres under cultivation on theEosseau Eiver Eeserve, only fourteen hundred 
bushels were raised ; from ninety-five acres on the Long Plain Eeserve, only six 
hundred bushels were obtained, and from one hundred and thirty-seven acres on 
Swan Lake, and the Indian Garden Eeserves, about six hundred bushels of wheat 
were produced. Besides the foregoing, upwards of one thousand bushels of potatoes 
were raised, and one hundred and twenty-five tons of hay secured, on the above 
mentioned reserves. 

The only school which ever existed on any of the reserves within this agency 
was at Eosseau Eiver, but after several futile attempts to keep it open, it was 
temporarily closed in consequence of the poor and irregular attendance of pupils. 

The Agency of Mr. Martineau. 

Nearly all the Sandy Bay Indians withdrew from treaty in 1887, but were 
subsequently readmitted at their urgent importunities on condition of their refund- 
ing the amount of scrip given them; but during the interval the cultivation of 
their gardens was neglected, and therefore they retrograded instead of advancing, 
and are only beginning to regain their former prosperity. This and every reserve 
within this agency are admirably adapted for stock-raising, as the meadows on them 
are very superior, but they only cultivate a few acres of potatoes. A new school- 
house, with patent seats, desks and other conveniences was erected on the reserve 
last summer under contract, and a school reopened under the auspices of the Eoman 
Catholic Mission. On the Lake Manitoba Eeserve very little farming is attempted 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

by the Indians, beyond the cultivation of potatoes, but as their meadows are very 
extensive, and they possess a large and excellent herd of cattle, they will eventually 
be able to maintain themselves comfortably with little exertion. 

During my inspection of the reserve, the school was temporarily closed in 
consequence of the illness of the teacher, but 1 was informed that the services of 
another had been secured. 

The Indians at Ebb and Flow Eeserve are not making much progress in farm- 
ing beyond growing several hundred bushels ot potatoes and raising a number of 
cattle. A very comfortable school-house was erected on the reserve last spring for 
the benefit of Soman Catholic children living there, and another school was opened 
in addition to the Episcopal one in operation there for a number of years. The 
branding of cattle here and elsewhere was imperfectly done. In many instances, it 
is not discernible, and in others, some of the cattle died from its effects. 

The crops at Fairford were excellent this year, upwards of three hundred 
bushels of grain, nine hundred and twenty-four of potatoes and four hundred tons 
of hay being harvested. The Indians on this reserve have three hundred and 
eighteen head of cattle. They gave chattel mortgages on about one-fourth of them, 
to different traders, as security for advances made on their annuity money, but when 
the attention of the department was called to this illegal traffic, a thorough investi- 
gation was instituted, and the result of the inquiry reported thereon. Many of the 
Indians obtain remunerative employment at lumbering, cattle ranching and steam- 
boating, in the vicinity of the reserve. 

At the upper division of the reserve, near the Episcopal Mission, a new school- 
house was built under contract last summer. It is furnished with patent seats, 
desks and other necessary fixtures. The school has been conducted for many years 
by the Eev. Mr. Bruce, who appears to be much interested in the advancement 
of the children under his charge. The other school on the reserve is, and has been 
for a number of years, fairly conducted by William Anderson, a native of the 
country. » 

Owing to the inferior class of teachers invariabty employed on this reserve, 
the children attending school never made much progress in learning, but I confidently 
expect a radical change for the better, as I recently succeeded in securing the 
services of a thoroughly educated practical gentleman to undertake it. The teacher 
at present engaged in conducting the Indian school on the Lake St. Martin Eeserve 
is faithfully discharging his duties. The Indians of the Little Saskatchewan and 
Lake St. Martin Eeserves have one hundred and thirty head of cattle, and have 
raised eight hundred and seventy bushels of potatoes last season. They also carried 
on an extensive traffic in cattle with traders until this irregularity was discovered 
and reported to the department. 

At Crane Eiver Eeserve the Indians have twelve horses, seventy-three head of 
cattle, and have raised about two hundred bushels of potatoes. The children 
have made little or no progress under the tuition of their late teacher, who resigned 
his charge last July, and another teacher was appointed in his place. 

At Waterhen Eiver Eeserve the Indians are visibly progressing. They own 
one hundred head of cattle, raised eight hundred and thirty-five bushels of potatoes, 
and secured one hundred and seventy-seven tons of hay. The children are 
advancing satisfactorily under the instruction and excellent management of Mr. 
I. H. Adam and his accomplished wife. Last summer the Indians purchased a 
mower and a horse-rake, and fully paid for these implements out of their annuities. 

At Pine Creek Eeserve the Indians almost wholly subsist by fishing and hunt- 
ing, and therefore, they scarcely do anything at farming. They possess, however, 
twenty horses and sixty-six head of cattle. The lofty walls of an immense school- 
house was erected last summer by the Indians under the direction of the Eev. Father 
Dupont. A mower and horse-rake were also purchased for the Indians of the 
reserve, on the understanding that the amount advanced in payment thereof would 
be refunded out of their annuities. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The Agency of Mr. Header. 

It is seriously to be regretted that notwithstanding the superior intelligence of 
the Indians within this agency their advancement in agriculture is very unsatisfac- 
tory. I consider that this deplorable condition of affairs is largely attributable to 
the mistaken philanthropic and mischievous ideas studiously inculcated in them by 
interested parties, that the Government is equally obligated to provide food and 
clothing for them, as it is to provide similar assistance to their destitute kindred in 
the North-west Territories. Owing to the limited area of arable land available on 
the reserves within this agency, the cultivation of the soil cannot possibly be car- 
ried on extensively, but, inasmuch as there are thousands of acres of unoccupied 
meadow lands in the district, there is no valid reason why stock-raising cannot be 
profitably undertaken by the Indians. With this laudable end in view, the depart- 
ment supplied a number of heifers last summer to the different bands within the 

The only produce of any importance raised the current year, on any of the 
reserves, was potatoes, of which two hundred and eighty busheTs were* grown at 
Grand Eapids ; five hundred and seventy-six at Chimawawin ; eight hundred and 
forty at Moose Lake; nine thousand four hundred at the Pas; and four thousand 
one hundred and twenty at Pas Mountain. With one or probably two exceptions 
the schools in operation within this agency are very indifferently conducted. The 
employment of inefficient teachers and the shuffling of them from one reserve to 
another without authority from the department by the Church Mission Society, is 
not productive of much beneficial results, and consequently, in my humble opinion, as 
the Government pays for the erection of school-houses and the salaries of teachers, 
it is infinitely better that the appointment of teachers and the management of Indian 
schools should be absolutely under its judicious control. 

The Agency of Mr. MacKay. 

Most of the reserves within this agency, on account of their rocky and marshy 
character, are incapable of producing a sufficient quantity of nourishing food for the 
requirements of the Indians, hence their limited supply of potatoes, the only com- 
modity of any value raised by them, has always to be considerably augmented by 
the production of their fishing and hunting grounds, but as these natural resources 
are annually becoming more precarious in consequence of the alarming encroach- 
ments upon them, the Indians are beginning to realize the gravity of their situa- 
tion, and are therefore apprehensive of impending starvation unless their valuable 
fisheries upon which they chiefly depend for their subsistence, are adequately pro- 
tected from depletion. The only schools within this agency deserving of any 
creditable mention for the efficient manner in which they are conducted by their 
able and energetic teachers, are those at Fisher Eiver, Beren's Eiver and Norway 
House Eeserves. There are very few meadows on the reserves in this agency, 
therefore stock-raising will never be generally a remunerative occupation. The 
number of cattle belonging to the Indians of this agency is two hundred and twenty- 
two, of which the Indians at Fisher Eiver own ninety-three, and at Norway House 
thirty-seven head. The number of bushels of potatoes harvested on the different 
reserves amount to five thousand nine hundred and five, of which quantity twelve 
hundred and thirty bushels were grown at Fisher Eiver; nine hundred and fifty at 
Jack Head Eiver; five hundred and eighty at Beren's Eiver, and nineteen hundred 
at Norway House. Besides this the Indians at Fisher Eiver are the most enterpris- 
ing and prosperous band within the agency, having raised one hundred and eighty 
bushels of wheat, three hundred and thirty of barley, and three hundred of oats. 

The Agency of Mr. Muckle. 

No band of Indians west of Lake Superior had more favourable opportunities of 
becoming enlightened and prosperous than the Indians of the reserve at St. Peter's. 
For upwards of three quarters of a centurv they had the advantages of having been 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

domiciled in tho vicinity of the Highland Scotch settlement at Kildonan, where 
many of them were engaged as servants and practically taught how to obtain their 
livelihood by cultivating the soil and by performing the requisite labour in other 
occupations. The}' were also employed as voyageurs by the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, and were thoroughly disciplined to manual 'labour. They had likewise the 
advantages of the indefatigable labour and civilizing influence of distinguished 
missionaries and eminent teachers for generations among them; hence their better 
education, greater advancement in agriculture, and more general prosperity than 
other bands within the superintendency. I consider that under the judicious man- 
agement of a thoroughly practical, energetic and enthusiastic Indian agent they 
should certainly, in a ve»y few years, become as intelligent, independent and affluent 
as any community of other nationalities in the province. On this reserve there are 
six fairly well conducted schools in operation at present. Owing to the failure of 
the agent to forward me a statement of last season's crop, I am unable to furnish 
you with any statistics in reference thereto, but from their appearance in September 
they promised an unusally large yield. The following statistics will give an approxi- 
mately accurate ^conception of the amount of property accumulated by them, viz., 
two hundred and sixty-five dwelling-houses, two hundred and ten stables, fifty-two 
ploughs, severe-three harrows, one hundred and twenty-five waggons and carts, 
seven hundred and twenty other implements, eighty-seven horses, ninety-nine pigs, 
and seven hundred and fifty-two head of cattle. At Fort Alexander, last summer, 
two elegant new school-houses were erected and furnished with very superior patent 
seats and desks, and other necessary articles. This reserve is amply supplied with 
schools for the requirements of the Indians. During my inspection of them last 
autumn only two were open. The other was closed, as the teacher resigned his 
charge to engage in trading. The attendance of pupils was irregular, especially at 
the lower Protestant school, where the teacher, not giving satisfaction, was 
dismissed, and another appointed in his place. The children attending the other 
schools are progressing favourably. This band has ninety-one dwelling-houses, sixty- 
two stables, two hundred head of cattle, and a number of other animals. The 
potatoes were scarcely up to the average, owing to the lateness of planting and to 
the dryness of the season during their growth. 

The Broken Head Eiver Indians are fortunate in having a comfortable school- 
house and an excellent teacher. Their herd of seventy-six head of cattle are in fine 
condition. Their crop of potatoes was not extensive, but the little planted looked 
exceedingly well. 

The Agency of Mr. Cornish. 

The Indians on Eainy Eiver are apparently retrograding instead of advancing, 
in consequence of their proximity to the United States, where they can readily in 
defiance of law obtain intoxicating liquors from disreputable whiskey-mongers. The 
fertility of their magnificent reserves is unsurpassed in Canada, and consequently 
I consider that if they properly cultivate the soil more extensively there would be 
less destitution among them and less appeals to the Government for assistance. It 
is the unquestionable duty of the Indian agents to personally direct and superin- 
tend the agricultural operations on the different reserves within their respective 
agencies ; and in my opinion it is conclusive evidence of their incompetency when 
there is scarcely any land cultivated on the reserves, and the crops allowed to 
be destroyed by cattle or overgrown with noxious weeds. 

There is no radical improvement on any of the other reserves within this 
agency, nor on those within the agencies of Messrs. Pither and Mclntyre, as the 
sterile character of the soil is unfavourable to extensive cultivation. 

The number of Indians within my inspectorate receiving annuity at present 1S 
thousand four hundred and thirty-four, of whom three thousand three hundred 
id forty-three are heathens ; three thousand two hundred and sixty-one are Episcopa- 
lians: one thousand four hundred and eighty-seven Methodists; one thousand three 
hundred and twenty Eoman Catholics; and twenty-three Brethren. The number 
of children in the sixty-seven bands under my supervision is five thousand and 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

three; of legal age to be admitted to school, two thousand five hundred and twenty- 
eight; of daily average attendance, six hundred and sixty-eight; of schools estab- 
lished on the different reserves, fifty; of schools in operation now, forty-nine; of 
agricultural implements, &c, in possession of the Indians, two hundred and eighty- 
seven wagons and carts, ten fanning mills, two binders, two seeders, and six thou- 
sand three hundred and twenty-four other implements. The number of official 
letters received during the year, is three thousand nine hundred and thirty-four; 
of letters despatched, four thousand one hundred and forty-nine; of vouchers for- 
warded for payment, seven hundred and twelve ; of annuity pay-sheets checked, eight ; 
and of school returns examined, one hundred and ninety-two. 

The estimated value of land improvements on the reserves is forty-two thousand, 
nine hundred and ninety-four dollars; of real and personal property, nine hundred 
and twenty-six thousand and eighty-four; of fish taken during the year, forty thou- 
sand five hundred and eleven ; and of fur caught, eighty-six thousand one hundred 
and sixty-two dollars. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Superintending Inspector. 

North-west Territories of Canada, 1st July, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to present my fourteenth annual report of inspections 
of the Indian agencies and reserves in these Territories. 

My regular work of inspection, for the past fiscal year, was commenced at the 
Fort Pelly Agency, on 24th July, 1891. 


Since my last inspection of this agency on 1st October, 1890, the agent has re- 
moved into the new building erected on Cote* Eeserve, at which place a post office was 
opened and named " Cote*." 

Accompanied by Agent Jones and his clerk, I inspected each reserve, and the 
work done thereon by the Indians. 

Progress is noticeable among these bands, although it is of a general, rather than 
of a special character, and is indicated by their personal manner and address; the 
attire and personal cleanliness of the different members of families, their new houses 
and household surroundings; the general tidiness of their premises, the good condi- 
tion of their stables, corrals, cow-byres, stack-yards and fences surrounding growing- 
crops, and root crops hoed and kept free from weeds. Of course there are individual 
exceptions to the general rule; but it is to be hoped that they will soon follow the 
good example set them. 

Cot 6 Band, Reserve 64. 

This band numbered, at the last annuity payments, two hundred and sixty-eight, 
namely, sixty-one men, eighty-two women, and one hundred and twenty-five children, 
Thirty-three families live in twenty-seven houses, and engage in farming, while ten 
families continue to gain a subsistence by hunting, fishing, &c. They have fifty 
acres under crop, consisting of twelve acres wheat, seven and a half acres oats, two 
and a half acres peas, twelve and a quarter acres barley, nine and a quarter acres 
potatoes, three and a half acres turnips, two and a half acres rye and one acre small 
vegetables. These crops are all looking well, are well fenced and promise a good 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The chief, Joseph Cote*, who had such a large acreage under crop last year, did 
not farm this year, but hired himself to a lumberman at the Riding Mountains; his 
absence was, however, but temporary, although the results are evident by the condi- 
tion of the large fields formerly cultivated by him : they are now neglected and the 
fences have been used for fuel. 

The houses and buildings of the Indians are in good order, and some new ones 
have been built. 

Live Stock. — This band has two hundred and sixty-nine head of cattle; sixty-seven 
being this year's calves, from seventy-two cows; they are owned by thirty-three per- 
sons, and pretty evenly divided among them. Of private stock they have thirty-five 
horses, four cows and four head of young cattle. I was very much pleased to observe 
improvement in the stock, the result of the introduction, last year, of thorough-bred 
bulls into the herds. 

School. — The Presbyterian boarding school in connection with this reserve, con- 
tinues to be well attended ; the day I visited it there were fifty-two children present; 
all of whom looked bright and happy. The new school-building is about completed, 
and will be occupied in a few days ; the accommodation provided for the pupils and staff 
will add very much to the efficiency of the school. 

Keesickhouse Band, Reserve 66. 

This band numbers one hundred and sixty-seven, namely, forty-three men, forty- 
six women, and seventy-eight children; thos«of the band who farm, live in twenty- 
four houses; they have fifty acres under crop, namely, seven acres wheat, seven acres 
oats, fourteen acres barley, seven acres rye, five and a half acres potatoes, five and a 
quarter acres turnips, one and a half acre peas, and three-quarters of an acre onions, 
carrots and smaller vegetables ; the crops are owned by eighteen families only. 

The crops looked well, and are well fenced ; the potatoes and other root crops 
being well attended to. 

A prairie fire swept over this reserve last spring, destroying a great deal of 
timber, also two cow-byres. 

Live Stock. — This band has one hundred and thirty-nine head of cattle, thirty- 
four being calves. This stock is in the hands of seventeen Indians only; there are a 
good many families who have not as yet engaged in stock-raising, while others may 
be considered comparatively wealthy in cattle. Of private animals, members of this 
band own twenty-one horses, three oxen, ten cows and seven young cattle. At each 
Indian farm I observed large paddocks fenced off for calves; these, in some instances, 
take in running water, which is an excellent arrangement, and insures better atten- 
tion and better calves. 

School. — There is a Roman Catholic school on this reserve, taught by Mr. F. 

Key Band, Reserve 65. 

This band numbers two hundred and thirty-three, but only about seventy 
of its members reside here ; the greater number still remain at Shoal 
River, Lake Winnipegosis, where they raise a few potatoes and turnips, fish 
and hunt. Those on this reserve have seventeen dwellings, but ten families 
only do any farming; the others are hunters. They have twenty-five acres 
in crop, namely, four acres wheat, three and a half acres oats, ten and a half 
acres barley, one and a half acres rye, two and a quarter acres potatoes, two and a 
quarter acres turnips, and a quarter of an acre of the small vegetables ; of the ten 
families who farm only six have grain. 

Live Stock. — The band has ninety-four head of cattle, of which number twenty 
are spring calves, from twenty-six cows; these cattle are in ten hands. 

Since my last inspection, two new stables and three milk-houses have been 
built, these latter are a distinct advancement; there has sprung up among the 
women a rivalry as to which has the neatest and best kept dairy; one belonging to 
Mary and Susan Brass, daughters of William Brass, would be a credit to any one, 
and I am informed that they sell a pail of butter every week, the average price being 
three dollars. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

On this reserve more timber was destroyed by fire than that of Keesick- 
house ; and it was with great difficulty the Indians were able to save their buildings. 

The members of the band are adherents of the Church of England; they have 
a neat and commodious church, and a school-house. I visited the school when it 
was in session ; there were twelve children present; the Rev. Mr. Cunliff, teacher, 
is in charge of the mission also. 

Vital Statistics. 

From July, 1890, to July, 1891, seven births and thirty deaths were recorded ; 
the heavy death rate was no doubt due to an epidemic of " la grippe "or influenza, in 
April last. A large and complete stock of medicines is kept at the agency, and 
Dr. Watson paid the band six professional visits during the year. 

Indian Office and Storehouse. 

I took an inventory of the goods in the storehouse, and the articles in use, 
checking the same with the balances shown on the books. I found them to agree. 
The goods were kept in good order; the flour and bacon are of good quality, the 
former being put up in sacks of correct weight. . 

I audited the books, and found the receipts and issues regularly entered, with 
correct balances brought down. 1 have given the usual certificate, and written off 
the books those articles worn out and of no further use. 

The accounts were well kept, and written up to date ; copies of all returns, 
letters received, circulars, quadruplicates of vouchers, ration-sheets and copies of 
school returns were filed ; all issues have been carefully made and properly entered ; 
the ration-sheets are used regularly, and are the basis of all entries of food supplies 

Agency Buildings. 

These are suitable for the purpose required ; the concrete-house built for the 
agent is very conveniently planned, is commodious and comfortable; and as it has a 
good stone foundation is likely to be durable. 

The agent has grubbed and broken land around the agency as a precaution 
against fires; he has an excellent garden this year; and he has fenced about one 
hundred acres for a pasture-field ; he has also inclosed the agency buildings and his 
dwelling with a good fence, all the work having been done by Indians. 

The Indians have a lime-kiln on each reserve in active operation. The agent 
informs me that they have burned three hundred and fifty bushels in each this sum- 
mer. They also make soft soap when they can get grease. 

In this part of the country mixed farming only can be successful, and the agent 
has done well in directing the attention of his Indians to stock-raising and cultivat- 
ing root crops; the Indians are also beginning to see that money can be earned by 


I commenced my inspection of this agency on 10th August. The staff consists of 
Mr. J. A. Markle, agent; Mr. S. M. Dickinson, clerk"; and William Nabbis, 

I took stock of the goods in the storehouse and found them in good order. The 
supplies, implements and tools on hand were suitable for the requirements of 
the agency; the flour and bacon are of good quality and in accordance with the 
terms of contracts. JjJ.'&'Gn ■ 

I found the work of the office well attended to, and audited the books which 
were written up to date. I checked the store returns from the date of my last in- 
spection ; have certified the last monthly return sent in ; and given the usual 
certificate of inspection. 

This agency contains five hundred and two treaty Indians, and four hundred 
and twenty-eight non-treaty Sioux, divided into four bands each. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Of these, one hundred and twenty-six heads of families are engaged in farming, 
having twelve hundred and two and a half acres, namely, nine hundred and forty- 
eight and a half acres wheat, ninety-two acres oats, fiften and one-half acres rye, 
sixty acres barley, forty-nine and one-half acres potatoes, eight and one-half acres 
turnips, eight and one-half acres carrots, three-quarters of an acre onions, eight 
and one-half acres corn, three-quarters of an acre flax. Taken as a whole, the 
crops are magnificent. The large acreage of Ladoga wheat sown on the Lizard 
Point Reserve has been successful. From personal observation, it is at least ten 
days earlier in ripening than any other variety sown in this section of the country, 
and this fact has insured the crop. 

One hundred and twenty-five Indians in the agency are owners of cattle; they 
have rive hundred and six head under Government control, according to the round- 
up made upon the different reserves a month ago. They have also eighty-nine 
sheep ami three goats. Their private cattle are computed at. forty-seven head, and 
they have forty-three horses. 

Vital Statistics. 

The health of the different bands is reported to have been good during the past 
year. In an agency like this, it is a difficult matter to get the Indians to report 
their births and deaths; and among the treaty Indians this is only accomplished with 
any degree of accuracy at the annuity payments, which, for this year, have not yet 
taken place. Twenty-three deaths have been recorded since my last inspection, ten 
months ago; fourteen being adults, five of whom are entered as dying of old age. 

Bird-tail Band (Sioux), Reserve 57. 

On the 14th August, accompanied by the agent, I visited the Bird- 
tail Reserve. The distance from Birtle is fourteen miles, and the trail is 
through a rich agricultural country peopled with white settlers. Upon 
reaching my destination, I could not help making comparisons strongly in 
favour of the Indians, between the crops on the reserve and those so lately passed 
through. Their grain was within ten days of being ripe, and was in appearance 
all that could be desired. Their cereals consisted of wheat, oats, rye and Indian 
corn, namely, two hundred and ninety-one acres wheat, fifty-three acres oats, seven 
and one-half acres rye. In addition to these crops, each farmer had large gardens 
containing corn, potatoes, turnips, carrots, onions and other vegetables, such as 
beans, squash, cucumbers, melons, radishes and citrons, and in one case a rhubarb 
bed. The corn grown here is a prolific native variety, which matures quickly. 
The gardens, corn and potatoes were generally well attended to. Growing turnips 
is comparatively new to these Indians, and the agent being desirous to introduce 
their culture sowed most of the seed himself, and instructed the Indians in their 
cultivation. They have followed his instructions to a certain extent, and in con- 
sequence each Indian farmer has a fair crop of this useful vegetable. Among the 
better gardens I noticed A-wi-can-haw (two acres), and Mrs. Benjamin's (one acre). 
These large gardens were free from weeds, and in a high state of cultivation. They 
contained almost every variety of vegetable that is known to mature in this country. 
The widow had, in addition, a neat flower garden. 

The crops of this band, in 1890, aggregated one hundred and sixty acres, divided 
among eighteen families. This year, twenty-five families engage in farming, and they 
have in crop three hundred and seventy-two acres. With the exception of two 
families, all have some grain, and the acreage of all but eight exceeds ten acres. 

The largest farmer is Moses Bunn, he has forty-six acres wheat, five acres oats, 
two acres rye, half an acre potatoes, half an acre flax; the rest in corn, turnips and 
other vegetables; next to him is Sun-ku-ho-da-hon, who has forty-eight acres in crop 
and twenty-two acres newly broken. Sioux Jack has thirty-two acres in crop ; 
Charlie Hanska has twenty-eight acres, and so on, down to those whose crops are 
under ten acres. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Eighty acres were broken and twenty acres summer-fallowed by the band this 
season. Some Indians have adopted the suggestion made to them last year and 
fenced in a home-field as a pasture for their work oxen. Several of them are engaged 
in building granaries and sheds for their implements. Moses Bunn has completed 
his new house; it is a very comfortable structure, with shingled roof. Sioux Ben is 
engaged in building a house. 

Live Stock. — Their cattle are herded away from the crops; they number one 
hundred and one under Government control ; they have twenty-nine sheep, and nine 
lambs ; they have no private cattle, but have thirty horses and all are owned by 
twenty-four Indians. 

Building timber is scarce and their stables are not therefore very good; in con- 
sequence of the river flooding their hay lands, they had greater difficulty than usual 
in securing the necessary quantity of hay, but in this respect, their cattle are not 
likely to suffer, as they have so much straw. 

Biding Mountain Band — Beserve 61. 

This band numbers one hundred and thirty-seven, of whom nine are farmers and 
ten are owners of cattle; they have sixty-four acres under cultivation, consisting of 
ten acres wheat, eighteen acres oats, twenty-one acres barle} T , eight acres rye, six 
acres potatoes and one acre in onions, carrots and turnips. The crops looked remark- 
ably well, were well advanced towards ripening, and are well fenced, the root crops 
had been hoed, and otherwise attended to. They have fifty-nine head of cattle, being 
three more than reported last year ; eighteen are milch cows; the production of twin 
and triplet calves is remarkable : there were several pairs of the former, and my 
attention was drawn to three fine heifer-calves of the latter class. They have many 
horses, the chief having a score or more of a very good breed ; with very little im- 
proving, his horses would be saleable in any market. The men were busily engaged 
hay-making; they had nearly finished putting up all they required. 

This is a fine reserve and well adapted for mixed farming. Only about one-half 
the band have as yet settled down ; the remainder roam around, hunting, fishing, 
&c, and I regret to hear that they are being induced to settle at Lake Winnipegosis. 

School. — The day school is taught by a most competent young lady and trained 
teacher, Miss Cameron, under the auspices of the Presbyterian Church ; and has 
reached a very satisfactory stage of efficiency. When I visited the school eighteen 
children, from five to thirteen years old, were present ; they were nearly all girls ; 
they were all neatly and cleanly attired; and would favourably compare with white 
children in the same walk in life; their work in class was very satisfactory. 

Through the kindness of Eastern friends of the church, Miss Cameron has been 
enabled to introduce, in a measure, the kindergarten system. She has all sorts of 
appliances, both for amusement and instruction ; plain sewing, carding and spinning 
wool and knitting form a regular part of the school work, which includes religious 
instruction and Bible history. The school-house is a neat and comfortable building, 
bright and clean, adorned with house plants, while outside there is a fairly well kept 
flower garden. The church has built for the teacher a comfortable frame cottage 
near to the school-house. A Presbyterian mission is established on the quarter- 
section adjoining the reserve, under the charge of the Eev. Mr. Flett, who is a native 
of the country, and who gives the highest praise to the Indians for their attention 
to their religious duties. He says that often the church is too small to hold the 
congregation, and they join in the service with heartiness and devotion. In addition 
to his duties on this reserve, Mr. Flett holds occasional services on the Boiling Eiver 
and Lizard Point Eeserves. 

Boiling Biver Band — Beserve 67. 

On '20th August and following days I inspected the Eolling Eiver Beserve. I 
found sixteen tents of Indians at home; they were engaged in cutting and stacking 
hay. Ten families cultivate to some extent, but only two can be called farmers, 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

namely. Ko-ka-ko-pe-naee and Otter-skin. The latter has eighteen acres in wheat, 
besides root crops. The band have five acres in potatoes and other vegetables. 
The wheat promises a fair yield. The potatoes are of good quality. 

They have a dozen head of cattle, under Government control, namely, four 
oxen, four cows, two steers and two calves; and one Indian has, of private stock, 
three cows and five young cattle. The band has twenty-five horses. 

At the last annuity payments, this band numbered one hundred and sixteen, 
namely, thirty-one men, thirty-six women, twenty-one boys, and twenty-eight girls. 
Of this number of children, twenty-one are of school age. 

Lizard Point Band — Reserve 62. 

I am happy to report that here there is a change for the better, since my inspec- 
tion last year, at which time 1 was unable to extend to them any praise. This year 
they have put in a large crop for them — namely, one hundred and five acres. It 
consists of fifty and one-half acres wheat, twenty-one acres barley, nine acres oats, 
eight and one-half acres potatoes, one and a quarter acres turnips, half an acre 
carrots, and about one onions. The wheat and barley were ripe and ready for 
the sickle, and are magnificent crops. The root crops had been fairly well attended 
to. These were owned by twenty-one Indians, sixteen of whom have cultivated 
some of each of the above-named crops, while five have potatoes and the other 
root crops only. They have adopted the plan of fencing off a large part of their 
reserve, exclusively for their live stock ; it was comparatively an easy task, as it 
abounds in lakes ; and they had only to fence from lake to lake, to take in a thousand 
acres or move. This plan has done away with the necessity for fencing each 
field separately and has saved, not only much labour, but probably also much 

Through years of indifference, these Indians allowed themselves to become 
houseless, living in tents in summer and huts in the woods in winter; but it is to be 
hoped that this year's success in- farming will enable them to build good houses and 
stables. Only four have made homesteads for themselves. 

The agent took special pains with this band, in the spring seeding; first he 
procured and furnished, under loan, that variety of wheat known as Ladoga; an$ 
did the sowing himself for them; he also sowed their turnips, and practically 
instructed them as to thinning and weeding them; to this attention, in the first 
instance, are they indebted for the good crop; and the Ladoga wheat ripened ten 
days earlier than any other variety in this part of the country this year, therefore, 
they surpass the settlers, much to the satisfaction of both the Indians and their 
agent. They have a very large quantity of hay in stack, and they have taken 
advantage of a heavy growth to put up a large supply. 

Live Stock. — The band have one hundred and forty-four head of cattle, under 
Government control, consisting of thirty-three oxen, one bull, twenty-four cows, 
twenty steers, fifteen heifers, fourteen bull calves, twelve heifer calves, and twenty- 
three sheep ; they are iu the hands of thirty-one persons ; of private stock, they 
have twenty horses, one ox and one cow. 

Silver Creek Band — Reserve 63. 

This ^mall band has lost eight members by the removal of Basil Tanner, with 
his family, to Crooked Lakes Agency; there are but sixty acres under cultivation, 
owned by six persons. The crop consists of fifty acres wheat, five acres barley, and 
live acres potatoes and roots; they have also ten acres summer fallow. 

Of cattle, they have twenty-three head, under Government control, namely, ten 
oxen, six cows, three steers, two heifers and two calves; they have also twenty-nine 
sheep and three goats. Of private animals, they have sixty horses, one ox, 
twelve cows and ten young cattle. The band is self-supporting, and the members 
are intelligent half-breeds. 

Turtle Mountain Band (Sioux), Reserve 60. 

The population of this small band is thirty, being a decrease of three since last 
year. Six men cultivate some land; they have five acres oats, two and a quarter 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

acres potatoes and some corn. They have also eighteen head of cattle, under 
Government control, consisting of six oxen, three steers, six cows, and three calves, in 
the hands of four persons. In addition to farming, these Indians hunt, sell firewood, 
tan hides, and do other work for the settlers ; they are a quiet, inoffensive people. 

Oak River Band (Sioux), Reserve 58. 

By the agent's census this year, the population of this reserve is two hundred 
and forty-two ; against two hundred and sixty taken last year ; thirty-nine heads of 
families are engaged in farming. 'Their crops of about five hundred and sixty acres 
consist of five hundred and sixteen acres wheat, ten acres oats, twenty-two acres 
potatoes, three acres turnips, and eight and a half acres corn. Forty-two Indians — 
some of them making a start for the first time — have broken four hundred and 
ten acres of new land ; and summer-fallowed forty acres. 

As the wheat promises to be an excellent yield and sample and is safely stacked, 
its owners will be in easy circumstances, for this year at least. With such a large 
crop to harvest, the Indians purchased five new binders, making eight altogether 
now on the reserve. They are well supplied with farming implements, nearly all 
purchased by themselves ; besides the new binders I observed two new mowers and 
horse-rakes, three new lumber-waggons, and six ploughs, all purchased this year. 

Thirty houses and twenty-two stables are on the reserve, some of the houses are 
fairly comfortable, while many might easily be made more so ; they have all cook- 
ing stoves and some furniture. 

Live Stock. — They have one hundred and fifty-six head of cattle, underGovernment 
control, being an increase of seventeen since last year. This stock consists of fifty-nine 
work oxen, one bull, twenty-six cows, twenty-two steers, twenty-three heifers, and 
twenty -five calves, in thirty-eight hands, and all in good order; the owners take great 
interest in them. 

This reserve is beautifully situated on the north side of the Assiniboine River. 
The Oak River runs through it and joins the Assiniboine on the reserve. Extensive 
low-lying meadow lands along and between the rivers, are a distinctive feature in 
the landscape. They are fringed with beautiful elm and maple trees, sometimes 
widening into parks, and marking the courses of the rivers. 

The Indians first commenced to farm the bottom land, but experience has 
taught them that the higher and bench lands are freer from frost; and although 
there are large fields of good wheat this year in the bottom, by far the greater 
quantity is grown upon the bench. 

By building fences across necks of lands, formed by bends of the Assiniboine 
River, the Indians have, at comparatively little outlay of labour, formed two 
inclosed pasture-fields, of many hundred acres each, thereby doing away with the 
necessity of fencing each field of grain, and their cattle seldom stray away. In 
these bottom lands hay is plentiful and of good quality; they have large quantities 
in stack. Another good feature in the location of this reserve, is its proximity to a 
good wheat market. It is within five miles of Griswold, a town on the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, and in the midst of one of the best wheat-growing districts in this 
country. Across the Assiniboine, from the reserve, lie the farms of Mr. Hall and 
Mr. Hanna. These men farm one thousand and fifteen hundred acres, respectively, 
and will, between them, have of wheat alone, this year, not less than forty thousand 
bushels. They have also large herds of improved cattle. With such examples of 
success in farming so near them, it is no wonder that these Indians strive to have 
such a large acreage in wheat. 

I took the opportunity of my visit to advise the Indians to be careful of their 
money when they sell their wheat, and not to be induced by white men to buy 
worthless worn-out vehicles, useiess horses and farm implements, &c, but to pay 
their debts, to buy lumber, make their dwellings more comfortable and to otherwise 
improve their homesteads. 

School. — There is a day school on the reserve; it is under the auspices of the 
Church of England, Mr. Hartland is the teacher; it was not in session at the time 
of my visit. 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Oak Lake Band — Reserve 59. 

I visited this small band of Sioux on the 3rd and 4th September. 

The reserve situated on the Pipestone River, south of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway, is sixteen miles from the town of Virden, and the same distance from the 
town of Oak Lake. It is several miles distant from the lake, and very properly so, 
as the lands adjacent thereto are poor farming lands. The band numbers forty- 
eight ; ten men are farmers; they have a crop of sixty-seven acres, namely, fifty- 
eight acres wheat, three acres oats, three acres potatoes, one acre turnips, and two 
acres Indian corn. They have broken, this year, sixty-two acres of new land, and 
summer-fallowed ten acres. 

Their grain was all cut, and some of it stacked ; it is a fine sample, and as good 
a yield as any in the country; they had purchased a second-hand binder which 
answered He purposes well. These Indians are good workers; they receive no 
assistance from the department, but work for the settlers, to get food while doing 
their own farm work, and,* on the whole, live well and comfortably. 

They have eight houses and six stables ; three or four of the houses are floored, 
and have cooking stoves and other furniture. The stables are roomy, built of sods 
within a frame, and are a good example of what can be done where building timber 
is scarce, as it is in this district. 

Nine men hold twenty-one cattle under Government control, namely, eight 
oxen, five cows, two steers, one heifer and five calves; they have also six private 
horses; they have fenced in a large park in an elbow of the river as a pasture-field ; 
they occasionally milk their cows, but with no regularity. In addition to the binder 
above mentioned, they own, by private purchase, three mowers and two farm wagons. 

There is no school on this reserve and no missionary work done here. From a 
worldly point of view they are prosperous and all enjoy good health. They cer- 
tainly deserve praise for their farming operations and diversity of crops; for they 
purchased their own seed and planned their own work. 


I arrived at this agency on the 14th September and immediately commenced 
my inspection. 

The stan° of officials and employees consists of Agent Campbell, Clerk Graham, 
Farmer La wford. Instructress Mrs. Lawford and Interpreter Buchanan. The total 
number of Indians paid at the last annuity payments, were two hundred and twenty, 
while the census taken the current year places the number at two hundred and 
sixty-seven. They form three bands, known officially as 68, 69, 70. Band 68 and 
69 are Assiniboines or Stonies, and are under the direct supervision of the farmer 
who lives on the first-named reserve. 

I visited these two reserves on 15th and 16th September. The Indians were 
then busily engaged harvesting their wheat, of which they have one hundred and 
ten acres; it was rather backward in ripening, but up to the time of my visit it 
promised an enormous yield and to be a good sample. The farmer was working 
the reaper, and the men, women and children were binding and stooking it. 

In addition to wheat, they have eighteen acres oats, four acres of potatoes, and 
a smali quantity of land in turnips. The potatoes appear to be an average crop; 
the turnips would probably have yielded better had they been sown in drills, 
instead of broadcast. They have made good preparation for next year's crop, by 
working one hundred and ten acres' of summer fallow. The value of the wheat 
crop to these Indians is greatly diminished by the great distance their reserve is 
from mills and market; but in this respect they are not any worse off than success- 
ful white settlers in the same section of country. They have cut, and put into 
stack, two hundred and seventy-five tons of hay. I have never seen better hay on 
an Indian reserve ; in one meadow there was a row of twelve large stacks. 

They have one hundred and forty-two head of cattle, namely, thirty work oxen, 
one bull, thirty cows, twenty-one steers, thirty-two heifers, and twenty-eight 
calves ; these are in the bands of twenty Indians, and, excepting the work oxen, are 
herded away from the crops during the summer. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Ten of the Indians' animals were killed for beef during the past year ; in some 
cases they were killed (by permission) by the Indians owning them for family use; 
in other cases they were purchased by the agent for general distribution in the 
agency. They have forty houses and thirty stables. During the summer they live 
in tents, and just before winter sets in they mend and repair their dwellings. 

With regard to their last year's wheat crop, I find they gristed three hundred 
and forty-eight bushels, receiving in return twelve thousand four hundred and 
thirty-two pounds of flour, and seven thousand one hundred and seventy-five pounds 
of offal, being a more satisfactory return than has come under my notice elsewhere. 
With their own means these Indians purchased a mower and three horse-rakes; of 
farming implements they now own one lumber wagon, five mowers, five horse- 
rakes and a binder. 

Farm No. 25. 

The farmer acts as issuer of rations to these two bands. I examined his ration- 
sheets, and checked the accounts kept between him and the agency, and observed 
that the agent held him under strict supervision, stock being taken once a month, 
and his book audited. I went over the list of goods in use, and struck therefrom 
such of them as were worn out and of no further use. The farmer now lives in the 
house built by the department for the agent some years ago ; it is a good house, 
and he is very comfortable. The farm premises are kept in good order, and he has 
an excellent vegetable garden adjacent to his house. 

White Bear Band— Reserve 70. 

These people are Saulteux and Cree; they have not farmed this year. Having 
no land ready for grain in the spring, the agent directed their attention to grow- 
ing potatoes, turnips and making gardens; and took pains to procure for them 
regular freighting, sale of fish among the white settlers, and labour. 

In consequence of frequent absence their gardens suffered from want of regular 
attention ; but at the time of my visit they had been cleaned, and there was a 
promise of a moderate yield of potatoes. They were most successful in earning 
monej 7 by their work and they relieved the Government entirely of their support 
while at work. They are highly spoken of by their employers who engaged them 
in freighting supplies and lumber from Moosomin, herding cattle, tanning hides, 
hoeing chicory and gardens; they have sold firewood, hay, fish, berries and a few 
pelts. Their earnings, so far as they have come under the notice of the agent, during 
the past fiscal year, was two thousand one hundred and eighty-six dollars ; while 
for the past two months, July and August, they amount to five hundred and fifty- 
three dollars additional. Notwithstanding this outside work, they did not neglect to 
cut and stack large quantities of hay; it is estimated that they have put up already, 
and they are still at it, one hundred and eighty tons. 

They have forty-nine head of cattle, namely, fourteen oxen, one bull, eight 
cows, two steers, six heifers and ten calves; these cattle are in the hands of six 
Indians. The hay put up was very much more than their own stock can consume 
during winter; but they are in hopes that a market may spring up, and they may 
be able to sell their surplus, at a good price. They have sixteen dwelling-houses 
and fourteen stables; these have not, as yet, been fitted up for the winter; and they 
are still living in their tepees. 

There are no schools in this agency; a few of the children attend the different 
industrial schools; I did not hear of any missionary work being done among them. 

Vital Statistics. 

The births registered, since my last inspection, are seven, and the deaths twenty- 
three; there are a good many physical wrecks among the Stonies, for the most part 
the result of disease contracted years ago, when they hung around Fort Walsh; and 
many of the deaths may be traced to this source. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 4. 1893 

Indian Agency. 

I took stock of the goods in store, and in use, and audited the books. The 
stock was well kept, and but few discrepancies were noticed. I struck off the list 
of articles in use such as were worn out. The office books were neatly and 
systematically kept. I went carefully through the different accounts and checked 
the ration-sheets with the entries of issues. 

Agency Buildings. 

The agent's house, which was under construction at the time of my last 
inspection, is now finished ; it is a most comfortable residence ; the other buildings 
are suitable for their purpose, excepting the office, which is much too small for the 
work that has to be done there. 


I arrived at the Crooked Lakes Agency on 25th September. I commenced my 
duties at stock-taking in the storehouse, and auditing the agency books. I found 
the stock in good order and well kept ; the books were written up to date, and had 
been balanced monthly. 

Gowesess Band — Reserve 73. 

I inspected the farm work of this band on 6th October. They had two hundred 
and fifty acres in crop, being thirty acres more than last year; owned by thirty-two 
persons, while that of last year was owned by only sixteen; the crop consisted of 
one hundred and eighty acres wheat, forty acres oats, five acres barley, one and 
a half acres peas, twelve and a half acres potatoes, two acres turnips, five acres 
rye. half an acre of chicory and three and a half acres of gardens, owned by twenty- 
two Indians. 

The yield promises to be very good, taxing most severely the strength of the 
Indians to get it properly harvested ; each Indian farmer has his own work to do, 
and those owning the larger area have to do it all themselves, or hire others to 
help them ; they are not all of them able to do this, and therefore some are behind 
in securing their crops. 

The wheat is about the third grade in quality ; potatoes are smaller than usual 
and scarcely an average yield. Growing chicory is a new industry, commenced 
this year for the first time; it is too early to give an opinion as to whether it will 
be a paying crop for Indians to grow or not. 

I observed that a good deal of improvements had been made during the year in 
building, fencing, breaking new land, and in summer-following, in all of which 
many of the Indians participated. , § 

Live Stock. — This band has one hundred and thirteen head of cattle under Govern- 
ment control, being an increase of twenty-two since my last inspection. This number 
does not represent the total increase, as they have been allowed to butcher and 
sell some during the year. The animals are in the hands of sixteen different 

Of private stock, they have fifty-eight horses, three oxen, one bull, forty-six 
cows and forty-seven young cattle ; there being an increase of fifteen horses and 
fourteen cattle since last year. 

With such success in farming and stock-raising one looks for more permanent 
improvements on their farms than has been made ; but evidently the Indians prefer 
to invest their increase and what they can spare after supporting their families, in 
live stock and farm implements rather than in buildings and other farm improve- 

Mrs. Sutherland continues her weekly classes for the instruction of Indian 
women. She speaks favourably of their advancement. As most of them live in 
tents at this season of the year, it is impossible to judge of their housekeeping. 
The women and children who came under my observation were clean and sufficiently 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

I audited the farm books and checked them with the agency issues to this farm, 
and with the farm ration sheets. The work had been performed in a satisfactory 
manner. I struck off the list of goods in use such are worn out. 

The wheat grown in 1890 was entered in the books as two thousand nine 
hundred and fifty bushels (thresher's measure). I took occasion to follow this, and 
find how it was disposed of. They sold one thousand seven hundred and nineteen 
bushels, gristed two hundred and twenty-one bushels, used for seed four hundred 
and thirty bushels; screenings, three hundred and eighty bushels. They purchased 
one hundred and thirty sacks of flour, with part of the proceeds of the wheat 

Ka-ka-wis-ta-haw Band, Reserve 72. — J. Pollock, farmer, Farm 3b. 

Since my last inspection, Farmer Nichol has been transferred to Miscowpetung 
Agency, and J. Pollock engaged as farmer for this reserve. I am informed that 
the latter is a good blacksmith, machinist and farmer ; and it is intended to utilize 
his services in running the grist-mill during the winter. 

At the time of my inspection these Indians were in camp, having collected 
together for annuity-payments, which came off a few days before. 

I was much pleased to observe the large stacks of grain, principally wheat, at 
different points on the reserve. Some ten or a dozen stacks are to be seen in each 
well-fenced stack-yard and protected by fire-guards. The chiefs farm-yard is 
particularly attractive. He has added covered sheds to his two large stables, and, 
although so early in the season, the stables are cleaned out and in perfect order for 

They had this year one hundred acres wheat, two acres oats, one acre peas, 
three acres rye, seven acres potatoes, two acres turnips, one and a half acre carrots, 
two acres chicory, one acre gardens. Twenty-one Indians grew wheat, one having 
eleven acres and the others from one to six acres each ; twenty-four have each from 
one-half to one acre of potatoes; fourteen have turnips and six have chicory. 
There are no very extensive farmers on this reserve. 

Last year one hundred and eighteen acres were cultivated by seventeen persons. 
This year they have one hundred and twenty acres among twenty-five persons. 
Some of the Indians are not yet farming on their own. account. The grain crops 
were all harvested and of good average quality. There will probab'.y be two 
thousand five hundred bushels of good wheat. The fields are all well fenced and 
one hundred and sixty tons of hay were stacked. 

I did not observe any new houses, but two men are preparing to build. No 
fall ploughing was done, but twenty acres have been summer-fallowed by four Indians, 
and there were ten acres of breaking done by three Indians. 

Live Stock. — This band has one hundred and thirty-two head of cattle under Gov- 
ernment control, being an increase of twenty-two head since last year. The cattle con- 
sist of twenty-six work oxen, thirty-five cows, twenty-three steers, nineteen heifers 
and twenty-nine calves. They are in the hands of twenty-one Indians. Of private 
stock they have thirty horses, no cattle. I audited the farm books and found the 
goods received and issued had been regularly entered. The receipts agreed with 
the goods charged against this farm in the agency books, and the issues of provisions 
had been entered up from the ration-sheets. The produce of the wheat crop of 
1890 was entered in the books as one thousand three hundred and thirty-five bushels. 
In following this I find that eleven hundred and thirty-five bushels were sold and 
two hundred bushels were used for seed. 

Sakemay Band, Reserve 74. — A. J. Coburn, farmer; Mrs. Coburn, instructress. Farm 3d. 

With the exception of one new house, in course of erection, I did not observe 
many improvements in that direction, but there was a large quantity of land sum- 
mer-fallowed, and some new laud broken. They have one hundred and twenty-one 
and one-half acres in crop this year, being an increase of twenty-two and a half acres 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

over last year ; it consists of one hunched acres wheat, one acre peas, eight acres 
potatoes, ten acres lye and two and one-half acres gardens. The wheat is stacked in 
half a dozen different corrals, all well fenced ; it will grade an average of number 
three, and will yield about twenty-two hundred bushels of good wheat. The rye 
will not yield well ; the potatoes were small, but an average crop; they may have 
eight hundred bushels. This is a good reserve for wheat in a wet season, but the 
land is so very light where the Indians now cultivate that I would dread the 
approach of a dry one. 

These Indians are excellent workers ; during August and September they sold 
a good deal of cordwood and hay, the money for which they spent mostly for pro- 
visions. They put up in stack one hundred and seventy-five tons of hay. The. farmer 
himself had eight acres of oats ; the yield of which will be li^ht — perhaps two 
hundred bushels ; he also put up twelve tons of hay for his horses. The She-sheep 
portion of this band had a little wheat, of which they harvested about thirty bushels ; 
they had also about two acres potatoes ; their cattle are doing well, and they (the 
Indians) seldom ask for any assistance. The health of this band has been very 
good ; the births are entered as thirteen, and the deaths eight. 

Lire Stock. — They have ninety-eight head of cattle under Government control, 
being an increase of twelve head since last year. Of private animals, they have sixty- 
two horses, seven cows and eighteen young cattle, beingan increase of twelve horses 
and seven head of cattle in a year. J audited the farm books, checking with those of 
the agency. I found them correct and kept regularly. I wrote off the books some 
articles that were worn out and of no further use. The product of last year's crop 
was fourteen hundred and forty bushels ; it cleaned out two hundred and ten bushels 
called screenings ; the balance was sold, gristed and used for seed. 

Ochapowace Band, Reserve 71. — B. McMchol, farmer. Farm 3c. 

I made a careful inspection of the Indians' farms, their crops and work, and saw 
as many of their cattle as we could find upon that occasion ; some had ranged far 
and could not be rounded up that *-oon. 

The grain was all harvested, the stacks were well fenced in the different stack- 
yards, and fire-guards ploughed around them. They had one hundred and forty-one 
acres in crop this year, being fourteen and a half acres more than they had last 
year. It belonged to twenty-four Indians, or three more than were farming last 
year. Sixteen of them grew wheat, and all but one had potatoes. The largest 
farmer is " Assiniboine." He has twenty-three and a half acres in crop, namely, 
eighteen acres wheat, two acres oats, half an acre peas, and one and a half acre 
potatoes, half an acre turnips, and the same each of carrots and garden. 

The band have twenty-eight dwellings and fifteen stables. It would be a good 
thing for them if they could be induced to build more comfortable houses, for not- 
withstanding the large crops which I report every year as the result of their farm- 
ing operations, I find them, on my return the next year, living in the same huts, 
evidently their ambition does not lie in that direction. 

The farmer raised five acres oats, and half an acre potatoes, and put up ten 
tons of hay, for the use of his establishment. 

Live Stock. — This band has ninety-one head of cattle, being an increase of five 
head over last year. These cattle are in the hands of nineteen persons, being one 
more having cattle than last year. J. compared the cattle return with the stock 
register and found that it agreed therewith. I audited the farm books, examined 
into the receipts and issues, and found them to be correct and regular. I examined 
the goods in use and struck off the list those of them worn out. 

The wheat crop grown in 1890 was entered in the books as one thousand two 
hundred and twenty-five bushels. It is accounted for as follows: Nine hundred and 
thirty-nine bushels were sold, twenty-two bushels were gristed, one hundred and 
ninety-even bushels were used for seed, and sixty-seven bushels are entered as 
screenings. With the proceeds of the wheat sold, the owners thereof purchased 
eighty-five sacks of flour and other provisions. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 


The capacity of this mill has not as yet been tested. Mr. Sutherland informs 
me that it is now in perfect running order, to commence work as soon as the thresh- 
ing is over. It will be a great saving to the Indians, if through its means they are 
able to avoid the excessive tolling their grists were subjected to, when ground by 
the subsidized and outside mills. 


I arrived, at the Indian Head Agency on 13th October. 

The agent, Mr. Grant, was away attending the agricultural show at Eegina, and 
he did not return until the 18th. Mr. Halford, the clerk of the agency, was in 
charge during his absence. 

The annuity payments were made on 6th October — one hundred and ninety-five 
Indians were paid ; twenty-one were reported absent on this occasion, making the 
total number of Indians belonging to this agency two hundred and eleven. 

During the year nine were born, and twenty-five died; fifteen of the deaths 
occurred among adults. • 

Farm Work. 

They had two hundred and one acres in crop this year, being eight acres more 
than they bad last year; this crop was owned by forty -five heads of families, (four 
less than last year), but only sixteen of them may be called farmers, the others 
raise roots only. The crops consisted of one hundred and thirty-six acres wheat, 
fifteen acres oats, fifteen acres potatoes, twenty acres turnips, five acres 
carrots, three acres onions, seven acres gardens. The grain is all in stack; 
and the roothouses and collars are filled with vegetables; the stacks of grain have 
been conveniently built to facilitate threshing; the different stack-yards are strongly 
fenced, and protected by fire-guards. The wheat is a good sample; and the agent 
estimates a yield of two thousand two hundred and forty-five bushels. I have no 
doubt but there will bo that much. Of oats, there will be three hundred bushels ; 
the quantity of potatoes stored away for seed, and winter use, is one thousand three 
hundred and ninety -four bushels, by actual measurement; and of turnips, carrots 
and onions, the agent's estimate is over three thousand bushels. As a result of this 
success, the Indians are working well, and making vigorous preparations for working 
their land for next year. 

Some are still at work, fall-ploughing. A good number are engaged putting 
their houses in order for the winter, fixing roofs, chimneys, and mudding walls; 
while others are away working for settlers-; the high wages of one dollar and fifty 
cents a day, with board, being the great attraction. 

The new chief, "'Garry the Kettle," with four or five of his immediate followers, 
are removing their houses to a new site, founding a new city; they say that it makes 
their hearts heavy to continue to live in full view of the deceased chiefs house. 

The features of this reserve which attract special attention in viewing the 
farm work, are the squareness of the fields, and the completeness with which each is 
ploughed up to the fences ; there are no skipped spots to encourage the growth of 
weeds; the fields are well fenced and the ploughing is deep; the stubble was free 
from weeds, which proved that the grain had been sown on clean land, but I 
regretted to see there had been a good deal of waste in harvesting; the stubbles 
were well worth gleaning. The agent stated that this occurred through the difficulty 
met in hand-binding; as soon as the frost touched the straw, it became so brittle, 
that it was impossible to bind with it; and he went on to explain that, for a similar 
reason, some of the wheat was put into stack, without being bound. 

The Assiniboines have not, as yet, adopted the garb of white people, to any 
great extent; the Creos and Saulteux on the contrary dress for the most part as 
white people; and in seeing them at work, one is apt to forget that they are Indians. 
In this agency surprise is continually excited by seeing apparently uncivilized 
Indians performing deftly work common to civilized communities. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

I do not think that tho Assiniboines persist in the Indian style of dress from 
any national antipathy to the dress of white people, but that they find it easier to 
wear and cheaper. 

Live Stock. 

This band has one hundred and nine head of cattle, being an increase 
of fifteen, since my last inspection. The number of calves is small; eighteen, from 
twenty-seven cows; they have a thorough-bred Polled Angus bull, purchased thisyear ; 
it is therefore to be expected that the breed of the stock will show great improvement, 
from this investment. The cattle are in good order; they have three hundred and 
twenty tons of hay in stack, according to the estimate made by the agent; some of 
these stacks of hay were especially put up for sale; one has already been sold to a 

Sheep. — At the last inspection they had fifty-four sheep; since then, thirteen 
were received from the Qu'Appelle Industrial School; and there were twenty-one 
lambs this spring. Six have been killed for mutton, and iour died, leaving seventy- 
eight on hand; they clipped in 1890, one hundred and fifty-six pounds of wool; and 
in 1891, one hundred and forty pounds; this has been sent to Winnipeg to be ex- 
changed for yarn. Of animals, their private property, they have sixteen pigs and 
fifty-six horses. 

In the fiscal year 18S9-90, the department found it necessary to purchase for 
the Indians of this agency, twenty-three thousand one hundred and sixty-four pounds 
of beef, eight thousand and sixty-four pounds of bacon and fifty-six thousand two 
hundred pounds of flour. In 1890-91, the quantity required was sixteen thousand 
nine hundred and fifty-seven pounds of beef, six thousand and sixty-nine pounds of 
bacon, and thirty-four thousand three hundred pounds of flour, being a decrease of 
thirty thousand pounds of solid food. 

If the large crops of this year are economically handled, and I have no reason 
to think they will not be — the reduction in the issue of solid food should be a very 
important one, as the following comparative table of crops will show : — 

1890. 1891. 

Wheat, bushels 943 2,245 

Potatoes " 1,154 1,394 

Turnips,&c. " 3,000 3,352 

During the past four months thirty Indians have purchased at the mill with 
money earned by selling firewood, and labour, ninety-five sacks of flour. As soon 
as they have threshed their wheat they can have their own flour ; and their outside 
earnings should keep them in meat and other necessaries. 

Office and Warehouse. 

I took an inventory of the goods in store and examined those in use ; I audited 
the books kept in the office and compared the balance of each account brought down 
to 30th September, with the stock list, and found them correct; the books were 
regularly kept, and all way bills were accurately entered up and filed. Eeceipts, 
letters received, circulars, quadruplicates of vouchers, copies of returns, &c, were 
proper]}' filed ; a few articles in use I condemned after examination. 

Since 1st January these Indians have earned, according to the entries in the 
books here, four hundred and eighty-five dollars. It has been earned as follows: — 
Cash paid them by the department for work, two hundred and twenty-seven dollars; 
wheat sold, forty-two dollars; wood sold, eighty dollars; earned working for 
Bottlers, ninety-four dollars; dressing hides for settlers, thirteen dollars; cash prizes 
from agricultural shows, sixteen dollars; freighting flour, twenty dollars. The 
above Bums have been spent in provisions principally. I am informed that their 
treaty money was nearly all spent in clothing. 

Regarding the nine hundred and forty-three bushels of wheat grown in 1890, it 
was disposed of* as follows : — They gristed four hundred and five bushels, for which 
they received eight thousand one hundred and ninety-one pounds of flour; sold 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

ninety-nine bushels for forty-two dollars, and sowed two hundred and ninety-two 
bushels ; seventy-five bushels were screenings, and there are seventy-two bushels on 
hand. t 

They made a very creditable display at the Regina Industrial Fair, held on 
15th and 16th September. Ten Indians competed in thirty-six classes, namely, 
domestic work, tool handles, vegetables and grain ; they took seven first prizes and 
twenty of a lower grade. 

During the progress of my inspection these reserves have been surrounded by 
prairie tires ; but owing to the forethought of the agent in providing sufficient fire- 
guards, and to the vigilance of the Indians, no harm was done to their property. 


I arrived at the Touchwood Hills Indian Agency on the 2nd of November, and 
proceeded immediately with my inspection. 

Bay Star Band — 'Reserve 78. 

Charles Favel is still employed as foreman farm labourer for this reserve. He 
works under instructions from Farmer G-ooderham; and Mrs. Slater, wife of the 
school teacher of the reserve, is instructress to the Indian women. She is a native 
of the country. 

At the time of my visit, Charles Favel was engaged, with two Indians, in 
building a new house for the aged chief (since deceased). This is a good work, as 
his old house was hardly habitable. 

There are substantial improvements on the reserve since my last inspection. 
Their farming operations were fairly successful. Their crop consisted only of barley 
and roots ; of the former they had eleven acres. It was stacked in a well fenced 
corral, and will prove a fair yield when threshed. Of potatoes, they had five acres, 
which have yielded six hundred bushels; turnips, five hundred bushels; and one 
acre of carrots returned fifty bushels. Besides these, they had an acre of smaller 
vegetables. These potatoes and roots are stored, some for seed, in the band's new 
roothouse, and the remainder in the cellar, for winter use. 

During last winter and spring they whip-sawed about four thousand feet of 
lumber. This has been used in flooring their houses, and material for doors, window- 
frames, &c. They assisted the Poor Man Band in gathering and drawing stone for 
their kiln. They built good fences for their large calf pasture-fields, and constructed 
a strong corral in which to brand cattle. Altogether, as far as I was able to 
judge, they have been kept busy doing useful work. While I was on the reserve I 
noticed the Indians were nearly all engaged in mudding the walls of their buildings, 
and otherwise making them ready for winter. 

Live Stock. — Their cattle number one hundred and sixty-six head. The farmer 
claims an increase of fifty-four calves this year, and also states that at least seventy 
cows should have calves next year. They have put up stable accommodation for two 
hundred head. Since my last inspection, they were allowed to kill, for beef, seven 
animals; in each case the agent purchased a portion. They have twenty-five 
private horses. The farmer reports having assisted these Indians to cut and stack 
three hundred and seventy-five tons of hay. I saw a good deal, it was stacked 
convenient for winter use. 

Vital Statistics. — No births are entered since my last inspection in January 
last, and the deaths entered are two girls. 

Work of the Instructress. — Mis. Slater, the wife of the school-teacher, attends 
to these duties. Early in the spring she commenced making butter, with much 
enthusiasm and success. The women are said to be good knitters ; and the children 
of the day school had knitted eight pairs of socks, to be sent to the agency. A good 
many rush mats were made, and they would have made many more had they found 
sale for them. They have collected rushes and willow, to make both mats and 
baskets during the winter. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Day School. — The school is taught by Mr. Slater, he is a native of the country; 
there were fourteen children present on the occasion of my visit ; some of the children 
were well dressed. 

The teacher said the children attended with fair regularity, and that they were 
making good progress. The school-room was clean and comfortable. Near it is a 
long building where it is intended to teach the girls to manage a dairy and to make 

Poor Man Band — Reserve 88. 

Farmer G-ooderham is in charge of this band, and with him I drove about the 
reserve and inspected the Indians' work. I was pleased to observe the well-fenced 
stack-yard ; if the stacks yield in quantity and quality of grain in proportion to 
their size and appearance, they will have had a most bountiful harvest. 

Wheat was the largest crop, from one hundred and thirty-three acres the farmer 
estimated a yield of three thousand bushels; I do not place such a high estimate 
upon it. They had also four acres potatoes, two acres turnips and*one acre carrots, 
yielding three hundred bushels of the former, and one hundred and fifty bushels 
turnips; these were all safely stored away in their roothouses and cellars for the 
winter. JNine acres of rye sown came to nothing. 

In a great measure these Indians have changed from community-farming as a 
band to farming in severalty, in which many of the members have been very suc- 

Among them, they have made six bob-sleighs; they also attempted to burn a 
kiln of limestone, but through some mistake, after all their trouble in collecting and 
hauling the stone, it was improperly burnt, and only yielded one hundred bushels, 
instead of three hundred and fifty bushels as was expected. They sawed with 
whip-saws, since my last inspection, three thousand feet of lumber; this has been 
used for flooring their houses, making doors, door-frames, window-frames, grain- 
bins, &c. 

Work of the Instructress. — Mrs. Goodcrham reports that since the last inspection, 
there has been a great deal of sickness among the women and children of this band. 

Nearly all the families made butter ; all the beginners took their cream to the 
farmhouse, where they were taught the full process, and thej now succeed very 
well. The young girls have been taught general housework : she reports that they 
like to sew, but they do not care to knit, complaining their fingers are too stiff 
to do such work ; but most of them do knit, and are particular^ clever at crochetting, 
making both mitts and socks in that way. The women and girls also made a number 
of rushmats; and they laid in a supply of reeds, to be used in the winter. 

The instructress further states that, to the best of her ability, she has tried to 
inculcate a desire to keep their houses, themselves, and their children clean. During 
the summer, she had regular washing days for them, when three or four families 
would go together to the lake for that purpose ; if any women or children ever pre- 
sent themselves at the farmhouse not clean and tidy, they are sent away to make 
themselves so. This has had a good effect; and great improvement is observed in 

At the time of my visit, most families were moving from tepee to house ; most 
of them were engaged in mudding and preparing their houses and stables for winter 

Live Stock. — They have one hundred and twenty-four head of cattle, againstone 
hundred and one head'at my last inspection ; they killed six head for beef, making 
a gross increase of thirty head ; they had thirty-four calves ; and the farmer estimates 
that fifty cows will calve next year. 

They have two hundred and ten tons of hay in stack; it is nearly all in yards 
adjacent to their stables. This, together with their very large quantity of straw, 
will be abundance for wintering their stock and for spring work. They have 
twenty-six private horses. 

Farm Books. — I also found that the supplies which passed through the farmer's 
hands, for the Indians, had been properly treated, and the entries of issues had been 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

made regularly . I examined the live stock registers ; they were carefully kept. I 
also examined the stock in the storehouses, and it agreed with the balances brought 
down on the books. I issued my certificate of this audit and condemned those articles 
which were worn out. . , 

' The live stock in the immediate charge of this farmer for his own use, consists 

of a cow, a steer and two horses. 

Vital Statistics.— The number of births registered since 31st January, are three 
boys and one girl ; of deaths, one woman, two boys and three girls. 

The day school has been closed on this reserve since the spring. 

The farm buildings are kept in good repair. The implements were stored away 
for the winter. 

Gordon Band, Reserve 86— T. J. Fleetham, farmer. 

Accompanied by the farmer, I inspected the work of these Indians going from 
farm to farm. But few of them had moved into their houses, although the weather 
was decidedly wintry, and we drove in a sleigh. The Indians were engaged mud- 
ding up, whitewashing, and in general preparation of their houses and buildings foi 

Win TfoTd P tSgrainwell stacked in five or six well fenced corrals ; their crops 
consisted of ninety-nine and a half acres wheat, nineteen and a half acres barley, 
thirteen acres oats, seven acres potatoes, three acres turnips, and three acres gar- 
dens Twenty-one Indians are grain farmers and grow also potatoes and roots , 
while seven raised potatoes and roots only. The potatoes yielded only moderately, 
the total quantity dug and stored being four hundred and seventy bushels, and of 
turnips, one hundred and fifty bushels. 

The farmer estimated that he would have two thousand bushels wheat on the 
reserve; and I think it likely that he may have that quantity ; the barley crop is 
estimated to yield five hundred bushels; and the oats four hundred and fifty bushels 
Since Mr. Fleetham took charge of this reserve, in 1889, thirteen new houses have 
been built by the Indians and* eleven new stables. This season they summer-fal- 
lowed ninety acres, broke twenty acres and fall-ploughed ten acres. 

Mrs Fleetham, as instructress to the women of the band, states that twenty-one 
women and girls can perform almost all domestic duties, can make bread, knit, cut 
and sew garments, and make butter. 

Live Stock.-This band has one hundred and sixty-fiye head of cattle, against one 
hundred and thirty-one at the last inspect ion. Some were killed for beef and f MjneBold 
The gross increasi was therefore forty-five head. Forty-six cows raised forty-three 
calves. Eight head were killed by permission for beef; two cows were sold and one 
steer died Of private property they have sixty-two horses, nine cows two oxen ana 
thireen young cattle. Very Indian having cattle has large stacks of hay adjoining 
his stable^; this, together with the large quantity of straw this year, assures safe 
keeping for the winter. . 

Farm Office.— I inspected and audited the books of this office. Examined the live 
stock registers and found them regularly kept. The goods in store agreed with the 
balances brought down in the ledger. Issued my certificate ^ this ^di* I 
examined the goods in use on the farm and condemned those unfit for luithei use. 

Vital Statistics.-Smce 31st January last the births registered are four boys and 
six girls ; and the deaths, one man, one woman, three boys and live girls. 

School.— I visited the boarding and day school, under the care of the Eev. Owen 
Owens Since my last visit a duly qualified teacher has been appointed to assist him. 
Mr Owens found the duties of missionary, principal and teacher too heavy lor one 
man to perform. He informed me that he had thirty-three pupils namely, sixteen 
Tarders and seventeen day pupils. I was invited to visit the dormitories, and found 
them dean comfortable and well ventilated. The school was not in session, it being 
afte? hours.' The few children that I met there, were well dressed and looked happy 
and contented. 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Crop of 1890. 

In 1890 they threshed on this reserve eleven hundred and thirty-four bushels of 
wheat, which was disposed of as follows: — They gristed five hundred and sixty-two 
and a half bushels, receiving* therefrom one hundred and thirty-five sacks of flour; 
two hundred and twenty bushels were used for seed; one hundred and four and a 
half bushels were sold; forty bushels were classed "frozen"; one hundred and 
seventy-nine bushels, waste and screenings; and there are twenty-eight bushels on 

Muscowequahn Band — Reserve 85. — Louis Couture, farmer. 

I visited this reserve on the 8th and 9th of November. I did not see many o^ 
the Indians, as but few of them had moved into their houses. They were busily 
employed putting them and their stables in order for winter. 

The band had in crop this year, thirty acres wheat, fifteen acres oats, fourteen 
acres barley, five and one-half acres potatoes, four acres turnips, half acre carrots, 
and two acres gardens. The grain was all well stacked in well-fenced corrals ; the 
wheat is a fairly good sample, and will yield over six hundred bushels. Of potatoes, 
they have stored away for seed and winter use, three hundred aud twenty-five bushels, 
and of turnips, two hundred bushels. The Indians have been energetic in perform- 
ing their farming operations during the past summer ; the farmer says he has sixteen 
working men who farm, on their own account, for the support of themselves and 
their families. They broke seventeen acres, summer-fallowed — twice ploughing — 
twenty-one acres; they have newly fenced nineteen acres, and whip-sawed four 
hundred and fifty feet of boards. 

There is no paid instructress on this reserve; but Mrs. Couture and her daughter 
take great interest in teaching the Indian women knitting, washing and ironing, 
plain sewing, cutting out garments, how to plait straw hats, to perform the work of 
the dairy and to make bread. At the Begin a Fair, women of this band carried off 
prizes for straw-plaiting and straw hats, knitted mitts and plain sewing. 

Live Stock. — The band has eighty-nine head of cattle, under Government con- 
trol, in the hands of fifteen persons; there are twelve head more than at the last 
inspection ; five head were killed for beef, and one heifer was sold, the total increase 
therefore has been eighteen head. From the twenty-three cows, nineteen calves were 
reared. They have nine head of private cattle, being a decrease of two since my 
last inspection, and they have fifteen horses. 

They have in stack, hay computed at one hundred and eighty-seven tons, at their 
stables ; and fifty tons more stacked in the hay fields. 

I audited the books of the farm, and analysed the live stock register; I found 
them correct, and regularly kept; and issued my certificate of audit. I examined 
the goods in use, and wrote off the books such of them as were worn out and of no 
further use. 

Vital Statistics. — The births registered since 31st January, are three boys and 
three girls ; and the deaths, one man, one woman, two boys and four girls. 

School. — I visited the boarding school and day school taught by Mr. Dennehy; 
there were eighteen children present; I was much pleased with their class-work ; 
they show considerable proficiency in reading, spelling, grammar, and of the geo- 
graphy of the Dominion of Canada. The children were cleanly dressed, and looked 
bright and happy. The principal has added an annex to the school building, thus 
making more accommodation. 

The farmer's premises and buildings are in good order and repair; there was 
a good vegetable garden in the summer; and it was being cultivated for early seed- 
ing in the spring. 

Yellow Quill Band. 

This band does very little agricultural work, their crops this year being reported 
as seven acres potatoes, which yielded them three hundred and fifty bushels, and one 
acre of turnips yielding seventy-five bushels. They have broken twenty-nine acres 
and fenced ten. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Live Stock.— They have twenty-three head of cattle under Government con- 
trol, being the same number as at the last inspection ; the year's calves are not 
reported, and a yoke of oxen were killed for beef. Of private animals they have 
thirty horses and thirteen cattle. 

Vital Statistics— Since my last inspection, 31st January, the births on this 
reserve are reported eight boys and seven girls; and the deaths during the same 
period, one man, two women, three boys and five girls, making the net increase four. 

Indian Agency. i 

I took a careful inventory of the goods in store, and compared it with the 
balances brought down in the ledger. ' [ checked through the whole system of 
receipts and issues of goods. Having completed a strict audit of all the books kept 
in the office, I issued my certificate of the same. I went over the list of goods in 
use, and struck off those worn out ; they were articles which had been in use at the 
agency for some years. 

Agency Buildings. 

The agency buildings are kept in repair ; the stable has been plastered with 
lime and sand, whitewashed inside and outside, and the roof paiDted ; the clerk's 
house has had an addition put to it of a summer kitchen, and a verandah and a brick 
chimney on the kitchen ; the main house was rough-cast and the roof painted ; a 
stockade fence has been placed around the agent's garden; and the interpreter's 
house has been plastered and whitewashed. 

Vital Statistics. 

The births registered for the whole agency, since 31st January last, are eighteen 
boys and seventeen girls; total, thirty-five; and the deaths, three men, five women, 
ten boys and nineteen girls; total, thirty-seven. Drs. Collinge and Hall have each 
paid a professional visit to this agency since my last inspection. 

muscowpetung's agency. 

I arrived at this agency on Saturday, 21st November, and on the following 
Monday morning commenced my inspection. 

Piapot Band— Reserve 15— B. McKinnon, farmer. 

These Indians had not been long in their houses, having lived in their tepees all 
summer, and they were scarcely settled. I visited each house and inspected their 
byres and stables. The houses are much as usual, and some of them had too many 
inmates for the size of them. 

Farm Work.— This band had one hundred and fifty-seven acres in crop this year, 
being an increase of thirty-one acres. It consists of one hundred and seventeen 
acres wheat, twenty-eight acres oats, six acres potatoes and six acres turnips. The 
threshing is over, and the yield is three thousand three hundred and twenty-four 
bushels wheat, being an average yield of twenty-eight and a quarter bushels to the 
acre, being nineteen more bushels to the acre than their crop of 1890. Their oats 
yielded one thousand four hundred and eighty-five bushels. The above shows the 
measurement as the grain came from the threshing machine; it will shrink con- 
siderably when it is cleaned to be marketed. The sample of wheat is very fair, and 
will grade an average of No. 3, hard; some will go No. 1, northern. 

The potatoes yielded nine hundred and eighty-seven bushels ; and the turnips, 
fourteen hundred and twenty-five bushels. The potatoes are of very fine 

The above crops were almost all sown on stubble land ploughed m ; a small 
portion was sown on fall ploughing ; but this year the ploughed-in wheat is better 
both as regards yield and sample. 

There is not much improvement in this band's manner of living. Their houses 
are still mere huts ; most of them are wevy small, and have too many inmates, the 
one room (they are not partitioned) being used for all purposes. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

At the time of my visit, I observed but few cases of sickness ; and they wore well 
provided with food — and to spare — there being in nearly every house a sack or two 
of flour. 

Live Stock. — The band has one hundred and twenty-five head of cattle, being an 
increase since the last inspection of twenty head. They consist of fifty-one oxen, one 
buil.twenty-three cows, nine steers, twenty-one heifers, fourteen bull-calves, and six 
heifer-calves ; and are owned by twenty-four persons. They have also one hundred 
and nineteen horses, their private property. Excepting a few cows giving milk 
and their working oxen, they are all herded. 

Hay. — The cutting and sale of hay is the great industry of this band ; they 
put into stack four hundred and fifty-two tons. The price this year is low, their 
only market being Eegina ; and they have great competition in the sale of it from 
the' German settlers. A load of twenty-five hundred brings about five dollars and 
fifty cents delivered in any part of the town ; the delivery of a load takes three 
days' work ; but it is the means of helping them to make their own living. 

Home Farm. — The farmer only puts in a small crop of oats and roots, for the 
use of his establishment. This year he had seven acres oats, which yielded three 
hundred and five bushels; half an acre potatoes, yielding eighty bushels ; and he 
cut and stacked twenty-five tons of hay. Of live stock he has a horse, cow and calf 
and three steers. The farm premises are in good repair, and are kept in good 
order. At the blacksmith's shop, he repairs the implements for all the Indians. 

I audited the farm books, checking the receipts entered therein, with the agency 
books. I found everything regularly entered; and the issues were entered as made; 
the returns were made up from the books, and agreed therewith, and the balances 
shown to be on hand were correct. I issued my certificate of audit to this effect. 
Examined the articles in use, and condemned those worn out. 

Ln 1890, the crop of wheat grown on this reserve was eight hundred and two 
bushels, from seventy-one acres of land. It has been expended and disposed of in 
the following manner: Two hundred bushels were used for seed, and six hundred 
and two bushels were gristed and exchanged for flour, the Indians receiving one 
hundred and forty-two sacks of flour. 

Muscowpetung Band. Reserve 80 — Farmer Nichol. 

J. Nichol took charge of this reserve on 5th August last. For a part of the 
summer it had no farming instructor, the agent managing it himself. The band 
had in crop sixty-six acres, which consisted of fifty-five and a half acres of wheat, 
five acres of potatoes, and the remainder of the land in turnips and gardens. The 
threshing is finished, and the yield is one thousand four hundred and thirty-three 
bushels of wheat, being nearly one thousand bushels greater yield than in 1890, 
from about the same extent of land. The above figures are " thresher's " measures, 
which will be considerably reduced when the grain is cleaned for market. The 
wheat is of medium sample, and will make good flour if properly handled. 

Their potatoes yielded four hundred and one bushels. Of these, sixty-five 
bushels have been stored away for seed in the farm roothouse, and the remainder 
the Indians have placed in their cellars for winter use. Of turnips, one hundred and 
sixty-five bushels were stored. The grain is all in the farm granary. The above crops 
were grown by nineteen persons, the largest farmer having nine acres, while seven 
pel-sons had less than an acre each. Some preparations have been made for next 
year's crop. Eight persons have broken sixteen acres ; but the only fall ploughing 
was two acres. Forty-eight acres were newly fenced this year. Two new houses 
were built and ten houses and six stables were pulled down and rebuilt, in this 
manner somewhat improving them ; but my remarks in this direction upon the 
Piapot band will apply to this band also. 

The farmer, for the use of farm stock, had six acres of oats, which yielded two 
hundred and twenty-five bushels and a quarter; an acre of potatoes yielding thirty 
bushels, and he cut and stacked thirty tons of hay. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Live Stock. — There are one hundred and eight head of stock belonging to this band 
under Government control, being an increase of fourteen head since my last inspection. 
They consist of twenty-five oxen, one bull, twenty-five cows, twenty steers, thirteen 
heifers, twelve bull-calves and nine heifer-calves. Of private animals they have 
thirty-two horses and one heifer. The animals are all in fine condition, although 
not as yet stabled. 

These Indians cut and stacked three hundred and fifty tons of hay. Like the 
Piapot band, they are hauling a good deal of it to Regina, where it meets with 
ready sale at current rates which are low this year. 

The farmer has in his immediate charge, three horses, one cow, one heifer and 
three colts. 

I audited the farm books, checking the receipts with the issues charged 
against this farm at the agency. I found them to agree. The issues were regularly 
made, and the monthly returns had been made up from the books. I issued my 
certificate of this audit. 

I examined the articles in use, and condemned those which were worn 
out. I checked the live stock returns and found they were properly made up 
from the cattle record book. A " round-up" of the cattle had been made in June, 
and the cattle record was adjusted thereby, and is now correct. 

In 1890, the wheat crop of fifty-two acres yielded four hundred and fifty-one 
bushels, thresher's measure. I observe that it was disposed of as follows: — One 
hundred bushels used for seed; three hundred and fourteen bushels gristed, yielding 
sixty-seven sacks of flour ; and twenty-seven bushels were screenings. There was 
received for the gristing, in addition to the above quantity of flour, six thousand 
five hundred and twenty-five pounds of offal. 

Pasquah Band, Reserve 79 — Stewart Hockley, farmer ; Mrs. Hockley, instructress. 

This band continues to make fair progress. There are many more half-breed 
Indians among them than in the other bands of this agency. In one sense this is 
an advantage, but it is more of* appearance than reality for while on the one hand 
they have everything to learn, on the other, there are many bad habits to correct 
and eradicate, prejudices and indolence to counteract which are adhered to, 
especially among the Saulteux half-breeds, with great persistence and stubbornness. 

Farming operations were commenced with promptness as soon as the spring 
opened, and a larger crop than usual was planted. They had fifty acres of summer, 
fallow ready for the seed. This was a great advantage in forwarding the seeding. 
The remainder of their crop was put in on spring ploughing. They had one 
hundred and nine acres in crop, being fourteen acres more than in 1890. It con- 
sisted of ninety-eight acres of wheat — an increase in this crop of twenty-one acres; 
two acres of oats, four acres of potatoes — a decrease of two acres; three acres of 
turnips, and two acres gardens. These crops were grown by thirty- two Indian 
farmers, twenty-five having wheat, and the other seven root crops only. Three men 
have seven, eight and nine acres, respectively ; two more have six acres each; four 
more have .five acres each ; five have four acres each ; four men have three acres 
each ; three men have two acres each ; and four men have an acre each. It will be 
observed from this, that no one, two, three or four men absorb the whole farming 
interests of the reserve, as is too often the case, but that the crop is pretty generally 
divided up among the members of the band. 

Threshing the grain is now being proceeded with ; it is yielding fairly; in some 
fields there is smut, which affects and deteriorates the sample. The yield of straw 
is enormous; and the strength of the Indians was taxed to the utmost in harvesting 

As I remarked before, fifty acres of wheat were sown on summer fallow, the 
balance on spring ploughing. The best crop, and earliest harvested, was grown on 
stubble land, which was ploughed in; being a wet season, the summer-fallow 
continued to grow without ripening early. The four acres of potatoes yielded four 
hundred and five bushels, and the turnips, two hundred and twenty bushels. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Twenty-eight acres were broken and twenty acres summer-fallowed this year, 
and ten acres were newly fenced. 

Throe kilns of lime have been burned, one by Josiah Matoney, and two by 
Antoine Cyr ; the proceeds of these kilns were sold to settlers and to the Presby- 
terian and Catholic missions, at such good prices as thirty and thirty-five cents a 
bushel ; while a good deal of it was used upon their own, and their neighbours' 

Six new houses and six new stables have been built. 

In company with the agent, I visited the Indians at their homes going from 
house to house. The new houses and stables have all been built in the valley and 
within short distances from each other; some abandoning better houses than their 
new ones to go there. 

The Eoman Catholic Mission built a very fine concrete church this summer, on 
a site on Robbiere's Point; and for some unexplained reason all the Indians of that 
faith have gone there and built new houses and stables in the vicinity. This is 
much to be regretted, as the successful farming is done on the bench land; and, no 
longer living on the farms, they will be placed at a great disadvantage to Indians 
who do. 

The Presbyterian Mission has also built a new church of stone, it is a mile from 
the instructor's house, is surrounded by the best farming lands on the reserve, 
and is not far from the living stream of water upon which the farmhouse is situate. 
Both the churches received substantial and liberal contributions in work from the 
Indians during their construction in hauling stone, sand, &c, free of charge. 

These Indians purchased a second-hand reaper this year, without which they 
could not have successfully harvested such a heavy crop of grain. 

The band made the following exhibits at the Eegina Agricultural Show: 
Wooden ox collars, cart harness, carrots, onions, pumpkins, turnips, wheat, oats, 
potatoes, Indian corn, and obtained prizes in eight of them. 

Since my last inspection these Indians have earned a considerable sum in cash, 
from labour, sale of grain, wood, hay, furs, beef, &c. The monthly earnings were 
about as follows : In April, sale of wheat, carrying messages, potatoes, &c, twenty- 
one dollars and fifty cents; June, for lime, buffalo bones, wood, horse-hire, convey- 
ing messages, one hundred and thirty-eight dollars ; for wood sold to the industrial 
school, from January to June, one hundred and thirty-four dollars and seventy-five 
cents ; July, beef sold, ploughing, berries, freighting, horse-hire, one hundred and 
forty dollars; August, freighting, berries, horse-hire, fifty-five dollars; September, 
working for settlers, freighting, fur, harvesting, one hundred and ninety-seven dol- 
lars; October, working for settlers, hay, cradling their own grain (for which they 
were paid at the rate of fifty cents an acre), freighting, fur, wildfowl, two hundred 
and fifty-two dollars and fifteen cents; November, cutting wood, hay, fur, beef, fish, 
two hundred and thirty-five dollars ; making a total sum earned in these several out- 
side ways of one thousand one hundred and seventy-three dollars and forty cents. 
As to how this large sum was spent by them, the word " subsistence " pretty well 
covers the whole of it. 

Live Stock, — This band has one hundred and thirty-five head of chttle, under 
Government control, being an increase of eighteen head since my last inspection; to 
this increase may be added three head that were killed for beef. These cattle con- 

of forty-one oxen, one bull, thirty-one cows, twenty-eight heifers, fourteen steers, 
nine bull-calves and eleven heifer-calves. These cattle are in the hands of thirty 
persons; they are all in go»d condition, and will be stabled as soon as the cold 
weather nets in. I inspected the stables, some of them were not quite ready to 
receive the cattle yet ; others are well fitted up and quite comfortable; there are 
plenty of them, namely, thirty-two ; every Indian having cattle has a stable. Of 
private animals, these Indians have ninety horses, being an increase of twenty since 
my last inspection, and they have four head of private cattle, being a decrease of one 

They put into stack three hundred tons of hay, this quantity is already reduced 
by sales of twenty tons in Eegina and Qu'Appelle, in October; and thirty tons sold 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

and fed to their stock in November. Their enormous quantity of straw will help to 
feed their cattle to such an extent, that, if they could sell all their hay this year their 
cattle would have sufficient feed. 

These Indians generally milk their cows, and in a few cases make butter also. 

Work of the Instructress. — Mrs. Hockley continues to make weekly visits to the 
Indians' houses ; and the women and girls go to the farmhouse for instruction at 
irregular intervals. She superintended the preparation of their exhibits for the 
Regina Fair, and they were successful in winning thirteen prizes. The women's ex- 
hibits of domestic work were wild hops, Indian corn, butter, bread, print dresses, 
socks, mitts, knitted gloves, comforters and bed quilts. 

During the summer women have been instructed in dyeing cloth, to gather and 
prepare straw for making straw hats, plaiting straw, knitting mitts, gloves, stock- 
ings, cuffs and comforters, in making bed quilts, cutting and fitting dresses, plain 
sewing, making soft soap, bread, and butter. 

Standing Buffalo Band (Sioux), Reserve 78. — S. Hockley, farmer. 

Accompanied by the agent, I inspected this reserve. We visited each Indian's 
farm, inspected their houses, stables and out-buildings, their grain in stack, examined 
their cattle, and inquired into the condition of the Indians generally. 

I was pleased to see the advancement they have made in building houses and 
stables, and farming on the bench land. Some dozen families live up there now, 
and evidently intend to stay there. This movement means living on their farms, 
and ultimate and positive success in farming. As time goes on, I hope to see the 
" Gulch " entirely deserted ; for as long as they continue there, their farming cannot, 
on account of its confined limits, go much beyond gardening. 

Their houses are not of a very high grade ; a good many of them are only huts, 
but they contained plenty of material of one kind and another, wherewith to make 
themselves comfortable. 

Farm Work. — This band had sixty-four and one-half acres in crop this year ; it 
consisted of forty-seven acres wheat, four acres oats, eight acres potatoes, one acre 
turnips, three and one-half acres Indian corn, and one acre gardens. The grain is 
not yet threshed, but it stands in well-made stacks in well-fenced corrals, fire- 
guarded. I examined the quality of the wheat; it is good and has the appearance 
of a great yield. Their potatoes yielded eleven hundred and fifty-nine bushels, the 
turnips, two hundred bushels, and the corn, sixty-five bushels. 

Different Indians broke eight acres of land, and summer-fallowed three acres. 
They built two new stables and one new house and rebuilt several of the old houses. 

Live Stock. — This band has fifty-one head of cattle, being an increase of only 
four head since my last inspection , they consist of nineteen oxen, one bull, nine 
cows, nine steers, eight heifers; three bull-calves, and two heifer-calves; one steer 
was sold for beef by permission of the agent. Of private stock, they have sixty 
horses, being an increase of sixteen since my last inspection. The stock are all in 
very good order; they are, as yet, all running out on the prairie. They put up an 
estimated quantity of one hundred and twenty-five tons of hay, and they will have, 
after they thresh, a large quantity of straw for feed. 

School. — There is a boarding and day school on this reserve, under the auspices 
of the Roman Catholic Church. It is taught by Miss Leslie ; Mr. and Mrs. Leslie 
attend to the boarding department of the school. 

There are ten pupils, boarders ; and there were eight day pupils at the time of 
our visit. The children looked healthy and well, and were decently clothed. They 
appeared to advantage in their classes. The school was closed by singing and 
prayer. I was taken into the dormitories ; they appeared to be sufficiently 

There is a resident priest at the school, who supervises the religious instruction 
both of the school and of the reserve. 

I inspected the farm books, checking the receipts with the issues to this farm, 
from the agency ; and the live stock returns of both bands, with the cattle record 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

book. The records were revised in June, after the round up on both reserves. I 
issued my certificate of this audit ; examined the articles in use, and struck off 
some which were worn out. 

The farm buildings are kept in good order. The house has received a coat of 
paint, since my last inspection. There was a good vegetable garden the past sum- 
mer. The farmer also had ten acres of land in oats, a quarter acre each of 
potatoes and turnips ; and he has in stack twenty tons of hay. 

Wheat Crop of 1890. 

In 1890, Pasquah Band threshed fourteen hundred and seventy-five bushels of 
wheat; and the Sioux, six hundred bushels. The following is a statement of how 
this was disposed of by them: — 

Pasquah Band used for seed one hundred and eighty bushels, sold three hun- 
dred and forty-two bushels and fifty pounds ; gristed, six hundred and forty-seven 
bushels and thirty-four pounds ; chopped for cattle feed, fifty bushels ; screenings, 
seventy-rive bushels ; retained by the Indians for feed, as it was of inferior quality, 
one hundred and ten bushels. Sioux Band, used for seed, one hundred bushels ; 
sold one hundred and thirty-five bushels ; gristed, four hundred and thirty-four 
bustels and twenty-seven pounds. 

Indian Office and Storehouse. 

I took an inventory of the goods in the agency storehouse, and audited the 
books in the office. I checked the monthly and quarterly store returns with the 
same ; 1 also checked the balance brought forward and down in the ledger. The 
quantities in store agreed with the balances shown in the ledger. I examined the 
articles in use ; condemned some which were worn out, and issued my certificate of 
the audit. 

Vital Statistics. 

From 15th July, 1890, to the 6th October, 1891, the births in the whole agency 
were forty-five, and the deaths, for the same period, fifty, so far as the Treaty 
Indians are concerned. As for the Sioux, it is difficult to arrive at any accurate con- 
clusion, but they are set down from July, 1890, to September, 1891, births, five; and 
deaths, fourteen. 

Government herd of Cattle. 

In this agency there is a herd of cattle designated as above. It is this year in 
charge of Mr. Finlayson. I went through it and examined the condition of the 
cattle. Some cows are rather thin, their calves having run too long with them. 
This was to be rectified immediately. The corral and stables for confining the 
calves being now finished, they will be separated at once. A couple of young 
Polled Angus bulls have been added to the herd this summer, and they, no doubt, 
will make a marked improvement in the herd. A round-up of these cattle was 
made in the spring, and the agent informs me that the number carried on the books 
on the 30th June last, agreed with this round-up. 

The number originally purchased was seventy-eight heifers and bulls. Fourteen 
cows have since been added to the herd; with the natural increase they number now 
two hundred and thirty-nine head. Add to this number twelve killed for beef, the 
gross increase is one hundred and fifty-nine head. 

The fine large stacks of hay which dot the prairie and Qu'Appelle Valley, for 
the use of this herd, as well as for the Indians' cattle, is tangible evidence that there 
need not be any starving cattle this winter. 

From this agency there are ninety-one Indian children attending the industrial 
schools at Regina and Qu'Appelle, and sixteen boarders and eight day pupils 
attending the boarding and day schools at the Sioux and Pasquah reserves. 


I found 



On the 16th December, I commenced my inspection of this agency. 
Agent Wright, Interpreter Hourie and Farmer McConnell, all at their pos 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

Four bands constitute this agency, but their numbers have become much reduced, 
and this fact together with the death of nearly all the chiefs and headmen has 
almost obliterated the distinction between them ; their farm labour, and the proceeds 
thereof being pooled in such a way that it is now almost impossible to define them, 
so far as industrial pursuits are concerned. Farming in severalty is not encouraged ; 
and probably there is no other agency where the Indians have so little that is 
distinctly personal property as here. 

Little Black Bear Band — Reserve 84. 

The following crops were grown by this band : — Eleven acres wheat, one acre 
corn, twelve acres potatoes, two acres turnips, one acre carrots, one and a quarter 
acre gardens ; total, sixty-eight and a quarter acres. The wheat yielded six hundred 
and thirty-two bushels, and is very good; the potatoes yielded fourteen hundred 
bushels, and are of fine quality. 

I visited the Indians at their homes, and observed their condition, and the pro- 
vision they had made for wintering their cattle. All the premises were tidj^, and 
ready for winter. 

Live Stock. — This band has one hundred and forty-seven head of cattle, under 
Government control; and private animals, thirty-six horses, two cows and five 
young cattle. 

As they made beef of eight animals, there has been a gross increase of forty- 
two head, since the last inspection; and a decrease of one in their private stock, 
having killed one animal for beef. Their stock is all in very good condition; they 
have a large supply of hay, the quantity in stack being estimated at three hundred 

Star Blanket Band — Reserve 83. 

This band is the only one in the agency having a chief and the full number of 
headmen. I do not think that it gets along any better than the others upon this 
account. Its numerical strength is weak, there being but forty-six members, all 

Farm Work. — They had twenty-seven and three-quarters acres in crop this year, 
namely, twenty acres wheat, five acres potatoes, half an acre corn, one acre turnips, 
and one and a quarter acre onions, carrots and gardens. Their wheat yielded three 
hundred and thirty-four bushels, and their potatoes, four hundred bushels. 

There are nine working men in this band. Three new stables were built this 
year; and the old ones, as well as their houses, have been thoroughly repaired and. 
put into good order for the winter. 

Live Stock. — They have forty-eight head of cattle under Government control, 
being an increase of thirteen over the number reported at the last inspection. These 
cattle are in the hands of five persons ; they killed two animals for beef and put 
up one hundred and thirty tons of hay. 

Okee-neese and Pee-pee-kee-sis Band — Reserves Nos. 81 and 82. 

These bands numbering sixty-two and eighty-seven, respectively, work together, 
to some extent. 

The crops grown by them were contained in one hundred and thirty-nine and 
three-quarters acres. Ninety acres were wheat, which has yielded two thousand 
one hundred and five bushels, thresher's measure; and twelve acres potatoes, yield- 
ing nine hundred bushels; ten acres rye, yielding one hundred and sixty-seven 
bushels ; three acres turnips, yielding six hundred and forty bushels ; the remainder 
of the land cropped was gardens. The two bands cut and stacked six hundred tons 
of hay. 

They muster, between them, forty working Indians; the Okee-neese Band live 
more comfortably than the other, having better houses and stables; of the former 
they have twelve, and of the latter, seventeen. Five new houses have been built 
since the last inspection ; and all the others have been mudded up and put into 
repair for winter occupation. 

14— 6| 83 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Four new pig pens have been built by as many Indians; also seven new corrals, 
four new stables, and two new sheds; all the old stables were repaired and put into 
good order. 

Okee-neese Live Stock. 

This band has one hundred and twenty-one head of cattle owned by twelve per- 
sons ; at the last inspection there were eighty-nine head only ; this shows an increase 
of thirty-two head, but eleven head were received from the agency and eight head 
were killed for beef; so the natural increase was twenty-nine. 

In making a close inspection of Pee-pee-kee-sis Reserve, I could not help but 
notice how few able-bodied men there are in the band ; and upon inquiry I find 
there are only fifteen fit for work. 

The stables have been repaired, and corrals built adjoining them, to hold hay; 
seven new stables have been built; and two members of the band have each built 
a new house. 

These two bands have one hundred acres of new land ready prepared for crop. 

The Pee-pee-kee-sis Band has one hundred and twenty-six head of cattle under 
Government control. These are shown in the cattle record book as being owned by 
thirteen persons. At the last inspection they had eighty-one head only. 

The preparations made for wintering this stock appear to be ample. They 
have three hundred tons of hay; it is stacked rather too far away for a weak band 
to handle in winter, but I was assured that the cattle would not be allowed to suffer 
upon that account. 

There was a lack of domestic comfort in the houses of this band, which was 
very apparent. The agent said they were improvident and difficult to deal with in 
this respect. 

To summarize the work and resources of the Indians of this agency — two 
hundred and fifty-five and three-quarters acres were under cultivation this year, and 
the total yield of each crop is three thousand and seventy bushels wheat, five 
hundred and fifty-eight bushels oats, one hundred and sixty-seven bushels rye, two 
thousand seven hundred bushels potatoes, seven hundred and forty bushels turnips, 
and twenty bushels carrots, making a grand total of seven thousand two hundred 
and fifty-six bushels ; and a grand total of cattle of four hundred and fifty-one head. 

Agency Office. 

I audited the books of the office, checked the ledger with the monthly and 
quarterly store returns, verified the balances brought down from month to mouth, 
took an inventory of the goods in the storehouse and compared them. I examined 
the cattle record books, compared them with the quarterly returns, and found them 
to agree as to numbers, but with a little difference in classification. I examined the 
list of goods in use, and struck off those worn out. I issued my certificate of this 

Vital Statistics. 

The births since my last inspection, 28th February, 1890, are registered as nine, 
and the deaths, sixteen; six of the deaths were children under six years old. 

Earnings of Indians. 

Since the last inspection their opportunities for earning money outside of their 
farming operations have been limited, and amounted to two hundred and ninety- 
three dollars and forty-five cents. They are at this time earning some money 
cutting firewood on their reserve to supply white settlers. They receive one dollar 
a load, but the demand for it is very limited. 

Crops grown in 1890. 

In 1890 the Indians of this agency threshed out two thousand three hundred 
and seventeen bushels of wheat, and two hundred and twenty-nine bushels of rye. 
This was disposed of as follows : Wheat gristed, fourteen hundred and thirty-eight 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

bushels; seed, three hundred and five bushels; screenings, five hundred and seventy- 
four bushels ; rye gristed, two hundred and nineteen bushels ; screenings, ten 

The net returns from the gristing were five hundred and forty-five thousand 
pounds of flour and thirty-six thousand pounds of offal. In this case the grain was 
not tolled, but the gristing was paid for in cash. 


Mr. Skeene still continues his boarding school for the Indians. He has twelve 
pupils. He speaks encouragingly of his success, and is most sanguine for the future 
of his school. He is a teacher of long experience, and has an Ontario record as a 
most successful one. He has no day pupils. Chief Star Blanket still obstinately 
refuses to allow any children of his band to attend any school. The Roman Catholic 
Church has built a very neat mission church on the reserve, not far from the 

qu'appelle industrial school. 

On the 11th January I commenced my inspection of the Qu'Appelle industrial 

I examined closely into every detail of the business management, all its 
receipts and issues of the various kinds of goods, taking stock of those in 
store and in use. I visited several times the different workshops which are 
carried on in connection with this school, and have observed the general routine 
work of the institution. And after satisfying myself that the business was carried on 
faithfully, that the office books were regularly and properly kept, and that the stores 
on hand and those expended were properly accounted for, I issued my certificate of 
audit to that effect. 


At my last inspection of this school the trades taught were farming, 
carpentering, blacksmithingand baking. Since then a shoemaker has been engaged 
and a shop opened. 


Thomas Redmond continues to hold the position of farmer. He has eight 
boys regularly employed with him, and in the busy seasons, such as haying 
and harvesting, all boys who are old enough assist. The farm students work four 
at a time, alternately, morning and afternoon, attending classes in school after the 
same fashion. 

The crops harvested in 1891 were five acres wheat, yielding forty-eight 
bushels; four acres oats, yielding fifty-two bushels; eight acres potatoes, yielding 
eleven hundred bushels; one acre turnips, nine hundred bushels; two acres 
vegetables, and four acres peas. They also cut and stacked twenty-six tons of hay. 
They summer fallowed twenty-five acres, and fall-ploughed seven acres. 

The large yield which they had of nine hundred bushels of turnips to the acre, 
is almost unprecedented in this country, and shows what can be done with proper 
cultivation. This success in raising vegetables should receive the highest commen- 
dation, for it is a branch of agriculture that can be pursued by Indians without the 
aid of machinery. 

The school's exhibition of vegetables, both at the Regina and Winnipeg fairs, 
was greatly commended, and at the former place it gained four prizes on six entries, 
the competition being very great and open to all the country. At Winnipeg it 
gained eight prizes, or one for every entry made. 

The live stock consists of seven horses and colts, eleven pigs, fifteen cows, three 
heifers, four steers, two oxen, and one bull. The animals are all in very fine order. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

As there is ample stable room, every animal is stabled every night. There is a pump 
in the stable, and a fine large barn-yard with plenty of litter and fodder. In this 
they are turned in the daytime. The pigs received cooked food and no other. 

At this season of the year the routine of the work is (1) milking; (2) feeding 
stock; (3) cleaning stables; (4) hauling hay, threshing peas, sorting potatoes and 
roots; (5) stabling stock, feeding the same, and milking. The hay was cut and 
stacked about five miles away from the school. 

Carpenter's Shop. 

B.. Meehan, carpenter, has eight boys learning the trade, four working in the 
morning, and the other four in the afternoon. These boys attend school in the same 
alternate manner. 

Some of the boys have become quite clever workmen. No new buildings have 
been erected during the past year, therefore their work has been confined to some- 
what extensive repairs inside and outside the main buildings, in the shops, stables, 
&c., a list of which would be too long for an annual report, for it covers every con- 
ceivable work in carpentry required about such a large institution as this is, from 
making panelled doors, desks and furniture, to repairing the same ; to making 
sleighs and repairing vehicles of all kinds. 

Blacksmith's Shop. 

D. McDonald continues to hold the position of instructor in this trade. 
Similarly to the carpenter, he has eight pupils, who work and study alter- 
nately, four at a time, every forenoon and every afternoon. The instructor 
speaks very highly of the aptness of his pupils in learning the trade. Their work 
is of endless variety, as it also includes within its scope whatever plumbing and 
tinsmith's work there is to do. They also do all the horseshoeing for the institu- 
tion and for the File Hills Agency; also all the blacksmith's work required for that 
agency, and a good deal of special work for Muscowpetung Agency, such as ironing 
sleighs. They make all the iron bedsteads required, fitting them with springs; 
repair wagons, buckboards, ploughs and other farming implements; make iron 
railings and fences; repair stoves and furnaces, make tools for their own shop, 
also clevises, whiffletree and neck-yoke irons for the different Indian agencies, and 
two of the pupils worked three weeks at the Touchwood Agency, repairing every- 
thing in their line during the time. 

Shoe Shop. 

Mr. A. Goyer was engaged as shoemaker to the institution ; he has six pupils who 
labour and study alternately, three at a time, mornings and afternoons. Their 
chief employment is mending the children's shoes, and they made a few pairs of 
moccasins. They also do any repairs required to the harness. The Principal 
informs me that the sedentary life of the shoe shop has not agreed with the health 
of the boys employed therein. 


The bread for the institution is baked by G-. Goff, assisted by two pupils. I cannot 
say that these boys are learning this business, for upon inquiring closely into their 
work, I believe they are not, they simply assist in the labour connected therewith. 
Besides baking the bread the baker and his boys cut up the meat and prepare it for 
the kitchen. 

Night Watchman and Furnace-man. 

Charles Miles performs the duties of night watchman both in summer and winter 
and attends to the furnaces; he also attends to the greenhouse, and as he is by trade, 
a stone-mason and plasterer, painter and generally a handy man, he usually has two 
or more of the pupils assisting him and he teaches them those trades. With the 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

boys he kalsomined the whole of the boys' building — about five thousand yards 
— placed a stone foundation under the wash-house, pulled down and rebuilt the 
chimney on blacksmith's shop, repaired the brickwork of the furnaces, rebuilt the 
arch to the baker's oven, built a double flue chimney to the wash-house, and repaired 
all the plastering in the buildings. 

In painting, they painted the summerhouso, the Indian waiting room, the 
lamp room, storm-sash for greenhouse find shoe shop, and the wainscolting in the 
boys' hall, and staircase. 

They removed the garden fence and rebuilt it, and put up a wire fence on the 
east side of the school premises, repaired the board fence around the girls' play- 
ground, &c. 


The greenhouse cannot be called a necessary or paying part of the institution, but it 
greatly adorns it, not alone by its appearance filled with beautiful plants, but by pro- 
viding bedding-out plants, it does more than anything else to beautify and make 
attractive the grounds and gardens which surround the school, making it one of 
the show places of the North-west, visitors to the country often making long detours 
in order to visit it. Besides, the greenhouse is a welcome place in the winter time for 
poor little sick children to sit in a few hours daily, when inclement weather debars 
them from going outside. 

Matron's Department. 

The matron is assisted in her department by eight Sisters occupying the follow- 
ing positions : two teachers, two cooks, two seamstresses and two are general assist- 
ants without salary. 

There are nearly two hundred inmates in this institution, of whom ninety per 
cent are children ; nearly all the clothing for the pupils is made on the premises, 
and the domestic economy of the establishment is conducted in the most systematic 
and thorough manner. The girls, when they are old enough, havt* to assist with 
the work; and it is a most interesting sight to observe them, neatly dressed, per- 
forming their household duties. The laundry is not a place usually visited .by 
strangers, but it was a good sight to see forty Indian girls of all sizes busy there ; 
some at the wash tub, some using the wringers, others melting snow and attending 
to the fires, the work all going on quietly and deftly under the direction of one of 
the Sisters. 

The kitchen, the dining-room and the sewing rooms were in turned visited and 
found equally satisfactory. The smaller children in the two schoolrooms were 
neatly and cleanly dressed and looked bright and cheerful. 

General Remarks. 

Since this school was opened in 1883-84, it has received one hundred and 
seventy-four boys and one hundred and seventy girls, a total number of three 
hundred and forty-four children. 

As far as the records show, forty-four children, namely, twenty-three boys and 
twenty-one girls have died either in the institution or at home. 

There are at present one hundred and seventy-one pupils in the school, namely, 
eighty-one boys and ninety girls; in addition to these there are a number of out- 
pupils. Out-pupils are girls and boys who have been educated here and are now 
hired out as servants to white people. They are still under the control and guid- 
ance of the Principal, who arranges the terms regarding such services, receives 
their wages, and visits them from time to time, and they receive most of their 
clothing from the school. 

Thirty-one girls have been hired out since the commencement of this system; 
some of them have returned again to the school. At present there are seventeen 
hired out, receiving from three to ten dollars a month each. The Principal refuses 
many applications for girls ; in some instances the parents decline to allow their 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

girls to go to service, and in others the application does not meet with his approval. 
Girls who have been and are hired out are praised for their cleanliness and 
obedience ; although only a few can be depended upon to lead in the work of a 
kitchen or in other household duties. 

Twelve boys were hired out during the threshing season to farmers who paid 
them one dollar a day and their board; one boy now is hired out to a farmer. Six 
boys (carpenters) were hired out to work at their trade, and one worked in Eegina 
for a month and received one dollar a day. 

Two boys (blacksmiths) worked for three weeks with the blacksmith instructor 
at the Touchwood Hills Agency. One other boy, a blacksmith, has been employed 
several times at his trade at the Muscowpetung Agency blacksmith shop. 

Several pupils had to be withdrawn from the school, as their parents were dis- 
charged from treaty. 

Of the pupils who have gone back to their reserves, the Principal knows of only 
two, one of File Hills Agency, the other of Piapot's Band, who do not appear to be 
improved, and those two attended the school less than one year; the others adhere 
to the civilized habits they acquired at the school. They work better than other 
Indians, and get work among the white people more readily on account of their 
speaking English and their handiness at farm work. 

One ex-pupil has been working at the Indian Department warehouse in Eegina 
for nearly a year; but most of the ex-pupils are required at home by their parents, 
or are married and have settled down to work on their own account. 

Two boys have been sent to St. Boniface College, to follow, for two years, the 
commercial course of study taught there; they have obtained very good reports, one 
being first in the second course, in several branches. ^ 

A band of instruments has been purchased for this school; and in less than one 
month — although music is new to them — they already play very fairly, "God save 
the Queen." 

I have much pleasure in noting how much more freely English is spoken by the 
pupils than fofcnerly; they are now making very excellent progress in that 

During the past two months, there has been a great deal of sickness in this 
institution, influenza, " la grippe," &c. Two boys died since my inspection commenced 


The food furnished to the children is good and there appeared to be 
always sufficient at each meal; beef is their most acceptable food ; and at the price 
now paid, of six dollars and seventy cents per hundred pounds, delivered, and with 
all the vegetables they can consume, it is probably the cheapest, best, and most 
wholesome diet they can have. 

I may remark that I received every assistance that I required in making my 
inspection from the principal, Rev. Father Hugonnard, and* the other officials 
of the institution. Everything was thrown open for my investigation; and I was 
sensibly impressed with the economy practised and the systematic diligence 
exercised in conducting this great work ; and by the good order and cleanliness of 
the whole institution. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Inspector Indian Agencies. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Saskatoon, 9th September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 



Sir, — I have the honour to submit my seventh annual report of my inspection 
of Indian agencies and reserves in the North-west Territories. My last report 
ended with Moose Woods Eeserve, near Saskatoon ; and I then proceeded to Duck 
Lake Agency, with which I commence this report. 

I arrived at the agency on the 25th August, 1891. Mr. E. S. McKenzie is agent, 
Mr. W. Sibbald, agency clerk, and Mr. S. Thomas, interpreter. 

The agency buildings were in their usual good state. The agent had a very 
fine garden and had a good crop of all kinds of vegetables. There was a good field 
of oats in connection with the agency farm, from which oats enough for the feed of 
the horses were obtained. 

The first reserve visited was " One Arrow's," No. 95; Mr. Louis Marion is far- 
mer in charge. The population is one hundred and thirteen. I noticed an improve- 
ment generally on the reserve over last year, especially so in regard to the fields 
and gardens; these having been better kept, and consequently, better results in the 
way of crops; these consisted of: — 


Wheat 60 

Peas 2 

Barley...... 20 

Potatoes 3 

G-ardens and turnips 3 

Total 88 

Being twelve acres more than the previous year. In addition to the above, the 
farmer had a very good field of oats, which would give sufficient for the feed of the 
farm horse. The weeding and thinning seemed to be well attended to. Fencing 
had been improved at some points; a good deal of summer-fallowing was done, and 
some new breaking. The barley was all cut and was in stook. The wheat would 
be ready for cutting in a few days from the time of my visit. The Indians were 
living, as is their custom, during summer, in tepees. The houses were closed up, 
but as a rule they appeared to be cleanly kept. Some very good butter was shown 
me, made by the women. Some very nice milk-houses were to be seen, and they 
were kept in very good shape. One hundred and fifty tons of hay were stacked for 
winter. The band also filled a contract for hay for the North-we^t Mounted Police 
at JBatoche, and gave good satisfaction, delivering the hay in good style. 
The cattle were in good condition ; the herd consisted of: — 

Oxen 18 

Bulls , 2 

Cows 16 

Steers... 14 

Heifers 7 

Bull-calves 9 

Heifer-calves 6 

Total 72 

Last year the number was fifty-four. The increase in calves was satisfactory. 
In private stock, the band has thirty-two horses, five cows and ten young beasts. 
Some very good straw hats, rush mats and socks were noticed, made by the women 
and the ^irls attending the school. I took the usual inventory of property in the 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

hands of the farmer, and audited his books. On the whole, the Indians here seem to 
be very comfortable and contented, and are making satisfactory progress. Two new 
houses were put up on the reserve during the year, also some new stables and old 
ones repaired. 

My next point was John Smith's Reserve, No. 95; Mr. J. Wilson, farmer in 
charge. The population is one hundred and forty-three. The farmer was putting 
up a small building near his house to be used as an office. The crop consisted of: — 


Wheat 123 

Oats 60 

Barley 25 

Potatoes 12 

Turnips and gardens 19 

Total . 239 

Being sixty-eight and a half acres in excess of last year. The wheat was all 
good : not a poor field was noticed ; oats and barley were also good ; potatoes 
showed well; also other root crops, excepting the turnips, which were only 
fair. Quite an improvement was noticed as to the manner in which the 
root crops had been kept free from weeds and the gardens thinned, the 
whole showing care and attention. The barley, wheat and part of the oats 
were in stook, and in going along the valley was a very pretty sight to look 
upon the many fields of nice grain in every direction. The houses here are 
of a superior class. Two new ones were in course of construction. Three hundred 
and twenty-five tons of hay were stacked for winter feed. The stacks were well 
made and had good strong fences around them. Fire-guards were also to be seen 
around the stacks. The band filled a contract for thirty tons of hay for the police 
at Prince Albert, and they gave such good satisfaction that an order for twenty-five 
tons more was given, which I understood would be filled. The herd is a very fine 
one. It consists of: — 

Oxen 22 

Bulls 3 

Cows 26 

Steers 20 

Heifers , U 

Bull-calves 14 

Heifer-calves 7 

Total 103 

Last year the number was eighty-three. The increase in calves was satis- 
factory. In private stock the band has : — 

Horses , « 13 

Oxen 9 

Cows 21 

Young cattle 31 

Total v . 74 

Four of the Indians have planted trees around their houses. Soft maples are 
the young trees planted, and they were growing well and will very soon adorn the 
premises, when no doubt others will follow the example. The band purchased three 
new double wagons during the year. The usual inventory was taken of property 
in the hands of the farmer, and his books examined. A good deal of new breaking 
had been done during the eeason, principally on the bench or higher land. Some of 
the older fields had been summer-fallowed. The Indians were all busy with their 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

grain, men, women and the larger children all being employed. I am pleased to be 
able to inform you that this reserve is in splendid condition ; the crops are equal to 
any in the country ; the houses are of a superior class; and the Indians are intelli- 
gent and hard-working, and they seem comfortable and happy. The farmer, Mr. 
Wilson, takes great interest in his work, and he and his Indians feel justly proud of 
the magnificent crop as the result of then' labour. 

My next point was James Smith's Eeserve, No. 100; population, one hundred 
and forty-eight. This band has no regular farmer overseeing them. Mr. Parker, 
the school-teacher, takes charge of them as far as his school duties will allow him. 
No improvement could be noticed on this reserve. The crop put in was: — 


Potatoes 5 

Wheat 9 

Gard ens 2 J- 


The chief and most of his men were away at the time of my visit, on the hunt, 
and those of the band who remained on the reserve were completing the haying. 
Three hundred and fifty tons of hay were to be stacked for No. 100 and No. 100a, 
which includes "Big Head's Band." The herd on " Jame's Smith's" Eeserve 
consists of: — 

Oxen 13 

Bulls 3 

Cows 16 

Steers : 6 

Heifers 6 

Bull-calves 8 

Heifer-calves 5 

Total 57 

The number last year was forty-two. The increase in calves was satisfactory. 
The cattle were in good condition. A small storehouse has been put up near the 
mission, for storing supplies, implements, &c. Two new houses have been built on 
this reserve during the year. A few acres of new land have been broken, and a 
little summer fallowing done. A number of the stables were burnt by a prairie fire 
in the spring, but these have been replaced by better buildings. ,...^77^ 

The next reserve is "Peter Chapman's," No. 100<x; population, including "Big 
Head's," one hundred and nineteen. Very little is done here in the way of crops, 
which consisted of: — 


Wheat ,. 6 

Potatoes, 2J 

Gardens 1J- 

Total 10_ 

The herd looked very well. It consists of: — 

Oxen 19 

Bulls 6 

Cows -.. 28 

Steers 8 

Heifers 10 

Bull-calves 12 

Heifer-calves 13 

Total , 96 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The number last year was seventy-two. The increase in calves was satisfactory. 
In private slock they have : — 

Horses 21 

Cows. 2 

Young cattle 3 

Peter Chapman and Big Head's cattle are included in this herd. Good large 
stacks of hay could be seen at various points on the reserve. There is no difficulty 
in procuring hay here, as it is plentiful at every point. The Indians take good care 
of the cattle, and are particular in carrying out the instructions of the agent, in 
having hay enough put up for winter feed. " Big Head's " crop consisted of: — 


Wheat .. 4 

Potatoes .... 3J 

Gardens 2 

Total 9J 

The houses were comfortable looking, but they were all closed, and the Indians 
were living in tepees. I now returned to the agency, stopping over Sunday at 
Prince Albert. 

The next reserves inspected were " Beardy's," No. 97, and " Okemasis's," No. 96. 
Mr. L. Lovell, farmer, in charge of both reserves. The population of "Beardy's " is 
one hundred and forty, and "Okemasis's" forty-two: total, one hundred and eighty- 
two. The farmer has put up a very good stable near his house. The farm buildings 
were in very good order, and everything was tidy and neat. 

The clerk's house is near the farm buildings. It is a very comfortable house, 
and is prettily situated, being surrounded with trees. The farmer has a little work- 
shop in which he makes many repairs in wood and ironwork. The Indians also 
take advantage of this shop, and of the tools, in making repairs. Some old ploughs 
were noticed, which had been repaired and painted, and they looked as good as new 
ones. Some very good ox collars, hay frames, fork handles, rush mats and straw 
hats were noticed, made by the Indian men and women. 

The crop put in in " Beardy's," No. 97, was : — 


Wheat 120 

Oats 7 

Peas 3 

Barley 26 

Potatoes 8 

Gardens 7 

Total 171 

About the same as the previous year, in the aggregate. On " Okemasis's," No. 96, 
the crop was : — 


Wheat 40 

Barley 16 

Potatoes 3 

Gardens 2 

Total 61 

Being ten and a quarter acres more than the previous year. The crops on both 
reserves were very good. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The wheat was all cut and was in stooks. Every field was examined, and not a 
bad spot was found. The Indians say it is the best crop they ever had. The fields 
looked very well, with the fine large stooks thickly dotting their surface. The root 
crops had been well weeded and thinned. The barley crop was also very good. 
Some very pretty fields are to be seen, and one especially is worthy of notice, this 
is a twenty-acre field and belongs to " Yak-koo-koot." The field is square, the fences 
are perfectly straight, and the pickets are the proper height. No weeds could be 
seen. I counted fourteen persons working in this field. The wheat field was a very 
fine sample. Another nice field belongs to two men; both were sick, but the crop 
was put in by a boy, the son of one of the men. He also did a lot of breaking, and 
the ploughing was well done. This boy is deserving of encouragement. A. good 
deal of breaking and summer-fallowing has been done. The fences are particularly 
good on these reserves. The houses were closed, but they looked comfortable, and 
were left in a tidy shape. Four new houses have been built during the year, also 
some new stables, and old ones repaired. Two hundred and fifteen tons of hay were 
stacked for " Beardy's," and eighty tons for " Okemasis's." This is stacked about 
ten miles from the agency. The stacks were well made, and were strongly fenced, 
and fire-guards placed around them. The Indians also filled a contract for the 
Police at Duck Lake. 

With the few able-bodied men on these reserves, they have certainly not been 
idle ; and it is a satisfaction to be able to report that their labour has been crowned 
with such good success. 

The cattle were in the best condition. " Beardy's" herd consists of: — 

Oxen 23 

Bull 1 

Cows 28 

Steers 23 

Heifers 11 

* Bull-calves * 12 

Heifer-calves 8 

Total 106 

The number last year was eighty-eight. The number of calves is not in pro- 
portion to the number of cows, but a satisfactory explanation was given. This 
band has also in private stock : — 

Horses 16 

Cows 3 

Young beasts 1 

Total 20 

The herd on " Okemasis's " was as follows: — 

Oxen 12 

Bull 1 

Cows 13 

Steers 11 

Heifers 7 

Bull-calves 7 

Heifer-calves -4 

Total 55 

Last year the number was forty-seven. The same explanation was given, 
in the case of " Beardy's," for the small number of calves. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Both these reserves are in splendid shape, and the farmer, Mr. Lovell, is to be 
congratulated for his share of the work. He gets along very nicely with the 
Indians, and, being a practical farmer, he is able to use the Indian labour to the 
best advantage at all times. 

The total number of cattle on the agency, exclusive of private 

stock, is.. 4«9 

Last year the number was 386 

Increase 103 

The warehouse is kept in very good order, and the goods are neatly and care- 
fully placed. The receipts and issues have been correctly made, the accounts 
balancing in nearly every case, with the goods on hand. 

The goods from Eegina warehouse were received in good order. The standard 
samples being no longer required at agencies, have been taken into stock. 

The office work is well done. The books are neatly and correctly kept, and 
Mr. Sibbald is proving himself to be a first-class agency clerk, being methodical 
and painstaking ; his books are models of neatness. The farm books have been 
compared with the agency ledger, and were generally found to be correct. 

The agent continues to discharge his duties in a most satisfactory manner ; and 
the good shape the agency is in, is the best proof that every interest for the benefit 
of the Indians receives his constant attention. No doubt, if he could visit more 
frequently bands Nos. 100 and 100a, a better showing could be made by these bands. 

The bacon delivered by the Hudsou's Bay Company was first-class, being sweet 
and sound. The flour delivered by the Ogilvie Milling Company was also very 
good, and the weight was correct. 

The agent has made a favourable arrangement with " John Smith's " band to 
burn lime for use on the various reserves. 

The births and deaths during thirteen months, ending 31st August, 1891, were 
as follow : — 

One Arrow's 



John Smith's 

James Smith's.... 
Peter Chapman's. 


The health of the Indians, at the time of my inspection, was very good. 
Detailed report, with statements, were forwarded to the commissioner, Eegina. 

I now proceeded to Carlton Agency, arriving there on the 12th September, 1891. 
Mr. J. Finiayson is agent; Mr. W. H. Halpin, clerk; and Mr. J. McKay, acting 
instructor, on Sandy Lake Eeserve, during the summer months. The small house, 
next to the warehouse, has been completed, and is used as a carpenter's shop, and 
for issuing rations. A summer kitchen has been added to the agent's house, and a 
small cabin has been placed over the well. The buildings are in good repair, and the 
premises were fairly tidy. The agent has a good garden. 

The first reserve visited was Muskeg Lake, No. 102; Mr. G-. Chaffee being 
farmer in charge. The farm buildings have been improved by the addition of an 
implement shed, also a small building to be used as an office, and a summer kitchen 
to the house. The two latter were not completed. The house was in good repair, 


















Department of Indian Affairs. 

and the surroundings were in fair order. The farmer had a very good crop of 
vegetables in his garden. A kiln for burning lime has been made near the farm 
buildings. The crop put in was : — 


Wheat 43 

Barley 26 

Oats 7 

Potatoes 4J 

Peas 1 

Turnips ■ 3 

Gardens 3J 

Total 88 

Being fifty-seven acres in excess of the previous year. The wheat, barley and 
oats were a very good crop, also the potatoes ; turnips and gardens only fair. The 
gardens were well looked after, being free from weeds. Ten acres of new land 
were broken during the year. Some good whiffletrees were noticed, made by the 

Six new houses, commenced last year, had been completed. They are good 
houses. The lumber from the logs on hand last year has been of the greatest pos- 
sible benefit to the Indians, in enabling them to complete their houses, and in 
making repairs, doors, bedsteads, &c. Some have piles of boards on hand for further 
repairs. One man has a new house, twenty by twenty-four, good floor up and down 
stairs, plastered with lime. He has no window-frames, nor sashes, as yet. He had 
very little furniture, but the place was clean. Most of the houses were whitewashed 
with lime, and the balance was to be done later, when more lime could be burnt. 
The Indians here appear to be very comfortable, and they were delighted with their 
fine crops. The cattle were rolling fat. The herd numbers thirty-two, being an 
increase of five over last year. The increase is five calves from seven cows. Some 
old work oxen were killed for beef during the year, but these were replaced with 
young stock, leaving the herd as before, as regards total numbers. The band has 
also in private stock ten horses, two oxen, three calves, three young beasts. 

One hundred and twenty-five tons of hay have been stacked for winter feed. 
Some summer-fallowing has been done. Most of the hay was cut with scythes, and 
a good deal of the grain was cradled, bat some of the Indians cut with a reaper, and 
others paid a settler one dollar an acre to have their grain cut with a self-binder. 
This reserve is in a prosperous condition, and Mr. Chaffee's long experience among 
Indians, gives him complete control over those placed in his charge. The usual 
inventory of Government property was taken. 

I now visited Sandy Lake Reserve, No. 104. This reserve is under the imme- 
diate management of the agent, assisted by Mr. Mackay, and is also prosperous. 
The houses are good. Piles of lumber are on hand for new houses and repairs. 
Some, of the houses are well finished, with shingled roofs and good cellars, lined 
with boards. Small sheds are put up for implements. Six new houses have been 
built on this reserve during the year. The crop put in was : — 


Wheat 112 

Barley 55 

Oats 27 

Potatoes 7 

Peas 1 

Turnips 3 

Gardens 3 

Total _208 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Being fifty and one-half acres more than last year. The wheat, oats and barley 
were all good. The bulk of it was cut and in stook. Potatoes were also very good; 
turnips fair; and onions and carrots were very good. The gardens were fairly well 
weeded and thinned; but there was room for improvement. Most of the men were 
busy in the fields, and the women were also assisting. The chief had a splendid 
crop, and he felt very grateful. His youngest son has built for himself a very nice 
house. Some very good pigs were noticed on this reserve. A great deal of new 
breaking has been done, and a lot of sum me r-fal lowing. I did not advise them to 
do any more breaking, as they have as much now as they can well attend to in a proper 
manner. The fields on the high lands give the best results; and the agent is induc- 
ing the Indians to abandon the flats and cultivate the high land only. The fences 
were in good repair and the cattle in fine condition. The herd consists of: — 

Oxen 49 

Bulls 2 

Cows 42 

Steers 39 

Bull-calves , 15 

Heifer-calves 22 

Heifers 29 

Total 198 

Last year the number was one hundred and sixty-two, being an increase of 
thirty-six. The increase in calves was satisfactory. The lumber sawn on the 
reserve has been of great use. The stables were very good. The Indians here are 
thrifty and hard-working, and they are in very comfortable circumstances ; and the 
good crops they were harvesting would make them more so. The number of sheep 
is five, the same as last year. These do not appear to make any headway on this 
reserve ; but as the Indians now get good prices for the wool, they may take more 
interest in the raising of sheep. In private stock the band has : — 

Horses 36 

Oxen 2 

Sheep 10 

Cows , 19 

Young cattle 32 

Pigs 5 

Total 104 

I now inspected " Mistawsis's," No. 103, under the charge of the agent. The 
best crops on the agency are on this reserve. The total put in is as follows : — 


Wheat 152 

Barley 6*4 

Oats 13 

Potatoes 8 

Peas 1 

Turnips 5 

G-ardens 2J 

Total ...... 245J 

Being ninety acres more than the previous year. The wheat was very fine, a 
heavy crop, and splendid sample. It was, with difficulty they could get it safely 
harvested. The barley, oats and potatoes were also good, and turnips fair. Gardens 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

were fairly well looked after, an improvement over last year, but there was room 
for further improvement in the weeding- and thinning. The houses, as a rule, are 
cleanly kept. The Indians were busy hauling grain to the stackyards, and others 
were cutting with cradles, and putting it into stooks. The women generally do the 
two latter. Fences are good ; some look ugly, with the long pickets, but these are 
not used now in putting up new fences. The herd here is one of the best, it con- 
sists of: — 

Oxen 39 

Bulls 2 

Cows , 44 

Steers 30 

Heifers 29 

Bull-calves ^ 15 

Heifer-calves 17 

Total 176 

Last year the number was one hundred and fifty-seven, being an increase of 
nineteen. The increase in calves was satisfactory. The above shows thirty-two, 
from forty-four cows; but some cows have calved since the list was made up. 
The difference between \he increase of nineteen, and increase of calves, thirty-two, 
is accounted for as follows : — 

Five animals were sold, one animal was killed, four animals were transferred 
to private property account, three animals died — in all thirteen. 

In private property this band has : — 

Horses 21 

Oxen 2 

Cows , 6 

Young cattle , 9 

The sheep numbers the same as last year, namely, thirty-four. 

The mission buildings are on this reserve. The church is a neat little building, 
and is nicely painted, white walls and red roof. It is comfortably seated. A nice 
little orgau is in the church for the use of the choir. The chief continues to assist 
in the singing portion of the services. The mission buildings are old, and need 
painting and repairs. I understand that the Mission Board (Presbyterian), is 
going to erect a new manse for the new missionary, the Rev. Mr. Nicholl, who has 
entered upon his duties with most encouraging prospects of success. The attend- 
ance of the Indians at, and the interest taken in, the various services, were most 
pleasing. Mrs. Nicholl, wife of the missionary, commenced a sewing class, to teach 
the women and young girls. This lady was most enthusiastic in her efforts to 
promote the welfare of the band, and the Indians seemed to be delighted at the 
interest taken in them by that lady and her husband. Mr. Nicholl devotes every 
Friday afternoon in the school, teaching and examining the pupils. 

The total quantity of hay cut on Beserves Nos. Iu3 and 104, was not fully made 
up; as a lot of it was still in cock, but care would be taken that the supply is 
sufficient to meet the wants of these two large herds. 

In addition to the milk pans made of birch bark, of which a supply was made 
by the Indians here, for their own use, as well as for Duck Lake Agency, the women 
make some very pretty fancy baskets, tobacco boxes and a number of other fancy 
articles, very neatly made. I have asked the agent to get an assortment made 
and sent to Eegina, The old women would require a few pounds of tea for their 
trouble. The articles mentioned are made at the most northerly points, such as 
Green Lake and other distant places. 

Sturgeon Lake, No. 101, has in crop: — 


Barley 18 

Oats 2 

Potatoes J 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Some new land has been broken. The number of cattle is as follows: — 

Oxen 8 

Cows , 6 

Steers 4 

Heifers 2 

Bull-calves 4 

Heifer-calves 1 

Total 25 

The number last year was twenty-nine. In private stock this band has : — 

Horses 30 

Oxen 6 

Cows 25 

Young cattle - 29 

Band No. 105, Meadow Lake, has: — 

Cows 3 

Heifers 3 

Steers 2 

Bull-calf. 1 

Heifer-calf I 

Total 10 

This band had only one horse, and he died during the year. The band has one 
hundred and twenty-five bushels of potatoes. 

Band 106, Stony Lake, has three oxen, one cow and one heifer-calf, and some 
private cattle and ponies. They have some potatoes and a little barley, and some 
good turnips and other vegetables. The Pelican Indians have a few ponies, but no 
cattle, nor have they any crop. 

Mr. Ponton was on Mistawasis's Reserve during my inspection, subdividing it 
into forty-acre lots. The births and deaths, during the year ending 31st August, 
1891, were as follows: — 

Births. Deaths. 

Band 101, William Twatt 5 4 

do 102, Petequakey 3 2 

do 103, Mistawasis 2 9 

do 104, Ah-ta-kah-koop .. 7 9 

do 106, Ken-ne-mo-tayo 1 1 

do 107, Pelican Lake 1 

Totals _L8 26 

The warehouse was in good order. The goods from Eegina arrived in good 
condition. The office work is well done. The clerk, Mr. Halpin, is very careful in 
his work, and is most painstaking. The bacon and flour were up to the standard. 
The standard samples have been taken into stock. 

The agent continues to possess the confidence of his Indians; and the work 
seems to go on smoothly. He is most careful of the property placed in his charge. 
The books were most carefully audited, and inventories taken. Detailed report and 
statements were forwarded to the Commissioner, Regina. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The population of the various bands is as under : — 

No. 101, William Twatt 140 

102, Petequakey 64 

103, Mistawasis 155 

104, Ah-tah-ka-koop . 182 

105, Kopa-hawa-kemum 55 

106, Ke-ne-mo-tayo 95 

107, Pelican Lake 34 

Total in the agency 725 

The flour mill is in good repair, and is of the greatest benefit to the Indians. 
The saw-mill did good work also on the various reserves, enabling each Indian to 
have a supply of lumber for new houses and repairs. The Indians get out the logs 
in the winter season. 

I now proceeded to Battleford Agency, arriving there on the 24th September 
1891. Mr. P. J. Williams is agent; Mr. J.' A. McNeill, clerk; Mr. John Carney, 
storeman ; and James Green, teamster. The agency buildings were the ^ame as 
previously reported, the warehouse being situated in the police barracks square, the 
office on the south side of Battle Eiver, and the agent's private house also on the 
south side. 

The first reserve visited was Moosomin's, No. 1 12 ; George Applegarth, farmer 
in charge. The population is one hundred. A new house had been commenced for 
the farmer. Seven thousand new rails were got out during the year to replace a 
large number burnt by prairie fires and to repair others. The farmer had a very 
fine garden, and at the exhibition held in Battleford, on the 9th and 10th September, 
he and his Indians carried off a number of prizes for vegetables, grain, cattle, &c. 
The Indian crop was : — 


Wheat 122 

Oats 23 

Potatoes 4 

Turnips 2 

Carrots .-, 1 

Onions 1 

Total 153 

Being about the same number of acres as the previous year. The crops were 
all good except the turnips, which were more or less a failure. The gardens and 
root crops had been well attended to, in the way of weeding and thinning. The 
Indian houses are very good ones, and were in good order. They were being fixed 
up and whitewashed for the winter. The Indians burn a quantity of lime for their 
own use and for sale in Battleford. A ferry has been established to cross the river 
here, as the bulk of the hay has to be secured on the north side of the river. Some 
good baskets and ox collars were noticed, made by the Indians. 

No department flour has been issued to this band for three years in succession, 
the Indians having raised enough for their own wants, besides having some to sell. 
This fairly entitles them to first place in the ranks of the reserves, either north or 

There are two charcoal pits on the reserve, and sixty dollars were obtained 
for this article during the year. Wool from the sheep was also sold to the amount 
of forty dollars. 

The cattle were in fine condition. The number in the herd was ninety-nine, an 
increase of fourteen over last year. The increase in calves was satisfactory. The 
number of sheep was fifty-four, including lambs. Last year the number was seventy- 
five. Some were killed for food. In private stock the Indians have fifteen horses, 


University (A Ottawa 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

three young cattle and two sheep, Three hundred tons of hay were stacked for 
winter feed. This hay was on the north side of the river and would be hauled in 
during winter. The usual inventory was taken of property in hands of the farmer, 
and his books were checked. 

On my way to Duck Lake I met Professor Saunders, who made inquiry if any 
seneca root or "snake root," as it is sometimes called, was to be found in the north 
country, as he said that a market could be found for an unlimited quantity. I made 
many inquiries all along the line, but could find none. Mr. Applegarth is working 
hard to help on his Indians, and he seems to be most successful in always getting 
good crops. He is also very careful of the property under his control. 

My next point was " Thunder Child's " Reserve, No. 115, Mr. H. H. Nash being 
farmer in charge; population, one hundred and seventy-five. A new stable and 
granary have been added to the farm buildings since last inspection, also small 
cabins over the well and ice-house. A large corral has also been put up during the 
vear. Mr. Nash had a very good garden. I noticed vegetable marrows, citrons, 
onions, corn, turnips, peas, &c, all of choice quality. Mr. Nash made an experiment 
in planting potatoes, which may interest some. He took four potatoes of the same 
size and weight, "Early Rose," and planted them as follows: — 


1st. The whole potato, result, 18 potatoes. ...- 11£ 

2nd. Potato in two pieces, result, 37 potatoes 9J 

3rd. Potato in six pieces, with two eyes in each, result, 43 potatoes... 19 

4th. Potato cut in fourteen pieces, with one eye, result, 105 potatoes... 25f 

The third lot was large and glossy, but my choice was the number four. Some 
of course were small, but for family use the bulk was a nicer size than the very 
large ones. The crop put in this year was : — 


Wheat 185 

Oats < 15 

Barley f 

Potatoes 13 

Gardens 16 

Total J233 

Being an increase over last year of eighty-three acres. The wheat was all 
stacked, ready for the thresher, and would give a good yield. The barley and oats 
were also good. Root crops good, except turnips. Gardens very well attended to, 
an improvement over last year. 

Fifty acres of new land were broken, and fifty-two acres summer-fallowed. 
One field of seven acres had been cleared of the willows, with the brush 
plough. Five new houses, thatched roofs and wooden floors, and four new stables, 
were built since last inspection. Fifteen acres of fencing have been made also. 
A quantity of willow and straw were on band to make baskets and hats. Some 
good sleighs, hay racks, ox yokes, harness, &c, were noticed. Three charcoal pits 
and one limekiln are on the reserve. Charcoal is sold, but at the time of my visit 
there was no sale for lime, the market being glutted. 

The cattle looked well, the herd numbered one hundred and forty-two. Last 
year the number was one hundred and ten. The increase in the calves was satis- 
factory. In private stock, the band has ten horses. The sheep which were on band 
last year have been sold, as the dogs were killing them. Three hundred and twenty- 
five tons of hav were stacked on the north side of the river. The stacks are strongly 
fenced, and fire-guards were ploughed around them. A good many of the Indians 
have poultry of their own; and it makes their places look bright and cheerful to 
see a nice lot of poultry around their premises, besides being a source of profit. 
The example of the farmer, in keeping these, no doubt, has had a good effect on the 



Department of Indian Affairs. 

Chief "Thunder Child" expressed his gratitude for the new double wagon 
given him last year. He is very proud of it. The grain on the reserve was all cut 
by the cradle. The usual inventory was taken, and the books were audited. A few 
worn-out articles were written off, they being of no further use. Mr. Nash is 
proving himself to be a first class man among Indians ; he is a hard worker, and gets 
his Indians to work well also, as can be seen from the quantity of hay put up, land 
ploughed, grain cradled, besides other work on the reserve. All go to prove that no 
idleness has been practised. The whole reserve is in a thriving condition. The 
Indians were very pleasant, and they had no complaints. 

My next point was " Poundmaker " and " Little Pine's " Keserves, Nos. 114 and 
116; Mr. Peter Tomkins, farmer in charge of these two reserves. The late farmer, 
Mr. Fitzpatrick, died about a month before my visit, much regretted by the Indians, 
and his agent Mr. Williams. 

The population of Poundmaker's is one hundred and twenty-seven, and of Little 
Pine's, one hundred and twenty-eight. 

The farm buildings were in £Ood order. The new storehouse had been com- 
pleted. A new house for the interpreter was built during the year, and a new 
school-house on "Little Pine's," a short distance from the farm buildings. The crop 
on "Poundmaker's" was: — 


Wheat 62 

Oats c 4 

Potatoes 3 

Turnips 1 

Gardens 9 

Total 19 

Being eighteen and a half acres less than the previous year. 
On " Little Pine's " the crop was : — 


Wheat 72 

Oats 14 

Potatoes 6 

Turnips 1 

Gardens 6 

Total 99 

Being forty-three and a half acres more than last year. The whole of the crop 
was very fair, excepting turnips, and these were irregular. 

Twenty acres of new land have been broken, ten on each reserve. The work 
was well done. A number of old fences have been renewed. Six new houses 
were in course of erection, and would likely be ready for occupation before winter. 
A very good corral was also put up. The Indians burn lime and they have a good 
supply on hand. They were busy plastering and whitewashing their houses for 
the winter. There were two stack-yards on each reserve, both well filled with well- 
made stacks. Some good bob-sleighs, hay racks, ox collars and baskets were 
noticed, made by the Indians. Willow and straw were on hand to make baskets 
and hats. Some very good plough handles were also made. Nineteen ploughs were 
working at one time, during my visit. The cattle looked very well. The total 
number of the herd on No. 114, " Poundmaker's," was one hundred and forty-eight; 
last year the number was one hundred and thirty-five. The increase in calves was 
satisfactory, being thirty-nine from forty cows. The sheep numbered fifteen, an 
increase of six over last year. This band has, in private stock, twenty-two horses 
and two young cattle. 


56 Victoria, Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The herd on Xo. 116, " Little Pine's," consisted of one hundred and seventeen 
head ; last year it was eighty-eight. The increase of calves was good, being twenty- 
nine from thirty cows. Private property, twenty -two horses. Four hundred and 
fifty-seven tons of hay were stacked, half on the south side of the river and half at 
Turtle Lake, some sixty miles distant, where a portion of the cattle would be 
wintered. In order to secure this hay, the mowers were working during July, 
August and September. 

Mr. Tomkins was about building a mud-barn, as a sample for the Indians. He 
is very active, and is most anxious to have the work go on well; and from his long 
experience and being for some time assistant to Mr. Fitzpatrick, who was a first- 
class man, and one who was generally respected by white people, as well as by 
Indians, there is no doubt but Mr. Tomkins will worthily fill the place left vacantby 
the death of Mr. Fitzpatrick. The usual audit of the farm books was made, and an 
inventory taken. 

My next point was "Sweet Grass" Reserve, No. 113, Mr. George D. Gopsill, 
fanner in charge. The population is one hundred and forty-two. The farm build- 
ings were in splendid order, a carpenter's shop is among the number, where many 
repairs are made by the farmer and by the Indians themselves. The farmer had a 
fine garden, and good crops. The Indian crop consisted of : — 


Wheat 100 

Oats 20 

Potatoes .- 10 

Turnips „ < 2 

Gardens 3 

Peas 3 

Total 138 

An increase of twenty-eight acres over last year. The grain was all stacked, ready 
for the thresher. There were twenty-five stacks in all. The root crops were good, 
turnips excepted. The fields looked exceedingly clean and neat. Fences were 
good. The gardens were very well kept. The houses are a good class. They were 
being whitewashed before the Indians moved into them. Ten of the houses have 
been newly thatched during the year. This is an improvement over the mud-roofs. 
Two new nouses have been built and a number of stables repaired. I noticed some 
very fine baskets, fork handles, back-pads, ox collars, bob-sleighs, hay racks, &c. 
The improvement in the make of the baskets, from the first attempt, is wonderful. 
The trouble is, that there is no market for them, or they could supply any number. 
Lime is also burnt, but there is no sale for it, which gives them all the more for 
their own use. Charcoal is also manufactured, and sales were made to the extent of 
fifty dollars The Indians had contracts for wood, which gave them two hundred 
and fifty dollars, and sales were made in Battleford besides, for seventy-five dollars. 
Oats were sold to the amount of one hundred dollars. 

One hundred and fifty acres of pasturage have been fenced in near the farm 
buildings. Five acres of new land were broken during the year. There was no 
fallowing, as all the land broken was under crop. Fall-ploughing was going on at 
the time of my visit. The roads and bridges on the reserve have been repaired and 

The cattle were in good condition. The herd numbered one hundred and forty- 
six; last year it was one hundred and thirty. The increase in calves was not so 
good as on the other reserves, being only twenty from forty cows. The sheep num- 
bered twenty, one more than last year. In private stock the Indians have ten 
ponies. Three hundred tons of hay were stacked, one hundred and sixty of this 
at Turtle Lake, where about eighty head of the cattle will be wintered. The balance, 
one bundled and forty tons, is stacked about ten miles from the farm buildings, and 
will be hauled into the stables during winter. The Indians here are all hard 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

workers, and I noticed a marked improvement on the whole reserve since my last 
inspection. Mr. Gopsill is very energetic, and whatever he does, he does well. I 
took the usual inventory and checked the farm books. Those I found particularly 
well kept and very correct. 

The next reserve visited was " Red Pheasant's," No. 108. Mr. J. H. Price, far- 
mer in charge. Population, one hundred and fifteen. A new cattle stable has been 
erected since last inspection. The whole of the premises were in the best of order. 
Some very fine poultry are around the farmyard, and many of the Indians have 
poultry also. The crop put in was : — 


Wheat 64 

Oats 30 

Barley 18 

Potatoes 7 

Turnips 1J- 

Carrots \ 

Onions \ 

Gardens 10 

TJotal 131| 

Being seven acres less than last year. The wheat was very good, and was 
being threshed the day I was there. The sample was choice and the Indians were 
delighted. They said it was one of the best crops they ever had. Oats and barley 
half a crop; potatoes were good ; turnips fair. The other vegetables about half a 
crop. The gardens were well kept, a great improvement over the previous year. The 
fences were good. Ten acres of new breaking have been done. Thirty-five acres 
have been summer-fallowed. The fields were clean and neat. Two new Indian 
stables have been built. Most of the houses have thatched roofs and many, if not all, 
have bedsteads. The houses were whitewashed and looked very pretty. Lime was 
on hand, of their own burning. Very good baskets, made of bark, were seen. The 
cattle here are a choice lot, one of the best herds I have seen. The total number of 
the herd is two hundred and twenty-three; last year it was one hundred and ninety- 
three. The increase in calves was fifty, from sixty cows. In private stock, the band 
has twenty horses, two cows and eight young cattle, and one pig. The sheep num- 
ber eleven ; last year there were six. At the exhibition held in Battleford, 9th and 
10th September, the Indian work and fat oxen, sent by Gopsill and Tomkins, car- 
ried off all the honours. Mr. Price had not time to send any, but he has some splen- 
did specimens, and equal to any shown. One two-year old steer, killed during the 
year, turned out eight hundred and fifty pounds of beef, exclusive of offal. 

Four hundred tons of hay are stacked for winter feed. The stacks are fenced in, 
and fire-guards ploughed around them. This quantity, with the straw, it is thought 
will be sufficient for the large herd, I generally advise equal to three tons per head 
for old and young cattle. This is a safe rule. 

The usual inventory was taken, and everything found satisfactory. The books 
showed that Mr. Price was both competent and careful. I wrote off some articles 
that were of no further use. This reserve is in a prosperous condition; and the 
Indians are advancing under the able management of Mr. Price. 

The last reserve in this agency was now reached, namely, the " Stony," No. 109, 
under the charge of Mr. Oscar Orr, farmer. The population is eighty -eight. A 
shed has been put up, during the year, to store bulky implements. The whole 
place was exceedingly neat and tidy. The only crop put in here was seven acres of 
potatoes, four of turnips, and fourteen gardens. The potatoes were very good; 
turnips, fair; gardens, very fair, and were well weeded and cared for. Six acres of 
new land were broken, and six acres have been fenced. Six new houses have been 
put up ; some of these from material taken from old ones. Three new stables 
have been built. The houses were all newly whitewashed, and looked very nicely, 
a contrast from the previous year. A supply of willow was on hand to make baskets. 
Bob-sleighs and ox collars were seen. Charcoal and lime are prepared on the reserve, 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

which they sell in Battleford. One Indian purchased anew wagon from the proceeds. 
The band owns seven double wagons, which the} 7 require for hauling hay, wood, char- 
coal and lime to Battleford. The cattle and sheep looked very well. The calves 
from the Polled Angus bull were splendid specimens ; and they looked like yearlings. 
The herd numbers one hundred and thirty-two ; last year it was one hundred and 
twenty. The increase in calves was twenty-five from twenty-nine cows. The 
number of sheep was twenty-one; last year the number was fifteen. In private 
stock, the band has seven horses. Three hundred tons of hay were stacked; and in 
order to secure this quantity, Mr. Orr worked the mower thirty-six days himself. 
Some nice poultry were around the farmyard. Mr. Orr had a nice garden, and a 
good crop of vegetables. Implements and cattle were all branded. 

Mr. Orr has his reserve in good order. The women can all knit, and many of 
them are good workers around a house. Mrs. Orr takes a lively interest in the wel- 
fare of these women ; and her training has had the best effect. 

I took an inventory of supplies, and cheeked the farm books, all of which were 
found satisfactory. Mr. Orr allows nothing to go to waste, being most economical, 
and careful of the property placed in his charge. Although this reserve is not so 
good as some of the others for raising grain, the want is, to a large extent, made 
up by selling hay, wood, lime, charcoal, potatoes, &c. The cattle have increased 
well here also, so that I consider that the Indians are in a prosperous coudition. 
I'ilCoThe warehouse is well kept, and the inventory showed that receipts and issues 
had been carefully attended to. The standard samples have been taken into stock. 
The goods from Eegina arrived in good order. The office work is well done. 
Receipts and issues for the year were carefully audited, and the farm books com- 
pared with agency ledger, ration sheets examined and scarcely an error was found, 
reflecting credit on the clerk, Mr. McNeill. He keeps his office in a businesslike 
way, and any information required can always be got at in a moment. 

There was an improvement in the style and correctness of the farm books over 
the previous year. The agent, Mr. Williams, continues to discharge his duties with 
ability and good judgment, and the whole agency is advancing under his manage- 
ment. The Indians do not loiter much around Battleford, and they have the 
reputation of being well behaved. The births and deaths from 1st October, 1890, to 
1st October, 1891, have been as follows : — 

Births. Deaths. 

No. 108. Eed Pheasant 3 6 

113. Sweet Grass 3 7 

109. Stony 3 9 

114. Poundmaker . 6 4 

116. Little Pine..-. 4 5 

112. Moosomin 7 1 

115. Thunder Child 6 9 

Totals _32 41 

The total number of cattle, sheep, &c, on the agency is: — 

Cattle, this year 1,015 

do last year 861 

Increase 154 

Sheep, this year 125 

do lastyear 142 

Decrease 17 

Private stock, this year 120 

do lastyear Q^> 

Increase 52 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

The usual inventories of agency and farms, detailed report and statements, 
returns, &c, were forwarded to the commissioner, Regina. 

I now commenced my inspection of the Battleford Industrial School, 101 h 
October, 1891. The staff consists of: — Rev. T.Clarke, principal; J. B. Ashby, 
assistant principal; Miss Redmond, acting matron; Mrs. Ashby, governess; J. 
G-atley, carpenter; J. J. Mathews, blacksmith ; W. McNair, farmer; Nellie Hayes, 
seamstress; E. Mathieson, nurse; H. Bousquet, acting cook; Susan and Sarah, 
Indian girls, servant and laundress. 

Since last inspection the principal's house has been completed, also the laundry, 
except the drying-room upstairs, which was not finished. A sewing-room in the 
attic of the main buildiug has been plastered, and is a convenient and comfortable 
place for the girls to work in. The basement has also been finished and makes a 
good recreation place. The drain has also been completed to carry off the sewage. 
The fences were in good repair, and the whole place was in the best possible order. 
The crop put in was more or less a failure, with the exception of turnips, which 
were a good yield. Sixty tons of hay were stacked for winter feed. The cattlo on 
hand were : — 

Cows 15 

Bull, yearling 1 

Heifer, yearling •'. 2 

Bull-calves 6 

Hei fer-ca 1 ves 4 

Oxen 6 

Total 34 

Sheep, eleven ; horse, one ; pig, one. 

The goods from Regina arrived in good style. There are one hundred and twenty 
pupils on the roll, seventy boys and fifty girls. The average attendance is one 
hundred and ten. Eight boys follow the blacksmithing; ten, carpentry; and ten 
that of farming. One boy, Edgar Bear, has gone to Emmanuel College, Prince 
Albert, to qualify himself to become a teacher. Another boy, Alex. Sutton, is 
earning a dollar a day on the Canadian Pacific Railway, near Calgary. Another 
boy is working as a millwright at Onion Lake, and another on the saw-mill. 

Those in the workshops seem to be very expert with tools, and they do their 
work in a workmanlike manner. Most of the outside buildings, and some of the 
schools and other buildings on the reserves, have been built by these boys under 
the directions of the instructor, Mr. Oatley. 

The school-room has been enlarged, by taking in the old dining-room, and it is 
now a cheerful and comfortable place. The services on Sundays, and other meetings, 
are held in this room. The boys' dormitories are on two flats, and are nicely 
arranged. The beds have clean ticks, filled with straw. The beds have pillows and 
sheets, and the boys are all supplied with night-shirts. Shelving and boxes are 
close at hand, where the boys place their clothes. A bath-room adjoins. There are 
two baths, and fourteen wash basins fitted in on a platform. There is a tank 
constantly filled with water and kept ready, not only for the use of the boys, but in 
case of fire. Grenades and fire-buckets are all through the building, the latter kept 
filled with water. 

The girls' dormitory is a bright and cheerful room. The beds were tidy, and the 
place was in the neatest possible state. The girls have a bath-room similar to that 
of the boys. The beef supplied appeared to be of good quality. The pupils hold a 
meeting once a week for mutual improvement. I had the pleasure of being present 
on one of these occasions, and was well pleased at the proficiencj 7 , displayed. The girls 
especially proved themselves very clever. The boys and girls speak English very 
well, and pronounced the words clearly and distinctly; this was particularly noticed 
at the Sunda} 7 services, in which they all join heartily. They are very orderly and 
polite. Mrs. Cameron, who had been matron for the past year, had just left, much 

105 ' 

5G Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

to the regret of the staff; and her place was filled by Miss Raymond, a lady from 
Ontario, and who was proving herself eminently qualified for the position; and 
the institution will be fortunate, if Miss Raymond's services should be permanent. 
• The garden produced a good supply of vegetables, but owing to the cold 
weather in early spring, it was not up to the excellence of the previous year. In 
addition to the tank in the bath-room, already referred to, there is the large main 
tank on the top flat, constanly kept filled with water; this tank supplies pipes 
running through the building. These tanks are kept filled by the windmill. Mr, 
Melvinnon, the late blacksmith, who was very ill at the time of my last visit, died 
in January, very much to the regret of the principal, as he was a good and faithful 
man ; and the boys were making rapid progress under his instruction. The pupils 
visited the exhibition, on one of the days it was held, and the remark was general, 
" How well they look." They were tidy and smart in appearance. 

I audited the books, including those of the carpenter and blacksmith, took an 
inventory of supplies in store, as well as articles in use, and wrote off such articles 
as were worn out and useless. I recommended a change in keeping the accounts, 
which will bring this school into the same system as carried on in the other schools. 
Detailed report and statements were forwarded in the usual way. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ashb}" continue to take a lively interest in the pupils, and no doubt 
much of the success is due to their constant overseeing. Miss Hayes is deserving of 
special notice for her efforts in the sewing room and for the good progress the girls 
are making under her teaching. The girls are working well, sewing, knitting and 
doing general housework. 

The principal allows nothing to escape his notice, and is ever on the move. The 
greatest economy is observed in all the departments, and the greatest care is taken 
of things generally. The house is in good order, and perfect cleanliness is strictly 
observed. Some of the boys play the violin, and it is a source of amusement to 
themselves, as well as to the other pupils. I was under obligation to the principal 
for affording stable room for my horses. I supplied my own hay and oats. 

There are the best proofs that the labour and time bestowed in trying to improve 
these Indian children have not been in vain ; and the principal and his staff are to 
be congratulated on having brought the institution to its present state of efficiency. 

I now proceeded to Onion Lake, crossing the river at Moosomin's Reserve, and 
going up the north side. This is somewhat longer than going by the south side, but 
there was no help for it, as there was no ferry at Fort Pitt. I arrived at Onion Lake 
Agency on the evening of the 23rd October, 1891. Mr. (x. Gr. Mann is agent, and Mr. 
McFeeters, clerk; Mr. Boudreau, interpreter, but who was at the time in charge of 
the departmental herd at Long Lake. Mr. Mann's youngest daughter, a clever 
little girl, interprets for her father in Mr. Boudreau's absence. The population of 
this agency is six hundred and twelve. 

The new addition to the agent's house had been nearly completed. It is a frame 
building thirty-two by thirty-two, two stories, and has a shingled roof; a very substan- 
tial building. The plastering and inside finishing remained to be completed. A new 
office adjoining the house, fifteen by twenty, has been put up, a picket fence has 
been placed around the agency and garden, and the carpenter and blacksmith's shops 
have been completed. The roof of the mill has been painted and a new henhouse has 
been built ; also a new school-house, thirty by eighteen, for the Roman Catholics, has 
been built. It is near the mission buildings, one story and a half, and shingled roof. The 
school is well fitted with desks and benches made by the Indians. All the work in con- 
nection with the foregoing improvements was done by the Indians, and the lumber 
supplied by them also ; that is, they got out the logs, and these were sawn at their own 
mill. The only outlay, therefore, has been for nails, tar-paper, doors and sashes. The 
mill is in good working order; and there is a machine in connection for making laths. 
The cemetery near the Catholic mission has been inclosed with a picket fence, similar 
to the one at the agency, the lumber for which was supplied by the agent, and the 
Indians did the work. The whole of the buildings were in the best condition. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 
The crop put in by Seekaskootch Band, No. 119, was: — 


Barley 526 

Wheat 21 

Potatoes 20 

Turnips 10 

Gardens 4 

Carrots and beets £ 

Total 581 J 

About two hundred acres of the barley were a total failure, and the result of the 
balance, three hundred and twenty-six acres, was two thousand four hundred and seven 
bushels, or equal to seven and a half bushels to the acre. The barley is stored in 
the agency warehouse, ready to be ground into flour. The quality of most of it was 
very good. One hundred and eighty-six bushels of wheat, fair quality, from the 
twenty-one acres. Potatoes were a fine crop, twenty acres yielding over two thou- 
sand bushels. This quantity was stored, besides what the Indians had consumed 
during the season. The ten acres of turnips gave one thousand and forty-five bushels. 
Carrots and beete, twenty bushels, from a quarter of an acre. This band had six 
hundred tons of hay put up. This, with the large quantity of straw, was considered 
ample for the large herd. 

Band No. 124, Kinoosayo, had in crop : — 

Barley .... 2 acres, no return. 

Potatoes 10 do 500 bush. 

Turnips 1 do 25 do 

Hay put up 400 tons. 

The home farm produced seventy-five bushels of oats, seventy-five bushels barley, 
two hundred bushels potatoes, two hundred bushels turnips, carrots and beets fifty 
bushels. Eay put up for department herd eight hundred tons. 

Band 119, Seekaskootch, has broken fifty acres of new land, and twenty-five 
acres have been summer-fallowed. About two hundred and fifty acres of fall-plough- 
ing have been done, and they were busy at work at the time of my visit. The 
fields were neatly ploughed, and the fences were all good. Some of the older fields 
are getting overrun with weeds; and the agent proposes abandoning the worst of 
them for a time, and breaking more new land. He is opening up some new fields 
near the river, on the high land, to sow wheat. 

Band 124, Kinoosayo, has done no breaking nor fall-ploughing. 

Band 119, Seekaskootch, has built six new houses during the year, and ten new 
stables; and most of them have pig-pens, as many of the Indians have very fine 

Band 124, Kinoosayo, has put up five new houses and twenty new stables. 

The Indian herds were in fine condition. Band 119 herd numbers two hundred 
and fifty-four, last year it was two hundred and three, an increase of fifty-one. The 
increase in calves was satisfactory, being fifty six from sixty-nine cows. In sheep, 
they have twenty-seven and nine pigs. In private property, they have thirty-eight 
ponies ; last year the number was twenty. In pigs, they have fifty-seven ; last year 
the number was ten. 

Band 124 herd nmbers seventy-eight; last year it was seventy-one; increase in 
calves was twenty-two from twenty-eight cows. In private stock, the band has 
forty-two horses; last year the number was twenty-eight. In cattle, the number 
is one hundred and -twenty-one; last year it was eighty-four. 

The department herd I will refer to more fully later on. The number at 
present is two hundred and eighty-nine; last year it was one hundred and thirty-seven. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The increase of calves was ninety-five from one hundred and thirty-eight cows. The 
total number of live stock on the agency is as follows : — 

Band 119, cattle 234 

Band 124, cattle 78 

Department herd 289 

Band 124, private property 121 

Total 722 

Last year the number was four hundred and ninety-five. 

Horses, Band 119 has 38 

do Band 124 has 42 

do Agency control 32 

Total , 112 

In sheep, Band 119 has 27 

In pigs, Band 119 has, in private stock 57 

do Department 9 

do Agency. 4 

Total 70 

In visiting the Indian houses, I found them generally all whitewashed outside 
and in, and many were undergoing repairing and fixing up for the winter. In the 
matter of cleanliness, I noticed some improvement over last year ; but there is room 
for more improvement in this direction. The men and women are good workers. 
I did not see an idle person around. The bannocks made from barley-meal, although 
dark in colour, are very palatable, and the Indians are becoming fond of them. 

Sun-dances are entirely given up by Band 119 ; and instead the agent gives 
them a picnic on Dominion Day, at which they generally enjoy themselves 

Some very fine fork handles are made by these Indians, the best I have [seen. 
The women are making good progress in the basket line. A dozen or so were 
brought to the agency when I was there; and they have made a very fair attempt 
at making hats. Nearly all the women make butter ; they are good knitters 

The warehouse was in good order ; and the inventory showed that careful 
attention had been given in receiving and issuing supplies. One hundred and 
twenty-five thousand feet of lumber were sawn during the year, affording a 
plentiful supply of boards for the Indians to floor and repair their houses. About 
eighty thousand feet were still on hand. The standard samples have been taken 
into stock. Mr. Carney, storeman, Battleford, spent his vacation here, and during 
his stay he was of the greatest use in assisting the agent. Game was plentiful ; 
chickens and ducks were numerous; and rabbits are expected to be plentiful; but I 
must not prophesy. 

The office work is well done ; the books are neatly and correctly kept, and 
were all written and posted to date. Mr. McFeeters is very active and accurate in 
all his work. The agent continues to discharge his duties in his usual business- 
like way ; and the amount of work done, at so little expense to the department, 
is the best proof of his ability to conduct an agency. I have pleasure in stating 
that I found everything in the best order. The greatest care is taken of Govern- 
ment property placed under his control. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The Indians attend the services in the Catholic and Protestant churches 
very regularly. Forty-five children attend school. Eleven children from this 
agency are attending Battleford Industrial School. The births and deaths for the 
past twelve months have been : — 

Births. Deaths. 

Band 119 19 14 

Band 124 5 7 

Totals .., « 24 « 21 

The usual detailed report, with inventories and statements were forwarded to 
the Commissioner, Regina. 

I left on the 29th October for Long Lake, where the department's herd! is 
located. I went by Frog Lake, which is twentj- miles west of the agency, and 
then forty north-west, the distauce being sixty miles from Onion Lake. The cattle 
were found to be in good condition, the cows being the only exception. These were 
rather thin ; but the calves were about being taken from them, when they would 
soon improve. The calves were a splendid lot. They looked more like yearlings 
than young calves. The herd is under the charge of Mr. Boudreau, interpreter, 
assisted by six Indians, three married men and three single. The herd started 
with fifty heifers and three bulls, some three years ago. Since then, a purchase 
was made of sixty head, and ten were added to replace some old oxen sold, or a 
total of one hundred and twenty-three. The number now is two hundred and 
eighty-nine, or an increase in two years of one hundred and sixty-six. 

The stables were burnt last year by a prairie fire, consequently new ones had 
to be erected ; these are very commodious. There is a corral in front of the stables, 
about one and a half acre in size, and a similar corral in rear, for holding hay. It 
is stacked at different points close to the stables. One stable, sixty by twenty, 
with staunchions for forty-four head ; another stable sixty-four by twenty, with 
staunchions for forty-four head ; one stable With staunchions for twenty head, and 
auother stable, sixty-four by twenty, with staunchions for forty-two head. More 
space is allowed in this stable, as it will be used for the larger cows. In all four 
stables, with staunchions for one hundred and fifty cows. Between the stable are 
two large sheds, each sixty-four by twenty, affording capital shelter for the steers 
and heifers. The cows will be kept in the stables; then there is a separate stable 
for the calves, sixty by forty, with racks on both sides, and one down the centre, so 
that the calves have four racks to feed from, and open wings are provided 
to cross from one side to the other. The calves will be kept distinct from 
the other cattle, as there is a small lake near their stable, where they can drink by 
themselves. There is also a small horse stable, with four stalls. There is a very com- 
fortable house for Mr. Boudreau, eighteen by eighteen; adjoining is a small store, 
twelve by eighteen, to contain provisions, tools, &c, and two houses for the Indians, 
each eighteen by eighteen. The houses have wooden floors, and open chimneys, and 
were clean and comfortable looking. The stables are floored with slabs, and the 
work is very well done. Mr. Boudreau, with some Indians, did all the work of 
building these stables, and cutting and stacking eight hundred tons of hay. 

I now proceeded to Saddle Lake, and saved eighty miles of driving by going 
over the mountains. Mr. Boudreau guided me part of the way, and a half-breed, 
from Lac la Biche, who was fishing at Moose Lake, showed me the rest of the way 
until I knew where I was. The road over these mountains was very rough, and it 
was like coming down from the roof of a house to descend these steep hills. I 
arrived at Saddle Lake Agency on the evening of the 31st October. Mr. John 
Ross, agent; Mr. Gr. H. Harpur, clerk; Mr. Joseph Favel, interpreter. 

The agency premises have been improved by the addition of a new house for 
the agent, not quite finished, but can be occupied. The house is a frame one, and 
is well built, finished with lath and plaster inside, and outside with tar-paper and 
clapboarding. The ground floor has a parlour, twenty by eleven ; dining room, 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

twenty by thirteen; and a hall, twenty by sixty-six. Upstairs are three bedrooms, 
and two clothes closets. The inside painting and some finishing require to be done. 
It is a very warm house. One wing of the old house is used as a kitchen and a ser- 
vant's room with a storeroom upstairs. A verandah and porch will be added to 
the house. A new fence has been placed around the house and garden, with good 
gates made entirely of wood, so that when Indians ask for nails for gates or doors, 
they are shown what can be done without iron or nails. The older buildings were 
all whitewashed and had a nice appearance. The old farmhouse is now used as an 
office and clerk's quarters, and also as a dispensary for keeping and giving medicines, 
These are neatly arranged on shelving in a separate room. Logs are on the ground 
for a new warehouse, the old one being entirely too cramped; besides, the roof is 
leaky and is not worth repairing. The population is: — 

No. 125. Thomas Hunter . 97 

127. Blue Quill 63 

128. Whiterish Luke 316 

126. Wahsatanaw , 26 

130. Chippewayans 72 

131. Beaver Lake 118 

129. LaclaBiche 15 

Total population , 707 

The first reserves visited were Nos. 125 and 127. The farmer, Mr. Grasse, who 
was in charge of these two reserves last inspection, having been removed to Morley, 
they are now under the immediate care of the agent. The crop put in on No. 125 
was sixt} T -two and a half acres, yielding three hundred and fifteen bushels wheat, 
five hundred and twenty-five bushels barley, fifty-five bushels oats, two hundred and 
fifty bushels potatoes, one hundred bushels turnips. 

The potatoes and turnips were safely stored in the Indian cellars, and the grain 
was threshed and placed in the Indian houses. About twenty acres of land were 
summer-fallowed on No. 125. Ninety acres of new land were broken near the lake, 
and when fenced in will be a pretty field, and where a good crop may be expected. 
This field was broken by a few men from Whitefish Lake, as an auxiliary to their 
proent small fields, and it shows a commendable spirit of enterprise on their part. 
Nearly all the fall-ploughing was done on this reserve. A few spots are unfinished, 
as the cold set in suddenly and stopped all ploughing. The houses had been newly 
mudded and whitewashed, and looked very well. One new house and one new 
stable have been built, and a number of old ones repaired and improved. The cattle 
were in good condition. The number in the herd is now fifty-seven. A number 
from this reserve had been transferred to Blue Quill's Eeserve, to which some of 
the Indians removed. The increase in calves was fourteen from eighteen cows. 
During the past winter Mr. Ross had all the cattle on the different reserves 
properly branded and classified. This work occupied four or five weeks, going 
from stable to stable, which was the only way the work could be done properly ; 
the result being that more cattle were found than the books showed. I pointed 
this out the previous year, and advised Mr. Ross what to do. The result is that the 
work has been saiisfactorily carried out. 

Two hundred tons of hay are stacked for winter feed. The crop put in on No. 
127, Blue Quill's, was twenty and three-quarter acres, the yield being forty-five 
bushels wheat, one hundred and eighty bushels barley, sixty-five bushels oats, two 
hundred and fifty bushels potatoes and fifty bushels turnips. 

This reserve is making good progress. Five new houses have been built during 
the year, all of a good class, wooden floors and thatched roofs ; new stables, very 
good ones, have been built in connection with these houses; also new fields have 
been broken and fenced, and made ready for ploughing for next year's crops. 
Sixteen acres of new land have been broken, and twenty-eight fall-ploughed, and 
two hundred tons of hay have been stacked. The stables are chiefly made in two 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

divisions, with a shed in the centre, where the cattle can run in during the day 
when it is stormy or very cold. A new house for the teacher of the Roman Catholic 
school was being built near the mission church and buildings. Most of the Indians 
on these two reserves were away at the fishing lakes. The cattle here looked well. 
The herd numbered eighty-one. The increase in calves was very good, being 
twenty-four from twenty -five cows. In private stock the band has twenty horses, 
two cows and two young cattle. An improvement can be noticed in various ways 
on these two reserves. The Indians are good workers, and above the average in 

My next point was No. 128, Whitefish Lake, fifty miles north ; Mr. J. E.Ingram 
being farmer in charge. Improvements can be noticed in driving into the reserve. 
Bridges have been built on marshy places and over creeks, and the roads have been 
graded and rough places levelled down. The road-scraper supplied last year has 
been of the greatest use. Large stones have been taken out, so that the roads now 
are very good indeed. Some of the Indians have taken the stones from their fields ; 
and piles of them could be seen on the ends of the fields, ready to be used for build- 
ing foundations, if so required. The crop put in here was one hundred and thirty 
and three-quarter acres, resulting in five hundred and nineteen bushels wheat, one 
hundred and thirty-three bushels oats, one thousand five hundred and twenty bushels 
barley, two thousand bushels potatoes. The turnips were a small yield. The 
Indians took good care of their gardens. The grain was of good quality. The fences 
were fair; and rails were to be got out during winter to make new ones. The fields 
here are mostly small ones, but they looked exceedingly clean and neat and as if 
well attended to. Some new houses have been built, and many of the stables 
repaired. The houses were all whitewashed, and no dirt, nor rubblish, could be 
seen lying around. The women are making good progress in baking and knitting. 
Mrs. Ingram has taught five women to bake bread; and I saw some of the bread 
they baked, which was equal to that made by white women. I also saw some very 
good samples of mitts, socks, and other articles made by little girls, some of whom I 
rewarded, and told them I would do the same next year if they could show me as 
good progress. A new stable has been built at the farmhouse, the old one being 
too small. 

Most of the Indians were camped on the borders of the lake. On Sunday, 8 
o'clock, I saw almost the entire band at the mission church. The Eev. JohnMcDou- 
gall preached in Cree. The church was crowded. The people looked very intelligent, 
and were all well dressed. A mission meeting was held in the evening ; and I was 
told that seventy dollars were subscribed by the Indians, to be paid by the 1st June 
next. The Eev. Mr. Steinhauer is the missionary at this point, and the Rev. Mr. 
German has charge of Saddle Lake. 

The mill had to undergo some changes; and Mr. Blair was busy getting it into 
shape. The grain was threshed with the steam-thresher. Fish were reported as 
fairly plentiful on the lakes. Some of the Indians have raised the roofs of their 
houses, showing an improvement in having better and more healthy dwellings. I 
could notice a general improvement all over the reserve. 

The cattle were in splendid condition. The Polled Angus bull purchased in the 
spring is a fine-looking animal and should raise good stock. The herd numbered 
ninety-two. In private stock, the band has one hundred and fifty-two head, and 
one hundred and thirty horses. Fourteen acres of land have been summer-fallowed, 
and it was twice ploughed. The ploughing was well done, being in every case six 
and a half to seven inches deep. About one hundredand twenty acres of fall-ploughing 
had been done; and the whole would have been completed had the cold weather not 
settled down so early. Six hundred and twenty-five tons of hay are stacked on the 
bottom, and each stack is strongly fenced. A number of logs were on hand, for the 
purpose of building a new storehouse and granary ; but the logs were to be sawn 
to make a covering for the saw-mill and steam engine. More logs were to be got 
out during the winter. The cattle here have been all branded the same as at Saddle 
Lake, and full descriptions written in the cattle record, so there need now be no 
difficulty in keeping the record correctly. The increase of calves was thirteen from 


66 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

eighteen cows. I took an inventory of property in the hands of the farmer, and 
checked the books, all of which were found satisfactory. Mr. Ingram is a very 
careful and reliable man. The workshop was in good order, and the whole place was 
in perfect condition. 

Band 126 I will refer to later on, as I inspected it on my way to Edmonton ; 
but I mav say here, that the band had eighteen acres of crop, yielding one 
hundred bushels of barley and one hundred bushels of potatoes and twenty bushels 
of turnips. The herd numbers twenty head; and in private stock, they have ten 
horses and colts. 

Band 130, Chippewayans, had one hundred tons of hay put up, and three hun- 
dred and twenty-five bushels of potatoes from two acres planted. The cattle number 
twenty-two head ; and in private stock they have thirteen head and four horses. 

Band 131, Beaver Lake, has about two hundred bushels of potatoes. The two 
cows on hand last year, died; so they have no cattle now. They have one or two 
ponies, but this band uses dogs principally in travelling. Fifty tons of hay were 
reported as having been secured. The total number of cattle in the agency is as 
follows. — 

Department control 272 

Private stock 248 

do horse 196 

Farm stock 7 

do horses , 1 

Agency stock 20 

do horses. 2 

Total 746 

The births and deaths have been: births, thirty-seven; deaths, twenty-six. 
The health of the Indians, at the time of my visit, was very fair-; some were com- 
plaining of colds, but the agent had a good supply of cough-mixture, which seemed 
to do them good. 

Seventy tons of hay were stacked for the use of the agency stock ; and the whole 
of it was cut by the agent himself. He had a five-acre field of oats for the use of the 
agency horses. Mr. Harpur, the clerk, is very useful in dispensing the medicines, 
being familiar with such work. A new bridge was put over White Mud Eiver 
during the year by the Indians under charge of the agent and Mr. Ingram. The 
North-west Council gave one hundred dollars and His Lordship Bishop Grandin gave 
twenty dollars; and the Hudson Bay Company, twenty dollars, making a total of 
one hundred and forty dollars, which the Indians received, less twenty dollars paid 
lor trusses for the timbers of the bridge. The agent did all the work of his new 
house, assisted by Indians. The standard samples have been taken into stock. 
Willows and rushes are on hand to make baskets and hats during winter. Mr. 
Agent Mann kindly sent one of his baskets as a sample. The flour and bacon 
deliveries were up to standard. The warehouse, although small, was in good order. 

The receipts and issues have been carefully made, the office work is well done ; 
and the books have been carefully audited, and only a few trifling errors were 
detected. The ration-sheets were checked and found to be in good order. The 
form books were compared with the agency ledger and found generally correct. The 
agency books were all written up to date and properly indexed; in fact, not a detail 
of office work was left undone; and I know of no agency where the office work and 
various accounts and records are in better shape than I found them here. Mr. Har- 
pur is very correct and neat in all his work; and spares neither time nor pains to 
have everything in a businesslike way. He also attends to the warehouse, as well 
as to the office, and is a very valuable assistant to the agent, when absent on his 
long and numerous trips. The Indians are peaceable and contented; I heard no 
complaints of any kind. The Eev. Mr. McDougall drove with me to Whitefish 
Lake and also returned with me to Saddle Lake ; and he informed me that when, 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

on Monday, I was going over the reserve, he held a meeting with the chief and his 
councillors. Some matters connected with the church were discussed, and settled 
to the satisfaction of all parties; but, said Mr. McDougall, in all their talk, not one 
word of complaint was made against the department or its management. 

This state of affairs certainly is a credit to the agent, Mr. Ross, who seems to 
have now the confidence and control of the bands, as well as having got them into 
good working order. Mr. Boss is ever watching the interests of his Indians ; and 
loses no opportunity of trying to benefit them, by encouraging them in their various 
undertakings. I have therefore pleasure in informing you that everything is in 
good shape; and the work is going on smoothly and quietly, but efficiently. The 
utmost economy is practised and observed. The usual inventories, detailed report, 
statements and returns were forwarded to the Commissioner, Eegina. 

The annuity payments took place on the 7th October and succeeding days, and 
passed off in an orderly manner. The Indians allowed the agent to keep three 
hundred dollars of treaty mouey to pay for the new saw-mill, without a murmur. 
The Indian boy, from Battleford school, was working with Mr. Blair, millwright, 
and was spoken of in complimentary terms, as being a quiet and industrious boy. 

On my way to Edmonton, I inspected No. 12t>, Wahastana Reserve, which is 
situated some twenty miles above Victoria. There are but four families on this 
reserve, numbering twenty-eight souls. The late chief's brother was the only man 
present. Mr. Ross made arrangements with Mr. Garson, the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's agent at Victoria, to give out the rations to these few Indians, on a scale pre- 
pared by Mr. Ross. This will save driving one hundred and fourteen miles every 
fortnight, as formerly, and when specially required the wires can be used. Mr. 
Ross has done his best to induce these people to remove to the agency, but the late 
chiefs brother is not willing. It seems that he makes a little profit by keeping a 
stopping place. The late chief's wife was there, with her three imbecile children. 
The house was comfortable; but it was a most pitiful sight to see these poor 
creatures crawling over the floor. Two of them are unable to stand on their legs, 
although over eight and ten years of age. If the brother would agree to move, the 
others would doubtless follow; and then Mr. Ross could give his closest attention to this 
poor family ; but I asked Mr. Ross on no account to neglect the widow and her poor 
helpless children. The only clothing and bedding I saw were those purchased by 
the agent, out of treaty money coming to the chief. Mr. Ross accompanied me in my 
inspection to this point, when he returned to the agency, and I proceeded to Edmon- 
ton, arriving at the agency, Stony Plain, on the 17th November. 

Mr. Charles de Cazes, is agent ; Mr. A. E. Lake, agency clerk ; and Henri Blanc, 
interpreter and teamster. 

The agent's house has been improved, during the year, by the addition of an 
outside kitchen ; and a covering for the well has been made. The office has been 
much improved, it has been lined with dressed lumber and painted. The books and 
papers are neatly placed on shelves, also the stationery. One end of the office has 
shelves specially for the medicines, where they are neatly placed, ready for use at 
any time ; and the bottles are all labelled, so that no mistake need take place. 

A small oven has been put up near the office ; and is covered with a board-roof. 
It is intended as a specimen for the Indians when visiting the agency. The whole 
of the buildings had been whitewashed, and looked very clean and neat. There 
were logs on the ground for a new ration-house and an implement shed. The agent 
has a fine garden and had a splendid crop of vegetables, prizes for which were 
obtained at Edmonton exhibition. The Indians were supplied by the agent with . 
cabbage and other plants from this garden. 

The first reserve visited was Enoch's, No. 135. Quite an improvement could be 
noticed all over the reserve. Every house was whitewashed but one, and the owner 
of this one was sick, or it too would have been done. Two houses have shingled roofs, 
but the rest are covered with sod laid on rails. The agent is making an effort to 
have all the houses thatched or shingled roofs. The sods have weeds growing on 
them and these detract from the otherwise tidy appearance of the houses; besides, 
this kind of covering causes dampness, and consequently the houses are not so 
healthy for the inmates as if thatched or shingled. 
14—8 113 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The grain'on this reserve bad just been threshed, and large piles of straw could 
be seen at some of the farms. The stables are very good, and some new ones had 
been put up during the year; two new houses had been built also. Seventy-one 
acres of new land were broken and sixty-two acres fall-ploughed. Some of the 
Indians have pigs and poultry. The fences were fair; and new rails will be got out 
in winter for new ones and for repairs. Most of the Indians have milk-houses and 
nearly all the women make butter. The houses are, on the whole, comfortably fur- 
nished. The open chimney is mostly used, and some have cooking and box stoves. 
The gardens had been well looked after, as regards weeding, &c. The old widows 
had nice little gardens, and they took good care of them, and they all have their 
little cellars filled with potatoes and turnips. In some of the houses, the walls are 
covered with pictures, and there were bedsteads, tables, chairs, &c, as well as lamps, 
brooms, wash-stands, smoothing-irons, dishes and other kitchen utensils, all per- 
fectly clean and neatly placed. The covering on the beds, such as quilts, blankets, 
pillows, &c, showed the utmost cleanliness. 

The crop put in on this reserve was : — 


Wheat 58 

Oats 60 

Barley...,- 65 

Potatoes 6 

Turnips 3 

Gardens 6 

Total 198 

Being sixty-seven acres over last year. The exact return of the threshing had 
not been ascertained, but a pretty safe estimate gives : — 


Wheat 885 

Oats 1,495 

Barley 1,300 

Potatoes ....:.... 977 

Turnips 441 

The wheat and oats* were of good quality ; barley, good, but dark in colour ; pota- 
toes, very good ; and turnips, a fair crop. The gardens gave the Indians a good 
supply of vegetables during the season. The cattle were in good condition. They 
were all collected in the corral at the agency. The herd consisted of: — 

Oxen 25 

Bull 1 

Cows 20 

Steers ... 10 

Heifers 11 

Bull-calves 13 

Heifer-calves 7 

Total 87 

An increase of twenty-three over last year. The increase in calves was one from each 
cow. In private stock, the band has sixty horses, three cows, and three young 
cattle. The branding had been well attended to. The Indians on this reserve are 
well supplied with bob-sleighs, hay racks, &c, of their own make. They take good 
care of their implements ; and I did not see any lying around the fields. Two hun- 
dred tons of hay were stacked. On the whole, the reserve is in a flourishing 
condition. It is under the immediate care of the agent himself. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The next point was Michel's, No. 132, also under the charge of the agent. This 
reserve likewise was found in good order; and stackyards well filled with stacks of 
choice grain could be seen. The houses here are of a good class, clean and comfort- 
able, whitewashed outside and inside. The stables and other outbuildings, corrals, 
&c, betoken good care and thrift, the only exception being that they do not keep 
their implements, private property, under cover, but permitted the agent to do so, 
without any further delay. The chief's daughter, Josephine, who attended the High 
River Industrial School, and was one of the best pupils there, and much thought of 
by the sisters, had returned to her home, and was busy teaching her sisters and 
some other girls of the place, how to knit. I asked the agent to send her a little 
coloured yarn, which he said he would, in order to encourage her in this good work. 
Eight acres of new land have been broken, and thiriy-four acres fall-ploughed. One 
new house was in course of erection. Most of the Indians have small granaries near 
their houses. The threshing had been delayed, owing to the thresher getting out of 
order ; and duplicate parts had to be sent for, to Toronto and Winnipeg. The fences 
were fair. The crop put in was :— 


Wheat 36 

Oats 40 

Barley 50 

Potatoes 3 

Turnips... 1 

Gardens 3 

Total 133 

The estimated yield is : — 


Wheat 540 

Oats 1,200 

Barley 1,000 

Potatoes 450 

Turnips , 168 

All of a good quality. The number of acres under crop, last year, was fifty-seven, 
an increase, this year, of seventy-six acres. Milk-houses and pig-pens could be seen 
at most of the farms, as nearly all the Indians have pigs and poultry. These people 
are well advanced ; and the whole of their places have an air of comfort about them. 
The chief had quite recovered from the accident he met with last year, when I visited 
the reserve. In live stock, the band has: — 

Oxen 5 

Bulls 2 

Cows 13 

Steers 6 

Heifers 3 

Bull-calves 6 

Heifer-calves.., 6 

Horses 2 

Pigs , 10 

Total 53 

In private property, they have sixteen horses, seven cows, eighteen young 
cattle and twenty pigs. The cattle are not what can be called a choice lot ; but 
the introduction of some good bulls will improve the breed. The increase of 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

calves was twelve from thirteen cows. Three oxen were exchanged for two horses. 
One hundred and twenty tons of hay were stacked, which, with the straw, would be 
ample for winter feed. 

The next reserve visited was Alexander's, No. 134, Mr. O'Donnell being farmer 
in charge. A very good icehouse has been put up since last inspection, the logs 
from an old building at the old farm being used in constructing it. Very satisfac- 
tory progress has been made during the year on this reserve. Eleven new bridges 
have been built over creeks and mud holes. Seven stack yards were counted, each 
filled with stacks of good grain, ready for the thresher. Seven new houses have 
been built, and some have thatched roofs ; and the balance will doubtless be done 
in the same way, as the Indians are not slow in following a good example. The 
houses were all whitewashed and looked comfortable. 

Most of the Indians, including the chief, were absent, but the houses I could 
get access to, and which were occupied, I found as above stated. Three roothouses 
were put up during the year, also five new stables. The hunting was reported as 
not being equal to former years ; so far, no bears had been killed, though last year, 
at the same time, they had secured a number. Some straw hats were noticed, very 
good ones, a sample of which I took to Eegina. Baskets will be attempted, so 
soon as they get a pattern to guide them. Mrs. O'Donnell continues to give instruc- 
tion to the women in knitting, sewing and baking. The crop put in on this 
reserve was : — 


Wheat 50 

Oats ... 15 

Barley 123 

Potatoes 8 

Turnips.. 2 

Gardens 2 

Total i 200 

Being two acres over last year. The grain and potatoes were a good crop, and 
good quality. The turnips were poor. The estimated yield is : — 


Wheat 940 

Oats 350 

Barley 2,398 

Potatoes 1,800 

Turnips 134 , 

The gardens were well attended to, and gave the Indians a good supply of 
vegetables, during the season, and some to put in their cellars for the winter. 

Fifty acres of new land have been broken ; forty-five summer- fallowed and 
eighty fall-ploughed. A bake-oven has been puc up at the farm buildings similar 
to the one at the agency. A large quantity of new fencing has been made, twenty 
thousand rails having been used. Four good pig-pens have been made by the Indians ; 
and they are taking quite an interest in raising pigs. The cattle were in good ordeiv 
The herd consists of: — 

Oxen 16 

Bull 1 

Cows 9 

Steers 12 

Heifers 8 

Bull-calves 4 

Heifer-calves • 2 

Total ^_52 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

And one horse and eleven pigs. The increase in calves was six from nine cows. 
The herd here, as at Enoch's, has been allowed to run down by having scrubs of 
bulls; but this defect will now be remedied as some good bulls are being introduced. 

The pasturage is of the best description, and having also plenty of clear run- 
ning water, the cattle should be made a paying industry. In private stock, the band 
has forty-one horses, four cows, twelve young cattle and nine pigs. 

Two hundred and fifty tons of hay were stacked, which, with the straw, would 
be ample for all purposes. I took an inventory of all property in the farmer's 
hands, and checked his books. I wrote off a few articles which were of no further 
use. Mr. O'Donnell keeps his books neatly and correctly; and now that he is 
opening a new ledger, they will still be better, as the new system will be adopted. 
He has been keeping them in the antiquated style heretofore. 

He takes the greatest care of the implements; as a proof, there is a reaper 
which he got in 1880, and it is quite good yet; a double wagon supplied in 1882 is 
as good as over, and the only repair it received was a new tongue. Mr. O'Donnell 
has his reserve in good order; and everything about the place shows careful manage- 
ment. The ration-sheets are correctly kept. 

I now proceeded, accompanied by the agent, to Lac Ste. Anne, and for this 
trip had to borrow a sleigh in Edmonton, as the snow was too deep for a buckboard. 
J went first to White Whale Lake, which is sixteen miles distant from Lac Ste. 
Anne, and about seventy-five miles from the agency. Paul's Band occupy this 
place. I met here Mr. J. 0. Nelson, who was surveying a reserve for Paul's Band, 
they having only been squatters in the past. The agent and Mr. Nelson held a 
meeting with Paul and some of his men, when the whole matter was explained by 
both these gentlemen, to the evident satisfaction of all concerned. The proposed 
reserve is very hilly, where the Indians have been located for some ten or twelve 
years, but the land is good, as long hay could be seen on the top of the hills. The 
fences were old and worthless. The fields are small round patches, here and there, 
but Paul has broken one good field of fifteen acres. The houses were fair. Fish is 
plentiful, and some of the band have been very successful in the hunt, so that these 
Indians are not badly off. The crop put in by Joseph's Band, Lac Ste. Anne, and 
Paul's, are included in the following : — 

Wheat, 8 acres, yielding 145 bushels. 

Oats 2J- do 23 do 

Barley - 33 do 445 do 

Potatoes , 6J do 850 do 

Turnips 2 do 180 do 

Gardens 4 acres consumed during the season. 

Total 56 acres. 

Land broken by both bands — twenty acres. 

The cattle on Paul's numbered eighteen in all, namely : — 

C Oxen 4 

Department's control....... •< Cows 1 

. ^Bull-calves 2 


Private i £ ows ", j{ 

( loung cattle.. b 

Total 18 

The band has also twenty horses. There are about ten houses, including two 
new ones. A number of the men and women were camped near the lake, so as to 
be near the fishing. The agent took some of their fish in exchange for flour and 
bacon. The fish were to be delivered at the agency, at the rate of one hundred fish, 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No 14.) A. 1893 

weighing two and a half pounds each, for a bag of flour and six pounds of bacon. 
These fish will be issued to Enoch's Band in lieu of beef or bacon. This will be a 
change for Enoch's Band, and a help to Paul's. 

1 now returned to Lac Ste. Anne, or Joseph's Reserve, No. 133. There is a 
small store at Ste. Anne, on the mission property, where the rations are stored and 
issued once a fortnight. There is one side of this place partitioned off, where the 
agent and Mr. O'Donnell sleep, when visiting this place. There is a stable here also 
and a small stack of hay for the horses. I took an inventory of the flour and bacon 
and other articles on hand. Some medicines are kept here also, and some are in 
the hands of Mr. Taylor, of the Hudson Bay Company, who took charge of these 
Indians before Mr. de Cazes built the little store and adopted the present plan of 
sending Mr. O'Donnell or going himself once a fortnight. 

Joseph's Reserve is about six miles from this point. The band has fourteen 
houses. Most of the Indians were away, but I found the houses comfortable and 
cleanly kept. A new school-house had been built during the year. It was situated 
on a point in the centre of the reserve facing the lake. The trees in front — that is 
between the building and the lake — had been cut down, and it is proposed to make 
a garden on this spot, so that the boys can be taught gardening during part of the 
day. The spot is a very pretty one. The crop here I have already referred to, 
being included with Paul's. One hundred and twenty-five tons of hay were stacked 
at Joseph's, and eighty tons at Paul's. The cattle were in good condition. The 
herd consisted of: — 

Oxen 4 

Bull 1 

Cows 5 

Heifers 3 

Bull-calves 2 

Heifer-calves 1 

Total , 16 

In private stock they have twenty-five horses, two cows and one youug beast. 
The Indians at both these places were very pleasant, and seemed to appreciate our 
visit. They had no complaints, nor did they ask for anything. I now returned to 
the agency. 

The warehouse is very neatly kept, and the goods properly cared for. The 
issues are correctly made. The bacon was first-class, and the flour made good bread 
and bannocks. The standard samples have been taken into stock. The office work 
is well done. From the well known abilities and carefulness of Mr. Lake, when in 
the Regina office, I was prepared to find his work equally well done here, and in 
this I was not disappointed. His books are neatly and correctly kept, and were all 
written up to date. Mr. Lake, in addition to his office duties, attends to the ware- 
house, in receiving and issuing supplies, as well as issuing the rations from the 
ration-house. The agent is highly pleased with Mr. Lake. In addition to the 
ordinary books, there is a small ledger kept, in which any extra rations, for work 
done, are entered at cost prices, and the account is credited with the work, at a fair 
valuation. In this way it can be seen at any time what an Indian receives, and 
what value he gives for it. 

The annuity payments took place on 6th October, and passed off in a satisfactory 
manner, with the exception that some parties brought liquor into Alexandria's 
Reserve and sold some to the Indians. One man, Ben Munro, was arrested, con- 
victed and sentenced to four months in jail. One Indian was arrested for perjury 
in connection with the evidence, but the jury acquitted him; however, he got a good 
fright. The agent will adopt the strongest measures next year and will prevent 
any of these rascals from the possibility of having liquor sold to the Indians. 

It will be noticed that the total estimated quantity of wheat, oats and barley 
on the agency is ten thousand seven hundred and twenty-one bushels, or an average 
of sixteen and a half bushels of wheat to the acre, twenty-six bushels of oats and 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

nineteen of barley. The total quantity of potatoes is four thousand and seventy- 
seven bushels, and of turnips, nine hundred and twenty-three bushels. The two 
lat ter are actually as they were measured and carried off the fields in bags, but the grain 
can only be arrived at properly when it is threshed. The estimate is a reasonable 
one, but not having seen the grain in the fields I would not offer an opinion, but 
allowing twenty per cent off the estimated quantity for contingencies, there would 
still be eight thousand five hundred aad seventy-seven bushels, which is a very good 

• The total number of cattle, horses, and pigs on the agency is as follows: — 


Private property , 162 

Farm IT 2 

Agency 2 

Indians under the department's control 3 



Department's control . . 203 

Private property 61 

Agency . 3 



Department's control 21 

Private property 29 


Grand total 486 

The number of cattle is small, compared with other agencies of the same 
number of Indians, and of facilities for raising stock, but the reason is that, in 
former years these Indians killed their cattle with impunity, but this they cannot do 
now so that an increase may reasonably be expected in a few years. The total 
population is : — 

No. 135, Enoch's Band 173 

136, Alexanei-'s Band 219 

132, Michel's Band , 69 

133, Joseph's Band 140 

133a, Paul's Band 88 

Orphans at St. Albert's school 12 

Total.. 701 

The births aud deaths for the past twelve months have been : — 

Births. Deaths. 

Alexander's 10 5 

Joseph's 5 10 

Michel's 1 1 

Paul's... 4 2 

Totals 20 18 

A large amount of work has been done during the year. Logs have been got 
out for new buildings. Six thousand feet of lumber were whip-sawed on Enoch's 
reserve, and two thousand five hundred shingles made ; and on Alexander's six 
thousand feet of lumber and four thousand shingles. About twenty-five miles of 
road have been made through the bush to Lac Ste. Anne. The trees had to be cut, 
and the stumps removed. One old Indian, who recently celebrated his golden wed- 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

ding, did the principal part of the work; tifteen miles of road have been repaired 
also. The icehouse built by Mr. de Cazes is the best plnn of an icehouse I have 
seen. Beef kept perfectly good in it, in the hottest weather, for three weeks. 

The agent has about three thousand young maple trees in his garden ; and they 
have grown nicely. He will give some to the Indians to plant around their houses. 
Some hemp was grown with success, and tobacco also. The hemp grew to a height 
of six feet. It is very useful in mending harness, tying bags, &c. The children 
attending the Presbyterian school on Enoch's Reserve are making capital progress 
in knitting and sewing. This school is doing good work under the new teacher and 
his wife. The Indians are very well hehaved, except a few bad characters, who do 
mischief on the reserves. They do not loiter around Edmonton, as in former years; 
and I have heard it said by townspeople, " what a change has come over the 
Indians, we never hear the tom-tom now." 

They work well, and with a purpose. They do not feel that the work given 
them to do is a task or a hardship ; but they go about it willingly, feeling that it is 
for their own benefit. As I said before, most of the Indians were away on the hunt; 
but I saw no idle people. No one who is able to work can get fed without doing 
something. The sick and old, of course, are not neglected; but all able-bodied per- 
sons must labour in some manner. The agent is to be congratulated on the splendid 
condition the agency is in. One reason of Mr. de Cazes's success, lies in the fact 
that he knows every one of his Indians, men, women and children. He is familiar 
with their history and their peculiarities. He is kind, but firm ; and no matter is 
too trifling for his inquiring into; the consequence is he has complete control over 
them, and their entire confidence and respect. Detailed report, inventories, state- 
ments and returns, were forwarded to the Commissioner in the usual way. 

I now drove to Peace Hills Agency, arriving there on the 10th December, 1891. 
Mr. D. L. Clink, agent; Mr. C. W. H. Sanders, clerk; and Alfred Whitford. 

The agency buildings were in good condition, having been newly whitewashed, 
and a new fence, well made, has been placed around the premises. The large kitchen, 
formerly attached to the agent's house, has been fitted up as a dwelling for the clerk. 
It has been removed halfway between the agent's house and the office. 

The first reserve visited was Sampson's, No. 138. This reserve is under the 
immediate management of the agent. The Indians were all away, some at Pigeon 
Lake and others at Buffalo Lake. Rations having been withheld for some months, 
these Indians were fishing and hunting in order to obtain a living. A great amount 
of work had been done in the way of ploughing. Sampson's new house had not been 
occupied by the chief. It only required a chimney, and to be whitewashed ; but 
it could be used by heating with a stove. The house is well floored up and down- 
stairs and has a very good attic, which could easily be divided into separate rooms. 
The crop put in was : — 


Wheat 50 

Oats 17 

Barley 71 

Potatoes , 11 J 

Gardens 5 \ 

Total ..155 

Last year the total was one hundred and sixty-nine acres, but the fields are more 
correctly measu red this year, which accounts for the apparent reduction. The result 
after threshing is: — 


Wheat 1,013 

Oats 421 

Barley 981 

Potatoes 1,140 

Turnips 572 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The average yield per acre is twenty and a half bushels wheat, twenty-five of 
oats, fourteon of barley and one hundred of potatoes. Thirty-five acres of new land 
were broken, and about the same quantity summer-fallowed, and seventy acres have 
been fall-ploughed. In fact nearly every field was ready for next year's crop. The 
ploughing was well done. 

The houses were locked up. Only two or three of them were whitewashed, as 
the Indians left to fish and hunt before fixing up their houses for the winter. Four 
hundred tons of hay were stacked for winter feed. The winter stables were the 
same as last year. Nineteen large hay stacks were at some distance from the stables. 
The stacks were strongly fenced. There were thirty-two smaller stacks at different 
points, between the winter stables and the Indian houses and private stables. The 
'hay in these thirty-two stacks will be hauled into the private stables for use during 
the spring work. A considerable quantity of old hay was on hand, left over from 
the previous year. One new house had been built during the year. The grain was 
put in by seeders, three of which were purchased from the proceeds of hay sold to 
the Calgary and Edmonton Eailway Company. Mr. Clink claims that, but for the 
using of these seeders, the crops would not have been so good. There was one seeder 
for each reserve. Some very good land-rollers were noticed, made by the Indians. 
Nothing had been done, so far, in making baskets or hats; but willow and straw 
were on hand to make some during winter. 

The cattle were feeding on the meadows between the winter stables and the 
lake. The pasturage was very good, and the grass was as green as in summer. 
Holes were cut in the ice for the cattle to drink from ; and the interpreter was in 
charge of this duty. So soon as the Indians returned, some of them would be 
detailed to attend to the feeding and watering of the cattle. A small house is situated 
near the stables for these men to live in. The herd numbered one hundred and 
eighty. Last year, it was one hundred and forty-nine. There was a calf for every 
cow. Some of the cows were thin, owing to the calves not being separated from 
them. There was a splendid lot of young steers. These will be ready for the spring 
work. They will be broken in during winter, hauling grain to Edmonton to be 
ground. In private stock the band has one hundred and eighty ponies. The fences 
were fair. The houses are the least attended to. The amount of ploughing is, 
however, very gratifying, and shows that the Indians have not been idle. The 
members of the different bands subscribed some of their treaty money to pay the 
men who are to attend to the catile, this winter, at the various stables. This 
shows a commendable spirit. No implements were noticed lying around the fence 

The next visited was Ermineskin's, No. 137. This reserve shows also a large 
amount of work done. Two new houses have been put up, shingled roofs ; one is 
plastered inside. A new house was in course of erection for Bobtail, removed from 
Sampson's Eeserve ; and one or two other houses had been begun. 

Some new beginners have pretty fields ploughed for next year. Some of these 
are on the slope, north of the farm buildings, and along the side of the railway. 
When on this reserve I visited the Eoman Catholic mission. The school has been 
supplied with very good desks, made by the Indians under Mr. Eobertson, the late 
farmer. The desks were painted. The crop put in here was: — 


Wheat ; 43 

Oats 14 

Barley , 56 

Potatoes 3 

Gardens 2 

Total 118 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 189a 

Last year, it was forty-four acres, being an increase of seventy-four acres. The 
yield, partly estimated, as it was not all threshed, was as under : — 


Wheat 400 

Oats 210 

Barley 795 

Potatoes ... 265 

Turnips, &c 62 

The average per acre is : wheat, nine and a half bushels ; oats, fifteen; barley, four- 
teen; potatoes, ninety. This is a smaller average than Sampson's. Not having 
seen the grain in the fields, I cannot explain the reason ; but it is not at all improb- 
able that more acreage is put down than actual measurement would warrant. 

Thirty-eight acres of new land have been broken during the year, ten acres 
summer-fallowed and fifty acres fall-ploughed. The fields are well ploughed, and 
would do no discredit to a white farmer. One hundred and thirty tons of hay were 
stacked. The cattle numbered ninety-seven; home farm, fifteen — total, one hundred 
and twelve. Last year the number was: herd, eighty-one ; home farm, fourteen — 
total, ninety-five. There was a calf for every cow. Some of the cows here were thin r 
for the same reason as at Sampson's; but so soon as the calves are removed, the 
cows will soon gain flesh. Some young steers, purchased this year, to repiace cattle 
killed for beef, are splendid specimens and were obtained at very reasonable prices, 
namely, twenty dollars each. These will befit for the spring work. The winter 
stables for this herd are at Bear's Lake. These have been increased by the addition 
of a large shed, thirty-six by forty-four. 

The hay is stacked in the valley, away some distance from the stables, so that 
in case of fire the whole would not be lost. One large stack surrounds the north 
and north-west sides, which will make them warmer. Separate compartments are 
kept exclusively for the calves. It is proposed to build new stables next summer 
away from the trees, so that danger from prairie fires will be lessened. Iu private 
stock this band has forty ponies, one cow and two young cattle. 

The fences were very fair, and the houses were tidy and comfortable looking. 
The private stables here were very good, and the Indians appear to be thrifty and 
progressive. I took an inventory of property at the farm, and wrote off the books 
a few articles which were worn out and of no further use. 

The next point was Louis Bull's, No. 140. This reserve is in very good shape. 
The Indians are capital workers ; they were nearly all away hunting and fishing for 
a living. Their houses were nearly all closed up, but they looked clean and com- 
fortable. The children who did not accompany their parents on leaving looked clean 
and well clad. One new house had been built during the year, and two private 
stables. The crop put in was: — 

I Acres. 

Wheat 27 

Oats 14 

Barley 24 

Potatoes 3 

Total 68 

Being thirty-four acres more than last year. The yield of the threshing is : — 


Wheat 564 

Oats 201 

Barley : 480 

Potatoes 375 

The average per acre is : wheat, twenty-one bushels ; oats, fourteen ; barley, 
twenty; and potatoes, one hundred and twenty-five. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Fifteen acres of new land have been broken, twenty-five summer-fallowed 
and forty fall-ploughed ; the ploughing in every case being exceedingly well done. 
The fields were in good form for next year's crop. One hundred and twenty-five 
tons of hay were stacked for winter feed. The cattle were in good condition, a few 
of the cows being somewhat thin, for the same reason as at other reserves. The 
herd numbered seventy-eight; last year it was sixty-two. There was a calf for each 
cow. The old stables at Bear's Lake for Louis Bull's cattle have been pulled down 
and new ones built in a more desirable position, not very far from the old place. 
These new buildings are strongly put together, having good square logs, and the 
whole work was well done. They are "plastered with mud and have a comfortable 
appearance. Two stables, each twenty by twenty, two sheds, twenty by forty-two, 
with separate compartments for the calves, comprised the lot. Hay is stacked 
around the sheds, and more is in the valley where it was cut. Part of the herd was 
on this spot, and one of Louis Bull's Indians was in charge of them. There is a 
house, and the man and his family were living therein forthe winter. Thesestables 
are about twelve miles from the reserve. In private stock this band has twenty 

The next and last reserve in this agency visited was Sharphead's, or generally 
known as the Stony's, No. 141. Nothing has been done on this reserve, beyond plant- 
ing a few acres of potatoes ; in fact, it is abandoned to all intents and purposes. The 
cattle are now on Ermineskin's Eeserve. They number thirty-four head. A number 
of this band have gone to Paul's Reserve, referred to in Edmonton report. The total 
number of grain on the agency is : — 


Sampson's 2,415 

Ermineskin's 1,405 

Louis Bull's 1,245 

Total 5,065 

And in roots: — 


Sampson's 1,712 

Ermineskin's 327 

Louis Bull's ; 375 

Total 2,414 

Of this quantity, one thousand nine hundred and seventy-seven bushels are wheat ; 
and allowing three and a half bushels for a bag of flour of one hundred pounds, there 
would be five hundred and sixty-four bags of flour, besides the bran and shorts. This 
is assuming that the grain is a fair sample, and any I have seen may be classed as 
such. The warehouse is well kept, and the office work is well done. 

The ration-sheets have been kept on the plan of average, which I have always 
objected to; that is, putting down the number of family and making a total number, 
at so much bacon, beef, or flour, as the case may be, to each; of course, all showing 
as having received the same. Mr. Clink claims that he rations according to the work 
performed; that is, if a man works only half a day, he only gives him half a ration, 
and if he works a whole day, he gives him a whole ration. The sheets, as I have 
said, as at present kept, show as all faring alike. The standard samples have been 
taken into stock. The bacon and flour are of choice quality. 

The treaty payments took place in October, and passed off quietly. The Indians 
were paid each on his own reserve ; the consequence being that little time was lost 
from their work; and there was little or no gambling or horse-racing. There is 
very little gambling carried on at any time. 

The agent's house has been papered from top to bottom. He furnished the 
paper himself aud the Indians did the work, and they did it well. The agent has 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

introduced a furnace made from an old stove and some zinc ; it works well, saves 
fuel and gives a deal less labour, as the one fire heats the whole house. The total 
population on the agency is : — 

No. 137, Ermineskin's 138 

138, Sampson's 276 

140, Louis Bull's QQ 

141, Sharphead's , 51 

Total 531 

Last year the number was five hundred and fifty-two ; removals of some of 
Sharphead's Band to Paul's account for the difference. Two boys and one girl from 
Sampson's and one boy from Ermineskin's, attend the High Eiver Industrial School. 
The total number of cattle on the agency is four hundred and thirty-six ; last year 
it was three^ hundred and thirty-nine, and two years ago, two hundred and eighty- 
four. The fishiug and hunting were reported as being good. 

Hay was sold last year to the amount of six hundred and eighty-three dollars, 
and the balance on hand from this account in hands of the agent was two 
hundred and twenty-three dollars. The births during the year have been 
eighteen, and the deaths sixteen, eight of the deaths having taken place since treaty 
payments, one on the reserve and seven at the fishing lakes. The Eev. Mr. Glass is 
doing good work on Sampson's Reserve, and the Eev. Mr. Somerset on Louis Bull's. 
Both these reverend gentlemen report the Indians as advancing, gambling and 
horse-racing being pretty much abandoned and never indulged in on Sundays, as was 
formerly the case. The Eev. Father Gabillon, in charge of the mission on Ermine- 
skin's, reported favourably of his Indians. They all complained about the schools 
being closed, the children in most cases having to accompany their parents. 

The clerk, Mr. Sanders, is very attentive to his duties. ' Besides the office work 
he attends to the warehouse and the issuing of rations to Sampson's Band, and to 
the other matters on the reserve, when required to do so by the agent. He has his 
work in good shape and is thoroughly conversant with the work of the agency. 

Mr. Clink is also very active, and the progress made during the year is the 
best proof of his ability to handle Indians. He is making rapid strides in the way 
of bringing his Indians to the point of being able to support themselves. In doing 
this some may think that the means used are somewhat on the severe side, but it* 
requires some dealing of this kind to get them out of the groove they have so long 
been accustomed to. The usual detailed report, inventories and statements were 
forwarded to the Commissioner. 

I now sent my team to Calgary and went by rail myself. The next agency reached 
was the Sarcee, arriving there on the 28th December, 1891. Mr. S. B. Lucas is 
agent ; Mr. A. K. Tynte, agency clerk, and George Hodgson, interpreter and 
farmer; and an old man called Old Tom receives five dollars a month as assistant 
issuer. The agent's house has been improved during the year by the addition of 
an extra bedroom upstairs and the enlarging of the little room formerly used as an 
office, making a good-sized sitting room. A new kitchen has also been added. 
The whole is finished inside with dressed lumber. The building is heated with hot 
air. A lean-to has been added to the clerk's house. A new building was in course 
of erection near the church and school-house. It is proposed to use this building 
as a boarding establishment for Indian children in connection with the mission 
conducted by the Eev. Mr. Stocken. The building is twenty four by twenty-four, 
two stones, log, and shingled roof. It was not quite finished. 

The standard samples have been taken into stock. The beef supplied at this 
agency was of good quality. The number of animals killed from 1st January to 1st 
July, 1891, was sixty-eight, all steers ; average weight of the four quarters, six 
hundred and forty-seven pounds ; average percentage of offal, 7*96. From 1st 
July to 31st December, 1891, the number killed was fifty-two (thirty-six steers and 
sixteen cows); average weight, seven hundred and twenty-three pounds, and per- 
centage of offal, 9*18. Messrs. Hull Bros., Calgary, were the contractors, and the 
beef was of good quality. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The crop put in on this reserve was : — 


Oats 99| 

Potatoes 2l| 

Turnips 2J 

Carrots f 

Onions ... J 

Total 125 

Being thirty-three acres more than the previous year. The agent says that the 
Indians worked well and kept the gardens and fields in good order ; but the entire 
crop was destroyed by a hail-storm, only two hundred and thirty bushels of potatoes 
having been got out of the one hundred and twenty-five acres. The cattle were in 
good condition. The herd numbers twenty-eight, and there are seven horses. 
Seventy-five tons of hay were stacked for winter feed. Six new Indian houses had 
been built during the year. The houses at the lower village near the agency were 
all whitewashed, and looked very well.- A few of the houses at the upper village 
have also been whitewashed. The inside of the houses are kept fairly clean, but 
there is room for improvement. They were warm and comfortable. Some of them 
have no bedsteads, tables or chairs, but most had good warm blankets and house 
utensils, such as pots, pans, dishes, &c. 

Eighteen acres of land have been broken on the bench; five acres have been 
summer-fallowed, and all but twelve acres have been fall-ploughed ; also some new 
fencing has been made. The crop on the home farm was also destroyed by the 
hail-storm. No cases of killing cattle by Indians have been reported during the 
year. A few new stables have been built. Four men from the upper village were 
in the bush cutting logs. The Indians say that they would have better houses and 
would have bedsteads and tables if they had the lumber. The old man who asked 
me last year about his daughter, who is insane and at Stony Mountain, got all the 
information he required from the doctor of that institution. 

The Eev. Mr. Stocken gave the Indians a grand feast at the mission on the 
afternoon of the 7th January, 1892. The whole of the Indians, men, women and 
children, from both villages, were present, and they enjoyed themselves thoroughly. 
A number of articles of clothing were distributed at the close of the feast. The 
Eev. Mr. Stocken makes an annual collection in Calgary of clothing, provisions, 
&c, for this purpose. The warehouse was in good order and the office work was 
up to date. The flour was of good quality and the sacks of proper weight. 

I inspected the Stony Eeserve on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th of January, 1892. 
This reserve is part of the Sarcee Agency. Mr. P. L. G-rasse is the farmer in 
charge, having succeeded Mr. Graham, who resigned last summer. The new farm- 
house, com menced last year, on the south side of the Bow Ewer, and near the office and 
storehouse, has been completed. The house is log, lined inside with tar-paper and 
dressed lumber. It is eighteen by twenty-four, with a wing eighteen by twenty- 
four, shingled roof and brick chimney. On the ground floor there is a parlour, 
dining room and small sitting room, a very good kitchen and large pantry off the 
kitchen, and a splendid cellar. Upstairs there are two bedrooms completed, each 
with clothes closets. There are two more rooms still to be completed. A new 
stable has also been put up. This also had a shingled roof. The stable is 
roomy and warm. The ration-house was pulled down and rebuilt. It is eighteen 
by twenty-four, shingled roof. The storehouse was neatly kept; an inventory 
was taken of its contents. A few articles were written off, having become 
worn out, lost or broken. The beef supplied by Leeson & Scott was of good 
quality. From 1st January to 1st July, 1891, eighty-nine head of cattle were 
killed, average weight six hundred and eighty pounds ; average percentage of 
offal was 7*40. From 1st July to 31st December, fifty-one head of cattle were 
killed, average weight, five hundred and ninety-seven pounds ; percentage of offal, 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

ten. The bacon supplied by the Hudson's Bay Company was of choice quality. 
The flour from the Ogilvie Milling Company was also good, and the sacks correct 

The crop put in by Band A was : oats, ten acres ; potatoes, eight acres ; turnips, 
two acres ; and carrots and onions, two acres — a total of twenty-two acres. Oats were 
cut green, tor hay; potatoes yielded one hundred and thirty-six bushels; the other 
root crops, little or nothing. Band B had : oats, fifteen acres ; potatoes, eleven acres ; 
turnips, three acres ; and onions and carrots, two acres — or a total of thirty-one acres. 
Oats were cut green for hay ; potatoes yielded one hundred and eighty-seven bushels ; 
other roots, only trifling. Band C had: oats, fifteen acres; potatoes, seven acres; 
turnips, carrots and onions, one acre each — total, twenty-five acres. Oatstiut green, 
tor hay; potatoes gave one hundred and nineteen bushels ; other roots, trifling ; dry 
weather and hail-storms being the reasons given for the poor returns in all cases. 

Mr. Grasse is giving a great deal of his attention to the cattle. This industry 
is the best one for these parts. The cattle were in better condition than I ever found 
them. Mr. Grasse has taken a sensible course. Ho has got some of the Indians to 
act as herders, and he is constantly among them himself. The cattle are in two 
herds, A and C on the south side of the Eiver, and B on the north side. I spent one 
day on each side, and counted every hoof as per the following lists. The Indians 
claim that they have more cattle than are shown here, but I only entered what I 
saw, and any more found can be added to the lists afterwards. Some had got mixed 
up with ranchers' herds. These two bands of cattle will be kept separate from the 
ranchers'. No doubt but the cattle industry here can be made a prosperous one. 
Grass and water are of the best quality; and it only requires good supervision ; and 
this is now the case under Mr. Grasse. The A and C herd is : — 

Cows , 38 

Steers t 23 

Heifers 14 

Bull-calves *. 20 

Heifer-calves 11 

Total 106 

Herd B, on the north side, is : — 

Bull 1 

Cows 62 

Steers 25 

Heifers. 28 

Bull-calves 19 

Heifer-calves 35 

Total 170 

They were in very good condition, the young cattle looking particularly healthy 
and strong. There were eighty-five calves from one hundred cows. The sheep 
looked well also and good pens have been put up for their protection. The number 
is, Band B, fifty-seven ; private stock, five — total, sixty-two. Bands A and C have, 
in private stock, one hundred and seventy-five ponies; and Band B, one hundred and 
twenty-five — total, three hundred. Farm stock consisted of three oxen and one 

Six new houses have been erected during the year. A number of the Indians 
have piles of wood near their houses. The population of the Sarcee .Reserve is two 
hundred and seventy-eight. The births during the year have been thirteen and the 
deaths sixteen. The population of the Stony's is the same as last year, five hundred 
and seventy. The births were eighteen and the deaths sixteen. I did not visit the 
Orphanage, but it was reported as being in a flourishing condition. The Indians 
attend the service on Sundays very regularly. Mr. Grasse is doing his work well. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The books are kept by Mrs. Grasse, and I found them very correct. The agent, Mr. 
Lucas, is getting along very well with his Indians ; although there is not much to 
show as having been done during the year on the Sarcee Reserve, it must be stated 
that it was late in the season when he took charge. The usual detailed report, 
inventories and statements were forwarded to the Commissioner. 

My next point was St. Joseph's Industrial School, arriving there on the 15th 
January, 1892. The paid staff consist of: — 

The Rev. Father Naessens, principal. 

Mr. Charles Dennehy, assistant principal, teacher for the boys, and clerk. 

Sister Cleary, matron. 

" Segoff, assistant matron. 

11 Sicard, cook. 

" Mathurin, seamstress. 

William Scollen, assistant teacher for the boys, and instructor of instru- 
mental music. 

W. Fern, carpenter. 

T. Campain, shoemaker. 

Edward Pidgeon, farmer. 

Sister Kelly, teacher for the girls, without salary. 
The following improvements have been made since last inspection, a year ago : 
The rear end of the building has been extended, the roof raised, and the walls 
veneered with brick. This addition gives a good-sized schoolroom for the girls, also 
a small sewing room, and an extra room for the use of the sisters. The main 
building has been reshingled and the roofs painted. A good many repairs have 
been made inside the building, and a number of cupboards made by the boys. The 
tank is kept constantly filled with water, and hose are attached on both flats, to be 
used in case of fire. The boys' dormitory has had ventilators put in, and they seem 
to work well. A new hay corral has been made in rear of the stables. It is one 
hundred and fifty feet long and forty feet wide, and is inclosed by an eight-foot board 
fence; gates are at each end. The hay is stacked here. Fifty tons were hauled 
fifteen miles from the school by the farmer and the boys. The old root-house has 
been pulled down and rebuilt on a larger scale. The infirmary has been brick- 
veneered, and is now in keeping with the main building. A stone foundation has 
been put under this building. The roof is also painted. The small building, for 
men's quarters, has had a stone foundation put in also ; and brick was on hand to 
have it veneered. In the meantime, the outside walls were covered with tar paper, 
fastened on with laths, as it was vory cold. A new building was in course of 
erection, near the men's quarters, twenty-four by thirty, two stories, shingled roof, 
to be used as a carpenter's shop, and the upper part as a shoemaker's shop ; a 
separate entrance to the upper part. 

A new picket fence has been placed around the flower garden, in front of the 
buildings. The old carpenter's shop will be used as a store room. The boys' 
lavatory in the main building has been well fitted up with wash basins, baths and 
water-closets. The one for the girls' side has also been similarly fitted up. The 
old sheep pen is now used as a place of shelter for the calves. The horse stable has 
been improved by the addition of a harness room at one end, in which the boiler is 
placed, for boiling horse and cow feed. Over this place is a small room used as a 
practice place for the boys who are learning instrumental music. The instruments 
are kept in this room, under lock and key. 

The main building is now very comfortable. Nearly all the work in the car- 
pentry line was done by the boys, with some little outside assistance. The crop 
put in was: wheat, one acre; oats, twenty -seven acres; potatoes, six acres; turnips 
and beets, four acres ; corn and vegetables, two acres, and garden, one acre — or a 
total of forty-one acres. With the exception of one hundred and fifty bushels of 
potatoes, the entire crop was a failure, owing to several hail-storms. Eight loads 
of green hay were cut from the oatR. The whole of the crops looked very promising 
up to the time of the storms. The want of vegetables was much felt. Twenty 
acres of land are ploughed for next year's crop. The cattle, some thirty-five in all, 
looked very well. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The number of pupils was seventy-two, forty-eight boys and twenty-four girls. A 
year ago, the number was fifty-four ; thirty-six boys and eighteen girls. Four boys are 
learning carpentry ; six that of harness and shoemaking, and four follow the trade 
of baking and they bake all the bread for the house without any assistance. The 
carpenters are good workmen ; and the work turned out in the way of boots, 
moccasins, and various articles of harness, is the best proof of the progress made in 
this department. Some of the goods sent to Eegina compared favourably with 
similar goods supplied by contractors. 

There is no reason why these boys, when they leave the school, should not be 
able to earn an honest livelihood in following their trades. The pupils were all 
healthy at the time of my visit. There was some sickness in the fall; but under the 
skilful treatment of Dr. Lindsay, of Calgary, and the careful nursing of the sisters, 
and especially of the matron, Sister Cleary, they all recovered. Only one death 
took place during the year, and that was a boy who had his leg amputated. He got 
over his operation, but finally died from consumption. 

The road up the big hill has been improved, and a fence put up on a dangerous 
spot where the road takes a sudden turn. The discipline and order in this school 
are excellent ; and the boys and girls are exceedingly well behaved. The girls look 
tidy; and they are making capital progress in house work, and in sewing, knitting, 
mending, &c. 

The storehouse is well kept. I took an inventory of all property on hand, in 
store and in use. The greatest economy is practised in all departments ; and the 
best use is made of everything sent here. The articles written off as worn out, 
cover a space of twelve months; and for the number of pupils they are not at all 
unreasonable. I again express, as I did last year, that many of the articles in daily 
use I found on hand the same as they were two or three years ago, which is good 
proof of the care that is taken of property in this establishment. The Principal 
is much interested in his work; and it goes on smoothly and efficiently under his 
management. Everything is as orderly as in a well-regulated family. The 
garden in front of the school has been laid out, and trees will be planted, in the 
spring, along: the fences. The Principal has good taste displayed in his plans, and 
in carrying them out. The standard samples have been taken into stock. In addi- 
tion to the articles made for the use of the school, the following, manufactured by 
the boys, have bee,n sent to the outside places, namely : — 
For the MpDougall Orphanage, Morley — 

Combined desks and benches 12 

Benches 3 

Edmonton Agency — 

Boots, pairs 47 

Eegina warehouse — 

Ox collar tugs 30 

Hame straps 18 

Breeching straps 6 

Pole straps..... 6 

Ox back straps , 4 

Surcingles 6 

Tie straps 12 

Hobbles, pairs 22 

Halters 22 

Shoe-packs, pairs 200 

Ox cart harness, sets 12 

Ox neck-yoke strap 6 

The boys who compose the instrumental band are making good progress. They 
only commenced practice in November, and 'they can now play some pieces very 
well. Mr. Scollen says that they are picking up very quickly. Ten boys are taking 
lessons, and they practice about an hour every day. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The books are neatly and correctly kept. Only one or two errors of little 
account were discovered. Mr. Dennehy is to be commended for having the office 
work in such good order. The matron, Sister Cleary, is deserving of all praise for 
the constant care the pupils received at her hands. This lady is untiring in her 
efforts to promote their welfare. There is abundant evidence of a good work being 
done in this school. The inventories and statements, with the usual detailed report, 
were furnished to the Commissioner, Regina. 

I now drove direct to the Blackfoot Agency, being able to cross the Bow River 
on the ice. I camped over night, on the way down, at Messrs. McHugh Brothers' 
ranch, and arrived at the agency on the 19th January. 

Mr. Magnus Begg is agent ; Mr. J. Lawrence, agency clerk ; George Pablo, 
interpreter; and Kechips, an Indian, teamster. The agency has been improved, 
during the year, by the addition of a porch and verandah to the clerk's house, the 
work having been done by one of the boys of the High River Industrial School, and 
who is now working as. a regular carpenter on the Rev. Mr. Tims's new boarding 
school building. This young man has also done carpenter's work for some of the 
Indians, such as making doors, ventilators, &c. The warehouse, carpenter's shop, 
and horse stables have beeu newly painted. The whole of the agency buildings and 
surroundings were in the best possible order and neatness. The first place visited 
was the North Reserve, Mr. W. M. Baker being farmer in charge. The buildings 
here were in good order ; and all implements, wagons, &c, were carefully stored 
away for the winter. The crop put in on this reserve was as follows : — 


Oats 38 

Potatoes 33 

There were twenty-four gardens, but owing to dry weather very little 
was got from them, beyond some vegetables consumed during the season. 
Eight bushels of oats and one thousand four hundred and twenty-seven 
bushels of potatoes were harvested. The Indians took good care of their 
gardens. Eighteen acres of new fencing, the rails having been brought from 
Morley. Forty-five acres have been fall-ploughed, and fifteen summer-fallowed. 
There are six villages on this reserve. Fifteen new houses were put up during the 
year, three of which were not quite completed. These houses are well spread over 
the reserve ; some of them were whitewashed, and are very good houses with shingled 
roofs, and were cleanly kept. A great improvement can be seen in this respect in 
nearly all the houses; and it can easily be noticed that the Indians were taking a 
greater interest than ever in having nice houses, and keeping them clean. Chief 
Old Sun's new house was completed, and he is now living in it. There were thirteen 
persons in the house when I called, but the house was well ventilated. There was 
one of the ventilators in this house, and about eight others have them also, and they 
work well. The difference in going into these houses was very perceptible from 
those where there were none. It will be remembered that last year I asked the 
agent to try the experiment in one or two houses. This was done, and the Indians 
were so pleased that as many as could get lumber had them introduced. They are 
simple and inexpensive, and are the best substitutes for an open chimney that I 
know of. Many of the houses had piles of wood alongside ready for use. Some of 
the houses are adorned with pictures, and the walls lined with cotton. New fields 
have been started, and the ploughing was well done. The Indians had their seed 
potatoes laid aside for next year. It is not uncommon to see in the houses, cooking 
stoves, bedsteads, bureaus, lamps, tables, chairs and other household articles ; and 
they appeared to be comfortable. When they build a new house, they generally use 
the old one for cooking in, and consequently the new houses are kept in good style. 
Many have corrals for their ponies. 

The Rev. Mr. Tims's boarding school is being enlarged by the addition of two 

wings; one, fifty by thirty-two and the other, thirty-two by eighteen; two stories, 

frame and shingled roof. There are at present, in the part that is finished, fifteen 

boys and six girls. The boys live in the building and the girls at the mission. 

14—9 129 

66 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

When the building is completed there will be accommodation for thirty-five or forty 
pupils. The boys will occupy one end, and the girls the other, with a dining room 
in common in the centre. One portion cannot be completed at present, as the Kev. 
Mr. Tims says that he has not the money to do so. 

" White Pup ' is putting up a very good house. He is going to have it divided 
into separate rooms, This is a move in the right direction ; and no doubt others 
will follow his example. •' White Pup" and his band cut forty-two tons of hay for 
the C. C. Company, for which they were paid three dollars a ton, making one hundred 
and twenty-six dollars. They cut also fifteen tons for the mission, for which they 
were paid five dollars a ton, making seventy-five dollars; also twelve tons for the 
cow-camp, for which they received ninety dollars; thus earning a total of two hun- 
dred and ninety-one dollars from hay alone. Others have made money working for 
white people during harvesting; and some earn money by doing many jobs around 
Gleichen. The} T are not lazy, but are willing to work when they can get money for 
it. They have earned a good deal hauling coal. Dancing is not so much practised 
among them as formerly, but they still do some gambling among themselves. They 
are very well behaved, and give little trouble to the farmer. 

The beef supplied is of choice quality, and is well butchered. The slaughter 
and ration-houses were perfectly clean. From 1st January to 1st July, 1891, one 
hundred and ninety-three head of cattle were slaughtered (one hundred and sixty- 
five steers and twenty-eight cows). These were supplied by Messrs. McHugh 
Brothers. The average weight of the animals was, dressed, six hundred and fifty- 
eight pounds, and percentage of offal was 9-36. From 1st July to 31st December, 
1891, the number slaughtered was one hundred and forty-five (eighty-five steers, 
and sixty cows), contractors were Messrs. W. G-. Conrad & Co. The average weight 
of the animals was eight hundred and twenty pounds, and the percentage of offal, 
9-43. Two department oxen were killed during the year, making a total of three 
hundred and forty head fed to Indians at this point. The hides have been distri- 
buted as follows : — 

Issued to Indians for foot-gear, equal to one hide for 

every three and a half persons 180 

Eeturned to contractors at two dollars each 130 

Shipped per order from Eegina • 30 

Total 340 

I took an inventory of all supplies on hand, and audited the books. Mr. Baker 
keeps these very neatly and correctly. 

The flour delivered by the Ogilvie Milling Company was up to the standard 
quality and weight, and the sacks were correct. The flour delivered by Messrs. 
Smith & Brigham, of Moosomin, was also correct in quality and weight. Eighty 
tons of hay were stacked for winter feed for farm stock and work oxen. Twenty-two 
acres of new land have been broken at different points on the reserve ; the ploughing 
in each case being well done. Mr. Baker is kept pretty well occupied attending to 
this large reserve, besides issuing beef and flour, keeping the accounts, &c. His only 
assistant is an Indian, and he is a good assistant. 

I now proceeded to the South Eeserve. Mr. G. H. Wheatly, farmer, and T. B. 
Lauder, issuer. The farm buildings here were in splendid order. The tools and 
implements were carefully stored away, as they should be. The crop put in was : — 


Oats 85 

Potatoes 66 

Turnips » 7£ 

Peas \ 

Gardens 8J 

Total 167f 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Owing to dry weather, the crops were a failure. Sixty bushels of oats only 
were threshed, and two thousand two hundred and thirty-eight bushels of potatoes 
were gathered; thirty bushels of turnips, and eight bushels of garden produce; 
besides what the Indians consumed during the season. The fields looked very clean 
and neat ; fences were good, and the ploughing as well done as if done by white 
men; and a great deal better than some white men's fields I have seen. Thirty- 
seven acres of new land have been broken ; forty-five acres summer-fallowed, and 
some new fields on the bench or high land. There are six villages on this reserve, 
chiefly along the banks of the Bow River. Some of them — in fact all — are very pret- 
tily situated. Fifteen new houses have been built during the year; ten of them have 
ventilators. The houses here are about the same as at the North Reserve, a3 regards 
furnishing, cleanliness and good order. Piles of wood could be seen at many of the 
houses, and some are using coal. Chief " Three Bull's," brother of the lake " Crow- 
foot," said he was carrying out the advice given him by the latter before he died, to 
have a good heart for the white people. T visited the coal mine, and a very good 
article was being got out ; and the further the' seam is followed, the better it is likely 
to be. Two hundred and twenty-three tons had been taken out during the year, 
and supplied to the agency and farms, High River Industrial School, Sarcee Agency, 
Regina Industrial School, and the Rev. Mr. Tims's school. Three Indians are em- 
ployed at fifty cents a day, and five teamsters at fifty cents a day each ; the oxen 
and waggons being supplied by the department. An inventory was taken of all 
property in hands of the farmer, and the books were audited. These were kept by 
Mr, Lauder, and were very correct. The slaughter and ration-houses were very 
clean. The beef supplied was good, and was well butchered. From 1st January to 
1st July, 1891, two hundred and thirty-one head of cattle were slaughtered (two 
hundred and fourteen steers and seventeen cows) ; average weight of the four quarters, 
six hundred and eighty-six pounds, percentage of offal, 8-27 ; McHugh Brothers, con- 
tractors. From 1st July to 31st December, 1891, the number slaughtered was one 
hundred and eighty (one hundred and forty-eight steers and thirty-two cows) ; 
average weight of animals, seven hundred and eighty-nine pounds; average per- 
centage of offal, 8*46 ; Messrs. W. G-. Conrad & Co., contractors. The total number 
killed on this reserve was, from contractors, four hundred and eleven, and four 
department oxen ; total, four hundred and fifteen. The hides were distributed as 
under: — 

To Indians, equal to a hide for each family of five persons 174 

To contractors, at $2 each 152 

Shipped per order from Regina 89 

Total , 415 

The flour delivered here by the Ogilvie Milling Company was correct in weight 
and quality ; and that delivered by Messrs. Smith & Brigham was correct in 
quality, but was a little short in weight, which was deducted before granting a 

A new roof has been put on the cow stable at farm buildings ; and the two new 
dwelling-houses, for the farmer and the issuer, have been supplied with storm 
sashes, which make the houses much more comfortable. 

The warehouse at the agency is well kept, and the office work is well attended 
to. Mr. Lawrence has a complete hold of his work, and does it in a most satisfac- 
tory manner. He attends to the receiving and issuing of supplies, as well as the 
office work. The inventory of the warehouse and the auditing of the books and 
accounts showed careful management. The standard samples have been taken into 
stock. The births during the year have been thirty-eight ; and the deaths, 
twenty-eight. The total population of both reserves is one thousand four hundred 
and forty-eight. 

The agent, Mr. Begg, continues to discharge his duties with ability ; and the 
best evidence of thisisthecontentednessof the Indians, and the good state the agency 
is in generally. The usual detailed report, with statements, inventories, &c, were 
forwarded to the Commissioner, Regina. 

14— 9i 131 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

I left my horses and part of my outfit here, and took the train for Dunmore 
and Lethbridge ; and hired a team to drive to the Blood Agency, arriving there on the 
1st February, 1892. 

Mr. Pocklington had been transferred to the Piegan Agency, but had not been 
relieved of the care of the Bloods, until my arrival. The staff therefore 
consisted of: — 

W. B. Pocklington, agent. 
S. Swinford, clerk. 
David Mills, interpreter. 
James Wilson, farmer. 
F. D. Freeman, issuer. 
T. B. Watson, cook and assistant issuer. 
C. H. Clarke, labourer. 
M. Hughes, labourer. 
Dr. Girard is the medical attendant for the Blood and Piegan Agencies, and 
resides in Macleod, half way between these two places. 

The agency buildings were in good order. The crop put in was : — 


Oats 96 

Peas 4 

Potatoes * 32 

Gardens 23^- 

The results were two thousand five hundred and forty-three bushels oats, or 
equal to twenty -six and one-third bushels to the acre ; and one thousand eight hun- 
dred and twenty-three bushels ol potatoes were put into the roothouses, besides 
what the Indians used during the season. The gardens were, more or less, failures, 
owing to the ravages of the grub. On the home farm there were one thousand one 
hundred and forty-four bushels oats, from sixteen acres, equal to seventy-one and 
a half bushels per acre. Five acres of gardens gave a fair yield. The home farm 
is at the Upper Eeserve. One hundred and eighty-six tons of hay were cut and 
put up by the Indians for use and for sale. Seventy-eight tons were stacked in 
addition for the farm stock. The farm buildings at the Upper Eeserve have been 
improved by the addition of a new cattle stable, thirty by twenty, log, and shingled 
roof. Two old buildings, one used for Indians to meet in, when visiting, and 
the other used as a tool house and office, have been improved by having new 
shingled roofs put on. The slaughter and ration-houses were in perfect order. 
Logs were on the ground brought from the timber limits for a new horse stable 
and an implement shed to store ploughs, horse rakes, reaper and mowing machines. 
Eleven new houses have been built during the year. Two new fields have been 
started and fenced. Eight acres of new land have been broken, and twenty-six 
acres summer-fallowed. The Indians plough very well, and are taking quite an 
interest in their fields. The good crops this year have encouraged them. They 
sold their oats, after keeping enough for seed, at good prices, receiving one to one 
and a half cents a pound for them. The Indian houses are nicely kept ; and no 
dirt nor rubbish can be seen lying around them. Some of the houses are comfort- 
ably furnished. On one occasion, I found a man washing his windows ; and the 
inside was as clean and neat as most and more so than some white people's houses. 
The stove was polished as bright as a shilling, and thepillows, sheets, blankets and quilts 
on the beds were equally clean. Of course all the Indian houses were not in such good 
shape ; but still this house was a fair sample of many of them. The progress in 
this respect is remarkable. Piles of brush were to be seen at many of the houses; 
but a number of the Indians are now burning coal. The fences were fair. The 
Indians earned five hundred dollars during the past year in getting out coal for 
the agency, farm and schools. They mined and hauled one hundred tons, at five 
dollars a ton. The coal is of very fair quality, and of course it will be better as 
the work of mining is extended. The mine is on the Lower Eeserve. The Indians 
al.-o earned about one thousand dollars more from their hay operations. The 
number of ponies is estimated at one thousand five hundred and fifty-two. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The Indians were warmly clad, and they have good saddles and riding outfits. 
They seemed to have spent their money in the more useful things, instead of on 
paint and useless trinkets. 

The beef supplied was of choice quality, and was delivered on the terms of the 
contract. The number of animals slaughtered at the Lower Reserve, from 1st Feb- 
ruary, 1891, to 30th June, 1891, was one hundred and forty-three, (one hundred and 
twenty-eight steers, and fifteen cows), Cochrane & Co., contractors. The average 
weight of the animals was, after being dressed, eight hundred and thirty-five lbs. ; 
and the percentage of offal was 8*66. From 1st July, 1891, to 31st January, 1892, P. 
Burns, contractor, the number slaughtered was two hundred and twenty-six (one 
hundred and twenty-four steers, and one hundred and twenty-two cows), average 
weight, seven hundred and twenty-eight lbs. ; percentage of offal, 9-65; the heads 
being taken, in all cases, as eight lbs. These go with the offal, the dressed beef 
only being paid for. The total number killed at the Lower Reserve was therefore, 
in one year, three hundred and sixty-nine head. One hundred and eighty-one hides 
were issued to the Indians for foot-gear, and one hundred and eighty-eight charged 
to the contractors, at two dollars each. 

At the Upper Reserve, the number slaughtered, from 1st February to 30th June, 
1891, Cochrane & Co., contractors, was two hundred and fifty-five (fourteen steers, 
and two hundred and forty-one cows) ; average weight of animals, dressed, five hun- 
dred and seventy-three lbs.; percentage of offal, 10*5. From 1st July, 1891, to 31st 
January, 1892, P. Burns, contractor, the number killed was two hundred and eighty- 
eight (one hundred and forty-one steers and one hundred and forty-seven cows) ; 
average weight of the animals, dressed, seven hundred and forty-one lbs. ; percentage 
of offal, 9*6. The total number killed on this reserve was five hundred and forty-three. 
Two hundred and forty-one hides were issued to the Indians, and three hundred and 
two charged to the contractors, at two dollars each. A complete list of the names 
of the Indians receiving hides is kept on the beef registers. The total number of 
cattle fed to Indians on this agency, for the year, is therefore nine hundred and 
twelve. The beef registers have been carefully checked. It was noticed that 
thirteen head of cattle were killed on the prairie, being too wild to be driven into 
the corral at the slaughter-house. In such cases five per cent is deducted from the 
vouchers. The farmhouse at the Upper Reserve, and the clerk and issuer's houses 
at the Lower Reserve, have been supplied with storm-sashes, and add very much to 
the comfort of the inmates, besides being a saving in fuel. The standard samples 
have been taken into stock, The flour delivered by the Ogilvie Milling Company 
was of the usual good quality, and the sacks were correct in weight. The ware- 
house was well kept. Receipts and issues very correct; not an error was found. The 
office work was also well performed. In checking the books for a year, not an error 
was detected. The agent, Mr. Pocklington, did the office work himself for six 
months, when Mr. Swinford was in charge of the Sarcees; and both he and Mr. 
Swinford have been very particular in making the entries. The health of the Indians, 
at the time of my visit, was good. The births during the year were: boys, thirty- 
one; girls, nineteen; total, fifty. The deaths during the same period were: male, 
•fourteen ; female, thirty-one; total, forty-five. The total population is one thousand 
six hundred and ninety -two. 

Colonel Irvine, the new agent, arrived during the time of my inspection. He 
accompanied me in taking the inventory of supplies, cattle, horses, and other pro- 
perty, and satisfied himself as to the correctness of my inventory; and accepted 
transfer of the agency accordingly, and signed the various returns made up to the 
31st January, 1892. Nearly all the male Indians visited the agency, and gave the 
new agent a warm and hearty welcome. 

~No fall-ploughing had been done, as experience has proved that the spring- 
ploughing is better suited, in this part of the country, owing to the strong winds. 
The Indians are very well behaved, but gambling amongst them is on the increase, 
especially among the younger men. Colonel Irvine told them that gambling was 
against the law, and that he would punish any one who would break the law in this 
respect. Chief Red Crow, and a number of minor chiefs, said they would support 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

the agent in putting down gambling; that they had tried to do so themselves, but 
that the young men would not listen to them. I visited the boarding school con- 
ducted under the mission of .Rev. Mr. Swainson, formerly of the Blackfoot Indian 
Mission. There were ten regular boarders in the school. The buildings were not 
completed. There are three day schools under control of the Church of England on 
the agency, with an average attendance of fifty-three pupils, making a total of sixty- 
three receiving instruction. Then there is the Roman Catholic Mission and day- 
school ; the numbers attending I did not ascertain. TheBev. Mr. Swainson preaches 
to the Indians on Sundays, and holds three weekly meetings at different points. An 
English service is held every Sunday afternoon, for the benefit of the English- 
speaking families at the agency and in the vicinity. Detailed report, inventories, 
returns and statements were forwarded to the Commissioner. 

I now proceeded to the Piegan Agency, arriving there on the 8th February, 
1892. W. B. Pocklington, agent (in charge since 1st January, 1892) ; G. F. Maxfield, 
clerk and issuer; W. H. Cox, cook and assistant issuer; J. W. Smith, farmer; 
Charles Choquette, interpreter. 

Some repairs have been made during the year on the buildings, and some of the 
roofs have been painted. The floor in the raiion-house has been taken up and relaid ; 
the slaughter-house also has been repaired, and the roothouse has been improved 
and made more secure for the safe-keeping of the potatoes, &c. The crop put 
in on the home farm was ten acres of oats, giving two hundred bushels in return ; 
and one acre of garden gave a very good crop of potatoes and vegetables. The 
Indians had under crop seventy-three acres of oats, yielding one thousand four 
hundred and twenty bushels, being about twenty bushels to the acre. They had 
twenty-five and three-quarters acres of potatoes, giving one thousand nine hun- 
dred and twenty bushels of a crop. Their gardens did not yield much, as the grub- 
worms destroyed most of the plants. The Indians put up one hundred and sixty 
tons of hay for use and for sale; forty tons were also stacked at the agency for 
farm and agency stock. Most of the work-oxen have been issued to the Indians; 
and they are taking good care of them, having provided stabling and hay as above 
mentioned. Ten acres of new land have been broken, and forty acres of old fields 
summer-fallowed. Five new fields have been started during the year. Twelve new 
houses have been built, some in place of old ones pulled down. Five new stables 
have been built. Few of the houses have been whitewashed, but they looked neat 
and clean otherwise. An attempt was made to burn lime, but it proved a failure. 
A second attempt will be made. 

The number of animals slaughtered from 1st Januury, 1891, to 30th June, 1891, 
Cochrane & Co., contractors, but filled by the Waldron Ranch Company, was one 
hundred and eighty-six (one hundred and one cows and eighty-five steers) ; average 
weight of the four quarters, seven hundred and three pounds ; percentage of offal, 
7*32. From 1st July, 1891, to 31st January, 1892, Waldron Eanche Company, con- 
tractors, the number slaughtered was two hundred and forty (two hundred and 
thirty-five cows and five steers) ; average weight as per beef register, seven hundred 
and nine pounds ; percentage of offal, 8'66. In addition to the above, twenty-five 
head of Indian cattle were slaughtered, making a total of four hundred and fifty-one 
head fed to Indians on this agency for the year ended 31st January, 1892. Hides 
issued to Indians, one hundred and thirty-five; returned to contractors, three hun- 
dred and sixteen; total, four hundred and fifty-one. Six hundred and eighteen 
pounds were deducted during the year off vouchers for cattle killed on the prairie. 

The standard samples have been taken into stock. The warehouse has been 
neatly kept, aud the office work well done. The books were posted up to date. The 
flour was of good quality, and made capital bread and bannocks. The sacks were 
correct in weight; Ogilvie Milling Company, contractors. Yery little bacon is sent 
here, but it was choice quality. All tools and implements are branded before leaving 
the store. 

The number of horses belonging to Indians is six hundred and fifty-five. The 
total population is eight hundred and eighty-one. The present health of the Indians 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

is good. The births, during the year, were twenty-four, and the deaths twenty- 
eight. The Indian herd was in good condition; the number was : — 

Bulls , ... 4 

Cows 119 

Steers 40 

Heifers 11 

Bull-calves 32 

Heifer-calves 28 

Work-oxen transferred from agency 12 

Total 246 

Last year the number was one hundred and ninety; increase, fifty-six; besides 
eleven heifers still due to replace Indian cattle killed ; making a total increase of 
sixty-seven, including the work-oxen. The number of calves is small, being only 
sixty, from one hundred and nineteen cows, or only half what they should be. An 
improvement generally on the agenc} T was noticed. This completed my inspection 
of all the agencies, reserves and industrial schools in treaties six and seven. The 
usual detailed report, inventories, &c, were forwarded to the Commissioner ; and I 
returned to Eegina, arriving there on the 16th February, 1892. 

I left Eegina on the 21st February, for Winnipeg, in connection with the selec- 
tion of samples for 1892-93 contracts, and other business. I selected the usual list of 
grocery samples, and forwarded sets to Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton, Eegina 
and Calgary, leaving one set at the Indian Office, Winnipeg. I also Helected a large 
number of hardware samples; and sets of these were sent to Eegina and Ottawa; 
and one left in Winnipeg. 

I returned to Eegina on the 29th March; and on the 4th April I commenced 
my first inspection of Eegina Industrial School. The staff consists of: — Eev. A. J. 
McLeod, principal; C. D. McKenzie, assistant principal and teacher; Miss Walker, 
matron; W. Maguire, carpenter; E. McGregor, farmer; Mrs. McGregor, laundress; 
Miss Clancy, seamstress; Miss Law, cook; Miss Mary Clancy, head maid. 

This institution is under the management of the Presbyterian Church. The 
main building is solid brick, with stone foundations. It has a frontage of one hundred 
and eighty feet, and a depth of thirty-six feet six inches, and an extension, running 
from the centre, of seventy-one feet ten inches, with a width of thirty-six feet eight 
inches. The building is divided into the following rooms or apartments: The 
basement has a concrete floor, and contains three double furnaces and one single one. 
There are large spaces tor storing coal. There are three large tanks for holding 
water. There is a good well in the basement with a good supply of water, from 
which these tanks, and those in the attic, are filled with a force-pump. At one end 
there are shelving and compartments for the boys to place their boots and over- 
clothing, before going to the dormitories. Similar arrangements are at the other 
eud, for the girls. Water-closets are in the basement, boys' at one end, and girls' at 
the other. These, with furnaces and ventilating shafts, are worked on the Smead- 
Dowd system, and appear to work well, as no foul odours could be detected. The 
boys' and girls' ends are completely separated, and they, respectively, are not allowed 
to go from one side to the other, each having their own division. There is a room 
in the basement for storing meat, &c. The walls being of brick, with concrete floor, 
there is little danger of accidents from fire. 

The ground floor contains : — 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

A sewing-room , 33 2 x 23 6 

A school-room , 33 2 x 26 6 

A hall : 23 7 x 7 2 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

An entrance at each end of this hall, with porches at each door. 

Ft. In. Ft. In. 

A reception-room 14 11 x II 5 

An office 14 11 x 11 2 

Main entrance, with porch 9 0x62 

Principal's parlour , 14 10 x 16 4 

Main hall 16 3 x 8 

There ie a hall running between the girls' and 

boys' sides, with doors 17 7 x 6 5 

Another hall, same as at girls' end, with porch and 

entrance 23 7 x 7 2 

Front and rear, the porches are 4 0x20 

The large, or boys' school-room 50 6x33 2 

In the extension, there are the following: — 

A dining-room 25 8 x 36 2 

Kitchen 21 5 x 18 7 

Private dining-room 14 4 x 13 10 

Hall 13 10 x 6 10 

Laundry 19 6 x 17 10 

Scullery 11 4 x 14 

Store, for provisions 6 8 x 10 5 

Pantry 7 3 x 10 5 

The second story consists of: 

Girls' dormitory 50 9x33 2 

A small store, for girls' dry goods 7 2 x 10 7 

Staircase , 7 2 

Girls' bath-room 15 4 x 16 4 

Nine bed-rooms, averaging each ..., 14 x 10 

Drying-room : „ 20 4 x 33 3 

Boys' bath-room and lavatory 16 4 x 15 4 

Stairs 7 2x10 7 

Store-room, for boys' clothing, &c 10 7 x 7 2 

Boys' dormitory 50 9 x 33 2 

The attic contains a large tank, which is kept filled with water, and with which 
pipes and hose are connected, and are ready for use, on both flats, in case of fire. 
There is a small tower in the centre of the building in which there is a good sized 
bell. The girls' and boys' bath-rooms and lavatories are well fitted up with basins 
and other conveniences, and are supplied with hot and cold water. The dormitories, 
both girls' and boys', are supplied with lockers made in the institution. Each locker 
has thirty-five compartments, in which they can place their Sunday clothes, and 
have them under lock and key. In addition to the hose, there are fire extinguishers 
and axes hung in convenient places in the halls, ready for use. 

When the new laundry is completed the room now used as such will be 
occupied for other purposes, probably in cases of sickness. The school-rooms are 
furnished with blackboards worked into the walls with cement, and are con- 
sequently stationary. The boys' large school-room is now used as a reception-room. 
and the girls' room is used by both boys and girls, there being only one teacher. 
The girls' school-room is well fitted up and supplied with desks. All the rooms are 
bright and cheerful. All the windows are supplied with winter or storm-sashes, and 
inside rolling blinds for summer. The dormitories are supplied with good iron bed- 
steads, with spring mattresses, on which are placed ticks filled with clean, fresh 
straw. The beds are all furnished with blankets and sheets, each pupil having two 
sheers, and the boys and girls are supplied with night-shirts and dresses. The beds 
looked very clean and comfortable. Each one has a counterpane. The school- 
rooms, dining-rooms and passages are wainscotted sufficiently high to protect the 
planter. The nine bed-rooms are used exclusively by the employees. The whole of 
the rooms were in good shape, and everything was in its proper place and in perfect 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

The out-buildings consist of a laundry thirty by twenty-two, frame, and two 
stories. The upper part will be used as a drying-room. The building is used at 
present as a carpenter's shop. There are outside water-closets, one end for 
employees, and the other for the boys, with a urinal in the centre. 

There is a small icehouse and some hot-bed frames. The stable is sixty by 
twenty-four, built in the face of a bank, the lower flat is stone, and the next flat is 
on a level with the ground in rear. The stable contains space for the horses, cattle, 
poultry and pigs. There is a well in the stable, which is very convenient for 
watering the stock. Being half under ground, it is warm and comfortable, as well 
as being well ventilated. The second flat is used for storing implements and tools. 
The grain is also stored here, suitable bins having been placed for this purpose. 
The top flat is used for storing hay; and this can be sent to the stable, down a chute, 
without going outside. The cattle were in good condition. A roothouse, built by 
the employees, twenty by forty, and seven feet high, has been made. The turnips 
stored in this roothouse have kept good all winter, so that it has stood the test of a 
very severe winter. There are two strong double swings, one for the boys and the 
other for the girls, at considerable* distance from each other. There was a very 
good bridge built over the creek. The work of this bridge, roothouse and swings 
was entirely done by the boys, under the directions of the assistant principal. 

The farm consists of three hundred and twenty acres, good land, all fenced in. 
The crop put in last spring was : 

Wheat 2J acres; yield — 56 bushels. 

Oats 9J do 600 do 

Potatoes 6 do 1,000 do 

Turnips.. 1J do 150 do 

Peas l| do 25 do 

Barley 1\ do 118 do 

Thirty-eight acres have been summer-fallowed, and twelve acres of new land 
broken. Seventy-five acres are ready for 1892 crop. 


Seven boys are learning carpentry, and Mr. Maguire, the carpenter, says that 
they are making fair progress. The balance of the larger boys are following 
farming. The girls take regular turns in work of the laundry, kitchen, sewing- 
room, and general house work, under the matron. They also help in the baking of 
the bread, which is baked on the range. Some of the girls are expert in using the 
knitting and sewing machines, and some are good workers with the needle. Many 
of them can make their own dresses and underclothing, and as an inducement to the 
best workers they are given the choice of material, when there is a choice to be 
made. The following articles have been made during the year, which prove that all 
able to do something have not been idle. Taking the limited number of pupils in 
the school, until late in the year, the showing is a very favourable one. The boys' 
work has been : — Baker's box, one ; lockers, two, each containing thirty-five 
drawers; refrigerator, one; bread box, one; cupboard, for medicine, one; office 
desk, one ; platform, for school desk, one ; table, for boys' roora r one; cupboard, for 
boys' room, one; shelving, for three store-rooms, three; shelving, for scullery, one; 
wall brackets, two; basket, for medicine bottles, one; partitions and doors, between 
boys' and girls' departments, two ; boot-racks, two; bridge, over creek, one; root- 
house, one; mosquito frames, one lot; hot-bed frames, one lot; benches, eight; 
benches, for holding blacking and brushes, three; double swings, two; merry-go- 
rounds, two ; step-ladders, three; shelving, for pantry, a lot; siding and shingling 
new laundry; bins, for granary, four; and various other small jobs about the 

The girls have made: — Aprons, forty-one; bed-ticks, sixty-three; blouses, 
four; chemises, fifty; drawers, cotton, fifty; drawers, flannel, eighteen; dresses, 
cotton, eighteen; dresses, night, fifty-four; dresses, drugget, thirty-two; mitts, 
pairs, two; moccasins, pairs, six; skirts, thirteen; stockings, woollen, thirty-two; 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

towels, dish, fifty-five; towels, roller, three; pinnies, twenty-four. A number of 
other articles were made at the beginning of the school, but of which no record was 
kept, and the articles are worn out. All the above are in addition to the regular 
house work, such as baking, scrubbing, &c. 

The first pupil was admitted on 15th April, 1891, from Piapot's, and at the end 
of September the number was forty-two — twenty-two boys and twenty girls. The 
number, on 31st March, 1892, was sixty-five — thirty-seven boys and twenty-eight 
girls. On the 13th April, 1892, Mr. W. E. Jones, Indian Agent, Fort Pelly, arrived 
with twenty-one new pupils — fourteen boys and seven girls, making the total 
number in the school, at the date of my inspection, as follows : — 

Boys 51 

Girls 35 

Total 86 

No deaths had occurred during the year in the school. One little girl went 
home sick on 30th November, and she died at her own home on 24th December. 
The pupils are from the following places: — 

Piapot's 7 

Muscowpetung's 11 

Pasquah 10 

Assiniboine 8 

File Hills 1 

Crooked Lakes , 9 

Moose Mountain 3 

Fort Pelly 36 

Duck Lake 1 

Total 86 


The visitors' register shows that one hundred and sixty persons have visited 
the school and recorded their names, from 27th July, 1891, to 31st March, 1892. 
The first name on the register was that of the Eev. Father Hugonnard, Principal of 
the Qu'Appelle School, and his visit and friendly congratulations were much appre- 
ciated by the Eev. Mr. McLeod, Principal. The name of Michael Davitt, Dublin, 
Ireland, is recorded by himself, 30th July, 1891. Then follow the Eev. F. O. Nicholl, 
of Mistawasis's Eeserve ; Eev. Mr. and Mrs. Burman, of St. Paul's, Manitoba; Eev. 
Principal Clarke, Baltleford ; G. D. Ferguson, Fergus, Ontario; J. H. and Mrs. Ash- 
down, Winnipeg; Colonel Howard Yincent, M.P. for Sheffield, England, and Mrs. 

Colonel Yincent says: "It has been a great pleasure to visit this institution, 
and to see what efforts are being made by the Government to make the future 
generations of Indians useful subjects of the Queen and members of society." 

Eev. D. G. McQueen, of Edmonton, says: " It has been a source of pleasure to 
visit this school, and in such schools lies the true solution of the Indian problem. 
In these schools, carried on as this one apparently is, the Indian child is trained to 
habits of independence and forethought and started on the road to civilization." 

Eev. Mr. Wilson, Sault Ste. Marie, says : " I know it is a very difficult thing 
to guard against the unreasonable interference of unreasoning parents, and at the 
same time to give an air of freedom and home-like feeling to a school such as this ; 
but this, I feel, is what should be aimed at, and I am sure it is aimed at by those in 
charge of this institution. I have greatly enjoyed my two or three days' visit here." 

I. II. Good, Winnipeg; The Earl and Countess of Aberdeen; Eobert H. Gray 
and Mrs. Gray, Toronto ; Thomas Jenkins, Toronto. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Eev. J. C. Herd man, Calgary, says: "One cannot but look with greatest 
interest and hope upon an experiment and endeavour such as this, in which, by 
combined action of the Government and the churches, the beet educational and 
industrial and religious influences are brought to bear persuasively upon Indian 
children. Along this line lies surely the true solution and the pathway of progress. 
One would like to discern farther a heightened interest on the part of the people of 
the country in general in the welfare of Indian youth, with increased anxiety that 
we may be found setting ourselves a beneficent example and holding out helping 
hands to these, the wards of the nation." 

Donald and Mrs. Mackay, Toronto ; J. B. and Mrs. Lash, Muscowpetung ; Miss 
Lash, Muscowpetung ; Mr. and Mrs. H. N. Bate, Ottawa ; Miss Bate, Ottawa ; Miss 
Cameron, Ottawa; Mrs. and Miss Cameron, Battleford ; P. H. Marshall and Mrs. 
Marshall, St. Catharines, Ont. ; Eev. A. C. Crews, Winnipeg ; Thcmas H. Tweed, 
M.L.A., and Mrs. Tweed, Medicine Hat; Eev. Mr. Setter, Sandy Lake; Eev. Mr. 
and Miss Hamilton, Whitewood; Jas. A. Youmans, Calgary. 

Eev. John A. Macdonald, Toronto, says : " If the administration of Indian 
affairs is in any way indicated by the administration of the Begin a Industrial 
School, it is not only creditable to the Government and the country, but the outlook 
of the Indian race is made less forlorn." 

The grocery supplies for this school are chiefly purchased in Eegina, on the same 
scale of prices as those for contract goods. The quality of the goods I found quite 
equal, in most cases, to the standard samples. 

The flour is of a very choice quality, and the bread is the best I have found at 
any of the schools. The baking is done by Miss Law, assisted by the larger girls. 
The meals are served to the pupils at regular hours. The breakfast consisted of 
porridge, tea and bread. Dinner consisted of soup, beef, turnips, bread and cold 
water. Supper consisted of tea and dry bread. I presume the meals are somewhat 
varied from this bill of fare, but this is what I noticed. The children seemed to 
have plenty, as they did not always empty their plates. Every effort was being 
made to satisfy all wants, as far as the rules of the department would allow. In 
connection with the meaj^s,, I wish to give special praise to the cook, Miss Law. 
This part of the work of the house is particularly well performed ; and this I con- 
sider one of the most important departments in an institution of this kind, because, no 
matter how plain or homely the food may be, if nicely prepared, it can be relished ; 
but the reverse is the case if badly cooked and served in a slovenly manner and 
cold. I was pleased therefore to notice that the meals were served with care. The 
female employees wait on the pupils when at their meals. Either the principal or 
the assistant principal is present, and the best order is maintained, although* the 
children are allowed to talk, which is better than sitting like a lot of dummies. 


My inspection not covering this part of the work, I, of course, have nothing to 
say on the subject. 

I may mention that the rules of the house are very systematic, and the whole 
time is fully occupied. From what I noticed lam safe in saying that the work, in all 
its branches, is being faithfully and conscientiously performed by all the officials. 
The matron is doing her work well, and is ably supported by the other ladies. The 
carpenter is well fitted for his position. The assistant principal was to leave on 1st 
May; and this is to be regretted, as Mr. McKenzie was well suited for the place, and 
was well liked by the pupils. The principal has his time well taken up, attending 
to visitors and to the parents of the children, when they call to see them. He has 
also to send monthly letters to some of the parents, through the agents, giving par- 
ticulars about the pupils. The principal devotes half of each day to teaching, 
besides giving regular religious instruction at stated times. He also does the prin- 
cipal part of the office work; and this, with the general superintendence of the 
institution keeps his time fully occupied, and therefore cannot do himself, or 
the institution, that justice that he would like. The work of the office has been well 
attended to. I have opened some new books, to begin with the balance on hand at 
this inspection. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The books in use will be, ledger, receipt book, issue book, voucher register, 
letter register, medical book, visitors' book, inventory book, invoice book, statistics 
and work register, daily journal, conduct book, sewing-room book, register of pupils 
admitted, register of pupils discharged, letter book, returns, &c. 

Very good care is taken of the various articles in use. 

The pupils have to take baths once a week regularly, and oftener when it is 

There was a quantity of lumber on hand for a new carpenter's shop. 

Seed Grain. 

There was wheat, barley and oats enough for seed-grain laid past. The progress 
made in one year has been very encouraging. A detailed report, with inventory, 
statements, &c, were furnished to the Commissioner. 

On the 28th April I left for Treat}?- 7, on a special mission in connection with 
the beef deliveries. I went direct to the Blood Agency, arriving there on the 3rd 
May, and visited the lower and upper reserves. On the 9th May I went to the 
Piegan Agency ; on the 18th May I reached the Blackfoot Agency ; and visited the 
north and south reserves. On the 26th May I reached Morley; and on the 30th the 
Sarcee Agency, and made reports on each of these points, in detail, with full particu- 
lars of the beef delivered at each place ; and returned to Eegina on the 5th June. 
From this date to the 6th September, I was engaged in receiving and the examination 
of new supplies, on contract 1892-93, which came in this year very slowly ; and is the 
reason of my delay in beginning my regular work of inspection of agencies and 
reserves. On the 6th September I left for Saskatoon to inspect Moose Woods, or 
White Cap's Eeserve, my man, with the team, leaving on the 12th, and joining me 
at Duck Lake, on Friday, the 16th September. I took the time, after spending two 
days on White Cap's, in writing this report, part at Saskatoon, and completing it at 
Duck Lake. I reached the Duck Lake Agency on the 17th September. 

My inspection of Moose Woods, Eeserve No. 94, took place on the 7th and 8th 
September, 1892. Mr. W. E. Tucker is in charge of the reserve, and Mrs. Tucker 
is teacher of the school. I found a marked improvemenWin this place over the pre- 
vious year. The crop put in was : — 


Wheat 12 

Oats 4 

Peas 1 

Potatoes 5 

Turnips.... , 2 

Flax i 

Gardens 1 

Total ..... 25|- 

The wheat was poor, and the result would be about fifty bushels. The oats were a 
fair crop, and the return will be about fifty bushels. The peas were a fair crop; 
potatoes veiy good ; and the band will have plenty for their own use and will have 
some to sell. Turnips were very good. Flax, tried for the first time, did very well. 
The gardens consisted of onions, carrots, beets, corn, beans, citrons, pumpkins, 
radish, lettuce, cabbage, cucumbers, parsnips, squash and peas, the whole looking 
remarkably well. The gardens were very pretty, and had been kept free of weeds; 
in fact. 1 have not met with better kept gardens anywhere. The herd was in good 
condition. The total number is now seventy-four, an increase of twenty-four over 
last year. The increase in calves was very satisfactory, being twenty-three from 
twenty-four cows and heifers. They are branded. The Indians take the best care 
of the cattle. Some new stables have been put up during the 3'ear; and two new 
houses have been built. They are making efforts to have wooden floors put in all 
their houses. They seem to take an interest in having their houses nice. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The population is sixty. Fifteen children attend school regularly. Mrs. Tucker 
informed me that her school got the third prize, fifty dollars, for the best school, in this 
respect. There are twelve children under school age. There are only eight able- 
bodied men in the band. The health of the Indians was good ; only two deaths took 
place during the year, both very old people. There has not been a death, or a case 
of serious sickness among any of the school children, for three years. Mrs. Tucker 
attributed this favourable showing to the fact that the children get a good meal at 
mid-day, of biscuits, soup beef, and when they have it, tea, &c. Mrs. Tucker thinks 
that but for the biscuits supplied by the department, it would be impossible to keep 
up so regular an attendance. 

The children looked clean, and were very well dressed. A good deal of clothing 
is sent by ladies in Montreal and Toronto, and is of great use, as some of the children 
could not attend the school but for this clothing. Care is taken, as regards clean- 
liness, before the clothing is distributed; and a great reform has been made in this 
direction during the past two years. Two of the older girls, pupils of the school, 
got married lately to two young men from the Sioux Eeserve, near Prince Albert^ 
and they are settling down here; and Mr. Tucker is anxious to help them along by 
getting cattle for them. The Ecv. Mr. Cook, Methodist minister at Prince Albert, 
performed the ceremony of marriage. Some of the band have poultry, and they 
sell eggs in Saskatoon. They have done quite a trade this summer in picking 
berries, which are abundant, and selling them to white people. They make good 
use of milk ; they drink it freely ; a few make butter ; and I saw some very good. 
The churns used were home-made. I noticed very good baskets, made by the 
women. Hay racks, jumpers, fork handles, &c, are made by the men. They sell 
the jumpers in Saskatoon. The children attending school are encouraged to help 
their parents when they are at home,* such as milking the cows and other useful 
employment. The band has three double wagons, two mowers (one old one and 
a new one), two horse rakes, four ploughs, two sets harrows, and other implements; 
they have five head of cattle, and some ponies in private stock. 

The mission and school-house has been willowed and plastered on the outside 
and plastered inside, and it is now a comfortable building. An effort will be made 
to burn lime ; in the meantime white clay is used to whitewash the houses. There 
are some good corrals on the reserve. The Indians were busy putting up hay — one 
hundred and sixty-eight loads were stacked, but seventy-five more loads were required. 
This, with fifty loads of old hay, would be ample for winter feed, equal to three tons 
for each head, old and young cattle. This is a splendid reserve for cattle-raising. 
The pasturage is of the very best, and being on the banks of the South Saskatchewan 
Eiver, there is of course a never-failing supply of the best water. I am glad to say 
that the reserve is in good order, The Indians are industrious and hard-working. 
They are well-behaved and give no trouble to the settlers. Mr. and Mrs. Tucker are 
most attentive to all their wants, and are to be congratulated on the success that has 
attended their efforts. 

The pow-wow dances formerly indulged in are things of the past, and it is the 
desire of the Indians to follow the practice of white people in this respect. That 
good work is going on on this reserve there is abundant evidence. 

Before closing this report, I would state that I found the greatest efficiency 
observable wherever I went in the most remote ^portions of the Territories, on the 
part of the North-west Mounted Police. The patrol system is particularly well 
carried out, and life and property are as safe and as well protected in this country 
as they are in Toronto or Montreal. 

Extra vigilance will now be required on the part of all to keep the Indians 
from getting liquor. The facilities for obtaining this are so much easier since the 
sale of it has been legalized, that it will require the greatest care to keep it from 
reaching the Indians. 

My assistant, Mr. Martin, has been attentive and faithful as usual, and my 
horses stood the long journey nobly. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

Inspector of Indian Agencies and Reserves. 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Manitoba Superintendency, 

Portage la Prairie, 30th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-Genoral of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit my annual report and tabular statement 
for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

Rosseau River Band. 

As in my previous report I may say there is very little improvement in this 
band, they prefer the hunt, or any other way of making a living, to setting to work 
on their reserves. The wheat crop was very poor, we could not get it threshed last 
fall and succeeded in doing so only in the latter part of June. The price was so low 
that it would scarcely pay for threshing and hauling to market. The barley crop 
was not good, being very heavy and the storms knocked it down. The potatoes were 
good, but very few of the Indians planted any. The hay crop was good, but the 
Indians do not provide any for their cattle, and if it were not for the hay cut on 
shares by the farmers, the cattle would fare badly, as the Indians are too lazy to feed 
them even when the hay is cut and stacked ready to their hand. There are one 
hundred and twenty-two acres of wheat on the reserve this year, the crop is light 
and the sample only middling. 

Long Plain -Reserve. 

These Indians work more for the farmers than any other band in my agency. 
In the winter many of them cut wood for the farmers and during haying, harvesting 
and threshing they get high wages. Four of the band sowed nearly all the culti- 
vated land on this reserve ; but, owing to the poverty of the soil, their crops were 
very light, but in the valley, where the soil is much better, they may have a very 
good crop. One of the Indians has a fine piece of wheat of about six acres. The 
potatoes look well, but they will have difficulty in getting hay for their cattle owing 
to the wet condition of the hay land. The crop on this reserve last year was very 
light and owing to the backwardness of the season we could not get it threshed. The 
Indians threshed their own seed with the flail, but some of it must have been damaged 
in the stack as on a portion of the land in the valley the seed did not germinate. 

The Swan Lake Band. 

There is very little change in this band; they are still divided about settling on 
their reserve at Swan Lake. A few more of them settled there this year. The crop 
last year was scarcely worth cutting except for feed; we could not get it threshed, 
owing to the scarcity of machines in that part of the country, we may be able to get 
it done when the new crop is threshed. The wheat this year is very light and the 
first thirty acres broken will require summer-fallowing. One of the Indians broke 
and backset ten acres last summer and sowed wheat this year ; he has a very fine crop. 
The potatoes look well. 

The Indian Gardens at Hamilton's Crossing. 

The Indians remaining here do not get on very well with each other, they are 
jealous of the chief and are always talking about him although he is by far the best 
man among them. The crop on this reserve was fairly good, but we could not get 
the threshing done. This year the crop is only middling, but I expect to have last 
year's crop threshed with it; the stacks seem to be quite dry and I think very little 
of the wheat will be damaged. 

The chief has some fine potatoes and turnips and a fairly good crop of wheat, 
in all about sixteen acres. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The general health of all the Indians has been pretty good, although there has 
been a decrease of two, the deaths having exceeded the births by that number. I 
have observed less drinking among the Indians this year in town, — it may be that 
they carry it with them and drink outside. I may mention that, for want of attend- 
ance, the school at Rosseau .River had to be closed at the end of December last. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Clandeboye Agency, 

Treaty No. 1, 30th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement in 
triplicate, for the year ended 90th June, 1892. 

St. Peter's. 

This band is steadily advancing in civilization, and general prosperity ; all with 
the exception of about thirty families have settled, or at least have a home, on the 
reserve, and it is quite apparent to themselves that those who live on the reserve are 
much better off, and more comfortable in every way than those who still lead a 
roving life. 

The crops this year are good, and there is any quantity of hay. 

Statute labour was done this year, and the bridges and roads along the Red 
River (the main highways) are getting in a creditable condition; next year they 
are going to work on roads running east and west to their fields. 

A number ot this band went to the fall fishing, at the south end of Lake Win- 
nipeg, and caught over ten thousand whiteh'sh, — such a catch at this point has not 
been known for over thirty years. The catch of all kinds of fish in the Red River 
and uear its mouth was never better; then the hunter seemed to be able to get any 
number of moose and deer, and had a fair fur hunt, so that the hunters and fishermen 
had a good time. 

Permits were given to sell dead or fallen timber, of which they sold nearly 
seven hundred cords, and were paid for the same, in good substantial clothing and 
provisions. By this, and the sale of about one thousand tons of hay, the farmers of 
the band passed a fairly good winter, and managed to supply themselves with seed- 
grain and potatoes. 

The six schools on the reserve have apparently the same attendance as last year, 
but then it must be remembered that there are over sixty children from this reserve 
attending the industrial schools, which number would, if they had remained at home, 
have largely increased the average at St. Peter's. During last quarter Mr.R. MeDougal, 
the new teacher at South St. Peter's school, had sometimes an attendance of over fifty 
treaty and fifteen non-treaty children (this is more than the building can accommodate) 
and his average attendance for the quarter was over thirty-seven ; quite a contrast 
to the Netley Creek school, where sometimes there is not even one child. 

The chief sets a good example by having three of his children at the day school, 
and three at the St. Paul's Industrial ; he and the Indian Council are trying all they 
can to make their people send their children. 

Broken Head. 

The condition of the Indians of this reserve has not materially changed since 
my last report, their general health has been good; fishing and hunting has been 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

above the average ; their farming operations were not a great success, principally 
from their own carelessness, but partly from frost and wet -weather. 

The school is about the same as last year, the attendance not being what it 
should, but the people are such wanderers, aud they always take their families with 

Fort Alexander. 

The members of this band had rather a bard time of it last winter, for, in the 
first place, a great many of their potatoes rotted from excessive rains ; the fall fish- 
ing was not a success as they only caught a little over fifteen thousand whitefish, 
and the winter fishing almost a failure, the whole amount sold not being over twelve 

On the other hand the hunters did well, caught a large amount of fur and shot 
a quantity of moose and deer; however, to show that those on the reserve did not 
sutler for the necessaries of life, strange to say these Indians bought over six hun- 
dred dollars worth of coal oil during the winter and spring, although not a reading 

There are three schools on this reserve, two Protestant and one Eoman Catholie, 
with eighty-nine children on the roll, and although a number have gone to industrial 
schools, the attendance is improving. 

Two fine new school-houses have been built here by the department to replace 
very old ones; furnished with globe, desks, &c, for which the Indians are thankful 
and proud. 

General Remarks. 

There was a great deal of sickness during the year amongst the Indians, princi- 
pally at St. Peter's, and quite a number died, generally young children, from whoop- 
ing cough and its effects, and the old people from something like influenza; this 
necessitated Dr. Orton, or his partner Dr. Crain, visiting the reserve a number of 
times, and of my giving out hundreds of doses of medicine. 

The sanitary condition of the Indians is improving, principally because they are 
building better houses ; quite a number have bedrooms, dining-rooms and kitchen, 
with curtains, pictures and furniture, as in ordinary farmhouses, and it is to be 
noticed that where a new house is built it is twice as large and as fine as the old 

In regard to the hunting of moose and deer last year, there were fully one 
thousand killed within a radius of seventy-five miles, say from Elk Island, and last 
year I saw sleigh loads of hides passing my place during the close season which I 
believe were bought from Indians. 

I have also heard of them being killed both this summer and last for their hides, 
and it seems strange that although you cannot have moose meat or venison in your 
possession during the close season, that all parties who trade with Indians buy 
hides and horns at any time of the year. 

There has been almost no drinking of intoxicants on my reserves during the year, 
and not one arrest was made, but I have been informed that during the winter a 
great deal of drinking goes on along the Canadian Pacific Eailway near Whitemouth 
where so many Indians goto chop cord wood; some of them making two or three 
dollars a day, and after working for weeks have brought almost nothing back to their 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

Treaty No. 2, Manito-wa-paw Agency, 

The Narrows, Lake Manitoba, 2nd July, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement 
for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The Indians comprising the nine different bands under my supervision are in a 
fairly prosperous condition, and maintain themselves by fishing and hunting, with 
few exceptions, as in the case of old and infirm Indians to whom some relief is 
granted during the winter months. 

The potato crops are generally a success, notwithstanding the fact that the 
land on some of the reserves is not adapted for farming purposes. 

Stock-raising, however, could be successfully carried on, as hay of the very best 
quality is to be had in great abundance. 

Two new school-houses having been recently erected ; there are now eleven 
schools in operation with a good average attendance. The progress made by the 
pupils is encouraging, with few exceptions. 

The teachers, with the exception of two, are competent. 

A number of new houses have been built on different reserves, and great 
improvement is noticeable, both in the quality of material used and in the mode of 

The cattle are increasing rapidly and get very good care, evidence of which is 
apparent by the large stock they have on hand. 

With some exceptions the health of the bands is comparatively good. 

In conclusion I am happy to say that the Indians under me are progressing 
very fairly, and are, as a general rule, peaceable and uncomplaining. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Eat Portage Agency, Treaty No. 3, 

Lake op the Woods, 25th July, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report and tabular statement for 
the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The Indians on the several reserves in this agency are in a fairly prosperous 
condition, but owing to the failure of the rice crop and the scarcity of rabbits, many 
had to neglect hunting and camp on the inland lakes and fish. Some of the bands 
lost part of their potato crop by heavy rains and have been unable to plant as large 
an area as usual for want of seed. Band No. 37 was supplied with twenty bushels 
of potatoes for seed. The several schools were visited. The children are improving, 
but there is the complaint of irregular attendance, and, although I have represented 
to the Indians the advantages of the industrial schools, the only bands in this 
agency who regard them favourably are those at Islington. Several arrests of 
Indians for drunkenness have been made, and one saloon keeper was fined fifty 
dollars for selling liquor to an Iudian, still the traffic is beinsj stamped out 
gradually. The great drawback is that the Indians will not divulge, when arrested, 
from whom they obtained the liquor; rather than do so they will remain in jail. 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The general health of the Indians of this agency has been good, which is in a 
great measure due to the observance of the sanitary regulations of the department. 
I am sorry to be obliged to report that in my tour of the reserves, in the first 
week of June, I found that all the hay grounds in the vicinity were flooded, and 
most of the bands will be unable to procure hay for their cattle. The water in the 
lake is three feet higher than ordinary high water mark, and there is no prospect 
of a crop of wild rice. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Coutcheching Agency, 16th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir. — I have the honour to submit herewith my tabular statement and inventory 
of Government property under my charge in this agency, for the year ended 80th 
June, 1892. 

The annual treaty payments for 1891 passed off very satisfactorily under the 
supervision of Mr. Agent Pither, whose knowledge of the Indians and experience in 
this agency were of great service to me, I had the pleasure of acting as his assistant 
and thereby became well informed on all matters in connection with the above. 

The education of the Indian children is still being attended to, but with rather 
unsatisfactory results; the principal cause for this is irregularity of attendance, due 
to the parents having to leave their reserves for the hunt, &c. ; another is found in 
the difficulty of procuring good teachers. The average attendance at all the schools 
on Rainy River shows an improvement on that of the previous year, and the school 
at Little Forks has now kept up a good attendance for two years. The school on 
the Coutcheching Reserve, which was doing very well last year, has riot done so well 
of late, but it is hoped that a new teacher will soon rectify matters. The schools on 
the Manitou, Long Sault, Little Forks and Coutcheching Reserves have undergone 
slight repairs during the year, and this summer mosquito netting was supplied to 
all the schools, which adds much to the comfort, as well as the health of teacher and 

Periodical visits are made to the reserves in this agency by Dr. Hauson, of Rat 
Portage, and the Indians appear to remain in a healthy condition. A small supply 
of provisions is issued, chiefly during the winter, to any that are sick or destitute. 

I regret to say that I cannot report favourably on the Indian crops; the seed- 
grain which was supplied the Little Forks Band, and which was well sown, was left 
to spoil in the fields, owin# to pure laziness on their part. Many of the Indians lost 
their seed potatoes this spring on account of their pits being flooded; consequently 
very little ground was planted. Most of the corn supplied them this spring is doing 
well, and in some individual cases, more especially on the Long Sault Reserve, the 
crops are looking well and show careful attention on the part of the owners. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Savanne Agency, Treaty No. 3, 

Fort William, 24th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-G-eneral of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th 
June last, with tabular statement, and list of Government property in my charge on 
that date. 

The LacdesMilleLacsEeserve presented a much cleaner appearance than usual, 
the Indians having gathered up all the refuse around their dwellings and burned it. 
The land here under cultivation is poor soil, and the Indians are planting their gar- 
dens on the islands. I paid the annuities here on the 9th July and distributed sup- 
plies, which were up to the standard. The cattle here, consisting of three oxen and 
one bull, are in good condition. 

The Sturgeon Lake Band were paid this year at Pine Portage. They have 
made no improvement on the reserve but have promised to clear a piece of land for 
potatoes next year. This band follow fishing and hunting for a livelihood and do 
not favour the idea of settling down to farming. 

I paid the Wabigoon Band on the 16th and distributed supplies. 

Shabagua, the former councillor, was elected chief for three years to fill the 
place of Kahkahwayash who died during the winter, and John Brown, a son of the 
old chief, was elected councillor. 

The cattle here are in good condition, and the gardens are looking well. Mr. 
Johns, the teacher, has a splendid garden filled with vegetables. 

The children here are fairly regular in attendance at school and I am much 
pleased with the progress they have made. Mrs. Johns is teaching the girls to sew 
and knit; samples of the latter shown us would compare favourably with that of 
any white woman. The teacher and his family are on very friendly terms with the 
Indians, by whom they are well liked and respected. 

The Rev. Mr. Prewer is building a house on this reserve and trying to chris- 
tianize the Indians. 

On the 18th we reached the Eagle Lake Reserve, paid annuities and made the 
usual distribution of provisions, ammunition and twine. The gardens here were well 
advanced. Last year they harvested three hundred and ninety-two bushels of 
potatoes, and as the country abounds in fish and game they live very comfortably. 

Their dwellings are well built, neat and clean, and would compare favourably 
with those of many white people. They propose to build a school-house during the 
coming winter. 

When we arrived at Frenchman's Head on the Lac Seul Reserve we found the 
school had been closed on the 30th June, and the new teacher had not yet arrived. 
I examined the gardens, which were not so good as usual owing to the lateness of 
the spring. 

The Rev. Mr. Prewer has begun the erection of a church here. 

At the Lac Seul school there were twenty children present, all in standards I. 
and II. ; the older children had all gone picking berries. There are seven children 
from this band at the St. Paul's Industrial School. 

There was a good deal of sickness among these Indians during the winter, and 
twenty-five cases terminated fatally, principally amongst the children. 

This band lost five head of cattle by falling through the ice last spring, the 
remainder of their cattle are in good condition. The potato crop looks well, but the 
grubs are doing great damage to the garden stuff. 

The Church of England Mission have a nice little church here and the Indians 
are assisting to build a steeple to it this year. The Rev. Mr. Pritchard preaches 
both in Indian and English, and he is well liked by the Indians, who attend church 

A man belonging to this band was accidentally shot and killed by his comrade, 
while out moose hunting last winter. 


14— 10J 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The TVabupkang Band have made a great improvement by clearing their land 
of some of the heavy timber with the intention of putting it under cultivation. 
The potatoes here were well advanced, but the other vegetables were not so good as 
last year. 

I had occasion to warn a trespasser off this reserve, a half-breed from Rat Por- 
tage who was creating a disturbance. 

I find a steady improvement in this school; the reading, spelling and writing 
are equal to that of white children of similar ages. 

At Grassy Narrows the gardens were' looking well and the cattle were in good 

I examined the school and find the children are making fair progress under 
Mr. T§tu's tuition, although he has only been in charge a few weeks. It is difficult 
to obtain a regular attendance and until that is accomplished, no great improvement 
can be expected. Men are still working at the school-house which is not quite 

The Indians here are poor farmers, but have a plentiful supply offish and game. 

The sanitary condition of the Indians is fairly good. 

Dr. Hauson has visited the several reserves where his services were required. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Indian Agent's Office, 

Touchwood Hills, 10th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report and tabular state- 
ment, with inventory of all Government property under my charge and approxi- 
mate value of same for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

George Gordon's and Poor Man's Bands almost entirely supported themselves 
in flour last winter ; Mus-cow-e-quan's Indians also were able to help themselves 
considerably in this way. 

Seven thousand seven hundred and sixty-one bushels of grain were threshed, 
giving a yield of twenty-four bushels to the acre. The wheat, I regret to say, was 
very full of smut, and, consequently, did not fetch as high a price as it otherwise 

Day Star's Band cut their grain with the sickle and threshed it with the flail. 

Thirteen hundred and thirty-five tons of hay were cutand stacked for the cattle 
by the different bands, a great part of it being cut with the scythe, which the Indians 
are very expert at using. 

Cattle are doing well, the increase in calves during the season being one hundred 
and fifty-five ; forty-three head were killed for beef, part being purchased for the 
relief of the destitute old people. 

The individual earnings of Indians amounted to thirteen hundred and eight 
dollars, as against nine hundred and thirty-five for last year. 

The houses and stables on the different reserves, numbering, houses one hundred 
and two, stables seventy-five, have been rebuilt, repaired, and many new and im- 
proved ones added during the season. 

I may say the Indians have to contend with many difficulties, living so far from 
a mill, having no market where they could sell hay, wood, &c, and no outside work 
to be had, but in spite of all this, they are plodding on, working away, slowly but 
surely improving in every way. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Good work has been done by the instructresses amongst the women, the fact is 
noticeable when visiting their houses or attending the sewing and washing classes 
held, which have been most beneficial. The women make baskets, mats, brooms, 
soap, butter, straw hats, birch bark pans, knitted socks, mitts and mufflers ; many- 
suits of boys' clothing for the Regina Industrial School have been made. 

The men make all their own sleighs, axe and fork handles, harness, and in one 
case a man made a set of wooden harrows, which answered very well in old land. 

The health of the Indians during the winter was not as good as usual, whoop- 
ing cough and measles being very prevalent amongst the children; in the summer 
most of the Indians live under canvas, which I rather favour, as I think it is more 
healthy for them. A good supply of medicines have been kept on hand, which have 
been dispensed by the medical officer when needed. There were fifty deaths and 
thirty-eight births during the year. Before going into their houses in the fall of 
the year the buildings are all thoroughly whitewashed; for this purpose the Indians 
burn lime. 

I am sorry to have to record the death of Chief Day Star, who passed away 
peaceably last winter, giving the best of advice to his followers up to the last. I 
shall miss him greatly, as he was always such a help in our work. 

Wild fruit was very plentiful, quantities of it were preserved for winter's use. 

Fur-jDroducing animals were not so plentiful as last year. 

The schools are doing very well, and a fair attendance was obtained. The pre- 
judice against education is fast dying out, many of the most stubborn Indians have 
given in and are sending their children regularly. 

On the whole I can say that the Indians are improving, some of them depend 
too much on the Government for assistance, instead of relying on their own exer- 
tions for a livelihood, but I am sure when the country advances more and markets 
come within reach that this difficulty will be removed and these Indians be in a 
position to support themselves. 

Some three hundred and fifty-five acres of crop was put in the ground this 
spring, but owing to the very late season, absence of rain, &c, the outlook for a 
harvest is anything but promising. Every bushel of the wheat sown was dressed 
with a solution of bluestone as a preventive against smut. 

My staff have ably assisted me in carrying out the work. 
I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent, 

Indian Agent's Office, Treaty No. 4, 

Muscowpetung's Agency, 23rd August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report for the year ended 30th June, 1892, 
accompanied by the usual tabular statement and inventory of all Government pro- 
perty in connection with the agency. 

The past year has been the most prosperous since the agenc} 7 " was opened and 
the Indians have practically supported themselves for the past eight months. The 
<;rops were excellent, so that in addition to supplying their own flour until* the next 
harvest, they had a surplus of wheat for sale; this with oats, hay and wood sold 
furnished them cash sufficient to make a very comfortable living. The wheat on 
Piapot's Reserve was of good quality and I sold the lot to Messrs. Smith & Brigham, 
of Moosomin, at sixty-six cents per bushel, f.o.b. cars at Regina, taking in 
payment part flour of the same quality as supplied the department under contract, 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

and the balance in cash. The grain on the other reserves graded No. 1 regular and 
lower, so it was disposed ot at the market prices, principally at Fort Qu'Appelle 

The Indians are becoming more independent and so long as they can find sale 
for their hay and wood, are quite willing to support themselves. 

The individual earnings of the Indians continue to increase, and amount 
for the year to $6,351 for the three bands of Muscowpetung's, Piapot's and 

The general health throughout the agency has been exceptionally good during 
the year ; this I attribute to keeping them employed and the closer attention given 
by the medical officer, Dr. Seymour, at his monthly visits. 

An attempt was made in June, by outside Indians, to hold a Sun Dance on a 
larger scale at Piapot's Eeserve and the Indians from Touchwood Hills, File Hills 
and Assiniboine Reserves assembled there for the purpose, but I am pleased to say 
Piapot listened to reason and the following compromise was made: The dance post- 
poned until all Indians from other agencies had gone home, Piapot then to hold a 
Sun Dance to be attended only by the Indians in this agency and on the condition 
that it be the last ever held in the agency. I agreed to give the Indians a harvest 
home every year, which I will endeavour to make enjoyable and something for them 
to look forward to with pleasure. The dance which took place in the end of June 
was a miserable failure, the enthusiasm which usually attends Sun Dances was 
wanting and the intense excitement which prevailed the early part of the month 
seemed to have departed with the Indians who left for home very much disap- 
pointed that they were not successful in holding the dance as they anticipated. 

The stock herd has prospered, and in the coming year we will supply all the 
beef required within the agency, and work cattle to Indians commencing farming 
on their own account. New stables, sheds and branding corral have been built at 
the herd camp, the work all done by the Indians under the supervision of the 
herder, and we have now the most complete cattle camp in the district. 

The winter was exceptionally severe, and the very late spring snow-storms 
were very trying to the stock, especially to cows coming in, so that the quantity of 
hay required was nearly double that used in an ordinary winter. 

The children attending the industrial schools at Eegina and Fort Qu'Appelle 
are making good progress in their studies and the number of pupils is increasing 
each year. With the exception of Piapot's Band, there are very few children of 
school age remaining on the reserves. 

The two churches mentioned in my last report in course of erection on Pasquah's 
Reserve, one by the Roman Catholic Mission and the other by the Presbyterian 
Church, have been opened and services are regularly held. 

The catch of fish in the Qu'Appelle Lakes throughout the year was good, small 
game was also more plentiful than for some years past. 

There has been an increase in the acreage, this year, under crop of two hundred 
acres. I regret to state the grain at Piapot's has been considerably damaged by a 
severe hail-storm. The crops on the other reserves are short in the straw, but 
otherwise looking fairly well. 

The Sioux (Standing Buffalo's Band) have been placed on their own resources 
and have made a very comfortable living; their crops were good and outside work 
plentiful; during the harvest season they received for work at the Bell Farm, $1,600. 

The boarding and day school combined on this reserve continues to prosper, 
and the advance the pupils are making in the English language is very creditable. 

An addition that was very much required has been built at the agency house, 
and also a kitchen to the farmhouse at Pasquah's Reserve. 

The staff in connection with the agency have proved themselves very efficient 
in the discharge of their duties. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

J. B. LASH, 

Indian Agent. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Indian Agent's Office, 

Birtle, Man., 26th July, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report on the condition of the 
Indians under my supervision for the year ended 30th June last. 

On the whole, last year's farming operations were fairly satisfactory. Over 
twenty thousand bushels of wheat were harvested, besides the coarse grains and 
roots, which, with few exceptions, turned out well, and I was thereby enabled to 
reduce the issue of flour to about one hundred and fifteen sacks, one hundred 
pounds each: the greater part of this distribution was made to the aged and 

There are nine hundred and forty-eight Indians within this agency. Of this 
number, five hundred and eighteen are Treaty and four hundred and thirty Sioux 
or non-Treaty Indians. 

The Bird Tail Sioux Band, No. 57, have this season increased their acreage under 
crop to about five hundred and seventy-five acres, or nearly two hundred acres more 
than last year, the greater part of which now promises well. A part, however, 
suffered for want of sufficient moisture and. heat during the early part of this 

At the Oak Eiver Sioux Reserve, No. 58, there is approximately one thousand 
acres under crop, which is about double that of last year ; but I fear the yield per 
acre will not be so good as last crop, as it all suffered from want of rain during the 
months of May and June. 

This reserve was subdivided last year, as you know, and I hope within a few 
years that I may be able to settle a family on one or two of these subdivisions, 
according to the number in the family, and their ability to cultivate land. I shall 
endeavour to make them cultivate their fields squarely up to the surveyed line, and 
straighten the roads and lanes, which will, when finished, give the reserve a much 
better appearance than when the roads and fields were laid out in a hap-hazard 

A day school is maintained at this reserve under the auspices of the 
Episcopal Church, but the attendance is very irregular, and little progress has been 
made. The location of the school-house is not central enough. The building also 
is too small. I was glad when you authorized the erection of a new and suitable 
building near the centre of the reserve, and I trust when it is completed in Sep- 
tember next, that the children will find it so much more convenient and comfort- 
able that the attendance will be both regular and larger. 

The Sioax on the Oak Lake or Pipestone Reserve, No. 59, continue to improve 
their position. This season they have over one hundred and fifty acres under crop, 
or eighty acres more than last year, and with the exception of one field that was 
too thinly planted, the prospects are good. 

These Indians deserve more credit than any band within my agency. They 
have received very little assistance, and do not ask for it, but depend upon their own 
exertions, and they -are now in a much better position than some of the Treaty 
bands, who have been largely assisted, and who annually receive a considerable 
sum of money in annuities. 

The Sioux at the Turtle Mountain Reserve number thirty souls, and occupy one 
section of land. They have approximately twenty-five acres under crop. They 
support themselves by work among the settlers, but have made no noticeable pro- 
gress. A society known as "The Christian Endeavour '' have lately engaged " John 
Thunder," a partially educated Sioux Indian, of the Bird Tail Sioux Reserve, No. 
57, and he is now endeavouring to open a school on the reserve, in which enterprise 
it is to be hoped he may succeed. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No 14.) A. 1893 

Treaty Bands. 

The Kee-see-koo-wenin Band, No. 61, who have a reserve at Biding Mountain 
have about fifty acres under crop this season, which is about the same quantity as 
last year. There are a number of good working Indians in this band, and they 
would unquestionably have a much larger area under crop only that their reserve 
does not appeal- to be well suited for grain growing. They, however, live Yery 
comfortably, and I am again glad to report that the school on the reserve is fairly 
well attended, and that the pupils are steadily progressing under their very 
efficient teacher, Miss Cameron. 

The Way-way-see-cappo Band, No. 62, have made no great progress during the 
year, although the past few years there is much more disposition shown towards 
self-support. They gain a great part of their livelihood from the sale of dry fire- 
wood at this market (Birtle), the value of which is very little in the vicinity of the 
reserve, but with the labour bestowed upon it by them goes a long way to supply 
them with food. They have, also, of late vears put up more hay than they require 
for their own stock, and for which they find a ready market at this town. They 
have about one hundred acres of land under crop. 

The few families that yet remain on the Gambler's Reserve, No. 63, at the mouth 
of the Silver Creek, are doing fairly well. They also are able to gain considerable 
money from the sale of dry firewood. They have this season about one hundred 
acres under crop, or about twenty-five acres more than last year. 

The band at the Rolling River Reserve, No. 67, do not show very much dispo- 
sition to follow farming, preferring to gain their livelihood during the summer 
months from the sale of the seneca root, tanning hides for the settlers, doing odd 
jobs, &c. They have about twenty-five acres of land under crop this season, which 
is about the area cultivated last year. 


There are five hundred and sixty-nine head of cattle in the hands of the 
Iniians within this agency, under the control of the department, and with few 
exceptions they are well cared for and are now in good condition. 

Health of Bands. 
The health of the Indians during the past year, I am pleased to report, has 
been good. 

Birtle Boarding School. 

The boarding school at this place, under the auspices of the Presbyterian 
Church, has met with fair success. The situation, which is convenient to the 
different bands, and the heaithfulness of the locality have greatly added to its 
success. The attendance has been much more regular than in former years, and if 
the school were only able to accommodate more it would very soon be more largely 
patronized, as the convenience of the situation and good management have been 
greatly appreciated by the Indiana within reach of it. 

There are also a few children from this agency attending the Industrial Schools 
at Elkhorn and Qu'Appelle, and from reports, I believe that they are making satis- 
factory progress at both these institutions. 

On the whole it may be said that the condition of the Indians in this district is 
continually improving. As years pass on they are getting more contented with 
their lot, and gradually becoming used to working for wages. The handling of their 
own earnings seems to please them, and many now work who a few years ago would 
have thought it disgraceful to do so. I have encouraged this as much as possible, 
as I find the more the Indian is brought to the position of the white man in regular 
work, &c., the more he feels like depending upon his own exertions. 

A tabular statement, and an inventory of Government property under my 
charge has also been sent to you. 

I have the honour to be, sir, t 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Department of Indian Affairs. 

Indian Agent's Office, 

File Hills, Assa., 3rd August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — T have the honour to submit my annual report for the fiscal year ended 
30th June last, also a tabular statement and inventory of Government property 
under my charge at that date. 

These Indians are gradually advancing towards being self-supporting. These 
Indians gristed from their wheat, sixty-one thousand and forty-one pounds of flour, 
besides selling three hundred and ninety-five bushels to pay for threshing, binding 
twine, sacks, &c. ; and they have yet about four hundred bushels to be gristed. 

The following is a comparative statement of food supplies furnished this agency, 
by the department, during the past three fiscal years, for employees and Indians : — 



Supplied 1889-90 15,591 

do 1890-91 4,856 

do 1891-92 10,413 



Supplied 1889-90 24,042 

do 1890-91 13,951 

do 1891-92 13,966 



Supplied 1889-90 .... 601 

do 1890-91 275 

do 1891-92 , 30 

There was also a large decrease in the clothing, implements, &c, supplied; and 
there is every prospect that the decrease in the expenditure for the present fiscal 
year will be much greater. 

The grain crop on Little Black Bear's Eeserve last year, was badly damaged by 
hail; and our crop on summer-fallows was greatly injured by wind and rain-storms, 
which knocked the grain down and retarded it in ripening; but, taking the crop on 
the whole, the yield was fairly good. The hay crop was good, and the Indians put 
up over one thousand loads. 

Owing to the wet and backward spring, we did not finish seeding until the 14th 
of May last; and there was very little growth until the latter end of June; but at 
present the crops are looking well, and there is every prospect of a good yield. 

The hay crop will be good this year, and we expect to put up about fifteen hun- 
dred tons. 

The following is a statement of the crops under cultivation this season, viz.:— 


Wheat 213 

Barley 10 

Oats 19 

Peas 4£ 

Potatoes and other root crops 27-J 

The stock on the different reserves is in splendid condition ; and the number of 
calves dropped on 30th June last was one hundred and twenty-seven, with a number 
of cows that have not yet calved. There are now on the reserves, five hundred and 
fifty-nine head of cattle, and one hundred and seven ponies in charge of Indians. The 
following is a classification and enumeration of the cattle : — 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 c 

Oxen, sixty-three ; bulls, six ; cows, one hundred and eighty-one; heifers, fifty" 
five ; steers, one hundred and twenty-seven ; bull-calves, seventy ; heifer-calves, fifty- 
seven ; total, five hundred and fifty-nine. 

Owing to the creamery at Fort Qu'Appelle not running this season, we are 
unable to realize the expectations expressed in my last annual report of going into 
the industry of selling our cream. 

The general health of the Indians has been very good, considering their consti- 
tutional tendency to scrofula, with which they are all, more or less, tainted. 

The total amount of money earned by the Indians of this agency during the 
year, was eighteen hundred and eighty-seven dollars and fifty cents, being a large 
increase over previous years. They now possess the following implements, which 
they purchased from money earned by themselves, viz., five mowers, two horse 
rakes, ten bob-sleighs, one wagon and one binder. 

The attendance at the Presbyterian Boarding School here has been very regular 
dining the past six months, there having been twelve names on the school register; 
and during that time not one of the pupils has been absent from the school for even 
a day; and during the summer holidays the teacher gives them an hour or two at 
their lessons each day. The pupils are making very good progess in learning. 

There are forty-nine children of school age belonging to these reserves, forty of 
whom are attending these schools, as follows : — 

At Qu'Appelle Industrial School 27 

At Kegina do do 1 

At Presbyterian Boarding School here 12 

Chief Star Blanket and his band still refuse to allow their children to go to 

The only assistance I now have is Mr. Norbert Welsh, who acts as interpreter 
and farmer, and who is a very efficient and trustworthy official. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Acting Indian Agent. 

Indian Agent's Office, Assiniboine Eeserve, 

Treaty No. 4, Indian Head, 4th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report for the year ended 30th June, 
1892, with accompanying tabular statement and inventory of all Government pro- 
perty under my charge. 

The Indians on this agency are steadily improving in all farm work and other 
industrious habits. Their crops were very good last fall, and many families are still 
using their own flour. This reduces the assistance required from the department. 

These Indians harvested the following grain and root crops last fall in good 
order : — 


Wheat 1,870 

Oats 230 

Potatoes 1,394 

Turnips 2,857 

Carrots 498 

Onions 57 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

They also put up four hundred and seventy-five tons of hay for their cattle, and 
seventy tons for sale. 

These Indians are making every effort to support themselves; they have worked 
harder this spring than ever before. 

They have put in the following crops in good order and at the proper time: — 


Wheat 154 

Oats 17 

Barley 10 

Potatoes 25 

Turnips 20 

Carrots 7 

Onions 2 

Other small garden seeds about 8 

All Indians on this agency are kept busy during the winter months cutting and 
hauling dry wood to Wolseley Mill and chopping rails for fencing their farms, others 
attending to cattle, sheep and pigs. 

They have purchased during the past winter two hundred bags of flour from 
sale of wood, hay, &c, also tea, fresh beef, tobacco and other comforts for their 
family such as cooking stoves, blankets, and lumber to floor their houses. 

The individual earnings of these Indians for the past year was nine hundred 
and six dollars and seventy-five cents. 

The health of these Indians has been generally good ; they seem to suffer from 
consumption and scrofula more than from any other disease. 

The cattle have been well wintered. The increase of both sheep and cattle is on 
the whole most satisfactory. 

These Indians have built five new houses and four new stables during the past 
year, of a much better class than their old houses. With the assistance of my Indians 
I have built at this agency anew implement house one hundred feet long and eighteen 
feet wide. 

The contract supplies for the current year were delivered in a satisfactory 
manner, being fully equal to the standard samples; and most suitable for Indian 

These Indians keep their houses clean and tidy. All sanitary measures suggested 
by the department or myself are always acted upon cheerfully. 

The Indian children from this reserve who are attending the Industrial Schools 
both at Eegina and Qu'Appelle are making good progress. 

The behaviour of these Indians during the past year has been very good. 
I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Fort Pelly Agency, 

Cot£, Assa., 22nd August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit my annual report, tabular statement and 
inventory of Government property for the fiscal year 1891-92. 

This agency, lying at the south-west base of Duck Mountain, has some advan- 
tages, viz., plenty of hay, good running water and pplendid pasturage for stock; 
this we will have to depend upon for our advancement, but it takes time to raise 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The stock on the three reserves is as follows: — Cote's Eeserve, three hundred 
and six head of cattle; Key's Eeserve, one hundred and forty-four head; Kesikouse 
Eeserve. two hundred and four head, — this includes four thorough-bred bulls, viz., 
two Short-horns and two Polled Angus, — in all six hundred and fifty-four head. In 
the last three years ninety head have been disposed of for implements, beef, &c. 
The cattle in this agency numbered two hundred and forty-six in 1888. They also 
have one hundred and two ponies, private property. The hay necessary to feed this 
stock has to be closely watched to see that they do put it up and that it is fed pro- 
perly afterwards. 

The hunt has been poor; there is no small game, and most of the small streams 
and lakes have dried up; never within the memory of many of the old people here 
have they seen the country so dry as it is at present. 

The health of the Indians is very good ; mostly all of them have been vaccinated. 
Last spring we had a return of the epidemic of influenza, which in some cases was 
very severe, causing deaths. The number of deaths during the year was thirty, 
with only seventeen births. 


Cote's Eeserve. — This boarding school, under the direction of the Presby- 
terian Church, consists of two buildings; one of stone thirty by forty, two and 
one half stories high. The first floor has two large class-rooms and hall; the second 
floor teachers' sleeping quarters, sewing-rooms and store-rooms ; the third floor is the 
boys' sleeping quarters. The other building, frame, two stories high, contains the 
principal's quarters, mess-room for the staif, girls' sleeping quarters, boys' and girls' 
dining-room, a large kitchen, store-room, pantry, also laundry and washing-room; 
theseand other outside buildings make up the Crow Stand Boarding School. 

The number of names on the school register on 30th September, 1891, was sixty, 
the average attendance thirty-eight. In November last we sent from the school 
fifteen children to the Industrial School at Eegina. Then again on the 7th of April 
last twenty-one more were sent ; in all, this school, since November last, has sent 
thirty-six children to the Industrial School at Eegina. On the 30th June last the 
number on the school register was twenty-two, and the average attendance twenty. 

At the Key's Day School the number on the register is twelve, and the average 
attendance nine. 

Shoal Eiver Day School. The number on the register of this school is twenty-two, 
and the average attendance is ten ; this school is a branch from Key's school here. 
They are both under the direction of the Church of England, and are doing fairly well. 

Kesikouse Day School. The number on the register is eleven, and the average 
attendance is six; this school is under the direction of the Eoman Catholic Church. 

The number of Indians in this agency is six hundred and fifty, and their super- 
vision is attended to by myself and Mr. F. Fischer, who acts as clerk, interpreter, &c. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

District of Assiniboia, N.W.T., 
Crooked Lake Agency, Treaty No. 4, 30th July, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit to you my annual report with tabular 
statement and inventory of all Government property under my charge up to the 
30th June, 1892. 

I am glad to say the crops, taken as a whole, for the last year were very 
favourable, and for quantity were greatly in excess of all former years, but the 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

prices realized by the Indians for their wheat ruled rather lower, notwithstanding 
which the results of their labour were very satisfactory, as is shown by their 
individual earnings, which amounted to very nearly six thousand dollars, exceeding 
that of last yearly thirteeen hundred and twenty-one dollars and thirty-five cents, 
and was distributed amongst the four bands in this agency as follows: — 

Band 71— Ochapowace $1,132 21 

Band 72— Kah-ke-wis-tn-haw 1,121 59 

Band 73— Cowesess 2,452 74 

Band 74— Sakimay 1,239 25 

Total $ 5,945 79 

This was derived from the sale of eight thousand three hundred and forty-nine 
bushels of wheat, two hundred and seventy-four bushels of oats, one hundred 
bushels of potatoes, sixty-two bushels of chicory, seneca-root, cattle, lime, firewood, 
hay, freighting, wintering settlers' cattle, tanning hides, working for settlers, making 
baskets, &c. It is satisfactory to note, in this connection, that the amount realized 
in this way, over and above last year, is a distinct advance and gain, as there is a 
saving in the food, implements and clothing supplied to the Indians in this agency, 
for this year, of one thousand and seventy-seven dollars and sixty-one cents, com- 
pared with the previous year, thus showing most clearly that the Indians have 
reaped this advantage for themselves, and consequently have not drawn on the 
department by a corresponding amount, which affords me much encouragement to 
hope that their own earnings will increase at least one thousand dollars yearly, 
which, in three or four years, would mean that, with the exception of a few old and 
infirm Indians, these bands would, in reality, be self-supporting. 

I am glad to be able to say most of the Indians are realizing that to succeed 
they must depend entirely on their own exertions, and a more pronounced ambition 
and emulation of one another is springing up and steadily increasing. It has been 
of slow growth, but is now an established fact. 

I am fortunate in having some Indians who are a very praiseworthy example ; 
and their example is bearing fruit. 

The fact of four of these having, by their own exertions, secured for themselves 
a team each of very fine young Canadian mares, averaging in price about four 
hundred dollars a team, is a very direct and powerful incentive to others to do 

I must also mention that an improvement is being made in basket-making ; but 
an obstacle exists in there not being a ready local market. I do all I can to obviate 
this, and encourage the manufacture. 

There is also an improvement in the burning of lime, which has been gained by 
experience in former attempts. One kiln has already been burnt, and disposed of 
at remunerative prices ; and two more are now burning. This is becoming, I hope, 
a very important branch of industry for the Indians, and one in which I think they 
will excel. 

The settlers for whom the Indians have wintered stock, express their admira- 
tion of the care evidently bestowed on them, no accidents having occurred, and the 
stock turning out very Hatisfactorily in the spring. The following is an extract 
from one of the letters received : " I think it only fair to write and thank you for 
the excellent care my oxen, &c, received at the hands of your Indians last winter. 
I visited them twice, and found the stables beautifully clean, and all the cattle 
thoroughly well cared for. I could not have wintered them as well myself for 
double the price. I shall always recommend the Indians most highly." 

The seneca-root, this summer, does not appear to be quite so plentiful, nor is 
the market quite as good as formerly; but the crop is evidently remunerative, as one 
Indian and his family realized, within the space of about three weeks, forty-two 
dollars, in cash, from the sale of it. 

The few bushels of chicory .raised, fetched a fair price; but I do not consider it 
a good crop for Indians, as it requires more care to produce a good paying crop 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

than they have time for, taking into account the many other duties they have to 
perform ; and I think, if they devoted the same time to the same acreage of potatoes, 
it would pay them better. 

The Indians purchased wagons for hauling hay, lime, &c, and machinery, 
such as binders, mowers and rakes (which are an inevitable necessity now on 
account of the increase of the stock), Canadian mares, binding twine, and one cent 
per bushel on all grain threshed has been expended in keeping the engine and 
threshing machine in order. They also purchased sacks and machine oil, and 
defrayed other expenses connected with threshing. 

The balance of the money earned was expended in clothing, provisions and 
some lumber, &c, for improving the dwelling-houses. 

I keep an accurate account of all money earned by the sale of wheat and other 
grain, each Indian raising such grain having a pass-book of his own, and whenever 
permission to sell any is given this book is referred to; and by that means I am 
also able to check and keep a close account of what is done with the money received 
(although the Indian is a perfectly free agent and receives and expends all the 
money himself) ; and I am bound to say the discretion shown in the expenditure is, 
in nearly every case, very creditable and judicious, and great honesty (with very 
few exceptions) is shown, by a desire to liquidate any debt for advances that are 
sometimes made them. 

One Indian, Nepahpeness, Cowesess' Band, No. 73, sold and filled one carload 
of wheat, six hundred and eighty-seven bushels. 

I find the above system is very good indeed for the Indians, being quite an 
education in itself, making them think more carefully about laying out their money, 
and they now quite see the advantage of having an individual record to refer to, as 
to what has become of their earnings. 

I have not encouraged a great outlay on their houses this year, as I want them 
to get into a good sound position with their machinery, wagons, &c, so as to be 
able to earn as much more as possible; and I am pleased to report that very little, 
if an} T thing, in that way will be required this next year, and they will have paid all 
debts outstanding (which are now very small indeed), and although there has been 
steady improvement in their dwellings this year, if a fair harvest ensues, I antici- 
pate a great stride in this direction next year. 

The result of the threshing last fall was as follows: Eleven thousand nine 
hundred and eighty-one bushels of wheat, one thousand nine hundred and fifteen 
bushels of oat6, seventy bushels of peas, thirty bushels of barley, and one hundred 
and thirty of rye. 

We harvested nearly four thousand bushels of roots, in the following proportion : 
Potatoes, two thousand nine hundred and nine; turnips, seven hundred and sixty- 
five; and garden produce, two hundred and sixty bushels, which is in addition to 
the stuff consumed before harvest. 

The farmers raised six hundred and fifty-five bushels of oats, for the consump- 
tion of their own farm teams; and I harvested over two hundred for the agency 

Of the wheat harvested, eight thousand three hundred and forty-nine bushels 
were .sold, twelve hundred and thirty-seven were sown, three hundred and forty- 
four were gristed, and nine hundred were cleanings, a part of which was fed to 
stock and poultry ; and there is yet eleven hundred and fifty-one on hand, some of 
which is reserved, to be gristed at our own mill. 

Of the root crop, about one hundred and fifty bushels of potatoes were sold, 
and six hundred planted this spring. The balance was all consumed by the Indians, 
with the exception of some turnips which were fed to the stock. 

The provision returns show a saving of nearly one thousand dollars over last 
year, which showed a very considerable decrease on former years. 

The hay crop was a favourable one, the Indians stacking nine hundred and 
seventy tons, of which they sold ninety tons, the balance being used to feed their 

The large amount fed to the stock is accounted for by the fact that during the 
late fall a considerable quantity of rain fell, and the frost coming soon after, made 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

the feed less nutritious than usual, and it therefore took more hay to keep them in 
good condition. They came through the winter fairly well, and are now in splendid 

The number of stock in the hands of Indians ai'e as follows : — 

Under Government Private 

control. property. 

Canadian horses 8 

Native do 174 

Oxen 106 3 

Cows 124 53 

Bulls 2 1 

Young cattle 243 104 

Sheep 22 

Totals... 497 343 

The native horses belonging to the Indians continue to show a decided improve- 
ment by crossing with Canadian horses. 

The catch of furs seems to steadily decrease, owing partly to fur-bearing animals 
being scarcer, and the fact of the best hunters being now the best farmers who have 
to stay at home on their farms. 

The catch offish has been normal during the year, not much having been sold, 
but the principal part being consumed by the Indians. 

Seeding commenced on the 6th of April, about the same date as last year, but 
after a few days of fine weather, a cold spell came on with jsnow and stopped opera- 
tions for a short time, but no serious check occurred and all the seeding was finished 
in good time and put in well, and the work was vigorously prosecuted throughout, 
the Indians showing that they are profiting by experience, and also that they are in 
good heart and hopeful of good results. 

The area under crop on the different reserves is as follows : — 


No. 71. Ochapowace 154 

72. Kah-ke-wis-ta-haw 165J 

73. Cowesess 297J 

74. Sakimay 130j 

Distributed in the following manner: — 


Wheat , 646 

Oats - 52 

Barley 2 

Potatoes 25 

Turnips 11 

Carrots 4 

Gardens 7 


Which exceeds the acreage of last year by one hundred and nine. 

In addition to the above, twenty-five acres were put into oats by myself and the 
farmers for the use of Government teams. I have also put in four acres to a mixture 
of rye and oats as an experiment, to be cut as fodder, as recommended by the Experi- 
mental Farm. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The Indians are becoming every season more impressed with the fact that 
good farming must obtain to produce the desired results, and are, and have been, 
diligently summer-fallowing in the proper way. 

The crops are looking well, but are short in the straw, owing to the long con- 
tinued dry weather and lack of rain in June, but just at the last of the month a good 
supply came, and although I do not anticipate an extraordinary crop, I certainly 
expect an average one, as the good effect of the deferred rain, when it came, was 
apparent at once. 

The Indians continue to keep up their reputation for good fences, which are 
much admired by visitors. 

The number of children attending school on the 30th of June was as follows : — 
Regina Industrial School, seven; Fort Qu'Appelle Industrial School, thirty-six; and 
Mr. McKay's Boarding School, Round Lake, twenty-three. 

The grist mill commenced running on the 6th of February, and ran at intervals 
until the b'th of April, when it was closed, as the farmers had to attend to spring 
work. It ground three hundred and forty-four bushels of wheat, producing ten 
thousand eight hundred and seventeen pounds of flour, with the concomitant amount 
of shorts and bran. 

The mill was run by Farmer Sutherland acting as miller, and Farmer Pollock as 
engineer, and the quality of flour (especially where good wheat was delivered to the 
mill) was excellent, and was the source of much gratification to the Indians. 

A much larger quantity would have been ground, but unfortunately Farmer 
Sutherland was laid up with bronchitis for some time, when the mill could not be 

The mill is now in excellent running order, as I tried it for a couple of days in 
June, being fortunate enough to secure the services of a good millwright, who put 
the stones and several minor matters in order, which required skilled labour in. mill 
machinery, and I feel confident a very gratifying result awaits our gristing 
operations this winter. 

The cost to the department of running the mill is practically nil, as our 
own employees do the work, and Indians pay a small toll, which is sufficient to 
cover the cost of all ordinary repairs. 

The fittings of the mill and engine are now, after a good deal of labour, in 
really fine order and very conveniently placed. 

The threshing commenced rather later in the fall than usual owing to the late 
harvest and to a considerable amount of repairs being done to the separator, and as 
the weather became too severe at the end of December to thresh outside I ordered 
the work to stop until the spring broke, when it was soon finished in good time to 
prevent any delay in spring work. If the harvest is not too late the threshing will 
commence in good time this fall, so as to ensure completion before the severe 
weather sets in, and as a consequence gristing will commence earlier. 

The payments of annuities commenced on the 6th of October, and ended on 
thg 18th. Ochapowace and Kah-ke-wis-ta-haw's Bands, Nos. 71 and 72, were paid 
together, as usual, on the boundary of the two reserves, on the 6th and 7th. 
Cowesess' Band, No. 73, was paid at my office on the 8th, and Yellow Calf and She 
Sheep's parties were paid on their respective reserves on the 12th and 13th. 

The number of Indians paid was six hundred and eleven, the annuities amount- 
ing to three thousand two hundred and thirty dollars, and arrears to two hundred 
and twenty-five dollars ; total, three thousand four hundred and fifty-five dollars. 

The general behaviour of the Indians under my charge has been even 
exceptionally good during the past year, and I have no cause to find fault with one 
of them. 

The Indians were, as usual, very successful in exhibiting grain, roots, &c, at 
the local shows, and at Regina. 

The health of the Indians has been very good. There has been no epidemic 
amongst them, and I have not had a single case for the doctor for over two months. 
Dr. Hutchison has only been called in when actually necessary. He has gained the 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

confidence of the Indians by his careful treatment, and a saving has been effected 
by his making up certain prescriptions for simple cases in considerable quantities, 
which I think often prevents serious cases from arising. 

The Indians come to the office freely for castor oil, senna tea and salts, and 
they are recognizing more readily the importance of sanitary arrangements, and 
attend to such matters round their dwellings in the spring more willingly, and of 
their own accord, than formerly. 

There were twenty births and thirty-one deaths, twelve of whom were adults, 
and nineteen children. Amongst the adults was Ochapowace, Chief of Band No. 71, 
who passed away after a lingering illness. 

Mr. Wadsworth made a thorough inspection during the year, and appeared well 

Ths agency buildings and roofs were painted on the outside with two coats of 
paiut this summer, and the effect, especially at a distance, is very good indeed, the 
buildings being well thrown out to the view from the surrouudings. The Indians did 
the whole of it in a very creditable manner. The agent's house has been much 
improved, being papered and painted throughout inside. 

A verandah has been put along the front of the house, with a good porch at the 
end, and the two windows at the north end of the house have been changed to 
dormer windows, placed on the east and west side, all of which is a great comfort, 
and adds very materially to the appearance of the house. A cellar has been 
excavated underneath the main part of the building, in which a furnace is being 
placed, which is a wise expenditure as the saving in fuel will be very considerable, 
and the house will now be properly heated, whereas formerly it was very cold at 
times. It has also received a coating of manilla paper outside, and another thick- 
ness of drop siding, which had become very necessary as the weather had shrunk 
the old siding, and the house was not weather proof. 

The farm house at '6a has also had some repairs done to it. The old siding was 
carefully taken off and replaced, a few boards at a time, and concrete run'between. 
them and the inside sheeting, which makes a warm house and is very satisfactory. 

The farmers have been very attentive to their duties : Sutherland, in addition to 
his duties as farmer on Reserve No. 73, Little Child's, has done most of the black- 
smith work, in the way of repairs to implements and machinery for the Indians, farms 
and agency, assisted now and then by Farmer Pollock, both of whom, as already 
stated, during the winter act as miller and engineer respectively. 

The farmer on Eeserve No. 71 was detailed to attend to the Indians on Reserve 
No. 72, whilst Pollock was engaged at the grist mill. 

The office work has been most zealously attended toby Mr. Duncan Pierce, agency 
clerk, the books, &c, being neatly kept and posted up every day, and letter-book 
indexed. »0. r .{Til 

The number of books kept have been increasing year after year, the list being 
now as follows: — Agency ledger, cattle records, receipt book, scrap book, invoice 
book, pass book, cash book, permits to purchase ammunition, hay permits, beef 
contracts, letter register, voucher register, earnings individual Indians, return of 
employees, vaccination records, census book, census of religious denominations, 
report of Indian councils, account implements purchased by Indians, births and 
deaths, order book, copy letter, beef interim receipts, due bill orders, permits to sell 
grain, &c, individual issues, money funded for Indians, miller's grist book, mill 
debtor ledger, individual account books for Indians, showing grain, &c, harvested 
and disposed of, with expenditure, by which you will see nothing is left unrecorded. 

1 have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

a. Mcdonald, 

Indian Agent. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Moose Mountain Indian Agency — Treaty No. 4, 

30th July, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th 
June, 1892. with accompanying tabular statement and inventory of Government 
property in my charge. 

The health of the Indians has been upon the whole good, although the death 
rate was somewhat increased by an epidemic of whooping cough, and also of u la 
grippe" which visited the reserves last summer. The other deaths which occurred 
were from consumption and scrofula, the total number being fifteen as against eleven 

The usual sanitary precautions have been carefully attended to, and when the 
Indians were receiving their annuities in October, 1891, they were examined, and 
all suitable subjects requiring it were vaccinated by Dr. Rutledge. 

Last year the area under crop was as follows : — 


Wheat 110 

Oats 18 

Potatoes .... 9J 

Turnips 12 

The yield was good, but there was a loss in quantity and quality of grain through 
the impossibility of getting it threshed in the fall. 

Although the stacks were well built, driving storms of snow and rain affected 
them, and caused loss. A large number of settlers in this district suffered far more 
from the same cause, many having, out of large crops, no grain fit to market. 

The supply of threshing machines in the settlement was quite inadequate, and 
the fact that the Indians' farms are from nine to twelve miles distant from the settle- 
ment made it more difficult to secure the use of a machine early in the season. 

The total amount of grain actually threshed and roots harvested was as follows : — 


Wheat 1,388 

Oats 150 

Potatoes 776 

Turnips 1,675 

On account of the quantity of water in the hay sloughs, it was much later in 
the season than usual before it was possible to begin haying, but nevertheless, over 
five hundred tons of hay of first-rate quality were well stacked, fenced and fire- 
guarded, the whole work having been thoroughly well done and the improvement, 
especially in White Bear's Band's work, having been most marked. In addition to 
having an ample supply for their cattle, many of the Indians were able to sell a 

The area under crop this year is one hundred and twenty-four acres of wheat, 
thirty-two acres of oats, four acres of peas, twelve acres of potatoes, eight acres of tur- 
nips, five acres of gardens, being an increase over last year, especially in potatoes and 
gardens, in the care of which I am able to report a decided improvement, especially 
on White Bear's Reserve, which have been well fenced, carefully planted and 
weeded, and are now looking better than almost any gardens I have seen in the 
settlement. The cattle are increasing and the quality of the stock improving, but 
I regret to say that those Indians, who now own all the cattle in their hands, seem 
to require more supervision to ensure proper care being taken of them in the winter 
than was the case when they were simply on loan to them, the fear that on the 
slightest neglect the cattle would be taken away from them having proved a 
greater incentive than the pride and profit of ownership. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

"During last summer White Bear's Indians earned a good deal of money by 
freighting, and during last winter there was a satisfactory improvement in their 
industry and its results, their earnings by cutting and hauling logs, rails and fire- 
wood from the timber on the reserve, which had been killed by fire in 1886 and 
which was going to waste, being much larger than at any time hitherto. The 
individual earnings of this band, of which I have a record, amounted during the 
year to one thousand five hundred and forty-nine dollars, and of the three bands to 
two thousand two hundred and forty-nine dollars. 

Improvement is being made in the domestic arts, and at the Eegina exhibition 
last fall in the Indian classes, the first and second prizes for bread, the first prize for 
butter, and prizes for knitting and sewing, were won by women of Pheasant Rump's 
and Striped Blanket's Bands who had been instructed by Mrs. Lawford. 

I have also to report improvement in dress and cleanliness and greater willing- 
ness to abandon the use of paint, and general good behaviour on the part of the 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Oonikup, The Pas Agency, 

Cumberland, N. W. T., 25th June, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Afiiairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your circular of the 11th 
of April last, with form of tabular statement, calling for statistics and annual report 
for the fiscal year ending 30th June instant. 

Although the time for writing this report has not yet fully arrived, it is never- 
theless respectfully attempted, owing to the peculiar circumstances of the present 
moment; as I am at Cumberland awaiting the arrival of the steamer, in order 
to receive and deliver the cattle to be brought for the Indians of this agency. The 
time is also fast apprjaching for my departure to make the annuity payments, 
hence the present opportunity is seized. 

Spring, summer, autumn, and winter, have each a time of interest to the Indian 
and those in communication with him. In days gone by, so long as he had plenty 
to eat and drink to-day, the enjoyment of the present hour was, as a rule, sufficient 
for him, rarely making provision for cases of emergency. And there is a tendency 
to this to the present day. I have often wondered (and have frequently reminded 
the Indians of the fact) that they have not learned more from the very squirrels, 
whose habitual forethought strikes the traveller as he journeys through the woods. 
But while leading a life of purely nomadic character, so long as he possessed his 
gun, fishing tackle and traps; neither he nor his children were cultivated in habits 
of industry or educated for future usefulness. No doubt there were exceptions; but 
they prove the rule. It is well indeed for the Indians that the Government appeared 
upon the scene in time to show to them "a more excellent way " both by precept 
and example; for the unmistakable signs of decline in their former mode of sub- 
sistence but ?how too plainly, that had not their great "Mother" the Queen adopted 
them as subjects of her Dominion, they would in all probability by this time have 
greatly diminished in numbers from lack of sufficient food and clothing, and through 
the ravages of disease. The ancient manner of Indian life-hunting is failing, and he 
should be grateful (and some of them are alive to the fact, and appreciate it) that 
there are put into his hand, by all the various machinery now at work for his good, 
the means of supporting himself and those immediately dependent upon him, by the 
exertions of his own hands, while his children have a free education for future call- 
ings. He is beginning to learn how to eat bread by the sweat of his own brow. 


14— 11 J 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Not that encouragement is given for the hunt entirely to cease; but instructions are 
given in a variety of ways to make an Indian see the advantage of using the golden 
days of summer, so as to be prepared for the long months of winter. But this is not 
an easy task. Long days of toil, and anxious nights of thought (yea, and at times 
anxious nights of toil) are not among the least efforts put forth to raise the tenacious 
descendants of the once savages of this country out of habits of improvidence, 
indolence and extravagance, to those of forethought, thrift and carefulness. 
Through nearly eighteen years' work among the Plain and Wood Indians I have 
found these among the hardest of temporal things to teach them. But I am per- 
suaded the Indian, by being gently but firmly led, has begun to walk alone, though like 
the child beginning to walk, he is not left alone, but walked, guided and supported. 
Stumble he does and sometimes falls, and that at very little things; but these are 
only lessons taught by his own unwitting Primer, which when learned, teach him 
to take the advice of those who know better than himself. Thus he is gradually 
learning to live by his own exertions, though perhaps reluctantly parting with the 
" beggarly elements " of pauperism. He is no longer out of the way but on it, and 
I could point to instances where he knows it and is thankful for it. 

In addition to the foregoing general remarks I can report with thankfulness that 
the schools in operation in this agency have, as a whole, made very fair progress 
during the year. I consider this one of the most important branches of the work. 
The Church Missionary Society has, I think, done its best in trying to send teachers 
who take an interest in the vast and tedious work of developing the intellects of 
these naturally crude and dull, but docile and fairly capable scholars. The visit of 
Mr. Inspector Macrea early last fall was quite an event, and has been very beneficial 
in its effects upon the teachers themselves, which again is reproduced in the pupils, 
as observed at my frequent examinations. There is now a very fair average attend- 
ance; and the parents and guardians evince a desire that their children should 
quickly learn the English language. 

There has been an interesting and beneficial work carried on by Mrs. Hines at 
the Pas and by Mrs. Pritchard at the Eddy, the respective wives of the clergyman 
and school teacher at those places. These ladies have taught a number of the Indian 
women and girls to knit. Thf 1 yarn supplied by the department for this purpose 
has been of immense service in thus placing in the hands of those who have learned 
to knit, a number of warm articles for winter use. 

Next I should mention the amount of good that has been done by the dispensers 
of medicines. Humanely speaking, it may be fairly stated, that in some instances 
death would have taken place but for the labours bestowed on the sick, notably at 
the Pas. There has been a good deal of sickness during the year, as the medicine 
returns will show, while at Moose Lake and Grand Eapids mortality has been con- 

I will now briefly touch upon each of the eight reserves under my charge, com- 
mencing with 


From this point to Grand Eapid Eeserve is a distance of two hundred and 
twenty miles by rivers, rapids and lakes. But few ot the Indians live on this reserve, 
the greater number being scattered on different hunting and fishing grounds both in 
winter and summer. Yery little, therefore, has been done in agricultural operations 
during the past year. They had, however, fair success in hunting until spring, when 
the failure of the muskrat showed very plainly that timely work at home is not to 
bo di-regarded. I think there is less land cultivated on this than on any other 
occupied reserve in this agency. Exertions for self-support by the industries of a 
settled character are confined to a few who grow potatoes, raise stock, and obtain 
work at the Fort or elsewhere. 

There is no school on this reserve. 

Birch River. 

This reserve is still unoccupied, but there live in the vicinity a number of 
Half-breeds who left Treaty and took "scrip" some years ago. There is, therefore, 
nothing done by Indians at this place. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The Pas Mountain. 

The two fragments of the Pas Band living on the two reserves at this place are 
diverse from each other; for while those at Red Earth are thrifty and have good 
success in raising stock and largely cultivating potatoes, with but few fish to fall 
back upon, their neighbours at Shoal Lake are, as a rule, indolent, though they 
have a good supply of small fish at certain times in the year and sturgeon early in 
summer. Of all the bands in this agency, that at Red Earth has, generally speak- 
ing, the best crops of potatoes, upon which they principally live. A number of 
them are still heathen, but 1 have been struck with their progress in matters 
temporal, and much wish they enjoyed the benefits of things spiritual. They see 
but little of white people, living as they do about a hundred miles from the mouth 
of the Carrot River in all the enjoyment of quietness, and mainly supporting them- 
selves in summer as above described. In winter they are eugaged in the usual fur 
hunt, and generally have fair success. For raising stock, agricultural operations, 
and carrying out the department's instructions of sanitary measures, Red Earth 
Band is an example to the whole agency. At the Pas Mountain there is compara- 
tively but little sickness, so that the Indians arc increasing. There is as yet no 
school at this place. 

The Pas. 

It is somewhat satisfactory to be able to report that this band is feeling its 
way to helping itself. About two hundred bushels of seed potatoes were preserved 
by these Indians last winter in three different roothouses, although their crops last 
fall were not abundant. These, together with some barley, peas and small seeds 
supplied by the department this spring, will, it is hoped, be the means of providing 
food for use next winter. 

At their various fishing grounds the Pas Indians were generally successful last 
fall, and thus saved themselves from serious difficulties during the cold season. 
Some also had the good sense to preserve a portion of the game they killed for 
winter use. There were also moose and deer killed at various times, and at the 
beginning of the cold season a goodly number of rats were obtained, while later on 
a fair show was made in other furs. This band did very well until spring. At this 
time the failure of the muskrat gave them but little opportunity of pursuing the 
usual spring occupation. But it would appear it must be so, and the more they 
adopt the habits and industrial customs of the gradually but evidently changing 
times, the better it will be for them when furs will be things of the past. While 
these last they are a great help to them for purchasing clothing and utensils, but 
the training to self-support, when these are gone, is an education for which the 
rising generation will have yet to be thankful. 

The two schools on this reserve are doing well, the attendance being excellent. 
Already a few of the scholars have been sent to a higher school at Prince Albert. 
The special marks of success noticed by me are in English composition and arithme- 
tic. A few cases of fair penmanship are also observable. During the year the former 
teacher at the Pas has left and another succeeded him. The Eddy teacher will pro- 
bably be removed to Grand Rapids; but it is hoped the Church Missionary Society 
will furnish another immediately. 

Moose Lake. 

Since last payment this band has not made much progress, for they are very 
tardy in adopting better habits. A few of the old heathen remain, and probably 
hinder the others. I had intended visiting this reserve this summer, but shall not 
now be able until the coming annuity payment. I cannot, therefore, report so fully 
as desired. The chief occupations are hunting and fishing, the former of which is 
declining, while the latter affords ample food for most of the band. A few potatoes 
are raised, but to no great extent. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

For a long time Moose Lake school was closed, being much out of the way, and 
teachers as a rule not caring to be located at 60 isolated a spot. I am thankful, how- 
ever, to report that in February last a teacher arrived and reports good attendance. 


It is by no means easy to persuade Indians living among rats to make provision 
for the time when these once marvellously numerous animals will probably be com- 
paratively few. Yet, despite the natural taste for the rat trap and spear — very use- 
ful in their place — the grub hoe is making its way. Early last fall I was gratified 
to see a new garden promising an excellent crop of potatoes, and later on at my next 
visit to have some seed stowed in a common cellar, it was interesting to watch bushel 
after bushel being brought to spend the winter in safe custody. 

But the chief mark of progress here is in the school under the tuition of an 
Indian. Young as he is, Mr. Bear has shown to all his visitors that it is possible not 
only for an Indian to be educated himself, but also to be able to teach the young 
with a quiet, indefatigable zeal which, to say the least, is remarkable. Should this 
school continue to make such fair progress, there will probably be produced out of 
the once raw material on the very borders of the rat swamps some interesting scholars 
whose intellects can be further developed in a higher institution. 

Grand Rapids. 

Situated at the mouth of the Saskatchewan, where the arrival of steamers in 
summer and the cutting of cordwood and ice in winter afford the Indians ample 
means of supporting themselves, this is perhaps one of the most important places in 
the district. Consequently daily labour is gradually superseding the hunting pursuits. 
It is, however, regretted the band as a whole does not exert itself in the cultivation 
of vegetables to any extent. 

During my winter travels arrangements were made for the relief of the sick, 
aged and destitute throughout the agency, which assistance of food has been a great 
help in bringing (humanely speaking) such a number of needy people through the 
long winter months. 


The extra supply of cattle for the Indians of this agency will, it is hoped, 
prove a stimulus in civilizing these sons of the forest and swamp. There is every 
reason to expect a luxuriant crop of hay from the timely rains which have already 
fallen, while those Indians who have gardens on fairly high ground will, I think, 
have excellent crops of potatoes. 

In closing this brief report, it is only just to state that each and all who have 
been engaged through another year in civilizing nearly a thousand Indians have 
rendered much assistance to the agent, and therefore to the department. But 
outside all this important work there are many efforts put forth for the 
spiritual and eternal welfare of these people, though, perhaps, not in many cases 
highly appreciated by them. But where such work is valued there is cause for 
thankfulness, and a confident hope that many of those once in darkness and super- 
stition but now in the light of the Gospel of Christ shall be a crown of rejoicing in 
the great day, that faithful labour in the Lord's vineyard has not been in vain ; for 
His Word shall not return unto Him void. 

The foregoing report is most respectfully submitted. 
I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Beren's Eiver Agency, 

Treaty No. 5, 5th July, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my anuual report, tabular statement and 
inventory of Government property for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

There are twelve reserves within this agency which are much scattered along 
the Winnipeg Lake, Nelson and Beren's Rivers. Four of the nearest reserves are 
visited frequently, but those more distant only twice during the year. In winter it 
takes over forty days' hard travelling, with dog trains, to make the round trip to the 
different reserves under my supervision. Last winter was unusually severe, the cold 
set in early and lasted until late in April. There was considerable sickness through- 
out the agency, but more especially at Norway House and Cross Lake Reserves, 
where an epidemic disease carried off a number of the Indians. 

In some parts of this district fur-bearing animals, deer and rabbits were very 
scarce, which caused some hardship to the Indians hunting in the interior; winter 
fishing in the neighbourhood and southward of the agency was very poor, but good 
north wai-d. 

Notwithstanding the drawback through sickness among the children and the 
severe weather during the winter, the average attendance at the day schools has 
been somewhat better. 

With but few exceptions the sanitary regulations are fairly well observed by 
the Indians of the different reserves. 

Wherever practicable good seed potatoes were supplied to those bands whose 
crops failed last year. They were very thankful for them and planted all they 
received without delay. 

The cattle looked fairly well in the spring, although the winter was long and 
severe. The provisions supplied to the sick and destitute were a great help to them 
when laid up with tl la grippe " and during the lingering spring when very few fish 
could be taken. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

District of Saskatchewan, Treaty No. 6, 

Duck Lake Indian Agency, 16th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th 
June, 1892, with tabular statement and inventory of all Government property under 
my charge. 

The harvest of last fall was one of the most bountiful ever reaped by the Indians 
of this agency, and it gives me great pleasure to report that the majority of the 
families un "One Arrow's," " Okemassis' " and " Beardy's " Reserves supported 
themselves on flour obtained from wheat of their own growing, during the winter 
and spring months. Several families had sufficient to supply their own wants until 
the end of June, and two families numbering six persons will have all they require 
until the crop of 1892 will have been harvested. 

The services of the Duck Lake mill were engaged by the Indian Department to 
grind the wheat, which was a great benefit to the Indians, as otherwise they would 
have been obliged to trade or sell their wheat to little advantage. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The Indians of John Smith's Eeserve were not less successful with their crop, 
but owing to the distance of the reserve from Duck Lake, and the severe weather 
and bad condition of the roads during the time the mill was engaged, they were 
unable to avail themselves of its service. However, by trading their wheat, and 
having some ground at Prince Albert, and later at Van Luven's mill, they supplied 
themselves with flour and other articles of food, as well as some clothing, reducing 
considerably the rations which otherwise would have been furnished by the depart- 
ment. One family of six persons has enough flour to sorve until the result of the 
coming harvest is known, besides being able to sell to other members of the band 
who were less fortunate. 

A. quantity of seed grain was retained, by the bands already mentioned, to 
permit of their sowing a greater acreage than last year, and although the prospects 
of the coming harvest are not so favourable as last season, still it is hoped some 
material benefit will be derived therefrom. 

The growing of wheat is not encouraged on the reserves occupied by Chief 
James Smith and the Cumberland Bands, in the Fort a la Corne District, on account 
of the wandering disposition prevailing amongst the members of these bands, and 
the consequent difficulty in getting them to harvest and thresh their grain, but a 
considerable benefit is obtained from the root crop, the cultivation of which has 
received still further attention this season. 

On all the reserves the root crop yielded well, and in cases where proper care 
was taken the results were very good. 

The quantity of hay received from the natural growth on the reserves was not 
only sufficient to serve the herds of each band, but also to admit of a few sales to 
settlers in the district, and, on the part of "One Arrow's," " Beardy's " and "John 
Smith's'* Bands, to supply a portion of the North-west Mounted Police contract, 
which was quite an addition to their income. 

The cattle on the different reserves have been well looked after, and great credit 
is due to all the Indians, more especially to the Cumberland Band at La Corne, for 
the successful manner in which they brought their stock through the very severe 
weather last winter. At "One Arrow's" and the surrounding neighbourhood a 
disease attacked the cattle in November last, which in the case of settlers' cattle, in 
nearly every instance, proved fatal, but with the Indian cattle, in a few cases 

On "Okemassis' " and "Beardy's" Eeserves several losses were sustained from 
the effects of spear grass lodging in the tongue and eventually causing death from 
inflammation and inability to eat; still, notwithstanding these drawbacks, the herds 
steadily increased since the round-up of 1891. A number of cattle were also slaugh- 
tered for beef and replaced by younger stock, and the balance of the proceeds, with 
money received from sales of hay and for freighting, has been judiciously expended in 
the purchase of wagons and other farming implements. 

The general health of the bands, I cannot say has been quite so good as in past 
years. " La grippe," which was very prevalent throughout the whole district, seems 
to have left many of the Indians, who were already weakened by consumption and 
other diseases, in a still further reduced state of health. I am pleased to say, how- 
ever, not many deaths occurred, the death rate only exceeding the birth by one. 
Everything conducive to health in the way of sanitary precautions has been done, 
and more importance seems to be attached by the Indians to such measures at 
present than heretofore. 

The schools under my supervision are making fair progress, and I desire to make 
special mention of the success attached to the school on John Smith's Eeserve, where 
Miss Willson, the teacher, exercises all her powers to instruct and civilize her 

Our treaty payments commenced on the 6th and ended on the 13th of October 
last, and I am pleased to say that the Indians conducted themselves in a quiet and 
peaceable manner. 

The behaviour of the several bands during the year has been good, and the pro- 
gress made in agricultural and other pursuits is fair. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The farm instructors have given satisfaction, and I would specially mention Mr, 
Farmer Lovell, who is painstaking in doing all he can to advance the Indians and 
the interests of the department. 

My clerk, Mr. Sibbald, is most attentive in the discharge of his several duties 
and gives entire satisfaction. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Battleford, 5th August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report, tabular state- 
ment and inventory of all Government property under my charge for the fiscal year 
ended 30th June, 1892. 

Although the prospects of an abundant harvest, anticipated in the early part of 
the season, were not realized, yet, I am happy to say that we harvested, in good order 
and condition, nine thousand one hundred and forty-three bu&hels of grain, of which 
seven thousand one hundred and sixteen bushels were wheat, the remainder oats and 
barley ; also three thousand five hundred and two bushels of potatoes, besides large 
quantities of turnips and garden produce. This quantity of wheat should give suffi- 
cient flour for all the bands of Indians in this agency. 

The individual earnings of the Indians were four thousand four hundred and sixty 
dollars and ninety-nine cents, and I think it may be said, on the whole, the year was 
a prosperous one and with the steady increase of cattle, now numbering over one 
thousand, I think the time is drawing near when these Indians will be self-support- 

The sanitary condition of the Indians in this agency was never better, the deaths 
which occurred last year were caused by old standing and scrofulous diseases, and 
during several months of the year the medical attendant was not called upon to visit 
any of the reserves. In this connection I may say that the old, and in many cases 
barbarous, treatment of Indian doctors has given way to the skilled treatment of 
professional men. Our resident physician, Dr. MacAdam, who is ever ready to 
alleviate the sufferings of the Indians, has so endeared himself to them that his name 
has become a household word and his prescriptions are eagerly taken. 

The difficulty, experienced in previous years, in securing hay for so large a herd 
of cattle still exists and this year, as well as last, about five hundred head will have 
to be wintered off the reserves. This causes extra labour and great dissatisfaction to 
the Indians as the individual ownership ceases, at least during the winter, and with 
so many cattle in one camp. Water can only be had at one camping place and the 
weaker of the stock suffer; this accounts in a great measure for the small increase 
in the drop of calves from cows wintered thus. 

A new industry has sprung up among the Indians, viz., making straw hats and 
baskets, but as the sale of these articles is limited here, little over what is required 
for their own individual use is made. Ox collars, yokes, fork and axe handles, and 
indeed nearly everything formerly supplied by the department, is now furnished by 
the Indians. ■ . 

The schools, both Protestant and Roman Catholic, on the different reserves are, 
I think, steadily improving. Some very important improvements have been effected, 
each school has been furnished with a brick fireplace which is said to be one of the 
best ventilators they can have. The staff of employees has been subjected to grave 
and important changes ; the sudden death of Mr. John Fitzpatrick on the 8th 
September last deprived Farm 12 B. & C. of one who took the greatest interest in its 
welfare as well as a loss to the department of one of its most faithful servants. His 
place is now filled by the promotion of Mr. P. Tomkins, whose place was in turn 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

filled by Mr. E. Finlayson. The position of instructor was made vacant on Sweet 
Grass Reserve by the resignation of Mr. Farmer Gopsill, whose place was temporarily 
taken by Mr. Finlayson, who is still in charge. 

Mr. J. J. McNeill is still the agency clerk and performs his duties satisfactorily. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Indian Agent's Office, Treaty No. 6, 

Onion Lake, Alberta, 1st July, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report, tabular statement and 
inventory of Government property for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 


Composed of the following bands: — 

Seekaskootch No. 119 

Wee-mis-ti.coo-suea-wasis " 120 

Oo-kee-pow-hayo " 121 

Pus-kee-al-kee-win " 122 

Kee-hee-wins : " 123 

Kinoosayo (Chippewayan) ........ " 124 

Since my report of 30th June, 1891, the several bands of Indians under my 
charge have been steadily progressing towards civilization, they have no more sym- 
pathy for their old traditions and superstitions regarding the Pagan ceremonies 
which were so much trouble to the department in years gone by. Although the 
hunting Indians in the district held a sun dance a few miles from here this year, it 
is gratifying to learn that not a single one of the reserve Indians attended it. 

They are anxious to better themselves and are constantly improving their 
homes. Every house is now furnished with beds, tables and seats made by them- 
selves. They have also discarded their old form of dress, and every one of the 
Indians endeavour to dress as respectably as their limited means allow. 

Vital Statistics. 

I am glad to be able to state that although the district was visited with "la- 
grippe " last winter, not a single one of my Indians died from its effects ; some were 
pretty badly shaken up with the sickness, and it was difficult to make them take the 
medicine necessary. I found that a liberal supply of good beef tea quickly 
strengthened the invalids, and with a few of the simple remedies in my hands, I 
brought every one who was afflicted through safely, without the expense of calling 
in medical aid. 

I have on record for the year twenty-nine births and eighteen deaths; of the 
persons who died, eleven were children under five years, three old women who died 
from natural causes, two cases of heart disease and two cases of consumption of long 

Live Stock. 

I had all the cattle rounded up a short time before the 30th June, and the total 
number of animals in the hands of the Onion Lake Indians are as follows: — 

Cattle 324 

Natural increase from last year 76 

Sheep 29 

Pigs 41 

Horses 49 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Several of the families have now got eight, ten or twelve head of cattle, offspring 
of the Treaty animals loaned some years ago. The above figures do not include the 
cattle belonging to the Kinoosayo (Chippewayan) Band i24, which I shall show 
under the heading of " Band 124." 

The Indians always procure a good supply of hay during the summer months, 
which goes to show that they take an interest in their stock, by seeing that they are 
properly fed and cared for during the winter months, which accounts for the steady 
increase that has been brought under your notice from year to year. 

Work and Crops. 

During the 1891 haying season, the Onion Lake Band of Indians put up six 
hundred tons of hay for their own stock, in addition to nine hundred tons for the 
department herd. New stables were erected at Long Lake, where the herd was 
wintered (during the month of July, 1891), and in i he month of September, in addition 
to getting on with the fall-ploughing, a new Eoman Catholic school was erected, 
dimensions thirty by eighteen feet. This is an excellent building in every respect. 

A new office was also erected adjoining the new agency house, dimensions 
twenty by sixteen. 

The engine-room was clapboarded and ceiled, and the grist mill was also clap- 

The Onion Lake Indians have seeded during the spring of 1892, five hundred 
and sixty-five acres. 

1 am sorry that I have to report the grain yield of 1891 as being very poor in 
many instances. The grain, just as soon as it came above the ground, was scorched 
up and never grew afterwards, and the average shows about five bushels to the 
acre, saved. 

The root crop, however, was fairly good. 

From the quantity of grain saved three hundred and eighty-five bags flour were 
ground at the mill from it. 

The flour is a little darker than wheat flour, but it is a good wholesome article, 
and the Indians like it. 


Owing to the isolated position of the reserve, and that no white settlers are in 
the vicinity, there is no labour for the Indians, consequently they find it ve,ry hard 
when they are not able to earn a little money sometimes to meet the expense of a 
few luxuries dear to an Indian, such as tea and tobacco. 

The Indians do, however, make very good butter, they also manufacture straw 
hats and willow baskets for their own use. They make good serviceable articles. 


Both the Protestant and Eoman Catholic schools have been well attended during 
the year; although assiduity has been good the progress in English speaking has 
been slow. 


I am glad to say that the Indians attend their different places of worship 

Kinoosayo (Chippewayan) Band 124, Beaver River. 

As in former years this band of Indians have made their living almost wholly 
by the chase, and a fairly good living too. They are always well dressed, and are a 
respectable-looking lot of Indians. 

In a few cases where I found the families poor, I assisted them, and they gave 
labour in return for what they received. One of the Indians of this band is a trader 
and has personal property valued at about eight thousand dollars. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Live Stock. — This band have also a fine herd of stock, numbering as follows :— 

Cattle 210 

Horses, private property 50 

Wagons do ... 7 

Carts do 9 

Mowers do 1 

Rake horse do . 1 

Blackboards do 4 

School. — The school has been well attended during the year and the children 
have been making fairly good progress in English speaking. 

Vital Statistics. — The vital statistics show an increase in births over deaths of 
one. The health of band during past year has been exceptionally good. 


Live Stock. 

The department cattle now number four hundred and five head; horses, thirty- 
five; sheep, sixty; pigs, four. 

The animals wintered well and there has been no sickness of any kind amongst 
them. Additional stables will be erected at Long Lake during the summer for the 
natural increase of herd. 


During year a new Roman. Catholic school was erected, dimensions thirty by 
eighteen, a frame building, also an office twenty by sixteen, which is very commo- 
dious. There were various other improvements accomplished during the year, all 
done by the Indians without expense to department. 
Respectfully submitted. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Indian Agent's Office, Treaty No. 6, 

Saddle Lake, Alta., 23rd July, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to transmit herewith my report for the fiscal year 
ended 30th June, together with tabular statement and inventory of all Government 
property under my charge. 

Thomas Hunter's Reserve, Band No. 125. 

This band numbers ninety-seven persons, fifty-two males and forty-five females, 
of whom forty-three are adults and fifty-four children. With but a few exceptions, 
the heads of families are comfortably housed, have good sheds and stables for their 
stock and possess private property in horses, cattle, wagons and agricultural imple- 
ments. During the past year they have not only rcfenced their fields but have also 
inclosed a much greater acreage. These fences are better and more strongly built 
than heretofore and are sufficient to protect the growing grain from the inroads of 
the cattle. The results derived from their agricultural operations last year have 
greatly encouraged these Indians in their efforts to raise grain. The crop harvested, 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

though not a large one, was of good, sound, well-ripened grain, the wheat being 
equal to the best hard grade. A larger acreage has been put in this year, and pre- 
sent indications warrant the prospect of an abundant harvest. Several of the mem- 
bers of this and of the other bands, whose cattle are increasing in numbers, have 
purchased mowers and horse-rakes, as they found it beyond their power to put up 
sufficient hay with scythes alone. 

Wahsatanow Reserve, Band No. 126. 

The members of this band, who number twenty-seven, wintered at Wahsatanow 
and were rationed weekly at Victoria by C. N. Garson, Esq., J.P., who kindly volun- 
teered to gratuitously perform this service. When I visited this reserve in March 
last, I discovered that the hay put up by the band was entirely consumed and I had 
their cattle at once driven to Saddle Lake, where I had abundance of hay stacked, 
as I foresaw that the poor people of this band, of whom the majority are cripples, 
would be unable to cut sufficient to carry them through the entire winter. I am 
pleased to report that I have been successful in effecting the removal of the band 
from Wahsatanow to Saddle Lake, where I shall personally be able to lo )k after its 

Blue QuVVs Reserve, Band No. 127. 

This reserve adjoins that of Thomas Hunter and extends westerly to what are 
named the Rolling Hills. The band numbers sixty-three souls, the adults being to 
the children in the proportion of four to three. These Indians have displayed great 
industry during the past year, as their neatly-built new houses and the large and 
well-fenced fields testify. Unlike Thomas Hunter's Indians, they possess but little 
property of their own and about all the cattle in their possession are under the con- 
trol of the department. A fair crop has been put in this year and great attention is 
paid to the cultivation of a comparatively large root crop. Several new houses and 
stables are in the course of erection, and new fields are being fenced in and ploughed 
by young men beginning to work for themselves. During the winter about fifty 
thousand rails were cut and hauled and also a number of saw-logs, which were carted 
to the saw-mill on the Whitefish Lake Reserve. 

James Seenum's Reserve, Band No. 128. 

The Indians on this reserve, who number three hundred and seventeen souls, of 
whom one hundred and sixty-nine are adults, have under crop this year about two 
hundred acres. The success they met with last year in raising wheat has greatly 
encouraged them, and they express a determination to give greater attention to the 
cultivation of this and other cereals. During the winter they cut and hauled one 
thousand saw-logs, got out and drew the timber for a new building for the grist-mill, 
and cut about thirty thousand rails, with which they have refenced portions of their 
fields. The workshops on this reserve are good industrial schools, and Mr. Ingram, 
the instructor, is turning out among his Indians a number of fair mechanics. 

The new saw-mill, towards the purchase of which these Indians and those of the 
Saddle Lake Reserves subscribed the sum of three huudred dollars at the last annuity 
payments, will prove of immense benefit to all. And so soon as the saw-logs are 
turned into lumber, from which I expect one hundred thousand feet, considerable 
and needful improvements will be begun in the dwellings occupied by the Indians. 


Chippewayan Band, No. 131, Heart Lake. 

These Indians, who number seventy-two persons, received but little assistance 
during the past year. They appear to have had excellent catches of fur and they 
stored sufficient to cany them well through the winter. At the last annuity pay- 
ments I pointed out to them the benefits they would derive by removing to the 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Chippewayan Reserve at Cold Lake, and I informed them that, so long as they 
remained where they were, the department would consider them a self-supporting 
band and no further assistance would be given to them. They replied that they 
would remain at Heart Lake, but I feel certain that they will eventually be settled 
at Cold Lake by the continued diminution of their numbers caused by desertions of 
individual members and families moving thither from time to time. 

Beaver Lake Band, No. 131. 

These Indians appealed to me for assistance during the past winter. I forwarded 
supplies to P. Pruden, who is employed by the department to issue rations to the 
really destitute of the band during the winter months, and instructed him to employ 
the able-bodied men receiving assistance, at cutting shingles, and I sent him the 
necessary tools. The men flatly refused to work and all assistance was withheld, 
excepting to the sick and the infirm. I have again informed this band that they 
will receive no further help, beyond ammunition and twine, unless they remove to 
Saddle Lake, where they can be well looked after and instructed in farming and 
other useful operations. 

Health of the Bands. 

The health of the Indians generally all through the winter and spring months 
was far from good. An epidemic of influenza spread over the agency during April 
and May last and nearly every Indian on the Saddle Lake and Whitefish Lake 
Reserves was laid up and unable to work. In June the health of the different bands 
was excellent and at present there is no sickness of any moment. Since my last 
report there have been twenty-two deaths against twenty-three births, as follows : — 

Births. Deaths. 

Thomas Hunter's Band 3 6 

Wahsatanow 1 1 

Blue Quill's 5 

James Seenum's 14 15 


The live stock, both private and under control of department, are in excellent 
condition. They wintered well and disease among them is unknown. The yield of 
calves, so far, is very satisfactory and they are of a superior class, owing to the care 
with which the bulls have been selected and the conversion to steers of a number 
of young animals that had been allowed to run with the herds. No difficulty is 
experienced in getting the Indians to put up ample hay for the large number of 
cattle now on the reserves, as they are fully alive to the fact that their cattle must 
be well fed during the winter months and they display commendable zeal at their 
labour during the haying season. 


The schools in this agency now number five : two on James Seenum's Reserve 
and one on Thomas Hunter's Reserve, under the control of the Methodist Church ; 
one at Blue Quill's Reserve and one at Lac la Biche, under the direction of the 
Roman Catholic Church. 

The two schools on James Seenum's Reserve have had excellent teachers. The 
average attendance has been very good and the progress made by the pupils in 
English and its branches most gratifying. 

The school on Blue Quill's Reserve, which was opened last autumn, under the 
auspices of the Roman Catholic Church, has a really good teacher and the progress 
which the children have since made is satisfactory. 

The school at Lac la Biche is under the control of the Roman Catholic Mission 
established at that point and the children are taught many useful industries. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Buildings and Improvements. 

In addition to the work done by the Indians on their reserves, I have had 
several new buildings put by up them, viz., one large ration house, an implement 
shed and a cattle shed; also two fields, containing about six acres each, fenced in. 
In these fields I am raising oats and barley for the agency horses, and cattle and 
roots for distribution among the old and feeble members of the Saddle Lake Bands. 
The Indians are now evincing a decided disposition to work and to improve 
their condition. The difficulties I at first encountered are now almost overcome and 
they have become obedient and teachable ; are acquiring industrious habits and are 
fully aware that they must, like their white neighbours, struggle for a livelihood, as 
the easy methods of living by means of hunting and trapping no longer exist, as 
fur-bearing animals of all descriptions and game and even fish are decreasing so 
rapidly that few but the most experienced hunters have any success, and to gain 
this they must go far afield. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Indian Agent's Office, Peace Hills, 

Hollbroke P.O., 12th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit for your consideration my annual report and 
tabular statement, together with inventory of all Government property under my 
charge, and approximate value of same, for the year ended 30th June, 1892. r 

I am pleased not only to be able to report the Indians under my charge pro- 
gressing towards independence, but also marked changes in the observance of the 
Sabbath, and of morality. 

The women are improving in house work, butter-making and cleanliness. 

These Indians have cost the Government in flour, beef and bacon, less during 
the present fiscal year than they did during the preceding one, by twenty-two 
hundred and eighteen dollars and seventy-four cents, and this reduction has not 
been caused by them consuming a less quantity of provisions than they did during 
the previous year, for they have actually consumed more ; but by their efforts in 
trying to support themselves. 

During last winter they purchased a good deal of flour and bacon out of their 
own earnings, and in March last they took their first grist to mill, and returned home 
with two hundred and forty-nine bags of flour ; they were very pleased and said 
that they now saw, for the first time, that they could make their living out of the 
ground, and they have certainly worked better since than ever they did before. 

During the last fiscal year (1890-91) they seeded one hundred and twenty-six 
acres of wheat, one hundred and fifty-two acres of barley, forty-four acres of oats, 
and twenty-five acres of garden ; and during the present fiscal year (1891-92) they 
have seeded as follows : Three hundred and seventy-six acres of wheat, one hundred 
and twenty-nine acres of barley, seventy-three acres of oats, and thirty-one acres of 
garden ; and although they have seeded two hundred and sixty-two acres more this 
spring than they did last, they did the work in less time, and in a much better 
manner, and at the present time the crops promise to be much better than they 
were last year, but if the yield per acre is equal to last year, nearly all these 
Indians should have after threshing, an abundance of flour for the next twelve 

At the date of writing my last annual report we had three hundred and twenty- 
eight cattle, we now have four hundred and twenty-seven, an increase of ninety-nine. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 4. 1893 

Next year the Indians will furnish all the beef for the entire agency, no contract 
being called for beef. 

Last spring special services were held in the Catholic church here for about two 
weeks, resulting in many who had heretofore made no profession of Christianity 
uniting with that church, and several were married who had been living together 
for years ; also quite a number have been added to the Methodist church, and 
several who are the heads of families have been married. 

I am satisfied that to some extent our success in managing these Indians and 
their progress is due to the advancement they are making in Christianity, and the 
influence the missionaries have over them. 

Sunday horse-racing, gambling, and the "tom-tom" may be considered things 
of the past. 

This year the Indians all gathered on " Erminskin's " Eeserve, and celebrated 
the Queen's birthday ; they were joined by many of the surrounding settlers, and 
enjoyed the usual sports which white people engage in on such occasions. 

All the schools are progressing favourably. 

The health of the Indians during the past year has been fairly good. 

I cannot better show you the progress these Indians are making than by draw- 
ing your attention to the large reduction in the expenses of this agency, during the 
last two years, and the increase of work, especially the enlarging of their farms; 
also to the increase in cattle, from which you will see that another year or two, at 
the same rate of progress, should make this agency independent. 

No change has been made in employees during the year, all of whom have 
given good satisfaction. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Acting Indian Agent. 

Indian .Agency, Treaty No. 6, 

Edmonton, N.W.T., 30th June, 1802. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th 
June, 1892, together with tabular statement and inventory of Government property. 

Enoch's Band. 

This band during the past year has made fair progress in agriculture, and the 
crop threshed last fall gave a fair yield and was of good quality, the roots also 
were a success, more especially the potatoes. This spring the Indians have seeded 
eighty acres of wheat, seventy-five of oats, forty-five of barley, three of peas, four of 
turnips, five of buckwheat and four acres of gardens, all of which look very 
promising. There being a number of old and infirm people in this band, there was 
a good deal of sickness in the winter, as the weather at times was very severe and 
stormy; since spring, however, there has been little or no sickness. The stock were 
well attended to during the cold months, and are in very good order. 

I am glad to be able to report that both the schools on this reserve are making 
better progress than formerly under the management of the new teachers recently 
appointed! Mr. Welbourn being now in charge of the Presbyterian school, and Miss 
Latulippe, of the Roman Catholic school. 

Michel's Band. 

These Indians had a successful crop, and have seeded this spring sixty acres of 
wheat, twenty-five of oats, thirty of barley, two of peas, three of potatoes, two of 
turnips, two of buckwheat and three acres of garden. They have a large herd of 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

cattle which is well looked after. The health of this band has been very good, no 
deaths having occurred during the year. One of the daughters of the chief, who 
was educated at the Industrial School, High River, has been appointed teacher of 
the Roman Catholic school at Bear's Hiils. 

Alexander's Band. 

This band under the care and management, of Mr. O'Donnell, continues to make 
satisfactory progress in farming. As will be seen from the tabular statement, their 
crops gave a fair yield. This spring the Indians have seeded one hundred and 
eighty-nine acres of grain, and twelve of roots and gardens. Their cattle are well 
looked after and the increase is satisfactory. The school on this reserve continues 
to do good work. 

Joseph's Reserve. 

The Indians on this reserve continue to do a great deal of hunting, in which 
pursuit they were fairly successful, but they are gradually taking to farming, and 
were much pleased with the yoke of oxen lately given to them by the department, 
and although the acreage put under crop this year is small, I think that in another 
year we may look for better results. These Indians are healthy, and their cattle 
are all in good order. 

There is a large attendance at the school, and the children are getting on very 
nicely in their different studies. 

Paul's Reserve. 

A reserve for this band was surveyed by Mr. J. C. Nelson, D.L.S., in November 
last at White Whale Lake which pleased the Indians very much, and they are very 
proud of their reserve. This band is willing to work, and their desire to do so has 
received an impetus by the yoke of oxen given to them last spring by the depart- 
ment. This spring these Indians seeded thirty-two acres of grain and six of roots 
and gardens, besides breaking some new land. There has been but little sickness on 
this reserve during the past year. 

A school under the auspices of the Methodist Church is to be started this sum- 
mer on this reserve, being authorized some time ago by the department. 

St. Albert Industrial School. 

This school continues to be most successful, having a large attendance, and all 
the pupils are well advanced in their studies, some of them speaking both English 
and French quite fluently. The sisters of this institution are also to be commended 
for the manner in which the premises generally are kept, cleanliness and order 
always pervading throughout. 

At the agency several additions have been made to the buildings, the following 
having been erected this spring: an implement shed, ration house, and a summer 
kitchen for the agent's house. The buildings have also been repainted, which adds 
greatly to their appearance. With the exception of such special work as this, all 
the work at the agency is done by the employment of Indian labour. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Carlton Agency, 30th June, 1392. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report with tabular statement and 
inventory of Government property for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The treaty payments commenced at Green Lake on the 2nd September, and on 
my retain from that point, the Pelican Lake and Stonjr Lake Bands were paid at 
the Devil's Lake, where they were collected to meet me and receive their annuities. 
The bands of Mistawasis, Atakakoop, Petequakey and William Twatt, were paid on 
the 6th. 7th, 8th and 10th October*. 

The bands paid in September were nearly all vaccinated except some who were 
absent and could not attend the payments. 

The payments were conducted and concluded in a quiet and satisfactory manner. 

The following crops were raised on the reserves of Mistawasis. Atakakoop and 
Petequakey's : Four thousand five hundred and fifty-one bushels wheat, six hundred 
and fifty bushels oats, one thousand eight hundred and fifty bushels of barley and 
one thousand eight hundred bushels of potatoes, and with the exception of the 
widows and orphans and those disabled by age and sickness, the Indians of these 
bands have provided themselves with flour for the winter, and many have still had 
a little left at the end of the fiscal year. 

The grist-mill has been in operation from the beginning of January to the 4th 
of June, gristing for the Indians and a few outsiders. From the tolls of the latter 
we realized eight thousand pounds flour which was distributed to the destitute in the 
course of the summer. 

The Indians of Mistawasis, Atakakoop and Petequakey were employed during 
the winter in attending to their stock, hauling firewood for the grist-mill, besides 
taking from the bush two thousand five hundred saw-logs, of the latter eight hundred 
were sawn on Mistawasis's Eeserve, making a total of forty-four thousand feet one- 
inch and some dimension lumber. Out of this amount of lumber the toll taken was 
ten thousand feet which will be used as required for the purposes of the department. 

The Indians have sown much the same acreage as last year. At the present 
date the crops here appear to be much heavier than the average in the Prince 
Albert District. The chances of frost have, of course, to be taken into account. 

The schools of the agency have done good work, especially those of Sandy Lake 
and Mistawasis ; in the latter, under the able supervision of the Eev. F. O. Nichol, 
a remarkable improvement has been made, not only in the advancement of the 
pupils and their regularity of attendance, but also in cleanliness and discipline. 

The health of the Indians has been good, except that a number are suffering 
from scrofula which is the prevailing disease in some bands. 

The live stock of the agency are increasing and at this date are in good condi- 
tion. Some of the bands have as many as they can well attend to. 

In conclusion I have to state that the Indians are progressing towards supporting 
themselves, and since the saw-mill has been in operation some of them have built 
good houses, with shingle roofs, which add much to the comfort of the owners and to 
the appearance of the reserves. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent, 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Treaty No. 7, 

Sarcee Indian Agency, 22nd August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report on the affairs of this agency 
for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The crops on the Sarcee Reserve in 1891 were a total failure owing to drought; 
the hay crop was also badly affected, barely sufficient to winter the stock was 
secured. A few Indians went out hunting but did not remain away long. I have 
not yet succeeded in getting the Sarcees to take any interest in cattle but hope to 
do so eventually. 

The Sionys had a fair crop of potatoes ; herders were placed with their cattle 
and all strange cattle were driven off the reserve. During the summer the 
fence along the north boundary of the reserve was completed, this will materially 
assist the herders in keeping away strange cattle. 

The Stonys have put in a fair crop this year; they supplied their own seed, 
excepting turnip and onion seed. They are taking a keen interest in their stock 
and look after them well and willingly. 

The payments on both reserves were made without trouble and the money was 
wisely spent, chiefly in warm clothing. Immediately after the payments the Stonys 
departed for their hunting grounds, remaining away until Christmas, when they 
returned for supplies, the majority again left for the winter. The stock came 
through the winter well and without loss. 

Both tribes are working well and evince a desire to assist themselves when they 
can. A great improvement is noticed in their clothing and there is every prospect 
of the blanket being discontinued as an article of dress ; they are also becoming more 
cleanly in their habits. 

I regret to say "la grippe " visited both reserves twice during the winter: a few 
deaths occurred among the aged and infirm, otherwise the health of the Indians has 
been very good. 

The schools have been better attended than formerly, although it is difficult to 
compel the children to attend as the parents take very little interest in school 

A boarding school has been in successful operation since May on the Sarcee 
Reserve and pupils were obtained without difficulty. 

I have no reason to be dissatisfied with the progress made on these reserves last 

1 have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Blood Indian Agency, Treaty No. 7, 

District of Alberta, 29th July, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — In obedience to instructions I have the honour to report on matters in 
general connected with the Indians under my supervision. 

I took charge of this reserve on the 4th of February last from Mr. Pockling- 
ton, who was transferred to the Piegan Agency, my report will therefore only cover 
the last five months of the fiscal year. 

14— 12J 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The Blood Reserve is comprised of a tract of land lying between the Belly and 
St. Mary's Rivers, and extending south-westerly from the junction of these streams 
a distance of forty-five miles, and containing an area of five hundred and forty-seven 
square miles. 

The bottoms, or low alluvial flats bordering St. Mary's River, are, for the most 
part, of limited extent and only a few of these exceed three or four hundred acres 
in area. The Larger bottoms are found at Whoop-up and below Lee's Creek. The 
country is quite destitute of wood with the exception of clumps of berry-bearing 
shrubs on the northerly exposures of the hills, and a few straggling Cottonwood 
trees in the valley. Seams of coal varying in depth from two to four feet occur in 
some lofty banks of clay and sandstone about five miles to the south of Whoop-up. 
The quality of this coal is similar to that at Lethbridge. 

Along the Belly River the bottoms are generally good sized and fit for settle- 
ment. Small clumps of balm of Gilead and grey willow are met with, and on the 
northerly escarpments of the hills thorn and berry-bearing bushes are seen here and 

The interior of the reserve is an opon, undulating, dry plain. The soil is a clay 
loam, affording superior grazing. 

In the northerly part no lakes or ponds are found, and the coulees are this sum- 
mer almost all dry. In the southerly portion there are ponds and small creeks 
containing good water, the soil is rich in herbage, and as a grazing area the country 
could hardly be surpassed in excellence. 

The Indian settlements extend along Belly River from Fort Kipp to the 
Cochrane Ranch, a distance of forty miles south-westerly. 

The bottom lands already spoken of, in this part of the reserve, are suitable for 
cultivation, and a tract bordering the river is now being surve} 7 ed by Mr. John C. 
Nelson, an officer of the department, into eighty-acre subdivisions for allotment in 
severalty to Indians desirous of acquiring separate holdings. 

The population of the reserve on the 30th June last was one thousand six hun- 
dred and eighty-seven. 

There are four day schools on the reserve — three Episcopal and one Roman 
Catholic — and a girl's boarding school, or home, close to the reserve, conducted by 
the Church of England Missionary Society. 

One of the Episcopal schools — at Bull Horn's — has been vacant since the 31st 
March this year, when Mr. Hinchliff, the teacher, left to take charge of the Piegan 
Mission. Up to that time the progress of this school was most marked. 

Mr. Hillier, teacher of the Episcopal School" at Red Crow's village, was 
moved at the beginning of this year to a new school in Bull Shield's village, at first 
teaching in a small Indian log house, but a new school-house is now being 

A Mr. Robertson took the place of Mr. Hillier for three months from January to 
March, but at the end of March he was dismissed, the school remaining empty for 
the following quarter. 

The Church Missionary Society have secured the services of Mr. A. D. F. Mills, 
a University man, as school teacher at Bull' Horn's village, and a Mr. Herbert, a 
certificated teacher, for Red Crow's village. 

The Roman Catholic school is well conducted under the able management of 
the Rev. Father Legal. The school-house is a good frame building. 

The average attendance at the day schools is forty-four. 

The girl's boarding school, or home, had eleven pupils in it up to the 10th of 
May, when they left lor three weeks holidays, only seven of them returning at the 
end of that time, the remainder being away with their friends at the sun dance. 

Mr. Swainson, who is in charge of the Church of England Missionary Society's 
Mission here, tells me that they are about to enlarge the home and increase the staff 
sufficiently to allow them to take in twenty-five girls. 

The Indians worked well in their fields this spring until they got their crops 
in, which they succeeded in doing before the 25th of April, when we were visited 
by one of the worst snow storms I have ever seen in this part of the North-west. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

We have since had, however, such dry weather, with warm winds, that I fear their 
crops vvill be a partial, if not a total, failure. The Bloods during this storm lost 
about two hundred and fifty horses. 

The Blood Indians have been assembled for the last six weeks in one large 
camp preparatory to having their annual sun dance. 

I believe, and hope that this is the last sun dance these Indians intend to have. 

The health of the Indians has been fairly good. 

During the five months from 1st of February to the end of June, there have 
been twenty-four births and thirty deaths. 

On the evening of the 25th June I received a letter from Superintendent Steele, 
commanding the North-west Mounted Police at Fort Macleod, informing me that 
there was a case of small-pox in Macleod. I immediately took every precaution to 
prevent the disease getting among the Indians on the reserve, and I received every 
assistance and co-operation irom the North-west Mounted Police, and, I may say, 
from the Indians themselves. No white people are allowed on the reserve without 
permission, and the Indians have been warned not to leave it. 

Dr. G-irard, the Indian Department physician, at once vaccinated all Indians 
who required it, numbering two hundred and ninety-six. 

The behaviour of the Indians, on the whole, has been good. 
I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Blackfoot Agency, 

District op Alberta, 16th August, 1802. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my tabular statement and inventory 
of Government property under my charge in this agency for the year ended 30th 
June, 1892. 

The crops raised on this reserve were not very good, with the exception of 
potatoes, the climate and soil not being adapted to successful grain farming, except 
in certain districts, and when the land is richly fertilized and the best implements 
used in puttingin the grain. The crop harvested was : Potatoes, three thousand four 
hundred and eighty-five bushels; oats, one hundred and thirty-six bushels. 

The Indians worked well and fenced their land properly; they used oxen in 
most cases, and have become very fond of them, using them in hauling coal, hay, 
logs, and in breaking new land. A few of the Indians have put up good houses with 
shingle roofs, at their own expense ; others are going to follow their example; each 
house will have either a chimney and fireplace or a ventilator. The Indians are also 
wishing to own property; lately one Indian bought a new wagon which he is paying 
for at the rate of eight dollars per month, all he earns ; another purchased a mower 
with the proceeds from the sale of hay. 

I have been trying to induce them to exchange some of their numerous ponies 
for heifers, and think a commencement can be made this year; the Indian Commis- 
sioner on every visit here also explaining to them the great advantages they will 
gain by doing so. 

I have at present one of the pupils of the Industrial School (Dunbow) here as 
teamster, and one working as carpenter on the reserve. 

The agency buildings have all been repainted and repaired, they present a very 
neat appearance, and are very comfortable in every way. 

Treaty payments passed off quietly; the police escort, as usual, assisted in keep- 
ing good order. 

During the year there were twenty-three births and fifty-two deaths recorded, 
deaths mostly of consumption and scrofula. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 4. 1893 

Head Chief " Three Bulls," brother of " Crowfoot," also died. The monument 
sent by the department will be placed over the graves of the brothers. The Indians 
appreciate the honour done to Crowfoot. The Indians heard with regret of the 
death of Sir John A. Macdonald, as they considered him and the Hon. E. Dewdney 
two of their best friends. 

The sun dance passed off very quietly, there being no torturing done, and there- 
fore not much interest was taken in it. 

There were one hundred and sixty-three Indians vaccinated during the year, 
and on the report of the small-pox appearing at Calgary, 1 sent for a new supply of 
vaccine to use on those who had not already undergone the operation. 

Coal was shipped from here for the supply of High Eiver Industrial School, 
Industrial School at Regina, Sarcee Reserve, and for use on this reserve; the mining 
and hauling was done by Indians, with the exception of one white practical miner. 

There were very few arrests of Indians during the year; the offences were not 

A timber limit has been located at Castle Mountain, but the Indians here seem 
to think it is too far away. I explained it was the only available timber to be had. 

A number of Indian ponies have been killed by the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
which is the northern boundary of the reserve, but now the company are building 
fences along the line, which will prevent that in future. During a blizzard this 
spring the Indians suffered considerable loss in their ponies, losing about sixty head, 
mostly colts. 

The new boarding school at the North Reserve has been finished, and will 
accommodate twenty-five or thirty children, being under the control of the Rev. Mr. 
Tims. I think it will be a success, much more so than day schools. At present 
there are three day schools ; the attendance is rather irregular, as the Indians move 
about a great deal during the summer months for berries and new feed for their 
horses, which takes the children away from the vicinity of the schools. There is a 
new day school about finished at Eagle Rib's village, and one likely to be built soon 
at Three Bulls' village. 

The Indians have improved their houses, worked more cheerfully, taken more 
interest in their fences and general surroundings ; they also staying more on the 
reserve than formerly. 

The reserve was visited frequently by the Indian Commissioner and the Assist- 
ant Commissioner, twice by Inspector McGibbon and frequently by Dr. Lindsay. 

The employees have assisted me in every way, and thoroughly understand their 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Piegan Agency, Treaty No. 7, 

Macleod, Alberta, 18th July, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs. 

Sir, — I have the honour to report on the fiscal year 1891-92. 

So soon as the Indians had finished putting in their crops they formed two camps 
and began preparations for the sun dance. This was a very miserable spectacle, 
the dance proper only lasting two and a half days. 

Unlike previous years, I had little difficulty in getting the Indians to look after 
potatoes and gardens. The latter, however, proved a total failure, the seeds being 
eaten as quickly as they sprouted, by the cutworm and other insects. 

The cutworm also played havoc amongst the oats. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

About this time potatoes were withering for lack of moisture, but a plentiful 
rain gave them renewed life. 

In the middle of July I started haying operations, and found the method adopted 
last year had acted so well that I had no difficulty in getting Indians to work, those 
few having machines contracted to put up hay for the beef contractor and others, 
while several others worked on shares with white ranchers adjacent to the reserve, 
thus giving work to many hands. 

Chief " Old Moon" had the misfortune to badly smash his old machine, but he 
had sufficient hay cut to warrant the purchase of a new machine, which he ultimately 
paid for. 

" Eagle Shoe" cut on shares for a white man, and from the proceeds of the sale 
of his share of hay, purchased a wagon and set of double harness, besides having 
a small stack for his own use. 

"Bull Shield " put up hay for himself and had some for sale, realizing a good 
price for it. 

"Thunder Chief" cut with a machine which I loaned him, but he did not do 
nearly so well as the others. 

"Running Crane" purchased a machine and rake, paying for it partly in cash 
he had earned by supplying some house logs to the department for a school, and 
the balance from the proceeds of his hay. This man started late but did well. 

"Heavy Gun " owns a machine, putting up hay for his own use. 

The above-mentioned Indians employed others, paying them mostly in cash. 

I must not omit to mention that these owners of machines used their own stock. 
Where the grass was not too thick the ponies did very well, but coming in contact 
with the heavier kinds of grass they were scarcely heavy enough to do good work. 

I visited the different hay camps frequently, always finding them at work, giving 
satisfaction to their employees. 

On the 17th August we commenced cutting the grain, which turned out an 
excellent crop in quality, if not in quantity, the cutting being done chiefly with 
scythes, cradles and sickles. I find the Indians experience considerable difficulty in 
using the cradle. They somehow cannot master the proper swing necessary to make 
the work less laborious. 

Nearly all the grain was gathered, tied and stooked, the women and children 
doing this work. 

So soon as the cutting was finished the grain was threshed with flails, brought 
to the agency in sacks, put through the fanning-mill and thoroughly cleaned. The 
Indians stored ample seed, after which permission was given to sell the surplus. 

Our crop coming in early, we were the first in the market, and consequently 
secured top price. 

One merchant who bought largely remarked that ours were the cleanest oats 
ever put on the Macleod market. 

I weighed several bushels and found the best weighed forty-six pounds, and the 
worst forty pounds per bushel. 

The potato crop though not so large as anticipated, turned out fairly well, the 
tubers were well grown, clean and dry. We secured ample seed for next spring. 
The market price being exceptionally low, I prevailed upon the Indians to eat 
their potatoes rather than sell at so low a price. During the winter when visiting 
their houses, I noticed in nearly every case a pot of potatoes on the stove cooking. 
The amount of the crop harvested was: — Home Farm, one thousand one hundred 
and forty-four bushels oats; Indians, two thousand five hundred and forty-three 
bushels oats and one thousand eight hundred and thirteen bushels potatoes; gardens 
total failure. There was also put up ninety-eight tons of first-class hay. 

" Heavy Gun " having located at the coal bank on the St. Mary's River, and 
beiug desirous of trying his hand again as a miner, I was instructed by the Indian 
Commissioner to contract with him to deliver one hundred tons of coal for use at 
the agency. This was rather a big undertaking for an Indian ; however, he went at it 
with a will, and mined the coal far better than was expected. He engaged Indians 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

to do the freighting with their ponies, but it was very soon evident that they could 
not pull a load up the hill, which is rather steep ; I therefore loaned them work oxen, 
when t he coal came in regularly and quickly, averaging about fourteen tons per week ; 
and when it is known that the round trip is upwards of forty miles, it will readily 
be seen that no time was wasted. 

Having finished his contract satisfactorily, the same Indian mined twelve tons 
of coal free for the schools. He also delivered coal for the Church of England Mission. 

It being reported that trespassers were cutting logs on the Blood Indian timber 
limit, and that the lines of the limit were not well defined, I made a trip to the Belly 
River canon to ascertain if there were any truth in the report. I am pleased to 
say there was none. 

As I was with Mr. JNelson, D.L.S., when he surveyed the limit I could not credit 
the report. I accordingly inspected it and found the first corner post on the bank of 
the river, the next on the top of Council Hill (so named by " Eed Crow"). I then 
followed the blaze which is wide enough for a team to travel through, and have no 
hesitation in stating that a mistake cannot possible be made, unless intentionally. 

In October an Indian named " Steele " shot at a Mounted Policeman while in 
the execution of his duty, the policeman's comrade returned the fire, his shot taking 
effect in " Steele's " chest, passing through his lungs. I visited " Eed Crow " and 
others but found no excitement. I also visited the wounded Indian, taking his state- 
ment of the affair down. He stated that the police fired first, but as I knew the police- 
men well, and knew them to be steady, reliable men, I put no credence in his story. 
11 Steele "' had a hard time of it, and in due course was arrested, convicted and com- 
mitted to prison, the other Indians being perfectly indifferent. 

Four young Bloods were sentenced south of the boundary line to eight years' 
imprisonment for horse-stealing in that country. 

The annuity payments were made in an orderly manner, the number paid being 
one thousand and seventy-one, or two less than the previous year. The Indians spent 
their money well, purchasing furniture, stoves, lamps, coal oil, clothing, &c. 

My thanks are due to Major Steele, North-west Mounted Police, for escorts 
during the payments, and I must here state that I have received every assistance 
from the members of the Mounted Police whenever called upon, and that I have 
worked in accord with the officers commanding in the district. 

I regret that I cannot report favourably on the different day schools in opera- 
tion on this reserve. I cannot see any, or scarcely any real progress made: this is 
not due to any laxity on the part of the teachers, as I have always found them 
energetic, but rather to the want of interest taken by the Indians in not sending 
their children to school, the attendance is most irregular, there are perhaps an odd 
exception here and there, but even these cannot be called regular attendants. I have 
remonstrated again and again with parents, they promised to send their children, 
but the fact remains they do not attend as they should. 

The boarding school under the supervision of Mr. Swainson, will, I think, show 
good results in future ; the children are clean, neatly dressed, well fed and are 
apparently very happy and contented. 

Many new houses have been erected during the year, which are decided improve- 
ments on former ones. The Bloods are capital builders, some of them putting up 
a log house as well as the average white man. 

Taken on the whole I can safely say that the twelve months just passed have 
been progressive, perhaps not so much so as might be desired; yet the Indians are 
better behaved, there has been less crime, more young men have taken to work, 
they have in many cases given up the blanket for the white man's dress, their 
houses are better built, more roomy and in instances well furnished and kept clean. 

There is also improvement in their health, as instance the death rate being 
lower than in former years. 

In December, I was instructed to proceed to the Piegan Agency, and take over 
all Government property from Mr. A. R. Springett, who had resigned his position, 
and to install myself in his place. As 1 have only been in charge of this reserve six 
months, I cannot give an extensive report. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The weather being fine during the winter months, the Indians were busy 
getting out house logs, fence posts and rails, building houses, stables, and repairing 
fences, also cleaning up around their houses. 

On the 17th April we got some ploughs started, but at first the Piegans did not 
take hold with their accustomed spirit, but after a good deal of coaxing we got all 
the ploughs going, the work being well done. Ploughing operations continued on 
a long time, the ground being dry and hard. We would have slight snow storms, 
but not sufficient to help the land much, until tne latter end of April, when we were 
visited by the worst blizzard I ever saw, lasting for forty hours. The snow on the 
prairie laid to a depth of two feet, and remained on the land over a week. This put 
a stop to seeding operations, but thoroughly soaked the land. The storm proved 
disastrous to cattle and horses. These Indians lost eighty head of horses. So soon 
as possible, we got the Indians at work again, finally finishing seeding late in May. 

In April the engineers of the Calgary and Edmonton Railroad reached the 
reserve, locating their line. I took occasion to have a talk with the Indians, 
requesting them not to interfere with the surveyors' stakes. I pointed out the 
benefits likely to result from having the road near them. " Crow Eagle," head 
chief, spoke well, saying he was pleased to see the railroad coming, but would 
expect to be paid for any land the company would take. 

Last autumn the late agent issued the work oxen to individual Indians, who 
take good care of them, proving to be a wise step. The oxen, being well broken, 
the Indians handle them capitally, and loan them to their less fortunate 

Some few Indians have small herds of cattle. These are doing well, and being 
herded, give good returns. It is satisfactory to state that with one exception the 
loss by the storm was very light. Many Indians not having cattle are desirous of 
obtaining some, and would exchange ponies for stock, as they see how well others 
are succeeding. 

During June I prevailed upon some Indians to go to the timber and whip-saw 
lumber. I visited them and found some of the lumber excellent. This especially 
applies to " Commodore," who does really good work. A number are getting out 
logs, posts and rails. 

A case of small-pox having been reported from Macleod, I urged the Indians 
not to leave their reserve and took precautions to prevent the disease getting 
amongst them. The Indians are well scared, and will, I think, do what I wish them, 
as many of them remember how the small-pox epidemic of twenty years ago 
decimated them. 

The Indians are now in one large encampment preparatory to their sun dance, 
and are, I think, safer under canvas than they would be in their houses. 

My time with these Indians has been so short that I know next to nothing of 
them. I find them amenable to reason, and as a rule civil and ready to listen to 

When I look back seven years and remember what they were then, I can readily 
see that under the careful and energetic control of the late agent, Mr. Springett, 
their progress has been rapid. Everything tends to show that there has been care- 
ful supervision, and in this instance praise is due the late foreman, Mr. Smith, whom 
I regret to say resigned his position at the end of the fiscal year. 

There are two schools in operation here, and as at the Blood Reserve the same 
trouble as to irregular attendance applies, making the teachers' work arduous and 
disheartening. The teachers at these schools are painstaking and earnest, and are 
thoroughly conversant with the language. 

• The employees here and at the Bloods have rendered me every assistance in 
carrying out the duties of the reserves. 

The Piegans are reported as being fairly healthy. 

Tabulated statement and inventories accompany this report. 
I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agenf. 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Regina, 5th July, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superinteudent-G-eneral of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to make my annual report on the inspection of Pro- 
testant Indian schools in the North-west Territories, Manitoba and Keewatin, 
covering the period between 21st August, 1891, and ihe present date. 

Daring that period four industrial, twelve boarding and fifty-two day schools 
were visited, making a total of sixty-eight ; reports on all these, excepting a few 
found closed, were furnished to the Indian Commissioner, much information was, as 
usual, gathered and disseminated ; the course of study was amended and enlarged 
and a short manual was prepared to accord with and simplify it. The last work 
was greatly needed, it was done with the valuable assistance ot my Roman Catholic 
coadjutor and it is hoped may prove to be useful. 

Eighteen schools were inspected in the Manitoba Superintendency ; the orders 
received for work in this part of my inspectorate wisely lett me discretion as to the 
points to be visited. In this superintendency the schools, generally speaking, need 
much attention and some little expenditure' to put them into proper order. The 
causes of their present condition are so well stated by Mr. Inspector McColl in his 
last annual report that it will be quite needless to recapitulate them ; but now that 
the Indians are becoming settled, have permanent reserves allotted and evince a 
greater interest in education, there is no doubt that extensive changes are required. 
With this view Mr. Inspector McColl is in agreement. It is a fortunate matter that 
this officer who within his superintendency acts as superintendent of Indian schools 
is instinct with high educational aims and in harmony with the opinion that changes 
in line with advanced thought should be brought about. 

The course of study of the department which is most needed by the poorest 
teachers is very little used in this province where so many need its guidance and 
they are, further, without many instructions which have been beneficial in the North- 
west Territories. A codification of such instructions is suggested and if made it 
will be of particular benefit to Manitoba. In connection with the schools of this 
superintendency it should be remembered, that most of those visited were under 
special inspection for the first time and had not therefore had any such enlarged 
directions about the curriculum and departmental aims as I did not fail to leave 
them on the occasion of my visits. Incidentally it may be mentioned that one of 
the most sensioly conducted schools was found at the " Big Eddy," under the Pas 
Mission, where the Rev. Mr. Hines lends his great energy to educational improve- 
ment and the teacher works in accord with' the common-sense curriculum which the 
department has adopted and declared to be ''standard." 

A most regrettable decadence of interest in education appears to have set in 
amongst the Indians of St. Peter's Reserve. Schools which were formerly well 
attended have now few pupils. I made a special report on this matter to the Indian 
Commissioner after going into the matter very carefully with the local agent and 
chief; it was found that a very considerable increase of the means of education and 
of the expenditure upon schools, had met with no commensurable educational 
results; that attendance had hardly increased, or not increased at all, and that in 
proportion to the means employed there was a serious falling off in attendances and 
attainments. As a council was pending, Mr. Indian Agent Muckle and myself 
worked out the points that it seemed desirable should be dealt with by the corporate 
authority of the band in order to bring pressure to bear on parents who lacked 
interest in their children's welfare. There are two institutions in the Manitoba 
Superintendency to which it would be improper not to give special notice, viz., the 
Rupert's Land Industrial School and the Little Sioux Boarding School at Portage la 
Prairie. On a very different scale, under widely diverse circumstances, most excel- 
lent work of the same sort is being done in these two institutions. The first has 
many pupils, good buildings and conveniences, is well furnished, has a well appointed 
staff, and in both proper habits of life and thought are being formed, the moral 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

faculties are being developed, common sense is present, pedantic aims absent and 
characters are being formed which can hardly fail to reflect credit upon those to 
whom the important responsibility of forming them is intrusted. The Eev. Mr. 
Burman of the one and the lady principal of the other may be congratulated upon 
their successes. 

In the North-west Territories some very marked improvements are visible ; the 
untiring zeal of the Indian Commissioner and the Assistant Indian Commissioner 
enabled them in the midst of their multifarious duties to issue numerous instructions 
governing the relationship of the schools to the department. I have respectfully 
recommended the codification of these, as they have become so many and stretch 
over such a lapse of time that a large number of teachers are without them and lose 
those benefits which might be derived from their possession. 

There continues to be some improvement in school-houses and their appoint- 
ments ; step by step proper school conveniences are being obtained and the service 
is generally improving. I have hopes that a change of sentiment in regard to 
industrial schools has appeared and is affecting them beneficially. There is not now 
the same tendency as naturally existed at their inception to fill these institutions 
with pupils; instruction that did not always conform to later ideas of education is 
gradually disappearing. Many difficulties stood in the way of uprooting old ideas, 
but they are being overcome. The manual referred to in the second paragraph of 
this report has been prepared with the especial view of suggesting wiser and better 
ideas to teachers than those which have directed many heretofore. It is hoped it 
will be effective to that end as it embodies the experience of very successful 

The teaching staff improves from year to year, but it seems to be a well recog- 
nized fact that many inefficient teachers remain in the service; whilst a much felt 
want is that of properly trained teachers, the present position might still be much 
improved by disseminating amongst the schools wider and truer ideas of education 
than they now possess. Consequently accepting the position as it is, recom- 
mendations have been made that elementary handbooks of a useful sort should be 
issued to teachers. The expense would be small and the probable advantages be 
more than commensurate to it. 

Here may be noticed the action of the Presbyterian Church authorities in 
engaging trained teachers for their schools. The results have been most excellent, 
and demonstrate forcibly and quite conclusively the wisdom of the action. One of 
these teachers carries off the first of seven bonuses by one year's work in a school 
which had been most unsuccessfully conducted for many years, and in which many 
bad habits existed. I refer to Miss Cameron, of Okanase Eeserve, Riding Mountain. 
Several other teachers engaged in the boarding schools of this church take front 
rank amongst the Indian educationists of this country, standing firmly in earnest- 
ness and ability on that level which it is so desirable that all teachers should 

Mrs. Tucker, teacher of an assisted Methodist school at the Moose Woods, also 
a trained teacher, has achieved eminent success, and Mr. Seymour, Atakakoop's 
Eeserve ; Miss Wilson, John Smith's Eeserve ; Eev. Mr. Cunliffe, the Key's Eeserve, 
and a few others deserve mention as most painstaking, earnest teachers who are 
performing good work. It is gratifying to find that an increased number of pupils 
is shown by the returns of nearly all schools, still there are parts of the Territories 
in which little advancement has been made, notably those lying in the south-west. 
Here much more exertion is necessary than has yet been called into play, more 
especially as it is amongst the tribes inhabiting this district that ignorance of 
civilized ideas and modes of life is most decidedly pronounced, that paganism holds 
its sway, and that the native race is most entirely dependent upon State aid for its 

A want is still felt in regard to text books, a series of reading books adapted to 
the understanding of pupils who are learning the language in which they read con- 
currently with reading itself is much needed. The topics of a series that would be 
suitable are quite different to those of the ordinary ones in use in " English " schools, 
and year by year this comes to be more clearly felt by our best teachers. A text 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

book for " English " would be of great value, especially to such teachers as find it 
difficult to originate wisely chosen lessons. Another for ''Geography" of a much 
more elementary type than anything we now have and prepared on the "synthetic " 
plan in its first stages would be very useful. 

In boarding and industrial schools hygienic conditions are now better observed. 
On the whole every care seems to be taken of pupils, and their food and clothing 
come up to a proper mark. I may again mention that an extension of school facili- 
ties and a further organization of educational effort will have to be provided for 
before all Indian children can be brought under school influences. 

During the year I have, with some closeness, gone into an analysis of the senti- 
ment against education which has been found in the Indian tribes; antagonism, not 
apathy, is referred to here. It appears to be quite true that Indians who are con- 
verted to Christianity are wanting in this spirit of antagonism, whilst those who are 
still pagan in profession or spirit entertain it. Starting from this point plenty of 
grounds are discovered for the belief that the latter rest their objections upon the 
feeling that the school and church are allied and that it is adherence to the " faith 
of their fathers" which gives rise to unwillingness to send their children to the 
school-house, they believing, rightly or wrongly, that school attendance is a step 
towards conversion to the faith of that denomination which controls the school, and 
no doubt such is the case as the usefulness of schools in mission work goes to show. 
Church successes promote school attendances and school attendance contributes to 
church success; but perhaps the alliance prevents the education of many heathen 
children, who if educated under circumstances unobjectionable to their parents might 
be evangelized in greater numbers and at a greater rate. Indeed it becomes a 
question as to whether education or religion is more acceptable to the pagan, and 
there seems to be abundant evidence to show that he will most readily accept the 
first. (The word -'education" as used here means "secular" education.) 

There is much to show that what has been spent in the past on Indian educa- 
tion in this country has not been wasted, but that on the contrary it is bearing good 
fruit, and I have much pleasure in reiterating the assurances of past years as to 
this. Pessimists are always to be found, but to the unprejudiced mind the liberal 
policy of your department must commend itself. 

Eespectfully submitting this report, 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Inspector of Protestant Indian Schools 

for N.W.T., Manitoba and Keewatin. 

Eegina, Assa., 22nd July, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit the following annual report of the inspections 
I have made during the fiscal year 1891-92. 

Manitoba Superintendency. 
manito-wapaw agency. 

In the early part of July, 1891, upon receipt of the Indian Commissioner's 
instructions, I proceeded to inspect the Eoman Catholic schools in the Manitoba 
Superintendency and first availed myself of the opportunity of the Indian agent 
visiting the reserves of Manito-wapaw Agency for the annual treat}' payments, to 
inspect the schools of that agency in his company. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Dog Creek Reserve — Ebb and Flow Reserve. 

Mr. Indian Agent Martineau, when I arrived at Westbourne, had already left the 
south part of Lake Manitoba, on his way to Fairford, being through that part of his 
agency. The school at Dog Creek was consequently closed, as it is every year, for 
summer holidays, immediately after the payments, and I could not inspect it. That 
at Ebb and Flow had not yet been opened, the teacher appointed not having yet 
arrived. I accordingly proceeded to Fairford, there to meet the Indian agent. I 
met him at Lake St. Martin's and after getting through the payments there we went 
back to Fairford, from thence to Crane River and arrived at the Water Hen Reserve 
on the 27th of July. 

Water Hen Reserve. 

This school I inspected on the 28th of July. 

There were twenty-eight children present, including a few not belonging to the 
treaty. For the whole of the preceding year the attendance had been about seventy 
per cent of the total number of pupils enrolled. The parents seldom go away from 
the reserve and the attendance is not interfered much thereby. 

Out of the total number of marks obtainable in the examination, the whole of 
the school gained an average of eighty-one per cent. The advancement had been 
even in the various standards in all subjects. The grading of the pupils was quite 
satisfactory and the programme of studies closely followed. 

Mr. J. H. Adam is fully qualified as a teacher and having been at this school for 
several years has a thorough knowledge of the children's characters, aptitudes, &c. 
I was sorry to learn that he had almost made up his mind to give up school work on 
account of the smallness of the salary. He then agreed to remain for some time to 
come upon my promising to recommend him for an increase of salary, subject, of 
course, to the approval of the department, which I did shortly afterwards in my 
special report. His loss would be sorely felt. 

The register was well kept. 

The building was very poor, although comparatively large sums have been 
spent on it; but this school is so far away from any large centre and the communi- 
cations so expensive that the cost of transport of material is hardly less than 
original cost, perhaps greater. Repairs on this building are about useless, and as 
recommended in my special report an altogether new building is wanted. This 
school having been one of the best in the superinteudency for years would justify 
this step. 

The furniture was of the worst kind ; a great deal of stationery was wanted, 
also stove pipes, window glasses, &c. 

Water Hen Boarding. 

Five boarders were kept here, all female. They attend the day school during 
class hours and are for the rest of the time under Mrs. Adam's care. 

They were well clothed and fed. They had progressed very much, were attend- 
ing to multifarious duties in and around the school-house and learning to sew, cook, 

These boarders were selected from among the children living in the remotest 
parts of the reserve. 

Pine Greek Reserve. 

We left Water Hen Reserve on the 29th and reached Pine Creek on the 31st. 
I inspected the school on the day of my arrival. 

There were thirty-six children presented for examination, including few 
children not belonging to the treaty. Twenty-three altogether belong to this. The 
average attendance for the preceding year had been sixty-eight per cent of the 
possible. As in the case of Water Hen, the parents do not often leave the reserve 
and the attendance is not interfered with thereby. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Out of the total number of marks obtainable in the examination, a percentage of 
sixty-rive as an average was made by the school — a tolerably good aveiage, if not as 
satisfactory as at Water Hen. 

Rev. Father Dupcnt teaches here, assisted by Eev. Father Magnan. The 
department's programme of studies has been followed more closely than in pre- 
ceding years. The English language had been taught for only about a year, and 
considerable progress had been made. 

The school furniture was not what it should have been. The little that there 
was did not belong to the department. 

There in no school-house here, and school is taught at the Eoman Catholic Mis- 
sion. It had been finally decided to have a school-house built shortly after my 
visit, the erection of it having been postponed from time to time for several years 
for various reasons. 

A considerable lot of stationery was required. 

Pine Creek Boarding. 

Several boarders had been kept here, but the boarding school had just been 
closed. This was expected to be placed under the care of the Eeverend Sisters of 
Charity, and it had been decided to have it closed in the meantime to prepare a 
proper residence for the Sisters. 

This concluded my trip in this agency. It took several days to return to West- 
bourne, from whence I proceeded to Winnipeg. 

Although not instructed to visit the St. Boniface Industrial School, which I had 
inspected during the preceding spring, I visited the boys' section of the school upon 
the request of His Grace the Archbishop of St. Boniface. 

St. Boniface Industrial School. 

I limited this visit to the inspection of the buildings. A new recreation room 
had been built entirely detached from the main building. Besides being of a suffi- 
cient size, and having a proper number of windows and supply of air and light, it 
was further provided with conveniences for hats and coats, had game tables, places 
to keep such games conveniently, &c. This building allowed of more room to be 
disposed of in the main building which has been turned into the outer part of the 

The main building is now about adequate to the necessities of the boys' section 
of the school. It has a large dining-room and kitchen, large linen and washing 
rooms, a remarkably good dormitory, comfortable class-rooms, besides the usual 
necessary rooms for the sisters, chaplain, &c, and drawing-room. 

The furniture was quite good as a rule ; remarkably so, considering the short 
time since which the school has been in operation. 

The whole place was kept scrupulously clean. 

The children were preparing for a little evening celebration, and not wishing to 
disturb the Eeverend Sisters, I postponed an examination to a further visit which I 
have not yet been requested to make. I then left for Eat Portage. 


Grassy Narrows Reserve. 

From Eat Portage I proceeded to the Grassy Narrows Eeserve on the English 
River, and arrived on the 23rd of August, and inspected the school on the 24th. 

Eight children were present. This was a small number enough, there being 
forty-five names on the roll and most of these being able to attend. The average 
attendance for the next preceding seven months had not exceeded eleven, being 
twenty-five per cent only of the possible attendance. 

There had been a recent change of teacher, when Mr. Christian Dahm, formerly 
of Standing Buffalo's Reserve, Muscowpetung Agency, was appointed. When I 
arrived here, Mr. Dahm had been working for only four weeks and had not had 
time to do much yet. I knew him beforehand, however, as a good teacher. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Before his coming the register had been kept very badly, no attention paid to 
induce the children to attend, no care in following the programme. Some stationery 
was wanted. 

A new building had recently been built for school purposes by the Roman 
Catholic Mission. This was large and very little was left to be done to have it 

A stove had been requisitioned for. The furniture was satisfactory for the stage 
attained by the school. 

The teaching had to be started fresh from the beginning. The children were 
poorly clad, as is often the case on the Manitoba reserves. 

1 left on the next day on my way to Hat Portage, and arrived there on the 26th. 


White fish Bay Reserve. 

I arrived here on the 27th and inspected the school on the 28th, or at least did 
what was possible to do under the circumstances. 

No children were present. It was during treaty payments' time, made, curiously 
enough, somewhere else, instead of on this reserve, and the children were away. 
Twenty-one children, eighty-four per cent of the whole of those on the reserve, were 
enrolled and the attendance since the opening of the school, about eight months, had 
not exceeded forty-eight per cent of what it might have been. The attendance is 
reported fair as a rule, but during bad weather the children cannot cross the bay; 
treaty payments, berry and rice picking also interfere in summer. 

Although not of the proper kind, the furniture is adequate to the wants at this 
stage of the school. Some stationery was wanted. 

Mr. W. G-. Gow, formerly teacher in the Pas Agency, and who has had some 
experience in this line, has charge of this school. 

The house is new, but although it is supposed to have cost two hundred and 
fifty dollars it is a cold and hardly finished place. The iumber used was not properly 

It was the first time I inspected this school, it having been in operation for only 
eight months. Through the absence of the pupils I could not judge of the progress. 

I left for Rat Portage on the same day and arrived on the 29th. On the 31st 1 
left on a steam-boat for Fort Francis and through accidents of various nature we only 
got there on the 5th of September. 


Coutcheching Reserve. 

This school I inspected on the 6th of September. 

Twenty-six children were present out of forty Treaty Indians and Half-breeds. 
Forty are enrolled. The attendance is fair, except during the rice and berry picking 
seasons. The Indians speaking all the French language, here, prefer it, although only 
the English language is taught in the school. 

The examination gave as a result the obtaining by the whole of the school of an 
average percentage of seventy per cent of the possible number of marks obtainable. 

Some stationery was wanted as well as much more adequate furniture ; that at 
the school was about as unfit as possible for the purpose. 

Mr. Fitzpatrick teaches here. 

The school-house is not very good ; the roof was in great need of being made 
water- tight. 

The school work here has been as a rule carried on satisfactorily. 

We left Fort Francis on the 6th of September, arrived at Rat Portage on the 
9th, where I took the west bound train on the 10th. I stopped at Selkirk East, 
drove to West Selkirk, and from thence to Pequis, on St. Peter's Reserve. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 


St. Peter's Reserve, Pequis School. 

Eleven children were present at the examination. There are twenty-one in this 
part of the reserve. Sixteen are enrolled and the attendance for the three preceding 
quarters had reached an average of thirty-three per cent of those enrolled. That is 
rather small and the irregularity is due to the proximity of this school to Selkirk 
(where the children often go), to illness, and also to berry gathering. The average 
number of marks obtained was sixty-six per cent of the whole, which is satisfactory. 

The furniture was bad and some stationery was wanted ; also a stove. 

Miss Chevrefils has taught here several years and does it fairly well. 

The building is far from being good and looks specially bad when compared to 
another one in the vicinity which has at least better appearance if nothing else. 

Clandeboye School. 

I drove to this school on the 12th and inspected it on the same day. 

Four pupils were presented, out of thirteen, to be found on that part of St. Peter's 
Reserve. Thirteen could attend, of whom eleven are enrolled. The average attend- 
ance for the last three preceding quarters had been forty -five per cent of those 

The examination was very satisfactory, showing that pupils gained seventy-four 
per cent of the whole number of marks obtainable. 

When I visited the school, most of the pupils were away berry gathering. 

The furniture is completely unsuitable. 

The programme of studies had been followed closely, and the children were 
properly graded. I could not see the register or school books which, on account of 
recent removal of school had not yet been carried there. 

Mrs. W. G. G-ow teaches here and does it very satisfactorily. 

Many repairs were needed to make the building more suitable for habitation. 

Needles and yarn were wanted. Mrs. Gow was quite willing to teach knitting 
to the girls but had not the material. 

I returned to Selkirk; there I could not find any easy way of getting to Fort 
Alexander and decided to return to Winnipeg which I reached on the 14th of 


Roseau River Reserve. 

I went to this school on the 15th of September. 

Six children were present. The number of children enrolled, which include all 
those of the reserve, was ten. The average attendance had not been thirty-five per 
cent of these for several quarters before. It is very irregular. This school has 
never been very successful in this respect, and in my special report 1 said the children 
had better all be removed to the St. Boniface Industrial School. The examination, 
however, was very satisfactory, the children obtaining eighty per cent of the 
possible number of marks to be gained. 

Some stationery was wanted. Very good school furniture had been provided. 
The house had been slightly repaired. 

Mrs. Gauthier had been teaching here for three years, but propoeed to leave 

On the 16th I returned to Winnipeg and afterwards to Eegina, where I wrote 
several reports and awaited further instructions, which were received on the 8th of 
October. I then left for the north, on the 10th going first to the Duck Lake Agency. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

North-west Territories, 
duck lake agency. 
One Arrow's Reserve. 

On the 11th of October I drove to One Arrow's Eeserve from Duck Lake and 
inspected the school on the 12th. 

There are seventeen children on the reserve; of these fourteen are enrolled and 
ten were present for the examination. For the three preceding quarters the average 
attendance had reached fifty-seven per cent of those enrolled. Some attend regularly, 
others refuse to come. Some go away with parents hunting or berry picking. Poor 
clothing also interferes with attendance in bad weather. In the examination the 
pupils obtained seventy-three per cent of the marks allowed. 

Some stationery and school material was wanted. The furniture is very good 
and well arranged; only few things were wanted in this respect. 

Mrs. Lafont teaches here, successfully enough. The progress since preceding 
examination has been quite noticeable. The programme is closely followed and the 
class organization satisfactory. The register was well kept. 

A very good school-house has been built, and only few repairs (such as a ceiling, 
plastering above wainscotting to lower edge of roof) were wanted. 

This school is on a fair way to success and the poor attendance is the greatest 

Beardy and Okemasis Reserve. 

This school I inspected on the 14th of October. 

Six children were present. There are, approximatively, forty children on the 
reserve. Only twenty were enrolled. The average attendance had been fifty-eight 
per cent of these twenty. There had been an increase in the attendance since the 
preceding inspection. Carelessness on the part of parents, poor clothing and foot- 
gear interfere with attendance. The pupils gained sixty-five percent of the marks 
allowed for the examination. 

Some stationery was wanted. The school furniture was very good, only a few 
little things were wanted. 

Mr. Ladret is the teacher. The English language only is taught now. The 
children are progressing tolerably well. Although having a certain knowledge of 
the English language the teacher has a poor pronunciation which interferes some- 
what with good teaching. 

The school building was in great need of repairs ; in fact, an altogether new 
house was wanted. 

On the 15th I drove from Duck Lake to Petequakey's Eeserve, in Carlton 


Petequakey's Reserve. 

1 inspected the school on this reserve on the 16th of October. 

There are nine children only on this reserve. The children are all enrolled 
and the average for the nine preceding months had been eight, or eighty-uine per 
cent of the whole. This is the second best attendance I have seen at any school. 
The result of the examination was the obtaining of an average percentage of sixty- 
six per cent of the number of marks allowed. It is satisfactory, although consider- 
ing that the attendance having been very regular, it might have been better. 

Some school material was wanted; the furniture is good, but badly arranged and 
not screwed to the floor as it ought to be. 

Eev. Father Paquette teaches himself, having been unsuccessful in finding a 
good teacher; such a man is greatly needed. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

A daily meal of vegetables is given to the pupils ; the vegetables are taken from 
a garden cultivated by the children themselves. 

A new "building had been put up since my prior visit, but a very poor job had 
been made of it. The erection of this has been conducted in a very careless manner. 

Petequakey's Boarding. 

Two boarders are kept here, they attend school with the day scholars. Besides 
this they are engaged in attending to horses, cattle, sheep, garden, kitchen, &c. 
They are getting along well and speak both the French and English languages. They 
are well clothed, fed and attended to. 

On Saturday the 17th, I remained here writing reports, also remained for 
Sunday, and left on Monday for the Battleford Agency where I arrived on the 20th. 


Sweet Grass Reserve. 

I left Battleford early on the 21st of October, arrived at Sweet Grass Reserve and 
inspected the school on the same day. 

Twenty children should attend this school. As many as eighteen are enrolled. 
The average attendance for the three preceding quarters had been eighteen, one 
hundred per cent of those enrolled and ninety per cent of those that could attend. 
Thirteen children turned up for examination, who obtained sixty per cent of the 
total number of marks allowed; this might have been better considering the good 
attendance. This is the best attended school that I have inspected. 

Some stationery was wanted ; the furniture was very good except the black- 
board and a stove pipe so defective, as to almost have caused the building to have 
been burnt down. Some toilet articles were wanted. 

Mr. Pritchard, the teacher, does tolerably well ; the children have progressed 
satisfactorily. The programme of studies is followed. 

The school building was in good condition except for little repairs required. 

On this same day I drove to Poundmaker's Reserve. 

Poundmakefs Reserve. 

This school I inspected on the 22nd of October. 

There are about twenty children on the reserve ; fourteen are enrolled. Out of 
these an attendance of sixty-nine per cent average had been secured for the two 
preceding quarters. Only four pupils were presented for examination on account of 
treaty payments having just been made and most of the Indians having gone to 
Battleford. The average percentage of marks obtained by the four pupils was 
seventy-seven per cent. 

Some stationery and toilet articles were wanted. The furniture was good. 

Mr. Otto Morin had recently been appointed teacher. He is a young man of 
good disposition, but, at that time, without experience as a teacher. I have left 
instructions to guide hirn. 

As far as the construction of the new building had gone, it was quite satisfactory; 
several things had yet to be done and were most wanted. 

On this same day I drove to Thunder Child's Reserve. 

Thunder Child's Reserve. 

I inspected this school on the 23rd of October. Twenty Roman Catholic children 
are found on this reserve, of school age. They are all enrolled; out of these sixteen 
were present at the examination. School had only been recently opened and the 
children were graded in the three lower standards. The average percentage of marks 
made by the pupils was seventy-seven, The progress was quite astonishing. The 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

school books and material were in very small quantity and the teacher had been 
instructing the children without the help of these with remarkable success, show- 
ing that, after all, books are not absolutely necessary at the beginning. 

There was no furniture of any description except a broken chair. The books 
had been gathered here and there and were mostly worn out. 

Mr. Dandelin has been removed to this school from Poundmaker's. He is an 
excellent teacher. 

The house is good, except that it wants a ceiling ; all the schools in this district 
have the same want. 

On the 24th I returned to Battleford, remained there on Sunday the 25th, 
wrote reports on the 26th and left for Onion Lake Agency on the 27th, arriving 
there on the 29th. 


Onion Lake Reserve. 

This school I inspected on the 30th of October. 

This school had just been put under the charge of the Reverend Sisters of the 
Assumption. Three sisters are here; not only do they teach, but also make clothes 
for the pupils, teach knitting, sewing, cooking, housekeeping, washing of clothes, 
&c. The progress, in these and also in class, of the pupils has been quite noticeable ; 
even the attendance has increased since the coming of the reverend sisters. There 
are about fifty-five Roman Catholic children on the reserve. They are all enrolled ; 
the average attendance has not exceeded forty-one per cent of what it might have 
been; it was on the increase at the time of my visit. Thirty-four were presented 
for examination. Twelve were ungraded and the rest were graded in the five 
standards; an average percentage of seventy-eight was gained by the class out of 
the whole number of marks obtainable. 

The stuff in the hands of the Indian agent being in small quantity, the distribu- 
tion of clothing and foot-gear has been scant; this interfered with attendance. 
Indians not being paid in money for their work, but in lumber mostly, cannot 
buy clothing for the children. The reverend sisters have remedied this as much 
as it could be done. 

The supply of biscuit also ran out. Some children live far from the school and 
cannot always attend. 

An entirely new building has been put up ; this one is quite creditable to the 
department, and very little is left to be done to make it as good a building as could 
be had in those remote parts. The furniture is satisfactory; so is the supply of 

Rev. Sister St. Patrick, who is specially charged with the teaching in class, is 
provided with a first-class certificate for high schools in the Province of Quebec. 

On the 31st I wrote reports, remained also on the 1st of November, it being 
Sunday, and left the next day for Reaver Reserve. I camped at the south end of 
Frog Lake. The next day I arrived at the Beaver Reserve. 

Beaver Reserve. 

I inspected this school on the 4th of November. Out of forty-six children on 
the reserve and forty-five enrolled, thirty-three were presented for examination. 
For the two preceding quarters, the attendance had reached an average percentage 
of seventy-three. The children were graded in the three lower standards, six 
ungraded, and obtained an average of eighty-five per cent of the whole number of 

The attendance is generally regular, except during spring and fall, when the 
Indians are away from the reserve for the purpose of getting food. They receive 
little from the Government in this respect. 

The supply of stationery was satisfactory, but the furniture was completely 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Mr. T. W. Harris teaches here ; he is a Bachelor of Arts of the University of 
Acadia. The school had been in operation for a little more than a year, and the 
pupils had prospered greatly during that short period. 

The school-house, made of logs, is comfortable enough, but in need of certain 
little repairs. 

On the 5th of November, I was back to Onion Lake. I left on the 6th for 
Saddle Lake, arrived on the 7th, stopped on Sunday the 8th, and inspected the 
school on Blue Quill's Eeserve on the 9th. 


Blue Quill's Reserve. 

Mr. Todd, formerly teacher at Onion Lake, was teaching here. • 

The school had just then been opened. There are twenty children of school 
age on this reserve. Since the opening of the school, the average attendance had 
been about fifty-five per cent of those enrolled. The attendance is regular when 
the children are on the reserve. They are sometimes away following the parents 
when away hunting. 

There was no school-house as yet ; no furniture or stationery. 

From here I proceeded to Lac la Biche. 

Lac la Biche Industrial School. 

Four boys and five girls were kept here as boarders. No grant had as yet been 
paid. There was not room enough for any more boarders. The girls have their 
quarters at the reverend sisters' residence; the boys at the Roman Catholic Mission. 
Both places are in close vicinity to each other. Boys and girls attend class 
together ; during the balance of the time the girls under the supervision of the 
sisters attend to household duties, and the boys to outdoor work, under the super- 
vision of Eev. Messrs. Grandin and Cunningham. 

The quarters allotted the pupils are satisfactory. They are well fed. Fish is 
the most important part of the diet; the r? Indians feed mostly on it here, and the 
children like it as well as beef or bacon. The flour necessary for the institution is 
made there. Beef and pork are also raised at the Mission, so that the more impor- 
tant articles of the diet can be procured at a comparatively small cost. Groceries 
have to be brought from Edmonton. 

The pupils are provided with good clothes. They are happy at the school and 
all in very good health. 

Buildings were to be put up in the following spring to give accommodation for 
a larger number of pupils. 

Some fifteen white and half-breed pupils are also kept here as boarders, and the 
contact of the Indian children with them has had a very good effect on the latter 
and explains their rapid progress in class, in speaking the English language and 

The programme of studies has been well followed. The children were graded 
in the three first standards and one was ungraded. They obtained an average per- 
centage of seventy-four of the whole number of marks allowed. 

I left Lac la Biche the next day and arrived at Edmonton on the 15th Novem- 
ber, and drove to the agency on the 16th. 


Stony Plain Reserve. 

I inspected the school on this reserve on the 17th. Forty children could attend 
it. Twenty-seven are enrolled. The average attendance had not exceeded twenty- 
five per cent of what it could have been, and only three children werg presented for 
examination, none of whom were graded. The programme of studies was not 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The progress is as unsatisfactory as the attendance is irregular. 

The furniture and stationery supply were satisfactory. 

There is no school-house ; school is taught at the Koman Catholic Mission. 

Alexander's Reserve. 

I went to inspect this school on the 19th. All the children were away from the 
reserve and the school was closed. 

Mr. P. Durocher is teacher. No stationery, was wanted. The furniture was 
satisfactory, although not of the proper kind. 

Alexis's Reserve. 

I started for this reserve, but on account of very bad roads and very bad weather 
during which we lost the road, we were obliged to return. I arrived at Edmonton 
on the 20th; remained there for Sunday and on the 23rd went to inspect the 

St. Albert Industrial School. 

This institution has been continually enlarged and improved and is now on a 
very efficient footing, greatly to the credit of the Eeverend Sisters of Charity who 
are in charge of it. 

A grant is given by the department for fifty Indian pupils, but the attendance 
is in excess of that number. 

Of the older pupils, the girls are kept mostly engaged with housework, the boys 
with farmwork, and receive a comparatively less class teaching than the younger 
who are kept mostly in school. 

The children presented for examination obtained an average percentage of 
seventy-five of the whole number of marks obtainable and were graded in the five 
standards of the department's programme, and seven were above the fifth standard. 

These more advanced pupils were not only taught the subjects of said pro- 
gramme, but were also studying the History of Canada and England, hygienics, high 
class recitation, &c. 

The Indian children attend class with the scholars of the St. Albert public school, 
and derive great benefit from such contact. Their progress in class has been more 
than satisfactory. 

The same can be said of the other branches taught; sewing and knitting by 
hand and machine, weaving, spinning and carding (hand), housekeeping and clean- 
ing, cooking, butter and bread-making, attending to fowls, &c. 

Most of the garments used are made in the institution, also a great deal of the 
food stuffs are produced. 

The accommodation for pupils is quite satisfactory, they being provided with good 
beds and well-ventilated rooms for sleeping, recreation, class and other purposes. 
The health of the pupils was quite satisfactory except few cases of scrofula which 
are commonly found with Indians. These sick children receive a most kind and care- 
ful attendance and several such cases have been completely cured. 

The diet is excellent, so are the clothes worn by the pupils which are changed 
to suit the children's wants in the various seasons. 

The children all look very clean and apparently enjoy their sojourn at the school 
which they do not leave except when they have been provided with the means neces- 
sary to lead an honest and laborious life; some have stayed several years after they 
were through with the classes. In such cases they are kept engaged with the various 
occupations of the household until a decent situation is found for them, whether it 
be marriage or hiring out. 

The buildings used are not compact and joined together, it is, rather, a series of 
detached buildings. One for classes, with a dormitory for boys, upstairs — another 
contains dormitories for the girls, linen rooms and work rooms for the younger girls; 
in another are the kitchen and dining-room, the infirmary, work rooms for the elder 
girls, such as spinning, weaving and carding rooms. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

There are also the stables for horses and cattle, shed for carriages, bakery, milk- 
house, buttery, icehouse, workshop, chicken coop, &c. The institution, as may be 
seen, is thoroughly equipped ; and under the careful guidance of the reverend sisters, 
it is not surprising that the pupils progress greatly. 

On the 25th I left Edmonton for Calgary. Left Calgary and arrived at Gleichen 
on the 27th and inspected the school there on that day. 



South Camp. 

Only four boys were presented for examination out of forty-five enrolled. For 
the preceding six months, attendance had been' on the average, twenty-five per cent 
of what it might have been. The children presented for examination were in the 
first standard and obtained fifty per cent of the marks allowed. This is not a very 
fair result. The attendance being very irregular, it is not surprising. 

There was a good supply of stationery, and the furniture is adequate. The 
house is good enough. 

Mr. Robbe has been teaching here for several years. 

I returned to Calgary, and from there proceeded to the 

St. Joseph Industrial School. 

The examination of the boys gave as a result the gain of eighty per cent of the 
total number of marks allowed ; the girls were slightly less advanced. The teachers 
of the boys, Messrs. Dennehy and Scollen, had done very good work. 

The industrial part of the training has also been carried out very satisfactorily. 
Six shoemakers were attending to the making and repairing of all the boots and 
shoes necessary, and could also make harness for the school and for the surrounding 
agencies. Four carpenters were kept busy with the work to be carried on at the 
school in this line, and some had been sent to reserves in the vicinity for building 
purposes. There were ten pupils working at the farm, the rest of the boys being 
engaged with the various chores about the school. The girls were also progressing 
in this part of the training, learning the various parts of household work. 

The staff' at the school from principal to the trade instructors, and from matron 
to cook is quite up to the necessities of the institution and few deserve to be more 
commended than others. Everything runs smoothly and economically in the various 

The health at the school was as a rule satisfactory; there were a few cases of 
scrofula, lung disease, and light fevers. There is very good medical attendance and 
nure&ng. Rev. Sister Cleary, the matron, formerly of St. Boniface Hospital, attends 
to this with a great deal of experience and zeal. 

A.11 necessary precautions have been taken against a possible fire. Grenades are 
hanging everywhere, the tanks are kept full at all times, the pipes have opening 
valves on each floor, and hose has been distributed wherever it might best be wanted. 
Other minor precautions have also been taken. The water supply in case of the 
windmill not working can be forced by hand power. 

The windmill has been one of the latest improvements and has considerably 
simplified the water question. Before, several pupils had to be kept many hours con- 
veying water in large barrels, hauled by oxen. Now it is only a matter of pumping 
whenever it is calm weather. 

A brass hand had been started some weeks before my visit and had been pro- 
gress i ng satfefactoM 1 y . 

From the St. Joseph's Industrial School I returned to Calgary, and from thence 
eded to Fort Macleod. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 


Blood Reserve. 

faCt °The children were better clad than on most reserves. 

Drill and calisthenics are being taught. ,w„,h„ Thp furniture 

The stationery and school material supply was very defective, lhe tuinitnie 

i - nf the nroner kind and in good condition. The school-room xs qu.te satisfactory 
Mr Burke had In" been" appointed teacher here. He is a regularly trained 

teacher'anu t provided with go^d certificates. Mr. Jones has been removed to the 

Qu'Appelle Industrial School. 


Piegan Reserve. 

This school I inspected on the 14th of December. T , 

""C,, wa, , .u«cl.nt .apply of ,l,ti«»»y uri «h.ol ».*»ri.l. Tl« fa.itore 

'* "H&s^^ B ::^»^ a± ssa, — 

""No children were present when I visited it. The house was not yet quite 
fiDi ^^ within Treaties 6 and 7, and I then returned 

t0 ^the course of February last I received instructions^ ^^^%ttt 
schools in Touchwood Hills and Muscowpetung Agencies and the Qu Appelle 
trial School. 


Muscowequan's Reserve. 
i yy 

5G Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

in winter than in summer. Twenty-six children, graded in the five standards, were 
presented for examination and obtained eighty-seven per cent of the whole number 
of marks. 

There was a good supply of stationery, but very defective furniture. 

The school-house has been repaired from time to time and is rather comfortable 

Mr. Denuehy always teaches here and succeeds remarkably well. 

Muscowequaris Boarding. 

Fourteen boarders were kept here, seven boys and seven girls ; the average of 
boarders does not exceed twelve however. 

The boarders are provided with good clothes, suitable to each season and in 
sufficient quantity to afford a change as often as desirable. 

The training given is similar to that given in the industrial schools, except that 
no trades are taught. The boys attend to farm and garden work, to cattle and 
horses, water and fuel carrying and chores ; the girls attend to the housework. 

The diet was wholesome and sufficient; the sleeping conveniences were satis- 
factory. The health was very good. 


Standing Buffalo's Reserve. 

On the 19th of February I inspected this school. 

There are twenty-three children on the reserve, out of whom twenty-one are 
enrolled, including boarders. The attendance, exclusive of boarders, reached an 
av erage of fifty-two per cent of the possible for the three preceding quarters. Attend- 
an ce is fair enough except when the parents leave the reserve for various purposes, 
in which case the children follow them. Seventeen children were presented for exam- 
ination, graded in the second, third and fourth standards; they obtained an average 
of seventy per cent of the whole number of marks allowed. 

The supply of school material was about sufficient. The school is provided with 
good furniture. 

The school-room is rather satisfactory and needs very little repair. 

Mr. Norman Leslie is in charge of this school, but his sister, Miss Leslie, does 
the teaching, and that very satisfactorily. 

Standing Buffalo's Boarding. 

Nine boarders are kept here, six boys and three girls. 

The diet is composed of porridge, vegetable soup and vegetables, meat in 
moderate quantity. 

Each child has a good enough bed, and each is provided with clothes for Sun- 
days and week-days. 

The usual arts are taught ; outside work for the boys and housework for the girls. 

Qu'Appelle Industrial School. 

After a lengthy examination of the studies in class, I found considerable 
progress having been achieved; the girls being slightly less advanced than the boys. 
Both teachers for boys and girls have shown themselves up to the task, and Mr. 
Denuehy in charge of the higher boys' classes deserves particular mention. 

Similarly, the industrial training has been found very satisfactory. 

The girls receive the usual training in housework duties, cooking, cleaning, 
washing, sewing, knitting, spinning, butter-making, cow milking, &c. Many of 
them have left the school knowing enough to be hired out as servants, and thus 
have given satisfaction. They also got thereby a further training in these branches. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Amongst the older boys there are five shoemakers, five carpenters and seven 
blacksmiths (no special trade is made of farming, and all the boys learn it, even 
those that learn another trade) ; the balance do not learn trades on account of 
insufficiency of accommodation, and are engaged on the farm and in garden in time 
of pressure, and do the heaviest chores about the buildings, pumping to fill tanks, 
baking, &c. The smaller boys are emploj^ed doing those small chores, light works 
that they might happen to be strong enough to undertake. 

A considerable amount of work has been done in the shops for the school itself 
and for the agencies. 

There are five teachers of trades who are all doing well except the baker, who 
has resigned since. 

The health at the school was good enough as a rule, although it might have 
been better. It is hard in that part of the country to get pupils of absolutely sound 
health. The regime at the school had led to complete cures in some cases not 
advanced. But others have died at a rather high rate. 

;. in Means of protection have been taken against fire rather extensively and are 
sufficient, whether the water supply, hose appliances, buckets of water, or hand 
grenades being properly placed are considered. 

The number of Indians visiting the school is much smaller than it used to be. 

I returned to Eegina after this visit and having received no instructions for 
further inspections since, the balance of the season was passed in comparing notes, 
revising the programme of studies of the department with Mr. J. A. Macrae, my 
brother inspector, and writing with him a manual of instruction for the guidance 
of teachers. The same has been handed to the Indian Commissioner. 
1 have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Inspector Roman Catholic Industrial Schools. 


Industrial School, 

Qu'Appelle, 1st October, 1892. 

e Honourable 
The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — In accordance with instructions received, I have the honour to submit my 
annual report for the fiscal year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The number of pupils authorized, during the past year, was one hundred and 
eighty, but the average attendance, excluding the three white girls who pay, and 
the pupils hired out, has not been above one hundred and seventy. 

The attendance has been more regular than heretofore, owing to the stress 
brought to bear upon the Indians not to remove their children without the authority 
of the Commissioner. 

This regulation has had a beneficial effect on the pupils, and has favoured their 
progress in their studies, in the acquisition of civilized habits and in the use of the 
English language. 

The carrying out of this regulation has not been done without some parents 
complaining that they are obliged to leave their children at school, while those who 
refused to send theirs are still allowed to keep them at home. It has also made the 
recruiting more difficult; and those Indians who have not sent their children to 
any school will hardly do so without being compelled, but if coercion is used they 
should be left perfectly free to choose the school they prefer. 

The younger the children come to school, the greater will be the chance of their 
civilization. Children here of six or seven years of age who have been in school less 
than one year, use far more English than older ones who have been here three and 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

four years, but who were twelve or fourteen years old when they came; besides 
which, there will be less chance of the younger ones, when grown up, relapsing into 
"tepee" life. 

This is the first summer during which we had two teachers for the boys ; it was 
an absolute necessity with eighty or ninety, as there were seldom less than fifty or 
sixty in the school-rooms at one time. The boys have consequently made much 
better progress in ail their studies and English than was possible with only one 

Sometimes there is work for a certain number or for all the boys on the farm, 
but it is only for weeding or digging and bringing in the root crop, and then both 
teachers are required, perhaps even more than in the school-rooms, to make the 
boys talk English, work properly and behave in every way. 

Without a second teacher all the year round, the boys lose a considerable part 
of their time in the school, and therefore of the money spent on them here. 

All instruction is given in English, and every effort is made to enforce the con- 
stant use of the English language, even in conversation outside. To this end it is 
incumbent on the teachers and other employees to extend the English lessons bej~ond 
the walls of the class-rooms and shops into the play ground and work fields, and it 
is their duty to mingle with the children and to converse with them, making their 
work and play pleasant and instructive. The Indian languages are used very little 
by the boys now, and the same result is being obtained among the girls, although 
more slowly. 

The general health of the children has been good, which is due to the fine loca- 
tion of the schools, the attendance of Dr. Seymour, the care taken of them by 
the reverend sisters and the cleanness which prevails in the institution and grounds. 
We had to record five deaths, four of consumption and one of pleurisy. 

In the addition to the girls' school applied for last year, and again this year, 
and for which stones are already on the ground, the third floor is intended for an 
hospital, and would be very suitable in every way for this purpose ; it is now a 

The outside gymnasium, erected last year, is in frequent use; and that as well 
as the calisthenic exercises regularly performed, will undoubtedly have a beneficial 
effect on the children,' by developing their muscles, expanding their lungs, and 
giving them better deportment. 

For inside gymnastics during the winter, there are two horizontal bars, and fi 
ladder, twenty feet long, attached to the ceiling; these are in constant use during 
recreation time. 

The favourite outside amusement of the boys, during winder, is skating; but 
when the snow gets too deep for it to be practicable to keep a piece of ice clear, they 
turn their attention to tobogganing. There should be a temporary or portable 
rink, which could be removed during the summer, where they could skate all the 
winter, as the doctor particularly recommends this form of exercise for the bo} T s, as 
in skating they do not get as wet as in tobogganing, and are therefore less subject 
to chills, while it gives the chest and whole body exercise, and draws many boys 
out, who-, with a tendency to consumption, would otherwise be sitting in the more 
or less vitiated atmosphere of the recreation rooms. 

The games most preferred by the boys in summer time are cricket and, in 
the colder weather, football. Under the instruction of the teachers and clerk, they 
have become proficient enough in cricket to play matches with and hold their own 
against a first-class territorial eleven. Of three matches played during the past 
season, two were lost and one was won by the school. 

We have now a brass band. The band was organized last spring, and the boys 
have progressed so well that they were asked to play at two fall agricultural shows 
and at a regatta. Only one application was accepted, that of the Fort Qu'Appelle 
Agricultural Society; as on the other occasions it would have interfered too much 
with the harvesting, &c. The " Regina Leader," speaking of it, says : " The 
Industrial School Band, consisting of sixteen instruments, was under the leadership 
of the Rev. Father Dorais, and rendered several pieces in a very creditable manner, 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

eliciting warm expressions of approval from the spectators." It is an attraction for 
the boys, and has a civilizing effect on them, and to the public is a striking proof 
that Indian children can be educated, since they can be taught to read music and 
play it correctly in so short a time. Every instrument in the band is played by 
Indian children. 

The carpenter had eight apprentices, some of whom were proficient enough to 
work outside and earn one dollar and fifty cents a day ; two of them are now 
working on the addition to the school at High Eiver, near Calgary. The value of 
the work done in the shop is estimated to average ninety-five dollars monthly ; 
additions to the dining-room and carpenter's shop, and a house on the farm have 
been put up without any extra help. The carpenter and boys have also refitted the 
File Hills Agency buildings with wainscot ceilings in place of the plaster, which 
had fallen off in many places. The boys are now working on desks for the schools 
on the Touchwood Hills Agency ; their other work consists in making furniture and 
doing numerous repairs of every description, both for the schools and neighbouring 

The blacksmith had eight apprentices, who get half a day at trade instruction 
and half a day in school. The work done in the shop is valued on an average at 
ninety dollars a month. Besides the work for the school, we have doue the black- 
smith's work for the Muscowpetung and File Hills Agencies. 

The shoemaker bad six apprentices who were all kept busy repairing boots. He 
had to help at the haying > running the mowing machine, while the farmer and one 
of the teachers were attending to the raking, cocking and stacking, which was 
done by themselves and boys. 

Our present baker came this spring. His is very heavy work, as from two to 
three sacks of flour have to be baked every day; he has two boys to learn the 
trade and help him ; besides baking, he cuts the beef and carries into the kitchen 
and larders the supplies given out by the clerk in the morning. His is a position 
that requires a man of strong muscles and constitution, as well as a trustworthy one. 

The furnace and night-watchman, though in the former capacity his services 
are only required during the winter, is invaluable here during the summer time, 
earning far more than his wages in doing repairs to plastering, building and repair- 
ing foundations, cellar-walls, cement water tanks, &c, brick-veneering additions, 
doing all the kalsomining and attending to stove pipes, chimneys, fire protection 
appliance, &c. Himself and an apprentice boy were taken from here for three weeks 
last fall to do the painting at the Regina Industrial School. This summer he was 
sent to the File Hills Agency for one month, to do the painting and repairs to 
plastering, &c, required there. 

The number of boys witn the farm instructor depends upon what work has to 
be done, and the size and experience of the boys available ; on account of the increas- 
ing demands of farmers in the vicinity, for our boys having a knowledge of farm- 
work, the instructor's hands are constantly full teaching new ones. His duties in 
winter consist of hauling hay and manure, occasionally cutting firewood, getting up 
the ice supply and attending to the live stock. The difficulty of obtaining hay, limits 
the number of the latter, but we have one bull, fifteen Lujlch cows, three work oxen 
and nine head of young cattle; of horses we have three, for farm work ; of ponies, we 
have one, one old mare and three young ones ; of pigs, we have nineteen, and of fowls, 
fifty-five. During the other seasons the farmer cultivates sixty-four acres of land. 
Severe hail-storms in June nearly destroyed the crop; we hope to have enough 
grain, but our potato crop will be insufficient. The crop harvested after last year's 
report was abundant, and of good quality. Six articles taken to the Winnipeg exhibi- 
tion secured four prizes, and eight taken to the Regina exhibition secured eight 
prizes. The Winnipeg " Free Press" in its comments regarding one of the prizes 
said : " Such a prize is a credit to any one, but especially so to an Indian Industrial 
Institution, when it is in competition with all the gardeners of Winnipeg and 
Manitoba." Besides the articles intended for competition, we had a general 
exhibit for the school, including, besides vegetables, &c, different work of the car- 
penter and blacksmith boys ; various specimens of knitting, sewing, &c, of the girls; 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

and specimens of penmanship. Three girls were at work during the exhibition, 
sowing, knitting with machine and hand, and spinning, &c; and seemed to be a 
centre of attraction, there being a crowd of people round them continually. 

The management of the girls is intrusted to nine sisters. Besides teaching 
them in the school-room, the sisters also work with and teach them cooking, sewing, 
knitting and all kinds of housework. 

All the clothing for the girls is made here, and a large portion of that of the 
boys. The washing, mending, darning, ironing, &c, is also done here, and repre- 
sents an immense amount of work. Several of the girls can cut the clothes, as well 
as sew and fit them ; and a marked improvement is manifested in the care and neat- 
ness they show regarding their clothing. 

ILuch attention is paid to moral training, which must have a prominent part in 
the civilizing of Indian children to make it effective. To teach them only to read, 
write and speak English, would otherwise be productive of very little good, if it did 
not tend to make them worse. This moral training must be imparted to the pupils 
continuously, from morning to night; and requires a considerable amount of self- 
denial and restraint. 

The reverend sisters are invaluable for this purpose among the girls ; and it 
was with this object the Eev. Father JDorais was appointed over the boys ; and the 
beneficial effects are apparent. 

.Religion is also a help to civilization, as without it civilization can be only 
exterior ; but perfect liberty is left to the pupils in this respect. The truly chris- 
tian Indians are, as a rule, more progressive, more anxious to learn, more civilized, 
more intelligent, and work in better harmony with the wishes of the Government; 
and are also more willing to send their children to school. Pagan Indians cling 
more to their tribal ways, as regards morals, mode of living, &c., care little for 
civilization, and are not anxious to send their children to school. 

In the instruction and training given to pupils here, it is our object to inculcate 
a distaste for tepee life, which seems to be so adverse to civilization ; the difference 
between it, and living in a house, is illustrated in the cases of four of our girls, who 
are now married and live on the same reserve. Two of them are married to 
ex-pupils of this school, and have houses and stay in them summer and winter, 
they have gardens and attend to them ; have pigs and hens, milk their 
cows and make butter, take care of their clothes, are always neat and 
clean, and keep improving their homes'; whereas the other two, who are married to 
young men who were never at any school, and who live in tepees during the sum- 
mer, have, in consequence, no garden, have neither pigs or hens, if they had cows 
they could not make butter, and it is impossible for them to take proper care of their 
clothes when they have only a tent to hold themselves and their bedding, clothing, 
provisions, cooking utensils, harness, &c. Tepee life, moreover, encourages laziness 
and all sorts of demoralizing habits. 

When Indians are made to like and take pride in their homes, and stay in them 
all the year around, it is a marked advance towards civilization. It would be desir- 
able, if a girl could be prevented marrying until the young man had a good home 
for her, and with this object a boy who has been educated iu airv of these schools 
should be given facilities for building for himself a good house, and for ploughing 
and fencing a field when he is of age and wishes to be married. 

Every employee here is required, not only to work with, and teach the pupils, 
but also to train them in every way conducive to civilization; and it will be a long 
time before an Indian can satisfactorily fill a situation in such an institution, and 
guide the pupils towards this end with the requisite authority. 

Attached to this report will be found a list of the pupils now discharged from 
this school, stating where they are, and briefly, what they are doing. 

As it is not advisable to forcibly prevent pupils from going back to the reserves, 
after they leave school, they therefore return to them, and have to resist the sur- 
rounding influences as best they can in order to benefit by what they have been 
taught here. It is not to be expected that education can civilize these Indians in 
one generation, when it usually takes three generations, before a tribe is really 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

civilized to any extent, after all or most of the children have been in school ; many 
of our ex-pupils will undoubtedly go back in some degree- to their original habits, 
especially those who come from heathen reserves, or from reserves where but few of 
the children have been to school ; but still I do not think their education will be 
entirely lost for any of those who have been two years, or even one year, in this 
school. At the least they will be expected to appreciate the advantages of educa- 
tion ; and when they are grown up, and have families of their own, to send their 
children to school. 

There is no doubt that Indian children can learn everything necessary to make 
themselves self-supporting; but can a lasting desire and determination to continue 
in the ways of civilized life, be implanted in an Indian child sufficiently strong to 
hold him, after school years have passed ? I trust that before long this question can 
positively be answered in the affirmative, but how soon this will be will depend 
upon the more or less civilized aspect of their surroundings. A complete change, 
however, can only be expected when the present uneducated generation will have 
passed away, and given place to the growing and educated one. 

The full measure of success attained by this school can only be seen and judged 
when the children will have grown to manhood or womanhood, when they will 
practice the precepts instilled into their young minds; and though some may not 
practice them wholly, yet they will to such an extent as will undoubtedly have an 
influence for good, and a tendency to excite emulation in the uneducated mind of 
their less fortunate companions. 

Several of our pupils, both boys and girls, are now sent to service, and are given 
an opportunity to practice what they have learned here, and to become accustomed 
to what they will have to do in after life, to support themselves, and make their 
homes clean and comfortable. At present we have thirty-three children hired out — 
eighteen girls and fifteen boys; and I have applications for ten more servant girls. 
Some parents still object to their daughters being hired out, and it is not advisable 
to do it contrary to their wishes, as we should then be entirely responsible, should 
any misfortune happen to the girls while in service. Great care has to be taken to 
place them as much as possible where they will receive a continuation of the over- 
seeing, training and good example they had while here. The fact that we have 
more demauds for girls as servants than we can fill, is a conclusive proof that the 
school has a beneficial effect on them. It proves that during two or three years in 
this school, an Indian girl can be taught sufficient English, cleanliness, manners 
and house work, to make her useful as a servant. The wages given the girls vary 
from four to ten dollars a month, according to size and proficiency; that of the boys, 
from six to fifteen dollars a month, and from fifty cents to one dollar and twenty-five 
cents per day with board. 

Though this system of sending pupils out to service has been in operation less 
than two years, yet, at the end of December, 1891, their earnings amounted to over 
six hundred dollars. Of these earnings, as much as possible is kept for the pupils, 
but some of it has to be given to the parents, otherwise they would not consent to 
their children being hired out. 

Efforts have been made as heretofore to improve the appearance of the school 
grounds by planting trees, shrubs and flowers. It still continues to be an attraction 
for visitors, who seem to appreciate everything that is dene here for the civilization 
of the Indians. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 4. 1893 

Pupils who have died since commencement of the schools. 

Bo vs. 




No. Name. 


Joseph Poitras. 










Lucy Amelia. 



Seraphine Belgarde. 



034 Mary Emily. 


J. B. Turner. 

037 Emily Jane. 



050 | Elizabeth. 



054 j Agatha. 



060 j Agatha Clara. 


Isidore Trottier. 




Francis Allary. 






M. A. Allary. 



086 Cecilia. 



091 | Adele. 


Joseph Patrip. 

092 Eugenia. 


Charley Joe. 


Mary Helen. 




















Keina Irena. 






J )amian. 














Cecilia Noel. 




Department of Indian Affairs. 

List of discharged Pupils; where they were when last heard of ; and, briefly, what 
they were doing, and how they were getting along. 




'Alfred Stevenson..., 
I Anthony O'Soup... 


Willi am Desnomes . 
! Julius 

10 Joseph. 







Alick. .. 


Albert . . . 
Peter. . . . 
Frank . . . 


Patrick . 

Charles Tanner. . 

Basil Tanner 



Paul Valet 

James Ben 

Thomas. . . 

Louis Henry Allary. 

Alex. Daniels 


J. B. Sparvier 

Napoleon Sparvier. 

C. Crowe 

J. A. Crowe 

L. Couture 


Daniel Kennedy . . 

Joe Martin 

William George ... 


Charles Favel 



J. Baptiste.. 

Joseph Gariepy. . . 
Gabriel Belanger.. . 
John McKinnon . 

Thome.... .'..,. . 

Peter Plain 


Bill Seymour 

Joe Plain : 


Gabriel Desnomes . 


Joseph Pelletier. 


Joseph Gambler. . . 






John King 

Samuel Hourie 



With his father on Keesickouse Reserve ; works well, and speaks English. 
On O'Soup Reserve ; married and doing well 
\t Wood Mountain, with Rev. Father St. Germain ; doing well. 
With his father in Qu'Appelle Valley ; hires out among white settlers 
Married on Sioux Reserve ; speaks English well, not much improved other- 
wise, on account of surroundings ; had a good school record. 
Transferred to Presbyterian school ; now with his father on reserve ; does 

not speak much English ; doing fairly well. 
With his father on reserve ; doing fairly well ; not much improved. 
With his father at File Hills ; doing well. 
With parents at Touchwood ; doing well. 
Left treaty and country with parents. 

do do 

Married to pupil 010 on Pasquah Reserve ; doing well. 
Wtth relatives on Assiniboine Reserve, Indian Head ; is a good worker, 

speaks English, but retains Indian habits on account of surroundings. 
With his parents, Assiniboine Reserve, Indian Head ; talks very good 

English ; works at home, and occasionally among settlers ; lazy. 
With his brother on Piapot Reserve ; works well ; was m school less than 

one year and went back to Indian habits, on account of surroundings. 
Sickly ; at home at Crooked Lakes. _ 
With his father at Crooked Lakes ; doing well. 
With his father ; doing well. 

Left treaty and country with parents. . 

Married on Pasquah Reserve ; dull-witted, a little improved. 
Went to United States with his parents ; was a good blacksmith. 
Married on Pasquah Reserve ; not much improved. 
Did well in school ; worked one year in Indian warehouse, Regma ; now 

with his father on reserve. 
With parents, Pasquah Reserve ; doing well. uwv^+h 

Married on Crooked Lake Reserve ; doing very well ; good blacksmith. 

do do good worker. 

With his parents on Crooked Lakes Reserve ; doing well. 
With parents, Touchwood ; doing well. 

do do doing very well, 

do do do 

Transferred to Presbyterian school. 
Attending commercial course, St. Boniface College. 
Gone to United States with his mother. 
With his mother on reserve ; not sound-minded. 
Transferred to Episcopalian school. 
With his parents on reserve ; doing well. 
Married on reserve ; doing well. 
Gone to Treaty No. 7 with parents, 
do do 

With parents on reserve ; not sound-minded. 

With parents ; doing well. 

Gone to United States with relatives. 

Sick ; at home. 

Married on reserve ; doing very well. 

With parents, Fort Qu'Appelle ; doing very well. 

Transferred to Presbyterian school. 

At home at Crooked Lake ; doing well. 

With parents ; works among white settlers all the time. 

Transferred to Presbyterian school. 

At home ; doing well. , , . , 

At home ; was only here a little over one month ; not improved. 

Home, with parents ; a little improved. 

On reserve with parents ; doing fairly. 

Sick ; at home. 

Working^thta^nts on reserve ; not here long enough to be improved. 

Attending commercial course, St. Boniface College. 

Transferred to Presbyterian school. 

Working with his father in Regina ; did not belong to the treaty. 

Transferred to Presbyterian school. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

List of discharged Pupils ; where they were, when last heard from, &c. — Con. 









• 09 





























Maw Rose Left the treaty and country. 

Helena Went to United States with parents. 

Virginne Geddes Married to a half-breed at Fort Qu'Appelle. 

Anne Married on O'Soup Reserve; very much improved. 

Sarah On her reserve ; imbecile. 

ML Josephine Married to pupil 17 ; doing very well. 

Bella . 


Caroline ... 

Margaret ....... 






Mary Crowe 

C. Couture 

Mary Martina 


Mary Allary 

Pauline Allary, . . 


M. Pelletier 

Eliza Sandenis . . . 

Cecile Tanner 

Li] lie Elizabeth... 
Madeline Fisher . . 
Philomene Fisher. 
M. A. Bourassa. . . 

M. R. Tanner 

Antonia . . 





Adeline Pelletier. . 

Left treaty ; married to half-breed. 

Left treaty with parents. 

Married on O'Soup Reserve. 

Married on Pasquah Reserve. 

Married at Crooked Lake to a half-breed. 

Married on Kiwistagan Reserve. 

Married to pupil 98 ; doing well. 

Married at Crooked Lakes to Chief O'Soup's son. 

At home with parents ; doing very well. 

At home, Touchwood ; doing well. 

do do 

Gone to United States with parents. 
Married on Pasquah Reserve. 
Left treaty ; married at Qu'Appelle. 
Left treaty ; at home. 
Sick ; at home, File Hills. 
Married to pupil 46. 

Married to half-breed at Fort Qu'Appelle. 
Married on Gamblers Reserve. 
Gone to United States with parents. 
At home with parents, Fort Qu'Appelle. 

do do 

Married ; Keesickouse Reserve. 
With parents at Maple Creek. 
Married at Fort Ellice. 
At home ; not sound-minded. 
Gone to Presbyterian schools, Regina. 
Sick ; at home. 

At home ; on Pasquah Reserve. 
At home ; Qu'Appelle valley. 

Industrial School, 

Eegina, 19th September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for [the year ended 30th 
June, 1892. 

During the }'ear our numbers have increased from thirty-two to ninety-three 
— fifty-three boys and thirty-four girls. 

The staff, nine in number, has suffered little alteration during the year. Mr. 
McKenzie who acted as assistant principal, withdrew from Indian work in April 
last, and we secured the services of an efficient and enthusiastic assistant and teacher, 
Mr. Neil Gilmour. Under his management, gratifying results show themselves in 
the school-room. 

Under the half day system in vogue in the school, the children spend half the 
day in the school-room and the other half in some employment helpful both to them- 
selves and to the school. 

The evening hour before the religious exercises with which their day closes is 
usually spent, except in the warm days of summer, in a drill in English words 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

and phrases. By the help of numerous illustrations gathered from various sources, 
their vocabulary is much increased, and a direct association springs up, not between 
the English word and the Indian, but between the English word and the object. 
These exercises occupy only a portion of the time, the rest being taken up with 
general singing, music, memorizing of poetical extracts and short talks on helpful 

In enforcing discipline, corporal punishment is resorted to as little as possible. 
A system of daily marking in connection with roll call, enables us to punish the 
wrong-doer and to reward those that have done well. One evening in the week is 
set apart as a night for social gathering of employees and pupils. By games, music 
and dancing and by every other means we can devise, the evening is made as full of 
enjoyment as possible, and those who have received a certain number of bad marks 
or misdemeanours are sentenced to spend this hour quietly in their beds. 

Yery creditable progress has been made by many of the pupils in the industries 
taught at the school. 

Mr. McGregor, ihe farmer, and his boys have constructed half a mile of wire 
fence in the rear of the house to secure our grain fields. Besides considerable 
general freighting, they have teamed from Regina all the lumber required for our 
new buildings, all the wood and some of the coal needed for fuel. Much labour has 
been spent on the grain and vegetables, all of which promise a fair yield. In addi- 
tion to four acres of potatoes and other vegetables, some barley, vye, millet, nine 
acres of wheat, nineteen of oats and twenty-seven of a mixture suitable as a substi- 
tute for hay, were under crop. The farm stock has been increased to three horses, 
two yoke of oxen, eight milch cows and two yearlings. The children have developed 
a great liking for milk of which they receive a liberal allowance. 

Mr. Maguire, the carpenter instructor, has had eight boys under his instruc- 
tion. They have constructed a substantial three-truss bridge over the Wascana, an 
icehouse, and an underground roothouse, twenty by forty, with a capacity of three 
thousand bushels. A laundry, twenty by thirty-two, has been brought near comple- 
tion, and a building, twenty-four by fifty, to comprise carpenter shop, paint shop, 
shoe shop, two bed-rooms for male employees and two store-rooms, is well under 
way. In addition, many things in connection with the house, such as fire escape 
ladders, office desk, medicine chest, lockers, benches, tables, window screens, &c, 
were constructed. 

In the house' the girls have been carefully trained to habits of neatness and 
industry in the kitchen, laundry, and in all the other departments of the household, 
in whicn at stated periods regular duties are assigned them. 

In the sewing-room especially has the excellency of their work called for many 
favourable comments. G-irls, after some experience, are expected to make up all 
their own clothing, and as much other work as they can overtake. 

The health of the children has given us some care. Consumption has carried 
off two of our pupils, one of whom died at the school and the other at the reserve. 

Twenty-eight of the children, in compliance with the instructions of the Com- 
missioner, paid a brief visit to their homes under the care of one of the officers of 
the school. The visit satisfied the parents, and also placed before the eyes of the 
children the marked contrast between the school and the more cheerless and wilder 
life of the tepee. 

Many visitors have favoured us with their presence during the year, and much 
surprise and satisfaction has been expressed at the favourable way in which neatly 
dressed Indian children compare with the average white child. 

Daring winter evenings the magic lantern has been used to good advantage. 
The illustrated stories of Dick Whittington and his cat, Cinderella, John Gilpin, &c, 
have proved a source of great amusement, while numerous views of natural 
phenomena, cities and customs of foreign lands, have been a source of instruction as 
well as of interest. We purpose shortly making magic lantern slides with the help 
of a camera in our possession, so that we may be able in the long winter evenings 
to take weekly journeys to other lands and scenes. The love of the children for 
music is worth noting. The organ, violin, accordion and mouth organ are popular 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

instruments of music, and college songs that resound through the corridors of our 
universities find no mean echo in the assembly room of the school. The organiza- 
tion of a brass band is a prospect we would look forward to with pleasure. 

We endeavour to give the religious and moral training the prominence its 
importance demands, recognizing that the formation of a true and noble character 
on the part of pupils is the greatest requisite for the success of our Indian work. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

A. J. McLEOD, 


Industrial School, 

Battleford, 9th September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit herewith my annual report, together with 
inventory of G-overnment property under my charge for the fiscal year ended 30th 
June, 1892. 

It is a source of much pleasure to be able to report progress in every branch of 
industry taught in the institution. 

The past year has been one of marvellous advancement. 

The English language is the only one spoken both amongst Cree and Stony 
pupils. Days together pass at the school without hearing a word of Indian spoken. 
At the beginning of the year Indian speaking at certain hours of the day was allowed, 
but during the past few months Indian has been forbidden at any time, and the 
pupils deserve the greatest praise for the strong desire exhibited to acquire a 
thorough knowledge of the English language. 

The Glass-room 

Has been much improved by the floor being relaid, and new desks and 
seats provided, of the most approved pattern. These were manufactured in 
our own workshops. The progress of the pupiis, both male and female, in school, 
has been good. The half-time syrstem is still in practice. Trades, half a day, 
and school, half the day ; and the change works very beneficially. 

Carpenter's Shop. 

In the carpenter's shop very good progress has been made in practical work. 
The apprentices show special talent in thi? department, and turn out a great deal of 
work, a considerable proportion of which has been done for the agency and 


Blacksmith's Shop. 

The progress has been fair. Much valuable work has been done for the agency 
and reserves. We hope for greater results on occupying the new and commodious 

building just completed. 

Boot and Shoe Shop. 

This is a new branch of industry started this year, and only a commencement 
has been made, but the pupils evince a decided ability for this trade, which is one 
of the most useful in the institution. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 


In this branch very excellent progress has been made. After a period of 
instruction at the printing office of Mr. P. G-. Laurie, Battleford "Herald," one 
boy is able to direct all the mechanical work in connection with printing the 
"Guide," a small newspaper published fortnightly, containing items of interest to all 
connected with the school, and edited by a committee of the pupils. Excellent 
job work has also been turned out. 

The Brass Band 

Is also a source of much pleasure and profit in many ways, and for the short 
time they have received instruction the boys are able to perform most creditably. 

The Farm. 

"Very fair progress also may be recorded of the instruction imparted, of the 
practice and principle of agriculture, in all its branches, the outcome of 
which is proved by the very excellent crops now on view. The roots, most parti- 
cularly, are worthy of notice, and the supply of vegetables will far exceed the amount 
and quality of previous years. 

The Stock, 

Too, are in excellent condition, and have been well and carefully attended 
by the farmer and his apprentices. 

The boys apprenticed to trades are : — 

Carpenters 14 

Blacksmiths 14 

Farmers 17 

Shoemakers 8 

Printers ..,..>... 3 

Schoolteachers 2 

Female Department. 

Excellent progress in the general duties of housework, and practical and theo- 
retical instruction in the ditferent classes in connection therewith can be reported. 

Several girls have been placed for a few months with respectable families, on 
trial, and give universal satisfaction, showing that the training they are receiving is 
fitting them for the management of a household. 

The Out-students. 

Most favourable reports continue to be received of the pupils who have left the 
institution. Some are servants, others working at agencies, and the balance 
living in white settlements ; all are self-supporting. The wonderful change that has 
taken place in the habits, character and general bearing of the Indian youths who 
have attended our institution is beyond description ; thus proving, without doubt, 
that the system of industrial schools has been, and is to-day, one of the chief factors 
in domesticating the condition of the aboriginal tribes of this country. 

T cannot speak too highly of the valuable assistance rendered by the agents, 
particularly Messrs.Wiliiams and MacKenzie, in furthering the interests of the school 
amongst the various bands under their charge. 

Major McGibbon made his annual inspection of the school, and it was gratifying 
to hear him express his satisfaction at the progress the school was making in all 
branches, especially the class-room. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



56 Victoria. 

Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 

A. 1893 










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56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

St. Joseph's Industrial School, 

Brandon, Alta., 18th September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report, and inventory of all 
Government property in my charge on the 30th June last. 


During the year two pupils were discharged, and six entered. The six who 
entered were comprised of two boys and four girls — three full Bloods, and three 
Half-breeds. One of the girls was an old pupil, who was removed two years ago by 
her father before she could gain much by her attendance here. The following con- 
cerns the two discharges : 

Attendance under six months — One removed by force by his father ; did not 
profit any by his short stay ; is on the Blood Keserve living in Indian style. 

Attendance under four years — One a good but slow worker; was too old when 
admitted to do much in school-room; is employed as teamster, &c, by Indian Agent 
Begg at fifteen dollars per month and board. 

The average daily attendance throughout the year was almost Seventy. Through 
lack of accommodation we were obliged to refuse several applications for admission. 

Six pupils have been placed out at service during the year. Five of these are 
not looked on as discharged, but as out-students. Three of them continue in the 
places found for them; one (a carpenter) completed the work for which he was 
employed ; and two, who allowed themselves to be persuaded by Indians to leave 
their situations, are back in school again. The pupils working out are giving satis- 
faction to their masters, and earn from ten to fifteen dollars per month, board and 
clothes. I have had several applications for both boys and girls, which I have had 
to refuse, as the children were not quite long enough here yet, and we required them 
for our own work. After our own hay is all up, I will allow three or four boys to 
work outside for a month or two with neighbouring farmers. 

Attached to this report will be found a statement showing the whereabouts and 
occupations of all ex-pupils that can be traced, and who were long enough at school 
to profit by their attendance. 


Towards the end of 1891 we suffered from an epidemic of fever, but owing to 
great care taken of patients, no mortality resulted. Six pupils died in the year — 
three in the school and three in their homes, where they were allowed to go on sick 
leave. The following statement shows cause of death in each case : — 

Consumption. Consumption of the brain. : Liver Complaint. 


One boy. 

One boy. 
One girl. 

One girl. 

One girl. 

One boy. 


The progress made by pupils in class-work is satisfactory. The addition of a 
teacher for boys, to the staff, has tended greatly to this result. Mr. Scollen, the 
teacher just mentioned, also teaches the brass band, and the bo3 T s, thirteen in num- 
ber, have made great progress under his direction. I must here thank the depart- 
ment for furnishing the necessary instruments. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The following will show the standing of children in class-work according to the 
department's standard : — 

Standard I. 

Standard II. 

Standard III. 

Standard IV. 

Standard V. 






The boys are also drilled and exercised in calisthenics. 


Carpenter's Shop. — There are six apprentices in this shop. Three of these have 
been at the trade over three years, one for two years, and. two for six months. All 
are doing very well, and the oldest boys are well advanced in the knowledge of their 
trade. Below is a statement of work done in this shop during the year: — 




Tables, j Cup- 
dressing, boards. 















Three — 1 carpen- 
ter's, 1 s h o e- 
maker's shop, 
24 feet by 30, 1 
root house, 24 
by 32, 1 large 
board hay cor- 

The new shops are very suitable for their purpose. The building is two stories 
high ; the carpenters' shop is on the ground floor, and the shoemaker's upstairs. 

Shoemaker's Shop. — Six boys are learning this trade. Four of these are over 
three years, one over two, and one over one. All are progressing well at the trade. 
The four oldest can do all work on boots but the cutting. The following shows the 
amount of work performed during year : — 










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1 £ 




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Eight boys work steadily under the instructor on the farm. All other boys 
who are not employed at trades also work on farm, when necessary, during fatigue 
hours. Ten acres of new land have been broken, and twelve acres summer-fallowed. 
Thirty-seven acres were put under crop, and we shall have a good yield of roots and 
oats. We will require about one hundred and fifty tons of hay, and this will have 
to be hauled a distance of twelve miles. All this work has to be done by the boys 
and their instructor, Mr. Ed. Pidgeon, who continues to give great satisfaction as a 
good and conscientious worker. The herd of the institution consists of forty head 


56 Victoria. 

Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 

A. 1893 

of horned cattle, and six horses. During winter the farm hoys have ample occupa- 
tion in attending to our stock, getting out ice for summer u^e, and in cutting wood. 
The girls receive instruction in all kinds of domestic work ; the bigger girls 
learn cooking, baking, laundry and dairy work, and how to use the sewing machine, 
while the smaller ones are occupied with lighter work, such as sweeping, dusting, 
washing dishes, &c. All learn to sew and knit, and some are adepts at fancy work. 
The following statement shows the new work done in seamstress' room. 












































































Besides the above work, all necessary repairs to both boys' and girls' clothes 
were done in this room. 

In conclusion, I may state that there is a change in the disposition of the 
Indians towards the school. They seem to be more contented to be separated from 
their children, and do not visit the school as frequently as heretofore, greatly to 
the advantage of the children. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, ' 




Department of Indian Aft'airs. 












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56 Victoria. 

Sessional Papers (No. 14.) 

A. 1893 

Reason of Discharge and history of Pupils 
sine*' Discharge. 

Time was up and she was advanced enough ; was 
engaged as servant by Indian Agent DeCazes 
for some time ; has since been appointed as 
teacher of Indian day school at Bear's Hill, 
which position she still fills, and satisfactorily. 

This boy's time was up, and as I had an opportu- 
nity of placing him I did so ; he is working as 
teamster for Indian Agent Begg at the wage 
of $15 per month. 

Trade or 

Industry taught 

and Proficiency 

in it. 

Very proficient in 
all household 

Farmer ; a slow but 
steady worker. 




Standard V . . . 
do II.. 



Standard I. 


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Department of Indian Affairs. 

Kupert's Land Indian Industrial School, 

Middle Church, Man., 30th June, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to report as follows on the school for the past year : — 
The average number of children has been thirty-one boys and thirty-four girls, 
nineteen new pupils have been admitted and fourteen have been discharged. One 
has died at the school ; three who were discharged on account of ill-health sub- 
sequently died at home. 


While the general conduct has been satisfactory, we have experienced some 
difficulty in the pupils at an advanced age. Their habits and characters having 
been already formed to a large extent, they have found it less easy to submit to the 
restrictions placed upon them than the younger children. The result has been some 
desertions, but with one exception all have returned to the school. In future it will 
be desirable to admit no pupils over twelve years of age. 


Instruction in the various departments has gone on fairly well. Owing to the 
changes in the staff the work in the class-rooms has suffered somewhat, but con- 
siderable progress has been made. During the last quarter the pupils were graded 
as follows: — Standard I., eleven; IL, nine; III., nineteen; IV., sixteen; V., 
twelve. During the winter nights classes were held principally for the seniors, 
when instruction was given in singing, drawing, geography, English, and com- 
mercial arithmetic. The trade instruction has embraced printing, carpentry, 
blacksmithing and farming. For each of these industries we have had a com- 
petent instructor, under whose management good results have been obtained. 
Pupils have been assigned to them as follows: — Printing, four boys; carpenter, 
six; blacksmithing, four; farming, twelve. Others have been engaged in various 
duties about the premises. The following will give some idea of the work done by 
each shop : — 

An exhibition of the school's work and farm products at the Provincial exhi- 
bition in October last, attracted much attention. At the same time our boys 
entered for the school drill competition, and though not successful in obtaining the 
prize, did very creditably. 


A monthly paper, the " Kupert's Land Gleaner," seventy-six thousand eight 
hundred quarto pages for the year; fifteen pamphlets from four to twenty pages 
each, five thousand four hundred and forty-five copies ; twenty letter and billheads, 
twelve thousand eight hundred and fifty copies; sixteen tickets and cards, three 
thousand nine hundred and sixty-five copies ; thirty-six circulars, sixteen thousand 
four hundred and seventy-five copies; ballots, labels, dodgers, envelopes, receipt, 
report and remittance forms, cheques, drafts, bank-books, laundry lists, pence 
envelopes, localized magazine covers, voters' lists, &c, two hundred and thirty- 
eight thousand one hundred pages more. All sewing done by boys, who have also 
learnt to pad letter-heads, &c. 


Buildings, furniture, doors, sashes, frames, wheelbarrows and general work. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 


Harrows, scuftlers, brands, chains, clevises, repairs to agricultural implements, 
wheelwright work, scrapers, the manufacture of the patent Acme doubletree, 
horse-shoeing, and the management of windmill for pumping water and grinding, 
and the care of fire apparatus. 


Land under cultivation, fifty-five acres. As anticipated in my last report, the 
return* of grain is small, owing to the ravages of swarms of local grasshoppers. 
Wheat was entirely destroyed, but we had four hundred bushels of barley, eight 
hundred of oats, five hundred of potatoes, turnips eight hundred, other vegetables 
sixty bushels, hay one hundred tons. Stock has done well. Our crops for the coming 
year are likely to be moderately good. The grounds and garden have been much 
improved and the trees of various kinds have grown well. 


The special instruction given girls embraces all branches of housework, sewing, 
knitting, laundry, &c. They take their places with the boys in the class-rooms and 
compare very well with them in their studies. We have been encouraged by hear- 
ing good reports of the behaviour and progress of several who, for various reasons, 
have been allowed to go home. The same remark applies to boys who were with 
us any length of time before being discharged. 

The various improvements made in buildings and those now under construction 
will give increased accommodation which has been greatly needed. Through the faulty 
construction of a stove pipe box, a fire broke out in the hospital on 2nd February. 
It had obtained a firm hold between ceiling and floor, when discovered, but 
thanks to the energy of staff and boys and the prompt and able way in which the 
little chemical engine and fire hose were handled, it was put out before very serious 
damage was done. There can be no doubt that but for the fire tank and hose, the 
building would have been lost and possibly even more serious loss incurred. The 
value of the fire drill was also very apparent on this occasion. 

The health of the children has been generally good. We have again been spared 
from any epidemic. The only cases of serious sickness have been invariably owing 
to a scrofulous affection. The deaths above referred to were all from consumption. 
All children requiring vaccination have been vaccinated during the year. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Yours obediently, 



Industrial School, 

St. Boniface, Manitoba, 14th June, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — Allow me to send you the report of the St. Boniface Industrial School 
for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

This is the first report, as the just elapsed year is the first one during which 
the establishment was in full operation ; the fact is, that the buildings were not com- 
plete at the beginning of the year, and some are still to be done. I may say that 
the buildings are comfortable, well heated and well ventilated. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The boys' department (to which are also attached a few girls) has all been 
constructed and equipped (with the exception of the chapel and disciplinarian's 
room) by the Government, on the ground belonging to the same. The cost so far is 
about eighteen thousand dollars. 

The girls' department is attached to the convent of the Grey Nuns, all prepared 
and furnished at their expense, with the exception of the class-room. 

We had no difficulty in securing the number of children fixed by the Depart- 
ment of Indian Affairs. The fact is, that we refused many, and could not help 
taking several on our own responsibility. 

l)uring the four quarters of the year we had in the house respectively eighty- 
five, eighty-two, eighty-five and eighty-one children, giving a mean attendance of 
eighty-three, while the daily attendance for the three hundred and sixty-six days of 
the year was seventy. 

In general the conduct of the pupils gave great satisfaction, so much so that 
punishments had not to be resorted to, or at least in such a mild form and rare 
occurrence, that I can say there was no punishment. I regret to have to add that 
there were three exceptions for grown up children, who came too old to school and 
whose habits were such that they could not be tolerated among other children. 
They were dismissed, with the approval of the department. 

There are three school-rooms taught by three of the sisters, one at the convent 
for girls only, and two at the boys' department, one exclusively for the elder boys, 
and the other for the younger boys along with the girls attached to that department. 

The success of the children in the different classes is pretty fair, the short time 
not allowing a very marked proficiency. Out of the eighty children in the 
establishment during the last quarter, forty-two were in the first standard, twentj r - 
four in the second standard, eight in the third standard, five in the fourth standard, 
and one in the fifth standard. 

To the programme ordered by the department to be taught in the schools, 
I may say that we added exercises in drawing (specially map drawing) and also 
singing in chorus and alone. 

The absence of working shops during the greatest part of the year has 
naturally retarded the progress of the pupils in that part of their training. During 
the whole winter we had a great deal of trouble for want of room to facilitate their 
natural taste for such work, during the last three months increased accommo- 
dation has been secured. There is a commodious carpenter shop furnished with tools 
and there five boys are working several hours every day with their instructor, and 
their progress is such that they are preparing for the coming exposition several 
pieces of furniture, sashes, window8, k &c. 

The shoemaker shop is also well fitted for the work and five other boys are there, 
progressing rapidly in the art of mending and making shoes. One of them has 
already turned out two pairs of shoes all of his own making. This shop is also pre- 
paring articles for the exposition. 

There is a large garden in which five other boys help the farmer, while several 
other little fellows are invited to give help. As the piece of ground around the 
school had not been cultivated for twenty-five years past it may be easily under- 
stood that the actual preparation is not so easy as it will -be afterwards, and that we 
cannot look this year for more than a fair result. 

The girls are all trained to housework; they can all make hand knitting and 
many can use the knitting machine. While twenty can use the sewing machine, all 
are able to sew, and the fact is that they are all trained to and do repair their own 
clothing. Some of their knitting and sewing work will be exhibited. All those of 
convenient age do washing and ironing; some are taught gardening, and five are 
tolerably good cooks. 

The health of the children has been the particular care on the part of those who 
are intrusted with the management of the establishment. It is a well-known fact 
that many of the poor Indian children are not of a sound constitution, and in the 
change of life, they require to be treated with intelligent charity. I regret very much 
to say that two of our girls died during the year, both consumptive; their disease 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

became manifest soon after their arrival. Three of the boys were very sick ; it was 
advisable to try to send them home, and they went under "a leave of absence from 
the department. Two returned, one cured, the other improved; but the third is 
still with his mother and sick. Besides the above-named cases disease has not been 
prevalent, on the contrary the general health has been good, beyond our expectation. 
The doctor thought proper to vaccinate or revaccinate sixty-seven children. 
The operation was a complete success. In all cases the vaccination took well and 
but one single girl seemed to be affected by the result for a few days, the others 
never missing their duties nor recreations. 

With much respect, your obedient servant, 

S. HAMEL, Principal. 

Castle Mountain, Alta., 12th September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my report for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

I returned to headquarters at Eegina, from a short vacation, 13th July, 1891. 
On 21st July, agreeable to instructions, I proceeded to White Cap's Eeserve at 
Moose Woods, where I examined, and reported on hay lands which Instructor 
Tucker had recommended and requested to have reserved for the Sioux Band in his 

From this point I proceeded to Prince Albert, where I examiued the lands avail- 
able for the Sioux refugees in the district, whom the department proposed locating 
on a reserve. The desire on the part of these people to be settled in the immediate 
vicinity of the town, where they could procure work, had to be considered, and 
therefore made the question of their location a difficult one. A report was sub- 
mitted on the different locations examined. 

I here received instructions to subdivide the reserves embraced in the Carlton 
Agency. I therefore returned to Eegina, to procure my outfit of camp equipage 
and supplies. 

Leaving Eegina 4th August, I proceeded across country, by way of Touchwood 
Hills, to Duck Lake, where I procured part of ray equipage, stored in the fall of 

From Duck Lake I proceeded to Prince Albert, where I made a further exami- 
nation of lands for the Sioux refugees, and, in the meantime, had certain repairs 
made to my wagons and buckboard. 

From Prince Albert I proceeded to the Carlton Agency, and on 24th August 
commenced the subdivision of Mistawasis's Eeserve. 

As the season was well advanced, and the time at my disposal before the win- 
ter would set in limited, I decided to subdivide only such portions of the reserves 
as were cultivated, and a sufficient surplus to allow for any possible expansion in the 
next ten years. 

Completing the necessary subdivision of Mistawasis's Eeserve on 26th September, 
I proceeded to Ah-tah-kah-koop's Eeserve at Sandy Lake. The work was here 
much delayed by unfavourable weather during the latter end of September, and the 
early part of October. By 17th October the work required on this reserve was 
completed, and on the 18th I returned to Mistawasis's Eeserve, where a few days 
were occupied extending the subdivision already made, such extension having been 
found advisable. 

From Mistawasis's I proceeded to Pety-quaw-key's Eeserve at Muskeg Lake. I 
commenced the subdivision 22nd October and completed work on the 30th. 

On the night of the 29th snow fell to the depth of six inches, and raw cold 
weather set in. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

The weather being now unseasonable for further field work, I found it necessary 
to postpone the subdivision of Win, Twatt's Reserve at Sturgeon Lake, until another 
season, and decided to start my party at once on the road to Regina, before extreme 
cold set in. 

Leaving Muskeg Lake 31st October, we proceeded to Carlton, where we found 
the Saskatchewan almost impassable with floating ice, but by cutting the ferry loose, 
we succeeded with poles in making a crossing, after a full day's labour. This had 
to be repeated at the South Branch. Starting my party off to Regina by trail under 
the charge of my assistant, I myself visited Prince Albert, to settle up various business 
in connection with the expenses of the survey, and on 5th November returned by rail- 
way to Regina, my party arriving after me by trail on the 12th. 

In connection with the subdivision of the reserves above referred to, I found it 
necessary to project certain township outlines (some thirty miles in all), to enable 
me to make the subdivisions of the sections and legal subdivisions in the reserves, 
in accordance with the theoretic sections and legal subdivisions of the Dominion 
Lands system. This added largely to the actual work of the subdivision. 

Indian labour was engaged for all the purposes for which it could profitably be 
employed, and the Sandy Lake men, who were the first to offer, and who were hired, 
gave good satisfaction. 

With reference to the Sandy Lake Band, it was observed that they are showing 
a tendency to abandon the lower country, and spread out their locations on the hill- 
sides and more elevated portions of the reserve, where the land is of a rich quality, 
and the danger from early frost much lessened. 

I remained at headquarters, engaged at office work, from 5th November to 21st, 
when, in compliance with instructions received, I proceeded to the Pelly Agency, to 
make certain surveys of an addition to a small reserve at the mouth of Shoal River 
for the "Key " Band, and an addition to the Kee-se-kouse Reserve, lying between 
the White Sand and the Assiniboine Rivers. 

At the Shoal River Reserve it was found on a further examination, that the pro- 
posed addition did not contain the hay lands desired and sought for. The survey 
was therefore abandoned and a return made to Pelly. 

At this point the survey of the extension to the Kee-se-kouse Reserve, as recom- 
mended and desired by Mr. Agent Jones, was made, and a plan and report contain- 
ing my views submitted to the Commissioner. 

From Pelly I returned to Regina for Christmas Day. 

From 25th December, J 891, to 30th June, 1892, my services were engaged in 
preparing plans and returns of the various surveys made during the past year. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Reserve Surveyor. 

Indian Office, Victoria, B.C., 5th November, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward herewith my annual report upon Indian 
affairs within the province of British Columbia, for the year ended 30th June, 1892. 

The several reports of the Indian agents, together with the customary statistical 
returns and tabular statements, have been already sent to the department. 

During the year now reported upon the advancement and general condition of 
the native population has been highly satisfactory. 

The discontent which has been noticeable for years past in some of the agencies, 
engendering, as it did, in the hearts of the aborigines, feelings hostile to the Govern- 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

ment and to the department, and therefore to their own advancement, seems 
happily to be dying out, and to be gradually replaced by a more trusting spirit and 
a desire to work in harmony with those who labour for their good. 

A steady improvement in the sanitary condition of the natives is observable, 
although much is yet to be learned and accomplished in that direction by many of 
the bands, especially those situated in isolated localities. 

It is to be regretted that in four of the agenc.ies epidemics of the following 
types appeared and caused several deaths, mostly amongst young people, viz., 
measles, influenza and quinsy. 

All that could be done to relieve the sufferers was attempted, and before the 
close of the year the diseases had almost entirely disappeared. 

Throughout the remaining five agencies the general health was exceptionally 
good, and an increase in the Indian population is observed in many places. 

In visiting the Indians throughout the province I was much pleased by the 
many signs of advancement to be seen, and by noticing to a great extent the increase 
of different industries amongst them, and the consequent comfort and contentment 

In some cases, unfortunately, owing to the poor nature of the soil on their 
reserves, and in others to the scarcity of water for irrigating purposes, the Indians 
have had a hard struggle for existence and maintain themselves and their little 
ones with difficulty. 

The salmon supply in certain localities has been light, and the earnings of the 
Indians at the hop-fields in Washington State, owing to a failure in the crop for 
1891, were almost nil; in consequence also of the cessation of business operations 
in many places throughout the country, such as shutting down or working at half 
capacity, &c, of saw-mills, and to the increase of white labour, the natives cannot 
now so readily obtain work or get as high wages as they did in former years. 

This comes hard upon many, but in the end must be to their advantage as hav- 
ing a tendency to make them direct their attention and energies to, and towards, the 
development of such resources as are at their command, and as will prove of more 
lasting benefit to them. 

For years Indians with their wives and families and many of the young men on 
account of the opportunities afforded of earning money so easily at the hop-fields and 
at other places nearer home, and the excitement produced by travel and a constant 
change, have been in the habit of abandoning for the greater portion of the summer 
and autumn their reserves, to the utter neglect of their gardens and other home 
industries. They also contract immoral habits and diseases of mind and body which 
prove fatal to their advancement and to the welfare of their offspring. Such being, 
mostly, the outcome of these annual peregrinations, any change in such a course of 
life cannot but prove a blessing to those concerned. 

There has been no disturbance of any serious nature amongst the Indians ; they 
continue law-abiding, industrious and on friendly terms with the whites. 

The catch of fur-seal and sea-otters has been better than usual on the "West 
Coast, the Indians of that agency having realized over sixty-six thousand dollars by 
the sale of the furs taken by them within the year. Of this large amount the 
Ahousahts Tribe alone made twelve thousand dollars, returning to their village from 
Victoria with their schooner loaded down with provisions, amongst which was one 
hundred barrels of sugar. 

In the Kamloops and Okanagon Agency large numbers of the natives have been 
employed on the Canadian Pacific Eailroad. They continue to give every satisfac- 
tion to their employers and the public by their peaceful and orderly conduct and by 
their steady and faithful work. The crops in this section have also been very good, 
and it is considered that these people are about the most prosperous in the province. 

I was much pleased to find when visiting Kootenay that a very good feeling to- 
wards the whites now animated the Indians in that part of British Columbia, and 
to learn that they have for some time been very friendly and well-behaved. I also 
noticed a great change for the better at the reserve of the Shuswaps, located upon 
the Columbia River, about six miles north of Windermere. A nice church has been 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

built and fitted up; a new village, consisting of much improved houses and a good 
wide street, is being started; there has also been a great increase in the acreage 
under fence and cultivation, with extensive water ditches brought on, which gives 
an appearance of substantial prosperity to a stretch of land that was hitherto little 
better than a parched, and sometimes grassy, plain. 

Isadore, the chief of the St. Mary's Band, has much improved his farm, and by 
his industry sets a good example to his people. His land is very good and produces 
excellent crops. 

On the Tobacco Plains, where the Indians have always been noted for their 
lawlessness and backwardness in all industrious and useful pursuits, a great change 
for the better is observed. They have been building better cabins; have put good 
fences around their plots of ground, and no complaints of their misdeeds have been 
made within the year. 

This improvement may be to some extent accounted for by a change in the 
chieftainship; David, the former head of that band, having died in October, 1891, 
has been succeeded by his son Paul, who now reigns in his stead. The former 
always hated the whites, whilst the latter is friendly, and is ever willing to assist 
the authorities in maintaining order. 

There is now residing in Kootenay, at Fort Steele, a skilled physician who is 
subsidized by the Provincial Government, and whose presence in their midst is very 
comforting to the aborigines as well as to the white settlers. 

The Indians in the Fraser River Agency are doing remarkably well. Their 
crops have been good; the salmon catch for their own consumption has been ample, 
and employment at fair wages has been within the reach of such as required it. 

As a pleasing example of their industry and its good results, I may state that 
the "Towassan " Band, near Semiahmo Bay, have three hundred and seventy-five 
acres under crop, mostly wheat, have four self-binders, twenty-five work horses, 
besides other stock, and numerous implements. 

On the occasion of my visit to the Pemberton Meadow Indians, I was much 
struck by the large amount of land under cultivation on their reserve, and by the 
excellent manner in which the land had been farmed. These Indians are comfort- 
ably off, but have no convenient market for their produce. 

The Governor General's proclamation in reference to the enfranchisement of 
the British Columbia Indians, has generally given much satisfaction, although as 
yet none of the Indians have taken advantage of the privileges to be conferred. 

Two villages in the Kwawkewlth Agency, the "Ma-ma-lil-i-kulla" and " Wi- 
wai-kum," were burned down and a large amount of property destroyed. In the 
former two deaths occurred, the victims being an old man and his wife ; the old man 
by his carelessness having been the cause of the fire. 

Owing to the prevalence of the epidemics reported upon, the expenses on 
account of medical attendance and the supply of medicine has been very great. I 
have endeavoured, however, as far as possible to place a check upon the indiscrim- 
inate attendance of physicians upon such as were not seriously ill, and also upon the 
dispensing of medicine by the agents and missionaries to the Indians not really in 
such bad health as to require it. It is remarkable that in any stage of health the 
natives are ever ready to be dosed, and no matter how strong or disagreeable to the 
ordinary palate the physic may be, these people will devour it with avidity, and, 
mentally at least, feel -all the better for it. 

The hospital at Metlakahtla has been much improved and its accommodation ex- 
tended ; it is proving quite a boon to the sick of all classes in the neighbourhood. 

Immediately before the close of the year an occasional case of small-pox had 
appeared in some of the cities on the coast, but no fears were then entertained of its 
becoming epidemic, nor had it got amongst the aborigines. The Indian agents, 
however, throughout the province were notified of the appearance of that disease, 
so fatal to the natives, and instructed to be particularly vigilant in seeing that the 
sanitary regulations were carried out, and that every precaution was taken to guard 
against the threatened evil. 



56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The Industrial Indian Schools established, of which separate reports have been 
forwarded, continue to give the greatest satisfaction and to promise the most favour- 
able results in the future. 

At Alert Bay, and throughout the Kwawkewlth Agency, the natives are look- 
ing forward anxiously to the time when they may be able to send their children to 
the school which is in course of construction at that place, and which is expected to 
be ready for the reception of pupils before the close of the year 1892. 

The Ivootenay Industrial School buildings are capable of accommodating the 
same number of pupils as are now being trained at the Kuper Island Industrial 
School (thirty -seven) and I hope that at an early date the department may ap- 
prove of a similar number being admitted into the institution at Kootenay, which is 
doing such good service. 

The work in connection with Indian affairs in this province has been increas- 
ing rapidly for the last several years and is getting beyond the grasp of the limited 
staff (two in number) at my disposal. This can be easily accounted for by the 
increase of settlement all over the province, which continually brings to life 
industries and interests hitherto unknown, and which to a great extent affect the 
Indian reserves and the immediate interests of the natives. 


The natives in this agency are prosperous and contented. 

They have had sufficient salmon for their wants, have had good crops, and 
from their central position can obtain remunerative employment in the different 
industries being carried on. 

Good returns are obtained from dog-fish oil put up by some of these Indians ; 
logging is also carried on extensively and profitably, in certain localities. 

The statistics which afford ample proof of the prosperity of these people are 
hereto attached : — 

Value of personal property $ 150,000 

Acres under cultivation 3,673 

New land broken in 781 

Yalue of real and personal properly $1,312,545 

Ploughs 103 

Harrows 60 

Wagons and carts 62 

Fanning mill ■ 1 

Threshing machine 1 

Number of other implements 1,448 

Horses 986 

Cows 478 

Sheep 253 

Pigs :.... 2,400 

Oxen 94 

Number of young stock 517 

Value of fish taken :..$ 36,900 

Value of furs taken 13 200 

Other industries 26,200 

Corn Bush. 2,643 

Buckwheat . " 150 

Wheat " 3,222 

Oats " 11,456 

Peas " 7,671 

Barley " 2,436 

Potatoes " 22,035 

Hay.. Tons 3,118 


Department of Indian Affairs. 


In this agency the aborigines are progressing favourably and are less discon- 
tented than they have been for years past. Their earnings have been very good, 
but owing to an oversight on the part of the agent, who placed in his report for 
the year ended 30th of June, 1891, returns which should have appeared in that for 
this year, the figures in his tabular statement, now submitted, do not show the 
actual increase. 

Sanitary arrangements have been attended to, and notwithstanding that unfor- 
tunately at Fort Simpson and the Queen Charlotte Islands there were several deaths 
from influenza, an increase in the native population is given. 

Owing to the difficult} 7 of preparing the ground, and to the fact that money can 
be more easily obtained from labour in other directions, the land under cultivation 
is very limited. 

The Indian Industrial School at Metlakahtla is carrying on its work success- 
fully under Mr. Scott's care. The girls' school at Fort Simpson conducted by the 
Methodist Missionary Society is giving promise of much good ; and the missionary 
work carried on by the different denominations throughout the agency is reported 
as having a most beneficial effect. 

Accompanying are the statistics : — 

Value of personal property ..., $210,290 

Acres under cultivation 106 

New land broken in..., . 21 

Number of implements 450 

Horses 30 

Number of young stock , 19 

Value of fish taken ..., $ 93,780 

Value of furs taken 48,110 

Other industries.. 149,350 

Hydah Nation raised the following: 

Potatoes Bush. 310 

Turnips " 100 

Hay Tons 10 

Other vegetables , .Tons 2 

Nishgar Nation raised : 

Potatoes Bush. 860 

Vegetables Tons 4 

Tsimpsean Nation raised : 

Potatoes Bush. 800 

Vegetables , Ton 1 

Oweekayno Nation raised : 

Potatoes Bush. 500 

Vegetables .Ton 1 

Tallion Nation raised: 

Potatoes Bush. 1,800 

Vegetables Ton \ 

Hay : .Tons 12 

In the Nishgar Nation, the two villages " Wilskish-tum-wil-wil-get " and " Kitan- 
gata" have been merged into one — " Kitangata." 


These Indians, it is satisfactory to note, continue to be well-behaved and law- 
abiding. Their efforts in the cultivation of the land allotted to them have been 
fairly successful, although in some cases the yield has been light owing to early 
frosts and to a scarcity of water, the latter being much increas'ed by a dry season. 


14— 15| 

56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

A considerable number still follow hunting and trapping as a means of support, 

and are fairly successful. 

Influenza and pneumonia caused several deaths, especially among the young, at 

St. Mary's Mission. Before the close of the year reported upon these epidemics had 

disappeared and the general health was good. 
The statistics are as follows: — 

Value of personal property $50,900 

Acres under cultivation 199 

New land broken in .. 19 

Wagons and carts 10 

Horses 1,593 

Cows 218 

Number of young stock (cattle) 20 

Wheat Bush. 110 

Oats " 2,245 

Peas " 155 

Potatoes " 1,200 

Hay Tons 67 


No epidemics or sickness of any serious nature has prevailed in this agency, 
and no deaths, save from natural and ordinary causes, have been recorded. 

There is a marked improvement in the houses recently erected and in the laying 
out of their villages in many places, which much improves the sanitary condition of 
these bands who have made such provision for their comfort, and affords a pleasing 
evidence of their advancing civilization. 

The cultivation of garden patches, where land fit for cultivation is available, is 
being more generally attended to ; several pieces of land have been cleared and 
fenced since last yeav. These Indians, however, mainly derive their support from 
the proceeds of their hunting and fishing labours and have been very successful in 
their catch of fur-seal and seal-otter during the year. 

The statistics are appended : — 

Value of personal property $70,300 

Acres under cultivation 12 

New land broken in 1 

Ploughs 1 

Horses 16 

Cows 3 

Sheep 40 

Pigs 30 

Oxen 2 

Young stock 6 

Value of furs taken $66,600 

Other industries 9,400 

These tribes raise about one thousand five hundred bushels of potatoes in small 
garden patches. The reserves comprise little good farming land except in Barciay 
Sound. At Alberni, the Indians cut about ten tons of hay and grow an acre or so 
of oats, and have garden patches of carrots, turnips, onions, cabbage, &c. At Hes- 
quiaht also, the Indians grow a few bundles of carrots and turnips. 


Good accounts are given of the progress of this people, and a marked improve- 
ment is apparent in their condition generally. 

The fur catch has been good ; they have been well provided with salmon and 
berries — an important factor in their food supply — and have had a fair crop of 



Department of Indian Affairs. 

Their sanitary condition has been excellent and none of the epidemics which 
visited other parts of* the province got among them. 

Five lives were lost on the SSkeena River resulting from boating accidents. The 
waters of this river are most treacherous, and cause the loss of many lives annually. 

The cutworm, seen for the tirst time in that* country, made its appearance, 
destroying all garden stuff except the potato plant. 

The statistics are given below : — 

Value of personal property $23,100 

Acres under cultivation 110 

New land broken in : '. 55 

Value of real and personal property $64,860 

Horses 32 

Cows 6 

Number of young stock , 6 

Value of fish taken $27,850 

Value of furs taken 56,700 

Other industries 8,550 


During the period reported upon, many of these Indians, in different localities, 
have been afflicted With measles and a malignant type of quinsy, resulting in several 
deaths, especially among the young people. These epidemics have, however, passed 
away and the general health before the close of the year was good. 

The conduct of the natives has been satisfactory, no crimes of any serious nature 
having been recorded against them. With some few exceptions they support them- 
selves in comparative comfort upon the produce of their land and upon their earn- 
ings, the latter derived chiefly from trapping, hunting, fishing, placer gold mining, 
packing, and such employment as they can occasionally obtain upon the farms or 
stock ranches of the whites throughout the agency. 

Each year increases the number of acres under cultivation and their knowledge 
of the good results to be expected from such industry. 

The statistics hereto appended give satisfactory proof of advancement : 

Value of personal property 4 ... $ 58,500 

Acres under cultivation 1,237 

New land broken in Acres 70 

Value of real and personal property $213,789 

Ploughs .*. .' 50 

Harrows 31 

Wagons and carts 18 

Fanning mills , 9 

Threshing machines 1 

Number of other implements. , 540 

Horses - . 3,151 

Cows 615 

Pigs 1,380 

Young stock 241 

Mowers, reapers and horse rakes 23 . 

' Value of furs $11,750 

Other industries $18,400 

Harness sets , 102 

Sleighs , , 84 

Wheat Bush. 10,692 

Oats " 3,050 

Barley. , " 1,150 

Potatoes...., " 6,571 

Peas ,. " 1,050 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Statistics — Continued. 

Carrots Bush. 122 

Turnips " 8 

Beans ... " 22 

Onions '. s " 12 

Hay , Tons 620 


Within the year embraced b}^ this report a marked improvement in the conduct 
of the Indians has been noticeable, they seem more inclined to avail themselves of 
the means within their reach for bettering their condition and are becoming more 
industrious and amenable to the instructions given them by their agent and the 
missionaries who labour for their advancement. 

The day school on the reserve of the Tsa-waw-ti-neuh Tribe at Gwa-yas-dums is 
reported to be doing well, and the attendance and advance of the pupils encourag- 

The Alert Bay saw-mill and the Alert Bay salmon cannery continue to afford 
remunerative employment to quite a number of natives. 

The salmon run has been light, which to a great extent has been compensated 
for by the abundance of the oulachon fish. 

From various causes there has been a great falling off in the earnings of many 
in this agency, but fortunately no suffering has been experienced through an insuf- 
ficiency of food. 

The statistics are given hereafter : — 

Value of personal property $80,740 

Acres under cultivation 10J- 

Value of real and personal property $99,712 

Horses 1 

Cows 3 

Pigs 6 

Oxen 1 

Number of young stock 2 

As regards agricultural operations, the agent states that the Indians in his 
agency only cultivate a very few small patches of potatoes, so their agricultural 
operations amount to almost nothing. 


The Indians in this division have fortunately not been visited by any of the 
epidemics which caused more or less sickness and loss of life in less favoured dis- 
tricts. Consequently the death rate has been unusually light. 

Considerable progress has been made in the cultivation of the soil and other 
industrial pursuits by many of the bands. This pleasing advancement is particu- 
larly noticeable in Nanaimo, Cowichan and Saanich, at each of which places they 
have provided themselves with threshing machines and other improved implements. 

The Kuper Island Industrial School is progressing very favourably, exceeding 
in its .results the beneficial effects reasonably anticipated. 

Salmon have not been as plentiful as in former years, and there has been a 
falling off in the demand for Indian labour in this division. 

The following statistics show a considerable advance in the area of land under 
cultivation and of that newly broken up; there is also a large increase observable 
in the value of " real and personal " property, as well as in the number of stock and 
farm implements: — 

Value of personal property $ 84,900 

Acres under cultivation 2,276 

New land broken in Acres 121 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Statistics — Continued. 

Value of real and personal property $713,295 

Ploughs 117 

Harrows , .. 6G 

Wagons and carts 177 

Fanning mill 1 

Threshing machines 6 

Number of other implements 3 

Horses 400 

Cows 341 

Sheep 857 

Pigs 185 

Oxen 128 

Number of young stock -. 630 

Wheat Bush. 500 

Oats " 9,400 

Peas .. " 400 

Potatoes " 5,500 

Hay Tons 750 


The Indians throughout these extensive agencies continue to advance steadily 
and are turning to profitable account the lessons taught, and the assistance given 
them by the department and those interested in their advancement. 

Without exception, they are industrious. Those who cultivate the soil, where 
the land is good have mostly good returns, and those who work for wages, as cattle 
herders, farm labourers, railway navvies, packers, &c, make considerable money. 

Placer gold mining yields fair returns, and such as depend much upon the 
salmon catch have been sufficiently supplied.. 

Unfortunately during the year now reported upon " la grippe" and measles has 
caused some deaths amongst this people. Owing, however, to timely aid and effective 
measures instituted by the agent and other sympathizers, mortality was checked 
and the epidemics referred to stamped out. 

The statistics, which I hereto append, give evidence of the advance reported 
upon : — 


Value of personal property $51,488 

Acres under cultivation , , 930J 

New land broken in Acres 102 

Value of real and personal property , $206,487 

Ploughs 49 

Harrows 40 

Wagons and carts 20 

Fanning mills , 6 

Mowing machines 6 

Number of other implements 1,529 

Horses 2,202 

Cows 292 

Pigs 279 

Young stock 347 

Value offish taken $7,373 

" furs " $10,045 

Other industries 53,200 

Corn Bush. 523 

Wheat " 1,908 

Oats " 3,020 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Statistics — Continued. 

Peas Bush. 767 

Beans " 1,261 

Barley , " 184 

Onions : " 351 

Fruit trees (total) 121 

Potatoes Bush. 19,180 

Hay Tons 1,231 


Value of personal property $69,914 

Acres under cultivation. 1,469 

JSew land broken up Acres. 85 

Value of real and personal property $208,992 

Ploughs „.... 




Wagons and carts 


Fanning mills 


Mowing machines 


Number of other implements 






-*- &° * 



Young stock.... 


Value of fish taken 

$ 1,135 




" furs " 

Other industries 

Corn , 


Wheat. ... 

















Fruit trees (total) , 




The following schools have received the Government grant during the past 
fiscal year: — 

Kamloops Industrial; Kuper Island Industrial; Kootenay Industrial; Met- 
lakahtla Industrial; Massett, Anglican; Kincolith, Anglican; Kitlope, Anglican ; 
Alert Bay, Anglican; Yale, Anglican; Hazelton, Anglican; St. Mary's, Eoman 
Catholic; Williams Lake Industrial, Roman Catholic; Coqualeetza, Methodist; Port 
Simpson, Methodist; Bella Bella, Methodist; Port Essington, Methodist; Songhees, 
Anglican; Grwayasdumo (Zawadinuck), Anglican; Nanaimo (St. Augustine), 
Anglican; Alberni, Tseshaht Reserve, Presbyterian. 

The Methodist schools with the exception of the Coqualeetza are paid through 
the Methodist Society at Toronto. 


Medicines are supplied to the various agents and missionaries in the province 
when requested. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 


Fish and furs passed through the Custom-house at Victoria for the fiscal year 
ended 30th June, 1892:— 

Furs, marine, value $1,060,227 

" land " : 279,277 

Salmon, canned, 8,713,508 lbs 934,438 

Pickled, oris., 3 38 

Other fish ........ 364 

"With reference to the above statistics I may remark for your information that 
during the past season the largest number of the schooners sealing in the vicinity 
of Behring Sea employed white men as hunters, whereas in former years the hunters 
were chiefly Indians from the West Coast. 

I have the honour to be, sir. 

Your obedient servant, 


Visiting Indian Superintendent. 

Cowichan Agency Indian Office, 

Quamichan, B.C., 24th August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs. 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report, together with tabular 
statement and a list of Government property under my charge. 

You will notice that the census columns are the same as last year, as I have not 
been able to take a complete new one of the whole agency, and last year's census 
being taken at one time was reliable. 

There has been no serious epidemic, and the death rate has been slight, so that 
I consider the census to be very nearly the same. 

It is gratifying to be able to report that with one or two exceptions the bands 
of the agency have made great progress in the cultivation of their land ; this is par- 
ticularly the case in Nanaimo, Cowichan and Saanich, in each of which places the 
Indians have threshing machines of their own, and this fall I expect they will have 
more grain for sale than in any previous year. This is very fortunate for some of 
them as there is very slight demand for labour of any kind. 

The saw-miils are doing little or nothing, the number of white men unemployed 
and the scarcity of money makes it very difficult for Indians to find employment; 
and those who did not put in any crops, but depended as usual to the Fraser canneries 
a-nd hop-fields of Washington to earn money enough to see them through the winter 
and spring, will experience hard times when the rough weather sets in. 

The run of salmon on the coast has been very slight; and the British Columbia 
Indians not being allowed to pick hops in the United States, from both of which 
industries they derived large incomes. All this will I believe have a good effect in 
the end, but coming so suddenly will cause some distress this winter. Next year I 
expect the area of land under cultivation will be much larger, but at present it is 
difficult to get Indians to understand that they cannot always expect to get the high 
wages that they did when labour was scarce. 

In April I spent some days in subdividing into allotments the Hellelt Eeserve, 
Chemainus, and also the large reserve lying between Oyster Harbour and Kulleet's 
Bay ; it was done without serious trouble; indeed I cannot speak too well of the 
peaceable way in which they, one and all, agreed to my decision on any disputed 
elaim of ownership ; the result has been that they have spent a good deal of time in 
fencing and clearing, and next year I expect to see some good results. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Several of these Indians have nice little orchards, and some of their cottages aro 
kept very clean and tidy. 

In February I spent some time in making allotments on the Nanaimo River 
Reserve, all of which is liable to be flooded in winter, but on which these Indians 
have placed temporary dykes, and when I was there last the crops were looking 
remarkably well. 

The Kupcr Industrial Schools, which have now been opened for two years, have 
proved a great success; at first, as before reported, the boys could not stand confine- 
ment and several ran away, but the action of the principal in not allowing any of 
these to return had a wonderful effect, and now it is considered a great favour to be 
admitted and were the school twice the size it could be filled in a week. The pro- 
gress made is very remarkable and although the pupils are small, quite a clearing 
is being made and the gardens and grounds nicely kept. Several of the boys are 
already good cobblers and if material were on hand would soon be able to turn out 
a fair shoe. 

The trade instructors, Messrs. Reed and McCormeck, give satisfaction and adapt 
themselves to the instruction of the boys, while the sisters have made a wonderful 
change in the girls, who a few months ago were in a semi-wild state, but now present 
a very neat appearance and their rooms, and clothing, could not be cleaner; indeed 
the whole school speaks for itself of the good management of principal, foreman, 
and sisters. 

The Provincial Government selected the site of the school as the best locality 
for a public wharf to accommodate settlers on adjacent islands and last year erected 
a good wharf there, which already proves a great benefit, as supplies can now be 
landed there at a less cost than formerly. 

The school brass band under the skilful handling of Foreman Thompson has 
gained quite a reputation as musicians. 

On the town reserve at Nanaimo the Anglican and Wesleyan Churches have 
both erected day schools, but I have little hope of either of them proving successful, 
for, however devoted to the work the teachers may be, the home influence (especially^ 
near a large town) must counteract a few hours' teaching each day out of the twenty- 
four hours. 

This has been the experience of this coast or at least of this agency, and mis- 
sionary teachers of day schools, however enthusiastic, soon lose heart, hence the 
constant changes. 

On the Cowichan River much valuable land was again washed away during the 
winter and spring, and this must continue until measures are taken to protect the 
banks while running saw-logs from the lake. At present there are some seven million 
feet of logs lying in the present bed of the river as it runs through the Indian lands. 

I have been obliged to visit Oyster Harbour several times during the year, 
owing to the serious disputes between Indians themselves and also between Indians 
and white men as to the right to gather oysters in certain places; this has been a 
source of trouble for many years and as no steps are taken to protect any person 
cultivating an oyster bed, nor to define a close season for breeding, every person who 
wishes gathers where and when he chooses: the result is that the beds are now nearly 
run out. 

The conduct of the Indians during the year has been good, and the only troubles 
have been those caused by the introduction of liquor to the reserve, for which offence 
several white persons have been severely punished. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

West Coast Agency, 

Alberni, B.C., 16'th September, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward annual report to 30th of June. The skin catch 
was a few thousand dollars in excess of last year. Many of those Indians who went to 
Behring Sea came back with from two to six hundred dollars each for the summer's 
work. A few schooners with Indian crews met with the American cutters on first 
entering the sea, — the Indians on these only earned from forty to sixty dollars 
apiece ; the tribe of Ahousahts alone made twelve thousand dollars and returned from 
Victoria with a schooner load of provisions, including one hundred barrels of 
sugar. The coast catch of seals last spring was small, the Barclay Sound Tribes 
not getting near the number they did last year; but in spite of the closing of 
Behring Sea, more Indians shipped as crews on sealing schooners this season than 

Owing to the presence of small-pox in Victoria, very few of the Indians, except 
the sealers, went away, but stopped at home halibut, salmon and dog-fish fishing, 
and though they do not make so much money as they would at the salmon fisheries 
'and hop picking, they are better off at home, as the money so earned is often 
squandered in whiskey and things they can do without. 

At Ucluelet, an Indian launched a schooner-rigged boat built and finished by 
himself; he was out with several canoes sealing for a few trips and then went to 
Victoria with her. 

The Nootkas were successful in getting seventeen sea otter-skins, very few 
have been caught on this coast for several years. 

The Rev. J. A. McDonald, of the Presbyterian Mission, opened school at Alberni 
close to the Tseshaht Indian Reserve, for the last quarter of the year, and the teacher, 
Miss McDonald, had some twenty-five scholars, boys and girls, with an average attend- 
ance of twelve; they seemed glad to come to school and made good progress. 

A good many canoes are made by these tribes for which they find a ready 
sale on the east coast of the island and wherever they travel; the demand for seal- 
ing canoes amongst themselves has increased their value, the young men seldom mak- 
ing their own canoes. 

The Tseshahts are slowly improving their reserve on the Alberni River, several 
new garden patches have been cleared since last year and fenced, and the young 
men are building a row of decent frame buildings, doing the work themselves, and 
have laid out a street in a straight line on the rise of the hill and are adding to or 
improving the buildings every year. The high price of lumber is against them, — 
rough costing as much as twenty dollars and twenty-two dollars per M, delivered 
on the wharf at Alberni, and dressed eight dollars more. 

The Opitchesahts have planted more gardens this year than last, and raise some 
very good vegetables. 

The women of these tribes fill up their spare time in making cedar bark mats, 
and small table mats and baskets, &c, made of a fine dyed grass worked in patterns on 
a foundation of split cedar bark: these things are saleable at a fair price in the 
towns and settlements. There is a slight improvement in the sanitary condition of 
the reserves, but it is impossible to prevent fish refuse from accumulating in places, 
though the practice of moving from one reserve to another at different seasons of the 
year prevents the hurtful effects that might be expected. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 




5G Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Indian Office, Alert Bay, B.C., 31st August, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affaire, 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward my annual report, together with tabular 
statement and list of Government property in my charge. 

. The health of the Indians during the past year has not been so good as usual. 
" La grippe " proved very fatal in some of the villages, more especially with the older 
people, about seventy of whom were carried off by it. Quite half of the Indians in 
this agency were attacked by it and in most cases were a long time recovering from 
it. Measles also made its appearance, but owing to great care being taken, only one 
child died from it. Altogether it was a very trying time, and more help in the way 
of food was required than usual. The conduct of the Indians during the last twelve 
months has been very good, at times they have obtained more or less liquor, but in 
the spring a number of young men under Mr. A. W. Corker formed a Temperance 
Society, which has over forty members, and this has been of great assistance in 
checking the liquor traffic. 

Unfortunately the run of salmon has been very light again this year, and a 
rumour of small-pox prevented them from seeking employment elsewhere, conse- 
quently their earnings will be very light. Numbers went to the hop-fields last year, 
but the crop was not a good one and they returned almost empty-handed. 

The oulachon catch has been very good, and more Indians than usual took the 
opportunity to lay ih a large supply of this nutritious oil. 

The Lieu-kwil-tah Indians at the Wi-wai-kai village early in the spring, asked 
me that they might be allowed to cut the timber on their reserve for saw-logs. Per- 
mission having been granted, they set to work under the direction of a white man 
and began making skid roads, to haul the logs out on, and had done an astonishing 
amount of work when last I visited them, between two and three miles of road being 
finished. According to their agreement they have to clear all the land they cut on, 
which when done, will give them a fine area of land for cultivation, as it is of excel- 
lent quality. 

Clearing the land for the Industrial School was commenced on the 9th of May, 
and as soon as practicable the foundation was laid. In choosing the site we were 
governed a good deal by our chance of getting water. A well was sunk and a good 
supply obtained, which, however, showed signs of failing when the warm weather 
set in, and we had to deepen it twice since, but I think now the supply is unfailing. 
Clearing and levelling the ground for the site was rather expensive work, but it was 
the best we could find near the water, and it was very dry and healthy. 

The census shows a decrease again this year and will continue to do so for some 
time, as in several of the villages there are only a very few who are likely to become 
mothers again. 

Two of the villages, those of the Ma-ma-lil-li-kulla and Wi-wai-kum, were 
destroyed by fire last year. In the former two lives were lost, an old man and his 
wife, whose carelessness was the cause of the village taking fire. In each case a 
large amount of property was destroyed. 

In March I visited the school of the Tsa-waw-ti-eneuh Tribe atGwa-yas-dums, 
where Mr. A. W. Corker is teacher. The attendance was very good and the children 
attentive, and had made some progress since last year, though they had been away 
for six months at their summer village at Kwa-ee. After school they engaged in a 
game of football; nearly all the village joined most heartily in the game, which is 
capital exercise for them. 

At Alert Bay the saw-mill has beeen running regularly, and affords a good deal 
of employment to the Indians getting logs. A great deal of the lumber is shipped to 
Victoria for biscuit boxes. The Indians also cut a large quantity of cordwood for 
the cannery, which is again supplied to numerous small steamers which ply up and 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

down the coast. These Indians are gradually though very slowly improving, a good 
many small houses are being built by the younger men, who seemlto like the privacy 
of their own home more than living in the large houses with all things in common, 
which of itself is a step in the right direction. 

A new church is being built by the Rev. A. J. Hall, Church Missionary Society, 
which when completed will no doubt prove a further means of improving the condi- 
tion of these Indians, and will also be an ornament to the Bay. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Lower Fraser Agency, 

New Westminster, B.C., 1st October, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit my annual report for the year ended 30th 
June, 1892, with tabular statement and list of Government property in my charge 
on that date. 

I am pleased to report that the Indians of this agency are in a prosperous and 
happy condition, notwithstanding the fishing season has been almost a failure. 
They have had good crops, and have secured sufficient salmon to salt and dry. 
They are in every case on good terms with their white neighbours, and easily 
obtain employment at any of the industries, and with the farmers, at a fair and 
reasonable rate of wages, and are considered equal to white labourers. They give 
general satisfaction to their employers. Many of the bands do not leave their 
reserve to seek employment outside. They are the most prosperous, such as the^ 
To-y-lee, Hope, Ohamil, Skowkale, Yak-y-yous, and several of the Chilliwhack 
Bands. The most progressive band in the whole agency is the Towassan. They 
have three hundred and seventy-five acres under crop; have four self-binders, 
twenty-five work horses and other stock and agricultural implements, as are shown 
on the tabular statement. The Musqueam Indians have not made much improve- 
ment on their reserve this year by reason of having had a great potlach in June 
last, when thousands of dollars worth of blankets, horses, cows and canoes were 
given away. The materials for this potlach have been accumulating for several 
years past, and consequently little or nothing has been expended by them in the 
improvement of the reserve, especially in the last year. The four bands on the 
coast, the Sescheit, Siiammon, Clahoose and Waddington Harbour, have done 
nothing in the way of improving their reserve. They have turned their attention 
entirely to logging and the making of dog-fish oil. These pursuits are very profit- 
able to them, as they find ready sale for both logs and oil. JThe Pemberton Meadows 
Band have a splendid crop of wheat, oats, potatoes and turnips. They have three 
hundred head of cattle, three hundred and twenty-five horses and numerous young 
stock. All this, however, is worthless to them, as they have no market within 
reach. They have taken down all their frame houses and built themselves sub- 
stantial log houses in their place, and they tell me the latter are more comfortable 
to live in. They did not come to New Westminster this fishing season, acting on 
my advice to them not to come on account of the prevalence of small-pox in this 
city and Vancouver. 

The Skookum Chuck and Douglas Indians have very many old persons among 
them, also several blind, mostly women. These bands are otherwise doing fairly 

There have been several cases of small-pox in this city, chiefly among the 
whites. One Indian woman from Nanaimo came here infected with it, and another 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Indian from Thompson Eiver had taken it, but those two were the only infected 
Indians except a few who were in contact with them and who were quarantined. 

I believe the general vaccination and keeping the Indians from town has saved 
then from the infection of the disease. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your most obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Kamloops-Okanagon Indian Agency, 

Kamloops, B.C., 13th September, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-G-eneral of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to submit as follows my annual report on the condition 
of the Indians in my agency; and on matters relating to them which may have 
transpired during the fi.-cal year ended 30th June, 1892. 

1 also send herewith the tabular statement required by regulation to accompany 
this report. 

During the past year the Indians of this agency have to a small extent decreased 
in numbers. This is mainly the result of " la grippe " and measles, both of which 
epidemics have been prevalent amongst them. 

The harvest returns have been above the avera'ge. The Lytton Group of Indians 
sold at Lytton about thirty tons of beans. 

The Kamloops Indians sold about one hundred tons of hay and grain. The 
Spellamcheen and N-kam-ap-lix Indians delivered at the Enderby Mills over one 
hundred and forty tons of wheat. 

The Indians located along the Canadian Pacific Eailroad westward from Kam- 
loops have as usual earned good wages and found steady employment with the rail- 
road company. On the whole the Indians of this agency continue to be more than 
self-sustaining'; they are steadily adding to their material wealth. 

The Kamloops Industrial School has already been productive of permanent good 
effects. The pupils who have attended there not only speak the English language 
with confidence when spoken to by white people, but they also use that language 
amongst themselves, and when addressing their younger brothers aud sisters. 

Owing to the prevalence of the diseases above mentioned, the doctor's aud 
druggist's bills have been higher than usual. 

The following details present the conditions of the several bands: — 

Kamloops Division, 
n-hla-kapm-uh tribe. 


Spuzzum Group. 

Spuzzum Band. — These Indians have found steady employment on the railroad, 
and in cutting firewood for the railroad company. They secured a good stock of 
fi>h. They had a good yield of root crops and some fruit. Excepting one family 
consisting of two old people, with three orphan grand-children, they are well pro- 
vided for. 

Kekalus Band. — This small band is steadily clearing and improving the few 
acres of arable land appertaining to the reserve. The young men found steady em- 
ployment as section hands on the railroad. 

Skuhuak Band. — Most of the small plot of ground belonging to this band which 
was fit for cultivation has been covered by an embankment which the railroad com- 
pany has constructed to replace a bridge. The Indians, however, persistently cling 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

to their old homestead. They provided themselves with an ample supply of salmon 
for their winter consumption, and found employment on the railroad when not other- 
wise engaged. Garden patches sufficient for their use can be had for them on the 
Chataway Eeserve. 

Chataway Band. — There is only one family belonging to this band now settled 
permanently on this reserve. 

The broken families of the men who have died have followed the widows to their 
original homes, and are now scattered amongst other bands of the tribe. There is 
always a large gathering of Indians on this reserve during the salmon season. 

Boston Bar Group. 

Skuzzy Band. — There is very little arable land on the Skuzzy Eeserve. Most of 
the Indians have removed to theKapatsitsan Eeserve, near the North Bend railway 
station. These Indians are- good workmen, and get steady empolyment on the 
railroad. They are well provided for. 

T-kua-yaum Band. — Only a few families of this band now occupy their old home 
at the mouth of Anderson Eiver. These are, however, making good use of the little 
productive land belonging to them ; their fruit trees are thriving, and they grow a 
•considerable quantity of good vegetables. They find a ready market for their produce 
at North Bend station. Some of the band live permanently at North Bend, where one 
enterprising individual keeps a few cows and peddles milk to the passengers on 
the railroad cars. 

More than one-half of this band is farming the lands allotted to it on the Cold 
"Water Valley, in the Nicola region. These Indians had good returns of wheat, 
oats and root crops. They took a large supply of salmon at Boston Bar. 

Kapatsitsan Band. — This band is making good progress. The reserve adjoins 
the Canadian Pacific Eailway grounds at the North Bend station. It includes the 
once rich mining locality known as Yankee Flat. Several applications have lately 
been made for the privilege of mining this plot of auriferous land over again. These 
Indians find constant employment on the Canadian Pacific Eailway Company's 
works. They have taken to fruit culture, and raise good vegetables. 

M-pak-tam Band. — This small band is not improving much. The reserve is 
becoming isolated owing to the steady destruction of the Cariboo wagon-road. 

These Indians raise vegetables enough for their own consumption, but have 
none for sale. They pass most of their time on the line of the railroad. 

Boothroyd Group. 

Cho-mok Band. — Only one family of this band now remains on the reserve, the 
other members having joined the Speyam and other bands. They have very little 
arable land. There are, however, some plots on the reserve where fruits might 
advantageously be cultivated. There is a good salmon fishery on the side of the 
Fraser, opposite the reserve. These Indians are well provided for. 

Speyam Band. — The Speyam Indians are steadily improving in means and com- 
fort. Their lands are not suitable for farming. There are, however, some small 
moist plots where good vegetables can be raised. There are two streams of good 
water, and much fruit might be produced by skilful culture. 

Kamus Band. — The Kamus Indians haveveiy little good land on their reserve. 
They are, however, settling on the lands allotted to the Su-uk Band, and in the 
course of time they will from thence draw all the farm products they require. 
During the past year they mined a considerable quantity of gold and earned large 
sums of money by working on the railroad. They are in good circumstances. 

Su-uk Band. — This small band has not advanced to any appreciable extent 
during the past year. The good example of their friends from Kamus, who are 
occupying some of the vacant plots on the Su-uk Eeserve, is, however, producing a 
spirit of emulation amongst the Su-uks. They are preparing to extend their 
fencing and to improve their dwellings. They have provided a well for themselves 
:and seem to be contented. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

N-katsam Band. — These Indians are steadily improving their condition. They 
have added to their acreage under cultivation. They collected some gold by 
mining, and a large number of them earned remunerative wages on the railroad. 
They have quite a number of fruit trees planted out and these appear to be thriving. 

Skappa Group, 

Skappa Band. — This band is very much scattered, owing to the land at their 
headquarters being nearly wholly unfit for cultivation. Some of the Skappas have 
settled in the Nicola Valley, at the mouth of the Spenas Creek. There is a thriving 
community of them on the Sta-i-ya-ha-ny Eeserve, at the toot of Jackass Mountain. 
The Skappas are industrious Indians and are doing well for themselves, *Wfl \ 

Hlakhlak-tan Band. — These Indians have made some progress during the past 
year. The young men earn good wages by working for the railroad company, but 
there is quite a number of old men and old women amongst them who do very 
little work. They had a good take of salmon and passed the winter with plenty of 
means. Their headquarters is at Kanaka Bar. uiLL€o 

Siska Band. — These Indians have reserves on both banks of the Fraser and are 
gradually removing from their old winter quarters on Siska Flat to the line of the 
railroad, where they are clearing and trying to make the best. of some very rocky 
bench land, which is all they have that can be turned to good account. They will 
in the course of time be able to turn these plots into orchards, the land being well 
adapted for fruit culture. They collected some gold ; they laid in an ample supply 
of salmon, and earned a considerable sum of money by working on the railroad ; 
they are fairly well provided for. 

Halaha Band. — This is a small band, reduced now to one family, located on 
twenty acres of land near the mouth of Poyehl Creek. These people provide well 
for themselves aud are quiet and contented. 

Lytton Group. 

Kittsawat Band. — This is a small band. These Indians cultivate a small piece 
of ground on which they grow good vegetables and some fruit. Their fencing and 
some of their fruit trees were destroyed last summer by a forest fire. They had 
ample supplies of salmon and other provisions during the past year. 

N-kya Band. — These Indians continue to extend their improvements on the 
reserve. They raised good crops of grain and vegetables and sold several tons of 
beans to the trader* at Lytton. 

Tl-kam-cheen Band. — This band has its headquarters at Lytton, and is the 
largest and principal band of the group. These Indians have several reserves on the 
benches of the Fraser and Thompson Valleys, the little fertile spots of which they 
are improving to the best of their knowledge. Their largest reserve at Bitauy, 
being in a high mountain valley, is subject to night frosts in the summer, and is 
at present used for grazing purposes and hay grounds only. They have improved 
and whitewashed their dwellings at Lytton, and are cultivating every available 
spot of ground on the Tl-kam-cheen Eeserve ; they are using the waste water from 
the Canadian Pacific Eailroad station tank for irrigating their gardens ; they raised 
melons, cucumbers, tomatoes and maize, besides the usual garden vegetables from seeds 
supplied by the department; they collected several thousand dollars worth of gold; 
they took an ample supply of salmon, and sold at Lytton large quantities of beans, 
hay and melons; they earned a large sum of money by working on the railroad 
and wagon road, and as common carriers and herders, and are in a fairly prosperous 

Spapiam Band. — These Indians are industrious; they had good crops, and sold 
to the tradei's at Lytton considerable quantities of beans, melons and small fruits. 
They have some fruit trees and trrape vines planted out; they are doing well. 

~J\ 7 -humeen Band. — There is very little good land on the N-humeen Eeserve; the 
Indians are, however, doing their best to make use of what they have. They collected 
some tfold ; they secured a good supply of salmon ; they had good crops of vegetables, 
and sold some beans to the traders at Lytton ; they are in good circumstances. 


v Department of Indian Affairs. 

N-kuai-kin Band. — These Indians continue to cultivate the little good land 
which they have, and are able to provide themselves with the necessaries of lite. 
They collected some gold and sold some beans. They have a good supply of salmon. 

Stryne Band. — The Stryne Indians have the advantage of a good supply of water, 
and can, therefore, utilize lands which would otherwise prove valueless ; they have 
taken to fruit culture; they raised a good crop of beans which they sold to good 
advantage ; they laid in a good stock of salmon, and collected a considerable quantity 
of gold. They continue to improve their condition. 

N-kaih and Yeot Bands. — The reserves allotted to these Indians adjoin each 
other and may properly be treated as one reserve. Most of the land is poor. The 
Indians are, however, making good use of the few fertile patches which they have: 
their fruit trees are thriving ; they sold some beans and oats to the traders at 
Lytton ; they had a good crop of vegetables, and are doing well. 

N-kl-palm Band. — The irrigation ditch which these Indians had constructed to 
carry water to their fields, broke away during the spring. This accident somewhat 
retarded their farming operations. They, however, raised sufficient vegetables for 
their own use, which with the addition of salmon and game have kept them well 
supplied with food. They collected some gold. 

Skaap Band. — These Indians cannot extend their farming operations until they 
be provided with water for irrigation purposes. They raised field products enough 
for their own use and are contented. 

Nesykep Band. — These Indians had good crops and are doing well. They are 
at present too far away from any centre of trade to dispose of their surplus products 
advantageously. When the wagon road be completed between Lytton and Lillooet 
their situation will be much improved. 

Nikaomin Group. 

Nikaomin Band. — Nearly all the lands allotted to this band are high, and suit- 
able for summer pasture only. They raised some good crops of vegetables in the 
valley of Nikaomin Creek. Most of the Indians have removed to the Sh-ha-ha-nih 
Eeserve, where they are farming to good purpose. They collected some gold and 
are in good circumstances. 

Sh-ha-ha-nih Band. — These Indians have extended their cultivated fields and con- 
tinue to improve their condition. They possess one of the oldest fishing stations on 
the Nicola, and are very much disconcerted at their being interdicted from extend- 
ing their fishing weir as usual across the Nicola Eiver, thus preventing the salmon 
from ascending to the upper spawning grounds. Their salmon catch has always 
been a source of profit to them. They had good crops, and their live stock wintered 
well. They have some heavy wagons, and make considerable sums of money by 
freighting for the white settlers of the JNicola Valley. 

Spence Bridge Group (Cook's Ferry). 

N-kam-cheen Band. — These Indians collected some gold and earned good wages 
by working for the railroad company. They also have been prevented from closing 
the passage of the salmon up the Eiver Nicola by means of a weir. This is not, 
however, a very serious detriment to them, as they may take good fish out of the 
Thompson, where they are located, at any season of the year. They are doing very 
well for themselves. 

Piminos and Pakeist Bands. — As these Indians are united under Tsumaheltsa, 
the Piminos chief, they may be treated as one band ; they had good crops. Although 
the extent of their arable land is very small they are making good use of the mea- 
dow lands allotted to them in the Highland Valley; they are paying much attention 
towards raising horned cattle. 

Spaptsin Band. — Owing to the want of water, these Indians cultivate a very 
small extent of their land ; they are industrious and earn good livelihoods by working 
on the railroad, and for the white settlers. 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

Oregon Jack Creek Group. 

y?pa Band. — These Indians are industrious and well-behaved ; the want of water 
has retarded their progress; arrangements are, however, being made which may 
relieve them in this particular. They earn good livings as herdersand farm iabourers. 

Paska Band. — These Indians have some good land, but the want of water pre- 
vents them from farming more, than a very small extent of it ; the little land they 
have prepared for ciops produced good returns; they keep themselves well pro- 
vided with food and clothing. 


Kamloops Group. 

Stlah? Band. — These Indians have some good lands, but their farming operations 
are very much restricted by the want of water. They raise a few vegetables and 
some grain, and earn their living as herders and farm hands; they are industrious 
and moderately well provided for. 

Tluhtaus Band. — These Indians are also short of water ; they are, however, 
taking measures to increase their supply of this indispensable element, and may be 
expected to greatly extend their farming operations in the future. The measles 
broke out amongst them last winter, and before they applied for medical assistance, 
nearly twenty of their young people and children were carried off; as soon as they 
were advised as to its treatment, and they were provided with the proper remedies, 
the epidemic ceased to be fatal. I should have mentioned under the head of Stlahl 
Band that the measles broke out amongst the Stlahl Indians at the same time with 
those of Tluhlaus; the kindness, however, of an estimable lady who lives in the 
neighbourhood of the Stlahl Reserve, saved these Indians ; by her good advice, and 
promptness in sending to my office for the services of a doctor, the disease was pro- 
perly treated in time, and serious loss of life was thus prevented. 

The Tluhtaus Indians earn their food and other supplies by herding, farm labour, 
and by hunting and fishing ; their houses are small and crowded ; they are not so 
cleanly as they should be; their leading men are selfish and tyrannical; with the 
means at their command they might attain to a very much higher condition did they 
but manage their affairs with more circumspection; they have been kept in a state 
of periodical demoralization by the visits of illicit whiskey peddlers. 

Skichistan Band. — This band has a large reserve, only a very small portion of 
which can be cultivated as it lies high, and the costof getting water on to the higher 
benches would not under present circumstances be compensated by the products of 
the land ; these high lands are uninclosed, and are therefore used by the neighbour- 
ing stock-raisers, whose cattle roam without restriction over the greater portion of 
the reserve. These Indians are active and industrious, and earn a good living as 
herders and farm hands. They had a good run of kuinnat salmon in Defunt River 
last spring. 

Kamloops Band. — The condition of this band continues to improve; the prox- 
imity of the town of Kamloops gives to these Indians the advantages of a ready 
market for their surplus farm products, and they are now sufficiently advanced in 
self-respect and worldly knowledge to enable them to withstand the ordinary tempta- 
tions of vice and folly incidental to the development of a border town. They had 
good crops last year, and their live stock wintered without any serious loss. There 
was, and there is still, a good deal of sickness amongst them. 

Pulmonary consumption and other indications of the scrofulous habit are becom- 
ing quite prevalent. 

The meadow lands from which these Indians formerly cut good crops of hay are 
in accordance with the nature of most wild pastures, becoming unproductive. I 
have advised the Indians to replace the wild grasses by some suitable variety of 
cultivated grass; and it is now a matter of experiment as to which variety of grass 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

would be the best for the purpose. A large portion of this reserve is still common 
to the cattle of the surrounding neighbours, as the Indians have not as yet the means 
wherewith to inclose it. 

Ohuk-chu-kualk Band. — These Indians are slowly abandoning their proclivities for 
the chase, and taking to the soil ; they have a good reserve for pastoral purposes, but 
as a large portion of it is overflowed during the spring freshets, their cultivable lands 
are only of limited extent; they are behind the other Sushwap Bands in the condition 
of their habitations and in the possession of domestic comforts; they are, however, 
well provided with food. The bituminous coal beds occurring at the north end of 
the reserve are attracting the attention of enterprising miners; the beds examined 
so far have not proved of sufficient thickness to pay the cost of working; but there 
are good reasons for assuming that workable beds may hereafter be discovered there. 


Sushwap Lake Group. 

Halaut or Neskynihl Band. — These Indians continue to make steady progress; 
they had good crops and sold a large quantity of firewood at Kamloops, and a con- 
siderable quantity of hay at Salmon Arm. They have a good market for all their 
surplus products at the Sushwap Railway station, where it is readily bought for 
shipment to the Kootenay mines. 

Hat-kam or Adam's Lake Band. — These Indians are keeping pace with their 
neighbours of Halaut. They had good crops of grain and potatoes, and supplied 
a large quantity of firewood to the town of Kamloops. 

Their principal improvements are being made on their reserve at the Salmon 
Arm. The reserve at Adam's Lake is used in the summer as pasture for their live 

Kuaut or Little Sushwap Lake Band. — The progress of this band is somewhat 
retarded by the conduct of its little chief Damien, who is more exercised in assuming 
and endeavouring to support the empty dignity of his chieftain hood, than in forward- 
ing the interests of his band. There are, however, some active intelligent Indians 
belonging to this community; the individual success attained by these members 
is producing good effects on their fellows. Their crops were indifferent, but they 
sold a large quantity of firewood and some saw-logs at Kamloops. They are well 
provided with food and clothing, but like their compatriots at Ohuk-chu-kualk, 
their habitations are small and ill-constructed, and are poorly provided with domestic 

Okanagon Division. 

okanagon tribe. 

Similkameen Group. 

Chu-chu-way-ha Band. — This band has made some progress during the past year 
and maintained itself in good condition. The soil in the Similkameen Valley is 
light and not very productive. These Indians have to depend principally on stock- 
raising and on the chase for the means of subsistence. The increased traffic arising 
from the discovery of mineral-bearing veins of quartz in their vicinity, is again 
stimulating the carryiug trade in their locality, and as they are adepts in managing 
packhorses, and are well provided with these animals, they have the prospects ahead 
of them of prosperous times until some line of railroad takes the transport business 
out of their hands. 

Keremeus Band. — This band has extended the area of its cultivated lands, and 
as the wagon road system of the province has reached their reserves, these people 
have begun to provide themselves with wheeled vehicles. They have some fruit 
trees planted out, and are improving the breeds of their live stock; these last 
wintered well. 

Shennoskuankin Band. — These Indians are located immediately on the Inter- 
national Boundary line, and are therefore subjected to the disturbances arising 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

from the illicit whiskey traffic, and have to be on the alert for horse thieves. Some 
rich mines have lately been discovered on the United States side of the line, render- 
ing the location of these Indians more important and increasing the prospective 
value of their reserves. They raise farm produce enough for their own require- 
ments, but have heretofore had no market for the surplus products of their farms. 

Okanagon Group. 

N-kam-ip Band. — These Indians are located in a dry region, and their water sup- 
ply continues to diminish. Their young men are mostly occupied as herders and 
common carriers away from home, the farmwork being thus left in the hands of 
the old men and women. It is done in a very perfunctory way. 

They have plenty of horses and a few head of horned cattle, and are otherwise 
well provided with the necessaries of life. 

X-kam-ap-lix Band. — This band raised over one hundred tons of wheat and sold 
over one hundred head of fat hogs. The prosperity of these people has been too 
much for their moral capacity, they have become inveterate gamblers, and are very 
much addicted to the use of intoxicants; the young men are strong, active and 
industrious; they are good horsemen and earn good wages as herders and farm 
hands; they also worked steadily on the Spellamcheen and Okanagon Bailroad; 
they have added to their cultivated lands and are improving their live stock. 

One enterprising Indian undertook to put up a small grist-mill, but it does not 
work well. 

These Indians take very little interest in the teachings of the missionaries. 

Penticton Band. — This band is also in a prosperous condition. It owes a great 
deal for its advancement to the teachings and example of a gentleman who has an 
extensive stock farm adjoining the reserve. 

• Unlike their confreres atN-kam-ap-lix these Indians pay great outward attention 
to the offices of their religion ; they had good crops, but have no near market for their 
surplus products. The recent development of rich gold mines at Fairview, which 
is not distant from their locality, will obviate this difficulty; they may hereafter 
command a ready market for all their saleable commodities. 

Spahamin Band. — This band is located on the high table lands near the main 
tributary of the Nicola Eiver. These Indians cannot farm to a great extent on 
account of the occurrence of summer frosts on their lands; they have, however, 
some very fine pasture lands which they continue to inclose, they built about five 
miles of good fencing last year. They are raising some good horses, in which occu- 
pation they are both skilful and attentive; their horned cattle are increasing, and 
in most respects they are well provided for. 


Nicola Group. 

Na-aik Band. — These Indians are divided on the question of religion, resulting 
inconsiderable recrimination when they are not busily occupied at useful work; 
this difference is, however, of insufficient importance to them to interfere with their 
temporal interests; they are improving their farms and dwellings; they carry 
freight from the railroad depot at Spence Bridge to the different trading stations in 
the Lower Nicola and Upper Similkameen Valleys; they had good crops and sold 
large quantities of wheat, oats and hay. 

flziskat Band. — This small band now consists of two families. One of the men 
is blind, another has a maimed hand. The blind man accompanies his wife on the 
wagon road ; she drives the team of a freight wagon, whilst he works the brake, 
and thus they manage to earn means enough to support their little ones. The man 
with the maimed hand attends to the field and stock at the reserve. The other 
members of this band are scattered through the neighbouring bands. The Nicola- 
Cold water coal-measures extend under this reserve. It is therefore likely to become 
valuable and to yield a steady revenue. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

Kiunsaatin Band. — This band consists principally of Boston Bar Indians, who 
are here cultivating portions of the lands which were allotted to them for pastoral 
purposes; the original inhabitants are now represented by two families. The head of 
one of these families, on account of the large accession made to the band from Tkua- 
yaum, assumed an air of great importance and interfered with the operations of the 
new-comers to their great disadvantage. I have, however, surveyed the subdivisions 
held by the different Indians, and have intimated to them that they are each chiefs 
in their own right, on their own several lauds, so long as they behave themselves 
properly, and that the Chief Tla-kam-i-nas-kat is hereafter relieved from the respon- 
sibility of directing their ordinary domestic operations and movements. 

The Indians are now going to work with a go^d will, and are improving their 
subdivisions; they had good crops last year and sold a large quantity of wheat. 

Kuiskanaht Band. — This band is scattered through the Lower Nicola Grass 
.Reserve. The young Indians are cleairng the few patches of fertile bottom lands to 
good purpose. Their principal settlement is at the mouth of the Spenas, they are 
well provided for, and are making steady progress. 

Zoht Band. — This band has been increased by the addition of Chu-yas-ka and 
his family to its numbers. Chu-yas-ka wants to exchange the reserve of one hundred 
and sixty acres, situate near the left bank of the Nicola Eiver about one mile below 
its outlet from the Nicola Lake, for an equal area of land in the high mountain 
valley of Clapperton Creek. i 

The exchange would be of advantage to the white settlers and to the Indians. 
Some of the young Indians have taken wives at Naaik and have settled there. 


Spellamcheen Group. 

Spellamcheen Band. — This band of Sushwaps occupies two fine reserves con 
tiguous to each other near the town ofEnderby. These Indians are making good 
progress; they sold large quantities of hay, grain and firewood, besides vegetables 
and pigs; they appreciate the advantages of good conduct and comfo'-t and behave 
themselves well, and are improving their dwellings; although in the latter respect 
they have yet much to accomplish. They had good crops and a good take of fish. 

During the past year I travelled over thirty -three hundred miles. I filled up 
■over five hundred pages of foolscap, besides attending to the regular avocations of 
the Indian agent in listening to complaints, advising as to the work to be done on 
the reserves, and attending to the sick. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 



Fort Steele, Kootenay, B.C., 30th June, 1892. 

The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have again the honour to forward you my annual report on Indian 
matters in the Kootenay District. But for the unusual number of deaths amongst 
the Indians this would have been a pleasant duty, as the general behaviour of the 
Indians during the past year has been good ; no charges have been brought against 
any of them during the year, and in only one case has a complaint of annoyance by 
an Indian been brought to my notice. 

Taking first the St. Mary's or main band of the Kootenay Indians, I would state 
that the farms of these Indians produced a good average crop of both oats and 
potatoes, though the latter crop suffered in the early summer from frost. It is of 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

course most necessary to encourage agriculture in every way amongst these 
Indians; still, 1 have carefully watched those that follow agriculture for a living, 
and those that follow hunting and trapping, and 1 must confess that the latter are 
for the most part not only comparatively well off, but enjoy more robust health. 
They always have money to buy ammunition and clothing, and live on a meat, and 
to them a more natural, diet. Those on the contrary that are altogether engaged in 
farming have become poorer, and when they fall ill or have bad luck, they become 
almost destitute, especially in the spring of the year. I do not refer to those that 
have bands of horses and cattle. In no tribe of Indians in the province is the 
wealth more unevenly distributed. 

There are also in this band a number of young men that neither hunt or farm, 
and who make a precarious living driving horses and taking messages and letters 
for the white residents. These last, and indeed the entire tribe depend much on 
the white settlers and miners in the district ; if the latter are doing well the Indians 
reap some benefit. 

The depression and absence of any money in ciiculation in the Upper Kootenay 
Valley during the past three summers has been felt very much by the Indians. I 
trust, however, that this depression is at an end, and that the reaction that has 
all eady commenced will continue and enable the poorer Indians to earn a little 

Isadore, the Chief of the St. Mary's or main band of the Kootenays, has been 
improving his farm and working hard throughout the year. He sets a good example 
to his followers in point of industry ; but does not like being troubled on Indian 
matters, and, considering his wealth, assists but little in relieving the poorer mem- 
bers of the band. 

The Columbia Lake* Band of Kootenays have also done well during the past 
year. Their Chief Mooyais is growing very old — too old, in fact, to take any part 
or interest in the affairs of the tribe. The crop harvested on the Columbia Lake 
Reserve was above an average; the Indians, however, did not increase the acreage 
under cultivation, 

On this reserve they are not subject to the summer frosts that do so much harm 
on the St. Mary's ; the Indians here have also a ready sale for their oats, which are 
shipped down the Columbia River. 

On the Tobacco Plains Reserve the Indians have made a grand stride in advance. 
They have put up cabins, and fenced their farms well. The position of this reserve 
immediately on the international boundary is unfortunate. The settlers on the 
American side (certainly not predisposed in favour of Indians) allow that they have 
given no trouble during the past year; though I regret to say that the Indians 
themselves have suffered some loss of stock from cowboys or herders from across the 
line. In October, David, the chief of this band of Indians, died after an illness of 
some months. Formerly the buffalo chief, he took precedence to all the other 
Kootenay chiefs on their many summer trips across the Rocky Mountains after 
buffalo; and in their never-ending wars with the Bloods and Blackfeet. He was 
naturally of a warlike and restless nature; and never cared to conceal his hatred 
and dislike of the whites. He was too honest to care to have anything to do with 
the cattle killing and small outrages so common on the boundary line a year or two 
ago. but he did nothing to prevent the Indians under him from annoying the whites. 
He also ever lent a ready and too willing ear to any wild rumour of an Indian war; 
either to the east of the mountains, or to the south. His eldest son Paul is a most 
industrious farmer, and in all respects the opposite of his father ; he has on more 
occasions than one assisted the authorities, and will I think make a good chief. He 
lack* something of the force of character possessed by his father. 

The health of the Indians on this reserve has been good. 

The small family of Shuswap Indians that reside on their reserve near the 
Lower Columbia Lake have shown their usual industry, and their farms are little, 
if at all, behind those belonging to the white settlers on the Columbia River. These 
Shuswap Indians receive neither seed nor farm implements from the Government, 
and prefer paying their own way in all things. 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

I cannot close ray report on these reserves without mentioning the large 
number of deaths from influenza and pneumonia that occurred during the past 
winter and spring amongst the St. Mary's and the Columbia Lake Bands; these 
diseases have left consumption and many other ills. Many of the Indians appear to 
have no constitutions left and little energy. 

It is impossible to ascribe any special cause for the influenza here ; it appears 
to have prevailed not only throughout the province, but throughout the continent. 
That it should have been so much more fata! amongst the Indians is, no doubt, in 
part due to the fact that they have not nourishing and proper food. The number of 
deaths during the winter and spring amongst the Indians of the Upper Valley 
exceeded seventy. 

A medical man, who receives a subsidy from the Provincial Government, came 
to reside at Fort Steele about two months ago. His efforts appear to be much 
appreciated by the Indians. 

The report of the principal will without doubt inform you on all matters 
connected with the Indian school. 

I have the honour to be, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 


Indian Agent. 

Williams Lake Agency, 

Lesser Log Creek, 22nd August, 1892. 
The Honourable 

The Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, 

Sir, — I have the honour to forward herewith ray ninth annual report upon 
Indian affairs in mv agency during the year ended 30th June, 1892, together with 
the usual tabular statement for the same period. The list of Government property 
in my charge was forwarded on the 8th inst. 

Before entering into the details of each reserve, I beg to submit the following 
general remarks concerning this agency. 

Health of the Indians. 

During the past winter there was an epidemic of measles in the southern 
portion of the agency, which required the attendance of Dr. Sanson on several of 
the reserves. In cases of this kind, requiring more nursing and care than medicine, 
fatalities are certain to occur amongst Indians on account of the want of the former ; 
but only two reserves suffered to any extent, viz. : — The Fountain, eleven deaths, 
population two hundred ; and Bridge Eiver Eeserve, seven deaths, population 
eighty-four. In both, however, this number included some deaths from other 
causes. As usual in like cases, some very sensational and exaggerated reports 
appeared in the newspapers regarding the mortality in the above named and in 
other reserves around Lillooet. 

In the northern part of the agency, and also during the winter, there was an 
epidemic of malignant quinsy (bearing in some rases a close resemblance to diph- 
theria), which resulted fatally, in many cases, whore young children were attacked. 

Notwithstanding the increased mortality caused by these diseases, I am happy 
to say that the total decrease by deaths in the agency amounted to only eight. 

I have found it necessary to restrict the use of medicine — particularly as to 
quality, as also the occasions when medical attendance is to be afforded — as, without 
some check to their demands, Indians are apt to abuse such privileges. 

The result of my experience in this matter may be stated in the words of Mr. 
Agent Martineau in his report of 1886, viz. : " The Indians appear to be in a constant 
state of ill-health. Nothing gives them greater satisfaction than taking medicine, 
(which they devour with great relish), and receiving the visits of a physician." 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

The Use of Intoxicants. 

The great difficulty which I find in the suppression of supplying intoxicants to 
Indians is the want of constables. The nearest constable to this place lives at the 
150 Mile House — thirty-two miles distant. His beat extends to Quesnelle in one 
direction, eighty-four miles; to Clinton, in another direction, one hundred miles; to 
Clinton, hy the Fraser River road, in another direction, the same distance ; and to 
Chileotiu, in another direction, over one hundred miles to the farthest settlement, 
with Fraser River intervening. The only other constables in the agency are one at 
Lillooet and one at Quesnelle. These two officers, however, have other duties to 
perform, the former assessor and tax collector, and the latter road superintendent. 
Such duties call for their frequent absence for several days at a time, during which 
no one is appointed to act in their place. 

It is an undisputed faet that the presence of a constable acts as a preventive 
to crime, as well as a prompt agent for bringing culprits to justice, and it has often 
been recommended that wherever a licensed liquor house is allowed in a rural settle- 
ment, there also a constable should reside. 

Some severe sentences were imposed upon two Half-breeds and two white men 
for supplying intoxicants to Indians in this agency, but the effect of such punishment- 
has been lessened by their being set free before half their term of imprisonment had 
been served. The grand jury at Clinton represented that it would be only proper 
that the committing justices should be informed of the reason for such action, in 
order that, if some legal defect in their judgment was the cause, they might be 
enabled to avoid such in future cases. The judge promised to see that this just 
request should be complied with. Two months, however, have passed and nothing 
has been heard of the matter. 

Half-breeds on the Reserves. 

With regard to the prevention of intoxicants being legally furnished to this 
class, the following legal reasoning is submitted, viz. : — 

1st. An Indian — as defined in the " Indian Act" — is a person of pure Indian 
blood on both sides of his parentage. 

2nd. An illegitimate child has, legally, no fnther, and can therefore only claim 
the blood of the mother. 

3rd. These Half-breeds are all illegitimate and can therefore claim only from the 
mother's side, which, being pure Indian, makes them pure-blooded Indians. 

With the exception of occasional acts of drunkenness and two cases of wife- 
beating, the Indians of this agency have been well conducted. The crime of wife- 
beating I invariably punish by imprisonment for two months with costs, or one extra 

Industrial School, Williams Lake. 

This school — for boys — was opened in July, 1891, with a few pupils. The 
number gradually increased until in October the full complement of twenty-five was 

With the exception of one month when absent at Lillooet, I have visited the 
school monthly, remaining one day at each visit, to thoroughly examine the boys in 
reading, writing and arithmetic. 

There are six boys in the first class, now in the third reader ; fourteen in the 
second class, in the first reader; and three in the third class. 

In writing their progress is simply wonderful, they seem to have a natural gift 
of imitation in this respect, far more developed than in white children of the same 
age. Their copy-books are kept perfectly clean, without a blot to be seen. In 
arithmetic some of the boys are progressing well ; making good figures on the black- 
board, and adding the numbers without hesitation. In reading and spelling they 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

are improving gradually, but their ignorance of the English language is a great 
drawback to both their pronouncing correctly, and thoroughly understanding what 
they read. 

Regarding this last failing, it appeal's tome — and the reverend principal is of 
the same opinion — that the various readers in use are not adapted to instruct in the 
use of the English language. Even in ihe reserves that are surrounded by whites, 
the Indian children are as ignorant of the meaning of the simplest English words as 
the old people. It is only the young men working with the whites who speak our 
language; and even they never speak it when they are at their homes. 

Under these circumstances it seems to me that ordinary colloquial phrases, 
relating to matters and objects of every-day occurrence should form the reading 
matter taught. 

A "Tourist's phrase book " might be taken as a model for what I mean. With 
their minds full of such practical language they would gradually be induced to 
make use of some of it when at play or out of school; at which times, now, they 
adhere to their own language, whenever they are out of hearing of the teacher. 

To illustrate my meaning, it is only necessary to open a " Third Reader," 
Sadleir's series — which the first class is now studying — and to see how unsuitable 
such reading matter is to the instruction in the .English language of children who 
have been brought up to talk and hear nothing but Indian. 

The school has been very fortunate in obtaining as teacher the services of Mr. 
Jules Tabouret, who has taught in Indian schools for more than seven years in the 
North-west, with credit to himself and satisfaction to his superiors, as proved by the 
certificates in his possession, and the praise bestowed upon him in the reports on the 
schools in which he taught. 

The instructor in blacksmithing and carpentry left during the winter, and it has 
been impossible as yet to obtain a suitable person to replace him. There is a vege- 
table garden attended to by the boys — and each one has a patch of his own. Nothing 
could be kept in better order than what I saw. 

The children are well fed and seem perfectly happy. Two or three who were 
taken home on account of some excuse, were at their own urgent request brought 
back by their parents after a few days' absence. 

The reverend principal intends to make some necessary improvements in the 
building, by enlarging the school-room and the dormitory; but on account of the 
unforeseen ^expense incurred in repairing the building for the girls' school — over 
three thousand dollars — fundsare at present wanting for that purpose. The building 
for the girls' school is now completed; and as soon as a matron can be obtained to 
take charge, the school will be opened. 

A school for girls is much needed, in order that the girls may be totally separated 
at an early age from the contamination of the Indian village. Notwithstanding all 
that the missionaries have done, and continue to do, the morals of the Indian are 
very little improved ; and it will be only by educating in virtue the rising generation 
of women that any amelioration in this respect can be hoped for. 

Sunday Law against Liquor selling. 

A law against retailing intoxicants on Sunday was passed in the Provincial 
Parliament of British Columbia, and, in the few places where it is obeyed, has 
proved of great use in restricting the accustomed scenes of rowdy drunkenuess 
which were to be witnessed at most bar-rooms on every Sunday. Unfortunately, 
officials in some places seem to think that unless complaint is made by some one it 
is not their duty to trouble themselves in the matter, and consequently some houses 
continue to disregard the law. 

Quesnelle Reserve. 

The acting chief of this band died last year. Although a very young man, he 
had great power over his Indians, and would have improved their condition by 


56 Victoria. Sessional Papers (No. 14.) A. 1893 

making them more industrious. They are averse to farming, and have always some 
excuse for not availing themselves of the good land which is on the reserve. They 
plant small patches of potatoes and make a living by hunting and trapping. 

There were seven births and four deaths on this reserve since my last report. 

Alexandria Reserve. 

The church here is at last finished, and the missionary priest was enabled to 
assemble the band for service — the first time since I have been agent. It is to be 
hoped that they will follow his instructions in regard to the use of intoxicants, to 
which they are slaves. They are industrious and hard workers; but all their gains, 
which are considerable, are spent in whiskey. A young reserve Half-breed, who 
was the well-known procurer of intoxicants for the band, was sentenced by me, 
jointly with another m.-igistrate on the bench, to one year's imprisonment. There 
are, however, plenty of others to replace him in this practice. 

The births were two, deaths none, since last year. 

One boy from this reserve attends the industrial school. 

Sofia Creek Reserve 

Was surveyed during the summer, much to the satisfaction of the band. With 
their usual industry, these Indians have repaired, and in parts reconstructed, an 
old ditch, nearly three miles in length, by which they are able to irrigate the 
timothy land at Deep Creek. I cannot speak too well of this band, both as to 
industry and good conduct. 

At a court held by me here a white man got a sentence of three months for 
having whiskey on the reserve ; and a Half-breed was sentenced to one year for two 
offences of the same kind. 

Except in a few cases of first offences of this nature, I have found that leniency 
only encouraged a repetition of the same offence at an early date, and although 
even a severe sentence does not cure the offender of his habit, yet it keeps him out 
of the way of temptation for a certain period. A wife-beater was also sentenced to 
two months' imprisonment. 

There are two licensed liquor houses at the ferry, two miles from the reserve ; 
and in neither was the Sunday law observed at my visit. 

A new church had been built on this reserve during the past year. Four chil- 
dren of the band attend the school at Williams Lake. There were four births and 
six deaths during the year ; four of the latter were from old age. 

Williams Lake Reserve. 

During the past year the old ditch has been repaired by flaming, and a new 
ditch, which was commenced some years back, has been finished. The long line of 
fence along the public road has been put in repair and makes a creditable appearance. 

This band are in better circumstances than most bands in the agency. Besides 
raising enough grain to furnish their own wants, they have a surplus of hay each 
year to dispose of. 

The vicinity of a provincial constable within three miles of this reserve helps 
greatly to check drunkenness on the part of the Indians, and supplying intoxicants 
by others to them. 

Five boys from this one reserve are at the industrial school. 

There were eight births and ten deaths during the year. Many of the deaths 
were from quinsy, and were those of young children. 

Kanim Lake Reserve 

Was surveyed during the summer of 1891. 

This band continues to cultivate more laud each year. When I visited them 
dining the winter they were all busy cutting and hauling rails to fence in their hay 


Department of Indian Affairs. 

A8 the nearest grist-mill is distant sixty miles, they find it more profitable to 
raise oats, for which there is always sale on the wagon road, and with the proceeds 
purchase flour. 

This band enjoys the advantage of being situate twent}^ miles from where 
whiskey can be procured, and consequently none is ever introduced into the reserve. 
The chief is a very young man, but he seems to be obeyed by his people. Altogether 
this is a prosperous band. 

The births during the year have been seven ; deaths none. 

One boy from this reserve is at the industrial school. 

Alkali Lake Reserve 

Suffered much from the epidemic of quinsy last winter. Although some grown 
persons were attack