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ACCOUNTS AND PAPBES: 



SEVENTY-SEyEN VOLUMES. 



- (it-) - 



COMMBECIAL EEPOKTS (ANNUAL)— cim(>»i<eii. 



UNITED STATES TO ZANZIBAR. 



Session 

16 January 1902 18 December 1902. 



TOL. CXI, 



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ACCOUNTS AND PAPERS: 

19 2. 



SFVENTY-SEVEN V OL l/M ES:—C O N T E N T S OF THE 
FIFTY-SEVENTH VOLUME. 



N.B. — T3E Figures at the begmninj; of the line, corretpond Kith the N" at the 
foot of each Paper ; and the Figaree at the end of the line, refer to the MS. Paging 
of the Volumee arraeged for The Boute of Commoni. 



COMMERCIAL EEPOETS— cojifeaei. 
1/ [Cd. 786.] Trade Eeports (Annual Series), 1902, Nos. 2696 to 2922 :— 

United States : 

^ No. 2837. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of the 
Territory of Hawaii. p. 1 

/ No. 2704. Report for the Year ending June 30th, 1901, on the Trade of 
the United States. 17 

*' No. 2749. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of 
Portland (Maine). 29 

V No. 2752. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of the 

Consular District of New Orleans. 55 

V No. 2755. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade, Commerce, and 

Navigation of the Consular District of Baltimore. 85 

" No. 2759. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade of Charleston and 
District. 123 

' No. 2763. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of 
Chicago and District. 161 

V No, 2770. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of 
Texas. 229 

N No. 2781. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of the 
Consular District of New York. 269 

"1 No. 2798. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade, SiJ. of Philadelphia. 

319 

* No. 2825. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade, Commerce, &c., of 
the Consular District of San Francisco. 349 

V' No. 2826. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of Porto 
Rico. 389 

'' No. 2858. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Agriculture of 
the States of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. 407 

^ No. 2889. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade of the Philippine 
Islands. 459 

Vol. CXI— 1902. 



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ACCOUNTS AND PAPERS: 1902. 



United States — continued. 

•^ No. 2894. Report for the Year ending June 30th, 1902, on the Trade of 
the United States. p. 481 

•^ No. 2909. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commeree of the 
Island of Cuba. 499 

Uruguay ; 

/ No. 2847. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade, Commerce, and Finance 
of the Republic of Uruguay. 531 



'' No. 2772. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of the 
Consular District of Ciudad Bolivar. 553 

V No. 2833. Report for the Yew 1901 on the Trade of the Consular District 
of Caracas. 559 

Western Pacific : 

V No. 2745. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade of Samoa. 575 

i No. 2848. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of the 
Friendly Islands. 583 



Wiirtemberg : 

(port for the 1 

Agriculture, and Finances of Wtirtemberg. 



\i No. 2732. Report for the Year 1900 and__Fart of 1901 on the Trade, 
Agi" ' 



V No. 2718. Report for the Year 1900 on the Trade and Commerce of 

Zanzibar. 617 

' No. 2893. Report for the Year 1901 on the Trade and Commerce of 

Zanzibar. 689 



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No. 2837 Annual Series. 
ni'LOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPORTS. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE TEAR 1901 



TRADE AND COMMERCE OF THE TERRITORY 
OF HAWAII. 



REFERENCE TO PEBVIOUS EEPOET, Annual Series No. 2492. 



PraenUd to both Boums of Parliammt by Command of Hit Majesty, 
JULY, 1902. 



LONDON: 

PHINTED FOE H18 MAJESTY'S STATIONKRY OFFICB, 

BT HABBISON AND SOSa, ST. MARTIN'S LANK, 

FBINTBla IN O&DIKAItT TU HIB 1IAJK8TT. 

And to be pardiMcd, either direotlj or throngli kdj Bookiallor, from 
IT&K h SPO'n.'lSWnODE, Bapt Hardino Strut, Flirt Stbiii, B.C., 

ftud SS, ABIXrDON STItKKt, WeSTMIKBTKR, S.W.; 

or OLTVIIK & BOYD, EDiNBnHOH ; 
0* B. TUNSONBT, 116, GunoN Sirbct, Ddblih. 

190*. 
[Od. 786— Ul.] Price On» Penny. 



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CONTENTS. 



Oanenil trade „. 



Foreign importa uid eiporU— 
Briti*h import* — d««r«M«._..„. 
Shipping _ _. 



BniineM, Uboor and flnsDoial litiwtion 
Oil for f lul on pi 
Plantation labonr .. 



Drjgood* , 



Agrienlture, ka »._._._,._„ 

Tba al|Hob» tree : itt lurfabHa 

Small holding! „ „.„„„.._. 

-Cutt of liring — ~~-. — 



Population .. 
StMtmiliip lii 



Table* at export* and import* .., 



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No. 2837. Annual Seriei. 

fieferenet to preoiouB Report, ^nitua^ Serie» No. 2492- 



Report oil the Trade and Commerce of ike Territory qf Hawaii for 
the Year 1901 

By Mb. Coksul Hoabk. 
(B«c«iTed at Foreign Ofiw, June 10, 1002.) 

Tlie exports from the Hawaiian Islands consist almost wholly ObmisI 
of sugar to the United States. During the fiscal year ended *"**•■ 
June 30, 1901 (the latest custoni-housn statistics fiirnisbed), the 
total exports to the United States and foreign countries amounted 
to 5,784,291/. In 1900 the total was 5,251,457/., and in 1899 
4,525,748^. 

The exports last year to foreign countries, valued at 24,315/., 
formed but a small percentage of the whole exports. 

In regard to imports, no statistics of those from the United 
States to the islands having been kept since June 14, 1900, when 
the islands became a territory of the United States, the abrogate 
imports since that time cannot be given. After that date the 
ports of the islands were considered " coastwise " ports, and no 
entry of goods has been reqoired when either shipped from or to 
the mainland. A record has, however, been kept here of exports 
to the States, but of imports no statistics are obtainable. 

The Governor of the Territory has recommended that r^ula- 
tions be autliorised by Congress, so that the needful statistics may 
be available in future. 

From the best estimates tliat can be made, the impoi'ts last 
year from the United States were of the value of about 4,500,000/., 
so that, adding to this 582,810/., representing the value of the 
imports from foreign countries, the whole would iimount approxi- 
mately to 5,082,810/. 

The imports fi-om foreign countries for the fiscal year ended Fon-ipi 
June 30, 1901, amounted to 582,810/:, of which 64,317/. came'""!^'" 
from the United Kingdom, and 168,875/. from the colonies. i^^rti 

From January 1 to June 14,1900 (the date on which the g™^ ' 
Organic Act for the government of the islands took effect), imports- 
imports from the United Kingdom were doubtless unusually decrsMB. 
large, in anticipation of the United States tariff coming into 
operation. After that date orders slackened considerably, in many 

(115) A 2 



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4 HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

oases they were withheld altogether on account of the higher 
duties, ant! after the accunralated stoeks had become exhaustetl. 
the markets of the Unite<l States were largely resorted to for new 
supplies. Under these circumstances it cannot be a matter of 
surprise that the imports from the United Kingdom which, under 
the Hawaiian tavifl' of from 10 to 25 per cent, had in 18it8 
amounted to 257,545;., and iu 1899 to 354,931/., should fiave so 
eeriously fallen off as to show a total of 64,317/. only during the 
fiscal year to June 30, 1901. 

If British manufacturers and exporters were to refer to the 
United States tnrifl' book, which could be seen at the (,'om- 
mercial Intelligence Branch of the Board of Trade, as well, 
doubtless, as at the United States Consulates, they would be 
enabled to jmlge of the likelihood of their doing a reason- 
ably remunerative trade with the islands in the particular goods 
in which they are interested, notwithstanding the present onerous 
tariff conditions. Profits might not be large, but business might 
be done. Tlie Connneitial Intelligence Branch would, I believe, 
be able to inform them of the names of certain of the principal 
dealers in this district with whom they could correspond with 
the view of opening up business relations, obtaining information 
as to current prices, &c, and ascertaining precisely the pros- 
pects and conditions of each branch of trade. 

There were no exports from the islands during the above- 
mentioned year direct to the United Kingdom. The exports 
to the British colonies amounted to 6,i52L ; to Germany 
12,700/.; to Chioa, 3,814t ; toJapan, 904/. ; and to other countries, 
442/. 

The total number of vessels entered from American aud 
foreign portjs during the year ended June 30, 1901, was 705, a^re- 
gating 952,504 tons. Of this number 71 were British, with a 
total tonnage of 149,595 tons. 

The value of the carrying trade to aud from the Hawaiian 
Islands bv vessels of different nationalities was as follows : — 



Import.. 


Eiporti. 


£ 
lfl0.!68 
286,09! 
98.187 
9.41(1 
88,8*9 

582,810 


£ 
S,7BB,600 
16,677 
214 

1.900 

6,784,291 



Britiah . . 

Norwegian 

Other nntionftKti«t 

Tot.) .. 



.For some time past the number of British vessels bringing 
coal from Australia has lai^ely decreased, American vessels chiefly 
having taken their place 



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HAWAIUS- ISLAN'DS. D 

There are 55 sugar plaatations at the present time in the 3ag»r. 
islands, 50 of which have their own reducing plant. They are 
distributed as follows: — 25 on Hawaii, 11 on Maui, 9 on Oahu, 
and 10 on Kauai. The total quantity of sugar produced on these 
plantations in 1900 amounted to 289,544 tons : — 

Quaatitj. 







1900. 


1899. 


Hftlraii 
Haai 

Oahu 
Eaiimi 


'I'otal .. 


Tons. 1 
116,£23 
67,S47 
68,eZ5 
63,849 


Tons. - 
117,289 
64,»89 
4S,820 
65,859 




28»,34t 


2M.807 



The production for the year euding June 30, 1901, was atx>ut 
360,000 tons, valued at 5,586,000/. 

\early every acre adaptahle to cane culture is under cultiva- 
tion, and the probahility uf a mueli larger extension of the 
industry is small. The yield per acre varies greatly according to 
the character of the soil, position of the plantation on the island, 
whether in the rainy or rainless belts, &c. Under irrigation, as 
muL-h as 10 tons of sugar per acre bus been the average of ont- 
planlatiuiL On the i-ainy side of the islands the yields are less, 
but so are the expenses, and the net gains from each do not vary 
very nmch. 

Tlie price of sugar of late has leen very low, and this, in 
connection with the higher wages paid for labour and other causes, 
lias had the effect of reducing proiits and materially lowering the 
valuation of ^>lautatioQ stocks. 

An ample supply of cheap labour for the plantations) i& of 
^■ital importance in connection with the successful and economical 
producti<m of sugar, on which the prosperity of these islands 
chiefly depend?. In this eonnecfion, and on the general financial 
situation here, the following extract from a published report of a 
recent interview by the representative of the " Washington (I").C.) 
Evening Star " with the Governor of the Territory of Hawaii, will 
be of interest. 

Kegtirding business, labour and financial situation the Governor Bmin»ss, 
of Hawaii said:— fl'^^T"' 

" The expectation of annexation to the United States and lituition. 
realisation of it in 1898 produced an activity in business and in 
land particularly. Land values went up. It was not a boom 
such as some parts of the United States have experienced within 
the past decade. New plantation enterprises and old ones 
developed on a bigger scale were taken up and their stock placed 
on the market. The old basis was 100 doL un a share. For 
facilitati[ig the dealing in shares many were made on a basis of 
20 do]., or five of the new to one of the old. 

fll51 A 3 



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6 . HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

" This tempted many persons with little money to buy, 
particularly of the stucks that were placed on the market aa 
assessable shares. The purchasers were permitted to pay in 
instalments as called for. There was a great interest manifested ; 
I don't know but excitement would be the better word. School 
teachers, employes, hack drivers, nearly everybody who had the 
money made investments. Women as well as men patronised the 
stock market. 

• • • • 

" In the meantime prices of sugar have dropped. This 
naturally affected stocks. All plantations were affected, and the 
stock of all on the market went lower. The stock of some of the 
plantations is held by a few persons, and no stock is offered for sale. 

" The uncei'tainty as to the action of Congress toward Cuba 
has had some effect. It has injected an element of uncertainty as 
to the future in sugar prices, and it has also affected the value of 
plantation shares. 

" Labour since the Territorial Act went into effect has been 
disturbed. Previous to the Organic Act, which became operative 
June 14, 1900, we had a forced penalty. Thi^ system was 
analogous to a large degree to the system used by vessel ownera 
in employing sailors in the old whaling times. ' Shipping on a 
plantation ' is a common expression used by labourers who hire 
themselves out. 

■' When this system came to a sudden termination by the 
operation of the Territorial Act these men were under no restric- 
tions, labour of the whole country was immediately disturbed, 
although not completely. Many labourers left the plantations 
where they were employed and roamed about the islands. They 
went to Honolulu to see if they couldn't find something better or 
more to thoir liking to do. They were imbued with the belief 
that the Oi^uic Act opened the way for higher prices for labour. 
There was no strike. There was no organisation among them and 
their false hopes soon became emphasised. They always ateer for 
Honolulu. 

" Prices for labour went lower. In a few months the disturb- 
ance settled down. Some went back to the old plantations, others 
went to new places of employment. The condition adjusted itself. 
labour wages went, up a little. Japanese, Chinese and Portuguese 
labourers are constantly leaving tie plantations when they can 
get something better to do. Plantations are always looking for 
new labour. 
I " Then new Chinese labour was shut out The Japanese were 
interrupted for the time being. Finally the plantations began to 
■ bring in Porto Kicans. This was in January, 1901. About 2,000 
nien and half that number of women and children were imported. 
They have been a disappointment to some extent. The Porto Iticans 
are not very good workmen. They are inclined to beggary if any 
one will listen to them. Their tendency is to leave the plantations 
and come to Honolulu to Leg. The Porto Eicans have not proven 
satisfactory as labourers or as additions to the population. 



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H.VWAIIAS INLANDS. 7 

" The planters are now consideriDg how they shall keep up the 
labour supply. The Japaoeae are coming in slowly, but steadily. 
It is desirable to have more than one nationality. These are the 
difficulties. The plantations are making a great crop this year. 
Generally they are in a good agricultural condition. They have 
the best of producing machineiy. Some on the Island of Hawaii 
suffered severely last year from the drought, but they have 
recovered considerably. They expect this trouble every few years. 

"There is some complaint among business men, and it seems to 
be due to the tightness of the money market. There are no failures 
or assignments to speak of. The cause of the complaint seems to 
be based entirely on the tightness of the money market. The 
enterprises are too large for the available capital. Retailers feel 
the condition most ; yet all are affecterl. 

" The Government of Hawaii is limited by the revenues, which Ee»eou» 
are inadequate for carrying on necessary public improvements, the w'^^loiMt. 
current revenues being insufficient other than to carry on the 
administration expenses. The Legislature at the last session failed 
to enact legislation for loans that were desirable. The country 
lost a large part of the revenues at the beginning of the Territory 
by the transfer of the customs revenues, amounting to about 
1,200,000 dol., to the Federal Government. 

" But we are getting along. The Territorial Government is 
doing something in the way of public improvements, but not 
nearly so much Jis ought to be done. The fire claims for the build- 
ings that were burned at the time of the bubonic plague in 
Honolulu in 1900 are numerous and aggregate a large amount 
These claims are not all decided yet, but will be, I think, within a 
couple of months. The Government has little money in sight for 
the payment of these claims. 

" As to the land laws, they have been substantially confirmed 
by the Territorial Act, and the administration of lands has been 
proceeding as before." 

At the present time the paid up capital of the sugar estates 
whose shares are listed on the Exchange is about 9,000,000?., while 
the stocks of other corporations promoted amount toabout 1,000,000?. 
more. 

During the last four years pumping machinery has been imported 
from the United States to irrigate the cane, to the value of 
400,000?., and water is being profitably pumped for irrigation to 
an elevation of 600 feet. 

The bulk of the coal used on the plantations has heretofore oil furiaaton 
come from Australia, costing about 1?. 17s. 2rf. a ton on the planta- plantation. : 
tion.s, but importations are now being made from British Columbia Kiperimenu. 
and from Tacoma, United States. A lai^e saving in coat of 
fuel would, it is said, be achieved if crude oil, which is being 
tried on some of the plantations as a substitute for coal, prove 
successful. The oil would be brought in tank ships from San 
Francisco. 

It is officially stated that since the annexation of tlie islands Plantation 
as a territory of the United States the immigration of unskilled l»l«'nr. 
(115) A 4 



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8 HAWAIIAN ISLANTIS. 

lalioui'ei'B has practically ceased, while many of the Japanese and 
Chinese already here have returned to their native countries. 
Between Jnne 14, 1900, the date on which the Act of Ck>Qgreaa 
for the government of the islands went into effect, and August 31, 
1901, 4,079 Japanese left the territory, while only 589 arrived, 
and at the present time they are coming in but slowly. 

Under the United States exclusiou laws Chinese labourers are 
inadraiasible. 

Partly to make up the deficiency in the labour supply, about 
2,000 Porto Eicaos (and half that number of women and children) 
have been brought in, but it is said they have not proved as 
satisfactory as the Asiatic labourers. 

The area of land under cultivation has largely increased, and 
the insufficiency of hands has been much felt. 

The total number of labourers of all nationalities on the plan- 
tations on June '6Q, 1901, was 39,587, consisting of 27,531 Japanese, 
4,976 Chinese, 2,417 Portuguese. 1,460 Hawaiians, 2,095 Porto 
KicauB, and the remainder of other nationalities. 

The sudden change from the contract to the non-contract 
system, which took place on June 14, 1900, unsettled to a great 
extent the minds of the labourers on the plantations, and for a 
year or more after the Oi^anic Act became operative the men 
were in a very restless condition. Wi^es went up from 2/. Us. dd. 
and 3/. Is. lOd. a month to 41. 2s. 5d. and 4Z. lOs. 8d. for unskilled 
labour. 

The situation has, however, now improved, and the present 
wages are 3/. 63. to 3/. 14s. 3d. a month for held labourers. 
Teamsters and ploughmen get about 4^. a day, while all classes 
of skilled labour, such as mechanics, &c., are paid better than on 
the mainland, 
Drjgoodi. Ill fine cotton goods. American manufacturers appear to be 

Fine cotton making great strides towards the perfection attained by the British 
8™***- and French. So far as these islands are concerned, the best class 

of goods can be well supplied from America almost as cheaply 
as they can be imported from Europe ; while in the cheaper kinds 
of fabrics American manufacturers practically control this market, 
these latter kinds being seemingly appreciated both for their in- 
trinsic value and for their suitableness for the islands' trade 
H(MiM7. The hosiery trade has heretofore been almost exclusively iu 

the hands of the United Kingdom and Germany, but owing to the 
increased tariff, and also to the great improvement made in United 
States inanufactuies, the bulk of this trade, especially in the lower 
priced goods, is now being done with America. 

A quantity of hinh-class goods is still imported from the 
United Kingdom and Germany, but it is not large. 
Cotton priikU, The trade in cotton prints, calicoes, and cheap fancy 
ckliooM, *o. printed muslins is almost entirely in the hauda of manufacturers 
in the Eastern States of the United States, and seems likely to 
continue so, even without any tariff, as they can supply them to 
suit tiie market at veiy cheap rates. Fine ^rade muslins, lawns 
and fialbriggan underwear continue to be imported from the 



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UAWAJIAM ISLANDS. 9 

United Kingdom. For Irish dimities of all colours, but especially 
black and white fancy patterns, there is a good demand, and the 
goods are much appreciated here. 

The Japanese, Chinese and other labourers are the principal I>eniiD» »od 
purchasers of denims and cottonades. The low prices, however, as '^*<'"»<''»- 
well as the excellent finish of the American manufacture, practi- 
cally shut out foreign competition. 

The tariff on woollen goods is now very heavy, and, in con- WooUra 
sequence of the enhanced cost to the consumer, cheaper and com- so™^"- 
moner kinds of worsted goods are obtained from the United 
States at prices to suit the majority of buyers, who otherwise 
would not purchase the goods at all. Fine Biitish tailoring cloths 
and other woollen goods continue to be imported for the better 
class of customers. 

On account of the market having been so heavily stocked, Lima fpiodi. 
importations of linen goods have not been large. Supplies will 
no doubt continue to be drawn from the United Kingdom and 
Germany. 

The supply of lace curtains. &c., in the past was exclusively l*fe 
from the United Kingdom, but the bulk of the trade has now cuwaiui, A«. 
passed into the hands of American manufacturers, who are turning 
out exceedingly good patterns in cotton curtain goods, which come 
somewhat cheaper than duty paid Nottingham goods can be laid 
down here. 

Laces and embroideries will still be imported from Europe. 

Irish linens, white and brown spool cottons, and mosquito irUh linenf, 
nettings are being imported from the United Kingdom in about *''''• »"<* 
the same quantities as heretofore. ^to"..' wid 

The main supply of ribbons comes from the United States, the mosquito 
only ribbons imported from Europe being expensive fancy goods lieiiing-. 
in novelties, in which the trade here, however, is very small. Ribbons. 

The trade in boots and shoes is entirely in the hands of t)ic Boot* uid 
American manufacturers. pJioe». 

The exports of coffee to the United States during the fiscal CoiTee. 
year to June 30, 1901, amounted to 64,308?., but the prices 
realised were not encouraging to the growers, the lower price of 
Brazilian and other coffees making sales in many cases almost 
unprofitable. Wages too are higher here than in other places. On 
many plantations the cultivation of sugar has been substituted for 
that of coffee. 

Perhaps, with better cultivation and greater attention to the 
marketing of the product, the business may be placed on a more 
remunerative basis. 

Much of the Hawaiian coffee is of good quality, and is 
appreciated here for its delicate aroma. Shipments are made to 
Canada and the United States, where they are blended with 
stronger coffees to suit the popular taste. 

Efforts are being made by the planters to have a protective 
duty put on foreign coffees of from 3 to 4 c. a pound, which would 
enable the cultivation here to be carried on more profitably tliiui 
it is at present, and at the same time stimulate production. 



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10 HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 

Bico- Rice is the second crop of the islands in quantity and value. 

It 19 estimated that the total yield is nearly 10,000,000 lbs. 

Every acre of land adjoining the ocean capable of being worked 
and susceptible of being watered, is under cultivation, two crops 
per year being obtained from the same land. The crop of clean 
rice per acre is from 1,000 to 1,-500 lbs., which means a yield per 
year of twice that quantity. 

The Chinese are exclusively engaged in this industry, paying a 
rent of from 6^. to 10/. per acre. 

As rice constitutes the chief food of the principal part of the 
population of the islands, the consumption is large, and the yield 
is often inadequate to meet it, so that importations become 
necessary. 
A|rHRultiuv, The supply of meat on the islands is inadequate to meet the 

*"■ wants of the population, and in consequence large quantities of 

refrigerated and preserved meats are imported from the mainland. 
To remedy this in some measure, more cattle and sheep ranches 
ai-e being developed. Heretofore meat was imported in limited 
quantities from Australia and New Zealand, but the supply from 
these countries has now ceased because of the tariff and other 
restrictions. 

Hay and fodder are likewise mostly drawn from the mainland. 
But little corn is grown on the islands, and of oats and barley 

An experimental station comprising about 133 acres is in 
course of establiahment here under the auspices of the United 
States Bureau of Agriculture. Its work will consist of experi- 
ments which the conditions here seem to demand. Soils, horticul- 
ture and general crops will receive attention. 

The dairy herd and poultry yard, orchard and vineyard also, 
will be subjects for investigation. The results of the experiments 
are being looked forward to with much interest. 
The mlguobk Of all trees here the algaroba (originally imported) has proved 
^"" itself the most useful. It is to be found in abundance on all the 

'- islands, it is a quick grower and invaluable for fuel, it also gives 
good shade, and horses and cattle are fond of the beans. For 
reclaiming dry barren lands it has also been found of value. The 
tree {ji-ows well in dry districts, and is often found doing well at 
from 1,000 to 1,500 feet elevation where the rainfall is light. La 
damp districts it does not do well, and it is very sensitive to salt 
winds from the sea. For instance, on the windward side of this 
island (Oahu) the algaroba is very seldom met with in a healthy 
condition if in close proximity to the beach. The tree will 
grow in a temperature ranging from 60 to 120 d^rees in dry 
districts. 

Supplies of the seeds have been forwarded by this Consulate at 
diflcrent times to South Africa, Western Australia and Cyprus. 
If the trees grow as well in those countries as tJiey do here, the 
results will certainly be very beneficial to them. 

A company has just been incorporated for developing tlie 
growth of the castor oil tree in the Kona district of Hawaii. 



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UA.WAliAJ< ISLAXUd. II 

The beans already produced in tbie district have found, it is 
said, a ready sale at about 12/. a ton. 

The Coiiiriiissiorier of Agriculture has taken up the indiarubber Indurubbw 
culture, and some hundieds of slips have been planted in the<^*«™- 
Government nursery in Nuuanu Valley near Honolulu. 

The cultivation of cork trees, for which some localitiea in the CulUTition 
islands are said to be suitable, is also receiving attention. <«"''' *««•■ 

N'umei'ous enquiries having been addressed to the Consulate SnuUl 
from the United Kingdom and some of the colonies in r^ard to holding». 
the prospects of success in small fanning on these islands, it may 
be of interest to f;ive the following extract from the report of the 
Governor of this Territory made in August last to the United 
States Secretary of the Interior, and recently published, on this 
subject :— 

" What can the man of small means do in the way of agricul- 
ture ? is a question often asked, imd is a most difficult one to 
answer. No one seems to cai-e to take the responsibility of saying 
that he will be successful. Experiments along these lines are 
being made, but no definite resulte have been reached. In former 
years most of the cereals were raised on the mountain lands of 
moderate elevations, but this industry was abandoned many years 
ago, with the exception of corn and potatoes. These are still 
grown on the high lands of the £ula district, on the Island of 
Maui, and to a very limited extent in Hilo and Hamakna districts, 
on the Island of Hawaii, principally by the homestea lers. 

" The growing of fruits of the temperate zone has never been 
syatematicaliy attempted. Citrus fruita do well in many of the 
districts, but no large tracks have been devoted lo their culture, 
the main nupply coming from the trees that grow at random. 
The culture of the pineapple is now receiving considerable 
attention, but the immense yields from a small acreage indicates 
that the industry may easily be overdone. Coflee seemed once to 
be the crop suitoble for a man of small means, but unfortunately 
it has not proved so, low prices and high wages ba^-ing rendei-ed 
its cultivation unprofitable. The small farmei-, as he is known 
throughout the Eastern and I'acitic States, is unknown here. The 
man who desires to become a pioneer in this work is welcome, 
and he would find land at such prices as would seem to warrant 
his making the attempt, but he will find much to contend with, 
and conditions that are new and untried. This view may be 
discouraging, but I believe it would be unfair to make rosy state- 
ments that could not be fulfilled. Thei'e are so many conditions 
that enter into the subject that it is difficult to make a correct 
estimate of probable results. Transportation of products has au 
important bearing upon the question. Insect pests are numerous 
and seem to be on the increase. Soils vary so greatly in character 
that while several products inay do well iu a locality others are 
complete failures. 

"Notwithstanding all the drawbacks that have been men- 
tioned, it can be truly said that if a favourable location as to 
soil and rainfall is chosen, a man can secui'e for himself ii com- 



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12 HAWAIIAK ISLANDS. 

fortable home, where he need scarcely consider the morrow. His 
profits may not be large, but he will be independent and be able 
to enjoy life freed from many of the harassing cares and anxieties 
that exist in less favoured countries than this." 
(JjntarUriDg. Tlie cost of living is much hifflier than in moat localities on 
the mainland, owing to the fact that nearly all the supplies are 
shipped to the islands from long distances. 
FopulatioD. The population of the Hawaiian Islands, according to the 

census of 189C, was 109,020. 

On June 1, 1900, when another census was taken, it was 
154,001, being an increase of 44,981, or 412 per cent, over that of 
1896. 

The total land surface of the islands is approximately 6,449 
square rniles. The average number of persons to the square mile 
in 1900 was 23-8. 

The poniilation of each island in 1900 was r — 

I Population. 

Havraii ' 46,n43 

Eausi and Nib>u ' 20,TS1 

M»iii ' 85,416 

Uolokai I 2,50« 

Utkhu ' 58,501 

Total j 154.001 



In 1890 Honolulu had a population of 22,907 : in 1900 it was 
:-t9,306, an increase in the decade of 1(»,399, or 71'5 per cent 

The number of Hawaiians on .Tune 1, 1900, was 29,834; in 
1896 it was 31,019. The half-castes now number 7,835, but 
ill 1896 they numbered 8,485. The decrease in the number of 
Hawaiians is therefore 1,185, and of half-castes 650. The 
increase in the number of Oliinese since 1896 is 6,360, the pre- 
sent number being 25,742. Of Japanese, in 1896 there were 
22,-'!29, now there are about 58,500. The Caucasian race has 
increased in number during the same period 6,105. In 1896 the 
whole white population was 22,428 ; in 1900 it was 28,533. 

It is estimated that since the annexation of the islands to the 
United States about 2,000 Americans have come to the Territory, 
but quite a number of these are said to have returned because of 
the prevailing financial and trade depression. 

The following regular lines of steamers call at this port : — 

Cans dian-Austra Han Line, consistinj; of three steamers, ninning 
monthly from Victoria, British Columbia, vi& Honolulu and Fiji, 
to Brisbane and Sydiiey, New South Wales. 

Ocestnic Steamship Line, with thi-ee steamers, running every 
three weeks from San Francisco via Honolulu and Pago-Piigo, to 
Auckland, New Zealand and Sydney Also one steamer running 
exclusively between San Francisco and Honolulu everj' three 
weeks. 

The Pacific Mail Steamship Line (Occidental and Oriental 



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HAWAIIAN ISLANDS. 



13 



Steamship ConipaDj and Toyo Kisen KaiBha), from San Francisco 
to Japan and Cliina ; nine Hteamera ou line. 

Aid eri can-Hawaiian Steamship Line, monthly service between 
New York and Honolulu vi& Pacific Coast ; six steamers now on 
line (two more steamers huildiug). 

Globe Navigation Company, Seattle to Honolulu, monthly; 
three steamers on line. 

A new direct local line between San Francisco and Hilo, 
Hawaii, has been inaugurated, and the first steamor in the service 
has lately arrived at the latter port. She carries both freight and 
passengers, and burns oil for fuel. Lf business demands, other 
steamers will be put on burning similar fuel. 

A large area of land is being reclaimed on the seashore and incre«ed 
filled in for the purpose of giving increased wharfage accommoda- g,^^"^^ 
tion at Honolulu, the want of which is greatly felt. action. 

The dollar is calculated at 4s. IJcZ. to the II. Kjchsng*. 

Annex A. — RETURN of Principal Articles of Export from the 
Hawaiian Islands during the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 
1901. 



Coffee 


64,308 




15.611 


Hide* 




Honey 


8,014 




22,718 


Other export! 

Biporta,?oreigD merahftndue 


82,605 


10,141 


Total 


6,784.291 


Specie 


272,324 



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HAWAIIAN ISLANUS. 



Annex R — Table showing Some of the Principal Articlea of 
Import into the Hawaiian Islands from Foreign Countries 
during the Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1901. 



Article!. 


T»lue. 


Cotton. 




Fib™. 


70.169 




»4,ra8 


Cori 


102,489 


K.h.. .. ■.. 


S6,198 




23,806 




84,017 






cSment 


1S,ES8 
19,678 


CliemiotU 


84,580 


Eice 


28,785 


OtherarticlM 


99.BSS 


Tow 


GS2,810 



Annex C. — Table showing Total Valne of all Articles Exported 
from and Imported into the Hawaiian Islands durit^ the 
Fiscal Year ended June 30, 1901. 



CoQatnet. 


Value. 


EipoH*. 


In,poH. 


United Slates (including specie) 

United Kingdom 

British coloDies 

cbi^'"^:: :: :: :: 

J'pon 

Chile 

France 

Other count riei 


£ 
6,760,978 

6,452 

12,700 
3.814 
904 

.. 

"446 


£ 

64,317 
16^875 
116,775 
46,851 
144,325 
29,667 
3,982 
9,61>i 


ToUl 


6,784,291 


582,810 



Annex D. — TABLE showing Importa of Coal into the Hawaiian 
Islands from Foreign Countries during the Fiscal Year ended 
June 30, 1901. 



Country. 


Quantitj. 


Value. 


Australia 

Canada 

Other oountriei.. 


! To... 

... 180,9M 

..' 20,191 

2,116 


£ 
83,9fi4 
16,718 
1,747 



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HAWAUAN ISLANDS. li> 

Annex E. — Table showing Valae of Carrying Trade between 
Foreign Countries and the Hawaiian Islands during the 
Fiscid^Year ended June 30. 1901. 



NatioDklitT. 


TalQB. 
Import*. Bsport*^ 


Americwi 

Britith 

GermM 

Norwegim 


£ 
160,268 
Bl«,092 
98,187 
9,419 
SS,ai9 


6,765.600 
16,677 

1.900 


Total 


682,810 


6,784,2^ 



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LONDON: 

PriDl«<l for HU Msjest^'i Statioaerj Office, 

By HABBI80H AND SONB, 

Printers in Ordinwy to Hi» MiJMtj. 

(76 7|02— H4B 115) 



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No. 2704 Annnal Series. 
DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REP0ET8. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT rOR THE YEAR ENDINO JUNE 30, 1901, 



TRADE OF THE UNITED STATES. 



Presented to hoth Houtei of Parliament by Command of Bit M^fum, 
8EPTEMBES, 1901. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED rOB HIS MAJESTY'S SXATIOITKRY OPBTOB, 

BY HARRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANB, 



And to bspwnluMd, eitliar directly or tlmmKh nay BookiellBr, fnun 

ETBB ft BFOITISWOODE, East BAKDiHe Stxih, Fl»t Strht, B.O* 

and tS, Abinsdon Stbeit, WEBTMi:(i»K, S.W.) 

or OLITSR A BOYD, Edihbhrqh | 

« E. FONS0NB7, 116, Oraftok Stuit, Du>i.iii. 

1901. 
[Cd. 786—8.] Price One Fmny. 



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CONTENTS. 



Bzpmta to H«ziao, Oantnl and South Amcriok, and Weit Indiv... 

Ti»de witii South AinericK _ _ _ ..,..„ 

Indo with Japui .._ „,._._« _ „ „ 



Agriaultoral implemeDti 

CjoIm ud C7cl» pArt* ... 

PMcenger and freigbt eai 

Cod ....: ..._ 

Cotton goodi „ 

OlaH and ghutwars ..••_. 

B«P> 

Soientjflo instruniBnta -. 

Hard ware 

Engine! 

Booti and Bho«i >, 

Competition with British m 
TmpotU — 

Tin-plat ea.... ......_ 

Cotton goods .»... 

Draa good*. ._.._... 



Trade m Ant half of 1901 



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No. 2704. Azmaal Series, 



Jt^aort on the Trade of the United States for the Year ending 
Jmie 30, 1901, hy Mr. E. Seymour Bell, Britis/t Covim^oial 
Agent at C ' 



(Beoatred at roreign Offioa, Angiut 20, 1901.) 

The trade statistics which have just been published for the iVHal •iporu 
12 months ending JuDe 30 show that the total exports amount 
to 1,460,453,809 doL ; they thus surpass all former records. 

When, however, the f^ures are analysed they are not so 
satisfactory from the American manufacturer's point of view as 
at first sight they appear to be. 

The increase in the total value of exports is 6^ per c^it. 
compared with the previous yet^. If we deduct from the total 
amount of 1,460,453,809 doL, the value of agricultural products, 
944,059,568 dol.; mining, 39,267,647 doL; forest, 54,312,830 doL; 
fisheries, 7,743,313 doL; and miaoellaneous, 4,561,278 doL; we 
have, representing manufactured goods, 410,509,173 doL This 
amount is 5^ per cent, less than that of 1900. 

Iron and steel in its different forms aocoUDts for 117,319,270 
doL, which is 3} per cent, less than that of 1900. 

The trade returns show evidence of a considerable increase in Giporti to 
exports to Mexico, Central and South America, and the West Mb""". 
Indies. The total has risen to 138,301,000 doL in 1900-1901,^^^""* 
from 127,000,000 dol. in 1899-1900, and 103,000,000 dol. inAmMic«,«.d 

1898-99. W«it Indie.. 

The trade is divided amoi^ the several countries as follows : — 



Coimtrj. 


V.lce. 


South AmeriM „ .. «. 

Ceiit«a A»«ric. 

Wertlndiee 

Ueiioo 


BoUara. 
46,181,000 

7,020,000 
48,100,000 
87,000,000 


Tot»l .. . .. 


188,801,000 



Cuba and the British possessions toot the larger part of tb" 
goods sent to the Weat- Ini£es. , 

There are many, indications that an attempt is about to be Stt? '"''" 
(882) A 2 



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■ 4 - UKrreD 8TATEB. 

m&de to capture the trade of South America. Shipping facilities 
are being improved, though slowly, and every effort is beinj; 
made to draw more close ihe commercial relatione of the diRerent 
conntries of the two American Continents. Particular attention 
is being paid to the needs of buyers and the conditions of trade 
are being closely studied. Everything that can give satisfaction 
to buyers is being done. Close attention is given to packing of 
goods, and price-Uste are circulated in Spanish with, in many 
cases, prices quoted in the current coin of the country per 
100 kilos. The advantage of this to the customere cannot be over- 
estimated. 

The following extract from a local newspaper will bear this 
out: — 

"Exports from the United States to all American countries 
and islands south of her boundaries show a marked increase in 
the fiscal year just ended, and exceed those of any other year in 
the history of our commerce. This statement, jiist annoonced by 
the Treasury Bureau of Statistics, is especially interesting in view 
of the vunoue efforts being made for closer business relations 
between the United States and her neighbours of the south. 

" New lines of steamers have recently been put on between 
the Pacific Coast of the United States and the western coast of 
Mexico, Central and South America; a recently pubUshed state- 
ment indicates that great financial interests of the United States 
have obtained control of the nearly completed trans-continental 
line connecting Argentina with Chile ; the establishment of direct 
steamship lines between the eastern coast of the United States 
and South American ports is under discussion, and the opening 
of an isthmian canal would give a straight line of water com- 
munication from the eastern coast of the United States to the 
western coast of South America. 

" All of these movementa in the direction of doeei relations 
between the Unit«d States and her neighbours at the south add 
interest to the announcement that our exports to those countries 
in 1901 are latter than those of any preceding year, and to some 
figures just presented by the Bureau of Statistics showing the 
imports of each of the South American countries at the latest 
date and the exports from the United States to each of those 
conntries in 1901. 

"The growth of the exports from the United States to Central 
and South America has not kept pace in the poet with the growth 
in other directions. The total exports to South America in 1900, 
for instance, were no more than those of 1890, being in each of 
those years, in round numbers, 38,000,000 dol., while the same 
statement holds good with reference to Central America, the 
total exports from the United States to the Central American 
States being, in 1890 and 1900, in each case, in round numbers, 
5,000,000 doL It is to Mexico and the West Indies that the 
exports in the decade 1890-1900 shows the greatest increase, 
being, to the West Indies, in 1890,33,000,000 dol.; and in 19U0, 
47,000,000 doL ; and to Mexico, in 1890, 13,000,000 doL ; and in 
1900, 34,000,000 doL 



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UNITED STATES. 6 

"The fiBcal years 1900-1901 show & much greater increase id 
Bales to ueighhoura at the aouth than in aoy pmiading years. The 
total exports to Mexien, Central and South America, and the West 
Indies in 1899 were 103,000,000 doL ; in 1900, 127,000,000 del. ; 
and in 1901, 138,000,000 do), in round numbers. Thus the figures 
of 1901 are 35,000,000 dol. greater than those of 1899, while the 
1899 figures are only 1,000,000 dol. greater than those of 1893. 

" The' importance of transportation facilities is illustrated by 
a study of the growth of the export trade with the countries of 
the South. Prior to the construction of railway lines connecting 
Mexico with the United States, exports to Mexico seldom reached 
10,000,000 dol.; by 1896 they were 20,000,000 dol.; by 1899, 
25.000,000 dol; in 1900, 34,000,000 doL; and in 1901. 
37,000,000 doL in round numbers. To the West Indies, the 
transportation system is much mot« satisfactory thau to the 
South American countrie!', and to those ielands exports have 
grown from 34,000,000 doL in 1891 to 49,000,000 doL in 1901. 
To Central and South America, with which steamship communica- 
tion has not been satisfactory, the growth has been less, the figures, 
as already indicated, being in 1900 practically the same as in 1890, 
while the figures for 1900 and 1901 show in each case a consider- 
able increase. This increase is especially noticeable in the exports 
to the countries on the western coast of South America, reached 
by the recently established lines connecting the western coast of 
the United States with that of South and Central America, and 
which were put into operation about the beginning of the present 
calendar year. The figures of exports to South America show an 
increase of nearly 100 per cent, to Peru in 11 months, ending with 
May, 1^01, as compared with the same, period of the fiscal year, 
1900, and nearly 100 per cent, to Chile in the same time. Of 
the increase of 6,000,000 dol. in exports to South America in 1901, 
as compared with 1900, more than two-thirds is to the countries 
on the western coast. 

" The following table shows the imports of the South American 
countries at the latest date obtainable (in most cases 1899), and 
the exports from the United States to each of those countries 
in 1899 and 1901 :— 



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XJKITKD BTATEB. 



Exporit from United Stttet. 





1899. . 




189U. 


1901." 




Doll.™. 


Dollnr^ 


]>allim>. 


■A-H'aHn* 


117.000,000 


f),663,610 


11,460,000 










Bruil 


105,000.000 


12,289,036 


12,190,000 




2fi,000,000 


4,B87flM 


7,020,000 


Ohile 


20,000,000 


2,107,124 


6,610,000 




11,000,000 


3.042,000 






7,000,000 


SS2,591 


2.082,000 


Ohuum 


10,000,000 


B,89a,89! 


2,530,000 


Pftt«gu»y 


2,000,000 


I0,7B1 


16,000 




11,000,000 




8.168,000 




26,000.000 


1,242,822 


1, 6:16,000 


Tenettwlk 




2^61,634 


3,802.000 


lotel 


854,00(^000 


40.B47,662 


52,801,000 



■ Jun«, IPOl, Mtdmated. 



"The following table shows our total exports to American 
territory south of the United States in 1890, 1900, and 1901 :— 



Coumry. 


T.lue. 


1890. 


180& 


I00l.» 


South Amerioa 

Centnl America 

Wert Indie. 

Maiioo 


Dollun. 
88,762*648 

6,296,478 
33,197,222 
18,286,287 


Dollan. 
38,94£,B73 
6,926,679 

47,436,67? 
34,874,961 


Dollan. 
46,181,000 

7,020,000 
49,100,000 
37,000,000 


ToUl 


90,631,636 


1S7,I88,690 


188,801,000 



* June, 1901, ertimated. 

" The annouDcement that American capital has taken control 
of and will complete the unfinished section of the trans-contiuental 
railway system of South America, connecting Chile and At^ntina, 
suggests that there may follow a practical revival of interest in 
the great project for a Fan-American railway line to connect the 
Nortti and South American railway systems, advocated for many 
years by Hinton Hower Helper, and lends interest to fhe figures 
of the Beport of the Inter-continental Hallway Commission on the 
proposed through railway line from New York to Buenos Ayrea. 
These figures, which were issued in 1898, show the entire distance, 
hy the proposed route, from New York to Buenos Ayres to be 
10,228 miles, of which 4,772 miles were then constructed and 
.5,456 miles yet to be constructed, at an estimated cost of 
) 76,000,000 dol. 



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UHITED STATES. 



" The following table shows the number of miles of railway 
suitable for a through Pan-American line existing in each country 
in 1898, and the number of jniles necessary to be constructed to 
complete the through line : — 



C..,.,H.., 




Tob* 


Ettimatiid 
Cow of 




MUe*. 


Uilei. 


DoUm. 


Coited State* 


2,034 






Meiico 


l.ISS 


4fil 


14.7C2.(W 


Centi«l .Ajoenoa 


211 


8sa 


17,154,517 


robmbia 




i,aM 


8»,7:tH.424 


EciuMior. 




638 


26,863,856 


Ptra 


lf.7 


1,613 


P6.768.146 


BotiTift 


196 


392 


lli,033.8^ 


ArgentiB. 


93i 


ISti 


4.000,000 


Iol«l 


4,772 


5,456 


174,290,270 ■' 



The States on the Pacific coast have cliiefiy benefited by the 
increase of trade with South Ameiica. The new stearaships 
trading between Pacific poits of South America and Pacific ports 
of tlie United States, due perhaps to the new interests acquired 
in the Pacific Ocean, greatly facilitate the trade between the 
several countries. The development of railways in Venezuela, 
Colombia, and Ai^entina, often with American capital, has also 
gri;atly aided the expansioo. In all probability this increase will 
continuo, especially if the plans of certain American investors are 
carried out. 

The whole of South America ouly takes about 3 per cent, of 
the total exports of the United States, but they are increasioc. A 
New York paper recently referred to the matter as follows : — 
" The population of South America is more than three times as 
great as that of North America, outside of the United States, yet 
the fotraer took less than one-fourth as much of our produce as 
the latter. The more immediate proximity of the North American 
countries should not give them a twelve to one advantage. Or, 
rather, the greater distance of South America should not place it 
at a one to twelve disadvantage. Again, the population of Europe 
is probably not more than six times that of South America, yet 
the former takes 26 times as much as the latter. Certainly South 
America should be worth more to us than one twenty-sixth as 
much as Eurape. This reported distribution of our exports 
indicates unmistakably that Sonth America is the part of the 
world in which the greatest future gain should be sought and 
especially the gain in manufactured goods." 

The increase in trade with Chile is considered particularly 
gratifying as it was unexpected. Chile is recf^ised as one of the 
most prosperous and most progressive countries in South America, 
and it is expected to have a great future. 

The desire to increase the trade with South America is very 



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8 UNITED STATES. 

keen, and there ia probably no part of the world where greater 
efforts are being made to obtain a supremacy. Not only has the 
trade beea very small but in moat cases the South American 
Republics have been selling to the United States more than they 
have been buying. This has been particularly the case with 
Chile who has sold from 50 to 100 per cent, more than she has 
been buying. 

Particular attention is being called to the trade in cotton 
goods. That the United States should only have sold in 1900 to 
Mexico, Central and South America cotton goods of the value of 
3,605,269 dol.,whiIe the United Kingdom sold to these samecountries 
similar goods to the value o( 38,007,564 dol. causes amazement, 
taking into consideration the fact that the United States sold to 
the United Kingdom raw cotton worth about 100,000,000 dol. I 
merely mention this in order to indicate an important line of 
goods where severe competition may be expected. ' 

Japan, also, is becoming an importaiiL impurtiiig c(>untry of 
American goods. The following article taken from a New York 
paper is not without interest : — " The remarkable growth in the 
exports of the United States to Japan, and in the rank which this 
country now holds in supplying the imports of that industrious, 
prosperous, and rapidlyAleveloping nation, is shown by figures 
just compiled by the Japanese statistical report entitled, ' Annual 
Eetum of the Foreign Traile of the Empire of Japan,' presenting 
the details of the imports and the exports of Japan in the 
calendar year 1900. It shows that the imports from the United 
States have grown from 6,000,000 yen in 1893 to over 60,000,000 
yen in 1900, and that the United States, which stood sixth in 
rank in the list of countries from which Japan drew her imports 
in 1893, is now second in the list, being only exceeded by the 
United Kingdom. In 1893 the imports into Japan from the 
United Kingdom were valued at 27,829,628 yen ; those from 
China, 17,095,074 yen; from British India, 8,679,029 yen; from 
Hong-Kong, 8,268,071 >en; from Germany, 7,318,133 yen; and 
from the United States, 6,090,-208 yen. In 1900 the list stood: 
from the United Kingdom, 71,638,219 yen; from the United 
States, 62,761,196 yen; China, 29,960,740 yen; Germany, 
29,199,695 yeu; British India, 23,516,350 yen; Hong-Kong, 
10,659,855 yen; France, 8,095,819 yen; and .Belgium, 1,049,253 
yen. In 1893 the United States supplied 7 per cent. ; Germany, 

9 per cent. ; and the United Kingdom, 32 per cent, of the total 
imports into Japan. In 1900 the United States supplied 21 per 
cent. ; Germany, 10 per cent. ; and the United Kingdom, 25 per 
cent. Going still further back, it may be said that in 1881 the 
United States supplied 6 per cent., and the United Kingdom 52 
per cent, of Japan's imports. 

" The enormous increase in our exports to Japan since 1893 
is distributed among a large number of articles. The Japanese 
figures show that imports of sole leather from the United States 
have increased from 133,567 yen in 1893 to 782,862 yen in 1900 ; 
leather other than sole, from 41,014 yen in 1893 to 185,856 yen in 



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UNITED STATES. 9 

1900; nails, from 20,204 to 1,422,655 yen; iron pipes, from 
20,414 to 1,240,020 yen ; paraffin wax, from 97,651 to 440,858 
yen ; timber from 16,717 to 363,929 yen ; electric light machinery, 
from 99,253 to 478,215 yen. In a large nitmber of cases the 
import list of 1893 makes no mention of certain articles imported 
from the United States which in 1900 show large importations. 
The fact, however, that the list of enumerated articlea haa been 
extended since the adoption of Japan's new tariff suggests that a 
general comparison of Japan's purchases from the United States 
in 1900 compared with 1893 can better be made from the export 
figures of the United States. These show the value of the princi- 
pal exports from the United States to Japan in the fiscal yean 
1893 and 1900 as follows i— 



IMO. 



Dollari. 

Cotton, nnnunuhotorad I 08,4iS 

KeRned tniDMml oU | l,7i!4,972 

Iron Knd iteal mftnufAotlue*, eiMpt m»a1imerj 83,814 

Machm«i7 1 104,954 

WbMt flonr 198.M6 

SoleloatluT I 147,071 

Panffin and psnfiu vu j 77.824 

Clocki And watohei i 114,694 

PrOTuions, iomU knd dairj produDt* .. ,. 68,060 

Wood, uid DibtiiifBctnrM of 63,268 

<lb«nu«U, diuga. Ad | 20,S14 

Tobuoo muiufactun* i 232,662 

CoHoD aloth 9,084 

Snfu.nfliiMl I 7,171t 



Dollwi. 

12,711,619 

6,410,088 

4,398,981 

l,08l;S24 

1,564,789 

442,109 

2:!4,4W 

201.810 

18S.891 

192,270 

131,871 

107,a>B 

84,629 1 

2,900 



" The following table shows the total imports of Japan and the 
imports from the United States and the United Kingdom, 
respectively, at quinqaennial periods since 1881 : — ■ 





Totel 
Import., 


Import. 


from- 


Tmt. 


ITDil«d 
St-tM. 


Unit.d 
luagdoflK 


18S1 

1S8S 

1890 

189S 

1900 


Tot. 
81,128.126 
89366,967 
80,654,874 
127,260,8*4 
287,»M*6 


Tot. 
1,781,108 
2,761.820 
6,900,190 
9,276,860 
62,761,186 


16,a6?740 
12,460,610 
20.619,102 
46,172,110 
71,688,219" 



If we make a comparison between the quantities of certain Kiporta from 
merobandise exported this year with those exported the year tb* Dnited 
ptevioua many a useful lesson may be learnt Btatw. 



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10 UNITED STATKS.' 

Axrionltnrd Agricultural implements, have increased from 16,099,149 to 

impUmttiti. 16,313,434 dol. While the three largest buyers outside of British 
possessioQB, Germany, France, and the Argentine show a falling- 
oET in their purchases a^r^^ting 19 per cent. ; the exports to 
the United Kingdom have increased 40 per cent. ; to British 
North America, nearly G per cent. ; and to British Australasia, 
12 per cent 

There is no apparent reason why this should be so. Britiafa 
manufacturers should have no dimculty in competing with the 
American machines. It is necessary, of course, to pay attention . 
to the wants of buyers and supply them with the class of goods 
they require. The chief characteristics of the machines made in 
the United States are the following : lightness, rapid working, 
iaterchangeability of parts, substitution to a large extent of 
malleable iron castings for st«el, rough finish of unimportant 
parts whereby cost is reduced by saving of labour. 

Crolm, Though cycles and their parts show a reduction of 29 per cent., 

3 per cent more have been sent to Japan and 63 per cent, more 
to Africa. 

FuteDgsrstid Passei^r and freight cars show an increase of 32 per cent. 

freight (son. The most notable increases being ; to British Australiiaia, 99 per 
cent. ; to the United Kingdom, 18 per cent. ; to Mexico, 49 per 
cenUj to the West Indies, 26 per cent ; and to South America 
except Colombia and Argentina, 542 per cent, 

Ooil. Coal has increased from 7,188,048 to 7,676,149 tons, the 

increase being chiefly to Europe, West Indies, and South 
America. 

OottoD good*. The export of manufactured cotton goods has fallen off 16 per 
cent, chiefly owing to the Chinese crisis. Kliminating the 
amounts sent to the Chinese Empire, Porto Rico, and Hawaii, 
the two latter not being included in this year's foreign exports, there 
is an increase of 7 per cent The United Kingdom has taken 38 
per cent more than the previous year ; the West Indies, 4 per 
cent, more ; South America, 59 per cent more ; British Austral- 
asia, 11 per cent more, in all of which places British goods ought 
to have been able to keep down the increase. 

aiut »ad In glass and glassware there is a steady increase in the 

gUMvare. amounts exported. Those of 1901 show an increase of 9 per cent- 
over those of 1900, the value of the former being 2,126,309 dol. 

Hopi. The total value of hops exported shows a decrease of 49 per 

cent, as compared with tiie previous year. The United Kingdom 
took 13,670,725 lbs., valued at 2,276,521 doL, an increase of about 
50 per cent. 

SaisntiSB Scientific instruments, &c., including telegraphic, telephonic, 

and other electric, have increased 14 per cent. The United Kingdom 
was the largest buyer with 2,105,611 dol., an increase of 83 per 
cent compared with 1900. 

In builders' hardware, and saws and tools, there is a total 
decrease of 4 per cent with again a British colony the most not- 
able exception. British Australasia took 11 per cent more than 
■the previous year. The reason for tliis can only be that sufficient- 



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UNITED SrATKS. 11 

att€i)tion iB not paid in the United Kingdom to the wants of the 
coloniRts. 

There were 101 fewer locomotives exported last year but 156 Br.Kin«^ 
mora stationary engines. 

Of boots and ehoea there is an increase of 29 per cent. The Boou ud 
United Kinf^dom and British Australasia were the largest buyers. '''"**■ 
The former took 63 per cent, more than the previons year, and the 
latter 21 per cent The West Indies took 63 per cent more and 
South America 44 per cent 

The above are only a lew of the most important articles which Compemion 
touch moat closely British manufacturere. That the United ,^'^'^f'^ 
Kingdom makes such a pour show in competition witli the tuT«r«. 
United States is due almost entirely to the use of more perfect 
and more economical machinery in this country. By improve- 
ments in methods of manufacture and close attention to the 
wants of buyers, there should be no difficulty in competing with 
the United States. As regards heavy steel goods such a^ rails, 
structural material, &c., the abundance and cheapness of raw 
material makes competitinn more difficult. For finished articles 
such as machinery, &c., it is more a question of economy of manu- 
facture and design than in the first cost of material After all, 
in this country of high wages and in many cases long railway 
carriage, the only way to be able to compete with other countries 
is to cut down expenses as much as possible by the wao of labour- 
saving machinery and general economy. If this is possible in 
America it ought to be equally possible in other competing 
countries. Doubtless, when American methods are better known 
and appreciated, British manufacturers will not have any diOicnlty 
in meeting all competitiou. 

As regards imports of merchandise into the United States there Import*, 
are many lines in which British manufacturerB and shippers have 
not dune so well as they might have done. They have been allow- 
ing other competing countries to do better. 

Although the value of tin-plates imported has fallen from T'D-pUte*. 
147,963,804 dol. in 1900 to 117,880,312 doL in 1901, it does not 
mean there will not be an increase in the demand. There is a 
good deal of dissatisfaction expressed with the treatment of con- 
sumers by the Trust Many complaints are heard and some users 
of tin-plates would willingly pay a higher rate than is charged by 
the Trust in order to be independent 

The total amount of manufactured cotton goods and cloths im- Cuttoa 
ported was valued at 6,116,605 dol., a reduction of 29 per cent, on v*""*- 
the previous year. The United Kingdom sent 4,288,668 dol., a 
reduction of 36 per cent Switzerland sent goods valued at 
491,249 doL, an increase of 19 per cent compared with 1900. 

The total amount of women's and childreii's woollen dress goods Dm* gooir, 
imported was valued at 5,378,396 doL The value of those im- 
ported from the United Kingdom was 1,922,431 dol., and from 
France 2,250,025 dol. The former is 23 per cent less than in 
1900, and the latter is 6 per cent. more. 

Of cement 33 pei' cent less was imported. France sent 50 per Cement. 



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12 



UNITltD STATES. 



cent more than the year before ; the United Kingdom, 38 per cent, 
less ; and Germany, 38 per cent. leas. 

CoITm. In coffee the West and East Indies might have done better. 

The WeBt Indies sent 20 per cent, less, and the East Indies 47 per 
cent less, while Central America sent 40 per cent more, and South 
America sent 30 per cent. more. The total quantity imported 
was 854,871,310 lbs., an increase of 8 "per cent, valued at 
62,861,399 dol, an increase of about 20 per cent. 

Eartbeiiwsre. Earthenware was imported to the value of 9,467,418 dol., an 
increase of 9 per cent Germany sent 20 per cent, more, while 
the United Kingdom sent 3 per cent leas. 

T«,. There was 4 per cent more tea imported than in 1900, 

China sent 2^ per cent, more ; Japan, 9 per cent more ; ftnd the 
East Indies 36 per cent lesa 

Trade in itnt ^^^ ^^^ ^^'^ ^^ ^^ 7^^ ^^ heen & period of great business 

bklf of 1901. activity in the United States. There are, however, already signs 
indicating that this will, in all likeUbood, not continue for many 
(nontha longer. Shrinkage in the demand of many articles is 
already apparent Betailers, who are the first to feel the effects of 
any change, complain of the falhng-off in sales, especially of 
luxuries, and new business is difficult to obtain. With the partial 
failure of the maize crop the depression is likely to be accentuated, 
liailway returns will not be so favouiable and the farmers will not 
be the satisfactory buyers they have recently been. 

• Should this falliug-off in the home demand continue, there 
will be a conesponding increase in activity as r^arda exports. 
Stocks will accumulate and must be got rid of even at reduced 
rates. British tradera will, therefore, have to make greater efforts 
even than formerly if they wish to compete successfully with the 
United States. 



LONDOIT : 

Printed for Hia ll^jeitj's StaUoner; OOlc*, 

Bt HABBISON and S0K8, 

Frintan la Ordtokr; to Hin Mftjeetj-. 

(75 9 |0I~Hft8 S82) 



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No. 2749 Annual Series. 
DIPLOMATIC AND OONSXJLAE REPORTS. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1901 



TRADE AND COMMERCE OF PORTLAND (MAINE). 



BEFEBEHOB TO FBETIOTTS REPORT, Atmoal Series No. 2678. 



Pnimttd to both, ffotaee of Parliament by Command of Hit Maje^, 
MARCH, 1902. 



LONDOH: 

PRINTBD FOR HI3 MAJESTY'S STATIOlIBEr OPFICH, 

BY HABRISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S luLNE, 



And to be pnnhuBd, eitliBT direct!; or tliroiigh anj BookwUer, from 

BTBB & SFOlTieWOODB, East Hudinq Stun, S^m Sixih, BO^ 

and 82, ABi)iaiM>H Stbikt, Wssthikbtib, S.W.| 

or OLIV£& A BOYD, Edikbdxbbi 

w B. PONSONBY, 116, Qbutoit Siani, Sublik. 

1902. 
[Gd. 786—63.] Price TwopeiKt. 



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CONTENTS. 



Portland and ita termimi 
Harbonr and irliarTeB ... 
fiailroBd faoUitiM, ko. ... 

Slevaton .._ ^ 



Stevedores uid lonf^hortt 
Cattom-hoiue entriei, Ao 



Shipmenta from Portluid.- 



AnirsI and departur 



Lumber and timber prodnot.- 
Vfoul industry ™ 

li^Bfrpr and wuod-pulp , 

Canning induitrr „,„ 

Flour and grist milling _ 

Foundry and muchine sliopa..^ 

Bhip and boat building 

l^noing Hnd coirjini; _ 

Newrpapers, Ac „...>»., 



Lobiter fiahe: 

Sardines 

Apple crop .. 



Tax on foreigD banba, and iU effeoti _ 
Railroads, number and mileage »...._.. 

Couolndiag remarks » «_ ..^ 

Annexes — 

A. — Exports from PortlBiLd __ _,.. 

B. — Lightaliips for Portland _... 

0. — Quarantine station ^...,^...„.... 



NOTS.— I am indebted to the Hon. S. W. Matthews, 

Induttidal and Laboul Statiitiea, and to the Portland Board of Trade, for thei: 
kind Bssistauce in oblaininB for me many of the partJeulan reported herein. 



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No. 2749. Aimoal Series. 

St/erence to previous Hepori, Annual Sm-iet No. 2672. 



Aeporf (Ml the Trade and Commerce of Portland, Maine, for the 
Year 1901 

By Mr. Vick-Oonsul Keatikg. 

(BecsiT«d ftt Foreign Offioe, rsbruary 26, 1902.) 

Portland, the coinmercial metropolis of Maine, is situated in PortUnd uid 
the south-western part of the State, on Caeco Bay, in 43° 39' j***^"*"! 
north latitude aiicl 70° 13' west lonyitude. By rail it is 108 miles *""■''■••■ 
uorth-north-east of Boston, and 297 miles south-east of Montreal. 
The peninsula on which the main city is built is about 3 miles 
in length, has an average breadth of three-quEirters of a mile, and 
rises in the west to 176 feet in Eranhall's Hill and in the east 
to 161 feet in Munjoy's Hill, the latter being crowned by an 
observatory. By the addition of Peering in 1898, the geographical 
area of the city was quadrupled. 

The population of the city by the census of 1900 was 50,145. 
Probably no city is more favourably situated for health, pleasure, 
and commerce than Portland. It has well-kept streeta, fine ehady 
trees, beautiful parks, and some very fine public buildings. The eitj- 
is supplied with an abundance of pure'water from Sebago Lake, a 
sheet of water 14 miles long and 11 miles wide. 

Sixteen islands lying in Casco Bay form a part of the city 
of Portland, namely : — Peaks, Long, Cushing's, House, Great 
Diamond, Little Diamond, Crotch, Hope, Litile Chebeague, 
Jewell's Cow, Eam, Marsh, Overset, Crow, Pumpkin, and Knob. 
Many of these islands are summer resorts and are thickly dotted 
with cottages. 

The peninsula on which the main city of Portland b situated iHo Harbour 
projects towards the north-east. On the south it divides from """l 'li*""- 
South Portland, formerly a part of Cape Ehzabeth, by an arm of 
the bay called Fore River, constituting the inner harbour, between 
Portland Bridge and the breakwater on one side, and Fish Point 
on the other, having an area of 627 acres. On the north side of 
the peninsula lies Back Cove, which, with the exception of a 
narrow channel, is laid bare at low tide. 

With 40 feet depth of water at low tide, vessels of any sIko 
can enter the outer harbour at any time, day or night, and lie at 
anchor inside a line connecting the breakwater with Fort 
(14) A 2 



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Gorges, and distant not more than half-a-tnile from the Qrand 
Trunk Wharves. The entrance to the main part of the harbour 
of Portland has always been good, but before the improvements 
made by the Government the approach to the inner harbour waa 
obstructed by a ahoal, known as the middle ground, over which 
the depth was only from 8 to 10 feet at mean low tide, while 
between it and Stamford Ledge the greatest available depth was 
only 16 fuet. And, besides, the best part of the wharf front of 
the city was exposed to the swell from the Atlantic, which some- 
times made it dangerous for vessels to lie at the docks. 

The first work of improvement undertaken by the Government 
was the construction of tlie breakwater. This was begun in 
1836 and completed in 1874. The project for the improvement 
of the harbour by deepening its water was first undertaken by 
authority of an Act of Congress in 1868, The project at that 
time was to excavate a channel 300 feet wide through the southern 
slope of the middle ground to a deptli of 20 feet at mean low 
tide, and to remove the bar off the Grand Trunk Wharves to the 
same depth. In 1870 the project was amended so as to provide 
for a channel 400 feet wide, and in 1871 it was ^ain amended 
so as to provide for a width of 500 feet. In 1872 the improve- 
ment of Back Cove was added to the project. 

In 1,886 a project was adopted for the further deepening of a 
portion of the harbour to 29 feet at mean low tide, at a cost of 
27,000/. In 1890 this project was extended so as to include a 
small (juantity of dredging in the upper part of the harbour at 
a cost of 1,000/. In 1894 it was again extended so as to cover 
the widening of the upper portion of the area already dredged 
to 29 feet, and the dredging of a channel 25 feet deep to connect 
the lower with the upper part of the harbour. This work was 
completed in 1894 

By the Act of June 3, 1896, Congress adopted a project for 
dredging to 30 feet at mean low water over the greater part of 
the harbour, at an estimated cost of 154,000/. By the same Act 
the partly completed project for improving Back Cove was 
combined with tliat of the main harbour. The same Act 
appropriated 4,000/. for beginning the work, and authorieed the 
making of contracts for its completion, but limited such contracts 
to 162,000/. in addition to the 4,000/. already appropriated. The 
work under the above Act is still going on, although it would 
have been completed before this but for the failure of the first 
contractors and the partial destruction by fire of one of the' 
monster dredging machines. The first contract under this Act 
called for the removal of 4,318,000 cubic yards of the harbour 
bottom. This work will probably be completed within a year. 
Under this conti-act, in round numbers, the estimated quantities 
to be dredged to complete the project include about 2,240,000 
cubic yards, measured in siiu, of general dredging, and 93,000 
cubic yai'ds from the area formerly dredged to 29 feet at mean 
low water. The total amount expended on Portland Harbour, 
ini-hiding Back Cove, up to June 30, 1900, was 180,641/. The 
total amount of all appropriations for the improvement of the 



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PORTLAND. 5 

harbour, up to March 3, 1901, is 256.545/. When the entire work 
is completed, Portland will have a harbour which can be entered 
with perfect safety at either hi;^li or low tide, by any vessel now 
aSoat. The earth, as fast as excavated, is placed on scone and 
towed out and dumped into the sea. 

The city of Portland is the terminus of six railroad lines. ^"JJ*^ 
Three of theee lines are under the control and management of the "ntjo. 
Boston and Maine Eailroad, two under the niauafjenient of the 
Maine Central Eoad, and one is the Atlantic nnd St. Lawrence 
division of the Grand Trunk Railway. 

The Grand Trunk Eailway of Canada was organised in 1845. Tli« Onod 
On August 5, 18i'3, it leased tlie Atlantic and St. Lawrence ^^„ 
Bailroad, tunning from Portland to Montreal, for a term of 
999 yeai-s. The building of the Atlantic and St. Lawrence 
Railroad and its lease to the Grand Trunk KaiJway have liad 
more influence on the growth, development, and prosperity of 
Portland than, perhaps, all other influences combined. This great 
railway system owns and works more than 4,000 miles of track, 
e:ttending from Portland to Chicago, and having branches to all 
impoitant points m Canada and the North-West. The terminal 
facilities of this road in Portland have recently been extended 
and improved, but the improvements will not be fully completed 
until some time this year, and even a longer period may be 
required for the full development of the proposed plans. UTie 
stock-yards, the new track-yard, and the round house are at 
East Deering, about a mile from the freight sheds, beyond the 
railroad bridge across the Back Bay entrance. The stock-yards 
are kept in exceUeut condition and have room to receive 2,500 
head of cattle at one time, and the facilities for handling cattle 
are unsurpassed. The new track-yard will receive at one time 
1,500 loaded cars, which, together with the station-yard, gives 
the Grand Trunk Company an aggregate of track room for 
2,000 loaded cars, practically at the water front in Portland, 
within 20 minutes' sail of the open sea. The new round house iB 
of brick. It contains 15 pits, and the turntable near it iH 
75 feet long and will hold two engines at one time. 

The Grand Trunk Railway has 1 mile of water front in Port- 
land and the largest ateamships can lie safely at the piers in not 
less than 30 feet of water at low tide. Previous to 1901 there 
were six great warehouses or sheds, each one from 400 to 500 feet 
in length, with a combined floor space of 470,000 square feet 
Spur tracks run alongside each of these sheds. During the 
season of 1901 another immense pier was constructed with two 
sheds of grea!ter capacity than any of the old sheds. Formerly 
six steamships could load or discharge their cai^o at these sheds 
at the same time. With the additional pier and sheds nine ocean 
liners can receive or dischai^e their cai^oes simultaneously. Along- 
side these great sheds, which are i-eally bonded warehouBes, whole 
trains of cars may be run, and here day and nigbt the work of 
discharging cars goes on. 

The products of Canada, including the grain from far-off 
(14) A 3 



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British Columbia and Manitoba, find an outlet by way of the 
Grand Trunk Road and the Fort of Portland. Much grain comes 
here also from the Western States as well as cattle from the 
Western plains. It takes thousands of cars to bring the Western 
and Canadian freight to Portland for export. It is estimated that 
at times the Grand Trunk has in its yanls at East Beering freight 
cars enough to make a continuous train 15 miles long. Nearly 
600 men have been required to perform the work around the 
wharves during the steamboat season in the past, and with the 
increased service of the future a much larger force will be 
required. 

The Grand Trunk will,it is stated, expend more than 1 ,000,000 doL 
in making the improvements now nearly finished and othera 
already planned. 

In the year 1900 a series of coal pockets was erected by the 
aide of the Grand Trunk railroad bridge across the entrance of 
the Back Cove. These coal pockets are modem in construction, 
of great capacity, and can be approached by colliers of any 
size. They can handle immense quantities of coal easily and 
expeditiously. 

Durii^ the season 1902 a large cold storage plant is to be 
erected between the new elevator and the new pier, and a new 
passenger station is to be built at the comer of Fore and India 



Tnnk 
«UTKtart. 



That part of Portland called East Deering, in which the 
stock-yards, the round house and the track yaM are situated, is 
fast increasing iu population. It is estimated that the various 
improvements made by the Grand Trunk will result in bringing 
to this district fully 500 people. 
The Onuid In 1875 the Grand Tnmk railway built on Gait Wharf an 

" '' elevator 101 feet in length, with a total capacity of 150,000 

bushels, fitted with modern dock elevators and large ateam shovels 
for loading and unloading cars and vessels. The grain business of 
Portland soon outgrew this elevator, and in 1898 another, with a 
capacity of 1,250,000 bushels was built at a cost of 50,000?. 
Of this sum, Portland supplied 35,000^. and the Grand Trunk 
Corporation the remaining 15,000?. This elevator is 221 feet 
long, 97 feet wide, and 160 feet high. The engine-house is 80 
by 41 feet and the smoke-stack is 161 feet high. Two receiving 
tracks extend through the house, and there are 10 receiving 
legs with an elevating capacity of 8,000 bushels per leg an hour. 
This elevator can receive 150 ear-loads of grain daily. Belt 
galleries run alongside and to the extreme end of the pier, 
supplied with iron tippers, which will tip grain into any hatch- 
way of a vessel. The shipping capacity of this elevator ia 
30,000 bushels an hour. 

This elevator has 200 bins, some of them of several thousand 
bushels capacity. Each car-load of grain as it is received into 
the elevator is weighed by itself, the weighing apparatus being on 
me upper floor. Two railroad tracks run through the elevator and 
on each of these tracks five care can stand at one time, so that 10 



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ous can be anloaded at once. This namber hu been emptied at 
tuaea in 15 minutes. 

The new elevator, built during last year, ia the largest 
on the AtlaDtic coast, it has a capacity of 1,500,000 boahels, 
and its general plan is similar to that of the one built in 1898. 
The new elevatot is 300 feet long, lOl feet wide, and 175 feet 
high. The powei-honse is 123 by 53 feet The chimney or 
smoke-stack is 177 feet in height In laying the foundation, oyer 
4,000 piles were driven, and 5,500 barrels of cement were used, 
ajso 3,600 cubic yards of crushed stone, and 2,000 cubic yards of 
sand. In the construction of the elevator there were used over 
6,000.000 feet of lumber and 1,400 kegs, of nails and spikes. It- 
wilJ require 1,600 squares of galvanised sheet steel to cover the 
160,000 square feet of exterior surface. 

There are 210 bins, each 70 feet deep; 14 elevator legs, with a 
capacity of 10,000 bushels an hour each ; 14 sets of scales, with a 
capacity of 84,000 lbs. each ; 3 galleries, each 600 feet long, and a 
feeder to these galleries 500 feet in length. There will be required 
7,300 feet of belting, 35 inches wide, 5,000 feet 24 inches wide, 
and 700 feet 30 inches wide. G^rain can be run into three vessels 
at the same time from this monster elevator. -<• 

The motive power is furnished by two condensing Corliss 
engines of a combined power of 500 horse. Four Manning hoileis 
supply the steam. The total cost of this elevator wiU be about 
S.OOOi. 

The other elevator, with a capacity of 1,250,000 bushels, was 
taxed last winter to its utmost There were nearly 10,000,000 
bushels of grain shipped from Portland during the winter. The 
prospect is that before the close of 1902 these two immense 
elevators, with a combined capacity of 2,750,000 bushels, will 
have all they oan do. 

The shipping bufflness of Portland has increased rapidly daring FortUiid'i 
the past few years. t!^?^ 

During the winter of 1900-01 there were six steamship lines 
connected with the business of the Grand Trunk £ailway at Port' 
land, es follows: Dominion, Allan, Elder-Dempster, Hamburg- 
American, Thomson, and Ley land. The Dominion line s^ 
between Portland and Bristol, the AEan line between Portland, 
Liverpool, and Glasgow, the Thomson line between Portland and 
London, the Hambnig-American line between Portland and Ham- - 
burg, and the Leyland line between Portland and Antwerp. 
The tonnage varies from 2,000 to 10,000 tons. Besides the above 
there is a fleet of vessels bringing coal from Canada to the new 
coal pockets of the Grand Trunk Bailway. 

During the summer of 1901 both the Thomson and Dominion 
lines have run to Portland, and it is reported that other lines will 
be added to the summer service of the future. There have been 
five, six, and even 10 ocean steamers in Portland at the same time. 

During the season 1901-02 five foreign steamship lines are 
running to Portland as follows : The Thomson, Elder-Dempster 
Dominion, Hambuig-American, and the Allan lines. 

(U) i 4 



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The COD tractors for loading SDd unloading vessels hire hibourers 
called lonfrahoremen to trnnafer freight from vessel to shed or shed 
to vessel, &c. The men work in gangs, six men and a foreman 
ofiually constituting a gan<;. Sometimes a foreman looks after 
several gai^s, for instance, when discharging care. 

Last vrinter, 400 long-shoremen were employed at the Grand 
Tmnk wharves. They are paid by the hour, and their wages will 
average from 21. to 21. 123. per week each. 

The following figures will show the amount of business which 
passed under the inspection of the customs othcers at Portland 
during the year 1900 : — 





Value. 


Value ot domertw eiporti 

Poraiga goodi exported to CbdmIs 


£ 

!.480,791 
1,666,701 
2,941,687 


Total Tklue of export* 


7,089,128 


Impoiti ia tnnrit for Caouh 


156,673 
1,680,818 


Total laltte of in^rt* 

„ eiporiB and import* 


1,807,386 
8,896,515 



On all goods passing the custom-house, the law requires that 
duties be assessed, although on goods -pasBing to and from, Canada 
in bond, the duties are not collected. The duties assessed on 
Canadian goods exported from Portland to other foreign countries 
during the past season amount to 1,708,629/. While tiiese assess- 
ments are made at Island Pond and other frontier port-s, the goods 
all have to be accounted for and transhipped here. The duties 
assessed on goods imported at Portland from foreign countries, both 
for local consumption and for export to Canada, amounted to 
82,813,554i. The great bulk of the goods on which duties 
are assessed pass through the country in bond, and this vast 
amount of work at the Portland custom-house, in making these 
transhipments and assessments which are not collected, does not 
appear in any Government report There were collected in 
tonnage dues, 4,434/. 

Local importers have to a small ext«nt responded to the 
' re[juest lo bring their goods through this port rather than other 
domestic poris, the duties for the last six months being more 
than double those for the corresponding period of last year. 

During the season 1900-01, at the port of Portland 341 vessels 
entered from foreign ports, and 397 from home ports, while 
260 cleared for foreign ports, and 393 for home ports. 

The number of cars loaded for Canada was 9,011, and the 
number received from Canada was 20,949. The number of eotries 
of merchandise for export to Canada was 2,083. 



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FORTLAHD. « 9 

There were shipped from Portlaad duiing the EeaeoD of 0^111. 
1900-01, 4,044,975 bushela of wheat, 2,238,846 bushels of oats, 
1,319,626 bushels of corn, 836,838 bushels of peas, 612,087 bushels 
of barley, 260,088 bushela of buckwheat, and 170,820 bushels of 
rye, making a total of 9,483,280- bushels. 

Of live-stock there were shipped :i45 horses, 34,583 sheep, and Lira ttock. 
22,464 cattle. Of apples, 11,334 tons were shipped, being 141,675 Apj^ga. 
bari-els, nearly 100,000 barrels of which wore grown in Maine. 
There were shipped of other merchandise, 8OO tons of cotton, 
1,180 tons uf dressed beef, 7.817 tons of lumber, 1,290 tons of 
eggs, 2,e00 tons of hay, 17,022 tons of cheese, 420 tons of butter, 
41,907 tons of dour, ^8,063 tons of canned meat, 11,180 tons of 
lard, 6,205 tons of oatmeal, 4,285 tons of oil-cake, 370 tons of 
poultry, 1,362 tons of leather, and 1,707 tons of splints or match- 
wood. 

for exports from Portland, Lightships and Quarantine 
Station see Annexes A, B, and C, pp. 24-25. 

Of merchandise received at Portland, some of the leading import*, 
articles were 11,485 tons of brimstone, 80,494 tons of cement, 
lime, and pipeclay, 37,490 tons of clay, 1,090,979 tons of coal, 
24,354 tons of molasses and sugar, 61,900 tons of oil and oil- 
cloth, and 2,250 tons of salt 

The entire amount of receipts and shipments amounted to 
2,261,008 tons. In addition to the merchandise there were 
shipped iu the same period, 57,292 head of hoi-ses, cattle, and 
sheep. The live-stock shipments from Portland, Maine, to the 
United Kingdom during the years ending November 1, 1900 and 
1901, were as follows : - For 1900 aggregate, 32,566, and for 1901, 
92,487, an increase of 59,921 head. 

There have been 7,000 inimi;,Tant8 landed at this port during Immiininu 
the season of 1900-01, most of them going to the Far West, l»Dded. 

Mr. Commissioner Matthews, in his annual report to the The Sninen' 
Seamen's Institute, states tliat " Mr. J. B. Keating, the British Institute. 
'X'ice-Consul at Portland, has always been interested in the 
welfare of the seamen. Mainly by his eEforts the Seamen's 
Institute was established in 1896. The rooms are at the 
comer of Fore and Market Streets, and consist of a large, 
light, and pleasant reading and smoking room, furnished with 
desks, chairs, tables, and a billiard table. There are writing 
materials, magazines, papers, books, &c., all free te seamen. 
Across the hall from this room is another lai^e room, with settees, 
and at one end a stage on which is a piano, which was supplied 
by Mr. Keatii^. Entertainments are given here two evenings in 
a week and sometimes ottener. The difl'erent churches of the city 
provide the entertainment one evening in the week, and the talent 
from the different vessels generally furnish the entertainment for 
another evening. The rooms are open all day and every evening, 
and sailors are always welcome. Oftentimes hot coB'ee is pro- 
vided and distributed to all present, free. The institute is 
founded strictly on non-sectarian principles, and all seamen in 
port are welcome at all hours. On Sunday evenings at 8 o'clock 



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10' POBTLAKD. 

sacred hymnB are 9UDg at the institute by all present who can 
Bing, The institute is supplied entirely by voluntary aubscrip- 
tions, and is one of the most worthy objects on which money can 
be bestowed. Mr. Keating has put both time and money into this 
most valnable charity, and all lovers of humanity should do what 
they can to aid him in this moat worthy work. An example ol 
practical Christianity can be seen at this instittite when some of 
the noble young women from the churcbta in the city go down 
to the rooma of an evening and engage in simple games with the 
seamen, Mr. Keatii^ is entitled to great credit for conceiving 
and carrying oat the idea of establishing this Seamen's Institute." 
The number of arrivals and departures counted separately, 
exclusive of those vessels arriving for refuge only, at the port of 
Portland, for the calendar year of 1900, aggregated 6,260, or in 
other words, about 3,130 vessels arrived and as many departed. 
The matter is here given in detail 



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FoKziOH Stxakibb. 

SCO t«ni Md 10 feet dnft 

1,800 toniud ISfMtdnft. 

2,000 toDi ind 22 feot dnft 

8,400 tons Mid 24 feet dreFt 

6,600 toiu and 16 feet dnft 

40 to 7S toni and 6 to 10 faet dnft 

l,t20 tons ud 16 ftet dnft 

1,000 to 1,S00 tona and 16 to 18 feet draft 
2,000 torn and 22 feet draft 



FoBxiex Saiuko Tibbils. 

Lett than 100 U>i» and leu thin 10 feet d: 

Orer 100 tons and orer 10 feet draft 

4Se tODi and 16 feet draft 

CoAiTWiBi SAiraia Tisssu. 

60 to 76 tODi and 6 to 8 feet draft. . 
Orer 100 toci aod over 10 feet draft 

868 toDB and II fast draft 

600 to 800 ton* and 16 to 18 feet draft . . 
1,200 to 1,600 toni and IG feet draft 

1,600 tona ftnd 19 feet dnft 

3,500 torn and 24 feet draft, 

FoBiioiT Butsn Aim Tvaa. 

Barge* of 660 tool and 17 fe«t dntt 
Steam tugi 

CoUTWiai BiBftH uts Tu«l. 

Bargei of 1,6E0 ton* and I? feet draft 
Steam tog* 



Portland has a Marine Eailway, located on the South Portland Uie Harin* 
shore, owned and operated by the Portland Steamship Company. Builwtj. 

According to the census of 1890, the annual product of all the Pi^«»<* o* 
manufacturing industries of Portland was 12,274,297?., and the SJf^_ 
capital invested was 1,377,211?. The sale of Portland's mer- indiutrie*. 
chandise amounts to 11,700,000^ annually. 

The census bulletin on manufactures in Maine gives the total Maon- 
number of manufacturing establiahments in the State in 1900, as ^*"••• 
8,356, with an aggregate capital of 25,984,570?., employing an 
average of 75,675 hands, paying 5,804,026?. in w^es for the 
year ; for material used 13,858,931?., which inolndes 4,422,566/. 



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12 PORTLAND. 

for raw m&terial ; 8,205,693'. for materials in a partly luanu- 
factured form, and 730,664'. for fuel, freight, &c, also 1,560,240/., 
miscellaueous expenses, and producing 25,703,436/. aa the v^ue of 
the manufactured product. 

This number of establishments includes 2,895 hand trades, 
1 GovernmeQtestablishmeut,4eleemos7Qar7and penal institutions,. 
1,649 witli a product of less than 100/., and 3,807 others. The 
Government establishment, the eleemosynary and penal institu- 
tions, and the establishments with a product of less than 100/. 
were not reported at previous censuses, and are therefore omitted 
in further calculations. This leaves 6,702 establishments which 
is made the basis of all further calculations and comparisons 
with similar establishments in 1890. 

The reports show a capital of 24,583,765/. invested in manu- 
factures and mechanical industries in the 6,702 establishments- 
reporting for the State of Maine. Thi.^ sum represents tlie value 
of land, buildings, machinery, tools, and implements, and the live 
capital utilised, but does not inchide the capital stock of any of 
the manufacturing corporations of the State. The value of the 
products is returned at 25,472,297/. to produce which involved an 
outlay of 634,286/. for salaries of officials, clerks, &c, 5,705,569/. 
for wages, 1,554,843/. for miscellaneous expenses including rent, 
taxes, &c., and 13,792,681/. tor materials used, mill supplies, fre^ht, 
and fuel. It is not to be assumed, however, that the difference 
between the aggregate of these sums and the value of the products 
is, in any sense, indicative of the profits in the manufacture 
of the products duriug the year. The census schedule takes no 
cognisauce of the cost of selling manufactured articles, or of 
interest on capital invested, or of the mei-cantile losses incurred in 
the business, or of depreciation in plant. The value of the product 
given is the value as obtained or lixed at the sliop or factory. 
This statement is necessary in order to avoid erroneous conclusions 
from the iigures prepented. 

The value of products for the State of Maine, 25,472,297/., is 
the gross value, and not the net or tnie value. The diflerence 
between these two should be carefully noted. The gross value is 
found by adding the value of products in tbe separate establish- 
ments.. But the finished product of one establishment is often the 
raw material for another. In such cases the value of the former 
reappears in the latter, and thus the original cost of certain 
materials may \ie included several times in the gross value. The 
net or true value is found by subtracting from the gross value the 
value of all materials purchased in a partly manufactured form. 
In this way the duplications in the gross value are eliminated. 

At the census of 1890 the schedule was so framed that it was 
impossible to find the net or true value. In the present census 
the schedule asked for the value of the materials in two classes, 
those purchased in the crude state, and those purchased in the 
partly mauufa<;tured form. From tbe answers to these questions 
the net or true value of products for 1900 was 25,472,297/. The 
value of materials purchased in a partly manufactured form was 



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rORTLAKD. 13 

S,6;^0,106/. The difierence, 16,842,191/., is the net or true value 
of products, aiid represents the increase in the value of raw 
material resulting from the various processes of manufacture. 

The 24,683,765/, capital of the 6,702 establishments is made 
up of land, 2,621,028/. ; buildings. 3,632,303/. ; machinery, tools, 
and implements, 6,354,089/.; and cash and Huudries, 11,976,144/^ 
The number of proprietors and firm members, not including stock- 
holders in corporations, was 7,501 ; and the number of salaried 
officials, clerks, &c., was 3,329, The average number of wage- 
«arner8 was 74,816, contiiating of 63,701 males 16 years and over, 
who received 4,676,967/. in wages for the year ; 18,913 females of 
16 years and over, who received 967,034/. in wages for tlie year ; 
■and 2,202 children under 16 who received 61,669/. in wages for 
the year. The miscellaneous expenses consist of rent of works, 
158,345/. ; taxes, not including internal revenue, 158,747/. ; rent of 
offices, interest, &c., 1,057,463/. ; and contract work, 180,288/. The 
oost of materials used is made up 6f the principal nmterials, 
including mill supplies and freight, 13,343,388/. ; and fuel and rent 
of power and heat, 429,294/. 

Ten leading industries, which comprise all with a product of Ths iMding 
over 400,000/., except boots and shoes with a product of 2,459,169/. induitriBt 
And carpentering with a product of 611,244/. are compared with 
1890 in the following pages." 

These 10 leading industries of the State in 1900 embraced 
1,689 establiahments, or 25'2 per cent, of the total number in the 
State : used a capital of 17,312,820/. or 704 per cent, of the total ; 
gave employment to 43,730 wt^e-eamera, or 58'5 per cent, of the 
total number, and paid 3,116,440/. or 54'6 per cent, of the total 
wages. The value of their producta was 14,673,662/. or 57'6 per 
oent. of the total. In the remarks which follow, these industries 
are ranked with reference to the value of their product. 

The manufacture of cotton goods is the most important industry q^^^^ goodi. 
in the State. The 16 establishments reported in 1900 gave 
omployment to 13,723 workers or 18-3 per cent, of the wage- 
earners in the State, and their products were valued at 2,926,217/. 
or llo per cent, of the total value of the products of the Stato. 
In 1890 there were 23 establishments with 13,912 wage-earners, 
^ind products valued at 3,063,381/. The decrease in the value of 
products during the decade was 137,164/. or 4'4 per cent. The 
water-power of Maine early attracted the attention of manu- 
facturers of cotton goods. One of the pioneer mills of the State 
was established at Brunswick in 1809, another at Wilton in 1810, 
jiud a third at Gardiner in 1811. Factories were erected at Saco 
in 1831, at Lewiston in 1844, and at Biddeford in 1845, while 
in later years Augusta and Waterville secured large plants. 
Lewiston is, however, the chief centre of industry, while the twin 
oities of Biddeford and Saco rank next in importiuioe. At present 
the cotton mills of Maine are all west of the Kennebec River. 
They are located, without exception, at the falls of laige rivers, 
and are worked by water-power. 

There were 838 establishments engaged in 19O0 in the manu-^^^" 

product. 



Lumbar and 



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facture of lumber and timber products, the industry, second in 
rank, with 6,834 wage-earuers and products valued at 2,697,8801. 
In 1890 there were 894 eatabliBhmeuts, with 11,540 wt^-earners, 
and producta valued at 2,369,931i. The increaee in the value of 
products during the decade was 327,949/. or 138 per cent. 
Lumberiug was begun at an early period in Maine, and has 
continued to be a leading industry. Owing to the Bcarcitj of pine, 
which originally was the moat important timber cut, spruce has 
now taken the leading place. Hard woods are cut in considerable 
quantities. The first sawmill in Maine was erected at South 
Berwick about 1634, and 50 years later the numl>er in the State 
bad increased to 24. Many changes in methods have been 
introduced during the history of the industry. Dams and canals 
have been built, steamers have been placed on the lakes to facilitate 
I<^-driving, and in one instance, at North-west Carry, Mooeehead 
Lake, a log sluice has been constructed, at lai^e expense, to convey 
the logs overland from the west branch of the Penobscot River to 
Moosehead waters, the source of the Kennebec. The primitive 
mills have given place to great plants, many of them operated by 
steam-power, particularly those located on tide waters. Maine's 
wealth of hard woods, already receivii^ attention, is destined to be 
much more appreciated. Birch is in great demand for spool wood, 
both for local manufacture and tor shipment to Scotland, while 
beech is called for to be converted into orange shocks for Florida 
and the Mediterranean ports. General wood-workmg plants have 
been built in many parts of the State, especially at points accessible 
to the raw material. 

Wool manufacttu^rs rank third among the industries of the 
State, with 79 establishments, 7,155 wage-earners, and products 
valued at 1,504,263/. ; there was also one establishment re- 
ported for the manufacture of worsted goods, the statistics of 
which are not available for comparison, being included with 
those of " all other industries " to avoid disclosing operations of 
individual establishments. The increase in the value of products 
during the decade was 1,178,293/. Wool manufactures in Maine 
date back to a period some years before the introduction of 
cotton mills in the State, one of the earliest having been estab- 
lished in that year at Dexter in Penobscot county. Owing to the 
generally favourable conditions for its growth and development, 
the manufacture of woollen goods is now carried on in nearly 
every county in the State, water power being used. The 
town of Sanford, in the south-western part of Maine, not far 
from the Ifew Hampshire line, is .the seat of an important branch 
of this industry, the manufacture of carriage robes, mohair plush, 
and horse blankets. 

There were 36 establishments engt^ed in the manufacture of 
paper and wood pulp in 1900, with 4,851 wage-earners and pro- 
ducts valued at 2,644,655/. In 1890 there were 17 estabhsbmenta 
with 1,509 wage-earners and products valued at 656,210/. Tlie 
increase in the value of products was 1,988,445/. or 303 per cent. 
Paper manufacturing has been carried on in Maine in a small 



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PORTLAND. 15 

way aince 1733, but it is only within recent years that it has 
attained importance. With the discovery of wood pulp as a 
material for paper manufacture, great changes were brought 
about One of the pioneer pulp miOs in the State was ei«cted at 
Brunswick in 1870. Since that date numerous and cosUy plants 
have been built for the manufacture of ground wood, soda, aud 
sulphite pulp. These mills are situated chiefly along the three 
principal rivers of the State, the Androscoggin, Kennebec, "and 
Penotecot Recently, immense plants have beeu constructed at 
Millinoket on the Penobscot waters, at Madison on the Kennebec 
Ktver, and at Riimford Falls on the Androscoggin River. Spruce 
is used generally in the manufacture of wood pulp, A few mills 
use also small quantities of poplar, fir, pine, and hemlock, while 
three plants use poplar only. 

The following is a brief rt.<port of the canning industry. Caanins 
There were 117 establislmients engt^d in the canning aad«^"*"7' 
pi-eserving of fish in 1900, with 5,567 wage-earners and pro- 
ducts valued at 955,946^. In 1S90, 35 establishments were 
reported with 2,342 wi^e-earners and products valued at 
534,176/. A leading branch of this industry is the canning of 
small herring under the name _ of " sardiuee." Imports of " sar- 
dines " of this sort in 1872 suggested the uae^of Eastport herrings 
for the aame purpose, and experiments were atonce undertaken. 
The Eastport product was found to be superior to the imported 
article, and an important industry was thus established in that 
city in 1875. During the year one cannery was operated. In 
each of the four succeeding years one factory was added to the 
number, so that in 1879 five establiahmenta were in operation. 
From that time tlie industry grew rapidly until in 1886 there 
were 45 factories in the State, of which number 32 bordered on 
Passamaquoddy Bay aud its tributary waters, and 13 were located 
along the coast from Cutler westward. At Eastport and Lubec 
the "sardine" industry, during the first 10 years of its existence, 
increased to such an extent as to surpass ia importance all 
other branches of business. 

There were 227 establishments engaged in flour and grist mill- piour ud 
ing in 1900, with 192 wage-earners and products valued at 679,766/. P^t miUing. 
In 1890 210 establishments were reported, with 262 wage-earners 
and products valued at 650,938/. The increase in the value of 
products durir^ the decade was 29,028/. or 4-4 per cent. From 
the early settlement of the State, mills have been in use for 
grinding. 

There were 112 establishments engaged in the manufacture of f oundr; ud 
foundry and machine shop products in 1900, with 2,143 w^e- machine 
earners and products valued at 650,341/. In 1890 82 establish- '*'°f* 
ments were reported, with 1,768 wage-earners and producta valued 
at 525,712/. The increase in the value of products during the 
decade was 25 per cent. In recent years there has been 
a tendency to reduce the number and importance of the 
general foundry and machine shops. Portland, Bangor, and 
Lewiston are now the principal points where these are located. 



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16 PORTLAND, 

at There were 115 establishments engaged in wooden ahip and 
boat-building in IdOO, with 1,369 wage-earners and products 
valued at 408.363/. In 1890 85 establishments were reported. 
with 1,460 wage-eamera and products valued at 563,713/. 
As far back as 1608 the "Virginian " was built by the Fopham 
colony near the mouth of the K&nnebec ; and from that time 
to the present shipbuiNing has been one of the important 
occupations of this region. In early days shipyards were estab- 
lished at many points on all the principal rivers and along the 
coast, and Maine became the leading shipbuilding State in the 
United States, building more than half of all the aea-going vessels 
of the nation. Of late years there has been a decline in the in- 
dustr}'. and the business is now carried on at but few point". 
Bath, on the Kennebec, is by far the most important centre, but ahip 
and boab-building is also caixied on to a considerable extent at 
Phippsburg, Waldoboro, Thomaston, Eockland, Camden, Rockjiort, 
Belfast, Buchsport, Milbridge, and Macbias. A notable feature of 
modern architecture is the greater size of the vessels in comparison 
with those of early days. Two and three-masted schooners have 
largely given place to the large four and five-masted vessels. 
Of late years the building of steel vessels, especially at the Bath 
Ironworks, has become quite an important branch of the industry. 
Several Government cruisers as well as merchant steamsbipa 
have been built at Bath. 

There were 31 establishments engnged in the tunning, curry- 
ing, and finishing of leather in 190(1, with 587 wage-earners 
and products valued at 491,343/ In 1890 61 establishments 
were reported, with 85- wage-earners and products valued at 
672,534/. The decrease in the value of products during the decade 
waa 181,200(. or about 27 per cent. Tho early tanneries of Maine 
were very small, only a few hides being purchased, for a consider- 
able part of the year's output was custom work. ^Native hides 
and skins were tanned for home use, the shoemaker making his 
rounds from house to house among the fanners, to work up 
stocks of finished leather into a year's supply of footware for his 
family. 

There were 200 tanneries in Maine in 1810, with an annual 
average of 275 hides and skins tanned, and an average product valued 
at 231/. In 1840 395 tanneries were reported,while the total number 
of hands employed (454)averagedless than twotoan establishment. 
York county alone contained 101 tanneries, with but 102 hands 
employed. Between 1840 and 1860 several tanneries of consider- 
able size were built, and the industry received a further stimulus 
through the demands of 1861 and the time immediately following, 
BO that during the next 15 years many large sole-leather plants 
were established in the eastern part of the State. Hemlock bark 
has always been the principal material used for tanning purposes 
in the State, and it is to tlie increasing scarcity of this bark that 
the decline in the industry since 1870 must be attributed. 
Now»(«peri There were 120 establishments engaged in the printing and 

•Bd publishing of newspapers and periodicals in 1900, with 1,309 

periodical*. 



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PORTLAND. 17 

wage dftmers, and products valued at 438,023/. In 1890, 105 
establisbmente were reported with 949 wage earueis, and pro- 
ducts valued at 342,495^. The first newspaper in Maine, the 
" Falmouth Gazette and Weekly Advertiser," was founded at 
Falmouth, now Portland, January 1,' 1785, and has continued 
under ^triona names to the present time. Nearly every con- 
siderable town in the State now has its local newspaper. 

In order to understand the following classification and sub- C 
divisions of the population of Maine- some explanations a™ JJ^j^of 
necessary:— popnUUc* 

The desupiation "native white, native parents" comprises 
an native white persons having either both parents native bom, 
one parent native bom and one parent unknown or both parents 
onknown. While the deaignatioa " native white, foreign parents " 
comprises all native white persons having either one or both 
parents foreign bom. 

The designation " negro " comprises all persons of African 
descent, while the deognation " other coloured ' comprises Chinese, 
Japanese, and Indians. 



(14) 



Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



POKFLAKD. 

Clabsificatioii of the Population of Maine in 1900. 





Number. 


Total 




Number. 




FopulkdonotMdne— 
F«fnak( ." " '.'. V. 


860,996 
»4a,471 


601,186 

93,'s30 
604,466 


60-6 
40-6 


EieeNofDMlM .. 


7,524 




Hatdve bom— 

UalM 

Pemale* 


802,770 
S98,3«6 




Toreign bom— 

FemalM '.'. '.'. '.'. '.'. 


48,226 
4iE,I06 




Total 


801,810 
£97,481 




Main 

FemalM 


699,291 
93.986 


86'-6 
18-4 


M^e, 

Females 


47,978 
44,969 




!48,049 
246,088 

68,761 
62,4*8 


Total whita 

P»reDt»— 

Natiw nhite, nstiTe— 

Mftle. 

PeioalM 

Malei :. 

Femalw .. - 


692,226 
106,209 






670 
649 




Total tutire white 


699,291 




"•sr: 

FenutlM 


1,819 

'il9 

4 

'm 




ChiuSMH- 

MdlM 

Femalea 


116 
4 




""cr: 

Females 


S 

1 




Indian— 

Malei 

Temaia 


421 
877 




Total eolound .. 


2,240 


0-8 



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poetland. 19 

School Age (persons of School Age, 5 to 20 years inclusive). 





Nwnbw. 


XohO. 




If umber. 


Peromtagfc. 


te?t„ :; :: :: :: 

^oreignbom 

IfrtiTe while 

If Ktiva punt* 

loSS^ff?" ;: :: :: 


181,358 
17,800 

136,41S 
M,861 


19&,lfi8 

180,676 

• 

17,848 


si'o 

9 

28-8 
0-0 


Total whita 




198,610 




'Segro 

Otiun-colooMd 

ToMmUe* 
„ femalM 




369 
S65 

100,886 
98,768 


o's 



MiuriA Age (Males of Militia Age, 18 to 44 Years inclusive). 





Ifnmbor. 


TotiO. 




Number. 


Feroantftge. 


bS^?w " :: ;■. " 

Vorsigiiboni 

IfrtiTfl white 

NattTB pwmU 

Foreign pamnta 
Foreign white 


89,fl63 
9,106 

67,414 
21,948 


98,768 
89,S62 
9,076 


8i'-3 
18-8 

67'-8 
18-1 
18-7 


Totil white 




98,437 




Negro 




197 
184 


0*4 



The importatioiis of fish at Portland during the past jear Foreign s*h, 
vere very small ; no herrings were received at this port and only ^■ 
93 barrels of mackerel were entered and these were from Nova 
Scotia. It is a matter of surprise to all that no foreign mackerel 
ot herrings are entered at this port, in view of the fact that Port- 
land has such an excellently established and improved Trana- 
Atlantic steamship service. 

According to the last statistics published the lobster fishery Lobrter 
for Maine ia as follows : — Number of fishermen, 2,870 ; shore- ■»*"»)'• 
men, 165 ; vessels, 97, of 681 tons burden and valued at 7,812/, ; 
transporting vessels, 53 of 786 tons burden and valued at 28,4402. 
boats. 2,957, valued at 32,327/. ; lobster pots, 155,.615, valued at 
31,512/.; shore and accessory property, 38,776/; cash capital 
(14*) B 2 



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20 PORTLAJH). 

53^80/. ; total in vestment, 192,147/. ; lobaterBcai^jht, 12,345,450 lbs, 
vahied at 212,44U 

Budinei The total pack of eardiDes last year was 1,396,902 tins, &d 

P****^ increaae of 581,842 over the previous year. 

Ap^asMp. The apple crop of Maine waa a failure last year aa it 

was in all parts excepting, perhaps, Nova Scotia and Missouri. 
In Ontario and Quebec it only amounted at the outside to 
175,000 barrels, of which the Georgiaoa Bay district produced a 
large percentage, and the total amount available from those 
provincea for export will not be over 50,000 barrels. 

It is expected that for the next four months the Nova 
Scotian shipments will average 15,000 barrels per week. In the 
United States the shortage will be about 47,000,000 barrels, the 
total yield being 23,000,000 barrels, and Missouri is expected 
to produce 65 per cent of this. Colorado will be able to 
export to the Southern States over 500,000 barrels, grown on 
what wai a few years ago a sandy desert, while the Califomiau 
apple crop, though reported good, will not amount to much. 
ITiroughout the New England States the yield is very light. 

In the week ending November 23 there were exported to 
Liverpool, London, and Glasgow from New York, Boston, Port- 
land, and Montreal 34,695 barrels of apples, as compared with 
82,3B4 barrels for the same week in 1900 and 80,596 barrels for 
the same week in 1899. Up to the end of November the total 
shipments this year from the United States and Canada have been 
327,239 barrels, as compared with 694,971 and 727,339 barrels 
for the same time during the previous two years. 

The following table gives the shipments in detail : — 



From— 


1901. 


Quutit;. 




1900. 


1899. 


NewTork 

BoibOD 

PortUnd 

4(ontr(»l 

Bftlifn 

AiiDspoli* 


BgrreU. 
61,712 
65,06fl 
11,663 

117,251 
88,647 


Bamt*. 
138,894 

£110,470 
87,008 
16,869 


iJuTdla. 
196,581 
116,433 

276,668 
188,787 


ToUl 


8£7,2S9 


694,971 


727,339 



The total exports of this product from Canada and the United 
States to the United Kingdom last year totalled 1,346,000 barrels 
and 203,000 boxes, while this year not one quarter of this amount 
is expected to be available for export 

Business men have drawn attention to the great advantc^e 
that reciprocity with Canada would be to this city and the 
State of Maine. The Portland Board of Trade has many times, 
since the abrt^tion of the treaty, strongly urged a new 



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POBTUND. 21 

treaty with the Dotuinion, and has now taken up the cauae with 
renewed hopeti of puBhing the important measure to sucoeasful 
issue in the near future. An article in the " St. Paul Pioneer 
Press " states "that from 1855 to 1865 we had reciprocity 
with Canada, and the result was that between 1832 and 
J856 onr exports to Canada increased from 2,042,000^ to 
61,841,000Z., and onr imports from l,135,800i. to 4,255,400/. In 
1867, after the termination of the treaty the exports fell to 
4,204,000/., and the imports, which had reached 6,652,800/. in 
1865, fell to 1,093,800/. The result of the treaty with Hawaii, 
which endured from 1876 to 1898, were very similar. In 1874, 
before the treaty went into operation, our exports to Hawaii were 
valued at 522,926/., our imports &om those islands at 303,400/^ 
But in 1877 our exports increased to 254,600/. From September, 
1894, we also had reciprocity with Porto Rico and Cuba. In 
1898 OUT exports to those islands amounted to 2,78ft,20Q/. and 
our imports to 11,167,600/. In the first year of the treaty, 
imports increased to 16;i35,800/. and exports to 4,161,800/. 
On the termination of the treaty, both exports and imports 
fell within a year to the level of the years prior to the treaty." 

The following notice is of interest to the merchant marine : — Portbnd 
Now that the " Board of Trade has established a thoroi^h system t*^'***- 
of pilotage for the port of Portland and appointed examined and 
well-quslified pilots who have paid for their licenses, to assure 
shippers, masters, and owners of vessels conung to this port of the 
reliability and responsibility of the men now holding such licenses, 
the members of the Board have a r^nht to expect that all 
responsible shipping houses, ship brokers, or steamship managers 
in need of a pilot will employ regular licensed pilots. 

" There is a danger in employing any one without a license, 
because in case of loss under such circumstances underwriters 
would have good grounds and likely would refuse to pay any 
claims, since it was through the influence of the marine under- 
writers that the present license system was established at this 
port, to make it one of the seven first-class shipping ports on the 
Atlantic Coast. 

" A United States license does not count nor apply for service 
as a pilot for Portland Harbour and approaches, against a State 
law specially enacted for the port of Portland, though under a 
United States license the bolder may pilot a steamer or other 
vessel for the company employing such pilot along the whole 
Atlantic coast and into every port, but such license confers no 
right or authority nor recognition to do general pilotage for 
bf^bours having special licensed pilots." 

There are in the State 51 savings banks, and the total assets SkTingt 
equal 14,924,634/. This is an increase over the previous year of b»ak«. 
709,392/. The assets of the savings banks and loan and building 
associations, which belong to depositors and shareholders alone, 
and the deposits in trust companies make the share of each of its 
customers 78/, 10s. id. 

The depositors in savings banks and bust companies, and 



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shareholdeis in loan and bnilding aaaociations number 226,813, a 
gain of 12,833 over 1900. 

The Statute Iat of the State limits ordinary deposits to 
4O0A to each depositor. Many of the banks, however, limit 
the receipts of deposits to much less than this. Some even 
limit the amount to 100^. in all from any one depositor, while 
otliers limit the amount they will receive eetch qnarter nntil the 
total reaches the statutory limitations. As an example, one of the 
larger banks pays interest only on 60/. additional for each quarter 
from the period, at which new depositors commence to draw interest 
under this regulation ; it would be more than two years before any 
one depositor could place 400/. and receive interest upon the fuU 
amount. This provision confines the new depositors almost wholly 
to the small savings, as those with lai'ger sums to invest do nut 
care to place funds in small amounts. The total reserve and 
undivided profits on hand amounts to 861,014/., being a gain of 
100,526/. during the year, while the increase in reserve has been 
29,268/. The law requires the banks at each dividend period to 
set apart a certain portion of their earnings aa a reserve fund 
until it amounts to 5 per cent, of the deposits. The present 
average of this reserve is 3J per cent., while the average of the 
reserve and undivided profits together is 6 per cent, of the deposits. 
The estimated market value of nisoarces above liabilities, as shown 
by the various statements of the examinations made during the 
year, is 1.988,060/. (about 14 per cent of the deposits). The 
average rate of dividends has been 3'30 per cent. ; in 1900 the 
aven^ was 336 per cent 

The law provides that the treasurer of every savings bank 

^•P'*'*- shall on or before November 1 annually deliver to the Bank 
Examiner a sworn statement concerning the same, the amount 
standing as credit, the last known place of residence or post-ofhce 
address, and the fact of death, if known, to snch treasurer of every 
depositor who shell not have made a deposit therein, or withdraw 
any part thereof for a period of more than 20 years next pre- 
ceding; provided, however, that this Act shall not apply to 
deposits made by persons known to the bank to be living. It 
also provides that the Bank Examiner shall transmit these state- 
ments to the Governor and Council in his next annual report. 

The unclaimed deposits now number 1,155, and ^gregate over 
12,577/. "While the funds remain in the bank they are treated 
like other deposits. The regular semi-annual dividends must be 
taken from the profits and added to them just as to other deposits. 

BtatB tax. The l^iature of 1901 laid a tax upon the average amount of 

all " time interest bearing deposits held by these institutions " of 
i per cent, annually. It requires the officers of each company 
semi-annually to make sworn returns of the amount of such 
deposits to the State Assessors as the basis for the assessment of 
this tax. The total amount of the tax assessed for the year, as 
appears from the Assessors' report, has been 4,496,141/. 

Xm on In 1899 a law was enacted requiring any foreign banking 

foMjgD buiki. association maiotaining a branch in this State to pay a tax 



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K)KTU.ND. 23 

of i per cent, per ajuum on the amoant of its boidiiess 
done -within the State. The only institution now UaUe 'io 
taxation under this provision is the Bank of Nova Sootiia, i^dou 
its business at a bmnch maintained at Calais. For 10 montha in 
1900 this bank paid a. tax at that rate amounting to 527/. lis. 4d. 
In 1901 the rate of this tax was increased to three-fourths of 
1 per cent. This amendment took effect just before the first 
tax period, the last Saturday in April. The tax lor that period 
amounted to about 216/. As Boon as the bank learnt of the 
increased taxation, they immediately notified their depositors that 
after April 15 they would pay at the Calais branch but 3 per cent, 
instead of 3 J per cent, interest on special deposits. The immediate 
effect of this notice was the withdrawal of the deposits at Calais, 
and in most instances the depo!>iting of' the same money in the 
St. Stephen's branch (in British territory). 

There are 21 railroads worked by steam and 21 by electricity. Baiiroadi. 
14 of the steam roads are standard gauge, and seven are narrow 
or 2 feet gauge roads. 

The total length of steam railroads in Maine on June 30, 1901, Total mileagti. 
was 1,913-98 miles. Of .this, 1,75881 miles are standard gauge, 
and 160'17 nai-row gauge. 

The gross earnings in Maine for the year eiuled June 30, 1 901, 
shows an increase of 184,300/. Tlie number of pfiseengers carried 
shows a gain of 753,255. 

The number of tons of freight hauled in Maine shows a gain of 
705,880 tons. 

The total passenger train mile^e for the year ending 
June 30, 1901, was 669,643, a ^in of 319,935. The total freight 
train milet^ for the corresponding year of 1901 was 3,669,643, an 
increase of 21,800. The number of passengers carried 1 mile for 
the year 1901 was 151,267,811, a gain of 6,922,007 on 1900. 
The number of tons of freight carried 1 mile for the year 1901 
was 600,993,666 tons, a gain of 49,039,607 tons. The total ^ 

revenue train mileage in Maine, including mixed trains, for the 
year ending June 30, 1901, was 7,186,697, a gain of 245,441. 
The total mileage of non-revenue trains was 1,461,970 in 1901, an 
increase of 257,769. 

Under the heading for taaintenance of stmctures, equipment, 
transportation, and geueral expeusee, the sum of 1,257,000/. was 
expended in 1901 in excess of the amount in 1900. 

In conclusion I again beg to draw attention to the facilities Concludinf 
now afforded by the various steamship lines for direct shipment to wm^k*- 
Portland of all merchandise destined for Maine and adjoining 
States, &c The rapidity with which merchandise can be cleared 
through the custom-house, and the saving in storage and other 
expenses of this port, should have an important infiuence in 
obtaining " repeat " orders. 

There is also, in my opinion, at Portland an opportunity for 
opening a British tea broker's office. The tea retailed as Britiah 
breakfast tea is not of the same blending and quality as drunk in 
the United Kingdom, and many British residents, including 



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myself, are compelled to import tbeir tea direct from the United 
Kingdom. Others, I am sure, would drink tea if an even hiend 
and quality could be guaranteed. 

a Annex A. — EXPOBTS of Merchandise from Portland, Me., to 
Foreign Countries for the Calendar Year 1901. 



ArticlM. 


8>cka* 
fiiuhela 

BoiM 
Burel< 
He«d.. 


QuMtitj. 


Floor 

Wli«t 

Com 

0»W 

B«l^ 

^Z :: :: :: :: 

Bookwlieat 

Ohaerc 

» :: :: :: :: 


703,818 

7,463,722 

912,874 

2,4«1,BM 

100,161 

l«7,fl82 

1,103,421 

201,929 

608,789 

317,836 

40,086 






»M 









■ 703,818 Mok*, aTenging 160 Ibi. - 10C,496,950 Ibi., < 
par ihippar'i ettimkte. 



Annex B. — Lightships for Portland. 

ightfhin A. Bill has been introduced into Congress for making an appro- 

* Porttnd. priat-ion of 17,O00i. for a lightship to be placed at the eastern 
entrance of Portland Harbour. The Bill was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Inter-State and Foreign Commerce. The lightahip ha3 
been demanded by the pilots and the Transatlantic steamship 
intereate. It is claimed that the approaches to the harbour fi'om 
the eastward are not as eafe and easy aa it is possible to make 
them, and it is believed that a lightship situated near East Cod 
Ledge, which is not far from HaU "Way Rock, would he a great 
benefit to the port as well aa to all navigation on the whole coast. 
There are numerous rocks and ledges to the aouthward and south- 
east from Portland Head, and during thick weather these form a 
menace to safe navigation. 

Light vessel No. 74, which is now buildii^ at Peterabuig, Va., 
will it is thought be placed off Gape Eli^beth, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Alden's Bock, though the precise location has not yet 
been decided. This lightship will be a great help to the captains 
and pilots of coastwise steamers, but will not be of the slightest 
assistance to foreign steamships coming from the eastward. 

The coastwise steamships requested that No. 74 be placed off 
Cape Elizabeth, and while the Lighthouse Board has not yet 
decided the exact location it ia very probable tliat this is where it 
will be placed. The rapid growth of the European Btoamship 
interests requires that the lightship be placed to the eastward, and 



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POnTLANB. 25 

it is to BfltUfy the demands of this interest that CongreSB haa been 
asked to appropriate money for a second lightship. 

The United States Engineer Officer has recently recommended 
that Witch Eock he blown up at a cost of 100,000/. 



Annex C. — QcARANTlKK Station. 

At a meeting of the city government the sale of the quarantine 
station on House lalaml to the United States Government was ■ 
voted. In connection wich this question a Portland physician 
reports, "the public building committee, in voting as it did, took 
one great step toward the improvement of this city as a great 
port. 

" House Island is well situated for a quarantine station, being 
right on the track of st«amer3 coming ia and out of the harbour. 
They do not have to go out of their way to reach it, and in many 
other ways its situation is very convenient." 

The Government has now completed the purchase of the 
quarantine station and intend to equip it with every modern 
improvement, making it capable of providing for all the people 
vrho are likely to come to this port. 



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LONDON: 
PriiitMl far Hia H^«Mr'« SUdODar; Office, 

bt habbibon and BONB, 

hintm in Ordiurj lo Hi* M^Mtj. 
(76 8I0&--H&S 14) 



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No. 2752 Annaal Series. 

;diplomatio aud oonsttlar repokts. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE YEAR WOl 



TRADE AND COMMERCE OF THE CONSULAR 
DISTRICT OF NEW ORLEANS. 



REPBRBNCE HO PREVIOUS REPORT, Annual Series No. 2S58 



Preatnted to both Homtt of Parliament by Command of Hit MajtUg. 
MARCH, 1902. 



LONDONi 

PHHTTBD FOR HIS MAJESTY'S STATIOSRET OFFICE, 

BT HARBISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'B LAJIG. 



And to lie nnrehaaed, either direoUy or tbrongh Kaj BookBeller, from 

ETBK A SPOniSWOODE, Eabt Hakdinq Btbiit, Fliii Srun, It.O. 

and 13, Abinqdon Strkrt, Wibtminbtix, B.W.) 

or OLITEB k BOYD, Edinbumb i 

cr B. PONSONBT, US, GRArroH Strbbt, Do»m«. 

1902. 
[OJ. 78ft— 56.J Price Twopence.. 



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CONTENTS. 



Hiw Qmaait-~ 

Beriew and genoal n 
Bank oleuingf »_— 



Bailroad bntuuM . 
Total oDDmiBra) .-„ 

EiporU ..^...._._.. 
Cotton . 



anew . 

Km..... 



Kaoiifimiuraa »■* 



Shippiiig« 



n«« Dfttal lloatiti( dDdk 
MoBiu Beport ....__m...-~~. 



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Ho. 2752. Annoal Series. 

Rtfirewt iti previout Jieport, Annual Series No. 2668. 



lUport on the Trade and Commerce of the Conmdar Didriet qf 
New (hieam for the Year 1901 

By Mr. CpNSin VANaiTTAET. 

(BeoaivMl *t Vottiga OfBce, Febnuo? 28, 1009.) 

The seaaon was prosperous id every sense of the word. Bariew u 
Every branch of business and industry shared in the improve- kbhh*' 
ment, and not only was the volume of business large, but its '•"**•■ 
handling was profitabla 

One of the most interesting features of the year was the great 
Btrides made in the foreign commerce of the port. The total 
imports for the 12 months ending December 31, 1901, reached 
4,763,219/., and the exports 29,140,736i. There was therefore an 
^^egate foreiftn nommerce of 33,903,954^ 

The tonnage of vessels clearing from this port for fore^:n ports 
was the largest on record. 

Cotton shipments made up the greater part of the exports, bat 
grain furnished a considerable proportion also, as much as 
40,000,000 bushels having been exported during the year. Coffee 
-vbA sugar furnished more than half of the total imports. 

Much prosperity prevailed in the cotton industry. Last year's 
«otton crop, which was fairly good, sold at prices not only 
relatively, but actually high. The sale of a 10,.500,000-bal6 crop, 
at an average of nearly 9 e. {A:\d.) per lb., meant more than the safe 
of many previous crops of smaller size at materially higher figures. 
The South has learned to raise cotton at much lower coat than it 
formerly did, hence 9 c. (4^) now means a great deal more than 
the same price meant a decade ago. 

There was a marked increase in the amounts exported of 
cotton-seed cake and meal, resin, turpentine, staves, wheat, flour 
uid oata. 

The demand for cotton-seed cake and meal is always in excess 
of the supply. 

By coming again into possession of its wharves, the city was 
able to reduce the wharfage dues and port charges to the manifest 
advantage of the ocean business of this port. In two years the 
ocean tonnage entering and clearing from t^e port of New OrleaoB 
has increased 38 per cent 

(10) i. 2 



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4 HEW 0BLBAK8. 

The coastwise trade is equally satisfactory, the tono^e havii^ 
grown from 1,156,220 tons two years ago to 1,501,692 tODS for tm 
season closed, or an advance of nearly 30 per cent. 

The sugar crop was a fair average, and as it was marketed 
at excellent prices, the planters had little to complain of in the 
way of actual results. 

The rice crop was not only large bat it proved to be of 
excellent quality and sold at good prices. 

The credit clearings of the associated banks ehow an increase 
of 21,349,447/., or 21 per cent, over the preceding season. 

The total of bank clearings aggr^ate 121,4)j3,66I^., as com- 
pared with 100,134,214^. last year, a gain of 21,349,447/., or more 
than 21 per cent 

There was at all times during the year a plentiful supply of 
money in banks available for the Aipidly increasiog requirements 
of commerce, and as rates for loans were uniformly cheap, the 
funds were well employed. Very few business troubles developed, 
and as loans were well secured, no considerable losses resulted. 

The character of the market for loans has undei^ne a con- 
siderable change during the past few yeare. In former times each 
succeeding autumn season witnessed a stringency of money, which 
was largely reserved by the banks for crop moving purposes, but 
now that two succeeding years of remunerative prices for crops 
have made the planter measurably independent, funds appear at 
all times to be available for service in general trade lines. 

The range of values for foreign exchange was comparatively 
even throughout the year, and prices for bills ruled generally a 
shade lower than the previous year's figures. 

The business done is shown by the following table : — 



Bail road 
bounni. 


Soothem Picifio 

TeiM ud pKifio 

lUinoii Oentnl 

LouMTiUo and NMLrmo 

New OrUaiu and N«iili EMtern 
Mfnorrondi 

ToW 

OnitdtotoL 


Qu^titj. 




ForwHded. 


Bmnt^ 




Ton.. 
761,540 
213,788 
888.666 
123,380 
236,222 
236,361 
60,000 


Tona. 
734,682 
842,018 
1,377397 
776,606 
882,786 
607,686 
176,000 




1,966,946 


^896,618 




6,862,564 



As compared with the previous year, the total railroad tiatKc 
shows an increase of 769,938 tons. 

The total commerce of the city — exporta and imports, receipts 
and shipments — is as follows : — 



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SSW OBLEAKS. 





Tonosgs. 


V,J«. 


BMSipta bom interuw by iTTMr Mid nil 
Impoiti, ooMtwiM 


6,145,616 
B1S,4Z9 
1,889,066 


£ 
44,869,646 
19,876,044 
4,218,781 


ToWi»cwpU 


7,848,101 


68,868,470 


„ 'weign 


2,166,948 
688,£68 
1,984,82« 


23,618,893 
12.848.746 
80,881,986 




4,880,085 


66,789,072 


18»e-1900 
1898-99 .. 


18,678.136 
12,045,784 
10,708,233 


186,162,64! 
108,864.688 
87J>42,92« 



The above table thus Bhows an iocrease in the commerce of 
New Orleans, as compared with the previous year, of 31,787,854^., 
and of 47,209,620i. in two years. 

The principal products imported were cottee, beet and cane Imporu. 
sugar, ais&l grass, bananas, burlaps, lemons, and indiarubber. 

The total imports for the year amounted to 4,763,2l9i. in value, 
or aa increase of 600,000/. as compared with the total imports for 
1900. 

The increase in the importation of lemons amounted to 7,600i ; 
indiarubber, 18,581/. ; sisal grass, 317,436/. ; cane sugar, 190,516/. ; 
burlaps, 95,770/. 

In cotton goods and grain b^s there were slight decreases. 

In. the matter of imports there was a lai^e increase during Luge 
the month of November, amounting to 127,617/., or 47 per cent., inc""~™ 
as compared with November, 190O. There was an increase of 29 j^S^niontb 
per cent in the value of the coffee imported, 19,196,477 lbs. beinjj ofHOTamb«r. 
imported, as against 13,680,817 lbs. in November, 1900, and an 
even laiger increase in the importation of sisal grass and binding 
twine. 

The imports hitherto have been small, and as vessels have no 
return trade, rates are higher than they would be if the steamers 
had cargoes both ways, instead of coming here so often in ballast. 

Efforts are being made to eu courage and develop this return 
trade, so as to give vessels cargoes both ways, and the present 
figures are encouraging. 

New Orleans led all the other porta, including New York, Btporb. 
in exports for the two years 1858 and 1859. For 31 years B»nk of Nww . 
New Orleuis held second place in exports, retainii^ that place EII^bSh in 
uninterruptedly from the close of the Uivil war to 1893, and th« comtiy 
after au interval of four years, during which this port dropped 
to third plaoe, below Boston, the position of second was regained 
in 1897. In 1898 and 1899, owing to the low price of cotton, 
N«w Orleans dropped behind both Boston and Baltimore, baing 
(10) A 3 



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the only occasion when she occupied fourth place, but in 1900 
die returned to her cnstotnaiy position of second on the list 

The total amount of merchandise exported during the year 
amounted to 29,140,736/., being an inoreaee over 1900 of 698,760£. 

With the slow movement of cotton, and the decrease in th« 
shipment of com and pig-iron, both very important items, the 
record of 1900 was broken. 

The improvement in the exportation of miscellaneous articles 
was healthy, and the port is now rapidly becoming one from 
which all the various products of the South and West are being 
shipped 

It should be remarked that cotton cuts a smaller figure in the 
trade of the port than it has done before. 

The following table gives the values of the total domestic 
exports from New Orleans for the commercial year 1901 : — 



Counttj. 


Value. 


KnglaDd 

Fnnce 

:^tidi 8oo»h Afifo* 

Ireland 

Ssnmark 

Belginm 

Ouli 

Aurtria-HungM; 

Mexico 

Sootlaod 

Pottngal 

Hiowagn* 

Britiah Hondima 

OiaUBioft 

Honduiai 

Oolombia 

Korwaj 

Junaii 


£ 

10,e8»,«88 

8,989,766 

3,817,899 

8,899.788 

1,800,0«3 

1,497,534 

1,841,879 

1,261,039 

1,971,4M 

778,469 

482,498 

885,267 

S07,9«0 

179,668 

126,762 

118,270 

10C,629 

101,379 

81.668 

89,899 

84,678 

6,000 

863 


IMal 

, 1899-1900 .. 
„ 180B-18W .. 


80,881,928 
22,896,606 
18,024,228 



This shows an increase of 7,436,322/. over the year 1900. 

New Orleans stall heads Uie list as the largest cotton port of 
the United States, a position she has always held, except for t^ie 
season of 1898-99, and which was then temporarily lost from 
abnormal causes. Last year the total exceeded that of any other 
cotton port by 320,670 bales. The city exported 24-06 per cent 
of the total cotton crop of the United States, against 20'S per 
CdBt. in 1900, and 20*2 per cent, die year before. 

The farmer has received good prices for hie cotton for the last 
two years. The crop for season 1900-01 brought 26,166,641/. 



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HIW OBLXUt& 7 

more than that of the previous season and 42,358,910^ more than 
the large crop of 1898-99, the largest ever grown. 

The value of the oommeroial crop for the past seven seasons is 
aa follows : — 



Tw. 


QiiMtitr. 


VJub. , 




BoiM. 


e 


190(M)1 


10,SS8,4S8 


98rf>lS,B0fl , 




»,486,416 


72,766,964 




11,274,840 


66,664,BB7 


]S97-ee 


U,198.9M 


fl4,ll(^6^1 


18»-OT 


8,787,9«4 


64,8S4,90a 




7457,M6 


68,819,068 


18M-96 .. 


9,901.861 


69,407,608 



There waa au extension of the cotton indostry northward. 
Thus the Indian territory, Oklahoma, and Missouri raised 447,187 
bales, against 245,006 bales the previous year, almost doubling 
their crop. 

As re^rds the takings by American mills, 11 years ago the T»kiii^ bj- 
North took 76'7 per cent, of the cotton consumed in American A m Bnowi 
mills and the South only 232 per cent., or leas than one-third as "''^ 
much. To-day the percentages are : North, 54-8 per cent. ; 
South, 45"2 per cent., the two sections being thus nearly eqnal 
in their cotton consumption. 

There are some 688 cotton mills in the South with 6,531,894 
spindles, as compared with 6,267,163 spindles last year, and 
163,003 looms, as compared with 150,259 looms in 1899-1900. 
South Carolina still leads in the cotton industry, then North 
Carolina second, Georgia thii^, and Alabama fourth. 

Mr. Hester, Secretary of the New Orleans Cotton Exchange, New Oileuu 
reports as follows : — k^ 

The cotton crop of the United States for the year ending Re^^t*" 
August 31, 1901, amounts to 10,383,422 bales, showing an 
increase over that of 1899-1900 of 947,006 bales, a decrease 
under that of 1898-99 of 891,418 bales, and a decrease under 
that of 1897-98 of 816,572 bales. 

More than the entire increase uf the total crop over last year 
was from Texas and Indian territory, the production of which was 
47 per cent more, while the Atlantic and other Gulf States dropped 
ofi 4 per cent. 

Compared with last year, in round figures, Texas, inoluding 
Indian territory, has increased 1,218,000 bales ; the group known 
as other Gulf States, consisting of Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, 
Tennessee, Oklahoma, Utah and Kansas, has decreased 179,000 
bales; and the group of Atlantic States (Alabama, Georgia, 
Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Kentucky and Virginia) 
has decreased 92,000 bales. Coming on the heels of a depleted 
supply amounting practically to famine the world over, the 
production has sold for a good round price, bringing to the 
Jjouth, in dollars, more than any other crop on record, and this 
(10) A. 4 



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8 KKW OBLEANS. 

notwithstanding the &ct that the yield was larger than generally 
anti^iated. 

With a pressure of demand upon supply in face of serious 
complaints from manufacturers for many months and interruption 
of the China trade, the average values per lb. and per bale exceeded 
last year's favouralsle resulte. 

On the basis of middling, which represente the average of th« 
crop, a fair average of price for the United States is 9*33 c. per lb., 
which compares with T'65 c. for laat year, and 4'88 c for 1898-99, 
the highest price touched during the season having been 11'12 o. 
and the lowest 7"56 c. 

The average commercial value of the crop is 9/. 13s. lO^d. 
per bale, against 11, 16s. 8 jd. last year, bl, 3«, 5^d. the year before, 
and 5;. I83. 0|d. in 1897-98. 

The commercial crop contains parts of the growths of three 
The following are the figures : — 





Quantitj. 


ComnwroW crop of 1900-01 

LeM old from orap of 189fr>1900 

. Plui growth of nune year marketed in Angaria 1900 


BalM. 

10,888,000 

184,000 

10,846,000 
28,000 
SO0,OUO 




10,673,000 




58,000 


Actual gMWtli, 1909-01 


u^ei9,ooo 



The importation of foreign cotton dming the year amounted to 
56,100,499 lbs., or an equivalent of 109,941 balee in American 
weights, against 65,833,514 lbs. in 1900, equal to 130,590 
American balee, a decrease equal to 20,649 bfdes. 

The value of foreign cotton imported last rear exceeded 
1,600,OOW. 

Most of the importa were consumed by Northern mills, tbongh 
Mr. Hester states ne has reports of a small amount in the South, 
one new 10,000-spindle Southern mill consuming Egyptian cocton 
o.xcIuBiTely. 



d by Google 



HEW ORLEANS. 

Total Exports of the United States. 





(iuMtity. 






United 
Kingdom. 


F^.0.. 


OoDtiiinit 

OhWMl. 


Cuudm. 


Total 


, BalM. 
190CM)1 .. .. 8,063,828 
1899-1900 .. ..: s,s8a,eso 
1898-99 .. .. B,64D,4.n 
1897-98 .. .. 8,H8,8B0 


Bdei. 
729,018 
708,963 
796,616 
816,366 


BiOei. 
8,745,917 
2,907.680 
8,017,416 
S.160,1M 


BslM. 
102,628 
109.961 

99,986 
118,667 


BalBi. 

6.e«,i81 
6,060,048 
7,464,890 
7,658,687 



Included under Continent are exports to Mexico, Japan, and 
China. 

The number ol milla and Bpindles ia as followa : — 





Knmber. 


ToUl number of milla lut 7«ftT 

Crowed out. merged into other ronceroi, »nd burned 


668 
>3 




640 
«8 


Total number of cotton milli in the South 


ess 



This shows a net increase of 25 mills, as compared with the 
663 mills existing in the previous year. 

The record of spindles in the South shows — 



Total in opeiition in the South ., 



New, not oompleted 



This ahowa an increase of spindles, old, idle and not complete, 
«f 264,731, and a net gain of spindles at work of 778,912. 



d by Google 



NEW OBLEiLNS. 

CoHSUHPTiON, United States. 



Taken bj Sortt em Bpinnen . 



S,lt66,-U2 
1,B«T,11S 



Total Exports of Cotton from New Orleans by Countries lor the 
Commercial Year 1901. 



I Bklea. 

GennuiT • . 
Itolj- 

Auitm-HuDgarf . . 

Cenituil 

X«theriuid> . . 

Belgium 

Portngal 

Meiioo . . , . 

Total.. 
„ 1809-1900 



826,B66 


422,826,164 


8,001,164 








268,570 


130,112,660 




246,£61 


123.000,708 


2,261,630 








es.*«i 


48,384.207 


763,173 


»0,6«7 


16,892,178 


276,264 


a6,3fi6 


13,185,941 




23,aso 


11,666,319 


218,146 


21,64« 


10,911.449 


203,738 


8,802 


4,15e,681 


78,249 


6,962 


3,666,736 


73.197 


2.016,697 


1,081,767,618 


18,970,184 


1,667,126 


839,380,698 


13,129,670 


. 1,917,628 


976,461,687 


10,676,675 



Onun trade 
»f New 
Orleuu. 



With the growth of the country and the moving of the centre 
of cereal production further west, the former custom of shipping 
Uie bulk of the grain crops to Europe, vift Eastern ports, has given 
place to the shipment of the surplus intended for export through 
Southern porte. This diversion of traffic appears to have princi- 
pally affected New York. The Southern ports have been rapidly 
gaining in their grain shipments, while the Eastern ports have 
been losing. 

In the matter of the export of breadstuffs, for example, New 
Orleans occupies the third position among all the cities of the 
United States, as will be seen from the following table, which 
shows the value of the breadstufle of all kinds exported from 
the principal ports of the United States during the first 10 
months of 1900 and 1901 respectively: — 



d by Google 



mV OBLEARB. 



Port*. 


TJofc 


1900. 


1»1. 


New Tort 

BaltimoN 

Kew Orlsaiu 

Borton 

PhilHldphu 

IfewmftHewa 

OalToitoa 

Pn«t Sound 

WaLunelte 

Clii»go 


£ 
9,608,881 
6,854,614 
1,828,699 

4,843,847 
2,68^789 
2,826,991 
1,680,082 
1,061,246 
1,288,612 
IfiiOfita 


£ 
9,493,419 
7,417,668 
4,990,618 
4,951,698 
4,688,!66 
8,008,000 
3,886,681 
2,247,478 
1.666,298 
1,404,041 
1,0(W,616 



From the above table it will be seen that the largest inweasee 
are in Kew Orleans and Baltimore, and that the increase in the 
New Orleans export is greater than in the Baltimore export. 

In the coi-n-exporting list of cities New Orleans stands fourth, Bipoito of 
with New York, Baltimore, and Philadelphia ahead. oom ud a»ti 

Id the exports of oats New Orleans stands only sixth. 

In the exports of wheat for the 1^ months ending October 31 BipotU of 
New Orieans takes second place, and is only exceeded by New »l»o»t. 
York by a margin of 3,100,000 bushels. There was an immense 
increase in the export of wheat from the United States in the first 
10 months of the calendar year 1901, aa compared with the corre- 
sponding period of the year 1900. New Orleans secured the best 
share, viz., an increased export of more than 15,000,000 bushels, 
while New York secured an increase of only 10,000,000 hnshels. 

The export of wheat from New Orleans, as will be seen 
from the following table, comes within a few bushels of being 
22,000,000 bushels, while New York's wheat export is only 
25,030,415 bushels. 



d by Google 



mw OBLUHS. 



Exports of Wheat in Bushels, all Porte. — ^Ten Montha ended 
October 31, 1901. 



PMb. 


Q^aty. 








1900. 


1901. 




Biwb«l>. 


BuBhel^. 




a,66a^58 


18,167,938 




8,178,810 


16,206,636 






4,322,869 


N8w7aik 


16,007,638 


26,080,416 








PhiUdelphiB 




9,476,200 




8,8W,74e 


14,862.624 


Motnls 












FtuetSonnd 


8,664,966 


8,806,879 








^nUMn«tte 


8,061,898 


10,134,221 


gSX :: :: :: :: :: 


4,443,202 


4,818,435 


1,440,106 


2,065,678 


flnperioT 

OtW oiutom* dutriota 


1,742,676 


4,849,888 


1,246,897 


8,988,742 


Total 


70^22,966 


164,868,088 



The grain went to no lees than 30 difTerent ports, and to 
10 different countries, viz., Uie United Kiogdom, France, Germany, 
Italy, Spain, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Sweden, and Mexico. 

ILotterdam received the largest quantity of grain from New 
Orleans, then Liverpool, Hambtu^ Antwerp, Bel&et, Bremen, and 
Hull in the order named. 



d by Google 



NKW ORLUII8. 



The followiBg table gives exports of com and wheat by 
countries for the commercial year 1901 : — 



Cniuitrf. 


Oam. 


Wheat 


Quantity. 


Valne. 


Quantity. 


Talne. 


EDg^Uld 

aermaDj 


Suahels. 
4.607^43 
8,746,176 
2,947,683 


£ 

409,813 

826,416 

261,867 

262,606 

200,686 

180,887 

67,209 

40,182 

22,776 

21,187 

13,628 

6,846 

1,278 

701 

866 ' 

349 

292 


BuiheU. 

6,227,477 

2,844,680 
444,917 
192,000 

6,931,460 
664,000 

1,897,606 

182,878 
200,000 

37,767 
99,939 


£ 
816,861 
861,811 
. 67,466 


Netherlandt „ 

Denmark 

Cuba 

SS-.. :: :; 
&^- ■:. :: 

BritUhHondtttM .. 
Hondurat 

CtMta Rioa 
Colombia 

i"Jr 


8,284,288 

2,066,787 

668,624 

461,568 

216,689 

866,866 

1H2S8 

61,618 

11.687 

6,691 

8,429 

3,814 

2^ 


88«;4W 
84,0*0 

281,891 

27,141 

31,040 

6,«7 
16,646 


Total .. 
„ 1000 


20,426,946 
29,280,700 


1,802.811 
2,320,074 


17,122,727 
7,694,157 


2,692,829 
1,214,386 



The following table gives exports of flour from New Orleans 
for the commercial year 1901 : — 



Coiuiti7. 


Qnantity. 


Talne. 


iT-':: :: :: :: 

Irdand 

CoitaBiM 

Denmark 

Honduna 

Britdsh Honduna 

SootUud 

Belgium 

Colombia 

8P^ 


BarreU. 
806,812 
76,996 
66,246 
86,943 
80,870 
24,608 
14,604 
11.646 
10,648 
6,887 
4,688 
4,616 
8,796 
2,681 
661 


£ 
840,680 
66,467 
41,656 
28,061 
28,814 
19,213 
11,308 
9,079 
8,261 
4,616 
8,604 
3,540 
2,966 
1,988 
440 


Total 

„ 1«00 .. 
„ 1899 .. 


689,644 
416,461 
•82,668 


469,670 
ai7,2»4 
801,408 



Noil.— Thi* (bow* an ii 



d by Google 



''■ 14 Bzir CKLBurs. 

Bngkr. The past commercial year has been productive of very satis- 

factory results to all iaterests kindred or allied to the stij^r 
- planting and manufacturing industries in the State of Louiiiiaiia 
and City of New Orleans. 

In round figures the outturn of the crop, as shown by the 
receipts from plantations, at this market, gave an excess of 
700,000 baiTels and 2,4000 h(^heads over the production of 
1899-1900, or approximately 1,500,000 barrels and 56,000 liojrs- 
heads, as against 750,000 1:»rrelB and 32,000 hogsheads for the 
previous year. On the other hand the production of molasses 
showed a slight decrease in volume. Prices Were better, and 
values ruled throughout upon a uniformly higher plane than 
o1)tained during the preceding year. 

There was a decided decrease in the amount of beet sugar 
shipped to New Orleans, attributed to the unsettled laws concern- 
ing the reciprocity question. The cane sugar, however, exceeds 
that of last year. 
Hue. The production of Louisiana rice was greater by far than during 

1899-1900, and the prices realised for clean rice have ruled higher, 
leaving a wider margin of profit for millers. 

The receipts of rough rice during the year 1900-01 reached 
a total of 832,736 sacks, against 869,510 sacks the year previous, 
a faliing-off of 36,774 sacks, while, on the other hand, there was 
shipped to this city some 86,235 baiTels of clean, against only 
18,015 barrels in 1899-1900. 

A feature of the trade that developed within the past year 
has been the demand from Porto Rico for low grade rice. This 
has (^ened up a distributive channel for the poorer grades of the 
seed, and has added considerably to the general stabuity of prioee. 
T^ese have averaged higher than previous seasons. 

The average price of clean rice per lb. was 2^., as against 

2d. in 1899-1900. 

SioB •iporM The exportation of rice to Porto £ico was very heavy, and 

fa^New wag far alMve the shipments made to all the foreign countries 

^gj^j^ t(^ether. In December alone 7,973.287 lbs. were exported at a 

vfduation of 54,146^. This is the lai^est shipment on record. 
CoBm. Within the past year New Orleans made great strides 

as a coflee-importing point According to a compilation of the 
importations made from actual manifests, there have been received 
at this port from various points in Brazil during the calendar year 
1901 a total of 712,645 bags of coffee, as compared with a total 
of 309,757 bags during the year 1900. The best year prior to 
the Civil War was 1857, when the total imports of Brazilifui cofTeo 
reached 461,036 bags, equal to 553,544 bags of preeent we^ht. 
The impoits for the current year were, therefore, 159,101 bags 
greater liian in the record year of the past 
UMiatMtnrM The nuuiber of manufacturing establishments increased from 
in LouiiUna. 2,613 to ^,340 (66 per cent.), but the capital has grown from 
6,950,8:;2i. 10 22,607,912i. (225 per ceot). 

The tetid output of th.-se factories is 24,219,904/., as compared 
with ll,ri6i,:U2/. in 1890, an increase of 109 per cent. The 



d by Google 



KEW OBISAHS. 



15 



estftblisbments in this State have grown not only in number bat also 
in importance ; that ia they are larger concerns than a year ago, 
averaging nearly twice as mach capital as then. 

There hae been an increase during the decade of 10 per cent. 
in the average wages paid employes, and the prodaotion per head 
has increaaed from 407/. to 571^. (40 per cent.). 

The followii^ table shows the increase in number and tonnage Shippmg. 
of vessels entered and cleared during the p&At five years, for 
commercial years ending July 31. This table includes coastwise 
and foreign porta : — 





Cleared. 


Bntond. 


Tew. 


Number ot 
Ve»el.. 


Toni^., 


ITumber at 

V«Ml.. 


*>m,,,e. 


1897 

180B 

1899 

1900 

1801 


1,286 
1^ 
1^ 
1,S80 
1,67S 


1,916,860 
2,119,988 
1,997.188 
a,846.7M 
2,673,989 


1,270 
1,840 
1,892 
1,664 
1,622 


1.890,6« 
2,180,919 
1,983,940 
8.867,846 
2,702,486 , 



In two years the ocean tonni^ entering and clearing the 
port of New Orleans baa increased 35 per cent. The reduction 
in wharfage charges from a fixed rate of 12 c. (Gd.) per ton, 
whether the vessel remained at the wharf for a period of one day 
or 60 days, to the rates established on Hay 29, 1901, by the 
Board of Conunissioners, and now in force, has resulted in a good 
many of the vessels that have visited the port using the public 
wharves that would not have done so underlie old rates, and the 
ocean business of the port will, doubtless, increase more rapidly 
in the future owing to these lower wharfage dues, and to Lhe 
prospect of the South-west Pass being provided with deeper 
vater. 



d by Google 



NEW ORLEANS. 



fiETCTRH of SUpping at the Port of New OdeaDB duriiig the 
Year 1901. 





Staam. Sailing. 


Total. 


N.tioDilit7. 


Number 


iVumber 




Nnmbw 






of 


ToDi. . of 


Tom. 








TnwU. 


r-'- 




T<M«!i. 








1 








foreign 


177 


137,788 1 


62 


178 


187,860 




2B6 


OKfiei SB 


16,217 




667,806 




14 


80,648 




14 


30,646 


Briti.h .. 


698 


1,394,166 1 


328 


699 


1,894^»3 


Dumb .. 










S8 


67,708 


Dntch .. 




10,279 




6 


10^9 


Pwoch .. 


6 


10,601 






10,601 


0«niu>D .. 


46 


90,666 


6 


6,934 


fi2 


97,60O 


Italian .. 


27 


66,668 


1 


412 


28 


67,080 


MBric«ll.. 


1 


67 






1 


67 




S69 


189,020 1 


863 


270 


139,683 






; 14 


10,064 


14 


10,064 


SpMiifb .. .. 


79 


162^24 ] 4 


8,272 


83 


166,196 














Urugnajan 


1 


2,206 .. 




1 


2,206 


Total 


1,586 


2,781,008 


63 


86,882 


Mas 


2,817,890 





3Uam. 


Sailing. 


Total. 


NationaUtj. 


NniDbar 




Number 




Numbor 








Ton.. 


of 


Ton*. 


of 


loiii. 




VoMeli. 








VmmI.. 




Ameiioan- 
















167 


188,946 


14 


9,498 


181 


143,439 


CoasbwiM 








16.888 






Auitro-Eunganan 


18 








16 


84,746 


BritUb .. 


606 


1,417,996 




228 


607 


1,418,224 




27 


68,620 






27 




Datch .. 


a 










10,618 


FMncb .. 


6 


10,601 






6 


10,601 




44 


88,634 




8,U3 


61 


96,747 


Italian .. 


24 








24 


68,627 


Uasican.. 


1 


67 






1 


67 




268 


188,980 




668 


268 


137,593 














11,829 


8pam>h .. 


76 


164,649 




2,628 


79 


157,177 


Swediah .. 














Uniguajan 


1 


2,206 








8,004 


Total .. 


1,521 


2,763,937 


88 


60,686 


1,609 


2,814,672 



d by Google 



HXW OBLSANS. 



Table of British Shipping Entered and Cleared at the Port of 
New Orleaoa duni^ uie Year 1901, compared with 1900. 





Btwn. 


SuUng. 


TobO. 


Tbm. 


NnlnbeT 
of 


Tool. 


Number 
of 


Tom. 


NnmlMr 

of 
TeuoU. 


Tom. 


1901 .. 
1000 .. 


696 
654 


1,304,156 
1,193,187 


1 


223 


609 
664 


l,aH8SS 
1498,187 



If on. — 46 more ihip« entered th»n Iwt yew, 1900. 

Cli 





s^. . 


SuliDg. 


Total. 


Y«M. 


STnniber 

of 
Te«eU. 


Toni. 


of 
Te«eb. 


Toni. 


Nnmbar 

of 
ToMaU. 


Tom. 


1001 .. 
1000 .. 


606 ' 
661 


1,417,006 
M00,108 


1 


£28 


607 
661 


1,418,214 
1,100,108 



Noxc — 66 mora Bhipfi cleared than lut jmi, 1900. 

On October 31, 1901, New Orleans witseseed the clearance OreatMt 
through her costom-house of as many as 18 vessels, 15 of which <'li»r»no'o' 
were steamers destined for countries across the Atlantic. Their ctetoi,]^^"" 
abrogate cargoes uudouhtedly made np the largest day's buaitiene looi. 
the port has ever known. The cotton exports were, without 
doubt, the largest for a single day on record. Another not»- 
wortiiy feature was the large shipment of naval stores. 



(10) 



d by Google 



18 NEW OKLBAKS. 

Cabgobs carried in British Ships during the Tear 1001. 



ArtiolM. 


BalM.. 
Sack!.. 
BtcU.. 

Bii^rdV : 

BmhoU 

s^ii... :: 

Twrci' 
Tons .. ;.' 

pi;*^" :: 

Baneli 
Eog.h«id. .. 


Quintitj. 


Coition 

Coltonu«d 

oU 

oil-oaka .. 
„ meta 

mmp»U>ck. 

Com 

Whe»t 

Oata 

Hour 

SUlTM 

Lumber | 

I^«» 

T»llaw 

Lart 

o;tp« 

£:: :: :: :: 

Tobaeeo 


l,87I.ffl*8 

lig,S67 
100,850 

967,761 

S8,l« 

9,868,76:) 

18,e>tl,G6e 

1,1K)5,568 

6e20!S6 

9,766,668 

6.«0,978 

11,718,107 

20,748 

8,6B8 

4.038 

2,868 

7.003 

41 

62.981 

4,708 



On May 29, 1901, the leaee of the Louisiana Constnictioa 
Company expired, and a Board of Commiasioners assumed absolute 
control of all the wharves and landings. 

The schedule in force at present provides that all sea-going 
vessels shall pay 2 a (Id.) per ton per day, based on the gross 
tonnage for the first three days, and 1 c (irf.) per ton per day tor 
the next three ensuing days, making a maximum charge of 9 o. 
(4^1^.) on the gross tonnage for the first six days, and thereafter a 
vessel shall be &ee from charge for a period of 30 days. 

Harbour dues consist in a charge not exceeding 10 dxA 
(2A 1& 8d.) on all vessels visitiiig the port arriving in ballast car 
with green fruit, and a further charge of 5 doL (U. Oa. lOrf.) for 
vessels with a general cargo. There is also a charge of I doL 
(is. '2d.) for each cof^ of oertificates issued for the inspection of 
hatches, surveys of cargoes, &c. These chaises cover the duties 
of harbour master and port wardens. 

A feature in the new schedules is the fact that there is no 
charge whatsoever on merchandise landed upon the wharves for 
either export or import 

The improvement in the present, as compared with the former 
chaises, can best be compu«d as follows: — Under the lessees 
(nld system) a Bteamship of 6,000 gross tons paid 1441. for 
wharfage for one day or 60 days, 4L harbour master, 3^. port 
warden, or a total of 1511. 

TTnder the new rule the same ship pays for wharfage 24/. 
for one day, or a maximum of 1082. for 30 days ; deputy com- 
missioners, for discharging the former duties of Uie port wardens, 
3/. on each vessel, except fruiters or vessels in ballast, 2L each ; 



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NSW OBLKAMa 19 

total, 111^. Thus there is a saving of 40^ to each steamship of 
6,000 tnriB, a good average size for vessels visiting this port. 

Under the old lessee ayetem, sailing veesels were reqnired to 
pay the same wharfage as steamships, and the high port diarges 
probably had a good deal to do with keeping the number of vessels 
dovn to small proportions. 

Hie new large naval floating dock reached N^ew Orleans eafylj New uval 
on November 6 from Baltimore, and was placed at AlgieiB, a *'•'*■* '*'"'' 
suburb of New Orlt^ana, across the Kiver Mississippi. 

The dock has a capacity of 18,000 tons, is 525 feet long, and 
125 feet wide. The entire height of the sides from their bottoms, 
which are submerged to the top, is 65 feet. The designs of the 
dock were originally made by Messrs. Clark and Standfield, of 
London, but were afterwards modified at Sparrow's Point to con- 
form to American practice. The dock is expected to raise a 
15,000-ton battleship, and have the floor of the dock two feet 
njxtve the water. The dock is able to dock herself for cleaning 
and washing, and is fitted with electric Lights and pumps <^ 
highest power. The cost of the dock is placed at 162,000/. 

The New Orleans Maritime and Merchants' Exchange have 
Baked the United States Navy Department to grant permission to 
merchant vessels to use the naval dock when it is not being used 
I91 Government work. The request was granted under certain 
conditions. These are that the naval dock may be used by 
loerohant vessels of a size and character that cannot be accommo- 
dated in private docks, here, and when it is not required for 
Government use. 

The rates charged will be based upon the commercial rates 
prevailing in this city, or at the nearest point where similar work 
is dona To secure the use of the dock, application must be made 
to the Bureau of Construction and Eepaii-s, through the Com- 
mandant of the New Orleans naval station. 

The knowledge that henceforth there will be docking facilitieB 
here to accommodate the lai^est vessels should be of great advantage 
to the port. 

A successful preliminary test of the dock was made on De- 
cember 31 with the United States transport ship "Sterling." A 
&nal trial test of the naval floating dock was made on January 6, 
1902, with the United States battleship " Illinois." This vessel, 
which has a displacement of 11,565 tons, was lifted out of the 
water in a little under two hours ; the docking was done in much 
shorter time than was expected or called for, and the test is 
considered a complete success in every ^rticular. The dock 
should prove a great benefit to the port Heretofore it haa not 
bean possible to dock a ship of more than 2,000 tons displacement 
Bonth of Newport News. This has been a drawback not merely to 
New Orleans, but to all the Golf ports. 



(10) 



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. PKNSACOLA. 



PXMSACOLA. 



OotUm 
-Cod. 



Mr. Vice-Consul Eonar reports as follows : — 

Custom-house returns, which are annexed, show that the total 
number of ahips that entered the port of Pensacola in 1901 was 
394, with a tonm^e of 497,.S62 tons ; the number that cleared was 
413, with a tonnage of 531,384 tons. This is exclusive of the 
coastwise trade. 

Only 133 British ships of 209,811 tons entered this port, 
which shows a decrease with last year in number due to the 
falling-ofif of the lumber trade, but the tonnage is larger in 
proportion to the number of ships. 

The total imports amounted to 5^fi5^l., 486?. of which came 
from the United Kingdom, and 142i. from British colonies. The 
imports increased considerably in comparison with preceding 
years. 

The total exports amounted to 2,907,166/., 1,184,156/. of which 
went to the "United Kingdom, and 19,965i to British colonies, 
a considerable increase in comparison to the year 1900. 

The total value of merchandise exported from Pensacola in 
British ships was about l,141,000t, or nearly half the total value 
of exports. 

There has been a considerable decrease in the export of lumber 
from this port during the year 1901, especially during the second 
half. This decrease is no doubt due to the successful season 
of 1900, with the consequence that European markets were 
flooded, and there has been but little demand for a fresh supply. 
Also low freights in 1901 have added to the dulness of the trade. 

British shipowners interested in the lumber trade have suffered 
much loss through " time charters," which have been thrown up 
on this side with the consequence that lawsuits are now pending 
in the local courts here. 
: The construction of the shipbuilding plant at Pensacola has 
remained in abeyance during the past year, nor has anything been 
done with regard to a dry dock. 

A regular line of steamers now plies between New York and 
Pensacola, and is doing well, supplying all the local markets in 
this vicinity with New York produce and merchandise at a much 
lower freight than by rail. 

A considerable quantity of cotton is now shipped through this 
port. 

Upwards of 80,000 tons of coal were exported to Mexico from 
Pensacola in British ships, which have taken a prominent part in 
the fulfilment of the contract made by the Louisville and Kash- 
ville Eiailroad company to supply the Mexican Grovemment 
Railway at Tampico with 200,000 tons of coal within 12 months 
from May, 1901. 

There are great facilities for coaling ships at Pensacola, hut 
little advantage is being taken of them, no doubt, owii^ to the 
lo<»l quarantine difficulties ruling here. 

The large eawmlll at Flomaton, referred to in my report last 



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PENBAOOUL 31 

year, will commence to work at an early date, and its ouput 
will be enormous, thus considerably increasing the timber export 
from this port. 

Jfearly all the meat consumed liei-e Is brought from Chicago Meat wid 
and Kansas, and supplied by the Armour Packing Company, <*''"' ^°^ 
There appear to be no cattle farms in this vicinity. Vegetables'"'*'*'' 
and fruit are brought to Pensacola from the north at consider- 
able coat, with the consequence that living expenses are greater 
here than in many other towns in the States. 

Eecent indications of oil have been discovered io and around Oil diicorery. 
Pensacola, and from samples obtained it would appear that oil of 
good quality is likely to be found. 

Companies have been formed for the purpoee of boring wells, 
and shares have been issued to the public 

The Pensacola Navy Yard which up to the Spanish war had T^"j t"^ 
practically become obsolete is now in activity ^ain, and may 
become a naval station of iinportance ere long. 

Besideuts attach much interest to its development also as the 
visits of the North Atlantic squadron are beneficial to the trade of 
the city. 

The extraordinary natuml advantages of Pensacola are but Gwwr»l 
partially utilised as a shipping port, and this city appears to '■«™"'k^ 
take an inferior place in comparison to other United States 
ports which, though some distance from the sea, do a far more 
lucrative business. Savannah, Jacksonville, Tampa, Mobile, New 
Orleans, Baltimoie, Philadelphia, Ac, are all froin 10 to 160 
miles distant from the sea and up river. 

The obsolete method of loading ships, the heavy port charges, 
long quarantine detention, crimping, &c., have certainly to a 
great extent been the cause of the slow opening up of this" 
port. But I believe many of these drawbacks are now being 
remedied. 

The Chamber of Commerce and the Business Le^ue have been 
untiring in their efforts to brii^ about changes to place Pensacola 
on the same footing and up to i^te with other American ports. 

The trade between Pensacola, Cuba, and South American 
ports could be considerably improved. 

It is stated that strikes, labour unions, and other societies of 
the same kind have severely handicapped the progi'esa and trade 
of the port during the past year. 



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nutSAcou. 



Annex 1. — ^EinntN of all Shipping at the Port of Penaacola, 
ezclnalTe of the Coastwise Trade, during the fear 1901. 





BaiUBf. 


Btoam. 


Totel. 




Nnmbw 
«f 


Ton*. 


NnmbOT 

of 
TmmIi. 


Tom. 


Nuinbw 
of 


Tom. 


Bfituh .. 
AmeiiMii 

Italun . , 

Kt:: :: 

BuNiao .. 
Dutoh .. 

E3T :: 

Sweduh.. 
A«t«>-HunB«i«. 


as 
as 

4S 
U 

18 


16.406 
18,7B2 
44,762 
61,467 

4,090 
14,778 

6389 
410 

8,471 
SOI 

1,299 
260 


106 
' 4 
22 
2 
84 
12 

"a 

"s 
1 
1 


194,606 
1,696 
82,964 
8,966 
61,289 
18,926 

9,002 

5.129 
1,199 
2,412 


188 
87 
67 
66 
84 
15 
18 


209,911 
20,468 
77,728 
66,412 
61,239 
18,016 
14.778 
9,002 
6,889 
6,689 
4,070 
8.213 
1^99 
260 


Total 
„ IBOO.. 


204 
£87 


171,384 
174,682 


190 

isa 


826,038 
800,106 


894 
426 


497,862 
474.738 





SHling. 


StMm. 


TobO. 


KaliMialitr. 


Nnmbgr 




Number 




Numbar 






of 


loiw. 


of 


Bjm. 


of 


Tom. 




Tewali. 




TmmU. 




TaeH^. 




Britiah .. 


26 


18,410 


102 


188,901 


128 


202,811 


AsMTioMi 


26 


9,726 


S 


8.292 


84 


18,017 




48 


48,416 


29 


47.882 




91,297 




66 


61,631 


S 


18,068 


78 


79,699 


r^:: :; 






87 


68:662 


87 


68,668 


7 


8,281 


14 




21 




SuMiU .. 


14 


12,291 






14 


12,291 


l>at«h .. 






S 


11.996 




11.996 








6 






8.864 


FortugnsM 




7,409 








7,499 


Atutro-Hunguui 




















1 








nrnpuiTHi 




1,298 








1.298 
















Duidi .. 


1 


260 






1 


260 


Total 


198 


161,968 


216 


869,421 


418 


631,384 


, 1900.. 


266 


191,712 


223 


887,678 


480 


Geu,890 



d by Google 



Anaez 2. — Sxruss of Principal Articles of Export ftora Petuacola 
during the Years 1901-1900. 



ArtidM. 




1901. 


190a 
















Qo-ntity. 


T«Ino. 


(Jnwtity. 


Tftlue. 


pitch piiia luntwr . 


Boper.ft. 
Onlioft. 


170,450,000 


£ 
484,078 


l79,4e7,iK» 


£ 

478,fiS7 


Sawn pilch pine titnbu: 


10,190,000 


289,961 


14,7*4,088 


876,406 


Hewn „ „ 




293,290 


7,542 


642,189 


17,806 


Cotton 


B»lM .. 


187,606 


1,664,114 


147,817 


1,384,649 


Pho^uto .. 


loni .. 


126,189 


181.812 


128,816 


146,420 


whSn. .. . 


Buihob.. 


78!,a3S 


11^080 






Tobwuo 


Lb*. .. 


G,1»,01S 


76,660 


2,3Mk460 


81,761 


OottonwAd mMl 




18,077,803 


72,806 






TnTpantiiie .. 
Goal (bitommoiu) . 


CMlou.. 


8S6.648 


70,222 


841,606 


7MB1 


Tou .. 


ioe,Ka9 


46,878 






B«ia .. ... 


Ssmlt.. 


140,548 


44,008 


118,374 


iifiJl 


Flour 




18,2B1 


10,085 






StaTM 


Nnmber 


fiO0,aai 


8J110 






OoUoDMedoU.. 


Qallaiu.. 


88,910 


6,181 






Oatiu 


H»d ., 






2,960 


21,184 


Hop 








S,44« 


U,008 










168 


S;820 


Hulu '.'. ','. '. 








00 


1,740 


OtberwtldM.. 






8S.44B 




811,«95 


Total .. 




2.907,186 




8,846,463 



d by Google 



PKNBACOLA. 



Annex 3. — TablK showing Total Value of all Articles Exported 
from acd Imported to Peosacola to and from Fort^ign 
Coimtriea during the Yeara 1901-190U. 



Slmaoe and ooloiiia 
ltd; .. 
Belgium 

Ne&erluidi .. 
Argenline Bepnblie 

Portogtil lud odonisi . 

Cub* .. 

Spun uid coloniea 

Bnuil .. 

Bgypt .. .. 

Aostiia- Quiiguy 

Uru((u«y 

DenmaTk and colonie* 

Turkej in Aaia . 

Porto Rioo 

Tfloeiuela . . 

TotAl 



1,1H1M 
19,966 
6)0.297 
369,700 
288,330 
174,173 
127,604 
72,632 
47,634 
86,663 
19,270 
17,062 
14,148 
10,708 
0,312 
6,206 
' 6,050 

6,oe& 

2,673 



985,000 
16,394 
472,647 
330,338 
467,318 
93.726 
191,322 
66,770 
12,220 
16,835 
119,276 
46,156 
6,183 
6,800 
17,656 
84,166 
14,362 
400 



7,316 

63 

26,441 

7,476 



Annex 4. — Sktukh of Principal Articles of Import into 
Pensacola during the Year 1901. 



ArtiolM. 


Ton. .. 
Lbfc .. 
Tom .. 

Lbt. '.'. 
Tout.. 


QuMtitj. 


Talne. 


^.r-"? :: :: 

BiUuhurore 

Ferti^ '.'. '.'. " 

Cement 

Salt 

FrniU 

Olire oU 

Timber 

Comwuta 

Wine 


2.419,142 

16,167 

358 

4,188,007 
784 


£ 

26,432 

8,094 

7,468 

7,282 

6:404 

8,289 

476 

60 

SS 

. SB 

38 

24 


lotid 




67,668 



d by Google 



Mobile, Alabama. 

Mr. Vice-Gonaul Beim reports as follows : — 

The Tolume of Mobile's trade for the past year* has been 
slightly under that of 1899-1900, owing laroely to the depressed 
oondi^iL of the European markets, and to the satisfactory condi- 
tion of the American home markets. Cotton, timber, and lumber 
proceed in the ricinity of this i>ort that would under ordinary 
cir^amatiinces have been brought into tins port and shipped to 
Ew ^le, have been sent by railroads from their points of produc- 
tion to the northern and eastern markets of the Statea The 
reason for the great advance made by this port is that it is 
now recognised as the great southern port for Cuban business ; 
more exports to Cuba coming from this port than from any 
port in the States, excepting New York. 

The values of exports and imports for the past year have been^ T»li» of 





•xpoTti. 


ImpoTti 

Exports 


& 
601,619 
2,867,806 


Total 


8,968,826 



The leading articles of 
follows :— 


export 


for the past two y^ars were aa 


AzUolM. 


TijM. 


1900-01. 


1899-1900. 


Cora .. 

Flour .. 
OoUondotk .. 

IdTS-fltOflk 




f 

187,866 
10.912 

207,029 
8i,*70 

171,083 


£ 
130,478 
6,B88 
101,102 
26,688 
288,987 
160,0M 


Total .. 


899,817 


648,177 





Ihfobis. 








T»li» 




lWO-01. 


1899-1900. 


rSS-:: 


48,107 
S68,il2 


< 

88,608 
687,728 


Total .. 


601,619 


676,226 



(10) 



• 8ept«mbn 1 and uiiU AufOfl IL 



d by Google 



HOBILB. 
ElPORTB. 





TalH. 




I90O-19Ca. 


I8W-190O. ' 


Totelfonign 

„ AnMrieHi 


1,606,618 

1,029,871 

6,484 


£ 
1,141,868 
1,288,069 

2,884 


Tat$l 


8,367,306 


2,U1,37B 



Onba 

Lumber ud The following snmmary of foreign and coastwise lumber and 
**""**'■ timber business done in this port shows the result obtained 

in 1900-01 as compared with 1899-1900 ; the timber is reduced 
to superficial feet for the sake of comparison : — 



Q»«itit7. 


1900-01. 


1809-1900. 


110,429,888 

12.7S9,&24 
98^981,604 


Soper. 
112^1/161 

12,665,164 
118^64,448 


220,U1,21« 


878,700,678 



The following Bhows cubic feet of Wood other than pine 
shipped during the poet two seaaona : — 





QMIIIitj. 




1900-01. 


1899-1900. 


Oil 

Dottouwood 

Watent 

rw|- 

^sr:: :: :: :: 


OabiofMt. 
167,108 

1,229 
881,726 
74,421 
6j;984 


Cubic feat. 

218,666 

63,968 

650 

88,S&4 

69,318 


TtM 


688,413 


869.839 



There were' exported in addition to above 66,500 pickets, 
215,602 croseties, 375,675 shingles, 1,598 round logs and piling. 
During t^e past season tliere has been a marked increase in 



d by Google 



the ahipments of etavea to foreign ports, being 2,238,831 staves, 
against 902,000 in 1899-1900. 



Cdstous Seceipts at Port Mobile for the Fiscal Year ending OtutouM- 
June 30, 1901. "^^ 





Tslns. 


DatiM on importi 

Tomwge tax ooUaoted 

TreiitmeDt of foreigiL leamea . . 

Offloudfeei 


£ 
6,476 
S,66S 

182 

ns 

9CS 


ToUl 


10,984 



The 1899-1900 receipts of cotton were 209,838 bales ; average Ootton : 
weight per bale, 502 lbs. ; average price 3^^. For the season Beoeipt* "* 
just closed, 131,335 bales; average weight per bale, 512'66 lbs.; P™"* 
average price, i^d. 

~ BhipmmU 





QuwUty. 




1900-01. 


1899-1900. 


Unitod Kingdom 

Other foRiipi porta 


B>1«. 
88,672 
18.680 


Balei. 
101,818 
81.e»2 


ToWfowiga 


68,263 


133,004 


VeirOrlauu 

HwrToA 

Otiterporta 


43,B?6 
81,318 


4^174 
19,810 

]&,9es 


Total TTiii(«d 8t*tM port* .. 


74,608 


7»^40 


Gnmdtotal 


127,766 


212,844 



The importation of tropical fruits, principally bananas andTMtei 
cocoanuts, coutinaes to show a yearly increase. In connection Baodpu. 
with the railroads reaching out to aU points in the United States, 
and the legular fruit steamers plying in the Gulf, there is a large 
distribution of the steamers' cargoes, principally westward. as far 
aa the Pacific coast, and up aa far as Seattle, on Foget Sound. 
Following is presented a tabulated statement showing com- 
parison for the past two years : — 



Tew. 


Buiaiua. 




1900-01 

1890-1900 


Bnnche*. 
8,626,111 
8.011,896 


KumW. 
4,82^178 
8,906,098 



d by Google 



Bubour- The number of vessels arriving in the port of Mobile from 

nuwtw'i September 1, 1900, to August 31, 1901, taken from the record 

"P"*- book of the harbour-master's office is as follows : — 



BteaauhitM ■ . . . ■ . • 

8qtiKn-Rgg«d T«w«li 
SohooDan and ieagoillg bargN . 

Total 
„ 1B99-1900 . 



The above figores show a decrease in the number of arrivals 
for the year of 60 vessels. • The faUing-ofT is confined to sailing 
vessels only, the steamahips ahowing a alight increase over last 
year. The decrease is due to the dulness of the lumber and 
timber buainess for the past four months, which has affected all 
Grulf timber and lumber ports equally with our own. 

The following remarks on coal are furnished by the Mobile 
Chamber of Commerce : — 

During the fiscal year ending August 31, 1901, the coal 
business of Mobile has been hampered by the want of supply 
(when we speak of coal here we mean Alabama bituminous coal). 
Tor the first eight months under review the supply was entirely 
inadequate for the demand, notwithstanding tiie fact that the 
Alabama coal mines had greatly increased their output During 
tiie past year they mined about 1,000,000 tons more than they 
did during the 12 months previous, but the demand on account 
of the increased business of railroada, numbers of new factories, 
and general activity in business, was ahead of the supply ; this 
prevented exporting of coal from here. During last autumn and 
winter there were many calls for caigo coal for shipment from 
Mobile, but it was impossible to get the coal with certainty, or at 
a price that would enable this business to be done, so the 
bosinese was mainly confined to bunker coal, supplying steamers 
that -called here for loading purposes. For the above reason the coal 
brought to Mobile was somewhat less, as shown by the figuree 
below, than for the year before. For comparison tha following 
statement is added : — 



d by Google 



HOBILK. 

SxompTs. 



Qnu 


trty. 


IMO-ffl,. 


189&-190O. 


Tom. 
289^0 


292,980 
1,800 


294,117 


a9«,7eo 



It is, however, expected that the current fiBcal year will see 
as lai^, if not larger, decrease than that for the year ending 
August 31, 1901, owing to the recent discovery of fuel oil at 
Beaumont, Texas, and the expected dtscoveries at points even 
nearer to Mobile. The adaptability of this oil as a fuel has been 
tested on some of the tow-boats and by some of the larger 
indostries, and the tests have been exceedingly satisfactory. 
Already has oil become a potent factor, as since these testa a 
reduction of freight rates on coal from 1 doL 75 c to 1 dol. 10 c 
per ton has been made by the railways from the mines to Mobile, 
and contracts cannot be made at even this reduction. This is not 
at all to be wondered at when the barge lines operatii^ between 
the rcf^ons and Mobile are guaranteeii^ to place oil m Mobile 
at this early stage at 60 c. per barrel, it being figured that three 
barrels are equal to 1 too of coal, and the present price of coal for 
steam purposes locally 2 doL 85 c. per ton, or 1 dol. per ton in ' 
favour of oil 

Contracte for changing from coal to oil are being let by all of 
the electric light companies, by the large industries, and by 
steamers running between Mobile and the fruit growing islands. 

The production of coal in the State of Alabama for the years 
1900 and 1899 is as follows :— 1900, 8,394,275 tons; 1899, 
7,593.416 ton& 

ITOTS.— lothif leport 6 dol. — II. sterling. 



MiHiRAL Products of AlatKuaa during the under-mentioned 
Years. 



»^. 


L«Xt«K 

z 


IM). 


ino. 


1M». 


<)<xm>Ur. 


VJ«J 


OaaoUtr. 


V.1.^ 


<louiitr- 


Vdofc 


^E E 
S£ ::: :: 


1U.1ID 


ST.Stl 




K*,UO 

MO.tM 

10.000 


s:mo,«8t 


BU,I11 

tSJS! 

IM,HC 


Total 


... 


»o,ass 


*,*».»! 


... 


<,Ka,i» 



d by Google 



Annex A. — RETUitir of all SMpphig at the Port of Mobile 

dming tiie Yacr 1901. 

Ebtxrkd. 





8,s&m. 


EttMm. 


ToUL 


Vidionditr. 


NnmW 

of 
TmmU. 


Ton*. 


Niunbw 
of 


Tom. 


Smahn 

of 
Teuoli. 


loni. 


Brituh .. 
NoFiraciw 
Amsriran 
ftMWM .. 

^mtcb .. 
ColoffibiBn 

BvNiNl .. 

le-.: :: 

BwtOuh .. 
Ifadte> .. .. 
Bu>i«h .. 


87 
40 
66 
6 

'i 

I 
M 

"s 
as 


48,443 
2S,46S 
6,061 

IS,M7 

ifioo 

24,HQ 


84 
S61 
IB 
18 

7 

1 
S 

7 


145,896 
S06,10S 

8,fil9 
14,«tt 

6,608 

4,004 
18,666 
a,6Q2 
1,6S0 
8,291 
>,SOS 


171 
410 


170,409 
£64,646 
80,974 
22,148 
6,606 

'^ 

17,OT1 

is^as 

6,122 
1,620 
27,637 
8,206 


ToUl .. 

COBtwilS 


269 


14E,671 


608 




762 


662,229 
86,188 


OtMlfttotal „ 

laoo 


" 






" 


861 


667,867 
639,119 





8«U««. 


atwm. 


•DaM. 




Number 
of 


Tsn*. 


Ifmnbflr 
of 


Tnu. 


Jfomber 
of 


Tom. 


Britiali .. 
Vorwf«iu 

G.na»n .. '.'. 
Diitcli .. 

sac :: 
ICS:: :: 

SwiA .. .. 


86 
68 
46 

4 

"l 
1 
26 

'i 

S6 


28,018 
62,9B4 
17,166 
6.363 

1,898 

88 

16,808 

1,4H 

uaas 


84 
869 
14 
14 
2 

"* 

i 

7 

1 


146,826 
204,669 

6,626 
16,489 

2,786 

»>8 
4,248 

8,291 
2,206 
1,717 


169 
412 
60 
18 

SS 
28 


168,838 
267,618 
28,660 
20,843 
2,736 
1,398 
38 
20,681 
4,248 
1,4M 
22,674 
2,206 
1,717 


Total ., 
OmMm 


245 


1K,0»1 


490 


892,078 


7B6 
64 


6SS.164 
46^868 


OnndtoUl .. 
1«00 










789 

861 


677,062 
688,119 



(76 8 I 02— H & B 10) 



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No. 2755 Annnal Series. 
JMPLOMATIO AND CONSTJIAK REPORTS. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1901 



TRADE. COMMERCE, AND NAVIGATION OF THE 
CONSULAR DISTRICT OF BALTIMOEE. 



REPBRENOB TO PRBVIOQS REPORT, Annual Series No. 257a 



Prttenfed to both ffousu of Parfiamtnt bg Command of Hit MaJ9»ty, 
MAIiCH. ]9"2. 



LOVDOITi 

TAINTED TOB EIS UAJB3TT*3 BTATIONBRT 07FIOB, 

BT HABBIBON AND SONB, ST. MABTDTS LAITB, 



I, Smt Habdikq Stkbbi, Flbbt Siaxn, B.0« 

and 88, ABiN anow StBiw, Wmtmiwwm, S.W.t 

or OLITEB & BOTD, EDiHB^nwB j 

or E. PUITSONBT, 116, GBAnoit Strhbt, DrociK. 

1902. 
[(M. 736-59.] Price Twopence Halfpenn-j. 



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CONTENTS. 



BltlllfOBB— 
Qenenl ranu 
Imports . 



ImportstaoQ of poW 



Bukinf _.._. 
SftTitiBilwnk* , 



FloatmR drj dock .. 

Hew dry dock 

Baltimore Haibonr . 



Nstiocal RETcn and HarbmiM OongnM.— 
Ship canal , 



Aneoni ^oat rainng -__ ...^.._»._ 

Eibaoitioii of tha loil ia Huyland and Tngniik.^ 

MarjUnd pet]it«atiK7 _.._.. —■„._—■. 

Negro edaotttion .-_..^...^ ...^..._.m~.>~.— ~..— 



l!To^H)i.E,TiBaixu, tnda report > 



NxwpoBT Niwfl, Tntanni, trade report ... 



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No. 2755. AuiTial Series. 

A/krfHM to fnvioia Sqport, Aiamal Series No. 2570. 



Seport on ths Trade, Commerce, and Navigaiion of the Consular 
District of Baltimore for tlie Year 1901 

By Mh. Comsul Fbaseb. 

(BeeriTed at Forsign Offlos, Ifuck 10, 1902.) 

From the reports of the principal industries of Baltimore, Gumi«I 
from the bank clearances through the clearing-house, and the »«»»**- 
movement of goods by the railways and steamers to and from 
the Consular district, trade would agpear to have been in a fairly 
proBperous condition during 1901. 

Owing, however, to the decrease in the export of cereals the 
foreign snipping interests have suffered greatly during the past 
year, and at the end of it this branch of trade was in a depressed 
state, and without any indications of improvement. Indeed, until 
the grain again begins to be exported there cannot be any change 
in the present state of afiTairs. 

With the exceedii^ly low freights prevailing during 11 months 
of the past year, it might be thought that the opportunity . 
would have been availed of for the exportation of coal to markets, 
European and other, which have been hitherto untouched by the 
American product, but this has not been done to any great 
extent. 

The formation of " trusts " still goes on, and two very pro- 
minent combinations were formed in Baltimore during 1901, 
namely, the " Tin Can Trust " and the " Cotton Duck Tiiiat" The 
former absorbed 17 tin can manufactories in Baltimore alone, 
employing between 2,000 and 3,0U0 men, and the latter acquired 
almost all the cotton duck manufactories in the United States, 
representing a capital of 10,000,000/. 

The tot^ value of tlte importe into Baltimore was in 1901 Import*. 
4,272,793/., a substantial increase over the value of 1900 of 
335,101/., the amount in the latter year being 3,937,692/. The 
principal articles of import in 1901 which showed an increased 
value, compared with the previous year, were copper bars to the 
amount of 194,279/. ; nitrate of soda, by 179,858/. ; rice, 63.405/. ; 
burlaps, 38.230/. ; pig-iron, 26,628/.; iron ore, 20,315/.; mattings, 
15,760/. ; and tin-plate, 13,655/, On the other hand, the value of 
cement imported decreased 52,936/. ; chemicals (free and dutiable), 
26,847/. ; coffee, 135,804/. ; and leaf tobacco, 4,335/. 

(19) A 2 



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4 BALTIMORE. 

A detailed list of the principal articles ot import and their 
respective values is given in Annex 1 (p. 20), 

Towards the close of 1901 two cargoes of potatoes consistii^ 
of about 30,000 bushels arrived in Baltiinoi'e fioin Glas^row, which 
is the largest importation of the kiud for some ytars. The crop of 
potatoes was short last year, and it was stated that some dealers 
bought up potatoes and stoi-ed them in expectation of a large rise 
in the price, hence the importation. The imported potatoea 
brought lOs. a bag of 165 Iba., or about 'S». od. a bushel Domestic 
potatoes were selling about the same price, but the demand was 
very active for the imported article. The customs duty on 
imported potatoes is 1a. per bnsheL 

A very considerable decline in the value of the exports from 
Baltimore occurred in 1901. The value of the exports in 1900 
was 22,271,483/., and in 1901. 19,801,055/., a faUing-off in the 
latter year of 2,470,428/., and being a decrease as compared with 
1899 of over 2,000,000/., and with 1898 of over ^,400.000/. 
Although by far the greater number of commodities exported in 
the past year decreased in value as compai-ed with the previous 
year, the large decrease in the export of maize from 40,535,023 
bushels in 1900 to 24,711,798 bushels in 1901, was, to a great 
extent, re^spoDsible for the difference in the value of the export 
trade between these two years. Copper contributed almost as 
niucli as maize to the general falling-off, and it declined in 1901 
1,047,1)40/. from tlie previous year's figures, which were 2,772,778/. 
The other subftantial decreases were in products of iron, over 
300,000/. ; 60 per cent, in beef and beef products ; and 64 per 
cent, iu pork products. Steel rails declined iu value from 
619,2-34/. in 1900 to 496,699/. in 1901, a difference in favour of 
the former year of 122,535/. Among the commodities exported 
that increased in value were wheat, rye, flour, coal and coke, and 
rosin, the first named over 300 per cent 

Annex 2 (p. 21) gives the names of the principal articles of 
export with their values. 

In conformity with the increase in importa the receipts from 
revenue at the Baltimore custom-house showed a gain for the past 
year of 22,929/., the total amount received being 631,217/. ; and 
for 1900,608,288/. The expenses connected with the collection of 
the customs revenue at Baltimore in 1901 were 47,560/., or 7^ per 
cent, of the sum received. 

The majority of the banks in Baltimore were prosperous in 
1901, and the clearing-house statistics show that it was one ot the 
lai^eat in point of business in the history of the Clearing-house 
Association. The bank clearings for the year totalled 220,370,725/., 
and the balances 31,362,646/. April was the biggest month for 
clearances in 1901 as it was also the case in 1900. August was the 
smallest month in the latter year and September in the former. 

Prosperity among the working classes of Baltimore would 
seem to be indicated by the increase in the number of depositors 
and in the amount of deposits in nine of the savings banks during 
1901. The former shows an increase of 7,411 depositors, and the 
latter of 635,468/. The sum recpiv^d from depositors in the dburse 



dbyGooQie 



of the year was 3,762,215^., and the amount withdrawa by thein 
Was 3,503,123^., leaving a balance in the hands of the banks of 
259,092/. The average rate of interest paid to depositors subject 
to withdrawal at any time — but the bank reserves the right to 
demand two months' notice of a withdrawal — is 3 per cent The 
average interest received by banks for investment is 4753 per 
cent., and the expenses and taxes are 2s. S^rf. on every 201. 
deposited, or 8s, ll^d. for each depositor, the averse amount 
due to each depositor being 131. 2s. The total reaonrcea of 
the savings banks of Baltimore are stated to be about 12,000,000/., 
and they have between 115,000 and 120,000 depositors. 

There was a considerable increase in the bituminous coal trade CoU. 
of Baltimore daring 1901, and throi^hout the year the demand 
was good and prices were maintained. There were no strikes 
in the coal regions to interfere with the production of coaL A 
new market for Maryland coal has been found in Chicago and 
other points in the West, and it is said that the trade promises 
to steadily increase. A shipment of coal, mined east of the 
Alleghany Mountains, has been made by an all-rail route to 
San Francisca This would appear to be a trial shipment, and 
should it prove successful it will certainly make large inroads 
into the coal trade between the east and the west coast of the 
United States vii Cape Horn. The new coal pier at Curtis Bay, 
near Baltimore, referred to in my last two reports, has been of 
great service to the coal trade of Baltimore. An instance is given 
of the rapidity with which a vessel can be loaded from this pier 
in the case of a schooner having had 3,527 tons of coat put into 
her holds in nine hours. During 1901 the exports of coal from 
Baltimore amounted to 493,646 tons, against 423,495 tons in 1900, 
an increase for the past year of 70,151 tons. By far the greater 
quantity went to Mexico, but it seems that the Mexican Central 
Railway has begun to take coal from Pensacola, Florida, which 
has caused a considerable falling-off in the Mexican coal trade 
with Baltimore. Cuba took the next higher quantity, and the 
OTeater part of the remainder was exported to other ports in the 
West Indies and to South and Central America. An inconsider- 
able quantity was sent to Europe, the shipments thence being 
5,106 tons to Spezia, 5,000 tons to Marseilles, and 200 tons gas 
coal and 2,736 tons bituminous coal to Leghorn. It has been 
ascertained that the price of a cargo of coal f.o.b. at Norfolk was 
10s. 8d., and the freight to the Mediten-anean IOjj., which is, in all 
probability, a fair example of the cost of coal for export and of 
the freight to the Continent of Europe from ports on the Chesa- 
peake Bay. Two cargoes, amounting to 10,182 tons, were shipped 
to Yokohama on the United States Government account, the 
freight on which was 1/. 16a. and 1/. 63. 5d. respectively. A 
single shipment was sent by an Italian sailing vessel to Port 
Elizabeth, South Africa, consisting of 1,614 tons. A cargo of 
4,000 tons, valued at 1,944/., was forwarded to Halifax, Nova 
Scotia ; a shipment of 3,525 tons, valued at 1,520/., to Montreal, 
and another of 666 tons, valued at 400/., to St. John, N.B. 
(19) A 3 



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ti BALTIMOBB. 

Annexed to the report of the Vice-Consul at Newport News will 
ho found a table showing the cost f.o.b., freight, &c., of coal 
shipped from that port. The total quantity of coal exported from 
the Conenlsr district during 1901 was 1,404,832 tona, valued at 
729,955/. 

There is nearing completion in Baltimore by the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company, in connection with the Baltimore 
Storage and Distributing Company, a large coal elevator for the 
purpose of distributing coal to dealers. It is about 150 feet long, 
40 feet wide, and about 50 feet high. It is iutended to run the 
coal cars iuto the yard attached to the elevator and dump their 
contents into pockets. Conveyors, similar to those used in grain 
elevators, take the coal from the pockets and place it in bins in 
the elevator, of which there are 20 with a capacity of 200 tons 
each. To each bin there are two shutes, with accompanying 
screens, down and over which the coals pass to carts run under 
the bins. An electric plant will be installed to run the machinery, 
and it is said that the bandliug of the coal will be practically 
noiseless. The cost for handliug coal by men with shovels is about 
from Is. Id. to 2s. per ton, but it is claimed that with this system 
the elevator can do it at a profit at lOrf. It is intended :o use the 
elevator principally for the distribution of anthracite coal to be 
used in private houses. Two similar elevators in other sections 
of the city will, it is said, be built very soon. 

There is in course of construction at the Maryland Steel 
Works, near Baltimore, a coke plant, consisting of four batteries 
of 50 ovens each, with which it intends to make all the coke 
necessaiy for its own smelting of iron and steel They are being 
built upon steel columns and girders, and are known as by- 
product ovens, whereby the ammonia, gas, and tar extracted 
from the coal are saved. It is claimed that coke made in 
these ovens is harder and denser than that produced in the old- 
fashioned " bee-hive " ovens, and that they produce a grade very 
suitable for the large modem blast furnaces. The fuel to be used 
is gas, and the arrangement of flues will be such that there will 
be an even distributiou of flames and consequent uniformity of 
heat Every half-hour there will be a reversal of the currents 
of gas and air and tnis will be a part of the methods employed 
to secure evenness in heating. The ovens will, it is stated, be 
the largest of the kind in the country, and will have, it ia 
expected, a daily capacity of 6 net tons of coke, obtained from 
8 tons of coal, besides the by-producte. They will be provided 
with the latest labour-saving appliances, one of which is a machine 
which pushes the finished coke out upon a platform. It is 
expected that when the ovens are in full working order the 
surplus of gas will be added to the supply furnished to Baltimore 
by the existing gas company. 

Some of the exporters of grain from Baltimore congratulate 
themselves that the conditions of the grain trade in 1901 wer» 
not so bad as they anticipated. It was characterised by a dul- 
ness and uncertainty, and there are no indications of improved 



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BALTmOSBL 7 

conditions (or the coming year. The total quantity of wheat, 
maize, and oats which was exported from Baltimore in the past 
^ear amounted to 48,526,394 bushels, against 49,037,664 bushels 
in 1900, a decrease of 511,270 bushela. Wheat, which had been 
declining in export for several years past, jumped from 4,529,811 
bushels in 1900 to 20,136,617 bushels in 1901, an increase of 
15,606,806 bushels and the largest in some years. During the 
month of September last no less than 6,669,981 bushels were sent 
abroad and exceeded by over 2,000,000 bushels the exportation 
for the whole of 1900. The greater quantity of it in that month 
went to Belgium and the Netherlands. The exports of maize 
declined' from 40,535,023 bushels in 1900 to 24,737,007 bushels 
in 1901, a falling-off of 15,798,016 bushels, which more than 
counterbalanced the increase in the wheat exports. Oats decreased 
from 3,972,810 bushels in 1900 to 3,652,770 bushels in the past 
year, a difference in favour of the former year of 320,040 bushels. 
The exports of flour were, in 1901, 3,299,461 barrels, compared 
with 3,003,787 barrels in 1900, an increase for the past year 
of 295,674 barrels. There was also a gratifying increase of 
435,327 bushels in the quantity of rye exported. 

The expected additions to the grain elevators have not yet 
been begun, and complaint is still made that the capacity of Ul6 
existing elevators is not sufficient for the needs of the port. 

An agreement has been reached with the railway companies 
that the elevator rates for water-borne grain will be reduced to 
lea bushel, and the first term of ston^ extended to 20 days. 

Annex 5 gives the receipts and exports of grain and flour, and 
Annexes 6 and 7 give the price of cereals and Hour in 1901. 

The exportation of sheep from Baltimore continues to increase, LtrMtock. 
and the number last year was 58,327, a gain of 14,974 over 1900, 
and almost three times the number sent out of the country in 
1899. The number received in the stockyards was 387,103 in 
1901, an increase of 2,398 compared with 1900. The cattle re- 
ceived at the yards in 1900 numbered 150,720, of which 42,481 
wei-e exported, a leas number by 9,490 than was shipped in 1900. 
Horses were exported in considerable numbers from the port 
some yeatB ago, but the trade has been gradually falling-off until 
last year, the ins^nificaut quantity of 69 was sent abroad. At 
the stockyards 13,640 cars arrived in 1901, bringing 657,187 pigs. 
16,646 calves, 150,720 cattle. 5.426 horses, 387,103 sheep, and 
1,768 mules. 

The largest liouse in the dry goods trade in Baltimore reports WhtdMsl* 
that the volume of business in 1901 has been equal to, and in ^ S""** 
some lines in excess of, any previous year. Business was done on 
a narrow margin of profit, and only by the large quantity sold 
was it made remunerative. Owing to some of the sections in 
the South having suffered from a shortage in the cotton crop, 
payments were not so promptly made as they otherwise would 
have been, but the merchants in other parts of the South, and 
with which Baltimore has its greatest sales, paid their accounts 
promptly. The trade during 1901 was as a whole satisfactory, 
and bids fair for a continuation during 1902, 

(19> A 4 



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8 BALTIMORE. 

lilie Chief of the Bureau of Industrial Statistics states iu his 
report that 9,690 men, women, and children are employed in fac- 
tories and shops in Baltimore in the niauufticture of clothing, of 
whom 5,168 are women 16 years of age and over, and 593 are 
under 16 years of age, the remainder (3,929) being men. There 
are also employed in the above business about 5,000 persons, 
working and living in the same rooms, but the condition of 
these places are an improvement on those in cities where 
large tenement houses exist. The average wages earned by men 
in factories and shops are about 97i 16s. ; by women. 45/. 16* ; 
and by children, 22/. a year. The value of the total quantity of 
clothing manufactured in Baltimore during 1901 is put down at 
3,200,000/. The nationality of the workers is 95 percent. Kuseian, 
the other 5 per cent, being Lithuanians, Bohemians, Geimans, 
Americans, and a few negroes, but these latter have only recently 
come into the trade. 

A distinctive feature of the boot and shoe trade in Baltimore 
during the year 1901 was the demand in the markets where these 
goods are sold for a better class of article, which would seem to be 
in keeping with the general commercial prosperity. During the 
first part of the year there was a continuance of the large demand 
from the Southern States which existed in 1900, but owing to the 
droughts during June and July in the cotton belt, and which 
affected adveraely the character and quantity of the cotton crop, 
the demand fell off to a considerable extent, but the shrinkage 
was mode up by a more active trade in other parts of the country. 
The output was about the same as in 1900. 

It is estimated that the standing supply, board measurement, 
of timber iu tim United States at the beginning of 1901 was 2,000 
billion feet, and that during that year 40,000,000,000 feet were cut, 
or abfjut 2 per cent, of the timber resources. This, however, doea 
not mean that the supply will be exhausted in 50 years, as timber 
is constantly being replenished by growth. Nevertheless, con- 
servative methods must prevail in the handling of the forests, or 
great scarcity will result. Lumbermen and owners of forests are 
fully in accord with the Bureau of Forestry at Washington, and 
one company in Texas, owning 1,000,000 acres, will cut the trees 
in compliance with the su^estions of that Bureau. Baltimore 
handles from 300,000,000 to 400,000,000 feet of lumber annually, 
which principally comes from the forests of the South. By far 
the greater quantity of the lumber arrives in Baltimore by water, 
and the total quantity received in 1901 was 348,075,416 feet. 
There were exported in that year, principally to the United 
Kingdom, 6,116,000 feet of logs and timber, 49,814,000 feet of 
boards and scantling, and 1,968,000 pieces of staves. The total 
value of the export and domestic trade in 1901 was about 3,000,000/., 
but there was a decrease in the exports of 72,893/., compared with 
1900. 

There was a decrease in the receipts of coffee at Baltimore of 
80,170 bags in 1901 compared with the previous year when 313,285 
bags were imported. The price of coffee at the b^inning of the 



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BALTIMORE. 9 

past year was 7^ to 7J c. for No. 7 coffee. The lowest prices pre- 
vailed in the months of July, August, and Septeinber, when in 
the tirst-nauied month it went down to 5| c. The h^heat prices, 
7 to 7} c, were got in February and March, The absence of 
reciprocal tra<le relations with Brazil is given as the reason why 
the importation is lower than in former years. 

The cotton market during the year 1901 was fairly active, Coitim. 
The total yield in the country for the year is estimated to have 
been from 9,500,000 to 11,000,000 bales. The number received 
at BHltimore was 294,144 bales, a decrease of ^5,428 com- 
pared with 1900, when 329,572 were landed. The exports to 
tore^ countrieij declined 703 bales in 1901, the figures being 
199,642 and 198,939 bales respectively. An abnormal condition of 
the markets was produced in the beginning of 1901, owing to a 
" comer " at New York in January options, and the price rose to 
6d. The price declined slowly until l>eceniber 1 when it reached 
the lowest of the year, namely, 3Jrf. Owing, it is thought, to the 
somewhat small estimate by the Government of the probable 
crops, which it placed at 9,600,000 bales, the price rose by the end 
of the year to 4^d. It is believed, however, that the crops will be 
10,300,000 bales, about the same as last year. 

With respect to the quality of the tobacco grown in Maryland T.iii««eo, 
during 1901, it is stated that it waa the poorest and coarsest pro- 
duced in the State for a number of years. However, the 32,500 
bedheads of it which came to Baltimore, as well as the 4,500 
Iiogsheads from Ohio, have all been sold. The prices, too, of 
American tobacco at the year's end were very high, in some 
instances higher than ever before, and with a continuing demand. 
They ranged from Ifrf. to 7id. The ground leaves, nevertheless, 
were light and good, with sales ranging from 1^. to 5d. The 
French Government bought 16,000 bales, thu same quantity that 
it took in 1900. The shipments were 31,145 bales of Maryland, 
and 4,248 bales of Ohio, somewhat less than in the previous year, 
when the quantities were respectively 31,439 and 4,443 bales. 
The following statement shows the receipts and shipments at 
Baltimore during 1901 : — 





Harjlwd. 


Ohio. 


ToUJ. 


Btook, J&nnuT, I, IMl .. 
BeoeiptainlSOl 


B>lM. 

4,70S 
81,M0 


B&Io. 
728 


Bolo^ 
8,42S 
SB,ai2 


Total 

BMpmentalnlMl 


86,171 
Sl.US 


Mflfl 
4,248 


41,887 
8S,89S 


Stock, JftDnwyl.lSOa ,. 


B,02« 


«18 


S,94i 



Unfortunately the oyster beds in the Chesapeake Bay are Ojit«r*. 
getting rapidly depleted owing to the methods pursued in catching 
them. The "Cull "Law which prohibits the taking of oysters 



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10 BALTIHORI. 

under a certain aize, and vhich was rigidly enforced during the 
past year appears to have been of good aervice, but more stringent 
methods must bo taken to protect the beds from the wholesale 
destruction that goes on, or the industry will soon be dead and 
beyond hope of revival. As a remedial meflsure it is proposed to 
place tons of oyster shells on uhe beds so that the young oysters 
may attach themselves to them and in that way assist in increasing 
the production. Another remedy that is proposed is for the State 
to leose out the barren bottoms of the Chesapeake Bay to private 
individuals and compel them to plant the oysters systeiuatically as 
is done in other States. 

Experiments of aaomewhat remarkable character have recently 
been made at the Johns Hopkiiis University in the artificial 
propagation of oysters. A single female oyster of average size 
" lays " about 16,000,000 ^gs while a large upecimen will produce 
,from 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 eg^. The ^gs are microscopic in 
size and an ordinary tumbler will hold about 100,000 eggs. Under 
natural conditions the eggs and milt are simply set free in the 
water of a river or bay and permitted to take their chances of 
coming together, which are so small that about one e^ in a 
million is fertihsed. The scientific manner is to open an oyster 
which is ready to spawn and with the deep part of the shell 
downwards gently stroke, with an ordinary glass pipette, the 
upper surface tiway from the hinges, nud should it be a temale 
oyster it will pour out a fluid which will be full of egirs. 
In a tumbler of sea-water are placed a few drops of this liquid, 
to which is added a drop or two of liquid similarly obtained 
from the male oyster, and fertilisation at once takes pliice. 
In about two hours afterwards all the eggs in the tumbler 
have been hatched, and in a few days' time they are ready to 
be placed in tbewater,and to attach themselves to some permanent 
object. The method employed is so simple that auyone can do it, 
and it is to be hopexl that it will be used in a lai^ way for the 
propagation of the oyster in the Chesapeake Bay. 

It is estimated by the Maryland A^cultural Experiment 
Station OfRciala who have been making a study of the peach 
industry that there are about 3,000,000 trees in the States. Some 
15 years ^o the best peaches were grown on what is called the 
eastern shore bordering on the Chesapeake Bay, but about that 
time orchards which were started on the slopes of the Blue Ridge 
Mountains h^an to place their fruit on the market and it proved 
and continues to be much superior to the other product. 
The experimental station has been of great service in devising 
means for the development of the trees, and preventing them from 
attacks by the San Jos^ scale and other diseases. 
1 The development in the foreign fruit trade, especially in oranges 
and bananas from Jamaica, has been extraordiuary, A few years 
ago there was no such trade, but now there is on an average four 
steamers a week arriving from Port Antonio alone. The value of 
the cargoes of bananas from that port, which arrived in 1901, is 
given as 154,917/., and of the oranges 12,305/. 



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BALTIUOKE. 11 

The Florida orange trade has been, to a certain extent, affected 
in price by the influx of Califomian aJid Jamaica fruit The 
Sicilian lemon trade has fallen oS considerably in I'ccent y^are, 
the Oalifornian product competing favourably with it. Pineapplf b 
from the Bahamas are Btill imported in large quantities. 

Although an enonnoua quantity of fruit and vegetables is p 
yearly canned in the 34 large canning factories in Baltimore, and "**''' 
it is estimated that about 65 per cent, of the canned goods 
produced in the couutry are made iu them, very little of the 
product has yet found its way abroad, but is sold in the United 
States and as far west as the Bocky Mountains, thus comiiigin 
very close competition with the Califomian packers. The 
business is constantly increasing, the capital invested is about 
1,400,000^. and the number of hands employed, including men, 
women, nud children, is about 12,000. Kearly all of the 
fruit and vegetables come from Marj-jand and Virginia and are 
often purchased by the packers from the growers while on the 
ground. It has been found that the machinery used in the 
preparation of fruit and vegetables for canning is not nearly so 
satisfactory aa hand work, which is almost entirely used in paring 
peaches, tomatoes, and pineajiples. The machine used for hulling 
peas it is said does not satisfactorily perform the work and the 
better kinds of peas are hulled by hand. The demand for all kinds 
of canned frait and vegetable goods was incessant throughout 1901, 
and in consequence of the short crops the advance in price was, in 
many cases, as high as 80 per cent. There are rumours that this 
industry will shortly be turned into a trust 

It is difficult to give an estimate of the number of crabs that p"*!* , 
are caught and prepared for market on the shores of Maryland *"'"'*'^' ■ 
alone, not to speak of the other States in the district, but it is 
certain the number runs up Into the millions. About 10,000 
persons, including men, ' women, and children are employed in 
catching, picking out the meat from the shells, and other work 
connected with the industry. A family of five — two adults and 
three children — can earn from 41. to 5/. a week at the work for 
seven months in the year ; the other five months they are engaged 
in the oyster business. About 2,000 boats are engaged in the trade 
and the avemge quantity caught per boat in a day is three barrels 
which sell for about 3s. 5c?. a barreL The crabs are caught without 
books by lines to which are fastened pieces of tripe or eels. 
They are placed in large steam boxes, which cook them in a few 
minutes. They are then taken to the packing houses and the 
meat picked from the shells, and placed in tins which are sold 
principally in the States east of Illinois. The refuse is chemically 
treated and sold as a fertiliser. 

Persons who are in a position to thoroughly understand the P 
position of the fisheries of the Chesapeake and Susquehanna 
state that if it were not for the lai^e quantities of artificially 
propagated fry of the shad, perch, and bass placed in these 
waters they would by this time have become almost extinct, 
especially the firat-named fish. Lai^ quantities of the fry of 



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12 BjaTIMOSS. 

these fish have been placed in the waters of Maiyland during 
the paat year, and a new hatchery for white perch has been 
built on the St. Martin's Kiver. A black bass pond has been 
constructed on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake, where it is 
proposed to raise these tish for distribution throughout the State. 
At the Druid Hill Park Station, Baltimore, large quantities of 
trout have been hatched, and many thousands have been placed in 
the rivers of the State. The Commissioners of Fisheries of Mary- 
land recommend that le^nslation be enacted to prevent the placing 
of pound nets at the rooutlis of rivers sn that shad will have 
unimpeded access to their natural spawning grounds. 

The menhaden is a fish of the herring tiibe and is peculiar to 
North American waters. It is seldom or never used for food. 
They usually appear in great shoals near Cape Fear nt the 
end of April or beginning of May, and make their way north- 
ward, frequenting all the salt-water bays on the coabt until 
November when Uiey have reached the vicinity of Eaatport, Maine, 
and there they disappear until next year. A fleet of 22 email 
fiteamers comprise the vessels employed in the Chesapeake Bay in 
the fishery. Each vessel la provided with a crow's nest where a 
man is stationed to watch for the shoals of fish which can be 
easily detected by the presence of large numbers of guUs o\er 
them. They are caught in large seines, and when a boat has 
seemed as much as she can carry she makes her way as rapidly 
as possible to the factory where the oil is extracted from the tish. 
It IS said that the oil, which is used principally in leather dress- 
ing, rope making, and paint mixing is clear profit. The refuse 
which is sold as a fertiliser pays all expenses. There are hundreds 
of factories engaged in the industiy along the North Atlantic 
coast of the United States. 

It is claimed that for some years past the brewery interests 
and those connected with breweries in Maryland have suffered 
from adverse conditions more than any other city in the country. 

One of the largest brewers in the city now claims, however, 
that the brewers have coma to an understanding with regard to 
their mutual interests and will in futui-e conduct their business on 
business principles, which he states is all that is required to carry 
on the trade successfully. The Spanish-American war tax on 
beer of 8». a keg is a heavy burden on the brewers of Maryland 
who pay about 400,000/. annually towards this tax. It is given 
out that the beer, ale, and porter brewed in Baltimore is absolutely 
pure, and on that account its breweries should supply the entire 
Southern States with these commodities. 

Dorchester County, Maryland, which is in its southern portion 
composed of low-lying marshy lands is still the home of the mink, 
muskrat, and otter, although the latter is now very rara There 
are yet many of the other two to be found in some favoured districts 
of the county, and some 25,000 skins were brought to Baltimore 
at tlie end of last season. They are caught as a rule in steel traps, 
but spearing of the rata through the toi>s of their houses when the 
tide bus risen and forced them to the top is often resorted to. 



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BAIJIUOBB, 18 

Muskrat skins fetch in the wholesale market in Baltimore 6d. 
each for the btown, and Is. for the black ; mink skina range from 
4s. to 8$. each. 

The straw hat branch of Baltimore's industries would seem to Sir»w iiati. 
be increasing. It is stated that the output of straw hats last year 
amounted in vftlue to about 500,000/., or 100,000^. more than in 
1900. The general prosperity of the country is the cause of this 
satisfactory condition. Markets for the goods are found in every 
State of the Union, and in several foreign countries such as 
Uermauy, Hawaii, Mexico, Jamaica, Hayti, Brazil, Porto Rico, and 
Cuba. There hae been a rise in the price of Panama hats of 
about 25 per cent, but none in braids. The latter are imported 
from Japan, the United Kingdom, Switzerland, and Italy, and 
made up in Baltimore. 

Porto Bico and Panama hats are imported in tlie rough and ate 
blocked and trimmed here. 

During 1901, and more especially at the latter part of it, the sUpplng; 
foreign shipping business in the Baltimore Consular district 
suffered greatly, and freights from Baltimore were never before 
known to have been so low. The steamers, both regular lines 
and others, that were fortunate enough to secure cargoes, hardly 
cleared their expenses. This was a very striking contrast to the 
conditions of the previous year wheii steamers were in great 
demand and freights were very remunerative. 

Notwithstanding the depression in freights last year, British Decrtaw in 
shipping in the Consular district exceeded that of 1900 in point nomberot 
of tonnage but the number of vessels decreased. The number w*i^il^ 
which cleared from the district in the past year was 1,653, with a [„ tomuee. 
tonnage of 3,381,070 tons, and in 1900 the number was 1,709, 
with a total tonnage of 3,337,734 tons, showing a number in favour 
of the latter year of 56 ve-^sels and to the credit of 1901 of 43,336 
tons. 

Almost every kind of vessel, except a battleship, was con- supboUdioc^ 
structed at Baltimore during the year 1901. They numbered 39 
and were of the total tonnnge of 24,71fi tons, and valued at 
531,434/. 

The ilarj'land Steel Company were the largest builders and 
their output consisted of tbe United States torpedo boat destroyers 
" Truxton," " Wiipple," and " Worden," and three steamers for the 
coasting trade. This company has almost completed a 11,600 ton 
freight steamer and the keels have been laid for two 12,500 ton 
freight and passenger steamers for the Atlantic Transport Com- 
pany. The shipbuilding concern before known as the Columbia 
Iron Works has been reorganised under the title of the Baltimore 
Dry Dock Company, and great improvement has been made in the 
plant and machinery. Baltimore has certainly made great strides 
in shipbuilding within a few years, for in 1887 only seven vessels 
were built of a total tonnage of 2,500 tons. 

Towards the end of August, 1901, the Maryland Steel Com- Fiaathwdiy 
pany at Sparrows Point completed the construction of a large ***■ 
steel floating dock for tUe United Stales Government to be uaed 



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BILTIHORE. 



NRlJOIUlt 

Hubonrs . 



ftt Algiers, Louiaiana. The designs of the dock were made by 
Messrs. Clark and Standfield of LondoQ, and it was built so that, 
if neceaoary, it could lift a 15,000 ton battleship and hare the 
floor 2 feet above the water-line. Its dimenaions are 525 feet in 
length over all; ite extreme breadth, 12G feet 2 inche-i; the 
width inside, 100 feet; and the height of the si'ies, 55 feec 
The extreme draft of water is 49 leec 6 iuchea, and depth 
of the pontoons I7 feet 6 inches. The coat of the dock was 
162,000/, It has been successfully towed to Algiers and is now 
in use. 

The William Skinner and Sons Shipbuilding and Dry Dock 
Company, Baltimore, completed and put into operation in Novem- 
ber, 1901, one of the largest dry docks in the United States. Ic 
ifl capable of docking a vessel 600 feet in length, 70 feet beam, 
and a draft of 22 feet 6 inches. The pumps have a capacity of 
105,000 gallons a minute, and when all three are in operation 
they will empty the dock in an hour and a-half. Several large 
Btearaere have already been auccesafully docked in it. Ite dimen- 
aions are: Length over all, 628 feet; width on floor, 62 feet; 
width on top of keel blocks, 69 feet ; width at top of dock, 125 
feet ; entrance at bottom, 60 feet ; entrance at top, 80 feet ; 
depth of water on sill at ' low watei-, 'Z2 feet 6 inches ; depth 
of water on aill at high water, 25 feet. 

It is stated by the Government engineer iii charge of the 
improvementa to the Baltimore Harbour that tor the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1901, there were removed 4,068,502 cubic yards 
of material, at a cost of about iH. a cubic yard, from the channel 
There is at present, as the work has been going on continuously 
since the end of the fiscal year, a channel with a width of 
600 feet and a depth of ;J0 feet, but this does not suffice for the 
requirements of the port, and it will .be necessary to have a depth 
of water of at least 35 feet Fortunately for Baltimore the 
dredging of the cbaDnel is done under what is known as a " con- 
tinuing contract," that ia, a certain anm haa been set aside by 
Congress for the work, and each year it appropriatea from that 
sum a certain amount which it thinks should be expended on the 
work for that particular year, and this sum is available whether 
Congrese passes the regular River and Harbour Bill or not There 
was at the end of June, 1901, a balance accessible, and for which 
contracts have been made, of 112,853£ 

A National Congress on Rivers and Harbours Improvements, 
couaisting of delegates from 22 States in the Union, called by the 
Board of Trade of Baltimore and by a Committee of the General 
Conference on Improvement of Channels of the Mouth of the 
Mississippi, waa held in Baltimore on October 8 and 9 last. The 
objects for holding the Congress were for the purpose of removing 
erroneous ideas from the public mind respecting river and harbour 
improvements and appropriations for such purposes, and for present- 
ing such facts relating to the subject as would enable the national 
I.«gislature to pass a River and Harbours Bill which would best 
serve the public interests, and also for the formation of a permanent 



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BALTIMORE. 15 

Kational Committee to bring into hannony the trade interesta of 
tlie country for the furtherance of these objects. A number of 
resolutions were adopted by the Congress urging upon the Govern- 
ment liberal and systematic appropriations for river and harbour 
improvements ; the placing of such appropriations on such a 
footing that ample funds may be available for the work; the 
exclusion from the Kiver and Harbour Bill to be passed by the 
United States Congress of all matters not relating to the improve- 
ment of harbours and waterways ; and in view of the increased 
and increasing size and draft of water of modern steamships, 
the great need for deeper and wider channels. I'he Congrosa 
was moat succesefu] and harmonious, and carried out in evetr 
way the objects it had in view. 22 delegates — one from each 
HUAg represented in Congress — were empowered to present the 
resolutions adopted r.o the Committees on Bivers and Harbours of 
both Houses of the Kational Legislature. 

The construction of a ship canal across the isthmus separating Ship c«ii*I. 
the Chesapeake Bay from the Delaware Bay has again been 
prominently brought before the public by the introduction, at the 
end of 1901, of a Bill in Congress asking for the appointment of 
a Commission to examine and report upon a route, and to authorise 
the Secretary of War to lay out and construct a ship canal through 
the States of Maryland and Delaware at a cost not to exceed 
2,000,000^. As far back cb 1812 the project of the construction 
of such a canal was agitated. Since then various surveys have 
been made and routes examined, but no actual steps have been 
so far taken towards its construction. It is claimed that with a 
sea-level ship canal of 30 feet ilepth of water and of " ample 
dimensions," as stated in the Bill, a saving of 200 miles in dis- 
tance to shipping .bound from Baltimore to Europe and the North, 
and B considerable amount of time would be effected. The time 
of transit through the canal is given by the various routes, at a 
speed of from 6 to 7 miles an hour, as from 15^ to 19^ hours, and 
the time saved from 15 to 18 hours. Curiously enough the pro- 
ject does not appear to be favourably receivecE by the shipping 
community, especially those engaged in the foreign trade, who 
claim that the canal, to be of service, must be of very much 
larger dimensions, and the speed allowed much higher than pro- 
posed, before the gain in time could be realised Another ail- 
ment they use is that there is bound to be more or leas detention 
at the entrance to, and exit from, the canal, and with the tollege 
and other expenses, such as lights, tug-boat hire, boat hire, &c, 
the objects in view would npt be realised, and that instead of 
reducing the rate of freight to Liverpool and other European ports, 
as is expected, it would have the contrary effect. 

The Merchants' and Manufacturers' Association of Baltimore has Merch»nU' 
had in operation for the past two years a somewhat novel method to ^J^j^J"* 
attract buyers of merchandise from the Southern States to Balti- 
more. Every merchant from the South who purchases goods in 
Baltimore to the value of not less than 200^ from certain whole- 
sale dealers, members of the Association, received a cash rebate of 



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16 



BALTIUORE. 



half of the eoBt of a return ticket from his home. Over 70,000 
explanatoiy circularB were Bent to merchants in the South and 
South-West, including Texas and Louiaiano, and the number of 
merchantii who availed themselves of the offer were, in 1900, 662, 
and in 1901, 696, an increase of 34 in the latter year. The ffross 
amount refunded for fares in 1900 was 1,779/. 2s. Qd., an 
average of 21. 13<. 9d., and the amount refunded Inst year was 
1,932^. 16«:, or an average of 21. 15s. 6d. The gross sales reported 
in 1900 were 176,990/., or an average per casli buyer of 266/., and 
in 1901 the sales reported were 185,150^, with about the same 
average. These figures, it is certain, do not fully represent the 
magnitude of the results obtained, and il is beLieved that the 
buyers do not report to the Association the full amount of their 
purchases, but aa soon as they have purchased the required 
quantity of goods to the amount of 200/., they present their cer- 
tificates, which they have obtained from the dealers, to the Associa- 
tiun, and obtain the rebate of their fares. The fares are refunded 
by the firms benefiting from the business. The results of the two 
years' trial of this method are considered very satisfactory, and it 
]ias doubtless been a capital advertisement for Baitimoi'e, apart 
from being the means of bringing entirely new customers into the 
market. 

The Association, with the assistance of commercial bodies in 
some other cities, have been successful in obtaininj,' an importiint 
modification of the railway freight rates affecting cotton goods 
shipments. These goods can now be forwarded at fourth-cliiss 
rates when marked, " This case contains nothing but cotton fabrics 
in the original piece," instead of being chained first-class rates as 
formerly. 

One of the oldest industries in Baltimore is the manufacture 
of fertilisers. There are 10 large besides a number of smaller 
factories engaged in the business, and the capital interested is 
given at between 500,000/. and 600,000/. The fertiliser is mostly 
made from bone and crude phosphate, although potash in a 
variety of forms is also used. The potash is, aa a rule, imported 
from Germany, while the raw material comes from the United 
States, and the phosphate from Florida, Tennessee, and South 
Carolina. The output is believed to be from 250,000 to 300,000 
touB a year. 

It is reported that the National Angora Goat and Cattle Com- 
pany have purchased a tract of 1,710 acres of land in Charles and 
Prince Geoige'a counties, Maryland,.and have placed 2,500 head of 
Angora goats on the projjerty. Another farm is projected in 
Garret county, a few miles from Oakland, Maryland, on which it 
is intended to place 1,000 goats. Still another company, called 
the Cohill Angora Company of Hancock, Maryland, has been 
started. It is proposed to enter ioco the raising of these animals 
on a large scale, in the belief that it will be very profitable. The 
manager of the first-named company states that the usual increase 
in the goats ie about 90 per cent, a year, and that a full-grown 
goat will produce 6 lbs. of fieece, and a kid 3 lbs. a year. The 



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BALTIMORE. 17 

price obtained for the Beece ia Is, 9Jrf. per lb. Besides the value 
of the fleece, goats are very useful in cleaning up and ridding 
land of weeds, briers, and other coarse herbage, and they wUl 
thrive in a country where even sheep cannot be raised to advantage. 
The farmers in that part of the country where the goats liave been 
placed are watching the industry with a great deal of interest. It 
IB, however, to be feared that the heat in summer is too great for 
the animals. 

The Chief of the Di\-ieion of Soils of the Agricultural Depart- K»h»iwtioii of 
ment at "Washington, in a bulletin issued by him on tho exhaustion jisniuiir md 
of the soil and abandonment of farms in Viiginia, Maryland, and Tiiginir 
other Southern States, mentions that it is undoubtedly due to the 
improper and injudicious methoda of cultivation and cropping, and 
to the more cheaply produced products of the West, wJiieh owing 
to cheaper rates of trausportation are brought into competition 
with the crops produced in the South. The mortgages also, 
which are outstanding gainst the lauds brought about by the 
changes in social conditions due to the Civil War, have contributed 
to the abandonment or deterioration of the areas. A livitig could 
be made from the farms, but this cannot be done and at the same 
time pay off the moi-tgages, or even the interest on them, and the 
only thing to do was to give up the properties. In Maryland an 
unfortunate prejudice exists against a man who goes into the 
field and works his own land ; as a consequence he seldom works 
it, and if he does so, he employs an overseer who is paid to 
look after his interests instead of doing it himself. Again, he 
sometimes lets his land to a farmer who farms it in his own way, 
and by his own methods in return for a portion of the crop, or for 
a money consideration. The crops grown are corn, wheat, and 
tobacco, the second of which has to compete with the wheat from 
the West, and the product of Ohio comes into competition with 
the latter crop. These are all the crops he raises, and he buys his 
meat, his gi-oceries, and frequently the vegetables he should have 
raised in his own garden. There, too, does not appear to be any 
thrift amongst the farmers, and the improvident methods which 
prevail in some of the counties in Maryland and Virgini^t are no 
doubt responsible for the unfortunate conditions which exist 
amongst numerous farmers there. 

The Maryland Penitentiary in Baltimore is certainly ii unique Harjluid 
nstttution of its kind ; not only is it self-supporting but it turns Penitentiary, 
in a surplus to the State Treasury every year — the last one being 
5,8;J9/. The penitentiary buildings which have recently been 
erected cost 240,000/., and a visit to them a short time since 
proved them to be provided with every modem imp'rovement. 
The cells are of steel, built on tlie central tier system and the 
sanitary arrangements would appear to be excellent. By an 
ingenious arrangement all the dooi-a in one tier can be 
opened at once by the simj^le turning of a lever, or only one 
particular door or number of doors may be opened and all the 
others left closed. The industries carried on are marble polishing, 
shoe-making, and iron foundry. In passing throi^ the shops, 
(19) B 



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18 BALTIMORE. 

what struck the visitDr perhipa more than anything else waa the 
vigour with which the men, and women too, worked. In the several 
ahopa numerous cards are hung stating the quantity of work each 
convict ia expected tc do in a day, ?.nd should he perform more 
tnan the allotted task he is cradited with the over-plus, and this is 
paid to him at the discretion of the warden, but usually on his 
diseharf^e. The warden pointed out seven men in the foundry 
who are invariably credited with 51. a month. Out of a total of 
976 convicta at the time of our visit only three were in hospital 
and only one of these was confined to bed, which certainly spoke 
avourably for the healthfulneas of the institution. The negro 
element far exceeded in number that of the whites, the former 
being 623 and the latter 353. Of the total number of prisoners 
627 were natives of Marjdand, 19 were bom in Germany, 12 a 
Ireland, 8 in England, and only 1 in Scotland. Larceny would 
appear to be the crime of which the greater number of prisoners 
were convicted. 12 were convicted of murder in the first 
d^ree, and 71 in the second degree. Assault with intent to kill 
was the next in seniority, and 59 were convicted of it. Burglary 
was the next in order, and 51 were convicted of that crime. The 
number convicted of manslaughter was 39, and of robbery 34. 

Such institutions as the Hampton (Virginia) Kormal and Agri- 
cultural Institute for the practical education of n^ro youths must 
have an excellent effect in raising the negro from the irresponsible, 
happy-go-lucky individual he too often is, into a self-reapecting, 
law-abiding member of society. The institute ia not a Govern- 
ment or State school, but a private corporation chartered under a 
special Act of the General Assembly of Virginia, and is controlled 
by a board of 17 trustees from different parts of the country. 
It receives its support partly from the State of Virginia, which 
subscribes towards the agricultural and military training of the 
students, from two charitable funds and from a permanent fund of 
about 100,000^. It also receives from the United States Govern- 
ment 33^. 8s. annually for each of the Indian students who were first 
admitted to the institute in 1878, 10 years after it had been opened. 
About 16,000/, must be raised annually to repay running expenses. 
The institute is in the 33rd year of ita exiatence, and of the 1,100 
gi'aduates it has sent out, 60 per cent, of them are engaged in 
teaching negro and Indian children. About 5,000 undergraduates 
have obtained an induatrial education, and of those who have been 
taught tradea, 70 per cent, are either teaching them or working at 
them. Othera have become shopkeepers and farmers, and a 
limited number have entered a professional career. Besides 
an excellent genei-al education many useful tradea are taught 1G5 
pupils were learning trades in the past year, the greater number of 
the other students leai'ning fanning, which occupation would seem 
to be particularly agreeable to the negro, but no boy can graduate 
without having worked in wood, iron and sheet-metal, besides 
having taken a course in agriculture. The females learn dreas- 
making, dairy work, laundry work, nursing, sewing, cooking, 
waiting at table, and other household duties. They also receive 



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BALTIMOilE. 19 

a capital general education. In 1901 there were 1,040 receiving 
inatruction at the Bcliool, of whom 120 were Indiaiu. 

The Census Bureau at Washington publishes some very P«p«totlaa. 
interesting statistics respeciing the aex, colour, and nativity of 
the people of Maryland. The total population of the State ia 
1,188,044, of whom 952,424 are white persons, 235,064 are 
coloured (negroes or of negro descent), 544 are Chinese, nine 
are Japanese, and three are Indian girls. Of the Chinese 11 are 
women and there are three Japanese women in the State. It ifl 
aomewhat sad to reflect that of the tens of thousands of Indiana 
who once inhabited Maryland three only remain and these are 
women. Of the total number of white persons 859,280 were of 
native American parentage, and of the whole population of the 
State, white and black, 93,934, which is about one-twelfth of the 
entire population, were foreigners. The total number of white 
males in the State is given as 473,119, and of the coloured 
115,617. The women in the State outnumber the men by 9,494, 
the number of females being 598,769, and that of the males 
589,275. 

The Maryland State Bureau of immigration reports that 369 ImmigntiML 
settlers from other parts of the country came to the State in 1901, 
the most of whom bought land for vegetable raising. The bureau 
circulates pamphlets and advertises in three European newspapers 
and also in a newspaper in one of the Western States, setting 
forth tlie advantages of MaryluuJ as a place for settlers. There 
was a considerable increase in the number of immigrants arriving 
in Baltimore in 1901, almost 8.000 more than in 1900. The total 
number was 27,013, of whom 19,519 were from Austria-Hungary, 
an increase from that country of 7,535. Eighty immigrants were 
deported for various causes during 1901. Annex No. 10 (p. 28) 
gives the number, &c., of the immigrants that arrived at Baltimore 
in the past two years. 

The total number of deaths reported by the Health Depart- Viui 
ment as having taken place in Baltimore in 1901 was 10.479, a«'**'*l» 
decrease of 221 from the previous year. According to the United 
States census the population was 518,000 in the city, and the 
rate of deaths per thousand would therefore be 20^22. The number 
of white m^es that died were 4,095 and white females 3,761, a 
total of 7,856. Of the deaths of coloured people 1,336 were males 
and 1,287 were females, total 2,623. The total number of births 
reported were 8,795 (an inci-ewe of 42 compared with 1900), of 
which 7,125 were whites and 1,670 coloured. Consumption was 
almost at the head of the list of causes of death and the victinifi 
from it numbered 1,138, an increase of 82 from the previous 
year, but pneumonia caused a greater number of deaths, viz, 
1,147. The other principal causes of death were infantile diarrhoea, 
7^6 ; diseases of the heart, 634 ; Bright's disease, 610 ; accidents, 
458 ; cancer, 358 ; and bronchitis, 294. Small-pox ^ain made 
its appearance but only to a very limited extent. 

About 12 per cent of the whole number of deaths in the State Osnnunptioii. 
of Maryland during 1901 were caused by tuberculosis — the actual 
(19) B 2 



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BALTIMORE. 



number was 2,0d7 — and greatly exceeded the number caused by 
any other disease. It is estimated that there are 10,000 persons in 
Edtimope suffering from tuberculosis in its various stages, but 
there is little accommodation in the State for their proper 
care. The Governor of the State in his annual message to 
the General Assembly strongly recommends that an unpaid 
commission be appointed to inquire into the presence of tuber- 
colosis in the State, and to devise some way for dealing with 
it more eSectively than at present The Maryland Public Health 
Association, the Medical and Chimigical Faculty, and the Laennec 
Society have taken the matter into serious consideration, and 
it is hoped that proper sanitaria for the treatment of aufferers 
&om this much too prevalent disease in Maryland may be 
established. 



Annex 1. — Bbtukh of Principal Articles of Import into 
Baltimore during the Years 1901-1900. 







IMI. 


IM». 


AiOdM. 


Owuitr. 


Vrtw. 




V*)n>. 








Ornnrnn- 


BMtllBc. 


«uad9. 


Cn™»T 


SuMot. 






DolUn. 


t 




DcUm«. 


t 


PUE. 
















OnmtalM 






IX0,MI 


160 106 




»02.7« 


180, MB 


Cogp.r,nt«. .. 


Tom' .. 




6,1«,8(» 


i,02s)ko 


i'.jt* 


4.178,208 


au,04i 




j»;7M 


1,SM,11» 


lM.a24 


1^*87 


i;ittz.i4> 


802^128 


fniiu 






«H,»1 


lOCSM 




808.86) 


J 88,880 


SKsr. :r 




i;»» 


tu.oia 


U.BIO 


'i,ua 


tA«,WS 






4»,H0 


i,:ij,flJT 


Mfia 


\h** 


n5»2B 


ei,Bn. 


Timbuiudpia- 






BO,aM 


1B,MS 


t» 


1MA» 


88,10. 


Doiunt, 
















Bid*** ... ._ 


... 


„. 


i»t,Tr 


ei,7« 




802,888 


•8,817 


Cmwii „. .. 


Tou .. 


IT.tM 


IM.SS2 


w,m 


M>,«S 


t«k,M8 


81,I2T 


GlMBlali ... „ 






fM,t28 


11>,S2I 




«8,e8« 


128,788 


CWm „ 






1,212,848 


242,«10 




1,IN,1«1 


Hoiwo 


"X^STfo-n.. 


















- 


.„ 


iU,OW 


*4.81T 


._ 


27»,8«r 


8t,8T7 






M,OW 


10,»7 




r,8ii 


7,828 


Wool (am. 
















futtnd) 






M,«l 


10.M8 




88,101 


18,048 


nm ... - .. 






se,Mi 


11,I0« 




81^878 


12.278 


Hu .„ ._ _ 






»,*« 


i»jm 




88T14 


1>;S4> 








217,211 


u,ua 




I7(^MI 


88.248 


OlMi ... ~ Z 






1<U,IU 


20.827 




108,810 


11.888 


iKmon ~ .- 




4M.(a8 


;ji,07i 


1«,2H 


Msiaso 


8^487 


12t,SW 


KS'SS-^ 


„ .„ 


ig,iM 


8I),48« 


i(a,«7 


«;oit 


>88;*48 


imIdsb 










sa,2t8 




874,880 


74,880 




Sq.ilirt. 


i,Mi;»w 


M4.MI 


68,US 


S,T1^8U 


al^B88 


811108 








M,6DZ 


li,»W 




87,128 


11,428 


F^«r „ 






t»,«TO 


11.M4 




<8lM 


lim 


bIm .. - .. 




'j-K^ 


K*.m 


100,801 


•,SU 


U7 438 


tT.tn 






a,80t 


2I,7IUi 


4,]S2 


T.esi 


18,848 




Cotvl Z Z 




Zva 


2n.o«ii 


»m 


I,1W 


182^407 


K.m 




LU. „ 


M.tSi 


>,H7 


l.MI 


M.SM 


8^428 




•na^/tim Z '- 




£.9 19.188 


M,fiM 


1>,>01 


g»;8tB 


iiuo 


8|248 


TObMDOlMl... „ 




lu.iai 




11.M7 


»»,«H 


78,811 


181781 


W^iM'udiiMH Z 


- 


::: 


M.87J 


l(tt,MI 




BftisOl 


ii'.iMa 



d by Google 



BALTIHOBG. 



Annex 2. — Ektcbn of Principal Articles of Export from 
Baltimore during the Tears 1901-1900. 







ini. 


IBOO. 


AltkiM. 




V«In«. 




vibM. 






Qatlir. 
















C.m»7. 


8»rUn«. 


«Jd«UV. 


Cn™«).. 


UMf. 






DoUuv. 


f 




DoUm. 




Acrtenltanl ■■■■ 
















pl«*nM 






1«,IS6 


M.ni 




tU,87I 




AnlmtllODd. ._ 


Tm» .. 


^ 


WT,Ht 


n.Bg 


4s|lBt 


«8>,HS 


111,808 


BuoDUdtwan... 


~ 


B,<M 


1,«M,MM 


»JT,101 


2S,M 


IO,1K),407 


i.o88;oei 


_ 


- 


ltB,aH 


a,ore 


... 


109,80» 


SI,T£1 


Fnah 


Tou ... 


1,181 


210, 4M 


48, DM 


1.780 


■80,088 


111,011 


^M^DdMlM 




■s 


tlt,4Ul 


nou 


tiM 


BS£,17B 


118,4M 






1,041 


1M.MII 


»,tTR 


l,Kt 


81^187 


82 277 


K^ ^ ■■■ 


BJitali" 


u 






r;»7t 


u;888 


im 


OulBfi lor ma- 
















0.75:^ "■ ^" 


_ 


- 


M«,«1S 


r,a84 


... 


1,871,718 


214,847 


IHrutlKHrf ... 






W,IW 


S,0M 








cEi* u™ 




*2,T» 


4,Mi,i»e 


ue,iti 


siini 


8,188,140 


1^810 


ch«a«ji_ „ 






*«,4T0 


i»,aB4 




^4£;888 


»Jltt 


Copper, Info*^ 
















b.™, io.^T'. 


Tom ... 


M,2Ji 


B.«Z8,M1 


1,7M.TW 


W.ttl 


ia,e(u,nt 


2,771,178 


Cul „ 




U1,1H 


1,B»,M! 


MT,Me 


USES) 


ijaliM 


nV,ea 


CoU ._ ... 


.. 


«,!« 


hi.;n 


a^wj 


4a;iu 


188,774 








IO,tW 


S,g«2,tW 


1,1«8,4B8 


46,«77 


8,811,118 


1,828,011 


ckKU "; ": 


Tud> ::; 


*4S,tfl 


110,311 


M,an 


»oe;wi 


Iil,lU 




nour 




l,»M,»M 


I2,7»*,M« 


«,M0.B6; 


■,008,781 


|],«81,B08 


2.3M;m 








W.881 


11.778 




1*1181 


48 812 


OlOCOM Z Z 


TOBl .„ 


7,BK 


Ml, MO 


TiMS 


ii'.m 


lUllDl 


lUllZD 


HOH 






«,!« 


I.2IMS 


ttt 


11,182 


B,US 


Hiir 






io;,ttz 


41,«9 




tv.Ka 


iiIbib 


I»U««TO ., 


Buhtii 


u,7ri,';go 


li.MI,«i 


via,*" 


40,U^0Zt 


17,101,W» 


1,180,888 


IninuulMMl,ud 






















I,IW9,TM 


Ml.fltl 




i.oag.iu 


8it,*H 


Uint 


Tou .. 


taiToa 


e,us,iu 


i,i<M,m 


u|bi8 


7,1«),S>8 


1,480,187 


LhUuh- _ .- 






IB,*(» 


i.ica 








IUkWiimt. 






T«,i!;6 


!!>:«» 




107|7B1 




SSL 


Boatii 


i,e26,2ia 


l,i»l,fOO 


118,780 


»,m;8i» 


i,i77,«a 


2»;i»2 




""tIK!? 


M;*,io» 


tH,S2I 


4t,e4fi,47a 


^887.741 


UB,H8 


Lobrlatlnc ... 
ConmieeJ ... 






«(,8M 


II.IW 


i.mUei 


17kOai 


saloo* 




a,iH|Hi 


TtT,l41 




fsuloT* 






OIliAk* ud lawl 


Toni Z 


»T,!78 


SZB.18D 


igi;«88 


48, zoo 


I,I1^18» 


SMSM 


^««EMrg^,M 




B,iia 


1,»1I7,T8» 


"i'lu 


KI,7M 


1^1^418 


8^88* 


Pufftr 






1,UT 






87,718 






















Toat _ 


BM 




lt,17t 


1,7M 


«)1,WI 




Pork 




e,2«i 


1,1M,M2 


xn,8u 


BBS4 


1.020,818 


20lil28 


Kr- - 


BoihBlt" 


ni,u4 


isa,TU 


78, »7 


B«:wj 


'ifillW 


^807 


Slwp ... .- 


t«iiiib.r 


l»,M8 


Ml.^It 


K,»U 


*t,Kt 




88^812 


Bumh ... _ 


Tou ... 


vro 


14E,Ma 


18.US 


SU* 


(2l|81B 


BlIsM 


B»el mil ._ ... 




1<»,IM 


3,M,«4 


4M.e8« 


107,001 


8,098,171 


B1B,2H 






l.dU 


SOI,MI 


«1,H« 


),ooi 


t^im 


7e;ou 


TlntMrHHlDiua- 
















tmxunt of ... 


~ 


... 


t,2Sl,aH 


«»,I77 


... 


2,8U,U1 


W,170 


U*l .- „ 


IMU ... 


n^n 


6,iOT,l« 


I,l£l,Ui 


' M.OM 


\80C,01B 


1,181,208 


Mama _ 




.„ ^'" 


III».IU1 


'M,IOJi 


zm 


n\m 


18,780 


Wli<u ... 


BStdl" 


IB,»«,TH 


lft,arT,IM 


>,01>,<t8 


*.»t»,»ii 


l,18i,Db8 


871,011 



(19) 



d by Google 



H 
It 






1 


B 


ALTIMOHK. 

'Illlilllllll 


^ 




1 


1 






IIIIIIIII5III 
oi-f-ISIH-5|lll:- 


J^ 


IiIiiiiHIj 


» 


s 


Mmmm 

Sls5»i5J:-SI5 


1 

1 




1 


} 


^IIIIIIEIIsll 

llllilllill 


1 


llllllllllill 


1 


iiiiiiisiiii 







Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



Annex 4 — Table shoving Total Value of all Articles Exported 
from or Imported into Baltimore during the Year 1901. 



StoTllnkc. ! Curreacj. 





Oolltw. 


£ 


DolUta. 


J, 


iJaited Kingdom 


S7,lBfi,a38 


7,*87,8*8 


7,687,857 


1,883,681 


G«rui«ny 


2S,3SI,G0S 


S,M«,301 


8,887,148 


783,430 


vfetherlADdd .. 


17.878,313 


8,576,262 


458,098 


91,620 




6.Bfl8.eS6 


l,112,7S0 


188,768 


20,794 




8^98,917 


878,783 


884.116 


132,888 


Brazil 


68*,IIOi 


118,901 


2,a6B,48l 


461,897 


Heilco 


811,009 


122,20 i 


1 267,411 


261,483 


1,812,335 


822,17l> 


e98.'2'a 


I19.!44 


lUlT 


84,784 




825,920 


86.18* 


British W«t Indies . . 


149,501 


23,901 


936,078 


1 87,0 16 


Other coDnirie* 


e,Tfi8,*i8 


1,861.888 


8,398,764 


S79,TBS 


ToUl .. 


99,005,271 


19,801.056 


21,363,983 


4,272,798 



Annex 5. — Tadlb of the Receipt"! and Exports of Grain and Flour 
during the Years 1899-1901. 



ArticlM. 


BtiBhehi .. 




Quantity. 




1889. 


1900. 


1901. 


Wheat 

Maiie 

0»to 


10,873,699 

49,886,282 
7.824,4 1« 


9,010,604 
48,028,709 

7,736 302 
678,638 

1,020,483 
1 7,7 3f, 246 


22,038,878 

27,029,296 
6 875,689 


Bulor and niklt 
Plonr 


B»mU '.'. 


664,071 
19,195,983 


813^06 
18,964,761 


ToUl ,. 
S'loor 


88,603,080 
4,265.768 


79,208,981 

3,941,388 


76,806,184 
4,218,167 



ArtlelM 


BiuhsU 
Bmali 


i 


Quaatiij. 




1899. 


19D0. 


1901 


Whe«t 

HmlM 

Oata 

BJlerudnuit !! 
Vloai 


. . 9,.'-46,270 
. ; 46,786,127 
. 1 4,00:.,107 
.' 1,262,181 

!; 16,168,682 

. 76,768,817 
. 3.867,486 


4,629,811 
40,B3J,028 
8,97-2,810 
88,227 
27,877 
18,617,041 


19,S8!,7>7 
24,711,790 
8.862,810 
631,664 
26 
14.982,288 


Told .. 
Ploni 


62,688,689 
8,003.787 


68,81 1,2C4 
3,324.958 



d by Google 



1 
1 


BALTIMORE. 

JgS3SBSSSSSs5 


s 

^1 


l> 


JssaSsSssssss 


2 
2 


s 

V 


2 


i 

-I 

^3 




s 


ll 




2 

5 


II 


s 

JEESSRCEsSgSS 


-J 

2 


J 


1 

o 

s 


|e5Sss.?Se5ssS 


s 

n 


s 


|££g££SSSSSSS 


Si 
a 


' 




IlliiifllJII 


1 



d by Google 



BALTIMO£B. 



Annex 7. — Statement showing the Average Prices of Flour in 
the Baltimore Market during the Year 1901. 




Annex 8. — HEiuaN of all Shipping at the Port of Baltimore 
during the Year 1901. 







Entebed. 










SiiUug. 


Niimber 


team. 


ToUL 


If«1a«udit?. 


Nmnber 




Nambar 






<a 


Tom. 


of 


ToDt. 


of 


Toiu. 




TmmIjl 




VeweU. 




VemlB. 




BritiBh .. 


17 


4,786 


SS2 


1,221.878 


579 


I,220,e0« 


America, fbnigu 


»9 


S6.680 


17 


13,713 


116 


60,421 










862,467 


87 


382,157 


If onrecun 






1S2 


1S1,21S 
3,877 


182 

1 


191,210 
8,877 


Daniih .. 








I2,4SS 




12,489 


l>Dtch 






IS 


8,513 


13 


8,518 


Italian .. 


9 


5,889 




2fl,125 


21 


3I,90S 








23 


«5,a9S 


28 


15,952 


Aiutro-Hnng4ri»ii 






10 ■ 


20,970 


10 


20,97» 


Total 


126 


47,811 


ais 


1,909,701 


1,088 


l,9G7,D4t 


Amariotn, cout- 
























1,610 


2,108.791 



d by Google 



baltimore. 
Cleared. 





Sdllng. 


Steun. 


Total. 


NittotMlitj. 


Niimb«t 




Number 




NnmbBr 






of 


Ton*. 


of 


TODB. 


of 


Tau. 




Twwli. 




TeweU. 




TawU. 




BriUih .. 


la 




6B8 


1,221,0S8 


674 






113 


«,B08 





6,960 


122 


T0,S96 








87 


S«2,457 


87 


862,457 


VoTWHlan 








192,445 




102,446 


Siradiih .. 






1 




1 


3,877 


Duiah .. 






7 


18,981 


7 


13,901 








IS 


8,818 




8,648 


IWiM .. 


8 


C4I>8 


12 


88,126 


SO 


81^88 


BpuiMk .. .. 






21 


40,646 


21 


40,646 


Aiutn-Honguisii 






10 


20,976 


10 


SO,B76 


ToW 


187 


71.814 


MO 


1,896.618 


1,087 


1,968,482 


American, «out- 














wiw .. 






■■ 




2,2BT 


2,644,881 



d by Google 



1 

1. 

1 
1 


» 


BILTIHOKI. 


9" 


^ 






1 
1 

6 




o 


1 
{■ 




W 


s 


e 


,S.-==f»S . 


3" 




o 








3 


s 


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:::::::::::: 


1 



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SALTIMORK. 



Annex 10. — ^Tablb showing the Nationality of Immigrants 
Arriving at Baltimore during the Years 1901-1900. 



OountiT. 


ISOl. 


1900. 


AmtrU-Hongary 

Qenunj 

Norwar 

BouDutik 

KMiia 

United Kingdom 

WegtlBdled 

Othn ooontriw 


ie,B19 

ts 

79 
4^08 
I!t 
23 
33 


11.984 
8,1«6 

"47 

4,8es 
"21 


ToUl 


«7,018 


10,104 



Norfolk, Va. 

Mr. Vioe-Consul Myers reports as follows : — 

During the psat year the business of this port has been active 
and there haa been an increase in most lines of business as shown 
by the Rccompanying statistics. 

The United States census bulletins, which have been issued, 
show large increase in manufacturing enterprises and in popu- 
lation. 

The general appearance of Norfolk has beeu improved by the 
laying of several loiles of asphalte streets and by the erection of 
a better class of building tJian heretofore, while the suburbs are 
being opened up by the extension of four lines of electric 
railways. 

The population of the city and suburbs within the radius from 
the city hdl is now about 100,000. 

The latest census report gives the following information, rela- 
tive to Norfolk's manufacturing interests, during 10 years ending 
1900 :— 445 establishments, capital 6,425,099 dol., inorease 88 per 
cent, ; value of products 9,397,355 doL, increase 84 per cent. ; the 
average number of w^e earners, 4,334; total wages, 1,571,229 doL; 
miscellaneous expenses, 701,537 doL ; cost of materials used, 
5,283,976 dol. 

Fourteen railroads have their terminals here. These roads 
reach the fruit, cotton, sugar, ricej tobacco, and timber lands of 
the South ; coalfields, iron mines, and granaries of the West, and 
the great commercial and manufacturing centres of the North and 
East. 

The export business from this port to Europe is handled by 
die United States Shipping Company and by various chartered 
tramp steamers. 

The coal business of this port is being steadily developed as 
the character of Pocahontas coal becomes better known. There 



d by Google 



bas been recently completed at Lambetta Poiot, by the Norfolk 
and Weatem Bailway, an additional iron coal pier with faciUtiea 
for loediug fooi large ocean ateamers at once. 

Tasle showing Principal Articles of Import at the Port of 
Norfolk during the past Year. 



Article. 


<limiUtr. 


V»la» 


Buuuiu.. 
CocouiuU 
Unrikt« of potMh 

Kilcmle of M<te.. 
OrsngM.. 
Hock pluter .. 




. BnnehM .. 

. Big." .. 
. BJnli .. 
.jTon*.. 


S3,447 
«0 

11),G60 

Se,22T 

I, son 

e,T40 

7,077,461 

2;mo 

2 400 
1,000 
9,M« 

agi 


DoUms. 

"•S 

4S,180 

34S 

204,383 

2,1» 

4,0U 


Sglphtleof&mmonlm . 

^ .. '^ 

8Md. .. 

Wine ud iplrit* 




.,ai«i.. .. 

! ftSieU '.'. 
. B*gi.. 

.jBunla 


1^^ 

B.079 

>4S 

141,0M 

2.8« 


ToUl .. ..' 




440,174 



Table showing Principal Articles of Export at the Port of 
Norfolk during the past Year. 



AitielM. 


Tom.. 

Lbt. .. 

Tow .. 


Qwwtlty. 


T»liw. 


Bnu 

Cotton^Md mMl 

CotlODWUM 

Corn 

C«»l 

cju"".""'-- :: :: 


8 

»,Sfl4,469 

2,781,888 

2,313:808 

960,148 

241,199 

9I,00S 

83,118 

14,637 

S,78S 

478.629 

590,000 

XSI,S8S 
8,681,280 

8,807 

882,044 

748 

4,890 

1,000 

8,919,098 

831,100 

4,738,699 

U1,6«0 

660,990 


DoUui. 

60 

398,698 

78,016 

1,100,149 

1,878,482 

738,391 


Cotton 

Commokl 

CaUle Mi4 ihoep 

PlOBT 

Qnptmgar 

OnMK 

Ironplktw 

LlBMOdctkM 

Log! ud lunlMr 

ICiMellUMIM 

M«U 

Oil. 

0>U 

pJl^'? :! '.'. v. 

Bt>Tfl>, hMdlogi Ud ihinglM.. 

Stindi 

ToUcco ud tobMoo itemi .. 
Tallmr 

WbMt 


Bj«:: 

BuMb 
Hnmber .. 
Bumb 
LU. .. 

LU. '.'. 

Lbt. '.'. 
Q«lloni 
BnthftU 
Tm.. 

Buheli 


1,12S,0ST 

80;088 

331,382 

3,399,198 

10,080 

373,388 

4,787 

801,178 

1,083,918 

134.383 

«W 

868,104 

S7S 

80,08* 

17,890 

331,011 

6,8U 

400,420 

6,666 

489,118 


Totd 






11,167,840 



d by Google 



RiTuiUI of all Shipping at the Fort of Norfolk dnting tbe 
Year 1901. 





8k 


ling. 


Stoun. 


OtaL 


NrtJonrfilj. 


H<nDb«r 




Nnmber 




Nmnbor 






of 


Totu. 


of 


Tuiu. 


of 


Toiu. 




TeMelB. 




YmmU. 




VmwI*. 




BiiUidi .. 


10 


8,210 


621 


1,170,938 


831 


1,174,148 








116 


14»,2Se 


U6 


140.288 


BiMoiA .. .. 






66 


127,737 


65 


127,787 




G 




S3 


77,637 


88 






1 


seo 


SI 


68,026 


80 


08,886 


American, foreign 


» 


9.m 






14 


11,210 










1»,708 


11 


19,708 










10 


19,046 


10 


19.S46 


Anttn-Hniigtrian 










10.21l> 


7 


16,348 












6,S19 


A 


6,819 












4,66» 


2 


4,669 


Sir«duh .. 










2,811 


2 


2,Stl 


BelgUn .. .. 










8.e77 


1 


8,677 


ilnig«v«i> 










2,206 


1 


2,206 


Total 


se 


10,44G 


G03 


1,809,374 


936 


1,676,816 





Stiling 




Steun. 


TeUL 


VktiDBkUtr. 


Nwnber 

of 
Teewb. 


Ton.. 


Number 

of 
VeaeU. 


Tonr 


Nuaber 

of 
Teweli. 


Tom. 


Britlih .. 

SpanlA .. .. 
Americu, fonlgD 
ItsUm .. 
6em.li .. 
Danlth .. 
Dnteh .. 

S,u.lan !r .. 
Fnneh .. 
Swediih .. 
BelgUn .. 


U 


21 

2 


890 

866 
888 
860 


620 

lie 

68 
14 
80 
86 
11 
10 
7 

4 
2 
3 
1 
1 


1,1S8,04« 
149,288 
11S.B74 
10,104 
81,840 
62,938 
10,708 
19,040 
16,248 
6.819 
4,609 
2,811 

a;677 

2,206 


639 
116 

68 
47 
40 
87 
11 
10 
7 

4 
3 
2 
1 
1 


1,170,488 
149.288 
118,674 
81,469 
84.726 
88,788 
19,708 
19,040 
16.248 
6,819 
4,669 
3i8Jl 
8,677 
2.306 


Toua .. 


48 


37,491 


916 


1.66fl,M9 


964 


1,687,490 



d by Google 



Table shomag Quantity of Coal Shipped to Fore^ Ports, 
exclusive of Bunkers, for the Year ending December 31, 
1901. 



Port to wUeh Sblpped. 



AlTUkdo, Heiieo 

Antwerp, Beldnm 

AntofkgistA, Chili 

Barbtdoea, British Wmt Indies . . 

Baroeloni, Spain .. 

Baoe«,CDt» 

Bennnda Iilanda 

BergflD, Nomj ., .. 

Boenoe Ajrea, Argentine BepubHe 

CalelaBaena, Chili 

Cape Town, 3odUi Afiie» . , 

Cienfaegoi, Cnba 

Colon, Colombia 

Coiond, Chili 

Cura^oi, Uutoh West Indies 

Daiquitri, Coba 

Demarara, Britiah Oniana 

iSaet [^ndon. South AAic* .. 

FremanUe, Aostntlia 

Gabona, Cuba 

Qeooa, lUl; 

Geai^town, Biitiab Oaiana 

OibialUr 

EaTsna, Cnba 

Horten, Norm; 

Biogo, Japan 

EingitOD, Briliih Weet Indies .. 

La Ouajra, Venetuela 

Liaboti, Portugal 

Haeeio, Brazil 

Manila, Philippines 

Maiaaillea, TraDca 

Montevideo, Tniguay 

Nsaaau, New ProTidence . . 

OranjesU Amba, Dutch Wert Indies 
, Port Antonio, Britiih Weot Indie* 
' Fort Arthur, China 

Fort Jlonnt, Jamain 

Fort of Spain 

Frogreeo, Mexico 

mo Gnnde du SnI, Brsdl 

Bio de Janeiro, Brazil 

Han ilafco de Cuba .. 

Sanloi, Bndl 

Singapore, India 

SL Johna, New Bmnawick 

SL John, Neafoondland .. 

St. Lacia, Britiih West Indies . . 

St Michaels, Aioret 

St. Thomas, Danish West Indies. . 

Tampi CO, Mexico 

Ten Cruz, Mezieo 

Total 



4S2 

6M 

18.471 

1,848 

2,782 

1,740 

16,27S 

400 

6,000 

3,100 

8,800 

S,891 

flMSl 

8,998 

4,0SS 

1,ISS 

4,807 

2,800 

700 

GOO 

4,eoo 

6,188 
17,708 
20,328 

2,915 

460 

Se,2I8 

2,428 
12.457 



9,447 
2,200 
SO9 
80,848 
1,000 
8,178 

s,eoo 

13,000 
1,900 
83,400 
20,832 
8,000 
G4,800 
82,410 

617,676 



d by Google 



NEWPORT NEWS. 



Nkwpokt News, Va. 



ImportB. 
Ezport*. 
Coilezpor 



The Newport 

huf tding and 

DiyDock 

Compiny. 



Mr. Viee-Consul Haughton reports as followB : — 

In apite of the general depression in the ocean carrying trade 
during the later months of the year 1901, Newport News has 
shown a steady increase in all branches of trade over the year 
X900. 

Substantial new buildings of brick and stone have been erected 
for officer and stores, while in the residential portion of the city 
the buildings have been added to to the extent of nearly 20 per 
cent 

Real estate has not advanced as in previous years, and in no 
case has an Bbnormally high price been reached. Whatever trans- 
actions have been completed have been investments and not 
speculations. 

During the past yeai' a general hospital has been opened in 
the city, and is now available for patients, being well equipped with 
all, appliances, and having an efficient staff. It has a capacity of 
41 beds. The charges are moderate, ranging npwatils from 
1 dol. 28 c. {os. id.) per diem. 

Imports show a satisfactory increase, the value amounting to 
892,224^.. against 765,800/. in 1900. The principal articles 
imported are given in attached statement. 

The exports, as compared with 1900, show an increase of 
111,^70^., the value of the exports being 6,891,646^. The chief 
articles of export are given in annexed statement. 

The export of coal has developed considerably during 1901. 
The number of tons exported during this year amounted to 
341,189 and 151,169 tons bunker coal. The attached statement 
shows the port to which the coal was destined, and the quantities 
in tons ot 2,240 lbs. I find that one cargo for Marseilles, in 
March last, took a freight of 16s. 6rf. per ton, and one for Rio de 
la Plata, 9s. per ton. The average, however, was about 8s. per 
ton. The price of coal free-on-board is 2 doL 50 c. per ton. The 
charges for trimming, paid by the vessel, are 7 c per ton for 
single deck vessels, and 10 e. per ton for those with double decks. 

The coastwise trade from Newport News has materially 
increased, the bulk of the traffic being to northern and New 
£ngland ports. Nearly 2,000,000 tons of coal alone have been 
shipped coastwise from Newport News. 

The Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company's 
report for 1901 shows improvement in every department. The 
new graving dock has been completed and has been in continuous 
use ever since completion. Its dimensions were given in my report 
of last year. 

The repair work has been very heavy. The re-building of 
the North German Lloyd steamship " Main " was one of the 
largest contracts. 

The plant has been gi-eatly improved, and, I am advised, still 
further improvements will follow. 

The launchings for the past year are as follows : — 



d by Google 



MSWFOKT KKW8. 



DMcriptlOD. 


Nuna. 


loaotgt. 


Bemuki. 


BiWlMhip .. 


-MtaMlri'.. 


18,000 








11,S00 


Gnu toniuf* 




"SlberU" .. 


11,800 






"BIV«I1«-.. 


6,000 






"BlIH*" .. 


0,000 






"BlSiglo" 


8,000 






"BlAlM" .. 


COOO 





Of the above, " El Valle," " El Dia," and " El Siglo " were 
completed, as was also the battleship " lUinoie," launched the 
previous year. 

Several warships are in coniBe of construction for the United ^jjjj**' Stitoi 
States Government, " Arkansas;" 3,235 tons displacement, ^jJ^JJ"""" 
"Monitor," "West Virginia," and "Maryland," 13,800 tons each 
armoured cruisers (unsheathed); "Virginia," 15,000 tons, battle- 
ship, and " Charleston," 9,700 tons, protected cruisei' ; and there is 
also a steamer being built for the coastwiae trade of the gross New onui- 
tonn^e of 4,200 tons. *^ »i«iimer 

The number of hands emplojecl in the shipyard is upwards of Strike. 
7,000, but owing to the strike of the machiuists the number was 
materially affected. The demand of -the men, which was for a 
10 per cent, increase in wage?, was not complied with and the 
men returned to work, having been out froni .June 3 to July 12. 

The t-ankiug returns for the year 1901, show a very gratifying Buiklng. 
increase. The clearances for the last four months of 1900 
amounted to the sum of 2,098,476 dol, wliile those for 1901 
duruig the corresponding months amount to 3,034,741 doL, an 
advance of nearly 50 per cent. The attached statement shows 
the returns of the Newport News clearing-house for eaeh month 
of 1901. 



••(W) 



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NEWPORT NBWa. 



Table showiug Principal Artioles of Import at the Port of 
Newport News, Va., during the Year 1901. 



Coeouat oil .. ,. 

PftlinoU 

Paper Uoek 

Sup planking . . . . 

Ammonta, nrorlite of .. 

,, (ulplutte of >. 

Glyoerine .. .. 

Logs 

OlivM 

Uutnfaclorw of glan • • 
Mirrore .. 
Wiodowglaaa ,, 
Plate glaaa 

OlsMware, d«M>nl«d .. 
Castor beam .. ,. 
Bleaching povder ., 
DeEiecaled eocoauat 

Sogar 

Tea 

tma 

Old bagging 

Shellac 

Senna leavet .. .. 
Oialii; ncid .. 
Chunpagna . . , , 
Still wiuea 

Wool 

Carbonate of potaah 
MurUle 
Sulphiite „ 

Ktlait 

Olue stock 

UorM hidea .. ., 
Oil, minenl ,. ., 
Pepper 

Lime, chloride of .. 

China clay 

Puller's earth, nnwronght 
„ WTonght.. 

Cla.TB, vrODght . . 
Eartbenirare, plain ,. 
M deconit«d 

Jnte MgK . . , 

„ mannfoclarea of . . 
SaTetr-tuae 
14n-|^lei 
Halt liquora .. ., 

Cuooa, lnitt«i ., ,. 
TenetJan rod ,. 
Caator aeeds . . . , 
Mannbctniet of raetal.. 
Other arUclia . . 

Total .. 



Coirensy. 


Bteriing. 


Dollara. 


£ 


!8T,eOQ 


67,680 


eO,BI8 


12,102 




9.105 


26,287 


6,066 


40,844 


8,168 






161,Sflr 


S0,S1S 


]«,23a 


8,844 


8,677 


1.716 


4,864 




4,001 


800 


27,621 


e.G24 


S8,eS6 




18,1GB 


8,881 




8,076 


20,766 


4,161 


7,788 


1,548 


3e,S3S 


7,277 


(1,286 


1,263 


366,720 


68,344 








489 


8,889 


1,187 


a,os7 


411 


10,774 




S,08tt 


417 


6,048 


1.U09 


89,104 


7.820 


89,414 


7,883 






47,863 


9,470 


8.679 






1,692 




5,641 


8,m 






22,614 


100,048 


30,000 


7.4fl6 


1,4H3 


44,178 


S,8S6 


38,069 


6,211 




8,648 




61.897 


163,837 


80.766 


1,7B7,M* 






4,4T8 


46,780 


9,862 










68,MB 


18.787 




3,039 


11,849 




11,667 


3,811 




64,830 



d by Google 



NEWPORT NEWfl. 



Table showing Principal Articles of Expoi-t for the Port of 
Newport News, Va., during the Year 1901. 



JatMm. 


Head 
Boaheh .. 

Bai^lH '.', 

Tom 

Balea 

LI* 

Oalloni .. 
Lba. 

M.«q.'reet.. 


lioaQtity. 


Talne. 


Corrency. 


Sterling. 


CattiB 

Uont 

OaU 

Wheat 

Floor 

Coal 

Cotton 

Cotwo-aeed olloake and 

meal .. 
Cottuo-aesd oil . 

Urd 

Siaroh 

Tobacco, leaf .. 

Logs 

Boarda.&o. .. 
Utbar article* .. 

Totd .. 


3,i7a,eT8 

2,T67,88e 

311.169 

19,126,609 

104,7!8.8«2 

a.813,868 
20,684,628 

6,8GG.O<0 
18,877,897 

8a.8>7 


Dollan. 
2,864,700 
1,687,887 
()52,9fi8 
8,760,018 
1 1,11)3,214 
1,086,765 
l,S6l,74« 

1,167,818 
l.lli,87« 
1,807.020 

171.077 
1,687,778 

601.150 
1,868,289 
2,824,916 

31,468.260 


£ 
678,»10 
817,478 
1S0,6>1 
760.008 
a,298,8« 
2<l7,86& 
8S0,SM 

!31,462 
22M» 
361,104 
34,886 
388,664 
100,230 
371,058 
68E,13S 

«,a9Ml« 



StJMMABT of British and Foreign Shipping at Newport News, Va., 
for the Tear ending December 31, 1901. 





Sailins. 


Bteant 


Total 


Nationalitj. 


Snmber 




Hnmbar 




Hwnber 






of 


Tom. 


of 




of 


Tona 




TemU 




TeMeli. 
446 


931,966 


Tewela. 




Brittah .. 


2 


1,430 


418 


966,101 






.. 


10 


86,829 


19 


V6,6aw 


Qsnnaa .. 








17 


127,325 


IT 


127,826 


rS':: :: 








28 


60,619 


28 


00,549 










i«.aoi 















11 


88,816 


11 


88.818 


Annio-Hnogarian 








81 


06,108 


81 


85,198 














1 


1,192 


Italian .. 










6.739 


2 




Danuh .. 










16,068 


7 


16,058 


Swedtih .. 












1 


1,689 


BelKian .. 










2,608 


I 


2,603 


















Total 


2 


1,486 


608 


1,868,801 


606 


l,85d,240 


American, eoaat- 














Tlaa .. 


1,084 


1,278,800 


UI8 


1,921,188 


2,177 


8,201,288 



d by Google 



HBWPOBT NEWB. 





BalUns. 


Steam. 


Total. 


NkUomU?. 


KambM' 

of ; TooB. 

TMHla. 


Nnmbw' 

of i Tone. 
T«atel«.| 


Number 

of Tons. 

T«Neb.l 


BrHUh .. 
ITorwegfaui 
a«nii»D .. 

tt:: :: 

Dutch „ 
Atutro-EDiiguiMi 
Cnban .. .. 
Italian ,. 
Dauiih .. 
Swedish .. 
Belgian .. .. 
American 


9 




1.480 


41S 

IS 
47 

38 

11 
81 

3 


S7B,B27 : 44T 
86,820 1 19 

127,326 47 
00,649 i 18 
14,001 6 
38,810 1 11 
66,168 ' 11 
1.4Si I 1 
0,78B 1 a 
16,068 7 

iLoaB 1 1 

2.608 1 1 
7,040 1 8 


880,968 
86,829 

187,1126 
00.649 
14,001 
8S,Bia 
06,198 
1,493 
0,789 
16,b68 

i.ose 

2.fiOS 

7,040 


Totel .. 
American, cout- 
WiM .. 


2 
1,064 


1.430 
1,270,800 


602 1 l,SSl,8Sa S04 
],U8 1,924,488 j 2,177 


1,862,803 
3,201,288 



BiTUMiKOUB Coal Exported from Newport News, Va., during the 
Year 1901, exclusive of Bunker. 



Port 


Qoaatttj. 




Tom. 


UoiMilles 


G0.028 


BiodeJaaelro 


80.046 




12.293 


8L Lucia, BriUili Wert Indie* .. 


80,015 






PM»,Br«a 


8,800 




8,860 




4,870 




69,084 




18,614 


PilKM 


6,840 


DuenosAjTM 


2.2M 


Hamburg 


7,116 


Elngitoirn, Jam^ea 


8,081 


Antwerp .. 


4.794 




8,619 






I«FlaU 


2,313 


„ .aiUngeyp. 


340,180 


908 


QiMd total 


341,189 



d by Google 



NEWPORT NEWS. 



Betuhn of the Cost, Freight, &c., of certain Shipments of Coal 
Exported from Newport News in 1901. 



Port to which Shipped. 


PrlM per Ton 
of 1,S4D ItM. 


2,140 Ibl. 


Price per Ton 
laiddownu 




Newport News, 


IHMhHs*- 




: £ ». d. 




e : d. 


Ualte 


10 81 




18 11 


SlLdcU .. 


10 8t 




IS 2 


modeJuurira 


. 10 ti 


18 S 


1 e 11 


HumUIn .. 


. 10 31 


16 e 


1 8 11 


JhkM. 


10 Si 




1 12 6 




. , 10 St 




18 U 


QeiuM. 


. to fli 




18 B 



(1ft) 



Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



LOITDON: 
iTiuUd fai HU tUlMtr*! SUtioDuT Office, | 



Bt habbibon akd sons, 

PriDten in Orduuu? to Uli UajMij. 
(7fi S[OS-Hft$ ie> 



I 



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Mo. 2759 Amnial Series. 
DIPLOMATIC AIO) CONSULAR REPOBTS. 



UNITED STATES. 



DEPORT FOR THE TEAR 1901 



TRADE OF CHARLESTON AND DISTRICT. 



RBFERENGE TO PREVIOUS REPORT, Annual Series No. 2572. 



Pmtttttd to both Houtet of Parliament hy Command of Hit Majtaly , 
APRIL, 1902. 



LONDOJTi 

IBIirrKD TOB HIB ICAJESTTa 8TATI0ITBBT OFBIOS, 

BT HARBIBOIT AlfD SONS, BT. UABTIN-B LANS, 

nuHTSia iM osaantxt ro bis ituawn. 

AiiJtob »inii iilimMl lilliiii illiiiiillj III lliiiiinili»iij Tlniitiiiilliii, rinm 

KTBB A BPOniSWCkulB, Xui Hakdih* Stuit, Fun Srun, B.Of 

and n, Abiw opow 8t«»T. Wmumwa. 8.W.| 

or OLIVBB ft BOTS, BDimumsH i 

<r K. POHBOKBT, 116, Qsavtok Sibbbi, iKnLix. 



CA 7S6-6S.] Price Twopence Halfpenny. 



Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



CONTENTS. 



HiTal itttioti _ 



TenDsnee oil diMoreiiM ... 

Cotton trade .....~.. 

Cotton miUinf .^ »....«. 

Pho«ph*t«B tad f«rtali«ei«.... 

KotbI ttoifa _ „.... 

Lombm _. 

HicB 

Sbipping ftnd tamgatiou ... 

Tobacco 

Tea 

BAvktais— 

OoDerBl remarks.... _... 



FhotphatSB and fertiliMm ._ 



Bbuviwtok— 
Oeneral trade ... 



d by Google 



No. 2759. &imaal Series. 

Sefirma to prtmemt Report, Annual Series 2fo. 2572. 



Jieport on the Trade of CharUston uTid District for the Year 1901 
By Colonel Cobtlogos, His Majesty's Coiisul. 

(BooaiT«d at Voielga OAm, Mbrch IG, 190£.} 

The principal indostriee of this Consular district, embracing G«iie 
the States of North and South Carolina, Georgia, and Tennessee, 
consist of cotton raising and milling, phosphate mining and manu- 
faotnring, and the production of lumber, resin, and turpentine 
from the yellow or pitch-pine forests of the coast regions. These 
articles form the tx^is of most of the export trade at the ports of 
Wilmington, Charleston, Savannah, Port Boyal, Darien, and 
Brunswick, the principal ports, within this jurisdiction. 

There are, however, several other items that might also be 
enumerated, such as rice, coal, pig-iron, &c., which are produced in 
ooueiderable quantities ; but whue important in themselves, their 
importance is of a relatively local or subordinate character, being 
mostly consumed at home or exported to a comparatively small 
extent. Taken as a whole, however, the business done last year 
in the above-named leading lines has been &irly satisfactory, both 
as regards volume of trade and prices obtained lor output. 

The following pages will show that there was some reduction 
in cotton receipts and exports at all South Atlantic ports for the 
commercial year ending August 31, 1901, as comparad with the 
previous season, owing to shortness of crop and large home con- 
sumption ; but on the other hand there was a moderate increase 
during the four months ending on December 31, 1901, resulting 
from the larger crop produced last season. 

At Charleston, notwithstanding the increased receipts, 
the cotton trade ia at present regarded as unsatisfactory 
so far as direct foreign exports are concerned. Most of the 
cotton now coming here goes to New York vi3, American coasting 
steamers, and in consequence of this the majority of British and 
other foreign vessels that came here last year loaded were obliged 
to go elsewhere for cargoes. Of 51 British vessels that arrived, four 
of which were sailing ships and 47 steamers, 42 brought in cargoes, 
and only four small fruit ships and 10 steamers took out cargoes, 
37 steamers clearing in ballast for other ports. 

(2S) A t 



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4 CHLSLEBTON. 

A careful survey of the cotton trade for the past 10 years 
appears to show that, under existing railway arrangements, foreign 
exporters have found it expedient to concentrate their efforts 
mainly on the four ports of Norfolk and Savannah on the Atlantic 
coaet and New Orleans and Galveston on the Gulf, through which 
•^j^^^ most of the foreign shipmenta now go abroad. These porta have 

«Iwn<ieU been able, apparently, to secure the bulk of the business in the 
«hiing«d. face of many natural obstacles through superior railway connec- 
tions and terminal facilities, aided also perhaps to some extent by 
a greater promptness In seizing opportunities to change former 
trade channels into their own direction. This ia illustrated by 
the fact that at one time Charleston received annually 500,000 
bales of cotton, while Savannah's receipts were only 70,000, 
and at the present time Savannah gets over 1,000,000 bales a 
year, and Charleston about a third of that amount. 

In former years also Norfolk did little or no cotton busineeq, 
and Wilmington was far behind Charleston, but both these porta 
are now well advanced in the cotton trade. 

Up to about 10 years ago Charleston was greatly handicapped 
hi her efforts to secure cotton business by poor railway terminal 
facilities and an insufficient depth of water on the bar entrance 
OoMM of to her harbour. Both of these drawbacks have now been remedied, 
**""••* but still the trade languishes, and for want of proper co-opera- 
tion on the part of railways entering here, outward cargoes could 
not be obtained, as already mentioned, for one-quarter of the 
foreign ships arriving during the last two years. The business 
having adapted itself to new channels, has apparently become 
fixed, and it now seems impossible to divert the full volume of 
former trade back to its old courses. 
Goiei-Diiiont The Govemment has been exceedingly liberal in dealing 
^te'*^ with this port. Vast sums of public money have already 
been expended for harbour improvements and fortification work, 
for the promotion of commerce and the protection of the town 
and its approaches, and further improvementa that will require 
large disbursements are in contemplation for the completion of the 
Southern Naval Station that is to be established here, and it is 
hoped that these things will materially assist in building up new 
industries, even if lost trade cannot be recovered. 
Chwlrat^D The report of the Naval Board, headed by Admiral Henry C. 

"^ Taylor, charged with the preparation of plans for the new naval 

■'"'"'"' station at Charleston, South Carolina, gives in detail all the im- 

provements deemed necessary for the installation of the buildings 
of the station. It is proposed that Cooper Kiver, on the eastern 
side of the city, be dredged to a depth of 32 feet below mean 
low-water mark', and that the dredged material be so deposited aa 
to raise the grade of the shore line 6 feet above high water in 
Older to guard against any danger of flooding during easterly 
storms, instead of constructing piers extending into the river. 
The Board recommends that a basin be dredged to a depth of 32 
feet below mean low water, the said basin to contain two piei-a, 
this arrangement being designed to afford the required water fronfe 



d by Google 



vhere Yesaek may lie without obstmctiiig the chann^. A site for 
the buitdinc of two diy docks has also been selected in the low 
land in prolongation of the baain, and a short pier will be pro- 
vided between the two in order to facilitate the docking and nn- 
docking of vessels. It is also proposed to protect the water front 
of the working part of the station bj a great sea wall, having a 
depth of water in front of 32 feet There was some objection 
raised to the site selected hy the Board for a hospital for the 
reason that while it was on high ground, well removed from the 
working part of the station, there was, nevertheless, an absence of 
trees, which made the situatiou undesirable. The Board has 
therefore suggested the acquisition of a tract of land in the 
immediate vicinity of the station that will satisfy all desired 
conditions. 

A torpedo boat depdt is also to be located in the low lands 
of the Lawton tract, on which the naval station is to be estab- 
lished, and the Board has recommended two slips for vesseb in 
reserve, and has indicated a line of standard gauge railway track 
to the buildings and water front of the station. 

South of the dry docks and basin an area has been selected to 
serve as a recreation ground for enlisted men. These are the 
main features of the Board's report, which also submits suggestions 
ID detail for the numerous buildings to be erected. 

With reference to the water-powers of the South and their Wut«r- 
development, in connection with cotton and other forms of manu- fontr. 
facturing, it has been shown that nowhere is water-power more 
potentially useful than in this section, between the line of the 
Blue Ridge Mountains and the belt of yellow pine that abounds 
in the lowlands, towards the sea. The climate, where moat of the 
beat water-powers are situated, is such that power may be 
developed throughout the year with little or no interruption from 
ice and snow. The constantly increasing number of manufacturing 
establishments in this region is absorbing a considerable portion 
of the power as rapidly as it is developed. Good authorities now 
consider that the Southern States present one of the most attrac- 
tive fields in the United States for engineering skill, and the 
number of plants now under construction or in contemplation bear 
witness to the fact that this has been appreciated. 

From the Potomac River southward, through North Georgia 
and into Alabama, the mountains and highlands of the Appalachian 
Chain are abundantly supplied with undeveloped water-powers, 
many of them as fine as are to be found anywhere in the country. 
The Geol<^caI Survey of Georgia published a pamphlet on the 
water-powers of that State several years ago, showing that literally 
tens of thousands of units of horse-power were going to waste day 
in and day out for the sole reason that capital was not available 
properly to develop the sites. In some caaes these powers were 
isolated by several miles from means of transportation, but in 
other instances some fine water-powers were available near lines 
of railways. Many of theae lattur have, since that time, been 
brought into service, bu> in the aggregate the water-powers now 
(23) A 3 



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in Tue bear only a small proportion to the total quantitj 
available. 

Under the modern system of electrical transmission, power can 
readily be sent from 1 to 10 miles with very little loss of 
potentiality from induction, escape, resistance, &c., and this 
renders it possible to construct mills at considerable distances 
from rapids and falls and yet have all the advant^es derived from 
cheap water-power. During the past few years not lees than 40 
water-power plantB for manufacturing cotton goods, supplying 
towns with l^ht and street railway power, have been established 
in Creoi^ia and the indications are that as many more will be 
required during the next year or two. The bead waters of the 
Savannah Kiver, on both the South Carolina and Georgia shores, 
are expected to furnish some thousands of horse-power that will 
be needed for manufacturing enterprises within the next 12 
montha For many years past the waters of the Savannah Eiver 
have been used by the many large cotton mills at Augusta, 
Geoi^a, where cotton manufacturing is a leading industry 
It has been estimated that in Georgia alone there is probably 
enough undeveloped water-power now available to serve every 
mill, factory, and railway in the State, and still have a lai^ 
surplus over, and this will apply also, in a more or less modified 
degree, to North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Tennessee. 

Electrical appliances will doubtless enable many of these 

powers to be brought into servica 

Gold and The preliminary estimates of the Director of the United States 

"J™ . Mint, as to the production of gold and silver in the United States 

p udjon. (jyj^g jdg calendar year 1901, indicates that there was only a 

slight gain over the previous year. The total number of ounces 

of ^ne gold produced throughout the country was 3,880,558, 

having a value of 80,218,800 doL The number of ounces of 

silver produced was 59,631,738, with a commercial value of 

35,792,200 dol. But the coinage value of this silver, under 

existing laws, is said to be approximately 77,000,000 doL Of this 

total amount the production of gold in the Southern States was 

as follows ' — 



8MM. 


Amount. 


V^'om^ .*.' " '.'. '.'. 

SonUxCuoliiu 

Oeatt* 

Al»bMn» 


Dollu^ 
7,«0 
66;B40 
130,900 
I44,M0 
8,900 



In addition to this North Carolina produced 16,558 fine ounces 
ofiajlver and Viiginia 1,049 ounces of the same metal 

One of the best evidences of the industrial progress made in 
the South is shown in a review of the development of its fuel 
resources during the past year, with coal mining in the lead. A 



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. OHABtZSTOH. 7 

consideiable amount of coal is produced in Tenneseee and Georgia, 
and a moderate amount in Kortb Carolina, but little or none in 
South Carolina. In order to get a fair conception of the business 
a glance or two at the South s coal mining last year and also for 
the past 10 years may be advantageous and may afford an ind^x 
of the advance made. 

Probably no portion of this country baa attracted wider atten- 
tion or the investment of more outside capital, during the past 
year, than has that section south of the Feunsylvania line and 
east of the Ohio and Bio Grande Rivers. The development there of 
its mineral resources has been lai^, with greatly increased 
operations in prospect for the future, and it is difficult for 
one, not in touch with the business, to form a just idea of 
what has actually been done last season or is now in course of 
preparation. 

No State in the Union is more favoured by nature in the 
extent and diversity of its mineral products than is West Virginia. 
Her coal deposits embrace all grades of bituminous, coking, steam 
and gas cou of the best qualities. West Virginia contains more 
of the Appalachian coalfield than any other Southern State. The 
total area comprises about 16,000 square miles, more than 80 per 
cent, of the total bituminous areas of Ohio and Pennsylvania 
combined, 60 per cent, more than Pennsylvania alone, and 2,000 
square miles more than Tennessee and Kentucky combined, the 
section underlaid by coal being about two-thirds of the area of 
the State. The total product of the Virginia mines was about 
25,000,000 tons last year, compared with 22,647,207 tons in the 
previous year. 

After West Virginia the gieatest coal State in the South is 
Alabama, the output of which for 1901 is estimated by the coal 
inspector to be 10,000,000 tons net, as compared witii 8,400,000 
tons during the previous year. The Alabama coal business 
is divided mto three distinct branches, namely, the production 
of coal for coke-making and industrial use at or near the point of 
production ; the supply of coal for locomotive use throughout the 
country ; and also the supply of coal for domestic use and steam- 
making purposes in communities that ore situated near the mines. 

The pioduction of coal in the State of Tennessee has increased Produotiou. 
from 2,092,064 short tons in 1892 to 4,200,000 tons in 1901, a 
coDsiderable portion of the product having been mined by convict 
labour in mines owned and worked by the State. In the minin g 
districts many new enterprises are being developed and much new 
work, it is expected, will be done next year. 

Coal mining in North Georgia has been carried ou to a limited 
extent comparatively speaking for a number of years, principally 
by convict labour, the convicts being hired from the State ; the 
Georgia output is very generally used for domestic and steam- 
making purposes, for which it is well adapted, but high rail- 
way rates have restricted its distribution to a limited extent of 
territoiy ; experiments are, however, being made at Savannah, 
by the New York coasting steamers, with the view of ascertaining 
(23) A 4 



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■ if Geoi^ coal cannot be profitably used for bunker purposea by 
ships from the first-named port. 

No exact figui'es have yet been obtainable as to the output 
of coal in either Georgia or North Carolina daring the past year ; 
the quantity, however, is somewhat limited in character in both 
States. 

Kentucky is a large coal producer, the tonnage having increased 
from 3,025,313 tons in 1892 to 5,000.000 tons in 1901. 

Maryland's product is about the same as tlie State of Kentucky, 
her output having increased from 3,419.962 tons in 1892 to 
5,000,000 tons in 1901. 

Arkansas is also coming forward as a coal State ; her product 
in 1900 was 1,447,945 tons, while the estimate for last year is 
1,750,000 tons. 

An interesting feature of last year's reports has been the 
growth of the coal mining industry as a consequence of railway 
extensions in West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Arkansas, 
and also of canal work done and improved terminal facilities at 
Mobile, Pensacola, New Orleans, Savannah, Newport News, and 
Norfolk. 
TTennsnee oil During the past year the following coal oil discoveries have 
.di>Do*«rie>. ijeen reported from that State, namely:— On May 31, 1901, 
a report was received from Jamestown, Tennessee, that two oil 
wells were opened on that day on the border line of Pickett and 
Fentress counties ; and also at the same place oil was struck at 
Cusack's well on the 25th of last June at a depth of 375 feet ; and 
on December 27 another flow of oil was obtained at Wolf River, 
about 10 miles north of Jamestown, which was pronounced by 
experts to be of fine quality. 

During the year oil has been reported at a number of other 

places throughout this district, but no very definite information 

has as yet been made public, and it is perhaps probable that some 

of the reports may have been put into circulation with a view to 

stimulating the sales of lands put on the market by designing 

parties, who wished to take advantage of the excitement caused 

by the valuable oil discoveries recently made in Texas. 

Cotton Dunu- It has been somewhat difficult hitherto to obtain exact figures 

fMturmg. relative to Southern cotton manufacturing, but some interesting 

facts in regard to this business, taken from recently issued 

Government reports, will be found under the proper heading 

further on in this report, and they may be of use to persons 

interested in the matter. 

Pfaotpbate Last year was a good one for maoufacturers of Carolina ferti- 

fMUiMn. Users, having phosphate rock as a basis, most of these mills being 

situated at tins port This business is now Charleston's most 

important industry, and it is gratifying to know that she continues 

to hold her position as the leading manufacturer in this country of 

commercial manures. 

C^emicKl The importation of chemicals used in this trade such as 

-'mpoTti sulphur, pyrites, kainit, muriate of potash, nitrate, &c., was almost 

""* double last season that of any previous year on record both as to 

weight and value of imports. 



Urge. 



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Heavy fluods and rains, forest fires, and labour troubles last rixa 
spring somewliat retarded busiuess in pine products, much gum product*, 
having been lost bj burning or washing out o[ tree boxes before 
it could be gathered for distillation. Notwithstanding these draw- 
backs, liowever, the business done in turpentine, resin, and lumber, 
the principal pine producta, continues to be large ; most of the 
trade of this district in turpentine aud resin is, however, now done 
at Savannah and Brunswick, with a small business in these articles 
at Charleston, but in pine lumber a good business was done at 
Charleston, Savannah, Uarien, and Brunswick — Darien being an 
almost exclusively heavy exporter of timber and lumber, much of 
which goes to foreign countries. 

Fuller details relative to last year's naval stores trade will be 
found in the Savannah report, that being the principal export 
centre in this country for the business. Other items of interest other 
in regard to the different industries of the district last season will indmtriM. 
also be found under their respective headings in the following 
pages. 

The cotton season of 1900-01, which closed at Charleston on Cotton. 
August 31, 1901, showed that the receipts at this port during the 
year ending on the above date were 236,137 bales, in comparison 
with 266,896 bales for the previous year. The exports for the 
same time last year were 2:34,000 bales, as compared with 254,058 
bales for the year before, while the stock remaining on hand on 
August 31, 1901. was 3,348 bales, compared with 2,687 bales for 
the year before. The exports last year were divided as follows : — 
70,377' bales to the United Kingdom, 70,152 to other parts of 
Europe, 84,205 coastwise to American ports, and 7,464 bales to 
inland points by railway. The consumption of Charleston's own 
city mills was 1,806 bales. 

The receipts for the first four months of the new cotton year, Eecaipt* »nd 
that is from September I to December 31, 1901, yere 196,937 exports 
bales, compared with 176,774 bales for the corresponding period of 
the previous year. The total exports during the last four months 
of the past year were 178,965 bales, compared with 158,541 bales 
for the year before. The stock remaining on hand and shipboard 
at the end of the year 1901 was 21,021 bales, compared with 
17,869 bales for the previous year. 

The quotatioaa for middling cotton on September 1, 1901, was Quotationt. 
8| c per lb., and on the last day of December, 1901, the same 
grade was quoted on the Charleston Cotton Exchange at 8 c, 
showing the moderate decline of f c. during the four months 
notwithstanding a larger crop and increased port receipts as 
compared with the same time for the year before. 

The market for Sea Islands cotton at Charleston was steady at Set. Idaodi, 
the close of last year, with quotations for this grade of the staple 
at 25 c, per lb. for fully fine, 24 c. for fine, and 22 c. for off 
qualities of cotton. The total receipts of Sea Islands from 
September 1 to December 31, 1901, were 6,394 bags, compared 
with 6,893 bags for the same time of the previous year, and 
the exports for the last four months of last year were 3,429 



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10 



CHARLESTON. 



bags, in comparison with 4,907 bags for the same of the previous 
year. 

Of last year's exports of Sea Islands, 1,127 b&gs vent to the 
United Kingdom, the remaining 3,780 bags going to New York. 

The consumption of the American crop of Sea Islands cotton 
last year showed that there has been a largely increased home 
demand for this staple. It was estimated near the close of the 
seaaon that the crop would approximate 88,000 bags, of which about 
54,000 bags woula go to Northern mills. The exports to foreign 
countries were greatly reduced below the previous year, when the 
total crop amounted to 98,000 hags. 

The increased home consumption is due to many new uses 
which are being found for Sea Islands cotton in various kinds of 
manufacturing, the staple being admirably adapted for the manu- 
facture of strong yarns, for which new uses are constantly being 
found. It is found useful also in manufacturing a material for 
insulating wires ; it also forms the basis for the tyres of bicycles 
and automobiles, which require a strong yielding textlire, and it 
has for a long time played an important part in fancy goods, neck- 
wear, &c, which require an attractive finish, more of this cotton 
being used for thread than for any other purpose. 

During the latter part of last 3'ear some interest was created 
among those engaged in handling Sea Islands cotton by a report 
that 100 bales of P^yptian cotton had been received at Norfolk, 
Virginia, consigned to a mill in South Carolina, as the Egyptian 
article comes into competition with the American Sea Islands 
staple. It appears, however, that the mill in question, which is 
situated in the town of Clover, South Carolina, has been importing 
and spinning Egyptian cotton for nearly two years. It produces a 
high-gi'ade yam, used in the manufacture of fine underwear and 
hosiery. Cheaper cost of the raw material has undoubtedly been 
the reason f»r using Egyptian cotton in this instance, in preference 
to the American long cotton. 

In connection with this matter, it may he of interest to know 
that the United States Government is making another effort to 
adapt Egyptian cotton to successful cultivation in this country. 
Last year experiments were made in a small way in the Salt Kiver 
Valley, near Phoenix, Arizona, which, it is reported, were attended 
with a considerable degree of success. 

Samples of the fleece sent to the Secretary of Agriculture f^m 
the Arizona experimental farms were said to be of fine quality, 
tiner indeed than the average grade of Egyptian cotton from its 
native soil. One reason why the Egyptian cotton has never suc- 
ceeded well in the South Atlantic States has been owing to the 
humidity being too great, too much moisture in both air and soil 
proving hurtful to the growth of the plant. It is claimed that in 
many respects the valleys of the southern part of Arizona, New 
Mexico, and Old Mexico are similar in climatic conditions to the 
Valley of the Nile. The soil is almost identical ; there is little 
difference in irrigation and climate — irrigation being as necessary 
as in Egj'pt. The experimental crop that was raised near FhcsDiz 



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CHABLSBTOV. 11 

was produced at small cost, the cof.toD picking beiag done by 
Indians. It is po sstbLe that the labour problem may operate against 
cottou culture in the aouth-weat section of this country, as few 
negroes live tbere, but hopes atd entertuned that Indians and 
Mexicans may be profitably employed, and as already stated, 
further experiments are to be made in Arizona this coming year 
with a view of determining whether long staple cotton can be suc- 
cessfully cultivated. 

About a year ago the German Government secured the services Cotton it 
of a number of American negroes from this section, persons ol'jj^™" 
education, to ga to the German colony in East Africa to conduct 
experiments in the culture of cotton and maize (Indian corn), the 
object being to supply Germany with raw ootton, and enable her 
to be independent of the United States in this respect. It was 
believed by the German authorities that the climate and soil of 
East Africa were well suited to the cotton plant, and the experi- 
ments were designed to ascertain if this belief were well grounded, 
Among the negroes who went to Africa under the auspices of the 
German Government was John W. Robinson, of South Carolina, 
from whom reports have been received giving it as his opinion that 
the experiments in cotton and maize culture are likely to be suc- 
cessful The farm on which he is employed has 100 acres in cotton 
besides the maize acreage. On July 1 last the cotton stalks were 
6 feet high, and well fruited. Both season and soil seemed to be 
well suited to the cotton, and at that time there was every pros- 
pect that a fairly good crop would be gathered. There were, how- 
ever, certain contingencies to be feared, but the crop appeared to 
be as promising as a similar crop would be in the United Slates. 
The maize, or com, was generally higher than the ootton, and the 
ears filling out well- One of the chief enemies of the com 
were the monkeys, some of them 6 feet tall, who pulled off the 
ears from the stalks, and carried them into the shade to eat them. 
It is also stated that most of the domestic animals do well in the 
colony after they become acclimatised, 

A number of inquiries havs been addressed to British Consular CottoD-w 
ofBcers in this district during the past year for information 
relative to the question of cotton-seed and its products, which have, 
in the past few years, become an important item in the annual 
production of the cotton Stated. The following information on 
the subject has been obtained from the last-published report of 
the United States census report on cotton-seed manufacture for 
last year, from which it appears that there were 375 establish- 
ments engaged in extracting cotton oil from the cotton-seed in this 
country and that they consumed 2,479,386 tons of seed, costing 
about 28,632,616 doL, or an average of about 11 dol. 55 c per ton. 
The total value of the product was 42,411,835 dol The quantity of 
seed crushed was 53 per cent of the total amount produced, which 
latter aggr^ated 4,638,346 tong, valued at 54,345,677 dol., and the 
former 2,479,386 tons, costing at the mills 28,632,616 doL, the 
available and actual value of the crude and manufactured products 
being 80,371,375 dol. and 42,411,835 doL respectively. 



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12 

The estimated value of the liat cotton produced durm)^ the 
Census jear waa 338,836,921 doL Tlie oouibiaed valae of the lint 
and seed produced was 393,182,598 dol., and the value of the 
entire cotton crop, including the value of the entire available 
crude manufactured products from the eeed, amounted to 
419,208,296 doL 

Of the above totals, the quantities produced by the States in 
thiB Consular district, with cost and value of the same, were aa 
loUows : — 



BoDthCWolink.. 

North Cnrolia*. . 
GeoTfpft . . 

TcniiiMee 



Tona. \ DolUn. 

166,662 S,189,40S 

107,660 I 1,S13,663 

271,833 I 3,346,814 

16S,307 I 1,S48,8SB 



Under the present methotls of treating cotton-seeJ it is esti- 
mated that only about 40 per cent, of the oil is extracted from 
the cake, but by a new procesa repnrteil from Wasliington tn have 
been receutly invented for hulling and delinting cotton-eeeil, it is ' 
claimed that practically all of the oil will be secured, ani.1 that 
there will alKo be a great reduction in the cost, time, and labour 
required imdor the new process. Crude oil, it is expected, will be 
protlueed f<)r 50 per cent, of its present cost, and a considerable 
gain in preparing the hulls for paper manufacture are among its 
other advantages. Should these expectations be realised, it is easy 
to see that the gain to the cotton producers and the world at 
large would be considerable, possibly aa much as 38,000,000 dol. 
annually on the total crop production. 

It is further stated that cotton oil refined by the new process, 
which is secret, has been examined by chemists, and pronounced to 
be equal to good qualities of importeil olive. Of its wholesome- 
ness there can be no doubt, as it is a pure vegetable oil. It is now 
a standard article for domestic consumptiou and is in general 
use for cooling and other purposes. 

The cotton milling industry continues to show satisfactory 
pr<^;ress throughout the sections of this district best adapted for 
cotton manufacturing. Leading mills situated in the middle and 
upper parts of the two Carolinas, Georgia and Tennessee, are doing 
good business and earning large dividends on capital invested. 
There are, however, no cotton mills now operated in the coast 
towns, except one mill of 800 looms near Savannah; the mllb 
formerly located at Charleston and Savannah, operated by steam- 
power, have been discontinued or removed elsewhere to places in 
the up-country, where the conditions of labour, climate, and 
cheap water-power were more favourable. The experiment re- 
ported last year of using negro labour in the Charleston Vesta 
Hill was detinitely abandoned laat August, and the machinery 



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CHAKLE8TOX. 



13 



moved to Gainesville, in Hall county, Georgia, where, under 
anotlier name and new ot^aisation, ic is now doing well 

The cotton milling busiuees of the Southern States generallj 
also continues to progress, the official figures of the United 
Stutes Ceneus Bureau for the last decade showing that the total 
number of spindles bad increased from 1,554,000 in the year 1890 
to 0,001,487 in 1900, an increase of 3,447,487 spindles, or 221 per 
cent. During the same period the number of mills increased from 
239 to 500, an increase of 261 mills, or more than 100 per cent. 
Besides this gain, however, 105 mills were completed during 1900, 
there were 34 more organised and in process of couBtructioQ, 
with the promise of being completed early in the season of 
1901-02. 

The distribution and increase of the spindles by States during li 
the decade were as follows : — ■ 



Virginim 

North Caroliu.. 

South CftroUiia .. 

TennewM 
Al&baina . . . . 
Kentucky 

UiuiMippi ... 
Mixoiiri, Arkuusi, LoniuanB, 
sndTaxu 66,980 



Number of 


SpindlM. 


From— 


To— 


94,294 


ieB,4G2 


387,786 


1,264,509 


3S2,7M ' 


1,693,649 




446,452 


97,BM 


16S.987 


79,234 


437,200 




68,730 


67,004 


B8,G84 



The distribution and increase in the number of mills during 
the same above-mentioned period were as follows : — 


8t>b». 


NumW<rfMill*. 


From— 


T«- 


SorthCMolina 

South Cwolinm 

GeoTgu. 

AiatMina 

Kmtucky 

Arkanau 

I^niiiMM 

HiMUdppi .. 

TelH 


91 
34 
53 
18 


190 
93 
86 
44 

10 

4 
E 
4 
6 



From this it will be seen that the most notable increase vma in 
Alabama, where the increase of ^indies during the 10 ye&ra 
named was slightly over 450 per cent., but in the order of the 
total number of spmdlea now in operation. South Carolina stajids 
first, Korth Carolma second, and Georgia third in the list. 



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14 CBARLKSTOH. 

{h«wth not That this growth of the Southern cotton milliiig industry has 

ncniira. not been ezcesHive for the section in which it occurred, that is, the 
cotton growing section of the country, appears to be evident from 
some further figures taken from a report of the Memphis, Tennes- 
see, Cotton Exchai^e. This Report shows that last year's total 
cotton crop was 10,313,986 bales, valued at 485,000,000 doL, and 
that of this crop the Southern mills consumed 1,503,000 bales, 
valued at 71.000,000 doL, while Northern mills took 2,056.000 
bales, valued at 96,000,000 doL, and that 6.422.477 bales, valued 
at 302,000,000 doL were exported from the country to be manu- 
factored by foreign mills. 

With all the mills that have been built during the past 10 
years the cotton-growing States only manufacture about one* 
seventh of their own crop, and it is not difficult to foresee that, 
with the abundant and cheap water-power yet available, the 
salubrious climate and dieap labour of the Piedmont section, 
the day may come when ^ven mills may stand where only one 
now is wooing, and the South may become an exporter of 
manufactured cotton goods only, and cease to export raw cotton 
to foreign countries. 
Lwner outlet In this connection it may be useful to call attention to the 
nMded. interest that is beginning to be taken by milling interests here 

in securing a larger ouwet for American mani^actured cotton 
goods, particularly in the markets of the West Indies and South 
America, and' some impressive figures have lately been made public 
going to show the advantages of establishing better trade relations 
with the markets south of this countiy. It is claimed that while 
the opportunity for cotton mill products in the markets South are 
even better than in China, the exports of American-made goods 
st present to South American countries are comparatively trifling, 
while of the 47,890,800 del, worth of cotton goods imported into 
China annually, about 9,844,000 doL, or, say, 20 per cent., are of 
American origin. It is also pointed out that the South American 
demand is larger than China's, it being estimated that about 
50,000,000 doL worth of cotton goods are required yearly to 
supply the South American markets, and of this only 1.000,000 doL, 
or one-iiftieth part, is supplied by American mills. Prom this it 
would appear that more attention should be given to South 
American and less to the Chinese market. Several other reasons 
are also put forward looking to this end. For instance. Chinese 
trade was greatly reduced by the late war in that country, and its 
resulting disturbed conditions, and the Carolina and other Southern 
mills were seriously affected thereby. On the other hand it is 
urged that the South American markets are more peaceful 
and stable, besides being larger by several millions yearly. They 
are moreover much nearer, geographically speaking, and their 
50,000,000 of population ore more nearly akin to the people of 
this country in race and civilisation than the Chinese. The dis- 
crepancy between the American trade with China and South 
America seems singular in view of the shorter distance necessary 
to be covered in reaching the former markets, as compared wilii 



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CHAKLCSTOK. -IS 

China. In addition to this, the further element that would seem 
to weigh ^[ainst China ia the marked difference between America 
and China in character, religion, and domestic life, in all of which 
respects the similarity of the American people to those of South 
America are in striking contraat. 

The relative proportion of the Southern cotton manufacturing ToikI mMn- 
business aa compared with the total product will be seen from the '"otnring- 
following statement from United States official reports issued in 
the latter part of December, 1901. The extent of the total cotton 
manufacturing industry of the United States for the year 1900 
places the total value of cotton manufacturing products at 
336,974,882 dol, a gain of over 25 per cent, since 1890. The 
number of eetablishments in 1900 was 1,051, a gain of 16 per 
cent., and the capital employed was 467,240,167 doL, an increase 
of 32 per cent The amount paid in salaries was 7,535,129 doL, 
a gain of 117 per cent.; the average number of wage-earners, 
302,861, a gain of 18 per cent. ; amount of total wages paid, 
90,384,532 dol., a gain of 36 per cent.; cost of materials used, 
176,551,127 dol., a gain of 14 per cent 

The Gainesville Cotton Mill, of Gainesville, Georgia, situated Oaineiniie 
between Atlanta and Spartanburg, on the Southern Kailway, is CoM*"" MiH, 
one of the recent additions to the industries of that town. It is 
now organised with a capital of 500,000 dol. This mill was 
formerly the Vesta Cotton Mill, of Charleston, South Carolina, 
where the experiment of using ne^o labour in the manufacture of 
cotton goods proved after several years' trial to be a failure. The 
machinery of this mill was removed from Charleston to Oaines- 
ville in August last, and with white labour is reported to be now 
making money for ite stock-holders. 

The especial pride of Gainesville, however, at this time is the New mill, 
great cotton mill, now nearly completed, and which will be known 
as " Facolet No. 4," Nos. 1, 2, and 3 mills being in South Carolina, 
and owned by the same company. Pacolet No. 4 is built on the 
land known as the New Holland Springs tract, a once famous 
summer resort, with its health-giving spring. The spring is still 
there, but it and its surroundings have been changed. The mill 
ia a maaaive structure, with hundreds of new white cottages 
adjoining it The main building is 550 feet in length by 160 feet 
in width, the greater part being five storeys high, though a part 
is six storeys. There are 10 acres of floor space in the mill. 
The total investment is 1,250,000 dol., which amount was made 
up from 600,000 do!, (the surplus earnings from the other three 
Pacolet mills, after paying two half-yearly dividends of 10 per 
cent each), and new subscriptions from old stock-holders, to make 
up the necessary amount. When in operation this mill will give 
employment to 1,600 people, all white, many of whom l^ve 
already come in from the surrounding country awaiting the 
opening. The mill will make standard brown sheetings. 

While the fertiliser business was satisfactory the minii^ of Pbosphito 
phosphate rock in this State was not so encouraging, as the pro- ^1^^°* 
duotion has to contend now with the Florida and Tennessee out- 



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18 



CHABLZSTON. 



put. Florida annually mines about 750,000 tons oF phosphate, 
which gives her the first place as a producer of this commodity. 
Tenneasee is also a large and important contributor to the yearly 
Bupply, and both these States ship most of their phosphate rock to 
foreign countries, and, as yet, they manufacture comparatively 
tittle of their phosphate production. On the other hand, Charleston 
while a large fertiliser manufacturer has never Iteeu a foreign 
exporter to any extent of either crude rock cr its manufactured 
products, most of the fore%n rock shipments being exported from 
Beaufort, Fort Royal, Savannah, and Brunswick. 

Charleston continues to hold her position as the leading centre 
throughout the country for the manufacture of phosphate com- 
mercial fertilisers, and the business seems to be steadily increasii^. 
The past year, however, was not so encouraging for miners of 
phosphate rock, the ofBcial figures showing a f alling-off in the rock 
trade at Charleston of 60,105 tons as compared with the preWous 
year, and a decrease of 42,689 tons iu the rock business at Beaufort, 
South Carolina, these being the two principal points of shipment for 
South Carolina mined rock. But tiiere was a satisfactory increase 
in the output of commercial fertilisers, Charleston showing a gain 
of 53,064 tons, and Beaufort 10,000 tons. The total Charleston 
production last season was 429,378 tons, compared with 376^14 
tons for the previous year, and the value of the increase was 
636,768 doL with prospects for a good business next season. 

Prospectors intorested in the Carolina fertiliser business will 
find that there are still a good many desirable openings in this 
section ; it may surprise many persons to know that since the 
year 1870 the State of South Carolina has received in royalties 
the sum of 3,393,534 doL from phosphate rock, and this would 
doubtless have been considerably increased had it not been for 
unfavourable l^islation, which seriously injured the indostry in 
the Coosaw mining district in Beaufort county. 

It was estimated that 3,000,000 tons of phosphate rock was 
required to supply the world's demands last season, of which 
Europe required 2,000,000 and the United States 1,000,000 tons. 
Of the European supply Florida shipped 550,000 tons ; Tennessee, 
200,000 tons; and South Carolina, 100,000 tons. Most of the 
Tennessee shipments to foreign countries go by way of Korfolk 
and Pensacola, the Florida shipmente ^m Tampa, Punta Grorda, 
Femandina, Brunswick and Savannah, and the Carolina article 
from Beaufort and Port Boyal almost exclusively. 

The exports of crude and ground phosphate rock &om the port 
of Charleston to coastwise and domestic points by railway from 
September 1 to December 31, 1901, were 4,892 tons, compared 
with 13,750 tons for same during the provious year, most of these 
shipments going to Baltimore, Maryland, there beii^ do foreign 
shipments. 

During the season of 1900-01 there were not so many inde- 
pendent companies interested in this active and important industry 
at Charleston as heretofore, the combined output being the latgest 
of any city in the United States. All but four of the companies 



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OHARLEBTON. 17 

{the Ashepoo, Etiwan, McMtuphy and Bead) are owned by the 
Virginia-Carolina Chemical Company, and have been incor- 
porated into a syndicate coQtroIl^ by the last-named company. 
This enterprising syndicate has secured control of nearly 
all the Southern mills, with the exception of about 25, their 
lateat purchaees appearing to show that they still have money to 
spend in equipping thamaelves in both the mining of rook and the 
manufacture of phosphate commercial fertilisers, and they now own 
the most Important phosphate tracts and the lai^est fettlliser 
fiwtones. 

The imports of kainit, muriate of potash, pyrites, aolphur, CLomiMU. 
nitrate of soda, and other chemicals used in the manufacture of 
commercial fertilisers having phosphate as a basis, t^gregated last 
year 180,823 tons of chemicals valued at 1,540,402 dol., in com- 
parison with similar imports during the previous year of 128,929 
tons worth 778,353 dol. ; the chemical imports have been the 
principal employment for British ships coming to this port durii^ 
the past two years. 

During the commercial year ending August 31, 1901, the total TeanMase 
shipments of Tennessee phosphate rock were 446,085 tons, in com- pl'<»»P'i"**- 
parison with shipments the previous year of 464,60d tons, lowing a 
decrease of a litUe over 18,000 tons last season. Of last year's ship- SLipinentt. 
ments 177,632 tons went to domestic places, and 268,553 were 
shipped to foreign countries. 

The Tennessee rock, as previously reported, has taken an 
important place in the markets of the world, and the State has a 
good deposit of a high grade article, but all of the rock mined last 
year was not good enough for export to foreign markets. The 
condition of t^ principal companies, however, around Mount 
Pleasant, representing a capital of about 2,500,000 doL, will malffl 
this a strong syndicate, and the business is likely to be 
permanent. The companies composing this syndicate are the 
International, the Howard, the !Ridley, the Sumner, the Blue 
Grass, and the Central Phosphate. 

The State of North Carolina is reported to have mined 20,000 &oHh 
tons of phosphate rock durii^ the year 1901, in comparison with '-'■">1»* ™'''^ 
15,000 tons in the year before. There are no foreign shipments 
from this State the output being consumed by domestic purchaseia 
Shell Bock Quarry at Castle Hsynes, North Carolina, is now 
operated by private parties, and the entire output of these "-•' 

phosphate mines is sent to ^e cit^ of Wilmington under a con- 
tract entered into with the authorities of that place, who use it 
for street macadamizii^ purpoees. 

Florida maintains her position as the largest phosphate- Florida mtk. 
producing State in the American Union. She now minee 
about 750,000 tone annually, most of which is shipped to 
foreign markets, a consideiable proportion of the output going 
abroad through the ports of Savannah and Brunswick, situated 
within this Consular district. Last year Brunswick exported 
23,009 tons of Florida rock, in comparison with 7,816 tons during 
the year before, and from Savannah the exports last year were BxporU, 
(23) B 



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18 OHAHLESTON. 

144,861 tons, in compariBOD with 136,860 tons for the previous 
year, these figures showing a marked increaae in favour of U«t 
year. The excellent railway and terminal facilities of these 
ports has enabled them to secure nearly oae-quarter of the 
Florida pro<luct, notwithstandii^ the superior uatural advantages 
of situation, &c., enjoyed by the Florida ports. 

There is at the present time about 15,000,000 del. invested in 
Florida phosphate mining, and this State could easily produce 
1,000,000 tons annually if it was necessary ; it is simply a 
qnestion of price. Florida has lost none of her customers recently 
unless it is Japan and Australia, which, perhaps, may in future be 
able to supply their wants from the Christmas Island. The 
necessities of the world, however, appear to grow apace with 
the supply, and will not allow of any material shrinkage in price 
or diminution in quantity of rock mined and needed each year, 
and as phosphorus is now being made from phosphate rock it 
opens up a new use for the higher gradea b'lorida possesses the 
advantage of being able to furnish soft rock, hard rock, river 
pebble and land pebble as may be required, all of good uniform 
quality, with an analysis ranging from 60 to 85 per cent, of bona 
phosphate of lima It seems now to have become a settled con- 
sei'vative business, free from injurious speculative features. 
^ Tin^„ ■ The closing prices for hot-air-dried phosphate rock at Charles- 

prion. ton on the last day of the year 1901 was 3 dol 50 c. per ton, 

delivered f.o.b, in Ashley Eiver, with the tone of the market 
quiet. 
_. Reports received from Nashville, the capital of Tennesaee, at 

a-'Tdopment. ^^^ ^°^ '^^ ^^^ J^" ^^'* ^^^^ *'^'' Florence Phosphate. Iron and 
Bailroad Company has been chartered under the laws of Kentucky, 
axti charter filed at Nashville with t>he Secretary of State. The 
company's present capital stock is 100,000 doL, and it is authorised 
to issue 300,000 dol of bonds. It is proposed to build a railway 
from Florence, Alabama, to Maney, Wayne County, Tennesaee, for 
the development of phosphate and iron interests owned by the 
company in Tennessee and Alabama. The proposed road will 
connect with a branch of the Nashville, Chattanooga and St. Louis 
Railway at Maney and with the Louisville and Nashville and 
Southern Railways at Florence. The work of construction is to 
begin at a very early date. 

Spirits of turpentine, resin and tar, the products of the pine, 
are mainly produced by the States of Georgia, Florida and Alabama, 
and also to a smaller extent by North and Sout^ Carolina, Missis- 
sippi and Louisiana; North Curolina produces about 17,000 barrels 
of tar yearly. 

According to official figures the business has largely increased 
in the past 10 years, the total capital now invested being 
11,847,490 dol., and the number of establishments in operation 
1,503. The total value of the annual product is 20,344,868 dol, 
the last yearly product being 754,670 tuirels of spirits of turpen- 
tine and 2,563,067 barrels of resin. Of this output the United 
States consTuned about 63 per cent, of the turpentine and a litUe 



ITaTsl atorM. 



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CnAJtLKSTDN. 19 

over 7 per cent of the resin, the rest being shipped to foreign 
countries. 

The total year's output of the different States in barrels of Ontput. 
crade turpentine (that is, the pine gam as it comes from the 
trees before distillation), with the value of the same, was aa 
follows : — 



SUM. 


(lu«.tity. 


V.lue. 


North Owolhw 

GMiyia 

Florid* 

Alabuiu 

Mi^ippi 


Bmrreli. 

861,7KI 

190,096 

1,616,669 

1,213,986 

878,00e 

12,289 

8S^S29 


DolUrt. 
1,086.895 

787,856 
8,110,468 
6,649,009 
a,OM,736 

llB,aM 
1,772,486 



These figures show that Creorgia still holds her position as the 
leading naval stores-producing State in the cotmtry, Savannah 
being the principal market for turpentine and the various grades 
of resins, and controlling prices for these commodities in other 
markets. The exhaustion of the pine foteeta of North and South 
Carolina has caused a great decline in the naval stores business 
at this port, which has, for a number of years, passed steadily 
southward to the pine forests of Georgia, Florida and Alabama. 

The receipts and exports at Charleston from April 1, 1901b____,._ 
(when the naval stores year begins), until December 31, 1901, «xport». 
and for the same period of the previous year, were as follows :^ 
Beceipta last season were 2,185 casks of spirits of turpentine and 
7,836 barrels of resin, compared with 2,017 casks of turpentine 
and 14,246 barrels of resin during the corresponding period of the 
pi-evious year. 

The total exports from April 1 to December, 1901, were 2,169 Xzpoiti. 
casks of turpentine and 8,258 barrels of resin, compared with 
1,720 casks of turpentine and 12,876 barrels of resin during the 
same period of the previous year, and the stock remaining on 
hand (and on shipboard) at Uie end of 1901 was 56 casks of 
turpentine and 678 barrels of i-esin, in comparison with 307 
casks of turpentine and 2,155 barrels of resin the year before. 
Of the exports last year, all of the turpentine went coastwise to 
New York and American ports, except 2,500 barrels of resin to 
the United Kingdom and 1,700 barrels of resin to Barcelona, 
Spain ; there were no foreign shipments. During the same period 
of the previous year the only foreign shipments were 4,600 barrels 
of resin to the United Kingdom and 5,742 barrels to nor&em 
European ports. 

The turpentine market at Charleston on the last day of the Oioting 
past year dosed firm with sales of 70 casks at 35 c. per gallon. P"*^- 
Bestn also was firm with sales of 450 barrels and quotations as 
follows : — 

(23) B 2 



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CBADLESIOH, 





From— 


To- 


B, C and D gndM of r«mti .. 
FtoIgi«d» 

W. G. (window iiu.) " '.'. 


Dol. a 

l"lO 
1 85 


Dol. c. 
1 B 

1 sa 

2 9S 

3 as 

S 60 



The demand for all gradea of lumber in the Cbarlestx)!! 
market was good laet year, (md olosiug prices at the end of the 
year were as follows : — 



i ^~- 


i ! From- 


To-' 


Dol. 0. 

Merchmtoble lumber- ] 

Citjwwed IflOOfset .. 14 

tiqnore edge and Kiaiid . . „ . . DO 
Bailway „ .. 8 60 

DoektimW „ .. 6 

Shingle. 1 1,000.. .. 4 50 


Dol. e. 

16 
14 
IB 

S 
10 

7 60 



Exports of lumber from this port from September 1, 1900, to 
August 31 were as foUowB :— Total exports last year, 60,924,936 
superficial feet, in comparison with 60,997,765 feet tha year 
before. Of last year's exports only 568,000 feet went to foreign 
porta; the West Indies taking 325,000 feet, the United King- 
dom, 75,000 feet, and the rest going to other countries. 

The exports of lumber from September 1 to December 31, 
1901, were as follows :— Total exports 18,579,283 feet in com- 
parison with 19,733,899 feet during the corresponding four months 
of the year before. 

Of last year's exports 138,000 feet were shipped to foreign 
countries, the United Kingdom taking 20,000 feet, the West 
Indies 108,000 feet, and other ports 10,000 feet 

The rice crop of Carolina and Georgia was a little backward 
last season, owing to cool nkjhts that occurred soon after 
planting, in March and April. The first rice brought to market 
is usually of the white variety, the gold qualities being of later 
maturity. The crop produced was not quite so la^ge as the year 
before, but no serious storms or floods were experienced during 
the harvesting period, and there was a good demand with a steady 
to firm tone to the market throughout most of the season, with 
quotations of 5 to 5i c. per lb. for prime rice on the last day of 
the year. 



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CHARLESTON. 21 

Tbia country's new possession, Porto Rico, b a large rice 
consumer, and heuvy shipments are made to that island eveir 
year. Last season a large ad valorem dnty was imposed, which 
has now been taken off and strong hopes are felt that this com- 
modity will soon be admitted into Cuba, ^e of duty also. 

While tlie principal shipments to these islands are made from 
New Orleans, on account of direct communication and cheaper 
rates, the Atlantic coast rice market is, nevertheless, indirectly 
benefited by New Orleans disposing of her cheaper grades, and 
thus eliminating one important element of competition ftom the 
.Carolina and Georgia product in the domestic market, enabling 
the entire crop marketed here to be disposed of in this and 
adjoining States. 

The receipts of rice at Charleston, during the year ending SeoeipU and 
September 1, 1901, were 52,923 barrels, in comparison wtftoxporo. 
57,115 barreb during the previous year ; and the exports for the 
year ending September 1, 1901, were 45,046 barrels, as compared 
with 47,685 barrels for the previous year. The stock remaining 
on hand, September 1, 1901, was seven barrels compared with 
130 barrels on the corresponding date of the year before. There 
were no foreign exports of rice from this port this or last year, 
the entire above-mentioned shipments going to northern ports or 
interior points by railway. 

From September 1 to December 31, 1901, the receipts were 
26,685 barrels, as compared with 31,339 barrels during the 
corresponding four months of the previous year ; and the exports 
for the four months ending September 1, 1901, were, 18,904 
barrels, in comparison with 20,334 barrels for the same time of 
the year before. The stock on band on the last day of the past year 
was 3,781 barrels, compared with 7,635 barrels on the same date 
of the previous year ; all of these exports also going to domestic 
ports and places of the United States. 

The closing prices for rice in the Charleston market, Decem- Priots. 
her 31, 1901, were as follows: — For prime qualities, 5 to 5^ c. 
per lb. ; good, 4J to 4f e. ; fair, 4^ to 4^ c. ; common, 3} to 4 c ; ■ 
with a st^y tone to the market 

The total number of arrivals of vessels of all nationalities, at shippiiu Hd 
the port of Charleston, during the year 1901 was 732, having a nmriguioa. 
total net tonnage of 1,060,409 tons, compared with arrivals for 
the previous year of 704 vessels with an aggregate net tonnage 
of 969,783 tons ; these figures showing a moderate increase both 
in namben of vessels and total tonnage in favour of last year. 
The following table shows the nationality of last year's arrivcds — Anini*. 



(23) 



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CHABLESTOH. 



American .. 

KoTwegUn 

Amtm-Hunguiaa 
l>iitch .. 
^■OMh .. .. 
Qermao .. 



Ton*. 

91,477 
g]U,018 
10,962 
12,984 
10,666 
8,260 
9,366 
8,166 
4,661 



Freight quotations at this port on the last day of the past year 
were as follows : — 



. B; (taun, tiA Ifew York, indirect, 

tc foreign porta , , , . ... 100 Ibi. . . 
By iteam, tiR New Toi^ direot, I 

to foreign ^orti ' „ 

To Bremen, indiroot from Charleeton . „ 

I „ direot from dimrleftOD. . „ 

To Hamburg, indirect , , , , „ 

To Bu^ODA, direct .. .. „ 

. Couetwiw to He" YoA .. ..,l,000feet 

ToBoMon „ 

ToBaltinrav „ 

, To poru on Long Iiland Sound, , 
New York ' 



3Uilw«; ileepen | 

(eiowtiei) . . , To Now York . . 

Fhbiphata rock . . | To Baltimore . . 

To Eliiabetbpoit 



4fBrt 



Chartering. The past year has been characterised by greater care and 

caution in chartering of vessels ahead, in anticipation of securing 
cargoes, than was the case during 1900, with the result of fewer 
instances of demurrage to report, or of failure of charterers to 
load vessels in accordance with contract stipulations. 

The prices tor staple commodities experienced no very wide 
or unexpected fluctuations in 1901 such as demoralised shipping 
business so much during the autumn of the previous year, and 
although freights were rather slow in moving during last October 
and Kovember, business, on the whole, was smoother and steadier 
in shipping matters throughout the greater part of the year. 
Carolina There are many persons living outside this State who have 

tobacco orop. ^^ jygj. jj^^^ ^f (.jjg gjoy^h of the tobacco industry in the east 
of South Carolina. Five years ago tobacco growing was an experi- 
mental crop in nearly every county of the State ; experience, 
however, has proved that this plant can most successfully be 
grown on rich sandy lands, with a clay subsoil, such as abound 



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CHAKLESTONl 23 

along the section of the Great Pee Dee Eiver. This includes the 
(ioantiea of FlorMice, Darlington, Marion, Horry, Marlboro, 
Clarendon, and WilliamBburg. Large warehouses and factories 
have been built for handling the crop, and it is said that the 
business is now carried on as well here as in Danville, Virginia, 
the centre of the Virginia tobacco industries. 

The South Carolina tobacco crop produced last year is re- Lut jeu't 
ported to be 20,000,000 lbs., which was sold at an average of product, 
10 c. per lb., yielding the growers 2,000,000 dol. The crop is put 
on the market as early as the first week in July, and sales 
continue until the following April It is a noticeable fact also 
chat the growing of tobacco has not mode any muterial reduction 
in the cotton crop in the district where it is now grown, it beii^ 
■now regarded in this State as an extra money crop, very much 
like the peach crop ia in Geoigia. 

Tobacco growing is expensive and uncertain in several respects Condition!. 
and requires most careful cultivation and attention. Those who 
appear to succeed best are the small white farmers who, with the 
assistance of their wives and children, do all the work themselves. 
Tew persons admit that the crop can be made to pay if hired 
labour is employed and paid for out of the proceeds of the pro- 
duct. The American Tobacco Company has a buyer in every 
market, and practically fixes the price from day to day. The 
South Carolina product is used principally in the manufacture of 
cigarettes and smoking tobacco, a considerable part of which is 
shipped to the United Kingdom and other countries in Europe, 

In connection with this subject, it may be stated that a 
number of people iuterested in Carolina tobacco think that 
it is likely an article of tobacco can be produced in this State, 
which will compare favourably with Cuban tobacco — that is, 
they believe a " filler " can be made that will equal the Cuban Filler tobteoo. 
product in the manufacture of cigars. 

With this end in view efforts are being made to attract the 
attention of the national Government to the matter and to induce 
it, if possible, to include South Carolina in its experimental work. 
It is understood that, if the Government can be assured of there 
being sufficient public interest, a soil survey will be made of a 
large poriion of this State. Almost eveiy other Stat« in the Union 
has had topographical maps made of large areas, but as yet none 
have been made in South Carolina. 

A survey of this kind wonld perhaps cost about 30,000 doL, 
and it would serve to disclose to a considerable extent the wealth 
and resources of the State. 

The Bureau of Soils of the United (States Department of Agri- 
culture, at Washington, have recently published information relative 
to this matter to the effect that, since t5ie markedly successful results 
of the Govemmenf B experiment of introducing Sumatra tobacco 
into the Connecticut Valley, and of the work on fermentation and 
the prevention of black rot in Pennsylvania, and since the 
Secretary of Agriculture has given instructiona that steps be 
taken in order to ascertain if l^ere is a poaeibility of producing 
(23) » 4 



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24 



CHABLISTON. 



South 

OaralinB tea 
«iilturp. 



a desirable tiller leaf for domestic cigars of such a quality as woald 
compete with the Cuban product, the Bureau has received a 
number of urgent requests that experiments be made both in 
North and South Carolina. The North Carolina State Depart- 
ment of Agriculture has also urged the Government very strongly 
to co-operate with it in the matter, and as extensive soil surveys 
have akeady been made in that State, the department has ex- 
pressed their intention to inaugurate esperimenta in Xorth 
CaruUna next summer in order to determine what are the possi- 
bilities of growing the Cuban type of tobacco.^ 

Favourable conditions had not been looked for previously, 
in either of these States, for the production of a good domestic 
filler tobacco, but some samples, recently sent to the Department 
ot Agriculture at Washington from Eastern South Carolina, 
stated to have been grown from Cuban seed, caused some sur- 
prise to the officials, and appeared to indicate the possibility of 
producing a desirable filler, provided proper methods of handling 
and cultivation are introduced. In view of these facts and the 
indications now apparent that the Cuban filler leaf may yet be 
produced in South Carolina, it is hoped that the Government will 
consider the advisaDility of starting a soil survey, to be followed 
as promptly as possible by a tobacco investigation in this State, 
mtimations to this effect having recently been received from tlie 
Soils Bureau of the Agricultural Department 

While it is probable that the experiments in tea culture at 
the South Carolina Government tea farm at Pinehurst, near 
Summerville, will be carried en for several years more, with 
different qualities under widely differing conditions, the most 
important facts relative to American tea culture have already 
been demonstrated. Among other things it has been proved that 
a number of kinds of tea from diflerent countries — Japan, China, 
Siam, and Formosa — can be grown with profit, and that several 
other varieties have been found unprofitable in a commercial way. 
Future experiments will probably continue along this line with a 
view of getting the greatest productiveness from the tea plant in 
the shortest time. Another important point ascertained is tliat 
the tea bush can survive very cold weather. While it is un- 
doubtedly better that it should be grown where the mercury does 
not go below 25° Fahr., yet in the frost of two winters ago the 
t«a gardens were subjected to a temperature below zero and 
suffered little injury thereirom. 

In the East, where tea grows naturally, the rainfall is from 
two to three times as much as here during the summer, which 
deficiency has been compensated for in the Carolina gardens by a 
system of irrigation. The careful labour needed in picking the 
delicate leaf has been provided by giving special school advant^es 
to all the little n^roes living in the vicinity who are willing to 
avail themselves of them, and these children are, during school 
Lours, instructed in tea picking, and during the tea gathering 
season they are given remunerative work. 

£xperimenting in tea culture was begun at the Finehuist 



dbyGoOgI 



/ 



gardens in 1891 by Dr. Charles U. -Sliepaxd, This was several yean 
after the Govemment had failed to get aatiafactory results from 
an appropriation mode by the United States CongresB for tea ex- 
periments. Dr. Shepard's work has proved successful, and lately 
he has received the kindest interest and valuable pecuniaiy 
assistance from the Secretary of Agriculture and from Congress. 

From reports received from Dr. Shepard relative to this tiie 
ouly tea farm on the American Continent, it appears that the 
most importAnt result of work done in the past summer has been 
a clearer distinction arrived at as to what will probably be profit- 
able and unprofitable tea culture in this country. It was fully 
recognised at the outset of the Pinefaurst investigations that their 
industrial value must rest on a clear and demonstrable pecuniary 
profit; nevertheless, as an experiment station it was proper to 
institute numerous trials with different kinds of seed under varying 
condition! 

The most common objection that has been raised to the estab- ^'J?" 
lishment of an American tea industry has been the difference in **"* 
the price of labour here and in the East, but with a full appro 
ciatioD of its force as appUed to poorer grades, there seems to exist 
a good profit in the production of those higher grades in whose 
cultivation cheap labour plays a minor part And in addition the 
home tea production has ^Js further advantage, that the final 
drying of the leaf need not be carried to the same extreme degree 
of heat whereby a sacrifice of much that is agreeable and beneficial 
in the flavour is entailed. 

Among the experiments made so far, that of tea cultivation in 
gardens protected from the sun by matting has proved to be quite 
successful as far as quality is concerned. But whether it will be 
possible to produce a tea in this way, costing ten-fold or more 
the price of tea grown in Japan, is a problem that remains yet to 
be solved. Years may elapse before there will be a demand in 
the United States for teas costing 10 doL a lb., or upwards, as is 
not infrequently the case in the East. It is stated that the 
finest green teas sold in the East sometimes cost as high aa 50 doL 
a lb., while the tea exported to America cost about 15 c a lb. CMtoi 
at the ports of shipment. Foreigners cannot use these high-priced pioductwn. 
teas, as owiu^ to their delicate qualities they will not bear ship- 
ment abroad. 

Other things being equal, however, the cost of growing tea 
depends somewhat upon the amount of skilled labour bestowed 
OB it, but chiefly on the fineness of the leaf plucking. The cost 
at Pinehurat of picking only the Pekoe tips, which are the un- 
folded leaves at the end of the young shoot, would probably be 
about 10 dol. a lb. of dry tea ; hut to strip the leaf by wholesale, 
as is done in China during the great early summer crop, would 
cost but a few cents per lb. It is the fineness of the plucking 
that eventually determines the value of the product. 

The introduction of modem tea-making machinery, principally iw nukinK 
invented at Pinehurst, has improved the drinking qualities of ™ 
South Carolina-grown black tea, and rendered entirely unnecessary 



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26 CHABLESTON. 

the diBgast so often expressed by EaBtem travellers at tbe un- 
Btinted blending of human sweat in the laborious manipulation of 
the tea in oYerheated factories. 

The Pinehurst product passes from one mechanical treatment 
to aiiother with the least possible handling, thus securing uni- 
formity in delicacy and flavour without impairing its strength. 

A noticeable gain has also been made in the Eoanufacture of 
green teas mechanically at Pinehurst during the past season. 
The adaptation of machinery to the curing of black tea has long 
been known aud practised, especially in the British Colonies, but 
with the exception of the steam process, which as yet is only 
slightly applied, it still remains successfully to substitute me- " 
chanical operations for hand or foot lahour in the preparation of 
green tea. The expense of labour here renders it impracticable 
to use methods that are common in the East, By means of the 
" rotary witherer," invented and successfully applied at Pinehurst, 
the tea-leaf, fresh from the garden, is quickly and suitably pre- 
pared for the further steps of mechanical rollii^ and firing at a 
niiniTninn of risk and expensc, and with a resulting product that 
has been highly praised by tea experts. These teas are free from 
all adulteration, whether for taste or colour. 

Special trials have also been made on certain areas with both 
black and green teas, and although these gardens are already 
profitable, the results, it is hoped, will in a year or two double 
the present productiveness. 

There is now a tolerably steady demand for all black tea 
produced, at 1 dol. per lb. ; this tea is grown from an exception- 
ally iine seed procured from China ; it cannot stand transporta- 
tion for long distances, aud it sells in the Chinese provinces 
where it is grown at 1 doL 60 c per lb. 

It is estimated that the Carolina gardens will produce about 
300 Iba. a year per. aero, at a profit of about 20 c. a lb., which 
would be about 10 times more than cotton planting would yield. 
Some of the tea from Pinehurst has been sold so fine as to be 
almost dust, and has brought as much as 12 dol. per lb. 

The general interest which the Pinehurst tea-growing experi- 
ments have wrought throughout the country are shown by the 
honouiB conferred on them by the Pan-American Exhibition at 
Buffalo last summer, and also by the inquiries made by capitalists 
in rogard to the new industry. It is now admitted that the 
schemes that at first seemed to be so doubtful have now attained 
a considerable d^ree of importance. One of the early results 
will probably he to have an import duty placed -on tea. The 
United States stand alone in this rospect at the present time. 
Free-trade Britain places a duty of 12 c. (6rf.) per lb. on tea from 
her own possessions, and they furnish almost all that she con- 
sumes. The other countries of Europe impose a duty of 20 to 
40 c on tea, Russia, having the best tea, placing the highest 
duty. Immense quantities of the cheaper sorts of tea are imported 
into the United Statea 

Dr. Shepard favours a duty on tea, while admitting that 



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CHARLESTON. 37 

perhaps the better grades may be profitably growD withoat any 
duty. According to his views, a daty of 20 c per lb. would not 
be too much. Where climate and labour conditions are faroai-- 
able, he is of opinion that the undertakings would be most 
promiaing. 

The cultivation of tea offers easy out-door labour tor men not 
capable of heavy employment in a hot malarial region. It enables 
women and childreo to earn their own livelihood, as, according to 
the Pinehuret experience, ordinary skill and industrious labour 
may be safely paid aa much as they can earn in the ootton 
fields. 

Apart also from growinj; tea for the market, it is urged that it 
can be raised hke any ordinary vegetable for domestic use in the 
home gardens. It can be cultivated with the roees, and used as 
hedges instead of unsij^htly fences, and in addition to the matter 
of economy, people would in this way be able to get a better 
quality than they have ever had before — tea with real colour and 
flavour, auoh «9 is now only to be enjoyed in the East. 



Savannah. 

Viewed from a commercial standpoint, the close of the year Tiado 
1901 found the port of Savannah in an encouraging position for ■>■ 
her business men, not only for what had been accomplished during 
the past year, but also for the good prospects intUcated for the 
new season. Throughout last year there has been a considerable 
increase in the receipts and exports of the principal products, 
handled here. 

The' receipts and exports of cotton have been particularly large, ] 
owing to the fact that much of this staple was attracted this way expoiti ud 
from interior points, on account of low freight rates to European '^V"**- 
ports. 

The naval stores business in resin, turpentine, reeia oil, &c., 
continues to be controlled by the Savannah market, and shipments 
of yellow pine lumber were imusually good during the year with 
a favourable outlook for this year. Increased shipments are 
expected next season on account of the extensive freight facilities 
recently provided by the new line of steamers established for 
carrying lumber, together with the continued free ofTerings of sail 
vessels for charter. 

While there was no unusual activity in retail trade, and prices BeUil tr»de. 
generally were somewhat lower, still the bnsiness was about up to 
that of the previous season, with a fairly good Christmas trade at 
the winding up of the year. 

Industrial development has kept pace with progress in other 
lines, and a number of manufactures have been established, princi- 
pally for making lumber. Real estate also has been in good demand, 
and many beautiful houses have been built in places that a year 
ago were vacant fields. 

The Savannah terminals of the Seaboard Air Line Railway t^J^^ 



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Company, whidi were begun in April, 1899, and put in operation 
in August, 1900, have cost up to now 1,200,000 doL Hutchinson's 
Island, opposite the citj, where these terminals are situated, con- 
tains 1,800 acres of fresh-water marsh land, and of the 1,200 acres 
owned by the railway, about 100 acres have been improved and 
raised 8 feet above the original level, the necessary filling in having 
been done principally with material from dredging out three slips 
about 200 feet wide and 21 feet deep at mean low tide, with a 
length of 1,507, 1,369, and 1,182 feet respectively. 

On the south end of Pier No. 1 are three sheds for spirits of 
turpentine, covering about 131,533 square feet. On the east side, 
covering about 67,875 feet, is the resin inspection shed, and between 
it and Slip No. 1 is the resin yard, with a capacity of 66,000 barrels ; 
a railway track on the east side of the pier connecting it with the 
yard at its north end. 

Pier No. 2, for the storage and shipment of lumber, is 1,400 
feet long by 309 feet wide, with saw-tooth wharf, having 11 
insets on its east side, and four connecting railway tracks. 

On Pier No. 3 are eight open sheds for the storage of cotton 
compresses, the machinery and boilers of which belong to the 
Union Shipping Company, with which the Terminal Company 
has a five years* contract. Six railway tracks are on this pier. 

FoHT more railway tracks connect with the yard Pier No. 4, on 
which are two warehouses, both 76 feet wide, one being 500 and 
the other 250 feet long. An electric water pump is on this pier. 
The total water front of these terminals is 2 miles, and the total 
track 43,642 feet long. 

A gratifying feature of the commercial season of 1900-01 at 
Savannah, which ends August 31, 1901, was the fact that, not- 
withstanding a lower range of prices for all of the great' staple 
products exported through this port, there was an increase in 
the bank oleaiances of more than 18,000,000 doL This, how- 
ever, was not as great as the increase of the previous year, owing 
to much lower prices prevailing generally last year in all the 
leading products. But the clearings this past season show that 
the volume of business was very much larger than for the previous 
year, and the increase noted was made in spite of the lower values. 

Durii^ the commercial year 1900-01 the total trade of 
this port amounted to 164,000,000 dol., in comparison with 
165,000,000 dol. of the previous year, the decrease of 
1,000,000 doL boing accounted for by lower values and not by 
a lesser volume of business handled. Of last season's total trade, 
the leading departments were as follows : — 



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Cotton 

KBvalitorei 

tiroeerie* 

FaitilueM ud photplutea 
Liquon uid tobacco 

Rics 

D17 goodi and notion* .. 
Clothing ., .. 

Uudwani 

Boota and ihoei .. 
Fruita and TcgstablM 
ProTiiiam .. 

Ha;, gnuu, bras, &e. •■ 
Furniture .. .. .. 

Builden' auppliei .. 

Manufaoliure* 

Bgbultnda 



Talne. 

DoUan. 
42,000,000 
10,600,000 
18,000,000 
8,000,000 
2,600,000 
7,600.000 
«0,O00 
6,600,000 
4,000,000 
3.600,000 
3.000,000 
8,000,000 
8,000,000 
1.000.000 
1,000,000 
3,000,000 
7,000,000 
41,000,000 



Dredging operations to improve that portico of the Savannah D»«p«n">g 
River on this side of the Tybee Breakwater, or, aa it is officially *^' "'"' 
termed, " the detached extension of the oyster bed training wall," 
was commenced by the Government contractors in the latter part 
of the year, the dredging to be done being in the cltannel near 
Oyster Bed Light and Venus Point, and the contract calls for work 
that will coat nearly 30,000 doL 

Another contract haa been let by the Government for improv- 
ing the river channel hy dredging in front of the city, and also 
opposite the terminals of the Central of Georgia Kailway Com- 
pany's docks, involving an expenditure of 10,000 dol., and another 
10,000 dol. will be expended in dredging other parts of the channel 
between the city and the sea. 

All the work now being done is more or less in view of the 
expected appropriation by the National Congress at its next 
session of 1,000,000 dol., in addition to the unexpended balance of 
400,000 dol. on hand from former appropriations, for the purpose 
of giving the harbour and river of Savannah a depth of 28 feet, 
with a suitable width from the city to the sea. 

It is also understood thai an effort will be made at the present 
session of Congress to have the North Breakers Jetty re-incor- 
porated in the project The building of this jetty, throwing, as it 
would, the waters of Calabogue Sound through a narrowed course, 
it is beUeved would deepen the bar and at the same time the Jetty 
would afford a safe anchorage for vessels at Tybee, The success 
of the jetty system at Charleston and Jacksonville would seem to 
give reasonable ground for expecting good results from their use 
on Savannah's bar. . 

The close of the cotton season of 1900-01 found Savannah's Cotton, 
cotton receipts a little less than for the previous year — the Upland 
receipts were about the same, but there was a falling~off in Sea 
lalands which reduced the total somewhat 



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B«ceipt«. The total gross receipts of all classes of cottoD at this port for 

the year endmg Augnst 31, 1901, were 1,082,822 bales, in com- 
parison with 1,091,884 bales for the year before. The reasoD for 
the shortage last season was largely attributable to the falling-off 
in the Sea Islands crop, which turned out to be 83,725 b^:8, as 
compared with 98,338 bags received during the previous season, 
showing a shortage last season of 9,613 bags. 

BiporU. The total exports of cotton from Savannah for the year ending 

August 31, 1901, were 1,085,376 bales, of which 66,000 bales 
were Sea Islands, and the teat Uplands. Of last year's exports 
326,030 bales was shipped coastwise to northern ports, 1,717 
bales to inland points, 174,118 bales to the United Kingdom, 
23,899 bales to France, 557,761 bales to Germany and the Con- 
tinent, 1,717 bales reshipped to interior points, and 15 bales 
destroyed by fire. 

Weight and The average weight of the Uplands per bale was 504-28 lbs., 

'■'""- and the Sea Islands 392-02 lbs. per bag. The average value of 

the cotton was, for Uplands per bale, 49 dol. 24 c ; and for Sea 
Islands, 78 dol. 7 c per l^, maMng the average for Uplands and Sea 
Islands combined 50-96 dol per bag. 

P™»*- The highest price of middlings was lOJ c. per lb., which was 

quoted on September 13, 1900, and the lowest price was 1-^ c. 
per pound on May 29, 1901, the average price for middlings 
during the year being %-^ c. per lb. 

J*'w The total receipts of cotton at Savannah during the last four 

^"'**- months of the past year, that is from September 1 to December 31, 

1901, were 793,654 bales, compared with 678,081 bales during 
the same time the previous year, an increase of over 114,000 
bales last year. Of the receipts for last year 36,212 bags were Sea 
Islands. 

The closing quotations for cotton at the Savannah Cotton 
Exchange at the end of the year was 7-t-| c. per lb. for middling 
Uplands, and from 17 to 22 c, per lb. for common to fancy Georgia 
Sea Islanda 

H""J There are numbers of naval stores factors who are of the 

■*""•• opinion that the trade would be in much better condition generally 

had the high prices of 54 c. per gallon for turpentine never been seen. 
They believe that an averse price enabling operators to reap fair 
profits would have prevented the rash etlbrts at over-production, 
which have acted injuriously to the trade everywhera As it was, 
many dealers lost their heatU ; liberal advances were made indis- 
criminately, and an enoi-mous crop was produced during the season 
ending lest March, resulting in a generally demoralised condition 

_ . \,\ ^^ ^^ business, and an unsatisfactory condition throughout the 

w^tia^ ysftf ^^ ^o factors and producers. 

About the time when the demoralisation from over-production 
was experienced a drop in prices of products occurred, while at the 
same time there was an advance in the cost of almost everything 
needed by operators. Bacon, lard, coffee, grain, meal, grits, and 
other necessities went up, and as there was no corresponding rise 
in resin and turpentine, the effect was veiy unfavourable upon the 



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SAVANNAH. 31 

business genemlly. Another dr&wback was the Uboar question 
and inability to get sufficient hands to do the necessary work, as 
well as difficulty in retaining them, in many cases, after they were 
employed. 

Wages were good, common hands getting 20 dol. per montli 
and rations, and turpentine dippers 40 c. per barrel of crude gum 

fathered. The high wages did not induce the labourers to work, 
ut rather encouraged them to remain idle as many days as 
they could without interfering with their living. 

Last year has not, however, passed without some profitable 
developments which it is hoped will benefit the industry. The 
oi^auisation of the National Tank and Ston^e Company, which Nktional 
bmlt lai^ tanks for holding spirits of turpentine at the railway T»"k 
terminalB, will doubtless have a beneficial effect on the market. "'*'°'^' 
These tanks have large capacity, and shippers to this market will 
have the privilege of storing their supplies in them at moderate 
rates if desired, and will thus have an opportunity of carrying 
their holdings until they are able to find a satisfactory market for 
them. 

The Tank Company will give warehouse receipts upon which 
the owners may obtain advances from the banks. In this way the 
naval stores operator will have the same advantage as the cotton 
planter who can always store his cotton and obtain a sufficient 
advance on it to prevent him having to throw his holdings upon 
the market when the conditions are unfavourable to his interests. 
The company have tanks at the terminal dooks of the three 
principal railway systems entering Savannah, namely, the Central 
of (reorgia, the Seaboard Air line and the Plant System, and 
steamers are loaded from these docks with facility and despatch. 

Another important step taken during the past year has been Biperimenu. 
the experiments at Statesboro, Georgia, by^Professor Charles H. 
Herty, of the State University. 

The object of these experiments is to develop better and cheaper 
methods of manufacturing spirits of turpentine and resin, and in 
case he should succeed in demonstrating the practicability and 
economy of improved methods of manufacture, the result may 
radically change the present way of handling these products. The 
main object is to ascertain if there is a better way of extracting 
the gum from the pine tree and also of its distillation. The 
National Tank and Export Company is directly behind the 
movement, which it is hoped will result in great benefit to the 
industry. 

Not only is it proposed to introduce better processes of manu- 
facture, but it is also expected to enlist the interest and co-operation 
of the general Gtovernment in the protection and preservation of 
the yellow pine forests of the SoutJi, which have heretofore been 
cut down without I'^ard to their preservation, making it probable 
that the present course, if continued, would result in their almost 
total destruction in a few years' time by produrers without their 
receiving due compensation therefor. 

The naval stores interests have long recognised the fact that 



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92 SATANHAH. 

lemedial l^pslation in this directiou cannot be obtained from thd 
State L^alatures in the South, for the reason that there appears 
to be no disposition to enact laws that would interrere with the 
present destructive methods of working the pine forests. Professor 
Herty is one of the Collaborators of the Foreatry Bureau of the 
Department of Agriculture, and it is hoped his reports on the 
result of the Statesboro expeiiments will induce the national 
Government to establish an experimental turpentine farm, some- 
where in the pine belt of Georgia, for the purpose of gathering 
information and utilising to the best advantage the products of 
the pine. 

Another object of the Statesboro experiments is to devise some 
means of extracting the gum from the tree by the use of a sort of 
metallic cnp for it to flow in. The present plan is to chop into 
the side of the tree what is called a " box," about 2 or 3 feet 
from the ground, into which the gum flows and collects until it 
is dipped out by the gatherer. Prom time to time the tree is 
" chipped off" above this " box " in order to promote the flow and 
direct its course into the above-mentioned "box." The same 
process is later on followed on the opposite side of the tree, so 
that, when the turpentine men have finished with it, the tree is 
practically ruined. 

This process is gradually devastating the forests, as the trees 
either die or are sawn up into lumber or firewood. Thousands of 
acres of old turpentine lands have been thrown away in the South 
for want of a more enlightened way of treating the tree. 

It is hoped that a way may be found of adjusting, perhaps, a 
galvanised-iron cup to the side of the tree in such a manner that 
the gum may be extracted without destroying its growth. By the 
uae of the right appliances it is believed the life of the tree will 
be greatly prolonged, and instead of the present temporary revenue, 
the producer will derive a permanent one from his pine forests. 
There were some experiments made a few years ago with some 
kind of " cups," as substitutes for turpentine " boxes," but their 
use was abajidoned, as they were found too costly for practical 



The comparative receipts of naval stores at the port of 
Savannah during the year ending August 31, 1901, wei^ 
332,057 barrels of spirits of turpentine and 1,175,866 barrels 
of resin, in comparison with 315,849 barrels of turpentine and 
1,010,628 barrels of resin during the preceding jeax. 

The exports during the past year were 346,140 barrels of 
turpentine and 1,126,760 barrels of resin, in comparison wiUi 
300,739 barrels of tui'pentine and 1,029,214 barrels of resin for 
the previous year. Of last year's exports 237,404 barrels of 
turpentine were exported to foreign countries and 108,736 barrels 
to domestic porta, and of the resin exports 644,595 barrels went 
to foreign countries and 482,165 barrels to domestic places in the 
United States. 

The receipts at Savannah from April 1 to December 31, 1901, 
were (including stock on hand on April 1 last) 300,348 banels of 



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SAVANNAH. 33 

turpentine and 958,327 barrels of reein, and the exporta during 
the same period were 274,225 barrels of turpentine and 77.8,105 
barrels of reain. Of the exports 198,992 barrels of turpentine and 
363,611 barrels of resin was shipped to foreign countries, and the 
rest to American ports and interior places by railway. 

Prices ranged as follows in this market throughout the past Pri«i- 
year : — For spirits of turpentine, the highest quotations per gailloQ 
were 39^ c. in February, laOl ; the lowest, 31 c. in May, and the 
closing price at the end of December, 1901, was 35| c. per gallon 
with the market finn. Pricfis for resins were, on August 31, 
1901, from 1 doL 10 c. to 2 dol, 75 c. per barrel, according to 
gmde, and on the last day of the year quotations were from 
1 dol 30 c. to 2 dol. 50 c per barrel with a good demand, and with 
good prospects of higher prices for both spirits and resins early in 
the new year, owing to reported shortness of crop compared with 
tlie previous season. 

The conditions prevailing in the lumber market at theLumbaF. 
beginning of the last commercial year were not very favourable, 
but an improvemeut occurred as the season advanced. At first 
an abnormal supply exceeded the demand, but from March to 
August there was a considerable improvement in the demand 
with a corresponding imcrease in prices. One of the principal 
reasons for low figures early in the season was the dediuing 
tendency of sail freights, wMch not only declined but continued 
heavy and sluggish for some time. Conditions, however, changed 
during the past four months, when a good business was done by 
dealers in railway construction, heavy dock improvements, and 
replenishii^ stocks for lumber yards to meet anticipated orders, 
and advancing rates of freight, all of which tended to promote Oonditioiu 
higher prices. Quotations have especially advanced lately on 
long and ditlicult lumber and timber orders, hard to iill ; it being 
a uiatter of some difficulty to secure orders for this stock further 
south, owing to the fact that Florida mills are confined, to some 
extent, to smaller timber. This makes it hard for mills elsewhere 
to compete with them for small-sized lumber orders. It is a 
notable fact that the orders from the Pennsylvania Bailroad 
Company alone, which have heretofore averaged from 15,000,000 
to 20,000,000 feet yearly, have declined to about 1,000,000 feet, 
most of which went from Florida. But on the larger, more 
difficult, and limited steamer orders, no port in the country can 
compete with Savannah in supplying demands, for yellow pine. 

The facilities here for handling this stock by quick steamers Ofioi 
is unsurpassed, and it is the opinion of leading dealers that this f>cUiti»i. 
port will for many years retain this specif^ class of lumber 
business. 

The service of the railways during the past season in pro- 
moting this industry has been highly commended by lumber 
exporters. The "Saw Tooth" Docks constructed for the purpose 
by the Seaboard Air Line Bailway at its terminals have proved 
to be very successful and exceptionally convenient for lumber 
loading, while at the terminals of the Central and Plant Systems 
(23) c 



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Phoipfaate 
Coiopuij, 



34 SATAN.VAH. 

of Bailways the usual good facilities have been well main- 
tained. 

Diiring the commercial year ending August 31, 1901, the 
total exporta of lumber from Savannah were 133,858,429 
superficial feet, of which amount, however, only 48,726 feet were 
shipped to foreign countries, the rest going coastwise to American 
ports, of which New York, Fhiladelphia, Baltimore, New Haven, 
Portland, Fall Biver, and Perth Amboy took the greater part 
The total exports for the previous season were 146,923,223 feet, 
showing a falling-off last year of 13,000,000 feet. 

From a manufacturing point of view Savannah has made 
some progress since last year, both in securing new industries 
and also in laying the foundations for establishing several more, 
the disposition being to show great liberality to prospectors 
locating here. That the town has good advantages for industrial 
undertakings would appear to be shown by the success of most 
of those in operation for the last few years ; a number of them 
have enlarged their plants, from year to year, in order to meet 
increasing demand for their products. One instance to the point 
is that of the Southern Cotton Oil Company, situated on the 
river a little way above town. It employs from 400 to 500 men, 
and its daily output includes over 400 boxes of soap and several 
carloads of snow drift compound lard. This company crushes 
cotton-seed and also refines cotton oil shipped here from other 
places in the interior. 

The Southern States Phosphate Company also was organised 
here last autumn with a capital of 300,000 dol., their purpose 
being to manufacture phosphate fertilisers from rock brought 
from the neighbourhood of Pon Pon, South Carolina, where tliey 
have secured control of extensive beds of phosphate. It is also 
the intention of this company to work largely on the co-operative 
plan, and they have established their factory on the eastern side 
of Savannah, convenient to the Plant Kailway Docks. 

Cotton mills seem to be wanted here, and it is said that many 
citizens stand ready to support such undertakings liberally. It 
was reported some months a^ that there was a movement to 
transport mill machinery from New England to this port and the 
matter has been brought to the attention of the Board of Trade, 
but no ofticial action has yet been taken. This being the third 
largest receiving cotton port in the country, the raw material 
would be available in great abundance. The question of power, 
however, would be limited to steam or electricity, as there is no 
water-power to be had in this section, where the land is for the 
most part low-lying and level. 

The only cotton mill now in operation near Savaunah is the 
Southern Cotton Mill Company with 800 looms, situated between 
here and ITiunderbolt, a suburban resort three miles from this 
port. 

The receipts of rice at Savannah for the season endmg August 
31, 1901, were 380,000 bushels, all of which, with the exception 
of about 11,000 bushels sold for seed, were milled and sold here. 



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SAVANNAH. 35 

liie crop brought good prices, i-anging from 80 c. to 1 dol 10 c. 
per bushel net on plantations. 

The season was very satisfactory both for producer and Oood kwod. 
handler so far as quality and prices went. The average planting 
was about the same as last season, and the yield somewhat better. 

The new crop, harvested after September, was also favourable, 
and there were no serious Btorms during the past autumn, the early 
planting being housed by the middle of September, with a aome- 
what larger production than during the previous season. 

There was no old stock remainiw on hand, on September 1 
last, and good prices were obtained for the new rice sent to 
market, for which there has been a uniformly steady demand for 
good qualities offering. 

The phosphate fertiliser trade, during the past commercial Phtupliaw 
year, was the largest in the history of the »tate of Georgia. This f*"^"^"- 
was caused by the satisfactory prices received by farmers for 
their cotton crops, which induced them to buy fertilisei-s so 
liberally that the entire quantity manufactured was consumed. 
The sales of fertilisers during the season of 1900-01 were 
473,839 tons throughout the State, as compared with 407,839 
tons for the previous year, showing an increase of about 66,000 
tons last year, the largest tonnage ever sold in the State. 

This trade has been so satisfactory that a number of new Satirfaetory 
enterprises have been started, chief among them, probably, being t*™*"- 
the Blackshear Manufacturing Company, of Blackahear, Georgia, 
with a capacity of 15,000 tons annually. The Southern States* 
Phosphate and Fertiliser Company, whose manufacturing 'plant 
is at Savannah, will also be ready to commence operations very 
early in the new year with a capacity of 30,000 tons. When 
fully completed and in running order this will be the laigeet 
fertiliser plant in Savannah. The combined works of the Vii^inia- 
Carolina Chemical Company would be lai^r, but no single estab- 
lishment will be capable of so large an output. Some time ago 
the Viiginia-Garolina Chemical Company had the misfortune to 
lose the acid chamber of one of their Savannah factories, but they 
are now constructing another of larger capacity than the one 
destroyed. This company will, hereafter, manufacture in Savannah, 
only at the old Comer, Hull and Co. factory, which is now known 
aa Plant No. 1. The plant that was bought by them, from the 
Commercial Gnano Company, has fallen into the hands of the 
Southern Cotton Oil Company under a 99 years' lease, and it is 
doubtful if any fertilisers will be manufactured there during the 
new season. But the increase in the acid chambers of the Comer 
Hull Works will make the product of both plants about the same 
as it formerly was. 

It is evident that there is to be more competition in the laereued 
fertiliser trade than heretofore, owing to new factors now oompetiuon. 
entering the business which are likely also to stimulate present 
manufacturere to more aggressive action in futura 

It ie reported that the Armour Fertiliser Company will look 
after this branch of their business more closely next season than 



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ihipments. 



36 SAVANNAtr. 

formerly. This company is now building at Atlanta, Georfria, a 
60,000 ton factory, and it propo8e8 to utilise there the blood and 
tankage from ite various slaughter-houses. This movement by 
the Armour Company has caused the Yiiginia-Carolina Chemicu 
Company to buy cottou-seed oil mills throughout the South, with 
a view of controlling the output of ammoniates in the shape of 
cotton-seed meal. These two companies will be active competitors 
in the field during the next season. 

Most of the phosphate rock shipped from this poit is Florida 
mined, brought here by railway for export abroad. The total 
shipments of rock from Savannah, during the year ending August 
31, 1901, were 138,504 tons, and the market quotations on the 
above-named date were about 6 dol. 50 c per ton, f,o.b. at 
Atlantic porta for Florida hard rock, guaranteed 77 per cent, bone 
phoBphate of lime, 3 per cent, oxide of iron and alumina, and 
3 per cent, moistura 

During the year the arrivals of shipping of all nationalities at 
the port of Savannah were 1,030, with a total tonnage of 1,277,113 
tons, as compEired with the previous year's tonnage of 2,958,715 
tons and 1,036 arrivals, showing a considerable decrease last year 
in tonnage but a very small decreaae in arrivals, too much tonnage 
having come to the port during 1900 to meet the requirements of 
exporters. 

Last year's shipping arrivals were as follows : — 



UMioDtiUj. 


VeaulB. 


Tonnage. 


American 


786 


851,603 




US 


184,719 


Nor™»n 

SwedieL 




61,809 




10,137 


Gemau 




27,996 






6,657 








Spanish 




15,130 












1,100 






1,446 






2,748 


Greek 










8,876 


Brfgian 




25,618 


Dutch 







In addition to the foregoing there was a total tonnage of 
207,000 tons represented in the arrivals during last year of 
sloops, schoonetB, and steamboats engaged in the river and inland 
trade, while the total tonnage of vessels departii^ was 2,765,862 
tons. 



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BBUHBWICE. 



BRDH8WICK, Ga. 

Mr. Yice-ConBul E, Torras reports as foUowB : — 

In making mj annual report to yon for the year jnat ended, 
I be^ to advise that I have nothing of particular interest to 
mention with the exception of the charter and subsequent im- 
mediate building of the Brunswick and Birmingham Sailroad, 
which has already some 40 miles of track through new timber 
lands, along whidi road several lumber mills have been built and 
are in opeiation, and their products broi^ht to this market in 
lai^e quantities. 

This road is intended to go as far as Birmingham, AU., giving 
this port a direct route to the great iron and coal mines of 
Alabama, and when completed this port will be directly connected 
with the great western grain markets, thereby reducing con- 
siderably the rate of freight on grains which is too high now to 
enable the export of same from iiiis port. 

The shipping of the port for the year increased a good 
deal in comparison with the previous year, and I beg to submit 
the enclosed Ust of vessels entered and their tonnf^ for the year 
1901. 

AbrTvalS at the Port of Brunswick during tbe Year 1901. 







NnmboT sf TmmI*. 




HfctiiM»litj. 




SMling 


Bwk. 


Brip. 


Soboonen. 


Total. 


Tooiuige. 


AmeriMn.. 
firiCuh . . 

Swediih .. 

£sr. 

Italiui 

DMlilfa .. 

Dntofa .. 
Oermu .. 
AinentiM.. 




186 
29 


4 

i 

•• 


10 
1 
86 
10 




I 


39 
8 


ae 

28 


8W.697 
49.6S6 
28,261 
16.W6 
6,401 
4,640 
S,2M 
8,221 
1,991 
1,866 
1,928 
1,198 
611 


Total.. 




1GB 


6 


92 


10 


M7 


614 


618,408 



(28) 



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lONDUK: 

Printed for Bit Haftcty'i SUIIonerT Office, 

Bt HAHHISON AND BONS, 

Printan In Ordlnur to HU KajNtj. 

(7C 4 I 02-H 4 S 2>) 



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No. 2763 Annual Series. 
DIPLOMATIC AND CONSTTLAB EEPORTS. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE TEAK 1901 



THADE AND COMMERCE OF CHICAGO AND 
DISTRICT. 



BGFEBENOE TO PREVIOUS REPORT, Anatuil Series No. 2696. 



iVfMnlwI to both BovMU of ParliamerU bg Command of Bit Majuty, 
APRIL, W02. 



LOWDOHi 

PBISTBD FOB HK HAJBSIirS 8TATI0NBB7 OPFIO^ 
BT HABBI80N AND SONS, ST. HABTIN'S LAKK. 
. PKiMviH ur omiMixT co n* iujb»t, 

AndtolM^nolund,iiai»rdbeMlrorUiMii^HijB(wkMfl«r,(nMa 

■TBB A BPOniSWOODI, Sw HiBDura Snur, rLin Stuk, I.O* 

*al S>, AximtDOH BTUM,WBan(iNBnK, 8.W. ■ 

or OLITSB A BOTD, BDunimaH t 

m 1. POKSONBT, US, OuRON Snin, OnsUK, 

1902. 
[Od. 786—67.3 Pri«t Thrt^mct ffaifpem^. 



Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



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CONTENTS. 



Ohicaso — 
Oeneraln 



Trade in dirtriot ... 



foreign (ohoob .. 
Xxporta 



OuRtom-hoiue rooeipt* .. 



Drawbftoki of duty..- 
Agrioaltiire 



Bfa 

Pl»x — . — 

B»rlej .._ « 

Liitfeed-oil and cake ...»., 

Banking „ »....«^ 

BioycUi .....a....._.__...>a.._ 
Boota and ihoea ..__.«-_ 

Bra weries _.....« ...^—._ 

Oement..... 

China and euthenwm... .~ 

Dry goodi _...,_...._~ 

Xdncatton ...._-»»•__»_■ 
Blsctric moton .„,.„..„^... 

Pumiture. ._u„_^.,_„.u 

Health __-. — .- 

Immigration ...._— ._.~«.— 
Intoranoe..- ....__...».«..■_. 

Lumber _ ~— . 



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Contents — ooationed. 



OMa... 



Coppw- 



Oiluidpa„ 



Beat ettste Mid inTettmenta... 

Bnikliiiff 

piiip l niiHtw g ..„„„„ „,.,„. 



Im ud oolbe —..— m»._ 

TBlapbom ..— „m.— ■— — ...^ 

TobMoo .... — ~.- — .—.__._ M—. 

VMM— 

Bliipnient ol gtmiu „...__........_..». 

UoYsmaott of TSMeU.....^...... .._... 

Dimct import* to Ohioago..^..-.... 

Ezpoita bj Lake.... „.____„,„_.„ 

I>ITI.TFTK ..._ »..«...— »..-_-. 

Shipmcntt «f gnin. .»...»..»..... 

UiLWiuxn ...„..»...»....„...., 

Bi. LoniB, Vioe-Coninl'* Mp<wt ._ 

Eakiak Out, Vioe-Ooiunl'i roport 
Okaea, Vice-Coniol's nport ...._„.... 
Dbvtbb, Tic»Caiunl'i npoH .»....».. 



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Ho. 2763. Annnal Series. 

Safvrmet to pnmoua Seport, Annual Series No. 2566. 



Bepori on the Trade and Comaiurce of the Conmlar JXsiriet of 
Chicago fm- the Year IQOl 

By Mb. Cohsul Wtndham. 
(BeMiTDd at Foreign OOos, Uwob 30, IMS.) 

E«^rta on trade and advice to traders, prepared by Britiah a«i«al 
OoQ3u1ar officers, are very often subjected to criticisms on the part ""»*'''•• 
of traders in the United Kingdom on two grounds, either that 
they are of no value to traders or that the writer presumes to 
understand the needs of the business better than the man who 
has made it Ms life's study. 

In the last annual report from this Consulate it was su^ested * 
that merchants, manufacturers, and labour leaders should visit 
the United States and study the conditions and demands, and it 
is said that this was done last summer and will be repeated again 
in 1902. 

It is the purpose and aim of this Consulate to keep in touch, 
as far liS possible, with the business men of Chicago and the 
neighbourhood, so as to be in a position to assist agents of British 
commercial houses coming here on business or in answering 
enquiries, but it is of no use if the agents fail to come to the 
Consulate for assistance or if merchants at home make no 
enquiries. 

The number of enquiries on commercial matters have increased 
considerably during the past year, but no idea can be formed as 
to what assistance the information given has proved. These 
enquiries are not answered until as many persons as possible, 
engf^^ in the trade mentioned, have been interviewed, and every 
eSort is made that the information given shall be reliable. 
Great courtesy is shown by everyone in assisting the Consulate in 
obtaining information. Government, State, city officials, and 
merchants giving all the assistance requested. 

In tlie last annual report an opening was pointed out for the 
sale of salt fish, herring, and mackerel in this district, and the 
faults found by merchants were also mentioned. Not a single 
enquiry from private parties in the United Kingdom was 
received, but a member of the Board of Congested Districts of 
(29) A S 



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Ireland carefully invest^t«d the matter. The direct imports 
of salt fish have fallen off considerably, but large quantities 
have been received through the sea ports, and the handlera 
in ChicE^o report that the condition of the fish is much improved 
and that the packing shows greater care than in former years. 

The ConBular district of Chicago covers 14 States, having a 
total area of over 1,000,000 square miles with 19,000,000 inhabi- 
tants. Over 300,000 square mites are still vacant and there are 
about 19,000 reserved as forests. Of the land still open to settlement 
over one-quarter is arid or semi-arid, and much of the other is 
rough mountain laud. There are 30 cities in the district, each 
with over 25,000 inhabitants. 

AU these towns are manufacturing towns to some extent, and 
in Illinois, Iowa, and Wisconsin every small town has one or more 
factories at work. 

Furniture factories are scattered all over these States, and 
many manufacturers have found the advantages of starting in 
small towns, especially near the Lakes, to be saving in rent, 
wages, owing to less cost of living, and raw material. 

In some parts of the district there are many resideuts of 
British birth, and in those places there might be an opening for 
an increased sale of imports. 

The trade for the past year has been the best ever known in 
Chicago and the district supplied from it, and although a few 
strikes have taken place, many, which threatened to be serious 
and to have a disastrous result on trade, have come to nothing 
from a i-efusal of the men to take part. 

Work has been more steady and the result has been that, with 
more money in hand, a better class of goods than usual has bet^n 
in demand. 

The Chicago merchant with this increased prosperity has 
advertised more than ever, and several of the large retail dry 
goods houses have added largely to the size of their establish- 
ments. 

The advantage of a well-dressed show window in every kind 
of retail trade is more than ever understood, and very great 
trouble, expense, and ingenuity are used in getting good results. 

Many shops now put mechanical toys in the windows to 
attract the attention of passers by. 

The trade papers are also taking up the subject and give 
illustrations and ideas. 

In machine shops and factories the use of the best machinery 
ifi understood and appreciated by the men, but the success of the 
American manufacturer would appear to be owing not to the 
machinery but to the system of shop management Every man 
employed appears to be fully aware that success depends on his 
doing his best work, and no idleness is tolerated in anyone. The 
highest positions in a shop are open to anyone who can prove his 
worth and every man works with this incentive. 

Many visitors from the United Kingdom bluue the men there 
because the same results are not obtained from machiuery as is 



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done here, but the more the factories of Chicago are seen the 
more certain it becomes that it is the incentive to work and the 
eoei^ of the managers, superintendanta, and foremen, and the, 
example set by them that ban the wonderful effect on the output 
TtuB holds good in every kind of trade and business. In one 
factory the mam^er, in siz months, doubled the output at an 
increase of 5 per cent, expense by re-arranging the machinery. 

A great fault found with the Chicago system is the difficulty 
of a man of over 45 finding work. There are many men in good 
positions in Chicago over that age who will in all pTobabdity 
retain them for some years and retire on a pension, but a new 
comer of that age haa little chance of employment as he cannot 
expect to learn new ways. 

A man who is out of work at that age lb regarded with 
suspicion, especially when trade is good, because if he had proved 
that he was worth his position, which should be a good one after 
many years' service, he would not have been forced out, or if he 
had, some other firm which had come into contact with him in 
business would try to secure hia services. 

No man can get on in Chicago who works with one eye on 
the clock or gru(%ingly, and the man who is rewarded by pro- 
motion has shown himself ready to put his work before his 
personal wishes and in many cases has offered to help in other 
departments when necessary, in this way acquiring a comprehensive 
knowle(^ of the work being done. 

It must also be remembered that Chicago is the Mecca for all 
the young men of the smaller cities and towns of the neighbouring 
States, as well as to the sons of the farmers who wish to escape 
from the monotony and drudgery of the farm. Canada also sends 
a great number of her young men here, all attracted by the higher 

Ey and the possibility of earning rapid promotion and obtaining 
■ge salaries. 

The responsible positions in all businesses in Chicago ai'e well 
paid, but the clerk, book-keeper, and other subordinate positions 
receive salaries that do little more than support hfe. 

The average increase in manufacturing and wholesale business 
in Chicago was about 10 per cent, over 1900 and is calculated for 
manufactures in 1899 at 136,745,000/.; 1900, 148,220,000^. ; 1901, 
160,785,000/. ; and for wholesale in 1899, 142,000,000/. ; 1900, 
157,000,000/.; 1901,160,200,000/. 

There are now about 20,000 factories in Chic^o employing 
300,000 bands, an increase in 10 years of 93 and 37 per cent, 
respectively. 

Wages have increased 2 per cent, in the 10 years, and now 
amount to about 27,000,000t This would give an avei^^ of less 
than 40a per week. 

£aw materials have been rather scarce and orders have heea 
very heavy, and factories have in many cases run behind with 
their orders. 

The increased purchases of luxuries and a better class of goods 
in all lines have been features of the close of the year. 

(29) A 4 



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Foreign 
•cboou. 



WOTking^meo have been more reeularly employed, and ths' 
long summer holidays werd consideratuy curtailed in the differmt 
Qudiine shops. 

The chief gains in manufactures have been in fumituce and 
boots and shoes, but many mamifacturers have made small profits 
owiDg to the increase iu prices of the raw material used. 

Tlie commercial success of Chicago is partly owing to the 
edncation which teaches the boys independence and knowledge of 
their future responsibilities, and does not set the professions above 
busitiese as a means of gaining a living. 

Athletics of all kinds are much encouraged in schools and 
universities, but very few men continue to take part in them after 
completing their education. Americans are as fond of outdoor life, 
shooting and fishing, as are the men of any European country, but 
they gratify their taste as a relaxation only and never allow it to 
interfere with their business. 

Another cause of success is the keeping of the money, which 
has been made in the business, and the brains which have made 
the business, in it as long as possible, and great thought is devoted 
to arrangements whereby, after the death of the builder of the 
business, it shall not fall into the hands of his heirs, unless they 
are practically fitted to take care of it. 

Another and probably the chief cause is the reward of merit. 
The percentage of men fitted for the highest poste in business is 
very small compared with the total numbers employed, and the 
heads of the big businesses, bank corporations and whole^e firms, 
are always loo&ng out for men, not only among those already in 
their employ, but also outside, capable of filling some poet tmder 
them. 

To these men, when found, large sahtries are given, which are 
drawn by them as long as they show that they are capable of 
earning them. 

Men employed in business houses of all descriptions are 
encouraged to discover new methods of carrying on the business 
which may in any way leaaen the cost of production or carrying 
on busine<is, and specialisation is carried on to an extreme point. 

It is reported that the French Government is to found schools 
in the United States for young men to study economic science and 
engineering. The reported plans are to keep about 200 boys for a 
four years* course in New York and Chicago for economic science, 
and in Pittsburg and Chicago for engineering. 

At these places American methods would be studied and the 
enei^ absorl«d, and after the course is completed the young men 
will return to France to put the ideas and methods they have 
gathered Into practical usa 

The experiment will be interesting, especially as to how the 
young men of 21 to 24 will persuade the older men to adopt liieir 
methods, and whether on their return to the old conditions they 
will not either fall into the ways <}f conducting business there or 
desert their country and return to a place where their methods 
will be acceptabla 



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CUI(.:AG0. 9 

It is impossible to fcive an idea of the expons of the output of Kxporta 
the factories ia this district as they are nearly all cleared at sea- 
ports and appear under the statistics of those ports. 

A lat^ proportion of the bread-stuffs and meat products that 
are exported have their origin in the Western States. 

The mail order houses in Chicago, who issue lai^ catalt^es 
giviug the price of everything imaginable and showing the chu^eB 
for carnage by mail, express and freight from Chicago to all parts 
of the world, are doing a large and iucreasing business with the 
British Colonies. 

The receipts at the Chicago custom-house in 1901 amounted to Cmtom-hoiu* 
1,800,720/., an increase of 114,590/. over the figures of 1900. """P** 
This puts Chicago in the fourth place, being surpassed in collec- 
tions only by New York, Philadelphia and Eostoo, which is 
remarkable when the amount of merchandise which is entered 
at any of those ports for transhipment to Chicago and not bonded 
through is considered. 

Importers of dry goods paid 704,660/. duty and tea importers 
378,706/. in 1901. 

The internal revenue collections of Chicago increased slightly internal 
over 1900, but did not reach the figures of 1899 as the output revenue. 
of Uie Chicago diBtilleries has not inci'eased. Comparative state- 
ment of taxable goods made in Chicago during the years 1899- 
1901 shows :— 









Quanlitj. 




AitiolM. 


OiUoni .. 










18W. 


1900. 


1901. 


DiMilled (pint* 


1,476.860 


226,677 


266.984 




Bwrel. .. 


3,249,869 


8,062,844 


R,3S3,S82 


Tobuco 




10.662,664 






Snuff 




643,513 


650,122 




Olwmargari™.. .. 




48.202,606 


41,762,860 


42,946,143 


FiUedcheea 




8,026,187 


1,698,447 




Cig»r. 


Vumbtr . . 


187,418,720 


190,287,300 


200.624,204 


CigontUi, b) 


" 


8,067.120 


12,894,940 


14^194,840 



Statement of Articles Weighed during the Years 1899-1901. 







Quantity. 






1899. 


190O. 


1901. 


Tii-plt 

TeB 

Tobscoo 

8»lt 


Lbi. 
8,712.178 
14,808,962 
700,885 
23.968.428 
39,694.607 


Lb>. 
7,985;430" 
14.876,787 
793,433 
23,748.633 
37.677,385 


Ltn. 

8.801,846 
18,019,114 

1,821.378 
28,934.984 
44,683,970 



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PnwbMfct. The following are the drawbacka allowed on certain im- 

portatioiia that have been used in manufacturlDg and are 
re-exported : — 





Monbtr 


LbL ... 

pile.:: 


qoMM}. 


ArtWo ud (lq«iUri« antltltd to 


lUm. 


quuucr. 


Anunuo. 


Sn?SSr ;:: ::: 

ConiloBud milk 

DrnunlM outrUoti 
BmtnuedpUtM ... { 

Onpenicmr''.'. 

IT! ::: : { 

SUu^ 


it™ 

M8 

lO.DM 

-■•& 


M.4II 

19,121,110 

«7.J00 

I'll 


Tln-pUM ... 
Su«ir 

Ssr::: 1 
Irs.™ :: 

EDUutUtdlnlto 

M::: :; 


n.zw 
s.e804i£ 

ioe,am 

8;ai3 

•si 


•■ss 

MO 


TouJ dnwback .. 


- 


... 




- 


M,S86 



Farming of all kinds, cattle ranchii^, sheep and horse raising 
are the great features of this Consular district. 

About 85,000,000 acres are annually planted with some of the 
various grains. More than half the grain produced in the United 
States is grown in thia district 

The wheat area ol' the United States is continually moving to 
the North-West, as the land in the Eastern and Middle Western 
States gradually becomes more valuable for other fanning, or 
produces a smaller crop after years of grain. 

In many parts clover no longer grows as well as formerly, 
Soots are grown to a very small extent, except sugar beets in 
-certain sections, and maize, clover and fallow are the only changes 
from grain. 

Ensilage is being used more every year, and creameries, run on 
the co-operative plan, are springing up near all large cities. 

Many of the farms are too large for the capital of the fanner, 
although in many States farms are seen which are kept in the very 
highest condition and farmed in a scientific manner. 

The following can be taken as about the averse acre^e and 
crop of grain in this Consular district : — 











Atctho Yield in the 


Orain. 


Ana. 


Crop. 


ATerage 
















Per Acre. 


Number 
of Statei, 






Buikel.. 


Bnabela. 


Bushell. 




■Wheit 


£8.774,174 


802,079,174 


12-70 


12-29 


IS 


Oat*.. 


16,338,167 


499,066,465 


30-64 


29-56 


12 




42,e08,&41 


1,256,628,088 






18 


Bje.. .. 


636,111 


10,199,626 


16-0 




10 


Birley .. 


1,626,688 


82,432,614 


SO-0 


20-4 


11 






858,629 


14-54 


16-0 





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CHICAGO. 11 

The largest acreages are wheat, Minnesota, dl,905,C13; otit'a, 
Iowa, 3,840,357 ; maize, Kansas, 8,624,770, and Iowa, 8,048,946 ; 
rye, Kansas, 126,479; barley, Iowa, 443,516; and buckwheat, 
Wisconsin, 27,533. 

These States produce about 55 per cent, of the whole grain 
■crop of the United States, except in buckwheat 

These figures are the returns for 1900, which was a fair year 
with no exceptional diaadrant^es. 

Montana has the best average yield per acre of wheat, 26 
bushels ; Illinois, oats, 38 bushels ; Wisconsin and Iowa, maize, 
37 bushels ; Minnesota, rye, 20 bushels ; Nebraska, barley, 37 
bushels ; Kansas, with the largest acreage of maize, produced less 
than two-thirds of the Iowa crop. 

The question of irrigation and the equable distribution of Irrigatioa. 
water for tliat purpose is becoming of vital importance to many 
States, and the future of nearly one-third of the area of the United 
States depends on the settlement of this question. This area 
includes not only the arid desert but many districts where abundant 
harvests are obtained in favourable seaaous, but where, owing to 
drought, total or partial crop failure are more often the result. 
The average yield uf the semi-arid district of Kansas for the pdst 
five years was placed at 67 bushels. 

The year has been very good for cattle and sheep farmers Cattle, 
as good prices have been obtained all through the year. 

There is very little disease among tlie cattle of the States, with 
the occasional exception of Texas fever. Cattle and sheep on the 
ranges and farms run a lisk from poisonous herbs, cockle and 
spring cockle growing widely in the North-Weat. In South 
Dakota cattle have died from eating dry corn-stalks, but no ca-ses 
have appeared where the stalks have been cut up. In the West 
and North-West, eating the loco and rattle weeds, either in the 
field or in liay, is often fatal Sheep are often brought from farms 
and put on ranges and have to pick out the wholesome from the 
unwholesome foods, and all cattle raised on enclosed farms suffer 
in the same way. The wild animals could, in former days, move 
from range to range, but the ranges are getting so restricted and 
•eaten down that the pasture is no longer any too plentiful. Water 
hemlock, larkspur and cannas are the other most poisonous plants 
met with. 

Cattle thieves and wild animals are growing less, and with the 
gradual taking up of Government land will become extincL 

A great deal has been said about the coming scarcity of cattle 
and the future prohibitive price of meat owing to the breaking up 
of the large ranges but the opposite will be mote likely the case, 
as with better care and feeding the owners of small farms will 
raise three beasts on the same acreage that one is raised on the 



The sales of thoroughbred cattle have been very successful, 
and good prices have been obtained. 

In December, 1900, the American Shorthorn Breeders' Associa- 
tion imposed a fee of 20 guineas for r^isterii^ any foreign-bred 



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12 CHICAGO. 

uuma]. This action would seem to have been a little sboit- 
sighted as even now, after many years of stock improvement, the 
majoTity of the beet shov and breeding cattle are, or are bred 
from, imported animala 

The sales of the year have shown that a very high price is 
obtainable for firet-class stock and a very poor price for others, 
and it is therefore necessary, more than ever, that exporters should 
be careful, as the expenses of quarantine, &c, add enormously to 
tiie cost. 

The following are the prices obtained for breeding stock at 
public auction in 1901 ; — 

S/wl}u>ms.—4,14Q head brought 239,259/.; average, 571. 13«.; 
highest price, bull, imported, "Lord Banff," roan, calved June 10, 
1899, l,051i. 10s. Cow, imported, "Missie 153rd," red, calved 
June 10, 1899, 1,237/. 2*. The imported cow, « CScely," also 
fetched 1,030/. 18*., while the imported bull, "Choice Goods," 
was sold privately, and it was stated that 1,546/. 10s. was paid 
for him. 

Aberdten-Atigus. — 894 head sold for 51,139/., an aven^ of 
'57/. 4s. ; highest prices, bull, " Orrin of Long Branch," 268/. ; cow, 
imported, " Krivinia," 350i y«; 

Jw</orrfs.— 1,995 head sold for 102,176/., an average of 51/. 4«.; 
highest prices, bull, " Beau Donald," 412/. is. ; cow, " Dolly 2nd," 
1030/. 188. 6rf. 

FolUd Durkams m- Shorth(ynis.~24S head sold for 10,841/., 
an average of 44/. lis. ; bull, 206/., and cow, 207/. 

OaUmeays. — 68 bead sold for 2,910/. 5s., an avenge of 42/. 16s. ; 
highest prices, bull, imported, "McDougall 4th," 412/. 7«.; cow, 
imported, "Lady Harden," 115/. 8«. 

Hed Polls.— 79 he«d sold for 3,760/. 15«., an average of 47/. 12i. 

At the International Stock Show in Chicago, in December, 
"Herefords won most of the champion prizes, Aberdeens had been 
the winners in 1900. 

The champion Herefords in carload lots averaged, live-weight, 
1,497 lbs.; dead-weight 1,010 lbs., or 67-50 per cent. Cost on 
hoof 21. 9s. 6rf. and as beef 3/. 13». 3d: per 100 lbs. 

In ordinary sales as high as 1'. 9s. lOrf. per 100 lbs. has been 
obtained during the year and the best steers generally bring about 
1/, 5«. on the hoof. Cows and canners fetch much lower prices, 
the latter going as low as 4a. 6d. per 100 lbs. The latter are 
often very thin but are not diseased, and are in demand for 
canning as the want of fat prevents waste in cutting and daccidity 
in the meat when opened in hot weather. 

The stock-yard firms are to be increased by the removal of 
the Hammond Company from Hammond, Indiana, to Chicago, and 
improvements have been made in several packing-houses as well 
as in the yards. 

The year has been marked by an increaaed quantity of well- 
bred stock coming from the ranges and by the better feeding o 
tlie high-priced steers. In the latter part of the year, when a 
shortage of the corn crop was certain, foimetB began to send in 



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cniciGO. 13. 

large numbers of half fatted animals, oiul tlie ittoeipts have liaeo 
very high in number for several iDoiiths. 

The receipts ot Texas and Western cattle were the smallaat 
for many yearm. 

In all 3,031,028 cattle were received against 2,729,046 in 1900, 
and 181,767 calves against 136,310 in 1900. 

In 1901 Chicago packers killed 1,998,467 against 1,794,397 
cattle, and 162,259 calves against 122,250 in 1900 :— 



SncTiptioQ. 


ATBmg. Price per 100 1*«. 


1901. 


1000. 


1807. 


lfatiT««tMT> 

Cowtudheifen .. 
Tnuitewi 


£ .. d. 
118 
16 8 
17 4 


£ >. d. 
IIS 
18 8 
17 * 


£ : d. 
IS 6 
IS 7 
16 6 



All the animals in the yards are inspected by veterinary 
surgeons while alive, and have carefal inspection after death and 
every carcase condemned ie destroyed. 

France and Germany and one or two other Continental Hogi. 
countries insist on a microscopical inspection of hogs for 
trichinosis. About 1*30 per cent, of the carcases are found 
infected, but notwithstanding the compliance with this regulation 
the export of hog products to the Continent of Europe shows a 
steady decline. The cost is about Is. per carcase, and if demanded 
by all exporters would mean an extra charge for the meat as the 
Oovernment would not be able properly to inspect all the carcases 
killed and exported free of chaige. 

The receipts of hc^ showed an increase, 8,874,038 in 1901. 
and 8,694,777 in 1900, while packers used 7,571,045, an increase 
of 328,451 in the year. Prices also rose, the price averaging 
1^. 4«. 1^ per 100 lbs., but the average weight of the ho^ showed 
a falliug-ofT at the end of the year owing to the price of com. 
The average weight has been 200 lbs., a falBi^-oGr of 38 lbs. from 
190O. Mess pork has varied from 21. XU. lOrf. to 3/. 9s. \.d., as 
gainst 21. 2t.7d. to 31. 5s. llrf. in 1900. 

Lard has been rising during the year, and touched 21. 2«. Sd. 
in December from l/.'8s. 3d in January, as against 1^. Ss. 3d. 
lowest and 1^. 10«; 5d. highest in 1900. 

, A great decrease in the hog supply for 1902 is prophesied, 
some people placing the loss at 1,000,000 hc^, but at the banning 
of the year more were coming than ever. 

The favourite breeds are Duroc-Jersey, Berkshire, and Poland- 
China. The first-named, a short-nosed, golden red-haired animaJ, 
taking first place because it is considered more proof against 
cholera than other breeds, a fact which is most important to 
farmers in districts where the disease is most prevalent in summer. 

Chicago still keeps its place as the horse market of the United Ho»ei. 
States, not only in numbera but in quality.' 



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14 CHIOAQO. 

The receipts in Chicago were 109,390 in 1901 and 99,010 
in 1900, while the other markets in the district showed a falling-ofF, 
St. Louis of 19.000, Kansas of 4,000, and Omaha of 20,000. 

St Louis and Kansas are also great mule markets and as 
nearly^ 50 per cent of the animals, classed as horses, passing 
through these markets are mules, the number of horseti is com- 
paratively small. 

The Chicas;o horse market is supplied from Illinois, Michigan, 
Kentucky, Indiana, and Iowa, and very little use is found for the 
MisBOUii, Kansas, Texas, or Western horse. 

The size and quality of the horses brought to Chicago, as com- 
pared with the other markets, can be estimated by we cars to 
Chictu!0 carrying from 16 to 18 horses, while to the others they 
hold 22 to 24 horses. 

In draft horses the Fercheron is the favourite, although all the 
prizes at the stockyard show were won by imported Clydesdales. 

One imported Clyde staUion was sold at auction for 340L, and 
at a sale of 40 recently held, an average of 58i was obtained. 

The prices of horses have been higher during the year, drafters 
fetching dOl. to 55/. ; horses for heavy, rough work in the lumber 
camps, 181. to 35^.; hoi-ses, weighing from 1,200 to 1,400 lbs., for 
farm work, 10/. to 20/.; from 1.400 to 1,500 lbs., 20/. to 25/.; 
bussers, 18/. to 25/. ; light bnsaers, from 1,200 to 1,250 lbs., 16/. to 
25/. ; " warriors," from 900 to 1,000 lbs., 5/. to 10/. ; with selected 
ones for Europe, 13/, to 21/. ; coachers, 30/, to 701. for horses with 
good action, 

sports to Europe are not so brisk owing to the price in 
Chicago having risen 100 per cent, in five years. 

Of the horses marketed here the great majority are draftera 
and old worn hoi^ses, only 5 per cent being suitable in age, &c., 
for light bussers or army horses. 

Horses are bought here by dealers and shipped to St. Louis 
and Kansas City for resale. 

The future supply of the Chicago market is expected to be 
smaller in 1902, but to rise steadily thereaftor with an ever in- 
creasing percentage of young and high-class horses, as the breeders 
are breeding systematically and with renewed hope of a certain 
market. 

The sheep market in the latter part of the year was demoralised 
owing to the drought, enormous numbers (117,047 and 107,401> 
being received in Chicago in September and October, and the 
price fell as low as is. 2d. per 100 lbs. The top price was 21s, 7d.» 
against 26s. &d. in 1900 for sheep, and '25s. 9d., against 31s. for 
lambs. The average was 153. id. 

Out of 480,000 Western sheep marketed here, 12,000 were 
good enough for the export trade. 184,000 in all were exported, 
against 75,000 in 1900, and less than 50,000 in 1899. 

Colorado marketed :{75,000 com and afalfa-ted lambs in 
Chicago during the first half of t^e year at 19s. Id. to 23>., or an 
average of 8s, lOd. below the receipts for the year before. 

The weight of the sheep, notwithstanding the drought, wa? up' 
to the average. 



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CHICAGO 15: 

At the Intematioiutl Stock Show, sheep from Canada won a 
great many prizes, and many of them were imported from the 
TToited Kingdom. 

Montana is the greatest sheep State in this district, having ' 
about 4,000,000 sheep. 

The manufacture of oleomargarine in the United States showed Olw 
a slight falling-off, 104,943,856 lbs. being manufactured, and of" 
this 62,730,000 were made in Illinois, Kansas, and Missouri, 

Many preservatives are offered for sale, and are advertised PpwerratiTB*. 
as being largely used by packing houses in the preparation and 
preservation of colour and substance of meat, but whether this is 
so or not cutinot be discovered. Moat of these preservatives are 
made of some of the following : borax, boric acid, salicylic acid, 
salicylate of soda, benzoic acid, benzoate of soda, ammonia, form- 
aldehyde or sulphates. 

Of 67 samples examined by the Department of Agriculture, 
33 contained borax or boric acid, 10 salicylic acid, and three 
formaldehyde. 

Formaldehyde was once much used here in milk, but the' 
practice is not prevalent now. 

There are 29 manufacturers of flour in Chicago, and the Slant. 
amount of business has increased. Chicago flour has earned a 
name for purity, and gi-eat care is exercised in buying milling 
wheat. 

The local trade has been very satisfactory, more bread 
having been eaten owing to the high price of potatoes and other 
v^tables. 

It is held that there are discriminations made in fi^ight 
in favour of wheat which prevents the export trade increasing, 
and that if this were not so, Chicago flour would' be marketed in 
Europe at a price which would bar competition from European 
millfers, . because the price obtainable for mill feed is bo great, 
owing to the short crop of corn, that flour can be sold almost 
below cost 

In the autumn it was staled that many American millers 
were selling flour adulterated, more or less, with powdered barytes. 
Flour sells for about 14/. a ton, and barytes at 21. lOs., so a good 
profit could he made by its use. It is also said that the same 
adulterant is much used with powdered sugar for manufacturing 
candy. 

The crop of wheat was about 100,000,000 bushels more than Onia 
in 1900, the crop of winter wheat, 400,000,000 bushels, being the inarksta. 
laigest ever known. The North-West had a big crop, ana the 
price soon after harvest was depressed, selling as low as 2s. 7d. a 
bushel, but with an. increasing export demand, and the use as 
cattle food instead of com, a sharp advance took place, rising to 
3& Sd., but with the rise the export demand fell off. 

The oat crop was below the averse, about 600,000,000 bushels (Ma. 
beii^ harvested. 

The shortage in other crops created a demand for feeding 
purposes, and an unusual quantity of other grain was used for 



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16 CHICAGO. 

mixing, barley, wheat, and rye being used. Great care haa to 
be used so that the proportion of other grain should not be too 
la^. 

The price rose from Is. per bushel in January, to la. lid. in 
December, but very little was exported, except 3,000,000 bushels 
to South Africa, 

The demand fot milling purposes is not so ffreat as formerly, 
different preparations of wheat and oats taking the place of 
oatmeal to a greater extent each year. 

A small crop of rye was raised in 1901. The North-West 
raised a large crop, but the Central States were deficient. Over 
6,000,000 bushels were used for the manufacture of spirits in the 
United States. 

Rye has also been freely used for mixing with oats, both 
country and city dealers adding all the rye to their oat ship- 
ments that they dared. With oats at 2». per bushel of 32 lln., 
rye mixed with them would bring lOd. a bushel above the market 
price. 

The price has risen from la. lid. in January to 2s 9d. in 
December, and an increased European demajid is looked for in the 
future. 

Prices for flax having been high for the past two years, fanners 
increased their acreage, and an enormous crop was expected, but 
the drought reduced the crop in the South-West about one-half, 
while the North-West, Minnesota, and South Dakota also suffered. 
North Dakota had a good yield. The crop is estimated at about 
25,000,000 bushels. 

Prices have ranged from 6^. 5d. in January, to 7s, lOd. in July, 
closit^ in De,cember at &s. Id. 

The average com (maize) crop of the States is put at 
2,000,000,000 bushels, but owing to the drought, a crop which had 
been estimated at 100,000,000 bushels over the aven^, fell 
600,000,000 bushels below it. Prices rose from Is. 6rf. in January, 
to Zs. 2d. in December. The export demand waa sm^l during the 
year. About 19,000,000 bushels were used for making spirits, and 
great quantities also for glucose, starch, &a 

The barley crop was not affected by the drought, and the 
yield per acre was very good, 247 bushels to the acre. Very 
little barley is used for making spirits, only 1,400 bushels in 1901 
The price was good at first, but heavy shipments from the Pacific 
Coast sent down prices, good malting barley bringing 2s; ^d. per 
bushel. 

Bright thin barley or choice screenings were bought for 
mixing with oats, and brought better prices than dark heavier 
barley , or malting barley. 

There was an increase of over 20 per cent, in the linseed 
oil and cake manufactured in 1901. The price of seed 
was higher than the average (4«. 9d.) of five years. The price 
of oil was steady during the year, selling at the mills for 
about 2s. 2d. a gallon. The export of cake increased about 
15 per cent. 



dbyGoOgll 



CHICAGO. IV 

New and old mills where improvementa are being made were 
hampered by the slow delivery of machinery. 

The clearing-house returns for 1901 were 1,551,275,000/., Barking, 
against 1,359,175,000/. in 1900. Several banks increased their 
capital, and good dividends were paid. Deposits increased 14 per 
cent, over 1900, and amounted to 88,744,480/. 

_ The output of bieyclos was about the same as in 1900, and BiojoIm. 
prices were not changed. The seven loadiug houses have combined, 
and supply 90 per cent, of the wheels produced in the States. The 
sale of bicycles in Chicago itself decreased, but the country trade 
increased. 

The manufacturing trade of Chicago in hoots and shoes of all Booi. hkI 
kinds continues to increase, and is rapidly gaining on St. Louis, show. 
The total business amounted in value to 6,700,000/., and prices 
were advanced about 5 per cent, not enough to offset the extra 
price of leather. 

There has been a marked increase in the use of patent and 
enamelled leather, of which 2,000/. wortli was imported. More 
sole leather was also imported in the past year than formerly. 
Imports of good sole leather and enamelled leather could probably 



One firm in Chicago has six factories, each one doing one 
special work, a system found to be the best of all tried. 
' The exports of finished boots and shoes from Chicagohas increased 
considerably, good orders having been received from Australia. 

The large manufacturers have made money, as they were able 
to make contracts for future delivery when leather was low in 
price, and were able to make a profit without advancing the price 
of the finished article, while those who either mistook the tendency 
of the market or who had not sufficient credit or capital to warrant 
long contracts, have made little, and in some cases have lost money 
on the year's trade. 

Breweries experienced an average year, the output being t>™„^ 
valued at, in Chicago, 3,600,000/., and in the Consular dUtrie^ 
where it is made in nine States, 11,000,000 barreb, valued at over 
12,000,000/. 

Consumption increased slightly, and about 3,000,000 barrels 
were produced in Chicago. 

Materials were all higher. Malt increased 7 per cent., hops 
15 per cent., and rice, which is largely used, 20 per cent., but the 
price of beer remained about the same as in 1900, 25s. per barrel. 

Those interested in the brewing business of the United States 
must realise that the price of beer has been permanently reduced, 
and that their profit must depend on the price of the raw' 
materials. 

Increased competition is also coming, as eight new breweries 
have been or are being built, and the only hope of increased profit 
ia the remittance of the war tax. 

Brewers are at present paying 6s. Id. a barrel duty, which ia 
said to amount really to 7<. 3rf., as the allowance of 7J per cent, 
for wastage and leakage formerly allowed has been withdrawn 
(29) B 



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18 CHJCXOO. 

Very little imported cement is now used in Chicago and the 
surrounding country, although occasionally a contract calls for 
British Portland cement, when it has to be ordered specially. 
Import duty Bd. per 100 lbs. 

The supply of cement manufactured in the neighbouring States 
is very large, and is still increasing. Much of the cement used in 
Chicago comes from Michigan and Indiana, but there are in this 
Consular district cement works in Illinois, Kansas, and Colorado, 
with two building in Missouri. 

Eesidea these, the Illinois Steel Works manufacture cement, 
made of specially selected slag from the blast furnace. This is 
roasted, put into the open air to free itself of lime, ground to a 
very fine powder, and mixed with the necessary chemicals. 

Great care has to be taken in the burning or roasting, and a 
cement that is claimed to be as good as any made is produced 
and is sold delivered in Chicago foi about 5s. 6d. in barrels or 
sacks per 380 lbs. net. 

Pennsylvania and New York works supply the Eastern demand 
at 3s. Gd. to 4s. per barrel at the mills. Xausas, Michigan, 
Indiana and Illinois niilla supply the central part of the States, 
charging 4s. id. to 4^. 9d. at the mill, while the Colorado mills get 
higher prices owing to the distance from other works and the cost 
of freight. 

These prices do not include barrels for which a charge of Is. Zd, 
is made, but if the S80 lbs. net of cement is put in bags no extra 
charge is made if the sacks are returned. 

The United States' Geological Survey reports that a mixture 
of 100 parts cement rock showing 69'24 per cent, carbonate of 
lime, and 42'8 parts of limestone having 40'38 per cent, carbonate, 
making 76'7 per cent carbonate, is most satisfactory. To obtain 
this very fine grinding it is necessary to make the percentage of 
insoluble matter as low sa possible. 

In 1899 the product of Portland cement, manufactured from 
marl and limestone, was 3,71 1,220 barrels, roasted in rotary and 
1,941,046 barrels in vertical kilns. Much expense is saved by the 
rotary kiln. Natural rock cement production by 76 works was 
9,868,179 barrels, valued at 2s. per barrel. 

Annual consumption in the United States over 17,000,000 
barrels, of which 8,000,000 barrels are Portland, 2,000,000 barrels 
imported, but in 1901 imports fell off one-half 

Two brands of imported cement, one Belgian and the other 
German, are used to some extent and fetch from lis. 4d. to 16s. &d. 
per barrel. These cements are made from slag and are known as 
non-staining cement, being fi'ee from oxide of iron. 

The American cement is ground as fine as Hour, and it is said 
that the coarse grinding of British cement is a great obstacle in its 
sale, even if prices were the same. 

In some buildings being made with cement a wire netting 
erection is put up firet and the cement laid round this and is said 
to increase the strength of the building 100 per cent. 

A machine for turning out blocks of cement for building 



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CHICAGO. 19 

purposes has been worked lately in a town near Chicago. These 
blodcs axe made hollow and plain or ornamented as leqoired. 

(jreat deposits of g;^um, which are shipped to Chicago from 
MiohigaD for plaatering houses, are now beine worked, and enormous 
quantities will probably be used in 1902 for the exhibition buildings 
in St Louis, mixed with old rope. 

There was an increase in the direct imports of British china (%uu and 
and earthenware of 1,000?., while the total imports to the United •«*'>•■>*»•*■ 
States of the same articles decreased aboat 9,000?. 

At the increased value of the article this would indicate a very 
small increase in quantity, if any. 

French, German and American china and earthenware sold 
in much increased qusjitities in Chicago, and all fetched a higher 
price. 

The china and earthenware trade of Chicago amounted to about 
2,000,000/. for the year. 

The buyers of the large wholesale and retail houses visit 
Europe annually to make the purchases, and more than one 
admit that they never buy in the United Kingdom anything 
they can get elsewhere. They aay they do not consider that they 
receive the consideration from British manufacturers which is due 
to anyone who has the power to make such lai^ purchases as 
tliey do. 

Tlie manufacture of cut glass is increasing very fast in Chicago, 
and a new large foctory ia in the course of construction. 

The direct imports of dry goods from the United Kingdom to Drj vood*. 
Chicago showed a decrease, while the total direct imports show an 
increase. 

One of the largest wholesale milliners states that his firm 
buys no British nullinery now, the whole coming from Paris, 
although travellers come to Chicago from the United Kingdom 
tryiud to sell their goods. 

The sales of all classes of dry goods was very large during 
the year, and there was a demand for a better class of goods. The 
tot-ai sole is put at about 28,000,000?., and Chicf^o is now dis- 
tributing in au ever-increasing field, the territory extending to the 
Pacific Coast on the West, to the State of New York on the East, 
and as far as West Virginia on the South, 

The demand was so good that prices remained steady all 
through the year, and the business classed as luxuries had an 
increased sale not only in Chicago but all over the States. 

The manufaetnrers are putting on the market made-up sheets 
and pillow cases, for which there is an increasing demand. 

There have been few changes in the educational system in Edoottion. 
Chicago in 1901.- The Armour Institute of Technology has 
opened a new courae, chemical engineering, to prepare men for 
the inci-easing demand for ihe scientific treatment of bye-products 
of different manufactures. 

The North Western University is about to close its medical 
school, which has been carried on by women lecturers for female 
medical students. 

(:'9) B 2 



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20 OHICAOO. 

There is also believed to be a change about to be made in the 
T^ulationa goveraing the education of women at the Chicago 
University, no particulars have yet been given out, bat it is 
understood that separate lectures will be oiganised which women 
etadeute will be encourt^ed to attend. 

It has been stated lately that the increasing number of women 
students at universities in America is having a tendency to crowd 
oat the men. 

Electricity for drivii^ machinery is used iu most places 
as the motive power for driving shafting, but in many email 
workshops and printing offices each machine has its own 
motor. 

Some of tbeae are direct current, but it is said that a bdt 
has proved more satisfactory, and all new machines have a 
belt from tJie motor to the machine, t^ distance ottea being not 
more than i feet. These motors run as low as one-half horse- 
power. 

The Chicago furniture trade is increasing and sales for 1901 
reached 6,000,000/., but a great part of the furniture sold in 
Chicago is made at Grand fiapids, Michigan, and other places in 
Uichigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin. Although Chicago makes some 
high class furniture, it also turns out great quantities of cheap 
furniture- In finely finished bedroom suites and inlaid work, 
Grand Rapids holds its own. 

The prdfits have not heen so lai^ during the year as, although 
: prices Lave slightly advanced, the increased price of lumber, &c., 
nas amounted to 20 per cent 

Trades using hard wood lumber are having difficulty in getting 
their orders filled except at continually increasing prices. 

A quantity of furniture is now sent to Mexico from Chicago 
and office furniture to the United Kingdom, Germany, and 
Holland. 

Chicago has a population of about 2,000,000, and notwith- 
standing the great heat in summer, occasional very great cold 
in winter, and the sudden changes all through the year, dirty 
streets, contaminated water supply, and crowded districts, 
shows a declining death-rate each year, in 1901 being 13'8 per 
1,000. 

The mortality among children has decreased from 12,801 in 
1891 to under 7,500 in 1901, and is accounted for by the antitoxin 
treatment of diphtheria, improved milk supply, medical inspeotiou 
of schools, and nursing and other visiting associations. 

The quality of the milk has been much improved in late years, 
and the use of formaldehyde has been suppressed. 3,835 cases 
of infectious diseases were found in the schools by the medical 
inspectors, and the children of the fanulies, from which the cases 
came, were excluded. 

Chic^o has had few cases of small-pox during the year 
owing to the rigid enforcauent of vaccination of all persons 
coming into contact with a case although it has been raging all 
round. Over 135,000 persons were compulsoiily vaccinated. 



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■ A WBTniiig to inteoding immigrsDts Beems necessary as eo immlgnHm. 
maiij ctann to the country, without maldng any pieirious enquiry 
as to the conditions, -who are unfit to earn a living under the 
changed oiicumstances. 

There is no opening for unskilled labour. Wages are good for 
farm work for a few months in the summer, but during the winter 
work is very scarce, and many men are anxious to work even for 
their board. 

Skilled labour is in foU supply notwithstitnding the increased 
activity in all classes of manufacturing. 

Farmers with some capital, who are ready to work hard and 
study the snrroundings carefully before laanohing ont for them- 
selves, should do fairly well, but they must be prepared to do most 
of the work themselves in order to succeed. 

In shops and stores the outlook for foreigners is not good as 
many of me wholesale houses pay their salesmen, both in the 
head houae and on the road, by commission, allowing them 
4d per cent of the neb profits of their sales. A sucoesaful man 
is. able to make high wages at this pay and often retires and sets 
up for himself. A man must have acquaintances among the 
buyers to enable him to command a trade. 

The successful travelling salesman of America is as a rule 
a tall man, who impresses people and commands attention 
when he enters a store, which a man of email size cannot 
do. He has cheerful and genial manners, ready to make 
friends and have a cheerful word with all, and with a marvellons 
memoiy. 

Clerical work in banks and offices is paid no higher, the extra 
cost of living being taken into consideration, and leads to nothing 
more, as a rule, than the same claas of work in the United 
Kingdom. 

An Englishman on his first arrival without friends has a very 
uphill career before him as he finds that he is regarded witii 
suspicion by those he approaches either for a situation or on 
business. 

It has been so impressed on the people here that an English- 
man is dense and lazy that no one is willing to employ one of 
whom he knows nothing as to work, and unfortunately so many 
liave come out here who do not grasp the fact that hard work is 
necessary even to get a living, or who live by their wits, that the 
impression has received <<x)TToboration. 

Young men who have done badly at home or who have 
sbowu a disinclination for work generally do worse here and 
do i incalculable harm to the name and reputation of their country. 

Promiscuous introductions aro a mistake and should not be 
given to undeserving people. 

This country has enough young men of its own to fill the 
offices of the cities, and lias a supply also of idlers, and no fresh 
importations of the latter are desired. 

While in 1900 Chicago underwriters had a fairly prosperous Inmrsnc^ 
year the loss throughout the United States amounts to 29,000,000i, ""■ 
(29) B 3 



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Chicago's share being 616,011/., in 1901 the total has risen to 
33,000,0002: to which Chic^o contributed a loss of 1,080,000/: 
Thia shows a ratio of 72 per cent of the pi-emiums. 
For the whole State of Illinois the lose was 58 per cent ; 
Wisconsin, 55 per cent. ; Minnesota, 58 per cent ; Iowa, 61 per 
cent ; and Mifsouri, 67 per cent Of these States all except 
Minnesota and Missouri show an increase. 

The ;ear bos been so disastrous that most of the companies 
have decided to reduce their lines considerably, several have 
decided bo leave the American field entirely, others have re-insured 
their liabilities, and three companies have failed. 

A recent law passed by the State of Illinois enacte that an 
jnsorance company jcan only le-insure in a company which is 
authorised to (io business in Illinois, and has crippled to a large 
extent the possibility of writing large policies in one company. 
Instead of the insurance companies seeking the insurers and 
soliciting their business the insurers now have to find companies 
who will place their risks at all, and even then, although rates 
have been raised 15 per ceut, many firms have not been able to 
place sufficient insurance to cover their losses in case of fir«. A 
further increase of 25 per cent, is proposed in consequence of the 
heavy losses of last year. 

The expense rate is put at 40 per cent of the premiums. 
Host of the lat^ companies have made large investmnnta in 
loans and thus remain in the business. 

It is said that about 10 per cent, more life insurance was 
written in 1901 than in 1900. Premiums advanced 5 per cent 
One company claims to have done 60,000,000i worth of business 
in the United States, includii^ 4,000,000/. in Illinois, and, of this, 
2,650,000/. in Chicago. 

Life insurance companies are now doing a banking business, 
putting out investments and contracts of all kinds in which life 
insurance is a side issue. 

Casualty and employers' liability premiums advanced 5 per 
cent., and plate-glass 25 per cent 

There was a great increase in the writing of insurance against 
bui^aiy. 

There were, on the Lakes, .717 losses during the season, as 
against 502 in 1900, and 569 in 1899, but the loss though much 
more than last year did not equal that of 1899. It is said that 
the repairs of vessels while laid up for the winter will cost about 
100,000/. The damage chiefly consists of dents in the plates 
where the vessels have touched ficround. 

Of the accidents 133 were in the crowded channels between 
Lakes Huron and Erie, 37 serious fires, many resulting in 
fotal loss, 202 aground, 107 in collision, 145 ashore, afld 12 
foundered. 

In the way of total losses 51 vessels, valued at 163,540/., 
passed out of existence while fire cost 57,540/: 

The steamer " Hudson," foundered in Lake Superior in the 
autumn, was the largest individual loss, 50,000/. 



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Id 1902 the rates on lumber will be raisecl, owii^ to the heavy 
loaaes on that line in 1901, and the old wooden veaaels will find it 
a difficult matter to get any inauiance. 

The United States Steet Company, who are very large vessel 
owners, carry their own risks as do many others in the business. 

The year 1901 has been very prosperous for the wage-earner !*'>«'»• 
in all t^des as work has been steady all throueh the year, 
the usual time of idleness having been much curtailed. 

In Chicago it is said to have been the best year since 1892, 
the year of the World's Fair, and while wages liave increased 
slightly since then the cost of living has increased and is still 
increasing enormously. 

Notwithstanding the prosperity there are still more than 
sufficient men in all lines, except at certain times of the year for 
labourers, and working men of all trades should be very careful 
about coming to Chica};o. 

The demand for unskilled labour has been very good owing to 
the activity in railroad building throughout the States. 

There have been few strikes except the machinists who 
demanded a 10 per cent advance and a nine hours day which 
demands were grantcti in nearly every ease. The iron moulders 
struck for the abolition of the difl'erential scale of wi^es paid to 
bench and floor <noulders, and demanded 1 2s, id. per day instead of 
10a. 3d. and lis. Ad. The employers offered 10s. IQd. and lis. 7d. 
which was refused, and most of the employers acceded to their 
demands. 

.As a rule w£^es have remained the same aa in 1900. 

The average earning of skilled workmen in Illinois is estimated 
at 118i. 7s. (45s. Qd. per week); women, 50/. lbs. Id. {19s. 6rf. per 
week); and children under 16, 34/. 9«. Id. (13s, 'Ad. per week). 

The cost of living is very high and many luxuries are thought 
necessities. Skilled workmen pay from 21. to al. per month for 
their flats or bouses. " Dun's Eeview " places the cost of living 
at 20/. 19s. per head per year for the necessaries of life, a rise of 
6 per cent, during the year and of 40 per cent since 1897. These 
figures are the average for the United States, and expenses in 
Chicago are probably at least 20 per cent, higher. 

This year the working men made probably a Httle more than 
the average given as the work was steadier than usual. 

The increase in the nuoiber of men employed in the Chic^o 
factories and workshops in the year is 9 per cent ; women, 16 per 
cent; and children under 16, 39 per cent. There are now 19,839 
children employed in the factories. 

A very great deal of work is done by piece-work, and it is 
very difficult to arrive at accurate figures of wages earned in 
different trades ae in some small shops non-union men work 
much cheaper than in lai^e shops where they are working with 
union men and get almost union wa^s. 

In some factories machines are run by boys earning 2s. \d. 
per day, but about 7s. 2d. is the basis on which the calculation for 
piece-work, in many machine and other shops, is mada 

(29) II 4 



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24 CHIOAOO. 

Machinists eani from 7a. 2d. to 11a. Sd. for nine to 10 hours 
per day ; iroQ moulders, 7s. 3rf. to 12». 4rf. for 10 hours ; carpenters, 
9f. 3tf. to 14«. for eight and 10 hours, but in comparing wages the 
cost of living must be considered as well as broken time. 

In the sweating shops and shirt-making shops the wages paid 
are very small. 

Iq the tailoring trade union and non-union contractors are 
paid as follows : trousers, 3s. Id. and 2s. Sd. and vests 2s. 8d. and 
Is. lOrf. The union workers are paid: trouser operators, 9d. per 
pair ; pressers, 7d. ; trimmers, 4d. ; finishers, 7d. ; vests, operators, 
Id. ; basters, 6d. ; pressers, id. ; trimmers, 2d. ; and finishera. Id. ; 
aud the wages earned are about 42s. p^r week for union and 
25s. 2d. for non-union shops. 

The American workman, as a rule, goes home and does not 
spend much of his spare time in drinking saloons, while very tew 
tuke any interest in sport or bet on horse racing. 

The tanners had difficulty in 1901 in supplying the demand 
iia liides were ratlier scarce, and higher prices, about 10 per cent, 
liad to be paid for them which could not be recovered by raising 
the price of the finished article. 

Some advances were made but not enough to offset the increase 
of the raw material. 

Heavy No. 1 hides ranged from 5d. to d^d. per lb., and light 
from i^d. to Sjd. per lb. during the year. 

The chief demand was for smooth chromes, colt skins, enamels, 
and kid upper leathers, while in heavier and cheaper grades there 
was less business. 

Heavy sole leather was in great demand, and the price was 
advancetl 10 per cent, at the end of the year. 

The manufacturers of all kinds of articles in which leather is 
used consumed much more material and demanded better quality 
in all lines. 

There was a steady increase in the price of all kinds of lumber 
and this will in all probability be kept up, if not increased, 
owing to the gi-adual exhaustion of much of the timber land near 
the Lakes. 

The consumption of hardwood was very lai^, but it is esti- 
mated that 60 per cent, of the lumber trade is in pina 

White pine advanced 8s. 3d. per 1,000 feet for piece stuff, 
12s. 4d. for stock board and fencing, and 333. for clear lumber 
which is now very scarce- 
More yellow pine is brought to Chicago from the Southern 
States each year and sells cheaper than white pine and is much 
used for car and railroad materiah The advance in price In this 
trade has been from 16s. 6d. to 2ds. per 1,000 feet 

Manufacturers are turning to the South also for hardwood, and 
great interest is being shown in afforesting both by the Govern- 
ment of the United States and by individuals. 

The value of the Chicago lumber trade for the year is placed 
at over 6,000,000i. 



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Ttw. 


Roreired. 


Detpatdi^. 


Lumber. 


ShinglCT. 


Lumber. 


Bhinglu*. 


1900 .. 

1901 .. 


FMt. 

1 ^90,804,000 
1,968,C00,000 


Number. 
337,801,000 
800,000.000 


Feet. 
1,626,*78,000 
1,982,606.403 


Number. 
876,664,160 
360,3G0,000 



The stocks of lumber in Chicago at the commeiicement of 
1902 are estimated at 350,000,000 feet. 

'As 880,000,000 feet were sent out of the city the local 
trade will not be afTected by a shortage, except in the way of 
higher prices, as they will have the fii-st call on receipts, but in 
the near future many places now supplied from Chicago will have 
to seek another market to purchase in. 

MineralB of many kinds are found in the district, and in many Hineml). 
parts have hardly been developed as yet, 

Missouri produces china-clay, fire-clay, and terra-K^otta to the Clay 
value of 80,000/. ; Illinois, fire-;;lay and terra-cotta, value 20,000/. ; 
and Colorado and Wisconsin, small quantities of china and fire- 
clay. 

A quantity of terra-cotta is now being used for the new 
buildings in Chicago as it does not absorb the soot. 

The coal production of the United States for 1901 was about Oc»l. 
300,000,000 tons, of which not quite 7,000,000 tons were exported. 
The production of anthracite coal was about 63,000,000 short tons, 
and bituminous coal 235,000,000 short tons. 

While Pennsylvania is the chief eoal producing State, several 
3tates in this district are impoitant factors in the trade. 

The central coalfields in West Kentucky, Illinois, and Indiana 
produced 38,000,000 tons. The Western field in Iowa, Kaneaa, 
Arkansas, Missouri, Texas, and the Indian territory produced more 
than during any other year, and even then was not able to fill the 
demand for its product. This demand may, however, be curtailed 
by the increased discoveries in Texas, and use for manufacturing 
purposes of crude oil. 

Missouri produced 3,540,000 tons of coal in 1900, which in- 
creased in 1901 to over 4,000,000 tons. Kansas produced about 
5,000,000 tons, an increase of 1,000,000 tons. 

The Indian territory increased its product of coal by over 
1,000,000 tons, with a total of 3,000,000 tons, but the future of 
this field is doubtful as its principal outlet has been in Texas 
where the discoveries of oil threaten to take the place of coal, not 
only in factories, but also on railroads and ships. 

Iowa produced nearly 6,000,000 tons of coal, Colorado, 
Wyoming, Montana, Utah, North Dakota, and New Mexico pro- 
duced 15,000,000 tons, an increase of 1,500,000 tons. 

The only drawback to the trade was the scarcity of cars for 
moving the product. There have been no strikes, and wages have 
been good, but coalownera complain that they have not been able 



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to advance the price at the same ratio, as the value of all other 
productB have increased. 

Near the end of 1901, in veiy cold weather, coal was scared 
owing to want of cars, and colie was also in small supply, and 
some of the works were not able to run at full pressure. 

About 2,000,000 tons of anthracite coal were received in 
Chicago, aU of which came from mines in Ohio, West Virginia, 
and Kentucky. 

The Illinoifl coalfields produced over 26,000,000 tons, an 
increase of nearly 1,500,000 tons. 

The average value of all grades of coal per ton was 33. lid. at 
the mine, (gainst 3*. 8d. the previous year. 

Machine mining has gained little iii favour during the year. 
63 mines operating 464 machines, against 67 mines and 430 
machines the year before, an increase of machine production of 
191,045 tone. 

The average price per gross ton paid for hand mining was 
2^. 4d., against 2s. in 1900, and Is. 8d. against Is. 6d. for machine 
mining. The number of miners employed showed an increase of 
2,954. 

Colorado maintained its position as the lai^est gold producing 
State, Montana kept up the production, and the Black Hill dis- 
trict of South Dakota did well. The cost of production has been 
reduced, both in transportation and by the use of the cyanide 
process. Some mines in South Dakota and Montana are using 
zinc dust for the precipitation of gold. Zinc dust costs 24s. to 
29«. per ton, and about 7 oze. per ton of solution is used. 

The ore is crushed so as to pass through a J-inch round hole, 
and a lai^e proportion of the ore only assays at about 12s. 6d. 
per ton. 

Colorado produced about 4,000,000/.; Missouri, 150,000/.; 
Montana, 1,000,000/. ; South Dakota, 1,350,000/. ; and Wyoming, 
12,500/. 

The production of copper showed a moderate decrease for the 
year, and amounted to about 260,000 tons. Montana and Arizona 
were the two States where the output fell off, chiefly in Mon- 
tana, owiog to litigation, necessarily extensive timbering of the 
mines, &c 

The demand for copper has been good throughout the year, 
and the consumption of sulphate of copper is increasing. The 
price varied little all through the year, remaining at about 8rf.alb., 
but in December fell to 6d. 

Wyoming has large copper deposits situate close to coalfields. 
Some of the mineral land, coal, iron, oil, and copper, is still open 
to settlement. 

The output of iron ore in the Lake Superior district, in Min- 
nesota and Michigan, exceeded 20,000,000 tons ; the amount 
Ehipped from the ports to the Ohio ports was over 17,000,000 tons 
at a freight rate of 3a. Sd. a ton, and over 3,000,000 tons were 
shipped to Milwaukee and South Chicago. These shipments show 
an increase of 1,500,000 tons over 1900. 



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CHICAGO. 27 

WiscoDsin ore is used in Milwaukee, and Wyomint; ore is 
Bent hy rail to Colorado smelters. 

The consumption of pig-iron in the Chicago district, within a 
radius of 200 miles, was 750,000 tons, besides 1,500,000 tons of 
pig-iron, and 2,250,000 tons of iron-ore used hy the Illinois Steel 
Works in Chicauo and Joliet 

Prices have been very steady all through the year, and were 
08 follows : — 



ArttelM. 


1901. 


ISOO. 


Highe.*. 


LowMt, 


mgheit. 


LowMt. 


SoAttedbui.. 
Common bai iron 
Steel Unk pUtM 
BkcktbMtt .. 
Pluawipe .. 
NsiUdOO-lb.)- 
Lake Bnperwr alurcod 
No.aioo>linK-. 
No. 8 Mk foundr; 


£ ,. d. 
6 16 e 
6 9 
7 
7 8 
16 8 
9 10 
0-10 1 
4 6 
8 &11 
8 8 6 


£ M. d. 

B 7 2 
5 9 
6 
6 4 
18 
U 8 10 
8 
8 10 1 

2 1ft 9 

3 14 


M M. d. 

7 4 4 
9 11 
9 6 
11 a 
14 6 
14 4 
14 6 
6 6 8 
4 19 
4 14 2 


e t. d. 

6 7 2 
6 1 
6 I 
6 1 
OlS 7 
18 6 
9 8 
8 10 1 
8 19 9 
2 17 8 



Chicago turned out about 866,000 tons of standai-d steel rails 
of the total United States output of 2,600,000 tons. It is esti- 
mated that orders for 2,000,000 tons of steel rails for future delivery 
have already been booked, and it is said that some of the mills will 
not guarantee new orders before 1903. 

As the demand seems to be increasing, and more railroads 
are to be built, there should be a chance for the importAtion of 
rails. Pig-iron and steel billets are also said to be in ^ort supply 
and in great demand. 

Two new furnaces have been built at the Illinois Steel Works, 
and one at the Iroquois Steel Works, both at South Chicago, while 
the Minerva works are being rebuilt and enlarged at MUwaukee. 
These improvements will increase the furnace capacity over 1,000 
tons a day. 

A new open-heaith steel pltuit is being built at Indiana 
Harbour, just across the State une south of CMc^o, and works 
are proposed at Waukegan. 

The importation of tin-plates has fallen off very mndi from 'Xlm. 
1900, and the price varied during the year from 12. &s. lOd. to 
17». 3rf. 

The United States production of lead was about 265,000 short LMd, 
tons. Colorado and MisHouri increased their output. Missouri is 
the chief producer of soft lead, and the mines lie in the south-east of 
the State, and are within an area of 30 miles by 3 miles. The ores 
are galena and sulphide of lead, and the output was about 50,000 
tons, valued at 800,000/. In the south-weat of Missouri lead is 
found in the zinc ore. 



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28 , CHICAGO. 

Oil is found in Illinois, Missouri, Kansas, Indian territory 
Colorado, and Wyoming, In the last State there are 15 distinct 
pools, but as yet very little development has taken place owing to 
the distances from railroads. 

Natural gaa is piped to Chicago, and is used in houses for 
heating and cooking, in lai^e buildings for heating and running 
the elevatorB, and to a certain extent in a few factories. This ges 
all ttomes from Indiana. 

Illinois, Kansas, Missouri, and South Dakota are also gas 
producers. In Kansiis and Missouri gas jb much used in 
smelting zinc. The supply in the older fields is gradually 



The zinc production shows a email increase over the 123,381 
tons produced in 1900. The Joplin district of south-weat 
Missouri and south-east Kansas furnished about 63 per cent of 
the total. 

Zinc ore, assaying at 60 per cent., has been selling at il. 19s. 
to 51. 3s. per ton, and the mineowners are endeavouring to produce 
a high-grade ore on account of its finding quicker sale. Some of 
the ores are high in pyrites, and magnetic separatorB are being 
tried wkh satisfactory results. 

The Joplin district is very busy, and much exploring for ore 
is being carried on. Some ore has been exported to the United 
Kingdom, and it is expected that as much as 50,000 tons may be 
exported in 1902. 

A better class of piano was in demand and cheap pianos were 
almost unsaleable. The total sale of all musical supplies in 
Chicago was over l,000,000f. The estimated output of Chica^ 
was 38,600 pianos and 55,000 harmoniums, together valued at 
2,400,000?. 

The output of pipe oi^ns is increasing annually and the trade 
wna very good. 

Several manufacturers have invented and are building piano 
playing machines of different merits, some of them being excep- 
tionally good and having a gentle tone while others are rather 
meobanieal. The exports of musical instruments from the United 
States amovmted to about 700,000i,, nearly double the amount of 
the value of 1900, and probably more than half of the exports 
were Chicago manufactures. 

The work on the railroads, both in laying new and replacing 
old track with heavier rails and in building new equipment, has 
had much to do with the prosperity of the past year. It has given 
an impetus to the iron and steel, lumber and car-building trades, 
and to the unskilled labour of the State. 

The gross earnings of the United States railroads have increased 
- 6 per cent in 1901 and the expenses 3 per cent The gross 
earnings are placed at 315,632,840^. or 1,640^. per mile. 

5,057 miles of new road were built and of this mileage the 
diGTerent States are credited with : — 



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StotM. 


Number if— 








Linw. 


HilM. 






108 


Indiui temtorj 




167 










U 


18» 


HorthDakoto 




121 


SouthDakoU 




88 


Wyoming 




77 










11 


90 


UinoeMte 




171 


MontHW 




188 


OkUfaoma 




ttS 


WiMOMin 


11 


'" 



Tho lon^t single new liae is (Jie Cbioa^, Rock Island and 
Pacific contmuation from Kansas to New Mexico, 266 miles. The 
same companjr built 360 miles on three roads in Oklahoma, Texas, 
and New Mexico. The Choctaw, Oklahoma and Gulf Eoad 
built 310 miles on four lines in Oklahoma territory, Indian 
tenitory, Texas, and Arkansas. The Chicago and North 
Western 232 miles in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Iowa, but most 
of the activity has been in opening up the States in the South- 
West 

Bailroad business has been reduced to a science in the United 
States, where the distances axB so long, and the one object of study 
is to keep down the operating and office expenses. 

This has been done in tiie offices by combining roads and 
in this way reducing the office staff as well as salaries of 
directors and in the operation department by increasing the 
tonnage capacity of the trains, having large engines and always 
making them haul to the utmost limit of their capacity. 

Another system of economy is the grouping of companies and 
working them under an agreement, whereby expenses are reduced 
while rates are kept up or, at any rate, not reduced to a loss so as 
to get the trade away from a competing line. 

About 40,000,000^. was spent in the United States for cars 
and engines, and 196,000 freight care, 4,300 engines, and 2,300 
passenger cara were added to the equipment. 

An engine boilt for hauling heavy trains over the mountains 
baa just started work. It is built to consume oil as well as coal 
as it will run into California, 

The boiler at the smallest ring is 78 inches and at the largest 
88 inches in diameter ; the fire-box is 9 feet long and 6 feet 7 inches, 
wide; in the boiler are 413 flues each 18*6 inches long, and 
2^ inches diameter. 

Five pairs of driving wheels with wheel base of 29 feet for 
ei^ne and 62 feet for engine and tender. 

The tender has a capacity of 7,000 gallons of water and 2,250 



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so CHIOAUO. 

gallona of oil. WeigLt of engine 262,000 lbs., and with tank 
363,000 lbs. 

The boiler has a working pressure of 225 lbs., and the 
high pressure cylinder ie 17^ inches in diameter and the low 
30 inches. 

The engine is equipped with the Westinghouse air-brak-', 
mountain brakes, Westinghouse air-signal. I^ Chatellar water 
brake on cylinder, sand blast, friction draft gear, lubricator, and 
speed recorder, and is guaranteed to haul a train-load of 2,100 tons 
up a 50-foot grade. 

Freight cars are valued at about 140/., passenger cars at 800/., 
and the engines at 2,500/. each. The average capacity of freight 
can built was 80,000 lbs. Cars of 60,000 were in most demand, 
followed by cars of 100,000 lbs. capacity, while only 1,000 cars of 
30,000 lbs. capacity were wanted. These cara are expected to 
carry 10 per cent, over their marked capacity. 

The Chic^o and North Western Eailroad owns 5,562 miles of 
road, 1,060 engines, 996 passenger and 42,836 freight cars. 

A great many eteel cars are beini; built, although complaints 
are made aa to their corroding, but they are found moat useful 
and have paid for themselves before becoming useless. 

Another drawback raiding steel cars is that they cannot be 
burnt and destroyed in case of an accident like wooden cars. 

The market for real estate has been much improved in 1901 
in the business district and the demand for residential property 
has also increased, but not many sales in the latter have been 
made as the divei^uce of ideas of value between owner and buyer 
is great 

Sales have been made as high, in the business district, as 
3,4941 4s. 6d. per foot frontage or 32^ 19fi. 9d. per square foot. 

Several lai^ pieces of property have also been let for 99 years 
at a good rent and with the undertaking by the lessees to erect 
modem buildings. 

Many investments, which formerly were in great demand, 
now pay such low interest that investors are again turning to 
real estate. The growth of Chicago is so continual and st^y, 
both as a residential and a manufacturing city, that people, even 
those who hitherto have been doubtful as to Chicsgos future 
and have put their money into real estate in other States, realise 
that investments in Chicago, either in land or in mortgages 
on first-cletss business property, are as good and certain aa any 
possibly can be. 

There is an ordinance limiting the height of buildings unless 
a special permit is granted by the city council, but this has been 
repealed by that body, and it is believed will ultimately become 
law, when the council will act on the Mayor's request and limit 
the height to about 260 feet or 16 stories. 

The property owners claim that land in the business district 
is so dear and taxes on it amount to so much that buildings of 
loss than 14 or 16 stories do not pay. 

The retail business of Chicago is about equally divided between 



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CHICAGO. 31 

the 10 large departnient stores ia the centre uf the city, nil on 
State Street and within one-half mile, and the small stores each 
dealing in a single class of goods and scattered all through the 
city, but it is expected that the business of the outlying diatricta 
will be done more in those districts as the centre of the city 
becomes more crowded, and that a better demand will spring up 
for property on the streets suited for business near the residential 
districts. 

Much European capital, both of companies and individuals is 
invested in this city. 

The building trade of Chicago has had the best ye<ir since the Buij 
World's Fair in 1893 when the city was over-built, and it would 
appear that henceforward building should increase annually with 
the increase in population. 

In house building the chief demand has been tor small houses, 
costing from 200/. to 400/., generally wooden frame houses in the 
outlying parts of the city. 

About 2,500,000^. has been invested in apartment or flat 
buildings as there is an increasing demand for apartments in 
-Chicago among all classes in the place of houses on account of 
wages, expense of heating, and other expenses in a house. Eents 
vary from 6/. per month for a flat of four to seven rooms in the 
outlying districts to 8/. to 14/. nearer the city centre, while 10-room 
flats in very desirable situations and with all modem improve- 
ments let as high as 68/. per month. 

110 permits for buQding factories, at an expenditure of over 
.1,000,000/., were issued, nearly halt of these since September 1. 

In the business portions many permits have been issued for 
buildings to cost from 23,000/. to 200,000/., while two buildings, 
permits for which were issued last year, and costing 400,000/. 
and 240,000^ were commenced in May, and are rapidly approach- 
ing completion, OflBces in new buildings let for 6s. 2d. per square 
foot per annum. 

One of the large retail department stores is making an addition 
to its property, and ia erecting a 12-storey building 224 feet by 
151 feec Some of the land was occupied by a six-storey building 
used as part of the store and the remainder by a theatre and 
ofhce buildii^ and on May 1 the tenants commenced to move 
out 

The foundations consist of 84 concrete caissons varj'ing from 
5 feet 9 inches to 8 feet 6 inches according to the load they have 
to carry, but it has been calculated to have 4 tons load to the 
square foot at the bottom line of the caisson where.it rests on 
solid soil 75 feet below the city datum. 

The steel columns supporting the whole frame work are spaced 
at 22 feet 1 inch running east and west and 13 feet 4 inches north - 
and south, the latter being spaced at the same distances as the 
aisles in the building now in use, standing at the south of the new 
building, so that the aisles may run straight through. 

The outside columns which are 19 by 17 inches rest on a 
'Oast-iron shoe of 5 feet 3 inches, 6 feet 6 inches, or 7 feet 6 inches in. 



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32 CHICAGO. 

diameter placed on the top of the caissons. The inside columns 
test on two heavy girders which in turn are supported hy two 
layers of steel beams resting on the top of the caissons. 

The building is of the type known as the skeleton construction, 
being entirely supported by steel columns and girders on whioh 
the loads are distributed and through thein carried down to the 
foundations. This type of building originated in Chicago. 

The floors are fireproof, built of hollow flat tile arches, and the 
building is fitted throughout with heating apparatus and automatic 
fire sprinklers. 

llie front is built of granite and the back of white teira-cotta 
brick. The stones arrive from the quarry ready to put in place 
and are numbered so no cutting is done on the premises, except 
omamental carving of doors and windows when the building is 
nearing completion. Each stone is anchored to the iron frame 
work and building can be begun on any story or on two or three 
at once without waiting for the lower stories to be completed. 

Three of the floors were used for the Christmas trade although 
the ground floor and five floors at the top were unfinished except 
for the ironwork. 

The cost of the building is 330,000/: 
:. Eight st«el vessels were built in Chicago in 1901, four of which 
were vessels of canal size, 1,496 net tons, and cost 37,000^. These 
vessels were built for ocean trade in winter and Lake trade in 



The other four vessels were two of 3,630 tons and two of 
3,967 tons, and cost for the two former and one of the latter 
61,856/. and for the remaining one 56,700?. 

I'ive small wooden vessels were also built. 

There are building, or ordered for delivery in 1902, at the 
different yards on the Lakes, 43 steel vessels, and of these the 
American Shipbuilding Company has orders for 34. 

The American Shipbuilding Company has works at seven 
towns on the Lakes, Cleveland, Lorain, Buffalo, Bay City, Chicago, 
Superior, and Detroit. There are other yards at Toleda (Ohio), 
Port Huron (Michigan), Toronto (Ontario), and Collingwood 
(Ontario). 

Besides the vessels mentioned the American Company has not 
quite finished two large freighters, building at Cleveland, which 
are to be taken through the canals as soon as navigation on the 
St. Lawrence opens, in two parts. Their capacity with ocean 
draught will be about 7,000 tons. 

Thirty-two of the vessels building are cargo steamers, and 
vary from 198 feet over all, 2,000 tons, to 436 feet and 6,200 tons, 
and the cost from 22,O00A to 56.000/. 

One bai^e of 5,350 tons capacity is building at BuflTalo, and 
two of 2,300 tons each in Canada. 

Three passenger and freight steamers are building, two of them 
366 feet over all, costing 128,000i. each. 

None of the 9,000-ton vessels which were built in 1900 have 
been ordered and towing baiges are expected to go out of use to 



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CHICAGO. 33 

a great extent, as the immense tows which have been in use are 
not warranted by any saving over steamers. 

The total tonnf^ of the 43 steel veseels building on the lakes 
is 179,800 tons, and the coat 2,055,000?. Chict^ has five bailding 
costing 45,000^ each. 

Two wooden tow baizes are being built in MichiKan, the only 
wooden shipbuilding yard left, of 5,000 tons, costing 20,000/, 

The ahippiag trade of Chicago was not so f^ood in 1901 owing Sbippln^ 
to the short corn crop, and the entrances and clearances fell off 
109 and 64 vessels, but the tonoage increased slightly. The rise 
in tonnage is accounted for by the increasing size of the ore and 
coal ships running to South Chicago and Waukegan. 

The average tonnage of vessels was: — Chicago, 680 tons; 
South Chicago, 1,690 tons ; Michigan City (lumber), 240 tons ; and 
Waukegan (coal), 802 tons. 

The rateu offered by ore shippers of 3«. 3d. per ton had the 
effect of raising the price above the ideas of grain shippers. This 
price for ore carriage was offered not only for contract ships but 
for single trips. 

Improvements are to be made to the Chic^o River, some of 
the swinging bribes are to be removed and replaced by bascule 
bridges, doing away with the centre piers, the river is to be 
widened in places, and turning basins are to be made. 

The widening of the river wil! give an increased flow of water 
through the drainage canal without increasing the rate of the 
current. When the legal amount of water has been allowed to 
run over the dam it has been found that vessels had difBculty in 
navigating the narrow channel. 

The passenger businesa has been very good in the summer, and 
vesaels running between Chicago and Buffalo did well. The local pas- 
senger fleet of 35 vessels carried over 900,000 people from Chicago 
to the neighbouring States of Indiana, Michigan, and Wisconsin. 

The shipments of all kinds of grain, except wheat, fell off, 
42 per cent, to United States ports and 18 per cent, to Canadian 
ports. Samia shipments doubled during the year, while DepSt 
Harbour fell off about 9 per cent. The shipments to the latter 
port are expected to be enormously increased in the future owing 
to railroad control changing hands. Shipments of flour by the 
Lakes fell off 18 per cent., 918,763 barrels being shipped in 1901. 

Waukegan may have ironworks erected during the coming year 
when the shipping to that point will increase largely, and the new 
Indiana Harbour, a few miles south of Chicago, will also he a factor 
in the shipping of this district, but it is doubtful if the latter will 
be ready until 1903. 

The value of the direct imports of spirits has risen about Spirit*, fte. 
7,000i, on the year. There has been an increased demand for 
Scotch whisky, the consumption of which has made rapid growth 
in the past few years, but the wholesale dealers are inclined to 
think that the height of the demand has been reached. 

There are at present about 28 different branda of Scotch whisky 
on the market, and one house handles 18 of these. 

(29) C 



d by Google 



34 CHICAGO. 

The whisky moat in demand is a brand which has been more 
advertised than any other. 

It IB a very hard thing for a new brand to obtain a footing in 
the Western market without great expense in advertising and 
creating a demand, and no wholesale dealer will handle a whisky 
which is not in demand, nor will he go to any expense to make a 
market for a new article. 

The price of corn whisky has risen owing to the high value of 
maize. Com whisky is growing in favour and is more in demand 
in the place of rye. 

The demand for all whisky has increased 25 per cent, in 
the year. 

Over 8,000,000 bushels of corn, 1,000,000 bushels of malt, and 
350,000 bushels of rye were used in this district, and Illinois used 
8,338,007 bushels for this purpose out of 9,425,649 bushels in the 
district 

The increased demand has caused a great many distilleries to 
start up in opposition to the Distillery Company of America, 
commonly known as the " Whisky Trust," which in June had a 
practical monopoly of the business, and was mashing, in its seven 
distilleries, about 45,500 bushels of maize per day, producing 
227,500 gallons of spirit. It is now said that the daily production 
is 450,000 gallons per day and that the demand cannot be supplied. 
Of the seven distilleries, five are in Illinois, one in Nebraska, and 
one in Indiana. 

Nineteen distilleries, many of them idle plants which had 
been leased by the company and of which the leases have run 
out, are now starting in opposition with a combined capacity of 
218,750 bushels. 

This enormous production of home made spirit must have a 
tendency to discourage the importation of Scotch whisky. 

Great efforts are now beii^ made to find some satisfactory 
manner of drying the mashed grain and pressing it into cakes for 
cattle feed, but as yet none have been entirely successful. 

In Chicago itself very little whisky is made, only about 
250,000 gallons paying duty, but in Feoria, Illinois, the output is 
about 30,000,000 gallons. 

The streets of Chicago are lighted by electric lights worked 
by the city ; average number in use in 1901, 4,239, an increase 
of 30 ; 680 rented electric lights, an increase of 45 ; 24,224 gaa 
lamps, a decrease of 766 ; and 5,309 gasoline lamps, increase, 
1,033. 

In former years the gas company paid to the city 3J per cent 
of its gross earnings, but in July it commenced to furnish the gas 
free to the city instead, the city maintaining the lights. Many 
of the lamps have mantles to increase the light ; these are furnished 
by a company for Is. per lamp per anuum. 

The increase in the use of gasoline for street (lighting has been 
very steady ; in January 4,328 lamps were in use, and in December 
6,075 lampa 

The consumption of tea has increased in the United States in 



d by Google 



the last 10 years, but sot esough to keep up the average eon- 
sumption per capita, which for the 10 years up to 1890 was 
134 lbs., while for the past three years it only averaged 1'04 lbs. 

During the year the imports of tea JncreaBed from the United 
Kingdom, 1,250,000 Iba, and from British North America, 
230,000 lbs., while from Japan there was a decrease of 
2,900,000 lbs.; China, 24,000,000 lbs.; East Indies, 800,000 lbs., 
and other ABiatic countries, 2,300,000 lbs., as compared with 
1900. 

The direct imports to Chicago increased 27,000^., and importa- 
tions from the United Kingdom increased from 9,O00Z. to 18,000f. 
worth. 

The Secretary of Agriculture of the United States in his report 
for 1900, writing on the experiments in tea-growing in the South, 
says that a good grade of tea can be grown in the Southern States 
of the Union for 1-5d. per lb., and tliat experiments are being 
made with a view to reducing the cost of the preparation of tea, 
especially green tea. In the future special attention will be given 
to the manufacturing of a pure green tea, and, the report says, 
that the hopeleasness of bringing Americans to drink black tea is 
DOW being realised by all importers. 

In this district over one-third of the demand is for green tea, 
and a quantity of green Ceylon is now being put on the market 
One firm here sells over 50 cases of green Ceylon tea a month. 
This tea has not as yet the appearance of the Japan and China 
green teas and looks as if it had been partially fermented, and the 
trade ie in an experimental condition. 

The average import of tea to the United States may be set 
down as 80,000,000 lbs., and there is a population of over 
76,000,000, while Canada, with a population of slightly more 
than 6,000,000, imports 23,000,000 lbs. of tea. Of the Canadian 
importations a large quantity is green tea. 

In ijbe United States, Indian and Ceylon tea sells to a certain 
extent in the lai^e' cities, especially in the seaports, and in sections 
of the country where many British have settled. 

Of the 80,000,000 lbs. consumed it is computed that 
50,000,000 lbs. is natural or unfermented leaf, embracing the 
Japan and China green teas, 18,000,000 lbs. are semi-fermented 
leaf, Formosa and Foochow Oolong, leavii^ only about 
12,000,000 lbs. of fully fermented leaf, China, Congo and Indian 
and Ceylon teas. 

Anyone contemplating entering this market with Indian and 
Ceylon teas must consider the situation carefully ae many men 
with years of experience in the trade here have found it impossible 
to make a living unless they sell all kinds of teas. 

Many stores when asked for Indian or Ceylon teas sell 
"English Breakfast" which is a mixture of China and Japan 
teas. 

The people of the United States are enormous cofiee drinkers 
consuming at an average over 14 lbs. per head per annum as com- 
mred with 08 lb. consumed in Canada. 

(29) c 2 



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36' CHICAGO. 

The importationB were 1,072,009.182 Ibe. valued atl4,031,208i, 
an average value of 3-ld, The import in 1900 were 785,918,534 lbs., 
and in 1899, 878,198,029 Iba. 

A new aystem of telephone ia ahortly to be put into operfttion 
in Chicago. 

This telephone is automatic, requiring no attendant at the 
central station, making its own connection with the required 
number by the subscriber putting his finger through the bole in 
a disc which contains 10 numbers, and consecutively pulling the 
disc with the desired numbers towards the bottom. This system 
is known as the Strowger system and has been in operation in 
small towns in the Eastern States for two years. One mechanic 
can attend to 1,000 telephones. 

In Falls Kiver, Massachusetts, there are 615 subscribers and 
one attendant at a cost of 16/. 10s. per month. 

The new company will be entirely conducted on the metric 
system, the call being registered as soon as the connection is made. 
The chaige will be 2^d. for each message with a maximum for the 
year of 17/. 10s. 6rf., or all mesat^s over the number of 1,700 will 
be free. The present charge in Chicago is a minimum of one 
message a day at 2^d., or a fixed charge running as high as 33/, 
for business telephones. 

The increase in the sale of tobacco, cigars, cigarettes, and 
snuff has been large and the prospect for increased trade is good. 

There is a great demand for cheap well -advertised cigars, which 
are generally made in the East and South to the detriment of the 
home manufacturers. 

The consumption of cigarettes appears to be increasing not- 
withstanding all efforts to limit it. The city enforces a tax of 21/. 
a year on all sellers of cigarettes, and many companies and busi- 
ness bouses refuse to employ or keep in their employment anyone 
who uses tobacco in that form. 

A good deal of tobacco is grown in Wiscongin, and the 1900 
crop marketed in July, 1901, was not so large but of as good 
quality as that of 1899, and fetched Q^d, per pound. 



d by Google 



1 

3 


i 


Mi|i| 


1 


1 


1 1 1 IIS! 

1 ' 1 - 6 M 


1 


i 


4 1 i » i 1 1 

1 i 1 5 1 »i 1 


1 


1 


1 


Ml- 


3 


1 


1 


Mi|i| 


s" 


i 


^ i i i s i 1 
1 =" i" J i s s 


i. 


i 


1 i 1 II .8. 


1 


1 
1 


1 


1 i" s 1 1" S 2 
" »■ •- s- 


1 


i 


muH 


s 


1 


4 1 S 1 1 1 1 
II.IIMI 


s 
1 






1 1 1 1 i 1 


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ll • ■ 



14 



ssss 



^■5 



o 


* 


1 

i 


IJiS 


I 


i! 


IPS 


a 








''i-s: 


^ 






i! 



813- 

lill 



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Statxheht of Imports direct to Ghioi^ during the Years 
1899-1901. 





T<rt.lV»ln.. 


Fromt 


KinnlMdElluIdODi. 
















18M. 


l»«l. 


IMl. 


IMS. 


IWO. 


IMl. 




< 


« 


c 


d 


£ 


4 


Don Fun. 














AmerlHa prodacU M- 








4.4M 


l,«tl 


liso 


BiMkj,*..;*!*] " 








«,«»« 


14,0M 


11. 9W 


C1»ID|C>1»- 














Foiuh „ 








l.Mt 


l,szi 


I.UI 


Otlwt hw _. .„ 








zltos 


4tCi 


7.8VS 


CoBTw ... „ .. 








■.tu 


l,6M 


«,Wtt 


BldM. am ftmt, (lH*p 














or cuUa 








4,fiM 


n,m 




Houunold udpannul 














«l)«u 








IM 




I.MS 


SttiJa, lewliiR 








l,TM 


!,9S4 


»,H8 










>,*■> 


7.BIS 


l,W» 


SHUutcuKlct 










1,HI 


8,80* 


Swill. aoWOT 








iws 


8,0m 


«;i47 


Pffpptr, uiicnnuid 










am 


W^ 


AUoUMrfrt* ... „ 








«',»» 


0,107 


B,U!I 


OblnM wood 


!- 




... 






t:^4 


Tolri 


m,m 


£U,tl6 


18S,JT» 


ewo~ 


78,B0» 


m,;io 


DcniiLl. 


















Mil 


«,«10 




i,cn 












8M 






Book!, miuio '.~ 


i,M 


Vlw 


■fcsm 


■.IM 


^M5 


4,t«S 




7,174 


B,»72 


8,WI 


2,11* 


t.MI 


4m 




IftSM 


!».m 


M.JJ' 


tImi 


8,006 


10(21 


Og*™ - 




IR.W7 








n 


Dtjtooil.^ .„ ... 


i.oot;»« 


1,0»WI" 


i,3m;mo 








Cotton— 














cioa. „ 








»I,«W 


«,747 


M,l«t 


CloDilBil 








I,1H 


«» 












J^«5 


t,»l6 


a,OM 










n.Mi 


«S,1W 


«4,M1 










H,4M 


wlni 


Nloao 
















Ttatma 








1,014 


870 


MS 












se.117 


U,8M 










I0,9U 


41,873 


84,840 


ODotoUi ... Z 1 








4,B» 


8,701 


»,07S 










1 •0,400 


1S1.7IB 


18t,»0I 
















DnuudptM* 








1,SM 


i;»7i 


8«l 




;-^ 


"■ 


;;; 


S,T>0 
BJSIG 


io,i;8 


0,IID» 


Wool- 














Cwprt .- 










1,8J0 


6,8*7 


cioihiiw 








1,TTS 


1,760 


8. TOO 


Ctoita ... -. ._ 








l«16 


I0.*« 




Drw(oodi 








s,aiKi 


7,100 


izitts 


Koll _ 










lies 




i^flthn" 


ls^aIa 


imIm* 


in.DN 




1«6 


l,8rt 


Ts£«;: E 








lOpiio 
ra,o»6 


ii;i» 

4(t,9IS 


17,812 
81,878 


„ Dtbar 












isoo 


OKbudntcbat ... 


I»,7IT 


»^8W 


JljlK 


s,su 


^^w 


4^8*2 


Ginserilo.. ... _ 












1.088 












Cmi 




pi>b ... .„ .> 


M,4lt 


K,IU 


4>441 


i3« 


1.J41 




FnUU, auto 


78,j;i 


81,410 


M,»l 


t,&10 




8,310 


Pun 




ll^c4> 


ID.«OI> 


li^Mo 


mIwo 


>.^ 










l,tM 


4,811 


1,M1 


iTMiudHnI 


10,W1 




IMH 








,. Pl^ -. 








!,»» 


O^M 




.. tlntJMa .■.. 


IsllM 


ia,uo 


wlai 


14.470 


47.071 


i«,aoi 










2,ai» 


A.U1 


B,»e 


;i ;; unr* ;:: 








1,U6 


1,814 


r,87e 



d by Google 



Statbmkht of Imports direct to Chic^o during the Yeara 
1899-1901 — continued. 





Totil VllQt. 


.™.t. 


« United KlBcdoo. 


















IBM. 


1900. 


1901. 


18»». 


IWO. 


1901. 




4 


t 


t 


£ 


4 


t 


Dnnuu— cmitliiiud. 














Iron uid Mil eoOeiT -. 




M<1 


T,«» 


1,600 


i.ra 


a,4« 








































































;; "r." ::: - 






... 


S,ISO 


4,S»7 


»,0«) 
















»aft Uqnon 










10,870 


12,031 




































































































S^r. :;: : 




w,m 




































VtgtxMft, pickla ind 














OUwr 


»2t,l5S 


4«,BST 


480,4 1« 




S0,0)4 


ie,iiB 


'•" 


2,S»fc«80 


:,w»,»« 


^«6,;io 


314,»M 


IW.491 


TM,TW 



Principal Exports by Lake during the Years 1899-1901. 









QuMitity. 






1B90. 


1900. 


1901. 


Bwlej 

Corn 

flMwed 

Oati 

Whe« 

Flour 

Oilmke 

Lumber 

Meat product.. 
Agricuitnnl imple- 

meatM 
Miinuf«ctiir«i iron .. 
UnclMoifiad .. 


Bn*heU 

Bul^l« 
5uki 

Mfeet 

y»lae 


i 


284,440 

8,001,640 

171,295 

711.666 

26,000 

1.299,405 

18,772 

544 


60,168 

8,606,660 

185,582 

1,034,216 

201,789 

4,826,822 

20,860 

12,776 


8,218,681 
283,002 
665,606 
209,520 
4,948,985 
17,646 
18,129 
1,498 
69,220 

88,690 
88,460 
44;209 



NoTi.— Id 1901, 26 p»r e«ut. of tbo eipoit* were ouried in Brituh boUoou. 



d by Google 



Ihiivih, Minnetota, and Svperior, Wisconsin, 

These two towns are situated at the head of Lake Superior od 
a natural harbour 10 miles long and 2 miles wide, and are 
separated from each other hj tiie St Louis Bay and Biver which 
divides the two States. 

The shipping trade of both towns is very laifje, Dnlutb having 
a little more than Superior. 

The harbour, Superior Bay, is divided from Lake Superior by a 
narrow strip of land with an entry at either end, the Duluth Canal 
at the north and the Superior entry at the south. 

The shipments consist of ore from the neighbouring iron 
min^ and grain from the interior. Flour and lumber also are 
fhipped in great quantities while the receipts consist chiefly of 
general merchandise, coal, and manufactured iron. 

The Dumbei of vessels entered and cleared in 1901 were : — 





Entered. 


Cleared. 




Number of 

T«ueU. 


Tonnage. 


Number of 
Veesele. 


loniuge. 


Dulnth 

Superior 


4,174 
2,507 


6,246,727 
3,410,280 


4,186 
2;448 


6,180,188 
3.459,624 



Kav^tion is closed from the b^inning of December until the 
beginning of May. 

Nearly 3,000,000 tons of cargo were received through tlie 
Duluth Canal, and about 400,000 tons, not including logs, 
through the Wisconsin entry. About 1.37,000,000 feet of logs 
passed through the Wisconsin or Superior entry, of which 
93,000,000 feet were for Duluth. 

6,739,934 tons of cai^ were despatched tbrough Duluth and 
2,S62,226 tons — 86,150 tons from Dulutb — through Superior entry. 

Shipments of grain showed an increase of 16,000,000 bushels 
over 1900. Iron ore an increase of 484,583 tons, the total freight 
tiafBc an increase of 1,248,128 tons, with a valuation of 
6,239,325^. over the previous year ; hard coal an increase of 
274,000 tons, and soft a decrease of 70,500 tons. 

The daily tonnage shipments at the two towns were together 
41,389 tons and the receipts 14,531 tons. 



d by Google 



Amottht of Freight Beceived and Shipped, and price per Unit, 
from two Porta combiQed. 



Articlsi. 


Tone .. 

Bi^lV '. 
Tom.. 

Bi^reii' ! 
Ton... 

M."fe^" 
Ton... 
B>mU 
ToD 

Cubic Toide . . 
Tone.. .. 

BuehoU 

Tone .. '.! 
H.feet '.! 


QuMtitr. 


Price per 
Unit" 


S>lt 

SilreF and oomwr ore ., 

Hanafaetiirad iron .. 

I«l!» 

H«h 

Cament 

Fiw-brick 

Bnildingitone.. 

Other Btona .. 

Sandindgmrel 

Iron on 

£?PI"' 

Flour 

Wheat 

Flu 

Other gmm .. 
Btrnctural steel 

Wool 

Lumber 

„ hudirood .. 




917.084 

1,M8,80S 

89,830 

707 

ioo,go4 

95.629 

216.341 

186,828 

1,864 

171,618 

90 

16.401 

8.880 

26.728 

6,464.282 

84,436 

6,346.013 

87.781.769 

18.500,000 

8,484 
438.176 
1.328 
818.673 
21.190 
808,697 
490 
61,266 


£ <. 4. 
12 8 
18 7 
6 S 
8 1 
69 4 S 
61 17 1 
14 8 
12 7 5 
26 16 S 

2 6 4 
18 11 1 

6 S 
16 

1 6 10 
6 S 
4 1 
9 8 

69 4 6 
16 6 
3 
6 8 
2 

16 9 S 
103 1 10 

3 1 10 
10 6 8 


La^hr:: ;: :: 

B.B. tiM (•leepen) .. 
Pulp-wood 
Polee.port. .. .. 




Cord... 


9 8 
16 
10 7 
6 2 



Shipmintb of Grain fit>m Duluth in 1901. 



Artielee. 


To 

Umted 

8t>t» Porta. 


To 
Depflt 
Harbour. 


To 

Midland. 


To Other 
Cuiedian 
Porta. 


Total. 


Wheat . . 

FUii „ 

Com 

Bwlej .. 

OMa 

Kj 


BoiheU. 
29,620,500 
11,008,927 
8,417,460 
2,618,678 
1,486,717 
778,826 


Su.heU. 

6,468,460 
489,618 
678,027 


Bu.hel.. 
927,167 

1,011,999 

216,696 
72,000 


Buihel.. 
1,361,862 
282,995 


Buiheli. 
37.270.979 

11,776.436 
6,107,47ft 
2,618.673 
1,701,413 

860,826 


Total 
TolUbjrwl .. 


48,888,692 


e,680,000 


2,826,868 


1,«34,857 


59,324,801 
1,887,889 



Noil.— 6,840,886 iMirrel* of flour were .hi^wd bj Lake bat no port, are giren. 



d by Google 



HILWAUESS. 



Milwaukee. 



Milwaukee is the largest town in the State of Wisconsin and 
lies about 100 miles north of Chicago. It is increasing every 
year in size and in importance as a shipping and manufacturing 
centre. 

In Milwaukee about one-fifth of the manufacturing estab- 
lishments of Wisconsin are situated, 3,342 oat of 16,185 
employing 48,328 hands of the 120,009 employed in the factories 
of the State. 

Of the six large manufacturing towns of Wisconsin three 
were not existing in 1890. 

The principal industries of Milwaukee are : — 



TnidM. 


Nnmber of— 


Value of 
Output. 


BttebUihiuMits. 


Biuploj««. 


Brewing 

Meat packing aai muago . . 

Leather 

Fburandfeed 

Clothing 


39 
S 

19 

IB 
7 

18 
9 


6,678 
3,5» 
1,649 
3,787 
408 
8,270 
3,648 


6,050,400 
11,782,800 
8,647,600 
8,167,600 
1,473,600 
1,288,100 
1,211,900 



The total number of business establishments of all kinds 
was, in 1901, 3,234 with 72,998 assistants and annual earnings 
40,087,7002., agamst 9^393 establishments, 66,788 assistants and 
34,898,700/. earnings in 1900. 

Forty-seven per cent, of the goods retailed in Milwaukee are 
now home made. 

The following were the products shipped from Milwaukee in 
1900-01 :— 







Qua. 


tity. 




X900. 


1901. 








Oata 

£".: :: :: :: 

Wheat 

Blour 


Bnabela 


6*67,805 
6,018,066 
4,462,748 
»46,781 
490,306 
3,122.063 


6,684.695 
8,468,989 
2,468,081 
1,221.472 
816,478 
4,026,678 


BwMniB. 








Goal 

Ore 

LimbA.. 


Tom.. 


1,689.806 

77,616 

140,619,000 


1,837,688 

220,666 

128,172,000 



d by Google 



XILWAUKBE. 

MoTEUEHT of Vessels. 





ArriTod. 


QeMed. 


T«r. 


Vamhet of 
Veueli. 


Tonuftge. 


KamUr of 
TeweU. 




SteMD. 


Sailing. 


Btoam. 


8«lu«.! 


1900.. 
1901.. 


V61 
4^2 


1,183 
8M 


5,026,289 
6.841,422 


4,761 
4,768 


1,082 6,016,899 
907 6,287,883 



About 2,192,700 barrels of flour were made csompared with 
1,856,500 barrels in 1900. 

One of the industries in Wisconsin is the clam digging in 
the Missiasippi. This is also now carried on in the other Stete» 
through which the Mississippi flows. 

In one district in Wisconsin 8,600 tons of shells were taken 
out and sold to button makers, the diggers receiving 20,000^., as 
well as 34,000/. more which was paid for the pearls and boroques 
found by them. 



St. Loms. 

Mr. Vice-Consul Western Bascome reports as follows : — 

Statistics of Trade and Commerce of St. Louie, Missouri, 
during the Year 1901. 



Papulation .. .. .• •. .• 

Bml Bod penoiiml eitsle 

Bonded debt .. .• .. .. 

Eoiuei nrectad id 1901 

Bivec front . . > . . ■ 

Fnblicpuk*, 18 

FftTod )tre«ta, 44S1 milM 

PftTsdaUeyi 

Sewen, 507t milM . . 

Condnitt for ondergTonnd irirM .. .. 

Water Bupplj capacitj per d&;.. ■• 

„ Aversge dailj oonaumption . . 

Receipt* from irater licaoHi . . 
PuUio Bobooli, 168) te&ohera, 1,761; schoUn, 

82,712 in 1901 

New lution itation, coTCn 

Hailrood line* termiciting in Bt. Lonis . . 

Street railioadi, electric and cable, lingle 

tnck 

Fauengen oarried . . . . . , . . 

BsTfeDue uf the oit? from taxation . . . . 

Deathrate 

Poet office, caeh receipts .. ,. ,. 

„ pieoei of mail origiDating in fit. 







Number 




AsBeuedTBloefl 


Amount 


e 


Co.t .. 


e. 


Uilea .. 




Acre. .. 




Co»t .. 


e 






Coat .. 


£ 


Mile. .. 




Gnlloiu 




Amonnt 


£ 


Cost '.. 


& 


Aorea .. 




Mile* .. 




Nnmber 




Amount 


if. 


PerthooMiM 




Amount 


£ 


Nnmbmr 


.. 



600,000 
78,969,140 
8,788,2e& 
2,641,698 



100,000,000 

66,891,086 

»4£,6»7 



448,084 
246,784,171 



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Statistics of Trade and Commerce of St. Louia, Missouri 
during the Year 1901 — continued. 



Tolal toniMiB laomTed 

„ deipatchad .. .. . 

^kDu&utarei, ptodoct, Mtinuitod , . 

Bftnk oI««ringi 

Bank uid Inut oompanin, oapitat vod tniploi 

TubuKo, inBiiuf»ct<u«d 

Bivveriet, output .. .. ., 

Grain, Teceipta .. .. 

Plour manu&Ktnred . . . . . . . 

Public eleraton, 20; o^Mcitj 

PriTat« „ 14; „ 

Lead receiTed .. .. .. ,. 

Zinotpeltar 

Cattls raoeiTed 

Hogt „ 

Honei and molea MMiTed . . , . 

Cotton, receipt* 

Ca«l (all kindi) received 

Dry guode, notions, and kindred Udbi , . 

Oiooeries 

Boota and shoes . . 

Tobacoo and dears 

Hardware, sheu and heavy , . , . 
'Woodenware . . . . . . 



Beer 

Clothing .. 

Furniture and kindred linai 

Stoves and ranges . . ■ . . . . . 

Agrionltuml machinery and vehielea .. 

Iron and at^el and wagon material . . . . 

B)ectri<sl macfaioerr, goods and aapplies 

Paints and paint oils 

Saddlery and harness 

Hate, caps, and gloves . , , . . . . . 

Drug! anil kindred lines, inoluding proprietaiy 

gwrds, druggist tundriee and chemioaU 

01aas, glaaeirare, &o 

Brisk, terra-cotta, and clay prodnot* .. 
Wool, reeeipte 26,877,110 lbs. in 1901 



Ton* .. 

Amount 



Lb*. .. 
Gallon* 

Bushels 

Bnshel* 

Pig*' .. 

Slabs .. 
Number 



Bale* . 
Tons . 

Sale* . 



17,896,828 
10,862,336 
70,000,000 
454,186,049 
U,867,CM 
80,7R6,888 
76,050,402 
60,058,788 
1,605,284 
7,000,000 
2,906,000 
1,800,235 
2,086,S95 
969,881 
2,230,945 
684,116 
149,716 
913,328 
4,902,713 
80.000,000 
17,000,000 
8,700,000 
8,000,000 
7,500,000 
2,000.000 
900,000 
2,624,857 
1,400,000 
8,000,000 
1,000,000 
4,800,000 
8,000.000 
6,000,000 
1,400,000 
1,100,000 
1,600,000 

8,000,000 
1,600.000 
800,000 
2,100fl00 



In 1901, the city of St Louis received ita full share of the B«nsw. 
industrial prosperity of the couutry, attributable larg^y to the 
operation of the McKinley Protective Tariff. 

This prosperity is reflected in the increased number of buildings 
«Tect«d, the value of building permits iseued in 1901 amounted to 
2,641,598^., while the value of buildings in 1900 only amounted to 
1,183,3962., an increase in 1901 of 1,458,202/. This increase has 
been brought about by the influx of population seeking employ- 
ment in connection with the Louisiana Purchase World's Fair 
Exhibition, in which it is estimated 6,000,000/. will be expended 
by the World's fair Company, and 1,000,000/. by the city municipal 
improvements, and this increase must continnfi during the present 
year. 



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46 e^. LOUIS. 

The manufacturing industries were very active in 1901, and 
it ia safe to say that the amount of output was about 70,000,000/. 

Tlie bank clearings show a corresponding large increase, being 
for 1901, 454,136,043/., as against 337,769,898/., equal to 35 per 
cent, increase over 1900. The banking capital has increased 
during the year 11,867,594/. by the estiiblishraent of several new 
trust companies. There was also great activity in local atooka and 
bonds and very high prices have obtained in all the financial 
institutions. 

The post^ofilice leturas also teSect the increased volume of 
bnsiuess done. The cash receipts for the year being 448,045/., an 
increase of 41,753/. over 1900. 

The internal revenue receipts for 1901 also indicate the manu- 
facturing activity. The revenue for the year ending January 30, 
1901, was about 3,200,000/., making St Louis the fourth city in 
volume of the internal revenue or excise tax collections. 

The increased volume of business is also illustrated in the 
increased tonnage received and forwaixied, which includes all tcinds 
of local and through fre^ht. The tonnage handled in 1901 was 
28,758,664 tons, and as compared with 25,313,340 tons in 1900, 
shows an increase of 136 per cent. 

In business transacted on the Merchants' Exchange the 
total was satisfactory, although there was a decrease of 18 per 
cent, or nearly 5,000,000 bushels in receipt of com, owing to the 
severe drought of last summer, the a^r^ate receipts of grain of 
all kinds show a loss of only 1,085,007 bushels, all but com shows 
an increase. The receipts of flour reduced to wheat would show 
69,827,264 bushels, as against 69,555,619 bushels in 1900. 

lu the various lines of jobbing merchandise increased business 
ie reported. 

The increase in sales of dry goods and kindred lines is estimated 
at about 25 per cent, over the business of 1900. 

As usual there has been a great increase 'in the manufacture 
and distribution of boots and shoes. St. Louis now holds the 
second place in the manufacture of shoes, and is the largest jobber 
in that line west of the Alleghany Mountains. In 1901 the sales 
increased from 7,500,000i. in 1900 to 8,700,000/. in 1901. 

There has been an inci-ease in capital employed in the number 
of firms and salesmen, and in the number of manufactories, and 
in the average price per pair of 12 per cent, and for better shoes. 
The capital invested is about 2,000,000/., an increase of 600,000/. 
over 19O0, and the prospects for 1902 are flattering. The ship- 
ments from Boston to St. Louis have declined, as there are more 
shoes manufactured in St. Louis than formerly. The shipments 
from Boston the last few years have averaged as follows : to St. 
Louis, 600,000 cases ; to New York, 380,000 cases ; to Chicago, 
340,000 cases; to Baltimore, 200,000 cases; and to Cincinnati, 
1 25,000 cases, which shows the relative importance of St. Louis 
as a shoe market. 

St. Louis has made a remarkable growth in hardware trade for 
several years past. Shelf hardware and kindred goods show 



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KT. LOUIS. 47 

«Btiimated aalea of ■'>,000,000/. in I90I, and if retail housea are 
included the total sales are estimated at 7,500,000^. 

The hat bueiness is reported to show 25 per cent, increase for H>ti. 
the year, sales aggregating 1,500,000^. 

The clothing trade is reported growing and very satisfactory, Oiothinn. 
sales for 1901 being estimated at 1,400,000/. 

The grocery business shows an increase of about 20 per cent, CJioceriBg. 
the volume of sales being 17,000,000/. 

The saddlery trade was reported largely increased the first SaddlBiy. 
half of 1901, and for the whole year about 10 per cent, or an 
output of l,100,0OOi. 

Architectural iron and bridge material and other forms used in iron, 
construction shows a total output of about 3,000,000/. 

In stoves and ranges this city has maintained a leading position BtovM uid 
in the markets of the country. The advance in production was '"ng"- 
about 12^ per cent, with sales of about 1,000,000^. 

The paint and oil trade report a total output of 1,400,000^., or Paint, 
an increase of about 16f per cent, over 1900. 

In drugs and ~ proprietary medicines, St. Louis still holds the Dmgi. 
first place in the West, with a yearly increasing business. The 
sales of drugs, chemicals and kindred lines are estimated at 
«,O00,000/. for 1901. 

The business of glassware and similar lines are making pro- GtM«irn«. 
grass and taking the place of imported wares. A manu^ture 
of cut glassware has recenUy been establisbed in this city. 
Queensware houses report sales of 500,000i and plate and window 
and other glass 1,000,000^. more. 

As repeatedly reported St. Louis is the largest manufacturer lobaoM. 
of tobacco, equalHng about 25 per cent of the whole United States, 
the amount increasing every year, and for 1901 was 86,766,883 lbs. 
against 76,170,850 Iba. in 1900. The sales of tobacco and cigars 
are reported as 8,000,000i: 

St Louis is also the largest mannfactnrer of railway and street Buiwaj can. 
cars in the country. All plant« were fully employed during the 
entire year. Street cars are shipped to Australia, New Zedand, 
and all parts of the world, and it is estimated that 3,000 cars 
were manufactured, valued over 2,400,000/. 

The brewing industry has long been one of the most prominent BreweriM. 
in St Louis. It is estimated that 7,000,000i. capital is invested in 
it and the product is sold in nearly every part of the globe. The 
manufacture for 1901 was 78,050,402 gallons, valued at 2,524,857/. 

During the cotton season year ending August, 1901, the gross coUon. 
receipts of cotton was 973,497 bales, of which the local receipts 
handled by manufacturers were 239,628 bales, representing a value 
of about 2,000,000/. 

The municipal authorities are actively engaged in reconstructing 
streets and perfecting sanitary conditions m anticipation of the 
Fair. 

One year ago the Louisiana Purchase Centennial Fair was in 
«mbryo, l^slation being needed some of which required State and 
muniqpal constitutional legislation and ameudmenta, authorising 



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Xdoeataoiwl 
depaitmmt 

at LoTusun* 

Xihibition. 



financial support. There was no World's Fair Company otganieedr 
only a provisional committee and the sabscriptions to the capital 
stock were not completed. 

During the year 1901 the necessary enactments of CongresSr 
the State Legislature, and Municipal Assembly were completed 
and the company organised, and the position was only decided on 
about nine months ago. In January the raising of 1,000,000^. of 
popular subscriptions was completed. February brought the 
l^islative enactments of State and city. March placed the seal 
of National approval and authority by Act of Congress appro- 
priating 1,000,000/. and providing for the National Commission^ 
which were promptly appointed by the President of the United 
States. In April the local company was incorporated with the 
election of 93 directors May witnessed the oi^anisation through 
of&cers. 

In June the site for the Fair was selected, comprising the western 
half of Forest Park over 1,000 acres and the 100 acres at^oinin^ 
belonging to Washington University. 

In July nine firms of architects wei« appointed a commission to 
plan the Fair. 

In August plans were adopted and 1,000,OOOA appropriated 
for the commencement of construction. 

In September the President, upon certificate of progress by the 
National Commission, issued a proclamation inviting aA nations to 
participate, declaring the Exhibition fully provided for. 

October brought development officers and provision for four 
grand divisions to be presided over by officials designated as 
director of exhibits, director of works, director of management, and 
director of concessions and admissions. 

In November perfected plans for the eight main exhibit places 
were approved by the directors and National Commission. 

December found the wilderness of forest transformed into 
building sites and grading underway. On the 20th (the anniver- 
sary of the transfer of the purchased territory to America), ground 
was broken on the site with impressive ceremonies. 

In the classification adopted and promulgated for the Louisiana 
Purchase Exhibition, education is department " A " on an 
alphabetical list which ends with "P," physical culture, "sound 
mind in healthy body," eight groups and 26 classes go to make 
up this foremost of the departments of the Louisiana Purchase 
Exhibition. In Paris the eshibits of the United States received 
great encomium. A second building, designed for the purpose, 
will house a series of international congresses upon science, 
literature, and art. These congresses will constitute an inde- 
pendent department with its own organisation, but supplementnry 
to the motive which ranks education as the broadest of the 
Exhibition pui poses. 

The Louisiana Purchase World's Fair seems to be under- 
estimated by foreign nations ; when we consider that it covers a 
site of 1,200 acres, while the Columbian Chicago Fair covered 633 
acres, it appears to be twice the size of the lai^est fair ever 



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ST. LOUIS. 49 

held, and is expected to cost 6,000,000/. to 8,000,000/. in pre- 
paration. 

The growth of manufacturing interests of St Louis since 1880 Mann- 
has been phenomenal, and has raised St. Louis from the seventh f^^^^ 
place to the third in point of manufacturing output. 

This story is told in the following tabulated form from census 
reports : — 



Ya«r. 


Nambw o(- 


Amount of 
Wiigea Pud. 




FtctoriM. 


Einpla7«d. 


Product.. 


1880 
1890 
1900 .. 


S,9M 
e,l4S 
8,321 


41,527 
93,610 
142,604 


£ 
3,648,700 
10.683,644 
17,406,610 


S. 
82,866,776 
4G,742,B03 
88,5tt,Md 



The farms in the Mississippi Valley are laigely composed of 
States formed from the Louisiana purcliaae ; in 1850 the farms 
numbered 3'70,320 ; in 1890, 2,570,r>17. In 1850 the acreage 
of these farms was 90,013,000 acres; in 1890 it was 370,164,321 
acres. In 1850 the value of these farms was 157,896,4 ,}0i In 
1890, 1,752,909,730/. In 1850 the railway mileage was 344 
miles; in 1890, 78,648 mileH. 

The banks and trust companies distributed Liberal dividends Biunml 
to shareholders. reriow. 

The daily clearings for the year show a steady gain over 
corresponding dates of all previous years. 

The comparative figures of the 19 banks and eight tnist 
companies between December, 1900, and December, 1901, are as 
follows : — 



Banks and Trust Companies. 



BaoklBtut 



8.4«7,107 
81,210,902 
28,148,898 
11,628,815 



88,774,868 
31,885,180 
12,418,288 



Transactions on the St. Louis Stock Exchange during 1901 Stook* txA 
esceed any previous yearly record in numlier of shares and bonds '"'e^^^nt 
dealt with. The records show the following totals of escb class :- * 



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Stooki of bsnki, truit oonpuuea, traction railmyi, ; 

gu sod alMtrio comp&niee, iiuoniDce companiM, , 

miainE comnniei, and suudry other tonipaniei ■ ■ , 

Bondi (pu TslaB 6I1,S3(U.) 



■ M»rket Ttlue. 

Mooey was in good clemaiid and at reasonable rates. It is 
Qow claimed for St. Louis that it now has a larger bank and trust 
company capital than Chicago. 

The LouiBiaaa Purchase World's Fair has ushered in a notable 
period in real estate transactions, which must continue to expand 
since the immense tixpenditure of over 8,000,000^. in the nexD 18 
months for fair accommodations will give real estate a great 
impetus. In 1901 the aggregate list of transfers of real estate 
numbered 7,629 and amounted to 6,853,096A 

There was a large increase in the number and value of building 
permits issued. There were 1,256 brick and 1,508 frame or wood 
building permits issued at a valuation of 2,641,598^ This doubled 
the preceding year's permits. 

Property in St. i^uis is usually assessed 60 per cent, of ita 
value for taxation. The assessment for 1901 is 78,959,140/. 
The rate of taxation is established at about Sa. per 20^., a small 
reduction of about 2^ per cent, from the preceding year. 

Scotch and Irish salt tish are handled here, and it is reported 
the demand is increasing. 

Indian and Ceylon tea is largely dealt in here, and the demand 
would be increased if handled by an agency dealing in such teas 
alone and advertising them largely to the trade; it is bought 
mostly at seaports. 

Portland cement used to be dealt in largely 10 to 15 years 
ago, but the uiei-eased production of American manufacturers 
has cheapened it so that it will not bear the duty and heavy 
transportation charges. It sells at retail from &s. to 7s. per barrel, 
and manufacturers cannot lay it down here at a profit. 

Aa to Portland cement, if the manufacturers can lay it down 
here at a profit under the retail prices quoted, 6s. per barrel, a 
good business might be done in it while the buildings of the 
World's Fair and the necessary walks are being made, but 
the American manufacturers are increasing their output so 
laigely that I do not think the business would be permanent 
A laiije plant is building in this city which will soon be in 
operation. 

Scotch whisky is also ■ dealt in small quantities and only old 
well advertised brands are called for. 

These articles come mostly through seaports, very little ia 
imported direct. 



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CUBT0U-HoiT8K Transactions. — GondeoBed Classification of Com- 
modities Imported into St Louis during the Year 1901^ 
showing Foreign Value and Dut^ Paid. 



Commoditiai. 



Art vorki . . , . 
Books Hud printed mattw 

ChamioJi and drugs .. 
Chins and Mnthemrwe ■ . 

CuUerj 

Jswallarj and preoioas itouM 

Tojs 

Vir»-*imM 

Fish 

Fmagoodj 

Olus, window . , 

Marhle ![ '.'. '.'. 

MaDnfaotturod ooik 

H leather .. 

„ metal 

;: S" :: 

Ifiacallaneolu .. 
Fiinta and culoun. , 
Bioe, graDuloted . . 
Spiritaons liquor* . . 
Straw mattiiig .. ., 
Tobacoo and cigars 
Win ei, sparkling .. ., 

„ still 

Bt«d wire . . 

lea 

Burlapa and baggings 

Oil cloth 

Woollens 

From all other Eoorres >. 

Total, 1001 
„ 1900 



13,136 
18.328 

3.970 
1S,O»0 
17,BeS 
90.G50 

4,7u9 
46,316 
23.290 

1,176 
20.608 
123.497 
42.466 
14,417 
10,251 
11,489 
lD.Se2 

1,628 
68.273 

£,080 
16,309 

7,830 
38.530 
80,964 

9,607 
16,765 
83,009 
12,4il 
141,407 

6,074 



24,746 
12,111 14 
13,247 9 
1,689 9 



6,38j 14 O 

70,448 9 

19,616 18 

6,70a 6 

4,613 6 

2,781 3 

10,562 13 

604 Z 

24,996 12 

606 13 

2,848 19 O 

8,141 8 

13,866 9 

82,824 10 O 

6,628 14 

6,6S8 18 



2,599 12 
4,606 9 
9,920 2 



^29) 



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COUPABATIVE BuBineBB in Leading Articles at St. Louis during t^e 
Yeara 1900 and 190L 



Flour, tvoeipU 

„ . amount mannfMtnrad. 
Wheat, total T«ceipt> . . 

Oat* ", '.'. 

Bfti-ley „ 

All grain received (including 

flonr reduced to wheat) 
Cotton, receipt* . . 

Bagging, manitftctnred 
Ha;, receipt* . . 
Tobacco, receipts 
Lead, receipt* in SO lb. 
Hog product, total ahipments 
Cattle, receipt!.. 
Sheep „ 



Honee and mulct, reoeipta 
Lumber and logi - ,, 

Shinglea 

Latha 

Wool, total receipt! . , 

Hide* 

Sugar, receiTed. . 

Mdaatei (iuolading gluoow), 

Coffee, recrired 



Bice, receipt! . . 
Coal 

Kaila „ 
Potatoei, receipt* 



in bulk .. 

Butter 

Freight of all kinds receiTed 
and deipatched 



BarreU 
Buahela 



Bales 
Yards 
Tone 

Hogshead! 
Pigs .. 
hhf. „ 
Head.. ■ 



Gallons 
Ban .. 

Bushel* 
Kegs .. 
Bushel* 

Sucks, . 
Bushel* 
Lbs. 

Tons .. 



1900. 



l,86fi,070 
1,346,059 
19,7B6,«14 
26,619,410 
1S,2ST,926 
47B,356 
2,011,G00 

69,555,618 

1,011,687 

9,976,666 

£34,256 

44,914 

1,577,443 

3S9,946,4G6 

795,800 

434,133 

2,158,972 

109,082 

1,836,403,254 

81,119,250 

13,S<i3,950 

17,000,780 

60,531,540 

216,982,466 

6,244,060 

360,871 

72,912 

119,615 

109,007,476 

560,110 

3,564,568 

238,106 

27,576 

776,160 

12,901,690 

25,813,340 



2,170,548 
1,606,234 
20,360,805 



69,827,264 

91S,3:'S 

12,500,000 

251, I S^ 

62,127 

1,800,236 

206,183,890 

969,881 

534,115 

2,236,946 

149,716 

1,144,698,766 

1B8,601,250 

12,386,660 

25,877,110 

66,006,080 

209,688,510 

5,396,387 

874,675 

138,340 

173,630 

104,965,228 

688,200 

2,896,069 

316,286 

36,280 

772,800 

18,471,929 

28,768,664 



Kansas Cmf. 

Mr. Vice-Consul Young reports as follows : — 
r During the year 1901 the first check to the agricultural 
prosperity of this Vice-Consular district for many years waa 
received, but the loss resulting from what was in places almost 
a total failure of the Indian com crop was largely compensated by 
the increased prices obtained for that product, and by the good 
yield from the wheat crop. 



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Kansas City is essentially a distributive point and market AgrionltDM. 
place for an enormous agricultural and pastoral region, and its 
importance in all respects is in relation to the supplying of the 
needs of such a district and the marketing of its products. 

For many years past Kansas has been favoui'cd with 
abundant crops of almost all its staple products, and the pnw- 
perity resulting therefrom has gone far towards remedying the evil 
caused by the inflation of some 12 or 15 years ago. In 1901 a 
very dry season was experienced even in paita of this district 
wliere drought is almost imknown. Indeed, the remarkable feature 
has been that in what is usually regarded as the arid district in 
Western Kansas sufHeient rain fell to make a crop, whilst in the 
rain belt, the eastern part of the State, a most unusual drought 
was experienced. 

Throughout Kansas, Oklahoma, and the Indian territory 
winter wheat is raised, and in the spring of 1901 an excellent 
crop was harvested whilst good prices were obtained. From the 
beginning of April, however, practically no rain fell, and the Indian 
com crop was the worst gathered for many years past ; the prices, 
however, more than doubled, so that the net results were not 
serious. Indeed, although a check to the continuous enormous 
crops has been received, there has not been any great check to the 
prosperity of the district 

One of the leading industries throughout Kansas is that of (WUe. 
feeding cattle for market ; the failure of the com crop cut down 
this industry very considerably. By far the largest amount of 
feeding is eflected by the com growers, and at the time when it 
became apparent that the com crop would fail, enormous numbers 
of " unfinished " cattle were hurried to market, the difficulty of the 
situation being accentuated from the fact that in many districts 
there was insufficient water to keep the stock. In other cases 
feeders have actually found it more economical to feed wheat to 
their cattle than Indian corn. 

With the disadvantage of the diy season the agricultural and New 
pastoral prosperity of the district has been much greater than *'" " 
might have been expected. During the year a large tract of some 
3,000,000 acres of land was thrown open to settlement after com- 

gletion of special treaty with the Indian tribes; this tract lies 
stween Kansas and the Panhandle of Texas, and is a district 
tributary to Kansas City from a commercial standpoint. A con- 
Biderable impetus has, by tfie opening of this land, been given to IixnugrMien* 
immigration to this Western country ; it would appear probable 
tiiat further impetus to such immigration would result from the 
present agitation on the subject of Government aid for irrigation 
throughout the arid lands of the West. As is well known. Western 
Kansas and Colorado, as well as portions of many other States, 
possess lai^ acrei^e of excellent soil at present almost usele^ 
iTom lack of rain. Proposals are before the present legislature of Ii"(«*«">- . 
'the United States with a view to utilising the reserve waters held 
in the Bocky Mountains and in other mountain ranges, and hy 
irrigation therefrom to reclaim this arid r^ion. 

(29) D 3 



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54 

A word of caution must be given to intending British emigrante. 
It is of the utmost importance that care be taken in the seleotion 
of any farming property ; it is fi'equently the case that the soil in 
arid r^ions' is of nearly equally good quality with that in the best 
agricultural districts, and careful information should be sought as 
to the climatic conditions, rainfall, and many other points which 
have bearing on the desirability of any location to an extent almost 
as great as lias the quality of tiie soil itself. 

During the past year some emigration from Kansas to Manitoba 
and other Canadian points is to be noticed ; it is extremely difficult 
to obtain any reliable figures upon this point as many of the 
settlers simply proceed northward in their wagons and no record 
of their movements is thus obtainable. Such emigration has not, 
however, been material, the opening of the new land in the 
Indian territory and the expectation of new irrigation schemes 
proving attractive features to induce settlers to remain in this 
distnet. 

As has been pointed out above, despite a partial failure 
agriculturally, general business has been good in the past year; 
the wholesale houses report good business. A feature of Kansas 
City as a distributing point is the establishment of lai^e wholesale 
houses and department stores which supply the needs in every 
branch of the great community drawing its supplies from this 
point. The good wheat crop has also given a great business to the 
grain elevators, and the reeeipte at the live stock yards have shown 
an increase. The bank clearings and deposits also evidence the 
fact of continued prosperity. 

Great activity is shown amongst all distributors in the way of 
pushing their markets, and British merchants seeking to gain any 
tooting must necessarily adopt similar active measures. It ia 
further of importance to acquire accurate knowledge of the precise 
quality of article in demand and meet purchasers' wishes in this 
respect. In many cases the demand is for a light and cheap 
quality, even if this should be at the expense of durability ; this is 
strongly the case with respect to agricultural machinery. The 
farmer does not desire a machine of particularly lasting quality, as 
he prefers to be able to throw aside a worn-out machine and 
purchase new machinery with every recent improvement 

On the subject of imports to this district generally, it ia 
extremely difficult to give accurate information. Though Kansas 
City is a port of entry, only a small percentage of the total 
imports is bonded through direct to Kansas City. The custom- 
house figures show a considerable quantity of British cotton goods 
introduced, but the increase is not what could be desired, and a 
large quantity of a cheap grade of cotton goods is being imported 
from Germany. The British manufacturer does not appear to 
appreciate that the demand from this district is for such cheap 
grades. 

In woollen goods the same holds true; the present duty, 
however, is so high that imports are small 

The same fact with respect to duty tends to reduce the impor- 



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KANSAS. 55 

tance of nearly all imports to this market, except in Bpecialities. 
Amongst Such specialities attention is drawn to lace work, art 
works and bric-Jt-brac generally, as well as china goods. A lar^e 
quantity of decorative chiua work is brought in from France and Chin*. 
Germany, and the trade therein ia slowly giowlng. There would 
seem to be no reason why British shippers should not meet the 
competition in this line. 

A fair trade in linoleums is carried on and might be developed ; Liaoleunu. 
floor matting ia largely imported from Japan, and in many cases 
it would seem that the British linoleum might I'eplace these 
mattings. 

Cutlery is brought in in large quantities; the best brands OuUmt. ' 
coming from the United Kingdom, but a cheaper quality of very 
fair make comes from Germany. In tliia trade as in so many 
others attention is again called to the fact that the market seeiua 
to demand at least the option of purchasing a cheaper grade, ami 
British manufacturers would do well to supply such qualities eieii 
if shipped under different brands so a.i to maintain the repntatiuu 
of established qualities. 

The salt trade ia furtlier increasing throughout the disttrict, a«lt. 
the packing houses and stockmen using enormous quantitii;s. ■ 
Contracts for large quantities liave been made both in the United 
Kingdom and in Portugal. The manufacture of salt in Kansas is 
growing, large plants having been built in Hutchinson, Kansas, 
with other plants in process or in contemplation. This may tend 
to lessen the market for British salt. Salt, however, may be 
introduced through the Gulf Ports for the Texas cattleman at 
extremely low ocean freight. 

The trade in tea is also being developed ; no figure can be Tet. 
obtained as very little is cleared through the Kansas City custom- 
house. There is a lai^e quantity of green tea consumed, being 
chiefly of Chinese and Japanese origin. The taste, however, for 
Ceylon teas appears to be growing and attention is again drawn 
thereto. 

The cjonsumption of Scotch and Irish whisky is also gaining Liqaonk 
but no flgures can he given, clearings being made elsewhere. 
This renders it almost imposaible to give an opinion as to the 
growth of the trade, but the consumption is gradually increasing. 
A good article is called for. 

Similar remarks may be made as to salt flsh. Some attention Bait fbh. 
has been devoted to this by certain merchants in Kansas City, 
but no great demand has yet been created. So far as can be 
gathered present supplies come almost entirely through N^ew York 
importers. 

Portland* cement does not make a satisfactory return ; for portUnd 
some years there has been a falling-off in the importation, as <'•'"«'"» 
far as can be traced from the uncertain returns afforded by an 
inland port of entry. It would seem that this trade might be well 
pushed. 

Attention is again directed to the demand for live-stock for Liie-itoeL 
breeding purposes ; this demand exists not only for cattle, sheep, 
(29) D 4 



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56 KANSAS. 

and the like, but also for fancy grades of poultry, Belgian hares, 
and other similar etock. 

Turning to productE for export from this district reference has 
already been made to the failure of the Indian eoro crop. Laige 
exports of wheat have, however, been made as usual, and in the 
souihern parts of Kansas and all through Oklalioma and the 
Indian territory cotton is successfully raised. Special mention 
should be made of the flour being prepared in Oklahoma The 
wheat yields in that country have been enormous of late years 
and the Qoai is rapidly making a reputation. 

The increase in dairy products is marked. A few years ago 
little was done in tliis line throughout Kansas hut it is now a 
recognised industry. Much dissatisfaction is caused amongst 
the cattlemen and the packing houses over threatened legisla- 
tioa against oleomargarine and other butter substitutes; certain 
propo^s have been made which could hardly but have the 
effect of killing the manufacture of such article. It is felt by 
those interested that this is an unfair discrimination against theii* 
product 

The business reported by the stock yards and packing houses is 
again very heavy; during the period when it became apparent 
that the com crop would fail and that water for stock would run 
short the receipts at the stock yards were enormous. These at 
one time ran up to 24,000 head per day at a time of the year 
when 8,000 or y.OOO head would be considered fairly large receipts. 
The number of full fed finished cattle has naturally been less 
though Kansas is not now by any means so dependent upon her 
com crop as formerly for the feeding of cattle, feed embracing 
alfalfa, kafiir com, cotton-seed mt;al and other food stufis being 
made to take the place of ttie Indian cora, but the price of all 
such food'stutfs has been high. 

The packing hotiees have been increasing their capacity and 
further developing tlie already large manufacture of by-products. 
Nearly everything from the packiag house is utilised in a finished 
form and no longer sold as a waste product for manufacture by 
separate industries. Id this manner the packing houses are now 
turning out numerous bone produjsts, chemical fertilisers, glue, 
soap, and other products. 

The horse and mule trade has also been brisk. Attention is 
drawn, however, to tlie comparatively depleted state of the market. 
Several years ago when the price of horses was low large breeders 
felt impelled to relinquish their trade, and the number of hoi«es 
throughout the Western country fell off. In the past two or three 
years the demand has been above the supply, prices have risen and 
at the present time the visible supply is smaller than has been the 
case for many years past. • 

Mention should be made of the lumber business. Throughout 
this Vice-Consular District proper there is little timber; a very 
large business is, however, being done by lumbermen from the sale 
of Arkansas and I^uisiana timber. Prodigal methods l^ve in the 
past been adopted in timber cutting in tlie Northern States, and 



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KANSAS. 57 

the compaifttdve scarcity' of tiuiber iu districts formerly deoael; 
wooded is driving attention to the Soutberc aod Western timber 
laoda the prices of which have advanced very materially. 

New induetries come but slowly but it is satisfactory to note M«>n*M**'««- 
that moat of tbe small manufacturerH recently established in Eaneaa 
City report good business. Chemical works have been started 
and added to, a glass factory has recently been erected and a 
proposal is afoot for tlie erection of lai^e structural ironworks 
for bridge material and the like. There would appear to be 
openings for investment of capital in many necessary manufacturing 
lines. 

Considerable developments have been undertaken in railroad BuIw^ti. 
enterprises, certain consolidations of diHerent systems liave been 
effected, and there is afoot a proposed scheme for the building 
of a line giving direct commuDication with a Mexican port with 
a view to making a bid for the Orient trade. Becent building 
has also been effected giving much better service between the cattle 
districts in the Panhandle of Texas, Kew Mexico, and Noi-them 
Mexico, such facilities will doubtless tend to improve tbe cattle 
trade at this point 



OUAHA. 

Mr. Vice-Consul Hull reports as follows x^— 

The State of Nebraska is one of the best in the Union from an Hebmbb 
agricultural and stock-raising standpoint. 

Tliis has largely been brought about by irrigating the dry inigAion. 
sections of the north and west, and the subject of irrigation is 
daily becoming one of more general interest. It has been possible 
by its aid to produce the most luxuriant crops in seasons devoid 
almost entirely of rainfalls, and the National Government is now 
aaked to take an interest in this matter so vital to the welfare of 
the Western States. 

Nebraska to-day holds second place for the average yield of Wboat. 
wheat per acre and third place for quantity produced. In 1901 
the State luised nearly 40,000,000 bushels from 2,470,000 acres, of 
which over 1,160,000 acres were devoted to spring wheat and the 
balance to fall or winter wheat, the latter averaging 20 bushels 
per acre. 

The com crop for the year was below the average, being only oom. 
about two-thirds of that usually harvested. This was owing to 
the hot dry winds of July. However, the diminution in quauciGy 
was more than compensated for by the high price obtained, a 
"Bushel being worth 60 c. as against 25 c. the preceding year. The 
fortunate owners of farms rented on shares are receiving as high 
as 1,000 doL from a quarter section of 160 acres. 

In IdOl the State produced 23,000,000 bushels of oats which cmc. 
brought 30 c. per bushel 

In the past eight years the live-stock industry has more than Live-ntook. 
qaodrnpled in importance to the State. 



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B«ceipta 



There is an abundftnce of native grass, and alfalfa is generally 
cultivated as a feed, so that stock raising brings sure and certain 
returns. 

It has been found that Angora goats can be raised very profit- 
ably, and considerable attention is now being paid to the breeding 
and raising of these animals. 

The mild climate of Nebraska, its short winters, and its cheap 
forage make it particularly adapted to profitable dairying. 
Statistics for the past year cannot be obtained, hut many new 
creameries have been bmlt, and milch cows are more in demand 
than ever before. 

The raising of poultfy continues to bring easy money to 
Nebraska farmers, and exports of both poultry and eggs exceed 
all previous years. 

Where formerly was only rolling prairie, now may be seen 
fruit and ornamental trees of neariy every variety, but the past 
year's yield of fruit was only medium, owing to the exces- 
sively heated spell in midsummer, except in irrigated districtSf 
where an abnormal crop was harvested. And this same remark 
applies to the potato crop. 

Ordinarily, Nebraska raises more than the average quantity 
of potatoes to the acre, but 1901 was an exception. The increase 
in prices, however, made up i'or the diminished quantity raised. 

The raising of sugar beets is gradually becoming a settled 
industry. With three large factories in the State to consume the 
pi'oduct, the farmer is assured of a fair return for his investment 
and his labour. 
*■ The discussion of stock raising and farming naturally leads 
us again to South Omaha, the great animal distributing and meat 
packing centre of the West. The past year has seen marked im- 
provements everywhere, and notably in the erection of sheda 
for the exclusive use of dealers in pure bred animals. The 
receipts for the past year of sheep and hogs exceed those of any 
prior year. 

The following table will indicate the volume of business 
transacted for 1901 in all animals : — 





H«eipW. 


Talne. 


Eiport*. 


Cattle 

Hogi 

Sheep 

Horte. Md mnlee .. 


818,008 
2,414,062 
1,S14,S41 

36,SSI 


£ 
5,708,124 
6,640.686 
1,009,638 

260,000 


Number. 
239,260 

48,501 
662,601 

84,269 



The difference between receipts and exports in the first 
three classes indicates the number slaughtered at the local 
market. 

In the City of Omaha steady growth was made in all lines of 
industry, the volume of business being about one-third greater 
tli'an in 1900. About 1,000,000^ was invested during the year 



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pUAJU. 59 

in new nuumfactnring and jobbing ventures, atid perhaps an 
-equal sum was added to existiug concerns, so that more than 
1,000 new names were put upon the pay rolls of the various 

TDStitUtiODS. 

Many industries are projected for the near future, and it is Naw 
safe to assume that the city will continue to grow in commercial ""Jurtrie*. 
importance. 

The value of goods passing through the custom-house during Imporu nd 
the past year is placed at 300,000/. Most of the foreign goods "iport* 
consumed here or dealt in by the merchants are purchased through 
Eastern representatives, principally in Chicago and New York 
City. Scotch and Irish mackerel find ready sale ordinarily, but 
the past season has been dull owing to the unusual catch of 
the American article, and consequent fall in price. Ihe consump- 
tion of Scotch whisky is repoi-ted by local dealers to be on the 
increase, but all purchases are made trough Eastern agents. The 
trade in Indian and Ceylon tea is light, and none of the jobbers 
import direct. English Portland cement is not saleable, because 
the price is too high. The American aiticle appears to satisfy 
requirements as to quahty, and is considerably lower in price. 

There has been an increased demand for real e.'ttate, and as a Be«l eitate. 
consequence values have risen. Sales for the year 1901 were 
about l,5OU,000/. 

Duiing the coining year the Union Pacific Railway will build New 
new shops, involving an expenditure of about 250,000^., and boildingi. 
several warehouses are projected, while the new auditorium is now 
under way and will shortly be ready for occupancy. 

Bank clearings amounted during the year to 65,808,737^., being Buika. 
more than 2,000,000/. increase over the previous year. 

At tbe Omaha post-office every department shows decided Fo>t offloe, 
improvement over previous years, the total volume for 1901 
a^^pregatiug nearly 1,500,000/. 

dreat activity prevails in railroad circles. The Boston and Bwlnwd*. 
Milwaukee Railroad is pushing it« line up through the North- 
West ; the Chicago, Rock Island, and Pacific Railroad through the 
South- West ; and the Fremont, Elkhom, and Missouri Valley 
Railroad is adding several hundred miles to its system in the 
Korth. The Chicago Great Western Railroad has bought the 
right of way to Omaha, and will soon cross the river. Altt^ther, 
Omaha is now one of the biggest railroad centres in the United 
States, and the 100 trains and more which arrive and depart daily 
from its depdts are second to none anywhere on the Continent in 
service and equipment. 

The local plant of the American Smelting and Refining Com- Bmoltw. 
pany, the greatest in the world, did the largest business in its 
history. Its output for the year in gold, silver, copper, lead, and 
blue vitriol being some 6,000,000/. 

Considerable local excitement has been aroused by tiie finding 00. 
of crude petroleum on the outskirts of the city, and a strong 
company has been oi^anised for the purpose of developing this 
industry, which it is hoped will prove a permanent and profit- 
able one. 



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60 



OHAHA. 



AgrimiltDn, 



Sonth Dakota. ^^ ^^ mining diatricte of the Black Hills constant activitT* 
has prevailed during the year, and the outlook ia encouraging tor 
the future. 

Agricultural conditions continue to improve, and the tide of 
immigration is still flowing into the State. 

Altogether, both in Nebraska and South Dakota, it can be 
safely said that the promise for the future was never better, and 
unless something untoward happens the citizens tjf both States 
will financially and materially improve themselves in the coming 
year. 



Denver Cmr. 

Mr. Vioe-Consul Pearce reports as follows : — 

Colorado may on the whole be said to have enjoyed a very 
satisfactory year during 1901. 

It is stated that at least 5,000 people have been added to the 
population of Denver during the year, making a total of 158,000. 

The value of new buildings erected in Denver during the year 
was 759,484/., an increase of 206,853;. over 1900. The erection 
of residences and large apartment houses was the principal 
feature of building operations. 

The real estate business of Denver for the year was very- 
active, and the transfers show a total valuation of 2,665,411A, an 
increase of 243,313/. over the previous year. 

The records of the bank cleariDg-house of Denver for the year 
show a total of 45,348,841/., an increase over 1900 of 2,334,866/. 

The total deposits in the four national banks in the Denver 
clearing-house for the year were 8,463,925/., an increase of 
1,076,684;. over 1900. The total deposits in the Colorado State 
Mnks for the year were 2,539,822/., an increase of 795,475/. over 
1900. 

In the jobbing trade of Denver there was an increase over the 
previous year of about 17 per cent., the volume of business being 
5,400,000/. 

Four of the principal departments of jobbing are given as 
follows : — 





Value. 


HMto 

DrjKood. 


1,600,000 

1,800,000 

500,000 

200,000 


I'olU 


8,600,000 



The wholesale houses of the city are now supplying the 
surrounding States of Wyoming and New Mexieu with various 



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DENVifR. 61 

articles of merchaodiBe which formerly were shipped from 
£a3tem points. 

The Denver retail tmde hna been exceptionally good, the Setsii tmde. 
■Christmaa trade being the best in tlie history of the city. 

The receipts of the Denver custom-house can only be obtained Ciutoni- 
for the last six montha of the year. The amount was 13,646^., i">i"»- 
an increase of 5,353/. over the last six montha of the previous 
year. 

The total receipts from all sources of the Denver post-office Po^i offloe. 
were 119,494/., an increase over 1900 of 30,539/. 

The Internal Revenue Department of Colorado collected for intennl 
the year 223,523/. Nearly half of this amount, or 108,000/., was iweniiB. 
paid as a tax on b^r. The decrease from 1900 was 41,303/. 
This large decrease is due to the partial repeal of tlie special " war 
tax," which was imposed at the banning of the war with Spain. 

The manufacturiiig industry of Denver has been very success- Hauu- 
ful in the past year, and a considerable increase in the value of ttatatiag. 
the various articles of manufacture is shown. Mining machinery 
and smelter supplies are the principal features of thia industry, 
and the machinery firms have been compelled, during the year, to 
enlai^ their establishments, and increase their capacity to enable 
them to supply the increased demand tor this class of machinery, 
which finds a ready market in all of the Western States, Mexico, 
South America, and Australia. 

Following is a summary of the manufacturing industry of 
Denver for 1901 :— 



Nmnber of MUbliibment* . . 
Capital inieated . . . 
ATti%g» number of wage «af 
Total mgM paid 
Value of priMacU .. 




' An increase in value of products of 698,338/. is shown,' 

In my report for 1900 the value of the products of the smelt- 
ing establiahmenta was included, but in the above summary they 
do not appear as they are given in the report on the mining 
industry. 

The total assessed valuation of taxable property in the State Taubls 
for the year was 93,708,945t, nearly twice as large as it was in the property, 
previous year. This ifl due to a law passed by the last State 
Legislature requiring property owners to make returns on the full 
valuation of their property. 

Owing to unfavourable climatic conditions there was a Agrwnltiu*. 
decrease in the production of the cereals in the past year, but in aU 
other farm products the crops were abundant, which more than 
compensated the cereal loss. 

The State Engineer's estimated value of the agricnltoral 
products for 1901 is as follows : — 



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Value. 


Alfalfa 

H«7, attift and taoded graura 

coti. !; " '.'. '.'. '.'. '.'. 

0»ti 

Bariej 

Fruit 

Heloiu 

PoUtOM 

Dury [woduota 

rr^r^^ 

W«l 

HidM 

Honey 


£ 
2,000,000 
800,000 
700,000 
8(1.000 
200.000 
101,000 
1,000,000 
200,000 

eo't.ooo 

900,000 
300,000 

60,000 
840,000 
240,000 

30,000 


Totol 


7,6W,00O 



This shows an increaae of 964,037^. over 1900. 

The soil in portions of the State is particularly well adapted 
to the growth of potatoes, and a very lai^ acreage is devoted 
almost exclusively to their cultivation. The Colorado potato is 
widely and favourably known on account of its superior quality, 
and large quantities are antmaUy shipped to neighbouring Stat^ 
and many of the large Eastern cities. 

The fruit-growing industry of the State in the past year has 
been prosperous, and the prices realised for the product were very 
satisfactory. 

Two things contributed mainly to the handsome profits of the 
Colorado fruit-grower, namely, the largely advanced price received 
for his products, on account of its known excellent quality, and 
the high average yield per acre for all crops, which, under the 
irrigation system, are seldom affected by climatic conditions. This 
average for the State is estimated at 15^. to 20L 

The prices of Colorado fruit lands vary, according to location 
and conditions peculiar to an irrigated country, from 21. per acre 
for raw land without water rights to 6^. for raw land with water 
rights, 8^. to 151. for partially improved and improved land, and 
30/. to 100/. per acre for orchards in bearing, the sale of laud 
including perpetual water rights. 

The value of the fruit production for the year is estimated at 
1,200,000/., an increase over the previous year of 300,000i 

Sugar beet raising and sugar manufacturing are making rapid 
pr<^Tes8 in Colorado. Three years ago the first sugar factory was 
erected. The next year two others were built In 1900 a fourth 
was completed, and two more are now under construction. This 
insures six factories for 1902, with a capacity for treating about 
500,000 tons of sugar beeta 

The beet-growii^ acreage in 1901 was 21,800 acres, from 
which 250,000 tons of beets were produced, and the average sugar 
in the beets was 17 per cent. The value of the product of the 



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DKKVBR. 



83 



foul factories in operation during the year ia estimated at 700,000/., 
an increaae over 1900 of 445,000/. 

The nttmber and value of live-stock in Colorado at the close of I<ive-itook. 
tbB year is estimated as follows : — 





nuidbw. 


ToliM. 


Cattle 

Sheep 

Eoreei 

UuIm 

Hog. 

Uoata 


1,686.604 

2,894,768 
201.1^ 

7,2sa 

182,155 
43,300 


£ 
7,898,068 

1,605,002 
1,023.020 

72,230 
211.448 
27,780 


Total 


4.865,710 


10,637,612 



This shows an increase over 1900 of 1,357,000 in the number 
«f animals, and 898,542^. in value. 

The total number of live-stock received at the Union stock- 
yards of Denver during the year was 676,809, the value of which 
was 2,072,912/. 

The construction of the Colorado Springs and Cripple Creek BMlrood*. 
District Eailway, between Colorado Springs and Cripple Creek, a 
distance of 44 miles, was the only railroad building in the State 
during the year. 

All the railroads in the State report a satisfactory increase in 
business for the year, and a large amount of money was expended 
in new equipment and improvements. 

There has been a marked increase in nearly all the depart- Iron and 
meats of the iron and steel production of Colomdo for the year, •*"!■ 
as will be seen by the following statement furnished by the 
Colorado Fuel and Iron Company, the only company in the State 
«ng^ed in this industry: — 



Bpiegel 
BteeFnula .. 
Steel plates . . 
Heronant iron 
Oaatinn 
lioa pipe . . 
Spikn, bolti and 



ItfOO. 


I90I. 


Lbs. 


Lb.. 


266.*76filH 


880,864,726 


8,888,600 


18,823.320 




809,098,088 


3,412,051 


209,667 


U>,47e,66l 


67,802,462 


2a,M2,lM 


24,897,276 


16,070,188 


18,700,702 








704,737,786 



The laige decrease shown in the steel plate output is due to 

the pulling down of that part of the company's plant to rebuild it. 

In the coming year 2,000,000/. will be expended by this com- 



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64 DKKTER. 

pany for additions and improvemeDts to their already exteDsive 
establiyhment at Pueblo. 

The production of coal for the year shows a total of 5,978,408 
tons, an increase over 1900 of 507,674 tons. The value of thA 
output baaed on the aven^ price of 1 dol. 75 c. per ton at tha 
mines was 2,071.442/., an increase of 156,692/. over 1900. 

Table showii^ Output of Coal by Counties for the Years 
1900-01. 



Conntiei. 


Quanutj. 


1900. 


1901. 


ttr., :: :: :: 

ElPa«o 

Fremont 

ODDDJaon 

Garfield 

LaaAnimaa 

La PUta 

Larimer 

Men 

Pitkin 

Weld 

SmaU mine*, eeljmated.. 


ToMOt 

2,000 Ibe. 

40 

678,014 

94,278 

044,740 

488,ees 

158,384 

668,108 

6.600 

2,206.184 

122.270 

3,000 

40,096 

175,473 

41,7S4 

1,260 


Tooi ol 
2,000 Ibe. 

496,111 

176,687 

638,289 

438,848 

186.594 

964,703 

800 

2,609,890 

14a,60f! 

850 

28.966 

323.496 

26,630 

60.000 


Total 


6,470,734 


6,978,408 



The number of men employed in the coal mines was 7,300. 

The coke production for the year was 557,308 tons, valued ab 
222,923/. There are 1,840 coke ovens in the State employing 80O 
men. 

There has been no marked change in the petroleum industry in 
Colorado during the past year. The production area is still con- 
fined to the Florence field, and no other section of the State haa 
produced petroleum in commercial quantity. The yield of the 
Florence district haa been about 2,000 barrels of cmde oil per day, 
worth about 1,500,000/. 

In several sections of the State prospecting for petroleum ia 
being done, but up to the close of the year nothing haa been added 
to the yield of the State beyond that from the Florence field. 

The value of the atone and marble production of the several 
quarriea of the State was 400,000/., an inci'ease over the previous 
year of 40,000/. 



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Table showing Value of the Output of the Mines for the 
Year 1901. 





Value. 


Oold. 

SiWer 

Lei^ 

2Lr. :: :: :: ;: :: 


4,881,280 
3,131,596 
l,82E,ies 
191,291 
879,664 


ToUl 


8,411,962 



This shows a decrease in gold of 1,669,289/., and silver 
l,185,728i. from 1900, and an increase in lead of 85,875t, and 
copper of 46.1311. 

The decrease in the value of the production for 1901, as 
compai-ed with the previous year, is due principally to two causes, 
namely, the lower grade of ores produced, and the decline in the 
price of silver, lead, and copper. 

The average price of silver for the year was 59 c (2s. 5d.) 
per oz., as aaainst 6118 c. (2a. Q^d.) in 1900. Average price of 
copper in 1901;— 15 c (l^d.) per lb. ; in 1900 it was 15-:i8 c 
Average price of lead in 1901 : — 4 c per lb. ; and in 1900, 4-125 c, 
per lb. 

The production of the Cripple Creek district for the year 1901, 
has been variously estimated, and I am quoting the figures 
furnished to the " Engineering and Mining Journal " of ^ew 
York, by its special correspondent According to that authority 
the Cripple Creek district's output for the year amounts to 
514.465 tons of ore, valued at 3,608,000?., and of this, 184,465 
tons, valued at 48 dol. 60 c. (10/. 2s. 5d.) per ton, was sent to 
the smelters, the balance of the value of 27 dol. 50 c, (5/. 14s. 6rf.) 
per ton being treated by the chemical mills. It will be seen that 
there has been a decrease in value of the product for the year 
though the actual tonnage is in excess. More favourable rates 
for the carriage and treatment of the lower grade ores have con- 
tributed to this. 

The following is taken from the report of the State Labour Ummu. 
Commissioner. He estimates tlie number of wage-earners in the 
State at 119,000, divided as follows :— 

Men, 105,000; women, 12,000; boys, 1,000; girls, 1,000. 

The employment of men is divided as follows : — 

Manufacturing proper, 25,000. 

Miners, 40,000. 

Smelters, stamp mills, Ac, 7,000. 

Non-crafts, including clerks, domestics, stenographers, farm 
hands, travelling salesmen, &c., 33,000. 

Of the 12,000 women wage-earners it is estimated that 2,000 
are employed in factories, 3,000 in stores as clerks, stenographers, 
<^ce clerks, clerks in public buildings, and 7,000 in domestic aervicft. 
(29) I 



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About half the 1,000 boys are employed in the various mines 
and the auxiliarr establlBfameata. The other half work iu stores, 
as clerks, messenger boys, &c. 

About half the girls are employed in storea, and the other half 
as domestics. 

The foUowii^ shows the wages paid to the principal artis-ins 
in the State, the scale being fixed Largely by the labour unions, 
the wages bfflng per diem, unless otherwise stated : — 



LocomMlte enfiiutim (paid 
per mile) 

OHiEnlljf ^ 

Crtpplf Crc(k(>ctiiilnia) ... 



Blllnigtl punnger o 
Btllrwd flnoHo 
mllajw) 

SUDOfrnphan ._ 
Stone-mtiert Md "lor 

Telcgr^b openton- 



Crlpple Creek Alitrict 



Tale;biin<(lrli „ 
Domeitkn „. 












Inei«ipclon^eue>,Bdi)l. 
























1301. 134. *d.)fiatoai 







vptioDI 



dol. (Kl. lit. Id.) 



Psrw*A, iBsliidlng baud 



lermm per jeiT. ThiM 



Depending apen 



ma W dal. {U. £e. td.) 
worth of won dan* Meh 
week. Arenge meklf 
w*c«e, MdoL {II. tt. W.) 

Per MHHiita, KOordlBS ta 
tngthotHmDe 

BiMf UDp»t cue*, U doL 
Ql. ti. td.)t»r Boolta 



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Hie numerical etrength of the principal labour uQions of the 
State for 1901 is estimated as follows : — 



Kame of Dnioni. 


Number of 
Dniona. 


Membonll^ 


B«lio>d 

ST';:^:: :: :: 

Clwk. 

Ca&lmtneni 

CMpanlere 

Brioklkyera 

Bsrben 

£arten<ien 


65 
12 
81 
16 
16 
18 
S 
8 
12 
4 
8 


4,000 

700 

0,000 

1,000 

8,600 

2,000 

160 

600 

1,000 

2B0 

600 



Statemknt of Value of Imports from the United Kii^oi 
Entered at the Port of Denver during the Year 1901. 



Article!. 


Value. 


AlBWidrtont 

Ammalf,liFe 

Book! 

Brwdy 

Champagne 

Cbinfcand euthenwuv 

aocki ..■ 

Cutierj 

Ging«Je 

aiuewsre 

„ furniture of wood . . , . 
Horn, manufmoturei of 

MeteJ, mauu&oturea of 

Hinemla. crude 

PlEinum 

Shall ash 

Spirit., dutiUed 

Bodswmtei 

BheetwJip 

StJIl^riiiS. 

Te4 

ToTi ' 

Wool' 


£ «. 

1,602 

9 16 

16 IS 
142 4 
268 12 
189 4 

16 4 
48e 

SB 16 

161 IS 

12 

78 16 
649 
246 4 

8 13 
88 13 

7 le 

177 4 

9 
22 4 
SI 16 
86 8 

6 4 

10 4 

46 ' 
111 12 
2,604 IS 

49 8 
606 
046 
628 4 

21 

a u 

4 

6 16 
164 12 
122 


Total 


9,040 16 



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Beoobd of Iiaporte ttom the United Kingdom for the past 
10 Years. 



Tmt. 


Talne. 




£ «. 








4.9M 4 
ft,481 4 
7,866 IS 
4.875 8 

aieso 

12,260 12 


1896 

1896 

1897 















The B&le of Scotch and Iri&h cured fish in Colorado, in tiie past 
year, was about 500 barrels of Trish mackerel, and 50O caaee of 
kippered herring, bloaters and Finnan haddock, and no increase 
in the consumption of this class of fish in the past few jears is 
noted. Yeiy Uttle fish is imported direct, it is bought through 
New York brokei3 principally. large quantities of Norwegian 
herrings are received annually. The wholesale prices for Irish 
mackerel ranged from SI. 12s. to 5/. per barrel. 

The consumption of Portland cement in the State during the 
past year was about 200,000 barrels, and not over 10,000 barrels 
of this quantity was imported, only a small portion'of the imported 
being from the United Kingdom. A cement faetory was erected 
in the State early in the year, and this factory, with one in 
Kaneas, an adjoining State, has supplied the Colorado demand. 
It is stated the home manufactured product is nearly equal in 
quality to the imported. The prices are, for the imported, 
3 dol. 25 0. (13s. 9d.) per barrel, and for the domestic, 2 dol. 26 c 
(9s. 3d.) per barrel. 

It is impossible to ascertain the total consumption of Scotch 
whisky in Colorado in 1901. In the custom-house report it is 
included in the item "apirite," no separate account being kept ^of 
it. By far the lai^est portion comes in through seaports, although 
a large quantity is imported direct Local dealers estimate that 
there has been an increase in consumption of fully 10 per cent, 
in the past five years, and the demands seem to l>e increasing. 

The consumption of tea in Colorado in the past year was about 
400,000 lbs., and about 20 per cent, of this was Ceylon and Indian 
teEU One firm, who deals in these teas, estimates that their con- 
sumption has increased over 75 per cent, in the past five years. 
There wrb a marked increase in the direct importation during 
the yeai". ■ 



(76 4|0a— HAS 29) 



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No. 2770 Annnal Seriei, 
DIPLOMATIC AJSD CONSUIAH EEPORTS. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1901 



TRADE AND COMMERCE OF 

TEXAS. 



BEFERBNOE TO PBEYIOUS REPORT, Annual SerieB No. 2571. 



Praented to both Hmuei of Parliament by Command of Hia Majetty, 
APSIL, 1903. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR HIS MA.TKaTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE. 

BY HARBISON AKD SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE, 



And 1o bp pnrchoBeil, either di 

ETBE k SPOl'riSWOODE, Ear 

mad a, AbiN 



1902. 
[Cd. 786 — 74.] Price Twopenct Halfpetais. 



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CONTENTS. 



TsxAfl— 

FrosperitjofTetM 
DuooTery of oil 



FigUTN from ceniui Tetunu....«».— .„..»..«■_ ^.— .». 

Total foreign trade in 1901 largeat iu nlm anr iMOid«d » 

QrMt •dTKnoa of port in flrs jeon ^ „.„.„^,^.^,„„^ 

Valne of forsign trade, 1901... 



Cotton, grttin and other eiporte . 

Foreign import trade >. 

Britieh trade inereaeed »._ 



Inoreaee of ehipping, 1901 

BrJtlah ahippiog, IWl «. 

Total foreign trade in 1901, by 
Export trade 



Total value of eiporte in 1901 largest erer reooidad 

Standing of chief ooantriee in eiporli ._...,_-» 

Britieh imports into 0*lT«etoD, value in 1901 _.-»... 

Idtt of chief import* .— _- - _. 

Eiporte to the United Eingdom, 1901 

InoroMe of thtpping, 1901 — _ ^,.— _„... „.„.., 

CowtwJM ehipping _ .._._„_,„__._ 

Freight ratee in 1901 

Public health of GalvertMi .„.., »._^_».._».„ 



Cotton crop of United Statei iu 1900-01 , 

Fetrdeam mduetry, derelo^nent of 

GlWD norement at QalTeaton, 1901 ....„_. 

fort storage faoilitiee _.. 

_ DeatiiiatioD of wheat ekipped ...._..„. 

BecooetmoUon of whorres at Galretton . 

Harbour improTeDiente ....,._,..„ ».~» 

Lt, Forte ehannel _ „ ,.,.„. 

StBtietical tablet _- ^...„. . 

Sabixb Pass akd Post Axibdb — 

Lumber eiporte imalt „> „, 

Table of eiporte, 1901 

Total value of foraign trade „„.„„, 



Increaee in ralu« of ri«» land .. 
Shipping ~ ^ 



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No. 2770. Azmoal Seriei. 

Meferenee to precious Beport, Annual Series No. ^571. 



Report on the Trade and Coynmerce of Texaxfor the Year 1901 
By Mr. Consul Nugrnt. 

(KeoeivBd at Fonign Office, April 1, 1902.) 

Deepite very short cropa of cotton and grain, the year 1901 Pro*perltjof 
cannot be aaid to have been without a conaiderable d^^ree of 'f****- 
prosperity for the State of Texas. 

Undoubtedly the most striking feature in the commercial Dbeorar rf 
history of the year was the discovery of the Beaumont oilfield, a "^ 
field whose yield, according to expert opinion, will undoubtedly, 
ere long, rival the famous Bussian welle in production. 

Of Tate years the attention of outsiders has been more and 
more drawn to the enormous potentialities of Texas, a vast extent 
of varied and productive soil, lai^er than the whole of France, 
and where it seems that almost anything can be grown, and whose 
natural riches are only beginuing to be realised. , 

The discovery of oil in such vast quantity at Beaumont seemed 
to cap the matter, and the attention of northern capitalists and 
business men has, more than ever before perhaps, been directed 
to the resources of Texas. 

So important has it been thought for the financial powers of 
New York to learn by personal observation the resources and 
possibilities of Texas that a very infiuential body, representing 
the New York Chamber of Commerce and the Merchants' Associa- 
tion of New York, made an extended tour throughout the State, 
early in 1901. 

It is believed that they were much impressed witli what they 
saw, but, unfortunately, some were of opinion that the present 
Texas, so-called, " Anti-Trust " Law would militate against any 
extensive introduction into the State of northern capital. 

The Chamber of Commerce Committee reported on this point 
as foUowB : — 

" After a careful analysis of the law as it stands on the statute Anti-Tnwt 
books of the State to-day, your Committee was surprised to meet, '•''' ***' "'• 
at a number of points, the assurance that the law was not inimical 
to the introduction of foreign capital in the shape of corporations 
or combiuatioas of capital. 

(41) A 2 



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4 GALTK8T0K. 

" Your Committee was asnured repeatedly by other leadit^f 
citizens in all of the different towns visited that this law did not 
mean literally all that waa written in the statute. 

" NotwithstandlDg these assurancea your Committee is of the 
opinion that so long as this law exints it would unquestionably 
have an important influence toward discouraging the iutroduction 
of outside capital. 

" The law as it stands is extremely severe, far-reaching, and 
drastic, and practically forbids the combination of capital, know- 
ledge, talent, or energy in any or all forms." 

It is extremely disappointing to many that this view should 
be taken, as the State needs capital to develop its resources, 
but if, as seems probable, there is some ambiguity about the 
"Anti-Trust" law, the matter is not irreparable and could be 
settled by a clearer statute. 

Texas is genarally looked upon as almost entirely an agii- 
cultural community, and this is, speaking broadly, true ; but there 
are many factories in the State, and the census returns of last 
year give some interesting particulars concerning them. 
* Texa£ made a marvellous advance in manufacturing during 
the decaiile ending with 1900. 

Tliere was an increase of 7,000 in the number of establish- 
ments, nearly 40,000,000 doL in the amount of capital invested, 
nearly 14,000 in the number of wage earners, 41,000,000 dol. 
increase in the cost of materials used, and nearly 50,000,000 doL 
increase in the value of finished products. 

While Texas by no means boasts of being a manufacturing 
State, her chief strength being the vast production of mw 
materiiils, at the same time she is far and away ahead of any 
Southern ^pate in the matter of manufacturing, and promises 
within a d^ade to take high rank among the great manufacturiiig 
States of the north. 

States like If orth Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, famed 
as manufacturing States are said to be much behind Texas in the 
number of establishments, capital invested, cost of material and 
tlie value of output 
' The official figures for 1900 and the comparison with the 
returns of 1890 are as follows : — 



Item. 


1»00. 


1890. 


Par Cent. 


Avenge naoiber of wage eamen . . 

CapiUl 

Toulwagti 

MtoeellMieoiu expentet „ 
C<w(afm»teri*UD«ed 

wofk ukd TtpttiriDg 


13,389 
*8,180 

DolUn. 
110,488,882 
20.66J,8iB 
6.144,024 
67,102,749 

119,414,968 


e,«28 
34,794 

DolUn. 
46,810,181 
16,146,495 

8,894,940 
16,163,806 

70.488,561 


118 
88-8 

Dollrn. 
•8 8 
86-7 
70-9 
86 -6 

69 S 



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The year 1901 has been undoubtedly one of the most critical 
in the hietoiy of GalveBton. 

A Bomewhat severe reaction followed upon the strenuous B«.Mtiou it 
efforts of the last months of 1900 to neutralise the demoralising 0»iTMton 
effecte of the great storm of September, 1900, and the depression J^"^J|^t« 
has been widespread. •tonn. 

No place, however self-reliant, can lose oue-third of its build- 
ings and one-quarter of its population without feeling the blow. 

When one adds to this the enforced idleness of many hundred 
cotton screwmen, as owiug to low freights no cotton was aciewed 
this year, it is not wonderful that the outlook was thought dark 
by many. 

■ But during this month (February) there has been a decided Beitar 
change for the better. outlook now. 

A committee of three well-known engineers has drawn up a ProtecUon 
plan for the protection of the town against any recurrence, as fur echtm«. 
aa can be, of the damage wrought by the late storm, and there is 
every reason to believe that the bonds for providing the money to " 
carry out the scheme in question will be floated, as it is felt to be 
a vital question. 

When it ia further considered that a few days ago it was Southern 
announced by the Executive Committee of the Southern Pacific PwiBc 
£ailway Company that they had decided to concentrate their rail- ^**'' ** 
way and steamship systems at Galveston, and that this means an o&treston ila 
increase of 5,000 to 6,000 to the population as well as a convinc- hesdqnirtew. 
ing proof on the part of a very important corporation of their 
belief in the safety and stability of Galveston, there is undoubtedly 
cause for self-congratulation on the part of the people here. 

In my opinion, whilst Galveston may never be a very populous 
town, it is destined to overcome the effects of the storm of 190O 
and become a port of the very finit importanca 

Once more it has to be recorded that the total foreign trade of Toul foreign 
the port of Galveston exceeded in value that of any previous year, tr»de in isoi. 
For the first time the value of the total foreign trade passed *^^***i° 

20,000,000;. '£t^ 

The great advance made by the port iu foreign trade can be Oreat 
seen at a glance when looking at the following figures giving the "dTuice of 
totals for the five years past :— P^"" "" 



Tsu. 


Talue. 


ISOl 

IBM 

1899 

1898 

1897 


£ 
SI,lS2,ei6 
lS.0d8.7Se 
15,»1,9W 

is,sa8,ie4 
12,129,794 



It is doubtful whether any other port in the ITnited States can 
make as good a showing aa this, and when the drawbacks and 
losses of the great storm of 1900 are taken into consideration 
it is almost wonderful 

(41) A 3 



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The following table shows the total foreign trade of Galveeton 
s compared with 1900: — 





IMl. 


1000. 




Correne;. 


Sterling. 


Curreac;. 


BterliDS. 


Import* .. 
Ezporto 


DOIIMB. 

1,8*0,176 
104,E7!.826 


£ 

3S8,08S 

20,9H,T84 


Dollan. 
1,440,0T* 
88,908,008 


& 

388,018 

17,780,710 


Tout, foreign tnda 


106,914,101 


Sl,182,Bie 


B0,843,89S 


18,066,786 



It will be noticed that the imports m 1901, small as they were, 

yet showed a decrease as compared with 1900, whilst the exports 

increased in value over 3,000,000/. 
Cotton • The total exports of cotton from Galveston in 1901 were 
exports 1,948,220 bales, aa against 1,494,678 bales in 1900, or a gain of 

nearly 30 per cent, in quantity. 
Orain exports. The exports of giaia were somewhat small for the year 1901, 

owing to the failure of both wheat and maize crops. 

The total amount of grain exported, the whole beii^ wheat, 

was 15,125,665 bushels, as against 13,727,850 bushels in 1900. 
other exports. The other chief exports were, aa usual, cotton-seed meal, 

cotton-seed oil, lumber and logs, flour, &c., a large business being 

done in most. 
Foreign The import trade from abroad calls for httle or no remark, 

importtnde. being almost insignificant as compared with the foreign export 



Increiae of 
shippinj;, 

1901. 



Dometiiv 

QaWeston. 



Trade with the British Empire showed a fairly large increase, 
rising from 7,941,094/. in 1900 to 8,965,813/. in 1901. 

The increased amount of cotton exported accounts for the gain, 
but there was no great loss in trade in other articles. 

Foreign shipping at Galveston increased during 1901, that 
entering being 701,290 tons, and that clearing 804,099 tons, as 
compared with 627,337 tons and 640,176 tons in 1900. 

British shipping shared in this increase, the total registered 
tonnage in 1901, entering and clearing, being 1,127,717 tons, as 
compM«d with 992,867 tons in 1900. 

The general wholesale and retail trade of Galveston during 
1901 was not very satisfactory, owing to the loss of popidation 
and financial stringency caused by the storm of 1900, but as 
mentioned elsewhere the prospects at present are much more 
encoun^ing. 

Bank clearances showed a satisfactory increase for the year 
1901, being 75,687,160/., as compared with 64,701,260/. in 1900. 

The total foreign trade of the port of Gfdyeston during 1901, 
as compared with 1900, is set forth by countries in the foUowii^ 
table :— 

As regards Uie chief countries the United Kingdom and 



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. OALTBarON. 7 

Germany, whilat showing increase in actual value of trade, main- by countries. 
tain almost the same percentage of the total value as in 1900. IncreMed 

I^once shows an increase of nearly 900,000/., and in per- H*ff ?^ 
centage from 15 Te in 1900 to 17-55 in 1901. Ktogdom. 

Holland, Belgium, I>enmark and Italy exhibit increased trade Qeniuutr ud 

values. Frmoa. 

The decreases were with Mexico, Cuba, and Japan. 
Over 87 per cent, of the total trade of the port was done by 
the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. 



Table showing Percentage of Total Foreign Trade of Galveston, 
by Countries, during the Years 1900-01. 







.«0. 






1M>I. 




CenDtrj. 


Tiane- 




V. 


oa. 










P«^ 






pir- 












wnUKe. 




CairmcT. 


HtarUnx. 




Comncy. 


Sti^ng. 






DolUri. 






I>o11»ri, 






UniMd ElORdoin ■»! 
















ae,7C*,«Tl 


T.Btl.OM 




4i,e2«,eBi 


s,ge9.8i£ 




Gmmmj ;:: :;' 


M,J«e,2M 


4,««,W.I 




m9M.i!i; 


6.7ST.gll 




Fi«nc 


M.Ml.SM 


lf,6«B.aiB 






3,TU,»J0 




KHiHrUnd) ... .- 


t,m.m 


7K,W1 




eiiso^DH 


1,06*, 001 


*-oa 


B«l»l™ 


4.m.wi 






*-M 


*,»02.«1» 


■smImi 




■•iteo - 


OTI,0S1 








7BT.3M 


iai,47« 


0-JI 


IXmnuk .„ „. 










1«0,I4< 


1W,0W 


0-J6 


Cain 


K2,»>8 




S88 


o-« 


I1S3H 


ZS6M 




iffi" :- z :: 


1,17V04 


ZM 






sIkb 


■«1 


O-Oi 












i»s,su 


OM 


Bnkl 


2B«i413 


i3,WS 










AlloUitramurlM ... 


W,IM 


».m 


OM 


eM.«89 


|"W,9W 


0"b8 


Tol^ ._ 


M,UI,«SS 


lB,0«il,TlS 


100-00 


IM.BU.IOI 


si,iK,Rig 


lOOM 



The total value of the direct foreign imports into Galveston Joreigii 
doring 1901 was 268,032/., as compared with 288,014^. in 1900. imporul* 

The imports in transit for other portions of the country show ^*''^- 
an increase, being 39,480/.. as against 32.303£ in 1900. 

These foreign imports have been steadily going down for the lumuka oi 
last few years and can almost be left out of account nowadays, impwu. 
the fact being that Galveston is simply an exporting point for 
the vast amount of cotton and grain produced in that portion 
of the United States tributary to this port. 

With the advent here of the Southern Pacific Bailroad Com- 
pany fmd the probable increase of its trans-continental business, 
increased imports from abroad are assuredly to be looked for, 
bat, as far as at present can be seen, there is no likelihood of the 
great disproportion now existing between foreign exports and 
importe at Galveston being overcome. 

Of the total amount of direct foreign imports during 1901, 
141,689/. represented the value of imports free of duty, and 
86,864/. that of those paying duty. Those entering free show a 
decrease of 30,000^., and those paying duty a gain of 2,000/. 

The principal articles entering the port free were chemicals Principkl 
(sheep-dip, &c), coffee, jute, sisal grass, fruits, and nuts and woods, in>porta. 
(41) A 4 



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O . GALVZ3T0N. 

whilst the chief dutiable articles were cement, cotton nuinu- 
factures, earthenware, manufactureB of jute, sardines, &&, glass, 
manufactures of metal, rice, refined sugar, salt, toys, wines, and 
woollen manufactures. 

The chief increases were in the importatiooH of earthenware, 
manufactures of jute, sardines, malt liquors, rice, toys, manufac- 
tures of wool, chemicals, fruits, and miscellaneous artidee, whilst 
most of the other principal imports show a decrease, especially 
Gofiee, sisal grass, cement, and refined sugar. 

The following table gives the standing of the various countries 
as regards foreign imports in 1900-01 : — 



Table showing Percentage of Foi'eign Imports at Galveston, 
by Countries, during the Years 1900-01. 







l»0. 






.«,!. 




CounUT. 


via.. 




v^«. 


P,r 






















Cxarmer- 


RUMag. 






















































































































*1,*7» 






x».m 


4i,in 




TOMl 


1,440,07* 


SS«,0I4 


100 ■» 


l,MO,II« 


MB,OU 


100 -oo 



Leaving out the British Empire, the import trade from which 
is dealt with elsewhere in this report, the principal countries from 
which goods were imported into Galveston direct, were Giermany, 
France, Mexico, Belgium, and Brazil, 
I The imports from Germany increased from 30,416i. in 1900 to 
35,675/. in 1901. 

The principal articles imported were cement, 9,003/. ; 
rice and rice-meal, 8,324/. ; and toys and doUa, 3,991/. 

Merchandise to the value of 7,037/. was imported in transit to 
other districts of the United States, 
I The imports from France during 1901 were practically the 
same in value as in 1900 ; the figures being 8,084/. as compared 
with 8,212t 

The imports consisted chiefly of preserved lish, prepared fruits, 
&c, olive-oil and wmes. 
I The imports from Mexico during 1901 showed a decrease of ' 
50 per cent, from those cf the previous year ; being only 28,394/. 
as compared with 56,174/. 

The principal article imported was sisal grass, value 26fi5SL 

There has been a great decrease of imports of sisal grass from 
Mexico during the last year or two, owing to the fact that the 
rope mill in Gidveston has ceased operations. 



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GALTKSTOH. 9 

The importe from Belgium during 1901 were 23,9227., import from 
as compared with 37,020/. in 1900, thus showing a. considerable Belgium. 
decrease. 

The principal items were cement, 6,639/. ; sugar, 2,087/. ; and 
sardinea, &c., 1,157/. 

The value of articles in transit from Belgium was 13,398/. 
In all these various items a decrease was shown as compared 
with 1900. 

From Brazil, coffee was imported to the value of 12,115/., Import* of 
tiB compared with 59,285/. in 1900. ~'''*- 

Other imports of note during 190L were fruits from Central Other imp«rta. 
America, value 6,394/. The fruit steamers to this port having 
been resumed. 

The most stiiking feature of the export trade ^m Galveston Export inda. 
during 1901 was the large gain in cotton exports, especially to 
the United Kingdom, Germany, and France. 

The total value of the foreign exports from this port during Toul v»lu« of 
1901 was the largest ever recorded here in one year, and for the oipori". ixoi, 
first time the total value exceeded 20,000,000/., being 20,914,784/., ^^IT" 
A3 against 17,780.720/. in 1900. 

As usual cotton was the principal article exported, 1,948,220 Cotton, 
bales, value 17,100,351/. being shipped, as against 1,494,678 bales, 
value 14,279,017/. in 1900. 

Almost the entire gain in the value of foreign exports from 
Galveston for the year is accounted for by increased value of 
cotton exported. 

The amount of cotton-seed meal and cake exported from Cotton aaed 
Galveston in 1901 was almost the same as in 1900, being 237,242 "'**'■ 
tons, value 1,036,801/., as compared with 229,472 tons, value 
951,010/. in 1900. 

There was an increase of very nearly 50 per cent, in the Wheat. 
.amount of wheat exported from Galveston during 1901, 15,125,665 
bushels, value 2,207,031/. being shipped, as against 10,760,063 
bushels, value 1,518,208/. in 1900. 

There were no exports of maize during 1901. In 1900 they Ko maiw 
amounted to 2,967,787 bushels, value 320,510/. eiporteJ. 

The exports of wheat flour during 1901, show a little falling-oB", WhettSour. 
being 143,667 barrels, value 102,492/., as compared with 156,415 
ban-els, value 111,774/. in 1900. 

Exports of cotton-seed oil also show a decrease for 1901. CotiooMed 
These amounted to 5,011,666 gallons, value 310,343/., as compared <"'• 
with 5,870,270 gaUons, value 377,150/. in 1900. 

Exports of lumber whilst less in quantity during 1901 show Lamber. 
increased value, owing to higher prices. They amounted to 
18,554,000 feet, value 67,272/., as against 22,047,000 feet, value 
48,663/. during 1900. 

Exports of cattle decreased considerably during the year, whilst Ckttle. 
no spelter at all was exported during 1901. 

Exports of logs and staves, during 1901, showed an increase Log« and 
of some 7,000/. over the past year. stavei. 

Examining the export trade done by the various countries, Biport* t» 

QermaiV' 



d by Google 



10 GALVBBTOK. 

excluding the BritiBb Empire, the exports to vhicfa are dealt 

with elsewhere, that done with the German Empire was most 

important, and increased from 4,927,634i. during 1900 to 5,751,956t 

in 1901. 

The chief itema exported were cotton, 4,351,017/.; cotton- 
seed meal and cake, 664,971/. ; wheat, 688,458/. ; lumber, 22,912i ; 

cotton-Beed oil, 9,;^93/. ; and logs, 9,412/. 
Sxporu to The exports to France showed a decided increase during 1901, 

PrMM. being 3,709,487A, as compared with 2,840,180/. during 1900. 

They consiated chiefly of cotton, 3,485,341/. ; wheat, 129,590/. ; 

cotwn-seed oil, 63,752/^ ; cotton-seed meal, 14,655/- ; and staves, 

11,621/. 
EzporiB u the The exports to the Ketherlands during 1901 also showed a 
Ketherland*. material increase, being of the value of 1,063,455/., as against 

729,898/. in 1900. The chief items were wheat, 572,008/.; 

cotton, 170,915/. ; cotton-seed meal, 148,932/. ; cotton-seed oil, 

147.136/.; and wheat flour, 15,328/. 
Bxporu to The exports to Belgium increased from 830,252/^ in 1900, to 

Belgium. 936,648/. in 1901. They consisted principally of cotton, 478,711/. ; 

wheat, 413,077/..; and cotton-seed meal, 33,844/. 
Bxporta to The exports to Italy during 1901 showed a considerable in- 

I"*!? crease and were 158,557/:, as compared with 54,328/. in 1900. 

These exports consisted entirely of cotton. 
Exporto to The expotte to Denmark increased from 114,714/. in 1900 to 

Xtonmwk. 158,029/. in 1901. They were chiefly made up of cotton, 69,392i, 

and cotton-seed meal, 84,281/. 
Export* lo The exports to Mexico showed a decrease of about 5,000/. for 

Ueiieo. the year, the principal items being cotton, 38,811/., and cotton- 

seed oil, 80,365/. 
Otiier exports Other exports of note were wheat-flour, 23,993/., and cattle, 

4,812/. to Cuba, and cotton, 16,842/. to Russia 

The following table gives the standing of the principal 

countries as regards foreign export trade with Galveston during 
MporiaT" 1900 and 1901 with the percentages of such trade done by each. 
A further table giving the exports in detail is also annexed to 

this report. 



d by Google 



Table showing Percentage of Exports from OalveBton, by 
Countries, during the Years 1900-01. 





IBOO. 


.«,!. 


CoOBtfJ. 


T«l 


Km. 




y^„. 










Pct- 

•Mnui«. 






Pw 




CwT,«r. 


BMHtnc. 


CantD.7. 


awrliqg. 


mULfi- 




Doltan. 


« 




Dollm. 






UnlUd Kliwdom ud 
















M,M!,«* 


T,su,«a 




U,2U,U8 


8,MT,107 


«:■» 


Onninr 


Bt,M8,lM 


*,«7,«M 




»i,7W,;8i 


B.76I.SW 


S7-M 




l«,2IXI.9(n 


2,M<1,1S0 






1B,M1,US 


t,JiM.«S7 


11 -n 




i,Ma,te/ 


mSB3 






Mi;,S77 


l,DN,4t6 




Holglom. 


4,ifti.aii 


S»;i!M 






4.eu;m 


'B3«;ua 




I>«ini.A 


K1,6T1 


114,71* 








IM.OM 


o-je 


Cute 


>U,>II 


TO.tU 




M 


1M,'m4 


»;m7 




fffi- :: ;:: : 


I.ITIW 


m.m 




w 








m.«M 








»2,Tsa 


1M,U7 


0-7« 


HalM 


•«.190 


ItsioM 






«1S,411 


m,oaa 


O'W 


AUomtrconiiMM _ 


10,TI> 


!,1U 


0-H 


»8^B^ 


1M,7M 


O'W 


Total 


8S,M»,«8 


i;,JB0,7» 


WOO 


I0*,ST1,»» 


»,»W.JW 


100 00 



As r^ards the direct imports from the British Empire into British 
Galveston during 1901, whilst it is tiuB that these show an increase, imtiotte into 
being 118,706^., aa compared with 92,614/. in 1900 ; yet the value ^J"i|^%(ii 
is 80 small in comparison with the export trade aa to hardly call 
for extended remark. 

Ab has so often been stated in reports from this Consulate, 
Galveston is merely a great exportii^ point, and, although there is 
undoubtedly a fairly krge consumption of British manufactured 
goods in Texas, these do not arrive to any great extent through 
Uiis port, nor is it possible to predict a notable incrense in imports 
from the United Kingdom direct under present conditions. 

As will be seen from the followii^ table, the chief imports in xdgtofcm«f 
1901 were much the same as in 1900, and the principfd items, importe. 
viz. : jute, sheep dip, earthenware, manufactures of jute and iiax, 
and malt liquors, all show an increase, though small in some 



d by Google 



GALTESTON. 



Aiitdm. 


1900. 


IMl. 


CuneiMj. 


Slertlnjt. 


CnneniT. 


StwUng. 


8Ut 

JdU and jute bDtIa 

Shecpdip 

ChemiolB ind compound* 

crookaiT) 

Flu, jat« ukd hamp (maimfBc- 

tDTMof) 

Ale Mid portal 

Eice .. 

All Other uticlM. 

Id Innat to other United Slatea 
durtricta 


DolUn 
16,680 

SS6,142 
SB,86S 
2,607 

2*,MT 

1(107 
6.901 
8,297 
7,681 

M,»2 

60,948 


£ 
8,116 
17,228 
6,171 

eoi 

1,907 

8,4SS 
1,320 
1,660 

i,joe 

7^0 
11,390 


Dollan. 
12,068 
298.108 
88,846 
, 1,TM 

11,133 

11,863 
0,800 

19,318 
1,607 

72,689 

89,846 


e 

Mil 

63,222 

7,789 

S6S 

8,22B 

8,678 
I,26» 
8,811 

801 
11,618 

17,868 


Totol 


4M,0fl7 


S3,61S 


698,629 


118,709 



Kxpom to 
United 
EtngdoBi, 
1801. 



The exports from Galveston to the United Kingdom increaaed 
from 7,848,480/. in 1900 to 8,847,107t in 1901, aa will be seen 
from the following table. They formed 42'30 per cent of the 
total value of the export trade of the port for the year, as com- 
pared with 4414 per cent, in 1900. 

The increase is almost entirely accounted for by that in the 
value of cotton shipped to the United Kingdom, which shows a 
gain of 1,200,000/. for the year. 

Bread-stuffs exported were about the same in value as in 1900, 
excepting that there was no maize at all exported. 

Exports of cotton-seed meal and cake in 1901 show an increase, 
also those of lumber and logs. 

The chief decrease was in exports of spelter and maize, there 
being none shipped during 1901 to the United Kingdom 
163,826/. and 109,419/. worth respectively in 1900. 



d by Google 



The following table shows the chief exports from Cialvestoii to Table iboving 
the United Einffdom during the Tears 1900-01 : — eiportoto 

* * United 

Kingdom. 



Articlet. 


1800. 


1801. 


Csmner. 


SUrliDK. 


Carrcnej. 


SttrKng. 


Cotton 

Hun 

Wbest 

flour .. 
Lnmber and staTW 
CoUon-Modoil .. 

Ue» 

Spelter 

Slindrie. 


Dollan 
SC,SS!,SST 

2fiB,0G3 

647,094 

l,8fS,810 

290,083 

81.658 

B,86» 

14S 

819,182 

89,856 


£ 

7,064,40S 

51,810 

10B,41B 

874,063 

59.018 

6,812 

1,070 

80 

108,826 

17,871 


Dalian. 
41,157,224 

460,588 

l,GS4,14fi 

276,898 

184,749 

14,715 

7,060 

270,604 


£ 

8,281.446 

80,118 

884,890 
56,178 
28,950 
2,843 
1,(S0 

54,112 


Tool .. 


89^42,404 


7,848,481 


44,395,688 


8,847,107 



There wa£ a considerable increase in the total volume of inereaM or 
shipping entering and clearing at the port of Galveston during !^pp'°K' 
1901 as compared with 1900. '*•"■ 

According to the figures issned by the custom-house here, the 
total amount of shipping, both foreign and domestic, which 
entered the porta of Galveston and Sabine Pass, comprising the 
Oalveston customs district was 1,201,912 tons, as gainst 1,028,500 
tons in 1900. 

The total tonnage cleared from the district was 1,219,500 tons 
AS against 1,026.624 tons in 1900. Allowing for the trade of 
Sabine Pass, these figures would give the total tonni^e entering 
and clearing at Galveston at somewhat over 2,000,000 tons, or a 
substantial increase over 1900. 

A table is annexed on page 27 giving details of the foreign 
shipping in 1001. 

There was also a considerable increase in the coastwise shipping Coaatviw 
at Gialveston during 1901, owing in part to the fact that the vessels •l"Ppl°B- 
of the Southern Pacific Eailway system have begun to use this 
port. 

With the carrying out of the arrangement recently published, 
which is mentioned in another portion of this report, whereby 
the vessels of the Southern Pacific Hallway system are to ply 
r^^arly between Galveston and New York in the carrying out of 
the trans-continental business of the company, a very great 
development of coastwise shipping in the near future is to be 
anticipated. 

There was a decided increase in British shipping at Galveston 7ii«i«aMd 
daring 1901, not so much in numbers 88 in tonnaga Britiih 

There were 235 British vessels entered in 1901, their com- ^^^f* 
bined registered tonnage being 556,017 tons, as compared with Hrituh " 
242 vessels oi 502,407 registered tons in 1900. Bhipping. 

1801. 



d by Google 



BriUsh 
■hipping in 
IWIl, iaige 



14 GALTESTOK. 

The average tonnage per vessel was higher than ever before 
recorded here, viz., 2,365 tons. 

124 Briti^ vessels arrived direct from the United Kini^om, 
or a British colony, whilst 41 vessels entered from other United 
States ports, 13 from Brazil, and 10 from Italy, 

During 1901 there were 243 British vessels cleared, the total 
tonnage being 571,700 r^stered tons, as compared with 236 
vessels of 490,460 r^stered tons in 1900. Of those clearing, 87 
vessels were destined for the United Kingdom, 62 for Germany, 
29 for France, 24 for Holland, 20 for Belgium, and 9 for Mexico. 

Once again it has to be reported that the total value of the 
caigoes leaving Galveston in British vessels was the greatest ever 
recorded in one year, viz., 15,286,989^., as against 14,250,4422. in 
1900. The values of cargoes in British vessels thus show over 
1,000,000/. LQcrea.se for the year and were over 73 per cent, of the 
total value of the exports from Galveston. 

The following table gives the values of the cargoes shipped at 
Galveston to various countries in British vessels in 1900-01 and 
their destination : — 



Principal 
expOEtBin 
fiiitiih ibip 



Coontry. 


19MI. 


1B01. 












Cnnency. 


Sterling. 


Camnor. 


Sterling. 




Dollati. 


£ 


Dollan. 




United Kingdom 


ai.TRS.SlS 


6,868,03* 


89,128.799 


7,624,760 


Germany 






l*,241,e87 


2,848,818 




10,S69.401 


2.070,680 


12,928,607 


2,636,702 


Holland 


8,611.766 


702.863 


e,149.2Sl 


1,029,310 


Belgium 






4,116,911 


823,832 




819,881) 


88,977 


84fi,0S4 


69,810 


Spaiti 








19,148 




GS,141 




28,220 


6,644 


Japan 


1,1T0,H6 


234,109 






Italy 


271,M0 


M,8tt 






MeJiioo 


812,860 




401,698 


80 879 


ToUl .. 


71,262,211 


14,260,(42 


76,484,947 


16,286,989 








. 





The following is a table of the principal items exported i 
British vessels from this port in 1901, as compared with 1900: — 



Artielea. 




Qnantily. 


1900. 

1,177,242 
2,867,992 

188,767 
8,888,876 
1.812,477 
2,687,8*0 

126,042 
69,682 


1801. 


Cotton 

oUeake .. 

Whe»t 

Haiie 

CottOMoed oU 

?C";: :: :: :: 


BalM.. 
Sack... 

Bnahel* 

Qalbns 
Plate. 

Saeke.. 




1,461,861 

2,446.424 

169,848 

11,688,890 

S,629,T4S 
128,044 



d by Google 



GALVESTON. 15 

At the end of 1900 cotton rates were about 2s. per 100 Iba., PnighiniM 
and early in January, 1901, saw them up to 2g. 2d„ but by theinisoi. 
«iid of the month they declined to Is. Sd., a further decline taking 
place during February to Is. 5d., at about which rate they stood 
until June, 

During the balance of the year, with the exception of Bome 
forward bookings made at a slight advance, the rates on cotton 
averted about Is. 3d. per 100 lbs., owing; to the great surplus of 
room for cotton, caused by the failure of the maize crop, which 
-also had the effect of reducing the exportation of cotton-seed 
products ; these were largely used for home consumption, the small 
amount shipped being done at nominal rates. This also applies 
to the freight rates on wheat, which have gone as low as from 
^. to d(f. per quarter for Liverpool, and Is. 6d. to Is. 9d. for the 
Continent. 

Altogether the latter part of the year has been disastrous for DiMstroaii 
the shipping interests, many boats having to lie for a considerable r*""- 
time here waiting for cargoes, which, when finally secured, were at 
unprofitable rates. 

There was but one cotton fire during 1901 at Galveston, and Cotton Area, 
that of small importance. As has been before remarked there has 
been great improvement in this respect during the lost few years, 
owing to better compressing and more careful inspection and 
loading. 

There were 235 desertions from British ahips at Galveston Dewrtloiu 
during 1901, out of a total number of 8,036 seamen comprising Q«iTeBi,oa. 
the crews, or very nearly 3 per cent. This was slightly higher 
than in 1900, but was, however, only one man per vessel, not a 
very great proportion when the temptations to desert which an 
American port affords are considered. 

During 1901 railway construction was active in Texas, and Teiw 
359 miles of new line were added to the various railways, thus J^oT"^* '" 
bringing up the total length of line in the State to 10,153 miles. 

The gross earnings of all the railways in Texas for the year 
ended June 30, 1901, was 11,635,852^., or an increase of 23 per cent, 
over the preceding year, the working expenses being 8,187,233i, 
thus showing a net profit of 3,448,619^, as compared with 
2,287,189^. in 1900. 

During the year ended June 30, 1901, 24,642,182 tons of 
merchandise were conveyed by rail in Te^Eas, as against 22,380,607 
tons in the corresponding period of 1899-1900. 

No official health statistics for the year 1901 have ae yet been Public health 
published, as far as I know, but from information received from "^ O»if«'*ioa. 
those likely to know it is stated that the sanitary condition of 
Oalveston is excellent, and, in fact, has never been better. There 
were no epidemics of any sort during 1901, and the general health 
was good. 

The cotton crop of the United States for the year ended Cotton enp 
August 31, 1901, was, according to the statement issued by the S^^'^ 
New Orleans Cotton Exchange, 10,383,422 bales, or an increase of i»k)-01. 
S47,006 bales over that of 1899-1900. 



d by Google 



16 GALVESTON. 

The entire increase was from Texas (including the Indian 
Territory), the crop of which was 47 per cent, larger than in 
1899-1900, whilst the remaining cotton -producing area showed a 
decrease of 4 per cent. Texas and Indian Territory showed an 
increase of 1,217,000 bales. An open winter and favourable 
conditions for picking conduced to the increase of the crop. 

In spite, however, of the increase in Texas, the crop, as a 
whole, was short compared with the capacity of the South, and, 
in consequence, prices were higher than in 1899-1900. 

The avenge price per lb. of middling cotton was 933 c, oa 
(gainst 765 c in 1899-J900, the commercial value per bale 
averaging 47 dol. 63 c, as against 38 dol. 55 c in 1899-1900. 

The following table gives the Texas crop in detail, including 
cotton produced in the Indian Territory for the seasons m 
1899-1900 and 1900-01. The Territory grew 299,330 bales in 
1900-01 :— 



B««eipt> at Texas leabwrd 

Shipped inland to Ueiico and poiolB wett of 

Mudnippi river 

Shipped t^ rail, viA St. Loaia uid Caiio 
Bet^pta at New Orleana (exdoaiTe of Galreaton] 
Beeeipta at pointa on Mlniwppj, Ac, noTtli of 

St. Lon<i, bound eaitward, it. .. 



Total 



Qunatj. 


lBOO-01. 


1BB8-1«». 


Balea. 
2,188,688 


Balaa. 
1,776.786 


119,100 

t83,ldi 
34a,TfiO 


188,160 

168,688 
841,88$ 


168.807 


86,801 


8,B08,6fl8 


2,690,612 



ProporUoii of The various groups of the cotton-growing States produced the 
pMdncUoiL dififerent proportions of the crop as given in the following table : — 





Qaantltj. 




1901MI1. 


I8e9-19«l. 


Taiaa 

Other Golf Statea 

AtlanUe 


Balea. 
8,809,000 
2,781,000 
8,798,000 


Balea. 
2,691,000 

2,960,000 
8,886,000 


Total 


10,883,000 


9,488,000 



Receipt* and The following two tables show tlie net receipts in bales at 

ejtportaat the various ports during the seasons of 1899-1900 and 1900-01. 
^^^uMh^ Galveston as usual occupied the seednd position, both this port 
lwio-01. and New Orleana having each received over 2,000,000 bales, or 
60 per cent of the total port receipts between them. Galveston 



d by Google 



GALVESTON. 



did not receive as much Texas cotton as usual, only some 60 per 
cent of total crop of the State. This was owing to the intermptaon 
caused \>y the storm in September, 1900 : — 

Net Receipts of Cotton at United States Foits. 



Portfc 


QoanUty. 


IMO-Ol. 


IflSHSM. 


VewOrlMUw 

QRlTMtOIl 

HobUe ud Pennools .. 

SkTunth 

CbftriMtown 

WUmington 

Norfolk 

Raliimore 

New York 

Bocioa 

Philadelphia 

MewportNews 

Brnuwick 

ElPuo.Tesu 

LMedo,TexM 

Eagle Fui, Tazu 

San FnadMO, IM 


3,ifi6,186 

2,n7,B88 

266,88(1 

1,079,MB 

288,187 

258,GG« 

429,687 

78,878 

308,887 

m.787 

21,817 

21,077 

101,0SH 

3,088 

12,621 

4,982 

123,117 


Balei. 

1,867,168 

1,710,288 

840,846 

1,088,807 

S66.S2> 

!82,SS0 

412,808 

101,648 

lie,21fi 

118.S91 

86.288 

19,824 

84,278 

'4,888 

6,1S8 

288,061 


ToUl 


7.««^W2 


6,784,861 



)■ been indnded Id reedpU ai 



(41) 



Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



Table Blowing Exports of Cotton from United States Ports for 
the Year 1900-01 as compared with 1899-19U0. 



Porta. 


United 
Kii.Bdoni. 


Pnuice. 


CoDtineDt 

Ukd 

Chuwel. 


Total. 


ToUI, 
1899-1800. 








B*l«s. 


Bale*. 


B>lM. 




H)S,WB 


821,204 


811,786 


2,088,884 


1,863,221 


Okl*MtOII 


888.082 


S26.S14 


6n,6E8 




1,491,888 


HoUle ud Pennoalft 


108.819 


28,268 


78,164 


206,876 


268,486 




174,116 


«8.8»> 


657,781 


766.778 


7S7,081 


ChulcrioD .. 


70,>TT 




70,162 




178,906 


WUmiDgtan . . 


90,874 




182,781 


228.705 


274,710 


Norfolk .. .. 


14,782 




8,696 






BaltiniDn .. 


84,117 




88,888 






NioYork .. 


808,186 


88,388 


184,290 


688,708 


676,786 








760 


■84,088 


164,710 


Plill>dGlpliU .. 


4,760 






B.660 


4,928 
















06.81I 




98,688 


84,844 


88.760 


BuilftSDciKA.. 






19,186 


19.186 


83,684 


Bui Diego .. 






12.808 


12,893 


87,148 


ElFuo, Ac .. 


8.488 




40,887 






PortTownwmd ... 






61,874 




106,807 


Tofi] .. 


8.088,828 


729.018 


V«.MT 


8.688.788 


8,860,062 


„ 1888-1900 


1,888^0 


108,843 


3^807.680 







CMtoacmp The cotton crop of the United States for the year 1901-02 

for 1801-02. has been estimated from about 10.000,000 to 10,500.000 bales. 
FnUiMtefor The crop of Texas for 1901-02 has been generally estimated at 

ToiM. from 2,800,000 to 3,000,000 bales. 

PrioM at Piices for cotton at Galveston have ruled much lower during 

OalTMioB. the season of 1901-02 than in that of 1900-01. The season 

opened with middling cotton at 84-^ c. per lb., as against 8f} c. at 

the b^^ning of the season of 1900-01. Middling cotton declined 

to 8 c by the end of September, to 7t c. by November 1, and to 

7^ c. by the end of that month. At the close of the year it rose 

to 8 c, but was only 1^ c. at the beginning of this month 

(February), whilst at the date of writing (February 18) it is 8/5 c., 

SB compared with 9^ c. a year ago. 

CompviMo The following table gives the receipts in bales up to Febmai^ 1 

eottoiTporu ''" ^^^ present and past seasons at Galveston, New Orleans, and 

Savannf^, t<^ether with the percentage of increase or decrease for 

the season : — 







New 
OrlMiK. 


StTMIuh. 


B«cotpU to FobrnUT 1, 1902 .. 
„ 1901 .. 


BalN. 
1,621,286 
1,477.008 


Balo. 

1,876,867 
1,761.864 


B>1««. 
946,806 
784.429 


PoMMUitag« of inercaM or 


..• 9-78 


- 4-88 


+ 18-80 



d by Google 



GALTERTON. IV 

Hie following table gives the receipts at Galveston in the last B«csipU ■(- 
five seasons : — Oalreiiton, 

' IdOI-OS. 



Tmi. 


1S1,'° 


BMsiptaflNtlie 
Saawn. 


TexH Ctop. 


im-98 

1868-00 
18«9-1»00 .. 
IMO-01 

iMi-oa 


B»lM 
1.808,877 
2,008,718 
1,888,*BB 

1,821,386 


1,650,887 
^»87,B18 
1,710.888 
2.177,988 


nam. 

1,071,811 
8,666,0M 

8^808688 



The following table showa the receipts at Galveston, the foreign aUpniMti ai 
and coastwise exports and stocks, from September I to February 1 {jojtM""' 
in each of the last five seasons : — 



Tew. 


"tr 




Stock, 
FebruTT I. 




Fordgn. , CoartwiM. 


lR87-e8 

18»fl-66 .. 
1SS9-1900 .. 

mo-^}■^ 
1801-08 .. 


Balei. 
1,808,677 
8,008,718 
1,888,108 
1.468,«»7 
1,881.826 


Bales. ' BalM, 
1,130,836 1 271,710 
1,181,081 1 181,082 
1,081,869 , 168,040 
1.188,921 1 118,718 
1,301.020 1 160,828 


Bilra. 
S11.072 
217,717 
162,887 
186,661 
168,789 



The position of this port up to Febrnary 1, 1902, as compared BeceipU at 
with others in the United States is set forth in the tables tihatj^_^ j^ 
follow, which also give the details of the' exports of cotton ap to Pebroan' i. 
that date. 1902. 



The great gain in exports will be noticed : — 



Porta. 


QoanUty. 


1901-03. 


1900-01. 


OalveatOD 

N«»OriMM 

UobiU 

ClurleatMi 

Wilmington 

Norlblk 

Baltimore 

New York 

Boatou 

Philadelphia 

Kevport Newa 

Penaaeola 

PoHAiUinr 

Otlierp(»ta 


BalM. 
1,821,388 
1,678,867 
136,119 
916,808 
217,161 
286,011 
866,619 
62,651 
121,318 
76,683 
21,188 
11,161 
61,891 
188.108 
27,876 
117.118 


Bale.. 
1,177,008 
1,781,861 
112,610 
7W,«9 
61,101 
231,986 
268,107 
18.672 
108,106 
H8,3;iO 
H,6«i> 
17,168 
46,609 
86,807 
4,160 


Totai 

luenaM 


6,868.804 1 *,«*4,718 ^ 
811.061 



TH) 



d by Google 



M. GALTESTON. 

Bundicg of Table of Receipts and Exports at tialve^toD, 1901-02, up to 
CWTMtoa np February 1, 1902. 



Exports — Foerign. 



DtiUiMtion. 


QiuutUtT. 


ThltaeuoiL 


LMtSeHOn. 


United KinrioM 

Frmace 

ConUnent 

Cbuu^ 


880,SG5 


B>lM. 

e01,228 

814^0 
G,000 


ToUl 


MOl.OSO 


1,188 «1 



EXPOBTS— COASTWISl. 





QiuuiUt^. 


TliiiSAUOn. 


LMtBcMon. 


New York 

(Ulwrporta. 

North, by r»il 


BUea. 
17fi,*a4 


BalM. 

88,01T 


Tote) 


176,ie4 


140,748 



Tttroienm As has been stated in a previoua portion of this report, Uie 

devdoDmoit ^^scovery and development of petroleum in the Beaumont region 
ot of Texas has been probably the moat important event in the 

history of the State during 1901. The matter is of so much 
inteieet as to merit more than casual remark in this report 
It is just about a year ago that the discovery of oil near Beaumont 
vas made. The first shipment of oil was made on March 3, 1901, 
and &om that date to January 10, 1902, the railway statistios 
show that 10,301 cars containing 1,633,202 barrels of oil were 
despatched. There have also been two or three large shipments 
by vessels of the " Shell " line from Port Arthur, ana in addition 
over 100,000 barrels were used in Beaumont and the vicinity. 
It is also estuoated that at the beginning of January 2,500,000 
barrels were stored in tanks at Beaumont, and that upwards oE 



d by Google 



GALVBSTOK. 21 

1,000,000 barrels were wasted before the various wells could be 
capped or controlled. 

On January 1 last there were 138 producing wells, 125 miles Statin of dl 
of pipe line, loading racks for 161 cars, 84 rotary outfits, 69 iron JJ^^of 
oil tanks complete, 19 under construction, as well as 32 small ibos. 
wooden tanks. 

An interesting and valuable report has been drawn up at the J**^5* i°^ 
request of the United States Bureau of Statistics, on the present glj^tidiinw 
condition of the field and the cost of bringing it up to this point on oil 

From this reporii the following figures are taken. It deals only indnstir in 
with the outlay up to January 1, 1902. Jm^-^** 

Estimated cost of a producing well on spindle top, the average igoa. 
cost for drilling being 4 dol. 50 c per foot : — 



9.10 feet of 4-iiich line-pipe, at 1! c per foot 

990 feat of fl-luch line-pipe, kt TS c. per foot [ 

Mn feet of S-inch line-pipe, at 1 d;)]. 10 c. par foot ., 

400 Feet of tS-lnoh liae-plpe, at t dol. 4 c. pec foot .. .. I 

Teaming, fitting, and coTeiiog top of well 

Arenge depllu of wella ate 9G0 feat, at 4 dol. SO e. par foot | 

Uoit 01 derriek 

Total 



At 7,429 doL the 138 producing wells on January 1 cost 
1,025,202 doL Estimated cost of 46 wells driUing on January 1, 
184,000 doL Estimated cost of 28 abandoned wells and dry holes, 
437.000 dol. 

Tank cars : total number of cars belonging exclusively to this 
field either to railroads or oil companies is 475, at an average cost 
of 800 doL, 380,000 dol. 

Pump stations : 10 stations, including one ait plant, total coat 
(estimated) 77,700 doL 

Refineries : three plants, inoludii^ one sotnally constructing, 
565,000 dol 

PiPl Lines. 



To Port Artbnr, two llnai, IS akilea eaeli 

„ Sabine Pait, 1 line, 28 milM 

„ Beanmont, 1 line, i mllet 

8ondi7 line* to loading raoki, tanka, and pnmp atattona 

Total 



Eatimat«d cost of 125 miles of pipe-tine and laying satu* 
550,200 dol. 

(41) B 3 



d by Google 



GALVESTOK. 

Loading Backs. 



IXHMtMin. 


C»PK!itj. 


OUdf* fnine ncki) 

Lnol (one nek) 

BeMimont (one nek) 


108 

41 
13 


Total 


lei 



Estimated cost of loaiHng racks per car :— 



S4 ftot 6-Liieli Un«-plp« . . 

Cnttlngr wme 

One fl-incb by 2 incli Iw ,. 
„ 2-inoli do. gate nlre 
Three 2-inch nutlleable elU 
8 feet 9-lneb line-pipe 
Ltbonr, patting togedier . . 
Lumber aod Ubow on mat 

Totd 



Com per Cu. 


Dot 


c. 


2S 


4S 




M 




to 




60 




6i 




OB 




00 


ii 


00 



161 cars at 82 doL 30 c. each, makes a total of 13,260 doL 30 c 
Botary ontfito : 84 ontfits at estim^^d cost of 3,500 doL each, 
294,000 dol. 

Iron Oil Tanks in Beaumont and Vicinity. 



Location. 


Nomberof 
Tanka. 


"& 


Tot«l 
<kp«ity. 


PortArthnr.. 
ElTiito .. 

lAOU 

«rf7« 

BtUnepRM 

8anBt»UoD 


17 
17 


BuMta. 

1.800 
S,000 

eG,ooo 

87,S00 

eG.000 

»7,W0 
S7,S0O 
SB,000 

S,O00 
13.000 
S7,M0 

8,000 
ES,000 
B6,000 


BtRdl. 

1,800 
6,000 

»Be,ooo 

113,000 
376,000 
8J7.SO0 
112,600 

se,ooo 

8.000 
13,000 
687,600 

6,000 
110,000 
330,000 


Totftl 


<B 




3,838,800 



Aveiage cost of constxuetion is 25 c per barrel; 2,826,300 
barrels cost 'ZOSiSTS doL 



d by Google 



OALVESTOIf. 



23 



EartheD reaervoirs: one earthen reservoir, 90,000 batrela, costs 
750 doL One earthen reservoir lined and covered, 10,000 barrels, 
costs 13,000 doL, making a total of 13,750 doL 

Wooden tanks : 32 tauke with total capacity of 33,150 barrels, 
coBta 12,425 doL 

Iron Tanks under Construction, 



LmmUoq. 


HtmUt of 
■nuika. 




Totol 
Cftpicll}-. 


ElVUto 

PortAnhor 

Ldcu 

Ql«dji .. .. { 


8 
S 

a 
s 

I 


BMreb. 
«B,00O 
65,000 
6S,000 
«T,MW 
B.O0O 


BwraliL 
410.000 
110.000 
18»,000 
IST.SOO 


Total 


10 




004,500 



Estimated cost np to January 1, 112,000 doL 

Kkapitdlation. 

Tadlg showing Estimated Value of Well Materials, Stor^e Tanks, 
(dumber of Wells Finished and Drilling, abandoned Holes, 
l^pe Lines, &o., at Beaumont for the Year 1901. 



bailding 
Euithmwsre naemrin 

IioaUIng nckt 

PipelinM 

Pii>daciD{ well* . • 

Urillinf welU 

Pamp tUktiona 

BcfinHie* 

Kota(OT7 drilling ontfiU .. 

Tukk cut (new e»n ownwl by 

eoinpanie* hen) 
Wood an tanks .. 



ToUl 



QomtUy. 


v»;a« 




DclUiB. 


38 


437,108 


2.888,800 


708,678 




119,000 


100,000 


18,TM 


lei 


18.9S0 


19S 


880,900 


18S 


1.028,202 


40 


184.000 


e 


TTTCO 




esE.ooo 


8* 


!»4,01HI 


475 


380,000 


88.160 


12,426 




4,871,910 



It is impoBsible to state exactly the amount of the paid-np Paid up 
capital of the various companies formed, hut it undoubtedly ^J*"** "' 
runs up into several million pounds for tiiose companies started htrdto^ 
locally, not taking into account those formed elsewhere. eiUmftte. 

There are upwards of 70 or 80 companies quoted on the local 
oil exchanges. 

However, it is safe to say that the whole business is not yet 
(41) B 4 



d by Google 



24 



QALVK8T0N. 



Biperl Tleira 

d«*a1opiDent 
«I oil fiald. 



tinin 

moven 

Oklveaton, 

1001. 

Short erop of 

miiie, DODO 

•iporMd. 



tm a thoroi^hly commercial basis. The oil is there aud in large 
quantities, but the question to solve is the demand and how to 
get it away. When these points are settled the situation will be 
much clearer. 

In spite of all drawbacks, however, the ontlook is considered 
most promisiog by those in a position to judge. 

The following extract from a report by an oil expert of 
undoubted standing and reliability sums up the situation from the 
point of view of those supposed to be able to properly forecast 
the outlook : — 

" The petrolenm industry of the Texas-Louisiana field has now 
been assured in the ^ast wealth of the South. Nothing short of 
gross mismanagement and wilfnl financial wrecking can stop the 
progress that now is assured, and even such an eventuality would 
merely conti-aet values temporarily in stock dealings; but would 
never affect actual values. Phenomenal as it may seem, Texas in 
one year has done what it took Pennsylvania, New York, and 
West Vii^nia 20 years to accomplish in the oil industry. Texas 
has outranked all the other oil-fields of the world as to possible 
productiveness and taken from every possible standpoint offers a 
better field for legitimate petroleum investment, than any other 
locality. It is the history of the world's oil business that when 
it is undertaken by people entirely outside the oil business, who 
go into it as a speculation, that reconstruction of paper values 
must follow, but in the Texas field this reconstruction will be 
found, when the readjustment culminates to be leas per barrel of 
oil produced than in any other field known to the industrial and 
financial world." 

The grain movement through Galveston during 1901, although 
showing an increase for the year was a loi^ way behind that of 
1899. 

This may be largely accounted for by the fact that during both 
1900 and 1901 the maize crop has been so short in Texas as to 
leave little or nothing for export abroad, whilst the Kansas crop 
has been of too poor a quality to ship. 

As regards wheat, however, the exports of 15,125,665 bushels 
show up very favourably as compared with those of 10,760,063 in 
1900, and 16,073,674 in 1899. 

The storage facilities of the port are in good condition, and 
with the completion of the elevator now being constructed by the 
Southern Pacific Railway Company will have a capacity of over 
4,000,000 bushels. In addition to this another new grain elevator 
is stated to be planned for the Gulf, Colorado, and Santa Fi 
Company, making, if constmctied, the fifth in size here. 



d by Google 



0ALVB8T0K. 2j 

The following table shows the araouat of wheat shipped iu i;n[inauo.. 
1901 from Galveston and its destination : — of »he*i. 
•hipped. 



D««Uiutton. 


QnuitHr. 


0«r««j 

BalgiDdi 

FmoM 

Cnli«d KiDgdom 

Spdn 


Buhok. 
4.79fi,6U 
2,787,666 
880,600 
1.949,97! 
S,«0IS.S88 

i«e.aoo 


Total 


16,1S6,««6 



At the time of writing, March 1, there ia a stock of only 
178,238 bushels of wheat in Galveston : — 

The chief public works carried out durii^ 1901 were confined R«o(m»ti?ip; 
neariy exclusively to the wharf front of the town. *'?" **' 

The greater portion of the reconstruction of the wharfage sheds oaiTjum. 
and railway tracks damaged or destroyed by the storm of 
September, 1900, was completed by the end of 1900, or at most 
by the early months of 1901. 

Outside of this the most notable developments where at the 
wharves of the Mallory Steamship Line, and of the Southern 
Pacific Railway Company. 

The Mallory Line pier, constructed for the use of that Cor- Millory Line 
poracion by the Galveston Wharf Company, is 1,278 feet long ; W»»rf- 
the sheds cover nearly 250,000 square feet, and are of most modem 
construction, with electric freight conveyors for loading and 
unloading cargoes. 

It may here be mentioned that the Galveston Wharf Company 
installed plant for burning fuel oil during the past year in the case 
of all engines used in their wlutrves, grain elevators, &c. 

The wharf frontage now owned and controlled by the Galveston Gdrefton 
Wharf Company extends over 5'1 miles, with 32 miles of terminal Wlurf 
railway lijie, three grain elevators, and some 45 acres of shed room. '-'*""''*'''■ 

It is said that this port has more shed room than any other Port hcilttlM. 
in the United States, with the exception of New York, and the port 
facilities are most undoubtedly thoroughly modem and convenient. 

Unusually good despatch was given to vessels during the past 
seaaoD, it not being unusual for a large vessel to load and sail 
within three or four days after her arrival 

The huge pier of the Southern Pacific Railway Company, Soothem 
known as Pier B, was completed in 1901. It is 1,400 feet in ^h"*,- 
length and 650 feet in breadth, and is stated to be the largest pier p[gr. 
at present existing. There is room for seven large steamers at 
once, and 9 acres of shed room fitted up with electric conveyors 
and electric lights, so that-work can be carried on both by day 
and night There will be plenty of space to berth vessels two 
abreast at the piers, leaving room enough down the middle of the 
«Iip for tugs and ba^s to pass. The arrangemeotA are such 



d by Google 



26 GALVESTON. 

that 320 railway cars can be parked at the end of the pier to 
receive freight from incomicg veaaelB, whilst in the centre will be 
a " battery " holding 275 cara, to be drawn on as the unloading 
progresseB. There are 28 electric convejors on Fier B, and it is 
esiunated that 3,500 tAns of merchandise can be discharged in 
11 hours. In connection with the present Pier B^a 500 horse- 
power electric plant is being erected, and a grain elevator to store 
1,000,000 bushels is also in course of construction. 
PropoMd The plans were being carried oat on such a gigantic scale that 

Co'ttui*'ui ^^ **"® "^ much astonished when it was recently announced by 
Bi»™e ' tl^e Executive Conunittee of the Southern Pacitic Railway Com- 
Oairuton its pauy that they had determined shortly to concentrate the head- 
bekdqiurteT.^ quarters of the railway system, now at Houston, Texas, and that 
of the steamship system, now at New Orleans, at Galveston, and 
that all merchandise handled by the company for Texas, Colorado, 
Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Mexico Proper, California, the Pacific 
coast, the Sandwich Islands, China and Japan would then be for- 
warded by this port. It is esticoated that some 4,000 tons of 
merchandise a day will be handled by the company as soon as . 
the business gets into full working order, and that 2,000 to- 
3,000 men will be employed. 
*«>[*rt*f=e of As I have remarked before in this report, it is impossible to 
for uaVrt^d over-estimate the importance to the town of Galveston of thi» 
' action on the part of such a great corporation as thu Southern 
Pacific Company, especially coming as it does at a very critical 
period in the history of the place. Nothing could have been 
more calculated to revive the courage of the people of this town, 
and to confirm their belief, at times perhaps somewhat shaken, 
that Galveston, storms or no storms, is destined to be the port of 
the great south-west portion of the United States. 
Harbour m- As r^ards the harbour improvements during 1901, these have 

PATenieutK. chiefly been confined to dredging operations on a small scale. 

No money has yet been voted by Congress for the restoration, 
of the dam^e done to the jetties by the storm of September, 
1900, but the prospects are that an appropriation will probably be 
made during this session of the L^islature. 

During the greater part of the year the average depth of the 
channel from Galveston to the sea was not much over 24 feet at 
mean low tide, but owing to recent dredgit^ operations this depth 
has lately been iucreased to 27 feet at mean low tide, and is likely 
to remain about that point for some time. This depth of channel 
is probably sufficient for the immediate needs of the port The 
channel in front of the wharves, however, is neither wide enough 
Dor deep enough to accommodate the class of shipping now fre- 
quenting Galveston. 

Efforts have recently been made to induce Congress to grant 
an appropriation for the purpose of widening and deepening the 
harbour channel in front of the wharves, but this is not likely to 
pass, as there is a feeling apparently .that it is a question which 
concerns the private corporations, &&, owning the wharf front 
rather than the Federal Government. Be this as it may, some- 



d by Google 



GALVBerroK. SfT 

thing will ere long have to be done in this direction if Gaiveaton 
IB to hold her own in the shipping world. 

The dradgit^ of the channel across Qalreston Bay to La Porte, la PorM 
some 25 miles due north of Galveston, on the mainland of the CnmiieL 
bay, has made good progress, and a depth of 18 feet is to be found 
nearly all the way over. 

A company, in which I understand British capital is largely 
interested, has been formed with the idea of building up La Porte 
An^ of shipping cotton and grain thence direct to European ports. 
It appears that the company is building ita own veesels in the 
TJoited Kingdom for the purpose, and that one or two. have alre&dv 
been launched. This channel is eventually to be dredged to a 
depth of 24 feet 

Table of Shipping Engaged in the Foreign Trade of Galveston 
during the Year 1901. 





Sailing. 


SteuD. 


TotftL 


ir«tioiiriity. 


ITimiber 




Nnmber 




Number 






of 


Tom 


at 


Tods. 


or 


Ton. 




TlMtl*. 




TmmU. 




TOBMI*. 




AntriMA 




1.S61 


2 


1S4 


8 


1,415 






9,867 






I 


2,967 


Brituh .. 




8BS,SS4 


82 


182,198 


285 


616.017 


Duiuh .. 




(.108 






8 


6.108 


DDtch .. 




4,888 


.. 




8 


4,886 


Prencl. .. 




B,eoi 






8 


8,801 


0«niiiD .. 




19,979 


12 


44,889 


17 


88,684 


lUlUu .. 




9,867 






1 


9,S9T 


»onr(«iMi 


10 


8,844 


10 


B,91» 


20 


12,188 


Sp«i^ .. .. 


S7 


93,889 




" 


27 


88.889 


ToUl 


919 


488,649 


86 


412,648 


818 


701,tW 



d by Google 



GALTESTOM. 
CliEABEO. 





SidUiiK. 


Stwin. 


Total. 


KkUoHUty. 


Number 




Nambor 




Nnnbw 






of 




ot 


Ton*. 


of 


Tou. 




T«N«lk 




TeMclt. 




V«tMU. 




Amerieui 




8G4 








Auitro-Hnngwtan 






5 


11,e44 





n,B44 








248 






671,701} 








6 


10,288 


B 


10,286 








6 


7,887 


6 


7,867 








8 


8,608 














63,616 






lUllMl .. 






8 


7.289 


8 


7,885 


8pui£ .. 


1 


S,41W 


S4 
86 


69,812 


26 
SB 


26,870 
89,648 


Total 


« 


8,858 


..0 


800,746 


868 


804,089 



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38 9ab1kr pass. 

Sabink Pass a>)d Pokt Arthuk. 

Mr. Vice-CoDBul Ail&ms reporta as follows : — 
Lamber Owing to the overcrowded eonditiott of the lumber aud timber 

eiportt MiulL marketa^ ^b well aa the stringency of the money market, exporta- 
tiona of lumber received a severe check during the entire year 
of 1901 as will be seen Irom the following table : — 



T»w« rf Tablk showing Exports from Sabine Pass and Port Arthur during 
eiports, laoi. the Year 1901. 



ArUclcB. 


Qimiititj. 


Cnrrenc}-. Sterling. 


Lamb«r 

WlKBit 

Bioe .. 

Oil 


Tooa 
83,278 
8,281 
1«,066 
12,626 
484 
46,860 


DolUn. 
SS0,SG8 
4»,8T8 
1,882,171 
812,169 
6,494 
161,827 


£ 
79,072 
9,S76 
390,484 
82,488 
1,100 
80,566 


ToUl 


2,883,891 


676,680 



Total nine of During 1901 the imports at Sabine were valued at 
foraign tr»d«. 135,764 dol., making a total value of trade for the year of 

3,018,655 doL (603,73 U.). 
Oil-fiohk, Ever since the ^.rst discovery of oil at Beaumont the possi- 

deTelopment bilitigg (jj be derived therefrom can scarcely be over-estimated. 
Pipe lines have been laid from Beaumont to Port Arthur and 
Sabine Pass whereby the oil can be loaded into vessels in a very 
short time. 

Fifty-eight steel storage tank« with au average capacity of 
2,100,000 ^lons each have been built, and others are in course 
of construction. These tanks are, as a rule, 115 feet in diameter 
and 30 feet high. One refining plant at Port Arthur is already 
completed, whilst othen are in course of construction in the 
neighbourhood. These refineries are for the purpose of desulphur- 
ising the oil, which in its crude state contains from 2 to 3 
per cent, of sulphur-, the process simply removing the sulphuretted 
hydn^n. 

Large quantities of oil for gas-making as well as for other 
manufacturing purposes have been obtained. The refineries have 
also succeeded in obtaining from the crude oil 20 per cent, of 
a superior quality of illuminating oil. This is worked under a 
patent process not generally used in most refineries. The general 
price of crude oil at the oilfields is' about 20 a per barrel, but 
some has been sold at ridiculously low prices. Conti-acts have 
been made with the Shell Transport and Trading Company of 
London for the handling of millions of gallons of the Beaumont 



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SABINK PASS. 39 

oil to be shipped to European markets from Port Arthur. Owing to 
thescarcityof American tank vessels it has not been found possible to 
ship much oil to American ports as foreign vessels are precluded 
from eng^ng in the coastwise trade. In order to relieve the 
situation temporarily the Congressman from the Beaumont dis- 
trict has brought in a Bill permitting foreign vessels to ply 
between American ports for the term of five years, exclusively, 
however, for the oil trada Should this Bill pass great benefits to 
British tonnf^e will result therefrom. 

During the year 1901 some 197,853 yards of material have Work on 
been removed from the river io the process of widening the ™""'''- 
present channel to 600 feet at its narrowest pai-t. This it is 
expected will give ample room for the present traffic. The sand, 
fid., dredged is being spread over the adjoining prairie, and it is 
estimated that this will give an elevation of 6 feet over an area of 
2 miles when the present appropriation is exhausted, which will 
make Sabine Pass pi-actieally safe from storms. 

The low-lying coast lands in this district are exceedingly well luareasn in 
adapted for the purpose of growing rice and a number of nce-J^'"^"* 
mills have been constructed during 1901. Ordinary prairie land 
that a few years ago could be purchased for 2 or S dol. an acre 
now bring at least 35 dol. an acre owing to the great profit in rice 
farming. 

Rkturx oC Foreign Shipping at Sabine Pass during the Year 1901. Shippioi;. 
Entered. 





Will) CkTgo«* 


InB^ 


ToUl. 


NiUnnslitj. 


SumbCT 

uf Tom 


Number 

of 
VeraeU. 


Tont 


Number 
of 


Tom. 


Brithb .. 
Uexlcin . . 
Aineritan(U.S.J.. 
Culwu . . 
Spanieh .. 


i l,3is 


7 
4 
9 
5 
2 


8,9S3 
1,206 
4,069 

2,887 
986 


7 

13 

5 
2 


8,88-2 
l,20fi 

a,4i4 

2.887 


Total .. 


3 1,S4G 


a: 


18,110 


30 


1B,U6 



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sabine pass. 
Cleared. 



' 


NomW 


In BtlUat. 


Total. 




Number 




Ntunber < 






of 


Toni. 


of 


Toiw. 


of 


Tmu. 




T«ewls. 




Ve»e,. 




Teweta.1 




BritUh .. 


7 


12,O0S 






' 


12,060 


Meiioui .. 


5 


8,199 








3,IM 


AiiieriMii{U.8.).. 


« 


8.047 


'l 


M17 




4,864 


CdImii .. 


3 


1,248 


.. 






1,248 


Dutuh 


i 


6,381 








6,881 


a«imui .. 


i 


8,112 








3,112 


Africw (Weit 


4 


1,896 








1,896 


Co«t).. .. 














POTtoHiOM .. 


1 


S6S 






1 1 


S6B 


Totel 


82 


80.266 


1 


1,817 


" 


81,672 



LONDON : 

l'rii;to(! fur Hi» Uajeit<r'e SutioDSr; OAcs, 

Uv HARBISON AND SONS, 

I'rintera in Omiinu^ to HU Majeatj. 

(75 4 I 03— H 4 S 41) 



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No. 2781 Amnial Serial. 
DIPLOMATIC AJTO CONSULAR REPORTS. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1901 



TEADE AND COMMEECE OF THE CONSULAE 
DISTRICT OF NEW YOEK. 



REFBBBNOE TO PREVIOUS REPORT, Annaal Sariea No. 2S61. 



PrtBenttd to both HovMi ofParUammt b^ Commmid of Hit Majetty, 

:aA7, 1902. 



LONDON! 

PBINTED FOB HIB MAJESTY'S BTATIOSBBT OFFIOB, 

BT HABBISON AND eONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANI, 

PBIKTIU IX a&SINAKT TO aiB KlJISTt. 



. J, FiMT 8thi«i, B.O.. 

and S2, Abinddon Stkket, WestminbTib, S.W.i 

or OLIVER 4 BOTD. Edckbdhobj 

or a. FUNSONBT, 116, QitArtOH Stbiit, Ddblik. 



[Od. 786—85.] Prie« TArtepwet. 



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CONTENTS. 






N«w York mouej nuiket .- 



cleuing-hoiue fttonw . 



Prod nee Exchange _ 



Ammdmenta to banking Uw..- 

Stkte ot New York debt 

Cit7 of Sew York debt 

EVeighta _... 



Shipping; st Sew York ... 

SJjipbuildiDg ^ 

Kbw (leainiLip line* 

Publii-Borkd— 



It of Sew York Hubonr „ 



Underground lBilw»y _._._ 

ProJ^cC^d tunnelo under riven 

Elpi'tricit; u n Biotive power _ 

Eailron^B, good* traffic „,.^.^.„^, 

Tital slutistic* -..__„__._._-., 

ImmigretioD retiime _ »._.^ 

Labour ronditionB __ 

Ooet of lirinK ~. _»- 

LHbour laws of 1001 »_..>.__».... 

Strikes 

Labour arbilration ....»..._ _-.. 



Copper; lead ^ „ _ , 

Dry good ii i uotton goods; eilk } 'wooUeu good*.. 

Flat and hemp _ 

Leather; boola audKboe*; hidea and akiiM v_ 

BnUrr and checM - ~...~ ^ 



T^icoo . 



High Bubocl of Comicei 

import-' 

Tolne of importa and eiportabj coiuMet.— 

Impoil and export of ipeoie ^ _,.... . 

O-raiD Kbir>jnnul# .,..-.- .„t~..,^^t» -.. 

Hetum ofaaamen engaged, &«..._ 

pBOVtDBircB, R.I,, trade inipoit .... u.„>...,_ 



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No. 2781. Annual Series. 

Seference to previous Report, Annual Series No. 2581. 



Seport on the Trade and Commerce of the Consular IHstrict of 
New 7orkfo7- the Tear 1901 

By Consul-general Sir P. Sanderson. 

(Beoaired kt Foreign Offioe, April 10, 1902.) 

The year 1901 was one of continued buBiness prosperity and <l«nB™l 
trade activity, notwithstanding such depressing infiuences a& a ""'' ' 
panic in the stock market in the month of May, the partial failnrti 
of the Indian com crop owing to heat and drought, the great. 
strike of the steel workers, and the assassination of President 
McKinley. The great features in the industrial world were the 
combination of the leading; iron Hud steel properties in the country 
which were formed into the United States Steel Corporation with 
a capital of over 200,000,000/., the strike of the steel workers 
which followed shortly afterwards, and the formation of an Arbi- 
tration Committee of the National Civic Federation. The iron 
and steel industry has been buoyant tliroughout, prices advanced, 
but the administration of the United States Steel Corporation is 
credited with having exerted all its influence to prevent any rise 
to extreme figures even at the time of the strike. This policy is 
contrasted with that pursued in the copper market, where the 
maintenance of prices at 17 c. (S^tf.) a lb. led to a large reduction 
in the net exports of that metal. The strike of the steel workers 
lasted from the beginning of July till the middle of September, 
no question of wages was involved, and it ended in the defeat of 
the Amalgamated Association of Iron, Steel, and Tinworkers in 
their attempt to compel the companies comprised in the United 
States Steel Corporation to place all their mills under union 
control. Another widely extended strike was that of the 
machinists in the United States, Canada, and Mexico for a day oi 
nine hours with the same rate of pay as that ruling for a 10-hour 
day. This strike began nn May 20, generally speaking it resulted 
in failure, and it came to an end in most places in July, rather 
through a process of disintegration than m consequence of any 
agreemeat. In the month of December conferences were hehl 
between representatives of labour and capital under the auspices 
of the National Civic federation, and resulted in the formation ol' 
a Standing Committee, to be known as thfi Industrial Departmem 
(49) A 2 



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of the Kational Civic Federation, for the purpose of promoting 
industrial peace. This Committee ineludee some of the very 
strongest amongst the employei-s of labour and Hbe labour leaders, 
and, in addition, men of the highest character and ability outside 
these two classes, who may be said to be among the best represen- 
tatives of the general public. The province of the Committee ia 
to do what may seem best to promote industrial peace and pros- 
perity, the representatives of labour and of capital meet on even 
terms, and the addition of the third element, that of the general 
public, seems destined to play a great part iu minimising friction. 
lYovision has been made recently for the selection of members to 
form committees of arbitratiun when desired, but care is being 
taken to avoid any semblance of compulsion, and as at present 
proposed, the general public would only be represented on a com- 
mittee of arbitration in the event of the other two parties being 
unable to agree. A very large business was done by the leading 
manufacturers, and such was the demand for railway transport 
that in certain cases operations had to be restricted owing to the 
difficulty of obtaining a sufficient supply of coal and coke. The 
trade in cotton goods was not entirely satisfactory, it became 
necessary to curtail production in the spring, and manufacturers 
are said to have made much smaller profits than during the 
previous year. The wheat crop was very large, and the foreign 
demand was fully maintained; on the other hand, Indian 
corn was seriously affected by the heat and drought, and gave a 
return very much below the average ; the yield of oats was also 
unsatisfactory. Some compensation was found, however, in a 
generally higher scale of prices for cereals. The exports of merchan- 
dise were only about 12,500,000 dol. (2,500,000^.), in value below 
those of 1900, while the imports show a value of 51,000,000 dol. 
(over 10,000,000i.) in excess of those of 1900. The bank clearings 
were affected not only by a large volume of trade, but also by the 
financial undertakings of lat^e magnitude, such as the formation 
of the United States Steel Corporation, the purchase of the 
Burlington- Quincy Railroad, of the interests of the Southern 
Pacific Railroad, and so forth. The increase was upwards of 60 
per cent, in New York to a total of about 16,000,000,000/., and in 
the whole of the United States, 37J per cent to upwards of 
23,700,000,000;. On the Stock Exchange dealings during the 
early months of tlie year were on an unparalleled scale, a panic 
ensued in May, after which the volume of business diminished, 
but still remained more than ordinarily lai^. The rates for 
sterling exchange were maintained at high figures during the 
greater part of the year, and with the exception of February, 
August, and September larger or smaller amounts of gold were 
sent to Europe from New York every month of the year, but 
while gold was leaving New York it was coming in by the 
Pacific Coast from Australia; the net export amounted, however, 
te about 600,000/. Mercantile failures show a slight increase in 
numbers as compared with 1900, but the liabilities are smaller 



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and are in ^t the smalleet aiuce 1883 if the year 1899 be 
excepted. 

The returns available show that the crops of the five leading AgncnUurd 
cereals, taken as a whole, were considerably below the average of produ^. 
the last few years, the most serious loss beius iu Indian com, Cetwtli. 
occasioned by the extraordinary period of drought. The estimate 
of the wheat crop gives 676,670,000 bushels, or about l.'i4,000,000 
bushels more than the crop of 1900, and suriiaaaing even the ^■e^y 
large crop of 1898, Indian corn is returned at 1,359,626,000 
bu^els, as compared with 2,105,000,000 bushels in 1900, and 
2,078,000,000 bushels in 1899 ; the yield was given in the report 
of the Bureau of Agriculture for November as being only 164 
bushels per acre, as against 29*3 bushels in 1900, and an average 
of 24-4 bushels for the 10 years up to date. This is 2-2 bushels 
below the jirevious low record of 1881. In Kansas the yield was 
put at 7"8 bushels per acre, in Missouri at lO'l buabels per acre, 
and in Nebraska at 14'1 bushels per acre. The crop of oata is esti- 
mated at 661,000,000 bushels, nearly 150,000,000 bushels less than 
in 1900 ; barley (70,631,000 bushels) shows an increase of about 
11,000,000 bushels ; the lye crop (23,573,000 bushels) shows little 
change as compared with 1900. 

Tae following table gives a summary for the past three years, 
but it should be mentioned that the definite figures for 1901 will 
not be published till they have been tested and revised, if neces- 
sary, by the Census Ileport to he issued shortly : — 

Crops of Indian Corn, Wheat, Oats, Barley and Eye. 







QuaaWtj. 






1901. 


1900. 


1899. 


Indknoora .. 

Wheat 

o»t. 

B"l<7 

Bye 


Balhels. 
1,869,686,000 

676,700,000 
660,756,000 
70,681,000 
23,673,000 


Butihel*. 
2,106,108,616 
622,22S,6DC 
809,126,989 
63,926,838 
38,995,927 


BwhBla. 
2,078.143,885 

647,303.846 
796,177,718 
78,381,568 
23,861,741 


Total 


2,791,286,000 


8,619,379,770 


8,618,968,798 



Farm prices cannot be given in the absence of published 
retoms from the Bureau of Agriculture, but it would seem that 
they were higher than in 1900 if any judgment can be formed 
from export prices which are not, however, always a very safe 
guide. The average export prices were: — Wheat, 725 c. (SQ^d.) 
as compared with 71-75 c. (35 jd.); Indian com, 49-25 c. (24jrf.), 
BB against 44-5 c. (22^^.); and oats, 35 125 c (17-^.), as against 
30-5 0. (15id.) in 1900. 

The potato crop was much below an average, the return show- 
ing a yield of slightly less than 60 bushels an acre, as compared 
(49) A 3 



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with upwards of 80 buahels in 1900, and an average for 10 years 
of 78-7 bushels. 

Cotton. The final figures of the cotton season of 1900-01 show that 

the crop amounted to 10,383,422 bales, as compared with 
9,436,416 bales in thti previous season, and 11,274,840 bales in 
1898-99. Owing to the higher prices ruling it was the most valuable 
crop ever raised in the South; the figures, irrespective of by- 
products suuh as seed and oil, being 98,913,500/. in 1900-01, 
72,757,0O0t in 1899-1900, and 56,554,600/. in 1898-99. Texas 
produced over 3,800,000 bales or more than one-third of the total. 
The present crop has been variously estimated at figures between 
9,750,000 8Md 10.500,000 bales. 

Mining. The preliminary estimate of the Director of the Mint gives 

Qold. the production of gold in the United States during 1901 as 

3,880,578 ozs. of a value of about 16,044,000/., as compared with 
an actual production of 3,829,897 ozs., valued at about 15,834,200/. 
in 1900. There was a decrease of about 60,000 ozs. from Alaska 
and an increase of nearly 50,000 ozs. from Nevada, 

SilTflr. The actual production of silver in the United States in 1900 

was 57,647,000 ozs., or about 2,000,000 ozs. less than the estimate. 
For the year 1901 the estimate is about 59,654,000 ozs., or 
2,000,000 ozs. more than tlie actual output in 1900. 

Copper. The production of copper in 1901 sliowed a slight decrease 

for the first time during a number of years, the figures being 
about 297,500 tons of 2,000 lbs., as compared with 300,416 like 
tons in 1900. The decrease occurred mainly in the latter part of 
the year, and in the district of Montana. 

1«mI. The production of lead in 1900 which had been estimated at 

262,000 short tons reached in fact 275,907 tons; the output 
in 1901 is estimated at 265,000 tons or a reduction of about 
11,000 tons. 

Zinc. The production of zinc is estimated at 128,000 tons or about 

5,000 tone of 2,000 lbs. more than in 1900. 

IWnction of The total productiou of pig-iron in the United States dnring 

pig-iron. j^jjg yg^ 1901 amounted to 15,878,354 gross tons, as compared 

with 13,789,242 tons in 1900, and 13,620,703 tons in 1899. This 
represents an increase in production of more than 2,000,000 tons 
over the highest previous record, and the home consumption seems 
to have been even in larger proportion for, while at the close of 
the year 1900 the unsold stock was estimated at 446,020 tons, 
at the corresponding period in 1901 there appeared to be only 
73,647 tons of pig-iron on the market. The imports of iron and 
steel during 1901 are estimated at 218,621 tons, and the total 
consumption and export at 16,469,348 tons ; deducting the exports 
which appear to have been only 700,818 tons in 1901, as compared 
with 1,154,270 tons in 1900, the domestic consumption of iron 
and steel in the United States would seem to have been 
15,768,530 tons in 1901, as against 12,467,216 tons iu 1900, 
and 13,197,842 tons in 1899. It is remarkable that this la^ 
increase iu the production of pig-iron comes almost entirely from 
the Northern States, Pennsylvania and Ohio, and in a minor 



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degree Illinoia ; there was a slight iiicreaee in Alabama and 
Maryland, but the total for the whole of the Southern States 
was only 2,578,854 tons, as compared with 2,604,671 tons in 1900, 
while Penneylvania pitMiuced 7,343,257 tons ; Ohio,. 3,326,425 tons ; 
Illinois, 1,596,850 tons; and the Northern States as a whole 
13,299,490 tons, as against 11,184,571 tons in 1900. It was at 
one time considered that the supremacy of the Northern iron and 
steel centres was likely to be seriously threatened by the fact 
that the ore, the fuel and the flux were found in such close 
proximity in the South ; the slow progreaa made by the Southern 
iron makers is attributed to the difficulties they have had to 
contend with in finding a market within their own borders, and 
this difficulty is now being met by the erection of steel works. 
At the beginning of the year prices were fairly low and the 
competition which was threatened by the rivalry of the different 
companies threatened to demoralise the trade so that buyers were 
diflposed to withhold their orders. After the combination of these 
different companies under the control of the United States Steel 
Corporation the demand increased, and the prodnction of pig-iron 
in the first six months of the year, which had reached its highest 
point, namely, 7,674,613 tons, was surpassed in the second six 
months when it amounted to 8,203,741 tons. 

The amount of bituminous coal mined in the United States Oo«L 
during 1901 is estimated at 235,000,000 short tons of 2,000 lbs., 
as compared with 212,514,000 abort tons in 1900. In the year 
1899 the price of bituminous coal b^an to rise for the first time 
during 12 yeatB, a further advance was made in 1900 when the 
average price .reached 4s. 4rf. per short ton, and throughout 1901 
prices ruled higher, labour was better paid, and the trade as a 
whole was in a most satisfactory condition. The attempt to build 
up a large export trade was interfered with by the very laige 
demand for home consumption, and this could not always be fully 
met as the railroads had not sufficient rolling-stock to meet the 
requirements. One of the most remarkable features in the mining 
of bituminous coal in the United States is the progress made in 
the development of undercutting machines ; in 1898 the amount 
mined by machines was 32,413,144 short tons, in 1899 it rose 
to 43,964.000 short tons, and in 1900 (notwithstanding a decrease 
in Illinois where the labour unions opposed the use of these 
machines) to 52,790,500 tons. The number of machines in use 
was 3,907 in 1900, as compared with 3,125 in 1899, and 2,622 
in 1898. 

The total production of anthracite coal in 1901 is estimated at 
61,000,000 long tons, as compared with about 53,000,000 tons in 
1900. This appears to he the largest figure ever reached, and at 
the same time prices were well maintained, chiefly in consequence 
of the greater concentration of control among the different carry- 
ing and mining companies, but also to a certain extent due to a 
greater demand consequent on the depletion of stocks attendant 
on the strike of the miners in 1900, and to cold weather and high 
winds in Februaiy, March, and April. The first exports of any 
f49) A 4 



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8 HEW YOBK. 

importance from the United States to Europe were made in October, 
when an unusually low ocean freight could be obtained, and a 
certain number of orders were placed for amounts of from 3,000 
to 10,UOO tons, but offers of contracts for larger amounts are said 
to have been refused in consequence of the strength of the home 
market. Prices in New York Harbour averted about 2s. higher 
than !n 1900. 

The import of bituminouB coal, chiefly from British North 
America, amounted to about 1,920,000 tons, much the same ae in 
1900 ; that of anthracite coal is insignificant. The eaqwrt of both 
kinds during the year is returned at a total of 7,383,393 tons as 
compared with 7,917,519 tons in 1900, and 5,752,150 tons in 1899. 
The export of anthracite coal, 1,993,307 tons, shows an increase 
of about 340,000 tons over 1900; that of bituminous coal, 
5,390,086 tons, a diminution of over 800,000 tons. Of the total 
export, 5,081,000 tons went to British North America as compared 
with 5,422,500 tons in 1900. 

The revenues of the railroads continued to improve during 1901, 
the gross receipts showing an advance of 10'6 pei cent, as com- 
pared with 1900, while the net earnings increased in still larger 
proportion, representing a gain of 15-3 per cent. The improve- 
ment has been more general than in the former year, ail the groups 
showing an increase in gross earnings, and only the Mexican group 
returning a decrease in the net revenue. In the first part of the 
year the railroads in the north-west suffered in consequence of the 
short crop of spring wheat of 1900, while the south-western lines 
profited by an excellent yield of winter wheat, favourable condi- 
tions in the cotton trade, snd extensive movements of cotton. 
Lat«r in the year the north-western lines reaped the benefit of a 
good wheat crop, while those in the south-west had to contend 
with the conditions brought about by a poor crop of Indian com 
and a late crop of cotton. Other adverse influences were the 
strike of steel workers, some unfavourable weather, and a certain 
amount of rate cutting at the end of the year, but the conditions 
in general were distinctly favourable. Business was very active, 
rates of freight remunerative, the carriage of general merchandise 
was of enormous volume, and that of live-stock, wheat, and 
cotton fully up to an average, although there was a falling-ofF in 
Indian corn, oats, and harley. Passenger traffic was brisk, and the 
coal roads showed a notable increase, both in gross receipts and 
net earnings, due to a further decided advance in rates made 
possible by a concentration of ownership. In the latter part of 
the year so great was the pressure, due to the large movements of 
iron, steel, coal, lumber, and grain, that in many instances the rollii^- 
stock waB found insuificient for the traffic. The total increase in 
the gross earnings of all the railroads is estimated at about 
30,000,0001. in 1901, following on successive increases estimated 
at about 24,000,000^. in 1900, 28,000,000/. in 1899, 18,000,000/. in 
1898, and at about 15,000.000/. in 1897, so that in the course of 
the last five years the yearly gross receipts have increased by con- 
siderably upwards of 100,000,000/. sterling. Although it ie hardly 



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NXW VOEK. ^ 

expected that this rate of progress in gioes receipts will be main- 
tained during 1902, there is an opinion that net earnings may still 
be increased by means of further concentrations and the more 
complete recognition of a community of interests, while economies 
are looked for in the expenditure for maintenance, which has been 
very large of late. Wtule larger and more far-reaching consolida- 
tions were carried out in 1901 than had ever taken place before, it 
seems possible that during the present year there will be a number 
of important transactions, amalgamations, leases, &c., calculated to 
diminish the number of independent companies, although not of 
the magnitude of those involving the Burlington, the Southern 
Pacific, or the Korthern Pacific and Great Northern. The totAl 
railroad mileage is estimated at 199,000 miles, and the amount 
built in 1901 at 3,868 miles, or 950 miles less than in 1900. The 
largest additions were made in Oklahoma, 398 miles ; Texas, 313 
miles ; and West Virginia, 266 miles. While there was a decrease 
in new mileage, the output of railway cars in 1901 was the largest 
on record ; exclusive of the cars built by railroads in their own 
shops, 144,267 cars were constructed, ] 39,295 for use in the 
country and 4,972 for export. Of these 136,950 were freight care 
and 28,143 were either all steel or had steel under frames, as com- 
pared with 18,604 of the same kind in 1900. 

The value of the total exports of merchandise from the United Ezporti, 
States in 1901 amounted to 1,465,380,000 dol., or about 
293,076,000^., as compared with 1,478,000,000 dol., or 295,600,000^, 
in 1901. This decrease of about 2,500,000/. from the highest point 
ever reached is accounted for by a decrease in the shipments of 
Indian com and oats, in consequence of the poor harvest of these 
cereals, to a slight fall in the price of cotton, and to reduced 
exports of iron, steel, and copper. The exports of iron and steel 
were affected not only by the depressed condition of European 
markets but also by an extraordinary demand for home consump- 
tion, while the maintenance of an artificial price for copper 
checked the export of that metal. On the other hand, prices for 
agricultural produce were niaintuined at a high figure, and the 
export of wheat and fiour was in excess of that of any previous 
years. Taking the leading products, 6,963,092 bales of cotton 
were shipped, as against 6,671,561 bales in 1900, The price fell, 
however, irom 9^ c. (48^.) to 8^ o. (about 4^^.) per lb. The 
bales would also seem to have been a trifle smaller, the values 
being returned at about 60,200,000/. in 1901 and 62,850,000/. in 
1900. The shipments of wheat and flour amounted to 266,296,000 
bushels, as compared with 183,000,000 bushels iu 1900, and the 
price averaged 72^ c. (3g. O^d.) per bughel, as compared with 
71i c, or a little under 3s. in 1900. The amount of Indian com 
shipped was only 102,359,089 bushels, as compared with 
190,094,538 bushels in 1900, but the price was considerably higher 
at 49 J c. (2t. Q^d.) in lieu of 44i c. (Is. lOirf.). There was also a 
considerable reduction in the amount of oats exported, about 
26,000,000 bushels, as compared with 32,000,000 bushels in 1900, 
but here again prices were higher, averaging 35^ c. (Is, 5^^) per 



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10 NSW YORE. 

bushel. Notwithstanding the loss on these two last items, the 
total of the breadstuffs exported ajuounted to 276,404,300 dol. (about 
55,281,000/.), an increase of over 25,000,000 doL, or upwards of 
6,000,000/. sterling, as compared with 1900. ProvisioDS, 
41,400,000/., show au increase of about 4,000,000/. ; cattle, sheep, and 
hogs, 7,860,000/., an increase of about 850,000/. In each of these 
cases there has been an increase in quantity as well as a rise in 
prices. In petroleum there v/aa an increase in the quantity 
expoi-ted, 1,051,000,000 gallons, against 967,000,000 gaUons, but 
the value feU from 14,900,000/. in 1900 to 14,560,000/. in 1901. 
These five leading products show an increase in the a^regate of 
over 7,000,000/:, the returns being 896,395,944 dol. (179,280,000/.) 
in 1901, and 861,134,842 doL (172,230,000/.) in 1900. On the 
other hand, the exports of other goods fell from 616,811,000 dol. 
(123,362,000;.) in 1900 to 569,118,000 dol. (113,824,000/.) in 1901, 
a difference of about 10,000,000/. sterling, which is fully accounted 
for by the decrease of 5,400,000/. (from 25,930,000/. to 20,500,000/.) 
in exports of iron and steel, and that of 4,800,000/. in the export 
of copper, the value of which was only 6,700,000/., as compared 
with 11,500,000/. in the previous year. There was an increase in 
the exports of cotton cloth of a little over 1,000,000/., due to the 
trade with China having resumed the proportions it had in 1899, 
and of about 275,000/, in boots and shoes. 

Imports again rose in value from 829,020,000 dol. (165,804,000/.) 
in 1900 to 880,421,000 dol. (176,084,000/.) in 1901. Tliis is the 
lai^est figure that has ever beon attained by the impoi-ts in any 
one year, and the increase of about 10,000,000/. was distributed 
as follows: aiticles in a crude condition which enter into the 
various processes of domestic industry, increase 4,800,000/. ; articles 
of voluntary use, luxuries, &c., increase 3,672,000/. ; articles manu- 
factured ready for consumption, increase 1,240,000/.; articles 
wholly or partially manufactured for use as materi^ in the 
manufactures and mechanical arts, increase 460,000/, 

Taking the articles more in detail there were lai^;ely increased 
receipts of cott'ee, fruits, potatoes and fish, and a considerable 
decrease in sugar among food products. In raw materials 
increases in value were shown in hides and leather, chemicals, 
lumber, raw cotton, furs, raw silk, and leaf tobacco. On the other 
hand there were decreases in the values of imports of tea, cotton, 
silk, woollen goods, raw wool, tin, leather, and iron and st«el. 

The excess in value of the exports other than bullion over the 
imports in 1901 was about 585,000,000 dol. (117,000,000/.) iie 
compared with nearly 130,000,000/. in the previous year. Both 
imports and exports are. affected by the exclusion from the retunw 
of "foreign trade" of the figures representing the trade with 
Hawaii and Porto Rico. 

The movements of gold show a balance of exports amounting to 
about 600,000/. as compared with an import on balance of 
2,520.000/. in 1900. The export of silver 4,898,50(1/. showed a 
decrease of about 320,000/. as compared with the previous year. 

The imports from the United Kingdom are returned at a value 



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NBW YORK. II 

of 31,060,000^. as compared with 30,314,000^. in 1900 and 
28,466,000/. in 1899. i'rora British North America the increase 
has been from 7,18t>,000;. m 1899 to 8,143,000/. in 1900 and to 
9,180,000i. in 1901. From the British East Indies the returna 
have b.«n 7.577,000/. in 1899, 8,665,000/. in 1900, and 9,434,000/. 
in 1901 ; from the British West Indies :i,868,0O0/. in 1899. 
3,480,000/. in 1900 and 2,538,000/. in 1901. 

The money market waa easy in February and March and again New York 
in August, rates ruling between 2 and 2^ per cent., but with these JJ^Hl 
exceptions the general tone was firm, while in May during the 
panic it became impossible at one time to borrow money on any 
terms and again in September at the time of the assassination of 
President McKinley the market was much disturbed. Commencing 
at 5 per cent, early in January the rate gradually declined to 
2 per cent, at the end of the month ; in March there was a slight 
recovery which became more pronounced ia the later months. 
During the first three days in May the range was between 3J and 
8 per cent,, on the 7th it liad risen to 5 to 10 per cent with the 
bulk of transactions at 7, on the following day the ruling rate was 
8 per cent., as much as 25 per cent, having been paid however in 
certain instances. On the day of the panic itself 40 per cent, and 
later rates up to 75 per cent, were paid, but a syndicate of bankers 
was formed who offered some 4,000,000/. on loan at market rates, 
and Messrs. J. P. Morgan and Co. lent 1,200,000/L on their own 
account at 6 per cent Bates continued irregular for a few days 
but normal conditions were soon re-established and by the end of 
the month tbey had fallen to 4 per cent. After May 1 cash was 
continually absorbed by the United States Government notwith- 
standing the passive of the War Eevenue Redaction Bill, most of 
tlie provisions of which came into foitie on July 1. On Sep- 
tember 6 the attack was made on the President, the following day 
the bank statement issued showed a loss during the former week 
of upwards of 1,000,000/. in the surplus reserve which was reduced 
to 1,400,000/. and the situation gave cause for anxiety. A pledge 
was obtained by the Clearing-house Committee for a sum of about 
6,000,000/. to lend on the Stock Exchange, and the Secretary of 
the Treasury invited tenders for the purchase by the G-ovemment 
of outstanding United States bonds up to a value of 4,000,000/. in 
.iddition to allowing hankers to retain Government deposits up to 
the total value of bonds deposited, in lieu of 95 per cent as 
formerly. Later the Secretary directed the prepayment of the 
October interest on bonds, and on September 28 the surplus 
reserve of the banks had increased to 3,260,000/., on September 13 
as much as 10 per cent was paid for money on call, but with this 
4;xceptioa the I'ate did not rise above 6 per cent, and by the end of 
the month it had fallen to about 4 per cent. The market remained 
firm for the rest of the year with some tightness in December when 
6 to 10 per cent was frequently paid for loans and in some 
instances 12 and 15 per cent 

The rate for choice 60 to 90 day commercial bills with two 
signatures waa very steady throughout the year at between 4 and 



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12 



NKW YORK. 



5 per cent. ; in February and March it was somewhat lower at 
3^ to 4 per cent., but from September till the close of the year 
the ruling rate was 4J to 5 per cent, with the higher figure 
predominating. 

The following table shows the position of the New York 
clearing-house banks at difTerent periods of the year, the rate of 
exchange being taken at 6 del. to the 1/. 

The surplus reserve represents the excess over 28 per cent, of 
the deposits and the returns give the average of each week, not 
the actual figures for the day mentioned. 



WMkendlnn- 


L-». 


^. 


Epock. 


tS. 


B«wn> 


flmj™ 




















190,7BT,M0 




W 




1»,*11.W0 




2,M0.0M 


FfbnulT i 


174. 161, MO 






SS,5S».000 


t4,8N,S40 


tJ-M 




lurch Z 


iK,Mi,»ao 


■20 




W, 7811,700 


lIpTMkZH) 




t|Maii20 


April 6 


l»O.g8«,120 








la.BBO.HO 




TtmIuo 


M>T * 


iiB.oeo,oso 




!0 


»;480.M0 


U.JBI.OM 


te-n 


S,IB*,OTO 


Jui* 1 .. 


l"i,BBS,B*0 




10 


sa,2M,ooo 


16,6M,»ZO 




4,SM,«oa 


iviT « 


m.m,mi 






M,gTi,8a) 




IS'K 


l,04J,iM 


AUKMl 1 






10 


H, 109,] 01 


ie,ii9;iM0 


27»l 


4,tU,0W 


Btpiember T 


iij,m,\eo 


1« 




>4,M1,020 


H,740,T«) 




i,ie)^i<ia 


Ouatxr » 










U,«IS,T40 


M-S* 


^nzloM 




m.Mt,iai) 




io 


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M-08 


tOM.MO 


DMamticr 7 


IJ».3I0.*» 




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l,117S.tM 



Kbw ToA 

Stock 

Exchange. 



The maximum and minimum of deposits were, maximum 
202,502,800/. on March 2 as compared with 181.468,980/. on 
September 15, 1900 ; and the minimum 174,190.020/. on 
January o as compared with 149,790,620/. on January 6, 1900. 
The maximum and minimum of reserve were, maximum 6,159,890/, 
on January 26, as compared with 6,174,255/. on February 3. 1900, 
and minimum 1,042,305/. on July 6 as compared with 537,285/. 
on March 17, 1900. 

With such enormous transactions as the organisation of the 
a. United States Steel Corporation and the financial operations 
involved in tlie different railway consolidations carried out in 
1901, it was but natnial that the New York clearing-house 
returns, which had diminished in 1900 as compared with 1899, 
should show a large increase. This amounts to upwards of 50 per 
cent,, the figure being 15,900,000,000/. as compared with 
10,527,000,000/. ; and at the same time the clearings outside New 
York which had remained stationarj' have increased by 16^ per 
cent. Taking the United States as a whole the clearings liavf 
increased by 37^ per cent., and a remarkable feature is that there 
has been an increase in every group of States and in every one of 
the four quarters of the year as compared with 1900. 

On the Stock Exchange the denUnga duriiig the early montIi.s 
of the year were on an enormous scale, the speculation which had 
begun in November of the previous year, after the result of the 
Preaidential Election had becoratj known, having received fresh 
stimulus from railroad combinations and the consolidation of the 
steel interests in the United States Steel Corpoi-ation. As time 



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HEW YOEK. 13 

went on speculation became wilder until early in May a, panic 
occarred, resulting in the worst collapse in prices experienced 
since 1873. This was, however, only temporary, brought about 
chiefly by large purchases of Northern Pacific common stock 
which it was found impossible to deliver, and the panic was 
arrested by the action of a syndicate of bankers who lent large 
sums of money, while the rival houses contending for the control 
of the Xorthem Pacific line came to an (^reement not to enforce 
delivery of the stock. No failnrea occurred and the recovery was 
rapid, but the market was more or less unsettled, and speculation 
was not renewed on the old scale in the face of such adverse 
influences as the deficiency in the crop of the Indian com, the 
strike of the steel workers, and the assassination of the President. 
Nevertheless many stocks reached their highest point subsequent 
to the panic, the weakness developed from time to time was, as a rule, 
followed by recovery, and the general tone remained strong to the 
end. The number of shares sold during 1901 was 265,944,659 
of an approximate value of 4,086, 200,000 1, as compared ^vith 
138,380,184, valued ^t about 1,849,857,000/. in 1900. The price 
of a seat on the Stock Exchange i-ose during the year from about 
9,900/. to over 16,000t 

There are no official data kept at the Produce Exchange, but Prodno* 
from such daily reports as have been published, it would appear ^cliMg*- 
that notwithstanding the speculative activity which prevailed at 
times in the grain market consequent on the short crop of Indian 
com the sales fell considerably below those of 1900. It is cal- 
culated that the combined total of spot and option sales only 
reached 869,516,000 bushels, as against 1,095.532,000 bushels in 
1900 ; there was a slight increase in oats but a reduction in 
every other kind of grain. 

The following table gives the posted rates of exchange on StMling 
London, highest and lowest of each month in the year ; they are i^^^' "^ 
as a rule fmctiouably higher than those for actual business. 



d by Google 



NEW YOBK. 



Table showiag the Posted Bates of Sterling Exchange on London 
for the Tear 1901. 



Honth. 



Fobnmry 
Uueh .. 

M«y .. 

July .. 

Septembw 
October.. 
Vortmhw 
Deosmber 



!higb«rt 
loweit 
highMt 

rbigheit 
\ lowest 
/ highMt 

{highest 
lowest 
r highcft 

J highest 
1 lo-ert 



fbigheM 
highest 
highest 
highest 



Under ordinary circumstances the rate for bills payable on 
demand, which admits of the export of gold from New York to 
London, is about 4 dol. 88 c. for bars, and 4 doL 89 c. for coin, 
end the rate at whicli gold can be imported without loss is about 
4-835 dol. per U. 

The rate of exchange adopted in this report is the London 
Stock Excliange rate of 6 dol. to the 11. As the value of 11. at 
par is 4-86165 doL, the Stock Exchange valuation is about Sj per 
cent, below par, and accordingly the quotations of American 
securities are about ^J per cent, higher than iu New York, a 
bond worth 100 dol. in New York b^g quoted at 102f dol. iu 
London. 

The following taken from the tables prepared by Messrs. K. G, 
Dun and Co. shows the number of commercial failures in 
this Consular district, as well as those in the whole United States 
in 1901 as compared with 1900: — 



New York .. 
Connecticut ,, 
New Jeney . . 
Rhode laUnd 
DeUwoie .. 
Whole of United 



Number of Failurai. 


Amount of Li»baitie«. 


1901. 


1900. 


1901. 


1900. 






f. 


£ 


1.4C0 


1.821 


5,312,026 


8,470,460 


8M 


8S0 


621,260 


882,160 


183 


281 


603,264 


1,(83,050 


106 


83 


168,270 


144,580 


19 


22 


26,842 


21,630 


11.002 


10,774 


22,618.474 


27,699,200 



d by Google 



NEW YORK. 15 

The figures for the whole of the United States here show aa 
increase of about 2 per cent ; the liabilities have decreased by 
upwards of 18 per cent, but the assets have fallen-off in still 
larger proportion, the figures being approximatively 11,100,000/. 
in 1901, and 15,616,000/. in 1900. In the State of New York 
there was a slight increase in the number of failures but a 
considerable decrease in the liabilities, the assets, howeTer 
(1,909,120/.), represented barely 36 per cent of the liabilities ; in 
New Jersey there was a reduction in the number of failures of 
about 20 per cent., while the liabilities were less than half those 
of the previous year, and the a-saets averted 65 per cent, of the 
liabilities; in Connecticut there was a slight inci'ease in the 
number of failures accompanied by a decrease in the liabilities. 

In the tables published by Messrs. R. G. Dun and Co., showing 
the insolvencies by branches of trade in four different groups, 
manufacturers, traders, brokers and transporters, and bankers, 
show in every instantie an increase in the number of failures nnd 
a decrease in the amount of liabilities. Taking the different items, 
however, among manufacturers there was an increase in the 
number of failures and in the amount of liabilities of manufac- 
turers of cotton, lace and hosiery, of clothing and millinery, of 
chemicals, drugs, and paints, and of printers and engriivers ; the 
roost notable diminutions were in iron, foundries and nails, 
machinery and tools, woollens, carpets and knitted goods, and 
lumber, carpenters and coopers. Among the traders there was an 
increase in the number of failures and the amounts of liabilities 
of general stores, hotels and restaurants, hardware, stoves and 
tools ; the decreases were largest in the case of groceries, meats 
and fish, dry goods and carpets, and shoes, rubbers and trunks ; 
clothing and furnishing showed an increase in the number of 
failures but a decrease in the amount of liabilities. Among 
brokers and transporters there were 596 failures with liabilities 
of 3.214,000/., as compared with 521 and 5.475,000/. in 1900, while 
banking failures show 74 with liabilities of 3,603,800/., against 
59 and 7,124,000/. in the previous year. 

The figures published by Bradatreets differ from the above as 
r^ards totals, and probably do not include some of the firms 
noted under the head of " brokers and transporters " in Messrs. 
Dun's tables. Messrs. Bradstreets classify failures, according to 
their primaiy causes, under 11 heads, eight of these implying 
faults of those failing, namely, " incompetence " irrespective of 
other causes, " inexperience " without other incompetence, " lack 
of capital " including trying to do too much business for the 
capital employed, "granting of unwise credit," "speculation" 
outside of the regular business, " n^Iect of business " due to 
tloubtful habits, " extravagance " of a personal chiiracter, " fraud," 
fraudulent disposition of property. The remaining three heads 
refer to failures not due to the faults of those failing, namely, 
" specific conditions," flood, fire, failure of crops, commercial crisis, 
" failure of others " apparently solvent debtors. " competition " of 
£ome special or undue character. 

The following summaries are taken from these tables : — 



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1 


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1 


1 i g S 3 S 2 II S 1 


1 






III llllli 


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d by Google 



NEW YORK. 17 

These totals for 1901 show an increase of a little over 7 per 
cent, in number when compared with 1900, but, inasmuch as the 
total number of traders increased by 3'4 per cent, during the year, 
the proportion to the whole, namely, '88 per cent, is only slightly 
larger than in the two previous years. The liabilities show an 
increase of about 2-3 per cent., and the assets an increase of about 
1'6 per cent. There is an increase in number under every head 
except those of " neglect " and " competition," but in liabilities 
the only large increases are iinder the heads ot " incompetence " 
and " unwise credits," while there is an equally large reduction 
under the head of "speculation." In the Eastern States the 
number of failures decreased from 20,301 in 1900 to 1,949 in 
1901, and the liabilities from 5,118,000/. to 4,572,000/. ; in the 
Middle and Pacific States there was an increase in numbers but 
a slight diminution in the liabilities ; in the Southern, the Western, 
and the North-Western States, as well as in the Territories, botli 
the number of failures and the amount of liabilities were lai^r 
than in 1900. As regards capital 91-6 per cent, of the failures 
were those of firms having 1,000/. capital or less; in 1900 the 
proportion was 94'2 per cent. ; with over 1,000/. and less than 
4,000/. of capital, 6'3 per cent, as compared witti 3-4 per cent. 
In the United States and Canada tliere were, according to these 
returns, only two failures of firms with over 100,000/. capital in 
1901 as compared with seven in 1900. 

The report of ttie Superintendent of Banks for the State of sut* b 
New York for the fiscal year ended September 30. 1901, shows 
that during that period the number of State banks was again 
reduced, 12 banks having closed ; of these one was closed com- 
pulsorily, four went into voluntary liquidation, four joined 
the national banking system, two were merged with other State 
banks, and one individual banker was succeeded by a corporation. 
On the other hand only eight new Stite banks were organised, 
but 10 branch otficea were opened in the City ot New York by 
banks already established there, and although the cooibined 
resources of the banks which went out of limjinusa considerably 
exceeded those of the institutions newly formed, the quarterly 
reports in September showed that the total assets of the State 
banks had increased by over 50,000,000 dol. (more than 10,000,000/.), 
as compared with the same period in ihc former year. Tlie bank 
which was closed compulsorily is alluded to as being the first case 
of this kind for five years, and within a montli arrangements were 
made for the payment of depositors in full. The closing of this 
bank in Buffalo was brought, about in a great measure. by the 
failure of a national bank in tlie same city, many rumours were 
current, but anything in the shape ola panic was avoided by the 
prompt action of the Clearing-house Association of Buffiilo and 
the calm view of the situation token by the Press. The Superin- 
tendent comments unfavourably on the practice prevalent in some 
localities of paying excessive rates of interest on deposits, rates - 
which sometimes run as high as 4 per cent., and suggests that, 
notwithstanding the competition for business, bankers might easily 



d by Google 



18 .NEW VOIiK. 

combine to do awny with the abuse of surrendering the principal 
shave ol" their profits to their customers. Ttie total number of 
discount banks under the supervision of the department is given 
at 198, with a capitJil of about 28,446,000 dol. (5,700,000/.), and 
combined surplus and undivided profits of about 29,177,000 dol. 
(5.840,000/.). The aggregate resources were about 403,477,000 dol. 
(80,700,000/.), Iwing about 52,400,000 dol. (10,480,000/.) more than 
at the same date in 1900. 

The total number of notional banks in the State of New York 
is 341, with a capital of 104,828,000 dol. (about 21,000,000/.), and 
combined surplus and undivided profits of 107,792,000 dol, (about 
21,560,000/.) ; the agj^regate resources of these banks amount to 
1,487,258,000 dol. (297,452,000/.), showing an increase of 
174,388,000 doi. (nearly :5 5,000,000/.) as compared with 1900. 

The report further .states that there are 61 trust conipaiiies 
in the State of New York, with an aggrcgfttc capital of 
47,450,000 dol.' (about 9,500,000/.), and sui-plus and uudivided 
profits amounting to 98,372,000 dol. (about 19,700,000/.), being 
over 8,500,000 dol. (1,700,000/.) more than in 1900. Their total 
resources were 966,528,000 dol. (193,310,000/.), and dei^sits 
802,519,000 dol. (160,540,000/.) Their net profits for the half 
year ended June 30, 1901, are stated to represent a fraction under 
22 per cent, on the actual capital, and a traction over 7 per cent, 
on their combined capital, surplus, and undivided profits. There 
is said to be little if any tendency to increase the number of 
trust companies in the City of New York, b'lit constant applica- 
tions appear to be made for the authorisation of such institutions 
in the smaller cities and even in villages. 

The number of savings banks in the State of New York remains 
the same, namely, 128, and the Superintendent remarks that when 
even the banks, which have long been established and which enjoy 
the advantage of having a considerable surplus andnn experienced 
management, are compelled by the high price of securities and 
the diminishing rate of interests to reduce their rates of dividend. 
a good deal of evidence would be needed to convince one con- 
versant with the facts of the probable success of a new savings 
bank. Some years ago dividends at the rate of 6 or 7 per cent, 
were not uncommon, now few institutions are able to maintain a 
4 per cent, rate, with most the rate is 'i^ per cent., in some cases 
only 3 per cent. But while present conditions do not seem to 
favour the oi^anisation of more savings banks, the continued 
prosperity of those already established ia shown by the increase of 
deposits which, between July, 1900, and July, 1901, amounted to 
65,540,000 dol. (more than 13.000,000/.). 

The total resources of all the institutione, under the super- 
intendence of this Department of the State of New York, are 
given as follows ; — 



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B*tik» of dmant and dweount. . 
SaTingi banki . . , . 
Tnut oomntniei . . 

8«f« dapoMt oorapMiiM. . 
Foreign mortgage oompuiiBS ■ . 
Building and loan uiocialton* 

Total .. 



Date. 


Ainoiuit 


SrptemberlZ, 1901 . 
Jnlj 1, JWl .. 
Jul, 1,1901 .. 
Julj 1,1901 .. 
JanuaTT 1,1901 .. 
Januuj 1,1901 .. 


£ 
60,700,000 
821,020,000 
193.306,000 

1,095,000 
1,1*),030 
11,981,000 


609.192.000 



Tlie total shows an increase of nearly 57,000,000/. over that 
of last year, and building and loan associations are the only institu- 
tions which show a decrease. This decrease ia due to 1 1 of those 
associations having heen referred to the Attorney- General for the 
institution of proceedings for their dissolution, because of impair- 
ment of eapited or violation of law, or because it was unsafe or 
inexpedient for them to continue in business, and the Superin- 
tendent of Banks considers that these associations are now on a 
better footing than they have been for the past 10 years. 

The banking legislation during 1901 included amendments AmendmeDU 
giving the Superintendent power to examine every agency located *° l^oW"^ 
in the State of any foreign bank, authorising savings banks to "■ 
invest a portion of their deposits in railway bonds, increasing 
from 24 to 30 the number of directors which a trust company 
may have, and imposing a numlier of restrictions on the methods 
of business as adopted by some of the building and loan aasooia- 
tions. There was also l^slation affecting banks of ^deposit and 
discount, trust companies and savings banks, placing them all on 
an approximately uniform basis and also on an equality as regards 
tax burdens. 

The Superintendent renews his recommendation that every R^oomman- 
board of bank directors be required to examine periodically and '^'*'*"*> 
as often, at least, as once iii' every six months, the assets and 
liabilities of the institutions with which they are connected and 
report the result under oath to the Superintendent. He also, 
amonjj other matters, recommends that all foreign trust companies 
should be expressly prohibited fi-om coming into the State of New 
York to do any kind of business without first obtaining the ofGcial 
consent of the Superintendent of Banks. 

The debt of the State of New York amounted on September 30, Pob* <>' Stata 
1901, to 10,075,660 dol. (about 2,015,13^/.), as compared with °' *^*' ^"^■ 
2,026,000/. at the same date in 1900. Of this sum upwards of 
1,700,000/. is represented by 3 per cent, bonds issued for the 
improvement of the canals and redeemable in 1906, 1912, and 
1913. The tax rate for the past year was 1 dol. 20 c. (48. lOd.) 
per 1,000 dol. (200/.) for purposes of State Government, as com- 
pared with 1 dol. 96 c, (7s. lOd.) for the former year. The proceeds 
are estimated to amount to 1,365,000/., of which 853,000/. are to 
be devoted to schools, and 512,000/. to the pavment of interest on 
(49) ■ B 2 



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20 



NEW YOBK. 



canal bonds and other parpo&ee. The gross valuations now amounl 
to l,137,505,600t, an increase of over 380,000,000i in the last 
10 years. 

The debt statement of the City of New York shows that 
the total gross funded debt stood on December ;}1, 1901, at 
416,262,224 dol.. and the sinking fund at 117,399,480 dol., leaving 
the net funded debt at 298,862,744 dol. (about 09,772,550/.), an 
increase of over 4,000,000/. since 1900 when the total amounted 
to 55.523,560/. The valuations for the year 1901 were, real estate, 
3,237.778,261 dol., and personal estate, 550,192,612 dol., or a 
total of 3,787,970,873 dol. (757,000.000/.), as compared with 
3,651,122,192 dol. (730,224,500;.) in 1900. The total taxes 
amounted to 88,034,633 dol. (about 17,607,000/.), an increase of 
a little over 1,000,000/., and the tax rate was slightly higher, 
2'317 per cent, in the borough of Manhattan, as compared with 
2"24 i)er cent.; in Brooklyn, 2'338 per cent, as against 2^32 per 
cent ; in Queen's, 2'352 per cent., as against 2'34 per cent ; and 
in Kichmond, 2-35 per cent., as compared with 2-22 per cent in 
1900. 

The freight market for the first three months of 1901 was 
fairly remunerative to owners, but subsequently rates declined, 
and they huve touched the lowest level reached for some years. 
A much lai^er amount of tonnage Ijecame available for the 
general carrying trade in consequence of tlie release of a number 
of steamers which had been chartered during the previous year 
as Government transtwrts and which now returned to their r^ular 
business. 
t. The comparative failure of the Indian corn crop liad a most 
depressing effect on gmia freights ; as soon as tiie actual deficiency 
was established rates sliowed a weaker tendency, and in the last 
few months of the year sliipmcnts were on a very limited scale. 
While, in January, 3s. Gd. per quarter was paid for sliipments lo 
Cork for oi-ders, 2s. per quarter was accepteii in October. 
Cliarters for full cargoes were obtained with difficulty, and, 
in a few instances, some of the steamers of the regular lines to 
Liveipool and London carried gi-ain practically freigiit free. The 
exports from Xew York in 1901 amounted to oidy 64,800,000 
bushels, a decrease as compared with 1900 of about 15,000,000 
bushels, and of about 28,000,000 bushels as compared with 1899. 

Cotton freigbt-8 ruled low in sympathy with the general market. 
A few charters were made in the summer for loading at Gulf ports 
daring the autumn mouths at 15s. 6d. per net register ton, but 
owing to an over supply of tonnage at the time of shipment rates 
fell as low as 9s. 6rf. Better rates were obtained from the Atlantic 
cotton ports as shippers defeiTed chartering until the commence- 
ment of the season when 1/. 10s. was the market tate; this, 
however, eventually declined to 1/. 3s. for Liverpool, Havre, or 
Bremen. Shipments for Japan and the East have been contined 
almost entirely to the Pacific route. 

Very good rates were obtained by steamers at the beginning 
of the year for carrying petroleum to the Far East, as mnob as 



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NBW YOBK. 21 

40 c. (Is. 8d.} per case having been paid in Janiiaf)', but the 
supply of tonnage proved far in excess of the demand. Freights 
gradually dropped, end at the end of the year touched 20 c (lOd.) 
per case to Shanghai with other Eaetern ports on a comparative 
basis. The freight market for sailing vessels was subject to tlic 
same fluctuations. The European oil markets have been supplied 
as previously, almost entirely by tank vessels. 

Sliipments of timber and deals from the Gulf ports show an iSmber mod 
increase over last year; rates of freif^ht by steamer varied from ^•°''- 
6/. per standard in the earlier part of the year to 4/. 6a. at the 
close. Steam tonnage continues to replace sail in the carrying of 
these cargoes. 

Contracts for carrying cattle were made early in the season by C»ttl«. 
the regular lines at 21. 5s. to 21. 10s. per heail, b\it these rates liad 
to be reduced later, when outside steamers came into the market 
and accepted rates of 11. 5s. to 1/. 10s. 

There was little variation in the rates of freight for si^ar from Sugar. 
Cuban and West Indian ports; a few outside steamers were 
chartered during the height of the season, but the greater part of 
the business was done by the vessels of the regular lines. 

The export trade in coal was considerably handicapped by co«l. 
insufficient fucilities for transportation from the mines to the 
seaboard. Eates to the Meditenanean ports commenced ai 14s 
to 15s. per ton, but declined about 6s. per ton before the year 
closed. 

Eates for time-charters showed a marked reduction as com- Time^birt*™. 

Eiared with the previous year. The requirements of the regular 
ines did not necessitate their procuring outside tonnage ; the 
supply of steamers was in excess of tlie demand, and the regiilai- 
time-charterers had little difficulty in obtaining vessels at prac- 
tically their own figure. 

The return of shipping at New York obtained from the Shippiog &! 
custom-bouse shows that 4,215 vessels of 8,933,185 tons entered ^®* ^•""k- 
in 1901, representing an increase of 105 vessels and 640,000 tons 
as compared with 1900. The clearances are returned as 3,77T 
vessels of 8,400,977 tons, a decrease of 67 A'essels, but an increase 
of 560,000 tons. 

British tonnage shows a decrease in the entries of 23 vessels, 
but an increase of nearly 500,000 tons; the United States an 
increase of 68 vessels, but a decrease of about 35,000 tons; 
German toimage an increase of 22 vessels, but a decrease ol* 
15,000 tons; French tonnage increased by about 15,000 tons; 
that of the Netherlands by 47,000 tons; Norwegian tonnage 
decreased by 50,000 tons. There was a considerable increase 
in the tonnage of Italitui vessels, namely, irom 68 vessels of 
92,580 tons in 1900 to 102 vessels of 214,528 tons in 1901. This 
return does not include vessels entering or clearing coaatwiae ; tlie 
total entrances and clearances of British vessels at the Consulate- 
General were: entered, 2,272 vtasels of 4,566,972 tons; cleared, 
2,25y vessels of 4,522,719 tons; the increase as compared with 
1900 is about 385,000 tons. 

(49) B 3 



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22 NEW YORK. 

Shipboildiiig. ^^^ report of the CommiBsioner of Navigation at Washingtoa 
shows that during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1901 , the number 
of vessels built in the United States was 1,581 of a gross tonnage 
of 483,634 tons, and that the tonnage during the present year is 
likely to be considerably larger. Much, however, is likely to 
depend on the course of legislation respecting subsidies to shipping. 
Two very large steamers are under conHtruction by the Eastern 
Shipbuilding Company at New London, Connecticut. These vessels 
are being built for the Great Northern Steamship Company to be 
employed in the Pacific trade ; they will be deeper and fuller than 
the " Celtic," with a tonnage of 26,000 tons. 

The Atlantic Transport Company is said to have given orders 
to the New York* Shipbuilding Company, at Camden, New Jersey, 
for the conatniction of four passenger and freight steamships suit- 
able for the fast Atlantic trade. 
N«w The Hansa line has commenced a service between New York 

■t«uuiiup and the East, the intention being to carry on a monthly service 
W-P8DIW. ^ f,^j^ -j,^^^^^ p^jj^ Elizabeth, East London, Port Natal, and 
Calcutta. 

The Atlas line of steamers which carried on a service with the 
West Indies and South America under the British flag has been 
absorbed by the Hamburg-American line. 
Public iTorki. The report of the Superintendent of Public Works of the State 
Cuftl*. „f jie^ York shows that 3,420,613 tons (of 2,000 lbs. each) were 

carried on the State canals during the year, being an increase of 
74,672 tons as compared with 1900. Of the total freight 2,276,199 
tons went eastward, of which 858,622 tons were through freight, 
and 1,417,577 tons way freight, while 1,144,414 tons went west- 
ward, composed of 453,904 tons through freight, and 690,510 tons 
way freight. There was a decrease in the western shipments of 
86,376 tons, but an increase iji those eastward of 161,048 tons. 
The report states that for many years the boatmen have not had 
such a prosperous season as that of 1901, the amount of business 
being limited only by the craft available for navigation, and many 
boats which had been out of commission for a long time having 
been hastily repaired and pressed into service. The Superinten- 
dent refers to his report for 1900, in which he pointed out that 
the talling-off in traffic was almost wholly traceable to the un- 
settled policy of the State so far as its waterways were concerned, 
and commenting on the little progress made oven yet, again 
ui^es an early settlement by the State of the question 
whether the canals are to be enlarged in accordance with the 
plans on which action was begun in 1895, or in accordance with 
more i-ecent suggestions, or left to struf^jle with the present 
adverse conditions. He cites the case of 18 steel canal boats 
which were completed and placed in commission in 1898, but later 
were withdrawn and sold to the Philippine Transportation and 
Construction Company. It was admitted that the boats earned 
profits, but they are not to be replaced as the returns were 
meagre, and further, the opinion was expressed that the Erie 
Canal was likely to prove a failure unless despatch could be 



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NEW YORK. 23 

secured at both New York and Buifalo. The question of tetmiDal 
facilities is one which the Superinteudent urges upon the atten- 
tion of the Legislature. Another question is that of the use liy 
surface railroads of the bridges over the canals, several bridges 
having been damaged by heavy cars of electric tramways passing 
over them. 

No decision has been taken at present with regard to any of . 
the different plans suggested for the improvement of the canals ; 
if any of those plans be adopted by the present Legislature, they 
must be submitted to the people at the next general election, 
and if endorsed they must then again be passed by the 
Legislature. 

That portion of the Law of 1896 which prohibited the forma- 
tion of companies with a capital of more than 50,000 dol. (10,000/.) 
has been repealed. 

The work of improving tlie East, or Ambrose Channel, of the improTement 
harbour of New York, so as to provide a width of 2,000 feet and s„^^J°^^ 
a depth of 40 feet at mean low water, lias made but slow prc^resM 
during the year owing in a great measure to bad weather. Two 
specially constructed dredgers have been at work since June 1, 
1901, but it seems probable that an extension of time will have tti 
be granted beyond the five yeara originally contemplated at the 
end of 1900, 

Ttiere are non^ three briflges planned and under construe- Bridgai. 
tion between t)ie boroiigli of Manhattan and Brooklyn, across the 
East River. It is estimated timt the most advanced of these 
bridges will not be completed for about 20 montlis, and in the 
meantime considerable difficulty is experienced in dealing with 
the passenger traffic between New York and IJrooklyn at the close 
of business hours. 

Work on the underground railway (Rapid Transit) has made Uiidei-groumi 
good prioress during tlie year, and it is now stated that the "")»«:■- 
engineers expect that the railway will be in operation before the 
end of the year 1903. Tlie intention is to make every station 
dlGTerent in colours and mural designs, so tliat a constant traveller 
will recognise immediately tlie station for which be is destined 
without liaving to search for any sign. One station 1ms already 
been completed, and others are in an advanced state. 

Plans have been made for the junction of the I'eniisylvania Projoctrf 
and Long Island railroads, with a central station in tlie centre of M*^^'" ""**■■ 
New York proper, by means of tunnels under the North and East 
rivers. These tunnels under the North Itiver will be oi' a novel 
construction, being in fact bridges enclosetl in steel tubes, and 
supported on piers reacliiiif,' down to bed-rock, the reason lor 
adopting this pecuhar construction Iwiiig the character of the 
river-bed. For some f';et below the surfiice the bed is of soft mud, 
then Siind ani clay formations extend down from 70 to 100 feet 
before the rock is reached, and a tunnel bored through this sand 
and clay would not be considered safe. The steel tubes are to be 
18 feet 6 inches in diameter, and the motive power of the trains 
will be electricity. The tunnels under the East Eiver are more 
(4'J) B i 



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24 NEW rOHK. 

easily coil »)tr lie ted as the bottom is aU solid rock. It is eatimated 
that the tunnels under both rivet's caii be constructed in about 
three years. 

Slactrioitf M The use of electricity as a luotive-power is rapidly extending. 

m niotiTo- Diiring the year 1901 the Metropolitan Street Eailway Company 

'*"*"' changed the motive-power on the lines in Broadway, Lexington 

Avenue, and OolumbuB-Avenue from the uudei^round cable to the 
undei^round trolley system, and it is calculated that in so doing 
they not only spent about 2,000,000/,, but sacrificed plant which 
was still in working order of a value of 1,200,000/. The yearly 
receipts of this system are said to amount to over ;},000,0OO/., 
collected in fares of 5 c. (^Ji.) each. 

At the close of the year the new power-house of the Man- 
hattan Elevated Eaihvay Company had been completed, and pre- 
jttirations had been made for running a certain number of trains 
by electricity by the third rail system. It is estimated that the 
change will result in an increJise of about 20 per cent, in the 
receipts. 

hnilroadii j3uring the year 1901 the total tonnage of all clasees of mer- . 

fo-id:. traffic, clianclise .sent westward from New York City by railroad consigned 
to or beyond Buffalo, Salamanca, Pittsburg, Bellaire, &c., was 
1,042,854 tons, of 2,000 lbs. each ; that arriving in New York City 
from the places above noted or from points west of them amounted 
to 6,236,201 tons. These figures represent the goods trathc on the 
following railroads : — New York Central and Hudson Biver ; 
Erie ; Pennsylvania ; Baltimore and Ohio ; West Shore ; Delaware ; 
Lackawanna a:id Western ; also the Chesapeake and Ohio traOic 
eastward, and that of the Central Uailroad of New Jersey west- 
ward. 

The tonu^;e outward shows an increase of 115,000 tons as 
compared with 1900, but is below that of 1899 by alxmt 35,000 
tons ; the tonnt^e inward is less than that of 1900 by nearly 
600,000 tons, and about 473,000 tons below that of 1899. 

Vital The vital statistics of the City of New York for the past two 

stntistic'g. years are given as follows : — 



Biithi ., 
Stjll-birth* 
Uarruga 
Daathi .. 



Bumbw. 


1801. 


ISOO. 


80,786 
6,760 
88,486 
70,788 


81,™ 
6316 
81,220 
lOfilt 



Of the deaths reported 24,251 were children under five yean 
of f^^ which compare with 25,815 in 1900. 

The estimated population to which these figures refer ia 
:(,5;i6.3l7, and the death rat« waa 20 per 1,000 as c<impared with 
20-6 in 1900. 



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NEW YORK. 
The following table gives the principal causeB of death— 



Cauu* of DmA. 



SmaU-poi 

Meuln 

Sonrlet teret 

Diphtharia »nd cfoiip ■• 
Wboopins cough 

Tjphoid fcTer 

Diarrhcea ( under 2 yean] 
Fiierpentl fcTcr . . 

Phthui 

Other tub«rculou> dlwatet 
Congenital d«biliC]' 
Diaeoies of narroDi lystaiD 

Heart diaeau 

BroDobitu 

Pneumonia 

Diee>M« of digeatire omne . . 

Hephritia and Bright*! ^feaie. , 

Aooident 

Homicide 



2,4ta 
!1,141 
1.271 
2.870 
e,726 
4,6S1 
2,1B1 
9,165 



2,291 
tj,l(i8 
1,471 
4,785 
6.241 
4,070 
1,974 
10.182 
6,443 
&.S6S 



The cases of contf^ous disease reported 



Di«eaH. 


Vuinber. 


IBM. 


1900. 


Diphtheria and rroup .. .. 
Hiule. .. .. .. .. 

Soarlet fever 

Tjphoidferer 

Sm^ll-pii 


18,829 
11,990 
18,602 
2,748 
1,964 


12.918 
19,294 
6,678 
3.6B7 
160 



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i SEW YORK. 

The immigration returna for t901 give the following figures r— 






3fule. 



Afiican (block) | 60 

Armenian .- .. .. .. P85 

Boh BiatHn and Moravian .. ..I 1,814 

Bulgarian, Serrian, and Montenegrin j 666 

CroatiHD an<i Sloreniui . . . . | 12,<i I U 

Dalmatiaa. Bogniiin,and HenegoTiniao T6t 

Dutcti and FJ Ornish [ 2,10S 

East Indian .. .• ... 8 

EngU«li 3,270 

£aquiinaui .. .. .. ..' 10 

French I 2,06H 

Finnisli ' 3,130 

Oerman < 19,2ir, 

Greek I 4,02fl 

Hebreir ! 18,601 

Iri»li 8,347 

rtaliau, North .. 16,049 

Italian, South t)l,S48 

Japanese . ■ • . ■ • 11 

Litbuaniiin 6,875 

Haevar 10,69!) 

Polish 29,736 

Portuguese 1,963 

Roumanian 863 

Bul.henian (BnssDiak) 4,682 

TtiiBsian 301 

Scan<tinaTian(NoriTegintu,Daiies.nnd ' 

Swedes) 16,390 

Scotch ; 763 

Slowk I 21,765 

Spanish 439 

8;rian I 2,743 

Turkish 58 

Welsh : 309 

Arabian 23 



1,788 


4,918 




81,672 


166 


6,095 




37,048 


10,732 


19.079 


4,489 




24,522 


116,070 


2,436 




3,960 


14,569 


18,622 


43,268 


1.617 




54 


917 


1,596 


6,178 




370 


9,632 


25,051 


310 


1,063 


8,309 


30,074 



Totsl 



In addition to the above 3,311 persons were rejected, 2,648 as 
paupers likely to become a public charge, 195 aa contract labourers, 
ijG on account of disease, seven as insane or idiots, and five as 
having been convicted of crime involving moral turpitude, while 
332 were returned within one year of landing. 

The total is about 39,700 higher than in 1900, when there was 
an increase of 89400 over 1899, which year again showed an in- 
crease over 1898 of about 79,000. Comparing the figures of the 
difrei"ent categories with those of 19O0 there is a trifling increase 
of English and Scotch, a slight diminution of Welsh, and a con- 
siderable reduction ot Irish (from 25,000 to 19,000). The number 
of Italians has increased by 30,000; that of Poles by 7,000; 
Croatians and Slovaks by about 6,000 in each case ; Germans by 
4,000; Magjars by over 3,000; on the ether hand the number of 



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NBW YORK. 27 

Hebrew immignints has decreased by 16,000. The number ol re 
jectioDB vras larger tlian ia 1900, more having been rejected as 
paupers and on iiccount of disease. Persone suffering from con- 
suniptioix are now excluded. 

Aa regard the destination of immi grants admitted 152,959 were 
for New York, 92,052 for Pennsylvania, 23,924 for Massachusetts, 
25,034 for New Jersey, 25,022 for Illinois, and 13,401 for Con- 
necticut. The laigest increase is in those destined for Pennsylvania, 
30,000 more than in 1900. 

From the report of the Commissioner of Labour of the State I^on^ 
of New York, it appears thaton September 30, 1901, the number of '*'^'*"'"- 
labour organisations in the State was 1,881, with a membership of 
276,141, showing an increase as compared with 1900 of 246 
organisations and 30,760 members; of theee membera 14,618 were 
women, an increase of 2,790 since the previous year, raising the 
percentage of the "total from about 475 per cent, in 1900 to 5'3 
per cent, in 1901. The total increase was somewhat less than in 
either of the two previous years, and more than half of it was in 
the clotliing trade. The largest group of organised working men 
are those in the building trade who represent about 31 per cent, of 
the trade unionists ; next in importance but very much smaller are 
the three groups of clothing aiid textiles, machinery and ship 
building, and the transport trade, which together make up 40 per 
cent of the total. All the groups show an increase of membership 
with the exception of tobacco. During the year the relative 
amount of unemployment among members of labour organisations 
was smaller than in any recent years, except 1899 ; the average 
number of days worked was, in the third quarter of each year, for 
men, 70 days in 1901, 67 days in 1900, and 71 days in 1899; for 
women, 66 days in 1901, 65 days ia 1900, and 71 days in 1899. 
All the groups with the exception of wood working and public 
employment show a higher avert^e number of days worked in 
1901 than in 1900, but as compared with 1899 one half show a 
higher, the other half a lower average. The averse earnings of 
oi^anised working men in 1898 were 4 per cent, greater than in 
1897 ; in 1899 they gained another 11 per cent. ; in L900 they lost 
4 per cent., while in 1901 they gained 5 per cent., so that at the 
latter date they were 16 per cent, higher than iu 1897. On the 
other hand the Commissioner estimates that the wholesale prices 
of meat, dairy and garden produeta have during that period 
increased 26 per cent, and of breadstuffs 41 per cent,, admitting 
that retail prices may not have increased in quite the same pro- 
portion he stilt coneiders it safe to say that the coat of living has 
increased since 1897, at least, as much as the earnings of labour. 
The following tables give some idea of the economic condition of 
organised labour in the Stale of New York during the last five 
years, and of their average daily earnings during the last three 
yean. 



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NEW TORK. 







ArnmgtDtllTEuiilnp. 


GKWp. 


im. !««■ 


1*01. 




Cumncj. 


SMTling. 1 CiuneiMj 


SMrilni- 


Cnmai?.! EMriln(. 


II 


FllDtel. 

StrMrinllwsTnuD '-. 

afc"?." ::; r 

Bnotrr emplojii ... 


Dol. c. 
I I« 

1 «2 

1 ,M 

2 W 


fc J. DOI. «. 

I) ti a 60 

11 i 82 
■ 11 2 4S 

"ti Is 

,11 li! 

11 I s a» 

e 1 £ 12 


l'« 
U S 
W 

e 

11 11 
e 9 


IMl. c. 

!1 

S 2« 

1 m 

s »1 

1 32 

2 W 


Ull 
12 i 

» 

11 8 
10 1 



Table showing Percentage of Membere Unemployed, &&, for the 
Years 1897 to 1901. 





1897. 


1808. 


1899. 


1900. 


1901. 


F«rcentags of memben nnem- 
ployed- 

At any one tune 

ConlinuoUBly (or thwo month». . 


21-8 

ia-2 


19-7 
7-7 


13-8 
6-9 


190 
7-8 


16 
6-6 


AT«r»ge nttinber of day* of em- 
ploTment per nnnnm 


261 


S55 


278 


265 


271 


Average ftimual eaniiog* ., 


180Z. 0». 


1861. 12*. 


1491. 8.. 


im.il. 


1511. it. 


Relation betireen inoome and 










pnoei— 
Annual ayerage income . . . . 100 
Wholeaale price* 100 


101 

107 


115 

lis 


110 
126 


116 
126 



Oo«t of living. -A^ regards the cost of living, a table has been prepared showing 
the advance which has taken place during the last four years, the 
figures used representing the value of the average consumption per 
head of each group of articles. Converting the amounts into 
sterling at the rate of 5 dol. to the 1^. we have the following 
results aa at January 1 of each year : — 



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Co.*. 




1898. 


1899. 


1000. 


1901. 


1008. 


Snadrtuffi, . 
Unit 

DurjMidgsrdan.. 
Othar food . . 
Clothing .. 
MbWJ. .. .. 


& *. i. 
% 14 1 
1 9 7 
3 9 7 

1 18 4 
S 18 8 

2 6 4 
2 8 8 


£ t. i. 
Z 16 6 
1 10 2 
8 6 11 

1 16 4 

2 16 8 
2 7 6 
8 10 2 


£ : d. 
2 18 

1 9 

2 14 10 
1 le 10 

3 B 10 
3 12 6 
8 6 4 


£ .. d. 

2 18 
1 13 9 

3 2 3 
1 18 
S 4 1 
3 3 S 
8 3 8 


£ : d. 
4 

a 10 

8 10 
1 15 U 
3 2 8 
8 17 
3 7 4 


Total 


IS 1 


16 2 2 


10 1 3 


19 3 8 


20 8 11 



In the above table breadstuSs iuclude wheat, maize, oats, rye, 
barley, beans and peas ; meat includes lard and itallow ; dairy and 
^garden products include mUk, eggs and fruita, in addition to 



Suring the year 1901 laws were passed creating a Department L&booT U«i 
of labour and the office of Commissioner of Labour, and abolishing ol 1901, 
the offices of Commissioner of labour Statistics and Factory 
Inspector as well as the State Board of Mediation and Arbitration ; 
-exempting stationary engineers from jury duty ; providing for the 
inspection of public laundries ; and for the licensing of stationary 
firemen in New York City. 

The Board of Mediation and Arbitration of the State of strik**. 
New York, reporting for the uine mootJis from January 1 to 
September 30, gives the number of strikes and lock-outs during 
that period as 126, of which 45 were for an increase of wages, 
31 for a reduction in the hours of work, and 27 on the question 
of,unioniBm, The report states that the employers won all the 
-disputes of the sympathetic kind, and also those involving the 
employment of particular persona ; they were wholly or partially 
defeated where the method of paying wages was concerned, and 
for the most part when a reduction of wages was involved ; wJiile 
■disputes about increase of wi^es and reduction of hours were 
mostly settled by comproniiae. Although the negotiations con- 
nected with the strike ordered by the Amalgamated Association 
of Iron, Steel, and Tin-plate Workers were carried on at New 
York, the mills affected were not in this State, and the strike 
finds no place in the report of the Board. Of the strikes men- 
tioned the most important was that of the machinists which 
commenced in May. The demands made by the men comprised those 
for a day ot nine hours instead of ten; for an increase of 12^ per 
■cent in wages ; and for the restriction of the number of apprentices 
to one for the shop and one for each hvu journeymeu employed. 
The nien had the support of the International Association of 
Machinists, and they also claimed to have that of the American 
Federation of Labour; the masters declared that an i^reement 
.still in force between the Metal Trades Association and tlio 
IntematioDal Association of Machinists had been broken ; t hat a 



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strike hail been called without any attempt to arbitrate, and that 
the Associatiou of Machinists had proved themselvea to be an 
irresponsible Ixxiy with whom no binding contract could be made. 
At their meeting the Metal Trades Association declared that they 
recognised the right of any man to belong to any religious, 
political, or economic sect, to leave employment at hie free will, 
and to sell his labour to the best advantage ; tbey maintained 
their own rights to employ a man, whfither he belonged to an 
organisation or not, at wages mutually satisfactory, also to 
discharge him at their discretion. It would seem that a demand 
had been made that wages should be fixed by the Association 
of Machinists irrespective of local conditions. The Executive 
Board of this association appealed to all the oi^anisations in the 
United States and the United Kingdom, and announced that the 
Amalgamated Asaociation of Engineers of Manchester had promised 
them tinancial and moral asfiatance. It is estimated that at one 
time between 40,000 and 50,000 men were out on strike; bo 
general settlement was made, but mattere were arranged locally 
and apparently in most cases independently of the asso«iation. 
Another important strike was that of the street railway servants 
at Albany and Troy, Here the men demanded, in addition to an 
increase in wages and other matters, that no person should be 
allowed to act as a motor- man or conductor who was not a member 
of their association. These demands havii^ been refused the 
men struck, and on non-union men being imported to keep the 
street cars running riots ensued and a force of 3,000 men of the 
National Guard was eventually sent to Albany. In the eonrse 
of further disturbances .two prominent men were shot. An 
arrangement was finally come to by which an increase of wages 
was conceded, hut the company retained the right to employ nnion 
or non-union men, and to discharge them for cause. 

fieference was made in the last report to an agreement entered 
into at Chicago between the National Metal Trades ABSOciation 
and the International Association of Machinists for referring all 
disputes to arbitration. This agreement waa entered into in March, 
1900, provided that no strike or lock-out should occur preceding 
arbitration. The strike of the machinists referred to above 
showed how little such agreements could be relied upon in times 
of stress when the arbitration committee consisted solely of 
representatives of the two conflicting parties. An endeavour is 
now being made to pro^'ide a committee which will be able to 
prevent strikes and lock-outs, and to aid in renewing industrial 
relations when a rupture has occurred and this not in relation 
to any particular trade but as a means of maintaining harmony 
between capital and labour under all ciTCumstances, The forma- 
tion of a committee with this object in view waa the outcome of 
the annual meeting of the Industrial Department of the National 
Civic Federation iield in New York on December 16 and 17, 1901, 
and the new feature is importation of representatives of the general 
piililic equal in number to those of capital on the one hand and 
labour on the other. Much is expected from this innovation as 



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NEW YORK. 31 

tending to lead to a better iinderstandiug by the general public 
of the true causes of iiiy dispute that may arise and of the means 
suggested for its settlement, matters which are often obscure at 
the present time, and on which it is, therefore, difficult to brine 
any force of public opinion to bear. The committee is composed 
of 12 members representing employers of labour, 12 representing 
oi^nised labour, and 12 representing the general public, all men 
of great influence. The committee declares that it is prepared 
to do what may seem best to promote industrial peace, to be 
helpful in establishing rightful relations between employers and 
workers, by its good offices to endeavour to obviate and prevent 
strikes and lock-outs, and to aid in renewing industrial relations 
where a rupture has occurred ; they advocate conferences and 
mutual agreements between employers and workers; and, while 
aasiiming no powers of arbitration unless such powers be conferred 
by both parties to a dispute, declare that when requested they 
will either as a whole or by a 3ul>-committee act as a forum to 
adjust and decide upon questions at issue between workers and 
their employers, provided in the opinion of the committee the 
subject is one of sufficient importance. 

The prices of leading staple commodities as shown by the CoDijimtiTe 
Bradstreets' index of 107 staple articles were considerably lower JJJ^^iJI^,^''' 
on January 1, 1901, than they had been at the same date in 1900 ; 
there was a steady and continuous decline till the beginning of 
June when they reached their lowest place in the succeeding 
months, and after some slight fluctuations in November they 
reached their highest point at the beginning of December, 

The index number on January 1, 1902, showed a fractional 
increase over that of January 1, 1901, but a decrease of nearly 
6 per cent, as compared with 1 900. 

The index numbers are as follows: — 



D»te. 


1001. 


1900. 


1S90. 


January 1 

Aprill 

Ju).Tl 

October 1 


..! B*,873 
83,663 

M5,67(! 


00,971 
fll,176 

8e,i;i& 

87,767 


77^10 
79,086 
d0,618 
86.798 



The index number on January 1, 1902, was 35,104. 

Comparing prices on .Fanuary 1, 1902, with those ruling at 
the same date in the previous year, it is found that out of the 
107 staple articles which are taken as the basis of calculation 50 
were higher in price, 40 were lower, and 17 were unchanged. 
Among the articles showing advances were breadstuflfe, provisions 
and groceries, live-stock, coal and coke, hides and leather, and 
naval stores ; on the other hand, dried fruits, textiles, oils, build- 
ing materials, and chemicals and drugs declined iu price 

The year 19O0 has been remarkable in the history of the iron iir.i »(*«!. 



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32 HEW YORK. 

iron and steel industry of the United Statoa. In the moatii 
of February the United States Steel Corporation was organised 
with an original capital of 1,154,000,000 dol. (231,000,000^.) divided 
into 4-25,000,000 dol. of common atock, 425,000,000 doL of pre- 
ferred stock, and 304,000,000 dol. of bonds, the object being to 
unite under a single control the leadiuj; iron ami steel companies in 
the United States and bo avoid detrimental competition. In 
March almost all the shares in the compauiee to be absorbed 
had been deposited, and it was then decided to take in two other 
large companies and to increase the capital by 250,000,000 dol. 
(50,000,000/.), the total capital now being 1,404,000,000 dol. 
(281,000,000/.). divided up as follows: 550,000,000 dol 
(110,000,000/.) common stock, a like amount of 7 per cent, pre- 
ferred stock and 304,000,000 dol. (61,000,000/.) bonds bearing 
5 per cent, interest. The properties owned by tlie corporation 
have been described in a general way as follows: 7S blast 
furnacee with a capacity of 6,500,000 tons of pig-iron yearly, 
representing about half the product of the United States in 1900 : 
149 steel works and six ^nishing plants, including bar mills, 
structural steel and plate mills, tin-plate works, sheet, wire, nail, 
and rod mills, with an annual capacity of about 9,000,000 toua of 
finished material ; 18,300 coke oveus ; about 70 per cent, of the ore 
mines of the I.iake Superior region, producing in 1900 12,724,000 
tons ; 70,830 acres of coal lands, alwut 30,000 acres of surface lands 
in the Lake region ; 125 Lake vessels, &c. It is stated that in the 
management of these vast properties every feature of the manu- 
facturing departments and the relations of every mill to its 
particular specialities are made the objects of careful study by 
scientific and expert authorities in connection vfith tbe heads 
and subordinate officials of the various departments ; and that 
committees are formed which examine closely into all the details 
relating to the location of plants, transportation facilities, coat 
of raw material, methods of manufacturing, and all the elements 
which determine productive capacity and cost. It is claimed 
that, as a result, enormous economia" in production are being 
effected and that the corporation is thus able to adhere to its 
policy of maintaining steadiness in prices while securtug profits 
for its shareholders. The statement issued for the nine months 
ended December 31, 1901, showed that the net earnings amounted 
to about 17,000,000/., which after provision had been made for 
sinking fund and maintenance for the interest on bonds and pre- 
ference stock, and for a dividend on the common stock of 1 per 
cent, per quarter left a surplus of nearly 4,000,000/. 

In April, soon after the formation of the United States Steel 
(Jorporation, a strike was ordered by the Amalgamated Association 
iif Iron, Steel, and Tin-plate Workers at some nulls of the American 
Kheet Steel Company, one of the companies included in the com- 
bination. This strike was easily settled, but when the agreement 
of the Amalgamated Association respecting the acale of wages of 
its members terminated, an endeavour was made to bring under 
tliif rules of the Association plants which had hitherto been 



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NEW TOHK. 3? 

working on a non-union basis. On this being resisted a strike of 
the union workers employed in the mills of some of the companies 
employing non-union men vr&a ordered, and after several fruitless 
coiiferences had been held an order wag issued for a general strike 
of all the onion men employed by the corporatioo. Most of the 
men responded but the Chicago works of the Federal Steel Com- 
pany continued in operation. The strike was finally settled at 
a conference between officials of the United States Steel Corpora- 
tion and the Amalgamated Association held in New York on 
September 13; no question of w^es had been at issue the 
contest having arisen on the attempt of the Amalgamated 
Association to force their rules upon non-union mills, and the 
terms accepted in the end were less favourable than those wliich 
had been rejected by the representatives of the workers two months 
previously. 

The year 1900 closed with the market in an unsatisfactory 
condition, but the first two weeks of 1901 showed a decided 
improvement The price of Bessemer pig-iron, which opened at 
13 dol. 25 c. {21. 13s.) in January advanced to 14 dol. 75 e. (21. 19s.) 
in February, and to 17 dol. {31. 8s.) in March ; from the beginning 
of May till the end of October the price remained steady at about 
16 dol. to 16 dol. 25 c. {'dl. 4s. to Zl 5s.), while in November and 
December the ruling rate was 16 dol. 75 e. (3/. 7s.). Steel billets 
opened at 19 dol. 75 c (31. 193.) in January, rose to 24 doL 
(41. 16s.) in March, to 26 dol. 50 c. (51. 6s.) in September, and 
reached 28 dol. (5/. 12b.) in November and December. Steel rails 
were quoted at 26 dol. (5/. 4s.) in January, February, and March, 
rose to 28 dol. in April, and remained steady at that figure for the 
rest of the year. While prices are higher at the end of the year 
than they were at the commencement, they did not reach the high 
figures attained in 1899 and during some part of 1900, on the 
other hand, they were not subject to the same fluctuations. 
Attempts made during the last quarter to advance prices owing 
to the heavy demand were resisted by the large steel corporation 
as being likely to check orders for future delivery. Notwith- 
standing the strike whicli curtailed production, the year is con- 
sidered more satisfactory than either 1899 or 1900, and the 
prospect for 1902 is described as excellent, the buying at the close 
of the year having covered the outpnt of many of tlie mills, &c., 
for several months. 

The exports of atee! rails from the United States amounted to 
318,055 tons, valued at about 1,726,000^. in 1901, as compared 
with 356,245 tons, valued at about 2,180,000^., in the former year. 
The export to British North America, 65,800 tons, shows a reduc- 
tion of 60,000 tons ; that to Mexico, 53,450 tons, shows an increase 
of nearly 20,000 tons ; exports to South America increased by 
32,000 tons. The exports of steel plates diminished by nearly 
50 per cent, that of wire increased by about 13 per cent The 
number of locomotives exported was 448, as compared with 436 in 
the previous year. The imports of tin-plates from the United 
Kingdom increased from about 60,000 to nearly 70,000 tons ; 
(49) 



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34 SEW YOBE. 

that from Canada amounted to a little over 800 tons. The import 
at Xew York was returned at 55,180 tons, valued at 726,436/., an 
increase of atout 30 per cent, in quantity and 18 per cent in 
value. 

The production nf copper in 1901 fell slightly below that of 
1900, and exports showed a very marked decrease. Bu.iines3 in 
the country has been good, there having been a large increase in 
the consumption of copper for electrical and traction purposes. 
Prices in New York market avert^ed about &^d. per lb. until 
December, when they fell rapidly to a fraction under Td. The 
t«tal imports amounted to about 129,000 tons, as conipured with 
85,900 tons in 1900, and the ex^iorts to about 106,400 tons, com- 
pared wiih about 160.000 tons. 

The production of lead in the United States is estimated at 
about 265,000 short tons, or about 10,000 tons less than in the 
previous year. The price of 4-35 c. (about 2^) per lb. was 
maintained through the first H months, but large stocks accumu- 
lated, and in December the price was suddenly reduced to 4 c 
(2d.) per lb. 

The imports were much the same as last year, about 100,000 
tons, the greater part of which was re-exported. 

The total imports of dry goods at New York under the heads 
of cotton, silk, woollen, and flax manufactures are returned at a 
value of about 17,996,000/., as compared with about 18,116.000/. 
in 1900. The principal decrease has been in cotton goods, which 
show a reduction in value of about 270,000/. Silk danufacturea 
have decreased by 70,000/., woollen manufactures remain much the 
same, and manufactures of flax show an increase of 200,000/. 
>. The year opened with heavy stocks of cotton goods and a poor 
demand, and prices declined steadily for the first four months, 
losing about 10 per cent. Heavy brown cottons which had been 
most seriously affected lirst showed signs of recovery on purchases 
for export to China. The demand was somewhat spasmodic at 
first, but later grew in importance, and was supplemented by the 
requirements of the home trade. The lowest prices were recorded 
shortly before the close of the first half of the year, and the 
unprofitable character of the market led to some curtailment of 
production. There was an increase in the purchases for Red Sea 
ports, and oji the whole the market is described aa being in a more 
favourable condition at the close than at the beginning of the year, 
many of the mills manufacturing for export having had contracts 
whicb would keep them in work well into the present year. In 
ginghams there was a fall of ^d. per yard prior to June, but this 
was fully recovered later. The fact that some of the mills have 
not worked up to their full capacity is attributed to difficulty in 
securing and retaining a full stall' of weavers trained in the pro- 
duction of the finer class of goods. There were wide fluctuations 
in the prices for cotton prints. Opening at 3^ c. (1-^ti,), there 
was a prevailing downward tendency till 2g c. (l-fV^.) was reached 
in June. Stocks accumulated steadily in spite of production 
being curtailed by milts shutting down for four weeks. In June 
there were some large purchases, which caused a temporary rise 



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KBW YORK. 



of i c. (•^.), but the market fell back quickly to 2 J c. (lid.) ; 
with renewed purchases the market rose to 3^ e. {l-^t€) in 
October, and closed at 3 c. (l^d.) in December witli a firm tone. 

It was eatiraated at the end of August, 1901, that the numbei 
of spindles hadiuereased in the North by 4fiO,000 to 15,050,000, 
and those in the South by about 1,280,000 to 5,ai9,835. Mill 
building in the South has been less active than last year, hut the 
addition of new spindles has been the ]ai^est on record. A 
number of mQls building in 1900 were completed in 1901, and a 
prominent feature was the number adapted for the production of 
fine yarn goods. The price of middling upland cotton which 
stood at 10-^ c. i.'5^^.) at the beginning of Jannarj', reached its 
highest point, 12 c. (Gd.), on the 28fch or that month, from wliich 
point it fell to about 10 c. (Srf.) in February, and then gradually 
declined to about 8 c. (id.). The maximum of the season, Sep- 
tember 1, 1900, to Anguat 31, 1901, was 12 c, the minimum 8 c, 
as compared with 1 0^ c. and 6^ c. in the previous season. 

The total exports of cotton cloth from the United States 
amounted to 376,233,960 yards, as compared with 257,910,508 
yards in 1900, and 418,504.132 yards in 1899. Uncoloured cloth 
shows an increase of 72,000,000 yards as compared with 1900, but 
is still nearly 73,000,000 yards below the export figure of 1899. 
The export of coloured cotton cloth, 132,350,000 yards, is the 
lai^est yet readied. The total export to the United Kingdom was 
9,500,000 yards, as compared with 6,300,000 yards in 1900, and 
nearly 8,000,000 yards in 1899 ; to China, 201,400,000 yards, 
as compared with 101,700,000 yards in 1900 and 227,900,000 
yards in 1899. The export to Colombia has risen from 
7,300,000 yards in 1899 and 4,950,000 yards in 1900 to 
21,500,000 yards in 1901. The total imports of cotton cloths 
from the United Kingdom have diminished from 50,000,000 vards 
in 1899 to 40,000,000 yards in 1900 and to 30.000,000 yards in 
1901. There is a reduction in the imports from France and 
Germany, and a fractional increase in those from Switzerland. 

The year 1901 showed a marked improvement in the condition ^*"'* 
of the silk trade as compared with 1900. The importation of raw 
silk was larger, prices were steadier, tlieve was an increased 
demand for the manufactured articles, and the year closed with 
the mills in full work and a general feeling of confidence in all 
departments of the industry. 

TliG importation of raw silk in 1901 was 81,000 bales, valuetl 
at 7,920,000/., as compared with 54,739 bales, valued at 6,726,000^., 
in 1900, and 77,414 bates, valued at 8,480,000i, iu 1899. Tiie 
weights were 11,873,613 lbs. in 1901, against 8,179,321 lbs. in 
1900. and 11,103,317 lbs. iu 1899, and the United States again 
appears in the position occupied two jears ago of the largest 
importer of raw silk for manufacturing purposes. 

After the opening of the new crop season on July 1 prices 

were exceedingly steady, the variations not exceeding 30 c. jier lb,, 

or about 10 per cent. Thus, Japan filature No. 1 opened at 

3 dol. 60 c. per lb., advanced after July to 3 dol. 90 c. per lb., and 

(49) C 2 



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closed at tlie end of the year at 3 dol. 90 c. The trade in silk 
piece-goods is reported having been very satisfactory, with a more 
extensive demand for goods of a higher and better grade. The 
total imports of eilk mauufactures were valued at about 5,852,100/., 
ae compared with 5,944,000i. iu 1900. The importation from the 
United Kingdom decreased by about 117,000^., from 507,000i to 
about 390,000/. ; that from Switzerland by about 60,000/. The value 
of the imports from Japan increased by about 146,000/. to 746,000/., 
while those from France and (Jei-many remaiued practically 
stationary at about 1^,880,000/. and 916,000/. respectively. 

In woollen goods there was also a decided improvement in the 
market as compared with 1 900. The demand was well maintained 
nnd free from the speculation which produced such bad results in 
the previous year. Prices gained from 5 to 10 per cent, on staple 
goods and returned a moderate profit to manufacturers. Mills 
worked close to the orders on hand, and there were no accumula- 
tions of stock of any moment at the close of the year. 

The total imports into the Unitetl States of unmanufactured 
wool amounted to about 125,000,000 lbs. in 1901, as against about 
140,000,000 lbs. in 1900; there was an increase in quantity but 
a decrease in value in clothing wool, a decrease in combing wool 
of r'j.OOO.OOO lbs. (entirely in the imports from the United 
Kingdom), and a decrease of about 13,000,000 lbs. in the imports 
of carpet wool from Cliina and Asia, those from the United 
Kingdom showed a slight increase. In dress goods there was a 
slight increase in quantity, but the value remaiued much the 
same. 

The importation of manufactures of flax and hemp, including 
burlaps at New York, sliowed a further increase in value from 
3,407,620/. in 1900 to 3,612,993/. in 1901. The total importation 
into the United States was i-etumed at a value of 7,281,000/,, as 
compared with 6,505,7OOA in the pievious year. 

In the leather market the year was one of activity with prices 
rising steadily and by easy stages. Tanners of sole leather were 
working up to their full capacity so far as the supply of hides 
would admit, but tliis fell short in the autumn. The demand 
slackened after December 1, but there were back orders to be 
filled up, and at the end of the year there were no surplus stocks. 
In upper leather the conditions were prosperous, but the demand 
did not exceed the supply, and prices showed no material rise. 
The exports of sole leather, 37,500,000 lbs., show an increase 
of 10 per cent, in value ; those of upper leather remaiued about 
the same as in 1900, the value being returned at nearly 
3,000,000/. ' ■ 

The production and consumption of hoots and shoes was 
greater in 1901 than it had been in any previous year, but prices 
were not wholly satisfactory in view of the enhanced cost of 
leather and other materials. Manufacturers with large capital 
and extensive credit were probably able to make a fair profit by 
means of large purchases of raw material when prices ruled low, 
but there is a general opinion that those with smaller capital and 
credit made but little profit, and in some cases suffered loss 



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KKW YOKK. 37 

where a correct forecast of the market was not made. The total 
export was valued at about 1,200,000/., an increase of about 30" 
per cenL The export to the TJnited Xingdom was valued at 
375,000^., an increase of over 75 per cent. 

The imports of hides and skins at New York show a decrease Hidet mud 
of about 12 per cent, in quantity and value. For the whole vf »Vns. 
the United States there ia an iaereaae of about 1 per cent in 
quantity and 8 per cent, in value ; from the United Kingdom 
there has been a alight decrease, but a corresponding increase from 
British North America; the largest decrease is in importations 
from the East Indies ; France, Germany, Mexico, and South America 
all show decreases. 

The export of cattle from New I'ork increased from 108,600 C»ttle. 
in 1900 to nearly 125,000 in 1901. The total export from the 
United States is returned at 454,590, of which 361,000 went to 
the United Kingdom and 71*600 to Bermuda and the West Indies. 
The export of fresh beef from New York rose from 80,546 tons in 
1900 to 90,620 tons in 1901 ; that of canned and cured beef from 
26,500 to 28,290 tons. The total export of fresh beef from the 
United States to the United Kingdom continuea to rise year by 
vear, the figures being 319,845,000 lbs. in 1899, 322,860,000 lbs. 
in 1900, and 350,624,000 lbs. in 1901 ; the same may be said of 
canned beef, but salte(\ beef shows a slight reduction. 

The export of butter from New York has increased from Butter u,A 
4,280 to 7,476 tons ; that of cheese has fallen from 24,.'i39 to checso. 
8,387 tons, very much the same as in 1899, and tlie relative value 
lus risen to about the same point as at that time. 

The volume of trade in Scotch and Irish herrings was much g^^u , 
about the same as in previous years, the receipts amounting to 
about 31,000 barrels. Prices were good on the whole aud, with 
a strong demand, the market was left bare at the close nf the year 
with a prospect of full values being obtained for early receipts 
of the new catch. The importations from Newfoundland 
amounted, to about 3,000 barrels, or 1,000 barrels more than in 
the previous year ; the curing of these herrings showed con- 
siderable improvement, and they seem likely to compete strongly 
in the future. The supplies from Holland and Norway were 
small. 

The importation of sugar into New York is returned at sugar. 
1,064,186 tons, an increase of 116,000 tons, notwithstanding the 
fact that the trade with Hawaii and Porto Rico is not now 
included. 

In the year 1897 the Legislature of New York passed an Act 
appropriating 25,000 dol. to pay a bounty on sugar made from 
beets at the rate of 1 c. (Id.) per lb., on condition that the manu- 
facturer did not grow his own beets but bought them at not less 
than 5 dol. (or a little over II.) pei- ton, and that the sugar con- 
tained at least 90 per cent, of crystallised sugar. In 1901 the 
amount of the appropriation for this purpose was 100,000 dol. 
(over 20,000(,); for the year 1902 it has been reduced to half 
that sum, and the amount of the bounty is reduced to ^ c (^(^.) 
(49) c 3 



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38 NEW YORK. 

per lb. According to the views of the Department of Agriculture 
■of the United States, the places where the beet sugar industry ia 
most likely to thrive are certain parts of California; Idaho, 
Michigan, Nebraska, New York, Oregon, and Utah with smaller 
areas in other States. 

The experiments connected with the growing of the finest 
kind of Sumatra and Havana toltanco under shade in Connecticut, 
appear to show that this cultivation can be carried on most 
successfully and so as to produce very large profits. The plants 
are grown under a lent of cheese cloth (a kind of coarse muslin) 
and the leaf is said to possess all the desii-ed qualities of thinnesB, 
silkiness, grain, bum, colour, and size. 

Towards the end of the year 1901 the comer-stone was laid 
'■ of a building for the High Hchool of Commerce to be erected by 
the City .Authorities of New York. The building will be a lai^e 
five-storeyed construction, with a lecture hall 100 by 68 feet, 
with a total seating accommodatiou for 1,200 persons, and also 
containing a gymnasium, swimming bath, laboratories, and smaller 
lecture halls. The intention is to provide for a scientific study ol 
commerce in all its relations, from both the theoretical and the 
practical point of view, and generally speaking to give commercial 
instruction on a higher plane than that imparted in business or 
commercial courses or schoola It is prol^ble that students will 
have to give proof of suitable preparation before tiiey will be 
admitted. 

Tables aie annexed of the principal articles of export and 
import at New York, and as regards the latter a distinction has 
been maintained between dutiable articles and those which enter 
free. The imports from the United Kingdom show an increase in 
value of about 1,500,000^., tliose from British possessions a decrease 
of M6£,000/. ; the exports show au increase of ^50,000/. to the 
United Kingdom and 1,630,000/, to British possessions. The 
impoi-ta from Germany have decreased by about 400,000/., and the 
exports to that country by about 2,650,000/.; the imports from 
France have increased by 1,240,000/., while the exports have 
decreased by :i,360,000/. or over 30 per cent. ; exports to the 
Netherlands, Sweden and Norway and Eussia have decreased 
sliglitly, those to Japan in a more marked degree ; as regards Italy 
the exports and imports remain much the same. The total value 
of the expoi'ta is returned at about 99,700,000/., as compared with 
105,230,700/. in 1900; that of the imports as 11,003,000/., com- 
pared with 106,206,100/: in 1900. . 

The grain shipments show a reduction of 16,600,000 quarters 
from 79,200.000 quarters in 19O0 to 62,612,000 quarters in 1901. 
Wheat shows an increase, hut there is a laige reduction in maize, 
and the export of barley has been reduced to very small pro- 
portions 

A great deal of attention has again been directed to the 
continued falling-off in the grain shipments from New York, a 
complaint being made that New York is subjected by the rail- 
roads to unjust and discriminating transportation and terminal 
charges as oompared with other porta on the AlJantio seaboard. 



d by Google 



NEW TOBK. 



Eetuen of Principal Articles of Export from New York during 
tlie Years 1901-1900. 







IWI. 


1800 


^nic^^^. 
















Qo^ltT. 


v^uo. 


ttiuotltjr. 


V.)«. 






s,a)e,«io 




2,412,217 

4,389.210 


Smod nnd bum 


To»;" .. 


ii»,e» 


l,M7.7W 


126,839 


Stz- - 


Biub.li .. 


m,B07 


^m 


4,8li;4M 


4a>,S4S 


FM«h 


Tom ._ 


«,eso 


1,TW.7M 


80,648 




C"n«l - 




12,0»1 


IH.BW 


nan 




Cnnsl ._ 

BM.ttnilm>[>> 






isoliii 


iiImi 


>9»:78i 


Bouw ... _ 


Tom" 


"t.iib 


fM.tOa 




iis;«4« 














^«ib« ... 


i5V,Mt 


i,m'.m 






£!»-« 


Tom 


8,m; 


1U.WI 






Clock! uul ntchM 

^^Md iDgOtl ,„ 


Tom 


Ta,3i« 


111,076 
4,918.JW 


104,410 


2eo',188 


aoiphiiwt 




1S,TU 






'ioe,'907 

£19,680 
4, 048,661 








1711M 




Com, IhUu 


BiHbMt „. 


M,Mi,*M 


2,«i,4tl7 


41.119,818 




Ywa. ... 


!II,11t,«lfi 


4'i-AIM 


Z11,M4,91B 


a,18»,027 


CielZ'.'.'. 


Lbi." ... 


*gl,»7,6Tl 


'issieia 


147,779,208 


6.L<»:BBI 


Dnun 


- 


... 






e*i.)i,t 


ii^nM^kEo^.;:: 


(iuoibn .. 


" ISD 


Diolsei 






Sr™ ::: ::: - 






1.7:818 




nisa 




aaid. ... 


i,a'](i,zu 








nonr (whMl)!" " 


Bimli ... 


*;«(?Tii 


*.Mo;m 


4:tii:«H 


y^^ 


FnmiB.™ ::: ::: 






4Tlit(J7 


z 




runindiUiu 






iu.44e 




^;^ 




Tom"" ... 


'ii.iM 




'ii>,ii* 




Grw« 










!m.600 








8)«;4M 






Hop. ... „ ._ _ 


Totu'" ... 


t,uo 




"6,474 




SJKs., i-i-i- 


HuBHwr ... 


is^ia 


bll^loS 


!8,881 


JSiSU 




::: 


;- 


KmIim) 


- 


168.087 


InO Ud MM], EUDD- 












tKIDroot .. 






>.i:4,gii 








Tom .„ 


i'a4,M« 


4,41T08J 


1H,18S 


4,o6«:46a 








1,011,811 










m.»w 




Lumber 






IK.8U 




m'^ 


"x?"-? , - 






1,»4.<I1 




4,108,814 


5:S^""... :: ::. 


~ 




830,118 
148,880 


;;.' 


«M:178 

10II:TS2 








MI.I4S 






H«lli » ... 

NIglMl 


Ton;" ... 


ie,<a 


18S,0M 

H3.8M 


'27,«8 


K7^ 


OQ- 


Brntal. ... 


8,ttT,tM 


Sis, Oil 


3,812,110 


118;78S 




flaUou .„ 


1,440,117 


271.848 










i8.2;i.B»T 


1,190.111 






iD.miMtini :: 




BM,2M,4H 


1,047.118 


607,T8t|2l« 


7:762:781 


LobrtMtlin 




61,081,117 


1.M7.2M 


84.7U,471 


Pi^mn ... .„ ... 


Tom'" ,„ 


11,724,811 
61,171 


228.080 

7«i:eos 


11,221,817 
62,608 


476.414 

Tiaun 


Plpau»]Bttla.l ... „. 






'llVls 








Tou „ 


ii,8i8 




■i2,881 




pamp.:" ": :;: ;:: 






1I7.7JO 






Buiiw.j vtn ... 

Bje ~ ". 


BMbOt „ 


i,((»,oo« 


198,411 

iw:«7 


1,479,IM 


tJa^iw 


l«i»C*<»)n«i ■- .■■ 






248,884 












iM.m 




807:sii 


BMP 






201.688 






BTT^..-. ... ~ ... 


a>ik^ ... 


'■"jjjg 


244,711 


»,lV«,877 


22j:;87 


T^tow 


Tom 




»81,0«0 


2i:«4 


604,7 W 



(49) 



d by Google 



Retukn of Principal Articles of Export from New York during 
the Years 1901-1900— continued. 



ArtlclH. 




.«!. 


im. 


QoBiiUtr. 


V.l«. 


».»>»,. 


Vd-. 


m* oil. 

Tt*««i' ::: i: 
Tosll 

Twlzw ... „ 

SSr"" :: ::: :: 


28,M0,J« 

... 


i,Hs,eu 

m'.m 


M.UZ 


1,U0,SM 





d by Google 



Bktdrn of Frincipal Articles of Import to New York duriug the 
Tears 1901-1900. 



DCTIABLX. 



Art worki 
Books .. 
Bristtei . . 
Chemicoli 
Ohink ,. 
Ooftl-Uf oolonn 



Drj gootU, cotton 

f eathen, cruda 
„ utifleial 

Tuli 

Flftz, manafacturei of. 

Fruit 

Tun 

Olau 

OlsTM uid laather 

mADufaotlirM 
Hal msleriab . . 
HidM .. 
Iron and steel . . 
Jeirellerj and 



Lewi .. 

Hatting.. 

UettlM .. 

Oil* .. 

Fointi .. 

FApet, manqfactuMe of 

Sugar .. 

Tea 

Tobacco. . 

Tin-plate* 

TOJB .. 

Watohes 
Winei .. 

Wool, DuuiafeotuMd 
Wood .. 



Bookg 

Chemicali 

Cocoa, and ihella of . . 

Coffee 

<!opper ore and pigi . . 
Cork wood and bark . . 
Co Hon , uFunanufacturad 
Diamonde, to ugh 
FniiU .. 



896,671 
6,170 



470,707 
511,487 

267,686 
267,607 
1,0«»,?3S 

9^,7ia 

800,960 

869,860 

6,666,006 

6,147.621 

2,579,191 

384,928 

439,246 

59S,133 

3,61 2,993 

1,362,600 

911,719 

636,236 

842,249 



3,879,606 
402,074 
248,0S3 
700,607 
467,132 
219,386 
4^5,406 
10,342,000 
932,406 

2,683,418 
726,436 
446,847 
284,969 

1,646,610 

1,004,626 
476,634 



11,100.118 
1,723,984 

S;;2,056 

3*0,000 

1,318,447 

437,927 



462,080 

386,030 

2G4,0O0 

820,800 

1.733.248 

863.908 

737,423 

816381 

6,924,686 

6,226,047 

2,668,068 

266,056 

385,294 

633,408 

3,407,620 

1,818,357 

971,058 

003,061 

1,481,000 
392,172 

2,896,600 
1,751,400 

2,266,040 
30S.82S 

279,151 
612,362 

3ee,o;i3 

220,018 

400,520 

9,839.820 

1,2S1,666 

2,238,911 

616,638 

397,640 

240,256 

1,603,3M 

1,771,122 

682,741 



0,868,905 
1,391,067 
268,488 
627,340 



d by Google 



Bbtubk of Principal Articles of Import to New York during th» 
Years 1901-1900— continued. 



ArticlM. 


1901. 


IftOO. 


Quantitj. 


Talue. 


Qoantitj. Tains. 


FsBB— conb). 

Tun, andreswd 
Indiwubbtir and crude 
J^ute, nunils, and aiml 
Liqnorice root . . 

Flktinum and" plum- 
bago 

SkW 

Silk, mw 

Soda, nitrate of 

Tin, pigB and bars 


Toiw. 

23,448 
120,112 
28,922 

1,281 
78,163 
18,933 

29,779 


£ 

1,345,726 

6,366,174 

2,078,e6g 

288,674 

616,810 

441,621 
5,411,467 
2,184,286 
433,196 
691,669 
8,796,187 


Ton.. 

21,298 
107.668 
88,754 

I'.iai 

110.335 
12,628 
27,010 


£ 

1,076,908 

6,464,488 

8,074,834 

818,821 

491,809 

646,861 

4,140,790 

2,274,647 

699,600 

499,192 

3,468,6« 



Table showing Total Value of all Articles Exported from and 
Imported to New York to and from Foreign Countries 
during the Year 1901. 



Great Britain and Ireland 
Britiab po«e«uoa> 
Argentine Bepnblic 
Austria-HuDgiry . . 



Brazil 

Central American States . . 

Chile 

China 



France and poMMiioni . , 
Germanj and pouauiona. . 

Hajti 

Italy and poiMtMona 

Uetico 

Netherlands and powesuoni 
Portugal and poueaaiona . . 
Peru 

San Domingo 

Spain and uoeaessioDB 

Switurland 

Sweden and Norway 

United Btates al Colombia 

Uruguay .. 

Teneiuela 

Other countries . . 



Total 89,682,600 



36,418,900 

12,086,100 

1,786,700 

746,900 

4,616,000 

1,918,000 

881,300 

687,000 

1,891,300 

1,422,300 

6,161,200 

10,479,500 

632,900 

3,116,600 

1,086,600 

1,458,500 

6,632,400 

697,400 

372,700 

931,700 

308,200 

647,300 

46,000 

1,293,100 

645,200 

232,000 

696,400 

8,648,400 



19,802,100 

9,243,300 

1,242,100 

1,489,600 

2,104,000 

18,894,300 

741,600 

1,133,200 

1,364.000 

210,500 

18,806,600 

18,602,100 

168,600 

4,681,600 

1,788,600 

2,607,100 

6,466,700 

661,800 

625,700 

938,200 

661,700 

869,600 

2,944,800 

406,000 

682,500 

869,000 

1,406.200 

8,881,000 



d by Google 



HKW TOBK. 



TabiiB showing Countries from and to which Specie was Imported 
and Exported dnring the Tear 1901. 



CountWM. 


Ttlue. 


Import!. 


Kiport>. 


FrftDoe 

OuU ^ 

p<Sl!^iii> " ;; '.'. 


£ 

54,000 
236,600 

186,400 
2,660,000 

837,600 


£ 
9,351,400 
7,052,800 

2,961,200 
81,400 
24,900 

641,100 


Total 


3,873,600 


20,112,800 


• DisoontiiiuBci, oommeroe curied on in coartwiia trade. 



Tablic showing Shipments of Grain from the I'oii of New York 
to the United Kingdom, the Continent of Europe, &c., during 
the Year 1901. 



Countiy. 

Unitad KiDgdom >nd South Afrioa 

Balgium 

Neweiiuide .. 

Oernumjr 

Portugal . . . . , . 

D«iunuk 

Ital^ 

Sweden nnd Norwsj 

AuBtrJA .. ., ., 

Total 



39,459,098 

2,030,666 

4,66l),902 

11,606,656 

1,41^040 

913,081 

1,107,056 

259,220 

273,949 

858,626 

£3,408 



12,612,699 



Table showing Grain Shipments for the Year 1901. 



Gnun. 


Quantity. ■ 


Wheat 

Maize 

K7« 


Bmbeli 

29,164,616 
30,886,023 
1,144,651 


Barley 

Buckwheat 

Flaiaeed , 

Total 


461,062 

623,20* 

1,946,986 

62,612,599 



d by Google 



Rettjbn of all Shipping at the Fort of New York during the 
Year 1901. 



Ooimhry. 


HnmtMr of T«m«1>. 


Tonnage. 
















EKeam. 


Bailing. 


Total. 


Steam. 


Sailing. 


Total. 


United Kingdom 














and Coloniei . . 




4fi8 


1,986 




S6,8!0 




United Btatoi . . 


380 


«7 




928,466 


170,467 


1,098,928 


AiutriB-Hungary 


18 




18 






39,894 


Belginm.. 


36 




36 


132,880 




122,880 




1 




2 


1,688 


298 


1,976 


Cub. 


6B 




69 


80,113 




80,118 




76 






124,415 




126,907 




101 




101 


287.496 




887,496 


Q^muDy . . 


48S 


89 


627 


1.623,656 


61,193 


1^684,849 


It^y .. .. 




2G 


102 


190,932 


23,696 


214,628 


NrtherUnd. .. 


lai 


10 


181 


406,979 


12,416 


418,896 


PortupJ.. .. 


16 


2 


18 


27,094 


1,886 


28,479 


Spun 


89 






100,371 




100,371 


S-oredeD and Nor- 














way .. 


aoi 


14 


816 


286,400 


13,721 


299,121 


Total 


8,246 


970 


4^16 


8,8ftl,80« 


641,883 


8,908,185 



Oouutrj. 


Nnmber of TtmOi. 


Tonnage. 
















Steam. 


Bailing. 


Total. 


8le»>n. 


Sailing. 


Total. 
















andColoJe* .. 


1,408 


506 


1,908 


4,022,988 


278,761 


4,301.789 


United 6tat«> .. 


384 


246 


630 


932,016 


136,784 


1,067,749 


Auitria'Hangftry 












18,670 


Belginm .. 


84 




S4 


114,965 




114,965 
















Cuba .. 


62 




62 


82,393 




82,882 


Denmark.. 


69 


5 


74 


120,058 


1.180 


121,238 


Prance .. 


97 




97 


2S0,9B0 




280,980 


Germnny.. 


440 


80 




1.601.758 




1,649,417 


Italy 


46 


24 


69 


116,979 


22,400 


189,379 


Netberkndi .. 


118 


8 


126 


3'J2,tl96 


13,241 


406.237 


Portugal,. 


16 


1 


16 


26,879 


1,086 


26.965 




31 


1 


82 


82,109 


227 


8^,336 


Sweden and Noi- 














way .. 


iS2 


20 


252 


194,390 


19.827 


213,717 


Tot^ 


2,986 


841 


3,777 


7,881,079 


519,898 


8,400,977 



d by Google 









S3 o = 



sSb? 



5 


K 


g.i. 








■^ 


s 




^ 




^^^ 




^ 














1 


1 


r^i 








s 




^i«! 






S "2 ' 
^ 5 S,.S i 



II 


■paiiBdo -wqninN 


S 


1 


TOpiidpoHniaij 




■■P«»A «««J 


2t 


g 


JO Mqranji i«iox 


s 


IB 


niiajo^ 


1 


■q«!»pa 


3 

3 


-p»iB.i»a 


s 


■patieMQ 


1 


i 


TW-1 


S 


■MoqS'K) 


s 


-we IT 


s 


■wu 


1 


li'foi 


s 


l^jjdKJH ni 


1 


■p«8«iiM!a 


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■f-»Miua 


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d by Google 



46 PROTlDnCE. 

Phovidenge, Bhodb Isukd. 

Mr. Vice Consul Stoekwell reports as follows : — 
The record shows that the volume of business during the year 
1901 was very lai^e and also satisfactory generally. 

Statistics of the Port. 



Deimptioi 



' Ojtter boat trip* . 
Stnmet tripi 
Tug-boat tnpa 
Coal receiTCd 
Lumber reoeited . 
Ulhs 



Ojtten 

HiaoellsDeoiu freight 
Paasengera, in and out, by 



Tom . . 
Feet .. 
Tons . . 
IfumbM 
Tods .. 
Number 
Tons .. 
Number 
Tons .. 
•fHUon* 
Tone.. 
Bushels 
loas .. 
Tom . . 
Number 



1,864 

S,000 

7,860 

486 

2,000,602 

22,gs7,4(S 

39,924 

12,770,660 

a,6fi4 

2,708,000 

339 

2,999,381 

4,198 

<l,905,000 

14,426 

680,000 

1E,SGS 

36,082 

1,661,210 



Money. The bank clearings during the year ainonuted to 349,329,900 

dol., while the clearings of the previous year were 326,289,300 dol., 
showing an increase for 1901 of ^;i,040,600 dol. 

The dealings in first .cla-ss securities and prime commercial 

paper were very large. Funds were abundant and the demand for 

good investments was active. The average price of prime paper 

during the year was about 4^ per cent. 

Cotton. The price of spot cotton, middling upland in the Providence 

market during the year averaged about 8J c, the' highest being 

12| c, and the lowest 7|i c. 

Cotton and The cotton and woollen mills have been in continuous opera- 

'*^'j" tion during the year, and some of them have run overtime. The 

operatives were never in better condition generally, or better 

satislied with their lot, for their prosperity is perhaps at high 

water mark. Continuous employment and good wages solve 

problems. Wages have not thanked. The supply of opei-ativew 

has byen ample, and all who are willing to work for a living have 

been employed. No strikes in cotton or woollen mills have 

occurred. 

Tlie bnilding The building trades have been very active throughout the year, 

trsdes. ^jjj durii'g R part of the time skilled labour of the right kind was 

not sufficient to meet the demand. The painters struck for a day 

of eight hours, but were not successful. The eight hour time card 



d by Google 



PROVlDKNCt 47 

has not yet been adopted anywhere in the Stata The labour day 
remains at nine houra, occasionally longer, but never shorter. The 
following wages are paid : — 





Amount. 


F«.,n- 


To— 


Mmom 

Plumber. 

Ptiinten 


Dol. 0. 

2 50 

3 
8 
2 


Dol. c. 
3 
3 60 
8 60 
2 60 



The building trade has been biiBk. During the year 
1,302 permits to build have been issued, and the number 

ia 200 more than last yeai'. The total cost of new structures, 
houses and mercantile buildingB was 4,739,720 do!. ; the total cost 
last year (1900) was 4,204,950 dol. The new structures number 
763 and of this number 461 were dwelling houses. Money has 
been so plentiful and cheap that the man of moderate means may 
own, nominally, his home and pay interest instead of rent 

The manufacture of jewellery is one of the prominent industries xh» jewellery 
of Providence, the second plant in size in this country. There are indiutry. 
now 250 establishments, formerly jewellery factories were in 
operation only half or two-thirds of the year. In 1900 work was 
continued the greater part of the year, and in 1901, the lai^er 
establishments, perhaps all, kept the machinery running through- 
out the year except during a few weeks for repairs. The sale of 
jewellery depends upon the prosperity of the country, and the 
greater the prosperity the better the quality of the jewellery worn. 
The "good times " in the Far West, and the employment of labour 
everywhere is responsible for an active jewellery market In the 
trade there have been no large failures, and payments have been 
easy and at due dates. Wages have not changed. 

Workers in machine shops have had no idle time. The Maohmery 
manufacture of engines, locomotive and stationary, woollen and manufacture. 
cotton machinery are classed among the great industries of 
Providence. During the year there has been a continuous demand. 
Providence machinery goes to every part of the industrial world. 
No strikes in machine shops .have occurred and no dissatisfaction 
with labour or wages has been expressed. 

The new State house was occupied by the different depart- Publio 
menta on January 1, 1901, but was not completed. The total cost ""P""*- 
to the Stnte was 2,924,402 dol. 10 c. ; land given by the City of ""■'" 
Providence, 190,000 dol. ; total, 3,114,402 dol. 10 c. 

Harbour improvements are being made by Government and 
local authorities, and in time, a better harbour or roadstead may 
nut be found on the i^tlantic coast. 

While statistics of the port may not properly include those of 



d by Google 



48 pRovmiNCE. 

the State. y«t in a State so small as Eliode Island, busioess 
generally centres in the capital city. Indeed, within ten miles of 
the City of Providence is 60 per cent, of the total population of 
the State. 

The following statistics show the prosperity of both City and 
State;— 



8«nii^ baiili* aiui inetitatioDs for 
"T"ig» 

Dtpodtii 

Depoiiton 

Kumber depomtiiiK GOO dol. Kid under 
IpOOOdoL 

Numbm depoMting 1,000 dol. and 
upwards 

Ifumber depositing under BOO dol. . . 

Lugeat amount due to auTOne depoutori 

Arenge anunmt of depont 

l«it dWidend 

Avenge oF diridend for lait three years 

Beseired proBts tt tine of last diri- 

Increase of depositors . . 

Deoiease of those depositing less tlian 

eoodoi. 

Increase of tbose depositing GOO dol. 

and IsM than 1,000 doL 
iDorease of those depositing; 1,000 dol. 

aod upwards .. 



Inut oompanies. . . < 
Depositors • . , . 

Number depoiiting 500 dol. and under 

l.OOOdol 

Number depositing IJMO dol. tod 

upwards .. 

Largest amount due to any depositoF. . 

Xiast dividend 

Areiage of diTidendfor lut three jaan 



Number 
Amount 

Number 



Amount 
Percent, p. 



QtuntiV, &o 


Amount. 




DoL c. 


U 

I«,i6B 


74,800,794 86 


20,812 




83,642 
10S,21G 

"a-82 
3-88 


160,148 81 
496 70 


474 


2,411,610 


480 




712 




S«2 




11 
17,6G4 




2,878 




4,872 

■*8fll6 
3 -898 


71,971 40 



Annex A. — Betubn of all Shipping at the Fort of Providence 

during the Year 1901. 

Sailing. 





£ttt«r«d. 


OWred. 


Nationality. 


^^^f/l Ton. 


Number of 

TeswOs. 


Tons. 


BritUb 

American 


56 1 6,772 
16 S,96S 


40 

la 


8,628 
1.785 


Totkl .. 
„ 1900 .. 


71 , 1 9,736 
BO 1 7.634 


62 
84 


5,858 
4,379 



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Annex B. — fttTUBN of Principal Articles of Export from Providence 
during the Years 1901-1900. 



ArtiolM. 


Tfdue. 


1901. 


j 


1900. 


LumlMF 

PporarioM 


£ 

M7 
140 


£ 

709 

687 

2,900 


Total 


1,660 






4,S4e 



Rbtukn of Principal Articles of Import into Providence during 
the Years 1901-1900. 



Aitiolo. 


V»tne. 


1901. 


1900. 


Diygood 

Ctupmioali 

Tobwoo 

OtherutiotM 


£ 
55,640 
20,120 
28,898 

78,i9* 
12,864 
10,801 
16,865 


£ 
40,702 

9,660 
27,889 

2,074 
81,990 

7,876 

78,025 


ToUl 


216,877 


842,716 



(49^ 



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PfiOTlDINOE. 



Annex C. — Table dhowiog Total Value of all Articles Exportet} 
from and Iinpoi-f«d into Providence to and from all Countries 
during the Years 1901-1900. 



Counti?. 


Biports. 


Import*. 


1901. 


1900. 


IWl. 


1900. 


Auatria-Hnngar; 

££l :: ;: 

Briti.h Eait lodie. .. 
BritiBli Wf.t Indies .. 

Canada 

Ciibn 

DeDiD«rk 

Dutch West Indies . . 

i-t- :: :: 

F«nee 

French We»t Indies .. 
Qermanj 

Qreece 

Hajti 

Hong-Kong .. 

Ireland 

Italy 

Japan 

Netfaerlandl .. 
Portugal 
Boiimania 
St-otland 

Spain 

aWeden 

Uruguay 
AU others 




J47 


£ 
3,608 

•• 

m 


£ 
14,CM9 

Vm 

IB 

1,196 

7,462 

'ii8 

«,780 
84,269 

m 

6 

4.109 

6,96S 

2« 

1,606 ■ 

390 

68 

9,042 

338 

278 

2,382 

2,616 

16 


£ 

20,907 

167 

"le 

8,061 

6.806 

187 

"74 

60,707 

112,026 

68 

24,286 

66 

l,Sfi2 

4,714 

4,014 

279 

4,201 

274 

8,660 

970 

^164 
"ifi 


Total.. 


1,660 


4,2« 


216,877 


842,716 



lONDON 

Friiit«d for His Majesty's Stationery Office, 

Bx HABBI80K AND SONS, 

Frintcm in Ordinary to Hie Uajesty. 

(76 6|02— H&8 49) 



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No. 2798 Annaal Series. 
DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPORTS. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1901 



TKADE, &c., OP PHILADELPHIA. 



RE;F£RENGB to previous REPUKT, Anuusl Series No. 2621. 



Pruenttd to both Howen of Parliament bg Cov^tmil ■}/ His Maje*t§. 
MA r, I y02. 



LONDONi 

PBINTBD FOK HIS UAJESTTB STATIONEBY OFFIO^ 

BT HABBISON AND SONS, ST. UABTIN'S LANB, 



And to Iw purcliii«ed. either directly or tbrongh aaj BookHller, from 

STUK i SPO'lTISWOUDE. Eaht Habdino Sikiit, Fliit Btrkbt, B.O, 

Bnd 82, Ahtmihon Stmkvt. Webtbinsirb, S.W.j 

or OLIYtJU k BUi'D, EniNBOBaa , 

ot £. PUNSONBY, 116, OBUtoH Srsin, Ddblih, 



[Od. 786—102.] Print Twoptncf. 



Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



CONTENTS. 



Biitiah ihipping 

Foreign „ „ 

Import* „_.__,_„..™.,.„— .^■■^..,„. 

EiportsoriiTB-stock _,.- _ _..„ 

Dnit«d SbtteB shipping indiutry _ _._ ^ 

Ship-building on the Ltilei _.._.»» „._. 

Foreign trade in the Unit^i Btstaa ™..._....„,..„,..™. 

SunimarT of conditions of industrial oombinattODi .._.._ _..._ _ 

East Cosat Milling Companj ^ _ ^ 

Con! trade for 1901 „ _..- - - 

Pennsyltaiiin coot „...».....^ _..^ ^...» 

„ bitnminoua coal _„...„_ _„ 

Ifarjland bituminous coal _ ^.. 

West Tirgiain bitiuniaous coal... _ _«>. 

Indinn tsrritorj and Artunsas oil disoorerj checks output of eo*l 

ProgreiBin mining,..,.- _ ., 

Tmporfi and exports of coal _ ,.... 

Riporte of coal for 11 months ending November _.__ 

Antbmcite coal trade in l&Ol > ....— ^ »- 

Outlook for 1903 „ 

Export nf nnthracils coal »...._„_.___ »___ 

Bituminous cMial tradfl in 1901 

Coke indtiBtr/ in Penna;lTaiua....„...„... „..„...,___.,_..,.„..«.._.„. 

Pioiluction of pig-iron .„„.._„„..>.....,„.,„,..,„.._„ „_^ 

Beaseoier pig-iron _.~...~ ~-....,„.~,.~ -.„,._ 

Basic pig-iroD ,..„ _^.„...„._». __. 

Spiegeleiien and f enomanganMe ._ _.».«. ....».._„ ..... 

Charcoal pig-iron „,„ „ 

Unsold stocks - _ ._.»» „^..,. >....»...» 

Fumst en „_„_„.,., . ._ - 

A jear'B output ot steel rails „ ....„ _....> 

United Slalea foreign trade in stMl produalt ..__....-..__.._„.« ». 

Baldwin looomotive work* _ „.^ „ ...._ ~, 

Preaiium plan of rewarding labour ». _ _...~.._~. 

Hooper pneumatic concentrator for orushed ores bj drj prooeM .... 

A method of hardening armour plate _ _ _ 

The c^conio propeller ~~_. ~ 

Uaohinerj for turning Out wooden pUtet ..........— ■^...— —.—.—.- 

A .now plough 

Batum of BHtith shipping i,,. 



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No. 2798. Annaal Seriei. 

Be/erenee to premoua R^xtrt, Annual Seriei No. 2621. 



Report on the Trade and Commerce of Philadelphia for the Year 
1901 

By Me. Consul Powbll. 

(Beoeivad at Foreign Office, ipril 29, 1902.) 

During the year 1901 the total number of British shipB that Bntith 
entered the port of Philadelphia amounted to 636, with a tonnage •lupping. 
of 1,266,248 tons, showit^ a decrease of 55 veeaels and 72,624 
tons on the previous year. 

The decrease noted above is in a laige measure dae to the 
fact that in 1899-1900 the agricultural surplus was very 
large, whereas in 1901 there was a material decrease in the export 
of grain, owing to the poor harvest and the home markets having 
increased their demands. 

Also in manufactores the exports from 1898-1900 were 
phenomenal, owing to depression in prices in the United States, 
which caused the manufacturer to seek higher ofiera in the 
foreign markets. In 1901 rising prices in the United States and 
falling markets abroad brought export back to its normal level. 

Non-Bkitish Shipping at the Port of Philadelphia during the ^orw?" 
Tear 1900. ^^^^ 

Entehed. 





Suling. 


StMm. 


FUk. 


Number of Net 
Teesela. Ijonnaga. 


Number of 
TeueU. 


Tonnage. 


American 

Aiutro-HunnriBii , , 
Belgian.. .. .. 

Cuban 

Daniih 

Dutch 

Pwnch 

German 

Italian 

Horwagian 

Rnaiifln 

Spam.h 

S-eiiih 


lil 7S,S50 

:: i :: 

;; 1 ;; 
"e ; »,8i9 

14 97,486 
18 16,879 
2 2,020 

"l '607 


88 
11 
66 

1 
SI 
18 

I 
73 

9 
164 
21 
15 

1 


43.701 

20,169 

191,447 

i:3G8 

64J64 

37,072 

2,245 

184,828 

20,559 

179,694 

18,944 

34,120 

S,402 


Total .. 


182 I 182,840 


448 


776,29» • 



d by Google 



philadblphia. 
Cleakkd. 





8«liBg. 


Stoun. 


F\H. 


Hnmber of 


Set 


Number of 1 Set 




Veiaeli. 


Tonnage. 


V«iel>. 


Tonnage. 


Ameriowi 


118 


87,027 


sg 


43,824 


Aiulxo-Huninn 






8 


18,908 


Belgi.!... 












I 






Duiiih .. 






30 1 51.986 


Dutch .. 






16 1 30,836 


French .. 


6 


8.91B 


8 1 4,769 


Oennan. . 


13 


24.E68 


78 187,439 


It*li.n .. 


20 


16,782 


14 32,228 


Sorwegian 


2 


2,020 


185 ; 212,099 








20 1 18,280 


S|»Di>h.. 






12 


21,212 








2 




Tot*l 


IGS 


140,979 


468 


809,180 



Value of Goods Imported into the Port of Philadelphia from the 
United Kingdom and BritiBh FosseBsions daring the Year 
1901. 





Taloe. 




Sterling. Currencj. 


EDglud 

Scotlwd 

Ireland 


£ 

1,876,670 

338,406 

68,025 


Dollar,. 
9,882,861 
1,667,026 
316,128 


»OT«Scotia 

Ontwio 

Britiah Columbia 

BHtiib We«t Indie* 

„ Ouiaoa 

EMtlndie* 

Hong-Eong 

Britiik po>•eMioQ^ Afrios 


2,278,000 

15,192 

326 

94 

16,848 

186.131 

12,999 

846,894 

4,556 

3,680 

18,289 


11,866,000 

75,961 

1,628 

460 

84,237 

830,666 

64,996 

4,281,970 

22,776 

18,164 

91,193 


Total 

All other countries 


3,867,408 
6,200,064 


16.787,040 
31,000,821 


into Philadelphia 


9,667.472 


47,787,361 


Carried in American veueli 

foreign TeueU 


410.703 
9,146,769 


2,063,614 
46,733,847 


into Philadelphia 


9,667,472 


47,787,861 



d by Google 



PUILA.DILPHIA. 



Value of Gooda Exported from the Port of Philadelphia to tha 
United Kingdom and British Possessions during the Year 
1901. 





TalDB. 


Bngl«.d 

Ijootlttnd 

Ireland 


Btwlii^. 

£ 
7,291.039 
1,0W,522 
298.046 


Curreoc;. 

Dollar.. 
36,465.193 
6.472.610 
1,490,228 


aibraltop 

IfoTftScotU 

BritUh W*« India. 

„ South Airic* 

„ GuUn* 

„ ButlDdiu 


8,688,606 
9,848 
77,S1* 
86,*26 

ao,oi6 

2,782 
G16 

11.618 


43,418,026 
4«,736 
887,672 
177,132 
100.072 
. 18,911 
2,680 
73,081 


Total 


8,843,824 
7,021,046 


44,219,120 
36,106,224 


Total eiporti from the port of 
PhiladelphU 


16,864,869 


79,321,344 


Carried in American Teeuli 

„ foreign TMMla 


225,191 
15,839,878 


1,126,955 

78,198.389 


Total export* Erom (he port ot 


16,864,869 


79,324,344 



ExPOBT of Live-stock with Number of Attendants for some from 
the Port of Philadelphia, FennBylvauia, during the Teai 1901. 



ExporUdto- ,'(^^,^ 


°(t1.^^ American American 


Animal.. 


London, England „ 28,302 

Lirerpool, ffngland .. 2,617 
Aromnouth. EngUnd . . 1,432 
Manclifliter. England .. ' 907 


1,720 
175 , .. 

297 ' " 
167 4,188 


894 


940 
86 
62 
49 

see 


Totel .. .. 87,870 


629 ' 6,863 


296 


1,398 



According to the report of the United States Commissioner of The United 
Navigation, American tonnage has now attained practically the ^'■'«« 
former maximum of 1861. The figures of 1901, compared with '^J'^^_ 
1861, show au increase iu coasting trade vessels from 2.704,544 
to 4,582,683 tons (two-thirds of this increase being on the Great 
Lakes), a decrease in foreign vessels from 2,496.894 to 879,595 
tons, and a decrease in whaling and fiahii^ vessels from ?38,37o 
(68) A. 3 



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■Q PHILADELPHIA. 

to 61,940 tons. Of tlie total tounage of the United States 
3,623,201 tons are wooden vesaela and only 1,901,017 tons are 
inm or ateel vessels. (In 1900 the United Kingdom launched 
1,440,000 tone of steel vesFele.) 

I'orto Kico appears in the returns with 25 vessels of 5,297 
tons, and Hawaii with 64 vessels of 37,149 tons. In the Philip- 
pines 2,340 vessels of 102,581 tons {of whicli 149 vessels of 
43,593 tons are steara vessels) are under American jirotection. 
(Until Congress has so enacted Philippine vessels are not vessels 
of the United States.) Although registered American vessels 
increased by 62,435 tons during the year 1901, American bottoms 
carried only 8-2 per cent, of the United States exports and 
imports, the smallest percentage in the liistory of the United 
States. 

The tonnage built and i-egistered in the United States during 
the past fiscal year comprised l,ri80 vessels of 483,469 gross tona 
The steel vessels under construction during the present fiscal year 
will much exceed similar toniu^e built in any previous year. 
The Commissioner of Navigation is advised of Sd such merchant 
vessels, building or under contract, of 355,645 gross tons, to be 
valued at about 36,000,000 dol. (7,200,000^.). Beyond the fore- 
going, 71 naval vessels of 281,148 tons displacement are being 
built. In this work 44 yards are engaged, aggr^ating a capital 
of about 68 000,000 dol. (13,f)00,000/.), and employing about 
46 000 men. 

The building of 10 Tranaatlftntic steamers presumably, rests 
on anticipated legislation by Congress. Six of the Atlantic Trans- 
port line steamers are building from the same plans used in 
building steamers in the United Kingdom for the same company. 
The American coat of a steamer of the " Minnehaha " type mil be 
1,846,800 dol. (369,360/.); the cost of the British boat will be 
1,419,200 dol. (283,840/.). The American cost of the smaller 
Transatlantic caiyo steamers will be 729,000 dol. (145,800/.), for 
which the British price ranges from 534,000 to 486,000 dol. 
(106,800/. to 97,200/.). 

As an illustration of the difference in wages on American and 
foreign vessels, the following example may be taken : — The 
pay roll (excluding master) of 380 men on the steamship " St. 
Louis " is 11,300 dol. (2,260/.); of 427 men on the British " Oceanic " 
9,900 dol (1,980/.); and of 500 men on the "Kaiser Wilhebn 
der Grosse " 7,715 dol. (1,543/.), The German is the faster steam- 
ship ; the American is the smallest. 

Including the Leyland purchase, American capital owns fully 
670,000 tons of steamers under foreign flags which, in actual 
carrying power, exceed all American vessels now engaged in 
foreign trade. The War and Navy Departments also own 126,847 
gross tons of foreign built transports and colliers. American 
money of late years has purchased 931,000 tons of foreign built 
steel steamers, and since 1891 there have been built in the United 
States 1,600,000 tons of steel steam vessels of all kinds. 
ihipbuiiding The principle of shipbuilding on the Great Lakes, as regards 

nfli«L»kM. 



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PUILADKLPH1&. t 

tlie size of the steel car^ carryiii^j vessele for Bervioe en these 
inland seas, appears to have undergone a virtual revolution withia 
the past two or three years. 

On the Great Lakes as on the ocean, the increase in the size 
of the vessels has been a gradual evolution. In the 10 years from 
1890-1900 the standard length of freight-carrying steamers has 
nearly doubled, while the dead-weight carrying capacity was 
extended from 2,500 to 7,000 gross tons. 

The largest of what might be termed these new classes of Lake 
ships ar^ 436 feet in length over all, 50 feet beam, artd 28 feet 
depth. A steamer of this size has, on a draught of 18 feet, a 
carrying capacity of approximately 6,200 gross tons, and costs 
complete 260,000 dol, (5;J,000/.), If, in this new em, any one class 
of cargo boats can be said to be of a standard size, it would 
undoubtedly apply to the 400 feet cargo boats which are of the 
same beaiu and deptli as the before-mentioned vessel, and while 
providing a carrying capacity of 5,600 tons, costs 20,000 dol. (4,000/.) 
less than the larger boat There are also being constructed 
on the Great Lakes a considerable number of vessels which range 
from 366 to 390 feet in length, but have a uniform beam of 48 
feet and a uniform depth of 28 feet. The capacity of those steamerfl 
ranges from 4,800 to 5,200 gross tons each, and their value is about 
220,000 dol. (44,OuO;.) to 230,000 dol. (46,000/.) according to size. 
The most interesting of present tendencies in Lake shipbuilding 
is found in the construction of large-sized steamers for ocean 
service. 

For many years past occasional vessels have been transferred 
from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Coast, but very few of them 
had been designed for deep sea service. Lately the shipbuilding 
firms on the Lakes have entered upon the construction of deep 
sea craft as a regular branch of their operations, and contracts 
have been secured for the construction of 13 steel steamers tor 
ocean service. 

The few vessels constructed on the Lakes for service on salt 
water, prior to 1901, had invariably been of such dimensions aa 
to permit of their passage through the St. Lawrence Canal, that 
is to say, not exceeding 270 feet in length, but in 1901 tlie con- 
struction of fhips of much greater sizo was undertaken ; the spring 
of the same year witnessed the transportation to the Atlantic 
coast of two steel steamers, each 450 feet in length, 43 feet beam, 
and 35 feet in deptli, with a carrying capacity of 7,000 tons, in sec- 
tions. The method employed in the transfer of these laige 
steamers to the ocean is usually as follows : The bull is fully 
completed except for the space of about two plates at or near the 
centre. These plates, during the time the hull is on the stocks, 
are simply bolted. A bulkhead Is constructed on the forward 
and after midship ends, and when tlie hull ts fully completed in 
other respects these centre plates are removed and the hull 
launched in two pieces. Each section may be towed through the 
cantds by a tug, or the after part of the hull containing the 
machinery can tow the other portion. At Montreal the two 

(63,1 A 4 



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Cmmp and 
.Son*' Ship 
and Bngins 
Building 

Companj. 



Na* York 
'^hipbuildinic 

(tompimy, 



Neallekiid 
htry Ship 
■lid Engine 
Building 

Oompuij. 



8 PHILAUKLPHIA. 

sections are joined together and she continues her voyage to the 
sea coast. 

This method of building ocean EteamerB is attaining such pro- 
portions that it is proposed to establish a shipyard at Montreal, 
the main purpose of which will be to connect tlie portions of 
vessels which, in consequence of their size, have to pass through 
the canals in sections. 

Cramp and Sons' Ship and Kngine- building Company has 
completed the United Stat«s battleship " Maine," of 12,300 tons 
displacement and 16,000 indicated horse-power. The following 
were building : the United States armoured cruisers " Penn- 
sylvania," 13,800 tons displacement, 23,000 indicated horse- 
power, and "Colorado," 13,400 tons displacement, and 23,000 
indicated h oi-se- power ; and the Imperial liussian battleship 
" Retvizan," 12,700 txins diapiaeement, 18 knots speed. 

In addition to the above, the tirm 1ms on hand passenger and 
freight steel steamers " Kroonland " and " Finland " for the Inter- 
national Navigation Company, 560 feet long, two sets of three- 
crank triple- ox pansion engines, twin -screws, nine single-endod 
boilers, and 10,000 horse-power. Oil-tank steamer for the Standard 
Oil Company, 360 feet long, one three-crank triple-expansion 
engine, single screw, and two single-ended Scotch boilers 5,000 
horse-power. A cmiser of 3,200 tons displacement for the Turkish 
Navy, 

The New York Shipbuilding Company, Camden, has xuider 
construction the single-screw steamer "J, M. Gufl'ey," for the 
J. SI. GuH'ey I'etroleum Company, 309 feet 7 inches long, triple-ex- 
pansion engine of 1,500 indicated horse-power, two Scotch boilers, 
and 2,700 gross tonnage. 

The twin-screw stumers " Texan " for the American Hawaiian 
Steamship Company, 484 feet 3 inches long, quadruple-expansion 
engine, 3,400 indicated horse-power, 8,100 gross tonnage, and the 
" Nevada" and " Nebraska," 371 feet 6 inches long, triple- expansion 
engines, 3,000 indicated liorse-power,' two Scotch boilers, and 
3,700 gross tonnage. 

The twin-screw .steamers " Minnekakda " and " Minnelora," for 
the Atlantic Transport Company, 615 feet 3 inches long, triple-ex- 
pansion engines of 12,000 indicated horse-power, four double and 
two single-ended Scotch boilers, 13,100 gross tonnage, and the 
" Massachusetts " and " Mississippi," 505 feet 6 inches long, triple- 
expansion engines of 6,000 indicated horse-power, two double and 
two single-ended boilers, and 8,200 gross tonnage. 

The Neafie and Levy Ship and Engine-building Company 
report that they are building the following vessels for the United 
States Navy : — Theprotectedcruiser "St. Louis": length, 424 feet ; 
beam 66 feet, of 10,000 tons displacement, 23 feet 6 inches mean 
draught, 21,000 indicated hoi-se-power, 16 water-tube boilers, and 
22 knots speed. Second-ckasi stirimer " Denver " ; length, 292 feet ; 
be-am, 44 feet; lo feet 9 inches me^u draught, 3,200 tons dis- 
placement, 4,700 indicated horse-power; 165 knots speed, six 
water-tube boilers. Also the following torpedo boat destroyers : — 



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PHILADELPHIA. 9 

" Bainbridge," " Barry," ami " (Jhauncey," fauli 1^45 (net louf^ ; 
beam, 23 feet 7 inches ; Dieaii draught, 6 feut Ij iiiclius ; 420 tons 
displacement, 8,000 indicated horse-power, 29 knots speeil, four 
Tliorneycroft boilers, togetherwith the following,' nieifliaiiisteaiiien*: 
the " Znlia" screw steamer of 1,715 tons, as well us the " Calvert," 
for the Weems' line, Baltimore, passenger and freight Hteamer, 
190 feet long, compound engine, single screw, one Scotdi 1 »)ili;r, itnd 
810 tons displacement. Also the steamshipa " Quaker City " and 
" City of Trenton," together with a number of smaller craft. 

Harlan and HoHingsworth, shipbuilders, are building for the Harlan and 
United States Xavy, torpedo destroyers " Hopkins " and " Hull " : Holiing*- 
244 feet in length, 24 feet 6 inches lieam, 6 feet mean draught, "j^'.^J^'j,. 
408 tons displacement, 7,200 indicated horse-power, 29 knots speed, 
and four Thornoycroft boilers. Also the " Sti-ingham " : 225 feet 
long, 22 feet beam, 6 feet 6 inches mean draught, 340 tons displace- 
ment, 7,200 indicated horse-power, 30 knots .speed, and four 
Tliorneycroft boilers. Also for the Mercantile Marine, steel screw 
steamer " Pathfinder " : 325 feet long, triple -expansion engines, 
two Scotch boilers of 1 ,200 indicated horse-power. Steel steamers 
"Btandon": 213 feet long, triple-expansion engines, two Scotch 
boilers, 1,200 indicated horse-power; "William G. Payne": 

257 feet long, two-cylinder, compound engine, four Scotch boilers 
of 2,000 indicated liorse-power ; and " Sagamore " : 203 feet long, 
beam engine, two lobstet-back boilers, 700 indicated horse-power. 
An auxiliary steam yacht 145 feet long, compound engine, two 
Alniy water-tube boiler.s, together with several steam ferry boats, &e. 

Shipbuilding at the several works of the American Shipbuilding 
Company are as follows : — 

Cleveland, Ohio ; Two cargo steamboats, each of 436 feet over CletelBnd, 
ail and 6,200 gross tons ; one of 374 feet over all and 4,900 ^^^ 
gross tons; also a car ferry of 350 feet over all, 

Lorain, Ohio : Two cargo steamers of 436 feet over all and 6,200 Lorain, Ohio. 
gross tons ; six of 400 feet over all and 5,600 gross tons ; and one 
of 434 feet over all and 6,200 gross tons. 

Bay City, Michigan : Three cargo steamers of 434 feet over B»y uity, 
all and 6,200 gross tons ; and one of 376 feet over all and 5,000 M'"''i8M- 
gross cons. 

Detroit, Michigan : One cargo steamer of 366 feet over all and Detroit, 
4,800 gross tons ; two passenger and freight steamers of. 366 feet MiohigMi, 
over all and a ferry steamer, the dimeusionsof which are not yet fixed. 

Toledo, Ohio : One cargo steamer of 220 feet over all and Cnig't 
2,000 gross tons ; one of 198 feet over all and 1,800 gross tons, and ^^^^^^^"8 
one of 370 feet over all and 5,000 gross tons ; one oil steamer of xoiedo ?)'hio. 

258 feet over all and 2,800 gross tons. jenk»' ' 
Port Huron, Michigan : One cai^ steamer 257 feet over all Shipbuilding 

and 3,000 gross tons, and Port Huron Lighthouse Steam Tender S""!^"'' 
of 160i feet over all. MifhSr"' 

The foreign trade of tlic United States for the fiscal year foreign 
ending June 30, 1901, was larger than for any corresponding year, trade m the 
amounting to over 100,000,000 dol. (20,00O,000;.) higher than ^^^ 
the figure for 1900. It does not, however, show the same 



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iO PUILADICL1>HIA. 

abuormal growth in exports, and particularly in manufactures, 
which has been shown for several yeai-s past; this, however, 
seems to bo due not so much to the fact that the year's 
figures were unduly small, but to the circumstance that they must 
be compared with those which are unduly lai^. 

The removal of Hawaii and Porto Rico from the list of foreign 
countries witli which the United States has commercial relations 
is a factor to be taken into consideration iu respect to the export 
trade, particularly with regard to domestic manufactures. 

The fact, however, remains that the year's trade was the lai^est 

on record, and the United States mercantile transactions with 

other countries show a balance to their credit of over 

600,000,000 dol. (120,000,000;.)- 

The siuniiMnj The Chief Statistician for Manufactures of the Census Bureau 

of ™duBM^ ^^^ issued an impoitant bulletin, giving data concerning industrial 

TOmbinatioiu. combinations, as they existed at the end of the census year, 

May 31, 1900. In order to secure a uniform basis of tabulation, a 

definition had to be mnde of the term " industrial combination," 

and the following was adopted : — 

" For the puipose of the census the rule has been adopted to 
consider no aggregation of mills and industrial combinations, 
unless it consists of a number of formerly independent mills 
which have been brought tc^ether into one company under a 
charter obtained for that purpose. We, therefore, exclude from 
this category many large establishments, comprising a number of 
mills which have grown up, not by combination with other 
mills, but by the erection of new plants or the purchase of old 
ones." 

The statement shows a total authorised capitalisation. May 31, 
1900, for the 183 corporations reported of 3,607,539,200 doL 
(721.507,840^.), and capiUl stock issued of 3,085,200,868 doL 
(617,040,173/. 12«0. The authorised capital includes 

270,127,250 dol. (54,025,450i.) in bonds; 1,259,540.900 doL 
(251, 908,1 80t) in prefei-red stock, and 2,077,871,050 dol. 
(415,574,210;.). 

The total value of all the products of the combinations 
reported is 1,661,295,364 doL (332,259,072/. 16s.), and subtracting 
the value of the products of the hand trades, or mechanical 
and allied industries, which amount to 1,216,165,160 dol. 
(243,233,032/.), the product of the industrial combinations in 1900 
is found to be equivalent to over 20 per cent, of the total gross 
products of the manufacturing industries of the United States as 
they existed in 1890. 

The 183 corporations above-mentioned employed 399,192 
labourers, receiving 194,534,715 dol. (38,906,943/.) in wages. 
Employment was also given to 24,585 salaried officials, clerks, 
ftc, receiving a total of 32,653,628 dol. (6,530,725/. 12s.) in 
salaries. The miscellaneous expeni^e of these combinations aggi'e- 
gated 151,851,077 dol. (30,370,215/. 85.). The total cost of 
material used was 1,085,083,828 dol. (217,016,765/. 12*.). The 
gross value of products, less the value of material purchased 



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FHIliADELPHlA. 11 

in i>artly manufactured form, gives the net or trae value 
of products of these combinations aa 1,051,981,586 floL 
(2]ll,396,317i. 4s.). 

According ta induatriea the corporations were distributed an 
foUowfl : — 



A„,.,-. 


OpIUl ! 


InTCUed. 


V»lueo( product.. 




"c»r«^i^ 


SurtiDs. 


' CniTWicy. 1 


Sterling. 




~ML»r.. ! 


< 


; Dol>™, ■ 






Kl.Tift.aH 1 


C8.3U,«H 11 


1 iW8.s2e,tn 


10],T»,28« i. 




Ue,«2t.6S3 ' 


«B.S14,7!e IS 


1 m,*08.oai 


s«,4ai,«l« « 


ChemlciliindaUlnlprDclucti ... 


lill,0OT.8eT 


Se,00<),8T7 H 


IS!1,M1,7«4 


8^478,848 1* 


ituo Iron nod sttel 




»,70i.aeo 4 


: leo, 154,701 


38,080,810 12 


I.lquonud bavcnni 


nel^BsJDB . 


2»;6»:;mi IE 


oa.4n,i7» 


18,8S8,«M It 




»&,»6s,esa , 


i;,i83,ia« ij 


»i,aab,Mt 


17,197,108 II 




]j,i»i,8;ii . 


«,2>V.E7a 12 




14,8II,S0a 1* 




K.tes.eoe 


]r,4M,7ZI 4 


7i,m,^fa 


14,177,610 8 




ffltlTMloii 1 


l!.M8,Bin t 


(G,0M,829 


3,0I8,M» If 


P>p«r«>dFrintlDi 


M,M4,esi 


ii,eu,9a« * 


, 44,418.411 


8.e8^881 8 


CU7. ffU«, Md noat prodocM... 


«,a77.198 


M76.W' IK 


29,2118,182 


4.egi,6H s 


Luub«r ud til nuafwluHB .... 


U,t'H),tSl ■ 


«,8M,W« 4 


, 20,«».816 


*,OT»,J»1 


HlKttlviroiu [ndnBlrlH 


<fi,4(It,g«9 


olwti,™ W 


4«,MB.07» 


8,721,014 12 



Anew Hour mill for export purposes, called the East Coast S"*.*^'"'* 
Milling Company, will be built at ^Delaware Avenue *°*1 G''^'! cwnwuiT 
Street, Philadelphia, with an output capacity of 5,000 barrels 
per day. The wharf at the foot of Green Street has been pax- 
cliHsed by the Company for the purpose of loading ships direct for 
Europe, &c. It will be the largest dour mill east of the Alleghany 
mountains. It is capitalised at 1,400,000/. and incorporated under 
tlie Laws of the State of New Jersey by Philadelphia and New 
York capitalists. Work is now being commenced for the purpose 
of erecting the property. 

Advices from all the important coal producing centres show Ooal bmd« 
that the large production which the United States attained in ^"^ ^**'* 
1900 has been exceeded iu 1901 by about 30,000,000 tons, which 
brings the output of the latter year up to approximately 
300,000,000 short tons. Even this very large amount would have 
been exceeded had it been within the power of the transport 
companies to handle tlie product, in order to brii^ it to the 
market. During most of the year, and particularly during the 
latter half, the scarcity of truck supplies was a constant complaint 
from coal shippers, and this condition became so emphasised in 
December tbat a coal famine was apprehended in several of the 
Eastern Cities, The previous short supply had been rendered more 
acute by heavy floods, which not only interfered with the trans- 
port companies, but caused the cessation of operations at a 
number of collieries in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania. So 
inadequate were the railroad facilities to respond to the ilemands 
placed upon them in the last two weeks of December, that coal 
was at a premium in Pittsburg, a condition unprecedented in 
the industrial history of that city. 

In reviewing the coal mining industry of the United States as 
a whole, one change that has taken place in the last few years is 



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12 



PHILADELPHIA 



worthy of special notica This has been tlie practical elimination 
of anthracite coa! as a factor in manufacturing enterprises. T do 
not, of course, include in this statement eome BEtablishments in a 
few large Eaatem Cities, such as New York, Boston, Fhtladetphia, 
&c, whete as in large buildings power is furnished with the 
premises and is obtained from st^m raised from hard coal ; but as 
B blast-furnace fuel and in establishments where lai^ quantities 
of coal are consumed, anthracite coal has given way to bituminous 
coal or to coke. Anthracite coal has now become almost entirely 
a domestic fuel, and apart from the irregularities in production, 
produced by strikes or other disturbing influences, the annual 
fluctTiation of the trade may be said to follow the readings of the 
thermometer, varying according to increased population and the 
uncertain elements of prosperity or the reverse. In some 
locsUties, anthracite coal is a luxury and is used only in periods 
of exceptional prosperity, such as have been recorded in 1901. 



Pkoddction of Anthracite and Bituminous Coal in the United 
States from 1880 to 1900, by Quinquennial Averages. 





ftuMtitj 






AntbTMile. 


Bitummoi.. 


1S80. 

1881-86 .. 
1888-90 .. 
1B91-96 .. 
1896-1900 .. 


Short tons. 

28,649,811 

36,lt>4.1S8 

.. <2,151,86* 

6B,406,lfl9 
66,626,166 1 


Short tons. 
42,831,768 
70,816,115 
84,488,681 
128,216,327 
171,685,687 



Production of anthracite coal in 1901 will have probably 
exceeded that of 1900 by about 8,000,000 tons, and will exceed the 
year 1899 by about 5,000,000 tons. The exceptional prosperity 
which prevailed throughout the United States during 1901, together 
with the fact that the coal regions were free from labour disturb- 
ances of any note, enabled the output to be increased in an unusual 
d^;ree. A large amount of authracite coal was shipped to the 
west and north-weat last year and consumed in regions where it is 
looked upon as a luxury only to be used in years of plenty. 

I I'ennsylvania continues to hold undisputed supremacy as the 
coal-producing State, her combined product of hard and soft coal 
amounting to more than half the total output of the United 
States. 

1 The bituminous product of Pennsylvania in 1900 was 
79,842,326 short tons, something more than one-thii-d the total 
bituminous output for that year, Pennsylvania's bituminous pro- 
duction for 1901 will be between 85,000,000 and 90,000,000 tons. 
Maryland's coal-mining industiy (bituminous) in 1900, was 
somewhat injured by labour strikes and the production was 



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PHILADBLfHIA. 13 

reduced by nearly 800,000 short tone in comparison with the year 
1899. The procluctioii from 1901, however, will probably equal, 
if not exceed, that of 1899, and will reach about 5,000,000 tons. 

Virginia and West Virginia combined in 1900 produced a little Wert 
over 25,000,000 short tons, of which something over 90 per cent Virgink 
is credited to the latter State. For 1901 it ia estimated that these o^""*"' 
two States will have an output of about 30,000,000 tons. West 
Virginia is now the tliird in rank among the coal-prodncing 
States, and is destined to displace Illinois, which now ranks next 
to Pennsylvania. 

The Beaumont oil diaeovery threatens to check the coal li"Ji»n 
inthistry of the Indian Territory aad Aiteinaas. By far the greatest j^^^ 
portion of the products of these coal fields is marketed in the Stat« oil diacoiwj 
of Texas. The introduction of oil as fuel will displace a lai^e coal clieck* 
tonnage hitherto shipped from these mines. Should the railroad ^^"* "^ 
companies of Texas adopt oil as a fuel, the situation may become 
serious lor the coal mines of the Indian Territory, although the 
natural increase in the consumption of coal in other directions will 
poa^ibly modify the effect of the oil competition to a great extent. 

The progress made during the last few yearn in the develop- Progrew in 
me I it of the use of under-cutting machinery for the mining of"™'"«- 
bituminous coal in the United States has attracted much attention 
in the coal mining industry. The statistics for 1900 issued by the 
United States Geological Survey, show that about one-fourth of 
tile total amount of bituminous coal mined in the States was 
undercut by the use of machines. Nearly 50 per cent, of the total 
increase in the output of bituminous coal in 1900 was contributed 
by mines working with under-cutting machines. The use of 
these machines will probably show a Targe increase for the year 
1901. 

The latest statistics available regarding the imports and expoits Imports ud 
of coal during 1901, are for the 11 months ending November 30. ^^'*"'^ 
Both show a slight decline, although the decrease in imports is 
hardly noticeable. The imports are principally obtained from 
British Columbia and from Australia to San Francisco and other 
Califomian ports, also from Nova Scotia to New England ports, 
pai'ticularly Boston. The piincipal export trade is vifi the inter- 
national bridges to Canada. The exports of coal for the first 11 
months of 1901 show a falling-off" of a little over 200,000 long tons. 
The export of anthracite increased about 400,000 tons, while 
bituminous exports decreased by (i00,000 tons. 



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11 Diontlii 
SpTember. 



PHILADELPHU. 



Exports ending November 30, in the last three years, have 
been as follows in long tons : — 





1809. 


1900. 


1901. 




LoDgton*. 
1,664.188 
8,644,879 


ass- 

6,649,712 


LoDg torn. 
I,BW,48S 
6,043,221 


Total 


S,!!08,817 


7,146,089 


6,98f,M9 



Anthraotte 
coal tmdeL 
1901. 



1901 will be memorable iii the history of the anthracite 
ooal trade ; not only was the output the laigest on record, exceed- 
ii^ that of 1900 by over 8,000,000 tons, but the prices secured 
have been satisfactory to the producer ; this combination of large 
output and good prices is a decided novelty. The record-breaking 
output of 1895 was accompanied by a fierce competition for freight 
accommodation among the different producers, and the total result 
of the year's operations was not financially satisfactory. The 
present condition of the anthracite trade is totally different from 
its position a few years ago. 

The control of production and transport in 1898 seemed to 
be hopelessly confused, and the industry was in an miusually 
poor condition. 

The extremely favourable outlook of the anthracite coal trade 
in 1901 is due to three causes. First, an absolute control by 
the " Community of Interest " plan, perfected in the Temple 
Iron Company and by an understanding with the chief holders 
of stock in the Delaware and Hudson, and Delaware, Lackawanna 
and Western Companies. Second, the general prosperity of the 
country. Third, the cold weather and high winds in February, 
March and April, which caused a heavy consumption of coal, 
so that stocks at many inland points, and particularly in the 
West, were completely gone when the warm weather come. 
The last two causes fleeted production, the lirst, prices. 

The outlook for 1902 is bright. The " Community of Interest " 
plan has proved very successful in controlling production and 
prices during a good year. What it can do in a poor year remains 
to be seen. Everything favours a good demand for 1902; some 
labour troubles are anticipated, but it seems probable that there 
will be no open rupture between employers and miners, at all 
events, to any very great extent. 

The great bulk of the anthracite cool exported from the United 
States, goes by rail or canal to Canada ; tbei-e are also small ship- 
ments to Mexico and the West Indies. Several attempts have 
been made from time to time to build up a market in Europe, but 
these efforts seem to have amounted to httle or nothing. The first 
exports of any importance from the United States to Europe were 



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PHILADELPHIA. 15 

made last October, and they were entirely due to an unusually low 
oueari freight rate, which ib the principal factor in exporting 
Auierifan anthracite to Europe with any profit. A number of 
onlers were placed for lots of from 3,000 to 10,000 tons tor 
European porta, and with the low freight rates, the movement 
mi^ht have aseunietl considerable proportions, but for the great 
deiuHud iur anthmctte coal that started in the United States. 
It ia reported that one firm in I'hiiadelphia was offered a contract 
for n 100,000 tons for export to France, but refused it, having at 
the time no coal in storage at tidewater and not caring to take 
such a lat^e contract when the liome market was so stroug. 

it is hardly to be expected that anthracite from American 
njines will ever be largely exported to Europe ; low ocean freight 
and iiigh prices for Welsh anthracite are the only conditions under 
which such shipments are possible. 

The question which mining companies faced at the opening of BitumL 
1901 was whether railway control would be satisfactorily exer- ^^^ " 
ciset! ; in case production were excessive, would the railroads 
restrict the output by limitiug carriage in all eases, or would there 
be discrimination shown to certain grades of coal and certain 
companies. However, producers, while paying higher freight 
rat«^<, appear to have found that ihere has been a stefwly and ftai 
attempt to restrict supply to market needs. 

Wliile there have been no changes in the policies of tlie rail- 
roads, there have been some very large consolidations of interests 
among the mine owners, particularly in West Vii^jnia These 
consolidations have had for their object the securing of more 
favourable freight rates and a uniform distribution of trucks at the 
mines. 

iTcnei-ally speaking, foreign trade was of little inipottance to 
bituminous shippers during 1901 ; none of the openings for 
American bituuiiiious coal abroad, which were so much talked 
about in 1899 and 1900, were heard of in 1901. The smalhiess of 
the export movement was due to several causes ; at the bt^inning 
ol the year ocean freight rates were high enough to prevent new 
contracts being taken for European shipments, but by the end of 
the year, when freights had veiy much fallen, the demand of the 
home market was so strong that ibreign business was not desired. 
Enfjlisli opeiators also sold coal during the year at considerable 
reduction from the high piice of lilOO, when so much was heard of 
Americans supplanting liiitish coal in German, French, Italian 
and Australian ports. As a result, American coal, early , in the 
year, was unable to compete with British coal at European ports 
and the new busiuese done by American shippers was almost 
entirely confined to the West Indies and Central and South 
America. 

The exports of bituminous coal from the United States for the 
first 11 months of 1901 amounted to 5,043,221 long tons, a 
decrease of 600,000 tons gainst the same period in 1900. In 
;respect to freight rates during the year, charters were obtained 
early m Mareh from Chesapeake Bay ports to the Mediterranean 



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16 PHILADELPHIA. 

at 3 dol 84 c (15s. 4J<i) per ton ; Ly May the rate had fallen to 
3 dol. 16 c. to 3 dol, 12 c. (12s. 7jd. to 12^. 5Jd) aad by the end of 
October tu 2 dol. 22 c. to 2 doL 16 c. (8s. lOirf. to 8s. 7f<f.) but 
^ -was about 2 dol. 28 c. (9s. l^d.) at the end of the year. 

PomiBXnniii Prior 10 1850 the colce industry of the United States was so 
insigniiicant that no mention is made of it iu the census returns, 
and in that year the total product amounted in value to but 
16,250 dol. (3,050/.). All of this waa produced iu Pennsylvania. 

The growth of the coke industry has, naturally, been parallel 
with the development of iron manufacture. According to a state- 
ment, recently issued by the United States Census Bureau, in 1880, 
77"3 per cent, of the total product of coke iu the United States 
was conautned by the blast furnaces of the country as compan'd 
with a percentage of 92'3 in 1890. 

The figures for later years are not obtainable at present. 

There was an increase of 96-2 per cent, in the number of tons 
of coke produced in 1899 over that produced in 1889. but only an 
increase of 10-6 per cent, in the number of new establishments, and 
44-3 per cent, in the number of ovens. 

The averi^e product per establishment in 1889 was 45,909 
sliort tons, and in 1899, 81,497 short tons. There has been a 
corresponding inci'ease in the amount of capital invested, and an 
almost equal increase in the number of i>eople employed. Almost 
the entire output of coke is the product from the distillation or 
combustion of bituminous coal in retorts, ovens or pita. As a 
result of the increasing use of electricity for lighting purposes, and 
of water-gas for coal-gas, the amount of coke obtained as a by- 
product in the manufacture of gas from coal is decreasing every 
year. 

Three classes of by-product ovens are used by coke producers 
in the United States. They are the Ottfi-Hoffman, the Semet- 
Solvay and the New ton -Chambers. 

As coke production is generally carried on in connection with 
coal mining, it is not suiprising that Pennsylvania, the lai^est 
coal -producing State, is the most important of coke-producing 
States as well. 

Out of a total of 241 establishments, Pennsylvania has 89 ; 
of the entire number of ovens (47,142) she uses 26,920, 

The total output of coke in the United States for the year 
1899 was 16,640,798 tons, of which Peimsylvania produced 
13,245,594 tons, or nearly 80 per cent, of the whole. 

The followii^ table is taken from the recently-issued Census 
Bulletin on the coke industries of the United States : — 



* Tha pur of eicbange mcd in tbis report ii G dol. per li 



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PUILADELPHIA. 









TaluB. 
















Onmnof. 


Steriing. 






Dollan. 




KitobUabmuiU in P«u>. 










■jlraDU 


Nnmber 


S9 












20,818,147 


*,Q42fiia a 


V^e^ntT, .. .. 


HiunlMr 


9;J88 






W ■»■ paid per ttniram . . 






4,ei6,6Gl 


808,830 4 












"•«lt 






11,678,W9 


!,836,816 18 






13,Z46,&M 


22,09V,iei 


4,407,880 4 


rieldofcoaliDooke 


Per'^nt 


■' OS 


243,207 


48,641 8 



' Thii rsprasents the ralue of the laoda, buildiagf. orens, machiner;, tools, 
il&plailieiite, and the lire raipit>tl required to cur; on the stock, but doei not 
inalnde the oftpitti itook of any of the eoTporationi. 

t Including 19,490,030 torn of ooalTaluedit 10,899,832 dol. (2,179,966^. n<.)- 

The total production of pig-iron in 1901 was 15,878,354 groBfl Pwduetion trf 
tons, against 13,789,242 tons in 1900. 13,620,703 tons in 1899,^*^'™"- 
11,773,934 tons in 1898, and 9,652,680 tona in 1897. The fol- 
lowing table gives the half-yearly production of pig-iron in the 
last four years in gross tons ; — 



Period. 


Talne. 


Pint Half. 


Second Half. 


Total. 


1898 

1899 

1900 

1001 


QroM Tom. 
6.869,703 
6.28n,lOT 
7,648,669 
7,674,613 


OroM Ton*. 
6,904,231 
7,831.536 
6446,678 
8,208.741 


Qrow Tom. 
11,773,934 
I8.fi20,708 
11<,7S9,24S 
16,878,364 



The increase in production in the first half of 1901 over the' 
second half of 1900 was 1,527,940 tons, the increase in pro- 
duction in the second half of 1901 oyer the first half of 1901 was 
529,128 tons, and the increase in 1901 over 1900 was 2,089,112 
tons. This is a larger increase than the year 1899 shows over 
the year 1898. 

The production of Bessemer pig-iron in 1901 was 9,596,793 BeMemar 
tons, against 7,943.452 tons in 1900. pig-iron. 

The production of basic pig-iron in 1901 was 1,448,850 tons, B»«o 
against 1.072,376 tons in 1900. pig-iron. 

The production of spi^eleisen and ferromaDganese in 1901 Spie^leiien 
was 291,461 tons, against 255,977 tons in 1900. "d firro- 

The production in charcoal pig-iron in 1901 was 360,147 tons, ^^^^' 
against 339,874 tons in 1900. The production of mixed charcoal pig-iron, 
and coke pig-iron in 1901 was 23,294 tons, against 44,608 tons in 
1900. 



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«utaut of 



18 FBILADBLPUIA. 

The stocki! of piK-iruu wliich were unsold in the hands of 
manufacturers, or wluch were under tlieir control at the close of 
1901, and were not intended for their own coaautoption, amounted 
to only 70,647 tons, againat 442,370 tons at the close of 1900. 

The American Pig-iron Storage Warrant Company held in its 
yards on December 31, 1901, 3,000 grosa tons of pig-iron, of which 
2,400 tons were coke, and 600 were charcoal iron. None of this 
iron v.as controlled by the makers. Adding tin's 3,000 tons to 
the 70,647 tons of unsold stocks above mentioned, we have 
73,647 tons of pig-iron which were on the market at the close 
of 1901 

The whole number of furnattes in blast on December 31, 1901, 
was 266, against 232 on December 31, 1900. 

The American Iron and Steel Association has completed its 
statistics on the production of all kinds of rails in the United 
States for 1900. In March, 1901 the production of Bessemer steel 
rails by the producers of Bessemer steel ingots in 1900 was given 
as amounting to 2,361,921 <jr05s tons. To this total must now be 
added 21,733 tons of Bessemer rails made in the same year from 
purchased goods and re-rolled and renewed Bessemer rails, making 
a grand total for the year of 2,383,654 tons of Bessemer steel rails. 
In the same year also was made the lai^eat quantity in recent 
years of open-hearth rails (1,333 tons), and tlie smallest quantity of 
iron rails ever recorded (695 tons), wliich, added to the Bessemer 
steel rails, as above, makes the total production of rails in 1900 
amount to 2,385,682 tons, the largest production obtained in one 
year. 

Tlie total production of all kinds of rails in 1899 was 2,272,700 
tons, of which 133,836. tons weighed less than 45 lbs. to the yard, 
1,559,340 tons weighed 45 lbs. and less than 85 lbs. to the yard, 
eind 579,524 tons weighed 85 lbs. and over to the yard. The 
steel rails made in 1899 are reported as amounting to 164,246 
tons. 

The following table gives the total production of rails in the 
United States in 1900 according to the weight of the rails per 
yard, including 101,312 tons which are reported as steel rails: — 



EiDdt. 


Quantity. 


b™.„„. 


Open-Hearth. 


Inm. 


Under 45 lb. 

4Mb*, Slid le» chui 86 llx. .. 
85 lb*, and OTSr 


Qroaa long. 
166,950 
1,626,646 

602,068 


Urou Tods. 
886 

447 


eroMToiu. 
6» 


Total 


2;88S,6M 


1,888 


6»S 



United Stktei During last year the export of farm implements amounted to 
foMign tmdo nearly 17,000,000 doL (3,400,000/.)- The most important customer 

prodncts. 



in this line was British North America, which took 3,812,553 doL 



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PUIJJLDBLPHIA. 19 

(762,610/. 13s.) worth of agricultural implemeuts last year. 
ifext is GoTDiauy, and the third on the list ia the Argentine 
Sepablic. 

In 1901 the export of railway cars, carriages, and cyclea 
amounted to the value of nearly 11,000,000 doL (2,200,000/.). 

Next in importance in iron and steel exports are locomotives, 
of which 448 were sent abroad during 1901, at an average price of 
a little over 9,000 dol. (1,800/.) each. 

American exports of structural steel, railway bars, nails, hard- 
ware, and numerous other products of iron and steel amounted in 
value last year, to a little over 120,000,000 dol. (24,000,000/.), 
whilst the imports of these manufactures in 1901 amounted to a 
little over 20,000,000 dol. (4,000,000/.), a slight decline compared 
with 1900. Of these imports the chief article ia tin-plate, of which 
upwards of 5,000,000 dol. (1,000,000/.) worth was imported into 
this country in spite of the protective duty of 80 per cent. But 
nearly all this tin-plate goes out of the country again with a rebate 
duty, as cans for preserved meats, fish, fruit, and other pro- 
visions. The rest of the steel imports consists chiefly of machinery, 
fine cutlery, and firearms. 

The total production of locomotives at the Baldwin Locomotive B»W»in 
Works in the year 1901 was 1,375, of which 174 were exported ^^°"' 
to the following countries: — New Zealand, Cuba, Mexico, West 
Australia. Canada, Spain, Japan, France, Brazil, Hawaii, Costa 
Rica, Bolivia, G^uatemala Peru, Ecuador, Algeria, South Africa, 
Chile, Corea, Santo Domii^, Butch Guiana, Yucatan, and Puerto 
Bico. 

Of the 1,375 locomotives produced last year, 526 only were of 
the compound system. 

The average number of men employed by the firm throughout 
the year was 9,595, and the maximum number was 1 1,000. The 
average pay per man was 13 dol. (at 4 dol, 86 c. to the 1/. equals 
2/. 13». 6d.) per week. 

The weight of each locomotive and tender (empty) was 
168,876 lbs. 

In the oonstructton of these locomotives, together with the 
spare parts (which forms an important feature in the business of 
the Baldwin Locomotive Works), the following raw materials were 
used: — 



ArtielM. 


Lbi 


Quantity. 


Iron and 9t«e1 toTpnm. . 

.. «^if 


78,936,017 
67.764.160 


Steel OMtinn 

K»lleaMain>ncutmpi.. 

ADthxtMite coal 




9,304,498 
2,S83,031 
2i.482,4S4 
1,074,812 
41,730 
02,730 



• short too of 3,000 Dm. t fioglJah too of 8,840 Ibi. 

(68) 1 



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20 



PHIUDILPHIA. 



The following Premium Plan for tho pajTment of workmen has 
been adopted and is now in full working order at several of the 
large tool and drill manufacturing companies in Cincinnati ■ — 

The Premium Plan conditions were aa foUowe — 

1. That each workman shall be guaranteed his regular day'a 
work wages so long as he shall remain in the employment of the 
finn or company. 

2. That the time limits shall never be lower than the beat 
time made with the same tools under the day's work plan. 

3. That no one shall be discharged because of failure to reduce 
his time below the limits. 

4. That, in addition to his regular wages, each workman shell 
be paid one-half of his regular hourly rate, less any fraction ot 
a cent., for each and every hour he may reduce his time below the 
prescribed limits. 

5. That a limit once fixed shall not be lowered, except through 
the introduction of new methods of doing the work. 

6. That all premiums shall be paid within two weeks of the 
completion of the work upon which they were earned. 

7. That at the end of one year's time the system will be 
withdrawn from all those not wishing to continue to work 
under it. 

8. That, if withdrawn, the workpeople shall not be required to 
work at the same rate of speed without an equivalent in wages. 

These conditions were submitted to the Grand Master of the 
International Association of Machinists, who expressed himself 
as satisfied with them and presented them at the following Con- 
vention of tlie International Association of Macfainiata and the 
following conditions were then added : — 

9. Any member of the International Association of Machinists, 
working at the premium work system, shall not be permitted to 
earn more than 10 per cent, in excess of the average wage paid 
in the locality in which ho ia workiag. A shop committee shall 
ascertain each pay day the amount earned by each member under 
the premium work system. All over 10 per cent, he may earn 
ahaU be forwarded t« the lodge, of which he is a member, and 
reported to the financial secretary of the lodge, 

10. !Xo member of the International Association of Machinists 
sliall be permitted to run two or more machines, except where an 
f^reement has been entered into with the organisation and the 
firm. Such agreement shall only apply to special machines, and 
shall require all machinists to be members of the International 
Association of Machinists. 

It was moved at the Convention that under these 10 condi- 
tions, members of the I nternational Association of Machinista should 
be at liberty to accept the premium work. The motion was 
rejected and, during the discussion that followed, there appeared 
a decided and almost unanimous tendency on the part of the men 
to confound premium work with piece-work. 

Tlie action of the International Association of Machinists at the 
C'oiivention and the unsuccessful machinists* strike of the summer 



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FHIL&UICLPRIA. 



31 



of 1901 are now matters of histoiy ; the Premium Plan is to- 
day operating satisfactorily in Cincinnati, and the firms are 
endeavouring to extend its infiueuce to others as rapidly as 
occasion permits. When this system was first introduced com- 
parative statistics were compiled, shovdng the time consumed 
in the past on each operation of ihe standard line of pro- 
duction. 

The following are the resnlto shown : — 

Premium ti(£et showing the earnings of John Smith. Ko. 
Tool No. 

On turning, boring, and facing. 

Six pieces, marked 11 A. 3. For Piece Order No. 
Kig. 1. 



Tim«. 


Hoan. 


Rata. 


K-nung.. 


Dtttostid 


Time limit .. 

Aetmltimo .. 
Pramium 


10 
10-80 

m 

18* 


Dol, £ *, 

as^ s 12 

14 2 16 


Dol, £ .. d. 

2*-78 = 4 19 11 
1-89 7 « 


24/7/99 
3/8/99 


Labour oort of work.. 
Laboar co»t per pioce 
lunpeeted .. 


36-67 6 6 Bi 





By Foreman. Read notice on reverse side. 

Notict. — It is the purpose of the management of the company 
to compensate its employ^ according to their individual ability 
to turn oat good work at niiniqium coat, and in order that this 
may be done by a system that will nut in any way endanger the 
pi^sent scale of wages, it lias been decided to adopt the Premium 
Plan. Under this system each workman is assured his regular 
going rate, whilst being afforded an opportunity of earning a 
substantial bonus on all wurk, which he completes within the 
specitied time set by the office. Tables have been prepared 
showing the average time consumed in the past and the per- 
formance of each operation on the several parts of our standard 
machines. These averages will be regarded as representing the 
minimum time within which the work must be completed in order 
to entitle the workman to a premium. It will not be dif&calt, 
therefore, for anyone to add something to his earnings, the amount 
of iucrease depending solely upon the individual etiort of the 
workman. There is no risk of lose, but every opportunity for gain. 
A time limit once fixed will not be changed, except through the 
introduction of new methods of doing the work, so there need b© 
no fear of earning too much money. Those who earn the most 
will be worth the moat. 

'* This slip shows on the reverse side the amount earned by 



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PUlLADSIfHU. 



you on the work iBclicated id the heading. The rate per hour at 
which premiums are figured vary according to the going rate of 
the workman, a schedule of which la given below : — 



B>tM. 


Premiums 


B-11 




ie-18 




14-16 




16-17 




18-19 




20-21 




22-28 




24-26 




S6-27 





" The conditions governing the payment of premiums are as 
follows : — 

" Premiums will not be paid on any work that is not completed 
to the entire satisfaction of the foreman. 

"Every workman must assure himself before commencing a 
piece of work that it will finish to the required size, whether the 
work is to be completed by him or others. 

" No allowances can be made tor bad material or deficient 
workmanship in any previous part of the work unless the same 
is poiuted out to and endorsed by the foreman as soon as dis- 
covered, 

"This slip must be carefully preserved, both for your own 
reference, and in order that it may be returned to the office in 
good condition in case of your leaving our employ. 

" All premiums will be paid on the first regular pay day 
following the completion of ihe work upon which they were 
earned." 
PracUcKi The results obtained from the previous plan appear to be 

working of entirely satisfactory, 

ihe syitem ];ijg following table (Fig. 2) represents the front and back of 

one of the comparative time cards used in this matter, upon which 
is given the time consumed on each shop order in performing the 
several operations on a staple article of manufacture. The time 
limits of this piece of work were fixed at 27 hours for boring, 
66 hours for planing, and 21 hours for drilling and tapping ; the 
actual time consumed on this order were 18*48 and 18 hours 
respectively, showing a total time-saving of 36 hours, or a cash 
gain of 8 dol. 82 c. (1/. 16«. 3d,), which snm is equally divided 
ixitween the workman and employer. But the gain to the employer 
does not stop there, for there is that gain also due to the increased 
ontpnt of the plant. 



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PHUJLDILPHIA. 



Comparative time card (front). 

Symbol 2 m. 14. He&d. Time od six pieces. 

Fig. 2. 





Time. 


8. V. Haobioe. 


1 BarinK 

2 Pl»^ 

3 , Tapping and driUing 

4 1 


27 
66 
27 





Remarks. — Time limit was fixed on c 
Comparative time card (back). 



)mpletioii of order. 



Order. 


Job. 


1. 


2. 


s. 


4. 


182 




2S 


861 


331 




277 




27i 


81 


291 




81fi 








27 




379 




21i 




24 




428 




sat 


63 


20 




576 






51 


19* 




6S2 




19 


m 


18fr 




1,127 




16 


*» 


18 





The saving in time on the job first cited is as 70 to 100 houia. 
Fig. 3 in table form shows the result obtained by an employi 
in 1,770 hours' continuous work under the Premium FIelq, in 
which the new time is to the old time as 1,770 is to 2,500 hours 
or as 70'8 is to 100 hours. 

This table shows the time consumed in performing the 
same: — 



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PHILADELPHIA. 



Fig. 3. 





Huiuber 














IMm. 




Time 


Aetna! 




Form 


BrW>« 


entrnxwigt, 






XlB.. 


E.r<Md. 


Con. " 


CMt. 




In Lot. 


















HDun. 


Hon™. 






«".. rt. 


Do). « i. <. 






SO 




0«= »■ ij 


8-SO 


■ 1 H 










BO 


ISO 11 2 










IB 


IM 


1E6 


t-M ) T B 


10 -80 


• t S 








W 


11 


O^W » II 


7-80 


I 11 2 


0-82 1 7 B 






U 






T-» 


1 II 2 


1-M 1 • 4 






M 


SO 




T-80 




I'M 1 S 2 




fl 


M 


») 


1-M 411 


7 -BO 


1 11 2 


S-M 1 • 1 




« 


SO 




1-M » C 




1 11 2 


O-U 1 • 1 






M 


11 






1 11 2 


8-24 1 4 Uk 






10 


18 


SM 1" 2j 


10 BO 




18-00 1 12 O" 






80 








4 B 2 


17-84 8 114 














4 12 


II 'IS 1 B I 


11 






U 


IM a s 




1 8 1 


IB-M 12 4 






«s 








1ST 




It 




«s 








1ST 


14-81 S IS g 


1« 




se 


IB 


a-M 3 




I 8 1 


14 82 2 18 1 








48 






14-82 2 18 a 


IB 


g 




4» 








14-B» 2 1« 8 


IR 








l-K T J 


14M 


2 IB i 




SO 






IB 


Z'oe OBI 


14-04 




11-86 2 7 U 












14-04 






M 






M 


2-» 0*4 






11 -TO 2 > S 








U 




14-04 






M 












2 IS 2 


HOT 2 8 1 


» 








8-M I Oil 


ej-44 


11 8 M 


12-21 6 8 W 








101 


0-26 1 1 




1; 8 >I 


K'lB 8 « St 










S-ll 1 ( » 
t-H 1 4 « 




17 8 ^ 


Bin 8 8 If 


W 












n-M 8 11 6l 


n 


'2 


1«0 
29 


m 


a-88 ISO 

o-« 2 T 


lO-OO 


I '7 








lot 








IS 9 ^ 


2»14 4 12 ( 






11 




O-M S 2 


6-40 
















6-<e 




4 87 18 I 


u 






u 


0-01 17 




!'iS 








M 




a-u R 4 


IT-IB 


14-81 2 18 4 


M 




10 


M 






!'!5! 


«-7S 1 7 01 


n 




19 


U 


_i|_j_H[ 




8-80 1 16 tI 




ToUl.. 


M 


40 


W-M 


211 10) 


ll-iO 2 4 4 




I.UO 


1,170 


WOT woo 


«»-» 


iti It i 


bit-m 110 It t 



Note. — (Showino the gains in wages effected in actual practice 
by workmen in 1,770 houta' continuous work under the Premium 
Plan, tt^ether with the former and present wage coat of the work.) 
Same operation on successive lots ut' the same piene ; in one caae 
the time was cut from 72 to 50J hours in one leap ; in another 
there was gradual shrinkage, Anally amounting to a time limit of 
64 hours. Taken altogether this table ie an excellent example of 
what may be expected from the Premium Plan, the records 
througliout having been made by the same man on the same tool 
by th6 same method and under the same conditions. 

In the deteimlDing of time limits there must be a painstaking 
effort to be fair, though it must not be forgotten that there is a 
danger of adopting too high as well as too low a rate. As an illustra- 
tion Fig, 4 is appended, which is a table of actual lecords made in 
mnehiuing 10 successive lots of a certain piece of work, Tliis 
job was not offered, however, under the Premium Plan until the 
seventh of these 10 lots had been completed, when the time limit 
was fixed at 40 hours. Immediately, from a best previous record 
of 38j hours, the time was reduced to 18J houis and finally U> 
18 hours. 



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PRILlDBLPHtA. 
Fig. 4. 





■ 




DoOmk. 


DolUn. 


374 


6 


78 


8 00 


6 80 


489 


6 


72 


2-00 


4-18 


624 


e 


66i 


2-OD 


3-76 


769 


e 


Ml 


2-00 


8-63 


943 




4!} 


a 00 


aw 


n2H 


c 


40J 


2-00 


2-72 


1881 


« 


m 


2-00 


2-58 


itm 


6 


m 


3 1fi 


1S9 


IWS 


1! 


19 


3 10 


1-62 


1747 


6 


18 


8-22 


1-57 



^otf~ — (Showing the greatest reduction in time that haa been 
effected under the Premium Plan.) 

On the other hand, too low a limit is discouruging to tlie ' 
men. The intended effect of the plan is to preserve and strengthen 
the individuality of the workman and to reward him according to 
his ability. The employer cannot possibly gauge the exact wage 
value of any man, but he can, by means of the Premium Plan, 
make his earnii^ proportional to his ability, so that the mediocre 
man gets what he is worth in the labour market, the good man 
more and the best man moat. 

The Hooper concentrator, a comparatively recent invention, The Uoopw 
should prove of great value to miners in Australia, South Africa, c^^blrtor 
and other parts of the Kmpire, where the precious metals are for muhed 
difiicutt to work, owing to the absence of water. It ia well-known c™« bj dry 
that there are thousands of square miles in Australia alone where ?■***••- 
gold-bearing quartz-reefs abound, but whicli cannot at present 
be worked satisfactorily owing to the need of water As the 
Hooper concentrator eliminates this difficulty, a report on it may 
prove useful. 

This machine consists of a broadcloth table capable of various 
inclinations, supported by a grating and in turn supporting a mesh 
work of riffles and skimmers. Pulsations of air are introduced 
through a series of valves and beat upon the lower side of the 
table at the rate of 400 to 450 per minute, the strength of the 
stroke being regulated according to the peculiar characteristics of 
the ore treated. These pulsations project the tiny particles of dry 
crushed ore, which are on the table into the air, the lighter ones 
rising to greater heights than the heavier and so passing over the 
riffles, but guided in their prt^ress by the skimmers, toward the 
left side of the table. The heavier particles do not rise so high 
and fail to get over the riffles, but follow the same tu the opposite 
or right side of the table, while that material which is of an 
average weight passes down midway between the two extremes. 
It follows, therefore, that when a rock contains two or more metals 
they are gradually parted from each other and delivered as 
separate concentrates. 

<68) C 



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26 PHILADGLPUIA. 

It is necessary that thts ure be dry and ciiished until the 
several ((articles are thoroughly disintejirated. Tin- crushing must 
L>e done skilfully, producing a minimum of tine& After crushing 
the mass is screened into several sizes, usually thu^e passing 
tlirough 12, 20, 30, 40, (iO, 100, 120, and 150, and sometimes »s hi^h 
as 250 mcili. The sizing is necessary because difiereut inclinations 
are given to the top and the etvoke and pulsation of air \'ary botli 
in strength and lapiiUty with the sizes. 

Like all other concentrators this machine is not adapted to 
the treatment of all ores, nor is it under every condition bftier 
than any other machine, but it haa certain advantages which are 
striking. Tlie presence of antimony or graphite or talc, or other 
iuterl'ereuces, which render the wet processes more or less im- 
practicable (iocs not in any way interfere with the i-esults upon 
the Hooper concentrator. Only two conditions are recjuired ; the 
several parts of the ore must be capable of disintegration by 
crushing, and there must be an appreciable difTercnce in the 
specific gravitj' between them. 

, The machine has been commercially demonstrated upon 
corundum ; graphite, garnet, lead, and zinc ; lea^l, tin, and zinc ; 
copper ; copper and lead, copper and iron ; iron and lead ; gold ; 
gold and silver; gold, silver, and antimony; lead and Mlver; lead, 
silver, and antimony ; antimony ; manganese ; rutile ; tungsten and 
wolframite ; ferrochronie ; tin and monozite. 

At every atep in the treatment the ui-e is capable of careful 
observation, and the presence and ilirection of the values are 
capable uf detection. 

The absence of water makes a cleaner and more wholesome 
mill possible. There are no wet floors, no broken pipes, no 
expensive waterwajs to maintain, no periods of freezing up or 
of delay in work thi-ough drought. 

The iiiacliine has practically no wearing parts, and the mill, 
which is 100 miles from a railroad, will not be closed for days, 
because of tht; necessity of repairing the concentmtor. 

It weighs about 1 ton, but its heaviest part does not weigh 
more than 260 lbs. It is exceedingly simple in its operation, 
and, while some experience with it is ess^enlial to the successful 
treatment of any ore, a man of average intelligence can master it 
in a short time. An average of not above 1 and IJ horse-. 
power is required for each machine, and it can be worked by the 
same po^^'er that is used in i-unniug the crushers. 

The machine occupies about 3 by li feet floor space, and one 
man can work at least 10 of them successfully. The machine 
is made in two patterns, A and J!, which are the same, except 
that the latter is supplied with a stroke-adjusthig device, which is 
specially valuable upon an ore of a changing or dilficult charaeter. 
They are valued at 130/. (650 dol.) and loO^. (750 del.). 
I An inventor of Philadelphia lias recently taken out three 

patents for the manufacture and treatment of armour-plates The 
system consists in slowly heating a steel plate to a brigiit-retl, then 
submerging it in a bath of hardening liquid, keeping it in the bath 



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PHILADELPHIA. 37 

for a (iuffident lengtli of time l» effect the liardeniiig proceee aud 
maintaining the Imth as nearly as practicable at a temperatiite 
of about 60" to 70° Fahrenheit, and tben toughening the face of 
the baldened portion in surface-tempering, whereby an urmour-. 
plate of three different grades of steel may bo obtained. Another 
claim is less general and describes a mode of manufacturing iji 
armour-faced plate hardened to any re<|uired depth, which consists, 
in tdowly heating a plaw of low-grade or mild open-hearth steal 
ooDtainiug from 20 to' 50 per cent, of carbon, and iilloyeil with 
from IJ to 5 per cent of nickel, to a bright-red heat, submerging it 
when at this heat tor a sufficient length of time to effect the 
hardening process in a Itath of hardening liquid to a depth 
■con-espouding with the depth to which it is required to harden 
it, maintaining the bath during the process at a& nearly ik.i 
practicable a temperature of about 60° to 70° Faliienheit by 
-cooling it, annealing the back portion of the plat« by phicing upon 
the back of the plate when so heated, a plate heated to a greater 
heat, as a white beat, removing the plate from such bath, aud 
then toughenii^ the face of the hardened portion of the plate by 
aurface-tempering. 

The inventor in his other two patents claims t)ie following 
solutions for the treatment of steel ; — Sweet spirits of uitie, o ozs. ; 
aqua ammonia, ^ o^s. ; chloride of ammonium, 6 ozs. ; sulphate 
of zinc, ii ozs.; ground alum, 3 ozs.; glycerine, 8 i>:is. : water, 
1 gallon. Or sweet spirits of nitre, 3 ozs. ; aqua limmoniH, :i nzis. ; 
chloride of ammonium, li ozs.; sulpliate of zinc, '6 ozs.; giuund 
Alum, -i ozs,; glycerine, 8 ozs.; sulphate of copper, 1 oz. ; niti-ate 
of Boda, 1 oz. ; water, 1 gallon. 

The method of preparing these solutions is described as follows 
in two of the claims : — In mixing solutions for the treatment of 
steel containing ground alum, sulphate of zinc, water, glycerine, 
and other ingredients; Urst introducing the alum and sulphate 
into the water, maintaining such mixture in a state of rest for 
appi-oximately 12 hours, then adding the glycerine and other 
ingredients, aud maintaining the solution in a state of rest for 
approximately 24 hours before using. The method of making a 
solution lor the treatment of steel consists in first introducing 
3 ozs. of ground alum and 3 ozs. of sulphate of zinc into 1 gallon 
of water, maintaining such mixture in a state of rest for approxi- 
mately 12 hours, then adding glycerine, 8 ozs.; chloride of 
ammonium, ti ozs.; aqua ammonia, 3 ozs.; and sweet spirits of 
nitre, 3 ozs. 

The cycouic propeller appears to be likely to liave a great The ctcouI 
future. The merits claimed for it and which have been satis- p'opofi"'- 
factorily demonetrated are as follows : — 

At the high peripheral speed of 2,000 revolutions it does not 
■churn the water, thus demonstrating that the propeller has 
practically no slip. 

It throws the displaced water iu a line directly opposite to the 
movement of the boat, the water being absolutely controlled 
within the circle of the screw. 



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28 PHILADELl'IUA. 

It does not race at llie start, but iustautly takes hold of the 
water. 

It cannot operate beyond the radius of its own circle, and its 
action is therefore directly like a pump drawing water from the 
ship and delivering it sternwards with an accelerated velocity. It 
cannot Huck the boat down at the stern, as its action (as described 
above) entirely removes all possibility of the creation of a vacuum. 
A practical demonstration is made of a cyconic propeller 5 feet 
7^ inches in diameter at 250 revolutions driving a boat at 16 knots 
per hour, being stopped in 1^ of a 112 feet length upon quick 
reverse of the engines. Practical tests indicate that its backing 
efficiency has all the elements of strength required to bring a boat 
to dead stop in a shorter time than any propeller wheel so far 
introduced. 
MiohiMTy -:■ The little wooden plates which are so much used in the 
*'"'*"™°* restaurani, by the grocer, as well as by the greengrocer, are 
plMM.! '" uianulactnred in the United States by the million. The machine 
that does this work weighs nearly 2 tons, but the weight is 
necessary to produce the force required. The way in which the 
machine is worked is as follows r — 

The block of wood which is to be converted into plates is first 
boiled in water, which softens its fibre, it is then placed in the 
machine and held Mmily by screwing down a wheel, which clamps 
it. The block of wood is usually from 2 to 3 feet in length and 
the Ixame-work to which it is clamped travels on a sliding' 
carriage. When the woodhas been securely fastened, the apparatus 
is started by the workman pressing on a foot-lever, the carriage on 
which the block of wood rests slides forward on the frame-work 
until it reaches two knives which trim the sides of the block 
until it is circular. Then as the block comes further to the 
front it reaches a circular knife revolving so rapidiy that it is 
impossible to see the blade ; this knife is curved in such a way 
that it cuts into the wood obliquely and scoops out a slice, .■^o that 
the bottom of one plate forms the inside of the next. Each newly- 
made plate falls into a trough below the knife, and is moved on a 
traveller to be piled up one upon the other automatically. The 
machine works at a marvellous rapidity, practicallj- turning out a 
plate every half second, but it actually finishes 7,500 in an hour. 
The plates are ^'-jtb inch in thickness, so that a block of wood a 
foot in length will make nearly 300, which can be cut in various 
sizes from about 6 inches to 10 inches in diameter. Usually maple 
or some wood which is odourless is used. 
A iDoir. A snow-plough of novel design has been at work during the 

plougb on it« present winter on the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western liaiiroad. 
^^tum- n jg atipplied with a turn-table arrangement by wTiich the plough- 
end of the ear can be turned completely around at any point on 
the rails without irtie use of a stationary turn-table. This is a 
considerable advantage as it is often the case that the snow in a 
cutting may neeeasitate the mturn of a plough over the gi-ound just 
traversed. Tlie front truck (or bogie) of the plough car Iihs on it a 
turn-table of about fi feet in diameter and at the centre of the car 



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fEHAOELPHIA. 29 

there is a bolster with a centre bearing to fit the brack and six 
8i ioch wheels arranged in a circle to bear upon the tum-table 
track, when it is moved to the centre of the car. In order to turn 
the plough the front end of the car is raised by means of compressed 
air cylinders to clear the &ont truck, which is then rolled back 
under the centre bolster or bearing. The weight of the car is now 
supported by the truck under the centre, the rear truck hanging 
to the body of the car ; the tum-table arrangement being situated 
at such a point that the body of the car is balanced over the 
centre truck, the plough is turned by pushing it around, when the 
front truck is returned to its ordinal position in Uie fi^nt part ot 
the car. Three men are sofBcient to turn the car when thus baJancod. 

The statistics upon which this report is founded are compiled Otmoliuion.; 
especially for the Consulates by the courtesy of the Custom 
Officials of this port, the United States fiscal year endii^ on 
June 30. 



(68) 



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No. 2825 Annaal Series. 
DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR REPORTS. 



UNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE TEAR 1901 



TRADE. COMMERCE, &c., OE THE CONSULAK 
DISTRICT OP SAN ERANCISCO. 



SEFERBNOB TO PREVIOUS REPORT, Annaal Series No. 2973. 



Presented to both Houtee of Parliament by Command of Hit Majeitj/, 
JUNE, 1902. 



LONDOVt 

fbhtted tob his HAJESTT'B stationebt offiol 

bt habbison akd sons, st. martin's lanb, 

rumBBB in okdihixi to bis kuibtt. 

And t« b epnr eli— ed, wUiw dirwUr or throncli »aj Booktellar, ban 
KTBB A SPOTPISWOODS, Bur Habdims Stuh, Tibbt Sswuix, ■ 

Ud tS, AjlIiiiPON Btxiit, WSKltlllBTmB, S.W.I 

or OLIVBa A BOYD, Bdinbumh i 
«r I. PUNSONBT, UB, Guvmm Siun, Droux. 

ISOi; 
[Cd. 786—129.] iVtcs Twopence Haljpeimif. 



Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



CONTENTS. 



S^y Fbavcibco — 

latixxiluotorT lemtaiu..., 
Twdeai ' 



n of eiparU and importi (utielM, qiu 
Eiporto— 

Wbent and flour ..„....„,_„ __..~ ^„ 

TiDDcd ralmOD „ 



Tinuod truit «iid ngktlUm 



Itnporta — 
Coal 



Bailf»7 

Detth-rate „ „ 

Pacific CoTsmeroial Mm 



TiBQimiMion of elM^ricpooer inCUifmuft.M 
SeTelopmeut of Oalifomia oU field».— ■■■^■■.— , 

Bubatitution of oil for ooal „ „«,..__.. 

Orade oil tnatment for roadi ...—.„.,.».>._„„ 
Flan UideTelop Central Californi 



Seamcn'a wagcB and "blood mottaj" _ 

Progrcis OD Dew drj dock ....„_,„ 

Jnoreaied wbarfage ai ' " 



Seamen for AJaaka trade . 



CUch of wbalioB fleet . 

Seamen'a Inttitute «.».. 

Agrioulture . 

IiOB AxoBLEB trade report — 
Sul D»ao trade report «...» 



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No. 2825. Animal Series. 

Rr.ferenee to previoun Report. Anmial Series No. 2673, 



Report on the Trade, Gommerce, Agrievlture and otlier Matters of 
Ivierest of the Conmlar IHstrict of San Frarwisco for the 
Yea>r 1901 

By Mr. Vicjt-CoNSUL W. Moork. 

{Recaired at Foreign Office, Maj 20, 1902.) 

The expectations of a prosperous year for Califomifi, so imroductorj 
geuei-ally prophesied at the begiciung of 1901, were, on the whole, imuMki. 
tullj realised. 

The yield of wheat, which coutioues to be the staple product 
of tlie State, was larger than in 1900, although the returns to the 
farmers were not so good as in that year. 

Fruit growers enjoyed a prosperous season owing to the high 
prices ruhng in the Eastern States, where the bulk of the crop is 
disposed of. 

Beet sugar was depressed in price, but the output exceeded all 
previona records. 

Mining wag fairly prosperous and increasing attention is being 
paid to the development of base metal properties. 

The manufacturing interests of the State have been stimulated 
by the rapid development of the oil fields, wliich, with the pro- 
posed plants for the transmission of electric energy, assure an 
unlimited supply of cheap power. 

In connection with the development of the oil fields it should 
be noted that exporters are likely to have to pay inci-eased rates 
for the carriage of their grain to Europe. Owing to the fall in 
price, it will be impossible to import coal profitably from either 
the United Kingdom or Australia, and shipowners will be forced 
to demand higher rates of freight if they are compelled to send 
their vessels to this port in ballast. 

In many respects thfl past year has been important in 
the annals of San Francisco. Its importance lies, not so much 
in the volume of the commerce by sea, as in the development of 
broader commercial relations and the establishment of trade 
conditions entirely different from the methods in vogue among the 
business men here for so many years. Merchants seem to have 
enlai-ged their ideas, and are beginning to reach out for the growing 
trade of the Pacific Ocean. They begin to realise that through 
their efforts San Francisco, before many years, may become the 
(91) A 2 



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SAN FRANCISCO. 



; distrihutiiig point on the Pacific. This feeling appeiirs 
to have originated with the acquisition of the Hawaiian and 
Phili|)pine Islands. 

Taking into consideration the fact that the movement from 
the Hawaiian Islands no longer appears in the custom-house 
records, the imports and exports make a fair show. The bank 
clearings i^^aia surpassed all reconis, and increased by the sub- 
stantial sura of 30,636.482/, as compared with 1900, 

Eeal estate exhibited more activity than for many years, and 
the class of buildings being erected testifies to the faith inveetui'S 
possess in the city's futura 

Capitalists from the Eastern States are regarding California 
with growing favour as a field for investment. Several latge 
undertakii^ have been projected during the year, the most 
Important transactioa being the purchase by a Baltimore syndicate 
of the principal street railway system of San Francisco for about 
3.500.000/. 

The following tables show the amount and principal articles of 
export and import for the years 1901 and 1900 : — 

KetuBiV of Principal Articles of Export from San Francisco 
during the Years 1901-1900. 



■"■ 




i *».«. 


v..». 


<tamH7. 


V*llK. 












Whew HDil Soar 




.1 11,M0*,090 


2.;S»,6M 


































































IM«dfnitibTH« 








2,767,64* 


64,110 


SS-r*" ::: 












Lbi. 














































Tnaian 




... 


if.«e,*M 


... 




Gnnd total 






10,089.629 




n, 071,966 



Retork of Principal 


Articles of Import to San Francisco during 
the Years 1901-1900. 


ArtcK., 


Lbt. 

Tiiu 
Lbi. 




i»i. 


ItOO, 


::: 


<h»M«7. , Vrim. 


QHHUI]'. 


v^ 


luvsUk 

CoB^* 

S :■;. 

Hiss 

Ccffleot 

Tinpliui"! Z 
Otbcrartlelo 


».<8i,»7 ' s.ws.an 
4a,ei4,ua »e6.i<? 

61HI.S00 IW0,6U 
19,MM,E.M n 8,481 

'^S Hi 


Vio,;a8 

21.I88.E14 

,..KS! 

iei,!M,«44 

a».M7 


*.M7,0Tli 
»a8,8I6 

'■»!! 

I48.66« 
1.WWM 

101, an; 


ITMiwr. 




:;: iiisiiiM 


;;: 


8,128,74a 
6,76a,[>K 


antadtoUI 


ll.3B8,0M 


.,. 


1M».»> 



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SAN FKiUfCISCO. 5 

The exports of wheat and flour were the largest since 1897, E,port*. 
and show a gain of 1,678,364 centals (of 100 lbs.) as compared wheat md 
with 1900. The United Kingdom took 7,721,536 centals of wheat Hour- 
out of a total of 9,294,538 centals sent abroad. The heaviest 
shipments of flour were made to China and Central America, tlie 
United Kingdom taking 38,787 barrels. The average price for 
No. 1 white wheat was 1 dol. (4s. 1^.) per cental, against 
1 dol 1 c. {4s. 2d.) in the year preceding. 

Exports of tinned salmon decreased by 29,111 cases during Tinned 
the year. The United Kingdom took 510,963 cases, against '^°">''- 
578,876 cases in 1900. Australia is the next best customer, and 
increased her purchases by 41,849 cases. 20,646 cases were sent 
to South Africa. The Pacific Coast pack was the largest on 
record, being computed at 5,045,355 cases, against 2,994,485 cases 
in 1900. 

Barley exports were the largest recorded, and show an increase Bwley. 
of 1,622,794 centals during the year. The average price was 
7ii c. (3a. 0|d.), gainst 79 e. (3* 3rf.j in 1900. 

The exports of tinned fruit and v^tables fell oft' remarkably, I'innod fruit 
50^1,482 cases less than in 1900 having been seut away. The '"" . , 
United Kingdom took 227,553 cases and Australia and New ^** '^*' 
Zealand 44,765 cases. A trade estimate of the amount packed 
in 1901 places it at 2,275,700 cases, each case containing two 
dozen 2i-lb. tins. 

The export of timber increased by 3,699,396 feet during the Timber. 
year. Australia took the largest amfiunt, the United Kingdom 
comii^ second and Mexico third. The bulk of the timber sent 
to the United Kingdom consists of dunnage used in the stowage 
of wheat cargoes. 

Wine exports fell off during the year, 183,055 gallons less Wine 
than in 1900 having been sent away. The United Kingdom was 
the largest purchaser, having taken 189,878 gallons. Central 
America being second and Mexico third. Over 5,000,000 gallons 
were sent to the Eastern States by sea. 

A satisfactory increase in the exports of dried fruit is noted. Dried fruit by 
406,025 lbs, more than in 1900 having been forwarded by sea. •"■ 
The principal purchasers were British Columbia, Australia. New 
Zealand and South Africa. 

Exports of quicksilver declined by 1,977 flasks during the Quickiilver, 
year, which is partly accounted for by the fact that no shipments 
were made to China, Mexico and Central America were the best 
customers. 

Hop show a decrease of 141,353 lbs., as compared with 1900. Hop^ 
Australia was the principal buyer, taking 360,296 lbs,, New Zea- 
land coming second with 63,130 lbs. 

About three times as much brandy was exported in 1901 as BnndT, 
in the year preceding. The Philippine Islands and Chile were the 
largest buyers. 



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SAN FRANCISOO. 



The importations of foreign coal at San Francisco in 1901 and 



Co«l. 1900 were as follows : — 



Fpom- 


Qn.ntitj. 


1901. 1 


1000. 


Britiah Colnmbim 

Unit«i Kinedotn 

Tolsl 


Torn. 
438,800 
159,200 

89,200 1 
8,400 1 

695,C00 


573.600 
179,800 

103,300 
62,600 

909,300 



The above figures show that the importations decreased from 
every source, aggregating 213,700 tons less than in 1900, owing 
to the increased use of oil for fuel. In addition to the above 
731,600 tons of domestic coal were received by sea and a consider- 
able quantit}' by rait from California and Utah. 

Coal values have been gradually declining, being forced down 
to ,meet the increasing competition of oiL Australian grades at 
the close of 1900 were selling at fully 1 dol. 50 c (6s. 2d.) per ton 
more than in T>ut'ember, 1901, which compels the colliery pro- 
prietors oE British Columbia and the State nf Washington to 
market their output at vei-y low figures, except those who produce 
an aiticle especially adapted to house purposes. At the close of 
the year there was an actual difference existing of fully 2 doL 
(83. 3d.) per ton in the selling price, locally, of domestic and steam 
coal. 

The following table shows the quantity of cement imported 
during the last two years :— 



From- 


Quantity. 


1901. 1900. 


Belgiam 

Chtrmanv 

United Kingdom 

China 

J"!"" 

Total 


LI* Lbt 
1^8,195,082 ! 122,182,290 
42,198,477 ■ 76.412,551 
22,800 69,4*3,000 

2.9^,146 
931,200 

105,416,359 270,982,187 



Sufficient cement was left over from the exceptional amount 
received in 1900 for a year's requirements, wiiich accounts for the 
heavy shrinkage of the imports in IS'Ol. The market exhibited 
a downward tendency throughout the year, prices closing at from 
2 do! 10 c. (8*, 3rf.) to 2 doL 25 c (9s. '^^U.) per barrel, according 



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BAN FHANCIBCO. 7 

to ^rand and quantity. These figures were unprofitable to the 
importera, and are said to show a loss of from 25 c. (la. OJd.) 
to 50 c. (2s. O^d.) per barrel. 

The amount of British cement imported was ouly nominal, as 
may be seen by reference to the table. Not many years ago it 
enjoyed almost a complete monopoly of this market, and its 
present position is entirely due to the manufacturers, who ignored 
the warnings given them to produce a finer article until the trade 
had passed out of their hands into those of their Continental com- 
petitors. 

No consignments were received from Cluua and Japan during 
the year and very little came from the State of Ut&h, the low 
price of the foreign article and the high transportation charges 
lestricting its sale. The United States naval and military authori- 
ties have used the Utah cement on fortification work, but some 
complaints have been made regarding its keeping qualities, owing 
to the method employed in packing it in bags. 

One of the local companies incorporated for the manufacture 
of cement has completed a plant capable of turning out 800 barrels 
per day, and expects to place- its product on the market during 
the coming summer. The works are located at Suisun, near tide 
water, and the tests made are said to have given highly satis&c- 
tory results, 

A syndicate is reported to have acquired 62 acres of land at 
Santa Cruz with the object of erecting a plant thereon, and the 
concern at Tesla has not abandoned its intention of entering the 
field, although active operations have not yet been commeoced. 
It seems likely that the entire needs of the State will he supplied 
from local sources within a few years. 

Importations of tin plates declined by 135,282 boxes daring Tio pktw. 
1901. As pointed out in the i-eport for last year the demand 
for the foreign article is entirely confined to the caimers, who use 
it in packing goods intended for export, in which case a drawback 
on the duty is allowed. 

The combination of the tin plate manufacturers of the Eastern 
States have extended their busineHS, and the prospects for importers 
ace not very bright. 

The total quantity of coke received by sea was 34,533 tons, Ook«- 
against 41,741 tons in 1900. Over 50 per cent of this amount 
came from the United Kingdom, 7,794 tons from Belgium and 
Germany, 6,906 tons from British Columbia, and 1,835 tons from 
Anstralia. It is estimated that from 9,000 to 10,000 tons were 
received by rail and delivered direct to consumers at iuterioi 
points. 

Foreign pig iron has been lai^ely displaced by the domestic Kg irw. 
article in this market, only 4,753 tons of British oiigin having 
been received in 1901. 

The sale of British earthenware in this market about held BvtliMtiraM. 

its own in the period under review. Prices were slightly reduced 

to meet the competition of the domestic manufacturers which 

ia becoming keener year by year. No difficulty was experiencesd 

(91) A 4 



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9 SAM FBAMCIBCO. 

in obtRining delivery of the goods which interfered somewhat with, 
the trade in 1900. 

Decorated lii^li grade British china continues to sell well In 
thin iiiarkot. The French and German makers supply moat of the 
china aold here of a lower grade, the former enjoying the bulk of 
thu huBfnoss. 1'he principal British manufacturers mamtain agents 
In New York who periodically send representatives to this city to 
obeerve tlie local requirements. 

Iniportations of linens from the United Kingdom have increased, 
M compared with the previous year. British goods hold their 
own well in this market, except in fancy damask towels, in which 
articloH tlie bulk of the trade seems to be carried off by German 
lUAnufacturers. It is thought that the British could secure a 
ulinro of this business if they would turn out similar goods. An 
iiu|xirtcr here strongly urges the necessity of British mauu- 
fHolurt'ra paying more attention to designs instead of sticking to 
old (mttorns of years gone by. The Swisi; are said to excel in 
thi« nwHH't and produce novelties each year to catch the public 
tH!>t<>. Home nianufanturers of buck towels are improving their 
gWMls, and increasing competition must be expected from this 
quarter. 

A member of one of the principal firms in the business states 
that the sales of British cloth have increased in this district durii^ 
the last year. He attributes the increase entirely to the prosperous 
condition of trade, which always stimulates the sale of the most 
exi^ensivo articles of wearing apparel No material increase of 
importHtiona can be expected while the pivsent heavy tariff 
continut's in force. 

Home manufacturers are constantly improving the quality 
of their product, and competition from this quarter becomes keener 
each year. 

ConiiMirativcly little German or French cloth is sold in this 
market, the bulk of the trade being in American or British goods. 

Tlie Halo of Scutch whisky in this Consular district baa increased 
to ft umrki'd extent in the last few years. A prejudice formerly 
cxlMoil Huniimt its use, except in the form of toddy, and several 
mmoiiH aril nivou in explanation of its growing popularity. Some 
■ay that it I'niiie into fashion with golf, others that the increase 
JH \\w to the recommendations of the doctors, or that the habit 
wtui liitniiliici'd by travellers from the United Kingdom. Probably 
nil tliri'ii cjinses have helped to bring about the present result 
MoNl cif the best-known brands are represented here, and the 
liiiu'ki't, which is limited ui extent, is said to be fully stocked at 
tbi> priMimt time. 

Tbi) sales of British bottled beer and stout have increased 
rnn-iitty, owing, it is believed, to the legal steps taken by the mann- 
fiii'Liiritrs to protect their trade marks. 

Home jam is taking the place of the imported article which, 
ttlthdiigh of better quality, cannot compete with it in prica 

The following table shows the volume of tradfl with each 
country : — 



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BAN FBAXCISOO. 



Tabli showing Total Value of all Artioles Exported from and 
Imported to San Francisco to and from Foreign Countries 
during the Years 1901-1900. 







Export*. 


ImpoiU. 


0«mtej. 


1001. 


1000. 


1001. 


1000. 


Vdt«d Kingdom 
ChinB .. 
Aottrmkut .. 
J»p.i. .. .. 
Central Amerin 
SonthAmerimi.. 
Heiico . . 

St. Vinoent, for ordrni 
Canada . . 
FhLippine Iilanda 
Soutb PaoUio I«land« 
Balgiam 
Aiiatio BuMia.. 
Hut Indio* .. 
SonthAfrioa .. 
OamuinT 
Franoe.. 
Hawaii»ii lalandi 
Othar countriaa 




« 
2,ST9,1B8 
1,167,681 
779,176 
692,03a 
477,827 
872,637 
SS8.966 
267,986 
242,533 
197,926 
SS,82G 
76,71H 
61,129 
47,892 
27,668 
86,010 
4,079 

81,866 


2,862,017 
074,814 
f>36,002 
761,176 
831,813 
241,768 
850,668 
18,000 
209,870 
166,668 
94,023 
86,266 
33,706 
48.078 
4,606 
14,608 
14,916 
1.199,679 
0,868 


£ 
426,944 

1,298,299 
167,201 

2,481,860 
961,418 
161,763 
110,040 

497,087 
82.146 
61,692 

144,868 
1,088 

670,701 

805,717 
248,066 

160,868 


e 

667,974 
1,602,982 
128,961 

1,716,380 
481,601 
181.718 
88,680 

581.904 
98,686 
93,909 

202,800 
144 

674,718 

809.117 

271,326 

1,164,390 

180,118 




7,772,004 
2,816,436 


7,940,012 
8,123,961 


7,6S3,S46 
4,282,193 


8,128,748 
6,760,902 


eModtoui.. 




10,086,639 


11,072,066 


11,066,039 


19,870,741 



The exports of merchandise show a loss of 176,918/^ as com- 
pared with 1900, but these figures are mieleadiug as the goods 
sent to the Hawaiian Islands were excluded from the castom- 
honse records in the year under review, and are now classed as 
domestic trade. Including the trade of these islands, for purposes 
of comparison, the amount of merchandise sent away waa, no 
doubt, over 1,000,000/. greater than in 1900. Exports of treasure 
defined by 807,519/,, principally owing to a falling-off in the 
amount sent to China. The United Kingdom continues to be the 
lai^est purchaser of Califomian productions, and took articles 
worth 16,236/. more than in the year preceding. 

The majority of wheat-laden vessels clear for Cork, for orders, 
and the value of their cargoes is included in the exports to the 
United Kingdom, although some of them receive orders there to 
proceed to Continental ports to dischai^e. On this account the 
exports to the United Kingdom are no doubt actually less than 
the amount given in the above table. 

Compared with 1900, imports of merchandise show a loss of 
444,903/., but these figures are as misleading aa the exports, for 



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10 ajiS FUAijCisco. 

aiinilar reasons. The imports of treaenre decreased by 1,468,799^., 
owing to a falling-ofif in the movement from Aostralia and Japan. 
ImportA from the United Kingdom show a decrease of 138,430*- 

The annual statement prepared hf Messrs. Wells, Fargo and 
Co., regarding the production of precious metals within this 
Consular district, is no longer issued, but the Director of the San 
Francisco Mint estimates the gold production of California in 
1901 at 3,243,443/. This shows a slight decrease according to 
the estimate for 1900 prepared by the same authority, bat an 
increase of 269,910t as compared with Wells, Fargo and Co.'a 
statement. It is considered likely that the estimate is too low, 
as the productive season was longer in 1901 than in the preceding 
year, and the mines showed no diminution in their yield. 

Dredging for gold in the river beds is receiving increased atten- 
tion. The success of the dredgers installed on the Feather Biver, 
below Oroville, has been remarkable, and this method is proving 
extremely lucrative. The ground worked yields from 15 c 
(7Jd.) to 75 c (3*. Id.) per cubic yard, while the coat of work- 
ing the dredgers, including an allowance for wear and tear of 
machinery, is said to be lees than 5 c (2^^) per cubic yard. 
Many of the gold bearing streams, whose bars and benches have 
been found unprofitable to work by other processes, are becoming 
available for this system of working. 

Interest in hydraulic mining was revived by the sale of the 
Sweepstakes Gravel Mine, in Trinity County, to capitalists from 
the Eastern States for about 1,250,000/., said to be one of the 
largest transactions in the mining history of this State. The 
purchasers intend to expend a large amount of money in developing 
the property, which is situated outside the jurisdiction of the 
California Debris Commission. 

Base metal mining is rapidly growing in importance, especially 
in Shasta County, where the principal copper properties in the 
State are located. 

The report of the manager of the clearing-house gives the bank 
clearings for the past two years as follows: — 





Amount. 


Olforingi for 1901 

» i«o 


£ 
«!,e2i,668 
818,289,071 


JnervHS 


80,«86.48a 



The clearings for 1901 were the largest on record. 

The total number of real estate sales made in this city and 
county of San Francisco in the year 1901 was 4,2G1, valued at 
6,009,890/., as against 3,259, valued at 3,820,168/., in the year 
preceding. This was an increase of 1,002 transactions, valued at 
2,189,722/, Eeal estate dealers regard this as an excellent record, 
considering that business was seriously afiected for three mouths 



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SAN FRANCISCO. 11 

hy the strike referred to below, during which tiine buyers decliDed 
to invest, believing that prices would weaken. The most notable 
feiiture of the year was the abBeuce of speculation. Most of tlie 
purchsfes made were for investment purposes, and the number of 
flites bought by manufacturing firms, with the object of building, 
is said to have been unprecedented. 

During the seven years ending in 1898, capitalists neglected 
i-eal estate, preferring to put their money into stocks and bonds. 
Heavy fluctuations in many of these securities, and the high prices 
to which others have risen, seem to be responsible for a change in 
their ideas. 

The year 1902 is expected to pi'ove a record year in building 
o|>eration8. Plans for several large hotels are being perfected, 
and the office, warehouse, and dwelling accommodation of the 
city will receive extensive additions. 

The purpose that seems to have guided the efforts of the Railway 
California railroail buildera in raiSway coiiatruction during the """"■""^f"'"- 
year 1901 has been to bring all existing lines up to a condition of 
greater efficiency rather than to extend their systems into new 
territory. The result is that the railroads of the State are now 
in a better condition than ever befoie known. Many thousands 
of tons of heavy steel rails have taken tlie pliice of worn rails of 
lighter dimensions, substantial masonry arches or steel bridges of 
modem design have been erected in place of old wooden structures, 
and many miles of hitherto unballasted track have been put in 
condition for the safe operation of fast and heavy trains. Nearly 
the entire road from Santa Barbara to Saugus, a distance of 78 
miles on the coast line between San Francisco and Southern 
California, has been rebuilt, the old rails having been found too 
light to stand the traEBc 

Only 5i miles of track were added to the Southern Pacific 
Company's system during the year, and no construction work was 
done by the Santa ¥i company outside their terminals at Point 
Richmond, China Basin, and South San Francisco. 

The report on vital statistics, issued by the Health Department T>««tb-nt«. 
for the year ending June 30, 1901, classifies the deaths in this 
city as follows : — 





Total .. 


1 (Tuniber of 
Death.. 


General diKOiei 
Loo»l 
Violent deaths 


.J 2,797 

. . 1 8,68fi 

675 

7.008 



On an estimated population of 360,000 the percentage of 
^k-atha was 1946 per 1,000. 

The number of births registered during the year was 4,87o. 
It will be noticed tliat the deaths lai^ely exceeded the births 



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12 



SAX FRANCISCO. 



Conuneroial 

MUHHUII. 



according to the ofSeial table, but this unsatieiactory record ia 
said to be due to tlie neglect nf many pliysicians to report all 
birihs occurring in their practice. 

After a period of unavoidable delay the Pacific Commercial 
Museum has at last installed its exhibits in a large room in the 
Ferry Building, which is now accessible to the public. The cases 
on display contain much of interest and information bearing upon 
the products and demands of countries bordering upon the Pacific 
Ocean. 

According to the purposes of the origan is ation the exhibits are 
divided into two classes. One of these shows the raw products of 
the countries above refen-ed to, with the native manufactured 
products, and the other displays, irrespective of source, the various 
manufactured articles and materials in demand in the several 
countries. The manner in which they must be prepared for ship- 
ment is described as an object lesson, showing American producers 
just what they should send to foreign countiits and how it 
should be pacVcd, if thev would market their products suCceas- 
fully. 

Not only the crude and finished products of these lands are 
disijlaved, but alongside of the nati\'e good nre shown articles 
and niateiials of Kuropean manufacture, chietiy British and 
German goods, with which the manufacturers of those nations 
capture the markets, presumably to the excltision of American 
trade. 

A special agent has been at work in the Philippine Islands 
making a collection comprising everything, from native woods to 
manufactured products, which will shortly be received. 

British commercial travelleis who visit San Francisco should 
not fail to pay a visit to this museum, where much useful infor- 
mation may bH acquired. 

British subjects who intend to become settlers in this Stuie 
should be in no hurry to buy land until they have resided here one 
or two years and become familiar with their surroundings. So 
many British subjects have come to grief through investing in 
land immediately on, or even before, arrival in this country, that I 
cannot too strongly impress upon them the importance of observing 
this precept. Fruit growing in these days of low prices ia not the 
profitable business it is often reprc'iented to be, and, as there is no 
difficulty in renting or leasing land in any part of California, it 
is wiser to follow that course than to sink capital in an under- 
taking from which it is difficult to withdraw. 

The epidemic of strikes which swept over the United States in 
1901, reached San Francisco on May 21, when all the men 
employed in the iron foundries and shipbuilding eslabliuhments 
went out in a body. Subsequently the cooks and waiters struck 
work, followed by the teamsters, whose lock-out took eff'ect towards 
the end of July. The latter occurrence caused the City Front 
Federation, an organisntiou embracing all the different labour 
bodies connected with shipping, to order out its full meml>ership 
which temporarily stopped almost all the work on the ilocks and 



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8AN FRANCISCO. 13 

shipping pointa round the bay of Sau Fi-aucisco. Both the 
employers and strikers were well oi^aniaed aud business would 
have been seriously crippled but for the imiubet of unemployed 
attracted to this city by thts labour troubles, who to a great extent 
supplied the places of the unskilled workmen on strike. 

Steamship owners managed to dispatch their vessels without 
much delay, but the sailing ships were liampereil by the difficulty 
of getting their cargoes moved fiom aud to the wharves. Vessels 
repairing at the iron works were seriously delayed, and all work on 
the war ships building for the United States Government was 
atupped. This state of atl'airs continued until the Ij^inuing of 
October, when the strike came to an end owini{ lo concessions 
liiiide by both sides. 

A report has been published to the effect that tlie largest Tjiusmiwi 
electric transmission plant projected in any part of the United °f aleotrio 
States, except at Niagara Falls, is to l>e developed in I'luuias ^jjfo^ia. 
County, California, on tlie noi-th fork of the Feather River. The 
basins of the Big Meadows and Butte Valley are to be converted 
into reservoirs to store the drainage of the watersheds of the 
Lassen Peak region, which covers an area of about 600 square 
miles, a part of which is within the perpetual snow Hue. 

These two reservoirs will contain about 10,000 acres of land, 
and the watershed is expected to furnish through them 120,000 
miner's inches of water, with a capacity for generating 300,000 
horee-power. 

The primary purpose of the promoters seems to be tlie 
generation of electric power for transmission to San Francisco 
for use in manufacturing. The distance covered by the trans- 
mission lin&",, when the project is carried out, wUl aggregate 
250 miles. 

A Philadelphia company has taken the initiative in the 
development of a big electric power plant, utilising the drainage 
of the watershed of Mount Hamilton, the eminence on which the 
celebrated Lick Observatory is built. The plans of the enter- 
prise provide for the conservation of the waters of three streams 
rising on the mountains, the power generated being transmitted to 
this city, a distance of nearly 70 miles. The two largest companies 
in the State are the Bay Counties Power Company and the 
Standard Electric Company. The former is already delivering 
power into Oakland, over 150 miles from the point of generation, 
and the latter expects to extend its lines to this city during the 
current year. 

The prosiiectB of an abundant supply of cheap electric power 
in San Francisco are steadily improving. Some optimists maia- 
cnin that the time will soon come when the watersheds of the 
Oalifornian mountain ranges will furnish power for all purposes in 
this city at lees cost than it cau be pi-oducud by the cheapest crude 
petroleum obtainable. Whether this is really possible remains to 
be seen, but in the last few yea.rs a surprising change has taken 
jil.ice in the ditliculties relating to fuel. Fonneriy every industry, 
<1ependeni for its success on power, obtained in this manner, was 



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u 



SAK FlUNXISCO. 



under & cloud, but now we appear to be on the eve of a new era ia 
the matter of manufacturing which could not be profitably carried 
on under the former conditions. 

The following table showing t!ie number of producing wells, 
those that have been capped, and those in course of construction 
in California at the end of 1901, together with the production of 
oil for that year, has been prepared by the " Pacific Oil Reporter," 
and is believed to be Approximately correct: — 





Number of Weill- 




Producing Field.. 









Production. 




Producing. 


Cpped- 


Drilled. 












BmmU. 


Kewlisll, 8M>t« P«ulaand Venture 


293 




88 


618,000 


Puento 


34 




8 


141,5W> 


Lif Angeln 


1,013 




29 


1,26^,000 


Summerland 








128.000 


CMlinp. 


41 


S3 




74000l> 


Whitlitfi- 


65 




20 


612,00.1 


FullerlDi.iindiimi (.'aiivuii 








724,000 


Kuril River 


18t 


284 


25 


3,870,000 


HcSittrick 


12 


41 


4 


480,000 


SttBMt 


25 


S2 




188,500 










4,000 


Santa Maria 


' 


a 


t) 


7,600 


ToUl 


2,040 


355 


201 


8,712,600 



The above figures show the rapid inei-eaae of the industry, tlie 
production of 1900 being given at 4,329,950 barrels and that of 
1899 at 2,ti77,875 barrels. 

During 1901 drilling was prosecuted in the counties of Shasta, 
Humboldt, Tehama, Glenn, Coluaa, Butte, Napa, Solano, Marin, 
Contra Costa, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, San Mateo, Stanislaus, 
Tulare, San Benito, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, Rivei'side, San 
Bernsrdino and San Diego, but up to the end of the year the wells 
sunk had not proved productive. 

The output of oil during the past year has undoubtedly been 
contracted by the heavy charges for transportation. When the 
owners of productive wells in the Kern and Fresno County fields 
were confronted with a tran s porta tiou tariff which absorbed two- 
tiiii-ds of the value of their product delivered in San Francisco, or 
any point north of this city, it acted as a damper on their enter- 
prise. To all intents and puriH)aes it put a stop to exploration 
and the opening of new wells, as an in(irease in the supply, under 
the existing conditions, would only have increased the embarrass- 
ment of the oil miners and made the marketing of their product 
more difficult. Many wells were cjipped and will probably I'emnin 
closed until the projected pipe line from Bakerstield to Point 
Ivichmond is finished. Contracts were made at CU c. (2*. *></.) 
per banel of 42 gallons, on which freight was paid by the vendor 



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8AK FBANCIBCO. 15 

of over 40 c. (is.- 8d.) per barrel. Better prices prevuled 
towatde the end of the yeai; and wheaevet conditioiia become more 
favourable for marketdng the product it ifl thought there will be no 
' difficulty in donbliog or trebling the present output 

The most important feature of the year waa the entry of the 
Standard Oil Company, with its unlimited capital, into the Cali 
fomia industry. ThiB company purchased the oil fields, refinii^ 
plant, &C., of the Pacific Coast Oil Company, and is proceeding to 
erect at Point Kicbmond, the terminus of the Santa F^ Bailroad 
on the bay of San Francisco, one of the lai^eat refiueriea in the 
United States. It contemplates building an S-inch pipe line 
from the Kem County fields to Point Richmond, a distance of 
about 270 miles. This line will probably be ready for operatioo 
in the autumn of the current year, and is expected to create a 
revolution in the business. 

Shortly before closing this report it was announced that a 
compromise between the Bailroad CommissioneiB and the railroad 
companies concerned had been reached, under which a reduction 
LD the rate to this city of about 5 c. (2^.) a barrel had been agreed 
upon. 

The railroad companies in this State are introducing oU- SoJi 
burning furnaces in their locomotiveB, and discarding the uBe°'<»'^^'>*'- 
of coal. The Southern Pacific Company, up to the end of 1901, 
had 130 locomotives running on the Pacific division which had 
been so converted. Many engines of the Santa F^ Bailroad Com- 
pany have been similarly equipped, and other companies are fol- 
lowing snit One ferry boat has been run as an oil burner 
for some time, and many other vessels oxe to be fitted with oil 
furnaces, 43 permits having been issued. 

All the power-houses for cable roads in San Francisco are 
using oil only, so that the principal outlet for steam coal to-day is 
for army transports, ocean-going, and in a decreasing degi'ee, bay 



Two or three years ago the' consumption of oil in this city 
for fuel purposes did not exceed 1,000 barrels per annum, while 
at the present time it approximates 1,000,000 barrels, showing 
how rapidly the situation is being changed. If any device can 
be produced to supplant coal with oil for domestio purposes, the 
sale of the former in this market will be even more seriously 
affected. 

The experiment of using oE instead of water for laj'iug the Onid« <^ 
dust has been tried in the Golden Gate Park in this city. Com- " ■ -- ■ 
plaints were made by the public at first because partiolea of dirt " 
soaked with oil were thrown by carriage wheels and horsea' hoob, 
damping clothing and carriage rugs. But the experimeut is con- 
sidered a success. Tte roadways are kept in better condition than 
formerly at less expense, the oil mixing well with the dirt and 
gravel, making a smooth hard surface resembing asphalt 
pavement Knowledge of the proper methods of applying the 
oil under varying conditions has resulted in minimising the 
objections raised. There is practically no dust, and the grass and 



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16 B\K FRAKaSCO. 

foliage bordering the drireways look bright and cleaD. . A number 
of counties in the StAte are now using oil for thia purpose, and the 
result is said to be entirely satisfactory. 
Ptkti to Several meetin^^ have recently taken place between the 

*"*J2 members of the San Francisco Chamber of Commerce and repre- 

CUifoniiB. sentatives of local development associations with the object of 
attracting prospective setUers to Central California. A plan of 
organisation and operation has been agreed upon, and money is 
now being coUecbed to carry out the pr<^ramme mapped out. An 
outline of the work suggested includes a permanent exhibition in 
this city, where exhibite furnished by each section may be dis- 
played, and files of newspapers kept on hand for reference. Agents 
will be employed to board west-bound passenger trains to meet 
pBSsei^rs, learn their wishes, and direct them accordingly. Branch 
offices and exhibits will be maintained in several oUier coast 
cities, and advertisements are to be placed in magazines, news- 
papers and other periodicals. 

It is expected that 10,000/. per annum will be spent on the 

project. 

Uiiluiiig Barbed wire fences are being utilised for telephonic communi- 

™**" ■*"* cation among the farmers in the neighbourhood of Woodland, 

tcll^o^. California. The greater part of the lines consist of wire fences 

running along the sides of the roads or dividing the farms, poles 

and elevated wires being supplied wherever necessary. Branches 

or loops are added extending to the residences of the farmers living 

along the routa 

The undertaking has proved so successful that the original 
promoters have induced others to join them, and the line is to be 
greatly extended. Heretofore it has not been found necessary to 
establish a central oCBce or to employ an operator, the telephones 
having been so limited in number that a code of signals sufficed. 
With Lhe extension of the line this addition will become neces- 
sary. 

Thia very practical idea might be usefully adopted as a means 

of communication on large estates, and would prove a cheap 

method of telephonic intercourse in the colonies. 

Sluppng »nd The following table shows the number and nationality of the 

aavigalion. yeggelg which entered and cleared at this port during the past 

year: — 



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SAK FUA.NCISCO. 



Annex A. — Eetubn of all Shipping at tbe Port o/ San Fraucisco 
during the Year 190L 





W 


lltolt. 


1 " 


Mm. 


_»-• 


Humiour. 


NnMr 




1 MDMtW 




NuilMr 






<l 


Itai. 


Of 






Torn. 








VMMto. 




Vi^ 






I0> 


im,«n 


IIB 


M>,Mt 




MI.IM 


AjHrt»n/h,n fanlso 
















«t 


•MU 


210 


4»,f«T 




US, US 


An«1«ii,fn)inUluUe" 














ronxXOiilim 




;,t8: 




r,«M 


la 


4l.«2t 




» 


»,m 


tl 


M^<n 




ito.iiyt 


am»« 








u,m 




ai,m 


Fi«iob 




az.s» 






n 


KB» 


iXT::: 


::: 




'1 


•iVsTO 
I8,»M 














IIJKM 




lllm 






i.WT 




Z.M8 




10,BU 


OUurmtntriH 


* 






_i.^_ 


< 


«;«! 


IMtl 




~^K^t~ 


*i»~ 


^i^ii. 




l,»M.tN 


„ W00_ .. 


m 


HUT> 




Hfl,IW 


•" 




CLKAitED. 




St 


lUU. 


SMm. 


To»l. 


HUtouUQ'. 


Namibw 




tliuitw 




Huibar 












Tou 




Ttni. 




TmhIs. 




V«Mdl. 




V»»»lfc 




BrftUb ... .„ ... 






IIT 


1U,W* 


3U 


MZ.aag 


4MV1BU. to tNMfU 














OODUriM ... ... 




M,MI 


aw 


4W,MS 




«M,B» 
















pnUofOnliift 




!»,>» 




i<i,m 




»,»]( 


Horw<«l«i 




l,t8S 


w 


va,ni 




ioe.M>« 






»,M8 


a 


M,IOT 




tbIim 


mub ;;: „ 




«,1M 










SSSTz ::. ::. 






w 


i»,m 


II 




MMn-HuniEUlu 








IJ.BW 




1!.CM 






8.IU 




X,M« 




IMU 


DMureaanEric* '..'. 


I 


S.M1 


s 


i;»» 




4.m 


^.«»" - 


XM 


rT.«M 


u> 


SII.TH 


«8B 


i,ica,«t* 




U» 


MS.4M 




m,)u 


SM 


1,*M,W 



Korm.— Tlu ratnaoH ud nlainaagi of AbitIomi ilili* d 
vtaBlliic 01 Oihlnc Tojrgm. 

British shipping shows a decrease of 46 vessels of 81,618 tons 
entered as compared with 19U0, of which 21 were steamers and 2& 
sailing ships. The falling-ofT in the former is accounted for by 
the decline in the demand for collierB in the coast trade. The 
competition of foreign vessels (especially French), combined with 
the ditficulties connected with the strike, affected the arrivals of 
the latter. 

The decline in the clearances was not so marked, consisting of 
20 vessels of 35,285 tons. This decrease is entirely confined to 
steamers, two more sailing ships than in 1900 having departed. 

Takii^ into consideration the f^t that the Pacific Steam 
Navigation Company established a line of steamers between this 
(91) B- 



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18 SAN FRAKCISCrO. 

port and Viiljtaraiso iu Fehrnnry, 1901, the show made by British 
vessels in the return mast be reganied as veiy unsatisfactory. 

In AnierirAti shipping from foreign cojintriea a decline of 111 
vessels of 17.819 tons entered, and 97 vessels of 36,199 tons 
cleared, is noted. The trade from the Atlantic porta of the Union 
also shows a falling-ofi'. American vessels trading with the 
Hawaiian Islands are now considered to be in the coasting trade, 
of which no statistics are obtainable. Tide fact accounts for the 
large decrease in the totals of the table as compared with the year 
preceding. 

Norwegian shipping increased by five vessels of 6,722 tons 
entered, and eight vessels of 14,000 tons cleai-ed. 

Qennan shipping exhibits an increase of seven vessels of 15,011 
tons entered, and seven vessels of 15,859 tons cleared. The 
Kosmos Steamship C()mi>any extended its service to British 
Columbia during the year. 

Under tlie bounty system, which eontinnas to benefit French 
shipping, owners are enabled to send their vessels from Europe to 
this port in ballast at a profit. The increase last year was seven 
ships of 11,671 tons entered, and seven ships ot 12,5tf3 tons 
cleared. 

Little change is observable in Japanese shipping, the vessels 
of the steamship line trading between San Fi-ancisco anil Hong- 
Kong continuing to make regular trips. 

The Compania Sud Americana de Vapores, a Cliiliau corpora- 
tion, commenced running a line of steamers from Valparaiso to 
this port in February, 1901, in conneciion with the Pacific Steam 
Navigation Company. This accounts for the appeai-anee of Chilian 
shipping iu the return. 

The other nationalities mentioned do not exhibit any material 
change as compared with tlie year 1900. 

The following table shows the lowest and highest fre^hts paid 
for iron and steel wheat-ships in each month of 1901, the figures 
given being for ships in port to proceed to Cork for orders to the 
United Kingdom, Havre or Antwerp : — 



Janimrj .. 
Februtrj. . 
March .. 

j£r 

■Tune 
Jul7 

Septmnlwr 
OcIub«r .. 
fioTcmber 
l^eocmbur 



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SAN FRANCIBCO. 19 

The wages for seamen en«^ed for deep water voyages were Scamoi'* 
42. per month up to June 7, when the Seamen's Laudlords wam ud 
Association held a meeting and decided to raise them to 51. per "J^^h 
month, at which ^ire they remained for the remainder of the ™ ^' 
year. 

The boarding-house keepers and shipping agents still exact & 
levy of 25 dol. for each man furnished to vesBels bound for Europe, 
but towards the end of the year several shipmasters secured crews 
without submitting to this by engaging the services of a shipping 
agent not connected with the combination which established and 
maintains the charga 

The new dry dock, referred to in previous reports, now in ^™^^ S*. 
course of construction at Hunters Point in this harbour, is making "" '^ 
satisfactory progress. Over 150 feet of the bow has been completed 
and it is Expected that the dock will be ready to accommodate 
vessels in the autumn. 

Permission was granted by the Federal Government in 1901 '"Jf*?"*^ 
to extend the pier-head line 200 feet further into the bay, and the ^^^^I^J^,. 
Board of Harbour Commisniouers are having this work rapidly tion. 
pushed to completion. During the last few years the wharfage 
facilities have proved totally inadequate, and the additions made 
will help to relieve the situation. 

The managers of the American, British and Japanese steamship ^"^l*??"' 
lines, running from this port to Hong-Kong on a joint schedule, ","^ m«iS*. 
have entered into an ^reement under which one of the nine 
steamers of the fleet employed will call at Manila once a month 
after visiting ports in Japan. This arrangement went into effect 
in March of tiie current year, and will prove of great benefit to 
shippers to the Philippine Islands, who were formerly obliged to 
tranship goods at Hong-Eong, 

The harbour improvements and excavation of the Oakland H«rbonr in> 
Tidal Canal, on which no work has been done for a number of years, '' 
is now rapidly neaiing completion. The object in view is to 
connect Oakland Creek with the bay, in order that the action of 
the tide may deepen and cleanee it, and to improve the existing 
facilities for shippii^ at Oakland. 

The well-known adaptability of a sailor to turn his hand to Soamen ft* 
any kind of work is well illustrated in the supply of labour *^^" ''*^*- 
furnished for the operation of the Alaska salmon canneries. Most 
of the men engaged are sent from this city, and only such as are 

r seamen are accepted. Their first - duty consists in sailing 
vessel to her point of destination, when all bands 
go ashore with the exception of the master and a boy 
who act as caretakera. The rest are immediately set to work 
unloading the cai^ and making ready the canning plant fcr 
operation. When this is completed a certain number are chosen 
to act as fishermen, while others prepare the catch and attend to 
its being cooked and packed in tins. No difficulty is experienced 
in finding some among them with a sufficient knowledge of 
carpentry to enable them to case the goods, and when the season ia 
over the vessel is loaded and sailed back to San FrRucisco. The 
(91) B 2 



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30 



SAN FKAKCI8C0, 



labour is exti'eniely harii, but is well paid, each man earning from 
400 to 500 do!, for his Bve months work in addition to liis. 
board. 

Several new canneries have been established, and it is expected 
that from 6,000 to 7,000 men will be sent north during the 
months of April and May. This number is exdusive of those' 
employed in tho whaling and cod-fishing industriea The scarcity 
of seamen usually experienced in San Francisco during the summer 
months is therefore likely to become more acute. 

Shipbuilding. Shipbuilding showed less activity than in the year preceding. 
40 vessels of 11,397 gross tons were turned out, the largest being a 
bay ferry boat of 1,554 tons. Most of the others were small 
steamers or sailing vessels intended for the coast trade. The ship- 
building yards on the Oakland Creek have been enlarged and 
secured a good share of the work. 

Oifaili of The catch of the Arctic whaling fleet for the past two years 

wh>]iiij[ n««t. j^poxted at San Francisco, was as follows : — 



Quantity. 



6,910 



10 vessels were engaged in the industry, against 19 in the 
previous season. 

The Seamen's Institute is well worthy the support of both 
British and foreign shipowneis, and the committee of management 
will be glad to receive contributions to their funds as expenses are 
heavy and it is difficult to meet the demands made upon thcio. 
The institute is excellently managed and exercises a capital 
influence upon the crews of vessels of all nationalities visiting 
this port. 

The wheat crop wss above the average of the last few years 
being estimated at 17,000.000 centals (of 100 lbs.), but the low 
prices which have prevailed greatly discouraged the growers. 
Eeturns to the farmers are largely dependent on freights which 
have ruled high since the Spanish and South African wars, and, 
although much of the divei'ted tonnage is returning to the channels 
of trade, charters on this coast have not fallen as much as 
elsewhere. 

An attempt is being made to create a grain growers association 
with the expectation that by controlling a large share of the crop 
important savings can be eft'ected in freights, interest on advances, 
warehousing and insurance. It is considered doubtful, however, if 
the growers will be able to form an oi^anisation of sufficient 
strength to become an important factor in the grain market 

Ikrley continues to rank next to wheat as the principal cereal 



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8AH VRAXCacO. 2t 

crop of the State. By reasan of the large local demand for feeding 
purposes and export, the situation of the growers was more favour^ 
able than that of the wheat farmers. The production of barley is 
roughly estimated at 10,000,000 centals against a crop of 
8.500,000 centals in 1900. 

The hop growers enjoyed a proeperous year. Although the Hop* 
yield was moderate, better prices are expected to more than com- 
pensate for the deficiency. 

The Californian wool clip in 1901 is estimated at 18,000,000 lbs. Wool. 
The condition of the business improved considerably during 
the year, the large surplus stock treing disposed of at steady 
prices. A healthy sign is the growing demand for goods which 
are not so much adulterated with cotton or other substances. 

The interest in Angora goats is increasing, and the quality of 
the clip improves each year as more attention is being paid to th6 
breeding of the animals. 

Although the beet sugar industry in Oalifomia has aufiered ^*** *^t^- 
to a certain extent in the last few years, owing to a deficiency in 
the rainfall, this State is r^arded as being admirably adapted t<> 
the production of sugar from beets, more so indeed than almost 
any other part of the United States. 

Authorities consider that all possible improvements in eultii'a- 
tion have not yet been brought into operation, and a new system 
of planting is about to be tried in different parts of Southern 
California. Instead of sowing the seed at the usual time, 
in the spring, farmers will commence putting it into the ground 
about the middle of December, and continue doing so periodically 
through the usual seeding season. Irrigation is also extending, as 
the most advanced farmers think that sugar beets reach their 
highest degree of value by this method of cultivation. 

The product of 1901 is estimated at 80,000 tons, the largest 
ever harvested in this State, but prices were depressed owing to 
the enormous sugar output of the world. A Trust established in 
the Eastern States has begun a war upon the beet sugar industry 
by reducing the price of refined sugar at Missouri lliver points 
where it comes into competition with western beet sugar. The 
Trust is also demanding a great reduction in the duties on raw 
sugar, and the effect of this movement upon the industry, should 
it be successful, cannot be foretold. Producers, however, seem to 
be confident of holding their own, for new factories are projected 
in different parts of the United States, including one in California. 

Bee-keepers are said to have hod a " good honey year " in 1901. Kmuj. 
The crop of the State being estimated at about 4,800,000 lbs., 
against 2,208,000 lbs, in the year precedii^. A favourable year 
depends on just the right proportion of late spring rains and 
early summer fogs, without which there may be myriads of 
flowers without a drop of honey. The crop was in good demand 
at profitable prices. 

The wine production of California for 1901 will be somewhat Wineund 
less in quantity than that of the year preceding. The growing •»"'"<'.'■■ 
season opened most auspiciouslv; the weather being almost all 

(91) ' B .■■> 



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22 SAK FBANCISOa 

tbat could be dflBired. B&ina in January and February forced the 
vines into early growth, but unfortunately frosts in March, April 
and May nipped the planta severely. It looked at one time as 
though the crop was entirely ruined, but owing to the recupera- 
tive power of the grape vine about 12,000,000 gallons of dry 
wine were secured. There ia little to be said regarding the 
vintage, except that weather conditions were favourable, the 
seasonable rains holding off fully a week later than usual, and 
that in many sections the yield was coneiderably under the early 
estimate. 

Prices for grapes ranged from 13 dol. (2/. IZa. Id.) to 
32 doL 60 c. (67. lis.) per ton, according to variety and district. 
The production of sweet wine is estimated at 5,500,000 gallons, 
against 6,000,000 gallons in 1900. During the year under review, 
the wholesale wine dealers of San Francisco have added to their 
power by the accession of several lai^ capitalists. The avowed 
purpose is to afford more stability to prices ; to give paying prices to 
grape growers for their product, and also to encourage the smaller 
producers by buying their wines at a fair price. With the neces- 
sary slight increase in prices a great improvement in the quality 
of the wines is expected to result. 

The brandy production for 1901 was extremely short, being 
estimated at 810,750 gallons, aganst 3,256,513 in 1900. 

The deciduous fruit crop was far smaller than that of 1900, 
but growers did well owing to uniformly high prices in the Eastern 
States, improved transportation facilities, and a reduction in the 
charges for refrigeration, which became effective in April, 1901, 
The product, generally speaking, was of good quality and sold 
teadily at satisfactory prices both to canners and for shipment. 
At the height of the shipping season a strike of the teamsters 
took place in San Francisco, wliich seriously interfered with the 
sales in this marked The fruit, however, was largely diverted 
to Eastern markets and to other canning centres, and it is not 
believed that a great amount was lost by the occurrence. A 
feature of the freeh fruit trade is the increasing prominence of 
the apple industry. According to a table prepared hy the Cali- 
fornia Fruit Gi-owers' and Shippers' Association, 6,459 car loads 
(of 10 tons each) were sent from California in 1901, against 
6,435 ear loads in 1900. The consignments to foreign markets 
consisted of 165 car loads, of which 109 car loads were sent to the 
United Kingdom. 

The largest crop of citrus fruit ever harvested was gathered in 
the year ending October 31, 1901, there being a movement of 
8,9d4,000 boxes of oranges and lemons, against 6,624,000 boxes in 
the year preceding. The season was not entirely satisfactory 
for the growers, and the amount realised is not thought to have 
exceeded that obtained for the previous crop. The causes that 
contributed to bnug about this result were the despatch of unripe 
frait early in the season, injuiy to fruit by frost, heavy rains in 
January, which affected the condition of the fruit and difticulties 
of transportation. There was a very marked increase last season. 



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SAN FRANCISCO. 23 

in tlie exports of Oalifornia oranges, suiiie Eaaterii tiruia Imving 
Bh4)ped three or four car load» a<week to London, where the frait 
loought about '1 del, (4* lirf.) a box more than in the New York 
marKet. 

The California lemon continuee to grow in popularity in all 
parts of the United States. It is estimated that 992,000 boxes 
were sent last season, including the figures given above. 

The wahiut crop of 1901 is estimated at 14,700.000 lbs. and Wminuu «■* 
was of fine quality. The output k nearly all marketed by co- »l™<n>^- 
operative associations, whose representatives ^ree upon a uniform 
price at which the entire crop is tak«n by a syndicate of deftlers. 
Last year the growers received from 9 to 9^ c. (4J<i to 4Jrf.) per 
lb., about a ^ c. (^.) less than tlie year preceding. For the past 
year or two a myeterious disease among the trees has created 
some alarm, but so far it has not seriously reduced the crop, 

The almond output is estimated at 225 ears of 12 tons each, 
which shows il slight decrease compared witli 19O0. Growers 
have endeavoured to organise themselves in a similar way to the 
walnut pro<lucera but have not succeeded to the same extent. 

A marked increase in the production of apples took place in App]«g. 
tlie veav under review. Those nent from Pajaro Valley for the 
season of 1900-^1 amounted to 960,000 boxes, against 871,000 
boxes in 1899-1900. Exports also show a healthy increase, 
200,094 boxes having been consigned to the United Kingdom and 
Germany, against 149,515 boxes in the year prtc«ding. 

The cured fig output is estimated at 5,900,000 lbs., against a Figi- 
production of 6,000,000 lbs. in the year preceding. The colony of 
the blastophaga or fig-wasp at Fresno is in a flourishing condition, 
and another colony has been established at Niles, California, on 
a site giving greater assurance of immunity from frost. 

About 60 tons of cured figs were secured from the Fresno 
orchard last year, and are siud to be almost identical with those 
imported from Smyrna. They will be marketed under the name 
" Calimyma " to distinguish them from the ordinary Califomian 
fig, which is not a very attractive product. 

The estimated raisin crop for 1901 is 72,000,000 lbs., against Bmum. 
94,325,000 lbs. produced in 1900. This shortage is attributed to 
frost in April, which blighted grape prospects in most poitions of 
Northern California. With this exception the crop arrived at 
maturity with no serious drawback, and under favourable con- 
ditions. 

Prices ruled lower than in 1900. As with the other great 
co-operative fruit association in this State, the California Baisin 
Growers' Association has retrograded from the position it once 
held, and dissensions and loss in acreage-control have weakened 
it both in the eyes of growers and of dealers. 

The output of prunes for 1901 is estimated at 60,000,000 lbs., Pruii«*. 
the figure for the year preceding being now placed at 
174,000,000 lbs. A light yield following a lai^e yield is a natural 
sequence, but it is not this fruiting habit which is alone re- 
sponsible for the great difference between the two seasons. Frosts 
(91) B 4 



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24 SAN FRANCISCO. 

in April gi-eatly iiijm-ed tlie pi-ospects, and the heavy dropping of 
the fruit in .hine further atfected the result. The harveet, except 
at the vtry last, was secured under favourable conditions, and the 
cured product is of good quality and graded largely — 40 to 60 to 
the lb. 

Prices of the new crop settled down to 2j c. (Ifrf.) per lb., with 
the old crop, of which there was a large stock on hand, J c. (^rf.) 
lower. 

Tlie .small output of 1901 relievetl tlie stloatiou temporarily 
and penuited the surplus crop of 1900 to !« disposed of, hut the 
ultimate outlook of the industry is not, promising;, owing to 
the production of an average year beinj^ largely in excess of the 
demand. 

There has lieen serious friction l>etween the inanagenient and 
some of the members of the California Cured Fruit Association 
ever since its foi-mation, and its affairs are now being wound up. 
The contruversies were the inevitable consequence of a pecuniarily 
unsuccessful enterprise. 

A large crop of olives was produced in 1901, but aa the growers 
of the southern counties found dealers unwilling to take the risk 
of buying their product at pro6table rates they organised an 
association to deal with the problem. The members of this com- 
bination own about 80 per cent, of the crop of Southern California, 
wliicli is estimated at 3,500 tons, of which about two-lhirds will 
be made into oil and the remainder pickled. 

The juice offered by dealers nver^es only about 40 doL 
(8/. 4k. 11(/.) per ton, wliich is greatly below former rates and 
quite unprofitable to the producer. 

The State Department at Washington has instnicted the 
jJ2^^^* j^ United States Consuls residing in foreign countries competing 
lormga with California in the production of fruit to furnish telegraphic 

reports regarding the crops and prices thereof in their respective 
diati'icts. These reports arc transmitted to this State and pub- 
lished in the daily press, thereby affording fniic jn-owers informa- 
tion of the greatest value regarding their competitors abroad. 
The expense in connection witli this service is borne by the Pacific 
Commercial Museum. 



Los Angelrs 

Mr, Yice-Cousul C. White Mortimer rep">rts as follows: — 
r This city is increasing in wealth and population more rapidly 
than at any time in its history, and this in spite of the fact that 
for the past four years the rainfall has l)een insuiiicient to properly 
mature the crops. The census of 1900 shows that the percentage 
of increase in tlie past decade in value of manufactures, bank 
clearings, post-ofhce receipts, and new buildings has been from 
200 to 1550 per cent,, and that the increase in these and other 
indications of business activity is more rapid than in any other 



InfonuatioD 



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LOS ANGELES. za 

«ity in the United States. Work on the Govemmeut breakwater 
at the pott and on the new short line to the east hy the way 
of -Salt Lake City is proceeding rapidly, and it is now appai-ent 
that the real growth of this city and district is only com- 
mencing. 

20 years ago Lob Angeles had 11,000 inhabitants. There 
were about 20,000 more people in Los Angeles County, and 
in all about 45,000 people in Southern California, and Los 
j^ngeles was without business connections outside a circle of 
50 miles. It is now a city of about 130,000 inhabitants, there 
are about 400,000 more people in Southern California, and it is 
the business centre for Arizona and New Mexico. There are 19 
hanks, more than 100 churches, hundreds of miles of paved and 
graded streets, and I think it is safe to say that there is no city of 
its size so well lighted and so well supplied with electric street 
railways. Three transcontinental rail-roads centre here, and a 
system of electric roads is now being constructed at a cost of more 
than 1,000,000/. connecting Los Angeles with all the towns and 
Tillages in the vichiity. Several thousand barrels of crude oil are 
produced here daily, and it is sold at so low a price that the cost 
of fuel for manufacturing is less than in any other city in the 
country. 

Senator Clark's railroad from Los Angelas to Salt Lake City is 
being actively pushed, and work on another road between these 
cities has been commenced by the Union Pacific. Tliat two more 
transcontinental roads are being built to Los Angeles ia due to the 
fact that with the completion of the harbour now being constructed 
here it is realised tliat the Oriental trade will be diverted to Los 
Angeles. The eaay grades, and the freedom from snow blockades 
on the southern roads giving them such an advantage over the 
Central and Northern Pacific lines as to insure Lob Angeles 
being the gateway from the East to the interior of the United 
States. 

The following comparative statements will jjive some idea of 
the condition of business, and the increase in the last year and the 
last decade : — 

The clearinf;-house i-eturns show that the total clearings in 1891 
amounted to 7,420,000/1, and in 1901 had increased to ;!2,100,0OO/. 
The percentage of increase in clearings for the past year over the 
year 1900 was 23J per cent. The increase in bank deposits in the 
past decade amounted to over 2.30 per cent. 

The inspector of buildings of this city reports that permits for 
new buildings have been taken out as follows : — 



Yew. 


Amonnt. 


1900 

1901 


£ 
500,000 
876.000 



Some yean ago, I advised Biitish capitalists to purchase city Adrir* lo 

onpilaliitt. 



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•>(> LOS ASliKLEri. 

and county )^ld bonds here. Ttiu rate of interest has decreased bo 
much of late, however, that there is no particular inducemeint to 
do this now. 20 years ago I.os Aisles had to pay fi'om 8 to 
10 per ceut. interest on her bonds. 10 years ago the rate was 5^ 
per ctjnt., and now it is 3'85 per cent, Tliere ai* some gold lionds 
of Intimate enterprises still for sale hew whioh net about 
5 per cent. The rate of intei'est on best tirst roortg^e security 
has declined from about 10 per cent net to about 5 per cent, net, 
on sums of fi-om 100/. to 400/., 6i to 7 per cent, net is still paid. 
Information as to investments of this description can no doubt .be 
obtained tlirough the London agen^jies of the banks here. Barcla\- 
and Company, Limited, are the London agents of the First National 
Bank of lum Angeles. 

In my last report I advised capitalists not to purchase oil 
stocks without personally inspecting the pro]}erties. I am afraid 
that this advice has not been followed, to the loss of a number of 
investors. 

The only classes needed here are farmers with some capital, 
capitalists, great and small, and labourers. The " Lob Angeles 
Times," in its issue of September 22, 1901, discourages clerks. 
book-keepers and professional people from coming here. I make 
the following extract from the article : — 

" The ' Times ' in its special editions prepared for circulation 
abroad, has always emphasised the fact that I>os Angeles is no 
place for persons without means who seek light employment at 
such work as Iwok-keeping, clerking and so forth, or even for the 
professional Tuan of moderate ability and small means, as we are 
already crowded with that class of people. There is probably no 
city of the size in the United States where it is so difficult to 
obtain work of this kiud at a reasonable rate of remuneration as in 
Los Angeles. This is quite natural, and is only what might be 
expected. Tliousands of people come hei* for their health, in 
order to enjoy the mild climate. Many of these people ai-e still 
able to do li^t work. They bring with them, perhaps, just enough 
to pay their board and lodging for a limited time. Anythin,^' they 
can make is so much gained. C-onsequently, if the educated 
Eastern consumptive sees a chance to take a book-keeper's place 
at 30 dol. a month which is worth 100 dol. a month, he does so. 
The same is true of almost every branch of light employment, such 
for instai'.ce as small storekeeping. An advertisement of a few 
lines inserted in the paper calling for a clerk or book-keeper will 
often bring several hundred replies, even though the wages offered 
may be ridiculously low," 

It was stated in the press here recently than an Englislmian 
was induced by the Anglo-American Company to purchase a farm 
in Southern California before leaving the United Kingdom, and for 
which he paid 2,400/. Needless to say that on arriving here, he 
found that it was valueless. 1 mention the matter in the faint 
hope that it may deter othei'S from like folly. Land should not be 
purchased in California until after a year's lesidence prospective 
settlers have learned something about its ^'alue. 



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LOS AHGBLBS. 



Foieiga going vessels dischaive at the Southern Faoifie shmping v 
Oompaoy s wluLTf at Port Loa Angeles, 16 miles west of this city. lUTi^tioii. 
It ia an open roadstead, and vessels are sometimes unable to come 
aloi^de the whatL 

lam. indebted to the Collector of Cuatoms for the following 
retom of shipping ^— 

Annex A. — ^BsrCBir of all Shipping at the Fort of Los Angelea, 
California, during the Year 1901. 





Suling. 


Steam. 


TotaL 


NMionalitr. 


Nmnbw 


Toiu. 


5Dmber 

of 
TtmOM. 


Ton*. 


tTumber 
of 


Ton*. 


British .. 
Amerwan 


1 
8 
X 


1,788 


8 
89 


27,948 
71,768 
6,M6 


9 
43 

4 


29,440 
71,882 
8^678 


loba 
„ 1900 .. 


6 
7 


8,8M 
10,874 


60 
40 


106,646 
76,80* 


65 
47 


110,000 
85,678 





Suting. 


Stum. 


Total. 


N>tdoiulit7. 


Knmber 

of 
TmmLl 


lona. 


Hnmbor 

of 
YmmU. 


Tona. 


of 


Tom. 


Britoh .. 
AnKTioui 
Other DOWitriM.. 


"a 


'ss 


8 
80 
8 


27.948 
64,719 
6,946 


8 
32 
8 


27,948 
64,768 
6,945 


Total 

„ 1900.. 


i 


88 

9,407 


41 
84 


99,6ia 
64,669 


4B 
40 


90,646 
7V>76 



Speakii^t generally, I believe I may say that the only opening Tf«de 
here for British tiade is in the very best goods. In cheap machine- "o"™* 
made goods the United States is easily first Taking guns, for 
exam^e, nothing made in Europe can compete with the cheap 
gnus nude here, and sportsmen here tell me that they 
cannot get a gan in the United States at all approaching the best 
Bngli^ gons. It will be seen tiam Annex B Uiat piactically the 
only articles of import are Portland cement and coaL The coa 
brought from British Columbian ports, and is being rapidly 
aaperBeded by ml produced here. Most of the cement comes from 



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z8 .I/)B ANCELEB. 

Ocnnsny end Belgium, and unless England can supply a better 
article at a lower price she must lose this trade. '^ 

Heretofore coffee has been dmnk here almoat to the exclusion 
of tea. More tea is now being consumed, and as the quality leav% 
much to be desired, while the price is quite high, I should think 
when the demand increases pure Ceylon teaa-might be sold here bfr 
advantage. Several agencies for the sale of Ceylon teas have been 
.estabhshed here in the laat 11 years and have not been successfi4, 
and the time is not yet ripe to press the sale of good teas. I 
think, however, that there will be a market her© in the future. 

The citrus fruit exported from Southern Califomia in the past 
two years is reported as follows : — 



Yeu. 


QuMtilj.. 


Valued at— 


1900 .. ■ 

1901 

■ 


Cu-loadt. 
17,103 
24,098- 


'£ 
1,900,000 
2,200,000 



NOTTt. — A car load oo 



» of 862 boiea waigbing abtmt 70 lb*, per boi. 



The crop now being harvested will be less than last year, 
owing to drought in the early part of the season. Over 2,006 
car loads of vegetables will be despatched this season. 

I am Indebted to the collector of customs for the statistics of 
exports and imports in Annexes B and C following : — 

Annex B. — Retchn of Principal Articles of Import to Los 
Angeles, California, during the Years 1900-01. 



Artiolea. 


Tone . 
Bamk . 


laop.. 


1901. 


1 Quantity. Talne. 


QuMititj. 


Talne. 


■ Coal 

Cement .. 
Othw article! .. 


1 ' e 

137,480 j 109,986 

I 62,862 18.619 

1 9,289 


91,804 
19.811 


£ 
78,441 
.. 8.862 
3.608 


Tolal .. 


1 .. j 187.783 




80,809 



Annex C. — Table showing Total Value of all Article Imported 
to Los Angeles from Fore^ Countries during the Tears 
1900-01. 



, Cooiifay. 


Talae. 


1900. 


1901. 


tTniUd Eingdon 
Britiih Oolmnbia 
Other countriea 


8,148 
112,263 
17,387 


e * 

■8,603 
78.411 
7,1!8 


i Total .. .: 


187.798 






83,078 ■ 



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LOB INQBLM. 39 • 

The census of 1900 shows a surprismg increase in nuumfacttues poiHihtioB 
in this city: The capital invested is returned at 2,400,0001, an >■><! 
increase of 115 per cent, in the last decade. In view of the fact »n^'"'*i«* 
that Los Angeles has been little else than a health resort until 
very recently, this is remarkable, and due almost wholly to: 
the discovery of cheap fuel. Oil, which is now sold here at 2& pet' 
barrel of 42 gallons, is cheaper than coal at 7s. per ton. In the 
past decade Uiere haa bean a great reduction in the rate ol' interest,' 
and in uisurance rates, and tlus, with the cheap fuel accounts for 
the increase in manufactures. lai^ deposits of iron ore have- 
recently been discovered near this city, and steel works and cotton 
factories are now projected. The cropu and manufactured goods 
ill this district produce about 20,000,000/. per annum, and to this 
must be added at least 6,000,000^. left here annually by the 
40,000 to 60,000 tourists from the Eastern States, Canada and 
Europe. This latter " crop " is increasing annually, and this in ■ 
{ace of discouragement at the hands of some of the hotel 
proprietors, who are now ctiarging 21. to 3^ per day for a room' 
^thout board. 

A post-office building sufficient for the needs of this city at the Port-o***- 
^me was erected here in 1892 at a cost of 25,000/. The city has 
grown so rapidly, however, that it has now become necesaaiy to' 
pull it down, and a new building, to cost 200,0001., is to be con- 
structed in its place. At the present rate of increase the popula- 
tion of this city will be over 600,000 in 1920. 

The county coroner reports that he held 314 inquests in 1901, D«»*iifc 
in which nine verdicts of murder were returned and 25 of 
suicide. 

The city health officer reports that there were 1,927 deaths in 
this city in 1901, this gives a death rate of l&'OO per 1,000. A 
very large percentage were people who came here in search of 
bealth ; 428 died of toberculosis contracted elsewhere. 

The county clerk reports as follows : — DiTOw ind 



The superintendent of the free schools in this city reports as BdnoMioa. 
follows : — 

" The total number of children of school age, tiiat is, between 
-5 and 17 years of age, is 38,1«}6. Of tliis number, 23,609 attended 
the free schools, 2,102 attend private schools, and 6,262 do not 
attend any schooL There are 60 free schools in the city, valued, 
with tiieir furniture, at 262,800/. The school bonds outstanding 
against the city amount to about 200,000/., bearing interest at 
fi and 4^ per cent. Additional sdiool accommodation is required. 



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80 LOS ANQELSa 

and bonds to the amonnt of 80,000^ will aliortly be iaaaed. ^ese 
bonds will probably be iasued at about 4 per cent., and will be 
good security for people satiafled with a low rate of interest. 

This district has never been carefully prospected for gold and 
copper. When it was profitable to mine silver about 20 years 
ago there was very little demand for copper, and gold-copper 
locations were frequently taken up and abandoned. The United 
Verde Copper Mine, worth to-day several millions sterling, was 
offered for a few thousand dollars in 1881. Lai^e deposits of 
molybdenite and other rare ores have been found here, and there 
are immense deposits of infusorial earth, asbestos, sulphur, borax. 
Bait, nitre, and other substances, some of which are not worked 
at ^1, and others to a very limited extent. I am reliably informed 
that on the new road from Lob Angeles to Salt Lake, now in the 
course of construction, there are enormous deposits of iron and 
coaL 

It is almost impossible to get accurate statistics of tfae output 
of oil in this district There are about 1,100 wells within the 
city limits of this city, producing from 3 to 20 barrels per day. 
In the Fullerton oil district, about 15 miles south-east of tius 
city, some of the wells produce as much as 100 barrels per day. 
The total production of oil in this district in 1900 was 
estimated at 4,000,000 barrels, in 1901 at 8,000,000 barrels. As 
the price has now dropped from 4^. to 2s. per barrel, the production 
has lessened, and the amount for this year will probably be a good 
deal le^B than last year. The transcontinental railways are con- 
verting their engines into oil burners, as it is new demonstrated 
that there ie no danger of a shortage in the supply of oiL This 
will effect a saving of at least 60 per cent, in the fuel bills of tfae 
railway companies. 

The production of beet sugar at Oxnard in this district in 1900 
was 19,392,900 lbs., and in 1901 41,783,800 lbs. The other 
factories in this district did not work in 1900, owing to drought, 
and in 1901 the Chino Factory produced 4,902,000 lbs. 
■ The heat of the sun is being utilised here to create power 

* and to heat water for domestic purposes. At the ostricfa farm 
adjoining this city, a solar motor is in operation every sunny day 
(about 300 days in the year), and pumps 1,400 gallons of water 
per minute. One man can easily revolve the whole structure on 
its axis ; the reflector is 33 feet 6 inches in diameter on top, and 
15 feet on the bottom; l.'ZSS mirrors concentrate the sunshine 
upou a central point — the boiler — this receptacle is 13 fett 6 inches 
in kngth, and contains 100 gallons of water, leaving still 8 cubic 
feet for steam. The contrivance is designed to resist a wind 
pressure of 100 miles per hour ; it is entirely automatic, and runs 
all day without attention; the steam pressure is conirolled by 
means of a safety valve ; the supply of water to the boiler is 
furnished by an automatic apparatus, and by means of a condenser 
the steam is returned to the boiler after working the engine. 

Solar heaters are placed on the roofs of the houses end con- 
nected with the water pipes. One heater will supply hot water 
foi- domestic purposes for an ordinary family. 



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LOS AXGEIJilS. 'M 

The railway now being coustmcted belweeii Los Angeles and Poblio work*. 
Salt Lake City is of the utmost importance to this city and 
vicinity, first, because it will give competition in the transcon- 
tinental business ; secondly, because it will shorten the distance 
to Chicago very materiaily ; and thirdly, because it will open up 
«nd make tributary to Los Angeles a very valuable mining 
country. 

Mr. Gibbon, a vice-president of the company, writes to me as 
follows : — 

" The plans of the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt !Uike Itaihoad 
Company are to continue construction as rapidly as possible until 
its line from Los Angeles to Salt Ijike City is completed and in 
operation. We have, during the past year, rebuilt the 27 miles 
of line, extending l>etween T.os Angeles and San Pedro, have also 
acquired considerable rights of way extending from the City of 
Los Angeles towards Salt Lake City, have graded aboitt 40 miles 
of road and are now engaged in laying the track thereon. We 
have surveyed probably two-tliirds of the total length of the line, 
and have filed maps with the Secretary of the Interior covering 
several hundred miles through lands of the United States Govern- 
ment. We have expended between 5,000,000 and 6,000,000 dol. 
in the enterprise, this, of course, including a lai^ amount of 
equipment, 20,000 tone of steel rails, several hundred thousand 
ties, and other construction maceriaL" 

General farming has been much depressed here during the i^cultnn. 
past four years, owing to insufficient rainfall, the principal sufferers 
being those engaged in grain farming and stock raising. The fruit 
growers, who depend on irrigation have, with some exceptions, not 
suffered very much, as the sources of supply of the artesian wells 
and other water used for irrigating are in the high Sierras, hun- 
dreds of miles away. 

It will be seen elsewhere in this report that orange growing Onuge*. 
is one of the principal industries, and great care is taken to pre- 
vent the importation of diseased fruit In some portions of Mexico 
the oranges are infested with m^gots, and in reference to this the 
quarantine officer of the State Board of Horticulture says in his 
last report: — 

" I hope that Congress will take some action at the coming : 

Session and pass a law that will prohibit the introduction of 
omnges from the infeeted sections. If a measure of this kind is 
not enacted, the growers of citrus fruits in the United States may 
soon have to wage warfare upon a pest that will be more difGcnlt 
to control than the codlin moth in apples aud pears. I do not 
anticipate any satisfactory result from the Mexican Government 
request to the Governors of the various States to have the pest 
stamped out in their districts. It is too serious a question for 
our Government to hesitate upon. From a personal interview 
with the Secretary of Agriculture I am satisfied that we can rely 
upon his hearty co-operatiou in preventing such a pest entering 
the United States." 

The report from which the above is an extract is most interest- 



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H2 LOS angei.es. 

in<» and valuable to fruit growers, and shows the care that is beinjj 
taken to prevent the introduction into Californiii of injurious 
paraaites. 

The olive growers here are suffering from over-production. 
One of tbe largest olive groves in the world is at San Fernando, 
about 20 luiles north-weet of IjOS Angeles. It contains nearly 
1,400 acies in olive trees just commencing to bear. As I havn 
said in former reports, when the people learn how much morf^ 
wholesome olive oil is for cooking than animal oils, the demand 
will make the business profitable. At present 1 understam) 
tliat it is unprofitable and some growers are upi-ooting theii- 
trees. A good deal of British capital has been invested in this 
industry in this district to the sorrow of the investora The 
Secretaiy of the State Board of Horticulture writes me that he 
is unable to obtain statistics of the output of olive oil and pickled 
olives. 

Walnut trees are proving to be in many respects more profit- 
able than orange groves. Tliere is less danger of over-production, 
as it takes about 1 6 years to bring a walnut tree into full bearing, 
iind conipamti\'ely few can afford to wait so long for returns. The 
denjnnd for the nuta is steady, and the prices obtained are very 
good. The Secretary of the State Board of Horticulture writes 
uie that the estimated yield of walnuts in this district for 1901 
is 14,rOO,000 lbs., and adds :— 

" llepresentatives of the Walnut Growers' Association of 
Sontliem (Jalifornia, through whom the lai^er part of the crop 
is sold, fixed the prices on September 21, 1901, as follows: — 
Standard, 4^d. per lb. ; soft shell, 4jcf. per lb. ; second grades of 
either ^■ariety, Id. less per Ih., f.o.b. cars." 

A fungus affection lias been spreading among tbe walnut trees 
through the various district during the last few years. This- 
condition appears to vary with the seasons and not to remain 
permanently with the trees. Apart from this, the walnut tree is 
very healthy and free from pests. The value of a walnut grove 
varj-s a good deal according to the quality of the land and the 
water rights, prices running from 80^. to 200/. per acre for hearing 
orchards. 

Ploughs driven by steam-power are used to some extent lu 
this district. On level land these machines will plough as much 
UB 200 acres per day. 

As stated elsewhere in this report, this district has suffered a 
good deal from drought for several years past. An official recoi-d - 
of the rainfall has been kept here for the last 24 years. In the 
first eight years of this period the average rainfall was 16'8o 
inches, in the second eight years the average was 1948 inches, 
and in the last eight years the average was only 1064 inches. Up 
to February, 1902, the rainfall was so light as to make it probable . 
that there would be a total failure of the crops. Heavy rains in 
the first half of March have removed this apprehension, and it is 
now probable that there will be a reasonably good ciop. 

The wealthy tourists from the Eastern States, who tornieily 



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LOS ANGELES. 33 

went to Iflorida for the winter, ore now comiDg to Los Angeles 
in greater nunLbers. This change is due in part to the fact 
that the attractions of California are being advertised by tlie 
transcontinental railways throughout the Eaetein States and 
Canada, and principsdly to the fact that California does present 
attractions not found eUewhere. Every kind of climate can be 
found here in the winter time, from intense cold in the mountainB 
to bright sunshine and warm dry air in the orange groves. In 
sumioer cold fc^, with a temperature of 50 degrees, can be had 
at San Francisco, and within an hour's run a temperature of 100 
d^rees in the San Joaquiu Valley, or 75 to 80 d^rees at Loa 
Angeles. The tourist can find every kind of mountain and valley 
scenery, and the sportsmao can catch any kind of fish, from 
trout and bass to tuna and jew-flsh, weighing 200 to 500 lbs., or 
shoot almost any kind of bird or animal indigenous to the northern 
and central portions of the Continent. InvfUids make the mistake 
of coming here for the winter, and returnii^ to their homes in 
the spring, the climate in summer, however, is more beneficial 
for invalids, and at or near the sea coast is never too hot. 

In this report dollars have been converted in 11. sterling at 
the rate of 5 dol. per 11. and Id. na the equivalent of 2 c. 



San Dikgo. 

Mr. Vice-Consul Allen reports as follows : — 

The drought of the past four years has been a great obstacle introduotorj. 
in the path of progress for a section as wholly dependent upon 
^riculture as is that of the country immediately surrounding San 
Diego. 

The rainfall of 1901, although not enough to insure good 
barveste, was sufficient to save the seed in the shape of hay, 
where grain was not reaped and helped out the fruit interests 
materially. 

Agriculture generally, however, lias been in a depressed 
condition. 

The fruit growers depend almost entirely on irrigation, and 
are therefore to soma extent independent of the rainfall, except 
in so far as the replenishing of the reservoirs is concerned, and 
for this purpose it proved sufficient. 

Owing to the poor harvests no given shipments were made Trmde and 
from the port during the past year. conuneree. 

Coal importations show the large increase of 12,494^. I6s. Co»l«uid 
over the previous year. Cement a decrease of 1,238/. 8a. The <*"""•"■ 
value of cement imported from the United Kingdom amounted 
to 10,356(. 158. The remainder valued at 6,894/. 17«. came from 
Belgium and Germany. 

The coal importations from British Columbia are valued at 
25,798/., and thoae from Australia at 5,313/. 18s. 

A good deal of coal was sent during 1901 to Los Angeles by 
(91) c 



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34 



SAN DIIOO. 



rail from this port The Sasta Fi Railway, formerly a large' 
customer for coal at this port, has for Bome years past used oil 
for fuel entirely, as it is both clieaper and cleaner. 

With the above exceptions of coal and cement, moat of the 
imports for local consumption caxae, as in previous years, by sail 
and rail from San Francisco, Los Angeles and the Eastern States. 

German cutlery has to a lai'ge extent superseded British in 
the local market owing, I am informed by the vendors, to tlie 
fact that German dealers are willing to replace any article having 
a defect or flaw, which a customer may discover after the pm- 
chase has been made, and also to their willingness to supply small 
orders. 

The trade in pruning shears and knives, &c., on account of 
the large fruit interests, is considerable, and the Germans are 
paying great attention to it They also supply the market largely 
with scissore, pocket knives, and razors. It is doubtful, however, 
if any foreign country can long compete in the steel trade ; 
America is already lately supplying chese articles itself, and 
will in a few years do so entirely. 

The following tables show the amount and principal articles of 
export and import during the years 1900-01 : — 



Ketuh.n oC Pr 



cipal Articles of Import to San Di^o during the 
Yeare 1900-01. 



KMOtt. 






1«0. 


mi. 
















qunUtf 


1 Vslu.. 


quuituy 


V^w. 


OmI 


. ... Tom 


... ■a.Mt 


j I8,7M * 


4wai 


turn 'i 


Ctmial 




.,.; »,«M 




M,8» 




Silk 






t^llla a 








'.'.'. Lb.." 


...' tUM 




nViis 




Kit. ::; ;:: 




„. 1M,IM 








CkiumDilJ>iiu>» 






8,N» a 






SUK.r[roniH«lK-KDIlg 










2.ma 


""■in* 






a,<s> u 




"'wi " 


JoM ind fibre ... 














; ■" Samiier 


... 1S,M5 


8,I«T s 




■2,Mi g 


uiuDD ud ii'muw* 






1 l.MW IS 


z.wt 


4,S6S a 


BuIUoB i(rid 


'.'.'. Ob. 


'.'.'.\ *,ooa 


12,0*8 






QMtOMttUnlf .,. 










\na 8 


OtberutldH 






i>,8e8 IS 




8,tU 


EnMnd lor uneboat 


; :::i ::: 














iie,(i» 4 


... ! 1I2,W4 It 



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Beturk of Principal Articles of Export from San Di^o during 
the Years 1900-01. 



.«-.. 




l»0. j Mi. 




OunO.,. 


Vihu. 


Quiuutr 


Tiilue. 




























































CMUm 












































































































Wii. 








.„ 






















































: 








»1,7W » 


Total 


.„ 


>14,U7 4 


... 


Me,«8 l« 



Table showing Total Value of all Articles Exported from and 
Imported to San Diego, California, to and from Foreign 
Countries during the Years 1900-01, 



Country. 


ExporU. 


Import.. 


1900. ; 1901. 


1900. 


1901. 


United Kiogdom sud 

China uid J>paD .. 
Heiioo 


£ .. 

132 

267,868 4 

89,018 i 

7,M8 16 


£ #. 

1,626 4 

172,101 

30,906 

4.046 12 


£ •. 

89,660 8 
62,462 16 
80,964 8 
16,481 12 


£ '. 

43,481 4 
47,816 4 
16,610 8 
14,997 


Total . . 


314,647 4 


306,678 16 


186,619 4 


128,804 16 












ralne. 


IlIlport^ 1901 


£ : 

122,804 16 

4,687 4 

127,944 4 


In bond, under inuuediate tmuportMion. mnd 
paid at other port* 


uty 


Totelim 


portatiODBthn 


ugh port.. 


2H936 4 



(91) 



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Bkturk of all Shipping at the Port of San "Disgo, California, 
United States of America, during the Year 1901. 



BritUh .. 
Amenoa 
Other iMtioiuji lie* 


5 


8,324 

67J< 

6,687 


91 
96 
10 


64.786 
129,998 
17,020 


96 
186- 
18 


78,06(1 
130,677 
28,667 


Totol 
„ 1900 . . 


49 
41 


16,440 

8,277 


196 
206 


811,764 

213,661 


246 
247 


227,19». 
220,828 






Clsarkd. 




T 
Kumber 




KMioriBlity, 


Sailing. 

Ifi,mbt-r 

of Ton.. 
TmmU. 


VmmIb. 


Ton.. 


otaL 
Ton*. 


Brituh .. 
Amencftii 
Other DfttioDalitiea 


»i 


8,324 
492 

9,710 


00 
9 

8 


61,462 

10,948 
16,S46 


96 
40 

13 


6B,776 
11,386 
25.956 


„ 1900 .. 


41 . 
81 


18,626 
10.680 


107 
117 


88.641 
107,057 


148 
148 


107,067 
117,787 



Shipping ud The Dumber of British ships calling at the port during 1901 
DaTiption. ia about the same as those of the previous year, and amounled to 
96 entries and 95 clearings, 91 of which were steamers and 5 
Bailing vessels. The coal importations from British Columbia 
were, with the exception of the last cai^o, broi^ht to this port in 
British bottoms. 
Oaliromut During the past year the two lines of steamers trading between 

Mid Orimtal San Diego and foreign ports, in connection witli the tranp- 

a, x.:.. continental railway (Santa ii), have discontinued using Sai. 

Diego as a port of call, viz., the California iind Oriental Steam- 
ship Company, whose vessels traded between this port and China 
and Japan via Honolulu, and the Kosnios, a German line whose 
steamers rim from Hamburg, touching ut ports iu South and 
Central America and Mexico. 

Two or three steamers of the first-named company may dehver 
caivoes here during the spring of 1 902, us their charters do not 



CoropaQj. 
Koiinoi 

Staam.hip 
Computf. 



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SAN DIEGO. 37 

expire till then, but after that the steamship line will cease to 
call at this port 

The North Island Marine Ways has installed a new cable. Marine -nj*. 
The arrival of the cable and the incidental repairs being made 
at the ways marks a great improvement for the shipping interests 
of San Di^o harbour. Several thousand dollars will have been 
expended before all has been completed, and the ways are in good 
working order. The company will be able to handle all kinds of 
steamers and sailing craft, up to 1,200 tons, in which class is 
included all coast plying vessela. 

The United States Govemmeut has already allowed large sums improTement 
for fortifying the harbour, and the construction of the inter- of harbour. 
oceanic canal will probably entail mure elaborate plans for this 
work than at present contemplated. In addition to these expendi- 
tures on the part of the Government, the Rivers and Harbour 
Bill now before Congress carries with it an appropriation of 
70,000i. for the general improvement of this harbour, while appro- 
priations have already been allowed and made available for the 
early construction of a Government coaling station near Fort 
Rosecmns, and for the enlargement of the present quarantine 
station to double its present capacity. The growing industrial 
life along the western coasts of South and Central America and 
Mexico, the expanding commerce of Australia and New Zealand, 
the opening of China to trade and colonisation, the industrial pro- 
gress of Japan, the new American dominion in the Philippines 
and Hawaii, and the unforeeen development of Alaska, are the 
events of a few years, coming swiftly and with cumulative force, 
and have resulted in fixing the attention of capital and enterprise 
upon the seaports of California, Or^on, and Washington, and are 
factors that must be counted with in the commercial life of the 
near future. 

The records of the Board of Public Works show that building PopnUtloii 
permits, a^regating 32,007^., were issued during 1901, As, how- »'iaindn»trie». 
ever, the figures given in asking for permits are usually nominal, 
it is within bounds to say that the actual amount in new buildings 
during the year was nearer 50,000A 

The Telephone Company has made great improvements. It 
has purchased its own home at a cost of 2,500/., and all the wiren 
running into the new building have been placed underground, and 
so relieved the city of some of the unsightly wires and poles, in 
addition to giving better sevice. 

A feature of municipal success during the pa.st year was the tWy w»ter 
purchiise by the city of the entire properties of the San Diego 'J***™- 
Water Company for 100,000/., and the city distributing system of 
the Southern California Mountain Water Company for 20,000i. 
The question was submitted to a vote of the people upon the 
issue of 120,000/. in bonds to pay for these properties, and the 
action of the City Council was ratified. Following their autho- 
rl'^ed is&iie came the sale of the waDer bonds, which netted the 
city a substantial premium. 

The entire trackage of the San Di^o Electric Railway system Kieotric 



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Fropoied 



38 SAS DIEOO. 

lios also been reconatructed, and has been very tborouglily doae. 
Some 27,000 split redwood ties, 6 by 8 inches and 8 feet loug, 
have replaced the old ties, and about 1,200 tons of 60-lb, steel 
rails Jiavt! i-eplaced the lighter rails. 

The total coat of maintaining the public school system in this 
city for all purposes duriug the past year waa 15,834/., and the 
total number of teachers employed was 85. The average daily 
attendance for the year ^laa 2,494. The total number aitendinf; 
schools, including thu High Schuol. is 3,368. There are eight 
school buildinfjs in tlie ciLy projwr, one of which is devot«d ex- 
clusively to lii'ih-school work, and graduates from this institution 
are accepteil without examinatinn into any of the State univer- 
sities. There is besides these the State normal school lor higher 
education. 

Mr. Andrew Carnegie, who, as mentioned in a previous rejmrt, 
gave lO.OOOi. towards the biiildiiij; of a pubhc library in this 
city, has added another 1,400/. to provide for heating, book shelves, 
furniture, and layiii<{ out the surrounding grounds. The biiihling 
is nearly coini)leted, and will be opened to the public aliout June, 
1902, when the books of the present library will have lieen moved 
into their new iiuartere. 

BunineNS with tiie tiu'ee local railroads — San Die^'O, Cuyaniaca 
and Easterij, 1^ >IolJu and National City and Otay — has shown a 
decided increase durii^ 1901 as compared with previous years. 
Owing to tbe increase in freight the Cuyamoca and Eastern has 
recently put on a special passenger sen'ice, an innovation that 
haa added to the populaiity of this road. The total freight 
hauled over this read during the year was 30,000 tons, made up 
of the folluwint; items : — Hay, 3,700 tons ; grain, 844 tone ; frnit, 
6,in7 tons ; stone, 10,703 tons ; miscellaneous, 8,646 tons. Service 
over the La Jolla road has also been improving. 

The National City and Otay Railway Company imports a very 
gooil business year. The increased fre4i;ht3 have compelled this 
Company to put on an independent freight train, which 
gives a double daily freight service between San Di^o and the 
interior. Early in the year instructions were given to overhaul 
the entire road bed of the railroad company, and a large force of 
men has been employed tliroughout the year on this work, and the 
motive power and rolling-stock equipment has also been main- 
tained and added to, ao that the Company's entire property is ill 
better condition than it has been for many years, 

During the past year it was propo.sed to build a railroad east- 
ward from the port of San Diego to Yuma, on the Colorado River. 
The possibilities of constrncting such a road have been discussed 
since 1868, and in that year the project tailed only througii the 
financial embarrassment of a foreign syndicate, which agreed to 
take from the promoter of the enterprise the amount of bonds 
necessary to build it. Such a raili-oad reaching the Colorado River 
and beyond will tap the great and ever-increasing trafiic of 
Southern California, Arizona and New Mexico, and of Chihuahua. 
Sonora and Lower California in Old Mexii^, thereby opening the 



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SAN DIKOO. 89 

shortest and cheEipest outlet to tide water. The region to be 
trRversed and served is one of the i-apidly-developing newer 
sections of the United States, owing to if^ large production of 
minerals, principally copper and iio\ti, of cattle, hogs, sheep, fniit, 
cereals and other agricultural staples. 

As a preliminary to this undertaking, the San Biego Chamber 
i)f Commerce appointed a committee, who have effected the 
organisation of the San Diego and Eaatcrn Eailway Company, and 
lifive elected a board of officers. The public have responded to an 
invitation for subscriptions, and a sum of SfiOOt. was promised the 
cummittee for the necessary survey and establishment of grades. 
The surveyor has established the controlling gradient across the 
mountains as 75 feet to the mile as the lowest grade over the 
coast range, and it is expected that the Han Diego Eastern Railway 
Company will ehortly be organised, with substantial financial men 
on the directorate. The road ie to reach tide water at tlie port of 
San Diego, and would thereby furnish the local traffic of Northern 
Mexico, Southern Arizona, the Colorado Delta, and the inter- 
mountain region with the shortest route to the sea. 

In raising lemons, San Diego (Jouiity leads every county in Lemom, 
Southern California. There are in round numbers about 500,000 
lemon trees in the county, of which nearly 200.000 are in bearing. 
The output in 19O0 was about 600 car loads. During 1901 
between 700 and 800 car loads were sent out. Wlien the 
orchards are in full bearing the annual product will be several 
thousand car loads. 

At the close of 1901 the total bonded indebtedness of the Bonded 
county was 26,800Z. As an offset to this liability, the county lias ind«btedn«M 
public buildings valued at 38,000/., and tlie treasurer had 42,000/. '^^'""^'^■ 
cash on hand. There are 1,260,117 acres of land in San Diego 
county, and the total assessed valuation of all property in 1901 
wa-fl 3,992,000/. 

The cash paid into the San Diego Post Office for stamps sold Postal 
during the year banning October 1, 1900, and ending Sep- "^"P**- 
tend)er 30, 1901, exceeded that of the previous year by 584/. The 
total receipte for stamps purchased during the year ending Sep- 
tember 30, 1900, were 7,226/. IQs., and for the year ending 
Septeralier 30, 1901, 7,810?. Us. The figures give evidence of a 
healthy increase in the general business of the city for the past 
year, and do not include the holiday business, which is believed to 
have exceeded former records. 

During the year the average death i-ate per 1,000 of the popula- Public 
tiou was 12'46, and the average I'irth rate 14-83 per 1,000. No '>«»l'>»- 
epidemic of any consequence visited the city, nor did any con- 
tf^^ions diseases gain a ''oothold. The number of rases of infectious 
di^'ases report€d during the ye.ir has been very small — -one of 
diphthei'ia, four measles, seven of scarlet fever, and two of typhoid 
fever. 

The mean temperature lot the year was 61-4, which was Climate. 
1 degree above normal. The highest temperature, 96, occurred on 
October 21, and the lowest, 35, on December 13. During the year 



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LOSDOH : 

Printed for Wa Hijntj'i BUtionery Office, 

Bi HAKfiiaON ASD SOITB, 

Prinlcn in Ordinarj to Hu Kijeatf. 

(76 6 I 02— H k 8 m 



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No. 28S8 Annnal Series. 
DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR KEPORTS. 



[JNITED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE YKAK 1901 



TRADE AND AGRICULTUttE OF THE STATES OF 
. OREGON, WASHINGTON AND IDAHO. 



REFERENCE TO PREVIOUS REPORT, Annoal Series No. 2666. 



Pruenttd to both Houatt of Parliament % Command of Hie Mi^utj/, 
JULY, 1902. 



LOVDOIT: 

PRnriBD -BOB. Hia ICAJESTT'B BTATIONBaT 05>E1C% 

BT HASBISON AND SONS, ST. UAETIN'B LANS, 



■Hu lu, aDinauuN Stbekt, WismiHtTn, S.W.) 

or OLIVEE 4: BOTD, Edikbhsch ; 

m I. PONSONBT, lis, Qbutoh Stbiu, l>ttBua. 

tdos. 

([Cd. 786 — H>2.] Price Threepence. 



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CONTENTS. 



POBTLASD— • 

Introdiiot(»7 n 



Imprata bj MmntriM eoiapM«d , 
Britiali tnde „„.._._... 



PopulatioD ftad indaittiM _...._,..-- ». 

M&nufactorM in Ongon and Wutungtoa . 
Labour „.._ _»— 



Fiihariei of Oregon and Wuhingbm ... 
Uining .._.„..... „ 



Bcml»ft«t4 .. 
l^ition ..... 



Lewis and Claik OenteDDisl and Fkcifla Sxpoaitiai 



ArniBii report ~^. — 

Tost ToVHaxirs report . 



StBtirtie*) UbU* for Pnget Boimd dirtriat ._ 
StiTTLi report ^ „....„....__,„.„..... 



Non. — Ibronghont thie report doIlM* h^ve been Bowertet into ttrnMnt at 
> rate of 6 doL to tlio 1). 



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No. 2858. Annaal Series. 

Se/erenee to previous Seport, Annual Seriet No. 2666. 



IRgport on the Trade, Commerce and Agi-iculture of the Consular 
IHstriet of Portland, Oregon, for the Year 1901 

By Mr. Consul Laidlaw. 

(BeMiTsd ti. Foredga Offioe, June 24, 1902.) 

The general trade of this district, which includes Oregon, introdBctofr 
Washington and Idaho, during the year 1901 has been in an ex- wmwta- 
ceedingly healthy condition. Crops of all the great staples were 
lai^, and there was a continued improvement in the mining and 
timber interests. The salmon fisheries of Or^n show a diminu- 
tion, but there has been a very large increase of the product in 
Washington. The carrying trade of the district haa materially 
improved, and dairying and ^riculture show great development. 
There haa been some increase in general manufactures. 

On reference to the tables attached to this report, it will be Impcwt tnd« 
noticed that imports of cement, tea, sulphur and earthenware fell off 
materially, but there was an increase in silk, rice, coal, sugar, salt, 
&c. The transit trade at this port fell off somewhat, but improved' 
considerably at other ports of the district. Value of foreign goods 
upon which duty has been paid at a port of entry outside of this 
district is not given in the tables attached to this repot t, as it 
cannot be ascertained. 

The principal articles received at this port from Japan, were : Imports bj 
matting, 68,654/,; tea, 35,519/.; raw and manufactured silk coootriw. 
20,310i.; rice, 18,703/.; manila fibre, 17,764/.; curios, 11,844/. ■ J«p»ii. 
straw braid, 9,858/.; sulphur, 8,941/.; camphor, 2,901/.; kaolin' 
1,503/. ; earthenware, 704/. ; apices, 678/. 

The receipts from Houg-Kong and Chinese prats consisted Chint. 
principally of the following goods: matting, 15,048/.; sugar 
6,457/. ; tea, 3,572/. ; manila, 1,908/. ; fixed oils, 1 770/ ■ cured 
fish, 1,325/. ; rice, 8,525/. 

From British India and East Indies : jute bags and bagging, lodis. 
76,118/.; other manufactures of jute, 8,736/.; raw jute, 10 741/ ■ 
coffee, 3,704/, ; spices, 2,280/. ; tea, 409/.; pig tin, 4,461/. ' 

Receipts from the Philippine falands, consisting of raw jute PhiUppine 
aud manila, 51,910/. Iiludt. 

(129) i 2 



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Aoitnlih From Australia coal was received to the value of 2,817/. ; and 

Canada, from CQn&d& imports were principally coal, value 3,3S2/. 

Europe. In the direct import trade of this port with European countries 

the United Kingdom regained her status, her share of the whole 
having heen 51 per cent., that of Germany was 37 per cent, a 
slight increase, while Bel^n trade dropped from 24 to 4J per 
cent. The ratio of import trade on Puget Sound was: Germany, 
S4 per cent, ; the United Kingdom, 30 per cent.; and Belgium, 
rather over 29 per cent. 

The enlarged share of import trade secured hy Germany and 
Belgium in recent years is consequent upon the cement trade 
having passed into their hands from those of the British manu- 
facturer. 

Oennan;. The principal items of German import at this port were : 

cement, 10,948/,; chinaware and glassware, 1,653/.; chemicals, 
680/.; tijys, 1,061/,; cotton manufactures, principally hosiery, 
1,220/. ; cutlery and other manufactures of steel, 310/. ; cured 
fish, 360/. ; spirits, 485/. 

Belginta. The only important item received from Belgium was cement, 

2,186/. 

Swedan. Bar iron was received from Sweden to the value o/ 1,197/. 

Britiik trul*. Tlie following were the principal articles imported from the 
United Kingdom : — 

Manufactures of jute, 2,394^. ; salt, 2,342/. ; eai-tlienware, 
5,501/.; spirits, 795/.; oils, 1,044/.; fire-brick, 1,255/.; pig iron, 
1,093/. ; caustic soda, 406/. ; soda ash, 784/. ; glass, S&61. ; cutlery, 
&c, 541/.; oilcloth, 565/,; cotton laces, 446/.; woollens, 1,042/.; 
clays, 196/.; malt liquors, 1,074/. 

TiD plate. Tin plate to the value ot 30,613/. was imported into Puget 

Sound district for the use of salmon packers. This was rendered 
practicable on account of the drawback on export of tinned goods, 
and there was also a scsrcity of the American tin plate. The 
Trust now gives a rebate equal to the drawback, so that the 
mai'ket is practically closed against the British article unless under 
exceptional cireumstances. 

Cement. The imports of Chinese and Japanese cement have not been 

repeated, as it was found upon trial that most of it would not set 
under the suiiace in a reasonable time, and the greater part of 
that imported into the district was of German manufacture. In 
consequence of strikes in Belgium tbe quantity received frem that 
country was smaller than usual, but there are heavier indents on 
the way to arrive in 1902. Average price, about 10s: 6d. per cask 
for beat brands, duty 4d. per cask. 

oluL A small amount of picture glass was received from the United 

Kingdom, and no Belgium window glass was imported during the 
year in consequence of strikes in Belgium during the last month 
of 1900 and first part of 1901. More will be received during 
1902, but it is only a question of a short time before American 
glass displaces the imported. 

Eirtfaenware. SlowIy but surely the American earthenware is superseding 
that of British manufacture on this coast, but the British potteries 



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have still the advantage of a comparatively cheap rate of trans- 
port by sea. 

Imports of salt are twice as great as in 1900, and this trade Salt 
is likely to continue. Prices were controlled by the Salt Trust, 
and dealers paid 5^. per ton and over. 

The trade in fire-bricks tends to increase, and there is a good Pire-brieki. 
demand at about 11. 10». per 1,000. 

For pig iron there was a good demand, heavy forward orders Pig iion. 
have been placed. Sales were made tA 41.6s. to &l. Beceipts of 
American iron were much greater than last year. 

Coal imports vere resumed to some extent during the yeai-. Cod. 
the receipts being 5,693 tons from AuBtralia, 5,710 tons from 
British Columbia, 381 tons from Japan, and 286 tons British 
aathracite. 

Coal to the extent of 35,344 tons was received by rail from 
Fnget Sound, and it is estimated 36,000 tons came from Wyoming. 
Importers made little profit on coal. 

There was a heavy increase in the consumption of jute bags '"*• goodi. 
and bagging, and as usual all came from Calcutta with the excep- 
tion of the product of the Washington Penitentiary noted below. 
The consumption in the district is estimated to have been about 
20,000,000 wheat bags, 110,000 wool bags, and 525,000 ^ards of 
hop cloth. Average price for standard wheat bags during the 
year was about 1/. 10s. per 100 bags, double warp hop cloth sold 
at an average of 5{d. per yard, and wool bags at Is. 5rf. for 4 lbs., 
and U. S^rf. for 3^ Iba 

The foliowii^ are the statistics of product of the Washington 
State Penitentiary : — 



Artklet. 


Bdtt 


<Jii»iititj. 


BawmaierialuMd.. 


3,1SS 


Oiainlng*.. 


Numbw .. 


], 186,000 


4B4i>ch borii^ .. 






woolhw .. 




C,028 


Hop cloth .. 


Twda .. 


SI, tar 


RS-iDoh IDlUlllg .. 






nMeet«iD« 




S.088 



li. Sd. Mch 
fi^rf. per jard 
If. Sd. per jMd 
e(i.perlb.(120atriDK 
lie lb.) 



So far as can be ascertained there has been an improving sale 1>>7 8<Md&. 
for the finer {trades of worsteds, linens, tweeds, mohairs and laces 
of British make. 

The following data are furnished by a dealer of long experi- 
ence in the trade : — 

British cotton hosiery is sold in very small quantities. In 
German goods there is a large consumption, both in plain and 
fancy styles, which have much improved in shape and qualities. 
There is a very large production in American goods chiefly in the 
lower and medium grades. In the middle range, German goods 
easily compete with the American production. 

(129) A 3 



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The qualities and shape of the British goods are very superior, 
aud should have a larger sale than they hava Few wholesale 
American houses handle British goods, and then only in limited 
quantities Many more could be sold. Inhere is a large sale of 
women's woollen hosiery of British manufacture, but men's sizes 
are nearly all of domestic makes, ranging at factory prices from 
7<- per dozen up to 18^. per dozen. Above these prices foreign and 
chiefly British and German goods are used. 

Domestic makes of underwear, which are very fine, have to a 
$;reat extent driven out British goods of this class. The hi^h tariff 
kills the import into this country of all but the higher grades. 
Formerly much Scotch woollen underwear was used, but home 
competition has stopped its sale. German goods are used, chiefly 
from Stuttgart and its neighbourhood, made with unfinished seams, 
costing less than British goods with their fine and costly finished 
seams. Superiority of British goods in the higher grades is tin- 
questioned, but their sale is necessarily limited. It is the great 
middle-clflss consumption that tells. 

French hosiery and underwear ara too high grade to sell freely, 
and the Germans now imitate the French finish in cheaper goods 
and do it well. 

In fine white cotton fabrics — such as nainsooks, soft finish cam- 
brics, victoria lawns — British goods, in the finer grades, hold the 
market, but in tlie lower grades American makes have almost 
tt complete monopoly. 

British made coloured cotton shirungs have a very lai^ sale. 
Styles are much improved, and colourx and textures unsurpassed. 
At present no price seems to deter the purchaser, provided style is 
r^ht. Gla^ow cotton fabrics, such as ginghams, are greatly sold, 
as styles and quality are very superior. There is an unlimited field 
for these goods in the Unitod States, and if manufacturers were to 
push them more generally throughout the countiy, and not confine 
their product to a few houses on the Atlantic coast, more could 
be sold. 

A great many men's kid gloves are sold here, but more 
especially in the heavy makes. The Worcester styles, such as 
Dent, Allcroft and Fownes make are very much imitated in the 
Eastern States, but they do not compare in quality with British 
goods. Heavy undressed gloves, both for ladies and gentlemen 
(those made from Arabian skins) are chiefly American make, as 
the leather flntshers here make better effects. light weight kid 
gloves are mostly French, Belgian and German. 

The quality of British linen damasks enables them to hold the 
first place among consumers in this country. Immense improve- 
ments have been made in designs, a very great factor in helping 
their sale. All things being equal, the patterns at once decide 
the choice. 

British yams, especially in the lower and medium grades, are 
superior to the German makes. The British wear clean, the 
German goods are apt to wear fuzzy. A softer mellower finish 
than is usually given would be desirable. 



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A most importaDt desideratum in towels is a soft finish and 
slow grass bleach, which retaiiui the silky touch and appearance of 
the Imeu, 

Plain linen handkerchiefs are of ready sale. The soft finish is 
preferred to the stiff article. 

Great improvement could be made in the designs of embroidered 
goods. They are of too stereotyped siyles. Much could be learned 
from the Swiss patterns, which are most efTective. The Irish could 
beat them altogether iu quality, but their designers confine them- 
selves too closely to the old lines. 

More versatility is required. This is well-known to the dis- 
tributor, who can readily dispose of goods with an original design. 

The finish and make of French Bnen haudkerchiefe might be 
studied with advantage. Their high price alone prevents their 
great sale. They have a look, a touch and finish that at once com- 
mends them to the trade and the consumer. 

Irish linen cambrics cannot be surpassed. Shirting aud sheeting 
linens would sell much better with the soft finish. 

Biscuits, marmalade, pickles, sauces, pi-eserves and other Fine 
high grade groceries are sold to a limited extent. These are frocorifl*. 
generally imported from the United Kingdom and France. The 
great bulk of the trade is for lower grades, which are supplied by 
American factories. Some of the American goods, however, 
strongly compete with the products of the most noted British 
factories. 

The export trade has increased very materially at all ports in E-tport tr»de, 
this district. The value of wheat exports from this port shows a 
gain of 411,391^. over last year, being one-third more, and from 
Fuget Sound the increase is more marked, being nearly 130 per 
cent Details of exports are very fully given in the tables given 
elsewhere in this report 

The wheat trade was active during the entire year, and the Wheii. 
quality was superior. The average market value of Walla Walla. 
Washmgton, was Ss. IQd. per cental, being Ic^ higher than in 1900 
and there were no violent fluctuations in price. The harvest in 
Western Oregon was larger than for some years past. Being a 
soft plump grain this wheat is almost entirely used by millers, 
producing a very white flour. Very little is now exported in the 
grain. 

The following were the exports of wheat from this Consular 
di strict during 19 01 : — ___ _ 





QMoUty. 


fwm— 


CoMtwiM. 


To fonUga 


P*g«tS«vid 


BasheU 
ie.lS7 
8S,G23 


RuheU. 
H,m.ll8 
ll,lSt,e89 


ToUl 

„ 1900 .. 


GT,64» 
876,188 


18,120,718 



(129) 



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Of the shipments to foreign countries 73 per cent, cleared 
for the United Kingdom, 11 per cent, for St. Vincent, and 5 per 
cent, for Suez for orders, 3 per cent, for Peru and Chile, 3 per 
cent, for Germany, 2 per cent, for Belgium, and the rest for Ital^, 
South Africa and Japan. The vessels clearing for St. Vincent, 
Suez and Italj were steamers, and this steam trade is increasing 
rapidly. There was a large stock carried over from 1900 and 
likewise at the close of 1901. 

There is no very reliable method for estimating the crops 
in these States, and authorities differ. It would appear to have 
been about 45,000,000 bushels, certainly not over 50,000,000 
bushels, though the United States Agricultural Departmenfa 
figures, noted elsewhere in this report, give a much larger crop. 

There was a lessened demand for flour to Asiatic porta, and 
exports to the United Kingdom were on a small scale. Prices 
were very steady during the year, the average for export extras 
being 11a, 2d. par barrel of 196 lbs., the same as last year. Super- 
fines were rather h^her, averaging about Ss. id. per barrel 

The shipments for 1901 were as under : — 





Qwntit/. 


To- 


Ftob) 
Cottunblft BW<r. 


From 
Pogot Sowid. 


United Kiogdom 

Hong-Koi^ and ChiuMC poito. . 

jMiftneae porta 

AjktioRiuda 

South Alric« 

BoaLh Am«ricft 

Port3»id 

Otberpom 

COMtlrilO 


Burelt. 

4S,oeo 

t1S,4S8 

128,722 
4S,98Q 
2!,S98 

7,629 


Bwreli. 
34,206 
469,188 
287,070 
242,077 
41,328 
60,493 
11,600 
79,844 
111,978 


Total 

„ ISOO 


8«t,G3S 
1,189,872 


LSW.ISO 
1,398,600 



It will be noted that the trade to Asiatic Kussia has assumed 
considerable proportions. Of the shipments of barley 88 per cent, 
went to the United Kingdom and the rest to the Philippine Islands. 
There was a considerable increase in the exports ; market price 
averaged 'is. 9d. per lOO lbs. f.o.b. 

The export of oats from this district was only about one- 
third of that of 1900 ; average market price 4& 5d. per 100 lbs. 
The requirements of forage for the Philippines having fallen 
off. 

There was the usual large inland trade in fresh fruits. 

The crop of small fruits was lat^e in all this district, but 
these do not enter the foreign trade. 

Or^on apples, in competition at the Pan American Exhibition 



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at Bcflfolo, won the highest awards, and in conseqnence there iB a 
present and prospective demand for varieties suitable for export. 
The crop vas somewhat light and prices high, selling at from 48. 
to 5s. per hox. For high quality of sound fruit 6«. to 78. was paid 
at the close of the year. 

There is au increasing trade in Oregon yellow Newton pippins 
to the United Kingdom and the Continent They are carefully 
packed in boxes of 45 lbs. 

Oregon or Itahan prunes were not a full crop, but larger 
than last year and sold lower ; over 20,000,000 Iba of these prunes, 
dried, were sent to Eastern States and sold at the average 
prices of 2^rf. to 3d. per lb. in boxes lor the lar^e sizes. Some 
of this fruit was exported to the United Kingdom, Small 
French prunes sold for Middle States at ^d. to \d. per lb. in bags. 
A quantity of fruit, principally pnines, was shipped to South 
Africa. 

Oregon produced 74,000 bales of hops and Wfishington 31,724 ""!*• 
bales of 180 lbs. each, and the quality in both States was fine 
and free from mould. The weather was favourable for picking. 
The yield was 20 per cent, short of last year, though tlie acreage 
was somewhat larger. There were no stocks of old hops when the 
market opened, yet demand was sluggish at first. 

Many contracts had been made early at prices ranging from 
4^. to 5^(i, and for some time after harvest sales were made 
at about the same range. Towards the close of the year prices 
advanced as high as T^d. A laige proportion was marketed in 
London. Average price for the year was about 5d. per lb. 

There was a largely increased trade in timber between this Timber, 
port and porta in A^o, South Africa, the Philippine Islands and 
Australia, and there was also a larger coartwise and inland trade. 
Prices ruled low and logs were higher, while the mills were kept 
full of orders and busy ; the margin of profit was not high. 

The development of this trade with Asiatic ports has been 
very rapid, and it c-ontinues to increase at a remarkable rate. 

Seference is made to the reports of the Vice-Consuls on 
Puget Sound for Washington trade, but the following table gives 
a rfyuTrU of the total shipments from this Consular district during 
the year:^ 



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Qaintity. 


By Bail. 




CoulirlM. 


Foreigi.. 


Lumber. 


SUn^M. 


OngoD dlttrieU- 
PortUnd .. 

Oth«p«iDl. .. 


au.fe«t. 

j. 4B,*B0,113{ 
78,75*,624 


HH. feet. 

S8,eE6,000 
4,625,000 
1,000,000 


B.M. feet. 

139,210,000 

1 298.290,000 { 


Cms. 
768 


ToW .. 

., 1900 .. 


1IS,3S4,737 
148.i9i,000 


44,480,000 
15,418.420 


807,600,000 
368,610,000 


76S 
640 


1800 .. 


278,885,609 
2a«,fl00,000 


188,446,000 
108,400,000 


8B4,S80,000 
284,880,000 


28,0)5 
28.734 


Or&Dd total 

IMO 


897,920,846 
370,094,000 


232,926,000 
M8,8l 6,426 


782,030,000 
687,890,000 


23,808 
24,380 



At tfae beginning of the year large stocks of the wool clip of 
1900 were stiU in warehouse, and there was a very light demand 
till after the new clip came to market large sales were made 
in June of unwashed wools at prices ranging from id, to 6^, 
according to quality and shrinkage, and during the remainder 
of the year there was a good market, the ave^e of the year 
being 4^ for Washington, 5^ for Eastern Oregon and Idaho, 
and SJrf. for Or^on Valley wools. The clip of this district was 
not quite so large as in 1900. 

The following are the figures of the United States Agricultural 
Department for the year 1901 : — 



Slat«. 



Onsntlt;. 



Id'.ho 
<lTe|^n 
WMhingtaii. 



20,336,2SO 
16,189,320 
4,888.000 



Quality of Eastern Oregon, Iilalio and Washington was better, 
but that of Western and Southern Oregon was coarser, as farmers 
in these sections are generally breeding more for the mutton 
qualities. 

There was an increased production of mohaur, the clip beii^ 
given as 275,000 lbs., which readily sold at from 11^. to Is. 2^. 
per lb. 

The somewhat large shipments of beef appearing in the export 
tables was mostly shipped to Asiatic Bussia, and was brought here 
for shipment from the Eastern States. 

There continues to he a good and increasing market in 
Scandinavian countries for horseflesh pickled. Durii^ 1901 some 



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PORTLAND. 11 

500 mnge ponies were slaughtered here. This meat is packed 
under Guvemment inspection and is perfectly sonnd. I am told 
it is laid down in Sweden at -id. per lb. The skin and offal of 
the animal is aJl utilised, nothing is wasted. The packers have 
orders ahead and expect to double the business next year. 

The cotton, raw and manufactured, which appears in the CoWw*- 
export tables of ports in this district, is not produced on this 
ooast, but is brought across the Continent for shipment tc China 
and Japan. 

There has been a continued growth in the trade in fresh and ^"^ *>*'•• 
pickled fish, particularly salmon, some proportion of which Preih »nd 
eventually reaches European markets, but leaves this coast in P"='''*' ■•"■ 
refrigerator cars for eastern points. I cannot ascertain the extent 
of tms trade. One estimate gives the Columbia Biver product as 
2,550 tierces of 750 lbs., and at least 100 car loads of 24,000 Ibe. 
were carried east from Fuget Sound. 

The following summary of the pack of tinned salmon through- ^'™"|"' 
out this Consular district in cases of four dozen 1-lb. tins is taken 
from the reports of the Fish Commissioners of the two States : — 



ColDnbift IUT«r— 

WuhtDgtoti 

Otber riicn and Iwyi in Or^ou 

Wwliingtan— 
Orajri Hubour ., ., 
WiD^M Hftrbou .. 

PofetSooDd 



Totol 



179.e2« 
07,810 

oe,sis 

4l,G00 

S8,800 

1,<IB6,600 



188,912 . 3SI,S4A 
101.211 12T.226 

5G,SS5 78,800 



81,200 

S7,040 

1,196,400 



3O,S0O 
2S,S0O 
409,450 



Other authorities consider the Commissioner's figures too high 
and give the total pack as 1,780,629 cases. 

Ii'urther details of this trade are given in the reports of the 
Vice-ConBuls at Astoria and Seattle. 

The average prices for canned salmon were about as under :— 



Colanblk Ktw — 

CUnook 
Pngat Boond — 

Socke JM 

Hmnpbtcki , , 

CohoM.. 





Piieet. 




FUU. 






Talli. 


>. d. 






#. d. 


a 1 









4 B 
8 

4" 2 






4 S 

2 

5 7 

8 7 



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12 PORTLAND. 

The demand has kept up wonderfully in apite of the eoormous 
pack. 

Of aardines 5,000 cases were packed m Puget Soimd, valued 
at 3,000/^ These are packed in oil or a mustard. 

Money has been exceedingly plentiful during the year and 
good securities sought after at lower rates of interest The amount 
of money on deposit in banks has lai^ely increased, particularly 
in the State of Washington. 

According to clearing-house returns at Portland, the clearances 
during the year were 24,515,092/., and balances ;S,975,638i., an 
increase of 14'7 per cent. 

Kates of exchange wei'e very steady, averaging 4 doL 82 c. 
for 60 day commercial bills and 4 del. 84 c. for bank exchange. 
' Anne:( A gives the number and nationality of all vessels 
which entered this port. It will be noted that the proportion of 
foreign tonnage is increasing at the expeuse of the British Sag. 
A large increase is noted in the bounty-fed French ships. Below 
I give a comparison of the proportion of the different Ae^s in the 
foreign trade of this port : — 





Per Cent of ToUl Toiuuge in Forajgn Trade. 


NatioiMUtj. 


smog. Steam and B^ing. 




1901. 


isoo. 1 leoi. 


IBOO. 


BriU.h 

Qetmui 

French 

Nonre«UQ and Swtduh 
Other ^ 


68 -< 
37 
ia-8 

a-0 
11 


62-4 81 -8 
Si -7 18-0 
8-8 1 10-3 
08 •■2 
S'8 4-0 


as -4 

IT 8 
6-8 
8 9 
I'l 


ToUl .. 


100 '00 


100 -OO 100 -00 


100-00 



The foreign steam trade is rapidly increasing in this district. 
There is a monthly line of British steamers of over 3,000 tons 
register between this port and Hong-Kong vi^ Japanese and Chinese 
ports, but numbers of Uage Bteamers are also employed in the 
lumber trade to Asiatic ports. Several were chartered for wheat, 
calling for orders at St. Vincent, Cape de Verde Islands. This 
trade is likely to increase, particularly when freights are in the 
neighbourhood of 21. 

Most of the charters for grain were made before arrival, and 
the average rate throughout the year tor wheat and flour for 
orders for the United Kingdom, with usual options, was 1/. 19s. 3^. ; 
lowest rate paid was II. 12s. Qd. and the highest 21. Ss. Exclusive 
of coasting voyages and the established lines of steamers, the 
tonnage engagements during the last two years were as follows : — 



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From FortUnd 
■nd Colambi* Unr. 


From Paget SoDod 
■ltd rort« in WuhiDgtM). 




1901. ' IBOO. 


IIKII. 


1900. 


OTsin ftod Bonr 
llmbor.. 


Tom ng. i Tons r^, 
..! 103.2S2 18t>,807 
..! «,m 12,821 


' Toni 1^. 

sis,ati 


Tniwieg. 
80,911 

160.B4a 



Coasting traffic in lumber continued to be a profitable business 



The position as I'egards desertion and crimping of sailors in the Stilon. 
portB of Oregon and Washington is no better than it was a year 
ago. The bonus paid is certainly 6/. and often more. My experi- 
ence convinces me, as 1 stated in iny report of last year, that 
nothing short of a general United States law, drastic in its pro- '. 

visions and firmly enforced, rendering such bonuses illegal, coupled 
with compulsory arrest of all deserters, will have any efTect in 
curbing the evil. The percentage of desertion to numbers of 
crews at this port was 2345 per cent, in sailing vessels. As moat 
of the steamers carry Chinese or Lascar crews, which are eai-efully 
watched by the United States authorities to prevent their landing, 
desertions were small, only 1-32 per cent., and these generally 
Europeans. 

Wrecks and casualties on this coast were somewhat numerous WrMksud 
duiing the year. The " Cape Wrath " and Kathdrum " bound eMo^ltiM. 
here were missing. " Baroda " went ashore near Alsea and 
remainR. "Otto Gildeuiester " put into San Fmncisco and was 
sold. " Kenriette," loaded with lumber, sunk at Astoria, and was 
afterwards raised. "Pinmore " and " Ernest Reyer" went ashore near 
Quinaiult. The former was towed into Puget Sound after iiaving 
been abandoned by the crew, several lives being lost, and the latter 
became a total loss. Tlie " Nelson " shifted caigo outside and 
was towed into Puget Sound, and the "Leyland Bros." put into 
San Francisco for the same reason. The " Asie " capsized along- 
side a wharf here and was much dams^ed. There were other 
minor casualties and much bad weather during the leist months of 
the year. 

Dredging has been continued in the rivers below Portland, Port «»* 
both by the United States engineers and the Port of Portland f"'*"°' 
Commission, and although there are points where ac low ,^t^ 
water there is only 18 to 19 feet, yet by taking advanti^ of the 
tides, vessels drawing up to 24 feet have experienced httle or no 
delay in going down the rivers, but owing to the condition of the 
Columbia Biver and unusual bad weather, there have been at 
times long delays in getting to sea. The United States Govern- 
ment and port of Portland are each building a new dredger. 
Work is being done under the United States engineers removing 



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14 POBTLAND. 

what is known fts the Sylvia de Grasse Beef, a rocky spot 
below Tongue Point, near Astoria, where there is a short and 
dangerous turn. The sum of 21,148/. was spent on these 
works during the fiscal year. The project adopted contemplates 
a series of dykes, supplemented by dredging to secure a channel 
depth of 25 feet at low waters from Fortiaud to the sea, and the 
estimated cost is 579,702/, to complete the work. 
Colambift The jetty completed in 1895 was 4^ miles long, and 

Bu Jetty. caused an increase in depth over the bar from 20 to '61 feet. 
Since that time there has been a continual shoaling, and the last 
annual survey of July 8, 1901, showed a depth of 23 feet across 
the bar at the average of lowest low water through a channel 
1,500 feet wide. The project now being caiTied out contemplates 
an extension of the jetty and a channel of 40 feet in depth. 
Work done last year was preliminarj-, and ;!2,149/. was expended, 
leaving the estimated amount still required 455,236/ 

The above data are taken from the annual report of Captain 
Langfitt, United States engineer in cliarge. 
UgUiaod There have been few important changes in tlie lights and 

'*'* buoys of this district during the year, and no new lights. 

Columbia Kiver Light Vessel No. 50 was repaired and replaced 
after having been ashore for 18 months. Umatilla Reef Light 
Vessel drifted from lier moorings several times. Her lights have 
been changed from electric to oil 7,000/ has been appropriated 
for a light and fog signal at the lower end middle ground, Desde- 
mona Sands, Columbia Eiver, and 18,000/. for a relief ateam light 
vessel, with a steam fog signal. This will be very useful in case of 
accident. 
SkipbnlldiDg. In addition to small river craft, barges and steamers, built at 
Portland and other points, there were built at Coos Bay and 
Coquille seven schooners of an aggregate tonnage of 3,511 tons, 
valued at 67,200/ and four others are partially completed. 

A number of lumber schooners and other craft were built on 

Puget Sound and at Gray's Harbour, Washington. 

Population A Steady immigration is coming into this district. The State 

and indu- of Washington is better advertised, and is receiving a larger share 

*"*■■ than the other two States, but all are increasing their population 

more rapidly than for some years past. 

The district has been free from epidemic diseases, though 

cases of a mild type of small-pox have been somewhat numerous. 

Birthaiad Exclusive of stillbirths, the total number registered in the 

deRtho. city of Portland was 1,156, an increase of 10 per cent. The 

HmIUl number of deaths was 1,143, which is an increase of 2574 per cent., 

but the increase of population is beheved to be at least 10 per cent, 

and the Health Commissioner gives the rate per 1,000 as 1143. 

There were 62 cases of small-pox during the year, but there were 

no deaths from this disease. The largest number of deaths from 

any cause was from pneumonia and diseases of the lungs. In the 

earlier months of the year measles were very prevalent, almost 

amounting to an epidemic. 

According to the United States census returns, it appears that 



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the principal indoBtries of Portkad are lumber and timber pro- 
ducts, flour and grist mill products, and slaughtering and meat 
Cking, and that in point of fact since the last census there has 
n a diminution in the number of persons and capital employed 
in manufacturing and hand trades, and in the value of the product 
of their labour. The number of establishments has, however, 
increased 87 per cent "Hie total number of eetablishments was 
1,064, the number of hands 8,572, and the value of products 
4,690,22fi^ In the three States there has been a considerable 
increase as the following figures will show : — 



Oo^t^T. 


NBmber 
MOO. 


rUud*. 

mo. 


Value of Ppodncta. 


ISOO. 


1390. 


Owgon 

Idaho 


17,889 
88,808 
1,177 


18,780 

18,877 

687 


£ 

9,800.117 

17,86»,010 

804,108 


£ 

8,888,488 

8,868.80* 

879,819 



The leading industries of Oregon are given as lumber and 
timber prodncts, Sour and grist mill products, fish cauniag and 
pieeerviag, meat packing, woollen goods, ship and boat building, 
car and general shop construction, and printing and publishing. 

Those of Washington are the same, except woollen goods, and 
in addition cheese, butter and condensed milk faetoiy products, 
foundry and machine shop products, and malt liquors. 

The two factories in the beet sugar district at La Grande, B««t Bogar. 
Or^n and Waverly, Washington, continue to be hampered by a 
short supply of beets, but there is an improvement each year in 
this respect. The capacity of each factory is 350 tons per day. 
The figures balow are furnished to me by the owners : — 



faetoritw. 


Area 
Planted. 


HwTerted. 


Bngnj 


Aytnge. 


SoKU-. 


Pnrilj. 


'I«Otwid« 
Wawrlj 


Acre.. 
8,483 
1,W0 


Tom. 
18.719 
13,000 


Lbi. 
8,814,000 
2,840,000 


PerCeuL 
18 4 

17-8 


PerCuL 
88 -4 



There are eight woollen mills in the Slate of Oregon, a new mill Woolleu. 
bavii^just been pat up at Portland. These mills employ about 
700 bands in the manufacture of blimkete, caaeimeres, flannels and 
tweeds. Part of the year there was a strike of the operators of 
the largest milL Their united conmimptioii of wool is estimated 
at 1,500,000 lbs. 

The largest paper mills on the coast are at Oregon City, where F^r and 
there are two mills working on newspaper and wrapping paper. f"f- 



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Foundry and 
BUKluDe 

Other mana- 



16 POETLAND. 

The anDiial product of five Oregon niiUs is about '21,000 tons of 
newspaper and 8,000 tons of wrapping paper. Over 700 haads are 
employed. 

The mill at Everett, WashiEgton, makes wrapping paper, book 
and writing paper. Its product was 5,500 tona in 1900, and 
employed 250 hands. I have not procured figures for 1901. 
There is also a latgp mill at La Camas, Washington, working 
principally on newspaper. All the mills export largely to China 
and Japan. 

In reviewing the timber trade, the Oregon timbermen state 
that as a whole the business has not been as profitable as in 1900. 
There has been over-])roduction, and prices have not been as well 
sustained. The cut of the Columbia Kiver is given as 400,000,000 
feet, of which Portland mills cut 300,000,000 feet 50,000,000 
shingles were cut in the State. The great saw mills, planing mills, 
sash and door and box factories give employment to about 4,600 
men, of whom over 1,250 are employed in Portland. This does 
not include loggers and others engu;ed in getting out the raw 
material. The largest proportion of the timber is red or yellow 
fir, known as Oregon pine, but there is also spruoe, cedar, yellow 
pine, larch and other timber in smaller proportion. 

In the State of Washington there are over 16,400 persons 
employed in working timber and its products, some 8,000 men in 
logging camps, and there are 555 lumber and shingle mills. 
Further details are given elsewhere in this report and in the 
reports of the Vice-Consuls on Puget Sound, 

Unlike the other two States, which are probably the greatest 
timber producers in the world, Idaho (.annot bo called a timber 
State, but there are a few mills doinf; a fairly lai^e business. 

The flour trade was not so active as during the last year, nor 
was it as profitable, Init wliile not pressed to their full capacity, 
most of the mills were kept running. There are 153 mills in 
Oregon, 85 in Washington, and 'M in Idaho. 

'J'here was more nctivitv in the foundry and machine shops, 
and the lai^er establishnieuis did a fair business. 

Furniture factories, linseed oil mills, rope and cordage works, 
rolling mills, meat pai;kiiig plants were all in steady work during 
the year. The manufacture of clothing and shirts is being carried 
on here on an increasing scale, one factory in Portland employing 
over 250 men and women. 

For two or thi-oe years past there has been a scarcity of 
unskilled labour and farm hands, but in the iron trades, the 
demand for skilled mechanics continues limited. Building and 
allied trades have been very active, and the number of dwellings 
and business premises built and under construction in Portland ia 
larger than for many years pafit. There has been a continued 
scarcity of domestic servants. On the other hand, cleiks and 
salesmen usually find it difScult to obtain employment 

Although it will not be published till next year, the Fish 
Warden for Or^on has courteously fumi^ed me with a copy of 
his report for the past year, which is a, most valuable document, 
particularly on the culture and habits of the salmon. 



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POETIAND. 



17 



The United States Fisheries Dep&rtment has a Balmon hatchery 
Id operatioQ on the Clackamfts itiver, Ore^n, and produced during 
the year 8,646,309 young fry. 

There are seven State Hatcheries, four on the Columbia River 
and tributaries and three on coaat streams. The number of young 
salmon turned out during the year was as follows : — 



BpMlM. 


ftuMiatj. 




Hnmbw. 

ll,S»0,fi50 

246,000 

7,967,000 


Steelheadi .. 
aUrenidM .. 




ToW 


lB,i91,W0 



21,123,739 lbs. of salmon were taken in the Or^n lUvers 
during the year, also 572,900 Ibe. of other fish, principally sturgeon, 
shad, smelt, and catfish. 

5,000 cases of clams were packed near Astoria, each case FitheriM of 
containing 4 dozen 1 lb. tins. Wuhlngtwi. 

1,396 licenses were issued to fishermen alone. 

The Washington Fish Commissioner reports that there are 
eight salmon hatcheries on the Columbia River and tributaries in 
Washington, eight in Fuget Sound district, one at Grays Harbour, 
and one at WiUapa Harbour. Theae establisbmente owned by the 
State planted 58,695,000 young fry. The United States Fisheries 
Department also has a hatchery on the White Salmon River 
and produced 15,385,232 young fish. The CommisBioner reports 
11,128 persons employed in the fislieriea and fish packing establish- 
ments of the State in various capacities. 

A large number of young trout were planted in Oregon streams Trent 
during the year by tlie Fish and Game Association. 

Reliable statistics of gold aud silver miniiig are hard to obtain, Mining, 
but tJie following figures of the product for 1901 are believed to 
he as nearly as possible correct. T^ose for Or^on and Washington 
are furnished by the United States Assay Office at Seattle, and 
thoee for Idaho by the Inspector of Mines: — 



SUtN. 


Gold. 


Stlnr. 


Qawtttf. 


Talao. 


QiianUtj. 


\al<i*. 


Idaho 

Ol^OD 

WMhlngton .. 


Fine OSS. 
110,228 

88,000 

81,000 , 


£ 

*B8,08* 
SSI.Ui 

131,931 


Finaoa, 

3,305,164 

1 60.000 

370,000 


£ 
252,882 
41,280 
66,460 


Total .. 




SAl,ie3 


1 JI8B,S7I 



In Idaho County, Idaho, there have been extenaive new dis- 
(129) B 



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18 POUTLAHD. 

coveries of gold-bearing rock, and considerable excitement in 
consequence. 

Mines in Idaho are to a considemble extent worked by Britisli 
capital. The lead production of Shoahone County alone is about 
one-fourth of the total product of the United States- These mines, 
known as the Cteur d'Alenes, are mostly controlled by the smelting 
combination, and were not worked to full capacity, as the trust 
limited the production in order to keep up prices. The ores are 
concentrated and sent to smelters, averaging usually 50 per cent, 
lead and 30 to 50 ozs. of silver per ton. 

The total product of lead in Idaho during 1901 was 
65,967,000 lbs., valued at 527,736/., and was pi-oduced in the 
counties of Blaine, Custer and Shoshone. 

I am unable to give the lead product of either Washington or 
Oregon. While theie is plenty of the mineral in these States, 
there are no great mines opened. 

Copper is found at numerous places in all three States, but the 
development of this mineral is slow. Washington Ckmnty, Idaho, 
is especially rich, and when railroad communication is fully 
csteblished, production will be large. 

Other minerals found and worked to some extent in Oregon, 
are nicktl and cinnabar. Iron is smelted in both Oregon and 
Washington, and zinc is hugely produced in Idaho, and is common 
in all three States. 

By far the largest proportion of the ores mined in this district 
are sent elsewhere to he smelted, but there are three smelters in 
the State of Washington, at Tacoma, Kverett and Northport, and 
all have been steadily at work during the year on gold, silver, lead 
and copper ores. 

Mr. C. F. Owen, State Mining Inspector, has furnished mc 
with the following data of the coal production of Washington 
during 1901. I'l-oduction is in tens of 2,000 lbs. : — 



HlneB. 


Coontr. 


ProdDctioD 
ofCcI. 


Hen 


OpenUd 
(A.nngt), 

802 
2SS 

300 
302 


Rodjn .. .. 

GmlDM 

11 „ 

UIdo Canyon 

Cokedftl« .. 


KiMitM.. 
-Eierc .„ -. 
King .. .. 
Wlmteom 
Sk.pt .. .. 


TUDB. 

1,005,027 

sTcoei 

SaS,S3B 
48,200 
13,643 


I,M6 

1,1S6 

1,084 

34 

8S 


ToUl .. 
„ 1900 


2,604,190 
2,418,084 


4,899 
^2«8 





Average value of coke at tide water, 13». per ton (avoirdupois) 
f.o.b. I'icice County produced 43,391 tons of cok(i and Skagit 
County 5,806 tons. 

There has Iwen more prospecting for coal done in Oregon than 
at any time past, and apparently with some I'esult. As yet, 



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worki 
Ongon. 



PORTLAND. 19 

however, the oiily producing mines are in Coos County in the 
southern p«rt of the State. The product during the year was 
714.50 tons, valued at 12s. per ton. It is expected that three new 
miues will be in a position to ship coal during 1902. 

Accidents in the coal mines of Washington were more numerous AcaideBta. 
than last year, there were 27 fatal and 882 non-fatal accidents. 
Improvements are heing made in ventilation of the mines. 

In addition to the river works referred to under the heading Public work*, 
of "port and harbour," other works are being carried on under 
supervision of Captain W. C. Langfitt, of the United States 
Ei^neer Corps, from whose report I extract the following 
information : — 

" The present approved project for improvement of the entrance W»w and 
to Coos Bay in Southern Or^on provides for obtaining and main- 'wbonr 
taining a channel 20 feet deep at low tide through the bar by the " 
construction of two high tide rubblestone jetties, the north jetty 
to be 9,600 feet long and the south jetty 11,200 feet. The estimate 
of cost is 493, 28l'/. The amount expended up to the end of June, 
1901, was 17u,630i., the north jetty being completed, and as the 
result has been to produce a channel of from 18 to 22 feet at low 
tide it is improbable that the south jetty will be constructed. 

" This harlHJu ■ is growing in importance, 

*' Other improvements are being carried on at Coi^uille, Siuslaw, 
Tillamoolc and on the upper rivera, but these have only an indirect 
bearing upon foreign commerce," 

The following infonaation is taken from the annual report WMhingto*. 
of Mtgor Millis, United States Engineer Corps, in charge of curtain 
works : — 

" Gra3'8 Harbour, Washington, is being improved by means of 
a jetty with the expectation of securing a depth of 24 feet at 
mean low water across the bar. Luring the fiscal year ending 
June 30, 1901, the jetty trestle was advanced 3,232 feet, the 
completed foundation 3,200 feet and enrockment 1,992 feet. The 
full length of trestle was then 10,968 feet, the foundation had 
been completed 10,840 feet and enrockment mised for 9,192 feet 
liie amount expended during the year was 41,411^,, and the 
minimum depth of channel over the t«r was 18 feet. 

" Work was begun upon a ship canal which ia to connect Puget OhuL 
Sound with fresliwater lakes of Union and Washington so as to 
provide a ffeshwater harbour. It is estimated to cost 1,300,000/., 
and contemplate-* an entrance through Salmon Bay to Lake Union 
and thence to Lake Washington, dredging through the flats outside 
of Salmon Bay to a lock in the lower end of the bay, the construc- 
tion of this lock, dredging inside the lock throngh Salmon Bay, 
digging of a canal from the upper end of Salmon Bay to Lake 
Union, dredging of the eastern end of Lake Union and the con- 
struction of a canal and lock between Lakes Union and Washing- 
ton. The maximum lift of the lower lock at low tide will bo 
about 25 feet and the average lift of the upper lock 8^ feet. The 
canal section and the lock dimensions are to be such as will 
accommodate the largest merchant vessels and ships of war. 
(129J B 2 



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20 POBTLAMD. 

" Everett Harbour is being improved at s cost of 84,400/. by 
"pzcavation and dredging a (Manuel to deep freshwater in the 
SnobamiBh Eiver." 

Other works, of local importance only, are nnder charge of 
Mf^or Millis. 
Dry dock. The construction of the dry dock at this port referred to in 

iny last report, has not been be^n. A contract was given, bat was 
afterwards cancelled and new plans are being prepared. The dock 
will be a sectional floating one, built uf wood, and it is expected 
this much needed work will be pushed to completion as rapidly 
as possibla 
lUIlwiy*. The amount of railway track laid in this district consisting of 

extenaions and short lines were in the a^r^ate considerable, uid 
there are numerous extensions in course of construction. The 
actual mileage of track laid in this district was : — In Washington, 
134-30 miles ; in Idaho, 11740 mile^ ; and in Oregon, 7'2I mSes. 
AgrienltaK. Agricultural conditions during the year were generally favour- 

'**j?S'*'''** ""^^^ "^ '^'^ districL Cold rains and frosts in the spring damaged 
■""' *"* and reduced the yield of small fruits, and later cau.'ied the dropmig 
of prunes and to some extent some of the laiger fruits. Boot 
crops were reduced by hot weather in July and August, but the 
moist weather in spring, the absence of hot winds during the 
filling season, and the dry weather for harvesting and thrashing 
produced the largest cei-eal crofts ever harvested in this district. 
Except in the "WiUamette Valley and portions nf Washington, the 
tendency throughout the whole of this district is to farm krge 
areas for a single crop. Neither fcrtiliseiB are used, nor rotation 
of crops practised, hut summer fallowing is the usual mode of 
resting the land. The avenge annual rainfall of Washington 
varies from 110 inches at the shore Une to less than 10 inches 
in the Yakima Valley on the eastern side of the Cascade 
Mountains In the lower and middle WilLimette Valley in 
Oregon the average is 46 inches, on the eastern olope of the 
Cashes 20 inches, and over the plateau region of central and 
eastern Oregon between 10 and 15 inches. In the mountain 
r^ion of Idaho it is 40 inches and the plains are senii-urid. Id 
the foothills and lower end of the Falouse Valley there is 
generally sufficient rain for the crops. Monthly wages of farm 
bands average 22 dol. (■U. 8s.) with board. 

Dairying is attaining considerable proportions in the WiUamette 
Valley and Western Washington, and fruit-growing is also in- 
creasing in these districts and in the footliills of Idalio. 
. LkBda. During the fiscal year ending June 30, 1901, the Federal 

Government disposed of lands as follows: — In Oregon, 593,884 
acres ; in Washington, 814,942 acres ; and in Idaho, 813,016 acres. 
<7nMU The cereal crops of this district during 1901, as furnished to 

me by the United States Department of Agriculture, were aa 
under, but the consensus of opinion is that the figures are too 
fa^h or the home consumption is greater than is generally 
supposed : — 



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crop.. 


i.d... 


Or«(00. 
At». 1 <lMnill7. . 


WuUxtOD. 


Ani. 


QuMtit,. 1 


ATM. 


HUUltitT. 


Com 


S,M1 

m,sn 

T»,TM 


1,J78,»(» j 


*I™1 1 ui%a 

tU,Hi 1 17,168,0S» 
184,803 : B.8IJ,2M 

if:;;; j .as 


»,ai8 

1,18^TS) 


M.180 
^U),1I8 



A moet interesting pamphlet hay been recently pnUbhcd by 
the United States Department of Agricultare on wheat-growing- 
on the Pacific Coast r^on, from which it appears that the averse 

Geld of wheat per acre in Or^ou during the laet 10 years bas 
lon 17'7 bushels ; in Washington, 20-8 bushels ; and in Idaho, 
22"8 bushels. Thase averages would appear to be low, but there 
is a very great diversity in production. In some of the lai^est 
wheat-growing districts the average is from 25 to 30 bushels per 
acre. At this rate of production careful farmers estimate wheat 
can be grown and sacked for 26 c. (la. Id.) per bushel. The 
average of 1901 of the principal cereal crops, was Oregon: — 
Wheat, 21 bushels; oats, 'AV5 bushels; barley, 30-6 bushels. In 
Washington, 291, 475 and 435 bushels. In Idaho, 21-2, 38-3 
and 40-2 bushels respectively. Farmers appear to have been well 
satisfied with results. It is stated that fall-sown grain in Adams 
County, Washington, averaged 50 bushels per acre. A field in 
Palouse district produced 64^ bushels per acre, and other lat^ 
tracts produced from 52 to 58 bushels per acre. 

Although the yield of hops was 20 per cent, below average Hop e«^ 
and the burr small, yet the quality was ^ooA and prices satis- 
factory. The hop usually grown here is the English cluster. 
The average investment in a yard of 20 acres is about 450?,, 
including cost of land, kiln and planttug. A low average crop 
is 1,000 lbs. of dried hops per acre, and on this basis the cost in 
the bale is about 3|d, leaving a fair return on the average price 
of 5d. this season. The acreage nnder hops during 1901 was about 
17,500 in Oregon and 5,000 in Washington. 

The average yield of potatoes was reduced on account of hot Boot crop*, 
weather in summer by at least 25 per cent., but market prices 
were high aud fanners made profits. Farmers are being slowly 
educated in growing sugar beets in the district adjoining the sugar 
factories, and although it is more laborious than wheat farmmg 
ii seems to be found profitabla The soil is said to surpass the 
beat sugar-beet French soils in the potash element and the per- 
centile of sugar is probably greater than that of beets grown in 
any other section of the United States. One grower in Spokane 
County reports 42^ acres as producing 9'87 tons per acre, which 
sold at an average of 1/. Of. lOf^. per ton, and states that the actual 
cost delivered at the sugar factoiy was 12s. 

Taking this immense district as a whole the fruit crops were Bortlcoltan.. 
below an average, but all reports agree that growers made money. 
There ia a continually increasing area being put under fruit, the 
(129) B 3 



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22 POBTLAKD. 

tendency being to grow apples and Italian prunes, which aeem to 
have a larger market thEin other fruits. At one time there were 
lai^e areaa under French prunes, but these have not been profitable 
and the growing of this species has been largely abandoned. Small 
fruits have a good market in the middle States. Oregon is divided 
into five districts, each under a Commission. The first distriot 
embraces the northern part of the Willamette Valley and the 
two const counties south of the Columbia ; the second district is 
composed of the six central counties of Western Oregon ; the 
third contains the seven southeramoet counties ; the fourth 
district consists of the five central counties east of the Cascade 
Mountains ; and the fifth comprises the seven most easterly 
counties of the State. 

The first and fourth districts produce more small fruits than 
the others, and in the second pruue growing is most extendve 
The best apples are grown in the third and fourth districts, but 
aU grow fruit in a great variety, and all the Conmussionns reported 
A satisfactory season. 

The Washington Bureau of Statistics affirms, in a report 
published in 1901, that there are more than 85,000 acres planted 
to fruit in that State. Profits in apples run very high dnrit^ 
the year, for instance, one grower in Southern Oregon realised 
nearly l,200i. gross in a 10 acre orchard of 10 year old trees and 
another 240/. net on 2^ acres. Their figures are apparently well 
authenticated. 

Although the price of Italian prunes was lower than in 1900 
and the yield hy no means full, there is no doubt the growers 
made very good profits. A prune orchard pays nothing until the 
fifth year mer it is planted, and at eight years is in full bearing. 
The cost of growing and drying appears to he about Id. per lb. 
under ordinary circumstances. 

In previous reports I refeiTed to the growing of the teazel 
burr which, for many years, has been grown to good profit in 
Clackamas County of this State. These burrs are used to some 
extent hy manufacturers of cloth to raise a nap in the doth. 
Enquiries have recently been made on the subject hy German 
cloth manufacturers, and in case ihe matter posseasefl any intei'est 
to British manufacturers I think Jt advisable to give some further 
information. 

The teazel appears to be grown only at two places in the 
United States, at Skaneateles, Kew York, and in Clackamas County, 
Or^on. It belongs to tJie thistle family and requires two years 
to mature. It throws out branches surmounted by thistle like 
beads or burrs on long stems which, when dry, form the teazel of 
■commerce. The Oregon teazel is smaller than the New York 
product, and Mr. Sautelle of Molalla, Oregon, secured a gold 
medal at the Charleston Exhibition on account of the quality of 
he product, the points being particularly tough and elastic 

Steel points are used in American mills in place of teazels, 
but only for the coarser cloths. It costs about 2d. per lb. to 
giov and prepare teazels for tlie market, and, they sell at ao 



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average price of 4d. There are only three growers in this State 
who have had an experience of many years. The business has 
been proGtable. 

There has been a very rapid increase in dairying in all the Djirjing, 
States in this district during the last few years. The formera of 
Western Oregon have increased their butter production fully one- 
third during the year, and Washington haa increased in about the 
some ratio. No leas than 62 new creameries and cheese iactories 
were opened during the year, there being now 253 creameries and 
37 cheese factories in that State. Nearly every farmer who has 
a fair number of cows has a hand or power cream separator, and 
by far the lai^eet proportion do not make butter on the farm, but 
sell the cream to outter factories. The prpduction of butter ami 
cheese has now reached a point where the supply is sufficient for 
home consumption, and an export trade must be established. 
Quantities are, of course, sent to Alaska, but farmers are looking 
for trade with Japan, China, tlie Philippine and Hawaiian Islands. 
The average price paid by creameries for butter fat was lid. per 
lb., and the average price paid by dealers for butter of the highest 
(trade was ll^d. per lb. The natural result of the increase in 
dairying, pursued as a business, is the rapid improvement in the 
breeding of farm cattle. 

Tear by year the free range ia being restricted, more rapidly S*"*^ 
in the State of Washington than iu the other States o! this**"^'"*' 
district, and it may, therefore, be expected that the numbers of 
stock on the ranges will be lessened. The winter of 1900-01 was 
favourable for stock and losses were not excessive. There was 
a strong demand and high prices were paid for all stock, and there 
is no doubt the business was profitable. 

The time has nearly gone past when stock could be fed ttio 
year round on the ranges without any provision being made by 
raising hay for that purpose, and in some districts the runs are 
overstocked. Angora goats have been found profitable in timber 
districts, as they require little care, and subsist on the shoots of 
trees and shrubs, rendering useful service in keeping down a 
second growth in partially cleared lands. 

Although the assessors' returns are not considered altogether 
reliable, as they are generally much understated, they give a 
general idea of the growth of certain industries, and those for 
1901 show an increase in all stock in the State of Oregon. 

Statistics on the wool product are given elsewhere in this 
report, and the following figures are given me by the largest 
dealer in the State of Oregon as the averse prices paid for 
different animals for slai^htering purposes during 1901 :---Cattle, 
7^. 12s. ; calves, 11. 18s. ; swine, 21. 16«. ; sheep and lambs, 12s. 

There was a strong demand for horses and mules -and large 
numbers were purchased, principally for army purposes, at prices 
ranging from 25/. to 30/. for trained work horses and mules and 
6/. to 12A for saddle horses. There appears to be more money in 
cattle than in horses, and the tendency is to give more attention 
to the former and less to horse breeding. Domestic animals in 
(129) B 4 



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24 POBTLiinX 

this district have not been seriously affected by disease. 
There is no considerable amount of scab amongst sheep. 

There was some mortality amongst swine from h<^ cholera 
or a very similar disease, and anthrax was also prevalent to some 
extent in Klamath County, Oregon, with sporadic cases elsewhere, 
Yaccination was found to be a successful mode of checking the 



The table given below of the United St^es cenaos ratnms of 
the numbers and aver^ value of domestic animals in this district 
is interesting. The proportion of lambs under one year old to the 
total number given in the table is about one-third : — 



1 Or^. 


Wublagtos. 


IdltO. 


**""' j Ku^ber. 1 A'*™"' 


KDiDl»r. 


Aranfc 


Numlin. 


Atcthk* 
V.1IW. 


\ * ,. d. 
MiMVUidltmbi... >,au:,Tt7 9 Jl 

a«u i!ia,m 1 11 s 

Bvin 28e,Ml lit 

CiU1> Ukd alTH... TIE.tM * « J 


910,988 


t 1. ± 

1 :i 


"■'■as 
1 


S ,. d. 
18 

4 18 II 



The average value given above is for animals of all ages and 
conditions. 

There has been a continued improvement in values ol real 
estate, both in town and country, and a very great scarcity of 
dwelling houaea in Portland with a continued rise in rents. A 
lai^e number of buildings have been constructed during the year. 

The valuations for taxation purposes during the year 1901 of 
all property in this district were fixed as under: — ' 



BtAtA. 


Talutlon. 


WMhiogton 

?ffi* :: :; :: :: :: 


£ 
E2,0S6,147 
38,278,708 
10,288,1S1 



The tax levy on all property within the city limits of Portland 
was 2'80 per cent 

Revenue of the city of Portland was 112,477^. and the general 
expenditure 96,850/., which includes police and fire departments. 

The revenue of the Water Commission was 56^6^., and its 
working expenses 6,9502. It paid 32,000/. interest on bonds and 
17,296/. on construction and extensions. 

From special funds there was expended on parks, 2,550/. ; on 
street improvements and extensions, 27,296/. ; and on sewers, 
22,637/. 

The following was the bonded indebtedness of the city on 
December 31, 1901 :— 



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{ 


Anunnt. 


Intenrtat— 


Wftter bonds 
TiriODibond. 
10 7««Brtraet 


£ 

680,000 
871,000 
101,800 

ae,8u 


PMeenL 

6 

6 



ToU 


1,118,628 


" 



To coBunemorate the oenteimial of the expedition of LewisBsUbition 
and Clark, it is intended to hold in Portlaad an exhibition in 
1905. It will be on a large scale, and a gnarantee company has 
been incorporated with a capital of 100,000?. under the name of 
" the Lewis and Clark Centennial and Pacific Exposition." 

SnbventionB are expected from the State of Oregon, the neigh- 
bouring States and Federal Government. Britieh merchants and 
manufacturers might find this a good opportunity for increasing 
their trade with toe Pacific Coaat States. 

Annex A. — Retdkn of all Shipping at the Fort of Portland, 
Oregon, during tbe Year 1901. 





aailing. 


8t«am. 


Total. 


NationaUtj. 


Number 




Nmabw 




Nnrnlwr 






of 


Ton*. 


of 


Tmu, 


of 


Tons. 




TmmIi. 




TeMoU. 




TmmU. 




BriUib .. 


08 


111,186 


40 


10O,S66 


108 


821,440 


AnMriean— 














CoMUng- .. 
Trom brdgu 


S 


4,878 










1 


1,176 


1 


1,880 


3 


8,061 


OmS^ .. .. 


Si 




S 


8,886 




04,600 


Fmneh .. 


28 


86,901 






S8 


88,001 


NotwegUD and 


S 


4,400 


10 


17,778 


18 


22,808 


Autro-HoDgailM 






S 


4,784 




4,784 






1,188 








1,288 




1 


1,841 








1,641 


I>iiteh .. 






1 


8,701 




2.701 


Total 


189 




Ifil 


288,080 


S90 


470,162 


„ 1800 .. 


ill 


108,028 


les 


210,008 


274 


411,121 



* Tb«M do not inclnde uy river itetmor*. 



d by Google 



FORTIAHD. 
ClXABED. 





SaUiDg. 


Steam. 

Nnmber; 


ToUl. 


H»timi»Utj. 


Namlwr 




Number 






ot 


Tona. 


of 


Tom. 


of 


Tons. 




,^ 




ToMoU 




Tesseli. 




Brltidi .. .. 


88 


112,S19 


SO 


99,267 


102 


211,676 


ADMriCU- 














UOMtiDg* 


8 


B,4S4 


100 


107,039 


117 


118,483 


To foreign ports 


1 


eS4 


3 


8,702 


3 


*,S8S 










8,836 








SO 


82,670 






20 


32,(170 


Nonr^n and 




































4.784 


2 


4,784 




1 


1,288 






I 


1,288 


lUItu .. 








- 


2 




Dutch .. 


■■ 




1 


2,781 


1 


2,791 


ToUl 


132 


2ao,23S 


177 


244,808 


309 


485,181 


„ 1800 .. 


118 


198,408 


1&8 


208,981 


274 


107,384 



■ Theae do no[ isclode an; Htw ■Utmen. 



Annex B. — KktDRN of Principal Articles of Export from 
Portland, Oregon, during the Years 1901-1900. 



AifldM. 




1«.. 


«». 
















O^atj. 


T«lM. 


qnudtr. 


THOB. 
































































































































































































OUUT *nlel« 


... 










"" 


~ 


.,i84,«> j ... 


1,MI,0« 



d by Google 



Ketubn of Principal Aitides of Import to Portland, Oregon, 
during the Years 1901-1900. 



.«-. 




IMU. 


1*00. 














To^' .. 


Qnuttr. 


Vitm. 


H,mMV. 


VllD*. 


ffi-S2S» : 


'£«M 


as 


i,iw 


■1,011 

«4:«i 


Urn. 


tT,l2« 


i^wa 


a,iiu 


4,oao 


lUttlBi; 


Si"":: 


1,Z8^«8 


lilua 


lu.iai 


1,*M 




42,tea 


l»,t37 


B^BM 


16,«M 


iDlptiiir r. ill " 


TIHM „. 


a,*7i 


8,M4 


2,«B 


ii,m 


I» » ... „. ... 




M^lU 


St7* 


1,1»5»»T 


99^207 


XuUMiwMa ... .- _ 






1,U8 




ll,l«l 




Ua. 


«LT(iai«H 


iT.aa 


4.ni;oio 


n,«i 






^1^ 


■ Ul 


?10i 


1^ 






>ia,OH 


>,UI 


Tll,>7t 


4,01« 


Bjtto™ - ... _ 


" z 


l».ftTS 
t4t,Ul 


tSi 


11,171 
1W,TW 


l,t» 


SSTz I z z 


." 


MMH 


*,w 


*4,1M 


]l.\?. 




9S»«^ Z 








l^OOO 


Ki^T'z ' 


lft,lM 




IMM 


^»l 




e,a> 




K,»n 


7,W> 


iSfas; I " : 


Tom*" 


"'*M 


l,tM 


"'t« 


"*M 


■■ll ... - „ ... 

OUdolh" ~ ■_" .1: 


UN. 


»,i»*."e 


t,SM 


i,Mi,aM 


l,00i 


Eq.^... 


'4>1( 












i,<ai 




iiw 








on 




I,SM 








1^ 




lIoM 


e^^ ... '?y :: 






T»8 




1,IM 


LU." 


ira,«n 




iii.v» 


m 






wlTn 


li 






^T^ ::: z :: 










nslroD 


looi" 


""»» 


1,0« 








Lt. :r 


l,OM 


ISM 


I.W 


i|Mi 


Uilnn .' ;." 


«8,U0 


i,in 


120,01)0 


ilm 


CWIerT ud other Ina ud 


















1,M1 




i,t» 


WtoflowglMi _ 


Lin."' 


ViiTfo 


M 


1,«M>)0 


T,ao« 




: 




1T,«8I 




ii,t« 


To« ... .„ 


.„ 


ttt,tXi 


._ 


»0t.011 












JUHtx „ _ .. 






M,«1I 




00,1« 


£.£««•- ::: 


" 






■;; 


ut,*n 


Curio. ._ .„ _ 






ii;h« 




loitta 


KtwrtnU-. „ .„ 






>,b6» 




ir,M« 


C™pk«c .. 






t>l 
















iImo 


AUMbnnMM ~ Z 


.„ 




'i'm 


!;; 


u;«H 


anaAMW 


... 


tI(,M 


1 w,m 



d by Google 



Annex C. — ^Table Bhowing Total Value of all Articlea Ezportad 
from and Imported to Portland, Or^;on, to and from Foreign 
Countries during the Yeara 1901-1900. 



Conntriw. 


Bzporta. ! Import*. 


IBDl. 


1900. 


1001. 


1900. 


[Toited Ciugdom 
BriUnh India ud Eart 

IndlM 
BoqUiAMo .. 
AiutnlU 

Uauda 

HoDg-Koag .. .. 
ChiDB .. 

S'iK:^".'" :: 

Oernuuir 

Bdgium .. .. 

P«ni 

Ofaile 

Trsnce 

Onl* 

Sweden and Horn; .. 
HeiiM.. 


£ 
1,888.084 

ODS 
8S,S8« 
1,320 

21T,GSd 
02.695 
198,871 

181,«H 
T*.T22 
fi0,428 
SI^OB 
8^867 
38,868 
22,084 


£ 
1,2G2,786 

41,487 

26i446 
81.440 
12G,08'i 

17,278 
8,4B8 

80,069 


£ 
26,081 

108.700 

2,817 
6,686 

48,028 
4,19S 

62,608 

144.021 

6^121 

1 

18,274 

2.2. 

U32 
2.181 
l,2«l 
1,020 
1,826 


£ 
26,636 

90.124 

"48 
6,SS4 

26,248 
8.06B 
60.919 

220.447 

3«,i70 

26 

28,297 

16,648 

'606 

«,785 

942 

l.b8» 


Total .. 


2^4,97* 


1.801,072 


470.843 1 681,458 



AbtorU- 

Mr. Vice-Coneul Cherry reports as follows : — 

This district has had a year of unusual prosperity, and the 
demand for its chief products of salmon and lumber has been good. 
So far no great increase in the size of the town has been noted. 
One freezing establishment for fifih has been completed during the 
year. 

A great deal of interest has beea shown by the community 
in eflbrts to attract people with knowledge and capital to come 
here and start manufactures of wood, such as sawmills turning out 
rough lumber, shingle, basket, box, sash and door, and wooden- 
waro factories. The natural resources are here, with easy trans- 
portation by both rail and water. 

Values of timber land have increased; Government land is 
reported to be almost exhausted in this district, and is now valued 
at from 21. to 10/. per acre, depending on the position and the 
amount of standing timber on it The influx of wealthy 
buyers, and the fact thai; the timber lands of the Gi-eat Lakes- 



d by Google 



refjion are almost exhausted, have enhanced the prices of the forest 
landa in Oregon. The owning of large tracts of laud by non- 
residents, often held merely as aii investment, is detrimental to 
the interests of the bond fide settler. 

Most interesting reports of the great wealth in the forests of Vonat vaiii 
this State have been made by the forestry expert for Ore^n. 
He states that Or^n is the heaviest timbered State in the Umon, 
and estimated the total staodlng £imber at S3o,000,000,000 feet, 
even with the wasteful method now employed of taking out only the 
best logs. When the cut is more economically done, it ' will 
amount to nearly 500,000.000,000 feet, valued at lOO.OOO.OOOi. at 
the present values, which are, however, steadily going up. The 
total cut for the State is now 900.000,000 feet, and at this rate 
forests would be inexhaustible, as the growth would more than keep 
up with the cut There is no doubt that with proper forest con- 

; servancy the cut might be increased fivefold without depleting the 
forests, as the miJd moist climate makes a rank growth. The 
territory in this Vice-Consular district has the greatest body of 
timber, and more attention is being directed to it each year. 

Ix^ging was very brisk daring the year at increased prices Logging. 

•durii^ the first six months, but owing to over cutting prices have 
fallen. 

The largest local lumber mill was burned down during the Lumber, 
year, and Uie cut was thereby materially reduced. The pro- 

Erielors immediately rented another mill further up the river to 
eep up with their contracts for ti'ansport by rail to east of the 
Socky mountains. 

Persons interested in coal mining have commenced operatious OoiL 
-at the mouth of the Nelialem Eiver, as mentioned in my laat 
report (Annual Series Ko. 2666). They claim that the quality of 
the coul is equal to that of the best British Columbia mines. This 
particular mine is located due south of Astoria about 36 miles. 
At present the greatest bar to development is deficient commu- 
oication. 

Ko further developments have been made on the northerly 
«xtnnsion of this bed, which ends at the Columbia Kiver due east 
' of Astoria. 

There has been an increase of 25 per cent in shipping in the SUppinc. 
foreign trade, and the average tonnage is larger. The proportion 
of British tonnage has fallen from 68 per cent last year, to 61^ 
per cent. I attribute the falling-off in the proportion of British 
vessels to the larger size, the difficulties of the port being felt by 
the larger vessels, and to crimping abuses. 

The winter has been very stormy, and a number of disasters Wwthw. 
have occurred outside this port in the immediate waters. Kear 
Quinaiult a French barque was driven ashore and became a total 
loss. The British ship " Pinmore " was abandoned near the same 
place, but was afterwards picked up and taken to Puget Sound. 
Minor casualties occurred. 

The lightship known as " Columbia Eiver, No. 50," after being '"W"* *>?• 
- ashore for nearly 18 months, was taken off the beach in a novu 



d by Google 



30 ASTOBU. 

way. The vessel was raised by house movers, placed on woodea 
rollers, and hauled across a low divide between the ocean and 
river, and launched in the Columbia River, the repairs being 
attended to while en. Touie. 

During the past year I have not had a single case where the 
shipmaster has requested an order for the ari'est of a deserting 
seaman. The excuse is that the crimps would refuse to give them 
any other men in case their men 'escaped. 

I compile the following from the records kept at this Vice- 
Consulate of changes in crews of British ships : — 



Deathi 
'Discliugee .. 

DeEartioaH .. 






Of these desertions I believe 98 per cent, were caused by the 
crimps. 

The agriculture of this district is in a prosperous condition 
owing to the great demand for all the products of the soil, 
with the possible exception of hay, which is selling at a compara- 
tively low price. Not much of the large extent of land is in cul- 
tivation. Heavy forests and high-priced labour prevent clearing 
to a great extent, but farming pays well, and the increase in 
wealth of the " rancher " has enabled him to pay for separators, 
and ui some cases water-power has been put in to help out the 
family labour. In the immediate neighbourhood farming is more 
backward than in the districta to the north and south. Dairying 
is the leacUng branch, then cattle and raising swine. Hay growing 
for sale has fallen off, as the Ic^ing camps now use steam engines 
in the place of draught cattle in the forests. 

I believe that the total amount of salmon caught is declining. 
It is now quite difficult to procure reliable figures. A few years 
ago all the salmon was tinned, and by this means it was 
possible to have a close approximation on the quantity caught. 
Now much of the fish is frozen and exported through the Atlantic 
ports, and also to the cities east of the Mississippi, or exported 
pickled. These statistics are not readily obtainable, nor those of 
the home consumption. Prices have been high, and there was 
little fall fitihing done. 

The canning industry is steadily decreasing, and the following 
table gives the figures for the year : — 



d by Google 



Spiing pick in ri 
P»ll 

Total . 



QwoiUtj. 


Decraau. 


CasN. 
SIS,000 

2,000 
86,000 


CtMM. 

17,000 
38,000 
33,000 


SDS,000 


84,000 



Practically all the pack was sold at the end of the year at 
prices lower than in 1900. 

Oyster culture has been more carefully attended to during the Oj»l«r«. 
past year. I am informed that the product is now selling as far 
east as Salt Lake City aud down to Southem California. Higher 
prices are given for the Pacific coast oyster than for the oyster 
of the Atlantic coast. 

There is a great chance for improvement in this direction. 
All the natui-al oyster beds have not been taken up, and the 
business is certainly profitable. 

There has "been an increase in population, few buildings being Population 
unoccupied aud many new dwellings have been built. The health '°° ''«»''h' 
of the city has been good, not so much, I believe, on account of any 
special measures, but owing to climatic conditions. 



Annex A. — Kkturn of all Shipping at the Port of Astoria, 
Oregon, during the Year 1901, 







Enterbd. 










Sailing:. 


Steam. 


Total. 


HalionaUlj. 


Kiimber 




Number 




Number 






of 


Tons, 


of 


T..D8. 


of 


Tona. 




Vexacla 




VG»ela 
34 


91,ES0 


r«BMia. 
101 




Bdtidi .. 


., 


117,8Tfl 


209,485 


.imericjin— 














Foreign 


2 


1,65S 


3 


3,651 




S,20S 


Coaaling 




22,483 


280 


240,788 


821 


288,220 




■ 21 


!«,050 






21 


84,050 


QBTinan ,. 


31 


69,268 


2 


8,!78 


. 8<! 


63.078 


Norwegian 


2 


2;2« 


H 


20,871 


; 13 


2!i,no 










2,791 






Donlah .. . .. 


1 


1,288 








],^88 


AuUr»Hai«arian 






3 








Italian .. 


1 
1 


1.711 
1,«37 








i;711 
1,887 


Total 


170 


24I,1<S 


333 


386,208 


BOS 


S0S,3tS 


„ IftOO.. 


122 


198,038 


8(7 


380,846 


469 


658,884 



d by Google 



ABTOBU. 

Cleabbd. 





Btiling. 


StMUL 


ToUL 


VriioiikUtj. 


HnndMr 
of 


Tom. 


Nombec 

of 
Vweli. 


Tou. 


Nunber 

of 
TmmIi. 


Tool. 


BriUih .. 
Ameiiou- 

Fwnoh .. .. 
OennMi .. 
Nonrtgiu 


1 

4 
48 
1 
9 


3,aM 

3,628 
26,940 

i,7«e 

»,4B8 


IS 

1 ■ 
280 

"i 
I 


3S,7B4 

80 
928,918 

8^77 
9.791 


14 

6 

B78 
I 
S 
2 
I 


86,992 

2,659 
264,868 
1,789 
8,4BB 
8,977 
9:791 


ToW 
„ IBM .. 


SS 
49 


Sfi,»44 
89,976 


247 
39T 


269,470 
899^78 


808 
889 


106,414 
889,868 



Aonex B. — ■Rbtdrk of Principal Articles of Expert from 
ABtoria, Or^on, dming the Yeara 1901-1900. 



ArtidN, 


BuRbeU . . 
Burels .. 
Budieli .. 
Xetfeet 

hU." .. 


1901. 


1900. 




Qumtlt;. 1 Value. 


dataatj. 


VjQO. 


ffhe« 

Pbnr 

Bari«y 

Limber .. 

riling 

Sklmrai, pickled .. 


124,639 

a,io* 

28,988 

8,887 

788 

106,186 


£ 
14,400 
8:686 
2,486 
7.600 
1,460 
8,900 
610 


29,907 
8.442 

4,880 


£ 

8,ai6 

4,628 
0,876 


ToUl 


., 


88,970 




18,190 



HErnBN of Principal Articles of Import to Astoria, Oregon, 
duiii^ the Yeare 1901-1900. 





Lbi. .. 
Tom .. 
Lba .. 


1001, 


1900. 




gnanUtf. 


Ttlae. 


QwnUty. 


Tilne. 


Tin-pUtM .. 

Skit!! !! !! 

BnDdriei .. 


1,000 


660 

666 


900,480 
146.600 


£ 
1,436 

ISO 
888 


Total 


" 


1.191 




1,971 



d by Google 



Anbex C— Table showing Total Value of all Anides Exported 
from aod Imported to Astoiia, Oregon, to and from Foreign 
Countries during the Years 1901-1900. 





Export.. 


ImvoriM. 










1001. 


i«a 


ISOl. 


IBOO. 




£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


toitod Kingdom 


m 


488 


IS 


1,S01 




2,m 










S,3M 








C«peColoBr .. .. 


1,»«6 




m 


lU 












Pern 


1,GB3 








FhiUppin« Iiludi . . 


B8 












oSii^ .. .. 


3,SSfi 








2,864 


9,m 




J»pw 






40 238 


ToW .. 


88,870 


18,120 


1,181 


1,971 



Post Towkseid. 

Mr. Vice-Coneul Klocker reports as follows : — 

During the past year busiuesa -was fairly good at tbiB place, ( 
several new induBtries were started and people in general seem " 
more hopeful that the time will eoon come when we will share in 
the general prosperity of the Puget Sound districts ; all we need 
is a railroad to connect us with the overland trains. 

The lumber exports have been smaller than in the preceding LsBbwlnd*. 
year by 19,954,000 feet, and prices obtained have not been remu- 
nerative. Mills have therefore been satisfied to take sufficient " 
orders to keep going, without making any effort to work to their full 
capacity. There is every indication that this industry will soon 
be placed on a more satisfactory footing. The shipment of lumber 
to South Africa was increased by 22,967/. over the year 1900, and 
several more cargoes will go forward in the near future. A few 
caigoes for the use of the United States Government at Manila 
have gone forward. 

Lumber freights have gradually decreased since the beginning fiUppiic iml 
of 1901, and at present freights are low with a moderate demand f'^^ *" 
only. Lumber freights during the year have varied as follows : to 
Australian porta 1/. 18a. Qd, to 3/. 10<. according to port, Weat 
Coast of South America, 2L 7s. 6d. to 3/. St., Argentine, 3^. to 
ZL Us. Sd., Chinese, Japanese and Asiatic Buasiau ports from 
21. 2s. M. to Zl. 15&, South Africa, 3/. 2t. 6d. to 3/. 15& and the 
United Kingdom 3^ 5i, to 4^ Is. %d. The grain freights from 
Puget Sound have again strengthened considerably and engage- 
ments are reported at about 1/. 15s., while a month ago vessels 
(129) 



d by Google 



';U PORT T0WU8EKD. 

were oKered at 1/. lis. 3rf. The lavge quantity of wheat tfl be 
■moved, together with the very few steamers offering, has helped to 
turn the market in favour of owners. The great tramp steamers 
of all mttionalities *re now carrying immense cat^oes and seem to 
bfi favoured above sailing vesaals. 

All aloug Puget Sound at eveiy shipbuilding plaat, builders 
have been very busy and a gteat many veseels launched. The tonnage 
of the Pacific coast has b^n increasing rapidly during the last few 
years, and there are indications that the demand for lumber vessels 
is less than the supply. While in former years a great ti^my 
British vessels were engaged in cariyii^ lumber, very few are 
engaged now in this trade, as they cannot successfully compt^te 
with the modern lumber schooners. 

A very important industry has been revived at this place 
duriug the past year. The old Iroudale Smelter, which has been 
lying idle for years, passed into the control of an eastern syndicate, 
and at their plant at the head of this bay they have been busil}' 
engaged the whole year building docks, warehouses, rebuilding 
furBOoes, buildings for their workmen, &c, and the whole plant is 
now iu first class condition oud the smellaog of iroti lias be^p 
successfully carried on for the last three months. A large body of 
men is employed and adds mat«rially to the prosperity of the place. 
All the iron ore used is imported from British Columbia. 

The salmon pack of Puget Sound for 1901 amounted to 
1,36S,297 cases, by for the latest in the history of the Industtj-. 
18 companies and ijidividual firms were eng^ed in the busi- 
ness. The total canning exceeded three times over that of 1900 
and vtBS mere than double the pack of 1899, which was the 
'record year up to 1901. 

The number of sailors on Britis)i vessels an-iving was 778 and 
the following changes occuiiiad at this port. 



The total import trade shows an increase of 706,190/., whieh 
consists mainly of silk from Japan, and copper and lead ore fi-om 
Bhtieb Columbia. 

llie total export tivde shows an increase of 1,404,366^., which 

■ was duie to the lai^e increase in eicports of wheat sod ootton. 

Tlie export trade to the Philippine Islands was 119,803t lees 
than ID 1900, due to the fact that the United Btates Ckiremmeiit 

■ did nflt forward many horses and the shipments of feed, grain and 
hay, Ac,, by the Oo^-ermnent diminished considerably. The-ton- 
nage employed in the Philippine tmde besides the United States 

■ transports consisted of : — • 



d by Google 



toKt toWhsShO. 



VMauatr. 


BtMm 
BtMm 
Sullng 


Nnmbwol 
TmhIk 


T«M. 


BritiA 

^-~»« { 


4 

1 


IMM 
1,708 


Totol .. .. 


J 


W.7»4 



The export trade to the Hawaiian Islands amounted 
236^67i "«»^ 

The general health of this district has been good. HmIO, 

I append the several annexes, marked reapecbvely A, B, C, and D, 
to show in detail the commeree and trade for the collection district 
of Fuget Sound. 



Annex A. — EiruRN of all Shipping at the Porto of Puget Sound, 
including Tacoma, >Seattle and Fort Townsend during the 
Tear ISOl. 





Stilinc. j SlMin. 


Total. 


ViUouUlf. 


Mombw 


NnmlMr 
Tou. «r 
VomU. 


Ton*. 


NmnlMr 

of 
Temli. 


Tom. 


Britidi .. 
Ameiiaui 
JftpMieM),, 
0«rmui .. 
ChilUn .. 

IlAlUn .. 

i!r«Ui«riud 

D»>i>h .. .. 
Bnatu .. 
M«zieu.. 
Psnnlui.. 


171 
116 

"u 

13 
8 

"l 

"l 

"l 


6S,S3B 

SB,42e 
18,117 

i'ln 
i'fibi 

m 


487 

i,eis» 


1S0.S01 
7iS,lE4 
flO^SS 
1>,SB4 

7,110 
4,748 

■'■« 


6M 
1,7W 


808,704 
777,888 

Sffi 

18,117 
10.088 
4,148 

<7« 
3,651 
1,884 
976 

470 


ToUI 
„ 1S00 .. 


8SS 
810 


21B.02S 
aEC,E«2 


2,»B 

1,668 


1,008,881 
BB8,0S4 


S.4SS 
i;B72 


1,887,887 
1,818,616 



■ Th«M laolnds Soniid itMBHn on tiw ngidu nm (o pord of BiiUih CoIunUa. 



(129) 



d by Google 



36 




PORT T0WK6KND. 










(J LEAKED. 










Suling. 


8 
Knmber 


earn. 


T««. 


Katioulft*. 


KumbeT 






Niimber 






ol 


rou. 


of 


Tmu. 


of 


Ton* 




T-^ 




VmhI*. 




Tewli. 




firiUik .. 


17* 


H2.no 


491 


MS,KS 


OSfl 


m\ 


AmericM 


3S5 


lflTv575 


i,m* 


76S.S03 


i,85(r 


JapueM . . 


"is 


3S;M8 


IS 


ea,io7 


IS 

ao 


» 


ChUUtn '.'. '.'. 


19 


18.117 






12 


13^17 


NonregbO 


3 


3,073 




7,lld 


6 


V 


itaiito .. .. 


1 


1,M» 




2,SH 


2 


Netb<iUu>d 








^701 


1 


WM 










2.400 




3,100 


D>Di>h .. 


"l 


1,«S1 






1 


1.051 


RnniMi .. 


.. 






■l,»* 


I. 


l.Kt 


MmIcm . . 








B7fl 


1 


878 


PwriTlBi.. 


"» 


"*T0 






1 


4T0 


ToUl .. 


442 


868,872 


2.1M 


1,047,6M 


%m 


M07,816 


., IWO .. 


177 


3fl4,SU 


1,70* 


S07,182 


2,078 


I,»l,ilJ 



* Tb«w iiicliida Smad itMod^ on tin nfvtar itm to'twrta of Britnh ColoinUs. 



d by Google 



PORT TOWKSBMD. 



Annex B.— Rktdbk of Prinoipul ArticleB of Import to Pugat 
Sound, including Tacoma, Seattle, and Port Townaend 
daring the Years 1901-1900. 



i 

j IBOl. 


1900. 


Artido^ 


















QnuUtj. 


V«h«. 


Vain* 






£ 


« 


ST ■:. :. ::\iZ :: 


«,S90 


218,479 


286,300 


l,l»^^e8 . 


i,ie7,»e2 


BM,S7G 




2l,0M^8 


15,707 


7S,fi60 




lfl,87a.Mfl . 


108,228 


3S.7T0 


Tft. 1 „ .. 






22,182 


a- :: 




tSfiOO 


M,0«0 


„ QUDina udhemp .. 




»t,lH 


14,600 
«,1W 


L<4* .- .. .. 




32,6U 


10,440 






«,»!» 


M87 


Tlpplite 




30,918 










8:480 




Tirdg .. MBM91 


d>,3S8 


i,aie 


Booteholdgoodi.. 




16,464 


11,140 


imt 




E,16a 


3,S00 


Bto 


.. 2,717,108 


10,323 


7,178 


Bop* 


„ ..I io?,«o : 


7,060 


.. 






1,111 




brdken, £tone utd china- 


















OtliKvticlei .. 






oa,4»i 


09,669 


ToUl .. .. .. 




1.842,441 


1,187,261 


Tnonit entrie* to foreign { 








wmntrie* .. ..i 




14B,«1 


7M,108 


TnuuiteiittiM to porta in 










the United Slates 






B>l^t7l 




Onndtctd 




! 2,(80,228 


1,MB.414 



-Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



38 POBT T0WN8EKD. 

Brtuen of Principal Articles of Export from Punt Sound, 
including Tacoma, Seattle, and Port Townaead during the 
Yeara 1901-1900. 



BtHoy 

Com 

Otia 

Prepufttioiu of table food 

Cm) 

Cotton 



TasUloi 

Ckttle 

AsTioiiltiinl inipl«m«iitt.. 
Booki tad printed matlets 
CtnUgM and cjoIm 

Vuh 

H.y 

Heat Rod piorliiona 

P»par 

IjBtther 

iJqaora 

Copper, and intniiliMitnTee 



of 



Muinfkciimi ot Iron ind 



Lumber ■• .. . 

Iron and ileal n^l> 
UannfaotnrM of lumber, 

Tobaeeo 

Chenical* 



^ 



Wool, and manaEwtarea of 

Hilk 

Bngnr 

Hool^ honia, and booea . 

Brickt 

Hnileal iaatniBiBDU • 

Cnndlea 

Bntter and efaeeat 
Other artlelM 

Total 



i,iB4,sae 

l,lSS.lfiS 

a,S88 

10S,S2t 

16.423 

404,787 



1,163,181 
S6!,8C8 
SS,4aO 
S,S07 
1,>0I> 
31,330 
7,SS9 

8,ua 

1,048,481 

Tia,sw 

T.neo 

4a,8G0 
2,898 
11,801 
19,8DS 
118,e97 
»S,4e8 
70,8e0 
79,641 
18,980 
M,0«<> 

4,100 

S4S,908 
>6a,l79 

9,eos 

40,200 
60,403 
17,886 
41,717 
11,869 
11,100 
083 
11,180 



12,083 
18,084 
20,803 
1,880 



69I,S7I 

076,040 
13,840 
11,188 
3,139 

iu,«n 

1M08 
880,390 

's,830 
186,600 
3,093 
13,358 
30,873 
73,S»0 
04,838 
107,130 

e9,uo 

36,314 
08,840 



38,430 
98,840 
31,160 
37,900 
10,330 



0,340 
10,830 
18,000 

7,740 



1,833 
3,400 

'4,84S 

84,727 



d by Google 



POUT TOWSSBHD. 



Annex U. — Table sUowing Total Value of all Articles Kxported 
from and Imported to Piiget Sound, including Taeoina, Seattle 
and Port Townsand during the Years 1901-1900. 



Coaatr;. 


Eiporta. 


Importa. 












IBM. 


1900. 


1901. 


1900. 




« 


£ 


£ 


£ 


United KlDgdou 


8S9,S30 


549,397 


10,234 


20,119 


Britiili Oolnmbtk Mid 










Ctnada 


817,791 


60S,S58 


446,004 


408,88* 


J^pwi 


1,SSS,91V 


1.137.108 


1,319,177 


474,889 


China 


828,006 


192.S78 


61,68* 


87,801 


Portog»l .. .. 


iB8,BM 








AriaticBiuu»>. 


18B 773 


180.047 


"474 




PbUippiH i«luid* . . 


164,789 


284,808 


1,886 


" 17 


HawMuui UUndi .. 




181.872 




7« 


i-natnUa 


leivi 


17S,8«a 


"m 


14 


HoDK-KoDg .. .. 


810,867 


878,669 


S6,S4a 


11,618 


Ban" 


1S1,0S< 


SG,400 






P«n. 


106,583 


48,725 


'1,490 




IMtiBh Sonth AMca .. 


Se.l63 


63,198 




•- 


Belgiiim 


71,(01 




10,169 


24,838 


Ittly 


HBOO 




195 




Germuy 


51.414 


12,(31 


11,868 


102,719 


CRiUe 


47.970 


36,258 


224 




MuiM 


iSAa 


21,fiaS 


682 


'i,fi98 


Biitiith EMt IndU .. 


9.072 


IflO 


11.581 


4,G98 


Bctttdor 


a,iH 


10,900 






ArnnUne BcpubUu .. 


8,82S 








Prencli Oceani* 


3,DG4 


'4,991 






Core* 


2,fil7 


0,903 






SamoA 


2,123 


1,384 






Franco 


1.831 


1,856 


840 


"876 


Aaia (all otber part*) .. 


951 








QutemaU 


478 






'.'. 


SaWador 


US 








Bnwian China.. 
?»il«landi .. 
BAltdi India .. 




31,792 




10 




8.778 








191 




14.1 IS 


NaUnUnda .. 


" 80 




'1,121 


«^M 


Othar eoauititt 


5(7 


. "3,187 


li,787 


1.B42 


Tola) .. 


5,i9!.0r.7 


3,888,681 


1,812.41T 


l,lS7,J6i 



* fiicluaive of tranait entriei, 1,137,7871.. princlpall; (rom Japan and CUu. 



(129) 



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rOKI T0WN88ND. 



Annex B.— 'Tabls showlDg Value of all Articles Exported from 
and Imported to the Different Ports in the Fiiget Sound 

Customs District for the Year 1901. 





T»l06. 


PorL 






Importfl. 


ExporU. 




£ 






2,461,G2S 


611,389 




1,920,883 


1,000,010 


Port TowMend .. 


4]!6,6S6 






188,037 


131,948 




14T,SS4 


i7,gu 




H.K6 






86,8TT 




Anuortw 


S^GS 


e,197 










8.85B 


8 




«,0S1 


11,219 




3,!2S 


7,384 


Erwetl 


2,219 


108,188 


South Band 






BocheEkrtMar.. 






ToUl .. , ,. 


5,898,067 


1,84M*1' 



' RieluriTaoflmultaDtri«i,l,lS7,i87I. 



Mr. Geoghegan. Acting Vice-Consul, reports as follows:— 
Busineea at this port during the year 1901 has been 
good. Both exports aud imports show an iucrease as com- 
pared with the preceding year. Bank clearances were con- 
siderably in excess of those of 1900. Eealty and building 
operations made a good record. Fishing advanced beyond pre- 
cedent and the profits of the business have been large. 
Lumbering exhibited considerable gains. Wheat made an excel- 
lent crop at fair prices. Coal mining has not fallen below 
previous years, all the mines in this district having been in 
operation. 

There has been an increase in most lines of manufacture, with 
the exception of iron and steel industries, which were hampered 
by a protracted strike of machinists. The wholesale jobbing and 
retail trade shows an increase of about 5 per cent., groceries taking 
the lead, and dry goods, clothing, hardware, and oacking-house pro- 
ducts following in the order named. Extensive building operations 
have exerted an especially good influence on the retail hardware 
trada The flour, hay, grain, and feed biisinesses were unfavour- 
ably affected in the early part of the year by conditions in 
Chma, but during the latter months trade was more settled. 
Hay scarcely held its own, owing to the decreased army demand 



d by Google 



SEATTLE. 41 

from the Philippines, but was counterbalanced by an increase in 
the grain and feed trade. 

The foreign and coastwise trade was very satisfactory. ThelmpoiUud 
total imports of the Puget Sound customs district were valued at ^"P**** 
l,842,384i, of which this port received 1,000,022/. The total 
foreign and coastwise trade of the port is summarised as 
follows :— Foreign imports, 1,006,022^. ; foreign exports, 1,920,632/. ; 
coastwise imports, 2,454,285/. ; coastwise e:tports, 3,163,470/. ; 
British Columbia imports, 123,763/.; Sritish Columbia exports, 
346.523i; Hawaii, 62,518/.; total, 9,077,213/. The leading 
domestic products in the coastwise ti-ade were: coal, 472,719 
tons; and lumber, 20,939,000 feet. Flour shipped to foreign 
ports amounted to 474,848 barrels. During 12 months ended 
November, 1901, the total collections of the customs district of 
Fuget Sound amounted to 107,127/., of which Seattle business 
paid 54,577/. Steamers to the number of 668 and sailing 
vessels to the number of 109 anivcd in Seattle harbour during 
the year, of 945,670 net tons, and 663 steamers and 111 sailing 
vessels of 928,.^10 net tons, departed in the foreign and cosiitwise 
trade. Many vessels sailing from and to Seattle ontered and 
cleared at other ports of tltis customs district, as permitted by 
United States r^ulations. 

The items of export to Japau and China were very varied : InM with 
flour, tobacco, leather, tools, machinery, raw and manufactured J''''^ ""• 
cotton, beer, steel, lead, cigarettes, nails, lumber, bicycles, &c, ''*°' 
19 vessels of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha cleared from Seattle 
during the year, of a net tonnage of 59,255 tons, carrying cargoes 
valued at 1,391,722/., an increase of five vessels, 21,271 tons, and 
a little over 70 per cent, cargo value, as compared with the 
year 1900. The figures indicate that shipments of lumber to 
Japan and China did not I'each expectations, Siberian products 
at Chinese labour prices having entered into successful competi- 
tion with Washington lumber. Imports from Asia have been as 
hitherto, mainly silk, tea, matting and bamboo, with greater or 
less quantities of curios, rice and oranges. 

The addition of new vessels by the Nippon Yusen Kaisha, and Shippinf. 
the advent of the China Mutual and Kosmos lines stimulated 
Oriental shipments to some slight degree. The first vessel of 
the Cliina Mutual Steam Navigation Company left this port in 
March. These vessels start from Liverpool, the home port, 
and toncti at Gibraltar, Port Said, Suez, Aden. Colombo, Singa- 
pore, Hong-Kong, Nagasaki, Moji, Kobe, Yokohama and Seattle, 
the terminus of the line, making the samtt ports, with the 
tJie addition of Manila, on the return voyage. 14 vessels left 
Seattle during the year of 47,565 tons net register, the greater 
part of the cargoe.i being wheat for the United Kingdom, and 
considerable quantities of canned salmon. The increased tonnage 
afforded by these lines has had a natural tendency to prevent any 
rise iu freights, but it is nut observed that it has caused a decline. 
The Globe Navigation Company inaugurated a line between 
Seattle and Hawaii, and has in contemplation extensions to ManiU 
and other ports in the Philippines. 



d by Google 



42 SIAITLE. 

CuwUjtii Jtnd Imports from I'vitwli {.'nliiiiibifi iirL- Qstiiuati'd nt 1^:!,763/., 

AlMbtntde. and exports thitlicv nt :!4(i,52:>/. It is difiicult to oiitnin cxac-t 
figures of the purely ('aiiadiau trailo, hut the volnino of Seattle's 
basinesB witli the British Yukon and Alaska combined is given as 
10,107,400^. Gold shipments from the Yukon territory and 
Alaska amounted to 2,900,000/., of which over 2,000,0(KH is 
credited to BritiBh tenitory. The value of fish ("canned and 
fresh), fui-8, minerals, and other products consigned to this port 
&om the British Yukon and Alaska aggregated 1,125,800?. 
Merchandise, lumber, machinery, and general products sold to the 
Britisli Yukon and Alaska, 5,000,000/. Amount paid t-o Seattle 
companies and individuals for Iransportatinn between this port 
and the British Yukon and Alaska during the year 1901 was 
1,082,600/. These figures show n gi-owth in Seattle's trade with 
Alaska and a considei'able decrease in that with the Canadian 
territory. The niiniber of persons leaving Seattle for tiie British 
Yukon and Alaska in 1901 was approximntely 41,200, and of those 
returning by way of this port 44,400. 

Utnuracturti. xhe establishment in this town of the general oflices of the 
Pacific Packing and Navigation Company was a notewoithy 
event of the yeai-, as it represents prolwbly a larger capital 
than all the otlier miinufactoriee coniliineil. The Moran Brothers 
(Company, shipbuilders, has addt-d to its plant improvements 
valued at 100,000/., and several other of the older industries 
have made extensive additions. Two new breweries liave been 
established during the year and those alreiuly existing lia\'e l>een 
cnlai^'eil Bricks are Ixting made to some extout, and ^emanufac- 
tui-o of biscuits and candles is flawing. Noticeable additions nro 
a glass plant and one fur the handling of coal-tar products. A 
local company has been organised to start a tannery. 

Shipbuilding. Activity continues in the shipbuilding industrj-. One com- 
pany is engaged in the construction of a battleship for the TTnit<il 
States (iovernment, at an estiniateil cost fif 'r()7,-")80/,, giving 
steady employment tu some SCO mechanics. Another plant, estali- 
lishetl in the summer ()f 1900, has a contract for the building of 
live four-masted schooners. This class of vessel is becoming 
))opulai' in the coastwise tra-de, '^Vashington timbeiB 00 to 80 feet 
in length lieing used, which "ive great staiinchness in comparison 
with the 12 anil 24 feet Inmlier of the Atlantic coast. An 
important branch of the industr)- is the repairing of vessels. 
A floating dry dock for medium-sized vessels was constnicted 
during tlie year, but facilities are still iTiadequate. 

Expenditures for juaterials used in the constniction and repair 
departments at the Puget Hound \avy Y'ard during the year 
amounted to 58,748/., and a|)propriatioiis exceeding 200,000/. have 
been recommended by the Na\'y Department for improvements 
during the year 1902, Plans have I>een completed for an addi- 
tional dock with two compartments, which wlien completed ^vill 
afford facilities for docking three vessels at a time. This iitxvy 
yard is the only one in the cuimtrj' where worJi is done on the 
inerebunt marine. 



d by Google 



SUTTLE. 43 

Freight rates for wheat to the United Kingdom and Continent pni^hu. 
of Europe have i-anged from 40s. down to about 23s. Qd., and 
while rates were from about 32«. 6d. and upwards steamers were 
chartered for wheat, but at anything less than this fignre they do 
not seem to care for the business. In r^aid to Hteamer business 
vi4 Suez, the feeling is tliat unless they can get about 35». they 
will cut their shipments of wheat down to a minimum, preferring 
to carry Sour from here to the Orient, and take chancea of getting 
cargo from there on. This season there has lieen a larger per- 
centage of tramp steamers canying wheat as compared with 
sailing vessels than heretofore, and this state of things seems 
like^ to continue. 

The output of the lumber luilla in Seattle and neighbourhood Lumi^r. 
duriag 1901 was 202,366,439 feet of lumber (1 square foot 1 inch 
thick), 163,160,500 shingles and 13,721,000 laths. In addition to 
this the mills at the suburb of Ballard produced 58,692,730 feet 
of lumber, 9,000,000 laths and 569,430,000 shingles. 

From the report of the State Inspector of coal mines it appears Co»l, 
that of 2,504,190 tons minpd in the State during the jeai-, 865,227 
tons were produced in the vicinity of Seattle. The total number 
of persons employed in coal mining in this county was 1,964. 
The old mine at Franklin is being re-opened and the workings 
extended. Extensive improvements have been undertaken at 
Kenton. The local demand for coke and coal is increasing, 
although the use of oil as fuel has displaced coal to som« extent 
in the California market. 

Fishing on Puget Sound has, within the past five years, become FiihcriM. 
a leadiug industry of the State. The run of salmon during the 
season of 1901 was the largest ever known, the Puget Sound pack 
amounting to 1,363,297 cases (of 48 lbs. net) of a value of about 
1,027,590^, not includii^ 73,000 cases packed at other places on 
the sea coast of this State. The pack was made up of 1,105,096 
cases sockeyes, 136,823 cases cohoes, 49,437 cases humphocks, 
71,941 cases chums. The exceptional run is attributed to 
the extensive system of artificial propagation undertaken a few 
years ago. Tliis port is now the headquarters of the Pacific 
Packing and Navigation Company, organised during the year, 
which controls the majority of the canneries of Washington, 
Or^on, and Alaska. The greater part of the Alaska product is 
handled here, as well as the supplies requisite to the business. 
The company had 4 pile-drivers, 5 pile-pullers, 60 scows, 60 trap- 
80OW8, 125 dories, and 20 steJimere and tugs at work duriiw the 
season on the lower Sound. The quality of the fif^ packed was 
much better than last year, when only 432,031 cases were 
packed 

Betums of the United States Assay OtBce in this town show Gold, 
receipts from the following districts: Alaska, Kome, 581,527/.; 
Alaska, other 113,825/. ; Yukon Territory, Klondyke, 2,219,424/. ; 
British Columbia, Canada, 125,536/. ; Washington, Oregon, Idaho, 
&G., 17,733/. ; total 3,058,045^. The number of deposits made was 
4,995. The weight of gold received, in Troy ounces before melting 
was 911,500-69 ozs. 



d by Google 



44 SEATTLE. 

A bulletin of tlie United Status Loiisiis Bureau, lately issued, 
allows that the capital invested in nianufacturiog industries iii this 
State in tliD year 1900 waa 10,529,952/. Of this amount, 
2,026,330;. was in Seattle bufiiuesses. The total value of Seattle 
products was 5,274,680^. ; the number of establishments 658 ; 
avenge numliei of w^e earners 8,480 ; total wages 1,115,05U. ; 
coat of materials used 2,843,238/. As compared with those of the 
year 1800, these figures show the following percentages of increoae; 
capital invested 112-9; number of establishjuents 187'9; wa^ 
earners 125-1; ttital wages 80'8 ; cost of materials used 1B7'4; 
value of products 158-5. Dui-iug the same period the total capital 
iuvested in manufactures in the State increased 532 per cent., and 
the total value of the State's manufactured products 107*8 per cent. 
The Census Bureau records 53 classified industries in this town, 
tlie moat important being the lumber and timber industry. This 
had 14 establishments in 1900, representing an iuvestmsnt of 
380,975/., the land owned by these establishments was valued at 
132,930/., their buildings at 27,200£, and their machinery, &c., at 
112,220/. The fish industry has grown much since 1900, but at 
that time it had seven establishments, with a yearly wage roll of 
21,267i. Six fioui' mills represented an investment of 93,060/., 
34 machine shops ami foundries 124,869/.. 33 masonry, brick, and 
stone yards 79,663/., 12 slii]) and l>oat building yards 47,585/., 
eight abattoirs and meat packing wholesales establishment 
114,070/. 

Tliere were 876 deaths and 985 birtlis in the t<Hvn during the 
yciir, being an excess of 104 deaths and 164 births over the 
previous year. (Jaaes of infectious diseases rejiorted were: 
diphtheria 48, scarlet fever 255, measles 188, small-pox 198. The 
report of the milk inspector shows that 2;!2,660 gallons of milk 
were examined, of which 255 were condemned. 

More building has been soing on than for some time past, with 
prospects of yet gieater activity. Dwelling houses arc still scarceand 
rents high. Keal ostate valued at 3,076,590/. changed hands, and 
the value of buUding permits reached the sum of 701,790J. The 
market was uniformly steady, and has been characterised by an 
absence of speculation and the investment principally of local 
capital. A high acltool building is under construction on which 
40,000i is to 1)6 expended, There lias been much improvement in 
street railway facilities, several new Unes having been built 
and old lines rebuilt anil exten<lcc1. Business properties have 
advanced from 15 to 20 i>er cent, since the beginning of the 
year. An important movement has been the active buying and 
selling of the tide-lands ; these lots have appreciated in value over 
100 per cent,, due partly to the practical settlement of the site for 
the proposed union railway station. I'lic choice of a site for the 
Government building has also liail a good cfl'ect on vnlues in the 
business district. 
I- The Board of Public Works, tlie Vitter Department, and the 
Engineering Department of the town have heen pushing the work 
of public improvements; 12^ mile« of slrei'ts hnvo been giwled. 



d by Google 



SKATl'LK 45 

35 miles of atone and 10 of \toodeu J)arapets lakl. down, 7 iiiiles 
of streets asphalted and 4 miles planked, beaiiiea 7 miles of sewere 
constructed. The street lighting has been done by contract, at an 
iipproximate cost of 5,000/., 134 arc lights costing 1/. 8s. per rtionth 
imd 1,200 incandescent lights costing 6s. |wr montli being in use. 
Tliera is room for luucli iinprovomeut in this department. On 
cleaning and repairing the streets 10,000^. liris lieen expended. A 
l^ood amonnt or work lias been itccompliBhed on the wiiter system, 
mostly at the exitense of thw pioperty owners benefited. Tlie 
town contributed only 4,000/. towtu'ds the cost, making a total cost 
to date of 480,170/. The total capacity of the reservoirs is given 
an 52,2;i6,000 galhtna ; daily capacity of the conduits 2.^,000,000, 
fjallons ; amount consumed daily 10,000,000 gallons ; receipts from 
water rates 45,000/. Tlie Cedar lii\-ev system was opened £<ir 
service during tlie yeai-. The most noticeable impi-ovements of the 
year are those on the water fi^oni, where many of the old whar\es 
and warehouaes have been demolished and new structni-es erected, 
with largely increased aecomniodation for shipping arid storat^e. 
The Merchants* Association has done good work in agitating for 
tlie further impiuvenient of tlie extensive tide-ldnds, which present 
\aluable sites for potential factories. 

Under the direction of tlie United States (juartenuaster's United Stati 
Department, with lieadquarters at this port, 17 ehartered *"id '•™*°'* 
owned transports, of whicli 7 were British bottoms, sailed from . 
Seattle during the year. No liorees, mules, oxen or stock were 
shipped, but 1'5,805 tons of ha.)', 12,748 tons of oats, 27 tons of 
bran, 74 tons of maize, 26 tons of straw, 4,783 tons of coal, 
1,635,023 feet of liunber, and 1,788 tons miscellaneous army 
supplies were sent to the I'iiilippines, Sandwich Islands, and 
Alt^ka. The disbursements at Seattle amounted to 467,377/. 

lucchange» passed tiirough the Seattle clearing house duiiug Finui«e. 
the year amounted to over 28,600,000/. The deposit accounts of 
thd 12 banks doii^ business here a^regated 4,047,573/. 

Losses by fire amounted to 16,017/. on buildiiigs, and 24,019/. Fin Iowm. 
on contents, the average loss by each fire being 106/. 

Post office receipts for the year were as follows ; sale of stamps Port offloe. 
45,^1/., an inqrease of 8,225/. over the previous year, money orders 
issued 254,133/., money orders paid 320,942/. 

The 19 creameries iu King County produced 973,206 lbs. of Dalrjr 
butter; and"tbe"4 cheese factones 500,300 lbs. of cheese. »-.j™. 



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Annex A.— Bkturh of all Shipping at the Port ot Seattle, 
Washington, dnring the Year 1901, 





BOlMt. 


atMoi. 


Total. 


Nfttiouutr. 


Nmabw 
YmOM. 


Tom. 


Nnrnber 

of 
T««ali. 


Tou. 


Number 
VmmI*. 


Tou. 


BiUUi .. 

Ssr;: :; 

Dntck .. 
IUli» .. .. 
AmariMn 


9 


10;474 
1,661 

'sis 


61 
IS 

1 

I 

I 
8!1« 


89.8M 

57,48« 
1,789 
a,7Bl 

s.aoe 

188,800 


7« 
18 
3 
1 
1 
US 


8,440 

1,781 

3,808 

184,138 


ToUl 
„ 1000 .. 


14 


19.948 
13,988 


S13 
310 


aeo.»B 

228,1!1 


817 
SSC 


371,318 
283,104 





SriitoB- 


Steun. 


Totd. 


HftUoulitf. 


Nnmbor 
of 


Tom. 


KiiDber 

or 

VmmU. 


Tom. 


HamlMi 
of 

T«Mb. 


Tonik 


British .. 

OWBU .. 

ChiUu .. 
FeniTiaii.. 
Amerleut 

Tot>l 
„ 1900 .. 


17 21,862 1 89 
80 

1 1,3U 2 

1 2,808 

1 978 ' .. 

4 4,808 j .. 

1 ' 470 1 .. 
13 , 8,973 ] 107« 


68,888 
Si^lSS 
S;08S 

;; 

7e,*9«S 


86 
30 

S09 


7G,S60 
02,118 
6,878 
%808 
976 
4^8 
470 
S«,38G 


87 ' SS,e80 ' 388 199,657 
39 37,390 ' 388 146,348 


S2C 
297 


sss,ia 

193,487 



* TbiM inclade Sonnd itcunen on the regnlur ran to BriUili CtdnmbU, 



TaCOHA, WAiHIHOTOK. 

Mr. Vice-Consul Alexander reports as follows: — 
The past year hiia been satisfactory throughout the State 
for the agriculturist as well as the buBiness man.' Eeal estate in 
the towns and farming lands are in better demand and prices have 
stiffened in consequence of restored confidence. A large increase 
has taken place in emigration to the towns and country from Uia 



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TACUMA. 47 

middle iiiul eastoru States, aud new hmds arc buiiig bronglit under 
cuItivatioB. Irrigation ditches are being constructed and others 
cxteuded in the eastern part of the State, which have brought 
niauy thousands of acres of desert land, lieretofore apparently 
worthless, into produce bearing districts. 

The ijopuktion of Tacoma nifty now be estimated at about Population 
55,000. 

The health of the county and town generally iluriny the past HmIUi. 
year has been good : there liaa been no epidemic of contagious or 
iDfeclions diaua^^e uf a serious nature ; tlie deaths oi'cun'iu|; were 
24 from diphtheria, 210 scarlet-fever, 1 20 lueaalt's, 29 sinall-pox, 
'■'f typhoid-fever ; tlie total number of deaths wca 474, of which, 
269 were males and 205 fomales. 309 males and 2(J9 females, 
making a toUil of 608 were born during this period, in addition to 
■id stillborn. 474 couples ^-ei-e married. 

The total rainfall for the year was greater than usual. W««ther. 
4()67 inches of i^ain fell during the year, of which 962 inches fell 
during the mouth of November; Aug\ist was the driest month, 
\vheii only 0-;>2 inch was regbteied. The maximum tempemtitre 
' reached was S8 degivei on Juue J 8, mid August 0, and the 
minimum 24 decrees on Dcuember 12. 

The cutting and manufacture of timljcr Ims )tceii very pros- IndutriM. 
perous during the year. Local deiuand has been good aud despatches Timb«r. 
by railway to Eastern States have been lieavier than usual ; the 
prosperous condition of tlie country has meant an increased dem^uid 
for buildiug purposes and railway equipment. The sliingle industry 
lias been equally praspcruus, and it is safe to say tiiat more mills 
for the manufacture of timber and shingles are iu operatiou tliau 
at any time during the liistory of the State. The cotid cut for the 
State is estimated at 1,650,000,000 feet. 210,327,239 feet went 
abroad, aud 223,35.5,15y feet went to domestic ports ; the despatches 
by railway were 38ti,856,0O0 feet, and 4,803,701,000 shUigl&i 
were manufactui'ed. The shipments from Tacoma were estimated 
at 32,800,190 feet valued at 75,737/. to foreign porta; while 
43,718,800 feet valued at 89,080/. wei'c shipped to domestic ports. 

The State Mine Inspector issues ni> official report for the past Minlnr 
year, so data are not available. All the mining companies in this 
and other counties tributary to Tacoma, have extended their 
- operations and improved their works in order to increase their out- 
put, many of them buildii^ coke-ovens, where the quality of coal 
will justify tlieir doing so. It is said that a very fine quality of coal 
for " blacksmithing " purposes has been recently found in the 
Mont«8uma District, which is meeting with a very ready local 
sale. The actual quantity of coal taken out of these mines for the 
year 1901 caunot be ascertained, but it is estimated at 2,800,000 
tons, valued at 1,000,000/. at the pits mouth. Alwut 015,000 
tons (2,240 lbs.), valued at al)out 4OO_,000/., worn shipped from 
the liort ot Tacoma ; the slupincnts to ('alifoniia wunld pi-obably 
have increased this aniouuL, had it noL been for the long- 
continued strike and labour troubles and it^itations in San 
I'Vancisco, which alTeci'ed the traile and manufacturing establish- 



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ii (icoui. 

mentfi. Again, the more general ubu of crude oil for fuel 
purposes in California and on the Southern Pacific Railway, has 
had a tendency to reduce the demand for coal ; this is, however, 
ofbet in a small d^^e by an increased demand for fuel in the 
Hawaiian Islands. There wei'e about 30,000 tone of coke made 
during the year. 

The Tacoma Smeltii^ and Eehiiing Company have continued to 
make great improvements to their works during the year at con- 
siderable cost, which has been more than met by the increased 
facilities afforded for the reduction of ores, especially that of copper, 
very large quantities being Low received, fiie supplies of ores are 
brought by water and railway, chiefly from Alaska, Canada, 
Montana, Nevada and local places ; ores have also been received 
from youth America, Mexico and Korea ; it is almost safe to say 
that fully one-third of the ores i-eceived came from Canada. 

Prices for grain have been fairly remunerative, and farmers in 
most cases have been able to save some money. The price of 
wheat has left a fair return, selling at from Is. 8d. to 2jt. at the 
point of shipment or an average of Is. lOd. per bushel (60 lbs.) 
for the year. Oats were a good crop and prices have been high, 
averaging about 4». i>er 100 lbs. Hay, grown in Eastern Wash- 
ington, averaged 2/., and that grown in Western Washington 
averted 1/. lUs, Gd. per ton to the grower. The contracts let by 
the United States Government for large quantities of oats and 
hay for military supplies for the forces in the Philippines have 
upheld good prices fur these commodities, and farmers have 
profited to a certain e.\t-ent, although having to sell to dealers. 
Lai^e quantities of fodder have also been sent up to Alaska and 
other northern places. A very much laiger acreage is now being 
sown to oats and seeded down for pasturage and hay, as the 
demand will probably be good for some time to come. Potatoes 
were in good demand during the autumn for Eastern States ; the 
dry season in the middle Western States destroyed the yield, 
and to supply the demand potatoes were sent from this State 
and Oregon to Colorado and other places. Potatoes aver^fed to 
the grower il. per ton (2,000 lbs.). 

The following is an estimate of the yield, no Oovemment 
computation having been made: — 





Ana. 


Acw. 


ProdDcUon. 


TllM. 


Wb«>t .. 

SUM .. 

B»le; .. .. 


AereL 

..: 1,081,000 

8,000 

97,000 

41,020 


BnihsU 
8S-96 
17-6 

43-4 


!»,0»8,000 

101,000 

4,807,000 

1,82S,«20 


'4z 

007,184 
188,087 



Exports continue to increase, and although the trade in flour 
has probably not been as profitable as in former years, seveml 
new mills have been erectol. H^h prices for bran and sliorU 



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have helped to save manufacturers from loss at times when the 
price of flour for export did not seem tempting. 

The yield of hops waa deficient although the quality was fair. H»p«- 
Prices averaged about 5d. per lb. after harvest, at which figure 
most of the crop was disposed of by growera ; later iu the year 
the price advanced to about 7d., but the dealers only beuefited. 
The crop of the State was about 30,000 bales, as t^inst 37,500 
bales the previous year. 

The fruit crop during the past season has been only fair, taken Fmit. 
as a whole. There was a good crop of apples throughout the 
State, better on the eastern than on the western or Paget Sound 
side. The pear crop was light all over the State. Prunes were 
good. Cherries were a very light crop. Small fruits are grown 
in great abundance, and it is very rare for the crop to be a 
failure. Diseases of various kinds still prevail in spite of the 
methods used to eradicate them. Scab affects the apples aud 
pears in Western Washington, and it is probable that it will 
always prevail on account of climatic conditions. Codlin moth 
attacks the apples in Eastern Washington, but it is being con- 
trolled by diligent spraying with Paris green and arsenate of soda. 
Aphis is controlled by continuous spraying with quassia chips and 
whale oil soap. The potato blight in Western Washington is 
controlled, as far as possible, by a liberal use of the Bordeaux 
mixture. Prices were greatly governed by quality in the local 
markets and Alaska, especially in the case of apples, boxes, 
weighing 50 lbs., ranging from 2s. to 8s. per box. The markets for 
Western Washington fruit were chiefly local and Alaska and 
northern places, while the small fruits, grown in Eastern 
Washington, were marketed along the lines of railway extending 
as far as St. Paul, Minnesota, and the large fruits as fiu- as New 
York. 

More attention is being paid to stock-raising now than lAvnioek. 
formerly ; the advance in prices of live-stock of all descriptions 
throughout the United States has turned farmers and stockmen's 
attention to cattle and sheep raising as well as horse breeding, 
and there wiU be a good demand for high-class animals for some 
time to come. 

The statistics of this year's export trade from Tacoma show an Commercial 
appreciable increase as compared with last year's figures, and r*'»Ji*""' ^*^ 
particularly so in the case of flour to Japan, China and Hong- ^nfjjeg. 
Kong. As in the case of 1900 the volume of business decreased 
towards the end of the year, this is attributable to more flour 
having been shipped to Japan and Hong-Kong in the earlier part 
of the year than the consumption in those countries required, and 
the fact that the rice harvest in Japan was more bountiful 
than the country had enjoyed during any of the preceding 10 
years. Local disturbances in the southern provinces of China are 
responsible for a decrease in shipments from this port toward the 
end of the year. Wheat exports from here were chiefly to the 
United Kingdom or the Continent of Europe, but five cargoes of 
wheat, flour, timber and tinned goods, valued at 40,000^., went to 
(129) , D 



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50 TACOUA. 

ports in British Soutli Africa. 1 2 cargoes of timber were coosigued 
to ports in Australia, valued at 25,000/. 

The China Mutual Sttam Na\-igation Company and the Glen 
Line of steamers maintained throughout the year a r^ular service 
by their respective steamers, vil the Philippines, Straits Settle- 
ments, Suez Canal, Mediten'anean and Continental ports, to and 
from London and Liverpool. The importajice of Tacoma as a 
shipping port has been further recognised hy the extension of the 
German Kosmos Line steam service to Tacoma, which has hitherto 
traded to and from Hamburg and the west coast of South and 
North America, as far north as San Francisco only. The Hawaiian- 
American Steamship Company recently started with eight good 
cargo boats to load to and from New York and Hawaiian Islands, 
via San Francisco, has announced that it will hereafter make 
Tacoma a regular port of call on the voyage to Hawaii ; these 
steamers will carry general cai^o from New York to San Francisco, 
Tacoma and Hawaii, after discharging which at these ports, more 
local cai^o for Hawaii will be loaded ; sugar will be the return 
cargo to New York. 

The freight rates for grain prevailing during the year from ports 
on Puget Sound to Europe have shown some decline as compared 
with previous years, ranging from 1/. 12s. 6rf. to 21. Is. 3rf,, 
averaging for the year about 1/. 15«. South African freights have 
ruled about 2». 6rf. higher. 

Timber rates have been as follows : — 



AuBtnlla 

Chlu 

VladlToitock 

Wett Coul of Sooth Ameriet 

Sonth AMca 

Europe 



The domestic trade shows some improvement over last year ; 
better facilities are provided, both by water and railway, for the 
carrying of merchandise from the outlying districts to markets, 
and the development of the country is progressing accordingly. 
There were 13,040 milway truck loads of wheat brought to this 
port for inspection by the State Grain Inspector during tliG season, 
averaging 940 bushels to the truck, in addition to 2,388 truck loads 
of oats and 228 truck loads of barley. 

The United States custora-house report shows that 312 vessels 
entered and 329 cleared from this poit during the year 1901 ; 
that the total export amounted to 2,601,229/., in addition to 
96,740/. foreign goods transhipped, making a total of 2,697,969/., 
as against 1,734,661/. in 1900; the export for the district of Puget 
Sound aggregates 5,293,057/.; this shows that Tacoma contributed 
nearly 50 per cent. The imports amounted to 511,239/., as against 



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TACOMA. 51 

361,685/. the previous year ; the impoi-te for the whole district 
amount to 1,842,44H., showing Tacoma's share to be about 28 
per cent ^ 

The total busineee of the port is estimated by the local 
authorities at 6,882,146i, of which the exports are c»«dited with 
4,580,975t ; the imports from foreign countries are credited with 
1,421,190/., and from domestic ports with 879,981/., making a 
total of 2,301,171/. It appears that the chief articles of export of 
local production were: 10,713,826 bushels of wheat, valued at 
1.265,964/. ; 924,744 barrels of flour, valued at 530,703/. ; 636,106 
tons of coal, valued at 402,707/. ; 78,810,265 feet of timber, valued 
at 159,470/.; 95,246 cases of tinned sahnon, valued at 103,0802.; 
the value of bullion is placed at 314,800/. 852 vessels arrived 
with a roistered tonnage of 1,046,428 tons, and 847 vessels 
departed with a registered tonnage of 1,024,863 tons. 



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I 



LONDON : | 
PrinUd f« UU Hifettj'i SUtionti; Oftoe, 

Bz HABBISON AND SONS, . I 

Printtn ik Oidluir to Hli Hftjetty. i 

(7S 7 I OS— H k 8 12B) | 



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No. 2889 Ammal Series. 
DIPLOMATIC AND CONSULAR EEFORTS. 



UmTED STATES. 



REPORT FOR THE YEAR 1901 



TRADE OF THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS. 



BBFSBBNGE TO PRBVI0U8 RBFOBT, Anmul 8wi«i No. 2689. 



Prtiented to both HotueM of PorUameiU by OommandofHitMaJMty, 
AUGUST, 1902. 



LONDON! 

PEIHTED FOR BIS MAJESTY'S STATIONKBT OFFICE, 

BT HARBISON AND SONS, ST. MARTIN'S LANE, 



ETBE A 

ud 82, Am-vonoN Btrkkt. Wkbtmin8T«b, S.W.j 

or OLIVER & BOYD, Edimilkob ; 

gr B. PONSUNBY, lie, QunoM Stkiit, Dobmh 

1902. 
[Cd. 78ft— 198.] Prie* Thru ffal^Mo*. 



Digitized by VjOOQ I C 



CONTENTS. 



Hamiu— 

Qanenl rMBwki.... 



Kbw tariff . 
Cuitomi cle> 



CiBU tnde rsport .. 



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Vo. 2889. 

Be/ertftce to previous Report, Ati7iual Series No. 2638. 



Ji^port on tite Trade of the Philippine Islands for th« Year 1901 
By Mr. Acting-Consul Sinclair. 

(Raemred at Foraign Offloe, Aiignrt 6, 1902.) 

Trade in the PhilippineB in 1901 as in 1900 failed to come up General 
to expectations, itnporls keeping slack owing to ihe unsettled state ren^'k*- 
of the couutry and scarcity of money entailed by the events of the 
past few years. Exports are, as I anticipated in my last year's 
report, leAS, as the effect of the opening of closed district and 
consequent throwing of accumulated stocks on the market has 
ceased. 

Before going into details I will endeavour to point out briefly 
the state of affairs in tbe more important islanda of the group, 
showing the progress of law and order in the past year. 

Tbe island of Luzon, north of Manila, may be considered paci- Iauoq. 
fled, life and property being as safe as in Europe, except possibly 
in the neighbourhood of the few head-hunting tribes left in the 
most iuacoessible mountain distiicte. Even these are being kept 
in check by tbe lately created constabnlary. 

Luzon contains the moet important tobacco and rice districts 
of the FhilippiDee. Several rice mills owned by British Arms are 
situated along tbe Manila and Dagupan Railway, but they did not 
do much business in the past year owing to deficient rains and a 
decrease in the quantity of rice planted, due to the scarcity of 
draught animals caused by war and rinderpest. 

The paciticatiou of this district, and especially of the central 
province of Benguet, is gradually bearing fruit in the establishment 
of a sanatorium at Baguio, a project mooted in Spanish times but 
now taking a concrete form. 

This district enjoys a maximum shade temperature of 75" F. 
as compared with the 99" F. of Manila, and in the winter months 
the thermometer occasionally falls below freezing point. 

European fruit and v^etables can be grown on this plateau, 
and cattle raised. 

At present Baguio is somewhat inaccessible, but 11' as is pro- 
posed a light railway be constructed, the American and European . 
population of the Philippines will be able to obtain a change from 
the continuous damp beat of the ports, without the stormy trip to 
(159) A 2 



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Uhina or Japan, aow Decessary for those in search ot a more 
bracing climate. 

In the south of Luzon the state of aftairs has not been so 
favourable. 

Until early in the present year a guerilla warfare was atill in 
progress in the southern provinces. 

Hemp and coprah, the main productions of this part of th» 
island; hoth suffered considerably owing to the closing of the 
lake and seaports. 

The island of Mindoro, in spite of its nearness to Manila, is one 
of the least known owing to its rugged nature and bad climate. 
It w:ia the scene of considt^rable military activity in 1901, owing 
to a, large number of inaui^gents from Southern Luzon having 
established themselves there. 

It is now pacified and may become valuable for cattle breeding, 
though at present it is of no commercial importfmca 

Samar, one of the most important hemp ialandB.gave more trouble 
to the military authorities in the latter end of the paat year and 
beginning of the present than the rest of the Archipelago com- 
bined. Up to the middle of the year the Americans contented 
themselves with the occupation of the coast towns and a mild 
blockade. 

The countrj- is rough, covered with thick jungle penetrated by 
narrow trails, from the shelter of which the natives were able to 
anipe into the towns and bodies of troopa in the river vallej's 
without much risk. Luckily for the Americans their musketry 
was bad and tlieii- supply of arms aud ammunition detective, and 
until September of 1901, the chief lossea sustained by the troopa 
were due to pitfalls and sudden rushes. 

In the last days of that month, however, a desperate attack was 
made by about 400 fanatics, armed with bolos (cutlasses), on a com- 
pany of the 9th United States Infantry at Balangiga, while the 
latter were at breakfast In spita of losing about half their number, 
the attacking force succeeded in killing 45 officers and men, only 
24 managing to escape by the sea. 

Roused by this disaster the authorities poured troops into the 
island, and eventually a general surrender took place in the epring 
of the present year. 

The neighbouring island of Leyte, also mainly producing hemp, 
has been for some time under civil rule, but has been suffering 
from brigandage, possibly due to an influx of rebels from Samat 
across the narrow strait separating the islands. 

Fanay and Cebu Islands are dealt with in detail in the annexed 
Imports of the Cebu and Uoilo Vice- Consuls. Panay growa mainly 
sugar, Cebu hemp also. The best coal in the Philippiues also 
occurs in the latter. Both islands are now in a settled condition, 
the greater pai-t of the rebels in Cebu surrendering in the autumn, 
after a lai^ number of troopa had been thrown into the island 
owing to the outskirts of the city having become unsafe for 
Americana Cebu is daily increasing iu importance as a hemp 
port, being centrally situated as r^ards the main sources of supply. 



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The harbour is good, lai^ vessels being able to lie close to 
the shore and so escaping the expensive lighteiang necessary at 
Manila. 

Iloilo is also the port ot shipment for the sugar produced in the Noftro*- 
lai^e island of Negros, With the exception of one district this 
island is quiet. 

The great southern island of the Archipelago, Mindanao, is, UinduiM. 
except as regards its coasts, almost a ten-a incognita. It covers an 
area of about 36,000 square miles, much of which has never been 
explored. The population consists mainly of Mahouiedan Malays, 
who were never subdued by the Spaniards and continue truculent, 
80 much 80 that a punitive expedition had recently to be sent to 
punish one section of them for a number of treacherous attacks on 
isolated parties of soldiers engaged in telegraph construction and 
other duties. 

Hemp, rubber, gums and otlier tropical products are exported, 
and when roads are constructed the forests will become a source 
of profit. An influential American syndicate is being formed for 
the purpose. 

There are a number of deep rivers running far into the oonntry 
through rich land suitable for sugar and other plantatii ins. 

The western extremity of the island tapers off into the Jolo or 
Snlu Group, v/hich are more in touch with Singapore than Manila, 
except as far as the gtuTison is concerned. Zamboauga, the chief 
port in Mindanao, lies in the track of vessels bound from Australia 
for Manila. Some pearling is done in the neiglibourhood. 

The south-western boundary of tht; Philippines is formed byE 
the long narrow island of Parngua, or Paluan, which has little 
trade importance, except that from it and some of the sioall 
neighboiiring islands considerable quantities of beche-de-mer and 
material for birds'-neat soup are sent to Hong-Kong for Chinese 
consumption. 

The trade of the southern islands is mainly in the hands of 
Chinese. 

The charting of the surrounding seas is very defective, many 
points being 6 or moiB miles from their supposed positions. 

To summarise, the islands are pacified, but in an impoverished Summaiy of 
condition consequent on the events ot the past five years. Not^°^ 
only has there been great loss of life among the natives owing to ** °^' 
war, but rindeipest and a disease called " surra " have reduced the 
supply of draught animals to such an extent that all cultivation 
is seriously hampered. Rice, the staple food of the islands, has 
suffered most seriously, as not only has the actual amount planted 
been smaller than usual, biit owing to drought the last year's crop 
was li^ht. 

A land tax is now being imposed and collected by the Insular ^*^^ '«i- 
Government on the basis of 1 per cent, of the gross value for 1901, 
1^ per cent, for 1902, to rise to 2 per cent in 1903. 

A very large amount of money has been put in circulation by labour. 
the Government in payment for labour as well aa by the large 
number of troops in the islands. This has, however, maiuTy 
(1691 A 3 



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affected the labouring class, and the keepers of email stores and 
saloons. The labourers, altJioi^h their pay has more than doubled, 
do not work any harder, and recently in Manila resolved that 
they would not work during the hot hours of the day (9 A.H. to 
5 P.M. liere). The apparent result of increased pay is a desire on 
the part of the native to work less days in the week. 

The introduction of Chinese labour, though favoured by the 
Insular Grovemment, has been opposed by the home authorities. 

As far as the agricultural interests are concerned, the main 
requirements are personal security and capital for the purchase of 
machinery. 

"With the exception of the construction of one or two roads 
no stepR have been tuken to improve communications in the islands. 
The Government is inclined to leave the construction of railways, 
&c., lo private individuals, who, however, do not appear iuclijied 
to iuvest in the Philippines under present conditions. Even in 
Manila a number of schemes for electric tramways between the 
widely distant extremities of the city have fallen through, althoi^h 
there is a great need for them. 

A form of local government has been established giving con- 
siderable power to local headmen or " presidentes," induding the 
control of the locitl police and magisterial powers. 

The language difficulty may be solved when the labours of the 
700 or 800 teachers (male and female), imported from the United 
States, begin to bear fruit. At present Spanish forms the principal 
means of communication with the natives, only about 10 per cent 
of whom speak that language. 

A slight epidemic of plague visited Manila in the past year, 
but was kept well in hand by the authorities. The malady seemed 
to attack Chinese in preference to natives, unlike the present 
epidemic of cholera, which is heavier on the native. 

A cosmopolitan hospital is in course of construction, funds 
being largely guaranteed by the various firms in Manila. The 
staff will mainly be drawn from late members of the United 
States Army Nursing Staff. At present this need is filled by 
the Manila Womans' Hospital, originated by Mrs. Whitelaw 
Keid, of New York, which is to be amalgamated with the new 
institution. 

A Government laboratory and bacteriological institute has been 
established. 

A Bureau of Agriculture has been organised, as well as a 
Forest Department to r^fulate the cuttii^ of timber and take 
steps to propagate the growth of rubber and other valuable 
plants. 

Since the despatch of my last year's report considerable im- 
provements have taken place in vessels running between Hong- 
Kong and Manila, accompanied by a reduction in fare& 

Two large modern passenger vessels having been put on the 
service by the China and Manila Steamship Company of Hong-Kong, 
the Japanese " Toyo Kiaen " Company began to run the former 
P. and 0. liner, " Hosetta," in opposition, with the result that the 



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Tojage is made iu shorter time and that fares have been reduced 
from 60 to 40 doL (Mexican) on the larger boats, and to 30 doL 
(Mexican) on the smaller and slower, a similar reduction taking 
place iu height. 

The United States mail lines, including the White Star vesseb 
of the Occidental and Oriental Company, call at Manila monthly 
on their way to Hong-Kong, and will probably take over the duties 
of the tranapoit service, which is to be abolished. 

The Japanese mail line to Australia has been reinforced by a 
5,000-ton vessel, the " Kumano Mam," built on the Clyde. 

The British India Company's vessels, which run direct from 
Manila to Japan, offer the most direct route to that country, but are 
not largely patronised. 

The fine freighters of the Ocean line now call at Manila monthly, 
and have considerable influence on the tonu^ statistics of the 
port. 

The extensive rice trade with Saigon is mainly carried on by 
German vessels. 

Regular communication with Singapore is kept up "by two 
small German vessels runnii^ in connection with the German 
mail 

Four small-Britisb steamers are at present under charter to the 
United States military authorities as inter-island transports. 

A very noticeable decrease has taken place in the number of 
sailing vessels to and from Manila. 

The numl)er of British vessels whose papers have been deposited 
at this Consulate show a steady increase since 1896, the figures 
being as follows : — 



The projected harbour works are in progress, but will not be HariMU' 
completeKt for some years. work*. 

The mooted establishment of a navy yard in Subi^ Bay, north 
of Manila, seems to be abandoned. It is doubtful if an establish- 
ment of this natnre would confer benefits compensating for the 
cost, as }!Ood docking facilities exist within comparatively easy 
reach of Manila in Hong-Koi^, Shanghai and Japan. 

As will be seen from the annexed statistics British trade Brituh trsda. 
occupies a predominant position in the Philippines, but the fact 
must not be overlooked that large quantities of goods transhipped 
at Hong-Kong and Singapore figure as British and swell the totals, 
although produced in other countries. 

(159) A 4 



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In 1901 out of a total of imports, valued at 32,758,095 do\. 
gold, 15,545,734 dol. worth came from varioua British or Colonial 
ports. These paid 3,183,055 doL duty out of a tot^ of 
6.394,915 dol. 

Imports have increased from 24^84,66(> dol. in 1900 to 
32,758,095 dol. in 1901. This increase is maittly due to a much 
increased civil population, whose food, drink and clothes all have 
to be imported, 

Australian meat, poultry, fish and dairy products are largely 
used, little or no meat being produced in the islands at present. 

The army and navy import all their beef from the same source. 

There is a large demand for Scotch whisky and ginger ale, and 
similar " soft drinks " find a good sale, owing to the present cholera 
scare. 

Owing to the increase in shipping, coal is being imported largely 
from Newcastle, New South Wales and Japan. 

Cooking stoves are in increased demand to replace the primi- 
tive native arrangement hitherto in vogue. 

'^rge quantities of lumber are being imported from Or^oa 
tor building purposes, as also iron roofing from the United 
Kingdom. 

Rice is impoited in large quantities from Saigon for native and 
Chinese use, owing to the failvire of local crops. 

Piece-goods have been in poor demand, owing to Chinese 
pedlars not being able lo go their rounds and the difficulty of 
collecting debts. 

White drill and khaki have been in strong request, being wont 
by all ranks and classes, civil and military. 

Thin striped cotton jerseys are largely worn by the natives, 
with short sleeves and in various colours. These are mainly 
manufactured in Spain. 

White buckskin and canvas boots and shoes, with leather soles, 
if well made, will sell well. The class of boot at present obtain- 
able ready made is distinctly flimsy, 

Automobiles are being imported from the United States of 
America, owing to the Wgh price of ponies. A light machine 
"uitable for use in the i/>wn and not too e.tpensive would sell well 
here at present. 

I desire to call the attention of manufacturers of machinery of 
all kinds to the remarks on catal<^ues, &c, contained in Mr. Vice- 
Consul Bethell Jones' report on the trade of Iloilo. 

As regards exports, a total value of 13,783,179 doL gold went 
to Itritish ports out of a gross export of 20,760,648 dol., paying 
duty to the amount of 402,073 dol., out of a total 669,085 doL 

The total quantity of hemp exjwrted in 1901 amounted to 
!l]o,349 bales of which 781,838 bales were shipped by British 
(irms. The sliipmenta were distributed as follows: — 



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Balea. 

United Kingdom ! 860,198 

ContiiMDt 3,408 

United Htet^e oF Amsriia (East!.. 168.493 

Califumia 2*,80B 

Audtrslis 15,78* 

ChiM. 14,686 

Japnn G,822 

T»riou» 5,ai0 



Of the above 78T,451 b&lijs were shipped from Manila and 125898 
bales from Uebu. 

A large reduction in exports to the United Kingdom may be 
expected in the current year, owing to the abolition of the export 
duty on hemp sent to the United States, as this product will then 
have to be shipped direct to the United States of America to obtain 
this privile;;e. The total quantity exported will probably increase 
largely in the next few years, aa tranquillity being re-established, 
larger areas will be planted with this valuable crop, which is not 
hard to cultivate and is populai- with the natives. 

The export of sugar fell from 60,966 tons in 1900 to 54,334 3og«r. 
tons in 1901. In 1893 256,0:J4 tons were exported. War and 
rinderpest liave both contributed to this result, but poor prices 
*nd competition in the Chinese market have had their effect. 

Coprah shows a heavy falling-off from 1900, 32,640 tons beinjj Oopmb. 
the total export compared with 62,610 tons in that year. This 19 
mainly due to the coprah districts having been the most disturbed 
in the p'ast year. This product is mainly shipped to the Continent 
for the manufacture of soap, Ac. 

The export of leaf tobacco was below average. I have no Tobacco. 
statistics to hand relative to cigars. Only the cheaper qualities 
are sent to the Unitred Kingdom, the better classes apparently 
lieing unable to compete with Mexican and West Indian cigars 
in home markets. Australia and the China coast are, however, 
good customers. 

A new tariff came into effect in November, 1901, which has ^'* '•''*'■ 
in many cases raised the previous duties, although it was intended 
only to raise those on luxuries and reduce the charges on 



Jewellery, plate and other valuables have been subjected in many 
cases to an increase, making the total duty payable equal to more 
than tbe cost of the article. This is due to all interior packings being 
charged at the same rate as the highest priced article contained in 
them. Certain silver cups bought in Hong-Kong, with eases and 
ebony stands, paid the same duty on the eases and stands as if 
they had been part of the silver cup. 

Doubts and difficulties are constantly arising as to the classi- 
lic&tion of goods, the same description of article paying different 
rates on different occaaions. 



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10 HANIU. 

Sailcloth with one coloured yam down the centre and one at 
each edge for cutting out purposes, pays duty as being made of 
dyed yam. 

The decision ae to tEiriff claasification nas, until lately, left 
entirely in the hands of the collector of customs, but owii^ to 
numemus complaints a " Court of Customs Appeal " has been 
established. 

As the wh