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Full text of "Seventh Annual Report October 2nd, 1904"

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The National Farm School,, 

FARM SCHOOL, BUCKS CO., PA. 

(^ (J?* t^ 

SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT, 

October 2nd, 1904. 



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Officers of National Farm School. 



President, JOSEPH KRAUSKOPF, 4715 Pulaski Ave., Germantown. 

Vice-President, MORRIS A. KAUFMANN. 

Treasurer, FRANK H. BACHMAN. 

Secretary, HARRY FELIX, 258 ZeraUla St., Germantown. 

EXECUTIVE BOARD, 

ARNOLD KOHN, Chairman Committee on Finances. 

HART BLUMENTHAL, Chairman Committee on Library and Supplies. 

HARRY TUTELMAN, Chairman Committee on Property. 

ALFRED M. KLEIN, Chairman Committee on Faculty and Curriculum. 

ADOLPH EICHHOLZ, Chairman Committee on Discipline. 

ABRAHAM ISRAEL, Chairman Committee on Farm Products. 

ISAAC HERZBERG, Chairman Committee on Schoenfeld Farms. 

BOARD OF DIRECTORS. 

Hart Blu.menthal, Isaac Herzberg, Howard A. Loeb, 

Jacob Cartun, Abraham Israel, Esq., Jacob F. Loeb, 

Adolph EicuHOLz, Esq., Morris A. Kaufman, Isaac H. Silverman, 
S. Feldenheimer, Aknold Kohn, Jos. N. Snellenburg. 

Simon Friedebrger, Rev. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, Harry Tutelman, 

LADIES' EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF NATIONAL 
FARM SCHOOL. 



Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 
Mrs. 



Mrs. Morris LiverighT, Chairman, 

Mrs. Leon Schloss, Secretary, 1730 

Raeh Blum, 

Hart Blumenthal, 

Sol. Blumenthal, 

Jacob Cartun, 

Adolph Eichholz, 

Martha Fleishkr, 

Simon Friedberger, 

Morris A. Kaufman, 

Alfred M. Klein, 



4258 Parkside Avenue. 

Memorial Avenue. 

Mrs. Joseph Krauskopf, 

Mrs. Howard A. Loeb, 

Mrs. Jacob F. Loeb, 

Mrs. Joseph Loeb, 

Mrs. Isaac H. Silverman, 

Mrs. Joseph N. Snellenburg, 

Mrs. Nathan Snellenburg, 

Mrs. Samuel Snellenburg, 

Mrs. Harry Tutelman. 



LADIES^ VISITING COMMITTEES. 



October nth. 
Mrs. S. C. Klopfer— Mrs. L- Lisberger. 
October iSt/i. 

Mrs. J. L. Marks— Mrs. C. Sessler. 

October 2^th. 
Mrs. A. J. Bamberger — Mrs Sol. Asher. 

October 2^th . 
Mrs. S. W Salus— Mrs Louis Wittenberg. 

November ist. 
Mrs. Jacob Labe — Mrs Giis Wolf. 

November Sth. 
Mrs. C Coons— Mrs. Sflniuel Straus.s, Jr. 

November loth . 
■ Mrs. S. Jacobs — Mrs Morris Wiernik. 

November i^tk. 
Mrs Leopold Loeb— Mrs. Gus Heyman. 

November 22nd. 
Mrs Joseph Kaufman — Mrs. Harry Nelke. 

November 2gfli. 
Mrs. Wm B. Landauer — Mrs. H. M. Rosenblatt 

December 6lh. 
Mrs. L S Elie! — Mrs. Joseph Louchheim. 

December l^th 
Mrs. M Krauss — Mrs. J. Herzberg. 

December ijth 
Miss Hennie Ullman — Miss Jennie Strauss. 

December 20th. 
Mrs. Max Greenebaum — 

Miss Lillian Abrahamson. 

Ja niiary loth . 
Mrs. Henry Jonas— Miss Frie<ia Jonas. 



January ijth. 
Mrs. Joel Berg— Mrs. Leopold Simon. 

Janua' y 24th. 
Mrs. J P. Wieder — Mrs. Mannie Isaacs. 

January 31st. 
Mrs. Louis Elkish — Mrs. Henry Plonsky. 

February ytli. 
Mrs Bernard Selignian — Mrs. S W. Goodman 

February 14th. 
Mrs. Henry Rosenthal— Mrs. Simon Weil. 

February 21st. 
Mrs Charles Kors — Mrs. Beuj. F. Horn. 

February 28th. 
Mrs. M. Lang — Mrs. M. Bash. 

March jth. 
Mrs. T. Schweriner — Mrs. D. G. Levy. 

March 14th. 
Mrs Harry Bayersdorfer — Mrs A. Nachman. 

March 21st. 
Mrs. '^ Beckman— Mrs. Hiram Hirsch. 

March 2Stk. 
Mrs Jacob Schwartz — Mrs. Marc. Bacharach. 

April 4th. 
Mrs. G Greenewald — Mrs. Mone Isaacs. 

April nth. 
Mrs Gahe Bhim — Mrs. Julius Sondheim. 

Apti! iSth. 
Mrs. Benj. Lyon — Mrs. Henry Kemaler. 

April 25th. 
Mrs Isaac Rice— Miss Carrie Swope. 

Mav. June, Jul^', August and September, 
same Committees will visit in same rotation. 



Faculty of 1904. 



JOSEPH KRAUSKOPF, D. D., President. 

JOHN HOSEA WASHBURN, Ph. D. (Gottingen), 

Director and Professor of Agricultural Chemistry. 
WIIvI^IAM H. BISHOP, B. Sc, (Mass. Agricultural College), 

Professor of Agriculture, Superintendent of Farm. 
CHARLES P. HALLIGAN, B. Sc, (Mass, Agricultural College), 

Professor of Horticulture Superintendent of Grounds. 
W. RAY GORHAM, B. Sc. (State College, Pa.,) 

Professor of Agricultural Physics and Literature, and Mathematics 
W. G. BENNER, V. S., 

Professor of Veterinary Science and Farm Hygiene. 
MRS. E. G. STARR, 

Household Principal. 
GEORGE HOOPS, 

Assistant in Agriculture. 
JOHN R. HISTAND, 

Stenographer, and Superintendent of Repairs. 



Students of National Farm School^ 



1904-1905. 



Name. 


Age. 
Years 


Residence. 


Place of Birth. 


Occupation at Time of 
Admission. 


Anderson, Victor . . . 


20 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Russia 


Cigar Making. 


Blumen, I,awrence . . 


i6 


Camden, N. J. . . . 


Russia 


Working in Store. 


Brown, Benjamin . . 


23 


Cincinnati, O. . . . 


Russia 


Cigar Maker. 


Chodos, Ben 


iS 


Milwaukee, Wis. 


Russia 


Working in Brewery. 


Condor, Louis .... 


17 


Baltimore, Md. . . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Feinberg, Solomon . , 


16 


New York, N. Y. . 


Russia ....... 


Attending School. 


Feldman, Nathan . . 


16 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Russia 


Attending School. 


Fleischer, Maxmillian 


i6 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Frank, Jr., Harry J. . 


16 


Natchez, Miss. . . 


United States . . . 


Wor'g in Dry Goods St. 


Galbliim, Samuel . . . 


16 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Goldphan, Samuel D. 


20 


Woodbine, N. J. . . 


Russia 


Attending School. 


Green, Meyer .... 


19 


Elizabethport, N. J. 


Russia 


Attending School. 


Hirsch, Harry .... 


19 


Chicago, 111 


United States . . . 


Clerk in Cloth'g House. 


Horn, Charles .... 


iS 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Izgur, I,ouis 


20 


Cincinnati, O. . . . 


Russia 


Working on Farm. 


Krinzman, Philip . . 


18 


Elizabeth, N. J. . . 


Russia 


Attending School. 


Kysela, Rudolph . . . 


19 


New York, N. Y. . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


I,ehrer, Hyman . . . 


19 


New York, N. Y. . 


Austria 


Jewelry Factory. 


JLeon, Marcus 


16 


Des Moines, la. . . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Miller, Abe 


J9 


Corsicana, Texas 


Russia 


Att'g Agricultural Sch'l 


Morris, Max 


19 


Chicago, 111 


Hungary 


Attending School. 


Neustadt, David M. 


17 


New York, N. Y. . 


Russia 


Millinery Business. 


Noback, Chas. Y. . . . 


16 


New York, N . Y. . 


United States . . . 


Working in Store. 


Norvick, Jacob .... 


21 


Baltimore, Md. . . 


Russia 


Cigar Making. 


Norvick, Morris . . . 


16 


Doylestown, Pa. . . 


Russia 


Working on Farm. 


Orcutt, Howard R. . . 


17 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Ostrolenk, Bernard . 


17 


Gloversville, N. Y. 


Poland 


Attending School. 


Ratner, Henry .... 


20 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Russia ....... 


Cigar Making. 


Ratner, Jacob .... 


19 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Russia 


Clerk in Cigar Store. 


Ringold, Samuel . . . 


17 


Camden, N. J. . . 


United States . . . 


Elevator Operator. 


Rock, IvOuis 


17 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Russia 


Attending School. 


Rosenblatt, Saul . . . 


20 


Woodbine, N. J. . . 


Germany 


Electrician. 


Rudley, Samuel . . . 


16 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Russia 


Attending School. 


Schlesinger, Alphonse 


15 


New Orleans, X,a.. . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Schulmann, Harry . . 


15 


New Orleans, I,a. . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Serber, Dav-id .... 


20 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Russia 


Attending School. 


Shaw, George A. . . . 


20 


Eliot, Me 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Stabinsky, Julius . . . 


15 


New Orleans, I<a. . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Stern, Isaac 


15 


Baltimore, Md. . . 


United States . . . 


Attending School. 


Weinberg, Isadore . . 


iS 


Philadelphia, Pa. . 


Russia 


Clerk in Chem. Mfg. Co. 


Wind, Emanuel . . . 


14 


Peoria, 111 


Roumauia 


Working in Cigar Store 


"Wiseman, Jos 


iS 


Pittsburg, Pa. . . . 


Roumania 


Attending School. 



Calendar J 904— 1905. 



FIRST QUARTER, Sept. J 0th, J 904, to January 1st, 1905. 

Saturday, September lo Rosh Hashanah. 

Monday, September 19 Yom Kippur. 

Saturday, October ist Succoth. 

Sunday, October 2d . Succoth Pilgrimage & Annual Meeting. 

Thursday, November 24 Thanksgiving. 

Saturday, December 3rd Chanukah. 

Saturday, December 24 Winter Recess begins. 

SECOND QUARTER, January Jst to April Ist, 1905. 

Saturday, January 14 Winter Recess ends. 

Friday, February 12 Lincoln's Birthday. 

Monday, February 22 Washington's Birthday. 

THIRD QUARTER, April Ist to July Ist, 1905. 

Thursday, April 20 Pesach. 

Frida}^, April 28 Arbor Day. 

Friday, June 9th Shabuoth. 

Tuesday, May 30 Memorial Day. 

FOURTH QUARTER, July 1st to September 30th, 1905. 

Tuesday, July 4 Independence Day. 

Saturday, September 30 Rosh Hashanah Eve. 

.Special recess for planting and harvesting when the season demands. 
Two weeks camping some time in Sept. when the season admits. 



FRESHMEN YEAR. 



FAI,L TERM. 

Hours per 
week. 
Algebra, Wells. From beginning 

to involution 4 

English, IV/iitney & Lockwood. Re- 
view of technical grammar 4 

Free Hand Drawing, Charcoal Work ... 2 
Elementary Physics, 5"/^tr/i» Complete. Re- 
view of mensuration, mechanics, hj'dro- 

statics. pneumatics and sound 4 

Demonstrations in Practical Agriculture . 2 
Soils, Brooks. Composition and Classifi- 
cation 2 

Farm Work 31 

Military Drill 3 



SPRING TERM. 

Hours per 
week. 
Algebra, Wells. From involution through 

quadratic equations 4 

English, Composition and letter writing . 3 
Elementary Physics, Steele Complete. 

Light, heat and electricity 4 

Agriculture, Brooks. Soils, implements and 

methods of cultivation 3 

Botany, Bailey. Study of germination of 

seeds and structure of root, stem, leaf 

and flowers 3 

Farm Work 31 

Military Drill 3 



SOPHOMORE YEAR. 



FALL TERM. 

Hours per 

week. 

Geometry, Wells. Rectilenear figures and 

the circle 4 

Chemistry, Avery. Elementary 4 

Agriculture, Brooks. Soil improvement, 

drainage and irrigation .."••.... 2 

Animal Husbandry, breeds of live stock . 2 

Bolanv', study of weeds 2 

Elocution I 

Meterology Waldo 2 

Farm Work 31 

Military Drill 3 



SPRING TERM. 

Hours per 
week. 

Geometry, Wells. Theory of proportion, 

similar polygons and their areas .... 4 
Dairying and Practical Work in Butter 

making 4 

Chemistry, Newell. Descriptive .... 4 

Agriculture, Farm Crops 3 

Horticulture, propagation, budding and 

grafting 1 

Farm Work 31 

Military Drill 3 



JUNIOR YEAR. 



FALL TERM. 

Hours per 
week. 
Surveying, alternating once in two years 
with agricultural mechanics for both 

seniors and juniors 3 

Agricultural Mechanics, Alternating with 

Surveying 3 

Analytical Chemistry 3 

Horticulture, vegetable gardening, Bailey. 3 

Rhetoric. Hills 3 

Elocution I 

American Literature 2 

19th Century History (American) ■ .... 2 

Farm Work ....'.....• 31 

Military Drill 3 



SPRING TERM. 

Hours per 
week. 
Leveling and Drainage, for both seniors 
and juniors to alternate with agricultu- 
ral economics 4 

Economic Entomology, for both seniors 
and juniors to alternate with veterinary 

science 3 

Agricultural Chemistry 2 

Animal Industry, poultry management . . 3 
Organic Chemistry and Mineralogy ... 3 

Botany, grasses and grains 3 

Farm Work 31 

Military Drill 3 



SENIOR YEAR. 



FALL TERM. 

Hours per 
week. 
Surveying or Agricultural Mechanics, as 

per junior year 3 

Agricultural Geology 3 

Horticulture, pomology and bush fruits . 4 

Agricultural Bacteriology 2 

Agricultural Literature, experiment sta- 
tion reports 2 

Agriculture, fertilizers 2 

Farm Work 31 

Military Drill 3 



SPRING TERM. 

Hours per 
week. 
Agricultural Economics to alternate with 

leveling and drainage as per junior year. 4 
Veterinary Science, to alternate with eco- 
nomic Entomology as per junior year . 3 
Horticulture, floriculture and greenhouse 

management and construction 3 

Animal Husbandry, stock breeding and 

feeding 4 

Farm Management 1 

Thesis • * 3 

Farm Work 31 

Military Drill 3 



COURSE OF INSTRUCTION. 



The following pages will explain the subjects taught and the 
methods employed: 

AGRICULTURE. 
Demonstrations in Practical Agriculture. 

In this exercise the class is taken to the field or stable and given instruc- 
tion in performing the simplest fundamental operations in the daily work of 
the farm. For example, the student is taught the proper method of currying 
a horse, how to take apart and put together a harness, and harness and un- 
harness a single horse or a pair, to drive and to handle a team under a variety 
of conditions. 

He is taught how to milk and how to handle the various farm tools. 

Soils, Composition and Classification. 

Preceding study of methods of cultivation, the student should know how 
soils are formed, of what they are composed, the relation of different kinds of 
soil to water, heat and air; the effect of varying proportions of humus, clay 
or sand, and the reasons why soils of different compositions have different 
characteristics; 

The mechanical, physical and chemical effects of water, showing the results 
from too much or too little moisture; 

The capacity of soils to hold water and plant food; 

The chemical and mechanical composition and their relations to crop 
production. 

Soils. 

Alter study of the composition of soils follows a consideration of the 
plow, harrow, cultivator and other implements used in the preparation of the 
soil for planting and in the planting and cultivation of the crop. As the school 
has a very good outfit of implements, the student is able to become familiar 
with them by actual experience, first learning by classroom exercises the use 
and adaptability of the tools, and later, by actual practice in the field, intensify- 
ing and making practical his class work. 

In the class room the student learns why and when he tills the soil, why 
he plows and when, the reasons for using weeders, cultivators or harrows, 
and then goes to the field and uses the implement, thus learning how to manip- 
ulate it in practise, and being able to study its work and its effect upon the 
soil or plant. 

Soil Improvenuent. 

Rational soil improvement is based upon a knowledge of soil composition 
and its effect on plant growth, and upon the effect of the use of different 
tools upon the soil. 

Hence, after becoming familiar with these subjects in his first year, the 
student is able in the second year to take up the study of the various means ot 




IDA M. BLOCK MEMORIAL CHAPEL 




THERESA LOEB GREENHOUSE (Inside) 



improving the fertility of the farm, such as rotation of crop, addition of humus, 
liming, inoculation, fertilization, cultivation, prevention of washing, drainage, 
and, under some conditions, irrigation. 

Farm Crops. 

This consists of a study of the methods of growing, harvesting and utilizing 
the various crops, their adaptability to different kinds of soil, and their uses 
in different kinds of farming, the adaptability and choice of varieties of crops, 
the selection of seed, the preparation and planting of same, the composition 
of the crop, and the consideration of its place in the farming economy; also 
its origin and history. 

Agricultural Fertilizers. 

The importance of commercial fertilizers in modern farming makes neces- 
sary a special study of their composition and use, the origin and composition 
of the various ingredients used in them, and their adaptability to the soils 
and plants of the farm. 

Special attention is given to the saving of all the fertilizing materials of 
the farm and their economic use. Most important of these is the common 
barnyard manure, and considerable time is spent in studying its composition 
under varying conditions of preservation, feeding and origin, the best methods 
of using it, and proper crop and land to which to apply it. 

Agricultural Bacteriology. 

Study of the relation of bacteria to cultivation and fertilization of the 
soil; the relation of bacteria to certain agricultural plants, their relation to 
milk and its products, together with their action in sanitation and disease. 

Agricultural Literature. 

A successful farmer in these days must be a reading as well as a thinking 
man. The class in agricultural literature is intended to cultivate the reading 
habit and to give students some familiarity with the best agricultural period- 
icals, books and writers, and to keep them acquainted with the newer discov- 
eries and practises. 

Special attention will be given the bulletins of progress, in experimental 
work, at the different agricultural colleges and experiment stations; as frorr. 
these reports we get much of our most valuable and accurate information 
concerning the relation of science to agriculture. 

Farm Work. 

Most of our boys come to us with no knowledge of farm work. There- 
fore, the most necessary feature of their training is the performance of the 
ordinary farm operations. 

All of the work incident to the carrying on of the farm, in the field, in the 
stable, poultry department, orchards, garden, greenhouses and dairy, is done 
by the pupils; it follows that each pupil having the desire to do so may be- 
come proficient in all of the farm work. 

That this end may be accomplished, each pupil is detailed to a new duty 
each month, with the idea of giving him a progressive course of instruction in 
this work, in both the chores and the general work. 

During the whole year some work is performed each day; for seven and 
one-half months during the late fall, winter and early spring, the same amount 



of time is devoted to the farm as to classroom instruction. From May i to 
September 20, the period most important in the growth of crops, all of the 
time of the pupils is devoted to practical agriculture, under the constant 
direction of the instructors. 

Agricultural Chemistry. 

With the other courses on chemical subjects for a foundation, the pupil 
is prepared to take up some of the applications of chemistry to agriculture. 
The study of the analyses of milk, butter and cheese; the digestion of the ani- 
mals, the changes produced in the soil by fertilizers and tillage. The action of 
manures in producing plant food. The digestibility of the different foods with 
different animals is studied. This course is given to the junior class during 
the spring term for four periods per week. 

Agricultural Geology. 

The object of this instruction is to teach the pupils the different kinds of 
rocks which go to make up our soil. Such portions of dynamic geology is 
considered as will give the pupil a clear idea of weathering, erosion of wind and 
water, lake and sea deposits, the part played by the action of glaciers and vol- 
canoes in soil formation. The growth of mountains is discussed, and the use 
of fossils in determining the age in which rocks and deposits were formed. 
The effect of certain physical features of the country upon the different 
branches of agriculture is discussed in lectures. This course is given to the 
senior class throughout the fall term, senior year, three periods per week. 

Agricultural Mechanics. 

This subject is taught by lectures, and by the use of King's book on 
"Agricultural Physics." It deals with the laws of mechanics as applied to the 
plow, eveners, the different farm machines. To the construction and care of 
boilers, portable engines and other farm powers. The construction of farm 
buildings and the heating and plumbing of the same are also considered. This 
is taught once in two years to both seniors and juniors for three periods per 
week during the fall term. 

Meteorology. 

Two recitations each week during the first term of the sophomore year 
are devoted to the study of meteorology. Some of the most important sub- 
jects discussed are: The atmosphere, temperature, pressure, winds, moisture, 
clouds, precipitation and the principle and construction of the most common 
instruments used in meteorological observation and weather predictions, such 
as thermometer, barometer, rain gauge, and psycrometer, for frost predictions. 
The weather maps of the weather bureau of the United States Department of 
Agriculture are received, and practise is given in the reading and construction 
of weather maps, and in drawing isobars and isotherms. Some practise is 
also given and required in making elementary meteorological observations and 
in the crude methods of weather predictions. 

Land Surveying. 

This is taught to both seniors and juniors once in two years for three I 
periods per week during the fall term. Enough of plane trigonometry is taught ' 
to enable the pupil to compute the functions of a triangle, together with the 
computation of its area. Chain and compass surveying is taught; also the use 



of the transit in land measurement. Each pupil surveys several fields, and 
draws a plot of them to a proper scale, and learns to run out boundaries from 
old deeds. 

Leveling and Drainage. 

Exercises in the running of lines for digging ditches for both open ditches 
and for tile drains is given as a supplement to the course in surveying, four 
hours per week, throughout the spring term, to both juniors and seniors, once 
in two years. 

Agricultural Economics. 

Once in two years a course of four periods per week during the spring 
term is given to the seniors and juniors in economics. 

It is the aim of the instruction to deal with the economic conditions of 
farming. At the same time to give an idea to the pupil of the town, county 
and State organizations. The departments of the general Government, and 
some of the elementary principles of contracts, agency, partnership, and com- 
mercial paper. 

HORTICULTURE. 

This course aims to give every student a working knowledge of the vari- 
ous divisions of horticulture. The equipment for the teaching of this course 
consists^ among other things, of two large greenhouses, several acres of apples, 
peaches, pears, grapes, and ten acres of land devoted entirely to market gar- 
dening. Besides this, we are especially fortunate in possessing a beautiful 
collection of ornamental trees, shrubs and perennials. The course offered at 
present is as follows: 

Sophomore year, spring term, two hours a week. This course naturally 
starts with the fundamental principles of horticulture, teaching the various 
methods of propagation, grafting, budding, and illustrating with practical 
work m the greenhouses and orchards. 

Junior year, fall term, three hours a week. Market gardening, including 
the locations, soils, methods of cultivation and marketing of vegetables. 
Bailey's "Principles of Vegetable Gardening" is used as a text book, with lec- 
tures and field exercises. 

Senior year, fall term, three hours a week, devoted to recitations and field 
exercises. A study of the latest methods of the growing and marketing of 
fruits. Bailey's "Principles of Fruit Growing" is used as a text book, accom- 
panied by frequent visits to the orchard. 

Spring term, three hours a week, devoted to recitations and greenhouse 
work, in the study of the construction and management of greenhouses, and 
followed by a course in floriculture. 

SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS. 

Botany. 

The instruction in botany is given by means of lectures, recitations, lab- 
oratory and field exercises. The object of this course is to teach those sub- 
jects which have a direct bearing upon economic and scientific agriculture. 
The courses are as follows: 

Freshman year, spring term, three hours a week; laboratory work and 
recitations. Study of the germination of seeds, and structure of the root, stem, 
leaf and flower. 



Sophomore year, fall term, two hours a week; laboratory and field exer- 
cises on the study of weeds. 

Junior year, spring term, three hours a week; laboratory lectures and field 
exercises. A study of the grasses and grains. 

Entomology. 

The object of this course is to give the student a working knowledge of 
the injurious insects which affect the farmer at the present day. 

Juniors and seniors, spring term, three hours a week; lectures, laboratory 
and field exercises. A study of the external and internal anatomy of insects, 
together with a study of the life history of the most injurious insects, and 
mehods of combating them. 

Chemistry. 

Instruction in chemistry begins with the sophomore year and consists of 
recitations and laboratory exercises; four periods per week. It is an element- 
ary course^ special attention being given to the writing of chemical equations, 
and to the arithmetic of chemistry. This is to prepare the pupil to understand 
the applications of chemistry as taught in their agriculture and horticulture. 
The text book is Avery's "Complete Chemistry." During the spring term the 
same amount of instruction as previous term, four periods per week, during 
which more advanced instruction concerning the elements contained in the 
bodies of plants and animals is given. For a text book, Newell's "Descriptive 
Chemistry' is used. This course enables the pupil to compute the am.ount of 
the different elements that can be found in pure and impure chemicals and to 
understand the reactions which take place from the mixing of chemicals. 
It is the foundation for the computation of all fertilizer and feeding formulas. 

Organic Chemistry. 

A short course in the further chemistry of the carbon compounds, so that 
the constitution of alcohols, fats, organic acids, starch, sugar, and some of the 
albuminoids may be understood, to enable the pupil to appreciate the work of 
plants and the digestion of animals. This course is given by lectures and lab- 
oratory demonstration, to the juniors during the spring term, for three periods 
per week. 

Analytical Chemistry. 

A short course in laboratory work of three hours per week during the 
fall term, junior year, is given in qualitative analysis. The pupils analyze 
substances for such acids as hydrochloric, chloric, also the bromine and iodine 
acids, carbonic, sulphuric and sulphurous, nitric and nitrous, phosphoric and 
phosphorous, and some of the acids of arsenic, antimony, chromium, man- 
ganese and molybdenum. Also to test for the bases found in agricultural ma- 
terials; for example, silver, mercury, lead, arsenic, antimony, tin, copper, cad- 
mium, bismuth, cobalt, nickel, iron, manganese, chromium, zinc, aluminium, 
barium, strontium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and ammonium. 

Such a course as the above makes it possible for the pupil to read with 
intelligence chemical books on industrial subjects. 

Elementary Physics. 

In this course a review of proportion, square and cube root and mensura- 
tion precedes the instruction in physics proper. Much importance is attached 
to the pupils performing many practical examples under the different subjects 




ZADOK M. EISNER CHEMICAL LABORATORY 




MAKING BUTTER 



13 

of mechanics. The applications of laws of heat and light to the growth of 
plants and animals, and to the science of every-day life, is emphasized. The 
application of electricity to modern life is of especial interest to the farmer. 
This instruction is given four periods per week throughout the freshman year. 

Mineralogy. 

Lessons and laboratory work on minerals to teach their characteristics 
and to determine about one hundred and fifty different specimens that are 
considered during the instruction given in chemistry and agricultural geology, 
are given twice per week during the spring term to the juniors. The instruc- 
tion is much assisted by the use of a fine cabinet of minerals presented to the 
National Farm School in memory of Harry E. Reinhard by his children. 

Algebra. 

It is the aim of the School to give its students a good foundation in ele- 
mentary mathematics. As a fair knowledge of arithmetic is required to enter 
the school, the first branch of mathematics taken up is algebra, to which four 
recitations per week during the entire freshman year are devoted. Although 
the amount of algebra given depends entirely upon the mathematical ability of 
the pupil, it is our aim to give the student a good training in elementary alge- 
bra, up to and including quadratic equations. 

Geometry. 

Four hours per week during the entire sophomore year are devoted to 
recitations in geometry, covering the first five books. The text book used is 
Wells's "Plane Geometry," and special stress is laid upon those problems or 
theorems which are more often met with in practical life, such as surveying 
and mechanical work. 

ENGLISH AND HISTORY. 

The successful farmer of to-day must have a good command of language. 
He must not only be able to think clearly, but he must be able to express those 
thoughts correctly and concisely, and it is to meet this demand that our course 
in English is designed. During the freshman year the student learns how to 
construct and analyze simple, common, complex and compound sentences. 
Parts of speech and their properties and uses, the correct forms of letter writ- 
ing and the elementary principles of composition, which fit him to take up the 
more advanced work of the sophomore and junior year. 

During the first term of the sophomore year he studies the art of more 
advanced composition and the choice of words and expressions, and is required 
to write each week a theme on some given subjects. This practise helps the 
student in learning to express himself correctly and concisely and in a form fit 
for publication. 

The "Gleaner," a monthly periodical published by the students of the 
School, affords an excellent opportunity for work of this kind to those who 
are so inclined. 

The Literary Society, also conducted by the students, meets every week 
during the school year, affords a good opportunity for speaking, debating and 
literary work, as well as much pleasure to the students. 

Amierican Literature. 

The work in American Literature comprises the study of the biographies 
of our most celebrated American authors, and the review of one of the most 



14 

noted works of each, or as many as the time will permit. They are taken up 
in chronological order. The time allotted to this study is two hours per week 
during the first term of the junior year. 

Elocution. 

During the first term of both junior and sophomore years one hour per 
week is devoted to practical elocution, to give the student practise in speaking 
before the public and to teach him to express himself easily and forcibly. 
Practise is given in either reciting some selection from our best-known writers 
or by debates in which the pupil is taught to present his argument in a sys- 
tematic, logical and forcible way. 

Rhetoric. 

During the first term of the junior year the pupils have three recitations 
per week in rhetoric and composition, which includes punctuation, letter 
writing, more advanced study of parts of speech, elements of expression, such 
as paragraphs, words and phrases, sentences, and the qualities of expres- 
sion, such as unity, clearness, force, ease. The author of the text book 
used is A. S. Hill. 

igth Century History. (American.) 

This course is designed to give the student a fair knowledge of the most 
important American affairs during the nineteenth century. 



FREE HAND DRAWING. 

For one term in the year instruction is given during one period per week 
to the freshman class in drawing. Charcoal drawing from objects comprises 
the major part of the instruction. The object of this instruction is to enable the 
the young farmer to sketch his ideas concerning changes in buildings, or to 
preserve forms that may be necessary for future reference. 



ANIMAL HUSBANDRY. 

Breeds of Live Stock. 

In order to intelligently select the best live stock for a farm, one must be 
acquainted with the characteristics of the various breeds of cattle, horses, 
swine, sheep and poultry and their adaptability to different localities and styles 
of farming. Most of the time devoted to this topic is spent upon the more 
prominent and well-known breeds, studying their history, character and uses. 

Poultry Management. 

Classroom instruction and practical work in the feeding and care of fowls, 
including chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons, incubation by natural and arti- 
ficial methods, management of brooders and of hens with chickens. 



15 

The School has a complete outfit of poultry houses, brooder house, brood- 
ers and incubators for practical instruction in this subject. Study of the various 
breeds and classes of poultry and their adaptability to different conditions and 
tastes. 

Stock Feeding. 

Most successful agriculture has its basis in intelligent stock feeding. To 
have svxcess in the highest degree in this line one must understand both the 
principles and the practise. 

The principles may be learned in the classroom, the practise must be 
learned in the stable. So the student studies the composition of foods and 
their combination into proper rations for different animals doing different 
work, then goes to the stable and feeds the cows, horses or sheep, and learns 
how the food produced on the farm is saved and fed to the best advantage 
when combined with that purchased to supplement it. 

Stock Breeding, 

Few men become successful breeders of live stock; but none can do so 
without understanding the principles governing the production of superior 
animals. 

In the senior year, after studying earlier in the course the breeds of live 
stock, the methods of caring for them, their adaptability to various uses, how 
to feed them, and how to prevent disease, the student is prepared to take up 
the stud}' of the science and art of breeding animals, including heredity, varia- 
tion, fecundity, inbreeding, cross-breeding, and the principles necessary 
in breeding up a profitable farm herd or flock. 

Dairying. 

Special stress is laid upon the making of fine butters, and a fully equipped 
dairy buildiug, with boiler, separators, butter workers, is used in giving 
practical instruction in this subject. The student follows the milk through the 
various stages from the cow to the finished product, including testing the milk 
and cream for amount of butter fat. Here, as everywhere else, classroom and 
laboratory work precede the actual work of caring for the dairy and making 
the butter. The student separates the milk, ripens the cream, churns, salts, 
works and prints the butter, and cares for the dairy utensils, including sep- 
arator and steam boiler. 

Veterinary Science. 

No attempt is made to produce skilled veterinarians, but the lectures are 
devoted to giving instruction in the best methods of caring for animals that 
they may be kept in health and so make it necessary to very rarely employ a 
veterinarian. 

The student will study the external and internal structure of the animal, 
m order that he may understand principles of minor surgical operations and 
administration of medicines. He will be given some knowledge of the symp- 
toms and treatment of a few of the most common diseases of domesticated 
animals. 



i6 



GENERAL EQUIPMENT. 

The farm consists of 122 acres of fertile land, all of which is till- 
able, making it possible to carry on diversified farming, so essential to the instruc- 
tion given in the various subjects considered. The farm also contains several 
acres of timber land aifording three fine groves. The farm is well stocked with 
pure bred and grade stock. The buildings for stock are arranged according to 
modern sanitary principles ; two silos adjoin the dairy barn. The outfit of farm 
machinery is especially complete, including a grain drill, corn planter, walking 
and sulky plows; Acme spring tooth, smoothing, cutaway and disk harrow ; two- 
horse single cultivator, rollers, three mowing machines, self binder, corn har- 
vester, hay rakes, tedder, lime spreader, weeders and five wagons, ice tools, silage 
CHtter and shreader, thrasher and separator, steam turbine tubler and hand 
separator, one three-horse power engine, two wind mills and a hot air engine 
for pumping water. The dairy building is thoroughly equipped with modern 
michinery for carrying on dairy operations. On the ground may be found 
vegetable gardens, orchards and nursery, these together with the greenhouses 
make practical industrial work in horticulture possible throughout the entire 
year. In order that the students may become familiar with the handling of horses 
we keep 15 horses. 

The farm has a well equipped poultry plant, including house for 200 laying 
hens, a brooder house to accommodate Soo chickens, a pigeon house and four in- 
cubators and out-door brooders. The sheep fold has 40 sheep. 

The Farm School lies adjacent to the W. Atlee Burpee celebrated seed farm, 
a thoroughly equipped establishment conducted on the soundest business principles, 
where a dollar is required of every dollar expended. The managers of these places 
allow our students to study their methods of business. Such an object lesson ac- 
companying the instruction given at the school, adds greatly to our educational 
equipment. 

Other neighboring farms are among the best in the State. All are willing to 
be helpful in every way possible to assist the worthy young men in the study of 
agriculture. 

Our entire environment is that of an agricultural people who live on and ofif 
their farms, and whose whole life and example show the profitable and enjoyable 
aspect of agricultural pursuits. 

The main building is fitted up with dormitory rooms, class rooms, library, 
reception rooms, dining rooms and offices, and is lighted by gas and heated by 
steam. The buildings are supplied with spring water. The library contains 
2000 volumes, including reference books, Encyclopedia Britauica, Jewish Ency-, 
clopedia, Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, Historical Works of Redpath, John 
Fisk, McMasten, Woodrow Wilson; all of the American classics, many of the 
English; many standard works of science, including Tyndal's, Huxley's, Darwin's, 
Spencer's, &c., together with all the modern standard works on Agriculture, Hor- 
ticulture and animal industry, with works on modern physical science and a 
reading file of the leading daily papers and agricultural journals. Illustrative 
material for class room and field work is being constantly added. 



17 



DISCIPLINE. 

The maintenance of good behavior and order in the dormitories and about 
the buildings is strictly adhered to. Detail and industrial work must be thoroughly 
and carefully done. Students failing to conform to the rules and regulations of 
the institution will be immediately dismissed. 

All supplies furnished students are merely loaned. These must not be taken 
away or disposed of in any way except by consent of the Director. 



HOUSE RULES. 

No meals served to visitors without special permission. 

All visitors to be out of the buildings and oflf of the grounds at 6 o'clock P. M. 

No visitors to be allowed above the first floor except on regular days of inspec- 
tion, at regular appointed times, without special permission. 

No lady to be taken in the dormitories except on above public days and by 
special permission. 

No gambling of any sort whatever allowed at National Farm School. , 

Dancing not allowed in the reception hall except between the hours of from 
2 to 5 on recreation days. 

Permission to leave the grounds, to use the piano or to practice singing must 
be obtained from the governor. 

All persons wrestling, shouting, whistling or singing in the school room or 
reception room at any time will be reprimanded. 

Students will be at the barn or at horticultural department or other places for 
work on time, 7 A. M. and i P. M. 

The bell will be rung ten minutes before the hour. 

Any student leaving work without permission before 12 M. or 5 P. M. will be 
reprimanded. 

The object of the above rules is to impress students with the importance of 
honesty and prq«nptness. 



DAILY PROGRAM. 

The following is the program for each day except Saturday and Sunday during 
the school period: 
5.45 A. M., Rising Bell. 4 to 5 P. M., Military Drill and Athletics. 

6.05 A. M., Details. 5.00 P. M., Details. 

7.00 A. M., Breakfast and Devotion. 6.00 P. M., Supper. 

Industrials. 
8.00 A. M. to 12 M., Study and Classes. 7.00 to 9.00 P. M., Study Period. 
12.15 P- M-. Dinner. 9.45 P. M., Retiring. 

Industrials. 
I. GO to 4 00 P. M., Study and Classes. 

Seniors and Juniors have industrial work every forenoon and classes in after- 
noon. Sophomores and Freshmen have classes in forenoon and industrial work 
in afternoon. 

Meeting of Farm School Literary Society takes place every Saturday evening 
at 7.30. 

For further information address Executive Office of the National Farm School, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



i8 

Regulations Governing the Admission of Students. 



1. An applicant for admission must be between i6 and 21 years of age. (His 
mental and physical development must be such as ensures his being able to 
pursue the advanced studies and to perform the industrial work. ) 

2. He must accompany his application with a certificate testifying to his 
having successfully completed his Grammar School training, and his being ready 
for High School work. In lieu of such a certificate, he must pass an examination 
before some competent person, in branches taught in the highest grade of the 
Grammar School, and the result of such examination must accompany the 
application. 

3. An applicant must be in good health. A physician's certificate, accord- 
ing to the form prescribed by the Directors, must accompany the application. 
Where practicable, a physician will be designated near the residence of the appli- 
cant, from whom such certificate must be obtained. 

The Board reserves for itself the right of re-examining an applicant, after his 
arrival, as to his mental or physical fitness for admission. 

4. An applicant must be of good moral character and able and willing to 
perform hard out-door work. Satisfactory references must accompany the appli- 
cation, and wherever practicable, the recommendations must be submitted by the 
applicant to be endorsed by the member of the Auxiliary Board representing the 
State in which such applicant resides. 

5. No charge is made for tuition. For board, lodging and laundry a charge 
is made of|2oo, (about ^4.00 a week) payable in semi-annual instalments of $100, 
in advance. 

6. A limited number of Free Scholarships will be granted to such who have 
passed the Grammar School with high averages, and who receive the endorsement 
of the member of the National Auxiliary Board representing the State, as well as 
two or three other representative men of the State. A Free Scholarship 
comprises free tuition, free board and laundry during the entire four years, and 
wearing apparel for the last three years. 

7. When an applicant shall have been notified that his application has been 
favorably acted upon, he must come to Doylestown, Pennsylvania, at the time 
specified, and must come provided with the following outfit : One heavj' overcoat, 
one suit for Sabbath wear, one school suit, two pairs of working shoes, one pair 
gum boots, one pair of slippers, three suits of heavy underwear, three suits of 
light underwear, one dozen pairs of socks (^ dozen light, ^ dozen heavy), 
one half dozen collars, two pairs cuffs, two bosom shirts, six working shirts (two 
winter, four summer), three night shirts, one dozen handkerchiefs, two pairs of 
overalls, two blouses, one hair brush and comb, one tooth brush, one umbrella, 
three neckties, one hat for Sabbath wear and one working hat. Articles of 
clothing should be duly marked. 

8. Th& receptacle for a student's personal effects must not exceed in size, 
that of an ordinary steam,er trunk. 

9. Before any student shall be admitted, his parents or guardian must release 
all control over him from the time of his entrance until his completion of the four 
years' course, or until such prior time as he may, in the discretion of the Board, be 
discharged therefrom. Such parents or guardian must also waive all claim for 
compensation for services which he may render in or about the school or the farm 
thereunto belonging. 

This Regulation is made in order to enable the Board to encourage the 
student in the pursuit of his studies and to protect him against any possible ill- 
advised interference of relatives. 

10. Students must come to the school prepared to furnish their own uni- 
form. The measurements for the same are taken at the School. The price is fn. 

11. Students are required to deposit with the Board of Trustees of the Farm 
School, a sum sufficient to pay their traveling expenses homeward in case they 
should not desire to remain at the school, or in event of the faculty finding it 
necessary to dismiss them. Pupils completing their studies will have the money 
thus deposited returned to them at their graduation. 

12. Applications must be sent to the Chairman of the Committee on 
Applications, MORRIS A. KAUFMANN, 

Allegheny Avenue and Hancock Street, Philadelphia, Pa. . 



19 



Seventh Annual Meeting and Succoth Pilgrimage. 



Grounds of the National Farm School, 
DOYLESTOWN, Pa., Sunday, October 2d, 1904. 

The Seventh Annual Meeting and Succoth Pilgrimage of the 
National Farm School was participated in by several hundred 
members and friends of the Institution. 

The meeting was called to order at 11.30 A. M., by the Chair- 
man, Mr. Adolph Eichholz. 

On motion of Mr. Alfred M. Klein, the minutes of the last 
annual meeting having been published, were ordered approved 
without reading. 

President, Rev. Dr. Krauskopf, presented his annual report, 
copy of which is herewith appended. 

Mr. Adolph Eichholz, Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
followed with a statement of the finances of the School, showing 
the receipts and disbursements for the year. 

An address was made by the Director, Dr. John H. Washburn, 
a copy of which appears in this report. Other addresses were made 
by Judge Julius M. Mayer, Ralph Blum, Harry Rich a former 
graduate, and which addresses are appended. 

On motion the following gentlemen were unanimously elected 
to serve as Managers for three years: Joseph N. Snellenburg, 
Alfred M. Klein, Isaac H. Silverman, Abraham Israel, Esq., and 
Morris A. KaufFmann. 

On motion. Rev. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf was unanimously re- 
elected President and Mr. Morris A. Kaufman, Vice-President. 



The President's Message. 



To the Board of Directors, ]\Iembers and Friends of the National 
Farm School : 

A Year's Review. 

Ladies and Gentlemen : — The magnificent Cathedral of St. 
Paul, in London, holds in its keeping the body of its designer, Sir 
Christopher Wrenn. Significant as it is simple is the epitaph in- 
scribed on his tomb : "Si monumentum requiris, circumspice," — 
'Tf you wish to see his monument, look around you." 

Rich Harvests. 

We are inspired to use these words, surrounded as we are by 
the goodly properties of the National Farm School. If you wish 
to see what we have accomplished during the past year, look about 
you. See the fruitful fields that have been plowed and sown and 
harvested. Turn to the well-filled barns and granaries containing 
the reward of faithful toil. Let the crowded stables, the sheep- 
folds, the poultry houses tell the same story of successful effort. 
Let the two Schoenfeld Memorial farms testify to the efficiency of 
those who receive their training at the National Farm School. 

Dormitory Enlargement. 

Proud as we are of these, we feel even happier in the improve- 
ments made in our Main Building. As the number of our students 
increased, the problem of good sanitary accommodations for them 
became more and more pressing. Our dormitory became over- 
crowded and we felt keenly the need of room. A glance at our 
Main Building will show how much we have achieved. Its inter- 
ior has been rearranged and renovated. The large second-story 
room, that had hitherto served as a dormitory for the students, 
has been partitioned into cosy little rooms, and thus that undesir- 
able method of having all sleep in one room has been changed to the 
convenience and privacy of the cubicles. In addition to his bed, 
chair and table, the Louchheim Memorial Lockers in every cubicle 
provide neat as well as secure receptacles for the student's pos- 
sessions. 

This excellent innovation gives satisfactory accommodations 
to twenty-one students, but unfortunately it does not relieve U3 
entirely of the "over-crowded" problem. We are obliged to house 
nineteen boys in one room on the third floor; five of them must 
find lodging in the Schoenfeld farms, and there is a long waiting- 
list for whom we cannot provide accommodations at all. 



Installation of Household Principal. 

To continue our observation on the year's work, we must make 
special mention not only of the instituting of a Household Princi- 
pal but also of our good fortune in securing Mrs. Starr, of Louisville^ 
Ky., to fill it. A life-work and ideal is this with her, and the noble 
influences and impulses exerted over and felt by the students will 
mean much in their development. That our school has a just right 
to feel proud of having secured the services of Mrs. Starr may be 
seen best by the following letter of Mr. Samuel Grabfelder, Presi- 
dent of the Jewish Hospital, of Denver. He writes: 

'T desire to congratulate the National Farm School for hav- 
ing been so fortunate in securing the services of Mrs. Starr as Lady 
Principal. I have known this lady all my lifetime, and most in- 
timately, having been connected with her for years in charity work 
in my own city. I can most sincerel}^ say to you that women of 
her quality are rare. She possesses good judgment and an ex- 
tremely kind heart. We in Louisville regret exceedingly to lose 
her. Her influence in your Farm School will make for its furthei 
usefulness." 

Graduation and Memorial Tree-Planting. 

Our joy over this great gain led us to anticipate somewhat. 
VVe can learn what influence the name "National Farm School' 
carries when we recall the graduation and memorial-tree exercises 
last June.. The gathering on that occasion was brilliant, and the 
addresses were delivered by representative speakers. The enthus- 
iasm evoked by the powerful eloquence of the Hon. Edward 
Lauterbach proved conclusively that our cause was a fact and not 
an experiment, and that the interest centered in our school is 
active and genuine. 

But the Opening Bars of the Prelude. 

This brief survey of the year fully confirms our assertion that 
it has been the best in our career. The changes it has brought, the 
vista that it opens, brings to our view an infinitely larger field of op- 
portunity ; and, unless we are greatly mistaken, our work up to the 
present is but the opening bars of the prelude to the part the Farm 
School is destined to play. 

The Key That Shall Open the Ghettoes. 

It has taken eight years for our school to establish itself firmly 
and make its name and object familiar and understood. Our in- 
fant years found little sympathetic attention. The kindly dis- 
posed excused it as a dream ; others felt sure that, in common with 
all hobbies, it would soon be ridden to death. Now, however, the 
earnest attention that has been compelled sees in our efforts the 
key to the dark corners of our large cities that shall open its Ghet- 
toes, that shall encourage its inhabitants to leave and become 
sturdy, free sons of toil, that shall vindicate their claim as descend- 
ants of those who in ancient days kept the Promised Land "flowing 
with milk and honey." 



A Bridge From Steerage to Farm. 

And hand in hand with the Ghetto problem is that of immigra- 
f-tion. Our school is the bridge from the steerage of the ocean 
vessel to the broad acres of this country that await the productive 
hand of man. Ours is an institution whence shall come leaders 
and teachers, under whose guidance Jewish colonies, that have here- 
tofore been largely failures, shall become successes. It would not 
be amiss to quote here from a letter we have received from Rev. 
Farber, who, speaking of a Jewish colony about to be settled near 
Tyler, Texas, writes: "My community is about to undertake to 
settle several Jewish families in our vicinity as farmers. * * * 
I suggested to communicate with you and find out whether you 
could recommend us some graduate of the Farm School to act as 
teacher to those families, and what the terms wolild be. He could 
run a farm himself, and at the same time teach and act as a gen- 
eral manager. If you have the right kind of a man, I think there 
would be quite an opening for him." 

In a similar strain wrote Mr. Henry Riegelman, of Des Moines, 
upon entering a boy as a student at our school : "Upon farms in 
Iowa immigrant settlers make $2 for one in comparison with usual 
occupations, and not only this but they are far more independent. 
They have small tracts in the vicinity of the city, of from five to 
ten acres each, and make a living off of three or four cows, chick- 
ens and truck farming. 

"Early in the spring I took an option on the renting of 300 acres 
of land, for five years, within the city limits, which I hoped to divide 
into ten-acre tracts for Jewish immigrants whom the New York In- 
dustrial Removal Society had sent here. But, alas, there were so 
few farmers among them, that I gave up my option. For this reason 
we desire to have this Leon boy educated for a farmer, and would 
like to have him get through as soon as possible, so that we may 
put him among the colony here, for the main excuse of these people 
is that they know nothing about farming. If we have an Ameri- 
can boy thoroughly versed in farming we can compel these im- 
migrants either to work on the farms here or remain in Russia at 
their old trades." 

Why Is Farm School Prevented From Doing Larger Work? 

We have said that our eight years are but the opening bars of 
the prelude. We are too young, too feeble in resources to play as 
yet the large part we feel to be our destiny. Our entire endeavor 
is an innovation of the most daring kind, for we are striving to 
straighten shoulders that have been bowed with eighteen hundred 
years of Ghetto life, to strengthen backs that have been bent by 
centuries of enclosure in the cramped, narrow street of the "'Gass." 
And harder still, we are attempting to turn the Jew from the city 
environment to that of the country ; from the exciting, seething life 
of the busy streets to the quiet, steady paths of the plow. And 
our call for recruits cannot be made very alluring, for we have no 
tempting results to show, no glittering profits to quote. It is truly 



23 

marvelous that we should find ourselves complaining of being over- 
crowded, and that we should have a goodly list of applicants beg- 
ging for admission. 

Having given a raison d'etre — that of solving the Ghetto and 
immigration "problems, having proved our ability to turn out the 
rightkind of practical and scientific agriculturists so that even our 
own United States Government employs four of our graduates, 
having shown by our prosperous surroundings that we know how 
to husband our resources, and by the large number of applicants 
that our work and methods are attractive, all these facts having 
been clearly brought to view, we cannot but ask : Why do we find 
ourselves unable to provide for more than forty-five students? 
Why but two hundred acres, when the Ghettoes are fairly reeking 
with immorality and filth, when "within the space of one square 
mile of New York City, covering thirty-two streets, there are very 
close unto sixty-five thousand families, four hundred thousand 
souls, a population equal to that of Cleveland, Cincinnati, Buffalo, 
Pittsburg? Why have we not larger means at our command, so 
that we might open our arms wide and assist thousands where we 
are now limited to tens? 

If there are doubts and fears that there is no living to be made 
out of agriculture, let our graduates silence such apprehension. If 
there are those who are skeptical as to openings for our students, 
let the letter from the Hon. James Wilson, Secretary of Agricul- 
ture, which was read to you, show the folly of anxiety on this score, 
for he writes : 

"The calls upon the Department for men educated along these 
lines are incessant, not only within our own borders but also from 
foreign countries." 

It Has No Endovnnent Fund. 

The true reason for our inability to extend our work is our total 
lack of endowment. With the exception of a very few fashionable 
private schools, there is no school of merit, but that it is endowed ; 
and this, irrespective of the fact that tuition is charged. Should 
the year's close be marked by a deficit, the endowment comes to the 
rescue. Public schools, universities, law schools and medical col- 
leges bear witness to this truth. For twenty-five years the 
Hebrew Union College struggled from hand to mouth, each year 
emphasizing more strongly than the last the urgent need of an en- 
dowment. Now it has in view the five hundred thousand dollars, 
the Wise Memorial Fund, which will make it secure. The re- 
cently re-organized Theological Seminary of New York v\rould not 
begin until an endowment of five hundred thousand dollars was 
raised, and an additional five hundred thousand dollars assured. 
Our Farm School has no endowment at all, and our sinking fund 
is less than five thousand dollars. Out of the forty-five students, 
one pays annually $200, and a scholarship of $200 has been given 
for another. We have no tuition fees to assist us. And we do what 
few other schools do — we also board, lodge and clothe our pupils. 
How can we possibly do the magnificent work we ought to do, 
hampered as we are by such limited funds? 



24 

It Is Not Remembered in Large Benefactions. 

And here we cannot but note how neglected we are when it 
• comes to the large benefactions that are annually made. It may be 
that we are not well enough known, and this, not merely because 
of our youth, but, situated as we are thirty-live miles from the 
city, our work is not constantly before the public eye. The eco- 
nomic value of our undertaking is not appreciated, for few seem 
to realize that each and every student in our school represents po- 
tentially a lever that will lift the problem of the Jew of the Ghetto, 
and of agriculture in general, many degrees nearer, a settlement. 

Philanthropy Has Not Yet Reached Preventive Stage. 

It does seem that philanthropy has not yet reached its highest 
stage. It has indeed made progress. Wealth was once exclusively 
a family heritage. From this stage of assuring the perpetuity and 
strength of the family, it advanced to that of 'guarding the safety 
of the soul in the hereafter; and so the church was richly endowed. 
Soon the eleemosynary idea stepped in, and the stage of remedial 
work was attained. Hospitals, orphanages and the like became 
the order of the day. Now the supreme idea is beginning to dawn 
on men's minds, and in the old adage of "An ounce of prevention 
is worth a pound of cure," the world is perceiving the truest field 
for deeds of benevolence. 

Were preventive philanthropy to prevail, it would not be long 
before the terrific strain of remedial work would be relieved. Were 
preventive benevolence practiced, the Ghettoes would be emptied 
of tenements crowded with vice, corroded with disease, groaning 
with their sweat shops, and scatter its population in agricultural 
colonies where they would be free to develop body, soul and mind, 
and become bread-producers as well as bread-winners. 

A Farm School like ours should be the special concern of pre- 
ventive benevolence. In every section of our broad land such 
schools should be founded and endowed, afifording to thousands of 
boys and girls a training in the uplifting work of agriculture. The 
physical fibre of the race would be re-invigorated and the moral 
tone secured would mean the regeneration of the House of Israel. 
And, following in the wake of this, we can see looming large the 
return of that spiritual grandeur that characterized our fathers in 
days of yore, when forth from Zion came law-givers, bards and in- 
spired prophets to whom the whole civilized world to-day does 
homage. 

Yes, 'tis preventive benevolence that holds this glorious future 
in its grasp, and the tremendous weight with which the social prob- 
lems press themselves on the world's attention compels the philan- 
thropist to use his means for this highest method of doing good. 

Preventive Benevolence Obligatory. 

Preventive benevolence is no longer optional, it is obligatory. 
Open what paper we may, native or foreign, few are the times that 
we do not read something on the Jewish question — something about 



25 

a persccuiion of Jews here or a threatened massacre there, an ac-- 
count of their Ghetto life in one place, an alarm at their excessive 
immigration in another. The question has even ceased to be a 
newspaper monopoly — it has entered the foremost periodicals, as 
Avitnessed by recent numbers of the Century Magazine and the 
North American Review, the one containing two articles, entitled 
"Efforts to Restrict Undesirable Immigration" and "The Need of 
Closer Inspection and Greater Restriction of Immigrants," con- 
tributed respectively by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge and United 
States Commissioner of Immigration, Frank T. Sargent; the other 
containing an article entitled "The Jewish Question : How to Solve 
It," by Arnold White. 

Senator Lodge Advocates Restriction of Immigration. 

Senator Lodge tells us that there must be a stop to this con- 
gesting of our seaport cities with constantly increasing arrivals 
of undesirable aliens, consisting, to an overwhelming degree, of 
illiterate Huns. Italians, and of tens of thousands of Russian and 
Polish Jews, who are utterly alien to us, not only ethnically but 
also in point of civilization, and with whom the American people 
can never amalgamate. He tells us that the fight against unre- 
stricted immigration will be renewed in Congress. He appeals for 
the support of the public. He asks especially the aid of labor or- 
ganizations. "We are admitting annually,"' says he, "an immi- 
gration which equals in numbers the population of a great city, 
wholly unsifted, in great measure ignorant, in part Asiatic, and 
drawn largely from the lowest and most backward population of 
Europe." It debases our quality of citizenship. It corrupts our 
politics. "It fills our labor market with the cheapest and most 
objectionable labor of Eastern Europe and Asia Minor." It im- 
poses enormous burdens upon us in the support of public elee- 
mosynary and penal institutions and private charities. And he 
concludes by saying "there are many public questions which afifect 
the welfare of the United States, but there is none which goes so 
deep or in which the future is so much involved as it is in this 
tide of unrestricted, unsifted foreign immigration." 

As Does Also Commissioner Sargent. 

Not any more comforting is the sound of warning given us by 
Commissioner General Sargent. He speaks of "centres of popula- 
tion so crowded as to require whole families to occupy one or two- 
rooms in equally crowded tenements, where thousands are huddled- 
together in narrow streets and alleys which teem with poorly clad 
children, sickly and emaciated men and women whom philanthropic 
citizens are trying to aid. Yet, under our present laws, thousands 
gain admission, and within a very short time become public charges 
and inmates of charitable institutions. In the farming regions of 
the country, on the other hand, there is a demand for labor and a. 
need for immigration. If, instead of croy^^ding into our large cities 
of the East, aliens would go to those regions where there is op- 
portunit}'- for their healthful occupation, there would be no cause 



26 

to fear for the future. What will be the consequence, however, if 
our present prosperous conditions should change and an industrial 
depression result? There is a growing sentiment that the time has 
come \vhen the people should determine what classes of aliens shall 
"be admitted, and that the United States should no longer be the 
Mumping ground' for the diseased and pauperized peoples of Eu- 
rope." 

Their Alarm But an Echo of Our Own. 

What is their alarm but an echo of our own. What else has 
our cry been during the past dozen years and more, than that the 
evil of uncontrolled immigration is growing beyond our power of 
coping with it, that despite millions of dollars expended in charity, 
despite hospitals, and orphanages and homes upon homes, and 
shelters upon shelters, which have been built, there has been but 
the cry for more and more and more, and there has been but a 
greater and a greater crowding, and a greater and greater physical 
and moral debasement among the congested. For every one re- 
lieved, a dozen new arrivals knock at the door for help ; for every one 
lifted to his feet, a score of others are knocked down by the pressure 
•of the misery and congestion behind. By reason of this congestion 
and misery, we have seen physical diseases spring up among these 
Jewish immigrants from which our race, until recently, enjoyed 
absolute immunity; and we have seen moral evils root themselves 
among these unfortunates, which, up to these deplorable days, 
^-ere not deemed possible among Jewish people. 

Evils of Our Ghetto. 

Physical and moral evils have been uncovered in our city 
^vhose sickening stench has risen to our nostrils, and has appalled 
us. We have found it necessary not only to double and treble our 
"hospital capacity, but also to add a consumptive wing, and to make 
provisions for the Jewish Hospital in Denver. A comittee of our 
women has found it necessary to devote themselves exclusively to 
■dealing with Jewish juvenile delinquents, composed almost en- 
tirely of immigrant children of our Ghetto. 

The Council of Jewish Women has found itself obliged to ac- 
quire a special home, w^here young women of the Ghetto may be 
saved from the dangers that beset them in the slums. 

Yet Greater Evils of New^ York Ghetto, 

The conditions in New York city are much worse than ours. 
The Twenty-seventh Report (1901) of its United Hebrew Charities 
tells us : 

"The condition of chronic poverty is developing in the Jewish 
■community of New York that is appalling in its immensity. Forty-- 
"iive per cent, of our applicants, representing between 20,000 and 
25,000 human beings, have been in the United States over five 
years ; have been given the opportunities for economic and indus- 
trial improvement which this country afifords; yet, notwithstand- 
ing all this, have not managed to reach a position of economic in- 
•dependence The statement can safelv be made that 



27 

from 75,000 to 100,000 members of the New York Jewish com- 
munity are unable to supply themselves with the immediate neces- 
saries of life The horrible congestion in which so 

many of our co-religionists live, the squalor and filth, the lack of 
air and sunlight, the absence, frequently, of even the most com- 
mon decencies, are too well known to require repetition at this 
writing. Even more pronounced are the results accruing from 
these conditions ; indulgence in the most degraded and perverted ap- 
petites, are growing daily more pronounced and more offensive." 

Support of Farm School Would Have Meant Saving of Money, 

Health and Morals. 

What if Farm Schools had been liberally supported! What 
if provision had been made for the training in dairy, greenhouse, 
vegetable garden, poultry yard, of those very girls, who, by rea- 
son of the congestion and filth and want and misery of the slums, 
have become moral defectives, or are in imminent danger of it, and 
therefore require to-day a special home for their protection and 
for the protection of the good name of Israel ! What if lands 
had been purchased, and colonies organized and settled under the 
leadership of trained farmers ! Would not the expense in- 
curred have been ultimatel}- saved, twice and three times 
over, in hospitals, orphanages, homes, relief societies? Would not 
our slum congestions have been considerably relieved, and would 
we not have largely obviated the appearance of such articles as 
those of Senator Lodge and Commissioner Sargent and Arnold. 
White ! 

Little or flo Money and Labor for Preventive Charity. 

Last year our local Federation of Jewish Charities expended 
$118,243 in relieving a fractional percentage of the misery that has 
been largely created by the Ghetto. 

Are we laboring to prevent the rise and spread of Ghetto blight 
and Ghetto immorality? Are we laboring to prevent the necessity 
of enormous sums being annually expended on palliative charity? 
What monies are being expended, what efforts are being exerted, 
to prevent the rise of conditions that often crowd families of six or 
eight members, of both sexes, young and old, into one room, which 
serves, at one and th'e same time, the needs of living-room, kitchen, 
laundry, workshop and bed-room ? What efforts are being exerted 
to prevent sweatshop husbands from becoming consumptives ; and 
wives, invalids ; and sons and daughters from rebelling against the 
thraldom of the slums, and from going forth to claim their rights 
of youth — honorably if they can, dishonorably if no other way is 
possible ? 

Restriction of Jewish Immigration Advocated in Consequence. 

Behind the magazine articles of Senator Lodge and Commis- 
sioner Sargent stands the gaunt figure "Restriction of Immigra- 
tion," and who can tell what stands behind that? It is we and not: 
thev who are lettinsr down the bars to our unfortunate Russian: 



28 

brethren. A\'e undertook to deal with the Russian immigrants, 
and our near-sighted policy suffered what might have been a bless- 
ing to turn into a curse. As our beneficiary, ours was the right 
and duty to settle them where there was rooom and work and health 
and prosperity for them. 

Either We Crush the Evil or the Evil Will Crush Us. 

If our gates w^e would keep ajar, if the name of Israel we would 
T<:eep untarnished, if we would have the East-European Jew looked 
upon as a desirable immigrant, if we would lessen the burden im- 
posed upon us by our congested Ghetto, if we would clean out the 
physical and moral pest holes of the slums, then we must scatter 
those for whom there is no work, nor living, nor health in the city 
on Agricultural Colonies over our broad acres, under the leadership 
of American-trained young men of their faith and speech. We 
must build up the Farm School to its fullest capacity, and encour- 
age similar institutions in every part of the United States. These 
duties are imperative upon us, if the Jew is not to forfeit his good 
name and good standing in our land. We suffer to-day from our 
follies in the past. Let us beware, lest our follies take up arms 
against us and lash us into a recognition of our duties when it is 
too late. 

Farm School Intended Also for Sons of Wealthy. 

It is at this point that w'e would bring to your especial atten- 
tion a matter concerning w^hich there appears to be considerable 
confusion in the minds of the people. An impression seems to be 
abroad that our Farm School is exclusively for immigrant boys. 
This is a grievous error, and has acted injuriously against the 
school. Wliile the urgent Ghetto problem forces us to lay most 
stress upon training leaders for immigrant agricultural colonies, 
Ave have also for our aim the creation of a new profession, afford- 
ing an opening for young men of brain and brawn. The common 
parental failing of having sons become professional men has 
long since overcrowded the law and medicine. Incidentally, this 
overstocking would be relieved, if the object of our school would 
be consummated, but principally the pursuit of agriculture holds out 
opportunities for w^ealth, for brilliant literary and political careers, 
and we have ample data to prove this. 

True Aristocracy Synonymous With Possession of Land. 

The commercial spirit has made us forget that true aristocracy 
is synonymous with the ownership of large agricultural estates. 
In Europe we find this confirmed among the titled classes of all 
countries. And in our own country, it was Emerson who said that 
""All historic nobility rests on possession and use of land." 

There is Wealth as Well as Health in Agriculture. . 

When, to the ability to purchase large estates, there is added 
the scientific knowledge of agriculture to manage them profitably, 
■there will be found to accrue financial advantages in this calling 



29 

exceeded by no other career. And this is not the whole of it. For 
see what a greater advantage this profession is to health, and how 
much less time and labor are required. In the heated term the 
owner is on his estate enjoying all the advantages the country has 
over the city ; and in the winter he is free to partake of the city's 
pleasure. The Government published recently a report showing 
the financial possibility of agricultural pursuits even for those un- 
trained in this work and not possessed of large means. It tells of 
a clergyman in Eastern Pennsylvania who, without previous ex- 
perience in agriculture, except such as he had gained from read- 
ing books, came into possession of a thirteen acre farm, near a 
large city, and a mortgage of seventy-two hundred dollars. The 
first year he lacked forty-six dollars of paying expenses; in the fol- 
lowing six years he paid off the mortgage. If this can be done 
without skill and capital, it is easy to realize the advantages a 
young man enjoys who begins an agricultural career with the 
scientific and practical equipment afforded by a school like ours. 

It would be a good thing if we took to heart the truth which 
George Washington bequeathed to the nation : "Agriculture," 
said he, "is the most healthful, the most useful, the most noble em- 
ployment of man." We might also pause to consider the truth 
which Edward Everett taught that "more gold and more good has' 
been gotten out of vegetal mines than ever was gotten out of min- 
eral mines." 

Isolation of Country Life Overcome. 

There was a time when country life and labor with its isola- 
tion may not have proven very attractive to well-to-do city people. 
But the telephone, the trolley, rural free mail delivery and rail- 
roads have brought to the very doors of the dwellers of the coun- 
try most of the special advantages that characterize urban life. 
AVith splendid means of communication and the best transporta- 
tion facilities, the farmer can no longer complain ; and the long 
winter rest gives him time for vacation and travel such as is 
afforded to but few people tied down to commerce, industry or the 
professions. 

Pursuit of Agriculture a Profession Equal to the Best. 

Then again, the attitude of looking down on the work of agri- 
culture as low and debasing has become a thing of the past. Scien- 
tific and practical agriculture is' a profession in the fullest sense 
of the term. Every science enters into the work of the agricultur- 
ist — chemistry, meteorology, physics, botany, geology, biology, 
zoology, mechanics, in fact, what are commonly called college 
acquirements, go into the make-up of the successful, practical and 
scientific agriculturist. 

We have dwelt at great length upon the advantages and op- 
portunities an agricultural career afifords the sons of the w^ealthy. 
We have done so, partly, in their interest, and partly, in the in- 
terest of the Farm School. If we succeed in enlisting recruits for 
our school from this class, the tuition secured will not only in- 
crease our means for the betterment of our school, but the direct 



3° 

contact of men of affluence with the institution, and the direct 
knowledge they will get of the good being done, cannot but result 
in endowments for a cause that means not only the redemption of 
Israel but of the world itself. 

Our School Being National, Should Command National Support. 

Our lack of endowment, however, should not make us forget- 
ful of the generous support of those who, mindful of our need,, 
have come to our aid. 

To the Federation of Jewish Charities we are grateful for their 
appropriation last year of $6,400. Our thanks are also due the 
State ot Pennsylvania for giving us $5,000 during the past season. 
While we express the thanks that are due all communities which 
have in any way assisted us in this good work, we feel, however, 
that we must urge such cities as New York, Chicago, Cincinnati 
and many others, to become conscious of their obligations to the 
National Farm School. The "National" part of our name and work 
does not seem to be thoroughly enough realized. Philadelphia, 
alone should not be held responsible for our institutions's support- 
It is forgotten that we have seven boys from New York, four boys- 
from Chicago, three boys from Baltimore, three from New Orleans,, 
two from Cincinnati, that the principal States in the Union are 
represented by one or more pupils. Notwithstanding the fact that 
Chicago, for instance, has sent four students, contributions from 
that city amounted, during the past year, to but $140, and contri- 
butions from other large cities represented at our school are even 
less. 

Last Year's Repairs Create Deficit. 

Ways and means must be found of increasing our income by 
$10,000. We are in debt. Repairs and refurnishings have cost us 
about $4,000. The increased number of pupils demands increased 
household expenditures. 

A Steam Laundry Needed. 

The weekly wash of between fifty and sixty people engaged 
in such work as ours demands a STEAM LAUNDRY. Should 
we continue to employ hand labor for the purpose of doing this 
large as well as hard wash, we would be required to keep a larger 
number of laundresses than would be wise. Our difficulties are 
such, that unless something is done, we may find ourselves in need 
of a head for the laundry as well as for the household establishment. 

Cold-Storage Plant Needed. 

Another need of our Farm School is a COLD-STORAGE 
PLANT. To run this institution economically, it is essential that 
our summer products be stored for winter use and sale. Last 
year ground was broken for this purpose, but, unfortunately, the 
building planned did not materialize. 

Recreation Hall Needed. 

Then, it is rather unfortunate for our boys that we have na 
RECREATION HALL. Its need during the summer months 



31 

might not be apparent, but during the long winter evenings it 
would be a boon to our students. Dormitory, library and assem- 
bly-room allow no disorder, however innocent. But youthful joy 
and energy must find some vent. The boys are entitled to a 
ro5m outside the Main Building, where they might spend the rec- 
reation hours as boys of their age are inclined to. The architects 
tell us that a hall of this description could be built, with the aid of 
our students, for $i,ooo. 

Swimming Pool Needed. 

We need a SWIMMING POOL. A moment's thought on the 
character of the work our boys must do, will not fail to impress 
especially this need. The cultivation of the soil, work in the barns 
and around the cattle will not leave the boys in that state of ab- 
solute cleanliness so necessary for the process of milking and but- 
ter-making. Only a swimming pool can afford sufficient means 
for cleanliness to boys who must do the work demanded of our 
students. 

Fire-Escapes Needed. 

And still another urgent need: FIRE-ESCAPES for our 
School. While we now have a plentiful supply of fire buckets in 
different parts of the building, and while the construction of our 
Main Building will render escape comparatively easy, still we 
are not satisfied with these primitive methods, and we trust that 
efforts will be made to provide our building with this modern and 
efficient means of escape from the dangers of fire. 

Experimental Farms Needed. 

No doubt many of you are aware of Mr. Schoenfeld's gifts 
of two farms adjoining this property. We need more of this kind. 
Or, if friends of the School would place desirable farms at the dis- 
posal of our graduates at reasonable rentals, they would confer 
quite a benefit upon the young men, enabling them to obtain valu- 
able experience till called upon to manage large estates, or to super- 
intend colonies. 

But More Than All Dormitory Is Needed. 

But badly as we feel the lack of all the above, it is nothing 
in comparison to the pressing need of greater housing accommo- 
dations. Our dormitories are too crowded. We have nineteen 
boys sleeping in the third floor of our Main Building. Many others 
have been refused admittance because of our lack of room. Our 
class rooms could accommodate, our teachers could instruct, our 
fields could employ, two or three times as many, if we had but the 
means to house and maintain them. For centuries it has been our 
complaint that the right to own and cultivate the soil was denied 
us. The bitter charge of anti-Semites against the Jew has been 
that he is by nature a middleman and not a producer. Now that 
we have the right to follow the noble pursuit of agriculture, now 
that Jewish lads knock at our doors and beg for an opportunity to 
learn the cultivation of the soil, let us not stint in the support of 
an agricultural school. We are showing conclusively that Jewish 



32 

brain and brawn are more than eager to contribute their share to- 
wards the development of the productive sources of the country of 
which they form a part. 

Thanks to Helpers. ^ 

And now we would thank those who have aided so nobly in 
this good work. To the Board, to the Faculty, to our Household 
Principal, Mrs. Starr, our heartfelt thanks are offered in the hope 
that still further co-operative effort in the future will lead to still 
greater results. To the liberality of those who have presented 
books, utensils and implements, to Messrs. Joseph Loucheim,. 
Isaac Sailer, Jul. Sichel, A. W. Burpee, J. R. Bunting, H. L. 
Dougherty, Wm. McMahon, Stanton Hackett, to Mrs. B. Seligman, 
Dr. Lefifman, the Berg Co., Mr. L. Wittenberg, the Needlework 
Guild, and to those friends who by the donation of books kindly 
remembered our needs, our thanks are here publicly expressed. 

Loss and Gain of Board Members. 

Before concluding, it is our sad duty to mention the loss dur- 
ing the past year of one of our Board members, Mr. B. F. Teller.. 
Though elected to our Board but a short time before illness greatly 
enfeebled him, still he manifested a deep interest in the progress- 
of the School, and had fate decreed otherwise, his splendid powers 
would have proven of great help to our good cause. 

It is with regret that we are obliged to announce the with- 
drawal of Mr. Ad. Grant from our Board, owing to his leaving our 
city. Mr. Grant was one of the founders of our School, and stood 
true and staunch when friends were few. Our thanks and God- 
speed accompany him to his new abode and labor. 

Looking Forward to Prosperous Future. 

Though deprived of these two valuable men, we have been for- 
tunate enough to secure such good successors as Mr. Arnold Kohn 
Abraham Israel, Esq., and Mr. Jacob Cartun. Under the guid- 
ance of a Board augmented by such valuable men as these, and 
with increased support and encouragement on the part of the pub- 
lic at large, the National Farm School may look forward to a pros- 
perous future. Respectfully submitted, 

JOS. KRAUSKOPF, President. 

Oct. 2, 1904. 



Department of Agriculture. 
Office of the Secretary, 
Washington, D. C. 

September 19, 1904. 

Rev. Joseph Krauskopf, D.D., President of the National Farm 
School, Philadelphia, Pa. 

President Krauskopf: — 

Your very interesting letter with regard to the National Farm 
School at Doylestown, Pennsylvania, received. I have always had 



33 

unbounded confidence in the future of that institution. You are 
doing good work that should be done. You are training young 
men to do something that many people want and for which they 
are willing to pay money. Agricultural education throughout the 
United States is progressing rapidly. There are over 5,000 young 
men under instruction in the several agricultural colleges of the 
country. Some of them are being well instructed and others not 
so well, but progress is being made all along the line. 

The calls upon this institution for men educated along these 
lines is incessant, not only within our own borders but from for- 
eign countries. We continue an education here. We give facili- 
ties for post-graduate instruction to a great many young men. We 
give preference to those who come from institutions that instruct 
in the science of agriculture and those sciences that are related to 
agriculture. We have taken in over 500 young men since I came 
here, for such instruction, and the demand still grows. Univer- 
sities throughout the country are calling upon us for men com- 
petent to teach meteorology, animal husbandry, soil-physics, for- 
estry, applied entomology, scientific statistical work, road-build- 
ing, farm mechanics and engineering, etc. 

The American acre is becoming more potent through the edu- 
cation of the man who cultivates the acre. All classes of society 
are encouraging us in* our work. An interesting feature of it is 
the preparation of the brown man in our new island possessions 
to produce over $200,000,000 worth of products that cannot be 
grown in the United States. We have corps of scientists in each of 
these island groups, teaching the people how to produce what our 
country is now buying from tropical countries. I might enum- 
erate some of these things : We pay $70,000,000 a year for coffee, 
$46,000,000 a year for fiber, $30,000,000 a year for rubber, $10,000,- 
000 a year for medicinal plants, $11,000,000 a year for tea, in addi- 
tion to large quantities of sugar, spices, silks, etc. So, you see, the 
demand for young men educated in these sciences will not be con- 
fined to our own States and Territories. The demand will come 
from the islands of the sea where there is an awakening among the 
peoples lately come under our flag. 

Your people can do no better work than what they have under- 
taken at the Farm School. It is of great manifest usefulness to the 
students of the country. The large migration of Jews into the 
United States must appeal to 3^our people, and I know it does. 
Those newcomers should have help along the lines of putting them 
in ways of helping themselves. 

I admire your people not only for their ability, which is prom- 
inent, but for their individuality, and for their independence. I 
hope you will continue in your good work and be able to show 
young people the great good that is coming from those beginning 
at Doylestown. We will not lose interest here in you, and wish 
3^ou all success. Sincerely, 

JAMES WILSON, Secretary. 



34 

Account for the Year Ending October 1st, 1904. 



Dues 14,307.29 

Donations 1,329.43 



5,636.72 



Less cost of collection, stationery, etc 1,214. 



Net Total 4,422.04 

GENERAL ACCOUNT. 

Receipts. 

Cash in bank October ist, 1903 • • • $1, 337- 18 

Farm Products 215.72 

Interest on Lewissohn Fund 215.00 

Federation of Jewish Charities 6,400.00 

State Aid 5,000.00 

Bertha Rayner Frank Scholarship 400.00 

Receipts from advertisements 245.00 

Received for clothing 37-oo 

Tuition 200.00 

Received for Sundry Accounts 188.19 

Interest on Deposits 20.56 

Cash in hands of Director 100.00 

Cash from general donations as above 4,422.04 

$18, 780. 69 

Appropriated for repairs to building 1,720.40 

Net Total 17,06029 

EXPENDITURES. 

Salaries of Faculty $4,426.66 

Wages 1,968.50 

Salary of Secretary 600.00 

Railroad transportation 375-27 

Telephone 175-23 

Farm tools and implements "... 324.50 

Farm Expense, supplies, etc 524-36 

Students' wearing apparel 1,001.14 

Furniture and fixtures 138.27 

Light, heat and power 1,261.73 

Printing, postage and stationery 601.52 

School supplies 498.48 

Provisions i,i53-50 

Live stock 700.50 

Cleaning supplies, etc 424-38 

Machinery 221.62 

Permanent improvements , 900.47 

Expense 903-53 

Machinery repairs 196.00 

|i6,395 66 



Leaving a balance of 664.63 

Consisting of cash in bank 564-63 

" " hands of Director 100.00 

664.63 

The above account simply shows the cash account of the past j-ear. 
Outstanding debts on the books amount to $3,176.64, making a deficit of 
^2,512.01. 



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35 

IvEWISSOHN MEMORIAL FUND. 

Principal Account. 

|2,ocx3 P. & R. Gen. Mtge. 4's at 100 $2,000.00 

1st Mtge. on 305 South Sixth St., Phila 2,700.00 

Cash 182.50 

$4,882.50 

Income Account. 

I year's Int. on P. & R. Gen. Mtge. 4's $ 80.00 

I year's Int. on 306 South Sixth St., Phila i35-00 

$215.00 

SCHOENFELD MEMORIAL FARMS. 

Schoenfeld Memorial Farm No. i, purchase price $4,000.00 

Tools, implements, live stock and advance for seed, etc. . . . 1,170.32 

$5,170.32 

Schoenfeld Memorial Farm No. 2, purchase price $1,800.00 

Tools, implements, fertilizers, live stock, etc i, 175-53 

2,975.53 

8,145.85 
Balance of cash unexpended 1,854.15 

$10,000.00 



Dr. Washburn's Report. 



Dr. Jolin H. Washburn, Director of the School, read the following 
report : 

Ladies and Gentlemen: The report of the director this year will be one 
of progress along the lines of work and the incorporation of the changes 
suggested in my last report. There have been many changes in the faculty 
during the past year. The resignation of Mr. Madison from the head of the 
Horticultural Department to take charge of the Horticultural Department at 
the Mt. Herman School in Massachusetts took place in March. This vacancy 
has been filled by C. P. Halligan, a graduate of the M. A. C, and an assist- 
ant in the Horticultural Department of Bussy Institute, when called to fill the 
chair made vacant by Mr. Madison. In April, Mr. L. J. Shepard, our professor 
of agriculture, resigned to accept a place as superintendent of a large farm in 
New Jersey; his place was filled by Prof. W. H. Bishop, who for twelve years 
was professor of agriculture at the State College, Delaware. In June last, 
Mr. Gage, the governor and instructor in English, resigned to accept a posi- 
tion as principal of a high school in Maine, his place being filled by W. R. 
Gorham, a graduate of the Pennsylvania State College. 

Mrs. E. G. Starr, Household Principal. 

Under the most efficient management of our household principal, Mrs. 
Starr, the household economy is now most admirably cared for by outside, in- 
stead of student, labor, employed for the purpose, these persons having the 
requisite fitness for their employment. Such arrangement enables us to have 
our pupils employ all their time for school work and practical agriculture. 



36 

Good Condition of Schoenfield Farais. 

During the past year one of the Schoenfield Farms has been occupied by a 
pupil. The other farm is fast getting into a good state of tillage; good crops 
of corn and peas were raised and a number of acres of clover are started. 
The whole farm, with the exception of the pasture field, has been well limed; 
a carload of 650 bushels of lime being cultivated into the soil during the sum- 
mer. The house and barn have been put in excellent condition. Schoenfield 
Farm No. i has also had a carload of lime cultivated into the newly sowed 
land. These object lessons are of the utmost value to all of the thinking 
pupils in our school. 

Additions to Library. 

During the year a very goodly number of books has been added to the 
library, especially along the line of history. The works of Woodrow Wilson, 
Ellis and John Fiske are among those that have been purchased. Along the 
line of American literature we have added the complete Riverside edition of 
Lowell, Longfellow, Hawthorne, Whittier and Holmes, and we are looking 
forward hoping to purchase Emerson's works, the Commonwealth series of 
State histories, and also the histories of the nations, together with Ford's 
"Beacon Lights of History," Thomas B. Reed's "Modern Eloquence," and a 
number of other standard works. A number of scientific books along the 
line of agriculture, horticulture, veterinary medicine, physics and chemistry 
have been also added to our library. This is a very valuable acquisition, a well- 
chosen library; such as we are beginning to have is in fact the keystone of 
modern instruction. 

Excellent Harvest. 

The crops during the past year have been very satisfactory. We have 
harvested over 100 good two-horse loads of hay, over 35 loads of straw; 
we have sold over 200 bushels of wheat, nearly 1,500 bushels of tomatoes. 
We will have a few hundreds of bushels of apples for our own use, and about 
800 bushels of potatoes. The general farm has supported 12 horses during the 
year, 17 cows and nearly the same number of young calves, together with two 
colts and from 35 to 40 sheep. We will have 140 tons of silage for the sup- 
port of the cattle during the winter, together with more than an equal bulk of 
corn fodder and about 1,000 bushels of corn. The garden material has prac- 
tically kept the family of fifty through the summer and fall without the pur 
chase of anything except flour, sugar and the meats. 

Need for Laboratory Equipment. 

The laboratory has been well equipped with chemical apparatus. 1 am 
hoping the next winter we may be able to get for use with our classes in 
physics some apparatus to give instruction in electricity. We have practically 
nothing in that direction for leisure or laboratory experiments. 

Lack of Dormitory Accommodation and Need for Recreation Hall. 

There are two things for the comfort and discipline and the moral health 
of our boys the need of which has been very keenly felt during the two years 
that I have been connected with the institution: First, some kind of electrical 
alarm that a bell at the barn, dairy, greenhouse, laboratory, dormitory and 
school-room may.be sounded at the same instant. This signal insures uniform 



37 

time in all departments in the beginning. Second, a little building, no matter 
how modest in appearance, very near the dormitory, in which the boys may 
have recreation. 

School Not Large Enough for Sleeping Accommodations. 

Never before has the school been so crowded. If we are to entertain as 
many pupils as we are having at the present time there should be an addition 
to the dormitory; that all of the 24 or 25 sleeping in the third story at the 
present time might have cubicals similar to those on our second floor; all that 
space on the third floor should be used for storage of clothing and for sewing 
rooms. We have at the present time for a family of 50 less store rooms than 
the ordinary family of a half dozen in almost any city house requires. As a 
result we constantly do work over and over again at an undue expense to the 
institution. I trust this matter will be given your earnest consideration. 

JUDGE MAYER'S ADDRESS. 

At the conchision of the business session Justice Julius M. Mayer, 
of the Court of Special Sessions in New York, and nominee of the 
Republican party for Attorney-General, was introduced as the orator 
of the day. He said in part: 

"It is in no sense a sacrifice for me to be here, but a source of great in- 
struction and information to me. 

The Farm School a Solver of Problems. 

"To me any enterprise that seeks to solve the problems of the day is 
interesting. I have come abreast of some of the problems to whose solution 
you are all contributing. In the course of my investigations of the conditions 
imder which the working women and children are laboring in New York, I 
saw at close range that the real problem connected with the newer immigration 
was the congestion of that immigration in our great cities. 

Time Essential for Solution. 

"I am confident that time and experience, will work out the problem of the 
newer immigration just as it had worked out the problem of the older immi- 
gration. The immigrant comes to us in middle or later life, and cannot adapt 
himself to new conditions. 

Evil Influences in Congested Districts. 

"He is as keen and intelligent as any other, but his diiftculty is one of 
environment. The parents in most cases are industrious and fulfill their obli- 
gations, but the child, the young fellow and young girl come under bad 
influences and the parents lose control. In Russia and Roumania there was an 
actual Ghetto and people lived in close association. The rabbi was looked up 
to as a guide and spiritual advisor. The necessity of the case made people 
live together. 

Crime and Delinquency Among the Young. 

"But here comes the immigrant. He comes in middle or later life and can- 
not adapt himself to different conditions. The child comes in contact with 
American conditions and influences. The difficulty is that the child is unable 
to overcome the influence. He regards tho parents as old-fashioned. He 



38 

loses respect, the one sustaining thing in relation of child and parent. This 
is the reason for the increase in crime and delinquency among the young of 
the newer immigration. 

The Farm. School an Opener of New Avenues to the Jew. 

"What is the solution? There are many solutions, and the Farm School 
is one of them. It is based upon a highly laudable principle. In the past a 
Jew was forced to be a trader. Now he is, with every year, enjoying new lines 
of effort. The gradual elimination of race distinction, while maintaining relig- 
ious belief, is the greatest hope of the American people. Every method and 
every means that opens up a new avenue deserves the help of every American 
citizen, Jew or Gentile. I can see why this enterprise will grow. The agri- 
cultural pursuits of this country are growing every year, because we are more 
and more supplying the needs of other countries. With this increase has 
come the desire to extend agricultural knowledge along scientific lines. 

A Noble Work. 

"To-day a farmer needs as much education to be successful as any other 
man. So in the solution of this problem of taking young men away from their 
surroundings, on one hand, and on the other, in the increase of agricultural 
needs, the Farm School has a distinct and useful place. If I can be of service 
in helping, I will do so. It is a work well begun, well carried on, whose pur- 
poses are so noble and results so satisfactory that I am sure one day you will 
all be proud to have been useful in its inception." 

A GRADUATE SPEAKS. 

Harry Rich, of South Carolina, who is in the government ser- 
vice, one of the graduates of the Farm School, gave an outline of 
what the school had enabled him to accomplish. He will instruct 
farmers in Ohio, as during the past year he had done in South 
Carolina. He considered his entrance into the school the best 
thing he had done in his life. 

RALPH BLUM'S ADDRESS. 

Mr. Ralph Blum, who was present on the platform, was then 
called upon by the chairman to speak a few words about the early 
history, of the Farm School. Mr. Blum was greeted with applause, 
and his address aroused considerable enthusiasm. He said : 

"I came here to-day as a guest, not as a speaker. But after hearing the 
wave's of golden language rolling from the tongue of your distinguished presi- 
dent, I felt something creeping over me akin to inspiration. 

Difficulties in Starting the Farm School. 

"Before I was appointed a member of the Board of Charities of the State 
of Pennsylvania, I was officially identified with the National Farm School, and 
I know all about it. I recall with dearest memories the early struggles for 
life and breath of this institution. Do you know that the founder traveled the 
length and breadth of this country on a lecturing tour for the purpose of 
raising the first $10,000 with which to buy and pay for these 122 acres? Then 
I was enlisted. I was appointed ambassador of a begging committee. To- 
gether with a few friends and the doctor we visited one business house after 



39 

another for the purpose of raising the second $10,000 with which to erect the 
school house. Our experience was unique. We had mighty oppositions to 
overcome. Those who gave us financial aid gave it with a glad hand and filled 
our hearts with hope and encouragement. Those who did not give us financial 
assistance gave us advice — nothing but advice — the very least thing we needed. 

The Farm School to be Maker of Sturdy Men. 

"To these philosophers we said that we were going to take young men 
from the disease-breeding sweat-shop; from the ghetto where the germ of 
tuberculosis was eating up young lives inch by inch; and from the streets of 
our busy business markets, and bring them out into the country to tnake 
sturdy, muscular and healthy men of them. 

Many Decried the Project. 

"We were told by these sages who gave us no assistance that we would 
never succeed in building the school house. The answer is there. They told 
us that if we built the school we would never succeed in getting students inside 
its doors, and if we did we would never graduate them. . 

The Answer. 

"The answer is — here. Then in the way of making us completely happy, 
they told us if we built the school, brought the students, graduated them, we 
would never succeed in finding positions for them. 

Thanks Due to James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture. 

"That lie was strangled to death by the man acknowledged to be the 
greatest authority in theoretical, practical and scientific agriculture in America. 
He took the first graduate boy, then the second, third and fourth. All of them 
received lucrative positions in the employment of the government. That man 
came here in the heat of the summer upon two occasions and delivered the 
baccalaureate address, and by his presence and outpouring of knowledge upon 
the subject of agriculture and its various branches he uplifted and inspired 
everybody, from the head of the faculty down to the smallest boy. That man 
is to-day considered one of the most potent advisers in the Cabinet of the 
President of the United States, and his name is James Wilson, Secretary of 
Agriculture. 

Farm School Not the Only Project Which Has Succeeded in Spite 

of Dire Prophesies. 

"There has been mighty opposition in every walk of life for those who 
have fought and won success. If you please, I will refer to a few illustrious 
names, in the way of moral demonstration, who have filled the pages of 
American history and made them glorious. 

Columbus. 

"There was mighty opposition and difference of opinion, bordering on 
mutiny, before Columbus landed on American shores. But he landed. 

Lincoln. 

"There was mighty opposition when Abraham Lincoln said he would take 
the chains and fetters off two millions of slaves and make them free men — and 
he did it. 



40 

Grant. 

"There was mighty opposition when that brave little general, Ulysses S, 
Grant, wrote to Lincoln the immortal words which will live as long as the 
world stands, 'We will fight it out on this line if it takes all summer.' And 
he did it. 

Gettysburg. 

"There was mighty opposition when tens of thousands of American citi- 
zens, good and true, met and fought to their death in swamps of red, human 
blood upon the battlefield of Gettysburg. 

McKinley. 

"There was mighty opposition when our martyr President, William 
McKinley, said, in my hearing, upon the stage of the Academy of Music in 
Philadelphia, 'We will raise the Stars and Stripes triumphantly in the Philip- 
pines, and no man dare pull them down' — and no man dared. 

Roosevelt. , 

"There was mighty opposition from shot and shell when that gallant sol- 
dier became the hero of San Juan; opposition when he, the only man, after 
holding the highest office withm the gift of the American people, dared and 
did defy Wall Street and the billion dollar trusts. The man who had extended 
the hand of good-fellowship to his fellow-men irrespective of creed, color or 
race. The man who has proven his friendship to the Jew at home and to the 
Jew abroad. The man who told Dr. Krauskopf and myself a few years ago 
when calling upon him by appointment relative to the school: 'Gentlemen, you 
are on the right track. You are doing a great and noble work. Keep it up. 
Keep it up. I will help you all I can.' 

"That man will be told on the eighth day of next November that he will 
have to remain in the White House at Washington four years more. Those 
who know him best call him 'Teddy' — those on the other side of the fence 
'Roosevelt.' 

Others Also, 

"But there are other great men whom the world will remember and re- 
ward. Men identified with finance and commerce, with medicine and law — 
and men who have done heroic work from the pulpit. Referring to the pulpit 
brings me back to the Farm School. 

A Tribute to Dr. Jos. Krauskopf, President of the National Farm 

School. 

"I remember so well when as a director of that institution, special meet- 
ings had to be called frequently, and often we were put to the task of grave 
thinking of what to do with a treasury filled — with unpaid bills. Other times 
the members would put their hands deep into their pockets. Sometimes, as the 
boy would say, 'We were up a tree,' or 'Up against a stone wall/ and when 
we thought we had reached the end of thinking, and clouds began to hang 
heavy, you, sir, Mr. President, Rabbi Krauskopf, would hitch hope and deter- 
mination to the chariot of encouragement, bundle us in and drive on over the 
roadside, passing one obstacle after the other until we reached success. 

"So you see, my friends, it has been uphill climbing all the time, and I 
believe in giving every man credit in this world for his personal conquest, for 
his brain and thought, and I want to say right here that there is no hour in 
the night so late that I would not arise and pluck the sweetest flower from a 
rose bush and lay it as a tribute at the threshold of Dr. Joseph Krauskopf." 



41 



Graduation of Students and Memorial Exercises 

JUNE I2th, J904. 



No more propitious conditions could have been desired by the 
management of the National Farm School than were presented on 
the above date when the ideal spring weather and the natural al- 
lurements of the place induced about three hundred friends of the 
institution to go by special train and automobiles to the beautiful 
grounds occupied by the school buildings at Doylestown. 

The occasion was the graduation of this year's class from the 
institution, and a most attractive program had been arranged. The 
exercises were held in a grove near the memorial chapel, where a- 
platform had been erected and draped with American flags. At one 
end were seated the Farm School students, and on the main plat- 
form were the participants in the program. The exercises were 
divided into three parts : First, the commencement service in the 
chapel, where, after an invocation by Rev. Abram Simon, of Wash- 
ington, D. C, the baccalaureate sermon was delivered by Rev. Dr. 
William Rosenau, of Baltimore; the consecration of memorial trees, 
participated in by Dr. David Reisman, Isaiah B. Langstadter, Rev. 
Dr. Henry Berkowitz, of Philadelphia; Rev. Abram Simon, of 
Washington, and Rev. William Armhold, and the graduation ex- 
ercises in the afternoon, when the speakers were Rev. Henry M. 
Fisher, of i^tlantic City ; Rev. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, of Philadel- 
phia, President of the Farm School ; Edward Lauterbach, of New 
York; Dr. John H. Washburn, Director of the School; MaxSchcen- 
feld, of Zurich, Switzerland, and Rev. Abram Simon, of Washington. 

COMMENCEMENT SERVICE. 

The exercises were opened with an invocation by Rabbi Simon. 
Rev. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf, the founder and President of the Farm 
School, in introducing Rev. Dr. William Rosenau, of Baltimore, said 
that Dr. Rosenau would deliver the baccalaureate sermon in place 
of Rev. Dr. Adolph Guttmacher, of the same city, who was prevented 
from being present. Dr. Rosenau, addressing the graduates, spoke 
as follows : 



42 

Rev. Dr. Rosenau's Baccalaureate Sermon: 

This day is one wrouglit with holiness for you. You are standing at the 
dividing line between two periods of your existence. The first is the period of 
study, and the other the period of active life. As I ponder on 
what may be for you a worthy lesson, I am led back in thought to that Book, 
sacred to the entire world. You may be aware that the liturgists of the syna- 
gogues have provided that every year the five books of Moses be read from be- 
ginning to end. In the Scriptural lesson of yesterday this story is told: When 
the children of Israel were at the borders of the promised land Moses sent 
twelve messengers to examine the land, and report upon its desirability. 
The messengers went upon their errand. They returned with strangely diverse 
information. Ten declared it was impossible for the Jews to people the land, 
because Israel was not a military people, and the land was inhabited by a 
warlike race; but two — Joshua and Caleb — declared that there was no reason- 
why Israel should not win the victory. 

Young Men Must Have Confidence in God and Assurance 

in Themselves. 

Every young man bears this relation to the future. The future appears a 
land rich with milk and honey, replete with rewards and emoluments for honest 
efifort. The young man standing on its threshold sends out the messengers 
of his soul. Many a messenger comes back, with fear and hesitation. Yet 
within the soul of man two messengers come back — one is Confidence in God, 
and the second, Self-Assurance. No man, no matter how numerous the obsta- 
cles that beset his path, fails in what he sets forth to accomplish if he has confi- 
dence in God and self-assurance. You, like the children of Israel of old, will 
win the day, though the path be hard. 

Farming Hard. 

There is a second application. In all probability, many have told you that 
there are easier roads to travel than those the farmer has to pursue; and many 
more have told you how much greater emoluments would come to you in some 
professions. 

Victory Attends Honest Effort. 

Farming demands perseverance and constant toil, and when all the 
strength of arm and soul have been put forth, reward crowns the efforts with 
success . You have sent out your graduates as messengers, and from them 
comes this hopeful promise that yours will be the victory. 

The Jew a Problem, 

You are aware of the fact that the Jew has been a problem to the world 
ever since he has been a member of society. From olden times to the present 
day Israel has ever presented this problem. There are a thousand solutions 
oflfered. Among these are nationalism (Zionism), or the purchase of Palestine 
and assimilation. 

Zionism no Solution. 

Neither of these has solved the problem. The most healthy, the most 
practical solution, however, is to bring the Jews back to the soil to which they 
belong, and to endow them once more with the agricultural ability that be- 



43 

longed to their ancestt)rs. You will thus show that the solution lies in colon- 
izing the Jews and taking them away from our overcrowded cities. Be Joshuas 
and Calebs, and say as they did: "Though we appear as grasshoppers in the 
eyes of the giants of the world, we will win the victory." Let confidence in 
God and confidence in yourself encourage you in your work, proving that the 
Jew can once more become a farmer and help to solve the problem of the 
centuries. 

CONSECRATION OF TREES. 

Tlie commencement service was conclnded with a hymn by 
the students and a benediction by Rev. Julius Frank, of Reading, Pa. 

After a short intermission, during which the visitors inspected 
the buildings and grounds, the special services for the consecration 
ot memorial trees were held. These services were opened with a 
beautiful prayer by Dr. Rosenau, after which Dr. David Riesman, 
of Philadelphia, Pa., delivered the following address: 

Dr. Riesman's Address. 

The National Farm school, like many other enterprises of the Jewish 
people, has for its object the betterment of the condition of the Jewish poor, 
who arouse our sympathy because they are poor, and enlist our interest be- 
cause they are of our race. There is one quality, one virtue, that even their 
bitterest enemy has never denied to the Jews, and that is the racial feeling. 
Among the Jews of all countries there is a bond that transcends national, polit- 
ical and geographical differences. It is the one magnificent trait that, like a 
silken thread, starting in the golden age of history, runs down the centuries 
to the present age of gold. It is this traditional instinct that makes us realize 
that we have a certain definite responsibility toward the Jews scattered 
throughout the world. This racial tie, which even the commercialism and 
selfishness of modern life cannot annihilate, has preserved our pride and our 
self-respect, as it has challenged the admiration of mankind. 

Farm School Strikes the Root of the Evil. 

The National Farm School, as I have said, and all other enterprises to 
uplift our people, spring from this worthy feeling of responsibility and kinship. 
Few undertakings have gone nearer to the root of the evil that we wish to 
correct — primarily, the crowding together of vast hordes of Jewish immigrants 
in cities — or have more nearly fulfilled our obligation than the National Farm 
School, designed, as it is, to bring back to the soil, their original heritage, the 
descendants of the Palestinian agriculturists. Although throughout many cen- 
turies the name of Jew has been associated with trade, not this, but farming, 
constituted the original occupation of the Hebrew. 

The Mishna and Statements on Trees. 

Not only were the Israelites of old agriculturists, they also, it seems, real- 
ized the value of forests. It is highly probable that they took pains to pre- 
serve the woodlands, and there are in the Talmud interesting and suggestive 
allusions to the subject bearing out this assumption. In the Mishna, for in- 
stance, it is stated that if the roots of a tree spread to the estate of a neigh- 



44 

bor, the latter may replace them three spans deeper, so that they shall not in- 
terfere with ploughing. If he has to dig a pit or cave, he may cut ofif the root!y 
that prevent his doing so, and the fuel belongs to him. Ulla says that a tree 
gTOVfing within sixteen ells of another man's estate is considered robbery, as it 
derives its nourishment from another person's ground; and that its fruit must 
not be used for the first-fruit offering. Rabbin, in the name of Rabbi Johanan, 
however, upset this decision, holding that from a tree near the boundary, as 
well as from one whose branches are inclined toward another's estate, the first- 
fruit offering may be brought. 

There are other sections, bristling with hair-splitting arguments, that ga 
to show that the cutting down of a tree was a serious matter and something to 
be avoided, if at all possible. 

Reverence for Trees. 

This reverence for trees has long since been lost in Palestine. The coun- 
try, once flowing with milk and honey, has, through the devastation of the 
forests, for which the Venetians and the Genoese were in a large measure re- 
sponsible, become sterile, and its noble rivers are now almost dry. 

Trees Should be Planted. 

In municipal affairs, the question whether it is justifiable to make posterity 
pay for public improvements frequently arises. Quite recently, an able poli- 
tician of Philadelphia declared himself to be in favor of borrowing money on 
bonds; so that our descendants, in paying off the bonded indebtedness, might 
bear their share of the cost. On its surface, this appears to be correct reason- 
ing; inasmuch as the improvements, although made primarily for our benefit^ 
also redound to the advantage of those that come after us. Public men read- 
ily accept such an argument, although it clearly displays a selfish spirit. There 
is, however, one improvement, the expense of which we bear, but from which 
we that make it derive no direct benefit; I refer to the preservation of the 
forests and the planting of forest trees. 

Deforestation a Crime. 

■ From necessity, from wantonness, from carelessness, man has brought 
about the deforestation of the once extensive wooded districts, not knowing 
the importance of forests in preserving national health, or their value as a per- 
petual source of national wealth. 

Importance of Forests. 

Let us see, now, in what the great importance of forests consists: In the 
first place, they exert an influence over the temperature of the air, and help to 
bring about equability of climate. They break the force of wind storms. They 
increase the moisture of the air; and, although they do not directly influence 
the amount of rainfall, the water supply depends upon forests. As President 
Roosevelt says, "Forests are the natural reservoirs, restraining the streams in 
flood, and replenishing them in drought. They prevent the soil from washing 
away, and the storage reservoirs from filling up with silt. Forest-conservation 
is an essential part of water-conservation." The President also advocates that 
certain forests be used as preserves for the wild creatures of the wood, which 
otherwise might die out. 




be ^ 



3 ^ 



I- o 



^ OS 



■5 ^ 



45 
Ex-President Cleveland Pleads for Forest Preservation. 

Ex-President Cleveland, the American Izaak Walton, also takes a deep 
interest in forestry, and has just written an admirable plea for a wider interest 
in forest-preservation. He, however, says nothing concerning forests as 
game-preserves, probably because his fondness for the rod and for shooting 
ducks and shore-birds is greater than his love of the chase. 

Groves God's Temple, 

Forests and trees have played an important part in the development of 
religion. The groves were God's first temples. In their darkling shade and 
primeval silence, man's mind was first turned toward the contemplation of a 
higher power. 

Deforestation a Breeder of Disease. 

Italy and Spain plainly show the baneful effects of deforestation. The 
former, once the "garden spot of Europe," has now become one vast marsh, 
in which disease is rampant. This is the result of the fact that the mountains 
have been denuded of the timber that once protected the plains from the rav- 
ages of storms. The rain now collects in the valleys, where it lies stagnant 
and breeds mosquitoes, the carriers of malaria. Within a few years the plant- 
ing of eucalyptus trees in this region has had a wonderful effect in improving 
these conditions and rendering the climate of Italy more salubrious. 

Spain's Decline Due to Expulsion of Jews and Deforestation. 

As for Spain, two causes have usually been given by historians for her 
decline from the lofty place of a world-empire to that of one of the decaying 
nations, to use Lord Salisbury's significant phrase — the expulsion of the Jews 
and the destruction of the forests. The great crime of 1492 may be remedied 
in a measure by admitting the Russian Jews, and it v/ould not take long to ob- 
tain a population of the size of that which existed during the reign of Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella; although it would not be possible to secure at once men 
of the same quality as those that represented the Jewish race in Spain during 
the fifteenth century. But the forests cannot be replaced by legislative enact- 
ment. Ages will be required to cover the mountain-slopes with trees, and to 
reconvert the arid wastes into fertile plains. 

Commerce Has Been the Foe of Forests. 

In the United States the original abundance of forest-land seemed so 
inexhaustible that no thought for the future was taken. The commercial in- 
stinct, also, silenced the voice of the national conscience; so long as lumber 
could be sold at a profit, it had to be obtained. Forest-fires, likewise, in the 
absence of protection against them, so much desired by President Roosevelt, 
have done their share in devastating the hills and valleys of all parts of the 
country. On several visits to the beautiful Pocono Mountains of this State 
I have been saddened by noting the ravages produced by such conflagrations. 
Large tracts are entirely devoid of trees and shrubs, only a charred trunk, 
broken-limbed and lifeless, here and there marking the place where once a 
forest stood. 

Origin of Arbor Day. 

The institution of Arbor Day has awakened in the youth of this country 
a realization of the value of trees, and youth constitutes the best possible 
medium for making propaganda. The beautiful custom of naming trees after 



46 

distinguished persons adds a sentimental interest to such occasions. This 
custom originated in Cincinnati, in 1882, and one of the men most instrumental 
in popularizing the observance of Arbor Day and the care of the forests was 
one well known to some of my hearers, the late Dr. Max Lilienthal. 

Care of Trees. 

An interesting field for study that may well engage the attention of the 
students of the National Farm School is the diseases of trees. Trees have their 
•enemies, large and small, their baneful germs, just as have human beings. If 
a tree sustains a wound, a fungus usually infects this wound, producing a mal- 
ady quite analogous to blood-poisoning in man. Moreover, the disease is con- 
tagious, and one infected tree may contaminate a large part of the forest. 
Hence, the best way to prevent an epidemic is to remove the sick tree. The 
report of the Pennsylvania Department of Forestry for 1901-2 contains an in- 
teresting account, by Byron D. Halsted, Sc.D., of the fungi injurious to trees. 

Longlived Trees. 

Trees are the oldest representatives of life upon the earth; and the mind 
stands in awe before the kings of the forest, whose age is measured by cen- 
turies. There is in Sullivan county, Pennsylvania, a hemlock that, although 
beyond its prime, 'is still living at the age of five hundred years. Just think of 
it! This tree was a century old when Columbus landed in America. One of 
the famous redwoods of California (Sequoia gigantia) was estimated by Dr. 
Bigelow, at the time that it was felled for timber, to be 1885 years of age. 
According to Harlan Coultas, the boabab tree of Africa surpasses all others, 
even the California Sequoia, in grandeur and antiquity. Adamson, from whom 
the tree received its botanical name, found in the Cape Verde Islands one 
whose age he calculated as 5,150 years. It had its birth almost at the begin- 
ning of time, according to the Biblical reckoning. There is in Kent, England, 
a yew tree that is known to be more than three thousand years old, and there 
are still standing on Mount Lebanon a few of the cedars that composed the for- 
est from which Solomon obtained the wood for the first Temple. 

"Old as Jove, 

Old as love. 

Who of me 

Tells the pedigree? 

Only the mountains old, 

Only the waters cold, 

Only moon and star. 

My coevals are. 

Ere the first fowl sung, 

My relenting boughs among. 

Ere Adam wived. 

Ere Adam lived, 

Ere the duck dived, 

Ere the bee hived, 

Ere the lion roared, 

Ere the eagle soared. 

Light and heat, land and sea. 

Spake unto the oldest tree." 
If such trees could speak, what marvelous stories of the past they could 
tell! Will the trees that we are dedicating to-day reach such a hoary age? 
and, could they speak, what message will it be in their power to deliver to 
those that a hundred or a thousand years hence will linger in the shade of 
their foliage? May they carry down to succeeding generations the fame of the 
National Farm School. 



47 

The addresses in connection with the special memorial trees to 
be dedicated were then delivered as follows : 

ISAIAH B. LANGSTADTER'S EULOGY. 

Mr. Isaiah B. Langstadter, of Philadelphia, eulogized the late 
Herman Jonas, who had been the vice-president of the Farm 
School. He said : 

It was my privilege to know Herman Jonas socially and commercially for 
a period of over thirty years, and the ties of friendship formed continued 
uninterruptedly until his death, endearing him not only to me, but to a group 
of whom I stand here as the representative, and who have been honored by 
this opportunity of placing upon this monarch of the forest a tablet inscribed 
to his memory. 

A Kind Hearted Man. 

The predominant characteristic of Herman Jonas was kindness in its 
broadest sense. He was endowed with this quality to a pre-eminent degree. 
His happiness came from doing a good deed, and as he was always doing 
something kind, he was always happy. The secret of this was that he never had 
self as the basis of action. Many a heart he made glad and many a fellow-being 
he uplifted from the depths by the influences of his kindly spirit and by his 
charity and benevolence. 

An Example for Youth. 

Kindness, charity and benevolence were part of his daily life. The man 
who exhibits such attributes sets himself in our memories upon a pedestal a 
bright example for the emulation of youth. 

A Man Among Men. 

We need not search in books for the lives of heroes, soldiers or statesmen 
as exemplars for good and noble deeds, for here was a man in the simpler 
walks whose life stands forth as an exponent of most that makes the world 
beautiful. 

Those who knew Herman Jonas do not require monument or laudation to 
remember him by, but to those who did not know him as we knew him, we 
dedicate this tribute. 

RABBI SIMON'S EULOGY OF LEO N. LEVI. 

Rabbi Abram Simon, of Washington, D. C, who spoke in 
place of Hon. Simon Wolf, who was unable to attend owing to the 
illness of his father-in-law, delivered the following eulogy in mem- 
ory of Leo N. Levi, late president of the Independent Order of 
B'nai B'rith: 

As I stand here in this magnificent grove, I cannot but feel that Sir John 
Lubbock's words were supremely true: "If I were passing through a forest, 1 
should not be surprised if some tree should suddenly call to me and speak to 
me." With the thought inspired by these words of the poet, I stand where 



48 

every tree seems a poet. I listen to the spirit of the forest speaking to me. 
The trees say: "Am I not like you, tall or short, blossoming or decaying!' 
What would your poets be without me? Whence did they get the first songs 
save from my glens or from my leaves? Your writers first wrote their mes- 
sages on my book. Book, paper, papyrus, are from, the bark of my tree. 
I exhale oxygen and you breathe it in; I keep the mountain fruitful for you. 
I am your reservoirs as well as your lungs. So then think twice. I am you, 
and yours, soul like you." 

No Nobler Monument Could Be Raised to Man. 

When one thinks of the service of the trees to humanity, how much like 
it seems the service of the man whose name we would honor now. M'onuments 
of brass corrode. Shafts of marble will crumble, but a tree is a living wonder. 
A simple thing is a tree, and who more than Leo N. Levi would have preferred 
a tree to his memory, the embodiment of a simple tree? Leo N. Levi was a 
tree of life to all that held close to him, a tree such as the psalmist speaks 
about. His roots sank deep in the soil of mother earth. They were watered by 
streams of intense religiousness and patriotism. His trunk, solid, straight, 
erect; his arms, wide-spreading, sheltering like the branches. How beautiful a 
symbol this, in the root, in the body and in the upward branches, of the man 
whom the B'nai B'rith loves to honor. His voice, strong and eloquent where 
injustice was done. In all instances, a man and a Jew in the best sense of that 
word. What place more appropriate to keep his memory than here where boys 
shall grow up true to Israel? This tree, I consecrate to his soul. 

DR. BERKOWITZ CONSECRATES TREES. 

Rev. Dr. Henry Berkowitz was the next speaker, and in the 
course of an address in memory of Rev. Dr. Marcus Jastrow, Herman 
S. Friedman, Simon A. Stern and others for whom trees had been 
planted, said : 

It is a trying task assigned to me to speak to you after you have heard 
the interesting and suggestive address of Dr. Riesmau and the eloquent ad- 
dress of Rabbi Simon. 

Comparison of Trees With Man, 

There is no act that appeals more profoundly to the human soul than this 
simple consecration of the trees. In the old Mosaic dispensation you will find 
in Deuteronomy an injunction that has reference to the trees. At the time 
of war the restraining hand of the legislator commands that the trees be not 
touched by the despoilers. "Man is the tree of the forest." Guard well the 
tree. Our commentators say that man is like the tree in mind, heart and 
soul, and in all the divine attributes. 

Rev. Dr. Jastrow. 

Rev. Dr. Jastrow, whose taking away we mourn during the year, came- to 
be known to men first as a patriot, and he remained a patriot to the end of his 
days. He came to be known as a preacher, a man of eloquent lips, and he 
made his message known to thousands as a staunch advocate of truth and 
righteousness. He was more than anything else a scholar. To the Jewish 
Publication Society he brought his powers to the Bible translation. He lived 
long enough to complete his great Dictionary of the Talmud. He was like 
the tree planted by rivers of waters. 



49 

Herman S. Friedman. 

In Herman S. Friedman were exemplified some of the finest qualities of 
the class of men who have made the name of the American Jew stand for all 
that was noble and upright. He attained prominence as president of the 
Clothiers' Exchange, and was one of the founders of the Young Men's He- 
brew Association. He was identified with every good work. He believed in 
the higher charity, which removed ignorance. He believed in education. He 
was one of the founders and a vice-president of the Jewish Publication Society, 
and was a vice-president of the Jewish Chautauqua Society. His opinions were 
always valuable, because they were backed up by active service. He was one 
of the most gentlemanly gentlemen it has been my good fortune to know. 
By his fruits shall he be known henceforth. 

Simon Adler Stern. 

Simon Adler Stern, whose recent passing away has left deep marks of 
grief on the Philadelphia community, whether as a business man, printer and 
publisher, or as in control of great fiduciary trust. Simon Stern's life was dedi- 
cated to things beyond mere money making. He was an idealist. He was a 
poet. He was a musician. He was the greatest authority among the Jews 
on music and literature. He gave translations of Auerbach, Heine and others. 
He poured out his soul most of all through his violin. Thus in the universal 
language of music did he speak. He was a cultured gentleman of the highest 
type. He went through the world with a smile on his lips and a hand out- 
stretched to help all. To his memory do we consecrate a tree. 

Memorial Also to Others. 

We remember at the same time the trees here planted in memory of 
-others. We plant the tree as the emblem of immortality. 

The consecration services were concluded with the reading of 
the Kaddish and the pronouncing of the benediction by Rev. 
William Armhold. 

LUNCHEON SERVED IN TENT. 

After the services a bounteous and attractive luncheon was 
served to the visitors in the large tent. 

The following committee of ladies assisted in serving the lunch at the 
Farm School: Mrs. Joseph Krauskopf, Mrs. Morris Liveright, Mrs. Simon 
Fleisher, Mrs. Morris A. Kaufman, Mrs. Hart Friedberger, Mrs. S. Blumen- 
thal, Mrs. William A. Stern, Misses Hennie Ulman, Linda Strauss, Blanche 
Rosenbluth, Alice Fleisher, Helen Langfeld, Hortense Snellenburg, Alice 
iLiveright, Mrs. Joseph Schoeneman, Mrs. Simon Weil, Mrs. T. Greenwald, 
Mrs. Albert Marks, Misses Eva Jacobs, Claire Kohn, Lillian Abrahamson, Ger- 
tie Bauers, Selida Coran, Zellea Baersdorfer, Edna Franklin, Jennie Merz, 
Mrs. A. Simon. Mrs. Adolph Eichholz, Mrs. Marcus Bacharach and Mrs. 
Harrv ivelix. 

GRADUATION EXERCISES. 

At 2.30 o''lock the visitors, who had been roaming about the 
grounds, reassembled in the grove for the graduating exercises. 
These were opened with an invocation by Rev. Henry M. Fisher,, 



50 

of Atlantic City. The students intoned a hymn, and then Dr.. 
Krauskopf introduced the speakers with the following address : 

Introductory Remarks by Dr. Krauskopf. 

Ladies and Gentlemen: In the name of the Board of Trustees I extend 
to you a hearty welcome to the Fourth Graduation of the National Farm. 
School. Considering- the School's distance from the city, and the unpopularity 
among city people of that pursuit that constitutes the foundation of our na- 
tional prosperity, of our very life, this goodly assemblage of people is quite 
assuring. 

Back to the Soil. 

To the student of social science and of history, more especially of Jewish 
history, a gathering such as this is a sign of healthy progress and a prophecy 
as well. It is a sign that the cry "back to the soil," that has been growing 
louder and louder in late years, is being heard. It is a prophecy that the de- 
serted farms are destined to become again populated with a healthy and happy 
people, and that the debilitating and demoralizing congestion of city ghettos 
arid slums is destined to be relieved by a return to mother earth of those 
sorely in need of its invigorating and ennobling influences. It is a sign that 
the thought of the true philanthropist is turning from merely remedial to pre- 
ventive work and a prophecy that not forever shall people suffer poverty 
and disease to intrench themselves in the overcrowded districts of cities and 
breed physical and moral wreckage, when, by scattering the dependent classes 
over God's broad acres where the fountains of food and health and morals 
flow unceasingly, they might become independent and vigorous and prosperous 
bread-winners and bread producers, and as such be welcomed everywhere as 
desirable colonists or immigrants. 

Hon. Edward Lauterbach. 

But why do I dwell on these points, when you are impatient to hear one 
who is far abler to speak on these subjects than I am, one who has given much 
thought to the question of agriculture as a remedy of a hundred ills of modern 
society, and who has given some of these problems practical solution? It gives 
me great pleasure, therefore, ladies and gentlemen, to comply with your wish 
in introducing to you the baccalaureate orator of to-day, the Hon. Edward 
Lauterbach, of New York. 

The Hon. Edward Lauterbach, of New York, who was greeted 
with applause, delivered the baccalaureate address, in the course of 
which he said : 

The Jew a Supporter of His Poorer Brethren. 

I have seen to-day where a solution to the vexed Jewish problem may be 
found. It lies in such institutions as this, which, if properly developed and sus- 
tained, will prove the solution of the most distressing problem that has been 
presented to the Jews of the United States. A brief retrospect of the situation 
that cries so loudly for relief may be appropriate. 

It has always been a source of pride to the Jew that he has cared for his 
own poor, no matter how desperate their condition. In the earlier days of the 
past century those of Portuguese and English extraction who had come to 



51 

New York and Philadelphia, men like Haym Solomon, of Philadelphia, whose 
support and benefaction to the American Congress during the Revolution was 
exceeded by none, assisted with their sympathy and money such co-religionists 
as came to these shores. 

The German Immigration. 

The Revolution of 1848 in Germany sent to America men by the hundreds 
and thousands who were unacquainted with the language and customs of the 
country. Those who were here might have said: "We are Americans; you 
are Germans. You happen to be of the same religion. There is no reason 
why we should support you." But no such argument was oflfered. Within a 
few years the aid offered to these co-religionists wes perfected, and we con- 
tinued, until 1881, congratulating ourselves that the poor Jew was cared for 
and was no burden to the community. 

The Russian Immigration. 

Then the great change came about. It came like a thunderbolt from a 
clear sky. The edict of the Russian Emperor drove thousands from their na- 
tive land. I remember that on one day in July of that year 3,500 immigrants 
were landed in New York without means of support. They had to be cared 
for. Jewish immigration continued, and again those who had risen to affluence 
might have said to these men from Russia: "Your religion is perhaps the 
same as ours; but there is no bond between us," and thus have evaded respon- 
sibility. But no. In New York, Philadelphia and other cities, organizations 
were effected and these poor people were cared for. The immigration steadily 
increased and as many as 50,000 Jews have reached New York every year, with 
the result that this burden became almost unbearable. 

Efforts for Remedying the Evils. 

But it has been borne and will be borne. What has happened? The organ- 
izations have increased in numbers and in potentiality. The Hebrew Orphan 
Asylums now take care of 10,500 children. Every necessity of dependent chil- 
dren and adults is cared for amply. But the demand increases. A hospital at a 
cost of three million dollars was erected within the year by Jews in New 
York. 

No Religious Distinction in Jewish Institutions. 

There is no distinction made in admission as to race or class or religion. 
The great Montefiore institution was, within the last few years, extended into 
a home for consumptives. Not only the physical welfare has been looked after, 
but the educational feature has been made an important one; a notable factor 
"being the Educational Alliance. 

The Pledge Given to Peter Stuyvesant. 

We endeavor to americanize those that come to our shores. A pledge was 
made to Peter Stuyvesant in the early days of the century that no Jew should 
■ever be a burden to the city of New York. We have still that which is tanta- 
mount to the Ghetto among us. No one is banished or restricted to any spe- 
cial place, but from the necessities of the situation there are gathered together 
in a certain part of the city thousands of our co-religionists. From day to day 
there are evidences that the immigrants emancipate themselves from these sur- 
roundings. 



52 

Religious Instruction a Sacred Duty. 

There are situations with which we cannot successfully cope. I refer to the 
case of the dependent child. We may do, as adults, as we please in respect to 
our religious beliefs, but I hold it to be our sacred duty to give to every child 
the benefit of the religious education of its parents. Some years ago there was 
a crusade against institutional sectarianism and State aid was withheld; but 
when an investigation was made of the work of the Catholic and Jewish orphan 
asylums the large benefit of this work was shown, and the State continued to 
help. But the State said: "You shall not support the child beyond the age 
of i6." Then what to do? At the age of i6 the child is to be sent forth into 
the world, sent back to the malign influence of the Ghetto. What is to be 
done? 

Large Percentage of Jewish Graduates in New York Schools. 

Of 200 boys who will graduate from the public schools within the coming 
week 60 per cent, are Jews. The Hebrew Technical Institute has been founded 
and is now teaching 250 children in the science of draughtsmanship and en- 
gineering, etc. But the number is limited. 

A Plea for Farm Schools the Solution of the Problems. 

There should be a National Farm School in every section of the country,, 
and this School at Doylestown should be enlarged and developed. This is 
the solution of the Jewish problem to-day. Boys should be given a thorough 
education in agriculture that they may become leaders in Israel and enable 
others to become farmers and agriculturists. The graduates of this School 
have been taught not only practical farming, but have been trained in every 
other direction to know their duty as American citizens. I will go back to 
New York and tell my friends there that it is their duty to encourage the 
National Farm School, so that boys may be sent from their institutions not to 
be bread-eaters, but bread-makers. 

Thanks for the Founder, Dr. Krauskopf. 

We cannot thank Dr. Krauskopf too much for the noble work he has done 
here. There should also be a preparatory school for children of 13 years of 
age — and girls, too, should receive an education similar in character. They 
could learn dairying, horticulture, floriculture, etc. 

Zionism no Solution. 

Dr. Rosenau repudiated the idea of Zionism as a solution, and he did welL 
Jews who come to these shores should come with the idea of becoming Ameri- 
cans, just as the Irishman, who is a Catholic, comes here. The question of 
religion and nationality ought to be separated. 

Farm School More Important Than a Hospital. 

The creation and maintaining of institutions like the Farm School far sur- 
passes in importance and scope an asylum or a hospital or a technical institu-. 
tion. Let us unite in making this institution as successful as it can be. It is 
and is intended to be a national institution. 



53 

ADDRESS OF DR. WASHBURN. 

Dr. John H. Washburn, of the National Farm School, was the 
next speaker. He said : 

My Young Friends of the Graduating Class: For nearly two years wc 
have labored together to exemplify the principles for which the establishing of 
the National Farm School stands. Our success during the past year has been 
greater than ever before. The satisfactory growth in the manhood and busi- 
ness integrity of the pupils of our school has been a great encouragement. 

School's First Duty. 

The first duty of our school is to make men, and the object of our in- 
struction is to produce agriculturists. This institution, like every new enter- 
prise, received during its earliest years criticism. It was said that we could 
not make agriculturists. You who were pupils at the time appre- 
ciated the utter folly of the criticism, knowing that it could come only from 
persons so entirely unacquainted with the work of our school that they were 
simply unable to read the most favorable and encouraging facts aright. 

The Lie Given tO' Adverse Criticism. 

You felt the error of the criticism because you knew that yourselves were 
being made into agriculturists, you appreciated the fact that you were acquir- 
ing a knowledge that would enable you to practice successfully some of the 
lines of agriculture which are open to the election of our students. There is 
nothing more comforting as a panacea to adverse criticism than an absolute 
knowledge of facts disproving it. 

Specializing thle Keynote of To-day^s Work. 

You have been at the Farm School long enough to realize the utter futil- 
ity of one's attempting to become proficient in the whole subject of agriculture; 
one may as well endeavor to become proficient in the many departments of 
science. Even the best agricultural colleges attempt to teach only a few of 
the branches of agriculture, those best adapted to their part of the country. In 
these days of specialization the school, the college or the individual often does 
best to specialize. 

Opportunities for Specializing at the National Farm School. 

You have had opportunity to specialize either in greenhouse manage- 
ment, market gardening, dairying, poultry or general farming. You have seen 
others receive this instruction, and those possessing the elements of success 
you have seen become truly proficient. There is no agricultural school or col- 
lege in the United States possessing the unprecedented, opportunity to train 
or prove its graduates like that which has been given to the National Farm 
School by means of the Flora Schoenfeld Memorial Farms. 

Flora Schoenfeld Memorial Farms. 
It has been to me a special privilege and pleasure to have the opportunity 
to assist those gentlemen having charge of the expenditure of the Flora 
Schoenfeld Memorial Fund in selecting the farms, which I feel have been 
wisely chosen, both from a business and an educational standpoint. It has 
been an equal pleasure to encourage and confer with those young men selected 
to have charge of these farms. 



Success in Spite of Detractors. 

Some of our friends a year ago expressed the opinion that it would be 
■difficult to get any student willing to take charge of these farms, and it was 
difficult to get the right young men possessed of the business push and capa- 
city to act as pioneers and map out a course and illustrate a policy that would 
be successful. Speaking for myself I am entirely satisfied with the choice, and 
did we have a dozen such farms to conduct, I am confident we could find pupils 
from the National Farm School not only who are fitted to take them, but who 
would desire very much the opportunity to do so. You are to be congratu- 
lated that you were a student at this important period of our school's develop- 
ment. I feel that the possession of these farms chronicles a new era in the 
success of the National Farm School. 

Jewish Lads Successful Fanners. 

The fact has always been demonstrated beyond a question that our Jewish 
lads have been educated to become practical farmers; that they are fully capa- 
ble of conducting for themselves a farm is no longer an opinion but a fact. 
You are well aware that men fail in farming oftener from lack of business ca- 
pacity rather than ignorance of the methods of farming. The natural business 
capacity possessed by the majority of our boys gives them a decided advantage 
in successful farming. Good soil and average weather will give produce, but 
upon the disposal of that crop depends the whole financial success of the 
farmer. 

Each Graduate Has Position. 

The fact that each one of you has already secured a good position along 
agricultural lines which you will accept upon leaving this school is of itself 
sufficient indorsement of your successful training as agriculturists. As you go 
forth from these activities I can but say that the choice of action will now be 
left entirely with you without the moral force of school authority to guide you. 
The healthy instruction you have received here teaches you that there is no 
blind fate, but that you work out your destiny in freedom in accordance with 
your own strength or weakness to obey or disobey your best conception of 
duty and the knowledge of laws you have studied. The success to which you 
attain will be a criterion of the wisdom of your choice; let no ambition nor 
hatred, the love of ease, nor the greed of gain, the desire of popularity, nor 
the love of praise, so fill your hearts as to turn you from the wise and prudent 
fulfillment of your duty. 

MAX SCHOENFELD PRESENTS DIPLOMAS. 

The certificates were. presented to the graduates by Mr. Max 
Schoenfeld, of Zurich, Switzerland, with the following remarks: 

Mr. President, Professor, and My Dear Young Friends: It is just two 
years since I had the pleasure of being with you on a similar occasion, and 
when our dear friend, Dr. Krauskopf, honored me with his visit, in Switzer- 
land, last year, and told me of the progress the National Farm School was 
making, I naturally had a great desire to come over to see and be with you 
again; I therefore arranged my affairs, and you can see for yourself that where 
there is a will there is a way, and I am here again with you. 



55 
Congratulations for Graduate. 

First, permit me to congratulate you most heartily upon your success in 
securing your diplomas of the National Farm School. I feel certain that you 
have worked hard for four years to obtain them, and that you would not have 
received them had you not fully deserved them. 

Pioneers of a Grand Cause. 

My young friends, you are now starting out into the world to make for 
yourselves an honorable career, and in doing so be forever mindful that you 
are the "Pioneers of the Grand Cause" for which this institution stands, and 
was created by our dear friend, the President, Dr. Krauskopf. 

Lives to be Incentive to Others. 

Let me hope, therefore, that your lives, your work and your example may 
prove an incentive to induce other young men of the Jewish race and faith to 
follow in your footsteps, and let the escutcheon and the colors of this institu- 
tion be ever before your eyes as the symbol of all that is noble and good for 
the advancement of mankind. 

Excelsior. 

I would earnestly beg you to keep in touch with your professors and 
teachers, who devoted so much of their life and energies to promote your 
welfare, and to whom I am sure you feel your gratitude is due. In conclusion, 
I wish you all possible success and hope that you will forever be faithful to 
the cause, and let the watchword of each one of you be: "Excelsior." 

Mr. Schoenfeld, who is the donor of the "Flora Schoenfeld 
Memorial Farms," then presented diplomas to the following gradu- 
ates : Elmore Lee, Jacob Taubenhaus , Alexander Monblatt and 
Bernard A. Zalinger. 

Dr. Krauskopf, in asking the visitors to look over the grounds, 
referred to the fact that the area of the Farm School grounds was 
one square mile, and said that in an area ofexactly similar extent on 
the East Side of New York 65,000 families live, a total of 400,000 
souls. 

The exercises were concluded with a benediction by Rev. 

Abram Simon. 

All Have Positions. 

All the graduates have secured positions. Bernard A. Zalinger will take a 
position in a greenhouse near Chicago. Elmore E. Lee will take charge of a 
nursery in Ohio. Alexander Monblatt will take a place in the Agricultural 
Department at Washington, D. C. Jacob Taubenhaus will be employed on a 
dairy farm at Morris Plains, N. J., and expects later to take a course in the 
Pennsylvania State Agricultural College. 

More Farms Promised. 

The promise of four additional farms and two additional barns was given 
to the Farm School, details of which will be published later. 



56 



Prizes Awarded at the National Farm School---i904. 

For the best work in general agriculture for the year : 
First prize awarded to Philip Kriuzniau, $15.00. 
Second prize awarded to Victor Anderson, 10.00. 
The above prize was a gift of Mr. Ralph Blum. 

The prize in horticulture was awarded to Meyer Green, $10.00. 
The above prize was a gift of Mr. Samuel L,it. 

The prize for the best w-ork in dairying was awarded to Charles Horn, fio.oo. 
This prize is the gift of Mr. I. L. Marks, in memory of Harold Marks. 
The prizes of $25, by the Rev. Dr. Joseph Krauskopf and $10.00 by Mr. Louis 
Loeb of New York, to be awarded for the best individual gardens, are to be divided 
among : 

Seniors. 

First prize, Jake Ratner, fj.oo. 
Second prize, Max Morris, 4.66. 

Juniors. 

First prize, Henry Ratner, $7.00, 

' Second prize, Philip Krinzman, 4.66. 

Sophomores. 

First prize, Abe Miller, I7.00. 

o A ■ A- -A A \ Louis Rock, $2. "^2,. 

Second prize divided among |^^^ SolomoA Feinberg, 2.33. 



SOME LETTERS FROM GRADUATES. 

The following are a few of many letters received from former graduates 
of the School: 

From George W. Ibaugh. 

To the Class of 1904. 

My Dear Friends: Three years ago the class of 1901 stood where you 
stand to-day. We had finished the course of studies and were about to put 
them to use in earning our daily bread. This problem may seem simple, and 
yet, let me tell you the future was anything but bright. 

Difficulties of First Graduates. 

We did not know how far our Farm School education would go toward 
aiding us in making a living. We had heard farmers say that there was noth- 
ing in "book farming," that one had to be born a farmer, and wondered if it 
would prove true. Has it proven true? 

Fallacy of Detractor's Reasoning. 

In my case, no! Decidedly no! As I look back over the past three years 
I can see many places where my training has been useful to me. I could not 
hold my present position without such an education. And to my knowledge 
and experience, gardening, though hard work, is a pleasant and healthful occu- 



57 

pation. To sow and reap and to know that some one is depending on the 
fruits of your labor for many a table delicacy is, indeed, the position of a 
sovereign. 

Farm Life the Most Healthful. 

Do I regret having left the city and come to the country for an occupation? 
Again my answer must be, no! There is no occupation that would have given 
me better health, for aside from my one illness I have enjoyed perfect health. 

Happiness and Good Living Come From the Farm. 

Now, members of the class of 1904, you take with you to-day the best 
wishes for success from one who so recently had to face the problem you are 
facing to-day. If you want to get rich quick do not accept an agricultural po- 
sition, for you will be wasting time. But if you want health, happiness and a 
good living, stick to the soil. You may make mistakes and possibly failures at 
first, but keep at it and in three years' time you will join me in praising the 
Farm School. 

Never Lack Confidence, 

My greatest fault has been lack of confidence in myself. It has been the 
purpose of this letter to give you confidence and to tell you that you may re- 
turn to your books when in trouble. Do not be afraid to take the work of- 
fered to you. It may seem beyond your power, but when once started you will' 
see that you are master of the situation. 

Wishes for Success. 

Again let me wish you success, and by success I mean the making of a. 
good home, together with as much of a fortune as possible. If we all accom- 
plish this we will be doing our duty to both God and man. 

Very truly yours, 

GEO. W. IBAUGH, Class 1901. 
Berwyn, Pa., June 11, 1904. 

From Charles S. Heller. 

Wiggins, Miss., June 10. 
Dear Dr. Krauskopf: It is nearly two years since my graduation from 
the National Farm School and my entrance into agricultural work on my own 
hook. Since leaving the Farm School I have been fortunate enough to secure 
steady employment, and have found through my experience and observation 
that there is just as strong a demand in this line for competent and willing 
men. as there is in any other pursuit that I know of. 

Farm School Training Invaluable. 

In my first position at Highmount, New York, I had charge for over a 
year, and with the one I now hold I have likewise, and find that the training 
secured at the National Farm School has been invaluable. 

Large Responsibilities of Present Position. 

The work I am now engaged in carries a large responsibility. In brief,, 
it consists in demonstrating to the people that the Piney Woods regions of, 
Mississippi, comprising nearly one-fourth of the State and now sparsely set-- 



58 

tied, is valuable for profitable cultivation. Although here only three months 
I feel much satisfied at the progress made, considering the pioneer conditions. 

Hard Work for Graduates. 

The graduates w^ill find hard work before them, both physically and men- 
tally, for some time. In order to complete their equipment, I impress upon 
them the fact that agriculture is too broad and interesting to thoroughly mas- 
ter in four or six years, and is a life work. 

The Farm School Influential. 

The influence of the National Farm School is being felt throughout the 
country, and even in this section, the far South, it has gained new well-wishers. 
With congratulations and an ardent hope for continued success. 
I am, very truly, 

CHARLES S. HELLER. 

From Meyer Goldman. 

Vineland, June 8, 1904. 
To the Class of 1904, National Farm School. 

Greeting: It is with great pleasure that I greet you, members of the 
graduating class. One year ago to-day you saw me where you are to-day, en- 
tering upon the noble work for which I was trained at the National Farm 
School. That you now experience my feelings of a year ago I do not doubt, 
and let me hope that you will not fail to feel the duty you owe towards your 
alma mater , and then only can you attain success. 

Successful After One Year's Work. 

After one year of hard work I am glad to say that a bright future is be- 
fore me, if only I follow my chosen profession. My training that I possessed 
when I graduated has been of great value to me. Of course, I have met with 
many difficulties, but everything at present shows that my efiforts are not in 
vain. I am not compelled to labor daily in the congested shop, where pale 
faces and ruined health are the ultimate results. I am very glad that I am in 
such work and will always continue in this line. Friends, again I ask you to 
enter upon the work you have chosen with full hearts of hope and love for your 
work, and then you will have no cause to regret it. 

I am very sorry my duties will not permit me to be with you next Sunday, 
but my fondest wishes for your success you have. 

Yours, with best wishes, 

MEYER GOLDMAN. 



The following editorial appeared in Public Ledger of October 
4t]i, 1904. In the hope that it may interest some of the well 
wishers and subscribers to the National Farm School it is here 
appended. 

AN EXCELLENT INSTITUTION. 

Justice Julius Mayer, of the Court of Special Sessions in New York, in an 
address delivered at the eighth annual meeting of the association conducting 
the National Farm School at Doylestown, referred to the beneficial work of the 
institution as an important element in the solution of a very perplexing prob- 



59 

lem, the concentration of the newer immigration in the great cities. Judge 
Mayer has studied the problem at close range in New York. While recogniz- 
ing its seriousness, he is confident that time and experience will work out 
the problem in the case of the newer immigration effectually, as they have 
solved the problem of the older immigration. 

The outlet for the congestion of the newer immigration in the cities is the 
countryside and the agricultural colony. The National Farm School and all 
other agencies that will promote the pursuit of agriculture among the poorly 
housed, ill paid and otherwise unfortunately situated dwellers in the densely 
crowded quarters of the great cities deserve every encouragement. It is a 
discouraging fact that, while immigrants are swarming in the cities, thousands 
of farmers are relinquishing the countryside and rushing to the populous cen- 
tres. 

The tendency to depopulate the farming districts has become so strong, 
even in the rural counties of Pennsylvania, that many townships fail to show 
the old-time progressive growth in population, and some of them reported a 
noticeable loss at the last census. The difficulty of obtaining help is one of 
the great drawbacks of the farming business. The original employment 
of man in districts where it ought to be fruitful and reasonably remunerative 
has suffered, fallen into neglect and into disrepute with the thoughtless, because 
city pursuits and city life, even when accompanied by much discomfort, and, 
perchance, by unhealthful and squalid environments, are more alluring. What- 
ever may be said of the isolation and hard work of farm life, it is infinitely 
preferable to the surroundings in which many city dwellers are doomed to live. 

Large settlements of immigrants are succeeding in agriculture in South 
Jersey and elsewhere in the vicinity of Philadelphia on farms on which native 
Americans have failed to make a living. These foreigners are, as a rule, good 
citizens, industrious and thrifty. Their situation is incomparably better than 
that of their fellow-countrymen pursuing precarious and unhealthful occupa- 
tions in the cities. It is highly probable that when the tide turns, the outflow 
of the urban population to the farms, which may be expected in time by sheer 
force of necessity, will be that of the foreign element. This movement will be 
organized, aided, hastened and successfully directed by such institutions as 
those represented by the National Farm School. Self-help is the best help. 
The charity that encourages self-help must appeal strongly to every consider- 
ate person. 



6o 



Life Members of National Farm School. 



ALABAMA. 

-Mobile. 

Bernheimer, Mrs, L. 

ENGLAND, 

X,ondon. 

Meyer, Arthur 

ILLINOIS. 

■Chicago. 

Mandel, Leon 

IOWA. 

Waverly, 
A. Slimmer 

LOUISIANA. 

JSlew Orleans. 

District Grand Lodge, 
No. 7, I. O. B. B. 

MARYLAND. 

Baltimore. 
*Rayner, Wm. S. 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston. 

Hecht, Mrs. Lina 

NEW YORK. 

JNew York. 
Abraham, A. 
Budge, Henry 
Guggenheimer, Wm. 
Meyer, Wm. 
Silberberg, G. 
Sidenberg, G. 

OHIO. 

'Columbus. 

Benai Israel Sisterhood. 
Lazarus, Fred'k 

•* Deceased. 



Lazarus, Ralph 
Miller, Leopold 
Sanger, Alexander 

Youngstown. 
Theobald, Mrs. C. 

PENNSYLVANIA. 

Allegheny . 

Rank, Mrs. Rosalie 

Altoona. 

Henry, S. Kline 

Langhorne. 
Branson, I. L. 

Philadelphia. 
Blum, Ralph 
Blumenthal, Herman 
Blumenthal, Sol. 
Betz & Son. 
Byers, Jos. J. 
Grant, Adolph 
Harrison, C. C. 
Hagedorn, Mrs. Alice 
Jonas, Herman 
Kaas, Andrew 
Kauflfman, Morris 
Kayser, Samuel 
Krauskopf, Harold 

Levy, Sol. 

Lit, S. D. 

Langfeld, A. M. 

Muhr, Jacob 

Merz, Mrs. Regina 

Merz, Daniel 
*Pepper, Dr. Wm. 

Pfaelzer, Simon 

Reform Congregation 
Keneseth Israel 
*Rorke, Allen B. 

Rosenberg, Walter J. 

Rosenberg, Grace 

Rosenberg, Walter I. 

Schloss, Mrs. Herman 

Silberman, Mrs. Ida 



Silverman, I. H. 

*Snellenburg, J. J. 
Snellenburg, Nathan 
Snellenburg, Sam'l 
Sternberger, Samuel 
Teller, Mrs. B. F. 
Teller, Joseph R. 

^Teller, Mrs. Joseph R. 

*Teller, Benj. F. 
Trautman, Dr. B. 
W^anamaker, John 

*Weiler, Herman 
Wolf, I., Jr. 

Pittsburg. 

Browarsky, Max 
Cohen, Aaron 
Cohen, Josiah 
Dreifus, C. 
Hamburger, Philip 
Hanauer, A. M. 
Kaufman Bros. 
Marcus, Aaron 
Rauh, Mrs. Rosalie 
Solomon & Rubin 
Weil, A. Leo 
Weil, J. 



SWITZERLAND. 

Zurich. 

Schoenfeld, Max 



TEXAS. 

Dallas. 

Sanger, Mrs. Philip 



VIRGINIA. 

Norfolk. 

Ladies Hebrew Benevo- 
lent Association. 

Richmond. 

Milheiser, Gustave 



6i 



Memorial Buildings. 



I. Theresa Loeb Memorial Green House, in memory of Theresa Loeb, Ogontz, 
Pa., by her family, 
II. Ida M. Block Memorial Chapel, in memory of Ida M. Block, Kansas City, 
Mo., by her husband and family. 
Til. Zadok Eisner Memorial Laboratory, in memory of Zadok Eisner, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., by his wife. 
IV. Rose Krauskopf Memorial Green House, in memory of Rose Krauskopf, 
Philadelphia, Pa., by her children. 



Subscriptions from Oct. 1903 to Sept. 30th, 1904. 



ALABAMA. 

Alexander City. 

Herzfeld, A 5.00 

Birmingham. 

Birmingham lyodge No. 168, 

I. O. B. B I5.00 

Caheen Bros S-OO 

Congregation Emanu El . . 5.00 

Denwpolis. 

Marengo Lodge No. 283, I. O. 

B. B 10.00 

Z.ivingston. 

Levy, M 5.00 

Mobile. 

Bernheimer, Mrs. L 105,00 

Council of Jewish Women of 

Mobile 5 00 

Eichold, Emanuel 5.00 

Hess, Henry 5.00 

JVIontgomery. 

Kahl Montgomery 10.00 

Kahn, M 5.00 

Loeb, Jacques 3.00 

Uniontown. 
Pake, L. J 5-oo 

ARIZONA. 

Tucson. 
Jacobs, M.Lionel 5.00 

ARKANSAS. 

J^iitle Rock. 

Bnai Israel Congregation . . 10. no 
Cohen, Mark M 10.00 

Pine Bluff. 

Roth, Louis , . 5.00 

CALIFORNIA. 

Sacramento. 

Bonnheim, A 10.00 

Cohen, Isadore 5.00 

JafFee, M. S 5-oo 

Weinstock, Harris 25.00 



San Francisco. 

Cahn, Mrs. L. I 

Hirschfelder, Dr. J. H. . . 
Leffman, Mrs. L. D. . . . 
Rosenbaum, Mrs. Chas. W. 
Schwabacher, Louis A. . . 
Schwabacher, Abe . . . . 
Sloss, Mrs. M. C 



COLORADO. 

Deliver. 

Kubitshek, Henry . . 



5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5-00 



5.00 



5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 



5.00 



5.00 



CONNECTICUT. 

New Haven. 

Adler, Max 

Horeb Lodge, No. 25,I.O.B.B. 

Ulman, Jacob 

Ullman, Isaac M 

DELAWARE. 

Seaford. 

Van Leer, Chas 

Wilmington. 

Wilmington Lodge No. 470, 
I. O. B. B 



DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 

Washington. 

Behrend, Ammon 5.00 

Blumenfeld, Mrs. M 2.00 

Deborah Lodge 5.00 

Elijah Lodge No. 50, 1.O.B.B. 5.00 

Herman, A 5.00 

Saks. Isidore 5.00 

Sondheimer, J 5.00 

Washington Sabbath School 5.00 

Wolf, Hon. Simon 5.00 

FLORIDA, 

De Land. 

Davis, M 5.00 

GEORGIA. 

Savannah. 

Dryfus, M 5.00 

Joseph Lodge No. 16, 1. 0.B.B. 2.00 



62 



Subscriptions from Oct. 1903 to Sept. 30th> 1904. 



Atlanta. 

Frounstine, L. 1 5.00 

Hebrew Benevolent Congre- 
gation |io.oo 

Hebrew Ladies' Benevolent 

Society lo.oo 

Kaufman, D 10.00 



IDAHO. 

Boise City. 

Ladies' Judith Montefiore 
Lodge 



5-00 



ILLINOIS. 

Blootnington. 

Abraham Lincoln Lodge No. 

90, I. O. B. B 5.00 

Chicago. 

Binswanger, A. 5.00 

Despres, Samuel 5.00 

Eisenstaedt, 1 10.00 

Foreman, Oscar G 5.00 

Frank, Henry L. . . . . . . 5.00 

Gatz, John 5.00 

Gatzert, August 5.00 

Goldman, Albert 5.00 

Greenebaum, Elias 5.00 

Greenebaum Sons 5.00 

Hartman, Joseph S. ..... 5.00 

Isaiah Sabbath School . . . 5.00 

Klee, Max • • 10.00 

Kohn, Isaac 5.00 

Maxwell, Geo. H 10.00 

Mandel, Simon 5.00 

Ramah LodgeNo. 33, 1.O.B.B. 10.00 

Rosenwald, M. S 5.00 

Schanfarber, Rev. Tobias . . 5 00 

Solomon, Mrs. Hannah G. . 5 00 

Stoltz, Rev. Dr. Jos 5.00 

Steele, H. B 5 00 

Springfield . 

Ernes Lodge No. 67, I.O.B.B. 5.00 

Peoria. 

Greenhut, J. B 25.00 

Levi, Rev. Chas. ... 5.00 
Peoria Hebrew Relief Asso- 
ciation 12.00 

INDIANA. 

Indianapolis. 

Efroymson & Wolf 10.00 

Kahn, Henry 10.00 

Kahn, Mrs. Nathan 5.00 

Kirschbaum, R 5.00 

Newberger, Louis 10.00 

Rauh, Henry 5.00 

Rauh, Sam E : 25.00 

Strauss, L. 2.00 

Sommers, Chas. B . . . . 5.00 

Weiler, Mr. and Mrs. Abe . . 25.00 

Wineman, Jos 5-oo 

Fort Wayne. - 

Freiberger, Leopold .... 5.00 



Petersberg. 

Frank, Sol 

Terra Haute. 

Gan Eden Lodge No. no, 
I. O. B. B 

Herz, A 

Ligonier. 

Strauss, Ike 

Strauss, Jacob 

Angola. 

Stiefel, Mrs. L. C. ■ . . . 
Goshen. 

Salinger, Nathan .... 
Hartford City. 

Weiler, Miss Amy . . . 
Portland. 

Weiler, Morris 

Logansport. 

Wise, S 

Muncie. 

Hme, I\I 



IOWA 

Oskaloosa. 

Baldauf, Samuel . . 
Davenport. 

Rothchild, D. . . 
Des Moines. 

Frankel, Mrs. B. . . 

Frankel, A 

Frankel, M 

Frankel, N 

Rosenfeld, M. . . 



Charles City. 

Hecht, I 

Sioux City. 

Des Moines Lodge No. 330, 

I. O. B. B 

Mt. Sinai Congregation Sab- 
bath School 



J5.00 



10.00 
S5.00 



5.00 
10.00 



3.00 
500 
5-00 
5-00 
5.00 
5-00 

10.00 

5.00 

10.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 

10.00 

5.00 
s.oo 



KANSAS. 
Leavemuorth . 

Flesher, B. . lo.oo- 

Ka7isas City. 

Holzmark Bros 10.00 



KENTUCKY 

Louisville. 

Barkhouse, Louis 

Bernheim, B. . . 

Bernheim, J. W. 

Bernheim, B. . 

Kaufman, Henry 

Kohn, Aaron . . 

Sachs, Morris . . 

Sachs, Edward . 

Straus, Mrs. Sarah 

Simon, Henry . 

Solomon, Sam S. 
Henderson. 

Baldauf, Morris 

Mann, Bros. . . 



25.00 
25.00 
25 00 
5.06 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 
5.00 

5. CO 

5.00 
5.00 

Jo.oo 
10.00 



Subscriptions from Oct. 1903 to Sept. 30th, 1904. 



63 



Maysville. 

Mertz, Millard $5-00 

Mertz, Eugene 5.00 

Shelbyville. 

Jewish Library Society . . . 5.00 

Lexingtojt. 

Lexington Lodge No. 289, 

I. O. B. B 5.00 

J'aducah. 

Friedman, L. Joseph .... 10.00 
Harmony Lodge No. 149, 

I. O. B. B 5.00 

Weil, Mrs. Jeanette 5.C0 

LOUISIANA. 

JRayville. 

Tilche, Chas 5.00 

JVew Orleans. 

Aaron, Edward 5.00 

Council of Jewish Women , 25.00 

Kohn, Joseph 3.00 

Lazare, Levy & Co 5.00 

Newman, Isidore 10.00 

Simmons, Nathan 5.00 

Wolff, Solomon 5.00 

Waldhorn, Morse 5.00 

Weis, L 25.00 

Walls. 

Abramson, S 5.00 

-Monroe. 

Gross, Mrs. Florentine . . . 2.50 

MARYLAND 

^althnore. 

Adler, Chas 5.00 

Benedict, Benj 5.00 

Bamberger, Elkin 5 00 

Drey, Elkan 10.00 

Epstein, Jacob 5.00 

Frank, Dr. Sam'l L 10.00 

Frank, Mrs. Bertha Rayner . 400.00 

■Gottshalk, Joseph 10.00 

■Goldenberg, Mrs. M 5.00 

•Gottschalk, Levi 5.00 

Guttman, Mrs. Joel 5.00 

Gutmacher, Rev. A 5.00 

Hamburger, Ph 5.00 

Kraus, Henry 5.00 

Levy, Wm 10.00 

Lobe, H. J. ... ... 5-00 

Raynor, Isidore 5 00 

Raynor, Albert 5.00 

Rosenan, Dr. Wm 5.00 

Rothholz, J 5.00 

Sinsheimer, L 5-oo 

Sonneborn, Henry 5.00 

Sonneborn, Henry 25.00 

Sonneborn, Sig. B 5.00 

Strouse, Isaac 5.00 

■Strouse, Leopold ..:... 5.00 

Strouse, Mrs. Hennie .... 5.00 

LTlman, Nathan 5.00 

Ulman, A. J 15.00 



Frostburg. 

Wineland, Max $25.00 

MASSACHUSETTS. 

Boston. 

Green, Joseph 2.00 

KaflFenburgh,J 5.00 

Koshland, J 5.00 

Mode, Joseph 5.00 

Morse, Godfrey 5.00 

Ratchesky, A. C 5.00 

Shuman, Samuel 5.00 

Schoener, Joseph Z 5.00 

Ziegel, L 5.00 

Brookliyie. 

De Boer, David H 5.00 

Arlington. 

Wood, W. T. Donation of ice tools 

MICHIGAN. 

Detroit. 

Goldman, A 5.00 

Heineman, Sol E 5.00 

Montefiore Lodge, I. O. F. S. 

of 1 5-t)0 

Schloss, Seligman 5.00 

Weinman, Mrs. L 5-oo 

Kalniazoo. 

Mishan Lodge No. 247, 

I. O. B B 5-00 

Elk Rapids. 

Alpen, H 5-0° 

Wolverine. 
Levis, J. Walter 5.00 

Greenville. 

Jacobson, David 5-00 

MINNESOTA. 

Minneapolis. 

Minneapolis Lodge No. 271, 

I. O. B. B 15-00 

Minneapolis City Lodge 

No. 63, O. B. A 5-00 

St. Paul. 

Guiterman, A 5-oo 

MISSISSIPPI. 

Natchez. 

Frank, Henry 30-00 

Natchez Council of Jewish 

Women 5-00 

Columbus. 
Joachim Lodge No. 18 r, 

I. O. B. B 2.00 

Jackson. 

Manassah Lodge No. 202, 

I. O. B. B 3-00 

3^yles. 

Tausig, Joseph 3-00 



64 



Subscriptions from Oct. 1903 to Sept. 30th, 1904. 



Greenville. 

Jewish Women's League . . $5.00 

Wilzen, L 5.00 

Vicksburg. 

Anshe Chesed Congregation 25.00 
Brookhaven. 

Cohn, David Z 5.00 

Lortnan. 

Cohn Bros 5.00 

MISSOURI. 

Kansas City. 

Bloch, Edward 5.00 

Bloch, Sol 25.00 

Bernheinier, G., Bros. & Co. 5.00 

Benjamin, Alfred 5.00 

Benjamin, H. L 5.00 

Griff, S. H 5.00 

Heyman, A 5.00 

King David Lodge No. 86, 

0. B. A 5.00 

Mayer, Rabbi Harry H. . . . 5.00 

Rothenberg & Schloss . . , 10.00 

Shane, M 5.00 

St. Louis. 

Eben Ezra Lodge No. 47, 

1. O. B. B 10.00 

Goldstein, William 5.00 

Lippman, Joseph M 5.00 

Stix, Wm 10.00 

Weil, Julius 5.00 

Werner Bros 5.00 

Weil, Samuel 5.00 

St. Joseph. 

Joseph Lodge No. 73, 1.O.B.B. 10.00 

Schloss, Moses A r.oo 

Westheimer, Ferdinand . . . 25.00 

Lotiisiana. 

Michael Bros 3.00 

L,exi7igtoii. 

Linauer, Henry ....... 5.00 

NEBRASKA. 

Columbus. 

Gluck, Israel 10.00 

Lincoln. 

Mayer Bros i5-00 

Otnaha. 

Fishel, Mr. and Mrs. E. . . . 5.00 

Nebraska Lodge No. 354, 

I. O. B. B 5.00 

Rosenthal, B 5.00 

NEW JERSEY. 

Newark. 

Fisch, Joseph 5.00 

Goetz, Jos 5.00 

Lehman, L 5.00 

Michael, Oscar 5.00 

Michael, Chas 5.00 

Plant, Moses ....'.... 5.C0 



Strauss, Moses . , I5.0C 

Scheuer, Selig 5.00 

Stein, Mrs. C. K 5.00 

Steiner, Joseph 5.00 

Pater son. 

Fleisher, Nathan 5.00 

Jersey City. 

Hudson Lodge No. 295, 

I. O. B. B 5.00 

Montclair. 

Hirsch, Mrs. Samson .... 5.00 

Somerville. 

Mack, Louis C 5.00 

Mack, Alexander W 5.00 

Mack, Adolph 500 

Rindskopf, Alfred 5.00 

Trenton. 
Trenton Lodge No. 319, 

I. O. B. B 5.00 

Carnden. 

Black, L Z 5.00 

NEW MEXICO. 
Santa Fe. 

Seligman, Mrs. Bernard . . 5.00 
Ro swell. 

Jaffa, Mrs. Nathan 5.00 

NEW YORK. 

Albany. 

Albany Congregation Beth 

Emeth 25.00 

Lesser, Mrs. Wm 5.00 

Mann, Mrs. Jos 5.00 

Waldman, Louis 1 10.00 

Brooklyn. 

Abraham, A 25.00 

Bamberger, L. 1 5.00 

Blum, Edw. C 10.00 

Joachim, Chas. 1 5.00 

May, Moses 10.00 

Rothchild, S. F 10.00 

Buffalo. 

Fleishman, Simon 5.ck> 

Kieser, L 5.00 

Kieser, August 5.00 

Wile, Herman 5-00' 

Elniira. 

Friendly, H 3.00 

Ithaca. 

Ithaca Lodge No. 165, LO.S.B. 2.00 

Kingston. 

Rice, A 5.00 

Mt. Vernon. 

Samuels, Julius 5.00 

Samuels, Moritz 5.00 

New York City. 

Ash, Lewis 5.00 

Auerbach, Louis 5.00 

Bijur, Nathan 10.00 

Benjam.in, M. W lo.oc 




t/1 
5 ra 

8ra 



Subscriptions from Oct. 1903 to Sept. 30th, 1904. 



^5 



Benj. Harrisou Lodge No. 9, 

0. B. A. I3.00 

Bloomingdale, Jos. B. ... 10.00 

Brown, Emil 5.00 

Browsk}', Louis 5.00 

Bruecks, Wm 10.00 

Clark, Louis, Jr 5.00 

Cohen, A. . . 25.00 

Estricher, Henry 5.00 

Friedman, Sol. & Co 10.00 

Funk & Wagnalls 5.00 

Goldenberg, S. L 5.00 

Gottheil, Paul 5.00 

Goodhart, P. J 10.00 

Grossman, Rev. Dr. Rudolph 5.00 

Guinzburg, Victor . . 25.00 

Hebron Lodge No. 5, I.O.B.B. 5.00 

Heine, Arnold B 5.00 

Heidelbach, Louis 5.00 

Henry Jones Lodge No. 79, 

1. O. B. B 2.00 

Holzman, Ascher 10.00 

Holzman, S. L 5.00 

Herman, Uriah 5.00 

Herman, Mrs. Esther .... 10.00 

Herman, Nathan 5.00 

Herzig, Leopold 5.00 

Jonas, Wm 10.00 

Joseph, Mrs. Julius 25.00 

Kahn, Louis 5.00 

Kleinert, LB 10.00 

Kohn, Emil W 5.00 

Kohnstamm, Leo, Edward & 

Joseph 15.00 

Krauskopf, Mrs. Henrietta . 5.00 

Krauskopf, Nathan 5.00 

Ladenberger, Theodore . . . 10.00 

Lauterbach, Edw 25.00 

Lehman, Isaac S-OO 

Levy, Morris 10.00 

Levi, E.mil 5.00 

Loeb, Mrs Louis (Graduation) 10.00 

Loeb, Maurice 5.00 

Loeb, Louis 5.00 

Loeb, Robert 5.00 

Loeb, Emil 5.00 

Loeb, Miss H. K 5.00 

Loeb, Ferd. L 5.00 

Mack, Marc H. 10.00 

Mack, Fred. A 10.00 

Mayer, Otto L 10.00 

Meyer, Harrison D. . . . . . 20.00 

Modey, 1 3.00 

Moses, Rev. Isaac S 5.00 

Pulaski, M. H 5.00 

Rice, S. M 25.00 

Rosenwald, Sigmund .... 10.00 

Rosenbeg, Max Robert . . . 25.00 

Rose, H. Samuel 5.00 

Rothschild, Jacob 5.00 

Sanger, S 10.00 

Schiff, Jacob H. 200.00 

Schaffner, Abe 5.00 

SchoUe, Melville J 5.00 

Schoenfeld, Mrs. David . . . 5-00 



Schoenfeld, Max fioo.oo 

Sidenberg, Henry 5.00 

Solomon, Mrs. Bettie .... 10.00 

Solomon, A. A., Jr 5.00 

Sondheim, Max 5.00 

Speyer, James 10.00 

Stern, Benjamin 10.00 

Strasburger, Louis 10.00 

Strasburger, Louis, Son & Co. 5.00 

Sutro, Lionel 5.00 

Tannenbaum, Leon, Sr. , . . 25.00 

Waterbury, John 1 50.00 

Weinberg, A 10.00 

Weinman, Miss Reta .... 5.00 

Zickendorf, Louis 5.00 

Zion Lodge No. 2, I. O. B. B. 10.00 

Zucker Samuel 5.00 

Niagara Falls. 

Silberberg, Moses L 5.00 

Rondout. 

Lebanon Lodge No. 55, I. O. 

F. S. of 1 5.00 

Rochester. 

Wile, Julius M 10.00 

Syracuse. 

Eisner, Henry 5.00 

Jacobson, Dr. N 5.00 

Jacobson D. N 5.00 

Tattenville, S. I. 

Levinson, Henry 3.00 

NORTH CAROLINA. 

Goldsboro. 

Weil, M. Henry 5.00 

NORTH DAKOTA. 

Fargo. 

Stern, Marc 5.00 

OHIO. 

Akron. 

The Akron Schwesterbund . 5.00 

Bellaire. 

Blum, Mrs, Israel 5.00 

Blum, Mrs. Henry 5.00 

Cincinnati. 

Ach, Samuel 5.00 

Bettman, Levi 10.00 

Bing, J. & S 5-00 

Block, Abe ....'. 5-oo 

Block, Leon 5.00 

Fletcher, Victor 5.00 

Fox, Sol 15.00 

Freiberg, Julius 25.00 

Freiberg, J. W 5.00 

Freiberg, Maurice J 5.00 

Fries, Gus. R 500 

Grossman, Rev. Dr. Louis . 5.00 

Harris, Geo. W 5-oo 

Hirschhorn, L 5- 00 



66 



Subscriptions from Oct. 1903 to Sept. 30th, 1904. 



J^onas, H $500 

Levy, Harry M 5.00 

Mack, Mrs. M. W 5.00 

Mt. Carmel Lodge No. 20, 

I. O. B. B 10.00 

Mayer, Mrs. L 5.00 

Offner, Alex 5.00 

Pritz, Benj 10.00 

Pritz, Sidney E 5.00 

Pritz, Sol. W 5.00 

Scheuer, Jacob 5.00 

Shohl, Chas 5.00 

Westheimer, Morris .... 5.00 

Westheimer, Leo 5.00 

Wyler, Isaac 5.00 

'Cleveland. 

Black, Morris 10.00 

Eiseman, Chas 5.00 

Feiss, Paul L 5.00 

Greis, Rev. M. J 10.00 

Hexter, Kaufman W 2 00 

Hexter, Sol. M 5.00 

Joseph, Isaac 10.00 

Joseph, Sig 5.00 

Marks, M. A 5.00 

Mayer, Adolph 10.00 

Schwab, Mrs. M. B 5.00 

Scheuer, S. A i.oo 

Schlesinger, Sig & Co., ... 5.00 

Columbus. 

Lazarus, Fred., Jr S-oo 

Lazarus, Jeffrey L 2.00 

Lazarus, Robert ...... 2.00 

Lazarus, Simon 5.00 

Chilli cothe. 

Schachue, Moritz 5,00 

Crestine. 

Reder, Jake 5.00 

Dayton. 

Daneman, Mrs. Jacob .... i.oo 

Greenstein, Isaac i.oo 

Lefkowitz Rabbi, Bnai 

Jeshurun 5.00 

XfCssner & Bro 10.00 

Ach, F. 1 10.00 

Mt. Gilead. 

Cohn, Salo 500 

Piqua. 

Anshe Emeth Congregation . 5.00 

Plymouth. 

Spear, Sol 500 

Toledo. 

Laudman, Otto 5.00 

Schoenfield, Mrs. S 5.00 

Youngstown. 

Grossman, Dr. J. B 5.00 

Hirschberg, B 5.00 

Ritter, Miss Carrie B 5.00 

Strouss, 1 5.00 

Zanesville. 

Star, A. E 5.00 



OREGON. 

Portland. 

Selling, Ben .... 



. . $10.00 



PENNYLVANIA 

Allegheny. 

Cohen, Mrs. Josiah 5.00 

Hanauer, Mrs. H 5.00 

Jericho Lodge No. 44, I. O. B. B. 10.00 

Sunstein, A. J 5.00 

Sunstein, C 5.00 

Wertheimer, Samuel .... 10.00 

Allentown . 

Berman, I 2.00 

Feldman, Mrs. Anna .... 10.00 

Hess, Max 10.00 

Hess, Charles 10.00 

Kline, Charles S-oo 

Merkel, Joseph 10.00 

Samuel A 10.00 

Altoona. 

Klein, Ignaz 5.00 

Kline, Henry S 100.00 

Bethlehem. 

Dodson, T. M 5.00 

Fitcher, A. B 5.00 

Bradford. 

Council of Jewish Women . . 5.00 

Greenwald, David 5.00 

Bloomsburg. 

Cohen, Lewis 5.00 

Carlisle. 

Livingston, Jacob 5.00 

Livingston, Jacob 10.00 

Harrisburg . 

Friedman, Samuel i.oo 

Kuhn, Sam'l and Sol. . . . 5.00 

Marks, Herman 5.00 

Kittanning . 

Einstein, Jacob 5.00 

Lancaster. 

Cohen, E. M 5.00 

Levy, Morris 5.00 

Moss, S. R 5-00 

Rich, Israel A 5.00 

Rosenstein, A 5.00 

Rosenthal, Morris 5.00 

McKeesport. 

Bachman, Max 5 00 

Corn, S. B 500 

Sunstein, 1 5.00 

New Castle. 

Feuchtwanger, Marcus ... 5.00 

Ph iladelpb ia . 

Abbott, George 5.00 

Acker, Finley 5 00 

Baird, J. E. ......... 10.00 

Blaylock & Blynn 5.00 

For Special Donations refer to page 69. 



Subscriptions from Oct. 1903 to Sept. 30th, 1904. 



67 



Butler, Benj. F $ 5.00 

Clay, Henry 5.00 

Davis, Edw. |T 10.00 

Delaney & Co 5.00 

Dodge, Jauies M 25.00 

Feustman, N. Maurice . . . 5.00 

Gans, Mrs. Jeanette .... 3.00 

Gattman, M 5.00 

Gelb, W. B 5.00 

Grieb & Son, J, B 5.00 

Graves, N. Z 5.00 

Hensell, Colladay & Co. . . 5.00 

Hiebner, Samuel 5.00 

Hill, Robert C 5.00 

Hoffman, Julius 5.00 

Jaeger, A. H 5.00 

Joshua Lodge No. 23, I.O.O.B. 10.00 

Knight, C. C 5.00 

Liberty Lodge, No. 6, O.B.A. 5.00 

Lockwood & Co 5.00 

Moss, Dr. W 5.00 

Moore & White 5.00 

Meyers, Yetta 5.00 

McCreary, Geo. D 5.00 

Nachod, J 5.00 

Nixon, W. H. 10.00 

Ostheimer, Wm. J 5.00 

Paulus & Co., J 5.00 

PaxonCo.,J. W 5.00 

Perrine & Son 5.00 

Poth & Sons, F. A 10.00 

Ralph, Wm. S. . 5.00 

Reinbeimer, Hebnd i.oo 

Steinhardt, Mrs. Francis . . 3.00 

Stern, Rose G 5.00 

Soulas, Charles H 10.00 

Soulas, G. A 5.00 

Starr, Jesse W., Jr., 3d . . . lo.co 

Search, Theo. C 10.00 

Silberman & Son, M 5.00 

Smythe, E. E 5.00 

Warburton, Barclay H. . . . 3.00 

Wilson & Rogers 10.00 

Wilson & Richards 5.00 

Young, Smyth, Field & Co. . 5.00 

Pittsburg. 

Adler, Louis J 5.00 

Aaron, Mrs. Mina 5.00 

Aaron, Chas. 1 5.00 

Aaron, Marcus 5.00 

Aaron, Louis I . 5.00 

Aaron, Louis 1 5.00 

DeRoy, Joseph 5.00 

Dreyfus, C 5.00 

Frank, Isaac 5.00 

Floersheim, Berth old .... 5.00 

Gross, Isaac 5.00 

Guckenheimer, Mrs. A. . . . 10.00 

Lippman, A 10.00 

Kann, W. L 5.00 

Oppenheimer, Alfred M. . . 10.00 

Oppenheimer, Oscar W. , . 10.00 

Raphael, Rudolph 5.00 

Rauh, Marcus 5.00 



Rauh, A. L % 5.00 

Rothschild, M. N 5.00 

Stadfield, M 5.0a 

Sidenberg, Hugo 25.00 

United Hebrew Relief Asso. 100.00 

Weil, A. Leo 25.00 

Wertheimer, E. M 10.00 

Wolf, Fred 5.oo. 

Wertheimer, Isaac 10.00 

Easton. 

Springer, E 5.00 

Pottsville. 

Greenwald, Gabe 5.00 

Solomon, Mrs. Bettie .... 10.00. 
Union Lodge, No. 124, 1.O.B.B. 5.00. 

Reading. 

Oheb Shalom Congregation . 28.00 

Rosenbaum, Philip ..... 5.00 

i Roslyn P. O. 

Lieber, Mrs. Walter S. ... 5.00 

Lieber, Walter S 5.00 



Scranton. 

Ackerman, J. O. ...... 

Amos Lodge, No. 136, 1.O.B.B. 

Krotosk, Isidora 

Oettinger, Louis .... • . 

Roos, Dr. Elias G 

Scranton City Lodge, No, 47, 
O. B. A., 

Selin's Grove. 
Weis, S 



Wilkesbarre. 

Levy, Leon . . . 

Long, Mrs. Dora . 

Marks, Abram . . 
Roos, Dr. Elias G. 

Strauss, S. J. . . . 

Stern, Harry F. . 

York. 
Lehmayer, N. . . 
Mayer, F. R. . . . 



5-00 
5.00 
5-00 
500 

5 00 



500 



5.00 
5.00 
5-00 

500 
5.00 
5.00 



5.00 

5-OQ> 



RHODE ISLAND. 

Providence. 

Haggai Lodge, No. 132, I. O. 

B. B S-oo 

Sons, of Israel and David 

Congregation 12.00 



Westerly. 
Frankenstein, Ignatz . 



5-oa 



TENNESSEE. 

Knoxville. 

Rosenthal, D. A 5.00 



68 



Subscriptions from Oct. 1903 to Sept. 30th, 1904. 



Memphis. 

Harpman, Sol 5.00 

Lehman, Felix 2.00 

Memphis Lodge No. 35, 

I. O. B. B 10.00 

Nashville. 

Edelman, F 10.00 

Louveman, Adolph 5.00 

Maimonides Lodge No. 46, 

I. O. B. B 5.00 

TEXAS. 

Beaumont. 

Lowenstein, Jonas 5.00 

Dallas. 

Alexander Kohut Lodge No. 

247, O. B. A 5.00 

Burk & Co 5.00 

Friend, Alex. M 5.00 

Kahn, E. M 25.00 

Kahn, J 5.00 

Linz & Bro., J 5.00 

Myers, Seymour 5.00 

Ortlieb, Max 2.50 

Sanger Bros 5.00 

Titche, Ed 5.00 

El Paso. 

Aronstein, S 5.00 

Kohlberg, C 5.00 

E. Paris. 

Frank, M 5.00 

Ft. Worth. 

Bath, Felix P 5.00 

Levy, Samuel . . .... 5.00 

Galveston. 

Sonnentheil, 1 5.00 

Greenville. 

Popper, E 10.00 

Mineola. 

Bromberg, J. G 5.00 

San Antonio. 

Halflf, M 5.00 

HalfF. S 5.00 

Montefiore Benevolent Society 5.00 

Oppenheimer, lasset .... 5.00 
Victoria. 

Levy & Co., A $10.00 



VIRGINIA. 

Norfolk. 

Hecht, Jacob 5.00 

Hirschler, E 5.00 

Seldner, A. B 5.00 

Richmond. 

Binswanger, Harry S. . . . 5.00 

Binswanger, Helen 5.00 

Galeski, Dr. S 5.00 

Hutzler, Henry S 5.00 

Kaufman, 1 5.00 

Millheiser, Emanuel .... 5.00 

Wallerstein, Henry S. . . . 5.00 

WEST VIRGINIA. 

Charleston. 

Frankenberger, Philip . . . 10.00 

Parkersburg. 

Riese, E. M 5.00 

Wheeling. 

Baer, Henry 5.00 

Bloch, Samuel L 5.00 

Emsheimer, Joseph 500 

Hanauer, Philip 5.00 

Horkheimer, Louis 5.00 

Levi, Rev. Harry 5.00 

Rice, S. M 5.00 

Sonneborn, M 5.00 

WISCONSIN. 

La Crosse. 

Strouse, B. L 5.00 

Milwaukee. 

Cohen, Mrs. Gertrude . . . 5.00 

Isaac Lodge No. 87, LO.B.B. 5.00 
Gilead Lodge No. 41, LO.B.B. 10.00 
Milwaukee Federated Jewish 

Charities 100.00 

Schuster, Chas 2.00 

Tabor, L. L 5-oC) 

Wisconsin Lodge No. 80, 

O. B. A 5.00 

ENGLAND, 

London. 

Arthur Meyer ...... 100.00 



69 



Donations. 

Arnold, Lizette and Julia, Phila. Library Fund, Memory of Edwin Arnold, 5.00 

Bash, Mrs. Henrietta, Phila. For Library Fund, Memory of Sadie Bash . 40.00 

Bloch, Byron and Sherman, Phila. Library Fund, Memory of Julia Bloch, 5.00 

Blumenthal, Sol., Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund 25.00 

De Young, Mrs. Chas., Phila. Dormitory Fund, Memory of Henry Schwartz, 15.00 

Frank, Gustav, Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund 10.00 

Herenroth, Rosa, Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund 5.00 

Herzberg, Isaac, Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund 50.00 

Hess, Adolph, Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund 5-Oo 

Hirsch, Mrs. Gabriel, Philadelphia. Library Fund, Memory of Lina Stern 10.00 

Hirschler, M., Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund 50.00 

Hochstadter, Albert, Phila. Library Fund, Carrie Wolf Memorial Alcove . 5.00 

Hope, Nathan, Philadelphia. Library Fund 5.00 

Jonas, Miss Frieda, Phila. Library Fund, Memory of Herman Jonas . . . 10.00 

Keneseth Israel Religious School, Philadelphia. Library Fund 5.00 

Klein, Leon G., Philadelphia. Library Fund, ... • 5.00 

Koch, Blanche Stern, Philadelphia. ] 

Schloss, Mrs. Louis, " { Library Fund, Memory of Mrs. 

Stern, Harry, " f Lina Stern 35.00 

Stern, Miss Ida, " J 

Krauskopf, Rev. Dr. Jos., Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund 1000.00 

Krauss, M., Philadelphia. Library Fund, Memory of Albert Krauss . . . 5.00 

Mahn, Godfrey, S., Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund . 50.00 

Oppenheimer, Mr. & Mrs. Gerson, Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund, honor 

of Twenty-fifth Wedding Anniversary 10.00 

Rubin, Mrs. Joseph, Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund, Memory of Charles 

and Mathilda KauflFman 20.00 

Schwartz, Mrs. Henry, Phila. Dormitory Fund, Memory of Henry Schwartz, 25.00 
Sichel, Mrs. Julius, Phila. Dormitory Fund, Memory of Mrs. Sophie Meyer, 10.00 
Silberman, Mrs. Ida, Phila. Dormitory Fund, Memory of Francis R. Teller, 25.00 

Silverman, Mrs. Isaac Philadelphia. Building Fund 

Stern, Rose G., Phila. Library Fund, Memory of Abraham Goldsmith . , 5.00 

Sycle, Mrs. Meyer, Phila. Library Fund, Memory of John J. Hagedorn . 10.00 

Ulman, Miss Hennie, Philadelphia. Library Fund 5-oo 

Weil, Abe, Philadelphia. Dormitory Fund 5-0O 



70 



Memorial Tree Donors. 



DONOR. PLANTED IN MEMORY OF 

Mrs. Aaron DeHaan Julius Cohen. 

Mrs. M. A. KauflFman B. F. Greenewald. 

I,. C. Bachenheimer Lazar Bachenheimer. 

Mrs. M. Simon Max I. Wolf. 

Mrs. Richard h. Fox Eliza and Simon Oppenheimer. 

Carrie G. Friedman Herman S. Friedman. 

M. W. Lipper Doris Minster. 

The Misses Nunes Emanuel Nunes. 

Caroline Weinstein Levi Weinstein and Sophie Stiebel. 

F. Carrie Myers Solomon H. Myers. 

Edgar A. Levy Caroline Kohn. 

Mrs. Hanstein Grace A. Hanstein. 

Mr. Charles Keller 1 ,, .,- w^ii^. 

-, T- ■ -r^ t. r Mary Heller. 

Mrs. Francis Kahn J -^ 

Mrs. Sol Blumenthal Emanuel Reis and Julia Reis. 

Gustave Lipschuetz Bertha Lipschuetz. 

Isaac Alkus Jennie Alkus. 



Donations of Goods. 



Berg Co., The, Philadelphia. Iron Pipes, Fertilizer, etc' 

Burpee, W. Atlee, Philadelphia. Quantity of Seeds and Plants 

Ford & Kendig, Philadelphia. Pipes and Pipe Fittings 

Gatchel & Manning, Philadelphia. Half-tone Cuts inserted in this book . 

Hennings & Co., Philadelphia. 300 feet of iron pipe 

Leberman & Co., Philadelphia. One barrel of soap 

Loeb, Howard A., Philadelphia. Iron Pipes and Fittings 

IfOuchheim, Joseph, Philadelphia. Donation of twenty-two lockers for cubi- 
cules, in memory of Henry Louchheim 

Mayer, A. B., Philadelphia. "I Minerals for Educational use in Laboratory, 
Reinhard, Clarence, " / Memory of Harry E. Reinhard . . . 

Nixon, W. H., Philadelphia. Paper for the publication of this book . . . 

Sheppard, I. A. & Co., Philadelphia. Stove 

Trotman H., Philadelphia. Steam Pump 

Tutelman, Nathan, Philadelphia. Shirts 

Wilbur, H. O., Philadelphia. Cocoa , . . . . 

Wittenberg, Louis, Philadelphia. Barrels, Cow, Sauer Krout Cutter . . . 



Foster, Henrietta. G i. 
Foster, May. G i. 
Friedman, Emil. E iv, 



Lang, Henrietta, h v. 
Langfeld, Linda. G vn. 



NAMES AND LOCATION OF MEMORIAL TREES. 

To find your memorial tree: look on top of chart for letter correspondinK to 
letter following name of the one for whom your memorial tree is planted. Follow 
that letter down its column, until it crosses the section of the number indicated 
after the letter. 



Abendroth, Christian. F iii. 
Abrahamson, Leopold. F ir. 
Alkus, Leon, g ii. 
Arnold, Edwin, g iv. 
Asch, Hannah, a xi. 
Asch, Mannes. a xi. 
Asch, Michael. F i. 
Asch, Pauline. F i. 
Ash, Fannie. F i. 



Bamberger, Dollye E. H il. 
Bamberger, Rosa S. 
Bash, Michael, c vii. 
Bash, Sadie. B vii. 
Bedichimer, Isaac, b viii, 
Behal, Isaac. G viii. 
Beildeck, Aaron, h hi. 
Beitman, Emelie. H v. 
Berkowitz, Joseph, c viii. 
Berman, Bernard, c i. 
Bemheimer, Lazarus, c i. 
Bernheimer, Samuel, b x. 
Bernstein, Edgar, b vii. 
Binswanger, Clara, a ix. 
Binswanger. Isidor. G ii. 
Binswanger, Solomon, a ix. 
Bloch, Ida. a ix. 
Blum, Jacques, a vii. 
Blumenthal, Emanuel. H I. 
Blumenthal, Fannie. F i. 
Blumenthal, Mrs. Louis, a iv. 
Bonnheim, Joseph. B iii. 
Branson, Mrs. James, c iii. 
Buehler, John A. G i. 
Buehler, Lena, h i. 



Casper, Henry. G viii. 
Cohen, Isaac. G v. 
Cohen, Mrs. Isaac. G v. 
Cortissoz, Miriam. B iv. 

D 

David, Bertha H. G vi. 
Davidson, S. K. B vili. 
De Costa, Rebecca. D iii. 
Disston, Horace. A ix. 
Dreifus, Jeanette. H ii. 

E 
Einstein, Benjamin. A xii. 
Einstein, Evelina. A xii. 

F 
Feldman, A. M. B viii. 
Fleisher, Simon, c vii. 
Foster, Henrietta. G i. 
Foster, May. G i. 
Friedman, Emil. K iv. 



I'Vohsin, Lena. H viii. 
Fulda, Rosa. A xi. 
Fukla, Samuel, a x. 
Freides, vSamuel. b i. 



Gimbel, Adam, n iv. 
Gimbel, Fridolin. e i. 
Gimbel, Selomon. E vii. 
Glaser, Lillie. D ii. 
Goldsmith, Abraham, h i. 
Goodman, Caroline. G ill. 
Goslar, Rosetta. E iii. 
Grant, Marietta. ,\ v. 
Greenbaum, Ethel, c iv. 
Greenberg, Ferdinand, b xi. 
Greenewald, B. F. D iv. 

H 

Haac, Hattie. A iv. 
Hagedorn, Estelle. c vii. 
Harrison, L. R. F i. 
Hecht, Samuel. F iii. 
Heller, Sidney. B vii. 
Herman, Emelie. F vi. 
Heyman, Benno. E i. 
Hexter, Samuel. F iv. 
Hilbronner, Mrs. J. h hi. 
Hinline, Clara, b xii. 
Hirsch, Baroness de. G iv. 
Hirsch. Mason, b hi. 
Hoffman, Lehman. F v. 
HoflFman, Ernest. B ii. 
Hoffman, Mrs. Ernest, b n. 
Hope, Mrs. B. c vili. 
Horn, Fanny, c viii. 
Horn, Louis, c viii. 
Hutzler, Louis. F i. 

I 

Isaacs, Isaac. E v. 

K 

Kahn, Albert. H iv. 
Kahn, Benjamin. B x, 
Kahn, Charles, b xii. 
Kahn, Henrietta, c ll. 
Kahn, Isaac, c ii. 
Kaufman, Babbetta. F iii. 
Kaufman, Fannie. H I. 
Kaufman, Mathilda, d hi. 
Kaufman, Solomon, h i. 
Kind, Fannie. E iv. 
Kirschbaum, Abraham, c VI. 
Kohn, Henry. E VI. 
Kohn, Mrs. Henry, d v. 
Kohn, Simon. A x. 
Kohn, Henry. G viii. 



Lang, Henrietta. 
Langfeld, Linda. 



H V. 
G VH. 



72 



Lazarus, Moritz. E IV. 

lychbach, Jacob. E iii. 

Lehman, Samuel, a xi. 

Lesem, Isaac, c i. 

Lesem, Mrs. Isaac. B i. 

Leopold, Marks, d i. 

Leopold, Arthur. E i. 

Levi, Hettie. G ii. 

Levi, S. M. C IV. 

Levi, S. N. A IV. 

Levy, Emanuel, b iv. 

Levy, Moses, b iv. 

Lewin, Philip, b vii. 

Lewisohn, Leonard, b ix. 

Lewisohn, Mrs. Leonard, b ix. 

Lewisohn, Samuel, b ix. 

Lichten, Aaron. E ii. 

Lichten, Mathilda. E ii. 

Lichten, Simon. E ii. 

Linz, Francis. E ii. 

Lieberman, Emanuel. G vii. 

Lipschitz, S. E. b i. 

Loeb, Cora, h iv. 

Loeb, Fannie, a iv. 

Loeb, Leonard. G iv. 

Loeb, Lottie. E i. 

Loeb, Moses. G iv. 

Loeb, Theresa, c vii. 

Lyon, Isaac. B xi. 

Loeb, L. F I. 

Lyon, Theresa, b hi. 

M 

MacElRey, Emma, h viii. 
Mann, Isaac. G Hi. 
Marschuetz, Joseph, d v. 
Marks, Dora. F iv. 
Marks, Jean. F v. 
Marks Joseph. B ix. 
Marks, Theresa. B IX. 
Marquis, Mrs. A. A Hi. 
Marquis, JNIrs. M. A IV. 
Massman, A. E. c viii. 
Massman, Henrietta. B viil. 
Massman, S. E. b viii. 
Mayers, Milton. A xi. 
Mckinley, William. G V. 
Meyers, Abraham. F vi. 
Meyers, Elizabeth. H v. 
Meyers, Moses. G i. 
Meyers, Sophia, c i. 
Meyerhoff, Julia. H IV. 
Miller, Mrs. Julia. B XI. 
Myers, Meyer. E VI. 
Myers, Simon, b xi. 

N 

Nathan, Simon. F iii. 
Naumberg, Rev. L. G i. 
Navaratsky, Isidore. F iii. 
Nelke, Ferdinand. A xii. 
Netter, Simon. B xi. . 
Newman, Morris. A iv. 
Nirdlinger, Caroline. F iv. 
Noar, Anna. D i. 
Noar, Miriam. A V. 



Oppenheimer, Mina. B viii. 

P 
Pfaelzer, Cassie Theobald. E v. 

R 

Rafif, Mrs. A. L. E vi. 
Rayner, Mr. and Mrs.Wm. A vii 
Reinstiue, Alex, a xii. 
Reinstine, Elsie, a xi. 
Rice, vSimon. G ii. 
Ridgway, Sarah, b hi. 
Rosenberg, Bella, b vii. 
Rosenthal, Emma, a x. 



Schloss, Aaron, a ix. 
Schwarz, Albert. G Vlil. 
Schwarz, Nannie. E vii. 
Silverman, Barbara. E III. 
Simon, Sansom. a iv. 
Simson, Mary, a ix. 
Simson, Henry, a x. 
Smith, Caroline. B x. 
Smith, Carrie. B x. 
Smith, Isaac. B ix. 
Snellenburg, Isaac, b iv. 
Snellenburg, Joseph, b iv. 
Starr, Hortense. F i. 
Stern, Lena, h hi. 
Stern, Leon, b viii. 
Stern, Mrs. Jacob, a hi. 
Sternberger, Lena, b viii. 

T 
Techner, Bertha. E vi. 
Techner, Heyman. E vi. 
Teller, Francis, b vii. 
Teller, Joseph, b vii. 
Teller, Rebecca. F I. 
Thalheimer, Solomon, b xi. 
Traugott, Rachel. B iv. 
Tuch, Mr. and Mrs. c V. 
Tutelman, Samuel. G l. 

u 

Ullman, David. B xii. 
Ullman, Charlotte, b xii. 
Ulman, Michael, h ii. 

W 

Weil, Mrs. Carrie. D ii. 
Weil, Samuel, a v. 
Weiler, Ellen. G hi. 
Weiler, Rosa, a x. 
Wertbeimer, Henrietta. B il. 
Wieder, Herman. F ii. 
Wise, Dr. Isaac M. E V. 
Wittenberg, Philip. B il. 
Wollenberger, Maier. H ii. 
Wollenberger, Caroline. H ii. 
Wolf, Carrie. G vil. 
Wolf, Flora. C ii. 
Wolf, Wm. G VII. 
Wolf, A. S. G IV. 
Wurtzman, C. F ii. 
W^urtzman, E. E li. 




73 



NAMES AND LOCATION OF TREES 
PLANTED IN MEMORIAL AVENUE 



\ 



PLANTED 1903 and 1904. 



l<eoii Stern, Sassafras. 
M. Herzberg, Oak. 
Daniel Merz, Maple. 

E. Hagedoni, Maple. 
M. H. Hageilorn, Oak. 
S. Herzberger, Hickory. 
John I. Hagetlorn, Oak. 
Bella Rosenberg, Pyrus Mai. 
h. Bamberger, Pyrus Com. 

, Pyrus Mai. 

D. Bamberger, Pyrus Mai. 

H. S. Friedman, Hickory. 

M. Millziner, Pyrus Mai. 

C. Oppenheimer, Weep'g Willow. 

Herman Jonas, Julip Poplar. 

Carrie Weil, Pyrus Mai. 

Paulina Ash, Pyrus Com. 

Simon Stern, Pyrus Mai. 

I. Lipbach, Oak. 

Chas. Stern, Pyrus Com. 

Leon Hoffheimer, Pyrus Mai. 

Marcus Jastrow, Pyrus Com. 

n. 

H. Herzberger, Oak. 
Meyer Herzberg, Hickory. 

B. Seligman, Pyrus Mai. 
Henry Meyers, Pyrus Mai. 
L. Louchheim, Pyrus Com. 
H. Louchheim, Pyrus Mai. 

III. 

Norman Koesler, Pyrus Com. 
H. Lowenberg, Pyrus Mai. 

, Pyrus Com. 

Herman Jonas, Pyrus Mai. 

F. Bacharach, Pyrus Com. 

IV. 

C. Bacharach, Pyrus Mai. 
Henry Hyman, Pyrus Com. 
Leopold Isaacs, Pyrus Mai. 
Mrs. A. Levy, Pyrns Com. 
Rosa S. Bamberger, Pyrus Mai. 



Sam'l Weber, Pyrus Com. 
I. Hilbronner, Pyrus Mai. 
Raphael Teller, Pyrus Com. 
Julius Beck, Pyrus Mai. 
Ephraim Beck, Pyrus Com. 

VI. 

L. Oppenheimer, Pyrus Mai. 
Edward Kahn, Pyrus Com. 
Leon Wiernik, Pyrus ]\Ial. 
Emanuel Schwerin, Pyrus Com. 
Mark Fisher, Pyrus Mai. 



Vll. 

Bertha I'isher, Pyrus Com. 
Manuel P'rank, Pyrus Mai. 
Rachel Massman, Pyrus Com. 
Rev. M. Mielziner, Pyrus Mai. 
M. S. Lehman, Pyrus Com. 

VIM. 

Albert Schlachter, Pyrus Mai. 

A. A. Solomon, Pyrus Com. 
Jos. Myers, Pyrus Mai. 
F'ranciska Wieder, Pyrus Com. 

B. Lowenstein, Pyrus Mai. 

IX. 

Gustave Blum, Pyrus Com. 
Clara Einstein, Pyrus Mai. 
Henry Einstein, Pyrus Com. 
N. Braunstein, Pyrus Mai. 
Daniel Frank, Pyrus Com. 

X. 

J. J. Hagedorn, Pyrus Mai. 
Pauline Hyman, Pyrus Com. 
Sam'l Heller, Pyrus Mai. 
Benedict Hope, Pyrus Com. 
Hannah Hirschler, Pyrus Mai. 

XI. 

Simon Hirschler, Pyrus Com. 
Louis Pulaski, Pyrus Mai. 
Leon Pulaski, Pyrus Com. 
Chas. Kaiser, Pyrus Mai. 
Emanuel Nunes, Pyrus Com. 

XII. 

Michael Hyman, Pyrus Mai. 
Mrs. Julia Hyman, Pyrus Com. 
Mary Heller, Pyrus Com. 
Millie Armhold, Pyrus Mai. 
Julia Ries, Pyrus Mai. 

XIII. 

Emanuel Ries, Pyrus Mai. 
Harold Marks, Pyrus Com. 
S. Oppenheimer, Pyrus Com. 
E. Oppenheimer, Pyrus Mai. 
— , Pyrus Com. 

XIV. 

Henry M. Frank, Pyrus Mai. 
Doris Minster, Pyrus Com. 
L. Bachenheimer, Pyrus Mai. 
E. S. Rosenberg, Pyrus Com. 
Julius Cohen, Pyrus Mai. 

XV. 

Max Wolf, Pyrus MaL- 
Grace A. Hanstein, Pyrus Mai. 
A. Lipschuetz, Pyrus Com. 
Louis Manstein, Pyrus Mai. 
Sophie Stiebel, Pyrus Com. 



Rabbi Joseph Kracskopf, D. D. F. H. Bachman, Treasurer, TTarry Felix, Secretar j , 
President, 119-121 South Fifth St. 25" -'"ralda Street, 

4715 Pulaski Ave., Philadelphia. Philadelphia. Pl.ilauc.p"-'-. 

MEMBERSHIP OF THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL. 

/, the Undersigned^ being i7i sympathy with the object of the 
National Farm School — the trai?ting of capable Boys into skilled, 
agriculturists — do hereby agree to subscribe annually^ as one of the 
supporters of the institution^ the dues of a 

LIFE MEMBER {$100.00) PATRON . . . ($10.00) 



FRIEND . . . '$23.00) MEMBER . . . (Ss-oo) 



Nam 

Address 



Date Proposed by. 

NOTE.— Underscore the class of membership you wish to join. Make Checks payable to 

Life Membership calls for but one (the first; payment. The National Farm SchooK 

Rabbi Joseph Krauskopf, D. D. F. H. Bachman, Treasurer, Harry Felix, Secretary 
President, 119-121 South Fifth St. 258 Zeralda Street, 

4715 Pulaski Ave., Philadelphia. Philadelphia. Philadelphia. 

CONTRIBUTION TO THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL. 

/, the Undersigned.^ being in sympathy with the object of the 
National Farm School — the training of capable Boys into skilled 

agriculturists — do hereby coiitribute the siini of. dollars 

to the support of the institiction. 

Name _ __ 

Address '. - 

Make all Checks payable to the National Farm School. 

FORM OF LEGACY 
TO THE NATIONAL FARM SCHOOL, DOYLESTOWN, PA. 

'''' I give and bequeath inito the National Far 77i School., Bucks 

Co.^Pa..^ 7iear Doyle stoivu.^ the sum of. dollars^ 

free from all taxes., to be paid to the Treasjirer., for the time beings 
for the use of the institution.'''' 



FORM OF DEVISE 
OF REAL ESTATE OR GROUND RENT. 

"^ I give and devise unto the National Farm School., Bucks 
Co.., Pa.., near Doylestown.^ {here describe the property or ground 
rent)., tcgeiicer with the appurtenances vi fee simple., and all policies 
of insurances covering said premises., whether fire., title or other- 
wise., free from all taxes^