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Full text of "Shakerism detected : their erroneous and treasonous proceedings, and false publications contained in different news-papers, exposed to public view by the depositions of ten different persons living in various parts of the states of Kentucky and Ohio : accompanied with remarks"






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BY TM 

LIVING 



A^ 



By C 



TO THE READER. 

X HAVE brought forward five witnesses (being, 
duly sworn) that prove almost all that the shakers 
have denied and asserted in their writings against 
me, to be false, and consequently what I have 
written to be the truth : — 

And whereas Richard M'Nemar, in his long 
publication positively and vehemently denied 
that the chief shakers held infalibilitj , — this I 
have effectually proven by different depositions 
and also by their own writings ; and infalibiliiy 
is the snake in the grass that will as certainly 
produce despotic bondage as fire will light and 
heat: — - 

Whereas M'Nemar, in his publication, has re- 
presented my burning the Indian goods and war- 
like stores, near Sideling-hill as high-way robery, 
I have given a brief statement of the cause, rise 
and progress of the Sideling-hill expedition, with, 
proper vouchers attending it : — ■ 

I have brought four witnesses duly sworn—-, 
proving, that the shakers have for three years past, 
been using artful measures to excite the Indians 
to fall upon the defenceless frontiers, belong- 
ing to the United States. 1 expect that I have 
plainly made it appear to the most of my readers, 
that the shakers are fundamentally H practically 
opposers of the United States' government and 
enemies to the peace & happiness of mankind:— 

Whereas much has been published on sha- 
kerism in the publick papers, especially in the 
state of Ohio ; theretore 1 have quoted and collec- 
ted the principal arguments, taken from different 
authors and set them in one connected view ; be- 
cause many may read this that do not get the 
papers, and scarcely any one gets all the papers 
that treat on this subject. 



( * ) 

When the shakers first came to this wester A 
country, they appeared to be a very meek hum- 
ble sort of people, and said that they were alto- 
gether free from sin; but when their beloved 
despotic money-making machine was struck at by 
Shakerism Developed they were irritated out of 
measure aftdwrote in amost scurrilous and illna- 
tured manner, and as their system, is founded on. 
falsehood and supported by secrecy and deceit, 
they vehemently denied or asserted any thing that 
they thought would answer their purpose. 

Tn order to represent this in a proper view, we 
shall take notice of M'Nemar's letter to the Rev. 
col. James Smith s 

WESTERN STAR July 6,1810. 

" James, in this enlightened age when every 

subject lies open to free enquirv, the author who 

would command respect, must not only be well 

acquainted with his subject,* but also impartial 

in his manner of treating it." 

Tf I had known but little about shakerism, and 
had only spoken of your erroneous faith et mode 
of worship in a very weak and imperfect manner, 
you could have borne this patiently ; but when 
your beloved toryism was plainly struck at, you 
kicked and pranced like a horse when his sore 
back has received a heavy stroke. You say 
" passions heated by falsehood must cool offwheri 
truth comes on the carpet, as fox-fire disappears 
before the light of the sun" — you have accidental- 
ly hit the truth for once; but it is wrong applied 
Richard, and it is verified, in you ; in your se- 
cond letter to me you have cooled off very much 
when truth made its appearance concerning your 
treasonous proceedings with the Indians ; but yo'l 
must come lower yet Richard, and your highly 



( s ) 

esteemed shakerism " must evanish like fox-fira 
disappears before the sun.'* You say, " I think 
it a duty which I owe to you and my fellow-ci- 
tizens, to summon you in a public manner, to re- 
call the distorted & false picture of shakerism so 
called." I shall sit your summons, & let the world 
see that it is a true statement that I have made 
of shakerism. — You tell me " you profess to have 
nothing to do with the shakers' faith, mode of 
worship, &c. if so, you have nothing to do with 
shakerism, for the faith of any people must be 
the beginning corner, from which their real cha- 
racter is surveyed*" — I have nothing to do with 
the shakers' faith or mode of worship any fur- 
ther than it hath a direct tendency to injure the 
peace and happiness of mankind ; for instance 
your holding infalibility, is the corner tree that 
includes political, popish, despotic bondage in 

your survey.-— But more of this hereafter. You 

tell me, " first you introduce yourself, as having 
been a resident among the shakers, according to 
agreement, having come to live with them five 
years ago, and from that time to the present, dil- 
igently endeavoring to find them out &cc. This 
you know to be a wilful falsity and of no small 
importance as a foundation for the rest." I do 
not know this to be a wilful falsity, no, it is a well 
known truth by the neighbors around you that i 
was with the shakers about a week, and went 
With them night and day to your places oi wor- 
ship, and where they were preaching or making 
proselytes; insomuch that some supposed that 
I had really fallen in with, & joined the shakers. 
I stayed with them until I was tired of thera, and 
I believe that they were heartily tired of me. 
You tell me, "on the Sabbath you attended our 
meeting and gave a public address int favour rf 

A 



( « ) 

what you saw among -us," — How epuld you tell 
such a story as tliis, when there was about two 
hundred spectators present at this time, that were 
n t shakers, Fne trut 1 of the story was this ; the 
shakers were opposed Sv interrupted in their wor- 
ship in'sbmucfa that the^ had to leave of their 
dance and go home. During the time of this in- 
terruption 1 spoke publicly, and said that it. was 
contrary to the laws of our country to oppose, in- 
terrupt or.disiurb any people in their way of wor- 
ship, and this I would now say ; but I never said 
any thing in favour of the shakers' faun or / mode 
of worship ; and For the truth of this I appeal to 
the spectators. You s*ay, V you have asserted, 
ir;-.t ihc shakers dro\e i oily from the house that 
s.he had lived in while among them, and took her 
children from her. Tins is a groundless slander 
— Polly was kindly tieated by James and all the 
society, whilst she stayed in the place. It was 
voluntarily of her own choice that she went off 
v itli William Smith and John Irvin, contrary to 
3ames's mind who pointedly and repeatedly warn- 
ed her not to go with those men, and the s,ame 
aborning that she went off, she, herself had previ- 
ously sent the children to school, and this she 
canno^deny" — You have asserted that my saying 
that you drove Polly away is a groundless siand^.r, 
But you shall now see what John Irvin Tscn' 
William Irvin, William Smith, Joseph Bay and 
Folly Smith say upon oath : — 

State of Ohio, Preble County set. - 
Before me Jacob Romane one of the justices 
appointed to ketp the peace in and for the .coun- 
ty aforesaid, personally came- the undersigned 
John Irvin Esq. and Wlliam Smith, and bring 
sworn according to law depose and say, that 
sometime in the last of February 1810, we re- 



( I ) 

Reived a letter from Polly Smith in Shakertown by 
her brother Joseph Bay, stating her distress bf 
lining among tnose peop'e and praying us to 
come without delay to see her and give her some 
advice. Joseph stated to us that. James Smith 
himself vviote the letter in her name (k iurnished 
him with a horse and requested him to come, 
and*- fetch it, which the said James Smith alter- 
wards told me was the truth'. — W& accordingly 
went to Shakerto-vn ah 1 stayed about four day*. 
James Smith at first appeared willing to let his 
wife Polly come with us on a visit ; which he ac- 
knowledged he had promised her ; but when tne 
time drew near that we were to start, he appeared 
ui) willing, and said that he had altered his mind, 
John Irvin told him that he supposed he had ask- 
ed Elder David whether it was right to let Polly 
go or not; upon which he answered yea; ior he 
might be mistaken but Elder David could not. 
We then wished. jijm to let her go and see her 
friends and weitl/ouki ietch or send her safe 
Jiome in sh: or -vight da; s, upon which he ap- 
peared tq agse£ a ud went and caught a horse for 
her and led it to the door, and then p dling olf 
the bi idle said diat it would look too much like 
sending her away. We therefore told him to 
go and bridle her sister's horse ( Peggy Bay) 
which v/as to go with her ; we then prep; red 
to start, and Polly told him how to manage the 
affairs about the house till she returned : (.JoIva 
Jrvin only remembers that James Smith said that 
JLlder David was infallible) said deponent further 
saith that just at the time of star. i; g\ James then 
tokj Polly his wife that il she went it w u!d be 
contrary to his will, and Warned us agajust har- 
bouring or crediting her on his account. 

1 do hereby certify that john C. Irvun Esq. h 



( « ) 

William Smith came voluntarily before me, and 
were sworn to the above statement according to 
law. Given under my hand this 27th, day of 
September, 1810. .. 

JACOB ROMANE, Justice of the peace. 

John Irvin further saith that the same time 
when he was in Shakertown — Viz. last February, 
that he had considerable conversation with Isa- 
char Bates, and that he particularly asked Bates 
if there was not at least a possibility that he might 
be mistaken in some case ; to which Bates an- 
swered nay ; he thert asked him if he pretended 
to infalibiliiy ; Bates replied, yea, I am infalibly 
right, and therefore cannot be wrong in any 
case whatever. 

STATE OF OHIO, PREBLE COUNTY, Set. 
I do hereby certify that Tohn Irvin Escj; came 
personally before me, and on oath acknowledged 
the above addition to his former deposition. Giv- 
en under my hand this 2d. day , of October 18 10. 

JACe 11 ROMANE J. P.U 
pe- \ 

The definition of William Irvin. 

About the first of March last, I, William R. ir- 
vin, went home with Polly Smith to Shakertown, 
on Turtle-creek ; When we got to the house we 
found no one there, nor any of their property. 
Jt being nearly night, we went to William Bones's 
to stay all night. Next morning we went to 
Shakertown to try if she could see her children, 
where we found james Smith junr. — Polly, his 
wife, asked him if she could see the children, he 
said she might go to the school-house & see them ; 
she wanted him to go with her, and he refused 
to go ; we then went to the school-house : we 
there enquired for the children, and they would 
not tell any thing about them \ we then, went t« 



C » ) 

John Woods's and called at the gate ; Woods & 
Malcom Worley came out ; we aaked them if 
Polly could see lier children; Woods said no; 
we told them that we had seen James Smith, &c 
that he had told Polly to go and see them ; Woods 
said that they were left in his caie, and they were 
not to be- r>een ; we made use of every intreaty 
that we were capable of, but ail in vain. I then 
proposed to let Folly into the yard, and let the 
children come to the door and she will sit on her 
horse, and the rest of us will stay out in the lane, 
but they would not. I then threatened them with 
the civil law ; Woods ordered me to go home, 8c 
quit my whoring, meaning for me to quit my Wife. 
Polly had a little sugar in her pocket, and she 
gave it to me to desire them to give it to the 
children, but they refused that ; she then rode oft 7 
weeping. We men went to William Bones's, and 
myscli went again to see James Smith, to tell him 
we were not admitted to see the children — a num- 
ber of them then said that she never should see 
them again, without she would receive their tes- 
timony. I heard them likewise tell her the same. 
Now there was another small event that took 
place : — James Smith was smoking his pipe;! 
told him, that agreeably to his faith, he ought 
not to smoke ; he said he did not know ; and then 
asked one of his brethren if Elder David smoked, 
they said he did ; well said Smith, I will smoke 
too — why, said I — can Elder David do nothing 
wrong? No replied Smith, he cannot, and I will 
smoke as long as he does ; this ended the day. — 
Next morning, James Smith and Malcom Worley 
came to Wm. Benes's to let us know, that on 
certain conditions she might seethe children, and 
that was, not to have any conversation with them 
but in ihcir presence j we went to Woods's, and 
B 



( io ) 

the children were brought forward ; after a short 
interview, we got up to start, and the oldest boy 
attempted to go to the door to see his mother 
start, when James &mith and some other of their 
men took hold of the little boy and held him for- 
cibly ; the cries of that child and the mother at 
that time were too much for me to describe. I 
asked them if there was no tenderness in them ; 
they replied there was no room for tenderness 
in their hearts. 

WILLIAM R. 1RVIN*. 
State of Ohio, Preble County set. 

That the above»named William R. Irvm came personally, and 
voluntarily before me, the subscriber, one of the justices appointed 
to keep the peace in and for the aforesaid county of Preble, and 
was solemnly sworn to the truth of the above statement. Given 
under my hand, this 28th day of September 1810. 

JACOB ROMANE, J. P. 



Richard, you tell the world that my saying, 
that the shakers drove Polly away from the house 
she lived in while among them, and took her 
children from her, " is a groundless slander." 
At the time she left Shakertown, she only went 
on a visit, upon promise, and by James's own 
consent, until his judgment had to give place to 
Elder David's infallible command. It was Elder 
David that forbid her to go with John Trvin when 
they were on horseback or just about starting, 
for when James said if she went, it would-be a- 
gainst his mind — he only acted as a machine, 
even as much so as a spinning wheel, this iully 
appears by his own acknowledgment to John and 
William irvin. And after Elder David in this in- 
direct manner forbids Polly to go on this visit, 
and the very next day advertiseth her in the news 
paper as one that had jwickedly eloped, prohibit- 
ing any one from harboring her, and when she 



( 11 ) 

returned to Shaker town found the house that she 
had lived in stripped and evacuated, her children 
taken, and she was told that she should never 
see them, except she would confess her sins and 
receive their testimony. All this is included in 
the above affidavits, and will more fully appear 
when Joseph Bay and Polly Smith's depositions 
come forward hereafter. 

Now Richard was it just or generous in ycu 
to publish me to the world, as a groundless slan- 
derer, for calling all that you did, driving Polly 
away, and sa)ing that rjer children were taken 
from her ? 

The affirmation of Polly Smith, taken at Cane? 
ridge. August 20th, 1810. 

Saith that the statement made in the tenth 
twelfth and thirteenth pages of the pamphlet en- 
titled Shakeribm Developed, as relating to her 
own treatment by them at that time is a just 
statement of facts as they truly did accrue. 
Also further saith that whilst she was among the 
shakers, she heard them say it was neces- 
sary when a man and woman joined their body 
who had a family of children, that it was best to 
separate them ; putting the man in one place and 
the woman in another, and their children in a 
third place, the more easily to kill natural affec- 
tion — and also saith that she saw James Smith 
: senior write the piece that was first published in 
the Western Citizen on shakerism, and David 
Purviance was not there when it was written. 

POLLY SMITH. 

STATE OF KENTUCKY, BOUREON COUNTY. 
I Aquila Parker justice of the peace in and 
for the county and state aforesaid, do certify that 
the aforementioned Poll v Smith did voluntarily 



( 12 ) 

appear before me, and solemnly affirm and sigft 
the above affirmation at the time and place above- 
mentioned. Given under my hand and seal this 
20th day of August 1810*, 

AQUILA PARKER J. P. 

The affidavit of JOSEPH BAY, taken at the Court-house ia 
the town of Paris on the 21st, day of August 1810'. — 

Who being of lawful age and duly sworn, saith 
thai the facts as stated in th^ tenth page of the * 
pamphlet entitled Shekerism Developed, relating 
to the treatment of Polly Smith by her husband 
James Smith junr., he this deponent was per- 
sonally present at that time, and saw the transac- 
tions, and that it is correctly stated as they were 
transacted, and also, that he was present when 
the three shakers came to the house where she 
saiii poliy smith went into by direction of her 
hiibband, and the shakers ordered her out of said 
h<.u^e, tel.ing her that James had no property, as 
he had given all up to God, as stated in the 13th 

page of said pamphlet, 

JOSEPH BAT. 

I' STATE OF KENTUCKY BOURBON COUNTY Set. 

1 Aquila Parker one of the justices of the 
peace in and for the county aforesaid^ do certify 
that the above named Joseph Bay did personally 
aid voluntarily appear before me at the time and 
place stated m the introduction to said affidavit, 
swore to and signed the same before me, as wit- 
ness my hand and seal this day and date above 
written. Aquila Parker j. p. 

YOU say, " The same morning that she went 
off, she herself had previously sent the children 
to school ; and this she cannot deny." — This is 
the truth Richard, and I intend to give you and 
your fraternity credit for every sentence of truth 



( 13 ) 

that I can find in any of your writings.— You sayV\ 
V when you and William lrvin came with Polly' 
she was not debarred from seeing the children at 
a suitable occasion." — This is not true Richard > 
■ — William lrvin and others also tell you upon 
oath that she was debarred, except she would "con- 
less her sins ike. and it is well known that there* 
was no mob about at that time, or at least no one 
ever heard of an) such thing. " You insinuate 
lli at on' Ai arch 6 you returned to Shakertown as 
you call it) to try, if by any means Polly could 
be admitted to sec her children. 'I his James 
you kndw to be a gross misrepresentation ; for 
you know that your son James'a.ud Malcom Wor- 
ley went to you early that very morning to 
.William Bones's, and invited both Polly and your- 
self to come and see the children ; which accor- 
dingly you did, and had liberty to be among 
them as much as you pleased, and the free ac- 
cess that she has repeatedly had to them since 
{of which I am a wtness) proves the whole state- 
ment of the matter tobc maliciously false." — Yoa 
say that james and" Malcom Worley came and 
told us we might sec the children- But it was on 
certain conditions. And was there ant) thing 
like falsehood or misstatement or inconsistency 
in saying we, would go and try if by any mean* 
Folly would be admitted to see her children? No: 
for you had deceived us so often before that T 
could not believe any thing that a shuker would 
say without trial. You say that we had liberty 
to be among them as much as we pleased; this 
is not true Richard ; see Shakerism developed 
page 13, what we were told, on March 13, and the 
time you spoke of, was March the 6th.— A'nd v 
Joseph Bay and Polly Smith have said upon oath 
that from the tenth including the 13th page *rf 
G 



( 14 ) 

justly a.r.d truly stated, and it is word for word 
the same in the said pages in said pamphlet, as 
in the piece I first published in the Western Cit- 
izen which you had reference to. And the whole 
cf what vou have violently denied concerning 
the usage Polly received at that time is included 
in said pages ; and said deponents were e) e and 
car witness to the whole of it. And John & Wil- 
liam Irvin and William Smith saw a considerable 
pari of the transactions. — You assert that the 
'Whole statement of the matter is maliciously {al$cw 
but I have already proven by five witnesses that 
it is aP true \ and if you had said on oath what 
you wrote against me, I cpuJd find as many '\v\u 
testes as would prove you perjured.-— Vou say 
that my son James, " was the only person who in- 
terposed any authority over the child on .the oc- 
casion, 5 * that is in taking him, from his mother. 
This is not true Kichard-r- see W^m. lrviirs depo- 
sition. Vou say that . Felly was well used " till 
the time of her elopement," This is not true, lor. 
she never eloped, it was only a false adveniso 
ment of David Durrow's that said so. See John 
Irvin's deposition. 

After describing David Purviance, you say " I 
*nean that David who assisted you in preparing 
the materials of your publication &c." You in- 
sinuate that it was David Puiviance that at least 
assisted in preparing the materials for said pub- 
lication. But it is not so — see Polly Smith's de- 
position. And Mr. Boman and others saw me 
write said piece, and heard me read it when I 
was near Shakertown, above forty miles from 
Where David Purviance lived. 

You say " that they hold no man to be infallible,* 
but each as a free agent to stand or fall, accord- 
pig as lie is obedient to infallible truth. 4 ' — Rich- 



( is ) 

ard, can it be that you have the audacious im- 
pudence to deny that the shakers hold their in- 
spired leaders to be infallible ? Yes you have de- 
nied it in the lines above, in the strongest terras ; 
but your de nial is a well known falsehood. Why 
did you deny infallibility I Because you well 
knew that was the snake in the grass, that would 
as certainly produce despotic bondage as fire will 
light and heat j therefore, you tried to conceal 
this poisonous, distructive serpent that is gnawing 
at the root ol the tree of liberty. 

Now Richard, if I do not prove that your lea- 
ders who profess to be inspired, also hold infal- 
libility, and that their followers rau^t implicitly 
brlieve and obey them ; if I do not prove this I 
will never again call the shakers tories. — See 
John and Wm.' Irvin and Wm. Smith's deposi- 
tions, and see ' the following quotation : — " The 
first point of faith in relation to testimony, is to 
believe that he who bears it, is a true messenger 
and witness of Christ ; in whom the spirit of truth 
continually abides, and whatever instruction,*re- 
proof or counsel is administered by such, it comes 
from Christ, who'speaketh in him; therefore all 
who are taught in this manner are strictly and 
properly taught of God, and in obeying what they 
are taught they yield obedience to Christ." M'- 
Nemar's pamphlet — page SI: — This long pam- 
phlet was written by you Richard, and published 
by and with the consent of Elder David and his 
council ; yet you positively have denied what 
you yourself stated in said pamphlet in the strong- 
est terms. You wanted, if possible to evade this 
well known truth ; because you know that infal- 
libility is the corner stone of your political, despo- 
tic, money-msking building. But more of this 
hereatter; ^when other depositions come forward. 



( 16 ) 

You ask me " By what spirit were you influx 
enced» at the schoolhouse, last March when you 
vaunting'y said, ihatif you were as you had been 
in the days of your youths the -shakers' houses 
should have been laid in ashes and they expelled 
out of the country ere that time, and that we need 
not think it strange if such an event should take 
ptece." There is some truth in this story, but it 
is wrong stated and intermixed with falsehood, f 
told Ton that I would try every regular and legal 
measure ; that I would apply to the press and let 
the world know what sort of people you are, and 
that when government would find put what your 
designs were, I expected that I would recover 
my grand-children by law. But it it should be 
possible that you could evade justice by prcteirl- 
ing to Worship God according to the dictate-- of 
your Conscience' ; perhaps the military spirit that 
I was possessed ol in my youth; might again a- 
rise and I be under the disagreeable necessity of 
taking my children from you by force. I suffered 
much in procuring the happy liberty that we 
now possess, I lost my old Brother in the contest, 
J had also a cousin capt. James Smith that was 
killed at the skirmish in the Buckwheat field : 
and I myself was nigh unto death (while in the 
army) with the camp fever ; /also lost almost all 
that I possessed by the depreciated money. After 
all this can 1 bear Xo see my grand-children rais- 
ed up traitors to the free government that pro- 
tects them, to be pests of society and slaves to 
pope David ? It is well known that I have as 
yet constantly opposed men rising in arms against 
the shakers without legal authority : because it 
is an exceedingly bad example ; and also impolitic 
for it has scarcely ever been known that men ri- 
sing in this wa* ever succeeded. Supposing men 



( 17 ) 

Were to go in this way and not under regular coro^ 
mand ; is it not almost certain that some of the 
foolish sort that might be arnongthem would com- . 
roit some outrage that no wise man could justify ? 
Then some would take the shakers' part and some 
the opposite, and so get to contending among 
themselves ; and this might be a means of en- 
Creasing shakerisnl. 

Iris generally supposed that the shakers are 
just in their common dealings ; and the reason is 
obvious, they deal all for ready money, but when 
they can have any opportunity to defraud, they 
embrace it. — See Abraham Irvin's deposition. 

STATE OF OHIO PREBLE COUNTY Set. 
This day personally came before me Thorn as? 
Beasley one of the justices of the peace for the 
aforesaid county, Abraham Irvin, and being sworn 
according to law, deposeth and saltn that about 
eight years ago James Smith junr. agieed with 
his father, Col. James Smith, to take the printed 
Journals of the above named Col.. James Smith, 
v then in the han Is of John Bradford, printer in 
Lexington Kentucky, together With the copy right 
of said Journals ; lor and in consideration of which - 
the said James Sm)th junr. was to pay the above 
named John Bradford "the balance due him for 
printing said Journals ; and this deponent further 
saith, ih it it the same time the above named 
james smith junr. agreed to take twenty acres of 
land out of the northeast corner of the land which 
.his father bought from Col. Garrard on S toner, 
joining Smith and Irvin's mill-dam for and in con- 
sideration of which he, the said james Smith junr. 
agreed to decently support his father Col. jaraes' 
Smith, his life time ; and this deponent further 
saith, that the «L>Jv*c-memioned journals and copy 
D 



( 18 ) 

right were a joint 'contract, and that the "above 
named jam.es.' Smith junr. has since he joined the 
shakers positively refused to comply with the a- 
bove mentioned contract. - 

ABRAHAM IRVIN. 

I do hereby certify that Abraham Irvin came 
voluntarily before me and was sworn according to 
lawtl-at the above statement was true. Given 
under my hand this 28th d?y of September 1810. 

v THOS. BE ASLY Justice of the peace. 

Whereas the above contract was only a verbal 
one and could not be recovered by the law of 
Kentucky because the time was a little past that 
made verbal contracts binding ; those holy sin- 
less people do deny paying a contract where there 
was value received, . 

What is shakei ism ? If the infallible Elder Da» 
vid tells a man that he may break his contract 8c 
cheat his father he must do so, or according to 
their faith goto hell for disobedience. ^ (an we 
have any dependence on a shaker's oath? If 
1 Ider David tells them what they are to sware, 
tl ey must do as they ; a*e commanded ; because 
they believe that obeying Elder David is obeying 
God and that they whl go to hell if they disobeys 
Is it not strange that those sinless people should 
be guilty of roguery and falsehood Ik betrayers of 
their country, as will hereafter more fully appear ? 

Richard says "I will also ask you a question. 
Did you Col. Smith constitutionally interfere when 
at the head of the Black-boy sv you burned and 
destroyed the property of your peaceable fellow- 
citizens on Sideling-hill in the state of Pennsylva- 
nia ?" — Richard you. have stated this patriotic 
Sideling-hill expedition, in as false a light as your 
other writings. I shall give a true statement of 



( 19 ) 

Said expedition with proper vouchers attending it. 
Alter Bradock's war in the vear 1763 almost 
all the nations of Indians united against the white 
people, and a hot war ensued ; the Indians be- 
sieged Fort-pltt, and cut off the communication for 
nearly one whole summer.' That same fall a 
campaign went out against the Indians under Bo- 
quet, who was Col. co m man dent ; he had a hard 
fight with the Indians at Brushy-run, and chiefly 
through the assistance of the Virginia volunteers, 
and some few Pennsylvania rifle-men he gained 
the battle and raised the siege. The nrxt year 
in 1764 another campaign was carried out against 
the Indians by said commander. v I was then a 
servant under King -George in a Pennsylvania 
company ol rifle- men and also Indian interpreter. 
The army proceeded on to near the forks of 
Nuskingum. We found that the Indians by two 
years' war, and having no trade during this time 
with any nation of white people, were reduced to 
poverty, they were almost naked and very scarce 
of ammunition. Under these circumstances, they 
appeared willing to hold a treaty ofpeac?. — Col. 
Buquet as a condition of peace positively demand- 
ed all the white prisoners that the Indians had a- 
mong them, and that they should immediately give 
an account of the number of prisoners that they 
then had, this the) did; and also delivered up 
three hundred prisoners, who were not half the 
number they had. The Indians then said that 
it was late in the year and the prisoners far scat- 
tered, that they could not collect them then but 
that they would bring them in the next spring and 
deliver thtm up. — The Col. then told them that 
he would make a cessation of arms for six months 
on condition that they should deliver up all the 
next spring ; and as a security of this he deman- 



( 20 ) 

ded six of their chiefs as hostages ; which he said 
he would keep until the prisoners came in. But; 
before we came to Fort-pin the hostages ran all 
away ; and as the condition of the cessation of 
aras. was broken there was consequently no peace 
a/i that lime with the Indians. 

The next spring in the year 1765 there was 
the prospect of war between Eitgland and Amer- 
ica and a great rumor on the account of the ty- 
rannical proceedings of Great Britain's asserting 
that tbey had a right to to tax us without our 
own consents or that of our representatives. — A- 
bout this time England appeared determined to 
force the Stamp Act — America almost unani- 
mously opposed it. Under -these circumstances, 
a large number of wagon-loads of Indian goods 
and warlike stores were sent from Philadelphia to 
Henry Polan's in Cumberland county on their 
way to "Fort-pin to supply the Indians. On this 
the country was much alarmed ; and collected 
and demanded of those who had the care of said 
goods and warlike stores to shew them by what 
authority they were carrying said goods to the 
Indians. But this they would not do, but threa- 
tened them with the civil law and British troops 
if they would attempt to meddle with them. The 
country was then in an awful dilemma, apparently 
between two fires ; we suspected that the British 
had secretly encouraged those people that were 
carrying said goods ; because it was not likely 
that they would run such a risk contrary to the 
law that then existed without any encouragement. 
But this we could not prove, yet it appeared that 
the British were sending those warlike stores to 
the Indians, in order to have them afmed and 
ready, in case America should continue in their 
rebellion, as it was then called. — As this part of 



( 21 ) 

khe frontiers suffered hard by two years' Indian 
War, and many ofihem had buried their scalpped 
friends, wives and children without sheet or cof- 
fin ; therefore the general cry of the country was 
stop them, stop them ! we cannot bear to see 
Ahose warlike stores going to supply our savages 
encinies ; contrary to law or justice* Yet as the 
British troops were stationed at Fort Loudon near 
this place, there was a great backwardness among 
the people in doing any thing against them. At 
length seventy pack horses were loaded with said 
goods in order to proceed to Fort-pitt. A num- 
ber of armed men then arose and met said brigade 
at the place where Mercers-burgh row stands, c* 
desired tbero to store up said goods until they 
could show legal authority for carrying said goods 
to the Indians. This they would not do, but stiU 
threatened them with the civil law and the Bri- 
tish troops. Said armed men followed said bri- 
gade over 6ne mountain to the Big Cove and 
desired them again to store up said goods ; but 
their answer was as aforesaid. 

A small paity then sallied out into the moun- 
tains in disguise and waylayed said brigade near 
hideling-hill ; and made them surrender ; and 
burned seventy horse loads. A considerable part 
of said loading was lead, seal ping-knives and to»- 
nhaws. Those things we could not fully destroy 
but we threw them into the fire. — We then re- 
turned to the settlement and burned a large quan- 
tity of powder that was deposited there. 

The commander of Fort Loudon sent out his 
troops and took a number of prisoners without 
applying to a civil magistrate, and laid them in 
the guard-house in order to have them tried by a 
Court-martial. He said that rebels had no right 
to the civil law. Among all those prisoners theie 
E 



( 22 ) 

were but two that bad been at the burning of 
fcaid goods ; they had also a venerable old gray- 
headed man in the cold < uard-house ; and they 
even alledged no crime against him only that he 
had talked sauc) .— We then raised a little 1 army 
and en camped near Fort Loudon, and sent out 
scouting parties and took the British, prisoners, if 
they moved out any distance from the Tort, and 
set a guard over them m our camp. — While we 
encamped here the country supplied us vvithi ev- 
ery thing that was necessary, arid it vasi.t.l very 
long until we had doubly as many British prison- 
ers in our camp as they had of curs in the cuar el- 
house. Then the commaneler sent out a flag and 
we settled the cartel and exchanged priscner- arid 
gave them two for one, and we told them that we 
expected that we would be able to do so during 
the war. The commander said that was an insult 
upon King George ; we told him that we paid no 
respect to King George, while he and his ttoops 
used us in such an unjust and inhuman mariner 
sis they did. He said that v/e Wert clovrpight har- 
dened rebels and that we were guilty of treason, 
in speaking against King George and he hoped 
10 live to see us everyone hanged. .After this 
they again made an attempt to carry goods to the 
Indians ; and v/e had 1 ke to have taken them but 
they drove into Fort no-don ; but had to send 
their horses out to, pasture — there we burned 
their packsaddles and whipped the driver*., and al- 
so demanded of the commander a number of rifle 
guns which he had taken from the country ; but 
he refu-.ed giving them — we then took the com- 
mander prisoner as he rode out from the Fort, and 
kept him until he wrote to his under officer to 
give up said arms — and when we reeeived said 
arms, we let the commander return to his station. 



( 23 ) 

After this we were sued i.i Carlisle for said 
goods ; and stood the action. We employed Mr. 
Ginens an eminent lawyer Our opponents could 
not or would nor shew by what authority they 
were carrying sal 1 goods ; at a . time that there 
was no peace' with the Indians: — thetefote we 
were cleared by law. — After this Sir Wiiliam 
Johnson the Indian agent made peace with the 
Indians and the Stamp Act was repealed. Then 
we had a cesiatkm of arms until the war again 
broke out at Boston. 



IN order to give the realer some additional ideas 
of the Stamp Act and the Sideling-hill expedi- 
tion I shall insert a few simple verses that were 
frequently sung at that time. 

ON LIBERTY. 

Freedom and liberty they are very good, 
They ought to be prais'd Irke to our daily food, 
But bondage and ilav'ry Americans abhor, 
Whilst, freedom and liberty, they ever adore. 

Where freedom takes place, wealth Ik knowledge 

abound, 
But cruelty's a thing that learning doth confound 
Where people* are slaves they're ignorant & poor 
So it is not for, naught that we freedom adore. 

Those that are born free their talents may improve 
In acts- of benevolence of kin dntss and love, 
For freedom's a thing that doth human nature 

raise, 
For this very cause, we freedom do praise. 
Granvil I am told was the very first man, 
Who proposed stamp duty to be laid ci\ our land, 



( 24 ) 

Against our consents : so their power well deny, 
To whai's unconstitutional, we're loth to comply. 

In the province of New-York there c sgood fellows 

I do hear, 
That act like bold heroes, and strangers to fear; 
The governor's effigy and coach they did burn. 
For offering to make slaves of those that are free- 
born. 

Calender and Crochan they both did agree, 
To carry warlike stores to our savage enemy, 
But their being obstinate made them fare much 

the worse, 
When thty deni'd the civil law we govcrn'd them 

by force* 

ALSO the foUowin? lines were sung at that time to the tun© of the 

" BLACK JOKE." 
Ye patriot souls who love to sing,' 
What serves your country and your king^ 

In wealth, peace and royal estate ; 
Attention give whilst 1 rehearse, 
A modern fact, in jingling verse, 
How party interest strove what it cou'd, 
1 o profit itsell by public blood, 

But justly met its merited fate. 

Let all those Indian traders claim, 
Their just reward, in-glorious fame. 

For vile, base and treacherous ends; 
To Pollins, in the spring they sent, 
Much warlike stores with an intent, 
To carry thrm to our barbarous foes, 
Expecting that no-body dare oppose, 

A present to their Indian friends. 

Astonish'd at the wild design, 
Frontier inhabitants combin'd, 



( 85 ) 

With brave souls, to stop their career, 
Although some men apostatiz'd, 
Who fir^t the grand attempt advis'd, 
The bold frontiers they bravely stood, 
To act for their king and their country's good. 

In joint league, and strangers to fear. 

On March the fifth, in sixty-five, 
Their Indian presents did arrive, 

In lortg pomp and cavalcade, 
Near Sideling Hill, where in disguise, 
Some patriots did their train surprize, 
And quick as lightning tumbled their loads, 
And kindled them bonfires in the woods, 
And mostly burnt their whole brigade; 

At Loudon, when they heard the news, 
They scarcely knew which way to choose, 

For blind rage and discontent ; 
At length some soldiers they sent out, 
With guides for to conduct the route, 
And seized some men that were trav'ling there, 
And hurried them into Loudon where 

They laid them fast with one consent. 

But men of resolution thought, 

Too much to see their neighbors caught, 

For no crime but false surmise ; 
Forthwith they join'd a warlike band, 
And march' d to Loudon, out of hand, 
And kept the jailors pris'ners there, 
Until our friends enlarged were, 

Without fraud or any disguise. 

Let mankind censure or commend, 
This rash performance in the end, 

Then both sides will find their account. 



F 



( 26 ) 

'Tis true T;o law can justify, 
To burn our neighbors' property, 
But when this property is design'd, 
To starve the enemies of mankind, 
It's high treason in the amount. 

"WE the "subscribers do certify that we lived 
in Cumberland county, in the settlement near 
where the abovementioned Sideling-hill expedi- 
tion or burning of the Indian warlike stores was 

•.i -acted, and that we were wtll acquainted 
•he cause, rise and progress of the aforesaid 
'• arch 17, 176 5 ckc. And we do certify 
'■'native contains a just ;iu true 
St; t< inc'-'.i of tlie.cau '•, rise and progress of the 
t deling -hill expedition, or the Ivvuning snd des- 
troying the aforesaid goods &i.ti wat like-stores ; 
and we do also certify, that as far as cur ac- 
quaintance reached; that every rank of citizens 
heartily approved of • the abbvernentroned pro- 
ceedings, excepting interested persons, Royalists 
or Tories. 

State of Ohio, MontgoO Samuel Kyle, senr. 

mery County, Dayton > William Petterson, 

Township. j Col. Kobert Petterson. 

State of Ohio, Butler ) T -r>. 

.-.jj, > James Piper, 

county, Middietown. j l 

"Warran countv Deer 7 ,, nr r^i 

y. . , - £ William Thompson, 

State of Ohio, Clear- 



xnont county 



Col. Thomas Paxton. 



You stated the Sideling-hill proceedings Richard 
as high-way robery ; and through the whole of 
your publications you have artfully represented 
me as a man of a most infamous character and as 



( 27 ) 

one that was both a rogue and liar ; but what 
must the world think ot yon, Isachar Bates and 
John Dunlavy, when I have proven almost all 
that you have written to be notoricus falsehoods. 
In order to support >our own character and 
shakerism, you have not only endeavoured to 
stigmatise my character, but also, all those that 
were engaged in said expedition, which were first 
and last above one thousand men ; and many of 
them have since that time borne higtycommissions 
— one who was a bold, active, constant hand in 
said expedition has of a long standing ; perhaps 
fifteen years, been a member of Congress, and 
now is a member of that honorable body ; but 
the most of those worthies have departed this 
life, — In order to support your treasonous, cause 
you not only strike at the characters of the living 
b it turkey-buzsard-like, you have been picking at 
the dead. 



EXTRACT TAKEN FROM THE OHIO CENTINEL. 

I am now riding taking depositions. I can 
prove all that I have asserted in Shakerism De- 
veloped ; and much more. As an evidence of 
this I shall lay before the public one affidavit, 
which T said nothing about in any of my writings 
against the shakers, which is as follows : — - 

The affidavit of Stephen Ruddle, taken before 
me Joseph L. Stephens, a justice of the peace 
for Bourbon county, and at the house of said 
Stephens on the 4th day of September 1810. 

Said Buddie being of lawful age and duly 
sworn, saith that in September, 1807, he had an 
interview with the shawanoe Prophet and his bro- 
ther, and after some conversation he mentioned 



( 28 ) 

something about religion to them ; they then told 
him that they knew very much about religion; 
but, said they, what do you know about it? He 
answered that he had the word of God, and shew* 
ed them his Bible. They said,; you white people 
use that book only to deceive red people ; to which 
he answered that if the white people had wrong- 
ed them it was not the book's fault, for no good 
man that adhered to that book would wrong them 
or do them any injury. Well, said the y, what is 
the reason that the white people are always cheat- 
ing red people out of their country and land. 
Now said they, if white people would give us 
back our country, then we would believe them. 
But yet, they said, they believed that there were 
still some good white people that loved red peo- 
ple. Now said the} 7 , there are our friends, the 
shakers; they are honest ; for, said they, Bich- 
ard JYTNamar told us that the white people had 
cheated us out of our land ; but as for his part, 
he lived on their land, it was true ; but as for 
them, that is the shakers, they did not consider 
the land as their own, but only as rented of them r 
and that they should come and get what grain 
they pleased ; and were it in their power, they 
would give them back their country ; out as they 
were but few, they could do nothing for them yet, 
but he told them to continue their own wor- 
ship, and not to mind the white people when 
they come to you with their book which they 
call the word of God, as that book is good for 
nothing now — it was once good, but bad men 
had changed it and made it bad.— But the Great 
Spirit had now revealed to Indians the same 
that he had to the shakers ; and now they were 
brothers. — Now, said the Indians, they have 
given us corn and wheat, and we believe them, 



I 29 



r ■ , J. . ,., , ' ' . , -, ....... I 

foiher white people will tell us many good 
things but never give us anv thing. — Sail depo- 
nent further saith, that in 1810 he had ako ari 
interview with the prophet's brother, at Tawa- 
tovvn who told him he very well knew what the 
white people wanted to do with the red people, 
for he had friends that always told him what the 
white people intended to do with the red people, 
but he would not tell who these friends were, 
who made known td them the designs of the 
white people ; as they had told hini not to tell 
iherefore he would not. . . - •. 

The Shawanoe prophet at this time had influ- 
enced about fifty of the Shawanoes, & about two 
hundred of the other tribes to fall in with his plot 
in opposition to the United States ; and said pro- 
phet threatened the other Shawanoes if they 
would not fall in with his terms he would cause 
the said two hundred to fall upon them. 
,. Those peaceable Shawanoes said that they be- 
lieved that the dancing people, meaning the^ Sha- 
kers, had set the prophet and his people wrong. 

STATE OF KENTUCKY, BOURBON COUNTY, Sct. 

Stephen Kuudell personally came before 
me, Joseph L; Stephens one of the Justices of 
the peace in and for the county aforesaid and 
voluntarily at the tim» and place stated in the in- 
troduction to said affidavit swore to, and signed 
the same. — As witness my hand and seal the day 
and date above written. 

JOSEPH L. STEPHENS, I. k 

Richard, if you had acted as an honorable citi- 
zen of the United States ought to have do:e,)ou 
would have told the Indians that their pretended 
friends, the British, after they had fought hard 
for them, made over their land by contract to us» 
G 



( 3° ) 

Und notwithstanfftng we had beat the Tnglish ?$ 
$hem both, and might, have kept their land by 
force, yet we condescended to purchase it from, 
them* and while they continued peaceable we 
fvould not encroach upon them, only ^>y pur* 
{tfiase and their own consent. 

If you had spoken to the Indians in t]ie above 
wanner, this would have been the truth. I:uj 
you are guilty of treasonous falsehood in varipus 
facets, and this I can prove." 

Now, Kic hard, brirgan aaipn of slander a- 
g*in*t me if you please. I never called any man 
m liar, or an> one me an I can remember, until I 
met with these pretended, sinless people called 
•i-akers, N. now it appears that I canr ot avoid it. 

When the Apostle Paul hacf to do with one 
just of your kind h character, Kichard he fourd 
it necessary 10 use har>b language & said u O full 
f>f all hubtilty, & mischief; thou child of the devil 
thou enemy of all righteousness ! wilt thou not 
Cease to perveit the right wa) s of the lord ? 

| continue to assert that the shakers are fun* 
daroentally and practically enemies to the United 
States' government, and d:* \nbers of the p#'ace 
and happiness of mankind— this I can prove if 
legally qahed upon. 

JAMES SMITH. 

— — ^^^ ' ^* t at jwi 

WARREN COUNTY, STATE OF OHIO Set. 
Before me Inos Williams a justice of the peace 
in and for said county personally appeared John 
Davis, John Wilson and Robert Wilson, each of 
lawful age, who being sworn according to law, 
depose and say, that the staiemrnt contained*!!! 
Col. Smith's pamphlet entitled bhakerism Devel- 
oped in the sixth, seventh and eighth pages is 
Crue and justly stated excepting three things that 



( 31 ) 

fieed f rpUining^ viz. — Where it is said that El- 
der David has laugh* the shakers that when as- 
saulted by tl e men of the world, they might 
foot-row their own spirit snd beat them j the said 
deponents say |hey pnly had it by information 
and npi irom I Ider David himself. — Concerning 
the education of children, as stated in the fccventh 
page of Jjud pamphlet— At was so whtn we were 
viththem, but they rnav have, phanged the gift 
sjnee we left them ; which is a common thing. 

Said deponents further say that some time in 
March 1807, David l)urrqw, Richard, M'Namar 
and Benjamin Young went put to the Indians & 
afterwards tuld said depqnents that they gave 
them ten dollars, and told said deponents to keep 
this a secret and tell no man ? and about the 
first of Va>> said year, about five and twenty qr 
thirty Indians came into shakertown and the sha* 
kers sent them oft with twenty -*even horse load 
of provisions.^— In August the same year about 
fifty Indians earner U} agai 1 and loaded about fift 
ty horses with provisions ; the shaker,? also gave 
tfyem aboiu twen.yfive dojlars tq buy ammunition 
in Lebanon. At this time by tjie orders ot El» 
der David, the whole society were collected toge- 
ther and strictly charged to keep this a secret. 

After this a shaker woman died, and the v*h«>le 
of the shakers were collected together a,nd Mder 
David told them that the Indians could not be 
saved if fhat wonnn had not died tor them and 
for the sin?» of that people ; — said deponents also 
say that it is a common thing f >r the working 
hands to pull o*T their hats and shoes on entering 
Elder David's chamber, because they arc told 
that the place where he is is holy ground. 

The shakers teach their disciples that it is a 
Jess sin to tell a lie to the world than to discover 



( 32 } 

the gift. By the gift is meant to believe aricf 
obey Elder David and keep his secret.-.. Elder 
David forbids his ptople to read the Bible, and 
tells them that it would put ill m their heads.' 
Elder David teach eth his deciples that they must" 
not think their own thoughts except they are in 
union with his, for he is holy and cannot err,; 
and that he is infallible. They teach in their 
private assemblies a different doctrine from what 
they preach in public when they are making pio- 
selytes, because they say they must take people 
by guile, and if they did not take artful measures' 
they would never get one to join them. . 

The common people by times take hold of TLV 
der David's garment, and say u Behold the Lamb 
of God which taketh away the sin of the world. 
The vvomen have also to kneel down before Ej| 
dress Ruth and kiss her feet and say "Behold 
the Lamb of God which taketh away the sin of 
the world. 

Elder David hath the absolute command of 
hi* people ; insomuch that the victual* that are 
brought to the table of the working hands must 
b-r particularly nominated ; they do nothing but 
by his orders, and them they must positively 
©b^y. lie compels them to dance and calls 
them serpents and devils if they attempt to dis- 
6bey. 

This deponent also saith, that the shakers say 
that the soul of General Washington came to them 
after his decease and confessed his sins ; and alsd 
the ancient prophets and apostles ! ! ! 

N. B. As for the third thing needing expla- 
nation, leave out or omit in the 7th page, through* 
out the states of Ohio, Kentucky and the i Indi- 
ana Territory. Also concerning the punishing 
of the boy for taking the cake mentioned in the 



( 33 ) 

seventh page of said parnp 5 . let, John Davfts kd 
fcot see it ; also the one striking the oilier waft 
his fist, as mentioned in the 8th page, John Da* 
vis sajfth that he did not see it. John Davis does 
not remember how much money the shakers 
gave the indians to buy ammunition; but heard 
the shakers say that they gave them money for 
that purpose. 

Jchin bavts 
john wilson. 

- ROBERT WILSON. 

■ Sworn and subscribed before me at i.ebanoti 
in said county, the 6\h day of October IS 10. 

ENOS WILLIAMS, Justice of the peace. 

The abovementioned deponents (viz.) John; 
Bavis, John Wilson and Robert Wilson are the 
men that I had an interview wit!., as mentioned 
in the 6th page of u Shakerism Developed ; " 6c 
though I took in writing what they had to say in, 
haste, late in the night ; yet they have sworn to 
the whole of it, wiih only a few immeterial alter- 
ations ; and as said deponents were jointly sworn 
in one instrument of writing, it might be expec- 
ted that some might see or hear what the others 
did not. With these tew exceptions o iy, said 
deponents have jointly sworn to what is contain- 
ed in the Stb, 7th and 8th pages of " Slr-ikerism 
Developed ;" and also to what is additionally, 
written in the above depositions. 
• Notwithstanding the shakers have in i heir owa 
verbal declarations, which now appear by the 
deposition a- of John Irvin 1: sq William IrvirL 
John Davis, John Wilson and t*o !>ert Wil-on K: 
also i>v th^ir own writings in M'N^nnr's pi«4 

it,page8i, as alrraciy quoted, likewise jq 
the shakers " #eligiouii Registj r," ini . : I is 
hdu out in the plainest teYms — , ei vvn :n •• b & 
H 



( S4 ) 

kerism Developed" pointed out the certain eflfec 
that this doctrine would produce, (viz) absolut 
bondage, and the shakers apprehended that this 
•ecret was now discovered and they in danger, 
thtn by and with the consent of Elder David* 
M'Namar in his publication positively denici 
that they hold infalibility ; and says " That they 
hold no man to be infallible."— What are we 
to think of the shakers when they positively' 
deny their own assertions, and also their public 
writings ? Is it any wonder that they have denied 
all the plain truths that I have published in the 
newspapers and in " Shakerism Developed ?" 

Issachar Bates 'says that my piece in the Pa» 
lis paper contains " sixty-oni palpable kok- 
truths, misrepresentations and false statement* 
for facts, which to the discerning are evidently 
rooted with the deepest prejudice. The attempt 
is a scandalous lie-bill altogether" 

As 1 have proven all that I have written to be 
true, by the solemn oath of ten different persons 
of undoubted veracity, I shallnow leave it to the 
impartial reader to judge who it is that has been 
guilty of publishing a scandalous lie-bill. 

Whereas shaker infallibility and implicit faith 
and obedience is now proven by the solemn 
oath of five persons, and their own public writ- 
ings, must not every one see that shakerism stands 
in direct opposition to the United States 1 govern- 
ment ? Because assumed infallibility and im- 
plicit faith, and obedience were the sources frsm 
whence popish despotic power flowed, and 
spread over all Christendom, and were the causes 
of the loss of the lives of millions of the human 
race^ before we arrived to that degree of liberty 
that we Americans > now possess, and after 
fighting hard for our liberty, shall we suffer a 



i 35 ) 

treasonous and treacherous nest to be hatching 
and breeding among us ? Ifshakerism succeed 
and be not suppressed by the civil law, will it 
not cause a civil war ? May not fire and water 
is well dwell 'together as shaker bond age! and 
American liberty? We know what shocking ef. 
fects infallibility and implicit faith and obedience 
have produced in the world ; and have we any 
reason to believe or expect that it will be any 
better now ? For shakerism far exceeds popish 
bondage, or any thing that ever was known in 
the world. The Pope and his cardinals and 
other officers, received a large part of his people's 
labour ; but our modern Pope David receives 
all that his people dan make hy their work ; and 
riot only this ; but also all that they or their an- 
cestors ever had made ; for they must bring all 
with them and give it up to Elder David, to be 
disposed of as he sees cause. : S 

Shakerism includes in it all kinds of political 
evils / it disturbs the peace of families ; separates 
husbands and wives ; robs Women of their ten* 
der offspring; destroys natural affection; dissolve $ 
the marriage covenant, which is the main pillar 
Of any state or kingdom ; it prevents propagation, 
takes people's money without any compensation ; 
and perhaps murders infants ; (but this I cannot 
yet prove) it is raising a young generation systa- 
matically enemies to American liberty, it enslaves 
mankind, and if it predominates will finally de- 
populate America. Are all these injuries to be 
admitted and patiently borne with, under the 
pretence of worshipping God according to the dic- 
tates of their conscienceo We have no objections 
to Mahometans, Pagans or Roman Catholic's 
worshipping God their own way if they do not in- 
jure others. But supposing the Pope of Rome 



c * y 

w^s to come into our country and had influence 
sufficient to erect a political Popedom, and would 
agree that his people should be taxed as other 
American citizens, while his power was insuffi- 
cient to Oppose, in order to regain his former 
power, would this be publicly admitted of under 
the pretence of worshipping God ? And shall we 
admit of a secret attempt of a worse kind?— Th^ re 
scarcely ever was a salutary law or constitution 
made but evil designing members endeavored td 
evade it or to pervert it to answer their own base 
purpose. 

Whatever shakerisfri might have been origin* 
ally, I apprehend they have changed the gift, 
as they u rm it, that is general order*- — with a 
design to cause that clause in our constitution 
^ hich admits of all men worshipping God ac- 
cording to the dictates of their own conscience, 
to discomfit itself, and to erect a monarchical go- 
vernment and shelter themselves from being pro- 
secuted by the loud cry, which we have already 
heard in the news-papers, not only from the sha- 
kers, but also from others : "O let them alone, it 
is persecution to meddle with them. kC I have no- 
thing to do with their faith or mode of worship, 
and I have said nothing against it — it is their ac- 
tions that I oppose. 

Does it noi evidently appear that their design 
is to overturn our free government in a future 
day ? Theirs is a wonderful money-making 
scheme, and money gives power and influence. 

The shakers now have nothing to do with our 
civil law, among themselves. Elder Davids 
mandates is their law — he can administer re- 
wards and punishments — his authority is abso- 
lute and is punctually obeyed. And is not this 
a^despotic go vernmet already erected within our* 



( s7 > -. . 

free states? And is this with all the complicated 
growing evils that attend . it, to be dispensed with? 

Jtn extract from " Liberty HaW" Oct. 24th, 1310. 

In yo'ir piece contained in the " Wester t 
Star 4 ' October 6th, 1310, you tell me Richard "If 
ycur pamphlet of affidavits is like that which 
>ou have given as a specimen; that is mere 
hearsay, and that too from such as are said to 
be plotting against government, it will merit but 
little notice ft om the public or the public's well 
wisher " . . , 

.You talk very impertinently about Siephei 
Ruddle's ; deposition, which is the only, specimen) 
that t have as yet given. You came from Penn- 
sylvania Richard — and did you never hear that 
a jtny. in Carlisle, in 1764 condemned John Mo- 
$ey for wilful murder ; and that he confessed 
and. was hanged, on presumptive evidence only ? 
And i<* there not as long a chain of corroborating 
circumstances, & as Strang presumptive evidence 
accompanying Stephen 'Ruddle's deposition as 
that which hanged John Money ? 

1st* Stephen Ruddle is well known to be a 
tnan of veracity ; he was a long time among the 
Indians and speaks the Shawanoe tongue well ; 
he is a Baptist preacher, and was year after year 
a missionary among the Shawanoes, and had t*ie 
greatest opportunity of finding out the treache- 
rous proceedings of the shakers. 
y 2d. Different Indians, in different years all 
agree in their stories. 

3d* Richards shdkerefied, oratory: he told 
the Indians not to mind the white people w T hea 
they come to them with a book which they call 
the word of God, as that book is good Lr no* 
thing now ; it was once good, but bad men have 

I 



( ** ) 

chrnged it and made it bad ; but the Great Spv 
lit had now revealed to Indians what he had te* 
shakers, and now they were brother^ This it 
just what the shakers tell their |proselj tes, when 
they get them fully into their belief— that the 
Bible is good for nothing now, it was once cf use 
but they are come now with a new Revelation 
and anew Dispensation, and that the Bible i* of 
no more use now than an old Almanac.— Can 
anyone believe, Richard, that such shaker tenth 
fnetits would ever have entered into an Indian* 
t;ead, if you had not told them these things I 

4th. The Indians acknowledged ihat they had 
received rent, about that time, both corn and 
vrheat, &c- — For the proof of this, see 1 avis and 
the two Wilsons' depositions* — -they say on oath 
that the shakers about this time gave the Indiani 
about seventy horse-load of provisions, and also 
about twenty-five dollars to buy ammunition^ and 
charged their people to keep this a profound se» 
cret. 

5th. Can it be supposed that the shakers were 
so liberal to the Indians, and also careful to charge 
their people to keep secret their giving the In- 
dians money to buy ammunition, without any e- 
vil design? And that after they went out first to 
the Indians and gave them ten dollars and invi- 
ted them into fehakertown. 

6th. You say that from the time the Indians 
left Shakertown, or from the time ihey left Green- 
ville, "From that time to this you have never 
seen or spoke to one of them. 4 ' This is not true 
—see John Biddies deposition. 

WARREN COUNTY, STATE OF OHIO Set. 

Before me, Enos Williams, a justice of the 
peace in and for said county, came personally 



( 3? > 

John Bidc[le of lawful age, who being duly sworn 
according to law, deposeth and saith, That af- 
ter the time the Indians were in Shakertown at 
Tartle-creek, that tssachar Bates told him that 
lie himself, Benjamin Young and Richard M l Na- 
jnar had been out at the Wabash, and that they 
had been at a feast with the Indians. This de- 
ponent Js not certain as to the particular time, 
when Battrs, Young and lyi'Namar feared with 
the Indian*, on the Wabash, hut saith that it was 
a considerable time after the Indians left Shaker* 
to vu last, and after they left Greenville, and fur- 
ther this deponent saith not. 

1 ' JOHN BIDDLE. 

Sworn and subscribed the 8th of Oct. la 10. 

ENOS WILLIAMS, justice of the peace. 

Your denying this well knovyn truth, is a cir- 
cumstance against you Richard. 

7th. Who are the*e i*ao Americans that paicj 
the prophet's brother a visjt, one in the course 
of last winter and one lately, and had imformed 
them that Gov. Harrison had purchased the land* 
without the consent of government, and that one 
half of the people were opposed to the purchase. 
&c. as contained in the " Ohio Centinel ? k » It is 
presumed that it was the shakers. 

8th. It is well known that ever since the sha- 
kers held their first conference with the Shawa- 
noe prophet and his brother, that the prophet has 
been constantly stiring up the different tribes of 
Indians to fall upon, the frontiers belonging to the 
United States. We have now both positive and 
strong presumptive proof of the *h ikers treason- 
ous designs. — Stephen Rud lie's affidavit is pos- 
itive that the Indians told him what he has sworn 
to. All that is wanting is that the Indians are 
mot legal witnesses. We have sufficient, positive 



( M ) 

proof tfoatf : the takers hold infalibihty and impli^ 
cit faiih and obedience ; and all their treacherous * 
dealings with the Indians is only a sprout, sponta- 
r em sly splitting from this fatal root, infallibility 
aud implicit faith and obedience, 

An extract tak?n from the " Lover of peace am! jUStic,**,ih his a»» 
swe'- o Thomas Free/n -m's '* Retros, •ective view of shake »i3rft' ? 
continued in tour nnroberb in the " Western Star.'* 

Freeman ha* .said much ; and that with 
•nety ; on the awful effects of persecu- 
tion— b '• c* are the persecutors ? Col, SmitK 
gainst the. shaker fahh or mode 
. , .v is theif proceedings that fr| tr.dea- 
expo?e to view, and it wan their conduct 
the h.ilitia opposed Air. Freeman has also 
litten largely at d. pertinently on the great dan- 
ger of tumultuous cempa-.ies rising in grms with- 
out legal authority. I i?gree with him in this a!* 
.^o. . But what \i as \ht cause of aboat four hun- 
dred armed men, and about as many unarmed 
marching into Shake town? Perhaps the cause 
will be ronr.d to origir ate in the civil department, 
, Cob Smith in various news-papers, ever since 
May last, has advertised the shakers as enemies 
to American Liberty, and disturbers of the peace 
and happiness of mankind, and said he waukl 
$>rove it, if ltga»lyea!led upon. And though it 
is well known that the shakers applied to the civil 
jaw when they were in the Wrong, and cast ; yet 
they never brought a writ of defamation against 
him, which wa* a if- cit acknowledgment of guilh 
There was more evidence against the shakers 
before the militia arose iri arms, thari what was 
against Aaron Biirr when he was tried on suspi- 
cion at f rankfort. Why then did not the civil 



( it ) 

£b\ver stir in this important concern which is nbW 
like to raise disturbance among the citizens t 
But it may be asked, whose particular business 
was it to put ihe civil law into execution ? Was 
it not the chief magistrate in Warren county, who 
lived near Shakertown, that ought to have done 
it ? It is reported that the Judge, and also ari 
eminent Barrister, by some means, are in favour 
of the shakers. If the Judge had only been as 
intent in putting the law into execution against 
the shakers as he was in endeavouring to dis- 
perse the militia — would it not have prevented 
their rising in arms ? Did he think that the mi* 
litia officers were all tofies, and that they would 
patiently bear to see the defenceless frontiers 
betrayed into the hands of the Shawanoe pro- 
phet and his brother, and their barbarous crew ? 
Mr. Freeman says " I am no advocate for sha* 
kerism." But let any one of discernment read 
his four elaborate numbers contained in five dif- 
ferent news-papers, and he will see that he is ari 
artful advocate for the shakers — *and can any 
one suppose that a lawyer will labour hard for 
nothing ?— *He pretends to be against the shakers' 
foolish enthusiastic and superstitious notions, 
which he knew the law could not take hold of ; 
and adds " Col. Smith says cart the legislature 
constitutionally interfere?" It appears by the con* 
nection, that it was concerning shaker fathers rob- 
ing women of theirtender offspring that he spoke, 
for every one knows that we have law sufficient 
to take an account of opposers of the U. States' 
government and betrayers of our country. Mr. 
Freeman says the legislature can interpose, and 
proposeth a vague plan which he well knew 
could never be put into execution, and says U 1*11 
venture all I am worth there wont be a shaker 
K 



( 42 ) 



in Warren county in three years frorn this date.** 
I shall now examine Mr. Freeman's plan for ex- 
pelling the shaken.. — In his proposed law fot 
that purpose he savs that evading the riuiriaga 
covenant or for a man's leaving his wife, " he 
shall deliver up to his wife and lor the use of her 
and her heirs all his estate real and personal. 
You well knew sir that such a law as this would 
never be enacted , because the legislature in years 
past had hard work to make the marriage cove- 
nant less binding than it formerly was. Eut 
your plan would be beyond any thing th^t ever 
was known. 

Again you say if any one " shall undertake 
to forgive or pardon the sins of others, or have;- 
their bins pardoned by others <xc, shall be fmed 
in a sum not exceeding one thousand dollars, nor 
less than five hundred.'' I find that falsehood 
will produce inconsistency. Notwithstanding 
Mr. Freeman's great outcry against persecution^ 
he now proposeth a law that would be downright 
persecution. If such a law was general, the Ro- 
man Catholics would be expelled from the Uni- 
ted States. I despise the thoughts of persecuting 
even the Roman Catholics; (et them worship 
God any way they please if they do not injure o- 
thers. 

Did you intend sir, when you said you were no 
advocate for shakerism, and proposed laws to 
expel them, to blindfold the people or lull them 
to sleep ? You need not think, sir, to catch old 
birds with chaff though Balaam should give you 
his house full of gold and silver. Upon the 
plan you have proposed, if Aaron Burr had only 
been a shaker, and sheltered all his doings under 
the pretence of mpt shipping God, nothing must 
be said or done against him, or the outcry must 



( « ) 

l>e persecution, persecution, & at last contradict 
your own scheme by proposing an unconstuution- 
gl persecuting law. 

If all that common fame has said concerning 
fhe Judge and -Lawyer in Warran county should 
be only groundless surmise, it may now be known. 

Whereas there are now the depositions of four 
(different persons published in the news-papers, 
which contain positive and strong presumptive 
evidence that Richard M'Namar (and consequent* 
ly the other leading shakers as they are under 
absolute command) has for three years past been 
taking artful measures to excite the Indians to 
fall upon the white people belonging to the UnU 
ted States. 

I shall also propose a plan for dispersing or 
expelling the shakers. That is let the militia 
lie still for some considerable time, and the judge 
exert his 'authority in bringing M'Namar and thq 
«hakers chiefs' to trial ; but if the civil department 
will do dothing in this important concern will not 
then the militia be excused, should rhey send 
the shakers off to live with their beloved Shawa- 
noe prophet and his brother ? This matter is 
now become truly serious, and certainly some- 
thing ought to be done soon, in order to preserve 
peace among our citizens. My desire is that it 
may be settled in an orderly and legal manner. 
A LOVER OF PEACE AND JUSTICE. 

The shakers have published a piece in the u Western Star," 
Lebanon October 6th, 13 10 — -wherein they deny what has been 
published aqjainst them, and profess great loyalty and fidelity to the 
United States' government — seventeen shakers have signed this 
publication. When we consider the many falsehoods that have al- 
ready been proved against the in, and that their system is founded 
•n falsehood and supported by secrecv find deceit 

WHO CAN BELIEVE A SHAKER ! I I 



( " ) 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 
District of Kentucky Set. 

§ #X>E IT fctMEMBERED, That oh the *Ut &sf 

A L. S. A of November* in the year of otir Lord 1810, and in 
a a the 35th year of the Independence of the United 

m ** ••• States of America, JAMES SMITH of the said dist- 
inct hath deposited in this Office the title of a Book, the right 
whereof he claims as author in the Words and figures following* 
(to wit.) "Shakerism Detected* their erroneous and treasonous* 
*' proceedings, and false publications contained in different news* 
" papers, exposed to public View, by the depositions of ten differ* 
<* ent persons, living in various parts of the States of Kentucky 
*' and Ohio, accompanied with remarks, by Col. Jame* Smith of 
« Kentucky." 

In conformity t« the act 'of Congress of the U. States entitled 
" an act for the encouragement of learning by securing the copies 
of maps, charts and books, to the authors and proprietors of such 
copies during the Term therein mentioned," and also to an act 
entitled " an act supplemental y to an act, entitled an act for the 
encouragement of learning by securing the copies of maps, charts, 
end books, to the authors and proprietors of such copies during 
the times therein mentioned and extending the benefit* thereof to 
the arts of designing, engraving and etching, historical and other 
printt, 

JOHN H. HANNA, Clerk** 

Of the District of Kentucky* ' 






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