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Full text of "Shade-trees in towns and cities; their selection, planting, and care as applied to the art of street decoration; their diseases and remedies; their control and supervision"

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SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS 
AND CITIES 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS 
AND CITIES 

THEIR SELECTION, PLANTING, AND CARE AS APPLIED 
TO THE ART OF STREET DECORATION ; THEIR 
DISEASES AND REMEDIES; THEIR MUNI 
CIPAL CONTROL AND SUPERVISION 



BY 
WILLIAM SOLOTAROFF, B.S. 

SECRETARY AND SUPERINTENDENT OF THE SHADE-TREE 
COMMISSION OF EAST ORANGE, N. J 



TOTAL ISSUE, FOUR THOUSAND 



NEW YORK 

JOHN WILEY & SONS 
LONDON: CHAPMAN & HALL, LIMITED 



Copyright, 1911' 
BY WILLIAM SOLOTAROFF 



12/20 



PRESS OP 

BRAUNWORTH & CO. 

BOOK MANUFACTURERS 

BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



TO EVERY TOWN 
AND CITY DWELLER 

THIS BOOK 
IS EARNESTLY DEDICATED 



PREFACE 

DURING the last few years there has been a remarkable 
growth of interest in the planting of trees for ornament and 
shade. In an editorial of February 10, 1909, the Savannah 
News remarked: "The increasing interest in shade-trees 
in practically all of the cities of the country is worthy of 
more than a passing notice. This interest seems to be 
keeping abreast of the sanitary reforms that are being in 
augurated. While it isn't stated that there is a connection 
between tree-planting and hygienic reforms, there is no 
doubt that shade-trees contribute to the healthfulness of a 

city The shade-trees have a restful effect, because 

making homes more attractive. That which tends to give 
rest and pleasure must also contribute to healthfulness." 

The awakening of interest in tree-planting has been fol 
lowed by the development of the movement for shade-tree 
departments in towns and cities. The Shade-Tree Com 
mission of East Orange, N. J., organized in the spring of 
1904, was the third in the State. There are now thirty-one 
towns and cities in New Jersey that have such departments. 
The work of the Shade-Tree Commissions, of Newark and 
East Orange especially, has proved very successful, and 
during the last few years there have come to these depart 
ments hundreds of requests from different parts of the 
country for information regarding methods of work and 
forms of organization. The cities of New Jersey may have 
inspired others. In 1907, Pennsylvania passed a shade-tree 

vii 



viii PREFACE 

law modeled after the New Jersey statute. Within the last 
three or four years the cities of Buffalo, St. Louis, Chicago, 
New Orleans, and Pittsburg have established shade-tree 
departments. 

The Harrisburg Patriot, in an editorial, January 13, 1909, 
said: "We do not see how any one .... can doubt the 
wisdom of a speedy acceptance of the law of 1907 authori 
zing the placing of all shade-trees in charge of a Shade-Tree 
Commission. The fine results obtained in East Orange 
and elsewhere .... could never have been obtained by 
individual effort at any outlay of money. But it has been 
demonstrated in East Orange that it is less expensive to 
get and maintain a splendid, harmonious, and beautiful 
system of shade-trees, than it is to have such a haphazard 
arrangement as prevails in most cities where great pos 
sibilities are ruined sometimes through indifference and 
inattention, but more often through ignorance.'* 

To supply the needs of the growing demand for informa 
tion regarding the planting, care, and control of shade-trees 
in towns and cities is the aim of this book. It is the result 
of the study of shade-trees in a great many towns and 
cities of the country and experience gained in the ad 
ministration of the work of the East Orange Shade-Tree 
Commission since its organization. While in the prepar 
ation of the book the author has used for reference the 
bulletins of agricultural experiment stations, treating of 
some phases of the subject, the material has to him taken 
on a living form through actual practise. The principles 
laid down are of general application, and it is the writer's 
hope that the book may prove helpful in spreading the tree- 
planting movement throughout the United States. 

With the increase of the number of shade-tree depart- 



PREFACE ix 

ments has grown the demand for trained men to take charge 
of the work, and as a result many forest schools are intro 
ducing courses in the care of trees. The writer has tried to 
shape and present the material in such a way as to make the 
book useful to the private owner of trees, to those endeavor 
ing to establish municipal tree departments, and to those in 
charge of the work of such departments. 

The book treats particularly of the planting and care of 
street-trees. As in this work, however, the most adverse 
conditions for tree growth have to be overcome, the problem 
is considered from the severest standpoint; and the book, 
therefore, covers the planting and care of shade and orna 
mental trees in state and county roads, public parks, private 
grounds, and other places. Some of the methods, such as 
pruning and tree surgery, apply to fruit-trees as well. 

The writer wishes to acknowledge his gratitude to the 
members of the East Orange Shade-Tree Commission for 
their encouragement in the preparation of this work. All 
references to the methods of tree-planting in the city of 
Washington are the result of personal visits and study and 
information kindly furnished by Mr. Trueman Lanham, 
Superintendent of the Trees and Parkings Division of the 
District of Columbia, whose courtesy has been very much 
appreciated. Authorities for reference to methods used in 
the city of Paris have been correspondence with the Prefect 
of the Seine, who has charge of the street-trees of Paris, and 
Les Arbres de la Ville de Paris, by A. Chargueraud. Ac 
knowledgment is due to Dr. N. L. Britton, Director-in-Chief 
of the New York Botanical Garden, for looking over the 
manuscript of Chapter III. ; to Mr. George B. Sudworth, 
Dendrologist, United States Forest Service, for looking over 
the manuscript of the first half of the book; to Dr. W. A. 



x PREFACE 

Murrill, First Assistant of the New York Botanical Garden, 
for suggestions as to the method of treatment of the part of 
the book on fungous diseases and for naming some species 
of fungi ; and to Mr. Irving T. Guild, Secretary of the Mas 
sachusetts Forestry Association for furnishing information 
regarding the shade-tree laws of Massachusetts. The author 
also wishes to remember the many kindnesses of Dr. James 
P. Haney, of the New York City Department of Education, 
who first suggested to him the idea of writing the book. 

All the photographs and sketches for the illustrations are 
by the author, with the exception, of Plate 24, Fig. 4; Plate 
41, Fig. 4; and Plate 42, Fig. 5. The making of the photo 
graphs extended over a period of more than five years. 
Those elucidating methods of work were taken during oper 
ations in East Orange. 

WILLIAM SOLOTAROFF. 

EAST ORANGE, N. J., January, 1911. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. TREES IN THE LIFE OF A CITY 1 

Development of Modern Civic Ideals Esthetic 
Value of Trees Sanitary Value Economic 
Value Moral Value. 

II. SELECTION OF TREES FOR STREET USE .... 6 

Picture of Ideal Street. Qualities that Street- Trees 
Should Possess. Hardiness Straightness and 
Symmetry Immunity from Insect Attack 
Abundance of Shade Cleanliness Longevity. 
Few Species Answer Requirements. 

III. SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 10 

The Maples: Norway, Sycamore, Sugar, Red, 
Ash-Leaved, White. The Poplars: Carolina, 
Lombardy. The Oaks: Pin, Red, Scarlet, 
White, Swamp White, Chestnut. The Lindens: 
American, European, Silver- leaved, Crimean, 
Large-leaved. The Elms : White or American, 
European. Horse-chestnut. The Plane Trees: 
Oriental, Sycamore, or Button-Ball Tulip-Tree. 
White Ash. Hackberry. Gingko. Sweet Gum. 
TheCatalpas: Hardy, Western. Ailantus. The 
Locusts: Black, Honey. Species for Southern 
States : Live Oak, Water Oak, Willow Oak, and 
Laurel Oak. Great Laurel Magnolia. Pecan. 
Camphor. The Palms. Conifers. 
xi 



xii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

IV. STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING .... 62 

The Soil. Amount of Soil Subsoil Prepara 
tion of the Soil. Arrangement of Trees on Street. 
Parking Strips Width of Roadway Divisions 
of the Street Height of Buildings Distance 
from Buildings Distance from Sidewalk Curb 
Distance Apart of Specimens Trees Set with 
Relation to the Street The Spacing Uniform 
Opposite or Alternate Treatment of Corners 
Setting Trees between Sidewalk and Property- 
Line Double Row Number of Rows of Trees. 
One Species on a Street. What Determines the 
Choice of Species Rows of Different Species. 

V. THE PLANTING OF STREET-TREES 82 

The Tree in the Woods. The Tree in the Nursery. 
Developing of the Roots Developing of the 
Stem Limitation of Size Transplanting Large 
Specimens Points in Selecting Trees How 
Shipped A Municipal Nursery. Precautions in 
Planting. Heeling-in Top and Root Pruning 
How the Tree is Set When to Plant. Staking. 
Single Stake. Guarding. Box Wire Guards. 
Grills. Subirrigation Drainage of Subsoil. 

VI. THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 102 

How a Tree Grows. Evolution of a Tree The 
Seedling Growth in Height Growth in Diam 
eter Essentials for Normal Growth Reserve 
Material. Watering. How much Water Kow 
to Water. Cultivating and Fertilizing. Training 
and Pruning. Fixing Height of Branching 
Forming the Crown The Street as a Unit 
The Individual Tree How Best to Prune- 
Origin of Branch The Wrong Way The Right 



CONTENTS xiii 

CHAPTER PAGE 

Way How the Wound Heals Limb Must Not 
Split First Method of Removing Limb Second 
Method of Removing Limb The Rule to Fol 
low Healing of Scar A Dressing must be Ap 
plied Training to Artificial Forms Keeping 
Crown Within Limits Heading Back Old Trees 
When to Prune Pruning Tools Hints to 
Tree-Climbers. 

VII. INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES AND How TO PROTECT 

THEM 136 

Poor Soil. Roots Lack Air and Water. Salt 
Water. Dust, Smoke, and Injurious Gases in 
the Air. Oiling of Roads. Illuminating Gas. 
Symptoms of Gas-Poisoning How to Detect 
Leaks Laying of Gas-Mains Damages for 
Trees Killed. Overhead Wires. Escaping Elec 
trical Currents How to Protect Branches 
Damages for Injuries. Street Improvements. 
Opening New Streets Changing Grade. Build 
ing Operations. Mutilations by Horses. Trees 
Must Have Guards. 

VIII. INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS AND OTHER DISEASES . 159 

Treatment of Trees for Insect Pests. Leaf-Eating 
Insects. Tussock Moth Gipsy Moth Brown 
Tail Moth Fall Webworm Bag Worm Elm- 
Leaf Beetle. Sucking Insects. Cottony Maple 
Scale Woolly Maple Scale San Jose Scale 
Scurfy Scale Oyster-Shell Scale Plant Lice. 
Borers. Leopard Moth Sugar Maple Borer 
Maple Tree Sesiid Bark Borers. Fungous Dis 
eases. Wood-Destroying Fungi. False-Tinder 
Fungus Sulfur Polyporus Heart -Rot of 
Sugar Maple. Sap-Rots of Trees. Common 
Bracket Fungus. Root-Rots. Canker. Leaf 



xiv CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

Diseases Rusts Mildews Blights. Diseases 
Due to Conditions of Soil and Climate. Soil Con 
ditions Ulcers Drying Out and Leaf Scorch 
Frost. 

IX. INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND SPRAYING . . . 203 

Insecticides. Stomach Poisons Contact Poisons 
Vapors. Fungicides. Bordeaux Mixture 
Ammoniacal Copper Carbonate. Spraying Ap 
paratus. Bucket- Pumps Barrel Hand -Pumps 
Power Sprayers Spraying Hose Nozzles Ex 
tension Poles and Spray-Rods Precautions in 
Spraying. 

X. THE REPAIR AND REPLACING OF TREES . . .218 

The Repair of Trees. Abrasion of Bark Bridge 
Grafting Breakages in Storms Filling of Cav 
ities Knot-Holes Crotches. Maintenance of 
Uniformity. Partial Replacing. Renewal of Plan 
tations. 

XL WHO SHALL PLANT AND CARE FOR STREET-TREES . 231 

Individual Planting. Municipal Control. Wash 
ington Paris New York and Other Cities 
States New Jersey and Pennsylvania Massa 
chusetts. Principles Underlying Shade-Tree Laws. 

XII. A DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ARBORICULTURE . 244 

Official in Charge of Street-Trees. Tree Census. 
Field Books Mapping the Trees Value of 
Tree Census. Records of New Trees. Other 
Records. Assessment Lists. Labeling Trees. 

XIII. LEGISLATION 258 

New Jersey. Pennsylvania. Massachusetts. Ordi 
nances. 

INDEX 277 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATES 
Street of Pin Oaks Frontispiece 

PLATE PAGE 

1. The Maples 11 

2. Sugar Maple 13 

3. Street of Sugar Maples 14 

4. Red Maple ' 17 

5. White Maple 20 

6. Carolina Poplar 23 

7. Carolina and Lombardy Poplars 24 

8. The Oaks 29 

9. Street of Red Oaks 33 

10. The Lindens 36 

11. American Elm 39 

12. Street of White Elms 40 

13. Horse-Chestnut 43 

14. The Plane Trees 45 

15. Tulip-Tree 48 

16. White Ash 50 

17. Sweet Gum, Hackberry, and Gingko 52 

18. Catalpa, Ailantus, and Honey Locust 55 

19. Street of Live Oaks 57 

20. Some Southern Trees 59 

21. From the Nursery to the Street 83 

22. Transplanting a Twelve-Inch European Linden 85 

xv 



xvi LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATE PAGE 

23. Guarding and Staking 94 

24. Guards and Grills 97 

25. Guard-Rolling Machine. Seedlings. Watering- Cart. .. 103 

26. The Evolution of a Knot-Hole 116 

27. The Healing of a Pruning-Scar 118 

28. First Method of Removing Branch 122 

29. Second Method of Removing Branch 124 

30. Pruning Tools 131 

31. Injuries by Gas and Overhead Wires 141 

32. Injuries to Street-Trees 151 

33. Injuries to Street-Trees 156 

34. Life History of Tussock Moth 163 

35. Brown Tail Moth and Gipsy Moth 165 

36. Fall Webworm and Bag Worm 169 

37. Life History of Elm-Leaf Beetle 172 

38. Scalelnsects 176 

39. Borers 183 

40. Fungous Diseases. 188 

41. Fungous and Other Diseases 192 

42. Sprayers 210 

43. Filling a Large Cavity of an Elm-Tree 221 

44. Examples of Tree-Surgery 224 

45. Street-Planting by Municipal Tree Department . . , 237 



FIGURES 

FIG. PAGE 

1. Layout of a street fifty feet wide 67 

2. Layout of a street sixty feet wide 67 

3. Layout of a street eighty feet wide T 68 

4. Layout of a street one hundred feet wide 68 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS xvii 

FIG. PAGE 

5. Layout of Pennsylvania Avenue, Washington, D. C 69 

6. Layout of street sixty-six feet wide, buildings thirty-five 

feet high 70 

7. Layout of street one hundred and twenty feet wide, build 

ings sixty-five feet high 71 

8. Single row of trees on narrow street having tall buildings 7.2 

9. Small trees on a narrow street having tall buildings .... 73 

10. The disposition of trees at street intersections 78 

11. Young Sugar Maple before being top-pruned 90 

12. Same Sugar Maple after being top-pruned 90 

13. Pin Oak, top-pruned ready for planting 91 

14. Method of placing grill 98 

15. Sectional view and plan of a subirrigation device 99 

16. Sectional view and plan of a subirrigation device 100 

17. A street the trees of which are in need of pruning 113 

18. Transverse section through callus on a horse-chestnut. . 119 

19. Tree with branch to be removed 120 

20. Split caused by improper method of pruning 120 

21. Oriental Plane to beheaded back 126 

22. The same Oriental Plane headed back. 126 

23. The same Oriental Plane a year after the operation 127 

24. The same Oriental Plane several years after the operation 127 

25. A dendroscope 129 

26. Combination chisel and hook 132 

27. Method of making tight joints in gas-pipes 144 

28. Method of protecting a branch from abrasion by wire 

cable 148 

29. A "well" constructed about an elm-tree when grade was 

raised 153 

30. Spray nozzles 214 

31. Spray "Ys".. . 215 



xviii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. PAGE 

32. Method of bridge-grafting a girdled trunk 219 

33. A transverse section of a tree showing the precautions to 

be taken when preparing a cavity for filling 222 

34. Methods of strengthening a weak crotch 225 

35. Showing method of plotting street-trees 249 

Sample pages from field book for enumerating street- 
trees After page 275 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS 
AND CITIES 

CHAPTER I 
TREES IN THE LIFE OF A CITY 

IT is a well-known fact that cities are founded in certain 
particular localities on account of some commercial incen 
tive. Any situation offering special advantages as a place 
where business men may conveniently meet, or commodities 
may be cheaply manufactured or easily exchanged, is likely 
to be occupied by a town or city. Places that are near to 
sources of natural wealth, at the mouths of navigable rivers, 
at falls or rapids of streams or at large and deep harbors, 
are sites favorable for the location of large cities. 

Whatever the reason may be that induces people to settle 
in a certain place, their first desire is to build shelters and 
homes in which to live. With this thought in mind, every 
natural feature of the land is swept away to make room for 
the city. As it grows there is an addition of square block 
to square block, and a plan of the resulting city looks like a 
huge checkerboard. 

Such, briefly, has been the history of the development 01 
most of our cities. When this country was first settled the 
forest was regarded as an enemy to be vanquished rather 
than as a friend to be protected. The country seemed so 
vast and the natural resources so limitless that no one ever 

i 



2 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

supposed there would come a time when we should be in 
danger of losing our natural heritage. When cities were 
built there was no attempt, in most cases, to set aside certain 
areas for park purposes or to conserve portions of the natu 
ral forests as playgrounds for the people. The cities of to 
day show the lack of foresight of the original builders. At 
a meeting for the discussion of tree-planting, held in Fuller- 
ton Hall, Chicago, on January 31, 1909, Mr. Franklin Mac- 
Veagh, who presided, said that when he first saw Chicago it 
was a tree city. The trees were many and fine. Splendid 
trees were cut down over large areas where the city now 
stands. This statement would apply equally as well not 
only to Chicago but to a great many other cities. 

With the development of society, acquisition of wealth, 
and increased culture through education and travel, there 
has come the recognition that cities must not only be the 
sites of manufacture and commerce, but attractive places 
in which one would enjoy to live. This spirit for better 
ment is finding expression in a great many ways. There 
are efforts to secure clean streets, to inaugurate sanitary 
reforms, to build better dwellings, and to improve trans 
portation facilities. The acquirement of land for parks and 
playgrounds is becoming a necessity, and the importance 
of comprehensive city planning is being felt. 

One of the material aids to the health and attractiveness 
of cities and towns is trees, and the increasing interest in 
shade-trees in practically all of the cities of the country is a 
proof that their value is being recognized. The cultivation 
of trees in cities is beneficial in many ways. In the realiza 
tion of the City Beautiful shade-trees play a very important 
part. No city in America possesses such avenues of fine 
shade-trees as the city of Washington. While visitors ad- 



TREES IN THE LIFE OF A CITY 3 

mire the fine public buildings, every one will admit that the 
chief attractions of Washington are the beautiful avenues of 
shade- trees, which make it one magnificent park. 

The eighty-six thousand trees of the city of Paris consti 
tute one of its glories. They are not only the most potent 
factor of the city's beauty, but also illustrate most strikingly 
the possibilities of cultivating a large variety of trees in 
streets and public places cf large cities under adverse condi 
tions. The Prefect of the Department of the Seine, who has 
jurisdiction over the trees of Paris, writes me that the soil 
along the Paris streets is generally very poor. That the 
trees of that city succeed is largely due to the great care 
taken in setting them out and maintaining them. 

In the more recently developed suburban towns, where 
property is high, the houses are built near together and 
close to the street-line, so that there is not much of front 
lawn. On such streets the uniform planting of trees relieves 
the harshness of the perspective of a row of bare houses. 
Besides softening the hard lines of buildings, the trees, 
because of their beauty, are a continuous source of pleasure. 
They have a restful effect and possess an unceasing inter 
est at all seasons of the year. In the winter, we can study 
their outlines, branching, bark, and buds. In the spring, 
we look forward to the appearance of the tree flowers. In 
the summer, the trees are in the full majesty of their beauty. 
In the fall, before they lose their leaves, the trees attract our 
attention by the brilliant coloring of their autumn livery. 

From the viewpoint of health, we need but recall a few 
well-known facts. Trees help to purify the air by absorb 
ing the carbonic-acid gas that is exhaled by man, and 
giving back the pure oxygen he needs. The animal and the 
vegetable world therefore complement each other, and one 



4 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

furnishes the conditions and forces by which the other 
maintains life and health. Trees also help to modify the 
temperature of our streets, and add to the comfort of the 
residents. The normal heat of summer is still further 
intensified in cities by the reflections from the pavements 
and the buildings. Besides cutting off the direct and the 
reflected rays of the sun, foliage exercises a marked effect 
on the temperature by evaporating large quantities of 
water from its surface, and the reduction of the temper 
ature so resulting is greatest on dry, hot days when relief 
is much needed. 

The appraisal of the tree as a sanitary factor in the life 
of the city was confirmed by the Commissioner of Health of 
the city of New York, who, in 1872, reported on the causes 
of the high death-rate during the summer months in the 
city of New York. The chief cause was determined to be 
the excessive heat which characterized those months. 1 It 
was recommended in the report to the Board of Health that 
legislation be secured empowering and requiring the De 
partment of Parks to plant and cultivate trees in all of the 
streets, avenues, and public places in the city. The value of 
trees to the health of a city was further emphasized by the 
passage of the following resolution by the New York County 
Medical Society: 

"Resolved, that one of the most effective means for miti 
gating the intense heat of the summer months and diminish 
ing the death-rate among children is the cultivation of an 
adequate number of trees in the streets." 

The economic value of shade-trees is inestimable. They 
add to the value of real estate, and are among the first 

*" Vegetation a Remedy for the Summer Heat of Cities," by Stephen 
Smith, M.D., LL.D., Popular Science Monthly, February, 1899. 



TREES IN THE LIFE OF A CITY 5 

things that impress a stranger as to whether a city is or is 
not a good place to live in. Real -estate people are aware 
that beautiful trees will increase the value of their property 
and draw men and money to a city. Consequently we find 
that in the majority of cases of modern land development, 
trees are set out as soon as the streets are opened. It is 
unfortunate at such times that the choice of species is not 
always wise ; but the planting serves to illustrate the fact 
that the trees are recognized as an asset to the property. 

The first cost of planting shade-trees is very small com 
pared with the other assessments for street improvements. 
The cost of planting trees properly is a very small percent 
age of the cost of the improvement of the roadway proper. 
While the use of the road will cause it to deteriorate and it 
will need repairs, the trees, when properly cared for, will 
thrive and grow. Their first cost of setting out will be 
insignificant when compared with their increased value a 
number of years after planting. 

Finally, the uplifting influence of an environment of 
trees is such as to make people not only happier but better. 
A modern progressive city possesses three assets its indus 
tries, its commerce, and its appearance, the outward and vis 
ible evidence of character. "Show me your town or city 
and I will tell you the kind and quality of your citizens," 
is a rule of universal application invariably correct. The 
morale of a people is unquestionably in exact keeping with 
the outward and manifest appearance of the municipal 
home. Few things contribute more to the cultivation of 
local pride and civic patriotism than beautiful trees in the 
parks and in the streets. 



CHAPTER II 
SELECTION OF TREES FOR STREET USE 

As important as the task of planting shade-trees is the 
problem of selecting the proper species. In tree-planting, 
perhaps more than in most other work, great care, foresight, 
and judgment are required. The street of mature trees 
looks quite different from the street of young saplings ; yet 
it is the selection of young trees, their proper setting apart, 
and their care after planting that make the beautiful street 
possible. 

In every undertaking there should be a well-defined 
object toward the attainment of which every effort should 
be directed. In the planting of shade-trees, as in the con 
struction of a building, the plan for the completed work 
should be determined in advance. The tree-planter must 
picture to himself how his work will look a great number of 
years later; and it rests with him whether the result is to be 
one of satisfaction or regret. 

PICTURE OF IDEAL STREET 

What shall the image of the ideal street be? Looking 
down the long perspective we observe that but one spe 
cies of tree has been planted throughout its entire length. 
These trees are alike in size. The distance between them is 
uniform, and is such that, when the trees mature, their out 
stretching limbs will not meet; but will leave sufficient 

6 



SELECTION OF TREES FOR STREET USE 7 

space between the trees for the admission of light and the 
free circulation of air. Other elements that contribute to the 
making of the ideal street have not been overlooked. Each 
tree has a neat and substantial guard that effectively pro 
tects it from harm, and these guards contribute their share 
to the beauty of the street by being all alike. There is also 
evidence that the trees have been judiciously pruned, for no 
low and drooping branches obstruct the vista of the street. 
Good judgment has been exercised in the selection of the 
tree for this model street. The system of branching is 
pleasing, and there is symmetry in its general outline ; the 
head is well filled, being neither too open nor too compact ; 
there is the necessary strength in the branches to sustain 
their own weight, and the leaves remain in a healthy condi 
tion till they are ready to fall in the autumn. The perspec 
tive of a street, as shown in the frontispiece, is strikingly 
beautiful at all seasons of the year, when the trees are bare 
of foliage or when they are in blossom or in leaf. 

QUALITIES THAT STREET-TREES SHOULD POSSESS 

From a natural standpoint every tree is interesting: the 
outline, the mode of branching, the bark, the leaf, the 
flower, and the fruit are all worth studying. Considered 
from the standpoint of adaptability for street-planting, a 
tree must possess certain characteristics to be desirable. 

Hardiness. In the first place it must be hardy and capa 
ble of withstanding the unfavorable conditions of city life; 
such as those of poor soil, heat, drought, smoke, and dust. 
Street-trees are usually unprotected from heavy storms, and 
they should have strength to resist winds, sleet, and snow. 
They should possess the ability to endure transplanting 
well, and be easily propagated. 



8 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

Straightness and Symmetry. A tree planted on a lawn 
may have the branches drooping, the stem crooked, and the 
shape unsymmetrical ; but in this case these oddities in its 
habits are in themselves elements of beauty. A tree, in 
order to be adapted for street use, however, must have a 
straight stem, a rounded, well-filled head and be symmetri 
cal in growth. Its shape is to be, in a certain sense, formal ; 
but, at the same time, it should not be produced entirely by 
artificial pruning. The tree must lend itself to the require 
ments of the public use of the highway and preserve, as far 
as possible, its natural habit of growth. 

Immunity from Insect Attack. In the selection of shade- 
trees, their relative immunity from insect attack is a point 
to be considered. While there are few trees that are abso 
lutely free from pests, some trees enjoy greater immunity 
than others, and, if otherwise desirable, such trees should 
be preferred. 

Abundance of Shade. Trees that retain their foliage in 
good condition throughout the summer and show changes of 
color in autumn are most desirable. Trees that naturally 
grow an open, scraggly head are not adequate for shade 
production, and, again, a dense shade during the summer 
is objectionable because it cuts off sunlight, prevents the 
growth of grass under the trees, and retards the drying of 
the highway after rain. 

Cleanliness. Cleanliness in habits of growth is an es 
sential characteristic of good street-trees. The falling of 
leaves, twigs, bark, flowers, and fruits keep the sidewalks 
in a state of untidiness, while slippery fruits are dangerous 
as well as unsightly. Tempting flowers or fruits cause peo 
ple to injure the trees, and it is manifestly out of place to 
attempt to grow trees for their fruit on the street. 



SELECTION OF TREES FOR STREET USE 9 

Longevity. The ideal street-tree must also be of 
medium growth and long-lived. The desirability of having 
good-sized shade-trees, as soon as possible after planting, is 
admitted ; but it is unfortunate that the trees growing most 
rapidly are not the most desirable. They are short-lived, 
the wood is soft and easily broken by the wind, and money 
spent on them is worse than wasted. 

FEW SPECIES ANSWER REQUIREMENTS 

Although we have more than five hundred native species 
of trees, they do not all possess the same kinds of useful 
ness. Many of them are valuable for their timber, others are 
cultivated for their fruit, and a great number are desirable 
for parks and lawns. That comparatively few are adapted 
for street use will not be a surprising fact if some of the 
qualities that shade-trees must possess are recalled. Only a 
limited number of trees are sufficiently hard to withstand 
city conditions, easy to transplant, straight and symmetrical 
in growth, immune from insect attack, free from the litter 
of flowers and fruit, and long-lived. 



CHAPTER III 
SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 

IT is appreciated by the writer that any attempt made to 
give a list of trees suitable for street-planting must neces 
sarily be inadequate. The choice of material is one phase 
of tree -planting which cannot be of general application to 
cities situated in different sections of the country. A 
planter can usually receive valuable help from his State Ex 
periment Station. Frequently, however, the same species 
will not do as well in one part of a city as in another, or 
even in different parts of the same street. Only very care 
ful study of local conditions and experience, extending over 
a period of years, can aid in determining what species to 
plant. One of the best ways perhaps of deciding upon this 
point is to note the trees in one's vicinity and see which do 
best. 

Study and experimentation reveal the fact that the num 
ber of trees suitable for street-planting in any locality is 
very limited. This need not be surprising if the severe con 
ditions under which city trees grow are recalled. In the 
city of Washington, where the street-trees have been under 
municipal control since 1872, some thirty varieties of trees 
have been experimented with. Now all of the desirable 
street-trees of that city can be included in ten or twelve 
varieties. The same is true of the city of Paris, where the 
list of species, represented by more than a hundred individ- 

. 10 



PLATE 1. THE MAPLES. 




1. Sycamore Maple, leaves and fruit. 2. Ash-Leaved Maple, leaves and fruit. 
3-6. Norway Maple: 3. Winter twig. 4. Leaves and fruit. 5. Flowers. 
6. Street of Norway Maples: North Eighteenth Street, East Orange, N, J. 
Four years after planting. 



12 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

uals, numbers eleven. The species represented by more 
than a thousand specimens number nine. 

It has been thought best, however, to give a list of the 
trees from which selections for street-planting are generally 
made, in the hope that this list will be helpful to the planter 
in selecting his material under certain conditions. The trees 
are described from the point of view of their desirability or 
undesirability for street-planting. Undoubtedly there are 
trees other than those enumerated which, under favorable 
conditions of soil, climate, and care, will make good street- 
trees. 

THE MAPLES 

Norway Maple (Acer platanoides Linn.). This tree ap 
pears to be the best maple that we have for street use. It 
comes to us from Europe, its range extending from Nor 
way to Switzerland. It withstands city conditions well and 
seems to have remarkable resistance to insect attack. While 
the tussock moth and the leopard moth frequently injure the 
tree, the greatest damage is sometimes done by certain 
species of plant lice which lodge themselves on the under 
side of the leaves, causing them to dry, curl up, and fall 
from the tree. The natural enemies of the plant lice, how 
ever, are very numerous, and the spraying of this species of 
tree is seldom necessary. 

On streets where the houses are in solid rows this spe 
cies of tree is to be preferred, for the reason that it does 
not grow so large as the native hard maple. The trees 
should be set about thirty-eight feet apart. Care must be 
taken to prevent their heading too low and making too 
dense a shade. This can be easily done by timely and skil 
ful pruning. 



PLATE 2. SUGAR MAPLE. 




1. Flowers. 2. Leaves and fruit. 3. Winter twig. 4. Tree in winter. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 15 

The Norway maple bursts into a profuse bloom in the 
latter part of April and early May, and is densely covered 
with greenish-yellow flowers. They come out of the same 
buds as the leaves, but develop much more rapidly, the leaves 
being only half grown when the flowers begin to turn to seed. 
In the same cluster may be found separate pistillate and stami- 
nate flowers, and some flowers having both pistils and sta 
mens. The pistillate flowers mature into samaras, or keys, 
with widely divergent wings. The fruit does not become 
ripe until the fall, although it is fully grown in late spring. 
The leaves have a marked resemblance to those of the sugar 
maple, but they are darker and generally a little larger. 
The leaf -stem exudes an acrid milky sap, which quickly 
coagulates. This peculiarity of the tree makes it easily rec 
ognized. It has closely fissured bark, and grows a round, 
compact head. The winter buds are much larger than 
those of the sugar maple. 

The Norway maple is very hardy and easily trans 
planted. It is always rich in appearance, and looks attract 
ive on a street when other trees begin to show the waning 
of summer. It puts forth its leaves earlier in the spring 
and retains its verdure later in the season than our native 
maples. Its leaves turn a clear yellow before falling. 

Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudo-platanus Linn.). This is 
also a European tree, and it takes its name from the fact 
that its leaves bear a resemblance to the sycamore. In its 
habit of growth it follows the Norway maple, excepting that 
the top is not so compact. It is not so hardy as the Norway 
maple, however, nor is there anything distinctive about the 
tree to make it preferable to the other hard maples. It is 
also greatly subjected to the attacks of borers, and is not 
so desirable for street use. 



16 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.). Hardy, erect, of 
symmetrical habit and with a well -filled, rounded head, the 
sugar maple is an ornament on any street. In the forest it 
frequently rises to sixty or seventy feet without a branch. 
When growing in the open or on a street it sends out stout, 
upright branches ten or twelve feet from the ground, form 
ing, while the tree is young, a narrow, egg-shaped head, 
which ultimately spreads into a broad, round-topped dome. 
When set on a street the trees should be from forty to forty- 
five feet apart, to allow for free development in growth and 
non-interference when near maturity. 

The flowers of the sugar maple, which come out in early 
May, are greenish-yellow and rather inconspicuous. The 
staminate and the pistillate flowers are borne either on 
different trees or on different flower stalks of the same 
cluster on the same tree. The staminate flowers drop off in 
the latter part of May, but the pistillate flowers mature into 
the winged fruit called a samara, or key. 

Most of the splendor of our trees in the woods and on 
the streets in the early autumn is due to the brilliant color 
ing of the sugar maple. It glows in yellow, orange, and red. 
The beauty of the sugar maple in the summer and in the 
fall is not lost after the falling of the leaves. During 
the winter the erect, shapely, and symmetrical outline of 
the tree is clearly brought out. The buds are narrow and 
sharp -pointed, and the twigs and branches form a fine net 
work against the sky. The limbs of the trees are smooth 
and clean. In the old trees the bark of the trunk breaks 
away by long, shallow fissures, with curling ridges, giving 
the trunk a plowed appearance. When properly pruned, 
the trees make a low archway, giving the street a very 
pleasing perspective. 



PLATE 4.-RED MAPLE. 




1. Leaves and fruit. 2. Staminate and pistillate flowers. 3. Winter twig. 
4. Tree in winter. 5. Leaves. 



18 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

While naturally the sugar maple is very beautiful, it un 
fortunately does not thrive in cities. Its requirements as to 
soil and water are extremely exacting, and its foliage is very 
sensitive to dust and smoke, especially during periods of 
drought. The sugar maple borer and the leopard moth are 
the chief enemies of the sugar maple, and the death of limbs 
and of entire trees is frequently due to the work of these 
pests. Another pest that does considerable injury to this 
tree is the woolly maple scale. The natural range of the 
sugar maple is from Newfoundland to Georgia, and west 
ward to Manitoba and Texas. 

Red Maple (Acer rubrum Linn.). Although it is some 
times called a soft maple, the red maple makes a very good 
street-tree. Its wood is softer than that of the sugar or the 
Norway maple, and the tree grows a little faster than either 
of these, but its frame is admirably adapted to resist heavy 
winds. Its branches are short, numerous, and erect, but not 
heavy or spreading enough to be torn loose from the trunk 
like those of the silver maple. It naturally grows a low, 
compact, rounded head, and, as it seldom attains its full 
size when planted in cities, it is well adapted to narrow 
streets. 

The red maple was appropriately named. Its tiny red 
blossoms are among the earliest to appear in the latter part 
of March and early April. Especially bright in color are 
the trees bearing the pistillate, or female flowers; the stam- 
inate, or male flowers, are of a lighter hue. The pistillate 
flowers ripen into scarlet keys or samaras in early May. 
All summer long the light green leaves swing on red stems, 
and in the early autumn the tree stands preeminent in the 
beauty of its scarlet foliage. The red maple looks well at 
all ages and at all seasons. While young, its smooth, gray 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 19 

bark affords a pleasing contrast to its bright green foliage, 
and in the winter the fineness of its branches and the 
slightly upward turn of the slender twigs impart to it a 
grace possessed by few other native trees. 

The tree is generally distributed throughout eastern 
North America and naturally grows in low swamp lands, 
and loves the borders of streams, which it sometimes covers 
to the exclusion of other trees. Hence it requires a moder 
ately rich and rather moist soil when planted on a street. 

The tree grows rather slowly when first transplanted, 
and is apt to look less promising than the hard maples ; but 
when it is once established it makes rapid progress. The 
red maple is moderately free from insect attack. Some 
times it is a prey of the leopard moth, and frequently in the 
early summer these trees are infested with plant lice that 
cause the leaves to curl. The plant lice, however, seldom 
do much damage, but the leopard moth requires the same 
treatment as in the case of the hard maple. The trees 
should be planted about thirty-eight or forty feet apart 
when set on the streets. 

Box Elder or Ash- Leaved Maple (Acernegundo Linn.). 
The box elder has a wide natural range. Its habitation ex 
tends from the eastern slope of the Alleghany Mountains 
west to the foothills of the Rockies, and south to Texas. 
The tree is of rapid growth and is very extensively used in 
cities in the middle part of the United States. It is not 
native along the Atlantic coast, but is planted for ornament 
and shade. 

White or Silver Maple (Acer saccharinum Linn. ) . While 
the sugar maple, the Norway maple, and the red maple make 
admirable street-trees, the white maple is one of the poor 
est. The characteristic that has recommended it for most 



PLATE 5. WHITE MAPLE. 




1. Winter twigs: A, Flower buds; B, Leaf buds. 2. Leaves and fruit. 3. Stam- 
inate and pistillate flowers. 4. Row of White Maples, about twenty years old, 
t!most entirely destroyed by insects and wind-storms. The White Maple makes 
a poor street-tree. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 21 

extensive planting in the past is the rapidity of its growth; 
but rapid growth implies, as a rule, short life and brittle, 
weak wood. It is so with the white maple. Its wood is not 
strong, and its mode of branching is such that when its 
limbs become large they cannot sustain their own weight. 
It is a common thing after a storm to find a great many 
broken limbs of the white maple. 

Unlike the other trees of the same group, this tree does 
not form a compact head of fine branches, but usually 
divides ten or twelve feet above the ground into three or 
four secondary stems, forming a wide, spreading head with 
drooping branches. The twigs hang down from the tree 
something like those of the weeping willow, and it is this 
habit that makes it very difficult to prune the tree and keep 
the branches a certain height above the ground. The tree 
suggests the elm in outline, except that its limbs do not pos 
sess the graceful arching of the elm, but shoot obliquely up 
ward in almost straight lines. Its rapidity of growth makes 
it sometimes too large for ordinary city streets, so that old 
trees are often cut back to a few main stubs above the 
trunk. A new top is soon formed by suckers that rise from 
the shortened limbs, but the tree's symmetry is lost forever. 

The white maple is one of the first trees to blossom in the 
early spring. Its tiny flowers open during the first warm 
days of the late winter or early spring, long before the 
appearance of its leaves and a week or two before the blos 
soming of the red maple or the elm. The staminate and 
pistillate flowers are borne on different trees. The fruit of 
the white maple ripens in April and May, about the time 
when the leaves unfold. The samaras, or keys, are larger 
than those of the other maples. 

The fruit of the maples usually ripens in the autumn and 



22 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

germinates the following spring. The seeds of the red and 
the white maples, however, ripen at the end of a few weeks 
after the trees flower, fall to the ground and germinate 
at once. The leaves of the silver maple are deeply divi 
ded, and are a bright pale green above and silvery white 
beneath. In a light breeze the under sides of the leaves are 
exposed, giving the entire tree a silvery appearance. 

The white maple can be readily recognized by its light 
brown bark, which, from the old trunks, peels off in long 
pieces, free at either end and attached to the middle. The 
wood is soft and perishable. The breaking of the limbs in 
storms causes the rough ends that remain to dry, and these 
decay and carry disease to the heart of the main limbs. In 
a short time the entire tree suffers and looks unsightly. 

Numerous insect pests prey upon this species, among 
which are the cottony maple scale, the tussock moth, the 
bag worm, the leopard moth and other borers. The tree 
requires the greatest care. It gives much trouble by the 
breaking of its limbs, and in the end it does not make a 
beautiful shade -tree. Many persons a generation ago made 
the mistake of planting a great number of these trees on the 
streets. The rapidity of growth was the only point consid 
ered, and now, while the hard maples set out at the same 
time are healthy and thriving, the white ones are in a con 
dition of decay. When selecting a tree for street- plan ting 
the white maple should be avoided. 

THE POPLARS. 

Carolina Poplar (Populus deltoides Marsh.). Planted 
within recent years more extensively than the white maple, 
and possessing even greater disadvantages as a shade-tree, is 
the Carolina poplar, or cottonwood. As in the case of the 



PLATE 6. CAROLINA POPLAR 

I 




Winter twig. 2. Mesh of roots removed from 4-inch tile sewer. 3 and 4. Caro 
lina Poplars and Norway Maples, thirteen years after planting. 5. Leaves of 
Carolina Poplar. 



PLATE 7.-CAROLINA AND LOMBARDY POPLARS. 




1 and 2. Carolina Poplars disfigured by severe pruning. 3. Staminate flowers of 
Carolina Poplar. 4. Street of Lombardy Poplars: Ninth Street, S. E., corner G 
Street, Washington, D. C. Fifteen years old. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 25 

white maple, its rapidity of growth is the only point consid 
ered by many persons and all its bad habits are lost sight of. 

One of the incongruities connected with the Carolina 
poplar, that appear to any one who has studied this tree at 
all, is the fact that its rapidity of growth, which is the char 
acteristic often sought, is something that the planter tries 
to counteract soon after the tree is set out. In other words 
the man who plants a poplar knows or if he does not, the 
nursery man will tell him that the tree must be headed 
back frequently to cause it to spread. The result is that 
every year the limbs are cut back and the top is reduced 
to a few stubs. 

In the meantime the trunk continues its growth, and after 
a few years of such treatment the result is a tree of abnor 
mal shape one that has a thick trunk and small top. So 
far the tree has required constant attention, but it has not 
given much shade nor has it been an object of beauty. On 
the other hand, if a hard maple or other tree of like habit 
and growth had been planted in its place it would have 
produced naturally what, with the poplar, was attempted 
artificially namely, a medium-sized tree with a rounded, 
compact head. 

If it is allowed to grow untouched the Carolina poplar in 
a short time becomes too large for the average street. It 
does not produce an oval head, but shoots upward to a great 
height. The illustrations, Plate 6, Figs. 3 and 4, show the 
comparative rates of growth of the Carolina poplar and the 
Norway maple. In these cases, the trees were set out at the 
same time, thirteen years ago, on opposite sides of the same 
street. The Norway maples are now eight inches in diameter, 
of medium height and of round-shaped head; whereas, the 
Carolina poplars are twenty-one inches in diameter and have 



26 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

grown so high as to completely hide the house from view. 
The beauty of the Norway maples will increase with age and 
add to the attractiveness of the house; but in a few years 
the poplars will have reached maturity and have begun to 
decay. 

The wood of this species is very weak and extremely 
brittle. In storms a great many limbs break and not only 
disfigure the tree, but become a source of danger. The 
tree sends out many roots near the surface of the ground, 
that in time become so thick that they raise the flagstones 
and crack concrete walks. The trunks also become so 
thick at the base that they push the curbstones out of line. 
The poplar belongs to the willow family, and, like the other 
members of the group, loves water. If there is the slight 
est crevice in a sewer-pipe in the vicinity of a tree its fine 
rootlets will penetrate the pipe and form a compact mesh 
of fibers. In a short time this stops the flow of water. 
Plate 6, Fig. 2, shows such a network of rootlets taken out 
of a four-inch sewer-pipe. 

When in flower, fruit, or leaf, the Carolina poplar is an 
undesirable object on a street. The flowers appear in March 
and April before the leaves and, like those of the willow, 
the staminate and the pistillate flowers are borne on differ 
ent trees. The staminate trees are densely covered with 
aments four or five inches long, which ripen in a short 
time, drop to the ground, and lie in heaps that make the 
sidewalks slippery. The trees bearing pistillate flowers 
mature their fruit in May. This -consists of aments of 
small capsules which, on maturing, split open and shed 
a white, cottony mass of seeds. These fill the meshes of 
doors and window-screens, and stick to the clothing of 
passers-by. Pistillate trees when planted become an exas- 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 27 

peration to the whole neighborhood. In June, when other 
trees are at their best, the leaves of this tree begin to drop 
and keep the street littered all summer until the final shed 
ding of the leaves in the fall. 

With so many bad habits and no redeeming traits, it is 
little wonder that in many towns it is forbidden to plant 
poplars and in others orders have been issued for their 
removal. In Albany an ordinance was passed in 1871 which 
provides that no person in that city shall plant or maintain a 
cottonwood, and any person who allows such tree to remain 
on his street premises is guilty of a misdemeanor, punish 
able by a fine of ten dollars. Pursuant to this law, which is 
still in force, all the cottonwoods in the streets of Albany 
were cut down. 

The " poplar habit" is a short-sighted one and an ex 
pensive one in the long run. Every part of the tree of this 
species possesses some undesirable feature : the rootlets, the 
roots, the trunk, the branches, the flower, the leaf, and the 
fruit ; and for these reasons it is felt that there is no other 
tree on our streets that is so objectionable as the Carolina 
poplar. If other trees will grow, the Carolina poplar should 
not be planted, or, if used at all, it should be planted with 
the plan of cutting the trees out within a few years. 

Lombardy Poplar (Populus italica Mcench). For very 
narrow streets and sidewalks, the spire-shaped, erect form of 
the Lombardy poplar is sometimes available. The Lombardy 
poplar is picturesque, a single tree properly placed being 
sometimes very effective. The tree is called the "exclama 
tion point" in landscape architecture. It is very tall and 
has little spread. Its branches, of almost equal length at 
the base and at the top of the tree, point upward at a sharp 
angle with the trunk. When planted close together these 



28 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

trees make an admirable windbreak. On the street they give 
little shade. While the tree grows very rapidly, it is short 
lived, and hence it is only in extremely special cases that its 
use as a street-tree is advisable. 

THE OAKS 

While on the one hand there seems to be a general 
desire to plant rapidly growing trees, such as the soft 
maple and the Carolina poplar, there is, on the other, a pop 
ular notion that the oaks are "slow growers," and for that 
reason officials sometimes meet with opposition when they 
attempt to plant these trees. On closer study, however, it 
will be found that the oaks recommended for street-plant 
ing grow as rapidly as the hard maples and are some of the 
best shade-trees for cities. They are strong, durable, and 
beautiful, and have practically no insect enemies. Some of 
the finest streets of Eastern cities are planted with oaks. 
Some of the streets of Flushing, Long Island, admirably 
illustrate what municipal authorities try to accomplish, 
namely the uniform planting of one species of tree on a 
street. There are many examples in that city of thorough 
fares set with elms and maples, but the finest in appearance 
are the streets of pin oaks. Of all species planted in the 
city of Washington, the oaks make the finest appearance and 
produce the most striking effect on a street. There are in 
all about five miles of streets planted with pin oaks in that 
city, the finest stretch being half a mile long on East Penn 
sylvania Avenue, between Eleventh Street and the eastern 
branch of the Potomac. 

Rapidity of growth is not the most desirable character 
istic of a shade-tree. Besides, the terms rapid growth and 
slow growth are only relative. On comparison it will be 



PLATE 8.-THE OAKS. 




Red Oak, leaves and fruit. 2. Pin Oak, leaves and fruit. 3. White Oak, 
leaves and fruit. 4. Red Oak, flowering twig: A, Pistillate flowers; 
B, Stammate flowers; C, Partly grown acorns of preceding year. 5. Street 
of Pin Oaks: Pennsylvania Avenue, S. E., at Thirteenth Street, Washing 
ton, D. C. Nineteen years old. 



30 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

found that there is little difference in the rate of growth of 
the good shade-trees. 

In a pamphlet on " Tree-Planting on Streets and High 
ways," by the late William F. Fox, Superintendent of the 
New York State Forests, is given a table of the growth-rate 
of some well-known species of trees. Beginning with a 
three-inch sapling, the trees here named will in twenty 
years, under favorable conditions, attain a diameter approx 
imately as follows : 

Inches Inches 

White or Silver Maple ...21 Yellow Locust 14 

American Elm 19 Hard Maple 13 

Sycamore or Buttonball . . 18 Horse-chestnut 13 

Tulip-tree 18 Honey Locust 13 

Basswood 17 Red Oak 13 

Catalpa 16 Pin Oak 13 

Red Maple 16 Scarlet Oak 13 

Ailantus 16 White Ash. 12 

Cucumber-tree 15 White Oak 11 

Chestnut 14 Hackberry 10 

It will be seen from this that there is no difference in 
growth between the hard maple and the red, the pin and the 
scarlet oaks. The oaks make little headway during the first 
and second years after transplanting, but after that time 
their growth is very rapid, in many cases exceeding that of 
the hard maples. 

Perhaps one of the reasons for the existing prejudice 
against the oak is that it has not received as fair a test as 
other trees. In Chapter V, the importance of developing 
the root system of a tree by frequent transplanting in the 
nursery is dwelt upon. It is only during the last ten or fif 
teen years, since the demand for oaks has grown, that nurs 
eries have begun to cultivate these trees on a large scale. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 31 

As a result the nursery-trained oaks grow as fast as the 
hard maples. 

Pin Oak (Quercus palustris Linn.). Planted more exten 
sively than others of the genus is the pin oak. Its charac 
teristic pyramidal form distinguishes it from most decidu 
ous trees. The stem rises like an unbroken shaft. The 
branches are slender and stretch out almost horizontally, 
those at the bottom being the longest. Its deeply cut, light 
green, shining leaves give the foliage a massing that is fern- 
like in grace. The lower branches have a tendency to 
droop ; but this habit can be corrected by proper pruning. 
The dense branching of this tree causes some of the twigs 
to die, and it is these spurlike projections from the branches 
that form the ' 'pins" which give the tree its common name. 

The oaks have two sets of flowers staminate, or male 
and pistillate, or female. The two sets of flowers are borne 
on the same tree, and hence the flowers are said to be mo 
noecious of one household. 

Some oaks, such as the white oak, mature their acorns 
the same season in which they flower; but the pin oak 
belongs to the group of biennials the oaks that take two 
years for the fruit to mature. In autumn, after the spring 
flowering, the acorns of these trees are only partly grown ; 
they remain in that condition during the winter, continue 
their growth the next summer, and mature in the fall of the 
following year. 

The leaves of the pin oak turn a deep scarlet in autumn, 
and as in the case of most of the oaks, they fall late in the 
season. They are not like the leaves of the white oak, 
however, some of which remain on the trees all winter. 

Red Oak (Quercus rubra Linn.). There is a street in 
the city of Washington which once seen cannot be forgot- 



32 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

ten. It is Twelfth Street, between North and South B 
Streets, and is planted with red oaks, the gorgeous beauty 
of which cannot fail to impress itself on the mind of every 
observer. See Plate 9. 

All prejudices against the oak as a shade-tree must dis 
appear on beholding that street. The red oak grows faster 
than any other native oak, and in a greater variety of soils. 
It forms a round or oval shaped head, and its large, dark 
green leathery leaves give it a richness possessed by few 
other trees. There is no American tree more prized in 
Europe than the red oak, which has been cultivated there 
for two centuries. It is the brilliant foliage of the red oak 
which is conspicuous in the English parks in the autumn, 
when the native species of that country fall without the 
bright coloring which we always expect in our autumn 
woods. 

In May the red oak is fairly draped with the long yellow 
catkins, forming the staminate flowers. The pistillate flow 
ers are extremely tiny, and these, after being fertilized, 
mature into acorns the following year. 

Scarlet Oak (Quercus cocdnea Muench.). While the pin 
oak and the red oak are the trees most extensively planted 
as shade-trees, the scarlet oak is coming to be recognized 
as superior to both, while in hardiness and rapidity of 
growth it is equal to either. When growing in the open the 
scarlet oak forms a round, domelike head. The leaves are 
a bright shiny green, borne on slender petioles that cause 
them to respond to every breeze. The splendor of our 
autumnal forests owes much to the color of the scarlet oaks. 
The tints of other oaks are beautiful, but they are pale 
before the gleam of the scarlet. 

White Oak (Quercus alba Linn.). The white oak is the 



34 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

noblest tree of its race, and is justly called the king of the 
forest. It is superior in vigor and longevity, and attains a 
greater spread than the other oaks. As a street-tree, how 
ever, it has fewer points to recommend it than the other 
members of the group that have been treated. It grows 
much more slowly than either the pin, the red, or the scarlet 
oak. Its red and russet colored autumn leaves are very per 
sistent, often clinging to the tree the entire winter. This is 
a feature which may be regarded with unfailing interest in 
the forest, but in the city it makes the trees rather objec 
tionable because of the continued litter of the street. 

The white oak belongs to the group of oaks that ma 
ture their acorns in one season. Other things being 
equal the oaks require more care in transplanting than the 
maples. The wood is harder and the roots dry more rap 
idly. The first year after these trees are planted, their 
growth is very slow. During the second and third years, 
however, the trees make a remarkable growth and an 
increase of a foot or more in height may be expected yearly. 
When the oaks are set out the twigs must be cut back 
almost to the main stem. By this means the draft on the 
roots is reduced, it gives the tree a chance to reestablish 
itself, and the top makes up the original loss in a very short 
time. See Fig. 13. 

Other oaks that are sometimes planted on streets and high 
ways in the Northern States are swamp white oak (Quercus 
bicolor Willd.) and chestnut oak (Quercus prinus Linn.). 

THE LINDENS 

American Linden (Tilia americana Linn.). This tree, 
which is also known as basswood, commends itself as a 
shade-tree in many ways. It is a vigorous grower. When 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 35 

young it is of pyramidal form and eventually becomes a 
large, round-headed tree. Its foliage is of light green color, 
very large and abundant, and produces a dense shade. The 
leaves are heart-shaped and always one sided. They open 
late in the spring, and in the latter part of June are followed 
by clusters of fragrant flowers. They are yellowish-white 
and are suspended from curious ribbonlike appendages 
called bracts. 

The flowers mature into pealike seeds which drop from 
the tree in the fall of the year. The bracts to which the 
seed clusters are attached act as parachutes, which launch 
the fruit some distance beyond the tree. The bark of the 
linden is rather smooth, with shallow, close furrows. The 
main trunk of this tree frequently extends upward undi 
vided to the top, with small branches growing from the 
limbs all the way up. This characteristic of the linden is 
especially marked in young trees. Large ones generally 
have two or three main trunks, like the elm or white maple. 
After the leaves have fallen the linden displays a graceful 
outline, making it attractive in winter. 

The American linden is at its best before midsummer. 
After that time the tree grows coarse and the leaves begin 
to show the effects of the attacks of the numerous insects to 
which it is a prey. It is the susceptibility to insect attack 
that forms the objectionable feature of the tree. In early 
summer plant lice cover the leaves with patches of honey 
dew, and the sticky surfaces catch dust and smoke. The 
leaves are also subject to the attack of a fungus which gives 
them the appearance of being covered with soot. American 
lindens are sometimes completely defoliated by the cater 
pillars of the tussock moth, and are seriously injured by 
borers. As a result of the insect attacks the leaves turn 



PLATE 10.-THE LINDENS. 




1. American Linden, leaves and fruit. 2. European Linden in winter. 3. Euro 
pean Linden, leaves and flowers. 4. European Linden, winter twig. 5. Street 
of American Lindens: Massachusetts Avenue, N. E., at Eleventh Street, Wash 
ington, D. C. Thirty years old. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 37 

and fall prematurely. Their faded yellow is not like the 
gold of the beech and hickory leaves. 

While the American linden possesses natural character 
istics desirable for a shade-tree, these are largely offset by 
its numerous insect enemies. The tree also requires a deep 
rich soil, is less tolerable of city conditions, and requires 
greater care than other trees. 

European Linden (Tilia europcea Linn.). In beauty, 
symmetry, and grace few trees surpass or equal the Euro 
pean linden. It grows perfectly straight, the trunk and 
main limbs are subdivided into a great many twigs forming 
a compact, oval head. When the tree is left to grow natu 
rally, the lower limbs are drooping, but when trimmed up 
the branches acquire a graceful, upward turn. 

The leaves of the European linden are more regularly 
heart-shaped and smaller than those of the American linden, 
and the twigs are more slender and numerous. In winter 
the fine twigs of this species make a delicate network 
against the sky. The flowers of the European linden are 
very fragrant, and are borne in clusters attached to a ribbon- 
like bract very much resembling the American linden. The 
pealike fruit matures in the fall, but is very persistent, 
some of the bracts remaining on the trees all winter. 

While also subject to the attacks of plant lice and cater 
pillars, the European linden withstands city conditions a 
little better than the native tree and preserves the natural 
beauty of its foliage later in the season. It grows into a 
medium-sized shapely tree, and is especially adapted for 
narrow streets. 

There are a number of varieties of the American and the 
European lindens which make good street-trees, of which 
may be mentioned the following: the silver-leaved linden 



38 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

(Tilia argented), the Crimean, or yellow-twigged linden 
( Tilia dasystyla} , and the large-leaved European linden (Tilia 
platyphylld) . Tilia dasystyla is one of the best varieties for 
street-planting. The leaves are leathery and tough, and re 
main green until a hard frost, then they fall at one time. 

THE ELMS 

White or American Elm (Ulmus americana Linn.). 
Standing absolutely alone for its especial kind of beauty, the 
white elm is deservedly the most familiar and popular of our 
native trees. No other tree combines such strength with so 
much grace. It is the striking ornament of New England 
landscapes, and in many towns the white elm is the predom 
inant tree. New Haven has attained national fame as the 
Elm City. \ 

At all seasons of the year the elm is beautiful. In sum 
mer it rises like a great fountain of brilliant green, and 
in winter the detail of the arching limbs and pendulous 
branches stands out in relief against the sky. The white 
elm is one of the first trees to blossom in the spring. As 
early as the latter part of February, or the early part of 
March, the flower-buds begin to swell, and shortly afterward 
the small reddish-brown blossoms appear, so tiny that they 
frequently pass unnoticed. The fruit of the elm, or samara, 
as it is called, matures in May, when the leaves unfold. 

Flat, oval -shaped wings, about half an inch long, sur 
round the small seeds and help the wind to scatter them 
from the parent tree. The leaves of the white elm are 
unequal at the base, are rough above and downy beneath. 
In autumn they turn a brown or golden yellow. 

Considered from the standpoint of adaptability for street- 
planting, it has been found that in spite of the natural 



PLATE 11. AMERICAN ELM. 





I. Winter twig. 2. Flowers. 3. Fruit and developing leaves. 4. Leaves* 
5. Tree in winter. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 41 

beauty of the white elm, it has a great many limitations. 
The greatest objection to this tree is its susceptibility to the 
attacks of more insect pests than any other one species 
of tree. Some of its enemies are the elm-leaf beetle, the 
tussock moth, the leopard moth, elm borers, the elm-bark 
louse, the spiny elm caterpillar, the bag worm, the gipsy 
moth, and the brown tail moth. Of these, the elm-leaf 
beetle, the tussock and the leopard moths, are the most 
destructive. The aspect of the elm-trees infested with the 
beetle is one of devastation. They look as if they had been 
swept by fire. 

The elm is adapted to wide streets, for it grows to a 
great size. The characteristics that make it one of the 
most beautiful of our native trees do not develop until the 
tree is of considerable age. In the ordinary street, espe 
cially in places where the houses are close to the sidewalk, 
the tree has no room. Standing as an individual, the Ameri 
can elm is very picturesque. Lining a broad avenue, the 
trees form a perfect Gothic archway like a cathedral nave, 
the beauty of which is not surpassed by any other species. 
On the street of ordinary width the elm has no place. In 
the case of this tree, too, more than most other species of 
trees, provision must be made for regular and thorough 
spraying to hold the insect enemies in check. 

European Elm (Ulmus campestris Linn.). The European 
elm is sometimes used as a street-tree. In form it is "better 
suited for such planting, as it grows a smaller and more 
rounded head. It also retains its foliage later in the sea 
son. However, the natural advantages of this tree are more 
than offset by insect pests. The European elm is greed 
ily attacked by the elm-leaf beetle, the destructiveness of 
which is greater than in the case of the native species. 



42 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

Horse-Chestnut (JEsculus hippocastanum Linn.). The 
spring is the redeeming season of the horse-chestnut. 
When in bloom the tree is a superb sight, "a pyramid of 
green supporting a thousand pyramids of white. ' ' 

The unfolding of its leaves is also extremely interesting 
and beautiful. By opening one of the buds of the tree with 
a knife in winter one finds the little leaves and miniature 
flower clusters carefully packed in the downy wool under 
the gummy scales. When the warm days of spring come, 
the resinous bud-scales drop off, and the little fuzzy, light 
green leaves come out of the buds. The leaflets are close 
together, like the fingers of a tiny hand, and they hang limp 
from their stems like moths just emerged from their co 
coons. The leaves grow with remarkable rapidity, however, 
and soon the trees become covered with a dense foliage. 

The horse-chestnut is a native of southeastern Europe, 
and has for centuries been a favorite tree for avenues and 
parks in Europe. One of the finest plantations of horse- 
chestnuts in the world is that in Bushey Park, near London. 
Five rows of the trees stand on either side of the avenue, 
and when they are in bloom the fact is announced in the 
newspapers. Then the public go to see the sight. This spe 
cies is extensively used in Paris. There are over 17,000 
horse-chestnut trees in the streets of that city. 

The tree was first introduced in the United States in 
1746. It belongs to the same genus as our native buckeye, 
with which it is sometimes confused. If one remembers the 
difference in the leaves, however, it is easy to distinguish 
the two trees. The leaves of the buckeye are five-fingered, 
while those of the horse-chestnut are seven-fingered. The 
horse-chestnut is the sturdier of the two, and the flowers 
are more profuse and beautiful than those of the buckeye. 



PLATE 13. HORSE-CHESTNUT. 




1. Leaves and flowers. 2. Leaf and fruit. 3. Tree in winter. 
4. Winter twig. 5. Tree in flower. 



44 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

While the horse-chestnut possesses many features of 
natural and historic interest, it has few points that recom 
mend it for use as a street-tree. In early summer the 
leaves become discolored, shrivel and fall. In fact, this tree 
is continually dropping something. The bud-scales and the 
flowers fall in the spring, the leaves in the summer, and the 
husks and nuts of the fruit in the autumn. The tree is also 
subject to the attacks of many insect enemies, the chief of 
which are the leopard moth and the tussock moth. The tree 
is at its best when grown in the open ; but where maples 
and oaks can be successfully grown there is little in the 
horse-chestnut to recommend it for street-planting. 

THE PLANE TREES 

Oriental Plane (Platanus orien talis Linn. ). The oriental 
plane combines, to a greater degree than any other tree, 
the characteristics of rapid growth with everything that is 
desirable in shade-trees. It is perfectly hardy, grows a 
straight stem, and forms a symmetrical, compact, and round 
head. It has the advantage of the rapid growth of the white 
maple and the Carolina poplar, and possesses none of their 
many defects. 

The leaves of the oriental plane are very large, and the 
tree gives ample shade, but, at the same time, the foliage i 
not too dense. It is disposed to grow rather large, but it 
may be pruned without injury at any time and with any 
degree of severity to make it conform to the width of any 
street. 

All points considered, the oriental plane makes such an 
admirable street-tree that there is a temptation to plant it to 
the exclusion of other trees. For the last few years it has 
been most extensively used in the cities of Washington and 



PLATE 14. THE PLANE TREES. 





1. Sycamore, winter twig. 2. Sycamore, developing leaves and flowers, upper pistil 
late and lower staminate. 3. Oriental Plane, leaves and fruit. 4. Oriental 
Plane, bark. 5. Street of Oriental Planes: S Street, at North Capitol Street, 
Washington, D. C. Twelve years old. 



46 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

Philadelphia in greater numbers, in fact, than any other 
single species of tree. Of the 86,000 trees in the city of 
Paris, over 26,000 are oriental planes. 

The oriental plane is of the same genus as the Western 
plane or sycamore, or button-ball (Platanus occidentalis 
Linn.), which also makes a splendid street-tree. It resem 
bles our native species in leaf, fruit, and bark, but it grows 
more compactly and symmetrically than the Western plane. 
The most striking feature of both species of trees is that 
they shed their bark as well as their leaves. All trees shed 
their bark to some degree, as the outer layers yield to the 
pressure of the growing stem. 

The dropping of the bark is noticeable in the silver 
maple and the shagbark hickory ; and it is especially marked 
in the planes. The bark of the trunk and larger limbs flakes 
off in great irregular masses, leaving the surface a mottled 
greenish-white and gray and brown. The characteristic 
bark is especially noticeable in winter, although the thickest 
foliage of summer never quite conceals it. 

The male and the female flowers of the planes are borne 
in heads on separate buds of the same twigs. The pistillate 
flowers ripen into the familiar globular fruits of the planes 
which remain suspended from the slender stems almost the 
entire winter. The oriental plane can be readily distin 
guished from the sycamore after the leaves have fallen. 
The fruit of the sycamore is generally borne in solitary 
heads, and in extremely rare cases two heads are found on 
a single stem. The oriental plane bears from two to four 
of these globular fruits on a single stem. 

The heads of fruit of the planes are composed of thin 
seeds, about half an inch long, packed tightly around a cen 
tral spherical core. Each seed is surrounded by hairs that 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 47 

close around it like the ribs of an umbrella. When the ripe 
fruit is released the hairs open up and form a little para 
chute that keeps the seed suspended in the air for a consid 
erable period of time, and enables the wind to carry it far 
away from the parent tree. 

The oriental plane is not troubled by many insect pests. 
The tussock moth and the fall web-worm sometimes attack 
it, but they never cause serious injury. The sycamore is 
subject to a fungous disease that attacks the young leaves as 
they come out of the bud, causing them to turn brown and 
shrivel up. The European species is less subject to this 
disease. 

Tulip-Tree (Liriodendron tulipifera Linn.). The tulip- 
tree is one of the largest and most beautiful of our native 
trees. It belongs to the magnolia family and, like all the 
members of that group, it has large, brilliant flowers. 
Their color is greenish-yellow, with dashes of red and orange, 
and their resemblance to a tulip is marked. They open in 
May, shortly after the development of the leaves, and are 
borne on stout stems that keep them erect. 

The flowers of the tulip are complete. The fruit of the 
tulip is a cone, two or three inches long, composed of thin, 
narrow scales attached to a common axis. These scales are 
each a seed surrounded by a thin wing. The fruit ripens 
during October, and, beginning at the top of each cone, one 
by one the seeds become detached from the central axis, 
and by the aid of the wind each seed is carried some dis 
tance from the tree. 

The leaves of the tulip are unique in shape, the 
' 'chopped off " ends giving them an individuality of their 
own. When fully developed the leaves have a tremulous 
motion, resembling those cf the poplars, and for that reason 



PLATE 15. TULIP-TREE. 




1. Tree in winter. 2. Leaves and flower. 3. Fruit in winter, only a few re 
maining seeds attached to axis. 4. Winter twig. 5. Street of Tulip-Trees, 
North Capitol Street, at M Street, Washington, D. C. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 49 

the tulip is sometimes called the tulip poplar. It is not to 
be confounded with poplars, however, as there is no rela 
tionship between them, the poplars belonging to the willow 
family. 

As a shade-tree the tulip is very beautiful and symmet 
rical ; but it is adapted for only the widest avenues, as it 
becomes too large for the average street. It thrives best in 
places where there is a quantity of rich, deep soil, condi 
tions which do not obtain along the street curb. While the 
tulip is moderately free from enemies, its leaves are subject 
to the attack of an insect that forms the tulip-tree spot gall. 
These galls are brown spots covering the surface of the 
leaves in midsummer. The leaves turn yellow and drop 
from the trees throughout the season. 

The tulip-tree is one of the most difficult trees to trans 
plant. Like all the magnolias, it has tender, succulent roots 
that dry on the least exposure. It is one of the trees that it 
is quite impossible to transplant in the fall ; for if its roots 
do not begin immediate growth after planting the tree dies. 

White Ash (Fraxinus americana Linn.). Although so 
far the ash has not been much used in cities, it possesses 
many characteristics that recommend it for a shade-tree. 
It is a rapid grower, perfectly hardy in many sections of 
the country and has no serious insect enemies. It grows 
straight and symmetrical, and forms a round top. The foli 
age is pleasing in appearance, growing in irregular wavy 
masses, and not compact like the maples or the oaks. In 
fact, some sunlight always finds its way through the foliage 
of this tree, even in midsummer. 

The white ash has compound leaves about ten inches 
long. They have from five to nine leaflets usually seven. 
The leaves are dark green in summer, and in autumn turn 



PLATE 16 WHITE ASH. 




1. Winter twig. 2. Pistillate flowers. 3. Staminate flowers. 4. Leaf and fruit. 

5. Tree in summer. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 51 

brownish purple and yellow. Like most trees with large 
compound leaves, the ash sheds its spray with the foliage in 
the fall, leaving the erect rigid twigs that somewhat detract 
from the beauty of the tree in winter. When stripped of 
foliage the characteristic open head of the tree is marked. 
The bark is closely furrowed with irregular ridges and the 
twigs form a network of crosses against the sky. 

The staminate, or male flowers, and the pistillate, or 
female flowers, are borne on separate trees. They open in 
May before the leaves and are borne in small, compact clus 
ters. The staminate, or male trees, ordinarily shed their 
flowers about the time the leaves unfold, when the bursting 
pollen shells are mature. Sometimes the undeveloped male 
flower clusters are attacked by tiny mites that cause them 
to change into berrylike growths, which hang on in dry 
clusters on the ends of the branches. Frequently these 
abnormal formations, which resemble the familiar oak-galls, 
are mistaken for the fruit of the ash. 

The pistillate, or female flowers, mature into seeds. The 
fruit of the white ash comes in crowded, drooping panicles 
which hang upon the branches until after the leaves have 
fallen, almost until midwinter. On examination it will be 
found that each seed of the ash is provided with a thin 
membranous appendage, or wing, which keeps the seed bal 
anced in the air when it drops from the tree and allows the 
wind to carry it far from the parent tree. 

Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis Linn. ) . The hackberry is 
a medium-sized tree, which, in its general appearance, 
resembles the elm. Its straight trunk does not divide until 
it has attained considerable height, a peculiarity which is 
an advantage in a street -tree. It is tolerant of many con 
ditions of soil ancj climate, prefers rich, moist soil, but can 



PLATE 17. SWEET GUM, HACKBERRY, AND GINGKO. 




,v 




1. Sweet Gum, leaves and fruit. 2. Hackberry in winter. 3. Gingko, winter 
twig. 4. Gingko, leaves. 5. Street of Gingkos, leading from grounds of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. Thirty years old. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 53 

live in dry situations as well. It is comparatively free from 
insect pests and diseases. The hackberry has a peculiar 
bark, covered with hard, warty excrescences. 

Gingko (Gingko biloba Linn.) (Salisburia adiantifolia) . 
A new and very promising tree for street use is the gingko, 
a most remarkable species from China and Japan. It is 
hardy, and is one of the few trees that is entirely free from 
enemies of any kind. Its natural shape is pyramidal. The 
branches have a tendency to hug the central stem, while a 
few limbs shoot outwardly beyond the general contour of 
the tree. This mode of branching is not perhaps the most 
ideal for a shade-tree ; but by careful pruning the limbs can 
be made to spread and the head of the tree may be trained 
into a more oval form. One of the most beautiful and 
striking examples of the gingko as a street -tree is an 
avenue leading to the Department of Agriculture Building 
in Washington, Plate 17, Fig. 5. 

The leaf of the gingko is its most curious feature. There 
is nothing like it in the foliage of trees in America or 
Europe. It resembles that of the maiden -hair fern, and 
hence one of the common names of the gingko is the 
maiden-hair tree. The leaves are two-lobed and parallel 
veined ; that is, there is no midrib with diverging veins as 
in our native trees. The veins run nearly parallel with each 
other from the base to the end of the leaf. The foliage of 
the gingko turns a clear, golden yellow before it drops from 
the trees in autumn. 

What may appear strange is that the gingko belongs to 
the pine family. It is not an evergreen, however, and in 
this respect resembles the larch and the bald cypress. The 
falling of the leaves is but an outward and visible sign of an 
inward structural difference, which removes the pines from 



54 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

their other neighbors of the forest. It is the flower of a 
plant that largely determines its position in botanical classi 
fication. 

The gingko, although differing from the pines in many 
other ways, is like them in its mode of flowering. The 
staminate and the pistillate flowers are borne on different 
branches of the same tree. The female flowers consist of 
two naked ovules which receive the pollen. These ripen 
into the fruit of the gingko, which is a fleshy drupe resem 
bling a small plum. The drupes are ill-scented, and are con 
sidered by some as an objection to the tree. Gingkos, how 
ever, do not fruit until they are about thirty or forty years 
old, and the fruiting season does not last very long. 

Sweet Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua Linn.). In bril 
liancy of autumn foliage few trees surpass the liquidam- 
bar, or sweet gum. The color of its beautiful star-shaped 
leaves varies from deep red to yellow, and, in addition, some 
leaves are dark purple and brown. It grows perfectly 
straight and forms a symmetrical top. Like the magnolias, 
however, it has succulent roots, and is somewhat difficult to 
transplant. Naturally, the sweet gum is usually found in 
wet, rich soil bordering streams or swamps. The average 
street is too dry for them. When under favorable condi 
tions the trees once become established they are extremely 
beautiful and more than offset the extra care that is required 
in transplanting and the litter caused by their fruit. 

THE CATALPAS 

Hardy Catalpa (Catalpa Catalpa (Linn.) Karst.). The 
catalpa is an ornamental tree. It has very large leaves and 
in June is resplendent with pyramid-shaped clusters of 
flowers resembling those of the horse-chestnut. It naturally 



PLATE 18. CATALPA, AILANTUS, AND HONEY LOCUST. 




1. Hardy Catalpa, leaves and flowers. 2. Hardy Catalpa, fruit. 3. Ailantus, 
leaf and fruit. 4. Honey Locust, leaves and fruit. 5. Street of Honey 
Locusts: G Street, corner Twelfth Street, S. E., Washington, D. C. 



56 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

grows crooked, with a short, thick trunk and long strag 
gling branches, and forms an irregular head. These charac 
teristics are against its employment for street-planting. 

Western Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa Ward.). This is a 
Western species which is very hardy, of rapid growth, and 
has proved a much better tree for street use than the 
common or hardy catalpa. 

Ailantus (Ailanthus glandulosa Desf.). The ailantus, 
also spelled ailanthus, is sometimes used for street-planting, 
but outside of the fact that it will thrive in the poorest soil 
and amid the most unfavorable conditions of city streets 
there is very little to recommend it. When young, the 
ailantus is vigorous and shapely, if properly trained, and 
its large leaves are green until frost, but most old trees pre 
sent a very scraggly and unsightly appearance. The tree 
possesses little grace in winter after the large compound 
leaves fall and the thick, rigid twigs are revealed. At blos 
soming time the odor of the staminate or male flowers is 
extremely unpleasant. Where other trees will grow the 
ailantus should not be considered. 

THE LOCUSTS 

The Black Locust (Robinia pseudacacia Linn.) and the 
Honey Locust (Gleditsia triacanthos Linn.) are sometimes 
used as shade-trees. The former is successfully cultivated 
in Paris, where the top is kept small and spherical, and the 
branches thickly clustered. If allowed to grow freely, how 
ever, this tree does not form a round, compact head, but is 
angular in form. Its branches are extremely brittle, its foli 
age short-lived, its pods persistent and given to sprouting. 

In the city of Washington there are a few streets planted 
with the honey locust. They do not look so beautiful as 



58 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

those planted with other species. Besides, the honey locust 
gives practically no shade at all. Its foliage is fine and 
delicate, and comes out very late in the season. In late sum 
mer, the long, twisted pods bearing the seeds of the trees 
are more conspicuous than the leaves. They remain on the 
trees almost all winter. The sharp, stout thorns, two or 
three inches long, which are a characteristic feature of these 
trees make it almost impossible for a man to prune them. 
Both the black locust and the honey locust are attacked 
by borers and caterpillars that cause great injury to them. 

SPECIES FOR SOUTHERN STATES 

The establishment of a Parking Commission in New 
Orleans, to have charge of the planting and care of street- 
trees in that city, will act as an incentive to other Southern 
cities to establish similar departments. On account of the 
climate and great variety of native flora no section of the 
land offers greater opportunities for the embellishment of 
the home and the street than the Southern States. Many 
of the species described before are hardy in the South. 
Among the trees that are native, or can be grown only in 
the Southern States, may be mentioned the following: 

Live Oak (Quercus virginiana Mil.). Some of the most 
magnificent, stately, and highly esteemed trees for street- 
planting in the Southern States belong to the oak genus, the 
grandest and most beautiful of which is the live oak. It is 
an evergreen occurring naturally near the Atlantic coast, 
from Virginia to Florida and westward along the Gulf of 
Mexico to Texas. It is one of the most rapid growing of 
American oaks. Some grand specimens of the live oak may 
be found in the Audubon and City Parks in New Orleans, 
Plate 19. 



PLATE 20. SOME SOUTHERN TREES. 




1. Pecan in winter, Spanish moss on tree. 2. Great Laurel Magnolia. 
3. Water Oak. 4. Avenue of Palmettos. Views taken in February, 
New Orleans, La. 



60 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

The water oak (Quercus nigra Linn.), the willow oak 
(Quercus phellos Linn.), and the laurel oak (Quercus laurifo- 
lia Michx. ) are also commonly planted as shade-trees in the 
streets and squares of the cities and towns of the Southern 
States. 

Great Laurel Magnolia (Magnolia grandiflora Linn.). 
This is one of the grandest of the evergreen trees of the 
South, and is well adapted for street-planting. Its massive 
evergreen leaves and large white blossoms make it most 
conspicuous. It succeeds best in a rich soil, and should 
have plenty of room for spreading. 

Pecan (Hicoria pecan Britt.). This tree is hardy as far 
north as Philadelphia. It is a very handsome tree, the 
largest of the hickories, and is native of rich moist soils 
of river valleys from Indiana to Iowa, Missouri, and Kan 
sas, south to Alabama and Texas. It is a fine shade and 
ornamental tree. 

Camphor-Tree (Cinnamomum camphora Linn.). This is 
a fast-growing, handsome evergreen tree, with bright, 
shiny leaves, symmetrical in growth and thriving even in 
poor soil. It is a native of Japan. It grows to medium size, 
and is suitable for narrow streets. 

The Palmetto (Sabal palmetto Walt.) and the Desert 
Palm (Neowashingtonia robusta (Wend.) Britt.) are very 
generally planted for shade and ornament in the Southern 
States. The palmetto grows from eastern North Carolina to 
Florida. The trunk reaches a maximum height of about 
sixty feet, which is surmounted by a crown of spreading, fan- 
like leaves, seven to eight feet broad. The desert palm, or 
Washington palm, is a striking feature of the Colorado des 
ert. It is found in groves or in isolated clumps in wet alka 
li soil, rising to a height of from fifty to seventy-five feet. 



SPECIES FOR STREET-PLANTING 61 

This elegant palm is much planted for ornament in Cali 
fornia and Florida. 

THE CONIFERS 

The conifers cannot be used on the street as shade-trees. 
Their branching and mode of growth are such as to make 
them absolutely impossible to prune. They must be left to 
grow naturally. When growing close together in the forest, 
a process of natural pruning goes on, the lateral limbs die 
out for want of light and air, and the trees shoot upward, 
producing straight, tall trunks. When growing in the open, 
on the other hand, the lower branches commence near the 
ground. Any attempt to remove the lower limbs disfigures 
the tree, and, therefore, while these trees are useful and 
highly decorative for lawn and park purposes they cannot 
be used for the street. 



CHAPTER IV 
STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING 

PRELIMINARY to planting, a survey of the street must 
be made. This consists of an examination of the soil, the 
noting of the width of the street and the sidewalks, the 
height of the buildings bordering the street, the direction of 
the street, and all the local conditions that enter into the 
determination of the choice of species for the street. 

The Soil. A great deal, if not all of the success in tree- 
growing, depends upon the nature and the preparation of the 
soil. An examination of the soil will show whether by its 
nature, extent, and depth it is favorable or unfavorable to 
tree-growth. It is very seldom that the soil existing along 
city streets is good for planting. In grading streets and 
avenues there is always more or less cutting down and fill 
ing up, and in either case the original surface soil is ren 
dered unavailable. It then becomes an absolute necessity to 
make liberal provision of good soil for the future well-being 
of the tree. 

By excavations or borings four or five feet deep, the 
kind and depth of the soil and the nature of the subsoil 
should be determined. In the planting of street-trees, 
where the conditions are sometimes not alike for two suc 
cessive trees, it is indispensable to make a survey and keep 
an exact record of the kind of soil where the trees are to be 
planted, the nature of the adjoining soil and subsoil, the 

62 



STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING 63 

proximity of sewers, water and gas mains to the proposed 
line of planting, and all other conditions that could influence 
vegetation favorably or unfavorably. Such records will be 
found very valuable not only for the planting, but also for 
the future care of the trees, particularly their watering, fer 
tilizing, and training, and approximation of their length of 
life. 

Soil suitable for tree-planting must contain the elements 
essential to vegetation, and must be of ample extent to sup 
ply the needs of the growing tree. An average light sandy 
loam, easily worked, uniform, finely grained and smooth to 
the touch, is ideal for trees. A heavy clay soil is unfavor 
able for trees, because it is not permeable to water and air, 
and when it dries it becomes excessively hard and cracks. 
A soil that is too sandy does not retain moisture necessary 
to maintain vegetation. A soil containing on the average 
about 70 per cent, sand, 20 per cent, clay, and 10 per cent, 
humus is found to be suitable for most trees. Soil of aver 
age fertility contains in a dry state .1 per cent, to .2 per 
cent., by weight, of nitrogen, .1 per cent, to .2 per cent, 
phosphoric acid, .1 per cent, to .2 per cent, of potash, and 
.4 per cent, to .6 per cent, of lime. When a soil fulfilling the 
above conditions is found along the line of the proposed 
planting, and the subsoil is pervious to water and permits 
of good drainage, it will produce conditions for good growth 
and long life of the trees planted. 

When choosing soil to replace poor street soil it is well to 
observe the conditions making up the ideal soil and obtain it, 
if possible. It is found that soil stripped from an old pas 
ture land, or other land which has had some cultivation, 
makes the best earth for trees. When doing considerable 
planting, it is a good plan to prepare a compost heap the 



64 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

year before by putting soil and manure in alternate layers, 
and turning the pile two or three times in the season to mix 
them thoroughly. In no case should fresh manure or patent 
fertilizers be used with the soil. 

Amount of Soil. The amount and extent of soil neces 
sary for the normal development of the root system of trees 
is about proportional to the spread of the top. It will be 
readily understood that when trees are planted along side 
walk strips, from four to six feet wide, that good soil 
ought to exist along the entire line of the planting to a 
depth of at least three feet. It is very seldom, however, 
in actual planting operations that the entire soil along 
the planting strip is removed. In the city of Washing 
ton, holes for trees are dug eight feet long, three or 
three and a half feet wide, and three feet deep, the con 
tents removed and good soil substituted. This is about the 
size of holes dug for the trees in the city of Paris. This 
size of hole and quantity of soil give the trees a good start 
in life, and insure satisfactory growth for at least five or 
six years. After that the roots will, in most cases, extend 
into the ordinary surrounding soil, even if it is not of the 
best description. If at that time the tree shows signs of 
restricted growth and early casting of leaves, it will be 
necessary to supply additional good soil beyond the original 
excavation when the tree was planted. If the original soil 
is workable it can be improved by cultivation and fertiliza 
tion, so as to supply the extending roots. 

Plantations on excavated ground are generally less favor 
ably situated than those on filled-in ground. The surround 
ing soil in the former case is apt to be poorer, less workable, 
and less pervious to moisture than filled-in ground. In the 
planting of street-trees it is always best for immediate 



STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING 65 

results and for future economy to supply as large a quantity 
of soil as is possible, in order to insure the establishment 
and long life of the trees set out. 

Subsoil. If, on account of the impervious nature of the 
subsoil, moisture is liable to collect and stagnate near the 
roots and prevent a circulation of air, the soil will have to 
be underdrained to insure the success of the plantation. 

Preparation of the Soil. How the soil for the tree is to 
be prepared depends upon the condition of the original 
ground, whether it is entirely good, partly good, or entirely 
bad. If the soil is recognized as good and ample, it will 
always be best to dig the hole of the regulation size and then 
replace the original soil. The digging up of the soil will 
make it more pervious to water and render the plant food 
more available. 

If part of the soil is to be replaced, the hole should be 
dug the full size, and the bad soil removed. The good soil 
should then be mixed with the remainder and the hole 
refilled. When all the soil is bad it will have to be entirely 
replaced. When the soil is entirely or partly replaced, care 
must be taken to supply enough to allow for settling, which 
is about 1J inches to the foot. 

The preparation of the hole should precede the planting 
some months, to allow for the settling of the soil. For spring 
planting it is best to prepare the holes in the fall, so as 
to leave more time for the setting of the trees during the 
spring rush. 

ARRANGEMENT OF TREES ON STREET 

Parking Strips. On the street of average width, shade- 
trees are usually planted on the sidewalk between the curb 
and the walk. There should be a continuous parking strip 



66 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES- 

provided, at least four feet in width, along which trees may 
be planted. If the width of the street permits, these strips 
may be made up to ten feet or more, but a width of four 
feet is about the minimum space along which trees can be 
planted. Frequently no planting-strip is provided at all, or 
it is made so narrow that it is impossible to set out trees. 

Width of Roadway. The determining factor of the width 
of the roadway is the amount of vehicular traffic it carries, 
and it should not be made wider than necessary. In the first 
place it costs more to construct and maintain a wide road 
than a narrow one. The wider the road the greater the 
volume of dust, and the closer the road comes to the side 
walk the nearer the dust is to the pedestrians. A broad strip 
of turf between walk and curb enhances the beauty of the 
street, and gives the trees a better chance for life and vigor. 

In some cities and towns the streets are laid out with no 
provision for trees, and the widths of the roadway and the 
sidewalks are not in proportion to the use of the highway. 
In Carlisle, Pa., for example, most of the streets are sixty 
feet wide. Although the street traffic is not extensive, the 
roadways are made forty feet wide and the sidewalks ten 
feet wide. The houses are built close to the sidewalks, and as 
soon as the trees become of considerable size the branches 
grow against the buildings. As a result of such conditions, 
an ordinance was enacted in Carlisle requiring the setting 
of the trees in the gutter. It is evident that such a system 
of tree-planting is very bad. Trees planted in the gutter 
become an obstruction to the highway, they prevent the 
running off of storm-water, and prevent the keeping of the 
roadways clean. Plate 32, Fig. 5. 

Divisions of the Street. The division of the street into 
walks and drives, and the determination of the number of 



STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING 



67 



rows of trees to be set out, will be governed by its width, 
height of the buildings along the street, and their proximity 
to the planting-line. On the average street the width from 



* / i / 2 




FIG. 1. Layout of a street fifty feet wide from property line to property line. 

fence- line to fence-line is divided into two-fifths for side 
walks and three-fifths for the roadway. Residence streets 
are usually fifty feet wide. This arrangement leaves the 
sidewalk space tan feet wide, and it can be divided into a 
4-foot planting-strip, 4-foot walk, and a 2-foot sod space be 
tween the walk and the property-line, as shown in Fig. 1. 
Streets sixty feet wide from fence-line to fence-line are 







ROADWAY 

30- 




QQL 



FIG. 2. Layout of a street sixty feet wide. 



68 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



of ideal width for residential cities. This width can be 
divided into a roadway thirty feet wide and sidewalks fif 
teen feet wide. A 6-foot planting-strip can be provided on 





ROADWAY 

- 40- 



FIG. 3. Layout of a street eighty feet wide. 

a sidewalk of such width, as shown in Fig. 2. A residence 
street eighty feet wide may have a roadway forty feet in 
width and sidewalks twenty feet wide. The sidewalk may 
be divided into an 8-foot lawn-strip, an 8-foot sidewalk, 
and a 4-foot strip between the walk and the fence-line, as 
shown in Fig. 3. A residence street one hundred feet wide 






ROADWAY PARKING 

25 >l* -20- *{*-- 



ROADWAY 

25^ 



FIG. 4. Layout of a street one hundred feet wide: two rows of trees and a 
parking space for shrubs in centre. 




o 



70 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



may have two roadways separated by a planting-space 
along its centre. The arrangement is shown in Fig. 4. 
The central space may be used for shrubs and dwarf trees, 
but such a street is hardly of sufficient width to permit the 
planting of more than two rows of large trees, one row 
along each sidewalk. Avenues or boulevards one hundred 
and twenty or one hundred and fifty feet wide permit of 
an arrangement of four rows of trees : two rows along the 





SIDEWALK ROADWAY SIDEWALK 
20- >*- 26- >K-- 20- 



-66- 



FIG. 6. Streets having buildings thirty-five feet high, on both sides, should have a 
width of sixty-six feet. The divisions of the street and the positions of the 
trees are shown. 

sidewalks and two rows in the central space. In the city of 
Washington the streets having four rows of trees are about 
one hundred and fifty feet in width. Pennsylvania Avenue 
may be taken as a typical example, shown in Fig. 5. 

Height of Buildings. On residential streets the houses 
are set back some distance from the sidewalk, twenty feet 
or more. When this is the case there is more room for the 
trees to develop. When tall buildings are close to the side 
walk, the conditions for growth are not so favorable. In 





.__! 






1 



^1 

(U J^ 

%l 

s 

J5 S 

SS 






\!/ * O 

j_. *+ 



72 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



Paris the height of buildings is limited to sixty-six feet on 
streets thirty-three feet wide. On streets less than twenty- 
six feet wide, the height of buildings is limited to forty feet. 
In order that street-trees might get enough light to develop 
vigorously, it is found on the average that streets bounded 
on both sides with buildings thirty-five feet high should 
have a width of sixty-six feet, and streets having lines of 
buildings sixty-five feet high should have a width of one 
hundred and twenty feet, as shown in Figs. 6 and 7. 

On narrow streets having tall buildings, it is possible to 
maintain trees in good condition by planting a single row in 
the centre of the roadway, as shown in Fig. 8. 

Distance from Buildings. To secure the best results the 
distance at which trees are set from the building-line should 




-lrtffl.ffM..'1-....'.^BB^r 
SIDEWALK [ ROADWAY ] PARKING 



ROADWAY ] SIDEWALK 

- - - -18- >*< - -10-'- 



FIG. 8. Single row of trees on narrow street having tall buildings. 



STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING 



73 



equal about half the height of the houses. In the city of 
Paris no trees are planted on streets which have tall build 
ings and which have sidewalks less than thirteen feet wide 
and roadways twenty feet wide. 

It is sometimes possible, however, to secure fair results 
even on narrow streets having tall buildings, by choosing a 





j SIDEWALK I ROADWAY I SIDEWALK 

'^--lO'-^K- 20- >U 10--- > 



FIG. 9. Small trees on a narrow street having tall building's. 

species that will keep small, or one that will permit of annual 
heading back to small dimensions, as shown in Fig. 9. 

Distance from Sidewalk Curb. Trees should be set not 
nearer than two feet from the curb, and, when the plant 
ing strips permit, it is better to put the trees farther away 
from the curb than two feet. In resetting curbs, the roots 
of trees must necessarily be cut, and if the trees are farther 
away from the curb less injury is likely to result to them. 



74 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

There is one phase of modern street-work that does not 
tend to improve the highway trees, and that is the laying of 
concrete walks. In order to lay these walks, there must be 
an excavation of about eighteen inches, and if there are old 
trees along the curb their roots are usually cut in the pro 
cess. Flag walks should be preferred in such cases. 

Frequently builders make it a practise to extend a strip 
of concrete of the width of the stoop of the house from the 
sidewalk to the curb. This is sometimes ten or twelve feet 
wide, and this encroachment on the parking space takes 
away still more from the possible nourishment of the tree, 
that is already severely hedged in by the curb on one side 
and the concrete walk on the other. It should be the desire 
of builders to make suburban streets as country like as pos 
sible, and not to extend these concrete strips. 

Distance Apart of Specimens. Even after the proper 
species has been selected there can be no greater mistake 
in street-planting than setting trees too close together. The 
distance between specimens should be such as to permit 
them to develop perfectly, and the outstretching limbs 
should not touch, even when the trees are fully grown. 
Forty feet is about the average distance at which street- 
trees should be set. The American elm should be set about 
fifty feet apart; the sugar maple, the red oak, the chestnut 
oak, and the oriental plane about forty-five feet apart; the 
Norway maple and the red maple about forty feet apart; 
the American linden and the pin oak about thirty-eight. feet 
apart ; the European linden, the sweet gum, and the horse- 
chestnut about thirty-five feet apart; the gingko, the catalpa, 
the hackberry about thirty feet apart; the ailantus and the 
Carolina poplar about twenty-eight feet apart. 

It must also be remembered in determining the dis- 



STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING 75 

tance apart at which street-trees are to be set whether the 
specimens are to be allowed to grow naturally, or whether 
an attempt will be made to limit their spread. Thus, in the 
city of Paris the spread of the trees is limited, and they are 
kept rather small. Accordingly the distances above given 
would be too far apart for the secting of its trees. In Paris, 
therefore, the street-trees of the species above enumerated 
are set at distances apart equal to about three-quarters or 
less of the distances above given. 

When planting is not done by public officials, nearly every 
individual wants one or more trees in front of his house. 
His neighbor has the same desire, irrespective of the front 
age of his property or the nearness of other trees. Exam 
ples of the results of such methods of planting may be seen 
on streets in any town. The trees are too close together, 
frequently not more than twelve or fifteen feet apart. They 
interfere with each other's growth, cut off the necessary 
light and air, and prevent, by their shade, the growth of 
grass under them. As a result the trees look like a thick 
hedge and their individual beauty is lost. When the mistake 
of having planted trees too close together is realized, one 
frequently hears expressions of regret: "What a beautiful 
street this would be, if those fine trees were ten or fifteen 
feet farther apart." 

Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, has been a notable 
example of the crowding of street-trees, due to the lack of 
foresight of the original planters. The planting-space on 
this prominent thoroughfare is one hundred feet wide, and 
the plans provided for the planting of four rows of Ameri 
can elms, the trees in the rows to stand opposite each other. 
In 1880, Professor Charles Sprague Sargent and Frederick 
Law Olmsted proposed the removal of the four rows of trees 



/6 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

which had already been planted between Arlington and 
Dartmouth Streets, and the planting in their place of two 
rows of trees from one end of the avenue to the other. The 
city government, however, refused to act on their sugges 
tion. In 1880 and 1881, by order of the Common Council, 
the planting of four rows of trees was continued in this 
avenue up to Massachusetts Avenue. The Park Commis 
sioners of Boston are now confronted with the problem of 
thinning out the trees. 

Trees Set with Relation to the Street. Trees should be 
set out with relation to each other and the street as a whole, 
and not with relation to the frontage of individual property. 
In the more recently developed sections of cities where 
property is high, single lots may range in width from 
twenty to thirty feet. The average distance required by 
shade-trees for proper development is from thirty-five to 
forty-five feet ; hence there must necessarily be some houses 
that will not have trees in front of them. Fine shade-trees, 
however, benefit the entire street, and after they become 
large every house profits by them. When that time comes 
it matters little in front of which particular property the 
stem of the tree is located. 

The Spacing Uniform. The spacing of the trees should 
be uniform, and the specimens on the two sides of the 
street opposite each other. There will be many obstacles in 
the ordinary street, such as lamp -posts, water hydrants, 
house, water, and gas connections, that will prevent an 
absolutely uniform spacing of trees. Judgment will then 
have to be used as to how to redistribute the distance so 
that there will be least deviation from a uniform plan. 
Trees should be kept away at least eight feet from lamp 
posts and about ten feet from water hydrants. 



STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING 77 

Opposite or Alternate. On narrow walks and streets the 
plan of alternating the trees zigzag fashion on both sides of 
the way is found preferable, because the distance at right 
angles across the space is so small that the trees would in 
terfere with each other's growth, but in the case of broad 
streets more effective results are obtained by placing the 
trees opposite each other. By that method the trees at the 
intersection of the two streets are symmetrically disposed 
with respect to the four corners. 

Treatment of Corners. Exactly at a corner is a bad place 
for a tree, as that spot is usually reserved for a lamp -post, 
letter-box, fire-alarm box, catch basin, or other street fix 
ture. At a corner, also, a tree would be exposed to injury, 
and the curbstones, half surrounding it, would cut off a 
great deal of the nourishment from the soil. The best 
arrangement for trees at street crossings, therefore, is to 
set them from twenty to twenty-five feet from the inter 
section of the curbs, so that there will be eight trees at 
every four corners, as shown in Fig. 10. 

Setting Trees Between Sidewalk and Property-Line. 
While the usual space reserved for tree-planting is the strip 
between the curb and the sidewalk, trees are sometimes set 
on the strip between the sidewalk and the property-line. 
Trees so located are not exposed to the injury of horses and 
passing vehicles. The soil between the sidewalk and the 
property-line is also likely to be of better quality, and the 
trees will grow better. Such plan of planting is to be pre 
ferred if the street roadway is rather narrow and the houses 
are set far back from the sidewalk. If the houses are very 
near the fence-line it is evident that the trees will be too 
close to them and will shade them too much. On the other 
hand, the roadway will get too little shade. It is for these 



78 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



reasons that in the great majority of cases the plan of plant 
ing shade -trees along the strip between the sidewalk and 
the curb is followed. The sidewalk and the roadway get 




FIG. 10. The disposition of trees at street intersections. 

their fair share of shade and the trees are not too close to 
the houses. 

When sidewalks are placed next to the roadway, pedes 
trians are more likely to become spattered with dust and 
mud than when protected by an intervening space. The 
.effect of a walk separated from the roadway by trees, which 



STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING 



79 



give it a certain amount of seclusion, is also far better than 
that of a walk which exposes those using it to the continued 
gaze of passers-by. 

Double Row. Frequently a double row of trees is planted 
on the sidewalk one row along the curb and a second row 
between the sidewalk and the property-line or immediately 
within the property -line and parallel with the street. Such 
a plan should be avoided. While the trees are small the 
result is likely to be effective, but within a few years af 
ter planting the trees begin to interfere with each other's 
growth, and the result is a bad crowding. The inside row 
of trees grows much more vigorously than the outside row, 
because it usually has better soil, and crowds the outside 
row and dwarfs its growth. The row of trees along the 
curb, however, is the more desirable; and if any trees are 
to be removed, those inside can be better spared. They 
are, as a rule, however, the better trees, and it is a difficult 
problem to decide which trees are to go if one wants to 
rectify the mistake of the original planter. 

Number of Rows of Trees. The total number of rows of 
trees that might be planted on a street depends upon the 
width of the highway, the width of the sidewalks or plant 
ing strips, and the species used. In the city of Paris an 
ordinance prescribes the planting of trees according to the 
following regulations : 



Width of 
Highway. 


Width of 
Roadway. 


Width of 
Sidewalks. 


Number of 
Rows of 
Trees. 


Distance from 
Houses. 


Distance 
from 
Roadway. 


86 ft. to 92 ft. 


40ft. 


23 ft. to 26 ft. 


2 


18 ft. to 21 ft. 


5ft 


100 ft. to 112 ft. 


46ft 


26 ft to 33 ft. 


2 


21 ft. to 28 ft. 


5ft 


120 ft. to 125 ft. 


40 ft. to 43 ft. 


40 ft. to 41 ft 


4 


16.5 ft. to 18 ft. 


5ft 










132 ft. 


46ft. 


43ft 


4 


21 ft 


5ft 



80 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



ONE SPECIES ON A STREET 

Not only to obtain variety but also to offset the whole 
sale spread of tree diseases, it is important that as many 
good shade-trees as possible should be planted in a city. All 
the specimens on a street, however, should be of the same 
kind. When such a plan is followed there is secured in 
creased stateliness, impressiveness, and charm. The beauty 
and uniformity that are produced by a repetition of the 
same object are lost when a mixture of species differing in 
habits of growth and in foliage is introduced, and it is as 
much at variance with good taste as would be a mixture of 
orders in the columns of a temple. 

Streets that have become famous for their beautiful 
shade-trees, both in this country and abroad, are planted 
with one variety. No better illustration of the effective 
results of uniform planting can be found in America than 
in the city of Washington. Some of the most imposing 
streets are New Jersey Avenue, nearly three miles in length, 
lined with four rows of American elms; Massachusetts 
Avenue, three and a half miles in length, planted with 
American lindens ; Indiana Avenue, set with oriental planes, 
and Pennsylvania Avenue, with pin oaks. In the capitals of 
Europe the plan of planting one species of tree on a street is 
also followed. 

What Determines the Choice of Species. The factors 
which determine the choice of species for a particular 
street are the width of the street, the nature of the soil, 
particular local conditions and the general character of 
the trees in a row as contributing to the beauty of the 
street. 



'STUDIES PRELIMINARY TO PLANTING 81 

Rows of Different Species. When the plantation consists 
of more than two parallel rows, highly decorative effects 
can be obtained by having the central rows of different 
species than the outside rows. These species may vary in 
character of growth, color of the foliage or flowers, so as to 
produce the most striking effects. 



CHAPTER V 

THE PLANTING OF STREET-TREES 
THE TREE IN THE WOODS 

AFTER the planting plan is complete the trees must be 
selected in the nursery. If in the woods you will pull a tree 
seedling out of the ground you will see that the downward 
or tap-root is almost as long as the stem. If left to grow, 
the root system of such a seedling would become as large as 
the top. If you wished to transplant it after a few years' 
growth, it would be difficult to take up all the roots ; and if 
many of them were left behind, the tree would have a poor 
chance to live after transplanting. There is always a bal 
ance between the roots and the top of a tree. The cutting 
away of the roots will tend to retard the growth of the crown. 
Because of the risk attending the successful transplanting 
of trees from the woods, it is the practise in the planting of 
shade-trees to get all the specimens from a nursery. 

THE TREE IN THE NURSERY 

Developing of the Roots. In the nursery the tree is 
trained to withstand the hardship of being transplanted to 
its final home. Seedlings a few feet high are dug up, the 
tap-roots are removed to within a few inches of the stem 
and set out in nursery rows, the rows being about five feet 
apart. The seedlings no longer send downward roots, but 
develop a lateral root system; just as when the leader of a 

82 



PLATE 21. FROM THE NURSERY TO THE STREET. 




1. Seedling in the woods, with long tap-root. 2. Seedlings of White Elm in nursery 
rows. 3. Fibrous root system of a 2j-inch nursery-grown Norway Maple. 
4. Trees shipped in gondola-car. 5. Trees heeled-in. 6. Planting a Norway 
Maple. 



84 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

tree is removed it sends out horizontal branches. After one 
or two years of growth the trees are again transplanted, and 
this time the ends of the lateral roots are shortened. As an 
additional means of preventing the spread of the roots, a 
plow is sometimes run between the nursery rows. In this 
manner the transplanting process is continued every year or 
two, and the roots, being prevented from spreading, develop 
a compact fibrous bundle near the stem. As a result, when 
the tree is finally moved to be set out on the street, it has 
all the roots necessary to supply the top. 

Developing of the Stem. In addition to the development 
of the root system the main stems of nursery-grown shade- 
trees are kept free from branches to a height of several feet 
from the ground by removing the lateral buds or small 
shoots. The upper twigs are shortened from time to time 
to produce a well-filled top. 

Limitation of Size. It is apparent that the processes out 
lined above cannot be continued indefinitely, and as a tree 
becomes larger less of the root system can be taken up on 
final transplanting. There is, therefore, a natural limitation 
to the size of the tree that may be most advantageously 
planted. A larger tree takes longer to recover from the loss 
of roots and makes little growth ; while a smaller one con 
tinues its growth after transplanting with the least interrup 
tion. It is found that for general planting, trees from two 
inches and a half to three inches in diameter give the best 
results. 

From an economic standpoint also the planting of large 
trees is impracticable. Trees of considerable size, seven or 
eight inches in diameter, set out with the care necessary in 
such cases, are very expensive; because the frequent trans- 
plantings of the trees in the nursery bring their final cost 




|i|l!| 

*sssi 

M3 .^2 

e.sb-*-~ 



86 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

rather high. Of course in special cases, where an immedi 
ate effect is desired and the expense can be incurred, larger 
trees may be planted with very good results. On the other 
hand, if one plants an entire street, where perhaps few 
houses have been built, it is clearly more economical to set 
out small, thrifty trees that will grow to fair size by the 
time the street will have been entirely improved. 

Transplanting Large Specimens. Very large trees, twelve 
or fifteen inches in diameter, are sometimes successfully 
transplanted. It is important in such cases to take up as 
much of the root system as possible; and there are two pro 
cesses of accomplishing that end. One method is to take up 
the tree with a large ball of earth around the roots, ten or 
twelve feet in diameter, and transport it to its new place. 
This is best done when there is frost in the ground. Another 
way is to dig a circular trench around the tree, about twenty 
feet in diameter, work toward the stem by liberating the 
fine rootlets and large roots, and then, by means of heavy 
machinery, lift the entire tree and haul it to where it is 
to be placed. Either of these processes is very expensive. 
When a tree so transplanted is to be placed on a lawn, it 
is possible to preserve all the roots; but it is evident that 
if it were to be placed on a street all the roots would have 
to be cut to accommodate it between the curb and the side 
walk, and the chances of its surviving the ordeal would be 
very small. Besides, on a highway the tree would be a 
source of danger, because of the loss of the anchor roots. 

In the city of Paris, in order to maintain the uniformity 
of plantations along the streets, when trees fifteen or twenty 
years old die, they are replaced with specimens as nearly as 
possible of the same size. To accomplish this successfully 
the trees are trained for that in the municipal nursery. The 



THE PLANTING OF STREET-TREES 87 

roots are cut round every three or four years by digging a 
circular trench around the base of the trees to prevent the 
elongation of the roots. By this means the root system is 
formed in a compact mass within a limited volume. The 
trees are transported from the nursery in heavy trucks 
especially constructed for the purpose. 

Points in Selecting Trees. In selecting a shade-tree a 
compact root system is of greater importance than a large 
top; although, of course, both are desirable. The abundant 
roots will cause rapid growth; but a large head and scant 
roots will result in little growth if the tree survives at all. 
The ideal street-tree must also have a straight stem, clear of 
branches to a height of at least seven feet from the ground 
and a well-defined leader. 

It is always best to order trees from a nursery as near-by 
as possible. The less exposure of the roots from the time 
of digging to final transplanting the better for the tree. It 
is not always possible, however, to get desirable stock at a 
near-by place, and the planter may be obliged to go a con 
siderable distance from home to select his trees. If proper 
precautions are taken in the digging, packing, shipping, 
unloading, and protection of the trees on arrival, the danger 
of loss is greatly reduced. 

How Shipped. The trees selected by the purchaser are 
marked and left in the nursery until the time of shipment. 
When digging, care is taken to get the entire root system. 
To insure the delivery of the trees in as perfect a condition 
as when they left the nursery they are carefully packed. If 
only a few trees constitute the order they are generally 
shipped in bales; the roots are packed in wet moss and bur- 
lapped, and the stems and branches are wrapped in straw. 
A hundred trees or more are shipped in a closed car. The 



88 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

trees are piled in rows and the roots are covered with wet 
straw and moss. The doors of the car being tightly closed 
the evaporation is reduced to a minimum, and the trees 
remain in good condition for one or two weeks. When too 
many trees are packed in a box car it is difficult to unload 
them without breaking some of the twigs. Hence it is bet 
ter to ship four or five hundred trees in a gondola car with 
the sides and the roof built up of boards. The top of such 
car can be removed on arrival and the trees lifted out with 
absolutely no injury. 

A Municipal Nursery. Even with the greatest care ex 
ercised in digging, packing, and shipping stock from a 
nursery, the trees suffer a great deal from these hardships, 
and their chances to reestablish themselves when set out are 
not so good as when trees are grown in a municipal nursery, 
and can be dug and planted the same day. A municipal 
nursery is a necessary adjunct to a shade-tree department. 
When a nursery is controlled and operated by a city it is 
possible to get the quality of trees wanted. Their training 
from the seedling stage to the time when they are ready 
to be set out on the street is with the point in view of 
their use as street-trees. Their branching can be fixed 
at the proper height and the trees developed with single 
leaders. The trees from the municipal nursery are available 
whenever wanted, and they can be taken up and trans 
planted with all the roots and the least exposure. The cost 
of self-grown stock is also frequently much less than that 
purchased from a nursery. 

It is also possible in a municipal nursery to keep in re 
serve large specimens of different species to take the place 
of any that die in the streets, and in that way the uniform 
ity of the plantations can be maintained. 



THE PLANTING OF STREET-TREES 89 

PRECAUTIONS IN PLANTING 

Heeling-In. So far in the history of the tree it has been 
out of the hands of the planter; but after its arrival success 
depends upon the protection of the roots, the preparation of 
the soil, and the careful planting. If the stock cannot be 
planted immediately on arrival it should be "heeled-in." 
This is done by digging a trench about a foot and a half 
deep, and of sufficient width to accommodate the roots of 
the trees without bending. In this trench the trees are set 
close together and the roots covered with soil, care being 
taken that it is well worked in about them so as not to leave 
vacant spaces. Trees so protected can be kept for some 
weeks, and a few planted at a time as the holes are ready. 

Top and Root Pruning. Before setting the tree, a few 
points are to be observed. Since even with the greatest care 
it is impossible to take up all the roots when transplanting a 
tree, it is necessary to cut back the top to maintain the bal 
ance with the roots. The amount of cutting depends on the 
condition of the roots ; the more fibrous they are the less the 
necessity of reducing the top. It is a good rule to remove 
about four-fifths of last year's growth from all the branches, 
making a clean cut just above some strong bud. This can 
be done more easily and rapidly before the trees are planted. 
All broken roots should be carefully trimmed to enable them 
to heal. 

The amount of top-pruning also depends upon the spe 
cies, as not all trees transplant with the same ease. The 
soft maples, planes, elms, and poplars, for example, do not 
require as severe pruning as the oaks, the magnolias, or the 
sweet gum. It must be borne in mind, however, that it is 
better to prune more than not enough. In a year or two the 



90 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



trees recover by rapid growth the loss of the shortening of 
the branches. New shoots begin close to the stem, and the 
trees form a compact top. If a tree is not cut back suffi 
ciently when transplanted, if it survives at all, the foliage 
is thin and borne only on the ends of the branches. Figs. 11, 



\ 






FIG. 11. Young Sugar Maple 
before tree has been top- 
pruned. 



FIG. 12. Same Sugar Maple 
after being top-pruned, 
preparatory to setting out. 



12, and 13 will suggest about the way in which trees should 
be top-pruned. Fig. 12 will serve as an example of top- 
pruning such species as maples, elms, planes, and lindens. 
Fig. 13 will serve as an illustration for such trees as the 
oaks, magnolias, and sweet gum. 

How the Tree is Set. The tree is set the same depth it 



THE PLANTING OF STREET-TREES 91 

stood in the nursery, and the roots are spread naturally, 

without twisting or crowding them. Fine soil is sifted 

over the roots and carefully worked between and under 

them, so that no spaces remain unfilled. A pointed stick 

helps to crowd the soil under and around them. The 

soil is filled by layers and packed with r 

the feet until within about three or four 

inches of the top. The last of the soil ) 

is thrown loosely on top, so that it acts 

as a mulch and helps to retain the 

moisture. 

When to Plant. A question frequently 
raised in tree-planting is: When is the 
best time to plant, in the spring or in the 
fall? The problem will be better under 
stood if some of the points in tree -growth 
are mentioned. During the summer the 
period of growth there is a constant 
demand on the roots to supply the top of 
the tree. Fatal injury would result to the 
tree if an attempt were made to trans 
plant it at that time, as the leaves would 
immediately dry. From the time of the 
falling of the leaves in the autumn to FIG. 13. Pin Oak, 
the swelling of the buds in the spring is JJ? pSJJ^ ^ eady 
the period of rest, and it is during that 
time, in the dormant state, that trees may be safely moved. 

Theoretically the best time to transplant trees would be 
after the leaves have fallen about the end of October or the 
beginning of November. The trees would then be ready to 
resume growth the following spring. Practically, however, 
the best results are not always obtained in fall planting. 



92* SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

Work in the fall is most successful when the following 
winter is mild and a heavy mulching of manure is placed on 
the ground at the base of the tree. One of the dangers of 
fall -planting is the upheaval of the tree by the freezing and 
the thawing of the ground. 

It is seldom that trees planted in the fall make new roots 
before the ground freezes. In the meantime the evaporation 
of moisture from the trunk and branches goes on ; the roots 
likewise suffer, so that the tree is not in so good a state as 
if it had been allowed to remain in the nursery and trans 
planted in the latter part of March or early April. At that 
time it would be perfectly healthy; and, as growth would 
begin, new roots would start to form. Of course, there is 
danger in spring-planting of the unfolding leaves making 
too great a draft on the roots for sap and moisture that is 
not always supplied by rain. Artificial watering is then 
necessary to carry the tree over the critical period of trans 
planting, which at best is a severe shock to the tree. 

Experience has shown that trees planted in the fall, if 
they come up in the spring at all, grow very slowly, unfold 
ing their leaves later than trees of the same stock coming 
from the same nursery planted in the following spring. 
While a good deal depends on weather conditions, it may 
be said that the fall is not a bad season to plant, but the 
spring is a much better one, provided the trees are planted 
before the buds begin to swell. Certain trees which have 
succulent roots, like the tulip-tree, sweet gum, and mag 
nolias, cannot be transplanted successfully in the autumn 
at all. 

The difficulty in spring-planting is that the season is 
very short. Everybody is rushed, and trees are sometimes 
not handled so carefully as the longer fall -planting season 



THE PLANTING OF STREET-TREES 93 

permits. From the natural consideration, however, of the 
tree's growth, better success is obtained by careful spring 
work. 

STAKING 

One of the elements of beauty in the planting of shade- 
trees, is to have them perfectly vertical. In spite of the 
greatest care in planting, the settling of the earth and the 
swaying of the trees in the wind cause them to get 
out of vertical. Attempts to straighten the trees from 
time to time disturb the roots and injure the tree. The 
staking of trees, therefore, is an absolute necessity to 
keep them straight until their roots take firm hold of the 
ground. 

An elaborate but effective device for holding the trees 
upright after being planted is employed in Washington, 
shown in Plate 23, Fig. 3. This consists of a four-sided 
wooden box around each tree, which is nailed to four stakes 
driven into the ground. The trees are fastened by means of 
leather straps to each corner of the box and are kept per 
fectly vertical. The boxes, which also serve as guards, are 
retained for eight or ten years until the trees outgrow them. 
They are then removed and wire netting is put around the 
trees to protect them from injury. 

Single Stake. It must be borne in mind that in every 
device designed to keep young trees upright there must be 
provision made to keep the top from swaying and bending 
over as well as keeping the stem rigid at a height of six or 
seven feet from the ground. Oriental planes, and oaks es 
pecially, have a tendency to bend over on account of their 
weight of foliage, and sometimes the tops snap off in a wind. 
It has been found, therefore, that one long stake is the best 
thing to use to support young trees. 



PLATE 23. GUARDING AND STAKING. 




Guarding and staking of trees in East Orange. Guard is of No. 16, Mi-inch square wire mesh, 
seven inches in diameter and six feet high, stake is fifteen feet long, driven to depth of three 
feet. 2. Go9d guard for large trees, made of No. 16, 2-inch hexagonal wire mesh. 3. Guard 
ing and staking device used in Washington, D. C. 4. Making hole with crowbar for stake. End 
of tarred stake on the ground is seen. 5. Driving stake. An 18-foot "A" ladder is used. 



THE PLANTING OF STREET-TREES 95 

Stakes fifteen feet long are used which are driven to a 
depth of three feet, thus leaving twelve feet above ground. 
The tree is tied to the stake at two or three places by means 
of one-fourth inch Manila rope slipped through a piece 
of three-quarter inch rubber hose, Plate 23, Fig. 1. The 
pieces of hose are about eight or nine inches long. The 
rope is slipped through them, is wrapped around the tree 
and a double knot is tied, then the ends of the rope are tied 
around the stake. In that way the stem of the tree does 
not come in contact with the stake. If only possible, the 
stake is driven on the side of the tree contrary to the 
direction of the prevailing winds, so that the tree will be 
blown away from the stake and chafing will be minimized. 

The stakes should not be of sawn lumber but of young 
growth, about three and one-half inches at the bottom 
and two inches at the top. To make the stakes more 
durable, they should be tarred to a distance of about four 
feet from the bottom. Stakes usually rot at the ground 
level. By leaving them tarred a foot above ground this 
will be prevented. The bark should be removed to the 
required distance and the stakes covered with molten 
pitch. 

The stakes are placed about ten inches from the base of 
the tree. When tree-guards of small diameter are used, the 
stakes may be placed on the outside; or, if the guards permit 
it, the supports may be inside. To drive the stake easily a 
hole is made in the ground with a crowbar, flaring out at 
the bottom to a cross-section of about two inches square and 
terminating in a sharp point. The stakes are driven with a 
sledge hammer, "A" ladders, eighteen feet high, being used 
by the workmen to get up to the required height, as shown 
in Plate 23, Figs. 4 and 5. 



96 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

GUARDING 

The combination support and tree-guard used in the city 
of Washington has already been spoken of. While rather 
clumsy, these guards are very efficient, and remain around 
the trees for eight or nine years. Some forms of iron 
guards are used in other cities, which are rather expensive. 
Unless a tree is exposed to continuous and severe injury a 
cheaper form of wire guard will be found just as service 
able, especially on residential streets. 

There are many tree-guards on the market with which 
trees can be protected. A good economical guard for young 
trees has been adopted by the East Orange Shade-Tree Com 
mission. It is made of No. 16, one-half inch square wire 
mesh, coming in rolls twenty inches wide. It is cut into 
six-foot lengths, and these are rolled by means of a machine 
into cylinders. A good guard for trees of any size is made 
of hexagonal wire netting six or seven feet high. In the 
case of larger guards the width of the wire cloth ordered 
should be the same as the required height of the guard. 
The amount of wire cut off from the roll will depend upon 
the diameter of each tree protected. 

GRILLS 

Grills are used around the base of trees along streets 
to prevent the soil from being tramped on by pedestrians. 
They are especially needed on sidewalks covered with 
concrete or other material impervious to air and moisture, 
and where every available bit of room is necessary for the 
public use of the street. 

They are circular, hexagonal, or rectangular in form, 
and are made of cast-iron sections set together around the 



PLATE 24. GUARDS AND GRILLS. 




1. Guard and circular grill, Webster Avenue, New York. 2. Guards and rectangular grills, row oi 
Norway Maples, Rutherford Place, New York. 3. Form of guard used by the Department 
of Parks, Bronx Borough, New York. 4. Guard and rectangular grill, Baird Court, New 
York Zoological Garden (Photo, by Hermann W. Merkel, Forester of the Garden). 5. Railing 
around base of trees on West Fifty-Ninth Street, New York. A railing is excellent if the 
sidewalk room can be spared. The soil within can be kept loose and the trees watered, 
mulched, and fertilized. 



98 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

tree. They are placed on a level with the pavement and are 
supported by wooden pins driven in the ground. The soil 
under the grill is left depressed or basin-shaped, the deepest 
portion being that farthest from the base of the tree. This 




FIG. 14. Method of placing grill. The soil beneath is left depressed. 

depression of the soil affords a means of watering the trees. 
The soil immediately around the trunk is left at grade. See 
Fig. 14. 

SUBIRRIGATION 

The installation of a system of subirrigation becomes 
necessary to permit the watering of trees by sending the 
water directly to the soil through tile pipes. This usually 
consists of tile pipes about three inches in diameter, placed 
with open joints at a depth of about a foot or a foot and a 
half. A branch pipe, carried up to the surface of the ground, 
furnishes an inlet to water delivered to the tree from a 
water-cart or a hydrant hose. The drains are laid either in 
the form of a rectangle surrounding the tree, or simply in a 
straight line on one side of the tree, as shown in Figs. 15 
and 16. In either case there is a branch pipe for the ad 
mission of the water. 

A cast-iron cap may be used to cover the opening at the 
top of the branch pipe to prevent clogging with soil. To 
guard against any tampering with the irrigation device, the 



THE PLANTING OF STREET-TREES 



99 



top of the branch pipe may end slightly below the surface of 
the ground, the opening covered with a cap, and the soil 
brought to grade. When watering, the soil is stirred aside 
and the cap lifted, and when through the cap is again re 
placed and covered with soil so as not to show on the outside. 
The ground in which the tree is planted must be thor- 



A B 














FIG. 15. Sectional view and plan of a subirrigation device of 4-inch tile pipes laid 
with open joints. A, Tile pipe. B, Layer of broken stone. C, Branch pipe. 

oughly settled before the drain is placed. Then a channel is 
dug for the drain and the tile pipes are laid perfectly level 
and separated from the earth by a layer of broken stone or 
coarse gravel three or four inches in thickness. This inter 
mediary layer is necessary to facilitate the flow of water and 
to prevent the soil from washing into the drain. 

Such irrigation devices are costly and are not always 
efficient. They become clogged with soil and roots of the 



100 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



growing trees, and in a short time are no longer serviceable. 
There is nothing better for the welfare of trees than the 
planting of them in such a way as to make it possible to 
loosen the soil around the roots and water them from the 




A B 







_ .__ _ _ _ __ __ , ^ ^ _ _ 

:^vW^I>^^^ 



FIG. 16. Sectional view and plan of subirrigation device of 3 -inch perforated 
agricultural tile. A, Perforated tile. JB, Layer of broken stone. C, Branch 
pipe and cap. 

surface. If grills are used, they can be removed from time to 
time, the soil loosened, and then the watering done through 
the grills. 

DRAINAGE OF SUBSOIL 

What is absolutely essential to the welfare of a tree is 
proper subsoil drainage. It does not matter how good the 
soil may be, or how much care has been exercised in the 



THE PLANTING OF STREET-TREES 101 

selection and planting of a tree, if the water table is so low 
that the roots are always moist and there is no access of air 
to it, the tree will die. Proper subsoil drainage frequently 
presents one of the most insuperable problems in tree- 
planting. If the soil is of an impervious nature, but limited 
in thickness, it should be either dug through to the more 
pervious soil or a drain carried to the lower stratum. A 
drain connecting with a street-sewer will also serve to carry 
off water that is likely to collect at the roots. Such drains 
should be placed at a depth of from three and one-half to 
four feet 



CHAPTER VI 

THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 
HOW A TREE GROWS 

Evolution of a Tree. Success in the care of trees neces 
sarily depends upon the knowledge of their requirements to 
maintain life and their mode of growth. Let us, therefore, 
for a moment trace the evolution of a tree. The tree's begin 
ning is long before it becomes established in the soil, and 
shows the differentiating parts of root system, stem, and 
crown. Its birth really occurs on the parent-tree from which 
the seed comes. The seed contains the rudiments of all 
the parts of the mature tree. 

The Seedling. In Plate 25, Fig. 4, is shown a common 
lima bean dissected. The thick fleshy parts, which form the 
initial leaves on germination, are called cotyledons. These 
are attached to the very short initial stem. Below that is 
the initial root, which on germination turns downward and 
penetrates into the soil. As the root continues its growth, 
the stem adds to its length, and, in seeking the light, brings 
the seed up out of the ground. In the case of the lima bean 
the cotyledons become the first pair of leaves. Many seeds 
of trees germinate in the same way. 

In the case of the seeds of other trees, as the white maple, 
for example, the cotyledons are not lifted out of the soil and 
transformed into actual leaves. The growth below the co 
tyledons is nearly all root. The rudimentary bud between 

102 



104 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

them makes the upward growth of stem and leaves. The 
materials for the growth are supplied by the cotyledons or 
seed leaves. The seedling, although diminutive and most 
simple, possesses all the organs of the fully developed tree; 
namely, roots in the soil, the stem rising out of it, and the 
leaves in the light and open air. It now draws in moisture 
and food materials from the soil by its roots, conveys them 
through the stem into the leaves, where these materials 
together with the other crude food which the leaves imbibe 
from the air, are assimilated into growing tissue. 

Growth in Height. In the autumn, after the leaves have 
fallen from the seedling, the bare stem represents the height 
and thickness of the first season's growth. If the seedling 
is carefully examined, it is seen that just above the points 
where the leaves were attacked during the growing season 
are the buds, from which the growth of stems and leaves 
will be continued. The shoot from the terminal bud will pro 
long the height of the central stem, and the lateral buds will 
form the branches. Growth in height ceases for the season as 
soon as the shoot develops from the bud, and this is usually 
indicated when the terminal leaves are fully grown. The 
tree adds no other way to the length of limb and trunk. 

There is a general impression that trees add to their 
height by the gradual lengthening of the trunks and limbs. 
If this were true, nails driven into the trunk one above 
the other, would gradually become farther apart, and wire 
fences nailed to trees would rise in the air. 

Growth in Diameter. While the growth of a tree in 
height is the result only of the shoots developing from the 
buds, the growth in diameter of the trunk, main branches, 
and twigs is a process affecting every part of the entire plant. 

Separating the bark from the wood is a colorless, muci- 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 105 

laginous substance called the cambium layer. The cam 
bium is under every portion of the bark, which covers the 
tree completely from the tip of the deepest root to the top of 
the highest twig. Through the sapwood the soluble inor 
ganic materials drawn from the soil by the roots ascend to 
the leaves, and are there elaborated in connection with the 
materials taken from the air into organized compounds. 
This elaborated food material descends through the cambium 
layer to every part of the plant to build up its tissues. All 
the tissue arising from the inner side of the cambium ring 
goes to form the wood, while that produced on the outside 
goes to make up the bark. 

The cambium is the life of the tree. If the limb of a tree 
is removed, a new one may develop near its place. Trees 
live for years with the trunks hollow, but if they are girdled 
by the cutting away of a ring of bark, there is interrupted the 
tissue through which the descending food material is con 
ducted from the leaves, and the roots are starved and the 
tree dies. 

Owing to the climatic variations during the growing 
season, the cambium tissue is not uniformly active. Dur 
ing the spring, the period of energetic growth, wood of a 
coarser texture is deposited than later in the season, when 
it is more closely grained. Through the contrast in the 
structure of the early and the late wood, the limits between 
successive annual rings become sharply defined and serve 
as a means of computing the age of a tree. 

Essentials for Normal Growth. The food of trees comes 
from two sources the air and the soil. The tree can trans 
form the raw materials into wood tissue only under the 
proper conditions of soil, water, light, air, and climate. 
Water serves the double purpose of keeping in solution the 



106 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

minerals taken up by the roots, and helps to convey these 
nutrient substances of the soil into the tree body. A large 
quantity of the water taken up by the roots passes through 
the tree merely as a medium for the transport of nourish 
ment, and is again discharged through the leaves by evap 
oration. This evaporation of water through the leaves is 
called transpiration. 

The watery fluid absorbed by the roots is carried by the 
transpiration current to the leaves. These in turn take up 
the carbonic acid from the air, and under the action of sun 
light the carbonic acid is decomposed, the carbon combined 
with the minerals from the soil into food materials used in 
building up the tree. This process is called assimilation. 
The leaves, therefore, perform a very vital function in the 
life of the tree, and it is evident that defoliation by insects 
or other causes will seriously affect its growth. 

Besides, trees, like animals, in order to live must have 
air to breathe, and in this process of respiration they 
take up oxygen and give off carbonic acid. Respiration 
and assimilation are two distinct vital processes, carried on 
independently by trees and other plants. The process of 
assimilation is carried on only in the light, carbonic acid is 
decomposed, and oxygen given off. The process of respira 
tion is carried on both by day and by night, oxygen is taken 
up, and carbonic acid given off. Furthermore, not only the 
leaves but the twigs, the branches, the trunk, and the roots 
have breathing pores, and require air for the maintenance 
of life. 

It will, therefore, be seen how important it is to keep the 
soil in a state of culture, and to see that the supply of air is 
not cut off from the roots by pavements, by filling in around 
the base, or by flooding of the roots. 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 107 

Reserve Material. All the products of assimilation are 
not at once consumed by the tree, but some are accumulated 
for future use. This surplus of reserve material is greatest 
at the close of the growing season in the fall. It is stored 
by the tree during the winter, and all growth of buds and 
leaves of the succeeding spring is dependent upon this store 
of elaborated food. 

WATERING 

Artificial watering of trees is necessary when they do 
not get by natural means the moisture essential to maintain 
the soil in a condition most favorable to vegetation. In 
cities the water from rainfall runs off quickly, and very 
little finds its way into the soil and subsoil around the roots 
of trees where it is most needed. Watering depends upon 
the climate, species of tree, and the nature and extent of 
the soil and subsoil. Young trees need more frequent 
watering than older ones. Trees that have surface roots 
need more watering than deeply rooted ones; also rapidly 
growing trees more so than those of slow growth. 

Especially after transplanting, when they begin to rees 
tablish themselves and during their first season's growth, 
trees need an abundance of water. Before the trees are 
able to care for themselves, new roots must be formed to 
take hold of the soil. In the meantime the evaporation 
from the branches and the developing leaves must be sup 
plied artificially. 

How Much Water. How much water to give trees, and 
at what intervals, depend upon the extent of soil occupied 
by the roots and the nature of the soil and subsoil. Young 
trees, two or three years after planting, of which the roots 
occupy a volume of about a cubic yard, require from twenty 



108 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

to twenty-five gallons at every watering. Older trees re 
quire more water. It must always be borne in mind that 
enough water should be used to penetrate the soil in which 
the roots of the tree extend. Watering at intervals of every 
week or ten days will, on the average, be found sufficient if 
every time the soil around the roots is thoroughly saturated. 
While on the one hand there must be enough watering to 
maintain a uniform degree of moisture in the soil, on the 
other hand care must be taken not to allow too much mois 
ture around the roots. 

How to Water. When watering is provided for by a sys 
tem of subirrigation of tile pipes, the process is simple, as 
the necessary quantity of water can be supplied through the 
branch pipe carried to the surface. When there is no such 
provision made for watering, the soil around the base of the 
tree should be thoroughly loosened and a shallow basin 
formed around the tree about eight inches deep. The size 
of this basin will depend upon the extent of the roots of the 
trees desired to water. Ordinarily the extent of the roots 
of trees is about the same diameter as that of the crown. 
The deepest part of the basin should be the portion farthest 
away from the stem of the tree. When trees have grills, the 
soil underneath should be left depressed in the form of a 
basin, to permit of watering. 

The water is applied from a hydrant or from a watering- 
cart, and is allowed to run slowly, so that all of it will soak 
into the soil. Before the soil hardens and packs, the loose 
soil that was removed to form the basin should be replaced, 
and the ground brought to grade. By keeping the soil por 
ous the moisture is retained for a longer period of time. In 
the city of Paris watering devices, covered with grills, are 
installed in the intermediary spaces between very large 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 109 

trees, the root systems of which have become very exten 
sive. Watering of trees should be avoided during the hot 
test part of the day. It is best to do it in the early morning 
and late in the afternoon or evening. In the city of East 
Orange the watering of the street-trees is done at night, 
from 7P.M. to 6 A.M. 

CULTIVATING AND FERTILIZING 

The principal elements in the soil essential to plant 
growth are nitrogen, phosphoric acid, and potash. It is 
generally found in cities that it is not the deficiency of the 
nutritive elements in the soil that causes the decline of 
trees, but rather the physical condition of the soil which 
renders it impossible for trees to perform their normal func 
tions. The keeping of the soil around trees cultivated and 
free from weeds is one of the most important aids to their 
growth. The keeping of the ground loose allows air to 
reach the roots, renders more available the plant food the 
soil contains, and prevents the rapid evaporation of mois 
ture. If the ground is hard it becomes heated, the water 
forces itself to the surface, and passes into the atmosphere. 
If kept cultivated it acts like a blanket, and prevents the 
loss of water by surface evaporation. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon the importance of 
cultivation, the full value of which is not generally appre 
ciated. When there is no water available, trees can fre 
quently be brought through in good condition during a 
period of drought by just keeping the soil dug up and loose 
around their base. 

One of the best ways of improving the condition of the 
soil of trees is to put a mulching of manure around them in 
the fall, allow that to remain all winter, and then turn the 



110 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

manure into the soil the following spring. The manure not 
only enriches the soil chemically, but improves its physical 
condition by making it more porous and less liable of 
becoming packed and impervious to air and moisture. In 
the case of young trees this treatment is especially bene 
ficial. 

Instead of manure, chemical fertilizers can be used very 
advantageously, to stimulate the trees in their growth. The 
following mixture is recommended by Dr. Jacob G. Lipman, 
soil chemist of the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment 
Station: 

Acid phosphate 700 pounds 

Muriate of potash 300 pounds 

The above mixture is used in the fall at the rate of about 
fifteen hundred pounds per acre of ground. Proportionately 
the amount is determined for each tree according to the 
area it is desired to fertilize. In the succeeding spring the 
fertilizing is continued by an application of nitrate of soda 
at the rate of 300 pounds to the acre. The latter can be 
best applied by dissolving the chemical in water and then 
sprinkling the solution over the area to be fertilized. 

TRAINING AND PRUNING 

In the shaping and pruning of shade-trees, one is largely 
governed by the same points as when selecting a tree 
for planting. A lawn-tree may branch low or may be 
crooked and unsymmetrical. The very imperfections give 
it its character. The tree requires very little attention, and 
is left to grow naturally. A street-tree, on the other hand, 
must be perfectly straight, symmetrical, and the branches 
must begin at a height from the ground that will allow the 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 111 

free public use of the street. Besides, the tree must have 
a well -developed, compact head, as nearly as possible of 
oval outline. Many of the requisites of the good tree will 
be obtained by selecting the proper species for planting. 
To produce symmetry, good outline, and branching at a 
fixed height from the ground are the functions of training 
and pruning. 

! Fixing Height of Branching. The training of the tree 
should begin soon after planting. The fixing of the branch 
ing at a certain height above the ground must be done grad 
ually, however. It is desirable that a tree should grow in 
diameter as well as in height in order to support the top 
without bending. Low branching will cause a more rapid 
growth in thickness. The lower layers of branches should 
be removed at intervals of a year or more until the proper 
height of clean stem, ten or twelve feet, is reached. 

Forming the Crown. The training of the crown consists 
in shaping it for symmetry by the suppression of some 
branches and the encouragement of the growth of others. 
If possible, trees should be left with single leaders. Two or 
three main stems produce crotches which are likely to split 
in later years. When there is a tendency to the formation 
of two or more main stems, the central stem should be left 
and the others entirely removed, or so shortened that the 
entire vigor of growth will be thrown into the central stem. 
In the case of young oaks and other species of trees, of 
which the wood is very flexible, the leaders have a tendency 
to bend over, and the tops in time become drooping. In 
such cases the leaders should be tied to bamboo poles of 
about an inch or an inch and a quarter in diameter. Raffia 
is one of the best materials to use in tying trees to bamboo 
poles. When a tree loses its leader, it can be made to re- 



112 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

sume the growth of a central stem by tying a lateral twig 
to a bamboo pole and training it upward for a few years. 

The training of street-trees when young saves a great 
deal of work when the trees become older, when they do 
not lend themselves so readily to the process of shaping, 
and it is necessary to form large scars by removing large 
branches. 

The Street as a Unit. Very frequently, however, it is 
found necessary to prune trees of considerable age, and 
certain principles have to be borne in mind. As in the 
planting of shade-trees the street is treated as a unit, so in 
the pruning, each tree must be considered in relation to the 
others on the street. All trees should be trimmed to a 
height that will allow the unimpeded passage of pedestrians 
and vehicles. No limbs or foliage should be left to obstruct 
the street-lights. The shading of lamps is a trouble very 
common on many streets. The limbs are so low that the 
entire light is shut off at night, and the street is left in 
darkness. 

No matter how healthy and perfect shade-trees may be, 
if the limbs are too low the full beauty of the street is not 
realized. In walking you may not actually be obliged to 
stoop in order to keep clear of the leaves; but there is a 
depressing effect produced by looking down the street and 
seeing the branches and the sidewalk almost meet. The 
foliage seems to oppress you with its density. The individ 
uality of the trees is frequently lost, and the trees look like 
a great overgrown hedge. On the other hand, if one comes 
to a street the trees of which are properly pruned on both 
sides to a uniform height, the ends of the limbs turning 
upward instead of drooping, one cannot help perceive the 
improvement. The depressed effect is gone and one looks 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 



113 



up. Every tree, instead of seeming like one mass of foliage, 
shows a prominent trunk, and the branching is clearly 
brought out. The perspective of the street resembles a 
great archway. Nothing of the health or utility of the trees 
has been sacrificed; and from an esthetic standpoint the 
maximum effect has been obtained. Contrast the appear 
ance of the street shown in Fig. 17, and that shown in Plate 3. 




FIG. 17. A street the trees of which are in need of pruning. 

Plate 3 shows Midland Avenue in East Orange, after the 
sugar maples were trimmed. Fig. 17 shows the continua 
tion of the same street in Glen Ridge, where the pruning 
was stopped. The former street shows all the lamps, the 
branches turn upward and every tree stands out clearly. 
Fig. 17 shows the drooping limbs forming one mass of 
foliage that reaches almost to the ground. 

The Individual Tree. In the actual treatment of each 



114 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

individual tree, great care and judgment are necessary. No 
two trees have their mode of branching alike, and each case 
must be studied separately before deciding what limbs are 
to go in order that the tree may be improved. No branch 
should be removed from a tree without good reason. 

There are some points to be observed, however, that are 
applicable to all trees. All dead and imperfect limbs should 
be removed. The top of a tree should not be allowed to 
become so extremely dense as to exclude the sun from the 
soil or from the buildings near-by, or interfere with the free 
circulation of air. The tops of sugar maples and red maples 
particularly have a tendency to become too thick. To thin 
out the tops of such trees, the main limbs and the branches 
immediately radiating from them should best be left, and 
all cutting limited to the third and fourth divisions in the 
branching. In that way the character of the tree is not 
changed. Also in the removing of the lower branches of 
a tree that interfere with the public use of the street or 
obstruct street- lights, it is not necessary to clear the main 
trunk of limbs to a very great height; but subdivisions can 
be removed, giving the branches a graceful upward turn. 
The ends of the branches can be shortened. In that way 
the prime object in the pruning of shade-trees, to secure the 
unobstructed use of the street, is accomplished, and the 
natural habit of the trees is preserved. 

In fact, the point to be constantly borne in mind in the 
pruning of shade-trees is to preserve, as far as possible, the 
character, natural shape, and habit of growth of each tree, 
and to avoid all artificial shaping of trees. The art of pru 
ning consists of making the finished tree look as if no limbs 
had been removed at all. 

How Best to Prune. The work of pruning should begin 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 115 

at the top of the tree, be continued in a downward direction, 
and completed at the bottom. It is easier to shape the tree 
by that method, and time is saved in clearing the tree of the 
pruned limbs. Frequently a limb gets caught in its fall; 
but as the man works downward he is able to free the limbs 
and do the cutting at the same time. All cuts should be 
made close to the base of a limb, and the plane of the scar 
should be nearly parallel to the axis of the trunk. How to 
make the cut to prevent splitting and to insure the healing 
of the scar are the important points in the pruning of all 
trees. 

Origin of Branch. A branch of a tree originates from a 
lateral bud of the main stem. The first year's growth of 
the shoot from the bud is similar to the first year's growth 
of the seedling from the seed. As the growth continues and 
the annual layers of wood are deposited on the main stem, 
the draft of the sap of the lateral shoot causes these layers 
to continue up and around the limb. If one were to stand 
and hold his arms up, the garments around his body would 
represent the successive annual layers of wood on the tree- 
trunk, and the sleeves of these garments around the arms 
would represent the continuation of these layers around the 
limbs of the trees. 

The Wrong Way. In Plate 26, Fig. 1, is shown the trunk 
of a tree with a limb that is to be removed. Frequently such 
work is done by making a cut the shortest way across the 
limb, line AB, Plate 26, Fig. 1, and the result is that a stub 
is left, similar to that shown in Plate 26, Fig. 2. When the 
limb is so removed, let us see what will happen. There 
being no draft of sap into the stub, because the end is 
removed, the next annual layer of wood of the main trunk 
will not be continued up around the limb, but will end at 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 117 

the base of the stub, as shown in Plate 26, Fig. 2. The 
stub of wood being no longer living tissue and exposed to 
the weather, will dry, check, lose its bark, and the successive 
annual layers deposited on the trunk will form a collar at the 
base of the stub, as shown in Plate 26, Fig. 3. 

In Plate 26, Fig. 4, which is a section of the specimen in 
the former figure, is shown the result of such a method of 
pruning. The decay caused by the stub has been carried to 
the heart of the tree. As time goes on the stub further rots, 
and breaks off at the collar, forming an ugly knot-hole, Plate 
26, Fig. 5. Knot-holes resulting from improper pruning are 
very numerous. They form an admirable spot for the ger 
mination of fungus spores and the entrance of borers, and 
are frequently the first cause of the serious injury and final 
death of trees. 

The Right Way. Returning to Plate 26, Fig. 1, suppose 
the limb had been cut off close to the trunk, along the line 
CD, as far as possible parallel with the axis of the tree. 
Separating the wood from the bark is the cambium layer. 
All the tissue arising from the inner side of the cambium 
layer goes to form the wood, while the outside produces the 
bark. When a limb is cut off, as in Plate 26, Fig. 1, along 
the line CD, the living cells of the cambium bordering on 
the wound put forth an abnormal growth of tissue, called a 
callus. It first arises from the exposed cambium, like a thin 
ring, as shown in Plate 26, Fig. 8. With the growth of the 
tree it rolls over the scar and finally overcaps it. 

How the Wound Heals. While the callus tissue is in the 
process of overgrowing the wounded surface, it forms a 
protective bark and a new cambium under it,., which is con 
tinuous with the cambium of the growing stem. When the 
margins of the overgrowing callus tissue meet, the edges of 



HK I & 




THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 



119 



the cambium unite and form a complete layer over the sur 
face of the wound. This layer is a continuation of the 
cambium of the growing stem, and during the next season 
a layer of growth will be added over the wound continuous 
with the annual ring added to the tree. The wood produced 
over wounds differs in structure from normal wood and is 
called callus wood. Eventually, however, the successive 
layers become more like natural wood. 

The callus overgrowing the end of a severed branch 
never coalesces with the old wood. 
It simply seals up the remaining stub 
of the branch, which becomes like 
so much dead material buried in the 
wood of the tree. Fig. 18 and Plate 
27, Fig. 3, show the transverse and 
the longitudinal sections of healed 
wounds caused by the removal of 
branches. It will be seen that the 
stubs remained exactly in the same 
condition as when the limbs were 
cut off, and that the layers of tissue 
of the subsequent growth of the trees 
have overcapped them. 

The importance of the proper healing of wounds cannot 
be overestimated. As has been pointed out before, limbs of 
trees originate in many cases from the very centre of the 
tree-trunks. After a limb is removed the remaining stub, 
which becomes lifeless, is like a cylindrical block of wood 
driven into the tree with the end exposed to the weather. 
If nature did not provide for the healing of the wound, or 
rather its overgrowing with new tissue, the stub would form 
a soil for fungus spores and the entrance of insects, and 







FIG. 18. Transverse sec 
tion through callus on a 
horse-chestnut, showing 
stub A overcapped by 
tissue. 



120 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



the decay would be carried to the centre of the tree. It will 
be seen, therefore, that it is extremely necessary when 
removing a limb to make the cut in such a way as to aid 







FIG. 19. Tree with branch to 
be removed along line A B. 



FIG, 20. Split caused by improper 
method of pruning. 



nature to heal the wound as effectively and as rapidly as 
possible. 

The way to do this is to make the cut as close as possible 
to the base of the limb, and in a way that the plane of the 
scar is nearly parallel with the axis of the tree. Two pur 
poses are served by such a method : the wound is brought 
into the most intimate contact with the healing tissues, and 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 121 

the wood being deeper, there is less danger from drying 
and checking while the wound is healing. 

Limb Must Not Split. The necessity of making the cut, 
as described above, being apparent, the question now com 
ing up is how to make the proper cut. In removing the 
branch in Fig. 19, the cut would have to be made along 
the line AB. If one were to start the cut with a saw at A, 
the weight of the limb would cause it to split when near the 
end of the cut, and the injury caused by the stripping of the 
bark would be very great. A safe way, perhaps, of remov 
ing the limb would be to cut it off about two feet from the 
shoulder, and then remove the stub. While it would be a 
safe way, it would not be the easiest or the most practicable 
way. The green wood across the junction of two branches 
is very tough, in which the saw binds, no matter how coarse 
a set it may have. It is desirable to utilize the weight of 
the branch to spread the saw cut; but at the same time the 
splitting of the wood must be guarded against. 

First Method of Removing Limb. There are two methods 
of sawing off a limb properly. Plate 28, Fig. 1, shows the tree. 
Begin with a cut on the under side of the limb, about eight 
or ten inches from the shoulder, sawing about half way 
through, Plate 28, Fig. 2. Then remove the saw and make the 
cut close to the shoulder, as in Plate 28, Fig. 3. When the 
limb is cut about two-thirds or three-quarters across, the 
weight of the end will cause it to split up to the under cut, 
and it will fall off, Plate 28, Fig. 4. You can then safely 
finish the cut, supporting the stub with the hand, so that 
none of the bark is stripped. 

Second Method of Removing Limb. In the case of a 
large limb, as in Plate 29, Fig. 1, the swelling at the base may 
be such that it will not split horizontally, and then there 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 123 

will be risk of the limb's splitting at the shoulder. In 
such case begin as before with an undercut, Plate 29, Fig. 2 ; 
then, in order to utilize the weight of the end of the limb to 
spread the cut for the clearance of the saw, cut close to the 
shoulder, about half way through the limb, Plate 29, Fig. 3. 
Then remove the saw, and cut on top of the limb, a little 
above the undercut, Plate 29, Fig. 4. When the two saw- 
cuts meet on the same level, the limb will drop off, Plate 
29, Fig. 4. Then finish as before, by sawing off the stub. 

The Rule to Follow. Hence the rule for the proper re 
moval of a limb is: Always begin with an undercut about 
eight or ten inches from the base of the limb you want 
to remove. Then saw close to the shoulder, as has been 
pointed out before. When past the centre of the limb, pro 
ceed cautiously. If the swelling at the base of the limb is 
not too great, the limb will split horizontally, turn about the 
remaining stub as a pivot, and fall off. You can then safely 
finish the cut. If, however, the chances are that the limb 
will not split horizontally, but break at the shoulder, saw 
above the undercut till the limb drops off and then remove 
the stub. By following the above directions there is no 
danger of causing injury to the trunk of a tree. 

Healing of Scar. The time it takes a pruning-scar to 
heal completely depends upon its size and the rapidity of 
growth of the tree. A rapidly growing tree, like the Caro 
lina poplar, can heal a wound on its trunk, three or four 
inches in diameter, in one growing season; while it takes 
a hard maple a few years to accomplish a like result. 
While the callus is overgrowing the scar from the periphery 
toward the centre, the end grain of the remaining stub is 
exposed to the weather. The wood dries and checks, and 
although all precautions may have been taken to remove 



I 




THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 125 

the limb close to the trunk, by the time the wound heals 
the decay may be carried deeply into the tree. 

A Dressing Must be Applied. It is necessary, therefore, 
to apply a dressing to the surface of a scar when a limb is 
removed that will, as far as possible, prevent the decay of 
the old wood until it is overcapped with new callus. Thick 
paint makes a good dressing; but the best way of preserving 
the condition of the exposed stub is by an application of 
thick coal-tar. 1 This fills the pores of the wood; and, when 
it sets, becomes as hard as enamel. It checks the evapora 
tion of the sap and prevents the entrance of water. The 
coal-tar also acts as an antiseptic, and prevents the forma 
tion by moisture and dust of a fertile spot for the entrance 
of fungus spores and insects. 

The function of dressings is not to hasten the growth of 
the callus; but simply to prevent the decay of the stub. In 
the case of scars, two or three inches in diameter, on hard 
wood trees, one application of coal-tar will be sufficient to 
keep the exposed wood intact until the healing process is 
completed. Larger scars may need further applications of 
tar, one in about every two years, until the surface is over 
grown. So long as the exposed wood is kept intact, there 
is no danger of injury resulting from pruning, no matter 
how long it takes the wound to heal. 

Training to Artificial Forms. In the city of Paris, street- 
trees are sometimes trained to artificial geometrical forms. 

1 Coal-tar is a waste product of gas works obtained in the process of dis 
tilling bituminous coal in retorts. The crude tar contains carbolic acid and 
other impurities that may corrode plant tissues if present in large quantities. 
The coal-tar found on the market is usually a refined product from which the 
injurious ingredients have been removed. The coal-tar sold for roof-coating 
is an efficient and safe dressing for wounds. One must avoid the use of tars 
having injurious elements in their composition. 



126 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 




FIG. 21. Oriental Plane, fifty feet in 
height, denuded at the base; to be 
headed back. 



Keeping Crown Within Limits. 
Street-trees, however, should 
not be permitted to grow beyond 
certain bounds, for a number of 
reasons. It is desirable to restrict 
the spread of trees when they 
begin to touch houses or extend 
over the roadway so as to give 
too much shade. To maintain a 
compact crown on some trees, it 
is necessary to shorten the ends 



Such formal treat 
ment of trees is a 
matter of taste; but 
trees always appear 
more interesting and 
exhibit more individ 
ual character when 
their natural mode of 
growth is preserved 
as much as possible. 
In this country the 
training of trees into 
unnatural symmetri 
cal shapes is little 
practised. 




FIG. 22. The same Oriental Plane, 
headed back to three-quarters of 
the original height, with the lateral 
branches shortened in proportion. 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 



127 




FIG. 23. The same Oriental 
Plane a year after the oper 
ation. 

producing a condition 
known as ''stag-head" 
or "top-dry." Trees 
can be maintained in 
better condition by lim 
iting the spread of the 
top so as to reduce the 
draft on the roots, and 
frequently failing speci 
mens can be restored to 
vigor by shortening the 
branches. 

Heading Back Old 
Trees. When early pru- 



of the branches to send more 
energy into the portions 
near the stem. The diam 
eter of the root system of a 
tree is about the same as 
that of the crown. On city 
streets, where the soil is 
usually poor and the growth 
of the roots restricted, the 
ends of the branches be 
come ragged in time, the 
foliage thin, and finally the 
top of the tree dies back, 




FIG. 24. The same Oriental Plane several 
years after the operation. 



128 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

ning is neglected the problems of restoring trees to sym 
metry, of suppressing certain branches, and of forcing 
others become very difficult. Not all trees have the 
same power of sending out new shoots when branches 
are cut back. Rapidly growing trees, like planes, soft 
maples, elms, and poplars, lend themselves more readily 
to heading back than other trees. One of the advantages 
of the use of the planes as street-trees is that they recover 
quickly from the effects of severe pruning. 

When trees are cut back, numerous shoots develop from 
buds near the ends of the remaining branches. Plane-trees 
especially send out a whorl of new twigs. Two or three 
years after heading back, it is necessary to suppress or 
entirely remove some of these new branches, and leave only 
the more vigorous ones to maintain the growth of the top. 
Figs. 21 to 24 show the various steps in the process of res 
toration of an old oriental plane that had become denuded 
at the base. 

An instrument called a dendroscope, Fig. 25, devised by 
Des Cars, 1 is sometimes helpful when shaping or heading 
back a number of trees to the same form and dimensions. 
It consists of a piece of thin paper or wooden board, about 
4x8 inches, in which is cut an opening proportional in out 
line to the form it is desired to give the trees. With this 
device the foreman can indicate to the pruner in the tree the 
exact places where cuts should be made. 

The foreman stands removed from the tree at a distance 
about equal to its height, holds the dendroscope vertically 
and at such a distance from the eye that when he looks 
through the opening, the bottom of it coincides with the base 
of the tree and the top with the place marking the height to 

1 "A Treatise on Pruning Forest and Ornamental Trees," by A. Des Cars. 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 



129 



which the tree is to be cut back. As he stands in one posi 
tion he directs the cutting of all the branches that are parallel 
to the plane of the card. Then he slowly goes round the 
tree and indicates where the other branches are to be cut. 

Sometimes when large branches are removed close to the 
trunk, adventitious or dormant buds near the place where 
the cut was made are stimulated into a forced growth, 
and they produce suckers or water 
sprouts. If these are desirable to 
fill out the crown they should be 
retained; but if they occur low on 
the trunk they should be removed, 
for they rob the upper branches of 
food materials. 

When to Prune. Careful atten 
tion to the time of pruning shade- 
trees is not so important as in 
the case of trimming shrubs for 
flowers and fruit-trees for fruit. 
Very heavy pruning and heading 
back of old trees are best done in very late fall or during 
the winter, when trees are dormant. The store of reserve 
material will cause a rapid growth of new shoots the follow 
ing spring. 

The shaping of trees can be done best when the foliage 
is on. It is also easier to discover dead, imperfect, and 
weak branches. For general pruning, therefore, it may be 
said that any time after midsummer is a good time to prune. 
During the spring and the early summer, when the sap is 
most active, it is apt to flow too freely from the wounds, 
and prevent the adhesion of any dressing, and the bark can 
be easily stripped from the trunk by accidental splitting of 




FIG. 25. A Dendroscope. 



130 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

branches. At this time also the removal of very much of 
the crown is apt to react unfavorably upon the roots by 
robbing them of so much elaborated food material. It has 
not been observed that the rapidity of the healing of the 
wounds is dependent to any extent upon the season when 
pruning is done. 

Pruning Tools. While the tools required for pruning are 
simple, one will find that a great deal of experimenting will 
be required to strike the right kind. The saw is the chief 
requisite, and the kinds actually sold as pruning-saws are 
very inefficient. A cross-cut saw, that is satisfactory for 
cutting dry, seasoned wood, is worthless for sawing the 
sappy, tough wood which is at the base of a limb, where it 
joins the trunk. After a great deal of trials with all kinds 
of saws, the writer was on the point of having a special 
kind of saw made, when he discovered on the market a saw 
which is far more satisfactory than any other commonly 
used for pruning. It is Atkins' Universal Saw, No. 83, 
having a patent tooth, as shown in Plate 30, Fig. 4, and is ad 
mirable for the green wood of living trees. It works easy, 
and there is no pressure required on the saw to make it cut. 
Work can be done very rapidly with this tool. 

The best way to carry the saw when going up a tree is 
to suspend it from a belt having a loop provided for that 
purpose. When hung just behind the hip it leaves the arms 
and body of the pruner free to climb or shin up any 
branches. Plate 30, Fig. 8, shows an admirable form of 
pruner's belt for carrying a saw, a small axe, a rope, and a 
leather holder for supporting the pruner's body while work 
ing. The holder is passed around the tree and the ends 
clasped to two rings in the belt, one on each side ot the 
body. When not in use it is suspended from one of the 



132 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

rings of the belt. A rope, when necessary, can also be 
attached to one of the rings. 

A small, one-handed axe is used to remove sprouts, 
suckers, and dead twigs and small branches. A pole-saw is 
used on the end of long branches. A combination chisel and 
hook, Fig. 26, on a long pole, can be used to pull down dead 
limbs at the tops of trees, and also to remove suckers and 
sprouts. It is operated either by a downward stroke of the 
hook or an upward one of the chisel. 
The cutting edge of the chisel is con 
cave, so that it does not glance off to 
one side when striking a_branch. 

To shape the ends of the lower limbs 
of trees and to remove small twigs up 
to an inch in diameter, the pole-pruner 
will be found an extremely efficient tool. 
Of these tools, there are many on the 
: ij market; but some of them fall to pieces 

FIG. 26.-Comttnation after a f ew hours WQrk> Qne of the 




chisel and hook. . 

best pole-pruners made is the Tele 
graph' ' tree-pruner shown in Plate 30, Fig. 1. It is best 
to buy the pruner separately, and have a pole especially 
made. This should be of straight grained spruce, two 
inches in diameter and twelve or fourteen feet long. Plate 
30, Fig. 2, shows the method of using it. It is operated by 
means of a rope, and the spiral spring brings the knife into 
position again for another cut. Extra knives and springs 
can be bought, so that they can be easily replaced when 
broken. The pruner will last through a summer's work in 
good condition. 

Hand pruning-shears are useful for cutting back trees 
when setting them out, and for pruning broken roots; also 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 133 

in shaping young trees during their first few years of 
growth. The cutting part of pruning-shears is the one 
blade the crescent shaped portion just presses against the 
branch. When using the shears they should be held in such 
a way that the crescent is turned toward the side of the 
branch that is being removed. When trimming back twigs 
the cuts should be made about half an inch or an inch above 
a strong bud, which on developing will continue the growth 
of the branch. The short stub will dry and fall off, so that 
the active tissue near the bud will form a callus over the 
wound. When the cut is made too close to the bud, it is 
likely to be injured by drying, and will not develop. 

When removing heavy branches it is sometimes best to 
support the ends, and a rope and pulley-blocks are found 
very useful. When cutting back the ends of branches that 
cannot easily be reached by a ladder, the workmen can sup 
port themselves partly by means of ropes attached to the 
belt, and running over a crotch near the stem at the top of 
the tree. 

Hints to Tree-Climbers. The Department of Parks of 
the Boroughs of Brooklyn and Queens issues, in pamphlet 
form, the following " Hints to Tree- Climbers" to its men: 

"1. Before starting out on a tree, judge its general con 
dition. The trunk of a tree that shows age, disease, or 
wood -destroy ing insects generally has its branches in an 
equally unhealthy condition. Greater precautions should, 
therefore, be taken with a tree in this condition than with a 
young, vigorous tree. 

"2. The different kinds of wood differ naturally in their 
strength and pliability. The soft and brash woods need 
greater precautions than the strong and pliable ones. All 
the poplars, the ailantus, the silver maple, the chestnut, 



134 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

catalpa, and willow are either too soft or brittle to depend 
on without special care. The elm, hickory, and oak have 
strong, flexible woods and are, therefore, safer than any 
others. The red oak is weaker than the other oaks. The 
sycamore and beech have a tough cross-grained wood and 
are, therefore, fairly strong. The linden has a soft wood, 
while the ash and gum, though strong and flexible, are apt 
to split. 

"3. Look out for a limb that shows fungous growths. 
Every fungus sends out a lot of fibers into the main body of 
the limb which draw out its sap. The interior of the branch 
then loses all strength and becomes like powder. Outside 
appearances sometimes do not show the interior condition, 
but one can be sure that every time he sees a fungus prop 
ping out, there is trouble behind it, and the limb is not alto 
gether safe. 

"4. When a limb is full of holes or knots, it generally 
indicates that borers have been working all kinds of gal 
leries through it, making it unsafe. The silver maple and 
sycamore maple are especially full of borers, which in many 
cases work on the under side of the branch, so that the man 
in the tree looking down cannot see its dangerous con 
dition. 

"5. A dead limb with bark falling off indicates that it 
died at least three months before and is, therefore, less safe 
than one with its bark tightly adhering to it. 

"6. Branches are more apt to snap on a frosty day when 
they are covered with an icy coating than on a warm, sum 
mer day. 

"7. A rainy or drizzly day causes the branches of a tree 
to be slippery, and greater precautions are then necessary. 

"8. Always use the pole-saw and pole-shear on the tips 



THE CARE OF STREET-TREES 135 

of long branches, and use the pole-hook in removing dead 
branches of the ailantus and other brittle trees where it 
would be too dangerous to reach them otherwise. 

''9. Examine your ladder before using it. 

' ' 10. Be sure of the strength of your branch before tying 
an extension -ladder to it. 

"11. Do not slant the extension-ladder too much. 

"12. Always watch the upper end of your ladder. 

"13. Do not forget to use the 'danger sign' on streets 
where falling branches are apt to injure careless passers-by. 

' ' 14. Always consult your foreman before taking up any 
job where risk is involved. ' ' 



CHAPTER VII 

INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES AND HOW TO 
PROTECT THEM 

EVEN in the forest the enemies of trees are very many. 
Winds break their limbs, snow and ice maim and deform 
them, hail beats off their leaves and twigs, frost nips their 
buds and tender shoots, lightning shatters them, and fungi 
and insects prey upon them. Added to natural enemies, the 
unfavorable city conditions make the life of a street-tree 
a hard one. 

The intelligent planting of trees must be supplemented 
by their protection, both by personal and legal means. It is 
idle to plant trees unless their safety can be assured. The 
vast majority of people have no conception that a tree has 
any right to be respected, just as they are slow of compre 
hension where the rights of animals are in question, or the 
right of posterity to what we now enjoy. 

There is another point to be remembered in dealing with 
trees ; that while they are living objects, and in their modes 
of growth and reproduction greatly resemble animals, they 
do not possess the power of locomotion. If a man dislikes 
his environment, he moves to a more congenial place. 
A tree cannot move, and its surroundings must be made 
agreeable to its well being. The writer has often thought of 
what would happen if trees could run away from the place 
where they are maltreated and abused. Many people would 

136 



INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES 13? 

find their specimens gone departed to more hospitable 
regions. 
The chief sources of injury to street-trees are: 

POOR SOIL 

The street-soil is generally very poor and the trees con 
stantly take the available plant-food out of it. A part of 
this matter assimilated by the trees is converted into wood ; 
but by far the larger portion goes into the leaves. In the 
forest the fallen leaves pile up and form a humus, by means 
of which the mineral matter contained in the leaves is 
returned to the soil. In the city, however, the successive 
crops of leaves are removed and the soil becomes impover 
ished. Just as one would not think of success in farming 
without the yearly use of fertilizers of some sort to enrich 
the ground, so in the case of shade-trees, the periodic appli 
cation of some suitable fertilizer to the soil about them is of 
the highest importance to aid their growth. 

ROOTS LACK AIR AND WATER 

To insure the proper performance of the tree's functions 
its roots must have a supply of air and water. The exclu 
sion of either of these requisites from the soil is fatal. It is 
a matter of common observation that a filling of earth, two 
or three feet deep, about a thrifty tree will damage or kill it. 
The covering of earth works this injury simply by excluding 
air from the active rootlets. Street-trees are greatly limited 
in their supply of air and moisture by the pavements. 

SALT WATER 

Salt used in freezing ice-cream is sometimes emptied 
near trees. When it is dissolved by rains and carried to the 
roots it becomes very injurious. Plate 33, Fig. 6. 



138 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

DUST, SMOKE, AND INJURIOUS GASES IN THE AIR 

Dust and smoke are liable to choke up the breathing 
pores of the leaves, and their natural functions are severely 
hindered. Some trees suffer more than others from this 
nuisance. The leaves of the sugar maple are especially 
susceptible; their stomata or breathing pores become clogged 
up by dust, and they acquire a hard, metallic state. 

In cities where large quantities of bituminous coal are 
used and in the vicinity of manufacturing establishments, 
such as fertilizer mills, paper-pulp mills, copper-smelting 
and blast furnaces, particularly where sulfur gases are pro 
duced, the effects upon all kinds of foliage are very evident. 
It has been shown that sulfuric-acid gas is the most injuri 
ous component of the fumes that prove injurious to foliage, 
and European investigations have proved that the presence 
of sulfuric-acid gas in the air, in the ratio of 1 to 50,000, is 
enough to lead to the destruction of the leaves of deciduous 
trees. The effects of sulfurous fumes are shown by the 
turning of the leaves reddish-brown in spots or along the 
edges, and eventually of their drying up entirely. 

All the evidence goes to show that little can be done 
toward mitigating the trouble caused by poisonous gases in 
the air. In cities suffering from the smoke nuisance it is 
very difficult to grow many of the ordinary street-trees. 
The European and the American planes will stand adverse 
conditions better than any of the other good street-trees. 

OILING OF ROADS 

The oiling of roadways during the last few years has led 
to a great deal of speculation regarding the effect of the 
dust from such roads on the vegetation bordering them. No 



INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES 139 

case of injury to the foliage of trees or shrubs resulting 
from the oiling of roads has come to the observation of the 
writer. The Director of Public Roads of the United States 
Department of Agriculture writes, under date of September 
2, 1910: "I am pleased to advise that from personal observa 
tions and from conversations with officials in a position to 
know, I am confident that where roads are oiled, so that the 
roots of trees or shrubbery do not come in contact with the 
oil, no injury occurs to the foliage." 

On the other hand, the writer noticed some items in the 
newspapers stating that in Paris the oiling of streets proved 
injurious to foliage. He wrote to the Prefect of the Seine, 
who has charge of the street-trees of Paris, and under date 
of August 23, 1910, received, through the American Ambas 
sador in Paris, a reply as follows : 

"I am just in receipt of a report of the Commissioner of 
the Western Section of Thoroughfares, in which the latter 
indicates the baneful effect of the spreading of hot tar upon 
the Avenue du Bois de Boulogne, and proposes to call the 
attention of the Public Roads Service to the withering of 
the trees on the avenue which, in his opinion, must be at 
tributed to the tarring of this road. 

"It appears from this report that a border-plot of stone- 
crops was burned in 1908, and lost its leaves the very day 
after the spreading; that some geraniums, and some bego 
nias showed leaves shriveled, spotted, and their growth 
stopped. It was the same with some lilac, currant, and 
gooseberry bushes. 

"This year, likewise, many of the trees on the Avenue 
du Bois are in an alarming state of decay ; several specimens 
of ailantus, maple, and American walnut, formerly in good 
vegetation, are dead. Others are in a drooping state. 



140 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

"The Commissioner of the Western Section believes that 
this condition arises from the deposit, upon the leaves, of 
the tar- dust stirred up by the intense circulation of vehicles. 

"The Public Roads Service will be informed of these 
facts ; and perhaps it will be necessary to decide to abandon 
the tarring in the proximity of vegetation." 

While the above letter would seem to indicate that there 
is a relation of cause and effect between the tarring of the 
Bois de Boulogne and the damage to near-by trees the case 
is not to be regarded as fully proved. The assigning of the 
cause of the wilting of the foliage does not seem to be 
conclusive. The statement about the dying of the stone- 
crops the very next day after the tar was applied to the 
road, would lead one to suspect that possibly fumes from 
the tar were responsible for the injury rather than tar-dust, 
for a fresh application of oil or tar effectively lays the dust. 

The subject needs further very careful study before any 
definite conclusions can be drawn. The writer has begun 
some experiments to determine the effect of dust collected 
from oiled roads on the foliage of trees; but has not yet 
reached any satisfactory results. 

ILLUMINATING GAS 

This is extremely poisonous, and is fatal to any tree the 
roots of which are exposed to it for a sufficient length of 
time. It is one of the hardships to which city-trees are 
exposed that it is not always easy to -prevent or foresee. 
Frequently trees are killed before the leak is discovered. 

While poor construction of mains is frequently responsi 
ble for gas-leaks, breaks in mains occur from a great many 
causes. Trolley-cars, steam-rollers, and other heavy traffic 
on highways sometimes cause loosening of joints and even 



142 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

breaking of gas-pipes, and the resulting leaks sometimes 
kill a row of trees of an entire block. 

A very small leak does not saturate the soil at once, and 
may not be the cause of the immediate death of a tree. Its 
effect is bound to tell in time, however. The tree will assume 
an unhealthy look, the foliage will become yellow and thin 
at the top and there will appear a large amount of dead 
wood that will not be accounted for in any other way. 

Symptoms of Gas-Poisoning. The symptoms of gas- 
poisoning are characteristic. The effect of a large leak 
upon a tree is very pronounced. The foliage turns yellow, 
wilts, and falls from the tree. There is no mistaking the 
cause. The effect of a small leak is yellowing of the foliage, 
followed by a greater or less defoliation of the tree, accord 
ing to the degree of poisoning. Limbs here and there die, 
the bark becomes loosened in places, and fungous growths 
make their appearance on the trunk and the main branches. 
The poisoned soil generally becomes darker than its natural 
color. The roots and the sapwood of the lower trunk be 
come discolored blue, and have a most offensive odor. 

The writer recalls a case when he very carefully watched 
a number of street-trees affected by gas -poisoning. There 
were several varieties among them. The elms died first, 
and soon afterward the bark began to loosen and drop from 
the trunk and main branches. The sugar maples died next. 
The red maples withstood the effects of the gas the longest. 
One red maple in particular was observed for about three 
weeks, the ground at the roots of which was badly saturated 
with gas. The foliage did not dry up at once, but gradually 
dropped from the tree, beginning at the top. Ulcers were 
formed on the trunk and main branches, and the sap oozed 
out from splits in the bark. It was frothy white and had a 



INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES 143 

fermented odor, as that of cider. Finally, all the foliage 
of the tree was gone, the sap stopped flowing, and the tree 
was dead. 

The formation of ulcers and the oozing of sap are not 
necessary symptoms of gas-poisoning, however, but may 
follow other diseased or weakened conditions of trees. See 
page 199. 

The wilting of the foliage of a tree following its attack 
by borers is sometimes mistaken for gas-poisoning. When a 
branch of a tree becomes riddled, the exposed wood dries 
and checks, and in the course of time the draft of sap is 
interrupted and the end of the branch dies. The wilting of 
the foliage in such cases makes one suspicious of gas. An 
examination of the branch, however, will reveal the true 
source of injury. 

How to Detect Leaks. The presence of gas can be 
detected by making a hole in the ground, three or four feet 
deep, with a crowbar, and applying the nostrils to the open 
ing. Unless the leak is extremely slight, the gas can usually 
be discovered by the above method. A more certain way of 
proceeding, however, is to insert a piece of gas or other pipe 
into the hole made by the crowbar, and draw up and inhale 
through the nostrils or the mouth the gases at the base 
of the opening. The slightest amount of gas in the soil 
can be detected in this way. When the gas is present in 
the soil in large quantities, it can be ignited by applying a 
match at the opening made with a crowbar. It will burn 
with a flash. This method, however, should not be used in 
testing for gas-leaks. It is extremely dangerous, as it is 
likely to result in an explosion of the gas-main. 

When a slight leak is discovered before the injury pro 
ceeds very far, the tree can be saved by quickly repairing 



144 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



the leak and aerating the soil. This can be done by leaving 
the ditch open, digging a channel around the tree, loosening 
the soil about the roots, and watering freely. 

Laying of Gas-Mains. Care in laying gas-mains is of the 
utmost importance. The leaking of gas is a great loss to 
the gas companies, and economizing the cost of first con- 



B C E 




FIG. 27. Method of making tight joints in gas-pipes. A, Untarred oakum or 
hemp. B, Calked lead. C, Rubber packing. D and E, Two malleable 
iron sectional rings. F, Bolts for drawing the rings together so as to press 
down rubber packing C. G, G, Wooden blocks for supporting ends of pipes. 

struction is likely to prove disastrous in the long run. 
Sometimes gas -pipes are laid with cement joints, as this 
method is cheap ; but the least settling of the ground causes 
leaks. Threaded joints are efficient on small pipes. One of 
the best methods now in use of making tight joints in gas- 
pipes, eight inches or more in diameter, is shown in Fig. 27. 
Untarred oakum or hemp-yarn is well rammed in first; and 
above that is poured melted lead, which is afterward com- 



INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES 145 

pacted by a calking hammer. Rubber packing is then in 
serted into the annular space left after the calking of the lead, 
and rammed into the joint and held there by means of two 
malleable iron rings connected by bolts. The pipes are sup 
ported near the joints by means of blocks of wood to prevent 
settling. 

Damages for Trees Killed. The injury to trees from gas 
has been so conclusively demonstrated, and damages have 
been so frequently awarded for loss of trees by this means 
in several States, that companies usually settle with prop 
erty-owners out of court. 

In the State of Massachusetts there are a number of 
cases on record of payments made by gas companies for 
killing trees by gas. In 1905, the trees along Middlesex 
Street, Lowell, began to die. Owners obtained investigation 
by the Park Commission, and the cause was found to be a 
leaking gas-main. A complaint against the Lowell Gaslight 
Company was made by the superintendent of parks, and 
tried in the police court. The company was fined $900, 
which was paid to the city, and settlements were made with 
most of the owners. 

In 1907, several cases were entered against the Spring 
field Gaslight Company, but they were all settled out of 
court. In one case twenty-eight trees on one street were 
damaged by gas, and the company paid the owners an 
aggregate sum of a little over $2,000, as agreed by a com 
mittee. 

In the majority of cases, however, no amount of money 
can restore the loss of large trees. Continued vigilance is 
necessary on the part of property-owners and city tree offi 
cials to prevent trees from being killed. When there is the 
slightest suspicion of a gas-leak, tests of the soil should be 



146 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

made. The trees along streets having large gas-mains need 
especial watching. The soil around the roots should be 
tested at frequent intervals, and repairs of mains immedi 
ately ordered if the presence of gas is detected. 

Tests for gas should be made in the spring, as soon as the 
frost is out of the ground. During the winter the frozen 
surface causes an accumulation of gas underneath when 
there is the slightest leak. When gas is discovered at that 
season of the year and the leak stopped, there is a chance 
for the affected tree to recover. On the other hand, if the 
gas is left in the soil it will poison the tree when it resumes 
active growth. 

OVERHEAD WIRES 

The injury to trees from overhead wires is frequently 
serious. While cases of wanton destruction of roadside- 
trees, to make way for telephone, telegraph, electric-light, 
and trolley-wires, have been numerous in the past, greater 
vigilance on the part of property-owners and public officials 
has caused a lessening of the evil. There may still be found, 
however, hundreds of trees in public highways that have 
been lopped, butchered, hacked out of their former shapeli 
ness by ruthless linemen, who regard nothing with greater 
contempt than a tree. These crippled shapes are painful to 
look upon, as are all misshapen or mutilated things, and the 
pity of it is that a little precaution, a trifle clemency, might 
have left the greater number of them uninjured. 

The laying of wires underground is becoming more com 
mon. In many cities ordinances have been enacted requir 
ing public utility companies to put their wires underground 
at the rate of a number of miles each year, and no new lines 
are permitted to be constructed above ground. So long, 



INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES 147 

however, as there are overhead telephone, electric -light, and 
trolley-feed wires in cities, there will be interference with 
trees, and it will require continuous watchfulness to reduce 
the evil to a minimum. 

In the first place, it should not be permitted to attach 
wires of any kind to trees on a public highway. Sometimes, 
as in the case of the telephone, it is not the wire that does 
the mischief, but the way it is attached to the tree. If rope 
is used, it does not harm the tree. If wire is employed 
instead, and is allowed to remain on the tree for a number 
of years, it girdles the limb and kills it. Such cases are 
very numerous. The wire is not noticed, and it is only 
when a dead branch appears on the tree that the fatal wire 
is discovered. Sometimes when the -central stem of a tree 
is so girdled, the entire top dies and the tree is ruined. 
Then, again, linemen, unless especially cautioned, use metal 
spurs to climb trees, and great injury is likely to result to 
the tree from such a practise. Sometimes a man's foot slips 
and a deep gash is inflicted on the limb. 

Escaping Electrical Currents. Where wires pass through 
trees, they should not be allowed to come in contact with 
limbs, because their swaying causes an abrasion of the bark. 
The continuous rubbing prevents the healing of the wound ; 
in time the wood dries and checks, the limb decays, and 
breaks in a storm. In fact, it has been found that all the ill 
effects of wires running through trees are the result of 
mechanical injuries followed by decay. The instances of 
direct killing of trees because of escaping electricity are 
very rare. It is during wet weather, when live wires touch 
a tree, that there is a grounding of the electric current 
through it. Frequently local damage results by the burning 
of the part in contact with the wire or cable. 



148 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



How to Protect Branches. A limb may be effectively 
protected from abrasion by an electric light or trolley-feed 
wire in contact with it by a strip of wood fastened to it by 
means of two nails, one at each end. 
The strip should not be nailed against 
the limb, but should be separated from 
it by two pieces of insulating fiber, half 
an inch thick, as shown in Fig. 28. 

In no case should the cutting of limbs 
of shade-trees for the purpose of making 
way for wires be permitted ; but should 
an exceptional case arise, where cutting 
of limbs is necessary, the work should 
be done under the supervision of some 
city official. 

There is one case of the evil of over 
head wires that cannot be overcome 
except by their removal, and that is 
where young trees grow under a web of 
wires. The young shoots cannot force 
themselves between the wires, but be 
come stunted, and the result is an ab 
normally shaped, flat-headed tree. The 
most horrible butchery occurs when 
a large, wedge-shaped space is taken 
out of the centre of beautiful trees to 
allow the passage of wires. The damage 
is beyond repair, and it would be better 
to cut the trees down entirely than to leave permanent eye 
sores. See Plate 31, Fig. 5. 

Damages for Injuries. Many cases are on record in 
which damages have been awarded by courts for injury to 




FIG. 28. Method of 
protecting a branch 
from abrasion by wire 
cable. A, Branch. 
B, Strip of wood 
about 12 inches long, 
2 inches wide. C, 
Piece of insulating 
fiber, 2 inches square, 
i inch thick. D, 
Nail. E, Section of 
cable. 



INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES 149 

trees. The case of Dr. John Marshall against the American 
Telegraph and Telephone Company, tried in the Pennsyl 
vania courts, was an important one. During the absence of 
Dr. John Marshall from his farm at Douglassville, Berks 
County, Pa., in 1895, employees of the American Telegraph 
and Telephone Company cut down sixty-eight trees on his 
property; whereupon Dr. Marshall immediately brought 
criminal action against these employees, which action was 
carried from the court of the Justice of the Peace to the 
Common Pleas Court in Reading, Berks County, and thence 
to the Superior Court, with decisions against the telephone 
company throughout the entire action. 

The fines required of the three employees of the com 
pany were to the full limit of the law, and aggregated $150. 
The criminal suit having been decided by the highest court 
in favor of Dr. Marshall, he brought civil action against the 
company for damages, and on January 3, 1898, the court 
appointed three viewers to assess damages. On February 
14, 1898, the viewers filed their report, from which report 
the telephone company and also Dr. Marshall appealed, and 
on October 18, 1898, the case was tried before the Common 
Pleas Court in Berks County. The verdict was in favor 
of Dr. Marshall. The telephone company appealed to the 
superior court, and on April 16, 1901, an opinion in favor of 
Dr. Marshall was handed down by Justice Beaver, allowing 
damages to the amount of $400 to Dr. Marshall. 

In his decision, Justice Beaver said in part: "The com 
mercial idea that the only good tree is a dead tree that is, 
that it is only good for lumber no longer prevails. The 
tree has much more than a commercial value. Its influence 
upon climate and water-supply has come to be regarded as a 
question to be reckoned with in determining the conditions 



150 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

under which our increasingly dense population is to live and 
flourish. Its beauty and sightliness have value in the land 
scape. Its shade refreshes and shelters; and even as an 
investment, young trees have an actual money value which 
cannot be disregarded or measured by their present value 
as timber trees." 

Another decision of far-reaching importance to telephone 
and telegraph companies and other companies maintaining 
lines of poles and wires in public highways, and to owners 
of property along such highways, was rendered November 
17, 1904, by Supreme Court Justice Garretson, in Long 
Island City. 

It was the case of Mary I. Weeks, a resident of Bayside, 
Long Island, against the New York and New Jersey Tele 
phone Company. The company erected a line of telephone 
poles on a public highway running through her property, and 
strung wires thereon. The justice held that the use of the 
highway for the support of a line of poles and wires for sup 
plying the general public with electricity was in no sense a 
proper street use, and that therefore, notwithstanding the 
statute and the city permits, the erection and maintenance 
of that line of poles and wires for that purpose without Mrs. 
Weeks's consent, was unauthorized and illegal. He directed 
the sheriff to remove its poles and wires from the street. 

STREET IMPROVEMENTS 

Many trees necessarily fall a sacrifice to important 
improvements in the natural growth of cities. When large 
buildings are erected on business streets, close to the side 
walk, it is inevitable that they must go. Trees also suffer 
from the mutilation of the needed cutting of large roots in 
resetting curbstones and flag walks; also in the digging for 



PLATE 32. INJURIES TO STREET-TREES. 




1. Leader of a 14-inch buckeye broken as a result of abrasion by trolley feed-wire. 2. Top 
of a 22-inch Sugar Maple, killed by girdling telephone wire. 3. Where the provision for 
street-trees has been a matter of little concern. 4. Planting strip absent and pavement 
close to trunk. 5. Sidewalk too narrow; trees planted in gutter in consequence. 6. Trees 
saved in Cambridge, Mass. Trees planted before street improvement, allowed to project 
into gutter : curb being interrupted. 



152 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

water and gas mains and sewers. Such cases arise from 
time to time in municipal work, but it is highly important 
that contractors and builders should consult the proper city 
officials when it is proposed to do any work that is likely 
to injure trees. Frequently a way is found of accomplish 
ing the results sought without injuring a tree. In many 
instances a tree may be saved when it seems inevitable to 
some that it should be sacrificed. 

The writer recalls a case of two years ago when an archi 
tect came to the office of the Shade-Tree Commission, and 
wanted permission to remove a fourteen-inch sugar maple 
that stood in the way of a proposed driveway of a house 
then under construction. He said that he had studied the 
problem carefully, and that there was no way of construct 
ing the driveway without removing the tree. The premises 
were examined, and it was found that the tree encroached 
less than three feet on the line of the proposed roadway; 
but that by making it slightly curved, it would be an easy 
matter to keep clear of the tree. The architect did not 
approve of the plan. Finally he was told that permission 
would not be granted to remove that tree under the circum 
stances. He made the driveway curved, and now the owner 
of the house is very glad that the tree was saved. 

Opening New Streets. Great injury results to trees 
when new streets are opened or the grade of streets is 
changed. In such cases city engineers and boards of public 
improvement are frequently as great offenders as public 
utilities companies. Engineers dislike to deviate from 
straight lines in the laying of streets, or to change the 
width of a street, even if by so doing it is possible to save a 
line of trees. When a street department works in conjunc 
tion with that in charge of the care of trees, it is sometimes 



INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES 



153 



possible to devise means by which trees may be saved. 
The writer remembers a street in East Orange that was to 
be macadamized and curbed. As proposed, the street was 
to have a thirty-foot roadway. To have carried out that 
plan would have necessitated the cutting down of five red 
maples, about twenty inches in diameter. On consultation 




FIG. 29. A "well" constructed about an elm-tree when grade was raised. 

with the Shade-Tree Commission, the city engineer finally 
decided to make the roadway twenty-six feet in width, and 
the trees were permitted to remain. 

Changing Grade. When the street grade is raised or 
lowered, and there are trees along the line, a problem again 
arises as to the disposition of the trees. A good deal 
depends upon the condition of the existing trees. If the 
grade of a street is lowered about a foot, the trees can safely 
remain. When the grade is lowered considerably, and the 
trees are less than a foot in diameter, it will pay to lower 



154 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

them. Very frequently an entire row of trees can be saved 
that way. If the trees are in poor condition, however, it is 
best to cut them down and plant new ones. With proper 
selection, planting, and care, better trees result in a short 
time than if an attempt is made to save poor specimens. 

When the grade of a street is raised, the filling should 
not be brought up close to the tree, as the exclusion of air 
will kill it. A well should be left around the tree of as large 
a diameter as possible. In a few years the roots will come 
to the surface, and then it will be possible to fill the well 
and bring the soil up to grade. A grating may be placed 
over the opening to the well so as to guard against any one's 
falling into it. 

When the street-grade is raised it is even possible to con 
tinue the concrete pavement close to the tree, provided an 
air-space is left underneath that covers as large an extent of 
root spread as possible. The pavement should not touch the 
trunk of the tree, but should keep clear of it, six inches or 
more to allow for the growth of the tree and the circulation 
of air. 

In the New York Zoological Garden, many animal cages 
having concrete floors were built around large trees, twenty 
inches and more in diameter. All the trees were saved by 
raising the floor a foot or more above the ground and leav 
ing an air-space between them. The tree-trunks were 
allowed to pass through circular openings in the floor, and 
were protected by means of iron guards so that the animals 
could not injure them. The work was done under the 
direction of Hermann W. Merkel, the Forester of the Garden. 

Many cases arise in a city, involving the care and pres 
ervation of valuable trees. Each case should be studied 
carefully, and the best plan followed. In cities having 



INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES 155 

shade-tree departments, the people always have the sense 
of security that the safety of their trees is being guarded; 
and, if any are to be sacrificed, it is because of inevitable 
conditions. If, after careful consideration, it is found that 
there must be cutting of limbs -or roots of trees, the work 
should be done under the supervision of one in charge of 
the care of trees. 

BUILDING OPERATIONS 

There are minor improvements in city streets during 
which trees are killed or damaged without any show of 
reason. Guy-ropes are frequently attached to trees in the 
process of building which bruise or cut them severely. The 
piling of lumber, bricks, and other material, and careless 
carting, cause serious injury to trees while construction is 
under way. In the erection or repair of a building the 
owner or contractor should put such guards around the 
neighboring trees as will effectively prevent their being 
injured. 

MUTILATION BY HORSES 

Of all mechanical injuries to street-trees, however, none 
are more numerous nor more fatal than the mutilations 
caused by horses. One would not have to go very far in 
any town to find scores of examples of trees as badly muti 
lated as the one shown in Plate 33, Fig. 3. Such trees owe 
their present condition to horses that feasted on their bark 
many years ago. Most cities have ordinances forbidding 
drivers to tie animals to trees, or to leave them standing near 
a tree. Occasionally a man is arrested and fined for having 
allowed his horse to injure a tree, but it is not always an 
easy matter to catch and punish the offender. Besides, in 



INJURIES TO SHADE-TREES 157 

many cases, no fine will compensate for the damage done, 
because in a few minutes a horse may destroy a tree worth 
hundreds of dollars, and which no amount of money can 
replace. 

Trees Must Have Guards. In spite of the greatest care, 
horses will sometimes bite trees; and the only way to make 
it impossible for them to do so, is to place guards around all 
trees. On our public streets no tree is safe from the day of 
planting until the time of maturity. I have seen trees com 
pletely ruined a few hours after they were set out, by the 
horse of the grocer or butcher, who stopped to make some 
deliveries. The only thing left to do was to set out new 
ones in their place. When a larger tree, six or eight inches 
in diameter, is barked, it cannot be so readily replaced. It 
is left to grow in its injured state. In case the strip of bark 
removed by the horse is small, the resulting wound may 
heal, if a box is placed around the tree to protect it from 
further injury. When a tree is badly bitten or is exposed to 
successive mutilations, the bark of the growing tree never 
covers up the scar so made, and the tree becomes irrepar 
able. 

As the tree grows, successive annual layers of wood are 
added, and its diameter is increased. The portion of the 
tree that has been stripped of bark does not receive this 
new growth; but the wood is deposited in a thick roll around 
the edge of the wound. The exposed wood dries, checks, 
moisture causes it to rot and form a fertile field for fungus 
growth and the entrance of borers. After a while the decay 
is carried to the heart of the tree, and sooner or later it dies. 
The first cause of the decay and death of many of the trees 
annually removed from public streets may be traced to the 
mutilation of the trunks by horses. 



158 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

Trees with the bark removed are unsightly, and as long 
as they continue their growth their deformity increases. 
After a time they also become a source of danger. The 
weakest part of the trunk of a tree is at a point four or five 
feet from the ground. It is the portion of the tree that with 
stands the greatest strain during a storm. For example, if 
you grasp the end of a rod with the hands and bend it suffi 
ciently, it will break in the middle. The resistance of the 
roots of a tree, on the one hand, and the pressure of the 
wind against the head, on the other, produce a like result; 
the tree tends to break across the trunk. Sometimes during 
storms mutilated trees snap at the points of the trunks 
where they had been injured, and cause considerable dam 
age by their fall. 

When a tree is supplied with a guard, it must not be 
allowed to remain after the tree outgrows it. The injury 
caused by the failure to remove a guard after it becomes too 
small, is sometimes more fatal than to expose the tree to 
mutilation. If the guard binding a tree is weak, it yields 
and breaks ; but before giving way under the strain of the 
tree's growth, it usually injures the trunk. In Plate 33, Fig. 
4, is shown the damage caused by a guard left around a tree 
after the latter had become too large for it. The guard 
broke; but the tree was disfigured by an abnormal growth 
of a ring of tissue. If the guard is very strong and the 
increase of the diameter of the tree continues, the action of 
the iron band around it has the effect of girdling, and the 
tree dies. In Plate 33, Fig. 5, is shown an example of a tree, 
the death of which was caused by the binding of the protec 
tor, which was cut apart before the photograph was taken. 
The effect of its pressure on the trunk is clearly shown. 



CHAPTER VIII 

INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS AND OTHER 
DISEASES 

BESIDES being subject to injuries resulting from condi 
tions of artificial city environment and abuse, as just de 
scribed, trees have natural parasitic enemies such as insects 
and fungi, and also suffer from diseases in which the con 
ditions of soil and climate are the controlling factors. 

TREATMENT OF TREES FOR INSECT PESTS 

The most vital task, by far, in the care of trees is the 
extermination of the insects that threaten to destroy or in 
jure them from time to time. The great damage inflicted 
by insects on shade-trees throughout the country is usually 
underestimated. A fully grown shade-tree is a valuable 
asset to any property, and while it is not always possible to 
estimate its loss in financial terms it must be remembered 
that it may have taken a lifetime to grow. The value of 
street-trees is infinitely greater than their cost of planting. 
They are treasures which should be most jealously guarded. 
To give an idea of the extensive damage caused by insects 
attention need be called only to the depradations of the elm- 
leaf beetle. From 1898 to 1905 it caused the death of sev 
eral thousand trees in Albany and Troy alone, besides seri 
ously weakening many others. The leopard moth is a very 
serious borer, which has become established about New York 

159 



160 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

City and has killed hundreds of trees. In the northern 
section of the State of New Jersey, a great many of the 
sugar maples died in 1905 and 1906 as a result of the injuries 
inflicted on these trees by the sugar-maple borer and the 
leopard moth a few years before that time. The gipsy moth, 
perhaps the most destructive of all tree-pests, has become 
firmly established in Massachusetts. 

Even in the forest the annual loss of trees from insect 
pests is very great; but in cities the unfavorable conditions 
to tree growth are contributory causes that make them still 
more vulnerable to attack. Like animals, trees can resist 
disease to a greater degree when they are in a healthy condi 
tion. Many insects do not attack trees until they show signs 
of weakness, and that is especially true of borers. Generally, 
then, it may be said that one of the best methods of prevent 
ing insect injury is to keep trees in as thrifty a condition as 
possible. It should always be remembered that trees have 
life different in kind, perhaps, from that of animals, but 
nevertheless a life that needs nourishment and favorable 
conditions for the maintenance of vigor. 

While protective measures are extremely important, there 
will be visitations of diseases and pests that will require 
remedial treatment. Besides, insects are dependent during 
their development on plant food, certain species preferring 
certain trees, so that from a natural standpoint the insect 
possesses its right to exist just as other forms of life. It is 
admitted, however, that this point of view is not consoling 
to one whose trees have been killed by caterpillars, borers, 
or other pests. It should be recognized as absolutely im 
perative for the owner of one tree or a thousand trees to 
be prepared to combat insects when a visitation occurs. 

Insects feeding on trees v are always present; but some- 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 161 

times in greater numbers than others. Frequently when a 
certain species becomes very numerous, natural enemies 
and parasites develop that kill the greater part or an entire 
brood. Sometimes during the metamorphosis of insects, 
unfavorable climatic conditions arise that kill a great num 
ber. Again, an insect species may become so numerous as 
to exhaust the food plant and then the race dies. It should 
not be permitted, however, to adopt such heroic measures in 
insect fighting. 

The transformations which insects undergo from the 
time of their hatching from the egg to their maturity is 
called their metamorphosis. The egg is the first stage in the 
existence of any insect. Almost always the eggs are laid by 
the mother insect on or near the plant food which gives 
nourishment to the young. The larva is the second stage of 
an insect's life and is the form that hatches from the egg. 
Familiar examples of larvae are caterpillars, maggots, and 
grubs. The larval stage is the feeding period in the life 
history of most insects injuring shade-trees, and is of 
supreme importance from an economic standpoint, for it is 
during this condition that many insects commit their great 
est depredations. 

The third stage in the life of an insect is the change of 
the larva into a pupa. Many larvae, especially those of 
moths when fully grown, spin about their body silken cases 
called cocoons, at the same time transforming themselves 
into pupae. The pupa remains inactive in the cocoon for 
some time, then breaks through the cocoon and emerges as 
the adult or mature insect. Some insects pass the winter or 
hibernating condition in the egg form, others as partly grown 
larvae. Again, many hibernate in the pupal stage and still 
others pass the winter in the adult condition. The transfer- 



162 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

mation of insects is of interest not only to the nature student 
but also to one who seeks some method of controlling them. 
There is always some one of the stages in the insect's meta 
morphosis when it is most vulnerable and most easily ex 
terminated. It may be the egg, larval, pupal, or adult con 
dition. It is not usually the time when the most injury to 
trees is apparent. In insect fighting the point constantly 
to be borne in mind is, as far as possible, to destroy the 
pests before they develop and reach their most injurious 
stage. To do that successfully, a knowledge of the life his 
tories of the common tree-pests is absolutely necessary. 

Most States publish bulletins descriptive of the common 
insect pests of shade and ornamental trees, with directions 
how to combat them. The state entomologists are always 
at the service of any citizen and are glad to give information 
in the matter of insect control. It is therefore thought suf 
ficient in this work to- describe only the most common and 
destructive of our shade-tree pests and point out the easiest 
means of destroying them. 

There are three classes of tree-destroying insects which 
may be grouped as leaf-eating insects, sucking insects, and 
borers. 

LEAF-EATING INSECTS 

Leaf-eating insects inflict injury by feeding on the leaf 
tissue of plants. They can usually be reached by poison 
ing the leasus with an application of arsenic in some form. 

Tussock Moth (Orgyia leucostigma S. and A.). This 
insect passes the winter in the egg state. The eggs are 
deposited by the females in September and October in con 
spicuous white masses on the bark of the trees. About the 
end of May the larvae begin to hatch. They immediately 
take to the leaves, increase in size and go through five 



i'. 




164 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

molts. When they complete their feeding period, nothing 
but the principal veins of the leaves are left. 

The larval period lasts about four or five weeks. Then 
the caterpillars return to the bark, spin cocoons and change 
to pupae. They remain in that condition for two weeks and 
then emerge as adults. The males are winged and the 
females wingless. Pairing now takes place, the males die 
and the females deposit a cluster of eggs for the second 
brood. Generally from three hundred to five hundred eggs 
are found in a single cluster, from which if conditions are 
favorable, as many caterpillars may hatch. 

The summer, however, is but half over. Toward the 
end of July, and the beginning of August, the eggs deposited 
by the first brood hatch and the young larvae go up on the 
leaves to finish the work begun by the parents. The cycle 
continues as before through the larval, pupal, and the adult 
condition. In September the eggs are deposited on the bark 
of the trees, remain in that condition through the winter, 
and hatch in the spring. 

The easiest and most effective means to control this in 
sect is to exterminate it while it is in its egg condition. The 
clusters are loosely attached to the bark, are very conspicu 
ous, and are mostly on the trunks and lower limbs. They 
can be removed .either by hand or by scraping them off. 
After collecting, the egg masses should be burned. 

If the eggs are allowed to hatch, the only treatment then 
possible is to spray the foliage of the tree with a solution of 
arsenate of lead. (See Insecticides, Chap. IX.) The method 
of spraying is not always so thorough as removing the egg 
clusters. 

During the last four years, very little spraying has been 
done in East Orange to control the tussock moth. In spite 



166 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

of the insect's being epidemic in neighboring cities, the trees 
of East Orange have been kept free from this pest by the 
collection of the egg masses. This insect usually attacks the 
elms, the lindens, the white maple, and the horse-chestnut. 

Gipsy Moth (Porthetria dispar Linn.). Closely related 
to the tussock moth in its mode of development, but more 
destructive of plant life than any other species of pest is the 
gipsy moth. Its caterpillars thrive on an exceedingly large 
number of plants. They eat without hesitation almost all 
of our native trees and shrubs. It is a European insect, 
which was introduced into the United States in 1869, by a 
naturalist who imported it in the course of some experi 
ments on silkworms. 

The winter is passed in the egg condition. The egg 
masses are rounded or oval clusters covered with yellowish 
hair from the body of the female, giving them the appear 
ance of a small piece of sponge. They hatch during May 
or early June. As a rule the caterpillars feed at night and 
hide during the day. 

When ready to change to pupae the caterpillars are apt to 
wander from their food, sometimes for a considerable dis 
tance. Transformation to pupae takes place during the 
month of June. The moths appear in July. Both the male 
and the female insects have wings; but the female rarely 
flies. Pairing then takes place and egg deposition begins. 
The eggs then remain till the following spring, when they 
hatch and the same life cycle is repeated. 

As in the case of the tussock moth, one of the most effec 
tive methods of keeping this pest under control is the care 
ful collection and burning of the conspicuous egg masses. 
This can be done most effectively in the fall, during the 
winter and early spring. Creosote oil applied to the egg 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 167 

mass will soak in and kill the eggs. The following prepara 
tion was used in the work against the gipsy moth in Massa 
chusetts: Creosote oil, 50 per cent., carbolic acid, 20 per 
cent., spirits of turpentine, 20 per cent., and coal-tar 10 per 
cent. The last was added to color the compound and thus 
show at a glance what clusters had been treated. 

Advantage may be taken of the migrating habit of the 
caterpillar during the daytime by tying burlap bands around 
the tree-trunks and then turning down the upper portion 
of the burlap over the string. The bands can be lifted 
daily and the caterpillars beneath killed. 

The larva is quite resistant to arsenical poison, and it 
requires a large dose to kill it. Arsenate of lead should be 
used as soon as the leaves are well grown, as the young cat 
erpillars are most susceptible to the insecticide. 

Brown Tail Moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linn.). The 
brown tail moth is the other species that has been in 
troduced into Massachusetts within recent years and is 
scarcely second to the gipsy moth in destructiveness. 
About the middle of July the moths are on the wing, and 
each female lays from two hundred to three hundred eggs 
in an oblong cluster on the under side of the leaf, near the 
end of a branch, covering them with a dense mass of brown 
hair. The eggs hatch early in August. While still young 
the caterpillars make a nest in which they hibernate during 
the winter. This is constructed at the ends of the twigs and 
made by drawing together a few leaves, lining them with 
silk and surrounding them with a mass of silken threads. 
The tents are so firmly secured to the twigs that they can 
be removed only with considerable force. 

The young caterpillars cease feeding and retire into these 
tents late in September, and there they remain during the 



168 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

winter in a sort of half -dormant condition. They become 
active again about the middle of April, or with the opening 
out of new foliage, and feed upon the buds and the unfold 
ing leaves. They feed until June, when they spin an open 
cocoon of coarse silk among the leaves, and transform to 
pupae. A month later the moths emerge to begin the life 
cycle again. 

The brown tail moth attacks a great variety of both wild 
and cultivated plants, especially the oaks, maples, and elms. 
One of the ways of combating this species is by removing 
and burning the hibernating nests which are very con 
spicuous during the winter and in the spring. Spraying 
with arsenate of lead, both when the foliage develops and 
when the young caterpillars hatch, is also very effective. 

Fall Webworm (Hyphantria cunea Dru.). The presence 
of this insect can be readily discovered by the large tents 
formed by the caterpillars. The first brood is rarely abun 
dant enough to attract attention, and the nests seem to be 
smaller than those found later in the season. Early in July 
the caterpillars are full grown, leave the nests and make 
cocoons in any convenient shelter near by, in crevices of the 
bark or on the surface of the ground. Moths issue in a few 
days and shortly afterward are ready to lay eggs in turn. 

When the second brood appears in July, or early in 
August, the tents are so much more numerous that they 
attract more attention, and the insects grow so fast that 
unless measures are taken at once, the infested trees may 
suffer defoliation. Late in August and during the first half 
of September, the larvae of the second brood leave the nests 
and wander to some shelter where they change to the pupal 
state and remain in that condition all winter. 

The caterpillar of the fall webworm is a general feeder 



170 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

on many plants comprising fruit, shade, and ornamental 
trees. The easiest way to control the insect is to cut out the 
twigs having the nests of caterpillars and burn them. 
On large trees where the nests cannot be easily reached, the 
foliage at the points where the nests are observed should be 
sprayed with arsenate of lead. There is no necessity for 
spraying the entire tree, because the insects feed only in 
the immediate vicinity of the nest as long as there is any 
thing to eat at that point. The earlier the spraying is done 
the more easily will the insects be destroyed. 

Bag Worm ( Thyridopteryx ephemerceformis Steph. ) . This 
insect derives its name from the fact that the larva is pro 
tected by a bag or case which it carries about as a shelter 
and in which it undergoes its transformations. In winter 
these bags are prominent objects on the leafless trees. 

In May, the caterpillars develop, which after working out 
of the parent sack, at once begin to construct a bag of their 
own. At first the sack, which is just large enough to hold the 
insect, is carried upright; but as the larva increases in size 
and adds to the sack it becomes too heavy and is allowed to 
hang down, fastened to a twig or leaf by threads of silk 
when the insect is not actually moving. 

The feeding on the foliage of the tree continues, and 
when full grown and ready to transform to the pupal stage, 
the larvae become restless and wander to other trees. When 
a suitable place is found, the bags are attached to a twig or 
other support and the pupa is formed. 

In about three weeks the male moth appears. The adult 
female is wingless and legless. She does not leave her case, 
but works out of it far enough to permit pairing, then 
returns into the pupal skin, fills it with eggs, and wriggles 
out of the bag and dies. The mouth of the bag closes after 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 171 

her and the eggs are thus securely protected until they are 
ready to hatch the ensuing spring. 

The best way to control the pest is to pick off and burn 
the bags containing the egg masses during the winter. 
Spraying with arsenate of lead when the foliage develops is 
also effective. 

Elm-Leaf Beetle (Galerucella luteola Mull.). The winter 
of the elm-leaf beetle is passed in the adult condition, the 
beetles taking shelter in attics, sheds, out-houses, and other 
places. In the case of this insect, the adults also feed on 
the leaves. The beetles are about a quarter of an inch long 
and less than half that wide, dull yellow in color with a 
black stripe on each wing cover. 

The adults emerge about the time the leaves begin to 
unfold and immediately begin to feed, eating irregular holes 
through the leaves, i During the latter part of May and the 
beginning of June, eggs are deposited on the under side of 
the leaves. From these the larvae hatch until the latter part 
of the month. The larvae are about three-eighths or one- 
half inch long when full grown. They feed on the under 
side of the leaves; but not through the tissue, and give the 
foliage a skeletonized appearance. Ordinarily their presence 
is not known until the larvae are full grown, when the seri 
ousness of the injury becomes apparent. The leaves turn 
brown, curl, and the entire tree looks as if a fire had swept 
through it. 

Beginning during the last days of June and continuing 
until the middle of July, larvae crawl down the trunks and 
change to yellow pupae in the ground near the base of the 
tree. Adults develop about a week after the formation of 
the pupae and in the latter part of July the summer brood of 
beetles is abundant. 



/ 



PLATE 37. LIFE HISTORY OF ELM-LEAF BEETLE. 




Adult beetles eating holes through leaves after emerging from their hibernating quarters in the 
spring. 2. Egg mass on under side of leaf. 3. Larvae feeding on under side of leaves, giving 
them a skeletonized appearance (1, 2, and 3 about % natural size). 4. The curling of the 
foliage of the elm as a result of the feeding of the larvae. 5. The contrast between sprayed 
and unsprayed elms attacked by the elm-leaf beetle. The tree on the left was sprayed with 
arsenate of lead May 20, 1909. The tree to the right, about 25 feet away, was not sprayed. 
View taken August 10, 1909. 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 173 

Ordinarily there are two broods of this insect during a 
year. The beetles take to the leaves, feed on them and 
deposit their eggs. The larvae of the second brood go 
through the same cycle of feeding on the under side of the 
leaves, changing to pupae and transforming to adult beetles. 
In the latter part of August, the development of the second 
brood of beetles is complete. They hibernate during the 
winter in the adult form and begin to feed on the developing 
elm-leaves the following spring. 

This insect is confined in its attacks to the elms, and pre 
fers the European to the American variety. It has been a 
most serious pest in many States. The defoliation of a tree 
in midsummer is a serious injury, and if this occurs for suc 
cessive years, the early death of the elm may be expected. 
Such has been the record of the elm-leaf beetle in a great 
many cities. 

The only way to control the elm-leaf beetle is by spray 
ing the foliage with arsenate of lead. The time to spray is 
just when the leaves develop and the adults begin to feed. 
A thorough spray at this time is very important, because if 
the beetles can be killed before they lay eggs, there will be 
no larvae to deal with later. 

If early spraying is neglected or has not been effective, 
an application of arsenate of lead is necessary when the 
larvae begin to feed. It is important in this case to reach 
the under side of the leaves. The beetles eat the entire 
leaf tissue and it makes no difference whether the poison 
is on the under or upper surface. The larvae eat only 
the lower layer of cells, and even if the upper surface be 
fully covered with arsenical poison they may not get even 
a particle. 

When the full grown larvae crawl down the trunks to 



174 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

pupate, great numbers of them collect at the bases of the 
elm-trees. At that time they can be swept up and killed by 
pouring hot water on them. This, of course, is not a very 
effective measure; but still, it is helpful, and in order to 
secure the best results the grubs and the pupae should 
be destroyed every few days so long as they are seen 
in numbers. 

The elm-leaf beetle is now a serious pest in many 
Eastern States. The writer will therefore quote from his 
records of observations of the work against this pest in 
East Orange during 1909, as these will show approximately 
up to what time spraying can be effective. Corrections, of 
course, have to be made for variations in climate. 

"The spraying began on May 18. On June 2, it was no 
ticed that the depositing of eggs on the under side of the 
leaves had begun. The spraying, however, was continued 
during the period of incubation with good results. On June 
10, it was noticed that the hatching of caterpillars had 
begun. On June 25, made an inspection of all the elms in 
the city. The early spraying was extremely effective. Some 
of the leaves were eaten by the adult beetles, but there were 
few egg masses. Spraying done after June 14 was also 
effective. Although the leaves showed many empty eggs, 
there were practically no larvae, as these were poisoned as 
soon as they began to feed after hatching. 

"On July 2, all spraying was stopped, as it was too late 
for spraying to be effective. On July 7, the caterpillars of 
the elm-leaf beetle were observed descending the trunks of 
the elm-trees to pupate. The devastating effect of the pest 
was then at its height. Not a single unsprayed tree within 
the city limits was free from the attack. Only a partial 
second brood of beetles was observed." 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 175 
SUCKING INSECTS 

Sucking insects eat no part of the plant itself, and it is 
absolutely impossible for that reason to kill them with any 
of the stomach poisons. They can be reached only by con 
tact poisons which act on the breathing pores of the insects. 
Soaps and oils are the materials used, and these act by clog 
ging up the spiracles of the insects and choking them. 

Cottony Maple Scale (Pulvinaria innumerabilis Rathvon) . 
The cottony maple scale attacks all the maples to a cer 
tain extent, but is most injurious to the white maple. Dur 
ing the winter the hibernating females are found along the 
underside of the twigs and branches. They are oval, brown 
in color, and about one-sixteenth of an inch long. When the 
sap starts to flow in the spring the insects begin to feed and 
grow until they are about one-quarter inch long. In early 
June they excrete a mass of white, waxy, or cottony material 
in which the eggs are deposited. There are from one thou 
sand to two thousand eggs in each mass. The larvae hatch, 
crawl up on the leaves and settle along the veins on the un 
der side. As many as a thousand settle on a single leaf and 
suck the sap as it comes up through the veins. In the 
meantime the waxy masses having served their purpose as a 
protection for the eggs, disintegrate, and the bits of white 
material are carried away by the winds. The pumping of 
the sap by the growing larvae continues, the leaves become 
devitalized and about the latter part of July the foliage be 
gins to fall as in late autumn. 

The insects go through two or three molts and then 
change to pupae. The mature male insects are winged, the 
female has no wings. In early September pairing takes 
place, the males die, the impregnated females remain on the 



PLATE 38. SCALE INSECTS. 




1. The Woolly Maple Scale in cocoon condition, collected in masses in crevices of bark of Sugar 
Maple (about natural size). 2. Adult females of woolly maple scale surrounded by cottony 
tufts containing eggs. The larvae are seen along the veins (about Vz natural size). 3. The 
Cottony Maple Scale, adult females on twig of white maple. The cottony masses excreted by 
them contain the eggs. 4. Twig infested by San Jos scale. 5. Twig infested by male scales 
of Scurfy Scale. 6. Twig infested by Oyster Shell Scale (3, 4, 5, and 6, about natural size). 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 177 

leaves feeding until after the middle of September, when 
they migrate to the twigs and settle down to pass the 
winter. 

It is very difficult to combat this pest. It has, however, 
a number of natural enemies which vSometimes exterminate 
it before it does serious damage. The only time for carry 
ing on spraying operations against the insect is during the 
fall and the winter, while the trees are in a dormant state. 
At that time any of the soluble oil preparations will be 
effective when used at winter strength. 

There are many mechanical methods that can be used 
successfully in controlling this insect. Brushing with a stiff 
broom just where the white masses appear will destroy the 
eggs and prevent hatching. Small trees especially can be 
treated with very good results. 

In 1904 and 1905, the Shade-Tree Commission of East 
Orange succeeded in controlling this pest by mechanical 
means. The trees were sprayed with water only, by direct 
ing a small solid jet from the power sprayer at the develop 
ing egg masses. A nozzle having a bore of about one-six 
teenth of an inch was used and the water was. discharged 
with sufficient pressure, so that when the stream was just 
drawn along the under side of the twigs it cleared it of egg 
clusters. The insects were dislodged and the egg masses 
broken up, so that the larvae did not hatch. 

Wherever city water pressure is available the insect may 
be combated by using a garden hose with a solid jet of wa 
ter, and as the infestation is usually on the lower branches 
and on the under side, the method works in most cases. 

Woolly Maple Scale (Pseudococcus aceris Sign.). This 
insect, which attacks the sugar maple, passes the winter 
in the larval form. The larvae are microscopic in size, 



178 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

collect in the crevices of the bark, and remain in a naked 
state all winter. In the latter part of May, when they 
change into the cocoon state, the presence of the pest is easily 
detected. The cocoons are about one-sixteenth of an inch 
long and perfectly white. On badly infested trees they 
are piled one on top of the other in such large numbers 
that the trunks look as if they had been whitewashed. 

In early June the insects emerge from their cocoons. 
The females go up to the leaf and settle on the under side 
along the veins. They grow in size and surround themselves 
with a fluffy white mass and lay their eggs from which the 
young larvae hatch. These scatter along the veins and suck 
the sap from the leaves. They begin to migrate during the 
latter part of July. They go along the petioles of the leaves, 
the main limbs, and gather on the trunks where they form 
their cocoons. During the latter part of July and early 
August the cocoons of the newly hatched larvae begin to 
appear on the trees. Toward the end of August they leave 
the cocoons, pair, and then the females of the second brood 
again lodge themselves on the under side of the leaves to lay 
the eggs for the winter generation of larvae. It is at this 
time that the infested sugar maples begin to lose their 
leaves. 

Unlike other insects the several stages of metamorphosis 
of this one are not completed within the same time. While 
some of the insects are in cocoons others are already hatched 
and still others are laying eggs on the under side of the 
leaves. The additional fact that there are two broods a year 
during the summer, produces conditions making it possible 
to find the insect in all stages of development at any time in 
midsummer. These peculiarities make the treatment of the 
trees rather difficult, for the process that will destroy the 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 179 

larvae or the adults will not hurt the eggs or the insects in 
cocoons. 

The best way to control the pest is to wash the trunks of 
infested sugar maples with a solution of whale-oil soap at 
the rate of one pound to four gallons of water, or oil emul 
sion at weekly intervals from the middle of July until the 
leaves fall in late autumn. In early November, after the foli 
age is all gone, the trunks should be given a final treatment 
with the whale-oil soap or oil emulsion to kill the tiny larvae 
that remain all winter. In that way the brood can be killed. 

San Jose Scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus Comst.). Al 
though this species has been most destructive of fruit-trees, 
it attacks a large number of shade and ornamental trees as 
well. The twigs of badly infested trees, instead of being 
smooth and shiny, are covered with dark gray, scurfy 
patches that have a peculiar granular look which any one 
familiar with the bark of a rapidly growing tree will imme 
diately recognize as not a normal condition. 

The winter of the insect is passed in the half grown con 
dition, covered by a round black scale about the size of a 
pin's head. During that season the insects do not feed and 
there is no drain upon the vitality of the tree. In May they 
resume growth. About the middle of June the young larvae 
are born and begin to crawl from beneath the female in 
sects. These young are minute, active, yellow atoms that 
crawl outwardly to the leaves and the young shoots. They 
insert their slender mouth-filaments into the plant tissue and 
begin to suck the sap. They change in form, become more 
circular, and very soon waxy filaments begin to ooze out all 
over the body, which form the scale. In about five or six 
weeks the species is mature, reproducing in turn, and by 
the end of the season the broods are no longer distinct, all 



180 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

stages occurring on infested trees at the same time. A sin 
gle pair, starting under favorable conditions in June, may 
have descendants to exceed one thousand million before 
snow is on the ground. 

Experience has shown that the most effective way to 
control the San Jose Scale is to spray with oil or soap emul 
sions as soon after the middle of October as possible. At 
that time, the functions of the leaves have been accom 
plished and any scorching of the foliage by the spray will 
not affect the tree itself. It is best to choose a sunshiny day 
for the work, to use a nozzle that will give a fine spray and 
to apply the mixture until the twigs begin to drip. 

Scurfy Scale (Chionaspis furfurus Fitch). This scale 
usually infests the poplars and the maples among the shade - 
trees. It is a very pale gray, almost as broad as long, with 
a yellowish point or head. Beneath this scale the eggs are 
found during the winter, and in June they hatch into pur 
plish-colored larvae, which suck the plant juices. There is 
only a single brood which matures in September, and is 
rarely abundant enough to do very much injury. 

This scale is thinner than most others of the armored 
forms, and may be reached by caustic sprays in the winter. 
If no winter application is made it is necessary to wait until 
the eggs hatch in June, and then apply whale-oil soap or 
kerosene emulsion. 

Oyster-Shell Scale (Mytilaspis pomorum Bouche) . Like 
the San Jose scale this insect attacks orchard-trees mostly, 
but is also present on shade-trees. It derives its name from 
the resemblance to one of the very elongate types of oysters. 
It winters in the egg state under the scale, and in May or 
June the eggs hatch into minute yellow atoms that set and 
begin to form small scales. These suck the juices of the 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 181 

twigs and increase in size until midsummer, or a little later. 
Then the males mature, and the females, after impregna 
tion, lay their eggs, which fill the space beneath the scale. 
Sometimes there are two broods during the season. 

There is only one period during which this insect can be 
satisfactorily reached; that is, when the eggs have hatched 
and while the larvae are moving about or have just set. 
This is during late May or early June. As soon as the 
larvae are observed, spray with whale-oil soap at the rate of 
one pound to five gallons of water, or kerosene emulsion. 
Repeat, if possible, a week later to reach delayed larvae. 

Plant Lice. Most shade-trees suffer from plant lice to 
a greater or less extent; but none more than the Norway 
maple. These insects multiply very rapidly, suck the juices 
of the leaves and shoots, and so exhaust their vitality. 
When the insects become abundant the honey dew excreted 
by them sometimes covers the leaves with a sticky secretion 
that may be abundant enough to drop to the street below. 
This secretion tends to clog the foliage so that it may drop 
while yet perfectly green, and a black soot fungus is also 
likely to develop. 

Plant lice are most abundant during a cold, wet spring, 
and the attack usually does not continue after the first spell 
of hot dry weather; so that treatment is generally not 
found necessary. 

Should spraying be desirable nothing is better against 
plant lice than whale-oil soap at the rate of one pound to 
five gallons of water. 

BORERS 

Besides the leaf -eating and the sucking insects that in 
jure trees through defoliation, shade-trees are also subject 
to the attacks of borers that feed on their wood tissue. As 



182 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

soon as the larvae of these insects hatch they bore their way 
through the bark into the wood and make a series of gal 
leries either immediately beneath the bark or deeper in the 
tree. In these they develop and emerge as winged insects. 

Leopard Moth (Zeuzera pyrina Fabr.). The most de 
structive species on city trees is the leopard moth. Practi 
cally all kinds of shade-trees are attacked by the larva. 
During the latter days of June and in early July the adult 
insects are most abundant. The eggs are deposited by the 
females either singly or in masses, a single adult depositing 
between five hundred and one thousand eggs. They are 
usually placed in a bark crevice or other sheltered situation 
on one of the small twigs or branches. On hatching, the 
young caterpillar makes its way to the crotch of a small 
branch or bud and at once bores into the wood tissue. 

It works downward toward the base, and grows very 
rapidly. Presently it leaves its burrow and wanders to a 
large branch and again begins feeding. The caterpillars 
bore a straight channel through the centre of the branch or 
eat out a large cavity on one side of it. Many of the cater 
pillars gnaw an irregular chamber of the size of a man's 
hand right under the bark. 

Two years are required to complete the life cycle. By 
the end of the first season the larva is half -grown and has 
usually made its way to one of the large branches. 

The caterpillars remain in the dormant state during the 
winter and resume feeding the next spring. During the 
second summer, growth is rapid, and at the end of the season 
the larvae reach their full size of two inches or more. In 
that state they pass the second winter, and early in the 
spring following work close to the surface and form pupae 
from which the adult moths emerge. 



PLATE 39.-BORERS.v_ 




1. Bronze Birch Borer, Galleries in inner bark of White Birch made by larvae (about A natural size). 
2. Life History of Sugar Maple Borer (about 2 natural size). A, Larva. B, Adult male. C, 
Adult female. D, Galleries made by larvae. 3. Life History of Leopard Moth (about $ natural 
size). A, Larva. B, Pupa. C, Adult male. D, Adult female. E and F, Galleries made by larvae. 
4. Life History of Maple Tree Sesiid (about % natural size). A, Larva. B, Pupa. C, Adult 
male. D, Adult female. E, Galleries made bv larvae. 



184 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

The injuries to trees by borers are very severe. When 
they girdle a limb the effect is immediate. The circulation of 
the sap is cut off from the end of the branch and it soon dies. 
When a large wound is made on the side of a branch, the 
bark covering it breaks away, the wood is exposed, it dries 
and checks, the successive annual layers do not cover up 
the scar, so that in time the circulation of the sap is re 
tarded and the end of the limb dies. The injury to the trees 
in that case is not immediately apparent, but is none the 
less fatal. 

The leopard moth is hard to combat. The moths do not 
feed and the caterpillars feed on the surface only for a short 
time, when they change their quarters and start in a new 
place. At the end of July and during August the larvae 
force great strings of partly digested wood or "sawdust" 
through the openings by which they entered. At that time 
they can be readily killed by injecting through the openings 
of the burrows a few drops of bisulfid of carbon and clos 
ing them with putty. 

When the trees of a city are attacked by borers it would 
seem that the task of combating them is almost hopeless. 
Persistence will yield results, however. On August 20, 1909, 
for example, . the Shade-Tree Commission of East Orange 
began work against the leopard moth. By September 22, 
about eight thousand trees were treated by a gang of six 
men. Two methods were used to kill the borers; by in 
jecting carbon bisulfid into the burrow and plugging the 
opening with putty, and also by using a wire. The latter 
method was found to be more rapid. Badly infested small 
branches were entirely removed. 

In this work it was possible to cover only the trunks and 
the main limbs of the trees. The men could not reach the 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 185 

ends of the branches and small twigs where the newly 
hatched larvae are found. The work done, however, was 
effective, as the caterpillars that would have matured by the 
following spring were killed and thus the deposition of eggs 
for another brood was almost entirely prevented. In the 
summer of 1910, when the overwintering larvae began their 
borings farther down the trees, the work of killing these 
was carried on in the same way as during the summer of 
1909. In that way the entire brood of borers was extermi 
nated as thoroughly as it was possible. 

Sugar Maple Borer (Plagionotus speciosus Say). Sugar 
maples on streets and roadsides have no more serious en 
emy than the sugar maple borer, which, unlike other borers, 
attacks trees in full vigor. Like the leopard moth this 
insect takes two years to complete its growth. At the end 
of the first season the larva is partly grown. It passes 
the winter in that condition, resumes feeding and growth 
the following summer, hibernates as a full grown lar 
va the second winter, and in the spring after that changes 
into a pupa and then emerges as a beetle. 

Constant watchfulness is needed to detect the presence 
of this borer. Each fall and spring sugar maples should be 
examined for characteristic signs of borings. The pest can 
be exterminated in the same way as the leopard moth. 

Maple Tree Sesiid (Sesia acerni Clem. ) . This is another 
caterpillar borer found in soft and hard maples. It has a 
special fondness for tissues growing over wounds in which 
it makes round holes not over one-eighth of an inch in di 
ameter. Trees wounded from any causes find difficulty in 
covering the exposed wood with bark after being attacked 
by this insect. 

The injuries caused by this borer are not so serious as 



186 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

those of the former. The caterpillars bore near the surface 
and are easily dug out- and destroyed. Where the insects 
are observed in great numbers it will pay to whitewash the 
trunks several times during the season. This will repel the 
moths that would otherwise deposit on the trunks, and it 
would cover over or partly fill the small holes that have 
been made by the insects. 

Bark Borers. Some borers which attack trees work in 
the cambium layer just under the bark, making a series of 
galleries which interlace each other and extend all the way 
around the branches of infected trees. 

The effect of these borings is slow girdling. The circu 
lation of sap is cut off and the upper part of the branches 
die. 

Some of the more common bark borers attacking shade 
and ornamental trees are the bronze birch borer (Agrilus 
anxius Gory. ) , which attacks the various species of birch, 
the two-lined chestnut borer (Agrilus bilineatus Weber), 
which infests the chestnut and the oak, and the hickory- 
bark borer (Scolytus quadrispinosus Say), which is most 
injurious to the hickory. 

The cutting out of infested branches sometimes checks 
the disease if it has not spread far down to the trunk. In 
the majority of cases, however, there is no remedy for trees 
once attacked by these borers. 

FUNGOUS DISEASES 

Many diseases of trees are caused by low forms of vege 
table life, known as fungi, which live upon and within the 
tissues of the higher plants. They possess none of the green 
coloring matter of ordinary vegetation and are made depend 
ent upon the organic matter prepared by green plants. They 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 187 

are thus parasites which obtain their nourishment by the 
breaking down of the cells of the plants on which they exist. 
As affecting shade-trees the fungous diseases are not so 
serious as the injuries by insects. Very few wood-rotting 
fungi are capable of entering an injured tree and beginning 
growth. Nearly all gain lodgment in wounds, grow in these 
and rot the wood. Fungous diseases, therefore, are usually 
the result of some form of neglect, and it is the preventive 
measures rather than the cures that count for most in main 
taining the health of trees. The various types of fungi 
will therefore be mentioned only briefly. 

WOOD-DESTROYING FUNGI 

The most familiar fungi are the shelving or bracket 
forms seen on dead or decaying trees. These shelves or 
brackets are the fruit bodies, which on maturity liberate 
millions of spores for the reproduction of other plants. The 
spores, which are unicellular, microscopic bodies correspond 
ing to the seeds of higher plants, are scattered by the wind 
and find lodgment in wounds of trees, where they begin to 
sprout. They grow unseen for a long time by threadlike 
roots called hyphae which bore through and between the cell- 
walls forming a mass of white meshes called the mycelium. 
This spreads through the heart of the tree, rapidly disinte 
grates the wood and causes it to rot. 

When the mycelium has spread over a large feeding area 
and has stored reserve food it can then grow out through a 
wound or old knot-hole and form the bracket fruit body. 

False -Tinder Fungus (Pyropolyporus ignianus (Linn.) 
Murrill) (Fames ignianus (Linn.) Gillet). The fungi which 
are responsible for the decay and destruction of the heart- 
wood of various broad-leaf trees are quite numerous. They 



PLATE 40. FUNGOUS DISEASES. 

Fl 




1. Living Apple with fruiting body of False-Tinder Fungus (Pyropolyporus igniarius) . 




two feet above fruiting bodies, showing centre rotted by mycelium of Hydnum septentri- 
onale. 5. White Oak, with fruiting body of Dcedalea quercina growing out of a knot 
hole. 6. A longitudinal and transverse section of the white oak in 5, two feet below 
fruiting body, showing the disintegration of the wood by the mycelium of Dcedalea 
quercina. 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 189 

are more or less alike, however, in their manner of entrance 
into the trees, their subsequent development, the production 
of their fruiting bodies, and general remedies. The false- 
tinder fungus may be taken as a type of this class of fungi. 
Among the trees it is known to attack are the following 
species: the beech, the aspen, the willows, the sugar, the 
red, the silver and the striped maples, the oaks, the apple, 
and the hickory. 

The disease caused by this fungus is commonly known as 
"white heart-rot." It is usually confined to the heart- wood 
of the tree. This is changed by the growth and develop 
ment of the mycelium, into a whitish, soft substance, which 
is bounded from the healthy wood by very thin black layers. 
These show as black lines when the trunk of the tree is sawn 
across. The fungus gains entrance into the trunk of the 
tree through some wound. In a majority of cases infection 
takes place through old branch stubs. The spores germinate 
on a stub, and the hyphae grow down through the wood of a 
stub until they reach the heart-wood of the main trunk. The 
destruction of the wood follows very shortly after the en 
trance of the mycelium into the trunk, progressing outward 
and up and down as long as the tree lives. 

The formation of the fruiting bodies takes place usually 
at the point where infection originally occurred. A tree 
attacked by the fungus shows no particular change in its 
general external appearance during the early stages of the 
disease; in fact, it is practically impossible to recognize a 
diseased tree until the fruiting bodies of the fungus form on 
the outside of the trunk. When the fruiting bodies appear 
it may be taken for granted that the disease has progressed 
within the trunk in both directions for two or three feet 
from the point of infection. As the disease progresses new 



190 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

fruiting bodies appear and the older ones grow in size. The 
rotting of the heart- wood continues until the tree, checked in 
growth and become a mere shell of weak sapwood, is broken 
off by a windstorm and its existence terminated. 

There is no cure for diseases caused by wound parasites 
after the fungi enter into the interior of the tree. For a few 
years there may be no apparent injury, but with the lapse 
of time the tree becomes badly decayed if not destroyed. 
The only practical measures of controlling these fungi are 
of a preventive nature. All broken and dead branches of 
trees should be removed as quickly as possible, and all 
wounds, either natural or as a result of pruning, should be 
covered with tar. The destruction of the fruiting bodies as 
they appear helps to check the spread of the diseases. 

Sulfur Polyporus (Lcetiporus speciosus (Batt.) Murrill) 
(Polyporus sulphureus (Bui.) Fr.). The sulfur polyporus 
has a very wide distribution, and is important because it is 
found chiefly on the oaks. It also occurs on the apple, ash, 
birch, butternut, hemlock, locust, and pine. It is a wound 
parasite like the false-tinder fungus, and grows on living 
trees. The mycelium rots the heart of the tree and the fruit 
bodies grow from knot-holes, and also arise from portions 
of the trunk killed by the fungus. 

The sulfur polyporus is easy to recognize because of 
the yellowish color of the soft, spore-bearing bodies. They 
form a series of shelves overlapping one another. Some 
times they form very close together, so as to produce a 
large, round mass about the size of a person's head. The 
fruiting bodies of this fungus rarely remain on the tree for 
any length of time, because they are attacked by insects 
which destroy them. The fungus is also eagerly sought by 
mushroom hunters on account of its excellent edible qualities. 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 191 

The effect of the destruction of the heart- wood of trees 
brought about by this fungus is of a nature resembling the 
decay caused by the false-tinder fungus ; and what has been 
said regarding methods of control of the latter applies to 
this species as well. 

Heart-Rot of Sugar Maple (Hydnum septentrionale Fr. ) . 
This fungus is found principally on the sugar maple ; but 
also on other species of deciduous trees. The effects of this 
fungus upon the wood of diseased trees produces a heart 
decay similar to that of the false-tinder fungus. 

The color of the sporophores is creamy white, and they 
appear in bracketlike clusters that have a striking appear 
ance. 

SAP-ROTS OF TREES 

In the economy of nature many fungi serve a useful 
purpose in breaking down dead wood and clearing the 
forest of debris. Fungi which grow only on dead wood are 
saprophytic, while those which feed on living tissue are 
parasitic. Frequently no sharp line can be drawn between 
those fungi which are capable of growing on dead wood that 
has died after being cut from a living tree and the fungi 
which grow on dead wood of the still living tree. Some of 
these fungi are mentioned in this connection because they 
are frequently taken to be the cause of disease. 

The Common Bracket Fungus (Elfvingia megaloma 
(Lev.) Murrill) (Pomes applanatus (Pers.) Wallr.) may be 
taken as a type of this class of fungi. It is frequently found 
on living trees, but a careful examination always shows it to 
be growing on wood which is actually dead. Generally this 
is the outer sapwood. The sporophores or fruiting bodies 
of this fungus constitute brackets. The upper surface is 
more or less marked by concentric zones which divide off 



PLATE 41. FUNGOUS AND OTHER DISEASES. 




t. Partly dead Sugar Maple with fruiting bodies of sap-rot fungus, Elfvingia megaloma. 
2. "Stag-head" White Maple. 3. Ulcers on Red Maple, suffering from gas-poisoning. 
4. Fruiting bodies of Sulfur Polyporus (after illustration, Bulletin 149, Bureau of Plant In 
dustry, U. S. Department of Agriculture). 5. Leaf scorch of Sugar Maple. 6. Leaf of 
European Linden, spotted by the Linden Rust, caused by Cercospora microsora. 7. Leaf 
of Horse-chestnut curled as a result of Leaf Spot, caused by PhyUosticta pavice. 8. Partly 
dead Red Maple with fruiting bodies of the sap-rot fungus Hopa'.opih. gilvus. 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 193 

the growth of the different years. The fruiting surface 
is white, and when bruised turns brown, and hence the 
brackets of this species are used for sketching. 

A sap-rot fungus frequently found on city trees is Hopa- 
lopilus gilvus (Schw. ) Murrill (Polyporus gilvus Schw. ) . It 
has no common name and is classed with the ordinary poly- 
pores that live on decayed wood. 

One of the most important enemies of structural oaks and 
chestnuts is D&dalea quercina (Linn. ) Pers. It is generally 
found on oak and chestnut logs, ties, telegraph-poles, fences, 
etc., all of which it destroys with rapidity. This fungus 
also occurs on dead portions of living trees, and the sporo- 
phores may be found growing out from large wounds. 

ROOT-ROTS 

The roots of trees are also subject to diseases of which 
the rotting caused by the honey agaric (Armillaria mellea 
Vahl.) is an example. The fungus usually gains entrance 
through some wound in the root system. The young myce 
lium grows into the cambium layer, attacks the living cells, 
and finally completely encircles the base of the trunk of an 
affected tree. The most characteristic parts of the honey 
agaric are the hard black strands popularly known as ''shoe 
strings," which extend in all directions through the ground 
and along the roots of affected trees. 

The danger of any root-rotting disease lies in the fact 
that trees so affected are liable to be blown down without 
warning. Such rots as gain entrance through] wounds at the 
base of the trunk can be prevented by properly treating all 
abrasions of the bark ; but other forms of the disease, inclu 
ding the case of the honey agaric, spread through the ground 
and are difficult to prevent. Careful inspection of such 



194 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

trees, however, will reveal the disease, and they can be cut 
down before they become dangerous. If the trees are not 
blown down they usually die suddenly in early summer, the 
foliage wilting completely. 

CANKER 

Diseases of the bark of trees manifest themselves by the 
appearance of small protuberances and other malformations 
commonly known as canker. The disease is due to fungi, 
one of the most destructive of which is Nectria cinnabarina 
(Tode) Fr. Its spores obtain entrance into wounds caused 
by hailstones, insects, or breakages, and the mycelium grows 
through the partially weakened wood, and ultimately pro 
duces small red clusters of fruiting bodies. A small area of 
the bark is killed and a healing callus begins to form at the 
edge of the wound. The callus of the first year is then 
invaded by the fungus and killed, and a second layer of callus 
starts to develop. The continuation of this process extends 
the growth of the canker over a large area. 

Canker can be treated by cutting away all diseased por 
tions of wood and bark, washing the exposed surface with a 
solution of copper sulfate, one pound to five gallons of 
water, and then painting the same with coal-tar. 

The chestnut bark disease or canker (Diaporthe parasitica 
Murrill) is now the most serious of all the fungous diseases 
of trees. The spores enter the bark through an abrasion or 
some other wound. From the point of infection the fungus 
grows, kills a small patch of bark, and then spreads all 
around the limb or trunk and girdles it. The disease then 
becomes conspicuous by the brown color of the dying foli 
age. The branches are usually attacked first, and from 
these the canker spreads through the entire tree and kills it. 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 195 

Up to the present time no means has been discovered of 
successfully combating this pest. 

LEAF DISEASES 

Shade-trees sometimes suffer from diseases which affect 
the foliage. The assimulating area of the leaves is thus 
reduced, and the growth of the tree is diminished in propor 
tion to the leaf area destroyed. While ordinarily they check 
the growth of the trees for one season only, if the disease 
appears several years in succession it may seriously weaken 
and even kill the tree. 

Diseases of the foliage can be controlled by timely spray 
ing. The germination of fungi may be prevented by the use 
of mineral salts. Those of copper are more commonly used, 
especially the sulfate, usually in the form of Bordeaux 
mixture (see page 207). Just as long as leaves or other 
tissues of plants are covered with a thin coating of Bordeaux 
mixture, no fungi can develop upon them. Thus a fungi 
cide is a preventive, and its application should begin long 
before the disease has advanced far enough to manifest 
itself to any extent. 

Rusts. This term has been applied in more or less of an 
arbitrary manner to a large group of fungi that produce 
masses of spores on the surface of the leaves, generally yel 
lowish or brownish in color. The linden rust (Cercospora 
microsora Sacc.) may be taken as an example. Leaves 
attacked by this fungus become badly spotted, and the mar 
gins decayed and tattered. 

Spraying the branches thoroughly with copper sulfate, 
one pound to twenty-five gallons, or strong Bordeaux mix 
ture, before the leaves unfold, will destroy all of the earlier 
spores upon them. Then if the trees are where the Bor- 



196 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

deaux mixture will not be too conspicuous, it may be applied 
at intervals of from two to four weeks during July and 
August. If the trees are in a very conspicuous place, the 
dilute copper sulfate, one pound to two hundred and fifty 
or three hundred gallons, may be used, as often as every 
two weeks and after heavy rains. The great advantage of 
Bordeaux mixture is that it holds the copper firmly to the 
leaves and with every rain or heavy dew, minute quantities 
are dissolved and the spores are prevented from germi 
nating. 

Mildews. These are parasites which produce white 
spores and more or less white patches on the leaf or other 
parts. The powdery mildew of the willow ( Uncinula solids 
(DeC.) Wint.) and the mildew occurring on some species 
of maple (Uncinula aceris (DeC.) Wint.) may be taken as 
examples. Coming on later in the season than the brown 
rusts, two or three applications of either the Bordeaux mix 
ture or dilute copper sulfate will be effectual, but no applica 
tion need be made generally until the middle or last of July. 

Blights. The leaf blights are unlike the rusts in that 
they attack and destroy small portions of the leaves, and 
when these spots or places become numerous the whole leaf 
is destroyed and it soon falls off. 

The leaf spot of the horse-chestnut and the sycamore leaf 
Might are two of the most destructive leaf diseases of this 
class. 

The destructive work of the leaf spot of the horse-chest 
nut (Phyllosticta pavice Desm. ) becomes conspicuous early in 
the season by the appearance of small brown spots on the 
leaflets; these spread to a large size and produce dead areas 
of curled and broken tissue until the foliage becomes ragged. 
This is followed by early defoliation of the trees. 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 197 

The leaf spot can be controlled by spraying in winter 
with copper sulfate solution to destroy the spores lodged in 
the bark. This should be followed by applications of Bor 
deaux mixture once before the flowers appear and two or 
three times thereafter at intervals of about two weeks. 

The sycamore leaf blight (Gl&osporeum nervisequum 
Sacc.) needs particular mention. It attacks both the Euro 
pean and the American species, but the native variety, Pla- 
tanus occidentalis, seems to be more susceptible. It develops 
with great rapidity at the time of the development of the 
foliage in the spring, and causes the leaves to hang lifeless 
upon the stems. In severe cases the leaves are dropped pre 
maturely, and if the attacks are continued for several years 
the trees become seriously weakened. 

This trouble can be controlled by raking up and burning 
loose bark, dead branches and leaves, and spraying with 
Bordeaux mixture. The spraying should be done during the 
resting period of the trees, as the leaves begin to develop, 
ten days later and within three weeks of the time of the 
unfolding of the buds. 

DISEASES DUE TO CONDITIONS OF SOIL AND CLIMATE 

Diseases due to insects and fungi are more easy of diag 
nosis than those due to unfavorable surroundings. Some 
times, however, no sharp line can be drawn between the two 
classes of diseases. As long as the conditions for obtaining 
food and water from the soil and for conducting these to 
every part of the tree are favorable and the effects of cli 
mate are not detrimental to growth, the tree will continue to 
be in full vigor. If, on the contrary, there be a continual 
drain on the supply of soil-foods with no addition, and there 
be long periods of drought, severe cold or other unfavorable 



198 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

climatic conditions, the tree will become so weakened that 
it will succumb to the attacks of parasites. 

By examining a tree carefully and noting its condition as 
compared with other trees of the same species known to be 
in a state of full vigor, one may determine whether the 
specimen is in a good state of health or not. The points to 
consider are generally the following : the growth in height 
as shown by the vigor and length of the shoots; the growth 
of the trunk in diameter; the color and mass of the foliage; 
the time of the unfolding and shedding of the leaves; the 
development of the crown, whether regular in all its parts ; 
and the mode of shedding of the foliage, whether simulta 
neous in all parts of the tree. 

Soil Conditions. There is no doubt that in the case of 
city trees, causes of decay and death can in the majority of 
cases, be traced to poor conditions of the soil, such as lack of 
food and water and root suffocation. 

A disease known as "stag-head" or "top dry" fre 
quently results from lack of proper food in the soil, and 
manifests itself by the gradual death of the top of the tree. 
Where trees grow year after year and there is no addition to 
the available soil foods, and where the earth is dried out by 
the sun and grass, starvation necessarily follows. The tree, 
therefore, gradually stops growing, the branches slowly die, 
and other diseases set in, until finally the last branch is dead. 

A constant supply of proper food is necessary to prevent 
this disease. The ground underneath the tree should not be 
sodded. It should be worked and top dressed at frequent 
intervals to keep up the food-supply. 

Imperfect circulation of air in the soil has an important 
bearing on the health of trees. City trees are likely to suffer 
a lack of aeration of the soil, because of pavements and 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 199 

walks. The use of grills and the keeping of the soil loose 
will help the exchange of gases between the soil atmosphere 
and the air. 

Root asphyxiation is especially liable to occur along 
streets where the ground water is only a few feet from the 
surface. During prolonged rainy weather the water rises, 
making the soil wet up close to the surface. The pavement 
adds here to the evil of poor under- drainage, preventing 
evaporation and aeration. 

Young trees set too deep are often killed, and covering 
the earth about trees with soil a foot or more deep usually 
results in injury, if not death from asphyxiation. 

Ulcers. This general term will be made to include all 
internal injuries and diseases which manifest themselves 
externally by the flow of sap over the bark. A disease 
known as slime-flux is characterized by the appearance of 
various colored slimy masses with a decidedly acid odor 
which start at or near wounds. They make their appear 
ance usually in the spring when the sap, containing more or 
less sugar, flows from the wounds. In the sap a number of 
forms of algae, bacteria, and fungi begin to grow and form a 
slimy, dripping mass over the bark. The cambium beneath 
dies rapidly, and if the disease is not checked the destruction 
may extend completely around a tree, resulting in the death 
of branches and sometimes of the entire tree. 

An exudation of sap sometimes occurs through splits in 
the bark, not near any wounds, and which from the outside 
appears to be perfectly normal and healthy. The liquid is 
usually mucilaginous and fermented, and as it flows over the 
bark it discolors it gray, brown, or reddish. The species on 
which such a condition is most frequently noticed are horse- 
chestnuts, elms, maples, poplars, and oaks. 



200 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

The writer once had under observation a number of trees 
suffering from gas -poisoning. There were elms, Norway 
maples, sugar maples, white maples, and red maples among 
them. About the time when the red and the white maples 
began to show the usual symptoms of the poison, such as the 
etiolation and the partial loss of the foliage, the sap began 
to ooze out from a number of places on the trunk and main 
branches. The sap did not come from openings made by 
borers or other causes, but through splits of bark looking 
normal on the outside. On removing the bark there was 
seen a discoloration of the sap-wood, and the descending cur 
rent of sap flowed freely near the point of this discoloration. 
If a part only of the bark covering this diseased spot was 
cut away, the sap was seen coming out from under the por 
tion of the bark still covering the remainder of this blister- 
like formation. The sap flowing from the splits in the bark 
was frothy white in appearance (Plate 41, Fig. 3) , and had a 
fermented odor, as that of cider. 

The exact cause and nature of the formation of ulcers in 
trees is not yet fully understood. The condition is variously 
ascribed to an excess of humidity in the soil, to sudden 
changes of temperature during the growing season, to the 
non-utilization of all the sap for growth, to a decomposition 
of internal tissues, and to a modification of the chemical com 
position of the sap. There is no doubt, however, that the 
disease is due to a general disturbance of the nutrition of the 
tree which is followed by local fermentation of bark areas. 

The division of Forest Pathology of the Bureau of Plant 
Industry of the United States Department of Agriculture, 
expects to undertake within a few years systematic work 
on phenomena of the class to which ulcers and slime-flux 
belong. 



INJURIOUS INSECTS, FUNGOUS DISEASES, ETC. 201 

Ulcers can be treated by making vertical incisions in 
the bark near the wound to allow the liquid to flow off as 
rapidly as possible and, when the current stops, cutting 
away the diseased bark and painting with coal-tar. 

Drying Out and Leaf Scorch. Young leaves and some 
times tender shoots which have pushed out during a spell of 
cold or cloudy weather frequently wither and die, when ex 
posed to bright, hot sun. The trouble usually occurs when 
a rather moist spring, favorable to growth, is followed by 
dry and very hot weather. 

Remedial measures are not always easy to carry out, but 
the harm may be lessened by any treatment that keeps the 
soil moist and aerated, so that the foliage may have an am 
ple supply of water to draw upon. 

Frequently there is much complaint of the leaves of 
many trees, especially sugar maples, being affected with 
an apparent disease that causes a loss of green in those 
parts most distant from the main veins. The trouble 
has been studied at several experiment stations, and the 
consensus of opinion is that it is of physiological origin. 
A lack of water-supply to the leaf tissue causes the death 
of the least resistant portions of the leaf during a hot and 
dry spell. 

The writer has found that such a condition can generally 
be remedied by the mulching of trees in the fall, keeping the 
soil loose and watering freely. 

Frost. The injuries from freezing are of a nature simi 
lar to drying. Freezing of the plant tissues in fact is the 
drying out of the water which they contain. If the tissues 
are dried beyond the point where they are able to take up 
water again, they are killed. In general, trees native to a 
given section resist injuries of this sort. In the case of trees 



202 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

introduced from warmer regions care has to be exercised 
in their location and protection from frosts. 

Smooth barked trees sometimes have their trunks and 
larger branches injured on the southwest side during the 
winter, the injuries being characterized by the death of 
patches of bark. During the latter part of winter and early 
spring, when there are periods of several days of warm 
weather, the cambium on the south side of the trunk and 
larger limbs is stimulated to premature activity. If the 
warm spell is followed by freezing weather these partially 
active areas are killed. After a time the bark separates 
from the wood and splits. The injury does not manifest 
itself until well into the summer. The dead tissue forms a 
favorable place for the growth of parasites that cause the 
rotting of the wood. 

Trees can be protected from injuries caused by alternate 
freezing and thawing by wrapping with burlap or straw. 
When injuries have been produced the affected areas should 
be cut away and painted with tar. 



CHAPTER IX 

INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND SPRAYING 
INSECTICIDES 

INSECTICIDES are of two general types, those that kill by 
being eaten, or stomach poisons; and those that kill by actu 
ally touching the insects, or contact poisons. The distinc 
tion is an important one. Insects that eat up the foliage can 
be killed by applying to the leaves some mixture containing 
arsenic. Insects that suck the juices of a plant are safe 
from all poisons because no poison can be got into their 
food. They make a minute puncture in the leaf-tissue and 
then pump the sap, and get none of the poison. Such 
insects must be killed by a contact poison which must cover 
them and corrode their tissues, or choke them by clogging 
their breathing pores. 

Stomach Poisons. Against those insects that feed upon 
plant tissue there is nothing better than arsenic in some 
form. Paris green, which contains about 50 per cent, of 
arsenic, has been frequently employed ; but the safest arsen 
ical poison for spraying trees is arsenate of lead. Its use 
has become quite common during the last few years. Paris 
green is an effective insecticide, but is liable to injure the 
foliage. Arsenate of lead is effective against insects and is 
harmless to foliage when used at any reasonable strength. 
It remains in suspension longer than Paris green, and adheres 
to the foliage a longer time than any other stomach poison. 

203 



204 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

When sprayed in midsummer, leaves retain some of the 
arsenate of lead when they fall in autumn. 
Arsenate of lead may be prepared as follows : 

Acetate of lead 12 oz. 

Arsenate of soda 4 oz. 

Water 15 to 20 gallons. 

Pour the acetate of lead into two quarts of water and the 
arsenate of soda into another two quarts; then pour these 
two solutions into a tank containing fifteen or twenty gal 
lons of water. This gives a white precipitate of arsenate of 
lead. Good chemicals should be used. 

It very seldom pays in actual spraying operations to pre 
pare the arsenate of lead. It is best to buy it in paste form 
ready made. The manufacture of insecticides has become 
more general during the last few years, and with the 
passage of the National Insecticide Law their adulteration 
will be prevented. This law is known as "The Insecticide 
Act of 1910, " and came into effect January 1, 1911. It is 
"an act for preventing the manufacture, sale, or transpor 
tation of adulterated or misbranded Paris greens, lead ar- 
senates, and other insecticides, and also fungicides, and for 
regulating traffic therein, and for other purposes. " The 
standards of strength and purity of insecticides and fungi 
cides are prescribed in section 7 of the act, which is as 
follows : 

"SEC. 7. That for the purpose of this Act an article shall 
be deemed to be adulterated 

"In the case of Paris green: First, if it does not contain 
at least fifty per centum of arsenious oxid; second, if it 
contains arsenic in water-soluble forms equivalent to more 
than three and one-half per centum of arsenious oxid; 



INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND SPRAYING 205 

third, if any substance has been mixed and packed with it 
so as to reduce or lower or injuriously affect its quality 
or strength. 

"In the case of lead arsenate: First, if it contains more 
than fifty per centum of water; second, if it contains total 
arsenic equivalent to less than twelve and one-half per cen 
tum of arsenic oxid (As 2 O 5 ) ; third, if it contains arsenic in 
water-soluble forms equivalent to more than seventy-five 
one-hundredths per centum of arsenic oxid (As 2 O 5 ) ; fourth, 
if any substances have been mixed and packed with it so to 
reduce, lower, or injuriously affect its quality or strength: 
Provided, however, That extra water may be added to lead 
arsenate (as described in this paragraph) if the resulting 
mixture is labeled lead arsenate and water, the percentage oi 
extra water being plainly and correctly stated on the label. 

"In the case of insecticides or fungicides other than 
Paris green and lead arsenate : First, if its strength or purity 
fall below the professed standard or quality under which it 
is sold ; second, if any substance has been substituted wholly 
or in part for the article; third, if any valuable constituent of 
the article has been wholly or in part abstracted ; fourth, if 
it is intended for use on vegetation and shall contain any 
substance or substances which, although preventing, de 
stroying, repelling, or mitigating insects, shall be injurious 
to such vegetation when used." 

Contact Poisons. Whale-oil soap, which is a common 
name for all fish-oil soaps now on the market, is the simplest 
contact insecticide, especially if only a few trees are to be 
sprayed. Used at the rate of one pound in from four to six 
gallons of water in the summer-time it will kill plant lice 
and other sucking insects. At the rate of one pound in two 
gallons of water it can be used on dormant trees for winter 



206 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

washes to kill the cottony maple scale or the woolly maple 
scale. 

Kerosene emulsion is one of the most common contact 
insecticides. A 10 per cent, solution of kerosene in water 
is the usual strength employed in spraying foliage with 
safety. Kerosene and water alone do not emulsify, and if an 
attempt is made to spray with only a mechanical mixture of 
the oil and water, the chances are that neither pure oil nor 
water is pumped at any one time. Soap is therefore added 
to the oil in order to make an emulsion. 

The preparation is made as follows : 

Kerosene 2 gals. 

Soap Jib. 

Water 1 gal. 

Dissolve the soap in hot water, add the kerosene and 
churn thoroughly, or pump into itself till a creamy emulsion 
is formed. This emulsion, diluted with from twelve to fif 
teen times its own bulk of water, is an excellent summer 
remedy for plant lice and other soft-bodied insects that can 
be reached with contact poisons. 

There are now soft soaps on the market by means of 
which it is possible to emulsify kerosene with water without 
heating any of the ingredients. The soap is dissolved in the 
water and then the kerosene is added while the mixture is 
being pumped into itself until an emulsion is formed. 

There are also many oil and petroleum preparations now 
manufactured that are soluble in cold water and are ready 
for use on mixing. A perfect emulsion is formed without 
pumping, and no stirring is necessary while the mixture is 
being applied. These miscible oils are rather expensive, 
but have the advantage of being always ready for use. To 



INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND SPRAYING 207 

the owner of a few trees nothing better could be recom 
mended. For extensive spraying the use of miscible oils 
will usually be found advisable also. The time and labor 
necessary to prepare the oil emulsions bring their cost up to 
an amount equal to or greater than that of the soluble oils. 
Vapors. The vapor of bisulfid of carbon is used in kill 
ing borers. The liquid is injected into the burrow with 
an oil -can or syringe, and the opening plugged with putty. 
The fumes given off by the carbon bisulfid are fatal to 
all insects that breathe it. Carbon bisulfid is very inflam 
mable. 

FUNGICIDES 

Fungicides act as preventives of plant disease by ob 
structing the germination of the spores of the fungi causing 
such disease. If the leaves of trees, for example, are cov 
ered with a coating of copper sulfate or other chemical 
deleterious to the germination of the spores, the reproduc 
tion of the fungi is held in check and disease prevented. 

Bordeaux Mixture. This is the standard fungicide and 
consists of a combination of copper sulfate, fresh lime, and 
water. The formula in most general use is the following: 

Copper sulfate 4 Ibs. 

Fresh lime 4 Ibs. 

Water to make 50 gals. 

By combining the copper and the lime it is found that the 
copper sulfate may be used more freely and with less in 
jury than if used alone, and it will adhere a long time to the 
foliage. For preparing this fungicide on a small scale, the 
copper sulfate should be dissolved in twenty-five gallons of 
water, using a half barrel for the purpose. To dissolve the 
copper sulfate readily, it should be placed in a coarse cloth 



208 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

bag and suspended in the water so that the salt is just 
covered. The lime should be dissolved in another vessel, 
using only a small amount of water at first, adding more 
as the process of slacking progresses, and then diluting to 
twenty-five gallons. The copper sulfate solution and the 
milk of lime should then be poured into a third vessel. It is 
best to strain the materials when pouring them together. It 
is important that practically equal amounts of the two solu 
tions should be poured together at the same time, otherwise 
the proper chemical combination may not take place and the 
results of the spraying may not be satisfactory. 

Ammoniacal Copper Carbonate. In conspicuous places the 
Bordeaux mixture is objectionable on account of the deposits 
of lime and copper that remain on the foliage, and therefore 
ammoniacal copper carbonate is used. It is a clear, light 
blue solution which leaves no stain. It is not so adhesive to 
the foliage as Bordeaux mixture, is washed off with heavy 
rains, and requires frequent renewals. The formula for 
making it is as follows : 

Copper carbonate 5 oz. 

Strong ammonia 1 qt. 

Water to make 50 gals. 

Dilute the ammonia with two gallons of water, add 
enough to the copper carbonate to make a thin paste, pour 
on about half the ammonia and stir thoroughly. Allow the 
mixture to settle, and then pour off the top, leaving the 
undissolved portion behind. Repeat this operation, using 
small quantities of the remaining ammonia until all the cop 
per sulfate is dissolved, taking no more ammonia than is 
necessary to complete the solution. Then add the remainder 
of the required amount of water. 



INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND SPRAYING 209 

As in the case of insecticides, there are ready-prepared 
fungicides on the market. These preparations have been 
steadily improved and are coming into general use. They 
may cost more than the crude chemicals do when pre 
pared by the user; ibut they are more economical in the 
long run, because of the saving of the cost of labor of 
making them. 

SPRAYING APPARATUS 

There is now on the market machinery for spraying 
the smallest bush or the tallest tree. There are atomizers, 
bucket-pumps, barrel hand-pumps and power-sprayers. 
What sprayer to get depends upon the work required. No 
matter what capacity sprayer it is intended to purchase it 
is always best to communicate with the state experiment 
station for information and advice. During the last few 
years rapid strides have been made in the manufacture of 
spraying apparatus, and it pays to take the trouble to ascer 
tain what is the best on the market. 

Bucket-Pumps. A most serviceable and very cheap ap 
paratus for spraying fruit and medium sized shade-trees is a 
bucket-pump shown in Plate 42, Fig. 4. When using this 
sprayer, the insecticide should be mixed in a barrel or other 
receptacle, and small quantities poured into the bucket from 
which the mixture is pumped. 

Barrel Hand-Pumps. More powerful than the bucket- 
pumps are the barrel hand-pumps. These consist of a hand- 
pump set in a barrel of fifty or sixty gallons capacity which 
contains the insecticide. They can generally supply from 
two to four leads of hose and give sufficient pressure to pro 
duce a very fine spray. A good hand-pump, mounted on a 
barrel or tank, furnishes a good outfit for the orchardist and 



M<U G 
IjOOB 

!H C * 




INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND SPRAYING 211 

will be found equally satisfactory for spraying shade-trees 
when only a limited number are to be treated. 

Power-Sprayers. For spraying very large trees and for 
city work in general, power sprayers are absolutely neces 
sary. There are many kinds of spray outfits of which those 
run by gasoline and by liquid carbon dioxid are now the 
most common in use. Gasoline sprayers consist of a gaso 
line motor, pump, and insecticide tank. The transmission 
of power from the motor to the pump is either by means of 
a belt, or the pump and engine are directly connected by 
reduction gearing. The latter arrangement is much the 
better. The insecticide tanks are usually of about two 
hundred gallons capacity. 

A very necessary accessory of the insecticide tank is an 
agitator to stir the spraying mixture while the machine is in 
operation. This may be either a mechanical contrivance 
operated by the engine or of the jet type. The latter con 
sists of a jet of the spraying mixture sent back into the 
tank by the pump. If the capacity of the motor is ample, an 
agitator of the jet type is excellent; but if the pressure is 
very much reduced by sending some of the liquid back to 
the tank, a mechanical agitator is to be preferred. 

Whether the agitator be of the jet or the mechanical type, 
it is very important that it should be worked by the engine 
and not by man power. When a man is put to turning a 
crank for eight or ten hours a day, the chances are that the 
agitator will not work very uniformly. As a result, when 
such mixtures as arsenate of lead are used, the precipitate 
will settle and the spraying will be done with clear water. 
The writer has known of many cases of ineffective spraying 
work due to inefficient agitating devices. 

The sprayers operated by liquid carbon dioxid have 



212 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

come into general use during the last few years. This type 
of machine is very easy to operate. The power is supplied 
by liquid carbon dioxid contained in steel tubes connected 
with the steel insecticide tank by means of a piece of hose. 
When the valve of the carbon dioxid container is opened, 
the liquid in passing through the gas-tube turns into a gas 
which creates the pressure in the insecticide tank. The 
amount of the pressure is indicated by a pressure gage. 
Sufficient force can be supplied by the carbonic-acid gas to 
spray the tallest trees. 

Gas-sprayers are good, but require a supply of gas con 
stantly available, and the actual cost of operation is very 
expensive. The liquid carbon dioxid costs about a dollar 
for every one hundred and fifty gallons of insecticide used. 
On the average, a man sprays about one hundred and fifty 
gallons of insecticide mixture per day, so that with three 
nozzles working, the operating cost of gas-sprayers is about 
three dollars per day. The operating expense of gasoline- 
sprayers is trifling only a few cents a day. The simplicity 
of gas-sprayers, however, makes them frequently desirable 
even in spite of the additional operating cost. So long as 
there is a supply of carbon dioxid on hand there is no loss 
of time during the working day. Gasoline-sprayers some 
times get out of order, and the loss of time for repairs is con 
siderable. If a good mechanic is available to run a gasoline- 
sprayer there is little loss of time ; but a gas-sprayer gives 
better results in less skilled hands. 

The agitator on the gas-sprayers is of the mechanical 
type, operated by a crank. Care must be taken to see that 
the man turns the crank every minute of the time that the 
machine is in operation if a mixture is used that will settle. 

Spraying Hose. The very best hose made is none too 



INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND SPRAYING 213 

good for spraying work. It should safely stand a pressure 
of not less than one hundred and forty pounds to the square 
inch. For spraying tall trees it is absolutely necessary to 
maintain a pressure of about one hundred and twenty pounds. 
A number of brands of hose now made will answer these 
requirements. While it is desirable to use a light hose so 
that the equipment will be less cumbersome and it will be 
easier for the workmen to take the lines up the trees, it has 
been found undesirable to use hose less than one-half inch 
in diameter. This is the most common size used, although 
three-quarter inch and one inch hose are also employed. 

Nozzles. Although the smallest, the nozzle is none the 
less one of the most important parts of the spraying outfit. 
It must break up the mixture into the finest particles and 
send them against the foliage with the greatest possible 
force. A very fine, mistlike spray is excellent when the 
object is simply to cover a large surface ; but such a spray 
has no penetrating power. 

The " Vermorel" nozzle, or some modification of it, is now 
used by almost all makers of spraying machinery. In this 
type of nozzle the stream enters a circular chamber tangen- 
tially, acquires thereby a rotary motion, and issues from a 
small, central opening on the upper disk of the chamber. 
The Vermorel nozzle is especially serviceable in spraying 
medium sized trees when all the foliage can be easily 
reached. This type of nozzle has a disgorging device for 
forcing out the obstruction when it becomes clogged. 

The construction of the "Cyclone" nozzle is similar to 
that of the Vermorel, and has the same uses ; but is not pro 
vided with any disgorging device. 

The "Bordeaux" nozzle is so constructed that the 
character of the spray can be changed from a solid 



214 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



stream to a mistlike, fan-shaped spray by turning the 
handle. 

For "spraying very large trees, especially elms, the ends 
of the branches of which are pendulous and impossible for a 

man to reach, nozzles of 

tato mi the jet type are indispen- 

JB JBfc sable. Such a nozzle, 

M devised by the writer, 

is shown in Fig. 30, E. 

A B It has a bore of about 

one-sixteenth of an inch. 
The mixture comes out 
in a solid jet ; but if there 
is sufficient pressure, the 
stream is thrown fifteen 
feet or more from the 
nozzle and breaks up 
finely enough so as to 
cause the spray to ad 
here to the foliage. 

It is important that as 
fine a spray as the com 
bination of high pressure 
and good nozzle will pro 
duce should strike the 

FIG. 30. Spray-Nozzles: A and B, types 







of cyclone nozzles. C and D, types of 
Vermorel nozzles. E, Jet nozzle. F, 
Bordeaux nozzle. 



foliage. The finer the 
spray the better it will 
adhere to the foliage. A 

coarse spray rolls off the leaf. Especially when spraying 
with arsenate of lead or other stomach poisons, the efficacy 
of which depends upon its adhesiveness to the leaves, the 
use of a fine spray is necessary to secure the best results. 



INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND SPRAYING 215 

Extension Poles and Spray-Rods. For reaching the tops 
of trees bamboo poles are used, which are fastened alongside 
of the end of the hose. The nozzle is inserted into the 





FIG. 31. Spray "Ys." A, Four-branched "Y" of Vermorel nozzles. 
B, Two-branched "Y" of Cyclone nozzles. These "Ys" may be 
used in the place of single nozzles. They cause a more rapid dis 
charge of the spray mixture. 

hose, so that the pole serves the purpose of making the 
spray end of the line rigid. 

Spray-rods are now made, however, which make it easier 
to handle the hose. The spray-rods consist of aluminum 
tubes, inside of bamboo poles. One end of the rod is at- 



216 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

tached- to the hose, the spray mixture passes through the 
tube and out of the nozzle at the other end. 

Precautions in Spraying. Spraying is one of the most 
important and expensive operations in the care of trees. 
To be at all effective it must be very carefully done and can 
not be left to ignorant hands. There must be thoroughness 
in all applications made. The man at the nozzle must know 
precisely what he is aiming at and how he expects to accom 
plish his aim. With the best appliances and proper insecti 
cides, failures frequently result if the work is not carefully 
done. 

When applying stomach poisons, the spray should not be 
continued until the foliage drips too freely, for the effective 
ness of the fine mist will then be destroyed. All the glob 
ules on the leaf will unite to form a film which will run off 
and leave little of the poison adhering to it. After a fine 
mist dries on the leaves, they can be sprayed again and will 
then hold more poison than would have been possible to 
apply during one operation. 

The application of contact insecticides, however, should 
be more thorough than that of stomach poisons and contin 
ued until the leaves drip. These poisons act only until they 
dry, and if any insect is not touched it will escape. Stomach 
poisons adhere to the leaf-tissue, and the chewing insect is 
bound to get some of the poison if it continues to feed long 
enough if not on one part of the leaf then on another. 

All spraying mixtures should be carefully strained before 
being poured into the insecticide tank. This precaution will 
prevent the clogging of the nozzle. 

A warm, sunshiny, calm day is ideal for spraying. When 
there is no wind there is little waste of spraying material 
and the insecticide adheres more firmly to the leaves and 



INSECTICIDES, FUNGICIDES, AND SPRAYING 217 

dries quickly. When doing considerable work, however, 
that must be finished within a certain time to be effective, 
one cannot always wait for the ideal day. No spraying, 
however, should be done on wet days or when rain is anti 
cipated. If it should rain shortly after trees have been 
sprayed, they should be carefully examined afterward to 
see if the spraying material has been washed off. If so, the 
trees should be sprayed again. 



CHAPTER X 

THE REPAIR AND REPLACING OF TREES 
THE REPAIR OF TREES 

IF trees were planted and maintained under ideal condi 
tions and were not subject to injuries or diseases they would 
continue in good condition and health to a very old age. But 
these conditions are not possible among a community of 
trees any more than among a community of human beings. 

Natural enemies such as windstorms, insect pests, and 
fungous diseases, failure of placing guards around trees to 
protect them from horse-bites, the leaving of short stumps 
in pruning, abrasions caused by overhead wires and general 
neglect cause serious damage to city trees. Although slight 
at first such injuries, when left unattended at the time of 
occurrence, are frequently the first cause of the decay and 
death of valuable trees. 

The preservation of grown trees in a city is sometimes 
of greater importance than setting out new ones. The 
repair of trees or tree surgery forms one of the chief and 
most necessary tasks in the care of shade-trees. 

Abrasion of Bark. One of the simplest cases requiring 
treatment is a body wound on a tree caused by the abrasion 
or stripping of the bark. In such cases the thing to do is 
to cut away with a sharp knife all loose, ragged, or injured 
bark as far as the injury extends. Bark once loosened 
can never attach itself to the trunk again. When left 
on the tree it soon dries and decays and forms a shelter for 

218 



THE REPAIR AND REPLACING OF TREES 219 

insects and fungus spores. After the injured bark has been 
carefully removed, the exposed wood should be painted with 
coal-tar to prevent the checking 
of the exposed wood. A callus 
will soon form and in time the 
entire scar will heal. 

Bridge-Grafting. When the 
abrasion of the bark extends al 
most around the tree, or if a tree 
is completely girdled, a connec 
tion between the separate parts 
of the trunk may be reestab 
lished by bridge-grafting. (Fig. 
32.) The edges of the girdle 
are trimmed, and cions are in 
serted under the bark so as to 
bridge the wound. These cions 
are cut to a wedge shape on 
either end and are inserted be 
tween the bark and the wood. 
A cloth bandage is tied about 
each edge of the wound to hold 
the bark in place over the cions. 
Melted grafting wax is then 
poured or molded over the entire FIG. 32. Method of bridge- 

1 , grafting a girdled trunk. 

work, so as to cover the exposed 

wood and also the edges of the bark for two or three 

inches from the wound. 

Grafting wax may be made as follows : 

Resin 4 parts 

Beeswax 2 parts 

Tallow 1 part 




220 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

Melt in mass, pour into a tub or pail of cold water, then 
work with greased hands until it develops a grain and 
becomes the color of taffy candy. 

If instead of one part tallow, one and a half parts of lin 
seed-oil are used, and the ingredients then melted, the 
grafting wax can be drawn out for use without any ne 
cessity of remelting. The hands should be greased when 
working the wax. 

Breakages in Storms. When a limb breaks in a storm 
the fracture is usually very rough and some of the bark is 
stripped. The branch should be cut back close to a crotch 
and the scar painted with coal-tar, just as in pruning. Any 
loose bark must be removed. 

Filling of Cavities. The mutilation of trees by horses 
has already been discussed. Any neglected injury to a tree 
in which the bark is stripped from the trunk, causes the 
wood to rot and the decay is carried to the centre of the 
tree. Frequently such cavities can be treated and the life 
of the tree greatly prolonged. 

The repair of tree cavities is very much like the process 
of filling a tooth. All decayed and diseased wood is removed 
as far as the living tissue. (Plate 43. ) A great variety of 
tools is found useful in this process of scooping out the bad 
wood : a ship bit, chisel and hammer, gouge, adze and hatchet 
can be employed. It is found that in old cavities, the bark, 
in an effort to cover up the wound, is deposited in thick rolls 
around the edges that turn inwardly. It is necessary to 
remove all this tissue to such parts of the trunk that be 
long to the natural contour of the tree, to the points AA, 
Fig. 33. 

Every cavity requires different methods of procedure in 
the way it is cleaned, in the amount removed and the means 



222 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

employed for the reenforcement of the tree or the retention 
of the filling. The cavity is finished in a way that it will 
retain the filling. In the case of small ones it is sufficient if 
the interiors are made larger than the openings. Shallow 
cavities and those of considerable size are treated in another 




FIG. 33. A transverse section of a tree showing the precautions to be 
taken when preparing a cavity for filling. The rolls of tissue must be 
cut away to the points A A, and all decayed wood removed. The 
filling must follow the natural contour of the tree, B C B, and stop at 
the points B B, depressed a distance equal to the thickness of the bark. 

way. A deep channel is cut just inside of the opening, all 
around the periphery, and this helps to retain the cement. 
Before filling, the cavity is sterilized by washing with an 
antiseptic solution of copper sulfate, one pound to fifteen 
gallons of water, and then covered with molten coal-tar. In 
order to secure a better adhesion of the cement to the walls 
of the cavity, the hole is filled before the tar hardens. To 



THE REPAIR AND REPLACING OF TREES 223 

insure the firmer retention of the filling in the tree the cav 
ities are studded with nails. When a tree is weak because 
of a large cavity, steel braces are sometimes inserted hori 
zontally and vertically for reenforcement. 

Small cavities are filled with a mixture of two parts of 
sand to one part of Portland cement. Larger openings, sev 
eral cubic feet in volume, are filled by using broken stone 
and brick with the concrete. In this way it is easier to 
build up the filling, and its strengthening power is increased. 
After the filling has had time to stiffen, but not to become 
perfectly hard, it is finished with cement, a trowel being 
used to shape it according to the contour of the tree. 

An extremely important point to remember is that the 
filling must not be brought up flush with the outside of the 
bark of the tree ; but must stop at a depth equal to the thick 
ness of the bark and the filling shaped to follow the contour 
of the tree, as shown by the line B C B, Fig. 33. This 
precaution must be taken to enable the healing callus to 
overgrow the filling. If not very large, the tissue may in 
time completely heal over the cement and bury it, just the 
same as the stub left when a limb is removed. (Plate 44, 
Fig. 3.) 

It is a good plan, when the cavity is ready for filling, to 
cut a strip of bark about one-half inch wide all the way 
around the periphery of the opening, as shown in TPlate 44, 
Fig. 4. The cement can be brought up flush with the wood. 
The healing callus will start to roll over the wood (Plate 44, 
Fig. 5) , and then over the cement, hermetically sealing the 
cavity. The edges of the wound only, or the surface of the 
entire filling may be painted or covered with coal-tar. 

When the hollow trunks of trees are filled with concrete, 
they are immensely strengthened and are not in danger of 



PLATE 44. EXAMPLES OF TREE-SURGERY. 




1. Cavity in a tree cleaned ready for a coating of coal-tar and filling. 2. The cavity filled, 
showing the cement depressed a distance equal to the thickness of the bark. 3. The 
same tree three years later, callus overgrowing filling. 4. Before the filling was done in 
this example, a narrow strip of bark was cut around the periphery of the opening and 
the filling then brought up flush with the wood. 5. The same a year later. The healing 
callus is beginning to roll over the wood. 6. Injury caused by banding a crotch. 7. 
Large knot-hole in trunk of white maple, showing ring of tissue around opening. 8. 
Side view of the same. A cut is made along the Lne A B. 9. The decayed wood is re 
moved and cavity filled flush with saw-cut. Callus is beginning to overgrow the wound. 



THE REPAIR AND REPLACING OF TREES 



225 



being overthrown by strong winds as trees of which the 
trunks are hollow shells. The concrete acts as a pillar 
which reenforces the tree. 

Knot-Holes. Equally as serious and more numerous than 




FIG. 34. 1. Methods of strengthening a weak crotch: A, by means 
of a bolt. B, by means of hook-bolts and chain. 2. Vertical 
section of branch, showing method of bolting. A, Wood. B, 
Bark. C, Bolt. D, Cement. E, Washer and nut. Healing 
tissue will overcap the cement. 



wounds on trunks of trees are knot-holes caused by the 
decay of stumps left by improper pruning. In these cases 
the grain of the wood running toward the centre of the tree 
instead of vertically, the decay is more easily carried to the 



226 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

heart. When the stump is left the new tissue makes an 
effort to overgrow the stub, so to speak, and the result is 
that a thick layer of wood is deposited at the base of the 
crotch. (Plate 26, Fig. 3.) When the stub rots and falls 
out, this tissue remains like a ring around the opening of 
the knot-hole. (Plate 44, Fig. 7.) To fill such a cavity 
properly, it is generally best to make a cut across this ring 
close to the trunk, A B, Plate 44, Fig. 8, then scrape out 
all the decayed wood and fill the cavity flush with the saw 
cut. Although by this means the area of the scar is in 
creased it is brought in more intimate contact with the 
healing callus and will be like a cut of an amputated 
branch. The callus will form over the wood first (Plate 44, 
Fig. 9), and then over the cement and bury it. 

Cavities resulting from other causes, such as those made 
by borers, can be treated the same way. Surface wounds 
need only a painting with coal-tar; but if the decay is deep 
it needs scraping and filling with cement. 

Crotches. It frequently happens that a tree forms a 
sharp angle by the division, near the ground, into two or 
three limbs. The addition of the annual layers of wood and 
the swaying of the tree cause a prying apart of the limbs 
at this point, and in time a split is the result. It is then 
necessary to brace the crotch to prevent the branches from 
breaking off. 

A common though wrong method of repairing such a 
defect in a tree has been to put a band around the two limbs 
forming the fork. The result of such a method is shown in 
Plate 44, Fig. 6. The action of the band around one-half 
of the circumference of the tree has resulted in partly gird 
ling it. It has cut into the layers of new growth and the 
tree has been disfigured. The proper way to brace a crotch 



THE REPAIR AND REPLACING OF TREES 227 

is to run a bolt through the branches, as shown in Fig. 34, 
by boring holes through them. With the growth of the tree, 
the nuts holding the bolt are buried by new tissue and no 
injury results to the tree. 

A great many trees can be saved by the practise of 
tree surgery and their life prolonged for a great many years. 
It is, however, work that requires great judgment and skill, 
as every tree presents a different problem and one should 
not entrust his trees for treatment to impostors who claim 
to possess miraculous means of curing trees of all diseases. 

MAINTENANCE OF UNIFORMITY 

It is very disagreeable to see among a line of street-trees 
one or two failing specimens, more so than among a group 
of trees, or trees scattered over a large area. The task of 
maintaining all the trees on a long street in a uniformly 
good state is sometimes a difficult one, because of varying 
conditions of soil and other factors. Frequently the trees on 
a low portion of a street will not be so thrifty as those higher 
up because the drainage is poorer and the water-table close to 
the roots. In order to maintain in the same state of health 
all the trees of a street plantation, some specimens may need 
extra culture, watering, and fertilizing to enable them to 
keep pace with their more vigorous neighbors. 

PARTIAL REPLACING 

When specimens are drooping or sickly and do not re 
spond to culture ; or when they are hopelessly injured in some 
way, so that they cannot be restored, they should be re 
placed with new trees. The new trees should be of the 
same species and, if possible, of the same size as the trees 



228 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



which constitute the plantation of which they are to form 
a part. For this purpose a nursery has to be maintained 
where trees of different species and sizes are grown, ready 
to take the place of trees that fail. 

The method outlined above is followed in Paris. The 
trees that are to be trained for transplanting, to take the 
place of large specimens, are set out in the municipal nursery 
about twenty feet apart each way to allow room for develop 
ment. The branching is gradually raised and then fixed at 
the proper height. Every three or four years the roots are 
cut or circumscribed so that they do not spread out, but are 
made to grow compactly, restricted within a certain volume. 
This work of cutting the roots consists of digging a circular 
ditch around the base of the tree and cutting the roots as 
neatly as possible. The size of the ditch depends upon 
the size of the tree. Thus in the case of a tree about four 
inches in diameter, three feet from the base, the circular 
ditch is about three feet in diameter and about two and one- 
half feet deep. After the roots have been cut the soil is 
replaced and closely packed. 

In the cases of trees that have been trained as described 
above, the Board of Works of Paris prescribes the dimen 
sions of the ball of earth and roots with which trees of dif 
ferent sizes are to be transplanted about as follows: 



Diameter of Tree Three Feet 
from the Base. 


Diameter of Ball of 
Earth. 


Depth. 


3 in. to 5 in. 


3 ft. to 3 ft. 3 in. 


2ft. 


5| in. to 8 in. 


3 ft. 4 in. to 3 ft. 10 in. 


2 ft. 6 in. 


8 in. to 12 in. 


4 ft. to 5 ft. 


3ft 


12i in. to 14 in. 


5 ft. 10 in. to 6 ft. 4 in. 


3 ft. 4 in. 


14J in. to 18 in. 


7 ft. 6 in. to 8 ft. 2 in. 


4ft. 



THE REPAIR AND REPLACING OF TREES 229 

Transplanting of this kind is usually done in late fall and 
winter. The specimens are carried in heavy trucks especi 
ally constructed for the purpose of moving large trees. 

RENEWAL OF PLANTATIONS 

As the trees on a street advance in age and the failing 
specimens become in the majority, the plantations would 
look ragged if an attempt were made to replace only the 
dead trees while those that were still alive, but also on the 
verge of decay, were left standing. Then when the new 
trees reestablished themselves, the old trees would die, and 
under such conditions it would no longer be possible to 
maintain a uniform planting. It is best to set out new trees 
entirely. The soil should be renewed and as a general prac 
tise it is best to replant with a different species. 

Dr. W. A. Murrill writes in his bulletin on " Shade- 
Trees, " 1 "I was struck by the absence of old or even large 
trees on the streets of Paris. All trees seem about the same 
in age and size, and all are in the very prime of life." 

The splendid condition and the imposing effect of the 
street-trees of Paris is due to the most painstaking methods 
of planting and culture ; the partial replacing of failing spe 
cimens just so long as the uniformity of the trees can be so 
maintained; and, finally, the renewal of the plantations en 
tirely when the majority of the trees begin to fail. 

The planting of small trees between old ones is a bad 
practise, because it is hard to establish young specimens in 
such cases. They grow slowly on account of the cutting off 
of sunlight, they tend to shoot upward rather than to spread, 
and the roots of the old trees invade upon the available food 

1 "Shade-Trees," by W. A. Murrill, Bulletin 205, Cornell University Agri 
cultural Experiment Station. 



230 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

of the young trees. If, however, it is found desirable to 
interplant young trees among large ones, which are to be 
removed when the young trees grow up, then the branches 
of the old trees should be so trimmed as to allow plenty of 
sunlight to reach the small ones, and the roots of the neigh 
boring trees should be cut so that they will not interfere 
with the new specimens. 

The period of the duration of life of city trees is much 
less than that of the same species growing in the forest. 
Their length of life depends upon the conditions of soil and 
the care and culture bestowed upon them. 



CHAPTER XI 
WHO SHALL PLANT AND CARE FOR STREET-TREES 

IN every town and city of the country where trees are 
most abundant and where they are most likely to thrive, at 
one time or other there arises the problem of taking care of 
those trees and of setting out new ones. There comes a 
time when a certain species of tree is attacked by an insect, 
when the trees along a certain street need pruning, when 
trees are to be guarded from horse-bites and passing vehi 
cles ; or when it is desirable to plant a newly opened street. 

INDIVIDUAL PLANTING 

There are two ways by which the work of planting and 
caring for street-trees can be accomplished. The work must 
be done either by individual land owners or public officials. 
The prevailing policy of most of our cities has been to leave 
this task to the individuals who own the property on a certain 
street. The results thus obtained have been very unsatis 
factory. It will be an easy matter for those at all concerned 
with municipal improvements to picture to themselves a 
street or a number of streets in any city where the plan of 
the individual control of street-trees exists. 

What picture do these streets present? There are long 
stretches that are not planted at all. The trees that have 
been set out bear evidence of the diversity of taste of the 
planters. There are half a dozen or more species of trees on 

231 



232 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

the same street, undesirable mixed with desirable, of all 
shapes and sizes, set either too closely or too far apart. In 
some cases the trees are not trimmed at all and the limbs 
are so low as to touch the heads of pedestrians ; in others 
they are pruned too high. The trees have been left unpro 
tected by guards, many of them have been bitten by horses, 
and there is evidence that they have been injured by 
destructive pests. The writer has had the opportunity of 
studying the street-trees of a great many towns and cities 
in different parts of the country and the conditions de 
scribed above are universal. 

Especially in the control of insects which infest certain 
species of trees from time to time the system, or rather the 
lack of system, of the individual care of street-trees utterly 
fails. The citizen is entirely powerless to accomplish any 
thing. He may plant an undesirable species of tree if the 
task is left to him, but in insect fighting he will do even less. 
His efforts will come to naught if his neighbor allows the 
pest to remain on his trees. In the extermination of insects 
in a city it is absolutely necessary that all the infested trees 
be treated in order to obtain effective results. It is impossi 
ble to have concerted action on the part of thousands of 
people of a community in the treatment of infested trees at 
the same time. Insect fighting requires persistence and 
knowledge of what to do at the proper time to obtain results. 
There is a period in the life history of most of our tree pests 
when it may be most easily destroyed. This stage is not 
always at the time when the most injury is apparent, or 
when the average citizen wakes up to the necessity of doing 
something. The life history of the pests must be known 
in order that treatment may be given at the right time. 
Besides, to spray trees of considerable size requires an 



WHO SHALL CARE FOR STREET-TREES 233 

apparatus which the average citizen cannot be expected to 
have. 

The injury to trees by borers is a case in point. The 
foliage does not show the effects of the damage nor do the 
limbs begin to die until three or four years after the cater 
pillars of the borers do their fatal work. Then the people 
wonder why the trees are dying. Hundreds of sugar maples 
died in the northern section of the State of New Jersey dur 
ing the years of 1905 and 1906 as a result of the ravages of 
the borers a few years before that time. Attention to them 
at the time the insects were active would have saved the 
trees. 

We cannot blame the individual for unsatisfactory re 
sults. We are seeking in the planting of shade-trees that 
which is for the common good of all, and we expect the 
work to be done by the citizens without instruction, without 
system, and leave to each one, if it so pleases him, to do his, 
share when and how he desires. It is the system that is 
wrong, and the remedy can readily suggest itself. Other 
municipal interests are vested in commissions, committees, 
or other organized bodies. Experience has shown that in 
order to obtain the greatest degree of excellence in the plant 
ing and care of street-trees, the matter must be entrusted to 
a similar body, and a shade-tree department should be incor 
porated in every municipality. 

MUNICIPAL CONTROL 

It is only when the planting and care of street-trees is 
vested in a special department that all the principles essen 
tial to secure the most stately and impressive effect of high 
way planting can be applied; such as the choice of the prop 
er species, the use of one variety on a street, setting out 



234 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

of specimens at uniform and proper distances apart, and the 
protection and cultivation of the trees afterward. The task 
of such a department is not a mean one in the life of the 
modern city. In the prospectus issued by the New Orleans 
Parking Commission, created in 1909, to have exclusive con 
trol of the planting and care of street-trees in that city, the 
Commission beautifully defines its function and its mission 
as follows: 

"If this Commission diligently searches out its true 
relationships in the beautiful or fine arts, where it rightfully 
belongs, and studiously possesses itself of that largeness of 
thought and trained facility of imagination, inspiring within 
itself the idealizing faculty, whereby the true architect and 
painter project visually the creations of genius before work 
is laid on drawing board or brush on canvas, then, of very 
necessity, as like begets like, there will begin throughout 
this city a development in pure art, dignified in orderly 
elegance and grace, beautiful in unity, becoming more 
apparent and impressive with each succeeding year, just as 
the Washington city of to-day was visually projected as a 
living painting by F Enfant a hundred years ago and the 
city of Cleveland, with its newly projected grandeur by the 
Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. 

"To initiate this is the work we are called upon to do a 
work that must be carefully mapped according to specifica 
tions in the general plan, in which every tree planted and 
dollar spent shall count just that much toward the end in 
view ; which is the real and practical uplifting and betterment 
of the whole community physically, mentally, morally, in 
the actual comfort and pleasure of living and in a growing 
sense 6f self-regard and civic pride. It is a home mission 
work in a strictly rational, business way, with certainty of 



WHO SHALL CARE FOR STREET-TREES 235 

returns, far exceeding expenditure; an enterprise rich in 
utility; not of a mechanical or directly commercial kind; for 
the city does not propose to open a wood yard or grow trees 
for lumber; but it does contemplate something far more 
useful in a beautifully environed, clean, wholesome, con 
tented citizenship ; for as the environment, so are the peo 
ple. If the one is slovenly and degraded, so is the other; and 
the contrary is true, as proved in every community ; partic 
ularly in large manufacturing centres where the extremes 
of comparison are so distressingly in contrast." 

Washington. While the idea of the municipal control of 
street-trees is not new, it is only during the last decade that 
the benefits derived from such a system have become gener 
ally recognized. In this country the City of Washington 
offers the most mature results of the system of public con 
trol of street-trees. 

The department for the planting and care of trees is offi 
cially known as the Trees and Parkings Division of the Dis 
trict of Columbia, and was first organized in the year 1872. 
At the close of the year 1909, there were 94,799 trees along 
the streets, all of which were planted under municipal con 
trol and paid for by the city. An average of eighty men is 
employed by the department during the working seasons. 
The annual appropriation for maintenance of the shade-trees 
of Washington is usually $40,000. This amount is half of 
what is appropriated in Paris for the care of fewer trees, 
and strong efforts are made each year for a substantial in 
crease in this amount, it being felt that at least double the 
sum could be used with advantage. 

Paris. The street- trees of Paris are under public control. 
The plantations on the public highways number about 86,000 
trees. In this figure are not included the specimens in the 



236 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

squares, gardens, and parks. The annual expenses of main 
tenance are about $80,000. This sum is spent on wages 
of workmen, repairs of guards, grills, etc. ; the supply of 
new soil to drooping specimens and the replacing of dead 
trees. The work is done by a force of one hundred and two 
men, divided into gangs entrusted with a certain kind of 
work, such as planting, transplanting, pruning, etc. The 
work of transplanting large trees in trucks is done by special 
contractors. The trees existing on the public highways are 
planted and cared for at the expense of the city. The Pre 
fect of the Department of the Seine writes that about eight 
een hundred trees are planted annually to take the place of 
dead trees. New streets are also planted, but these planta 
tions are very small, as trees have already been set out on 
all the streets that are sufficiently wide to have them. 

New York and Other Cities. By an act of the year 1902, 
of the Laws of the State of New York, the jurisdiction of 
the Park Boards of Greater New York was extended to the 
preservation and planting of trees on the streets of the sev 
eral boroughs. Among the other 'cities of the country that 
have assumed control of the street-trees within recent years 
are Chicago, St. Louis, Cleveland, Buffalo, Hartford, New 
Orleans, and Pittsburgh. Through the efforts of local im 
provement societies of a great many towns and cities of the 
country efforts are being made to provide in some way for 
the proper planting and maintenance of highway trees. 

States. The States that have passed the most advanced 
laws along lines of securing the more general adoption of 
the system of the municipal control of street-trees are New 
Jersey, Massachusetts, and Pennsylvania. New Jersey has 
been the pioneer State of the Union in the enactment of a 
model statute in 1893, to provide for the planting and care 



238 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

of shade-trees on the highways of the municipalities of the 
State. Massachusetts, in 1899, passed an act providing that 
every town must elect a tree warden, and defined the duties 
and powers of the office. In 1907, Pennsylvania passed a 
shade-tree law, modeled after the New Jersey Act of 1893 
and its amendments. The texts of these model laws are 
given in Chapter XIII. 

New Jersey and Pennsylvania. The laws of New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania which provide for the establishment of 
shade-tree commissions are not of general application to all 
municipalities, but are of local option. They become opera 
tive in a town or city only after its adoption by the town or 
city council. Up to date, thirty-one towns and cities in New 
Jersey have established shade-tree commissions. These are 
Allendale, Arlington, Bloomfield, Caldwell, Camden, Chat 
ham, East Orange, East Rutherford, Elizabeth, Jersey City, 
Kearny, Madison, Metuchen, Montclair, Morristown, New 
ark, New Brunswick, Nutley, Passaic, Perth Amboy, Plain- 
field, Point Pleasant, Rahway, Ridgefield, Ridgewood, Roselle, 
Rutherford, South Orange, Summit, Westfield and Wood- 
bury. The Pennsylvania statute has been adopted by Am- 
bridge, Pittsburgh, and Wilkes-Barre. 

The New Jersey act of 1893 was amended in the years 
of 1905 and 1906. The law of Pennsylvania of 1907 com 
bines the act of 1893 of New Jersey and its amendments. 
Briefly, the provisions of these acts may be summarized as 
follows : 

When by resolution of the city council it is decided that 
the law shall become operative in a city, then from that time 
all matters pertaining to shade-trees are placed in the hands 
of the respective commissions. All work is carried on in a 
systematic way and the trees are planted, pruned, sprayed, 



WHO SHALL CARE FOR STREET-TREES 239 

and removed under the direction of the commissioners. 
Wherein these commissions differ from other similar bodies 
is that they have the power of initiative in the matter of 
planting. They decide that a certain street is to be planted 
and determine the species of tree. An advertisement of 
the intention to plant is inserted for two weeks in the public 
newspapers, and all persons interested in the improvement 
are given an opportunity to be heard. After the work is 
done the commissioners meet and certify a list to the re 
ceiver of taxes on which are given the names of the owners 
in front of whose property trees were set out and the cost of 
the work. These assessments are entered by the receiver of 
taxes on the annual tax bill and are paid the same way as 
any other legal lien. The cost of pruning, spraying, remov 
ing dead trees and repairing old ones is provided for by a 
general appropriation. 

These laws give the shade-tree commissions the power to 
pass ordinances for the planting, protection, regulation, and 
control of street-trees. These ordinances have been ex 
tremely efficient in securing the protection of trees. They 
do away entirely with the abuses of public utilities corpora 
tions who in the past have so ruthlessly mutilated and de 
stroyed trees along highways for the passage of overhead 
wires. In fact some of the most important work of a shade- 
tree commission is to protect the trees already existing in a 
city. 

Massachusetts. The laws of Massachusetts in regard to 
the planting and care of shade-trees in towns and cities 
are among the most progressive in the country. The 
"Tree Warden Act" of 1899, provided that every town must 
elect a tree warden, and defined the duties and powers of the 
office. This act did not apply to cities; but by the laws of 



240 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

1910, the "Tree Warden Act" has been extended in practi 
cally all its provisions, except that requiring the election of 
a tree warden, to the cities of the commonwealth as well. 
Thus the act of 1899 of Massachusetts and its amendments 
secure the regulation of the planting and care of shade-trees 
in practically every town and city of the State. 

The charters of the Massachusetts cities vary so widely 
in the provisions for local government that it was not possi 
ble to secure uniformity in the election or appointment of 
shade-tree officials or in the matter of administration. Con 
sequently, each city is free to appoint under its special char 
ter provision, some board or officer for the care of public 
shade-trees. 

There are now 301 towns and 33 cities in Massachusetts. 
Every town at its annual election elects a tree warden. 
Every city but one has made provision of some kind for the 
care of the shade-trees, either by the appointment of a spe 
cial officer, or by giving authority to an already existing 
officer or board, as follows : 

Officer or Board Nu c ^| s r of 

Park Commission 8 

City Improvement Committee 1 

City Forester 3 

Tree and Forest Warden 1 

Tree Warden 1 

Forest Commissioner , . . . 1 

Board of Public Works 5 

Commission of Public Works 2 

Street Commissioner 2 

Board of Street Commissioners 2 

Superintendent of Streets 4 

Superintendent of Highways 1 

City Engineer .1 



WHO SHALL CARE FOR STREET-TREES 241 

PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING SHADE-TREE LEGISLATION . 

When a department for the planting and care of street- 
trees is established in a city, there frequently arises misun 
derstandings with the property-owners regarding the rela 
tion which the shade-tree has to the street. The placing 
of shade-trees under municipal control is of comparatively 
recent introduction, and therefore, although the citizen is 
accustomed to regulations affecting the pavements and the 
sidewalks, he still considers the shade-tree as something 
affecting only his own house and not as something con 
tributing to the value of the entire street. 

For example, a man is used to paying assessments for 
the paving of the roadway, for the curbing and the laying of 
the sidewalk, and still he does not absolutely own the pave 
ment. He cannot open up the street without good reason, 
and unless he has permission from the city authorities to do 
so. He cannot take up the macadam pavement and replace 
it with asphalt if it so pleases him. It is an accepted fact 
that as regards the paving of the highway there must be a 
uniformity of plan that will be productive of the best results 
for the benefit of every resident of the street. 

The relation of the shade-tree to the highway is the same 
as that of any other road improvement. The tree is some 
thing which benefits not only the abutting property-owner 
but the entire street, and it is upon this idea that all legisla 
tion regarding the planting and care of shade-trees is based. 
A man may plant a shade-tree along the street-line, but he 
does not own it in the sense that he owns the trees within 
the property-line. Neither he nor anybody else has the 
right to mutilate or cut down the street-tree, for the whole 
street would incur a loss by such action. 



242 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

One of the sections of the ordinance passed by the East 
Orange Shade-Tree Commission provides that no tree shall 
be planted in any of the public highways until such tree shall 
have been first approved and the place where it is to be 
planted designated by the Shade-Tree Commission and a 
permit granted therefor. If the citizen were permitted to 
plant shade -trees as he saw fit he might plant a tree unsuited 
for street use or might place it close to a tree on his neigh 
bor's property, and in either case would produce a result 
detrimental to the street. The other sections of the ordi 
nance relating to the protection of trees also embody this 
idea, that the shade-tree is something in which all the resi 
dents of the street share. 

The Supreme Court of the State of Illinois, in the case of 
Baker vs. the Town of Normal, in Laws of Illinois, volume 81, 
page 109, says: "The town under its charter has the control 
of streets, may improve them and adorn them. It may per 
mit its citizens to improve and adorn that part of the street 
in front of his lot, but the improvement and adornment does 
not thereby become the property of the citizen. The plant 
ing of a shade-tree in the street by a citizen by permission 
of the village or city authorities is a gratuity to the public, 
and the citizen has no more right to control the shade-tree 
so planted than he would have had it been planted by the 
city authorities. The control is in the public. The adjoin 
ing proprietor has a common interest with other citizens in 
these shade-trees and incidentally derives a special benefit 
from their existence, but no title of authority over them, as 
against the public/* 

A little over two years ago, two citizens came into my 
office and complained that one of the residents of their street 
had cut down a tree in front of his own house. They were 



WHO SHALL CARE FOR STREET-TREES 243 

greatly agitated about the matter and told me that the re 
moval of the tree was something in which every property 
owner was concerned, as the resulting gap spoiled the uni 
formity of the row of the remaining trees. I investigated 
the matter and found that 'a tree had indeed been removed, 
but that permission 'had been previously obtained from our 
office. The tree in question was in a diseased and danger 
ous condition, could not be saved, and it was the advice of 
our office to remove the tree and put a new one in its place. 
When the complainants were informed why the tree was 
removed, they felt satisfied that their interests had been 
protected. Their action in bringing complaint when they 
thought that the tree had been unwarrantably cut down was 
a just one, and it illustrates the point that the destruction of 
a shade-tree is something that affects the entire street. 

During the winter of 1909, I was called to Harrisburg to 
help in the movement to organize a department that would 
look after the shade-trees of that city. One of the citizens 
told me that he was going along a street one day when he 
saw a man cutting off the branches of a large tree in front of 
his place and leaving nothing but the trunk. He asked him 
why he was spoiling the tree and the man replied: "lean 
make use of the wood, and don't care for the shade/' As 
there were no regulations in that city in regard to shade- 
trees, that man, in spite of the protestations of his neighbors, 
went on with his work and left the mutilated specimen as a 
permanent eyesore to the residents of the street. 



CHAPTER XII 
A DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ARBORICULTURE 

No matter by what legislative provision a town or city 
establishes a shade-tree department, its task after organiza 
tion should be the same, namely : to secure the very best 
results obtainable in street decoration for the benefit of the 
whole city, according to the most approved scientific prin 
ciples and methods. The laws of Massachusetts provide for 
the appointment of tree wardens in towns. The statutes of 
New Jersey and Pennsylvania provide for the establishment 
of commissions to have the control of trees along public 
highways. As practically operated the commissioners serve 
as an organization, and they -employ a trained arboriculturist 
who has charge of the executive work. 

OFFICIAL IN CHARGE OF STREET-TREES 

To secure the best results there must be one official to 
carry out the duties which a shade-tree department de 
mands. Those in charge of city trees have been variously 
designated as "Tree Wardens/' "Tree Doctors," and City 
Foresters." The writer has always felt that to call one 
charged with the preservation and care of shade-trees a 
"forester" is a wrong application of that word. He agrees 
With Dr. Fernow 1 that the term "Tree Warden" is a more 
expressive title for such an official. The term "Arboricul 
turist" is also a very apt one. A forester is concerned with 

'"The Care of Trees," by Bernhard E. Fernow. 
244 



DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ARBORICULTURE 245 

the economic side of tree growth, the product of the tree: its 
wood. The arboriculturist cultivates trees for their esthetic 
value and their shade, and deals with them only in their 
living state. To call one in charge of tree culture in a city 
a "city forester" is to imply that the city is growing trees 
for lumber. The propagation of trees in cities has an en 
tirely different aim, and trees cultivated along streets become 
by their beauty and utility more valuable than the lumber 
which they contain. When a tree is cut down it is no longer 
of value to the street nor does it interest the arboriculturist. 
Perhaps a better term than "Tree Warden" or "Municipal 
Arboriculturist" will be invented that will express ade 
quately the functions of an official in charge of the planting 
and care of city trees. 

The tree warden who understands his position correctly 
has a greater task to perform than simply the propagation 
of trees according to scientific principles. He must be an 
enthusiast in his work and inspire among the people of a 
community the proper appreciation of the value of trees. 
The people will then in turn help him in the administration 
of his office; for his success will largely depend upon the 
interest of the people of his town or city in their trees and 
the support which they give him. He must also appreciate 
the responsibility of his position as the guardian of one of 
the chief resources for maintaining the beauty and health of 
a city. 

TREE CENSUS 

In its details, the work of the tree warden is partly that 
of the municipal engineer. It is necessary to enumerate the 
existing trees, to make layouts for new plantations and keep 
records of these. In order to care intelligently for his 
charges the municipal arboriculturist must know how many 



246 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND. CITIES 

trees come under his jurisdiction. One of the first things he 
should do when he assumes the task of caring for the trees 
of a city is the taking of a tree census : that is, the enumera 
tion of all the trees of the city in field books and the careful 
plotting of these trees on maps prepared for that purpose. 

Field Books. A form of field book for the enumeration 
of street-trees designed by the writer has proved very ade 
quate and could be used advantageously in any town or city. 
The book is made in a form similar to an engineer's transit 
or level field book. A few leaves from such a book are in 
serted after page 275. The size of the leaves is four and one- 
half inches by eight inches. The right hand page is cross- 
sectioned into fifths of inches. On these pages each street 
is plotted to a scale of fifty feet to the inch. Four red lines 
drawn vertically in the centre of the page represent in con 
ventional form the sidewalks of the street of which the trees 
are to be recorded. The inner two lines are the curb-lines, 
and the outer two are the property-lines. The divisions of 
the abutting properties are indicated by lines drawn at right 
angles to the outer red lines. The cross streets are similarly 
indicated by lines making the proper angles with the curb 
and the property lines. This field book admits of the plot 
ting of sections of street 350 feet in length on each page. 

On the leaves from the field book inserted after page 275 
is plotted the short street, "Shepard Street/* a map of 
which is shown, Fig. 35. The cross-sectioned paper obviates 
using a scale in transferring the street to the field book. 
Likewise in the indication of the position of the trees, the 
cross-sectioning will be a guide, as the sides of the little 
squares represent ten feet. 

On the left hand page are given the descriptions of the 
trees. At the top of the page the name of the street and the 



DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ARBORICULTURE 247 

date are noted. The columns are headed as "Tree Number, " 
' ' Species, " " Diameter, "" Condition, ' ' and " Remarks. ' ' Be 
ginning at one end of the street, corner of Beech Street, the 
first tree is numbered as one. Its distance from the corner 
is found to be fourteen feet. The tree is shown by a small 
black circle on the right hand page. The small "c" after 
"14"' indicates that the distance is from the corner. The 
tree is then described on the left hand page. It is a Norway 
maple, five inches in diameter, measured breast high, and 
in good condition. In the column under "Remarks" is 
entered anything about the condition of the trees that is 
abnormal or unusual. 

The distance between the first and second trees is then 
measured, noted on the right hand page and the entry of the 
tree made on the left hand page. And so on the enumera 
tion continues, first on one side of the street and then on the 
other. To do this work effectively and rapidly, three men 
are required in the gang: a rear chainman, a head chainman, 
and a man who makes the entry of the trees. Distances 
are measured from the centre of one tree to the centre of 
another. The head chainman calls off the distances and the 
enumerator notes all of the other data which are entered on 
the left hand page. 

The method of rating trees with respect to their condition 
depends upon the object sought in enumerating them. So 
many factors are to be considered in the judgment of the 
condition of a tree that it would be impossible in taking a 
general census to enter a detailed description of each tree. 
A general method of classification therefore has to be 
adopted that will enable the tree warden, from a study of the 
records, to form a good idea of the general condition of the 
trees on a street. 



248 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



In judging the condition of a tree, its immediate future 
rather than its present state should be considered. It is sug 
gested that trees may be rated as "good," "medium," and 
"bad." A tree is rated "good" that is in full vigor and 
gives no indication of immediate decline. A tree is called 
"medium" which begins to decline, but which can be re 
stored to vigor by culture, fertilization, pruning, treatment 
of cavities, or in some other way. A tree is "bad, " which is 
in such a state of decline that it cannot be restored to vigor. 

A summary of a survey of trees in a city may be exem 
plified by the following: 

SUMMARY OF SURVEY OF STREET-TREES IN EAST ORANGE, 
PLANTED BEFORE THE SHADE-TREE COMMISSION 

WAS ESTABLISHED 
Species. I s 

Ailantus 

Apple 

Arborvitae 

Ash, White 81 

Aspen, Large-toothed . . . 

Beech, American 

Buckeye 

Catalpa , 

Cherry, Cultivated 

Cherry, Wild 

Dogwood, Flowering . . . 

Elm, American 995 

Elm, Slippery 

Gum, Sour 

Gum, Sweet 

Hickory, Mockernut .... 

Hickory, Pignut 

Hickory, Shagbark 

Hornbeam 

Horse-chestnut 177 

Linden, American 133 

Linden, European 46 

Locust, Honey 

Maple, Ash-leaved 13 



er. 
6 


Species. 
Maple, Norway 


Number. 
1,210 


1 


Maple, Red 


2 847 


1 


Maple, Silver 


2,228 


81 


Maple, Sugar 


. . . 2 232 


1 


Maple, Sycamore 


51 


6 


Mulberry, White 


1 


7 


Oak, Pin 


23 


30 


Oak, Red 


11 


2 


Oak, Swamp white . 


11 


4 


Oak, White 


19 


3 


Pine, White 


5 


95 


Poplar, Carolina .... 


728 


2 


Poplar, Lombardy. . . 


2 


1 


Poplar, White . . 


7 


5 


Plane, American .... 


22 


?, 


Plane, Oriental 


6 


6 


Sassafras 


2 


2 


Silverbell 


1 


4 


Spruce, Norway .... 


2 


77 


Tulip 


9 


33 


Walnut, Black 


2 


46 


Walnut, White 


1 


1 


Willow, Weeping . . . 


4 


13 


Total . . 


.10.953 



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250 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

As regards the condition of the trees, they have been rated as 
good, medium, and bad, as follows : 

Condition. Number. 

Good 9,422 

Medium . . . . 558 

Bad . 973 



Total , 10,953 

The sizes of the trees, measured breast high, are as follows : 
Size. Number. 

Under 6 inches 1, 698 

6 inches to 12 inches 3, 089 

13 inches to 18 inches. 3,947 

19 inches to 24 inches 1,451 

Over 24 inches. . 768 



Total 10,953 

Mapping the Trees. The method of plotting the trees to 
scale on maps is shown in Fig. 35. This figure is drawn to 
a scale of fifty feet to three-eighths of an inch, to accommo 
date it on a page of this book. The original office maps, 
however, are carefully drawn to a scale of fifty feet to the 
inch, and on them are shown the width of the street from 
property-line to property -line, the width of the sidewalks, 
the frontage of the abutting properties, the city block map, 
and the lot numbers. The divisions of the abutting proper 
ties are likely to change when sales and transfers are made. 
It is therefore best to indicate in lead pencil the lines mark 
ing the property divisions, and the figures showing the 
widths of the properties and the lot numbers. The trees 
noted in the field book are then drawn on the map. A good 
conventional form for existing trees is a small black circle. 



DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ARBORICULTURE 251 

The spacing of the trees and the numbers given them are 
also indicated. 

Value of Tree Census. The maps are found to be ex 
tremely valuable office records in a great many ways. When 
a request is made for attention to a certain tree on a street, 
the tree warden can immediately find out the species and 
condition of the tree by referring to his field book and maps. 
When it is proposed to plant certain streets which have 
some existing trees, the records can be used to determine the 
trees that are to be removed, and adequate provision made 
for the planting of new ones. 

Records of street-trees are invaluable in organizing a 
campaign against an insect pest attacking a certain species. 
By knowing the number and distribution of affected trees 
coming under his jurisdiction, the tree warden can make 
ample provision for their treatment and direct the work 
intelligently. In most cases the period of time is limited 
during which the extermination of insect pests may be done 
most effectively. The treatment of elm-trees for the elm- 
leaf beetle is a case in point. The insect can be controlled 
only by spraying, and the time when that may be done most 
effectively is limited to two or three weeks. When the tree 
warden knows the total number of elm-trees in his city and 
the number on each street he can accomplish the most work 
within the limited time. 

The field books and the maps can be used to compute the 
number of the trees necessary to plant on a street. From the 
records of the conditions of the trees it will usually be possi 
ble to determine what trees are to be cut down. Thus from 
the descriptions of the trees numbered 10, 19, and 20 on 
"Shepard Street, " it is seen that they are not fit to retain, 
and they are checked off as trees to be removed. 



252 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

While the average distance at which certain species are 
to be planted may be prescribed, the actual spot where the 
individual specimens are to go cannot be determined from 
the maps, unless every street obstruction were carefully 
noted and its position indicated on the map. Such work 
would entail a great deal of useless labor, for on the aver 
age street there are many lamp-posts, fire-hydrants, cross 
walks, and water, sewer, and gas connections that are to be 
avoided. The writer has found from experience that it is 
better to decide the exact spot where new trees are to be 
planted while in the field. It usually becomes necessary in 
many individual instances to increase or diminish the aver 
age prescribed distance in order to keep away from points 
where trees cannot be planted. 

After the places for new trees have been marked, their dis 
tances apart should be noted in the field book, using a small 
cross for each tree as shown in the specimen pages. Usu 
ally one species is used on a street, and therefore it is not 
necessary to mark every tree as in the case of existing trees. 
One record of the species and the date planted may be made 
in the field book on the first page of the street. A similar 
record should be entered on the finished office maps. 

RECORDS OF NEW TREES 

The newly planted trees are plotted on the same maps as 
the old trees, and are indicated by red circles. These trees 
are numbered with a new series of numbers, beginning with 
number 1 ; but in order not to confuse the new trees with 
the existing trees a zero "0" is prefixed to the numeral. 
The beginning of the trees on each street with number "1," 
or number "01," eliminates the use of large numbers. 
Each tree is absolutely fixed by the designation of the street 



DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ARBORICULTURE 253 

and the tree number. A small, inexpensive brass label 
bearing the tree number might be attached to the guard of 
each newly planted tree for the purpose of identifying each 
specimen. 

The assigning of numbers to newly planted trees enables 
the tree warden to keep a record of the behavior of new 
plantations. Each tree may be recorded on a separate card 
having the following form : 

RECORD OF TREES PLANTED 

STREET TREE NUMBER 

SPECIES 

WHEN PLANTED SIZE WHEN PLANTED 

NURSERY WHERE PURCHASED 

LIFE HISTORY OF TREE 



Records of the behavior of trees form a fair basis for 
the judgment of the hardiness of certain species, the quality 
of stock purchased from various nurseries and the peculiar 
local conditions affecting tree growth. The causes of the 
failure of trees should be definitely determined, in order to 
remedy, if possible, the conditions before new trees are set 
out, or to improve cultural methods after they are planted. 
A few years after planting, the life stories of trees might 



254 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

appear as follows: "Planted April, 1905. Died summer 1905, 
poor underdrainage. Installed drain October, 1905. Re 
planted spring 1906"; or, "Planted spring 1905. Did not 
come out in foliage. Dried out in shipment from nursery. 
Replanted fall 1905"; or, "Planted April, 1905. Foliage 
dried out summer 1905, failure to water. Replanted spring 
1906" ; or "Planted April, 1905. Died summer 1909. Dried 
out. Not enough good soil supplied when planted. Re 
planted fall 1909"; etc., etc., etc. 

OTHER RECORDS 

Other forms of office records will readily suggest them 
selves to the municipal arboriculturist who desires system in 
his office. When requests are made for attention to trees it 
is best to keep each item on a separate card, like this : 

RECORD OF COMPLAINTS 

LOCATION 

COMPLAINANT 



DATE OF COMPLAINT 



REQUEST 



DATE OF INSPECTION 



CONDITION OF TREES 



WORK DONE ON 



DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ARBORICULTURE 255 



Daily reports of the work of each gang can be kept on 
separate cards : 

SHADE-TREE COMMISSION DAILY REPORT 



DATE 



FOREMAN 



KIND OF WORK 


STREETS 


NO. OF TREES 


TRIMMED 






SPRAYED 


, 




REMOVED 






CEMENTED 






PLANTED 






HOLES DUG 






STAKES DRIVEN 






WATERED 






OTHER WORK 

























ASSESSMENT LISTS 

When the cost of the trees set out on a street is to be 
charged to the abutting property-owners the maps, with the 
newly planted trees carefully located, are absolutely neces 
sary in making up the assessments. When the trees are 
plotted to scale it is seen just in front of which property 
they come. Very frequently there are vacant lots on streets 
planted and there is no way of determining in the field the 
description of the property. Thus by referring to the map 



256 



SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 



of "Shepard Street," Fig. 35, it is seen at a glance in front 
of which property the new trees come. An assessment 
record of the newly planted trees on "Shepard Street" would 
then appear as follows : 

SHEPARD STREET 



Tree 
Number. 


Block Map 
Number. 


Lot 
Number. 


Name of Property- 
Owner. 


No. Feet 
Frontage 


Number 
of Trees. 


Cost. 


01 


323 


119-121 


Edward Willis 


46 


1 


$5.00 


02-03 


323 ; 115-117 


Estate Jos. Heller 


54 


2 


10.00 


04 


322 


99-101 


Alfred Ward 


57 


1 


5.00 


05-06 


322 


95- 97 


Annie Wyman 58 


2 


10.00 


07 


322 


91- 93 


Eastern Realty Co. 


55 


1 


5.00 


08-09 


322 


87- 89 


Marcus Rowe 


55 


2 


10.00 


010 


322 


83- 85 


Mary Smith 


48 


1 


5.00 


Oil 


322 


79- 81 


Robert Gilbert 


50 


1 


5.00 


012 


322 


75- 77 


Robert Mctt 


52 


1 


5.00 


013-014 


316 


72- 74 


John Williams 


60 


2 


10.00 


015 


316 


76- 78 


Joseph Little 


50 


1 


5.00 


016 


316 


80- 82 


Peter Sacks 


50 


1 


5.00 


017-018 


316 


84- 88 


Walter Jameson 


75 


2 


10.00 


019-027 


316 


90-112 


Chas. M. Bingham 


310 


9 


45.00 


028-031 


317 


118-128 


Frank J. Hill 


150 


4 


20.00 



LABELING TREES 

To create an interest in the work of a tree department 
and to help the people to become familiar with trees, it is a 
good plan to put labels on street-trees, giving the species 
and date of planting, in some such form as this: 

The Trees on This Street Are 

NORWAY MAPLES 

They Were Planted by the 

SHADE-TREE DEPARTMENT 

in the Spring of 1905. 



DEPARTMENT OF MUNICIPAL ARBORICULTURE 257 

Information about trees spread among the people of a 
city in an appealing way helps them to realize that hardy 
trees grow rapidly with proper cultivation, and that it is not 
necessary to plant trashy, quick-growing trees to secure 
shade in a few years. Records about trees in the office and 
outside form interesting commentaries on tree life. 



CHAPTER XIII 
LEGISLATION 

WHILE a number of States have laws regarding the plant 
ing and care of street-trees, none are as broad as the pro 
visions of the statutes of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and 
Massachusetts. The laws of these States are therefore given 
in full. 

NEW JERSEY 
LAWS OF NEW JERSEY 

General Public Laws ; Session of 1893. 
Chapter CCLXXXV. 

AN act to provide for the planting and care of shade-trees on 
the highways of the municipalities of this State. 

SECTION 1. BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and General Assembly 
of the State of New Jersey, That in all the municipalities of this 
State there may be appointed, in the manner hereinafter provided, 
a commission of three freeholders, who shall serve without com 
pensation, and who shall have the exclusive and absolute control 
and power to plant, set out, maintain, protect and care for shade- 
trees in any of the public highways of their respective muni 
cipalities, the cost thereof to be borne and paid for in the manner 
hereinafter directed. 

SEC. 2. And be it enacted, That it shall be optional with the 
governing body of any municipality whether this act shall have 
effect in, and such commissioners shall be appointed in, such 
municipality; and when any such governing body shall by resolu 
tion approve of this act and direct that such commissioners shall 

258 



LEGISLATION 259 

be appointed, then, from that time this act and all its provisions 
shall be in force and apply to such municipality, and such com 
missioners shall be appointed for terms of three, four, and five 
years respectively ; and on the expiration of any term, the new 
appointment shall be made for five years, and any vacancy shall 
be filled for the unexpired term only; and in cities, the said 
appointments shall be made by the mayor thereof, and in town 
ships by the chairman of the township committee, and in villages 
and boroughs by the chairman or president of the board of trus 
tees or other governing body. 

SEC. 3. And be it enacted, That whenever said commissioners 
shall propose to make any such improvements as setting out or 
planting any shade-trees, or changing the same in any highways, 
they shall give notice of such contemplated improvement (specify 
the streets or portions thereof where such trees are intended to be 
planted) in one or more newspapers of their said municipality, if 
there be any newspapers published in said place, for at least two 
weeks prior to any meeting, in which they shall decide to make 
such improvement. 

SEC. 4. And be it enacted, That the cost of planting and 
transplanting any trees in any highway, and boxes or guards for 
the protection thereof, when necessary, shall be borne by the real 
estate in front of which such trees are planted or set out, and the 
cost thereof as to each tract of real estate shall be certified by 
said commissioners to the person having charge of the collection 
of taxes for said municipality; and upon the filing of said cer 
tificate, the amount of the cost of said improvement shall be and 
become a lien upon said lands in front of which the trees were 
planted or set out, and the said collecting officer shall place the 
assessment so made against any property in the annual tax bills 
rendered to owner or owners of such property, and the same shall 
be collectible in the same manner as the other taxes against said 
property are collected. 

SEC. 5. And be it enacted, That the cost and expense of caring 
for said trees, after being planted or set out, and the expense of 
publishing said notices, shall be borne and paid by a general tax 
to be raised by said municipality; said tax shall not exceed the 



260 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

sum of one-tenth of one mill on the dollar annually on all the 
taxable property of said municipality, and the needed amount 
shall be each year certified by said commissioners to the assessor, 
and assessors of said municipality, and be assessed and raised as 
other taxes. 

SEC. 6. And be it enacted, That this act shall take effect im 
mediately. 

Approved March 28, 1893. 

Under Chapter 169, Section 97 of the laws of 1899, this act 
was repealed in so far as it related to or affected townships. 

This act was amended in the years 1905 and 1906 so as to 
extend the jurisdiction of the shade-tree commissions over 
the public parks, and to give the commissions the power 
to pass ordinances for the protection of shade-trees on the 
public streets and in the public parks. 

LAWS OF NEW JERSEY OF 1905. 

Chapter 108. 

A supplement to an act entitled, "An act to provide for the 
planting and care of shade- trees on the highways of the munici 
palities of this state/' approved March twenty- eighth, one thou 
sand eight hundred and ninety -three. 

BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and General Assembly of the State 
of New Jersey : 

SECTION 1. In any municipality which now has or hereafter 
shall take advantage of the act to which this is a supplement the 
commission appointed under the provisions thereof shall have 
exclusive control over the public parks belonging to or under the 
control of such municipality, or any department in the govern 
ment thereof, with full power and authority to improve, repair, 
manage, maintain, and control the same. 

SEC. 2. The said commission shall have full power and 
authority and is hereby empowered to pass, enact, alter, amend, 



LEGISLATION 261 

and repeal ordinances for the protection, regulation, and control 
of such parks, and the trees, flowers, shrubs, statuary therein, 
and also for the protection, regulation, and control of all shade- 
trees planted or growing upon the public highways of ariy such 
municipality, and to prescribe fines and penalties for the viola 
tion thereof and fix the amount of the same ; the method now in 
use for the passing, enacting, altering, amending, and publishing 
ordinances in said municipality shall be the method used to pass, 
enact, alter, amend, repeal, and publish the ordinances therein 
mentioned. 

SEC. 3. All moneys collected from fines or penalties for the 
violation of any ordinances of any such commission, and all 
moneys collected for assessments made upon the property for the 
cost of planting and transplanting any trees ; and the boxes or 
guards for the protection thereof in any such city, shall be forth 
with paid over to the proper municipal authorities and shall be 
placed to the credit of the said commission and subject to be 
drawn upon by the said commission in the manner provided by 
law for the payments of moneys in any such municipality. 

SEC. 4. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent with this act 
are hereby repealed. 

SEC. 5. This act shall take effect immediately. 

Approved April 6, 1905. 



LAWS OF NEW JERSEY OF 1906. 

Chapter 186. 

A supplement to an act entitled "An act to provide for the 
planting and care of shade-trees on the highways of the munici 
palities of this State, approved March twenty-eighth, one thou 
sand eight hundred and ninety-three. ' ' 

BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and General Assembly of the State 
of New Jersey : 

SECTION 1. The said commission may prescribe penalties for 
the violation of any of their ordinances, and the courts which 



262 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

now or hereafter shall have jurisdiction over actions for the viola 
tion of ordinances of the municipality in which said commission 
has been or shall be appointed shall have jurisdiction in actions 
for the violation of such ordinances as the said commission shall 
enact ; and said ordinances shall be enforced by like proceedings 
and processes, and the practise for the enforcement of said ordi 
nances shall be the same as that provided by law for the enforce 
ment of the ordinances of the municipality in which such com 
mission exists. 

SEC. 2. The officers authorized by law to serve and execute 
processes in the courts, as aforesaid, shall be the officers to serve 
and execute any process issued out of any court under this act. 

SEC. 3. A copy of any ordinance or ordinances of said com 
mission, certified to under the hand of the clerk, secretary, or 
president of the said commission, shall be taken in any court of 
this State as full and legal proof of the existence of such ordi 
nance or ordinances, and that all requirements of law in relation 
to the ordaining, publishing, and making of the same, so as to 
make it legal and binding, have been complied with, unless the 
contrary be shown. 

SEC. 4. This act shall take effect immediately. 

Approved May 2, 1906. 

LAWS OF NEW JERSEY OF 1906. 

Chapter 245. 

AN act in relation to the control of public parks belonging to 
or under the control of any municipality of this State or any 
department in the government thereof: 

BE IT ENACTED by the Senate and General Assembly of the State 
of New Jersey : 

SECTION 1. In any municipality which now has or hereafter 
shall take advantage of an act entitled "An act to provide for 
the planting and care of shade-trees on the highways of the muni 
cipalities of this State, approved March twenty-eighth, one thou 
sand eight hundred and ninety-three, ' ' the commission appointed 



LEGISLATION 263 

under the provisions of said act shall have exclusive control of 
the public parks belonging to or under the control of such muni 
cipality or any department in the government thereof, with full 
power and authority to improve, repair, manage, maintain, and 
control the same. 

SEC. 2. The said commission shall have full power and 
authority and is hereby empowered to pass, enact, alter, amend, 
and repeal ordinances for the protection, regulation, and control 
of such parks and the trees, flowers, shrubs, statuary, and other 
improvements therein, and to prescribe fines and penalties for 
the violation thereof and to fix the amount of the same. The 
method now or hereafter in use for the passing, enacting, alter 
ing, amending, repealing, and publishing ordinances in said mu 
nicipality shall be the method used to pass, enact, alter, amend, 
repeal, and publish the ordinances herein mentioned, and said 
ordinances shall be enforced in the manner provided at the time 
of said enforcement by law for the enforcement of the ordinances 
of the commission authorized by the aforesaid act and any 
amendments or supplements thereof. 

SEC. 3. This act shall take effect immediately. 

Approved May 17, 1906. 

In the years 1907, 1908, and 1910, the shade-tree law of 
1893 was further amended. Under Chapter 156 of the laws 
of 1907, Section 1 was amended making it optional with the 
governing body of any municipality to increase the number 
of members of the commission to five. Chapter 151 of the 
laws of 1908 amended Section 2 so as to make it "optional 
with the body or board having charge of the finances of any 
municipality" whether the act of 1893 shall become effec 
tive. Under Chapter 198 of the laws of 1908 and Chapter 
167 of the laws of 1910, the law of 1893 was amended as fol 
lows: "In any city or town in this State in which a park 
commission now exists, the governing body invested with 
the power of adopting the act to which this is a supplement, 



264 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

may, in the resolution adopting said act, provide that the 
said park commission shall also act as a shade-tree commis 
sion ; and the act to which this is a supplement, and the 
amendments thereof and supplements thereto, shall take 
effect in said city or town, except that no independent 
shade-tree commission shall be appointed/' 

PENNSYLVANIA 
LAWS OF PENNSYLVANIA 

Session of 1907 

AN act to provide for the planting and care of shade-trees, on 
highways of townships of the first class, boroughs, and cities of 
the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and providing for the cost 
thereof. 

SECTION 1. BE IT ENACTED, etc., That in townships of the 
first class, boroughs, and cities of Commonwealth of Pennsyl 
vania there may be appointed, in the manner hereinafter pro 
vided, a Commission of three freeholders, to be known and 
designated as the Shade-Tree Commission of said township, bor 
ough, or city, who shall serve without compensation, and who 
shall have exclusive and absolute custody and control of, and 
power to plant, set out, remove, maintain, protect, and care 
for shade-trees, on any of the public highways of the said town 
ships, boroughs, and cities, the cost thereof to be provided for in 
the manner hereinafter stated: Provided, That in townships, 
boroughs, or cities in which a Commission for the care of public 
parks shall have been created, said Commission shall, upon the 
acceptance of this act as provided in section two, be charged 
with the duties of the Commission as above provided, and shall, 
for that purpose, be possessed of all the powers herein mentioned 
and granted. 

SEC. 2. The commissioners of any township of the first 
class, or the council of any borough or city, in case of the com 
missioners, or by joint resolution in the case of the councils, 



LEGISLATION 265 

accept the provisions of this act; and when such majority vote 
or joint resolution shall have been duly passed and approved, and 
such Shade-Tree Commissioners appointed, or, in their stead, the 
duties and powers herein provided have been devolved upon an 
existing park commission, then, from that time and in that 
event, this act and all its provisions shall be in full force and 
application in such township of the first class, borough, or city, 
so accepting; and such commissioners shall be appointed, for 
terms of three, four, and five years, respectively, and, on the 
expiration of any term, the new appointment shall be for five 
years, and any vacancies shall be filled for the unexpired term 
only ; and in townships of the first class the said appointment 
shall be made by the commissioners thereof ; and in boroughs, by 
the chief burgess, and in cities, by the mayor thereof : Provided, 
That in cities where a Commission exists for the care of public 
parks, the term and appointment of such Commission shall not 
be changed by this act, but shall be and remain as provided by 
the act of Assembly, and by the ordinance of councils creating 
such Commission for the care and maintenance of public parks. 
And such Shade-Tree Commission shall, twice in every year, 
report in full its transactions and expenditures for the municipal 
fiscal year then last ended, to the authority under and by which 
it was appointed : Provided, That an existing park commission, 
acting under this enactment, may embody its report in its reg 
ular report to the councils, as by law or ordinance provided. 

SEC. 3. That when such Shade-Tree Commissioners, or Park 
Commissioners so acting, shall propose the setting out or plant 
ing or removing of any shade-trees, or the material changing of 
the same in any highway, they shall give public notice of the 
time and place appointed for the meeting at which such contem 
plated work is to be considered, specifying in detail the high 
ways, or portion thereof, upon which trees are proposed to be 
planted, removed, or changed, in one or more not exceeding 
two in all of the newspapers published in said township, bor 
ough, or city once each week for at least two weeks prior to the 
date of said meeting. 

SEC. 4. The cost of planting, transplanting, or removing any 



266 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

trees in any highway, and of suitable guards, curbing, or grating 
for the protection thereof when necessary, and of the proper 
replacing of any pavement or sidewalk necessarily disturbed in 
the doing of such work, shall be borne by the owner of the real 
estate in front of which such trees are planted, set out, or re 
moved ; and the cost thereof as to each tract of real estate shall 
be certified by the commissioners to the township commissioners, 
or to the presidents of the councils in boroughs and cities, and also 
to the person having charge of the collection of taxes, for the 
said township, borough, or city; and upon the filing of said certi 
ficates, the amount of the cost of such improvements, of which 
notice shall also be given to each property-owner involved, ac 
companied with a copy of the aforesaid certificate, together with 
a notice of the time and place for payment, shall be and become 
a lien upon said real estate, in front of which said trees have 
been planted, set out, or removed ; said lien to be collectible, if 
not paid in accordance with notice as herein provided, in the 
same manner as other liens for taxes are now collectible against 
the property involved. 

SEC. 5. The cost and expense of caring for said trees after 
having been planted or set out, and the expense of publishing 
the notices provided for in section three, shall be borne and paid 
for by a general tax, to be levied annually in the manner that taxes 
for township, borough, and city purposes are now levied in such 
townships of the first class, boroughs, or cities ; such tax not to 
exceed the sum of one-tenth of one mill on the dollar on the as 
sessed valuation of the property in such townships of the first 
class, boroughs, or cities ; and the needed amount shall each year, 
in due time be certified by the Shade-Tree Commissioners to the 
proper authorities charged with the assessment of taxes in said 
townships, boroughs, or cities, to be assessed and paid, as other 
taxes are assessed and paid, and to be drawn against as required 
by said commissioners, in the same manner as moneys appro 
priated for township, borough, or city purposes are now drawn 
against in said townships, boroughs, or cities ; Provided, That the 
commissioners of any township of the first class, and the councils 
of any borough or city, accepting the provisions of this act, may 



LEGISLATION 267 

provide for the expense of the maintenance of trees on highways, 
in accordance with the provisions of this section by actual appro 
priation, equal to the amount certified to be required by the said 
Commission, in lieu of the specific assessment above authorized. 

SEC. 6. The Commission, under which the provisions of this 
act shall be carried out, in any township of the first class, bor 
ough, or city, shall have power to employ and pay such superin 
tendents, engineers, foresters, tree -wardens, or other assistants, 
as the proper performance of the duties devolving upon it shall 
require; and to make, publish, and enforce regulations for the 
care of, and to prevent injury to the trees, on the highways of 
any township, borough, or city accepting the provisions of this 
act ; and to assess suitable fines and penalties for violations of 
this act, provided such regulations shall have been published at 
least twice in one or more, not exceeding two, newspapers of the 
township, borough, or city involved, after having been sub 
mitted to and being approved by the commissioners of the town 
ship of the first class, or the councils of the borough or city 
affected ; and such fines and penalties, so assessed for violations 
of this act, shall become liens upon the real property of the of 
fender, and be collectible by the constituted authorities as liens 
for taxes upon real property are now collected. 

SEC. 7. All the moneys due and collected from fines or 
penalties or assessments, in consequence of the acts of said 
Shade-Tree Commission in enforcing this act, shall be paid to the 
treasurers of the townships, boroughs, and cities accepting its 
provisions, and shall be placed to the credit of said Commission, 
subject to be drawn upon by the said Commission for the pur 
poses of this act. 

SEC. 8. All acts and parts of acts inconsistent with this act 
are hereby repealed. 

SEC. 9. This act shall take effect immediately ; but its pro 
visions shall not be and become binding upon any township, bor 
ough, or city until it has been duly accepted, as provided in 
section two. 

Approved. The 31st day of May, A.D. 1907. 



268 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

MASSACHUSETTS 

The act originally known as the "Tree Warden Act" is 
as follows: 

AN ACT TO CODIFY AND AMEND THE LAWS RELATIVE TO 
THE PRESERVATION OF TREES. 

(Acts of 1899, Chapter 330.) 

BE IT ENACTED, etc., as follows: 

SECTION 1. Every town shall at its annual meeting for the 
election of town officers elect a tree warden, who shall serve for 
one year and until his successor is elected and qualified. He may 
appoint such number of deputy tree wardens as he deems expedi 
ent, and may at any time remove them from office. He and his 
deputies shall receive such compensation for their services as the 
town may determine, and, in default of such determination, as 
the selectmen may prescribe. He shall have the care and control 
of all public shade-trees in the town, except those in public parks 
or open places under the jurisdiction of park commissioners, and 
of these also he shall take the care and control if so requested in 
writing by the park commissioners. He shall expend all funds 
appropriated for the setting out and maintenance of such trees. 
He may prescribe such regulations for the care and preservation 
of such trees, enforced by suitable fines and forfeitures, not 
exceeding twenty dollars in any one case, as he may deem just 
and expedient ; and such regulations, when approved by the select 
men and posted in two or more public places in the town, shall 
have the force and effect of town by-laws. It shall be his duty 
to enforce all provisions of law for the preservation of such trees. 

SEC. 2. Towns may appropriate annually a sum cf money, 
not exceeding in the aggregate fifty cents for each of its ratable 
polls in the preceding year, to be expended by the tree warden in 
planting shade -trees in the public ways, or, if he deems it expedi 
ent, upon adjoining land, at a distance not exceeding twenty feet 
from said public ways, for the purpose of shading or ornament- 



LEGISLATION 269 

ing the same : provided, however, that the written consent of the 
owner of such land shall first be obtained. All shade-trees within 
the limits of any public way shall be deemed public shade-trees. 

SEC. 3. Whoever, other than a tree warden or his deputy, 
desires the cutting or removal, in whole or in part, of any public 
shade-tree, may apply to the tree warden, who shall give a public 
hearing upon the application at some suitable time and place, 
after duly posting notices of the hearing in two or more public 
places in the town, and also upon the said tree : provided, how 
ever, that the warden may, if he deems it expedient, grant permis 
sion for such cutting or removal, without calling a hearing, if the 
tree in question is on a public way outside of the residential part 
of the town, the limits of such residential part to be determined 
by the selectmen. No tree within such residential part shall be 
cut by the tree warden, except to trim it, or removed by him 
without a hearing as aforesaid ; but in all cases the decision of 
the tree warden shall be final. 

SEC. 4. Towns may annually raise and appropriate such sum 
of money as they deem necessary, to be expended under the 
direction of the tree warden in exterminating insect pests within 
the limits of their public ways and places, and in the removal 
from said public ways and places of all trees and other plants 
upon which such pests naturally breed: provided, however, that 
where an owner or lessee of real estate shall, to the satisfaction 
of the tree warden, annually exterminate all insect pests upon 
the trees and other plants within the limits of any public way 
or place abutting on said real estate, such trees and plants shall 
be exempt from the provisions of this section. 

SEC. 5. Whoever affixes to any tree in a public way or place a 
play-bill, picture, announcement, notice, advertisement, or other 
thing, whether in writing or otherwise, or cuts, paints, or marks 
such tree, except for the purpose of protecting it and under a 
written permit from the tree warden, shall be punished by a fine 
not exceeding fifty dollars for each offence. 

SEC. 6. Whoever wantonly injures, defaces, breaks, or de 
stroys an ornamental or shade tree within the limits of any 
public way or place shall forfeit not less than five nor more than 



270 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

one hundred dollars, to be recovered by complaint, one-half to 
the complainant and the other half to the use of the town. 

SEC. 7. Whoever negligently or carelessly suffers a horse or 
other beast driven by or for him, or a beast belonging to him 
and lawfully in a public way or place, to break down, injure, or 
destroy a shade or ornamental tree within the limits of said 
public way or place, or whoever negligently or wilfully by any 
other means breaks down, injures, or destroys any such tree, 
shall be liable to the penalties prescribed in the foregoing sec 
tion, and shall in addition be liable for all damages caused 
thereby. 

SEC. 8. It shall be the duty of the tree warden to enforce the 
provisions of the preceding sections. (Approved May 4, 1899.) 

The above law of Massachusetts has never been repealed, 
but it has been several times amended, mainly in the direc 
tion of extending and more accurately defining the duties 
and powers of shade-tree officials. 

In 1902 a general revision of the State laws was made by 
the legislature, and the principal provisions of Chap. 330, of 
the Acts of 1899, were embodied in Chap. 53 of the Revised 
Laws, although several provisions of the original chapter 
were distributed in other places. This arrangement has 
made it somewhat difficult to refer to the laws relating to 
shade-trees, and has led the Massachusetts Forestry Associa 
tion to issue, from time to time, compilations of the law 
brought up to date. 

By Chap. 363, of the Acts of 1910, the "Tree Warden 
Act" has been extended in practically all of its provisions, 
except that requiring the election of a tree warden, to the 
cities of Massachusetts. 

The extensions of the "Tree Warden Act, " and the 
amendments thereto, as regards the authority of city and 
town officers, are embodied in the following: 



LEGISLATION 271 

R. L., Ch. 53, Sections 6 to 11 (as amended by Acts of 1908, ch. 
296), including the old spike provision. Repealed by Acts of 1910, ch. 
363, which follows. 

Acts of 1910, Ch. 363, Section 1. The powers and duties con 
ferred upon tree wardens in towns by Section 12 and 13 of Chap 
ter 53 of the Revised Laws, as amended by Chapter 296 of the 
Acts of 1908, are hereby conferred upon officials now charged 
with the care of shade-trees within the limits of the highway in 
cities, by the charters of the said cities, by other legislative 
enactment or ordinances of the city governments of said cities, 
and upon such officials as the city governments shall hereafter 
designate to have charge of said shade-trees where it is within 
their powers to transfer such duties, by ordinance or otherwise. 

SEC. 2. Sections 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 11 of Chapter 53 of the 
Revised Laws are hereby repealed. 

R. L., Ch. 11, Section 334. Every town at its annual meeting 
shall in every year, except as is otherwise provided in the fol 
lowing section and in Sections 339 and 341, choose from the in 
habitants thereof the following named town officers, who shall 
serve during the year : .... a tree warden. 

R. L., Ch. 53, Section 12 (as amended by Chap. 296, Acts of 1908, 
Section 2, and Chap. 321, Acts of 1910). The tree warden may 
appoint and remove deputy tree wardens. He and they shall re 
ceive such compensation as the town determines, or, in default 
thereof, as the selectmen allow. He shall have the care and con 
trol of all public shade-trees in the town, except those in public 
parks or open places under the jurisdiction of the park com 
missioners, and of those, if so requested in writing by the park 
commissioners, and shall enforce all the provisions of law for 
the preservation of such trees. He shall expend all money appro 
priated for the setting out and maintenance of such trees, but 
no trees shall be planted within the limits of a public way with 
out the approval of the tree warden, and until a location therefor 
has been obtained from the selectmen, or from the road commis 
sioners where authority has been vested in them. Regulations 
for the care and preservation of public shade-trees made by him, 



272 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

approved by the selectmen and posted in two or more public 
places, imposing fines and forfeitures of not more than twenty 
dollars in any one case, shall have the force and effect of town 
by-laws. All shade- trees within or on the limits of a public way 
shall be public shade-trees ; and when it appears in any civil 
proceeding under process of law where the ownership of or rights 
in the tree are material to the issue, that from length of time or 
otherwise, the boundaries of the highway cannot be made certain 
by the records or by monuments, and for that reason it is doubt 
ful whether the tree was within or without the limits of the high 
way, it shall be taken to have been within the limits of the high 
way until the contrary is shown. 

SEC. 13 (as amended by Chap. 296, Acts of 1908, Section 3). 
Public shade-trees shall not be cut or removed, in whole or in 
part, except by the tree warden or his deputy, or by a person 
holding a license so to do from the tree warden, nor shall they 
be removed by the tree warden or his deputy or other person 
without public hearing at a suitable time and place, after notice 
thereof posted in two or more public places in the town and upon 
the tree and after authority granted by the tree warden therefor. 
Whoever violates the provisions of this section shall forfeit not 
less than five nor more than one hundred dollars to the use of 
the town. 

Acts of 1908, Chap. 296, Section 4. Nothing in this act shall 
be construed as applying to any highway now or hereafter within 
the jurisdiction of the state highway commission. 

R. L., Ch. 25, Section 15. It (a town) may at legal meetings 

appropriate money for the following purposes: For 

planting shade-trees in the public ways or, at the discretion of 
the tree warden and with the written consent of the owner 
thereof, upon land adjoining such ways at not more than twenty 
feet from the way for the purpose of shading or ornamenting the 
way, an amount not exceeding fifty cents for each of its ratable 
polls in the preceding year. 

SEC. 16. Towns may appropriate money to be expended under 
the direction of the tree warden for exterminating insect pests in 



LEGISLATION 273 

the public ways and places, and for removing therefrom trees and 
plants upon which such insects naturally breed, except trees and 
plants from which the owner or lessee of land abutting on said 
public way or place annually exterminates all such insect pests 
to the satisfaction of the tree warden. 

ORDINANCES 

The State laws of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Massa 
chusetts leave each town and city free to supplement the 
statutes by local ordinances. The provisions of such ordi 
nances are of course varied by special local conditions ; but 
the general points to be covered by them will be indicated 
in the sections of the East Orange Shade-Tree Ordinance : 

AN ORDINANCE relating to the planting, protection, regula 
tion, and control of shade-trees planted or growing upon the 
public highways of the city of East Orange, Essex County, New 
Jersey. 

Be it ordained by the Shade-Tree Commission of the City of 
East Orange, N. J. , as follows : 

SECTION 1. No individual or officer or employee of a corpora 
tion shall, without the written permit of the Shade-Tree Com 
mission, cut, prune, break, climb, injure, or remove any living 
tree in a public highway ; or cut, disturb, or interfere in any way 
with the roots of any tree on a public highway; or spray with 
any chemicals or insecticides any tree in a public highway; or 
place any rope, sign, poster, or other fixture on a tree or guard 
in a public highway; or injure, misuse, or remove any device 
placed to protect such tree on a public highway. 

SEC. 2. No shade or ornamental tree or shrub shall be 
planted in any of the public highways of the City of East Orange 
until such tree or shrub shall have first been approved and the 
place where it is to be planted designated by the Shade-Tree 
Commission, and a permit granted therefor. 

SEC. 3. No person shall fasten a horse or other animal to a 
tree in a public highway in the City of East Orange, nor cause a 



274 SHADE-TREES IN TOWNS AND CITIES 

horse or other animal to stand so that said horse or animal can 
injure such a tree. * 

SEC. 4. No person shall, without the written permit of the 
Shade-Tree Commission, place or hereafter maintain upon the 
ground in a public highway, stone, cement, or other substance 
which shall impede the .free passage of water* and air to the roots 
of any tree in such highway, "without leaving an open space of 
ground outside of the trunk of said tree in area not less than 
four feet square. 

SEC. 5. In the erection or repair of any building or structure 
the owner thereof shall place such guards around all nearby trees 
on the public highway as shall effectually prevent injury to 
them. 

SEC. 6. No person shall pour salt water upon any public 
highway in such a way as to injure any tree planted or growing 
thereon. 

SEC. 7. No person shall, without the written permit of the 
Shade-Tree Commission, attach any electric wire, insulator, or 
any device for the holding of an electric wire to any tree grow 
ing or planted upon any public highway of the City of East 
Orange. 

SEC. 8. Every person or corporation having any wire or 
wires charged with electricity running through a public high 
way, shall securely fasten such wire or wires so that they shall 
not come in contact with any tree therein. 

SEC. 9. Every person or corporation having any wire or 
wires charged with electricity running through a public high 
way, shall temporarily remove any such wire or wires or the 
electricity therefrom when it shall be necessary, in order to take 
down or prune any trees growing in a public highway, within 
twenty-four hours after the service upon the owner of said wire 
or wires, or his agent, of a written notice to remove said wire 
or wires or the electricity therefrom, signed by two members of 
the Shade-Tree Commission, or its secretary, upon the order of 
such Commission. 

SEC. 10. No person or corporation shall prevent, delay, or 
interfere with the Shade-Tree Commission or its employees, in 



LEGISLATION 275 

the planting, pruning, spraying, or removing of a tree on a 
public highway, or in the removal of stone, cement, or other 
substance about the trunk of a tree. 

SEC. 11. Every repeated violation by the same person of any 
provision of this ordinance, or the continuation of the violation 
of any of its provisions on any day or days succeeding the first 
violation thereof, shall constitute an additional violation of such 
provision. 

SEC. 12. Any person violating any of the provisions of this 
ordinance shall, upon conviction thereof, forfeit and pay a pen 
alty of ten dollars for each offence. 

SEC. 13. This ordinance shall take effect immediately. 

AdoDted May 13, 1907. 



Sample pages from actual field book, fpr 
enumerating street trees. 



the 



Blank field books may be obtained frc 
publishers. 

Field books 4^ inches x 7% inches 1 



m 



in 



Prices: $1.25 net each, and $12.00 rjet 
lots of one dozen. 



Street SAe/^iref. 

Tree No. Species Diameter Condition, 
/ Norway Kla/>fe " Goad 



3 

4 



Remarks 



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Medium 



decayed 



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7" 

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3" 
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Tree N6; Species Diameter 'Condition 
// Norway Mp/e fO" 



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Remarks 




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(Street 

Tree -No": Species Diameter Condition; 

16 At.L(ff<feH 6" Good 

// Atn.f/m &" Good 



Remarks 



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Good 



Tree No, 






Street Date 

Species Diameter Condition Remarks 



INDEX 



Numbers refer to pages. Illustrations are indicated by an asterisk 
after page number. 



Acetate of lead, 204. 
Acer, negundo, 19. 

platanoides, 12. 

pseudo-platanus, 15. 

rubrum, 18. 

saccharinum, 19. 

saccharum, 16. 
Acid phosphate, no. 
Aesculus hippocastanum, 42. 
Agrilus anxius, 186. 

bilineatus, 186. 
Ailanihus glandulosa, 56. 
Ailantus, 30, 55,* 56, 74, 133, 135. 
Air, in soil, 199. 

injurious gases in, 138. 

need of, 106. 

roots lack, 137. 
"A" ladders, 94,* 95. 
Albany, elm-leaf beetle, 159. 

ordinance pertaining to poplars, 27. 
Allendale, N. J., 238. 
Ambridge, Pa., 238. 
American Telegraph and Telephone 

Company, case of, 149. 
Ammonia, 208. 

Ammoniacal copper carbonate, 208. 
Annual ring, 105, 226. 
Apple, 189, 190. 
Arboriculture, municipal, 244. 
Arboriuclturist, 244, 245. 
Arlington, N. J., 238. 
Arrangement of trees on street, 65- 

79- 



Arrangement of trees between sidewalk 
and property line, 77. 

double row, 79. 

number of rows, 79. 

opposite or alternate, 77. 
Arsenate of soda, 204. 
Arsenate of lead, 164, 167, 168, 170, 

I 7 I > *73> 20 3- 
how prepared, 204, 205. 
Arsenic, 203. 
Arsenic oxid, 205. 
Arsenious oxid, 204. 
Ash, white, 30, 49, 50,* 134, 190. 
Aspen, 189. 

Aspidiotus perniciosus, 179. 
Assessment lists, 255, 256. 
Assimilation, 106. 
Atomizer, 209. 

Bag worm, 22, 41. 

life history of, 169,* 170, 171. 
Bamboo poles, in, 112. 
Bark, abrasion of, 218. 

around cavities, 220. 

borers, 186. 

cutting around cavity, 223. 

over filling, 223. 

shedding of, 46. 
Barrel hand -pump, 209, 210.* 
Bean, dissected, 103.* 
Beaver, Justice, quoted, 149, 150. 
Beech, 134, 189. 
Beeswax, 219. 



277 



278 



INDEX 



Birch, 183,* 186, 190. 

Bisulfid of carbon, 184, 207. 

Blights, 196. 

Bloomfield, N. J., 238. 

Bordeaux mixture, 195, 196, 197, 208. 

how made, 207. 
Bordeaux nozzle, 213, 214.* 
Borers, 143, 181-186. 

bark, 183,* 186. 

cavities, 226. 
Boston, 76. 

planting too close, 75. 
Box elder, 19. 
Branch, origin of, 104, 115. 
Branching, fixing height of, in. 
Bronze birch borer, 183,* 186. 
Brown tail moth, 41, 167. 

life history of, 165.* 
Bucket pump, 210.* 
Bud, horse-chestnut, 103.* 

scale scars, 103.* 

section of, 103.* 

terminal, 103.* 
Buffalo, 236. 

Building operations, injuries, 155. 
Buildings, height of, 70. 

height of limited, 72. 

height in Paris, 72. 

tall, 72,* 73.* 
Bushey Park, 42. 
Butternut, 190. 
Button wood, see Sycamore. 

Caldwell, N. J., 238. 
Callus, 219, 226. 

over filling, 223. 
Callusing, 224.* 
Camden, N. J., 238. 
Cambium, 105, 202. 
Camphor-tree, 60. 
Canker, 194. 

chestnut, 194. 
Carbolic acid, 167. 
Carbon bisulfid, 184, 207. 
Carbon dioxid or carbonic acid, 106. 



Carbon dioxid sprayer, 210,* 211, 212. 
Carlisle, Pa., streets, 66. 
Catalpa, 30, 74, 134. 

hardy, 54, 55.* 

western, 56. 
Catalpa catalpa, 54. 

speciosa, 56. 
Caulicle, 103.* 
Cavity, filled, 224.* 

filling of, 220, 221.* 

section of, 222.* 
Cecrospora microsora, 192,* 195. 
Celtis occidentalis, 51. 
Cement, Portland, 223. 
Census of trees, 245-252. 
Chatham, N. J., 238. 
Chestnut, 30, 133, 186, 193. 

bark disease or canker, 194. 

borer, two-lined, 186. 
Chicago, 2, 236. 
Chionaspis furfurus, 180. 
Cinnamomum camphora, 60. 
Cion, 219. 

Cities, founding of, i. 
City forester, 244, 245. 
Clay, in soil, 63. 
Cleveland, 234, 236. 
Coal-tar, 125 and note, 167, 222, 226. 

over-filling, 223. 
Concrete, filling, 223. 

reenforcing tree, 225. 
Conifers, 61. 

Contact poisons, 205, 216. 
Copper carbonate, 208. 
Copper sulfate, 194, 195, 197, 207, 

208, 222. 

Corners, treatment of, 77, 78.* 
Cottony maple scale, 22, 175, 176.* 
Cotyledon, 102, 103.* 
Creosote oil, 167. 
Crotch, banding of, 224,* 226. 

strengthening of, 225.* 

treatment of, 226. 

Crowbar, sounding for gas leaks, 
141,* 143. 



INDEX 



279 



Crowbar, used in staking, 94,* 95. 
Crown, forming of, in. 
Cucumber-tree, 30. 
Cultivating, 109. 
Curb, nearness of trees to, 73. 
Cyclone nozzle, 213, 214.* 

D&dalea quercina, 188,* 193. 

Daily reports, 254. 

Damages, injuries by wires, 149. 

trees killed by gas, 145. 
Dendroscope, 128, 129.* 
Des Cars, 128 and note. 
Diaporthe parasitica, 194. 
Distances apart of specimens, 74. 

in Paris, 75. 

Drain, connected with sewer, 101. 
Drainage, of subsoil, 65, 100, 101. 

poor, 227. 

Drying out or leaf scorch, 201. 
Dust, effect of, 138. 

East Orange, N. J., 238, 242, 273. 
cottony maple scale, 177. 

elm -leaf beetle, 1 74. 

guarding, 94,* 96. 

leopard moth, 184. 

Shade-Tree Commission, 96, 153, 
177, 184, 242. 

staking, 94.* 

trees pruned, 113. 

trees saved, 153. 

tussock moth, 164. 

watering, 109. 
East Rutherford, N. J., 238. 
Elfvingia megaloma, 191, 192.* 
Electricity, effects of, 147. 
Elizabeth, N. J., 238. 
Elm, 134, 142, 166, 168, 200, 251. 

European, 41, 173. 

street of, 40.* 

top-pruning, 89, 90. 

white or American, 30, 38, 39,* 

74, 80, 83,* 173. 
Elm -bark louse, 41. 



Elm-leaf beetle, 41, 159, 251, 171-174. 

life history of, 172.* 
Etiolation of leaves, 200. 
Euproctis chrysorrhcea, 167. 
Extension poles, 215. 

Fall planting versus spring planting, 

91-93- 

Fall webworm, 47, 168, 170. 

life history of, 169* 
False-tinder fungus, 187, 188,* 189, 

190, 191. 

Fernow, B. E., 244 and note. 
Fertilizers, chemical, no. 

manure, 119, no. 
Fertilizing, 109, 227. 
Field book, 246. 

sample pages, after 275.* 
Flushing, N. Y., 28. 
Fames applanatus, 191. 

igniarius, 187. 

Food of tree, sources of, 105. 
Forester, city, 244, 245. 
Fox, W. F., 30. 
Fracture, repair of, 220. 
Fraxinus americana, 49. 
Frost, 201, 202. 
Fungi, 196. 

blights, 186-197. 

canker, 194. 

chestnut-bark disease, 194. 

common bracket fungus, 191, 192.* 

Dcedalea quercina, 188,* 193. 

entering wounds, 117. 

false-tinder fungus, 187, 188.* 

heart -rot of sugar maple, 188,* 191. 

Hopalopilus gilvus, 192,* 193. 

leaf diseases, 194. 

leaf spot of horse-chestnut, 192,* 196. 

linden rust, 192,* 195. 

mildew on maple, 196. 

mildews, 196. 

on branches, 134. 

parasitic, 191. 

powdery mildew of willow, 196. 



280 



INDEX 



Fungi, rusts, 195. 

sap-rots, 191. 

saprophytic, 191. 

sulfur polyporus, 190, 192.* 

sycamore leaf blight, 197. 

wood-destroying, 187. 
Fungicide, 195. 
Fungicides, 205, 207. 
Fungous diseases, 186197, see Fungi. 
Fungous growths, 134. 

Garretson, Justice, 150. 
Gasoline sprayers, 210,* 211. 
Gas, illuminating, damages for trees 
killed by, 145, 146. 

effect of, 140, 142. 

injuries by, 141.* 

leaks, how to detect, 143. 

symptoms of poisoning, 142, 143. 
Gas-mains, how to lay, 144, 144,* 145. 
Gases, injurious, in air, 138. 
Gingko, 52,* 53, 54, 74. 

street of, 52.* 
Gingko biloba, 53. 
Guards, 97,* 232. 

injuries for lack of, 156.* 

necessity for, 157, 158. 

wire, 94,* 96. 
Gum, 134. 

sweet gum, 52,* 54, 74, 92. 

top-pruning of sweet gum, 89, 90. 
Gutter, tree planting in, 66, 151.* 
Gipsy moth, 41, 160, 166, 167. 

life history of, 165.* 
Girdling by band, 226. 
Glen Ridge, N. J., trees need pruning, 

113* 

Glcesporium nervisequum, 197. 
Grade, changing of, 153, 154, 155. 

trees saved, 156.* 

well around tree, 153.* 
Grafting, bridge, 219, 219.* 

wax, 219.. 
Grills, 96, 97,* 98, 199. 

method of placing 98, 98.* 



Growth, essentials for normal, 105. 

in diameter, 104, 105. 

in height, 104. 

in height, shown on horse-chestnut 
twig, 103.* 

rapidity of, 28, 30. 

seedling, 102. 
Guard, large tree, 94.* 
Guard -rolling machine, 103.* 
Guarding, 96, 231. 

East Orange, 94,* 96. 

Hackberry, 30, 51, 52,* 74. 

Harrisburg, 243. 

Hartford, Conn., 236. 

Heading back old trees, 126,* 127, 

127,* 128, 129. 
Heeling-in, 83,* 89. 
Hemlock, 190. * 

Hicoria pecan, 60. 
Hickory, 134, 189. 

bark borer, 186. 

shagbark, 46. 

Horse-chestnut, 30, 42, 43,* 44, 74, 
166, 200. 

leaf spot, 192,* 196. 

winter twig, 103.* 
Hopalopilus gilvus, 192,* 193. 
Hose for spraying, 212, 213. 
Humus, in soil, 63. 

on forest floor, 137. 
Hydnum septentrionale, 188,* 191. 
Hyphae, 187, 189. 
Hyphantria cunea, 168. 

Illinois, case in Supreme Court, 242. 
Insect pests, 159-186. 

bag worm, 169,* 170. 

bark borers, 183,* 186. 

borers, 181. 

brown tail moth, 165,* 167. 

cottony maple scale, 175, 176.* 

elm -leaf beetle, 171, 172.* 

fall web worm, 168, 169.* 

gipsy moth, 165,* 166. 



INDEX 



281 



Insect pests, injuries by, 159. 

leaf -eating insects, 162. 

leopard moth, 182, 183.* 

maple tree sesiid, 183,* 185. 

metamorphosis, 161. 

necessary to combat, 160. 

oyster-shell scale, 176,* 180. 

plant lice, 181. 

San Jose scale, 176,* 179. 

scurfy scale, 176,* 180. 

sucking or scale insects, 175. 

sugar maple borer, 183,* 185. 

tussock moth, 162, 163.* 

woolly maple scale, 176,* 177. 
Insecticide law, 204, 205. 
Insecticides, 203-207. 
Irrigation, see Subirrigation. 

Jersey City, N. J., 238. 

Kearny, N. J., 238. 

Kerosene, 206. 

Kerosene emulsion, 180, 181. 

how prepared, 206. 
Knot-hole, 187. 

evolution of, 116.* 

treatment of, 224,* 225. 

Ladders, "A," 94,* 95. 
Lcetiporus speciosus, 190. 
Laws relating to shade-trees, Mas 
sachusetts, 236, 237, 238, 239, 
268-273. 

New Jersey, 236, 237, 258-264. 

New York, 236. 

principles underlying, 240. 
Lead acetate, 204. 
Lead arsenate, see Arsenate of lead. 
Leader, tied to bamboo pole, in. 

well-defined, 87. 
Leaf diseases, 194. 
Leaf -eating insects, 162. 
Leaf -scars, 103.* 
Leaf scorch or drying out, 201. 
Leaf spot of horse-chestnut, 192,* 196. 



Leaves, part in assimilation, 106. 
Legislation, 248-^75. 

Massachusetts, 236, 237, 238, 239, 
268-273. 

New Jersey, 236, 237, 258-264. 

New York, 236. 

ordinances, 273-275. 

principles underlying shade-tree 

legislation, 240. 
PEnfant, 234. 
Lenticel, 103.* 

Leopard moth, 18, 19, 22, 41, 44, 159, 
1 60, 182, 184, 185. 

life history of, 183.* 
Lime, 207. 

in insecticides, 208. 

in soil, 63. 
Linden, 134, 166. 

American or basswood, 30, 34, 35, 
3 6 >* 37, 74, 80. 

Crimean, 38. 

European, 36,* 37, 74. 

large-leaved European, 38. 

silver-leaved, 37. 

street of, 36.* 

top-pruning, 90. 
Linden rust, 192,* 195. 
Lipman, J. G., no. 
Liquidambar styraciftua, 54. 
Liriodendron tulipi/e^a, 47. 
Locust, 190. 

black, 56. 

honey, 30, 55,* 56. 

street of, 55.* 

yellow, 30. 
Lowell Gaslight Company, case of, 145. 

Mac Veagh, F., 2. 

Madison, N. J., 238. 
Magnolia grandiflora, 60. 
Manure, 109, 201. 
Magnolia, 92. 

great laurel, 59,* 60. 

top-pruning, 89, 90. 
Maple, 1 68, 196, 200. 



282 



INDEX 



Maple, ash -leaved, n,* 19. 

Norway, n,* 12, 15, 23,* 25, 74, 

200 

roots of, 83.* 
street of, n.* 

red, 17,* 18, 19, 30, 74, 142, 189, 200. 
fungus on, 192.* 
ulcers on, 192.* 
striped, 189. 

sugar, 13,* 16, 18, 30, 74, 138, 142, 
160, 177, 189, 191, 200, 201. 
heart rot of, 188.* 
street of, 14.* 
top-pruned, 90.* 
sycamore, n,* 15, 134. 
White or silver, 19, 20,* 21, 22, 30, 

46, 133, 1 66, 175, 189, 200. 
row of, 20.* 
stag-head, 192.* 
top-pruning, 89, 90. 
Maple tree sesiid, 183,* 185. 
Marshall, J., case of, 149. 
Mapping street-trees, 249,* 250. 
Massachusetts, 236, 238, 244, 258, 

2 73- 

brown tail moth, 167. 

gipsy moth, 160, 167. 

laws of, 239, 240, 268-273. 
Merkel, H. W., 97, 154. 
Metuchen, N. J., 238. 
Mildews, 196. 
Mites, 51. 

Montclair, N. J., 238. 
Morristown, N. J., 238. 
Mulching, 201. 

Municipal arboriculturist, 245. 
Municipal control of street trees, 233. 
Municipal nursery, 88. 
Muriate of potash, no. 
Murrill, W. A., 229 and note. 
Mycelium, 187, 189. 
Mytilaspis pomorum, 180. 

Nectria cinnabarina, 194. 
Neowashingtonia robusta, 60. 



Newark, N. J., 238. 
New Brunswick, N. J., 238. 
New Haven, Elm City, 38. 
New Jersey, 236, 238, 244, 273. 

borers, 233. 

shade-tree laws of, 258-264. 
New Orleans, 236. 

Parking Commission, 58, 234. 
New York City, 236. 

causes of high death rate, 4. 

leopard moth, 159. 
New York County Medical Society, 4. 
New York and New Jersey 

phone Company, case of, 150. 
New York Zoological Garden, 154. 
Nitrate of soda, no. 
Nitrogen, in soil, 63, 109. 
Nozzle, Bordeaux, 213, 214.* 

cyclone, 213, 214.* 

jet, 214, 214.* 

Vermorel, 213, 214.* 

"Y's," 215.* 
Nursery, 227, 228. 

municipal, 88. 

nursery rows, 83.* 

training of tree in, 82. 
Nutley, N. J., 238. 

Oak, 93, 134, 168, 186, 189, 200. 
chestnut, 34, 74. 
fungus on, 193. 
laurel, 60. 
live, 58. 

street of, 57.* 
pin, 29,* 30, 31, 74, 80. 

street of, 29,* frontispiece. 

top-pruned, 91. 
red, 29,* 30, 31, 74, 134. 

street of, 33.* 
scarlet, 30, 32. 
swamp white, 34. 
top-pruning, 89, 90. 
water, 59,* 60. 
white, 29,* 30, 32, 34. 
willow, 60. 



INDEX 



283 



Oil emulsion or soluble oil, 177, 179, 

1 80, 206. 

Oil, linseed, for grafting-wax, 220. 
Oil, soluble, or oil emulsion, 177, 179, 

1 80, 206. 
Oiling or tarring of roads, 138, 139, 

140. 

Olmsted, F. L., 75. 
Ordinances, 155, 273, 275. 
Orgyia leucostigma, 162. 
Overhead wires, 146, 150. See Wires. 
Oxygen, 106. 
Oyster-shell scale, 176,* 180, 181. 

Palm, desert, 60. 

palmetto, 59,* 60. 
Parasitic fungi, 191. 
Paris, 3, 229. 

black locust, 56. 

effect of tarred roads, 139, 140. 

holes for trees, 64. 

horse-chestnut trees, 42. 

nursery, 228. 

planes, 46. 

regulations for number of rows of 
trees, 79. 

species used, 10. 

transplanting large trees, 86, 87. 

tree-department, 235. 

watering devices, 108. 
Paris green, 203, 204, 205. 
Parking strips, 65. 
Passaic, N. J., 238. 
Pavement, 199. 
Pecan, 59,* 60. 

Pedestrians exposed to dust, 78. 
Pennsylvania, 238, 244, 258, 273. 

shade-tree laws of, 264, 266. 
Perth Amboy, N. J., 238. 
Petroleum, soluble, 206. 
Philadelphia, planes, 46. 
Phosphoric acid, in soil, 63, 109. 
Phyllosticta pavice, 192,* 196. 
Pine 190. 
Pittsburg, 236, 238. 



Plagionotus speciosus, 185. 

Plainfield, N. J., 238. 

Plane-tree, oriental, 44, 45,* 74, 93, 

138. 

heading back, 126,* 127,* 128. 
street of, 45,* 237.* 

top-pruning, 89, 90. 

western, or sycamore, or button- 
wood, 138. 

Plant lice, 12, 19, 35, 37, 181, 206. 
Plantations, renewal of, 229. 
Planting, 238. 

fall versus spring, 91. 

how, 90, 91. 

new street, 231. 

Norway maple, 83.* 

precautions in, 89-93. 

street-trees, 82-101. 

studies preliminary to, 62-81. 

too close, 75. 

too deep, 199. 

with relation to street, 76. 
Platanus Occident alis, 46, 197. 

orientalis, 44. 
Plumule, 103,.* 
Point Pleasant, N. J., 238. 
Polyporus gilvus, 193. 

sulphur eus, 190. 
Poplar, 133, 200. 

Carolina, 22, 23,* 24,* 25, 26, 27, 

44, 74- 

Lombardy, 27, 28. 
street of, 24.* 

top-pruning, 89. 

tulip, 49. 
Poplar habit, 27. 
Populus deltoides, 22. 

italica, 27. 

Porthetria dispar, 166. 
Potash in soil, 63, 109. 
Power sprayers, 209, 210,* 211, 212. 
Prefect of the Seine, 3, 139, 236. 
Pruning, 110-135, 231, 232. 

coal-tar, 125 and note. 

dendroscope, 128, 129.* 



284 



INDEX 



Pruning, first method of removing 
limb, 121, 122.* 

fixing height of branching, in. i 

forming the crown, in, 112. 

general points, 114, 115. 

heading back, 126,* 127, 127,* 128, 
129. 

how, 120, 1 20.* 

individual tree, 113. 

keeping crown within limits, 126, 
127. 

limb must not split, 121. 

results of bad pruning, 116.* 

right way, 117. 

root, 89. 

scar, healing of, 116,* 123. 

scars, how healed, 117, 118,* 119, 
119.* 

second method of removing limb, 
121, 123, 124.* 

split by improper pruning, 120.* 

street as a unit, 113. 

to artificial forms, 125, 126. 

tools, 130, 131,* 132, 133. 

top, 89. 

when, 129. 

wrong way, 115, 117. 
Pruning tools, 130, 131, * 132, 133. 
Pruning saw, see Pruning tools. 
Pseudoeoccus aceris, 177. 
Pulvinaria innumerabilis, 175. 
Pyropolyporusigniarius, 187, 188.* 

Qttercus alba, 32. 
bicolor, 34. 
coccinea, 32. 
lauri/olia, 80. 
nigra, 60. 
palustris, 31. 
phellos, 60. 
prinus, 34. 
rubra, 31, 32. 
virginiana, 58. 

Raffia, in. 



Rahway, N. J., 238. 
Records, of complaints, 254. 

of trees planted, 252, 254. 
Repair of trees or tree surgery, 218- 
226. 

examples of, 224.* 
Replacing, 227. 
Reserve material, 107. 
Resin, 219. 
Respiration, 106. 
Ridgefield, N. J., 230. 
Ridge wood, N. J., 238. 
Roads, tarring or oiling of, 138, 139, 

140. 

Roadway, width of, 66. 
Roots, asphyxiation, 199. 

cutting of, 230. 

cutting of, in resetting curbs, 150. 

discoloration by gas, 142. 

fibrous, 84. 

important when selecting trees, 87. 

lack air, 137. 

lack water, 137. 

Norway maple, 83.* 

preserving when transplanting, 87. 

pruning of, 89. 

training of, 228. 

training in nursery, 82, 84. 
Roselle, N. J., 238. 
Rust, 195. 

on linden, 192,* 195. 
Rutherford, N. J., 238. 

Sabal palmetto, 60. 

Salisburia adianti/olia, 53. 

Salt water, injuries by, 137, 156.* 

Sand, in soil, 63. 

filling cavities, 223. 
San Jose scale, 176,* 170, 180. 
Sap-rots, 191, 192, 193. 
Saprophytic fungi, 191. 
Sapwood, 105. 
Sargent, C. S., 75. 
Scale or sucking insects, 175. 

winter washes for, 205. 



INDEX 



285 



Scar, healing of, see Pruning. 
Scolytus quadrispinosus, 186. 
Scurfy scale, 176,* 180. 
Seedling, 104. 

in nursery, 82, 83.* 

in woods, 82, 83.* 

white maple, 103.* 
Seeds, germinating, 103.* 
Sesia acerni, 185. 
Sewer, drain connecting with, 101. 

pipe filled with roots, 23,* 26. 
Shade-Tree Commission, 238, 254. 

in East Orange, N. J., 96, 153, 177, 
184, 242. 

in New Jersey, 238. 
Shade-tree department, 233. 

nursery, 88. 

Shade-tree laws, Massachusetts, 36, 
237, 238, 239, 268-273. 

New Jersey, 236, 237, 258-264. 

New York, 236. 

principles underlying, 240. 
Shade-trees, benefiting entire street, 241. 

economic value, 4, 5. 

esthetic value, 2. 

moral value, 5. 

sanitary value, 3, 4. 

shipping of, 83,* 87, 88. 

source of pleasure, 3. 
Sidewalks, concrete, 74. 

close to trees, 151.* 
Slime-flux, 199, 201. 
Smith, S., note 4. 
Smoke, effect of, 138. 
Soap, 206. 
Soil, amount of, 64. 

clay in, 63. 

diseases due to, 197, 198. 

humus in, 63. 

lime in, 63. 

moist and aerated, 201. 

nature and preparation, 62. 

nitrogen in, 63. 

phosphoric acid in, 63. 

poisoned by gas, 142. 



Soil, poor on street, 137. 

potash in, 63. 

preparation of, 65. 

record of kind, 62. 

renewal of, 229. 

sand in, 63. 

source of food, 105. 

suitable for trees, 63. 
Southern States, opportunities for tree- 
planting, 58. 

South Orange, N. J., 238. 
Spacing, uniformity of, 76. 
Species, choice of, 80. 

different when replanting, 229. 

few for streets, 9, 10. 

mixture of, 231. 

one on a street, 80, 233. 

rows of different, 80. 

used in Paris, 10. 

used in Washington, 10. 
Spirits of turpentine, 167. 
Spiny elm caterpillar, 41. 
Splitting of crotches, 226. 
Spores, 117, 187, 207. 
Sprayers, barrel hand pump, 209, 210.* 

bucket pump, 209, 210.* 

gasoline, 210,* 211. 

liquid carbon dioxid, 210,* 211. 

nozzles, 213, 214.* 

power sprayers, 210,* 211. 
Spraying, 238. 

apparatus, 209-217. 

hose, 212, 213. 

precautions in, 216. 

rods, 215. 
Spring planting versus fall planting, 

91-93- 
Springfield Gaslight Company, case 

of, 145. 
Stag-head or top dry, 198. 

white maple, 192.* 
Staking, 93. 

crowbar used, 94,* 95* 

how, 95. 

in Washington, 93. 



286 



INDEX 



Staking, kind of stakes, 95. 

methods, 94.* 

single stake, 93. 
State laws, 236, 258-273. 
Stem, development of, 84. 
St. Louis, 236. 
Stomach poisons, 216. 
Street, changing grade, 153, 154, 155. 

divisions of, 66, 67. 

improvements, 130. 

layout of fifty-foot street, 67.* 

layout of sixty-foot street, 67.* 

layout of eighty-foot street, 68.* 

layout of one-hundred-foot street 68.* 

layout of Pennsylvania Avenue, 
Washington, 69.* 

lights, obstruction of, 112. 

narrow, 72. 

opening new, 152. 

picture of ideal, 6, 7. 

treated as a unit in pruning, 112. 
Street-trees, census of, 245. 

individual planting, 231. 

injuries to, 136-158, 151,* 156.* 

municipal control, 233. 

points in selecting, 6. 

qualities of, 7, 8, 9. 

selection of, 6. 

survey of, 248. 

who shall plant, 231-243. 
Subirrigation, 98-100. 

devices, 99,* 100.* 
Subsoil, drainage of, 65, 100, 101. 

poor, 227. 
Sugar maple borer, 18, 160, 185. 

life history of, 183.* 
Sugar maple heart-rot, 188, 191. 
Sulfur polyporus, 190, 192.* 
Sulfuric acid in air, 138. 
Summit, N. J., 238. 
Surgery, repair of trees, 218-226. 

examples of, 224.* 
Survey of street trees, 148. 
Sycamore, or Western plane, or button- 
wood, 30, 45,* 46, 134, 138. 



Sycamore leaf blight, 196, 197. 

TALLOW, 219. 

Tar, see Coal-tar. 

Tarring or oiling of roads, 138, 139, 140. 

Thyridopteryx ephemerce/ormis, 170. 

Tilia americana, 34. 

argentea, 38. 

dasystyla, 38. 

europcea, 37. 

platyphylla, 38. 

Tools, pruning, 130, 131,* 132, 133. 
Top dry or stag-head, 198. 

white maple, 192.* 
Top, pruning of, 89. 
Training, no, in. 
Transpiration, 106. 
Transplanting, in nursery, 82, 84. 

large specimens, 86. 

large specimens in Paris, 86, 87, 228. 

training of trees for, 82, 84, 228. 

twelve-inch European linden, 85.* 

watering after, 107. 
Tree census, 245-252. 

value of, 251. 

Tree-climbers, hints to, 133, 134, 135. 
Tree doctor, 244. 

Tree-guards, see Guards and Guard 
ing. 
Tree-surgery, repair of trees, 218-226. 

examples of, 224.* 
Tree warden, 240, 244, 245. 
Tree Warden Act, 239, 240, 268. 
Trees, labeling of, 256. 

mapping of, 250. 

records of new, 252, 253. 
Troy, elm-leaf beetle, 159. 
Tulip poplar, 49. 
Tulip-tree, 30, 47, 48,* 92. 

street of, 48.* 

spot gall, 49. 

Turpentine, spirits of, 167. 
Tussock moth, 22, 35, 41, 44, 47. l62 > 
163, 164, 1 66. 

life history of, 163.* 



INDEX 



287 



ULCERS, 142, 143, 199, 200, 201. 

on red maple, 192.* 
Ulmus americana, 38. 

campestris, 41. 
Uncinula aceris, 196. 

salicis, 196. 

Uniform spacing of trees, 76 
Uniformity, maintenance of 227. 

VAPOR, bisulfid of carbon, 207. 
Vermorel nozzle, 213, 214.* 

WATER, 105. 

asphyxiation by, 199. 

how much, 107. 

part in transpiration and assimila 
tion, 105, 1 06. 

roots lack, 137. 

salt, injuries by, 137, 156.* 
Watering, 107, 201, 227. 

after transplanting, 107. 

cart, 103,* 108. 

how, 1 08. 
Washington, D. C., 2, 3, 234. 

gingkos, 53. 

holes for trees, 64. 

honey locust, 56. 

oaks, 28. 

one species on street, 80. 



Washington, D. C., oriental planes, 44. 

species used, 10. 

staking, 93. 

tree-department, 235. 

tree-guard, 94.* 
Wax, see Grafting-Wax. 
Weeks, M. I., case of, 150. 
Well around tree, 153,* 154. 
Westfield, N. J., 238. 
'Whale-oil soap, 179, 180, 181. 
White heart-rot, 189. 
Wilkes-Barre, Pa., 238. 
Willow, 134, 189. 

powdery mildew, 196. 
Winter washes for scale insects, 205. 
Wire guards, 94,* 96. See Guards 

and Guarding. 

Wires, damages for injuries by, 148, 
149, 150. 

how to protect branches, 148, 
148.* 

overhead, injuries by, 141,* 146- 

*5o, 151.* 

Woodbury, N. J., 238. 
Woolly maple scale, 18, 176,* 177. 

"Y's," spray "Y's," 215.* 
Zeuzera pyrina, 182. 



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