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The year a.d. 1010 saw the completion of the Shahnama, the great 
Persian epic. Its author, the poet Kirdausi, spent over thirty labori- 
ous years in its composition, only to experience, when the task bad 
been achieved, a heart-breaking disappointment well worthj oi in- 
clusion in any record oi the calamities of authors. His work has 
survived the test of time, anil by general consent is accounted to be 
one of the few great epics of t lie world. < ieographically, and in some 
other respects, it may he said to stand half-way between the epics of 
Europe and those of India. In its own land it has no peer, while in 
construction and subject-matter it is unique. Other epics centre 
round some heroic character or incident to which till else is subser- 
vient. In the Shahnama there is no lack either of heroes or of in- 
cidents, but its real hero is the ancient Persian people, and Its the i ne 
their whole surviving legendary history from the days of the First 
Man to the death of the last Sasanian Shah in the middle of the seventh 
century of our era. It is the glory of the Persian race thai they alone 
among all nations possess such a record, based as it i> on their own 
traditions and set forth in the words of t heir greatest poet . In another 
sense, too, the Shahnama is unique. The authors of the other great 
epics tell us little or nothing of their own personalities or of their 
sources of information. Their works are fairy palaces suspended In 
midair; we see the result, tint know not how it was achieved. The 
author of the Shahnama take- us into bis confidence from the first 
that in reading it we are let into the secrel of epic-making, and can 
apply the knowledge thus gained to solve the problem of the con- 
struction of its great congeners. To the student of comparative 
mythology and folk-lore, to the lover ot historic romance or romantic 
history, and to all that are fond of tales of high achievements and t In- 
gests of heroes, the Shahnama is a storehouse of rich and abundant 
material. To set forth a complete presentment oi it with the needful 
notes and elucidations is the objeel of the present translation, made 
from two of the best printed texts of the original — that of Vullers and 
Landauer, and that of Turner Macan. 







The homes that are the dwellings "f to-day 
Will sink 'ninth shower and sunshine to decay. 

But storm unit rain shall never mar What I 
Have built — the palace of my poetry." , 






The rights of translation and of reproduction arc reserved. 




Abbreviations ........ xv 

Note on Pronunciation ....... xvi 

Nushirwan (continued) — 
Part V. The Fall and Restoration to Favour of 


1. How Nushirwan was wroth with Buzurjmihr and 

ordered him to be put in Ward ... 4 

2. How the Ambassador of Caesar came to Nushirwan 

with a locked Casket and how Buzurjmihr 
was set at large to declare its Contents . 8 

3. Discourse on the Responses of Nushirwan . . 14 

4. Nushirwan's Letter of Counsel to his Son 

Hurmuzd ...... 25 

5. How an Archmage questioned Nushirwan and 

how he made answer .... 28 

Part VI. The Shah's Last Years 

1. How Nushirwan made ready to war against Caesar 43 

2. How Nushirwan took the Stronghold of Sakila 

and how a Shoemaker had Dealings with 

him ....... 46 

3. How the Envoys of Caesar came to Nushirwan with 

Apologies and Presents . . . .51 

4. How Nushirwan chose Hurmuzd as his Successor 54 

5. How the Archimages questioned Hurmuzd and 

how he replied ..... 57 

6. How Nushirwan appointed Hurmuzd as his 

Successor and gave him parting Counsels . 61 

7. How Nushirwan had a Dream and how Buzurjmihr 

interpreted it as signifying the Appearance 

of Muhammad ..... 66 


Hurmuzd, Son of Nushi'rwan — 

sect. page 

i. The Prelude ....... 77 

2. How Hurmuzd ascended the Throne and harangued 

the Chiefs . . . . . • ~ s 

3. How Hurmuzd slew fzid Gashasp, Zarduhsht, 

Simah Barzin, and Bahrain Azarmihan, his 

Father's Ministers . . . . .Si 

4. How Hurmuzd turned from Tyranny to Justio . 90 

5. How Hosts gathered from all Sides against Hur- 

muzd, and how he took Counsel with his 
Wazirs . . . . - . . <i_- 

6. How Hurmuzd heard of Bahram Chubina and sent 

for him . . . . . . .96 

7. How Bahram Chubina came to Hurmuzd and was 

made Captain of the Host. . . . 100 

8. How Bahram Chubina went with twelve thous; 

Cavaliers to fight King Sawa . . . [06 

9. How King Sawa sent a Message to Bahl 

Chubina and his Answer . . . .113 

10. How King Sawa and Bahrain Chubina set the 

Battle in Array a l;.i n ist each other . . 115 

11. How King Sawa sent anotln 1 Message to Bahram 

Chubina and his Answer . . . .117 

12. How Bahram Chubina had a Dream in the Night, 

how he gave Battle the next Morning, and 
how King Sawa was slain . . 1 2 1 

13. How Bahram Chubina sent a Letter annoum 

his Victory, and the Head of King Sawa, to 
Hurmuzd, and his Answer . . . 129 

14. How Bahram Chubina fought with Parmuda, 
Son of King Sawa, and overcame him, and 
how Parmuda took Refuge in the Hold of 
Awaza . . . . . . .134 

15. How Bahram Chubina sent a Message to Parmuda 

and how Parmuda asked Quarter . .138 

16. How Bahram Chubina asked of Hurmuzd a War- 

rant to spare the Life of Parmuda and the 
Answer ....... 

17. How Hurmuzd's Letter, granting Quarter to Par- 

muda, reached Bahram Chubina, and how 
Bahram Chubina was wroth with Parmuda 143 

18. How Parmuda came before Hurmuzd with the 

Treasures sent by Bahram Chubina . . 149 



Hurmuzd, Son of Nushirwan (continued) — 


19. How Hurmuzd heard of the Ill-doing of Bahram 
Chubina and made a Compact with the 
Khan . . . . • • .151 

20. How Hurmuzd wrote a chiding Letter to Bahram 
Chubina and sent him a Distaff-case, 
Cotton, and Women's Raiment . . 153 

21. How Bahram Chubina put on the Woman's Dress 

and showed himself therein to the Chiefs 

of the Host ...... 154 

22. How Bahram Chubina went to hunt and saw a 

Lady who foretold the Future to him . . 156 

23. How Bahram Chubina assumed the royal Style 

and how Kharrad, Son of Barzin, and the 
Archscribe fled . . . . .158 

24. How Hurmuzd ret<i\ 1 '1 News of Bahram Chubina's 

Doings, and how Bahram Chubina sent a 
Frail of Swords to Hurmuzd . . .160 

25. How Bahram Chubina made known to the Chiefs 

his Designs upon the Throne, and how his 
Sister Gurdya advised him . . . 163 

26. Bahram Chubina's Letter to the Khan and how he 

coined Money with the Name of Khusrau 
Parwiz and sent it to Hurmuzd . . .172 

27. How Bahram Chubina wrote to Hurmuzd and how 

Khusrau Parwiz fled from his Father . .173 

28. How Hurmuzd sent Ayin Gashasp with an Army 

to fight Bahram Chubina and how he was 
slain by his Comrade . . . .177 

29. How Hurmuzd grieved, refused Audience to the 

franians, and was blinded by Bandwi and 
(aistaham ...... 182 

30. How Khusrau Parwiz heard of the Blinding of 

Hurmuzd . . . . . .184 

Khusrau Parwiz — 

1. The Prelude ....... 196 

2. How Khusrau Parwiz sat upon the Throne and 

made an Oration . . . . .197 

3. How Khusrau Parwiz visited his Father and asked 

Forgiveness . . . . . .198 

4. How Bahram Chubina heard of the Blinding of 

Shah Hurmuzd and how he led his Troops 
against Khusrau Parwiz .... 200 


Khusrau Parwiz (continued) — 


5. How Khusrau Parwiz and Bahrain Chubina met 

and parleyed ...... 204 

6. How Bahram Chubina and Khusrau Parwiz re- 

turned, how Gurdya advised Bahrain 
Chubina, and how Khusrau Parwiz told his 
Purpose to the Iranians .... 220 

7. How Bahram Chubina attacked the Army of 

Khusrau Parwiz by Night and how Khusrau 
Parwiz fled ...... 226 

8. How Khusrau Parwiz went to his Sire and fled to 

Rum, and how Hurmuzd was slain . . 230 

9. How Bahram Chubina sent Troops after Khusrau 

Parwiz and how Bandwi contrived to n m ue 
him from their Hands . . . -233 

10. How Bahrain, the Sou ot Siyawush, took Bandwi 

and carried him to Bahram Chubina . -237 

11. How Bahram Chubina summoned the M, 

of Iran, how they discussed his Pretensions 
to the Kingship, and how he acceded to the 
Throne ....... 239 

12. How Bandwi plotted with I iahram.the Son of Siya- 

wush, to slay Bahram Chubina, and how 
Bandwi fled from Bond .... 245 

13. How Khusrau Parwiz went toward Rum by the 

Desert-route and how a Hermit told him of 

the Past and Future .... 249 

14. How a Cavalier of Caesar came to Khusrau Parwiz 

and how he sent an Answer by Gustaham, 
Balwi, Andiyan, Kharrad, Son of Barzin, and 
Shapur ....... 257 

15. How Caesar answered the Letter of Khusrau 

Parwiz ....... 2C0 

16. How Caesar wrote to Khusrau Parwiz, declining 

to help him, and his Answer . . . 261 

17. How Caesar wrote the second Time to Khusrau 

Parwiz about giving him Aid . . . 264 

18. How Khusrau Parwiz answered Caesar about the 

Alliance . . . . . .269 

19. How Caesar made a Talisman and deceived the 

Envoys of Khusrau Parwiz, and how 
Kharrad, Son of Barzin, solved the 
Mystery . . . . . . .271 


Khusrau Parwiz (continued) — 


20. How Kharrad, Son of Barzin, expounded the 

Faith of the Indians and exhorted Caesar . 275 

2i. How Caesar sent a Host and his Daughter to Khus- 
rau Parwiz ...... 278 

22. How Khusrau Parwiz led his Host to Azar 

Abadagan and how Bandwi met him on the 
Way 281 

23. How Bahram Chubina had Tidings of the Coming 

of Khusrau Parwiz and wrote to the Chiefs 
of Iran, and how the Letter fell into the 
Hands of Khusrau Parwiz and his Answer . 284 

24. How Khusrau Parwiz fought with Bahram 

Chiibina and how Kvit, the Ruman, was 
slain ....... 2S8 

25. How Khusrau Parwiz fought with Bahram 

Chubina the second Time, was defeated, 
and escaped from him by the Help of 
Surush ....... 292 

26. How Khusrau Parwiz fought the third Time with 

Bahram Chubina and defeated him . . 300 

27. How Khusrau Parwiz sent an Army under Nastiih 

after Bahram Chubina, and how Bahrain 
Chubina captured him and reached the Khan 
of Chin ....... 303 

28. How Khusrau Parwiz pillaged the Camp of Bah- 

rain Chubina and wrote a Letter to Caesar, 
who answered it with a Robe of Honour and 
Gifts ....... 306 

29. How Niyatus was wroth with Bandwi and how 

Maryam made Peace between them . . 309 

30. How Khusrau Parwiz gave Presents to Niy.Uiis 

and the Rumans, how he dismissed them to 
Rum, and wrote Patents for the Nobles of 
Iran . . . . . . .312 

31. Firdausi's Lament for the Death of his Son . .315 

32. The Story of Bahram Chubina and the Khan of 

Chin ....... 316 

33. How Makatura was slain by Bahram Chiibina . 320 

34. How the Lion-ape slew a Daughter of the Khan, 

how it was slain by Bahram Chubina, and 
how the Khan gave him a Daughter and the 
Kingdom of Chin ..... 322 


Khusrau Parwi'z (continued) — 


35. How Khusrau Parwiz heard of the Case of Bahrain 

Chiibina and wrote a Letter to the Khan, 

and how he replied . . . . 327 

36. How Khusrau Parwiz sent Kharrad, Son of Barzin, 

to the Khan and how lie schemed to slay 
Bahrain Chiibina . . . . .331 

37. How Bahram Chiibina was slain by Kubin as Khar- 

rad, Son of Barzin, had planned . . 336 

38. How the Khan had Tidings of Bahram ( lmlnna's 

Death and how he destroyed the House and 
Family of Kuliin . . . -3-13 

39. How Khusrau Parwiz had Tidings of the Slaying 

of Bahram Chiibina and honoured Kharrad, 

Son of Barzin ...... 345 

40. How the Khan sent his Brother t" Gurdya, the 

Sister of Bahram Chiibina, with a Letter 
touching her Brother's Deatli and asking In 1 
in Marriage as his Queen, and her Answer . 346 

41. How Gurdya consulted her Nobles ami Hid from 

Marv 349 

42. How the Khan received Tidings of tin- Flight of 

Gurdya and how he sent Tuwurg with an 
Army after her, and how Gurdya slew 
Tuwurg . . . . . . -351 

43. How Gurdya wrote to (iu id wi .... 354 

44. How Khusrau Parwiz slew Bandwi . . . 354 

45. How Gustaham rebelled against Khusrau Parwiz 

and took Gurdya to Wife .... 355 

46. How Khusrau Parwiz took Counsel with Gurdwi 

concerning Gustaham and how Gurdya, 
prompted by Gurdwf, slew him . . . 35S 

47. How Gurdya wrote to Khusrau Parwiz and how 

he summoned and married her . . . 361 

48. How Gurdya showed her Accomplishment before 

Khusrau Parwiz ..... 363 

49. How Khusrau Parwiz sent an ill-disposed March- 

lord to Rai and how he oppressed the Folk 
there ....... 365 

50. How Gurdya made Sport before Khusrau Parwiz 

and how he gave Rai to her . . . 367 

51. How Khusrau Parwiz portioned out his Realm . 368 

52. How Shirwi, the Son of Khusrau Parwiz, was 

born of Maryam with bad Auspices and how 
Khusrau Parwiz informed Caesar . . 371 


Khusrau Parwi'z (continued) — 

SECT. PA i ! E 

53. How Caesar wrote a Letter to Khusrau Parwiz, 

sent Gifts, and asked for the Cross of Christ 374 

54. How Khusrau Parwiz answered Caesar's Letter and 

sent Gifts ...... 379 

The Story of Khusrau Parwiz and Shirin — 

55. The Prelude . . . . . . .382 

56. How Khusrau Parwiz loved Shirin, how they 

parted, how he met her again while hunting 

and sent her to his Bower .... 383 

57. How the Nobles heard that Shirin had come to 

the Bower of Khusrau Parwiz and how tin \ 
advised him and were satisfied with ln^ 
Answer ....... 386 

58. How Shirin murdered Maryam and how Khusrau 

Parwiz put Shirwi in Bonds 

59. How Khusrau Parwiz made the Throne of 

Takdis . . . . . . 39] 

60. The Story of Sarkash and Barbad, the Minstrel, 

and Khusrau Parwiz .... 396 

61. How Khusrau Parwiz built the Palace of Mada'in 400 

62. Discourse on the Splendour and Greatness of 

Khusrau Parwiz . . . . .405 

63. How Khusrau Parwiz turned from Justice, how 

the Chiefs revolted, and how Guraz called 

in Cassar ...... 407 

64. How Caesar withdrew through an Expedient of 

Khusrau Parwiz and how the Chiefs released 
Shirwi from Bonds ..... 409 

65. How Khusrau Parwiz was taken and how Shirwi 

sent him to Taisafiin . . . .418 

Index ......... 423 




C. — Macan's edition of the Shahnama 

L. — Lumsden's do. 

P. — Mohl's do. 

T. — Tihran do. 

V.— Vullers' Do. 

BPB. Photius : Bibliotheca. Ex recensione Immanuelis 


CMN. Magic in Names. By Edward Clodd. 

CTC. Thcophanis Chronographia. Ex Recensione Ioannis 

Classen i. 

GDF. The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Em- 

pire. By Edward Gibbon, Esq. With Notes by 
Dean Milman and M. Guizot. Edited, with addi- 
tional Notes, by William Smith, LL.D. 

MM. Macoudi : Les Prairies d'Or. Texte et Traduction par 

C. Barbier de Meynard et Pavet de Courtcille. 

NIN. Das Iranische Nationalepos von Theodor Noldeke. 

NT. Geschichte der Perser und Araber sur Zcit dcr Sasanichn 

von. Th. Noldeke. 

PCHAP. History of Art in Persia from the French of Georges 
Perrot, and Charles Chipicz 

RK. The Koran : Translated ... by the Rev. J. M. Rod- 

well, M.A. 

RM. The Rauzat-us-safa ; or, Garden of Purity. . . . By 

Mirkhond. . . . Translated ... by E. Rehatsek. 

RSM. The Seventh Great Oriental Monarchy. By George 

Rawlinson, M.A. 

SK. The Koran. . . . Translated ... by George Sale, Gent. 

ZT. Chronique de Abou-Djafar-Mo'hammed-Ben-Djarir-Ben- 

Yezid-Tabari, traduite . . . Par M. Hermann Zoten- 



d as in " water " 

i as in " pique " 

it as in " rude " 

a as in " servant " 

i as in " sin " 

m as in " foot " 

at as in " time " 

au as in ou in " cloud " 

g is always hard as in " give " 

kh as ch in the German *' buch 

zh as z in " azure " 





vol. vm. 





Buzurjmihr, while in attendance upon the Shah during a 
hunting-expedition, has a premonition of coming trouble and 
immediately afterwards falls under the Shah's displeasure, 
and is disgraced. Conscious of his own rectitude he refuses 
to own that he is in fault and is treated with increasing rigour 
till the Shah has need of his services to expound a problem 
proposed by Caesar, but with his sight greatly impaired by 
his sufferings. 

The rest of the Part is taken up with an account of the 
wisdom of Nushirwan as shown in his replies to questioners 
and in his letter of advice to his son Hurmuzd. 


§ 2. We have other instances of such problems and " hard 
questions." See Vol. vii., p. 5. 

§§ 3 and 5. On Persian Wisdom-literature see Vol. vii., 
p. 278 seq. 

§4. It is manifest from the account in the Shahnama, 
and it is probably true historically, that Nushirwan did his 
best to provide himself with a worthy successor. 1 In addition 
to this letter of counsel we have in Part VI. the account of 
the examination that his sou Hurmuzd had to pass, 2 and some 
final exhortations. 3 Unfortunately 

" The best laid schemes o' mice an' men 
Gang aft a-gle\ ." 

1 Cf. NT. p. 252 and note. 2 p. 57. * p. 61. 




How Nushirwdn ivas wroth with Buzurjmihr and 

ordered him to be put in Ward 

Consider now the case of Buzurjmihr, 
Who from the dust rose to the circling sphere, 
Which will exalt one to the clouds on high, 
Then bring him down in sorry dust to lie I 1 

It happened in those days that Niishirwan 
Went forth from Mada'in to hunt. He chased 
Along the wilderness the mountain-sheep 
And the gazelles. The mountain-sheep dispersed. 
The Shah was left behind with Buzurjmihr, 
Who followed both from duty and from love. 
Then from the waste the monarch reached a meadow, 
And saw trees, grass, and shade. The weary Shah 
Alighted from his steed to rest his eyes 
Upon the grass. He saw no followers ; 
The one of goodly face remained, no more. 
The Shah reposed awhile upon the mead, 
His head right lovingly upon the lap 
Of Buzurjmihr. It was that wise king's wont 
To wear a jewelled armlet. As it chanced 
This clinging armlet snapped upon his arm, 
And fell beside his couch. A sable bird 
Swooped from the clouds to where he lay, looked 

Beheld that armlet, brake the thread whereon 
The gems were strung, then ate them each in turn, 
The lustrous pearls and topazes alike, 
Flew from the monarch's couch, and disappeared. 
At that adventure Buzurjmihr aghast 
Mused at the process of the turning sky. 

1 Two couplets omitted. 


He understood : " My fall, my day of wrath, 
My season of dismay, are hard at hand ! ' 

The Shah awoke, marked how he bit his lips, 
Scanned his own arm, beheld the jewels gone, 
And seeino- no one of his escort there 1 
Conceived that while he slumbered Buzurjmihr- 
Had gulped the armlet down, and said to him : — 
" Thou dog ! who said to thee : ' 'Tis possible 
To hide one's natural bent ? ' " 3 

But Nushirwan c. 1752 

Fatigued with many words his tongue in vain ; 
He got no answer but a deep, cold sigh, 
While Buzurjmihr stood withered by the Shah, 
And by the process of revolving heaven. 
That wise man marked at once the ominous sign 
Of downfall and remained struck dumb by fear. 
The escort of the Shah had gone about 
The mead while Nushirwan was in its midst. 
He mounted on his charger's back in wrath, 
And noticed no one on his journey home, 
But bit his lip at Buzurjmihr the while, 
And muttering much alighted from his steed, 
Bade smite the sage's face as 'twere an anvil, 
And to imprison him in his own palace. 
So Buzurjmihr abode there and beheld 
A frowning sky. He had a kinsman, brave 
And young, attending on Shah Nushirwan 
Within the palace day and night on terms 
Of intimacy. Buzurjmihr one day 
Asked that dependant of the sun-faced Shah : — 
tl How dost thou wait upon him ? Let me know 
So that thou may est be more serviceable." 

" Chief of archmages ! " said the servitor, 
" It chanced this very day that Nushirwan 

1 Couplet inserted from P. a Reading with P. 

3 Couplet omitted. 


Looked so on me, his bondslave, that I said : — 
' There is an end for me of food and sleep ! ' 
I poured the water for him after meat, 
Transgressing with the basin in the act, 
And when the world-lord was offended at me 
I let the basin fall." 

Then said the sage : — 
' Arise ! Fetch hither water and pour out 
As thou wouldst pour it o'er the Shah's own 

The young man brought warm water which he 
Upon the sage's hands with gentleness, 
Who said : ' Pour thus when he require! h it. 
Avoiding any awkwardness, and when 
The water shall perfume the basin's brim 
Forbear to pour." 

The servitor took heed, 
And on the next occasion, when he brought 
The salver, poured the water as the sage 
Enjoined with neither tardiness nor haste. 
" O thou whose love increaseth ! " said the Shah, 
lt Who told thee this ? " 

He answered : " Biizurjmihr, 
For he it was that taught to me the mode 
Marked by the Shah, the master of the world." 

The Shah said : " Go and say thus to the sage :— 
' With all that high estate of thine and lustre 
Why didst thou seek the worse and not the better 
Through thine ill nature and misgovernance ? ' " 

The attendant heard and coming quickly sought 
The palace eagerly with stricken soul, 
Gave Buzurjmihr the message of the Shah, 
And privily received this answer back : — 
c - J 755 ' My station both in public and in private 
Far bettereth the monarch of the world's." 


The servitor returned with this response, 
But counted as he went the grains of dust. 
The answer made the Shah exceeding wroth. 
He had the sage bound in a dismal dungeon, 
And asked the servitor the second time : — 
" How beareth that insensate one his lot ? " 

The messenger came with a tearful face, 
And told the words to Buzurjmihr who thus 
Made answer to that faithful friend of his : — 
" My days are passed more lightly than the Shah's." 

The messenger turned back, came like the wind, 
And told the Shah that answer, which enraged him ; 
He was as 'twere a pard and bade to make 
A narrow iron cage, then studded it 
With spikes and nails inside, and set thereon 
Withal an iron lid. Thus Buzurjmihr 
Could neither rest by day nor sleep by night. 
Thus for the fourth time to the servitor 
The Shah said : " Take this message and bring back 
His answer. Sav to him : ' How far'st thou now, 
Environed as thou art by piercing nails ? ' 

The attendant came and gave the message sent 
By that imperious prince. Thus Buzurjmihr 
Made answer to the youth : " My days are better 
Than those of Nushirwan." 

Now when the man 
Returned with this reply the Shah's face grew 
All livid at the words. Out of the palace 
He chose a truthful man and capable 
Of comprehending what the sage should say, 
Dispatched too with the messenger a swordsman, 
Who acted as the executioner, 
And said : " Go to this bad, ill-fortuned man, 
And say : ' If thy reply give pleasure, well ; 
If not the deathsman with his trenchant sword 
Shall show thee Doomsday in that thou hast said 


That jail and nails and cage, and pit and bonds 
Are better than the throne of Niishirwan.' 

The envoy came apace to him and told 
The words of Nushfrwan. Said Buzurjmihr 
To that good envoy : " Fortune ne'er hath shown us 
Its face. None of us is exempt from change, 
And verily all good and ill will end. 
Enthroned and rich or grievously oppressed, 
We have no choice, we all must pack and part. 
To pass from durance is an easy thing ; 
The quaking is for them that wear the crown." 

That wise man and the executioner 
Returned and, coming to the exalted Shah. 
Narrated everything that they had heard. 
The fear of evil fortune came upon him. 
They bore that righteous guide from that strait cage 
Back to his palace with the Shah's consent. 
1754 And heaven turned awhile with matters thus. 
While wrinkles filled the face of Buzurjmihr, 
His heart grew more oppressed and worn, and both 
His eyes were darkened by anxiety. 
While since his travailing surpassed his gain 
He wasted with his care and pined with pain. 


How the Ambassador of Cossar came to Niishirwan 
with a locked Casket and how Biizurjmihr ivas 
set at large to declare its Contents 

Now in those days it chanced that Caesar sent 

An envoy with a letter to the Shah, 

With gifts, with presents, and a padlocked casket, 


And said : " O king of warriors and chiefs ! 

Thou hast no lack of holy archimages, 

So let them tell, not tampering with the lock, 

What is concealed therein. If thev say right 

We will send tribute and our wonted gifts ; 

But if thy clever archimages' hearts 

Fail in this knowledge indispensable 

The Shah must not ask tribute at our hands, 

Nor send an army to invade our realm. 

Such is the message that hath come from Caesar : 

Make answer as it seemeth good to thee." 

The monarch of the world said to the envoy : — 
1 This thing is not a mystery to God, 
And by His Grace divine I will achieve it, 
Convoking holy men to give me aid. 
Abide here for a se'nnight, cheered with wine, 
Make merry in thy heart and be at ease." 

The matter proved perplexing to the Shah : 
He called to him the great men and the wise, 
Who all examined it in every way 
To find a means whereby to loose that coil, 
Examined, as did all the archimages, 
That casket and that lock whose key was lacking, 
But could not tell and owned their ignorance. 
Now when that concourse proved of no avail 
The heart of Niishirwan, the Shall, was grieved. 
He said : ' The intellect of Buzurjmihr 
Will search this secret of the turning sky." 

The king of kings, in sore embarrassment, 
Gave orders to his treasurer to provide 
A change of raiment from the treasury, 
And had a choice steed saddled royal wise. 
He sent them to the sage. " Thou must forget," 
He said, " the hardships that thou hast endured 
Because high heaven above us so ordained 
That thou shouldst have affliction at our hands. 


1755 Thy tongue excited my displeasure : thou 

Hast been the author of thine own oppression. 

I am confronted with a thankless task, 

The elders' hearts have been perplexed thereby. 

For Caesar hath dispatched to us from Rum 

A famed priest of that land and therewithal 

A casket with a tightly fastened lid 

Padlocked and sealed with musk. The envoy 

saith : — 
' Thus said my lord : " Reveal this hidden thing, 
And let the sages and the princes say 
What lieth in this casket." So methought : — 
' No one will see through this veiled mystery 
Unless it be the soul of Buzurjmihr.' 

When Buzurjmihr had listened to those words 
His pain and former trouble were renewed ; 
He left the prison, bathed his head and body. 
And first approached in prayer the Lord of all. 
Albeit innocent himself he feared 
The Shah, the wrathful world-lord's, tyranny. 
He watched that day and night alike and pondered 
According to the message of his master. 
What time the sun was brilliant in the heavens 
He mused upon the aspects of the stars, 1 
He laved his heart's eyes in the stream of wisdom, 
Chose out a trusty man among the sages, 
And said to him : " My market hath been spoiled, 
My vision ruined by my sufferings. 
Observe upon the road the passers by, 
Address them, have no fear, and ask their names." 
Forth from his house went Buzurjmihr and met 
A woman hasting, beautiful of face. 
That wise man vigilant informed the sao-e 

CD © 

Of all things that were hidden from his eyes, 
And he as feeling for his way rejoined : — 

1 Couplet omitted and reading with P. 


" Ask if this Moon be wedded." 

Said the lad}' : — - 
" I have a spouse and child withal at home." 

The sage on his white roadster, when he heard 
Her answer, started. Then another woman 
Appeared and, seeing her, his agent asked : — 
" O woman hast thou got a child and spouse. 
Or, being single, only wind in hand ? " 

" I have a husband if no child," she said, 
" Thou hast mine answer, suffer me to pass." 

Just then another woman came — the third. 
Her too the friend approached. ' My Fair ! " said he, 
'"What mate hast thou who hast such goodly 

And daintiness ? " 

' I never had a husband," 
She said, " I would not one should see my face." 

Now mark the inference of Biizurjmihr 
On hearing these replies. He hurried on 

With anxious mien. They brought him to the Shah, C. 1750 
Who ordered that he should approach the throne, 
But was exceeding troubled in his heart 
Because he missed the sage's piercing glance, 
And heaved full many a deep and chilling sigh. 
Excused himself for having wronged the guiltless, 
Then talked of Caesar and of Bum. and spake 
Of casket and of padlock. Buzurjmihr 
Made answer to the monarch of the world : — 
' L Be lustre thine so long as heaven shall turn. 
Now must we hold a session of the wise, 
Of Caesar's envoy, and the archimages, 
And have the casket laid before the Shah, 
Before the Great, the seekers of the way : 
Then in God's strength, who gave me intellect, 
And made the right the business of my soul, 
I will declare the casket's whole contents, 


And lay no hand on it or on its lock. 
Although mine eyes be dim my heart is bright : 
The breastplate of my soul withal is knowledge." 

The king joyed at the words. His heart grew 
As roses in the Spring. Anxiety 
Bent him no longer, and he called for envoy 
And casket, summoned all the archimages 
And mighty men, and seated many a sage 
With Buzurjmihr, then told the ambassador : — 
" Repeat thy message and demand an answer."" 

The Human, hearing, loosed his tongue and thus 
Told Caesar's words : " From the victorious world- 
We look for wisdom, knowledge, and renown. 
And thou, O master of the world ! hast Grace, 
And stature, greatness, lore, and might <>l hand. 
The wise archmages — seekers of the way — 
The chiefs and heroes that attend upon thee. 
Are either all assembled at thy court, 
Or are thy lieges still where'er they be. 
If these shrewd-hearted sages shall behold 
This casket with its lock and seal and stamp, 
And state distinctly what is there concealed, 
So that their statement shall accord to wisdom, 
Then by this token I will send to thee 
The tribute that my realm can well afford ; 
But if in any wise they fail herein 
Ask not for tribute from our land again." 

Whenas the sage had heard the speaker's words 
He loosed his tongue and offered praise and said : — 
" Oh ! be the world's Shah Shah for evermore, 
May he be eloquent and fare with fortune ! 
Praise to the Master of the sun and moon, 
Who showeth to the soul the path to knowledge, 
And knoweth all things manifest and hidden ; 


I covet knowledge, He is past all need. 1 

Within the casket are three lustrous pearls, c - I 757 

And greater coverture than I have said. 2 

One pearl is pierced, the second is half pierced, 

The third hath had no intercourse with iron." 

The Human sage, on hearing, brought the key 
To Nushirwan who looked. Concealed within 
There was a pyx, and in the pyx a veil 
Of painted silk, and in the silk three jewels, 
Just as the wise man of Iran had said, 
Because of those three gems the first was pierced, 
The second half pierced and the third intact. 
Then all the archimages praised the sage 
And showered gems on him. The king of kings 
Became of joyful countenance and filled 
The mouth of Buzurjmihr with lustrous pearls. 
His conduct in the past oppressed his heart, 
He writhed, his face grew furrowed : why had he 
Dealt so oppressively with Buzurjmihr 
From whom he had experienced love and faith ? 
The sage, when he beheld the Shah's shrunk face, 
And grief-pierced soul, revealed what had been 

Declared all that had passed to Nushirwan, 
Told of the armlet, of the sable bird. 
The liege's care, the slumber of the Shah. 
And added : " This was doomed to come to pass, 
And sorrow and remorse will profit not. 
When heaven is intending good or ill 
What are Shah, archimage, or Buzurjmihr ? 
God hath implanted in the stars the seed, 
And we must write the sentence on our heads ; 
So let the heart of Nushirwan, the Shah, 
Rejoice exempt from pain and grief for ever. 
Exalted though the Shah be yet his state 

1 Reading with P. 2 Id. 


Is made more gracious by his minister. 

The chase, Avar, pleasure, largess, justice, feast, 

These are the business of the king of kings. 

He knoweth what Shahs did in days of yore, 

So by that token let him do the same. 

To gather treasure, to provide the host, 

To chide, speak, hear the suppliant, and take 

For rule and treasure, these things are a care, 
That, heart and soul, the minister must bear." 


Discourse on the Responses of Ntishirwdn 

Thus was it at the time of Niishirw ;'m : 
He was at once the Shah and paladin. 
At once a warrior and archimage, 
The Fire-priest and the captain of the host. 
He had his emissaries everywhere, 
And trusted not the world to ministers. 
x 75 8 None could conceal from him in great or small 
The good and evil of the worlds estate. 

One day a loval archmage of his agents 
Took on himself to put this to the Shah : — 
' One time without reproof thou passest by 
A fault. Another time the same offender 
Is hung howe'er much he excuse himself ! ' 

The Shah replied : " When one doth own his 
I am as leech, he is as wretched patient 
That would avoid the dose and sheddeth tears ; 
If that dose fail I leech his soul no more." 

Another archmage said to him : "Be blest, 
And sheltered from all ill on every side ! 


The captain of the host went from Gurgan 
With privacy, and entering a wood 
There for a while he slumbered. The Gurkils 
Bore off his baggage ! He was left unfurnished, 
And, further, turneth back on that account ! ' 

The Shah made answer thus : " We do not need 
That militarist. How can he guard troops 
Who cannot guard himself ? " x 

Another said : — 
" Live happy evermore with archimages 
To sit, to banquet, and repose with thee ! 
There is a famous chieftain present here, 
Whose treasure passeth thine ! ' 

The Shah replied : — 
"Yea, rightly, for he is our empire's crown. 
I tender both his treasures and his life, 
And toil to magnify him." 

Said another : — 
" Great king ! live ever and unscathed by ill ! 
Among the captives carried off from Rum 
Are many babes unweaned." 

He gave this sentence : — 
" The little ones must not be reckoned captives. 
We will dispatch them glad and in good case 
To their own mothers." 

People wrote to him : — 
" A hundred wealthy Rinnans offer ransom." 
" If they are doing it through fear," he said, 
" Sell each chief for a cup of wine and ask 
No more because we do not lack their goods. 
I will require their jewels, purses, slaves, 

1 Mohl translates : — " Le Sipehbed est sorti un jour de Gourgan 
en secret, est entre dans un bois et y a dormi pendant quelque temps ; 
ses bagages etaient sur un autre steppe, il n'avait rien avec lui et 
fut oblige de s'en revenir pour rejoindre ses bagages." Nouschirwan 
repondit par cette sentence : " Je n'avais pas besoin d'une escorte ; 
celui qui veille sur l'armce ne s'inquiete pas pour lui-meme." 


And gold and silver with the scimitar." 

They told him : " Of the rich men of the city 
There are two merchants and they keep folk waking 
The best part of the night with shouts of revel, 
And twanging of the rebeck and the harp." 

He made them this reply : " No hardship this, 
And do ye others that are wealthy too 
Live like these twain in mirth and jollity ; 
Be inoffensive and live unaggrieved." 

One day they wrote to him : " Mayst thou be 
happy ! 
Far from thee ever be the evil eye ! 
The monarch of Yaman observed at court : — 
' When Nushirwan doth ope his mouth to speak 
He talketh so much of the dead that those 
Alive have their glad lives made sad thereby ! ' ' 

He answered thus : " All wise and high-born men 
Speak of the dead : the friendship is not sound 
Of any that would purge the heart of them."' 

Another said : " Shah ! thy youngest son 
Doth act not with the justice of his sire. 
He buyeth an estate at such a rate 
As to aggrieve the seller ! " 

Said the Shah : — 
" This is not well, so let the seller keep 
Both price and land." 

" O Shah," another said, 
' Imperious, far from blame and from reproach ! 
Thy heart was gentle once : why hath it grown 
So overbearing and so choleric ? " 

He thus made answer : "I had no teeth then, 
And fed on milk because I could no other, 
But since my teeth came, and my back grew 

My quest is flesh because I have grown strong." 

Another said : "I own that thou art mighty, 


Our better both in counsel and in knowledge, 
But how hast thou surpassed the kings of kings, 
And made the whole world watch thy policy ? " 

" My wisdom is a thing," he thus replied, 
' That is beyond their ken. Sense, knowledge, 

counsel — 
These are my ministers, my treasury 
Is earth, my treasurer thought." 

Another said : — 
" O king ! thy hawk in chase hath bound an 
eagle ! " 

Thus said he : "Beat its back; why should it 
Upon its better ? Gibbet it on high 
To suffer in its turn, for e'en in fight 
The subject may not seek to conquer kings." 

Another chief — one of the emissaries — 
Said thus : " O monarch of the world ! Barzin 
At morn departed with the host and met 
A reader of the stars who prophesied : — 
' None will behold again this haughty chief, 
This mighty army, and its equipage, 
When once their backs are turned upon the king ! ' ' 

The Shah replied : " Revolving heaven hath 
Barzfn's designs a loving countenance, 
And stars and sun and moon will not destroy 
That chieftain with his treasure and his host." 

Another archmage said : " The king, one day, 
Bade choose a man, illustrious by birth, 
To make the circuit of the sovereignty 
Both for the sake of justice and to send 

Reports concerning matters great and small, c. 1760 

And good or evil, to the court. Gashasp 
Is both illustrious and old : 'twere well 
That justice be administered by him." 



The Shah replied : " Gashasp, though far from 
Is still possessed by greed. Choose some one else, 
Who toileth not upon his own behalf, 
And is possessed of treasures of his own, 
One of experience, upright and austere, 
Whose first concern is for the poor." 

One said : — 
" The chief cook hath a grievance "gainst the Shah 
And chiefs, and saith : ' I dress his favourite meats, 
And serve them at cross roads. He savoureth not. 
Nor toucheth, them ! ' That loval servant 

" Too much food may disgust," the Shah replied. 
Another said: 'All thoughtful people blame 
The king of kings because he goeth forth 
Without an ample escort, and the hearts 
Of all his friends are full on thai account 
For fear some enemy with ill designs 
May suppliant-wise contrive to get at him." 

He made this answer : " Equity and wisdom 
Protect the great king's person. Right sufficeth 
To guard the just judge though he be alone." 

Another said : " O wisdom's mate ! the prince 
Of Khurasan said on the riding-ground : — 
' I know not why the king recalled Garshasp.' 

The Shah made answer : " He hath left undone 
My bidding and ignored my purposes : 
I ordered him to ope for good or ill 
My treasury's portal to deserving folk. 
The man that is a niggard in his gifts 
Concealeth all the monarch's Grace divine." 

Another said : " The great king is a magnate 
With all men, and munificent and holy. 
What hath Mihrak, that ancient servant, done 
To have his pay reduced, his visage wan ? ' 

nCshIrwAn to 

The Shah replied : " Mihrak hath grown too 
Relying on his former services. 
He came to court and took his seat bemused, 
And he was never save with wine in hand." 

An archmage of the intelligencers said : — 
" The Shah, when marching to encounter Caesar, 
Called only the Iranians to the war, 
And so Iran became hard pressed by Rum." 

He answered : " This hostility is innate, 
'Tis war with Ahriman." 

Another time 
One ventured to observe : " The Shah selecteth 
Troops differing from those of former Shahs. 
What look'st thou for in charger-riding Lions. 
Expert of hand, upon the day of battle ? ' 

He thus replied : " The cavalier of war C. 1761 

Ne'er must be satiate of combating. 
Feast and the field of battle must be one 
To him both by bright day and darksome night. 
He never faileth in the hour of need, 
And few or many make no odds to him." 

Another said : " O Niishirwan, the Shah ! 
Live ever joyful and with youthful fortune. 
A man was at the gateway from Nisa — 
A servant and a trusty officer — 
Who at the reckoning at the taxing-office 
Was found short by three hundred thousand drachms. 
He pleaded : ' All are spent.' Chiefs, archimages, 
And tax-collectors are concerned." 

The king, 
On hearino- how the archimages claimed 
The money from the officer, commanded : — 
" Press not for what is spent : give him too some- 
Out of the treasury." 


Another said : — 
" A gallant cavalier was hurt and long- 
Disabled. Cured he charged the ranks of Rum, 
Fell, and hath left behind him little ones." 

The Shah commanded : ' Be four thousand 
Assigned to them out of the treasury. 
Because when any one is slain in war. 
And leaveth babes as his memorial, 
Whene'er the scribe shall read out from the roll 
His name, his children must have drachms, so pay 
A thousand thus to them four times a year." 

Another said : " Be happy all thy days. 
At Marv the captain of the host hath gathered 
Much wealth in money but he spendeth not, 
And people are abandoning the march." 

He thus made answer : ' Give that wealth — the 
Whereby the land is made depopulate — 
Back to the folk from whom it hath been taken. 
Make proclamation of the fact in Marv, 
And bid erect a gibbet at his door, 
In sight of all his province and his troops. 
And hang alive the tyrant on the gallows, 
Head-downward, that hereafter nobody 
Among our paladins may turn aside 
In heart and spirit from our ordinance. 
Why must he bleed the poor to get him wealth, 
And joy his body to his soul's destruction ? ' 

Another said : " God-fearing Shah ! thy subjects 
Throng in thy court, extol thine equity, 
And praise the Maker for thee." 

He replied : — 
" Thank God that we inspire alarm in none. 
Be it ours to tender yet more carefully 
Both innocent and guilty." 

NtfSHlRWAN 21 

Said another : — 
" Shah endowed with Grace and understanding ! 
The world is full of joy, delight, and sweets, 
And lord and liege are dizzied in their heads C. 1762 

At night-fall with the din." 

" In us," he answered, 
" May small and great rejoice throughout the 

Another said : " O Shah of power supreme ! 
Detractors speak with blame of thee and say : — 
' He squandereth vast treasures but he never 
Hath felt the labour of amassing them.' " 

He thus returned reply : " If I withhold 
The wealth laid up within my treasury 
From those deserving of it all my gain 
Will turn to loss at last." 

Another said : — 
" thou exalted king ! God grant that scath 
May never come upon that soul of thine ! 
The Jews and Christians are thine enemies, 
Are double-faced, and worship Ahriman." 

He answered thus : " A brave Shah is not great 
Save he be tolerant." 

" Mardwi 1 hath spent," 
Another said, " three hundred thousand drachms, 
Famed king ! out of thy treasury and more 
On mendicants, and chiefly on himself." 

He said thus : " Such withal is our command : 
' 'Tis well for thee to give to the deserving.' " 

Another said : "O Shah that toilest not ! 
Much largess hath made void thy treasury." 

He thus returned reply : " The open hand 
Doth start a man afresh, both leaf and bough. 
The world-lord, when a worshipper of God, 
Hath at his disposition all the world, 

1 Reading with P. 


But we have seen it niggard to the mean, 
And greed and harshness tempt not me." 

" king ! " 
An archmage said, " shrewd Kurakhan hath wrung 
From famous Balkh three hundred thousand 

And handed them to us who laid them up 
Among thy treasures." 

" We," he made reply, 
" Require not drachms through others' sufferings, 
So give them back to those from whom they came, 
With somewhat also from the treasury, 
Because the world-lord that adorcth God 
Hath no desire to vex his subjects' hearts. 
Raze Kurakh tin's fine palace and enrich 
His roofs with clay. His palace shall be waste 
His profit toil and, after toil, distress 
And malison. Take from our roll his name. 
And hold of no account his likes at court." 

Another said : " O Shah of glorious race ! 
Thy converse turneth greatly on Jamshid 
And on Kaus." 

Thus Nushirwan replied : — 
" Oh ! may our knowledge keep them ever young ! 
I speak of them that mine own head and crown 
May be remembered after I am dead." 

" Why hideth," asked another man, " the Shah 
His secrets from the illustrious Bahnian ? ' 
1763 The Shah replied : " He turneth him from 
And eateth of the fruit of his own lusts." 

One said : " O Shah that tendereth thy subjects ? 
Why hast thou recently become remiss ? ' 

He thus made answer : "I associate 
With sage and archimage, for when the voice 
Of Ahriman is at our ears our hearts 


Grow void of counsel and our brains of sense."' 

An archmage asked the monarch of the earth 
To speak concerning kingship and the Faith, 
And said : "A man of wisdom will allow 
A faithless better than a kingless world." 

He thus made answer : " I have said the same, 
And holy men have heard my words. The world-lord 
Ne'er saw a faithless world though every one 
Hath his own Faith. One man adoreth idols, 
Another's Faith is pure. One said : ' A curse 
Is better than a blessing,' but mere words 
Will never wreck the world, so speak thy mind. 
But when the great king too is void of Faith 
No one will bring down blessing on t he world. 
Faith and the sovereignty are like the body 
And soul ; the twain support the world.** 1 

• Shah 
Of joyous nature ! thou hast oft observed," 
One said, " before the chiefs : ' What time the throne 
Is destitute of king then Faith and wisdom 
Are worthless.' Once thou saidest : ' I am fortune, 
And fortune's pretext both for good and ill, 
And when one uttereth praises in the world 
The crop in secret comet h back to me." 

He answered : " Yea, 'tis well. The great kings 
Is fortune's crown. The world is as the body ; 
Kings are its head and crowned accordingly."' 

Another said : " O Shah, the peoples friend ! 
Be thine the sovereignty and length of days ! 
Five days have passed, O lustre of the soul ! 
Since last the high priest came before thy presence." 

He answered : ' I am not concerned thereat, 
For he is occupied on mine affairs." 

One said : " O Shah of sunlike Grace to whom 

1 Cf. Vol. vi. p. 250. 


Time will bring forth no peer ! we see a suitor 

Attending court each morn, and that affairs 

Are wrong with him, but wot not of his grievance.*' 

He answered : " In Hijaz 1 thieves plundered him 
Of countless goods. That he may not be troubled 
I have replaced them from the treasury. 
And keep him at the court on this account 
To see if he can recognise the thieves." 

Another said : " O Shah of glorious birth. 
The lord of bounty and the lord of justice ! 
I 7^>4 Down from the time of Gaiumart till now 

No Shah like thee hath filled the royal throne." 

He said : ' I give thanksgiving unto God 
That matters are as He would have them be." 
The sentences of Nushirwan are past, 

The world is old but ever young my care ; 
My genius hath not blossomed to this last 

Though keen it grew, such fire in eld was there ! 2 
For many a year I told this history 

Though hidden 'twas from Saturn, moon, and 
But since Mahmud's name crowned my poetry 

Its commendation through the world hath run. 
The idolators of Hind he bringeth down 

With sword whose sheen, like silk of Wash, 3 is 
Oh ! may the age fare well through his renown, 

And in his diadem the heaven delight. 

1 Reading with P. In A.D. 575 the Persians overthrew the 
Axumite power in Arabia and conquered Yaman. The Hijaz would 
come to some extent within their sphere of influence. 

2 Couplet omitted. 

3 " son epee damasquinee comme une broderie." Mohl. Wash 
is the name of a city in Turkistan, famous for its silk. 



Nushirwdn's Letter of Counsel to his Son Hurmuzd 

Now read the letter of Shah Niishirwdn, 
And muse upon it in thine ardent soul. 
He said : " This letter grateful to the heart, 
Instructed, learned, well counselled, and abstruse, 
Is from the Shah exalted and sun-faced. 
Great is he, heaven inclincth to his wish, 
The world-lord he, just and beneficent, 
Without reproach, the lavisher of treasure, 
Increaser of Kubad's renown and throne, 
Transmitter of the crown of state and justice, 
Possessed of Grace and stature, fame and conduct, 
And all that he could wish for from the crown 
Of greatness, to Hurmuzd, our own pure son, 
Who heartily accepteth all our counsels, 
And is through God glad and victorious, 
For evermore a world-lord crowned and throned. 
This lucky month upon the day Khurdad, 
With fair stars and world-brightening presages, 
We set upon thy head the crown of gold, 
As we ourselves received it from our sire, 
And give thee too the blessings which Kubad, 
The glorious, bestowed upon our crown. 
Be vigilant and master of the world, 
Be wise and noble and without offence, 
Increase in knowledge and incline to God, 
Because He is the Guider of thy soul. 
We have inquired of one of good discourse, 
One ancient both in wisdom and in years : — 
What man of us approacheth nearest God ? 
Who goeth by the straitest path to Him ? ' 
He gave reply : ' Choose knowledge as thou wouldst 
That people should bless thee because the sage 


1765 Deriveth not addition from the dust : 

Make thy pure spirit then approved by knowledge.' 
Through knowledge doth the Shah adorn the 

throne : 
Mayst thou be sage and of victorious fortune. 
God grant thou never be a promise-breaker, 
For promise-breakers have the dust for shroud. 
See that thou punish not the innocent, 
Or listen to the words of slanderers. 
Let every ordinance of thine be just. 
For justice will delight thy spirit. Seek not, 
As thou wouldst be the lustre of thy throne, 
To compass falsehood with thy tongue. Secure 
A subject in the enjoyment of his wealth, 
For others' havings are no friends of thine : 
Joy in the wealth that thou hast earned thyself. 
"Tis thine to be the asylum for all folk. 
For overlord and underling alike. 
Reward the man that acteth upright 1\ ; 
Oppose withal the evil-doer. Although 
Thou mayst be held in honour in the world, 
Forget not travail, misery, and loss ; 
Be what one may this is a Wayside Inn 
Wherein it booteth not to feel at homo. 
Seek worth and be associate with the wise 
If dost wish that fortune shall commend thee. 
By knowledge bind the hands of tyranny. 
As thou wouldst scape the evil of mishap, 
And dearly tender him who in thy presence 
Hath trodden under foot thy foeman's life. 
The great men and the merchants of the city 
Must have their share of justice. When thou settest 
The crown of king of kings upon thy head 
Discern the worse way from the truly great. 
Keep ever in thy presence some wise man, 
And hold him as thy body and thy soul. 


In matters great and small pay no regard 

To any save the accomplished and well born. 

Give not the worthless battle-gear for when 

Thou seekest it 'tis not to hand. Thy friend 

Will yield thee to the foe ; a double task 

Both difficult and wretched will be thine : 

He will bring down thy weapons to the field, 

And one day will employ them on thyself. 

Be generous to persons in distress, 

Avoid ill-doing, fear calamity. 

Discern the hidden motives of thy heart, 

Make no mere outward show of i>ood and right, 

Be not unmeasured in beneficence, 

And hear the counsels of the experienced. 

Lean toward religious men but watch religion, 

Because it causeth bitterness and wrath. 

Proportion thine expenses to thy means, 

And be not careful to augment thy store. 

Observe the precedents of former Shahs, 

And be a righteous judge in everything ; 

The Shah that doth unjustly is accursed; C. 1766 

Approve but justice then and court not curses. 

Where are the crowned heads of the kings of kings ? 

Where are the great men and the ministers ? 

Their fame is now their sole memorial ; 

This Wayside Inn abideth not with any. 

Command not to shed blood, or urge the host 

To battle, lightly. Heed this weighty letter. 

Set not thy heart upon this Hostelry. 

Herein have I but sought thy good and decked 

Thy heart with knowledge by the rede of Him 

Who ruleth sun and moon ; by Him keep off 

The influence of the Div. Have thou before thee 

This letter, day and night. Let wisdom rule 

Thv heart. If thou dost make a memory here 

Thy name will never want for majesty. 


Now be the Maker of the world thy refuge, 
]\Iay time and earth affect thee. May high heaven 
Turn but at thy desire and in the world 
Be none aggrieved by thee." 

He placed the letter. 
When written, in the treasury and abode 
With fear and trembling in this Wayside Inn. 

A king of kings well counselled, wise, and just, 
Will strive to make his modesty unite 
With strength of hand and gallantry in fight, 

Be of pure Faith and put in God his trust. 

See what man of these virtues is possest 
And, seeing, him his meed of praise prefer, 
Seek one that is as bright as Jupiter, 

Aspiring, armed with sword, with mail on breast; 

Who taketh from idolaters the sway, 

Who with brocade of Faith his heart hath bound. 

Yea verily the man himself is found : 
Mahmud is monarch of the world to-day. 

The quest of battle and of banqueting 

Are one to this world's lord. Abu'l Kasim ! 
God grant the age joy in the sight of him, 

That open-handed and victorious king. 

How an Archmage questioned Ntishirwdn and how he 

made Answer 

There was an elder versed in our old speech, 
And antiquate with action and discourse, 
Who from a volume in the ancient tongue 


Saith that an archmage asked of Niishirwan : — 

" In what way should the worshipper invoke 

In secret prayer the Master of the world 

That He may give an answer and bestow 

Withal fair fortune on his suppliant ? 

A man, with arms outstretched toward the sky. 

May make request before the Lord of time, 

Yet gain not his desire for all his prayers, C. 1767 

And hath but tearful eyes and furrowed face." 

The conquering Shah replied : ' Be moderate 
In thy requests to God ; when they pass bounds 
A heart o'ercharged will come of that desire." 

The archmage asked : ' What man deserveth good, 
And who is worthiest of the name of ' Great ? ' " 

The Shah replied : ' He that amasseth treasure 
Without exertion, and bestoweth not, 
Is unfit for the throne ; from time to time 
His fortune will grow dark, but well is he 
That giveth. Give, if wealth be thine, and hoard 

" What is the base of wisdom ? " asked the arch- 
" And who rejoiceth in its boughs and leaves ? " 

" The sage rejoiceth," Nushirwan replied ; 
" So doth the modest man of noble birth." 

The archmage asked : " Who profiteth by know- 
And who is witless and calamitous ? " 

The Shah replied : : The cherisher of wisdom 
Will cherish life which profiteth thereby 
When it aboundeth, but its lack entaileth 
Grief, care, and loss." 

The archimage inquired : — 
" Is knowledge better than the Grace of kings, 
For Grace and majesty adorn the throne ? ' 

" A sage possessed of Grace," replied the Shah, 


Will take the whole world underneath his wing. 
Thou needest wisdom, Grace, renown, and birth ; 
With these four heaven will keep thee still in mind." 

" In kingship who illustrateth the throne ? ' 
The archmage said. " "Who is unfortunate ? ' 

And Nushirwan made answer : " One that seeketh 
First for the aidance of the King, the World-lord, 1 
For bounty, knowledge, and right usages 
Will make him tender toward the suppliant. 
Next let him give authority to those, 
Who merit such distinction by their worth. 
Then let him see that nothing in the world 
For good or evil is concealed from him. 
He should distinguish, fourthly, foe from friend : 
'Tis well that kings should be without offence. 
When he hath Grace and wisdom. Faith and 

Then he is worthv of the crown and graceth 
The throne, while if thou lindest such things lacking 
Good sooth ! thou wilt behold him lustreless ; 
He after death will leave an evil name, 
And win not jocund Paradise at last." J 

The archmage asked : wk How many modes of 
Are there and what are they, because o'er some 
One needs must weep while others are crown, 

And reputation, those grief, these content ? ' 

Said Nushirwan : " The sage hath classified 
The modes of speech and thought the matter out. 
First, profitable speech ; the sweet- voiced sage 
Saith that it is the harmless. Secondly, 
That which thou callest the deliberate 
Know to be that of shrewd and fluent men, 
For they speak 3 largely to the point and leave 
1 Reading with P. 2 Five couplets omitted. 'Reading with P. 


Their memory in the world. Next is the speech 

Of one ambitioning the word in season ; 

He will abide in honour all his years ; 

And, fourthly, that of one called by the sage 

Delectable — the* competent reciter, 

Who uttereth all, both new and old, in verse ; 

While, fifthly, is the warm deliverance 

Of one of sweet tongue and harmonious voice, 

Who when he hath impleached his web of words 

Attaineth verily his heart's desire." 

The archmage said : " In spite of all thy lore, 
And thou hast kindled all thy soul with knowledge, 
Yet thou still questionest the little worth ! 
Dost sav then : * How shall knowledge have an 
end ? ' " 

The Shah replied : " From all that I have learned 
I have attained my soul's desire and wisdom. 
Avoid wrong-doing then and look to knowledge — 
A thing more precious than the crown and throne." 

The archmage said : "I have seen none so praised 
And eminent for lore that one could say : — 
' Such is his eminence that no wise man 
Can teach him any further.' " 

Thus the Shah 
Replied : " Can treasure satiate a man 
Until he lieth underneath the dust ? 
The way of knowledge is more glorious 
Than wealth, more precious in the sage's eyes. 
Our words remain as our memorial : 
Compare not wealth with knowledge." 

Said the archmage : — 
" What with their learning and remembering 
The sages cannot be but ancient men." 

The Shah replied : " Although the man be old 
His knowledge faileth not to keep him young. 
Thou wilt prefer him to the foolish youth, 


Whose dust is only valued for its tomb." 

The archmage asked : * It was thy wont to speak 
About the fortune of the kings of kings 
Before the Great, 1 and more than ever now 
Thou namest them but with a deep cold sigh ? * 

The Shah said : " It was never in my heart 
That I should praise a process such as this— 
To govern this world with the scimitar 
Of justice, then pass on and vilely die/" 
1769 w Thy usage," said the archmage, " in the past 

Was this — to speak to all in nobler words. 
Now thou despisest them and sayesi naught 
About the past or present." 

Made answer saying : " I have talked enough. 
And now I purpose to depend on deeds." 

The archmage said : "' Thy prayers in former times 
Before the Fire were not so long as now. 
Thy praises too are longer than they were, 
Thy plaints and supplications more profuse." 

He gave this answer saying : l * Holy God 
Exalteth from the dust His worshipper, 
Doth favourably dispose the sky toward him, 
And maketh all the world to be his slave. 
If this slave faileth to appreciate, 
Let him not scape from hardship and distress." 

The archmage asked : " Since thou becamest 
What greater cause for thankfulness hast thou 
Toward thy Maker ? Hath that eminence 
Increased thy joy and filled thy foemen's hearts 
With blood ? " 

He answered thus : " Thanks be to God, 
Our fortune hath been good. None in my presence 
Hath ever sought for the supremacy, 

1 Reading with P. and T. 


But at my chastening washed his hands of ill. 
My foemen have grown feeble in the fight 
When they beheld mine onset and my mace." 

The priest went on : * When warring in the West 
Thou wast both quick of clutch and valorous, 
But when thou wast campaigning in the East 
Thou wast long-suffering and deliberate/' 

And Nushirwan made answer thus : " The youth 
Accounteth not of pain and toil of mind, 
But when a man hath come to sixty years 
He must assume a gentler attitude. 
Thanks to the World-lord who is all-providing, 
The Author of the good and ill of fortune, 
That I had prowess in my youthful days. 
And recked not if my luck were good or bad. 
Now knowledge, treasure, generosity, 
And rede, accompany my days of age, 
The world is 'neath my rule and usages, 
And circling heaven my breastplate in the fight." 

Said the archmage : " The Shahs of long ago 
Desired to hold discourse on all affairs ; 
Thy words are briefer and thy secrets more, 
Yet thou surpassest those famed men of old." 

He made this answer, saying : " Every king, 
That doth believe in Him who giveth all, 
Is not concerned about himself for He, 
Who made the world, still watcheth over it." 

" I see the kings who should be glad of heart," 
The archmage said, " most anxious in our times." 

And Nushirwan replied : " The man of sense 
I lath ever at his heart the fear of loss." 

The archimage rejoined : " The Shahs of old 
Allowed not care and fight to mar their feasts." 

He made this answer saying : " In their cups 
They ever grew forgetful of their fame, 
But fame hath triumphed o'er the cup with me, 



My spirit is beforehand with the time." 

The archmage said : " Shahs used to tend them- 
Employing drug and leech and remedy, 
Lest they should have to soil themselves with tears." 

" A man, whose time is not yet come," he said, 
" Not yet overtaken by the turning sky. 
Will stand secure, and drugs will profit naught, 
Because the chance of time protectcth him, 
But when the hour for passing is at hand 
Then no precaution will avert his fate." 

The archmage said : ' Thou praisest much and 
The Maker, yet at heart thou art not glad 
The while, but ever hast a soul all care." 

" There is no care at all," said Nushfrwan, 
" The Shah's heart is at one with turning heaven ; 
I fear that those who offer praise to me, 
And shower benedictions on my Faith, 
Affect a greater fervour than thev feel : 
Mine object is to read my subjects' hearts." 

" Why joy we in our children," asked the arch- 
" And why do we desire a family ? " 

" The man that leaveth children in the world 
Will not become forgotten," he replied. 
" If he have children he will relish life, 
And for that reason will abstain from vice, 
While if he pass away the pang is slight, 
Because a child's eyes watch his paling face." 

" Who liveth at his ease," the archmage asked, 
" And who repenteth of his own good deeds ? ' 

He thus replied : " The worshipper of God 
Will take the reins of fortune in his hands 
And, seeking no addition, is at ease, 
Who if he sought it would be full of fear. 


Then as for what thou said'st about good deeds, 
And secret inclinations to do good, 
Know, no one is more mortified than he 
That meditateth good for thankless folk."' 

" The evil-doer dieth,*' said the archmage, 
" The world removeth from the roll his name. 
The righteous man will likewise pass away. 
And destiny account his every breath. 
What need is there for praising excellence 
Since death is here to reap both good and bad ? ' 

And Nushirwan made answer thus : " Good deeds 
Will find a readv market everywhere. 
He that doth good deeds dieth not though dead, 
But resteth, giving up his soul to God j 1 
He that doth fail therein will have no rest, 
And leave behind an evil memory." 

The archmage further said : l * Xo ill is worse C. 1771 

Than death. If so, then what is our resource ? ' 

The Shah replied : " On leaving this dark earth, 
The life which then thou wilt have gained is pure. 
Whoe'er lived here in fear and care must needs 
Bewail that life but, whether Shah or subject. 
Thou wilt be quit of this world's fear and pain." 

The archmage asked him : " Which is worst of 
In filling us with anguish and chagrin ? ' 

The Shah made answer : " Reckon mountain-heavy 
The troubles that descend on us in troops. 
And what is fear except the fear of troubles, 
Than which there is naught stronger in the world ? ' 

" How can we "scape from these ? ' ' the archmage 
' For this world's doings give us cause to weep ?" 

He thus made answer : tL Knowledge is the way: 
The sage is ever cheerful." 

1 Couplet omitted. 


"Which of us," 
Inquired the archmage, " hath most store of trea- 
sure ? " 
The Shah made answer : " lie that hath least 
The archmage asked : " Which is the foulest fault, 
One alien most from worth and Paradise ? 

The Shah made answer : " In the case of women 
A strident voice and lack of modesty ; 
But. in the case of men, to be a fool, 
And thus to spend a lifetime as in prison."' 

The archmage asked :*' Who hath mos1 confi- 
dence ? " 
" He that hath least remorse/' replied the Shah, 
""And goetfa soiled in body, and with heart 
Black with iniquity, before his God."' 

The archmage said : " Who is the upright man. 
Whose heart is proven by his soul and wisdom ? ' 
The Shah thus answered : "' He thai toileth on 
Through gain and loss and compasseth no ill." 

The archmage asked : " Who is the best oJ men, 
The crown upon the head of all mankind ? " 

"The meek to whom a crown availeth naught," 
The Shah replied : "not one intenl <>n profit. 
Not even though he be of lofty aims ; 
Next, he whose greatness is its own reward — 
The generous man whose heart is purged from dark- 
ness — 
And, thirdly, he that hath a zeal divine, 
Proceeding from integrity and wisdom." 

" What," said the archmage, " is the heart's 
chief dread ? " 
" The troubles that we bring upon ourseh • 
The Shah replied. 

" What giving is the best ."' 
The archmage said, " so that the man who giveth 


May be exalt and great ? " 

" In gain and loss," 
The Shah rejoined, " keep naught from the deserv- 

The archmage asked concerning this -world's 
doings : — 
" Declare its process open and concealed. 
Whate'er the manner of that action be, 
For loss or profit, shall Ave acquiesce ? " 

"The All-knowing," thus the Shah replied, "is C. 1772 
And higher than this ancient sky although 
It knowing be and mindful ; He is Lord 
Of this world's lords. Become not then perverse, 
Avoid disaster, and attribute not 
Good fortune and misfortune to the sky. 
Know that both ill and good proceed from Him 
That hath no peer — the One eternal Cause, 
Whose word is ' Be ' and what He willeth is, 
Who was and is and will be evermore."" 

" The body is the hostel of the soul : 
Which of them feeleth pain ?" the archmage asked. 

The Shah replied : " Our mortal bodies suffer 
So long as they have brains, but when the soul 
Hath filtered through they lose their consciousness, 
And when it hath departed are dissolved." 

The archmage questioned him on self-control : — 
" In what way can we hide our greed and need ? ' 

The Shah replied : " 'Tis fitting that the sage 
Suppress them, yet thou ever wilt be vexed 
By greed because ne'er satiate of treasure." 

The archmage asked : " Among the kings of yore, 
The men of sense, rede, faith, and precedent. 
Whom knowest thou as subject of our praise, 
When he is dead, O monarch of the earth ? " 

" That great king," this was Nushirwan's reply, 


" Who is a worshipper of God and pure, 

And thankful to the righteous Lord of all, 

Who filleth none with fear of tyranny. 

Who giveth to the good a hopeful heart. 

And to the bad a heart of fear and pain. 

Who furnisheth his troops from his own treasures, 

And turneth on malignants their own ill. 

Who questioneth the sages of the world. 

And keepeth from liis foes his had and good." 

The archmage asked : " Wherein consisteth worship, 
And who approacheth to God's holiness ? " 

"The subtle will direct.'" the Shah replied. 
"His soul as by line hair-breadths and first know 
The being and the unity of God, 
Which small instruction will make evident, 
And he will offer thanks for mercies given, 
While putting trust in God and Fearing Him, 
Who is thy terror when thou seekesl ill. 
Thy trust when thou dosl well. If thou art sound 
Of Faith and seek'sl the Way all will esteem thee, 
While if thou art malign and ill-disposed 
Thy soul hath forwarded its packs to Hell. 
Feel not at home with this world for 'twill hold 
Its secrets from thee. Tend to works of Faith; 
Thy good choice will not injure thee. Let wisdom 
Instruct thy heart and let not fortune fool thee. 
Again, thou shalt consort not with the guilty 
In wrong and strife. Loathe secretly at heart 
This world because of that which is to come. 
Let thy seat ever be among the sages, 
A devotee of everlasting joys, 
For what we have on earth will pass away. 
And reason counteth them no joys at all. 
Mavst thou incline to sense and rede. Let wisdom 
Guide thee to God. Speak not unmeasured words, 
For thou'rt new-fangled and the world is old. 


Be drunk not with the pleasures of the day. 
Choose not the company of wicked men. 
Refrain thy heart from what can never be, 
And give such largess as 'tis fit to give. 
Withhold not from a friend aught that thou hast, 
Though he should ask thine eyes, thy brains, and 

And if two friends would take account together 
No daysman should be needed for that task. 
If thou associate with a foe so act 
That he may not obtain a hold upon thee. 
When one doth seek the path of right his need 
Is parts, humility, and gentleness. 
Let not thy tongue exaggerate thy merits, 
For falsehood is no merit with the just, 
Who hold one's high estate a thing of naught, 
Another's poverty no mark for scorn. 
If some malicious person talk with thee 
Let not his malice anger thee, and then, 
When, being well assured that thou art weak, 
He useth language that is past all bounds, 
Reply to him in measured terms and speak 
W'ords goodly and well-liking. If it be 
That thou canst bring him to himself by kindness 
He will repent his former speech. Devote not 
Thy leisure to indulgence. Idleness 
Is naught if thou art wise. Be diligent 
In all thine undertakings and give ear 
To knowledge. Enter on no enterprise 
Whereof the end will cause remorse or anger. 
Have pity on the sad in his distress ; 
Bring not his heart to anguish and disaster. 
The sage that traineth his own heart to patience 
Is not held worthless in the World-lord's eyes, 
But knoweth what he meriteth with Him, 
And compasseth all actions with discretion, 


For increase from a friend is laudable, 
And greatness and integrity will bring 
Addition. Furthermore that man of God 
Will not begrudge the scattering of treasure, 
But turncth him from waywardness and loss. 
And maketh right and service his profession — 
A stem with boughs whereby God's worshipper, 
The virtuous saint, hath proved victorious. 
There is but one injunction and one way 
Incline to God and let Him shelter thee." 
C. 1774 If thou, O monarch ! art of just intent 

Good will remain to be thy monument 
As it doth with Shah Nushfrwan whose flesh 
Hath turned to dust although his fame is fresh. 
Himself unseen his lame is plain to all; 
II is words survive as his memorial, 
And through the righteous deeds that he hath done 
His fame past doubt will live while time shall run, 
And on his soul shall be, while earth and sky 
Abide in place, the sages' eulogy. 




The poet tells of the last war of Nushirwan against Rum 
and of the Shah's transaction with a shoemaker, the appoint- 
ment of his son Hurmuzd as his successor after that prince 
had been questioned by Buzurjmihr. the Shah's testament 
and last counsels to his son, his dream of the advent of 
.Muhammad, and the death of the Shah and of Buzurjmihr. 


§§ 1-3. After ten years of peace war again broke out 
between the Persian and Roman empires in A.D. 572. The 
Shahnama is correct in representing that the latter was to 
blame for the renewal of hostilities. The Emperor Justin 
II., who had succeeded his uncle Justinian in A.D. 565, wanted 
war. The scene of operations covered much the same ground 
as on the previous occasion. The Persians made a raid into 
Syria, recorded in the Shahnama by the mention of Halab 
(Chalybon-Beroea, Aleppo), and an unsuccessful attack on 
Antioch. The Romans, under Marcian (Batarun), the prefect 
of the East, besieged Nisibis, held by the Persians ever since 
its cession to Shapur, son of Urmuzd (Sapor II.), by Jovian 
in A.D. 363. Nushirwan raised the siege, drove the Romans 
into the stronghold of Dara on the foot-hills of Mount Masius, 
and besieged them there. After a gallant defence the fortress 
fell late in A.D. 573. 1 Mount Masius seems to be the Mount 
Sakila of the Shahnama, the scene of one of Gushtasp's exploits 
during his exile in Rum. 2 Justin on this resigned the direction 

1 For Dara see GDF. v. 86 and note. 2 See Vol. iv. p. 342 seq. 


of affairs to Tiberius who to gain time purchased a temporary 
suspension of hostilities from the Persians. This is repre- 
sented in the Shahnama as the conclusion of peace and as a 
triumph for Niishirwan but historically the war was still in 
progress at the time of his death four years later, ami the 
Great King, shortly before the end of his reign, had to make 
a somewhat hasty and ignominious retirement to Ctesiphon. 1 

§2. We have already met with the cobbler or shoemaker, 
introduced as characteristic of a type, in the Shahnama. - 

§§ 4-6. See p. 3. 

§7. P. omits this section which of course come- from 
Muhammadan sources. Though interpolated into Persian 
story it does not seem to be an interpolation in Firdausf's 
Shahnama for there appears to be no good reason lor supposing 
that the passage was written by a band other than that 
poet's. A similar account appears both in the Persian ami 
Arabic Tabari. 3 

The ascent of two score degrees is intended to indicate that 
Muhammad was forty years old when he received his "call." 

.Muhammad, having been challenged by idolaters to divide 
the moon in twain, is said to have pointed his finger at it. on 
which it was at once divided into two parts, one of which 
remained stationary while the other was concealed behind 
a mountain. Another tradition says thai Mount Eira" inter- 
vened between the two halves. Travellers Erom a distance 
when questioned reported that they had observed the same 
phenomenon. 4 The p in the ELuran on which the tradi- 

tions are based runs as follows : — " The hour hath approached 
and the MOON hath been cleft : 

But whenever they see a miracle they turn aside and saw 
This is well-devised magic." 5 

The Sura in which the quotation occurs is known as " THE 

1 RSM, p. 437 * See Vol. vii. pp. 24, 260. 

8 ZT, ii. 235, NT, p. 253. * RM, Pt. II. Vol. ii. p. 753. 

<■ RK, p. 74. 



How Nushinvdn made ready to war against Ccesar 

It is recorded in the ancient book 

From the recital of a truthful sage 

That when news came from Rum to this fair land 

For Nushirwdn, the world-lord : " Mayst thou live, 

For Caesar is no more and to another 

Hath yielded time and earth," death filled his soul 

With care ; his ruddy countenance became 

Like yellow leaves. He chose out of Iran 

An envoy of experience and high birth, 

And then dispatched him unto Caesar's son. 

Dispatched him to that fresh and fruitful Bough, 

First charging him with many kindly words, 

And saying : " 'Tis an evil none can 'scape." 

He wrote a letter in distress and grief, 
With eyes all tearful and cheeks sallow, thus : — 
" God grant thee life and loving-kindliness 
Now that thy sire is dead. No living thing- 
Is born unless to die. A Wayside Inn 
Is this and we pass on. Although we handle 
The crown or helm and casque we find no quittance 
From death's clutch. What is Caesar or the Khan 
When his time cometh and all suddenly 
Shall lay his head in dust ? .Mayst thou receive 
No lack of joyful tidings of thy sire ; 
May Christ befriend his soul. Now I have heard 
That thou art seated on his famous throne, 
And hast adorned the fortune that was his. 
Require of us such strength as thou dost need 
Of steeds, of arms, of treasure, and of troops.'" 

The ambassador went forth from Niishirwan ; 
He made the journey in all haste to Caesar, 


And, when he reached the court, thev gave him 

entry ; 
The envoy of the Shah approached the state. 
When Caesar saw the title on the scroll 
His heart swelled at the pride of Nushfrwan. 
He was a hasty youth, new to the throne. 
Showed himself overbearing to the envoy, 
Saluted him in an unseemly fashion, 
With lax observance and discourtesy, 
!775 Gave him a lodging distant from the court, 

And took no notice of the Great King's letter. 
A week passed, Cassar's counsellors assembled, 
And he addressed their leader : " Now consider 
The answer to this letter, draw it up, 
As thou dost know to do, in lifting terms. 
And set forth good and ill." 

The priest replied : —  
' Thy liege am I and will obey the world-lord." 

So all the bishops, priests, and counsellors 
Assembled by themselves apart and then 
Wrote with all speed a letter in response. 
As Caesar bade, and first they praised the Maker, 
And based their praise on wisdom, then they said : — 
" Was such a letter worthy of the Shah, 
A letter graceless and malevolent ? 
Thou dost amiss for Caesar is but young, 
But lately crowned, our king in right of birth. 
Forbear to press the youth for this one year 
With haughty superscriptions, tax and toll. 
The youth hath written in befitting terms 
To all the lieges and the potentates, 
As the illustrious emperor of Rum, 
To whom the mountain-tops are so much wax. 
The envoy of the Shah hath come to us, 
And he will tell the Shah what he hath seen 
With us — our words of grief and joy alike : 


Our weal and woe shall not remain concealed. 
One Caesar hath departed but another 
Succeeded who exalteth o'er all chiefs 
His head without regard to any king 


Among the underlords and overlords. 

When they were ready with that Ruman letter 
They summoned the ambassador to court. 
That sage, on hearing that they were advised, 
Came to the court and asked for the response. 
They made him ready an unworthy robe 
Of honour and put strangers from the hall. 
Then Caesar said to him : " No slave am I, 
The inferior of the Haitalians and Chin. 
One should not lightly treat a potentate 
Although thy Shah be Great King in the world. 
He that hath many enemies is great, 
And I have foes and friends upon my skirts. 
Why dost thou scant me of my majesty. 
And cloud my sun ? Thou, when such need is mine, 
Shalt be my king, my father's memory. 
Make fair report of thine experience here, 
And seek no foul intent in my response." 

They put the robe of honour on the sage, 
And called the marchlord's roadster to the door. 
He parted hastily and, tarrying not 

At any stage, reached Nushirwan and told C. 1776 

What he had seen and heard and what had passed'. 
The Shah was sorry at the words and said : — 
" Thou hast had fruit of travel. I have heard 
That whosoe'er indulgeth his self-will, 
Not thinking what he doth, will smart therefor. 
If he discerneth not 'twixt friend and foe 
In telling thus the secret of his heart 
To thee I ween too that he is no friend 
To us and, further, hath not blood and feet 
And skin. By holy God, by sun and moon, 


By crown and throne and by Azargashasp, 

I swear that if I leave of Ruman race 

A single man in joy upon the throne 

I am not of the race of bold Kubad, 

And in men's presence never mention me. 

Henceforth Avill I make black the fame of Rum, 

And set the cultivated parts a-blaze. 

Moreover he shall fill the ox-skins for us 

With all the gems and treasures of his realm, 

And my sword's point shall touch not sheath until 

I have my heart's desire upon this Ruman, 

Who arrogantly boasteth : ' I am Caesar,' 

As though I Mere but one among his chiefs ! " 

He bade the clarions and the Indian bells 
And gongs be sounded at the palace-gate, 
And bound upon his mighty elephants 
The kettledrums. The world was indigo 
With dust. A host that made the green sea 1 quail 
Marched forth from Madam tow aid the waste, 
While at the blare of trump, the gleam 2 of Hag, 
And stir of horsemen in their golden boots, 
Thou wouldest have declared : " The stars arc 

And all revolving heaven is astound ! " 


How Nushirivdn took the Stronghold of Sakila and 
how a Shoemaker had Dealings with him 

When tidings came to Cresar of the Shah : — 
' He hath marched forth in anger from Iran," 
He set forth from 'Ammuriya 3 to Halab ; 

1 Cf. Vol. vi. p. 174 and note. * Reading with P. 
' Cf. Vol. vi. p. 23 and note. 

NtiSHlRWAN 47 

The world was filled with tumult, bruit, and din. 
Three hundred thousand horsemen of Iran 
Besieged the fortress of Halab. Troops gathered 
From every side and tarried not from strife. 
The warrior-prelates of the Ruman host 
Set up their catapults on every side. 1 
The Iranians took the stronghold of Sakila, 
For from that region they would fain attack ; 
Halab became as 'twere a sea of blood, 
And all the host of Batarun sought quarter ; 
Unnumbered Riinians perished 'neath the arrows, C. 1777 

And many were ta'en prisoners in the fight. 
Within two se'nnights the Iranians brought 
Some thirty thousand captives to the king. 
The Riinians dug a trench before their host, 
And let the water in at break of day. 
They barred the Shah's advance ; he and his troops 
Were at a stand in fight. He called to him 
His commissaries and discussed with them 
The posture of the war at large and said 
Thus : " This hath grown a matter of much toil : 
We cannot pass the water and the fosse. 
The troops have need of money and supplies, 
As well as horses, mail, and Ruman helms." 
The commissaries, scribes, and treasurers 
Of that world-lord went the treasury, 
Which, as the number of his soldiers stood, 
Was in dinars three hundred thousand short. 2 
An archimage came to the Shah like dust, 
And told him what the treasury lacked, whereat 
The Shah's face gloomed. He ordered Buzurjmihr 
To come, and said to him : " With treasury void 
What booteth me the throne of king of kings ? 
Go, call the camel-drivers, and dispatch 
Some Bactrian camels on the road and take 

1 Cf. Vol. i. p. 373. * Reading with P. 



Out of the treasures of Mazandaran 

A hundred loads and upwards of dinars." 

But Buzurjmihr made answer to the world-lord:— 
" O just, wise, loving Shah ! the way is long 
To reach the treasures of Iran, the while 
Our troops are destitute and at a stand ; 
But in the cities round about are those, 
A hundredth of whose wealth would pay our troops. 
If thou shalt ask the merchants and the thanes 
To make advances they will not refuse." 

The Shah was in this matter of a mind 
With what the wise man of Iran had said, 
And Biizurjmihr chose out a messengers 
Wise, of a cheerful heart, and goodly face, 
And said to him : w * Go with a second horse, 
And choose thee out some lusty notable 
Among the merchants and the thanes — a man 
Of mighty reputation — and request 
A loan of money for the troops. The Shah 
Will order money to be sent with speed 
Out of the treasury." 

That emissary, 
Fair-spoken, young in years but old in wisdom 
And shrewd, came to a neighbouring town and 

A loan of money for the king's affairs, 
And round him gathered many of the rich. 
A certain man, who made and vended shoes, 
Attended closely to the envoy's words, 
And asked : " How much ? " 

The gallant envoy told, 
And said : " O man of wisdom and of wealth ! 
The sum amounteth to four million drachms.'" 

Said that shoemaker : "I will furnish them, 
And earn the treasurer's praise." 

He brought his balance, 


Weights, and the drachms, but asked no bond in 

He weighed the coin, the envoy's task was done. 
Then that shoemaker said : " O fair of face ! 
Be good enough to say to Buzurjmihr : — 
' I have but one child only in this world, 
For whom my heart is all anxiety.' 
Then add : ' The monarch of the world perchance 
Will grant a private favour to myself, 
And let me place my boy among his sages, 
For he hath wealth and intellect therefor.' 

" With pleasure," was the messenger's reply, 
" For thou hast cut my quest for treasure short." 1 

So Buzurjmihr came to the Shah rejoicing, 
Whose face cleared when he saw that wealth. 

He said : " Thanks be to God, whom I have known 
Through all my years of life, that in our realm 
There is a manufacturer of shoes, 
Blessed in this manner and illustrious. 
God grant that we may never injure one 
That is possessed of such a store of wealth. 
Discover for me what his wishes are, 
That this good will of his to us may last, 
And when thou payest the debt bestow upon him 
A hundred thousand drachms that he may not 
Forget us." 

Buzurjmihr said to the world-lord : — 
" O well-starred Shah of goodly countenance ! 
God orant that no king who is tyrannous 
Be happy on his throne and fortunate. 
Thy subjects all are men of wealth, aspire, 
And are possessed of thrones and diadems. 
Now this boot-seller, if the Shah will hear, 
Made one request. He said, for so the envoy 

1 Couplet omitted. 


Reporteth : ' May the world-lord mate with wisdom. 

I have a son grown up who is desirous 

Of one to teach him learning, and if now 

The Shah is willing to assist therein, 

So that my good son mav become a scribe, 

Then for the Shah's life will I pray God, saying :— 

" May this throne-worthy live eternally." 

The Shah made answer saying : " O wise man ! 
How hath the Div perplexed thy vision ! Go, 
And lead the camels back, for God forbid 
That we ask him for silver and for pearls. 
How should the merchant's son become a scribe, 
Accomplished, learned, and mindful though he be ? 
Our son when he shall sit upon the throne 
Will need a scribe whose fortune will prevail. 
If this voung boot-seller attain distinction, 
And my son look to him and list to him, 
The man of wisdom and of noble birth 
Will have but discontent and chilling sighs. 
The sage will be held lightly by my son. 
Receive no praise for what he answereth, 
And we shall be accursed, when we are dead, 
For having introduced this precedent. 
Our rations must be got by honest means. 
Ask not his money, talk not of our needs. 
Dispatch the camels back upon their way. 
And ask shoemakers for supplies no more." 

So with the cash the envoy went again ; 
Those drachms filled that shoemaker's heart with 
pain. 1 

1 Two couplets omitcd. 



How the Envoys of Ccesar came to Niishincdn with 
Apologies and Presents 

YVhenas from Pisces Sol displayed its crown. 
And flung a robe of ivory o'er the earth, 
The scouts returning from the trench-edge came 
Before the exalted Shah and said to him : — 
" An embassage from Caesar hath arrived 
In tribulation to excuse his faults." 

The ambassador approached immediately 
With benedictions upon Niishirwan, 
On seeing whose head and crown the Riiman 

A cold sigh, thinking : " Lo ! a Shah exalted 
With kingship, manhood, and a mighty host ! ' 

Two score pilosophers of Rum, whose tongues 
Were full of utterance and their hearts of sighs, 
Brought, each one, thirty thousand in dinars 
As offerings to the king. When thev beheld 
His comely countenance they came lamenting, 
And writhing serpent-like. The king of kings, 
On seeing them, received them graciously. 
Assigning them the customary seats, 
And then their spokesman thus addressed him : 

" Caesar, 
O Shah ! is young and hath but just acceded ; 
His sire is dead, the world is new to him, 
And he is unacquainted with affairs. 
Now we are all of us thy tributaries, 
And servants, and are under thy protection. 
For thee Rum is Iran, Iran is Rum ; 
W T hy then distinguish them ? The king of kings 
Hath all the age's wisdom for his own, 


And straighteneth Caesar's back. The Khan of 

The king of Hind, are glad in him and help 
17 80 To orace his throne. Although a youth, not vet 
Of man's estate, made utterance ill-adyised 
Let not the king of kings, in whom the vault 
Of lapis-lazuli rejoiceth, take 
Revenge thereat or dudgeon. We will pay 
The tribute laid on Rum from the beginning, 
And keep pact." 

Smiling at the envoy's words 
Said Nushirwan : " Although the boy be noble 
His speech hath little wisdom. What is Caesar ? 
What Batariin, the insensate one. whose tongue 
Hath caused his soul's abasement ? All the wise 
Born of Sikandar's stock have proved triumphant. 
And eminent, yet if one doeth not 
Our bidding but rejecteth our advice 
And our alliance, from his peopled realm 
Will we send up the dust and will not fear 
His treasures and his troops." 

The envoys kissed 
The ground, as courtiers use, and made reply : — 
" O Shah that art victorious and supreme ! 
Blame not the past. We are thy travail's dust, 
The warders of thy treasure. When the king 
Shall take us into favour we shall cease 
Both from misfortune and from discontent. 
The toils that here the king of kings hath borne 
Are no small matter in the Rumans' eyes, 
And we will pay, by way of toll and tax, 
His treasury ten ox-hides of dinars. 
'Tis thine to bid us pay thee less or more, 
And to accept it though it be unworthy." 

" As touching treasure," thus the Shah replied, 
" The matter resteth with my minister." 

NtJfSHlRWAX 5 7, 

Then all the Rumans went before that archmage, 
Went with loud lamentations and ill-starred, 
Used every plea at large, told Caesar's purpose, 
Informed him of the ox-hides and dinars, 
And matters that concerned the peace of Rum. 
The archmage answered thus : " Ye give the gold, 
But what brocade will ye present as well ? 
What time the king returneth he will need 
A thousand pieces of gold-woven brocade, 
For he is constantly concerned with gifts 
Of robes of honour for his lords and lieges." 

The Rumans gave consent thereto and then 
Returning did obeisance to the Shah. 
He tarried on the battlefield awhile. 
Then when the king and host had taken rest 
He chose among the troops a warrior — 
One of ability in ciphering — x 
And gave him soldiers that he might demand 
The Riiman tribute and convey it home. 

The Shah departed thence toward Taisafun C. 1781 

With troops behind him and in front of him. 
All furnished well with silver and with gold. 
With silvern bridles and with golden girdles. 
" The air is silken all," thou wouldst have said, 
k " With all the silken banners of the chiefs, 
While hills and plains are golden and the belts 
Are like the Pleiades with jewelry." 

When he drew near the city on his march 
A multitude went out to welcome him. 
All came to Nushirwan afoot with loins 
Girt up for service and with open hearts, 
While all that had accompanied the Shah 
Proceeded to the palace-gate afoot, 
And all the mighty chieftains called down blessings 
Upon that Shah alert and just and holy, 

1 Couplet omitted. 


While those of greatest eminence brought gifts 
Of precious stones. The Shah, on his return, 
Made manifest his power to all the chiefs, 
And then the warriors went home. There came 
Addition in the world to each man's fame. 1 


How N tis h in ran chose Hurmuzd as his Suca ssor 

The high-souled minstrel, who instructeth me, 

What said he of time's mutability ? 

" No prudent sage will set his mind and heart 

Upon this Hostel whence we must depart, 

For we arise and fall from day to day, 

And alternate our joyance with dismay. 

Dark earth will be our final resting-place, 

This with high honour, that with deep disgrace, 

And after they depart they tell us not 

If wakeful joy or slumber be their lot ; 

Still if they flourish not that pass our ken 

At least they will not strive with death again. 

In contemplation of that day of awe 

What are five years and twenty or five score, 

Passed by one man in pleasure and delight, 

Passed by another in penurious plight ? 

None have I seen that had a wish to die 

Among the upright or the waywardly, 

But all are shocked at death — the pious one, 

Just as the idol-serving Ahriman." 

Old man ! when three score years and one have 

1 " Lorsqui'il fut pres son palais, le roi congedia chacun des 
grands, et ces heros se rendirent aux lieux de leur demeure, celebrant 
dans le monde entier la gloire de Kesra." Mohl. 


Wine, cup, and rest grow savourless at last, 

Yet wine for one that readieth to die 

Is as a wool-coat when 'tis winterly, 1 

When body freezeth in the midst of vice, 

And soul hath lost its way to Paradise. 

Full many a friend hath lagged or passed away, 

But in the waste the cup with thee will stay. 

Unless thy life's endeavour thou forecast C. 1782 

Sure retribution will be thine at last. 

Ill-doing endeth in calamitv ; 

If thou dost ill the world will sadden thee. 

Joy not in evil that thou hast achieved, 

Who, grieving others, shalt thyself be grieved. 

Know that, however great may be the sum 

Of these thine earthly years, thine end will come ; 

So multiply thy good deeds here below 

That thou mayst gladden when thou hast to go. 

The deeds accomplished and the words let fall 

In life will serve as our memorial. 

I ask of God from time, its Maker He, 

For such a respite, such felicity, 

That all these many tales and stories told, 

Now over-passed by years and waxen old, 

From Gaiiimart to Yazdagird, which be 

In disarray, may be arrayed by me ; 

That I may range them, weed that garth, and tell 

Anew what hap the kings of kings befell, 

Then verily I shall not grieve when I 

Shall have to quit this Wayside Hostelry. 

And now what saith the man of ardent soul 
Of Niishirwan, the world-lord's, purposes ? 
The monarch at the age of seventy-four 
Became possessed by thoughts of death and sought 
A master for the world whose chiefest aim 
Should be to clothe him in the robe of justice, 
1 Literally " In (the month of) Dai." 


Display compassion to the mendicants, 
Be great, untroubled, and of ardent soul. 
He had six sons of noble birth who all 
Were great, shrewd-hearted, and of kingly mien, 
With valour, learning, self-control and counsel, 
Young with a love of knowledge, and of these 
The wisest and the eldest was Hurmuzd, 
The nobly born, a man unparalleled, 
Exalted, knowing, fair of countenance, 
And well affected to the noble race. 1 
The Shah gave orders to his officers 
To test the disposition of his son. 
By day and night to mark his utterances. 
And to inform the monarch of the world 
Of his proceedings whether good or bad. 
At that time said the Shah to Buzurjmihr :— 
" I have a secret purpose in my mind. 
When I exceeded three score years and ten 
My musky tresses took a camphor-hue, 
And when I quit this Wayside Hostelry 
A master will be needed for the world, 
Who will give largess to the mendicant. 
The stranger, and the man of his own kindred, 
Be bounteous, will refrain from love of treasure. 
And set his heart not on this Wayside Inn- 
One whose whole purpose ever is toward good, 
Whose place is on the Shah's throne. I thank God 
1783 That I have sons wise, learned, who worship Him, 
And none esteem I dearer than Hurmuzd, 
Or more pre-eminent for rede and sense. 
Of mercy, generosity, and right 
I see naught lacking in his heart at all. 
So summon now the archmages and the chiefs, 
All that observe the way of understanding, 

1 i.e. the Persians. Hurmuzd was half Turkish by birth — the 
son of the daughter of the Khan. See pp. 87, 97 seq. 


Prove ye his knowledge and thereby present 
Accomplishment upon accomplishment." 


Row the Archimaaes questioned Hurmuzd and how 

he replied 

The archimages, the investigators, 

And counsellors assembled, called to them 

Hurmuzd, the atheling, and seated him 

Among the chiefs. Then Buzurjmihr began : — 

" O prince fair-starred and fair to look upon ! 

What know'st thou that will brighten the pure soul 

And wisdom, and be fruitful for the body ? ' 

He answered : " Knowledge is the best, for great 
Among the great is one of understanding. 
In knowledge is man's safety ; it restraineth 
The hands of Ahriman from ill, and next 
Come patience and munificence whereby 
The body gaineth fame and ease." 

The sage 
Then asked : " What showeth virtue to advantage, 
And what will raise a man to high estate ? ' 

Hurmuzd replied : " First, to be courteous 
To all in good and ill ; next, to endeavour 
To grieve as little as one can the hearts 
Of every one ; and, thirdly, to deal justly 
Within the world and so gain self-content. "' 

On that pure-hearted prince of goodly mien 
Gazed Buzurjmihr, the questioner, and said : — 
" Now will I speak concerning needful topics. 
Count them upon thy hands, remember all 
That I shall ask, and make a just response 
To them in that same order. Brino- to bear 


High-mindedness and justice for, if thou 
Art heedful of such matters, of a truth 
Heaven's gate is oped to thee since I will question 
At large that I may have response in full. 
The Master of the world instruct thee ! May 
Thy wit be bright, good fortune by thy mate. 
Now will I question thee of what I know 
With fairness. Answer as thy knowledge is. 
The wise man is discerned by his replies, 
And compasseth his will in everything. 
1784 Inquiry is the lock, response the key : 

Response discriminateth bad from good. 
Who is the child dear in his father's eyes, 
Fair of behaviour, and without offence ? 
What man is worthy of our heart's compassion, 
So that one needs must weep at his distress ? 
What man repenteth of his own good deed, 
And that too from the bottom of his heart ? 
Who is the man deserving of my blame 
When I shall make inquiry of his acts ? 
Who would do better if he shunned the world 
Because his quiet days are at an end ? 
What niaketh for our happiness in life, 
And what do we recall most willingly ? 
Which is the time to praise ? What profiteth 
Us most ? Who is the dearest of our friends, 
WTiose voice doth make a pleasance of the heart ? 
Who is the man with most friends in the world, 
That joy in him in public and in prival 
Who too is he that hath most enemies, 
And most malignantly disposed to him ? x 
What is the thing, the most injurious, 
For which when done there is good cause to weep ? 
Of all the things that mortals cherish here 
What is the most unstable of them all ? 

1 Couplet omitted. 


Who is the tyrant that is unashamed, 
The man most loveless and irreverent ? 
Whose words produce most ruin in the world, 
And cause the greatest trouble to his friends ? 
What is the matter that entaileth shame, 
And evil on a man through his own words ? " 

For one whole day till night rose o'er the hills 
The sage's words produced no weariness, 
But when the darkness brought the time for lights 
The chiefs' heads darkened with bewilderment, 
And, when the Shah grew weary of his words, 
He paused for a reply. The great Hurmuzd 
Rose to his feet and fitly praised the Shah : — 
" Ne'er may the Shah be lacking to the world, 
But still abide upon the imperial throne ; 
Ne'er may we see the crown, the royal state, 
And throne of ivory, devoid of thee ; 
In their excusings may the strong be dust 
Before thee, heaven thine antidote from harm. 
Now will I make reply to Buzurjmihr, 
And solve his questions with a right good will. 
The sage first questioned me concerning sons. 
And so it is with them I must begin. 
A son doth make his father glad of heart, 
And freeth it from griefs, if he affect 
His sire, incline to goodness, and be just. 

Next, of the pitiable man, for whom C. 1785 

The eyelids drop their tears : this is the magnate 
Whose fortune hath been scattered and he now 
Is thrall to one unworthy. This man's case 
Is one to be deplored with bitterness, 
Because he hath a miscreant for his lord. 
Again, the man that doeth benefits 
To thankless folk is all solicitude, 
And one forgetful of good done to him 
Would make a fool of wisdom. Then the sage 


Inquired for whom 'tis goodlier to seek 
A resting-place by flight from tyranny ? 
The wise man is at liberty to quit 
The country where the monarch is not just ; 
Escape is needful from an unjust king. 
Because he bringeth Doomsday on tin- world. 
The sage inquired : ' In what rejoicest thou ? ' 
'Tis in a brother or some charming fere. 
He then inquired : l "What is the time to praise ? ' 
The time when we are quit of enemies : 
'Tis well to praise that ever more and more. 
Moreover for thy question touching friends, 
'Tis good to have the aidance of all such. 
If they be wealthy shelter 'neath their cloaks. 
And toil with them if they be mendicants. 
The humbler and the nobler that one is 
The more do his friends" hearts rejoice in him. 
The sage next asketh me : ' Who hath a foe 
By whom his heart is ever vexed and hurt ? ' 
The man whose tongue is bold to utter ill 
Is very apt to make him enemies. 1 
' What is of things the most injurious,' 
Thou saidest. ' and at last a cause for tears ? ' 
When passion hath the mastery of thy heart 
It passeth with the passing of a breath, 
But with fruition cometh penitence ; 
So handle not the blossom of desire. 
' "What,' he inquired, ' is that inconstant thing 
"Whose feet I seek to clutch and grasp its head ? ' 
It is the friendship of a foolish man 
Of evil nature and unstable counsels ; 
And furthermore he saith : ' Who is the tyrant 
That is all shameless and remediless ? ' 
Call him remediless if he use guile, 
A tyrant if he acteth shamelessly. 
1 Four couplets omitted. 


As for the man whose very trade is lies, 

I term him tyrannous and despicable. 

' Whose words,' thou saidest, ' are the cause of ruin, C. 1786 

Cause grief and harm but leave the speaker scath- 
less ? ' 

The traitor and the worthless double dealer 

Fill wise men's hearts with pain. The sage in- 
quired : — 

' What is the fault that causeth one most shame, 

And maketh him repent of his own words ? ' 

The foolish talker's who doth bear himself 

Vaingloriously within the sight of men, 

But is, when he is private and alone, 

Repentant for the words that he hath spoken. 

Yet, when he next shall speak, will boast again. 

The man without accomplishment is honoured 

If he exceedeth not his limitations. 

Those were the questions, these are my replies. 

The blessings of the world be on the Shah, 

May all tongues speak according to his will, 

And may his noble heart be glad and blest."" 
The king of kings was lost in wonderment 

At him and lauded him right royally ; 

All were rejoiced that were assembled there, 

The monarch's heart was set at laroe from care. 


How Nushirwdn appointed Hurmuzd as his Successor 
and gave him parting Counsels 

Then by the Shah's command they wrote a patent 
That gave Hurmuzd the throne and crown, and 

The wind had dried that paper wrought in Chin 


They set a seal of musk thereon. The Shah. 
In presence of the magnates and shrewd sages, 
Charged the high priest therewith. I, by the grace 
Of the victorious monarch of the world. 
Put into verse this act of Xushirwan *s. 
The world in practice doth belie its show ; 

Beneath 'tis naught but dolour and chagrin. 
But, whether thou hast crown or toil and woe, 

Thou ne'ertheless must quit this Wayside Inn. 
Peruse a letter of the kings of yore, 

And see if Xushirwan hath any peer 
For justice, rede, festivity, and war. 

Yet, his day done, he found no tarriance here. 
So turn from feast and pleasure, and be wise. 

Thou aged dotard and unpenitent ! 
The world may still look freshly to thine eyes 

When in thy cups thou scornest to repent ; 
Yet still, if thou be wise, repenl anon ; 

The man of Faith is well advised for aye ; 
The seasons of thine age will soon be gone. 

Spring, Summer-tide, and Autumn pass away ! 
Then when thy body is in dust below 
Think whither that pure soul of thine will go ! 

What was it that the aged chronicler 
Said of the testament of Xushirwan ? 
When the responses of Hurmuzd were ended 
The high priest entered on a new discourse. 
The Shah bade, and the counsellors and scribes 
Wrote out on silk a gracious document 
From Xushirwan to young Hurmuzd, beginning 
With praise of the All- just and then proceeding :— 
" This counsel of the offspring of Kubad 
Hear graciously and write upon thy heart, 
Which haply through these words of mine may live. 
Know that this world is faithless, O my son ! 
And full of toil and trouble, pain and bale. 

nCshIrwAn 63 

Whenever thou are joying therein and when 

Thy heart is free from time's distemperature 

That happiness hath no abiding-place, 

And thou must quit this Wayside Hostelry. 

As I resign the world to thee with justice 

Thou must thyself resign it to another. 

Since both by bright day and by longsome night 

My thoughts are busied with mine own departure 

I seek a head fit for the roval crown 

To be a diadem on every head. 

We have six sons — the Lustre of our heart — 

Wise, generous, and just. We have made choice 

Of thee because thou art the eldest-born, 

A wise man and the adornment of the crown. 

Kubad, the well beloved, had four score years 

What time he spake to me of sovereignty ; 

Now I have come to seventy years and four, 

And I have made thee monarch in the world. 

Herein mine aim hath been but peace and weal 

So that I might have worship alter death. 

My hope is that almighty God will make thee 

All glad and fortunate. If by thy justice 

Folk are secure through thee thou wilt thyself 

Repose in peace, glad through thine own just 

And for thy good works done win Paradise, 
For he is blest that sowed but seed of good. 
See that thou ne'er lose patience ; haste is ill 
In kings. The world-lord that is shrewd and learned 
Will be in estimation all his years. 
In no way go about to compass lies, 
Else will the visage of thy fortune pale. 
Keep haste afar both from thy heart and brain ; 
The wisdom that is joined to haste will slumber. 
Incline toward the good and strive therefor, 
And list the sage's rede in weal and woe. 


111 must not compass thee about, for ill 

Will verily result in ill to thee. 

Let both thy raiment and thy food be pure, 

And keep thy father's counsels still in mind. 

Make God thy refuge and incline to Him 

As thou wouldst have Him for thy guide. When 

Shalt make the world all prosperous by thy justice 
Thy treasury will prosper, fortune joy 
In thee. Reward men when they act aright ; 
Wait not till good men's toil hath waxen old. 
Make glad the men of parts and have them near 

But keep the world dark to the ill-disposed. 
In all affairs take counsel with the sage, 
And fret not at the toils of sovereignty. 
Whenas the wise hath access to thee, throne 
With troops and treasure will continue thine. 
As for thy subjects, suffer none of them 
To be in cheerless case. The potentates 
And nobles of thy realm must all partake 
Thy good, but let the ignoble share it not, 
And trust not aught to one that is unjust. 
Give all thine car and heart to mendicants, 
And let their sorrows be thy sorrows too. 
The chief that of his own accord is just 
Will please the world as well as please himself. 
Bar not thy treasury to men of worth, 
But act with bounty to the virtuous : 
Still if thine enemy become thy friend 
Sow not thy seed of good on that salt soil. 
If thou shaft follow this advice of ours 
Thy crown will be exalted evermore. 
May He that giveth good wish well to thee, 
Thy throne be wisdom and thy crown success. 
God grant that thou mayst not forget my words 

xushIrwAn 65 

Though thou be far removed from my sight. 

May thy head flourish and thy heart be glad, 

Thy person pure and far from hurt of foes. 

May wisdom be thy watchman evermore, 

And righteousness the subject of thy thoughts. 

When I shall pass away from this wide world 

A goodly palace must be built for me, 

Secluded somewhere from the haunts of men, 

And where the swift-winged vulture flieth not 1 — 

A palace lifted toward revolving heaven, 

And in its height ten lassoes long and more, 

And thereupon let there be limned my court, 

The great men, and the warriors of my host. 

Let tapestries of every kind be there 

In plenty, strewings, colour and perfume. 

Embalm my corpse with camphor and arrange 

A crown of musk upon the head thereof. 

Bring forth five pieces never handled yet 

Of cloth of gold and of brocade of Chin, 

And garb me in them in the Kaian mode, 

As is the usance of Sasanian Shahs, 2 

By which same token make an ivory throne 

With crown suspended o'er the ivory, 

And let the golden vessels that I used, 

The goblets and the censers and the cups — 

A score filled with rosewater, saffron, wine, 

Ten score with camphor, musk, and ambergris — 

Be set upon my left hand and my right, 

No more or less, for such is mv command. 

Drain from my trunk the blood and afterwards C. 1789 

Let the dry space be filled with musk and camphor, 

And lastly block the passage to my throne — 

A passage that no other Shah may see. 

That court will be conducted otherwise, 

1 This is not at all in accord to Parsi notions. Cf. Vol. i. p. 81 
s.v. Dakhma. a Reading with P. 



And none will have e'en access unto us. 
Let those among my sons and noble kin, 
Who feel my death as a calamity, 
Refrain from feast and pleasure for two months, 
P'or that is usual at the Shah's decease, 
And 'twould be seemly for the good to drop 
A tear on this, the Great King's, testament. 
Depart not from the bidding of Ilurmuzd 
And breathe not save' according to his will." 
All o'er that testament shed many a tear. 
And Nushirwan survived it just a year. 


Hoiv Niishi rwd n had a Dream and how Biizurjnn In- 
interpreted it as signifying the . I j>/>earance of 

In that year Nushirwan upon a night 

Amidst his prayers and praises had a dream, 

Wherein his lucid spirit saw in sleep 

A Sun rise in the night and therewithal 

"Was an ascent that had two score degrees, 

Whose summit reached to Saturn in the ascendant. 

From the Hijaz in stately pomp and joy 

That Sun ascended that ascent, fulfilling 

The world with brilliancy from Kaf to Kaf, 1 

And everywhere converting grief to mirth, 

While all the horizons, whether far or near, 

Took lustre from its glory everywhere, 

And evervwhere light entered save the hall 

Of Nushirwan which still abode in gloom. 

The Shah rose from his sleep for half the night, 

And oped his lips to none on that affair, 

' Kaf=Alburz. See Vol. i. p. 71. 


But when the sun unveiled its countenance 
He summoned to his presence Buzurjmihr. 
The king of kings in private to that sage 
Related what he had beheld in sleep, 
And Buzurjmihr, possessed of all the case, 
Considered all the dream from end to end, 
And thus replied : " O king of power supreme ! 
In truth there is a mystery herein.'" 

The king said : " Speak the truth because my life 
Is failing in my body for suspense." 

Then Buzurjmihr spake thus : " O thou whose 
Is higher than moon and sun ! this dream have I 
Well studied : mark the marvel of its meaning. 
From this day forth for forty years and more 
Among the Arabs one will rise to power, 

Who will adopt the way of righteousness, C. 1790 

And turn aside from all deceit and loss. 
He will confound the whole Faith of Zarduhsht. 
When he shall show the moon his finger-tip, 
His ringer will divide it into two, 
And none will look upon his back in toil. 
The Jew and Christian shall withstand him not, 
And he will do away with former Faiths. 
He will ascend a triple-footed throne, 
And all the world will be advised by him. 
When he shall quit this Wayside Hostelry 
The treasure of his words will still remain. 
The world will joy in him from age to age, 
Save the Shah's palace which the winds will scatter. 
When he is dead a scion of thy race 
Will have the tymbals, drums, and elephants. 
A host will come on him from the Hijaz, 
Though unpossessed of arms and equipage, 
Will cast him from the throne upon the dust, 
And fill the world with warriors. Then will cease 


The observation of the feast of Sada. 
And every Fire-fane be a rubbish heap. 
Folk will no longer worship Fire and Sun. 
And all the fortunes of the brave will slumber. 
Jamasp himself declared before Gushtasp 
This secret, giving this interpretation." 

When Nushirwan heard this from Buzurjmihr 
The favour of his countenance was changed : 
He was nil day the mate of pain and grief, 
And slumbered, when night came, worn out by care. 1 
Now when three watches of the nighl had passed 
There went up such a panic-stricken cry 
That thou liadst said : " The world is all o'er- 

turned ! 
And then one said : " The hall is rent in twain ! ' 
Thereat the Shah's heart started from its place, 
And in the uttermosl bewilderment 
He spake concerning it to Buzurjmihr, 
Beginning with the rending of the hall, 

Which when the sage had looked upon he spake 

On this wise, saying : " Shah Niishirwan ! 
This outcry rose by reason of the Sun 
That thou lieheldest in thy dreams last night. 
Know that thy palace gave a cry what time 
That moon-like babe was born, and presently 
A horseman with two steeds will come to say : — 
' Fire-worship is abandoned to the blast ! ' 

Thereat, as swiftly as the flying dust, 
A horseman came with tidings : " Even now 
Azargashasp is cold ! " 

The Shah's heart straitened 
Because of it ; he sighed continually. 
Then Buzurjmihr : " O Shah ! why mourn there- 
for ? 

1 Or, with the change of a diacritical point : — 

And when the night came, could not sleep for care. 


What matter this world's griefs and joys to thee 
When thou art gone and parted far by time ? " 

The Shah survived not this event for long. 
He died : the world bewailed him. Biizurjniihr 
Veiled his own visage in the dust within C. 1791 

Four se'nnights of the passing of the Shah. 
Who left behind this record when he went. 
Be thy part to preserve his monument. 
For since the turning sky proved so unfair 
To him expect no love or justice there. 1 

And now the crown and throne I decorate 
Of Shah Hurmuzd, and scat him on the state. 

1 The reign ends here in the original. 



Hurmuzd, on succeeding to the throne, makes fair pro- 
mises but soon belies them and puts to death bis father's 
ministers. Afterwards, perturbed by a prophecy, he re- 
pents, and two stories arc told of his even-handed justice. 
War breaks out ami Bahrain Chubina comes upon the scene. 
He is appointed commander-in-chief ami defeats the Turks 
under King Sawa and his son Parmuda, bul alter having 
been shamefully insulted by the Shah lie rebels a course 
strongly opposed by his sister Gurdya. Be contrives to 
make Hurmuzd suspicious of his own son Khusrau Parwfz 
who escapes. Hurmuzd is dethroned and Minded, and 
Khusrau Parwiz returns. 


Hurmuzd (Hormisdas IV., A.D. 578-590) may not have 
been so black as he has been painted but his reign, to say 
the least of it, stands in melancholy contrast to that of 
his father whose precepts he disregarded, whose system of 
administration he did his best to overturn, whose trusted 
ministers he put to death, and whose practice of personally 
leading his troops he made no attempt to emulate. 2 He 
had the good fortune to possess a general at once brave, 
able, and apparently quite loyal whom he treated with the 
basest and most insolent ingratitude, wrecking his own 

1 Fourteen according to P. * RSM, p. 473. 



reign thereby and inflicting many wounds upon his country. 
The romantic history of that general, as told in the Shah- 
nama, is one of the finest passages in the poem, and the 
poet was fortunate in having such to lay before his readers 
as he was nearing the end of his great undertaking. 1 

§ 2. Makh, the marchlord of Harat, who seems to have 
been known as Khurasan! in accordance to Persian custom 
in such matters, appears to be the father of, or identical 
with, one of the four compilers of the prose Shahnama for 
Abu Mansur which Firdausf used as his chief authority. 
In the Introduction to the present Translation the name 
of this particular compiler is uivi-n in accordance to the 
text of C, as Taj son of Khurasani of Harat 2 but according 
to Noldeke 3 the Taj is quite uncertain. 

§ 3. Nushfrwan had based his system of administration 
upon the nobility. We have seen in a characteristic anec- 
dote how he refused to consult his own convenience by 
accepting a loan of money from a shoemaker. 4 Hurmuzd, 
not having his father's ability, found the system irksome 
and consequently was inclined to favour the lower at the 
expense of the higher orders. Accordingly later on we have 
two stories of his even-handed justice. 5 A justice, how- 
ever, which is said to have put to death 13,600 of the nobility 
and priesthood, and imprisoned or degraded many others 
in the course of a few years is somewhat suspect. 6 

Burzmihr seems to be identical with Buzurjmihr who, we 
were told at the end of the last reign, 7 died within a month 
of Nushirwan. According to Mas'udi Buzurjmihr survived 
to be the chief minister of Khusrau Parwiz who after thir- 
teen years of reign disgraced him and treated him even 
worse than Nushfrwan is said to have done on one occasion, 8 
the two accounts no doubt beiny variants of the same story. 
Firdausi tells us that one of the three scribes was young, 9 
and that Buzurjmihr was a youth at his lessons when he 
first attracted Nushirwan's attention, 10 He need not have 
been an old man at the time of that Shah's death. The 
probability is, however, that he was executed along with 
other ministers by Hurmuzd as the text seems to imply. 

1 See p. 96 seq. » Vol. i. p. 67. ' NIN, pp. i^note 15. 

4 p. 4 8 -  p. 91. • NT, p. 267. 

' p- 69. 8 p. 4 seq., MM, ii. 224. • p. 81. 
10 Vol. vii. p. 283. Cf. p. 313. 


§ 5. Tin account in the Shahnama and in Oriental his- 
torians of these wars seems much exaggerated. The war 
with Rum was nothing new : it had been going on from 
the days of Nushirwan and was not specially active at the 
moment. The Arab and Khazai invasions require further 
continuation and the latter, it may be suggested, was merely 
a patriotic invention to cover up an unfortunate incidenl 
that befell the Persians South of the Caucasus after the con- 
clusion of the war with the Turks (p. 76). This lasl war 
has generally been taken to have been waged between the 
Persians and the Khan who was a relation by marriage of 
Hurmuzd and would be certain to bring greal forces into 
the held. It appears, however, that Sawa is merely the 
Persian form ol " Chao-wou " — the aame given in Chinese 
official reports of the period to the princes of small state- 
on the Oxus that were more or less subject to the Khan 
who does not appear to have been concerned in the matter 
at all. 1 

§6. In the story of Mihran Sitad's emli.i--.i-e as given 
in the Shahnama the prophecy is limited to the outcome 
of the marriage of Nushirwan with the Khan's daughter. 2 
It afforded, however, a convenient starting-point for the 
Romance that gathered round the heroic personality of 
Bahrain Chubina and the reference to him was interpolated 

§7. Eahnim Chubina, whose story and that of bis sister 
Gurdya extend through the resl of this and far into the 
succeeding reign, had been marchlord of Rai and governor 
of the North, apparently, under Nushirwan. 3 Ee con- 
tinued to hold the same posts under llui nni/.d. 1 J|e u;is 
a native of Rai, sprung from a race of marchlords and army- 
chiefs, a Mihran, and is said to have been descended from 
Gurgin 5 — all important indications to the student of the 
Shahnama. Rai was the traditional of Arsacid power.' 1 
Shapur of Rai, an army-chief, who was called in by Kubad 
to overthrow Sufarai of the race of Kawa, also was a Mihran 
and descended from Mihrak. 7 The Mihran clan played an 
important part in Sasanian times and the name often recurs. 8 
Gurgin, son of Milad, was the villain of the story of Bizhan 

1 NT, p. 269 and notes. RSM, p. 467. 2 Vol. vii. p. 354. 

3 ZT, ii. 2 5 >. Cf. Vol. vii. p. 214. • ZT, ii. 253. 

6 ZT, ii. 252. • Vol. vi. pp. 201, 215, 223. 

' Vol. vii. pp. 185, 192. 8 Id. 


and Manizha. 1 The point is this. The words Milad, Mihrak, 
and Mihran are closely allied, probably mere variants, are 
reminiscent of Parthian times and under the Sasanian Dynasty- 
represent the vanquished Arsacid element. 2 That element 
recovered sufficiently to exercise much political power as 
in the case of the Mihrans. 

A Ruhham of that stock is said to have been influential 
in placing Piriiz upon the throne. 3 If they could not be 
kings themselves they aspired to be king-makers and 
ministers. There was rivalry between them and families of 
purer Iranian stock, and the Shahs, as in the instance given 
above, availed themselves of it to serve their own ends. Such 
rivalry, however, was a subsidiary matter ; the great an- 
tagonism between Arsacid and Sasanian, though latent, 
still persisted and is indicated plainly enough in the course 
of the story of Bahrain Chubina. 

Noldeke's account of that story, which is a Mind of history 
and romance, is briefly as follows. It was compiled in 
Pahlavi shortly before the end of the Sasanian Dynasty, 
about the beginning of the reign of Yazdagird III., A.D. 
G32, and was translated into Arabic by a certain Jabala 
bin Salim of whom nothing more is known save that he was 
"the writer of Hisham " who can be no other than the 
Arabic historian Hisham Ilui Al-Kalbi. Hisham died 
about A.D. 820. The story thus became known to the Muham- 
madans and was woven into the general presentment of 
Sasanian history. 1 We may add that Tabari, who was 
born some eighteen years alter Hisham' s death and died 
A.D. 923, gives the historical nucleus of the story in 
his history. The redactor of his work into Persian (A.D. 
963) states that as his Arabic authority has not given the' 
life of Bahrain Chubina in its entirety he gives it from the 
book of the history of Persia where he found it more com- 
plete. 5 This version agrees very closely with Firdausi's. 
Both are derived from the Persian Book of Kings in one or 
another of its later forms. Which the redactoi of Tabari 
used we cannot say, but Firdausi, we may assume, used the 
modern Persian prose Shahnama of Abu Mansur 6 for which 
a new translation of the story had been made from the 

1 Vol. iii. p. 289 seq. • Vol. iii. p. ir. vi. 256, vii. 156. 

3 Vol. vii. p. 156. * NT, p. 474. 

6 ZT, ii. 253. « See Vol. i. p. 67. -^ 


original Pahlavi. 1 This may account for the difference in 
some of the proper names that exists between Firdausf's 
version and that in the Persian Tabarf. In this and some 
other respects the latter is of decided help to the under- 
standing of the former. Attention will be called to such 
matters in subsequent notes. 

It is evident that the redactors of the Pahlavi original 
into Arabic or Persian took good care to leave little re- 
pugnant to Muhammadan Faith or morals. Even the state- 
ment in Tabarf and its Persian version that Gurdya was the 
wife as well as the sister of Bahrain Chubina 9 disappears 
in Firdausi. 

Yalan-sina — a prominent character in the Romance — is 
called Mardansliali in the Persian Tabarf. He was the 
brother 3 and a firm supporter of Bahrain Chubina. Another 
brother — Gurdwi — tonic tin' opposite side and remained 
loyal to Khusrau Parwiz. The sympathies of Gurdya, 
Bahrain Chubina's sister, though she associated with him 
till his death, were also legitimist. 

§8. Here we have another instance of a .Mihian in high 
office. 4 Probably he was the successor of Izid Gashasp, 
the scribe, who had been put to death by Eurmuzd early 
in his reign 5 and is to be carefully distinguished from tin- 
general of the same name in Bahrain Chubina's army, which 
is not always done in the fcexl of < '.'' 

In the Persian Tabarf the purveyor of sheep's heads is 
said to have been naked and Bahrain Chubina to have 
speared two of the head- one of which fell hack' into t In- 
tray. The interpretation was that he would have to deal 
with two kind's of whom one would In- killed while the other 
would be restored to his royalty. The nudity signified that 
Bahnim Chubina would revolt." 

According to the Persian Tabaii, Ilurmuzd, on hearing of 
the invasion of Sawa Shah, sent Kharrad, son of Barzfn, 
with an escort to him to delay his advance while the ex- 
pedition under the command of Bahrain Chubina was being 
got ready. The envoy managed to keep Sawa at Balkh 
for a whole year. 8 

Faghfur, or Faghfiir of Chin, hitherto in the Shahnama a 

-' NT, p. 475. 2 NT, p. 279. ZT, ii. 303. 

, NT, p. 478. • Cf. p. 72. • p. 83. 

• Cf. pp. 75, 150 note, 158 no'e. ' ZT, ii. 258. Id. 259. 


dynastic title, here appears as the name of the younger son 
of Sawa perhaps to add to the latter's importance. In the 
Persian Tabari the governor of Khurasan takes the part 
here played by Faghfur. 1 

§ 12. In the Persian Tabari Bahrain Chubina has the 
dream while dozing on horseback after having been engaged 
in arraying the troops all night, and in the same authority 
bars the road of retreat with five hundred horse, 2 while the 
only sorcery is in connexion with the dream. 

According to Tabari 3 the shot that slew king Sawa was one 
of three that gave renown to archers in Persian story. The 
others were that of Arish 4 and that of Sufarai who in the 
war undertaken to avenge Piruz shot at a chief in the van- 
guard of Khushnawaz and pierced his horse's head with an 
arrow. The chief was taken prisoner by Sufarai who sent 
him back to Khushnawaz with instructions to report the 
matter, and Khushnawaz was so impressed that he sued 
for peace. 5 Neither of these instances is mentioned in the 
Shahnama though it celebrates in a famous passage Rustam's 
shot in the fight with Ashkabus 6 and Bahrain (air's skill 
in archery. 7 

Bahrain, the son of Siyawush, had married a niece of 
Bahrain Chubina. 8 

§ 14. The episode of the garden is not in the Persian Tabari. 

§17. The above remark applies to the quarrel between 
Bahrain Chubina and Parmuda, and to the former's retention 
of some of the booty. 

The Persian Tabari makes Mardanshah (Yalan-sina), not 
Izid Gashasp, conduct the Khan, the other prisoners, and the 
booty to Iran. 9 

§ 18. The Shahnama here seems to confuse fzid Gashasp 
with the scribe of that name executed by Hurmuzd. 10 It is 
clear from the Persian Tabari 11 that the person consulted by 
the Shah about Bahram Chubina was his confidant and 
minister Ayin Gashasp who in the Persian Tabari is named 
Yazdanbakhsh. fzid and Yazdan both mean God which also 
caused confusion and when it became hopeless the form Ayin 
Gashasp was adopted to get out of the difficulty. 

' Id. » Id. 261. 3 NT. p. 271. 

4 See Vol. v. p. 12. 6 NT, p. 127. ZT, ii. 143. 

• Vol. iii. pp. 109, 181. ' Vol. vi. 383, vii. 54, 55, 80. 

"ZT.ii. 262. Cf. NT, 281, 282 note. ' ZT. ii. pp. 265, 266. 

>° p. 83. " ZT. ii. p. 266. 


§§ 19-21. The definite accusation of withholding some 
of the booty made by the archscribe (Mihran) againsl Bahrain 
Chubina is absent in the Persian Tabari which merely gives 
thf \auue insinuation of the minister Yaxdanhaksh which 
rouses suspicion in Hurmuzd's mind and causes him to send 
Mardanshah hack to the commander-in-chief with a chain. 
distatT-case and cotton, and an insulting Letter. 1 A similar 
insult is recorded to have been offered by the Empress Sophia 
to the exarch Narses when he was superseded and hidden 
return to his place among the maidens of the palace where a 
distaff should again be placed in his hand. 2 

The treatment of Bahrain Chubina by Hurmuzd, though 
foolish enough in any circumstances, was nol quite so un- 
reasonable and motiveless as it appears to l>e in the accounts 
of oriental writers. In A.J). 589 after the successful conclusion 
of Bahrain Chubina's expedition Hurmuzd conceived the 
idea of renewing the Lazic war which his Eather had abandoned 
in A.D. 562, 3 and senl Bahrain Chubina to conduct the cam- 
paign. That chief, however, was defeated by the Romans 
in a battle on tin Araxes and his disgrace followed. 4 

§22. Here for once the Shahnama seems to join hands 
with Western Romance. The Adventure, mutatis mutandis, 

read> as it it had lien, taken bodily fr some mediaval 

romance of chivalry. 

According to the Persian Tabari both ELharrad, son of 
Barzin, and the archscribe were presenl on the occasion. 5 

§23. Here again there seems to he some confusion in 
connexion with J/.id Gashasp. lie is identified with the 
archscribe in the heading. Moreover he is pursued, captured, 
and brought hack to Bahrain Chubina, who lets him off very 
easily, because he is wanted for service with that paladin, in 
the Persian Tabari both the fugitives make good their escape 
to Hurmuzd.' 1 That version does not know of lzid Gashasp, 
who is mentioned, however, in Tabari. 7 

§24. In the Persian Tabari Bahrain Chubina sends Hur- 
muzd twelve thousand hangers with hent points to represent 
all his twelve thousand troops. 8 

Bahrain Chubina is here described as the son of Gashasp. 

1 Id. 2 GDF, v. 336. 

3 Vol. vii. p. 215. ' NT, p. 272 note. RSM, p. 469 

6 ZT, ii. 267. 6 Id. 268. 

: NT, p. 278. 8 ZT, ii. 267. 


Tabari makes him the son of Bahrain- Gushnasp, 1 the Persian 
version of Bahrain, 2 and Mas'udi of the nickname — Chubin. 3 

§ 25. Izid Gashasp is regarded as dealing with both sides 
because of the malicious speech that he is represented to 
have made about Bahrain Chubina. 4 

The debate is not in the Persian Tabari. 

§ 26. The letter to the Khan is not in the Persian Tabari. 

Historically Bahrain Chubina issued coins in his own name 
but apparently not in that of Khusrau Parwiz. 5 

§ 27. The authorities differ as to whether Gustaham was 
imprisoned as well as Bandwf. The Oriental say both, the 
Greek Bandwi only, 6 which makes the revolt more intelligible. 


The Prelude 

The Summer 7 mocked the ruddy apple-tree, 

And treated fruit and leaf with raillery :— 

" As for the posy that in Spring of late 

Thou barest on thy breast intoxicate, 

With just a blush remembered in its bloom, 

And branches yielding exquisite perfume, 

How didst thou find a purchaser to buy. 

And do thy marketing so readily ? 

Those emeralds and rubies who bestowed 

On thee that bendest underneath the load ? 

Sooth ! thou hast bartered blossom for the grace 

Of colour wherewithal to deck thy face, 8 

But brought me to despair who cannot see 

Thy blossoms for thy flaunting bravery." 

Sweet Spring, my charmer ! whither hast thou fled, 

1 NT, p. 270. 2 ZT, ii. 252. 

3 MM, ii. 213. Cf. p. 98 note. 4 p. 150 and note. 

6 RSM, p. 471 note. * Id. 

7 Tamiiz, the Syrian month of July, in the original. 

8 Three couplets omitted. 


And left the glories of the garden dead ? 
Howbeit Autumn hath a scent of thine. 
And I will drink to thee in new-made wine ; 
Though thou art sallow I will praise thee yet, 
And deck thee like Hurmuzd's own coronet, 
For now my mart is brisk. Art thou to see, 
When I am dead and gone, no trace of me I 1 


How Hurmuzd ascended the Throne and harangued 

the Chiefs 

A marchlord of Harat, well shot in age, 

There was, in all approven and bescen, 
A ready speaker, Makh by name, world-sage, 

Still nourishing and of exalted mien ; 
And it was him I questioned lain to lind 
What record of Hurmuzd he had in mind 
When that Shah filled the throne of equity : 
That eld of Khurasan thus answered me : — 
Whenas that Shah sat on the famous state 
He first gave praises to almighty God, 
The Arbiter of fortune, and then said : — 
" We will renown the throne and hold in honour 
The men of high degree. We will enfold 
The world beneath our wings, as did our sire, 
In goodly case and Glory. We will make 
Offenders quake and ease the oppressed, be patient 
If one doth ill and succour him in trouble. 
The prop of majesty is clemency 
With bounty, justice, and right conduct. Know 
That good and evil never are concealed 
1 Division of text as in P. 


From Him who is the Maker of the world. 

Our ancestors — crown-wearers in their time, 

Which through their justice had its share of praise — 

Sought but for mildness, equity, and greatness, 

With valour, aptitude, their lieges' service, 

Their lords' observance, and to vex their foes. 

In every clime to act and to command, 

Power, counsel, and authority to treat, 

Are mine. The good affect a heaven-sent Shah. 

Now mercy is the capital of such ; 

The age becometh full of ease through bounty. 

The mendicants will I entreat with kindness, 

And will watch o'er the rich. The self-made man 

Shall have a prosperous commerce with ourselves. 

Withhold not your desires from my fond heart ; 

I will abate with ease whatever cause 

For fear ye entertain. Ye prosperous ! 

Joy in my crown and throne. Amid the great 

Mine is the lustre in that mercy, justice, 

And bounty are mine own. Grow still in kindness, 

And banish greed and vengeance from your hearts. 

They that fear God will see not evil fortune, 

So strive ye all, both small and great, to win 

The favour of the Maker of the world. 

Again, let not the heart of one possessed 

Of wisdom contemplate ingratitude, 

And when thou benefitest other folk 

Let there be no idea of recompense. 

Mix not with men that speak deceitfully, 

For what they utter is for outward show, 

And if thy king be just think thou no shame 

Concerning him, for while thou callest him 

Unwise he may be studious of the words 

Of former Shahs, 1 and when his heart is prompted 

To mercy sow not thou the seed of guile 

1 Reading with P. 


Upon the earth. The spurner of our counsel 

Will throw away the benefits of fortune. 

The approval of thy Shah sufficeth thee, 

While to resist him is the road to ruin. 

His harshness in exhorting thee is kind. 

For he would break with thee if he were wroth. 

Begrudge no efforts in the cause of good. 

And joy not in injustice and in wealth. 

When in the world thou hast thy heart's desire, 

And reached what thou wast instant to attain. 

Still, when thou don*st the crown of seventy years, 

Thou yieldest all thy winnings to the foe. 

My heart is greatly troubled for the poor, 

And I would have them ever in my thoughts. 

I ask the holy Fosterer for time 

To render poor folk happy with my treasures ; 

I will not bring the saintly heart to trouble. 

II any by his monetary wealth 

Shall grow too kinglike him will I abase : 
No rival will I have. From first to last. 
In public utterance and secret thought, 
We are the same. The Maker's benison 
Be yours, your earth the circling vault of heaven." 
Now when the assembly heard his words each man 
Grew thoughtful, those of wealth were filled with 

And tyrants' hearts were rent, while for their part 
The sage and mendicant waxed glad of heart. 



Row Hurmuzd slew Izid Gashasp, Zarduhsht, 
Simdh Barzin and Bahrain Azarmihdn, his 
Father's Ministers 1 

The Shah ruled well until he felt secure 
And had attained his ends but then he raged, 
Displayed his evil nature, left the path 
Of right and, as he had determined, slew 
Those most in honour with his father — men, 
Who, innocent and happy, feared no ill. 

Among the scribes of Nushirwan were three, 
Two old, one young, their names Izid Gashasp, 
Burzmihr — a learned scribe of Grace and presence — 
And Mali Azar, wise, shrewd, and prosperous. 
The three had been vizirs and ministers 
Before the throne of Nushirwan. Hurmuzd 
Was longing to bring ruin on all three 

Because he feared that they might prove ingrate. C. 1794 

Without a cause he raised his hand against 
Izid Gashasp, bound and imprisoned him. 
The high priest's heart was straitened and his cheek 
Wan with anxiety, for he was good, 
An ancient named Zarduhsht, and at the bondage 
Of scribe Izid Gashasp it was as though 
His own heart had been arrow-pierced. 

Now when 
Izid Gashasp had passed a day untended, 
Without food, clothes or solacer, a friend 
Conveyed for him this message from the prison 
To the high priest : " thou that to the captive 
Art skin and marrow ! here am I within 

1 The heading in the original seems to have been carelessly com- 
piled. The one above has been adopted to suit the account in the 



The prison of the Shah without attendance, 
And none can come to me. I crave for food ; 
A famished paunch increaseth my distress. 
Send to me what is fit and, when I die, 
Some linen 1 and a stitcher for my shroud." 

The high priest's heart was grieved at his afflic- 
His message, place, and lodging. He replied : — 
k * Complain not of the matter of thy bondage 
If thou art not in jeopardy of life." 

Albeit the message left him broken-hearted, 
And troubled for himself. He thought : " If news 
Shall reach this Graceless and ungenerous Shah 
That his high priest hath sent things to the prison, 
My life and body are not worth a mite ; 
This world-lord will destroy me and will turn 
A livid face toward me in his wrath." 

Yet through affection for Izid Gashasp, 
The scribe, his heart was wrung, his face like gall. 
He bade his heedful cook take to the prison 
Food for the prisoner and afterwards 
Gal Oil an Arab steed and went to him. 
The keeper of the prison paled with fright, 
On seeing the high priest, but dared not say : — 
" Go not within the prison for this king 
Is self-willed and a novice." 

Bathed in tears 
That aged man alighted from his steed, 
And visited Izid Gashasp. They clasped 
Each other in a close embrace, all anguish, 
The lashes of their eyes like clouds in Spring, 
And held talk of the Shah's malignity 
Until words failed them. Then the board was 

Before those holy men who next began 

1 Reading with P. 


To mutter prayers with sacred twigs in hand, 

And afterwards Izid Gashasp in whispers 

Conveyed his wishes, while the high priest heark- 

As to his hoarded treasure and dinars, 

His mansions, palaces, and property. 

And said : " O noble man ! on going hence 

Say to Hurmuzd from me : ' Though thou mayst c. 1795 


My words yet think upon the toils and care 

That I supported with Shah Nushirwan, 

And how I cherished thee too on my breast. 

My recompense is chains and fear of worse, 

And I shall show God on the Judgment Day 

A guiltless heart aggrieved against the king/ " 
\o\v when the high priest had gone home a spy 

Departed hastily and told the news 

To Shah Hurmuzd whose heart conceived fell 

He did not spare fzid Gashasp but sent, 

And slew him in the prison, heard reports 

At large about the high priest, made no sign, 

And pondered how by fair means or by foul 

To slay him : then gave orders to the cook 

To mingle bane in secret with some dish, 

And when the high priest came at audience-time 

To pay his duty to the illustrious king, 

Hurmuzd said : " Tarry here to-day for I 

Have a new cook." 

The high priest sat ; they spread 

The board ; he paled ; he felt that 'twas his last, 

And so it proved. The cooks brought up the meats, 

And Shah Hurmuzd partook of all in turn, 

But when he had the poisoned dish brought in 

The high priest glanced thereat and looked again. 

There was an ill surmise in his pure heart : — 


" His remedy is poison in that dish ! *' 

Hurmuzd, on seeing this, said not a word, 
But stretched his hand out to that dish of bane, 
And, in accordance to the use of kings 
When paying servants honour and regard, 
Put his own noble fingers to the board. 
And, having taken marrow from the dish. 
Said to the high priest : " () thou honest man ! 
I made this luscious morse] for thyself. 
So open wide thy mouth and take this food, 
And such should hi- thy nourishment henceforth." 
The archmage answered : " By thy life and head. 
And may thy head and crown en. hue for ever, 
Bid me not eat it ; I have had enough, 1 
So do not press me further." 

Said Hurmuzd : — 
"By sun and moon, and by the purity 
Of soul of him who is the Shah and world-lord, 
Thou shalt accept this morsel from my hand. 
And frustrate not my wish herein." 

He answered : — 
"The Shah hath bidden and I have n<> choice." 
He ate, then left the board, in sore distress, 
1796 And hurried home, spake of the poisoned food 
To none but spread a robe and lay lamenting. 
He ordered one to fetch an antidote 
From those old hoards of his or from the city, 
But it availed not aught, and bitterly 
Complained he unto God against Hurmuzd. 
The Shah dispatched a trusty man to learn 
The high priest's state, the action of the poison, 
And if the scheme had failed. Now when the 

Of the high priest beheld the messenger 
Tears fell from his eyelashes down his cheeks. 

•Reading with P. 


" Go, tell Hurmuzd," he said : ' Thy fortune 

Hereafter, through thy mischievous designs, 
Thou shalt be blind and shiftless in the world, 
Thy foes shall have their hearts' desire upon thee, 
And lasting shame shall dog thy soul for this. 
Soon wilt thou die and leave an evil name. 
I go to lay my cause before the Judge, 
Where we shall face each other. Never more 
Sleep free from ill, for chastisement divine 
Confronteth thee. I take my leave of thee, 
Malignant man ! Ill done will bring thee ill.' 

The trusty envoy heard and went with tears 
To take the king the message. He repented, 
Writhed at the high priest's righteous words but 

No way to cure that smart and deeply sighed. 
Anon the high priest died, and all the wise 
Wept o'er him sorely. In this world of pain 
And toil why court renown and clutch at gain ? 
The wise count breaths because no joys remain. 

The high priest's wretched end convulsed the realm 
With grief, but that blood-shedding, brutal world- 
Recked not of evil fortune, girt his loins 
For bloodshed, made Bahrain Azarmihan 
His tool, called him by night and made him kneel 
Beside the throne, then said : " Thou wouldst feel 

From evil treatment at my hands ? Then when 
The sun is bright in heaven, and mountain-tops 
Are shining like a back-plate, come among 
The nobles of Iran and take thy stand 
Before my throne. Then will I question thee 
About Simah Barzin : make answer boldly. 
I shall inquire : ' What is this friend of thine, 


An evil man or one that serveth God ? ' 

Reply : ' He is an evil man. a villain. 

And sprung from Ahriman.' Then ask whatever 

Thou wilt — a handmaid, signet, throne and crown."" 

Bahrain replied : " I will, and multiply 
The ill a hundredfold. " 

The Shah thus sought 

An artifice to put Simah Barzin, 
One of the chiefs, beloved by Nushirwan 
That Lustre of the age — beyond the pale 
Of sympathy. 

Now when the Kobe whose hue 
Is ivory-bright grew visible, and Sol 
Rose in the Sign of Gemini, the world-lord 
Sat on the ivory throne, and o'er his head 
They hung the costly crown. The Iranian chiefs 
Met and drew up in rank before the court-gate. 
The audience-chamberlain withdrew the curtain, 
And all the throng approached the king. First came 
Bahrain Azarmihan, Simah Barzin, 
And valiant chiefs. Each took his proper seat, 
The crowd still standing in the monarch's presence, 
Who questioned thus Bahrain Azarmihan : 
" Now doth Simah Barzin, in presence here, 
Deserve our wealth or is he troublesome, 
Because the ill-disposed deserve not treasure ? ' 

Bahrain Azarmihan well understood 
The question of the monarch of the world, 
Its base and motive : " We must weep therefor, 
And from the ruler of the people I 
Shall have at last a charnel but no shroud ! 
And thus he made response : " noble Shah ! 
Look for no goodness from Simah Barzin, 
For he hath wrecked Iran. Would that his body 
Had neither brain nor skin ! He speaketh naught 
But villainy and thus produceth strife." 


Simah Barzin, on hearing this, replied : — 
" My good old friend ! defame not thus my person, 
And be not thus confederate with the Div. 
Since thou hast been my friend what words and 

Of Ahriman hast thou perceived in me ? " 

Bahram Azarmihan thus answered him : — - 
" Thou hast been scattering seed throughout the 

And thou wilt be the first to reap the crop. 
Black smoke shall be thy portion of the fire, 
For Niishirwan once summoned thee and me, 
And made us kneel before the royal throne 
With the high priest, Burzmihr, and with that chief 
Of comely face, fzid Gashasp, and asked : — 
' Who doth deserve the imperial throne and who 
Possesseth Grace ? On younger son or elder 
Shall I bestow it ? Which is worthier 
Of kingship ? ' 

Then the rest of us arose, c. 1798 

And framed our tongues to utter this reply : — 
' This man of Turkman kindred is unworthy ; 
None would give aught for such a Shah, for he 
Is Khan-descended, is of evil nature, 
And like his mother both in looks and bearing.' 
Thou saidst : ' Hurmuzd is fit to be the Shah,' 
And now art guilty of the consequence. 
For this cause have I testified against thee, 
And opened thus my lips in thy dispraise." 

Hurmuzd at that archmage's truthful words 
Turned pale with shame. At night he sent them 

To prison and for two nights made no sign 
Withal, but on the third, what time the moon 
Arose above the mountains, he dispatched 
Simah Barzin by slaying him within 


The prison of the thieves yet gat thereby 
But toil and malison. On hearing how 


That man of honest heart had passed away 

Bahrain Azarmihan sent to the Shah 

A message saying : " Thou whose crown is over 

The orbit of the moon ! thou knowest how much 

I have endured to keep thy secrets close, 

And ne'er was aught but well disposed to thee 

Before thy father, that illustrious Shah. 

If thou wilt summon me and make me sit 

Beside the royal throne I will reveal 

A matter to thee in thine interest. 

Free me at once from bondage in the prison ; 

'Twill help Iran and keep the wise unscathed." 

Hurmuzd, when this came, chose a confidant 
To bring Bahrain Azarmihan to him, 
And to that court renowned. The monarch sum- 
Bahrain Azarmihan when it was night, 
Caused him to kneel before the royal throne, 
And then said: "Tell me what this matter is 
That will secure my life in happiness."' 

He answered : " In the royal treasury 
I have observed a plain black cabinet. 
Deposited within it is a casket, 
And therein is a document in Persian. 
; Tis written on white silk : the Iranians" hopes 
Are cent led there. 'Twas written by thy sire, 
That Shah and world-lord, and thou shouldest see 

Then to his treasurer, good at need, Hurmuzd 
Sent one to say : " Seek in the ancient hoards 
A plain sealed cabinet and on the seal 
The name of Nushirwan, and may his soul 
Be ever young ! Dispatch and bring it me 
Ere night be past." 


The treasurer was prompt, C. 1799 

And brought it with the seal intact. The world- 
Oped it, invoking oftentimes the while 
The name of Niishirwan. He saw within 
A casket, which was also sealed, wherefrom 
He eagerly took forth the piece of silk, 
And saw the characters of Niishirwan 
Inscribed thereon, and thus the writing ran : — 

" Hurmuzd for two years more than ten 
Will prove a matchless monarch, then 
The world will be convulsed, his name 
Pass to abeyance with his lame. 
Foes will spring up in every place 
Led by a man of evil race, 
An Ahriman, the monarch's hosl 
Will be dispersed, his throne be lost. 1 
Him will that villain blind, and they 
Will, after, take his life away. -" 

On seeing that script, and in his fathers hand, 
Hurmuzd was frayed and rent the silk asunder. 
With bloodshot eyes and livid face he cried : — 
" Injurious man ! what was thine aim herein ? 
Wouldst have my head ? " 

Bahra m Azarm i h a n 
Said : " Turkman-born ! how long wilt thou delight 
In bloodshed ? From the Khan, not Kai Kubad, 
Art thou upon whose head the crown was set 
By Niishirwan." 

Hurmuzd knew : "If he can 
He will overthrow me," heard out his abuse, 
And sent him back to prison where next night, 

1 More literally : — 

" The enemy will cast him down from the throne." 
- Reading with I'. 


What time the moon rose o'er the mountain-tops, 
The deathsman slew him. At the court no sage 
Or counsellor or archimage was left. 
From ill self-governance all evils spring ; 
See that thou disregard that evil thing. 


How Hurmuzd turned from Tyranny to Justice 

From that time forth he led a goodlier life. 
Moved by remorse at heart. Now every year. 
When nights were short, he sojourned at Istakhr 
Two months because that city was delightsome, 
The air serene : he knew not how to quit it. 
He and his court were wont to spend three months 
At [spahdn with its delicious air — 
The scat of mighty men. In Winter-time 
He dwelt at Taisafun among the troops, 
The archimaues and the counsellors : 
While in the Spring he was upon the plain 
Of the Arwand, and thus a while went by. 
His heart was terror-stricken by that scroll, 
He spent three watches of the night in prayer, 
Shed no more blood thenceforth and did no wrong : 
His soul mused not of ill. Whene'er the Veil 
Of lapis-la/.uli was hidden, and when 
The topaz height appeared, a herald used 
Thus to proclaim : " Famed men of Grace and pru- 
dence ! 
If tilth be trampled and the sower troubled 
By that mishap, or if a horse shall enter 
Crops, or if any one withal shall trespass 
On orchards, then the horse's tail and ears 
Must be cut off and the thief's head be set 


Upon the stake.'* 1 

He had a son beloved, 
Just like the moon, whom he had named Parwiz, 
And sometimes called " Khusrau the well-content." 2 
He never left his father's side for long ; 
The father never bloomed without the son. 
It chanced that the young steed of prince Parwiz 
Escaped from stall and followed by its groom 
Went to the growing crops whose owner came 
Lamenting to the groom and asked : " What man 
Must sorrow for this horse's ears and tail ? " 

The groom said : " 'Tis the horse of prince 
Parwiz ; 
What careth he for subjects ? " 

Then the owner 
Went to the king and laid the case before him, 
Who said : ' Haste, dock the horse's tail and ears, 
Then have the damage to the crop assessed, 
And prince Khusrau shall recompense the man 
A hundredfold in money from his treasures 
Upon the field and in its owner's presence." 

Thereat the prince moved chiefs to plead for him 
Before the Shah that he would not have docked 
The black steed's tail and ears, but in his wrath 
Against the steed the king paid no regard 
To all those men of world-experience ; 
The groom through terror of the king made haste 
To dock the young steed of its ears and tail 
Upon that tilth betramplcd ; and Khusrau 
Paid the complainant what the Shah had bidden. 

Anon the king went hunting, and they all C. 1801 

Had much good sport. A valiant warrior, 
Whose father was the captain of the host, 
Saw, as he went along, a vine well laden 

1 Two couplets omitted. 

a The prince afterwards famous as Shah Khusrau Parwiz. 


With unripe grapes and bade his servant haste 
To cut and take sonic hunches to his cook. 
The owner came and said : " Thou miscreant ! 
Thou neither wast the tender of this vine. 
Nor boughtest it with treasure and dinars ! 
Why hast thou spoiled the labour of another ? 
I shall complain of thee before the Shah."* 

The valiant horseman, fearing what mighl chance, 
Undid his beH forthwith and then bestowed it, 

All costly and all golden with each link 

Inlaid with liciiis. upon the man who said 

On seeing it : ' What wrong one must condone ! 

Tell not the king. Thou hasl no purchaser 

In me. si, make it no affair <>l price; 

While as for thanks I lay on thee that word ; 

Thou wouldsl he lifeless it that just judge heard ! "* 


How Hosts gathered from all Sides against Hurmuzd, 
and how /<<■ took Counsel with his Wazirs 

When he had reigned lor ten years righteously 
The voice of foemen rose from every realm, 
King Saw a inarched upon him from Ilarat 
With drums and treasure, elephants and troops. 
If thou wouldst take the number of that host 
Go count four hundred o'er a thousand times. 
There were twelve hundred elephants of war ; 
Thou wouldst have said : ' Earth hath no room 

for them." 
The desert from Harat to the Marvriid 2 
Was thick as warp and woof with soldiery, 

1 Six couplets omitted. ! Reading with P. 


And as he led them on to Marv the earth 
Was hidden by the dust-clouds of the host. 

Kino- Sawa wrote a letter to Hurmuzd, C. 1802 

And said : " Convoke thy powers from every side, 
Repair the roads and bridges for my troops, 
Get provand and bethink thee of my sword. 
I would pass through thy realm. Mine army reacheth 
O'er river, height, and waste." 

On reading this 
The king turned pale at all that countless host. 
Then from another quarter Caesar came, 
And over-ran the land with his array — 
A force of Rumans five score thousand strong, 
Courageous and redoubted cavaliers. 
The cities ta'en by Niishirwan, whose name 
Still frighted him, he took back with the sword : 
All were again obedient unto Caesar. 1 
A host came from the side of the Khazars, 
And all the fields and fells were black with them. 
A warrior of experience and possessed 
Of troops and treasure of his own was Leader, 
And from Armenia their companies 
Extended to the gate of Ardabil. 
Then from the waste of spear-armed cavaliers 
An army came past count. 'Abbas and "Amr, 
Two horsemen youthful and illustrious, 
Led them. They gave to havoc land and crop 
Because Hurmuzd demanded tribute of them. 
That host reached the Farat, and in that land 
No place for grass was left. When fortune loured 
News reached Hurmuzd, and that successful Shah 
Grew all amort at his informants' words, 
And he repented slaying those archmages, 
And alienating wise men from his court. 
He saw no counsellor, and he had need 

1 Couplet inserted from P. and one omitted. 


Of wise advisers, so he sent and summoned 
The Iranians to full session in the palace, 
And made discovery of all the matter, 
Addressing thus those nobles of the land : — 
" A greater host than any can recall 
Is marching on Iran." 

Then all the marchlords 
Approached him with suggestions, saying thus : — 
" Advised and prudent Shah ! hear us herein. 
Thou art a wise Shah ; we are subjects merely, 
And count ourselves as less than one archmage. 
Thy scribes and thine archmages hast thou slain, 
Departing from both faith and precedent. 
Think what to do and who shall guard our land.'' 

Then said an archimage who was wazir : — 
" O sage and knowledge-seeking Shah ! il' now 
1803 The host of the Khazars come forth to battle 
Our warriors will be fully occupied. 1 
Let us make overtures to them of Rum, 
And then pluck up the Arabs by the root. 
King Sawa is more instant and with him 
Our prospect is more gloomy too. Our trouble 
Will come by way of Khurasan for he 
Will waste our country and our wealth withal ; 
So when the Turkman marcheth from Jfhun 
To war there must be no delay.'* 

For he was seeking for a policy, 
Said to that archimage : w " How shall we now 
Bear us toward king Sawa ? ' 

He replied : — 
" Put thine own soldiers into war-array, 
For troops exalt a monarch. Summon too 
The muster-master that he may account 
The number fit for service." 

1 " tes vaillantes troupes n'hesiteront pas un instant." Mohl. 


With the roll 
The muster-master came before the Shah, 
Whose army numbered five score thousand men, 
The more part mounted, many were on foot. 

The archmage said : " With such a host as this 
We well may be defeated by king Sawa 
Unless thou actest boldly and uprightly. 
Dismissing all ideas of fraud and falsehood ; 
Then thou wilt free thy subjects" heads from bonds 
As well becometh kingship. Thou hast heard 
The mighty tale of ill done to Gushtasp, 
And to Luhrasp all for religion's sake 
By great Arjasp, that brave old Wolf, and all 
The cavaliers of Chin, the woe of Balkh, 
And how life was embittered in that land 
Until Asfandiyar was set at large, 
And pressed the war amain. 1 Unless the king 
Of earth will be advised he will behold 
Much trouble from the Turks of Chin, but though 
I pass the king in years I pass him not 
In thought." 

The king said : " Caesar shall not fight 
With us. I will restore the cities taken 
By Nushirwan, and then he will withdraw." 

He chose a scribe — a warrior — as envoy, 
A wise, a prudent, and observant man, 
And sent him unto Caesar with this message : — 
" I want no Ruman cities ; be that land 
Thine ; but withal set foot not on our coasts 
If thou wouldst be both great and prosperous." 

The envoy came to Caesar and delivered 
The message of Hurmuzd. The lord of Rum 
Withdrew and did no scath upon Iran. 
The king, when Caesar had withdrawn, prepared 
To war with the Khazars. He formed a host, 
1 See Vol. v. p. 35 seq. 


Whose dust-clouds blotted day, and sent it thither 
To fire those fields and fells, led by Kharrad 
A man of Grace, of worship, and of justice. 
Now when that army reached Armenia 
The host of the Kha/.ars barred all the way. 
The Iranians slaughtered many and bare oil" 
Much spoil. The Arabs hearing this were checked, 
And went back whence they came. So when the 

Heard that Kharrad had been victorious 
Naught but to fight king Sawa still remained, 
To which endeavour all his thoughts were strained. 


How Hurmuzd heard of Bahrdm Chtibina <ind sent 

for him 

A servant of the Shah's, one hight Nastuh, 

A wise, successful, and observant man. 

Spake thus : ' Shah ! be happy. May the hand 

Of ill be ever far from thee ! My sire. 

The wise Mihran Sitad, hath still his wits. 

Though old, and sitteth with the Zandavasta 

In his retirement, having naught to hope for 

Through age and weakness. Now but recently 

I went and spent a day and night with him, 

Told him about king Sawa, his vast host. 

And elephants of war. My father said :— 

' The ancient prophecy is then fulfilled ! 

I questioned him : ' To what referrest thou ? ' 

He answered : ' If the Shah shall ask of me 

I will reveal it.' " 

Then the king of kings 


Commanded that a noble should set forth 
In haste and fetch the old man from his palace 
Upon a litter. When that ancient came, 
His heart all knowledge and his head all lore, 
Before the Shah, Hurmuzd inquired of him : — - 
" What know'st thou of the past ? " 

" O fluent Shah, 
And heedful," said the elder, " when the Khan 
Dispatched thy mother to Iran from Chin 
I was the chief of eight score warriors 
That went to ask of him her hand in marriage. 
Thy father, that most upright king of kings, 
Demanded no slave's daughter of the Khan, 
But said : ' Require a daughter of the queen ; 
No slave must be the consort of the Shah." 
I went before the Khan and did obeisance. C. 1805 

He had five daughters in his women's bower, 
All goodly, fit to deck the thrones of monarchs, 
In gait like pheasants and in looks like Spring, 
And all fulfilled with colour, scent, and beauty. 
The monarch sent me to their bower. I entered 
That famed court. They had decked the daughters' 

And twined their locks with roses, save thy mother 
Who wore no coronet, no necklace, bracelet, 
Or other ornament but sat there mute 
With hanging head and shyly hid her face 
Behind her sleeves ; but she alone of all 
Was daughter of the queen ; none of the rest 
Possessed such elegance, such bloom, and charm 
Because the queen was daughter of Faghfur, 
And naturally indisposed to ill. 
She sorrowed that her child should dwell afar, 
And that pure daughter quit the monarch's palace. 
Among those daughters her it was I chose ; 
I heeded not the others. Said the Khan : — 



' Select another ; all the five are fair 
And worshipful," and this was my response : — 
' My choice is made ; to choose again were fatal." 
Then summoned he his priests and made them kneel 
Before the royal throne and asked concerning 
His daughter's future. Those astrologers 


Replied : ' Thou shalt sec naught but good and 

Naught but the truth. From her and From the 

A prince like some fierce lion will be born, 
Of lofty stature and with lusty limbs. 
Brave as a lion, bounteous as a cloud, 
Black-eyed, impetuous, and choleric, 
Who. on his Eather's death, will be the king. 
He will enjoy much treasure from his sire. 
And in his latter days refrain from evil. 
Thereafter will a mighty king arise. 

Lead forth a valiant host of Turks and seek 

\\\{\\ that array to occupy Iran 
And country of Yainan throughout. The Shah 
Will be in dudgeon at him and will fear 
His high, victorious fortune, but will have 
Far oil' a subject, an exalted horseman 
And loyal liege, tall and adust of body. 
Upon his head crisp locks as black as musk, 
Bin both of bone and nose and swart of skin — 


A warrior brave and strong, nicknamed Chubina, 1 
And sprung from paladins. This strenuous man 
1806 Will come with some few soldiers to the Shah, 
Soon overthrow this Turk and wreck his host.' 
Ne'er saw I one more glad than was the Khan 
On hearing this. He gave the Crown of all 
His daughters unto Nushirwan while I 


Received her on the Shah's behalf. This done 

1 i.e., Stick-like. 


I hied me home, the Khan producing for us 
Such wealth of jewels from his treasury 
That we were put to it to carry them. 
He came with me as far as the Jihiin, 
Embarked his daughter and with doleful heart 
Turned back, at one with sorrow for his child. 
Now have I told my tale here in thy presence, 
O king of men ! Seek for the man himself 
Within thy realm and bid thy couriers haste 
Because thy triumph licth in his hands, 
But tell not friend or foe." 

E'en with the words 
He yielded up the ghost, and all the folk 
Bewailed him bitterlv. The kino- of kings 
Was all astound and poured down tears of blood. 
" Mihran Sitacl," he told the Iranians, 
" Retained this story in his memory, 
And after having told it to us died, 
Committing his accepted soul to God, 
And God be thanked that this old man hath uttered 
Words of such import. Had I fetched him hither 
But one hour later he had died and I 
Had seen much grief. Our realm must now be 

For this man whether he be lord or liege. 
Seek indefatigablv for this one 
Until ye find him." 

An illustrious subject, 
The master of the horse, named Zad Farrukh, 
WTio sought in all the pleasure of the Shah, 
Went to him and thus spake : " The indications 
Detailed by that famed man before the lords 
Can only, otherwise we clutch but wind, 
Apply, methinketh, to Bahrain Chubina, 
Son of Gashasp, a noble, well skilled horseman 
To whom thou gavest Ardabil and Barda' 


Where he became marchlord with drums and troops." 

The Shah dispatched a speedy cameleer 
To bid Bahrain Chiibina dally not 
Upon the way but come from Ardabil 
To court alone without the drums and host. 1 
The messenger the joyful news conveyed, 
And told him what Mihran Sitad had said. 


//<<"• Bahrdm Chiibina came to Hurmuzd and was 
mad( Captain of the Host 

l8o 7 Not calling any of his warriors 

That world-aspirant hurried off from Barda', 
And when he came the Shah accorded audience. 
On seeing the visage of the king of kings 
The veteran much praised that noble one. 
Who at f iist sight grew favourably disposed, 
Perceived the marks named by .Mihran Sitad 
In him. smiled and grew blithe of countenance, 
Received him well and lodged him splendidly. 
When sombre night flung off its musky veil, 
And Sol displayed its face, the marchlord came 
To court, and all the chiefs made way for him. 
The world-lord summoned him and made him sit 
Among the magnates, told him how Iran 
Was placed and what Mihran Sitad had said. 
Then asked about king Sawa, saying : ' Shall I 
Make peace or send forth troops ? ' 

The warrior 
Replied : " We may not make a peace with him, 
For, since he fain would fight, to sue for peace 

1 Reading with P. 


Will mean defeat for us ; the foe moreover 
Will be emboldened if he see thee weak. 
To proffer feast in war-time is to make 
Contention like submission." 

Said Hurmuzd :— 
" What is the course then ? Shall I seek delay. 
Or march to battle ? " 

He made answer thus : — 
" It augureth well if 1 foes behave unjustly. 
What said the noble counsellor ? ' No match 
For justice is injustice.' Therefore seek 
To fight with this injurious enemy. 
For fire and water will not flow together ; 2 
But if thou actest otherwise herein 
The ancient sky will choose another Shah. 
If we put forth the might of our own arms, 
And what we have of prowess, holy God 
Will neither blame us nor. shall we be shamed 
Before the heroes when the truth is sought. 
Shall we be weak enough to shun the combat 
While yet ten thousand of Iranians 
Remain unslain ? What will malignants say 
To thee if thou flee foes without a fight ? 

When I pour arrows down on them and make C. 1808 

My bow as 'twere a cloud in Spring, and when 
A hundred thousand swords and iron maces 
Are brandished in the ranks of war, and yet 
We gain no glimpse of triumph but despair 
Of fortune in our hearts, then we will be 
Our foemen's to command for we shall have 
No body, life or spirit, left to us ; 
But let us struggle till we see if heaven 
Will bring us gain or loss." 

On hearing this 
The Shah smiled and the court grew bright, and then 
1 Reading with P. 'Id. 


The veterans left the presence with full hearts, 
And talking with Bahrain Chubina said : — 
" Henceforth if he shall speak with thee be modest, 
Because kino- Sawa hath such mighty powers 
That e'en to ants and gnats they bar the way ! 
Who alter what thou said'st before the Shah 
Will venture to be captain of the host ? ' 

He answered them : " Illustrious warriors ! 
I will be captain by our greal Shah's leave." 

Informants on the watch went to the world's 
And told him of this speech and ten limes more. 
The king of kings rejoiced thereat and censed 
To fear those troops. He gave Bahrain Chubina 
The chief command, exalting to the clouds 
His valiant head. All warriors thai sou-lit 
For -lory hailed him captain of the host. 
He came before the king with girded loins. 
Equipped for war. and said : ' By thy permission 
I will call o'er the roll and ascertain 
Who are the fighting-men and who are slack 
In quest of lame.'" 

The Shah said : " Thou art leader 
Responsible for good and ill alike." 

The chief went to the royal muster-ground, 
And bade the troops parade. He made his choice 
Of those that were the crown among the chiefs, 
And entered on the roll twelve thousand names 
Of mail-clad warriors on barded steeds. 
All those enrolled were forty years of age ; 
The older and the younger were rejected. 
Bahrain Chubina held the chief command 
As one renowned in war. He made one hight 
Yalan-sina — a man of vengeful breast — x 
Chief of the w r arrior-chiefs to go before 

1 Sina. 


The ranks on battle-days, to wheel his steed, C. 1809 

Proclaim his ancestry, and set on strife 

The warriors' thoughts. One named Izid Gashasp, 1 

Who drew not rein at fire, he bade to guard 

The baggage-train and dress the wings. He made 

Kanda Gashasp, who as he rode would grasp 

The tails of lions, leader of the rear. 

Then to the troops thus spake the paladin : — 

" Ye ardent chiefs ! if ye would have God's help 

In lightening your dark task inflict not harm 

Or loss and never gird your loins for ill, 

And when at night the clarion-call ariseth 

Leap up and one and all so spur your steeds 

That in the dark more tumult may arise. 

Through strength derived from resting horse and 

Will take no thought about the day of battle." 

When tidings reached the king of how the wise 
Bahrain Chubina acted he rejoiced 
Both at the words and deeds ; he oped his treasures, 
And paid the troops. He gave Bahrain withal 2 
Arms from the magazines which he unlocked, 
Assembled in the city all the herds 
Of battle-steeds that were at large, and ordered 
The captain of the host to ask of him 
Whate'er was needful, saying : " Thou hast seen 
All sorts of warfare and hast heard what stores 
King Sawa, that illustrious man, possesseth 
Of treasure, arms, and troops, and how his Turks 
Set earth a-quaking on the day of battle. 
Now thou hast chosen out of all the host 
Twelve thousand men in mail on barded steeds ! 
I know not how such numbers can avail 
Upon the day of fight, and thou hast chosen, 
Instead of youthful sworders, men of forty ! ' 
1 Reading with P. 2 Id. 


The chief replied : ' Well-starred and courteous 
Shah ! 
The saying of the mighty thou hast heard, 
Who ruled the world as Shahs in days of old : — 
1 When conquering fortune is assisting thee 
'Tis well though little other aid there be,' 
And by this token I will prove it too 
If now the Shah, whose word is law, will hear : 
When Kai Kaiis was in Hainavaran, 
In bonds with countless others, Rustam chose 
Twelve thousand lit and warlike cavaliers, 
And freed him, and no harm befell the chiefs. 
kSio Again, (iudarz, son of Kishwad, the head 
Of noble and illustrious men, employed 
Twelve thousand men in mail on barded steeds 
To execute revenge for Siyawush. 
Again, the glorious Asfandiyar 
Was leader of twelve thousand warriors 
Against Arjasp and by a stratagem 
Made dust fly out of host and hold alike. 1 
When any host exceedeth this amount 
It is too Large for dash and enterprise ; 
The leader that conducteth count less troops 
To battle i^ discomfited in fight. 
As for thy saying : ' Men of forty years 
Are not so eager lor the tight as youths." 
The man of forty hath experience, 
And excellence in point of hardihood, 
Remembering the seal of bread and salt 
O'er which the heaven hath so oft revolved. 
In dread too of the voice of calumny, 
And loss of fame, he shirketh not the fight. 
Moreover wife and child and family 

1 In the accounts given in the poem of these instances the limita- 
tion to twelve thousand is recorded only in the case of Asfandiyar. 
Later on Gurdya, Bahram Chubina's sister, repeats the statement 
about Rustam. See p. 168. 


Irk not the feelings of a veteran. 

A young man is deceived by outward show, 

And when he should have patience he is rash. 

He hath not wife or child or tilth ; to him 

The worthy and the worthless seem alike. 

Since wisdom resteth on experience 

He seeth not the import of affairs. 

If he is conqueror in any fight 

He laugheth with delight and wasteth time ; 

But if one chanceth to prevail against him 

His foes see nothing but his back." 

On hearing, 
The king grew fresh as roses in the Spring. 
Then said : " Depart, put on thy mail, and go 
Forth from the palace to the riding-ground." 

The general left the king, called for his girdle. 
Mail-coat, and Ruman helm, had his steed barded, 
And set the coiled up lasso in its straps. 
The world-lord with his arrows, clubs, and balls 
Went out upon the ground with his wazirs. 
The general approached with mace and mail 
And Ruman casque. The world-lord, seeing, blessed 

He kissed the ground and showed a liege's prowess 
With mace, at polo, and in archery. 
The king then had the banner brought that bare 
A violet dragon for device, the banner 
That had been borne in fight in front of Rustam, 1 
Grasped it immediately and, handling it 
With smiles, bestowed it on Bahrain Chubina, 
Invoking many a blessing on him, saying : — 
" My predecessors used to hail as chief 

Of all our race the man whose name was Rustam, c. 1811 

The paladin, the conqueror of the world, 
Triumphant and of ardent soul. Thou holdest 

1 Cf. Vol. ii. p. 154. 


His flag. Mayst thou be conquering and loyal ! 
Thou art a second Rustam to my thoughts 
In courage, prowess, and obedience." 

The paladin saluted him and said : — 
" Be always conquering and bright of mind." 

With peerless Rustam's banner in his hand 
The general left the plain for his abode, 
And on their several ways the Shah's hoops went. 
The captain of the host was well content. 


How Bahrdm Chtibina went > r itli tirr.lrr thousand 
Cavaliers to fight King Sdwa 

When morning dawned upon the mountain-tops, 

And when the glittering Shield of Gold appeared, 
The chief came to the palace of the Shah, 
And prostrate in the presence of the troops 

Spake thus : " I was a man that had no claims. 
But by thy Grace became the age's crown. 
I have to beg one favour of the king — 
That he will send with me a trusty man 
To make a note of those that fight and lay 
A hostile head beneath the dust and thus 
Achieve their end." 

Hurmuzd replied : * Mihran, 
The old, is great, 1 observant, eloquent," 
Bade him accompany the chief and quit 
The palace lor the combat. From the province 
Of Taisafun the army marched, their leader 
Bahram Chubina. Twas a prudent, brave, 
And dauntless host, and wary as a lion 

1 Reading with P. 


Was their commander. When he had departed 
The monarch of the world himself withdrew, 
Was privy with his archimage 1 and said : — 
" Upon the day of fight this man will laugh 
For joy ! What will result ? Let us confer." 

The archmage answered : " Mayst thou live for 
For thou deservest everlasting life. 
This paladin possessed of such a mien 
And stature, ready speech and ardent soul, 
Must needs be happy and victorious, 
And cause a barren world to bring forth fruit ; 
But yet I fear me that he will revolt 
At last against his sovereign and patron 
Because he talked with such audacity. 
And spake so like a lion to the Shah." 

Hurmuzd made answer to him : " Mingle not C. 1812 

Bane with the antidote, misdoubting one ! 
If he shall prove victorious o'er king Sawa 
I ought to yield to him the crown and throne. 
May he be ever as now for he will make 
A glorious sovereign ! " 

The archimage, 
On hearing what the Shah said, paled and bit 
His lips. The king himself moreover kept 
The thing in mind, and in a while selected 
A courtier as his confidant to learn 
How matters stood, and said : " Pursue in haste 
The paladin and tell what thou observest." 

The agent followed swiftly, known to none. 
He was a guide, in omens skilled, and used 
To utter his prognostics to the Shah. 

Bahrain Chubina, quitting Taisafiin, 
Led on the host himself. In front appeared, 
And far from him, one that purveyed sheep's heads, 

1 Ayin Gashasp. 


Which rose above a clean draped wicker tray. 
The chieftain urged his horse and. strange to tell ! 
Pierced one head with his spear, rode oil' with it 
Aloft, then flung it where he would and drew 
An omen from the matter. s;i\ ino- thus : — 
" Just so will I cut off king Sawa's head. 
Will throw it in his army's line of march, 
And shatter all his host."' 

The emissary, 
Sent by the Shah, drew too his presage, saying: — 
"This favourite of Fortune will attain. 
His labours done, the crown at last lor when 
His end is gained be will grow troublesome, 
And will rebel." 

He went and told the king, 
Who wedded grief and anguish for the words 
Were worse than death to him. He withered up, 
That verdant leaf grew s ( -re. He called to him 
A young man of the court and sent him off 
In all haste to the paladin and said : — 
1 Deparl and tell the captain of the host : — 
For this uinht tarry where thou art. At dawn 
Turn back and come to me for I would clear 
The court of strangers and advise thee further, 
For thoughts of profit have occurred to me." 

The messenger came to the paladin, 
And told what he had heard. Bahrain Chubina 
Made this reply : " Men do not, wise Shah ! 
Recall an army on the march ; such action 
Would be ill-omened and would reinforce 
The foe. I will return when I have conquered, 
And then thv kingdom and thy diadem 
Shall shine."' 

The messenger returned and gave 
The warrior's answer to the Shah and he 
W 7 as satisfied. That envov's toil was vain. 


At dawn the captain of the host led on 
The troops and called God's blessing down on 

He marched to Khiizistan i 1 the troops harmed 

There came a woman with a sack of hay 
Among them and a horseman purchased it, 
Refused to pay her, and made off. She came 
Lamenting to Bahram Chubina, saying : 
' I have some hay concealed. I brought a sack's 

And passed before thy troops. A cavalier, 
With iron helm, hath taken it from me 
While on the march ! " 

Forthwith they sought the man, 
And haled him quickly to the general. 
The brave Bahram Chubina said to him :— 
" So thou didst think this fault a little one ! ' 

They smashed his head and hands and feet. The 

Had him dragged forth before the camp -enclosure, 
Then clave him through the middle with the sword, 
And filled the heart of the unjust with terror. 
Then from the camp-enclosure 'twas proclaimed :— 
" O ye illustrious men and of good will ! 
The stealer of a stalk of hay shall find 
Xo intercessor. I will cleave his waist 
Asunder with the sword. Let all procure 
By payment what they need." 

Bahram Chubina 
Led on his host well ordered and they marched 
Toward Damaghan. 

The Shah was full of care 

1 This seems to imply that he started from Pars. Later on he says 
(p. 112) that he started from Baghdad, i.e., from the neighbourhood 
of Taisafiin (Ctesiphon) where the troops were stationed (p. 90). 
Baghdad itself was not then in existence. 


At Sawa's army, elephants, and treasures, 1 

And spake thus to Kharrad. son of Barzin, 

One night at rise of moon : " Prepare to go 

To our opponent and be diligent, 

Not slumbering but speeding. Mark his troops 

As to their numbers and their quality, 

And who their leader and their warriors are." 

lie ordered that a letter of advice 
Should be indited to the hostile king. 
And countless royal presents sent therewith. 
He said thus to the messenger : "" Proceed 
Toward Harat and if a host appear 
Know it for that of brave Bahrain Chubfna, 
l8l 4 And not another. Then approach and tell him 
AYhat thou hast heard from me, thus savins: 'I 
By good news and by blandishment will spread 
A fresh snare for the foe. Thy secret purpose 
Must be kept hidden. If he hear thy name 
And fame . . . ! I will induce him to thy net, 
Employing fair and lengthy parleyings.' 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, prepared to start, 
Came as the Shah had bidden and delivered 
The message when he saw Bahrain Chubfna. 
He went thence to king Sawa, to the place 
Where were the elephants and troops and treasure, 
And, having audience, did him reverence, 
Delivering the message privily, 
And adding to it every argument 
To draw the army to Harat. When Sawa 
Arrived and camped upon the river-bank 
The outposts went forth, marked Bahrain Chubfna 
With all his troops and, seeing that stout host, 
Returned in all haste to king Sawa, saying : — 
' A force hath reached the desert of Harat, 
Commanded by a famous chief." 

1 Two couplets omitted. 


King Sawa, 
Concerned what course to take, called from the tent 
The envoy of the Shah and rated him : — 
" Didst not foresee, thou crafty Ahriman ! 
A fall from thy high station ? From the court 
Of that vile Shah thou earnest to ensnare me, 
And leadest forth to war a Persian host, 
Encamping on the meadows of Harat ! ' 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, replied : " The force 
Confronting thine is small. Take not its coming 
In ill part ; 'tis some marchlord passing by, 
Or some chief seeking shelter with the Shah, 
Or merchants who have brought an escort with 

To guard them on their way. Who would confront 

Though mountains turn to seas, to seek revenge ? 
I will send one to find out who or what 
This traveller is." 1 

His words rejoiced king Sawa, 
Who said : "In truth that is the course to take. 
We will dispatch to learn if friend or foe 
Thev be." 

Now as Kharrad, son of Barzin, 
Withdrew to his own tent the night o'ertopped 
The mountains, and he gat in readiness 
To flee the wrath to come. At dead of night 
The monarch bade Faghfiir go with an escort 
Forth from his father to the paladin. C. 1815 

That understanding youth went forth and reaching 
The Iranian host dispatched a cavalier 
To ask : " Who are these warriors and wherefore 
March they ? " 

The horseman went like dust and cried :— 
" Who are your chiefs and leader, noble sirs ! 

1 This couplet inserted from P. 

1 1. 


And champion in the combat, for Faghfur, 

Who is king Sawa's heart and eyes, would see him 

Without attendance ? * 

Came a warrior 
Forth from the troops and told Bahrain Chubina 
What he had heard. The captain of the host 
Went from the tent-enclosure and his flag 
Was reared resplendent over him. Faghfur 
Of Chin, perceiving, hasted and made sweal 
His prancing steed, and questioned: 'Whence art 

Why haltest here ? I hear that thou hast fled 
From Pars as one who being wronged shed blood." 

Bahrain Chubina answered : " Cod Forbid 
That I should purpose vengeance on the Shah. 
I came forth Erom Baghdad with this array 
To fio-ht bv his command, Eor when the news 
About king Sawa and liis host reached court 
He said to me : ' Go forth and hold the road 
With arrows, maces, spears, and scimitars.' 

On hearing this Faghfur sped back to tell 
His sire how [natters stood. Being thus apprised, 
And grown suspicious. Sawa sought forthwith 
The envoy of the Shah but some one said : 
" Kharrad, son of Barzin, hath fled with tears 
Of blood at having come." 

" How could that foe," 

Said Sawa to his son, k * get clear aw;i\ 

At night from such a countless host as this, 

And wherefore have the guards been so remiss ? ' 



How King Sdiva sent a Message to Bahrdm Chiibina 
and his Answer 

He sent thereafter to Bahrain Chiibina 

A fluent elder, saying : '"Go and tell 

This Persian : ' Mar not out of foolishness 

Thy reputation here, for surely thou 

Must know this much — that that great king of thine 

Would have thy life and therefore sendeth thee 

To fight with one nigh peerless in the world. 

He said to thee : " Go forth and seize their road," C. 1816 

And thou unwillingly didst hear the words, 

For with my troops and elephants I trample 

A mountain if it cometh in my path. 5 

Bahrain Chiibina, hearing what he said, 
Smiled at that hasty trafficking and answered : — 
'' If my death be the world-lord's hidden purpose 
My duty is to do what pleaseth him 
Though earth shall take the measure of my height." 

The messenger, returning to king Sawa, 
Reported what he heard the warrior say, 
And Sawa said : " Go, tell the Persian thus : — 
' Why talk so much ? Why art thou in the field ? 
Ask what thou wilt of me.' " 

The messenger 
Went to Bahrain Chiibina and thus spake : — 
" Reveal thy purposes because my king- 
Is favoured by the stars and he would have 
Thee do his will."* 

Bahram Chubina said : — 
" Say : ' If thou wouldst do right act openly. 
If friendship with the monarch of the world 
Be secretly thy wish I will receive thee 

VOL. VIII. li 


On this march as a guest and pledge myself 

To grant thee thv desires. I will bestow 

On thy troops gold and silver, crowns and girdles 

Upon those worthy of them. I will send 

The Shah a cavalier that lie may come 

Half way to meet thee and. as equals do, 

Provide thee provand. If thou art a friend 

He will make much of thee, but if thou hast 

Come hither for contention, to the deep. 

And to the crocodile's maw, then thou shalt quit 

The desert of Harat in such a plight 

That all chiefs shall bewail thee. May a ditch 

Be at thv door on thv return, may blast 

• « • 

Pursue and rain companion thee, for naught 
But ill luck brought thee hither, being fain 
That ill befall thy head." '" 

The messenger 
Turned back, came like the wind, and gave the 

Of that aspirant. Hearing it king Sawa 
Was wroth with that stone-hearted opposite; 
His heart was straitened at thai chill response, 
And thinking of it tilled his cheeks with shame. 
He said : l * Go. take yon human div t lus message : — 
' Thou hast no fame in war : I would not slay thee. 
Such as thy Shah are servants at my court, 
And set by thee my meanest slaves arc chiefs. 
If thou shalt ask for quarter at my hands 
I will exalt thy head above the throng. 
Thou shalt have many gifts from me, and all 
Thy troops shall be enriched ; but one aspiring 
C. 1817 To valour looketh not to futile words 
And deeds of madness.' " 

That proud monarch's envoy 
Came to Bahram Chubina and delivered 
Those biting words which vet were what he wished. 


On hearing he informed the man : ' Thy lord 

Must hear my answer : ' If I am so mean 

That meanness covereth my head with shame, 

The king of kings for his part was ashamed 

To come out in his wrath to fight with thee. 

'Tis through my meanness that I have marched 

With troops to wreck the kindred of king Sawa. 
I will cut off his head and carry it 
Before the Shah ; it is not worth my while 
To stick it on my spear upon the road. 
For me to grant thee quarter would demean thee, 
But I will fall upon thee in my meanness. 
Thou shalt not see me save upon the day 
Of fight and followed by my dark-blue flag, 
Because if thou upon that dragon glance 
'Tis death ; thy head and helm shall sheath my 

lance.' " 


How King Sdiva and Bahrain Chubina set the Battle 
in Array against each other 

King Sawa's envoy, when he heard those words 
Of stern defiance, showed his back. He went, 
And told what he had heard and seen whereat 
The Turks' king's head breathed vengeance and he 

To bring the tymbals forth and to lead out 
The elephants high-crested to the plain. 
The realm was darkened with the dust of hoofs, 
The trumpets blared. Now when Bahram Chubina 
Heard that a host had come, and plains and vales 
Were yellow, red, and black, he bade his men 


Mount and rode forth in armour, mace in hand. 

Behind him lav Harat, before a host 

Of swordsmen. He drew up the wings. The troops 

Were as one heart and body. Thou hadst said : — 

" The world is all cuirass ; a star is shining 

On every spear."" 

Kino- Sawa viewed that field, 
Its order and array, perceived that while 
Bahrain Chubina rested fit Harat 
His own position was both cramped and ill. 
And thus addressed his horsemen, veterans, 
And intimates: * A lying messenger 
Came from the Persian Leader of the folk, 
And tarried till yon host had seized the city, 
And left me nothing but a brake of thorns ! 

He ranked his army in thai straitened place, 
The air was indigo and earth was hidden. 
Upon the right were two score thousand horsemen, 
Who used tWO-headed darts and wielded spears, 
With two score thousand on the left withal, 
All archers and engrossers of the fray, 
While two score thousand warriors formed the centre, 
Who carried spear or sword, and two score thousand 
He stationed in the rear; but many troops 
Were left unused for he was cramped for room. 
They placed the elephants before the line, 
As 'twere a wall, and barred the way in front. 
Thus circumstanced king Sawa's heart was grieved 
By reason of this straitening of his host. 
Thou wouldst have said : " His fortune hath fore- 
To him the presage of an empty throne." 



Row King Sdwa sent another Message to Bahrdm 
Chubina and his Ansiver 

Then from the champaign of Harat he sent 

Again a warrior of eloquence, 

A man all guileful, to Bahrain Chubina 

To say : " Thou hast not wedded heaven's own for- 
tune : 

Wilt thou not hear advice and such appeals ? 

Make friends with wisdom, open thine heart's eyes. 

Thou hast found two whose equals in the world 

Have never yet been born of royal race ; 

They shine like suns in heaven and all the year 

Are clad in mail, they are so valorous. 

One is myself, the lawful king of earth ; 

The other is my high-born son Parmuda. 

My troops are more than leaves upon the trees, 

Had some the skill to number them. If I 

Should reckon up my men and elephants 

Thou wouldest smile at rain-drops from Spring-clouds. 

There are tents, tent-enclosures, implements 

Of war beyond conception ; shouldst thou count 

Withal my steeds and men, my wastes and moun- 

Thou wouldest marvel. All the other kings, 

If worthy of such honour, are my lieges. 

If seas had life 1 and mountains feet to run 

They could not carry off my treasury, 

Arms, implements, and fruitage of my toils. 

The glorious Great, save for thy Persian lord, 

Throughout the world' acclaim me as their king, 

And thy life also lieth in my hands 

As well I know. If I lead on my troops C. 1819 

1 " Si l'eau de la mcr inondait la terre." Mohl. 


They will not let pass ant and gnat. Withal 

I have a thousand barded elephants 

AY hose scent affray eth horsemen. Who will come 

To face me from Iran and from Turan, 

And by such coming aggravate my toils ? 

From this place to the gates of Taisafun 

My powers extend, will stay, be amplified. 

Some one hath duped thee, O mine enemy ! 

Some one. perchance a madman, for thou lov'st not 

Thyself or else dissembles! since thine eye 

Discriminateth not 'twixt good and ill. 

How should such foolishness become the wise ? 

Cease this contention and present thyself 

Before me, and I will not keep thee waiting, 

But give to thee high office and mv daughter 

With worship and a crown. Thou shaft receive 

A lordship at our hands and suffer not 

The ills that subjects hear, and when the Shah 

Shall have been slain in fight, and when his crown 

And throne are mine, on thee will I bestow theni 

With all his treasure, diadem, and goods. 

Thence will I march on Rum and then the troops. 

The treasure and the laud, will all be thine. 

Thus have 1 spoken for thou pleasesl me, 

And wisely hast thou dealt with these affairs. 

Thou knowest the conduct and the art of war ; 

Thy sire and grandsire held command in chief, 

So what I say is not mere compliment 

But pity for thy sake who hast arrayed 

Thy puny force to fight with me to-day. 

Thou shalt receive no further messages 

If thou art retrograde to my desires."" 

The envoy spake, the chieftain heard and made 
A grim response : " O man of evil mark ! 
Among the magnates and the eminent 
None reverenceth a monarch profitless 


And wordy. From thy talk from first to last 

I have perceived thee confident in speech. 

The man whose day is ending seeketh prowess 

In words not deeds. I heard thy feckless parle, 

Yet my heart quaileth not for fear of harm. 

As for thy saying : ' I will slay the Shah, 

And give thee realm and throne,' a chief once said: — 

' If thou shaft drive a mendicant away 

From any town is he not sure to say : — 

" There I was lord ; the rest were 'neath my sway ? ' : 

In our affair there will not intervene 

Two days of sunlight ere I shall dispatch 

By this same token to the Shah thy head C. 1820 

Upon a spear. Again, for what thou saidest 

About thy daughter, treasure, troops, and realm, 

I should have thanked thee once and should have 

called thee 
A monarch of discernment thus to give, 

Without designs upon the Iranian throne, 

Thy daughter to me and with her dispatch 

A gorgeous throne and goods. Then thou hadst had 

Myself for friend within Iran, not fought 

Against its warriors ; but now my lance 

Is at thine ear and with my sword will I 

Behead thee, and when thou hast gone thy pate, 

Thy crown and treasure, are mine, and mine withal 

Thy daughter and the fruit of thy past toils. 

Thou saidest further : ' I have crowns and thrones 

With elephants and horsemen past compute.' 

A chief said, battling in the ranks of war : — 

' The longer water is denied a hound 

The greater will his eagerness be found/ 

The divs seduced thy heart so that thou earnest 

To fight the Shah and thou wilt writhe beneath 

God's chastisement and for thine evil deeds. 

Again, thou sayest : ' I have among my lieges 


Great men possessed of crowns and coronets. 

And all the cities of the world are mine.' 

The age herein is witness to thy words. 

To cities roads are open, lord and liege 

May tramp the marches, but if thou shall knock 

Upon a city-gate thy kingship there 

Will prove a brake of thorns. As Eor thine offer 

To pardon me — a craven in thine eyes — 

Thou wilt forgive me not when thou hast seen 

My spear and shalt not have me as a liege. 

As for thy troops, desires, and policy. 

Thy mighty elephants and throne, what time 

I rank mine army I account them naught, 

And care no jot for all thy warriors. 

Though thou art king thou utteresl such lies 

That thou wilt gain no glory in the world. 

For what thou saidesl : * I approve of thee, 

And would select thee as my general,' 

What I approve, since reaching mans estate, 

Is the approval of the king of kings. 

I have allowed the king three days and when 

The Glory of the Lustre of the world 

Shall show, the army in Iran shall see 

Thy head upon a spear before the Shah." 

The messenger returned with checks like gall, 
And fruitful, youthful fortune waxen old. 
He told king Sawa what the answer was, 
And at his words the monarch's visage loured. 
c l821 Said the Faghfiir : " What feebleness is this ? 
Yon little host should rather ask our tears." 

Then to the entry of the camp-enclosure 
He went and bade bring forth the Indian bells, 
Gongs, mighty elephants, and kettledrums, 
And make heaven ebon-hued. While that famed 

Prepared to fight the haughty monarch mused ; 


Then to his son : " Thou chosen of the troops ! 
Refrain from fighting till to-morrow morn." 

The troops withdrew on both sides and the watch 
Went from the tent-enclosures. In both hosts 
Thev kindled fires, and rumour filled all coasts. 

m] ' 


Hoiv Bahrdm Chiibina had a Dream in the Night, how 
he gave Battle the next Morning, and how King 
Sdiva was slain 

Now when Bahram Chiibina was alone 

Within his tent he sent and 1 called the Iranians, 

And with his troops took counsel for the fight 

Till dark, till Turk and Persian both reposed, 

And he that would might have the world for naught; 

But brave Bahram Chiibina still mused war, 

AVhile sleeping in his tent. That Lion dreamed 

That in the fight the Turks proved valorous, 

While his own troops were routed and himself, 

Debarred more strife, unsuccoured and afoot, 

Asked quarter of the heroes of the foe. 

He woke in grief, his noble head sore troubled, 

With pain and sorrow passed the hours of dark, 

Arrayed himself but told to none his dream. 

Just then arrived Kharrad, son of Barzin, 

W T ho had escaped king Sawa, and spake thus : — 2 

" What confidence is this ? Behold the snare 

Of Ahriman and give not to the winds 

Iranian lives but treat these nobles fairly ; 

For valour's sake take pity on thy life, 

For nevermore will such a task confront thee." 

' Thy city," said Bahram Chiibina, " yieldeth 
No valour save thy sample, for all there 

•Reading with P. 2 Two couplets omitted. 


Sell fish from Summer-time 1 till snow-storms come. 
Thy work is net and pond : thou art no man 
For spear and mace and arrow. When the sun 
Shall rise o'er yon dark mountains I will show thee 
How kings and soldiers fight. Thou shalt behold 
Those elephants and troops of his and all 
His fair presentment prostrate in the dust." 
When Sul arose from Leo, and the world 
Grew white as Ruman's lace, the trumpet sounded, 

The battle-cry went up, earth shook beneath 

The horses' hoot's. Bahrain Chubfna ranged 

His host and mounting grasped a war-worn mace. 

They furnished for the right three thousand men. 

All-cavaliers mail-clad and veteran. 

He sent an equal number to the left, 

All valiant, vengeful horsemen. On the righl 

I/.id Gashasp, who rode through rivers, led, 

And on the left Kamla Gashasp who worshipped 

The glorious Azargashasp. Yalan-sfna 

Supported them with troops ;is a reserve. 

Hamdan Gashasp was posted in the van, 

A man whose horse-shoes set the reeds ablaze. 

Wit 1 1 each there were three thousand warriors. 
All fighting cavaliers with hearts of stone. 
It was proclaimed : "' Yechiefswith golden crowns ! 
Whoe'er, though faced by lion or by paid. 
Shall flee the fight, by God ! I will behead him, 
And burn his useless carcase in the lire.' 

On each side of the host there was a road 
Whereby he 2 might retreat. On each he raised 
A bank ten cubits high. His own position 
Was at the centre, and to him there came 
The archscribe 3 of the king of kings and said : — 
l * This is beyond thy power and thus to mock 
At fortune cannot prosper. Of the troops 

' Tamuz. 2 Bahram Chubina.  .Mihran. See p. 10G. 


Upon this field we are the one white hair, 
Note, on a sable ox ! No soil or stream, 
Or hill is visible, so many are 
The swordsmen of Turan ! " 

Bahram Chubina 
Cried at him furiously : Ci Thou recreant wretch ! 
Thy business is with inkstand and with paper : 
Who bade thee take the number of the host ? " 

The scribe approached Khan-ad, son of Barzin, 
And said : " Bahram Chubina and the Div 
Are mates ! " 

Those scribes then sought a way to flee 
That they might not behold thai day of doom. 
They feared both king of kings and arrow-rain, 
And bit their lips. On one side and afar 
From those Turanian horsemen they beheld 
A height precipitous and thither fared 

A-tremble, saying : " We must watch the host." C. 1823 

They gazed upon Bahram Chubina's helm 
To see how he would fight when roused. That hero, 
When he had drawn his host up, left the field. 
And with loud outcries, prostrate in the dust 
Before his God, exclaimed : " O righteous Judge ! 
If in thy sight this conflict is unjust, 
And thou preferrest Sawa to myself, 
Give my heart rest in battle and to Sawa 
His whole desire upon the Iranians ; 
But if I undergo this toil for Thee, 
And risk my head in fight, make jubilant 
Me and my troops and by our combating 
The world all prosperous." 

Still praying loudly 
He mounted with his ox-head mace in hand. 1 

King Sawa thus addressed his host : " Begin 
Your incantations that the Iranians 

1 Two couplets omitted. 


May quail in heart and eye, and no disaster 
Befall yourselves." 

Then all the sorcerers 
Began their spells and hurled fire through the air. 1 
Rose blast and murky cloud whence arrows showered 
Upon the Iranians. Bahrain Chubina 
Exclaimed : * Chiefs, magnates of Iran, and heroes ! 
Shut ye your eyes to all these magic arts, 
And come all wroth to fight, for this is naught 
But trick and sorcery, and they that use 
Such means demand our tears."' 

The Iranians shouted, 
And girt their loins for bloodshed, while king Sawa 
Surveyed the held, saw that the foe recoiled not 
At those black arts but came on all the more, 
Led by Bahrain Chubfna, and assailed, 
Like wolf a Lamb, their left, brake it and charged, 
Like one bemused. Bahrain Chhbina's centre. 
Who thence s;i\v how his soldiers lied the foe, 
Came, with his spear unhorsed three warriors, 
And dashed them headlong to the ground, exclaim- 
ing :— 
" This is the way to fight, this is the mode, 
And how to do it ! Are ye not ashamed 
Before the Lord of earth, the glorious chiefs. 
And nobles ? " 

Then he made toward the right, 
As 'twere a lusty lion famishing, 
And brake the mighty force opposed to him, 
So that their leader's banner disappeared. 
Thence he departed to his army's centre, 
To where the leader was among the troops, 
And said to him : ' Perdition take it all ! 
If this fight last the host will be dispersed ! 
Look out in what direction to retreat." 

1 Three couplets omitted. 


They went and sought ; there was not any way 
Because the proper road was mounded over. 
Then to that leader said Bahrain Chubina : — 
" There is an iron wall in front of us, 
And only he that knoweth how to make 
A breach therein can gain the other side, 
Safe-guard himself and carry to Iran, 
And to the monarch of the brave, his life. 
All put your whole heart in it, shield your heads, 
And ply your swords. It sleepless fortune help us 
It will repay our toils with thrones and crowns. 
Let none despair of God or ye may see 
Your white day turn to gloom." 

King Sawa thus 
Harangued his chiefs : " Advance the elephants 
Before the host, attack in force, and make 
The world both dark and narrow to our foes." 

Bahrain Chubina from afar beheld 
The elephants, was grieved, unsheathed his sword, 
And thus addressed his captains : " Warriors famed \ 
String up your bows of Chach and helm ye all. 
Now by the life and head of this world's king, 
The chosen of the lords and crown of chiefs, 
Let every one that hath artillery 
String up his bow perforce and let him fix 
His arrows, fashioned out of triple wood, 
Whose points are keen for blood, upon the trunks 
Of yonder elephants, then out with mace, 
On to the fight, and slay vour enemies." 

The chieftain strung his bow and set a casque 
Of steel upon his head. He made his bow 
As 'twere a cloud in Spring and showered arrows 
Before the host : the soldiers followed him. 
The stars were dimmed by pointed, feathered shafts. 
They pierced the elephants' trunks, and dale and 


Grew like a pool of blood. The elephants 
Turned from the smart and fled the battlefield. 
Now when the elephants were smitten thus 
They t rampled their own troops. The Iranian host 
Came on behind and earth grew like the Nile. 
All was confusion ; many died ; ill fortune 
Had all its will of them. There was a spot, 
A pleasant place, behind that stricken host 
Where, on a golden throne, fierce Sawa sat. 
He saw his army like an iron mountain 
In flight with heads all dust and souls all -loom. 
While from behind enormous elephants 
Beyond control were trampling down the troops. 
He wept tor wherefore should his army flee ? 
And mounting his bay Arab lied himself 
In dire dismay. Bahrain Chubma came 
Pursuing like ail elephant run mad. 
A lasso on his .inn. ;1 bow in hand. 
And shouted I,, his troops : " Illustrious men ! 
Ill fate hath marked them out. 1 Bain swords on 

And quil you in the fight like cavaliers." 

He reached the hill where erst king Sawa sat 
Crowned on a throne of gold, beheld him thence 
Upon bis mighty lion of an Arab, 
And sped forth like a tiger o'er the waste. 
He chose an arrow with a glittering point, 
Plumed with four eagle's feathers, took in hand 
His bow of Chach and laid the deer-hide thong 
Within his thumb-stall, straightened his left arm, 
And bent his right. The bow twanged as he loosed 
The shaft and pierced king Sawa's spine, who came 
Down headlong to the dust ; the ground beneath him 
Was soaked with blood. Of that great host the king 
Bediademed was gone, gone golden throne, 

1 Couplet omitted. 


And golden crown. 

Such deeds the turning sky 
Doth, showing neither love nor enmity. 
Joy not in lofty throne and greatly fear, 
What time thou feel'st secure, disaster near. 

The brave Bahram Chubina came and dragged 
The corpse face downward wallowing in the dust, 
And severed that crowned head while none of all 
Its kindred came anear. When the Turks found 
Their king the corpse lay headless on the road. 
All wailed ; cries filled the earth : the air resounded, 
And he that was the son of Sawa said : — 
" This is God's doing, for unsleeping fortune 
Is with Bahram Chubina." 

Multitudes C. 1S26 

Died in the strait defiles. The elephants 
Trod many under foot ; not one in ten 
Of all that host escaped. They perished crushed 
Beneath the elephants or were beheaded 
Upon the battlefield, and when nine hours 
Of that ill day had gone the Iranians saw- 
No enemy alive save prisoners bound, 
Their souls and bodies pierced with grief and shafts. 
The route was strewn with bards and helms whose 

Were suffocate therein, 1 with Indian swords, 
With arrows and with bows dropped by the foe 
On all sides. Earth was like a sea of blood 
With slain, and everywhere were saddled steeds. 

Bahram Chubina went his rounds to learn 
Who had been slain upon the Iranian side ; 
Then said he to Kharrad, son of Barzin : — 
" Give me thine aid to-day and ascertain 
What slain Iranians it is ours to mourn." 

1 " de casques qui n'avaient pas garanti ce jour-la les tetcs contre 

la mort." Mohl. 


He went through all the tents. One man of wor- 
Was missing in the host — a chieftain named 
Bahrain, who was the son of Sivawush, 
A valiant prince, a magnate of Iran. 
Descended from a captain of the host. 
Like one insane Kharrad went forth in quest 
Of traces of him, moving many a form 
Of slain and wounded men but found no sign. 
The captain of the host was grieved thereat. 
And cried : "Alas! thon prudent warrior!" 

Howbeit the man himself appeared anon. 
A key to that locked door, and with a Turk 
Red-haired, cat-eyed, and. as thou \\<>uldst have said, 
With heart all wrung with rage. Bahrain Chubfna 
Cried when he saw Bahrain : " Ne'er be it thine 
To wed the dust ! " then of that foul Turk asked: — 
4 thou hell-\ isaged, banned from Paradise! 
What man art thou ? What is thy name and birth, 
For she who bare thee will have cause to weep ? ' 

He said : ' A warlock I. I meddle not 
With manhood and with manliness but help 
My chief in battle when things reach a pass. 
And make him dream of what will hearten him. 
I gave thee that ill dream last nighl t<> bring 
111 on thy head, but I must seek lor means 
More potent 1 for my sorcery hath tailed. 
Ill-fortune hath recoiled upon my head, 
And all my toil is wedded to the wind. 
If I get quarter from thee thou hast gained 
An all-accomplished friend." 

On hearing this 
Bahram Chubina mused, his heart was troubled, 
His visage wan. Anon he said : " This man 
Might prove of service in the stress of fight," 

1 Reading with P. 


But said again : " What did king Sawa profit 
Through this dark-dealing warlock ? All good things 
Descend from God on fortune's favourites," 
Then bade cut off his head and robbed of life 
His feckless form, which done Bahram Chubina 
Stood up and said : " O just and upright Judge I 
From Thee are greatness, victory, the Glory, 
High place, the diadem of king of kings, 
Distress and joy. Blest is the warrior 
That followethThy way." 

The archscribe came, 
And spake thus : " Valiant Faridiin, Bahrain, 1 
And Nushirwan ne'er saw one like to thee, 
O lusty paladin ! Possessed art thou 
Of lion's courage, counsel, and device. 
May no calamitv befall thy life. 
Through thee the cities of Iran all live, 
And all the paladins are but thy slaves. 
Through thee the exalted throne hath been exalted, 
And every liege escaped mishap. Thou art 
A chieftain and a chieftain's son, and blest 
Is she that brought forth such a child, for thou 
Art glorious by birth and enterprise, 
A kinff all absolute in Grace and wisdom.'" 

Then the Shah's paladins and men of might 
Dispersed themselves and left the scene of tight. 


How Bahram Chubina sent a Letter announcing his 
Victory, and the Head of King Sdwa, to Hur- 
muzd, and his Answer 

When night had curled its locks and sent thereby 
The eye to sleep, and when the Ebon Veil 

1 Bahram Gur probably is meant. 


Appeared, the world had respite from the drum. 
Meanwhile the wheel of heaven turned apace 
In view of darksome night and hurried on 
Till from the deep a Golden Vessel rose, 
And travail waxed and slumber fined away. 
Then came the captain of the host and sent 
Some one to bid his comrades good at need : — 
" All those that have been slain among the chiefs, 
War-cavaliers and captains of the Turks, 
Each leader of the folk, behead and set 
C. 1828 Behind the heads of all of them that were 
Those warriors' diadem a daunting Hag.'" 

He had the captives and the heads collected, 
And carried from the field, then called a scribe 
And spake at large of that famed, countless host, 
The movements and the day's vicissitudes. 
The battle and 1 the divers stratagems 
That he had used against so vast a foe, 
The toils and fighting of the Iranians, 
And how no horsemen loosed his belt all day. 
When he had written to the Shah he chose 
A courier from the troops, first put upon 
A lance the head of Sawa, then bade bear 
The standard of that monarch and the heads 
Of those chiefs of Turan and cavaliers 
Of Chin withal upon a dromedary 
With all speed to the Shah. The prisoners, 
And whatsoever spoil there was he kept 
Intact within Harat until the king 
Should make his pleasure known. He sent withal 
Experienced horsemen to escort the heads, 
And to obtain permission from the Shah 
To march against Parmiida with the host. 
The dromedary started, and a guide 
Led on the cavaliers who toiled and trod 

1 Reading with P. 


The way that quickly they might see the Shah, 
And greet him from the paladin and chiefs. 

Upon their side the Turks all destitute 
Went horseless, weaponless, and baggageless, 
And both their cavaliers and those of Chin 
Returned toward Tiiran. Now when the news 
Came to Parmuda he put off his crown, 
While from the Turks arose a grievous wail ; 
The day was bitter for those chiefs ; all heads 
Were full of dust, all eyes of tears, and none 
Ate or reposed or slumbered. Then he summoned 
The warriors and, weeping his heart's blood, 
Inquired of them : " Why did that countless host 
Prove impotent upon the day of battle ? ' 

A counsellor replied : tk We held the foe 
To be but weak, but none will see in time 
Of action such another cavalier 
As brave Bahram Chubina. Not one man 
For every century of ours had he, 
Yet not a youth of his brave troops was wounded, 
For God directed him ! I might say more, 
But thou hast heard enough." 

On this Parmuda 
Reflected on Bahram Chubina' s deeds, 

Was wroth, turned pale of cheek, and was resolved c. 1829 

In his distress of heart to battle on. 
A hundred thousand of the host remained — 
All men of name and ready for the fray. 
He led his army plain-ward from the camp 
Toward the Jihiin in order to avenge 
His noble father on Bahram Chubina. 

What time the letter of that paladin 
Came to the Shah of ardent soul that world-lord 
Was sitting on his throne and holding forth 
Concerning his own fortune to the court : — 
" Strange ! that no tidings of Bahrain Chubina 


Have reached our court ! What say ye, and hence- 
What shall we do ? We must advise thereon." 

Now as he spake the words the chamberlain 
Came from the gate and brought the king of kings 
The glad news ; " May the Shah rejoice lor ever ! 
Bahrain Chubina hath prevailed o'er Sawa, 
And grown the lustre of the world in fight." 

At once the Shah called in the messenger 
Senl by Bahrain Chubina, seating him 
Above the nobles present, and inquired 
Concerning host and paladin and those 
Illustrious and glorious warriors. 
The messenger replied : " Exalted Shah ! 
The battle wenl as thou didst wish. Mayst thou 
Live ever happily and joyously. 
For thy toe's fortune hath grown old. The heads 
Both of king Sawa and his younger son 

Him whom his lather used to call Faghfiir 

Are at thy gate on spears — a sighj tor all 
The city." 

Hearing this, t he king <>l' kings 
Rose, quickl) bowed, and standing in God's presence 
Said: "0 Thou righteous Guide ! Thou hast des- 
Our foes, Thou Fashioner of sun and moon ! 
Great was my wretchedness and my despair 
What time the foe came headlong from his throne ! 
'Twas neither chieftain nor the warrior-host 
That did this, but God's goodness to His slave." 

Then from the treasures that his sire had hit 
He had a hundred thousand drachms brought forth, 
With one third first gave largess to the poor. 
But the more part to his own servitors, 
And sent the Fanes of Fire another third, 
There to be given over to the priests 


To grace the Feasts of New Year and of Sada. 

With what was left men sought out and repaired 

The ruined sites and caravansaries 

In desert places, rendering the roads 

Secure and easy. He remitted imposts c. 1830 

For four years to the poor, and subject kings, 

And then had letters written to each province, 

To all the nobles, thus : " Bahrain Chubina 

Hath triumphed o'er the foe and with his sword 

Cut off king Sawa's head." 

The Shah next passed 
Two weeks in prayer : then when the world's light 

He called the envoy of the paladin, 
And seated him rejoicing 'mongst the lords ; 
Then wrote an answer instantly and set 
A tree within the garth of majesty. 
Sent too a silver throne and golden boots. 
And wealth of all sorts. All that lay between 
Haital and the great river 1 he bestowed 
On that bold paladin 2 and bade : " Distribute 
Spoil ta'en on way and waste among the troops 
Except king Sawa's private property ; 
Let that be sent to court. This done, make war 
Upon Parmuda till he is o'erthrown." 

Hurmu/.d sent gifts too to the Iranians, 
Confirmed by letters written to each city. 
They gave the messenger a robe of honour. 
And called thereafter for the nobles' steeds. 
Bahrain Chubina, when the envoy came, 
Joyed well content and gave the troops much booty. 
Except the wealth pertaining to king Sawa, 
The impure of heart; this he dispatched with horse- 
Famed veterans of his kin, who bore it all 

1 The Oxus. » Reading with P. 


To court what while the chieftain went his way. 
He and his army, to renew the frav. 


How Bahrdm Chiibina fought with Parmuda, Son of 
King Sdwa, and overcame him, and how Parmu'da 

took Refuge in the Hold of Awdza 

Parmuda, when news came " Bahrain Chubina 
Is seeking for the throne of empire," held 
A stronghold highl Awaza where he joyed 
Secure. Therein he stored whate'er he had 
Of money, jewels, and <>f other treasures, 
And passing with his army o'er Jihun 
Proceeded proudly to the scat of war. 
The hosts drew near for hat tic. dallying not 
Upon the march, and chose a fitting held 
Two Stages Out of Balkh. Between the hosts 

Two leagues of plain lay suitable for fight. 
The next day brave Bahram Chubina went 
To view Parmnda's warriors. Parmuda 
Looked, saw him, and chose out upon th< waste 
A steep height and there ranged his host until 
The plain was full. Thence he beheld a power, 
Whose aspect dazed the desert, and in front 
Bahram Chubina with his warlike head 
Exalted to the sky, was grieved and spake, 
Addressing his own troops : " A mighty lion 
Is fitting mate for this protagonist ! 
One cannot see the sum of his array, 
But would not care to fight with them. The leader 
Is proud and fierce. The dark dust under him 
Will turn to blood. At night, when it is dark, 
Make we a camisade and banish care 


And terror from our hearts."' 

Now when Parmuda 
Returned to camp he canvassed schemes for fight, 
And said : " It is an excellence of theirs 
That though their troops are few their horse are 

And in the chief degree of warriors, 
Well armed, and have for chief Bahrain Chubina, 
A man to whom spears are as thorns and weeds, 
With heart elate at conquering king Sawa, 
And drunk with gore ; vet by the Maker's aid 
I will require from that huge Mountain-mass 
The vengeance owing for my father's blood." 

Now when Bahrain C'hubina left Iran 
To fight the Turks a reader of the stars 
Said : " Stir not on the Wednesday of each week, 
Or harm will follow, and thy whole emprise 
Prove profitless." 

Between the hosts there lay 
A garden bordered by the battlefield, 
And on the Wednesday of the week at dawn 
Bahram Chubina thither went and said :— 
- We will be glad to-day." 

They carried thither 
Rich carpetings ; he took wine, meat, and minstrels, 
And coming to that garden revelled there. 
Now when a watch of darksome night had passed 
The outposts brought Parmuda the report : — 
" Bahram Chubina revelleth in the garden." 

The chieftain chose among his warriors 
Six thousand cavaliers, all valiant men, 
And sent them forth without lights to surround 
The garth and take the Iranian chiefs. Now when 
Bahrain Chubina was aware thereof, 
And of the plan and purpose of Parmuda. 
He thus addressed Yalan-sina : lt chieftain ! 


Break us a passage through the garden-wall." 

Bahrain Chubina and fzid Gashasp, 
With other warriors, mounted on their steeds. 
1832 They issued from the breach ; -who knoweth how 
Those warriors issued ? At the garden-gate 
Arose the clarion-blare : the chieftain charged. 
They quickly made a second breach and smote 
The foe. Bahrain Chubina, dart in hand, 
And half bemused, assailed them. Few escaped him. 
So eager was his drunken la-ad for blood ! 
As when smiths* hammers meet the steel so rang 
The chieftains' blows, and trunkless heads were 

Between the garth and king Parmuda's camp. 

Now when Bahrain Chubina had returned 
To his own camp he planned a camisade, 
And, midnight past, girt up his loins and led 
His powers against the foe. Among the Turks 
There was no scout that saw him. When he reache d 
His fighting-ground the blare of trumpets rose. 
Boused in the darkness by the clarions' din 
The warrior Turks leaped up. and such a shoul 
As would have split a mighty lions ears. 
Ascended. 1 None knew who another was 
Amid the lengthy lances and the gloom. 
The Iranians made their swords Hash fire and set 
The earth and air ablaze. Of those brave Turks 
But few were left ; the stones were coralline 
With blood. Like flying dust the leader fled, 
Dry-mouthed and livid-lipped, and thus it was 
Till dawai began to breathe and sombre night 
Drew in its skirts, and then the Iranian chief 
O'ertook the foe and roaring like a lion 
Cried to Parmuda : " O thou runaway ! 
Mix not henceforth with warriors. Thou'rt no man 

1 Couplet omitted. 


Of battle but a very child : 'tis fit 
Thou suck thy mother's milk." 

The king replied :— 
" How long, O ravening lion ! wilt thou be 
Thus keen for bloodshed ? Crocodiles in water, 
And pards on land, grow satiate with the blood 
Of heroes in the fight. Will naught sate thee ? 
Methinketh that thou art a ravening lion, 
Thou who hast stricken ofT king Sawa's head — 
A man beloved through life by circling heaven — 
And slaughtered so his troops that sun and moon 
Feel ruth for them, while as for me who am 
That valiant king's memorial, know that thou 
Hast slain me too with sheer distress. We all 
Are mother-born for death and have surrendered C. 1833 

Our necks thereto since remedy is none. 1 
I flee ; thou followest but wilt not take me 
Till my time come. If sword in hand I turn 
Upon thee either of us may be slain. 
Be not so hasty and so hot of head, 
For that becometh neither chief nor host. 
Now will I fare to mine own tent and there 
Seek to retrace my steps. I will indite 
A letter to the king in fashion such 
As fortune maketh needful, and if he 
Accept me and protect me from attack 
I will become a bondslave at his court, 
And wholly banish lordship from my heart. 
Put from thee war and strife. Thou earnest to 
fight ; 
Now feast in all good will." 

Bahrain Chubina, 
On hearing this, turned back, for that curst foe 
Had grown so gracious. When the troops had 

1 Couplet omitted. 


And come to king Parmiida's camp, they fared 
About the field, cut off the chieftains* heads. 
And heaped them till the pile grew mountain-like : 
The hero's men of name called it Bahrain Tal. 1 
Whate'er they saw of horsemen's equipage, 
And other booty, they assembled there. 

Bahram Chiibina wrote the kino- a letter 
About Parmuda and his countless host, 
Narrating "all that hath befallen us 
Both from the Turks and from their warlike king, 
Whose heart was eager t<> avenge his sire. 
And who departed to Awa/.a hence.'" 

Parmuda, on his side, made last the hold. 
And sat down deep in thought, while in pursuit 
Came countless troops and circled it about : 
But though so many leaguered it none knew 
Parmiida's plans. Bahram Chiibina said :— 
"• The toils of war are better than delay, 
And so he told Yal-an-sina to choose 
Three thousand of the horsemen on the field, 
And further that f/.id Gashasp should call 
To horse four thousand warriors of the troops. 
He bade behead forthwith all whom they found, 
Thus haply from the hold the king to draw 
When all the waste a-stream with blood he saw. 


How Bahram Chiibina sent a Message to Parmtida 
and how Parmuda asked Quarter 

C. 1S34 Bahram Chiibina stayed before the hold 

Three days but sent at sun-rise on the fourth 


1 Tal is a heap or mound. 


This message to Parmiida as the chief 

Both of the realm and race : ' noble king 

Of Chin and of the Turks ! why hast thou chosen 

To occupy this stronghold ? Where are now 

King Sawa's passion to possess the world, 

And all his treasure, power, and elephants, 

His armour for the steeds and ardent chiefs ? 

Where are thy witchcraft and thy sorcery 

That now thou dost seclude thyself ? Time was 

When all the Turks'domain was not enough 

For thee, thy father peerless in the world. 

Now womanlike thou sittest in this hold, 

With full heart, beating thine own head. Undo 

The castle-gate, seek quarter, ask of me 

To plead for thee before my king. Dispatch 

Thy treasures of dinars and all thy purses 

From this hold plain-ward or if thou keep them 

Keep not the realm for kings despise dinars. 

Myself will intercede for thee at court 

Because I am the champion of Iran ; 

Thee will I make chief of all chiefs and treat thee 

Above thine aims and thine imaginings. 

Now if thou hast some hidden policy, 

One that will make thy gloomy prospects bright, 

Confide in me ; since thine affairs are thus 

Be not thou distant. I have given thee quarter, 

As thou dost know, and opened thee a way 

To scape by, else thou hadst been lifeless now, 

As is thy sire, and seen not son or kindred : 

But if thou hast companions for the fight, 

With treasure and abundance of dinars, 

Exert thyself herein and take revenge, 

For troops are not to seek where there is treasure." 

The messenger arriving told his message, 
Which when Parmiida, the ambitious, heard 
He answered : " Say : ' If so thou canst forbear 


To search out this world's secrets. Thou perchance 
Hast made too bold therewith because thy toils 
Have brought forth fruit ; yet in thy victory 
Joy not ; though thou art young the world is old. 
The secret of the turning sky is known 
To none : it never showeth us its lace. 
To mock beconicth not a general. 
I too had soldiers, elephants, and drums, 
l8 35 But heaven above is practised in deceit. 
So couple not thy heart with arrogance. 
My sin-, the world-lord, that discerning man. 
Whom thou behcldest on the day of fight, 
Had earth as bondslave of his horse's hoots. 
And heaven revolved according to his will ; 
Vet sought he what it was not his to seek. 
And tinned not from his wrongful purposes. 
His prowess is o'erlaid by ridicule. 
And enemies bemock him from alar. 
As for the saying that thv host exceedeth 
The revolutions of the sun and moon 
In sum. and that thy steeds and elephants 

Seem grass-seeds scattered by a wind-mill's sails, 

All that will pass away and thou withal 

Wilt cease to joy and to illume the world. 

Fear sharp fate's vengeance yet ; l it may infuse 

Some of its bane in this thine antidote. 

When one hath made a trade of shedding blood, 

And harassing the hearts of enemies, 

Men will shed his blood also by the token 

That he hath shed the blood of other chiefs. 

Wreck though thou mayst the com dry of the Turks 

Still in the end they will exact revenge. 

If I shall come to thee forthwith I fear 

That thou wilt make an end of me. Thou art 

A slave ; I am a king. Shall I abase me 

1 " Crains le sort, qui seme la vengeance." Mohl. 


Before a thrall ? I will not come to battle 
Without a host or those that wish me well 
Will call me mad ; but it is no disgrace 
For me to ask for quarter from thy Shah 
In mine extremity. When that is done 
The hold, the treasure, and the men are thine ; 
Thy wishes will be law in this famed land.' 
The messenger returned with this reply : 
Bahrain Chubina was rejoiced thereby. 


How Bahrain Chubina asked of Hurmuzd a Warrant 
to spare the Life of ParmUda and th> Answer 

They wrote a letter that might bear good fruit 

To that victorious and exalted Shah :— 

" The Khan of Chin is suppliant for quarter ; 

He is beleaguered by Bahrain Chubina, 

And needeth a safe-conduct under seal ; 

The news thereof will be a feast to him. 

Now since the suppliant is the Khan of Chin, 

Fall'n from such dignity to wretchedness. 

The king of kings should pity one whose worship 

Hath passed away."" 

Now when the letter reached 
The Shah he cloudward raised his glorious crown. 
He sent and summoned the Iranians, 
And set them by the famous throne of kingship, 
Bade read the letter and strew gems upon C. 1836 

The reader, saving : "I thank my God and praise 

Three watches of the night in that the Khan 
Of Chin is now our subject and high heaven 


Our crown. He raised his head to touch the sky. 

And thought himself the monarch of the world ; 

But now this leader who attacked our coasts 

Is made the slave of one still mightier, 

And so the Turks' chief and the prince of Chin 

Is offering his homage unto us. 

Praise to the Ruler of the sun and moon. 

The Source of this supremacy of ours. 1 

Do ye too ofTer praise to God and he 

More instant in the practice of all good." 

He called the envoj of the paladin, 
Gave him a long and gracious interview, 
Called for a girdle set with royal gems, 
A kingly robe of honour and a steed 
With trappings decked with gold and every buckle 
Bejewelled. To the messenger withal 
He gave dinars, a purse, and much beside 
To be a presenl to thai prudent man, 2 
Whom he held chid' among the paladins, 
Bade come a scribe and had a letter written 
On silk : " Parmuda Khan is mine ally. 
And in all regions under my protection. 
God is the witness t<> this deed and seal ; 
His slaves are we and He is Lord." 

lie wrote 
An answer also to that world-aspirant, 3 
A letter all good will like Paradise, 
And said : " k Dispatch Parmuda to my court 
With all observance but without his host. 
The booty that thou tookest from his troops — 
A service which thou didst right zealously — 
Send thither too, whate'er of it is worthy. 
The Maker aideth thee. Spy out the foe, 
And if he hath a stronghold let thy guards 
Seize and consume it through thy glorious fortune, 
1 Couplet omitted. 2 Bahrain Chiibina. 3 Id. 


And world-illuming presages. If thou 

Hast need of further troops they shall be thine, 

And there shall be addition to thy treasures. 

State thy demands in writing ; we will send 

Whatever troops are needed. In thy letter 

Name those Iranians that have acted well 

In thine esteem ; their toils shall be rewarded. 

Thy troops the guardians of the march shall be ; 

The crown of paladins I give to thee." 


How Hurmuzd's Letter granting Quarter to Parmuda 
reached Bahrain Chubina, and how Bahrain 
Chubina ivas wroth with Parmuda 

Now when this letter reached the paladin C. 1S37 

That famous chieftain's heart grew young ; the 

Astounded him. He sent and called the Iranians, 
And showed the Shah's gifts ; all that saw them 

blessed him. 
He showed the Iranians too all that Hurmuzd 
Had written of them. The warriors acclaimed ; 
Thou wouldst have said : " Earth's surface shook." 

He sent too 
The honourable safe-conduct for Parmuda, 
Giv'n by the monarch, to the hold to him ; 
His darkened soul grew bright. With many blessings 
Upon the king he left his famous fortress, 
And leaving to Bahrain Chubina all 
The wealth therein made ready to depart. 
Descending from the hold the proud Parmuda 
Bestrode his charger swift as flying dust, 


And set forth with his troops without regard 
To bold Bahrain Chubina who chagrined 

Thereat, and though his captive was a king, 
Sent after hi in and had him brought afoot. 
And running in the presence of the troops ; 
Then said to him indignantly : " Arc such 
Your manners in Turan and Chin — to go 
Without leave asked of me ? Sheer folly this ! 

Parmuda said : "Once I was raised o'er folk, 
But now am humbled and a suppliant. 
Cast vilely from the zenith of my power. 
To-day withal thou arl not generous 
In bringing me before thee, evil one ! 
Now that I have the letter of safe-condud 
I purpose going to the king. Perchance 
lie will receive me brother-like; misfortune 
May grow more light to me. What wouldst thou 

more ? 
I have surrendered fortune, home, and goods."* 

Bahrain Chubina raged with dashing eyes 
In indignation at Parmiida's words. 
And struck him in excitement with a whip — 
Behaviour only lit for miscreants. 
They bound Parmiida's feet forthwith and made 
A scanty tent his prison. Said thereat 
1838 Kharrad, son of Bar/in : ' This paladin 
And wisdom are not mates ! " 

He sought the archscribe, 
And said : " This mighty paladin possesseth 
Not one gnat's wing of wisdom I 1 so he taketh 
No heed of any one, and we must go, 
And say to him : ' This is remediless.' 
His temper is his great calamity." 

The two departed to Bahrain Chubina 
With pallid cheeks and counsel on their tongues, 

1 Reading with P. 


And told him : " Thou hast given to the winds 
Thy toil ! Oh ! be that noble head of thine 
Unfilled with fire ! " 

Ware of his foul behaviour, 
That into water had been fluno- a brick 
Already dried, he in his penitence 
Released the Khan and was in great concern. 
He sent the Khan a steed with golden trappings, 
And Indian falchion with a golden scabbard, 
Moreover went forthwith to him to make 
His dark soul bright, there tarried till the Khan 
Had armed and mounted on a speedy steed, 
And then escorted him upon his way, 
Perceiving that the prince's visage loured. 
When it was time to part Bahrain Chubina 
Told him : " Thou hast a secret grudge against me ; 
Yet, though it be so, tell it not the Shah ; 
No credit will result to thee therefrom."' 

The Khan replied to him : " It is of fortune 
That I complain ; I leave it all to God. 
I am not such an one as would desire 
To speak in many words of other men ; 
Still if thy monarch hath no news hereof 
He is not worthy of his high estate. 
It was the turning sky that fettered me ; 
I tell not of ill usage from a slave." 

Thereat Bahrain Chubina paled ; he writhed, 
But with an effort swallowed down his wrath, 
And thus returned reply : " An instance this 
Of what the famous nobles used to say : — 
' Forbear thine utmost seed of ill to cast, 
For time will give thee fruit thereof at last.' 1 
To what end did I deck for thee my heart* 
Attempt to do thee kindness in the world. 
And wrote its lord a letter hiding all 

1 Couplet omitted. 



Thine own shortcomings ? ' 

"That,"" t he Khan rejoined. 
" Is past, and all the past hath turned to wind. 
By God ! I do not owe thee any grudge, 
Or cherish in my heart the former strife. 
Thy kindness hath been greater than this wrong, 
And thou didst guide me on the way to good ; 
But just as there is insolence in war. 
So is there courtesy in time of pence. 
* 8 39 And if the two are all the same t<> thee 
Thy wisdom out of question is but small. 
And when a leader is too wise to take 
His lord's commands then evil will befall him. 
Moreover one should tread God's path and purge 
All darkness from the heart. 'Twere well For thee 
To say no more for past ill is bul wind." 
On hearing this Bahram Chubfna said: 


1 Methoughl 'twould out. hut no mishap will come 
Of thy complaint for I will hide it up 
With painted silk. On thine arrival say 
Whate'er thou wilt ; "twill minish not my lustre." 

The Khan said : " Every king that taketh not 
Account of good and ill, bul passetb over 
His slave's misdeeds in silence, be assured 
Is witless, and when malcontents afar 
Allies or other kings observe this thing 
They will term thee unseemly and light-headed, 
And him the foolish monarch of Iran/' 

Bahram Chubina paled, and when Kharrad, 
Son of Barzin, had taken note thereof 
He feared that wrathful and bloodthirsty man 
Would hurl Parmuda from his steed to dust. 
And said : " O general of the Shah ! repress 
Thy wrath and quit that path because the Khan 
Saith well, so list to him and think no ill, 
For had cool words ne'er passed the hearts of neither 


Would have been pained." 

" This ill-conditioned one," 
Bahrain Chubina said. " would join his sire." 

The Khan said : " Wrong me not. Reft as I am 
Of mine own father I may well die young. 
All those that in the world are like thyself, 
With heads all dust-cloud and with hearts all fume. 
Imagine ill, accord to none, but raise 
Themselves bv craft and cruelty. I fear not 
The king of kings ; from him bale or relief 
Is well. He is my peer among the great . 
And not a slave malignantly disposed 
Towards me, but is gentle, wise, high-born, 
And greatly mindful of the men of name. 
1 charge thee by the soul and by the head 
Of Shah Hurmuzd that thou return forthwith. 
Give me no more replies and insolence ; 
Say naught and hear naught." 

When Bahrain Chubina 
Heard he returned to camp in vengeful mood, 
And thus that proven warrior harangued 
The prudent chiefs : " Kharrad, son of Barzin, 
And those wise men, the archscribe ami arch- 
Shall write a letter to the world's king, telling C. 1840 

All that hath passed in public and in private." 

The general said further to the chief 
And other archimages : " Men of wisdom ! 
Depart hence to the hold, be diligent, 
Companion with the wind and ascertain 
What quantity of wealth is hoarded there." 

With fearful hearts the scribes set forth. From 
Until three watches of the night had passed 
They blacked much paper but they had not done. 
There was not room to move for precious things, 


Hoards of the era of Afrasiyab, 

And of Ar j asp, so ancient yet unspent. 

Gold coins and jewels won from sea and mine 

liv favour of the sky : such were the treasures 

Within Awaza hold world-famous Mien. 

Anion" the goods of Siyawush came first 

A belt with jewelled buckles and such earrings 

As no one high or low besides possessed. 

Which Kai Khusrau had given Luhrasp and he 

Thereafter gave them to Gush t asp. Arjasp 

(.at them and stored them there, none knoweth 

\\ hen. 

They wrote a list oi all the precious things 

That were laid up within the treasury, 

But no one in the world, astrologer, 

Or noble prince had knowledge of the sum. 

Bahram Chubina scut a scribe, a man 

Shrewd, eloquent, and mindful, who collected 

The booty from the hold and battlefield. 

There were a pair of earrings in the spoil. 

And pair of boots with patterns formed by gems ; 

The stuff was interwoven with gold threads 

Bestrung with precious stones. There were withal 

Two gold-embroidered curtains from Yaman, 

Whereof each one was seven mans 1 in weight. 

Now through presumption and perversity 

The captain of the host, contemplating 

No scrutiny, put secretly aside 

The pairs of boots and curtains of Yaman, 

And made no entrv of them in his list. 

He then gave orders to Izid Gashasp 

That he and all his cavaliers should mount, 

Select a thousand warriors from the host, 

And take the booty to the monarch's gate. 

The warriors having mounted on their steeds, 
i See Vol. i., p. 290 note. 


Izid Gashasp bore off that mass of spoil, 
And full of iov and merriment they took 
A hundred caravan-loads to Iran. 
Iranian horsemen closed the long array, 
The Khan with his own nobles led the way. 

§ 18 

How Parmuda came before Hurmuzd with the 
Treasures sent by Bahrdm Chubina 

With treasure, gifts, and troops the Khan drew near c. 1841 

The monarch of the world who heard and mounted 

With crown on head and mace in hand, and thus 

Came to the gate. When from the porch he saw 

The visage of the Khan he paused to note 

If at the sight of him that prince and troops 

Would light down from their steeds. Parmuda 

Full of concern, if he would turn away, 
Then, mounted still, came with the archimage, 
Izid Gashasp, whereat the Shah, the world-lord, 
Bestirred him with his troops. The Khan alighted 
And hastened toward the Shah, without delay 
Remounting his black Arab, while the Great King 
Abode not with Parmuda in the porch, 
And rode his fleet steed off ; but when the Khan 
Was following, the keeper of the curtain 
Laid hold upon his reins forthwith. Parmuda 
Alighted instantly and manifested 
His own diplomacy by that submission. 
Now when the Khan approached the royal throne 
The king of kings received him with all favour, 
And having welcomed set him in the presence, 
Repenting of the past hostility. 
They lodged him fitly in the pleasant palace 


Prepared for him and brought whate'er he needed. 

A scribe was charged to lodge the retinue 

Hard by. The Shah, on hearing of the wealth 

Brought by Parmuda, sent it to the park, 

And charged therewith the keeper of the camels. 

The eighth day. when Parmuda was refreshed 

From all his toils, the Shah ordained a least. 

And. when the Khan was seated at the board 

At court and in the presence of the world-lord, 

Hade bring the camel-loads before the chiefs. 

One counted up the porters; <>n that da\ 

There were ten thousand hired. The next, at dawn, 

Hurmuzd had wine set forth and took hi^ seat, 

And from the park came fifty thousand bales 

As well as parcels on the porters' hacks. 

The baggage filled a hundred treasuries. 

The Shah, when his task was achieved, bade bring 

Before the presence publicly a bale 

Of stuffs, bejewelled earrings, and a girdle 

Compact, thou wouldst have said, of gold and gems. 

These he bestowed with many words of praise 

I'pon the messenger who kissed the ground. 

While from the banquet -hall arose acclaim : 

 Victorious be the Sh;ih." 

lie ;it t hat I iiuc 
Said to his confidant f/.id Gashasp : — 1 
" What seest thou in Bahrain Chubina's exploit ? 
lie maketh war to cease right manfully." 

The scribe Izid Gashasp replied : ' () Shah, 
Who art observant and of ardent, mind ! 
When at a feast the theme is such know there 
Will likewise be but ill-conditioned fare." 2 

1 Perhaps we ought to read " Ayin Gashasp " here and below. 
See pp. 75, 174 seq. 

' With changes of reading Mohl translates : " sache que les mets 
d'une fete ou e'est le mot corneille (djoubin) qui forme le refrain 
doivent etre etranges." 


The Shah became suspiciously inclined 
On hearing this ; misdoubtings filled his mind. 


How Hurmuzd heard of the Ill-doing of Bahrdm 
Chubina and made a Compact with iJn Khan 

Then came a lusty camel-post and brought 
This letter from the archscribe : " May the world- 
Be ever joyful and his head and crown 
For ever present in his servant's thoughts. 
Know that there were two curtains of Yanian 
Among the spoil, boots decked with gems uncut, 
The earrings too of noble Siyawush, 
Who left us wisdom as his monument, 
And these the paladin bare oil* with him 1 
No marvel since he underwent the toil." 

Hurmuzd said to Parmuda : " Tell me all 
That thou didst see hereof." 

The fallen king 
Confirmed the scribe's report. The haughty Shah 
Was wroth thereat and said : " Bahrain Chubina 
Doth err, uplifting to the moon his head. 
For one thing he hath struck the Khan of Chin — 
An act the outcome of an evil nature — 
And then would nothing but these earrings serve 
His turn ? Perhaps he hath become a king. 
His toil hath turned to wind and all his knowledge 
And justice have become corrupt." 

This said. 
He called the Khan and having seated him 
Upon the famous throne they feasted there 

1 Reading with P. 


Till night spread out her musky tresses black. 
l8 43 Then said the Shah : " If thou wilt league with me 
Thou shalt partake my honey." 

As he sat 
He grasped the Khan's hand, and Parmuda mar- 
The Shah proceeded : ' Swear bo me afresh, 
And make a new departure, not to break 
With me or with the nobles of this folk 
On thy return.*' 

Parmuda swore forthwith : — 
" By shining daylight and night azure-dim, 
By God who hath of right supremacy, 
The Artificer of Jupiter and Venus, 
The great Shah's crown and throne. Azargashasp, 
The signel and the diadem, the Khan 
Shall not grow alien from the Shah in heart, 
And vex him not in aught." 

This sworn, they rose 
And sought their couches. 

When the yellow sun 
O'er-topped the mountains, ;ind the kings awoke, 
The noble Shah prepared a present — ware 
Of gold and silver, horses, coronets, 
Of girdles gemmed and golden, armlets, torques, 
And earrings, Arab steeds with golden trappings, 
And Indian scimitars with golden sheallis. 
Dispatched them to the Khan, consorted wit!) 1 im 
Two stages and the more part of the third, 
And having bidden hi in farewell returned. 

The paladin, on hearing of the gifts 
Presented by the monarch of the world, 
And how the Khan was coming back rejoicing, 
Rode forth to meet him with the Iranian chiefs. 
He stored provisions where the Khan would pass 
In town and village, station, hill, and plain, 


And hurried on in shame at his ill temper 
To make excuse in person. When he saw 
Parmuda he did reverence but the Khan 
Proved wholly adverse, would accept of naught 
That he had brought of provand, purse, or slave, 
And on the way ignored him utterly. 
Bahrain Chubina fared three stages thus, 
And not once did Parmuda call for him. 
Upon the fourth the Khan sent one to say :— 
" Return for thou hast toiled enough." 

Bahrain Chubina left him and in wrath 
Set face toward Balkh where he abode in dudgeon, 
Repenting of his acts with aching heart. 
Withal the world-lord was displeased with him, 
And fumes of anger filled the monarch's soul 
First at that outrage to the Khan wherein C. 1844 

Bahrain Chubina had done shamefully. 
And next that he had dared to lay his hand 
On certain of the spoil without command. 


How Hurmuzd wrote a chiding Letter to Bah rani 
Chubina and sent him a Distaff-case, Cotton, and 
Women's Raiment 

The king then wrote thus to Bahrain Chubina : — 

" Unconscionable div ! perceiv'st thou not 

That all our excellencies are from God, 

And yet thou sittest on the vault of heaven ? 

Hast thou forgot my pains, troops, toil, and treasure ? 

Thou keepest not the way of paladins, 


But raisest thy head skyward. Thou bast tunic. I 
From my behest and acted otherwise. 
Here is the robe of honour meet for thee, 
Agreeable and appropriate to thine acts."' 

The Shah, when he had sealed this, ordered one 
To bring him a black distaff-case with distaff 
And cotton, much unworthy gear, withal 
A blue silk shift, red drawers, and yellow coif, 
Chose an ignoble messenger to match 
"With that unseemly gift and said: "Convey 
These to Bahrain Chubina. Say to him : 

w worthless miscreant ! thou didst bind the Khan, 
And gloat upon great men's mishaps, but I 
Will fetch thee from thy seal anil hold thee naught 
Henceforth.' " 

The messenger, these words in mind. 
Departed with the gift and went like wind. 


How Bahrdm Chtibina put on the Woman's Dress 
and showed himself therein to the Chiefs of the Host 

Whenas Bahrain Chubina saw the present 

Sent with the letter he endured in silence. 

He thought : " This is m\ guerdon ! So the Shah 

Is now my foe though he hath not devised 

This wrong but mine ill-wishers slandered me. 

The world-lord is the master of his slaves, 

And if he putteth me to shame 'tis well. 

I did not think that enemies of mine 

Had access to the Shah. Since I left court 

In haste with but few troops all men have witnessed 

My deeds, my sorrows and my toils and hardships. 


If these toils are rewarded by a shame 

That is the portion of the infamous 

I will complain of circling heaven to God 

For having docked me thus of all its love."' 
He called upon the Judge that giveth good, 

Then, having donned the red and yellow garb. 

And set before him the black spindle-case, 

And all the other things sent by the Shah. 

He summoned to him all the mighty men. 

The nobles of the monarch of the world. 

These came forth from the arm)' to the chid. 

Whose gloomy soul was full of anxious thoughts. 

They came, both young and old, were all astound, 

And mused, on seeing their paladin so clad. 

He said : " A robe of honour from the Shah ! 

Ye saw and heard of what I did and how 

I combated with my two-headed dart. 

The Shah despaired about the royal throne ; 

The world was dark and I illumined it. 
I have put on me this repugnant garb 
According to the exalted king's command. 
The Shah is world-lord and we are his slaves, 
Our hearts and souls are full of love for him. 
What are your views, ye witnesses ! herein ? 
What answer make we to the king of earth ? ' 

All cried : " Famed paladin and worshipful ! 
If this be thy worth with the Shah the troops 
Are dogs at court ! Note what the ancient sage 
Observed at Rai when angry with Ardshir : — 
1 I grow averse from archmage and Shah's throne 
When he regardeth not my weal and woe.' 
How canst thou seek for honour from a man 
That honoureth not thee ? " 

He said : " Forbear : 
The Shah is source of honour to his troops ; 
His slaves are we ; he giveth, we receive." 


The Iranians said : " We will not arm hence- 
forth ; 
We will not have him in Iran as Slum. 
Or, as our general, Bahrain Chiibina." 

They spake and went forth from his presence, 
The palace of the chieftain 1 for the plain. 
But he refrained his lips and at the most 
Gave only prudent counsels to the host. 

How Bn/naw Chiibina went to hunt and saw a Lady 
trho foretold the Future t<> him 

lS 4 6 Two weeks passed, then Bahrain Chiibina left 
His palace for the waste. In front of him 
There was a forest furnished well with trees — 
The very place for lucky revellers. 
I pon t he mead he saw an onager, 
And none will see a fairer one. lie followed 
At leisure, heating not liis steed. Appeared 
Within that woodland-chase a narrow path, 
Which when that gallant onager had traversed 
A pleasance next was seen upon the plain. 
Bahrain Chiibina, marking this, proceeded 
Until a splendid palace came in sight. 
Led by the onager he turned and rode 
Thereto; behind him was Izid Gashasp, 
To whom he gave his fleet steed's reins and said: — 
" May wisdom ever be thy mate," then entered 
The porch alone. Izid Gashasp the while 
Abode without and held the noble steed. 
Behind him hurrying came Yalan-sina 

1 Reading with P. 


Armed on a swift horse. Brave fzid Gashasp 
Said : " Lion ! enter thou and find out whither 
Our chief, the heroic captain of the host, 
Our succourer, hath gone." 

Made for the palace with an anxious heart 
To seek the chief. He saw it and its hall 
Masnifical : its like he had not seen 
Or heard of in Iran. Upon one side 
Thereof there was a cupola whose top 
Was viewless through its height and under it 
A throne of gold with steps begemmed. The throne 
Was covered with brocade of Hum in patterns 
Picked out with jewels on a ground of gold. 
Upon the throne there sat a lady crowned. 
Of cypress-height and with a face like Spring. 1 
Beside it was a seat and thereupon C. 1847 

The captain of the host while many slaves, 
Idols fay-faced and blooming, were around. 
On seeing Yalan-sina the lady bade 
A handmaid : " Hasten to yon lion-heart, 
Fair mate, and say : ' Thou mayst not enter here. 
Stay with thy comrades. He will come anon, 
But go thou first. As from Bahrain Chubina 
Speak this and ease them as to his return." 

She sent some also to his retinue 
To brine the warriors' horses to the stalls, 
And take good care of all their equipage. 
The gardener unlocked the garden-gate 
By hest of that fair hostess, 2 and they set 
About the garden victuals past conceit. 
Whenas the warriors had eaten bread 
They led the chargers to the place assigned. 
Bahrain Chubina, when he left the lady, 
Spake thus : " May Jupiter espouse thy crown.*' 
1 Three couplets omitted. 2 One couplet omitted. 


She answered : " Be victorious and over 
Of patient heart and wise. 1 Go thou ! the throne 
And the Iranian diadem are thine. 
The world shall be set straight by thee, so win it 
13 v might and sword from dark dust to the stars.'"- 

Now when he came forth from that garth of roses 
Thou wouldst have said : 'He weepeth blood ! ' 

So changed 
Was he in temper and in talk that thou 
Hadst said : " He raiseth to the Pleiades 
His head." 

Anon the onager appeared : 
The chieftain followed after on his steed, 
And it was so that till he cleared the forest 
The onager still served him as a guide. 
He went back to the city from the chace, 
lint spake not of the matter to the host. 
Khan-ad. sou of Bar/in. regarded him 
And said thus : " o ilmu chief that speakest sooth ! 

What was this marvel seen and heard by none 
That happened in t he chace '.' ' 

The paladin 

Vouchsafed no answer but in dudgeon sought 

The palace, and none else dared ask : * What might 
This matter mean, this vision of delighl ? " 


How Bahrain Chiibina assumed the royal Style and 
how Kharrdd, Son of Barzin, and the Archscribe 3 


C. 1848 The next day, when the uplands silvered over, 
And when yon yellow shining Lamp appeared, 

1 Id. 2 Id. * fzid Gashasp in the original. Cf. p. 100. 


Bahram Chubina spread a carpeting 

Made of brocade of Chin, and thou hadst said 

That earth had turned to sky. Throughout the 

He ranged gold seats and cushions of brocade 
Of gold. They placed a golden ante-throne 
Whereon the captain of the host sat down, 
Then held a session like the king of kings, 
And placed upon his head the crown of greatness. 
The archscribe marked Bahrain Chubina's con- 
And, knowing him to be both bold and strong, 
Went and retailed his knowledge, sight or hearsay, 
Before Kharrad, son of Barzin, who listened. 
Knew that his own toils had been vain, and said :— 
" Take not this lightly, O thou noble scribe ! 
This king of kings of ours hath played the fool 
In sending as a gift the distaiT-case, 
Not knowing that this battle-loving Lion 
Would thus revolt. We must not talk of this, 
But when 'tis midnight fare forth to the Shah, 
And say : ' Bahram Chubina's heart is set 
Upon the crown ; the seat too under him 
Is ivory.' " 

They canvassed all the case, 
And made a shift to flee, prepared the pretext, 
And fled from Balkh by night. The chief, informed 
Thereof, and knowing well their clear, shrewd minds, 
Said to Yalan-sina : " Go in pursuit 
Of those two dotards with a hundred horse." 
He overtook the archscribe, raged at him, 
As 'twere a wolf, took from him all he had, 
And brought him back made fast in heavy bonds, 
Back to Bahram Chubina so that he 
Might slay the innocent. The paladin 
Said : " Doer of div's work ! why didst thou quit me 


Without my leave ? " 

" paladin ! '' he answered. 
' Kharrad, son of Barzln, made me afraid. 
He said : ' We may not tarry : thv delay 
Will please those only that speak ill of thee, 
For when the heroic captain of the host. 
Bahrain Chiibina, holdeth court as Shah 
C. 1S49 There is a fear lest thou and I be slain 
Save we return.' " 

Bahrain Chiibina said : — 
" Just so : one must consult o'er good and ill." 

He then restored and with advantages 
From his own treasures what the scribe had lost, 
Then said to him : " Go thou and ponder o"er 
Thy conduct in this case and (lee no more." 

§ 24 

How Hurmuzd received News of Bahrain Chahina'.s 
Doings, and how Hah ram Hi ah ina sent a Frail 
of Swords to Hurmuzd 

Kharrad, son of Barzfn, for his part rode, 
Escaping notice, till he reached the Shah, 
To whom he told his news, suppressing naught, 
Of wood and meadow, course of onager, 
Strait pathway and Bahrain C'hiibina's sojourn ; 
Told of the palace and the jewelled throne. 
The slave-girls and the lady with the crown : 
He told whatever he had seen and heard. 
The Shah mused at the tale, laid it to heart, 
And sighed as he remembered what the archmage 
And fortune-teller had said : ' Bahrain Chiibina 
Will turn him from thy throne." 1 

1 See pp. 107, 108. 


Forthwith he summoned 
The high priest, set Kharrad, son of Barzin, 
Within the room and said to him : " Relate 
The adventures of thy journey." 

Thus enjoined 
He oped his lips and told it all. The Shah 
Said to the high priest : " What import eth this ? 
We must consult at large. The onager 
That led him through the wood, the palace seen 
Amidst the wilderness, the lady crowned 
Upon the golden throne, the slaves in waiting 
As on a queen — the account is like a dream 
Suggested by old tales ! " 

The high priest thus 
Made answer to the monarch of the world : — 
" Beneath that onager there was a div 
Who sought to lead Bahrain Chubina wrong, 
And make perverseness show within his heart. 
The palace, be assured, was sorcerer's work, 
The lady on the throne an impious witch. 
Who on this wise to hearten him the more 
Displayed the crown and throne of majesty. 
All eager and bemused he went from her : C. 1850 

Be sure that he will ne'er come back to hand. 
His heart was wounded by thy distaff-case, 
And going to that div-witch made it worse. 
It was not well to send the ignoble robe 
To one so overweening, for thereby 
The Iranians were estranged and ceased to trust 
The king of kings. So now devise a scheme 
To bring the army back to court from Balkh." 

The king repented having acted so 
About the cotton and the gaudy dress, 
And asked Kharrad, son of Barzin : " What say 
The troops there of that lady ? " 

He replied : — 



"As for that crowned lady, all the troops 
Call her, O king ! ' Bahrain Chiibina's Luck,' 
Which will be very great and glorious." 

The king, on hearing, greatly feared the ills 
That fortune had in store. Ere long there came 
One from the paladin, tin cavalier, 
And brought a frail of swords with points all bent. 1 
He set them down before the Shah who looked 
Upon that iron gear, bade break the swords. 
Replace them in that ill-conditioned frail. 
And then return them to Bahrain Chubina : 
No word was spoken but tin- intent was clear. 
Bahrain Chubina oped the frail, beheld 
The long swords snapped at point and then replaced, 
And, wayward as he was. grew full of thought. 
He called the Iranians round the frail and said: — 
"Behold the king's gifl ! Underrate it not. 
It meaneth that this host is little worth, 
And not tin head of one of us will scape." 

The troops thought much of what the Shah had 
And of their paladin's address. They said : — 
"One day our monarch sendeth us as gifts 
A distalT and a gaudy robe; anon 
He giveth broken swords — a present worse 
Than striking or abuse. Ne'er be such Shah 
Upon the throne ! May none remember him. 
And if again the offspring of Gashasp — 
Bahrain Chubina — ride on that court's dust 
Then may they perish, skin and marrow both, 
He and his worthless sire ! ' 

The chieftain heard, 
Saw how Hurmuzd had vexed the host anel said : — 
" Be vigilant and let vour minds be clear 
C. 1 85 1 Because Kharrad, son of Barzin, hath tolel 

1 " par I'usage qu'on en avail fait dans la bataillc." Mohl. 


Our secrets to the king. Let each consult 
His safety and conspire with me to-day. 
If I send none to watch our enemies 
Regard my days as done, my soldiers slain." 

He spake and took new order : mark and muse. 
He scattered horsemen through the realm lest letters, 
Sent by the king, should reach the Iranians, 
And they should arm themselves to fight for him, 
And so it wcs that till a time had gone 
A royal letter was perused by none. 

§ 25 

How Bahrain Chubina made known to the Chiefs his 
Designs upon the Throne, and how his Sister 
Gurdtja advised him 

Bahrain Chubina summoned then the chiefs, 
And told them many secrets. There were present 
Hamdan Gashasp and the archscribe, Yalan-sina, 
Renowned and strong, with valorous Bahram, 
The son of Siyawush, and that wise chief, 
Kanda Gashasp. With these he held debate, 
For they were Lions and men of war, and then 
Harangued that fierce host, which was all astray, 
Thus : " Famous chiefs whose counsel all require ! 
The Shah is wroth with us without a cause, 
And so hath turned away from what is right. 
What will ye do ? What is the remedy ? 
'Tis useless to shed tears upon the past. 
Whoe'er hath hid his anguish from the leech 
Hath showered from his lashes tears of blood, 
And trifles grow in moment when we keep 
Our secrets from the men of understanding. 



I have myself my privy griefs and I 

Will tell them to the sages of the world. 

Ye all are conversant with these affairs, 

And so can testify to what I say. 

We left Iran by order of the Shah 

With but few troops, though eager to engage, 

And none, though long his life, will sec a foe 

More numerous. Now if the Turk Parmuda. 

Had. with king Sawa, marched upon Iran 

It would not have been worth a piece of wax, 

And later they would have attempted Riim ; 

Hnt on Parmuda and king Sawa came 

A marvel such as none within the world 

Had seen, and though we bare much toil ourselves 

We left them neither elephants nor treasure. 

The Shah hath laid up wealth anew, grown rich, 

And vet he is enraged against the host 

Though all the business hath been done for him. 

And he is franchised through no toil of his ]} 

In such a coil what shift shall I employ 

To set my head ;it ease ? Do ye too all 

Shirt Eor yourselves. What is your remedy 

For such a wound ? I have discharged my heart, 

And freed my soul. Respecting weal or woe 

II' ye are ware of any means now speak." 

He proved with these words, for he feared, the host. 
Behind his curtains that famed paladin 
Possessed a sister, one of ardent soul, 
And that wise lady's name was Gurdya, 
Of fairy-visage and his heart's delight. 
Now she, on hearing from behind the veil 
Her brother's words, was angered ; her heart flared. 
With much to say and full of instances 
She came forth to that conclave, and her brother 
Kept silence, when he heard her voice, from word 
1 Couplet transposed. 


And answer, and the Iranians too were silent 

For fear of harm. Thus Gurdya addressed 

The troops : " Illustrious men who seek for guidance ! 

Why do ye hold your peace and check your spleen ? 

Ye are the warrior-chieftains of Iran, 

Wise, prescient lords. What see ye in this matter ? 

What game play ye upon this scene of blood ? ' 

Then said Izid Gashasp, the cavalier : — 
" Memorial of the mighty ! were our tongues 
Sharp swords they would take flight before the sea 
Of thine advice. Thine acts are all of God, 
Brave, learned, and wise. We need not fight like 

With all the world. Let no one seek my counsel 
Henceforth because my lore hath reached its bound. 
If ye will fight I too will bear a hand. 
And cavalierly counter cavaliers, 
While if the paladin is pleased with me 
Methinkcth that I shall be voung for ever." 

Bahrain Chubina, hearing him thus speak, 
Saw that he dealt with both sides. Then he marked 
Yalan-sina and said : " What thinkest thou ? ' 

Quoth he: "Brave chief! the walker in God's way c. 1853 
Will be wise, famed, and learned, will have his will 
In all and, winning victory and Grace. 
Will haste not to do ill for that would turn 
A blessing to a curse and circling heaven 
Be vengeful towards him. God hath given thee 
Grace, fortune, troops withal, wealth, prowess, throne ; 
If thou art grateful He will send thee more, 
But through ingratitude the heart will ache." 

Then said Bahrain Chubina to Bahrain : — 
" Wise friend and prudent mate ! what sayest thou 
About this seeking after throne and treasure ? 
Will majesty result or pain and grief ? ' 

He laughed that such a case should be discussed, 


Then tossing up his finger-ring replied : — 
" As long as this remaineth in the air 
So long shall it be servant to the Shah : 
Yet he is great ; despise him not for none 
Should under-estimate the diadem/' 

Said to Kanda Gashasp 1 Bahram Chubina : 
kt thou sword-wielding and steed-spurring Lion ! 
What seest and sayst thou touching this affair 
Of ours ? Do we deserve the royal throne ? ' 

That cavalier replied : " thon that art 

The memory of heroes in the world ! 
There was an archimage at Rai who said : 

• The wise and lucky man to whom 'tis given 
Once to he king his soul will soar to heaven.' 
So aiming at the treasure of the king 
Is better than to be long years a slave." 

Then to the archscribe said Bahram Chubina: — 
tl Old wolf ! unclose thy lips." 

The archscribe kept 

His lips still shut awhile and sat amid 

A crowd of thoughts, then said : " Whoe'er shall seek 

His wish in fitting fashion will attain it. 

For time's stretched hand is long. Know that no 

Can slum whatever God will have to be." 

Then said the chieftain to Ilamdan Gashasp : — 
li O thou well versed in fortune's rise and fall ! 
Whatever thou shalt utter in our presence 
Shall be as wind and, like wind, hurt thee not. 
Advise us in this case, this test of good 
And evil fortune/' 

Great Hamdan Gashasp 
Thus spake : " Prized by the great ! why dost thou 

Ills not yet come and question of the crown 

1 Reading with P. C. has fzid Gashasp. 


Of kingship ? Act and leave the rest to God. 

Why reach out for the date if thou dost fear 

The thorn ? A people's Head hath never rest ; c. 1854 

His mind is fearful and his body weary."" 

The sister of the captain of the host 
Writhed at their words and grew o'ercast of soul, 
Yet spake she naught in this debate from eve 
Till midnight. Then Bahrain Chubina said : — 
"" What thinkest thou of this assembly's words, 
Fair lady ? " 

Gurdya made no reply ; 
The counsels of the chief displeasured her. 
Thereafter she addressed the archscribe thus : — 
" O man maleficent like some old wolf ! 
So thou conceivest that the crown and throne, 
Host and addition and the might of fortune 
Were in the world no objects of desire 
To any famous chiefs of generous bent 
Though kingship easier is than servitude ! " 
Such sentiments as thine demand our tears. 
Take we the precedents of former Shahs, 
And hear the sayings of those greater ones." 

The archscribe made response : k If rede of mine 
Obtain not with thee speak and do whatever 
Thou art advised and follow thy heart's lead." 

Then likewise to self-willed Bahrain Chubina 
His sister spake and said : " They are not good, 
Thy knowledge and thy counsel, and thy steps 
Are tending toward deceit. Full many a time 
Hath the Shah's throne been void and yet no chief 
Cast any look upon it. It was theirs 
To guard the world by valour, not to have 
An eye upon the throne. They did not aim 
Thereat but girt their loins to serve. They sought 
Their sovereigns' weal and rendered hearty service. 
They were no strangers to the throne and crown, 


But worthy of their areatness bv descent. 

I speak first of the case of Shah K.tus, 1 

Who would have searched the mysteries of God, 

Have summed the stars and trod heaven's circling 

But fell despised and wretched a1 Sari 
Through his perverseness and ill bent, and yet 
Gudarz and Rustam, who was paladin. 
Did not take dudgeon, and thereafter when 
Kalis went to Hamavaran.- and folk 
Bound him in heavy fetters, none essayed 
The throne bul manifested warm regret. 
So when the Iranians said to Rustam : ' Thou 
Art worthy of the throne,' 3 lie cried against 
The speaker : ' Be thy mate the narrow enamel ! 
Shall I be on the throne of gold, I lie Shah 
Bound ? lVrish kingship rather ! Perish crown ! 
$55 He chose out of Iran twelve thousand men.' 
World-taking cavaliers on barded steeds. 

And treed Kaiis and GlV, Gudarz and Tiis, 
From that captivity. Then when Pfriiz 
Was slain and for the Iranians all was lost, 5 
While Khushnawaz emboldened by affairs 
Was seated on the alluring throne in peace, 
Came Sufarai, the scion of Karan, 
In order to restore the throne of power. 
When his success was manifest the nobles 
Went from Iran to hail him as their Shah, 
And make a subject monarch of the earth. 
He told them : Tis unseemly. Majesty 
And crown are for the Shah. Although Kubad 
Is little he will grow ; we may not put 
The wolf within the lion's wood. To make 

1 See Vol. ii. p. 102 seq. 

2 Id. p. 82 seq. 3 Cf. Id. p. 143. 

1 Cf. p. 104 and note. 6 See Vol. vii, p. 167 seq. 


A Shah without blood royal is to give 

His kindred to the winds.' Now when Kubad 

Reached manhood he perceived that Sufarai 

Deserved the crown and, led by miscreants' words, 

Slew him who was the backbone of the state. 

The folk thereafter put Kubad in fetters, 

That horseman bold, that hero of the race 

Of kinjTs, and grave him to Zarmihr, the low-born, 

That he might take revenge for his own sire. 

Zarmihr saw none else worthy of the crown 

And throne of kingship, so he freed Kubad 

In order that he might assert his claim 

Without delay. No subject dared aspire 

Though many were entitled by their birth. 

When from the Turks one hight ' King Sawa ' came 

To seek the seal and crown the glorious Maker 

Ordained that he should perish in Iran. 

Since bv God's Grace and by Ihv hand so great 

An action was by thine own thumbstall wrought 

Thou wouldest have the empire ! Know that thou 

Wilt lose thv life. Yalan-sina curvetteth, 

Exclaiming : ' I will set up a new king— 

Bahrain Chubina, offspring of Gashasp — 

And make my name remembered.' Xushirwan. 

The understanding Shah, found in old age 

His lost youth in Hurmuzd whom all the magnates 

Of this our realm support. Support, say I ? 

Are all his bondslaves and his underlings. 

He hath three hundred thousand cavaliers, 

All paladins, all famed, and all his slaves, 

Obedient to his will, yet chose he thee 

By virtue of his high prerogative, 

Ennobled all thine ancestors and granted C. 1856 

Revenge upon their foes. Wilt thou repay 

His good with ill ? Know 'twill recoil on thee. 

Design not evil, brother ! It will bring 


111 on thine own head. Make not greed the lord 
O'er wisdom else the sages will not call Hue 
A man of piety. Although a woman, 
Far younger than my brother, yet I jnve 
A man's advice. Oh ! fling not to the wind 
Thy lathers" deeds and mayst thou not recall 
My words to mind." 

The assembly marvelled at her. 
The chieftain bit his [ips as well aware 

That what she said was jnst and that she sought 

The path of right. Yalan-sina replied :- 

" O noble lady ! in this company 

Forbear to treat of Shahs because Ilnrinir/d 

Will soon pass and the paladin enjoy 

The throne of majesty. Now since the Shah 

Is what he is in prowess count thy brother 

Already as t he monarch of Iran, 

And if Hurmuzd affect 1 the royal crown 

Why sendeth he a distaff as a gift ? 

The paladin is such a lion-man 

Thai at the terror of his sword earth quaketh, 

And had his sword remained undrawn Ilnrnin/d, 

Iran and Sham had perished, and to '.end him 

The present of a distaff and of cotton ! 

Fie on a king so Faithless ! Talk no more 

About Turk-born Hurmuzd. May all that race 

No longer be ! To count from Kai Kubad 

This stock hath had the crown and throne of 

A thousand years. Now it is at an end. 
So name them not or give Khusrau Parwiz 
A thought : his mention is not worth a mite, 
And those that are the princes at his court 
Will be thy brother's subjects who will place 
At his word their lord's feet in heavy bonds.' 1 

1 Reading with P. 

• HURMUZD 171 

" The Black Div spreadeth out," said Gurdya 

A net upon thy path. Destroy us 1 not, 

Both soul and body. I perceive in thee 

But wind and vapouring. Our sire was march- 

At Rai and thou wouldst have us seek the throne. 

Now thine incitement of Bahrain Chubina, 

And putting into tumult all our kindred, 

'Will give our race's travail to the wind, 

And through thy words, thou base-born underling ! 

Yea ! lead him on and iill our quiet times 

With turbulence ! " 

She spake and then withdrew 

In tears with heart grown alien from her brother, 

While all those present said : "This saintly lady, C. 1857 

Our eloquent, clear-minded counsellor, 

Hath spoken, thou wouldst say. just like a book. 

And is in wisdom greater than Jamasp." 

Howbcit the thing displeased Bahrain Chubina, 

Who w r as in dudgeon at his sister's words, 

And through long musing his distempered heart 

Showed him the throne of kingship in his dreams. 

He said : " By toil alone aspirants win 

This fleeting world." 

He bade to spread the board. 

And call for wine and harp and minstrelsy. 

He told the minstrels : " Let your song to-day 

Be of heroic deeds. I will not hear 

Aught but the story of the Seven Stages ; 

So while we revel sing the part wherein 

Asfandiyar went to the Brazen Hold, 

And of the game he played in that campaign." 2 
They drank much wine to him and cried : ' May 

Be prosperous since such a chief as thou 

1 Id. 2 See Vol. v. p. 143. 


Ariseth thence, and may God fashion more 
Like thee." 

At night they went their several ways : 
The heads of all those topers were a-daze. 

§ 26 

Bahrdm ( 'hubina's LetU r to tin- Khdn a ml how In' coined 
Money with tin Name of Khusrau Parwiz and 
s< ni it in Hurmuzd 

Whenas the rising sun shol Forth its beams. 
And darksome night turned sickly at the glow, 
The chief Bahrain Chubfna, that hold Wolf, 
Bade the archscribe attend. They wrote the Khan 
A letter that was worthy of the Artang, 1 
Perfumed 2 , illuminate and illustrate: — 

Foi- -lid', while asking pardon for mine ads. 
My heart is lull of sighing and remorse. 
Henceforth I will not hurt thy country, land, 
Or marches through regard for thee: and I, 
If I bee. Hue the monarch of the world. 
Will be to thee as 'twere a younger brother. 
Wash vengeance from thy heart and thou shalt know- 
No ditt'erence between Iran and Chin. 
Take not to heart the past for God forgiveth 
His slave. A thousand blessings on thy helm, 
Upon thy sword and thy world-conquering hand." 
He spake much to the same effect. The envoy 
Was in amaze at him, then trod earth's face, 
And bore the message to the Khan of Chin 
l8 5 8 By whom a gracious answer was returned :— 
" I for my part term thee magnanimous." 

1 See Vol. ii. p. 19 and note. * Reading with P. 


He sent Bahrain Chiibina gifts that cheered 
The heart. 

This matter done, Bahrain Chiibina 
Formed other plans, unlocked his hoarded treasures, 
Gave his troops drachms, steeds, slaves, and privily 
Aimed at the seat of sovereignty. He chose 
Among the host a paladin, one fit 
To be the prince of Khurasan, bestowed 
That land on him with Nishapiir and Balkh, 
Marv and Harat, and troops withal, then went. 
From Balkh to Rai, lull of solicitude, 
Upon the glorious Khnrdad of Dai : 
Took thought of great and small, then hade his men 
Set up a mint and issue coins that bore 
The superscription of Khusrau Parwiz. 
He gave to merchants shrewd and plausible 
Of speech, and fitted for the ticklish task. 
Sacks of these new-coined drachms and said : ; Buy 

Whatever ye can get in Taisafun 
Of costly Rum brocade with silken figures 
Upon a ground of gold." 

He meant to bring 
That coinage to the notice of the king. 


How Bahrain Chiibina wrote to Hurmuzd and how 
Khusrau Parwiz fed from his Father 

Bahrain Chiibina chose a prudent envoy, 
Strong as the blest Suriish. 1 He wrote withal 
A blustering letter and discoursed at large 

1 The previous section ends here in the original. 


About Parmuda and kino- Sawa's host, 
How he and his own troops had fought, the gift 
That had been given to him by the Shah- 
Thai woman's coif and that black distalT-casc — 
Then said thus : " Thou wilt never more behold 

E'en in a dream so draw thy fish-hook up. 1 
While thine illustrious, high-fortuned son, 
Khusrau Parwiz, is seated on the throne 
At his command will I make mountains plains, 
And deserts like Jfhun with foemen's blood. 
Young though he be still he is fit to rule. 
And faithful, not a faithless one like thee. 
I have accepted him as king of kings, 
And will henceforth be man to none beside." 

His wish was thai the king should put to death 
The soi) though innocent- because he feared 
Khusrau Parwfz, a young and charming prince. 8 
lS 59 The fortune-favoured envoy reached Baghdad 

With men of name from Rai. Hurmuzd grew pale 

As fenugreek when he received the letter. 

Anon accounts of that new coinage reached him. 

Which added grief to grief. He writhed, suspected 

His son, and spake thus to Ayfn Gashasp :— 

"Khusrau Parwiz hath grown so bold that lie 

Fain would revolt ; moreover he hath struck 

A brand-new coinage ! Could he hold me cheaper ? ' 

Ayin Gashasp replied : ' He course and charger 
Ne'er seen without thee. Though Khusrau Parwiz 
Is thine own son he should be bound for this." 

Hurmuzd made answer: 'Presently will I 
Remove this upstart." 

That ambitious lord 

' Jamais, meme en reve, tu ne me verras porter sous le bras 
du linge sortant de l'eau." Mohl. 

8 Couplet omitted. 3 luve couplets omitted. 


Thus answered him : " May none prevail without 

They called one privily by night and set him 
Before the Shah who said : " Perform my bidding, 
And rid earth's surface of Khusrau Parwiz." 

He said : ' I will, and charm love from my 
So let the Shah assign me from his store 
Bane, and some dark night when Khusrau Parwiz 
Is drunken I will drug his wine. This way 
Is better than to shed his blood." 

The son, 
Unwitting that his ruin was proposed, 1 
Sat in his palace gloriously, intent 
On charming Idols and on pleasant wine, 
And ignorant of all. A chamberlain 
Heard of the plot, banned appetite and sleep, 
Sped to Khusrau Parwiz and made all clear. 
He, hearing that the monarch of the world 
Was plotting secretly to slay him, fared 
From Taisafun by night, and thou hadst said :— 
" He vanished from the world." He did not give 
His priceless head away but reached apace 
Azar Abada.gan. When tidings came 
To all the chiefs — the marchlords of that province : — 
" Khusrau Parwiz, aggrieved against the king, c - l86 ° 

Hath fled with some few cavaliers," those mag- 

Sought for the traces of that well loved prince ; 2 
All went, both troops and chiefs, to make him 

They said : " O prince ! crown, throne, and helm 

befit thee, 
And from Iran and desert of the spearmen 
As many of the swordsmen and brave leaders, 

1 Reading with P. • Three couplets omitted. 


As thou mayst wish, will come to thee. Thy 

Will lead the army on. Fear no disaster. 
But live great, glad, and well beloved. 1 Although 
Three hundred thousand horsemen of Iran 
Shall mount the saddle to discomfit thee 
We all will give our bodies to be slain 
For thy sake and will honour those that fall." 

He said : " I fear the Shah and folk, ye chiefs ! 
Unless ye come before Azargashasp, 
And take ereai oaths to assure me thai henceforth 
Ye will be loyal to me : then will I 
Abide here in all confidence and fear 
Nbl Ahriman." 

The warriors, when they heard 
His words, all set forth for Azargashasp. 
They took the oath that he desired, protesting:— 
•• We hold thy love as precious as our eyes." 

Assured about the chiefs he secretlj 
Sent agents everywhere to learn what s; id 
His lather of his flight and purposed next. 

The Shah, on hearing that Khusrau Parwiz 
Had fled, scut hastily to put Bandwi 
And Gustaham in bondage as suspects ; 
Both were the uncles of Khusrau Parwiz 
Upon the mother's side and heroes bold. 
All others of his kin beside these two 
They also haled to ward without to-do. 

1 Two couplets omitted. 



How Hurmuzd sent Ayin Gashasp with an Army to 
fight Bahrain Chtibina and how he was slain by his 

Then to Ayin Gashasp thus spake the Shah : — C. 1861 

" I lack advice and sorrow is my mate. 

Now that my son hath gone how shall we treat 

Bahram Chubina, that slight, self-willed slave ? ' 

Ayin Gashasp sought an expedient 
To make his counsel gracious and replied : — 
" Exalted Shah ! Bahrain Chubina oft 
Hath spoken of me and of all things he 
Desireth most my blood for I was first 
To vex him privily, and to dispatch me 
In fetters to him may prove serviceable." 

The Shah made answer : " This is not my work, 
But miscreant Ahrimaivs. I will dispatch 
A host ; be thou its leader and prevail ; 
But send him first one of our counsellors 
To learn his purpose. Fortune, if he seeketh 
Power, crown, and throne, will turn from him at last, 
While if he shall remain a loyal liege 
"Twill be the better for him in the end. 
Him will I give a portion of the world, 
And set upon his head the heroes' crown. 
The world hath scarcely such a warrior, 
But, though like Rustam, he is still my thrall. 
Inform me of his doings every whit ; 
Proceed with diligence ; cut short the way." 

The order given by the prudent Shah 
Ayin Gashasp obeyed. 

There was a captive, 
And fellow-citizen of his, within 



The royal prison, eager for release. 
On hearing that A\ in Gashasp, the horseman, 
"Was going to the Avar he sent to say : — 
" O battle-loving warrior ! I am 
Thy fellow-citizen and now in prison. 
Thou art acquainted with my quality. 
I, if thou wilt but beg me from the king. 
Will fare with thee on this campaign and risk 
My life before thee when I am released 
From this strait prison-house." 

Ayin Gashasp 
Thereat sent to the monarch of the world 
A man in haste to say : " There is in bonds 
A fellow-citizen of mine in fear 
And peril who will go with me if now 
The Shah will grant him pardon for my sake." 
c. 1S62 The Shah replied : " How should this useless wretch 
Fighl in the front of thee ? Thou pleadesl for 
A murderer, a scamp, and thief! Dos1 thou 
Look for reward '. / Still I have now no choice 
Though 'twere the greatesl of calamities." 

He gave Ayin Gashasp thai man compact 
Of ill. that villain, thief, and murderer, 
And then Ayin Gashasp l<-d forth the host. 
And marched like wind as far as Hamadan, 
Where he encamped and asked : " Is any one 
Skilled in astrology or presages 
Within this noble city ? " 

All replied :— 
Our readers of the stars shall come before thee, 
And earn thy praise." 

An old, officious townsman 
Came bustling up and said : ' There is a dame 
Both old and rich here, and thou mightest say : — 
' She is the stars' eye.' What she saith is so ; 
Her prophecies will surely come to pass."" 


Ayin Gashasp, on hearing this, dispatched 
One with a horse for her and when she came 
He asked her how the Shah fared and of him 
Who led the host, then added : * Bring thy lips 
Close to mine ear and tell me if my soul 
Will quit my swarthy body in its bed, 
Or wounded by the weapon of a foe ? " 

While thus he spake of secrets to the crone 
With voice so low that none could overhear them 
The man for whom he had obtained release, 
And taken as companion on the journey. 
Approached and, as he passed by thai sage dame, 
Looked at the general and went his way. 
The ancient dame inquired : " What man is that ? 
A blow of his will make one weep for thec. 
Thy dear life lieth in his hand, and may 
He perish, skin and marrow ! " 

At Ik ]• words 
Ayin Gashasp recalled a former presage, 
Which he had heard from readers of the stars 
But had forgotten. Thus it ran : " Thy fate 
Shall be in thy companion's hand — a man 
Both mean and poor — who will go far with thee, 
And in return for friendship shed thy blood." 

He gave her presents and dismissed her quickly. 
But could not sleep or tut lor care. He wrote 
A letter to the Shah : " The man whom I 
Send back should not have been released for he 
Is worse than dragon's spawn, and so the Shah 
Informed his slave who lacked the imperial Grace. 1 
When this man cometh bid the ill-disposed- C. 1863 

Behead him. instantly." 

He wrote and set 

1 The divine insight pertaining to lawful kingship. 

2 The executioner, according to Mohl, but execution sometimes 
was embittered by being entrusted to the hands of a private enemy. 


His seal thereon. When it was dry lie called 
His fellow-citizen, much lauded him, 
Bestowing gifts and many hearty blessings. 
Then said : " Convey this letter unperceived 
And quickly to the monarch of the world. - 
Bring his reply to me with all dispatch. 
And see that thou remain not with the kino.'" 

The young man took the letter from the chief; 
His mind was all surmises at that mission, 
And thus he said : " I have endured enough 
Of prison, heavy bonds, and want of food ; 
But God delivered me from my distress, 
From arid, affliction, and mine evil fortune ; 
Yet now that I return to Taisafun 
My blood and marrow seethe." 

He journeyed sadly 
Awhile, then broke the Letter open, read it. 
And marvelled at the process of the world. 
He said : " My neighbour begg< d my life and urged : 
'The act is worthy of the prince." so how 
Should he be now insistent for my blood 
Unless some dream hath moved him to this ill ? 
But now to bloodshed he shall see the way. 
And rest from travail and endeavouring!" 

He turned back musing, went as swift as wind, 
And on arrival found the chief alone. 
Ayfn Gashasp was seated in his tent, 
Without attendant, scimitar, and steed 
Absorbed in thinking on the king and all 
That fortune might inflict upon himself. 
Now when his neighbour came within his tent 
Ayin Gashasp knew that he proposed bloodshed. 
The murderer drew his scimitar ; the chief 
Implored him much and said : ' Deluded one ! 
Did not I beg thy lost life from the Shah ? ' 

The other answered : " Granted. What have I 


Done that thou shouldst deal ill with me ? " 

He smote 
That noble chief across the neck, determined 
His fighting and his feasting, and bore off 
His bloody head unnoticed from the tent. 
Let him that seeketh honour never be 
Alone, in war-time more especially. 

The miscreant left the murdered in his blood, 1 
Sped to Bahram Chubina and exclaimed : — 
" See thy foe's head — the man's who sought to harm 

thee ! 
He marched against thee, knowing not thy purpose." 

Bahram Chubina asked : " Who is it ? Who C. 1864 

Will mourn this head ? " 

He said : " Ayin Gashasp, 
The cavalier, who left the court for war." 

Bahram Chubina said : " The man was good, 
And he had come from court to reconcile 
The Shah and us, and thou hast ta'en his head 
While sleeping ! Now will I requite thee so 
That folk shall sore bewail thee." 

He bade set 
A gallows at the door in sight of all, 
And gibbeted the wretch alive, thus rousing 
The hearts of evil-doers. Many horsemen 
Brought by Ayin Gashasp from court sought out 
Bahram Chubina when their chief had perished, 
While many others sought Khusrau Parwiz, 
And some the Shah. A flock will stray just so 
Un-herded on a day of wind and snow. 

* Or with Mohl : " II sentit que le sang verse le rendait infarne." 



How Hurmuzd gru ved, refused Audience t<> tin- frdnians, 
mill was blinded by Bandwi <tn<l Gustaha m 

When tidings readied the king of that famed hero, 
A \ 1 1 1 Gashasp, he shut the gate of audience 
For grief; none saw him too with wine in hand ; 
He could not rest or eat or sleep ; his eyes 
Were full of tears. At court the talk ran much 
Upon the Shah and his secluded state. 
Oik. said : " Bahrain Chubina seeketh fight, 
Desirous of the throne of majesty." 

Another said : ' Aggrieved againsl the Shah 
Khusrau Parwfz is marching on Iran." 

Confounded at the case the warriors 
Bach held a different view, and as the bruit 
Arose from Taisafun th< monarchy 
Lost credit while its servants' heads were lull 
Of grief and wrath, pr< ferring curse to blessing. 
Few troops remained about the gate; the world 
drew si rait to t he Shah's heart . 

Then tidings reached 
Bandwi and Gustaham : " The Grace of kingship 
Is darkened." 

All the captives loosed their hoi ids. 
And sent forth one to ascertain and learn 
What warriors' kept the portal of the Shah. 
c. 1865 And having learned rebelled, threw off restraint, 

And broke from ward ; shouts rose that shook the 

plain ; 
The garrison were left remediless. 
Appeared Bandwi and Gustaham in mail 
With troops in arms. The cavaliers forthwith, 


All unabashed, rode hot-foot to the court, 1 

And gallant Gustaham harangued the troops : — 

" This is no trivial case, for if ye join 

With us ye must ban reverence for the Shah. 

If ye will all gird up your loins in vengeance 

For those Iranian chiefs, because Hurniuzd 

Hath turned upon the innocent, henceforth 

Hail him not, Shah ; we will requite his deed, 

And turn for him the waters of Iran 

To colocynth. We will direct your course, 

And set a new Shah on his throne. If ye 

Show weakness we will leave Iran to you : 

A corner of the world will do for us, 

And thither with our comrades will we go.*' 

The whole throng at the words of Gustaham 
Began to curse the Shah's peace and exclaimed :— 
" Down with a king that sheddeth his son's blood ! ' 

The troops thus heartened fired the palace-gate, 
Made entry of the imperial hall, and reached 
The presence of the Shah, that man of Grace. 
When they had ta'en his crown and flung him head- 
Down from his throne they set upon his eyes 
The searing irons, and the radiant Lamps 
Were darkened. Then they suffered him to live, 
And gave his treasure shamefully to spoil. 

Such are the doings of the exalted sky ! 
Affect not thou this Wayside Hostelry, 
Wherefrom we have our whiles of wealth and woe, 
And in the end must quit them both and go. 
The hundredth and the hundred thousandth year 
As soon as they are numbered disappear. 
The man by whom good fortune would be won 
Must speak no evil and must list to none. 2 

1 Couplet omitted. 

 In C. and P. the reign ends here. 



How Khusrau Paruriz heard of the Blinding of Hurmuzd 

1866 Then Gustaham sent to A/argashasp 

One with two roadsters to Khusrau Parwiz 

In haste by night with tidings from Iran. 

The messenger approached the youthful Shah 

(The moon was one night old) and told what he 

Had heard of or had seen in thai revolt. 

The young prince paled like flower of fenugreek, 

And cried : " Whoever quitted) wisdom's ways, 

Obeying impulse through his lack of knowledge, 

And fearless of the process of high heaven, 

His life will profit not. If I found pleasure 

In this thy tale of ill my food and sleep 

Would turn to fire, but though, what time my father 

Set hand to blood, I could no longer dwell 

Within Iran yet I am still his slave, 

And hearken to his words." 

All seared at heart 
He marched his host as swift as fire for fear 
Lest that world-winner, great Bahrain Chublna, 
Should get the start of him, and so he led 
His men from Barda' and from Ardabil, 
Troop after troop, while from Armenia 
A power sped with the Shah's son swift as wind. 
As soon as tidings of him reached Baghdad : — 
" The claimant of the throne of might hath come," 
The folk were all contented, and thereby 
The atheling accomplished his desire. 
The great men of the city — those that shared 
The general joy — went out to welcome him, 
Then going to the dwelling of the Shah 
Discoursed at large, and he approved their words. 


They set an ivory throne upon the dais 

With golden torque and with a sumptuous crown 

That many a Shah had worn : it had beheld 

No lack upon the state. Khusrau Parwiz 

Made entry of the city mournfully, 

And visited his father with a sigh. 1 

5 There is no break here in the original. 





The deposition of Eurmuzd leaves Khusrau Parwiz and 
Bahram Chubina rivals for tin- throne. After abortive neco- 
tiations Khusrau Parwfz is compelled to flee to Rum and 
Eurmuzd is put to death. < >n the way to Hum Khusrau 
Parwfz is saved from capture by the devotion of his maternal 
uncle Bandwf. Bahram Chubina assumes the crown and 
frustrates a plol againsl himself. Khusrau Parwfz is well 
received in Rum, La given Caesar's daughter in marriage, and 
returns to Iran with a Ruman army. He is joined by Bandwf 
and others. After a severe Btruggle Bahram Chubina is 
forced to take refuge with the Khan of Chfn in whose service 
lie greatly distinguishes himself bu1 as he is preparing to in- 
vade [ran his death is compassed by Kharrad, sun of Barzfn, 
at the instigation of Khusrau Parwfz. The Khan avenges 
Bahrain ('liuln'na whose sister, (iiirdya, he asks in marriage. 
Gurdya escapes with her brother's partisans to Iran. Khusrau 
Parwiz to avenge his father puts to death Bandwi whose 
brother Gustaham rebels and marries Gurdya. She murders 
her husband at the instigation of Khusrau Parwfz who marries 
her himself and accords pardon to her adherents. He treats 
the city of Rai harshly bu1 relents at her request. He organizes 
the realm. Maryam, Caesar's daughter, gives birth to Shfrwi 
(Kubad) on which occasion Ciesar asks for the return of the 
True Cross but is refused. The poet then tells of the case of 
the fair Shirin, who murders Maryam, and that of Barbad, 
the minstrel, and of the greatness of Khusrau Parwiz. Shirwi 
is imprisoned, but the troops at length revolt and release him. 
Khusrau Parwiz is dethroned and put in ward. 

1 86 



Khusrau Parwiz (Chosroes II, A.D. 590-628) was contem- 
porary with three Eastern Roman Emperors — Maurice (A.D. 
582-602), Phocas (A.D. 602-610), and Heraclius (A.D. 610- 
642). The word "Parwiz" seems to be a variant of the 
Persian word " Piniz " which means " victorious." Certainly 
Khusrau Parwiz did more to justify such a title than any 
Shah since the days of Darius Eystaspis. Egypt and the 
whole of the Roman possessions in Asia fell into his hands, 
and Persian troops were encamped wthin a mile of Constanti- 
nople. The genius of Heraclius, however, at length turned tin- 
tide. On all these great events the Shahnama is silent and 
the bulk of the material of the reign is mad' up from the 
Romance of Bahrain (' 1 which Leaves his sister, Gurdya, 
firmly established in the favour of Khusrau Parwiz though 
with Shirin in the neighbourhood it seems doubtful whether 
she would be allowed to retain her position long. 2 The reign 
is the last great one of the poem and towards the end of it 
" bad begins, and worse remains behind." 
§4. Tabari also states that the meeting between Khusrau 
Parwiz and Bahrain Chubina took place on the Nahrawan. 3 
§ 5. The proverb is in the Persian Tabari but is spoken by 
Khusrau Parwiz when about to combat with three Turks. 1 
See below. 

§§ 6-7. In the Persian Tabari the three Turks are encoun- 
tered by Khusrau Parwiz after his return from Rum, 5 not as 
here and in Tabari. 6 

§ 8. " Thou shalt not kill, but need'st not strive 

Officiously to keep alive." 
probably about represents the share of responsibility that 
Khusrau Parwiz had in his father's murder. Bandwi and 
Gustaham were his maternal uncles. 

§ 9. According to the Persian Tabari Bahrain, the son of 
Siyawush, had married Bahrain Chubina's niece. 7 

Firdausi's description of Khusrau Parwiz' place of refuge is 
somewhat grandiloquent. It appears to have been a hermi- 
tage 8 or monastery. 9 
§§ 12. For the wife of Bahrain, son of Siyawush, see above. 

1 See p. 72. * Cf. pp. 364, 389. 3 NT, pp. 274, 278. 

4 ZT, ii. 292. D Id. p. 291. • NT, pp. 274, 280. 

' ZT, ii. 283. » Id. 280. • NT, p. 281. 


.Maiisil. -prince of Mush, was a member of the Mamigonian 
family, celebrated in Armenian history. 1 

§ 13. Khusrau Parwiz. on quitting Ctesiphon in his flight, 
crossed the Euphrates and went to Ambar, thence followed the 
course of the stream and recrossing it reached the Roman 
frontier-station of ( ircesium. Subsequently at the invitation of 
the Emperor Maurice he took up liis residence at Bierapolis. 2 
.According to the Persian Tabari the Aral) was Ijas. son of 
Kabisa. He was one of the chiefs of the Ban! Tayy tribe 3 
famous for its hospitality. He was made governor of Hfra by 
Khusrau Parwiz after the execution of Nu'man, the last prince 
of the dynasty, and commanded the Persians at the battle 
of Dhu Kar. 1 The Persian Tabari omits the meeting with the 
merchant . 

Karsan looks like a Persian form of Circesium bul is a 
shortened form of Karistan, a busy place. The miracle is not 
in the Persian Tabari. 

Warfghj as appeal- from the accounl in the Persian Tabari, 5 
was Rakka (Nicephorium, Callinicus) now in ruins. Some 
miles to the Bouth-wesl of it lay the city of Reseph or Rasafa, 
als(t now in ruins, in which was the shrine of the celebrated 
Saint Sergius who with his consort Saint Bacchus suffered 
martyrdom under .Ma.ximian. The town was in consequence 
known as Sergiopolis. father from a genuine but temporary 
impulse or from policy Khusrau Parwfz during his exile in 
Rum much affected < Ihristianity, adopted Sergius as his pat ion 
Saint and after recovering his throne still continued to send 
gifts to, and ask favours of. that shrine. Tabari makes Sergius 
the leader of the Roman army that effected the restoration f 
Khusrau Parwiz. 6 In the Shahnama the hermit=Serg'us. 

§ 17. The terms on which the Emperor Maurice agreed 
to help Khusrau Parwiz included the cession of Dara, Martyro- 
polis, and perhaps Nisibis. 7 Western authorities are silent 
about the marriage of the Emperor's daughter Maryam to 
Khusrau Parwiz, but Noldeke points out that Shirwfs pre- 
eminence at the Persian court is best explained by the assump- 

Id. 285, RSM, 319. • NT, p. 282 note, RSM, p. 480 and note. 
ZT, ii. 286. * NT, p. 333 seq. ZT, ii. pp. 286, 318 seq. 

ZT, ii. 288. For Dln'i Kar sec p. 190. 

See NT, p. 284 and note, ZT, ii. 288, GDF, v, 375 and note, RSM, 

p. 497 and note. 
NT, p. 285 note, RSM, p. 482 and note, GDF, v. 375 and note. 


tion that his mother was a princess. Shirin, who naturally 
was antagonistic to him in the interests of her own son, Mar- 
danshah, was unable to prevail against him. 1 

§§ 19-20. These are not in the Persian Tabari. 

§21. The army lent to Khusrau Parwiz by the Emperor 
was commanded by Narses, a Persian in the Roman service, 
an able general who was afterwards cruelly put to death by 
Phocas. 2 Niyatus (Theodosius) was the seven years old son, 
and so described in the Persian Tabari, 3 of Maurice and had 
already been crowned by the Emperor. He may have accom- 
panied Narses. 4 

§23. The mission of Dara Panah is not in the Persian 

§§24-26. Historically the events of the campaign seem to 
have been briefly as follows : — Khusrau Parwiz with his Roman 
allies marched to the lesser Zab in order to effect a junction 
with his native and Armenian supporters with whom were 
his two uncles and Mausil. Bahrain Chubina vainly tried 
to prevent this. He then offered battle with his back to the 
Zagros mountains but was compelled to retreat to higher 
ground where Khusrau Parwiz attacked him against the opinion 
of Narses, who, however, with his Roman troops saved the 
situation when Khusrau Parwiz was in imminent danger of 
disaster. This incident appears as the intervention of Suriish 
in the Shahnama. 5 In the meantime a detachment of the 
allied forces had occupied Seleucia and Ctesiphon. The out- 
come of the situation was that Bahrain Chubina retreated 
through the mountains in his rear to the neighbourhood of 
Takht-i-Sulaiman in order to maintain his communications 
with Rai and eastern Iran generally. He was pursued and 
after a further retirement was defeated decisively and escaped 
with the remnant of his forces by way of Rai and Damaghan 
to the Turks. 

§27. The Persian Tabari lays the scene with the car- 
line in the neighbourhood of Hamadan. Thence Bahrain 
Chubina proceeds to Rai and Damaghan. He then defeats a 
mountain-chief named Karan and takes him prisoner but 
releases him/' 

1 NT, p. 283 note, RSM, p. 504 note. * GDF, v. 373 and note, 391. 
» ZT, ii. 291. « NT, p. 284 note. 

6 See p. 299. • ZT, ii. p. 296 seq. 


§30. According to Sasanian usage Khusrau Parwfz in- 
augurates his reign by visiting the Fire-temple at Shiz. 1 

§31. The death of Firdausfs son took place apparently 
about A.D. 100-4. 

§32. In the Persian Tabarf the name of the chief that 
domineered over the Khan was Paighu — the word used for the 
races of the north in Dakikfs portion <>f the Shahnama. 2 He 
was the Khan's brother and claimed bo have a better title 
tu tin' throne. 3 

§34. In the Persian Tabarf it is a hear that carries off 
the Khan's daughter and Bahrain Chubfna rescues her. 1 

§ 37. In the Persian Tabarf the queen i- concerned direi tly 
in the murder of Bahrain Chubfna. She is heavily bribed and 
provides the assassin. 8 So too in Tabarf. 8 

§ 39. Tli-' crafty Kharrad, bod "I Barzfn, as Firdausi calls 
him. Imt whose real name was Eurmuzd Garabzfn or Galab- 
zfn, may be identical with the chief wh<> commanded one of the 
Persian win-- a1 the battle of Dhu Kar' and was lolled, 8 bul 
according to tie' Shahnama be was alive at the accession of 
Kubad (Shfrwf). 

The battle of Dim bar. though the forces engaged in it do 
not appeal' tu have been Large, was a very memorable affair. 
The events that led up tu it are given at Length in Tabarf. It. 
will he sufficienl tu Bay here that a Long series of intrigues re- 
sulted in tl xecution of Xn "man Ian .Mnn/ir by order of 

Khusrau Parwfz. This ended the dynasty of the princes of 
Ifira. and [jas bin Kabfsa 9 was appointed the Persian governor 
by the Shah who unified him tu collect and dispatch tu the 
Persian court all Nu 'man's effects. The Arab chief, Hani 
bin Mas'ud, who had been cut rusted with them refused to give 
them up. Khusrau Parwiz instructed [jas to enforce com- 
pliance, and the battle of Dhu Kar, in which the Persian- \\ ere 
overthrown, followed. Where Dhu Kar was is not clear but 
it was not far from the Euphrates and Kiifa, and had an all 
the year round water-supply which made it a great resort of 
the Arab tribes in the summer at which season the battle was 
fought. The Arabs celebrated their victory with songs of 
triumph, and its results and those of the Persian policy that 

Vol. i. p. 6o. 2 Vol. v. p. 21 and note. 2 ZT, ii. 302. 

Id. <■ Id. 303. • NT, p. 289. 

See below. 8 NT, pp. 280 and note, 335 note, 338, 341, 342. 

' Cf. p. 188. 


led up to it were very important. The destruction of the 
dynasty of the princes of Hira, which had formed a buffer- 
state between the Persians and the Arabs, was a political 
blunder. The defeat was a display of weakness on the part 
of the Persians in a region at no great distance from their own 
capital. It gave the Arabs independence, encouraged them 
to make raids into Persian territory, and was a glorious and 
stimulating memory with which tradition soon associated 
Muhammad himself when the time came for the great Arab 
invasion of fran. For these reasons the battle called for some 
notice here although there is no mention of it in the Shahnama. 
It was fought some time between A.I). 604-610. l 

§§40-42. According to Tabari the Khan wished to marry 
Gurdya to his brother who pursues and is killed by her. 8 

§§44-47. On these see NT. p. 478 ser/. The story of the 
revolt of Gustaham seems only to be known from various 
versions of the Romance of Bahrain Chubina. Bandwi ap- 
pears to have been killed early in the reign about the yeai 
A.D. 591. Gustaham rebelled shortly afterwards and held 
out till about A.D. 595. 

^52. Shirwi seems to have been Khusrau Parwiz' eldest 
son but who his real mother was is unknown. 3 His troubles 
with his father sprang from Shirin's ambition on behalf of her 
own son, Mardanshah. 1 

§§53-54. According to the Shahnama the Cross had been 
long indeed in the possession of the Persians. Here the carry- 
ing off is attributed to Ardshir not Darab. 5 Historically 
they took it when they captured Jerusalem in A.D. 614. 6 It 
was given back as one of the terms of peace between Heraclius 
and Kubad (Shirwi) in A.D. 628. 

The statement that Jesus laughed upon the ('ruxs is a corol- 
lary from the notion, common among the Gnosl it s, t hat he was 
not really crucified but some one in his stead. The more accur- 
ate form of the statement would be that quoted in Photius 
from a work called " The Journeys (or Circuits) of the Apostles " 
('ATiwT-oAur riepi'oSot) viz. that Christ was not crucified but 
another in his place, and that therefore he laughed at the 

Crucifiers (Tbv Xpiffrbv firj (rravpwdfjvai 'aKK' %Ttpov 'avr' 'avrov, Kai 

KaTayeKqv Sta tovto t£v aTavpowTuv). 1 Muhammad in the Kuran 

1 See for the above generally NT, p. 310 seq. and notes, ZT, ii. 309 seq. 
'- N 1', p. 289. * Cf. p. 188. « NT, p. 357, note. 

6 Vol. v. p. 306, and note. ' NT, p. 291 note. BPB, cod. 114. 


adopted this view which of course became the belief of his 
followers : — " They slew him not and they crucified him not, 
but they had only his likeness." 1 

§56. Shirin has been described by different authorities 
as of Roman, Greek, Armenian, and Persian descent. She 
has been identified also with Maryam, the problematical wife 
of Khusrau Parwfz — a view that receives no support from 
the Shahnama. There is a general agreement that she was a 
Christian. 2 According to the Shahnama the association of 
Khusrau Parwfz with Shirin began during his father's lifetime. 
This is affirmed also in some accounts quoted by Mfr Khand 
according to which Shirin was in the service of a Persian noble 
at whose house Klmsrau Parwfz in his youth occasionally 
visited. There he saw Shfrfn, fell in love with her. and gave 
her a ring. The noble got to know of what was going on and 
ordered a servant to drown her. She saved herself, however, 
with the servant's connivance and boot refuge with a hermit. 
After Khusrau Parwfz became Shah she gut the ring conveyed 
to him, and he carried her off to Mada'in in greal state. 8 If 
Shirin really managed to retain her influence over Khusrau 

Parwiz for the best part of a lifetime she must have been pos- 
sessed of a very exceptional personality. The devotion to 
her of Inr lover, Farlnid, is celebrated in Nizamfs poem of 
"Khusrau and Shfrfn" (A.I). 1180). Farhad, famous for 
his architectural and engineering skill, seems to be an histori- 
cal character. To him with some probability may be attri- 
buted the responsibility for Khusrau Parwfz 5 triumphal arch 
at Takht-i-Bustan 4 Dear Kirmanshah and his palace at Mashfta 
(Mashetta) some twenty-five miles due easl of the northern 
end of the Dead Sea. The date of the construction of this 
palace, of which the exquisitely carved stone facade is now 
in the Kaiser Eriedrich .Museum at Berlin, however, is still 
disputed. 5 Farhad is not mentioned in the Shahnama. in 
the Persian Tabari Shirin is stated to have been a Greek, to 
have predeceased Khusrau Parwiz, and to have been loved 
by Farhad, but it is not said that she was in love with him. 8 
Firdausi does not suggest that she was of other than Persian 

* RK, p. 551 and note. Cf. SK, i. 62 and notes, 1 [6 and notes. 
1 Cf. p. 195. 3 RM, Pt. J. Vol. ii. p. 399. 

4 For an illustration sec PCHAP, p. 135. 

6 A general view oi the ruins, as they were, and a detail of the orna- 
mentation, are give" in RS.M, p. 594 seq. * ZT, ii. 304. 


origin, and she is said to have been a native of Khuzistan. 1 
Her name is derived from the Persian word for milk " shir " 
and so comes to mean " sweet." 

§ 57. A somewhat similar story is told of the Egyptian 
Amasis by Herodotus. 2 

§ 58. The murder of Maryam by Shin'n is on the face of it 
a poetical fiction suggested by the known enmity felt by Shirin 
with regard to Shirwi who, as a parricide to be, is here repre- 
sented in an unfavourable light. His imprisonment probably 
was brought about by Shirin in the interests of her own son 
Mardanshah and nearly had the effect desired. 3 

§60. In the Persian Tabari Sarkasb is called Sergius. 4 

§ 61. The palace here referred to must be the Takht-i- 
Khusrau whose facade and vast hall on the left bank of the 
Tigris some twenty-five miles below Baghdad form the finest 
remains of Sasanian architecture. The palace, however, seema 
to have been built not in the days of Khusrau Parwiz but in 
those of his grandfather Niishirwan and. as Firdausi states. 
a Ruman architect may have been employed. 6 Khusrau Par- 
wiz from about the time of the outbreak of the Roman war 
(A.D. 603), after the murder of the Emperor Maurice by Phocas 
till nearly the end of his reign, held his court at Dastagird 
uot at Ctesiphon. 6 

§§ 63-65. The reign of Khusrau Parwiz bears a considerable 
resemblance to that of Assurbanipal (B.C. 668-626). Their 
seats of government, were on the same historic stream — Dasta- 
gird and Mada'in in the former case, Nineveh and Chalah 
in the latter. Both reigns were long and the last great ones 
of their respective dynasties. The wars of both monarchs 
covered much the same ground — Syria, Armenia, Asia Minor 
and Egypt. In both cases a season of military brilliancy and 
territorial expansion was followed by one of cumulative dis- 
aster. In both cases the national resources were over-strained 
and in both cases the subsequent collapse came with startling 

The account given by Firdausi of the causes that led to the 
fall of Khusrau Parwiz and of the fall itself may be amplified 
from other authorities thus : — In A.D. 626 the Sasanian Em- 
pire, though it had suffered shrewd blows in the previous 

' NT, p. 283 note. * RH, Bk. ii, ch. 172. 3 p. 196. « ZT, ii. 305. 

4 For an illustration of the ruins see RSM, frontispiece. 
' See p. 194- 



campaigns of Heraclius, was still after nearly a quarter of a 
century of warfare far from heinir worsted. It was not Klnisrau 
Parwiz but Heraclius that made several vain attempts to 
bring about peace. The Persian army under Shahrbaraz 
(the Guraz of Pirdausi) still occupied Chalcedon, divided only 
by a mile, but an impassable mile, of sea from Constantinople, 
The Persians tad good cause to deplore their lack of sea-power. 
To get over this difficulty they made arrangements for a mixed 
horde of Avars. Slavs, and other tribes, who had no straits 
ioss, to attack Constantinople. That city was besieged 
accordingly but proved impregnable to the resources of the 
barbarians. Heraclius, meanwhile, contented himself with 
operations in Lazica hut his brother, Theodore, worsted the 
Persians in Asia .Minor. In this connexion we have an in- 
stance of the way in which Klnisrau I'arwix treated his un- 
successful generals. The defeat of t he Persians <>n t he occasion 
in question seems largely to have been due to the effects of a 
Bevere hail-storm. Khusrau Parwiz, however, was very wroth 
and when the Persian commander died of despondency shortly 
afterwards he had the body embalmed and sent to him to be 
maltreated. 1 InA.D. 627 Heraclius determined on a Winter- 
campaign againsl his enemy's capital. Ee defeated the 
Persians near Nineveh on December L2th and then marched on 
Dastagird, some seventy miles above Ctesiphon, where Khusrau 
Parwiz had held his court for the previous twenty years in 
consequence, it is said, of a prediction made to him when 
besieging Dara* in the days of the Emperor Phocas that he 
would perish on the next occasion he entered Ctesiphon. 2 
Nevertheless he retreated thither, abandoning Dastagird to 
its fate, and then crossed the Tigris to Bih-Ardshfr (Seleucia), 

taking with him Shiri'n. two sons of his by her. ami tine. 
daughter- wives. 3 His eldesl -on. Shfrwi, and his other sons 
were in internment at 'Akr Bahil. a state-prison near Babylon. 4 
At Bih-Ardshir the Shah armed his personal attendants etc. 
and sent them to reinforce the defeated Persian army which had 
made no effective stand since the battle of Nineveh. Th< e 
combined forces, with two hundred elephants, took up their 
position on the river Arba, a short distance from Ctesiphon 
and broke down the bridges. 5 On .January 7th A.D. 628 
Heraclius advanced from Dastagird, which he had devastated, 

1 CTC, Vol. i. p. 485. ' Id. pp. 494, 496 ' Id. 496, 499. 

* XT, p. 356 and note. 6 CTC, p. 498. 


and three days later encamped within twelve miles of the Arba. 
He sent George, the leader of the Armenian contingent, to 
reconnoitre the Persian position and on his report retreated 
northwards to the neighbourhood of Lake Urumiah where 
he passed the rest of the Winter. Shortly before he had made 
another of his appeals to Khusrau Parwiz for an accommoda- 
tion : "I follow thee and am instant for peace, for I do not of 
mine own will consume Persia with fire but because I am 
forced thereto by thee. Now therefore let us throw down 
our arms and welcome peace. Let us put out the fire before 
all is burned." The Shah refused the offer to the exasperation 
of his people 1 with whom he was already very unpopular be- 
cause, according to Tabari, he despised them and treated their 
great men without regard, had given tin- barbarian Farruk- 
hanzad, son of Sumai, power over them, and ordered the 
execution of the captives, and intended to put to death the 
Persian troops defeated by Eeraclius. 2 He had also, it seems, 
sent instructions for the putting to death of the Persian general 
Shahrbaraz, but the bearer of the letter was taken by the 
Romans. Heraclius informed Shahrbaraz who falsified the 
letter by making the order apply to forty other chiefs as well 
as to himself and read out the dispatch as altered to the as- 
sembled Persian leaders. In their wrath they renounced their 
allegiance to Khusrau Parwiz, made terms of peace with 
Heraclius, and decided to quit Chalcedon and return home. :! 
Khusrau Parwiz also had managed to offend his native Christ- 
ian subjects. In earlier days he had been disposed favourably 
towards them, and we have seen how he placed himself under 
the special protection of S. Serums. 1 while his wife, Shirin, 
was a Christian of the Xestorian persuasion. She was. how- 
ever, lured over to the Monophysites and used her influence 
against the Nestorians who in consequence were not allowed 
to choose a Catholicus. A very highly esteemed Xestorian 
named Yazdin was chief tax-collector. After his death Khus- 
rau Parwiz seized his property and did not bestow by way 
of compensation the vacant post on Yazdin's son, Sham t a, 
who also was a Nestorian and afterwards took a prominent 
part in the revolt against the Shah. Towards the end of the 
reign the Monophysites also had cause for complaint against 

• Id. 

* NT, p. 356. The prisoners are said to have numbered 36,000. 
» CTC, i. 497. « p. 188. 


Khusrau Parwfz. Generally speaking, too, all Christians musl 
have been horrified at the sack of Jerusalem and the carrying 
off of the True Cross. 1 There was therefore no lack of dis- 
content throughout the army and nation generally. The 
retreat of Heraclius, however, at a moment when the state 
seemed threatened with imminent peril, might have staved 
off matters for a while had it not been for the question of the 
succession. It is said thai Khusrau Parwfz when lie fled from 
Hastagird to Ctesiphon was suffering from dysentery and 
wished to secure the crown for Ins son Mardasaa (Mardanshah), 
the offspring of shfrin.'- Shirwf, the Shah's eldest son, who 
in internmenl with many of his brothers, was therefore in 
a situation of imminent peril. A conspiracy was formed to 
make him Shah and rescue the captives in the prisons. Among 
the conspirators were two sons of Shahrbaraz, Shamta, son of 
Yazdin, and Mihr Hurmuzd, the son of a Eormer governor of 
Nfmruz who had fallen a victim to Khusrau Parwiz' jealous 
Suspicions. 3 A party of the nobles hastened to 'Akc l'>;il>il 
and brought Shirwf by nighl to Bih-Ardshfr (Seleucia) wherej 
at the bridge of boats, which it would be important to seize, 
he was me1 by others of the conspirators. The prisons were 
thrown open, and thai nighl Khusrau Parwfz heard the shouts 
thai hailed shirwi as " Kubad Shahanshah." When the rebels 
approached the palace in the early morning the royal body- 
guard fled and Khusrau Parwfz escaped into his garden which 
was called "The Garden of the Indians" but was discovered 
short I v and taken prisoner. The date, according to our reckon- 
ing, was February 25th, A.D. 628. ' 


The Prelude 

Of heaven's dome revolving rapidly, 
And ever restless in its instancy. 

What shall I say ? It giveth one a crown, 
Another to the fishes in the sea ; 

1 See for the above NT, pp. 357, 383 and notes. 2 CTC. i. 499. 

3 NT, p. 379 and note. Noldeke docs not consider the execution of 
the governor historical. ' Id. p. 350. 


To one man naked hands and head and feet, C. 1867 

No where to dwell in and no while to eat, 

And to another beaver-skin, brocade, 
And silk, with milk and honey for his meat. 

The end of both, ensnared in bale's dark net, 
Is in the dust, and had the sage ne'er set 

Eyes on the world, nor passed through days of strife 
As lord or liege, his lot were happier yet. 

I treat the matter of Khusrau Parwiz, 
And proffer to the reader novelties. 1 


How Khusrau Parwiz sat upon the Throne and made 

an Oration 

Whenas Khusrau Parwiz sat on the throne 

Of gold the men of noble birth repaired 

To him. They summoned all the chiefs and showered 

Gems over that new crown. He thus addressed 

The arch mages : ' No one save the fortunate 

Can win this crown and throne. May mine employ 

Be right alone for from injustice cometh 

All loss. We purpose well to all. Our head 

Is void of evil-doing. This new throne, 

And this new fortune bright and opulent, 

Are mine from God. Do ye withal incline 

Your hearts to obey and covenant with us 

To observe three things in all contingencies : 

To harm not holy men, not to rebel, 

1 There is no break lure in the original. 


And to abstain from others' goods forwhy 
The pang will pass to him that did the wrong, 
Whene'er it chanced, and sold his heart for naught. 
Now must your hands he washed from things like 

The path of right ensued. Moreover wisdom 
Approveth what accordeth besl to manhood. 
I have no difference with any one 
Although such soughl my crown and signet-ring. 
The man of high birth and of noble nature 
Will speak but right. Your safety is assured : 
I will not work the works of Ahriman." 

All those that heard the Shah blessed crown and 

t hrone, 
And going forth rejoicing praised his fortune, 

While he descended from the throne of might 
Right glad and mused upon Hurmuzd all night. 


How Kims,-, in Parwiz visited his Father and nsked 


c. 1868 Now when the ebon Veil had disappeared, 

And in the distance cock-crow reached the ear, 

The winner of the world with stricken heart, 

And deeply sorrowful, approached his sire, 

On seeing him lamented, did obeisance, 

And tarried long with him. Khusrau Parwiz, 

Ueholding his sire's face, sighed deeply, kissed 

His eyes and head and feet, then said to him 

With full heart and with face all wet with tears : — 

" My father, fortune's mate, thou memory 

Of Nushirwan ! thou know'st that none had pricked 


Thy finger had I been but there to help thee. 

See what thou wilt command me ; grief hath come 

Upon thee and my heart is full. If now 

Thou biddest I am at thy gate a slave 

To guard thy head. I seek not crown, I want 

Not host, and lay my head before thy throne." 

Hurmuzd replied : " O prudent one ! my day 
Of misery will pass from me, and he 
That perpetrated this will soon be gone : 
Both trouble and delight are transient. 
I ask three things of thee, no more, and one 
Is that each morning at the break of day 
Thou vilt delight mine ears with thine own voice ; 
The second is that thou wilt send to me 
Some noble cavalier scarred with long fight 
To talk to me of warfare and the chase, 
And some old sage to hold discourse of kings, 
And bring to me the records to abate 
My pain and misery ; and my third wish 
Is that thy mother's brothers, who are not 
Thine equals but thy slaves, shall never see 
The world henceforth : discharge thv wrath on them 
For all this grief." 

" O king ! " he made reply, 
" May that man perish who deploreth not 
Thine eyes and be thy foes, though their ill deeds 
Be secret, banished from the world, but still 
Consider in that lucid mind of thine : 
Bahrain Chubfna hath been paladin 
While with him there are countless forces — horsemen 
And gallant sworders — and if we lay hand 
On Gustaham no refuge will be left us ; 

But as regardeth an old scribe to read C. 1869 

The annals, and some war-primed cavalier, 
Skilled in the feast withal, I will dispatch 
Such ever new to thee. Be no whit sad, 


And hold not thou the action Gustaham's ; 

'Tis God's because of senseless words and deeds. 

May thy heart bear this anguish, and may patience 

Consort with wisdom ; but should fortune serve 

I will myself exact complete revenge 

On Gustaham and reprobate Bandwi, 

And give them shroudless to the dogs to cat. 

Be of good cheer, son of Nushirwan ! 

And may thy soul be ever young." 

He spake, 
And left the presence weeping but reserved. 
The son was kindlier-tempered than the king 
In which regard a man of wisdom said :— 
"A bland youth, sweet-tongued, is a better friend 
Than some fierce warrior ageing to bis cud. 
Yet at the Iasl dust is the common lot 
Of one of parts and one that hath them not; 
Allied to Learn of One there is QO need. 
Who saith that wits and fools are of one breed. 
For knowledge will ensure thy fair surcease, 
And heaven in Paradise will give thee peace. 

As victuals serve to keep the body whole. 
So knowledge is all needful lor the soul. 
Cry to the Holy and Supreme in all, 
And be all undismayed at great or small." 


Hoiv Bohr dm Chubina heard of the Blinding of Shah 
Hurmuzd and how he led his Troops against 
Khnsrau Parwiz 

Bahrain Chubina heard how fortune dealt 

With that famed king : " They set the searing irons 


To his bright eyes, and those two Lamps, those twin 

Narcissi of his garth, are dead, his son 

Is seated on his throne and his high fortune 

Is trodden underfoot." 

Bahrain Chubina, 
The hero, was amazed, grew wan, and pondered. 
He said : " The time for me to fight hath come ; 
By daring I will seize the world." 

He bade 
To bear forth to the field the kettledrums 
And flag of majesty. He packed the baggage, 
He called his warriors to horse and spake 
Of waging war against Khusrau Parwfz. 
His host, as 'twere a moving mountain, marched 
Audaciously as far as Nahrawan. 

Khusrau Parwiz, on hearing, was in dudgeon C. 1870 

At such swift action and sent spies to note 
The progress of events with these behests : — 
" We first must learn the feeling of his troops : 
If like Bahrain Chubina they intend 
To fight or whether we shall have delay, 
And whether he be foremost at the centre 
Or at the wings, his state at audience-time, 
And if he hunteth while upon the march." 

They went unnoted by the troops, gat news, 
And came back to the Shah all privily. 
They said : " His troops are for Bahrain Chubina, 
All from" the highest chieftains to the boys. 
In marching he is sometimes at the centre, 
And sometimes with the right or left or baggage. 
We saw him long of sight and diligent — 
A cautious warrior and cavalier. 
His kinsmen all are in his confidence ; 
He hath no need of strangers, giveth audience 
In royal fashion, hunteth on the plain 
With cheetahs, knoweth but the usages 


Of Shahs, and readeth all the book of Dimna." 1 

Khusrau Parwiz said to his minister :— 
' A long task faeeth ns. Bahram Chubina, 
When he is charging at an enemy, 
Would break the hearts of dragons in the deep. 
And from the monarch <>!' the world withal 
Hath learned the methods of the kings of kings, 
While, thirdly, with Kalila, 2 so to speak, 
As minister none hath s ( » shrewd a scribe." 

Then said he to Bandwi and Gustaham :— 
" Our mates are grief and toil." 

Now when Gurdwi, 
Darman, the monarch of Armenia, 
Shapur and Andaman, shrewd chiefs and fighters, 
Were set in secret conclave with the Shah 
He thus addressed them : ' Mighty warriors ! 
When wisdom is a light within the brain 
Then knowledge is the body's coal of mail, 
Which naught excepl the sword of death will sever, 
A sword whereto :i sled helm is as wax. 
I am but young to you so cannot walk 
The world aright : instruct me what to do. 
Who suffereth from these wounds ? " 

An archmage said :— 
"Thou wilt be happy and the Grace and provand 
Of empty brains. Now since the mystery 
Of this our whirling world grew manifest 
Hath wisdom been disparted into four. 
One portion is the king's for Grace and wisdom 
Fit him ; another is the pious man's ; 
The third the loyal liege's who as near 
The royal person tendereth advice ; 
The "wise account the small part left the thane's. 
The impious and unthankful have no wisdom. 
If now the king will hear the old sage's words, 
1 The Fables of Bidpai. See Vol. vii. p. 382. 2 Id. 


And fix his heart's eye on them, he will eat 

Their fruit when they have passed within his heart." 

The Shah replied : ' Were I to write this down 
In gold its Grace and vogue would ask no less ; 
The archimages' utterances are gems, 
But I have other purposes at heart, 
For when our two hosts meet, and when our spearheads 
Shall reach to Gemini, I shall not be 
Blamed if I quit the centre and advancing 
Bsfore the host call to Bahrain Chubina, 
That impious and self-seeking general, 
Show him a peaceful face, make much of him, 
And praise him. If he shall receive my words 
'Tis well, for who at court can be his peer ? 
But if he seeketh fight I too will fight, 
And range my host against his."' 

All the leaders 
Assented to his scheme, the great applauded. 
And hailed him king of earth ; all said : ' Oh ! be 
The ills of fortune far from thee, O king ! 
Be victory, Grace, majesty, and crown 
Of king of kings thine own." 

He answered thus :— 
' So be it ; enough. May none of us behold 
Disunion or defeat." 

Then from Baghdad, 
And with new camp-enclosures, he marched forth 
Upon the plain. As the two powers drew near 
Upon the march, the captain of the host's 
On that side and on this the Shah's, and when 
The world's light had been taken in the toils, 
And pitchy night had shaken out its locks, 
Scouts went forth from both hosts to guard the 

approaches ; 
And when night, frighted by the sword of day 
Had fled dry-lipped and quaking, rose the din 


Of tymbals from both camps and Sol led forth 
To Avar. Then at the Shah's command Bandwi 
And Gnstaham put on their iron helms, 
And went with other chiefs of ardent soul 
Toward the canal 1 of Nahrawan, whereat 
The outpost came before Bahrain Chubina, 
And said : ' There is a force two bowshots off." 
On hearing this he ranged his host and called 
His veterans and bestrode a piebald steed 
With musk-black tail — a noble caracoller 
"With brazen hoofs. An Indian scimitar 
Sufficed to arm him, and its stroke was like 
The levin from the cloud. lie urged lhs horse 
As 'twere a lightning-flash. Thai miscreant, 
Izid Gashasp, was on his left. Withal 
There came Hamdan Gashasp 8 and Yalan-sina, 
All rage and enmity, while three hold Turks, 
Sprung from the Khan, made ready to take vengeance 
Upon Khnsrau Parwiz and swore: "" When \\«- 
Shnll see the Shah out-distancing his troops, 
Him will we bring to thee in bonds or slain. 
And thy realm shall repose in peace." 

On one side 
There was Khnsrau Parwiz and on the other 
The paladin, between wns Nahrawan, 
While on both sides the armies watched them meet, 
And how the paladin the Shah would greet. 


Hoic Khusrau Parwiz and Bahrain Chubina met and 


Bahram Chubina and Khusrau Parwiz 
Thus met, one cheerful and the other grim. 

1 " Spring " in the original. 8 Reading with P. 


The world-lord rode an ivory grey and wore 

A gold and jewelled crown ; his robe from Chin 

Was of brocade of gold. Gurdwi as guide 

Preceded him, Bandwi and Gustaham 

Were at his side, and therewithal Kharrad, 

Son of Barzin, who wore a helm of gold. 

They all were clad in iron, gold, and silver ; 

Their golden girdles were occult with gems. 

Bahram Chubina paled with rage on seeing 

The king of kings and thus addressed his chiefs : — 

This whoreson miscreant from low estate 

And boorish manner hath attained to manhood, 

Grown powerful and girt himself for action. 

The writing of the down is manifest 

Upon the ivory rondure of his face ; 

So now he hath become Shah Far id 1111 

With mace and crown and caught the imperial style, 

But speedily will this world end for him. 

This dark-souled bastard leadeth on his troops 

Like Nushirwan. Scan thoroughly his host 

To see if there be of it one of name. 

I cannot spy one warlike cavalier C. 1873 

That could confront me for a single breath. 

Now shall he look upon the deeds of men, 

Steeds charging, scimitars, the dust of war, 

The clash of battle-axes, showers of arrows, 

The heroes' shouts, the captives, give and take. 

The elephants are driven from the field 

When I march forth to battle. At our voice 

The mountains melt and warriors lose their proAvess. 

I take the rivers with my sword and turn 

Their waters into blood." 

He spake and spurred 

\siis pied steed, thou hadst said : " His flying eagle." 
e chose himself a narrow battlefield, 
_ he troops in wonder watching him, and thence 


Went on to Nahrawan and there confronted 

The glorious Great with certain of Iran, 

Armed for the conflict with Khusrau Parwiz, 

Who said : l " () noble chiefs ! who recogniseth 

Bahram Chubina ? '" 

Said Gurdwi : " kino- ! 

Observe the warrior on the piebald steed. 

With white juppon, black baldrick, and who rideth 

About anions I he t roops." 

lie recognised 

The man at sight and said : ' Yon lengthy one. 

Smoke-hued and riding on the noble piebald ?' 

Gurdwi replied : ' The same and bent on ill." 
' If thou shouldsl question," said Khusrau Parwiz, 
' That crook-back he would answer churlishly ; 

With thai I ked nose and half shut eyes ' he hath,' 

Thou wouldesl say, 'a wrathful heart.' Thou seest 

That he is wicked by his looks, God's foe. 

I mark naught of submission in his head, 

And that nunc will command him." 

To Bandwi 

And Gustaham he said I herea Eter : * I 

Will give an illustration of this saw : — 

' If 'neath the load the donkey will not pass 

Then take the weighty burden to the ass." 

If some bold div hath gulled Bahram Chubina 

How should he see God's way ? All hearts that ache 

With greed are helped not by the advice of wisdom. 

When thou goest forth to war debate is over. 

We must consider all from first to last : 

Who knoweth which will conquer in the fight, 

Which host be doleful or illustrious ? 

Considering those troops so well arrayed, 

And with a leader eager for the fray, 

Such as Bahram Chubina is — a man 

Grim as a lusty div — and militants 


Like ravening wolves, I will, with your consent, C. 1S74 

So that disgrace may not attach to me, 

Be first to make advances ; 'twill be better 

For me than showing slackness in the fight. 

If I receive from him a fair reply 

His late misdoings shall be obsolete ; 

I will bestow some corner of the world 

Upon him and by bounty earn his thanks ; 

Our warfare and endeavours in the field 

Shall end in peace — a gain to us. No doubt 

The wisest course is safest. Good folk joy 

When monarchs act as merchants do." 

" O king ! " 
Said Gustaham, " live happily while time 
Shall last. Thou scattcrest gems in talk and art 
More Misc. Do what thou wiliest. Thou art just, 
And yon slave is unjust : thy head is full 
Of brains and his of wind." 

Khusrau Parwiz, 
On hearing this, advanced before his troops, 
Held distant parle with brave Bahrain Chubina, 
And sought for feast in war-time. Thus he said : — 
" Illustrious man ! what business hast thou here 
Upon the battlefield ? Thou art as though 
The jewel of the court, the wealth of throne 
And diadem, the army's prop in war-time, 
And as a bright light at our festivals. 
Thou art ambitious, brave, and servest God ; 
Ne'er may the Almighty take His hand from thee. 
I have considered of thy case, approved 
Thine acts, will entertain thee and thy troops. 
And make my soul glad by the sight of thee. 
I will appoint thee general of Iran. 
As is but right, and I will pray to God 
For thee." 

When brave Bahrain Chubina heard 


He gave his black-tailed, piebald steed the rein, 
Saluted from his seat, paused, and replied :— 
" In good case, blithe, and fortunate am I, 
And may the day of greatness ne'er be thine, 
Who knowest not kingship whether just or not. 
The Alans' king in the conduct of his kingship 
Is being helped by the unfortunate ! 
I have considered of thy case and suppled 
A lasso lor thy sake. I will erect 
Forthwith a lofty gibbet, make thy hands 
Fast in the coils, and hang thee up thereon 
As thou deservest, giving thee a glimpse 
Of fort une's bitterness." 

Khusrau Parwiz 

Heard and his cheeks became like fenugreek. 
l8 75 He knew : " Bahrain Chubfna will not yield, 

And part with crown and throne," and thus replied : — 
"Ingrate! No good man would speak thus. When 

guest s 
Come to thy house from Far dost thou revile them 
At feasting-time ? This note is not the wont 
Of Shahs or of the exalted cavaliers. 
No Arab and no Persian e'er have acted 
Like this in thirty centuries. The wise 
Would shame hereat, so go not thou about 
The door of thanklessness. When guests give thee 
A glorious greeting one must be a div 
To answer as thou dost. Ill days, I fear, 
Await thee for thou knowest that thy counsels 
Are troubled. Thy resource is in the hands 
Of that Great King who liveth ever more, 
Whose word is law. Thou sinnest in His sight, 
And art ingrate, with person in disgrace, 
And heart in fear. In calling me the king 
Of the Alans thou takest but one side 
Of my descent unless I am unworthy 



Of king of kingship and the cap of power 

As having for my grandsire Niishirwan, 

And for my sire Hurmuzd. Whom knowest thou 

More worthy ? " 

Said Bahrain Chubina : ' Wretch, 
And mad in deed and word ! first, for thy talk 
Of guests : thou art thyself new-fangled though 
Thy talk is of the past. What have the words 
Of Shahs to do with thee ? Thou art no sage, 
Or valiant cavalier. Thou wast the Alans' king, 
And now though thou art chief thou art withal 
Inferior to the slave of slaves. Thou art 
A fruitless evil-doer in the world ; 
No Shah art thou or fit to lead the mighty : 
But me men bless as Shah. I will not let thee 
Set foot on earth. Moreover, when I said : — 
' Thou art ill-starred, unlit for rule and kingship,' 
I said it, worthless Shah ! and may the state 
Be never thine ! because the Iranians 
Are foes of thine, will struggle to uproot thee, 
Will rend the. , skin and veins, and give the dogs 
Thy bones to eat." 

Khusrau Parwiz replied : — 
" Knave ! why so fierce and haughty, for foul words 
Disgrace a man ? But from the very first 
Thy disposition hath been thus ; clear wisdom 
Is severed from thy brain. Blest is the noble 
That eateth wisdom's fruits ! Fey divs discourse 
At large. I would not have a paladin 
Like thee made weak and ruined by his temper. 
I prithee banish anger from thy heart, C. 1876 

Be not so moved and charm away thy wrath. 
Remember God, the just Possessor ; base 
Thy wisdom on His justice. Thou hast now 
A height before thee higher than Bistun, 
And if a king shall ever come of thee 



The Egyptian thorn will bear. Thy heart is full 
Of thoughts of rule but we shall see what God 
Ordaineth. "Who hath taught thee such ill carriage, 
Such principles of Ahriman, I know not, 
But thj£ colloguer seeketh for thy death." 

He spake and lighting from his ivory steed, 
And taking from his head the precious crown, 
Wailed with his face turned sunwards, put his hope 
In God, and said : " () glorious Judge who bringest 
The tree of hope to fruit ! Thou know est who 
Is now affronting me, Thy slave, and how 
We should for very shame bewail the crown. 
If royalty is to desert our race 
I will not strive but be a thrall within 
A Fane of Fire and live on milk and herbs. 

Hoard neither gold nor silver and at prayer-time 

Wear woollen ; but if rule is to be mine 

Thee will I serve in truth and equity. 

Oh ! lei my host prevail, give not my crown 

And palace to a slave, [f I succeed, 

And haste to bring before Azargashasp 1 

Crown, steed, and armlets, earrings, torque, and robe 

Of gold adorned with ucms, and pom- withal 

I pun i he dome of lapis-lazuli 

A hundred sacks of red dinars, and give 

The worshippers five thousand score of drachms. 

When I become the monarch of the world, 

Then will I strive to reinstate some city 

Unjustly desolated and the haunt 

Of onager and lion, leave it not 

To thorns and weeds, but send on my return 

From battle five score thousands of dinars. 

Those of the scions of Bahrain and others 

That shall be brought to me as prisoners 

1 i.e., when according to Sasanian custom he makes his pilgrimage 
to the Fire-temple at Shfz. Cf. Vol. i. p. 60. 


Will I make servants of the glorious Fire, 
And glad the hearts of priest and archimage." 

He spake these words and rose up from the dust ; 
That speaker sore-oppressed was justified. 
Swift as a dust-cloud from the place of prayer 
He came and shouted to Bahrain Chubina : — 
" Thou hellish, div-like slave remote from wisdom. 
And far removed from precedent and Grace ! 
Some rabid, tyrannous, and lusty div C. 1877 

Hath blinded thee. Thou hast, in wisdom's stead, 
Wrath and revenge, and won the divs" applause. 
A thornbrake is a city, Hell a garden 
To thee ; the lamp of wisdom hath died out 
Within thy brain and robbed thy mind and heart 
Of lustre. It was but a lying witch 
That led thee thus through greatness to a fall. 1 
To-day thou settest hand upon a shoot 
With leaves of bane and fruit of colocvnth. 
Thy stock ne'er so aspired nor is the aspirant 
Applauded. God hath not bestowed on thee 
The Grace and stature. Hast forgot Gurgin, 
Son of Milad ? 2 Thou unjust wretch ! ne'er hope 
For what will never be. The crab hath not 
The eagle's wing nor doth the eagle soar 
Aloft the sun. By holy God, by throne 
And crown if I shall come upon thee hostless, 
And if I blow a chilling blast upon thee . . . ! 
Thou hast not seen me yet in fight and I 
Have heard but thy harsh words. I lean on Him 
That giveth victory. If I am unworthy 
To be a king let me not live a liege." 

Bahrain Chubina said : * Thou fool possessed ! 
Thy sire, that world-lord friendly to the Faith, 
W T ho ne'er blew cold on anyone, thou knewest not 

1 Cf. p. 150 seq, 

1 Cf. Vol. iii. p. 292 seq. and p. 72. 


To prize but flungest vilely from the throne. 
And thou wouldst fain be world-lord alter him, 
Be vigilant and wise ! Thou art impure, 
God's foe, and wilt experience naught but ill 
From Him that giveth good, while if Hurmuzd 
Had been unjust and time and earth exclaimed 
Against him "tis not fit for thee, his son. 
To king it in Iran and in Turan. 
Thy life will not be passed upon the throne: 
Content thee with the charnel Tor thou art 
Afar from fortune. For Hurmuzd will I 
Exact revenge ; moreover, I am king 
Within Iran. Now make this clear to me: 
What upright man agreed that thou shouldst sear 
The eyes of Shahs or bid one do the dwd ? 
Take thou henceforth the kin-ship to be mine 
From Sun to fish's back." 1 

Khusrau Parwiz 
Replied : * -May his sire's woe ne'er joy this slave. 
Thus was it written and what w;is t<> be 
Hath been : how long wilt thou add word to word ? 
c. 1878 Thou makest thyself kino-, thou who a1 death 
Wilt not possess ;i shroud ! So far as folk, 
And barded steeds can go thou art a monarch — 
In expectation— but thou hast no house, 
Home. land, and birth ; thou art a windbag king. 
With thy false title and such wares as these 
Thou wilt not shine upon the royal throne. 
There have been brave men ere thy time — aspirants 
With massive maces — yet they never sought 
The kingship, being lieges, nor pretended 
To crown and throne, but thou becomest ever 
More rabid and art lost to modesty. 2 
The World-lord maketh kings for justice-sake, 
Or for their parts or on account of birth, 

1 See Vol. i, p. 71. 2 Couplet omitted 


Bestowing kingship on the worthiest, 

The wisest or the least injurious. 

My sire made me the monarch of the Alans 

Since through thy wiles he was concerned for me, 

And now God hath bestowed on me the kingship, 

Throne, greatness, and the crown of power. I have 

From Him who is the Master of the world, 
From Him who knoweth ah, by the appointment 
Of king Hurmuzd who from his sire received 
The throne as heirloom, from high priest and sages, 
The mighty men and the experienced chiefs, 
According to the Faith which once Zarduhsht, 
The wise and ancient, brought from Paradise, 1 
And gave Luhrasp the word of God, which he 
Accepted and transmitted to Gushtasp. 
All those that have aggrieved me, all whose treasures 
I have received, are under my protection, 
Be they my friends or foes. The mendicants 
At lurk from wasted cities will I make 
Rich, be they outcasts or of mine own kin, 
And bramble-brakes like Paradise, fulfilled 
With men, with cattle, and with tilth, ignore, 
By way of compensation, no good thing 
Until we quit this world for that, will make 
Our heart the scales, will weigh, and use the might 
Of our own arm. AVhat time Hurmuzd, the world-lord, 
Ruled justly, earth and time rejoiced in him. 
The son past doubt should have his father's throne, 
Should have the crown, the girdle, and the fortune, 
But as for thee, thou wicked, crafty man, 
Who wast the first to war against Hurmuzd ! 
No ill hath come unless by thy command, 

Thy spells, thy guile, and plotting. If God will C. 1879 

I will make dark in vengeance for the Shah 

1 See Vol. v., p. 33. 


Bright Sol to thee. Now who deserveth crown. 
And if not I who is there ? " 

" Valiant one ! ' 
Rejoined Bahrain Chubina, " he is worthy 
Tliat carried off from thee the sovereignty. 
When, From the daughter of Papak, Ardshir 
Was born, and the Ashkanians hud the sway. 
Grew he not mighty and slew Ardawan, 
Whose i In-one he won ? And now five hundred years 
Have passed by and Sasanian heads and crowns 
Are waxing cold. Now is my day for throne 
And diadem ; the headship and the work. 
Allied with conquering fortune, are for me. 
When I behold thy fortune, face, and troops. 

Thy crown and throne, like some led lion roused 
Will I abolish the Sasanians, 
Erase them from the roll and trample down 
Sasan, both head and crown. The power should be 
The Ashkanians' if the wise would hear aright." 
Khusrau Parwfz replied : "■Contentions tool! 
II' kingship is for those of royal race 
Whal dosl thou in their midst ? What are the folk 
Of Bai but double laced '( And what as men ? 
But few at first they joined Sikandar's host, 
And arming on the Rumans' side soon won 
The Kaian throne. It did not please the ."Maker. 
And ruin came upon them from themselves : 
The Judge that giveth succour crowned Ardshir, 
And he was worthy of the royal crown 
Although he had no treasure and dinars. 
Those great men's work hath passed away, our words 
Are wind. God choosing him for sovereignty 
Saw naught but good in him. Now who deserveth 
The government and who shall be the lord 
Of this unstable world ? Inform me truly, 
Choose the good path and shun perversity." 


Bahram Chubina hearing changed his ground, 
And said : " I am Bahram, the warrior, 
The rooter up of kings." 

Khusrau Parwiz 
Made answer : " Thou hast heard the sage's saw : — 
' The equipage of greatness ne'er commit 
To mean or wayward folk of little wit, 
For they, when they have got it from thee, take 
Their ease and if thou ask it back they quake.' 
My father, who was rash and ill-advised, C. 1880 

Discerned not close from open and among 
His many great and small gave men of straw 
The royal equipage which came not back 
Upon demand for he thai was possessed 
Thereof had grown intoxicate thereby. 
What was the saving of the sweet -voiced sage ? 
' 'Twill cause thee pain and toil to stablish men 
Unstable : woo not the ungrateful then." 
Thou wast a brave man, keen and of high aims, 
But thine ill nature made thee an ill-doer. 
My father made thee first among the chiefs ; 
Thou Avast the greatest in the sovereignty ; 
But royal favour and the silvern throne 
Have made thee drunk and err. The name Chubina 
Is now Bahram, the silvern throne become 
A snare to thee. There seated thou art fain 
To mount the moon ; thou wast the general, 
And wouldst be Shah. No sage e'er held such talk ; 
I wot that thou consortest with the Dfv." 

Bahram Chubina answered : " Evil one ! 
Reviling is thy sole accomplishment. 
Thou heedest not God's covenant, thou seekest 
This state whereof thou art not worthy, and blindest 
The Shah ! How can such deeds as these be hidden ? 
Thy friends are hostile, being thine in word, 
But mine in heart. The Khan is mine ally 


With all the armies of Iran and Chin, 

For I am just and kindly with a hand 

And sword. No enemy will conquer me. 

I will transfer the power from Pars to Rai, 

And ban the name of Kaian, set up justice, 

And reinstate the customs of Milad. 1 

I spring from famed Arash 2 and am in war 

A fire unquenchable, the grandson I 

Of great Gurgfn and the consuming Flame 

Upon Barzin. It was king Sawa's mind 

To leave not in Iran throne, crown, or signet. 

To rase the Fanes of Fire and suffer not 

Xauruz and Sada feast. The Iranians too 

AVere all enslaved till I girt up my loins, 

And by an arrow from my bow determined 

King Sawa's life. If thou knowest not the sum 

Of that rash monarch's troops go count a thousand 

Four hundred times. Twelve hundred elephants 

Of war had he. Thou wouldst have said : ' The 

Will hold them not.' That great host fled while I 
Roared like a lusty lion in their Pear, 
c. 18S1 Know thou that none without accomplishment 
Doth rashly seek the seat of mighty men. 
My helmet savoureth of the crown, my sword 
Will win the ivory throne, but if a gnat 
Shall war with thee 'twill bring thee from thy throne 
To earth." 

Khusrau Parwiz replied : " Thou luckless ! 
Why not be mindful of Gurgin at Rai, 
Whom fortune never succoured in the world, 
And who had not throne, majesty, and state ? 
None knew thy name ; thou wast obscure and poor. 
The great Mihran Sitad came and informed 
The monarch of the age about thee, thus 

1 Cf. p. 72. * See Vol. vi. p. 197. 



Exalting thee from darksome dust, but thou 
Hast lost sight of that day ! He furnished thee 
With treasures, arms, and troops, and Rustam's 

Resplendent as the moon. God did not will 
That Turkmans out of Chin should waste Iran, 
And helped thee in the fight with them ; thy helm 
Rose cloudward since the Lord of circling heaven 
Willed the Great King success ; but thou dost take 
The merit to thyself who never sawest 
The great and good. If kingship is to quit 
The Kaian race why girdest thou thy loins ? 
'Twill need one like Sikandar to obscure 
The fortune of the king of kings. Mayst thou 
With thy div's face and dusty hue attain 
To naught except a ditch. Thy waywardness 
And conduct dimmed the Shah's days. Thou hast 

My name on drachms and striven to ruin me. 
Thou art ill's source in this world and supreme 
Among transgressors. Whereso blood is shed 
The guilt is thine. Thou wilt not find by night 
In slumber what thou seekest for all day 
Beneath the sun. O luckless and unjust ! 
Give not thy whole time to perversity, 
Inflict not rashly outrage on thyself, 
And so remain unjust and miserable. 
Think how to gain God's favour and make wisdom 
And truth thy task for what is mine and thine 
Will pass ; time reckoneth our every breath. 
Who will declare, when thou hast decked thy 

With guile, that guile is better than the right ? 
At thy behest whate'er thou wilt is thine, 
Thine to one half the realm. Then in this world 
Thou wilt be happy, all at ease, and far 


1S82 From hurt of foes, and when this Wayside Inn 
Thou quittest thou wilt pass un-irkcd. No need 
To labour this, for in the Zandavasta 
Thus saith Zarduhsht : 'He that abandoneth 
The holy Faith hath neither fear nor awe 
Of God within his heart. Let him be counselled 
For one year : if thy counsel profit not 
Let him be slain by order of the Shah. 
Ami his offending corpse flung on the road : 
But if he is the Shah's own enemy 
Let him be slain forthwith." Mm in good sooth 

Will shed thy hi I for thy perverted fortune 

Requireth this. Now will a wretched life 

Be thine and Fire thy place when thou depart est. 

If thou continuest long thus to revolt 

From Shah and from God's justice there will come 

Remorse for thine unseemly words and deeds. 

Thou ailist and the drug Eor thee is counsel ; 

I am endeavouring to make thee whole. 

But if desire and envy rule thy heart 

Say so and I will send a different leech. 1 

Thy victories bad made thee somebody, 

But thoughts of treasure caused thee to rebel. 

Heard hast thou that Zahhak was impious, 

That divs and warlocks filled the world with fear, 

And how when he had vexed the nobles" hearts 

The glorious Faridun entreated liini. - 

Thy troops, alive or dead, are all my slaves 

At heart. Through thee they have obtained some 

And so have turned their heads from right, but when 
I shall display my treasures, and incline 
The warriors' hearts, not one of all this host 
Will bide with thee because thou hast not name, 
Or Grace or goods. When thou didst overcome 

1 Couplet omitted. 2 Vol. i. p. 168 sea. 


King Sawa all the troops believed that they 
Would never see defeat, they were so drunk 

7 J 

And satiate with spoil. Thy warriors, 

So fearless, must not perish by my hand ; 

I would not that the country of Iran 

Should lose this mighty warrior-host — all chiefs 

And nobles — and defeat befall the throne 

Of might. Now tell me, in Arish's 1 days 

Who was the Shah for this may end our parley ? ' 

Bahram Chubina answered : " Minuchihr 
Was then the Shah and had the host and crown." 

Khusrau Parwiz replied : " Ill-natured one ! 
Thou know'st that he was monarch of the world ; 
Know'st thou not that Arish was but his slave, c l883 

And bowed to his directions and commands ? 
Just so it was with valiant Kai Khusrau 
With such as Rustam for his officer, 
For Rustam might have seized the world, the throne, 
And style of Shah, but held to precedent, 
And never glanced that way. Then why dost thou 
Not follow me and hail Khusrau Parwiz 
As Shah ? Thou dust-face ! thou art but a div. 
Like Ahriman ; the crown and throne of Shahs 
Have stirred thy greed." 

Bahram Chubina said : — 
" Thou miscreant ! rightly art thou from Sasan, 
Who was a shepherd and was shepherd-born ; 
Papak was not the first to make him one." 2 

Khusrau Parwiz replied : " Thou evil-doer ! 
Thine arrogance is not Sasan's. Thy words 
Are wholly lies, and falsehood is no honour. 
Thou comest of bad-natured, worthless men, 
And spring'st not from Sasan." 

1 See Vol. v. p. 12. 

2 According to both the traditions given in the Shahnama 
Sasan's ancestors had been shepherds or in similar menial employ- 
ment for generations. See Vols. v. p. 291, vi. 211. 


' The shepherdship," 
Bahrain Chiibina answered, " of Sasiin 
Ne'er will be hidden." 

Said Khusrau Parwiz : — 
' Dara, when dying, gave not to Sasan 
The crown of majesty. Though lost was fortune 
Was lineage lost ? No talk will turn injustice 
To justice. Seek'st thou, having for thine own 
Such prudence, rede, and Grace, the imperial throne ?" 


How Bahrdm Chiibina and Khusrau Parwiz returned, 
hov Gurdya advised Bahrdm Chtibina, and how 
Khusrau Parwiz told his Purpose to the trdnians 

He spake and smiled, turned from Bahrdm Chiibina, 

And set his face towards his host. Of those 
Three valiant Turks who served the Khan of Chin, 
Were savag< as a wolf and had assured 
Bahrain Chiibina: " We, to win renown, 
Will on the day of battle bring to thee 
The person of the Shah alive or dead 
Before the troops,'" 1 one impious horseman, strong, 
Fierce, fearless, rushed forth seeking fight and grim 
With sixty coils of lasso on his arm, 
And drawing near that steed of ivory, 
And aiming at the splendid crown, flung forth 
His lasso coiled, and caught the Shah's crowned head ; 
But Gustaham clave with his sword the lasso, 
1S84 The Shah's head 'scaped from harm, while brave 
Strung up his bow and with his arrows robbed 

1 p. 204. 


The air of light. He loosed a poplar shaft 

Against the Turk ; that battle-seeker fled, 

And to that miscreant said Bahrain Chiibina :— 

" Be sombre dust thine only hiding-place ! 

Who said : ' Assail the Shah ? ' Didst thou not see 

Upstanding in his presence with respect ? ' ' 

Sick, mind and body, he returned to camp. 
His sister heard of his return, put off 
Her splendid crown and, when a slave had brought 
Her veil, ran forth in dudgeon sore of heart 
To meet him and thus spake : " warlike chief ! 
How didst thou fare, saw with Khusrau Parwiz ? 
If he be hot and hasty through his youth 
Relax no effort in the cause of peace." 

The brave Bahram Chiibina answered thus :— 
" One must not reckon him among the Shahs. 
No valiant cavalier or sa^e is he, 
Not generous or brilliant. Parts are better 
Than birth, and kings should have them." 

His wise sister 
Replied : " shrewd, ambitious chief ! if I 
Say much thou wilt not hear me but displny 
Ill-temper and ill-nature. Call to mind 
The saying of the aphorist of Balkh : — 
w When any one shall truth from hiding bring, 
And tell thv faults, truth is a bitter thing/ 
Think not to waste thy country for thou hast 
Thy share of earth. A very wise man said : — 
' To have an ox's horn an ass once tried, 
And lost forthwith his ears on either side.' 
Court not the world's reproach ; none of thy race 
Hath worn the crown. Had this youth intervened not 
I had not been thus seared and dark of soul ; 
But as it is his sire is living, the throne 
Of sovereignty is still in place yet thou 


Must interfere ! How it will end I know not. 

But all night long mine eyes are filled with blood. 

Thine only aim is pain and malison ; 

Thou snilTrst rashly at a poison-flower. 

How folk will call Chiibina infamous, 

The name Bahrain disfame ! God will he wroth 

Withal and Hell the prison of thy soul. 

The world is not lor every one. my brother ! 

And naught abideth save a Fair renown. 

Consider now, who was it sought thee out 

Save king Hurmuzd ? Hut since king Sawa's throne 

And goods came to thy hands thou didst assume 

The crown, and having grown renowned through him 

Art seeking tor the imperial throne; but know every good thing is from God and be 

Not ingrate to our Shah : presume not thus 

Upon th\ stricken fields. Thou hast gained honour, 

But be not arrogant. Thou hast at heart 

Consorted with the Div and hasl grown guilts 

In God's sight. When Hurmuzd was wroth and raved 

Through what the foul A\ in Gashasp had said 

Thou shouldesl have been patient and not made it 

A liege's opportunity for war; 

And in his great affliction when his son 

Came forth to fight from Hard a' 'twas thy duty 

To visit the young Shah and ornament 

His new throne as he wished. The youth had then 

Adopted thine advice and thou hadst not 

Seen evil days but quiet, joy, and triumph. 

Why these designs upon the crown and throne ? 

Thou knowest that there still are princes left, 

Both old and young, descended from Ardshir, 

With wealth and countless hosts. Who in Iran 

Will hail thee king ? If any king with treasure 

And troops could dare to eye this land of ours 

It had been Sawa, prince of Chin, none else, 


Who marched upon the country of Iran ; 

But holy God made thee his opposite, 

And saved our land and elders. Since the World-lord 

Made this world and spread over it high heaven 

Men have not seen a cavalier like Sam, 

Whom not the rending Hon would confront, 

Yet when it happened that Naudar became 

Unjust and trampled on his father's wa\ s, 

And when the nobles called on Sam and had 

The turquoise throne made ready, ' God forbid,' 

He said, ' that ever captain of the host 

Should contemplate the throne because the dust 

Of Miniichihr is mine, my coronet 

The footings of Naudar's.' 1 I recognise 

In Sam thy better ; he sought not the kingship. 

Not being ill-conditioned. So too Zal 

And elephantine Rust am never sought 

To rule our folk. Know, I have said this, brother ! 

Because the fortunate alone who hath 

August hands, Grace, and high birth, and is wise, 

Of ardent heart and just can take the throne. 

I know not what will come on thee, for wisdom 

Hath vanished from thy heart ! " 

Bahrain Chubina C. 1886 

Made answer : " 'Tis all true and holy God 
Is witness, but the thing hath gone too far ; 
My heart and brain are sick with greed and I 
Must grow whole or resign my head to death, 
Which pierceth helms of steel. If I am stricken 
By this young Shah my troops will take from him 
His throne and, black at heart with vengeance, set 
Another there." 

The youthful king for his part 
Recrossed the bridge of Nahrawan, rejoicing, 
Called all the captains of the host, set those 

1 Sec Vol. i. p. 340. 


Entitled by their rank beside the throne 

Of sovereignty, and said : " Good-hearted chiefs, 

Adept and veteran ! of this my kingship 

This is my primal act — a mere essay — 

And none doth owe ns praise though our intent 

Be good, and ye have had no good from us 

While we must now augment your toils and griefs. 

Ye served mine ancestors and have seen much 

Of this world's salts and sours. I will disclose 

My purpose, hidden from the host, to you : 

My words must go no further, that would mar 

My scheme if it were published to the troops. 

I mean to lead the host to-nighl to battle, 

For I have parleyed with Bahrain Chubfna, 

Who is ;m active, skilful cavalier, 

Though I discerned no wisdom in his head, 

Or in the heads of his illustrious troops. 

His fight with Sawa is his only theme, 

He tclleth o'er and o'er the same old tale. 

lie thinketh me a foolish youth and lain 

Would frighten me with mace and scimitar. 

No1 knowing that I attack by night and so 

Gain confidence. If ye will share the fray 

With me I will not loiter but, when night 

Shall steep her lace in ambergris and loose 

Her musky locks, do ye mount armed and grasping 

The mace and scimitar." 

They all agreed 
To do the Shah's behest. When he had gone 
Back to his tent he put all strangers forth. 
Pie sent for Gustaham and for Bandwf, 
And for Gurdwi, a veteran warrior, 
And told his purpose of a night-attack 
In hopes that they would aid. Said Gustaham : — 
1887 " king ! why put such confidence in fight ? 
A camisade may alienate thy troops. 


Thy soldiers and the soldiers of the foe 

Are one in heart and body ; on one side 

Are grandsons, on the other grandsires. What 

Deception can there be ? Here is a brother, 

And there a father ; they are all akin ; 

How shall son war with sire ? Encourage not 

The wishes of thy foes by this design. 

This was no matter for the host ; thy words 

Have ruined all." 

Gurdwf said : " All is over, 
E'en as a wind that passeth o'er the plain. 
Power, passion, treasury, and troops make err 
A young man's head. Do not be thou to-night 
Upon the field and suffer not the host 
And treasure to be lost, because I doubt not 
That all our secret plans and preparations 
Will be reported to the other side ; 
Yield not thy head then to the enemy.'* 

Pleased with the rede Khusrau Parwiz assented, 
Selected certain chiefs devoted to him 
For good and ill — Kharrad, son of Barzin, 
And Gustaham, the Lion, and Shapur, 
And Andiyan, the valorous, Bandwi, 
Kharrad, withal, the Lustre of the host, 

Nastiih, the chief and burner up of heroes, 
And others who would serve to guard the troops, 
The treasure and himself. They sought a hill 
That would avail if fight were toward— a place 
All grass and apt for feasts. Khusrau Parwiz 
Thence viewed the host from far. 

Bahrain Chiibina, 
The brave, for his part mounted and when great 
And small drew near he questioned of the 

chiefs : — 
" What tidings have ye of your kith and kin ? 
Send to them, ye that have such — men at one 



With you in word and Faith. If they will come 
And do my will, and stake their lives as pledges 
Of their sincerity. I will enrich them, 
And they shall all be nobles like yourselves. 
The troops from Barda' and from Ardabil. 
And slack Armenians — a band or two — 
Remain. We fear them not in fighl while 
From Barda' air but as a pinch of dust." 

The chieftains heard what brave Bahrain t'hiibina 
Proposed and chose a warrior from the host. 
Sage, fluent, heedful, who thus charged departed, 
And speeding onward through the Longsome night 

Declared his message to the Iranian chiefs, 

And heard their answer : " Till the hosts engage 

We will not leave Khusrau Parwfz. This matter, 

We bar. will prove a long one. He will make 
A night-attack, so Icel not ye secure."' 

The envoy, hearing this, went swift ;is dust 
Back to the army of I lie paladin. 
And as a privy matter, every word, 
He there reported all that he had heard. 


How Bahrdm Chtibina attacked th Army of Khusrau 
Parwiz by Night "/"/ how Khusrau Parwiz fled 

Now when Bahrain ('hubina was aware 
That all the troops were well disposed to him 
His host lit watch-fires and set lights ablaze 
In every quarter. Then that Lion chose 
A valiant band tit to subdue the world. 
Six thousand Sabres as the leaders reckoned. 
Bahrain (hubina told them : " When the drum 
Shall beat at cock-crow raise the battle-cry, 


Attack and crown the nobles' heads with blood." 

Led by the three proud Turks the troops sped forth 
At his command and full of spite and vengeance 
Fell on the army of the king. Arose 
A din of mace and sword and battle-ax, 
The earth was iron and the clouds were dust. 
The troops all asked : ' Where is Khusrau Parwiz ? 
The day and victory to-day are ours." 

Khusrau Parwiz was on the hill in anguish, 
His eyes were full of blood, his cheeks the hue 
Of lapis-lazuli, and, till the shafts 
Of dawn shot up, the clashing of the hosts 
Confounded him, but when the dark night's skirt 
Had vanished, and he saw the battlefield 
All killed and wounded, to his chiefs he said : — 
" Help and put forth your powers against the foe, 
For God, the Victor, is mine aid and pro]), 
And now my work is blows and scimitar." 

Pie charged amain at those three Turks. Turks ? 
Three fierce and savage wolves. One closed with him, 

Unsheathed his glittering glaive and sought to strike 

The king upon the head ; the royal rider 

Put up his shield to save it, thrust beneath C. 1889 

The guard, and laid his foeman low. ' Famed 
fighters ! 

Slack not the struggle now," he cried, but still 

His troops all turned away, abandoning 

That world-aspirant shamefully who then 

Said to Bandwi and Gustaham : " Hereof 

I augur ill. I have no child grown up, 

Or other kindred, fitted for the crown, 

And if I should be slain in fight the world 

Would have no king." 

Bandwi made answer thus : — 

At O noble prince ! may this world yearn in love 


For thee. Thy troops are gone, abide not thou. 
For none is left to aid thee.'' 

To Gurdwi 
Then said the king : " Haste with Tukhar and 

t ake 
The tent-enclosure, treasure, and brocade. 
Crown, captives, purses, and the ivory throne. 
All that thou canst, and take a thousand horse 
Of those still left." 

The unities toiled to load. 

And carry off, this treasure. Then appeared 
A dragon-flag; the world turned violet. 
Behind the flag rode brave Bahrain Chubfna, 

Who robbed the world of lustre in the fray. 

He and Khusrau Parwfz encountered. both 

Redoubted warriors and savage lions. 

Like elephants of war they raged and smote 

Bach other on the head. All lion-like 

Bahrain Chiibina wheeled, his weapons Failed 

Against the foe, and thus till set of sun 

The conflict passed all bounds. Then came Tukhar 

To tell Khusrau I'arwiz that he had drawn 

The treasure and the baggage to the bridge, 

Whereat the monarch said to Gustaham : 

"We have not any helpers in the tight ; 

We are but ten : this is a mighty host. 

And led on by a valiant paladin. 

Although we have the Grace upon our side 

We lack for friends, so flee we. Timely flight 

Is better than affray. I may not tarry, 

For I am all alone." 

The unpractised youth 
Fared till he reached the bridge of Nahrawan, 
Pursued all hotly by Bahrain Chubina, 
His head all vengeance and his heart all strife. 
Khusrau Parwiz, when he perceived this, stopped 


Upon the bridge and summoned to his presence 
The veteran Gustaham. " Bring me my bow," 
He said ; " 'tis mine interpreter in war." 

The treasurer, who was Gustaham himself, 
Produced the bow. 1 The valiant chieftain took it, c. 1890 

And robbed the air of lustre with his shafts, 
Showered them like hail and pegged with each a 

And head together. Then Bahrain Chubina, 
That Lion, charged with lasso in his hand 
And Dragon under him. With lasso only 
He passed behind Khusrau Parwiz who saw, 
Rejoiced, strung up his bow and with a shaft 
Struck on the breast Bahram Chubina's horse ; 
Its task was done. That general afoot 
Despairing took his buckler while Yalan-sina 
Advanced like dust and charged. The atheling, 
Who knew him valiant, aimed and hurt his steed. 
Yalan-sina fled from the bridge afoot, 
And with him fled the rest, both old and young. 
Now when Bahram Chubina thus withdrew 
Khusrau Parwiz, swift as a dust-cloud, broke 
The bridge and went to Taisafun in dudgeon, 
With pain at heart and eyes fulfilled with blood. 
He barred the city-gates with iron bars, 
Sat down amid a multitude of cares, 
From every quarter called to him the Great, 
And posted sentinels at every gate. 

1 " Son tresorier le lui apporta, et Gustehem etait en cette 
affaire le lieutenant du roi." Mohl. 



How Khusrau Parwiz went to his Sire and fh</ to Rum, 
uhiI how Hurmuzd was shun 

Thence weeping blood and liver-pierced he went 
Before his sire, gave greeting, tarried long, 

And said : "The cavalier, the paladin. 

Whom thou didst choose. () kino ! came as do Shahs 

That have the Grace and brought a numerous host. 

I counselled him bu1 'twas of no avail, 

He only cared for war and conflict. Never 

Be his name current ! All against my will 

Was foughl a great fight, and the stars brought scath 

On many. All my troops deserted me; 

Thou wouldst have said they saw and passed me by, 

And, not reflecting, hailed Bahrain Chubfna 

As Sh;ih. Pursuing me he led his troops. 

As 'twere a moving mountain, to the bridge 

Of Nahrawan, and I. when mine estate 

No longer flourished, fled and scaped the net 

Of bale. As I account of gain and loss 

The Arabs only may prove serviceable, 

And, if the king bid, I will bring their horsemen 

In countless numbers." 

"This is ill-advised,** 
Replied Hurmuzd, " for now thou hast no standing. 
To go to them is labour lost, for we 
Possess not men, or arbalists or treasure. 
The Arabs will not help when there is naught 
To gain or lose but in despite and dudgeon 
Will sell thee to thy foes, yet God will aid, 
And smiling fortune side with thee. If thou 
Wouldst quit this land depart with speed for Rum, 
And tell to Caesar what this slave in straits 


Hath said. He will assist thee with his treasure 
And troops. In that land are both men and stores, 
And arms and host arrayed. Moreover all 
That spring from Faridiin are kin to thee, 
And will assist thee in thy need." 

Khusrau Parwiz kissed earth and gave the praises 
Due to the Great. Then to Bandwi, Gurdwi, 
And Gustaham he said : ** We must consort 
With grief and toil. Take order, pack, and yield 
Our countrv to the foe." 

Said Gustaham : — 
" \e"er mayst thou sec ill hap, king ! ' 

He answered :— 
"The circling heaven produceth wrath and love 
By turns." 

With that the watchman cried : ' Shah, 
Just and auspicious ! from the road hath risen 
Dark dust. Amid a host a standard waveth 
Charged with a dragon, and Bahrain Chubina 
Raised it beside the Nahrawan." 

Khusrau Parwiz gat on his steed like smoke, 
And fled like flying dust with that blue banner 
Behind him. Turning him about he saw 
Bandwi and Gustaham proceeding slowly. 
And shouted to them in an angry tone : — 
" villains ! what hath happened that yon foes 
Become like friends to you ? If "tis not so 
Why ride at leisure with Bahrain Chubina 
Hard on your backs ? " 

Bandwi replied : " O king ! 
Be not concerned at him ; he will not see 
Our dust, the host's flag is too far away. 
Thy friends all say there is no cause for haste 
Because Bahrain Chubina, when he reacheth 


The palace, will at once give to Hurnnizd 

The crown and throne, will sit as minister 

Beside him, and will angle to some purpose 

By writing from his sovereign to Caesar 

To this effect : ' A worthless slave hath fled 

This count rv : let him not obtain asylum 

In Rum. Each time that he hath raised himself 

He hath dene hurt and damage to your land. 

When he arriveth pul him into bonds, 

And till with trouble his rejoicing heart. 

Return him to this court and tarry not 

Until he have grown great,' and they will bind him, 

And send him hack in tears and strongly guarded." 

Khusrau Parwiz heard this with troubled heart, 
His cheek gloomed ai their words and he replied : — 
"Ill-fortune well may treat us thus, hut words 
Are long and deeds are strong; trust we in God." 

He urged his steed and said : " What good and bad 
The World-lord hath writ o'er our heads will come, 
No musing can avert it. May our foes 
Ne'er have their will." 

When he had gone t he two 
Unjust ones turned back eager U>v revenge. 
Arrived, they sought the palace of the Shah, 
All dudgeon and with hearts prepared for crime. 
When they had passed the gate and reached the throne 
They straightway took the string from off a bow, 
Flung it forthwith around the monarch's neck, 
And hung his honoured person. Passed that crown 
And throne of king of kings : thou wouldst have 

said : — 
' Hurmuzd was never in the world at all." 
The custom of revolving time it is 

To furnish sometimes sweets and sometimes bane ; 
Seek not for profit from a stock like this 

Because the quest will bring thee naught but pain. 


When thus Hurmuzd's days ended and the throne, 

That happy seat, remained unfilled, forthwith 

Arose a sound of drums ; those murderers' cheeks 

Became like sandarac. Upon the road 

Bahram Chubina's standard came in sight 

Amid his troops, and that outrageous pair — 

Bandwi and Gustaham — fled from the palace, 

And hasted till they reached Khusrau Parwiz, 

Who, seeing their wan looks, knew that their hearts 

Contained some secret, else would they have quitted 

The master of the world ? His cheeks became C. 1893 

Like flowers of fenugreek but he revealed 

Naught to that savage pair. lie bade his troops : — 

" Turn from the highway for a host approacheth. 

Take the long route across the 1111 watered plain, 

And let your bodies grow inured to pain." 


How Bahram Chubina sent Troops after Khusrau 
Panviz and how Bandwi contrived to rescue him 
from their Hands 

On entering the palace of the Shah 

Bahram Chubina chose from his fierce host 

Six thousand wielders of the scimitar, 

Mailed, to pursue the king, and put Bahram, 

The son of Siyawush, in charge of those 

Famed, warlike troops, while on the other part 

Khusrau Parwiz took to the waste to 'scape 

His foes with life, and reached at length a hold 

With battlements of viewless height. Folk called it 

" The House of God ' —a shrine, a blessed spot, 

With bishops and a metropolitan, 


A place for penitents. He there addressed 
A holy man : " What food is there to hand ? " 

A bishop said : ' There are unleavened loaves 
And watercress, my lord ! If such thou needest 
Let it be none save ours." 

The kino forthwith 
Alighted with his escort. That aspirant 
With his two courtiers took in hand for prayer 
The sacred twigs, then on the soft, blue 1 sand 
They sat and ate in haste of what there was. 
Thereafter he addressed the bishop thus : 

" Hast thou no wine, old sir whose steps arc blest ? ' 

He said: " We manufacture wine from dates; 
We make it in the heat of summer-time. 
There is a little left, clear ;is rose-water. 
And red as coral in the sun." 

lie brought a cup thereof and it eclipsed 
The hue of Sol. Khusrau Parwiz drank three, 
Partook of barley-bread and. when his wits 
Were warmed with ruddy wine, slept with his head 
Laid on Bandwi's lap on the yielding sand. 
All sorrowful of soul and liver-pierced. 
.Just as he slept the senior bishop came. 
"Black dust-clouds have arisen on the road." 
He said; '"behind them is a mighty host."" 
Khusrau Parwiz replied : " It is bad luck 
That foes should seek us just as men and steeds 
Are spent. The inevitable day hath come." 

Then spake Bandwi the good at need : ' L Yon chief 

Said Khusrau Parwiz: " Good friend ! 
Direct us in the matter." 

He rejoined :— 
" I will devise escape for thee, king ! 

 For the sake of the rhyme, probably. 


In this strait, though I shall have sacrificed 
My life to save the monarch of the world." 

Khusrau Parwiz replied : ' A sage of Chin 
Hath uttered better things in this regard :— 
' In Paradise shall be his future state 
Who here hath tilled about a monarch's gate. 
The plastering can not abide in place 
When city -walls are levelled to their base. 
When mighty cities perish out of hand. 
Let not the hospitals be left to stand." 
If shift thou knowest use it ; holy God 
Will save thee from the need of other help. 

Bandwi said : " Let me have the crown of gold. 
The earrings, girdle, and the robe from Chin, 
Gold-woven and tulip-hued. and while I don them 
Abide not thou. Go with thy troops apace 
As sailors speed a vessel o'er the deep.' 3 

The youth did as Bandwi advised and thence 
Companioned with the wind. When he had made 
Shift thus to flee, Bandwi, the veteran, 
Turned to the bishop, saying : " Ye must tarry 
Unseen of all upon the mountain-top," 
Then went himself dust-swift within the shrine, 
And with all speed shut fast the iron door. 
Assumed the gold-embroidered robe and donned 
The royal crown. He went upon the roof, 
And thence unwillingly beheld a host 
On every side. He waited till they came 
Up to the hold to fight. At sight of him 
With gold crown, earrings, torque, and belt all cried :— 
It is Khusrau Parwiz with his new crown 
And robes." 

Bandwi, when certain that the troops 
Had taken him to be the Shah himself, 
Went from the roof, donned his own clothes with 


Then fearlessly returned and said : " Younsj braves ! 
To whom shall I address me as your chief 
Because I have a message from the Shah 
To give in presence of the mighty men ? ' 
l8 95 The son of Siyawush, on hearing this. 

Said : ' I am chief and I am night Bahrain." 

Bandwi replied : ' The world-lord saith : ' My 
Hath much distressed me; all our beasts are sore. 
Foundered and all amort with lengthy travel. 
I reached this house of penitents for rest. 
But will at day-break give up worldly hopes. 

And take with you the Longsome road that leadeth 

To great Bahrain Chubfna, and herein 

I do not seek delay that heaven perchance 

May succour me. Mine ancestors were wont 
To keep the laws of honour and good faith, 
And through their long and fortunate careers 
They ne'er refused when subjects asked a, boon. 
So now that fortune is my foe I make 
An open breasl to you. for from bright Sol 
To darksome dust the will of God is done.' 

The chief agreed and every one that heard 
The Shah's words grieved for him. The troopers all 
Dismounted and kept guard on him that night. 

Next day Bandwi went to the roof upon 
The side that faced Bahrain and said : " The Shah 
Is praying and will do naught else to-day. 
He spent last night in prayer. Besides, the sun 
Is high, he must not suffer from the heat. 
Leave him in peace to-day. At dawn to-morrow 
He shall surrender." 

' This may prove a trifle," 
Bahram said to his chiefs, " or else of moment. 
If we shall press him much he may be wroth 
And fall on us. He is a host himself, 


A world-aspirant, shrewd and valorous. 
If he be slain in fight Bahrain Chubina 
Will send too dust from us. 'Tis best to wait 
To-day, although our stores are running low, 
To see if he will yield without contention." 

Thus was it till the night rose o'er the mountains, 
And her host gathered, then both far and wide 
The troops spread, kindling fires on every side. 


How Bahrdm, the Son of Siydivush, took Bandwi and 
carried him to Bahrain Chiibina 

When earth grew sun-hued eloquent Bandwi C. 1896 

Went to the roof and thus addressed Bahrain : — 
' Experienced one ! when dust rose from the plain 
Khusrau Parwiz at sight of you departed, 
He and his troops, in haste toward Rum, and now, 
Wert thou to wing it eagle-like and soar 
Above the sun, thou wouldst not spy the Shah 
Unless in Rum where he hath aged by now ; 
But if ye grant me quarter I will come 
Forth to thy valiant chief and I will answer 
All questions asked of me about ourselves, 
But if not I will arm and send the dust 
In combat to the sun." 

The youth's heart aged 
With grief when he heard this. " What will it profit," 
He asked his comrades, " if I send the reek 
Up from Bandwi ? The better course will be 
To take him as he is with mind unclouded 
Before the paladin to tell whatever 
He knoweth of the Shall and either lose 


His head or keep his crown.' 

Then to Bandwi :— 
' Discuss this question with Bahrain Chubina, 
Thou evil schemer ! " 

Then Bandwi, the Lion, 
Came down and went back with the valiant chiefs. 
Bahrain Chubina heard of their return. 
And that Khusrau Parwiz bent on revenge 


Had ffone to Rum. and vehemently rayed 

Ayainst the s<»n of Siyawush, exclaiming: — 
' Thou luckless miscreanl ! thou hasl disobeyed. 
Fool that I am ! I have approved a fool ! 

He summoned next Bandwi, the ambitious one. 
And turned the wrath on him: 'Thou miscreant 

knave ! 
Blame-worthy liar \\ln> hast been so foolish 
As thus to gull my troops ! Thou couldst not rest 
Through thine ill nature and hast now become 
One with accursed Khusrau Parwfz, hast made 
A youth a veteran and hast come to boast: — 
1 I will renew this outworn age.' 

Replied : ' Exalted chief ! look but for right 
From me and be not fierce. Know that the king 
Of kings is of my kin. his majesty 
And greatness are mine own, and I have given, 
As was my duty, mine own life for his. 
If thou'rt a chieftain act straightforwardly." 
l8 97 Bahrain Chubina said : " I would not slay thee 

For this thy fault. Howbeit thou wilt perish 
By his hand soon and know that I speak sooth." 

They gyved Bandwi's feet, and Bahrain Chubina 
Consigned him to the son of Siyawush 
To keep him scathless, stayed till sunset there, 
Then sought his own couch with a heart all care." 



How Bahrdm Chiibina summoned the Magnates of Iran, 
how they discussed his Pretensions to the Kingship, 
and how he acceded to the Throne 

When Sol unsheathed its sword, and when its veil 

Of yellow showed, Bahram Chiibina sent 

And called the magnates, seating them upon 

The dais of the kings on golden seats, 

Which he had ranged around, and sat in joy 

As conquering monarchs do. Thereafter he 

Spake with a mighty utterance thus and said :— 

" Ye that are worshipful ! now make response 

In full assurance and auspiciously 

Advise upon my words. Give them all heed, 

And note my prompt dispatch. Ye will not find 

A worse Shah than Zahhak, search as ye may, 

Who slew his sire for kingship's sake, whereby 

Iran fell to his hands ; x and now again 

Khusrau Parwiz, a man unjust and cursed, 

Hath slain his father and hath gone to Rum ; 

And so till one of royal race appeareth, 

One fit to claim the throne and make crown, girdle, 

And fortune his who, think ye, is the man 

To gird him at this present to restore 

The precedents of kings ? I swear by Him, 

Who is the Master of the sun on high, 

That I will give you aidance in the quest." 

The nobles heard the famous chieftain's words, 
And none dissented. Then an elder rose— 
Shahran Guraz, a hoary warrior, 
A chieftain eminent — and answered thus : 
" Thou art a benefactor to the world, 

1 See Vol. i. pp. 136, 139. 


Illustrious prince ! Hadst thou not been at Rai 
Xo one had matched king Sawa when he reached 
Our coast with forces to enslave the Free ; 
But bravely thou didst arm thee and that trouble 
Passed from the Iranians, and a host equipped, 
1898 And warriors all, lour hundred thousand strong, 
Fled from thy wooden shaft, and thus Iran 
Had rest from heat and strife; so now its throne 
Befitteth thee as thine unsleeping fortune 
Is witness. 1 1 i 111 that disobeyeth thee. 
Or shunneth thine alliance, will we cause 
To do thy will, brave though he be, and though 
The matter touch EOiusrau Parwiz himself." 
Thus spake he and resumed his seat, 

The chieftain Khurasan stood forth before 

Bahrain Chiibina and thus spake : ' 1 ask 

This old, ambitious sage, who hath harangued 

The assembly at such length, who hath inspired 

His words? He praised thee so thai all our hearts 

Rejoiced, and yet there is a goodly saying 

Used in the Zandavasta by Zarduhshl 

For honest brains to hear : ' Whoe'er shall quit 

The Almighty's way, admonish such one year, 

Supplying all his needs, and after that 

If he return not slay him with the sword 

Bv order of the Shah, while if he be 

The just Shah's foeman let him be beheaded 

Forthwith.' " 

He spake, ceased, and resumed his seat. 
Then Farrukhzad stood up. " O helpful chief ! ' 
He said, " just speech is better than mishap. 
If justice then is better perish he 
That joyeth in unjust words." 

Then he spake 
Thus to Bahrain Chiibina : ' Blest be thou, 
And may the sight of thee sustain the world. 


If these my words find favour and if God, 
The Conqueror, assist us live for ever 
As our blest Shah, and be the hands and tongues 
Of bad men far from thee." 

That valiant man 
Sat down and Khazarwan, son of Khusrau, 
Came forward lion-like and said : " Although 
Both young and old talk much yet in the end, 
If thou wouldst follow right, dispatch like wind 
A cameleer and tarry not until 
Khusrau Parwiz, the exalted one, shall tread 
The longsome road a victim to injustice. 
Excuse thy late behaviour and approach not 
The throne thus boldly, for no general 
Is worthy of it while the world-lord liveth. 
If thou art fearful of Khusrau Parwiz 
Break ofT thy love for Pars and Taisafun, 

And live in ease and power in Khurasan. C. 1899 

Write letter after letter of excuse ; 
Perchance Khusrau Parwiz may prove amene." 

When he withdrew stepped forward Zad Farrukh, 
And said with justice : " Chiefs of noble race ! 
I have been listening to this debate 
Of these the chosen leaders of Iran. 
First, that proposal worthy of a slave 
To make a paladin the Shah is one 
Distasteful to the wise, one to diminish 
A man's renown. The words of Khurasan 
Were grand and wedded, I maintain, to wisdom, 
While those of Farrukhzad were violent, 
Such as would hebetate the hearts of sages. 
The fourth to speak was Khazarwan, the chief, 
Whose words were also wise, for since God made 
The world the course of time is manifest. 
Start from Zahhak, the Arab, who was both 
Unjust and foul of Faith. He slew Jamshid, 



That overweening one. and seized the world 

Unjustly. Holy men grieved that a div 

Was Shah till Faridun, that glorious king. 

Abated him. Next came that miscreant, 

Afrasiyab, who Eor that purpose left 

Turan and crossing o"er the stream beheaded 

Naudar, the noble with the scimitar 

In piteous fashion and o'erturned the state; 

Ami. third, Sikandar who Erom Hum invaded 

Iran, laid waste our land, and slew l);ir;i. 

The swordsman, so that food and slumber grew 

Harsh to the Iranians, while, fourthly, came 

Foul Khushnawaz who robbed our fields and tells 

Of mirth and joy when unexpectedly 

The Ilaitalians slew Piriiz, a Shah high-starred. 
The conqueror of the world, the chief of rulers. 
And overturned the throne of king of kings. 
But none hath seen a wonder such ;is lately 
Came on fran when Shah Khusrau Parwiz 
Fled from the throne, from his own troops, to 
foes ! " 
This said, he snt and wept. Bahrain Chubina 
Turned livid at the words. The veteran 
Sanibaz, loin-girt, with Indian sword in hand, 
Leapt to his feet. " This noble paladin," 
He said, " is great, just, ardent, so till one 
Of royal race shall come and gird his loins 
1900 'Tis best for him to sit upon the throne, 
For he is warlike, brave, and fortunate." 

Bahrain Chubina, chief of warriors, 
Heard, clapped his hand upon his sword and drew it, 
Exclaiming : " If we find within this quarter 
A woman of the lineage of the Shahs 
I will behead her with the trenchant sword, 
And let the breath of death pass over her. 1 

1 Couplet inserted from P. 


I will not wait for one to claim the realm, 
And caracole amidst the cavaliers." 

Whenas the chiefs possessed by Ahriman 1 
Heard their foul leader thus assert himself 
They drew their scimitars, arose, and spake 
In terms unheard till then : " Bahrain Chubina 
Is Shah and we are subjects. We will not 
Transgress his wishes and commands." 

Now when 
Bahrain Chubina saw the scimitars 
Drawn he did what was just and right, and said :— 
" If any one shall leave his seat and touch 
His scimitar I will cut off his hand 
Forthwith and sober him." 

This said, he left 
The nobles for the pleasance. That great conclave 
Dispersed with faces lined and broken hearts. 

Whenas the pitch-hued, star-illumined Veil 
Appeared, and watchmen's calls were heard, he asked 
For pen and paper, and a noble scribe, 
And wise, approached, to whom he handed pen 
And inkstand, saying : " Write out on this silk 
This declaration from the Iranians : — 2 
' Bahrain Chubina is the Shah, triumphant, 
Deserving crown, adorning throne, and seeking 
Right publicly and privily.' " 

This written 
They lighted links and passed an anxious night, 
But when the Veil of lapis-lazuli 
Had passed away and when the world was sun-gilt, 
One fortune-favoured came and set a state 
Within the palace of Bahrain Chubina ; 
Upon that golden state they placed a seat, 
And oped the court. He took his place as Shah, 

' Heading with P. 

2 Thus imitating the impious Zahhak. See Vol. i. p. 154. 


And donned the royal crown. The scribe then brought 

The declaration of his sovereignty 

Inscribed upon the costly painted silk, 

And each chief testified : " Bahrain Chubina 

Is monarch of the world."* 

When they had signed 
lie sealed it with his golden seal and said :— 
"All-holy God will testily to you 
That now this realm is mine and may its kings 
Be of my lineage for a thousand years, 
1901 And thus ennobled hold in line direct 
The crown and lofty throne."' 

"Twas on the day 
Khurshid of month Azar that thus the Lion 
Gave up the Onager's back. 1 Bahrain Chubina 
Thereafter thus harangued the Iranians :— 
' Revengeful strife hath risen in our midst. 
Whoe'er accept eth not this settlement. 
Be he an honest man or not, shall spend 
But three days in Iran and on the fourth, 
What time the world's Lighl mounteth to the sky, 
Shall go to join Khusrau Parwiz and sleep not 
In our dominions longer." 

Blessing him, 
Not from their hearts, men said : ""May earth ne'er 
lack thee." 
Heart-broken that Bahrain Chubina reigned 
Those loyal to the kingdom's rightful lord 
Departed Rum- ward and dispersed abroad. 

1 Mohl has " lorsque le lion devorele dos de l'onagre." It may 
mean " When the country (the onager) lost its natural tyrant the 
lion (Khusrau Parwiz) by the accession of Bahrain Chubina." 



How Bandivi plotted with Bahrdm, the Son of Siydivush, 
to slay Bahrdm Chubina, and how Bandwi fled from 

For seventy days Bandwi, like cheetah bound, 

Was in the prison of Bahrain Chubina, 

Watched by Bahrain, the son of Siyawush — 

A most unwilling jailor — whom Bandwi, 

Still scheming though in bondage, thus beguiled :— 

" Despair not of the monarch of Iran ; 

Though night be dark 'twill turn to day and though 

His fortune, like the fortune of Piriiz 

With Khushnawaz, shall tarry long. The Maker 

Restored him in the person of Kubad, 1 

And gave him back the world. Bahrain Chubina 

In like wise will retain not crown and throne. 

Doth he himself, this man of fortune, think it ? 

Nay, perish any rustic who thus givcth 

Himself in folly to the wind. Count thou 

Two months upon thy fingers and thou'lt see 

Troops from Iran in Rum, and they will cast 

Fire on this crown and throne, and break the jewels 

On this man's head." 

Bahrain said : " If the king 
Will grant me quarter I will deck my soul 
With thine advice and do thy will in all, 
But I must have a great oath sworn to me 
By moon, Azargashasp, by throne and crown, 
That if Khusrau Parwiz come to our coasts, 
And bring a host from Caesar and from Rum, 
Thou wilt ask him to spare my life, not slight C. 1902 

What so importeth me, lest he be led 

1 Kaikubad in the original. 


By what the Iranians say and harm befall me."* 

He spake, then calling for the Zandavasta 
He caused Bandwi to swear, who took the roll, 
And said : " Let not Bandwi sec aught but pain 
And toil from the Supreme or e'er find rest 
Within this Wayside Hostelry if I 
Do otherwise. Else when Khusrau Parwiz 
Bestir himself I will not l<><>k on him, 
Or ever rest, unless he send to thee 
Withal a signel and a chieftain's crown." 

Bahrain, on hearing what an oath he swore, 
And seeing his pure heart and loyalty. 
Said : " I will tell thee all my schemes aloud. 
1 will achieve revenge and set a snare 
"To catch Bahrain Chubina. Where I set it 
There- will I do mine utmost to destroy him 
With bane of scimitar. Our streams are dry 
Since we have had to hail him as the Shah." 

Bandwi replied : " Know. () experienced man ! 
That I am shrewd and prompt and wise, and when 
Khusrau Parwiz returneth with a host 
From Rum, and sitteth on the state, thou'lt find 
That he will not refuse me anything. 
I will ask pardon for thy past offence, 
And he would give his crown at my request. 
If thou wilt keep thy word and not ensue 
(mile in thy heart unfetter me and thus 
Begin to recognise Khusrau Parwiz ; 
"Twill prove thy secret bent ; that plain appeal 
Will reach his ear." 

Thereat Bahrain "s face brightened, 
And he removed the fetters. 

When night's veil, 
Musk-hued, turned bright and dawn laid hand thereon 
Bahrain said to Bandwi : ' If my heart fail not, 
What time Bahrain Chubina playeth polo 


To-day I have engaged me with five friends 
To slay him." 

Calling for a coat of mail 
He donned it 'neath his dress and rode away. 
Bahram, the warrior, had a wicked wife 
Who wished him hewn to pieces. In her heart 
She was enamoured of Bahram Chubina, 
While hatred of her husband filled her soul ; 
So to Bahram Chubina she dispatched 
Some one to say : " thou that succourest ! 
Protect thyself because Bahram hath donned 
His mail beneath his robe and buckled it. 

I know not what may be his ill intent, C. 1903 

But thou hadst better keep aloof from him." 

Bahram Chubina, hearing her advice 
Not to piny polo with her spouse, tapped all 
Who came upon the ground with polo-sticks, 
And drew anear him, gently on the back 
With kindly greetings in a pleasant tone 
Until he reached the son of Siyawush, 
Found him to be in mail and said : " O thou 
Worse than a biting snake ! who weareth mail 
Beneath his silk upon the polo-ground ? " 

This said, he drew his vengeful scimitar, 
And clave the son of Siyawush in two. 
'Twas bruited in the city that Bahram 
Was slain, and when the tidings reached Bandwi 
The daylight failed him. Putting on his mail 
He mounted, quaking girt his warlike loins, 
And taking all the kinsmen of Bahram, 
With all that looked for safety to himself, 
Fled from the city and the Day of Doom. 
When they had gone one stage their numbers grew ; 
They pressed along the road to Ardabil. 

Bahram Chubina, when he left the ground, 
Trailed in his wrath his robe in blood, then ordered 


Mahrwi to guard Bandwi. The people said :— 
" Fret not for him, king ! for when he heard 
News of this slaying verily he took 
The wind for waymate, knowing that the matter 
Concerned himself and that Bahrain was slain 
For their intrigue. He sorrowed to have caused 
His comrade's death and saw the outlook dark." 

The king said : k> May he lack both skin and brain 
That knoweth not foe from friend. One will repose 
Upon the points of elephants* tusks, another 
Trust to the billows of the dark blue sea ; 
A third will brave a monarch's wrath, a Fourth 
Take lion by the foreleg. Let thy soul 
Feel for all four; their fortune is averse. 
Another would move mountains and invileth 
All to his aid. He wearieth himself. 
And as the outcome cluteheth but the wind. 
To voyage in a ship unseaworthy 
Is better than to be precipitate, 
And if thou seekest and dost lind a spring 
Wilt thou grow daft and turn therefrom in wrath ? 
The man whose guide is blind will tarry long 
1904 Upon his way. The handler of a dragon 

Would die, the dragon 'scape, while pain and death 

Are his who eateth bane for trial's sake, 

And yet I did not slay Bandwi at first, 

So he hath schemed and hath escaped my hands ! 

My act is one for which I needs jnust weep, 

And see what is God's will." 1 

Bandwi the while 
With his small band sj)ed on like rushing wind. 
Each carried with him what he could toward where 
Mausih the Armenian, dwelt along a road 
Infested by wild beasts and waterless. 

1 The import of the speech is : " There are many sorts of fools 
but I am the greatest of them all." 


Bandwi perceived a camp-enclosure pitched, 

Saw that it was Mausil's, found streams and food, 

And hurried forward to that fertile spot 

Alone, beheld Mausil, did him obeisance, 

And told him privily the case, who said :— 

" Stay here, for here the latest news will reach thee 

Of what Khusrau Parwiz doth in fair Rum, 

And if he contemplateth peace or war." 

Thereat Bandwi was minded to remain, 
And called up his companions from the plain. 

§ 1 3 

How Khusrau Parwiz went toward Rum by the Desert- 
route and how a Hermit told him of the Past and 

Khusrau Parwiz led on in haste where guide, 
And grass and water, were not. Slack of rein 
They went in dudgeon till they reached Babil, 
Where all the well-disposed among the chiefs 
Went forth to welcome him. As he drew near 
He made his men dismount outside the city, 
And scarce had done so when a courier came 
Out of Iran in haste. He bore a letter 
Concealed upon him from Bahrain Chubina, 
And written to the ruler of Babil : — 
" Detain a company if one shall come ; 
My troops pursue and will arrive anon." 

The ruler, seeing the letter's purport, sought 
Khusrau Parwiz in haste, who looked and read, 
Astounded at the process of the world. 
He feared pursuit and mourned his own fatigue, 
But mounting presently departed thence, C. io°5 

And girding up his royal loins pressed on 


Until he came to the Farat : no rest 

Saw he in his own realm. His followers. 

Both old and young, were famished. Then they spied 

A wood and water while a caravan 

Of camels led on by a cameleer 

Appeared anon. That youth, when he beheld 

Khusrau Parwiz, called blessings down upon 

That Doble one, who asked : " What is thy name ? 

What is thy trade and whither goesl thou ? ' 

He answered : " Kais am I. son of Maris. 
And heir of Aral) chiefs. From Misr have I 
Come with a caravan and am myself 
Chief cameleer. I dwell Inside the waters 
Of the Farat and came thence to this forest." 

Khusrau Parwiz asked : " What hast thou of food 
And st nil's, for we are wearied out and famished, 
Not having food or packs ? " 

The Aral) said : 

' Stay : I am one with thee, share, soul, and body." 
In his affection for the Shah he brought 

A fatted COW : they slaughtered her and lit 

A tire by kindling sticks both green and dry. 

He grilled kabab ; the comrades of the Shah 

Were eager to partake, consuming much. 

But had no bread. Each chieftain then made ready 

A sleeping-place. They slept awhile, then rose 

And offered up their orisons anew 

To that just Judge who made the world, made mighty 

And weak alike, and then the Shah addressed 

His comrades thus : " The most in fault are they 

That are my noblest and most famous subjects : 

Still those that have done worst, rebelled, and left 

God's way, may trust with confidence to me. 

See that ye give to them the fairest hopes." 

His comrades blessed him, saying : " O thou pure 
Of heart and Faith ! bright be thy heart and jocund 


Thy lot, and may the just Judge give thee back 
The throne. He hath bestowed on thee such Grace 
And mien that love and justice are increased 
For every one : thou art the sum of wisdom, 
For thou replacest ill by good." 

The Shah, 
Though pleased at this acclaim, was in his heart 
Concerned about his route and asked the Arab :— 
" What is it like ? How shall I fare with troops ? " 

He answered : " Seventy farsangs and more C. 1906 

Of waste and mountain front you. With thy leave 
I will find meat and water for the road 
If thou wilt hurry not." 

Khusrau Parwiz 
Replied : " There is no other course, for this 
Will furnish provand and a guide." 

The Arab 
Dispatched a cameleer to fare before 
The troops. He hurried over waste and mountain, 
All care and travail, with that company. 
Withal afar another caravan 
Appeared upon the route before the troops. 
A wealthy merchant sought the king, who asked : — 
" Say, whence art thou and whither hastening ? ' 

He said : " I am a merchant and a scribe, 
And I have come from Khurra-i-Ardshir." 

" How did thy father name thee ? " said the Shah. 
The merchantman replied : " Mihran Sitad." 

The king requested of the man supplies 
Because the leader of his troops had said : — 
" He hath, O Shah ! provisions past compute, 
But may not be best pleased." 

• To find a host 
Upon the way is so much to the good,*' 
The Shah replied. The merchant loosed his bales 
Of cheap and costly wares, brought provand forth, 


And sat himself upon the ground, invoking 
A blessing on the kino-. The eating dour. 
The hospitable merchant brought the Shah 
The water for his hands, but when Kharrad, 
Son of Barzin, saw that he rose, ran up. 
Took the warm water from the merchant's hand, 
That no respect toward the Shah mighl Pail, 
And when the merchantman made haste to brine 
Wine lucent as rose-water then again 
Kharrad, son of Barzin, took from his hand 
The goblet and presented it himself. 
In due observance servants profil find, 
For all such service is repaid in kind. 

" Which is the army's route," the Shah then asked 
The merchant, "and. () hospitable man ! 
Where dwellesi thou in Khurra-i-Ardshir ? ' 

He said : "0 Shah ! live in prosperity. 
I of ties,- traffickers am from Karaz." 1 

The Shah enjoined Ruzbih, the scribe, to note 
The young man's name and village. " Go thy ways, 
And be at heart the- warp and wool of wisdom," 
He said. The army left that verdant spot, 
And hurrying toward the Human marches reached 
The town which Caesar named Karsan. The Christ- 
J 907 On seeing the troops afar, went hurrying 
Across the waste to carry their effects 
Within the walls and firmly barred the oates. 
The Shah, the lustre of the world, chagrined 
Remained outside for three days with his troops, 
And on the fourth dispatched a man to say : — 
' Our troops are few, send provand, succour us, 
And treat us not in this high-handed wise." 

They scorned his words, his troops were weak and 

1 " Je suis le courtier des marchands.'- Mol 1. 


When suddenly there rose a murky cloud, 
Which roared like some great warrior-lion ; a storm 
Swept o'er the place ; from every quarter came 
Din and a cry for help. By midnight half 
The walls had gone ; the town was all amaze ; 
The bishop offered prayers ; in every quarter 
They gathered food together, and three priests, 
Three venerable men, went forth in haste 
With native produce and with Human robes. 
And brought a led horse to the Shah. They said :— 
" Our fault, O Shah ! is manifest to us," 
And he, a noble youth, reproached them not. 
There was within the city's walls a palace, 
Whose summit was at home among the clouds; 
'Twas built by Caesar and had many slaves. 
The Shah went thither when he left the plain, 
And oft-times used to so about the city. 
The Rumans all acclaimed him and strewed jewels 
Beneath his feet. Possessed of this fair dwelling 
He rested for a while and wrote to Caesar 
Of that storm, rain, and darksome cloud, then went 
Toward Manwi which he renamed Minn. 1 
The shrewd and wise, the great and powerful, 
Among its citizens, with priests and monks, 
Went to the king with gifts and offerings, 
Spake of the storm and of that ancient town, 2 
And all said : ' We are slaves and bow before 
Khusrau Parwiz' behest." 

He stayed three days, 
And on the fourth when Sol, the world's light, rose, 
And thrust its bright sword through the clouds, 

Toward Warigh ; 3 it was a city's name, 
And had the true Cross 4 and a hospital. 

1 i.e. Paradise. ' Karsan. 

3 Spelt also Aurigh. * Cf. Vol. v. p. 306 and note. 


1908 Upon the waste he saw a hermitage ; 

He heard the hermit s voice, approached, and asked :- 
'" What blessed one is here ? 

They reply :— 
"An ancient man grown wan with many years, 
A skilled astrologer; there is not aught 
Concealed from him, and what he saith will be." 

The Shah drew nigh the door forthwith and cried :- 
' Be thine to worship God, and may lie bless thee 
IF thou wilt come forth from thine ancient cell." 

Forthwith the hermit, when he heard the words, 
Descended from his cell and seeing the Shah 

Said : "Of a truth thou art Khiisian Parwfz 
Brought by the hand of an ill-doing slave, 
Impure. Armenian-like, a servitor, 
To this affliction for thy father's throne." 

lie spake at large ; Khusrau Parwfz became 
Cheered in his heart through all that kindliness. 
And all in wonder at the words invoked 
The blessings of the Maker on the man. 
The devotee, and, mounted, greeted him 
With outstretched hand, whereal the man of God 
Did reverence and spake long. By way of proof 
The Shah said : "Of the franian host am I, 
A subject, bearing a dispatch to Cesar, 
And I shall carry to my lord his answer. 
See if my journey will he prosperous. 
And how result." 

He answered : " Say not so ; 
Thou art the Shah, make not thyself a courtier. 
I told thee all at sight so never prove me. 
Thy Faith alloweth no falsehood, and deceit 
Is not thy way and wont. Thou hast endured 
Much toil and suffered, and at last hast fled 
Before thy slave." 

Astounded and confused 


Khusrau Parwiz began to make excuse. 

The hermit said : " Forbear, and question me 

Of what will be. As to thy coming hither 

Be glad and confident, and to the world 

A fruitful bough for God will satisfy thee, 

And give to thee high fortune and high place, 

While thou wilt have from Caesar arms and troops, 

And daughter worthy of the crown of state. 

The World-lord, who ne'er sleepcth, will assist thee 

In battle with thy slaves, while in the end 

The miscreant will flee and oft recall 

The days of his success. He will alight C. 1909 

Far from that field of battle and there dwell ; 

Yet still, though rather than submit to thee 

He will choose exile, they will shed his blood 

At thy behest." 

Khusrau Parwiz replied :— 
" God grant it, ancient sage ! but tell me this : 
Will it be long ere I obtain the kingship ? " 

He said : " Twelve months and thou wilt have the 
Then fifteen days and thou wilt light the world 
As king of kings." 

" Who of this company," 
The Shah inquired, " will bear most toil and care 
On mine account ? " 

The hermit said : " Bistam, 1 
A lofty spirit and a prosperous, 
And thy maternal uncle who, thou knowest, 
Hath made thy lifetime pleasant ; but be ware 
Of that unprofitable man, the source 
Of all thy plaints, affliction, and mishap." 

The Shah was wroth and said to Gustaham : — 
: Thy name revealeth thee ! Thy mother called thee 

1 The Arabic form of Gustaham. He was no true Persian 
and therefore not to be trusted. 


Bistam but thou proclaimest in the fight 
Thyself a Gustaham ! " 

Then to the hermit : 
" This is mine uncle on my mother's side." 

The hermit answered : " Yea, it is the same ; 
Thou wilt sec pain and strife through Gustaham." 

"And after,** said the Shah, "what will ensue, 
My counsellor ? " 

He answered : " Heed no1 that, 
For thenceforth thou wilt have but praise: no ill 
E'er will befall bhee, and if hardship cometh 
'Twill be from God. This rebel will disturb 
Thy peace, but after thou wilt be content. 
And, bad as'this malicious one may prove, 
His fate is in thy hands." 

' Be not concerned 
Hereat, king ! " said Gustaham. vt By God, 
The Holy One. the Maker of the moon. 
Who made a Shah like thee to rule the world ; 
By sun, by moon, and by Azargashasp, 
And by the life and head of our famed Shah, 
While Gustaham shall li\<- he shall not seek 
Aught but the right or knock at evil's door ; 
And if he should be minded otherwise 
Then may the soul of Gustaham depart. 
No human being since the World-lord made 
The world hath looked upon His secret's key ; 
Why shouldst thou credit then a Christian's words, 
And heed his idle talk ? Suspect me not 
Through speech of his, and seek not for a pretext 
Against me now that I have sworn to thee." 

Khusrau Parwiz made answer : " Holy men 
Speak to the point. Withal I have not seen 
111 from thee ever, and thou catchest not 
At guile or folly, yet high heaven's process 
May make thee harmful and no wonder too, 


For when God willeth wit and wisdom swerve." 
Then said he to the hermit : " Be thou dad 
In heart and prosperous." 

From that hermitage 
He went like levin flashing from a cloud 
Toward the city of Wai igh, and thence 
There met him those of worth and eminence. 


Hoiv a Cavalier of Cmsar came to Khusrau Parwiz 
and how Khusrau Pariviz sent a Letter by Gusta- 
ham, Bdlwi, Andiydn, Kharrdd, Son of Barzin, 
and Shdpiir to Ccesar 

When he arrived there came from noble Caesar 
A cavalier to say : " Ask what thou wilt 
Within our coasts and see that thou refrain not 
Thy will from kings, for though this realm is mine 
I hold thee as mine equal. Stay secure, 
And happy in yon city, apprehending 
No ill. All Rinnans, haughty though they are 
And chiefs, shall serve thee, and I will not seek 
Food, sleep or rest till I have furnished thee 
With arms and troops." 

The Shah heard and rejoiced ; 
His soul was eased ; he bade call Gustahain. 
Balwi, aspiring Andiyan, Kharrad, 
Son of Barzin, and lion Shapur, and thus 
Spake that brave monarch : " Saddle up at dawn 
With golden saddles on the horses led, 
Put on your tunics gold-inwoven from Chin, 
Be one in heart and honesty, depart, 
And parle with Caesar. Be ye wary, shrewd. 



Attentive, bland, and courteous. If he goeth 

Upon the Ground for archery or polo 

Exert you to the utmost 'gainst his chiefs, 

For ye must not be worsted : let him know 

That horsemanship proceedeth from Iran. 

While from its Lions there come might and valour." 

The Shah then bade Kliarrad, son of Bar/in : — 
"Bring hither silk from Chin and black musk ; I 
Must write a letter like resplendent Sol 
In jocund Paradise to Caesar, brief 
C. 191 1 But to the purpose, such as all mens hearts 
May recollect. He hath philosophers; 
Be instant that they hear no foolishness. 
They measure not their words in anything; 
Let them not find a fault in our dispatch. 
When he hath read the letter loose thy tongue; 
None of them can compete with thee in speech."' 

Then to Balwi : l " If Csesar speak of us 

In public with regard to an alliance. 

Oath, treaty or affinity, replj 

As sweet as honey for thou art my tongue 
Before that folk and mine interpreter 
For good and ill. Endeavour by all means 
To save us from defeat ; be diligent; 
Take mine assurances and bear in mind 
My words." 

Those ardent, veteran warriors 
Heard the instructions of that glorious youth, 
And blessed him saying : " May none wear the crown 
But thou." 

They fared with cheerful hearts to Caesar, 
Who when he heard : " Some nobles of Iran, 
The envoys of the monarch of the world, 
Have reached Yunan," sent many troops to meet 

1 Reading with P. and below. 


He decked a palace with brocade of Rum, 

The pattern jewelled on a ground of gold, 

And sitting on the famous ivory throne 

Assumed the heart-illuming crown and bade 

Withdraw the curtain and to introduce 

The envoys from the vestibule, rejoicing. 

First came the noble Gustaham, behind 

There were Balwi and brave Shapiir, Kharrad, 

Son of Barzin, and valiant Andiyan, 

All crowned and girdle-girt. They came anear 

To Caesar and on seeing did obeisance, 

With one consent called blessings down on him, 

And on that golden throne besprinkled gems. 

He first inquired about the Shah, Iran, 

The host and toilsome journey. Hearing this, 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, approached the throne, 

And brought the letter of the Shah. They set, 

Bv order of that noble sovereign, 

Four golden seats, and of the envoys three, 

Men of illustrious rank and well advised. 

Sat down, but still Kharrad, son of Barzin, 

Stood. Caesar said : " A traveller should sit." 

' The Shah hath not conferred on me the right," 
He answered, " in thy presence while I hold 
His letter : mine abasement may commend n 

T • 1912 

Itself to thee and aid mine embassage." 

Said Caesar : ' Speak. What said the prudent 
prince ? " 
Kharrad, son of Barzin, what while he spake 
Observing what Khusrau Parwiz had said. 
First praised the Maker and besought His help, 
" Who is above all height, all wise, all mighty, 
Who hath revealed heaven's host and given us 
Soul, wisdom, love. He bade and heaven was, 
For He is over space and time. The sphere 
And stars revolving are His work. When He 


Created servants out of worthless dust 

He gave life first to Gaiumart. 1 The race 

Went on to Farfdun whom God most favoured 

Of all those noble chieftains. Once obscure 

His stock became illustrious in the world. 

And lasted up to Kai Kubdd who donned 

The crown of majesty. His race ne'er saw 

Calamity and ever kepi God's way ; 

But now a worthless slave hath come and sal 

Upon the royal throne. I seek for justice 

Against the unjust, not crown, throne, cap, and 

Whoever sitteth on a throne hath need 
Of wisdom, fortune, and nobility. 
This man shall learn to whom the fortune, Grace, 
And diadem of king of kings pertain. 
Help me and quell this traitor for I roam 
Despised by small and great." 

When Caesar heard 
His cheeks hceaine like Uoom of fenugreek ; 
That bloom of fenugreek grew charged with hail, 
And from his tongue and soul there burst a wail." 


How Ccesar answered the Letter of Khusrau Parwiz 

He read, his grief increased, the throne appeared 
All mournful 2 to his eyes, and thus that world-lord 
Said to Kharrad, son of Barzin : ' That I 
Esteem Khusrau Parwiz above myself, 
Above my kindred and my fluent soul, 
Is not a secret with discerning men. 

1 See Vol. i. p. 117 seq. 2 Like lapis-lazuli in the original. 


I have arms, troops, and treasure. Now consider 

What ye require. If he will have mine eyes C. 191 3 

I will not say him nay though they are better 

Than wealth, dinars, and sword." 

Then Caesar summoned 
A well-experienced scribe and, seating him 
Upon the royal dais, bade him write 
An answer decked like meads of Paradise 
With many a counsel, promise, and kind word 
About past times and present. When the scribe 
Had finished Caesar chose a cavalier 
Brave, fluent, ardent, and of heedful mind, 
Wise, learned, a warrior, and scribe withal, 
And said : " Go to Khusrau Parwiz and say : 
' Thou seeker of God's way, shrewd-hearted Shah ! 
I have men, arms, and treasure, and no need 
To trouble any one but, if need were, 
Would requisition drachms from every lord 
Throughout the realm that thou mightst have thy 

And go hence to thine own home in Iran. 
Grieve not while here, 'tis circling heaven's way, 
Which is by turns our refuge and our bale, 
By turns our loss and profit. While I find 
Arms, troops, and money do thou take thine ease.' 
The envoy went and told Khusrau Parwiz. 


How Ccesar wrote to Khusrau Parwiz, declining to 
help him, and his Answer 

Then Caesar cleared the audience-room and sat 

Deliberating with his counsellor, 

And said thus to that priest : " This suppliant 


Hath made choice of ourselves to refuge with : 
What shall we do that he may gather strength, 
And feel no more his subject's insolence ? ' 

The counsellor thus answered : " What we need 
Is that a few shrewd-hearted men of those 
That are our well-advised philosophers 
Shall act with us herein." 

So famous (. sesar 
Dispatched a messenger and four arrived 
Of those philosophers, two young, two old, 
All Ruman-born, and thus they spake at Large: — 
'The Iranians, since Sikandar passed away, 
Have deeply wounded us by frequent raiding, 
By war and strife, and causeless, reckless bloodshed : 
Now holy Cod requiteth their ill deeds 

In kind. Since the Sasanians' Fortune halteth 
Forbear to intervene. Khusrau Parwiz, 

If he shall pain the royal crown and raise 
His forehead to the moon, will ask for tribute 
From Rum anon and trample on our land. 
Reflect if this be wise. Hold their words wind." 

When Caesar heard he changed his mind and sent 
The Shah a letter by a cavalier 
To tell what course the sages had advised 
In long debate. He reached Khusrau Parwiz, 
And told what he had heard the lamed king say, 
Delivered Caesar's letter too and uttered 
Words past compute. Khusrau Parwiz grew strait 
Of heart thereat, his face turned wan with care. 
He thus replied : " If we must lay to heart 
All that can be alleged from days of yore 
Then all our travail will but catch the wind. 
Consider now if my progenitors, 
Those chosen world-lords, men of holiness, 
Made wars with justice or unjustly ; ask 
Of ancient men who bear such things in mind. 


Vouchsafe to question the wise men of Rum 
If 'twas the crow or owl that did the wrong. 1 
Although the Maker hath not left in want 
The Great of Rum mine ancestors withal 
Were men of name, in their own days supreme. 
Who were no brookers of insurgency. 
Pride, wrong, or foolishness from any one ; 
But what can this avail now that my head 
Is in the dragon's maw ? Greet C'a?sar for me, 
And say : ' The Great speak only to the point 
In wisdom's presence though both good and ill 
Pass in the end. I will not rest till I 
Have drawn my skirt forth from this turbid stream, 
And if the Rumans will not succour me 
I will send envoys to the Khan. My words 
Have naught availed because my river-bed 
Was fouled, and when my messengers return 
My sojourn in this city will be short.' 
He said to the Iranians : ' Obey 
My bests ; let not this matter break your hearts, 
For God, the Conqueror, is aiding us ; 
Our part is fortitude and manliness.'" 

He took the matter lightly and dispatched 
His answer by Tukhar. He wrote as though 
He recked not either good or ill. Tukhar 
Departed from Khusrau Parwiz and came 
To where was Ca?sars court, that man of name. 

1 Alluding to a story in the book of Kalila and Dimna (see Vol. 
vii., p. 382). The owls, having an ancient grudge against the crows, 
one of whom had prevented the owl from being elected the king of 
the cranes, made a treacherous night-attack upon the crows. A 
counsellor of the king of the crows, acting somewhat as an Haitalian 
chief is said to have done in the war against Piruz {id. p. 161), 
succeeded in avenging them. 



Hon- Cccsar wrote tin second Time to Khusrau Parwiz 
about giving him Aid 

Now Caesar having read the letter pondered, 

And then addressed his noble minister : — 
"Expound these problems. Call the Great and 

Tell what hath passed at Large and ascertain 
If now Khusrau Parwiz in this contention 
Will be successful or will writhe at fortune. 
It ye shall say : * He will not be victorious, 
Henceforth there is no New Year's Day lor him," 
Then will we let him journey to the Khan, 
And go, since he is ailing, to that cure; 
But if he is to triumph and possess 
The kingship, like his father, it were well 
In all ways that lie go hence with a host. 
And so not contemplate revenge at heart.*" 

The prudenl minister, on hearing this. 
Gave orders and the readers of tin- stars 
Came with their ancient tablets and consulted 
Until three watches of the night had passed, 
And in conclusion an astrologer 
Spake thus to Caesar : " illustrious ! 
I have consulted these old tables made 
In astrologic wise by Falatun. 1 
Ere long Khusrau Parwiz will have the realm, 
The kingship start afresh, and darksome dust 
Receive him not for eight and thirty years." 

Thereat said Caesar to his minister : — 
' Our doubts are cleared about Khusrau Parwiz. 
What shall we say ? What answer shall we give ? " 

1 Plato. 


" Let us apply a salve," he made reply. 
" If he betake him to the Khan's domains, 
Get aid from him, perceive himself secure, 
And levy soldiers elsewhere than in Rum, 
He never will forgo revenge on thee. 
Advise thou who art wiser and more potent 
In compassing thy will." 

" We must," said Caesar, 
" Dispatch him troops forthwith. "When all is 

Tis well to hold wealth cheap and keep from harm." 

He wrote forthwith, bestowing praise on praise :— 
" We have consulted loyal, honest priests 
On all points bad and good, and have returned, 
Discussion over, to our former view. 
All is arranged and now we will unlock 

Our ancient hoards. Within Kastantaniya 1 C. 19 16 

We have but force enough for garrison, 
But have ta'en order and have requisitioned 
Troops from the other provinces. As these 
Arrive I will not fail to send them to thee. 
All this delay and great deliberation. 
This pricking with a fleam the lion's jaws, 
Arose from sages' tales about the past. 
How under Shah Shapiir, son of Ardshir, 
Our youths' hearts aged with toil, much ravaging, 
Assault and slaughter and unjust revenge ; 
Then passing to Kubad 2 and to Hurmuzd, 
Both reckless of God's justice, of our cities 
Were nine and thirty turned to bramble-brakes 
By the Iranians, and the waste became 
Filled with the blood of chiefs whose wives and children 
Were carried captive ; so thou must not marvel 
If Riimans mused revenge. Howbeit to owe 
A grudge is not according to our Faith, 

1 Constantinople. % Kaikubad in the original. 


And God forbid that we should practise ill. 

We know no better thing than uprightness, 

And lack of all deceit and knavery. 

We have convoked the chiefesl sufferers, 

And spoken much to them in this regard; 

Their evil passions have been charmed away, 

For gnawing banc hath turned to antidote. 

Thus then have we secured that none will use 

The language of revenge aboul the past, 

And pledge our lives to further thy commands. 

Thou too must pledge thy word thai none will bear 

III will to us, must say : ' While I am king 

I will not think your labours slight or mean. 

Will not demand a tribute from the Humans. 

Or sell for aught these services of theirs.' 

Go further in complaisance: treal and make 

A limit v with us. What e'er ye do, 

E'en in an unjust war, le1 us be friends 

And brothers still through all vicissitudes 

Of power. Now when ye need our help no Longer, 

And thoughts of vengeance shall recur to you, 

There will be talk again of Tur and Salm, 

And of the follies of the past, so now 

I ask a binding pact, lit for thy seal. 

As a reminder that from this time forth 

We will not speak of vengeance for Iraj, 

Or of the past. Iran and Rum shall be 

One realm ; we will not seek to sever them. 

There is a daughter in our ladies' bower— 

A fit match for the greatest of the great ; 

Ask her according to our holy Faith, 

According to our rites and ritual, 

That when thou hast a child of Caesar's line 

He may not think of vengeance for Iraj : 

Then earth will rest from war and strife, and seek 

The right way in the Faith. Regarding this 


With wisdom's eye thou wilt esteem it just. 

Affinity will make alliance sure, 

Such is the precept that we have of God. 

Good sooth, it is a long day since Piruz, 

Or Khushnawaz. 1 They gave their heads to wind, 

But perish any treaty-breaking king ! 

Onr Prophet, the Messiah, said thus : ' If thou 

Quit justice wisdom warpeth.' Many a plan 

Tried Khushnawaz to keep the other's head 

From coming to the shears, but when Pirtiz 

Used force against him. in that fight the Shah 

Saw but black reck while host and royal throne 

Went to the winds because his head was turned 

From right. Thou art a youth new to affairs, 

And if thou wouldest gather fortune's fruit 

Make not a treaty-breaker thine ally : 

Dust is the shroud of such, and crown and throne 

Curse treaty-breaking, strife-provoking kings. 

Peruse my letter o'er and, if thy fingers 

Possess the needful skill, write needfully 

A fair and good response. I would not have 

This known to any scribe, so write thyself, 

And take good heed. When I shall read thine 

And see therein the heart of one resolved, 
I will dispatch forthwith arms, troops, and money 
To ease thy heart of care. As touching those 
Who are with thee most honoured or renowned, 
And those withal 'gainst whom thou harbourest 

vengeance, 2 
Put manfully such hatred from your hearts. 
Leave their 3 ill doings to almighty God, 

1 With a slight change of reading. Mohl translates : " Depuis 
Pirouz jusqu'a Khouschnewaz, il s'est passe bien dn temps, pendant 
lequel les deux peuples ont livre leurs tetes au vent." 

' Or " And him withal," etc., referring to Bahrain Chubina. 

 Or " his." 


And be not masterful with friend or foe. 
If thou wouldst have victorious fortune hold thee 
Lord of the world with host and crown and throne, 
Lay not thy hand on others' goods but make 
Thy soul a pathway toward the light, indulge 
Thy kindred, and protect the labouring poor. 
If thou art bounteous and a friend in need 
None will attempt thy crown and throne, Of Shahs 
The vigilant have kept the world from foes. 
191S The magnates that desire affinity 

Themselves or lor their virtuous children ne'er 
Have suffered ill from foemen, and God's Grace 
Hath magnified them. 1 Now we all court thee, 
And deck our tongues to give thee good advice." 

Whenas the address was dry they sealed the letter 
With musk. Now when with tidings of a league 
That he expected not the letter reached 
Khusrau Parwiz he told the Iranians : — 
"The sun revolveth otherwise to-day! 
A letter of high policy hath come 
From Caesar in most favourable terms : 
He seeketh to abate the ancient feud 
Between Iran and Rum." 

They answered him :— 
Whene'er this feud is o'er no chiefs will seek 
The Shah's crown, or such numbers live in want. 
If in thy days such righteousness come down 
Men will inscribe thy name on every crown." 

1 Couplets transposed. 



How Khusrau Parwiz answered Ccesar about the 


Now when they had approved this policy 

Khusrau Parwiz put strangers forth and called 

For inkhorn, pen, and silk of Chin, and bade 

A scribe attend. He wrote, as Shahs were wont, 

Thus in the olden tongue in royal script : — 

" Khusrau Parwiz doth swear by holy God, 

By circling sun and stable earth that while 

I sit as Shah upon the seat of state, 

Lord of Iran, its treasures and its troops, 

I will not ask the chiefs of Rum for tribute, 

Or send a host against those fields and fells. 

I will restore to Caesar all the cities 

Thereof however tradeless they may be 

And worthless, and thereafter will return 

Their documents and records. Further, I 

Am well content to ask of him a daughter 

Whose mother is both pure and of his race, 

And by so asking illustrate my heart. 

Entrust to those Iranians at thy court, 

And under thy protection — Gustaham, 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, of royal race, 

Shapur and Andiyan — thy daughter, wise 

And high-renowned, when thou dost send the troops. 

I am through mine affinity to thee 

As my great family were heretofore. 

The first was Gaiumart, the next Jamshid — c - J 9 T 9 

A source of hope and terror to the world — 

Then followed others of the glorious stock, 

Great men in wisdom and in royalty. 

From those old monarchs, wearers of the crown, 


The story runneth on to Kai Kaus, 

And Kai Khusrau, and by the selfsame token 

To mighty Kai Kiibad 1 whose justice made 

The sheep and wolf akin. Pursue the tale 

To Shah Luhrasp through whom to 8h;ih Gushtasp 

There came the glorious Asfanfiyar, 

That chief of chiefs, from whom sprang great Bah man, 

And thus we come to Ardshir Papakan 

'Neath whom our ancient star regained its youth. 

Now when Khusrau Parwfz, son of Hurmuzd, 

Is one in heart and sentiment with Caesar, 

Among whose distant ancestors was Salm 

(I seek no fables and I tell no lies) 

We shall abolish all the tend between US, 

And Human and Iranian will be one. 

I do accept from Caesar Caesar's daughter— 

The crown of all his daughters. Whatsoever 

May be her faults or virtues it is well, 

And holy God is witness to this letter, 

Writ in mine own hand known throughout the world, 

And I have sealed the letter with my seal 

According to our customs, ways, and faith. 

For thy successors — world-lords crowned and 

throned — 
That which is written here shall be my pledge, 
With mind and wisdom to corroborate, 
That I will keep my word in great and small. 
That what I say is true my heart and star, 
And holy God, bear witness, so delay not 
To act upon thy words, for I have lingered 
Long in this city." 

All being said, he gave 
The letter to Khurshid, son of Kharrad. 
As swift as wind that chieftain rose and mounting 
His chestnut steed sped till he came to Caesar, 
1 Kai Kubad really preceded the two Shahs previously mentioned. 


And gave the message of Khusrau Panviz. 
Then Caesar, having snapped the band and read 
The words of that exalted Shah, commanded 
The wise men and the eloquent to meet 
Before him and inquired of them in turn : — • 
" What cure shall I adopt ? How shall I make 
A treaty with the monarch of Iran ? 
His letter leaveth us without excuse ; 
All we of Rum and of Iran are one.*' 

The chiefs and sages rose to answer him, 
And said : * We are but subjects ; thou art Caesar, C. 1920 
The world-lord throned and crowned. Do thou 

Who hast both counsel and authority : 
Our bodies and our souls are thine." 

When Caesar 
Heard he commended those shrewd, pious chiefs, 
And waited till in the revolving sky 
The lamp of day had lost its radiancy. 


How CcBsar made a Talisman and deceived the Envoys 
of Khusrau Parwiz, and how Kharrdd, Son of 
Barzin, solved the Mystery 

When circling Sol grew pale, and in the tower 

Of night the stars were stationed, Caesar bade 

His warlocks muse and frame a talisman— 

A marvel — somewhere, such as none woidd know 

From real — a woman modest, fair, and seated 

In trailing raiment on a goodly throne 

With handmaids on both sides of her and slaves 

Before her and behind. She was to sit, 


That moon-faced one in silence, to appear 

A woman weeping, and from time to time 

To raise one hand and dash her tears away. 

The Avarlocks. as they were instructed, made 

The semblance of a woman with long hair, 

And all that from a distance gazed thereon 

Took it to be a woman lovelorn, bright, 

That sorely wept o'er Christ, her cheeks aflame, 

Her lashes like Spring-clouds. When of the adepts 

That talisman was set up in its place 

One went ami said to Caesar : " We have finished 

The matte)' in accord to what thou badest." 

When he had heard tins from the expert. Caesar 
Came from his throne in haste and visited 
The talisman. He marvelled at that feal 
Of sorcery and sent Tor Gustaham. 
He bounteously rewarded those magicians 
With money and with divers other gifts, 
Then said to Gustaham : " Famed warrior ! 
I had a daughter beautiful as Spring: 
She grew up to :i marriageable age. 
I had a kinsman, an aspiring one, 
To whom I married her with Christian rites. 
I countenanced him unadvisedly, 
And sent her to his palace. That youths soul 
Hath gone to Heaven ; she is deeply grieved : 
Bright day for her is lapis-lazuli ; 
[921 She will not take my rede or speak a word. 

And our young world hath aged through her trouble. 
Concern thyself to see her, and employ 
The words of men of lore, for thou art wise, 
A paladin by race, and she may speak 
To thee" 

He said : "I will : it may be I 
Shall banish this affection from her breast." 

With cheerful heart and charged with potent words 


That chief approached the guileful talisman, 
Which bowed to greet him as he neared its throne. 
Illustrious Gustaham sat humbly down. 
And spake to that sad dame, beginning boldly 
With such advice as seemed to him of profit : — 
" daughter born of Caesar's race ! " he said, 
" The wise exclaim not at the course of nature : 
The flying eagles, lions in the forests, 
And fishes in the waters, are not free 
From death," but all his words were wind ; no soul, 
Or tongue had she but ever and anon 
Would dash away the tear-drops from her eyes 
As her physician talked. While Gustaham 
Was lost in wonder Caesar summoned him, 
And asked : " How didst thou find that child of mine, 
AYhose pain and mourning cause me this distress ? ' 
He answered : ' I advised her much but vainly." 
The following day said Caesar to Balwi : 
" Go thou with Andiyan. Shapiir withal, 
The nobly born, may help to make my heart 
Glad in my daughter. Go to that sorrower, 
And speak to her about the famous king. 
She that is heaping fire upon my head 
May answer thee. Be good enough to aid me 
By converse with my mourning child ; perchance 
In view of your high rank she may accept 
Your counsels. Sure I am that she will speak 
To-day, and when she maketh fair reply 
I shall be freed from this disconsolate, 
Who raineth tears of blood upon her breast." 

Then those three noble Persians went to her, 
And each one strove, but answer gat they none ; 
That tongueless dame was mute. The baffled three 
Went back to Caesar, that just judge, and said : — 
' We spake and gave advice as best we could, 
But there was no improvement." 



" Tis ill hap 
For us,** he said, " to grieve for one in grief." 
J 9 22 Since these great men had failed he had recourse 

To great Kharrad, son of Barzin. ' Thou art." 
He said, " one of these chiefs and thou mayst hear 
Her voice forthwith." then sent him to the mourner 
From court attended by a trusty servant. 
When he arrived he looked upon the mien 
Of that crowned form and waited in its presence 
No little while. The guileful talisman 
Made him a how of greeting. He observed 
The woman, head and foot, most heedfully, 
And marked the attendants standing round. He 

At large: she answered not a word; that man, 
That scion of the chiefs, grew lull of thought. 
"If grief hath robbed her of her wits."' he s:iid, 
' Why do her servants hold their peace the while ? 
If these he very tear-drops lt( nn her eyes 

One would expect her passion to abate. 
She letteth fall the drops upon her breast, 
And knoweth not to move to left or right : 
Her tears fall on one spot ; she hath not used 
One hand or stirred a loot ! Had this form life 
She would move more than foot or hand, would shed 
Her tears, and stretch her other hand, elsewhere. 
I see life stir not in her body ; "tis 
A talisman of these philosophers." 

He came to Caesar with a smile and said :— 
' This moon-faced lady is not rational ; 
It is a talisman of Ruman make, 
And hath deceived Balwi and Gustaham. 
Thy purpose was to laugh at us or charm 
Our eyes. Our Shah w r hen he shall hear will smile 
With open lips and show his silvern teeth." 

Said Caesar : " Live for ever ! Thou art fit 


To be the minister of kings. I have 


A wondrous chamber in my palace, one 
Can not imagine aught more marvellous. 
When thou beholdest it thou wilt not know 
Its secret — talisman or work divine." 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, on hearing this, 
Went to that ancient chamber and beheld 
A cavalier upstanding, poised in air, 
And going back to famous Caesar said : — 
' The cavalier is iron and the chamber 
Withal is fashioned of the famous ore 
Called loadstone by the sages. Those of Ruin 
Have mounted him upon an Indian steed. 
Whoe'er shall read the Indians' books will find 
Both pleasure and enlightenment of mind." 


How Kharrad, Son of Barzin, expounded the Faith of 
the Indians and exhorted Ccesar 

' In what regard," said Caesar, " do the Indians C. 1923 

Err from the Path ? Those that are worshippers, 
Are they idolaters or what are they ? " 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, replied : " In Hind 
They worship ox and moon, put not their trust 
In God and circling heaven, and regard not 
Their persons, look no higher than the sun, 
And reckon not men like ourselves as wise. 
Whoever kindleth fire, shall enter it, 
And shall consume himself therein, believeth 
That in the air there is a fire ordained 
By God, whose word is law, which fire the sage 
Of Hind entitleth ' Ether ' and hath much 


Of worth and interest to say thereon, 

As thus : when earthly and etherial fires 

Combine man's sin is purged : they must be kindled 

Since burning is accounted righteousness. 

Withal ye too speak not aright : hereto 

Christ's life is testimony. Mark'sl thou not 

What Jesus, son of Mary.* said when he 

Was bringing secret things to lighl ? ' II' one 

Shall take thy skirt from thee resist him not. 

And if our bullet thee upon the face, 

So that thine eyes are darkened by the blows. 
Be not enraged or Id thy check turn pale, 

But shut thine eyes and speak no chilling word. 2 

II' thou hast little food let it sulliee. 

And il thou hast no carpet seek one not. 

Hold not this kiijd of evil to be bad, 

And ye without a pang will quit this (doom.' 

But now with you desire is king o'er wisdom. 

Your hearts have erred through overweening erreed, 

For ye have raised your palaces to Saturn. 
And camels bear your treasuries' keys. Besides 
The treasures ye have mighty hosts with coats 
Of mail from 'Ad and Human helms. Ye lead 
Hosts everywhere unjustly and allow not 
Your swords to rest. The wilderness is all 
One fount of blood : Christ led you not to this. 
He was a poor, unfurnished man who earned 
His bread by toil and lived on curds and milk 
With butter for his only other food. 
Now when the Jews oat hold of him and saw 
Him friendless and without resource they slew him, 
1924 And having slain him set him on the gibbet 
To make thereby his Faith contemptible. 
His father was an ancient man, his mother 

1 " fsa son of Maryam " in the original. 

2 S. Mat. v. 39, 40. S. Luke, vi. 29. 


A temple-keeper and a trier out 

Of good and ill. 1 Grown ardent and desirous 

Of knowledge, eloquent, instructed, mindful, 

He made withal disciples by his teaching, 

And compassed in his youth his will by shrewdness. 

Thou sayest that he was God's son and smiled 

When slain upon the gibbet ! 2 At such things 

The sage doth smile. If thou art wise fear God, 

Who hath no need of consort and of son, 

And unto whom all mysteries are clear. 

Whv turn'st thou from the Faith of Gaiumart, 

The path and precedent of Tahmuras, 

Which tell us that the Judge of earth is One, 

And that our only course is serving Him ? 

The experienced thane and worshipper of God, 

When muttering prayer he taketh in his hand 

The sacred twigs, may taste no drop of water 

Albeit for very thirst he dream thereof ; 

He trusteth God upon the day of battle, 

And asketh not cold water in the fight. 

Withal he taketh for his cynosure 

The highest element which is above 

Earth, air, and water. Our Shahs barter not 

Their Faith but list to Him, the Lord of all. 

They joy not in dinars and gems but seek 

To make their name and mark by justice only, 

By gifts of lofty palaces or joying 

The hearts of mourners. Fourthly, they pronounce 

None wise but one that on the day of battle 

Doth veil the bright sun's face with dust and guardeth 

The land from foes. Be curses his, not blessings, 

That seeketh from religion aught but right." 

When Caesar heard this he approved ; the words 

1 According to the Kuran Mary had been dedicated from the 
first to the service of God. Zacharias built for her a chamber in 
the temple and provided for her. SK, i. 5S and notes. 

* Sec p. 191. 


Seemed profitable to him, and he said : — 
' The Maker made thee foremost of the great : 
One needs must hearken to thy pure discourse. 
Thou hast the key that openeth the door 
Of mysteries. The head of one with liege 
Like this is higher than the moon's own crown." 

Then from his treasury he hade to bring 
Dinars and drachms and crown magnifical, 
Bestowed them on Kharrad, son of Barzin, 
And uttered many praises : "' Cultured be 
The country of Iran." he said, "through thee." 


lion- Crrsur sen/ a Host and Jus Daughter t<> Khusrau 


:. 1025 Now Caesar, when lie heard that troops had come. 

And thai the world was black with horsemen's dust. 
Chose from those Rumans five-score thousand men, 
All famed in battle, requisitioned arms, 

War-steeds and drachms, and I In is nineh time elapsed. 
He had one daughter Maryam hight, wise, grave, 
AVell counselled and resolved, and later on 
Brought forth such stores of bridal bravery 
That e'en the speedy baggage-beasts grew slow — 
Gold trinkets, jewels that a king might wear, 
Gems, gold-embroidered raiment, carpetings, 
Brocade of Rum with golden patterns wrought 
Upon a ground of silk, torques, bracelets, earrings, 
And three most costly and bejewelled crowns. 
He had four gilded litters too made ready. 
Their curtains decorate with royal gems, 
And forty others made of ebony 


All jewelled like the eye of chanticleer. 

Then came three hundred moon-faced waiting-maids 

All colour and perfume, five hundred slave-boys 

Intelligent and bright with ornaments 

Of gold and silver, forty Ruman eunuchs 

Fay-faced, illustrious, attractive men, 

And four of the philosophers of Rum, 

Wise, learned and famed. He gave them their 

And privily withal charged Maryam 
To be obedient, order her desires, 
To do her duty, to be bountiful. 
As to her food and how to bear herself. 
There was, as reckoned in the Ruman way. 
More than three hundred millions' worth 1 of goods. 
To every envoy at his court he gave 
A crown inlaid with jewels, robes withal, 
Steeds and dinars and much of all things fitting. 
He bade write to the Shah on painted silk : — 
" Well may they raise their necks up to the moon, 
These subjects of the Shah ! No man more courteous 
"Than Gustaham hath sprung from small or great. 
Is there a champion like the chief Shapur 
To act as arbiter ? Balwi withal 
Can keep a secret for he would not sell 
His folk for aught, while none though he live long 
Will see one like Kharrad, son of Barzin, 

Whom God created to solve mysteries. C. 1926 

He is as bright and faultless as the sun, 
Divine in rede and deed." 

This written, he summoned 
His counsellors and readers of the stars 
To fix a lucky day for setting forth, 
And started on Bahrain with favouring stars 
And auguries. He went himself three stages, 

1 " de dirhems." Mohl. 


And then resigned the conduct of the host. 
Bade Maryam come to him, conversed with her 
At large, and said : " Be ware of putting oft' 
Thy girdle till thou comest to Iran. 
Khusrau Parwfz must see thee not unveiled 
Till then or things unlookcd for may befall thee," 
Then bade her tenderly farewell : " May heaven 
Protect thee on thy way." 

lie had a brol her, 
The valiant Niyatiis. who led his host 
In that campaign, and " Maryam is akin 
To thee,'' he said, " in blood and. I would add. 
In Faith. I charge thee with her, with this 

And this well ordered army." 

Niyat ns 
Accepted all from Caesar who. this said. 
Turned back in tears. The host marched toward 

Led on by Niyatiis with mace and sword. 

Khusrau Parwiz, on hearing thai the host 
Had conic, sit out with forces from that city. 
And when the leaders' dust -clouds and the Hags 
Of those mailed cavaliers appeared, and when 
The troops came onward cloud-like, lapped in iron, 
In helmet and cuirass, his heart laughed out, 
Like Spring-tide roses, at that fine array : 
He plucked up heart and gave his steed the heel. 
He saw, embraced, and greeted Niyatiis, 
And testified his gratitude to Caesar, 
Who had endured such toil and with that toil 
Of ordering the host had rendered void 
His treasury ; then going to the litter 
Beheld the face of Maryam through her veil, 
Saluted her and kissed her hand, rejoicing 
To look upon the Fair. He bore her oft 


To his encampment where he gave his Moon 

A bower and passed three days in converse with her. 

Upon the fourth when Sol, the world's light, shone 

They gat in readiness a choice pavilion, 

And summoned Niyatus, Sarkab, and Kut, 

The bold, with other chiefs both great and small, 

Whom thus the Shah addressed : " What chiefs and c. 1927 

Are here, such men as brandish sword and mace, 
In battle reck not of their lives, and turn not 
From lion or from leopard in the fray ? ' 

Then Niyatus made choice of seventy men 
To lead in fight ; each had beneath his banner 
A thousand chosen, lance-armed cavaliers. 
Khusrau Parwiz beheld this picked array 
Of noble horsemen eager for the strife ; 
He praised the Maker of heaven, time, and earth, 
He praised too Niyatus, his troops withal, 
And noble Caesar and his realm, and said : — 
" If God almighty aid me in this war 
I will display my puissance and make 
Earth like a sea for jewels ; ye shall joy 
At having come and rather tell thereof 
Than hold your peace : heaven's airs shall breathe 

From pleasance, friendship be our only thought." 


How Khusrau Parwiz led his Host to Azar Abddagdn 
and how Bandwi met him on the Way 

Upon the seventh day that comely Shah 
Arrayed his host as 'twere the turning sky, 
The din of tymbals went up from the court, 


And air grew ebon with the dust of troops. 
He chose a force of Persians and set out 
Toward Azar Abadagan. There passed 
Two weeks what while by order of the Shah 


The soldiers concentrated at his camp. 
He pitched it on the plain of Duk ; the army 
Was great and under Human discipline. 
He gave the whole host up to Niyattis, 
Thus saying: "Thou arl master of the flock," 
And thence with certain valiant cavaliers 
Let his swift steed have rein and made toward 
Khanjast — an anxious journey — till he reached 
Mausil. the Armenian, who could hold his own 
Among the great and had with him Bandwf, 
The Shah's maternal uncle. Now these twain. 
On hearing thai Khusrau Parwiz was stirring. 
Sped from the waste to meet him on the way. 
Preceding their own troops. To Gustaham 
The Shah said, seeing them upon the road:— 
"O warrior ! two are hurrying o'er the held : 
c. 1928 g ee y-ho they are and wherefore in such haste." 

He answered : " Sure am I, O king ! that he 
Who rideth on the piebald is my brother, 
The brave Bandwi : his friend is not of us.*' 

The Shah said : " What ! How canst thou know 
him ? Nay, 
Seek him in ward if living and if slain 
I'pon a gibbet in the riding-ground." 

Said Gustaham : " O Shah ! regard him well 
From this side : 'tis thine uncle : let me die 
For saying so if it prove otherwise." 

Afoot the twain approached the shady spot 
Where was the Shah, praised him and did obeisance. 
He gave Bandwi a welcome and observed : — 
" I said that I should find thee hid in dust." 

He told the Shah all that had chanced to him, 


His ruse of putting on the royal robes, 
And all Bahram Chubina's clemency. 
Khusrau Parwiz wept greatly at the tale, 
Then asked him : " Who is this ?'" 

" O sun-faced Shah ! 
Hast thou no kindly welcome for Mausil ? ' 
He answered. ' Since thou left'st Iran for Rum 
He hath not slept in lands inhabited, 
But camped upon the plain, his palace been 
Tent and pavilion. The troops with him 
Are many ; he hath all the gear of greatness, 
With drachms and treasures. Now he hath been 

Upon the road and longed for thy return." 

" How came it," asked the world-lord of Mausil, 
" That all thy toil was hidden ? We will strive 
To give thee happy days and make thy name 
The greatest of the great." 

Mausil replied : — 
" Give me new life, O king ! Let me approach 
And kiss thy stirrup while I praise thy Grace 
And splendour." 

" For these words," replied the Shah, 
" I will make bright thy gains to pay thy pains, 
Will grant thy wish and set thy name on high 
Above the great." 

Then he withdrew one foot 
Out of the stirrup, and that ardent soul, 
All eagerness, kissed foot and stirrup both, 
O'ercome by veneration for the Shah, 
Who, when that loyal liege was satisfied, 
Bade him remount and urged his own steed on 
Across that barren waste until he reached 

Azargashasp. With muttered prayer he entered C. 1929 

The Fire-fane, with an aching heart. A priest, 
The Zandavasta in his hand, approached 


The pious Shah who, loosing from his loins 
His golden belt, flung jewels on the Fire, 
And in his prayers outdid the priest himself. 

' Just Judge ! ' he said, " bring my foes' heads to 

Thou knowest that I justly plead and purpose 
To keep the path of good. Approve not Thou 
The injustice of the unjust."* 

This said, he girt 
His golden bell and sought the plain of Duk 
With wounded heart in trouble for his way : 
Night fell ere he reached camp. 

He sent shrewd spies 
To learn the posture of the world's affairs, 
And when the army of Nimriiz had heard :— 

"The Shah, the lustre of the world, hath come," 
They bound the drums upon the elephants, 
And earth became as 'twere the river Nile. 
All folk at that intelligence, which made 
Them young again, drew near to give him aid. 

§ 23 

How Bahrdm Chubina had Tidings of the Coming of 
Khusrau Parwiz and wrote to the Chiefs of Iran, 
and how the Letter fell into the Hands of Khusrau 
Parwiz and his Answer 

Bahrain Chubina heard : " The Grace of kingship 
Hath been revived," and cast his eyes on one 
Devoted to himself, one of the host, 
Aspiring, sage, fair-famed — Dara Panah— 
Then called a scribe of note whom he instructed 
To write him letters of great charge to all 


The valiant leaders — Gustaham, Bandwi, 
Gurdwi, the warrior (for he had won 
That name from all the other chiefs), Shapiir, 
And Andiyan, the cavalier, and all 
That were the living memories of the great. 
The letters 1 ran : " I offer to the Maker 
Mine adoration privily that ye 
May all awake from sleep and hasten not 
To ill on this wise for from verge to centre, 
With this Sasanian race in evidence. 
Things worsen through their wrangling and self- 
Ardshir, sprung from Papak, was first to bring C. 1930 

Confusion on the world, his scimitar 
O'ershadowed all his age and mazed the Great ; 
And first of all I instance Ardawan 
With other chiefs of ardent soul whose names 
Are lacking on the earth to this throne's grief. 
Then surely ye have heard ol what befell, 
Through ill-advised Piruz, to Sufarai. 
He freed Kubad from fetters and Kubad, 
Of all the chieftains, gave him to the wind ; 
For when malevolent Kubad grew strong 
He put away his virtues, took to crime, 
Slew this illustrious and devoted man, 
And soured the nobles' hearts. He that aggrieveth 
His kin, preferring passion to his child, 
Would injure strangers more. No one would look 
For ivory in ebon}' ; so put not 
Your only trust in the Sasanians, 
Or seek for jewels in red willow-trees. 
When they shall bring this letter unto you 
May your Urmuzd prove gracious. Ye possess 
A place illustrious in my regard ; 

1 The word is used here sometimes in the singular and sometimes 
in the plural. Several copies were made of the letter actually written. 


The breast and sleeves are all one with the shirt ; 
Our place for rest and sleep by dark or day 
Is one, and when ye join me ye will brighten 
My gloomy soul. I reck not of the Humans, 
Or of their king, and will tread down their heads 
And throne." 

They sealed the letters with his seal, 
And then the envoy wenl in merchants' guise 
In haste to where Khusrau Parwiz held court. 
He had a caravan of various goods. 
And with the letters carried presents too. 
He marked the grandeur and greal host where for, 
Thou wouldsl have said : " Earth hath no thorough- 
Ami thought : " With such a king who will confide 
In brave Bahrain Chubfna ? I am Persian, 
I carry thirty camels 9 loads of goods, 
And have no Iocs : why should J wreck myself 
When majesty hath risen from the abyss? 
I will deliver to Khusrau Parwfz 
The letters — an unlooked lor offering. " 

Perturbed he reached the Shahs court with those 
And all the presents of that hostile liege ; 
He brought the drachms, the letters, and the gifts, 
Revealing all. The world-lord having read 
Assigned the messenger a golden seat, 
And said to him : " man exceeding wise ! 
Speak of Bahrain Chubina as one vile 
C. 193 1 In our regard. Thou hast attained thine end, 
But make it not a feather in thy cap.'" 1 

Then sending for a scribe he had an answer, 
Such as the case required, drawn up at large : — 
' Brave and exalted chief ! we have perused 
Thy letters and been privy with thine envoy. 

1 By boasting of it. 


In word we battle for Khusrau Parwiz, 
But are to thee like new Spring in our hearts. 
When thou hast led thine army hither who 
Will reck of Rum or Rinnans ? We will draw 
Our scimitars and slay them in the fight. 
Khusrau Parwiz, when he shall see thine host, 
Thy prowess and pre-eminence, will quail 
At heart upon the battle-day and flee 
Like fox before thee." 

Having sealed the letters 
He gave them to that loyal chief and said :— 
" For this thy conduct, sage ! thou shalt have fruit 
From toil," then gave him jewels and dinars. 
And many precious gems. " Convey," he said, 
" These to Bahrain Chiibina and recount 
What thou hast heard, and thou shalt want for 

When my high fortune brighteneth." 

From court 
Dara Panah departed and achieved 
His journey like the wind. The youth delivered 
The letters which the paladin received. 
When that aspirant had perused the letter 
He summoned greed and banished rede, and led 
By what the letters said prepared to march. 
The Iranians were amazed. The elders went, 
On seeing that blind act, and said : ' Depart not, 
Or thy young day will age. Khusrau Parwiz, 
If he invadeth us, will only find 
The maces and the scimitars of war ; 
But do not thou betray the royal throne, 
Or fortune will beguile thee forwardly." 1 

1 The meaning seems to be : — " If you remain on the defensive 
you may rely on the people supporting you against Khusrau Parwiz 
backed up, as he will be, by foreign troops ; but if you assume the 
offensive you will throw away this advantage and so betray your 
own cause." 


Their words were vain : lie bade the host assemble ; 
He loaded up the baggage, called to horse. 
Struck ii]) the drums, and led the army forth. 
That valiant armament of Persians reached 
A/.ar Abadagan. Host drew near host. 
And ant and 11 v were barred from thoroughfare. 
That warring subjeel said : " I fain would scan 
Yon hosl and see what Human cavaliers 
Are like, and if their troops are troops or what." 
C. 1932 Then with Yalan-sina and with the chief, 

f/.id Gashasp, the warriors all mounted 
Upon their stenK. These magnates went to view 
The hostile host, saw and returning told 
Their chiel : ' Yon host is boundless ! The affair 
Is other than we deemed." 

I 'pon t heir side 
The Human horsemen of Hie Shah arrived 
In all hast< at the place of audience, 
And girding Qp their loins exclaimed : " We long 
To battle with the Iranians," which thing 
Accorded t<> the wishes of the kino. 

§ •-' I 

How Khusrau Panel: jmn/ht n-iih Bahrdm ('Inibina 
and how Kid, the Riiman, ivas slain 

When Sol rose o'er the darksome hills the war-cry 

Ascended from both hosts ; thou wouldst have said : — 

" Earth is a turning sky and swords eclipse 

The sun ! ' The troops drew up to left and right; 

Earth was an iron mountain. At the neighing 

Of chargers and the shouting of the hosts 

The desert fled for shelter to the hills. 


When brave Bahrain Chiibina saw he drew 
His glittering glaive, his heart conceived no fears 
Though raging lions' hearts were rent asunder. 1 
He went himself to view the left and right, 
And told Yalan-sina : " Take thou the centre, 
And keep before the army for I champion 
The troops to-day and tarry though they flee." 

Khusrau Parwiz surveyed the battlefield, 
And saw the whole world blackened by the hosts ; 
The bright sun's face was like a lion's maw. 
And thou hadst said : " The clouds are raining 

swords ! " 
Then Niyatus, Bandwi, and Gustaham 
Went with the Shah from battlefield to height. 
Those leaders took their station on Mount Diik, 
Their eyes upon their followers, and thence 
The Shah surveyed his host, the right and left, 
The centre and the wings. The tymbals sounded 
From both sides and the eager warriors 
Advanced to fight. " Earth is an iron mountain," 
Thou wouldst have said, " heaven lost in foemen's 

dust ! " 
Now when Khusrau Parwiz saw matters thus, 
Saw heaven as woof and earth as warp, he prayed 
Thus in the olden tongue : " O Thou more pure, C. 1933 

And higher than the high ! Avho but Thyself, 
O holy Judge ! can tell which will return 
Exulting from the fight to-day ? The spear 
Of him whose fortune halteth hath but thorn 
Or weed for point." 

Khusrau Parwiz was full 
Of care, both heart and soul ; the world appeared 
A brake to him, for from among the troops 
Kut, like a dark hill in his iron mail, 
Brake from the centre to the height and cried : — 

1 Couplet omitted. 


" Illustrious monarch ! point me out the slave, 
The doer of div"s work, 'gainst whom thou foughtest 
When in Iran and fleddest while he triumphed. 
Look to the army's left and right, and find him 
Among the chieftains. I will teach him warfare, 
And show what hearts and might true warriors have." 

Thereat all mindful of the former light 
The Shah was vexed at heart because Kiit said : — 
"Thou didst let fall thy knightly equipage, 
And flee before a slave," but answered not ; 
His heart was full, he sighed. At length he said: — 
" Approach yon rider on the piebald steed : 
He will attack thee when he seeth thee; 
Then fly not lest thou bite thy lips in shame." 

Kiit sped back like the wind and spear in hand 
Came furious as a maddened elephant 
Upon the battlefield. Yalan-sina 
Called to Bahrain Chubina, saying: 'Beware, 
Brave cavalier! A div armed with a lance, 
And with a lasso in his straps, hath come 
Like elephant gone mad." 

lie heard, unsheal hcd 
Like wind his falchion and proclaimed his name, 
Which when the Shah observed he rose and peered 
Down from the mountain-top upon the pair, 
Wet-eyed and wroth of heart. Now when the Human 
Charged with his lance the aspirant gripped his steed, 
Escaped the thrust, raised to his face his shield, 
And clave his foe asunder to the breast. 
The sword's clash reached Khusrau Parwiz who 

To see the stroke struck by Chubina, 
While valaint Niyatus frown-blinded raged 
Because the Shah had laughed, and said : " Great 

sir ! 
One should not laugh in war whereof thou knowest 


Naught but the sleights, and when thou wouldst C. 1934 

Thine ancestors I see thy heart asleep. 
Men will not see in any peopled part 
Of Rum or of Iran one like to Kut, 
Hazara's son, whose slaying made thee laugh. 
Know this, that fortune hath deserted thee." 

He made reply : "I laugh not at his slaughter, 
Or at his body which is cleft in twain. 
Know this that he who mocketh shall receive 
Himself a buffet from the turning sky. 
He said to me : ' Thou fleddest from a slave 
With whom thou hadst not prowess to contend.' 
But fleeing from this slave who striketh blows 
In such wise in the battle is no shame." 

Bahrain Chubina for his part exclaimed : — 
4 ' Ye chiefs of glorious birth — Yalan-sina, 
Ram and Izid Gashasp ! bind ye the slain 
Upon his charger and thus send him back 
To his own camp for their own Shah to see." 

They hasted to secure upon the saddle 
The corpse of Kut, and then the charger sped 
Back to the camp with that exalted chief. 
Khusrau Parwiz was grieved at heart for Kut. 
They loosed the knotted lasso from the slain, 
Then by the Shah's direction dried the body, 
And having filled with musk and stitched the wounds, 
Sewed up the corpse in linen and dispatched it, 
All armed and girded, unto Caesar, saying : — 
" If this infernal slave can give such blows 
In time of battle with his scimitar 
I am not shamed for having fled from him." 

The Rumans were heart-broken ere they fought, 
And sorely stricken ; their patricians wept ; 
They all were tearful and dispirited. 
Ten thousand of the mighty men advancing 


All prelates, 1 warriors, and cavaliers, 
Charged so that hills split at the cry of them. 
The clash of arms, the shoutings of the chiefs, 
The blows of scimitar and massive mace, 
Rose. Thou hadst said : " It is a raging sea, 
And heaven as it turneth crieth ' Blood." 
The hosts were blocked and sundered by the slain ; 
An army of those Human chiefs had fallen. 
Khusrau Parwiz was stricken to the heart. 
And had the wounds of those still living dressed. 
They piled the corpses mountain-high; men called it 
"The harvest of Bahrain." Khusrau Parwiz 
C. 1935 Lost faith in Romans for he said : ' If they 

Bear them like this again know that their host 
Will cease to be and all their swords of steel 
Prove merely wax." 

Then said he to Sarkab : — 
"To-morrow take no Humans to engage, 
But rest and I will lead the Iranian host 
To battl.-." 

To the Iranians he said :— 
•■ Xo more delay; to-morrow ye musl fight," 
And one and all replied : " We will not fail 
To level to the plain mount, waste, and dale.'* 

§ 25 

How Khusrau Parwiz fought with Bahrdm Chubina the 
second Time, ivas defeated, and escaped from him 
by the Help of Surush 

When day's white banner rose aloft the main, 

And when the stars grew hopeless of the dark, 

The drummers went forth from both camp-enclosures 

» Cf. Vol. i. p. 373. 


With elephants and clarions. There rose 

The sound of pipes and horns, the trumpeting 

Of elephants, and clash of brazen cymbals. 

Thou wouldst have said : " The plains and uplands 

The sun's face is like raven's plumes," and when 
The Iranians ranged their ranks and grasped their 

And Indian swords, thou wouldst have said : ' The 

Is all cuirass, the spear-heads light the stars ! ' 

Whenas Khusrau Parwiz arrayed the centre 
The troops took heart. Gurdwi, that brave aspirant, 
Commanded on the right, and on the left 
A famed Armenian 1 with cuirass and sword 
Like Ahriman's. Shapur with Sipansar 
And Andiyan drew tight their loins for battle, 
While close beside the Shah was Gustaham 
To guard him from the foe. 

Bahrain Chubina, 
The hero, seeing not the Rumans, paused 
In silence, then commanded and they bound 
The drums upon the elephants ; the world 
Was like the Nile. The elephant he rode 
Was white and his antagonist despaired. 
He charged the Shah's right, shouting to Shapur : — 
" O knave ! 'twas not thy promise in thy letter 
To come against me on this field of blood ! 
This is not Persians' usage, and thou givest 
Thy body to be slaughtered all for naught." 

Shapur replied to him : " Thou div-like one ! 
Thou hast lost all thy wits in slavery. 

Wliose name and token did the letter bear c - r 93& 

Of which thou speak'st in presence of the lords ? ' 

Then great Khusrau Parwiz said to Shapur : — 

1 Mausi'l. 


" That letter was to match with his designs ; 
I and the other nobles of the host 
Will compensate thee for it. In due season 
I will explain and purge thee of suspicion." 
Bahrain Chubina heard Khusrau Parwiz, 
Perceived the ruse, was both enraged and shamed, 
And in his wrath resolved on fight. The usurper 
Charged all alone upon his elephant 
The centre of the army of the Shah, 
Who s;t\v and said to Andiyan : ' Fierce lion ! 
Shower arrows on yon elephant and make 
^our hows like clouds in Spring." 

The Iranians, 
All that were fortune-favoured, strung their hows. 
The elephant's trunk was riddled so with shafts 
Thai thou hadst said : " It is a Nile ! " l Forthwith 
Bahrain Chubina called for horse and helm, 
King-worthy, and the arrows showered anew 
Upon that proud one's steed. The warrior 
Alighting, girl his mail-skirts round his waist, 
And then with buckler raised above his head 
Brought Doomsdav with his trenchant scimitar 
Upon the foe who dropped their bows of Chach, 
And ran. Theybroughl ahorse. He mounted raging, 

■i o o O * 

And shouting charged the centre of the foe — 

The station of the Shah and pierced it through : 

The standard of the leader disappeared. 

Thence went he toward the foe's right and outflanked 

The Persians and the baggage. 2 Now Gnrdwi 

Commanded there — a man of valiance 

And of ambition. When he saw his brother 

He strung and drew his bow. Those men of blood 

Closed ; thou hadst said : " They mingle." Long 

they strove, 
And neither would give way. Bahram Chubina 

1 " de sang." Mohl. * Couplet omitted. 


Cried : " Miscreant ! wherefore girdest thou thy loins 
To shed thy brother's blood ? ' 

Gurdwi replied : — 
" Old wolf ! hast thou not heard the weighty saw : — 
' A brother as a friend is good : forego 
Both skin and vein if he become thy foe.' 

Thou art a man of blood, a miscreant, C. 1937 

An Ahriman, the Maker's enemy 
At heart. Xo one of honour and repute 
Will come against his brother in the fight." 

Bahrain Chubina, hearing this, withdrew 
In anger and high dudgeon, while Gurdw i. 
His martial countenance a-gloom with iron, 
Proceeded to the Shah. Khusrau Parwiz 
Commended him right lovingly and said : — 
" May turning heaven reward thee." 

Then the Shah 
Made toward the centre, where his warriors reeled, 
And sent one to Shapur. "* Assist Mausil," 
He said, " put forth your power, fight back to back, 
And ye may compass shining fortune yet." 

At that time said the king to Gustaham : — 
If any Ruman shareth in this fight 
Then when Bahrain Chubina hath been worsted, 
Or even wounded, they will raise their heads 
Up to the sky and brag immeasurably. 
I would not have the Rinnans waxing proud, 
And glorying over us about the war. 
I have seen all their prowess ; they are like 
A flock in Winter. 'Twill be best for me 
To fight with him short-handed ; I require not 
Aid from another for I trust in God, 
The Succourer." 

Said Gustaham : " king ! 
Conspire not thou against thine own sweet life ; 
But if thou art determined choose some comrades ; 


Wreck not thy person on this battlefield." 

Khusrau Parwiz rejoined : ' ^^'hat thon hast said 
Is well, so make thy choice of some to help 1 
Out of the army.'" 

Gnstaham selected 
Twice seven Iranian horsemen brave and proud. 
He wrote himself down firsl upon the list. 
Then brave Shapur with Andiyan, Bandwi, 
Gurdwi — the pn>p of kings Azargashasp, 
And then Shirzfl, Rangwi who could outface 
The lion and the elephant. Tukhara — 
A help in fight and to Yalan-sina 
A mortal foe — illustrious Khusrau, 
And Farrukhzad, Qstad son 2 of Pfniz, 
Who caused his enemies to melt away. 
Urmuzd and fortunate Khurshid -a pair 
To whom their foemen were as grass. Their chief 
Was gallant Gustaham experl in war. 
On this w ise he made choice of Fourteen men, 
And hurried with them from the host apart. 
Khusrau Parwiz harangued those chiefs and said : — 
193S " My uoble followers ! look ye all to God, 

Be blithe of heart and smiling. Naught will chance 
But as He willeth while this ancient sky 
Endureth. Better perish in the fight 
Than have a slave to rule us. Ye must be 
My body-guard and instant in the fray." 

All blessed him, hailed him king of earth and vowed 
That none of them would quit him in the strife. 
The monarch heard, was reassured, rejoiced, 
And well contented with those warriors. 
He left the host with glorious Bahram, 
And went forth with those fourteen combatants, 
While from the look-out rose a shout forthwith : 
They told Bahram Chubina : " Troops have come." 

1 Reading with P. 2 Id. 


That vigilant aspirant gat to horse 
With lasso in the straps and sword in hand. 
When from his steed he saw the sum of them 
He chose him some few warriors and spake 
Thus to Yalan-sina : " Yon miscreant 
Hath proved that he is hardy in the fight, 
For now I know that none but he would venture 
Upon this field of vengeance. He hath come 
Attended by a troop like this to battle, 
But it may be to face the crocodile ! 
There are not more than twenty cavaliers, 
And not one of them do I recognise ! ""' 

Then to Izid Gashasp 2 and to Yalan-sina 
He said : ' Men hide not valour. Four of us 
Will do, for fortune is a greater friend 
To me than to Khusrau Parwiz." 

He gave 
The host to one night Janfuruz, who loved 
The night's gloom more than day, and then went forth 
Himself and sped on with the wary three. 
Khusrau Parwiz perceived Bahrain Chubina, 
And told his comrades : " There hath come a troop. 
Be not perturbed for 'tis my time to stand. 
Leave it to me and with my mace to deal 
With vile Bahram Chubina : be it yours 
To combat with his chiefs. Ye are fourteen 
To three and may ye never see defeat." 

Then with his Riiman soldiers Niyatus 
Must needs gird up the loins and from the field 
Of fight they made their way toward the heights 
To view both companies and all exclaimed : — 
' Why bartereth the great Shah life for crown ? 
Abundant horse are left and yet he goeth 
To fight in person recklessly ! " 

All raised C. 1939 

1 Couplet omitted. * Reading with P. 


Their hands to heaven because they deemed him slain. 
Now when Bahram Chiibina and his comrades — 
Yalan-sina and brave fzid Gashasp 1 — 
Charged, all the comrades of Khusrau Parwiz 
Took flight. Bahram Chiibina was the wolf, 
These nobles were the flock and lull of dudgeon 
When they beheld that div escaped from bonds : 
Howbeit Bandwf, Gurdwi, and Gustaham 
Stayed with the Shah till, with a prayer to God, 
He also, left resourceless, turned his steed. 
Pressed by fzid Gashasp. 8 " My fate," he said, 
Is on me ! Why in folly did I court 
This Doomsday, for the folk have looked upon 
My back in flight ? " 

Said Gustaham : "The horsemen 
Approach us : wherefore shouldsl thou fight alone?' 

The Shah looked back and saw Bahram Chiibina 
The foremost of the four, and then to save 
Himself cut loose his charger's sable mail. 
His three 8 companion-horsemen Lagged behind; 
Ilis vengeful foe pursued. A narrow gorge 
Confronted him. Behind him warriors three 
Came on like pards. The gorge was barred by rocks. 
The world-lord was afar from his own troops. 
That glorious youth dismounted fain to scale 
Afoot in haste the heights. His path was barred : 
The heart of that famed man was sore thereat. 
He might not tarry and he could not flee, 
While after him came fierce Bahram Chiibina, 
Who called to him : ' knave ! the abyss is yawning 
Before thy height of greatness ! Why hast thou 
Thus shouldered thine own fate and brought it me ? ' 

Then straitened with the scimitar behind, 
The rocks in front, the Shah cried : " God almighty, 
Who art above the processes of time ! 

' Id.  Id.  Id. 


Thou art my succour in my helpless strait : 
I cry not unto Mercury and Saturn." 

Or ever from the mountain rose that cry 
Surush, the glorious, grew manifest 
Upon the pathway, garbed in green and riding 
A white steed. At that sight Khusrau Parwiz 
Recovered confidence. Surush drew near, 
And having grasped the prince's hand (such things 
Are not a marvel with all-holy God) 
And borne him from his foe, placed him in safety. 
And then let go his hold. 

" What is thy name ? " 
Khusrau Parwiz inquired and spake and wept 
By turns. He said : " Surush. Thou art in safety ; 
Lament no more. Henceforth Great King art thou, c. 1940 
And shouldst be naught but holy." 

Having said, 
He vanished : none hath looked on such a marvel. 
Bahrani Chiibina saw and, all astound, 
Invoked the Maker oft. A trembling came 
Upon him when he saw his purpose foiled. 
He said : " May pluck ne'er fail me while I fight 
With men, but now that it hath come to fays 
I needs must weep for my beclouded fortunes." 

For his part Niyatus upon the mountain 
Asked God's protection, Maryam tore her cheeks 
In anguish for her world-lord spouse. The host 
Filled mountain, plain, and dale, the Runians' hearts 
Were grieved and seared. Said Niyatus to her :— 
" Stay here ; I fear me that the Shah is lost." 

W T ith that upon the mountain's further side, 
Far from the troops, Khusrau Parwiz appeared. 
That famed host ioved and Marvam's heart was eased. 
He came to her, informed her of that marvel, 
And thus he said : " O spouse of Caesar's line ! 
The just Judge hath done justice unto me ; 


'Twas not through slackness or through cowardice, 1 

For cowards show their slackness in the fight. 

I was companionless within the gorge. 

And in my trouble called upon the Maker, 

And He that ordereth the world's affairs 

Revealed to me, His slave, His hidden purpose. 

Not glorious Faridnn or Tur or Sahn. 

Or yet Afrasiyab, e'er dreamed such things, 

For, nobles ! what I looked upon to-day 

Betokeneth victory and sovereignty. 

Renew the struggle and remember me." 


How Khusrau Parwiz fought the third Time with Bahrdm 
( 'htibina and »'< /( ated him 

Forthwith the host descended from the mountain ; 
The world was blackened by the horsenx n's dust. 
Bahrain Chubfna for his part w;is troubled, 
Repenting all his conduct, but advanced. 
Not having any choice, his powers apace. 
There was no davlijdit left. He said : "All those 
Commanding troops need wisdom, mastery, 
And courage. Seeing how I ply the dart, 
And have the making of a paladin, 
C. 1941 The brave preferred me to Khusrau Parwiz, 
And I will bring the crown of Nushfrwan 
To dust." 

Advancing rashly toward the Shah 
He strung his bow and loosed a whole wood arrow, 
Which in a moment struck the Shah's belt whence 
It dangled point-arrested by the silk. 

1 " que je me suis enfui." Mohl. 


A slave that saw came and extracted it 

From the brocade. The Shah's spear struck his 

Upon the belt which was of mail and broke not, 
But though the spear-head snapped the usurper 

The Shah, indignant that his spear was broken, 
Brought down his mace upon his foeman's casque. 
The mace's head was broken by the blow, 
And stuck upon the crest, while all that saw, 
Or heard the iron ring, acclaimed the Shah, 
Whose troops were heartened, for Bahrain Chubina 
Had had a check, who, when the sun and moon 
Loured on him, turned reluctantly away, 
Aware how hard his task had grown — one past 
Both prowess and endeavour. The Shah's host, 
When they beheld his lion-manlihood, 
All — Rumans and Iranians — unsheathed 
The sword of vengeance and charged mountain-like 
In mass. The magnates followed in his steps, 
And utterly o'erthrew those mighty powers. 
Bandwi came to the Shah and said : ' O thou, 
Whose crown is higher than the sky and moon ! 
This host like ants and locusts is dispersed 
Upon the plain, the sands, and stony ground. 
It is unworthy to shed needless blood, 
And for the Shah to strive against his slave. 
'Tis better that they should appeal to us 
For quarter than be slain or maimed in fight." 

Khusrau Parwiz replied : "I seek not vengeance 
On any that repent. I grant them grace ; 
They are the earrings of my crown." 

Night's flag 
Rose o'er the darksome hills, both hosts withdrew, 
The sentries challenged, bells rang, and the troops 
Had little sleep. Bandwi, the ambitious, went 


Between the hosts, chose from the troops a chief — 
A herald fluent, with a goodly voice — 
Bade him to mount upon his Arab steed. 
And make him ready to proclaim. They rode 
Between the hosts till close upon the foe, 
And then the herald shouted : " O ye slaves, 
In fault yourselves and followers of fortune! 
C. 1942 By God ; thc sh .- lh wi ]] par( jon all. e'en those 

Thai have done worst and in the war achieved 
[Most lame, be their faults patent or concealed." 

The sound went through the darkness of the 
And all gave ear. Bahrain Chubfna's chiefs 
Girt up their loins to quit him. When the sun 
Rose o'er the hills, and day spread taffeta 
Upon the ground, the tents upon the plain 
Were all abandoned, hut Bahrain Chuhina 
\Y;is nol aware of what had passed that night. 
None but his friends were to be seen in camp. 
On hearing of the troops he visited 
The tents and told his comrades: ' To retreat 
Is better now than waking on a Doomsday." 

He bade the master of his camels furnish 
Two thousand lusty and foam-seat t ering, 
And all his treasures that were portable, 
The hangings and thc carpets and the plate 
Of gold and silver, with the ivory thrones, 
The golden torques, the armlets and the crowns, 
They loaded up and then themselves took scat 
Upon their steeds and girt them for retreat. 



Hon: Khusrau Pariciz sent an Army under Nastuh 1 
after Bahrain Chubina, and how Bahram Chubina 
captured him and reached the Khan of Chin 

^Vhenas the bright sun had arrayed its throne 

Exploring parties went out from the Shah ; 

They found the chieftain's tent unoccupied, 

While of the other tents not many stood. 

The scouts came in and told Khusrau Parwiz, 

Who grieved the more about that battlefield. 2 

He choose three thousand cavaliers in mail 

On barded steeds, then bade Xastuh to mount, 

And gird his warlike loins for the pursuit. 

He went in dudgeon ; he was not the man 

To fight Bahram Chubina who the while, 

Uncertain of his kingdom and his rights, 

Kept with himself his silver and his gold, 

And marched all fearful by a trackless route. 

Yalan-sina and brave Izid Gashasp 

Rode by the soldiers' side conducting them 

Along those wayless ways and as they went 

Told stories of the Shahs. They saw afar C. 1943 

A ruined hamlet where no chief could dwell, 

And as Bahram Chubina rode ahead, 

Remorseful and in dudgeon, he and all 

His men athirst, he found a carline's cot. 

In courteous terms they asked for bread and water. 

She brought a worn-out sieve, laid down a sheep-skin, 

All tattered, and set out upon the sieve 

Dry bread. Yalan-sina then handed him 

The sacred twigs who thought not in his grief 

1 Reading with P. 

2 Because Bahram Chubina had escaped. 


Of muttering prayer. 1 They ate, then asked for wine, 
And prayed. 

" If ye would have wine." said the crone, 
There is some, and I have too an old gourd. 
The end of which I cut off even now, 
Have made a cup. and set it by the wine." 

Bahrain Chiibina said : "If wine is there, 
AYhat better cup could be ? " 

She went and fetched I hem. 
And he was well content to use that cup. 
He gave it brimming to her that she might 
Be festive too, and said : " My gracious mother ! 
What tidings hast thou of the world's affairs ? ' 

"' My brain is worn out, I have heard so much," 
She answered. '•.Many came from town to-day, 
And talked but of Bahrain Chubina's battle, 
How all his troops deserted to the Shall. 
And how the chief fled hostless." 

"Pious dam- ! •' 

He answered, " say if he hath acted wisely 
Or followed his desires." 

" Famed man ! ' she said, 
" How is it that the Div hath dimmed thine eyes ? 
Dost thou not know that since Bahrain Chiibina, 
Son of Gashasp, urged on his steed again si 
Khusrau Parwiz, son of Hurmuzd, the sages 
Laugh at him ? None accounteth him a chief." 

Bahram Chubina said : " Since his desires 
Have made him quaff wine from a gourd do thou 
Keep barley-bread for him on this old sieve 
Until next barley-harvest." 2 

1 Couplet omitted. 

1 i.e. " Since I have been led into wrong-doing by my desires let 
me continue to fare badly" — words put into Bahram Chubina's 
mouth by the author or redactor of the Romance. This is another 
instance of the legitimist feeling pervading this portion of the poem. 
See Vol. vi. p. 251. 


Having eaten 
He passed withal the night there in his tunic, 
His shoulders on his breastplate, but sleep came not: 
He found no rest — to vain desires a prey. 

Whenas the sun in heaven made secrets clear 
The warlike chieftain had the tabor sounded, 
What troops he had he gathered, and those nobles c. 1944 

Set forth and came upon a goodly reed-bed, 
And many folk were harvesting the reeds, 
Who when they saw afar Bahrain Chubina 
With his large body of determined men, 
Said: " Blest be thou ! Why take the reed-bed thus ? 
In front are many troops with hands blood-bathed 
For fight." 

" They must be horse," he made reply, 
" Sent by the kin<r. I heard, when we resolved 
To quit our camp, that he had chosen Nastuh, 
A man ambitious but inapt, to lead 
Three thousand cavaliers — stiff opposites 
In battle — in- pursuit of us. When I 
Behold him I will end his days. Now tighten 
Your girths and ring him in." 

The cavaliers 
Drew tight their girths and grasped their Indian 

They fired the reed-bed and overthrew their foes : 
That bed of reeds was utterly consumed, 
This man was slain, that burnt. Bahrain Chubina, 
The warrior, perceived Nastuh and gave 
His fleet steed rein, and with the lasso's noose 
Unhorsed Nastuh whose feckless hands they bound. 
He begged for quarter, saying : " Famous king ! 
Why wish to shed my blood ? Compassionate 
My luckless fortune. Slay me not that I 
May run before thee and approve myself 
Thy wretched mendicant." 



Bahrain Chiibina 
Replied : " I would not carry from the field 
Of fight such men as thee. I "will not sever 
Thy head because I shame at having fought 
A cavalier like thee. When thou art set 
At liberty be off with you and tell 
Khusrau Parwfz what thou hast seen of me." 

Xastuh. on hearing, kissed the ground and gave 
Abundant thanks. This done. Bahrain Chiibina 
Departed with his warriors good at need 
To Rai, reposed, then sought the Khan with speed. 

§ 28 

How Khusrau Parwiz "pillaged ///<• Camp <>/ Bahrdm 
Chiibina and i<r<>t< a Letter to Ccesar who 
answered it with <i Robe of Honour and Gifts 

C. 1945 Khusrau Parwiz on his side visited 

Bahrain Chubfna's lines and pillaged them. 

Bestowing on his soldiers purse and crown. 

He mounted a fleet shed and girl himself 

For prayer. Before him was a bramble-brake. 

He entered that befitting place afoot, 

And wallowed in the dust before his God. 

" O righteous Judge ! ' he said, " Thou hast delivered 

The country from the burden of the foe, 

And hast surpassed our whole imaginings. 

I am thy worshipper and worthless slave : 

I walk according to the Lord's command." 

Thence he returned to camp ; his counsellors 
Assembled, and he called a scribe to write 
A letter out on silk from Shah to Caesar, 
Detailing what had passed in that campaign. 


He first praised God — the Source of manliness, 
Of prowess, and success, then said : "In secret 
Much hath God favoured me. I and my host 
Came to Azargashasp. I hurried onward, 
Returning for the fight. Bahrain Chubina 
So pressed me that I had not room to strive ; 
But when all-holy God ceased to assist 
My foe the flaming blast of war died out, 
And with resources failing and with troops 
Deserting he withdrew at break of day. 
I have destroyed his whole host, fired his camp, 
And intercepted too by God's behest 
His line of march." 

They set upon the letter 
The Shah's seal, and the messengers departing 
Bare it to famous Caesar's court where lie, 
Whose fortune was awake, on reading it, 
Descended from his throne and cried to God : — 
' O Guide ! Thou changest never. Thou hast made 
Thy slave triumphant and restored the outcast." 

He lavished alms and provand by the ass-load, 
And wrote withal an answer like a tree c. 1946 

In Paradise, beginning : " In the name 
Of God, the Lord of victory, of Grace,. 
And justice, Lord of moon and sun and might. 
Know thou that greatness and good fortune come 
From Him, what while thou livest give Him praise, 
And in this world in public and in private 
Ensue but justice and beneficence." 

He sent a crown — an heirloom of the Caesars, 
Reserved for fit occasions — with a pair 
Of earrings and a royal torque, of robes 
Eleven hundred broidered all in cold, 
A hundred camel-loads of gold dinars, 
As well as many pearls and precious stones, 
A jewelled cross and throne all royal gems, 


A green robe shot with gold whereof the fringe 

Was finished off with jewels. With the gills 

And offerings went four philosophers 

Of those of Rum. Khusrau Parwiz dispatched 

A thousand cavaliers of noble birth 

To meet and welcome them. Those magnates 

With their new gifts Khusrau Parwfz in safely. 
Who. having viewed them and perused the letter, 
Was lost in wonder at that wealth and said 
To his own minister : ' These robes of Rum, 
Adorned with jewelry arc not the wear 
Of wealthy thanes but Christian priests ! If we 
Have Crosses on our dress we shall conform 
To Christian fashion. If I wear them not 
'Twill anger Casar who will of a truth 
.Misconstrue me, while if I put them on 
The magnates all will say : " This king of nun 
Perchance hath turned a Christian for wealth's sake, 
Because he is all Cross. 

His counsellor 
Replied : " Shah ! clothes constitute not Faith. 
Though Caesar be thy kin thy Faith is still 
That of Zarduhsht. the Prophet." 

Then he donned 
Those royal robes, hung up the jewelled crown. 
Bade raise the curtain, and bring in the envoys. 
Both Rumans and Iranians crowded in 
Without distinction. When the sages saw 
The Shah's attire thev knew that he desired 


To pleasure Caesar, others said that he 
Had of a truth turned Christian privily. 


§ 29 

How Niyatus was wroth with Bandwi and how Mary am 
made Peace hetween them 

Next day Khusrau Parwiz prepared his throne, 
And donned his crown of state. The festal board 
Was spread within the rosary. " Invite," 
He said, " the Rumans." 

Niyatus arrived 
With the other Rumans and they took their seats 
Before the board with the philosophers. 
Now when Khusrau Parwiz came from his throne 
Of audience in the jewelled robes from Rum, 
Advanced with smiles and sat down at the board, 
Bandwi came quickly, sacred twigs in hand. 
The world-lord took them with intent to join 
The other nobles in their muttered prayers, 1 
While Niyatus, on seeing that, threw down 
His bread and all disordered left the board, 
Exclaiming : " Muttered prayer and Cross at once 
Insulteth Christ through Cscsar ! " 

Seeing this 
Bandwi, still at the board, back-handed smote 
That servant of the Cross upon the face. 
Khusrau Parwiz was grieved, beholding this ; 
His cheeks grew like the flower of fenugreek. 
He said to Gustaham : " This valiant fool 
Should wrangle not when drinking. What hath he 
To do with Human Niyatus ? He recked not 
His person in this quarrel." 

Departing, mounted and returned half drunk 
To camp. He donned his Ruman mail and thought 

1 See Vol. i. p. 80. 


To mar that feast. The Ruman cavaliers, 

All eager for the frav, set lace to where 

Khusrau Parwlz held court, and Niyatiis 

Sent on a cavalier of Rinnan race 

Withal to go like wind to him and say :- 

" Bandwi, the worthless, with a back-hand blow 

Smote on the cluck Cod's servant. Now if thou 

Wilt send him to me — well. If not. expect 

A tumult of the folk. Thou Avilt writhe more 

At me than at the slave 1 ambitioning 

The throne of kino of kings." 

Khusrau Parwiz 
Was wroth on hearing this. "None should ignore 
The Faith of God," he said. "From Gaiumarl 
And from Jamshid to Kai Kubad none spake 
Of Christ, and God forbid that I shall quit 
My fathers' Faith, those world-lords choice and holy, 
Adopt the Faith of Christ, and murmur not 
A prayer at meals but be a Christian ! 

If thou wilt take account thou arl alone : 
I saw of late wh;it Ruman prowess is ! ' 
c. 1948 Then Maryam spake thus to Khusrau Parwiz :- 
•• I will abate the brawling of these folk. 
Commit illustrious Bandwi to me, 
So that the Rinnans may contemplate him 
From head to foot. I will restore him whole. 
None ever made a point of senseless strife." 
The king dispatched Bandwi to Niyatus, 
Escorted by ten horsemen, with Maryam, 
That prudent lady on whose lips good counsel 
Ne'er failed. He said : " Approach thy father's 

And say : ' Thou quarrelsome, ill-meaning man ! 
Hast thou not seen how Ca?sar hath assisted 
The Shah to majesty, hath fought his battles, 

1 Bahram Chubina. 


Hath made affinity and league with him, 

And furnished men and means and hoarded treasures ? 

Wilt thou destroy affinity and league, 

And take away from me the Grace of Caesar, 

Who told thee that the Shah would not abandon 

His Faith on his return ? Why speak raw words ? 

Now take Bandwi's head to thv breast and utter 

No word ungracious. Give not to the winds 

The toil and work of Caesar, and God grant 

That thou mayst not recall my words too late." 

She went and spake to that effect. Her cheeks 
Were like a rose in bloom, and Niyatiis, 
Who thought her words of profit, took her counsel. 
He pacified his heart about Bandwi, 
And shamed on his account, at sight of him 
Arose and bade his treasurer bring forth 
A noble led horse and received Bandwi 
With smiles and welcome, and they visited 
The king together. When Khusrau Parwiz 
Saw Niyatiis he said : wi The heart of one 
Of ill condition seeketh not for good. 
Bandwi hath ne'er ensued but strife and tumult : 
Make not the world both dark and strait to me ; 
Give not the toil of Caesar to the wind 
In passion ; let me have a moment's joy. 1 
If he hath spoken ill of thy religion 
Expect not wisdom from a foolish man." 

" Expect not wisdom from a Riiman drunk, 
Shah ! " said Niyatiis. " Keep thy sires' Faith, 
For wise men change not such." 

When in this strain 
Much talk had passed he sought his camp again. 

1 Two couplets omitted. 



Hon- Khusrau Purni: gave Presents to Niydttis and the 
Rumans, how he dismissed them to Rilm, mid 
"rote Patents tor tin- Xobles of Iran 

C. 1949 The Shah then bade Kharrad. son of Barzin :— 
'Hold a review and call a court. Let all 
The Roman troops be mustered, young and old. 
Bestow on them two thirds of all my treasures; 
They must feel well content with what we give." 

For all deserving of :i robe of honour 
By prowess shown in fight he bade make ready 
Such, and to requisil ion splendid steeds 
From his own court. He gave to Niyatus 
Such jewels, steeds and handmaids girl with gold 
Thai they exceeded incisure and surpassed 

Withal what potentates were Used to give. 

All cities taken by Kubad from Rum, 
Or captured by Hurmuzd and Nushirw'an 
Of glorious birth, he gave to Niyatus, 

Had patents drawn tor them and tilled the enp 
Of colocynth with honey. Then the Rumans 
Set forth for Rum, that prosperous const and land. 
The great Khusrau Parwiz escorted them 
Two stages, farewclled Niyatus, and then 
Turned back. Next week he took ten cavaliers, 
Both shrewd and true to him, and quitting camp 
Fared to Azargashasp. On seeing the dome 
He lighted down and went afoot, his eyes 
All wet, his cheeks sun-yellow. "When he passed 
The portal and approached the Fire his visage 
Was hidden by his tears. There he recited 
The Zandavasta for a se'nnight's space, 1 

1 Reading with P. 


And humbly danced attendance on the Fire, 

Departing on the eighth day for the feast 

Of Sada was at hand. As he had promised 

Before his lords he gave his share of spoil, 

Of gold and silver, jewel-work, and gems 

Fit for a monarch, to the Fire. He gave 

Drachms to the poor abundantly and left 

No one dissatisfied throughout the land. 

He went thence to the country of Andiv 

To have his portion in the day of joy : 

That province was the salt waste's boundary, 

And none could put a value on fJie soil. 

Within the palace built by Nusliiruan, 

^Yho dwelt there much, he had a splendid suite 

Of rooms prepared, the golden throne arrayed, 

And then the conquering, God-fearing world-lord c. 1950 

Came and sat down upon his grandsirc's seat, 

And bade a scribe and his own minister — 

A helpful archimage — attend. They wrote 

Out patents for the Iranians as the Great 

And Mighty used to do. Bandwi, the chief. 

The well advised, the veteran, managed all. 

The Shah gave Khurasan to Gustahani, 

And bade him reinstate both law and justice, 

Assisted by Burzmihr, the experienced scribe 

Of beauteous face, and since heaven favoured him 

Bestowed by grant Istakhr and Darabgird. 

He set his golden signet on the patei 1 1 . 

Then handed it to Ram Barzin forthwith, 

And bade him bear it to Shapur to whom 

He gave withal both slaves and robe of honour. 

He bade convey a patent under seal 

To Andiyan, as was the royal use, 

And gave him all the country of Kirman 

Because Khusrau Parwiz esteemed him great. 

He gave another province to Gurdwi, 


And sealed the letter with the golden seal. 
He gave Balwi the town of Clinch and sent 
The patent with an ivory throne. He counted 
The treasury-keys and to Tukhara's son 
Committed them. The monarch of the world, 
This matter ended, turned to folk at large, 
And bade the chieftains all obey Kharrad, 
Son of Barzin, whose rule should be world-wide, 
And name be countersigned on everj patent. 
The soldiers all that in the time of action 
Held by the famous king were given from him 
A robe of honour and dismissed with joy. 
A herald fluent and a chief withal 

Of sweet voice and shrewd heart went round pro- 
claiming : — 
" () ye, the subjects of the king of earth ! 
Praise justice only, seek not vengeano . shed 
Not blood, and prompt not unto deeds of ill. 
It any of our subjects be aggrieved, 
Or injured by the troops, the wrongers' place 
Shall be the gibbet here and penal Ore 
Hereafter. Ye are all lords of the treasure 
That cometh to you from your proper toil. 
Enjoy and giv< away, ye that have means ! 
And ye that have none ! ask. In even- city 
We have a treasure through our fathers' travail, 
Or ours, and we have bidden the treasurer 
Give food and clothes withal to such as lack. 
C. 1951 When food is requisite they shall receive 

From him three mans 1 at dawn upon condition 
That they shall make thanksgiving and shall 

To keep the earth in culture." 

Through his justice 
The world became a Paradise on high, 

1 " trois man de bid." Mohl. Cf. Vol. i. p. i>jo note. 


And one may well acclaim Khusrau Parwiz, 
For better is a great king of that kind 
Than one impure albeit sage in mind. 1 


FirdausCs Lament for the Death of his Son 

At sixty-flve 'tis ill to catch at pelf. 

Oh ! let me read that lesson to myself, 

And muse upon the passing of my son. 

My turn it was and yet the youth hath gone, 

While I for sorrow am as soulless clay. 

I will make haste, perchance o'ertake, and say 

Reproachfully : " My turn it was to go ; 

Why hast thou gone then 'gainst my will and so 

Robbed me of all my peace ? Thou didst abate 

My cares ; why hast thou left thine aged mate ? 

Didst thou perchance find younger company 

That lightly thus thou hast abandoned me ? ' 

Seven years and thirty o'er the youth had sped 
When he distasted of the world and fled. 
Harsh comrade proved he of my pilgrimage, 
And, having turned his back on me in rage, 
Went, but he left me his calami ties, 
His griefs, a full heart, and blood-weeping eyes. 
Now whither he hath passed he doth aspire 
To choose a habitation for his sire 
In Light. Since then a weary time hath gone, 
And of his way-mates hath returned not one. 
Good sooth ! he looketh for me wrathfully 
Because I loiter. Five and sixty I, 
He thirty-seven. He asked not aged me, 

1 In the above passage the last couplet of the section is read with 
P. before the two preceding ones. 


But hurried off alone. I stayed to see 

The outcome of my labours. May God grace 

Thy soul with light and wisdom's breastplate place 

Before thy life. It is my prayer that He, 

Who giveth all and ruleth righteously, 

The Holy, will forgive each fault of thine, 

And cause thy moon now overcast to shine. 

§ 32 

The Stor/f of liahrdm Chiibina and the Khdn of Chin 

C. 1952 Tell now old tales, tell of Bahrain Chiibina. 

When he drew near the country of the Turks, 

Toward the Lions and the Khan, there went 

Ten thousand shrewd and wary cavaliers, 

Led by the son and brother of the Khan, 

Kadi with a priest as counsellor, i<> meet him. 

On reaching the Khan's throne Bahram Chiibina 

Gave praises t<» him and di<l reverence. 

The Khan, upon beholding him, rose, kissed, 

And stroked caressingly, his face, inquiring 

At large about the travail of the way. 

And of his warfare with the Shah and host, 

Then gave a welcome to Izid Gashasp 

Withal and to Yalan-sina — those chiefs 

No longer hostile. When Bahram Chiibina 

Was seated on the silvern throne he took 

In his the Khan's hand, saying : " Glorious prince, 

The captain and ruler of the Turks 

Of Chin ! thou know'st that no one is secure 

Within the world by reason of malign 

Khusrau Parwiz who vexeth those that fain 

Would rest from toil and doubleth it for those 


That live at ease. If now thou wilt accept me, 

And be mine aid in good and evil, I 

Will be thy comrade in this priceless land, 

And friend in good and ill, while shouldst thou suffer 

Through me I will depart and seek a cistern 

Elsewhere, and if thou wilt have none of me 

Then I will journey unto Hindustan." 

The Khan said : ' Noble chieftain ! never mayst 
Thou need that day. Like mine own kin will I 
Hold thee. My kin ? Nay, better than my child. 
My whole land will co-operate with me 
Herein, both lord and liege. Pre-eminence 
I give thee o'er my chiefs and furthermore 
I make thee independent of my lords." 

Bahrain Chubina further asked an oath 
To bind his soul, for so far all was tongue. 

The Khan said : " By the most high God, the Guide 
Of me and thee, I am thy mate indeed. 
What while I live, and friend for good and ill." 

Thereafter they prepared two palaces, 
And furnished them with vessels of all kinds. 
Slaves, food, and raiment, needful carpeting, 
With serviceable plate of gold and silver, C. 1953 

Dinars and royal jewelry, the Khan 
Sent to Bahrain Chubina whose dark soul 
Grew bright, and save with whom the Khan went not 
To polo, the assembly, and the chase, 
Remaining in this mind and lauding him. 

The Khan possessed a chief who was his friend. 
His help in war and of a stronger nature. 1 
Named Makatiira, by whose means the Khan 
Had won success and fame. He used to visit 
The Khan at dawn with lingers on his lips, 
For thus did subjects offer reverence, 
To those illustrious potentates of Chin, 

1 " un homme de plus haute naissance que le prince." Mohl. 


And each time from the veteran monarch's treasure 
Would carry fifty score dinars away. 
Bahrain Chiibina marked this lor a -while, 
Astonied at the Khan, then laughed and said 
One day : " Exalted one ! thou art esteemed 
Among the potentates, yet every morn 
At audience-time this Turk thus beareth off 
These fifty score dinars ! II' he receiveth 
A mine 'tis not lor rendered services, 1 

The Khan replied : ' This is a way of ours — 
The glory of OUT Faith that all our bravest, 
Ami stanchest on the day of stress, should meet 
With no refusal when they ask for more, 
And plead with importunity. His power 
Is more than mine. I charm him with dinars. 
II' I refused the troops would mutiny. 
And dim my shining day." 

Bahrain (.'hubina, 

The world-aspirant, said : " () king of men ! 

Thou hast made him a master o'er thyself. 
When world-lords are both valiant and alert 
They musl qo1 let a subjeel have the reins. 
If 1 should rid thee of him wouldst thou be 
Well phased or dost thou care lor his support?' 

"Tis thine to order this," replied the Khan, 
'And thine to plan and compass this desire. 
If thou canst free me from him thou wilt bring 
The question to an end." 

" To-morrow morn," 
He made reply, " when Makatura cometh 
For his dinars, smile not, regard him not, 
And answer not or, if at all, in wrath." 

That night passed and at dawn came Makatura 
Before the Khan. That worlddord neither saw him, 

1 " Que ce soit un cadeau, que ce soit sa paye, faut-il done que 
sa part soit tout 1'or d'une mine ? " Id. 


Nor heard what that bold Turk had got to say, 

Who, angered, raged and glared at him, and cried : — 

" Why is it that to-day I have grown vile, C. 1954 

My lord ? Assuredly this Persian prince, 

Who reached our land with thirty friends, is striving 

To turn thee from the right and would consign 

Thine army to the wind." 

Bahrain Chiibina 
Replied : " O warrior ! why so fierce in talk ? 
I, if the Khan will follow mine advice, 
And prudently regard our covenant, 
Will let not thee come hither every morn 
To waste his treasures with impunity. 
Thou mayest be three hundred cavaliers, 
And hunt the Lions on the battlefield ; 
It followeth not that thou each morn shouldst come, 
And claim dinars by ass-loads from the king." 

When Makatura heard his head became 
All vengeful at Bahrain Chubina's scheme. 
In wrath and passion he put forth his hand, 
And plucked a poplar arrow from his quiver. 
" This is my token and inter prefer 
In battle," said he to Bahrain Chiibina, 
" So look out for my point when thou shalt come 
To court to-morrow morn." 

On hearing this 
Bahram Chiibina, growing mettlesome, 
Gave him a poplar arrow tipped with steel. 
And said : " Receive this keepsake and observe 
Its usefulness." 

Then Makatura went 
Forth from the Khan and hurried to his tent. 


§ 33 

Hon Makdtura was slain by Bahrdm ChUbina 

When night withdrew its sombre skirt, and dawn 

Brake o'er the gloomy mountains, Makatiira 

Put on his battle-armour and went forth, 

Turanian sword in hand. Bahrain Chubina, 

On hearing, called for steed and royal breastplate. 

The spot they chose was one whose plain and waste 

No leopards e'er resorted to for fight. 

The Khan, on hearing, mounted on his steed, 

And went accompanied by the loyal Turks 

To see which raging Lion of the twain 

Would have the better fortune. Makatiira, 

On coming to the scene of strife, dispatched 

Dust cloudward from the plain and shouted thus 

To haught Bahrain Chubina : " What hast thou 

To say of manhood now ? Wilt thou begin, 

Or shall the loyal, lion-hearted Turk ? '" 

Bahrain Chubina s;iid ; " Begin thyself, 
For thou didst shut this quarrel by thy words.'* 

Then Makatiira called on God and strung 
C. 1955 His bow, grasped joy Fully the string and arrow, 
Drew to the point and then released his thumb. 
He struck the cavalier upon the belt, 
But that bright iron point pierced not the mail. 
Bahram Chubina held aloof awhile 
That Makatiira might grow tired of fight, 
Who, thinking that his enemy was shent, 
Turned shouting from the field. 

" O warrior ! " 
Bahram Chubina cried, " thou hast not slain me ; 
Depart not to thy tent. Thy say is said ; 
Stop and hear my reply and, if thou livest 


When thou hast heard it, go." 

With that he chose 
A breastplace-piercing shaft of poplar-wood, 
One to which stone and iron were as wax. 
And hit the valiant horseman on the girdle. 
That chief grew satiate of dinars and fight, 
And wept and slept upon his bast-bound saddle, 
For he, on mounting for the fray, had tied 
His two feet to the saddle and thus kept 
His seat though wounded, while his wounder rode 
Up to the Khan and said : " Imperious ! 
Yon noble needeth one to dig his grave." 

The Khan said : " Look more closely. He is 
But living on the saddle." 

Thus replied 
Bahram Chubina : " Puissant sovereign ! 
His body comet h even now to dust. 
May all thy foemen swoon as he is swooning 
On his Turanian steed." 

The valiant Khan 
Dispatched a cavalier to that famed Lion, 
Whom they saw bound, slain vilely, and released 
From fate's vicissitudes. The Khan thereat 
Laughed to himself in secret, wondering 
At that chief horseman of the world's exploit ; 
Then full of thought returned to his own palace 
With crown that soared to Saturn in his joy. 
He called for arms and drachms, for steeds and slaves, 
Gemmed trinketry, imperial crown,* dinars, 
King-worthy jewels, and all kinds of gear 
Of war. These from the Khan a messenger 
Bare to Bahram Chubina's treasurer. 



§ 34 

How the Lion-ape slew a Daughter of the Khdn, how it 
was slain bij Bahrain GhiSbina, and how the Khdn 
gave him a Daughter and the Kini/aotn of Chin 

Time passed and peace was tutor night and day. 
There were at that time in the hills of Chin 
c. 1956 Wild animals past count. One was a beasl 
Out-bulking horses and upon its head 
Were two Mack locks like cables. It was tawny 
Of body while its ears and throat were black. 
None saw it save at noontide and il had 
Two claws resembling those of mighty lions. 
Its roar rose o'er the clouds, it swallowed stones, 
And turned the day of mighty men to gloom. 
Folk called it " Lion-ape : " J the land was all 
Confounded .it the ill it wrought. The Khan 
Possessed a moon-like daughter, had the moon 
Two raven locks, two rubious lips, a nose 
As 'twere a silvern reed, two smiling cheeks 2 
Of coral, and dark eyes. Her parents used 
To weep for terror lest the sun should strike her. 
One day she went forth to the plain and roamed 
The meadows while the Khan, the world-lord, followed 
The chase elsewhere. The queen was in the palace 
Engaged in converse with a counsellor. 
Thus went her daughter to that meadow-land 
With other damsels, wine, and revellers. 
The lion-ape descried her from the heights, 
Descended to the plain and gulped her down : 8 
That fair-cheeked damsel ended in a breath. 
The Khan heard and his face turned black, his queen 

1 " Sher-kappi " which Mohl translates " le lion Keppi." 

2 " deux levres " (Mohl) but they have just been mentioned. 

3 Cf. Vol. v, p. 233 and note. 


Tore out her hair : the}' mourned the maid for years, 
As if they had been burning in fierce flames, 
And sought to slay the monster and relieve 
Chin from that stress. Now when Bahrain Chubina 
Fought with and sent the dust from Makatura 
The queen went forth to watch him and discoursed 
To all about his prowess. Meeting him 
One day with five score nobles of Iran, 
And many men on foot preceding him, 
While he rode with a counsellor, she asked : — 
" Who is this with such height and Grace divine ? ' 
A servant answered : " Thou hast much to learn, 
Not knowing brave Bahrain Chiibina's name ! 
He once was Shah within Iran ; his crown, 
Out-topped the moon. Chiefs title him ' Bahrain 
The brave,' for he hath borne the fame of valour 
From other kings, and now that he hath quitted 
Iran for Chin earth quaketh 'neath his charger. 
Our sovereign would have him for a chief, 
So sctteth on his head a royal crown." 

She thus made answer : " Since his Grace is such 
Well may we nestle underneath his wings, 

And well may I request a boon of him ; C. 1957 

He will not act with slackness like the Khan, 
But venge me on the monster when he heareth 
The reason for my grief and malisons." 

He answered : "If the queen of upright folk 
Will speak to him she will not find a trace 
Left of the lion-ape except a corpse 
Dragged by the feet by wolves." 

She heard and joyed : 
Pain for her daughter left her. She made haste 
To see the Khan and tell him all. He said :— 
" Where there is horseman such as I, and where 
A lion-ape hath battened on my child, 
'Twere shame for us to tell it ; 'twould disgrace 


My stock. Bahrain Chubina knoweth not 
That that terrific monster will make budge 
An iron monntian with its breath. Although 
The daughter of a king be famed life too 
Is dear to him." 

She said : "I want revenge 
For her who was mine Eve, so speak 1 will. 
Shame or no shame, and haply gain mine end." 

Much time thus passed away. She kept her rancour 
A secret. Now the Khan chanced to prepare 
A feast and summoned thereunto his chiefs. 
He sent and called the brave Bahrain Chubina, 

And seated liini upon the silvern throne. 

\<>\v when the queen behind her curtains heard 

She entered quickly, saw the hero, praised 

And l)K ssed him much, and said to him : * v May Chin 

And Turkistan he prosperous through thee! 

Fain would I ask a favour of my lord; 

May he accord it me.** 

He said : " Tis thine 
To order and to will and win thy wish.'" 

She said : " Near by there is a meadow-land — 
The very spot for feasting and therein 
The youths of Chin keep merrymake each Spring. 
A bow-shot past the wood thou niayst behold 
A mount more black than pitch. Upon that mount 
Of flint there is a monster, and the realm 
Of Chin is in distress because of it. 
A lion-ape I term it for I know not 
What else to call it. By the Khan I had 
A daughter whom the sun was wont to praise. 
She left the palace for that feasting-place 
What while the Khan was hunting with his men. 
Came from the mountain that ferocious monster, 
And gulped down her that was our very Eye. 
Now every Spring it visiteth that meadow 


In quest of prey. No youth or paladin C. 195 s 

Of any name is left in this our city 

Since through the mischief of this lion-ape 

They have been slaughtered, and it hath sent up 

The dust from this fair land. Our cavaliers 

Of war and men of action have gone forth 

In numbers to that mountain-height but when 

They see afar the monster's claws and breast, 

Its back, its shoulders, ears and head, it roareth 

And shattereth those warriors' hearts, for what 

Are lions, tigers, crocodiles thereto ? 

No counter of the cost will venture near."' 

Bahrain Chubina said : " At dawn to-morrow 
I will go forth and view this pleasure-ground. 
And by the strength and might that God hath given, 
The exalted Fashioner of sun and moon, 
I will relieve the pleasance of this monster 
If some will guide me thither when "tis dawn."" 

Whenas the moon's disk shone forth from the sky. 
And dark night shook abroad its dusky locks, 
They broke up and departed on their ways, 
Bemused, each to his palace. When the glory 
Of golden Sol appeared and plaited up 
Night's azure tresses, brave Bahrain Chubina 
Put on his gambeson and then committed 
His honoured form to God. He took his lasso, 
His bow, a hundred shafts and one forked dart 
As used in hunting. When he neared the height 
He bade his retinue turn back, and when 
Hard on the lion-ape thou wouldst have said : 
" The mount loured o'er him."' There mid rocks of 

He girt himself and mounted on his saddle. 
Armed with his coiled up lasso, plied his bow 
And strung it, called on God who giveth good, 
Sent up his battle-cry, and smote the rocks 


Until they Hashed again. The lion-ape 

Was in a pool. It wallowed and came forth. 

For when the monster's fell was soaked no shaft 

Availed against it. That grim monster came 

To gulp Bahrain Chubina down. Thai hero 

Shot and the body of the lion-ape 

Had fight enough. He shot again and smote 

The monster on the head : the blood poured down 

Like water o'er its breast. He marked the strength 

And onset of the monster, shot again, 

Transfixed its claw, then loosed his |;iss<>. leapt 

Upon that lofty mountain-top and speared 
The creature's loins : the Hints were dyed with blood. 
Then reaching for his scimitar he clave 
c. 1959 The monster's form in twain, cut off its head, 

And dung it down contemptuously, descended, 
Came to the Khan, rejoicing, and proclaimed 
What had befallen the ape. The Khan and queen 

Set forward to the wood and made all haste 

To reach the mountain-top while acclamation, 

Such that thou wouldsl have said: "The earth is 

rent " 
Rose from the warriors of Chin. They praised 
Bahrain. Chubina and showered gold and jewels 
Abundantly upon him while the chief 
Of Chin embraced him and bestowed on him 
Thenceforth the style of king, and having reached 
The palace chose a trusty messenger. 
And sent a hundred purses full of drachms, 
With slaves and robes, and bade a scribe attend. 
They wrote a patent out for Chin on silk. 
The Khan at that time gave Bahrain Chubina 
His daughter to secure his staying there. 
As was their custom they made ready robes 
Of honour, many crowns and belts. The Khan 
Said to Bahram Chubina : ' These bestow 


On such Iranians as are worthy of them." 

Bahrain Chubina took to feast and chase, 
Untroubled by the passing on of time ; 
The noblest of the cavaliers of Chin 
Were his petitioners, and all Chin said : — 
" We are thy slaves and only live for thee," 
While he mid feast and largess passed his days, 
And all folk too united in his praise. 

§ 35 

How Khusrau Parwiz heard of the Case of Bahrain 
Chubina and wrote a Letter to the Khan, and 
how he replied 

Thus matters fared till tidings reached Iran, 
Reached the great monarch of the brave : 'A king- 
And treasure greater than thine own are now 
Bahrain Chubina's and untoiled for ! ' 

And troubled by solicitude, his heart 
Wrung by the doings of Bahrain Chubina, 
He held consult with his own magnates, spake, 
Discussing all expedients, and at night 
Called for a scribe and made an arrow-head 
His pen-point. To the Khan of Chin he wrote 
A letter, and thou wouldst have said : ' He made 
His sword the pen." 

He first praised God, " the One, 
The Guide to good, who setteth up on high 
Sun, moon, and Saturn, who enthroneth kings, 
Who pricketh sinners and increaseth Grace. C. i960 

By ignorance, by knowledge, by uprightness, 


And by perversity, by harm and loss, 
'Tis owned that He is One and hath no comrade, 
No peer, no mate. Whoever seeketh good 
Shall find it but so may not he whose hands 
Are steeped in ill, and he that maketh choice 
Of God's way must forgo ingratitude." 

© © 

He then said thus : " Bahrain Chubina (may 
He ne'er in this world see his wishes won !) 
Was an ungrateful servant to the Shah, 
Ignoring both his master and his God. 
He was of small account, unfamed and weak. 
Till my sire took him up when season served : 
But when the monarch <>!' tin- world thus raised him 
He onlv did according to his nature : 
His conduct is well known to great and small. 
The mighty and the wise rejected him, 
But thou didst welcome him when he arrived, 
And take him by the hand as one well born — 
A thing incredible to upright folk, 
And not approved by me. Thou hast Eorgotten 
Perchance his conduct when thou went'sl in fear 
Because of him. He lashed thee many times 
Upon the head — a thing that none commend. 1 
Thou shouldest not make barren thine own fame, 
And barter thy tranquillity to him. 
When they deliver this let thine advice, 
Now dark, consider well if thou wilt profit 
By sending us that slave, his feet in fetters ; 
Else I dispatch an army from Iran, 
And for Turan turn daylight into gloom." 

Now when the letter reached the Khan, and he 
Had heard the intention of Khusrau Parwiz, 
He told the envoy : " When thou com'st to court 
To-morrow morning ask for the reply." 

The envoy came in haste ; he had not slept 

1 See p. 144. 


All night. He waited till he saw the Torch 
Resplendent of the sun, then made all haste 
To have an audience of the Khan who sent 
For scribe with pen and ink and silk of Chin, 
And wrote in answer : "To the Maker be 
Such praise as magnates give from me, a slave," 
Proceeding thus : " Thy letter I have read, 
And set the messenger before me. Speak 
Thou unto slaves expressions such as thine. 
It fitteth not thine ancient family 
To disallow the greatness of the great, 
Or not to make the lowly know his place. 
Mine are the whole of Chin and of Turan, C. 1961 

And the Haitalian crown. I ne'er broke faith ; 
Suggest it not. To break my pledge when I 
Have ta'en Bahrain Chubfna by the hand 
Will make men call me base-born. I fear none 
Save holy God, but as for thee if greatness 
Increase with thee so also should thy wisdom." 
He set his seal thereto and tolel the envoy : — 
" Companion with the wind." 

Within a month 
The envoy reached the Shah who when he read 
The letter writhed and was in fear of fortune. 
He called the Iranians, told the Khan's reply, 
And showed the letter, and the Great, when they 
Had read it, museel. He gat from them this answer : — 
" glory of the throne and crown of kings ! 
Weigh these things well ; consult some ancient sage ; 
Let not this letter make thee rash ; turn not 
The torch of former Grace to gloom ; select 
Some old Iranian sage, wise, eloquent, 
A warrior and a scribe, and let him go 
Hence to the Khan to speak and hear his views, 
Inform him what Bahrain Chubfna was 
At first and, after, to what ends he used 


His leadership, and having ordered all 
Was fain to make a bondslave of his lord. 
If this be not accomplished in one month 
Then let the envoy stay a year I'onvhv 
"Twill not be easy to disparage him 
Because he is the Khan's own son-in-law. 
The envoy musi be very plausible, 
And none must gather what his purpose is." 
Thereafter brave Bahrain Chubina, hearing 
That some one from Iran had brought the Khan 
A letter, went to him forthwith and said : — 
" My gracious lord ! I hear yon recreant knave 
Is plying thee with letters. Choose from thin 
A gallant host and occupy Iran. 
My scimitar shall conquer it and Rum ; 
I will salute thee monarch of I hose lands, 
And there the watchmen of the oighl shall have 
Thy name upon their lips. I will behead 
Inglorious Khusrau Parwfz, and may 
Xo top or toe be left him ! I took service 
That I might root out the Sasanians." 
C. 1692 The Khan, on hearing, pondered and his heart 

Was like a wood with thoughts. He summoned all 

The elders— eloquent, learned, heedful men — 

Told them Bahrain Chiibina's scheme, revealed 

What had been secretly proposed and gat 

This answer from the men of lore, alike 

From those of his own kin and alien : — 

" *Tis no light task, but hard, to consummate 

The measure of the lineage of Stisan ; 

Yet if Bahrain Chubina shall march forth, 

And show the wise the way, he in Iran 

Will find full many a friend since he will have 

The Khan to back and help him, and thy fortune 

Soon will achieve the work. We ought to listen 

To what he saith." 


Bahrain Chiibina's heart 
Revived when this he heard ; he laughed and changed 
In bearing. All the warriors agreed 
That they must choose two young men who were fit 
To have command, inured to toil and soldiers. 
There was in Chin a noble named Chinwi, 
And one Zhangwi — a chief. The Khan sent, sum- 
And made those men of war his pay masters. 
He bade them both : " Be circumspect in fight, 
And ever look up to Bahrain Chubina 
Alike in times of joyance and of wrath, 
Secure the fords of the Jihun and scud it 
In dust up to the sky." 

lie gave to them 
A valiant host — all chiefs and warrior-lions. 
Drums sounded at Bahrain Chiibina's portal. 
And Sol's face changed to ebony with dust. 
From Chin toward Iran he took his way 
Upon Sapandarmad at break of daw 


How Khusrau Parwiz sent Kharrdd, Son of Barzin, to- 
the Khan and how he schemed to slay Bahrdm Chubina 

Now when the great king heard : Vk The wolf hath 

Outside the wood, and bold Bahrain Chubina 
Hath brought a host that robbeth heaven of lustre," 
He said thus to Kharrad, son of Barzin :— 
" Go to the Khan upon this business. 
Thou art acquainted best both with Iran 
And with Turan, and with their divers tongues." 


He oped his treasury and brought forth such jewels, 
Such scimitars and golden belts, as made 
C. 1963 Kharrad astound and secretly invoke 

The name of God. With these he left for Chin. 
Crossed the Jihiin and took unwonted paths. 
Neared the Shah's palace, looked around and chose 
One to announce : " An envoy from the Shah 
Hath come to court." 

The Khan, on hearing this, 
Prepared his throne and bade admit the envoy 
Who. as he (lieu anear, made eloquent 
His tongue and did obeisance, saying : ' Thy slave 
Will frame his tongue t<> speak at thy command." 

The Khan replied : " A sweel tongue maketh young 
The heart of eld. Speak words of profit ; they 
Are pith when spoken but, unspoken, peel." 

Thereat Kharrad recalled old tales and firsl 
Praised the Creator, who controlleth fortune. 
The Almighty and the Lord of fate, who made 
"Sky, earth, and time, high heaven and the world, 
Who lint h all power of right while we are slaves, 
And tell his righteous aets. To one He giveth 
The crown and lofty throne, another one 
He maketh vile, afflicted, and east down, 
Not that He loveth this and hateth that, 
But why He only knoweth. We, both great 
And small, are born but to return to dust, 
And have perforce resigned to death our bodies. 
Begin we with pre-eminent Jamshid, 
Or with the glorious world-lord Tahmuras, 
And thus pass on to Kai Kubad and all 
The Great that we remember— Kai Khusrau, 
The famous Rustam and by that same token 
Continue till we reach Asfandiyar. 
Their share of this world was the charnel-house ; 
They have drunk bane instead of antidote. 


Our present Shah is of thy kin ; he joyeth 

And sorroweth as thou dost wax and wane. 

His great-grandsire upon the mother's side, 

When glorious Shahs held sway, was Khan of Chin. 

Now in these latter days our covenant 

Hath been renewed and everything is changed. 

May He that giveth victory bless thee, 

And be thine earth compact of heads of kings." 

He spake. The Khan gave ear and answered 
him : — 
" trafficker in lore ! if in Iran 
Be one like thee he knoweth well the sky ! " 

The Khan assigned him lodging in the palace, 
And seat anear the throne, then bade him bring 
The gifts and give all to the treasurer. 

The Khan said : " Mayst thou lack not worldly wealth. C. 1964 
If thou wilt take a present of me speak 
That I too may accept what thou hast brought, 
But if not thou art brighter than a gift — 
The crown of chiefs in knowledge." 

They prepared 
For him a pleasant dwelling-place and draped it 
With stuff of every kind. At board and chase, 
At feast and drinking-bout this favourite 
Was with the Khan, sought an occasion, found him 
One day at leisure and made bold to say : — 
" Bahram Chubina is a miscreant, 
Worse than malicious Ahriman, and sellcth 
Men veteran for what it were not worth 
A mite to mention. King Hurmuzd was first 
To bring him forward, raising him by favour 
Above the sun. Not one knew e'en his name, 
And vet his will hath evervwhere prevailed ! 
Although he doth thee many a kindly office, 
Yet will he break faith with thee in the end 
As with the Shahs he did, regarding neither 


The Shah nor God. If to the Shah thou wilt 
Dispatch him thou wilt raise up to the moon 
The Iranian monarch's head. Thenceforth frail 
And all Chin arc thine own and thou maysl dwell 
Where'er thou wilt." 

The Khan was stunned to hear 
Such talk, regarded him with louring eyes. 
And said to him : ' Speak not such words as these, 
For thou will blacken our regard lor thee. 
I am no miscreanl and treaty-breaker 
Because the shroud of such must be the dust." 

Kharrad, son of Bar/iu. on hearing that, 
Knew thai his novelty was out of dale. 1 
And made reply : ' thou of royal race ! 
Why dost thou think to speak such words ? The Shah 
Is better than Bahrain Chubina is 
For thee because of old relationship." 

The Khan rejoined : " I \\ ill make plain my purpose: 
If Caesar broke his covenant by making 
Agreement with Khusrau Parwiz shall I 

Do likewise ;iikI ;ict t re.ichcrouslv against 

The brave Bahrain Chubina ? I possess 

A thousand slaves such as Khusrau and come 

Of an illustrious race. The king of Rum 

Did not oppress thy Shah but gave him treasure 

Land and a host. Since brave Bahrain Chubina, 

Whose gests are written in the chronicles, 

Is my supporter and my son-in-law 

How can I draw back from my covenant ? ' 

Again Kharrad was foiled and took to guile. 
C. 1965 He thought : ' The Khan is not concerned for us, 
Because Bahrain Chubina hath suggested 
Iran to him. My words are willow's fruit." 

In black despair about the Khan he turned, 
He had no choice, toward the queen and sought 

1 The remainder of this page in C. should perhaps be omitted. 


Anions her suite one that could cheer his soul. 

He found a steward and was privy with him, 

Recounted what Khusrau Parwfz had said, 

And made that wretch's heart rejoice, then added : — 

" Speak for me to the queen that I may be 

Her scribe." 

The crafty steward answered him : — 
"That will not serve because Bahrain Chiibina 
Is now her son-in-law ; she is his brains 
And skin. Thou art a scribe ; contrive some scheme ; 
Moreover let not thy design get wind." 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, on hearing this, 
Discerned no top or bottom to his cares. 
There was an aged Turkman, named Kulun, 
Whom other Turkmans scorned. lie dressed in sheep- 
And lived withal on millet. 1 Makatura 
Was of his kindred, so he railed against 
Bahrain Chiibina, ever cherishing 
Revenge at heart and cursing him.- Kharrad 
Sent to invite Kulun to his lamed mansion, 
Gave him dinars and drachms, clothes, much to eat, 
Invited him to feasts and seated him 
Among the chiefs. Kharrad, exceeding wise 
And patient-hearted, clever and expert, 
Mused much, consulting on one hand the steward 
About the queen of Chin but held his peace 
When, day or night, he visited the Khan. 
The aged steward spake thus to Kharrad :— 
" A man like thee, a noble and a scribe, 
If he had skill and was of fame in leechcraft, 
Would be a crown upon my lady's head, 
And all the more so as her daughter aileth." 
Kharrad replied : "I have that knowledge too, 

1 On millet bread — a sign of poverty. Cf. p. 337- 
1 Two couplets omitted. 


And, as thou say'st, will take the case in hand." 

The steward hastened to the queen and said : — 
"A learned leech hath arrived." 
C. 1966 " Live and enjoy." 

She answered. k> Scratch not thou thy head but 
bring him." 
He went and told Kharrad. son of Bar/in : — 
" Preserve thv secret, go announce thyself, 
And act the cheerful leech." 

That schemer went 
Before the queen and found the patient's liver 
Disordered. He prescribed pomegranate-juice, 
And therewithal a herb thai flourisheth 
Beside a stream : folk call it chicory. 
He sought to stay the aching of her head. 
Within a week, for God so ordered it, 
The girl grew like the world-enlightening moon. 
The queen brought from her treasury dinars, 
A pursef'ul. and five gold-embroidered robes, 
And said : "Take this unworthy recompense, 
And ask what more thou wilt." 

He said : " Keep these, 
And I will ask my guerdon when I please." 1 

§ 37 

How Bahrdm Chubina was slain by Kulun as Kharrad, 
Son of Barzin, had -planned 

Bahrain Chubina, for his part, arrayed 
His army like a pheasant's wing and marched 
To Marv. Then one came to the Khan to say : — 
" Let none pass to Iran from Turkistan 

1 There is no break here in the original. 


Or Chin to tell Khusrau Parwiz about us, 
And make a gift to him of our designs." 

The Khan proclaimed : " If one go to Iran 
Without our seal him will I cleave asunder, 
And money shall not buy him off, by God ! ' 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, abode two months, 
Intent on his close schemes. Then in concern 
He called Kulun, gave him the seat of honour 
One day and said to him : " None is exempt 
From secret sorrow in this world. Thou oft 
Hast begged for millet, barley-bread, and sheepskins 
From all in Chin, but now thy food is bread 
And lamb, and thou art richlv clad withal. 
Contrast thy present with thy past estate, 
Past malisons with present benisons. 
Thine years have reached a hundred or at least 
Are great in sum. I have a dread emprise 
For thee whereby thou mayest gain a throne, 
Or darksome dust. I will obtain for thee 
An impress from the signet of the Khan ; 
Then speed as though thou wouldst roll up the earth. 
Thou must get access to Bahrain Chubina, 
And bide thy time at Marv. Don thy black sheep- 
Provide a knife, and go. Note needfully 
The twentieth 1 of the month and on that day 
Approach this man world-famous for he holdeth 
That day ill-omened as I have observed 

For many a year. He will admit not then C. 1967 

The public and wear but brocade of Rum. 
Say : ' From the daughter of the Khan I bring 
The mighty chief a message.' Keep thy knife 
Unsheathed within thy sleeve till he shall bid thee 
Approach alone and as thou dost say thus : — 
' The noble lady said : " When thou dost tell 

1 " The day Bahram " in the original. 
VOL. vnr. Y 


The secret in his ear hide it from others." 

When he shall say : ' What is the secret ? Tell me,' 

Approach him quickly, slit his navel, rise, 

And seek to flee. All those that hear his cry 

Will hurry from the chieftain to the stalls ; 

This one will go for steeds and thai for treasure, 

And thou wilt suffer not for slaying him. 

If they slay thee . . . well thou hast seen the world, 

And hast approved its weal and woe. Besides 

Thou will have had revenge and done what use 

Enjoineth, 1 but indeed none will concern 

Himself about thee at that time to harm thee, 

While if thou scapesl slaying thou hast bought 

The world and paid lor it. the conquering Shah 

Will give to thee a city and withal 

A share in this world." 2 

To that sage Kulun 
Made answer : " Need I any further guide ? 
Good sooth ! although I am a hundred I 
Fain would gel somewhal so I have no choice. 
Be both my body and my soul thy ransom. 
Such is the covenant I make with thee." 

Kharrad, son of Bar/in, on hearing that. 
Sped to the queen and said : " The time hath come 
For me to ask my boon, O gracious lady ! 
And I will tell it. Certain of my folk 
Across the river are in bonds. Be pleased 
To set mine own feet free. Procure for me 
An impress of the Khan's seal and this know 
That by so doing thou wilt give me life." 

She said : " He is asleep and drunk : I might 
Put clay upon the signet on his hand." 

She asked Kharrad, son of Barzin, for seal-clay, 
Went to that drunken sleeper's couch forthwith 
From her apartments, presently impressed 

1 Cf. p. 335. 2 In C. the new section begins here. 


The clay upon the signet, came, and gave it 

To her petitioner. That scribe gave thanks 

Therefor, then went and passed it to the elder. 

Kulun received that seal, sped pheasant-like, 1 C. 1968 

And came to Marv, unmarked. He tarried there 

Until the twentieth of the month — the day 

That was unluckv for Bahram Chubina, 2 

Who was at home attended by one slave, 

With apples, quinces, and pomegranates placed 

Before him. All alone Kulun approached 

The gate and said thus to the porter : " Sir ! 

I bring word from the daughter of the Khan, 

And I am neither warrior nor Persian. 

That pious lady hath entrusted me 

With secrets, which for her sake must be kept, 

For this great monarch. She is ailing too, 

And is with child. Tell him that I may give 

My message to the crowned and famous chief." 

The noble chamberlain made haste, went in, 
Came to the entrance of the warrior's chamber, 
And said : " A scurvy-looking messenger, 
Clad in a sheep-skin, hath arrived and saith : — 
' I carrv from the daughter of the Khan 
A message to thy potent lord.' " 

Bahram Chubina : " Say to him : ' Display 
Thy visage also at the chamber-door.' 

Kulun drew near and from the doorway showed 
His head. On seeing an old man weak and wretched 
Bahram Chubina said to him : " If thou 
Hast letters give them up." 

Kulun rejoined : — 
" I have a message only and will speak not 
With others by." 

Bahram Chubina said : — 

1 Cf. Vol. vii. p. 88 note. * Cf. p. 337. 


" Approach without more mystery and tell it 
Within mine ear." 

Kulun drew near. The knife 
Was up his sleeve. His villainy grew plain. 
He feigned to whisper and then struck. A cry 
Rose from the room. Now when Bahrain Chribma 
(ailed out the people ran to him. He said : 
* Arresl the fellow. Ask who prompted him." 
Then all within the palace came and dragged 
That hoary-headed man <>IT by the feet, 
The servants in their fury smiting him 
With palms and lists. He took the buffetings, 
And opened not his lips from noon till midnight, 
Then when he had been broken, hand and loot, 
They flung him down within the palace-court, 
And gathered in their sorrow and dismay 
About Bahrain Chubfna. lie still bled, 
And groaned. His cheeks were lapis-lazuli. 
His sister too had come to him forthwith. 
She tore her hair, laid on her lap his head, 
C. 1969 Then wailed and cried right bitterly : " Brave horse- 
man ! 
The lion used to flee the woods before thee ! 
Who hath removed this Column of the world ? 
Who hath o'erthrown this mighty Elephant ? 
Woe for the cavalier of chieftain-mould, 
World-conqueror, undaunted, lion-queller ! 
Thou didst not serve the Shah, and no God-server 
Was he that smote thine elephantine form. 
Alas ! who tore this tall, exalted Mountain 
Out of the pleasant waters by the roots ? 
Wno hath plucked up so flourishing a Cypress ? 
Who cast this crown of greatness basely down ? 
Who filled the ocean suddenly with dust ? 
W 7 ho hurled this moving Mountain to the abyss ? 
Now alien, friendless, helpless, and alone 


We live despised in other men's domains. 

I said to him : ' captain of the host ! 

Uproot thou not the sprout of loyalty, 

For if a daughter only had been left 

Sprung from Sasan she would assume the crown, 

The whole face of the land would be her slave, 

Her blest crown touch the sky.' Thou wouldst not 

My profitable words but now repentest 
Thy deeds and bear'st a guilty soul to God. 
Ill is on our great house ; we are the sheep ; 
Our foemen are like wolves." 

The wounded man, 
On hearing what she said and seeing all 
Her heart and prudent counsellings, her cheeks 
Rent by her nails, her hair plucked out, her heart 
And eyes all blood, her face oil dust, though faint 
And suffering loosed his tongue and answered thus : — 
" My noble sister ! nothing ever matched 
Thy counsel yet the measure of my days 
Is full. I acted not on thine advice ; 
A div-like guide led me in everything. 
No prince was more exalted than Jamshid, 
Through whom the world was full of fear and hope, 
Yet erred he at the bidding of the divs 
So that he made the world black for himself. 
'Twas just the same with watchful Kai Kaiis, 
Heaven's favourite whose steps were fortunate. 
The loathly Div's incitements ruined him ; 
The evils that befel him thou hast heard : 
He mounted heavenward to look upon 
The circling sky and course of sun and moon, 
But fell into the deep beyond Sari, 
Headforemost. 1 In like manner hath the Div 
Caused me to err and docked my hand from good. 

1 Cf. Vol. ii. p. 102 seq. 


' Thine is the royal diadem/ he said, 
' From Aries to Pisces all is thine.' 
I do repent mine evil deeds. God's pardon 
C. 1970 "Were gracious to nie. Thus "was destiny 

Writ o'er my head; why should I mourn the past ? 

The water riseth o'er me; grief and j<>\ 

Are both as wind to me : 'tuns written thus ; 

What was to be hath been ; none can abate, 

Or greaten ills. Thy counsels arc mine heirlooms, 

Thy sayings are mine earrings. Right and wrong 

Are over; call not fruitless words to mind. 

But turn to God and place your confidence 

Where fortune smileth. He is friend enough 

In troubles ; tell none of your grief and joy. 

My destined portion of the world is mine, 

The end is come and now I must depart." 

Then ti> Yalan-sina he said : 4 I leave 
The whole host, throne, the kingship and the state, 
To thee. Do thou take heed of my good sister: 
Thou will not need another counsellor. 
Part not asundf r. May disunion 
NcCr come between you twain. Abide not long 
Within this hostile territory. 1 
Came hither and am weary of the place. 
60 and present you to Khusrau Parwfz, 
Speak and hear him. 1 If he shall pardon you 
Hail not another as your sun and moon. 
Take many greetings from me to Gurdwf, 
And tell him what hath chanced.- Make me my 

Within Iran, and wreck my palace here. 
Much trouble have I suffered through the Khan, 
And have not found him gracious for one day. 
It was no guerdon for my toils to have 
A div dispatched to slay me, yet in truth. 

1 Couplet omitted. 3 Two couplets omitted- 


If he shall hear of this, he will not know 
What he should think. None save Iranians 
Conceived this plan, and had the Div for guide." 

He called a scribe and wrote, as there was need, 
This letter to the Khan : " Bahrain Chiibina 
Hath passed away in failure, shame, and woe. 
Be good to those I leave and keep them safe 
From toil and trouble caused by enemies, 
For I have never wronged thee but ensued 
Whate'er was wise and right.'' 

He gave his sister 
Much good advice, embraced her darling head, 
And laid his mouth against her ear, his eyes c - wn- 

Suffused with blood, and he gave up the ghost. 
All wept him bitterly and lived in sorrow. 
His sister in her pain bewailed him sorely, 
And kept recalling all her brother's words : 
Her heart was riven by her grief for him. 
She had a narrow silver coffin made, 
She wrapped brocade around that warrior-form, 
With raiment of fine linen neath his vest, 
And covered him with camphor, face and all. 

The process of this Wayside Inn is so ! 
Toil not, thou knowest that thou needs must go. 
Qua IT not thou grief but wine by day and night 
With lips all laughter and with heart-delight. 


How the Khan had Tidings of Bahrain Chribina's Death 
and how he destroyed the House and Family of 

When tidings came about Bahrain Chiibina, 
And what his gory had entailed on him, 


And when his letter too arrived, and when 
The messenger had told his tale, the Khan 
Was grieved at heart, his eves were filled with 

His cheeks became like lapis-lazuli. 
Amazed he called his veteran counsellors, 
And told the fate of brave Bahrain Chiibina 
While every one that heard it wept for woe. 
All Chin bewailed right bitterly and burned, 
Without a lire, for anguish. Then the Khan 
Investigated all to ascertain 
Tin- author of the crime and, when he found 
That 'twas Kharrad who planned that wicked 

Exclaimed : * How did that dog escape when he 
Had turned such fire as this on us ? " 

Had two sons living in Turan as well 
As divers friends and kinsmen. When the Khan 
Had learned the truth he burned Kulun's house 

And all about it, flinging on the flames 
His sons and giving all their goods to spoil. 
Then when the queen's turn came he had her 

Forth from the curtains by her hair, seized all 
Her goods, and heeded not her misery. 
He sent swift dromedaries everywhere : 
Kharrad, son of Barzfn, came not to hand. 
The Khan grieved long, arraying all his slaves 
Throughout the land of Chin in mourning weeds, 
For he had loved Bahrain Chubina's deeds. 



How Khusrau Pariviz had Tidings of the Slaying of 
Bahrain Chubina and honoured Kharrad, Son of 

Now when Kharrad, son of Barzin, approached C. 1972 

Khusrau Parwiz and told what he had done, 

And seen and heard, the Shah's heart joyed for he 

Was quit of that opponent worshipful. 

He showered many drachms, robes, and much else 

Upon the poor. They wrote to every king 

And chief a letter in the ancient tonjjue 

To tell what God almighty, the All-just, 

Had brought to pass and how He had sent up 

Dust from that foe. The Shah too wrote a letter 

In royal wise to Caesar. For a se'nnigrht 

They held festivities and called for harp 

And wine in every quarter of the city. 

The Shah sent offerings to the fanes of Fire, 

And robes of honour to the Great. He told 

Kharrad, son of Barzin : " Thou hast deserved 

To have the crown and throne," and filled his mouth 

With royal gems ; the treasurer poured dinars, 

Some hundred thousand, out before his feet 

On such wise that they grew as high as he. 

The Shah said : ' Whoso turneth from the way 1 

Shall have his day bedimmed although he be 

In battle like the brave Bahrain Chubina 

From whom an ancient Turk hath raised the dust." 

The chiefs all blessed Khusrau Parwiz and said : — 
" Without thee never be the crown and signet, 
And if, in spite of all thy loving-kindness, 
A man would have thy face lack radiancy 
Then let him as Bahrani Chubina be." 

1 Reading with P. 



//"//• the Khdn sent his Brother to Gurdya, tin- Sister of 
Bahrdm Chubina, with a Letter touching her 
Brother's Death and ashing her in Marriage as 
his Qut ' /'. and her A nswer 

Now when the Khan's heart was relieved and Chin 
Was all like clay with gore he s;ii<l one daj : 
' Weak men, weak deeds ! but I was well content 
And gladdened through Bahrain Chubina's prowess. 
Now why have I allowed the hero's kin 
To bide in so much weakness and contempl ? 
C. 1973 I shall he blamed by all thai hear thereof, 

And in the future none will trust mine oath. 
I have not soothed his little son's distress 
Or have concerned me for his kin although 
lie was related to me through my daughter, 
And heart and soul compad of love and wisdom." 
He bade his brother come and spake at large : — 
" E"eii as a pheasant flieth in a garden 
Betake thyself to Marv, look on tin- kin 
Of* brave Bahrain Chubina, greel them well, 
And say : ' By God and by the throne of greatness 
I had no knowledge of tins villainy. 
I too am stricken to the heart and wrapped 
In grief while I shall live, and in revenge 
Have bathed the surface of the land in gore. 
The cities curse, but bless Bahrain Chubina. 
Although I should take vengeance for this hurt, 
And bring the heaven down, one in a hundred 
Would not avenge so famed a hero's blood ; 
But no one, as all wise men know, can 'scape 
From God's decree. This was assigned to him, 
And all through the perverse Div's sorcery. 
I hold to my first pledge and will keep faith.' 


Convey a separate letter to Gurdya : — 

' holy lady of unsullied skirt ! 

Thou art all uprightness and kindliness, 

Of lofty nature, far from all defect. 

Long have I mused upon thy state, while wisdom 

Hath been in secret session with my heart. 

And have found no lord fitter than myself 

For thee, so grace my curtains by thy counsel : 

Thee will I hold as mine own soul and body. 

And do mine utmost to keep faith with thee. 

Then all in this state shall be thine to bid. 

And I will pledge my heart to do thy will. 

Now gather all thy friends, discuss the matter 

Before the wise and see what seemeth best 

To thy bright mind when thou hast wisely weighed. 

Let wisdom rule thy words and then inform me.' 

That atheling, his brother, heard and like 
A turtle-dove from cypress sped to Marv, 
And to Bahrain Chiibina's kindred bare 
The letter and good will, told what the Khan 
Had said and how he passioned to avenge 
The slain, then added : " Sages and archmages 
Approven well and vigilant of heart ! 
Herein may much good tidings come to you, 
And may the almighty Judge befriend the dead. 
This sudden death — no trifle-— was a thing c. 1074 

That none expected."' 

Then he gave the sister, 
But privily, the letter and the message 
Sent by the Khan. He spake of their connexion, 
Her counsel and lair words, of past and present, 
And of the purity and piety 
Of women that both counsel and console. 
The young man spake, the lady of the skirt 
Unsullied heard him but made choice of silence. 
Thereafter, when she had perused the letter, 


And all the words of the imperious Khan, 
She made her wisdom and her knowledge mates, 
Thought out her answer and informed the brother : — 
I have perused this letter and held session 
With wisdom. Just what kings, experienced folk. 
And potentates would do the Khan hath done. 
Oh ! may our eyes be bright upon the man 
That seeketh thus to avenge us ! May the world 
Ne'er lack the Khan, and may the crown of greatness 
Rejoice in him. May care ne'er wound his heart, 
And may he ne'er despair. We sat in counsel. 
I read thy Letter over, every whit, 
And all the men of wisdom and of might 
Agree to entertain this \\ isli of thine. 
Howbeit all my family arc now 
In sorrow and the subject is ill-timed. 
When mourning Eor so great a chief is over 
The Khan's commandmenl shall not be transgressed. 
I purpose not to go hack to Iran. 
Naught can be better for a virtuous dame 
Than to be married, but if 1 shall come 
In haste what will the wise king sny of me '. 
If in the midst of grief I aim at joy 
I shall not act with virtue or respect ; 
The wise will say that I lack modesty, 
The Khan himself will think me indiscreet. 
When four months of this mourning have elapsed 
I will dispatch a horseman to the king. 
Meanwhile hear will I what I ought to hear — 
All that my counsellors may have to urge — 
And state it in a letter to the king 
When mine adviser goeth unto him. 
As for the present, fare rejoicing hence, 
And tell the Khan the message that I send." 
• She gave the envoy many gifts, and he, 
A man experienced, left Marv joyfully. 



How Gurdya consulted her Nobles and fled from Marv 

Then at her leisure that young, prudent dame C. 1975 

Consulted with her counsellors and said : — 

" A new thing, one that ne'er will stale with me, 

Hath chanced : the Khan, that ruler of the world, 

In flattering terms hath asked for me in marriage. 

He hath no fault ; he is a king, great, brave, 

And master of the armies of Turan. 

None dared to name me while mv Lion lived. 

For twelve years after I had lost my sire 

The brave Bahrain Chubina took in charge 

Mine orphanhood and raged when any one 

Demanded me in marriage. Now the Khan 

Is not a person of small consequence, 

And he hath both ability and power. 

Howbeit when he striveth to make kinship 

Between the Turks and the Iranians 

From that bond and connexion time will see 

Both travail and affliction in the end. 

Look what it was that Siyawush received 

Except sun-burning from Afrasiyab ! 

That youth unmatched by other mother's son 

Gave from the first his head up to the wind. 

What did that chieftain's son too do but send 

The dust up from Iran and from Tiiran ? 

Contrive that unknown to the Turks we may 

Convey this story to Iran forthwith. 

I have dispatched a letter to Gurdwf, 

For I had apprehensions on this score, 

That he might ope my matter to the Shah, 

And tell my toil and care. God helping me, 

He will both hear and grant my fair appeal." 


They said : ' Thou art for life our youthful lady 
In Chin and in Iran. An iron mountain 
Could not displace thee, and thou guidest heroes 
To manliness. Thou art more shrewd than sages, 
More full of counsel than wise ministers. 
We are thy subjects all ; 'tis thine to bid, 
And thine to judge and deal with this request." 

On hearing this she called the muster-roll. 
And opened offices to pay the troops. 
Went forth, inspected every one of them. 
And chose eleven hundred and three score, 
Each one of whom would face ten cavaliers 
In fight. She furnished drachms and then returning 
To her abode harangued her warlike powers :— 
'" He that hath ever seen a stirrup-strap 
Is not perturbed because of ups and downs. 
He feareth not a murderous multitude 
E'en if the clouds shall shower heads on him; 
He will not turn from me when I retreat; 

He will not be afraid when I'ocnien charge. 
Fare we toward [ran, fare we toward 
The monarch of the brave. Here in Turan 
We are but strangers, destitute and friendless. 
Weak as we are and abject mid the great. 
Withdraw we then when darkness hath set in, 
And when our foemen's heads are dull with sleep. 
Let not your hearts be straitened on the way 
If any troops of Chin encounter us. 
Because the chieftains with their massive maces 
Will follow us past doubt, but let us each 
Take his own life in hand and, if they come, 
Give and get blows withal ; but all of you 
That disapprove of this ! abide ye here." 

They shouted : " We are lieges and obey." 
This understood, they rose and made them ready 
For war with Chin, fzid Gashasp, the chief, 


And Yalan-sina mounted with the troops, 
Who all said : " Better perish with renown 
Than live and let the men of Chin prevail." 

She crossed the desert to the caravans ; 
She had the camels passed in front of her, 
And chose three thousand to transport her baggage. 
At night like some illustrious cavalier 
She mounted, mace in hand ; her charger's mail 
Was splendid, and she wore a breastplate, sword, 
And battle-helm, then led both night and day. 
Swift as the wind, her host upon its way. 


How the Khkn received Tidings of the Flight of Gurdya 
and Jwiv he sent Tuwurg 1 with an Army after her, 
and how Gurdya slew Tuwurg 

A number of deserters from her force 

Arrived to seek protection from the Khan. 

His brother came and said : " O famous chief, 

And lover of the fray ! some valiant troops 

Have made toward Iran, and many others 

Have sought for my protection. Realm and host 

Will laugh for ever at thy court's disgrace." 

The chieftain's cheek, when he had heard the words, 
Grew white with anger, and he answered : ' Haste, C. 1977 
And lead an army forth. Observe what road 
Those troops have taken. When thou readiest them 
Act not injuriously but first of all 
Make use of honied words, for of them none 
Hath any knowledge of our usages ; 
Their fear perchance hath turned us into foes. 
Speak with all unction and entreat them well ; 

1 Reading with P. 


Encourage them by loving-kindliness ; 

But if they offer armed resistance play 

The man and let there by no dallying ; 

Make one tomb for the whole of them at Mary 

So thai the earth may be like pheasant's plumes." 

He went forth with six thousand valiant horsemen, 
Picked Turks, and on the fourth day overtook 
The Iranians, but that lion-hearted dame 
Was not concerned beholding them. She left 
The army, visited as swift as wind 
The cameleers, disposed the baggage-train 
Behind the lines, and then surveyed the field. 
She donned her brother's armour and bestrode 
A fiery steed. The hosts were ranked. Each man 
Took his own life in hand. Tuwurg came forth 
Before his troops (the Khan was wont to call him 
" Old Wolf ") and said to the Iranians : 
" Is not the virtuous dame in this great host ? ' 
For Gurdya was arrayed in heavy mail, 
And had her waist girl like a warrior's, 
So that the valiant hilhnan knew her not, 
But spurring on his steed and coining near 
Said to her : " Midst this army where shall I 
Seek for the sister of the murdered Shah, 
For I have many things to say to her, 
Respecting both the present and the past ? ' 

She answered : " Here am I prepared to charge 
A ravening lion.'" 

When he heard the voice 
Of her that rode a lusty lion-steed 
He was amazed and said : " The Khan of Chin 
Of all the kingdom made a choice of thee 
To keep him mindful of Bahrain Chubina, 
The Lion and the chosen cavalier. 
He said : ' I will requite the favour done 
If only thou wilt listen to my words.' 


He said to me : ' Haste unto her and say : — 
' If what I spake was not acceptable 
Know that my words were not imperative, 
And that I have renounced what I proposed. 
If is not well for thee to quit our coasts : 
Attempt it not although thou wilt not wed.' 
Join words together unto this effect, 
And if she will not take advice use bonds 
For her and all that have supported her. 
This is too much ! ' " 1 

She answered: "Let us quit c. 1978 
The field and troops, and I will answer thee 
Advisedly on all points." 

He approached 
That famed and valiant dame who, seeing him 
Alone, displayed to him her face beneath 
Her sable casque, and said : " Thou hast beheld 
" Bahrain Chubina's horsemanship and courage 
With admiration : his full sister I. 
His day is done so I now will essay thee. 
I long to fight with thee. If thou shalt find 
That I am worthy of a husband say so. 
Good sooth ! thou mayst approve me as thy spouse ! " 
She spake, then spurred her steed, fzid Gashasp 
Rode close behind her. With her spear she struck 
The girdle of Tuwurg and pierced his mail. 
He tumbled headlong, and the sand beneath 
Ran blood. With chosen warriors Yalan-sina 
Charged and discomfited the host of Chin, 
Slew, overthrew, and wounded many a man, 
Pursued the foe two leagues and left few mounted. 
The whole plain was a-stream with blood that day, 
This man was headless, that head-downward lay. 

1 " Arrange les affairs de cette maniere, et si un conscil du Khakan 
11c te sultil pas, fais un traite\ Quiconque croit lc Khakan capable 
de faire cc que tu crains, depasse ce qu'il est permis de dire." Mold. 

VOL. viii. 7 



How Gurdya urate to Gurdwi 

Victorious she drew toward Iran. 

She drew toward the monarch of the brave. 

But halted for a short time at Amwi 

With questionings increasing in her heart. 

She wrote thence to her brother, telling him 

In sorrow all that occurred, and said :— 

*" What time the brave Bahrain Chubina died, 

All care and grief Fraternal, to us both 

He proffered much good counsel. May we never 

Distress his spirit ! Furthermore he said : 

' Inform the exalted monarch of the counsels 

That thou hast heard from me." A mighty host. 

All men of name and warriors, pursued us. 

But I have so entreated them in fight 

That never more will they see fighl or feast. 

With me are many Famous chiefs, and harm 

Must not be theirs. Till my good star convey 

A hoped response I pause upon the way." 


How Khusrau Parwiz slew Bandivi 

C. 1979 From that time forth the Shah sat undisturbed, 
Since brave Bahrain Chubina was no more, 
And found no chieftain hostile and disposed 
To counter him in fight. One day he thus 
Addressed his upright minister : ' How long 
Shall I conceal my thoughts ? Shall my sire's slayer 
For ever be about me as a kinsman ? 


Now that I have the power and feel aggrieved 
What should result ? " 

They spread the board and quaffed, 
And put Bandwi in fetters that same day. 
The Shah thereafter bade his minister : — 
' Cut off his hands and feet ; he will not then 
Gird up his loins to shed the blood of kings." 

They lopped him and he died forthwith, resigning 
His blood-stained life up to Khusrau Parwiz. 
The Shah then sent a man to Khurasan 
With strict injunctions : " Hold thy tongue and go 
Hence to the marchlord's court. Bid Gustaham :— 
' When thou hast read my letter come forthwith.' 

The envoy reached in Khurasan the court 
Of one at ease and gave the Shah's behest, 
That youthful Shah who poured out blood with zest. 


Hoiv Gustaham rebelled against Khusrau Parwiz and 
took Gurdya to Wife 

When Gustaham heard this he summoned all 

His scattered troops, set forth upon the march, 

And passing by Sari and by Amu] 

Came to Gurgan — the country of the Great — 

Heard that the Shah had grown severe and slain 

Bandwi, his brother, unexpectedly, 

Whereat he gnawed his hands, gat from his steed, 

Rent, all his raiment as a paladin, 

And wailing poured the dust upon his head, 

Perceiving that the world-lord would avenge 

Hurmuzd on him. He turned back sorrowing, 

And, thou hadst said : " Companioning the wind." 


Collecting all his scattered troops he marched 
Toward the forest of Narwan and. when 
He reached the mountains of Amul, drew up 
His army in that Forest, thence made raids. 
And thus began a system of revenge. 
C. 1980 He found a living for all workless men, 

And where he heard that royal troops were camped 
Descended on them and destroyed them all. 

Now when Gurdwi arrived he told the Shah 
All that liis sister with her warriors 
Had done againsl the marchlords of the Khan, 
And how she made their dust go up at Mary, 
While Gustaham, on his side, was informed 
That brave Bahrain Chubina's days were done, 
And that Gurdya with many troops had fled 
Thai fierce chief, 1 thai a host had followed her 
To take revenge, and how she had entreated 
Those Famous men of Chin, lie called to horse. 
And from thai forest l<-d his troops like wind 
To meet her. When Gurdya was ware she wenl 
Forth with her chiefs and nobles. Gustaham, 
On seeing them, rode oul before his troops. 
He met Gurdya and was o'ercome by pain 
And much remorse aboul Bahrain Chubina, 
Spake also of his sorrow for Bandwi, 
And wiped blood from his eyelids with his sleeve. 
He lighted weeping from his steed at sight 
Of Yalan-sina and f/id Gashasp, 2 
And said : " The Shah hath slain Bandwi ; his day 
Is over and thou wouldst have said : ' The Shah 
Was not his sister's son. Bandwi bled not 
For him who used to pour his very soul 
Out at Bandwi's feet and lamented him 
When absent ! ' Now upon the earliest chance 
The Shah, true to the instincts of his race, 

1 The Khan. * Reading with P. 


Hath severed from Bandwi both hands and feet ! 

So now what hope can ye have in the Shah, 

For never came fruit from the willow's bough ? 

He will entreat your kindred even worse, 

And make meat in the city cheap enough. 

E'en at a distance he will rage to see, 

And plan new vengeance on, Yalan-sina, 

Thou being Bahrain Chubina's general, 

And having power through him. Let each that 

The Shah be ware or better cut his throat ! 
If ye will stay with us we will consult 
On all things great and small." 

The hearers took 
His counsel ; they all shunned destruction's path. 
He spake in earnest to Gurdya, recounting 
Bahram Chubina's acts. She was o'ercome 
By what he said, and felt that he was right. 
All joined him and his clouded counsels cleared. 
" Doth not," thus said he to Yalan-sina, C. 1981 

" This lady talk of marriage and desire 
Its honours ? ' 

He replied : " Wait till I speak, 
And by long converse ascertain her will." 

He said to her : " O lady ! I have seen thee 
Act as adviser. Thou didst well to flee 
The Khan, preferring wisely thine own race. 
What sayest thou to the Shah's maternal uncle, 
The valiant and the wealthy Gustaham, 
The captain and the leader of a host ? ' 

She said : " A spouse that cometh from Iran 
Ne'er will despoil my kindred." 

So Yalan-sina 
Gave her to Gustaham — a gallant hero 
Of royal lineage — who tended her 
Like a fresh apple, for he saw in this 


His exaltation nothing of a fall. 
The armies sent forth by Khusrau Parwiz 
Found their old fortune altogether changed, 
And Gustaham, on seeing a host o'erthrown, 
Would spare the troops and take them for his own. 

§ i,; 

}/n,r Khusrau Parwiz took Counsel with Gurdwi con- 
cerning Gustaham and how Gurdya, prompted by 
Gurdwi, slew him 

Time passed ; the Shah's soul grieved at Gustaham. 
One day he said in anger to Gurdwi : — 
'So Gustaham hath gol Gurdya to wife, 
And those great companies resort, methinketh, 
To him by her advice. A spy of mine 
Hath come hack from Amu] and all is clear." 

He spake thus till it darkened, and the eyes 
Of warriors failed, then while the slaves brought lights 
And wine they sent all strangers from the hall, 
And holding conclave with Gurdwi the Shah 
Discussed affairs and said : " I have dispatched 
Great forces to Amul to take revenge, 
And all have come back wounded and in bonds, 1 
Have come back full of sorrow and dismay. 
There is one plan — a trifle when compared 
With crown and throne. Although Bahrain Chubina 
Erred yet Gurdya was ever on our side, 
And I have got a scheme, but keep it close. 
A letter must be written to Gurdva. 
Like wine-streams in the garth of Paradise, 
To say : ' Thou hast been friendly and hast helped me 

1 i.e. in a state of disability. 


In all things everywhere. Much time hath passed 

While my heart's secret was not on my tongue, 

But now the time for speaking hath arrived C. 1982 

Because Gurdwi is as myself to me. 1 

Look out for some expedient to abate 

This foul affliction and put Gustaham 

Beneath the stones ; then both my heart and home 

Are thine. This done, thy troops and partizans 

Shall find protection with me everywhere, 

Be nowhere treated with contempt, and I 

Will give a province unto whom thou wilt 

That they may act as rulers, and do thou 

Come to the golden palace of my wives, 

And thou shalt put an end to my revenge. 

Thus will I pledge myself with many oaths, 

And add to these yet more assurances.' 

Gurdwi replied : " May the king live for ever, 
And be as Venus in the Sign of Virgo. 
Thou know'st that I regard my children's lives, 
My fruitful lands and all my family, 
However precious I account them all, 
As worthless when contrasted with thy head. 

I will send one to her on this affair 

To give her light thereon. I shall require 

A letter, written by the Shah and sealed 

With his own signet, like a shining moon. 

This will I send my sister by my wife, 

And thus put off all our antagonists, 

For this is woman's work and specially 

For one that is discreet. In mine opinion 

Thy words should reach my sister, and the matter 

Soon end as thou wouldst wish. The plan is perfect." 
Khusrau Parwiz, on hearing this, rejoiced, 

And thought his cares wind, asked his treasurer 

1 i.e. " I may speak now that thy brother is mine own dearest 
friend and so there is safe communication." 


For paper, chose words redolent of musk, 
And wrote a letter like a garden full 
Of roses like the cheeks of the beloved. 
Replete with pledges, oaths, and promises, 
And manifold advice and flattery. 
Whenas the ink of the inscription dried 
They sealed the letter with a seal of musk. 
Gurdwf wrote counsel loo. and much besides, 
Reciting flrsl Bahrain Chubfna's deeds 
Disgracing all his family and land. 
And adding : 'God forgive him ! May his wrangling 
Cause no remorse in him ! Those void of wisdom 
Heed not the consequences of their acts. 
Well, la; hath gone and we shall follow him. 
Confiding in the justice of our God. 
My wife, on coming, will enlighten thee. 
1983 Swerve not Erom what sin- saith or thou wilt make 
Thy fortune's \ isage wan." 

I Ee put the letter 
Writ by the Shah inside his own and wrapped 
Them both in painted silk. The wary wile 
Took then 1 and heard those peremptory words. 
She hasted lor the fores! of Narw&n — 
A woman sent as envoy to a woman. 
Thereat Gurdya became like jocund Spring 
With cheeks all grace and colour and perfume. 
They talked at large about Bahrain Chubina, 
And wept. Then privily Gurdwi's wife gave 
Gurdya the letter and made plain the path. 
That lion-woman saw the Shah's dispatch 
And, thou hadst said, looked down upon the moon. 
She laughed and said : " None with five friends would 

This matter difficult." 

She called her five, 
And stationed them bv Gustaham's bed-chamber. 


She read to them the letter of the Shah, 

But kept it from the chiefs in general. 

When she had said her say she quickly made 

A compact with them and shook hands thereon. 

At night she put the lights out and at once 

Pressed with her hands upon her husband's mouth ; 

Some of the five too came to give her aid, 

Came to the couch of that illustrious one. 

She struggled greatly with the drunken man, 

And silenced him at last. The general 

Died in the darkness and bequeathed both night 

And shining day to others. There arose 

Within the city shouts and cries for hel|>. 

In every quarter tempest rose and fire, 

And when the dauntless lady heard the din 

She clothed her in a Ruman coat of mail. 

That night she called the Iranians, spake at large 

About the murdered man, showed the Shah's letter, 

And so emboldened them. They blessed the event, 

And showered jewels on the document. 


How Gurdya wrote to Khusrau Parwiz and how he 
summoned and married her 

That dauntless lady called for pen and inkstand, 

And sat at ease among her counsellors. 

She wrote a letter to the Shah concerning 

His friends and foes, first praised those that eschew 

Revenge, then said : " The bidding of the Shah C- 1984 

Hath been obeyed as loyal hearts would wish, 

And through the fortune of the valiant world-lord 

That great host hath dispersed. What further orders 


Hast thou to give ? What further wilt thou hang 
On thy slave's earring ? " 

When the letter readied 
Khusrau Parwiz he joyed in her the more. 
The mighty Lion sought a messenger, 
High-starred, an honest man and shrewd of soul, 
And wrote a letter like the Artang of Chin, 1 
With many blessings in it, summoning 
The noble lady to the court, and in it 
Called her the Diadem upon the moon. 

The envoy came dust-swift to her and told 
All that the Shah had said. The lion-lady 
Became like radiant roses in the Spring-tide 
By reason of that letter, called and |>aid 
Her troops, and loaded up when it was day. 
As she approached the city of the Shah 
An army met he! 1 : when she reached the court 
The Shah received her. and she found him kind. 
Thereafter she produced great offerings, 
As did the chieftains in her company, 

Exhibited the goods and all the wealth. 

Then gave them to the royal treasurer — 
Dim'irs and kingly jewels pasl compute, 
Gold-woven brocade, crowns, girdles, golden thrones, 
And golden shields. Khusrau-Parwiz beheld 
That noble Cypress-tree with cheeks like Spring, 
And pheasant's <_;;iit. with countenance like day, 
And locks like night, while pearls, thou wouldst have 

Rained from her lips. He sent her to his bower, 
Gave her precedence there, sent to her brother — 
His own resourceful minister — to ask her 
In marriage, took and held her dear as life, 
While robes of honour, coin, and much beside 
He showered upon the comrades of his bride. 

1 Arzhang in the original. See Vol. ii. p. 19 note. 



How Gurdya showed her Accomplishment before Khusrau 


Two se'nnights passed away. " By sun and moon, 
By throne and casque,** he said to her, " narrate 
Thy battle with the soldiers of the Khan, 
And gird thy loins as thou wast girded then." 

" O Shah ! " she thus made answer, " live for ever, 
And be souls nourished by the sight of thee. 
Command thy men to bring a charger here, C. 19S5 

A saddle and choice lasso and a bow, 
A spear and helmet and a warrior's mail. 
Besides a quiver filled with poplar arrows."" 

The Shah then bade the servitors : " Prepare 
A place within the pleasance." 

Those slaves from Rum and Turkistan attended. 
Twelve hundred Beauties of Khusrau Parwiz 
(Thou wouldst have said : " The garden hath not 

Arrived preceded by sunlike Shirin 
In height a silver column as she walked. 
Gurdya approached the Shah and bade a slave 
Bring coat of mail and Human casque. She quitted 
Her seat and came forth Avith her loins girt up 
And spear in hand. 1 That all-accomplished dame 
Drew nigh a black steed by the Shah's command, 
Set on the ground the butt-end of her spear, 
And vaulted to the saddle swift as wind. 
She chose her field of action in the pleasance, 
Wheeled her about on all sides right and left, 
And pierced the dark clouds with her battle-cries. 

1 Couplet omitted. 


She told the Shah : " What time I fought Tuwurg 
I was ;ui angry "Wolf as I am now.** 

Shirin said : " Wilt thou arm thy Iocs, () king, 
For she is thinking of her brother's death, 
And will, 1 tear, consign thee to the wind ? 
Thou wearesl but a robe upon the throne 
Of gold, and she can reach thee any time ! ' 

He laughed and answered : " Then provoke her 
not ." 
The moon-faced lady wheeled amid the dust. 
She \v;is a heroine in love and war. 
And said : " Would that a locnian of the Shah's 

Were here before me on the battlefield. 

I would unhorse him as I did Tuwurg 
Here in the Great King's presence." 

He was all 

Astound, she had such stature, thews, and limbs. 
lie said to her: "Thou wilt not hav< to rail 
At fortune. Let me see it thou art (incited 
By wine or unaffected." 

Then she took — 
That lady-paladin a goblet tilled 
With royal wine, which Ahrimaii himself 
Would have declined, and in the sight of all 
Quailed to the Shah and drained it at a draught; 
She knocked the dust out of that golden stream ! 
The Shah in wonder said : " warrior-moon ! 
C. 1986 j h a v e about the world four generals. 

Who have it in command to guard my life. 

Each hath twelve thousand men — Iranians 

And valiant cavaliers. I have withal 

Within my golden bower and room of gems 

Twelve thousand slaves, all pure, with torques and 


Henceforth thou art their overseer for thou 
Dost toil and care for what is thine. I wish 


To hear no word of them from any one, 
Or young or old, save thee." 

Gurdya rejoiced 
On hearing this ; the slanders of her foes 
Had harmed her not. She swept earth with her face, 
And called down blessings on her sovereign's Grace. 


How Khusrau Pariciz sent an ill-disposed Man// lord 
to Rat and how he oppressed the Folk there 

A long time passed ; meanwhile the monarch's star 

Sought only the ascendant, but one night, 

As he was drinking wine among his sages, 

His magnates and experienced officers; 

There was a cup in use among the guests, 

Graved with the name Bahrain. 1 The Shah bade 

The cup away whereat they all began 
To curse Bahram, the cup, and him that wrought it. 
Thus said the Shah : " Now let the elephants 
Of war tread down the fields and fells of Rai, 
Expel the folk and turn it to a waste." 

The noble minister addressed him thus :— 
" O thou memorial of mighty kings ! 
Consider that the state of Kai is large. 
Not one for elephants to trample on, 
For God and all good folk would disapprove." 

The king replied : "I want one ill-disposed 
And of low birth to act as marchlord there, 
One who is coarse of speech and ignorant." 

1 The cup had belonged to, or the name on it suggested, Bahrain 


" Do thou, king ! " the minister rejoined, 
" Characterize the wretch, and I will seek, 
And bring him, otherwise we have no guide." 

Khnsrau Parwfz replied : " I want a gabbler, 
Ill-starred, red-haired, foul and with nose askew. 
With sallow face, malicious, squat, and soured. 
C. 1987 A coward, vile and gloomy, vengeful, lying, 

Green-eyed and squinting, with projecting teeth. 
And humped like wolf in gait." 

The arehimages 
Were all amazed that he should speak of such. 
And all made search about tin- world, amidst 
The cities, and among the great and small. 
One day a man brought one such to the Shah, 1 
Who said : " Tell thine ill deeds in fitting terms." 

The man replied : " I cease not to do ill. 
I have no wisdom and I say one thing 
And do another, and snub all that greet me. 
My stuck is lies: I never help the right; 
I break my pledge and fling nobility. 
Both root and stem, to earth.'' 

Khnsrau Parwfz 
Made answer : " May thine evil star ne'er change." 

They gave him Rai by patent, so the wretch 
Grew great by turpitude. They gave to him 
Troops that had been dismissed. He left the court, 
Famed for depravity. The miscreant. 
When he arrived at Rai, put off all fear 
Of God, and bade the gutters of the roofs 
Be torn away : this gave him much delight, 
And afterward he had all cats destroyed, 
Which gave great umbrage to the householders. 
Where'er he went he took with him a guide, 
While in the front of them a herald walked, 
Proclaiming : " If I see a gutter left, 
1 Two couplets omitted. 


Or cat within a house, I will set fire 

To house and field, and stone the inmates' heads." 

He would turn out a place to find one drachm, 
And vex its owner. All the people left 
Their homes in terror and gave up their lands. 
There were no gutters when the rain came down, 
No watchman in the city. Through the foul 
And ill-conditioned miscreant that came 
From court to Rai that city was laid waste. 
The sun beat down upon the people's heads, 
The place was full of pain and wretchedness, 
And not a soul regarded their distress. 


How Gurdya made Sport before Khusrau Panciz and 
how he gave Rai to her 

Thus was it till the month of Farwardin, C. 1988 

And rose-leaves decked the surface of the earth, 

Until the clouds' tears grew as large as hail, 

And tulips filled the valleys and the plains, 

Till all the dales were dappled like a pard, 

And earth was coloured like brocade of Rum. 

The chieftains came to sport within the garths, 

And to the uplands flocked all sheep and deer. 

Khusrau perceived the garden's open gates, 

The water-birds disporting on its streams, 

And bade the trumpets sound. They carried thither 

Jars of perfumes, sat down upon the grass. 

Called out for wine and decked their souls with joy. 

A man from Rai approached Gurdwi and told 
All that had happened. He was grieved at heart, 
And sought in his concern a remedy. 
He told his sister : " Thou must tell the Shah. 


See if thou canst devise a scheme to make 
His heart indifferent in this regard." 

Anon Gurdya produced a kitten, clad 
As 'twere a child, upon a courser trapped 
With gold and jewels. In the kitten's ears 
Were earrings and its claws were tulip-hued, 
Its eyes were pitch-like, Languishing like those 
Of folk bemused, its cheeks were like the Spring. 
It rode about the garden like a child 
With saddle-Haps of gold. The Shah laughed out, 
And laughter took possession of the court. 
' What," said he to Gurdya, " is thy desire, 
My gracious lady ? " 

That resourceful dame 
At once did reverence. ' Exalted Shah ! " 
She said. '" -rant Kai to me, be wise again, 

Release the hearts of woeful folk from grief, 

Recall that wretched niamiikin from Rai, 
And term him miscreant and malefactor, 

For he doth ban the eats and wreck all gutters I 

Khusrau Parwiz Laughed out at his wife's words. 
And said : " Thou saucy shatterer of hosts ! 
I give to thee the city and the lands. 
Send thither presently some upright man. 
C. 1989 And call back that malignant one from Kai, 
Like Ahriman, that loathly infidel."' 

The lady's Fortune waxed continually 
Beneath that royal and illustrious Tree. 


How Khusrau Parwiz portioned out his Realm 

Thereafter when the Shah's hand was extended, 
\Vhen all folk wished him well, when other kings 


Were subject to him, and his other lieges 
Had been enriched, he chose out of Iran 
Four times twelve thousand warlike cavaliers, 
Brave and experienced, oped the ancient hoards 
Filled by Piriiz and glorious Kubad, 
Partitioned out the world in four and made 
Appointments to the governments. He sent 
Twelve thousand out of those illustrious men, 
Shrewd cavaliers, deft wielders of the sword, 
Toward the Ruman marches to safe-guard 
That populous and glorious coast that troops 
From Rum might not attack Iran and lay 
The country waste or any one encroach. 
But be content with his own rank and fortune. 
He chose moreover of the men of name 
Out of Iran twelve thousand warlike horsemen 
That they might march forth to Zabulistan 
(They left a rose-garth for a gloomy land) 1 
And said to them : " If any one shall turn 
Out of the way, not keeping his own place, 
Restore him to the path with courteousness, 
But in worse cases use the chain and pit. 
Send spies about to keep you well apprised ; 
Ye will have need of outposts day and night, 
And sleep not in your tents without a guard." 

Out of the host he called twelve thousand others, 
All magnates valorous and fond of fight, 
And having given to them much advice 
Dispatched them to the route of the Alans, 
And charged them with the gate-way of the West 2 
So that no enemy might pass thereby. 
He bade the chiefs : "Be w r atchful and God guard 


He chose and sent twelve thousand warriors more, 
Such as were fit, to Khurasan, exhorting, 
> "Ce pays a terre noire." Mohl. ' Darband. See Vol. i. p. 16. 
VOL. viii. 2 A 


And greatly charging : " From Haital to Chin 
Let none set foot upon our land save those, 
Devoted and attached to me, that are 
Admitted with my knowledge and command. 
C. 1990 j R a jj t j ie provinces I have full hoards 
Available to all. When ye have need 
Ask and live happy, prudent and secure." 

He oped his treasuries' doors and seeing drachms 
With the inscription of Hurmuzd he wept, 
And gave them to the poor with further gifts 
When they were clothed. He cut the heads off all 
The adherents of Bandwi and intimates 
Of foul-mouthed Gustaham who had rejoiced 
O'er his sire's murder. Having made an end 
Of cursing and revenge he wisely took 
A new departure, portioning in four 
The night and day, which make revolving time. 
At one of these four seasons an archmage 
Of goodly speech attended to inform 
The Shah about the host and world's affairs, 
Who, if he noticed anything amiss 
Among the people or the warriors, 
Would ply forthwith the skirt of justice, learn 
The facts, and find a way. Another time 
Was given up to song and minstrelsy, 
And quiet, careless session with his lords 
As mighty men should do. The third was set 
Apart for prayer and praising God, the fourth 
For study of the starry sky above, 
Its character, its nature, and its host. 
The readers of the stars then stood before him 
Because they were his guides to understanding ; 
But during half of this night-period 
He sat among the Idols of Taraz. 
He also made division of each month 
In four parts that life might be pleasurable : 


One for the riding-ground, for archery, 

And polo with some noble to record ; 

Or for the chase among the hills and plains 

To keep himself in health, and when he left 

The chase by day or night the affluent 

Would decorate his route. The second part 

Was given up to chess and nard and tales 

Of battle, while the third was for the sages, 

The scribes and story-tellers, who in turn 

Narrated to him stories of the past, 

W r hile in the fourth the Shah received the envoys 

Of other potentates and wrote his answers 

To those exalted chiefs. With robes of honour C. 1991 

The envoys, gratified and satisfied, 

Would set forth from the court and journey home. 

On that day too for all the provinces 

He used to write out patents and bestow them 

On all the chiefs. When the New Year began 

At Farwardin, and sunshine in men's hearts 

Relumed the Faith, he laid a treasure by, 

Unknown to all his subjects, secretly. 


How Shirivi, the Son of Khusrau Parwiz, was born of 
Maryam with bad Auspices and how Khusrau 
Parwiz informed Ccesar 

When he had reigned five years he had no peer, 
And in the sixth year Caesar's daughter bare him 
An infant like the moon. 'Twas not the custom 
To give the call to prayers 1 in infants' ears 
If delicately nurtured. Fathers spake 

1 i.e. to proclaim loudly. 


One name into their ears — a private one 1 — 

The other name was publicly announced. 

The Shah in private called his son Kubad. 

But publicly Shirwi of glorious race. 

When of that night of birth there had elapsed 

Three watches the astrologers approached 

Khusrau Parwiz who asked : " What have all those 

Who read the stars observed, what will result, 

And what is this young world-lord's horoscope ? ' 

They said : * Thou canst not scape t he sky's decree. 
The earth will be in turmoil through this child ; 
His army will not bliss him. He withal 
Will cpiit (.od's path. What need we further say?' 

The upshot of their travail and those words 
Unseemly grieved the Shah's heart, and he said 
Thus to the sages : ' Take a better view. 
Be careful that ye speak no word thereof 
Before the Iranian chiefs." 

He took good heed 
Of that ill horoscope and laid it up 
When he had sealed it with his royal signet. 
The matter tilled him with concern ; he gave 
No audience for a se'nnighl and refrained 
From chase and wine. None saw him for a space. 
The chieftains all resorted to the archmage, 
And held discourse at large to ascertain 
What had befallen the illustrious Shah, 
And why he gave not audience to his lieges. 
C. 1992 The high priest sought the Shah, on hearing this, 

And told the army's words. He answered thus : — 
' Fate troubleth me, and I am all concern 
About the process of the turning sky 
Through what the astrologers have said." 

1 As a precaution against evil influences. Sometimes children 
were left un-named for a similar reason. Cf. Vol. i. pp. 8, 177, 179 
and QIN, p. 36 seq. 


He bade 
The treasurer : " Bring forth the painted silk 
With script therein." 

The treasurer produced, 
The archmage scanned heart-straitened, and was 

But in the end said : " God is all in all, 
For He surpasseth all men's understanding. 
Now if the blindly turning sky presenteth 
An altered aspect to the questioner 
How can concernment make it turn from ill ? 
Why then should any sage suggest such things ? 
May naught but joy be thine. Heed not their talk. 
We reap as heaven soweth and perforce 
Must trust thereto. While heaven itself shall last 
At whiles will love and justice and at whiles 
Strife and revenge prevail. From it the body 
Hath gain and loss. The understanding soul 
Is not afraid. The Maker be thy stay 
And comforter, and fortune's head be laid 
Upon thy lap." 

Thereat Khusrau Parwiz 
Smiled and then gave his mind to other things. 
He called a trusty scribe, instructed him 
At large, and bade him write to Caesar thus : — 
" Put on a crown fit for a king to wear, 
For in the night Maryam hath borne a son, 
Whose like thou ne'er hast seen. He needs must be 
Both wise and fortunate, and through his virtues 
Both worthy of the throne and bountiful. 
So, as I do myself, live happily, 
For joy and high estate pertain to thee." 



How Ccesar wrote a Letter to Khusrau Panviz, sent 
Gifts, and asked for the Cross of Christ 

Now Caesar, when the letter reached him, saw 
The superscription of Khusrau Parwfz, 
And bade to blow the trumpet at his gate ; 
The realm resounded. They adorned the wastes 
And ways in honour of Shirwi the son 
Ot Shah Khusrau Parwfz ; the voice of minstrels 
Rose from the state of Rum from end to end. 
Folk went with many Crosses to the court, 
The scent of roses and sweet perfumes rose. 
Thus for seven days they joyed with harp and wine 
C. 1993 O'er prince Shirwi while Ca?sar on the eighth 
Bade drivers with their caravans attend. 
He loaded up with drachms a hundred camels, 
And fifty with dinars by way of largess, 
Two hundred with gold-woven brocade of Rum, 
Thou wouldst have said : tk The fabric is all gold," 
With forty golden tables made with feet 
Of coral, fitting for the use of kings, 
With gold and silver effigies of beasts 
With gems for eyes, 1 with robes of beaver-skins, 
With silk from Chin, and with a golden laver 
Adorned with emeralds. He sent Maryam 
A peacock made of gold, and many gems. 
He sent as tribute also forty million 
Dinars of Rum with forty watchful Rumans 
To guard it led by Khanagi — a man 
Unmatched in wisdom. Thus with cameleers 
Ten caravans went laden with dinars. 

W r hen tidings reached the conquering Shah : " An 

1 Cf. Vol. vii. p. 36. 


From Caesar draweth nigh," he bade Farrukh, 

A loyal marchlord, ruler of Nimruz, 

High-born, a warrior, and the army's Lustre, 

To mount. With him went horsemen of the Shah 

With golden helms. When Khanagi descried 

Those troops afar he boldly rode ahead 

Until they reached the Shah and that famed court. 

On seeing his fair face and splendid throne 

All louted to the ground and homaged him. 

Then Khanagi, his face in dust, exclaimed : — 

" O lord of justice, holy man ! may God, 

The All-conquering, bless thee, mayst thou ever be 

The Shah and glad." 

The chiefs arose and made 
Room for him near the Shah to whom he said : — 
" Whose wisdom is like thine ? Thou art more bright 
Than Sol in heaven, more lasting than the soul 
Of eloquence. May this world never lack 
A king like thee, and may time bear him fruit. 
May none behold the day whereon thy will 
Is frustrate ; be thy name writ on the sun. 
May this world never lack thy head and crown, 
This land thy host. From Caesar salutation, 
From us praise to this famous king of earth. 
May all be dark to one that joyeth not, C. 1994 

In his alliance. We have come from Rum 
With gifts and tribute to this famous land, 
Come with philosophers withal lest any 
Should feel aggrieved at us. Let him accept 
From Caesar goods and tribute and moreover 
His blessing." 

Smiled the Shah upon that man 
Of worship and they set for him a seat. 
Khusrau Parwiz sent to the treasury 
The gifts and said to him : " There needed not 
Such pains ;" then to Kharrad, son of Barzin : — 


' Read out this letter to the company." 

The scribe, an eloquent and heedful man. 
Scanned the address and said : " Tis " to the great. 
Exalt Khusrau Parwfz, that man of God, 
The watchful ruler of a lovely land, 
Whose crown and wisdom are God's gifts to him, 
The world-lord and the son of Shah Ilurnm/.d, 
The glory of the crown and throne, from Caesar, 
The father of the mother of the prince 
Of lion-name. 1 and may his fame and power 
Endure. Be his height, Grace, and victory, 
And may his days be all a New Year's Day. 
May he rule o'er Iran and o'er Tiiran, 
In sovereignty without competitor, 
For ever glad in In ait and bright in soul, 
For ever old in wit and young in fortune. 
The noble monarchy of Gaiumart, 
The offspring of Hiishang and Tahmuras, 
Sire after sire, son after son, God granl 
The stuck im 'or fail. May holy God bless these. 
The Mighty both in kingship and in Faith. 
No horseman and no Spring is like to thee. 
Like thee there is no picture in t he halls; 
Thou all manliness and uprightness, 
And may thy spirit look not on defeat. 
In all Iran, Tiiran, and Hindustan 
From Turkistan to Rum, the sorcerers' land, 
God hath giv'n thee high birth with purity : 
No holy mother e'er bare such a son. 
When Faridun gave to fraj Iran, 
And took supremacy from Rum and Chin, 2 
He from the first acclaimed Iraj and purged 
His heart from guile and gloom. Thou hast no want, 

1 Shi'rwi (Sherwi) from " sher," a lion. 

1 Rum and Chin (Tiiran) were the portions of Salm and Tur, 
the elder brothers of fraj. See Vol. i. p. 189. 


Thy fortune prospereth, and thou wouldst say 
That God bestoweth majesty and charm 
And manhood upon thee and robbeth others 
Of their renown for manliness. As patrons 
Of virtue, noble, bountiful, no member 
Of their race e'er saw trouble. Tax and tribute 
They laid on foes, and their ill-wishers bare, 
As oxen do, their burdens. Since the days 
Of Nushirwan (may wisdom make him young c - I 995 

For evermore !), whose peer hath never been, 
And ne'er will be, as Shah — the prudent king- 
By whom was reared a bulwark from the dee}), 1 
So that they freed the whole wood of Narwan 
From Turkmans and the folk reposed, so freed 
A vast expanse from enemies amid 
The benisons of lords and underlings, 
While Arabs, Indians, and Iranians 
Girt up their loins before him — from the sea 
Of Chin up to the land of the Khazars, 
And from Armenia to the Eastern 2 gate, 
The nobles of Haital, Chach, Turkistan, 
And Samarkand, although possessed of crowns, 
Of Grace and splendour, all have been your lieges 
Admittedly because the Shahs were sprung 
From Faridun and others had no right. 
By this affinity that I have now 
Contracted with thee, and increased thereby 
My greatness by my wisdom, I rejoice 
As those athirst, or herbs sun-parched, at water. 
Let the shrewd world-lord make me glorious, 
And answer me this day. I ask the king 
To grant a wish of mine. It is a matter 
Of no account to him. Among thy treasures 
There is the Cross of Christ : observe and ye 
Will find it so. It hath been there for long. 

1 See Vol. vii. p. 239. * From Caesar's point of view. 


Now let the Shah restore it and so doing 
Confer a favour on us great and small : 
Then all the world will bless him, saying thus : — 
4 Let time and earth without him be no more.' 
'Twill be a favour to me ; I will pray 
All day and three fourths of the night lor him. 
Let him accept the tribute, toll, and gifts 
Sent by me to his folk, and in return 
I will accept the Cross by way of thanks. 
Ne'er may the wicked look upon thy face ! 
Our feasts and ritual will prove glorious. 
Our Faith become resplendent in the world, 
As will our holy day. our Sunday, God 
Will everywhere be worshipped, and the sad 
Will kiss the Cross and burn thereto much incense. 
That time will be delightful to my heart, 
For ye will purge your hearts of all the vengeance 
That hath come down to us from Faridun, 
And privily possessed both Salm and Tiir ; 
Our realm will rest from forays and all feuds. 
Our wives and children have been carried oil', 
In every way our hearts have been distressed, 
C. 1996 B u t our affinity hath calmed the world, 
And all insensate passions are appeased. 
May the Creator bless thee and thy land." 

The Shah heard Caesar's letter to the end 
With secret joy ; the days of mighty kings 
Had been restored in him. He gave great praise 
To Khanagi and said : " Be thou no more 
A stranger." 

They made ready for that worthy, 
That man both shrewd and brave, as dwelling-place 
Two halls delightsome, and provided him 
With all things needful. Khanagi first viewed 
The appointed dwelling, then rejoined the Shah, 
And companied that worshipper of God 


At feast and entertainment, wine and chase. 
On this wise with the Shah a month they spent 
In all good fellowship and much content. 


How Khusrau Pariviz answered Cwsar's Letter and 

sent Gifts 

Khusrau Parwiz wrote when the month had passed 

A letter couched in wise and happy terms, 

Beginning thus : " The blessings of the Great 

Be on the man who keepeth pure within, 

Who seeth God's work both in good and ill, 

And feareth none beside but praiseth Him — 

The Master of the sun — who thus sustaineth 

The heavenly sphere : and first, thy praises of me, 

As instanced in thy letter, I acknowledge, 

And I am gratified that they proceed 

From sages eminent. I have received 

Thy splendid 1 treasure sent and only wish 

That thou hadst less concerned thyself. Since God, 

The holy Ruler of the world, hath raised 

Thy realm o'er Spica, so as to outprize 

Hind and Saklab, Chin and Khazar, what manhood, 

What knowledge, virtue, and what Faith are thine, 

And with God's blessing ! When I was in trouble 

Thou didst assist me and remove my griefs 

Most wisely. Now I am more gratified 

In thine affinity and virtuous daughter 

Than any other chief in child, in land, 

And virtuous kin. The other chiefs all turned 

Their backs on me and passed me by as vile, 

1 Reading with P. 


But thou didst take the place of sire to me, 
C. 1997 And more. I recognise that thou hast been 
A father noble and benevolent. 
Next, what thou sayest of the holy Faith. 
About your Sundays, fastings, and thanksgivings, 
The scribe hath read to me. The words are both 
Apt and acceptable, but still I shame not 
For mine old Faith — Hushang's than which the 

Hath seen naughi better, teaching as it doth 
All justice, goodness, reverence, and love, 

With observation of the stars of heaven. 

Sure am I that God is and ever strivi 
To follow justice. We do not allow- 
That God hath any partner, son. and consort. 
He is and ever will be manifest, 
Not comprehended 1>\ our thoughts but still 
To me the warrant of His own existence. 

Now ;is tor these old tales recalled by thee 

About the (loss of Christ : a well based Faith 

Hath reason for its guide. Concerning those 

Who. as thou say'st, are s;k| because their Prophet 

Was crucified yet call Him w Son of God,' 

And say that on the Cross He laughed, if He 

\\;is son He hath but gone back to his Father; 

Be not concerned about some rotten wood. 

If foolish utterances proceed from Caesar 

His letter will be laughed at by the old. 

The Cross «,| Jesus, which Ardshir the Shah 

Put in his treasury, is not worth the pains, 

And if I send it from Iran to Bum 

The land will laugh at me, the archimages 

Think that I have turned Christian and a priest 

Upon Maryanvs account ! Demand of me 

Whatever else thou wilt : the way is open. 

I look with admiration on thy gifts, 


For which thou hast encountered so much toil, 
And have bestowed them on Shirwi that so 
I might inaugurate his treasury. 
I am concerned about Iran and Rum, 
My thoughts all night are like a wood, I fear 
That when Shirwi is grown mishap will come 
Upon both lands. Beginning with great Salm, 
Prolonged by that old vengeful Wolf Sikandar, 
What with new feuds and old, the whole affair 
\\ ill be revived. In all things that thy daughter 
Hath said to me know that she hath restored 
Thy crown to youth. She is a Christian still, 
And heedeth not my words. She is at ease 
And joyful, triumphing in this young Tree 
Of royalty. The World-lord help thee ever ; 
May fortune's head be always on thy lap." 

They sealed the letter with the royal signet, C. 19c 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, took charge thereof, 
And then they oped the doors of treasure-hoards 
Collected by the Shah for many a day. 
And in the first place eight score money-bags, 
For coins which Persians call " paidawasis," 1 
They filled till they were hard as stones with jewels, 
Then sealed them tightly. Every bag was worth, 
According to the reckoning on the roll, 
One hundred thousand drachms. There were besides 
Of pieces of brocade from Chin one hundred 
And forty thousand, some of cloth of gold 
With jewelled patterns, and five hundred pearls 
Of purest water and like water-drops, 
With eight score jewels like pomegranate-seeds, 
Such as a skilful jeweller would prize, 
While of the native produce of each land, 
Of Hindustan and Chin, Barbar and Misr, 
And raiment from Shustar — all that the chiefs 

1 See Vol. vii. p. 95 note. 


Esteem — he sent three hundred camel-loads 

To noble Caesar. lie gave Khanagf 

A grander robe of honour than he gave 

To strangers or his kin, with garments, steeds, 

Thrones, trappings, and all kinds of noted stuffs. 

In this way too he made up camel-loads, 

Ten out of them consisting of dinars 

To give to the philosophers of Rum. 

The embassy went on its way rejoicing, 

While all the mighty men called down upon 

That prowest king of earth their benison. 




The Prelude 

Now will I tell again old histories 

About Shirin and Shah Khusrau Parwiz. 

The book containing them is antiquate, 

But that same story bring I up to date 

To serve as a memorial of the Great. 

Six times ten thousand couplets there will be, 

Well ordered, banishers of misery. 

For thrice a thousand couplets one may look 

In vain as yet in any Persian book, 

And if one were to cancel each false strain 

In sooth five hundred barely would remain. 

That one — a bounteous king and of such worth 

And lustre mid the monarchs of the earth — 

Should disregard these histories is due 

To slanderers and mine ill fortune too. 


They envied this my work and "with the king 

They have prevailed to spoil my marketing ; 

But when the royal potentate shall read C. 1990 

My pleasant histories with all good heed 

I shall be gladdened by his treasures here, 

And may no ill from foe approach him near. 

My book may then recall me to his mind, 

The seed of mine endeavours fruitage find. 

Be his the crown and throne while time shall run, 

And may his destiny outshine the sun. 

A rustic minstrel wise and old once said : — 

" To know is that which giveth man most aid ; 

The tale of grief and joy he needs must tell, 

Taste all the bitter and the salt as well, 

For youths though knowing and of noble birth 

Can only by experience compass worth.'" 1 


How Khusrau Pariviz loved Shirin, how they parted, 
how he met her again while hunting and sent her 
to his Bower' 1 

Khusrau Parwiz like other paladins, 
While yet his father lived, was young and bold, 
And had for mate Shirin who was to him 
As his bright eyes. He cared for none beside 
Among the fair and daughters of the night, 3 
But parted from her for a while when he 
Came to be king and had to roam the world 
Unrestingly, for all his work was then 
To fight Bahrain Chubina while the Fair 

1 There is no break in the original here. 

* Part of this heading is not in the original. 

• "les filles des grands." Mohl. 


Wept day and night o'er his defect in love. 1 
It was so that one day he willed to hunt, 
And all things were prepared as in the times 
Of former Shahs. They took three hundred steeds, 
Caparisoned with gold, for thai lamed Kino-. 
While of his loyal servitors there fared 
Afoot a thousand and eight score, and carried 
Two-headed darts. A thousand and two score 
Bare scimitars and wore brocade above 
Their coats of mail. Seven hundred falconers 
Came next with royal falcons, sparrow-hawks, 

And gOS-hawks, while behind them mounted men — 
Three hundred keepers of the cheetahs— fared, 
And pards and lions chained three score and ten, 
All harnessed with brocade of Chin, all trained, 
And furnished with gold muzzles. For the deer-hunt 
There were eight hundred hounds with golden leashes. 
Behind them came, to harp on hunting-days, 
C. jooo Two thousand minstrels all on camel-back, 

And crowned with gold. Five hundred camels went 

Ahead, and 'twas their special task to hear 

The seats, pavilions, and tent-enclosures, 

The tents and shielings for the quadrupeds. 

There were two hundred slaves to kindle censers, 

And to burn aloe-wood and ambergris 

Therein. Before the Shah two hundred youths 

Of those attending on him went with posies 

Of saffron and narcissus that the scent 

Might meet him from all quarters as he came, 

Preceded by a hundred water-bearers 

To sprinkle all the road, and thou hadst said :— 

" They pour rose-water over ambergris ' 

Lest any sudden blast might scatter dust 

Upon that Shah of glorious lineage. 

Three hundred youthful princes rode with him, 

1 The section in the original ends here. 


Arrayed in yelloAV, red, and violet. 

The king of kings had with him Kawa's standard, 

Wore crown and earrings, royal cloth of gold, 

A golden girdle, armlets, and a torque, 

And jewelled buttons. 

Now Shirin, on hearing : — 
" The host, preceded by the mighty $h;ih, 
Hath come," put on a yellow vest musk-scented, 
And made her visage like pomegranate-blooms. 
She wore a red robe of brocade from Rum 
With patterns jewelled on a ground of gold, 
And placed upon her head a royal crown 
Set with the jewels of a paladin. 
She left her jocund hall, went on the roof, 
And in her day of youth showed naught of joy, 
But waited till Khusrau Parwiz arrived, 
Then let the tear-drops fall upon her cheeks. 
At sight of him she rose, showed all her height, 
And spake to him with sweetness of the past. 
The twin Narcissi bathed the Cercis-bloom, 
The first all languishmcnt, the last all health. 
All tears 1 and beauty, eagerly she cried 
Thus in the olden tongue : " O Shah ! Great Lion ! 
O framed to be leader of the host ! 
O blessed hero, lion-conqueror ! 
Where is that love of thine ? Where are the tears 
Of blood once stanched by looking on Shirin ? 
Where all those days which once we turned to nights, 
Tears in our hearts and eyes, smiles on our lips ? 
Where are our loves, our troth, our bonds, our oaths ? ' 

E'en as she spake she shed blood-drops of gall 
Upon her guise of lapis-lazuli, 2 

And when he heard and looked and saw Shirin C. 2001 

He wept for her, his face hued like the sun. 
He sent a led horse all betrapped with gold, 

1 Or "sheen." 2 " sur son visage en deuiJ." Mohl. 



And forty honest eunuchs, men of Ruin. 
To bear her to his golden bower, his house 
Begemmed, then went to hunt with hawks and 

When he had had enough of hill and plain 
He went back to the city joyfully. 
They decked it and the roads because the Shah 
Was coming from the chase: the trumpet-calls, 
And sounds of singing, ravelled all the air. 
And thus the royal Fruit of that tall Bough 1 
Passed through the city to his lofty home. 
While From his bower Shfrfn came forth and kissed 
His feet and hands and head. At that time spake 
The Shah to the high priest : ' Indulge no thoughts 
Save good concerning us, bestow on me 
This fair-cheeked lady as m\ lawful wife, 
And publish the glad tidings t<> the world." 

So he espoused her in the ancient way 
With all the rites and sanctions of his day. 

§ 57 

How the Nobles l<< ard that Shirin had come to the Boner 
of Khusrau Parioiz and how theij advised him and 
were satisfied with his Answer 

Now when these tidings of Khusrau Parwfz 

Came to the nobles and the host : ' Shirin 

Is in the Shah's bower and the old affair 

Hath been revived," the city was aggrieved, 

And full of care, distress, and malisons. 

For three days none approached him. On the fourth, 

When the world's Lustre shone, he sent and called 

1 The Sasanian race. " Lorsque cct homme a la stature royalc 
et aux membres puissants." Mohl. 


The chiefs and set them on the nobles' seats. 
He said to them : ' For days I have not seen you, 
And grieve thereat. I am concerned for fear 
Of your concernment and solicitous 
About your dealings." 

Thus he spake but none 
Replied ; they simply held their tongues, but those 
Aggrieved and angry looked at the high priest, 
Who seeing this rose to his feet and thus 
Addressed Khusrau Parwiz : " O righteous judge ! 
Thou hast in youth's day come to be the king, 
Hast seen from fortune much of good and ill, 
And heard how in the world no stint thereof C. 2002 

Ariseth from the deeds of those in power ; 
How when a noble race hath been defiled 
Defiled too are the mighty sprung therefrom. 
Know this, that never hath a noble son 
Laid hands upon his father's life 1 unless 
His mother had befouled the seed and smirched 
Her offspring. Thus Zahhak, the Arab, slew 
His sire and brought ill on Jamshid's head, thus 
Sikandar, who poured out Dara's blood, brought 
So great a fire of feud upon ourselves 
Although his father called Dara his brother, 
While Failakus was wont to call him son. 2 
When sire is pure and mother virtueless 
Know that no holy son will come to birth. 
None seeketh for uprightness in perverseness 
If he is fain to fill his sleeves with right. 
Our hearts are sad because a potent div 
Is now the great king's mate, for had there been 
No other woman in Iran e'en then 
How con Id Khusrau Parwiz thus honour her ? 
If but Shirin were absent from his bower 

1 Blood in the original. 

2 J 11 this and the preceding line the pronouns refer to Sikandar. 


His face would be resplendent everywhere. 
Thine ancestors, those wise and upright men, 
Ne'er would have thought of this." 

When he had spoken 
At great length, and the king of kings returned 
X<> answer, he said thus : " At dawn to-morrow 
We will assemble here and haply have 
The Shah's reply ; our talk was long to-day." 

Next day they rose at dawn and went to offer 
Their service to the Shah, and some one said :— 
" It is not right to speak such words." another : — 
"The words were wisdom's mates." a third : "He will 
Reply to-day, and what he saith should make 
For happiness." 

The archimages all 
Set forward and with stately steps approached 
The Shah. The magnates took their seats and then 
A man came with a bowl all furbished bright 
As Sol and passed before the chiefs in turn. 
Now warm blood had been poured therein. He set 
It gently by the Shah. All turned away 
Their faces and the assembly was all talk. 
Khusrau Parwfz looked on them and they quaked. 
He said to the Iranians : ' Whose blood 
Is this and wherefore is it set before me ? ' 

'Tis noisome blood," the archimage replied, 
" And so polluteth him that seeth it." 

"When he had spoken thus men took the bowl, 
C. 2003 Passed it from hand to hand, cleansed it of blood, 
And scoured it out with water and with sand. 
Then when that noisome bowl had been made bright 
And clean, the washer fdled it full of wine, 
And sprinkled it Avith musk and with rose-water. 
The bowl shone out sun-bright. Khusrau Parwiz 
Said to the archmage : " Verily the bowl 
Appeareth otherwise ! ' 


The archmage said : — 
" Live ever more ! Good hath appeared from ill. 
Thy bidding hath turned Hell to Paradise, 
And from ill-doing good is manifest." 

" Shirin," Khusrau Parwfz said, "to this city 
Was e'en as this disgustful bowl of bane, 
But in my bower she is a bowl of wine, 
And savoureth as we. She first obtained 
Her ill repute through me ; she did not court 
The friendship of the Great." 

All blessed him, saying : — 
" May earth ne'er lack thy crown and throne. They 

In goodness whom thou makest good, and mighty 
Are those whom thou hast made so in the world, 
For to be Shah, archmage, and chief is thine, 
And have withal on earth the Grace divine." 


How Shirin murdered Mar yam and how Khusrau 
Pariviz put Shirivi in Bonds 

Thenceforth the greatness of the Shah increased, 
And what had been a moon became a sun. 
His days were spent with Caesar's daughter ; she 
Was chief within his bower. Because of her 
Shirin was sore, her cheeks were ever wan 
With envy till at last she gave her bane, 
And Caesar's lovely daughter ceased to be. 
None wotted of the trick because Shirin 
Kept her own counsel, and Khusrau Parwiz 
Gave her the gilded chamber when Maryam 
Had been deceased one year. 


Now when Shirwi 
Was sixteen years of age, and in his stature 
O'ertoppcd the men of thirty, his sire brought 
The erudite to educate the prince. 
While by command an archimage maintained 
A kindly watch upon him day and night. 
It happened that the archimage one morn 
Went to his patron's and returning Found 
Shinvi as usual occupied in sport, 
Saw that he had in front of him Kalila 
And Dinina 1 but that the fierce youth was holding 
In his K- It hand a wolfs claw cut and dried. 

c. 2004 And in his righl a buffalo's horn, and these 
He beat together as the humour took him. 

Such actions, pastime, and behaviour 

Vexed the archmage's heart who boded ill 
From that wolf's claw, the buffalo's horn, and manners 
01 that rude youth, and was in ureal concern 
At what mighl happen through that ill-disposed 
And luckless prince in limes to come for he 
Had seen the horoscope and made inquiries 
Of minister and treasurer. He soughl 
The high-priest and reported thus to him : 
'This youth is wholly given up to play." 

The high-priesi went at once and told the Shah, 
Who kept a careful eye upon his son, 
On whose account his ruddy cheeks grew pale 
In trouble for the future of the world. 
His heart was lull of pain, his liver ached 
At what the readers of the stars had told him. 
He said : " I wait the Lord of Heaven's will."" 

When twenty-three years of the reign had passed, 
And when Shirwi had gotten stalwart limbs, 
The Great King was displeased because the child 
Was lusty grown but not as he desired. 

1 See Vol. vii. pp. 382, 423. 


The monarch's mind, which else had been all smiles, 
Was pained thereat, and he confined the youth 
To his own palace with a foster-brother, 
Disgraced on his account, and all that were 
Attached to him or went to him for counsel : 
There were above three thousand more or less. 
Their palaces, connected each with each, 
Were as a whole the prison of Shirwi. 
They decked, draped, carpeted, and furnished them 
With provand and the means of giving largess, 
With male and female slaves, with wine and minstrels. 
The place was all dinars. The inmates passed 
Their time in song and feast while forty men 
Kept guard. 

And now as episodes recite 
Tales told by men who thought and spake aright. 

§ 39 

How Khusrau Pariviz made the Throne of Tdkdis 

Of that throne which thou knowest as Takdis, 

And which Khusrau Parwiz set up within 

The hippodrome, the origin occurred 

Beneath Zahhak — that loathly infidel — 

For when heroic Faridun came forth, 

And from the Arabs carried off the style 

Of kingship, on Mount Damawand there dwelt 

A man who was distinguished by the Shah. 

His name was Jahn, son of Barzin, a power c 200 . 

Within the realm, and for that Shah renowned 

He made a throne and studded it with gems, 

So that Shah Faridun rejoiced o'er him 

When that grand throne was finished, and bestowed 

Drachms thirty thousand with a golden crown, 

And pair of earrings on him, and had written 


On his behalf a patent for Sari. 

And for Amul. The coast-lands thus assigned 

Resembled Paradise. 1 When Farfdun 

Bestowed Iran upon Iraj — the youngest 

Of his illustrious sons — he gave withal 

Three things — this very throne, the ox-head mace 

To serve as his memorial in the world, 

And thirdly what the just Shah used to term 

"The Seven Founts' a jewel. When Iraj 
Departed these were left and Miniichihr 
Had joy thereof. Bach wearer of the crown 
Made some addition to that throne, and when 
It came to Kai Khusrau, the fortunate, 
He added greatly to its height. It passed 
In due succession to Luhrasp and so 
On to Gushtasp who, when he saw it. cried : — 

' The work of mighty men must not be hidden," 
And to Jamasp thai man of worship said: — 

What canst thou add to this achievement ? Scan 
It everywhere and sec what supplement 
Thereto will win us praises alter death." 

Jamasp beheld the throne and s;iw therein 
A key wherewith to open wisdom's door. 
Upon it he inscribed the heavenly host, 
Which hold the secrets of futurity, 
And there portrayed by order of the Shah 
The planet-forms from Saturn to the moon. 
The throne thus reached the era of Sikandar, 
Each Shah that looked upon it adding somewhat- 
Gold, silver, ivory, and ebony — 
Until through ignorance at one fell swoop 
Sikandar broke it up ; howbeit the nobles 
Concealed and handed down full many a shard. 
Thus was it till Ardshir began his reign, 
And then the name e'en had grown obsolete. 

1 Cf. Vol. ii. p. 27. 


He found no traces and so made another, 

Not as he would, and had small joy therein. 

He died and left it as thereafter did 

Those that succeeded. When Khusrau Parwiz 

Sat on the throne and all the chiefs were loyal 

They spake about that other royal throne, C. 2006 

And its past history. Thus said the Shah : — 

" Ye chiefs ! I ask a favour of my lieges 

So that I mav remake that throne renowned 

To keep my name in mind. I need the plan 

Drawn by Jamasp — the favourite of the sky — 

The one adopted by Gushtasp, the Shah, 

Assisted by Jamasp's advice and skill." 

An archimagus reproduced the plan 
Whereat the exalt Khusrau Parwiz was glad, 
And, this obtained, made haste to reconstruct 
With joy the throne, brought forth thai of Ardshir, 
And gathered all the craftsmen of Iran. 
So in the days of that victorious Shah 
They reconstructed that resplendent Ihrone. 
The artificers came out of Rum and Chin, 
Makran, Baghdad, and from Iran itself. 
Of craftsmen there were one and sixty score, 
Intent upon the fashioning thereof, 
And each had thirty workers under him— 
Men out of Rum, Pars, and Baghdad. The Shah 
Commanded all to labour earnestly 
To have the throne completed in two years, 
And when it was set up high fortune shone. 
The height thereof was five score royal cubits 1 
If thou wilt add thereto three score and ten ; 
The breadth six score for 'twas less broad than high. 
A different carpet was laid down each morning 
Throughout the month, 2 and seven score thousand 

1 A royal cubit=a fathom. * Couplet omitted. 


Of gold with patterns fashioned of turquoise 
Were set upon the throne, while every nail 
And clamp were solid silver : each of them 
Weighed sixty-six miskals. When Sol displayed 
Its lamp in Aries the desert lay 
Behind the throne which fronted garden-wards, 
Hut when Sol raged in Leo then the hack 
\V;is tinned toward it ;* in the month of Tir 
The time for fruit and festival the throne 
Stood fronting toward the garden and the fruits 
To catch their scents ; in Winter, in the days 
Of wind and wet, none fell them seated thus; 
Tin- top was all shut in right royally 
With beaver-skins and sables. A thousand balls 
Withal of gold and silver glowed like brands 8 
Upon the fire, each five and twenty score 
Miskals in weight and coral-hued with heat, 
c. 2007 One half was in the fire, the other half 
Was tinned towards the noble warriors. 
The host of heaven, planets. Zodiac. 
The brighl moon in whatever Sign soe'er, 
And all the bodies, fixed or wandering. 
Were visible to the astronomer, 
Who saw what portion of dark night had passed, 
And how much sky had moved athwart the earth. 
Among these tables some were made of gold, 
And what a wealth of jewels was therein ! 
Not e'en an expert could compute their tale. 
The cheapest ran to some three score dinars 
And ten ; seven hundred would not purchase some, 
So strike an average. Full many a ruby 
Was there whose value none could estimate : 
They lit the night like Venus in the sky. 
Upon the throne-steps were three rows of seats 

1 The sun. 

' " Les valets de garde-robe faisaient chauffer au feu," etc. Mohl. 


Enriched with gems. From one row to the next 
There were four steps of gold inlaid with jewels. 
One row, whose ornaments were shaped like heads 
Of rams, took thence its name ; the next above 
Was known as 4t Lapis-lazuli " as higher 
Than wind or dust-clouds, while the third was all 
Turquoise, and every one that saw it burned 
With longing. Rural chiefs and underlings 
Sat on the Rams" Heads" row while cavaliers- 
Men un-aff eared upon the day of battle — 
Sat on the cirque of lapis-lazuli. 
The turquoise seat was for the minister 
That was engaged in governing the realm, 
And he that sat there must be wise and Loyal. 
A fabric was spread out of cloth of gold 
Two- score and seventeen cubits long, its fringe 
All strung with jewels held by golden threads. 
A map of heaven was inscribed thereon 
Where Saturn, Mars, Sol. Jupiter, 1 and Venus, 
With Mercury and shining Luna, showed 
The fortunes of the Shah : there too appeared 
The Seven Climes, and peers of Pars and Rum ; 2 
The seven and forty Shahs, 3 their faces, thrones, 
And crowns, were shown, those of the kings of 

Of woven gold. The fabric was unique. 
A man of Chin, unrivalled in such work. 
Had given seven years to weaving it. 
One New Year at Urmuzd of Farwardin 
He came before the monarch of Iran, 

C. 2008 

And brought that royal carpet to the Shah : 

The nobles let him pass. He laid it down 

On New Year's Day. The Shah's joy was complete. 

1 Reading with P. * Id. 

3 Khusrau Parwiz himself was only the forty-third Shah. Shah, 
however, may be used here in a more general sense so as to embrace 
Siyawush, Asfandiyar, and others. Mohl has " quarante-huit." 


That carpet gave an opportunity 

For mirth : they called for wine and minstrelsy. 


The Story of Sarkash and Bdrbad, tin Minstrel, and 

Khusrau Parwu 

There was a minstrel who was named Sarkash — 
An expert- who acclaimed the king of kings 
With all felicitations on the harp, 
While nobles showered jewels over him. 
And hailed him as the Grace of majesty, 
What while the Shah grew greater year by year. 
Now in the nine and twentieth of his kingship, 
When none fared ill at court, Barbad heard tell 
Thereof, for all Folk said to him : " The world-lord 

AlTeeteth liiinst relsy in private life. 

And thou, if thou werl introduced to him. 

Wcnldst u\ ertop Sarkash." 

Thereat I he man 
Became ambitious and though well to d<> 
Departed to the Shah's courl from his province, 
And noted all the minstrels there. Sarkash, 
On hearing him perform, was vexed at heart, 
And, all confounded at such minstrelsy, 
Approached the audience-chamberlain, bestowed 
A present on him of dinars and drachms, 
And said : " There is a minstrel at the gate, 
Who is my better both in years and skill. 
He must not come before Khusrau Parwfz 
For I am waxing old and he is young." 

The keeper of the door, on hearing this, 
Refused the new musician audience, 
And so Barbad, whenever he approached, 


Found his employment and his profit nil. 

When he despaired of being heard he sought 

The royal pleasance with his harp. The gardener, 

A man by name Mardwi, revived his hopes, 

Because at the New Year the Shah was wont 

To hold a two weeks' feast within that pleasance. 

Barbad approached Mardwi forthwith, became 

Friends that same day and said : " Thou wouldest say 

That we are soul and body. I desire 

A boon — the merest trifle. When the world-lord 

Shall come to revel hither give to me 

The means of seeing him, myself unseen." 1 

Mardwi replied : " I will ; my love lor thee c. 2009 

Shall oust reflection." 

When the Shah took order 
For visiting the garth the gardener's heart 
Was like a shining lamp. He went and told 
Barbad : " The Shah is coming to the pleasance." 

Barbad dressed all in green and took his harp, 
Prepared to sing of glory and of war. 
And went to where the Shah would be who had 
Each Spring a fresh spot for his festival. 
There was a verdant cypress full 2 of leaf, 
Whose branches, like the battle of Pasha n. 
Extended far and wide. With harp on breast 
The minstrel climbed it and abode until 
The king came from his palace to the pleasance : 
The gardener had the spot in readiness. 
There came a fay-faced reveller with wine 
While in the monarch's hand there was a cup ; 
The world-lord took the liquor from the youth ; 
Its crimson made the crystal disappear. 
Now when the sun turned sallow, but abode 

1 Couplet omitted. 

1 Gashan. Firdausi might have used this adjective as a rhyme- 
word in his alleged competition with the three poets (see Vol. iii. 
p. 15) but preferred the more erudite Pashan. 


Intil night turned to lapis-lazuli, 

The minstrel in that cypress took his harp. 

And sang a royal ditty. In that tree 

He sang a lay so charming that the Shah, 

That man of wakeful fortune, was amazed. 

The melody which that sweet voice gave forth 

Was that which now thou callest Dadafrid. 1 

The company were in astonishment, 

And everyone had his own view thereon. 

The playing made Sarkash like one insane : 

lit- recognised the source, bul held his peace. 

And thought : ' None but Barbad can play like this, 

Or knoweth thus the song of paladins.' 9 

The Shah gave orders to his lords : " Search all 
The pleasance." 

They searched long and came again, 
While shrewd Sarkash observed : " No marvel 'tis, 
So fortune -favoured is the Shah, that rose 
And cypress-tree should serve him as musicians. 
For ever may his head and crown endure." 

Then the cup-bearer brought another cup, 
And as the king received it Erom the youth, 
So fair of face, the minstrel preluded 
In other fashion and forthwith began 
A different song — thai called Paikar-i-Gurd, 2 
A name suggested by the words. The minstrel 
Sung and the Shah gave ear, drank to the voice, 
And bade : ' Produce this man and all within 
The garden." 

So they searched the garden through, 
And carried lights beneath the trees, but saw 
C. 2oro Naught but the willows and the cypresses, 
And pheasants pacing underneath the rose. 

1 " The Source of Justice." 

2 " The Battle of the Brave." This and the preceding are musical 


The king of kings called for another cup, 

And raised his head to hear the voice. Again 

There came the singing to another tune 

Upon the harp — the tune called Sabz dar sabz, 1 

A melodv employed in magic arts. 

On hearing it Khusrau Parwfz arose, 

And that adorner of the garth demanded 

A cup of wine that held a man. 2 He drank 

The sparkling wine off at a draught and cried :- 

" An angel this, all musk and ambergris, 

For if he were a div he would not sing, 

Or know to play the harp ! 3 Find out the player. 

Search all the garden and the flower-beds 

To left and right, for I will fill his mouth 

And lap with gems, and he shall be chief minstrel." 

Now when the singer heard the monarch's voice, 
And speech so kind and welcome, he descended 
The branches of the straight-stemmed cypress, fared 
Glad and triumphant, came and laid his face 
Upon the dust. Khusrau Parwiz said : '* Speak. 
What man art thou ? " 

" Shah ! a slave am I," 
He answered, " and live only by thy voice." 

He told all that had happened from the first, 
And who had been his friend. The king rejoiced, 
Like roses in the Spring-tide to behold him, 
Then spake thus to Sarkash : " Unskilful one, 
Like colocynth while he is sugar-like ! 
Why didst thou bar his access to me thus ? 
Thy harp is banished from this company." 

Then while Barbad sang on the monarch quaffed, 
And drained the jewelled cup until his head 

1 " Green on green," anticipating Marvcll's " green thought in a 
green shade." Also a musical term. 

2 See Vol. i. p. 290 note. 

a I n the earlier parts of the Shahnama divs sometimes are repre- 
sented as being accomplished. See Vol. i. p. 127, Vol. ii. p. 31. 


Inclined to sleep, whereat with watered pearls 
He filled the singer's month. Barbad became 
Chief minstrel and renowned among- the great. 

The epoch of Barbad hath past and gone : 
May ill be never thy companion. 
For since the day will pass alike of chief, 
And underling, why should the sage eat grief ? 
Full many have gone — both chief and nnderling- 
And I from slumber wish no wakening. 
Wheo six and sixty years have passed of life 
It is not good for one to be at strife. 
When I have ended these my famous lays 
The country-side will echo with my praise. 
Thenceforth for me not death but life shall last. 
For I have flung the seed of words broad-cast, 
And all of Faith, of counsel, and sound lore 
Will sing my praise when I shall be no more. 


Hon Khusrau Parwiz built the Palace 1 of Ma da"' in 

C. 2011 I will retell the tale of Mada'in, 

Tell of the palace of Khusrau Parwiz. 
A Persian shrewd of heart, o'er whom had passed 
Years four times thirty, said : Khusrau Parwiz 
Sent men to Rum, Hind, Chin, and other lands 
Inhabited, and from all climes there came 
Three thousand famed artificers, of whom 
He chose two hundred — masters of their craft, 
Who knew the use of bricks and mortar well — 
Out of Iran, Ahwaz, and from the Riimans. 
Of these he next chose thirty and from them 

1 City in text. 


Two Rumans and one Persian, from which three 

They chose a Ruman matchless in the world. 

That expert came before Khnsrau Parwiz, 

And held discourse of plan and elevation. 

That Riiman worshipful, that scientist 

Surpassed in speech the Persian. Said the Shah : — 

" Accept this contract at my hands and heed 

These mine instructions : I require a building 

Such that although my sons and race shall dwell 

Therein for many a year it will not fall 

To ruin through the rain or snow or sun." 

The expert undertook the Shah's commission, 
And said : " For this thing I am competent." 

Ten royal cubits deep he excavated, 
(A royal cubit is five common ones) 1 
And laid foundations made of stone and mortar 
To form a solid basis. When the walls 
Belonging to the palace had been reared 
He came before the master of the world, 
And said : " Let now the Shah appoint a man, 
Exceeding wise and well advanced in years, 
And send out to the works this man approved 
Together with some trusty archimages." 

The Shah appointed men as he was asked, 
Who went and made inspection of the walls. 
The artist brought silk which the company 
Turned to a slender cord by twisting it. 
Then from the wall-top of the royal palace 
He measured to the level of the ground, 
And after measuring the twisted cord 
In presence of the Shah's commissioners 
He took it to the royal treasury, 
And having sealed it gave it to the keeper ; 
Then going to the court said to the Shah :— 
' The palace-walls have risen to the moon, 

1 Reading with P. and T. 
vol. vni. 2 c 


C. 2012 But though the Shah bade : ' Haste i ' I will not urge 
Tlie work for forty days but let it settle. 
The Shah selected me, and when the time 
Is ripe the palace-wall shall be as Saturn. 
Let not the Shah's wrath aggravate my toils." 
Khusrau Parwiz replied : ' Why askest thou 
Such a delay from inc. thou malcontent ? 
Thou must not stop the work but shalt not want 
For gold or silver." 

By the Shah's command 
Thev ffave the artist thirty thousand drachms 
Lest he should take it ill. That honest workman 
Knew that experts would blame him when he built 
The palace hastily and, if it fell, 
That he himself would lose his livelihood. 
That night he disappeared : none saw him more. 
Khusrau Parwiz when told: ' Farghan hath fled," 
Poured out upon the speaker all his wrath. 

And said : " How could a dullard give himself 
Such airs before me ? 

Then he bade : '" Survey 
The work and put in prison all the Unmans. " 

He said moreover : ' Bring artificers, 
And gather mortar, stones, and massive bricks." 

Albeit those that viewed the walls took flight 
lioth from the Shah and realm, and he was forced 
To leave the work alone and turned his thoughts 
Upon Ahwaz if haply he might find 
An architect that such an enterprise 
Might not continue headless very long. 
He sought for one for three years but they found 
None of surpassing worth, and people still 
Talked much about the former architect, 
Who in the fourth year reappeared. A man 
Of prudence and of Grace divine informed 
Khusrau Parwiz and presently the Human 


Himself came swift as dust. 

" Thou criminal ! " 
The Shah said, " say what disability 
Was in the work to make thee lose both wealth 
And Paradise ? " 

The Riiman said : "If now 
The king will send me with a trusty man 
I will explain to him about my doings, 
And pardon will ensue on explanation."* 

The Shah dispatched them and they left the palace, 
The noble artist and king's confidant. 
The clever Riiman took the measuring-line, 
And with the Shah's own representative 
Tried the wall's height and found that it had sunk 
Seven cubits. Then they carried to the Shah 
The line. The expert's comrade made report. 
The Riiman then spake thus : " If I had carried C. 2013 

The buildings to their height no wall, Shah ! 
No vaulting and no work had stood, and I 
Could not have stayed at court."' 

Khusrau Parwiz 
Saw- that he spake, as all should do, the truth, 
Freed those in prison, whether ill-disposed 
Or innocent, and gave the architect 
Ten purses of dinars and to the imprisoned 
Full many a gift. Thus much time passed away. 
The Shah was eager for the work's completion, 
And after seven years it was achieved, 
And was approved by wise Khusrau Parwiz, 
Who gave the architect much honour, land, 
Dinars and drachms and praise. All went to view 
That palace, and the Shah was wont to spend 
His New Year there. None ever saw a structure 
Like that or heard from famous architects 
Of such. A ring of gold cast for the purpose 
Hung from the ceiling of the cupola, 


And from the ring a chain of ruddy gold 
With jewelled links. Whene'er the king of kings 
Ascended to his throne of ivory 
They used to hang the crown upon this chain, 
And when he took his seat on New Year's Day 
The nearest were the favoured archimages, 
The next below the chiefs, the mighty men. 
And commissaries, lower down the merchants 
And other traders, lower still the poor, 
And those that laboured for their daily bread, 
And. lowest, many maimed in hand or foot, 
Or e;ist down mangled at the palace-gate. 
Then from the hall would proclamation come 
That used to stir all hearts : ' All ye that are 
The subjects of the monarch of the world ! 
Be not heart-darkened and dispirited. 
The cares of all that look up to this height 
Shall end, but look beyond the royal throne. 
And take ye all the lieges in account." 

Then no one. whether innocenl or not, 
Was still retained in bondage by the Shah, 
Who used to clothe his prisoners withal 
From head to foot and give to them dinars 
And gifts of all kinds, while all mendicants 
Within the city that received no share 
On New Year's Day he seated at his gate, 
And flung drachms to them from the treasury. 
Ill -doers used to fear him, drowsi heads 
Grew vigilant while proclamation issued, 
Whenas the time for leaving had arrived : — 
C. 2014 " Famed, high-born chiefs ! why seek so for addition ? 
Your first concern should be your health and safety. 
Consider what ye do and ne'er distress 
The diffident, reflect then act, and heed 
The sayings of the wise. Regard inferiors, 
For those of luckless lives demand our tears. 


A man may slumber at my very throne 
Unharmed by me if he shall keep the path, 
But those that clutch at others' goods, on all 
That do such things our anger shall befall." 


Discourse on the Splendour and Greatness of Khusrau 


The greatness of the Shah I next display, 

And give new freshness to a bygone day, 

Such majesty that mid the small and great 

There is no memory of equal state. 

Well may the reader of the roll of kings 

Shake from his skirts all transitory things, 

And well may I too say a word for I 

Am well assured of sages' sympathy. 

Be not at home in this world for its bane 

Is greater than its antidote ; refrain 

From greed and strife ; make not life's stage to be 

Thy home, 'tis but a wayside inn for thee. 

Fare on. Thou agest and the young anon 

Arrive ; this comet h, that one passeth on : 

Awhile they strut or batten and are gone, 

For lion's head and elephant's both must, 

The signal given, come alike to dust . 

When thou hast heard from me the wondrous tale 
About Khusrau Parwiz keep it in mind. 
He had such puissance and eminence, 
Such majesty, such Grace, such throne and crown, 
That, though thou ask of experts, thou wilt hear 
Of no one greater. From Turan and Hind, 
From Chin and Rum and every peopled clime 


Thev brought him tribute night and dav alike — 
Boy-slaves and girl-slaves out of every court, 
And pearls and gems. His treasures and dinars 
Were infinite ; there was no king like him. 
The winged eagle, royal falcon, hawk, 
Pard, lion, and stream-haunting crocodile 
Submitted to him willingly : his mind 
C. 2015 Was bright as Sol. The first of all his treasures, 
Amassed from Chin. Bulghar, From Rum, and Riis, 
Was called ' 'Anis ; J the next of watered pearls, 
And in an edifice a bowshot high, 
Was named " Kha/.ra "- by chiefs and Arab sages ; 
The next was known as " Bar " :! and lord and liege 
Have never looked upon its like; the next 
Was greal Shadward 4 which minstrels celebrate: 
The next was that which men called " Bad Awar"; 5 
They strove to estimate it but they failed. 
The next whereof thou hcarest speak thou callcst 
" Diba-i-Khusraui," e and nexl the famed 
Hoard of Afrasiyab ; none hath possessed 

Its like by sea or land : another hoard 
Was thai entitled " Siikhta " : and its lustre 

Illumed the realm. Sarkash was of his minstrels; 

So was Barbad ; that market never failed 

Khusrau Parwiz, and in his golden bower 

There were twelve thousand girls like jocund Spring. 

He had twelve hundred elephants of war; 

Thou wouldst have said : ' Earth hath not room for 

The war-steeds in the stables of the king 
Were six and forty thousand, while of camels 
Red-haired 8 there were ten thousand, and none 


1 The Bride. 2 The Green.  Perhaps ' The Spring ... (of 

* The Throne. Khusrau)." Cf. NT, p. 355, note. 
Windfall, i.e. composed of jetsam. Cf. ZT, ii. 305. 

• Brocade of Khusrau. 7. Weighed. e The best sort. 


Possessed one like to them. Twelve thousand more 

Were beasts of burden, sixty-six were swift 

For litter-bearing ; none had seen or heard 

Of such from white-haired veterans. Of troopers 

There were a thousand thousand — men of Rum, 

Of Chin and Turkistan. He had withal 

Shabdiz, the charger that ne'er failed in fight, 

While in his women's bower there was Shirin 

To add her lustre to his Rosary. 

Since he was ruined by a servitor 
Re not solicitous in quest for more, 
Rut rather choose a life exempt from care 
If thou wouldst have just praises for thy share, 
For good and evil pass away with death. 
And time is counting up our every breath. 
What though thou gaincst as thy portion here 
Throne, croAvn, and treasury, though thy career 
Re ever so laborious, yet at last 
Thy lot among the bricks and dust is cast. 
So sow but seed of good. Khusrau Parwiz 
Should furnish thee with ample instances : 
When thou shalt read the roll 'twill startle thee. 
The famous throne, the seat of sovereignty. 
Might and the diadem of empiry, 
Were not sufficient for him but he must 
Raise from Iran and from Tiiran the dust ! 


How Khusrau Parwiz turned from Justice, lion- the 
Chiefs revolted, and how Gurdz called in Ccesar 

The Shah, who had been just, became unjust, C. 2016 

Joyed in the injustice of his underlings, 


Robbed all men of their goods and stirred up strife 
'Twixt man and man. That which had been a 

Turned to a curse because the Ram grew like 
A tyrannous Wolf. He undertook new toils, 
His one desire was to increase his hoards, 
Until the folk, who lacked both bread and water, 
And had not e"en their bodies for their own, 
Betook them to the country of the foe ; 
The oppressed although unwilling left the land. 
There was a worthless man by name Guraz, 
Through whom the Shah enjoyed both ease and 

He kept a consta.n1 surveillance o'er Rum, 
And was div-headed, tyrannous, accursed. 
Now when the once just Shah became unjust 
This man was first to turn against Iran. 
Another was the Favourite, Farrukhzad ; 
None could approach Khusrau Parwiz unless 
Through him, and as the king <»F kings drew near 
His end this man too grew corrupt. He came, 
This offspring oi Azar Makan, a man 
Of louring face and gruff with underlings, 
And grew confederate with old Guraz 
Till province after province was involved. 
Guraz, who was the general, wrote to Caesar, 
And stirred him up to mischief, saying thus : — 
" Arise and seize Iran. I will be first 
In aiding thee." 

Then Caesar mustered troops 
For battle, beat the tymbals, paid his host, 
And marched like wind toward the Iranian coast. 



How Ccesar withdrew through an Expedient of Khusrau 
Parwiz and how' the Chiefs released Shirwi from Bonds 

The king, on hearing, took this grave case lightly. 

He recognised the practice of Guraz 

In prompting warlike Caesar and recalled him, C. 2017 

But he excused himself and disregarded 

The royal letter, for the villain feared 

Khusrau Parwiz, the court, and all the chiefs. 

The king of kings sat with the Great and all 

That were the men of leading in Iran. 

He plunged his heart in thought and sought at large 

Among all manner of expedients. 

And when a bright thought came to him he wrote 

Thus to Guraz : " I quite approve thy conduct, 

And have commended thee before the lords. 

This artifice surpasseth all, for thou 

Hast caused the fall of Caesar. When they bring thee 

This letter set thy sharpest wits to work, 

Wait till I make a move, then move thyself 

That Caesar being placed between our hosts 

May have his purpose foiled. We will convey him, 

And all his Rumans, captives to Iran."' 

Then from his court he chose one of resource, 
Informed and eloquent, as there was need, 
And said : " Convey this letter secretly. 
As if thou wert a spy, but so contrive 
That Rumans may observe thee on the road, 
Interrogate and carry thee to Caesar, 
Or else before the captain of the host. 
He will inquire : ' Whence art thou ? Speak.' 

Reply : — 
' A subject and in straits. I have been facing 


Toil and the longsome road to bear Guraz 

A letter." Have this bound to thy right hand. 

And if he take it from thee it is well." 

The courier went forth from Khusrau Parwiz, 
And made the letter fast to his right arm. 
A scout descried him as he drew anear, 
And carried him to Caesar with his head 
All dust, with wan checks, and with livid lips. 
Then Caesar asked : ' Where is Khusrau Parwiz ? 
Thou must declare the truth." 

The embarrassed liege, 
O'erwhelmed with fear, replied with favour changed. 
Said Caesar: " Search this wretch malevolent, 
El-purposed and ill-faced." 

Shrewd, skilful men 
Searched him and took the letter from his arm, 
Then sought a learned chieftain of that march. 
One who could read arighl the ancient tongue. 
Now when that scribe had read the letter over 
The monarch's countenance became like pitch, 
And thus he said in private to his troops : 
" Guraz intended to destroy us all ! 
c. 2018 The king of kiiejs with countless elephants 

And treasure, and three hundred thousand men, 

Was minded to involve me in his net : 

God grant his heart and policy be darkened ! 

He dropped his purpose and withdrew his host. 
Guraz. informed that Caesar had returned 
To Rum, grew pale and sorrowful. He chose 
A horseman from his troops and wrote this letter 
With sighs and loud complainings : " Why is Caesar 
Displeased with me ? Say wherefore hast thou 

Iran and made me shift thus for myself ? 
The king of kings, informed of what I did, 
In pain and vengeance is estranged from me." 


When Caesar was aware of this and saw 
That letter he selected from his host 
A noble and dispatched him to Guraz 
In haste to say : " Hath God so furnished thee 
That thou shouldst desolate my crown and throne, 
And burn my troops with fire ? Thy former letter, 
Thou miscreant ! came but to consign to wind 
My treasure, and the purpose was to give me 
Up to Khusrau Parwiz. May good estate 
And greatness ne'er be thine ! Thou shouldst have 

That while they see a Shah of royal race 
The Iranians will desire no alien, 
None born of Caesar, none however wise." 

Guraz protested unto Caesar much, 
But failed to gain an acccess to his ear. 
Khusrau Parwiz then chose as messenger 
A Persian who was learned and eloquent, 
And sent him with this letter to Guraz :— 
"Thou worthless villain, worker for the Div ! 
These many times I summon thee to Court, 
But thou art far from loyalty and right. 
Now all the army that thou hast with thee, 
For many years thy fortune's fosterers, 
Are backing Caesar both in heart and will, 
And privily are not as they appear. 
Dispatch to me the disaffected rebels." 

When this arrived the wary chieftain mused. 
He chose twelve thousand valiant cavaliers. 
And thus addressed them : "Be ye one in heart. 
And heed ye not what any one may say. 
Abide awhile on this side of the stream, 
And hurry not at all upon the march. 
If ye are one in tongue and confidence 
Ye may uproot a mountain." 

Young and old 


Advanced as far as Khurra-i-Ardshir, 1 
C. 2019 Advanced until they reached the river-bank, 
Expectant of the bidding of the king, 
^Vho, hearing, was not anxious to behold them, 
But ordered Farrukhzad to go and say :— 
' Till now ye have been loyal ; wherefore then 
Allowed ye Caesar to invade us thus ? 
Who hath transgressed the way of God and quitted 
The path of duty and of Loyalty ? "" 

The faces of the soldiers at thai message, 
Sent by Khusrau Parwfz, grew dark with fear. 

None dared to speak but tamed pained and pale. 

The messenger was with Guraz at heart, 

But kept his scent both from wind and dust. 

He then approached the leaders privily, 

And threw some light upon their darkened minds. 

"Fear not.'" he said, " ye chieftains ! for the Shah 

Hath not detected you in open fault. 

Be of one heart and tongue, and say to him: — 

'What disaffected person is with us? 

And if there be one cloak is over all ; 
We stand by one another lustily.' " 

The chiefs all heard him, understood, rose up, 
And framed their answer on the lines proposed. 
Then Farrukhzad returned like flying dust, 
And told the Shah their words, who said : ' Go back, 
And say : ' Which of you seeketh his own hurt ? 
The man that hath been duped by luckless Caesar 
With gifts of treasures, weapons, crowns, and thrones, 
That man is guilty in respect to us — 
A traitor to this crown and majesty. 
Dispatch ye to my court without delay 
All that are disaffected in this wise, 
Else all of you that have transgressed shall see 

1 Khurra-i-Ardshar was a district in Pars. Bih-Ardslu'r (Seleucia) 
must be meant. 


The gibbet and the dungeon.' " 

Went with these words, and in the soldiers' hearts 
Old grievances revived. None dared to speak, 
But kept a mournful silence. Thereupon 
Spake Farrukhzad and in unseemly words : — 
" In all this young and valiant host I see 
None inefficient ; why then Tear the Shall. 
Whose troops are scattered through the world ? I note 
At court no great man to illuminate 
His star and moon. Despise my words and Tear not 
My threats, but curse me and the exalted Shah." C. 2020 

The hearers knew : " The fortune of the king 
Hath aged," and framed their lips for malisons, 
While Farrukhzad went to Klnisrau Parwiz, 
And said : " The troops all stand by one another. 
And if thou sendest me again I fear 
For mine own life." 

Klnisrau Parwiz perceived :— 
" This knave will cause both blood and tears to 

But fearful of his brother 1 answered not, 
And hid the truth ; for Rustam had revolted 
Where he was stationed with ten thousand swordsmen, 
And holding Farrukhzad disloyal too 
Caused his own soldiers to revolt withal, 
While Farrukhzad was ware too that the Shah 
Knew him as author of the host's default ; 
So when that malcontent had left the presence 
He dared not to return but kept without. 
And tampered there with all the folk, for ever 
Attempting to pervert them, man by man. 
From their obedience to the Shah. He told 
Them all and they agreed : " Another Shah 

1 Rustam, the brother of Farrukhzad not of Klnisrau Parwiz as 
given in the Genealogical Table of the Sasanians in Vol. vi. p. 3. 


Should sit upon the throne for this hath lost 
The Grace, the royal usages, and fortune." 

There was with Farrukhzad an ancient man. 
Skilled in affairs, who said : " The Shah imputeth 
The army's fault to thee. Thou must produce 
A new kino- soon because our fertile land 
Is growing waste, its tumult as destructive 
As was Piran. We needs must ascertain 
Which of the Shah's sons hath most modesty. 
And will cause least dispute. He must be seated 
Upon the throne as Shah and o'er liis ciown 
Dinars be showered. Then we shall fare anew ; 
We have drunk bitter and we shall drink sweet. 
For since Shirwi, 1 the shrewd and eldest-born, 
Is now in prison we shall need no other." 

They all agreed thereto, lint Few elapsed 
Of days and nights before Tukhar's host raised 
The (hist and slighted all the Shah's affairs. 
Then Farrukhzad went out to meet Tnkhar 
With many troops. They mel and much talk passed 
In public and in private. Farrukhzad, 
Moreover, loosed his tongue and told the ills 
Wrought by Khusrau Parwi/. lie said : '"The host 
By valour and by counsel will restore 
The soverei gnt y." 

The general replied :— 
' I am not one for words but when I come 
To battle with my troops I make things strait 
For this world's warriors. This king when young 
Was loved by chief and paladin, and since 
The days of such an one as he grow dark 
I would that none should look on crown and throne. 
The fatal time was when he grew unjust, 
And joyed in the injustice of his slaves." 

When Farrukhzad heard this 2 he chose Tukhar, 

1 Cf. p. 193. * Reading with P. 


And said to him : " Now go we to the prison, 

To those unfortunates, and boldly bear 

Shirwi, the brave, the atheling, away. 

The captain of the host, whose brain and skin 

rhou wilt take sooner, watcheth o'er his prison, 

And with six thousand proven cavaliers 

Is keeper of those wretched prisoners." 

Tukhar thus answered : " We have overlooked 
This matter of the captain of the host, 
For if the fortune of Khusrau Parwiz 
Revive there will not be a paladin 
Left in Iran, and what with gibbet, bonds, 
And dungeon, none will 'scape calamity." 

He spake and urged his charger, speeding like 
Azargashasp, and led his powers to battle. 
The captain of the host encountered him 
Forthwith. Those famous troops were overthrown. 
The captain of the host himself was slain 
In fight, the forces of the king were scattered, 
The day was one of gloom and all was lost. 
By that expedient and in war-array 
Tukhar made entry of that narrow prison, 
And called exalt Shirwi. The prince replied 
Forthwith, well knowing why that chief had come. 
His heart throbbed, laughing after care, when he 
Beheld that cheerful face, but still he wept, 
And asked : " Where is Khusrau Parwiz ? Is't 

To free me?" 

Said Tukhar : "As thou'rt a man 
Be not perverse, for if thou wilt consent not, 
And lettest go this opportunity, 
One in sixteen may fail us, but thou hast 
Still fifteen brothers left and each deserving 
To be the king of kings : the throne of greatness 
Would joy in them." 


Shirwi remained in tears 
And consternation. Should he quit the prison ? 
c. 2022 Now Farrukhzad meanwhile was at the gates, 

And suffered none to pass to tell the Shah, 
But acted as sole chamberlain. When Sol 
Grew wan of face, and all the lords had gone 
To seek repose, he hade the watch or them 
That were its officers to Tare to court — 
That place of happiness and royal ease — 
And said : " Your cry to-night must not be that 
Of yesternight : all watchmen every watch 
Must iii their cries employ the name * Kubad.' 

They made reply : We will ; Ave will forget 
Khusrau Parwiz." 

So when the night resumed 
Its pitch-like robe from city and bazar 
Arose the cry : " For ever live Kubad, 

The scion of the great, and may his name 

Be promulgate in all the provinces." 

The nighl was dark ; the monarch of the world 
Slept but Shirin beside him was perturbed, 
On hearing whal the watchman said, and grieved. 
Her heart beat List with care. Roused by her 


The Shah took dudgeon, but she cried : " sire ! 
What shall we do ? How shall we act herein ? ' 

He said : *' moon-face ! why dost chatter so 
When I am sleeping ? " 

She replied : " Give ear, 
And listen to the watch." 

He heard ; his checks 
Became like flowers of fenugreek ; he said : — 
" What time three watches of the night have 

Consult the astrologers for when this knave 
Was born I named him privily Kubad, 


But I have spoken of him as Shirwi, 

And kept his other name concealed. In public 

Shirwi hath always been his name, so why 

Is this vile fellow calling him Kubad ? 

We must depart while it is night toward Chin, 

Machin or else Makran, and I will ask 

Faghfur for troops, and make our way to them 

Bv some device." 

But as his star was dark 
In heaven so on earth his words were wild : 
His scheme of night-departure came to naught. 
He took a hard case easily and told 
Shirin : ' The time hath come ; our foes prevent 
Our schemes." 

She answered him : " For ever live : 
Far from thee ever be the evil eye. 
Plan in thy wisdom something for thyself : 
Ne'er may the foeman have of thee his will. 
As soon as it is light that ruseful one C. 2023 

Will turn toward the palace past all doubt." 
He called for armour from the treasury — 
Two Indian scimitars and Ruman casque, 
A quiver, arrows, and a golden shield — 
And for a valiant slave who loved the fight. 
He went forth to the garden in the dark, 
What time the crow awakeneth, hung up 
His golden buckler on a bough where none 
Was like to pass and with a heavy sword 
Beneath his knee sat on the flowery sward. 




Hoic Khusrau Paririz was taken and how Shirwi sent 

him to Taisaftin 

When Sol shot down its rays the enemy — 

That doer of div's work — approached the palace, 

And went about it, but that splendid seat 

Was void of Shah. They gave to spoil his treasures, 

Xone recking of his travail, and then all 

Withdrew in tears and wroth at fortune's doings. 

What of von swiftly turning skv sav we, 
Which never resteth from its instancy ? 

It giveth unto one the royal crown, 
Another to the fishes in the sea. 

One man hath head and feet and shoulders bare, 
No peace, no food, no shelter anywhere; 

It giveth to another drink of milk 
And honey ; furs, brocade and silks to wear! 

Dust and the darkness of the grave await 
Them both. To be unborn would best abate 

The sage's cares for never to have been 
Is better than to be for small and great. 

Now for fresh toil upon Khusrau Parwfz 
To give reciters novel histories. 

The Shah bode in that mead, a lofty tree 
O'ershadowing him. When half the longsome day 
Had passed he hungered. Now within the pleasance 
There was a man employed who did not know 
The king by sight. The Sun-faced bade his slave : — 
'' Cut off a cantle from this costly belt." 

That cantle had on it five studs of gold 
Enriched with jewelry. The king then spake 
Thus to the gardener : " These studs will prove 
C 2024 Of use to-day. Go thou to the bazar, 


Buy meat and bread, and shun frequented paths." 

Those jewels would have cost a purchaser 
Some thirty thousand drachms. Immediately 
The gardener sought a baker and asked bread 
In change for that gold cantle but the baker 
Said : " I have not its worth and cannot pass it." 

The two conveyed it to a jeweller, 
And said : ' Price this according to thv knowledge." 

The expert, Avhen he looked upon the studs, 
Said : " Who will dare to buy, for this should be 
Within the treasury of Khusrau Parwiz, 
Who hath a hundred new like this each year ? 
Whom didst thou steal these jewels from, or didst 
Thou cut them off a slave who was asleep ? * 

The three men went to Farrukhzad and took 
The jewels, gold and all, and he on seeing 
Ran to the new-made king and showed the gems, 
And cantle severed from the golden girdle. 
Shirwi said to the gardener : " If thou 
Show'st not to me the owner of these jewels 
I will behead thee and thy kith and kin 

' O Shah ! ' he answered, " in the garden 
There is a man in armour, bow in hand, 
In height a cypress and with cheeks like Spring, 
In all points like a king ; he brighteneth 
The garden everywhere, and in his mail 
Is like the shining sun. His golden shield 
Is hanging from a bough. Before him standeth 
A slave with loins girt up who cut for him 
This jewelled cantle, handed it to me, 
And told me : ' Hence away and from the market 
Buy bread and relish.' Swift as wind I left him 
But now.*' 

Shirwi knew : " 'Tis Khusrau Parwiz, 
His features are the age's cynosure," 


And sent three hundred horsemen from the court. 
Like rushing wind, down to the river-bank. 
Khusrau Parwiz, perceiving them afar. 
Grew pale and drew his scimitar, but when 
They saw the king of kings they all returned 
In tears. They went to Farrukhzad and said :— 
" We are but slaves ; he is Khusrau Parwiz— 
A Shah to whom the evil day is new. 
None either in the garden or the fray 
Would dare breathe cold on him." 

Then Farrukhzad 
Went to the Shah with troops from court, advanced 
Alone and spake at large. Khusrau I'arwiz 
1 2025 Gave ear to him. He said : " If now the Shah 
Will grant me audience, and will excuse 
My conduct. I will come and tell the truth 
To him but otherwise will hie me home." 

Khusrau Parwiz made answer: 'Say thy say. 
For thou art neither friend nor enemy." 

Then said that llneiit speaker: "View tin; matter 
More wisely and assume that thou hast slain 
A thousand warriors, yet thou wilt get 
Thy till of light at last while all Iran 
Is hostile to thee, leagued both heart and body 
In opposition. Wait the will of heaven : 
Perchance these conflicts may result in love." 

 Yea," said Khusrau Parwiz, " 'tis well. What I 
Dread are the vile who may approach and treat me 
With all indignities if so they will." 

While he was speaking thus to Farrukhzad 
His heart was troubled at his aged fortune 
Because astrologers had said to him, 
And he had been astonied at their words :- 
" Thy death will come to thee between two heights, 
And by a slave's hand in a lonely spot. 
One height will be of gold and one of silver, 


And thou with broken heart wilt sit between. 
Thy heaven will be golden, thine earth iron, 
And fortune will be lull of enmity.*' 

He said : " So now this armour is mine earth, 
My golden shield my heaven, and the heights 
Are my two treasuries within the garden, 
Which used to make my heart shine like a lamp. 
In sooth my days are coming to an end : 
Where is my star that used to light the world ? 
Where are the satisfaction and the peace 
Of me who had my name inscribed on crowns ? ' 

They brought an elephant for him. His soul 
Was dark with woe. He mounted, and the troops 
Led him away while in the ancient tongue 
He cried : " treasure ! if thou art my foe 
Be not a friend to these mine enemies, 
For I am in the hands of Ahriman 
To-day. Thou aid'st me not in my distress : 
Conceal thyself and show thyself to none." 

Kubad gave orders to his minister : — 
" Remind him not of any evil deed, 
But bid them carry him to Taisal'un 
Away from court with his own counsellor. 
There let him bide in peace for many a day 
And harmed by none. Let trusty Galimis 
Be made his keeper with a thousand horsemen." 

When thus the sky revolved above his head 
His reign had lasted eight and thirty years. 
It was the day of Dai of month Azar, C. 2026 

A time for fires and wine and roasted fowls, 
When from Khusrau Parwiz the Grace of kingship 
Withdrew and he was crownless like a slave. 

Kubad acceded and put on the crown, 
And sat in peace rejoicing on the throne. 
The Iranian troops did homage to the Shah, 
Who gave one year's pay from the treasury, 


And lived but seven months so call him naught, 
Or call him Shah, just as it pleaseth thee. 

Such is this tyrant Hostel's wont ! Thou must 
Look not upon it with an eye of trust. 
Of all things cultivate a generous mood. 
And let thy thoughts be ever bent on good. 
When thou shalt say: "Tin; world hath granted me 
My wisli *' then mark ! that wish will prove to thee 
A hoiid and snare. IT SO thou canst abstain 
From thought of ill and list this sage's strain. 
Here will thy soul from every fault be freed 
When thou dost rightly both in word and i\crd. 


This Index and the Table of Contents at the beginning of the 
volume are complementary. References to the latter are in 
Roman numerals. 

Amwi, city on Oxus, 354 
Andaman, Iranian noble, 202 
Andiv, country, 313 
Andiyan, Iranian warrior, viii, 
5, 257, 259, 269, 293, 
294, - 
deceived by Caesar's talis- 
man, 273 
Bahram Chubi'na writes to, 

receives Kirman, 313 
Antioch, city, 41 
Apothegms, 119, 166, 206, 215, 

221, 235, 295 
Arab, Arabs, 67, 94, 188, 190, 

191, 208, 230, 241, 250, 

invasion of, 72, 93 
withdraw, 96 
steed, 126, 302 
sages, 406 
Arabia, 24 note 
Arabic, language, 73 

Tabari. See Tabari. 
Arash, son of Kai Kubad, 216 
Araxcs, river, Battle of , 76 
Arba, river, 194, 195 
Architect, Ruman, 401 
Archscribe, vii. See fzid Gashasp 

and Mihran 
Ardabil, city in AzarMijan, 93, 

99, 100, 184, 226 
Ardawan, Ashkanian king, 2 14, 

Ardshir Papakan, first Sasanian 
Shah, 191, 214, 222, 265, 
270, 285, 392, 393 
true Cross in treasury of, 


'Abbas, Arab chief, attacks Hur- 

muzd, 93 
Abii Mansur, prose Shahnama 

compiled for, 71, 73 
Abii'l Kasim, Firdausi, 28 
'Ad, Arab tribe, 276 
Afrasiyab, ruler of Tiiran, 242, 

3°o. 349 
hoard of, 148, 406 
Ahriman, the Kvil Principle. 19, 

21, 22, 86, 87, I76, 177, 

198, 210, 219, -13. 293. 

333, 364, 421 
=idolater, 54 
= Bahram Chiibina, 89 (?), 

= Kharrad, son of Barzin. 

Ahwaz, city in Khuzistan (Susi- 

ana), 400, 402 
'Akr Bibil, prison, 194, 196 
Al ins (Alani), people, 369 

king of = Khusrau Parwiz, 

208, 209, 213 
Aleppo (Chalybon-Beroea), city. 

Amasis, 193 
Ambar (Piriiz Shapiir), city on 

the Euphrates, 188 
'Ammuriya (Ancyra, Angora), 

stronghold, 46 
'Amr, Arab chief, attacks Hur- 

muzd, 93 
Amul, city in Mazandaran, 355, 

356. 358, 392 




Aries, constellation, 342, 394 
Arish, famous Iranian archer, 

75, 219 and note 
Arjasp, king of Tiiran, 95, 104, 

hoard of, 148 
Armenia, country, 93, 96, 184, 

193, 202, 377 
Armenian, Armenians, 188, iSg, 
1 95, 226, 2 )\ 282 
= like, 254 

=Mausfl, 293 and note 
Arrow-shots, three famous, 75 

Bahram Chubina's, 126 
Arsacids, rivalry of, with Sasan- 

ians, ji 
Artang, the house of the here- 
siarch Maui, 172 and note 
}62 and note 
'Arus, treasure, 406 and  
Arwand (Tigris), river, 90 
Arzhang. See Artang. 
Asfandiyar, Iranian hero, 95, 
104 and note, 171, 270, 
332, 395 note 
Ashkabus, Turanian hero, fight 
of, with Rustam referred 
to, 75 
Ashkanian, Ashkanians, 214 
Asia, 187 

Minor, 193, [94 
Assurbanipal, Assyrian king, and 
Khusrau Parwi/, reigns 
of, compared, 193 
Astrologers, consulted on birth 

of Shirwi, 372 
Avars, Caucasian tribe, 194 
Awaza, stronghold, vi, 134, 138 
Axumite, Ethiopian dynasty, 24 


Ayin Gashasp (Yazdanbakhsh), 

Iranian noble, vii, 75, 

150 note, 222 

Hurmuzd consults, 174, 177 

and the prisoner, story of, 

177 seq. 
marches to Hamadan, 178 
consults a seer, 178 
murdered, 181 
avenged by Bahram Chu- 
bina, 181 

Ayin Gashasp, troops of, dis- 
perse, 1 S 1 

Azar, month. 244, 421 

Azar Abadagan (Azargashasp 
q.v.), i.\, 282 

Azargashasp, spirit of the light- 
ning, 40. [22, 152, 176, 
245, 250, 415 
temple of (Azar Abadagan), 
at Shfz (Takht-i-Sulai- 
man) in Azarbaijan, 68, 
184, 210 and note 
visited by Khusrau Par- 
wiz, 283, 307, 312 

Azargashasp, banian warrior, 

Azar father of Farrukh- 408 


H.ibil (Habylon), 11)4, 249 
Bacchus, Saint and Martyr, 188 
I la< ti i.m 1 amels, 47 
Bad Awar, treasure, 406 and 

Baghdad, lognote, 112, 174, 193, 

203, 593 
I lahman, Shah, 270 
Kihman, Iranian noble, 22 
Bahram, son of Siyawush, vin, 
75, 163, 245 
reported slain, 128 
returns with captive sor- 
cerer, 128 
speech of, 166 
related to Bahram Chubina, 

h ife of, 187 

warns Bahram Chubina, 
pursues Khusrau Parwiz. 

besieges Khusrau Parwiz, 

beguiled by Bandwi, 236, 


returns with Bandwi to 
Bahram Chubina, 238 



Bahram, blamed by Bahrain 
Chubina, 238 

given custody of Bandwi, 

slain by Bahram Chubina, 
Bahram, Iranian general, left in 
charge of host by Khusrau 
Parwiz, 296 
Bahram, father, in Persian 
Tabari, of Bahram Chu- 
bina, 77 
Bahram, day, 279 

fatal to Bahram Chubina, 
337 and note, 339 and 
Bahram, name of, inscribed on 
cup incites Khusrau Par- 
wiz to afflict Rai, 365 and 
Bahram Azarmihan, Iranian 
scribe, vi 

Hurmuzd attempts to 
suborn, 85 seq. 

reveals state-secret to Hur- 
muzd, 88 

put to death, 89 

Bahram Chubina, Iranian hero, 

vi seq., 70, 73, 184, 187, 

199,209, 214, 215, 343 seq., 

352 seq., 356 seq., 360,383 

Romance of, 72 seq., 187, 
191, 304 note 
Noldcke on, 73 

account of, 72 

seller of sheep's heads and, 

74- i°7 

dream of, 75 

withholding of booty by, 76, 

insult of Hurmuzd to, 76 

defeat of, in Lazic war, 76 

sends swords to Hurmuzd, 

parentage of, 76, 77 

malicious speech about, 77, 

coinage of, 77, 173 

brought to notice of Hur- 
muzd, 98 

described, 98, 206 

Bahram Chubina, identified by 

Zad Farrukh, 99 
sent for by Hurmuzd, 100 
consulted by Hurmuzd, 100 
made commander-in-chief, 

selects his troops, 102 
justifies his method in so 

doing, 104 
receives Rustam's banner 

from Hurmuzd, 105 
receives Mihran as recorder 

from Hurmuzd, 106 
marches from Taisafun, 106 
refuses to be recalled, 108 
marches to Khuzistan, 109 

and note 
hay-seller and, 109 
marches toward Damaghan, 

parley of, with Faghfur, 1 1 1 
refuses Sawa's offers, 113 

seq., 117 seq. 
counselled by Kharrad, 121 
arrays his host, 122 
prayer of, before battle, 123 
encourages the Iranians 

against Sawa's sorcery, 

etc., 124 seq. 
defeats and slays Sawa, 126 
doings of, after battle with 

Sawa, 130 
rewarded by Hurmuzd, 133 
ordered to attack Parmuda, 

holds revel in a garden, 


attacked by and defeats 

Parmuda, 135 seq. 
besieges Parmuda in Awaza, 

informs Hurmuzd, 138 
negotiates for surrender of 

Awaza with Parmuda, 

138 seq. 
receives surrender of, and 

insults, Parmuda, 143 
blamed by Kharrad and 

archscribe, 144 
tries to appease Parmuda, 


4 20 


Bahrain Chubina, has inventory 
made of the wealth in 
Awaza, i | - 
sends fzid Ciashasp with 

spoil to Iran, 148 
llurmuzd begins to suspect, 

advances of, to Khan re- 
jected, 153 
goes to Balkh, is j 
guided by an onager, 156 
incited to seek the kingship, 


change in, 1 s s 

questioned by Kharrad, 158 

sends Yalan-sina after Khar- 
rad and archscribt . 1 

pardons archscribe, 160 

Luck of. 162 

renounces allegiance to Hur- 
nni/il, 1 "j 

intercepts the royal letters, 

consult-; the < biefs, 163 
becomes friends with the 

Khan, [ 72 
appoints a prince for Khur- 

!i. etc., 1 73 
marches to Rai, 173 
avenges murder of Ayin 

Gashasp, 181 
historical campaign of, 

against Khusrau Parwiz, 

carline and, 189, 303 
marches to the Nahrawan, 

spies' report of, to Khusrau 

Parwiz, 201 
Khusrau Parwiz marches to 

meet, 203 

interview of, with. 204 
tampers with troops of 

Khusrau Parwiz, 225 
combat of, with Khusrau 

Parwiz, 228 
arrives at Taisafun, 231 
sends Bahrain, son of Siya- 

wush, in pursuit of Khus- 
rau Parwiz, 233 

Bahram Chubina, blames Bah- 
rain. 238 

chides, warns and imprisons 
Bandwi, 238 

addresses the magnates, 239 

elected Shah, 243 

gives malcontents three 
days to quit [ran, _• ( \ 

plot against, 245 seq. 

warned. 247 

slays Bahram, son of Siya- 
wush, 247 

hears of Bandwi's escape, 

-' P 
deceived by forged letters, 

287, 293, JM, 

marches against Khusrau 

\ i/, 287 
goes to Azar Aki.l 
arrays his host. 
fights with ami slays Kiit, 

sends back corpse of Ki'it, 

worsts Rinnans, 292 
" Harvest of," z<>2 
charges and routs Khusrau 

J '.1: u i/' 1 entrc, 294 
fights with Gurdwf, 29 1 
goes to fight Khusrau Par- 
wiz and his body-guard, 

leaves Janfuruz in charge of 

host, 207 
puts to flight and pursues 

Khusrau Parwiz, 298 
Suriish saves Khusrau Par- 
wiz from, 299 
deserted by his chiefs, 302 
retreats, 302 
releases Nastuh, 306 
goes to Rai, 306 
welcomed by Khan, 316 
asks oath of Khan, 317 
counsels Khan to resist 

Makatura, 318 
challenged by Makatura, 

fight of, with Makatura, 

Khan sends gifts to, 321 



Bahram Chiibina, asked by 

Khan's wife to avenge 

death of her daughter 

on lion-ape, 324 

battle of, with lion-ape, 325 

extradition of, demanded 

by Khusrau Parwiz, 328 

urges Khan to make war on 

fran, 330 
sets forth for fran, 331 
Kharrad attempts to pre- 
judice, with Khan, 333 
arrives at Marv, 336 
fatal day of, 337, 339 
Kuliin seeks interview with, 


Kulun stabs, 340 

sister of, laments over, 340 

dying speech of, 3 | r 

makes Yalcirj sina his man- 
datory, 342 

letter of, to Khan, 343 

burial of, 343 

name of, on cup, 365 and 
Bahram Giii, Shah, 75, 129 and 

Bahram-Gushnasp, father in 

Arabic Tabari of Bahram 
Chiibina, 77 
Bahram Tal, 138 and note 
Balkh, city, 22, 74, 95, 153, 159, 
161, 173 

aphorist of, 221 
Balwi, Iranian noble, viii, 257, seq. 

deceived by Caesar's talis- 
man, 273 

praised by Caesar, 279 

receives Chach, 314 
Bandwi maternal uncle of Khus- 
rau Parwiz, vii seq., 200, 
202, 204 seq., 224, 225, 227, 
231, 234, 245 seq., 289, 
296, 298, 356, 357 

imprisonment of, 77, 176 

Gustaham and, escape and 
revolt, 1S2 

referred to, 189 

put to death, 191, 355 

accompanies Khusrau Par- 
wiz in his flight, 231 

Bandwi, turns back and murders 

Hurmuzd, 232 
rejoins Khusrau Parwiz, 233 
promises to save Khusrau 

Parwiz, 234 
disguises himself as Khusrau 

Parwiz, 235 
beguiles Bahram, son ot 

Siydwush, 236, 245 
imprisoned by Bahram Chii- 
bina. 238 
Bahram Chiibina hears of 

escape of, 248 
entertained by Mausil, 249 
goes with Mausil to meet 

Khusrau Parwiz, 282 
Bahram Chiibina writes to, 

causes defection of Bah nun 

Chiibfna's chiefs, 302 
insults of, to Niyatiis, 309, 

reconciled to Xiy.itiis, 311 
minister of Khusrau Par- 
wiz, 313 
adherents of, beheaded, 370 

Bani Tayy, Arab tribe 

Bar, treasure, 406 and note 

Barbad, minstrel, xi, 397 seq., 406 
supersedes Sarkash, 399 

Barbar, town and country (Brit- 
ish Somaliland), 381 

Barda', city on the borders of 
Azarbaijan and Armenia, 
99, 100, 184, 222, 226 

Barzin, general of, 17 

Barzin, vii seq., father of Khar- 
rid, 74, 76, 190, 205 and 

Barzin, father of Jahn, 391 

Barzin, sacred Fire, 216 

Batariin (Marcian), Riiman gen- 
eral, 4r, 47, 52 

Berlin, 192 

Bih Ardshir (Seleucia q.v.), 194, 

Bistam (Gustaham q.v.), 255 and 
note, 256 

Bistiin, rock famous for its in- 
scriptions near 
shah, 209 

4 2S 


Bizhan and Manizha, Story of, 

referred to, 72 
Brazen Hold, 171 
Bulghar (Bulgaria), 400 
Burns, quoted, 3 
Burzmihr, scribe, 81, 87, 313 

= Biizurjmihr (?) q.v., 71 
Buzurjmihr, scribe and coun- 
sellor of Niishirwan, v. 
3 seq., 67 seq. 
goes hunting with, and is 
suspected of theft by, 
Niishirwan, 4 
disgraced by Nushirwan, 5 
instructs Nushfrwan's page, 

refuses to admit himself in 

the wrong, 6 seq. 
treated with increasing 

hi', 7. 8 
released, o 

divination by, 10 seq. 
advises with Niishirwan, 47 

instructed by Niishirwan to 

prove Hurmuzd, 56 sec/. 
abolition of Fire-worship 

told by, 68 
death of, 69, 71 
= Burzmihr (?), 71 
Mas'udi on, 71 

Oesar, v, viii seq., 8 seq., 19, 43 
seq., 51 seq., 230, 232, 245, 
252 seq., 257 seq., 299, 
306 seq., 334, 373 seq., 
408 seq. 

death of, 43 

son and successor of, offends 
Nusbirwan, 44 seq. 

marches against Niishirwan, 

attacks Hurmuzd, 93 

retakes cities, 93 

makes peace with Hurmuzd, 

welcomes Khusrau Parwiz, 


Caesar, offers help to Khusrau 
Parwiz, 201 
changes his mind, 2oj 
consults the astrologers, 264 
decides to help Khusrau 

Parwiz, 265 
offers daughter to Khusrau 

Parwiz, 266 
offer of, accepted by Khus- 
rau Parwiz, 269, 270 
talisman of, .'71 

deceives Human envoys, 

mastered by Khan. id, 

gifts ot, to Kh.m.'id, 278 

writes to Khusrau Parwiz, 


praises Human envoys, 270 
counsels Maryam, 270, 280 
gives Niyatiis charge of 

Maryam, 280 
corp-' . i| Kid -int to, 291 
Khusrau Parwiz announces 

death of Bahrain Chiibina 

to, 345 
daughter of, gives birth to 

Shirwf, 371 
Khusrau Parwiz' letter to, 

rejoicing of, at birth of 
Shirwf, 374 

embassy of, to Khusrau 

Parwiz, 374 
gifts of, given by Khusrau 

Parwiz to Shirwi, 381 
invited to seize Iran, 408 
tricked by Khusrau Parwiz 

and retreats, 410 
Callinicus (Warigh q.v.), city, 

Carline and Bahrain Chiibina, 

189. 3°3 
Catholicus, 195 
Caucasus, 72 
Chach (Tashkand), city in Tiiran, 

3M. 377 
bows of, 125, 126, 294 
Chalah, 193 
Chalcedon, 194, 195 
Chalybon-Beroea, 41 



Chao-wou = Sawa q.v., 72 
Chase, the, Khusrau Parwiz' 

equipage for, 384 
Chess, 371 

Chin, country (often =Turan), 
ix, 45, 95, 97- I 3°. l $9, 
172, 216, 217, 316 and 
brocade of, 65, 159, 3 8l > 3 8 4 
prince of, =Parmuda, 142 
prince of =Sawa, 222 
robe of, 205 
sage of, 235 
tunics of, 257 
silk from, 258, 269, 374 
sea of, 377 
Chinese, 72 
Chinwi, 331 

Christ, xi, 43, 191, 272, 310, 
account of, 276 
father of, 276 
mother of, 276 
Faith of, 310 
Cross of, xi, 377, 380 
laughter of, 191, 380 
Christian, Christians, 21, 67, 195, 
196, 256, 272, 308, 310, 

shut gates of Karsan against 

Khusrau Parwiz, 252 
Chubin (Jubin), father, according 

to Mas'udi, of Bahram 

Chubina, 77 
Chubina, 215, 222 

meaning of, 98 note 
Circesium, 188 
Climes, the Seven, 395 
Clough, quoted, 187 
Constantinople, 194 
Contents, Table of, v 
Cook, Chief, of Nushirwan, 

grievance of, 18 
Cross, Crosses, 308, 309, 374 

the true, xi, 191, 196, 253, 

377- 37 8 . 380 
Crows and Owls, story of, 263 

and note 
Ctesiphon (Taisafiin, q.v.), 42, 

188, 189, 193, 194, 196 


Dadafrid, melody, 398 and note 
Dai, month and day, 55 note, 173, 

Dakiki, Persian poet, 190 
Damaghan, city, 109, 189 
Damawand, mountain south of 

Caspian, 391 
Dara, Shah, 220, 242, 387 
Dara (Daras), city, 41, 194 
taken by Nushirwan, 41 
ceded by Khusrau Parwiz, 
Dara Panah, 189, 284 

goes disguised to Khusrau 

Parwiz' camp, 286 
betrays Bahram Chubina, 

returns to Bahram Chubina 
with forged letter, 287 
Darab, Shah, 191 
Darabgird, city, 313 
Darband, 369 note 
Darius Hystaspis, 187 
Darman, 202 
Dastagird, city, [93, [96 

taken by Heraclius, 194 
Dead Sea, 192 
Dhu Kar, battle of, 188 

historical account of, 190 
date of, 19] 
Diba-i-Khusrauf, treasure, 406 

and note 
Dimna, Kalila and, Book of. 202 

note, 390 
Div, 159, 161, 206, 209, 21 r, 217, 

218, 290, 341, 34-. 399 
and note, 41S 

= Ahriman, 27, 50, 87, 123, 

215,222,304, 341, 340, 411 

= Bahr;im Chubina, 153, 

219, 293, 298 
— witch, 161 
Black, 171 

= ZahhAk, 242 
= Kulun, 342 
Duk, plain, 282, 284 
mountain, 289 



r. [87, 193 
Egyptian, 193 
thorn, j 10 
Ether, 275 

Ethics, .Muhammadan, respected, 

Euphrates, river, [88, 190 
Eye, evil, [6, .) 1 7 

I \ghfur of Chin, 74, '97 
Faghfur, son of S.iu.i, 74, 75, 120 
confused with Faghfui ol 

< hin, 74 
parley Of, With ll.ilit.ii!! 

Chiibina, 1 1 2 
bead of, on spear, 1 32 
ikus ' 1 'hilip 1 1 nt Maccdon), 

Falatun (Plato), 
1 ,11 .it 1 Euphrati ?50 

Farghan, Roman architect, and 
Khusrau Parwfz, 401 seq. 
1 id, lover of Shfrin, nu 
Farfdun, Shah, 120. 205, 218, 
i, 242, 260, 300, 

• . 39i. 392 
rukh, ruler of Nfmriiz, 375 
Farrukhanzad (Farrukhzad q.v.), 

Farrukhzad (Farrukhanzad, 

q.v.), favourite of Khusrau 

conspires with Guraz, 408, 

goes to the host, 4 1 2 

rebels in favour of Shirwi, 

brother of, 413 and note 
conspires with Tukhar, 414 
proclaims Shirwf Shah, 416 
hears where Khusrau Par- 
wfz is hiding, 4 u> 
holds talk with Khusrau 
Parwfz, 420 

Farrukhzad, Iranian warrior, 
24 1 , 296 

SjHVl ll ()f, 24O 

Farwardfn, month, 367, 371 
Firdausf, ix, 71, 73, 74, 1S7, 
loo, 192, 193 
admits Muhammadan tra- 
ditions into Shahnama, 


death of son of, 190 

and rhyme-word, 307 note 
Fire-worship, abolition of, pro- 
phesied, ()S 

Fish, mythological, 212 and note 
Founts, the Seven, 392 

Gaiumart, Shah, 24, 55, 
9, }io, 376 
Faith of, 277 
( ralfnus, put in 1 barge of Khus- 
rau I '.11 wiz, 4 j 1 
Garden ol I lie 1 ndians, 196 
Garsh.'is]i. Lranian noble, 18 
Gashan, ,i> rhyme wool. 397 note 
Gashasp, franian noble, 17, 18 
Gashasp, father, in Shahnama, ot 
I '..ilii.mi Chiibina, 70, 00, 
[62, if)'*, 304 
mini, constellal ion, 86, 203 
( .1 in ge, Armenian general, [95 
1 ,i\ . 1 1. mi. in hero, [68 
Grace or Glory, the divine, 12, 

1 8, j 1 and pa rim 
Green Sea, 46 and n< 
Gudarz, franian hero, 104, 168 
Guraz (Shahrbaraz q.v.), general 
of Khusrau Parwfz, xi, 
[94, 408, 409 si 
conspires with Farrukhzad, 

invites Caesar to take Iran, 

rebels, 41 1 
Gurdwf, brother oi Bahram 
Chiibina, x, 74, 202, 
205, 206, 231, 203, 205, 
296, 298, 342, 349, 354- 



riirdwi, a legitimist, 74 

Gustaham and, persuade 

Khusrau Parwiz not to 

make a night-attack, 224 

takes charge of baggage, 228 

Bahrain Chubina writes to, 

fights with Bahram Chubina, 

receives province, 313 
informs Khusrau Parwiz of 

Gurdya's doings, 356 
writes to, and sends Khus- 
rau Parwiz' letter to, 
Gurdya, 360 
wife of, goes with letters to 

Gurdya, 360 
hears of the plight of Rai 
and informs Gurdya, 367 
iurdya, sister of Bahram Chii- 
lu'iia, vii, viii.x, 74,104 note, 
187, 191, 347, 358, 365 
a legitimist, 74 
present at council, 164 
speech of, 165, 167, 171 
referred to, 221 
counsels Bahram Chubina, 

laments Bahram Chubina, 

resident at Marv, 346 seq. 
informs her followers of the 

Khan's offer of marriage, 

starts for Iran, 351 
parleys with Tuwurg, 352 
arrives at Amwi, 354 
doings of reported to Khus- 
rau Parwiz, 356, 358 
met by Gustaham, 356 
asked in marriage by Gusta- 
ham, 357 
receives letters from Khus- 
rau Parwiz and Gurdwi, 
plots murder of Gustaham, 

justifies murder of Gusta- 
ham, 361 
reports death of Gustaham 
to Khusrau Parwiz, 361 

Gurdya, dresses up as a 

warrior to please Khusrau 

Parwiz, 363 
prowess of, in drinking, 364 
appointed overseer of royal 

bower, 364 
diverts Khusrau Parwiz and 

saves Rai, 368 
Gurgan, city and region in 

eastern Mazandanin, 15, 

Gurgin, Iranian hero, 72, 211, 


Gurkils, tribe (?), 15 

Gusht.isp, Shah, 41, 68, 95, 148, 
213. 270, 392, 393 

Gustaham (Bistam q.v.), mater- 
nal uncle of Khusrau 
Parwiz, vii, viii, x, 199, 
200, 202, 204 se.j., 227, 228, 
231, 255, 257, 259, 269, 
282, 289, 293, 295, 298 
imprisonment of, 77, 176 
Bandwi and, escape and 

!.'\ Olt, l82 

informs Khusrau Parwiz of 
the blinding of llurmuzd, 

referred to, 189 

revolt of, 191, 355 

saves Khusrau I'arwiz from 
Turk, 220 

Gurdwi and, dissuade Khus- 
rau Parwiz from making 
a night-attack, 224 

treasurer, 220. and note 

accompanies Khusrau Par- 
u ix m hi- flight, 231 

turns back and murders 
Hurmuzd, 232 

rejoins Khusrau Parwiz, 233 

Khusrau Parwiz warned 
against, 255, 256 

deceived by Caesar's talis- 
man, 272 

praised by Caesar, 279 

Bahram Chubina writes to, 

chooses comrades for Khus- 
rau Parwiz in battle, 296 

receives Khurasan, 313 



Gustaham, summoned to court, 

hears of execution of Band- 

wf, 355 

hears of Gurdya's doings, 

goes to meet Gurdya, 356 
asks Gurdya in marriage, 

Gurdya plots murder of, 360 
intimates of, beheaded, 370 


HMTAL.Haitalians (White Huns), 
45, 242, 329, 370, 377 

Halab (Chalybon-Beroea, Alep- 
po), city in northern 
Syria, 41, 46, 47 

Hamadan (Ekbatana), city in 
'Irak-i-'Ajami, 178, 189 

Hamavaran (Yaman), south- 
western Arabia, 104, 168 

Hamdan Gashasp, Iranian chief, 
122, 163, 204 speech of, 

Hani bin Mas'iid, Arab chief, 190 
1 1 it, city in north-westei a 
Afgfa Lnistan, 71, 92, no, 
116, 117, 130, 173 
marchlord of. See Makh. 
desert of, 114 
Haris, father of Kais, 250 
" Harvest of Bahram," 292 
Hay, sack of, Bahram Chubina 

and the, 109 
Hazara, father of Kut, 291 
Heraclius, Eastern Roman Em- 
peror, 187, 191 
attempts of, for peace with 
Khusrau Parvviz, 194, 195 
takes Dastagird, 194 
retreat of, 195, 196 
Hermit, Khusrau Parwiz and 

the, viii, 254 
Herodotus, 193 
Hierapolis, 188 
Hijaz, 24 and note, 66, 67 
Hind, Hindustan, 24, 275, 317, 

37°. 379, 3 8l > 4°°, 4°5 
king of, 52 

Hira, city, 18S, mi 

end of dynasty of, 190 

Hira, Mount, 42 

Hisham Ibn AI-Kalbf, 73 

Hurmuzd, Shah, v. seq., 56 seq. fig 
seq., 74 seq., 78, 87, 147, 
169, 170, 174. ius, ..09, 

2 12, 213, 111, 1},!, 265, 

-=7°. 304, 3 I 2. 333. 355. 

37°. 37" 
examination of, 3, 57 

counselled by Nushfrwan, 
25 seq. 

Niishfrwan's testament in 
favour of, and last coun- 
sels to, 61 

character oi 

system of administration of, 


justice of, 71 

instances of, 90 seq. 
ibes exe< uted by, 71 

insult of, to Bahram Chu- 
bina, 70 

Lazic war renewed by, 76 

Bahram Chubfna's j^ift of 
swords tn, 70 

accession of, 7 s 

turns to evil courses, 81 

puts to death Izid Gashasp, 

poisons Zarduhsht, 83 seq. 

schemes against and puts to 
death Simah Barzin, 85 

attempts to suborn Bahram 
Azarmihan, 85 seq. 

gives audience, 86 

hears state-sei ret from Bah- 
rain Azarmihan, 88 

puts to death Bahram Azar- 
mihan, 89 

repentance of, 90, 93 

places of residence of, 90 

wars of, 92 

attacked by Sawa, 92 

Sawa's letter to, 93 

attacked by Caesar, 93 
Khazars, 03 
Arabs, 93 

consults the Iranians, 94 



Hurmuzd, counselled by his 

wazir, 94 

makes peace with Caesar, 95 

attacks and defeats the 
Khazars, 95 

sends for Mihran Sitad, 97 

hears prophecy about Bah- 
ram Chiibina, 98 

orders search to be made for 
Bahram Chubfna, 99 

discovers and sends for 
Bahram Chiibina, 100 

consults Bahram Chiibina, 

gives chief command to 
Bahram Chiibina, 102 

questions Bahram Chubfna, 

gives Rustam's banner to 
Bahram Chiibina, 105 

sends Mihran with Bahram 
Chiibina, 106 
intelligencer after Bah- 
ram Chiibina, 107 
to recall Bahram Chiibina, 

Kharrad, son of Barzin, 
as envoy to Sawa, no 

hears of Bahram Chiibina's 
victory, 132 

makes thanksgiving, 132 

rewards Bahrain Chiibina 
and the troops, 133 

surveys spoils sent by Bah- 
ram Chiibina, 150 

grows suspicious of Bahram 
Chiibina, 151 

dismisses the Khan with 
gifts, 152 

hears from Kharrad of 
Bahram Chiibina's dis- 
affection, 160 

consults with high priest, 
Ayin Gashasp, 174, 177 

plans to make away with 
Khusrau Parwfz, 174 

hears of Khusrau Parwiz' 
flight, 176 

imprisons Bandwi and Gus- 
taham, 176 

Hurmuzd, hears of the murder 

of Ayin Gashasp, 182 
dethroned and blinded, 183, 

visited in prison by Khusrau 

Parwiz, 185, 198, 230 
requests of, to Khusrau 

Parwiz, 199 
referred to, 211 
counsels Khusrau Parwiz, 

murdered, 232 
Hurmuzd Garabzin or Galabzin 

(Kharrad son of Barzin 

q.v.), 190 
Hiishang, Shah, 376 
Faith of, 380 

IjAS BIN KARl'SA, l88 

governor of Hira, 190 
Indian, Indians, ix, 377 

bells and gongs, 46, 120 
sword-, 127, 145, 417 
Garden of the, 196 
Kharrad 's account of the, 

< 275 

Iraj, youngest son of Faridiin, 

266, 376 and note, 392 
Iran, ix, 13, 19, 43, 46, 48 and 

Iranian, Iranians, viii, 19, 99, 

101, in, 119, 124, 130, 
135 and passim 

take Sakila, 47 

chiefs received in audience 

by Hurmuzd, 86 
consulted by Hurmuzd, 94 
defeat the Khazars, 96 
advise Bahram Chiibina, 

102, 121, 239 seq., 2S7 
Sawa employs sorcery 

against, 123 
encouraged by Bahram Chii- 
bina, 124 
defeat the Turks, 126 
revolt against Hurmuzd, 


elect Bahram Chiibina Shah, 


2 E 



Isa (Jesus), 276 note 

Ispahan, city in 'Irak-i-'Ajami, 

Istakhr (Persepolis), city in 

Pars, 90, 313 
fzid, 75 
Izid Gashasp, archscribc, vi, 

confusion in name of, 75. 7" 
put 1o death l>v Hurmuzd, 

maliciou b of, 77 and 

vote, 150 and n 

sends for high priest, 81 
fzid Gashasp, Iranian warrior, 

103, 122, 136, 138, 1 1 ' 

35o, 353. 356 
conduct*, spoil to Iran, 140 
goes hunting with Bahrain 

Chnbfna, 156 

spi 1 1 05 

Jab ala bin Salim, 73 

J aim, architect of throne of 

Takhdis, 39] 
Jamasp, minister ol Shah Gush- 
p, 171. 
prophecy of, 68 
additions of, to throne of 
Takhdis, 392 
Jamshid, Shah, 22, 242, 269, 310, 

332, 341, 387 
Janfuruz, Iranian general, 297 
Jerusalem, 191, 100 
Jesus, 191 

sayings of, 276 and note 
Cross of, 380 
laughter of, 191, 380 
Jew, Jews, 21, 67, 276 
Jihun (Oxus), river, 94, 99, 134, 

174. 332 
fords of, 331 
Jovian, Eastern Roman Em- 
peror, 41 
Jupiter, planet, 28, 152, 157, 395 
Justin II., Eastern Roman Em- 
peror, 41 

Justinian, Eastern Roman Em- 
peror, 41 


Kabab, small pieces of meat 
skewered together for 
roasting, 250 

Kabfsa, 188 

Kaf, 66 and note 

Kai Kaus, Shah, 22, 104, 168, 
270. ;p 

Kai Khusrau, Shah, 148, 219, 

270, 332, 392 
Kai Knl'. id. Shah, 89, 170, 260, 

270. 310, 332 
K. a. 111, 65, 2l6 
throne, 2 1 | 
ra< e, 217 
K.ns, Arab chief, entertains 

Khusrau 1 'arwfz, 250 
Kaisei Friedi i< h Museum, 192 
Kalila and I Minna, 1 took of, 202 

note, 390 n 
Kanda Gashasp, Iranian war- 

rior, 103, 122, [63 
ech "t, 1 iii. 
Karan, Iranian hen). 168 
Karan, mountain-chief, 189 
Karaz, 252 and note 
K. 11 Man, iSS 

Karsan, 188, 252 

gates of, shut against Khus- 
rau Parwfz, 252 

walls of, fall down, 253 
Khusrau Parwfz stays at, 


Kastantaniya (Constantinople), 

Kaus, Shah. See Kai Kaus. 

Kawa, the smith, 72 
standard of, 385 

Khan of Chin (See too Parmiida), 
vii, ix, x, 43, 52, 87, 89. 
97 seq., 141 seq., 190, 191, 
204, 215, 220, 263 seq., 
306, 316 seq., 342 seq., 346 
seq-, 351. 352. 356. 357- 



Khan of Chin, supposed war of, 

with Hurmuzd, 72 

marriage of daughter of, 
with Niishirwan referred 
to, 72 

letter of, 77 

dismissed by Hurmuzd with 
gifts, 152 

refuses advances of Bahram 
Chubina, 153 

becomes friends with Bah- 
ram Chubina, 172 

brother of, 190, 191 

reports flight of Gurdya, 


ordered to go in pursuit, 

parley of, with Gurdya, 


daughter of, 190 

killed by lion-ape, 322, 


queen of, 190 

asks Bahram Chubina to 
avenge her daughter, 


disgraced, 344 

welcomes Bahram Chubina, 

swears friendship with Bah- 
rain Chubina, 317 

dominated by Makatura, 

advised by Bahram Chubina 

to slight Makatura, 318 
views fight between Bah- 
rain Chubina and Maka- 
tura, 320 
sends gifts to Bahram Chu- 
bina, 321 
refuses to give up Bahram 
Chubina, 329 
distrust Bahram Chubina, 

impress of seal of, obtained 

by Kharrad, 338 
burns Kulun's kindred, 344 
seeks in vain for Kharrad, 

mourns for Bahram Chu- 
bina, 344 

Khanagi, Ruman noble, 375, 378 
leads Caesar's embassy to 

Khusrau Parwiz, 374 
Khusrau Parwiz' gifts to, 

returns to Rum, 382 
Khanjast (Urumiah), lake, 282 
Kharrad, son of Barzin (Hur- 
muzd Garabzin or Galab- 
zin), viis^.,74, 76,158 seq., 
205, 225, 257 seq., 269, 
270, 331 seq., 381 
sent by Hurmuzd as envoy 

to Sawa, no 
beguiles Sawa and flees, III 
flight of, reported to Sawa, 

1 1 2 
counsels Bahram Chubina, 

seeks refuge, 123 
counts Iranian slain, 127 
blames and counsels Bahram 
Chubina for his behaviour 
to Parmuda, 144, 146 
questions Bahram Chubina 
on his adventure with the 
onager, 158 
flees from Balkh with arch- 
scribe, 159 
makes report of Bahram 
Chubina to Hurmuzd, 160 
real name of, 190 
waits on Khusrau Parwiz, 252 
speech of, to Caesar, 259, 275 
masters Caesar's talismans. 

274. 275 
Caesar's gift to, 278 
praised by Caesar, 279 
made chief minister, 314 
speech of, to Khan, 332 
attempts to prejudice Bah- 
ram Chubina to the Khan, 

intrigues against Bahram 

Chubina, 334 seq. 1 I 
cures daughter of queen of 

Chin, 336 
incites Kulun to kill Bah- 
ram Chubina, 337 
asks boon of queen of Chin, 



Kharrad, returns to Iran and is 
rewarded, 345 
re. ids out Ca?sar's letter to 
Khusrau Parwfz, 376 
Kharrad, franian general. 225 

defeats Khaz trs, 96 
Khazar, Kliazars, region and 
people north of the Cau- 
ls, 94. 377. 379 
invasion of, 72, 93 
defeated, 96 
Khazarwan, franian noble, 

speech of, 24 1 
Khazra, treasure, 406 and note 
Khurasan, chieftain, 241 

speech of, 240 
Khurasan, province. 7S, 94, 241, 

313. 355. 369 
governor of, 75 
prince of, 173 
Khurasanf. See Makh. 
Khurdad, day, 25, 173 
Khurra-i-Ardshfr (Ardshfr Khur- 

ra), district in Pars, 251, 

252, 412 and note 
Khnrshfd, franian chief, 270. 296 
Khushnawaz, ruler of the llaita- 

lians, 75, 168, 242, 24 5, 

Khusrau, father of Khazarwan, 

241, 20'. (?) 
Khusrau Parwfz, Shah, vii seq., 

71, 74, 170, 173, 174, 181, 

182, 191 seq., 216, 304, 306, 

3i6. 334. 335. 342. 358. 

367 seq., 305 note, 413 

horse of, story of, 91 
Hurmuzd plots to kill. 174 
flees, 175 
adherents gather round, 175 

swear fealty to, 176 
goes to Baghdad, 184 
visits Hurmuzd in prison, 

185, 198, 230 
extensive historical con- 
quests of, 187 
materials for reign of, in 

Shahnama, 187 
flight of, historical, from 

Ctesiphon, 188 

Khusrau Parwiz, affects Chris- 
tianity in exile, 188 

helped on terms by Em- 
peror Maurii e, 1 88 

historical campaign of, 
against Bahram Chubfna, 


visits of, to Fire-temple at 
Shi.', 1. 10, 283, 307, 31 2 

Nu'man l>in Munzfr exe- 
cuted by, [90 

triumphal arch of, [9a 

\ 111 banipal and, reigns of, 

compared, [93 
fall of, tiistoj !• al .e count of, 

attempts of rleraclius to 

m.iki j m .0 e u it h, 104, 195 
treatment ol defeated gen- 
erals by, 10 1 
prediction 1 om ei mug, 194 
.e 1 essii hi of, 107 
I [urmuzd's requests to, [99 
spies' report ol Bahrain 

Chubfna to. 21 u 
takes counsel, 202 
in, in lies to meet Bahram 

Chubfna, 203 
interview of, with Bahram 

Chubfna, 204 
attai Iced by Turk and saved 

by < .11- 1, ih. mi 220 
dissuaded from making a 

night-attack, 22 1 
troops of, tampered with by 

I lahram Chubfna, 220 
sends away his baggage, 228 
combat of, with Bahram 

Chubfna, 22^, 220 
retreats to, and holds, the 

bridge of Nahrawan, 228 
worsts Yalan-sfna, 229 
flees to Taisafun, 22^ 
counselled by Hurmuzd, 230 
prepares to flee, 231 
takes refuge in a shrine, 

arrives at Babil, 249 
entertained by Kais, 250 

Mihran Sitad, 251 
town of Karsan and, 252 



Khusrau Parwiz, interview of, 
with Hermit, 254 
warned against Gustaham, 

255. 256 
welcomed by Caesar, 257 
takes up his abode at 

Warigh, 257 
instructs his embassy to 

Caesar, 2.57 
Caesar offers daughter to, 266 
accepts Caesar's offer, 269, 

welcomes Niyatus and 

Maryam, 280 
marches to Diik, 282 
Mausil and, 283 
returns to Duk, 284 
Dara Panah goes over to, 

forges letter to Bahram 

Chubina, 286 
sends corpse of Kiit to 

Caesar, 291 
decides to fight without 

Ruman help, 292, 293 
arrays his host, 293 
resolves to fight in person, 


bodyguard of, 296 

leaves Bahram in charge of 
host, 296 

flees from Bahram Chubina, 

saved by Suriish, 299 

returns to Niyatus and 
Maryam, 299 

suspected of Christian ten- 
dencies, 308 

gives banquet to Niyatus 
and Rumans, 309 

restores captured cities to 
Rum, 312 

makes Kharrad, son of 
Barzin, chief minister, 314 

proclamation of, 314 

demands extradition of Bah- 
rain Chubina, 328 

advised to send envoy to 
Khan, 329 

resolves to put Bandwi to 
death, 354 

Khusrau Parwiz, summons Gus- 
taham, 355 
hears of Gurdya's doings, 

356. 358 

writes to Gurdya, 359 

hears of the death of Gusta- 
ham, 362 

welcomes Gurdya to court, 

Gurdya dresses up to please, 

warned by Shirin against 

Gurdya, 364 
makes Gurdya overseer of 

royal bower, 364 
oppresses Rai, 365 
relieves Rai, 368 
organizes the realm, 369 seq. 
puts to death adherents of 

Bandwi and Gustaham, 

consults astrologers on birth 

of Shirwi, 372 
grieved at Shirwi's horo- 
scope, 372 
consults the high priest, 


writes to Caesar, 373 
Caesar's embassy to, 374 
gives Caesar's gifts to Shirwi, 


presents to Khanagi, 382 

and Shirin, Story of, 382 

equipage of, for the chase, 

married to Shirin, 386 
justifies his marriage, 388 
gives gilded chamber to 

Shirin, 389 
displeasured with Shirwi, 

and throne of Takdis, 391 

palace of, story of, 400 seq. 
Farghan and, 401 seq. 
imprisons Ruman artificers, 

releases Ruman artificers, 


treasures of, 406 



Khusrau Parwiz, Guraz intrigues 
against 40S 
device of, against Guraz and 
Caesar, 409 

Is Farrukhzad to the 
host, 4 1 2 
hears Kubad proclaimed 

Shah, 416 
arms and hides in garden, 


palace of, plundered, 418 

disi overed, 419 
holds talk with Farrukhzad, 
ills former presage, 420 
imprisom 1. 42] 
duration of reign of, \i 1 
Khusrau and Shirin, Persian 

poem, 192 
Khuzistan (Susiana), provin< 

head ol I ''i sian Gulf, 109 
and 11 it , 1 
Kings, Persian Book of, 73 
Kirman, region in southern 

[ran, 313 
Kirmanshah, i Lty between Bagh- 
dad and 1 [amadan, C92 
Kishwad, father <>f Gudarz, 104 
Kubad, Shah, father of Nushir- 
wan, 25, 46, 72, [68, !'■■ 1, 
,i--. {69 
Kubad (Shlrwi q.v.), Shah, son 
of Khusrau Parwfz and 
Maryam, 190, 196 
secret and public names of, 

37i. 4'" 
proclaimed Shah, 416 
imprisons Khusrau Parwiz, 

accedes to throne, 421 
brief reign of, 422 
Kiifa, city west of the Euphrates 

and in the neighbourhood 

of Nejef, 190 
Kulun, Turk in league with 

Kharrad against Bahram 

Chubfna, x, 335 
incited by Kharrad to kill 

Bahram Chubina, 337 
arrives at Marv by help of 

Khan's seal, 339 

Kulun, seeks interview with 
Bahram Chubina, 339 
stabs Bahrain Chubina, 340 
maltreated, 340 
kindred of, burnt, 344 
Kurakhan, governor of Balkh, 22 
Kuran, J77 note 

quoted, 4J, 192 
Kut, Ruman warrior, i.\, - 1 
- 1 1 . 2 9 1 
slain by Bahrain Chubina, 

corpse of, sent back to 
Kiimans, _-.,i 

Lazica, region on eastern shore 

of 1 !la< k Sea, im 1 
Lazic war, renewed by lluimuzd, 

Bahram Chubfna defeated 
in, 70 
Leo, constellation, ijj 194 
Lion ap< . the, i\. j2 2 
Loadstone, chambei of, 275 

suspended cavalier in, 275 
Luhrasp, Shah, 95, 148, 213, 

270, 392 
Luna, planet, 395 


Machin (China), 417 

Mada'in , Ctesiphon (Taisafun) 

and neighbouring cities, 

xi, 4, 46, 192, 193 
palace of Khusrau Parwfz 

at, story of, 400 
Mah Azar, scribe, 81 
Mahmud, Sultan, 24 
Mahrwf, 248 
Makatiira, Turkman chief, ix, 

dominates the Khan, 318 
slighted by the Khan, 318 
challenges Bahram Chubina, 

fight of, with Bahram Chu- 
bina, 320 



Makh, 71, 78 

Makran (Baluchistan), 393, 417 

Mamigonian, Armenian family, 

Man, weight, 148 and note, 314, 


Manizha, daughter of Afrasiyab, 
Bizhan and, Story of, 
referred to, 72 

Manwf, town, 253 

Marchlord, ill-conditioned, op- 
presses Rai, x, 366 
destroys gutters and cats, 

recalled, 368 

Marxian (Batarun q.v.), 41 

Mardanshah (Yalan — sina q.v.), 

74, 76 

Mardanshah (Mardasas q.v.), son 
of Shirln, 189, 191, 193 

Mardasas (Mardanshah q.v.), 196 

Mardwi, Persian official, 21 

Mardwi, gardener, 397 

Mars, planet, 395 

Mai tyropolis, ceded by Khusrau 
1'arwiz, 188 

Marv, oasis and city in ancient 
Khurasan, now in Turkis- 
tan, x, 20, 93, 173, 336, 
337- 346 seq., 352, 356 

Marvel], quoted, 399 note 

Marvrud (Murghab), river in 
Khurasan flowing into 
and forming the Marv 
oasis, 92 

Mary, Maryam, mother of Jesus, 
276 note, 277 note 

Maryam, daughter of Caesar, ix 
seq., 188, 192, 276 note, 
278, 279, 373. 374. 380 
murder of, 193, 389 
referred to 255, 266, 269, 

27°. 37i, 381, 389 
counselled by Caesar, 279, 

Niyatiis put in charge of, 

as peace-maker, 310 
Mashetta (Mashita q.v.) 
Mashita, palace at, 192 
Masius, Mount, 41 

' Mas'udi, historian, on Biizurj- 
mihr, 71 
Maurice, Eastern Roman Em- 
peror, 187, 188 
helps Khusrau Parwiz on 

terms, 188 
murder of, 193 
Mausil, Armenian prince, 188, 
189, 248, 282, 295 
entertains Bandwi, 249 
Khusrau Parwiz and, 283 
referred to, 293 and note 
Maximian, Roman Emperor, 188 
Mazandaran, region between Al- 
burz range and Caspian, 

Mercury, planet, 299, 39.5 
Messiah, the, 267 
Mihrak, import of word, 72, 73 
Mihrak, servant of Nushirwdn, 

18, tg 
Mihran, Mihran s 72, 74 

clan of, their importance, 72, 

Mihran, archscribe, 76 

sent with Bahrain Chubina, 

counsels Bahrain Chubina, 
122 and note 

seeks refuge, 123 

congratulates Bahrain Chu- 
bina, 129 

takes counsel with Kharrad, 


flees from Balkh and is 
retaken, 159 

pardoned by Bahram Chu- 
bina, 160 

referred to, 163 

speech of, 166 
Mihran Sitad, Iranian notable, 
96, 100 

embassage of, referred to, 

72, 97 
sent for by Hurmuzd, 97 
tells of prophecy about 
Bahram Chubina, 98, 216 
death of, 99 
Mihran Sitad, merchant, enter- 
tains Khusrau Parwiz, 




Mihr Hurmuzd, Iranian noble, 

Milad, 72, 211 

import of word, 73 

customs of, 210 
Minu, 253 and note 
Minuchihr, Shah, 2m. 223, 
Mir Khiind, historian, 192 
Miskal, measure of weight, a 
dram and three sevenths, 

Misr (Egypt), 381 
Modes <>t speech, 30 
Monophysite, 195 
Moon, divided by Muhammad, 

42. 6 7 

Muhammad, Prophet, v, 42, 


divides the Moon, 42, 67 
birtli oi 
Muhammadan, Muhammadans, 

elements in Shahnama, 42 
ethics respei t « •< 1 . 74 

Mush, town west of Lake Van, 


Namkawan, canal on eastern 
bank of Tigris, 187, 204, 
206, 231 
bridge of, 223, 228 seq. 

broken down by Khusrau 
Parwiz, 229 
Name, secret and public, 372 and 

Nard, game, 371 
Narses, exarch, treatment of by 

Empress Sophia, 76 
Narses, general, 189 
Narwan, forest, 356, 360, 377 
Nastuh, son of Mihran Sitad, 
ix, 225, 303 
advises Hurmuzd, 96 
released by Bahram Chii- 
bina, 306 
Naudar, Shah, 223, 242 

Nauruz, Persian New-year's day 

when the sun enters Aries, 

Nestorian, Nestorians, 105 
Nicephorium (Warfgh q.v.), 188 
Nile, 1 26, 28 |. 29 \. 294 
Nimruz,* io<>, 284 
Nineveh, [93 

battle near, 194 
Nfsa, city (Muhammadabad ?) 

in Khurasan, or town in 

Kiini.'m. [g 
Nishapur, city in Khurasan, 173 
Nisibis, besieged l>y Romans, 41 
ceded by Khusrau Parwiz 

Niyatus (Theodosius, son of 
Maui i< e), i\. 1 Si), 2S1 , j.s.j 
brother oi Caesar, 280, 310 
put in charge oi Maryam, 

J No 

welcomed by Khusrau Par- 
wiz, 280 

wroth with Khusrau Par- 
wiz, 200 

watt lies fight between Khus- 
rau Parwiz and Bahram 
Chobina, 21)7 

entertained at banquet by 
Khusrau Parwiz, jog 

quarrel of, with Bandwi, 


threat of, to Khusrau Par- 
wiz, 310 
reconciled to Bandwi, 311 
returns to Rum, 312 
Ni/.'uni, Persian poet, io_ 
Noldeke, Professor, 71, 188 

on Romance of Bahram 
Chubina, 73 
Note on Pronunciation, xvi 
Nu'man bin Munzir, 188 

put to death, 190 
Nushirwan, Shah, v, 3 seq., 
71, 72, 86 seq., 98, 129, 
169, 198, 200, 205, 209, 
300, 312, 313, 377 
precautions of, as to suc- 
cessor, 3 

• See Vol. i p. 396 note 



Niishirwan, goes hunting with 
Buzurjmihr, 4 

suspects and disgraces 
Buzurjmihr, 5 

treats Buzurjmihr with in- 
creasing rigour, 7, 8 

reconciled to Buzurjmihr, 9 

questioned by archimages, 
14 seq., 28 seq. 

gives judgment against his 
own son, 16 

chief cook of, aggrieved, 18 

counsels Hurmuzd, 25 seq. 

writes to console Caesar's 
son and successor, 43 

wroth at answer received, 45 

invades Rum, 46 

success of, 47 
checked, 47 

in want of money, 47 

takes counsel with Buzurj- 
mihr, 47 

refuses advances from a 
shoemaker, 50, 71 

high esteem of, for scribes, 

grants peace to, and takes 
tribute from, Riimans, 52 

returns to Taisafiin, 53 

sons of, 56, 63 

instructs Buzurjmihr to 
prove Hurmuzd, 56 seq. 

testament of, in favour of, 
and last counsels to, Hur- 
muzd, 61 seq. 

directions of, as to inter- 
ment, 65 

hall of, shattered, 68 

death of, 69, 71 

system of administration of, 

marriage of, with Khan's 

daughter referred to, 72, 

97 seq. 
ministers of, put to death 

by Hurmuzd, 81 seq. 
his choice of Hurmuzd, 

story of, 87 
palace of, 193 


Onager, Bahrain Chubina 
guided by, 156, 158 

Owls and Crows, story of, 263 
and note 

Ox-hide or skin filled with gold 
as tribute, 46, 52, 53 

Oxus (Jihiin), 72 

Page, of Niishirwan, 5 seq. 
relative of Buzurjmihr, 5 
instructed by Buzurjmihr, 6 
takes messages between 
Niishirwan and Buzurj- 
mihr, 6 seq. 
Pahlavi, middle Persian language 
of Ashkanian (Parthian) 
and Sasanian times, 73, 74 
Paidawasis, 381 and note 
Paighii, 190 
Paikar-i-Gurd, melody, 398 and 

Papak, tribal king, 214, 219 and 
note, 285 
daughter of, 214 
Parmiida {see too Khan of Chin), 
vi, 75, 117, 130, 136 seq., 
146, 149 seq., 164, 174 
hears of Bahram Chiibina's 
victory and takes counsel, 

marches toward Jihiin, 131 

approaches Balkh, 134 

attacks and is defeated by 
Bahram Chubina, 134 

escapes to Awaza, 138 

besieged by Bahram Chu- 
bina, 138 seq. 

negotiates surrender of 
Awaza with Bahram Chu- 
bina, 139 seq. 

surrenders Awaza and sets 
out for Iran, 143 

insulted by Bahram Chu- 
bina, 144 

Bahram Chubina tries to 
placate, 145 



(Persis, Farsistan), country 
on eastern shore of Per- 
sian Gulf, 109 note, 112, 

-"•• -41. 393. 395 
Parthian, Parthians, 73 
Parwfz, meaning of, i s ; 
Pashanj battle of, 397 and note 
I ' 1 sia, [95 

Persian, Persians, 24 note, 42, 71, 

75, 121, 188 eq • . in |. 208, 

273, Z82, 286 and passim 

wisdom-literature, 3 

conquest of Vaman, 24 note 

empire, war of, with Rum, 41 

raid Syria, 41 

defeat by Romans ret* 

tO, J2 

war w ith Turks, 72 
Book of Kings, 73 
Tabari. See Tabari. 
= Bahram Chnbfna, 1 13 
=Hurmuzd, 1 10, 117 
prince Bahram Chnbfna, 

Phocas, Eastern Roman Em- 
peror, I s ;. [89, [93, i" 1 
Photius, quoted, 191 
1'n  . ["ui ni.iii hero, 414 
Pfruz, Shah, 73, 75, 168, 242, 

- t5. -"7- 2 
Piruz, father of Ustad, 296 
Pisces, constellation, 51, 342 
Pleiades, 53, 158 
Polo, 246, -47. 258, 371 

— sticks, 247 
Prelates as warriors, 47 and note 
Pronunciation, Note on, xvi 
Proverb, 187 


Queen of Chin (wife of the 
Khan), 190 

daughter of, slain by lion- 
ape, 322 

asks Bahram Chubina to 
avenge her daughter, 324 

steward of, plots with Khar- 
rad against Bahram Chu- 
bina, 335 

Queen of Chin, daughter of, 
cured by Kharrad. 336 
grants boon to Kharrad, 338 
disgraced, 3 | 4 

Rai, city anil district near Tih- 
ran, x, 72, 155, im>. 171, 
173. 174, [89, 21 |. 216, 

-' I" 

t oi \i sa< nl power, 72 
Bahram Chubina goes to, 

Khusrau Parwfz oppresses, 

misery of. y>- 

( rurdya < I • 1 1 \ ers, 368 
Rakka (Warigh q ), 1 ity, 188 
Ram, Iranian warrior, joi 
Ram Barzfn, Persian 1 iffii ial, 313 
Rangwi, franian wan ior, 200 

fa, [88 
R eph, 188 
Responses, of Nushlrwan, \ . 1 4 

seq., j s 
Rhyme-word. Pirdausi and, 397 

Roman, Romans. [88, 189, 195 
Empire, war of.w 1 1 1 1 Persian, 

41, [93 
defeal Bahram ( 'hiibina, 76 
Ruhham, a Mihran, temp. Tiriiz, 

Rum, Eastern Roman Empire, 
viii, ix, 10, 11, 15, 19 and 

brocade of, 1.57, 173, 278, 

337. 3 r >7. 374 
philosophers of, 279, 382 
robes of, 308 
captured cities of, restored 

to, 312 
Ruman, Rumans, ix, 15, 45 

seq., 52. 53. 93- I22 - 2I 4 

and passim 
envoy, 8 st 

surrender to Niishirwan, 47 
entrench themselves, 47 



Ruman, Riimans, sue for peace 
and pay tribute, 51 seq. 
architect, 193, 401 
marches, 252 
robes, 253 
helms, 105, 276, 417 
eunuchs, 279 
worsted by Bahram Chu- 

bina, 292 
artificers imprisoned by 
Khusrau Parwiz, 402 
released by Khusrau Par- 
wiz, 403 
Riis (Russia), 406 
Rustam, Iranian hero, 106, 177, 
219, 223, 332 
fight of, with Ashkabus, 

referred to, 75 
conduct of, in Hamavar.'m, 

104, 168 
banner of, bestowed on 
Bahram Chubina, 105, 
Rustam, brother of Farrukhzad, 
413 and note 
revolt ol, 413 
Ruzbih, scribe, 252 

Sabz dar sabz, melody, 399 and 

Sada, feast, 68, 133, 216, 313 
Sage, saying of, 155 
Sakila, Mount, v, 41 

stronghold of, taken by 

Riimans, 47 
Saklab (Slavonia), 379 
Salm, eldest son of Faridun, 266, 

270, 300, 376 note, 378, 

Sam, Iranian hero, 223 
Samarkand, city in Turkistan, 

Sambaz, Iranian chief, speech of, 

Sapandarmad, month and day, 

Sapor II, Shah, 41 

Sari, city in Mazandaran, 168, 

341. 355. 392 
Sarkab, Ruman general, 2S1, 292 
Sarkash (Sergius), minstrel, xi, 
193. 398 seq., 406 
story of, 396 
disgrace of, 399 
Sasan, eponym of Sasanian 
dynasty, 219, 220, 330, 


Sasanian, Sasanians, 65, 72, 73, 

214, 2<>2, 330, 413 note 
rivalry with Arsacids, 73 
usage, 190 
architecture, 193 
empire, 193 
race, 285, 386 note 
Saturn, planet, 24, 66, 321, 392, 

Sawa, ruler of the Turks, vi, 74, 
94 seq., 100 seq., 107, 10S, 
no seq., 123, 129, 132, 

133. 135. 137. 139. I'M. 
169, 174, 210, 219, 222, 
224, 240 
=Chao-wou, 72 
attacks llunimzd, 92 
letter of, to I lurmuzd, 93 
prophecy about, 98 
Hurmuzd sends Kharrad, 

son of Barzfn, to, no 
hears of Bahram Chiibina's 
army and blames Khar- 
rad, 1 10 
offers of, to Bahram Chu- 
bina, 1 13 seq., 117 seq. 
employs sorcery against the 

Iranians, 123 
defeated and slain, 126 
head of, set on lance, 130 
wealth of, sent to Hurmuzd, 


Scribe, scribes, office of, highly 
esteemed by Nushfrwan, 

put to death by Hurmuzd, 

Seleucia (Bih Ardshir), city on 
right bank of Tigris oppo- 
site to Ctesiphon (Taisa- 
fun), 189. 194, 196 



Sergiopolis, 188 

Sergius, Saint and Martyr, iSS 
patron saint of Khusrau 

Parwiz. 1S8, 195 
Roman leader in Tabarf, 188 
Sergius (Sarkash), minstrel, 193 
Seven, stages. Story of, 171 
founts, 392 
Climes. See Climes, 
and forty Shahs, 395 and 
Shabdiz, steed of Khusrau Par- 
wiz, 407 
Shadward, treasure, 400 and 
Shahnama, 3, 41, .|j, 71, 72, 74 
seq.. /., i'ii, imj 

Prose, t ompilers of, ref< 
to, 71, 73 
Shahran Guraz, Iranian warrior, 

e< h of, 239 
Shahrbaraz (tiur.iz q.v.), Iranian 
general, [94 
revolt '.I, 105 
sons of, i'i" 

Lkespeare, quoted, 187 

m (Syria), 170 

Shamta, 195, [96 

Shapur, son "t Ardshir, Shah, 

Shapur, sun "I Urmuzd, Shah, 41 
Shapur of Rai, 7 ^ 
Shapur, Iranian warrior, vin. 
202. 225, 257, zy>, 269, 
293, j "'■ 
deceived by Caesar's talis- 
man. 273 
praised by Caesar, 270 
Bahrain Chubina writes to, 

receives Istakhr and Darab- 
gird, 313 
Sheep's heads, Bahrain Chubina 
and the, 74, 107 
omen of, reported to Hur- 
muzd, 108 
Sher-Kappi, 322 note 
Shirin, wife of Khusrau Parwiz, 
xi, 187, 194, 363, 383, 
enmity of, to Shirwi, 189, 
191. 193 

Shirin, account of, 192 

Khusrau and, Persian poem, 

meaning of, 193 
Maryam murdered by, 193, 

a Christian 195 

warns Khusrau 1'arwiz 

against Gurdya, 364 
Khusrau Parwiz and, Story 
of, 382 

married to, 386 
gilded chamber given to, 389 
hears Kubad proclaimed 

Shah, 416 
informs Khusrau Parwiz, 

1 1 '■ 
Shirwi (Kubad </.!•.), Shah, x, xi, 
188, [90, 371 seq. 

Slu'rin's enmity to, [89, 191, 

internment of, 194, 196, 391 
released, 196, 415 
secret ami public names of, 

37-*. 416 
astrologers consulted at 

birth of, 372 
ill-omened horoscope of, 372 
refei red to, 373 
Khusrau Parwiz gives Cae- 
sar's gifts to, 381 
boorishness of, 390 
Khusrau Parwiz' displeasure 

with, 300 
sends to take Khusrau Par- 
wiz, 419 
Shfrzfl, Iranian warrior, 296 
Shiz (Takht-i-Sulaiman), scat of 
the Magi in Azarbaijan, 
Shoemaker, v, 42 

offer of, to advance money 
to Nushirwan, 48 
rejected, 50, 71 
Shustar, city in Khuzistan, 381 
Sikandar (Alexander the Great), 
52, 214, 217, 242, 262, 
381, 387, 302 
Simah Barzin, scribe, vi 

Hurmuzd plots against, 85 



Sipansar, Iranian warrior, 293 
Siyawush, son of Kai Kaus, 104, 

349- 395 note 
goods of, 148, 151 
Siyawush, Iranian chief, viii, 

128, 163, 187, 233 
son of = Bahram, 247 
Slavs, 194 
Sol, planet, 395 

Son of Firdausi, death of, ix, 190 
Sophia, Empress, her treatment 

of Narses, 76 
Speech, modes of, 30 
Spica, star, 379 
Siifarai, franian chief, 72, 75, 

168, 285 
Siikhta, treasure, 406 and note 
Sumai, 195 
Sunday, 378, 380 
Sun'ish, angel, the messenger of 

Urmuzd, ix, 173 
saves Khusrau Parwiz from Chiibina, 189, 

Syria, 193 

raided by Persians, 41 

Tabari, historian, 73, 75 seq., 
Persian, 42, 73 seq., 187 seq. 
Arabic, 42, 73, 75, 187, 190, 

Table of Contents, v 
Tahmiiras, Shah, 277, 332, 376 
Taisafiin (Ctcsiphon q.v.), xi, 
city on left bank of Tigris, 
53, 90, 109 note, 118, 173, 
175, 180, 182, 229, 241 
Nushirwan returns to, 53 
Bahrain Chiibina marches 

from province of, 106 
Khusrau 1'arwiz imprisoned 
at, 421 
Taj, 71 

Takdis, throne of, xi, 391 
account of, 391 seq. 
added to by Jamasp, 392 
Takht-i-Biistan, 192 

Takht-i-Khusrau. See Mada' in 
Takht-i-Sulaiman (Shiz, q.v.), 

Talisman, Caesar's, viii 
described, 271 

deceives Persian envoys, 272 
mastered by Kharrad, 274 
Tamuz, 77 note 

Taraz, city north-east of Tash- 
kand, 370 
Idols of, 370 
Theodore, brother of Heradius, 

Theodosius (Niyatus), 189 
Tiberius, Eastern Roman Em- 
peror, 42 
Tigris (Arwand), river, 193, 194 
Tir, month, 394 
Treasures, of Khusrau Parwiz, 

Tukhar, Iranian chief, 228 

takes letter to Caesar, 263 
Tukhar, Iranian general, con- 
spires against Khusrau 
Parwiz, 1 1 \ 
releases Shirwi, -i 1 5 
Tukhara, Iranian warrior, 296 

son of, 314 
Tur, second son of Faridun, 266, 

300, 376 note, 378 
Tiiran (Turkistan), 118, 123, 
130, 2.42, 320, 331, 349, 

35°. 376, 4°5. 4°7 
Turanian, Turanians, 123, 320 
Turk, Turks, 95, 103, 121, 13.5, 
136, 138 seq., 142, 164, 
[69, 170, 1S9, 316, 320, 

34<>. 35^ 
war of, with Persians, 72 

prophesied, 98 
= Sawa, 98 
defeated, 126 
find Sawa's corpse, 127 
sorcerer, sends ill dream to 

Bahrain Chubina, 121, 


put to death, 129 
heads of chiefs of, sent to 

Hurmuzd, 130 

 retreat to Turan, 131 

three, the, 187, 204 

44 6 


Turk, Turks, one of, attacks 
Khusrau Parwiz, .vo 
reproved by Bahrain 

Chubina, 221 
lead night-attack on 
Khusrau Parwfz, 227 
= Makatura, 319 
= Kulun, 345 

defeated by Yalan-sina, 353 
Turkistan (Turan), 324, 336, 

363. 376. 377. -4°7 
Turkman, Turkmans, 377 

= Turk. 94, 217 

Tus, Iranian hero, 168 
Tuwurg, brother of Khan, x, 

reports flight of ( rurdya, 351 

t in pursuit, 351 
parleys with Gurdya, 352 


I'rmuzd, the Good Principle, 285 
I Prmuzd, Shah, 41 

Urmuzd, Iranian warrior, 296 

I '1 mm. ih, lake, H15 

: I.I 1. in:. 1 n warrior, 296 


Venus, planet, 152, 359, 394, 395 
Virgo, constellation, ^y> 


War/gh, city on the Euphrates, 
188, 253, 257, 280 
Khusrau Parwiz takes up 
his abode at, 257 
Wash, city, 24 and note 
West, gateway of, 369 and note 
Wisdom, apportionment of, 202 
literature (Persian), 3 

Yalan-sina (Mardanshah), bro- 
ther of Bahrain Chubina, 
74, ro2, [22, 135, 138, 
157, 163, 160, 204, 288, 
-"i. -'96 seq., 303, 316, 

356, 357 

goes hunting with Bahrain 

Chubina, 156 

pursues and brings back 
archs< ribe, 130 

speech ot. [65, 170 

worsted by Khusrau Par- 
wiz, 220 

commands the centre, 289 

Bahrain Chubina makes, his 
mandatory, .> 1-: 

defeats tin' Turks, 353 

negotiates marriage between 
Gurdya and Gustaham, 

N.nnan, south-western Arabia, 

monarch of, t6 
conquered by Persians, 24 

curtains of, 148, 151 
Yazdagird III, Shah, 55, 73 
Vazdan, 75 
\ azdanbakhsh (Ayin Gashasp 

 7".. 7" 
N azdin, iot, 196 
\ 'uiii'in, Greece, 258 

Zab, lesser, tributary of Tigris, 

Zabulistan,* 369 

Zad Farrukh, suggests Bah ram 
Chubina to Ilurmuzd, 99 
speech of 241 

Zagros, mountain-range in west- 
ern Iran, 189 

Zahhak, Shah, 218, 239, 241, 

387. 3 ( >' 
father of, referred to, 387 

* See Vol. i. p. 396 note 



Zal, father of Rustam, 223 
Zandavasta, 96, 246, 283, 312 

quoted, 218, 240 
Zarduhsht (Zoroaster), 67, 213, 

saying of, 218, 240 
Zarduhsht, high priest, vi, 81 

Zarduhsht, visits fzid Gashasp in 
prison, 82 
visit of, reported to Hur- 

muzd, 83 
poisoned byHurmuzd,83 seq. 
Zarmihr, son of Sufarai, it>9 
Zhangwi, Turkman nob'e, 331 
Zodiac, 394 



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