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Full text of "Settlers, prospectors, and tourists guide"

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HARVARD COLLEGE 
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BOUGHT FROM 
THE FUND BEQUEATHED BY 

HORACE DAVIS 

(A.B. 1849, LL.D. 1911) 

OF SAN FRANCISCO 



' FOR THE PURCHASE OF BOOKS RELATING TO THE 
NORTH PACIFIC OCEAN AND IT'S SHORES" 




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sasasasasasasaBasasasasasasasasasasassasasasasa 







British Colombia Market 

Van Volkenburgh & Co. 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL 



BUTCHERS 

Alhambka Building, 

Corner Government and Yates Streets, 
victoeia, b. 0. 

W. <£ tf . WILSON '~~ 



FOR 



Clothing, Hats, and Furnishing Goods. 

Their Stock is the Largest and the Best Quality 

and Value in this Province. 
Opposite Post Office, Victoria. Established Twenty Years 

STEAM REFINED 

SKIDEGATE OIL! 

A Superior Lubricant and Excellent Lamp Oil. 

Put wp by the SMdegate Oil Co. Location of Steam Works, 

Queen Charlotte Islands B. C. 

f^This Oil is produced from Shark Livers, and manufactured by the most 
approved steam appliances. Numerous testimonials of undoubted authority substan- 
tiate its excellence, and it has only to be more generally known and used, to establish 
a reputation as one of the best lubricating and Illuminating Oils in the world. Put 
up in cases, two 5-gal. cans in each case. 

Addbess:— bkidegate Oil Co., Victoria, British Columbia. 

Henry Saunders, 



IMPORTER AND DEALER IN 



GROCERIES, PROVISIONS, ETC. 

Johnson Street, Cor. Oriental Alley. 
VICTORIA, B. 0. 

WINDSOR CANNING COMPANY SKEENA RIVER. 

Steamer Sardonyx and Tug pilot. 



WELCH, RITHET & CO. 



Merchants and Commission Merchants. 



Shipping and Insurance Agents 

Agts. Pacific Coast Steamship Go's Steamers 

Carrying Her Majesty's Mails between San Francisco 
and Victoria. Sailing dates from each port: 
10th, 20th and 30th of each month. 



Agents for Imperial Fire Insurance Co. 
Agents for Maritime Marine Insurance Co. 
Agents for Reliance Marine Insurance Co. 
Agents for New Zealand Marine Insurance Co. 



Agents for Moodyville Sawmill Company 

OF BURKAED INLET. 



Advances made on consignments to our friends in Eng- 
land, Australia, China and Canadian markets. 



REPRESENTED BY 



WELCH & CO., K. D. WELCH & CO., 

109 California Street, Tower Chamber, 

San Francisco. Liverpool. 



PREFACE. 



There is probably no portion of the North A meri- 
can Continent^ within the confines of government and 
civilization, concerning which the general public has 
less definite and reliable information, than British 
Columbia. Hitherto comparatively inaccessible, and 
only by tedious and expensive modes of travel^ it has 
been known chiefly as the vast wilderness trap- 
ping, and hunting ground, of the Hudson Bay 
Company, and gold field of adventurous miners. Since 
the inauguration of that stupendous undertaking, the 
building of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and its 
progress towards the western shores of the Province, 
people abroad are beginning to inquire what this 
region contains, to warrant such an enormous outlay 
for its development. In the following pages we have 
briefly outlined its resources and capacities for sustain- 
ing a large and prosperous population, and directed 
attention to its wonderful attractions for the tourist 
and health seeker. In the preparation of the same, I 
am under great obligations to his Honor Lieut. 
Gov. Clement F. Cornwall, Hon. fos. W. Trutch, C 
M. G., F. R. G. S., M. Inst. C. E., Dominion Gov 
ernm*t Agt.f or British Columbia, Hon. A lien Francis 
American Consul, Mr. William Charles, Chief Fac 
tor of the Hudson Bay Company, to the members and 
officers of the Provincial Government, Mr. Noah 
Shakespeare, M. P., Mayor of Victoria, Loftus R. 
Mclnnes, M. D., Mayor of New Westminster, 
the British Columbia Board of Trade, through its 
President, Mr. R. P. Rithet, and Secretary, Mr. E. 
Crow Baker, M. P., and to Mr. Wm. Wilson, and 
others to whom I tender sincere thanks. 

N. H. C. 

Victoria, B. C, UK November, 1882. 



IN 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 

BY 

NEWTON H. CHITTENDEN. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

A little over one hundred years ago, that bold mariner, 
Capt. Cook, cruised among the wonderful islands stretching 
along the shores of the then unknown, unnamed land of Bri- 
tish Columbia. Capt. Vancouver of the Boyal Navy soon 
followed in his course, and gave his name to the largest of the 
islands, and that of New Georgia to the south coast of the 
mainland. This was in 1792, but for more than forty years 
following, the numerous and populous Indian tribes inhabiting 
these shores, were the sole possessors and occupants of this 
whole region. Adventurous traders had occasionally visited 
the west coast of Vancouver, but no permanent settlement 
was made until 1843, when the Hudson Bay Company built a 
Fort and established a trading post upon the beautiful site 
of the City of Victoria, followed six years later by the forma- 
tion of the Vancouver Colony. In 1858, daring prospectors 
advancing up the coast from California, discovered the rich 
gold diggings of the Fraser, and so rapid was the influx of 
population, that another Colony was organized upon the main- 
land, and the present territory of the Province set apart, and 
designated British Columbia. In 1866 the two Colonies united, 
and in 1871, were confederated as one of the seven Provinces 
comprising the Dominion of Canada. It is a vast region, 



extending from the 49th parallel of latitude more than 700 
miles north to the 60th, and from the divide of the Rocky 
Mountains on the East, 400 miles West to the Pacific, con- 
taining 341,515 isqvace mileg, or 218,435,200 acres, a 
country nearly three times as large as England, Ire- 
land, Scotland and Wales combined. It is traversed 
lengthwise by two great mountain ranges, the, Bookies 
and the Cascades,- about 250 miles apart, the*- "former 
reaching an elevation of 9,000 and the latter of 6,000 feet* 
The Columbia and the Fraser, the second and third largest 
rivers on the Pacific Coast, rise within the Province, and 
with the Skeena; Nass, Stickeen and innumerable other 
streams drain its western slope. The interior is well watered 
by numerous rivers and creeks, and thousands of lakes and 
springs. . Parallel to the mainland, and at a distance of from 
three to twenty miles therefrom, extends Vancouver Island for 
over 250 miles. The shores of the mainland and of Vancou- 
ver, and the intervening waters, embrace the most wonderful 
collection of inlets, sounds, harbors, straits, channels and 
islands, to be found upon the planet. British Columbia, in 
common with the whole Pacific Coast, possesses, two distinct 
climates. Along the west coast, even as far north as latitude 
fifty-three degrees, the mean winter temperature is about 
forty-two degrees; the annual rainfall averaging from forty- 
five inches at Victoria to sevent-five inches, at Fort Simpson 
630 miles North. In the interior the climate is much 
drier, the entire precipitation ranging from ten to twenty 
inches ; the mean summer temperature being about seventy- 
five deg. and the winter ten deg. above. North of latitude 
fifty-one the winters are severe, but the snowfall moder- 
ate except in the higher altidudes. This section is not sub- 
ject to the terrible blizzards which prevail east, of the Bocky 
Mountains, the coldest weather usually being perfectly calm 
and clear. Though mountains and forests cover a consider- 
able portion of its surface, there are very extensive areas 
excellently adapted to stock-raising and agriculture. The 
great natural resources of the Province are minerals, coal, 
fish, timber, grazing and furs. Although there are millions 
of acres as yet untouched by' human foot, the discoveries of 



valuable mineral deposits already made aie immense. Her 
gold fields are among the most extensive and richest in the, 
world ; coal underlies hundreds of thousands of acres ; therq 
are mountain masses and islands of iron, and rich mines of 
silver, copper and other precious metals. 

The Great Gold Fields of British Columbia 

Embrace in area more than 100,000 square miles, extending, 
from Kock Creek, near the 49th parallel, to Liard River on 
the 60th. On the Similkameen and Kootenay, at Hope, Yale, . 
Boston Bar, Lillooet, and Bridge Bivers; in the Big Bend of* 
the Columbia, at Quesnelle, Keithley, Harvey, Cariboo, and,' 
Omineca ; on the Peace, Skeena, Naas, and Stickeen Bivers ;* 
and, lastly, at Cassiar, gold has been found not only in paying 2 
quantities, but in many places by the millions, their aggregate 
products amounting to about fifty million dollars. 

The Cariboo Gold District, 

Lying between 52 and 54 degrees of north latitude, embraces, 
an area of upwards of 700 square miles. The Quesnelle- 
Lake and River form its south and south- western boundary, 
and the .Fraser north-eastern, western and northern. Hera 
Williams, Lightning, and Antler creeks and gulches startled 
the world by their amazing richness, the Wake-up-Jake claim 
yielding 150 ounces in a single day, the Caledonia 300 ounces*- 
Butcher 350, Steele's 409, the Chittenden claim on Lo^hee 
432, the Ericsson 500 ounces, when the Diller claim 
cleaned up with the astonishing amount of 102 pounds 
of gold! These wonderful deposits have been found in the 
beds of the water courses, from 60 to 80 feet below the surface. . 
There are also extensive lodes of rich gold-bearing quartz 
awaiting development. Though the mines of Cariboo reached 
their maximum product $3,735,850 in 1864, it is the opinion 
of most old miners who have had experience there, that still 
greater wealth lies hidden in her mountains and water courses. 
The annual yield of the district now ranges from $700,000 to 
$1,000,000. Mr. John Bowron, the Gold Commissioner, in- 
formed me on my recent visit to Barkerville, that prospectors 



Bent out by the Government had just returned, and reported 
having found good surface diggings and extensive ledges of 
rich quartz rock. The completion of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway will greatly reduce the hitherto enormous cost oi con- 
ducting mining operations here, and greatly facilitate the 
development of the vast gold deposits of this region. 

The Gold Fields of Cassiar, 

Next in importance, extend over more than 250 square miles 
of country lying between the 54th and 60th degrees of north 
latitude, along the north-eastern watershed of the gold range 
Gold was first found in this section in 1872-3, near the con- 
fluence of the Liard with the Mackenzie Biver, the most 
productive mines being on Dease, Thibert, and fifcDames 
Creeks, tributaries of the Dease Biver. Several millions 
were taken out along these streams during the two or three 
{succeeding years. Their product for the year 1881 is esti- 
mated at one hundred and ninety-eight thousand dollars, and 
the number of miners engaged at 300, most of whom go south 
to winter. Interviews with Mr. Bufus Sylvester, the well- 
known explorer and trader, Mr. John Grant, M.P.P. for Cas- 
siar District, and Mr. W. V. Brown, one of the pioneer miners, 
who has spent several years in this portion of the Province, 
indicate that the richest gold deposits of Cassiar are yet to be 
discovered. 

. The Omineca Gold Mines " 

Are also situated on the north-eastern slope of the gold range 
of the Province, near the 53rd parallel of latitude, upon the 
tributaries of the Omineca, a branch of the Peace Biver. 
There are about seventy men working claims here upon 
VitelTs, Manson, and Germansen creeks, taking out about 
$35,000 annually. 

Other Gold Fields. 

Gold is found in paying quantities upon many of the 
streams of the south-eastern portion of the Province, especi- 
ally in the Big Bend of the Columbia, and in the Kootenay 



country, the claims on Perry and Wild Horse creeks being the 
most productive. In 1852 the Hudson Bay Company discov- 
ered gold bearing quartz of remarkable richness on the west 
shore of Queen Charlotte Island. Gold has also been found 
on the head waters of the Leech Biyer and other streams along 
the west coast of Vancouver. 

Silver, Copper and Iron, 

Are known to be widely distributed throughout the Province. 
Pieces of pure silver have been found from time to time in 
many of the mining camps along the Fraser, also on Cherry 
Creek in the Okanagan district, and at Omineca. In 1871 a 
rich vein of silver was discovered near Hope, on the Fraser 
River and traced for nearly halt a mile. There are deposits 
of copper ore upon Howe Sound, Knights and Jervis Inlets, 
the Queen Charlotte Islands, and at other points, the former 
said to be quite extensive. There are inexhaustible quantities 
of iron on Texada Island, situated in the Gulf of Georgia, 
about 100 miles north of the City of Victoria, a^ridst the 
great oqal beds, timber supplies, and limestone quarries of 
the Province. 

The Coal Fields of British Columbia, 

On Vancouver Island alone, comprise many hundred thou- 
sand acres, lying mainly along the East Coast of the 
Island between Nanaimo and Fort Eupert. The Nana- 
imo coal lands embrace about ninety square miles, and those 
of Comox upwards of 300. There are also extensive bodies 
of coal on Quatsino Sound on the North-west coast of Van- 
couver, about 250 miles North-west of Victoria, and large 
veins are reported to have been discovered on the Queen 
Charlotte Islands. These coals are chiefly bituminous, of the 
cretaceous era and superior for general and domestic pur- 
poses to any other found on the Pacific Coast. 

The Timber Resources of the Province, 

Are very extensive, embracing many hundred thousand acres 
of Douglas fir lying in the West Cascade region, the choicest 



bodies upon Burrard and Jervis Inlets, Mud Bay, Howe 
Sound, and the east coast of Vancouver Island. It attain s 
an enormous growth, and being straight and exceedingly 
tough and durable is in greart demand the world over for ship 
.spars and timbers.. Over thirty million feet are manufac- 
tured into lumber annually, chiefly for exportation to Asiatic, 
Australian, and South American ports. The pine and spruce 
of the interior, though much inferior in size and quality to 
the fir of the coast, is sufficient in both and also in quantity 
for all local purposes. 

Fish. 

The waters of British Columbia teem with countless mil- 
lions of the choicest salmon, halibut, cod, herring, smelt, 
sturgeon, whiting, &c, &c. The canning of salmon for expor- 
tation is already a very important industry, the product for 
the present season amounting to about 177,000 cases. They 
also constitute the chief food dependence of the Indian popu- 
lation. Oil is manufactured from dog fish, herrings, and 
oolachans, but the other fish mentioned are as yet, except to 
a limited extent, only caught for home consumption. 

Fur-bearing Animals 

Are more numerous in this Province than in any other part of 
America, excepting, perhaps, portions of Alaska, having for 
nearly 40 years through the Hudson Bay Company supplied 
the world with most of their finest furs. They comprise 
Bears, Beaver, Badgers, Coyotes, Foxes, Fishers, Martens, 
Minks, Lynxes, Otters, Panthers, Raccoons, Wolves, Wol- 
verines, and other smaller kinds. The product of the fisheries 
and furs of the Province amounts to nearly a million and a 
half dollars annually. 

Stock Raising in British Columbia. 

British Columbia contains a very extensive area of grazing 
lands of unsurpassed excellence. The whole inter-Rocky 
Mountain Cascade Region is specially adapted for pastoral 
purposes. During my recent travels through the interior of 



the Province, I traversed hundreds of thousands of acres in 
the Nicola, Kamloops and Okanagan Valleys and Lake La 
Hache country, covered with a luxuriant growth of the nutri- 
cious bunch grass, and saw bands of thousands of cattle 
rolling fat ; and way to the northward in the Chilcotin, Ne- 
chaco, Wastonquah and Peace River Valleys, are vast ranges, 
hundreds of miles in extent as yet almost untouched. Inter- 
views with all the principal stock-raisers and dealers in British 
Columbia confirms my own observations that cattle raised upon 
the bunch grass of this region are among the finest in the world, 
very large and fat, and the choicest of beeves. Mr. B. Van 
Volkenburgh, the leading butcher in the Province, meat purvey- 
or to Her Majesty's Navy, the owner of 7000 acres of grazing 
lands, and several thousand head of cattle and sheep; Mr. Thad- 
deus Harper whose 3,000 or 4,000 head of cattle and horses 
range upon his own estate of 25,000 acres, Mr. J. B. Graves 
at present the largest owner of fat cattle, 8,000 head, includ- 
ing 6,000 steers, Mr. C. M. Beak, of the Nicola Valley, who 
had just sold 1,300 for $28,000 and been offered $27,000 for 
the balance of his herd, Antoine Menaberriet, of Cache Creek, 
Victor Guillaume, W. J. Boper, Hugh Morton, M. Sullivan, 
Wm. Jones, John Pringle, John Peterson and W. J. Howe, 
of Kamloops, Wm. Fortune, of Tranquille, A. L. Fortune, 
James T. Steel, Cornelius O'Keefe, Greenhow, Postill and Eli 
Lequime, of Okanagan, and John Clapperton, Alexander 
Coutlie, A. Van Volkenburgh, John Gilmore, John Hamilton, 
and Guichon of Nicola, Patrick Killroy, of Lytton, and others, 
together the owners of three quarters of the sixty or sixty-five 
thousand head of cattle in the Province, agree that stock 
does exceedingly well in this region, increases at the rate of 
thirty per cent, by the herd, or ninety per cent, for those 
breeding; is free from disease, and subject to less loss from 
occasional severe winters, than from drouth on the Southern 
coast. Fat cattle are now in active demand, at from 
twenty to twenty-five dollars for two-year old, and from 
twenty-five to thirty-five dollars for three-year old steers, herds 
selling at from fifteen to twenty dollars per head. The 
average weight of cattle upon the ranges is 550 for two-year 
old, 675 for three-year old, and 800 for four-year old cattle. 



8 



They feed in the elevated valleys during the summer, and in 
winter on the sheltered sunny slopes and bottoms, keeping in 
good condition upon a species of white sage, called worm- 
wood, which succeeds the bunch grass, where the latter is too 
closely grazed. Mr. VanVolkenburgh has had over 1000 tons 
of hay stacked up for over three years, having had no occa- 
sion to feed it. 

Three winters in twenty, cattle have died from starvation 
and exposure occasioned by deep snows covering the feed. 
Such losses are confined mainly to breeding cows, in the 
spring of the year, for which most prudent stock-raisers now 
provide a reserve of hay. The steers seldom succumb* 
except in extraordinary winters, such as that of 1879-80, 
many of them keeping fat in the mountains the year round. 
Thetwinter ranges throughout the Province are generally fully 
stocked, but hay for the winter feeding required in the 
northern part may be cut in unlimited quantities. 

The Agricultural Lands of British Columbia 

Comprise in the aggregate several million acres, only a small 
portion of which are at present occupied. Vancouver Island 
alone is estimated to contain over 300,000 acres, — 100,000 in 
the vicinity of Victoria, 64,000 in North and South Saanich, 
100,000 in the Cowichan district, 45,000 near Nanaimo, 5,000 
on Salt Spring Island, 50,000 in the Comox district, and 3,500 
acres near Sooke. Along the lower Fraser, including the 
delta, there are about 175,000 acres of unsurpassed fertility. 
There is a large tract of open arable land on the Queen Char- 
lotte Islands without a white settler. In the Lillooet, Cache 
Creek, Kamloops, Spallumcheen, Salmon River, Okanagan, 
Grand Prairie sections there are large amounts of excellent farm- 
ing lands ; and in the Lake LaHache, upper Fraser, Chilicotin, 
and Peace Eiver countries, vast bodies, hundreds of miles in 
extent, awaiting settlement. They afford the greatest choice 
of situation with reference to climate and productions. Here- 
tofore, there has been but little encouragement for agricul- 
turists in the interior, but the completion of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, will give them an excellent market on the 
seaboard for all their surplus grain, potatoes, &c. The great- 



9 



ness, character, and diversity of the natural resources of the 
Produce, will ultimately employ a large population in their 
development and utilization, creating a great demand at good 
prices for all kinds of farm produce. 

The Provincial Land Laws 

Provide that any person being the head of a family, a widow, 
or single man over the age of 18 years and a British subject, 
or any alien upon declaring his intention to become a British 
subject, may record any tract of unoccupied, unsurveyed and 
unreserved Crown Lands, not exceeding 320 acres, north and 
east of the Cascade or Coast Bange of Mountains, and 160 
acres in the rest of the Province, and " pre-empt" or "home- 
stead" the same, and obtain a title therefor upon paying the 
sum of $1 per acre in four equal annual instalments, the first 
one year from the date of record. Persons desiring to acquire 
land under this law must observe the following requirements : 

1st. The land applied for must be staked off with posts at 
each corner not less than four inches square, and five feet 
above the ground, and marked in form as follows : (A B's ) 
Land, N. E. post. (A B's) Land, N. W. post, &c. 

2nd. Applications must be made in writing to the Land 
Commissioner, giving a full description of the land, and also 
a sketch plan thereof, both in duplicate, and a declaration 
under oath, made and filed in duplicate, that the land in 
question is properly subject to settlement by the applicant, 
and that he or she is duly qualified to record the same, and a 
recording fee of $2 paid. 

3rd. Such homestead settler must within 30 days after 
record enter into actual occupation of the land so pre-empted, 
and continuously reside thereon personally or by his family 
or agent, and neither Indians or Chinamen can be agents for 
this purpose. 

Absence from such land for a period of more than two 
months continuously or four months in the aggregate during 
the year subjects it to forfeiture to the Government. Upon 
payment for the land as specified, and a survey thereof at the 
expense of the settler, a Crown grant for the same will issue, 



10 



provided that in the case of an alien he must first become a 
naturalized British subject before receiving title. 

Homesteads upon surveyed lands may be acquired, of the 
same extent and in the same manner as upon the unsurveyed, 
except that the applicant is not required to stake off and file 
a plat of the tract desired. 

Unsurveyed, unoccupied, and unreserved Crown* lands may 
be purchased in tracts of not less than 160 acres for $1 per 
acre, cash in full at one payment before receiving title by 
complying with the following conditions : — 

1st. Two months' notice of intended application to pur- 
chase must be inserted at the expense of the applicant in the 
British Columbia Gazette and in any newspaper circulating 
in the district where the land desired lies, stating name of 
applicant, locality, boundaries and extent of land applied for, 
which notice must also be posted in a conspicuous place on 
the land sought to be acquired, and on the Government office, 
if any, in the district. The applicant must also stake off the 
said land as required in case of pre-emption, and also have 
the same surveyed at his own expense. 

Surveyed lands, after having been offered for sale at public 
auction for one dollar per acre, may be purchased for cash at 
that price. 

The Mining Laws 

Provide that every person over sixteen years of age may hold a 
mining claim, after first obtaining from the Gold Commis- 
sioner a Free Miner's Certificate or License, at a cost of five 
dollars for one year and fifteen dollars for three years. 
Every miner locating a claim must record the same in the 
office of the Gold Commissioner, for a period of one or more 
years, paying therefor at the rate of $2.50 per year. 

Every free miner may hold at the same time any num- 
ber of claims by purchase, but only two claims by pre-emp- 
tion in the same locality, one mineral claim and one other 
claim, and sell, mortage, or dispose of the same. 

The size of claims are. as follows : — 

The bar diggings, a strip of land, 100 feet wide at high- 



11 



water mark and thence extending into the river to the lowest 
water level. 

For dry diggings, 100 feet square. 

Creek claims shall be 100 feet long measured in the 
direction of the general course of the stream and shall extend 
in wid h from base to base of the hill, or bench on each side, 
but when the hills or benches are less than 100 feet apart, the 
claim shall be 100 feet square. 

Bench claims shall be 100 feet square. 

Mineral claims, that is claims containing, or supposed to 
contain minerals (other than coal) in lodes or veins, shall be 
1,500 feet long by 600 feet wide. 

Discoverers of new mines are allowed 300 feet in length 
for one discoverer, 600 feet for two, 800 feet for three, and 
1000 in length for a party of four. 

Creek discovery claims extend 1000 feet on each side of 
the centre of the creek or as far as the summit. 

Coal lands west of the Cascade Range in tracts not less 
than 160 acres, may be purchased at not less than ten dollars 
per acre, and similar lands east of the Cascade Range, at not 
less than five dollars per acre. 

The Government and People. 

British Columbia is governed by a Legislative Assembly 
of twenty-five members elected by the people every four 
years. The Lieut.-Governor and a Council of three Minis- 
ters constitute the Executive body, Hon. Robert Beaven, Prem- 
ier, Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works, Minister of Fin- 
ance and Agriculture, Hon. J. R. Hett, Attorney General 
Hon. W. J. Armstrong, Provincial Secretary and Minister of 
Mines, being its present officers. Political and religious free- 
dom, free public schools, liberal homestead pre-emption and 
mining privledges, are guaranteed and secured by the laws. 
Justice is firmly administered, good order prevails, and 
life and property are secure throughout the Province. 
So far as the government is concerned, there has been nothing 
to remind me that I have crossed the line into the Queen's 
dominions, excepting the glad demonstrations of welcome 
accorded the Governor General, the Marquis of Lome and 



12 



the Queen's daughter, Princess Louise. There is the same 
freedom of opinion, and outspoken criticism of public men 
and measures; elections are conducted with the same partisan 
zeal, and the Press is just as abusive as in the United States. 
The people generally entertain a very friendly feeling toward 
the United States. The portraits of George and Martha 
Washington, Lincoln, Grant, Sheridan, Garfield, and other 
distinguished Americans, are often seen hanging upon the 
walls of both public and private houses in all parts of the 
Province, together with those of members of the Boyal 
family. The population is quite cosmopolitan and liberal 
in their views. Stopping at an inn in the interior recently, it 
was found that each of the seven white persons present, 
represented a different nationality. The popular feeling is 
strongly opposed to Chinese immigration, the present Provin- 
cial Government refusing to employ any Chinamen upon the 
public works. 

The Indian Nations of British Columbia 

Afford a most interesting study for the ethnologist. They 
are eleven in number evidently of Asiatic origin, comprising 
altogether about 35,000 souls, —the Tsimpsheean's, Quacke- 
weth, and Hydah nations being the most populous. The West 
Vancouver and the Hydah Indians of Queen Charlotte Island 
were formerly quite hostile to the whites, having cruelly mur- 
dered several ship crews cast upon their shores ; but through 
the influence of missionary training, several severe chastise- 
ments by English gunboats, and their humane liberal treat- 
ment by the general government, they are now quite friendly 
I have visited most of the principal tribes during the past 
season, and have always been cordially received in their 
houses or wigwams. 

They are generally much * inferior both in stature and 
form to the white race. A few of the Queen Charlotte Hydah's 
are fairly good looking, and well formed, though it would 
require an exceedingly fertile and romantic imagination to 
discover among these people a single specimen of the beauti- 
ful indian maiden, we have all read about, but whom so few, 



13 



have ever seen. They are almost entirely self-supporting, 
depending not alone upon the wonderful fish and game sup- 
plies of this region, but in many instances cultivating farms 
and raising cattle and horses. Large numbers are also em- 
ployed by the salmon fisheries and canneries, lumber mills, 
steamboat lines, and railroad contractors, and are considered 
superior to Chinese laborers. 

Mr. Duncan's remarkable work at Metlakatlah, where he 
has colonized over a thousand of the Tsimpsheans, who now 
live in good houses, worship in a $10,000 church of their own 
erection, school their children, operate a salmon cannery, a 
sawmill, and engage in other self supporting pursuits, demon- 
strates the possibilities attainable by well directed efforts for 
their civilization upon a Christian basis. 

The Principal Cities, Towns and Settlements 
in British Columbia 

Are Victoria, Esquimalt, Saanich, Cowichan, Nanaimo, Wel- 
lington, Comox, Fort Rupert, and Sooke, on Vancouver 
Island , New Westminster, Port Moody, Moodyville, Hast- 
ings, Granville, Langley, Sumass, Chilliwhack, Hope, Emory, 
Tale, Lytton, Lillooet, Cache Creek, Cook's Ferry, Clinton, 
Lake La Hache, Soda Creek, Quesnelle, Stanley, Barkerville, 
Savona's Ferry, Kamloops, Tranquille, Grand Prairie, Sal- 
mon River, Spallumcheen, Okanagan, Mission£Cherry Creek 
Similkameen, Port Essington, Rivers' Inlet, Metlakathla, 
Fort Simpson, and Cassiar, on the Mainland, containing alto- 
gether about fifty thousand inhabitants. 

Victoria, 

The chief city and capital of British Columbia, occupies a 
magnificent situation on the south shore of Vancouver Island, 
about 60 miles from the Pacific, and 750 north of San Francisco. 
Its immediate surroundings are charmingly picturesque, em- 
. bracing a beautiful harbor and inlet, pine and oak covered 
shores and rolling hills, with green forests of fir and pine clad 
mountains in the near back ground. The distant view is one 
of exceeding grandeur, comprising the loftiest peaks of the 



14 



Olympic and Cascade Mountains. A person unfamiliar with 
the marvelous progress ot civilization in the new world sur- 
veying its busy marts of trade, ships of commerce laden with 
exports for the most distant ports, numerous manufacturing in- 
dustries, well graded streets, and good public and private build- 
ings, would scarcely believe that all these things are the crea- 
tion of a little more than twenty years, and that only a gener- 
ation has passed since the Hudson Bay Company first planted 
the English flag on these shores. But this is only the begin' 
ning as compared with the brilliant future which awaits Vic- 
toria. The resources of the vast region to which she holds 
the commercial key are only in the bud of their development. 
That she has reached her present status while laboring under 
the great disadvantages of extreme remoteness from the 
centres of population and demands for her products exces- 
sively costly transportation, shows not only their enormous 
extent and richness, but what may reasonably be expected 
when all railway communication shall be established with the 
East and the country opened to immigration and capital. 

Victoria is provided with all the concomitants of the pro- 
gressive cities of our times — good religious and educational 
advantages, three newspapers, the Colonist, Standard and 
Evening Post, a public library, and the usual benevolent 
orders, an able and active Board of Trade, gas and water 
works, efficient police and fire departments, a beautiful public 
park, and a well ordered government. 

Victoria as a Summer Resort for Tourists and 
Health Seekers. 

Nature has awarded to Victoria, the most attractive and 
interesting situation and surroundings, of any city on the north 
Pacific Coast. Possessing a most enjoyable, invigorating and 
healthful climate, she lies central amidst the sublimest 
scenery in the new world. The wateis of Puget Sound and. 
of the Inside Passage to Alaska, between Vancouver and the 
Mainland, embraces more that is unique and wonderful in 
nature, than can be found on any equal area of the earth's 
surface. I can scarcely conceive of a grander panorama of 



15 



mountains and inland waters, forests and islands, than that 
afforded from the summit of Beacon Hill, her favorite Park 
resort. Her drives are unsurpassed, both in respect to the 
excellence of the roads, and the beauty of the scenery through 
which they pass. The three miles from Victoria to the fine 
harbor of Esquimalt, with its pretty village, off lying fleet of 
ships, Graving Dock, &c, is a delightful drive or walk; so 
is the one to the Gorge, a picturesque romantic spot, situ- 
ated about the same distance from the City. It may also be 
visited by a small boat through a charming inlet extending 
from Victoria almost to Esquimalt. To Cadboro Bay, re- 
turning by the Government House, Race Course, and Beacon 
Hill, a distance of about eight miles, affords a splendid 
excursion. Excellent macadamized roads lead from three to 
twenty miles into the country in all directions. Victoria is 
central in one of the best fields for hunting and fishing of 
which I have any knowledge. Deer and other large game 
abound on Vancouver Island, and within a short distance of 
the city. All kinds of water fowl are numerous, and the 
streams and lakes are full of trout. It is only a few hours 
ride by steamer amidst magnificent scenery to the most im- 
portant places in the Province, New Westminster, Port 
Moody and Nanaimo — and to the principal towns of Puget 
Sound — Port Townsend, Seattle, Tacoma and Olympia- 
Steamers also run among the beautiful islands of the Archi- 
pelago De Haro, and of the San Juan group, touching at their 
chief points of interest. Upon the completion of the Cana- 
dian Pacific and Northern Pacific Railways, Victoria will be 
thronged with tourists and health-seekers, from all parts of 
East, and should lose no time in providing hotel accommoda- 
tions in keeping with her other unparalled attractions. 



MRS. R. MAYWARD, 

Photographic Artist 




Dealer in All Kinds Photographic Materials 

Views of Victoria and British Columbia 

For Sale. 

DOUGLAS ST., VICTORIA, B. C. 



MANUFACTURES AND DEALEE IN 



BOOTS and SHOES 




LEATHER AND SHOE FINDINGS 

ALSO 



^fe SEWING MACHINES 

Cor. Johnson and Douglas Sts., Victoria, B. C. 
Cash Price paid for Hides. 




Of*. 



s€W/ 



€Zs?lC&4'W&l 



Qw^^z^ 



Good Fishing, Boating and Hunting on the Premises. Two-and-a-half miles 

from Victoria, on Saanich Road. 

WM. H. LEWIS, PROPRIETOR. 

FELL & COMPANY, 

Importers and Dealers in 

Groceries, Provisions, Fruit, Etc. 

COFFEE AND SPICE MILLS, GENERAL ITAL- 
IAN WAREHOUSEMEN. 

FORT STREET, ^VICTORIA, B. C. 

All Shipping Orders Completely and Promptly Filled and Delivered 
per Express Van Free of Charge. 

ALWAYS ASK FOR FELL'S COFFEE AT THE MINES. 



VICTORIA ADVERTISEMENTS. 



A. GILMORE. 

MERCHANT TAILOR 

Johnson Street, Victoria, B. C. 

Has on Hand a Large Stock of Goods, consisting of 

Clothing, Furnishing Goods, Hats, Caps, 

Boots and Shoes, Etc. 

The above Goods will be sold at GREATLY REDUCED PRICES. 
Also, Garments Made to order. 

EDGAR GROW BAKER. 

Real Estate and Commission. Agent, Notary Public and 
Conveyancer, Master Mariner and Marine Surveyor. 

Sbobetabt to the 
Board of Pilot Commissioners. 
Board of Trade. 

Howe Mining Co., Limited. 

Art Union of London. 

Victoria-Esqnimalt Telephone Company 

Office on Lcungley St., First floor, Fardon's Buildg 

Office Hours : 9 a. m. to 6 p. if . 
Telephone Call, 37. Residence, 8. 

ALLS0P & MASON, 

Real Estate Agents and Conveyancers 

LOANS NEGOTIATED. 

VICTORIA, B. C. 

ZDNT 1868. 



E.J. SALMON & CO. 

Johnson St., Victoria. 
Importers of Furniture, 
Glassware, Crockery &c. 

Indian Curiosities ! 

IN VARIETY. 



Vice- Regal Movements. 

Victoria Evening Post, Oct. Uh % 1882. 
Yesterday afternoon, Her Royal 

Highness, accompanied by Miss Harvey, 
Miss McNeil, Dr. Burnet and others, 
strolled through the principal streets and 
visited the London Bazar, S. L. Kelley's 
and E.J. Salmon's, Johnson street. At 
the last mentioned place. Her Royal 
Highness spent nearly half-an-hour ex- 
amining the numerous Indian curios, the 
use and manufacture of -which -were de- 
scribed by Mr. Salmon. The Princess 
seemed to take great interest in the na- 
tive bead work, mate, painted figures, 
etc., and before leaving, made many pur- 
chases. 



VICTORIA ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Manufacturer and Importer of 



Guns, Rifles and Pistols 



IMPORTER OP 



Fishing Tackle, Powder, Shot, Caps, Cartridges, Pocket, 

Sporting and Table Cutlery, Electro Plate, Opera 

Glasses, Gun Tackle, Etc., Etc. 



FOET STEEET, 



VICTOEIA. 



THE INDIAN BAZAR 

Cor. Oriental Alley and Johnson Sts. 

INDIAN CURIOS^ FANCY GOODS 

FUBS, ROBES, BIFLES AND SHOTGUNS, 
AND MEEBSCHAUM PIPES, 

SUITABLE FOB HOLIDAY PBESENTS. 
J. ISAACS & CO., Proprs. J. J. HABT, Supt 

Belmont Tanning 

AND 

Boot and Shoe Manufacturing Co., 

( XjItvutjixd ) 

Wholesale and Retail Dealers. 



OVB 



isrnxacEisTT st. 



General 
Feed 
Store 



Samuel Clay 

Tea Dealer, 

i 

Family Gr eries 

Cor. Johnson and Douglas Sts. 



Farm 
Produce 



VICTORIA ADVERTISEMENTS. 



J. GUTMAN, 

Commission Merchant, 

AND IMPORTER. . 
DEALER m INDIAN CURIOS, GUNS, RIFLES 
AND SPORTING GOODS GENERALLY. 

JOHNSON STREET, NEAR STORE, VICTORIA. 



J. & A. BOSKOWITZ, 

Raw Furs «£ Deer Skins 

JOHNSON STREET, HEAR WHARF, 

VICTORIA, B. C. 



TOBACCONIST, 

ADELPHI CORNER, VICTORIA, B. C. 

W. J. Jeffree, Clothier and Outfitter, Government street. 
J. Wenger, Watchmaker and Jeweler, Government street. 
The Factory Store, S. H. Glover, Proprietor. Agent Scotland 

Woolen Mills. Government street. 
W. Allen, Fruits, Fish, Game, etc. Government street. 
George Vienna, Game, Fish, Fruit, etc. Government street 
Colonial Hotel, Johnson street. M. N. Bechtel, Propr. 

ESQULMALT AND VICTORIA SUBURBAN ADVERTISEMENT& 



HOWARD HOTEL, 

ESQUIMALT, B. C. 

JOHN T. HO WARD, Proprietor; also, Postmaster. 



CAEEIAGE AND SADDLE HOESES FOE HIEE. 
OEDEES FEOM SHIPPING PEOMPTLY ATTENDED 
___ TO. jg@~BILL IAEDS. 

Esquimalt Hotel, Jos. Miller, Proprietor. 

Globe Hotel, Esquimalt, W. X. Selleck, Proprietor. 

Gorge Hotel, J. D. Johnson, Proprietor. 

Eoyal Oak Hotel, Saanich Eoad, Camp & Son, Proprietors. 

Mt. Newton Hotel, W Saanich rd. Wm. Henderson, Prop. 



VICTORIA ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Neufelder & Ross, 

Importers and Dealers in 

Groceries, Provisions and Island Produce 

GOVERNMENT STREET. 

YlCTOBIA, B. 0. 

THOS. SHOTBOLT, 

WHOLESALE AND BKTALL 

Chemist and Druggist 

Importer of English, American and French Drugs, 
Chemicals and Perfumery. 

JOHNSON STREET, - - - VICTORIA, B. C. 

^ESTABLISHED 1864. 



FORT STREET, VICTORIA, B. C. 

Importers and Dealers in 

Gas Fixtures and Plumbing Materials. 



o 
o 




CD 

QTQ 



STOVES ctZXCl. rang-ess 

Keep in stock the Best and Cheapest Assortment of Gas Fixtures , 
north of San Francisco. 



Travels in British Columbia 

BY 

NEWTON H. CHITTENDEN. 



TRIP NUMBER ONE. 

From Victoria to Yale, the head of navigation on the Fraser 
River, with Capt. John Irving, on the steamer R. P. Rithet. 

Through the Archipelago De Haro, Plumper Pass, Gulf 
of Georgia, and South Arm of Fraser River. Magnificent 
scenery, salmon fisheries and canneries, rich delta and 
bottom lands. The towns of Ladner's Landing, New 

Westminster, Mission, Maple Ridge, Langley, Matsqui, 
Sumas, Chilliwhack, Harrison River, Hope, Emory, and 

Yale — 350 miles. 



Tale, B. C, 14th August, 1882. 

Victoria, the beautiful capital city of the Province, is the 
headquarters and starting point of all the principal steamboat 
and other lines of transportation through it. Of these, the 
Pioneer line of steamers to the head of navigation on the 
Fraser River, i§ one of the most important. It comprises 
three boats, the Wm. Irving, R. P. Bithet and Reliance, 
owned by Capt. John Irving and others, which run in con- 
junction with the Hudson Bay steamers Princess Louise, 
Enterprise and Otter. 1 took passage on the R. P. Rithet, 
Capt. John Irving, one of the finest boats upon the waters of 
the North-West Coast. She is a new, powerful stern- wheeler, 
200 feet long, 39 feet wide, 816 tons burden, accommodating 



18 



250 passengers, and having a speed of 13 miles an hour. Her 
cabins are elegantly finished and furnished, state-rooms 
large,- and table excellent. The usual time to Tale — 175 
miles from Victoria — is from 18 to 22 hours on the 
upward, and twelve hours on the downward trip, the differ- 
ence being occasioned by the strong currents encountered 
both in the straits and river, in some places from seven to 
eight miles an hour. No passage of equal distance in the 
world affords a succession of more magnificent, natural views. 
Sailing out of the fine land-locked harbor of Victoria into 
the Straits of Juan de Fuca, on such a glorious day as yester- 
day, presents a panorama of indescribable beauty and 
sublimity. The grandest mountains outline the horizon on 
every hand — rising 5,000 feet from Vancouver, the snow- 
covered Olympian Peaks 8,000 feet— and sweeping East and 
Northward along the rugged Cascades the eye is arrested by 
the white crowning peaks of Mount Baker, 10,800 feet above 
the sea. The intervening landscape is exceedingly pictur- 
esque and charming. Sailing northward, the immediate shores 
of Vancouver, faced wish a sea wall of rounded trappean rock, 
sparsely wooded with pine and oak, receding gradually, 
are interspersed with pleasant green slopes and park-like 
openings. The large, conspicuous mansion situated upon 
the commanding eminence in the Eastern suburbs 
of Victoria is the Government House, now occu- 
pied by His Honor Lieutenant-Governor Cornwall. A 
few days ago the Governor kindly showed me through the 
fine grounds, which afford a most magnificent view of the 
incomparably grand scenery of this region. Looking into 
Cadboro Bay — three miles from the city opposite the 
small, rocky islands of Discovery and Chatham, a fine little 
harbor of refuge— a number of well improvedfarms are visible. 
Driven in here by a storm in April last, crossing from San 
Juan Island to Victoria, I was surprised to find vegetation 
more advanced than in Oregon and Washington, which I had 
just left. Several varieties of flowers bloom here through- 
out the winter. 

Approaching the entrance to the Canal De Haro, San 
Juan Island, to the North-East, first engages the attention. 



19 



It is the largest of the San Juan Group — comprising Orcas, 
Lopez, Blakely, Decatur, Waldron, Shaws, Stuart, Speiden, 
Henry, and others — being thirteen miles long, with an average 
width of about four miles. It acquired historical importance 
as disputed territory, having been jointly occupied by the 
English and American forces from 1858 to 1873, when the 
boundary question was finally settled. The w r hite faced cliffs 
of the extensive limestone quarry ot McCurdy's is a promi- 
nent landmark on its Southern slope. Lying to the Westward 
of the group, and comprising the Archipelago De Haro, are 
numerous Islands belonging to British Columbia. Of these, 
Salt Spring, Galiano, Saturna, Pender, Sidney, Moresby, and 
Mayne are the most important. The main channel, usually 
taken by deep draught vessels, runs between San Juan, 
Stuart, and Waldron on the East, snd Sidney, Moresby, 
Pender, and Saturna on the West ; but our route, that of 
most river steamers, lay between Sidney, James, Moresby, 
Portland, Pender, Provost, Mayne, and Galiano Islands, 
reaching the Gulf of Georgia through Active or Plumper 
Pass. These islands are uniformly rock-bound, with basalt, 
sandstone, and conglomerate formations, interspersed with 
lignite, rugged and irregular in outline, thickly wooded with 
fir and spruce, and rising from five to fifteen hundred feet 
above the sea. Their climate is healthy and uniform, rain- 
fall not excessive, and great extremes of cold or heat are 
unknown. The forests abound with deer, otter, coon, and 
mink, and the surrounding waters with salmon, halibut, cod, 
and other excellent fish. There are no beasts of prey, or 
poisonous reptiles. Approaching the Pass a steam sealing 
schooner and three large Chinook canoes, filled with Indians, 
are sailing northward. Their huts are occasionally seen upon 
the shores. A considerable settlement of whites occupy a 
pleasant green slope on Vancouver Island at Cowichan. Then 
we seem to be advancing against a mountain wall of solid rock, 
and, just as we are wondering most where we can be going, 
two channels suddenly appear — the left leading on to Nanaimo, 
the right Plumper Pass — not exceeding two or three hundred 
yards wide in places, and about two miles long, to the Gulf 
of Georgia. Now we head for the Delta of the Fraser Eiver, 



20 

visible in the distance. The Gulf of Georgia is from nine to 
twenty miles in width, and one hundred and twenty miles in 
length. When opposite Point Koberts, the boundary line 
between British Columbia and the United States, a wide 
pathway cut through the timber, entirely across, is plainly 
seen from the steamer with the naked eye. Just before 
entering the South Arm of the Fraser River we pass tlie 
Steamer Beaver, which Capt. Irving says ip the oldest on tlie 
Pacific coast, having come round the Horn in 1835. She is 
still doing good service for her owners, the British Columbia 
Towing Company. 

The Fraser River. 

The third largest stream flowing into the Pacific upon the 
Continent of North America, rising in the Bocky Mountains, 
drains, with its tributaries, an area estimated at 125,000 
square miles, reaching from the hundred and eighteenth to 
the hundred and twenty-fifth degree of longitude. The inter- 
vening country embraces the greatest diversity of physical 
features, climates, soils, natural resources, and adaptations- 
East of the Cascade Range, mountains, rolling foot hills, and 
elevated plateaus, covered with bunch grass, sage brush, 
plains, forest and table lands, with occasional prairie open- 
ings, are its prevailing characteristics. It is rich in gold and 
other valuable minerals, contains extensive stock ranges of 
unsurpassed excellence, and large areas of arable lands ex- 
cellently adapted to the growth of cereals, roots, and fruits 
generally. Irrigation is necessary over a considerable portion 
of this region. The summers are hot, the nights cool and 
sometimes frosty in the valleys and in the elevated plateaus ; 
the winters dry and not unfrequently severe, though the snow 
fall, except in the mountains, seldom exceeds two feet in 
depth. Crossing the Cascades its Western slopes, river val- 
leys, embrace the greatest variety of climates and range of pro- 
ductions, varying according to altitude and local surface con- 
figurations. Forests of Douglas pine, cedar, spruce, and hemlock 
cover a considerable portion of this region, though there are 
extensive bodies of excellent grazing and agricultural land. 
But no general description can convey correct impressions 



21 



concerning or do justice to this region. The climatic conditions 
existing in the same latitudes on the Atlantic coast affords no 
guide in judging of those found here. The warm 
Asiatic ocean currents sweeping along the Western coast and 
through the Gulf of Georgia modifies the temperature in a 
marked degree. It is one of the healthiest portions of the 
globe. Even the river bottoms and deltas are free from all 
malarial feveis. 

The Rich and Extensive Deltas of the 
Fraser River. 

The delta lands of the Fraser are more extensive than those 
of any other river flowing into the Pacific. Advancing up the 
South Arm, a broad, rapid, muddy steam, the tide lands 
stretch away for many miles on either hand, extending from 
Boundary Bay on the East to Point Gray on the West, a 
distance of thirteen miles, embracing over 100,000 acres 
susceptible of cultivation. Enriched by the silt and 
alluvial deposits of ages, brought down from the 
plains and mountain slopes of the interior, they are famous 
for their inexhaustible fertility. They generally require 
dykvug to the height of three or four feet, for protection 
against high tides, though escaping, almost altogether, any 
damaging effects from the spring floods. Messrs. Turner & 
Wood, civil engineers and surveyors, at New Westminster, 
who have recently examined a tract of 4,500 acres near Mud 
Bay estimate that it can be reclaimed in a body for $8000, 
and that from two to four dollars per acre will securely dyke 
the average Fraser delta land. Every one bears testimony to 
their exceeding fertility and durability. At Ladner's Land- 
ing the Rithet took on board a quantity of excellent hay, grown 
close at hand. The young man shipping it said that three 
tons per acre was the average yield, and that it sells readily 
for from twelve to sixteen dollars per ton. Hon. W. J. Arm- 
strong, M. P. P., informs me that he saw a field which, after 
growing timothy ten or eleven years in succession, produced 
three tons per acre. He estimates the cost of cutting, curing, 
and baling at not exceeding four dollars per ton. These delta 



22 



lands are also well adapted to oats, barley, and roots general- 
ly. They are offered in tracts to suit at from ten to twenty 
dollars per acre, and are being rapidly reclaimed and im- 
proved. Mr. E. A. Wadhams and Mr. Adair have each dyked 
over 1,200-acre tracts, and at Ladner's Landing there is a 
prosperous settlement of farmers and stock raisers upon 
smaller tracts. 

The Salmon Fisheries and Canneries, 

Although salmon fishing and canning has been an important 
industry on the Pacific coast since 1866, and during the last 
twelve years has grown to immense proportions — a single 
firm on the Columbia River (Kinney's) canning fifty thousand 
cases during the season of 1881 — it is only a few years since 
the establishment, by E wen & Co., of the first cannery on the 
Fraser. Now there are thirteen — the Phoenix, English & Co., 
British American Packing Co., British Union, Adair & Co., 
Delta, Findlay, Durham & Brodie, British Columbia Packing 
Co., Ewen & Co., Laidlaw & Co., Standard Co., Haigh & Son, 
and the Richmond Packing Co., their aggregate product 
during the present season amounting to not less than 230,000 
cases. The fish of Northern waters are of superior quality, 
and their ranges for hatching and feeding so extensive and 
excellent that the salmon, especially if protected by the Gov- 
ernment, ttill constitute one of the great permanent resources 
of this region. Before proceeding far up the Fraser we 
meet the advance of the numerous fleet of salmon fishing 
boats which throng the river for a distance of fifteen miles 
from its mouth. They are from twenty-two to twenty-four 
feet in length, and from five to six feet wide, each furnished 
with a gill net, made of strong linen, from one hundred and 
fifty to two hundred fathoms long, and about forty half- 
inch meshes deep, and manned by two Indians. The steamer 
stopping to discharge and receive freight at a small settlement 
on the left bank, at Ladner's Landing, consisting of the Delta 
salmon fishery and cannery and McNeely and Buie's store 
and hotel, afforded an opportunity to visit 



23 



The Delta Cannery, 

The largest in British Columbia. Commencing operations 
only five years ago, its business has assumed such proportions 
that it now employs a force of over 400 men, 280 
Chinese, and 160 Indians, and a fishing outfit consisting in 
part of thirty-eight boats and nets, two seines, one steam tug 
and four scows. The cannery is 160x120 feet square, two 
stories high, and in some respects the most completely 
furnished of any on the Pacific coast. Ifc is provided with a 
boiler sixteen feet long, and four feet in diameter, twelve 
tanks, two retorts of 3,360 cans capacity each, filling and 
soldering machines, four laquer baths, and every convenience 
for the rapid and thorough performance of the various oper- 
ations necessary to secure the highest degree of perfection in 
the preparation of this most excellent article of food. China- 
men, under the supervision of experienced white foremen, are 
employed for the canning process, and Indians for catching the 
fish, receiving from $1 25 to $2 00 per day — the net tenders 
the latter amount. The daily catch per boat ranges from fifty 
to three hundred salmon, the fleet sometimes bringing in 
twelve or fifteen thousand. This season the run has been so 
extraordinary that the Delta Cannery put up 1,280 cases in a 
single day and 6,600 cases in six days. Mssrs. Page & Ladner, the 
managing partners of the firm, showed me their product for 
the last month, amounting to the enormous quantity of 25,000 
cases, or 1,152,000 cans, covering every available space of the 
immense lower floor to the height of over five feet, the largest 
number ever packed by any one establishment during the 
same period of time. Two hundred and fifty barrels of 
salmon, or about 1,3000, were also salted within the month. 
The company ship their goods direct to London or Liver- 
pool through the firm of Welch, Bithet & Co., of Victoria. 
Proceeding we soon reach 

New Westminster, 

The principal city of the Mainland, formerly the capital of 
the Crown Colony, occupying a very pleasant and command- 
ing situation on the right bank of the Fraser, about fifteen 



24 

miles from the mouth and 76 miles from Victoria. The site 
was chosen by Col. Moody, in 1858, being then covered with 
a dense growth of enormous cedars some of which were 
twelve feet in diameter. Hon. J. W. Armstrong, just ap- 
pointed Provincial Secretary, erected the first house — a store 
and dwelling— in March, 1859. This gentlemen related to 
me how it came by its present name. Originally called Quern 
or Queensborough, a dispute having arisen between Gov. 
Douglas and Col. Moody as to which should prevail, the 
matter was submitted for settlement to Her Majesty Queen 
Victoria who decided against both by substituting New 
Westminster. It lies in the heart of the great resources of 
the Province, surrounded by the most extensive and richest 
bodies of agricultural lands, with large tracts of the finest 
timber near at hand, and in the midst of fisheries so enor r 
mously productive that thirteen canning establishments 
within a radius of twelve miles, will put up over 
twelve million cans of salmon, alone, the present 
season. Vessels drawing fifteen feet of water reach New 
Westminster in safety at all times and find good anchorage 
and wharfage, and Port Moody, on Burrard's Inlet, the best 
and most commodious harbor along these shores, selected as 
the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Eailroad, is only six 
miles distant. The city, now containing a population of 
about 2,500, is in a very prosperous condition, but scarcely 
realizes the tuture which awaits it upon the establishment of 
railroad communication with the interior and the East, the 
influx of population, and the consequent development of the 
great resources of this region. Besides many well built 
stores, residences, and hotels, it contains the Provincial 
Penitentiary and Asylum, a public hospital, and good church 
and school buildings. A fine Post Office is in course of erec- 
tion. A free reading room and library is well sustained, 
There are two local newspapers— the British Columbian and 
Mainland Guardian— well conducted and supported. At the 
hospital, Mr. Adam Jackson, the courteous and efficient 
Superintendent, after conducting me through the several 
commodious and sunny wards showed me, in the fine flower 
garden attached, a sweet pea vine over seven-and-a-half feet 



NEW WESTMINISTER ADVERTISEMENTS. 

THE OCCIDENT HOTEL ! 

COLUMBIA STREET, 



The only Fire-Proof Hotel in the city. First-class ac- 
commodations at reasonable rates. Private Din- 
ing rooms for Ladies and Families. 

J. AUSTIN, - - PROPRIETOR 

JAMES WISE, 

Importer and General Dealer in Clothing, Boots and 
Shoes, Hardware, Crockery and Cordage. Also, Milli- 
nery and Fancy Goods, Front street. 

JOSEPH M. WISE, 

Teamster and Dealer in Fuel. 

Goods Removed at Moderate Prices. 

Orders left at J. Wise' s store, Front street, 
Promptly Attended to. 

THE BRITISH COLUMBIAN 

Columbia Street, New Westminster. 

The " British Columbian" is published every Wednesday 
and Saturday Morning, and is recognized as the best Adver- 
tising Medium on the Mainland of British Columbia. 

Subscription, $3 per year. Robson Bros., Proprietors. 

T. R. Pearson & Co., Books, Stationery, Music. Columbia St 
John E. Lord, Dealer in Furniture, Carpets, &c. Columbia St, 
G. Leiser, Gentlemen's Furnishing Goods. Columbia St. 
Wm. Rae, Dealer in General Merchandise. 
Wm. McColl, General Merchandise. 

J. H. Pleace & Co., Hardware, Stoves, Tinware, Paints, etc. 
E. Bradbury, Tobacco, Cigars, Pipes, etc. Columbia St. 
W. H. Keary, Books, Stationery, Musical Instruments, etc. 
W. D. Ferris, Land Agent, Conveyancer and Debt Collector 
S. H. Webb, Gunsmith, General Repairing, Cutlery, Guns. 
London House, J. Ellard & Co., Dry Goods, Clothing, Fancy 
Goods, Millinery, Dress Making. 



C. G. Major, importer of General Mdse., Columbia street 
C. M. McNaughten, Watchmaker and Jeweler. 
John Walsh, Excelsior Tailoring Emporium. 
Trapp Brothers, Importers, Dry Goods and Hardware Dress- 
making and Tailoring. Also, Auctioneers. 
Cottage Bakery, Martha Harvey Proprietress. 
James Bousseau, mf and dlr in Boots, Shoes, Leather, Skins 
Henry Eickhoff, Gen Mdse, Groceries, Provisions. 
Emma Gould, General Mdse, Groceries and Provisions 
Telegraph Hotel, Front street, J. Powers, Proprietor 
The Tuet Wah Bestaurant, Front street, Moy Ging, Propr. 
Henry V. Edmonds, Beal Estate Agent and Notary Public. 
Woods & Turner, Surveyors, Land Agents and Conveyancers 
Webster & Co., Manufacturers of rough and dressed Lumber 
Eagle Hotel, Front St., Plumb & Anderson, Proprietors. 

PORT MOODY-BURRAKD INLET ADVERTISEMENTS. 



New Westminster-Burrard Inlet Daily Stage Line — 
Leaves New Westminster at 9 o'clock a. m. and Gran- 
ville, Burrard Inlet, at 2 p. m. W. B. Lewis, Propr. 

THE POBT MOODY SHINGLE MILL, 

J. B. TIFFIN, Propr. 

HOPE-EMORY-YALE ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Columbia Hotel, Joseph James, Proprietor, Hope, B. C. 
Fort Hope Hotel 

James Corrigan, Proprietor. 
Emory Hotel, Emory, 

F. W. Geisler, Proprietor. 
American Hotel, Emory, 

P. Billadeaux, Proprietor. 
California House, Tale, B. C, G. Tuttle, Proprietor. 
W. E. McCartney, Dispensing Chemist, Tale, B. C. 
Kimball & Gladwin, Commission Merchants, Tale, B. C. 
Powers Brothers, General Merchandise, Tale, B. C. 
Travelers Best, Alex. McDonald, Proprietor, Tale, B. C. 
J. D. Frickelton, M. D., Tale, B. C, 

Chronic Diseases and Cancer a specialty. 
Douglas & Deighton, 

Importers, Manufactuaers, and Dealers in every 
description of Harness and Saddlery, Tale. 
Gilmore & Clarke, Clothiers and Outfitters, Tale. 



James McBride, Stoves and Tinware, Yale. 

Eobt. Louttit,* Blacksmith and Wagon Maker, Tale. 

D. MacQuarrie, Boot and Shoemaker, Yale. 
James Fraser, Watchmaker, Yale. 

Bossi & Velatti, General Merchandise, Yale. 
A. VanVolkenburgh, Butcher, Yale. 

E. Pie, General Merchandise, Yale. 

Kwong Lee & Co., General Merchandise, Yale. 

Lun Sang, General Merchandise, Butchers, and Bakers, Yale. 

YALE-CARIBOO WAGON ROAD ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Sixteen Mile House, E. Cannell, Proprietor. 

Boston Bar Store & Hotel, Peter Fink, Proprietor. 

Boston Bar House, Store and Stables, H. B. Dart, Prop. 

Forest House, 36 m. from Yale, 21 fm Lytton, E. Skuse, Pro. 
2-Mile House. Thomas Benten, Proprietor. 

Kanaka Bar House, Hautier & Phillips, Proprietor. 

H. F. Keefer, Contractor, C.P.R.E., especially for employ- 
ment of natives. 

LYTTON. 

Batlt.tw Hotel, 
Geo. Baillie, 

Proprietor. 

Lytton Hotel, Robert Sprout, Proprietor. 

Globe Hotel, Louis Houtier, Proprietor. 

Lytton Flour & Saw Mill, James Chapman, Proprietor. 

John McKay, Livery and Feed Stable. 

Wm. Allen Smith, General Blacksmith. 

Victor Delatre, Bakery and Grocery. 

Jules Boucherat, General Merchandise. 

C. H. Charity & J. F. Smith, Boot and Shoe Maker. 

Henry Blachford, General Blacksmith. 

Joseph Clark Watchmaker and Jeweller. 

John McIntyre, General Merchandise. 

Kwong On (O.K.), General Merchandise. 

Foo Song, General Merchandise. 

Kong Chong Hing, General Merchandise. 

Hang Woo, General Merchandise and Laundry. 

Tong Hing, Boarding House. 

Man Song Tong, Chinese Doctor and Medicines. 

B. C. Express House, Nacomin, Art. Clemes, Proprietor. 

Nicomin House & Store, James Place, Proprietor. 



COOK'S FERRY. 



Mobton House, 

Spence's Bridge, C. Morton, Proprietor 
Cooks Ferry House, 

Best of Accommodations for Man and Beast. 
S. M. Nelson, Proprietor. 
John Murray, General Merchandise. 
W. B. McGaw, General Merchandise. 
James Yair, Stoves and Tinware. 
J. B. Tait, General Blacksmith. 
Evan Campbell, Gen. M'dse, 9 miles from Spence's Bridge. 

TALE-OAKIBOO WAGON ROAD ADVERTISEMENTS. 

Buonaparte House, Cache Creek, Jas. Campbell, Prop. 

G. S. Stephenson, Blacksmith, Cache Creek. 

Yuen Kee, General Merchandise, Cache Creek, B.C. 

F. W. Foster, General Merchandise, Clinton, B.C. 

Dominion House, A. B. Ferguson, Prop., Clinton, B.C, 

John MoCully, Horse-shoer, Blacksmith. 

Bbidge Creek or 150-Mile House, Thos. M. Hamilton, Prop- 

Wm. Barger, General Blacksmith, 150-Mile House. 

P. C. Dunlevy, Hotel and Store, Soda Creek, B.C. 

Beed & Huson, General Merchandise, Quesnelle, B.C. 

Hudson Bay Co., Fur Traders, Quesnelle, B. J. Skinner, J. C F. 

Kobt. Middleton, General Blacksmithing, Quesnelle. 

Occidental Hotel, John McLean, Prop., Quesnelle. 

Golden Eagle Hotel, Quesnelle, Kobt. Pacey, Prop. 

Tan War, General Merchandise, Quesnelle. 

Kwong Lee & Co., General Merchandise, Quesnelle. 

Wah Lee, General Merchandise, Quesnelle, B.C. 

W. W. Dodd, General Merchandise, Stanley. 

S. A. Bogers, General Merchandise, Barkerville. 

Hudson Bay Co., Gen. Mdse, Barkerville, A. Monroe, Agent. 

Kwong Lee & Co., Barkerville, General Merchandise. 

Wah Lee, General Merchandise, Barkerville. 

A. Pendola, General Merchandise, Barkerville. 

Mason & Daly, General Merchandise, Barkerville. 

John Bibby, Hardware, Stoves, &c, Barkerville. 

Andrew Kelly's Hotel, Barkerville. 

W. D. Moses, Mdse, Fancy Goods, Hairdresser, Barkerville. 

Antelope Bestaurant, Barkerville, B. K. Evans, Prop. 



25 



in height, and close by, vegetables of surprising growth. 
Rheumatism and paralysis are the most prevalent diseases 
among his patients. At the time of my visit, just after pay* 
day among the canneries, the city was full of Indians, repre- 
senting all the various Mainland and Island tribes, living in 
canvas tents and huts, dressed in every conceivable mixture 
of barbarous and civilized costume, one of the most interest- 
ing collections of human creatures ever seen on the earth. 
These Northern tribes are generally good workers, and earn 
during the summer considerable sums of money which they 
spend freely upon whatever most pleases their fancy. Many 
of their purchases, which the traders said included almost 
everything, were exceedingly amusing, especially in the line 
of dress goods. Sometimes- a prosperous buck will jump 
from a barbarous into a civilized costume at a bound, and 
parade the streets in a black suit and white silk necktie, and 
everything except habits to correspond. One Indian was 
seen proudly leading his little daughter whom he had 
gaily dressed in white, with a blue silk sash, a pretty white 
waist, and a silk parsol in hand, but bare footed and legged. 
Though there were probably upwards of a thousand Indians 
in the city I saw no disorderly conduct among them. I am 
indebted to Capt. A. Peele, a prominent druggist and apothe- 
cary of New Westminster, and Meterological Observer for the 
Dominion Government and Signal Officer for the United 
States, for the following valuable notes of the mean temper- 
atures and rainfall at that place for a period of six years : — 





MEAN 
T»EMP. 


HIGHEST 
TEMP. 


LOWEST 
TEMP. 


RAINFALL. 


January ..,.,..,,„.,, T .,-,,,.., - 


84.9 

37.9 

40.3 

48.1 

54.9 

58.3 

63.8 

61.9 

56.9 , 

48.9 

40.6 

36.2 


57 

57 
65 

74 
82 
87 
92 
84 
81 
75 
59 
54 


-7 
16 
18 
20 
34 
38 
45 
44 
42 
26 
14 
8 


7.26 


"February T ..,.., T . . r ... - , 


6.61 


March » 


6.77 


April 


2.85 


May 


34 


June 


2.33 


July 


1.66 


August 


2.10 


September 


8.68 


October 


5.83 


November 


7.65 


December 


7.87 







Between New Westminster and Tale, a distance 
of 100 miles, the mail steamers not unfrequently make 



26 



thirty-five landings, including stoppages at railway construc- 
tion camps. Maple Ridge, twelve miles ; Langley , seventeen, 
Riverside, thirty-one; Matsqui, thirty-three; Sumas, 
forty-one ; Chilliwhack, forty-seven ; Hope, eighty-five ; and 
Emory, ninety-five miles above, being the most important 
places. 

Langley. 

Though only a small village, is the oldest settlement on 
the river having been laid out for a town in 1858. 
There is a considerable tract of rich, arable land a- 
short distance back, of which the Hudson Bay Company own 
about a thousand acres. Though the area susceptible of 
cultivation along the Lower Fraser is comparatively limited 
it comprises in the aggregate over 150,000 acres, excluding the 
deltas. At Matsqui there is a prairie opening three or four 
miles square, and on the right bank opposite, north of the 
Mission, Burton's Prairie, containing over 3,000 acres. 
Sumas Prairie is estimated to contain 25,000 acres of farming, 
lands. Surrounding 

Chilliwhack, 

A village of about twenty-five houses on the left bank, 
there is a large body of level, lightly timbered, alder, maple and 
pine wooded bottoms, enclosed by a grand ampitheatre of 
mountains. The soil is a deep clay, alluvial, exceedingly produc- 
tive. Mr. A. Pierce told me that the lessee of his farm, situated 
three miles back from the landing, will clear $2,000 this season 
from forty-eight acres under cultivation. Though comprising 
the principal farming settlement on the river, these lands are 
only about half occupied. In common with most of those 
described they are subject to occasional overflows, 
sometimes quite disastrous. The Provincial Government has 
undertaken to protect them by dyking and will doubtless 
succeed in doing so. For sixty miles from the mouth o 
Harrison River the Fraser has little valley proper, the moun- 
tains risirig abruptly from two to five thousand feet above the 
sea, their rugged, furrowed sides sparsely covered with 



27 



Douglas fir, arid sharply defined peaks with remnants of 
the winter snows. There are occasional slopes, benches and 
bottoms of small extent, occupied, though the general aspect 
of the country, outside the small settlements, is a wild, 
unbroken wilderness. This was the field of the great Fraser 
River gold excitement of twenty-four years ago, when miners 
rushed in from all parts of the world, encountering untold 
hardships and dangers to share in its rich treasures. The 
best diggings were found upon the lower benches and bars of 
the river, American, Murderer's, Texas, Emory, Hill's Sailor's 
Boston, Kanaka, Fargo's, Chapman's, Wellington, and Foster's 
being the richest. Scores of brave fellows lost their lives in 
attempting to reach them, in canoes and small boats, through 
the terrible rapids of the awful canyons intervening. Between 
Cornish and American Bars, near the mouth of the Coquhalla 
River, we touch at the small village of 

Hope, 

Charmingly situated upon a high bench at the base of the 
mountains. A trail leads from thence 160 miles North- 
Eastward into the rich Similkameen and Okanagan country. 
A silver mine, said to be very rich, has been discovered upon 
the side of the mountain within sight, upon the development 
of which great anticipations are based. I am infoi*med by 
Mr. B. C. Oleson, Supt. of the C. P.R. R. powder works, that 
there are good openings in the upper Skagit Valley, within 
forty or fifty miles of Hope, for thirty or forty families. 

Salmon Running and Catching Extraordinary. 

I have read, with much allowance, accounts of the multi- 
tudes of salmon sometimes seen in the smaller tributaries of 
the Umpqua, Columbia, and Fraser Rivers, but, after what I 
have witnessed to-day, am prepared to believe any fish story 
within the limits of possibilities. Arriving at Emory, five 
miles below Tale, two young men from San Francisco report- 
ed immense numbers of salmon at the mouth of Emory Creek, 
a small, rapid mountain stream flowing into the Fraser just 
above. Going there I found it packed so full in places that I 



28 



counted, while standing in one position upon the railroad 
bridge, over four hundred different salmon. Mentioning the 
matter to a resident, he remarked, " Oh ! that's nothing. If 
you want to see salmon go to the next creek beyond." Beach- 
ing there, after a walk of about four miles, and taking a central 
position upon the bridge crossing it, I counted, without 
moving, over 800 salmon. This stream plunges down the 
mountain side with a fall of, probably, one hundred and fifty 
feet within a mile-and-a-half, being from five to fifteen yards 
in width. For a distance of several rods up from its mouth, 
the salmon were crowding in from the muddy Fraser, now 
again rapidly rising, almost as thick as they could swim, and 
in their desperate efforts to ascend the successive falls above 
presented a spectacle never before witnessed by the oldest 
native settler. Mr. John Woodworth, who has lived here 
for twenty-four years, says he never heard of the like. The 
salmon is a fish of extraordinary strength and agility, and are 
said to jump and swim up perpendicular falls from ten to 
twenty feet in height. I stood upon the bank an hour and 
watched them in their desperate struggles to make the ascent 
of several of lesser size within sight. Of hundreds which 
made the attempt, only a few, comparatively, succeeded, but 
fell back exhausted, splashing and whirling among the 
boulders. Many were covered with great bruises, some had 
lost their eyes, a few lay dead upon the shore, others were 
dying, and all seemed nearly worn out. Stepping close to a 
pool filled with them, I easily caught two in my hands, which 
offered but little resistance. Before leaving, a photographer, 
Mr. D. E. Judkins, of New Westminster, arrived and took two 
views of the remarkable scene. Mr. Daniel Ashworth, wife and 
family were also present. Beaching Yale I told a hotel- 
keeper about it, estimating the salmon at thousands. 
•' Thousands ! " he exclaimed, almost with indignation, " Why, 
there are millions of them now running up the Fraser within 
a few miles of town." Getting aboard Mr. Onderdonk's con- 
struction train I rode along the river, fifteen miles to the end 
of track. Millions was probably not much of an exagger- 
ation, for although the river was quite muddy, schools of 
salmon, numbering thousands each, could be &een from the 



29 



platform of the cars, at short intervals, the entire distance. 
The Indians were catching and drying them in large quanti- 
ties. Standing upon the edge of perpendicular projecting 
ledges, they capture the largest and finest specimens, either 
by means of hooks or scoop-nets, dress them upon the spot 
and hang them up on long poles to dry in the wind and sun. 
When sufficiently cured they are packed in caches made from 
cedar shakes, and suspended for safe keeping among the 
branches of trees from twenty to fifty feet above the ground. 
It is the opinion of those familiar with the habits of the 
salmon, that not one in a thousand succeeds in depositing their 
spawn, and that if hatching places were provided upon these 
streams, and protected that they could scarcely be exhausted, 
under proper restrictions as to catching them. On the morn- 
ing of the 15th I reached 

Yale, 

The head of navigation on the Fraser Eiver, a town of several 
hundred inhabitants and buildings situated upon a narrow 
bench, surrounded by mountains of striking grandeur,, rising 
precipitously thousands of feet among the clouds. In the 
early days of the gold discoveries in this region, Tale present- 
ed those scenes of wild dissipation and reckless extrava- 
gance only witnessed in great and rich mining camps. 
An old miner, who was stopped from working his claim when 
paying from sixteen to twenty dollars per day, because 
encroaching upon the city front, told me that he seldom 
cleaned up without finding gold pieces which had been 
dropped from the overflowing pockets of men intoxicated with 
liquor, and excitement. It was nothing uncommon in those 
times to spend fifty dollars in a single treat around at the 
bar. It is now an orderly place, supporting churches 
schools, and a weekly paper, the Inland Sentinel, by Mr. M. 
Hagan — the extreme North-Western publication upon the 
Continent. There is still paying placer mining on the river 
bench opposite, though the place derives its main support 
from the construction of the C. P. B. R., traffic with the 
interior, and through travel. % 



30 



The Grand Scenery of the Cascade Region. 

The grandest scenery on the Western slope of the Conti- 
nent is formed by the passage of its great rivers through the 
Cascade Range. "When I looked with wonder and admira- 
tion upon the stupendous architecture of the mountains 
through which the Columbia has worn her way by the flow 
of unknown ages, I thought surely this scene can have no 
parallel ; but ascending the Fraser River, above Tale, moun- 
tains just as rugged, lofty, and precipitous, present their rocky, 
furrowed sides ; a stream as deep, swift, and turbulent, rushes 
headlong to the sea, between granite walls hundreds of feet in 
height, above which rise, by every form of rocky embattle- 
ment, tower and castle, and terraced slope which the 
imagination can conceive, the snow-covered peaks of the 
Cascades. Great broad, deep paths, have been worn down the 
mountain sides by the winter avalanches ; crystal streams 
come bounding over their narrow rocky beds, sometimes 
leaping hundreds of feet, as if impatient to join the impetuous 
river below, enormous rocks stand out threateningly in the 
channel, over and around which, the waters boil and foam 
with an angry roar ; and thus above, and below, and on every 
hand for more than fifty miles, extends this sublime exhibition 
of nature. 



TRIP NUMBER TWO. 

From Victoria to BarkerviXLe, Cariboo, via New Westminster, 
Yale, Boston Bar, Lytton, Cook's Ferry, Ashcroft, Cache 
Creek, Clinton, Soda Creek, and Quesnelle. Returning 
through the Kamloops, Okanogan, Spallumcheen, and 
Nicola Country — 1,682 miles* 



On the 9th of September, two days after returning from 
Alaska, I took passage on the steamer Western Slope for 
New Westminster, en route for Cariboo. Capt. Moore, com- 
manding, is one of thd^pioneers in the steamboat navigation of 



31 



the waters of British Columbia. In 1858, at the breaking out 
of the Fraser Biver gold excitement, he built and run the 
Blue Boat as far as Yale, clearing $3,500 in five weeks. 
Four years later, during the rush to the Stickeen Biver, he 
earned, with his little boat the " Flying Dutchman," $14,000 
in seventy-five days, receiving $100 per ton for carrying 
freight from Fort Wrangel to Glenora, a distance of 160 
miles. Upon the discovery of the rich Omineca diggings in 
1870, he placed two boats upon Stewart and Tatlah Lakes, 
800 miles in the interior. His next venture was gold mining 
at Cassiar, where himself, and his sons John, William, and 
Henry, washed out $35,000 in a little over five months. Then 
he built the steamers Alexandria and Western Slope for the 
East Coast trade. The latter, a staunch, powerful steamer of 
850 tons burden, and good accommodations for thirty cabin 
passengers, makes bi-weekly trips between Victoria and Yale, 
touching at intermediate ports. At New Westminster we 
transferred to the Gertrude, a swift steamer, running 
on the Fraser between that place and Tale. Mr. Lipsett, 
managing agent, informs me that she will probably return to 
her former route on the Stickeen Biver, next spring. Arriving 
at Yale, I proceeded at once to the office of the British 
Columbia Express to secure a seat in the stage leaving for 
Cariboo, 385 miles north, the following morning. As I en- 
tered, Mr. Dodd, the obliging agent, gravely remarked to a 
clerical gentleman who was anxious to express a smalj parcel, 
that there was'nt room on the stage for a tooth-pick. I did 
not much regret the detention, for it gave me an opportunity 
to examine the most stupendous undertaking in railway build- 
ing on the North American continent, the construction of 

The Canadian Pacific Railroad 

Through the Cascade range of mountains. My readers are 
probably more or less familiar with the history of the progress 
of this great iron highway across the northern portion of the 
continent. The necessity for such a road through the several 
Provinces of the Dominion for their better security and more 
rapid development becoming apparent, in 1871 surveying par- 



32 



ties were sent out to explore the comparatively unknown region 
through which, if possible, it should pass, and report upon the 
most favorable route. Over $3,500,000 has been expended upon 
these preliminary surveys. The location of the road east of the 
Rocky Mountains being] much the less difficult, the work of 
construction was commenced on the Eastern section in 1874, 
and 264 miles completed and in operation in 1880 ; but from 
the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific coast no less than eleven 
lines, aggregating upwards 10,000 miles, have been surveyed 
before determining the best terminal point and route thereto. 
Port Moody, at the head of Burrard Inlet, has finally been 
selected as the Mainland terminus, and the Governor-General, 
the Marquis of Lome, has recently stated in a public speech at 
Victoria, that the road will probably cross the Rocky Moun- 
tains by the Kicking Horse Pass. In 1880 a contract and 
agreement was made between the Dominion of Canada and 
John S. Kennedy of New York, Richard B. Angus and James 
J. Hill of St. Paul, Minn., Morton, Rose & Co. of London, 
England, and John Reinach & Co. of Paris, France, forming 
an incorporated company, known as the Syndicate, for the 
construction, operation, and ownership of the Canadian Pacific 
Railway. By the terms of this agreement, that portion of the 
railway to be constructed was divided into three sections, the 
first extending from Callander Station, near the east end of 
Lake Nipissing, to a junction with the Lake Superior section 
then being built by the Government, was called the Eastern 
section; the second, extending from Selkirk, on the Red 
River, to Kamloops, at the Forks of the Thompson River, was 
called the Central section, and the third, extending from 
Kamloops to Port Moody at Burrard Inlet, the Western 
section. The company agreed to lay out, construct? 
and equip in running order, of a uniform guage of 4 ft. 8£ in., 
the Eastern and Central sections by the first day of May, 
1891. The company also agreed to pay the Government the 
cost, according to existing contract, for the 100 miles of road 
then in course of construction from the city of Winni- 
peg Westward. The Government agreed to complete 
that portion of the Western section between Kamloops and 
Yale by June 30th, 1885, and also between Yale and Port 



33 



Moody on or before thelirst day of May, 1891, and the Lake 
Superior section according to contract. The railway, as con- 
structed under the terms of the agreement, becomes the 
property of the company, and pending the completion 
of the Eastern and Central sections the possession 
and right to work and run the several portions of the 
railway already constructed, or as the same shall be 
completed, is given by the Government to the company. 
Upon the completion of the Eastern and Central sections the 
Government agreed to convey to the company (exclusive of 
equipment) those portions of the railway constructed, or to 
be constructed by the Government, and upon completion of 
the remainder of the portion of railway to be constructed by 
the Government, to convey the same to the company, and 
the Canadian Pacific Railway thereafter become the absolute 
property of the company, which agreed to forever efliciently 
maintain, work, and run the same. The Government further 
agreed to grant the company a subsidy in money of 
$25,000,000, and in land of 25,000,000 acres, to be subdivided 
as follows :, — 

MONEY SUBSIDY— CENTRAL SECTION. 

1,350 miles.— 1st 900 miles, at $10,000 per mile. .$ 9,000,000 
2nd 450 " 13,333 " .. 6,000,000 

$15,000,000 

EASTERN SECTION. 

650 miles at $15,384 61 $10,000,000 

$25,000,000 

LAND SUBSIDY — CENTRAL SECTION. 

1st 900 miles at 12,500 acres per mile 11,250,000 

2nd 450 " 16,666.67 acres " 7,500,000 

18,750,000 

EASTERN SECTION. 

650 miles at 9,615.35.acres per mile 6,250,000 

25,000,000 
Upon the construction and completion of, and regular 



34 



running of trains upon any portion of the railway, such as 
the traffic should require, not less than twenty miles in length, 
the Government agreed to pay and grant to the company the 
subsidies applicable thereto. The Government also granted 
to the company the lands required for the road-bed of the 
railway, and for its stations, station grounds, work shops, 
dock ground, and water frontage, buildings, yards, etc., and 
other appurtenances required for its convenient and effectual 
construction and operation, and agreed to admit, tree of duty, 
all steel rails, fish plates, spikes, bolts, nuts, wire, timber, and 
all material for bridges to be used in the original construction 
of the railway and of a telegraph line in connection there with. 
The 

Company's Land Grant. 

Comprises every alternate section of 640 acres, extending 
back twenty-four miles deep on each side of the railway from 
Winnpeg to Jasper House, and where such sections (the 
uneven numbered) are not fairly fit for settlement on account 
of the prevalence of lakes and water stretches, the deficiency 
thereby caused to make up the 25,000,000 acres, may be 
selected by the company from the tract known as the fertile 
belt lying between parallels 49 and 37 degrees of North lati- 
tude or elsewhere, at the option of the company, of alternate 
sections extending back twenty-four miles deep on each side 
of any branch line, or line of railway by them located. The 
company may also, with the consent of the Government, 
select any lands in the North- West Territory not taken up to 
supply such deficiency. The company have the right, from 
time to time, to lay out, construct, equip, maintain, and 
work branch lines of railway from any point or points within 
the territory of the Dominion. It was further agreed by the 
Dominion Parliament that for the period of twenty years no 
railway should be constructed South of the Canadian Pacific 
Bail way, except such line as shall run South- West or to the 
Westward of South- West, nor to within fifteen miles of lati- 
tude forty-nine degrees, and that all stations, and station 
grounds, workshops, buildings; yards, and other property, 
rolling stock, and appurtenances required and used for the 



35 



construction and working thereof, and the capital stock of the 
company shall be forever free from taxation by the Dominion, 
or by any Province hereafter to be established, or by any 
Municipal Corporation therein, and the lands of the company 
in the North- West Territory, until they are either sold or oc- 
cupied, shall also be free from such taxation for twenty years 
after the grant thereof from the Crown. 

The Great Work of Building the Railway Through 
the Cascade Mountains. 

Soon after the consumation of the agreement, Mr. A. On- 
derdonk, an experienced railroad builder, became the man- 
aging contractor for the construction of that portion of the 
Western division extending from Port Moody to Savonas Ferry, 
a distance of two hundred and twelve miles, ably 
assisted by E. G. Tilton, Superintendent and Chief 
Enginer, John P. Bacon, Chief Commissarry, Geo. F. Kyle, 
Assistant-Superintendent, and other gentlemen. It presented 
greater difficulties than have ever been overcome in railway 
building. The Union and Central Pacific and other lines 
have gone over the mountains by gradual ascents, but no such 
way of climbing the Cascades was possible, and the wonder- 
ful undertaking of running through them parallel with the great 
canyon of the Fraser, was determined upon. For nearly 
sixty miles from Tale to Lytton, the river has cut through this 
lofty range, thousands of feet below the summits. Moun- 
tain spurs of granite rock, with perpendicular faces hundreds 
of feet in height, project at short intervals along the entire 
passage. Between them are deep lateral gorges, canyons and 
plunging cataracts. On this sixty miles of tunnels rock work 
and bridges, the greater portion of Mr. Onderdonk's con- 
struction 1 army of 7,000 men have been engaged since 1880- 
The loud roar of enormous discharges of giant powder has 
almost constantly reverberated among the mountains. Fifteen 
tunnels have been bored, one 1,600 feet in length, and mil- 
lions of tons of rock blasted and rolled with the noise of an 
avalanche into the rushing boiling Fraser; workmen have 
been suspended by ropes hundreds of feet down the perpen- 



36 



dicular sides of the mountains to blast a foot hold ; supplies 
have been packed in upon the backs of mules and horses, 
over trails where the Indians were accustomed to use ladders, 
and building materials landed upon the opposite bank of the 
liver at an enormous expense, and crossed in Indian canoes. 
It is estimated that portions of this work have cost $300,000 
to the mile. In addition to other transportation charges, Mr. 
Onderdonk pays $10 for every ton of his freight passing over 
the Tale-Cariboo Wagon Road, excepting for the productions 
of the Province. 

As the work progressed the cost of transportation by such 
means increased until Mr. Onderdonk determined to try and 
ran a steamer through the Grand Canyon of the Fraser to 
the navigable waters above to supply the advance camps. 
For this purpose he built the steamer Skuzzy. Then came 
the difficulty of finding a captain able and willing to take her 
through. One after another went up and looked at the little 
boat, then at the awful canyon, the rushing river and the swift 
foaming rapids, and turned back, either pronouncing the 
ascent impossible or refusing to undertake it. Finally Cap- 
tains S. R. and David Smith, brothers, were sent for, both 
well known for their remarkable feats of steamboating on the 
upper waters of the Columbia. The former ran the steamer 
Shoshone 1,000 miles down the Snake River through the 
Blue Mountains — the only boat which ever did, or probably 
ever will, make the perilous passage. He also run a steamer 
safely over the falls of Willamette at Oregon City. He said 
he could take the Skuzzy up, and provided with a crew of 
seventeen men, including J. W. Burse, a skilful engineer, with 
a steam winch and capstain and several great hawsers, began 
the ascent. At the end of seven days I found them just 
below Hell Gate, having lined safely through the roaring 
Black Canyon, through which the pent up waters rush like a 
mill-race at 20 miles an hour. Returning from my journey 
in the interior, I had the pleasure of congratulating the cap- 
tains upon the successful accomplishment of the undertaking, 
and of seeing the Skuzzy start from Boston Bar with her 
first load of freight. Captain Smith said the hardest tug of 
war was at China Riffle, where, in addition to the engines, the 



37 



steam winch, and 15 men at the capstain, a force of 150 Chi- 
namen upon a third line was required to pull her over ! The 
captains received $2,250 for their work. It would fill quite a 
volume to describe in detail even the more important portions 
of Mr. Onderdonk's great work. All of the immense quanti- 
ties of giant powder used is manufactured on the line between 
Emory and Tale. Through the favor of the Superintendents 
— Messrs, Daniel Ash worth and B. C. Olesen — I was per- 
mitted to examine the whole of the interesting process. The 
acid works contained 2 vitriol chambers, made of lead, air 
tight, the largest 62 feet long, 22 feet wide, and 20 feet high . 
24 glass condensers for holding' sulphuric acid nearly as larga 
as barrels, costing from $30 to $40 each; 24 great earthen 
jars for nitric acid, and about 200 tons of brimstone from 
Japan, and 60 tons of nitrate of soda from Chile. At the 
nitro-glycerine and giant cartridge works a force of 16 men 
Were manufacturing the terrible explosives at the rate of 1200 
lbs. a day. It requires about two hours to make the powder 
after the sulphuric and nitric acids and the sweet glycerine 
oil and the charcoal have been prepared. The cartridge cases 
are made from strong paper dipped in hot paraffine and wax, 
and are from f to 1 inch in diameter — 118 weighing, when filled, 
about 50 lbs. 

The Yale-Cariboo Wagon Road, 

Another great highway, runs parallel with the Canadian 
Pacific Railway through the Cascade Mountains on the oppo- 
site, or south side of the Fraser. It was built by the Colonial 
Government, in 1862, at a cost of $300,000 to accommo- 
date the great rush to the wonderfully rich gold fields of 
Cariboo, and the travel and trafic resulting therefrom. Be- 
ginning at Tale it crosses the Fraser twelve miles above, over 
the Alexander wire suspension bridge, a fine structure erected 
by Hon. Joseph W. Trutch, in 1863, at a cost of $42,000. From 
thence it follows up the left bank of the river to Lytton, then 
along the Thompson to Cook's Ferry, which it crosses on 
Spence's Bridge up the Buonaparte, through the Green Tim- 
ber forests, down the San Jose, through the beautiful Lake 
La Hache country; again along the Fraser, across the Ques* 



38 



nelle then up the famous Lightning Creek into the heart of the 
mountains and of the richest mining camp 400 miles from 
Yale, 5,000 feet above the level of the sea. Over the steep 
mountain spurs, and across the wild canyons— 62 bridges in 
25 miles — along the brink of frowning precipices thousands of 
feet above the river, and 3,000 feet below the summits, it winds 
through the Cascade Range. 

Slides, avalanches, and floods frequently destroy portions 
of it, $39,000 having been expended for repairs upon the first 
110 miles in 1882. During the great flood of last June the 
water rose within four feet of the Suspension Bridge, which 
stands 88 feet above low water mark. Mr. Black, who has 
charge of the first section of the road, once saw an avalanche 
sweep entirely across the river, above Hell Gate, onto the 
mountain on the opposite side. He expended, one year, 
$2,500 in cleaiing the snow from the first twenty-five miles of 
the road. I walked over it by day and rode over it by night, 
and what, with the grandeur of the mountains and canyons, 
the two great highways which traverse them — only separated 
by the roaring river — the Indian villages and burying grounds, 
the old placer diggings, the tents of an army of Chinese rail- 
way laborers, the long processions of great freight wagons 
drawn by from twelve to sixteen cattle or mules, and hundreds 
of pack animals filing by, driven by Indians, carrying sup- 
plies into the interior, it was a journey of exceeding interest* 
At several points there were wayside inns, orchards, gardens, 
and meadows. Mr. H. B. Dart, of Boston Bar, and Thos. Ben- 
ten, of Kanaka Bar, showed me apple, pear, and plum trees 
bending under their burdens of handsome fruit. 

Lytton. 

Situated on the left bank of the Fraser, just below the mouth 
of the Thompson, fifty-seven miles from Tale, is the first 
place reached after crossing the divide, and the next largest 
in the interior to Barkerville. Looking at the bare, brown, 
rocky foothills surrounding, one wonders what can support 
its score of business houses, hotels, and shops, and two 
hundred residents. It comes from various sources, the rich 
Lillooet country on the river above, railway construction, 



39 



through travel and traffic, and the neighboring Indians. Mr. 
Seward and Thos. Earl have the most extensive and valuable 
improved ranches in this neighborhood, each containing fine 
orchards of apples, pears, cherries, plums, etc. Mr. Earl 
says he gathered $100 worth of apples from one tree this 
season, and one apple which weighed one pound and a 
quarter. Here Mr. Patrick Killroy, the oldest, and most ex- 
tensive resident butcher in the interior, told me that he had 
killed, two, five, and six-year old bunch grass fed steers, which 
weighed, dressed, respectively, 915, 1,336, and 1,400 pounds, 
and showed me the kidney of an ox weighing 69 pounds. 
Beyond Nacomin, near 

Cook's Ferry or Spence's Bridge, 

The road crosses the great mud slide, or moving mountain 9 
which a raildroad engineer said was sliding toward the river 
at the rate of eight feet a year. How to build a railway over 
this changing base, is a problem the engineers are trying to 
solve. I am well acquainted with Mortimer Cook, who 
immortalized himself, and made a fortune here, in the days 
when Cariboo was rolling out her fabulous wealth, by ferrying 
over the armies of gold hunters rushing northward. A man 
of remarkable energy and exceptional ability, he rode into this 
country poor, on a mule, and out of it in good style, a few 
years later, worth his thousands, added to them by successful 
operations in the West, invested all in California, flourished, 
became banker and Mayor of the most beautiful city on the 
Southern coast, and then, in the general financial crash of 
1877, turned everything over to his creditors, like a man. The 
place is now quite a little village, and being situated at the en- 
trance to the Nicola country, will always prosper. Mr. John 
Murray, an old time resident, owns a fine property and ranch 
here, upon which, in addition to excellent grains, vegetables, 
apples^ cherries, plums, and berries, he has grown, this 
season, grapes, which, he says, the Marquis of Lome pro* 
nounced equal to any raised in the Dominion. Crossing the 
Thompson Kiver, on Spence's Bridge, I proceeded thirty miles 
to Cache Creek, past Oregon Jack's, and through 



40 



Ashcroft, 

Lieutenant-Governor Cornwall's splendid estate. The moun- 
tain valleys to the Westward contain excellent summer stock 
ranges, and the rolling river slopes, considerable tracts of 
arable land, producing large crops by irrigation. The 
manager of the Governor's place told me that they raised 
19,500 pounds of wheat from six acres, or over fifty bushels 
per acre, and that thirty-three bushels is their average yield. 
A few miles beyond, Antoine Minaberriet owns a fine ranch of 
2,030 acres, with 400 improved, fourteen miles of irrigating 
ditches, where he has made a fortune by stock-raising. He 
sold $4,000 worth of cattle last year, and has 900 now on the 
range. Between his place and 

Cache Creek 

I came near stepping on a rattlesnake, which gave the alarm 
just in time to enable me to jump out of reach of its 
poisonous fangs. Procuring a sharp stone, and approaching 
as near as prudent, by a lucky throw I nearly severed its 
venemous head. It was about three feet in length, with six 
rattles. They are not numerous, being seldom seen in the 
course of ordinary travel. Cache Creek is situated on the 
Buonaparte, about six miles from the Thompson River. I rode 
through this rich, pleasant valley, with Mr. Thaddeus Harper, 
who owns 25,000 acres of land, large bands of cattle and 
blooded horses, improved farms, gold mines, flour and saw- 
mills, town sites, etc. It contains about 2,500 acres of very 
rich soil, principally owned by Harper, Wilson, Van Volken- 
burgh, and Sanford. Stopping a moment, where wheat 
threshing was in progress, I found the berry to be exceptional- 
ly large and white. Wnen near the Thompson River, the 
proposed site for the junction of the Tale- Cariboo Wagon 
Road with the C. P. R. R., was pointed out. Returning to 
Cache Creek, I rode 275 miles further North to Barkerville 
upon the excellent stage of the 

British Columbia Express Co. 

Their line running the entire length of the great 
Tale-Cariboo Wagon Road, first established as Bar- 



41 



nard's Express in I860, was incorporated as the British 
Columbia Express Company in 1878, Mr. Frank S. Barnard, 
of Victoria, being its managing agent. Horses and men 
were used at first for its traffic over the rough and difficult 
mountain trails. At Boston Bar, I was told about two Indians 
who once sought refuge at an inn, near the Suspension 
Bridge, after haying been covered up and roughly handled 
by an avalanche. As they were leaving, it was noticed that 
they shouldered heavily weighted sacks. Upon enquiry, it was 
found that they were each carrying eighty pounds of gold 
dust for the company, which they safely delivered to Mr. 
Dodd, its agent at Tale; But stages were substituted in 1865, 
and for eighteen years it has been one^of the best equipped, 
and managed stage lines upon the Pacific coast. It is stocked 
with splendid horses raised by Hon. F. J. Barnard, M. P., 
the largest owner in the company, upon his extensive horse 
ranch in the Okanagan country. These spirited animals 
are frequently hitched up, wild from the range, ahead of 
trained ones, and though dashing away at full gallop, 
up and and down hills for miles, over the most fright- 
ful mountain roads, are so skillfully managed by Tingley, Tait, 
Bates, and Moffit, careful and experienced drivers, that 
accidents seldom occur. 

A ride of twenty-six miles in a North- westerly direction, 
fourteen up the valley of the Buonaparte Creek, lightly wooded 
with cottonwobd and poplar, and containing about a thousand 
acres of rich arable bottoms, exclusive of meadows, and 
thence across Hat Creek along the shores of beautiful lakes 
golden bordered with the autumn foliage of the poplar and 
vine maple, brings us to 

Clinton. 

It is a pleasant village of about one hundred inhabitants, 
two good inns, several stores and shops, situated at the junc- 
tion of the old Harrison River, Lillooet, with the Tale -Cariboo 
road. Within a radius of thirty miles there are summer 
stock ranges of considerable extent, especially in the Green 
Lake country and Cut-off Valley, and arable lands producing 
annually about 30,000 bushels of wheat and other grains. 



42 



Late and early frosts frequently cut short the root and vege- 
table crops, though this season's yield was most abundant. 
Mr. Foster, the leading merchant of this section, showed me 
a potato grown near town which weighed two and three- 
quarters lbs. From twenty-five to thirty thousand dollars' 
worth of gold dust is sluiced out yearly by Chinamen and 
Indians along the Fraser and tributary streams within sixty 
miles. The Big Slide quartz lode, owned by Mr. F. W. 
Foster, is reported immensely rich, assaying from $40 to $100 
per ton. About $20,000 worth of furs are purchased here 
annually, principally beaver. A small rapid mountain stream 
flows through the village into the Buonaparte. A few years 
ago it was stocked with trout, and so rapidly have they in- 
creased that a fellow passenger, Mr. Andrew Gray of Victoria, 
brought in forty splendid specimens after an absence not ex- 
ceeding two hours. For fifty miles beyond Clinton, we pur- 
sued a North-easterly course over a rocky surfaced mountain 
divide between the Fraser and the Thompson, lightly wooded 
with black pine, spruce and tamarack, known as the Green 
Timber. Near the summit, at an elevation of 3,660 feet, we 
pass within sight of the Great Chasm, a remarkable rent in 
the mountain nearly a thousand feet in depth, perpendicular 
walled, with two lakelets gleaming- among the pines at the 
bottom. At Bridge Creek there is a pleasant prairie opening 
of six or seven hundred acres with meadows bordering, owned 
by Mr. Hamilton, and used for dairying purposes. Soon we 
are following down the Salmon and San Jose Rivers through 

The Beautiful Lake La Hache Country. 

It embraces an extensive scope of excellent summer stock 
ranges only partly occupied. The winters are very severe but 
dry, and the snow fall moderate. At Lake La Hache, a 
charming sheet of water, scores of trout were seen jumping 
out their full length. A son of Mr. Archibald McKinley, a 
former factor of the Hudson Bay Company, who owns a large 
stock ianch here, said that they could be caught by the boat 
load. On we whirl, at a seven-mile trot, through poplar open- 
ings interspersed with small lakes, bordered by hay meadows. 
At the head of Williams Lake we leave two of our passen- 



43 



gers, Sister Mary Clement and companion, of the St. Joseph 
Mission. En route from Kamloops with a settler of that sec- 
tion, his horses took fright, threw him out, and dashed away 
at full run with the Sisters for over three miles at the im- 
minent peril of their lives. With remarkable presence of 
mind they seized the reins, sat down on the bottom of the 
wagon and held on for dear life. At length, but not until the 
horses had began to slacken their speed from exhaustion, a 
horseman, who had witnessed the runaway from a distance, 
dashed up to the rescue. At the 150-mile House we stopped 
for a late supper, fresh horses, and a few hours' rest. 

A fire broke out in the kitchen of the hotel just as we 
had got fairly stowed away in a far off corner of the second 
story, and sound asleep. I awoke first and arousing my 
bed-fellow, Mr. Gray, we jumped into our clothes double-quick 
and explored our way through a narrow, smoky passage down 
stairs. By hard work the flames were extinguished, but there 
was no more sleep that night. Mr. Gavin Hamilton, for a , 
long time an agent of the Hudson Bay Company at their ex- 
treme North-western posts, owns in company with Mr. Griffin, 
besides the hotel, a large ranch, a store, flour mill &c. They 
estimate that 500,000 lbs of grain are raised in the neighbor- 
hood. A trail leads sixty miles North-east to the Forks of 
Quesnelle and from thence to the neighbouring mining camps. 

A rapid ride of 28 miles the following morning brought 
us to 

Soda Creek, 

A small town situated on the left bank of the Fraser at the 
mouth of the creek of that name. Mr. Bobert McLeese, M. 
P.P., and Mr. P. C. Dunlevy, are the principal traders. The 
latter presented me with a potato grown near Mud Lake, 
which weighed three pounds nine ounces. Here we made 
connection with the steamer Victoria, owned by Mr. McLeese, 
which during the Summer months runs to Quesnelle, about 
sixty miles above, at present the extreme North-western 
steamboating upon the Continent. Capt. Lane, commanding, 
is a grandson of Gen. Jo. Lane, of Oregon, and well-known 
in connection with daring steamboat exploits. The naviga- 



44 



ble stretch of the Fraser abounds in subjects of interest. 
Numerous parties of Chinamen were seen placer mining on 
the bars and benches. Twenty miles oat we pass Alexandria, 
an old Fort of the Hudson Bay Company, but now aban- 
doned, and a few miles beyond, the well-known Australian 
and Bohanan Banches, the most extensive grain farms in 
Northern British Columbia, raising upwards of 400,000 
pounds of wheat and oats yearly, and considerable quantities 
of apples, plums and other fruits. Away to the Westward 
over the terraced pine and poplar wooded bluffs lies the 

Chilcotin Country 

Which embraces several hundred thousand acres of rolling 
prairie, undulating, lightly timbered forest plateaus, as yet. 
unoccupied except by a few Indians, and by bands of cattle 
in Summer. Steaming slowly up the rapid stream, past 
Castle Bock, Cottonwood Canyon and the Pyramids, at five 
o'clock, P. M., the 22nd, we arrive at 

Quesnelle. 

The town is very pleasantly situated on the left bank of the 
Fraser, at the mouth of the Quesnelle, and contains about 
fifty white inhabitants, fifty buildings, two hotels, several 
stores, shops, &c. The Hudson Bay Co., J. B. Skinner, J. 
C. F., and the firm of Beed & Hudson, carry large stocks 
of merchandise and do an extensive trade. The Occidental 
Hotel, Mr. John McLean, proprietor, is one of the best in the 
upper country. Here we resume our journey by stage, and 
before daylight, the 23rd, are on the home stretch for 

The Gold Fields of Cariboo. 

Twenty-two years ago the advance of the bold and hardy 
prospectors, following up the rich diggings of the lower 
Fraser, penetrated as far north as the Forks of the Quesnelle, 
Here Keithley struck it rich upon the creek of that name, and 
then followed in rapid succession those remarkable discov- 
eries which have made Cariboo so famous in the history of 
gold mining. Antler Creek in 1860 and Williams, Lightning, 



45 



Lowhee, Grouse, Mosquito, Sugar, Harvey, Cunningham, 
Nelson, Burns, and Jack of Clubs, in 1861, and then Stouts 
Conklings, McColloms, Beigs, Stevensons, Chisholm, Van- 
Winkle, Last Chance and Davis Gulches in 1862, poured out 
their long hidden treasures by the million. The reports of 
their wonderful wealth spread like wild fire, and miners 
rushed in by the thousands from all parts of the world. 
Victoria was like the encampment of an army of 20,000 men, 
and Tale of 5,000 more. At that time the whole of this im- 
mense interior region was an almost unknown wilderness, 
. without roads, and untrodden except by the native Indian 
tribes and the yearly pack trains of the Hudson Bay Com- 
pany. Over the 400 miles from Yale to Cariboo, over the 
steep and perilous Cascades flocked the great eager throng 
thousands on foot, packing, their blankets and provisions, 
fording rivers, wading deep snows, sleeping on the ground, 
enduring untold hardships by cold and heat, hunger and 
fatigue, to reach the shining goal. 

The rugged mountains of Cariboo became a beehive of 
miners exploring its rivers and creeks. Never were gold- 
seekers more liberally rewarded. Gold was found in unpre- 
cedented quantities. Three hundred and forty ounces were 
taken out by drifting from one set about eight feet by three 
and a-half feet square in the Sawmill claim, originally taken 
up by Hon. R. Beaven, the present Premier of the Province, 
and his associates, Messrs. B. J. Kennedy and Silas James, 
and a big, broad-shouldered German named Diller cleaned 
up one night with 102 lbs. gold as the result of his day's 
work! The aggregate yield of these wonderful deposits can 
never be known. Men who reached the diggings penniless, 
hungry and ragged, left them again in a short time with a 
mule load of gold dust. For several years from 1861 to 1876, 
their annual product is estimated to have ranged from two to 
five million dollars, maintaining since 1872 a yearly average 
of about one and a half million. But of the millions realized 
immense sums were absorbed by the enormous expense, of 
living and conducting mining operations. The costs of trans- 
portation alone were so great that strong men earned from 
$25 and upwards a day packing in supplies upon their backs. 



46 



Provisions sold at almost incredible prices ; flour from $1.50 
to $2 per lb., meats from $1 to $1.50, and salt, $1 per lb. I have 
met an editor, Mr. Holloway , who published a paper in Bar- 
kerville in those days, who received $1 per copy for a five- 
column sheet. The postage on a letter from Victoria 
to the mines was $1. Building materials were correspond- 
ingly high, lumber, $250 per thousand, nails, $1 per lb., &c. 

As in all great mining camps comparatively few carried 
their riches away with them. Hundreds made their tens of 
thousands, and sank them again in unsuccessful efforts to find 
a real bonanza. Others, bewildered by their suddenly acquired 
wealth, spent it as freely as if they were in possession of 
the philosopher's stone which converts everything it touches 
into gold. I have heard of such a miner who went into a 
public house in Victoria, and without provocation, out of a 
spirit of reckless extravagance, merely to show his contempt for 
money, dashed a handfull of twenty dollar gold pieces through 
a costly mirror and then coolly piled them up before the 
astonished landlord and walked away. Crossing the Cotton- 
wood and ascending the mountains along Lightning Creek, 
through the villages of Stanley and Bichfield, by ten o'clock 
we were rattling down the famous Williams Creek into 

Barkerville. 

It is one of the most interesting collections of human habita- 
tions ever piled together by the accidents of flood and the 
fortunes and misfortunes of a great mining camp. Built in 
the narrow bed of Williams Creek it has been so frequently 
. submerged by the tailings swept down from the hydraulic 
mines above, that it now stands upon cribs of logs from 
fifteen to twenty feet above the original foundation. When 
the floods break loose, the inhabitants man their jackscrews 
and raise their respective buildings, each according to his 
views of the impending danger. As a result the sidewalks of 
the town are a succession of up and down stairs from one end 
to the other, with occasional cross walks elevated like suspen- 
sion bridges. Perfect vigilance and sobriety is required to 
navigate these streets in broad daylight, which may in some 
measure account for the temperance habits of the people. 



47 



From Cache Creek to Kamloops and through the North and 
South Thompson, Okanogan, Spallumcheen and Nicola 
Country. 



Returning to Cache Creek, Leighton's stage which makes 
weekly trips to the head of Okanagan Lake via Savona's 
Ferry and Kamloops, had left the day previous. I 
therefore started out on foot six miles up the Cache Creek, 
Valley, previously discribed, and then along the right bank 
of the Thompson-, 18 miles further to 

Savona's Ferry 

At the foot of Kamloops Lake. This portion of the Valley of 
the Thompson is about 4 miles in width from foothill to foot- 
hill, and consists mainly of rolling grazing lands. Bands of 
cattle and horses were seen feeding in all directions, though 
most of the stock ranges in the mountain valleys from spring 
until the beginning of winter. Harper, Graves, Willson, 
Stewart, Sanford, Hoar, Uren, Barnes, Pinney, Goten> 
Craig and Semlin, are the principal stock raisers and 
farmers in this section. Calling at the first house reached 
in the village at the ferry, I found it to be the pleasant} 
home of Mr. James Leighton, post master, telegraph 
operator and proprietor of the Kamloops stage line. His 
father-in-law, Mr. Uren, keeps a good hotel close by, and 
is also the owner of a 370-acre ranch, 500 head of cattle 
and fifty horses. He showed me fine specimens of pump- 
kins, vegetables and fruits grown on his farm and in the 
neighborhood. Mr. John Jane has a store hjere, Mr. James 
Uren a blacksmith shop and James Newland the ferry. At 
Savona's Ferry is the beginning of 140 miles of steamboat 
navigation upon the Thompson and through a succesion of 
lakes, the Kamloops, Little Shuswap and Shuswap Lakes, 
extending to Spallumcheen — 25 miles from the mouth of the 
river of that name and within 19 J miles of the head of Like 
Okanagan. Three steamers, the Peerless, Capt. Tackabery, 
The Lady Dufferin and Spallumcheen, are running jipon these 
waters during about 7 months of the year, from April to 



48 



November, whenever the traffic requires. All of them were 
up the country and the time of their return being quite 
uncertain, on the 28th I walked thirty miles further to 
Kamloops. The wagon road, a good one, follows the south 
shore of Kamloops Lake for a short distance and then turns 
away through a rolling mountainous country, lightly timbered 
with pine along the summits, with bunch grass on the foot- 
hills, and wormwood upon the lower slopes. There are occa- 
sional small lakes, some of them strongly impregnated with 
alkali There are but three or four ranches on this road — 
Roper's, of a thousand acres being the most extensive. He 
has about a thousand head of cattle, and an orchard of apples, 
pears, plums, cherries, <fcc, which has produced 12,000 pounds 
of fruit this season. Indian corn reaches maturity here, and 
melons and tomatoes are grown without difficulty. 

Kamloops. 

Situated at the forks of the North and South Thompson is 
one of the most important places in the east Cascade region. 
It commands the trade of a considerable portion of the 
richest grazing and agricultural sections of the Province, the 
Nicola, Kamloops, Spallumcheen and Okanagan country. 
The Kamloops district, which lies between the Gold Range of 
mountains on the east and Savona's Ferry on the west, the 
north end of Shuswap Lake on the north and Okanagan 
Lake on the south, contained, by the returns of 1881, 8,136 
horned cattle, 1,108 horses, and 2,000 sheep. About 3,000 acres 
of land were under cultivation, the average yield per acre 
being as follows : — Wheat, 1,300 lbs., barley, 1,800 lbs., oats, 
1,500 lbs., peas 2,000, potatoes 1,800, turnips 18,000 and 
hay 2,000 lbs. The largest stock raisers and farmers are 
J. B. Graves, Thaddeus Harper, Bennett & Lumby, Victor 
Guillaume, W. J. Roper, Duck & Pringle, Wm. Jones, Hugh 
Morton, John Peterson, L. Campbell, Thomas Sullivan, 
Thomas Roper, Ed. Roberts, TVm. Fortune, W. J. Howe, A. 
J. Kirkpatrick, Peter Frazer, James Steele, Herman Wich- 
ers, Alexander Fortune, Mathew Hutchison, George Lynn and 
John Edwards. Kamloops was first occupied by the Hudson 
Bay Company, their old fort still standing on the right 



49 



bank of the river opposite. In those days the Indian tribes 
were frequently at war with each other, and the servants of 
the company had to keep a sharp look out for their scalps. 
Uosana Shubert, daughter of Augustus and Kosana Shu- 
bert, who crossed the mountains from Winnipeg in 1862, 
was the first white child born in the place. The town now 
contains about 40 white residents, exclusive of Indians, a good 
hotel by Thos. Spellman, two general stores, the Hudson Bay 
House, by J. Tait, and J. A. Mara's, M.P.P., (formerly Mara & 
Wilson's), a blacksmith shop by A. McKinnon, a wagon shop 
and harness maker. The flour and saw mill of the Shuswap 
Milling Company is located here, James Mcintosh, manager. 
It has a capacity for fifty barrels of flour daily and manufac- 
tures the various grades of rough and dressed lumber. I am 
indebted to Mr. Tunstall, Government Agent at Kamloops 
for much valuable information concerning that section. 

A Ride from Kamloops through the North 
Thompson Settlement. 

The Thompson River, the principal tributary of the Fraser, 
forks at Kamloops, the north branch heading near latitude 
53 between the Canoe Eiver and the north fork of the Ques- 
nelle. It is navigable for light draught steamers to PeaVine, 
a distance of about 125 miles from Kamloops. One of the 
most fa /ored routes of the Canadian Pacific Railroad follows 
up this stream by an easy grade crossing the Rocky Moun- 
tains through the Yellow Head or Leather Pass. It flows be- 
tween mountains from three thousand to six thousand 
feet in height, generally sparsely wooded with fir, pine 
and cedar, though containing excellent bunch grass ranges of 
considerable extent. The rolling foot hills are also covered 
with bunch grass and sage, a fine quality known here as 
worm wood'pre vailing on the lower slopes and benches. Cotton- 
wood, alder and birch grows along the immediate river banks. 
The valley is from one to two-and-a-half miles in width, and 
though specially adapted for grazing purposes contains 
several thousand acres of rich farming lands. The soil is 
variable — gravelly upon the the benches, with a fine deep 



50 

alluvial on the bottom. The Kamloops Indian reservation 
of about 23,000 acres at the Forks of the Thompson com- 
prises about 2,500 acres of its best arable lands. The valley 
has been occupied by the whites since 1865 and contains at 
present ten settlers — Mclvors, Edwards, Sullivan and Kan- 
ouff, on the left bank and Petch, McQueen, Gordon, McAuly 
and Jameson, on the right bank. They are engaged princi- 
pally in raising cattle, horses and hogs, their aggregate stock 
amounting to about 1,100 head. Sullivan and Edwards have 
between four and five hundred head each. Mr. Edwards 
farms upwards of 200 acres of rich bottom land. His wheat 
yields on an average twenty -five bushels per acre. There is 
room for a few more settlers in this valley. Mr. Sullivan says 
there are good cattle ranges in the mountain valleys as yet 
almost untouched. The stock-supporting capacity of this # 
' region must, however, be based upon the extent of the winter 
feed. This is greater than I had supposed, and sufficient by 
the cultivation of tame grasses in the meadows to carry a 
large number of cattle through the severest winters. On the 
30th of September, furnished with a good horse by Mr. Tait 
of the Hudson Bay Company, I rode rapidly over a pretty 
good trail to Jameson's ranch, 17 miles from Kamloops on 
the right bank. Mr. Jameson kindly ferried me over the 
river here which is three hundred yards in width, my horse 
swimming behind the boat. I was hospitably entertained 
for the night at Sullivan's, returning to the forks the follow- 
ing morning, crossing the South Thompson upon an Indian 
flat boat. Since writing the forgeoing I have been informed 
that gold has been found in McAuley's, Jameson's and 
Lewis' creeks, and a four-foot vein of lignite coal upon the 
North Thompson Indian Reservation, 70 miles from Kam- 
loops. 

From Kamloops to Tranquille. 

On the 3rd of October I crossed the Thompson River 
opposite the Hudson Bay Co.'s store, and rode eight miles 
westward along the north shore of Kamloops to Tranquille. 
Low lands and green meadows from one to one-and-a-half 
miles in width, producing thousands of tons of hay extend 



51 



the whole distance on the left. These were alive with ducks 
and wild geese. A low range of mountains sparsely wooded 
with pine upon the summits, with gradually sloping foothills 
stretch away on the right. There is a band of over 200 
native horses living in these mountains belonging to the 
Hudson Bay Co., said to be wilder than deer. They fly like 
the wind upon the approach of horsemen, but are sometimes 
captured by parties of Indians mounted upon their fleetest 
horses, and also in the winter upon snow-shoes, when the 
snows are deep. Tranquille is the home of Wm. Fortune and 
his excellent wife, the former crossing the Rocky Mountains in 
1862 and settling here fourteen years ago. Together they have 
acquired a magnificent property, consisting of a splendid ranch 
of 400 acres (stocked with 250 head of cattle, 100 horses, 100 
hogs and a choice band of sheep) a gristmill grinding eighty 
sacks of excellent flour a day, and a steamboat, The Lady 
Dufferin. The Tranquille River flows through the place afford- 
ing an excellent water power, and abundant water for irrigation. 
Mr. Fortune's garden is one of the best I have seen in the 
Province, growing in great abundance and perfection a long 
list of fruits, berries and vegetables, including melons and 
tomatoes. Learning that there was placer 

Gold Diggings in the Tranquille 

Accompanied by Mr. Fortune I went three or four miles up 
the stream, and was much surprised at their extent and pro- 
duction. From twenty to forty Chinamen have mined here 
for several years and are evidently doing very well. The first 
one whom we asked to show us some gold, brought, out 
several packages containing an ounce or more in each. They 
build log cabins, cultivate gardens, raise chickens and live 
here the year round on the best the country affords. An 
oven was shown me made of rocks and mud, where they 
occasionally roast a whole hog, usually on their national 
holidays. Mr. Fortune says that they frequently go home to 
China and bring back their relatives with them. Returning, 
Mrs. Fortune spread an excellent lunch of home productions, 
— meat, bread, butter, jams, jellies, tarts, fruits, etc. On the 
wall of the sitting room I noticed a first premium diploma 



52 



awarded Mr. Fortune by the North and South Saanich An- 
nual Exhibition of 1879 for flour of his manufacture. John 
Johnson an employee of the Hudson Bay Co., who has 
been in British Columbia for thirty years, took charge of my 
horse at the Forks and paddled me across to Kamloops in a 
dug-out. He remembers but four severe winters during his 
long residence in the Province. 



The Okanagan Spallumcheen Country, 



From Kamloops to Okanagan Mission, via Duck & Pringle's 
Grand Prairie, and Okanagan ; returning through the 
Spallnmcheen, Salmon River, Round and Pleasant 
Valleys. 



On the 4th of October I resumed my journey through the 
south-eastern portion of the Province. For eighteen miles 
to Duck & Pringle's ranch we followed up the South Thomp- 
son, passing through a fine pastoral and wheat growing 
country. The valley proper is from one to one-and-a-half 
miles in width, flanked by mountains, with gradually receding 
foothills covered with bunch grass. From thence we rode 
eighteen miles south-eastward, over smooth, rolling moun£ 
tains from 1,550 to 2,600 teet in height, to 

Grand Prairie. 

These mountains aie thinly wooded with fir and pine, and 
interspersed with lakes, bordered by meadows and marshes. 
Grand Prairie is a rich and pleasant opening, about four miles 
long, and two miles wide, occupied by four settlers, Kirkpat- 
rick, J. Pringle, Jones,, and the Ingrain heirs. There is room 
in tli^B light pine lands bordering it, for a dozen more families* 
Proceeding early on the morning of the 5th, we soon crossed, 
and then followed down, the Salmon River for upwards of 



53 



twenty miles, through a rolling, pine timbered section. This 
stream then flows North into Shuswap Lake, its lower valley 
containing several thousand acres of open, fertile farming land. 
Continuing south-easterly, ten miles brings us to OKeefe's 
and Greenhow's ranches, at the head of Okanagan Lake. 
They came here fourteen years ago with limited means, and 
and are now the owners, each, of 2,000-acre ranches, and 
seven or eight hundred head of cattle, worth twenty-five or 
thirty thousand dollars. We are now in the 

Okanagan Couatry, 

Which, together with the near lying valleys of Spallumcheen 
and Salmon River, embraces the largest scope of pastoral and 
arable lands in one body, in south-eastern British Columbia. 
Okanagan Lake, the source of the Okanagan River, a tributary 
of the Columbia, is about eighty miles inlenglh, and from two 
to three miles in width. 

A survey has just been completed for a canal connecting 
the lake with the navigable waters of the Spallumcheen, only 
about twenty miles from its head. Its construction would 
extend steamboat navigation to within thirty miles of the 
Boundary Line or 49th parallel, and greatly promote the 
rapid settlement and developement of naturally the richest 
part of the interior of the Province. Reaching O'Keef 's at noon 
and lunching hastily, I walked four miles, a^id then mounting 
a powerful horse, galloped thirty-eight miles South on the 
East side of Okanagan Lake and took supper at seven o'clock 
with Eli Lequime at 

The Okanagan Mission. 

I rode through the most magnificent pastoral and farming 
region I have seen since visiting the Walla Walk Valley of 
Washington. On the right a low range of mountains about 
four miles in width reaching to the Eastern shore of the Lake 
extends most of the way. 

They are covered with bunch grass from foot-hill to sum- 
mit, and though lightly pine timbered afford excellent gum,me* 
grazing. Immediately on the left lie a chain of beautiful 



54 



lakes, extending Southward over twenty miles. First Swan 
Lake, surrounded by extensive meadows, and splendid wheat 
lands with a grand stretch of rolling foot-hill grazing lands* 
lying to the South-eastward. Over this section under charge 
of Mr. Vance range the six hundred horses of Hon. F. J. 
Barnard, M. P., the most extensive breeder of fine horses in 
the Province. Here are also the ranches of Lawson, Andrew* 
and Lyons. Next comes Long Lake, eight or ten miles in 
length, and about a mile in width with a large scope of good 
grazing country surrounding its Northern shores. To the 
East lies the Cherry Creek settlement, the home of Hon. G. 
Forbes Vernon, and Girouard, Deloir, Ellison, Walker, 
Keefer, Duer, P. Bissett, Louis Christian and Williams. A 
narrow strip of land known as the Railway separates Long 
Lake from Wood Lake. Tom Wood has a ranch and six 
hundred head of cattle on its South side. 

Now we reach the head of the Mission or 

Okanagan Valley, 

Which is about fifteen miles long, and from three to four miles 
in width. It was first occupied by Peter Lequime and wife? 
who came into the valley almost dead broke from Rock Creek, 
twenty-two years ago, and are now the owners of a thousand- 
acre ranch, 1000 head of cattle, a store, good houses, and 
barns and thousands of cash besides. The soil is a rich sedi- 
mentary deposit growing enormous crops of cereals and roots. 
Mr. Lequime says his wheat averages from twenty-five to 
thirty bushels per acre. He showed me a potato which turned 
the scale at four pounds. Fruit, melons and tomatoes grow 
finely, and Indian corn usually reaches maturity. The cli- 
mate is healthy, water good, and fuel abundant. The lakes 
abound with fish, wild geese and duck. There are about twenty 
white settlers in the valley, engaged principally in stock 
raising, though farming several hundred acres. First below 
Woods' is the Postill Ranch of 800 acres, beautifully situated 
upon Postill Lake. They have 400 head of cattle, 100 horses 
and cultivate 150 acres. Their neighbor, Fulton, was digging 
potatoes, which he estimated would yield over 500 bushels 
to the acre. He had farmed in the East and in California, 



55 



and never saw such a crop. Then follow the ranches of Jones, 
Whelan, Fulton, McGinnis, Simpson, Lacerte, Bucherie, 
Brant, Moore, Simpson, Ortolan, Jos. Christian, Eli Le- 
quime, McDougal and Hayward, in the order named. Two 
settlers, Fronson and Brewer, live in Priest Valley and 
three white men, Major Squires, Copp and Hermann, are 
gold mining on Mission Creek, about seven miles above the 
Mission. There are about 4.000 head of cattle in the Okan- 
agan Valley, and 6,000 in the seventy miles of country be- 
tween the Mission and the Boundary Line. The Government 
wagon road terminates at Lequime's, from whence pack trails 
lead over the mountains to the Custom House, and 160 miles to 
Hope on the Fraser River. On the morning of the 6th, I 
rode forty-two miles to O'Keef's, horseback, then five miles by 
wagon, when a walk of seven miles brought me to Bennett 
& Lumby's ranch, in the 

Spallumcheen Valley, 

The choicest body of farming lands in this whole region. The 
Spallumcheen or Shuswap Biver rises in the Gold Bange of 
mountains, and flows into Shuswap Lake, and from thence 
into the South Thompson. It is navigable for steamboats to 
Fortune's Banch, about 25 miles from its mouth. Undu- 
lating lightly timbered pine lands, several miles in width, ex- 
tend nearly the whole distance. There are occasional small 
openings, the largest, occupied by Mr. Dunbar, containing 
upwards of three hundred acres. He is the only settler upon 
this large tract, which will furnish farms for at least one hun- 
dred families. The soil is a deep clay loam, and the rainfall 
sufficient to secure good crops without irrigation. But the 
most beautiful portion of the Valley of the Spallumcheen does 
not lie along the river, but beginning at Spallumcheen Land- 
ing extends south for fifteen miles, with an average width 
of 2^ miles. It contains about 3,000 acres of level prairie 
opening, exclusive of Pleasant Valley and Bound Prairie, 
comprised within the same valley but separated by narrow 
belts of pine. The soil is a deep clayey loam, producing on 
an average one ton of wheat per acre and abundant crops of 
all the cereals and roots grown in this latitude, and without 



56 



irrigation. The climate is salubrious, water good, winters of 
moderate severity, the snow fall usually about two feet in 
depth. Mr; A. L. Fortune and Mark Wallis, its first settlers, 
in 18GG took possession of the fine farm of 320 acres now 
owned by the former. He cultivates 200 acres, and has 200 
head of cattle, thirty horses, &c. There are about 1,500 acres 
improved in the valley, Herman Wichers, E. M. Furstenau, 
Frank Young, G. J. Wallace, A. Shubert, H. Swanson, W. 
Murray, D. Graham, J. W. Powell, and the Lambly brothers 
being its other occupants. Upon the 

Bennett & Lumby Farm, 

Owned by Messrs. Pi est on Bennett & Moses Lumby, are car 
ried on the most extensive farming operations in this part of 
the Province. Their ranch comprises 1,300 acres, beautifully 
situated in the heart of the valley between pine wooded moun- 
tains on the East and a low range of hills on the West. 
Over 400 acres is arable land, — a splendid level tract all in 
one body, well fenced and nearly all under cultivation. There 
is also a fine meadow of 100 acres adjoining, which produces 
from three to four tons of hay to the acre. A belt of young 
pine and poplar extends along the eastern borders at the base 
of the mountains. Through it flows a living stream of good 
water, upon which, in a pleasant grove of pine, are their 
comfortable and commodious farm houses and barns. They 
have raised about 320 tons of wheat this season, the average 
yield being over one ton to the acre. The most improved 
agricultural implements are used, Osborne's harvester, two 
gang-plows, one sulky plow, seed drills, &c. • 

The Spallumcheen and Okanagan Canal will run the 
whole length of the ranch without touching the arable por- 
tion, and afford extraordinary facilities for the shipment of 
its produce. It is, however, only three miles from the Spal- 
lumcheen Landing, where steamboats run during six or seven 
months of the year. Mr. Lumby, an exceptionally well in- 
formed and cultured gentleman, resides on the place and gives 
it his personal supervision, assisted by Mr. Matthew Hutchin- 
son. Here I had the pleasure of meeting Mr. Bowman, who 
is engaged in a geological survey of this region. He is 



57 



accompanied by Mr. G. Brown, an artist from San Francisco, 
who is making very fine sketches in oil of its incomparable 
scenery. Mr, Brown is the pioneer in the line of oil sketches 
in the Province, and his work merits the liberal patronage of 
the people. 



A Bide Through the Salmon Biver Valley, Okanogan Indian 
Reservation, and Bound Prairie. An Interview with 
His Excellency the Governor- Oenercd, the Marquis of 
Lorne. 

The Salmon Biver, rising in the mountains South-east of 
Kamloops, in its lower course runs parallel with and about 
ten miles from the Shuswap Biver, emptying into the Lake 
of that name. It embraces from three to four thousand acres 
of prairie and rolling foot-hills, and a much larger body of 
open pine land easily cleared for farming purposes. The 
soil is a deep dark sandy loam, producing large crops without 
irrigation* It is occupied by the Steele Brothers, ( James, 
Thomas, and W. B. ) Matthew Hutchinson, Geo. Lynn, 
Donald Matthews, A. C. Wilkie, and Thomas James, 320 
acres each. They cultivate altogether about 400 acres, and 
raise a few cattle, horses and hogs. Mr. James Steele has 
the best improved farm in the valley, and twenty-eight 
thorough-bred shorthorns. 

Mr. A. Postill is building a saw-mill on Deep Creek, 
where there is a considerable body of good pine timber. 
Galloping through it on the morning of October 9th, I 6ver- 
took Wm. Richardson who was blazing the trees from his 
ranch to the main road. He thought it was the best country 
in the world for a poor man. Landing at Burrard Inlet four 
years ago with one dollar and a half, he had since earned by 
his own labor one farm of 160 acres, partly paid for 320 acres 
more, has a small band of horses, and is entirely out of debt. 
A little further on my horse suddenly sprang forward, and a 
small shepherd dog ran by at fall speed. Looking back ex- 



58 



pecting that bis owner was following, great was my surprise 
to see a coyote wolf in full pursuit. He stopped when about 
three rods off, sat down on his haunches, as if knowing- that 
I was unarmed and perfectly harmless. When I advanced 
he retreated deliberately, sitting down again when in climb* 
ing a very steep hill I halted to dismount. Beaching the 
summit I gave chase at full speed, but the cunning animal by 
choosing the roughest ground, escaped. I have seen a shep- 
herd dog and wolf in company once before standing together 
upon the banks of the Rio Grande in Mexico. Riding on 14 miles 
to the head of the valley and turning Eastward, I followed a 
good trail seven miles across the Okanagan Indian reserva- 
tion, a rich bunch grass range capable of supporting 500 
or 600 head of cattle, but unoccupied except by a few- 
Indian ponies. Descending the foot-hills toward Lake 
Okanagan, 

The Governor-General, the Marquis of Lome, 

And party, ex-Lieut.-Govenor Trutch and Col. DeWinton, 
were seen shooting in the distance. The Marquis is very 
popular with the people who came flocking in from the remot- 
est settlements to see him. To use their own language the Mar- 
quis is not in the least "stuck up," but chats as freely with the 
poor as with the rich and titled. One of the settlers told me, with 
great satisfaction, that he had a talk with the Marquis with- 
out knowing who he was, and when he asked him his name 
the Governor replied simply "Lome." His Excellency 
expressed himself to me as highly pleased with what he had 
seen in the Province, and seemed to take a deep interest in 
its further development and prosperity. Mr. Campbell of 
the Governor-General's staff, who accompanied the Earl of 
Dufferin on his visit to the Province, was busy taking notes 
upon the resources of the country. He thinks the scenery of 
British Columbia is the grandest and most beautiful he has 
ever seen. I returned through Round Prairie, a very beauti- 
ful opening of 500 acres, between the Salmon River and 
Spallumcheen Valleys. Messrs. Jones, Kirkpatrick, Prindle, 
Clementson and Shubert, have secured this choice location. 



59 

jFVoro the SpaMumckeen Valley to Messrs. Barnard and Vernon's 
Bcmches, via Pleasant Valley. 

From Messrs. Bennett and Lumby's farm to Mr. Vernon's 
is about twenty-five miles. En route I passed through 
Pleasant Valley a fine level prairie opening of 800 or 900 
lucres, lying a mile and a half to the Eastward of the main 
road. In reaching it by a short cut across a swamp my 
Jiorse suddenly sank belly deep, when, dismounting, we both 
floundered out covered with mud and water. I' found the 
settlers, Clinton & Murray, Edward Thorne, Herman Wichers, 
Donald Graham and the Croziers in the midst of threshing* 
Mr. Murray gave me the yearly product of his cereals for a 
term of six years, which shows an average yield of twenty- 
eight bushels per acre. Being quite wet, to avoid taking cold* 
I left my horse at O'Keef 's, and proceeded from thence on 
foot. Four miles Southeast of the head of Lake Okanagan* 
I took a trail leading along the East side of Swan Lake. At 
least 

A Thousand Wild Geese 

» 

Were standing together upon the shore. Two or three miles 
beyond, darkness overtook me, and after two hours' unsuccess- 
ful search among the foot-hills for Vance's, wet to my waist* 
I found shelter in the cabin of a neighboring settler. It con- 
tained a single room already occupied by two white men, two 
Indian women and their babes. But in the smallest house in 
this country, as in a stage-coach or street-car, there is always 
room for one more, <md after ringing and drying out for an 
hour before a roaring fire I laid down upon a mattress on the 
floor until daylight. Early in the morning I reached 

Hon. P. J. Barnard's Horse Ranch. 

And saw upwards of 400 of his 700 horses now on the range. 
Sired by Belmont, Morgan, and Norman, stallions, they are 
the finest animals I have seen in the Province. Mr. Vance, 
for 14 years manager of the ranch, says that they subsist 
throughout the year upon the native grasses and have suffered 



60 



•from cold and scarcity of feed only one winter during that 
period. In view of the early completion of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway along over 100 miles of the route of the 
British Columbia Express service for which they have been 
raised, a portion of them will probably be sold the ensuing 
year. Five miles further over a rich rolling country, com- 
prising several thousand acres of excellent wheat land, brought 
me to Hon. G. Forbes Vernon's Banch. It contains 
2,500 acres, beautifully situated, between the mountains upon 
Coldstream, which flows into Long Lake. Near here two 
coyotes came leisurely down from the foot-hills and circling 
round me within a short distance, returned up the mountains. 
They are quite numerous, and catch large numbers of small 
pigs and occasionally a young calf. 



From Spallumcheen to Kamloops by Steamer, through the 
Little and Big Shuswap Lakes and down the South 
Thompson. 

From the present head of navigation on the Spallum- 
cheen Biver to Kamloops is about 125 miles. As previously 
stated, the building of a canal twenty miles in length from 
Spallumcheen to the head of Lake Okanagan would extend 
navigation over eighty miles farther through the heart of the 
richest portion of the interior of the Province. The surface 
and soil of the country through which it would pass is very 
favourable for its cheap construction. On the 16th of Octo- 
ber, having exhausted the time at my disposal for examining 
the Okanagan and Spallumcheen country, I took the steamer 
Spallumcheen for Kamloops. The smallest of the three running 
upon the upper waters, she is not of oceanic dimensions 
and being built exclusively for carrying freight, her passenger 
accommodations are very limited. But her deficiencies in 
this respect were the source of amusement rather than dis- 
comfort. Capt. Meananteu, who was also engineer, mate and 
pilot, kindly shared his bunk with me, and when duties on 



61 



deck called away the Indian boy cook and interfered with the 
regular service of meals, I officiated as assistant, and so we got 
along splendidly. 

For two days we slowly steamed through a magnificent 
stretch of lakes and rivers, amidst scenery of exceeding 
grandeur and beauty. For a distance of twenty-five miles 
down the Spallumcheen, both banks are lightly wooded with 
fir, cedar, white pine, poplar and birch* Hazel bushes 
and highbush cranberries are seen growing near the river. 

The valley is from one to three and a half miles in 
width, surface generally level, soil a rich clay loam and allu- 
vial, and will afford homes for more than 100 families* Some 
portions will require dyking to the height of about three feet 
for protection against overflow. Should the Canadian Pacific 
Railway adopt the South Thompson and Kicking Horse 
Pass route these lands will soon become quite valuable* 
When about half way down the Spallumcheen 

A Deer was seen Swimming across ahead of us. 

Giving chase, the frightened animal instead of turning back to 
the shore and escaping, plunged on directly in our course, until 
standing on the bow of the boat, armed with a long pole, I 
was 8ble to strike it a fatal blow on the head. Our two Indian 
helpers sprang into a canoe, seized and threw it on deck, an 
acceptable addition to our larder. 

Swan, wild geese, and duck were seen at almost every 
turn, but there were no firearms, not even a pistol on board. 
"We tied up for the night on the shore of the Lake, opposite 
a logging camp. The best timber found in this part of the Pro- 
vince grows upon the borders of these lakes and of the streams 
flowing into them. A party of Indians were catching fish by 
torch light near us. Salmon and trout were so numerous 
that I could count them by the dozens from the boat as we 
advanced in the morning. Beaching the Thompson Biver, 
the mountains recede more gradually, the bare rolling foot-hills 
affording considerable grazing, and occasional benches of 
arable lands, chiefly occupied by Indians. 



62 



From Kamloop8 to Cook's Ferry, through the Nicola Country. 

The Nicola River, a tributary of the Thompson, is the 
principal stream draining the mountainous region lying be- 
tween the latter, and Lake Okanagan on the East. The valley 
is narrow, and disappointing for the first twenty miles, but 
then spreads out over the rolling foot-hills and mountains, 
embracing one of the finest bodies of grazing country in the 
Province. It contains a population of about six hundred, four 
hundred of which are Indians, the former being engaged 
chiefly in stock-raising, owning at present about 8,500 cattle, 
1,500 horses, and 1,200 sheep. The climate and soil are also 
well adapted to the growth of grain and root crops, upwards 
of a thousand acres being under cultivation by irrigation. 
A fair wagon road trail extends all the way from Kam- 
loops to Cook's Ferry, the distance being a little over one 
hundred miles. With the exception of John Gilmore's ex- 
press, which runs up the valley about halfway from the Ferry 
with H.M.'s mails, it is not traversed by any regular convey- 
ance. Starting out early on the morning of October 18th, for 
nearly twenty miles I gradually ascended the summit of the 
Thompson-Nicola divide through rich, rolling bunch grass 
ranges, occupied by Messrs. McConnell, McLeod, Jones, 
Newman, and others. Then descending Lake Biver, the head 
waters of the Nicola, through Fraser's and Scott's ranches, I 
stopped a few moments at Mr. William Palmer's dairy farm. 
He milks thirty-five cows, churns by water-power, and makes 
an excellent quality of butter and very good cheese, the 
former selling readily for 40 and the latter at 20 cts. per 

pound. 

From thence I took a trail several miles over a spur of the 

mountain, leaving the fine ranches of the Moore Brothers on the 

right. Soon I reach the head of Nicola Lake, a beautiful 

body of water extending down the valley for fourteen miles, 

with an average width of about one mile. The little village 

of Quilchanna, consisting of Joseph Blackbourne's Hotel, 

Edward O'Bourke's store, Bichard O'Bourke's blacksmith 

shop, and P. L. Anderson's store, is situated on the East side. 

A. VanVolkenburgh owns a splendid 2,000-acre ranch here, 

stocked with 900 head of cattle, and Blackbourne, John Ham- 



63 



ilton, George 0. Bent, John Gilmore, Samuel Wasley, Byron 
Earnshaw, and Patrick Killroy, other excellent ranges in this 
neighborhood. 

The Douglas Lake country, lying to the Eastward, con- 
tains a considerable extent of choice pastoral lands, owned by 
C. M. Beak, Hugh Murray, L. Guichon, T. Bichardson, 
McBae Brothers and others. It is said that one of its most 
prosperous stock-raisers recently wedded a lady from the 
Golden State, and started with her for his ranch. The fair 
bride had been led either by the overdrawn statements of her 
anxious lover, or the natural fancies of a youthful, inex- 
perienced maiden, to expect to be ushered into a mansion 
house becoming the possessor of such large bands of fat cattle 
and wide areas of rich pasturage. Now it is well known that 
some of these cattle Lords dwell in habitations which would 
not be considered . first class for any purpose, — single 
room, dirt floor, dirt roof, one window, low, small, dirty log 
cabins, where, in the dim light of a tallow candle, they make 
their slap-jacks, as Ihave seen them, on the top of a dirty stove. 
The happy couple, after a splendid ride through the beautiful 
country, halt before a rough pile of logs, having the appear- 
ance of a stable. "What is this?" the bride asked. "This 
is my home — our home," replied the bridegroom. "Home! 
Home!! Tou — you cruel deceiver, you call that miser- 
able hovel our home? It may do for your home, but it will 
never be mine" she exclaimed with dramatic emphasis, and in 
spite of all entreaties, left him then and there and returned to 
the Sunny South. Nine miles further down the now narrow- 
ing valley brings me to 

Nicola, 

Its principal town. It is pleasantly situated near the foot of 
the lake and comprises a neat little church and school-house, 
Pettit <fc Co.'s store, George Fenson's flour and saw-mill, and 
several private residences. Leaving Nicola, the valley 
broadens again for several miles, stretching away across the 
river bottoms and over the Westward slopes of the moun- 
tains. John Olapperton, A. D. G. Armitage, Paul Gillie, 
Edwin Dalley, John Ohartres, Wm. Chartres, Wm. Voght and 



64 



Alexander Coutlie are the principal settlers of this section. 
The latter has one of the best places in the interior. From 
thence the valley rapidly narrows, and below the Woodward 
farms and mills, to less than a mile in width, flanked by pre- 
cipitous, thinly pine wooded mountains. There are small 
tracts of arable and irrigable lands, chiefly occupied by In- 
dians, James Phair, proprietor of the 22-mile house — a very 
comfortable, home-like inn— being the only white settler for 
the last twenty-five miles. I am informed by Mr. Thaddeus 
Harper and others, that there is a six-foot vein of good bitu- 
minous coal in the central portion of the valley, easily acces- 
sible. 



TRIP NUMBER THREE. 



From Victoria to Burrard Inlet upon the steamer Aleocander, 
Capt. Donald Urquhart, Commanding. A Visit to Port 
Moody, the Moodytnlle and Hastings /Saw-mills, Granville, 
and the Indian Villages, Beturning via Departure Bay and 
Nanaimo. Bound Trip, 215 Miles. 



On Board Steamer Alexander, 

November 11th, 1882. 

Burrard Inlet, an arm of the Gulf of Georgia, extends 
about twelve miles inland from the entrance, between Points 
Grey and Atkinson. Fort Moody, on this harbor, has been 
selected as the Pacific terminus of the Canadian Pacific 
Bailway. Everyone familiar with the topography of the 
North-west coast, and the character of its sea approaches, 
will recognize the wisdom of the choice. The Inlet is a per- 
fect land-locked harbor, with excellent anchorage and easily 
accessible, in all kinds of weather, for the largest ships afloat. 
It is situated about eighty -five miles from Victoria, six miles 
from New Westminster, and thirty-six miles from Vancouver 
Island at Nanaimo. Immediately bordering its shores are 



VICTORIA AND BURRARD INLET ADVERTISEMENTS 

E. M. Johnson, 
Notary Public, Conveyancer, 

AND 

Real Estate Agent. 

Agent for the Principal Owners of the Port 

Moody Townsite, the Terminus of the 

Canadian Pacific Railway. 

All Transactions in Land expeditiously effected 



Loans on Mortgage aitd other available Secu- 
rity Negotiated at Current Rates. 

Maps and all information can be obtained 

at Office, 
Bastion Street, next Bank of B. C, Victoria. 

Postoffice Box 188- 
Correspondence Promptly Attended to. 

The Port Moody Hotel, 

Port Moody, B, C, 

LEWIS J. BONSON, - PROPRIETOR. 



SAVONA'S FERRY, KAMLOOPS, OKANAGAN & NICOLA ADVTS. 

KAMLOOPS EXPRESS 

Carrying H. M. Mails \ haves Cache Creek for Okan- 
agan Mission every Tuesday on arrival of mails 
from Victoria. Passengers and Freight -put 
through on time. General Express Bus- 
iness. Charges Moderate. 
JAMES B. LEIGH TON, - PROPRIETOR 

'"cosmopolitan hotel" 

KAMLOOPS, B. C. 
The Best Hotel in the Interior. 



Hudson Bay House, Gen'l Merch'dse, John Tait, J. C. F. 

J. A. Mara, General Merchandise. 

Mara & Wilson's Steamboat Line. 

Archibald McKinnon, General Blacksmith and Wagon Maker. 

Shuswap Milling Co., Kamloops, 

James Melntosh, Proprietor. 
William. Fortune, Flour and Sawmill, and Steamer 

Lady Dufferin, Tranquille. 
Cornelius O'Keefe, General Merchandise, Okanagan Lake. 
Thomas Greenhow, General Merchandise, Okanagan Xjake. 
Eli Lequime, General Merchandise, Okanagan Mission. 
E. O'Bourke, General Merchandise, Nicola Valley. 
Bichard O'Bourke, General Blacksmith, Nicola Valley. 
P. L. Anderson, General Merchandise, Nicola Valley. 
John Hamilton, Horse Dealer, Nicola Valley. 
Nicola Lake House, Joseph Blackbourn, Proprietor. 
John Gilmore, Stock Banch, and Nicola and Spence's Bridge 

Express, Nicola. 
Nicola Flour & Sawmill, G. Fensom, Proprietor. 
Petit & Co., General Merchandise, Nicola, Valley, Nicola. 
C. M. Beak, Stock-raiser, Nicola Valley. 
John Chartres, Stock- raiser, Farmer, Nicola Valley. 
Alex. Coutlie, Gen. Mdse, Stock-raiser, Nicola Valley. 
B. M. Woodward, Flour and Sawmill, Bosedale, Nicola Val. 
22- Mile House, James Phair Pro., Nicola Valley. 



65 



the largest bodies of valuable fir timber in the Province. 
Here great saw-mills have been in operation since 1865, ex- 
porting immense quantities of timber, direct to ail the princi- 
pal eastern ports of the world. Steam tugs have been employed 
towing back and forth the numerous fleet of vessels engaged in 
this trade ; of these, the Alexander, Capt. Donald Urquhart, 
commanding, is the largest, finest and most powerful on the 
Pacific coast. She was built at Port Essington, near the 
mouth of the Skeena, in 1876, and is 180 feet in length, 
twenty-seven feet wide, with two 400-horse power engines. 
Leaving the fine harbor of Esquimalt on the evening of the 
9th, with two ships in tow, she steamed along easily through 
the Straits and across the Gulf at the rate of eight miles an 
hour. 

At daybreak the following morning we were heading 
directly for a lofty snow-capped peak of the mainland, be- 
neath which flashed the brilliant light of Point Atkinson. 
The dark outlines of the grand old mountains were clearly 
defined against the cloudless starlit sky. Just before round- 
ing Point Gray the rising sun gilded the snow covered sum- 
mit of Mount Baker, and of the Cascade Range. A large 
black whale is rolling and spouting within rifle range on the 
right. Entering the inlet, Indian villages are seen on the 
shores, and two Indians paddle by, making the woods ring 
with their salutations. A dense forest of Douglas pine reaches 
down to the water' s edge, except where leveled by the axe 
of the lumberman. We leave the ships a little beyond 
English Bay, and run alongside the wharf of 

The Hastings Sawmill Company. 

This firm are manufacturing about fifteen million feet of 
lumber annually, most of which is shipped to Chinese, Austra- 
lian and South American ports. Four foreign ships were 
waiting for their cargoes. The company own large tracts of 
the choicest Douglas pine, and frequently fill requisitions for 
enormous sticks of timber, some twenty-six inches square and 
110 feet in length, and forty-two inches at the base and 120 
feet long. The pleasant village of Granville lies adjoining the 
Hastings Mills. It had strong expectations of securing the 



66 



prize which has fallen to Port Moody. Grossing the Inlet 
to the North side, about six miles from the entrance, we dis- 
charge freight at the wharf of the 

Moodyville Sawmill Company 

The most extensive manufacturers and exporters of lumber 
on the coast, North of Puget Sound. Their great mill, fur- 
nished with ten electric lights for night work, completely 
equipped with double circular and gang saws, edgers, scantling, 
planing, and lathe machines, and employing a hundred men, 
were cutting up huge logs at the rate of from 75 to 100 thou- 
sand feet daily, or from' 20 to 25 million feet a year. Quite a 
fleet of ships lay waiting for their cargoes for China, Japan, 
Australia, and the West Coast of South America. The town 
with its mill, machine shop, store, hotel, boarding house, and 
numerous dwellings, and the shipping in front, presented the 
most interesting scene of activity on the Inlet. The company 
own large bodies of the best timber in this region, and have 
about 100 men logging in their several camps. They obtain 
the largest and finest specimens of fir on Howe Sound, Mud 
Bay and Jervis Inlet, furnishing almost any size required. 
Mr. Hickey, chief engineer of the steamer Alexander, 
measured one of them which was seven feet six inches through 
at the butt and six feet and six inches fifty feet therefrom, 
five feet and four inches 100 feet up, and five feet in diameter 
130 feet from its base. These mills are owned by Welch & Co. 
of San Francisco, Mr. George B. Springer being their mana- 
ger at Moodyville, and Welch, Kithet & Co. their agents 
at Victoria. Returning we cross the Gulf, about thirty- 
six miles, to Departure Bay, arriving just as the steam 
collier Barnard Castle is starting for San Francisco. After 
coaling from the North Wellington mine the captain runs 
down three miles to 

Nanaimo, 

The principal mining city of the great coal fields of Van- 
couver and the home of Robert Dunsmuir Esq., M. P. P., 
their largest owner. It is surrounded by the Wellington, 
Newcastle and Vancouver coal mines, the most productive in 



67 



the Province, their aggregate annual output amounting to about 
210,000 tons. A fine bark, the first vessel built here, was 
nearly ready for launching. The suburbs of the city were 
alive with Indians gathering from far and near to engage in 
the festivities of a grand potlatch. 



TRIP NUMBER FOUR. 



From Victoria to Port Moody, the Terminus of the Canadian 
Pacific Railway, via New Westminster. Round Trip, 
164 miles. 

From Moodyville, the farthest point reached at Bur- 
rard Inlet by the Alexander on the 10th inst., I could only 
obtain a distant and unsatisfactory view of the situation of 
Port Moody. I therefore proceeded to New Westminster by 
steamer, and from thence walked six miles to the Inlet. Most 
of the way, great fires have swept through, and nearly 
destroyed the once magnificent forest. A few giant trees re- 
main, a Douglas fir which I measured girting 33 feet, and a 
dead cedar from which the bark had been burned measuring 
47£ feet in circumference four feet from the base. About a 
mile in an old Indian canoe with Peter Calder, brought me to 
the townsite of 

Port Moody. 

It is situated on the South side, near the head of the 
Inlet, a beautiful sheet of water so perfectly sheltered on all 
sides by a thick forest growth that it may be safely navigated 
in stormy weather by the smallest craft. High mountains 
rise abruptly on the North, the Southern shore receding 
gradually over rolling timber lands. This is the favorite 
abode of the mountain sheep, and bears are so numerous that 
they are frequently caught stealing from the mess tents of 
the railway camps. A force of 750 men under the superin- 
tendence of Mr. Albert J. Hill, Assistant Engineer of the 



68 



C.P.R.K., were at work preparing the terminal facilities of 
the great railway which reaches the tide waters of the Pacific 
here. An immense wharf, having a frontage of 1,324 feet, and 
requiring over 20,000 piles for its construction, was approach- 
ing completion. The warehouse is 210 feet long and 48 feet 
wide, and accessible at low tide for ships drawing 24 feet of 
water. Grading for the road-bed was being pushed with all 
possible vigor. Four ships loaded with railroad iron are now 
on their way here from England. Mr. Hill and his wife — the 
first lady resident of Port Moody — were just commencing 
housekeeping in the second story of the new railway offices 
and depot. It requires no prophetic foresight to predict with 
reasonable certainty regarding the future of the terminus of 
such a great railway, stretching from ocean to ocean across 
over 2,500 miles of country, embracing hundreds of millions 
of acres of the choicest pastoral and wheat growing lands in 
America. Fleets of ships will soon be sailing between Port 
Moody and Eastern ports, laden with the exports and imports 
of a great commerce; lines of steamers will run regularly from 
thence to Victoria and the cities of Puget Sound and of the 
South Pacific; connection with the Northern Pacific and 
the American railway system will doubtless be made, and 
machine shops, car-works, ship-yards, and other manufactur- 
ing industries established at an early day. 



TRIP NUMBER HVE. 



From Victoria to North Saanich. Bound Trip, 42 miles. 

Saanich is one of the most important farming settlements 
on Vancouver Island. It is situated upon a narrow peninsula 
from three to six miles in width, surrounded by the waters of 
the Haro Straits and of the Finlayson Inlet or Saanich Arm, 
which extends Southward for about twenty miles nearly to the 
harbor of Esquimalt. Though this portion of Vancouver, 
like most of its surface, is generally covered with a thick 
forest of fir and spruce, it comprises several thousand acres 



69 



of prairie openings. Both soil and climate are well adapted 
to the growth of large crops of hay, grain, roots, hops, &c. 
There are two good turnpikes, known as the East and West 
Saanich Koads, extending from the suburbs of Victoria 
through South and North Saanich. Every few miles there 
are comfortable wayside inns and summer, health and pleasure 
resorts. First, the Swan Lake Hotel, by William Lewis, 
about three miles out from the city ; then the Koyal Oak, by 
John Camp & Son, at the junction of the two roads ; next 
Stephens', about two miles beyond; the Mount Newton 
Hotel, by John Henderson, 13 miles; and lastly, Henry 
Waine's Inn, 20 miles from Victoria, — all convenient to ex- 
cellent fishing, hunting, and boating. 

At the Mount Newton House the waters of Finlayson 
Inlet were seen through the bordering groves of oak and pine. 
The Saanich tribe of Indians have built their village on the 
shore of a pleasant cove on the east side. Approaching it, I 
met two Indians, a man and boy, the former carrying a bow 
and arrow. Expressing my surprise that a grown man should 
be hunting with such a weapon, the Indian said it belonged 
to his son, and that he was only teaching him how to shoot. 
This explanation was made in a manner soapologeticalthatit 
showed that he felt above the use of such savage and childish 
implements himself. Here as elsewhere their lands afford 
little more than a camping place, only small patches being in- 
differently cultivated for root crops, their main support 
coming from the sea, the forest, and rivers. Upon the ground of 
original occupancy, many of the choicest situations through- 
out the Province generally have been reserved for the 
Indians. This I believe to be just, to the extent of giving 
them all the lands which they reasonably require. Where, 
however, as in many instances, both in British Columbia and 
in the United States, extensive tracts have been set apart for 
small bands who do not make any profitable use of the same, 
it is an injustice to the whites who desire and need the land 
for homes and cultivation. From what I have seen of the 
condition of the Indians in various parts of North America, 
I am of the opinion that the time has come to abolish the 
reservation system altogether, and grant to the Indians, indi- 



70 



vidually, liberal quantities of land, giving them a reasonable 
time in which to avail themselves of such an allowance, and 
then open the balance of their reservations to settlement the 
same as upon other portions of the public domain. After a 
good dinner at Waine's, I returned to Victoria by the East 
road, passing several quite extensive, well managed and pro- 
ductive farms. Meeting a party of settlers, they suggested 
what I have often observed, that in following public highways 
many of the finest portions of the country escape notice, and 
by way of illustration invited me to go with them less than 
fifty rods from where we stood — which I did — and saw a beau- 
tiful level prairie of several hundred acres hidden from the 
ordinary traveler behind rising ground and a grove of pines. 



TRIP NUMBER SIX. 



From Victoria to Fort Wr angel, Alaska, with Capt. McCuUoch 
of the Hudson Bay steamer Otter. Through the Canal De 
Haro, Gulf of Georgia, DoddCs Pass, Seymour Narrows, 
Discovery, Johnstone, and Broughton Straits; Queen 
Charlotte, Fitzhugh, Millbank, Wrights, and Chatham 
Sounds ; Tolmie, Greenville, and Revilla Gigedo Chan- 
nels, via Departure and Alert Bays, Fort Bupert, 
Rivers Inlet, Port Essington, Bella Bella, MeUakaUah, 
and Fort Simpson. Magnificent Scenery, Extensive 
Coal fields, Salmon Fisheries, Indian Villages, Trading 
Posts, Missions &c. dtc. Bound Trip 1,600 miles. 

On Board Steamer Otter, 

In Alaska Waters, Sept. 1st, 1882. 

The Hudson Bay Company were the pioneers of the 
steamboat navigation of the waters of the North-west coast, 
having brought the Beaver round the Horn in 1836, the oldest 
steamer on the Pacific, the Otter in 1853, and the Labou- 



71 



chere in 1859. Though at first employed principally in the 
far trading service of the company, they established as 
early as 1862, upon the breaking out of the Stickeen River 
gold excitement, a regular line of steamers for passengers and 
freight between Victoria and Fort Simpson, B. C, running 
occasionally during the summer months to Fort Wrangel, 
Alaska, 160 miles beyond and 750 miles from Victoria. From 
May to September is the most favorable season for the 
voyage, rain, mists and fogs prevailing along the coast North 
of lattitude 56 during a considerable portion of the remain- 
der of the year. On the 26th of August we started from 
Victoria for Fort Wrangel on the steamer Otter. Oapt. 
McCulloch, commanding, has had over twenty years' experience 
in navigating these wonderful waters. An Irishman by birth, 
in 1860 he sailed upon the Nanette for the Island of Van- 
couver. The vessel was wrecked and lost upon Eace Bocks, 
in the Straits of Fuca, a few miles from the harbor of their 
destination, and to this circumstance the New World is in- 
debted for his skillful and faithful services. Following the 
Fraser River route to near Plumper Pass, and then taking 
the Nanaimo Channel, a little past noon we emerged from a 
narrow rock-bound passage, known as Dodd's Pass, and sail- 
ing within sight of the city of Nanaimo, three miles beyond, 
enter the fine little harbor of 

Departure Bay. 

This is the location of the most extensive and valuable coal 
mines on the Pacific Coast. While the steamer was coaling 
I jumped into a car and rode three miles through a thick 
forest of Douglas fir to the North Wellington Colliery, the 
most productive mine now in operation. Here I found a 
pleasant village and several hundred men taking out coal 
at the rate of about 800 tons a day. Five ships and 
two steamers were waiting for cargoes at their wharves 
for San Francisco, Wilmington, Honolulu, and China. 
These mines, owned by Dunsmuir, Diggle & Co., were first 
opened in 1870 and are now being worked by two slopes and 
three shafts to a depth of about 300 feet, the annual output 
amounting to 175,000 tons. Mr. Dunsmuir informs me that 



72 



they are sinking another shaft and can soon take out 2,000 
tons a day if the demand should require it. Resuming our 
voyage that night, early the 27th we were passing opposite 

Comox, 

One of the largest and most prosperous farming settle- 
ments on Vancouver Island, 135 miles from Victoria. We 
are now in Discovery Passage with Valdez Island on the 
right, upon the shore of which the brown huts of a small 
Indian village are visible, and soon enter Seymour Narrows* 
through which the waters rush whirling and foaming at the 
rate often or twelve miles an hour. The most powerful 
steamers seldom attempt to go through against the tide. 
The TJ. S. steamer Saranac struck a rock here a few years 
ago and went down in 500 or 600 feet of water. This is the 
point where the Canadian Pacific Railroad have considered 
the practicability of bridging for an extension of their line 
from the mainland down Vancouver Island to Esquimalt 
Harbor. It would be an enormously expensive undertaking. 
Another glorious day 's ride amidst scenery, of exceeding 
grandeur, through Johnstone's and Broughton Straits, between 
Vancouver, Thurlow, Hardwicke, Oracroft, Hanson, and 
Pearse Islands, all rocky, mountainous and thickly timbered 
with fir, cedar and spruce, just before sunset we arrive at 

Alert Bay, 

Two hundred and thirty miles from Victoria. It is a 
sheltered indentation upon the West side of Cormorant 
Island, opposite the mouth of the Nimpkish River, of Vancou- 
ver, the home of the Nimpkish tribe of Indians from time 
immemorial. They were discovered here by Captain Cook, 
over 100 years ago. They now number about 190, and 
occupy a picturesque village of large houses made from cedar 
logs and planks. The fronts of several were covered with 
grotesque paintings and had tall cedar outposts with hideous 
carvings. As I walked through it, old and young squatted in 
groups upon the ground around the entrances, many in blan- 
kets, and exchanged salutations in a friendly, hearty manner. 



73 



Large quantities of dried salmon, their principal food, hung 
inside of their dismal, windowless houses. In the edge of the 
forest close at hand, suspended among the branches of the 
tallest trees were at least a dozen bodies of their dead. The 
Episcopal Church of England has established a mission 
among them, built a church and school, and placed Rev. Mr. 
Hall in charge. Just as we were leaving, a neatly dressed 
Indian boy passed through the village ringing a bell for 
evening service to which many were responding. Messrs. 
Earl, Huson <fe Spencer built the Alert Bay Salmon Cannery 
here last year, at an expenditure of about $20,000, putting up 
5,000 or 6,000 cases of salmon of superior excellence. The 
salmon are caught in the Nimpkish River, chiefly by the 
Indians. This stream is the outlet of Karmutsen Lake, 
bordering which, there are reported several hundred acres of 
land suitable for cultivation. 

Fort Rupert, 

A village of the Fort Rupert Indians, and Hudson Baj trad- 
ing post is next reached. It is finely situated on the East 
shore of Vancouver Island, about 35 miles from Cape Scott, 
the extreme North-western point of the Island. From thence 
we sailed by moonlight through Queen Charlotte Sound, a 
stretch of about thirty-five miles of open sea, sometimes 
rough enough, but now placid and unrippled, the long swells 
rolling gently without a break, entering Fitzhugh Sound by 
daylight the 29th. " The finest night we have had for six or 
seven months" said the watchman, as I met him on deck early 
in the morning. We had passed the Sea Otter group of 
islands, also Calvert and Hecate, all on the left, and 

Rivers Inlet 

On the right. Here the steamer on her return received seven 
hundred cases of salmon from the Rivers Inlet Canning Co., 
Thos. Shotbolt <fe Co., proprietors, established at the mouth 
of the O-wee-kay-na River in February last. They will pack 
about 5,000 cases this season. The salmon are larger than 
those caught at most other places, frequently weighing 



74 



seventy-five pounds. At nine o'clock we are opposite the 
entrance to Burke's Channel which leads away for fifty miles 
North-eastward through the North Bentic Arm to 

Bella Goola. 

A village of about 300 of the Bella Coola Indians, and a 
trading post of the Hudson Bay Company, W. Sinclair, agent. 
Eev. Mr. Wood, a missionary of the Methodist Church of 
Canada, just returned from there, tells me that the situation 
is a very beautiful one, and that there are about 2,000 acres 
of rich delta lands at the mouth of the Bella Coola River, a 
portion of which are cultivated by the Indians for raising 
potatoes. He also reports finding them in a very degraded 
condition, many of the men living by the prostitution of their 
women. Steaming on through Fisher's Channel we turn into 
Lima Passage, which extends in a North-westerly direction 
into Ogden Channel. When about ten miles up, the vessel 
suddenly rounds into a little cove opposite the Indian village 
and Hudson Bay trading post of 

Bella Bella. 

The Bella Bella tribe having their permanent quarters here 
number about 250. They are entirely self-supporting. 

A resident missionary, Eev. C. M. Tate, is provided by 
the Methodists of Canada. There is no landing, but the en- 
gine had scarcely stopped before we were surrounded by a 
fleet of canoes of all sizes, containing twenty-five or thirty 
natives, men, women and children, who had come, some from 
curiosity, others to receive their friends, several young men of 
the tribe, employes of the Hudson Bay Company, returning 
home for a visit. Their houses are built of logs and plank, 
with low double roof, generally without chimney or windows, 
and one small entrance in front. Numerous graves were seen 
on the neighboring hills, made very conspicuous by the bril- 
liant red bunting floating over them. Bude monuments, con- 
sisting of enormous wooden circulars with images and canoes, 
marked the graves of the chiefs. In less than an hour our . 
voyage was resumed. Crossing Millbank Sound at the close 



75 



of one of the most beautiful days of the year, a bright 
moonlight night, lights us through a succession of most 
remarkable waters — Tolmie Channel, Fraser's and McKay's 
Reaches, Wright's Sound, into Greenville Channel by day- 
break the 30th. 

At Lowe's Inlet, about half way through on the right 
there is a salmon fishing and salting establishment. Precip- 
itous rocky mountains, covered with stunted cedar, their sides 
furrowed by avalanches, and summits white with snow, de- 
scribes the general features of the landscape for hundreds of 
miles. The mountains on the mainland rising to the height 
of 3,500 f*,et, are here called the Countess of Dufferin Range. 
At noon we reach the mouth of the 

Skeena River, 

One of the most important streams in Western British Co- 
lumbia. It has four entrances, the main channel leading 
from Chatham Sound, and is navigable for light draught 
steamers to Mumford Landing, a distance of sixty miles, and 
about 200 miles further for .canoes. This is the shortest and 
best route to the Omineca country, and to several of the Hud- 
son Bay trading posts. 

Port Essington, 

Situated near its mouth, a small village of white traders, and 
about 125 Tsimpsheean Indians, is the principal settlement 
upon its banks. There is one salmon cannery — the Windsor 
Canning Co. — situated at Aberdeen, within sight of the op- 
posite hank, and another — the Inverness — on Inverness 
Slough, about eight miles below. They will put up not far 
from 26,000 cases the present season. Mr. Wm. V. Brown, 
a pioneer miner and prospector, who has spent four years ex- 
ploring this region, reports quite extensive tracts of open 
grazing country, lying between the Skeena and Naas Rivers, 
and also still larger ranges between the former river and 
Fraser Lake. 

About sixteen miles beyond the mouth of the Skeena, we 
suddenly come in full view of the most populous and inviting 



76 



place we have seen thus far, — a neat village of about 150 
houses, beautifully situated upon the Tsimpsheean peninsula. 
A large, fine church and school-house are conspicuously prom- 
inent. There is also a store, Salmon Cannery, and Sawmill. 
This is 

Metlakathla, 

The field of the remarkably successful work of Mr. Duncan, 
in civilizing and christianizing the Tsimpsheean Indians. He 
first established a mission at Fort Simpson, a post of the 
Hudson Bay Company, but for the purpose of greater isola- 
tion in 1862 removed to Metlakathla, where he has gathered 
about 1,000 of that tribe, and through a firm Government and 
faithful secular and religious training raised them from bar- 
barism to the condition of civilized people. They live in 
comfortable houses, dress like the whites, school their chil- 
dren, and worship in one of the largest qhurehes in the Pro- 
vince, erected at a cost of $10,000. 

Fort Simpson. 

About 15 miles further across Chatham Sound, brings us to For 
Simpson, the principal trading post of the Hudson Bay Co. 
upon the Pacific coast. It has been the favorite abode of 
the Tsimpsheean Indians, one of the most populous and power- 
ful of the native tribes of North America from times imme- 
morial. When first occupied by the Hudson Bay Company, 
their village here contained over two thousand people. They 
were found living in houses, many of which are still standing, 
strongly built of great hewn timbers and thick planks split 
from enormous cedars. Some of their canoes, made from a 
single tree, are over 65 feet in length, carrying seventy people, 
and in which they not infrequently make voyages as far South 
as the Straits of Fjica, and North to Alaska. The situation 
was the most commanding which could have been selected for 
traffic with the neighboring tribes. They came here to trade 
from the Skeena, Naas, Sfcickeen, Takou, and Chilkat Rivers, 
the Queen Charlotte and Prince of Wales Islands, Wrangel 
and Sitka, and from the (Jistant interior, to exchange their 
furs for goods. For several years most of this barter was car- 



77 



ried on through the Tsimpsheeans, who would not permit the 
inland tribes to deal directly with the agents of the company, 
but jealously reserved that privilege for their own people. 
Fort Simpson was then the base ol supplies for all the trading 
posts of this region, which were brought in the company's 
own ships direct from England. The fort consists of a simple 
stockade about twenty feet in height, made from large cedar 
poles, with watch and shooting towers, and encloses the store 
warehouses, and quarters of the servants of the company. 
The village contains at present about 800 Indians, most of 
whom live in comfortable houses and dress in civilized cos- 
tumes. Remaining here several hours discharging freight, I 
had the pleasure of meeting Eev. Mr. Crosby and his estima- 
ble wife, missionaries of the Wesleyan Methodist Church of 
Canada, of examining the mission church and school and attend- 
ing an interesting service in the evening. To their noble self- 
sacrificing labors during the past eight years, the marked 
improvement in the condition of these people is mainly due. 
Their houses for worship and^nstruction, erected almost ex- 
clusively by Mr. Crosby and the Indians at a cost of about 
$8,000, chiefly expended for. material, are well designed, well 
built, commodious and comfortable. Taking a purely secular 
view of such results, it must be conceded that the missionaries 
are doing more than all other agencies combined to bring 
these semi-barbarous tribes into peaceful subjection to the 
general Government, and harmonious and beneficial relations 
with the whites. Fort Simpson is situated about 35 miles 
from the mouth of the Skeena, 40 from the Naas, and 160 
miles South-east of Fort Wrangel. Sixty miles or more to 
the Westward lie 

The Queen Charlotte Islands, 

The extreme North-western land of British Columbia. Count 
Zuboff, a Eussian geologist, who has spent two summers 
upon these islands, gives me a very interesting account of their 
geography, resources and inhabitants. Their extreme length 
is 156 miles, and their greatest width 52 miles. Mountains 
thickly wooded with cedar, spruce and hemlock, cover most 
of their surface, though Graham Island, one of the largest 



78 



of the group, contains a tract of timberless grazing land suffi- 
cient, it is estimated, to support over a thousand head of cattle. 
The climate is comparatively mild, and snowfall so light that 
stock would subsist throughout the year entirely upon the 
native grasses. It is peopled by the Hvdahs, evidently of 
Asiatic origin, the finest specimens, physically, and the most 
courageous of all the native tribes. They live in villages upon 
the seashore, building large and substantial houses from 
great logs and planks of cedar. They now number 
about 850, but were formerly much more populous. Hunting, 
fishing, and trapping is their main dependence, though they 
are great canoe builders, supplying them to the other tribes, 
and also very skillful workers in gold and silver, and carvers 
upon wood and slate. Bold and skillful navigators, and war- 
like, they ruled among the natives of these northern seas, and 
until a comparatively recent date have been hostile to the 
whites. Now they are friendly, and anxious for missionary 
teachers, who are about to establish a school for their in- 
struction. The Count has discovered an extensive vein of lignite 
and a four foot vein of anthracite coal, and also coal-oil there. 
Graham Island has been occupied as a trading post by the 
Hudson Bay Company since 18 , and for the last four 
years by the Skidegate Oil Company, which is manufacturing 
a very excellent lubricating and burning oil from sharks. 
They are so numerous in the surrounding waters that the 
Company have caught over 5,000 in thirty-six hours, by 
means of thousands of strong steel hooks, fastened by cotton 
cod lines to a fifteen thread hemp rope, and anchored in 
from seven to thirty-five feet of water. At daybreak on the 
morning of the 30th we were crossing the waters of the en- 
trance to the Portland Channel, into which flows the 

River Naas. 

This stream abounds with salmoti, and is the greatest known 
resort of the oolachan, which swarm here by the million, and 
are caught by the Indians in the Spring of the year in im- 
mense numbers. A kit of them salted has just been brought 
on deck. They are a bright silver colored fish, smaller than 
the herring, of more delicate flavor and so rich in oil that when 



79 



dried they burn like a candle. It is extracted in large quan- 
tities and forms a staple article of diet and barter among the 
natives. There are also two salmon fisheries near the mouth 
of the river, Croasdaile & Co's. and Welwood & Co., the 
former packing about 7,500 cases, and the latter several 
hundred barrels of salted salmon this season. 

Upwards of a thousand Indians dwell upon the banks of 
this river, within seventy-five miles of its mouth, most of 
whom are being reached, in their villages of Kincolith, 
Greenville, Ahyns and Kitladamax, by missionaries, Dunn, 
Green and Kobinson, the first sent out by the Episcopal 
Church of England, and the two latter by the Wesleyan Meth- 
odists of Canada. Mr. Robinson describes them as being 
very friendly to the whites, he having been the only white 
man in their village of Kitladamax for several months at a 
time. We are now in the American waters of Alaska, the 
Portland Channel being the dividing line between British 
Columbia and that Wilderness Possession. 



ALASKA. 



Alaska is a vast region stretching away 1,400 miles north 
from 54 degs. 40 min., and over 2,000 miles from the Pacific 
Ocean Eastward. High, rocky, precipitous mountains, thickly 
covered with forests of cedar and hemlock, extend over nearly 
all that portion embracing the first four hundred miles of 
coast, known as Southern Alaska. The interior, so far as ex- 
plored, contains a diversified surface of mountains and plains, 
lakes, marshes, meadows, lowlands and rolling plateaus, 
through which flows a mighty river, the Yukon, as broad as 
the Amazon and navigable for 1,500 miles. It is inhabited by 
the aboriginal tribes, the Eskimos, Aleutes, Kenaians and 
Tlinkets, numbering, altogether, perhaps, 25,000 souls. The 
climate of Southern Alaska is comparatively mild but very 
disagreeable, owing to the excessive rainfall. The winters of 
the interior are extremely cold and the summers hot. 

There are about 300 whites in the Territory, mainly at 
Sitka, Juneau and Fort Wrangel. Mountains, forests, islands, 
straits and channels innumerable, rock-bound shores and 



80 



snow-clad peaks compose . the general outline of the scene 
which meets the eye on every hand. Thickly wooded from 
the summits of all but the highest peaks, there is scarcely a 
spot in all these last hundreds of miles which invites settle- 
ment. It is as grand a wilderness as lies under the dome of 
heaven, and abounds in great resources of fish, fur and 
minerals, the utilization of which will attract and support 
scattering communities, but beyond this the immigration of a 
hundred years will probably make but little change in the 
face of Alaska. The climate and soil of the southern coast 
especially, is adapted to the growth of grasses, potatoes, car- 
rots, turnips, cabbage, etc., but the area susceptible of cul- 
tivation is so extremely limited as to practically exclude the 
agriculturist. Captain Oakford, Collector of Customs at 
Fort Wrangel, told me yesterday that he received frequent 
letters from people in the East who thought of coming to 
Alaska. One man wrote that he was well provided with ag- 
ricultural implements, meapers, mowers, etc,, and wished to 
engage in farming on a large scale. Such inquiries indicate 
that erroneous views are entertained abroad concerning this 
region. It is scarcely possible to exaggerate its resources of 
fish, and it is undoubtedly the greatest range both as to 
number and quality of valuable fur bearing animals in the 
world, and also rich in coal, copper, and gold ; but its habit- 
able lands and timber supplies have been greatly over-esti- 
mated. With the exception of a few hundred acres upon the 
bottoms and deltas of the rivers, I have not seen nor been 
Able to hear of any tracts of open arable country exceeding a 
few acres in extent. And while the forest area is so vast, only 
very small portions comparatively are either fit or avail- 
able for the manufacture of lumber. There are small bodies 
of enormous cedar, or cypress, and scattering tracts of good 
spruce, but probably 75 per cent, of the forest comprises 
stunted cedar, spruce and hemlock, growing upon scanty 
soil, and among the crevices of the rocks, in many places 
dying for want of nourishment. Mr. George Williscroft, who 
has owned and operated a sawmill at Georgetown, near Fort 
Simpson, for eight years, manufacturing about 900,000 feet 
of lumber annually for the local market, tells me that above 



81 



Deans' Canal, B. C, the Northern limit of the fir or Douglas 
pine, though he has examined the country thoroughly, he, 
knows of no good timber in sufficient quantities to warrant 
the manufacture of lumber for the general export trade. At 
Fort Wrangle I found Mr. William Woodcock, who has been 
in Alaska for several years, swearing over the Rev. Sheldon 
Jackson's statement before a Congressional Committe con- 
cerning it, which lay spread out before him. Mr. Jackson 
says in substance that the climate and resources of the coun- 
try are such that it is bound to have a large population, but 
that he cannot encourage immigration into it until provided 
with some form of government, for the security of life and 
property. While nearly all agree that it should have a local 
magistrate or commissioner with power to enforce law and 
order, all whom I have consulted, quite a number of traders, 
miners, and others who have been in Southern Alaska from 
two to fourteen years, are unanimous in the opinion that the 
very reasons, the character of its climate and resources, which 
Mr. Jackson thinks offer inducements to immigration, will ex- 
clude it except to quite a limited extent. Speaking more 
from information obtained from such sources than personal 
observation, it is difficult to understand how that any man of 
intelligence and honesty at all familiar with the country, 
could, under any circumstances, be induced to recommend it for 
colonization by the American people. Its fish, furs and min- 
erals are alone worth more than it cost, and will attract con- 
siderable settlements along the Southern coast, and hardy 
Northmen will doubtless by slow degrees settle in the vast 
almost unknown interior, though Alaska may probably for 
generations to come be most fitly described as the " Great 
Lone Land." 

Heading for Cape Fox, the abandoned U. S. Fort Ton- 
gass and an Indian village adjoining are seen in the distance 
on the right. A little farther on the U.S. Coast Survey steamer 
Hasler, lying at anchor in a snug httle harbor on the left, 
sends out a boat and receives her mail. Then steaming on 
through the Eevilla Gigido Channel, Duke of Clarence and 
Stachinski Straits, before daylight the 31st I was awakened 



82 



by a loud prolonged chorus from the wolfish yelping Indian 
dogs of 

Fort Wrangel, 

And going upon deck iound the steamer nearing the landing. 
The town is situated on Wrangel Island, seven miles from the 
mouth of the Stickeen, 160 South-east of Sitka, and contains 
about thirty resident whites and several hundred Indians. 
The Presbyterian Indian Mission Church, the McFarlan 
Home, and the former Government buildings, are the most 
conspicuous among the 150 or more houses and cabins 
crowded together on thePpicturesque shore. The Indian vil- 
lage comprises several houses of large size built from great 
cedar logs and planks generally without partitions, but some 
having floors, and all an open central fireplace. These are 
frequently paved with smooth stones, but have no chimneys, 
the smoke escaping through an opening in the roof. The great 
cedar posts, three feet in diameter supporting the monster ridge 
poles, and also columns standing in front from forty to fifty 
feet in height, were covered from the ground up with rude 
grotesque carvings of Indians, bear, beaver, frogs, fish, eagles, 
ravens, and frightful imaginary hobgoblins. They were for- 
merly supposed to be objects of worship, but are now known 
to represent family and tribal totems, crests and heraldic de- 
signs. Fort Wrangel is an important point for the purchase 
of Alaska far, and also does a considerable general trade with 
the Indians and the Cassiar mines. Wm. J. Stephens, W. 
King Lear, Benjamin Levi, and Oscar Northrup are the prin- 
cipal traders. Mr. Stephens showed me a splendid lot of ftu^ 
comprising otter, beaver, mink, wolverine, wolves, lynx, seal, 
and sea lion, including a bull fur-seal over 8£ feet in length. 
His shipments of fur last season were valued at $26,000. This 
is also the winter rendezvous of the Cassiar miners. The 
principal mines are situated on Dease Creek, 238 miles North- 
east, 160 miles up the Stickeen river to Glenora, then a port- 
age of 85 miles to the head of Dease Lake, and from thence 18 
miles farther by water. The Juneau gold fields of Alaska 
are situated near the mouth of the Takou river, 160 miles 
North-west from Wrangel. 



83 



Parties just down from these mines report several claims 
paying from $8 to $16 per day. 

On the evening of the 31st the Otter turned hey bow 
homeward. A heavy rain fell during the first night, and in 
the morning scores of streams were plunging and flashing 
from the snowy summits down the avalanche farrowed sides 
of the high, precipitous mountains bordering the channel of 
Bevilla Gigido. Sailing through the same wonderful water- 
ways, traversed on the upward voyage, through long stretches 
of river-like passages, shadowed by their mountain walls, 
across Sounds affording more extended and grander views,— 
then through an archipelago of innumerable rock-bound 
islands and islets, with arms and inlets reaching out in all 
directions, on the 7th of September we arrived safely in 
port at Victoria. 



CARD. 

Victoria, B. C, 20th Dec., 1882. 

In conclusion, I tender my sificere thanks to Sur- 
veyor-General W. S. Gore, and Thos. Elwyn, Deputy 
Provincial Secretary, to whom I am under special 
obligations for government maps, documents, etc. I 
shall soon publish, at San Francisco, a second edition 
of " The Watering Places, Health and Pleasure Re- 
sorts of the Pacific Coast." It will be a well bound, 
illustrated volume^ of about 150 pages, embracing 
descriptions from personal observations and experi- 
ence^ of the principal sea-side, lake-side and mountain 
resorts and mineral springs from Mexico to A laska* 
The following are among the places which will be 
prominently noticed : Victoria, Puget Sound, Gray^s 
Harbor, Shoalwater Bay, Sea View, Ilwaco, Tilla- 
mook and Taquina Bays; Wilhoit, Foley^s, Harbin^s, 



84 



Highland, Pierson*$, Witters, Ziegler^s, Howard's, 
Bartlefs, Allen's, Hough's, Calistoga, White Sul- 
phur, Congress, Gilroy Paraiso, Paso Robles, A r- 
royo Grande, Santa Barbara, The Ojai, A rroivhead, 
Temescal and Pulton Mineral Springs; Lakes Ta- 
hoe and Donner, the Calaveras Big Trees, Yosemite, 
Monterey, Pescadero Pebble Beach, Santa Cruz, Santa 
Barbara, Nordhoff, Santa Monica, Passadena, San 
Gabriel, Orange and San Diego. 

Persons desirous of obtaining copies of the same at 
$2.00, please address me at San Francisco. 

N. H. C. 



Mr. and Mrs. £. Maynard, of Victoria, the leading pho- 
tographic artists of the North-west coast, have the most com- 
plete collection of British Columbia and Alaska views extant, 
They have been taken by Mr. Maynard, personally, for which 
purpose he has traveled extensively through the interior, and 
along the coast as far north as Portage Bay, within thirty-two 
miles of the Yukon. 



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Special attention to cases in the Supreme Court of the United States, Court of 
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Memorandum and Blank Books, of all sizes and styles. We keep a large assortment 
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