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Full text of "The seven periods of English architecture defined and illustrated"

Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO 

by 

SCARBOROUGH COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 



JMJ.VU.LL11I lil&l JUN 1 t) 






THE 



SEVEN PERIODS 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



THE 



SEVEN PERIODS 



OF 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE 



DEFINED AND ILLUSTRATED. 



BY 



EDMUND SHARPE, M.A., 

ARCHITECT. 



TWENTY STEEL ENGRAVINGS AND WOODCUTS. 



THIRD EDITION. 



, 




E. & F. N. SPON, 125, STRAND, LONDON. 

NEW YORK: 12, CORTLANDT STREET. 
1888. 




K/i 
HI 
5 5 




PREFACE. 



" WE have been so long accustomed to speak of our National 
Architecture in the terms, and according to the classification 
bequeathed to us by Mr. Rickman, and those terms and that 
classification are so well understood and have been so univer- 
sally adopted, that any proposal to supersede the one, or to 
modify the other, requires somewhat more than a mere apology. 
To disturb a Nomenclature of long standing, to set aside terms 
in familiar use, and to set up others in their place which are 
strange, and therefore at first unintelligible, involves an inter- 
ruption of that facility with which we are accustomed to com- 
municate with one another on any given subject, that is only to 
be justified by reasons of a cogent and satisfactory nature. 

" The sufficiency of Mr. Rickman's Nomenclature and Divi- 
sions, and their suitableness at the time and for the purpose for 
which they were made, are best evidenced by the fact that, 
although the attempts to supersede them have been both 
numerous and persevering, they have remained for nearly half 
a century the principal guide to the Architectural Student ; and 
Mr. Rickman's ' Attempt to discriminate the Styles of Architec- 
ture in England,' is still the Text-book from which the greater 
part of the popular works of the present day have been com- 
piled. 

"In referring, however, to these attempts to supersede Mr. 



vi PREFA CE. 



Rickman's system, it is proper to remark that one observation 
applies to the whole of them ; although they propose to change 
the Nomenclature of his different styles, or to subdivide them, 
his main division of English Architecture into four great Periods 
or Styles, is adopted by all, and still remains undisturbed. No 
point, therefore, has been hitherto proposed to be gained by 
these alterations, beyond a change of name ; and this may be 
taken as a sufficient reason why none of these attempts have 
been successful : men are not willing to unlearn a term with 
which they are familiar, however inappropriate, in order to learn 
another, which, after all, means the same thing. 

" Although, however, Mr. Rickman's simple division of 
Church Architecture into four Periods, or Styles, may perhaps 
have been the one best suited to his time, and to the elementary 
state of the knowledge of the subject possessed by the best 
informed Archaeologists of his day, it may with propriety be 
questioned how far such a division is suited to the exigencies of 
writers of the present day, or to the present advanced tastes 
of knowledge on the subject. 

" Simplicity was doubtless the object Mr. Rickman had in 
view in his division of English Architecture into four Styles 
only. This is a recommendation, however, which can hardly be 
said to hold good at the present day : it behoves us to consider 
well, perhaps more especially .at the present moment, whether 
Mr. Rickman's system fulfils all the conditions essential to one 
calculated for popular and universal use ; and whether we 
should therefore seek to confirm and to perpetuate it, or whether 
the time has not arrived for the adoption of a more detailed and 
accurate division of the lon^ and noble series of buildings which 



PREFACE. < vii 

contain the History of our National Architecture from the 
Heptarchy to the Reformation." * 

No one can enter into an inquiry of this kind without 
eventually coming to the conclusion that there are two large 
classes of Buildings containing distinctive marks of peculiarity 
of character, which find no place in Mr. Rickman's system, but 
which nevertheless, from the number and importance of their 
examples, are pre-eminently entitled to separate classification. 
These two classes are those to which the buildings enumerated 
at pp. 24, and 31, 32 respectively belong, and which cannot, 
without circumlocution, be described in any of the terms pre- 
scribed by Mr. Rickman. 

As regards the earlier of these two classes, the extent to 
which these distinctive peculiarities of detail exist, will perhaps 
at first scarcely be credited, and proofs of a much more exten- 
sive and satisfactory character than are contained in the follow- 
ing pages, or could be looked for in an elementary work of this 
nature, will probably be required before its title to separate 
classification will be universally conceded. 

As regards the later of these classes, the same difficulty does 
not exist. Mr. Rickman divided the whole of the buildings of 

o 

Pointed Architecture into three Styles or Classes, which he 
denominated " Early English," " Decorated," " Perpendicular." 
The titles of the two last he professed to derive from the 
character of their windows, conceiving, no doubt justly, that no 

* The preceding paragraphs, distinguished by inverted commas, formed part 
of. the introduction to a Paper " On the Geometrical Period of English Church 
Architecture," read by the Author at the Lincoln meeting 'of the Archaeological 
Institute in July 1848. 

b 



viii PREFACE. 

part of a Gothic building exhibits peculiarities of Style in so 
prominent and characteristic a manner as its windows. In strict 
accordance with this rule, which may be assumed to be a correct 
and valuable one, it has already been shown,* that had Mr. Rick- 
man gone a step further and classed the whole of the buildings 
of Pointed Architecture according to the forms of their Windows 
under four heads, instead of three, he would have obtained a 
classification equally simple, but more intelligible and con- 
venient ; he would have obviated much that is confused and 
indefinite, and therefore perplexing to the Architectural Student, 
in his description of buildings which belong to the class to which 
we are now referring, and would have enabled us to compare 
the buildings of our own Country with those of corresponding 
character, and nearly contemporaneous date on the Continent, 
in a manner that would have established an analogy between 
them, which, according to the present classification, has no 
apparent existence. 

The inability to describe, or speak of any of the buildings 
belonging to either of these two classes, including some of the 
finest in the kingdom, otherwise than as examples of an in- 
termediate and anomalous character, exhibiting the peculiari- 
ties partly of one style and partly of another, but belonging 
specifically to neither, must be admitted to be a serious 
defect in all hitherto recognised systems of Architectural 
Nomenclature ; and there are probably few Architecturalists 
who have not frequently felt the inconvenience arising from 
the want of more explicit and definite terms than at present 

* " Treatise on the Rise and Progress of Window Tracery," by E. Sharpe, 
M.A. Van Voorst, London. 



PREFACE. ix 

exist, by means of which to describe the buildings of these two 
classes. 

It is to remedy these defects, and to provide for this want, 
that the following division of the History of our National 
Architecture into Seven Periods instead of Four, is now formally 
proposed, under the belief that some such Division as this, by 
whatever terms it may be characterised, will sooner or later force 
itself into universal adoption. With respect to the terms them- 
selves it would be unreasonable to expect the same unanimity ; 
the following considerations, however, would seem to bring 
their selection within narrow limits. It would appear, in the 
first place, unadvisable to designate any of the later Periods, 
except the last, by any of the terms hitherto in use, as tending 
probably to confusion and misapprehension, from the difficulty 
of limiting their signification to the extent proposed in the minds 
of those who have been accustomed to use them in a more 
ample sense : and to retain the last, if the others be abandoned, 
and a more appropriate or analogous term can be found, appears 
to be still less desirable. 

At the same time it is much to be desired that the terms we 
use should be not altogether strange, and, if possible, self- 
explanatory. These two conditions are such as to render it 
difficult to find terms such as to be in all respects perfectly 
satisfactory ; and perhaps no system of Nomenclature could 
be found so perfect as to be entirely free from objection. 

The reasons which have caused the adoption of the terms 
made use of in the following system, are fully given in their 
proper place, and it only remains for the Author to notice that 
the terms " Curvilinear " and " Rectilinear " were first proposed 

b 2 



x PREFACE. 

by a writer in the ' ' British Critic," some years ago, as a sub- 
stitute for Mr. Rickman's terms "Decorated" and "Perpendi- 
cular ; " and in a sense, therefore, as regards the former of these 
terms, essentially different from that in which it is here proposed 
to be applied. The rest must be more or less familiar to all 
who have been of late engaged in the study. 

The Author desires to take this opportunity of acknowledg- 
ing his obligations to Mr. T. Austin, by whom all the subjects, 
with one exception, have been measured and drawn from the 
buildings themselves ; as well as to Mr. G. B. Smith, by whom 
the whole have been engraved on steel, for the accuracy and 
appearance of the principal illustrations. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER I. 



I'AGE 
I 



CLASSIFICATION 



CHAPTER II. 



COMPARTMENTS 



CHAPTER III. 



CHAPTER IV. 



SAXON PERIOD 



CHAPTER V. 



NORMAN PERIOD 



CHAPTER VI. 



TRANSITIONAL PERIOD 



21 



CHAPTER VII. 



LANCET PERIOD 



xii CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

PAGE 

GEOMETRICAL PERIOD .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 29 



CHAPTER IX. 
CURVILINEAR PERIOD .... 33 

CHAPTER X. 

RECTILINEAR PERIOD .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 37 



LIST OF PLATES. 



Exterior 
Interior 
Exterior 
Interior 



NORMAN PERIOD. 
ELY CATHEDRAL 

11 11 . . . . 

PETERBOROUGH CATHEDRAL 



Nave. 

11 
Choir. 



Exterior 
Interior 



TRANSITIONAL PERIOD. 



RIPON CATHEDRAL 



Choir. 



Exterior 

Interior 

Exterior 

Interior 

Exterior 

Interior 



LANCET PERIOD. 

ELY CATHEDRAL 

11 11 

LINCOLN CATHEDRAL 



Presbytery 

11 
Nave. 


Choir. 



Exterior 
Interior 
Exterior 
Interior 



GEOMETRICAL PERIOD. 

LINCOLN CATHEDRAL 

11 11 

LICHFIELD CATHEDRAL 



Presbytery 

11 
Nave. 



xiv LIST OF PLATES. 



CURVILINEAR PERIOD. 

Exterior ELY CATHEDRAL Choir. 

Interior . . , , 



RECTILINEAR PERIOD. 

Exterior WINCHESTER CATHEDRAL . . . . Nave. 

Interior .. .. 



THE SEVEN PERIODS 



OF 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

To present at a single glance a comprehensive view of the 
History of English Church Architecture from the Heptarchy to 
the Reformation, and to do this in a manner, which, without 
taxing too seriously the memory of the student, may enable him 
to fix in his mind the limits, and the general outline of the 
inquiry he is about to enter upon, is the object of the present 
treatise. 

Instead therefore of entering, as is usual in elementary 
works of this nature, into a detailed account of all the parts 
of an Ecclesiastical structure, a certain portion only of such a 
building has for this purpose been selected, and so exhibited in 
the garb in which it appeared at successive intervals of time, as 
to present to the reader a means of comparison that will enable 
him readily to apprehend the gradual change of form through 
which it passed from the Eleventh to the Sixteenth Centuries, 
and at once to recognise the leading characteristics of the 
several Periods into which it is here proposed to divide the 
History of our National Architecture. Having thus fixed these 
leading characteristics in his mind, he will then be in a condition 
to follow us hereafter, if he pleases, into the detail of the whole 

B 



INTR OD UCTION. 



subject, and to become familiar with those niceties of distinction, 
the detection of which escaping, as they do, the eye of the 
general observer contributes so materially to the enjoyment of 
the study,' and a perfect acquaintance with which is so absolutely 
essential to a correct understanding of the true History of the 
Art. 

That this mode of approaching the study of this subject is 
a convenient one, will probably be admitted by those who 
may remember the difficulties they encountered, in their early 
attempts to acquire a general conception of the scheme of the 
History of Church Architecture, as given in most of the manuals 
now in use ; and the complexity of detail in which they found 
themselves immediately involved on the very threshold of their 
inquiry. 

It has been the practice in most elementary works on 
Church Architecture to derive the illustrations of the subject, 
indifferently from the smaller and the larger buildings of the 
Kingdom ; and by implication to assign an equal authority to 
both. It will be readily admitted, however, that the History of 
an Art is to be gathered from its principal Monuments, and not 
from those the design or execution of which may have been 
entrusted to other than the ablest masters of the Period : in the 
choice, therefore, of the examples which have been selected to 
illustrate the series of changes which are described in the 
following pages, reference has been made principally to the 
great Cathedral, Abbey, and Collegiate Churches of the King- 
dom, and occasionally only to some of the larger Parish 
Churches whose size or importance would seem to bring them 
under the above denomination. 



( 3 ) 



CHAPTER II. 
CLASSIFICATION. 

CHURCH ARCHITECTURE in England, from its earliest existence 
down to the Sixteenth Century, was in a state of constant 
progress, or transition, and this progress appears to have been 
carried on, with certain exceptions in different parts of the 
country, very nearly simultaneously. It follows from this 
circumstance, first, That it is impossible to divide our National 
Architecture correctly into any number of distinct Orders or 
Styles ; and secondly, That any Division of its History into a 
given number of Periods, must necessarily be an arbitrary one. 
It is nevertheless absolutely essential for the purpose of 
conveniently describing the long series of noble monuments 
which remain to us, that we should adopt some system of 
chronological arrangement, which may enable us to group, and 
to classify them in a distinct and intelligible manner : and 
although no broad lines of demarcation in this connected series 
are discernible so gradual was the change yet so rapid and so 
complete was it also, that a period of fifty years did not elapse 
without a material alteration in the form and fashion of every 
detail of a building. 

Now it will be readily conceived that, even in the midst of 
this continual change, certain favourite forms -would remain in 
use longer than others ; and that this circumstance may possibly 
afford us the opportunity of which we are in search ; and enable 

B 2 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



us in the adoption of any such arbitrary Division so to define 
and to characterise the Architecture of its different Periods, as 
to render this Historical Survey and our future descriptions 
sufficiently intelligible. 

One principal Division of Church Architecture has been 
recognised and adopted by all who have studied and written 
on the subject ; that, namely, which separates Ecclesiastical 
Buildings into two classes, in the first or earlier of which the 
circular arch was exclusively employed ; and in the second or 
later, the pointed arch alone was used. To the former of these 
two Classes, the term ROMANESQUE has been given, and to the 
latter, the term GOTHIC. 

This division is so simple, and at the same time so strongly 
marked, that without entering into a discussion as to the value 
or propriety of the terms themselves, and contenting ourselves 
with the fact that they are already in general use, we can have 
little hesitation in adopting this primary division as the ground- 
work of our system. 

At the same time, it is manifest, that, for purposes of de- 
scription, it is not sufficiently minute ; and that a further sub- 
division is necessary : it is also clear, that it excludes a large 
class of buildings that were erected during the period which 
intervened between the first appearance of the pointed arch, 
and the final disappearance of the circular arch. 

As regards the buildings of the Romanesque Period, no 
subdivision of them can be more satisfactory than that which 
has already been for some time in use, and which divides them 
into those which were built before and after the Conquest, 
and designates them accordingly SAXON and NORMAN. 

As regards the buildings of that Intermediate Period just 
mentioned, to none can the term TRANSITIONAL so aptly be 
applied as to those erected under influences created by that 



CLASSIFICA TION. 



remarkable contest between two great antagonistic principles, 
which, after having been carried on for a period of nearly fifty 
years, terminated in a complete revolution in the style of building 
at the end of the Twelfth Century. 

Lastly, as regards the Gothic Period, no subdivision of it 
appears to be so natural and convenient, as that which is 
suggested by the four principal changes of form through 
which the Window passed from the Thirteenth to the Fifteenth 
Centuries. 

These changes have been fully illustrated by the author in a 
former work,* and will be therefore only briefly recapitulated 
here. 

For half a century or more, after the disappearance of the 
circular arch, the window appeared under a form, which from 
its general resemblance to a 
lancet, in its length, breadth, 
and principal proportions, 
rather than from any uni- 
form acuteness in the shape . 
of its head, led to the uni- 
versal application of that 
term to all the windows of 
this Period. This observa- 
tion applies equally to the 




TEMPLE CHURCH. 



window whether used singly, 

or in groups of two, three, five, or seven ; and equally also to 

the later as to the earlier examples of this Period. 

It is proposed therefore to denominate this the LANCET PERIOD 
of Gothic Architecture. 

Towards the close of this Period the practice- of combining a 

* " Treatise on the Rise and Progress of Window Tracery." Van Voorst, 
London. 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 




plurality of Lancets, under one arch, or hood-moulding -and of 
piercing the solid spaces that intervened between the heads 

of these lancets and the under- 
side of this arch in various orna- 
mental ways, became common ; 
by the adoption of which, a group 
of several lancets was converted 
into a single window of several 
lights. Out of this practice arose 
a novel and beautiful discovery ; 
this was the invention of Tracery. 
CROFT For nearly three-quarters of 

a century after its introduction 

the Tracery of windows contained forms in which that simplest 
of all Geometrical figures, the Circle, was principally conspi- 
cuous : and although, in the latter part of this Period, the Circle 
does not obtain the same prominent place, in the centre of the 

window-head, and as the princi- 
pal feature of the design, that is 
generally allotted to it in the 
earlier examples, yet the import- 
ant part that it bears in the 
construction of the design of 
even the whole of these later 
examples, fully justifies the ap- 
plication of the term, already 
P rett y generally in use, to this 
class of windows ; and entitles 
us to call this Period after that figure, and " par excellence," 

the GEOMETRICAL PERIOD. 

At the close of this Period a feature began to make its way 
into the subordinate parts of the tracery, which had already 




linn 



CLASSIFICATION. 




WILSFORD. 



shown itself for some time previously in the mouldings, and 
which eventually exercised a most important influence on the 
Architecture of the next half-century. 

This feature is the curve which mathematicians call the 
curve of contra-flexure, and which 
is known amongst architectur- 
alists as the Ogee. 

The flowing nature of this 
curve imparted to the Tracery 
a grace and an ease which the 
rigid outline of the Circle denied 
it : and affords us a strong point 
of contrast whereby to distin- 
guish the Architecture of the two 
Periods. The sinuosity of form 

which characterises the tracery, pervades also the mouldings, 
the carved work, and all the details of this Period, and enables 
us to designate it appropriately as the CURVILINEAR PERIOD. 

In the latter part of this Pe- 
riod, a horizontal bar, or transom, 
as it is called, was occasionally 
used in the lower part of the 
window. Whether this bar was 
introduced for the purpose of 
strengthening the mullions, or for 
the sake of proportion, it speedily 
grew into frequent use. At the 
same time also vertical lines pre- 
sented themselves occasionally in 

the Tracery ; a new principle, in fact, had made its appearance, 
which rapidly overran not only the windows, but the doorways, 
the arcades, and every part of the building. The straight line, 




WINCHESTER. 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



when once introduced, quickly superseded the curved line ; 
square panels covered the walls ; angularity of form pervaded 
even the mouldings and minor details, and to the round finish, 
the square edge was preferred. 

This, the last of the four Periods of Gothic Architecture 
which extended over a term of nearly two Centuries, we pro- 
pose accordingly to call the RECTILINEAR PERIOD. 

The History of our National Architecture will thus be divided 
into Seven Periods, the order and duration of which are as 
follows : 

ROMANESQUE. 

A.D. A.D. YEAKS. 

I. SAXON PERIOD .... from - - to 1066, prevailed 
II. NORMAN PERIOD . . . 1066 1145, 79 

III. TRANSITIONAL PERIOD . 1145 1190, 45 

GOTHIC. 

IV. LANCET PERIOD . . . 1190 1245, 55 
V. GEOMETRICAL PERIOD . 1245 1315, 70 

VI. CURVILINEAR PERIOD . . 1315 1360, 45 
VII. RECTILINEAR PERIOD . . 1360 1550, 190 




CLERE-STORY. 

27 Boss. 

26 Vaulting Ribs (Transverse). 

2 5 do. (Longitudinal). 

24 Vault. 

23 Sill of C. Window. 

22 Mullion of do. 

21 Tracery of do. 

20 Arch-mouldings of C. Arch. 

19 Bases of Jamb of do. 

18 Capitals of do. 

17 Jamb-mouldings of do. 

16 Clere-story String. 



BLIND-STORY. 
(Triforium.) 



15 Capitals of Vaulting Shaft. 

14 Tracery of Triforium. 

13 Triforium-Arch. 

12 Bases of T. Piers. 

1 1 Capitals of do. 

10 Pier of T. (Secondary). 

9 do. (Primary). 

8 Triforium String. 



GROUND-STORY. 

7 Corbel. 

6 Vaulting-Shaft. 

5 Pier-Arch. 

4 do. Band. 

3 do. Base. 

2 do. Capital, 

i Pier. 



INTERIOR COMPARTMENT. 



C 2 




CLERE-STORY. 

28 Parapet. 

27 Cornice. 

26 Clere-story Buttress. 

25 Flying Buttress. 

24 Tracery of C. Window. 

23 Window Arch. 

22 Mullions of C. Window. 

21 Sill of do. 

20 Jambs of do. 

19 Weather Table. 



AISLE COMPARTMENT. 



1 8 Aisle Roof. 

17 Capping to Buttress. 

1 6 Parapet. 

15 Cornice. 

14 Gurgoyle. 

13 Canopied Set-off. 

12 Plain Set-off. 

1 1 Tracery. 

10 Window Arch. 

9 Mullion. 

8 Sill. 

7 Bases of Window Shafts 

6 Capitals of do. 

5 Jambs. 

4 Canopied Niche. 

3 String-Course. 

2 Buttress. 

I Base-Course. 



EXTERIOR COMPARTMENT. 



CHAPTER III. 

EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR COMPARTMENTS. 

THE most perfect type of a church built in England, during the 
best ages of Church Architecture, may be said to contain the 
following essentials : 

1. The Ground Plan is after the form of the Latin Cross, 
and is divisible longitudinally into three portions ; namely, 

THE CHOIR, 
THE TRANSEPTS, 

THE NAVE. 

2. The Choir and the Nave, and occasionally the Transepts, 
are divided, by means of columns and arches, transversely into 
three portions, consisting of the 

CENTRE AISLE, 
NORTH AISLE, 
SOUTH AISLE. 

3. The MAIN WALL of each of the first-mentioned separate 
portions of the building is divisible, in the interior vertically into 
three portions, or Stories, consisting of 

THE GROUND-STORY, 

THE TRIFORIUM OR BLIND-STORY, 

THE CLERE-STORY. 

/ 
Now on viewing any of these Main Walls of a building, 

whether on the inside, or the outside, it will be at once seen 



1 4 ENGLISH AR CHITECTURE. 

that they consist, in their entire length, of a series of single and 
separate portions, or Compartments, tied together, and connected 
by the horizontal lines, or String courses, which traverse them 
from end to end ; and that each of these single Compartments 
embodies within itself the spirit of the whole design, and may be 
said to represent, individually, the MAIN IDEA of the Building. < 

It is this portion of such a building then a single Compart- 
ment of the Exterior and Interior of the Main Walls of the 
Choir or Nave, and its adjacent Aisle that we have selected 
for the purpose of instituting that comparison which will enable 
us to fix and define the characteristics of the Seven Periods of 
English Architecture. 

Neglecting, therefore, for the present, the Gable Ends, the 
Towers and Turrets, the Porches, the Doorways, the Chapels, 
the Cloisters, and all the other adjuncts of an Ecclesiastical 
Building, and bestowing our entire attention upon these 
Exterior and Interior Compartments, we will proceed at once to 
a comparison of their several parts, and consider in order the 
mode of treatment they received at the hands of the builders, of 
each of these Seven Periods, commencing with the earliest and 
descending to the latest. 






CHAPTER IV. 
THE SAXON PERIOD. 

A.D. - TO A.D. I066. 

INASMUCH as there does not remain to us a single Exterior or 
Interior Compartment in any Cathedral or Conventual Church 
of genuine Saxon Architecture, the comparative illustration of 
this Period is rendered impossible. 

A few Piers and Arches exist indeed, in all probability, in 
the Churches of BRIXWORTH in Northamptonshire, St. Michael's 
at ST. ALBANS, and REPTON in Derbyshire ; but they differ 
considerably in their character from one another, and as widely 
probably in their date. We have also a few Chancel and 
Tower arches left, which appear to belong to this Period ; as 
well as some singular and interesting Towers, a few Doorways 
and Windows, and some considerable portions of masonry. 
Altogether, however, these remains are not such as to enable us 
to define, with any degree of certainty, the nature and character 
of the Main Walls of a Saxon Cathedral, and are, therefore, 
not available for our present purpose. 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



BUILDINGS 



THE SAXON PERIOD. 



BRIXWORTH 
REPTON 
BARNACK . . 
BARTON 

EARL'S BARTON. 
WHITTINGHAM . 
CAMBRIDGE 
SOMPTING . . 
DEERHURST 
CORHAMPTON . 
STANTON LACY. 
ST. ALBANS 

STOW 

WORTH 
WING . 



All Saints' Church 

St. Wistan's Church 

St. John's Church 

St. Peter's Church 

All Saints' Church 

St. Bartholomew's Church 

St. Benet's Church 

Parish Church 

Holy Trinity Church . . 

Parish Church 

St. Peter's Church 
St. Michael's Church 
St. Mary's Church 

Parish Church 

All Saints' Church 



Nave, Tower. 

Crypt, Chancel. 

Tower. 

Tower. 

Tower. 

Tower and Pier-arch. 

Tower. 

Tower. 

Tower. 

Nave. 

Nave. 

Nave. 

Transepts. 

Nave, Chancel. 

Chancel. 



CHAPTER V. 

NORMAN PERIOD. 

PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTIC. 

THE UNIVERSAL USE OF THE CIRCULAR ARCH IN EVERY PART OF A BUILDING 
THROUGHOUT THE WHOLE PERIOD. 

Exterior Compartment. 

THE walls of a Norman building are usually strong and massive, 
and built of small stones. They have a plain BASE-COURSE, of 
little projection, and are generally finished above with a CORBEL- 
TABLE, consisting sometimes of a series of small arches, on rude 
heads, and sometimes of a projecting horizontal table resting on 
a series of rudely sculptured blocks. Upon this Corbel-table is 
a plain PARAPET and COPING where these are left, which is rarely 
the case. 

The compartments are divided by a shallow BUTTRESS or 
PILASTER STRIP. 

The WINDOWS are low and broad, and have usually a single 
shaft set in an angular recess, carrying a cubical capital and a 
single roll. 

The STRING-COURSES, when not plain, have frequently in- 
dented ornaments of different kinds such as the billet, the 
saw-tooth, the star, and the chevron. 

The CLERE-STORY WINDOWS, in the larger and richer buildings, 
are usually placed in an arcade, consisting of three or more 
arches, of which the centre one, filled by the window, is the 
largest. 

D 



I 8 ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

Interior Compartment. 

The proportions of the interior are invariably heavy and 
massive. 

The PIERS consist either of a stout cylindrical column, or of 
a rectangular mass, having semicircular shafts attached to its 
different faces. They are sometimes, when circular, scored and 
ornamented with zig-zag, spiral, and other mouldings. 

The CAPITALS are formed of a cubical block, rounded off on 
the lower side from the square to the circle, and are ordinarily 
of a heavy cumbrous character, and sometimes ornamented with 
rude sculpture of leaves and animals, carved in slight relief on 
the surface of the block. 

The PIER-ARCHES, in early examples, are perfectly plain, and 
square edged, without mouldings or ornament ; but more 
frequently they carry one or more heavy rolls on the angle of 
each order of the arch ; and are often ornamented richly with 
concentric rows of chevron, billet, and other Norman ornaments. 

The VAULTING or ROOF-SHAFT is usually a semicircular shaft 
rising from the floor on the face of every alternate Pier to 
the springing of the vault or roof. 

In the earlier buildings the TRIFORIUM is generally occupied 
by one large arch, of somewhat less span and height than the 
pier-arch : but in the later examples, this arch is generally sub- 
divided into two, and later still, into four small arches, carried 
on single shafts ; the capitals, arch-mouldings, and other details, 
being all on a smaller scale, but of similar character, to those of 
the Ground-story. 

In most Norman buildings of large size, the Triforium forms 
a very important part of the design of the Interior. 

The CLERE-STORY in nearly all large buildings carries a gallery 
made in the thickness of the wall, which passes between the 



NORMAN PERIOD. 1 9 



Clere-story Window and the inner face of the Main Wall. 
This inner face is accordingly carried on one or more arches. 
In Norman buildings, this Clere-story arcade usually consists of 
three arches, of which the middle one is the largest, and corre- 
sponds with the window. In some examples, this middle arch is 
stilted above the others, by being lifted on a second small shaft 
on each side, standing on the lower one which carries the side 
arches. 

In almost all buildings of importance, an ARCADE is carried 
along the walls of the Church below the side-aisle windows. 
In Norman buildings this usually consists of a series of single, or 
intersecting circular arches, resting on small cushion capitals on 
single shafts. 

The side-aisles are usually covered with a plain circular 
quadripartite VAULT, having sometimes a diagonal rib, as well as 
a transverse band, moulded with single roll mouldings. 



20 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS 

OF 

THE NORMAN PERIOD. 



TOWER OF LONDON . 
ST. ALBANS 

ROCHESTER 

WINCHESTER 
HEREFORD 

ELY '. 

LINCOLN 

CARLISLE 

SELBY 

GLOUCESTER 

CHICHESTER 

WALTHAM 

SOUTHWELL 

DURHAM 

CHRISTCHURCH . 

NORWICH 

TEWKESBURY 

DURHAM 

LlNDISFARNE 
ROMSEY 

WINCHESTER 

ELY 

PETERBOROUGH . . 
NORWICH 
CASTLE ACRE 



. White Chapel. 
. Abbey Church 
. Cathedral Church 
. Cathedral Church 
. Cathedral Church 
, . Cathedral Church 
. Cathedral Church 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Abbey Church 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Abbey Church 
. . Abbey Church 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Priory Church . . 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Abbey Church 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Abbey Church 
. . Abbey Church 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . Priory Church . . 



, . Transepts, Nave. 

. . Nave. 

. . Transepts.. 

. . Nave. 

. . Transepts. 

. . West End. 

. . Nave. 

. . Transepts, Nave. 

. . Nave. 

. . Nave. 

. . Choir. 

. . Transepts, Nave. 

. . Choir. 

. . Transepts, Nave. 

Choir. 
. . Nave. 
. . Nave. 

. . Transepts, Nave. 
. . Choir, Transepts. 
. . Tower, Transepts. 
. . Nave. 
. . Choir. 
. . Nave. 
. Nave. 



CHAPTER VI. 
TRANSITIONAL PERIOD. 

PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTIC. 

THE CONTEMPORANEOUS USE, IN THE SAME BUILDING, OF CIRCULAR AND 

POINTED ARCHES. 

Exterior Compartment. 

ON the outside the usual prevalence of the circular arch in the 
WINDOWS and DOORWAYS, gives still a Norman character to the 
building ; but the BASE-COURSE and BUTTRESSES begin to show 
greater projection, and the walls are lightened in proportion. 

The invariable Billet moulding disappears from the STRING- 
COURSES. 

The WINDOWS are more elongated in form, and have lighter 
shafts. 

The circular CORBEL-TABLE gives place to a regularly moulded 
CORNICE, carried on a series of blocks of uniform profile ; and a 
sloped COPING covers the PARAPET. 

In some of the latest examples indeed, the BUTTRESSES have 
SET-OFFS, and, rising above the parapet, have also a pyramidal 
Capping. 

An increasing lightness of proportion is perceptible in all parts 
of the buildings of this Period. 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

Interior Compartment. 

Except in the earliest examples of this Period, the heavy 
cylindrical column disappears ; and the PIER consists of a lighter 
mass of semicircular shafts, and square edges ; occasionally also, 
a shaft having a pear-shaped section is substituted for the semi- 
circular shaft. 

The CAPITALS consist still of a square block, moulded down to 
the circular form below ; with this difference, however, that the 
lower part of the capital is hollowed down to the circle, instead 
of being left as in the Norman Period, full and round ; the latter 
showing a convex, and the former a concave profile. Both the 
larger and the smaller Capitals have also very frequently an 
ornament peculiar to the Period, which consists of a small volute, 
forming the curled end of a plain leaf, which enfolds the bell of 
the Capital. This volute may be looked upon as one of the 
most characteristic features of the Period. The abacus of the 
capital is invariably square in plan, and has its upper edge 
(except in a few of the latest examples) also square in section. 

In the later buildings of the Period, foliage, exhibiting con- 
siderable freedom of design, is occasionally to be seen. 

The Pointed Arch first made its appearance in the Transi- 
tional Period ; in the earlier buildings it is used in the Arches of 
Construction only, or those constituting the framework of the 
building, such as the Pier-arches and the Arches of the Vaulting, 
and of the Crossing ; whilst the Circular Arch is used in the 
Arches of Decoration only, or those which may be said to 
constitute the panel-work, such as the windows, the arcades, the 
doorways, and such like. In the later buildings of the Period, 
however, the Pointed Arch is frequently found in some of the 
smaller arches also. 

The PIER-ARCHES, therefore, are almost invariably pointed, in 



TRANSITIONAL PERIOD.' 23 

the earlier examples obtusely, and in the later examples often 
acutely ; the mouldings, which have become much lighter, are 
few and plain ; carrying usually a roll, or a pear-shaped moulding, 
at the angle of each order of the arch : they frequently have no 
HOOD-MOULDING. All the usual rich ornaments of the Norman 
Style disappear, but the Chevron occurs occasionally, and another 
ornamental moulding somewhat resembling it, but peculiar to 
this Period, is frequently seen. 

The STRING-COURSES do not usually carry any ornament, and 
have commonly a simple section peculiar to the Period. 

The VAULTING or ROOF-SHAFT has usually a pear-shaped 
section. 

The TRIFORIUM-ARCADE has usually Circular Arches, but in 
the later examples the two forms of arch are frequently inter- 
mixed. The Shafts are of a much lighter character, and carry 
arches of simple mouldings. 

1 O 

The Pointed Arch, if found anywhere in the arches of Deco- 
ration, is generally to be seen in the CLERE-STORY, the highest 
part of the -building, and consequently the latest in point of 
construction. 

Plain pointed quadripartite VAULTING not unfrequently covers 
the side-aisles, and sometimes the centre-aisle. 

The contrast presented by the discriminate use of the two 
forms of arch before mentioned, is sometimes strikingly exhi- 
bited in the side-aisles, where it is by no means uncommon to 
find a large plain circular window placed immediately under an 
acutely pointed wall rib, forming part of the contemporaneous 
pointed VAULTING of the side-aisle. 



PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS 



OF 



THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD. 



MALMESBURY . . 

NORTHAMPTON 

FOUNTAINS 

KIRKSTALL 

BUILDWAS 

KELSO 

ELY 

PETERBOROUGH 
ST. CROSS 

FURNESS 

LONDON 

RIPON 

BRINKBURN . . 

LLANTHONY . . 

OXFORD 

DURHAM 

ROCHE 

NEW SHOREHAM 

SELBY 

BYLAND 

JEDBURGH 

HARTLEPOOL . . 

GLASTONBURY. . 

GLASTONBURY. . 

CANTERBURY . . 

CANTERBURY . . 

CHICHESTER . . 

WELLS 



Abbey Church 
St. Sepulchre's Church 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church 
Temple Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Abbey Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church 
Parish Church 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 



Nave. 

Nave. 

Transepts, Nave. 

Choir, Transepts, Nave. 

Choir, Transepts, Nave. 

West Transept. 

West Transept. 

West Transept. 

Choir, Transepts. 

Transepts, Nave. 

Nave. 

Choir, Transepts, Nave. 

Choir, Transepts, Nave. 

Choir, Nave. 

Choir, Transepts, Nave. 

Galilee. 

Choir, Transepts, Nave. 

Choir, Transepts. 

Nave. 

Choir, Transepts, Nave. 

Nave. 

Chancel, Nave. 

Choir, Transepts, Nave. 

St. Joseph's Chapel. 

Choir. 

Trinity Chapel, Becket's crown. 

Choir, North Chapel. 

Transepts, Nave. 



CHAPTER VII. 

LANCET PERIOD. 

PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTIC. 

THE LANCET WINDOW USED SINGLY, IN COUPLETS AND TRIPLETS, AND 
ARRANGED IN GROUPS OF FOUR, FIVE, AND SEVEN. 

Exterior Compartment. 

THE BUTTRESSES have considerable projection, are divided into 
stages, and have usually a plain pyramidal capping, and some- 
times a plain pinnacle. 

The BASE-COURSE Has also more projection and importance, 
and its upper members are frequently moulded. 

FLYING-BUTTRESSES often span the roof of the side-aisle to 
support the main vaulting. 

The WINDOWS in the earliest examples stand alone as single 
windows ; they are also sometimes placed singly in a continuous 
arcade ; later still in triplets under one arch, the centre one 
being the tallest, and in some instances two lancets are coupled 
under one arch, the spandrel between them being frequently 
pierced with a quatrefoil, or other opening. 

The PARAPET has occasionally sunk ornaments upon it, and is 
carried by a cornice having a few deep mouldings, with a flower, 
or other ornament at intervals, or by a trefoiled Corbel-'table, or 
by a series of blocks. 



26 ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

Interior Compartment. 

The PIERS consist most commonly of a cluster of shafts, dis- 
posed in a circular form. These shafts sometimes stand entirely 
free, and surround a large circular or octagonal column, and are 
banded in the middle. 

The CAPITALS have sometimes one or two rows of stiff pro- 
jecting leaves, of a bulbous form, which appear to grow out of 
the neck of the capital, and sometimes a single or double series 
of minute deeply cut mouldings ; the square form of capital, 
both in the plan and in the upper edge of the abacus, entirely 
disappears. 

The BASES consist almost invariably of a deep small hollow, 
set between two rounds, standing on a square-edged plinth ; and 
greatly resemble the ordinary Attic base. 

The PIER-ARCHES usually show three orders, of small deeply 
cut mouldings of alternate rounds and hollows, the number and 
depth of which give an exceedingly rich and characteristic 
appearance to all the arches of this Period. The peculiar orna- 
ment called the dog-tooth, which is formed by hollowing out the 
sides of a series of contiguous pyramids notched out of an 
angular projection, occurs constantly in the arch-mouldings, as 
well as in almost every other part of buildings where an oppor- 
tunity of carving it presents itself. 

The HOOD-MOULDING, resting on small and elegant heads or 
bosses, is an almost invariable accompaniment of arches of every 
description. 

The VAULTING-SHAFT sometimes rises from the floor in front 
of the principal Pier, but more usually from a corbel-shaft, 
resting on a large ornamental corbel, placed immediately over 
the pier ; it consists generally of a triple cluster of small elegant 
shafts, with hollows between them. 



LANCE T PERIOD. 2 7 



The TRIFORIUM-ARCH generally covers two smaller arches ; 
but occasionally, a pair of principal Triforium-arches cover two 
pair of subordinate arches, which are sometimes plain, and 
sometimes trefoiled ; the spandrel wall above them being 
ornamented with foliage, or a sunk trefoil, and sometimes 
pierced through with a quatrefoil or other opening. Sometimes, 
indeed, one large primary arch covers two secondary arches, 
which again contain two small tertiary arches ; thus fully develop- 
ing the principle of subordination in this part of the building. 

The principal TRIFORIUM-PIERS generally exhibit a row of light 
shafts on the face of a solid pier, carrying arch-mouldings of 
three orders, and separated sometimes by a line of dog-tooth 
moulding, or stiff foliage. 

The secondary piers are usually single, double, or triple 
detached shafts, carrying the smaller arches. 

Where the Triforium contains three orders of piers, the 
tertiary pier consists of a single shaft only, carrying the third 
order of arch-mouldings. 

The VAULTING-SHAFT usually terminates in an elegant capital, 
just below the Clerestory-string, the mouldings of which form in 
that case the impost mouldings of the capital. The ARCADE 
generally corresponds with the windows, and consists either of a 
row of continuous arches, of equal height, or, as is commonly 
the case, of three tall arches carried on a triple shaft, of which 
the centre one is the loftiest : the mouldings and ornaments 
being similar to those of the rest of the building. 

The VAULTING is generally simple, and acute, and usually of 
the quadripartite or sexpartite form. 

The AISLE-ARCADE consists generally of a series of plain, or 
trefoil-headed arches on single shafts, carrying the usual mould- 
ings and ornaments. 



PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS 



THE LANCET PERIOD. 



LINCOLN 

WORCESTER . . 

WINCHESTER . . 

FOUNTAINS . . 

WHITBY 

YORK . . 

BOLTON 

BEVERLEY 

LINCOLN 

LICHFIELD 

WELLS 

PETERBOROUGH 

SOUTHWELL . . 

OXFORD 

HEREFORD 

LANERCOST . . 

DURHAM 

RIEVAULX 

LONDON.. 

SALISBURY 

WORCESTER . . 

WHITBY 

Fi v 

A J 1 J JL * 



Cathedral Church . . 
Cathedral Church . . 
Cathedral Church . . 
Abbey Church 
Abbey Church. . 
Cathedral Church . . 
Abbey Church 

Minster 

Cathedral Church . 
Cathedral Church . 
Cathedral Church . 
Cathedral Church . 
Collegiate Church . 
Cathedral Church . 
Cathedral Church . 
Abbey Church . . 
Cathedral Church . 
Abbey Church . . 
Temple Church 
Cathedral Church . 
Cathedral Church . 
Abbey Church . . 
Cathedral Church , 



Choir. 

Choir. 

Lady Chapel. 
. Choir, East Transept. 
. Choir. 

. N. and S. Transepts. 
. Nave. 

Choir, Transepts. 

Nave. 

. Chapter House. 
West Front. 
. West Front. 

Choir. 

Chapter House. 

Lady Chapel. 

Nave. 

East Transept. 
. Choir. 

Choir. 

Choir. 

. Presbytery. 
. N. Transept. 
. Presbytery. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

GEOMETRICAL PERIOD. 

PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTIC. 

SIMPLE GEOMETRICAL TRACERY IN THE HEADS OF THE WINDOWS, IN PANELS 

AND IN ARCADES. 

Exterior Compartment. 

THE BUTTRESSES have frequently set-offs, and canopies attached 
to their faces, carrying often a series of CROCKETS : these in the 
earlier examples are plain, stiff, and curled ; but the later ones 
are formed by a gracefully disposed leaf. Towards the end of 
the Period, the buttresses became very bulky and massive, and 
carried little or no ornaments. 

The PINNACLES have often the same ornament, and are 
crown'ed with finials composed of a bunch of foliage. 

The CORNICE often carries a large ornamental leaf in its 
hollow, and the projecting Corbel-table is no longer seen. 

The earlier WINDOWS exhibit tracery which consists almost 
exclusively of plain foliated circles ; but in the later examples 
other simple geometrical forms were employed. The heads of 
the window lights, occasionally plain, were more frequently, 
even in the earlier examples, and invariably in the later ones, 
cusped or foliated. 

The CLERE-STORY usually contains a single window, or at 
most a pair, containing tracery similar to that pf the side-aisle 
windows, and the Clere-story arcade altogether disappears. 

The CORNICE is usually similar to that of the side-aisles. 

G 



30 ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



Interior Compartment. 

The PIERS have occasionally, in the earlier examples, 
detached shafts ; but they more usually consist of a solid mass 
of engaged shafts, separated by hollow mouldings, and disposed 
on the plan of a spherical triangle. 

The BASES consist generally of a triple roll, standing on the 
usual plinth ; and the CAPITALS carry foliage disposed much 
more freely and gracefully than in the preceding Period, and 
frequently of exquisite design. 

The PIER-ARCHES have usually mouldings in three orders of 
very elegant profile, not so deeply cut, however, as in the Lancet 
Period : the favourite dog-tooth is nowhere seen, but late in the 
period a substitute for it was found in the ornament called the 
Ball-flower. 

All BOSSES, FIGURES, and SCULPTURES of every kind are 
carved in the very best manner ; and all STRING-COURSES and 
HOOD-MOULDINGS are moulded with the greatest care and 
elegance ; indeed the art of carving in stone may be said to have 
attained its greatest perfection during this Period. 

The TRIFORIUM in the earlier examples commonly contains a 
pair of double arches, carrying circular tracery in their heads : 
in the later examples, it becomes greatly reduced in size and 
prominence, and is made entirely subordinate to the Clere-story ; 
and consists often of a low foliated arcade, or a band of plain 
tracery. 

The inner arcade of the CLERE-STORY altogether disappears, 
and in its place is sometimes found a plane of Geometrical 
Tracery, corresponding with that of the window ; but more 
commonly a single arch spans the entire compartment ; and 
sometimes the gallery is dispensed with altogether. 

The AISLE-ARCADE is often very elegant ; the arches are 



GEOMETRICAL PERIOD. 



3 1 



usually foliated, and covered with a straight-sided canopy. 
Occasionally this arcade consists of a series of beautiful panels 
containing geometrical tracery, with mouldings of a very minute 
and elegant character. 

Both the centre and side-aisles are generally covered with 
VAULTING of simple form, having characteristic bosses and rib- 
mouldings. 



PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS 



OF 



THE GEOMETRICAL PERIOD. 



WESTMINSTER 
WESTMINSTER 
SALISBURY 

HOWDEN 

ELY 

HEREFORD 

LINCOLN 

GRANTHAM 
CHICIIESTER . . 
ST. ALBANS . . 

TlNTERN 

LlCHFIELD 

NEWSTEAD 
YORK, ST. MARY'S. 

EXETER 

RIPON 

CHICHESTER 



Abbey Church. . 
Abbey Church . . 
Cathedral Church 
Collegiate Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Parish Church . . 
Cathedral Church 
Abbey Church . . 
Abbey Church . . 
Cathedral Church 
Abbey Church . . 
Abbey Church . . 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 



. Choir, Transepts. 

. Chapter House. 

. Chapter House. 

. Transepts. 

. South Transept, Chapel. 

. North Transept. 

. Presbytery. 

. North Aisle. 

. Nave, North Aisle. 

. Choir. 

. Choir, Transepts. 

. Nave. 

. West End. 

. Nave. 

. Lady Chapel. 

. East End. 

. Lady Chapel. 



32 ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

EXETER Cathedral Church . . Choir. 

MERTON COLLEGE. . Chapel Choir. 

YORK Cathedral Church . . Chapter House. 

SOUTHWELL . . . . Collegiate Chufch . . Chapter House. 

TEMPLE BALSALL . . Collegiate Church . . Chancel. 

HOWDEN Collegiate Church . . Nave. 

GuiSBOROUGH . . Priory Church . . . . Choir. 

YORK Cathedral Church . . Nave. 

WELLS Cathedral Church . . Chapter House. 

ST. AUGUSTINE'S . . Abbey Gateway. 



CHAPTER IX. 

CURVILINEAR PERIOD. 

PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTIC. 

FLOWING TRACERY IN THE WINDOWS, AND THE PREVALENCE OF THE OGEE 
CURVE IN ALL THE DETAILS. 

Exterior Compartment. 

As the Circle characterises the previous Period, so the Ogee 
marks the present Period. It is found not only in the principal 
outline of the tracery, but also in its smaller subdivisions ; not 
only in the profiles of the mouldings, but also in the contour of 
the foliage and carved work. 

The WINDOWS are the most important features in the 
Churches of this Period. In the more important buildings 
they are frequently of great size and elaborate design, and in 
the smaller buildings, the rest of the work seems often to have 
been impoverished for the sake of the Windows. 

The infinite variety of design that is contained in the Tracery 
of this Period is very remarkable, and distinguishes its Archi- 
tecture, in a manner not to be mistaken, from that of other 
nations during the same Period. 

The BASE-COURSE carries a series of mouldings in which the 
Ogee profile is almost invariably found. The STRING-COURSES, 
HOOD-MOULDINGS, and SET-OFFS exhibit it also. ' 

The BUTTRESSES are usually divided into a greater number of 
equal stages ; their canopies, and those of their pinnacles, are 

n 



34 ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

invariably richly crocketed, and have usually the Ogee form 
instead of the straight pedimental finish. 

The CORNICE carries usually a row of large square pateras of 
foliage, in a shallow hollow, and is often surmounted with a 
battlement, or a parapet pierced or panelled with a flowing 
trefoil or a quatrefoil. 

The BALL-FLOWER which appeared at the end of the previous 
Period, became a favourite ornament for a short time in the 
commencement of this Period. 



Interior Compartment. 

The PIERS are usually disposed in plan in the form of a 
diamond ; and consist generally of four shafts with intervening 
hollows. The BASES and CAPITALS are not unfrequently 
octagonal in form ; and the foliage of the latter consists of 
crumpled leaves, not growing out of the neck of the capital, as 
in the earlier Periods, but apparently attached to it, or bound 
round it. 

The mouldings of the PIER-ARCHES are fewer in number ; 
they are shallower than those of the preceding Period, and 
often contain the double Ogee ; the walls being thinner, the 
arches frequently carry, in this Period, as well as in the 
following one, only two orders of mouldings instead of three. 
The small square patera, consisting of four leaves, is a common 
ornament of the Period, and all the foliage is formed of peculiar 
crumpled leaves, which are easily distinguished from those of 
the preceding Period. 

It is not uncommon in this Period to find the arch mouldings 
continued, without the intervention of impost or capital, down 
to the ground ; or, inversely, the mouldings of the piers carried 
uninterruptedly upwards through the arch. This is the case as 



CURVILINEAR PERIOD. 



35 



well in the arches of the Ground-story, as in the windows and 
doorways. 

The TRIFORIUM rarely occurs in its full proportions, and in 
such cases exhibits the usual window tracery of the Period : it 
oftener consists of a panel enclosed within the prolonged jambs 
of the Clere-story window, and is sometimes reduced to a row 
of quatrefoils. 

The CLERE-STORY has its inner arch sometimes foliated, but 
oftener the window is flush with the face of the inner wall, and 
the gallery is omitted. 

The VAULTING exhibits much more intricacy ; and a variety 
of ribs generally intersect the surface of the different cells. 

The AISLE- ARCADE is not often seen. 



PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS 



THE CURVILINEAR PERIOD. 



HOWDEN 

ELY 

ELY 

ELY 

ELY 

H INCH AM 
HECKINGTON . . 
HAWTON 
EWERBY 
SLEAFORD 
CHESTER . 



Collegiate Church . . 
Cathedral Church . . 
Cathedral Church . . 
Cathedral Church . . 
Cathedral Church . . 
St. Andrew's Church 
St. Andrew's Church 
All Saints' Church . . 
St. Andrew's Church 
St. Giles' Church 
Cathedral Church , 



Choir. 

Lantern. 

Choir. 

Crauden's Chapel. 

Trinity Chapel. 

Nave. 

Chancel, Transepts, Nave. 

Chancel. 

Chancel, Nave. 

Nave. 

South Transept. 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



COVENTRY 

CARLISLE 

NEWARK 

BEVERLEY 

SELBV 

WALSINGHAM 

CHESTER 

NANTWICH 

MELROSE 

BOLTON 

BOSTON 

LlCHFIELD 

WELLS 

BURY ST. EDMUND'S 
HULL 



St. John's Hospital . . 
Cathedral Church . . 
St. Mary's Church . . 
St. Mary's Church . . 
Abbey Church. . 
Abbey Church. . 
Cathedral Church . . 
St. Mary's Church . . 
Abbey Church. . 
Abbey Church 
St. Botolph's Church 
Cathedral Church . . 
Cathedral Church . . 

Abbey 

Holy Trinity Church 



Chapel. 

Choir (part). 

South Aisle. 

North Aisle of Choir. 

Choir (part). 

Choir. 

South Transept. 

Chancel. 

Nave, Transept. 

Choir. 

Nave. 

Choir. 

Choir, Lady Chapel. 

Gateway. 

Chancel. 



( 37 ) 



CHAPTER X. 
RECTILINEAR PERIOD. 

PRINCIPAL CHARACTERISTIC. 

THE PREVALENCE OF STRAIGHT LINES, BOTH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL, IN 
THE TRACERY OF WINDOWS, IN PANELS AND ARCADES. 

Exterior Compartment. 

THE WALLS and BUTTRESSES of this Period present great 
contrasts, being generally perfectly plain, but occasionally, in the 
richer buildings, completely covered with rectangular panelling. 

The BASE-COURSE is often deep, rises in several stages, and 
contains a few large bold mouldings. 

The mullions of the WINDOWS almost invariably rise vertically 
through the Tracery, and are often crossed at right angles by 
other straight lines, as well in the lower part of the Window as 
in the Tracery itself. 

These Transoms in some of the larger East and West 
Windows, occurring at equal intervals, divide the entire design 
into a series of rectangular compartments, and give to the whole 
the appearance of a huge gridiron. They are sometimes orna- 
mented with a small battlemented moulding. 

The CLERE-STORY WINDOWS, as well as the side windows, where 
'the aisle walls are low, are often square-headed. 

The CORNICE generally carries a large shallow hollow, filled at 
intervals with a square flat leaf, and grotesque sculptures. 
GwgoyleS) formed usually of the head and shoulders of some 
monster, and projecting from the cornice, for the purpose of 

i 



38 ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 

carrying the water from the gutters clear of the walls, which 
occur in the former Period, are no.w universal. 

The PARAPETS are frequently ornamented richly, with 
rectangular foliated panelling, and covered with a BATTLEMENT. 
Both are sometimes pierced instead of being panelled. 



Interior Compartment. 

The PIERS are usually tall and light, and consist generally, as 
in the preceding Period, of four shafts with intervening hollows, 
which latter are continued uninterruptedly round the Pier- 
arch. 

Frequently the entire Pier is moulded without shafts, and the 
whole of the mouldings are carried round the Pier-arch. 

The Pier is frequently so disposed that its transverse section 
is Greater than its lonoqtudinal section, or, in other words, it is 

o o 

thicker from North to South than it is from East to West. 

The CAPITALS are usually octagonal, but sometimes circular. 
Foliage is much more rarely seen in their hollows, and they 
contain plain mouldings of a more angular character generally 
than in the preceding Period. They are also taller, in comparison, 
to their diameter. They have sometimes a battlement moulding 
on their upper edge, which is in other cases often square. 

The BASES are generally tall, narrow, and polygonal, and often 
of several stages. 

o 

In the PIER-ARCHES occasionally a form occurs for the first 
time, which is seen in no other Period. This is the four-centered 
arch, so called from the circumstance of its being drawn from 
four different centres : its use, however, in arches of construction, 
except in the Vaulting, is by no means so common as in arches 
of decoration, where it continually appears. It is often enclosed 
in doorways, under a square head. The mouldings of Pier- 



RECTILINEAR PERIOD. 39 

arches, Window-arches, and all others are usually plain, broad, 
and shallow ; the double Ogee occurs continually, as well as a 
large shallow hollow, drawn from three centres, between a few 
small filleted members. Few Arches carry more than two orders. 

In the STRING-COURSES, CORNICES, and other hollow mouldings, 
flat square leaves at intervals, continuous training foliage, and 
the vine-leaf and grapes, frequently occur ; but the relief is 
usually not considerable, and the amount of undercutting in 
foliage exhibited in the two previous Periods is never seen. 
The Tudor Rose and the Tudor Flower are frequent orna- 
ments of this Period. 

The TRIFORIUM is rarely seen, and in its place the Clere-story 
Window is often carried down in blank panelling to the passage 
or String-course over the Pier-arches. It is sometimes, how- 
ever, represented by a band of panelling or pierced work. 

The CLERE-STORY attains considerable height and importance 
in this Period ; he effect of which, in large buildings, is in- 
creased by the suppression of the Triforium, and the substitution 
in its place of the apparent continuation downwards of the Clere- 
story. In many buildings the Clere-story windows are in pairs, 
and so numerous that all blank wall entirely disappears ; and the 
effect of the mass of light thus poured down into the Church is 
very striking and characteristic. 

The VAULTING becomes much more complicated and enriched 
in this Period. Diverging ribs having bosses and shields at 
their points of intersection, cover the surface of the Vault : the 
plans of these vaultings are very various : some are called Fan- 
tracery vaults, and others Stellar vaults, terms which explain 
themselves. 

Open wooden roofs of elaborate construction,' and large span, 
become common in this Period. They spring frequently from 
Corbel shafts, resting on figures in the Clere-story wall ; and 

I 2 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



have rich cornices of mouldings and carved work, traceried 
spandrels, figures of angels, and richly moulded beams. 

The AISLE-ARCADE is not often found, but its place is some- 
times supplied by the rectangular surface panelling, so charac- 
teristic of the Period, which in some of the richer buildings 
literally covers the whole of the walls, leaving no blank or 
unoccupied space. 



PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS 



THE RECTILINEAR PERIOD. 



YORK 

WINCHESTER 
CANTERBURY 
CANTERBURY 

YORK 

WELLS 

BEVERLEY 
BRIDLINGTON 

HOWDEN 

CAMBRIDGE 
LONG MELFORD . . 
SAFFRON WALDEN 
LAVENHAM 

DONCASTER 

BURY ST. EDMUND'S 

ROTHERHAM 

HULL 



Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 
Cathedral Church 

Minster 

Priory Church 
Collegiate Church 
St. Mary's Church 
Holy Trinity Church . . 
St. Mary's Church 
St. Peter and St. Paul's 

Church 

St. George's Church . . 
St. James' Church 
All Saints' Church 
Holy Trinity Church . . 



Choir. 
Nave. 
Transepts. 
Nave. 

West Towers. 
Central Tower. 
West Front. 
West Front. 
Chapter House. 
Nave. 

Chancel, Nave. 
Chancel, Nave. 

Nave. 

Chancel, Nave. 
Chancel, Nave. 
Nave, Transepts. 
Nave. 



RECTILINEAR PERIOD. 40 



WINDSOR 
MANCHESTER 

TAUNTON 

Gi i it crsTFk 


St. George's Chapel 
. . Cathedral Church 
. . St. Mary's Church 
Cathedral Church 
King's College 


. . Chancel, Nave. 
. . Choir, Nave. 
. . Nave, Tower. 
. . Choir. 
. . Chapel. 


CAMBRIDGE . . 



WARWICK . . . . St. Mary's Church . . Bcaucharnp Chapel. 
WESTMINSTER . . Cathedral Church . . Henry Seventh's Chapel. 
BATH Abbey Church . . . . Choir, Transepts, Nave. 



THE SEVEN PERIODS 



OF 



ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE. 



ROMANESQUE. 

A.D. A.D. YEARS. 

I. SAXON PERIOD . . . . from to 1066, prevailed - 
II. NORMAN PERIOD .. ,, 1066 ,, 1145, ,, 79 

III. TRANSITIONAL PERIOD ,, 1145 ,, 1190, 45 



GOTHIC. 

IV. LANCET PERIOD .. from 1190 to 1245, prevailed 55 
V. GEOMETRICAL PERIOD ,, 1245 ,,1315, ,, 70 
VI. CURVILINEAR PERIOD ,, 1315 ,, 1360, 45 
VII. RECTILINEAR PERIOD ,, 1360 ,, 1550, ,, 190 



LONDON : 

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED, 
STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS. 



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A SELECTION 



FROM 



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A HANDBOOK OF FORMULA, TABLES, 
AND MEMORANDA, 

For Architectural Surveyors and others engaged in Building. By J. T. 
HURST, C.E. Fourteenth Edition. Royal 32mo, roan, 55. 

CONTAINING : 

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Gas, and other matters useful to Architects and Builders. 
Information connected with Sanitary Engineering. 
Memoranda on the several trades used in Building, including a description of Materials 

and Analyses of Prices for Builders' work. 
The Practice of Builders' Measurement. 
Mensuration and the Division of Land. 
Tables of the Weights of Iron and other Building Materials. 
Constants of Labour. 
Valuation of Property. 
Summary of the Practice in Dilapidations. 
Scale of Professional Charges for Architects and Surveyors. 
Tables of English and French Weights and Measures. 



TOWN AND COUNTRY MANSIONS AND 
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Interior Views of Executed Works in the Queen Anne, Classic, Old 
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Municipal Buildings, &c. Imperial 4to, handsomely bound in cloth, 
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By THOMAS TREDGOLD. Revised from the original edition, and partly 
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Crown 8vo, handsomely bound in cloth, 125. 6d. 



DOMESTIC ELECTRICITY FOR 
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Translated from the French of E. HOSPITALIER, Editor of ' 1'Electricien,' 
with additions, by C. J. WHARTON, Assoc. Soc. Tel. Engineers. Numerous 
illustrations. Demy 8vo, cloth, gs. 

CONTENTS : 

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Telephones 5. Electric Clocks 6. Electric Lighters 7. Domestic Electric Lighting 
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CONTENTS : 

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E. & F. N. SPON, 126, Strand, London. 



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HISTORICAL ARCHITECTUaE 



Edmund 
The seven periods of 
iglish architecture 



OT 



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